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Press of Electrotyped by 

R. H. Carothbrs, Robert Rowell, 

Louisville, Ky. Louisville, Ky. 


As age stealthily creeps upon the soldier, he becomes garrulous, 
and delights in taking his grandchildren upon his ■ knees, and telling 
them how he fought and suffered for his country in his younger 
days. To revivify the memories of those who participated in the 
thrilling scenes described in this work, and to hand down their 
gallant deeds to posterity, are some of the objects of the follow- 
ing narrative. 

During the war, the Rev. W. H. Honnell, the chaplain of the 
regiment, wrote many articles of our marches and fights, and had 
them published, principally in the Louisville Journal. It was gener- 
ally understood that, at the close of the war, he would have this 
material arranged in book form and publish a history of the 
regiment. Soon after the war closed, however, he left the State, 
and became lost to those still remaining in the localities where the 
regiment was raised, and the idea of having a history written, was, 
for the time, dropped. 

A few words in regard to how I became connected with this 
work. In 1891, there was considerable talk among some of the 
members of having a reunion of the First Kentucky Cavalry at 
some suitable point. While in Hustonville, Ky., 1 happened to tell 


Dr. Hawkins Brown the desire for a reunion of the members, and 
inquired if he was willing' to contribute to the expenses. He re- 
plied in the affirmative, but said that he would contribute far more 
liberally to have a history of the regiment gotten up and published 
in book form. On my return to Liberty, Ky., I repeated my con- 
versation with Dr. Brown to Col. Adams and some others, but the 
subject was dropped for some months. Sometime afterward, a 
number of the members chanced to be together in Liberty, among 
whom were Col. Silas Adams, Sergeant W. T. Humphrey, John A. 
Lawhorn, John W. Wilkinson, J. O. Staton and some others, and 
a kind of impulse came upon them all that a history of the regi- 
ment must, by all means, be published, and they applied to me to 
write and compile the work. In vain I pleaded the want of a ple- 
thoric pocket book, and that an abler and more brilliant pen should 
undertake the difficult task of tracing the regiment in all of its 
meanderings, and detailing its many unique exploits, in three and a 
half years' hard service in the war. They insisted that I was the 
proper one ; that I had more to do with the records in war times 
than any other in the command, and that 1 should be backed in 
personal expenses, and the publication of the book. 

A meeting of the regiment was called, through the neighboring 
newspapers, and a good number met in the courthouse, at Liberty, 
in December, 1891. Col. Adams addressed the assembly and ex- 
plained the object of the meeting, and on motion, Sergeant W. T. 
Humphrey, Sergeant R. T. Pierce, and Dr. I. C. Dye were ap- 
pointed a Committee on the History, and W. T. Humphrey was 
appointed Financial Secretary. At a later meeting, Dr. H. Brown 
was present and presided, and contributed liberally to defray ex- 
penses ; others also subscribed to the fund. 

1 was formally selected and commenced my work. I traveled 
over about five counties, and procured several valuable war diaries, 
took notes and collected some other material. In June, through 
the Financial Secretary, W. T. Humphrey, I received from the War 
Department, eighteen large volumes of the Official Records of the 


Rebellion, and I worked no longer in the dark. The reader has the 
result of my researches and labor. 

I do not claim that my work is free from errors. They are 
found more or less in all histories. If I had at least a year's longer 
time in reviewing and correcting both the composition and material, 
there might have been less of them ; but there has been somewhat 
an impatient demand for my book to appear, and I have responded. 
I do not offer it as a work of standard literature ; therefore I have 
labored but little to avoid the poisoned arrows of the critic. My 
chief object has been to tell about the First Kentucky Cavalry — 
what they did, and how; giving as high coloring as allowable to 
their virtues, and charitably smoothing over as much as possible 
their short comings, so that I did not interfere with the truth of 

I hereby acknowledge my indebtedness and tender my thanks 
to the following persons for aid in the way of information, diaries, 
sketches, notes, incidents and other ways: Mrs. Nancy Sims, 
Cornishville, Ky. ; Mrs. Louisa Jackman, Harrodsburgh ; General 
W. J. Landram, Lancaster; Chaplain W. H. Honnell, Bellefonte, 
Kansas ; Captain J. Brent Fishback, Winfield, Kansas ; Maj. Geo. 
W. Drye, Powar's Store ; Captain Sam. M. Boone, Somerset ; Cap- 
tain John Smith, Louisville; Captain N. D. Burrus, Baldwin ; Cap- 
tain Phil. Roberts, Madison County; Captain Boston Dillion, 
Lancaster ; Captain F. W. Dillion, Crab Orchard ; Captain Irvine 
Burton, Marion, Kansas ; also to Lieutenant J. E. Chilton, Louisville ; 
Lieutenant Thos. J. Graves, Mackville ; Lieutenant Vincent Peyton, 
Ellisburg ; Lieutenant Warren Lamme, Hustonville ; Lieutenant 
Abraham Grubb, Oakland City, Ind. ; to Captain J. E. Huffman, 
Hustonville, (for Lieut. R. E. Huffman's letter on Stoneman Raid); 
Dr. H. Brown, Hustonville; Lieutenant Granville Vaught, Indiana; 
J. F. Early, Wilbur, Neb. ; E. Dresser, Kansas. Also to the fol- 
lowing privates and non-commissioned officers : John A. Gillespie, 
Jenkinsville ; Cornelius Vanoy, Stanford ; H. C. Gillespie, Mack- 
ville; J. E. King, Humphrey; A. J. Rigney, Mayfield ; A. C. 


Carman, Hubble; Jacob S. Bruton, Burkesville ; Dr. I. C. Dye, 
Middleburg ; D. R. Totten, Gano ; John W. Wilkinson, Texton 
Sharpe, W. T. Humphrey, J. J. Elliott, and R. T. Pierce, Liberty; 
Buford Kinnett, Marion County; Jas. Sandusky, M. E. Purdy, 
Casey Co. ; John A. Lawhorn and others of Casey County. 

Liberty, Ky. 



CHAPTER I.— Introduction 1 

CHAPTER II. — Origin of the Regiment — Organiza- 
tion of Companies A, B, and C 8 

CHAPTER III. — Arrival at Camp Dick Robinson — 

Scenes in Camp 11 

CHAPTER IV.— Companies D, E, F, H, I, J, K, and L 

join the Regiment — Organization of Regiment 17 

CHAPTER V. — Arrival of Gen. Nelson — Expedition 
to Lexington — Visit of Andrew Johnson and 
Gen. Robert Anderson 24 

CHAPTER VI.— Gen. Geo. H. Thomas in Command- 
Scouting Expeditions to various points — Or- 
ganization of First Brigade 33 

CHAPTER VII.— Battle of Camp Wild Cat— Notes.. 41 

CHAPTER VIII. — Movements to various points — Con- 
dition of Affairs in Kentucky — Arrival of 
Gen. Thomas — Note 49 

CHAPTER IX.— Battle of Mill Springs— Death of 


CHAPTER X. — Wolford moves to Camp Rigney, 

thence to bardstown and glasgow lleut. col. 

Letcher's services on the Big Sandy 66 

CHAPTER XL — Ordered to Nashville — Incidents on 

the Way 74 

CHAPTER XII. — Battle of Lebanon — Notes 81 

CHAPTER XIII. — Service in Tennessee — Incidents.. 92 



CHAPTER XIV. — March to Reynold's Station and 

to murfreesboro starting for louisville 

Notes 101 

CHAPTER XV. — The March from Murfreesboro, 
Tenn., to Elizabethtown, Ky. — Notes and Inci- 
dents 107 

CHAPTER XVI. — Battle of Perryville and Pursuit 

of Bragg 116 

CHAPTER XVII. — Ordered to Nashville — Buell re- 

to Kentucky 125 

CHAPTER XVIIL— Pegram's Raid in Central Ken- 
tucky — Boone's charge through the enemy's 
Camp — Mrs. Jackman and Vaughn — Notes 133 

CHAPTER XIX. — Guarding the Cumberland — vari- 
ous adventures 155 

CHAPTER XX — Gen. Burnside in Command — San- 
ders's Raid into East Tennessee — Notes 165 

CHAPTER XXL— Morgan's Raid through Kentucky, 
Indiana, and Ohio — the Pursuit and Capture — 
Notes 178 

CHAPTER XXII. — Capt. Drye captures one of Mor- 

CHASE 189' 

CHAPTER XXIII. — Burnside's movement into East 
Tennessee — Wolford commands the Brigade 
and Adams the Regiment 196 

CHAPTER XXIV.— The Advance to Connect with 

Rosecrans 209 

CHAPTER XXV.— On Outpost Duty South of Ten- 
nessee River — Adams rescues the wagon-train 
—Notes 222 

CHAPTER XXVI. — Guarding approaches to Knox- 
ville — Scouting South of the Holston — Heavy 
Fighting — Escape of Roberts and Carr 235 



CHAPTER XXVII.— Burnside Concentrates at Knox- 
ville — Gallant Fighting— Death of Gen. San- 
ders 245 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— Siege of Knoxville— Changes 

in Officers — Sherman to the Rescue — Notes 250 

CHAPTER XXIX.— Ffom Knoxville to Bean's Station 

and Back 269 

CHAPTER XXX. — Scouting and Fighting between 

the Holston and French Broad 277 

CHAPTER XXXI.— South of the French Broad— Or- 
dered Back to Kentucky — at Mt. Sterling 285 

CHAPTER XXXII.— Thrilling Adventure of Chap- 
lain Honnell — Refitting and Reorganizing in 
Kentuck y 295 

CHAPTER XXXIII. —Wolford's Arrest— Scouting— 
the Regiment unites at Nicholasville — Fare- 
well OF WOLFORD 303 

CHAPTER XXXIV.— Stoneman in Command of the 

Cavalry — the March to Georgia 314 

CHAPTER XXXV. — Changes in Commanders — Sher- 
man Moves on Johnston — from Dalton to the 
Etowah — Marching and Fighting 320 

CHAPTER XXXVI.— From the Etowah to Atlanta- 
Battles and Marches 333 

CHAPTER XXXVIL— Stoneman's Raid to Macon- 
Adams Brings off the Brigade — Huffman's Nar- 
rative — -Sufferings and Adventures of Hel- 
lard, Rigney, Smith and Others 357 

CHAPTER XXX VIII. —Back to Kentucky— Expedi- 
tion to Saltville — Scouting — the Furlough 
Home — Anecdote of Major Keen 381 



CHAPTER XXXIX.— Roster of the First Kentucky 

Volunteer Cavalry 891 

Field and Staff 392 

Company A 395 

Company B 403 

Company C 410 

Company D 418 

Company E 424 

Company F 429 

Company G 435 

Company H 441 

Company I 447 

Company J 453 

Company K 459 

Company L 463 

CHAPTER XL.— The Muster Out 470 

ADDENDA — Prison Life, Adventures and Escapes — 

Capt. Irvine Burton 478 

James E. King and Others 475 

Serg. James E . Gillespie 484 

Dr. I.C. Dye 488 

Alexander C. Carman 495 



Introductory — Kentucky — Early settlement — Bribes 

and temptations politics transitions attitude in 

regard to the union pacification slavery grreat 

men's views — Election of 1860 — The impending- storm 
— Position at the beginning of the war — Origin of 
the First Kentucky Cavalry Regiment. 

Before commencing a history of the First Kentucky Cav- 
alry Regiment, a brief account of Kentucky's politics and its 
attitude in regard to the Union will be given from its first set- 
tlement to the beginning of the War of Secession. During that 
time its politics went through several transitions. Its first per- 
manent settlement began at the time of the colonial conflicts 
with the mother country. The pioneers had to contend with 
wily and hostile savages. Their loved ones were at their 
mercy. Appeals for aid were a long time fruitless. Virginia 
and her sister colonies had at the time all they could do to 
defend themselves and prosecute the war for independence. 
To add to the perplexities and difficulties of the pioneer set- 
tler's situation, there were several conflicting claims to the 
Territory, but Virginia established the most weighty, if not 
the best claim. 

Left alone in their almost helpless condition to take care 
of themselves, it is not strange that some of Kentucky's 
leading citizens should listen to the voice of the foreign in- 
triguer. Magnificent bribes were held out — the free naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi river, and beneficial alliances with 
western territories then belonging to foreign powers. These 
tempting offers were calculated to make the most patriotic 
waver in their allegiance. These hardy pioneers, too, were 
separated from the other colonies by hundreds of miles of 
trackless wilderness. After the new Federal Government was 



formed it was too weak for some time to give material aid. 
Every attempt for some years to gain admission as a State 
was repulsed. Even with all these drawbacks, Kentucky at 
last emerged unsullied. Attachment to the kindred race, in- 
vincible affection for the legal government, and the voice of 
patriotism prevailed. She became a bright star in the new 

On the adoption of the Federal Constitution many alarm- 
ists doubted the stability of the government ; many opposed 
those provisions of that instrument which made it the su- 
preme law of the land, fearing if put into practical opera- 
tion it would have monarchial tendencies. 

Kentucky soon after becoming a State, like other oppon- 
ents of the Federal Constitution, became frightened at the 
Alien and Sedition Laws passed under John Adams' adminis- 
tration, and, through John Breckinridge, representative from 
Fayette county, presented to the State legislature the cele- 
brated Kentucky Resolutions of 1798, which were almost 
unanimously adopted. These resolutions advocated the most 
extreme nullification doctrine. Some seven other State 
legislatures vehemently repudiated them. Little did the 
advocates of these measures dream of the bitter fruits they 
would bear sixty-three years afterward. 

But in a few years it will be seen there was a change in 
Kentucky's politics. The second war with England was 
brought about and successfully terminated for the United 
States. The doubting Thomases had a little more confidence 
in the strength of our national Union. Our great Republic 
grew in wealth and population in spite of the croakers. In 
the course of time a new disturbing element made its appear- 
ance in our national politics. 

The discovery and settlement of America was at the dawn 
of a new era in the Old World. Learning had revived ; the 
Reformation soon commenced, but one relic of those past 
ages was handed down to us and fastened upon our colonies, 
which was destined in after years to shake our Union to its 
very foundation — that of slavery. 

Slavery had existed in all ages, and among almost all 
countries, in various forms and degrees ; but the slaves of 
former times were chiefly war captives. The slavery fastened 


on our colonies was of the most objectionable kind — that of 
commerce or traffic. It might have died in an incipient 
stage, but in the first year of William and Mary's reign, an 
act was passed making the slave trade free and open to all 
subjects of the English crown. Though hunting and stealing 
human beings for traffic had already been practiced to some 
extent in Africa, yet this nefarious practice was much aggra- 
vated by the new demand of European and American colo- 
nies caused by this act. 

Slavery soon vanished in the Northern States. It is not 
the Author's purpose to tell why it vanished ; it may have 
been that climate had something to do with it ; it may have 
been that slavery was unprofitable in the North ; it may have 
been that the peculiar habits and disposition of the people 
of the North, inherited from their Puritan ancestors, was 
potent in extinguishing it. 

But slavery nourished and grew in the warm and genial 
land of the South. It may have been the inherited and cul- 
tivated habits of the cavalier, or the invention of the cotton 
gin, which caused that staple to be enthroned so many years 
as king, which made her people adhere so tenaciously to this 
exotic production. But the most eminent fathers of our 
Union were opposed to slavery in principle. Washington, 
Hamilton, Franklin and John Adams, on the Federal side, 
and Patrick Henry and James Madison, on the Republican 
or Democratic side, all repudiated the principles of slavery ; 
and Thomas Jefferson was the most opposed to slavery of 
all. Washington, in his will, provided for the emancipation 
of his 500 slaves, and said to Jefferson that it was among his 
" first wishes to see some plan adopted by which slavery 
would be abolished by law." 

According to the best authority accessible at this time 
when the Constitution was formed at Philadelphia, in 1787, 
most of the members of the convention were opposed to it 
and it would have been expunged from the land, if Georgia 
and South Carolina had not insisted on its recognition as a 
condition of their joining the Union. In order to avoid 
perpetuating it in the organic law, the words " slave " and 
" slavery " were excluded from it. 

Later on, the greatest statesmen in our country, with the 


possible exception of John C. Calhoun, were opposed to the 
institution sentimentally : Clay, Webster, all were opposd to 
it. Lawrence, of South Carolina, though a large slaveholder, 
believed it an element of weakness in his own State. Many 
of the leading men in later years were pro-slavery for the 
sake of the Union, and some for party strength. 

But to return to Kentucky. As Kentucky grew in wealth, 
population and intelligence, under the leadership of her 
great Henry Clay, she changed from State sovereignty nulli- 
fication proclivities to a Union-loving, law-abiding member 
of the Union. The slavery question never made a serious 
disturbance in our national councils until the admission of 
Missouri in 1820. The whole country was then agitated, a 
dissolution of the Union threatened, and serious consequences 
might have ensued, if the State, through her favorite son, 
Mr. Clay, had not assumed the role of a pacificator, and 
effected a compromise, which averted the danger. Again, 
when trouble came up over the Tariff Bill of 1832, Mr. Clay 
warded off the danger by a compromise satisfactory to both 
parties. Upon the admission of California in 1850, a dissolu- 
tion of the Union seemed imminent, but the Omnibus Bill of 
the great Commoner poured oil upon the troubled waters and 
the Union was saved for the time. 

The people of Kentucky indorsed Mr. Clay in all of his 
Union measures, as shown by their votes for him, and those 
of his own household of faith, whenever they had a chance 
at the polls. 

As a sample of the Union sentiments of Kentucky's patri- 
otic son, the Author makes the following brief extracts : 
" Kentucky views disunion, itself, as one of the greatest of 
evils, and a remedy for nothing." On another occasion, in 
reply to John C. Calhoun : "I owe a paramount allegiance 
to the whole country — a subordinate one to my own State.'' 

When the somber cloud appeared in the political atmos- 
phere after the election of Mr. Lincoln in 1860, the great 
mass of the people of Kentucky were sad, and stood aghast 
at the impending storm. It was not on account of timidity, 
or want of courage, as charged by the extremists of both 
sections. The descendants of the Shelbys, Boones, Estills, 
Logans, and others of the kind, still peopled the land, and the 


blood of their ancestors still coursed in their veins. The 
record of Kentucky's troops at Frenchtown, the river Raisin, 
Tippecanoe and Thames in the Northwest, and at New Or- 
leans in the South, in the War of 1812, and still later, on 
the bloody fields of Mexico, disproved the charge. 

The principal cause why the people of Kentucky hesitated, 
they did not wish to imbrue their hands in fraternal blood. 
Many Kentuckians had peopled the younger Northwestern 
States, and the people generally had intimate social and 
commercial relations with the South. Encumbered with the 
same institutions as the cotton States, the people were con- 
vinced that if the secession, or disunion prevailed, that no 
matter which side the State took, slavery was practically 
destroyed within its boundaries. 

When the threatening clouds hovered over the land, 
though the State government was principally in the hands 
of the Southern sympathizers, yet the great mass of the 
people stood, as they had stood, for the past forty years, for 
the Union, for pacification, and for compromise. 

It will not be denied that there were several different 
phases of Unionism. There were many, no doubt, who es- 
poused the Union cause for the better protection of their 
slave property. Policy has much influence with the best of 
men. There were others who were for the Union, provided 
that all institutions remained intact. But the great mass of 
Union-loving people were for the preservation of the Union 
paramount to all other questions, and willing to let the 
slavery problem solve itself. The Author is happy to state 
that many slave owners belonged to the last-named class ; 
and on the other side, he was acquainted with many of the 
most violent Secessionists, whose families, as Pasron Brown- 
low once remarked, " never owned as much as a nigger's 
toe nail." 

The Union strength of Kentucky was shown in the presi- 
dential election in 1860, which gave the candidates represent- 
ing loyal sentiments 40,000 more votes than were given to her 
talented son, John C. Breckenridge, who, in all probability, 
would have carried the State by a large majority, if it had 
not been that he represented the Secession wing of the Demo- 
cratic party. Again, at a special election for members of 


Congress, in obedience to the call of the President for an 
extra session, July 1, 1861, when not a single United States 
soldier trod the State's soil, the vote stood 92,365 for the 
Union, and 36,995 for Secession. It would be too tedious to 
analyze all the votes taken in those days on the subject. 
Enough is given to show that in taking up arms to defend 
the general government, the Union men of Kentucky neither 
violated national sovereignty, nor the Secessionists favorite 
dogma, State Sovereignty. 

The Kentucky legislature assembled January 17, 1861, 
and adjourned, May 24th. The Senate resolved, 

" That Kentucky will not sever connection with the Na- 
tional Government nor take up arms for either belligerent 
party ; but arm herself for the preservation of peace within 
her borders ; and tender their services as moderators to effect 
a just and honorable peace." 

The above resolution passed the Senate, but it was not 
stern enough loyalty to suit the House of Representatives : 
it failed in that body. 

For the Neutrality Doctrine, which was earnestly insisted 
on by Governor Magoffin after the State failed to secede, and 
partially adopted by the legislature, Kentucky was severely 
censured, and sometimes vilified by extremists of both sec- 
tions. Mr. Horace Greeley, in his history, though generally 
moderate and fair in most things, criticised without mercy 
the vacillating policy, as he termed it, of the State. But Mr. 
Greeley himself was, for a while, in favor of letting the erring 
Southern brethren go. The greatest minds in the country 
were astounded at the magnitude of the threatened convul- 
sion, and were puzzled to know the best policy to adopt to 
to save our great Republic. It is not the purpose of the Au- 
thor to defend the neutral position of the State, which was 
for a time partially attempted to be adhered to by the State, 
and somewhat advocated by the conservative men of both 

Education in its broad sense has much to do with man's 
conscience and beliefs. The patriotic conservative men of 
the North, while willing to let slavery alone for the sake of 
union and harmony, were educated to believe slavery was 
wrong, and had prejudices against it; but Kentucky being a 


slave state, its people were educated to believe slavery a di- 
vine institution ; yet standing on the middle ground between 
extremists of both sections, they were also educated by its 
greatest Statesmen in a love for the Union, and for pacifica- 
tion ; therefore, they thought it best to stay the angry tide 
for a while, to pause, and try the usual antidote of compro- 

Historians of both sides have, to some extent, erroneously 
construed the intentions of the neutral position of the State. 
Some may have understood it to have been intended as per- 
manent, but the true Union men who advocated neutrality 
understood it to be only for a temporary purpose. It was to 
stop hostilities until all means had failed to effect a compro- 
mise. If nothing could ward off the fratricidal strife, then 
they deemed it a duty to array themselves on the side of the 
National Government and fight for the Union our fore- 
fathers had formed. All men of sagacity knew that neu- 
trality could not be maintained amid the fierce conflict of 
arms. But all efforts and measures for conciliation failed ; 
and the true, loyal men of the State were eager to offer their 
bodies as living sacrifices to that Union which they so much 
loved. The spirit which animated this class may be better 
voiced by the speech of General Lovell H. Rousseau in the 
Kentucky Senate, May 22, 1861. 

" When Kentucky goes down, it will be in blood. Let that 
be understood. She will not go down as other States have 
gone. Let the responsibility rest on you where it belongs. 
It is all your work, and whatever happens will be your work. 
We have more right to defend our government than you have 
to overturn it. Many of us are sworn to support it. Let our 
good Union men at the South stand their ground. I know 
that many patriotic hearts in the seceded States still beat 
warmly for the old Union — the old flag. The time will come 
when we all will be together again. The politicians are hav- 
ing their day ; the people will yet have theirs. I have an 
abiding confidence in the right, and I know this Secession 
movement is all wrong. There is, in fact, not a single sub- 
stantial reason for it. If there is, I should be glad to hear 
it. Our government has never oppressed us as much as a 
feather's weight. The direst oppression alone could justify 
what has brought all our present suffering upon us. May 
God, in his mercy, save our glorious Republic." 


It is claimed by Confederate historians — and this is one 
of their excuses for their army invading Kentucky — that the 
government violated Kentucky's neutrality by empowering 
General "Win. Nelson to recruit and organize troops at Camp 
Dick Robinson. This class 'of writers always conceals the 
fact, that, before any Union troops were organized on Ken- 
tucky soil, General Felix K. Zollicoffer, of the Confederate 
army, had already seized Cumberland Cap immediately on 
the State line, and held it with a formidable force, as a men- 
ace to the State. The days of neutrality had passed, its ob- 
jects had failed, and the conflict had begun. The people of 
the State had in decisive tones given their voices to remain 
in the Union. The life of the government was at stake. The 
organic law of the United States, which all colonies and 
after territories had to agree to before becoming members of 
the Union, made that instrument the supreme law of the 
land. The President had been put in office by the legal votes 
of the people. A great rebellion had sprung up, and it was the 
duty of every loyal citizen to assist in defending the life of 
his government. It was this cause which inspired the recruit- 
ing and organizing of the four Kentucky regiments, one bat- 
tery, and two loyal East Tennessee regiments at Camp Dick 
Robinson, in Garrard county. 


Origin of the First Kentucky Cavalry, better known 


alry — The Third, Fourth and Seventh Infantry, and 
Hewitt's Battery — Gen. William Nelson — W. J. Lan- 
dram, Frank Wolford, Capt. S. S. Fry, Judge Bram- 
lette, Hon. T. T. Garrard and others — Enlistment 


War being inevitable, and hostilities already having com- 
menced, the loyal men of Kentucky were eager to show their 
devotion to the cause which they espoused. Lieut. William 
Nelson, of the Navy, himself a Kentuckian, had been com- 


missioned as Brigadier General, and had been given author- 
ity to organize troops for the national defense in Kentucky. 
He arrived at Lancaster, in Garrard county, July 15, 1861. 
He immediately made the following appointments: Wm. J. 
Landram, Colonel, and Frank Wolford, Lieut. Colonel of the 
Cavalry Regiment; Judge Thomas E. Bramlette, Cap- 
tain S. S. Fry, and the Hon. T. T. Garrard, Colonels of In- 
fantry regiments. All of these officers, except Judge Bram- 
lette, had served in the Mexican War, and were selected on 
account of their military experience, as well as their known 
adherence to the cause of the Union. Commissions similar 
to the following were issued by Gen. Nelson to the officers 
named : 

To Wm. J. Landram, of Lancaster, Ky. : 

By virtue of authority vested in me by the War Depart- 
ment, you are hereby appointed to be Colonel of the regi- 
ment of Cavalry authorized for the Tennessee expedition. 
This appointment will continue in force until further notice. 

W. Nelson. 

Lancaster, Ky., July 15, 1861. 

Lieut. Colonel Wolford was notified of his appointment, 
and the two jointly commenced the work of recruiting for 
the First Kentucky Cavalry — Wolford speaking in Casey and 
other counties near his residence, while Landram spoke in 
Garrard and adjoining counties. They jointly addressed the 
people at Buckeye, in Garrard county. 

By order of Gen. Nelson, the troops were to go into camp 
at Camp Dick Robinson, on the first Tuesday after the elec- 
tion in August, 1861. This day was selected in order to give 
the enlisted soldiers an opportunity to cast their votes at the 

The true Union men of Kentucky, composing the regi- 
ments soon to be organized at Camp Dick Robinson, did not 
wait to see whether coercion would be popular or unpopular, 
either North or South, East or West, but responded to the 
first call of their country, only waiting an opportunity to en- 
roll their names in the grand army which was destined to 
crush the most gigantic rebellion known in modern times. 

Only two days after receiving his appointment, Col. Wol- 


ford, accompanied by Mr. Geo. W. Sweeney, went to Mt. 
Olive, in the eastern part of Casey county, and addressed a 
large number of citizens. This was July 17, 1861. Several 
men enlisted on that day, and their names were enrolled by 
Mr. Sweeney. This meeting may be considered the first 
starting of the regiment. Several other meetings took place 
in the Southeastern part of the county and in the Green 
River Valley, and the assemblages were addressed by Col. 
Frank Wolford, his younger brother, F. M. Wolford, and 
Silas Adams, a young law student of Fishing Creek. On July 
27th, a meeting was held at Liberty, when the company was 
completed and organized by electing Geo. W. Sweeney, Cap- 
tain ; Silas Adams, 1st Lieutenant; and F. M. Wolford, 2d 
Lieutenant. Jarrard W. Jenkins was elected 3d Lieutenant, 
but on arriving at Camp, it being found that only two Lieuten- 
ants were allowed to a Company under revised rules of 
organization of the army, Mr. Jenkins received a recruiting 
commission, and afterward became Captain of Company F. 
The non-commissioned officers were appointed. This Com- 
pany was designated A. 

About July 18th, William Rains, a Mexican war veteran, 
and Geo. W. Drye, a youth seventeen years of age, com- 
menced enlisting a Company on the Rolling Fork Creek, in 
the western part of Casey county, and its rolls were com- 
pleted on the same day as Company A, July 27th, and organ- 
ized by its officers being appointed. Win. Rains was made 
Captain ; Geo. W. Drye, 1st Lieutenant ; and Stephen H. Cop- 
page, 2d Lieutenant. The report of the Company was re- 
ceived only a few hours later than that of A, and was given 
the name of B. 

On the same day of the organization of Companies A and 
B, July 27, 1861, Judge Thomas E. Bramlette, then enlisting 
men for his own regiment, the Third Kentucky Infantry, de- 
livered a patriotic address near the home of his youth in Al- 
bany, the county seat of Clinton county, which town is near 
the Tennessee line. A multitude of Clinton county loyalists 
were present, and also a number from across the State line, 
in Fentress and Overton counties, Tennessee. Many of these 
did not wish to enter the Infantry service, and enrolled as 
Cavalry. A full Company was completed on that day, and 


organized by electing John A. Brents, Captain ; John A. Mor- 
rison, 1st Lieutenant ; and Jonathan P. Miller, 2d Lieutenant. 
The non-commissioned officers were also elected by the com- 

It was made known that the members of the regiment 
were to furnish their own horses and horse equipments, and 
after organization the men were dismissed for about ten days 
to arrange their business affairs and furnish themselves 
with horses. Those unable to furnish themselves, their Cap- 
tains endorsed their obligations with the permission to retain 
a certain portion of the men's pay until the obligations of 
each were liquidated. 

The men of Company A, after casting their votes, rendez- 
voused principally at Liberty, late Monday evening, August 
5th ; those of Company B, at appropriate points on the Roll- 
ing Fork Creek. Company C being raised on the border of 
the new Confederacy where there was much bitter blood, for 
prudential reasons did not remain until the election, but 
arranged their affairs in a very few days, and having about 
one hundred miles to march, by easy stages reached Camp 
Dick Robinson nearly as soon as the other two companies. 
The other companies will be mentioned in another chapter. 


Reception at Liberty — The march to Camp Dick Robinson 
— Greetings on the route — Arrival and reception — 
Fasting — Murmurs — Better fare — Guard lines — Van- 
ishing delusions — Arrival of Company C — Material 
of the regiment — Landram turns the command over 
to "Wolford — Transition from citizen to soldier — The 
first alarm — Ludicrous stories — The Rev. W. H. Hon- 
nell — The dedication sermon — Exciting incident of 
the humble bees — the flrst kentucky chaplain. 

On our arrival at Liberty we were enthusiastically receiv- 
ed and hospitably entertained by the citizens of that town. 
Our future Commander, Franklin L. Wolford, dropping all 
superfluous syllables and initials from his name, and after- 


ward known as Col. Frank Wolford, at that time being a 
widower and living with his aged mother and unmarried sis- 
ter, did more than his share in providing food and lodgings 
for the " soidier boys." 

Early Friday morning, August 6, 1861, we mounted our 
war steeds, and with Colonel Wolford and Captain Sweeney 
in the lead, with " martial pomp," we took up our line of 
march for Camp Dick Robinson, some forty miles distant. 
At Middlesburg we were joined by a few of our company 
who lived in that section, and a large number of men, wo- 
men and children gathered at the road side to see us pass, 
and to bid farewell to their sons, brothers, lovers and ac- 
quaintances who were " off for the wars." 

On arriving at Hustonville, seventeen miles on the route 
traveled from the starting point, we were joined by Captain 
Rains with Company B, which swelled our numbers to an 
imposing body. At several points we were greeted by crowds 
of all ages, sexes, previous and subsequent conditions of so- 
ciety, out of mere curiosity, or to give us cheer upon our 
way. Before entering Danville, our officers after some trouble, 
got us into " column of fours " and we made a grand show 
to the people as we passed through that town. 

It was about sundown when we reached Camp Dick Rob- 
inson, and the men and horses were weary and hungry. On 
approaching the place an official met us and piloted us in- 
side the lines where we were halted, and a mountain howitzer 
boomed in honor of our accession to the loyal host gathering 
there. We then marched out of the inclosure, unsaddled 
our horses, deposited our saddles in out-houses, turned our 
horses loose in an adjoining pasture and re-entered the camp 
lines, where we found a few tents standing. The companies 
of Captain Augustine Dunn of the Third Kentucky Infantry, 
and Captain Wellington Harlan of the Fourth Kentucky, 
and, perhaps, a few men of other companies, were already in 

Both men and horses were not used to fasting and hard 
marching, and the government was either not looking for so 
many that evening, or was very neglectful in making provis- 
ion for us. The Author was now amid the scenes of his 
school-boy days, and met with better fortune than most of 


his comrades : for he met with a relative in Dun's company 
who gave him the remnants of his own supper, consisting of 
a small piece of " hoe-cake," corn bread, and the dregs of a 
pint cup of coffee, upon which he feasted like a king, and he 
soon met with another relative in Harlan's company, who 
offered him room in his tent for the night. Other members 
of our Cavalry companies met with like hospitality from 
the scanty means of the Infantry companies ; but provisions 
and cooking utensils being limited, many went supperless 
and dinnerless to repose, their bed-room being the broad ex- 
panse, their cover, nature's canopy, and their couches the 
famed blue grass, with the roots of trees for their pillows. 
But there was no suffering from cold, the weather being very 

The next morning the romance of soldiering began to 
vanish. The only idea of the soldier's life to the unsophis- 
ticated had been gathered from glowing accounts of the fer- 
tile pens of historians, and the more exciting works of fic- 
tion in which are mingled grand parades of pomp and show, 
and the marching in measured steps to martial strains of 
music. But stern realities stared the enlisted man in the 

Camp Dick Robinson is in the most fertile and beautiful 
part of Garrard county : in fact, in one of the most lovely 
spots in Kentucky. To our cavalrymen, accustomed to roam 
over their native mountains as free as the air they breathed, 
here in this lovely region, surrounded by such enchanting 
scenery, with such inviting temptations to wander around at 
will, being confronted with guard lines, and not allowed to 
pass out without written permits or verbal orders from their 
superiors in rank, it was irksome and galling in the highest 

Our rations did not improve much the next day, and 
some of the tender-footed began to murmur ; but several 
of the leading, loyal, wealthy citizens of the vicinity, visit- 
ing the camp, explained that the influx of so many, so soon 
after the election, was unexpected, and urged the croakers to 
be patient and they should not suffer. The bake-shops of 
the neighboring little city of Danville were brought into 


use, a Commissary Department was established, and the men 
soon had plenty. 

Company C soon joined lis. There is some dispute in 
regard to the day this Company entered camp ; some claim- 
ing that it was on the same day as the entrance of A and B, 
and others that it was one or two days later. 

These three companies being organized on the same day, 
and being the beginning of the regiment, it might be of in- 
terest to give a brief description of the material of which 
they were composed, which, with some slight modifications, 
would answer for the whole regiment. The mass of this 
material was composed of the best men of their respective 
sections. There were some lawyers and other professionals 
and tradesmen among them, but the farmers predominated. 
It is not claimed that there were not some rough or lawless 
men among them, but this class can be found more or less 
among all such bodies of men, and in fact but few commu- 
nities are free from them. It will not be claimed that 
every officer or private was of the right material to make 
first-class heroes or soldiers. Even in the civil walks of 
life, in every avocation and vocation, there are many who 
mistake their calling and undertake to perform parts in the 
great drama of life for which they are in no way fitted. 
But we do claim that we had as good material as ever fought 
under the Stars and Stripes. There were many beardless 
youths, and a large majority were young men. Some were 
middle-aged, while there were a few whose " sands of life " 
had nearly run out. Of course these were soon discharged 
on account of disability. There were fathers and sons in the 
same company. Among the privates of Company C was 
Colonel Avery, a wealthy old man about eighty years of age. 
Nothing but devoted loyalty could have induced such men 
to leave their families and the comfort of home to peril their 
lives to save their country. 

Colonel W. J. Landram appeared at Camp Dick Robinson 
on the 6th day of August, and while he retained command 
of the men for a few days, he ultimately made up his mind 
to relinquish the command and turn it over to Colonel Wol- 
ford, preferring to command an Infantry regiment. He 
accordingly notified Colonel Wolford of his intentions, and 


Wolford insisted on Landram's retaining the command. 
Landram had respect for Wolford and the men of the regi- 
ment, but finally concluded to adhere to his original inten- 
tion, and when General Nelson arrived, he notified him of 
his decision. That officer also urged the Colonel to hold on 
to the command in very strong terms ; but after remaining 
at the camp for some time, acting as Adjutant-General, he 
located a camp at Harrodsburg, and recruited the Nineteenth 
Kentucky Infantry, which afterwards did much valuable 
service, and won high honors in the Southwest. 

The transition from the life and habits of a citizen to 
that of a soldier, though it could not be accomplished in a 
day, yet was comparatively rapid. We soon learned to habit- 
uate ourselves to rough camp life. We had the usual experi- 
ence of false alarms gotten up to train the nerve of the 
soldier. The first one of the kind happened only a night or 
two after entering the camp. The night was dark and still, 
and the men, except those on duty, were wrapt in deep slum- 
bers. We were suddenly aroused with the startling an- 
nouncement that the enemy were approaching, and near at 
hand. As we tremblingly fell into line, we could distinctly 
hear the horrid thunder of the shod hoofs of what we took 
to be thousands of horses. Home guard muskets were put 
into our hands, ammunition issued, and we were ordered to 
load our guns. Ludicrous tales were afterward current in 
camp about how some put the cartridges in their guns with 
bullet end downwards, others missed their guns entirely, 
while some had a superfluity of loads rammed down. Many 
showed strong symptoms of the " buck ague," and were much 
relieved when it was found that no enemy was near, but only 
our own horses running loose in the pasture had become 
rested, and having gotten in a gala way, were dashing over the 
pasture in a body, having their amusement at our expense. 

Four days after reaching Camp Dick Robinson, Saturday, 
August 10, 1861, the camp was set apart to the cause of the 
government by appropriate exercises. The Rev. W. H. Hon- 
nell, a young Presbyterian minister, came over from near 
Harrodsburg to preach the dedication sermon. He was a 
Pennsylvanian by birth, but came to Ohio in childhood, and 
was a graduate of Miami University, at Oxford, in 1853, 


where he was college mate with President Harrison. The 
great name of Dr.R. J.Breckinridge, the uncle of Vice-Presi- 
dent John C. Breckinridge, had lured him to Danville, Ky., 
to finish his theological studies, and he graduated there in 
1856. He was the first graduate who offered to go as a for- 
eign missionary from that Seminary, and on his way arrived 
at New York. There a strange Providence interfered, and he 
left his destination to the vote of the Mission Board. Their 
vote was " not to China, but to Kansas." Thrown into the 
exciting scenes of the border war, he helped make Kansas a 
free State, and had returned from the Indian Nation to a 
quiet Kentucky pastorate, when the soldiers began to gather 
at Camp Dick Robinson. He was there on their first en- 
trance, and has the honor of defying the Governor's neu- 
trality proclamation, and preaching the first sermon in a 
military camp on Kentucky soil. 

The dedication sermon was the most thrilling and pic- 
turesque ever produced in the State. It has already passed 
into history. The vast crowds of newly enlisted soldiers and 
citizens sat under the spreading branches of the walnut trees 
on the fallen blue grass. The preacher had them summoned 
to the place by the bugle, now calling for the first time to 
worship ; " not in disobedience to the powers that be," as he 
explained, " but a false interpretation of State, and not 
national authority." 

When all became still, from a large good's box improvised 
into a pulpit, he gave out his hymn and offered prayer, dedi- 
cating the grounds, himself and congregation, and people of 
the great loyal State, to God and their country. After an- 
other hymn came the sermon — clear, fervent and impassioned. 
It was nearing the close, when some ladies were seen to be 
knocking with their fans here and there an humble bee to the 
ground just in front of the stand. A soldier would rise 
upon his knees, and after a few motions, would jump to his 
feet and rush away, slamming his hat around his ears, hav- 
ing a dozen bees about his shoulders. Another and another 
would follow in a like manner, but the preacher held on with 
his sermon, growing more fervent with every sentence. He 
slacks his gestures as the bees gather around his face, but 
continues till he raises his hands for the benediction. As the 



vast audience rises, the few short words are said, and the bees 
in immense numbers bounce the mischievous soldiers, and 
the crowd moves away. Wolford, who stood at the side of the 
box, with Bramlette and other officers, in much glee, seizes 
the preacher's arm, and nominates the first and only Chap- 
lain of the First Kentucky Cavalry. 

He rode with them in nearly all of their battles and ad- 
venturous marches till their muster-out, about the close of 
the war, in all three and a half years. 


Companies D, E, F, H, I, J, K and L join the regiment — 
Brief account of the formation of each company and 
its commissioned officers — The First Kentucky Cav- 
alry regiment organized — Field and staff officers — 
Short sketches of Col. Frank Wolford, Lieut.-Col. 
John W. Letcher, Majors F. M. Helveti, John A. 
Brents and Wm. A. Coffey, Adjutant Geo. W. Drye, 
Quartermaster Silas Adams, Drs. Brady and Riffe, 
and Chaplain Honnell, Non-commissioned Staff and 

The following companies came to camp in quick succession 
and joined the regiment: 

From the counties of Marion and Casey, Company D. 
Men enlisted by George Coppage and Samuel M.Boone. Com- 
missioned officers — George Coppage, Captain ; Richard H. 
Vandyke, 1st Lieutenant; Samuel M. Boone, 2d Lieutenant. 

From the county of Madison, Company E. Men enlisted 
by Boston Dillion and Dr. W. A. Coffey. Commissioned 
officers — Boston Dillion, Captain ; Franklin W. Dillion, 1st 
Lieutenant; Win. P. Ballard, 2d Lieutenant. 

From the county of Casey, Company F. Men enlisted by 
Jarrard W. Jenkins and others. Commissioned officers — 
Jarrard W. Jenkins, Captain ; Geo. C. Jenkins, 1st Lieuten- 
ant ; Robert C. Blain, 2d Lieutenant. 

From the county of Garrard, Company G. Men enlisted 



by T. K. Hackley and Irvine Burton. Commissioned officers 
— Thornton K. Hackley, Captain ; Irvine Burton, 1st Lieu- 
tenant; Henry S. Robson, 2d Lieutenant. [This company 
entered camp, August 24, 1861.] 

Lieutenant Abraham Grubb gives the following history 
of the origin and make-up of Company H : 

" Eighteen hundred and sixty-one found us in the Home 
Guards, on the border, in old Wayne county, Kentucky, and 
as our neighbor boys were going South into Tennessee, and 
joining the Rebel Cavalry that were drilling there, our little 
company of guards was reported and ' spotted.' We very 
soon got word of their intentions and movements, and we 
did not wish to be captured and hurried off to prison. We 
therefore decided to go wh^re we could do the most good. 
We soon reached the north side of the Cumberland river, 
at Camp Owens, on our way to Camp Dick Robinson 
where Captain Alexander had enlisted about twenty men. 
We remained there about two weeks, during which time we 
were joined by a number of others. We procured horses and 
marched for Camp Dick Robinson, where we found James 
Mullins, with a few men for our company. James G. Dick 
soon came with more men. We united our forces and organ- 
ized Company H, with F. N. Alexander as Captain ; James G. 
Dick, 1st Lieutenant ; William M. Haley, 2d Lieutenant, and 
W. L. Hicks 1st, or Orderly Sergeant. Hicks was from Cleve- 
land, East Tennessee." 

Captain John Smith gives the following account of the 
origin and organization of Company I : " Company I was 
organized with about fifty men, at Mackville, Washington 
county, Ky., in July, 1861. General S. S. Fry had been in the 
neighborhood some time before, making speeches and urging 
the loyal men to organize. He stopped at Dr. John A. 
Brady's house, and obtained the names of all the known 
Union men in the vicinity. James Mays, Dr. Brady, Alex- 
ander Thompson, myself and others, began to enlist the men, 
securing about fifty or sixty names. We held meetings daily 
for a short time to drill and consult where we would go. On 
the day of organization, while in line taking down the names 
of the men, we were fired into by the crowd on the outside, 
and two of the men — Geo. W. Gibbs and Nathaniel Lawson 


— were wounded. Our first intention was to go to Camp Joe 
Holt, across the Ohio river, at Louisville, but before we were 
ready to march, Camp Dick Robinson was established, and 
we went there and joined the First Kentucky Cavalry regi- 
ment. After arriving in camp an election was held, result- 
ing in the election of the following officers : John Smith, 
Captain ; James Mays, 1st Lieutenant ; Alexander Thomp- 
son, 2d Lieutenant." 

There is no account of the date this company entered 
camp, but circumstances indicate that it was August 16, 1861. 

Company I was made up in Cumberland county. No ac- 
count has been given of its origin and organization. The 
Adjutant General's Report shows that the enlistments com- 
menced July 25, 1861, but that the bulk of the company en- 
rolled on the 20th day of August, 1861. Its exact date of 
entrance into camp is unknown. Its officere were Michael H. 
Owsley, Captain; Jesse M. Carter, 1st Lieutenant; A. T. 
Keen, 2d Lieutenant. 

Captain Nelson D. Burrus, from Madison county, organ- 
ized Company K early in September, 1861, and entered Camp 
Dick Robinson about September 12th, with thirty men. The 
rest of the company was enlisted in camp. The other com- 
missioned officers were Jno. F. N. Hill, 1st Lieutenant, and 
Stephen Sallee, 2d Lieutenant. 

Company L was enlisted and organized at Somerset, 
Pulaski county, Ky., and left that place on the 11th day of 
September, 1861, arriving at Camp Dick Robinson at 4 
p. m., on the 13th. The most of its enlistments bear the 
same date the company started for camp, September 11th. 
This company's commissioned officers were W. N. Owens, 
Captain; Robert M. Griffin, 1st Lieutenant; Benj. H.Mil- 
ton, 2d Lieutenant. 

About the time the regiment was made up in full, Sep- 
tember 12, 1861, Captain John A. Brents, of Company C, was 
promoted to Major, and Lieutenant John A. Morrison to 
Captain, 2d Lieutenant Jonathan P. Miller to 1st Lieu- 
tenant, and Sergeant Wm. Perkins to 2d Lieutenant of that 

Although the regiment was not mustered in for one month 
and a half, yet it was now fully organized with field and staff 


officers, acting in their respective positions, and it is deemed 
that this is the most appropriate place to give a brief sketch 
of those destined to figure in the regiment's future opera- 

Col. Frank Wolford, of Liberty, Casey county, was forty- 
four years of age when he entered the service. He belonged 
to a very intellectual family, but poor in this world's goods, 
consequently his early life was one of struggle and toil. He 
acquired a good practical education at home, his only aid being 
the tutorship of his father, who happened to be a well qual- 
ified teacher for his day, and also a surveyor. In day time, 
as opportunities would offer, he would go to the "knobs" 
near by and gather ' ; pine knots " for light, and after the 
younger noisy members of the family retired at night, was 
his principal time for study. 

His first occupation was school teaching ; but when very 
young he commenced the study of law under the guidance 
of Hiram Thomas, a learned but eccentric Pennsylvanian, 
who was a frequent visitor at his father's house then on the 
Eolling Fork creek, in the northwest part of the county. 

When the country became involved in war with Mexico, a 
sister republic, a company was made up in Casey county, of 
which he was made Captain, but was not received in the ser- 
vice on account of the quota called for being already filled ; 
but so eager was he to serve his country that he enlisted in 
Capt. Wm. B. Daugherty's company, of Lincoln county, 
which belonged to McKee's regiment. Being free from all 
dissipated habits, and of a moral turn of mind, he generally 
officiated in the burial service of any deceased soldier as 
Chaplain, as there was none of that office in the regiment. 
In the bloody battle of Buena Vista, he went through much 
danger in remaining behind to assist in bringing from the 
field the mortally wounded Col. Wm. R. McKee. 

On his return from Mexico, in 1847, he was elected to 
represent Casey and Russell counties in the legislature, which 
position he filled with distinction. 

In 1852, he married Miss Dever, of Rolling Fork Creek. 
Tradition is handed down that he carried all of the logs on 
his shoulder to build his first house. 

Col. Wolford was a man of much genius, and originality, 


and soon acquired fame and popularity in Central Kentucky 
as an orator, and in his palmy days, was considered a power 
before a jury. If he had met with the opportunities of a 
thorough classical training in youth, it is impossible to con- 
jecture what he might have been, but there was so much 
marked individuality about the man, that it would have 
been difficult to have confined him to beaten paths. Care- 
less in financial matters, though strictly honest, free-hearted 
and charitable, devotedly attached to his family and aged 
mother, a scorner of mean things, but few men had as 
many redeemable qualities. 

Lieut.-Colonel John W. Letcher, of Lancaster, Ky., was a 
man of education and intellect, belonging to one of Ken- 
tucky's most distinguished families, being a nephew of Gov- 
ernor Robert P. Letcher, who so long and ably represented 
his constituents in the National House of Representatives. 
He, too, served in the Mexican War, being a member of 
Capt. Johnson Price's company of Humphrey Marshall's 
Cavalry regiment. He was well versed in the Cavalry drill, 
and being of a social disposition, he soon became very popu- 
lar with the men. 

Major Francis M. Helveti was an educated Prussian, and 
it was reported that he had served in three branches of the 
military service in Europe before emigrating to the United 
States. He was a genial gentleman and a good officer, but 
he never served much with the regiment. He was captured 
by the enemy in December, 1861, and was afterward ex- 
changed, and put on detached service. He returned to the 
regiment in April, 1864. 

Major John A. Brents, of Albany, Clinton county, Ky., 
was a popular and fine business lawyer, and though of quiet 
habits, slow of speech, and somewhat awkward in delivery, 
yet he was a man of good judgment, brave in action and 
strict in ruling his men. He was a fine writer, being more 
expert with his pen than with his tongue. 

Major Wm. A. Coffey, though a native of Casey county, 
for a number of years previous to the war, was a resident of 
Madison county. He, too, had served in the Mexican War, 
and was a man of large commanding form, with brilliant 
talents, brave, and every way qualified to fill his position 


with much distinction ; but camp life seemed irksome and 
confining to him, and he was not with us as much as some 
of the other officers. He resigned in October, 1863. 

Surgeon John A. Brady, of Washington county, was an 
educated and accomplished physician, and a thoroughly culti- 
vated gentleman. He was a devoted Union man, and assisted 
in enlisting the Washington county company. He was very 
popular with the men of the regiment. 

Assist. Surgeon, Dr. J. Christopher Riffe, of Hustonville, 
Ky., also a fine physician, belonged to a talented and influ- 
ential family, his father and grandfather both being leading 
men in Casey county, and frequently representing their con- 
stituents in both branches of the State legislature. Dr. 
Riffe would have distinguished himself as a commanding 
officer, for he was as brave as a lion, and always ready to 
lead a desperate charge on the enemy. 

Adjutant George W. Drye was very young when he entered 
the service, being only seventeen years of age. He, too, was 
a worthy representative of a noted family ; his father, the 
Hon. Geo. Drye, being a wealthy farmer of strong Union 
sentiments, and one of the most influential men of Casey 


Adjutant Drye also had the advantage of a fine educa- 
tion. Among other institutions he was for some time a stu- 
dent of Georgetown College. He, too, proved himself fitted 
for other spheres besides that of Adjutant, for he was soon 
promoted to the Captaincy of his company, and finally to 
Major in the regiment. 

Regimental Quartermaster, Lieut. Silas Adams, was also 
very young when he entered the service, being only twenty- 
one years old. His father, Mr. James M. Adams, living on 
Fishing Creek, near the Pulaski county line, in Casey county, 
though a plain and unassuming farmer, was a man of deep 
thought, and having an intense thirst for reading, was well 
versed in all the current topics of the day. He used all 
means within his power to give his gifted son a good educa- 
tion. The Lieutenant, after attending Bacon College, at 
Harrodsburg, and the State Normal School, at Lexington, 
taught school for a few terms, but at the breaking out of the 
war, had commenced the study of law. 


He was splendid on the forum, and even in his schoolboy 
days was considered a power in debate. But there was not 
enough excitement in the dry details of the Quartermaster's 
office to suit him ; consequently, he never distinguished 
himself in that line. But he soon distinguished himself as 
a daring leader and commander ; was promoted in due suc- 
cession, and at the close of the regiment's service in front, 
commanded a gallant brigade of Cavalry. 

The Author has given a sketch of the Rev. W. H. Hon- 
nell, Chaplain of the regiment, in another chapter and it 
will not be repeated here. But few regiments were blessed 
w r ith such Chaplains as " Captain " Honnell, of the First 
Kentucky Cavalry. It seemed to be his special delight to be 
at the front in thickest of danger, attending to the wounded, 
and seeing that they were cared for in a proper manner. He 
was equally ready in offering himself as an example to in- 
spire the men to brave and noble deeds. 

It will not be out of place to state here that before the 
full organization of the regiment and appointment of Staff 
officers, Serg. Thomas "Wheritt, Company G, a resident of 
Lancaster, Ky., acted as Regimental Quartermaster and 
Adjutant for several weeks, but was afterward discharged 
from the company by order of Gen. Geo. H. Thomas, and 
detailed in the Quartermaster's Department on that Gen- 
eral's Staff. 

The following non-commissioned officers were appointed 
on the regimental Staff : Serg. Major Feland Bland, of Hus- 
tonville, Ky. ; Quartermaster Sergeant [several acted in this 
capacity] ; Commissary Sergeant, Clinton Hocker, of Hus- 
tonville; Hospital Steward, Benj. Owens, of Clinton county. 

There was no regimental Commissary of Subsistence ap- 
pointed in the regiment until June 3, 1863, when Sergeant 
Elijah Cox, of Company B, was appointed to that position. 



Arrival of Gen. Wm. Nelson — Characteristics of the 
General — His temper and business habits — Anecdotes 



ERT Anderson — Loyal matrons and maids around Camp 
Dick Robinson — Drilling of the men — The movements 

of the enemy unjust criticism military martinets 

— Service of the regiment in saving the State. 

It is now necessary to return to nearly the time when the 
first three companies entered camp. A few days afterward, 
about the of August, Gen. Win. Nelson arrived and as- 
sumed command of everything around Camp Dick Robinson. 
With the exception of the Mexican War veterans, but few, 
if any, had ever seen a live army general before. Only a few 
of the older men had ever seen an old-fasion militia General. 
Most of the members of the regiment had read about them 
in romances and histories, and looked upon them as a supe- 
rior order of beings. On the General's first appearance in 
camp, we all looked with pride and admiration upon his im- 
posing manly form, and for one so large, rather handsome 
features. But some of our delusions soon vanished. We soon 
found him to be only a human being like ourselves, with like 
passions, a strongly marked temper, and what we considered 
very overbearing ways. 

The General went to business immediately. The camp, 
tents, and everything were arranged in regulation style. The 
laws of health were strictly observed ; the grounds were daily 
cleaned, and the refuse and waste matter hauled to the 
adjacent fields; the guns were at stated times inspected; 
and everybody had something to do. We soon found that 
soldiering was " harder work than farming." 

The General was all through the camp during the day 
personally supervising every detail. His usual manner was 


to saunter around apparently wrapped in deep musing, and 
if he discovered anything going wrong, his keen eye would 
quickly lighten up, arbitrary orders were given, and if the 
occasion required it, bountiful epithets were bestowed upon 
the offender, in the use of which none was more expert than 
Gen. Nelson. He seemed to take pains in impressing it on the 
minds of those around him that he was Gen. Nelson ; that 
he was commander at Camp Dick Robinson, and that his or- 
ders had to be respected and obeyed. But there was a very 
redeemable trait about the General. The officers of all 
grades were his inferiors as well as the privates. If an officer 
needed "cussing," he got it the same as the humblest private. 

To illustrate his usual habits, it may not be amiss to re- 
late a few anecdotes which occurred soon after he took com- 
mand of our raw enlisted men. 

Captain Sweeney, on one occasion, entered the General's 
office on urgent business ; the Captain himself had been in 
official business much of his life, and was one used to au- 
thority. Gen. Nelson happened to be very busy writing some 
official document. The Captain, who was a very Chesterfield 
in politeness, addressed him : 

" General, I have come to see you on " 

" Take a seat, Captain." 

"But, General, I haven't the time ; I ." 

" Sit down, sir." 

" But, General, my business is too urgent ; I " 

" Captain Sweeney, you, I command you to sit 

down !" 

After finishing his writing, and giving the Captain a 
lecture on the impropriety of interrupting him when busy, 
he attended to the desired business. It is needless to add 
that the Captain did not seek the General's company after- 
ward only on important business. 

His imperious manners awakened a strong feeling of 
resentment both among officers and men, but at that time, 
fearful of the conseqnences, neither dared to openly show 
their feelings. 

It had been instilled into the minds of the men that 
when a guard was on duty he was supreme in his line, and 
subject to no one's orders but the officers of the guard ; that 


even the commanding general was under his orders. This 
afforded some of the men opportunities to " get even " with 
the General. One night he approached John E. Sharpe 's 
post [Co. A], and in order to test whether the guard was 
doing his duty, tried to pass his beat. Sharpe halted him, 
and with presented gun, ordered the General to " mark time." 
In vain he claimed that he was the Commanding General, 
but the night was too dark for him to offer satisfactory- 
proof of his identity. When the Corporal of the Guard ap- 
peared, and relieved him from the prescribed exercise, he de- 
manded the guard's name, it was supposed in order to have 
him promoted ; but Sharpe, supposing it was for the purpose 
of having him court-martialed and shot, gave him the ficti- 
tous name of John Quackenbackum. That name adhered to 
him as long as he remained in the regiment. He afterward 
became a Lieutenant and did splendid service in the Eighth 
Kentucky Cavalry. 

On another occasion he stopped on a guard's beat, con- 
trary to orders, until the guard approached in the attitude 
of " charge bayonets," and ordered him away. Leaving the 
guard, he went to the entrance of the camp and stood imme- 
diately in the passway. Lieutenant Vandyke, who at the time 
was Officer of the Guard, approached him with much dignity, 
and ordered him away. To see his men thus alert on duty 
did not seem to anger him the least, but as he turned away 
a smile of amusement was playing upon his manly features. 

Soon after entering camp we were introduced to active 
service. A detachment of picked men, armed with flint- 
lock " horse" pistols, a relic of by-gone days, was sent under 
Lieut.-Colonel John W. Letcher to Nicholasville, on the north 
side of the Kentucky river, some fifteen miles distant, to 
guard arms through to camp. After returning from this ex- 
pedition, companies A, B and C were armed with the Army 
Sharpe rifles with saber bayonets, one of the most effective 
arms in the service, and specially adapted to the dragoon or 
heavy Cavalry service. The other companies were afterward 
armed with the musket, a very inefficient arm, and partic- 
ularly inconvenient for Cavalry. The men were compelled 
to retain these for a long time, much to their displeasure. 
Clothing was issued to the men, but only one or two garments 


at a time. We first drew pants and shirts, and two months 
after entering the service overcoats were issued to us. It was 
after four months' hard service before we drew full suits and 
were armed with the navy pistol. 

Soon after our raw cavalrymen were armed with the 
Sharpe rifle, they were placed in a situation which would 
have been trying to the mettle of even veteran soldiers. It 
is necessary to be understood, that in addition to the First 
Kentucky Cavalry, five Infantry regiments and one battery 
were organized and equipped at Camp Dick Robinson. Some 
of these forces had been armed from the guns the Cavalry 
had guarded through from Nicholasville. A large number of 
arms were due at Lexington for the Infantry regiments, still 
without guns. It must also be known that though the people 
had declared by a large majority in favor of the Union, that 
a Secession governor was still at the head of State affairs, 
and was hostile and threatening to the forces at Camp Dick 
Robinson. John C. Breckinridge, James B. Clay and other 
Southern sympathizers still remained at Lexington. The after- 
ward famous raider, John H. Morgan, with his Secession State 
guard company, armed with Minnie rifles, had not yet left 
for the Confederacy. The authorities at Camp Dick Robin- 
son were fearful that these arms would be captured before 
reaching their destination. It was necessary, therefore, that 
a force sufficiently strong should be sent to meet those arms 
and guard them safely through. Accordingly, a detachment 
of 200 men belonging to the Sharpe's rifle companies, A, B 
and C, under command of Lieut. -Col. John W. Letcher, with 
most of the line officers along, went there for that purpose. 
Col. Thos. E. Bramlette, of the Third Kentucky Infantry, 
also accompanied the detachment. Lexington was twenty- 
five miles distant, and we reached there early in the after- 

Before entering the city we were met by one of its loyal 
citizens, who went along our columns warning us that we 
might l)e hissed and hooted, but admonished us to keep cool 
and not to fire without orders, or without being attacked. 
As we entered the streets, all ages, sizes and conditions 
thronged the sidewalks, assailing us with such vociferations 
as "Hurrah for Jeff Davis!" "Hurrah for Beauregard!" 


"Hurrah for Wigfall!" "You Lincoln hirelings!" "You 
Lincoln dogs !" Mixed with these invectives there was an 
occasional" Hurrah for Abe Lincoln!" but so weakly ex- 
pressed as not to cheer us much. 

By orders, our command went to two large liyery stables, 
put our horses in the stalls ,and a sufficient number of loaves 
of " bakers' bread " was distributed among us to satisfy our 
vicious appetites for the time. We were then formed into 
two lines, with Bramlette and Letcher in the lead, with fixed 
bayonets, marched with rapid step to the depot, vilified on 
all sides by the excited Secession citizens. Arriving at the 
depot we were deployed in front of it in the form of a 
square, and the loading of the arms was commenced. Here 
again we were surrounded by the angry mob. A number of 
Lexington Union " Home Guards " ran a piece of artillery 
down to our succor and formed with us. Horns were sounded 
and bells were rung in different parts of the city. These, 
with the noise around us, made such a pandemonium as was 
calculated to make the hearts of the oldest soldiers quake, 
much less a small body of raw men as we were then. When 
the leading spirits of this raging multitude found that we 
were ordered not to fire without being attacked, they became 
heroes. They would approach within reach of guns, open 
their bosoms and dare us to shoot. Several men cocked their 
guns to shoot, but officers would approach, and in soft voices 
would command not to shoot without an absolute necessity. 

The Author has been in many thrilling scenes since, but 
never has he seen men act with such cool bravery, with such 
subordination to their superior officers, as they did on that 
day. Not a man faltered. After becoming hardened as sol- 
diers, all the officers in the regiment could not have pre- 
vented the men from mowing a lane through that insolent 
crowd, if assailed in the same manner. But our locks are 
becoming silvery now ; the evening shades are coming on our 
lives ; we are silently approaching 

"The undiscovered country from whose bourne 
Xo traveler returns." 

It is pleasing to reflect now, after the lapse of so many 
years, that we hearkened to the voice of humanity instead of 
resentment and passion, and avoided the effusion of so much 


blood which might have followed if we had fired into that 
dense throng. 

It was dusk when all the wagons were loaded and started 
on the road to camp. The excitement had somewhat sub- 
sided when we returned to the livery stables, mounted our 
horses and started out; but still it was ticklish riding 
through the streets in the dark, with hostile parties on each 
side, but fortunately no serious casualty happened. 

We soon learned that the news of our critical situation 
had been dispatched to Camp Dick Robinson ; for we had 
not gone many miles before we met Capt. G. W. Sweeney 
with a detachment of fifty cavalrymen, coming to our aid, 
and on reaching Nicholasville, about midnight, we met a 
strong detachment of Col. Bramlette's regiment also, coming 
to our assistance. A rain also had set in after night, and not 
a dry thread upon us, after putting our horses into lots and 
stalls, hungry and weary, we stowed ourselves in barns and 
outhouses, and soon fell asleep to dream of the fascinating 
life of a soldier. 

After reaching Camp Dick Robinson, Gen. Nelson came 
among us and complimented us highly on our reported be- 
havior at Lexington. This mark of approbation, coming 
from the austere source it did, was fully appreciated by the 
young soldier boys. 

Up to this time, mixed with arduous camp and other 
duties of the soldier, there was much to excite our interest 
and pleasure. Our camp and parade grounds were frequently 
enlivened with loyal visitors, among whom were men of dis- 
tinction. Andrew Johnson made us a formal visit and de- 
livered an address to a large collection of both citizens and 
soldiers. Before arriving, the First Kentucky mounted and 
marched several miles on the Nicholasville pike to meet and 
receive him. On his approach we were halted, opened col- 
umn, and formed in line on each side of the pike facing in- 
ward with " present saber." As he passed slowly in the buggy, 
between the two lines, he saluted every soldier individually. 
Gen. Robert Anderson, commanding Department of the 
Cumberland, visited the camp, appeared before each regiment 
on parade, making a short speech, and on leaving was enthu- 
siastically cheered by the men. On all fair days the loyal 


matrons and maids of the wealthy blue grass region graced 
the camp with their beauty and fine appearance. 

The First Kentucky Cavalry, both during the war and 
since, has often been twitted in newspaper articles and official 
reports for its want of military training and discipline. In 
justice to the regiment, it is necessary to explain why the 
men were not so well drilled as some others. The explana- 
tion can be given in a few words : stern military necessity 
never allowed them the opportunity at the beginning. Two 
first-class drill masters belonged to the regiment — Major F. 
M. Helveti and Lieut.-Colonel John W. Letcher — mentioned 
in the order of their efficiency. For a short time after en- 
tering camp, the men went through their daily drills the 
same as other regiments. The men were apt to learn, ad- 
vanced rapidly, and took much delight in the exercises, par- 
ticularly rapid maneuvers. It is believed by those acquainted 
with the facts, if time had been allowed for the continuance 
of their exercises, it would have been one of the best drilled 
regiments in the service. But notwithstanding the want of 
time for sufficient training, the commands, — " Huddle up," 
" Scatter out," " Git up and git," " Form a line of fight," 
and so on, attributed to Col. Wolford by some in derision, 
and by others as a pleasant burlesque — are rather more fanci- 
ful than true. Though all of the commands of the Colonel 
may not have been given in exact accordance with standard 
military authority, yet the Author never heard such ridicu- 
lous ones given as the foregoing, unless it was done for 
mere fun. 

The First Kentucky, better known throughout the United 
States until the last year of active operations as "Wol- 
ford's Cavalry," was the first Cavalry regiment organ- 
ized on Kentucky soil ; and at that time no other or- 
ganization of that arm of the service was ever in course 
of formation in Central Kentucky. Heavy detachments of 
the Cavalry were daily detailed to guard two important 
bridges across the Dix and Kentucky rivers ; arms, supplies, 
etc., had to be guarded through hostile sections ; the move- 
ments of John C. Breckinridge and others getting out of the 
State, and John H. Morgan getting through with the choice 
Minnie rifles with which his company was armed, and the 


attempts of the Union forces to intercept them ; the send- 
ing to the distance of some sixty miles or more to watch the 
movements of Zollicoffer's forces; the expeditions to Clin- 
ton county, on the border, some 100 miles distant, to oj3p< »se 
the movements of the " Bull Pups " — all these things com- 
bined caused the training to be stopped in its mere infancy, 
and the regiment put to active hard service. 

There were other reasons in aftertimes why the regiment 
did not have an exalted respect for too much " red tape." 
Col. Wolford, though he had experience in a previous war, 
had peculiar notions of his own. He cared but little for 
prescribed forms in maneuvering his men, so he got them in 
shape to suit himself. He believed a soldier's efficiency de- 
pended more on his fighting cpialities than on ability to go 
through fancy maneuvers. He estimated a man not by his 
rank or position, but by his real worth. He respected merit 
though it might be found in the coarsest garb or humblest 
rank. Furthermore, about eight companies— enough to give 
type to the regiment — came from the outlying spurs and 
valleys of the Cumberland Mountains. The habitual free- 
dom of their former lives rendered them more restive under 
too much restrictions than those reared in the more populous 
and wealthier sections of the State. Taking all these things 
into consideration, it is not strange that they should have a 
distaste against military martinets, and in return should 
receive the ill-will of that class. 

While the officers and men were sometimes criticised and 
censured by certain newspaper correspondents and obscure 
Brigadiers, it is consoling to know that if full credit was not 
always given them for their invaluable services, no injustice 
was done them by such large-hearted commanders as Sher- 
man, Thomas, Burnsides, Nelson, Shackelford, Sanders and 
others of that class ; and they were proud to know that they 
sometimes received high commendation from some of these ; 
and that they occupied a warm place in the hearts of the 
loyal people of those sections in which they operated. 

It would be difficult to do full justice to that band of 
patriots composing the First Kentucky Cavalry, Third, 
Fourth and Seventh Kentucky Infantry, the First and Sec- 
ond East Tennessee Infantry and Hewitt's Battery, who as- 


sembled at Camp Dick Robinson early in August, 1861. It 
was the darkest hour of the government's peril. But a short 
time before, the Union forces had met with disastrous defeat 
at Bull Run. The attitude of the Border States was not fully 
determined, though the people of Kentucky had spoken in 
unmistakable voice in favor of the Union, the State govern- 
ment, and most of the State Guard were in the hands of 
Secessionists. Leading men, belonging to distinguished fam- 
ilies, were using every machination to press the State out of 
the Union, as other States had been done. With all the 
powers of eloquence they were trying to seduce the bone and 
sinew of the State into the ranks of the enemy. Without 
protection to the loyal sentiment, the mas3 of young men 
would Boon have succumbed to the insidious snares set 
around them. Before the starting of Camp Dick Robinson, 
the enemy in considerable force had seized Cumberland Gap, 
a stronghold on the State line, menacing Central Kentucky. 
All along the Southern border the Union people were threat- 
ened and assailed. Early in September, Paducah, on the 
Ohio, and Columbus on the Mississippi river, fell into the 
hands of the Confederates. Bowling Green was soon occu- 
pied by Buckner. 

If it had not been for those five devoted regiments at 
Camp Dick Robinson, the strong probability is, that the 
enemy would soon have held a formidable line along the 
Ohio river. Confronted with the solid South, with the vast 
grain and other supplies of the rich agricultural regions of 
Kentucky, Missouri and Tennessee at its back, the fate of 
the Union would have been very doubtful. The saving of 
the State from falling into the hands of the Confederates 
was unquestionably mainly due to the forces at Camp Dick 
Robinson ; and the First Kentucky Cavalry did more than 
its share in contributing to this. While the Infantry regi- 
ments and Artillery were training and equipping for effect- 
ive service in the field, and stood as a reserve or menace 
to disloyalists, Wolford's men were scouting far and near in 
every threatened place, watching and contesting every move- 
ment of the foe, thereby maintaining and upholding the 
loyalty of Kentucky. 




Gen. Nelson Departs — His farewell to the First Ken- 
tucky Cavalry — Gen. Geo. H. Thomas in command- 
Measles in camp — Expedition to Clay's Ferry — Alter- 
cation at Lexington — Zollicoffer's movements — Gal- 

Capture of James B. Clay — Wolford Scouts to Lon- 
don — Camp Wild Cat — Skirmishing — Casualties — 
Scouting to Albany — Bull Pups and Champs Fergu- 
son — Return to Camp Dick Robinson — Gen. Sherman's 
Visit — Organization of the First Brigade. 

About the time the men and officers became accustomed 
to Gen. Nelson's ways, his mission ceased at Camp Dick 
Robinson, and he departed for other fields of operations. 
His mission at this stage of the war was to organize the 
loyal troops in different sections of the State. On leaving, 
the First Kentucky Cavalry was mounted, and escorted him 
two or three miles on his way. When he parted with us, the 
regiment was formed in two lines — one on each side of the 
Lexington pike — facing inwards. The General, in his buggy, 
drove slowly between the lines, stopping, at intervals, to ad- 
dress the men. The author only remembers his concluding 
words delivered in the kindest of tones : " Soldiers, I have 
great confidence in you on the field of battle." Then assum- 
ing his usual austere manner, he delivered his often-repeated 
command: "Men, keep your guns clean." This command, 
delivered on former occasions in his stern manner, generally 
aroused a feeling of resentment ; at the time, coupled as it 
was with the high compliment, it only caused an outburst of 
amusement. It was the first time in all our intercourse with 
the General, that we discovered that he had a heart that beat 
in unison with his fellow beings. His former " cuss words " 
were forgiven and forgotten ; and we returned to camp chas- 
tened and saddened. 

Gen. Geo. H. Thomas arrived, and took command of the 



forces, September 15, 1861. Though he was not as much 
seen as Gen. Nelson, his administration was agreeably felt. 

About this time measles was introduced into camp, and 
many of the men, particularly those from the monntain re- 
gion, were stricken with the disease. The so-called hospitals 
at that time, generally consisting of vacant or out-houses, 
were badly furnished, with no trained nurses, no delicacies, 
and no pleasant surroundings. It is not singular that few 
of the men sent to them with the measles ever recovered. 
Most of the Surgeons belonging to the Volunteer service at 
this time were ignorant of how to conduct them ; and it was 
some time before this branch of the service was improved 
and systematized so as to make the hospital a safe and de- 
sirable place for those stricken with serious complaints. 

Gen. Thomas finding the fatality connected with those 
taken down with the measles, soon commenced the practice 
of giving furloughs to those in easy access of home, or not 
in danger of the inroads of the enemy. The results soon 
showed the wisdom and humanity of this course ; for having 
the comforts of home and the skillful nursing of their fam- 
lies and friends, most of these recovered. 

Not long after the exciting times at Lexington, related in 
the last chapter, it was made known that Captain John H. 
Morgan and other celebrities were making their way to the 
Southern Confederacy with the fine Minnie rifles belonging 
to the State' Guard company of Secession tendencies of that 
city. This was about the 20th of September. Col. Frank 
Wolford, with a detachment of some 300 men, were ordered 
to move to Clay's Ferry, on the Kentucky river, in Madison 
county, to endeavor to intercept them. The route was over 
the rugged hills and narrow valley of Sugar, Back, Paint 
Lick and Silver Creeks. The march was long and fatiguing. 
Nothing worthy of note happened until we were ascending 
a rough road up a small branch of Sugar Creek, when a wo- 
man at an humble house on the road side came to the yard 
fence, and in much distress, inquired of Col. Wolford to know 
whether her husband was along or not ; that she was afraid 
he would get killed. The Colonel responded that he did not 
know whether her husband was along or not, but urged her 
not to be distressed, but gallantly offered, if her husband 


should happen to be slain, that he would come back and 
marry her, as he was a widower at the time. This consoling 
proposition, though it may not have appeased the woman, 
somewhat abashed and silenced her, and the command pro- 
ceeded on the way. It was after night when the command 
passed through the farm of Cassius M. Clay. His son, who, 
by some means had been informed of our approach, met our 
commander, and hospitably invited him to encamp with his 
men on his father's farm, but we reached Foxtown and biv- 
ouacked at that place. This was an insignificant village, but 
was of historic interest as being the scene of a sanguinary 
conflict in 1848, between Cassius M. Clay and Cyrus Turner, 
on the slavery question, which resulted in the severe 
wounding of Clay and the death of Turner. 

The next morning the command moved to Clay's Ferry, 
where it remained until late in the evening, when most of 
the men under Col. Wolford returned to Camp Dick Robin- 
son, marching nearly all night, and part of the next day. 

While at Clay's Ferry, Capt. N. D. Burrus, Company K, 
being thoroughly acquainted with that part of the country, 
was sent with about twenty men to picket the Tate's Creek 
pike and the Silver Creek and Poosey Ridge road. About 
midnight he received orders to proceed with his men by way 
of the Tate's Creek pike, to Lexington, to meet another de- 
tachment of the regiment at that place. He arrived at 10 
a. m., and went into camp. Another detachment under 
Lieut. Dillion had been sent to Frankfort for cannon for 
Hewitt's Battery. 

Bramlette's regiment was at Lexington at this time, and 
some of his officers or men had an altercation with some 
Southern sympathizers, and a few shots were fired. The 
Cavalry were paraded and marched to the scene of the dis- 
turbance, but nothing serious resulted. The two detach- 
ments, after uniting, guarded Hewitt's guns through to Camp 
Dick Robinson, coming into camp dusty and much fatigued. 

Neither the vigilance of Col. Bramlette's troops, at Lex- 
ington, nor the auxiliary movement of Col. Wolford, pre- 
vented Morgan and his men and other noted Southern sym- 
pathizers from escaping from the State. 

The movements of the enemy on the State border soon 


assumed a threatening aspect. Gen. Felix K. ZollicofTer, who 
had been for some time stationed at Cumberland Gap, some 
time in September, struck his tents and made a cautious ad- 
vance in direction of the Union forces at Camp Dick Robin- 
son. A Union Home Guard force of 150 men, under com- 
mand of Dr. R. T. Tuggle, assembled at Barboursville, some 
thirty miles from Cumberland Gap, to intercept his move- 
ments, and defend the loyal people in that part of the State. 
On the approach of the enemy, the Home Guards, who seemed 
on all occasions to have had very valiant hearts but timid 
legs, mostly fled, leaving thirty-five of their number to fight 
the advance of ZollicofTer 's army. These stood their ground, 
firing four or five rounds each, until in danger of being sur- 
rounded, when they fell back, and took to the mountains. 
Understanding the country, they retreated through woods 
and by-ways until out of danger, when they got in the road, 
and in a few days arrived at Camp Dick Robinson, where 
honors were profusely bestowed upon them. This was one 
of the most gallant fights, considering their isolated situa- 
tion and the numbers against them, that took place during 
the war. 

Lieutenant Silas Adams, with a strong detachment, about 
this time was sent on a scout in the direction of the ap- 
proaching enemy to make what discoveries he could of their 
movements, and to intercept Southern sympathizers making 
their way out of the State. After scouting for some distance 
toward Cumberland Gap, he turned toward Big Hill, in Mad- 
ison county, and went into camp. The Hon. James B. Clay, 
a violent Secessionist, and son of the Sage of Ashland, was 
at this time trying to make his way through to the enemy, 
and had reached Madison county on his way. When Capt. 
Boston Dillion joined the regiment with his company, he 
left a remnant of a Home Guard company, of which he was 
Captain, in Madison county, and his sixteen-year old son, 
Win, R. Dillion, assumed command of it. Young Dillion 
had been apprised of Clay's presence in the county and his 
intentions, and had the good luck to come across him. Pre- 
tending to pilot him a safe road around danger, he led him 
into a squad of his own men, who demanded his surrender, 
and he complied. Dillion, with his prisoner, joined Adams' 


detachment, and the party marched for Camp Dick Robin- 
eon. Being brought into camp, under guard, his manners 
were much more civil and subdued than a few weeks before, 
when we paid him a visit at Lexington. Capt. Dillion, with 
a small detachment, took him to Nicholasville and saw him 
put on the cars. He sued out a writ of habeas corpus, gave 
bond, remained at home until Bragg retreated from the 
State in 1862, w r hen he left the State, and afterward went to 
Canada and died. 

The news from the mountains, and the movements of 
Zollicoffer's forces now imperatively demanded attention. 
Col. Wolford, with a strong body of his regiment, was ordered 
as far as prudent on the Cumberland Gap road to watch and 
impede the movements of the enemy. Col. Wolford moved 
beyond Mount Vernon, across the Rock Castle river, and 
ascended a high and commanding position on Rock Castle 
hills, and went into camp. The rugged, wild, dreary scenery 
around him suggested an appropriate name, and he headed 
his first dispatch from that place to Gen. Thomas, " Camp 
Wild Cat," which name it ever afterwards retained. Parti- 
ally fortifying his position, he scouted as far as London, the 
county seat of Laurel county. Near this place they came 
across a camp of 500 Union Home Guards under Col. Geo. 
P. Brown, a prominent loyal citizen of that section. The 
First Kentucky scouts acted in conjunction with the Home 
Guards, until the enemy came in sight in considerable force. 
The hearts of the valiant Home Guards pleaded strongly for 
them to stand their ground and fight, but their legs made 
the counter plea that they were responsible for the safety 
of their bodies, and as usual, overbalanced in weight of argu- 
ment, and took them safely to the mountain recesses. The 
Cavalry scouts, finding the enemy too numerous for them to 
cope with successfully, fell back to a commanding eminence, 
and waiting until they came within range poured a volley 
into the head of the enemy's column, and still contin- 
ued to retreat, stopping frequently at good positions to skir- 
mish, until night came on, when the enemy ceased to ad- 
vance. The First Kentucky scouts now returned to their 
position at Camp Wild Cat. 

Holding his base at Camp Wild Cat, daily scouts were 


sent out for some days, who frequently met and skirmished 
with the enemy. No casualty occurred at this time, only 
Wm. Bailey, of Company B, was wounded in the arm by his 
own men mistaking the squad he was with for the enemy, 
and firing upon them. 

Col. T. T. Garrard, with his Seventh Kentucky Infantry, 
having relieved the First Kentucky Cavalry, Col. Wolford 
returned to Camp Dick Robinson, and Capt. John Smith, of 
Company I, was sent with a detachment detailed from differ- 
ent companies of the regiment, to scout and picket for Col. 

Capt. Smith's small detachment was continually out 
picketing and scouting on the different roads all over that 
part of the country, skirmishing with the enemy almost 
every day. These scouting parties frequently met with mis- 
haps and some very critical adventures, among which may 
be mentioned the fallowing : N. B. Brown, of Company B, had 
his horse shot from under him ; but the most critical adven- 
ture happened to Serg. Jack Bibb, of Company B. While 
closely pursued by the enemy, the Sergeant turned in his 
saddle, and being an expert marksman, fired and killed a 
member of Colonel Ashby's Tennessee regiment, who chanced 
to be in advance. This checked the enemy, and the fallen 
man's riderless horse coming up, Bibb captured him and 
brought him safely out. On the day before the battle of 
Wild Cat, October 20, 1861, as Capt. Smith was on the scout, 
riding in front of his men with James Mariman, of his own 
company on his right, a party of the enemy fired on them 
from ambush, killing Mariman instantly, and badly > 
ing Capt. Smith in the right arm. The party of the enemy 
retreated precipitately. The detachment followed instructions 
to the letter. Their orders were to locate the enemy, and, if 
possible, to avoid an engagement. Capt. Smith was taken 
to a house in the vicinity for a few days, and when the regi- 
ment came up, the men joined their respective companies. 

About the same time, or, perhaps, previous to the scout- 
ing to London, there was much scouting to Clinton county, 
nearly due south of Camp Dick Robinson, on the Tennessee 
border. There was a Rebel organization just across the State 
line, in Tennessee, known as the " Bull Pups," said to be con- 


victs from the Nashville Penitentiary, pardoned on condi- 
tion of enlisting in the Confederate service. There was also 
a band led by Champe Ferguson, who afterward became a 
noted guerrilla chieftain. These desperate bodies of men 
Were making frequent raids and committing depredations on 
the families of Union soldiers and loyal citizens along the 
the border. Company C, under command of Capt. John A. 
Morrison, who understood that country and the situation of 
affairs there, was the principal one used to scout in that sec- 
tion. On one occasion Capt. J. Loton Barnes' company, from 
Hustonville, Capt. Ed. Goode's from Casey, and another one 
from the Rolling Fork, all belonging to the Home Guard 
organizations, went to Albany to succor the distressed Union- 
ists. As Barnes had a good theoretical knowledge of mili- 
tary tactics, he was by common consent, made chief of the 
Home Guard. At the same time a strong detachment from 
different companies of the First Kentucky, under Lieut. 
Silas Adams, was sent to re-enforce Capt. Morrison. No 
serious conflicts with the enemy took place on these first ex- 
peditions. Several wild alarms were raised, which caused 
ludicrous panics among the Home Guards. At one time a 
body of Home Guards was stationed at a place called Slicky 
Ford ; on the approach of Lieut. Anderson's detachment 
scouting in that direction, the Home Guards ,mistaking them 
for the enemy, started to stampede. The Lieutenant mak- 
ing the same mistake, charged them ; but fortunately both 
parties found their error, and no serious damage was done. 
Before leaving Clinton county, it was rumored that the 
Bull Pups were at Travisville, near the State line, in Ten- 
nessee. A scout under command of Capt. John A. Morrison 
went there to see about them. The Bull Pups were not found, 
but they met with a squad of men from Wayne county 
rendezvousing for the Confederate army, and had a sharp 
skirmish with them. A shot from James Ferguson, a brother 
of the notorious Champe Ferguson, killed James Saufley. 
Lieut. Adams' detachment returned to Camp Dick Robinson. 
Capt. Morrison's Company (C) was ordered to Waitsboro, on 
the Cumberland river, near Somerset, to watch a possible 
movement of the enemy in force in that direction ; as it was 
reported that two Confederate regiments were hovering in 


close proximity to the Wayne and Clinton county lines. 

Company C formed a junction with Col. Wm. A. Hos- 
kins' Twelfth Kentucky Infantry regiment, doing scouting 
duties, until it was ordered to join the rest of the regiment, 
which they met at Mt. Vernon, on its return from the battle 
of Camp Wild Cat. 

Brig. Gen. Robert Anderson, finding his health, already 
delicate, unequal to the demands made upon his strength by 
the cares and responsibilities of his position under these 
trying circumstances, asked the War Department to relieve 
him from his command. His request was complied with, and 
on the 7th of October he was relieved by Brig. Gen. Sher- 
man, then in command of a brigade at Lexington. 

Gen. Sherman at once set to work with great energy to 
organize his department, and to prepare the troops for the 
task before them. 

Preceding the next active service of the regiment, Gen. 
Sherman visited Camp Dick Robinson, and inspected the 
forces at that place. The First Kentucky Cavalry were 
mounted and formed in line, and Gen. Sherman, accom- 
panied by Gen. Thomas, rode slowly along in front, being 
introduced as he passed to our company commanders, chat- 
ting jovially, and making pleasant inquiries of the men 
how they and their horses stood the service. We had not yet 
got it out of our heads that a General was not a superior 
being, and some of our replies were awkward and em- 

Early in October, the Fourteenth, Seventeenth, Thirty- 
first and Thirty-eighth regiments of Ohio Infantry, Thirty- 
third Indiana Infantry, and Batteries B and C, First Ohio 
Light Artillery, having arrived and reported for duty, 
were, with the Kentucky and Tennessee troops at Camp Dick 
Robinson, organized into a brigade, and designated the First- 
Brigade, Army of the Cumberland. 



zollicoffer advances on camp wlld cat — col. garrard in 
danger — Gen. Schcepf marches to his support — Wol- 
ford's speech to his men — On to Wild Cat — Before 
the battle — a night on picket — the morning alarm 
— The Union forces take position — The attack — Gal- 

Incidents — Return to Camp Dick Robinson — The mus- 
ter-in. Notes. 

On the 14th of October, 1861, reports were received at 
Camp Dick Robinson that the forces of the enemy under 
Gen. Zollicoffer were on the march to invade Central Ken- 
tucky, endangering the Federal position at Camp Wild Cat. 
The Fourteenth and Seventeenth Ohio, the Thirty-third In- 
diana, and Battery B, First Ohio Artillery, were ordered, un- 
der Brig. Gen. Albin Schcepf, United States Volunteers, to 
re-enforce the Seventh Kentucky Infantry, on out-post duty 
at that place. 

One evening, just before starting to the scene of action, 
Col. Wolford called the men of the First Kentucky around 
him and addressed them in a serious, impressive manner. 
He told them that they would certainly meet the enemy in 
battle in a very few days, and urged them to do nothing that 
would discredit the section that gave them birth. He in- 
formed them that they had volunteered as soldiers of the 
United States Army to defend their country ; that he wanted 
good soldiers — men that would stand the fire of the enemy ; 
that our State was then being invaded by the foe, and he did 
not want a coward in his regiment ; that if there were any 
cowards among them, to step out a few paces in front, and 
he would give them a free discharge, and they could go home 
No one stepped out. 

Early in the afternoon of October 19th, the First Kentucky 
under Col. Wolford, started on the march for Camp Wild Cat, 
with Gen. Schcepf and Maj. Helveti in front of the column. 
The General, a Hungarian by birth, was a fine looking man, 


rather youthful looking for the position, and clean shaven, 
with the exception of a long waxed moustache parted in the 
middle, which gave him, notwithstanding his pleasant man- 
ners, a fierce, warlike appearance. We marched until late in 
the evening, when we stopped, fed our horses, and got our 
suppers. We then mounted and resumed our journey to 
some distance beyond Crab Orchard, when we were halted, 
and bivouacked until broad daylight. A hard day's march 
on the 20th brought us to Rock Castle river, at the base of 
Wild Cat mountain, late in the afternoon. 

We had just fed our horses and eaten our supper, when 
orders came to saddle up, mount, and ascend the mountain. 
Arriving on top of the mountain we hitched our horses 
and had just composed our wearied limbs for the pur- 
pose of repose, when a bareheaded, wild-eyed horseman 
came dashing up, and reported that he belonged to the 
outside picket post; that while he and his comrades were 
feeding their horses, the enemy came upon them by sur- 
prise, and that the rest were either killed, captured, or 
had scattered in the bushes, " and he alone was left to 
tell the tale." This left the main road open in the direc- 
tion of the enemy, with the exception of a company of the 
Seventh Kentucky Infantry posted at the foot of the moun- 
tain. It was necessary that a mounted picket should be in 
front of the Infantry, and it so happened that the Author 
was the first one detailed to fill that pleasant position. 
Seventeen others of different companies were also detailed, 
and all put under command of Lieut. R. C. Blain, of Com- 
pany F. 

Col. The. T. Garrard, of the Seventh Kentucky Infantry, 
gave us orders and instructions. Our orders were to go 500 
yards beyond the Infantry post, and within one hundred 
yards of the lower end of a bottom field. We also had 
orders to send two videttes one hundred yards to the front. 
The main road down the mountain had been blockaded with 
fallen timber, and we were compelled to go around this by a 
very narrow and steep pathway. In one place it was so steep 
that we had to dismount and lead our horses, letting them 
"slide" down. On reaching the designated position, we 
found ourselves in open moonlight, with a dense, dark woods 


in our front. Lieut. Blain, whose valor at that time exceeded 
his knowledge of military affairs, instead of ordering two 
privates in front as videttes, selected himself and the Au- 
thor, who was a Sergeant, and second in command, for this 
post of duty. As soon as we got in position, three guns from 
the enemy, a short distance in our front, were fired at our 
precious bodies. No one outranking us being present to give 
orders, we quietly withdrew to the main body, where we found 
that Corporal Speed left in charge, had formed the men in 
line, ready for action. The Lieutenant now ordered the men 
to dismount, hitch their horses to a fence on the left hand 
side of the road, ascend the mountain a short distance to 
the right, where we concealed ourselves behind some dwarf 
cedars, intending to give the enemy a few murderous volleys 
if they pressed upon our position. Here we could hear the 
enemy talking in low tones. It now occurred to the Author, 
who was older in years than the Lieutenant, though inferior 
in rank, that the chief duties of pickets were to watch the 
enemy and warn the force in their rear of danger, and not 
combat Zollicoffer's army ; that other soldiers wanted their 
share of fun as well as the pickets ; that if they charged and 
defeated us, they would get our horses and we could send no 
dispatches to headquarters, as we were ordered to do, if the 
enemy were in motion. A low, whispered council of war was 
held, and it was decided that our position was untenable ; 
that we would fall back and form a junction with the In- 
fantry company. We quietly mounted our horses and silently 
withdrew. As we came near the Infantry their gunlocks 
clicked so rapidly that we thought it best to notify them 
that we were friends, and not enemies. As we formed in line 
near the Infantry, we espied three of the enemy following 
us at a distance of one hundred yards or more ; but before we 
leveled our guns to fire, they dodged behind trees on the 
roadside, and we saved our ammunition. We remained in 
line ready for action all night, but nothing further occurred. 
At daylight the next morning, the Infantry returned to 
the main body on the mountain, but we became careless 
and some of the men went where the enemy were stationed 
the night before. On their return they reported that the 
enemy had departed, but left signs of a large number there 


the night before. As we had orders to remain only until morn- 
ing, we now climbed the mountain, where we were ordered 
down on the river to feed our horses and get our breakfast. 
We had not more than finished our repast, when orders came 
to remount in haste, that the position of the Union forces 
was attacked. We ascended the mountain as quick as pos- 
sible, and were ordered to hitch our horses in a sheltered 
place a little over the ridge from the approaching enemy. 
Each company commander now formed his men in line, and 
waited for orders. 

Maj. Helveti, who on that day, it seems, acted as Aid for 
Gen. Schoepf, now came forward and informed the officers 
of the regiment, that it was the General's orders that the 
First Kentucky should move to a point on the left wing of 
the position to the support of the Thirty-third Indiana In- 

On approaching the point designated, we met several In- 
dianians bearing one of their dead comrades to the rear. 
The Thirty-third Indiana was already in position on the left, 
with its right extending to the point of the ridge. Company 
A joined the Indianians' right, and the other companies fell 
into their proper places back on the right hand side of the 
ridge — the two regiments forming a line around the point of 
the ridge, resembling a horse-shoe. Although on our way up 
the mountain and to the position assigned to us, every one 
we met told us to hurry on, that they were fighting like h — 11, 
yet up to this time we could only hear a scattering shot now 
and then from the skirmishers below. Looking down a nar- 
row valley below us, the whole bottom field, which our pickets 
had left only a short time before, seemed to be swarming with 
live 'Rebels, on the march to attack our position. The ex- 
pressions of the men's faces were a study. With the excep- 
tion of a few Mexican War veterans, it was their first battle. 
All their faces wore a serious expression. There was a shade 
of dread on all of their countenances, while some showed 
cool determination, others were excited and tremulous. The 
enemy soon formed their lines in the shape of a semi-circle 
around the lower part of the point of the mountain on which 
we stood awaiting their attack. We were ordered to hold 
this point at all hazards, as it was the key of the position. 


As they advanced, their battle shout reverberated through 
the surrounding hills and valleys, which was responded to by 
our own men. Bushes, rocks and trees obstructed our view 
as we stood with loaded guns ready to fire, and watching for 
a glimpse of the enemy, our officers all the time ordering, 
" Don't fire yet ; keep cool ; wait till you see the shine of 
their eyes!" Soon some one exclaimed: "I see 'em!" and 
then we poured into them an irregular volley without orders, 
when the fray commenced in earnest. Soon the ringing voice 
of Adj. Dunham, of the Thirty-third Indiana, at a small 
parapet to our left was heard shouting, " Rally here Indi- 
anians !" The enemy had approached unseen to within thirty 
or forty yards of the parapet. The Indianians rushed to the 
threatened point and poured into the ranks of the advanc- 
ing foe one of the most destructive volleys of the day, which 
caused the enemy to fall back to their main line. The enemy 
now formed in unbroken lines in semi-circular form around 
our entire position on the point, in superior numbers, and 
delivered volley after volley into our ranks. The firing of 
the enemy at this time was hot and heavy. After the tremor 
of the first discharge of guns was over, some of our men ad- 
vanced without orders some thirty or forty feet beyond our 
selected line on the brow of the ridge, and were considerably 
exposed to a front fire from the enemy across the hollow, 
attacking the Seventh Kentucky and Seventeenth Ohio on a 
ridge to our left, and also to a cross-fire from those attack- 
ing our own position. Lieut. Silas Adams, of Company A, 
seeing their exposed situation, took the responsibility upon 
himself, to order them back to the main line. As they re- 
treated up the hill to the main line, the rest of the men at 
this part of the field, not knowing the cause, began to show 
signs of wavering. At this time Adj. Dunham, whose eyes 
seemed to be ever on the alert, imagining himself to be Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the whole forces, appeared again on the 

scene, and in trumpet tones commanded, " you, 

stand your ground if there is a million of them!" Col. 
Wolford and Maj. Brents of the First Kentucky, and Col. 
Coburn, of the Thirty-third Indiana, also came forward, and 
order was immediately restored. The men got back to their 
work with new vigor, and the enemy was soon driven down 


the mountain. Some newspaper correspondent at the time 
claimed that the Kentuckians fled in confusion ; other cor- 
respondents told the truth. The Author has witnessed other 
affairs of the kind in after service, which were never noticed, 
and he considers it was only a slight wavering in the line. 
After diligent inquiry, he could learn of only two of the 
First Kentucky who left the field, and one Indianian, and 
he was a mere boy. There were several different reports how 
the slight confusion got up, but the Author gives the fore- 
going account from Lieut. Adams himself (afterward Col. 
Adams), as the best authenticated. While men of the First 
Kentucky were thus exposed, several casualtins took place. 
Frank Decker, of Company H, was killed, and Isaac White, 
of the same company, was wounded in the knee. James E. 
Woods, of Company A, was so badly wounded that he was 
soon discharged, and Larkin Phelps, of the same company, 
was severely wounded above the knee, and also Serg. Geo. T. 
Wesley slightly ; Andy Bottoms, of Company B, was also 

The position of the First Kentucky Cavalry and the 
Thirty-third Indiana Infantry, seemed to be the principal 
point of attack. After the battle had continued for some 
time, a detachment of the Fourteenth Ohio Infantry re-en- 
forced us, and our men cheered heartily, but the Confeder- 
ates had become crestfallen, and failed to respond. Three 
times during the action they assailed our point, but each 
time with weakening force. 

Several sharp conflicts took place between the Confed- 
erates and the Union force stationed on the main ridge to 
our right. This force consisted of the Seventh Kentucky 
and Seventeenth Ohio Infantry, and distant from our posi- 
tion about 600 yards, and across a deep hollow. 

During the engagement the line officers present were at 
their posts, and nobly attending to their duties. At all times 
Col. Coburn and Adj. Dunham, of the Indianians, and Col. 
Wolford and Maj. Brents made themselves conspicuous, 
giving orders and encouraging the men. Col. Wolford, who 
had been at Buena Vista, and had received his baptism in 
fire, bestowed this high compliment on the men : " Boys, you 
have made a gallant fight." 


Sometime in the afternoon the enemy ceased making 
demonstrations, and it was supposed that they were re-en- 
forcing and preparing for a grand assault. Picks and spades 
were now sent to our point and distributed among the men, 
and we commenced digging in the hard, gravelly ground, and 
throwing up breastworks, so that by 10 o'clock at night our 
position was well fortified. Sentinels were placed upon the 
works, and the men lay down on their arms to take needed 
rest, and to await the anticipated conflict the next day. Nu- 
merous fires blazed in the enemy's camp just before day- 
light, as if they were preparing for breakfast, but this proved 
only a blind to cover their movements. Wheels had been 
heard running in the bottom below us in the night, supposed 
to be their trains bringing forward rations, and re-enforcing 
with artillery. But the enemy had had enough. After wait- 
ing for them some time in the morning, scouts were sent out, 
and it was found that the enemy had retreated. 

We had been twenty-four hours without food or water, 
actively engaged most of the time fighting, watching and 
working, and it might be reasonably supposed that we were 
weary, hungry and thirsty. 

The Union forces on the ground, and in supporting dis- 
tance, according to Gen. Thomas's official report, were 5,000 
men. The following extracts are from Gen. Thomas's re- 

* * * I have just received another dispatch from Gen. 
Schcepf, in which he reports that his scouts had just returned 
and reported the enemy have fully retreated in the direction 
of London. Our loss is ascertained to be four killed and 
eighteen wounded. On examination of the battle-ground, 
I set the enemy's losses down as 30 killed and a large wound- 
ed list — the latter taken by them off the field (as I learn 
from an influential citizen in the vicinity), except three, who 
were brought into our camp and properly cared for; one 
since died. Our wounded are doing well. The three pris- 
oners, all examined by me separately, gave the same state- 
ment relative to the strength of the enemy, viz : 7,000. 

The enemy fought well, approaching within fifty yards of 
our muskets with shouts and cheers, which were promptly 
responded to by our men under the immediate command of 
Colonels Coburn and Wolford. 

* * * * I have just learned from a citizen on the 


route of the retreating enemy that they acknowledge a loss 
of 100 killed. * * * * * * 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

Geo. H. Thomas, 
Brigadier General, U. S. V. 
Brig. Gen. W. T. Sherman, 

Commanding Dep. of Cumberland. 

After the battle, Captains Boston Dillion and F. N. Alex- 
ander, with their companies, were ordered to guard the 
" Winding Blade " road. 

In addition to the casualties heretofore named, Travis 
Moore was killed in a skirmish near Wild Cat, October 18th. 

The day after the battle, Col. Wolford, with his regi- 
ment, went on a scout on another road east of the battle- 
ground, to discover if a flank movement was being made in 
that direction. We saw but few people on the scout. We 
met one woman ; she appeared to be in agony of terror 
for fear we would meet the enemy and a conflict would 
ensue. We approached a house of more pretensious than 
usual in that section, but the doors were shut, and it 
appeared to be lonesome and deserted. After much call- 
ing, an old negro man cautiously showed his face at a 
window, but was so terror-stricken that we could get but 
little information from him. But Zollicoffer was satisfied 
with the " Yankees " for the time ; he had sadly retired, as 
it afterwards proved, " to pick his flint and try again." 

The regiment had been in hard, active service for two 
and a half months, had never drawn full clothing, and only 
three companies had been passably armed for the Cavalry 
service, and had never been mustered into the service. 

The regiment was now ordered back to Camp Dick Rob- 
inson, where, on the 28th of October, 1861, it was mustered 
into the United States service by Gen. Geo. H. Thomas, " for 
three years or during the war." 


The reason the loss was so light in an engagement where powder was 
used so freely, may be accounted for in several ways : the rocks, trees, 
hushes and logs afforded good shelter, and the parties engaged had not as 
yet become expert in the use of fire-arms as they did after the war pro- 
cessed for a time. 

The Author has used much space iu detailing this affair, for the fol- 



lowing reasons : it was the first regular engagement in the State ; it was 
an introduction to what would be in the future ; it was important on ac- 
count of being a Yictory for the Union cause, which was at that time 
shadowed with gloom on account of former reverses, and an exultant 

The exact loss of the enemy is difficult to ascertain. At first it was 
much exaggerated. Some citizens reported twenty wagon loads of dead 
rebels hauled by their houses. The killed was estimated from 300 to 1,100 
men. The official reports of the Confederates claimed from eleven to 
fiftteen as killed on that day. 


Companies E and K with Gen. Schcepf — Wolford moves to 
Somerset — The enemy again — To Monticello and back 
— Bramlette exasperated — March to Columbia — The 
enemy surprised on the cumberland buell in com- 
MAND of the Army of the Ohio — Gloomy condition of 
affairs in Kentucky — Streng-th of the enemy and 
Union forces — The Paymaster — Wolford moves to 
Camp Billy Williams — Letcher to Big Sandy — Webb's 
Cross Roads — Arrival of Gen. Thomas — Wolford on 
the scout — Thomas moves to Logan's Cross Roads — 
Schoepf re-enforces him — The morning alarm. A bat- 
tle IN VIEW. 

After the battle of Wild Cat, Gen. Thomas moved his 
headquarters from Camp Dick Robinson to Crab Orchard, 
detaching Gen. Schcepf with three Infantry regiments to 
London, to watch the road from Cumberland Gap to Central 
Kentucky. After the muster-in of the regiment, two com- 
panies of the First Kentucky Cavalry — E, Capt. Boston Dil- 
lion, and K, Captain Nelson D. Burrus — were also detailed to 
accompany Gen. Schoepf, to scout and do picket duty for his 

In the meantime, Companies A, B, C, D, F, G, H, I, J and 
L were ordered to Somerset and went into camp at Sam 
Owens', between that place and the river, to watch the move- 
ments of the- enemy South of the Cumberland. The Third 



Kentucky Infantry, under Col. Thomas E. Bramlette, was 
also ordered to that place. 

It was reported about this time that a force of the enemy 
was on the Tennessee border, near the Clinton county line. 
The effective men of the First Kentucky Cavalry and the 
Third Kentucky Infantry, started on the march to vanquish 
the Confederates in that section. Col. Bramlette, failing to 
get into the Wild Cat fight, embraced the opportunity with 
eagerness, as it not only promised a chance to try the mettle 
of his splendid regiment, but also to protect the home of 
his widowed mother and the families of the comrades of his 
early youth. The Cavalry reached Monticello, and the In- 
fantry arrived within five miles of that place, when they re- 
ceived mandatory orders from Gen Thomas to return to the 
north side of the Cumberland. Col. Bramlette, though a man 
of high moral qualities and much dignity in his deportment, 
was like an enraged hyena when he arrived at Somerset. On 
having an interview with Gen. Thomas, his wrath was aj> 
peased by that mild-mannered man by informing the Col- 
onel of his private advices in regard to the movements of 
the enemy, and the danger of the two regiments being "gob- 
bled up" by Gen. Zollicoffer's entire force then marching in 
that direction. 

It was about this time that Gen. W. T. Sherman was re- 
lieved at his own request of the command of the Army of the 
Cumberland, when the designation of that army was changed 
to that of the Department and Army of the Ohio. Brig. 
Gen. D. C. Buell, U. S. Volunteers, was assigned to its com- 
mand, and entered upon his duties at Louisville, November 
15, 1861. 

At this time the condition of affairs in Kentucky became 
the subject of the most anxious solicitude to the government 
and throughout the country. One-third of the State was in 
possession of the Rebel forces, under whose protection a pro- 
visional government had been inaugurated at Russellville. 
It was supposed that nothing but extraordinary exertion and 
judicious management could rescue the State from the vor- 
tex toward which the excitement of revolution was rapidly 
carrying her. The presence of a large Rebel force rendered 
the occasion critical. The enemy was in possession of Bow- 


ling Green with a force, according to the best information, of 
about 25,000 men, his advance guard extending to Mumfords- 
ville. Including Hopkinsville and other points north of the 
Cumberland, his force probably amounted to 35,000 men. 
His force at other points, and railroad facilities, enabled him 
at short notice to concentrate at any desired place all the 
force in the Confederacy not required for defense elsewhere. 
He had a force of 2,500 men under Humphrey Marshall 
threatening the northwestern part of Kentucky, and a con- 
siderable force under Zollicoffer, endangering Central Ken- 

Kentucky at this time was the point which offered to the 
enemy the best prospect of advantage. His intention to have 
possession of Louisville within a short period was constantly 
avowed. The disloyal element confidently expected it, and 
if the government force had not been speedily increased, the 
attempt, no doubt, would have been made. 

According to Buell's report, the effective government force 
which he found in Kentucky was 23,000 men on the Cumber- 
land Gap road and the Nashville road, and about 4,000 men 
on the Big Sandy, in the northeast part of the State. But 
there were forty or more regiments, or fractions of regi- 
ments, recruiting in different parts of the State, available 
only for local service. Nearly all of them were not mustered- 
in. Many of them were without arms, equipments, or proper 
organization. The Cavalry were all without suitable arms; 
some had pistols only, and some had muskets. There was 
not a carbine in the hands of troops. The Infantry also 
were badly armed. The troops were but little instructed, and 
some not at all. The supplies and equipments were in many 
cases deficient and defective. The first thing to be done was 
to organize, equip and arm this heterogeneous mass. It was 
a difficult and tedious task, and this was to be done, too, as 
it were, in the face of the enemy. Experienced officers could 
not be obtained. The force already was increased afterward 
from time to time, but, in the mean time, the enemy had 
also received considerable accession to his strength. 

The ten companies under command of Col. Frank Wol- 
ford, with Bramlette's regiment, were ordered to Columbia, 
Ky., arriving there about November 20th. There we found 


the Fifth Kentucky Cavalry, under Coi. D. R. Haggard, in 
course of formation, and also the Ninth Infantry, under 
Col. Grider. 

Zollicoffer, after his repulse at Wild Cat, retired through 
Cumberland Gap, and commenced refilling and re-enforcing 
to make another move on the fertile region of Central Ken- 
tucky by way of Monticello and Somerset. On the 22d of 
November he was at Jamestown, Tenn., on the Cumberland 
mountains. From this place he ordered Col. Stanton's regi- 
ment, Col. Murray's and Lieut. Col. McClellan's Cavalry, to 
make a rapid and stealthy forward movement to capture the 
ferry-boats at four or five crossings of the Cumberland, and 
if practicable, any of the Union Cavalry found on the south 
side of the river. In a day or two, some of this force ap- 
peared before Col. Hoskins' camp, near the Cumberland river, 
south of Somerset ; and on the 27th, Col. Hoskins reported 
the enemy in force at and near Monticello. Col. Hoskins 
took the precaution to have all the boats destroyed for several 
miles above and below him. On the same day, (the 27th) 
Gen. Buell ordered Gen. Thomas to send Gen. Schcepf with 
his brigade, one section of Artillery, and Dillion's and Bur- 
rus's companies of Wolford's Cavalry from Lebanon to Som- 
erset to support Col. Hoskins. This force arrived at Somer- 
set about the 1st of December. 

Zollicoffer, after reconnoitering the banks up and down 
the river, finally fixed on Mill Springs as his base of opera- 
tions on account of its strong natural position, and its mill 
facilities. Two regiments were crossed here on the 27th of 
November, and on the 29th, he arrived and took command 
in person. 

On the 27th, Zollicoffer sent detachments of Cavalry to 
examine the crossings at Grider's Ferry, near Creelsboro, and 
also at Burkesvilie. When the Rebel detachment reached 
Grider's Ferry, intelligence came to Col. Bramlette, at Co- 
lumbia, that the Rebels were preparing to cross at that place. 
When the news came, it was about midnight, and the night 
was dark and very cold. Gridi-r's Ferry was eighteen miles 
distant. Eighty men of the First Kentucky Cavalry, under 
Capt. Sweeney, and 120 of the Fifth Kentucky Cavalry under 
Maj. Owsley, were ordered to saddle and mount, and Col. 


Bramlette assuming command, we were soon on the march 
to meet the enemy. No mishap occurred on the way, with 
the exception that the horse of Dick Peach, of Company A, 
stumbled, throwing him into a deep hole of water in a creek, 
which gave him an unpleasant immersion. On arriving at 
the ferry, about sunrise, it was discovered that the enemy had 
destroyed the ferry-boat, and were quietly cooking and eat- 
ing their morning repast in the house and yard of the ferry- 
man across the bottom, one-half mile distant. The First 
Kentucky with their long range Sharpe's rifles, and the Fifth 
Kentucky with their Enfield rifles, gave them two or three 
irregular volleys, which caused a lively stir among them — 
" hurrying to and fro," and mounting their steeds " in hot 
haste,'' they were soon climbing the bluffy hills bordering 
the river bottom out of range. Citizens afterward reported 
that three of their number were wounded, but it was not 
fully authenticated. 

November 30, 1861, by Special Order No. 16, Depart- 
ment of Ohio, Gen. George H. Thomas was assigned to com- 
mand the First Division, Army of the Ohio, and was ordered 
to concentrate the command at Lebanon, Ky. 

Capt. M. H. Owsley, of Company J, First Kentucky Cav- 
alry, had obtained the position of Major in the Fifth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, and had been acting in that capacity for some 
time. His resignation in the First Kentucky Cavalry took 
effect December 10, 1861. The following promotions took 
place in Company J, their commissions taking effect on that 
day : Jessee M. Carter, promoted from 1st Lieutenant to Cap- 
tain ; Anderson T. Keen, from 1st Sergeant to 1st Lieu- 

While the regiment was at Columbia, the Paymaster came 
and paid off the men for four months' service. The Navy 
pistol was issued to them, and the boys were now pretty well 
armed as Cavalry. They also drew full suits of navy blue, 
which enhanced the looks of the men at least fifty per cent, 
as many of them had been used to the plain homespun garb 
of their mothers' and sisters' manufacture. 

On the 6th of December, Gen. J. T. Boyle, with his com- 
mand, was ordered to Columbia to take command of the 
forces there. About the 10th, Col. Wolford, with Companies 


A, B, C and H, was ordered to Camp Billy Williams, near 
Neetsville, on Green River. On the 15th, six Companies, D, 
T, G, I, J and L, all under command of Lieut. Col. Letcher, 
were ordered to Piketon, Ky., to do Cavalry service for Gen. 
J. A. Garfield's forces then operating in northeastern Ken- 

The four companies under Col. Wolford remained at 
Camp Billy Williams for some days, doing scouting duties, 
and at the same time hauling and penning up corn at Webb's 
Cross Roads, some six or eight miles distant. Lieut. Silas 
Adams, Regimental Quartermaster of the First Kentucky, 
had been ordered to collect a large amount of forage at that 
point. Finally, Wolford's command moved there to guard 
the forage. 

While camped at Webb's Cross Roads, reports came that 
a detachment of one man of Haggard's Cavalry and a few 
men of the First Kentucky had become engaged with the 
enemy at Jamestown, Ky., killing one of the Rebels. A de- 
tachment of Wolford's men was sent there, but the enemy 
had prudently vanished. 

la the meantime, Zollicoffer, with a force of from 9,000 to 
10,000 men, had fortified his position at Beech Grove, on the 
north bank of Cumberland river, and was daily sending out 
predatory excursions of Cavalry, and sometimes Infantry. 
Schoepf's forces at Somerset were in continual conflict with 
them. On the 4th of December, Maj. Helveti, of the First ' 
Kentucky, and Capt. Prince, of the Engineers, while out on 
a reconnaisance, were both captured by the enemy. About 
this time, Gen. Schoepf became much exasperated at Capt. 
Boston Dillion, and censured the two companies of the First 
Kentucky operating under him very severely. From the 
General's own report it seems that he had ordered Capt. Dil- 
lion to go to Mill Springs and go into camp to prevent the 
enemy from crossing. Before reaching them, Dillion found 
that the enemy occupied the position in force, and there was 
an impossibility of obeying the order. He had ordered Col. 
Connell of the Seventeenth Ohio to the same point with his 
regiment, and Schoepf met him on the retreat, yet no cen- 
sure was applied to his conduct. Everything proves that the 
General was unjust to Capt. Dillion. He caused his arrest, 


preferred charges against him for disobedience of orders, and 
caused the Captain much trouble. He at last acknowledged 
that the two companies with him were poorly clad, and 
armed with only a musket, wholly unsuited to that arm of 
the service. 

On December 31st, according to instructions from Depart- 
ment Headquarters, Gen. Thomas marched with parts of two 
brigades of his division to unite with the brigade stationed 
at Somerset, Ky., and attack the enemy in his intrenched 
camp at Mill Springs. Arriving at Webb's Cross Roads on 
the 13th of January, he only paused long enough to recruit 
the exhausted strength of his men and animals, when the 
inarch was resumed. The First Kentucky now scouted con- 
tinually in front and on the various roads leading in 
direction of the enemy until the morning of the 19th of 
January, 1862. 

On the 15th Col. Wolford scouted to Harrison, from there 
to the Wolf Creek road ; then to Logan's Cross Roads ; from 
there, four miles down the Mill Springs road ; then back to 
camp near Simith Cain's. In all this scouting, no pickets or 
scouts of the enemy were seen, and no important news was 
gained of the enemy. But it seems that on the night of the 
14th, that the enemy in force, some three regiments, went on 
a foraging expedition with the wagons to the McLennan Hill, 
one mile from the river, between Forbushr and Wolf Creek. 
On the 15th, the river getting up, they were compelled to re- 
turn by the way of the Robertsport road. This threw them 
within a few miles of our camp. Col. R. L. McCook, of the 
Ninth Ohio, had been informed of this movement by a loyal 
citizen by the name of Foster. He sent a note to Col. Wolford, 
about sundown, requesting him to send a secret scout on the 
road named, to see what discoveries could be made. It was 
supposed that the enemy were not aware of the close prox- 
imity of the, Federal forces, and it was the desire of McCook 
to give them a complete surprise. For fear of alarming the 
enemy, only a few select men under charge of Serg. Geo. R. 
Murphy, of Company A, were sent dismounted through fields 
and woodlands to the point where they would necessarily 
pass. Serg. Murphy reached the road, but the enemy had 
flown. He went to their still burning fires, where they had 


cooked a hasty supper, and moved on. He saw some citizens 
who informed him that the Rebels were applying the lash to 
their jaded teams, and appeared to be in a great hurry to 
get away from that vicinity. It was now too late to inter- 
cept them. A fine opportunity for giving them a complete 
drubbing was missed. 

On the 17th of January, Gen. Thomas reached Logan's 
Cross Roads, about ten miles north of the intrenched camp 
of the enemy, on the banks of the Cumberland river, with a 
portion of the Second and Third Brigades, Kenney's Battery 
of Artillery, and Wolford's four companies of Cavalry. 
The Fourth and Tenth Kentucky Infantry, the Fourteenth 
Ohio Infantry, and the Eighteenth United States Infantry 
being still in the rear, detained by the almost impassable 
condition of the roads, Gen. Thomas determined to halt 
here, await their arrival, and communicate with Gen. Schcepf . 

The Tenth Indiana, the First Kentucky Cavalry, and Ken- 
ney's Battery, took position on the main road leading to the 
enemy's camp. The Ninth Ohio and Second Minnesota 
(part of Col. McCook's Brigade) camped three-fourths of a 
mile to the right of the Robertsport road. Strong pickets 
were thrown out in the direction of the enemy, beyond where 
the Somerset and Mill Springs roads come into the main 
road from camp to Mill Springs, and a picket of Cavalry 
some distance in advance of the Infantry. 

Gen. Schcepf visited Gen. Thomas on the day of the lat- 
ter's arrival, and after consultation, he directed the former 
to send him Standart's Battery, the Twelfth Kentucky In- 
fantry and the First and Second East Tennessee regiments, 
to remain until after the arrival of th" regiments in the rear. 

Nothing of importance occurred until just before day- 
light on the morning of the 18th, when a few shots were 
fired, causing the " long roll " to be beaten by the Tenth In- 
diana drummers, and the camp was alarmed and went into 
line. On investigation it proved to be only a few of the 
enemy that had slipped around the Cavalry pickets and 
fired on the inside Infantry post. We returned to our 
quarters and were not again disturbed until the following 



While the regiment was stationed at Somerset, and afterward at Co- 
lumbia, James Ferguson, of Company C, with six or seven of his chosen 
comrades from the State border, was continually on the scout both on the 
north and south side of the river, and in Wayne and Clinton counties, 
where they understood all about the people and country. Mixing with 
their loyal friends, and concealing themselves at certain places watching 
the movements of the enemy, they gained much information for the 
officers of the Union forces, and had many adventures rind conflicts with 
the Rebels. Ferguson, if he had survived until the close of the war, 
might have won much distinction in his line, but his hostility to all the 
disloyal element was so great, that he soon became a terror to them, and 
he was assasinated by a Rebel citizen near Stanford, Ky., December 18, 


The battle of Mill Springs — The enemy advances — En- 
counter Wolford's pickets — Stubborn resistance — 
The Tenth Indiana to their succor — Heroic death of 
Lieut. Miller — Furious fighting — The death of Zol- 
licoffer — Ammunition nearly exhausted — McCook's 
brigade on the scene — Flank movement of Carter's 
Brigade — The Second Minnesota — Gallant charge of 
the Ninth Ohio — The enemy flee in consternation — 
The pursuit — Shelling their works — Cross the Cum- 
berland and scatter — Honnell's account of Zolli- 
coffer's death — Losses — Scenes, incidents and anec- 
dotes. Notes. 

On the night of the 18th of January, 1862, a strong ad- 
vanced picket of Cavalry, under Serg. Geo. D. Thrasher, of 
Company C, was placed on the Mill Springs road. Danger 
was brewing, and it required select men for the post. Sat- 
urday night passed, and Sunday morning ushered in, gloomy 
and dark and rainy. About the same time as the affair of 
the morning before, the enemy appeared before the Cavalry 
pickets, and being challenged, neglected to halt, and were 
fired upon. The picket, not aware that the enemy was ad- 
vancing in force, offered a determined opposition. As soon 
as the firing was heard in camp, Col. Wolford ordered Lieut. 


Miller with his company to mount his men and re-enforce 
the picket. On reaching the pickets, his men were fired 
upon by a regiment of the enemy in ambush behind a fence. 
Here Russell Smith of Company C, was dangerously, and 
Isaac Cole of the same company, was mortally wounded. 
Cole died that evening. Lieut. Miller and his company then 
fell back two hundred yards, and dismounted his men. By 
this time the Tenth Indiana, under Lieut. Col. Kise, had 
moved up in line of battle, and Company C was ordered to 
form on the left of this regiment, together with the rest of 
the battallion of the First Kentucky under Col. Wolford. 
The line then moved forward some hundred yards or more. 
Company C being on the extreme left, was then thrown, in 
connection with some of the rest of the First Kentucky bat- 
tallion, in a very exposed position, and remained so for some 
time. The battle was now furious. It was seen that the 
Federals would be flanked in that position, and the left was 
ordered to fall back and form its line behind a fence, thus 
forming a right angle with the regiment. At the time that 
the command was ordered to fall back, Lieut. Jonathan P. 
Miller received a mortal wound in the thigh, and crawled on 
his hands and knees to Serg. J. E. Chilton, of his company, 
and reported the serious nature of his wound to him, asking 
to be taken off the field. Serg. Chilton and a member of 
Company H, carried him to a ravine to shield him from the 
bullets of friends as well as foes. The enemy were now so 
near that they were compelled to abandon him, their line 
soon passing over his body. After the battle was over, his 
remains were found untouched, showing that he soon died 
from his wound. 

Col. M. D. Manson, commanding the Second Brigade, after 
directing Lieut. Col. Kise to form the Tenth Indiana imme- 
diately, and ordering Col. S. S. Fry with the First Kentucky 
to his support, reported in person to Gen. Thomas of the 
advance of the enemy in force, and the disposition he had 
made to resist them. Gen. Thomas directed him to join his 
command and hold the enemy in check until he could order 
up the other troops, which were ordered to form immediately, 
and were inarching to the field in ten minutes afterward. 
The battalion of the Michigan Engineers, and Company A, 


Thirty-eighth Ohio (Capt. Greenwood), were ordered to re- 
main as guard to the camp. 

Gen. Thomas now rode forward himself to see the posi- 
tion of the enemy, in order to determine what disposition to 
make of the troops as they arrived on the field. On reach- 
ing this position held by the Fourth Kentucky, Tenth In- 
diana and Wolford's Cavalry, he found the enemy advancing 
through a cornfield, and evidently endeavoring to gain the 
left of the Fourth Kentucky regiment, which was now main- 
taining its position in a most determined manner. The Gen- 
eral now directed one of his Aides to ride back to order up a 
section of Artillery and the Tennessee brigade, under Gen. 
Carter, to advance on the enemy's right, and also sent orders 
for Col. McCook with his two regiments (the Xinth Ohio and 
Second Minnesota), to the support of the Fourth Kentucky, 
Tenth Indiana, and Wolford's Cavalry. 

A section of Kenney's Battery took position to the left 
of the Fourth Kentucky, and opened an effective fire on a 
regiment of Alabamians which were advancing on that regi- 
ment. Soon afterward, the Second Minnesota, Col. H. P. 
Van Cleve arrived, and reporting for instructions, was or- 
dered to take the position of the Tenth Kentucky and Tenth 
Indiana, which regiments were nearly out of ammunition. 
The Xinth Ohio, under the immediate command of Maj. 
Kammerling, came in position on the right of the road at the 
same time. The enemy now opened a most determined and 
galling fire, which was returned by the Union troops in the 
same spirit. The reports of the musketry and rifles now 
commingled into one sound like the terrible roar of the 
winds of a mighty storm, interrupted only by the louder 
thunder of the Artillery. Owing to the dark foggy morn- 
ing, and the thinness of the atmosphere, the smoke of the 
conflict hovered down over the contestants like a pall, as if 
to shroud the bloody carnage. For nearly half an hour this 
fierce storm raged in fury. 

The Twelfth Kentucky (Col. Win. A. Hoskins) and the 
Tennessee brigade now reached the field on the left of the 
Minnesota regiment, and opened fire on the right flank of the 
enemy, when they began to fall back. The Second Minnesota 
kept up a most heavy fire in front, and the Xinth Ohio 


charged with fixed bayonets on the left, turned their flank, 
and drove them from the field in the utmost disorder and 

The regiments formed, refilled their cartridge boxes, and 
the whole force was ordered to advance in pursuit of the 
flying enemy. A few miles from the battlefield, a small 
force of Cavalry was drawn up near the road, but a few shots 
from Standart's Battery dispersed them, and they were seen 
no more until the arrival of the Federals in front of their 

On approaching their works, the division was deployed in 
line of battle, and steadily advanced along the summit of 
the hill at Moulden's. From this point their intrenchments 
were cannonaded by Standart's and Wetmore's batteries, 
until dark. Kenney's Battery was placed in position on 
the extreme left, to guard the ferry to keep them from 

On the following morning, all the forces were put in posi- 
tion, and every preparation made to assault their works. On 
advancing, and meeting with no resistance, the Union forces 
entered their works and found that the enemy had retreated 
during the night, and had abandoned everything, twelve 
pieces of Artillery, a large amount of small arms, one hun- 
dred and fifty-six wagons, one thousand mules and horses, 
a large amount of commissary stores, camp and garrison 
equipage, etc. 

The steam and ferryboats having been destroyed by the 
enemy, it was impossible to cross the river and pursue them ; 
besides, their command was completely demoralized, and re- 
treated with great haste in all directions, making their cap- 
ture in any numbers quite doubtful if pursued. 

The Fourteenth Ohio and Tenth Kentucky having joined 
the force soon after the repulse of the enemy, continued in 
pursuit, although they could not get up in time of the fight 
on account of having been sent on detached service on the 

In time of the battle, while the Fourth Kentucky In- 
fantry, First Kentucky Cavalry and others, were resisting 
the advance of the enemy, Col. Fry was slightly wounded 
and Gen. Zollicoffer fell from a shot said to be from his 


pistol, which contributed, no doubt, to the discomfiture of 
the enemy. 

Gen. Schcepf, with the Seventeenth, Thirty-first and 
Thirty-eighth Ohio, also joined Gen. Thomas on the evening 
of the 19th. 

The First Kentucky, early in the action, by orders from 
Col. Wolford, dismounted and fought as Infantry, continu- 
ing the pursuit with the rest of the forces up to the intrench- 
ments of the enemy. Conspicuous in the midst of danger, 
Col. Wolford was on hand, giving orders and encouraging 
his men. To enhance his martial appearance, he rode the 
frame-work of an ugly roan horse, wore an old red hat, 
home-spun brown jeans coat, and his face had been unde- 
filed by water or razor for some time. 

Col. Wolford, in his report to Gen. Thomas, gives credit 
to the following officers and their men for gallant conduct 
on the field of battle : Capt. Geo. W. Sweeney and Lieut. 
F. M. Wolford, Company A; Lieutenants Geo. W. Drye and 
Stephen H. Coppage, Company B ; Lieut. Jonathan P. Miller 
in command of Company C, who fought well and fell at 
their head ; Capt. F. N. Alexander, Company H, and also to 
Maj. Brents. 

Our gallant Chaplain, Rev. W. H. Honnell, was in front 
in the midst of danger, caring for the wounded, and encour- 
aging the men to deeds of valor. It was said that in the 
fury of the storm, he dismounted and assisted in removing 
the dead body of the Confederate General, Zollicoffer, from 
the road to prevent its being trampled over by the surging 
mass of combatants. 

When the storm had passed and calmness was restored, 
the scene of the conflict was sad to behold. The ground was 
torn up, and for a large space around where the fiery blaze 
was fiercest, the underbrush was peeled white from the many 
deadly missiles. The fence along which the Union line was 
formed was riddled with bullets. The old field through 
which the Confederates advanced was strewn with the dead 
and dying. There were some forms and features of manly 
beauty among them, but the rough cast of features predom- 
inated. The dead lay in all positions. Some lay on their 
backs with features stark and limbs rigidly extended ; some 


were doubled up. There were delicate forms whose beardless 
faces showed tender years. Some had the horrid frowns of 
war still upon their features, others lay in calm repose as if 
they were dreaming of the loved ones at home. One fine- 
looking Confederate lay with features at rest, and the stump 
of a cigar on his bosom. It was a strange time to enjoy the 
luxury of a cigar. The wounded left on the field exhibited 
various dispositions as the Union soldiers went among them 
to remove them to places selected for treatment. Some 
talked pitifully, and were thankful for any kind word spoken 
or any favors shown them, while others were morose, stub- 
born and independent. 

According to official reports the Union loss was as fol- 
lows : Tenth Indiana, ten enlisted men killed ; wounded, three 
commissioned officers and seventy-two men. 

First Kentucky Cavalry : One commissioned officer and 
three men killed ; wounded, nineteen men. 

Fourth Kentucky Infantry : Killed, eight enlisted men ; 
wounded, four commissioned officers and forty-eight men. 

Second Minnesota : Killed, twelve men ; wounded, two- 
commissioned officers and thirty-one men. 

Ninth Ohio : Killed, six men ; wounded, four commis- 
sioned officers and twenty-four men. 

Total: Killed, one commissioned officer and thirty-nine 
men ; wounded, thirteen commissioned officers and 194 men. 

As the First Kentucky had only four companies in the 
fight, its killed in proportion to the number engaged was 
greater than any other regiment except the Second Minne- 
sota, and its wounded greater than any other except the 
Tenth Indiana. 

Gen. Thomas makes the enemy's loss in killed 192, in- 
cluding Gen. Zollicoffer and Lieut. Bailie Peyton. Prisoners, 
eighty-nine, not wounded, and sixty-eight wounded ; a total 
of killed, wounded and prisoners of 349. 

The Confederate General, Crittenden, made his own loss 
at 125 killed, 309 wounded and ninety-nine missing, a total 
of 535. Though Crittenden makes his aggregate list of cas- 
ualties heavier than Gen. Thomas made them, it is not pre- 
sumed that he exaggerated his losses. It was reported, with 
good authority at the time, that many of the enemy in their 


l^anic in getting away from the dreaded Yankees, drowned 
themselves in crossing the Cumberland river. 

The following are the names of the killed of the First 
Kentucky Cavalry : Lieut. Jonathan P. Miller, Privates Isaac 
D. Cole and Michael P. Zachary, of Company C ; Private 
George Duncan, of Company H. 

Wounded as far as known at the time of writing this 
book: Privates, Thomas J. Peyton, badly; Wm. F. Beard, 
badly, and discharged ; Joseph Anderson, badly, and dis- 
charged ; James Haley, slightly, all of Company B. 

Company C : Felix R. Smith, severely ; Arthur Kennedy 
was knocked down by a spent ball, but recovered to his feet 
and remained in action until the fight was over. 

Company H : Joe Sumpter. 

The fate of Thos. J. Peyton, of Company B, was the sad- 
dest of all. Being shot in the neck, and having his spinal 
column injured, he survived for nearly thirty years, an insane 
paralytic, and cut off from all the enjoyments of life. 


As much has been written and said about tbe death of Gen. Zollicoffer, 
and who killed him, the Author deems it expedient to give Chaplain W. H. 
Honuell's version of the affair, and other incidents connected with the 
battle of Mill Springs : 

Zollicoffer's Death. — In the battle of Mill Springs, there were 
other incidents of thrilling interest. The fall of Zollicoffer, the Rebel 
General, was one of these. The darkness of the morning was increased 
by the heavy rain and dense smoke of the battle, so that it became diffi- 
cult to distinguish the battle line. We had fallen back in good order to 
the west fence of Logan's field, leaving the open grounds covered by our 
dead, now being more thickly dotted over by those of the advancing 
enemy. Wolford was riding up and down our front in almost the same 
danger from both sides. Gen. Thomas and Capt. Joseph Breckinridge eat 
on their horses twenty steps only to the rear, with the limbs, cut from the 
trees overhead, falling upon them, when I stepped to their side and shout- 
ed above the roar, " General, the men in your front are nearly out of am- 
munition." "Tell them to hold their line, that McCook is coming up on 
their right." As I had just given the order, I saw a commotion, and ran 
back to see what it meant, when I saw the dead Zollicoffer and Bailey 
Peyton lying by the road, slain by Col. S. S. Fry, and the men just around 
him; among whom were several of the First Kentucky Cavalry, and 1 
noted a young soldier named George W. Cabbell, soon after killed, at the 
battle of Lebanon, Tennessee. Fry having the first shot, and giving the 
command to "shoot him," as he turned to escape, has the honor of being 
the "slayer of Gen. Zollicoffer." I called to others, who aided me in lift- 


ing liis now lifeless body from near the road, back toward the fence line, 
a little eastward. 

As there were three wounds on his body, and only one of them of im- 
mediately deadly effect, and that by a large ball, the belief became gen- 
eral in our regiment that two of them were inflicted by men of the First 
Kentucky Cavalry, the other by Col. Fry, of the Fourth Kentucky In- 

As we buried the dead nest day, I cut a white oak stick from the 
place as a souvenir of the fierce conflict at that point, for I noticed that it 
had five bullet marks and clots of blood upon it. I learned that when he 
approached Fry, he shouted, " Cease bring there, those are the Mississip- 
pians ! " But I believe this was done through mistake, thinking Fry and 
the men around him belonged to his own command. Fry called back, 
"Who are you?" as his own horse fell under him, but not until after the 
Confederate chief had turned to flee. 

By this time Col. McCook, -with the Second Minnesota, and his own 
Ninth Ohio German regiment, with fixed bayonets (though shot in the leg 
himself), came past our line on their left, and with a wild shout, and one 
volley, started their whole army into a stampede. We had brought on the 
battle at morning dawn, and now remounted and helped to hurry the re- 
treat. I assisted in the burial of the dead next day, and most of them 
were placed in a single deep grave, near where their leader had fallen the 
day before. 

We shelled them in their intrenched fortifications that evening, and 
might have taken them as prisoners and fed them up in some Northern 
camp, but as I heard Gen. Thomas say that night — and it was verified after- 
wards — "they did our cause more good by their terror spread over Middle 
and East Tennessee, than all who had been taken in and held as prison- 
ers of war." 

Wolford tells one of his characteristic stories as occurring in our 
gathering up the prisoners. Among them was a Georgia Captain, who 
addressed him in a plaintive strain : 

"Colonel, this is a dreadful business!" 

"Yes," he replied, "and more dreadful to us than to you; for you 
count us as enemies, and we count you only as deluded fellow citizens, 
whom we are compelled to whip back to your allegiance to the best gov- 
ernment on earth." 

"All we want," retorted the Georgian, "is to be let alone." 

• ' It looks that way," continued Wolford, ' ' when you have come all the 
way from Georgia here, and are shooting down my men; many of whom 
are within hearing of their homes." 

The conversation was dropped then. 

Another characteristic anecdote of Wolford, while scouting in the 
mountain region, is told by the people of that section. Naturally, Cav- 
alry, away from their base of operations, and under the necessity to for- 
age the country for supplies for their horses, would gather in every chicken 
that crowed for Jeff Davis. The loyal mountaineers held a meeting and 
sent a delegation to complain to Wolford. After hearing them, the Colonel 
replied : "Those thieving troops must belong to some other regiment, for I 


have ordered my men to he careful to steal nothing from you men ; that you 
are loyal people in this section. Now, my men always mind me; so it must 
he men of some other regiment. To show you how well my men ohey me, 
I will tell you a story of the Wild Cat hattle. As the enemy came up I 
said to my men : 'Men, wait till they come close ; then shoot them in the 
head.' After the terrible tight, the Chaplain went over to bury them, and 
we counted just sixty dead, and fifty-nine were shot in the head, and one 
in the neck. So you see how well my men mind me." The delegation was 

In the death of Lieut. Jonathan P. Miller, not only his company, but 
the regiment lost a man of sterling worth. He was a merchant of Albany, 
Ky., and was a young man of fine moral standing, free from all wild hab- 
its, and conscientious in all his acts and dealings; brave, and highly re- 
spected by the men and officers of the regiment. His men procured a 
coffin and buried him with a soldier's honors near the battle ground. 
Chaplain W. H. Honnell, bespattered with mud from the scene of the con- 
flict, delivered an eloquent eulogy over his remains. 

His father afterward removed his body to his home at Albany. 

Privates Cole, Zachary and Duncan also fought bravely, and gave 
their lives to their country's cause. 

The next morning after the battle, while the Author and one or two 
others were still examining the field they came across a dead Confederate 
and a wounded one in a cornfield off to themselves, where the carnage 
was not so great as at other places. Those collecting the wounded had 
failed to find him. Though shot in the center of the forehead, he was still 
sensible, and gave his name as McBride, from White county, Tennessee. 
He was reported to those caring for the wounded and was removed to a 
hospital tent. The Author saw him again the next day, but he was then de- 
lirious, and, of course, died. Twenty-two years afterward, in Dallas county, 
Texas, the Author happened to mention the circumstance to a fresh immi- 
grant from that county, and found that McBride was a widow's son, and 
that his mother had never known for certain what had become of him. 

In order to bemean the Union cause, it was charged by the Confeder- 
ates that the body of Gen. Zollicoffer was terribly outraged on the battle- 
field, pulling out his hair, etc. The facts of the case are these, and no 
more: some of the privates, out of mere thoughtlessness, not thinking 
how bad it looked, tore his clothes in order to procure souvenirs of the 
noted general; but when it was fully made known to the officers who he 
was, his body was removed from the field, nicely laid out, and a guard 
placed over him. Nobody but the guard was even allowed to uncover his 
face for those who wished to see him. There was a ruffled place in his 
hair on one side of his head, which appeared as if a lock had been plucked 
out, but it did not disfigure his looks. So much for the charge of van- 
dalism against a loyal, patriotic people, who, with the assistance of their 
fellow-patriots of the North, were defending their own firesides from a 
merciless invading foe, who had been for months stripping their defence- 
less families of their scanty means of support. 



Glorious results of the great victory — Wolford moves 
to Camp Rigney — Congratulatory orders of the Pres- 
ident — The movements of Gen. Thomas — Company C on 
leave of absence to Clinton county — Exciting con- 
flict with Champe Ferguson — Ordered to Bardstown 
— Incidents on the route — The author of Cleopatra 
— Sickness — Become acquainted with the Grayback 
— Lieut. Col. Letcher's services on the Big Sandy — 
The regiment united — March to Glasgow. 

The battle of Logan's Cross Roads, erroneously called 
Mill Springs, was one of the most brilliant victories to the 
Union cause, and one of the most important in its results 
that happened during the war. It was its first great victory. 
It revived the drooping spirits of the loyalists throughout 
the United States, and spread consternation in the ranks of 
the heretofore audacious foe. It contradicted the extravagant 
assertions which the leaders of this great conspiracy had 
taken much pains to instill into the minds of their deluded 
and uninformed followers, that one valiant Southerner wa& 
equal to five live Yankees on the field of battle ; for in this 
engagement a force of about 2,200 Unionists had gained a 
signal victory over, according to their own reports, 4,000 
fighting men of the boasted chivalry of the Confederacy. It 
was the forerunner of a series of successful movements and 
brilliant victories of the Union armies which caused the 
enemy not only to abandon Kentucky in force, but also the 
largest portion and most fertile region of Tennessee. 

The news of the victory was received with joy by loyal 
people of all sections. Honors were profusely bestowed on 
the participants. Flags were presented to each regiment en- 
gaged, among which was a beautiful blue silk banner pre- 
sented to the First Kentucky by Mrs. Wilkins, of Louisville, 
Ky. By order of President Lincoln, Commander-in-Chief of 
the Army and Navy, a congratulatory order was issued from 
the War Department, January 22, 1862, returning thanks to 


officers and soldiers who won the victory, commending the 
spirited movements in the daring battle of Mill Springs, and 
that the people of the United States would rejoice to honor 
every officer and soldier who proved his courage in the face 
of the enemy. 

After a short rest from the fatigues of the conflict and 
pursuit, Gen. Thomas moved his Infantry to Somerset to 
complete preparations for again striking the enemy. Feb- 
ruary 15th, it was ordered from Department Headquarters to 
Lebanon, Ky., preparatory to advancing on Bowling Green. 
Whilst en route, it was ordered to march to Louisville, and em- 
bark for the Cumberland River, the enemy having retreated 
from Bowling Green. Embarked at Louisville, February 26th, 
preparatory to operations against Nashville, if necessary. 

Owing to absence of records, deficiencies of diaries and 
imperfections of memories, the exact dates of the movements 
and operations of Wolford's Cavalry about this time cannot 
be given ; therefore, only approximations will be attempted. 

A few days after our fiery baptism, about January 23d, 
the battalion under Col. Wolford was ordered to Camp Rig- 
ney, Casey county, to rest and recover exhausted strength of 
men and animals. Here Company C, with its men and 
officers, had a twenty day's leave of absence to visit their 
homes, some sixty miles distant, and report any movement 
of the enemy in that section, as they appeared to be always 
in an aggressive state in Clinton county. 

At Camp Rigney, Companies A, B and H, had but little 
to do but enjoy themselves for a week or two, the camp being 
situated in an exceedingly loyal part of the country, and 
soldiers were welcomed around every fireside, and feasted on 
the best each house could afford. It was not even necessary 
to make the nocturnal raids on chicken-roosts for luxuries, 
and as forest timber was plentiful around the camp, there 
was no military exigency to " fall and trim up the laps of 
fence rails " for fuel. 

But Company C did not meet with as good fortune as the 
three before-mentioned companies. They were not long per- 
mitted to enjoy the comforts of home and the society of 
their loved ones. The Author is indebted to Lieut. James E. 
Chilton for the following account of their tribulations : 


* * * * After remaining a few days in Camp Rigney, 
the company had leave of absence for twenty days, and at 
once started for their homes in Clinton county, making 
Creelsboro, on the Cumberland, their place of separation, 
and also their point of rendezvous, when their time should 
expire. They left there in squads of four or five each, going 
to Albany, Ky., and other neighborhoods where the men 

Before their leave of absence expired, the men were noti- 
fied that the notorious guerrilla, Champe Ferguson, was com- 
ing to his home, five miles east of Albany. A man was left 
to watch Ferguson's movements, and those men who could 
be reached, were notified to meet between Albany and Creels- 
boro, making the impression on the people, and Ferguson 
also, that we had left the country. This was done to give us 
an opportunity to get enough men together to enable us to 
offer Ferguson battle. We only succeeded in collecting thir- 
teen men ; and after consultation, we decided to go back to 
the neighborhood of Ferguson's home, and learn what we 
could, and wait for developments. We reached the place 
agreed upon just after nightfall, and very soon were notified 
that Ferguson was at home with thirty-seven men, one and a 
half miles distant. After deliberate consultation it was de- 
cided to make an attack with our thirteen men and a true, 
trusted citizen, and our colored watch, who had reported the 
arrival of " Champe," making fifteen in all. When within 
400 yards of the place the men were dismounted, and on ar- 
riving within 150 yards, were divided into two squads, one 
under Lieut. Perkins, and the other under Lieut. Carr ; the 
former stealing their 'way down a creek to cut off their re- 
treat in direction of the Tennessee line, and the latter their 
retreat toward Albany. 

Before our plans were fully carried out, Champe had been 
notified by his pickets of our approach, and was ordering his 
men out to fight. Lieut. Carr had reached his position, and 
one of Champe's men, who was approaching them, was or- 
dered to halt, and the fight began. As soon as Carr's squad 
fired, the squad under Lieut. Perkins also opened fire, and 
the firing was continued until Ferguson's men had all escaped, 
either on foot or on their horses. We then took possession 
of the house, and after searching the premises for Ferguson 
and not finding him, we discovered that one of his men had 
been killed and left on the field, while the wounded had es- 
caped. Private Logan Zachary, of Lieut. Carr's squad, re- 
ceived a flesh wound in the hip. We captured seventeen 
horses and some arms. 

We returned to our place of rendezvous, and after a short 
stay, took up our line of march to Creelsboro, reaching there 


before noon the next day. Our leave of absence having ex- 
pired, we reported back to Camp Rigney. 

Companies A, B, and H, uniting now with Companies E 
and K, which had for several months been doing duty at 
Somerset, were ordered to Lebanon, and from thence to 
Bardstown. As no thrilling incident occurred on the way, 
one or two episodes is here related to illustrate the sharpness 
of most of the men of the regiment, and the impossibility 
of frustrating them in attaining an object when they set 
their heads on its performance. 

The names of the principal actors are suppressed, for the 
reason that one has become a popular physician, another a 
pillar of the church in another State, and one brave boy soon 
afterward passed to the other shore. 

One day — it was between Lebanon and Bardstown — Maj. 
J. A. Brents, a strictly moral man, and one always desirous 
of keeping good order among the men, happened to be in 
temporary command of the marching column. Chris, and 
Alec, two thirsty souls, had been following in the rear nearly 
all day, vainly endeavoring to get the means to satiate their 
keenly whetted appetites ; the Major having forbidden the 
proprietors of the doggeries on the mad f rom dealing the 
fiery fluid to his men, under threats of the severest penalties. 
Late in the evening, finding out there was a saloon ahead 
Alec remained in the background, while Chris, being a fine- 
looking specimen of the biped species of animated nature, 
buttoned up his new Cavalry overcoat to hide the private's 
uniform underneath, with an officer's fine cap on his head, 
covered with oil-cloth to conceal the absent insignia of rank 
he rode up, dismounted, and gave peremptory orders to the 
barkeeper not to let his men have any liquor under pain of 
having his liquor poured out. The proprietor meekly replied 
that the officer in front had given him similar orders. " 0, 
well," said Chris., " if Maj. Brents has already given you these 
orders, it is all right." At that time Alec entered, apparently 
just recovering from a big spree, and in pleading tones ad- 
dressed the pretended officer : " Colonel, please give me an or- 
der for some whisky, for I am almost dead." " Go to your com- 
mand immediately," sternly replied Chris., " or I will have vou 


bucked and gagged. You are drunk now." Alec wilted and 
started in haste toward camp. Chris, now presented his can- 
teen and ordered it to be rilled, which was done without a 
word. It is needless to state, that after Alec got out of sight 
of the doggery, he waited for his companion to come up. 
This trick, with some variations, was often played by the 
thirsty ones. 

That evening camp was pitched in a wealthy community. 
All applications of the men to purchase chickens from the 
surrounding farmers were fruitless. The men were no longer 
among the mountain spurs where the bulk of the regiment 
was raised, and where nearly everybody were loyal and 
welcomed the soldiers in every household. But many of the 
First Kentucky feasted on chicken that night. The next 
morning, feathers in profusion were strewn over the camp 
ground. Complaints were made to Col. Wolford. The Col- 
onel, who detested thievery of all kinds, except in cases of 
actual necessity, called the men into line and told them of the 
outrage on the citizens, bemeaning the guilty with. the most 
severe denunciations, threatening to have them " courtmar- 
tialed, and, perhaps shot," if they did so any more. At the 
close of his vilifications he calmed down, and proposed that 
if the guilty ones would step out of ranks and "own up," 
and pay for the chickens, they would be forgiven for that 
time. All hesitated until Dick , a frolicsome, freckled- 
faced youth, of some eighteen summers, stepped out, and 
was soon followed by others. That was the last heard of the 
stolen chickens. 

On arriving at Bardstown, we found Gen. W. H. Lytle, 
the gifted and accomplished author of " Cleopatra," or " I 
Am Dying, Egypt Dying," in command of the post. The 
regiment was ordered into camp on the filthy grounds which 
just before had been occupied by the infantry of the Army 
of the Ohio. 

In this camp we were also introduced to that species of 
the genus of a parasitic insect, popularly known among 
soldiers by the name of the " grayback," which were destined 
to adhere to us with the most unyielding tenacity through- 
out the war, and then were loth to leave us when peace was 
proclaimed. We had heard of them — had read of them in 


romance and history — but were unaware of their many 
clinging virtues until brought in contact with them. They 
made their presence known on the march, around the camp- 
fire, and more especially when we folded our weary limbs for 
sleep or repose. They were lively companions, and feasted, 
gamboled and held mass-meetings on our devoted bodies at 
all times. They were purely democratic in principles [the 
Author does not mean in a partisan sense], as they believed 
in ruling by the masses. In their religious practices they 
were inclined to Quakerism ; for they operated when the 
spirit moved them, and had no respect for titles or rank. 
They would feast and have their frolics on the Commanding 
General's body the same as on the humblest private. The 
•only abhorrence they showed against anything was cleanli- 
ness. Every one could have partial immunity from them by 
frequent changes of clothing. 

They soon caused us to lose our popularity around the 
firesides of many of the loyal citizens. The fastidious 
females seemed to have had a perfect horror of them, and 
objected to give us lodging sometimes for fear of having 
them introduced into their households. From the rapidity 
in which they multiplied, although they did not acquaint us 
with the social laws, they must have practiced Mormonism. 
Whenever they became so numerous that we would be in 
danger of being eaten up by them, we could have a short 
respite by scalding them to death in our camp kittles ; or in 
•cold weather we could hang our clothes on top of our tents 
and freeze them in one night. 

While camped at Bardstown, there was considerable sick- 
ness in the regiment, and some died. It might have been 
caused by the particular condition of the weather at the 
time, or more probably by the decaying matter left on the 
grounds by the Infantry. The Post Surgeon, the ranking 
officer in that branch of the service, visited and inspected 
the men's quarters, and issued strict orders for the men to 
strip and bathe once a week. The most of us went to a re- 
tired woodland, built large fires, heated water and performed 
our ablutions by the fire. Richard Peach, however, a brave 
young soldier of Company A, stripped of his clothes and 
plunged into a creek, was taken with brain fever and only 


lived a few days. This was about the last of February, or 
early in March, 1862. If the men had been properly situated, 
with suitable bathing apparatus, it might have been sensible 
to issue such orders ; but quartered as they were at the time, 
in dilapidated tents, and exposed to the chilly winds then 
prevailing, the propriety of requiring them to bathe all over 
was at least questionable. With all the rapid scouting, severe 
marching and hard service of the First Kentucky, if its men 
had been exposed to strict military discipline and red tape 
all the time, it is probable that its mortality would have 
been much greater than it was. 

While the command remained at Bardstown, there was a 
board of military examiners in session, and some of our officers 
were ordered before it to test their qualifications for the posi- 
tion they held. A few were examined, and most of them 
were mustered out. That the government was just in its ac- 
tion here, admits of some doubts. Calling men from all 
avocations of life, without previous knowledge of military 
affairs, and putting them to active service from the start, 
and then requiring them to go through rigid examinations 
on military tactics, and their various duties, and for being 
unable to stand the severe ordeal, was harsh at least. But 
fortunately for most of our officers, we were not permitted 
to remain idle long enough for the examination to be com- 
pleted. The regiment was ordered to Glasgow, Ky. 

It is now necessary to return to Lieut. Col. Letcher's de- 
tachment of six companies of the First Kentucky ordered to 
Northeastern Kentucky on the 15th of December, 1861. to 
do Cavalry service for Col. J. A. Garfield's brigade, then 
operating against the enemy in that section. The Author is 
indebted to Lieut. Warren Launne, and also to Lieut. Gran- 
ville Vaught for an account of their movements while absent. 
Garfield's force consisted of the Fortieth and Forty-second 
Ohio Infantry, the Fourteenth and Twenty-second Ken- 
tucky Infantry, and a battalion of the First Ohio Cavalry. 
Letcher's detachment marched by the way of Lexington, 
Winchester, Mt. Sterling and West Liberty to Paintsville, in 
Johnson county, arriving there on the 8th of January, 1862. 
No incident worthy of note happened on the march. On the 
9th it was ordered to Prestonburg. That night the First Ohio 


battalion had a skirmish on Jennie's Creek, in Johnson 
county. The next day, the 10th, the First Kentucky was or- 
dered to the front, ten miles from Paintsville, where Gar- 
field's forces were in a hot engagement with Humphrey Mar- 
shall's command. As they moved to the position they saw 
the men killed the night before still lying on the field. The 
First Kentucky did not reach the field in time to engage in 
the action, for the enemy retired as the men were formed 
into line. 

Letcher was then ordered back two or three miles and 
went into camp. The next day the First Kentucky was or- 
dered in pursuit of the retreating enemy and captured a 
number of prisoners, as they showed no fight. They were 
mostly Union men, and joined the Federal army on condi- 
tion that they were not to be put on outpost duty in that 
section for fear of being captured by their late comrades on 
the opposite side. They were a motley body of men, dressed 
in variegated fashions, with " bee-gum " hats, homespun 
" pigeon-tail " coats, red sleeve jackets and hunting shirts. 
Their arms also belonged to the primitive style — being flint- 
lock muskets, old field rifles, etc. 

Col. Garfield had our own men as well as the Confederates 
buried decently in coffins. He had the enemy's wounded 
also w^ell taken care of, sending them to the hospital in Cin- 
cinnati. Capt. George Coppage, Company D, accompanied 
them on the boat. 

Col. Letcher's detachment then had considerable scouting 
to do to Piketon, Pound Gap. West Liberty, and through the 
mountains generally, occasionally picking up a guerrilla, but 
had no serious engagements. 

February 1st, was ordered back to West Liberty, where 
the command remained enjoying themselves in camp sports 
during a temporary cessation of hostilities in that section. 
In March were ordered to Owingsville, in Bath county, where 
some scouting was done, catching guerrillas and renegades 
aiming to join the enemy. During all this time Dr. Turner 
was with the command acting as Surgnon. 

The detachment was then ordered directly to Bardstown, 
by way of Lexington, to join the rest of the regiment. The 
entire regiment was now united after a separation of about 


three months, and proceeded to Glasgow, where they remain- 
ed several weeks on duty. 


Off for Dixie — Letcher moves with the train to Nash- 

goes on an exciting expedition hospitable recepion 

in Clinton county — Advance on the guerrilla's 

stronghold the charge into livingston — captures 

— The midnight ride — On to Cooksville — A thrilling 

TAIN escapes — Dr. J. E. Riffe, John Groom and others 
— March to Nashville — Incidents and adventures on 
the way — Respect to the hero of New Orleans — The 
regiment united. 

While the First Kentucky Cavalry was guarding the 
left flank and rear of the Union forces, the main army was 
having many successes and several brilliant victories in the 
Mississippi Valley. Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, 
was captured by the Union forces on the 6th of February. 
Gen. Grant marched immediately from Fort Henry to Fort 
Donelson, on the Cumberland, and laid siege to the strong- 
hold on the 12th of February. On the 16th, after the Con- 
federate Generals, Floyd and Pillow had escaped with an in- 
considerable force, Gen. Buckner surrendered to Grant with 
the remainder of the Rebel force, consisting of from 12,000 
to 15,000 men. Simultaneously with the siege of Fort Don- 
elson, the enemy evacuated Bowling Green, Ky., on the 14th, 
and on the 15th that place was occupied by the Union troops. 
On the 23d the enemy evacuated Nashville, Tennessee, and 
on the 25th the Union troops took possession of the city. 

Soon after, the regiment went into camp at Glasgow, 
news came that three men were killed by the enemy near 
Tompkinsville, Ky. Wo 1 ford, with a heavy detachment, 
scouted there, and as far as Celina, Tennessee, on the Cum- 
berland River, but had no fighting to do, as the enemy re- 
treated from the opposite side of the river, when Wolford's 


men came in sight. Wolford, after finding out all he could 
about the enemy, returned to camp at Glasgow. 

The regiment was soon ordered to Nashville, Tennessee. 
Wolford, with a strong detachment of select, men and horses, 
and most of the line officers, went by way of Burkesville 
and Albany, Ky., and Livingston, Cooks ville and Lebanon, 
Tennessee. This expedition was for the most of the way 
through a section where the bitter blood between the loyal- 
ists and Secessionists was continually kept at boiling heat, 
and its object in addition to making discoveries of the 
-enemy's movements, was to chastise the murderous guerrilla 
bands who at all times were depredating on the Union people 
and the families of Federal soldiers. Wolford will be left 
now to make his eventful scout, and a return will be made 
to rest of the regiment. 

The regimental wagon train, some of the line officers, the 
unservicable men and horses generally, under command of 
Lieut. Col. John W. Letcher, marched by way of Bowling 
Green and Franklin, Ky., to Nashville, Tennessee, arriving 
there about the 20th of April, and encamped on the beauti- 
ful commons in the outer suburbs of the city. 

All nature had put on her fancy spring robes, and the 
surrounding country looked lovely and enchanting. Though 
smiling, joyous nature seemed to woo us among its fascinat- 
ing scenery, we found no observable welcome among the cit- 
izens. The business men remaining, unless they were new- 
comers from the North, treated us with freezing politeness ; 
the pretty maids were shy, and occasionally showed disdain 
in a quiet way. Even the children intimated by their ac- 
tions that they were taught to despise us. The only com- 
fortable expression the Author remembers hearing, was while 
passing along the streets in company of several comrades, a 
little tow-headed, freckled-face urchin greeting them with 
" Hurrah for the Lincolnites ! " There may have been some 
Union sentiment in the city, but it was concealed from pub- 
lic view. 

While camped at Nashville, a loyal citizen from the coun- 
try reported to headquarters the practicability of capturing 
a guerrilla chieftain. Lieut. Col. Letcher called on Serg. 
Thomas J. Graves, of Company I, with ten picked men from 


different companies, to go on the hazardous expedition, hav- 
ing the citizen along as guide. They went seventeen miles 
into the country, and within one mile of a guerrilla encamp- 
ment ; surrounded the house where the chieftain was sup- 
posed to be lodged, but he was gone. On returning to camp, 
the guide, with fifteen or twenty other loyal citizens, who 
had been hiding out for two or three months, accompanied 
Serg. Graves, organized a company, with the citizen guide as 
Captain, which formed the nucleus of a Tennessee Cavalry 
regiment. They were a noble, brave set of men. 

But to return to Wolford's venturesome expedition. From 
the beginning of the war, Champe Ferguson and other lead- 
ers, with their depredating bands, had infested the State 
border on the line of Wayne and Clinton counties, causing 
terror and desolation to the loyal citizens and families of 
Union soldiers in that section. It was the object of Col. 
Wolford's force, as before stated, to break up these bands, 
and, if possible, to capture or destroy their leaders. 

For particulars of the incidents and adventures of this 
remarkable expedition, the Author compiles from the writ- 
ten accounts and verbal statements of Lieut. James E. Chil- 
ton, Private Henry C. Gillespie, Rev. W. H. Honnell, Adj. 
Geo. W. Drye and others. 

The command, consisting of some 300 or 400 men, were 
to subsist on the country through which they passed. It was 
early in April, 1862, when they started, and, crossing the 
Cumberland at Burkesville, proceeded at once to Albany, 
where they remained some three or four days. While at Al- 
bany the loyal citizens cooked and brought in provisions and 
supplied all the needs of the soldiers as far as they were 
able. At this place, too, all the information possible was 
gained of the location and movements of the enemy: plans 
were formed and concert of action were agreed upon. The 
command then started on a rapid march to Livingston, 
crossing the Wolf in a high and dangerous stage, passing 
through a rough country by way of old Monroe, reached the 
town about sundown the first day. Before arriving there, 
Col. Wolford learned that the enemy were camped in the 
country, and had sent pickets to town to prevent a surprise, 
while the rest of the men went to their homes to stav all 


night. Their pickets were approached and captured, and 
then Wolford and his men made a dashing charge into town, 
capturing Lieut. Goldbear and some twenty or thirty of his 
men. Capt. Alexander Smith, of Company I, followed seven 
of his men into a dark cellar, where they retreated, in order 
to conceal themselves, and brought them out prisoners. 
Guards were now placed around the town to prevent the 
news from being conveyed to the enemy of the presence 
of the Union forces. A heavy rain set in about the time 
the command entered Livingston and continued all night. 
About dark, a select number of Wolford's men were or- 
dered into line to move for the camp of Ferguson, reported 
to be about four miles away. Gillespie, one of the number, 
says that how they ever found the place he could not tell, 
" for the earth was clothed with a mantle of Egyptian dark- 
ness, but a lynx-eyed guide " led them direct to the point, 
and they soon had the camp surrounded, but found it de- 
serted. Wolford's men then made their way back to Liv- 
ingston, took possession of the courthouse and other build- 
ings, lay down in their wet clothes, and rested the best they 
could until day. The roads were very muddy from the rain 
the night before, so that when the command moved out at 
daybreak the next morning, there was no difficulty in seeing 
the tracks of any one traveling the road, and it was owing 
to this fact that a good many of the enemy were trailed up 
and captured in the early part of the day. They ran upon 
an old Rebel doctor who had the name of " Jeff Davis " 
worked in showy letters on the brow-band of his bridle. 
When realizing whose hands he had fallen into, he showed 
the greatest of fright. They captured a number of Rebels 
still remaining at home from the effects of thSir scare at 
Mill Springs, so that by noon they had a considerable num- 
ber of prisoners. As they continued on the road to Cooks- 
ville, whenever they discovered any tracks leaving the road, 
squads would follow the trail until lost, or the ones making 
them were captured. In this way, in the afternoon, the com- 
mand had become considerably scattered. H. C. Gillespie 
and some others happened to be in front, had halted, wait- 
ing for the command to close up, and were consulting, when 
two men rode up dressed in blue, whom they took to be their 


own men. While talking with them, Dr. J. C. Rifle, Adj. 
Geo. W. Drye, Serg. Maj. Feland, P. Bland, David T. Cloyd, 
of Company J, and some of Company C, came in sight, when 
the two started to move off. John Groom, of Company C. 
called out, " Catch them or shoot them ! it is Champe Fer- 
guson." Then exclaiming, " Champe, I know you," leveled 
his gun, and pulled the trigger, but the gun missed fire. One 
of the men, who proved to be Ike Smith, a right-hand man 
of Ferguson, surrendered ; but Ferguson made back toward 
Cooksville with lightning speed. Several shots were fired at 
him, but failing to bring him down, he was pursued. One of 
the most exciting races in the war was now gotten up. Dr. 
J. C. Riffe, David T. Cloyd and Serg. W. C. Root, being 
mounted on the fleetest horses, led in the chase. Ferguson 
was so hotly pursued that he had no time to defend himself 
only by firing over his shoulders, and one of these shots un- 
fortunately struck Cloyd's horse, disabling him so that he 
was thrown out of the race. Dr. Riffe, however, was so eager 
for his prey, that he and others continued on. So fast was 
the Doctor's horse, that part of the way, as he emptied his- 
pistol, its muzzle was nearly touching his intended victim's 
side ; and his aim being destroyed by the motions of the horses. 
Ferguson watching his opportunity, jumped from his horse, 
took to the bushes and made his escape. One of his shots 
is said to have taken off Rifle's shoulder-straps. Ferguson's, 
horse, gun and hat fell into the hands of his pursuers. 

When Smith was captured, Adj. Drye, Serg. Maj. Bland 
and some others halted to protect the life of the prisoner, as 
Groom being a citizen of the section in which Ferguson's 
band operated, was very hostile against him. Gillespie re- 
lates : " On our return from the chase, we found some of the 
men were preparing to hang Ike Smith for the cowardly 
manner in which he had assisted in killing some comrades 
while at home on furlough. Col. Wolford interfered, and 
said it would not do, no matter how deserving he was of such 
a fate." 

The command now moved on, and encamped that night 
about ten miles west of Livingston, and the next morning 
started for Nashville, reaching Gainsboro that night. Bled- 
soe's and Hughs' Confederate Cavalry, having heard of the 


approach of Wolford, vacated the town that evening. The 
Union pickets were fired on that night, and though an attack 
was anticipated the next morning, none was made. The 
reputation of Wolford's daring riders had gone before thorn, 
and the Confederate bands were not anxious for an open 
conflict with them. The next morning the command struck 
a good turnpike road, and marched all day without incident, 
and went into camp on the Caney Fork of Cumberland. It 
was here that Lieut. Goldbear, while in custody of Lieut. 
Dick, effected his escape with his fine black mare. The next 
day the First Kentucky passed through Lebanon, and as they 
came to the Hermitage, visited the tomb of the old hero, 
Gen. Jackson, and paid their respects to his memory with 
uncovered heads. 

Before closing the account of this extended expedition, it 
is necessary to relate another thrilling incident, as detailed 
to the Author by Judge W. G. Rains, of Company C. As 
they were approaching the city of Nashville, Capt. Jessee M. 
Carter, of Company J, and W. G. Rains, being well ac- 
quainted with each other in their youthful days, by mutual 
agreement concluded to call at a prominent citizen's house 
for their dinner. Not anticipating any danger so near our 
lines, Rains carelessly set his Sharpe's rifle against the wall 
while preparations were being made for their dinners. A 
handsome daughter of the citizen took up the gun, remark- 
ing that she had always desired to shoot one Yankee, and 
presented it at Capt. Carter. Rains knowing that the gun 
was loaded, and not liking the expression of her counte- 
nance, presented his Navy in close proximity to her body, 
saying that he hadn't enlisted as a soldier to shoot females 
but if she didn't set the gun back he would kill her. It was 
said that Capt. Carter, though one of the bravest of men, 
paled at her peculiar expression, and always claimed that his 
companion saved his life. 

The command entered Nashville after dark, some bush- 
whacker firing into their ranks within two miles of the city, 
and wounding a horse in the shoulder. The prisoners were 
turned over the next day to the proper authorities. If the 
guerrilla bands had not been thoroughly broken up, they 


had been demoralized for the time, chastised, and were con- 
siderably frightened. 

The regiment was once more united in the suburbs of the 
capital city of Tennessee, situated on the banks of the Cum- 
berland River, several hundred miles below the scenes of the 
regiment's early operations in the service. A few days rest, 
and visiting and examining that magnificent piece of archi- 
tecture, the State Capitol building, and other places of in- 
terest, and the regiment is again mounted speeding after the 
enemy to engage in another bloody conflict. Its first march 
was through a beautiful fertile country to Murfreesboro, 
thirty miles southeast of Nashville. Col. W. W. Duffield, of 
the Ninth Michigan Infantry, was in command of the post 
at that place. 

Killed at Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862. 



Morgan on a raid — The First Kentucky and other troops 

in hot pursuit overtake him at lebanon adams 

leads the forlorn hope the gallant charge through 

fire and smoke desperate fighting carter, drye, 

Sweeney, Dillon, Morrison, Wolford, Fishback and 

others distinguish themselves chaplain honnell 

captured, and col. wolford dangerously wounded and 

a prisoner capt. carter's heroic and exciting chase 

honnell's escape wolford's re-capture total 

rout of the enemy thrilling scenes and incidents 

— The gallant dead — Enemy's losses and other notes 
— Dumont's and Duffield's commendations. 

Half a league, half a league, 
Half u league onward, 
All in the valley of Death 
Rode the six hundred. 

"Forward, the Light Brigade ! 
Charge for the Rehs ! " he said : 
Into the valley of Death 
Rode the six hundred. 

" Forward, the Light Brigade ! " 
Was there a man dismay'd? 

Theirs not to make reply, 
Theirs not the reason why, 
Theirs but to do and die, 
Into the valley of Death 
Rode the six hundred. 

Fire-arms to the right of them, 
Fire-arms to the left of them, 
Fire-arms in front of them, 

Volley'd and thunder'd ; 
Thickly the missiles fell, 
Boldly they rode and well, 
Into the jaws of Death, 
Into the mouth of Hell 

Rode the six hundred. 


Plunged in the blaze and smoke 
Eight thro' the line they broke 
Eanks of the enemy. 
Reel'd from the heavy stroke 

Shatter'd and sunder'd. 
Then they rode back, but 

Not the sis hundred. 

While horse and rider fell, 
They that had fought so well, 
Came thro' the jaws of Death 
Back from the mouth of Hell, 
All that was left of them, 
Left of six hundred. 

When can their glory fade ? 
O the wild charge they made ! 

All the world wonder'd. 
Honor the charge they made ! 
Honor the Light Brigade, 

Noble six hundred ! 

— Extracts from, and Parody on Tennyson. 

On reaching Murfreesboro, the startling news was received 
that the noted Confederate, John H. Morgan, who had in a 
few months acquired much notoriety, was on one of his 
famous raids on the Federal communications. He had cap- 
tured one of Gen. Mitchell's wagon trains at Pulaski, and 
Col. Duffield, with a force, had gone to intercept him. This 
was on the 3d of May. On the 4th of May, Wolford, with 
his regiment, and Maj. Givens' battalion of the Seventh Penn- 
sylvania Cavalry, were ordered in pursuit. It was the first 
time the regiment was ever offered an opportunity to mea- 
sure lances with the noted raider, and both officers and men 
were excited and eager to see what would happen. After 
proceeding to the point where Morgan had crossed the rail- 
road, it was found that his trail led toward Lebanon, the 
county seat of Wilson county. Lieut. Silas Adams, Com- 
pany A, with sixty or seventy choice men, selected from dif- 
ferent companies, was put in the advance. Sometime during 
the day the pursuing forces were joined by Maj. Wynkoop's 
battalion of Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, and a detach- 
ment of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry under Col. Green Clay 


Smith. Wolford was very strict that day, and allowed no 
straggling. The pursuit was kept up until 1 or 2 p. m., when 
the Colonel received a dispatch that Murfreesboro was threat- 
ened, and immediately turned and marched back toward that 
place. When we halted, Lieut. Adams reported that he was 
in sight of Morgan's rear guard. 

Late in the evening, when within a few miles of Mur- 
freesboro, we met Gen. Dumont and Col. Duffield, and we 
were again ordered to about face, Gen. Dumont claiming 
that he had reliable information that preparations had been 
made for giving quarters to Morgan's forces by the citizens 
of Lebanon that night. The men of Wolford's command 
had now been in the saddle from early that morning, but 
few of them leaving the ranks even for a drink of water, and 
were consequently wearied and hungry, when we arrived 
within four miles of Lebanon about 1 or 2 a. m., on the 
morning of the 5th of May. Dismounting on the roadside, 
and holding our horses by the bridle, we lay down to take a 
short rest, and waited for the approach of day. 

Just before daylight, the command was aroused, and or- 
ders were given. The First Kentucky was to charge on the 
main street, through the center of the town, with the other 
command on the right and left. Lieut. Silas Adams, who 
had on different occasions shown a peculiar fitness for dar- 
ing exploits, with his picked men still retained the advance, 
and was selected to lead the forlorn hope. He had personal 
orders from Gen. Dumont to make a rapid dash through 
town, and charge everything that came before them. Capt. 
John A. Morrison, with Company C, led the attacking col T 
umn, followed by Col. Wolford with the rest of the regi- 

There are records in history of few such desperate charges 
as was made by the regiment on that day. The column was 
put into a sweeping gallop, and the sound of so many horse's 
feet on the solid pike resembled the muttering roar of dis- 
tant thunder. Adams soon came to the lately replenished 
picket fires of the enemy, and so rapidly did he push the 
flying pickets, that he entered town about the same time. So 
completely were they surprised, that he did not meet with 
serious opposition until he reached the far side of the public 


square, where his command was confronted with a hastily- 
formed line of dismounted men. Adams and two others 
broke directly through the line, while the rest passed around 
the end of it, and the two parties again united on a cross 
street or alley back of the public square, from which place 
they rejoined the attacking column the first chance that was 

In the meantime the attacking column came up, and Mor- 
gan's men were ready to receive them. A large livery stable 
was on the street near the square, the court-house was on one 
corner, with a hotel to the left. In all of these buildings 
the enemy were stationed, and each gave the company a 
murderous volley. The company reached the center of the 
square, however, but the fire was so severe, and the confusion 
so great among the wounded horses, that the company was 
forced to fall back the way they entered. 

As Col. Wolford entered the town at the head of the 
main part of the regiment, there appeared to be a line of 
fire from the houses on each side of the main street. It was 
a still morning, and the atmosphere so thin, that the smoke 
settled down so that little could be seen in front but the 
terrible flashes of light. 

A fierce cross-fire was poured into our column from a 
large college building on an elevation to our right. Col. Wol- 
ford now ordered a hundred or two men from the head of 
his advancing column, and placing himself at their head, 
made a charge on the college and surrounded it. On our ap- 
proach most of the men escaped, but Lieut. Wolford discov- 
ering their retreat, with a number of his company chased 
them, and succeeded in capturing some, and killing others 
who would not surrender. 

Morrison and his men, after their hot work in the public 
square, fell back, and were with Wolford at the capture 
of the college. The fighting now appeared to be general in 
different parts of the town, a connected description of which 
even at the time it occurred would be impossible, and now, 
after the lapse of so many years, will not be attempted. 

It only took a short time to capture the college, after 
which Wolford formed his men, and rapidly advanced to the 
principal scene of the conflict about the center of the town. 


Taking a street parallel with the Murfreesboro pike until op- 
posite to the public square, he turned to the left and entered 
the square, facing the chief hotel of the place. From the 
windows of the hotel and other buildings around the square, 
a terrific irregular volley was poured into our men. Wol- 
ford's men returned the fire with much determination, smash- 
ing the window lights, but there was no way to get at them 
in their sheltered situation. Col. Wolford at this time being 
a conspicuous figure, giving orders, they seemed to single him 
out and delivered a small volley directly at him. It appeared 
to the Author, who was a few feet from him, that several 
bullets tipped his clothes. According to the Colonel's own 
statement, it was at this time that he received his severe 
wound. The firing from the houses continued, our horses 
became unmanageable, we could not reload, we were forced to 
fall back the way we came, and as we turned a corner, sev- 
eral shots were fired into our retreating column, dangerously 
wounding one of our men. Not knowing that the Colonel 
was wounded, as the men fell back to reload and come again, 
he was lost at this time. But it appears that about the time 
this party was forced back, Capts. Drye, Sweeney and other 
officers with other parts of the regiment, entered the public 
square, and Wolford got with them. Another fierce con- 
flict ensued. Capt. Sweeney was at one time almost alone 
under the windows of the hotel. Capt. Drye advanced very 
near the hotel and emptied his revoler into the doors and 
windows from which the sheltered foe were firing. Col. Wol- 
ford seeing a line formed at some distance went to them to 
give orders. AVhat took place when he reached the line can 
better be told by Capt. Honnell. 

While these conflicts were going on among those of the 
regiment immediately under Wolford, others were taking 
place by the command in different parts of the town. 

Companies E, F, G, I and perhaps some others, under 
Lieut. Col. Letcher, were dismounted, and, to the left of the 
main street south of the square, had a desperate conflict 
with the enemy stationed in large buildings. In this fight 
Capt. Boston Dillion, of Company E. took a prominent part. 
It was here that Serg. Absalom Adams, of Company E, and 
Corp. Geo. W. Cabbel, of Company A, were killed. These 


two were handsome young men, and none who wore the blue 
were more gallant. James Bell, a splendid young soldier of 
Company G, was killed at this place, and Lieut. G. C. Jenk- 
ins of Company F, was severely wounded. After the contest 
lasted for one and a half hours, the enemy were routed out 
of town. As Morgan, at the head of as many of his men as 
could be gotten together under the unfavorable circum- 
stances, left the town in a northeasterly direction, Capt. 
Jessee M. Carter, of Company J, with his own men and other 
choice spirits of the regiment, took after him in hot pursuit. 
The capture of Chaplain Honnell and Col. Wolford, the 
escape of the Chaplain and re-capture of the Colonel, are bet- 
ter related by the Chaplain's own pen : 

" The rain fell in torrents, and almost fainting with 
hunger, men and horses rested for an hour some four miles 
south of the town, awaiting the dawn of day. We lay on 
rails or on our blankets, and held our horse's bridle reins in 
our hands, and spoke in whispers of our friends and the ap- 
proaching battle ; as we all understood the plan, to charge 
the streets of the town and cut off retreat at the various 
outlets. The Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, commanded by 
Maj. Wynkoop, to the right, the First Kentucky in the cen- 
ter, and the Fourth Kentucky battalion under Col. Green 
Clay Smith, on the left, as we would strike the south side of 
the town. ' Few and short were the prayers we said,' and 
with a wild shout we charged up the street under their deadly 
fire, from halls, houses, college buildings and churches. We 
leaped our horses over dead horses and men ; but never 

; 'Col. Silas Adams, then only a Lieutenant, who had vol- 
unteered to lead the forlorn hope, reported as he returned 
and met us, ' It is all as hot as h — 11 in there,' but there was 
no time and purpose to fall back, or stop a moment ; so on 
we rode till we struck a column facing us. They were so 
mixed up with blue and gray that we supposed it must be 
Pennsylvanians with a long line of prisoners. But we soon 
found' out our mistake, as, perhaps half of Morgan's men 
had on blue overcoats captured from one of the Federal 
wagon trains the day before, and now used to keep off the 
rain. As I halted in their front, I shouted in great glee: 
' You have a fine lot of prisoners, I see.' ' The devil you say,' 
replied a Capt. Leathers, as he put his pistol to my head and 
exclaimed: 'You are my prisoner; give up your arms.' 
' Give up my arms ? Why, I am the Chaplain of Wolford'a 


Cavalry, and carry no arms.' 'You are? Then come along 
right up to the Colonel,' pressing me forward under his pis- 
tol, still placed close to my head. A Rebel soldier now with 
savage oath, shouted, ' Let me kill him ! Let me shoot him ! 
you low-life scoundrel.' I shouted back, ' I will have you 
punished for your insolence when I see Major Wynkoop,' 
still supposing I was being taken to him for recognition. 
When I came to Morgan I called out, ' Major, these fellows 
think I am a Rebel ; but I am the Chaplain of the First 
Kentucky, and I have been fooled with just as long as I in- 
tend to be;' and putting spurs to my horse, I dashed away, 
with Leathers after me, as I learned his name soon after- 
ward, not only that day, but also over a year later, when 
he fell into our hands and was recognized a prisoner at the 
time we captured Morgan's forces at Burlington Island, in 
the great Ohio raid. 

" As he headed me off, he again presented his pistol, and 
was in a rage this time. When I reined up before the com- 
mander of the line of men, it was not Wynkoop, but to Col. 
Morgan I was introduced. ' You have been a long time in 
understanding that I am Col. Morgan, sir, and that you are 
my prisoner,' sternly remarked Morgan. 'Is Wolford here? 
How many men has he?' 'Wolford is here, and as to how 
many men he has, that is not a fair question ; but enough to 
whip you out of here in less than twenty minutes.' ' Take 
him up the street yonder,' said Morgan, ' and if we have to 
retreat, as he says, bring him out a prisoner.' So we, some 
six men in all, were taken a few blocks to the north to await 
results. While waiting, who should ride up but Col. Wol- 
ford, who came up to ask me where I thought the main body 
of Morgan's command was located. I motioned him away, 
but he was wounded in the hip, and bleeding profusely, and 
not noticing or understanding my gesture, he approached 
.and spoke to me ; his words thus revealing that he was a 
Federal, though he wore only a common blue overcoat like 
many of their men. Leathers perceiving this, now presented 
his pistol to Wolford's face, and ordered his surrender. As it 
was no use to pretend further, I sadly told him of my being 
a prisoner, and he told me of his wound. As he handed over 
his belt and pistols, the Captain inquired, ' What is your 
name, sir?' 'Wolford,' was the replv. 'Any kin to ' Col. 
Wolford?' 'Yes, sir: I am Col. Wolford himself.' 'Dash 
down and find Morgan, and tell him I have captured Col. 
Wolford!' shouted the excited Captain. 'This is glory 
enough for one day ! I have taken the Chaplain, Major Given 
there, and now Col. Wolford here!' ' Don't whistle before 
you get out of the woods,' I retorted ; ' for we will be re- 
captured before you get us ten miles away. See ! there your 


men come. Press us into the column as soon as you can.' 

" I feared the now great danger of being in the rear and 
of being killed by our own men, and so protested to Morgan, 
when he ordered us to be brought out in the rear ; for I knew 
our men would soon press the rear of the retreating Rebels. 

" Now, for six miles on the slippery pike toward Carthage, 
we were on the wildest race a soldier ever experienced. 
Sometimes we would jump clear over a fallen horse, and 
men would sometimes shy around a man on hands and knees 
struggling to escape from the road, till it came into my mind 
that my guard had left me, as no Leathers could be seen, and 
I saw Morgan at Wolford's side, fifty yards in my front. So 
to test being recognized by Rebels in proximity to me, I 
shouted : ' The Yanks are getting us all ! I must give up, too, 
as my horse is lame, and has thrown his shoes.' ' Don't give 
up ! Don't give up ! ' was shouted back, and I felt safe to 
pull to one side. The firing had ceased in my rear, and I 
knew that our men had about spent their ammunition. Soon 
I heard the welcome shout of Capt. Carter : ' Hurrah, Cap- 
tain, you are ahead of all in this chase, I declare ! ' 'Ahead, 
thunder and lightning! I have been a prisoner until just 
now, and Wolford is a prisoner, and badly wounded, not 
three miles from here.' ' My life is nothing till Wolford is 
rescued,' said the Captain, and we plunged our spurs into 
our drooping horse's sides, and in an hour we overtook the 
poor and almost dying Wolford. 

" When Wolford was overtaken and re-captured, he sat on 
his horse urging Captains Carter and Fishback to leave him 
and press to the capture of Morgan, whom he pointed out in 
the distance, before he could cross the river. The blood was 
dripping from his wound into the road as he offered to take 
care of himself till they could make the dash, hoping to 
take him at the river at Carthage. The daring rider, how- 
ever, with a few men. had left their horses standing in the 
water's edge, and had seized a little skiff and had reached 
the river bank on the other side. A few shots hastened their 
footsteps out of range, and the river was too wide for the 
jaded horses of the pursuers to swim. 

" Wolford was now so weakened that he was unable to sit 
on his horse. A citizen's buggy was pressed, and he was 
brought back in triumph to Lebanon. 

" I brought back a fine rifle thrown down by a Rebel at 
my side in the chase, which I still keep as a trophy and me- 
morial of the scene, when I vindicated my Colonel's predic- 
tion at the humble bee's nest, at the time I dedicated the 
first camp in Kentucky to Christ and the Union forever. 

" I merely add that I have never had to quiet any con- 
science by repentance for my escape by deception." 


While Capt. Carter was pursuing Morgan and other portions 
of the command were chasing and picking up scattering squads 
that had gotten out in different directions, it was known that 
a considerable number of the enemy were still barricaded in 
the upper stories of the Odd Fellows' Hall. The firing had 
now ceased, the whole town was in our possession, and as 
they had not expected that any demonstration would be 
made, some of our men were carelessly walking the streets, 
when a number of shots were suddenly fired from the win- 
dows of the Odd Fellows' Hall, severely wounding two of 
our men. This either looked like fool-hardiness or delib- 
erate attempt at murder, and threw our men in a rage. 
Lieut. Adams drew a pistol in each hand and commenced 
rallying all of the First Kentucky near by to charge the 
building and set it on fire ; but cooler counsel prevailed. 
Morgan's Adjutant, Sam McKee, was then a prisoner. He 
was sent with a message, giving them ten minutes time to 
consider the propriety of surrendering; if not within that 
time, the building would be charged and set on fire. He 
hastily returned with an answer agreeing to surrender. Lieut. 
Col. Robert C. Wood, a nephew of Jeff Davis, and sixty- 
five commissioned, non-commissioned officers and privates 
were made prisoners at this time. Woods' excuse for the 
firing was that it was done suddenly without permission or 
orders. The whole number of prisoners taken was about 
150. The loss of the enemy in killed and wounded was never 
reported. Their loss in town w r as not as heavy as the Union 
forces. Most of their losses in killed and wounded took 
place in the suburbs of the town while trying to get away, 
and in the chase. The casualties of the First Kentucky 
Cavalry were as follows : Killed, Corp. Geo. W. Cabbel, Com- 
pany A; William P. Harris, Company C; Serg. Absolam 
Adams, Company E, James Ball and Samuel Fitch, Com- 
pany G. 

Wounded, as far as ascertained from imperfect reports : 
John Calhoun, Company B, badly and discharged from which, 
July 12th, 1862 ; Lieut. G. C. Jenkins, Company F, severely ; 
Capt. John Smith, Company I, old wound hurt over; Orin 
J. Isham, of same company, was wounded badly, and after- 


wards was discharged from its effects ; David R. Totton, 
Company G, wounded in the hand. 

After the battle, the First Kentucky remained in Leb- 
anon until the morning of the 6th of May. The citizens 
were much alarmed, and many of them, particularly the 
females, opened their doors to our hungry soldiers with warm 
hospitality, fearing that the town would be burned ; for it 
was currently reported, and no doubt with truth, that many 
of the citizens assisted Morgan's men in firing into our ranks. 
The regiment then returned to Murfreesboro. 

Col. Wolford, being in no condition to be moved, was left 
in Lebanon under care of some of his men, until he recov- 
ered sufficiently to travel without danger, when he obtained 
leave of absence to go to his home in Liberty, Ky., to remain 
till able for service again. 

Gen. E. Dumont, then commanding the post at Nashville, 
in his report, gave the following communication of the gal- 
lantry of the troops engaged in the fight : 

" Never did men behave better. It will be my duty in 
my detailed report to mention meritorious conduct, a duty 
which justice to the meritorious requires, and which I shall 
execute with delight, for in this little affair intrepidity, per- 
sonal daring, and heroic courage were conspicuous from the 
firing of the first to the last gun. Battles of more import, 
measured by the number of troops engaged, or results, might 
afford less to commend than does the battle of Lebanon of 
May 5th." 

Col. W. W. Duffield, in his report to Capt. Brayton, of 
Dumont's Staff, also gives praise to the troops in the follow- 
ing words : 

" I need not inform you of the personal daring and gal- 
lantry of our troops, exposed, as they were, to this murder- 
ous cross and flanking fire from a sheltered and concealed 
foe, yet still delivering their fire at the windows with great 
coolness and precision, falling back to load and again return- 
ing to the attack, as both Gen. Dumont and yourself were 
present, and can speak from personal observation." 

From some cause unknown to the Author,- Gen. Dumont 
never made a detailed report. 



Soon after tha commencement of the fight, company organizations 
■were in a great degree lost, and daring officers would assume command of 
any men they came across, and perform deeds of valor all over the town. 

According to the recollections of the Author, the full loss of the Union 
troops was eleven killed — nine in the tight and two mortally wounded, 
dying the next day. Some supposed that the entire loss of the enemy 
killed in the fight and in the chase, was as much as thirty. 

Lieut. Thomas J. Graves gives the following reminiscences of this 
"battle : 

"While the fight was raging, Morgan, with about 200 men, passed 
down a street near us. I only being a Sergeant at the time, asked Lieut. 
Adams to give orders to fire into them, as we could have almost extermi- 
nated them from our position ; but Adams being certain from their many 
bluo coats that they were our own men, refused. Soon afterwards I was 
detailed to go with the Surgeons, including a Rebel Surgeon who had 
surrendered, to gather up the dead and wounded to prevent the horsemen 
from charging over the bodies. Lieut. Col. Wood, of Morgan's force, be- 
ing in a building with a body of men, was about to fire into us, and we 
receded. The Rebel Surgeon then stepped forward, was recognized, and 
we passed on. As we took one dead man into the courthouse, I saw about 
twenty of Morgan's men in there shooting at every Union soldier that 
came in sight. Morgan's Orderly being in the cupola of the building, was 
spied by one of the First Kentucky, who brought him down from his lofty 
position with a shot from a Sharpe's rifle." 

Another incident by Lieut. Graves: "On the day before the battle, 
Morgan, in crossing the railroad at a station not far from Murfreesboro, 
had caused some cotton to be burned. I rode out of line to see the burn- 
ing cotton, and a man rode up dressed in citizen's clothes. The next day 
I recognized the same man among the prisoners dressed in Confederate 
uniform. I charged him with the fact, but he positively denied it. In a 
private intercourse afterward he owned up, after binding me in the most 
solemn promise not to disclose it so long as the war lasted. I, yielding to 
the voice of humanity, rather than to stern military duty, kept my prom- 
ise sacred." 

Capt. Boston Dillion relates, that when Morgan's men captured 
Chaplain Honnell, some one of their number called out, " Turn the Chap- 
lain loose." Another one responded : "No, no; hold him. Morgan'amen 
need praying for as well as Wolford's devils. " 



Guarding communications — March to Shelbyville — Union 

sentiment pulaski, columbia, lawrenceburg and 

other points heavy duties guerrilla warfare 

a small scout's gallant defense the flrst ken- 
TUCKY and Gen. Nelson — Capture of Murfreesboro — 
Company I at Hunter's Mill — Negley compliments the 
regiment — Changes in commissioned officers — Expe- 
dition to Sequatchie Valley — Notes and incidents — 
Anecdote of the two cavalrymen. 

Maj. Gen. H. W. Halleck, commanding the Department 
of the Mississippi, with the main body of his forces, was 
now operating in front of Corinth, Miss. Long lines of com- 
munications between his base of supplies and that point, and 
other points on his extended line in front, had to be guarded. 
The wily John H. Morgan, then in the zenith of his reputa- 
tion as a successful raider, was constantly interrupting our 
army's communications, burning bridges, blowing up tun- 
nels, destroying wagon trains and otherwise cutting off sup- 
plies. The bold and cruel Forrest, too, was constantly mak- 
ing inroads on the rear of the Union lines, attacking, and 
sometimes capturing military posts, fortified positions, etc. 

For four months the First Kentucky was relieved from 
the exciting scenes of the front, but its service was none the 
less arduous. During this time it was making a practical 
study of almost the entire geography of Middle Tennessee. 

On account of meagerness of official reports and want of 
other documents and diaries, it is impossible to keep trace 
of the regiment in all its marches, and to detail all the 
thrilling adventures and hairbreadth escapes of its mem- 
bers. When not on the march it always had to be on the 

The regiment was now under command of Lieut. Col. 
John W. Letcher. A few days rest after the affair at Leb- 
anon, the regiment was ordered to Shelbyville, twenty-eight 
miles south, on Duck River. It was a neat town, and was 


surrounded by a beautiful and undulating landscape. Here 
we met the first ostentatious Union sentiment since leaving 
the loyal part of our own State. It was cheering to us, after 
some time being used to cold courtesy, silent, and sometimes 
haughty disdain, to meet with the congenial spirits around 
us. It reminded the home-sick soldier, too, of the distant 
loved ones, to have the men, women and children visit our 
camp and spend the time in pleasant, social intercourse. 
How this bright oasis of loyalty could exist in the surround- 
ing desert of secession, is beyond the Author's ability to ex- 

On the 24th of May, the regiment was ordered on a forced 
march to Pulaski, not far from the Alabama line. The Union 
forces at this place had been attacked three times, only a short 
time before. Soon after leaving Shelbyville, we passed a 
little village where several Union flags were displayed. Con- 
tinuing on through Lewis burg, and another village, the com- 
mand reached Pulaski just before day on the 20th. After 
resting one day, a detachment of the regiment went on an 
expedition to Rogersville, Alabama, and returned toward 
Pulaski, Tenn., the next day. The trip occupied four or five 
days. Company G, under Capt. T. K. Hackley, was now left 
to do scouting duty for Col. Marc Mundy, the commander of 
the post at that place, while the rest of the regiment was or- 
dered to Columbia. 

In the early part of spring, and during the summer of 
1862, a number of changes took place in commissioned offi- 
cers of the regiment. 

Capt. Geo. W. Sweeney, Company A, was mustered out 
April 14, 1862, but was not notified of the same until June 
7th. He was in the battle of Lebanon, and did gallant ser- 
vice until receiving official notification of the fact. He was 
in January, 1864, made Major of the Thirteenth Kentucky 

First Lieut. Silas Adams was promoted Captain of Com- 
pany A, June 7, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Francis M. Wolford was promoted 1st Lieu- 
tenant of the same company, June 7th, and in July was ap- 
pointed Regimental Adjutant, vice Drye promoted. 


First Serg. Thomas Watson, was promoted 2d Lieutenant 
of the same company, June 7, 1862. 

Capt. Wm. Rains, of Company B, was also mustered out 
April 14, 1862, and 1st Lieut. Geo. W. Drye, Regimental 
Adjutant, was made Captain of that company at the same 
time. Wm. B. Carter was promoted to 1st Lieutenant of the 
same company, but declined accepting his commission. 2d 
Lieut. Stephen Coppage was promoted 1st Lieutenant, June 
23d, and Serg. Samuel Belden to 2d Lieutenant of same 
company, on the same day. 

Maj. J. A. Brents resigned July 2, 1862, and Capt. Wm. 
N. Owens, of Company L, was commissioned Major, July 18th. 

In Company G, 2d Lieut. Henry S. Robson resigned, June 
15, 1862. 

In Company J, 2d Lieut. Meredith Martin resigned, July 

First Lieut. J. F. N. Hill, Company K, resigned, April 3 r 
1862. 2d Lieut. Stephen Sallee, of same company, resigned 
March 3d. 

In Company L, Serg. J. Brent Fishback was promoted to 
1st Lieutenant, March 3d, and to Captain, July 31, 1862. Also 
1st Lieutenant Robert N. Griffin resigned, February 26, 1862 r 
and 2d Lieutenant Benj. H. Milton, on the same day. Serg. 
Wm. A. Lockett, of same company, was promoted to 2d Lieu- 
tenant, March, 1862, and resigned, July 29, 1862. Lieut. Geo. 
K. Speed was promoted to Adjutant of the Fourth Kentucky 
Cavalry, date not given. 

On the 27th day of July, 1862, Matthew H. Blackford was 
commissioned 1st Lieutenant, Company L, and transferred to 
Field and Staff as Regimental Quartermaster. Dr. J. Chris- 
topher Riffe resigned as Assist. Surg, of the regiment, June 
11, 1862, and Dr. Hawkins Brown, of Hustonville, Ky., was 
appointed to fill his place, June 28th, and mustered in at 
Murfreesboro, August 16, 1862. 

The regiment now, for some time, did considerable march- 
ing and scouting. Leaving Columbia, we went by way of 
Mount Pleasant to Lawrenceburg, Tenn., near the Alabama 
line. Returned back to Columbia on a different road, and 
from thence back to Pulaski. Only remaining there one 
night, we returned to Columbia, and from there were ordered 


to Murfreesboro. Here, about the 14th of June, the First 
Kentucky and other regiments, all under command of Gen. 
Dumont, went on an expedition to Sequatchie Valley, going 
as far as Pikeville. The enemy had been in that section in 
considerable force, but had left before the Union forces 
reached there. 

After returning from Sequatchie Valley the regiment was 
again ordered back to Columbia, where it remained for some 
time. Company D was ordered to Franklin. Company I 
was on detached duty for Gen. Negley. Company L also 
remained at Columbia on various duties for the post until 
the final concentration of the regiment preceding the march 
after Bragg. 

Although far from the front where Buell's main army was 
operating, yet the First Kentucky were always in critical 
situations, whether in large bodies or small detachments. 
When we first entered Middle Tennessee, we only had to con- 
tend with the reigning chieftains, Morgan, Forrest and some 
others. Soon guerrilla bands, fed, aided and abetted by the 
citizens remaining at home, became active all along the line 
of our army's communications. Union soldiers, unless in 
sufficient numbers to protect themselves, could not for any 
purpose get outside of the guard lines without danger of 
being captured or murdered. 

At this time Gen. Negley was compelled to exercise the 
utmost vigilance. It at last became necessary to keep out 
patrol scouts at night on all roads converging at the post. 
The patrols, under efficient commissioned or non-commis- 
sioned officers, would pass out beyond the picket-posts and 
slowly patrol their respective roads for ten or fifteen miles, 
and then return in the same manner, timing their move- 
ments so as to come in about day the next morning. 

The First Kentucky Cavalry had already proven their 
efficiency on the field of battle, both as Infantry and Cav- 
alry, and acknowledged no superiors as scouts. It was now 
essential for them to cultivate and practice other talents in 
which they soon pioved to be adepts. In order to get at the 
movements and place of rendezvous of the guerrilla bands, 
it was necessary to employ spies to go out and play the citi- 
zen or Confederate, and intermingle among the people. Serg. 


O. M. Dodson, Company F (afterward promoted to Lieuten- 
ant), performed some splendid work in this line. Being tall 
and awkward, and dressing in homespun citizen's garb, and 
assuming the verdant look, but few would suspect him of 
being any other than an unsophisticated citizen. 

M. L. Green, of Company L, was also a successful spy or 
scout, but his personal " make-up " was the reverse of Dod- 
son's. He was lithe, well made, and his face was rather 
good-looking. He had associated much with the aristocracy 
of the Blue Grass region of Kentucky, and could put on the 
airs of that class. He was also a good actor, and could as- 
sume any character most suitable for his purpose. His favor- 
ite role was to play the part of a captured prisoner. Dressed 
in Confederate uniform, he would accompany scouting parties 
ostensibly under charge of a guard. Calling at a citizen's 
house on some excuse where its inmates were suspected, his 
guards would carelessly relax their vigilance, giving him a 
chance to have a private interview with members of the 
family, when he would sometimes get valuable information 
of the whereabouts of the guerrillas, and their contemplated 
movements. On one of these occasions, in a private confer- 
ence, he was feasted on the most luxurious dainties, and en- 
joyed the kisses of Dixie's most aristocratic girls. 

On July 16th, Gen. Negley sent a light scout of ten men 
belonging to different companies of the First Kentucky to 
watch Russell's force at Ashland, Morgan county. They 
were placed in a most dangerous situation, and made one of 
the most gallant fights that happened during the war. 
Among those who figured in this heroic affair, the names of 
the following have been ascertained, the rest not remem- 
bered : Texton Sharp and John W. Wilkinson, Company A ; 
James Sandusky, Adam Clemmons and Adam Ellis, Com- 
pany B, and M. L. Green, Company L. 

There was no commissioned officer along, but they were 
in charge of a stranger, supposed to be one of Gen. Negley's 
chief scouts, masquerading as a telegraph repairer, and on 
the pretended mission of discovering where the lines had 
been cut. They had fulfilled orders, and were on the eve of 
returning to camp, when they put up at a citizen's house and 
staid all night, eight miles beyond Mount Pleasant. The 



next morning, Texton Sharp and James Sandusky start- 
ed in advance, closely followed by John W. Wilkinson. When 
about 300 yards from the house, a company of about forty 
to sixty guerrillas, coming another road intersecting the 
main road, at right angles, fired upon them and made a 
charge. Sandusky was severely wounded in the leg, and he 
and Sharp were cut off from their comrades. Wilkinson had 
not advanced far enough to escape, and returned toward the 
house where his comrades were in the act of mounting their 
horses. They quickly dismounted, returned to the house, 
and were ready for defense. Wilkinson, closely pursued, dis- 
mounted, dodged behind a gate-post, and opened fire on the 
enemy. A volley from his comrades at the same time caused 
them to fall back out of range. Wilkinson now joined the 
others in the house. A flag of truce was soon sent in by a 
woman offering terms of surrender. Neither Wilkinson nor 
Green would give those disposed to surrender a chance ; for 
both had on Rebel suits, having been acting as Confeder- 
ate prisoners, and they knew that if they fell into the 
hands of the enemy the space they occupied on this ter- 
restrial globe would soon be vacant. The enemy sent a 
message by the truce-bearer, claiming that the two cut off 
were captured, and if the rest refused to capitulate, that the 
lives of their two comrades would be forfeited. But the be- 
sieged squad knew the composition of their two friends, and 
were aware that they had not surrendered unless there was a 
necessity, and could not be beguiled. 

When the messenger returned to the guerrillas, two lone- 
some shots were fired as a pretence that their threats were 
executed. The men remained in the house during the day, 
firing at their besiegers whenever they made a demonstra- 

In the meantime Sharp and Sandusky, putting their war 
horses to that speed which the exigencies of the case de- 
manded, through the entire distance of twenty-five miles, 
though dangers from the foe threatened their doom almost 
the entire route, arrived safely at Columbia. The situation 
of their comrades was reported to Gen. Negley, and a de- 
tachment of about sixty men under Capt. F. N. Alexander, 



of Company H, and Lieut. A. T. Keen, of Company I, was 
immediately sent in full speed to their relief. Sandusky 
being too severely wounded, Sharp went along to guide them, 
to the place. 

On arriving at the house, no Rebels were in sight. The 
besieged men informed them that they had left an hour be- 
fore. They had estimated the time it would take to send a 
party there, and had prudently vanished ; but their tracks 
left in the mud, for it rained the night before, still re- 
mained. Capt. Alexander took their trail and followed it a 
mile or two, but every by-road that led off, one or more 
tracks followed it until the trail was obscure. 

They returned in good spirits after their trying ordeal, 
and were the lions of the day for some time. John W. Wil- 
kinson was also wounded, and another one, but his name is 
not now known. Gen. Negley, in his correspondence with 
Gen. Buell, July 18th, makes the following complimentary 
mention of this action : " My scouts, attacked beyond Mount 

Pleasant yesterday, eight in number, returned to . and 

contended with the enemy (forty strong) with heroic valor, 
and held their position until re-enforcements arrived. Three 
were slightly wounded." 

A few days before this, July 13th, Forrest had captured the 
Union forces under Gen. T. T. Crittenden, at Murfreesboro. 
Gen. Nelson, then at Reynold's Station with a force, was or- 
dered there to protect that important point. The train bear- 
ing the General and part of his command stopped a short 
time at Columbia. Immediately, all of the First Kentucky 
who had heard of his presence, made a rush for the depot, 
and had the pleasure once more of beholding our first com- 
mander. There was a mutual recognition, and the General 
made pleasant incmiries about our absent wounded Colonel. 
While the same erect stalwart form as of old was before us,. 
his face was bronzed by exposure and the sun of the South- 
land, and here and there a silvery thread had crept in among 
his raven locks. As we looked with silent admiration upon 
the form of our old commander, our memories were busy re- 
calling scenes of nearly a year before at the beautiful Camp 
Dick Robinson, now hundreds of miles away. All of his 
" cuss " words were forgotten, or only remembered in kind- 


ness. When with him, his faults were most prominent, but 
after leaving him his virtues were indelibly fixed in our mem- 
ories. After going through the exposures incident to a sol- 
dier's life, and at times when suffering from shortness of 
rations or want of clothing, you might hear such expressions 
as these: "I wish Gen. Nelson was here; he would see that 
we had our rights. He would not see us freeze and starve in 
the cold while our officers are neglecting us." 

But the train moved on, and that was the last we ever 
saw of Gen. Nelson. Then we never dreamed, that in so short 
a time that manly form would be laid cold in death by the 
hands of a brother officer, brought about, perhaps, by his 
own unfortunate temper. 

Gen. Nelson was a patriot. His faults should be buried 
in oblivion, but his noble deeds should be engraven on mar- 
ble tablets and live green in the memory of every loyal man 
long after this unnatural war shall have ceased. 

The following is extracted from H. C. Gillespie's account 
of the services of his company : " The regiment at this time 
was stationed up and down the railroad from Nashville to 
the Alabama line. Company I was camped at Hunter's Mill 
guarding a bridge across a tributary of Duck River. Jordan 
Burns and I were on picket at the mouth of a lane opposite 
the bridge. Anticipating an attempt to fire the bridge or 
tear up the railroad, we remained awake, though tempted to 
yield to the arms of Morpheus. After midnight, our vigils 
were rewarded ; the Rebels undertook to steal on us in the 
silent hours. We fired rapidly and they retreated without 
accomplishing anything. The camp of the regiment was 
aroused and a company was started in pursuit. They were 
out two days and returned with about forty prisoners." 

Gen. Negley, on July 5th, had rej)orted the First Ken- 
tucky Cavalry to be in a deplorable condition. He had them 
furnished with clothing, and issued carbines, revolvers and 
sabers to all except the three Sharpe's rifle companies. They 
had been on the heaviest Cavalry service for nearly a year, 
armed with the clumsy musket. On July 22d, in correspond- 
ence with Gen. Buell, he pays the following high compliment 
to our regiment: " The First Kentucky Cavalry has exhib- 
ited great endurance and determination. The enemy has re- 


fused in every instance, although greatly superior in num- 
bers, to stand. This confirms my opinion that the Rebel 
parties have been constantly hovering around near us for the 
last few days, and citizens and deserters say they were to 
concentrate near this place on Saturday, but a rush against 
their parties in detail, prevented them from doing so in 


Lieut. Samuel M. Boone, of Company D, was sent from Columbia to 
Wartrace by Gen. Negley on special business. While there, Forrest took Mur- 
freesboro, thus cutting him off from his regiment. The Lieutenant hav- 
ing a talent for almost all professions and occupations, in order to make 
himself useful as well as ornamental, got with Hewitt's Battery, and with 
spade in hand, was assisting their men in throwing up earthworks. Gen. 
Win. Sooy Smith and staff dashed up, and seeing Boone's uniform and 
marks of rank, inquired his name, and how he came to be there. Boone 
replied, giving him the desired information. The General, who was com- 
mander of the post at that time, being struck with the Lieutenant's in- 
telligent answers and appearance, applied for, and got his consent to be 
detailed as an Aide-de-Camp on his staff, as he expected to be attacked 
by Forrest. Boone became warmly attached to the General, and remained 
with him until November, when he returned to his company and soon be- 
came Captain, as Capt. Coppage resigned in December. 

The following is taken from the Rev. W. H. Honnell's reminiscences : 
" I met Gen. Nelson at Columbia when he had become renowned, and had 
won his second star at Shiloh. His face was clouded with rage, as he 
had just beaten the railroad engineer, for having allowed the train to be 
ditched, as he was hurrying his troops to Murfreesboro to meet Forrest. 
The storm lifted from his face, and he clasped my hand and said, ' That 

d d Cavalry of yours has filled the country with their bravery, and I 

can forgive them for having threatened to shoot me. if I ever set my foot 
in their camp again at Dick Robinson.' I can but shed tears over his 
tragic death, and remember how he died, with the communion bread, given 
at his own request, unswallowed in his mouth, by the Episcopal minister, 
who happened to be in the Gait House. Davis was in Fort Leavenworth 
a few years ago, with Nelson's picture in his room, as a token of his deep 
sorrow. When I last saw the deserted Cavalry camp at Dick Robinson, 
the great silk flag was waving over his grave just where I preached to 
him. I never like to speak of the transfer of his dust to Maysville, for 
his memory is with the camp of the First Kentucky Cavalry still. 

"The soldier's life was not all tragical, but many comedies mixed 
with his experience, particularly so with the First Kentucky. < »ne time, 
when the regiment was ordered frorn Murfreesboro to Columbia, A. C. 
Sloan and Plez. Gooden, being dismounted and on a spree, were left be- 
hind. When the contents of their pocket-books were exhausted, they 
found there was a military necessity for them to join their command. It 
was dangerous for them to travel the distance of forty miles through an 


enemy's country infested with guerrillas, but they -were equal to the oc- 
casion. They were partly dressed as citizens, and concluded to act the 
parts of paroled Confederate prisoners on their way home in another part 
of the State. They prepared themselves with paroles, signed by fictitious 
officers, and played their parts so well that they were received with open 
hospitality at every old farmer's house where they applied for admission. 
But it taxed their self-possession to the utmost to keep their gravity, aud 
make their tales fit, while detailing for the entertainment of their hosts 
and Dixie's fair daughters, their many adventures and hair-breadth es- 
capes. They were fed so luxuriously that they were nearly a week in 
making the trij>, and it was a privation to return to rough camp fare 


March to Reynold's Station — Arrival of Col. Wolford 
and Dr. H. Brown — Wrongs rectified and rebukes to 



— Good conduct of I and L — Military martinets — 
Activity of the Army of the Ohio — The alarm, the 
murdered indianian, and the ludicrous scene — per- 
PLEXITY of the Union Guards — Starting on the race 
for Louisville — The First Kentucky all united — 
Notes and anecdotes. 

On the 23d day of July, 1862, the regiment was ordered 
to Reynold's Station, South of Columbia, and was for a short 
time under command of Gen. R. W. Johnson, who had a 
force at that place. After arriving there, Company A, under 
Capt. Silas Adams, was detached to build a stockade at a 
trestle-work a few miles north of the station. The weather 
was very hot, and the work was disagreeable. Contrabands, 
with their masters' ox-teams, were pressed into service to do 
the hauling, and in a few days the work was completed. The 
company remained a few days guarding the trestle, and ex- 
pecting an attack from the guerrillas at all times. But it is 
possible they found out that Adams was in command, and 
eager to chastise them, and they prudently stood aloof. 

While at Reynolds' Station, Col. Frank Wolford, who had 
been absent since the 5th of May, suffering from his severe- 


wound, joined the regiment and took command. Though 
reporting himself for duty, he had never recovered ; in fact 
his wound never healed, but remained a running sore. Our 
new Assistant-Surgeon, Dr. Hawkins Brown, accompanied the 

In Col. Wolford's long absence, under the looser reign of 
the ranking officer in command, some of the more lawless 
men had committed some depredations on private property. 
Wolford was always strict in protecting property of both 
friends and foes. His opinion was, that no person could be 
a thief or marauder, and be a true soldier. The first act 
done on taking command, was to rectify those wrongs which 
had been reported, and administer wholesome rebukes to the 
officer or officers allowing them, and denunciations to the 
ones committing them, closing with the threat to have them 
" court-martialed and perhaps shot," if repeated. 

One of the most dangerous expeditions during the service 
of the regiment in Middle Tennessee, was the guarding of a 
train of 200 wagons from Reynold's Station to Decherd, 
Tenn., a distance of fifty or sixty miles. This was through 
the most hostile part of the State, and infested by guerrillas 
the entire route. A detachment of 200 men was ordered 
for this duty, but for some reason now unknown, only sev- 
enty-five were furnished, and put under command of Lieuts. 
F. W. Dillion, of Company E, and J. E. Chilton, of Com- 
pany C. Lieut. Chilton commanded the front, and Dillion 
the rear. Though fired upon at all favorable positions, both 
in front and rear, the train was escorted safely through, and 
delivered to Gen. Geo. H. Thomas, then in command at 
Decherd, much to the credit of the young officers and the 
men under their command. 

About the 6th of August, Col. Wolford was ordered back 
to Columbia, there to take a section of Artillery and move 
on a large force of guerrillas at Lewisburg, in Marshall 
countv. We marched to Columbia, and only remained in 
our old camp on the north side of the river one night. The 
next morning, in company with the Artillery, we marched 
for Lewisburg, but the enemy had departed. The weather 
was excessively hot, and stopping at noon to rest, six horses 
belonging to the Cavalrymen fell dead from overheat. From 


Lewisburg we went to Shelbyville, remaining there only a 
short time, and then marched to Murfreesboro. 

About this time, Gen. Negley sent the following dispatch 
to the Secretary of War : 

Columbia, Tenn., Aug. 12, 1862. 
Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War: 

Maj. Kennedy, with two small companies of the First 
Kentucky Cavalry [I and L], encountered the guerrillas in 
greatly superior numbers, six times yesterday and last night, 
at various points below Williamsport, defeating the enemy 
in each affair with considerable loss. Our loss, only one 
wounded. Jas. S. Negley. 

On arriving at Murfreesboro, G-en. Nelson had departed, 
and we found Gen. W. B. Hazen, a " West Pointer " and 
military martinet of the first degree, in command of the 
post. The First Kentucky, in their early service, were much 
offended at the stern qualities of Gen. Nelson, but soon be- 
came accustomed to his ways, and looked upon his occasional 
ebullitions as infirmities for which he was hardly responsible. 
And then Gen. Nelson was a fellow-soldier among them — 
mixed with them, dressed like a soldier — only wanted to be 
considered their " boss." But Gen. Hazen dressed in superb 
style, stood aloof, was unapproachable unless it was with 
uncovered head with the soldier's hat under his arm, and his 
attitude must be according to prescribed military rules ; all 
of which graces our men had never studied as a fine art. 
For the slightest infraction of discipline or orders, the 
offender was arrested, punished, or court-martialed. 

While such strictness as practiced by our post com- 
mander might be all right in the regular army, or among 
professional soldiers, it was not calculated to achieve the best 
results among volunteers who got most of their training in 
active operations or in the presence of the enemy. It never 
achieved the grand results of such leaders as the unassum- 
ing Sherman or home-spun Thomas, each of whom was ap- 
proachable by the humblest soldier in the ranks. Soldiers 
will freely lay down their lives at the mandates of that class 
of leaders, and they will live in the hearts of their men as 
long as one remains above the sod. 

There were redeemable traits about Gen. Hazen though ; 


he was brave and vigilant. He might have exercised all his 
vigilance, and at the same time have been more loveable in 
his intercourse with his men. 

There was an unusual activity now in the Army of the 
Ohio, and also in the enemy's forces, commanded by Gen. 
Braxton Bragg. The post at Murfreesboro had always to be 
on the alert to prevent surprise. A soldier could not go out- 
side of the guard lines in the immediate vicinity of the town 
without danger of being killed or captured. Guerrilla com- 
panies were constantly hovering around us. 

One evening there was a rapid volley fired, seemingly 
merely outside of camp. The long roll was beaten, and 
not exceeding a minute elapsed until the entire command 
present were in line at the " alarm post," at the head of their 
respective companies. Here we awaited orders, which came 
as expeditiously as we had gone into line. We mounted our 
steeds, and in various bodies, from companies to battalions, 
at a rapid lope, scouted the country for five or six miles on 
the side from which the firing came, but never found a guer- 
rilla ; they had vanished as mysteriously and as expedi- 
tiously as they had appeared. 

It was found that they had fired on an Indiana foraging 
wagon and killed one of the men belonging to it. There was 
a fine farmer's mansion out one mile from town in a south- 
easterly direction, and between it and town was a dense cedar 
thicket, which also extended beyond the house. It was stated 
that these same Indianians had been there the day before 
foraging, and the farmer invited them to come back the next 
day and he would give them a good dinner. On returning 
they were fired upon by the guerrillas as stated. That night 
brilliant flames illuminated the surrounding darkness where 
the mansion stood. The Indianians were avenged. In this 
affair an amusing and ludicrous incident occurred. Just be- 
yond the outer limits of the town, in the direction where 
the foraging party was attacked, there was a cold spring, and 
connected with it was a pool of sufficient depth for bathing 
purposes. At the time of the alarm, a number of the First 
Kentucky were bathing in the pool. The rapid beating of 
the drums, and the hurried movements of the men collecting 
and falling into line, had attracted most of the females of 


the jdace to the doors and windows to see what was going on. 
The firing seemed to be so near the bathers that they did not 
take time to don their uniforms, but gathering them up in 
their arms, rushed through town at a 2 :40 speed, much to 
the edification of the belles and dames of the town. 

There was great activity now in the movements of troops 
under Gen. Buell, commanding the Army of Ohio, including 
his chief subordinate, Gen. Thomas. The threatening move- 
ments of Gen. Braxton Bragg, commanding the Rebel forces 
confronting them, was the cause of this activity. 

August 5th, Gen. Thomas reached Decherd on the Nash- 
ville and Chattanooga Railroad. On the 15th he was ordered 
to McMinnville to take command of forces there, which place 
he reached on the 19th. The same day, Buell from Hunts- 
ville, notified Thomas that Bragg had crossed 300 cavalry 
and 3,000 Infantry at Chattanooga, on the 18th. Buell im- 
mediately pushed forward to Decherd, arriving there on the 
22d. The movements of the enemy at this time puzzled the 
Federal Generals. Buell first supposed that Bragg might 
be making his movement on Sequatchie Valley for the pur- 
pose of foraging. Thomas, however, seemed to have divined 
Bragg's intentions more clearly than his chief. On the 22d, 
he reported the enemy in force on the Cumberland mountains, 
and also the whereabouts of the Cavalry commanders, For- 
rest, Scott, Morgan and Johnson, and gave it as his opinion 
that the demonstrations were intended to cover the advance 
of the enemy toward Kentucky. On the same day, Buell 
received information of the position and movements of 
Bragg, which caused him to think that he was marching on 
McMinnville. Again, he supposed that the enemy might 
move on Decherd and endeavor to hold North Alabama. 

On the 29th of August, the enemy made Cavalry demon- 
strations, threatening an attack on Thomas at McMinnville. 
On the next day, Buell issued preliminary orders for his 
troops to concentrate at ' Murfreesboro. September 1st, 
Thomas reported to Buell that he had information that the 
enemy, 45,000 strong, were on the march to Kentucky. On 
the 3d, he had orders to evacuate McMinnville and march to 
Nashville. He arrived at Murfreesboro on the 5th, and pro- 
ceeded to Nashville, and assumed command there on the 7th. 


From Thomas's " Report on the Conduct of the War," 
the following note is taken : 

The enemy's main army had effected a crossing of the 
Cumberland River at Carthage and above, and was invading 
Kentucky by way of Scottsboro and Glasgow, striking for 
Louisville. Breckinridge, with a large force of Cavalry, In- 
fantry and Artillery, was left behind to attract the attention 
of the garrison at Nashville, and to invest the place. 

Buell's army now passed through Murfreesboro, and the 
celebrated race between the two chiefs for Louisville com- 
menced. The First Kentucky Cavalry, which already had 
been joined by the two companies at Columbia, waited until 
all the forces had passed, and then took up the rear. 


Wolibrd's Cavalry, by this time, had acquired a considerable reputa- 
tion of being everywhere; and many jokes were passed at their expense 
by newspaper correspondents and others on account of their ubiquity. 

While stationed at Murfreesboro, Colonel Walter C. Whittaker, of 
the Sixth Kentucky Infantry, made a social visit to Col. Wolford's quar- 
ters. After being introduced, the Colonel, with a pleasant twinkle in his 
eye, inquired of Woiford: "Colonel, is it true that at the late engage- 
ment on the Potomac, some of yoitr men were present taking part in the 
fight f " 

" I hardly think the statement is correct," replied Woiford. "or at 
least, if many of my men had been there, Richmond would have been 
taken." Whittaker collapsed. 

Col. David R. Haggard, of the Fifth Kentucky Cavalry, in a jovial 
manner related, that he had often tried to have a fight with the enemy 
without having any of Wolford's Cavalry on hands. One time, on ad- 
vanced scout in the Cumberland mountains, in direction of Chattanooga, 
he had a sharp encounter with the Rebels, and as it was so far from where 
Wolford's men were stationed, he congratulated himself on having a pri- 
vate affair of his own, but on conclusion of the engagement, two of the 
First Kentucky turned up as participants. The two men had been sent 
to bear dispatches to the Colonel, and coming up in time of the encoun- 
ter, and as characteristic of their habits on such an occason, took a hand 
in the fight to keep from "spoiling." These two men were Sergeants 
Nicholas Dunn and M. A. Purdy, of Company D. 

H. C. Gillespie gives the following account of an expedition while 
stationed at Reynold's Station : 

"As much as a battalion detailed from different companies under 
Capt. N. D. Burrus, Company K, uniting with other troops, guarded a 
large supply train through to Athens, Ala. We were not molested on our 
way down, though we saw the remains of many burned wagons and cotton 
bales, apparently freshly done. About noon on the first day of our return, 


Capt. Burrus, with a few men, rode forward to a hue mansion to get his 
dinner, when about fifty well armed men rode out from some timber ad- 
joining the road and ' gobbled' up Burrus and his men. We were just 
in sight and made a charge for them, rescued our men, and, perhaps, 
wounded some of the enemy. The men who had been somewhat scattered 
along, were now formed in close column, and myself and brother James 
E. Gillespie acted as rear guard. We soon saw some armed men on a high 
point watching our movements. We tired on them and closed up with the 


The march to Nashville — Passing the Insane Asylum — To 
Bowling Green — A short rest — On the march again 
— Terrible sufferings with thirst and hunger — Buell 
and the First Kentucky Cavalryman — Encounter 

the enemy a dash on bear w allow and mammoth 

Cave, and capture of prisoners — Col. Wilder's sur- 
render — A threatened panic — Halt at Elizabeth- 
town — Dangerous situation — Night expedition to New 
Haven — Capt. Adams's gallant achievement — Capture 
of the Third Georgia Cavalry — Neglected justice — 
Notes and incidents. 

It was late in the afternoon when the First Kentucky 
Cavalry took up its line of march for Nashville. Sometime 
in the latter part of the night, we passed the State Lunatic 
Asylum somewhere not far from Nashville. The moon was 
shining bright, and as we approached the grounds, many of 
the inmates were at the yard fence and greeted us with their 
loyal cheers : " Hurrah for the Union I " " Bully for the 
Union ! " These cheers did not appaar to be in derision, but 
seemed to come from the bottom of their souls. Was this 
exhibition of love for the government, which always had 
protected them in their just rights, a mere hallucination of 
a diseased brain, or was it a rational sentiment? 

The regiment was first ordered to Nashville, and from 
there to Bowling Green, where it remained a day or two. 
On this long march the regiment, part of the time, was 
guarding an immense wagon train, which was always irksome 
to its leading spirits. 


In the race after Bragg, there has been much unwritten 
history in regard to the sufferings and privations of the 
men. The many changes and rapid movements of the troops, 
the constant interruptions of our supply trains by the 
enemy's raids, blowing up tenements and destroying bridges, 
had caused our rations to be cut short for several months, 
and the clothing of many of the men had become very scant. 
The weather was dry during the whole campaign, and the 
men at times suffered terribly for want of water. It is forty 
miles from Bowling Green to Munfordville, and not a 
running stream crosses the road. Being in the Mammoth 
Cave section, and the ground cavernous, most of the streams 
run under ground. The wells generally had failed, and the 
cave springs being narrow deep holes in the ground, and al- 
ways crowded with Infantry, the Cavalryman stood but little 
chance, as it was not advisable in such immense throngs to 
hitch or leave his horse. Our only dependence for water to 
quench our thirst, or for cooking purposes, for a long dis- 
tance was the filthy, muddy ponds. Cavalrymen in large 
numbers, would ride into a pond, and while their horses were 
drinking, they would unsling their canteens and let them fill 
with the warm muddy water. 

The rations were meager and unwholesome. Sometimes 
it was pickled pork and no bread ; then it was so-called 
bread and no meat. Again, after a hard day's march, our 
only repast was an ear of corn scorched before the fire. And 
then at other times, our only draw was government coffee. 
We could fill our canteens, drink off the exhilarating fluid, 
and eat the grounds. At one time the Author remembers 
fasting two days without a morsel to eat, and on the march 
all the time. 

It had been some time since the soldiers had drawn cloth- 
ing, and many of them were without shoes or boots. It was 
common to see a beardless, tender youth trudging along the 
rocky road, coatless, and dressed in ragged pants, with piti- 
ful expression of countenance, and whose bare feet were so 
sore that every step seemed painful. How a mother's heart 
would have bled to have looked upon her suffering offspring 
at that time ! 

Much of the country passed over on that celebrated 


march was not very fertile, and two large armies moving 
through it, one in the wake of the other, left a track some- 
what similar to that of Pharaoh's locusts in the olden times ; 
therefore, foraging was out of the question, for there was 
nothing to forage. 

Both characteristic of the march and the regiment is the 

following incident told in Chaplain Honnell's fine style : 


Gen. Buell will hardly remember the First Kentucky 
soldier he questioned as to his command, for even I cannot 
recall his name myself. He was passing me, when I heard 
the peculiar clank of sabers, indicating the approach of some 
General's body-guard. I overheard a call of Buell to his 
Aide, pointing to my comrade : " To what command does that 
soldier belong? " He had on a slouch hat, hickory shirt, two 
linen breeches, home-made gallowses, and two immense Texas 
spurs on his naked heels. He also had a belt with two pis- 
tols, and a carbine swinging on his back,- and was riding a 
splendid pacing horse. His Aide remarked : " I'll bet fifty 
dollars that he is one of Wolford's Cavalry." " Ride forward 
and detain him until we can find out, for I'll take your bet 
that he is some mountaineer citizen." 

My soldier, whom I then knew by name, was stopped, and 
as he reined up and lifted his hat with a bow, was asked by 
Buell : " Soldier, to what command do you belong? " 

" Wolford's Cavalry," he answered with manifest pride, 
and as the General said, " That's all," he rode away, little 
caring whether his questioner was a General or a private. 

But to resume the march of the First Kentucky. The 
regiment left Bowling Green at night, and in the morning 
came up with Bragg's pickets. Capt. Alexander, Company 
H, was in advance, but was immediately re-enforced by Com- 
pany A, under Capt. Silas Adams. A skirmish took place, 
but no one was hurt among our men. The enemy was pur- 
sued to Bell's Tavern, and four or five prisoners were cap- 
tured. The regiment then retired a short distance and went 
into camp. 

The next morning, September 17th, we advanced to Cave 
City, Company L in advance, and had a considerable skir- 
mish with Bragg's forces. Here we remained several days. 
On the 18th, skirmishing was going on at Cave City. Wol- 
ford, with the most of the regiment, took a right-hand road 
and went to Bear Wallow, and had a sharp fight with the 


enemy, capturing 113 men, and six wagons. Thomas Wright, 
of Company B, was shot in the right lung, disabling him for 
further service. The enemy's loss was severe. 

On the same day, it was learned that an outpost of the 
enemy was at the Mammoth Cave, some nine miles distant, 
on a left hand road. A detachment of the regiment under 
Maj. W. N. Owens, was sent there to see about them. A short 
distance from Cave City we came upon two look-outs or ad- 
vanced pickets, and chased them seven or eight miles at full 
speed into camp. So close did we keep upon their heels, that 
they had no chance to give an alarm, and we captured the 
main body without a fight, only a few scattering shots being 
fired. The fruits of our detachment's operations were thirty 
prisoners. On our return, when we arrived at Cave City, we 
met Wol ford's command with their prisoners, and were 
heartily cheered by the Third Kentucky Infantry, for our 
fine day's work. 

It was while Buell's army was being deployed at Cave 
City, September 12th, that Col. John T. Wilder surrendered 
his forces, consisting of 4,000 men, to Bragg's army at Mun- 
fordsville, after gallant and severe fighting for four days. 
He held out heroically until surrounded by 25,000 men with 
forty-five pieces of Artillery commanding his position. 

As we resumed the march and came up to the scene of 
the unequal contest of a few days before, the marks of the 
severe conflict were plainly visible on the trees surrounding 
the little redoubt where the heaviest fighting took place. 

From Munfordsville, the regiment moved on, scouting the 
different roads as we advanced. From the pen of the Rev. 
W. H. Honnell, the following details of an incident are given, 
which are well remembered by many of the regiment : 

We had reached a road beyond Munfordsville, in the ad- 
vance, and had stopped to rest and await the arrival of the 
rest of the Cavalry division under the command of Col. Ken- 
nett. The rear of the Rebel Cavalry was only a short distance 
in our front, as we knew by the smoldering camp-fires. As we 
lay in the shade, we saw the heavy column of dust like a 
cloud approaching from the North. A few of us rode out to 
meet it, and report its meaning. The field officer in tempo- 
rary command of the regiment (as Wolford was on other 
duties at the time), soon had the men in the saddle, ready, 


as they supposed, to advance and repel the onset, if the 
enemy were coming in force. Our little advance soon met 
the enemy and captured all, and I galloped back to report. 
Instead of advancing, or being in battle line, what was 
my surprise to find the officer in command at the head of the 
column in full retreat. He alone was to blame, as the 
bravest regiment on earth might thus have been stampeded ; 
ours was about to be in a panic, with that officer in com- 
mand. When I overtook the head of the column, the other 
Kentucky Cavalry regiment was coming past in full gallop. 
I shouted first to my own regiment to halt, and about face ; 
then at the top of my voice called to the other commander : 
" Stop your regiment ; that position belongs to the First 
Kentucky ! " In less time than I could tell it, the two heads 
of each regiment stood side by side, and the other Colonel, 
supposing I was Wolford himself, waited a moment, and the 
Frist Kentucky, by a wave of the hand and a shout, followed 
my lead back to their position in front, saved from uncon- 
scious disgrace. That officer soon lost his position, and it 
was filled by one of the most dashing, daring officers in the 
Union service. 

The regiment moved on to Hodgenville, where, on the 24th, 
it captured some beef cattle from the enemy, and from there 
it marched to Elizabethtown, in Hardin county, where it re- 
mained for several days in connection with other regiments 
of Kennett's division of Cavalry. 

After crossing Green River, Bragg deflected from the route 
to Louisville, and moved by way of Bardstown. Buell, with 
his main Infantry force, now moved on to Louisville and 
formed a junction with Gen. Nelson's force, and the new 
regiments from the North concentrating at that place. 

It was while camped at Elizabethtown, that the First 
Kentucky performed one of the most cool and skillful mili- 
tary exploits that happened during the war. It was the sur- 
prise and capture of the Third Georgia Cavalry at New 
Haven. It was a most critical undertaking. The following 
was the situation of the forces at this time. The rear divis- 
ion of Buell's army had just arrived at Louisville. Bragg's 
main force was then at Bardstown, about twelve miles north 
of New Haven, under Gen. Polk, Bragg having left on the 
28th for Frankfort to have a consultation with the newly 
appointed Provisional Governor of Kentucky. The Rebel 
General, Wheeler, with a large force of Cavalry was at the 


same time at Boston, fifteen miles northeast of Elizabeth- 
town, and ten miles northwest of New Haven, watching our 
Cavalry at Elizabethtown, and also the line of the Louisville 
and Nashville Railroad. Col. Martin J. Crawford, with his 
regiment, the Third Georgia Cavalry, was detached as an 
outpost at New Haven. It was eighteeu or twenty miles 
from our Cavalry camp to New Haven. Col. Kennett was 
informed by a loyal citizen of the situation of the Georgia 
regiment, and a plan was formed for taking it in out of the 
weather, for it was too late in the season for thinly clad 
Southerners to be exposed to the chilly night air. 

Capt. Silas Adams, at the time, only twenty-two years of 
age, in addition to his commanding talents, had now gained 
considerable reputation as a dashing, daring officer, and al- 
ways equal to any emergency in critical situations. Col. 
Wolford selected him as the most suitable one to command 
the picket men of the First Kentucky detailed to go on the 
expedition. The effective men and horses of the Second In- 
diana Cavalry, under Lieut. Col. Stewart, were also to go. As 
he was tbe ranking officer, the whole force was under his 
command. The citizen who notified our officers of the Rebel 
outpost accompanied them as guide. 

Capt. Adams, with his men, was put in front, with orders 
to charge in column, and, if possible, to capture the enemy 
without bloodshed. The command started about 9 o'clock 
in the silent hours of night, so as to reach the picket-post of 
the enemy by daylight on the morning of the 29th of Sep- 
tember. Serg. James Humphrey, Company A, with about 
twenty men, led the advance guard, while his brother, W. T. 
Humphrey, John G. Brown, John P. Logan and another one 
(not now remembered), were in the extreme front, with or- 
ders to capture the videttes of the enemy. 

It was in the dark of the moon, and the night was still 
and clear. On account of the long drouth, the road was 
covered deep in a coat of dust, and the tread of the horses' 
feet was noiseless. They move in a brisk walk, and the men 
speak low and seldom. The citizen guide at last warns them 
of their near approach to the enemy's picket-post. They 
silently pause and consult the time by the light of a shaded 
match. It is too early. They await the proper time for ac- 


tion, and then move onward. A short time before sun-up, 
cautiously looking forward, they come in sight of the two 
videttes. The four front men now put spurs to their horses 
and dash forward, and come up to the videttes without being 
even halted or challenged. They order them to surrender. 
As they comply with the orders, they laughingly exclaim : 
" You are so covered with dust and look so gray, we thought 
you were our own men charging on us to frighten us." 

Serg. James Humphrey, with his squad, now coming up, 
they move down the hill where the main body of pickets 
is stationed, and capture them without making any noise. 

By this time, Capt. Adams closed up with the regiment, 
and the enemy's camp was in sight. The Captain now or- 
dered a charge, and the First Kentucky thundered through 
the wooden bridge across the Rolling Fork, and on through 
and beyond the surprised and frightened village. The front 
companies passed by the camp and surrounded it, while the 
rear ones halted and " fronted into line," and commenced 
scouring the camp, demanding the surrender of the aston- 
ished Rebels, many of whom had not left their tents. Their 
commander, Col. Martin J. Crawford, was still on his couch 
of repose, when Capt. Adams opened the front of his marque 
and ordered him to get up, and out, and surrender. 

" Who in the h — 11 are you, giving me such peremptory 
orders? " demanded Crawford. 

" I am commanding the First Kentucky Cavalry," was 
the reply. 

" But what is your rank? " sternly demanded the " Goober 
State" Colonel. 

" I am a Captain in command of a regiment, but I have 
no time to quibble about rank." 

" But let me have a few minutes to consider." 

" Surrender in two seconds, or I will blow your d d 

head off," was Adams's reply. 

So completely was the enemy surprised, that not a gun 
was fired, and every man was captured except a small picket- 
post on the Bardstown road, and they were chased a short 
distance, but it was not deemed prudent to push them too 
far in that direction, for a brigade of Infantry was reported 



to be encamped three miles from New Haven on that road. 

About the time the surrender was completed, Lieut. CoL 
Stewart came up in reserve with his men forward in good 
order in line of battle, as a precaution against any mishap. 

Three hundred men fell into our hands at this capture. 
It took but a few minutes to arrange the surrender of the 
force, for the emergency of the case demanded that Adams 
should waste no time on military etiquette, even if he had 
been disposed to do so. The prisoners were soon mounted 
and all camp and garrison equippage not easily portable, was 
hastily destroyed, and the prisoners, with their escorts, were 
rapidly put in motion for Elizabethtown. 

The Georgians, who had been made believe that if ever 
they fell into the hands of the heathenish Yankees, that they 
would be roughly treated, if not murdered, were so highly 
pleased with the kind treatment of their captors, that they 
soon became sociable, and did not appear to regret so much 
being taken by surprise. The Author would here remark, that 
owing to the men of the regiment having gained a reputation 
of having but little respect for " red tape," and a contempt 
for military dudes, many of the Federal army had gotten it 
into their heads that they mostly belonged to the under 
stratum of society. This was a great mistake ; for while not 
a great many belonged to the polished aristocracy, the great 
mass of the regiment belonged to the sterling yeomanry of 
the land, and made it a universal practice, with some few 
exceptions, of treating those of the enemy who fell into their 
hands with courtesy and humanity. 

The inadequate Cavalry force at Elizabethtown, owing to 
its isolated situation, was now in great danger of being cap- 
tured or cut to pieces. No time was taken to parole the 
prisoners, but they were hurried off to Louisville. It was 
learned that a strong force of the enemy came to New Haven 
the same evening, but they advanced no further. Col. Ken- 
nett took all necessary precautions to prevent surprise. Men 
were kept in their places at all times. At 3 o'clock every 
morning, the entire command was put in line of battle until 
all danger was passed. 

In a few days there was another onward movement. 



When Adams's advance dashed through New Haven, some of the 
Southern sympathizing females hurried to their doors, supposing them to 
be Confederates returning from a predatory excursion, and joyfully hailed 
them : " Where did you get so many Yankee clothes ? " They were sadly 
crestfallen when they found out their mistake. 

Neither in the reports of Col. John Kennett. our Division Commander, 
nor Col. Ed. M. McCook, our Brigade Commander, is given any credit 
either to Capt. Adams or the First Kentucky Cavalry, in the New Haven 
affair. Col. Kennett claimed the victory as achieved over the Third 
Georgia Cavalry by part of his command. Col. McCook reports: " I have 
the honor to report a detachment of my brigade under command of Lieut. 
Col. Stewart, Second Indiana Cavalry, surprised and captured the Third 
Georgia regiment of Cavalry, with their arms, equipments and horses." 
Adams made a report to Stewart of the part his men took in the capture, 
for the Author remembers distinctly of copying the rough draught of it 
for the Captain. "Why Adams's report was suppressed is for those respon- 
sible to explain. 

Every man along knows that the capture was achieved before either 
Stewart or his regiment reached the enemy's camp. The following is 
taken from Lieut. Granville Vaught's diary, written about the time it oc- 
curred : "Nine o'clock p. m., Sunday, September 28th, a detachment of 
our regiment under command of Capt. Silas Adams, and the Second In- 
diana Cavalry, Lieut. Col. Stewart commanding, Capt. Adams, with his 
men in advance, marched to New Haven. Ed. Adams, with First Ken- 
tucky, captured the pickets, and at 6 o'clock a. m., on the 29th, marched 
into the Rebel camp at New Haven, and, without the firing of a gun, cap- 
tured the Third Georgia Volunteer Cavalry, consisting of 300 men, horses, 
camp and garrison, the Colonel having surrendered to Capt. Adams be- 
fore the arrival of Lieut. Col. Stewart." 

Charges were preferred against Col. Martin J. Crawford, and he was 
tried before a general court-martial convened at Murfreesboro, Term., 
December 15, 1862, for being surprised and taken prisoner. He was found 
guilty of the charges, and nearly all of the specifications, and sentenced to 
three months' suspension from rank and pay, and to be reprimanded by 
the commanding General. 



buell forms a junction with gen. nelson's new troops and 

hastily reorganizes a forward movement on bragg 

again — Severe marching of the First Kentucky — 
Bragg makes a stand at Perryville — The regiment 
marches to the scene — holds the right — skirmishes 
with some charges, but not heavily engaged sad 

SUIT — Chaplain Honnell nearly captured by both 
sides — Skirmishing — Companies A and B ambushed 
near Mt. Vernon — Narrow escape of Lieut. Watson, 
and critical situation of aden j. rlgney the pur- 
suit abandoned ready for another race. 

Buell, after arriving at Louisville, and forming a junction 
with the new undisciplined troops, hurriedly thrown in from 
Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, for the defence of the city against 
the formidable force that had invaded the State under Gen- 
erals Bragg and Kirby Smith, spent a few days in re-organ- 
izing and refitting his half-starved and scantily clothed 
army. On the 1st of October his army was again put in 
motion. His forces were divided into five columns. The left 
marched toward Frankfort to hold in check the force of the 
enemy which still remained at or near that place. The other 
columns marched by different roads toward Bardstown, where 
the main force of the enemy was known to be. Bragg's 
army retired by way of Springfield to Perryville, where his 
forces made a stand. 

Gen. Thomas skirmished heavily with the enemy at Bards- 
town, on the 4th of October. That same evening, McCook's 
brigade, including the First Kentucky Cavalry, left Eliza- 
bethtown and went through New Haven, marching all night, 
and joined our main army at Bardstown, on the morning of 
the 5th. Continuing on through Springfield, the command 
reached the waters of the North Rolling Fork, six miles 
south, and to the right of Perryville, on the evening of the 
7th. For three days and nights the command had been con- 


stantly in the saddle most of the time, only stopping occa- 
sionally, to feed and to eat what little we could procure. 
Here most of the regiment enjoyed one night's much needed 
rest. Col. Wolford, however, at the head of a detachment of 
the regiment, went on a scout about six miles distant, on the 
South Rolling Fork, and returned early in the morning. 

Gen. Thomas had been a short time before assigned to 
the command of the Army of Ohio, but declining to ac- 
cept, was announced as second in command, aud was 
now in charge of the right wing of the army. At 7 p.m., 
on the 7th of October, Buell notified Thomas that the 
enemy was in force at Perryville, and that he expected to 
attack and carry the place the next day. Thomas had 
orders to march at 3 o'clock on the morning of the 8th, and 
take position on the right of Gilbert's corps, at Gorden's, on 
the Lebanon pike. But the Second corps, under Crittenden 
(Gen. Thomas being with this corps), failing to find water 
where it was expected to encamp, had moved off the road 
for that purpose, and consequently was some six miles fur- 
ther off than it otherwise would have been. The marching 
orders not reaching either Generals McCook or Crittenden 
in time, the movement was delayed several hours. 

Crittenden was ordered, after reaching the point desig- 
nated at the right of Gilbert's corps, to put his men in order 
of battle, the whole column to be closed up, the men allowed 
to rest in position, but not allowed to scatter. He was then 
directed to report in person to the Commanding General for 
further orders. 

At daylight on the morning of the 8th of October, our 
Cavalry brigade under Col. Ed. M. McCook, left camp, and 
after a march of some six miles, reached the point indicated 
on the Lebanon and Perryville road. McCook sent a mes- 
sage immediately to Gen. Thomas that he had encountered 
the enemy's pickets, and had driven them a mile beyond in 
direction of Perryville. Gen. Thomas rode to the front and 
gave directions for the formation of Crittenden's corps, send- 
ing his Aide, Capt. 0. A. Mack, to Gen. Buell, reporting his 
position, and requesting orders to be returned by his Aide, 
as the enemy was reported immediately in his front, for 
which reason he did not wish to leave his troops. 


As the First Kentucky Cavalry was moving to the posi- 
tion assigned it that morning, we met a number of wagons 
loaded promiscuously with household goods, apparently 
thrown in at random, with youths, maidens and children 
riding on top of the plunder, getting away from the threat- 
ened carnage in the greatest haste possible. The Author re- 
members one handsome maiden in particular — or at least 
she would have been handsome if her features had not been 
so contorted with fright — whose heartrending screams haunt- 
ed him for many days. But the soldier could not stop to 
soothe the terror-stricken ones ; his duty was in front, to 
face the grim monster, Death, amidst the screaming, singing, 
flying missiles of destruction. 

The regiment was ordered into position on a hill to the 
right of the Lebanon road, being on the extreme right of the 
Union forces. We had not been in position long, when Capt. 
Silas Adams, of Company A, was ordered to dismount his 
men and advance some distance to the left of the road into 
a woodland below the brow of the hill, for the purpose of 
uncovering the enemy and finding his position. The Captain 
soon encountered a large force of Wheeler's Cavalry, who 
advanced up the hill so rapidly upon him that he was com- 
pelled to beat a hasty retreat. About that time, the General 
commanding had ordered to the left of the First Kentucky 
line a piece of Artillery which was in danger of being cap- 
tured from the charge of the enemy's Cavalry. Generals 
Thomas and Crittenden, and Colonels McCook and Wolford, 
and Dr. Brown, being on an elevation in rear of the line, and 
seeing the danger, a charge was ordered. But the field officer 
in command of the line, mistaking the order, as he after- 
ward averred, ordered the line to right about wheel by fours, 
and fall back under the hill, as the enemy were then shelling 
our line with their Artillery. Capt. N. D. Burrus, of Com- 
pany K, being the only line officer who understood the order, 
charged, and this action on his part, together with the ad- 
vance of some Infantry pickets on the left, checked the 
enemy when Adams's men were nearly exhausted. The main 
body of the regiment obeyed the field officer with reluctance ; 
but scarcely had the men slowly made the right about wheel, 
when Col. Wolford and Dr. Brown came with lightning speed 


•down our line, ordered an about face, and a charge, which 
was executed with alacrity, and the enemy retired for the 

We had only resumed our position for a short time, when 
Gen. Thomas came past our men amid their cheers. He had 
no sooner come to the advance line, when a company of 
Rebel Cavalry from the timber in our front came up the 
slope in full charge to capture the General and his Staff, as 
they with their field glasses halted to reconnoiter their posi- 
tion. As they wheeled and put spurs to their horses, we 
opened a scathing fire on their advance, which caused them 
to retire. 

There were no bold dashes upon our position that day. 
When it was getting late in the afternoon, in the closing 
scenes of our day's operations, a sad occurrence took place, 
which cast a gloom over the whole regiment. Company C 
was on skirmish line in front, occupying the position which 
the enemy assailed us from in the morning, and became ac- 
tively engaged. Capt. Jarrett W. Jenkins, Company F, was 
ordered to their support. He moved forward at the head of 
his company in a swift gallop, and had hardly reached the 
skirmish line, when he met the fatal missile which caused in- 
stantaneous death. He was borne from the field by his men. 
Capt. Jenkins was a brave, handsome and worthy young 
officer, and afterwards was greatly missed and lamented by 
the regiment. 

Our whole line was now moved forward to the position 
occupied by the skirmishers, but the enemy had retired from 
view. A section of Artillery was also moved up in our rear, 
and Company A was again dismounted and sent to the foot 
of the hill in front to uncover the enemy, but he had van- 
ished, or hesitated to make his whereabouts known. 

The operations of the First Kentucky closed for the day 
with but few casualties. As night approached, the Infantry 
occupied our position, and we retired a little to the rear 
and bivouacked for the night. 

It was afterward plainly evident that the demonstrations 
of the enemy on our right that day were only a feint, while 
he was getting in his heavier work on our left. It might 
have been that " somebody blundered." The Author does 


not claim to be a Jomini, and therefore does not claim to be 
of sufficient capacity to criticise those far superior in rank, 
as he was only a Sergeant. It is his object to tell facts only, 
and let the intelligent reader draw his own conclusions. 

It is necessary to remember, that after getting into posi- 
tion in the morning, Gen. Thomas sent his Aid, Capt. Mack, 
to Gen. Buell, reporting the fact, with the request for orders 
to be sent back by the Aid. Capt. Mack did not return 
until 4 p. m., and then only with verbal orders to hold one 
of his divisions in readiness to re-enforce the center if found 
necessary ; and also to reconnoiter his front and see if the 
enemy was re-enforcing his left or withdrawing his forces 
from that part of the field. Notwithstanding Thomas's re- 
connaisance developed the enemy still in his front, he had 
no orders to advance. After sundown he received a dispatch 
from Buell, acquainting him with the heavy engagement of 
McCook's corps on the left, with orders to press his lines as 
far as possible that night, and to get into position to make a 
vigorous attack at daylight on the morning of the 9th of Oc- 
tober. On moving forward the next morning, the town was 
found to be evacuated. 

The Author is not one of those who believe in Buell's 
lack of loyalty, or the silly reports of his and Bragg's sleep- 
ing together the night before the battle. As it was, the left 
stood the furious assault of nearly the whole of Bragg's 
army, and Gen. Buell, with headquarters two and a half 
miles in the rear, claimed and proved that he had not been 
officially notified of the severe battle on our left till late in 
the evening. It was also proved before the Buell Commis- 
sion, that the wind was in such a direction, that the heavy 
musketry firing could not be heard at his headquarters ; that 
the rapid Artillery firing was only supposed to be the shell- 
ing of the skirmish lines, and that the General had received 
a fall from his horse, hurting him so that he was not out 
much that day. It appears from Buell's report that though 
he intended to attack Bragg on the 8th of October, yet on 
account of McCook's and Crittenden's corps, by unavoidable 
circumstances, not getting in position as soon as he desired, 
he had determined to get all his army at their proper places 
and make the attack early on the morning of the 9th. 


At early dawn the next day, we took the advance in the 
pursuit of the retreating enemy. Chaplain Honnell gives 
the following vivid note of his personal experience. 

" As we passed the great spring we could see how the 
struggle for its possession caused many to mingle their blood 
with its clear, limpid waters. We drank from our canteens 
and refilled them as our almost famished horses stood drink- 
ing from the brook, which is filled by its great flow. As we 
passed a house used by the Surgeons as an amputating hos- 
pital, just beyond, we could see a heap of bleeding limbs 
like a mound of clay, as they were, cut off and thrown from 
the window above." 

We paused not, but hastened toward Danville, the seat of 
learned institutions and refinement. As we pressed their 
rear, now under orders of Gen. Hazen, some of the regiment 
brought ex-Congressman A. G. Talbott to Chaplain Honnell 
as a prisoner. He pled for his life, but was set free by the 
kind-hearted Chaplain on his taking the oath of allegiance, 
which oath, it is believed, he never violated. It was about 
this time, while intruding on the rear of the receding foe, 
that Dr. Hawkins Brown, Surgeon of the regiment, came very 
near losing his life. The Doctor often forgot that he was a 
Surgeon, and imagined himself to be a field officer, and 
would be in front in the midst of dangers, giving orders to 
the men. It was on one of these occasions that a shell burst 
near him, a fragment passing between his arm and side, which 
inflicted injuries to his nerves from which he never fully 

In this connection a thrilling experience of Chaplain 
Honnell will be related in his own words, of how he escaped 
being made a prisoner by both sides : 

When a theological student at Danville, I taught the 
children of a Mr. Mock, celebrated then and since for mak- 
ing a fine article of whisky, four miles from the city. I was 
boarded and furnished a horse in pay for teaching his fam- 
ily morning and evening. One night his most valuable slave 
died of cholera, and an alarm fell on my white friends, and 
a panic on the slaves. But the difference was, that one party 
manifested it in profound silence in the mansion, and the 
other in sending for their neighbors, and all singing, and even 
shouting in the cabin where Bob lay a corpse. I went to 


their cabin near midnight, and told thern the danger of such 
excitement ; had prayers and dismissed them. This made a 
profound impression on my pupils, as they regarded it as an 
act of bravery. This introduces my First Kentucky Cavalry 
incident, and gained for me a like reputation for coolness 
and self-possession. 

The army of Buell followed close after that of Bragg, 
now in full retreat by way of our old Camp Dick Robinson. 
We drove them through Danville, past the hotel where Bragg 
made his noted speech a few days before, saying : " Like the 
old lady, I have come to spend the day with you ; I have 
brought my knitting along." 

We swept further to the left, and drove the Cavalry past 
Mock's still-house, and at dusk we placed our pickets in line 
with it. I rode up to my pupils' house of six years before, 
and of course was warmly greeted, though the family, now 
fatherless, had their sympathies with the Rebel side. The 
still had no influence then, nor in my student days to keep 
me there, but it had with some of my fellow-officers, and 
with those of other regiments. So I lay on the lounge as in 
former years, and my fine horse in the stable, not dreaming 
of a change of the picket-line in the night. 

What was my surprise, when near morning, an Ohio Cap- 
tain came slipping to my couch, and presenting his cocked 
pistol to my face, whispered : " You are my prisoner, sir," 
with a horrid oath. I at once announced myself as being 
the Chaplain of Wolford's Cavalry, and that if he did not 
leave in a minute I would order his arrest. He left in chagrin, 
for he had been down to the still-house, and one of my pupils 
in charge, had told him that a friend of theirs, Capt. Hon- 
nell, was at their house in the front room. Knowing the 
Rebel sentiments of the family, he had naturally concluded 
that a Rebel officer was in the house, had returned with their 
advance picket, and he would have the glory of bringing him 
back a prisoner, while risking his own life to secure a canteen 
of whisky. 

He never told me of the withdrawal of our pickets, which 
was done perhaps to avoid the distillery, more dangerous 
than the enemy to their senses to those using its stupefying 
poison. So I slept till daybreak, the family seeming not to 
know the situation, except the young man at the whisky 
charnel house. 

At sunrise, when my pupils realized my danger, they came 
in and informed me, with sincere offers to aid me in escap- 
ing, if I could devise a plan. So I arose and removed every 
sign of office or soldier from my coat and hat, and asked one 
of my former pupils to go and ride my horse, as if going to 
town on some errant of the family on their own horse, and 


to say if questioned by the picket, and to leave him behind 
an old house, pointed >ut a mile away. As soon as I saw him 
in safety beyond the Rebel line, I went slowly and pulled off 
some earsoi corn us it for fending purposes, till I got beyond 
their sight, then throwing down my armful of corn I soon 
reached my horse and rode to my own regiment, where I told 
them how near I came being captured by both sides. 

The First Kentucky continued in front in pursuit of 
Bragg, with occasional sharp skirmishes. About the 14th, 
Col. E. M. McCook writes to Gen. Crittenden: "The enemy 
have undoubtedly left Lancaster. * * * They are going 
in direction of Crab Orchard. Both bridges over Hanging 
Fork were burned by them this afternoon. One regiment of 
my brigade — Col. AVolford's — had a skirmish with them to- 
day on the Lancaster road, repulsing their Cavalry and kill- 
ing and wounding about thirty." On the next day we moved 
on the Stanford pike, and were detained some time near that 
town skirmishing, in which a fine-looking Confederate Lieu- 
tenant Colonel received a fatal wound. 

The regiment passed through Crab Orchard to within a 
few miles of Mt. Vernon. Here, going up a hill skirted on 
one side by dense bushes, Company A being in front, with B 
immediately following, a whole volley was poured into the 
ranks of the two companies from the bushes, not more than 
forty feet from the road. So astounding and unexpected 
was the murderous volley, that some dismounted, or fell 
from their horses, under an embankment next to the enemy, 
while others turned and fled down the hill. The enemy only 
fired one volley and retired. A piece of artillery stationed 
further along on an eminence on the other side of the road, 
opened on our men with shells, and one bursting among 
Company A, nearly costing Lieut. Thomas Watson his life, 
as a fragment grazed him, but inflicted no serious wound. 
It was at this time that Aden J. Rigney performed an act of 
heroism. He was in plain view of the Rebel gunners, pep- 
pering them with his Sharpe's rifle, and called on his com- 
rades to come to his position ; that he could see them plainly. 
On looking around he discovered that his comrades had given 
back down the hill. He had no other alternative than to fol- 
low their example. 


The regiment now formed in line, but the Infantry was 
ordered up and took their places, and moving on the enemy, 
found that they had vanished. 

The regiment went no further in pursuit of Bragg. Crit- 
tenden's corps pursued them to the Rockcastle River; Gen. 
W. S. Smith's Division of that corps, as far as London. 

The First Kentucky returned to Crab Orchard, where it 
was partially refitted with much needed clothing. The whole 
Army of the Ohio was now ordered to return from pursuit 
and make another race for Nashville, Tenn., as that city 
seemed to be the most possible next objective point of the 

At the battle of Perryville, while the rest of the regiment was en- 
gaged with the enemy, Maj. W. N. Owens in command of a detachment 
of diiferent companies, with Capt. Drye and Lieut. Belden along with 
him, was ordered through an open field to guard our extreme right, where 
he remained the principal part of the day. Though exposed without 
shelter to the fire of the enemy's Artillery, no serious casualty occurred,, 
as it seemed difficult for them to get his exact range. 



Another race between the Confederate and Union armies 
— The First Kentucky ordered to Nashville — Amus- 

the Ohio changed to Army of the Cumberlakd — 
Heavy marching and scouting — Changes in officers 

of the regiment the regiment moves to gallatin 

Morgan's raid on Rosecrans's communications — Wol- 


escape — The regiment returns to Gallatin — Scouting 
— wolford marches to carthage and to burkesville 
— On to Danville — Lost to the Army of the Cumber- 
land — Transfer to the Army of the Ohio. 

The Army of the Ohio now had marching orders to return 
immediately to Nashville, Tenn. They went by different 
roads, with orders to concentrate on the route at Glasgow 
and Bowling Green. The First Kentucky Cavalry marched 
by way of Lebanon and Summersville to Woodsonville, op- 
posite Munfordville, on Green River. While halting here 
for some purpose, an amusing incident occurred. A member 
of a Kentucky regiment stationed at the town, came in 
among us to view the now famous Wolford's Cavalry. Col. 
Wolford happened to be dismounted, and standing around 
among the boys, and was not distinguishable from them to a 
stranger, as he was dressed from head to foot as a private, 
with no mark to designate his rank. His beard was long, 
and his face had the appearance of having been unsullied by 
water or soap for at least ten days. It so happened that 
Wolford was the first one that the soldier approached, and 
inquired if that was Wolford's Cavalry. The Colonel pleas- 
antly replied in the affirmative. He then requested our Col- 
onel to point out Col. Wolford to him. Capt. Thomas Row- 
land, of Company K, a splendid rider, happening to be dash- 
ing around on his charger, making a very fine-looking ap- 
pearance, was pointed out to him by the Colonel himself, as 
the renowned Col. Wolford. The soldier gazed long and ad- 


miringly on the " bogus " Colonel, much to the amusement 
of those standing near. 

The regiment marched five miles further that evening. 
October 29th, 1862, and encamped for the night. The weather 
before that time had generally been dry and beautiful during 
the autumn months, but a heavy snow fell that night, which 
was considered early for the season. 

The next day, October 30th, by General Orders, War De- 
partment, dated October 24, 1862, Gen. Buell was relieved of 
the command of the Army of the Ohio by Maj. Gen. W. S. 
Rosecrans, and the designation of that army was changed to 
the Army of the Cumberland, and known as the 14th Army 
Corps. A few days later, by General Orders, Headquarters 
14th Army Corps, Department of the Cumberland, Gen. Geo. 
H. Thomas was assigned to the command of the center, 
Maj. Gen. McCook to the right wing, and Maj. Gen. Critten- 
den to the left wing of that army. 

It was about this time, somewhere between Woodsonvilie, 
and Bowling Green, that the regiment halted long enough to 
finish refitting in the way of clothing. Then the march was 
resumed and the regiment arrived at Nashville, November 
11th, where it remained doing scouting and picket duty until 
December 10th. 

In the latter part of 1862, owing to deaths, resignations 
and promotions, a number of changes took place among the 
commissioned officers. 

Lieut. Col. John W. Letcher resigned, his resignation tak- 
ing effect November 28, 1862. It was rather a delicate mat- 
ter to fill his position and at the same time do justice to 
military courtesy, to the service and to the men of the regi- 
ment. Col. Wolford, however, was equal to the occasion ; he 
managed in such a manner that the service and the men of 
the regiment got their choice, and military etiquette was al- 
lowed to shift for itself. He made a short address to his 
men, reviewing their gallantry on many contested fields, 
and also their hard service and privations in the cause of 
their country ; and while according to military usage, he had 
a right to recommend a suitable person to fill the vacancy, 
yet he would waive that right and allow his men to make 
their own choice as to who should fill the position. 


Capt. Silas Adams, on account of his great natural 
and acquired ability and gallantry on different occasions, 
had shown himself fully competent for the office, notwith- 
standing there were others in the regiment who would have 
been an ornament to the place ; yet, like Adams, they were 
not in every case superior in rank or senior in commission. 
By common consent there was a general call for Adams to 
make the race. Several who would have filled the office with 
honor to themselves and the regiment, would not run against 
him, and he had only one competitor. When the vote was 
taken he received every one present except about thirty be- 
longing to his opponent's original company. His commis- 
sion as Lieut. Colonel was dated November 28, 1862. 

The following additional changes in commissioned officers 
of the regiment took place at this time, and a short time 
previously and subsecpient. 

November 14, 1862: Lieut. W. D. Carpenter, Company G, 
appointed Regimental Adjutant, vice F. M. Wolford, pro- 

December 26, 1862: Surg. John A. Brady resigned, and 
Assist. Surg. Hawkins Brown promoted Surgeon the same 

December 24th : Philip W. Cox, Company B, promoted 
Serg. Maj., vice Feland Bland, discharged to accept commis- 
sion in Eighth Kentucky Cavalry. 

December 20th : James M. Swiggett, Company B, pro- 
moted to Regimental Commissary Sergeant, vice Clinton 
Hocker, deceased, on the same day. 

November 1 : Geo. H. Norton promoted to Hospital Stew- 
ard, vice Benjamin Owens, discharged, to accept commission 
in the Thirty-Second Kentucky Infantry. 

Company A, November 14th : 2d Lieutenant Thomas Wat- 
son, resigned ; November 28th : 1st Lieutenant F. M. Wol- 
ford, promoted to Captain, vice Adams, promoted to Lieu- 
tenant Colonel ; Serg. James Humphrey promoted to 1st 
Lieutenant; Serg. William Adams promoted to 2d Lieu- 

Company B, December 21st: 1st Lieutenant Stephen H. 
Coppage, resigned. 

Company C, August 18 : John A. Morrison, resigned, and 


1st Lieutenant William Perkins, was promoted to Captain ; 
2d Lieutenant D. R. Carr, was promoted to 1st Lieutenant, 
and Serg. James E. Chilton was promoted 2d Lieutenant. 

Company D, December 2d : Capt. George Coppage and 1st 
Lieutenant Richard H. Vandyke, resigned; 2d Lieutenant 
Samuel M. Boone, promoted to Captain ; Serg. Daniel A. 
Kelly to 1st Lieutenant, and private Warren Lamme to 2d 

Company E, December 2d : Capt. Boston Dillion resigned, 
and 1st Lieut. Franklin W. Dillion was promoted to Captain, 
and Serg. John Kimbrel to 1st Lieutenant. 

Company F, November 13th : 1st Lieut. G. C. Jenkins re- 
signed, and 2d Lieut. R. Clay Blain was promoted to Cap- 
tain, vice Jarrett W. Jenkins, killed in battle of Perryville, 
and Serg. Oliver M. Dodson was promoted to 1st Lieutenant, 
and Corp. William B. Kelly to 2d Lieutenant. 

Company G, November 14th : Capt. Thornton K. Hackley 
resigned, and 1st Lieut. Irvine Burton was promoted to Cap- 
tain ; 2d Lieut. W. D. Carpenter to 1st Lieutenant and Regi- 
mental Adjutant, and Serg. Daniel Murphy to 2d Lieutenant. 

Company H, September 1st : 1st Lieut. Chas. W. Huffa- 
ker resigned ; 2d Lieut. James G. Dick promoted to 1st Lieu- 
tenant, and Serg. Wm. M. Haley to 2d Lieutenant. 

Company I, November 6th : Capt. John Smith and 1st 
Lieut. James M. Mayes resigned, and Serg. Alexander Smith 
was promoted to Captain, and private Buford Scott was pro- 
moted to 1st Lieutenant, November 13th. 

Company J : 2d Lieut. Meredith Martin resigned, July 20, 
1862, and Serg. John T. McLain was promoted to 2d Lieu- 
tenant, August 10th. 

Company K : Captain Nelson D. Burrus resigned, Novem- 
ber 13, 1862, and Serg. Thomas Rowland was promoted to 
2d Lieutenant, November 3d, vice Sallee, resigned previously, 
and to Captain, November 13th, vice Burrus resigned. Pri- 
vate Philip Roberts was promoted to 2d Lieutenant the same 

But it is necessary to return a little before the regiment 
reached Nashville. After leaving Bowling Green, it marched 
to the right toward Russellville, and then to Springfield, 
Tenn. Then turned and went to Gallatin, Tenn., and from 



there to Hartsville, where it remained several days, and 
scouted to Lebanon, and came near meeting Morgan there 
again. From Hartsville went back to Gallatin and crossed 
the river, and then marched by way of Silver Springs on to 
Nashville, where it remained until the 10th of December, 
when it was again ordered to Gallatin, reaching there on 
the 11th, and from thence went out to Castillian Springs, 
where it went into camp. 

About the time Gen. Rosecrans commenced making pre- 
parations to move on Bragg's army, now in position at Mur- 
freesboro, the wily John H. Morgan began operations on the 
outposts of the Army of the Cumberland and its communi- 
cations. The chief forte of Morgan was not fighting ; he 
even tried to avoid conflicts, but when hemmed and com- 
pelled to defend himself, he fought with vigor and determi- 
nation. After our fierce charges on his men in their strong 
positions in houses nearly a year before, Morgan never seemed 
anxious to cross lances with Wolford's men any more. Ac- 
cording to Southern papers, Morgan confessed that Wolford's 
was the only Cavalry he feared. 

November 24, 1862, the distinguished Confederate com- 
mander, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, received orders assigning 
him to the command of the three departments under Gen. 
Bragg, Lieut. Gen. E. Kirby Smith and Lieut. Gen. Pem- 

The War Department, at Richmond, decided that Gen. 
Johnston's headquarters should be at Chattanooga. Railroad 
accidents prevented him from reaching there until Decem- 
ber 4th. The General had made several suggestions in regard 
to the best manner of conducting operations, but they were 
unheeded by the Davis government. That government had 
become alarmed at the situation of General Pemberton in 
Mississippi, who was falling back from the heavy blows of 
Gen. Grant. President Davis, through his Adjutant General, 
Cooper, urged on Johnston the importance of sending suffi- 
cient force from Bragg's army to the aid of the beleagured 

From Murfreesboro, on the 5th of December, after inform- 
ing himself of the strength of Bragg's and Rosecrans's 



armies, and their condition and situation, Gen. Johnston 
dispatched to the Confederate authorities that he could not 
give adequate aid to Pemberton without losing Tennessee, 
and advised his superiors that troops from Arkansas, where 
they were not needed, could reach Pemberton easier and 
quicker than Bragg's could ; and further, that he would not 
weaken the Army of Tennessee without express orders. 

He informed his superiors that 2,000 Cavalry would be 
detached to break the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, and 
4,000 would operate on Gen. Grant's communications. 

On the morning of December 22d, Morgan left Alex- 
andria, Tenn., and forded the Cumberland River about dusk. 
But instead of having 2,000 Cavalry, he was in command, 
according to his own report, of 8,100 Cavalry and seven 
pieces of Artillery. He appeared before Munfordville on the 
25th, where part of his force was attacked by Col. Hobson and 
driven off, leaving nine killed and sixteen of his men as pris- 
oners. Crossing Green River above Munfordville, Morgan 
moved in direction of Elizabethtown, burning bridges at 
Bacon Creek and Nolin. At Elizabethtown, after a severe 
fight of half an hour, the small garrison of United States 
troops there, having taking possession of brick buildings, 
was compelled to surrender. Morgan then destroyed the 
trestle-work at Muldraugh's Hill and moved for Rolling 
Fork. Here Col. John M. Harlan overtook him, attacked 
and pursued him with Infantry. Morgan fled before Harlan 
to Bardstown, and becoming alarmed at the forces moving 
from different directions to environ him, attempted to escape 
by a route between Lebanon and Campbellsville. Hoskins, 
in command at Lebanon, got after him, but his forces being 
mostly Infantry, he could not move fast enough to trap the 
raider. Some of his Cavalry had a contest with him, and 
lost the gallant Col. Halisy of the Sixth Kentucky Cavalry. 

When Morgan first crossed the Cumberland on his raid, 
it was at first rumored that he was moving on Gallatin, and 
Wolford was retained for the defense of that place. After 
it was found that Morgan had passed on to Kentucky, Wol- 
ford in command of his own regiment, and detachments of 
several others, among which was a battalion of the Seventh 
Kentucky Cavalry and some Indiana Cavalry, was sent from 


his camp near Gallatin, up the Cumberland, to intercept 
him. He started on the 26th of December and marched by- 
way of Scottsville, Ky., and arrived at Bear Wallow on the 
night of the 31st of December. January 1, 1868, he marched 
to Greensburg, and on the 2d, hearing directly of Morgan's 
movements, he marched in quick time to Columbia, but on 
reaching there, he found that Morgan had passed on through. 
He pursued on his trail for three miles on the Burkesville 
road, when he was ordered back by Gen. S. S. Fry, who had 
arrived, and was now in command of Wolford's and Hos- 
kins's forces in pursuit. 

After resting at Columbia a few days, the regiment 
marched by way of Camp Billy Williams, Bradfordsville, 
Lebanon, Springfield, Bardstown, New Haven and Glasgow, 
to Gallatin, Tenn., where it remained until the 6th of Feb- 
ruary. On this day, a scout was sent out under Major Owens, 
to Askell, and from there to Hartsville, where five prisoners 
were captured, and returned to camp at 7 p. m., having trav- 
eled, according to Capt. Pankey's diary, fifty-six miles on 
that day. 

The Union authorities, learning that Morgan had a force 
of 5,000 Cavalry within a few miles of Liberty, Tenn., and 
that he had a large number of boats on the Caney Fork 
River, and would attemp to cross the river below Carthage, 
to invade Kentucky, Gen. E. A. Paine, then in command at 
Gallatin, ordered Col. Wolford with his regiment and a sec- 
tion of an Indiana battery under Lieut. Pease, to march to 
Carthage and destroy all the boats up and down the river. 
Wolford informed Paine that two of his men had come in 
from Burkesville, Ky., and reported a Georgia regiment there, 
and that he could capture them and return in ten days. 
Gen. Paine gave him permission, if he found the report to be 
correct, to make the attempt, and he drew rations for 
ten days, and started on the 7th of February. On the 8th, 
was at Carthage. Capt. Pond, of the Eleventh Kentucky, 
destroyed the boats in that section. That same evening, 
Wolford marched seven miles on the Tompkinsville road and 
went into camp. On the 9th, after marching five or six 
miles, a scout went out in pursuit of the guerrilla Harrilton, 
but failed to catch him. The command then marching by 


way of Tompkinsville arrived at Marrowbone, near Burkes- 
ville, where it remained until the 21st. 

While camped at this place, the following account of an 
escape from a murderous ambush of the enemy is taken from 
the pen of the Rev. W. H. Honnell : 

Nearly a year after my first meeting with the grim chief- 
tain, Champe Ferguson, I came very near meeting him again, 
when the Cumberland River alone formed the boundary line 
between our command and his wild outlaws. The Colonel 
had given the only possible member of his staff command on 
Sabbath days. Our scouts reported a large force of Cavalry 
having crossed the river, and formed in position for battle. 
With his usual impetuosity, Wolford gathered the available 
men into line of march, and started to chastise him. I was 
swept into the excited advance, leaving my sermon to be 
preached on my return. It came near being never spoken, 
for Champe had so decreed, as he placed his ambush to sweep 
down the head of the column, as he knew the Colonel, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel, Chaplain and others, always led the daring 
column. We had only gone two miles when I claimed the 
right of command that day, and the Colonel yielded it. In 
a few words, the Lord's claim of the Sabbath day was made, 
and the men, by my order, returned to near the camp and pre- 
pared for defense, putting out a strong advanced picket line. 

A few days after we captured a squad of citizens with 
arms,who denied any connection with Champe's band, but sus- 
piciously inquired why we turned back so suddenly that Sab- 
bath day, as their ambush was in sure position to have swept, 
at the first fire, ten men ddwn to certain death. We had not 
then fulfilled our mission ; never had the regiment forfeited 
the Lord's protection. I took the occasion to recount the be- 
lief very widely held, that those beginning needless battles 
on the Sabbath day, were generally defeated. 

Old Captain Jenkins used to say, " If there had been no 
hell, the Lord, no doubt, would have made one about that 
time for such murderers." " We must fight 'em," he would 
contend, " till hell froze over, and then fight 'em on the ice." 

And Col. Adams expressed himself thus : " I am willing 
to do battle while I live, but am glad death will separate us." 

Ten days after the foregoing occurrence, a scout of about 
thirty men from different companies was sent to Burkes- 
ville, on the Cumberland River. No enemy was found on the 
north side, but some were seen across the river. A sharp 
skirmish took place in which Lieut. William Adams, Com- 


pany A, was severely wounded in the hand, and a member of 
Company J in the mouth. 

The command left Marrowbone on the 21st of February 
and marched by way of Columbia, Bradfordsville and Hus-^ 
tonville, and arrived at Danville on the 28th, where it went 
into camp. 

It has been stated that on leaving Gallatin, Tenn., CoL 
Wolford had discretionary orders only to go as far as Burkes- 
ville, and be absent for ten days. No orders can be found 
for his movement to Danville, but it appears on the records 
that he was about this time put temporarily under command 
of Gen. Gilmore, commanding the district of Central Ken- 
tucky, by order of Gen. Boyle, as his services were much 
needed in this section at the time. Some time afterward, 
the First Kentucky was transferred from the Department of 
the Cumberland to the Department of the Ohio. 


Governor Robinson notifies Gen. Wright of threatened 
invasion of Kentucky — First Kentucky moves to 
Wray's woodland, in Lincoln county — Fine times — 
Cloud in the horizon — Carter moves to Danville — 
Pegram crosses the Cumberland River — Wolford 
moves to Stanford — His scouts pressed back — Alarm- 
ing rumors — Fall back to Danville — Capture of Lieut. 
Col. Adams — Retreat to Camp Nelson — Boone's heroic 
charge through the enemy's camp — Housed-up — Brave 


— Pursuit of the enemy — Battle of Dutton Hill, and 
thrilling occurences — notes — many incidents, amus- 
ing and otherwise. 

Gen. H. G. Wright was commanding the Department of 
Ohio, with headquarters at Cincinnati; Gen. Q. A. Gill- 
more, the District of Central Kentucky, with headquarters 
at Lexington. After the resignation of Governor Magoffin, 
Kentucky had a true patriot at the head of State affairs in 
the person of Governor James F. Robinson, who gave all the 


aid in his power to the Union cause without attempting to 
intermeddle with the plans of the officers in the field. 

On the 1st day of March, 1863, Governor Robinson noti- 
fied Gen. Wright of reliable information being received from 
various sources, both Union and Confederate, all concurring 
that a heavy invasion of Kentucky had been determined on 
by the enemy, and was then being rapidly prepared. The 
governor had gotten most of this information direct from 
his brother-in-law, Dr. Gano, of Georgetown, who reported 
to him that four Confederate officers, in disguise, that had 
come into the State with Cluke, were all night at the house 
of a noted Secessionist in Scott county, in close conference ; 
that the information given was, that Marshall and Pegram 
were to invade the State from Virginia with 7,000 mounted 
troops, simultaneously with Morgan and Forrest from Tennes- 
see, with a like number ; that the date agreed upon was the 
20th of March ; that the business of the disguised officers 
was to arrange with the Rebels in Scott, Owen, Grant and 
Harrison counties, to burn all the bridges and tear up the 
railroad from Cincinnati to Lexington. The Secession citi- 
zen who gave Dr. Gano the information, was a man of large 
property, and did not want the Rebels to enter the State for 
fear of depradations on his property. 

Gen. Wright did not believe in the practicability of such 
.an extensive invasion so early in the season, and with the 
men they had to spare, without jeopardizing their interests 
in other sections; but, nevertheless, he thought there was 
enough in the report to warn Army Headquarters at Wash- 
ington, of impending danger, and to be on guard. It is rea- 
sonable to suppose that the information of the intended 
extensive invasion of Kentucky was purposely fixed so it 
would reach Governor Robinson, and from him conveyed to 
military headquarters as a blind to cover the predatory ex- 
cursion which afterward took place ; but the Author has 
official Confederate documents at hand to prove otherwise. 
The formidable invasion was really contemplated and dis- 
cussed ; its object being to secure favorable political results, 
make a diversion in favor of Bragg and other commanders 
in the front, and collect a large amount of supplies for the 
needy and hungry Rebel army. It dwindled into a mere 


horse and cattle-stealing expedition, for want of sufficient 
troops to spare, and a lack of confidence in Humphrey Mar- 
shall's abilities and pretensions, and other cans.-,. 

The First Kentucky remained at Danville until the 6th 
of March, when it moved to Stanford, and then out three 
miles on the Hustonville road to May's woodland, where it 
remained until the '2'2d. Here the men and horses had op- 
portunities to rest their wearied limbs and exhausted vitality 
for two weeks, only sending out scouts to the Cumberland 
Eiver and Mt. Vernon. Our camp was in a wealthy blue 
grass section, and forage and rations were plentiful, so that 
our horses, mules and men, could laugh as heartily at their 
bountiful supplies as Sherman's horses, mules and " bum- 
mers " did on the famous " march to the sea." 

There were good Union men in this section, but many of 
the princely farmers sympathized with the cause of the sunny 
land of the South. But no matter on which side they sym- 
pathized, their hospitable mansions were generally opened 
freely to both men and officers. "Our camp was visited by 
both males and females, as the names of " Frank " Wolford, 
" Silas " Adams and " Hawk " Brown had long been familiar 
to the people of the vicinity. It was peopled with the prog- 
eny of the Shelbys, Logans, Davidsons, McKinneys and other 
pioneers who helped to make the history of the country. 

But the grand pic-nic of our men and horses was of short 
duration. An ominous cloud was appearing in the horizon. 
The Rebel Colonel Cluke was roaming about in Eastern Ken- 
tucky with about 750 men, and Humphrey Marshall was at 
Hazel Green with 1,500 men, both commands being mounted. 
March 9th, Gen. Q. A. Gillmore received direct from Knox- 
ville reports that Pegram was at Beaver Creek, ten miles 
northwest of Knoxville, with a force of from 10,000 to 12,000 
Cavalry, and a battery of six-pounder cast iron guns ; that 
their intentions were to have entered Kentucky two weeks 
before by way of Jamestown, Fentras county, Tennessee, but 
were stopped by a flood in the Clinch River. These reports 
came through Lieut. Edwards, and were corroborated by in- 
formation from other sources. He also reported that two 
weeks before, Bragg had withdrawn about 12,000 men from 
Tullahoma and vicinity to Chattanooga, as a feint against 


Kentucky, upon the presumption that troops would be largely 
detached from Rosecrans's army to meet it, and that this 
force was at Chattanooga on the 28th of February. These 
reports were considered to be strictly reliable. There were 
also wild rumors brought in by refugee citizens and others, 
that Buckner held the mountain passes south of the Ciirn- 
berland, with a force of from 20,000 to 25,000 men, waiting 
only for favorable weather to make a forward movement. 

The rich blue grass region of Central Kentucky, owing to 
the heavy calls to the front, was now considerably bare of 
troops. To oppose the expected overwhelming mounted 
forces of the enemy, Gillmore only had 2,300 mounted men, 
and many of them badly mounted. 

As early as March 18th, Gen. Gillmore received informa- 
tion through spies, that the enemy was concentrating a 
mounted force in Wayne county, variously estimated at from 
3,000 to 5,000 men. The expected invasion was supposed to 
have commenced. 

On the 21st, Col. Wolford, who held the front, and whose 
scouts were in Wayne and Pulaski counties, telegraphed to 
Gillmore from Stanford as follows : 

The Rebels, under Scott, numbering 3,500 men, are at 
Stigall's Ferry, ready to cross the Cumberland River, near 
Somerset. There is no mistake in this. My scouts were not 

Gen. Gillmore immediately ordered Gen. Carter's com- 
mand to Danville. On the 22d the report of scouts in front, 
showed the enemy's advance so threatening that our camp was 
moved to Mrs. Bright's farm at Stanford. Capt. F. M. Wol- 
ford, Company A, commanding the scouting party on the 
Somerset road, now reported being pressed by the enemy's 
advance guard, with occasional skirmishing. 

A kind of prudential panic now took place among our 
commanding officers ; not a disorderly or cowardly one, for 
everything was done in as good order as possible. So rap- 
idly was the enemy advancing now, that at 6 p. m., on the 
23d, the regiment struck tents and marched within two miles 
of Danville, arriving there late in the night. The reports of 
the enemy's strength had now grown to 7,000 Cavalry and 


three regiments of infantry. If our chief officers had only- 
been properly informed, there was almost Artillery enough 
at Danville to have defeated Pegram's forces without using 
the Infantry. Wolford, who generally had on his war paint, 
wanted to fight, but he was only a subordinate, and could not 
rule. Gen. Carter, however, got information that the enemy 
was about to flank him, and put his train of 150 wagons in 
motion for Hickman bridge. 

The enemy was dilating about moving on our own men 
on the 24th, and did not approach the First Kentucky skir- 
mishers on the Stanford pike until 12 m., and the firing com- 
menced, and at 2:30 p. m., a general retreat was ordered. 
As the First Kentucky, being in the rear, fell back through 
Danville, there was a hand to hand contest, but fortunately 
there were but few casualties. The consciences of the men 
of both parties seemed to deflect their aim ; the one for re- 
treating with eight pieces of Artillery, and four or five regi- 
ments of Infantry, from a mere Cavalry raid, and the other, 
for having the impudence to attack such a force, and this 
force almost under the shelter of an impregnable natural 
fortification. As the regiment slowly contested its way 
through the town, there were so many cross streets to con- 
tend with, that Lieut. Col. Adams found himself surrounded, 
and was compelled to surrender. A number of others were 
captured, but most of them made their escape. Many of the 
regiment were cut off in their retreat from the Lexington 
pike, and in making their way around by private roads and 
through plantations, had various adventures to relate of in- 
dividual pursuit and hair-breadth escapes when they joined 
the main body of their comrades at Camp Nelson. 

The regiment reached the Hickman bridge and went into 
Camp Nelson about 12 o'clock that night. 

By an oversight or negligence of some one in command, 
Company E, of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois regi- 
ment, guarding the Dix River bridge, was left without being 
relieved, until after Wolford's rear guard had passed ; but 
Capt. Otman, in command of the company, succeeded in 
eluding the Rebel Cavalry, by the aid of darkness and hard 
marching, and joined his regiment at Camp Nelson. 

A detachment of sixty picked men from different com- 


panies, all under command of Capt. Samuel M. Boone, of 
Company D, had been sent to Lancaster, and after Col. Wol- 
ford had orders to retreat, William S. Go wins, of Company 
I, was sent with a dispatch to Boone to meet us at Camp 
Dick Robinson ; but Gowins fell into the hands of the enemy 
and was paroled. 

Owing to the capture of Gowins, as before stated, Capt. 
Boone was uninformed of the action and movements of the 
main body of Union troops at Danville. Just as the Union 
troops left Danville, Pegram claims that he was handed an 
intercepted dispatch from Col. Ben. P. Runkle to Gen. S. P. 
Carter, saying he would arrive in Lancaster that night, and 
would try to join him at Camp Dick Robinson. Ordering 
Col. Nixon to follow up the Union forces closely, he at once 
sent to recall the remainder of his command, and started 
for one of the fords of Dix River above the bridge, on the 
Lexington pike, with a view of throwing his main command 
between Carter and Runkle, near Camp Dick Robinson. Peg- 
ram claims that owing to a hard march of sixty-one miles 
in twenty-eight hours, his horses were too fatigued to reach 
the desired spot in time, but undoubtedly some of his com- 
mand reached there, for Boone and Runkle found themselves 
cut off, and were in a critical dilemma ; but Boone was a 
man of brilliant genius and quick perceptions, and on the 
spur of the moment executed a daring exploit, which though 
it may not have been in exact accordance with any known 
standard of military tactics, yet was one of the most suc- 
cessful movements that transpired during the war. It can- 
not be given in better style than in the Captain's own lan- 
guage : 

Late one evening — and two other days before the affair 
at Danville — Gen. Carter ordered me to Lancaster with sixty 
picked men, to watch the movements of the enemy in that 
direction. They were selected from the different companies 
of the First Kentucky Cavalry, and I can truthfully say that 
braver men never responded to " boots and saddles." My in- 
structions from the General were in substance, as follows : 
" You will proceed to Lancaster, occupy the court-house, 
make your men as comfortable as possible, and hold the 
place until you receive orders from me to abandon it. I will 
keep you posted as to events here." He further said : " In 


the event that J am forced to fall back from this position, I 
will make a stand at Camp Dick Robins' 1:1." 

On the following morning (I having reached Lancaster 
late the preceding night), a courier cam" in from Danville 
with dispatches from Gen. Carter, notifying me that the 
enemy were approaching on the Stanford road, repeating his 
former instructions to hold the place unless compelled by a 
superior force to fall back, and if I was compelled to retreat, 
to fall back to Camp Dick Robinson. This was the last mes- 
sage received from Gen. Carter while at Danville. I thought 
it strange that no more couriers arrived, he having promised 
to send one to me every two or three hours ; but I felt no 
particular alarm, as my position had not been approached 
by the enemy. The citizens, however, were much alarmed, 
many of them were running their horses and cattle to hiding- 
places. Gen. Pegram's forces were estimated at from 3,500 
to 4,000 men, all Cavalry, with three or four pieces of Ar- 

When night came, following the Danville fight, Col. Ben. 
P. Runkle arrived from Richmond in command of the Forty- 
Fourth and Forty-Fifth Ohio Mounted Infantry, reaching 
Lancaster about 10 o'clock in the night. He called me up, 
and requested me to take the advance in a retreat to Camp 
Dick Robinson. This I at first refused to do, explaining to 
him that I had been ordered by Gen. Carter to remain there 
until he ordered me away. The Colonel then, among other 
things, remarked : " I rank you, and you must obey me ; as 
I know something that you are not aware of. Gen. Carter 
has been repulsed at Danville, and is now on a retreat for 
Camp Dick Robinson, and we must form a junction with him 
as soon as possible." 

I accordingly, with my detachment, proceeded to take the 
advance, forming my men in " column of fours." We marched 
leisurely along, the night being an extremely dark one, all 
hoping soon to join our comrades at Camp Dick Robinson. 
When we reached the Old Fork Church, which stood on the 
pike three-fourths of a mile or more from Camp Dick Rob- 
inson, I and Gabe Greenleaf, of Company G, being at the 
head of the column, which was at that moment somewhat 
straggling, imagine our surprise at running square upon two 
sleeping troopers, one on each side of the road in front of 
the church. Gabe grappled one, and I the other. We could 
not see their faces on account of the extreme darkness of the 
night. I shook my man violently in order to arouse him, 
fearing I would have to report some of our boys found asleep 
on post. I sternly demanded of him : " Who are you, and 
where do you belong ! " 

He replied, "Wolford." 


I then demanded his name, and the company to which he 

He muttered out a name, which has escaped my memory, 
and claimed " D " as his company. 

I responded : " You are a d d liar ; I am Captain of 

that company myself, and there is no such man in it." I 
placed my Navy to his head saying : " Now, sir, no foolish- 
ness. If you make any noise, or attempt to arouse the camp, 
I will blow your brains out on the spot." 

" What troops are those on the right? " [I could see their 
fires.] "That," said he, "is Maj. Steele's battalion. The 
fires further down on the left are where Scott's Louisiana 
Cavalry are camped." 

At this juncture, I sent a man back to inform Col. Runkle 
that instead of finding our own troops, Gen. Pegram's force 
was in our immediate front, and occupying the ground 
where we expected to find Gen. Carter. Whether my message 
was ever delivered to Col. Runkle or not, I cannot say; and, 
without awaiting the return of the Orderly, I decided at once 
to charge ; so, in a sharp, ringing voice I commanded : " Close 
up ! Cover your file leaders ! By fours — charge ! " And away 
we flew down the pike, lined on each side by the enemy. 
Col. Runkle, and his brave Ohioans, followed like the rush of 
a cyclone. My own voice, and the thundering clatter of a 
thousand iron-hoofed horses, miming at full speed, were the 
only sounds I heard, except in passing the old barn at Camp 
Dick Robinson, which stood in an angle formed by the junc- 
tion of the Lancaster and Danville pikes. Here again I 
called out in a loud voice : " Close up ! " I heard some one 
say, " By G — d, that's Boone's voice." Then there was a 
rush made by the men who were prisoners in the barn, and 
many of them ran along by the side of our horses, sprang 
up behind my men, and were rescued by us. None of my 
men were captured, and under the trying circumstances by 
which they were surrounded, each individual man behaved 
with that calm and deliberate bravery for which Kentuckians 
have ever been renowned. 

The barn passed, and not a shot fired, we rush on until 
Bryantsville is reached. Here we captured the entire Con- 
federate picket-post without firing a shot ; all of whom were 
taken along by my command, to the north bank of the Ken- 
tucky River, and turned over as prisoners to Gen. Carter. It 
may be stated here, that soon after my command, leading the 
advance the whole time, had passed the barn mentioned, Col. 
Runkle sent Lieut. Lemon on with a company to take the 
advance, which made my men, as well as myself, indignant. 
The men appealed to me : " Captain, we have run this 
gauntlet, and are entitled to whatever honor it may produce ; 


these men shall never get ahead of us." They were as good 
as their word, and crossed the Kentucky River still in ad- 

When I made my report to Gen. Carter, he and Wolford 
were greatly rejoiced to see us, for they assured us that they 
fully expected us to be cut to pieces and captured. 

This left us on the north bank of the Kentucky River, 
with orders to burn the bridge over the stream, which order 
Col. Wolford neglected to obey ; thus a magnificent struc- 
ture was saved. S. M. Boone. 

In this connection the Author copies the following com- 
plimentary notice of Wolford and his men from Capt. B. F. 
Thompson's History of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illi- 
nois Infantry regiment. 

It was confidently believed by the Union Generals that 
Pegram's Cavalry was the advance guard of Buckner's whole 
army, and that the long-talked of invasion of Kentucky 
had actually taken place. They were paralyzed by the very 
audacity of the Rebel troopers, and seemed incapable of un- 
derstanding the situation, or of adopting the necessary mea- 
sures to repel the Rebel forces. But one officer among the 
brigade and division commanders seemed to comprehend the 
true situation of affairs, and that was Col. Wolford, of the 
First Kentucky Cavalry. Wolford's regiment seemed to be 
everywhere at the same time. They were on their native 
soil, and knew every foot of the country thoroughly, and 
seemed to have carte blanche to go when and where they 
pleased and return when they got ready. They knew but little 
about drill, and discipline was a stranger to them, but the 
men had the utmost confidence in their Colonel, and he in 
them. Every man was a brigadier on his own hook, and a 
majority of them believed themselves superior to the average 
brigadier. "Two ranks into four; git — go," was their or- 
dinary and almost only command ; and away they would go 
at break-neck speed, and woe to the Rebel that crossed their 
path. Brave, generous men — bold, daring soldiers — they had 
the utmost contempt for red tape, discipline, dress-parade 
and reviews, but were always on hand when there was any 
fighting to do, and nothing gave them so much satisfaction 
as to get a " whack " at a Rebel. 

The same day that our forces fell back across the Ken- 
tucky River, Gen. A. E. Burnside arrived at Cincinnati, re- 
lieved Gen. Wright, and assumed command of the Depart- 
ment of Ohio on the next day, the 25th. Gen. Burnside had 


not yet the means of becoming acquainted with the strength 
of the audacious enemy, and commenced at once to concen- 
trate his forces, consisting of the Ninth Army Corps, 12,000 
strong, which was soon to arrive, and other scattered forces 
on the north side of the Kentucky River. Orders were issued 
to Gen. Boyle, at Louisville, to concentrate all of his forces 
which could be spared from guarding Rosecrans's communi- 
cations between Nashville and Louisville, at Lebanon, Kv., 
and to move in concert with him. 

And still the panic grew in dimensions among our high 
officials. Governor Robinson became alarmed about the 
State archives, and consulted with military authorities about 
removing them to a place of safety. Even Gen. Carrington, 
at Indianapolis, became uneasy, and could not spare a man 
for reinforcements. As late as the 26th, Gen. Boyle tele- 
graphed to Gen. Rosecrans, in Tennessee, that Breckinridge, 
with a force estimated at from 7,000 to 15,000 men, supposed 
to be the advance of a much larger force, still occupied Dan- 
ville and Harrodsburg. Orders were issued to Commanders 
of detachments on the line of the Kentucky River up as 
high as Irvine, to destroy all of the boats at the crossings, 
on the approach of the enemy in force, and the boats and 
canoes below Hickman bridge were destroyed as low down as 
Shaker's Ferry. 

In the meantime, the principal part of Pegram's force — 
his whole force variously reported afterward at from 1,500 
to 2,300 men strong — followed us up, and took position on 
the south side of the river, while the rest were busily en- 
gaged in collecting the fine beef cattle and blooded horses 
from the farmers of Lincoln, Boyle and Garrard counties. 
for Confederate use. At Hickman bridge, or Camp Nelson, 
we were housed up from the night of the 24th of March 
until the morning of the 28th. The floor of the fine arched 
turnpike bridge, which had stood the storms of twenty-five 
years unscathed, was taken up, and the bridge was ordered 
to be burned in certain contingencies. The exact time our 
commanders would have been ready to move on the enemy is 
not known, if it had not been for the perilous undertaking 
of two loyal families. One was the wife of Dr. H. Jackman, 
of Lancaster, Ky. He was originally from the north side of 


the Ohio River, but for a number of years was a resident of 
the above-named town. He was a man of high moral worth, 
and a strict member of the church. Though small in dimen- 
sions, every inch of him was made of manly material, and 
he was most intensely loyal to his government. His consti- 
tution was delicate, and he was subject to very sick spells. 
So strongly did he denounce Secessionism, though brave as 
a lion, it was necessary for him to hide out for safety when- 
ever bodies of the enemy came through that section. 

Some ten years, more or less, previous to the war, Miss 
Louisa West, reared amid the classic scenes of Georgetown, 
Ky., but at that time residing with her father in Illinois, 
came to Garrard county on a visit to her relations. She was 
handsome and accomplished, brought up tenderly, and al- 
ways used to the best circles of society. The Author, then 
an awkward boy, met her in the family circle of her rela- 
tives. She was timid and bashful, and was the last person 
one would suppose to undertake an exploit which required 
the coolest, bravest and best nerve to execute. But after ex- 
perience has satisfactorily proven that both heroes and hero- 
ines are generally composed of unobtrusive material. It was 
while on this visit that she met Dr. Jackman, and they be- 
came congenial spirits, and wedded for life. 

The Author was not so well acquainted with Mrs. Vaughn, 
the other actress in the critical undertaking, only knowing 
that she belonged to a sterling family of Garrard count;, 
and had given two sons to the Union cause, and they were 
members of Wolford's Cavalry. Such were the two of the 
gentler sex who undertook the dangerous task of convey in ti- 
the information of the weakness of the enemy's force across 
the river to our officers. Knowing all the time of the valu- 
able services and adventurous expedition, the Author, after 
thirty years, succeeded in getting full particulars of the trip 
from Mrs. Jackman herself. 

On Thursday morning, March 26, 1863, Mrs. Margaret G. 
Vaughn went to the home of Mrs. Jackman, in Lancaster, 
and told her of the trouble she had the night before ; that 
she had been annoyed all night by Pegram's men trying to 
take her horses ; that she had stood on her porch all night 
holding them by their bridles, and driving the men away, 


when they would try to get them. While standing there, she 
heard the conversation of some Confederate officers to whom 
she had given rooms for the night. They were laughing at 
their success in spreading false reports in regard to their 
strength, and causing the Union forces to retreat, when they 
could easily have driven them back, as the Federals were 
much the stronger ; that if they could cause the Union forces 
to burn the Hickman bridge, they could have everything 
their own way for a few days. Mrs. Jackman rejoined that 
she had obtained the same information from the Rebels the 
day before, and that they had taunted her with the cow- 
ardice of the Federal army in retreating before an inferior 
force ; that she had retorted that they would get enough of 
the Union forces' cowardice before they left the State. 

So the two loyal ladies put their heads together and con- 
sulted, and determined to mount Mrs. Vaughn's two horses, 
which she had brought along, and convey the information 
gained to Headquarters of the Union forces across the Ken- 
tucky River. 

It is eighteen miles by direct road from Lancaster to 
Polly's Bend, where they crossed, and by the zig-zag course 
they were compelled to pursue to avoid the public highways 
and the enemy, it is uncertain what distance they traveled in 
the two days spent in reaching our lines. The enemy's lines, 
scouting parties, and pickets, too, intervened between them 
and the objective point. But the most formidable object, 
perhaps, was the Kentucky River itself ; its high stage from 
the previous rains, its rugged cliffs, rising in some places 300 
feet high and perpendicular, with only here and there a place 
of descent from bench to bench, along narrow passways, with 
overhanging masses of rock on one side, and yawning pre- 
cipices on the other ; the trip contemplated was perilous in 
the extreme. 

They left Lancaster the same day (March 26th) at 10 
o'clock, and went through farms for several miles to evade 
the enemy's pickets and scouting parties. They then traveled 
by-ways and mud roads, which were almost impassable, until 
they fell in with a little colored boy who was trying to make 
his escape from the Rebel soldiers. They took him under 
the wing of their protection, and induced him to try to 


guide them to the nearest point below the Hickman bridge, 
on the Kentucky River, hoping they might get below the 
enemy's pickets. They came to where their horses mired in 
the mud, and were compelled to dismount to enable them to 
struggle out. Just as they remounted and started again, they 
went right into the enemy's pickets, were halted, closely 
questioned, and turned back. Our meek-mannered heroines 
now asked permission, which was granted, to reach the pike, 
and go to Bryantsville, which place they arrived at about 
night, and went to a loyal friend's house in the vicinity by 
the name of Jack Johnson, and staid all night. Still indomi- 
table, and determined to get the information to the Union 
army, they returned to Bryantsville to Merriman Johnson's, 
and consulted him and his wife and several other loyal 
friends, among whom were Mrs. Doctor Mullins and Mr. B. 
M. Jones. Their friends gave them the best directions they 
could, and the two women started again. After going about 
two miles, they met the Rebel Col. Morrison, who halted 
them, and turned them back once more. He rode with them 
some distance, and after leaving them, still persisting in car- 
rying out their purpose, they took through farms until they 
came out on a road where they met a man, and after con- 
sulting with him and finding him all right, they got the in- 
formation from him that the enemy's pickets were near by, 
and that if they would follow the creek they would soon get 
below them, and have no more trouble. They surrounded 
the pickets and came out on the road again, where they met 
another man, who, after conversing a little, informed them 
that he had started to get the news. Upon inquiring his 
name, he was found to be the one to whom they had been 
recommended in the morning. 

He took them to his house and gave them their dinners. 
On descending to the river to see if there were any means of 
crossing, he found that all the boats and rafts had been de- 
stroyed that morning by the Union forces, except one frail 
raft not three feet wide. From there to the river was so 
rugged, that their horses were left in the care of their new- 
found friends. By the aid of William and Jefferson Over- 
street, Mrs. Jackman and Vaughn descended the dangerous 



cliffs of the Kentucky River in what is called Polly's Bend, 
some miles below the Hickman bridge. A Mr. Alsop brought 
over his little raft, and the two went aboard. The river had 
swelled from the late rains, and the current ran strong, the 
raft sinking so low that the water ran across their feet. 
Those on the bank held their breath in awe, expecting to see 
the precious load go down ; but they landed safely, and were 
joyfully received by the Union pickets. A Lieutenant and 
two soldiers escorted thern to the house of a Mr. Phillips, 
half a mile from the river, where they procured a topless 
buggy to convey them to Headquarters. Mr. Phillips's son 
accompanied the military escort, and it soon became as dark 
as Egypt, the rain pouring down in torrents. 

It was 8 o'clock when they reached the camp of the First 
Kentucky Cavalry, and found Col. Wolford was at Mr. Moss's, 
some distance from camp. Maj. W. N. Owens, however, 
guided them to Col. Wolford's stopping-place. Here they 
were refused admittance by Mrs. Moss, until she found out 
their business and respectability, when she was profuse in 
her apologies, which were readily accepted. 

When the two ladies had given Col. Wolford all the in- 
formation they had in store of the enemy's weakness and 
audacity, he was surprised and astonished. A number of the 
officers and men 'of Company G, of his regiment, lived 
around Lancaster ; Capt. T. K. Hackley was closely related 
to Mrs. Jackman, and the veracity and high standing of the 
two heroines were too well known to be even doubted. He 
immediately telegraphed to Gen. Gillmore the substance of 
the information received. Gillmore replied, giving orders to 
Col. Wolford to have the floor of the Hickman bridge laid 
immediately, see that his men had three days rations pre- 
pared, and take the advance in the pursuit of the enemy the 
next morning (the 28th.) 

During the time we were at Camp Nelson, our First Ken- 
tucky skirmishers, advancing to the river bluff on the north 
side, had daily duels with the enemy from the bluffs on the 
south side. 

On the morning of the 28th, the following troops moved 
out after the enemy : First Kentucky Cavalry, Col. Frank 
Wolford; Forty-Fifth Ohio Mounted Infantry, Col. Ben. P. 


Runkle ; a portion of the Forty-Fourth Ohio Mounted In- 
fantry, Major Mitchell, forming part of Runkle's command ; 
Law's Howitzer Battery, Capt. Jessee Law. These all started 
in pursuit under Gen. Carter. On the 30th, General Q. A. 
Gillmore caught up, and reinforced with a battalion of the 
Seventh Ohio Cavalry, under Col. Garrard, and one section 
of Rodman Rifles. The whole number, according to Gill- 
more, being 1,250 men, vastly inferior in numbers to the 
enemy. Infantry forces were put in motion from Camp Nel- 
son, Lebanon and other points, but the mounted forces ad- 
vanced so eagerly that they were left a day's march in the rear. 

For details of the pursuit and battle, the Author com- 
piles from official records and accounts written by Capt. 
Sam. M. Boone, Chaplain W. H. Honnell, Lieut. Thomas J. 
Graves and others. 

Pegram's forces retreated from the start, only making a 
stand occasionally to check our men, to give time to get the 
collected stock back toward the Cumberland river. A short 
distance from Crab Orchard, Capt. Boone, leading the ad- 
vance, at the break of day, ran into a detachment of the 
enemy camping in a Mr. Severance's barn, and poured into 
them a galling fire from their carbines and revolvers. They 
fled in great precipitation, leaving five or six of their men 
prisoners, one of them being painfully wounded in the hand. 
The man suffering much, and the Captain being as kind- 
hearted as he was brave, gave the prisoner his handkerchief 
to bind up his wound. A running fight was kept up with the 
enemy until they reached the top of a hill, where they made 
a stand, checking our men until the main body came up, 
when they moved on. On the 29th, Carter's command camped 
on Buck Creek, ten miles north of Somerset. 

At daybreak on the 30th, Gen. Gillmore came up with his 
reinforcements and took command. As soon as the horses 
were fed, Gillmore ordered an advance. The First Kentucky 
was in the van, and soon became engaged with the enemy's 
rear guard, forcing it back gradually. Directly after start- 
ing the advance guard was fired on from ambush, and Corp. 
Joseph Hicks, of Company G, was shot in the throat, from 
the effects of which he never fully recovered, and for a long 
time talked in a whisper. 


About noon the position of the main body of the enemy 
was developed strongly posted on Dutton's Hill, three miles 
north of Somerset. It then became evident that our forces 
were greatly outnumbered. The battle line was formed by 
placing Wolford (dismounted) on the right, in the woods, 
Garrard and the Rodman guns on open ground in the center, 
and Runkle (dismounted) on the left. 

In front of the First Kentucky was a small field on a 
hill-side, which had been in corn the year before, and on the 
crest of this hill were two or three pieces of Artillery which 
opened fire upon our lines. The First Kentucky was also 
supporting Law's howitzer battery. Capt. Law became en- 
thusiastic, and, throwing off his coat, shouted, " By G — d, 
give me Wolford's Cavalry and my Jackass battery, and I'll 
whip them in an hour ! " In this position our men remained 
under a well directed and heavy fire for some time. A criti- 
cal part in the battle now took place, which is given in 
Chaplain Honnell's own words : 

The long line of rail breastworks covered the Rebel front 
on the hill, and their Artillery had begun to play upon our 
line, which was gradually gaining its place just at the foot of 
the hill below them. The lines were formed by Wolford's 
left, working its way down to the right of the center column. 
This was joined to the right of Runkle's Forty-Fifth Ohio 
men. Orders had been sent to the other two parts of the 
line to assault, when, as I sat upon my horse with Gen. Car- 
ter, a new movement was plainly visible on the part of the 
Rebels, now half a mile away from Headquarters. It was 
Scott's Cavalry — as we afterwards learned — coming into view 
to gain our right and rear, and thus place us between fires. 
Their Artillery had been answered by ours unlimbering as it 
did, just in front of Gillmore and Carter as they sat on 
their horses back of the center of our army. As Scott's men 
came fairly into view. I heard Gillmore say to Carter, " They 
are dividing their forces to strike in our right flank and rear, 
now is our time or never ! " I had never seen Gillmore till 
now, and thought we were acting under Gen. Carter's orders, 
but saw that our new General had come up. He turned to 
me, and naturally supposing that I was Gen. Carter's Chief 
of Staff, called to me : " Captain, gallop to Wolford and 
order him from Gen. Gillmore to charge the Rebel line in 
his front at once." I was to pass under fire of the Rebel 
sharpshooters for at least a quarter of a mile, as Wolford 
was protected by the hill-side, but I had to pass over the 


open field. If I had told him who I was, I need not have 
gone, but my pride came to my help, and I dashed headlong 
under their fire, grazed several times, but never hit, till I 
leaped from my horse at Wolford's side, and gave him the 
General's orders. I led my horse up behind him, as with 
shouts, his men went up the hill, and the whole line went up 
to his left sweeping all before them. 

The gallant Dr. H. Brown, acting as Aid to the General, 
at the same time bearing orders for one of the regiments to 
charge, on his return got his horse shot from under him. 

At the same time, those two noble regiments, the Forty- 
Fourth and Forty-Fifth Ohio, executed a similar movement 
on the left, and a portion of Garrard's Cavalry in the cen- 
ter, carrying that portion of the field at the point of the 

Wolford's men, not being in a situation to see the move- 
ments of the enemy, were now in hopes that the bloody 
work was over, but were mistaken, for just at this time, 
Scott's dashing Louisiana Cavalry was seen flanking our 
position on the extreme right, endangering the capture of our 
train and horses then nearly a mile in the rear. 

Serg. Thos. J. Graves and others, in charge of the horses, 
seeing the danger, moved up the horses toward the battle 
line. Law's howitzer battery, at the same time, opened a 
well-directed fire on the advancing foe, which served to check 
them, until our men were in the saddle again. Scott, in the 
meantime, with his own regiment, and fragments of others, 
took a strong position to the right in thick timber. Wolford 
moved up cautiously until Scott's men were located, then 
halted his men also on the borders of heavy timbered land, 
with a small stubble field between them. Here our men 
received and returned their fire at several hundred yards 
distance. There was a rail fence between our men and the 
enemy, which Col. Wolford ordered to be torn down. At 
this time a Major in command of a battalion of the Seventh 
Ohio Cavalry joined our men and approached Col. Wolford 
and said: "Col. Wolford, I have been directed to report to 
you for duty. What shall I do? " " Form your men on the 
right of my regiment thar ; I am fixing to charge." The 
Major, who was a nice gentleman, laughed, saluted, formed 


his men, and Wolford was again charging at the head of his 
command. It may truly be said that the Federals met foe- 
men worthy of their steel. Many of these men fought us 
hand to hand, when every hope of escape was cut off. Here 
the brave Serg. James R. Hoy, of Company C, lost his life 
in the following tragic manner : He came upon a Louisianian 
by the name of McKinney, and presenting his revolver, de- 
manded the man's surrender, to which McKinney replied, 
"All right," holding up his left hand. Hoy was in the act 
of returning his revolver to his holster when McKinney threw 
up a pistol in his right hand, and shot poor Hoy through 
the head. The Sergeant pitched forward from his horse 
and died in great agony. McKinney fell riddled with balls, 
for the comrades of Hoy avenged his death. They died 
nearly side by side, and crossed the dark river together ; the 
one too brave and kind-hearted to take a fellow-foe's life, the 
other — a murderer. 

The fighting at this point was desperate, but of short 
duration. There were more men killed here than in any other 
part of the field. This practically ended the battle of Dut- 
ton's Hill. From this point (the enemy now being in full 
retreat, and greatly demoralized), a running fight was kept 
up to near the Cumberland River, where the pursuit ended. 

Here, according to the Rev. W. H. Honnell's opinion, if 
Wolford had been allowed to carry out his request, to again 
attack them, most of them would have been captured. As 
it was, they were allowed to escape with an immense herd of 
cattle, and loads of plunder gathered mainly from the rich 
counties, called the Blue Grass Region. 

The following extract is taken from the reminiscences of 
Capt. S. M. Boone, a man of superior judgment: 

Why our troops were called back, I shall never know prob- 
ably ; but one thing I do know, when we fell back, three hun- 
dred men could have captured Pegram's entire force, as their 
ammunition was exhausted, and they were huddled together 
on the swollen banks of the river, and had but one small 
boat to ferry the stream. The loss in our regiment, I be- 
lieve, was between fifteen and twenty killed and wounded. 
The loss of the enemy largely exceeded ours, and must have 
been between seventy-five and one hundred men killed and 
w r ounded. Mr. Shadoan tells me he saw forty dead men in 


one pile, after the battle, on our right ; there were more than 
that on the left, and these he did not see. I have been in 
many battles and skirmishes and never saw men behave more 
gallantly than at Dutton's Hill. 

The records of the casualties in this battle are meager, 
especially the wounded. The following is gleaned from 
official records of the First Kentucky losses : 

Killed : Serg. James R. Hoy and Private Felix G. Stailey, 
Company C ; Private Wra, Rowten, Company F. 

Wounded : Private James L. Linville, Company B ; Capt. 
Thomas Rowland, Company K ; Private Martin Phelps, Com- 
pany A. 


Though the Pegram raid was ostensibly a military movement, yet in 
reality it was only a gigantic stealing expedition resorted to by the chiv- 
alry to replenish their worn-down steeds, and procure beef for their 
whetted appetites. Many sharp practices were resorted to by their in- 
tended victims to save their stock, or get "even" with their pilfering 
propensities. Many of the old farmers, when they had timely notice, 
would take all their favorite horses or mules to places of concealment, 
and guard them till the danger was past. Some of the resorts to get 
"even" with the Rebel raiders, were of au amusing nature. 

Sam Logan, grandson of Col. Hugh Logan, a cotemporary of Daniel 
Boone, and a worthy representative of his ancestors, had a fine horse 
taken by the enemy. Though a non-combatant in the late war, he had 
been some years before a member of William Walker's ill-fated nllibus- 
teriug expedition to Nicaragua, and was up to soldiers' tricks. While 
Pegram's men were in Stanford. Sam being in town, watched his oppor- 
tunity. Seeing a Confederate officer ride up and hitch his horse to the 
Yates Hotel lamp-post and enter the bar to indulge in a few glasses, he 
mounted the horse, took the Somerset road, and playing the soldier, carry- 
ing orders back with all he met, he soon found himself alone, and made fine 
speed to the knobs near by, where his horse was kept concealed till all 
■dangers were passed. 

The widow, Susan Salter, living near the Old Fork Church, in Gar- 
rard county, though her three children and most of her relatives were 
■strong Southern sympathizers, was an intense Union woman, and was very 
profuse in expressing her principles to either side. Having a very fine 
blooded young horse, which she wished to save, now in poor condition 
from a late distemper, instead of trying to conceal him like most of her 
neighbors, she led him up and down the pike while Rebs were passing, 
abusing Pegram's men for taking her fine horse, and leaving the poor 
thing she was leading in its place. The Rebs vainly tried to console her 
by assuring her that he would make a good horse by rest and proper 


The Rebels retreated at night from the Hickman bridge. One of them 
becoming overloaded with liquid lightning stopped in a porch at the fir9t 
toll-gate South of Camp Dick Robinson, kept by the loyal widow, Beddow. 
While sleeping oft' his stupor, the widow fastened up his horse in her 
smoke-house. The soldier on awakening, thought his horse had thrown 
the bridle which was left hanging to the hitching post, and went back to 
hunt him, when he was captured by our pursuing force. The Federal 
officers permitted the widow to keep the horse. 

Old Uncle Jerry, a colored man, then a hundred years old, did the 
most remarkable feat of all. considering that he was totally blind. The 
night Pegram started to retreat, Uncle Jerry mounted a Rebel's horse 
hitched to the fence at Camp Dick Robinson, and favored by darkness 
and a " clear coast." rode him to the hills of the headwaters of Sugar 
Creek, one mile distant, where he was concealed until the next day, when 
our forces came along. Uncle Jerry's parents were both natives of Africa, 
and he came to Kentucky with his owner, Reuben Tarrant (who was the 
Author's grandfather), at the beginning of the present century. He 
could remember the thunder of battles of the Revolutionary War, and 
was very patriotic 

From Lieut. Vincent Peyton : It so happened after Capt. Otman's 
company of the One hundred and Twelfth Illinois left Dix River bridge, 
on the night of the 24th, as mentioned in another part of this chapter, a 
squad of Company B, of the First Kentucky, was left at the same bridge 
unrelieved, and unaware of the situation. Among the squad were Wes. 
Hare and William Mc Combs. They remained at their posts until next 
morning, when a Southern sympathizer, Jones L. Adams, who lived at the 
top of the bluff overlooking the bridge, supposing them to be Rebels, 
brought them down a good breakfast, which they enjoyed with much rel- 
ish. Having out videttes. they soon found the enemy approaching from 
both directions. Their only chance of escape was to take down the river 
on the borders of the bluff, making their way by paths and many intri- 
cate passes, until they worked their way to a crossing, when they got on 
the other side of the river and went around by Harrodsburg. Near this 
place they came across two of Pegram's men at home. The temptations 
were too great to resist capturing the Rebel's horses, which they brought 
safely into camp. Prisoners would have been cumbersome in their situa- 
tion, so the men were left. Below the mouth of Dix River, they were set 
across the Kentucky River in a ferryboat, and made the rest of the way 
to camp without trouble. 

From Dr. I. C. Dye : In the battle of Dutton Hill, looking over near 
the Rebel Artillery. I saw a sharpshooter standing behind a big tree, and 
every time he aimed his gun, a member of tbe Forty-Fourth Ohio nearby 
went down. I tried three shots at him but missed. At last, one of Com- 
pany A's expert marksmen took deliberate aim with his Sharpe's rifle and 
fired. The sharpshooter jumped in the air and fell. 

Lieut. James G. Dick, of Company H. was in the hottest of the fight 
all that day, and had three horses shot from under him. While fighting 
hand to hand with the Louisianians. his horse was shot, and fell upon 
him, fastening him to the ground. A Rebel who had surrendered, but 


not disarmed, turned, and attempted to shoot him, but was prevented l>y 
Corp. G. W. Gadberry, of Company A. The companies had somewhat 
lost their organization, and Dick happened to be with that company. 
Several men would have slain the treacherous Rebel, but were prevented 
by Capt. F. M. Wolford. 

Major W. N. Owens distinguished himself on different parts of the 
field that day, and had a, shoulder-strap shot oft'. The Major was in the 
vicinity of his own home, which was an inspiration to do gallant deeds. 
The dashing Capt. Thomas Rowland, was conspicuous in the conflict, and 
was wounded. The First Louisiana had long expressed a desire to mea- 
sure lances with the First Kentucky, and were gratified on that day to 
their heart's content. 

From Capt. Boone : A little incident which occurred first as we were 
going into action, I must be pardoned for relating. I had a man in my 
company by the name of John Mason, who would occasionally lose his 
bridle, saddle, etc., and when called on to go out on a scout, would urge 
the loss of these articles as an excuse. I was busy that moruing getting 
my men into line, assisted by my Lieutenant, Daniel A. Kelly (now gone 
to his reward, where I hope he rests calmly under the shade of the trees 
on the other side of the river), when I directed Mason to mount his horse, 
and fall into line. " Captain," said he, "I have lost my bridle, saddle, 
and gun." "That makes no difference," says I, "You have a halter, and 
your haversack is empty; go down (pointing to the branch), fill your 
haversack with rocks, and return to me immediately." He obeyed my 
orders, mounted his horse, guided him by the halter, and like little David 
of old, he carried in his pouch a few smooth stones. These were his only 
weapons. I take pleasure at this day in testifying to his bravery through- 
out the day. John told me afterward that his ammunition was exhausted, 
and that he had thrown every rock. 

One other incident and I am done. Corp. Richard O'Donnell, of my 
company (Dick O'Donnell, as we called him), an Irishman from Lebanon, 
Ky., was one of the party ordered from the cover of the woods to throw 
the fence down, in order that Scott's position might be charged. Some 
of the detail hesitated a little, for it was in the face of a leaden hail- 
storm. The brave Irishman threw his cap in the air, shouting, "Come, 
boys ! " as he made a dash for the fence. It was covered and matted with 
long green briers. When he came back to mount his horse for the charge, 
the flesh had been literally torn from his hands, and the blood was stream- 
ing from them. I thought at the time, and still think, that I never saw 
a braver deed ; for at that time, exposed as it was to the merciless sweep 
of the galling fire, it looked like a miracle for a human being to be there 
and live. 

Additional incident from Boone : Our men were ordered to strip to 
their dress-coats to prevent them from being taken for Pegram's men, 
many of whom were dressed in blue overcoats captured at Danville. Our 
orders were to shoot every one of the enemy found wearing our blue over- 
coats. I captured five or six with these coats on, and told them our orders. A 
bright, good-natured fellow replied: " Captain, look at my clothing," at 
the same time exposing beneath the royal blue his tatters and rags; 


"would you in such weather as this refuse to put on a good overcoat, 
captured as this was ? *' " By the Lord, no," I said, "hut pull them off," 
which they did, and were theu conducted to the rear. I related what I 
had done to Col. Wolford, and he said I did right, and rny conscience has 
never hurt me the least for sparing their lives under the circumstances. 

Bold Dask of Capt. Drye, Serg. Peyton, and others. — When the 
Pegram raid caiae up, Capt. Drye, at home, had just recovered from a se- 
vere spell of pneumonia. Serg. Peyton had gotten permission from Wolford, 
while at Stanford, to go home to see a brother on his death-bed. Hear- 
ing of the raid, Drye and Peyton gathered up Thomas Evans, B. H. Young, 
Wm. Griffin, Billy Hill and Adam Ellis, then at home on the Rolling- 
Fork, in Casey county, and aimed to join their command at Danville, but 
before reaching there, they heard of the Union forces' retreat, and the 
enemy's occupation of the town, and returned to the Polling Fork. On 
the 28th they concluded to go to Hustonville to hear the news. Scott's 
Eebel Cavalry was there, and had pickets on the Bradfordsville road. 
Drye and his six men fired on the pickets, made a dash after them and 
drove them into town, and then turned back. They met a negro, and 
knowing he would report to the Rebels, told him they were the advance 
of Jacob's Cavalry from Lebanon. No other demonstration being made, 
Lieut. Pete Fox with a company, was sent out to investigate, and came 
across the negro, aud got the information as intended. Some of the citi- 
zens ventured the opinion that it was bushwhackers who fired on their 
pickets, but the Rebels knew better, as they had seen the blue coats. 
After Fox's report they left town immediately, and went a short distance 
below, where they selected a strong position, cut down a post and rail 
fence, and formed a line of battle, waiting for an attack. Drye not deem- 
ing it prudent to follow up his morning success. Scott retreated to Stan- 
ford that night. They were as much alarmed at Drye and his six men as 
Carter was at Pegram's whole force. 

The Rev. W. H. Honnell relates the following in a newspaper article, 
under the head of a "Strange Meeting." After eighteen years Mr. Aaron 
W allaco aud I met in Kansas, at the church of which I became Pastor, and 
I soon found out that he was in Scott's Rebel Cavalry in the battle of 
Dutton Hill. He remembered the daring ride I took in delivering Gill- 
niore's order to Wolford to charge the position in front, and how he had 
been one of a hundred, perhaps, who had tried to bring me from my horse. 
He became my most earnest friend until his death, a few months ago. He 
was a sincere, gallant soldier, and acknowledged his having been on the 
wrong side the day we first met on the battle-field. 

Gillmore reported that he had recaptured 300 or 400 cattle, and that 
Pegram's loss would not fall short of 500 men. 



Somerset — Escape of Lieut. Col. Adams — Wolford 
commands the post, and adams the regiment watch- 
ING the Cumberland — Reinforced, and Carter takes 
•command — Moved in force to Monticello — Contest 
with the enemy, and he is driven back into Tennessee 
— Sad conditions of counties south of the Cumber- 
land — The drowning of the New Jersey men — Mor- 
URES — Capt. Blain, Lieut. Dodson and Wm. Adams — 
Col. Adams and Chaplain Honnell — Capt. Wolford 
on the south side — kautz and adams's movement — 
Regiment ordered to Jamestown. 

After the battle of Dutton's Hill, the regiment returned 
in direction of Stanford, and arrived at Logan's Creek, be- 
low Hall's Gap, April 2d, where it met its train from Camp 
Nelson. Here the regiment rested until the 5th, when we 
marched again toward Somerset, arriving there on the 6th. 

It has been stated in the last chapter that Lieut. Col. 
Adams was captured by Pegram's forces at Danville, on the 
24th of March. We did not expect the enemy to hold him 
long, for his dexterity was well known. A few days after the 
battle a wild shout was raised in the regiment, which turned 
out to be cheers given in honor of his escape and safe return. 
The following account of his escape was given by the Colo- 
nel to the Author soon afterward : He was taken to Monti- 
cello, where a guard of sixteen men, under Lieut. Lewis was 
placed over him, with strict orders to watch him closely. 
But the Southern cavalier had the same thirst for whisky as 
the plebeian Yankee. Being unable to ferret out the where- 
abouts of the coveted article in the loyal capital of Wayne 
county, the guards had an idea that their prisoner could as- 
sist them, and applied to Col. Adams for aid. This he con- 
sented to do, with the condition that he was to be paroled 


while making the arrangements, as he would not betray his ; 
friends. He saw a friend privately, who conveyed a message 
to another friend, a druggist, to send him the required quan- 
tity, bountifully adulterated with a drug which would cause 
sleep. The Colonel had it understood that he was not to re- 
ceive the liquor until night's darkness would favor his plans. 
When it came to hand, he participated with them, and pre- 
tended to drink heavily, but took the precaution to swallow 
but little, which was an excrutiating privation to the Colo- 
nel, for he loved the beverage tenderly. He soon pretended 
to be overloaded, and lay down on his couch, simulating 
heavy sleep, but stealthily watched his guards until all 
showed signs of being in dreamland. It was nearly day 
when the last succumbed to Morpheus. He silently gathered 
up his boots, reached and got Lieut. Lewis's pistols lying on 
a table, and with cat-like tread he passed his slumbering 
watchers, and gained the open air. He made rapid tracks 
for an old field about 150 yards distant, where he stopped 
and put on his boots. He soon reached the timber, and be- 
ing a trained fox-hunter, was consequently a fine woodsman, 
and had no trouble in threading his way mostly through 
forests until he arrived on the banks of the South Fork of 
the Cumberland, and was set across the stream by a little 
girl in a canoe. On reaching the main Cumberland, he came 
across a good Union man who set him over. The Colonel 
was only absent a very few days from the regiment, and 
came into camp on its return to Somerset. 

For some time the First Kentucky, with other forces, re- 
mained at Somerset. Col. Wolford, being the ranking officer, 
commanded the post until the arrival of Gen. Carter. Lieut. 
Col. Silas Adams was now in command of the regiment. The 
enemy, after the recent defeat, still stood in menacing atti- 
tude across the Cumberland. Wolford's force was not strong 
enough to venture across to chastise them, but kept the line 
of the river well guarded as far east as Point Burnside, and 
west to Mill Springs. Scouts were also sent out on all roads 
upon which the enemy was liable to advance, and his move- 
ments were watched with Argus eyes. 

The paymaster came about the 25th of April, and the 
men of the regiment made a big draw, for they had not been 


paid for a long time. Soon the Lieutenant commanding the 
section of the Indiana battery left us, and returned to his 
command in the Army of the Cumberland about Gallatin, 
Tenn. The Lieutenant had been with the regiment for some 
time, was of fine social disposition, and our officers and men 
had become much attached to him and his men. There was 
a universal regret when he left us. 

The threatening attitude of the enemy was such that 
Wolford was reinforced by Infantry, Artillery and other 
mounted troops, and General S. P. Carter came on, and as- 
sumed command. 

On the 30th of April, Carter moved in force across the 
Cumberland River. In the meantime, that gallant regiment, 
the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, had been mounted, 
and joined our forces. The Infantry and Artillery crossed 
at Stigall's Ferry, near Somerset. Three companies of the 
One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, not having yet drawn 
their horses, moved to the ferry to guard the crossing and 
take charge of the ferryboats. 

The mounted troops crossed near Mill Springs. The men 
were ferried over, while the horses were unsaddled, driven 
into the river, and made to swim ; one horse led the way, 
his rider swimming behind holding to his tail to guide him, 
and the other horses followed. 

The advance of the Union forces reached Monticello early 
on the morning of May 1st, where they found a small force 
of Rebels holding a commanding position on a hill. The 
One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois charged up the hill, and 
the enemy retreated. As they fell back through Monticello, 
one of the rear guard killed the bugler of the Forty-Fifth 
Ohio Mounted Infantry. Beyond the town the Union forces 
took the Albany road to the right, and the Second Ohio Cav- 
alry, under Col. A. V. Kautz, the Jamestown road to the left, 
with the other mounted forces supporting and intervening ; 
both parties skirmishing heavily as our men advanced. Soon 
after leaving town the First Kentucky came upon one of their 
number left dead upon the road. Four miles out, the Rebels 
under Col. Chenault, were reinforced by Col. Morrison's com- 
mand, and occupied a strong position on a hill. Capt. Law's 
battery was brought forward and gave them a few shells, to 


which they replied with Artillery. They were partially con- 
cealed by timber so that their numbers could not be well 
estimated. Our troops were ordered to fall back and make a 
pretense of retreating, to lure them from their concealment • 
but this strategy did not succeed, for they still held their 
position. The Union forces then had orders to dismount and 
charge up the hill, which was done in gallant style, and the 
Rebels were soon routed. The shades of evening now came 
over the scene, and the command returned to Monticello. 
Gen. Carter reported the enemy's loss to be " eight killed and 
more wounded, and a number of prisoners, among whom 
were two commissioned officers. No loss on our side. Both 
men and officers behaved well." 

On the 2d of May, reconnoitering parties went out on- 
different roads. The one on the Albany road returned 
and reported that they had gone within seven miles of Al- 
bany, and learned that the enemy had passed through that 
place the night before without halting, en route to Living- 
ston, and in great haste and confusion. Col. Jacobs, with 
his whole Cavalry force, from Columbia, arrived at Monti- 
cello at 2 p. m., this day. 

On Monday, May 4th, all of the Cavalry at Monticello, 
now under command of Col. Wolford, went in pursuit of the 
enemy on the Jamestown (Tenn.) road. The advance reach- 
ed as far as Travisville, Tenn., but finding that he had crossed 
the mountains, Wolford and his forces returned to Monti- 
cello. There being no enemy in front now, Jacobs returned 
towards Columbia, and Wolford to Somerset. 

The counties of Wayne and Clinton, and parts of Pulaski 
and Cumberland, were on the south side of the Cumberland. 
Most of the citizens of these counties were intensely loyal, 
and furnished a large number of gallant officers and men to 
the Union army. Throughout the whole war this section 
suffered from raids and depradations, not only from regular 
Confederate troops, but also from the merciless guerrilla 
bands under Champe Ferguson and others of the same grade. 
But this region was in an exposed situation. It was in an 
isolated position from the main lines of the movements of 
the great forces for attack and defense. The Cumberland 
River offered a dangerous barrier to any ordinary force sent 


to protect it. The enemy had the advantage. They were so 
situated that they could concentrate a large force and move 
against us, and even if defeated, could fall back to their 
mountain fastness in safety. On the other hand, if the 
Union forces were unsuccessful, and compelled to retreat, 
they were in danger of being " grabbed up " at the Cumber- 
land, fed as it was by rapid mountain tributaries, and liable 
at any time to get on a " big high," unless it was in the dry 
and warm time of the year. Besides this, the roads were 
rough, and it was almost impossible to transport supplies in 
sufficient quantities to furnish an army of adequate strength 
to defend this important section. 

Those of the regiment living on the north side of the 
river, deeply sympathized with their comrades in arms living 
on the south side, on account of the exposed condition of 
their families; but the inexorable laws of military necessity 
demanded that this part of the State should be left without 
ample force to protect it. Carter's whole force was therefore 
ordered back to Somerset. 

In crossing the Infantry over the river, May 6th, an un- 
fortunate accident occurred. The men were crossing in two 
boats, by means of a rope stretched across, one some dis- 
tance above the other. The boats were pulled over by the 
hands of the ferryman. The upper rope broke, and as the 
boat went down, gaining velocity by the rapid current of the 
stream, the men became excited, and as it passed under the 
lower rope, rushed to the upper side and caught the rope, 
thus throwing the most of the weight on that side, causing 
it to dip and capsize, discharging the men into the river. 
Being encumbered with knapsacks, and unable to swim, they 
drowned before help could reach them. Thirty-two men of 
the Twenty-Seventh New Jersey lost their lives, belonging to 
the Ninth Army Corps, brought from the East by Gen. 
Burnside. A number of other men came very near meeting 
the same fate. 

The troops now concentrated at Somerset, consisted 
of four batteries of Artillery, several Infantry regiments, 
three regiments of Cavalry and two of mounted Infantry, in 
all about 6,000 men, under Brig. Gen. S. P. Carter. 

After the defeat of Chenault and Morrison, beyond Mon- 


ticello, and the return of the Union forces to Somerset, Peg- 
ram, who had retired to his base, at Clinton, East Tenne- 
see, immediately returned with large reinforcements, and 
again occupied Wayne county, with Headquarters at Monti- 
cello. On the 9th of May, Gen. John H. Morgan, with a 
large Cavalry force, arrived at Monticello from Middle Ten- 
nessee. Their troops occupied the opposite bank of the Cum- 
berland for some distance below. 

The pickets of the two forces, now in full view of each 
other, became very sociable, and frequently held friendly 
chats with each other. One party or the other would some- 
times cross over, and they would exchange articles of con- 
venience. Occasionally, though rarely, the politicians among 
them would make thrusts and counter thrusts at each other. 
It was necessary to guard the river many miles up and down 
the river. The First Kentucky generally scouted and guard- 
ed the river line below the mouth of Fishing Creek, while 
the other mounted forces scouted and guarded in front of 
Somerset, and above. During the month of May many thrill- 
ing incidents, hair-breadth escapes and startling adventures 
happened among our Cavalrymen, but no serious conflicts of 
arms occurred. 

The troops had orders from the Commanding General to 
use the utmost vigilance against surprise, and to hold all 
crossings as long as possible, but if in danger of being over- 
powered, to fall back slowly and destroy boats, if any, before 
leaving their posts. 

Both parties tried their skill in secretly crossing and tak- 
ing each other by surprise ; but the First Kentucky proved 
to be the most adroit. 

Lieut. Col. Silas Adams selected a number of his choice 
spirits and crossed the river after night. Being dismounted, 
they stealthily made their way between the enemy's senti- 
nels, surrounded a house, captured several prisoners, includ- 
ing an officer or two, and returned safely across the river. 
Such expeditions as these were favorite pastimes of Adams. 

May 25th, Maj. W. N. Owens being in command of a de- 
tachment of the First Kentucky at Mill Springs, reported 
that a party of the enemy who crossed over, had been driven 
back with a loss to the enemy of three killed, several wound- 



ed, and some prisoners and horses captured from them. 
Capt. F. W. Dillion, of Company E, was, however, surprised 
and captured, with nine of his men. Capt. Dillion was a 
brave young officer, had fine social qualities, and his loss was 
felt in the regiment. He remained a prisoner till near the 
the close of the war. One of the number who captured Dil- 
lion got shot in the back by accident, and died on the 31st. 
On the morning of May 28th, Capt. R. Clay Blain, Com- 
pany F ; Lieut. 0. M. Dodson, of the same Company, and 
Lieut. Wm. Adams, of Company A, were the heroes of a rich 
adventure, which is thus given in Lieut. Adams's own happy 
style : 

The headquarters of our command were then at Somerset. 
A detachment of about thirty men belonging to companies 
A and F, were under our charge at Norman's Ferry, the 
lowest down picket-post on the Cumberland River. To pre- 
vent surprise, we generally remained mounted until the sun 
was an hour high in the morning. Our headquarters, where 
we took our meals, were occupied by some Tennessee refugees 
with whom we boarded. Belonging to the family was a pretty 
girl, and Dodson became enamored with her. The house had 
but one door, and that fronted the road. We had just dis- 
mounted, entered the house, and seated ourselves at the 
table — Blain and Dodson sitting next to the door, and I on 
the far side. Dodson was in a big way talking to his girl, 
when Col. Rucker, at the head of one hundred and fifty 
Rebels came dashing up the hill, yelling and shooting. Blain 
and Dodson being near the door, discovered them in time to 
get out. As Blain darted for the woods near by, at a 2 :40 
gait, his long summer duster stuck straight out behind. 
Dodson, too, made the fastest of time, though his long legs 
threatened to tangle, yet he reached the bushes in safety. I 
had no chance to get out. By the family's assistance, a 
puncheon in the floor was hastily raised, and I got under the 
floor. At first I thought I had "jumped out of the frying- 
pan into the fire ; " for I came across under there one of the 
most dangerous-looking black dogs I ever saw. I soon found 
out that the dog realized that we were partners in tribula- 
tion, and was disposed to be amiable for our mutual benefit. 
He crouched close to my side, trembling in abject fear, so 
that I could hardly get rid of him. Fearing that there 
might be a diligent search of the premises, and my conceal- 
ment discovered, while the enemy were collecting the horses, 
guns and other booty on the other side of the house, I swiftly 



but quietly crawled down the hill to the cover of the bushes 
and escaped. 

John R. Conner, the wild Irishman of Company A, who 
got a furlough from Gen. Thomas early in the war, to go 
home and remain until his wife died, then being on a tem- 
porary visit to his Company, was asleep under his blanket, 
and was captured and paroled. All the rest escaped, but 
lost their horses. The Rebels seemed to want nothing but 
arms, horses and other plunder. 

The following reminiscences were given to the Author by 
one who shared in many scenes of the war : 

What we called our play-day in the war came to us on 
the banks of the Cumberland after the battle of Somerset 
or Dutton's Hill. It also gave us the chance to show off in 
the way of daring expeditions by small parties, swimming 
our horses beyond their view, and hauling in a picket-post 
on different occasions. They seemed afraid to attempt re- 
taliation in kind, knowing that many of our men and horses 
came from that section. The few times they crossed were 
generally with a strong force. 

Adams was a 'conspicuous figure then, and many months 
before his promotion. Then in his youth, he was the hand- 
somest man in the army. Many a little episode might be 
told of him and other officers in those chivalrous days. Let 
us tell one to illustrate : There was a family nearly related 
to one of our highest officers, whose loyalty was doubted ; so 
Adams and Chaplain Honnell, dressed to suit, personated 
two high officers of the other side — Chenault and Cluke — and 
pretended late one evening to risk their lives to enjoy the 
company for a while of such lovely girls of whom they had 
heard. They were received with delight, and to this day 
those ladies tell of the honor they once had of a risky call 
by two high Confederate officers. 

In this connection, we will tell of a line of communica- 
tion established on the picket-post by means of a large New- 
foundland dog, which swam back and forth across the deep, 
wide river on friendly errands between the pickets on oppo- 
site shores. The Confederate would call, " Don't shoot, and 
be sure to let the dog return, and I'll send you some tobacco 
or whisky in exchange for coffee." "All right ; send us a 
bottle of your best 'Old Mock,'" and so the express was 
started and kept up there till the picket-post there was very 
easily filled by a certain few. Our men were generally tem- 
perate, and yet the Chaplain would sometimes not drink out 
of a canteen for a whole day, lest some men might think he 
was drinking " apple-jack." 


Following the adventure of Lieut. Wm. Adams, Capt. 
Blain and Lieut. Dodson, Capt. F. M. Wolford, of Company 
A, and about thirty men swum their horses across the river, 
and moved on three outside picket-posts, capturing a num- 
ber of the enemy and some horses. This was done immedi- 
ately under the eyes of the Rebel commander of that por- 
tion of the line, for he was camped on the hill above. But 
it was made hot for the daring Cavalrymen on recrossing, as 
the enemy had become aroused, and opened a heavy fire on 
them, but fortunately, no bad accident happened, only Wm. 
L. Brown's horse, climbing the river bank, after crossing, fell 
backward, and was killed. 

May 30th, Gen. Carter reported that he had sent a small 
party across the river at Mill Springs, under Lieut. Col. 
Adams, capturing thirty-three prisoners, with their horses 
and guns, and wounding one other, and sustained no loss ex- 
cept one man, who accidentally shot himself. May 31st, Chas. 
P. Cox, of Company L, was killed while skirmishing across 
the river at the same place. 

On the 8th of June, Col. August V. Kautz, of the Second 
Ohio Cavalry, with detachments of Second and Seventh Ohio 
Cavalry, Forty-Fifth Ohio Mounted Infantry, and four pieces 
of Law's Mountain Howitzer battery, in all about 450 men, 
was ordered across the Cumberland, at Waitsborough, to 
make a demonstration against the enemy, and bivouacked 
three miles from the river that night without disturbing the 
enemy's pickets. At the same time, Lieut. Col. Adams, with 
a force of 300 men belonging to the First Kentucky Cavalry, 
Forty-Fifth Ohio Mounted Infantry, and Second Tennessee 
Mounted Infantry, was sent around by Mill Springs to cross 
over and act in concert with Colonel Kautz. Though Col. 
Kautz was a brave and thoroughly efficient officer, Adams 
moved the fastest. They made their movement on the 9th. 
Adams's men captured six of the enemy's pickets and then 
moved on to West's at the intersection of the Somerset and 
Mill Springs roads. Here he unfortunately met the enemy 
and was under the necessity of engaging him, and driving 
him beyond. It was one or two hours before he was joined 
by Col. Kautz, and when the combined forces moved on about 
four or five miles, they met the enemy in line of battle. A 


skirmish of fifteen or twenty minutes ensued, when a section 
of howitzers was brought to bear on the enemy, when they 
retreated, leaving two men dead and one officer wounded on 
the field. The Union loss was three wounded. The enemy 
was pursued, skirmishing at intervals, through Monticello, 
and driven beyond Beaver Creek. 

The Union force held Monticello for several hours, and at 
1 p. m., commenced falling back. After arriving at West's, 
at the forks of the two roads, Col. Adams moved on and re- 
crossed the river at Mill Springs. Col. Kautz stopped at 
West's and was preparing to go into camp, when between 4 
and 5 p. m., he received information that the enemy had un- 
expectedly been reinforced and followed up, and attacked his 
rear guard. After a severe contest, he, however, repulsed 
them, and gathering up his dead and wounded, fell back to 
Simpson's Creek and went into camp. 

The regiment still continued to scout in front of our 
lines, and picket the river, until June 27th, when it was or- 
dered to Jamestown, Ky., which place it reached on the 28th. 
The forces concentrated here at this time consisted of the 
First Kentucky, Second Ohio Cavalry and Forty-Fifth Ohio 
Mounted Infantry, all under command of Col. Frank Wol- 
ford, he being the ranking officer. 

Lieut. Wm. Adams tells of John R. Conner's having a furlough to re- 
main at home till his wife died. It was always reported in camp, that in 
the fall of 1861, Conner went to Gen. Thomas, and in pitiful tones told 
him that his wife was lying on her death-bed, and could not possibly live 
over two or three days, and that Gen. Thomas gave him a furlough to go 
home and remain until she died. But she recovered, and Conner would 
come in every now and then and visit the boys. 



Troops serving in the Department of Ohio designated as 
the Army of the Ohio — Organization of the Twenty- 
Third Army Corps and Gen. Hartsuff in command — 
Gen. Burnside takes the field and prepares to move, 
into East Tennessee — The Ninth Army Corps detach- 
VATIONS — Drowning of the Illinoisans — Adventures 


By General Orders, No. 37, dated Headquarters, Depart- 
ment of Ohio, April 11, 1863, it was ordered that all troops 
serving in that Department would afterward be known as the 
Army of the Ohio. In Gen. Orders, No. 103, War Depart- 
ment, Washington, April 27, 1863, the President directed that 
the troops in Kentucky not belonging to the Ninth Army 
Corps, be organized into the Twenty-Third Army Corps, to 
be commanded by Maj. Gen. G. L. Hartsuff. On the 28th of 
May he assumed command. 

Gen. A. E. Burnside, commanding the Army of the Ohio, 
commenced making preparations to move into East Tennes- 
see for the double purpose of protecting loyal citizens there, 
and also the left of Gen. Rosecrans's operations to occupy 

On the 3d of June, Gen. Burnside left Cincinnati to take 
command in person of the troops for the proposed move- 
ment. This command was composed of two divisions of the 
Ninth Army Corps, under Gen. 0. B. Wilcox, and a portion 
of the Twenty-Third Army Corps under Gen. Hartsuff. On 
arrival at Lexington, Gen. Burnside received orders to send 
the Ninth Army Corps to reinforce Gen. Grant at Vicksburg, 
on the Mississippi. The troops of that corps were rapidly 
dispatched to Gen. Grant, where they rendered most effective 


service, and Gen. Burnside was directed to hold his then line 
with his remaining troops. 

As th6 general movement to occupy and hold East Ten- 
nessee was suspended for an indefinite time, Gen. Wilcox, 
who had relieved Gen. Gillmore in commanding the District 
of Central Kentucky, made a bold proposition to Gen. Burn- 
side, which that distinguished commander at once accepted. 
The proposition was to organize an expedition of 1,500 Cav- 
alry, with two pieces of Artillery, and destroy the Loudon 
bridge on the Tennessee River, 130 miles southeast of the 
Union lines, at Somerset. This bridge was on the main 
trunk line of the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. 
Before Gen. Wilcox had time to organize his raiding expedi- 
tion, some trouble with disloyal people in Indiana, rendered 
it necessary to transfer him to that district. But his bril- 
liant scheme was not abandoned, though left to others to ex- 
cute. While the chief object of the proposed raid was to 
destroy the stupendous bridge at Loudon, its operations 
were not limited to that alone ; but the after-movements of 
the force were to be governed by circumstances. If too many 
troops were not found at Knoxville, it was in the project to 
move on the long bridge and trestle work across the Holston, 
at Strawberry plains, above the city. While the grand ob- 
ject of the expedition, owing to insurmountable obstacles, 
could not be attained, yet the results on the whole surpassed 

The material for this raid, which was destined to be one 
of the boldest and most eventful during the war, was select- 
ed with particular care in regard to officers, men and horses. 
Col. W. P. Sanders, of the Fifth Kentucky Cavalry, was ap- 
pointed to command the force, and after events proved the 
wisdom of the selection, as the Colonel had all the mental and 
physical requisites for the arduous undertaking. Capt. Geo.W. 
Drye was put at the head of 100 picked men of the First Ken- 
tucky Cavalry. Lieut. James Humphrey, of Company A ; 
Lieut. O. M. Dodson, of Company F, and Lieut. Daniel Mur- 
phy, Company G — all choice spirits of the regiment, accom- 
panied the expedition. The non-commissioned officers and 
privates were selected with equal care. 


The Author compiles the account of the raid chiefly from 
Col. Sanders's report. 

The detachments from Somerset left on the 10th of June, 
and reported to Col. Byrd at Mt. Vernon, Ky., until Col. 
Sanders came up. June 14, 1863, Col. Sanders started with 
a force of 1,500 men, composed of detachments of different 
regiments, as follows : 700 men of the First East Tennessee 
Mounted Infantry, under Col. R. K. Byrd; 200 of the Forty- 
Fourth Ohio Mounted Infantry, under Major Moore ; 200 of 
the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois Mounted Infantry, 
under Major Dow ; 150 of the Seventh Ohio Cavalry, under 
Capt. Rankin ; 150 of the Second Ohio Cavalry, under 
Capt. Welsh; 100 of the First Kentucky Cavalry, under 
Capt. Drye, and a section of Capt. Konkle's battery, First 
Regiment of Ohio Artillery, under Lieut. Lloyd. A train of 
wagons containing forage and subsistence stores, accom- 
panied the expedition sixty miles, to Williamsburg, on the 
Cumberland. From this point Sanders followed the Marsh 
Creek road to near Huntsville, Tenn., leaving that place a 
few miles to his left. He reached Montgomery, Tenn., on 
the evening of the 17th of June, and learning that a small 
body of rebels was stationed at Wartsburg, one mile from 
that place, 400 men from the First East Tennessee were sent 
forward to surprise and capture them, Sanders following 
with the rest of the command one hour afterward. The sur- 
prise was complete. The Union men captured 102 enlisted 
men and two officers (one of them an Aid to Gen. Pegram), 
together with a large number of horses, sixty boxes of artil- 
lery ammunition, several thousand pounds of bacon, salt, 
flour and meal, some corn, 500 spades, 100 picks, besides a 
large quantity of other public stores, and six wagons with 
mule teams. The prisoners were paroled, and the property 
was destroyed. 

A small portion of the Rebel command, who were out 
some distance from the camp, escaped with their horses, and 
.gave the first notice of the approach of the Union forces to 
the enemy at Knoxville, Kingston, Loudon and other places. 
From Wartsburg Sanders's forces marched toward Kings- 
ton. When within eight miles from them, Sanders learned 
that Scott's brigade and one battery were at that place, 


guarding the ford of Clinch River. Leaving Kingston to his 
right, Sanders crossed the river eight miles above, at Waller's. 
Ford, on the direct road to Loudon. At daylight, on the 
19th of June, the raiders were within three miles of Loudon, 
and about the same distance from Lenoir's. Sanders here 
learned that a force of three regiments was at Loudon bridge, 
with eight pieces of Artillery, and that they had been for 
two weeks strengthening their works at that place, digging 
rifle-pits, ditches, etc. ; and having captured a courier from 
the commanding officer, with dispatches ordering the forces 
at Kingston to follow in the Union forces' rear, and stating 
that the forces from Lenoir's had been ordered to join them, 
Sanders determined to avoid Loudon, and started at once for 
Lenoir's Station, reaching there about 8 a. m., only about 
thirty minutes after the departure of the Rebel troops. A 
detachment of artillerymen was captured here, with three 
six-pounder iron guns, eight officers and fifty-seven men. 
Burned the depot, a large brick building, containing five 
pieces of artillery, with harness and saddles ; 2,500 stands 
of small arms, a very large amount of Artillery and musket 
ammunition, and Artillery and Cavalry equipments. Also 
about seventy-five Confederate States mules were captured. 
A large cotton factory and a considerable amount of cotton 
Sanders ordered not to be burned, as it furnished the Union 
citizens of the community with the only material for mak- 
ing cloth, but it was fired accidentally, or by mistake. The 
telegraph wires from Lenoir's to Knoxville were destroyed at 
points about one mile apart, The raiders met the enemy's 
pickets at Knoxville about 7 p. m., on the 19th, and drove 
tbem to within one mile of the city. Leaving a portion of 
the First Kentucky Cavalry on the southwest side of the 
city, Sanders moved with the rest of the command as soon 
as it was dark by another road entirely around to the other 
side, driving in the pickets at several places, and cut the 
railroad, so that no troops could be sent to the bridges above. 
At daylight Sanders moved up to the city on the Tazwell 
road. The enemy was found to be well posted on the heights 
and in the adjacent buildings, with eight or nine pieces of 
Artillery. The streets were barricaded with cotton bales, 
and the batteries were protected by the same material. Their 


force was estimated at 3,000, including citizens who were 
impressed into service. After one hour's skirmishing, San- 
ders withdrew his forces, capturing near the city two six- 
pounder pieces of Artillery, the camp equipage of a regi- 
ment of conscripts, about eighty head of horses, and thirty- 
one prisoners. 

Sanders then started for Strawberry Plains, following the 
railroad, and destroying all small bridges and depots to with- 
in four miles of the latter place. At Flat Creek, a finely- 
built covered bridge, and also a county bridge, were burned. 
The guard had retreated. Sanders now left the railroad 
three miles below town, and crossed the Holston River, so as 
to attack the bridge on the same side the enemy were located. 
On coming in sight, they opened fire on the advance with 
four pieces of Artillery. Sanders ordered the Infantry dis- 
mounted, and sent the Forty-Fourth Ohio, under Maj. Moore, 
up the river, and the rest under Col. Byrd and Maj. Dow, to 
get in their rear. After about an hour's skirmishing, the 
enemy were driven off, and having a train and locomotive 
with steam up, waiting, a portion of them escaped, leaving 
all their guns (five in number), 137 enlisted men, and two 
officers as prisoners, a vast amount of stores, ammunition 
and provisions, including 600 sacks of salt, and about seventy 
tents, and a great quantity of camp equipage in our posses- 
sion. The Union forces remained at this place all night, 
and destroyed the splendid bridge over the Holston River, 
over 1,600 feet long, built on eleven piers. The trestle-work 
included, this structure was 2,100 feet in length. 

At daylight on the 21st of June, Sanders started up the 
railroad for the Mossy Creek Bridge, destroying the railroad 
at all convenient points. At New Market, Mossy Creek, and 
vicinity, 120 prisoners were captured, and several cars were 
destroyed, besides a large amount of stores, and also near 
Mosby Creek, the machinery of a gun factory and a saltpeter 

Knowing every exertion was being made to capture his 
command, Sanders, after destroying the fine Mossy Creek 
bridge, determined to leave the railroad and endeavor to 
cross the mountains at Roger's Gap. The Holston was forded 
at Hayworth's Bend, and the command started for the Pow- 


der Springs Gap of Clinch mountain. Here Sanders found 
a large force directly in his front, and another strong force 
overtook and commenced skirmishing with his rear guard. 
By taking county roads, he got into the gap without trouble 
or loss, and had all the force in his rear. On arriving within 
a mile and a half of Roger's Gap, he found that it was 
blockaded with fallen timber, and strongly guarded by Ar- 
tillery and Infantry, and that all the gaps practicable were 
obstructed and guarded in a similar manner. Sanders then 
determined to abandon his Artillery and move by a wood- 
path to Smith's Gap, three miles from Roger's Gap. The 
guns, carriages, harness and ammunition were completely 
destroyed and left. The Union raiders now had a large force 
of the enemy both in front and rear, and could only avoid 
capture by getting into the mountains and thus place all of 
them in the rear, which the Unionists succeeded in doing, 
after driving a regiment of Cavalry from Smith's Gap. The 
road through this pass was only a bridle-path, and very 
rough. Sanders and his men did not get up the mountain 
until after night. Major Dow, of the One Hundred and 
Twelfth Illinois, with about 160 of his men, got on the wrong 
road, and did not rejoin the command until after reaching 

Owing to the continued march, many horses gave out, 
and were left, and, although several hundred were captured 
on the march, they were not enough to supply all the men. 
The command reached Boston, Ky, June 24th. Sanders re- 
ported a loss of two killed, four wounded and thirteen miss- 
ing ; five out of the thirteen missing were drowned. 

Sanders, in his official report, acknowledges much in- 
debtedness for the success of the expedition to Col. R. K. 
Byrd, for his valuable assistance and advice ; also to Majors 
Moore and Dow, and to Captains Welsh. Rankin and Drye, 
of the Cavalry, for the able manner in which they conducted 
the rear guard ; to Lieut. Lloyd for the ability and judgment 
with which he managed the Artillery : to his Aid, Lieut. G. H. 
Forsyth, for valuable service, and to Serg. Reynolds and his 
guides, First East Tennessee Volunteers. He also gives great 
credit to the officers and men for the cheerfulness with which 
they submitted to great hardships and fatigues, and their 


energy and readiness at all times either to fight or march. 
Four hundred and sixty-one prisoners were paroled on the 


Among the list of casualties reported by Col. Byrd, as belonging to 
the First Kentucky Cavalry, were James L. Miller, of Company C, killed, 
and Serg. J. Frank Spratt, of Company G, a prisoner. But James L. Mil- 
ler was not killed, but only missing. After days of wandering, starva- 
tion and many hardships through the mountains, he at last reached his 
command in a very dilapidated condition. He was afterward captured 
near Hillsboro, Georgia, July 31, 1864. 

According to reports of Confederate authorities, Gen. S. B. Buckner, 
then commanding the department of East Tennessee, left Kuoxville on 
the morning of the 19th of June, for Clinton, to concentrate his forces 
there. It was that same evening that Sanders appeared before the city. 

Buckner had left one Col. Trigg in temporary command, but for some 
reason unexplained, perhaps feeling himself incompetent for the position 
— the operations, it seems, were mostly directed by a certain Lieut. Col. 
Milton A. Haynes, who made a very bombastic report of what he consid- 
ered the great tight. 

He claimed that in the night the enemy's pickets advanced upon the 
city, but that their pickets, thrown out by Col. Trigg, after an hours' 
skirmish, drove thorn back. From Thompson's History of the One Hun- 
dred and Twelfth Illinois, and other sources, it is learned that the truth 
of the night engagement is about this : Sanders, in aiming to get around 
the town, encountered some of the pickets, and he drove them in. The 
detachment of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, under Major Dow, 
and Capt. Drye's First Kentucky detachment, had been left to guard the 
rear, while the rest of the command was getting around the place. Some- 
time after dark, Lieut. James Humphrey, Company A, got a little sepa- 
rated from his command, and by mistake took the wrong road, and en- 
tered the suburbs of the city, which created a great alarm among the en- 
emy's pickets ; and while they were rallying to drive him back, he quietly 
withdrew himself and colored waitman, "Red," his only companion. 
Maj. Dow, after waiting till midnight, and finding no enemy following, 
undertook to join the rest of the command, but having no guide, in the 
darkness, took a wrong road, and ran upon the enemy's pickets, who fired 
a few shots and fled. Dow, finding himself lost, backed a little to a 
favorable place, formed one of Col. Wolford's "Tines of fight, "dismounted, 
and holding their horses by their bridles, his fatigued men slept till morn- 
ing. As soon as it was light enough to see, it was found that they were 
in the suburbs of Knoxville, within 200 yards of the Rebel hospital. They 
quietly backed out from their rather unsafe position, and by sunrise 
reached the main body as it formed to make another feint upon the citv. 

At a critical part of the morning's skirmish, the following extracts 
are taken from the valiant Lieut. Col. Haynes's official report : "I then 
advanced the battery and ordered them not to fire at the Artillery, but the 
Infantry. The enemy at this moment forming column, advanced rapidly, 


and for a moment I supposed the day was lost. At this moment the chief 
of the Twelfth Howitzer said to me, ' Colonel, I can't hit them fellows ; 
please get down and try it yourself.' I dismounted, took my post as gun- 
ner of the left, ordered canister, and sighted the piece myself, and after 
two rounds the enemy was in full retreat, and the day was won. * * 
* * The enemy had one battery of Artillery and 2,600 men opposed to 
about 1,000 men, part of whom were citizens and convalescent soldiers. 
That they were fully beaten may appear from the fact that the command- 
ing officer of the army sent me a message by Lieut. Luttrell of the C. S. 
Army, a prisoner, paroled by him, to the effect : 

* I send you my compliments, and say that but for the admirable man- 
ner with which you managed your Artillery, I would have taken Knox- 
ville to-day.' " 

Col. Sanders, though a dignified gentleman, had a quiet vein of hu- 
mor in his disposition, and it is evident that in the above message he was 
indulging in a little fun at the self-sufficient Lieutenant Colonel's ex- 
pense. , 

In Capt. B. F. Thompson's History of the One Hundred and Twelfth 
Illinois, there are several accounts of the drowning of five men of that 
regiment in crossing the Clinch River on the night of the 18th of June. 
The following is the statement of Dr. Isaiah C. Dye, of Company A, First 
Kentucky, who is now a popular physician of Middleburg, Ky.: 

On the 18th of June, 1863, I was with a squad acting as extreme rear 
guard on the Sanders's raid. We had orders to keep a certain distance 
in the rear, as near as possible. When we arrived at Clinch River, the 
main command had crossed, and it was very dark. The river appeared 
wide, and we could not tell the best route to take. We found a broken 
ambulance at the edge of the ford, and we struck in a little below it. I 
was mounted on a horse of splendid bottom, and on which I had swum 
the Cumberland River on several occasions. I saw a little in advance, and 
in ten feet after entering the stream, we struck swimming water. My 
horse swam some distance and struck — what I afterwards found out from 
some citizens to be a big boulder, and my horse scrambled upon it, and 
secured a foothold. Almost immediately after entering the water my 
comrade's horses commenced plunging and struggling, and the men in 
pathetic tones began calling for help. After my horse got somewhat steady 
on the boulder, I began calling to the men who were in distress, in order 
to give them the best directions I could, but their voices had become 
hushed, and to my repeated calls I received no answer. I inferred they 
were all drowned. I could hear their horses swimming off down below, 
and I heard some of them leave the water, as their footsteps sounded 
plainly on the gravel-beds at the edge of the river. After making pre- 
parations, cutting my forage sack loose, and disposing of some other ar- 
ticles to lighten my horse, I spurred him off the rock, and he took me safe 
to the opposite bank. Not knowing the proper place to land, I struck 
on something like quicksand, and dismounted. I held to the bushes 
on the bank, and led my horse up stream, until I reached the road leading 
to the ford, mounted, and rode fast for several miles, when I overtook the 
eommand, and reported what had occurred to Col. Sanders. He asked 
me, "Are you sure they are all drowned ?" I replied in the affirmative. 


He remarked that it was unfortunate, but could not be helped; that ar- 
rangements would be made with the citizens in the morning to recover 
their bodies and bury them. 

My recollections always have been that there were twelve men besides 
myself and all belonged to the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois; but I 
was afterward captured in East Tennessee, lost my health, and suffered 
much from cruel treatment and hardships in the Rebel prisons of the 
South, and my recollections may be at fault. I may be mistaken in the 
number drowned, and if not in the number, some of them may have be- 
longed to other regiments. I. C. Dye. 

Joseph Wilcher, of Company B, was cut off from the command at 
Wartsburg, and made his way through the mountains on foot, and after 
meeting with many hardships in his wanderings, reached Sander's com- 
mand at Lancaster, Ky. 


.Skirmishing with the enemy — Morgan crosses the Cum- 

at Columbia, Ky. — Advances to Central Kentucky — 
wolford, shackleford and hobson concentrate their 
forces at Lebanon — The pursuit commenced — Morgan 
crosses the Ohio at Brandenburg — The famous raid 

and long chase morgan is overtaken at buffing- 

ton's Island — A fight — The capture of most of his 
forces — Men and horses broken down — Morgan es- 
capes with a remnant of his command — Shackleford 
and wolford call for volunteers, and continue the 
pursuit — The raider is finally captured — Notes, 
scenes and incidents. 

In Chapter XIX, Wolford was left in command of the 
forces at Jamestown, Ky. Heavy scouts were now sent out 
in direction of the enemy. About the 1st of July, Lieut. A. 
T. Keen, of Company J, went to Creelsboro on a scout, met 
some of Morgan's men who had crossed over, engaged them, 
and captured ten prisoners, all Kentuckians. About the 
same time a detachment of the Forty-Fifth Ohio, on a scout, 
engaged the enemy and captured some prisoners, among 
whom was Capt. Willis Shumake, an uncle of Adj. W. D. 


Carpenter of the First Kentucky Cavalry. Shumake was 
wounded. The Adjutant offered him aid and condolence, but 
his uncle morosely informed him that he wanted none of his 
sympathy or help. The surley answer to Carpenter's kind 
offers, instead of irritating, only amused him. 

About the 1st or 2d of July [authorities differ], Morgan 
crossed his whole force near Burkesville, and commenced his 
famous raid. A scout of about one hundred men, under 
Capt. Jessee M. Carter, of Company J, on the 3d, was sent to 
Columbia to report the movements of the great raider. 
Along with this detachment were Capt. J. B. Fishback, Com- 
pany L; Lieut. D. R. Carr, Company C; Lieut. Warren 
Launne, Company D ; and Lieut. James S. Pankey, Com- 
pany I. 

Arriving in Columbia, the main body remained in town, 
while the different roads in direction of the approaching 
enemy were picketed. The manner in which the gallant 
patriotic Carter got his mortal wound is given by Serg. R. T. 
Pierce, of Company A, who was a participant in the thrilling 
scenes on that occasion. A man was sent from the picket- 
post to inform Capt. Carter that fifteen of the enemy were 
seen on the Burkesville road. The Captain, who was always 
willing to take the lead, put himself at the head of a few 
men and dashed out to investigate. One mile from town, 
Serg. Pierce and Texton Sharp, being in advance, ran into an 
advance guard of the enemy, who gave back to the main 
body close in their rear. As Pierce and Sharp saw the large 
body, they turned their horses, and were fired upon ; Pierce 
being slightly wounded, and his horse severely. When Pierce 
met Capt. Carter and reported the apparent strength of the 
enemy, the Capt. ordered him to go in speed back to town 
with orders for the reserve to reinforce him at once. As 
Pierce approached the Burkesville and Glasgow road, he saw 
Russ Smith, of Company C, in the hands of five Rebels, who 
had come in on the latter road. He beckoned to imaginary 
men behind him and called out, " Here they are, boys ! " 
They fled back from whence they came, leaving Smith a free 
man once more. As they retreated the Sergeant emptied his 
Navy at them to accelerate their speed. Pierce's horse was 
now so disabled that his speed was checked, and the enemy 


in overwhelming numbers were pressing them so slowly that 
Capt. Carter caught up with him, and he discovered that the 
Captain was dangerously, if not fatally wounded. Carter 
made his way back to the principal hotel, and was assisted 
into a room. The Sergeant dismounted, entered the room, 
and found the Captain lying on his face, and suffering great 
agony. He also told of his precarious condition. 

After the mortal wound of Carter, Capt. J. B. Fishback 
assumed command of the First Kentucky detachment, and 
fought Morgan's forces for some time, when finding his little 
force about to be surrounded, he, with marked skill and brav- 
ery, withdrew his command and rejoined his regiment at 
Jamestown, without sacrificing a man on his retreat. 

Lieut. Col. Adams, with about 150 men, approached Co- 
lumbia the same night, and some of his men entered the 
suburbs of the town. Lieut. A. T. Keen even visited the 
dying Captain, but the enemy were found in such overwhelm- 
ing numbers that Adams and his men retired. 

Capt. Carter breathed his last sometime in the night. He 
was a man of fine physicme, and though young, was in the 
prime of mature manhood. His untimely death undoubt- 
edly cut him off from promotion, as he possessed all the re- 
quirements for any position in the regiment. Brave, gener- 
ous and daring, he "was popular both among the men and 
officers of the regiment, and his death was sadly lament- 
ed. The taking off the stage of action of one so promising 
was not only a loss to those with whom he was connected, 
but also to the State. But the position made vacant fell 
upon a worthy successor in the person of Lieut. Anderson T. 
Keen, who was immediately promoted to fill his place, which 
he did with credit and honor to his company and regiment, 
and was afterward promoted to Major. 

Encounters had taken place between the Union forces 
and Morgan's men at Horseshoe Bend and Marrowbone, July 
1st. Morgan had now broken our lines and commenced his 
celebrated raid, which extended through three States. 

After his engagement with Capt. Carter's detachment at 
Columbia, on the 3d of July, Morgan pushed on in direction 
of Lebanon, Ky. At Green River bridge, Col. 0. H. Moore, 
with 200 men of his own regiment, and forty men of the 


Eighth Michigan, under Lieut. M. A. Hogan, for three and a 
half hours withstood the fire of Artillery and musketry of 
a large portion of Morgan's command. Moore had selected 
his position one and a half miles south of his camp, at the 
" Narrows," entering the bend of the river, which he had 
partially fortified. So fiercely did the brave band contest 
their ground, that the enemy withdrew his forces with a loss 
of fifty killed and 200 wounded. Morgan deemed it prudent, 
in order to reach Lebanon, to make a detour around the 
combative little force. 

At Lebanon, on the 5th, the raiders met with resistance 
equally obstinate. Col. Chas. Hanson, of the Twentieth 
Kentucky Infantry, with a fighting force of only 350 men, 
for six long hours, held the overwhelming numbers at bay. 
Twice he was summoned to surrender. The last time, the 
embodiment of Southern honor and chivalry, while negotia- 
tions were pending, took advantage of a flag of truce, by 
moving up and occupying houses immediately around Han- 
son's forces, then ordered his Artillery forward, stopped ne- 
gotiations and ordered his men to open fire again. At last, 
despairing of reinforcements, pressed closely, his men ex- 
hausted, and ammunition almost expended, the devoted band 
with their heroic leader, was compelled to surrender. 

It is now necessary to return to the First Kentucky Cav- 
alry at Jamestown, Ky. On the evening of the 4th of July, 
we received marching orders, at 8 o'clock were mounted, 
went nine miles to "Webb's Cross Roads, and bivouacked for 
the night. Early in the morning of the 5th, Col. Wolford, 
with the Jamestown force, resumed the march, and in the 
afternoon of the 6th, reached Lebanon, where he met Gens. 
Hobson and Shackelford with their brigades. In the absence 
of reports from Col. Wolford and Lieut. Col. Adams, the 
Author selects from, and compiles the reports of Gens. Hob- 
son, Shackelford and others. In regard to the composition 
of the forces concentrated at Lebanon, and destined to be 
the close followers of Morgan from the beginning to the end, 
the following extract is taken from Gen. Hobson's report: 

On the 6th of July, at 1 :30 p. m., I arrived at Lebanon, 
Ky., with my command, the Ninth and Twelfth Regiments 
of Kentucky Cavalry; also the command of Brig. Gen. 


James M. Shackelford, consisting of the Eighth Kentucky- 
Cavalry and a battalion of the Third Kentucky Cavalry, and 
one section of the Twenty-Second Indiana battery. Soon 
after my arrival, the First Kentucky Cavalry, Second East 
Tennessee Mounted Infantry, Second Ohio Cavalry, Forty- 
Fifth Ohio Mounted Infantry and a battery of four moun- 
tain howitzers, under command of Col. Frank Wolford, en- 
tered the place, having marched from Somerset [Jamestown.] 
Immediately after my arrival I received the following 
dispatch : 

" Gen. Hobson : — 

* * ****** 

You will combine the commands of Gen. Shackelford and 
Col. Wolford, and after ascertaining as near as possible the 
direction of Gen. Morgan's route, you will endeavor to over- 
take him or cut him off. Please telegraph at once the com- 
position of your own brigade, and also that of Shackelford 
and Wolford. You are authorized to subsist your command 
upon the country, and impress the necessary horses to replace 
the broken down ones. This should be done in a regular 
way. Morgan ought to be broken to pieces before he gets 
out of the State. Answer at once. A. E. Burnside, 

Major General." 

Though other forces co-operated with the before-men- 
tioned at different times and places, yet Hobson's, Shackel- 
ford's and Wolford's brigades were the chosen ones who were 
in the long unceasing and fatiguing march through Ken- 
tucky, Indiana and Ohio, from July 2d to the date of his 
final capture, July 26th — twenty-four days — much of the 
time without sleep or rest. 

As the operations of Col. Wolford's command, and the 
First Kentucky Cavalry under Lieut. Col. Adams, were so 
intimately blended with that of Gen. Shackelford, his re- 
port will be mostly quoted. Hobson claimed that his forces 
numbered about 2,500 men. 

After leaving Lebanon, Gen. Shackelford continues: 

We marched from Lebanon to Springfield, thence to 
Bardstown and Brandenburg. When we came within two 
miles of Brandenburg, we discovered the smoke arising from 
the burning transports which had set the enemy across the 



river. When once across the river, pursuit was resumed. 
We pursued him through the State of Indiana to Harrison, 

At Corydon and other points in Indiana, the enemy was 
met by the militia. The kindness, hospitality and patriot- 
ism of the noble State, as exhibited on the passage of the 
Federal forces, was sufficient to convince the most consum- 
mate traitor of the impossibility of severing this great 
Union. Ohio seemed to vie with her sister, Indiana, in 
facilitating our pursuit after the great Rebel raider. In 
each of these two great States, our troops were fed and fur- 
nished with water from the hands of men, women and chil- 
dren ; from the palace and hut alike, we shared their hospi- 
tality. He who witnessed the great exhibition of patriotism 
and love of country in those mighty States on the passage 
of the Union army, and then could doubt the ability and 
purpose of the people to maintain the government, has cer- 
tainly been " given over to hardness of heart, that he may 
believe a lie, and be damned." 

We continued the pursuit of the enemy day and night 
until Saturday night, the 18th of July, when, by traveling 
all night, we reached Chester by daylight on the morning of 
the 19th. Col. Kautz, with his brigade, had the advance; 
Col. Sanders' brigade followed ; then my own and Col. Wol- 
ford's in the rear. After traveling two miles Saturday morn- 
ing, the 19th, in direction of Buffington's Island, we heard 
the reports of Artillery on the river, officers and men, not- 
withstanding their immense fatigue they had undergone, 
seemed to be inspired with new life and energy, and there 
was a general rush forward. After proceeding two miles 
farther, I met two couriers with orders : the first was that I 
should " take the first road leading up the river, and cut off 
the enemy's retreat;" the second, that I should "press for- 
ward and let Col. Wolford, with his brigade, take the road 
leading up the river." I had gone but a short distance, when 
I received a written order to reverse my column, and, with 
Col. Wolford's brigade and my own, take the first road I 
could find in direction of the river, in order to prevent the 
enemy's escape up the river. The column was at once re- 
versed and moved back by the left flank. Upon reaching the 
road I found the head of Col. Wolford's column proceeding 
down the road. He was shown the order, and at once re- 
ported to me for orders. He was ordered to proceed with his 
brigade. He had not moved more than one hundred yards, 
when a courier came from my rear and announced that 
the enemy had attacked it. Col. Wolford was ordered to 
halt his column, leaving the Second Tennessee Mounted In- 
fantry to hold the road, and follow immediately with the 


First Kentucky Cavalry and Forty-Fifth Ohio Mounted In- 
fantry. I at once reversed my column, and, on arriving at 
the point near the Bachum Church, I found the enemy in 
force. He occupied a dense woods, and old field, and the 
mouth of a lane through which the road ran. 

Our lines were formed promptly ; the Ninth Kentucky 
Cavalry, Col. Jacob, on the extreme right; the Twelfth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, Col. Crittenden, on the extreme left; the 
First, Third and Eighth Kentucky Cavalry in the center ; 
the Forty-Fifth Ohio held as reserve. After fighting about 
an hour, the First, Third and Eighth Kentucky Cavalry were 
ordered to charge the enemy. With drawn sabers gleaming 
in the bright sunlight, and a shout that filled the foe with 
terror, they reached upon him, and he fled at their approach. 
The charge was led by Lieut. Col. Holloway, with the Eighth 
Kentucky, followed by Maj. Wolfey, of the Third, with his 
battalion, and Lieut. Col. Adams, of the First, with his regi- 
ment; (Col. Bristow, of the Eighth Kentucky, having been 
sent from Batavia, under orders, upon indispensable busi- 

I do but simple justice to these brave and gallant officers 
and veteran soldiers that followed them in that charge, when 
I say that not in this or any other war, have officers or men 
acquitted themselves with more credit, or manifested more 
determination and valor. The charge caused the enemy 
to fly in wild consternation, and immediately a flag of 
truce came from Col. R. C. Morgan, which was met bv 
officers of the Eighth and Third Kentucky Cavalry, pro- 
posing to surrender. They were apprised that no terms 
but an immediate and unconditional surrender would be 
considered, and Cols. Morgan, W. W. Ward and D. H. Smith, 
with their commands, marched into our lines. 

The casualties were inconsiderable on either side, the 
enemy losing nearly all the killed and wounded. The num- 
ber of prisoners captured by my command on that day 
amounted to about 700, including their horses, arms, etc. 
Col. Holloway was ordered with his regiment and a battalion 
of the Third Kentucky to take the prisoners, horses, arms, 
etc., to the river. The command was then moved a distance 
of fifteen miles to Tupper's Plains, up the river. On reach- 
ing the plains, the enemy was reported posted in a dense 
woods at the head of a deep ravine, between the forces of 
Gens. Judah, Hobson and my own. The First Kentucky 
Cavalry, Lieut. Col. Adams and part of the Twelfth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry [Infantry], under Capt. Ham, had been or- 
dered to pursue the detachments of the enemy. Col. Adams 
captured eighty, and Capt. Ham over 100. We had but 
about 600 men up, with four pieces of Artillery. In com- 


pany with Col. Wolford, my Adjutant-General, Capt. Hoff- 
man, and two other officers, and a citizen, made a reconais- 
ance to within a few hundred yards of the enemy. We found 
that an attack from our side with Artillery or Cavalry was 
totally impracticable, and that it would be with great diffi- 
culty he could be reached by the men on foot ; but that Gens. 
Judah and Hobson could move up the river upon him. We 
occupied the only road upon which he could retreat, unless 
he went directly to the river, which was strongly guarded. 
I communicated these facts to Gen. Hobson, but it was late 
in the evening, and I am satisfied he did not get them in 
time to make the move. He order 3d Col. Kautz to report 
to me that night with his brigade. During the night the 
enemy passed out by a path, and in the morning he was re- 
ported four miles in my advance, and moving in direction of 
Eight-mile Island. We at once gave him chase, and ran him 
fifty-seven miles. The Forty-Fifth Ohio, Lieut. Col. Ross, 
had the advance, skirmished with him six or seven miles, 
and brought him to a stand at 3 p. m., on the 20th, at Ruger 
Creek ; a fight ensued which lasted an hour. Col. Adams, 
with the First Kentucky, and Capt. Ward, with a company 
of the Third Kentucky, were ordered to make a flank move- 
ment and take possession of the only road upon which the 
enemy could retreat. This movement was accomplished with 
great rapidity and effectiveness, they having taken possession 
of the road after a severe skirmish. 

The enemy finding his way of retreat cut off, and being 
hotly pressed from the front, fled to an immense bluff for 
refuge. A flag of truce was sent up, demanding an immedi- 
ate and unconditional surrender of Morgan and his com- 
mand. The flag was met by Lieut. Col. Cicero Coleman and 
other Rebel officers with another flag. They came down and 
desired a' personal interview with me. They asked for one 
hour for consultation among their officers. I granted them 
forty minutes, within which time the whole command, ex- 
cepting Gen. Morgan, with about 600 officers and men, who 
deserted the command, surrendered. It was my understand- 
ing, and as I learned, the understanding of many Rebel offi- 
cers and men, that Morgan himself had surrendered. The 
number of prisoners captured by my command on that day 
was between 1,200 and 1,300 men, with their horses, arms, 

On the morning of the 20th, I called for 1,000 volun- 
teers, with the best horses, who could stay in their saddles 
as long as I would, without eating or sleeping until we cap- 
tured Morgan. The entire command would have volunteered 
but for want of horses. We could find but about 500 horses 
in the command fit for service. Col. Capron, Fourteenth 


Illinois Cavalry, who had reported to me on the night of the 
20th with his regiment, volunteered with 157 men of his 
command ; Col. Wolford, with detachments of the First 
Kentucky, Second East Tennessee, Forty-Fifth Ohio Mount- 
ed Infantry, and Second Ohio Cavalry. We also had small 
detachments from other regiments in the command. Col. 
Jacob was left in command of the forces and prisoners. 
With 500 men on the morning of the 21st, we resumed the 
chase. Traveling day and night, we came up with the enemy 
on Friday morning, the 24th, at Washington. Capt. Ward, 
of the Third Kentvcky Cavalry, with his own company, and 
Adj. W. 0. Carpenter with a detachment of the First Ken- 
tucky, had command of the advance. He drove in the Rebel 
pickets, and, by a flank movement, drove the entire Rebel 
force out of the town of Washington, killing and wounding 
several of the enemy. One mile east of Washington the 
enemy made a stand in a dense wood. We formed a line of 
battle, and soon drove him from this position. He fell back 
two miles, tore up a bridge over a rugged stream, and took 
position in the woods on a high hill just beyond the bridge. 
The advance moved on his left flank, while a portion bf the- 
Fourteenth Illinois crossed the stream just above the bridge, 
and moved up the hill in the face of a heavy fire from the 
enemy ; steadily they moved up and drove him before them. 
Late Friday evening he burned two bridges over Stillwater, 
causing considerable delay. We succeeded in crossing and 
pressed on all night. 

At daylight on Saturday morning, the 25th, we came up 
with the enemy one mile from Athens, marching on a par- 
allel road one quarter of a mile from ours. One half a mile 
in advance, the roads formed a junction. We pressed for- 
ward to it in time to sep the enemy reversing his column and 
flying to the woods. We shelled him for thirty minutes. 
Maj. Way, with the Michigan Cavalry, with detachments of 
the Eighth Michigan and his own regiment, and Maj. Rue, 
of the Ninth Kentucky Cavalry, with detachments of the 
Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry and Ninth, and other regiments 
with fresh horses, had been sent forward by Gen. Burnside. 
After dispatching these troops, he issued an order placing 
me in command of all troops in pursuit of Morgan. On Sat- 
urday, the 25th, Major Way had heavy skirmishing with the 
enemy, driving them before him. At dark, on the 25th, the 
main column reached Richmond. Maj. Way was two and a 
half miles in my advance, in direction of Springfield. At ten 
o'clock that night I received a note from him, stating the 
enemy was moving from Springfield to Hammersville. and 
that I could save five miles by marching directly from Rich- 
mond to that place, and that he would follow the enemy up. 


The column was at once put in motion on Hammersville 
road, almost midway between Richmond and Hammersville. 

At 12 o'clock on the night of the 25th, I met Maj. Rue, 
feeding ; he was traveling in direction of Richmond. He at 
once reported to me for orders, remarking that he had 375 
fresh men and horses, and three pieces of Artillery ; that he 
hoped I would give him the advance. I ordered him to fin- 
ish feeding, reverse his column and follow up immediately : 
that I would give him an opportunity. We reached Ham- 
mersville at daylight on Sabbath morning, the 26th. We 
could hear nothing of the enemy. I sent scouts on every 
road, but without awaiting their return, I sent Maj. Rue 
(who had come up), to take the advance with the detach- 
ment, and also with part of the Third Kentucky and First 
Kentucky, under Capt. Ward and Adj. Carpenter. We pro- 
ceeded five miles in direction of Salineville, when a courier 
rushed up from Hammersville, stating that the enemy wa's 
moving upon that place. I ordered Maj. Rue to send a com- 
pany of his men on their best horses back to ascertain the 
truth of the report. Within a few minutes an officer came 
up and announced the enemy at Salineville. We pressed for 
that point. Before reaching there I learned of the fight be- 
tween Maj. Way and the enemy, resulting in the capture of 
280 additional of the enemy. My advance, under Major 
Rue and Capt. Ward, went into Salineville. 

Learning that Morgan, with about 400 men, had crossed 
the railroad, and was going in direction of Smith's Ford, I 
ordered Maj. Rue to return with the advance to the head of 
the column^ then on the New Lisbon road. We had gone about 
seven miles when a courier, arrived from Maj. Rue, announced 
tli at Morgan had run into the New Lisbon road ahead of him. 
Within a few minutes a second courier came from Maj. Rue, 
stating that he had come up with the enemy, and wished me 
to send forward reinforcements immediately. The whole 
column was thrown forward at the utmost speed of their 
horses. We came to where the roads forked ; the enemy had 
gone to the left, and was between the two roads. My ad- 
vance had taken the right-hand road. I moved the column 
on the road the enemy had gone. On our approach several 
of the enemy started to run ; they were ordered to halt, and, 
refusing to do so, were fired upon. Just at this moment a 
flag came from the enemy, the bearer stating that Gen. Mor- 
gan wanted a personal interview with me. I caused the fir- 
ing to cease, and moved around where Morgan and his Staff 
were standing in the road. Morgan claimed that he had 
surrendered to a militia Captain. Maj. Rue had very properly 
refused to take any action in the premises until I came up. 
I ordered Morgan and his Staff to ride forward with Col. 


Wolford and myself, and ordered Maj. Rue to take charge of 
the balance of the prisoners. Morgan stated to me in the 
presence of Col. Wolford and other officers, that he had be- 
come thoroughly satisfied that escape from me was impos- 
sible ; that he himself might have escaped by deserting his 
men, but that he would not do so. He also stated in the 
sam e conversation, that he did not care for the militia ; that 
he could, with the command he then had, whip all the militia 
in Ohio ; yet he said that since crossing the Ohio, he found 
every man, woman and child his enemy ; that every hill-top 
was a telegraph, and every bush an ambush. 

After traveling back two miles, we halted to have the 
prisoners dismounted and disarmed. Gen. Morgan then de- 
sired a private interview. He claimed that he had surren- 
dered to a militia Captain, and that the Captain had agreed 
to parole him, his officers and his men. I stated that we 
had followed him thirty days and nights ; that we had met 
and defeated him a number of times ; that we had captured 
nearly all of his command: that he had acknowledged in 
the presence of Col. Wolford that he knew I would capture 
him. [Col. Cluke and three or four of his Staff were pres- 
ent, and asked Col. Wolford to attend the interview.] * * 
* * I also told him that Major Rue had gone to the right, 
Captain Ward to the left, and that the main column was 
moving rapidly upon his rear ; and that he had acknowl- 
edged that the militia Captain was no impediment in his 
way. * * * * I further told him that I regarded 
his surrender to the militia Captain, under such circum- 
stances, as not only absurd and ridiculous, but unfair and 
illegal, and that I would not recognize it at all. He then 
demanded to be placed back upon the field as I found him. 
I stated to him that his demand would not be considered for 
a moment ; that he, together with his men and officers, would 
be delivered to Maj. Gfen. Burnside at Cincinnati, Ohio, and 
that he would take such action in the premises as he might 
think proper. The number of prisoners captured with Mor- 
gan was 350. * ***** 

It is difficult for me to speak of individual officers or 
men without doing injustice to others. I unhesitatingly 
bear testimony to the uniformly good conduct and gallant 
bearing of the whole command ; yet I cannot forbear men- 
tioning the names of some of the officers. The noble, true 
and gallant Wolford, who was in the entire pursuit, is one of 
the coolest, bravest and most efficient officers in the army, 
and has fairly won, by his military energy, and gallantry on 
the field, promotion at the hands of the government. Col. 
Kautz, who commanded the Seventh and Second Ohio ; Col. 
Crittenden and Maj. Delfosse, of the Twelfth Kentucky Cav- 


airy; Col. Jacob, of the Ninth Kentucky; Col. Bristow, 
Lieut. Col. Holloway and Maj. Starling, of the Eighth Ken- 
tucky; Maj. Wolfley, of the Third Kentucky; Lieut. CoL 
Adams, of the First Kentucky; Lieut. Col. Melton, of the 
Second East Tennessee Mounted Infantry; Maj. Carpenter,, 
Second East Tennessee Mounted Infantry; Col. Capron, of 
the Fourteenth Illinois Cavalry; Lieut. Col. Ross, of the 
Forty-Fifth Mounted Infantry; Capt. Powers and Lieut. 
Longfellow, of the Fifth Indiana Cavalry ; Capt. Albert B.. 
Dod, Fifteenth Regiment Infantry, commanding company 
Third Ohio Cavalry ; Capt. Kinney, of the Third Ohio ; Capt. 
Ward, of the Third Kentucky, and Adj. Carpenter, of the 
First Kentucky, deserve the gratitude of the whole country 
for their energy and gallantry. 

To my personal Staff, Capt. J.E. Hoffman, Assistant Adj. 
Gen.; Cap. J. H. Morton, Assistant Quartermaster ; Dr. W. 
H. Mullins, Brig. Surg.; Lieut. Ernest Vennillot, Ordinance 
officer ; Lieut. Leavy, Aid-de-Camp ; Capt. Frederick Pente- 
cost, Volunteer Aid-de-Camp, and my faithful Orderlies, W. 
H. McDonald, Thomas Blakey and James Richardson, of the 
Eighth Kentucky Cavalry, I tender my deep-felt gratitude 
for their fidelity, indomitable energy, and valor. 

Our pursuit was much retarded by the enemy's burning 
all the bridges in our front. He had every advantage. His- 
system of horse-stealing was perfect. He would dispatch 
men from the head of each regiment, on each side of the 
road, to go five miles into the country, seizing every horse, 
and then fall in at the rear of the column. In this way he 
swept the country for ten miles of all the horses. * * 

I am, Colonel, very respectfully your obedient servant, 

J. M. Shackelford, 
Brigadier-General, Commanding. 
Lt, Col. G. B. Drake, A. A. G. 

The casualties in the Union forces on the Morgan raid, 
according to official reports, were as follows : Killed — One 
commissioned officer and eighteen enlisted men ; wounded — 
three officers and forty-four enlisted men. Of this num- 
ber the First Kentucky had one commissioned officer kill- 
ed, Capt. Jessee M. Carter and one enlisted man (name 
not given.) A list of the wounded of the regiment is not 
given. R. T. Pierce was known to be slightly wounded. 

Gen. Burnside reported that Morgan entered Kentucky 
4,000 strong, and that the aggregate number captured in all 
was about 3,000. The breaking up and destroying a force 
of such magnitude, it being the flower of the Rebel Cavalry, 


and under a chieftain who caused so much botheration to 
the onward movements of the Union forces, was a great, if 
not disastrous blow, to the rebellion. 


There were some conflicts between the claims of Gen. Shackelford 
and Maj. Geo. W. Rue, of the Ninth Kentucky Cavalry, as to which one 
was entitled to the honor of capturing Morgan and the remnant of his 
force on the 26th of July. While all honor should he given to Maj. Rue 
as being the immediate instrument of his capture, a true generosity would 
give the greater honor to Gen. Shackelford and those of his immediate 
command present, who had been in the entire fatiguing chase. The fol- 
lowing facts must be considered: After the capture of the main force 
near Burlington's Island, the rest of the commanders mostly gave down, 
and ceased active operations to a great extent. Shackelford gets up a 
volunteer force of 500 men, and persistently pursues night and day, from 
the morning of the 21st to the 26th. Shackelford, by orders, is now put in 
command of the entire force in pursuit. Majors Way and Rue, with 
strong detachments of men mounted on fresh horses, are sent forward on 
the train to overtake and co-operate with the pursuing forces. On ac- 
count of their fresh horses, Shackelford sends them in advance to inter- 
cept the enemy. Maj. Way encounters him on one road, and after a fierce 
fight, captures some 230 of his force. Maj. Rue, with detachments of the 
Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry under Maj. Graham, also Ninth Kentucky and 
Eighth Michigan, and small detachments from the First and Twelfth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry and some from other regiments, overtake the remainder 
under Morgan, making for Smith's Ford on the Ohio River. Learning 
from citizens of a near way to cut him off, Maj. Rue takes a dim road to 
the right and gets ahead of him, Morgan, finding himself entrapped, 
sent two flags of truce — one to the front — received by Maj. Rue, and tho 
other to the rear to the advance of Gen. Shackelford's men. This is about 
the substance of the facts connected with final surrender, and the reader 
can form his own conclusions as to who is entitled to the most credit. 
Adj. Carpenter, of the First Kentucky Cavalry, and Capt. Ward, of the 
Third Kentucky, both belonging to Shackelford's forces, with detachments 
of their regiments, were in advance with Maj. Rue. 

David R. Totten, of Company G, First Kentucky, who was a brave, 
good soldier, relates that on the morning of the 21st of July, when Wol- 
ford called for volunteers for the final pursuit, that he was the only one of 
his company who responded. In consideration of that fact, Wolford gave 
him the post of honor by putting him in charge of nine men, who were in 
advance all the time during the remainder of the chase, and first met one 
of Morgan's flags of truce at Ins surrender. 

Morgan, when captured, claimed to Gen. Shackelford, that he had a 
short time previously surrendered to an Ohio State Militia Captain by the 
name of James Burbick, who agreed to parole him and his men. Gov. 
Tod, Gen. Burnside and others, fully investigated the case, and found that 
Burbick was not even an authorized militia officer, but went out that 


morning in company with fifteen or twenty citizens to intercept Morgan, 
and they had called on him to command them, and gave him the honorary 
title of Captain. A Captain. Cornelius Curry, in commnnd of State militia, 
had met a flag of truce of Morgan's at a place called Gaver's that morn- 
ing, and agreed that his men were not to fire on the raider on condition 
that Morgan respected the property of his town (Salineville), and would 
go around the place. Burbick, by request, accompanied Morgan as guide 
to show him a near way to Smith's Ford. When Morgan found himself 
encompassed by the Union forces, he went through a hasty farce of sur- 
render to the fictitious Capt. Burbick. Burbick stated that he told Mor- 
gan that he did not know the nature of a surrender; but the wily chief- 
tain told him that he had a right to surrender to any person, and wanted 
an answer immediately. Burbick, under the emergency of the case, ac- 
cepted the surrender. 

When Lord Cornwallis was compelled to surrender at Yorktown in 
1781, disdaining to surrender to one whom he deemed inferior in rank, he 
sent tbe sword by a subordinate to be delivered to the commander of the 
Colonial troops. Gen. Washington, on the other hand, deeming himself 
an equal to the Commanding General of the troops belonging to the proud- 
est Monarch in the world, likewise appointed a subordinate to receive it. 
Even the unfortunate Col. Martin J. Crawford, who was surprised and 
captured at New Haven, Ky., in 1862, by Capt. Silas Adams, at first stood 
upon his dignity, and demanded Adams's rank before opening terms of 
surrender. If it had not been for the exhilarating influences of a loaded 
revolver in a determined hand, he might have quibbled over the difference 
in rank long enough for a rescuing party to have reached them from 

But here we find a Brigadier-General, whose reputation was as wide 
known as the Commander-in-Chief of the whole Rebel forces, and the em- 
bodiment of genius and chivalry, whose deeds have been celebrated in 
romance, history and poetry, in order to escape consequences, lowers his 
dignity and makes terms, and tries to have them recognized, with a citizen 
who had neither the appointment or commission of even a militia Captain. 

Morgan was delivered to Gen. Burnside, at Cincinnati, and he was 
ordered from the War Department, at Washington, to deliver him and his 
officers to the Penitentiary officers of the State of Ohio, to be confined in 
its walls, in retaliation for the confining of Col. Straight, of the Union 
army, in the Southern prisons for a similar raid through parts of Alabama 
and Georgia, in the preceding April. 

In taking such an extensive raid, Morgan exceeded his orders from 
his superiors. He only had permission from his superiors, Gens. Wheeler 
and Bragg, to take 2,000 men and make a quick raid on Eosecrans's com- 
munications, and return at once to Tennessee. 

Alter the capture of Morgan, the First Kentucky Cavalry were em- 
barked on steamboats and transported to Covington, Ky., where they took 
the train to Nicholasville, arriving there on the 30th of July at 11 a. m. 

It was told that at the surrender of Morgan, that Gen. Shackleford's 
passion got the upper hand of his judgment, and he began to bestow some 
caustic epithets upon the conquered chieftain. Col. Wolford interposed, 


and relinked the irate General, and told him that it was wrong to speak 
harshly to one whose hands were figuratively confined. Morgan, as a 
token of his appreciation of his kindness, presented to him his tine silver 
spurs. Wolford's generosity was in striking contrast to Morgan's actions 
■more than a year before, when Wollbrd was a in-isoner in his hands, when 
he compelled the wounded, bleeding commander of the First Kentucky to, 
ride at '•double-quick" for ten miles, until finally in a fainting condition, 
he could go no further. 

TheEev. W. H. Honnell. in his war reminiscences, tells the following, 
which occured directly after crossing the Ohio River, at Brandenburg, Ky : 

We had gone but a few miles, Avhen, at dusk, we were met by an 
elderly man on horseback, with a squirrel rifle on his shoulder. Morgan 
had told that Forrest was just behind him with 2,000 more Confederates, 
hoping thus to prevent any uprising behind him, and this was one of his 
Knight's of the Golden Circle, who greeted us with joy, exclaiming : 
''You can't tell how glad I am to greet you." These were his first words 
to me as I advanced to meet him, and I encouraged his delusion, so he 
could tell of what Morgan had done to the people before us. 

He had gathered in the Home Guard ; had broken or burned their 
guns; had given him the rifle ho carried, and he only wanted a squad of 
men to sack the houses of his neighbors, Avhose young ladies, "Abolition- 
ists," as he called them, incited by their fathers and brothers, he now 
wished to see dragged off as prisoners for insulting him and his fam- 
ily. They had only a few days before torn the butternut breast-pins from 
his daughters' bosoms at a public gathering, and had insulted a dozen 
others most grossly, who had defended their rights to wear what they 
pleased. But now, thank the Lord, the time for revenge had come. To 
burn down their houses and carry off men and horses, would be none too 
severe punishment for the grievous wrongs they had suffered from these 
Abolitionists ; that there were fifty Knights who held secret meetings in 
that region above, to resist the draft, and to do all they could to help the 
.South in this Abolition war. That Morgan had cleaned out the Home 
Guards up at Corydon, and had given him the gun he carried on his shoul- 
der. He then told us how Morgan had made a speech, and told them of 
your coming on just behind him. That night he and I camped together 
in the woods, and when he saw our men sw^eep the shocks of wheat of an 
Abolition neighbor into our camps for horse-feed and bedding for our- 
selves, he fairly shook with delight. We carried him with us a prisoner 
next day, to his chagrin, and the following morning dismissed him with a 
warning. One of our men swapped horses with him, and dismissed him 
again, and we never heard of him again. 

The thing of most interest to me, after this long lapse of time, is the 
recollection of the contrast between our reception in the Rebel and the 
Union States, as witnessed for the first time on that memorable chase of 
twenty-two days, to the final surrender of Morgan and his remnant near 
Steubenville, Ohio. The expression ever on my lips was: "This is a new 
phase of war; so utterly unlike two years past, and the greetings of most 
parts of the South ! I now begin to understand the enthusiasm of the 
Southern soldiery, for all their fighting was done almost under the eyes of 


ladies in full sympathy with their cause. How different with us while in 
the South, under the flush of faces burning with hatred and rage, of eyes 
flashing with anger and spite ! " We had hardly crossed the Ohio, at Bran- 
denburg, into Indiana, till the very atmosphere seemed to change. From 
the chill and damp of winter, we had suddenly come into the warmth and 
glow of the spring morning. And it increased with every advance we 
made, till the new song first reaching our hearts with its patriotic thrill 
in Ohio, made us ready to die for our country shouting under the folds of 
its flag. 

There were thousands of grrls and mothers iu holiday attire, found ou 
each side of the road to greet us with plates of sweet bread and pies. 
which were handed to us, with lovely faces and rosy cheeks, tempting us 
to lean from our saddles to kiss them, as they made the very air fragrant 
with the song, "Rally round the flag, boys, rally once again, shouting the 
battle cry of freedom." 

It has been nearly thirty years ago. and these locks are tinged with 
gray, and these limbs feel a little clumsy in mounting my horse, but for 
such a land, its towns and villages aglow in such a cause, with such cheer. 
I am ready to mount again, for not only a twenty-three days' and nights' 
ride, as I did then ; but even in memory of it, I keep myself cheered up 
in a monthly horseback ride of 500 miles, often in my missionary jour- 
neys. But I am ready to-morrow to undertake the repeat of the three and 
a half years through heat and dust, the rains of fire and storms of battle 
in the South, were it necessary to save the Union. But, thank God, they 
are never to be repeated by us or our young men, 6imply because it was so 
bravely done on both sides thirty years ago. 

After describing the fight at Bufnngton's Island, the 
Chaplain continues : 

Morgan was finally compelled to hand over his horse and sword to 
Wolford, as he requested to do so, in compliment to the gallant ride of the 
Colonel, who had ridden so long in pursuit, sitting much of the time in a 
saddle stained with the blood flowing from the open wound received a 
year before in the like defeat, at Lebanon, Tennessee, where he had been 
recaptured, as he was fainting from loss of blood from the same wound. 

The Chaplain adds : Among the first who hailed him from his pros- 
trate condition as he lay utterly exhausted, was Lieut. Leathers, who once 
held the Chaplain a prisoner after his charge into Morgan's line at Leb- 
anon, and whom he now gently bore on his shoulder, leaning for support 
as he helped him up the plank and laid him on the steamer's carpet, and 
bade him good-bye forever. He may be living yet, and may see these 
lines, or he may be over on the other shore, where lie hopes to greet him. 

Another incident by the Chaplain : When nearing the final round-up, 
a man mistaking me for Gen. Shackelford, as I had on a linen duster, came 
to my side, and said: "General, I have a request to make. I have a 
brother-in-law in this Morgan gang, a Rebel soldier ; I wish you to allow 
me to shoot him when captured."' "Shoot a prisoner, you coward! Be- 
gone at once, or I will put you under puard to be tried by a court-martial 


at our next carup." Of course he fled in dismay. This incident is only re- 
lated to show the average hatred of Wolford's men to revenge both then 
and since the war. 

Gen. Henry M. Judah, the highest officer belonging to the forces in 
pursuit of Morgan, in a dispatch to Gen. Burnside, dated Ponieroy, Ohio, 
July 22, '63, after detailing the disposition of the other forces, pays the 
following compliment to Gen. Shackelford and Col. Wolford: "Neither 
Shackelford nor Wolford need any superintendence as far as operations 
are concerned." 


Capt. Drye with his detachment ordered to Lebanon — 
Gets after one of Morgan's cut-off squads — Chases 
Capt. Bullitt, wounds him, and captures his men — 
The Scott raid in Kentucky — Sanders encounters 
his forces near Richmond — Defeated — Falls back to 
Lexington — Union mounted forces concentrate there 
— Drye and his men ordered to Lexington — Takes the 

MILE chase — Scott is whipped across the Cumberland 
— Lieut. Col. Adams ordered in the pursuit — One day 


It is now essential to return to the First Kentucky Cavalry 
detachment, under Capt. Drye, returned from the Sanders 
raid in East Tennessee. When Col. Sanders retreated to 
Mt. Vernon, Ky., June 26th, after his thrilling and eventful 
expedition, he turned over his command to Col. R. K. Byrd. 
The various detachments returned to the different positions 
assigned to them. Col. Sanders went immediately to Lex- 
ington and reported to Gen. Hartsuff. Capt. Drye, with his 
detachment, and other troops of the command, marched to 
Lancaster and remained a few days, when they were ordered 
to Danville. 

When the pursuit after Morgan commenced, July 4th, 
the train of the First Kentucky, together with the unservice- 
able men and horses, were ordered to Danville, Ky., where 
they remained under Capt. J. G. Dick until the return of the 


command. Some of Sanders's raiders rejoined us there, 
among whom was Lieut. James Humphrey. 

About July 8th, an alarm got up among some of the 
Post commanders, caused by rumors that Wheeler was en- 
tering the State to make a diversion in favor of John H. Mor- 
gan. These rumors, on investigation, turned out to be un- 

After remaining at Danville a day or two, Capt. Drye was 
ordered to report with his command to Col. 0. H. Moore, at 
Lebanon, for duty. Soon after arriving at Lebanon, Capt. 
Drye was ordered to Washington county to intercept some 
Rebels supposed to be cut off from Morgan's command. 
Drye soon scented the trail of the squad, and followed it 
through the northern part of Marion, into Casey county. 
At Austin Thompson's, on Martin's Creek, he ran upon 
them and took them by surprise. The commander of the 
squad, Capt. Thomas Bullitt, and two of his men, mount- 
ed their horses and attempted to escape, but Capt. Drye 
was on a fleet horse, and, swift as the wind, he chased them 
for a while, when a well-directed shot from his pistol 
brought the Rebel Captain down. Mathew A. Smallwood, of 
Company C, coming to his assistance, the other two men 
surrendered. It is due to Capt. Drye to state that he called 
to Bullitt several times to surrender, but he neglected to 
obey the summons. Though the disabled Captain was re- 
ported by Col. Moore as mortally wounded, he was taken to 
Elder I. D. Steele's near by, where he lay for some time, and 
finally recovered. Eleven men were captured at this time, 
besides the Captain. Capt. Bullitt afterward became a prom- 
inent lawyer in Louisville. 

The Confederate Cavalry commander, Col. John S. Scott, 
on the 25th of July, entered Kentucky through Big Creek 
Gap, and moved for the fertile region of Central Kentucky. 
The object of this raid, according to the report of Gen. S. B. 
Buckner, commanding the Department of East Tennessee, 
was to cut the enemy's communications ; to destroy their 
trains and supplies ; to send out cattle, if possible, and, in- 
cidentally, to make a diversion in favor of Gen. John H. 
Morgan, then on his extended raid. 

As there were no communications in this section that 


they could much damage in the limited time generally al- 
lotted them, except a few bridges, and the bulk of supplies 
was mostly stored in the impregnable fortifications of Camp 
Nelson, and the diversion in favor of Morgan only an inci- 
dental object, it is reasonable to infer that the chief object 
of the raid was to " capture mules, horses, cattle," and store- 
goods. A little digression will not be amiss here. When 
the Union forces captured or pressed any property in the 
claimed Confederate dominions, it was called " remorseless 
plundering from our wives, children and aged and helpless 
parents, by Abolition barbarians and inhuman monsters," 
even though the loser was apt to receive a voucher, and if 
proved loyal, was sure to get pay ; but horses and cattle 
" captured " by the raiding " chivalry " in the far-famed 
Blue Grass region, whether from friend or foe, private citi- 
zen or helpless woman, were never known to be paid for, or 
voucher given in lieu thereof ; and it is worthy of remark, 
that the most pronounced Southern sympathizers would al- 
ways flee to the mountains with their fine stock on the ap- 
proach of Morgan or Scott, while they would feel no appre- 
hension of loss when the First Kentucky Cavalry were in 
their section. 

But to return from the digression. The raiders advanced 
rapidly by way of Williamsburg, London, Mt. Vernon and 
Big Hill, sweeping the small outposts guarding several points 
before them, skirmishing all the way until they reached 
Rogersville, twelve miles from Richmond, where a heavy 
skirmish took place. 

On the night of the 26th, detachments of the One Hun- 
dred and Twelfth Illinois, under Maj. Dow, and the Tenth 
and Fourteenth Kentucky Cavalry, under Maj. Foley, re- 
ceived marching orders at Danville, and after traveling all 
night, reached Richmond at 8 o'clock the next morning. 
The entire force, about 500 strong, went into camp that day r . 
Colonel W. P. Sanders was ordered to Richmond to take 
command of the mounted forces there. In the meantime, 
heavy pickets had been thrown out on the roads in direction 
of the approaching enemy. In the night Col. Sanders re- 
ceived information of the skirmish on the Big Hill road. At 
daylight the next morning he moved out on that road to 


check the enemy's advance. The enemy appeared at sunrise, 
and for three hours a skirmish was kept up between the 
parties, the enemy opening on the Union forces with Artil- 
lery, pouring solid shot and shells into their ranks. 

Sanders perceives that he is about to be surrounded by a 
vastly superior force, and determines to fall back to the Ken- 
tucky River. He calls his men to the main road and moves 
them through the town of Richmond in good order. The air 
is filled with clouds of dust, and the men are so covered with 
it, that it is difficult to distinguish friend from foe. The 
Union soldiers suffer the enemy to approach very close, sup- 
posing them to be their own men, and give them a friendly 
salutation, receiving a volley in reply. Surrounded and in- 
termingled, the devoted band see but one way out of the 
dilemma ; they hastily mass their forces and make a dash 
for the weakest part of the enemy's line ; plunging their 
spurs into their steeds, like a cyclone they rush through the 
Rebel lines, shooting right and left, and yelling at the top 
of their voices. The troops now become confused ; the brav- 
est of men under similar circumstances are liable to be 
panic-stricken, and it now becomes a race between the Blue 
and the Gray for the Kentucky River. In vain Sanders, 
Dow and Foley endeavor to rally the men to check the 
enemy; only about a hundred men halt, and he is only 
checked for a moment. The men become uncontrollable and 
scatter in various directions. 

At Clay's Ferry, on the river, Sanders halted with part of 
his force, and prevented the enemy from crossing until he 
received orders to fall back to Lexington. Four or five of 
the Union soldiers were killed and seventy-five were taken 
prisoners and paroled. The casualties would have been 
greater, but toward the close of the contest the ammunition 
of the enemy became scarce. Sanders reported the enemy 
1,600 strong, with eight pieces of Artillery. 

Capt. Drye, returning to Lebanon after Scott's raid com- 
menced, had orders to "march to Lexington, which place he 
reached on the 29th of July, and reported to Col. Sanders 
for duty about noon on that day. 

A considerable force of Cavalry had been rapidly concen- 
trated at Lexington, consisting of detachments of the fol- 


lowing regiments : First Kentucky Cavalry, Capt. G. W. 
Drye ; Tenth and Fourteenth Kentucky Cavalry, Second 
and Seventh Ohio Cavalry, Eighth and Ninth Michigan Cav- 
alry, First and Second East Tennessee Mounted Infantry, 
Fifth East Tennessee Cavalry, Forty-Fifth Ohio Mounted 
Infantry, One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois Mounted In- 
fantry and Crawford's Tennessee Battery, in all about 2,400 
men. Gen. Hartsuff ordered Col. Sanders to take command 
of this force and start after Scott. 

About three o'clock the movement commenced. Capt. 
Drye with his detachment was ordered to take the advance. 
Three miles out on the Winchester road, he captured the 
enemy's pickets without firing a gun, and then the fun com- 
menced. Darkness and rain came on at Winchester. Drye's 
men had a lively " set to " with the enemy on the streets in 
town. Learning that three hundred of the enemy had gone 
to Paris, Sanders sent 500 men of the Forty-Fifth Ohio and 
Fifth Tennessee after them, while he followed the main body 
under Scott on the Irvine road with the rest' of his forces. 
Drye was close on their rear all night, and daylight struck 
the pursued and pursuers near Irvine. Some amusing inci- 
dents occurred. They shrunk from surrendering worse than 
any troops our men ever met. During the march to Irvine 
nearly a hundred prisoners were captured, a number of the 
enemy were killed and wounded, and he was compelled to 
abandon some of his wagons and stock. Scott's whole force 
made a stand on the south side of the river at Irvine. After 
about one hour's fighting, Byrd's regiment swung around to 
the left and soon had them on the run. They were here 
compelled to leave a large number of horses and mules, be- 
sides a portion of the property captured from the Four- 
teenth Kentucky at that place. Sanders's worn down horses 
and men were compelled to stop at Irvine several hours to 
feed, and followed on during the night ; Capt. Drye and his 
First Kentucky men still in advance, overtook the enemy's 
rear guard and recaptured a mountain howitzer. 

After reaching the Big Hill, the enemy turned to the 
right on the Blue Lick road, and moved toward Lancaster. 
During the day the command fought constantly with the 



enemy, who made a stand at every favorable point. Near 
Paint Lick Church, the enemy made an obstinate stand and 
fought for an hour. At this place Capt. Watrous made a 
saber charge capturing thirty prisoners and wounding several 
with the saber. At Lancaster, on the same day, Col. San- 
ders ordered a charge of all the Cavalry under Major Taylor, 
capturing 200 prisoners and completely routing the enemy. 
In this charge, Capt. Drye had a horse shot from under him, 
and his men captured Lieut. Col. Nixon, of the First Lou- 
isiana Cavalry, and eighty men. The horses of the Union 
Cavalry were nearly worn out, or most of the Rebel forces 
could have been captured here. The enemy took the Stan- 
ford road, and resisted at all points where they could use 
their Artillery. They were driven through Stanford at 4 
p. m., where Sanders was again compelled to stop and have 
his famished horses fed, being the second time after leaving 
Lexington, a distance of more than 100 miles, the route his 
forces traveled. 

Leaving Stanford at 6:30 p. m., and marching all night, 
the unfaltering Sanders reached Somerset, thirty-three miles 
distant, at 8 a. m., on the 1st day of August, and followed 
the enemy, still fighting, to Smith's Shoals, on the Cumber- 
land River. The enemy succeeded in getting his Artillery 
across the river, with the exception of one gun — supposed to 
be the one abandoned by Sanders in East Tennessee, a few 
weeks before — which was left in the middle of the river. 
The enemy was compelled to leave a portion of his train and 
animals in our hands. Sanders now determined to abandon 
the pursuit and return, as his command had been without 
rations for four days, and his men and horses were almost 
famished and exhausted. 

The following is copied from Col. Sanders's official re- 
port : " To all the officers and men I am much indebted for 
their perseverance and endurance. Maj. J. L. Foley, Tenth 
Kentucky, had charge of the advance guard, and showed 
great skill and gallantry in its management ; Capt. G. W. 
Drye, First Kentucky Cavalry, had charge of the extreme 
advance throughout the entire march, and conducted it with 
skill, energy and bravery." 

The Colonel also gives great credit to Maj. Taylor, Cols. 


Carter and Henderson and Maj. Ellis, for their activity and 
energy wherever dismounted men could be used ; also to 
Capt. Mott, Tenth Kentucky Cavalry, for his valuable ser- 
vices as Aid. 

He also reports his casualties as one killed and eleven 
wounded, and that of the enemy, 700 prisoners, and a num- 
ber killed and wounded. 

The entire strength of the raiding force was variously 
estimated to be from 1,500 to 2,500 men ; a safe estimate 
might be about 2,000. 

The main body of the First Kentucky Cavalry, after their 
long and wearisome chase after Morgan through Kentucky, 
Indiana and Ohio, arrived at Nicholasville, Ky., at 11 a. m., 
on the 30th of July. Scarcely having time to breathe, 250 
of them under Col. Adams were ordered to Richmond to 
participate in the pursuit after Scott. They arrived at Rich- 
mond at 11 :30 a. m., on the 31st, and at 1 :30 p. m., marched 
for Crab Orchard, reaching there at 10:30 p. m., and en- 
camped. From there they marched by way of Stanford to 
Somerset, arriving there at 11 a. m., on the 2d of August, 
the next day after Sanders had whipped the enemy across 
the Cumberland. Wolford's command now relieved San- 
ders's brokon down men, and they returned to their respec- 
tive commands. 

In another chapter has been told the heroic exploit of Mrs. Jackman 
and Vaughn in conveying the news of Pegram's weakness to Col. Wolford 
across the Kentucky River. The two women afterward became the target 
of Rebel sympathizers in and around Lancaster; their lives were threat- 
ened, but they had personal friends among them who kept them warned 
of danger. When Scott's Rebel Cavalry entered Lancaster on the 31st of 
July, following the Pegram raid in March, a Rebel friend went to Mrs. 
Jackman and begged her to accompany her home, telling her that she was 
sure they would have her hung. The brave woman declined the kind in- 
vitation, and assured her friend, that if they wanted her, they would find 
her at home ; and if they were simple enough to hang her, Wolford's men 
would pay them back in their own coin, and would not stop at hanging 
one, but would clean out the town. Soon Sanders's Union force, at the 
head of which was the daring Capt. Geo. W. Drye, of the First Kentucky 
Cavalry, came dashing into town, capturing and shooting the raiders, 
when the terrorists became at once the terror-stricken. 



East Tennessee — Face op the country — Devoted loyalty 

of the people their sufferings and humiliations 

Isolated situation prevents help from the govern- 
ment — Organization of the Army of the Ohio for 
this movement, and Burnside in command — Interrup- 
tions — War Department becomes impatient — Caustic 
correspondence — Reorganization of the Twenty- 
Third Army Corps — Wolford commands the Independ- 
ent Cavalry Brigade, and Adams the First Kentucky 
— The movements of the several columns into East 
Tennessee — Wolford guards the train and keeps com- 
munications open — Incidents of the march — Rebel 

forces fall back cumberland gap taken bragg 

evacuates chattanooga union forces in possession 

of East Tennessee Valleys. 

When Tennessee on the 8th of June, 1861, passed its 
Secession ordinance by the action of the State Secessionists 
aided by the conspirators of the so-called Confederate States, 
one geographical division of the once proud Commonwealth 
stood loyal and unyielding. It was that portion of the State 
whose western limit is the Cumberland Mountains, and east- 
ern, the boundary of the State of North Carolina, and known 
as East Tennessee. It is a diversified region of magnificent 
and lovely scenery, of barren mountain peaks and ridges, 
fertile valleys, picturesque hills, clear streams and sparkling 
rivulets. It is a region where nature has been lavish in be- 
stowing agricultural capabilities and mineral resources. 
When the dark cloud of secession hovered in ominous gloom 
over the lovely land, its threatening aspect had no terrors 
for these patriotic people, and when it burst in all its fury, 
the direst persecution could not swerve their allegiance from 
a government they loved so well, and one which always had 
protected, but never oppressed them. Their patriotism should 
be handed down on the pages of history to their remotest 


The sufferings and humiliations they had to undergo are 
difficult to portray. " They were denounced as traitors, rob- 
bed of their property, driven from their homes, hunted like 
wild beasts in the forest, whipped, confined in loathsome 
dungeons, hanged like felons." Many of them were con- 
scripted in the Rebel 'army. Many of them exiled them- 
selves from their homes. Leaving their loved ones, climbing 
the rugged mountains, treading the almost pathless wilder- 
ness, starving, meeting with hair-breadth escapes, after weary 
days of toil they at last reach a haven of safety for the time, 
in the camps of the loyal Kentucky regiments then forming 
in the heart of the Blue Grass region, at Camp Dick Robin- 
son. Two full regiments of Infantry were organized here,, 
and a number went into other regiments, among whom Lieut. 
0. M. Dodson and Lieut. Wm. M. Haley joined the First 
Kentucky Cavalry. 

Many of these refugees were in affluent circumstances at 
home, while many belonged to the humbler walks of life. 
But whether they belonged to the parlor or the hovel, their 
devotion to their country was none the less genuine. 

Early in the war, at the beginning of active operations 
in the field, in the fall of 1861, the advisability and practi- 
cability of moving a column into East Tennessee and occu- 
pying and holding this garden-spot of loyalty were discussed 
by governmental and military authorities, but owing to its 
situation and isolated condition, it was deemed impossible 
to hold it ; but after breaking the strongholds of the enemy 
in the Mississippi Valley, the holding of that section by 
Union troops became a possibility. 

It was principally for this purpose that Gen. Burnside 
was sent on early in the spring of 1863 with the Ninth Army 
Corps, and to organize certain troops in conjunction with it 
into the Army of the Ohio. It has been stated in another 
chapter that early in June, Gen. Burnside commenced active 
preparations for the movement when the Ninth Army Corps 
was detached to reinforce Grant at Vicksburg, and the move- 
ment for the time was suspended, and again was interrupted 
by the great raid of Morgan through the Northern States. 

Those in their offices, far from the sulphurous smell of 
battle, living in luxurious ease on big salaries, having their 


heavy work done by untitled subordinates on comparatively 
small pay, soon became impatient about the movements of 
the armies in the field. 

Governor Andrew Johnson, May 29th, writes to President 
Lincoln : 

* * * * This part of the State [East Tennessee] 
should be entered. The opressions and inhumanity inflicted 
are indescribable, and must be redressed. If the government 
does not give that protection guaranteed by the Constitution, 
the Tennessee forces should be massed and permitted to en- 
ter East Tennessee. This they will do, though they perish 
to a man in the attempt. ***** 

Much caustic correspondence took place in these times 
between Gen. Rosecrans and the Commander-in-Chief, Gen. 
.Halleck ; also between Gen. Burnside and Gen. Halleck. The 
reader must understand that it was necessary for Gen. Rose- 
crans, commanding the forces in Middle Tennessee, and Gen. 
Burnside, commanding the forces intended for East Tennes- 
see, to co-operate with each other, and both move at the 
same time. The Washington authorities began to give per- 
emptory orders for Rosecrans's forward movement. The 
Commander of the Army of the Cumberland was better ac- 
quainted with the obstacles in his way, and hesitated. Fi- 
nally, on the 25th of June, Gen. Rosecrans moved forward, 
and in a series of masterly operations in a campaign of nine 
days, turned the enemy's right, forced him from his in- 
trenched position at Shelbyville and Wartrace, and gained 
possession of Middle Tennessee. Bragg fell back across the 
mountains into East Tennessee, and into the valleys of North 

Simultaneously with Rosecrans's forward movement, Mor- 
gan, with his immense Cavalry force, commenced his extend- 
ed raid through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio, which lasted 
twenty-four days of actual pursuit. This called all of Burn- 
sides's effective Cavalry force in the chase and in operations 
against him. 

Gen. Halleck seems to have been ignorant of what Gen. 
Burnside was doing to effect the destruction of Morgan, not- 
withstanding dispatches were frequently sent to him. July 
6th, he telegraphed to Burnside : 


The proposed expedition [into East Tennessee] must be 
moved promptly and rapidly, or your opportunity will be 
lost. There is no need at the present time of keeping large 
forces in Kentucky. 

Again, on the 13th of July, when Gen. Burnside and the 
officials of the three States of Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio 
were racking their brains to devise means to catch and de- 
stroy the great chieftain, he dispatches : 

Maj. Gen. Burnside: — I must again urge upon you the 
importance of moving forward into East Tennessee to cover 
Rosecrans's left. Telegraph what you are doing toward this 
•object, so we can have definite information to act upon. 

Once more, on July 24th, in the closing exercises of one 
of the grandest achievements of the war, at a time when the 
heroes who had followed Morgan for nearly a month without 
sleep or rest, were broken down and their horses exhausted, 
Halleck becomes angry and dispatches to Burnside : 

You have not yet replied to my dispatch in regard to 
3'our movement toward East Tennessee. You will immedi- 
ately report the position and numbers of your troops organ- 
ized for that object. There must be no further delay in this 
movement. It must be pushed forward immediately. 

Gen. Burnside sensibly replies : — 

Cincinnati, July 24, 1863. 

Your dispatch received. You have not answered my dis- 
patch of July 18th, in reference to the Ninth Army Corps. 
The Secretary of War telegraphed me after the fall of Vicks- 
burg that they were ordered to return here at once, and I 
have counted upon them. All of my available Cavalry have 
been after Morgan. Rosecrans's line of railroad has to be 
guarded as well as the line of the Cumberland to the mouth, 
and the whole of the Eastern Kentucky line. A large num- 
ber of mounted troops are necessary to guard our trains and 
keep communications open when we get to East Tennessee. 
I am not conscious of any unnecessary delay, but feel that I 
have done everything in my power. I should be glad to be 
more definitely instructed, if you think the work can be bet- 
ter done. I will report what I propose to do when I get all 
my Cavalry started back. There are about 6,000 troops ready 
to start, and will start very soon. A very great impediment 
to a movement of this kind has been removed in the destruc- 
tion of Morgan's force. I hope to finish him up to-day or 


Halleck replies the next day (July 25th) : — 
Whether the Ninth Army Corps will be returned to your 
department, or sent to Gen. Rosecrans, will depend upon the 
enemy's movements. ***** The present opportu- 
nity must not be lost. The column must be immediately or- 
ganized and moved forward. It must not be stopped or called 
back by petty raids. The militia and Home Guards must 
take care of their raids. 

It is well for the reader to understand that Gen. S. B. 
Buckner, the Confederate Commander of the Department of 
East Tennessee, had at that time, according to his own offi- 
cial report, an aggregate force of 27,000 men in his com- 
mand, and would not have been caught sleeping, as lie had 
been anticipating for months the movement of a heavy col- 
umn of Union troops into his dominions. 

It is plain to be inferred that neither Halleck, Stanton, 
nor any other Washington official of high rank, had any 
practical experience worthy of note of the efficiency of Home 
Guards or militia. The pompous reports of a few Home 
Guard officials of their operations against the raiders, were 
no indications that there would be any serious obstacle in 
the path of the battle-hardened veterans of the enemy. 
Without the aid of trained mounted, and other troops to 
garrison and guard the country and communications in the 
rear, five hundred picked soldiers of the enemy under such 
leaders as Pegram, Scott, Forrest, or Wheeler, now that Mor- 
gan was out of the way, could have gone when and where 
they pleased, and destroyed what they pleased, and laughed 
at all the Home Guards in Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio, that 
could have been marshaled against them. 

Positive orders still continued to be sent to Burnside to 
move on Knoxville or Loudon, and to Rosecrans to move on 
Chattanooga, until they become fretted, and Burnside re- 
plies, August 6th : 

* * * * I have submitted of late, without complaint, 
to your uniform refusal of my requests, which were made for 
the good of the service in this department, but I am not 
willing to let the imputation that I have disobeyed orders go 
unnoticed. Your general instructions, as I understand them r 
leaves me at liberty to do just what I have done without 
them — that is, to use my own judgment as to combination 


of forces, route, etc. The concentration is being made as 
rapidly as possible. 

Gen. Rosecrans replies the same day to Gen. Halleck, 
after discussing several matters, detailing obstacles to be 
surmounted, and closes as follows : 

If, therefore, the movement I propose cannot be regarded 
as obedience to your order, I request a modification of it, or 
to be relieved from the command. 

The First Kentucky Cavalry, as before stated, after re- 
turning from the Morgan raid, followed in the wake of Scott 
to Somerset and remained. By General Orders, No. 28, 
Headquarters Twenty-Third Army Corps, Lexington, Ky., 
August 6, 1863, there was a general reorganization of all the 
troops of the corps, with the object of making the contem- 
plated move at the earliest possible date. 

The First Division, composed of Infantry, Cavalry and 
Artillery, was assigned to Brig. Gen. J. T. Boyle, and its duties 
were to be on railroads, at posts or stations, or at certain 
places before ordered, or the exigencies of the service might 
render necessary. Other divisions and brigades were also 
reorganized, and their commanders assigned. 

Col. Frank Wolford was assigned to the command of 
the Independent Cavalry Brigade, consisting of the First, 
Eleventh and Twelfth Kentucky Cavalry, and Law's Moun- 
tain Howitzer Battery. Lieut. Col. Silas Adams now com- 
manded the First Kentucky, Major Milton Graham the 
Eleventh, and Col. Eugene \V. Crittenden the Twelfth, and 
Capt. Jessee M. Law the battery. This battery had heretofore 
been attached to another brigade, and worked by detailed 
men from other regiments. These men were now ordered 
back to their regiments, and details were made from the 
Fiist and Eleventh Kentucky to fill their places. Lieut. 
Warren Lamme, of Company D, First Kentucky, was de- 
tailed as one of its officers and filled the position with credit 
and distinction. 

The following officers were appointod to serve on Col. 
Frank Wolford 's Staff: Lieut, W. T. Carpenter, Company G 
(who was Adjutant of the First Kentucky), Acting Assist- 
ant Adjutant General ; Capt. Thomas Rowland, Company K, 


First Kentucky, Inspector-General; Lieut. Richard E. Hoff- 
man, Co. F, First Kentucky, Ordnance Officer ; and William 
M. Simpson, Regimental Quartermaster of the Eleventh 
Kentucky, was appointed Brigade Quartermaster. 

Lieut. Samuel Belden, of Company B, acted Regimental 
Adjutant of the First Kentucky until November 14th, after 
which Lieut. J. S. Pankey, of Company I, mostly filled that 
position with much ability and accuracy. 

Col. Wolford had orders to report directly to Corps Head- 

Other troops of Burnside's command, destined to move 
by way of Point Burnside, Sloan's Valley and Chitwood's, 
into East Tennessee, soon commenced concentrating at Som- 
erset. Wolford's men were now resting rapidly after their 
exhaustive pursuit after the raiders, recruiting and refitting, 
making the necessary preparations for the onward movement. 

In the spring and summer of 1863, a number of changes 
took place in the commissioned officers of the regiment, 
which will now be noted. 

Company B : Second Lieut. Samuel Belden, promoted to 
First Lieutenant, to take effect July J, 1863. Vincent Pey- 
ton, promoted to Second Lieutenant, to take effect July 1, 

Company D : Capt. Samuel M. Boone, resigned August 
12th, 1863; First Lieutenant Daniel A. Kelley, promoted 
Captain the same day; Corp. Henry H. Thornton, promoted 
to First Lieutenant August 12th. 

Company F: Richard E. Huffman, a recruit, was ap- 
pointed Second Lieutenant, August 26th, 1863. 

Company J : Lieut. Anderson T. Keen was promoted to 
Captain to take effect July 4, 1863 ; Second Lieutenant John 
T. McLain was promoted to First Lieutenant the same day, 
and also First Serg. A. C. Smith, was promoted to Second 
Lieutenant at the same time. 

Company H: Capt. F. N. Alexander was promoted to 
Major in the Thirtieth Kentucky Infantry, April 14, 1863. 

Maj. W. A. Coffey did not go on the East Tennessee ex- 
pedition, though the records show that his resignation did 
not take effect until in October, 1863. 

By the 16th of August a force of 15,000 men, belonging 


to the Twenty-Third Army Corps, under Maj. Gen. Geo. L. 
Hartsuff, had been organized to make the momentous move- 
ment to relieve the downtrodden and crushed people of East 
Tennessee. The two divisions of the Ninth Army Corps had 
not yet arrived from Mississippi, but were on their way. 
Mandatory orders from the War Department still continued 
to be issued to the two commanders to commence their for- 
ward movement. It will be seen hereafter how these stringent 
orders came very near proving disastrous to both armies. 

Gen. Burnside, on the 20th of August, ordered Gen. Hart- 
surT to move his command in different columns, as follows : 
Hascall's division to Kingston, East Tennessee, by way of 
Somerset, Chitwoods, Huntsville and Montgomery ; White's 
division from Columbia, Ky., by way of Creelsboro, Albany, 
and Jamestown, Tennessee, to Montgomery ; Graham's Cav- 
alry to join White by way of Burkesville, Albany and James- 
town ; Wolford's Cavalry brigade to guard the supply and 
ammunition trains that were with Hascall's division. Gen. 
S. P. Carter's mounted command moved by way of Mt. Ver- 
non, London and Williamsburg, over the Jellico Mountains 
to Chitwoods, Huntsville, Montgomery and Kingston, except- 
ing such portions as might be detached. Gen. Burnside ac- 
companied this force. 

In addition to guarding Hascall's trains, part of Wol- 
ford's command was detailed for other purposes. Company 
C was already at Albany. On the 18th of August, Lieut. D. 
R. Can fell in with Champe Ferguson and some of his band, 
killed two and wounded three ; among the latter was Fergu- 
son himself. 

Col. Wolford received marching orders on the 24th of 
August, with directions to leave at Somerset and Monticello 
a sufficient force to scout the country well in the vicinity of 
each place, and in front of Monticello. Company D, Capt. 
Daniel A. Kelly and F, Capt. R. C. Blain, were left at Monti- 
cello to scout the country in that section ; and Companies 
B, Capt. Drye ; C, Lieut. Carr, and H., Lieut. J. G. Dick, 
after scouting in front of Albany, were ordered to guard 
White's division to Jamestown, Tennessee. Also a detach- 
ment of the Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry under Capt. J. G. 
Pond, was detailed for the same purpose. Arriving at James- 


town, Lieut. Carr, with Company C, and the Eleventh Ken- 
tucky detachment, all under Capt. Pond, returned to Monti- 
cello in charge of a wagon train. Lieut. Vincent Peyton, 
Company B, returned with them to gather up some absent 
men of his company, and also he enrolled some recruits. 
Capt. Pond was ordered to Crab Orchard, accompanied by 
Lieut. Carr and his company, where he was joined by Lieut. 
Peyton and his men. Leaving Capt. Pond and the Eleventh 
Kentucky to join the command in East Tennessee by way of 
Cumberland Gap, Carr and Peyton returned to Monticello, 
where, uniting their companies with D and F, they marched 
by way of Travisville, Jamestown, Montgomery and Warts- 
burg, and joined the rest of the regiment at Knoxville, Sep- 
tember 19th, 1863. 

In the meantime, Wolford, with the main part of his 
brigade, including the rest of the First Kentucky Cavalry, 
under Lieut. Col. Silas Adams, marched from Somerset to 
Sloan's Valley and encamped on the 25th of August. The 
Quartermaster, Capt. S. H. Lunt, who was a nice, intelligent 
gentleman, had charge of all the trains. 

Leaving Sloan's Valley, we struck a lonesome wilderness 
which lasted for forty miles, until we reached Chitwoods, 
Tennessee, near the State border. There were but few inhabi- 
tants residing on this wilderness road, and their habitations 
were of the humblest pretensions, with only a few acres 
cleared and in cultivation around each one. The few inhabi- 
tants seen about our camps were seemingly of the poorest 
class, and appeared to belong to the same class as Rip Van 
Winkle, who took his twenty year's nap in the Catskill 
Mountains. The fringed hunting-shirt and the coon-skin 
cap, with the tail hanging down behind, both relics of the 
days of Daniel Boone, had not entirely departed from this 
region. They were an isolated people, and had but little 
communication with the stirring, busy, progressive world 
around them. Some of the young females might have been 
handsome with some polish in their language, and if it had 
not been for their quaint fashions in dress, which looked out 
of date to those of our regiment who had been used to the 
stylish modes of the aristocratic belles of the Blue Grass 
region of Kentucky. But even in their humble garb it is 


possible that their hearts beat as true to their lovers, their 
neighbors, friends and kindred, and to their government, as 
did the hearts of those clothed in purple and fine linen. And 
who knows but what in that unknown, but hoped for here- 
after — in that " abode beyond the river," that their raiments 
will shine as bright as those accustomed in this life to orna- 
ment the parlor or the palace ! 

Though guarding wagon trains in the rear of a moving 
column was not so exhilarating as the First Kentucky's cus- 
tomary line of duties of forced marches, daring raids, dash- 
ing charges, and meeting with hair-breadth escapes, yet it 
was not without some life. For some reason unexplained, 
forage and army rations were issued to the horses and men 
rather sparingly, and owing to the barrenness of the country, 
vegetables and chickens so much admired by the soldiers 
being scarce, we did not live much on luxuries in this section. 

The monotony of our somewhat unexciting duties was 
frequently relieved by frolic or fun, or some prank or practi- 
cal joke played by some one on another. 

Lieut. J. S. Pankey (afterward Captain of Company I) 
was a jolly brave officer, about or a little beyond the middle 
age, and was very popular in the regiment. He was very 
fond of having fun at somebody else's expense. One day, 
while in this wilderness region, we made a noon halt beside 
a cornfield containing four or five acres. It was just in the 
stage to make good " roasting ears." There were old log- 
heaps around, and the men set them on fire. A charge was 
made on the cornfield, and what corn was not fed to the 
horses was wasted and devoured by the men. When we mount- 
ed again and resumed the march, we were halted for some 
purpose in front of the house where the owner of the field 
lived, and dismounted. A poorly-clad woman came out, and, 
approaching Lieut. Pankey in angry tones, demanded " Who 
is to pay for my corn ? " The Author, then a Brigade 
Headquarter clerk, happened to be standing near, dressed in 
a black cloth coat lately purchased from one of his com- 
pany officers. Lieut. Pankey thinking it too much style for 
one in his subordinate position to assume, selected him as 
his victim. Pointing to the Author he instructed her: 
" There is your man, Madam ; the one with the black cloth 


coat on ; he's your man. He'll claim that he is not the 
proper man, and that he hasn't got the money, but he is a 
rascal, and will swindle all poor women that he can. You 
stick to him till you get your money. When he finds there 
is no other chance he'll pay." The selected unfortunate 
hearing the instructions given, tried to dodge out of the way, 
but was stopped by some officers who were eager for the fun. 
She approached, and the victim tried to shrink into nothing. 
" I want the pay for my corn," demanded she in thrilling 
tones. In vain he pleaded that he was not the man to pay 
for 6uch claims, and that he had no money, etc. " I was told 
you were a rascal," retorted she, "and would swindle a poor 
woman if you could, and I intend to have my money." The 
angry woman, aided and encouraged by Pankey and the sur- 
rounding officers, so vehemently bemeaned and vilified the 
culprit, that he stood like a convicted felon, and was almost 
convinced himself that he was a swindler. The column at 
last getting ready to march, the woman was rightly informed 
that Capt. Lunt was the proper one to liquidate her claim, 
and Pankey's victim was relieved, but it was many days be- 
fore those who participated ceased to joke him about his 
unpleasant predicament. Whether the poor woman found 
Capt. Lunt and drew her pay or not, the historian cannot say. 
The train guarded by Col. Wolford's command was so ex- 
tensive, and so many details made for couriers, scouts and 
guards for other forces, that on the 28th, Gen. Hartsuff or- 
dered, after the train passed Chitwoods, that an Infantry 
regiment should report to him for duty in order to strengthen 
his guard. Accordingly, Col. Wm. A. Hoskins with his 
Twelfth Kentucky Infantry, reported to Wolford at the des- 
ignated time and place. 

Our Brigade Headquarters reached Chitwoods on the 27th 
of August and remained until the 29th, when the march was 

The main body of the troops in advance moved on the 
direct road to Kingston. The enemy fell back before our 
troops with but little opposition. Col. R. K. Byrd, in ad- 
vance, arrived at Kingston on the 1st day of September, and 
from there he moved to Knoxville, reaching there on the 3d. 
Col. M. W. Foster, moving on another road, had reached there 


the morning before, and had captured several engines and 
cars. Gen. Shackelford's brigade moved on Loudon bridge ; 
here the enemy was strongly posted. Shackelford and his 
men, after a brisk skirmish, drove them back. They de- 
stroyed by fire the long bridge across the Tennessee, thus 
preventing any immediate further pursuit. 

The main part of the First Kentucky, owing to its multi- 
farious duties guarding trains, scouting, keeping up courier 
lines to the rear, etc., did not arrive at Knoxville until the 8th 
of September. One detachment which had been sent forward 
to guard cattle, did not join us until the 12th. Lieut. J. S. 
Pankey, in his war diary, relates a sad accident which oc- 
curred while this detachment was camped at Col. Mabry's, 
three miles from Turkey Creek. On the 10th, while in the 
Colonel's parlor, James Lawson, of Company D, accidentally 
shot John Brock of the same company, killing him imme- 

Arriving at Knoxville, Gen. Burnside learned that Cum- 
berland Gap was still held by a considerable force of the 
enemy. Before leaving Kentucky the General had ordered 
Col. De Courcy to move on the " Gap " with his brigade from 
the north side, and, if possible, occupy it. He now ordered 
Gen. Shackelford with his brigade to move on his position 
from the south side. This movement was executed with the 
utmost celerity by that gallant officer. On arriving before 
the enemy, he opened a courier line with Col. De Courcy, and 
on the 7th of September he sent a flag of truce to the Con- 
federate Commander, Gen. John W. Frazer, with a summons 
to surrender himself and forces, but he declined. On the 
8th, De Courcy also sent a flag with a demand for the Con- 
federates to surrender, but this demand was not acceded to. 
Owing to the enemy's strong natural position, it was ascer- 
tained that the Union forces were not of sufficient strength 
to assault him with any prospect of success ; therefore, Gen. 
Burnside, himself, at the head of Gilbert's brigade, rein- 
forced Shackelford on the 9th, and after a little preliminary 
maneuvering in order to get favorable terms, the valiant 
Confederate surrendered to our forces unconditionally. Two 
thousand five hundred men surrendered with twelve or four- 
teen pieces of Artillery. 


The Union forces were now in possession of all the im- 
portant points in East Tennessee, and in the midst of friends. 
Gen. Burnside, in his report, at this time, paid a high com- 
pliment to the Twenty-Third Army Corps. " Nothing," says 
he, " could be better than the conduct of the officers and 
men of the Twenty-Third Army Corps. From the time it 
left Kentucky, their labors were most arduous and difficult, 
but were performed with the greatest accuracy and efficiency." 

It would seem at first view that the First Kentucky was 
put on rather menial service in the rear on this move into 
East Tennessee, but it must be understood that when our 
forces started on this expedition, there were strong appre- 
hensions that the enemy under some noted leader such as 
Forrest, Wheeler, Pegram, or Scott, would make a raid on 
our supply train, and if such had been the case, guarding the 
rear through that dense wilderness and those mountain fast- 
nesses, would have been really the post of danger ; there- 
fore, placing us in that position was an implied compliment. 

After the surrender of Cumberland Gap, Shackelford's 
and Gilbert's brigades returned to Knoxville, and Col. De 
Courcy's command, then under Col. Lemert, was left to hold 
the place. 

At the same time of the surrender of the " Gap," the 
Twenty-First Army Corps, under Gen. T. L.Crittenden, serv- 
ing in the Department of the Cumberland, entered Chat- 
tanooga without resistance, and took full possession of that 
place. The enemy retreated in direction of Rome, Ga., and 
Criittenden commenced a rapid pursuit. Gen. Burnside re- 
ceived this information while at Cumberland Gap, and he 
determined at once to occupy all important points above 
Knoxville, and, if possible, reach the salt-works beyond Ab- 
ingdon, Virginia. Sufficient forces were left at Kingston and 
Loudon, and Col. Byrd, who was stationed at Kingston, was 
ordered to communicate with the Cavalry of the Army of 
the Cumberland, as indicated by a request of Gen. Rosecrans. 




War Department orders to Gen. Burnside — His difficult 
situation — Obeying orders — The mounted forces ad- 
vance to connect with Rosecrans's left — The Battle 
of Chickamauga — Byrd overwhelmed at Calhoun — 
Falls back to Athens and forms a junction with Wol- 
ford — They repulse the enemy and fall back to Lou- 
don — Forrest pursues — Forrest recalled and part of 


again to Athens — The Twelfth Kentucky returns to 

the brigade threatening aspect of the enemy fall 

back to Sweetwater — Byrd returns to Post-Oak 
Springs — A man blown out of the service. 

When Gen. Burnside returned to Knoxville, he received a 
dispatch from Gen. Halleck. containing the following di- 
rections : 

Hold the gaps of the North Carolina mountains, the line 
of the Holston River or some point, if there be one, to pre- 
vent access from Virginia, and connect with Gen. Rosecrans, 
at least with your Cavalry. 

This order of Gen. Halleck's required Gen. Burnside to 
hold a line of near 200 miles in length, and he took meas- 
ures to obey it. It will be se6n that the General in literally 
attempting to comply with this order — as he was never re- 
lieved from its mandates — afterward threw both himself and 
Rosecrans into critical situations. 

As before stated, Gen. Burnside had already given orders 
to Col. Byrd to occupy Athens, and, if possible, Cleveland, 
thus connecting with the Cavalry forces of Gen. Rosecrans. 
A heavy force of the enemy, under Gen. Sam. Jones, was in 
the upper East Tennessee valley holding the points which 
Gen. Burnside was directed to occupy. The Cavalry of Car- 
ter and Foster were already well up the valley in presence of 
the enemy, and as this was the only threatened part of the 
line at that time, most of the forces were ordered in that 



direction, among which was Wolford's Cavalry. On the 16th 
of September we marched across the Holston River in direc- 
tion of Strawberry Plains, and encamped. On the samp 
night Gen. Burnside received a dispatch from Gen. Halleck, 
dated the 13th, as follows : 

It is important that all the available forces of your com- 
mand be pushed forward into East Tennessee ; all your scat- 
tered forces should be concentrated there. Move down your 
Infantry as rapidly as possible toward Chattanooga, to con- 
nect with Rosecrans. 

The two divisions of the Ninth Army Corps had not yet 
joined our forces in East Tennessee. September 12th their 
advance was at London, Ky. When they returned from the 
Vicksburg campaign it was too late to join our expedition, 
and the men were in a dilapidated condition, half or more 
being on the sick list from the' effects of a debilitating south- 
ern climate, and the malaria of the Mississippi swamps. 

On the 17th Burnside received another dispatch from 
Halleck, giving his reasons for his dispatch of the 16th, as 
follows : 

There are several reasons why you should reinforce Rose- 
crans with all possible dispatch. It is believed that the 
enemy will concentrate to give him battle; you must be 
there to help him. 

As the battle of Chickamauga was fought on the 19th 
and 20th of September, it is clearly seen that two or three 
days was but a short time to concentrate any army from the 
mountains of Southeastern Kentucky, and 200 miles up and 
down the valley of East Tennessee; besides, the impossi- 
bility of concentrating his men in the time given, Burnside,, 
making special inquiries on the subject, still had orders from 
President Lincoln and Gen. Halleck to continue to garrison 
and hold the valleys of East Tennessee with sufficient force. 
It would not take a person of much military knowledge to 
know the impracticability of any commander, with a force 
of only 15,000 men, to leave a force sufficient to contend 
with the attacking force from Virginia, garrison an impor- 
tant line of 200 miles, and then have much of a force left to 
help Rosecrans ; and yet Burnside was censured for his di- 
latory movements. Rosecrans himself, after learning all 


the circumstances surrounding Burnside, was convinced that 
he was not to blame for failure to reinforce him at the proper 

Col. E. W. Crittenden, Twelfth Kentucky Cavalry, of 
Wolford's brigade, was ordered on the 7th of September 
above Knoxville to Seviersville to operate in the upper East 
Tennessee valleys. Capt. F. M. Wolford, Company A, with 
a detachment of about sixty men, was sent by way of Cum- 
berland Gap to guard a lot of prisoners through to Central 

Notwithstanding Burnside's perplexing situation in en- 
deavoring to obey Halleck's complicated orders, he at once 
began his movements to comply with them both in spirit 
and to the letter, as near as possible. The First Kentucky 
Cavalry had been halted at its camp beyond the Holston, 
and on the 19th of September, was ordered back to Knox- 
ville. Gen. Julius White had reached Loudon on the 3d of 
September, with his division, and was constructing a pontoon 
bridge across the Tennessee River at that place ; but his ma- 
terial was scarce and inconvenient, and it was some time be- 
fore the work was completed. 

Burnside repeated his order for all of the available troops 
to move down the valley at once, but went up the valley 
himself to look after those who were in the presence of the 
enemy beyond Jonesboro. He reached the extreme advance 
on the night of the 21st. By a few skillful maneuvers he 
caused the enemy to evacuate his position at Watauga Bridge. 
The bridge was burned, and thus that portion of his com- 
mand was extricated from the enemy. He at once set all of 
his forces in motion, excepting a small portion of Cavalry, 
down the valley, to the relief of Rosecrans. 

Wolford's brigade having reached Knoxville on the 19th, 
as before stated, was, on the 21st of September, put in mo- 
tion down the valley to fall in position to operate on the 
right flank of the enemy and protect Rosecrans's left. On 
the first day's march we arrived at Loudon, thirty miles dis- 
tant, and went into camp. The pontoon bridge in course of 
construction here, not yet being completed, we marched four 
miles up the river to Blain's Ford, which was only practi- 
cable, but not advisable, even for Cavalry. The Holston 


River alone is a good sized stream, and below its junction 
with the Little Tennessee, it is a river of such magnitude 
that it is dangerous to ford even at low water mark. The 
river at this place appeared to be several hundred yards wide, 
coming up to the saddle-skirts on an ordinary horse, and its 
bottom was filled with round " nigger-head " stones. The 
current was so swift that our horses were compelled to turn 
with their breasts up stream and go sideways across. They 
had to move slow and be careful how they placed every step 
for fear of stumbling. We crossed, however, with only one 
sad accident, which was the drowning of a colored waitman 
of Lieut. Joe D. Beatie, of Company L. 

After crossing we marched four miles and camped on the 
Athens road. On the 23d we marched through Philadelphia, 
Sweetwater and Mouse Creek Station to Athens. All through 
the lovely valleys of East Tennessee we had been greeted be- 
fore this with joy by the loyal people. The Secessionists 
mixed with them were inclined to be reticent and unobtrusive. 
When we reached Sweetwater, however, we met with a change 
of our usual greetings by the inhabitants. The town was a 
hot-bed of Secession. It was like a dark spot in a sunny 
field. As we passed through our ears were assailed by the 
voices of some of the fair sex with the outcry so distasteful 
to the Union soldier : " Hurrah for Jeff Davis ! " Fortunate 
for them that we had at the head of our column a gallant 
officer who made no war on females or non-combatants ; and, 
being a man of forbearance himself, discouraged in his men 
any harshness to the gentler sex. It was a dangerous risk of 
those foolish females throwing away all the safeguards around 
their sex, and inviting open insult from the irritated soldier. 
But all of the Southern sympathizing women were not of 
this class. Among them were many true, genuine, cultivated 
ladies, who were not obtrusive with their sentiments, yet did 
not conceal them. They disdained to offer the least insult 
to the humblest private. When our men came in contact 
with this class, their feelings were not only respected, but 
even the rudest soldier would respect their property. Of 
course it is not intended to be intimated that there were not 
some few exceptions to this rule. Our regiment, as well as 
others, had some characters that had but little respect for 


themselves or others, no matter what treatment they received. 
Bragg's falling back from Chattanooga without a serious 
contest, and Buckner's evacuation of East Tennessee, were 
no indications that the Davis government intended to give 
up the granary of the Confederacy — as East Tennessee was 
called — without an effort to still return and hold it. Chat- 
tanooga was also the gateway to the hot-bed of Secession. 
Rapidly succeeding events proved that they had only fallen 
back in order to concentrate and reinforce so as to give a 
terrific blow to the Union forces. 

Bragg's and Buckner's forces united ; Sam. Jones was mak- 
ing a feint on the upper valley of East Tennessee from di- 
rection of Bristol, to direct Burnside's attention. Long- 
street, with his corps from the Virginia army, by means of 
interior railroad lines, had reinforced Bragg ; Gen. Joseph E.. 
Johnston, still operating in Mississippi, sent two of his di- 
visions to swell the numbers to crush Rosecrans. The Rebel 
General, Hardee, was also put to reorganizing the prisoners 
paroled at Vicksburg in July, and they were put into the 
field without being exchanged, to the lasting dishonor of the 
waning Confederacy. 

Wolford's brigade, on the 23d, went into camp at Cedar 
Springs, two miles south of Athens on the Cleveland road. 
On the 10th of September, Col. R. K. Byrd, with his brigade, 
reached Athens, and on the 11th had sent a scouting party 
across the Hiwassee River ; and on the 15th another de- 
tachment of his brigade reached Cleveland, thirty miles 
below Athens. This detachment was overwhelmed by the 
enemy and fell back to Athens. On the 22d, Col. Byrd with 
his whole brigade moved in direction of Cleveland. 

On the morning of the 19th of September, Gen. Bragg 
attacked Gen. Rosecrans at Chickamauga with much vigor, 
and with a superior force. All day long the battle raged 
with fury, and Byrd's advance, then at Riceville, between the 
Hiwassee and Athens, could hear the continuous roar of Ar- 
tillery, and knew the combatants were engaged in a death 
struggle. The next day the battle was renewed and the de- 
voted Rosecrans was forced back into Chattanooga. 

The enemy, elated at what he deemed a great victory, 
now determined to crush Burnside. His advance, as before 


stated, had already been pressing Col. Byrd. Byrd called on 
Wolford for reinforcements. Detachments of the First Ken- 
tucky, under Capt. Irvine Burton, the Eleventh Kentucky, 
under Capt. Lawson, and the Forty-Fifth Ohio, under Capt. 
Humphrey — all under command of Major W. N. Owens, of 
the First Kentucky, were sent to his support. 

On the 25th, the noted Confederate Cavalry chieftain, 
Gen. N. B. Forrest, with his whole corps, was sent to Char- 
leston, on the Hiwassee, to meet the forces of Gen. Burn- 
side's advance. Col. Byrd estimated his force at 8,000 men ; 
but even to take official Confederate reports, it could not 
have been less than 5,000. On the same day, Col. Byrd sent 
a heavy detail of his force across the river, which went as 
far as the junction of the Dalton and Cleveland roads. Here 
they met the enemy in force, and at once opened fire upon 
them. Severe skirmishing ensued, and the Rebels attempted 
to flank the Union forces, but without success. After check- 
ing the enemy as long as it was thought advisable, the de- 
tachment retired — the enemy still threatening their flanks — 
and re-crossed the Hiwassee. In the afternoon, Col. Hender- 
son with the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, was sent 
across the river, and reconnoitered toward Cleveland, but 
without material results beyond slight skirmishing. The 
enemy was not yet prepared to advance in force, and Col. 
Henderson returned to the north side of the river. 

At daylight on Saturday morning, September 26th, strong 
reconnoitering parties under Capt. Irvine Burton, Company 
G, accompanied by Lieut. Vincent Peyton, Company B, Capt. 
Humphrey of the Forty-Fifth Ohio, and Capt. Lawson, of 
the Eleventh Kentucky, were sent out on three principal 
roads in the direction of the enemy. Other points were 
guarded to prevent flank movements. A 9 a. m., Col. Byrd 
received a dispatch from Capt. Humphrey on the Cleveland 
road, that the enemy had attacked him, and he was com- 
pelled to fall back. Two companies of the One Hundred 
and Twelfth Illinois, under Major Dow, were sent to reinforce 
him. Soon Capt. Lawson reported the enemy advancing on 
the Dalton road. Col. Byrd now made a disposition of his 
remaining forces to defend his position on the north side of 
the river ; but his position was a bad one for defense, as on 


the north side was a wide stretch of bottom land, and on the 
south side was a range of hills or bluffs which gave the 
•enemy a commanding elevation overlooking the position of 
the Union forces. Capt. Burton, with his detachment of 
seventy-five men of the First Kentucky Cavalry, had been 
ordered to go five miles on the Chatata road. He soon met 
a heavy force of the enemy and skirmished with them, retir- 
ing back toward the Hiwassee. At cross roads, in his rear, 
the enemy had gotten between him and the main line of the 
Union forces. The men of the First Kentucky always had a 
strong aversion to being captured, and on this occasion, as 
usual, made a wild dash at the enemy, charging through his 
line, which gave way to the impetuous force of the dash, but 
five of their number were cut off, and four of them were 
captured. The rest returned safely to Byrd's main line on 
the north side of the river. The enemy appeared in extended 
lines and immense numbers about 12 m. For two hours 
Byrd and his brave soldiers contested the crossing of the 
river, but the combat was too unequal in numbers. The 
wiley and cruel Forrest and his immense hordes were too 
much for the Union forces to withstand. Learning that the 
enemy were about to flank him on both sides, Byrd fell back 
on the road to Athens. The enemy soon fell upon the rear 
guard, composed of two companies of the Eighth Michigan, 
under Maj. Edgerly, and a detachment of the One Hundred 
and Twelfth Illinois under Maj. Dow. 

In the meantime Wolford had moved the camp of his 
brigade from the south to the north side of Athens. Learn- 
ing of Byrd's approach in retreat, he met him with his 
brigade two miles south of the town, on the Athens road. 
The two commanders here secured a good position and form- 
ed into line. The enemy soon appeared and made an onset 
on the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, but that regiment 
opened a galling fire on their advancing ranks with their 
long-range Enfield rifles, in conjunction with the Eighth 
Michigan, with their repeating Spencer rifles. Byrd's Ar- 
tillery also took position and opened upon them, while Law's 
Mountain Howitzer battery, of Wolford's brigade, came for- 
ward to the front, and gave them "Hail Columbia." After 
an engagement of an hour, the enemy retired, leaving the 


Union forces in possession of the field. Of those cut off by 
the enemy near Calhoun, before mentioned, W. L. Hicks, 
Company H, was an East Tennessee exile, living at Athens, 
and was along as a guide to Burton's detachment. He was 
not captured, but returned to his command about a week 
afterward, meeting with various adventures on his route. 
Jasper X. Acree, of Company C, was captured, and after re- 
maining in prison for nearly a year, escaped and rejoined 
his Company at Lexington, Ky., August 30, 1864. Peter H. 
Hare and John Gr. Hill, of the same Company, were also 
captured, but never returned to their company. 

After the Rebels retired late in the evening, the Union 
forces fell back to the camp of Wolford's brigade on the 
north side of Athens. Col. Wolford had not met with the 
same opportunities as Byrd to have a knowledge of the im- 
mense forces of the enemy, and was somewhat loth to re- 
treat; and, as usual, was inclined to offer battle in his posi- 
tion at the time. By some means it had been instilled into 
the mind of Col. Wolford that Col. Byrd was not anxious to 
make a stand against the enemy, and was rather timid. 
From what took place at their council of Avar early that 
night, it appeared that Col. Byrd either divined, or had been 
informed of Col. "Wol ford's opinion. The Author was on 
duty at Wolford's headquarters, and heard their con- 
ference. Col. Byrd opened the consultation and did most 
of the talking. He began by remarking that he supposed 
from his actions that it looked like he was fearful of mak- 
ing a stand there ; but that he felt a deep anxiety in re- 
gard to their exposed situation ; that he had full opportuni- 
ties to view the overwhelming numbers of the enemy moving 
against them ; that he was thoroughly acquained with the 
valleys of East Tennessee, and he described their numerous 
roads crossing each other like lines on a checkerboard ; and 
he also explained how easily the enemy with their vast num- 
bers could press them in front, and by the aid of many 
roads, could flank them on each side. Col. Wolford listened 
attentively, and though he did not say much, he concluded 
to take Col. Byrd's advice, and fell back in direction of Lou- 
don that night. A few weeks later, in the disastrous affair 
at Philadelphia, Col. Wolford had cause to remember CoL 


Byrd's counsel, and the Author is informed that he did jus- 
tice both, to the gallantry and judgment of the patriotic 
Tennessean. It is necessary for the reader to understand 
that while both had equal and separate command, that Wol- 
ford had the oldest commission, and for that reason he out- 
ranked Byrd, who was, according to military usage, subject 
to his orders. 

A characteristic anecdote is told on Col. Wolford by Capt. 
Joel E. Huffman, of Gen. Shackelford's Staff, who was pres- 
ent at Gen. Burnside's headquarters at the time. It was said 
while the consultation on the advisability of falling back 
was pending, the following dispatches were sent to the De- 
partment Commander in rapid succession : 

Athens, — P. M. 
Gen. Burn side : — 

The enemy is approaching in strong force. May I fall 
back? Wolford. 

Before Gen. Burnside had time to reply, another dispatch 
was received. 
Gen. Burnside : — 

The enemy is still approaching. Can I fall back? 


And immediately followed another dispatch. 
Gen. Burnside : — 

The enemy is here in overwhelming numbers. I am fall- 
ing back. Wolford. 

Our pickets were withdrawn after night, and the com- 
mand fell back, reaching Sweetwater at 5 a. m., on the 27th. 
The men's horses were fed at 7 :30 a. m., and the enemy soon 
appeared. After skirmishing a little, our forces fell back to 
Philadelphia, which place was reached about noon. The two 
brigades took position here, and waited for the approach of 
the enemy, but he failed to appear. 

At 7 :30 a. m., on the morning of the 28th, Lieut. Col. 
Silas Adams moved out with the First Kentucky toward 
Sweetwater, and after marching four miles, met the enemy 
and skirmished with him until 10 :30 a. m., when he came on 
in such numbers that Adams was compelled to fall back to 
the main lino at Philadelphia, closely followed b} T the Rebels. 
Information was now received that the enemy in large force 


was moving up on our flank toward Loudon. After checking 
the advance of those in front with Byrd's Artillery, the 
Union forces fell back to Loudon. Here the two brigades 
took position, and were now under command of Brig. Gen. 
Julius White of Second Division of the Twenty-Third Army 
Corps, then occupying the post at Loudon. On the 29th, the 
enemy not putting in his appearance, scouting parties were 
sent out, and he was reported as falling back. Col. Adams, 
with the First Kentucky Cavalry was put in pursuit, and 
went fourteen miles on the Athens road, and at night re- 
turned to Sweetwater. 

From Forrest's own report, it is learned that he was or- 
dered at this time to return at once to Charleston and turn 
his forces over to Wheeler for another expedition. 

September 30th, the Twelfth Kentucky Cavalry, now 
under Maj. Delfosse, which had been detached in the upper 
East Tennessee valley, joined the brigade at Loudon. At 7 
a. m., on the same day, Wolford's and Byrd's brigades moved 
in quick time to Philadelphia — trotting their horses the en- 
tire distance — and there formed in line of battle. It was re- 
ported that there was a considerable force of Rebels on the 
road east, and nearly parallel with the railroad. This put 
Lieut. Col. Adams, who was at Sweetwater, in a dangerous 
situation, and liable to be captured. The manner in which 
he was notified of his clanger and extricated from his criti- 
cal situation is taken from the History of the One Hundred 
and Twelfth Illinois Regiment: "Lieut. B. F. Thompson, 
Company B, One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, was ordered 
to take twenty-five men, with the best horses, and proceed as 
rapidly as possible to Sweetwater, twelve miles, with verbal 
orders from Col. Wolford to Lieut. Col. Adams. He was in- 
structed not to spare horse flesh, and if fired into by the 
Rebels, not to pay any attention to them, but keep going, 
and not halt, even if some of his men were wounded or 
killed. They made the trip successfully — receiving a few 
stray shots from a squad of Rebels on their left, in a corn- 
field, as they galloped down the road — and returned in the 
evening with Lieut. Col. Adams and his command." 

Forrest, as before stated, had been ordered to turn over 
three brigades of his Cavalry to Wheeler, to go on a raid in 


Kosecrans's rear. Wheeler reported these men in very bad 
condition when received by him, as shown by the following 
extracts : " The three brigades from Forrest were skeletons, 
scarcely 500 men in each. ***** Their horses were 
in horrible condition, having been marched continuously 
three days and nights without removing saddles. The men 
were worn out, and without rations. The brigade command- 
ers made most urgent protests against their commands being 
called upon to move in this condition." Notwithstanding 
the brilliant successes and victories of which the Rebel offi- 
cers were continually boasting, it was evident to those in 
position to know that the Confederacy was dying, and every 
means had to be resorted to in order to prevent a collapse. 
An extensive raid was made on Kosecrans's rear, and many 
wagons and government supplies were destroyed, but at-it3 
close, Wheeler's forces were badly cut to pieces. 

But to return to Wolford's command, which was left at 
Philadelphia. On the 1st of October, our march was re- 
sumed, and we encamped two and a half miles below Sweet- 
water, and the next day we reached the vicinity of Athens. 
On the 2d of October, Capt. Dunn, of the One Hundred 
and Twelfth Illinois, with one company of his own regiment, 
and one of the First Kentucky, was sent by Col. Wolford 
toward Calhoun, in search of the enemy. He was instructed 
.not to enter the town, but to approach as near as he could 
without endangering his command. Capt. Dunn exceeded 
Ins orders by taking his men into town, and down near the 
river, and finding that the enemy was on the opposite side 
in Charleston, he opened fire on their pickets "just to let 
them know he was there." On his return he reported his 
disobedience of orders, but Wolford, instead of having him 
" court-martialed, and perhaps shot" (his usual threat when 
not in a good humor), was well pleased that the Captain had 
taken the responsibility to ascertain for himself that no 
enemy were on the north side of the river on the two roads 
scouted by him. 

It will here be explained, that when Forrest sent three 
brigades of his force to Cotton Port, on the Tennessee River, 
to join Wheeler on his big raid, Dibrell's and Pegram's 
brigades were retained. Dibrell's brigade was left at Charles- 


ton, on the south side of the Hiwassee, and this force, with 
others, was detained to annoy Wolford's brigade for a week 
or two, until another large force of mounted men could be 
prepared to move on and crush Burnside's advance on the 
south side of the Tennessee River. 

The day after sending out his scouts from Athens, Col. 
Wolford sent the following dispatch to Gen. Burnside : 

Athens, Oct. 4, 1863. 
Gen. Burnside : — 

I have dispatched by courier, but for fear that it has not 
reached you, I send the following telegram : 

The officer in command of the scouts last night returned 
from Cotton Port, capturing one Rebel prisoner. He has re- 
liable information that from 15,000 to 20,000 Rebel Cavalry, 
with six Rebel Generals, and several pieces of Artillery, 
crossed the Tennessee River at that place on last Wednesday 
[the 30th of September.] Our scouts in from Alexander's 
Ferry report a force at that place on the opposite side of 
the river. Our scouts from Calhoun report a considerable 
force across the river at Charleston. There is evidently a 
heavy force at Cleveland. Can we not have reinforcements? 

Wolford, Colonel Commanding. 

There was perhaps some exaggeration in the number re- 
ported to have crossed the river at Cotton Port, but scouts, 
if not eye-witnesses of the enemy's movements, were under 
the necessity of obtaining their information from various 
sources, but most generally from citizens, who, as a rule, had 
but little judgment in estimating the numbers of moving 
troops, and were inclined to the marvelous. 

Wolford could not get the desired reinforcements, and 
though he was always averse, to a retrograde movement, he 
was ordered back to a safe position. That same evening, 
October 4th, both brigades saddled up, and marched as far 
as Mouse Creek Station, and went into camp. On the 5th 
they marched to Sweetwater. Here the two brigades separated. 
Byrd was ordered back to his old position, Post Oak Springs, 
west of Kingston, which was the connecting link between 
the Army of the Ohio and Army of the Cumberland, north 
of the Tennessee River. Wolford's brigade remained at 
Sweetwater. The Forty-Fifth Ohio Mounted Infantry, under 
Lieut. Col. Ross, a noble and gallant band of men, which. 


had been assigned to Byrd's brigade, was detached for the 
time, and remained with us. We had served with these men 
at Dutton Hill, Ky., on the Morgan raid through the North- 
ern States, and we felt like a band of brothers. We also 
had become much attached to the officers and men of the 
One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois. There were no 
better soldiers in the Union army. The Colonels of each 
regiment, Wolford and Henderson, were alike in some re- 
spects, but differed in others. They both believed it impos- 
sible to make true soldiers out of thugs, thieves, or maraud- 
ers. They had a way of inspiring their men with self-re- 
spect, which incited them to brave and noble deeds. This 
was their chief means of securing discipline. Both were 
averse to put cruel or degrading punishments on their men. 
Both were tender-hearted, and though Wolford would some- 
times threaten to have a man shot if charged with thievery 
or a similar offense, yet none were known to lose their lives 
that way. But in some respects, perhaps ,the two Colonels 
differed : Henderson believed in the efficacy of drill work as 
well as inspiration, while Wolford thought all a man needed 
to make him a good soldier was fighting qualities. There 
was an originality about Wolford which caused him to differ 
from all other men. 

The Independent Cavalry Brigade remained at Sweetwater 
about a week. While at this place a member of the First 
Kentucky Cavalry was drummed, or rather blown out of the 
service ; but for the sake of his friends and relative's feel- 
ings, and a possible innocent posterity, his name will not be 
given in this work. While this work is intended to be an au- 
thentic history as near as possible, it is not a compilation of 
official records. " The evil that man do live after them ; the 
good is oft interred with their bones." The evil deeds of 
men, their short-comings and frailties, live too long as a mor- 
tification to their families without a permanent record ; but 
their patriotic and noble deeds should be handed down not 
only to their immediate descendants, but to succeeding gen- 
erations for them to imbibe and imitate. 

On entering East Tennessee, Gen. Burnside had issued 
strict orders against maurading or committing any manner 
of fraud on the dowa-trodden loyal citizens. The First Ken- 


tucky Cavalryman had bought a lot of tobacco from a citi- 
zen to peddle out among his comrades, and paid him in 
counterfeit money. Col. Wolford reported the case to Gen. 
Burnside, and inquired what to do with him. The General 
dispatched back for him to investigate the case, and if found 
guilty, to have the accused drummed out of the service. 
There being no drums belonging to the mounted forces, all 
the bugles in the command were summoned on duty, and he 
was bugled or blown out of the service. It will be left to 
those skilled in military affairs to decide whether Wolford 
strictly obeyed the order of his superior or not. 


Burnside and Rosecrans both on the defensive — Wol- 
ford's brigade on outpost duty — The enemy's threat- 
ening concentration on the Hiwassee — The vixen spy 
— The enemy appear — Wolford falls back to Phila- 
delphia — Scouting — attack on wagon train — Adams 

pursues and chastises the enemy the western armies 

reorganized, and great changes in commanders the 

20th of October — The flag of truce and its violation 
— Adams rescues the forage train — Wolford attack- 
ed at Philadelphia w'ith overwhelming numbers — He- 
roic defense — Death of Delfosse — Surrounded and 
defeated retreat to london notes and incidfnts. 

Neither Rosecrans nor Burnside was now in a situation 
to make an aggressive movement on the enemy. After the 
battle of Chickamauga, Rosecrans was cooped up in Chat- 
tanooga. The two divisions of the Ninth Army Corps had 
joined Burnside's forces, but were in a depleted condition, 
being only 6,000 strong, from the effects of the Vicksburg 
campaign. Burnside's entire force in East Tennessee, was 
now only 20,000 men to guard the valleys of East Tennessee, 
and his left threatened at all times by a considerable force 
under Maj.Gen.Sam. Jones, of the West Virginia army, and 


his right flank in danger from the now large army of Gen. 
Bragg. Burnside and Rosecrans could do nothing now but 
stand on the defensive and hold as much as possible of their 

From the fact that Col. Byrd's brigade had been taken 
from us in our exposed and threatened position, and our 
command moved back a little, it was plainly implied that it 
was not intended for Wolford's brigade to risk much in mak- 
ing a stand, but only to act as a scouting outpost to guard 
White's position at Loudon. Scouts were kept out in all di- 
rections, and there were none in the Union service better 
suited for that purpose than the officers and men of the 
First Kentucky. 

On the 10th of October, Gen. Rosecrans notified Gen. 
Burnside of a large force of the enemy concentrating at 
Kincannon's Ferry, on the Hiwassee, and threatening our 
command. From our own scouts we learned that the enemy 
were hovering around us. About this time a vicious-looking 
woman came into our lines at Sweetwater, from the direction 
of the enemy, dressed in the garb of the common order of 
people. Her ostensible excuse was that she came in to pur- 
chase from a store in town some needed family supplies. 
Although a majority of the people of the town were much 
inclined to rebelism, it being the home of the Confederate 
General Vaughn, yet there were some good Union men among 
them. These privately notified Col. Wolford of the charac- 
ter of the vixen female visitor. They told him of several 
occasions in which she had been used as a spy for the enemy. 
Circumstances showed their charge to be true. A military 
necessity demanded that she should be arrested for the time, 
as an important movement was about to take place. Col. 
Wolford was in a delicate situation, for he was universally 
courteous to the female sex ; but sentiment gave way to 
duty, and her arrest was ordered. Capt. Stover, of the Forty- 
Fifth Ohio, was Brigade Provost Marshal, and he selected a 
plain farmer-looking soldier, and one possessing the tender 
sensibilities of Wolford, for the disagreeable task of arrest- 
ing her. When the guard in mild tones told her that he had 
been ordered to take her into custody and not allow her to 
leave our lines until morning, she became like an enraged 


panther ; defied the whole outfit, and declared nobody could 
keep her away from her children that night. She mounted 
her horse and tried to pass our lines by main force, but the 
guard, though gentle as the dove, was made of solid material, 
and he caught her horse by the bridle, sternly informing her 
that she could not go. After finding that bravado would not 
succeed, she melted into tears and wailed pathetically about 
her absent children. Her tears might have awakened a sym- 
pathy if those present had not suspicioned that they were of 
a crocodile nature. 

Col. Wolford, who always kept his scouts on the alert when 
danger was brewing, learned that the enemy crossed the Hi- 
wassee at Charleston, Saturday, October 10th, and occupied 
Athens that night. The force was vaguely reported as con- 
sisting of eight regiments, but there was no special means 
at hand to ascertain their real strength. Gen. Burnside, at 
the time, was in the upper East Tennessee valley, and Wol- 
ford reported to Gen. Manson at Knoxville. Manson directed 
him, if he found the enemy as strong as reported and at- 
tempting to get in his rear, to fall back to Philadelphia or 
Loudon. On the 11th, bodies of the enemy appeared in our 
front, and on our right flank. Prudence might have dic- 
tated to Wolford the propriety of falling back at once to 
Philadelphia, but he was reluctant to leave without a 
chance to get a " whack " at them. At 2 :30 p. m., he made 
all the showy preparations before the citizens of a hasty re- 
treat, marched out in quick time about two and a half miles, 
and camped in line, with the necessary pickets in our front, 
and on each flank. But the enemy, though near, failed to 
show themselves ; they evidently suspicioned that a trap 
was set for them, or they were not ready to make a fight. 
The next morning [the 12th] we marched to Philadelphia. 

Fighting Joe Hooker, with the Eleventh and Twelfth 
Corps from the Army of the Potomac, had been sent on, and 
was now in supporting distance of Gen. Rosecrans, and had 
been for some time. President Lincoln, on the same day we 
fell back to Philadelphia, telegraphed to Gen. Rosecrans : 

Maj. Gen. Rosecrans, Chattanooga, Tenn. : — 

I understand Burnside is menaced from the east, and so 
cannot go to you without surrendering East Tennessee. I 



now think the enemy will not attack Chattanooga, and I 
think you will have to look out for his making a concen- 
trated drive at Burnside. You and Burnside now have him 
by the throat, and he must break your hold or perish. I 
therefore think you had better try to hold the road up to 
Kingston, leaving Burnside to what is above there. Sher- 
man is coming to you, though gaps in the telegraph pre- 
vent our knowing how far he has advanced. He and 
Hooker will so support you on the west and northwest as to 
enable you to look east and northeast. This is not an order. 
Gen. Halleck will give his views. A. Lincoln. 

This dispatch from the President, which was repeated to 
Gen. Burnside, was calculated to give much relief to Gen 
Burnside's embarrassing dilemma caused by Gen. Halleck's 
perplexing and conflicting orders to hold his long line in 
East Tennessee, and at the same time to reinforce Gen. Rose- 

After falling back to Philadelphia, Wolford learned from 
his returned scouting parties, that the enemy menacing us 
at Sweetwater, were principally reconnoitering bodies. Capt. 
Scott, of the Forty-Fifth Ohio, an intelligent and efficient 
officer, came in from Prigmore's, bringing very little news. 
He learned of a small party camping there on the night of 
the 12th. He advanced as far as prudent. 

On the 14th, Wolford reported to Burnside that the main 
body of the enemy had fallen back except a few hundred on 
his right and left, which he was trying to catch ; that he had 
one Lieutenant and eight privates captured by them the day 
before ; that in the last few days his command had captured 
forty-five of the enemy, most of whom had taken the oath ; 
and that he kept scouts out in all directions continually. 

While the wagons of the Forty-Fifth Ohio were out on 
the 15th foraging, one hundred rebels attacked them, but 
were repulsed by the guard. Lieut. Col. Adams, with 300 
men, was sent out to look after the train and attend to the 
enemy. The wagons were brought in safe, and Adams struck 
the trail of the enemy and followed at his break-neck speed 
to within four or five miles of Decatur. When he overtook 
them they were marching leisurely along scattered for half a 
mile, and imagined themselves out of all danger. He dashed 



upon them, capturing twenty-five of their number, and re- 
captured nine of our men belonging to the First and Fifth 
East Tennessee, who were captured near Kingston in the 
morning. After chasing and castigating the enemy to his 
heart's content, Adams returned to Philadelphia about mid- 
night. While out it was reported to him that a force of 3,000 
or 4,000 Rebels were at Decatur, but he could not vouch 
for its truth. On the same day our scouts reported the 
enemy approaching on all the roads, but they were supposed 
to be only reconnoitering parties. 

After the whipping that Adams gave the enemy, they 
were cautious about intruding on our dominions for several 
days. They were aware that they had to contend with the 
ubiquitous Wolford's Cavalry, and they feared to meet the 
dashing horsemen without a superior force. Wolford, how- 
ever, kept out his scouts and watched their movements. 

About this time important changes took place in army 
and department commanders, which were destined not only 
to affect our movements and operations at the time, but 
ultimately to give a death-stroke to the Great Rebellion, 
October 16th, 1863, according to General Orders No. 337, War 
Department, by directions of the President of the United 
States, the Departments of Ohio, Cumberland and Tennessee,, 
were united into the Military Division of the Mississippi, 
with Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant, U. S. Army, in command, with 
headquarters in the field. Maj. Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, U. S. 
Volunteers, was relieved from the command of the Army 
of the Cumberland, and Maj. Gen. Geo. H. Thomas assigned 
to its command. On the 19th, Gen. Rosecrans took an affect- 
ing farewell of his comrades in arms, and reported at Cin- 
cinnati. Gen. Thomas mmediately assumed command of that 

In the meantime Wolford had learned from his scouts 
and other sources that a heavy mounted force of the enemy 
had concentrated at Charleston, on the Hiwassee, and below 
at Kincannon's Ferry. 

On the morning of the 20th of October, Captain Duncan 
A. Pell, Aid-de-Camp on Gen. Burnside's Staff, called at Col. 
Wolford's headquarters, in Philadelphia, and notified him 
that he was bearing a flag of truce to the enemy, and re- 


quested the Colonel to withhold or withdraw his scouts from, 
the front and make no hostile demonstration while the flag 
was pending. Also by request, Col. Wolford furnished the 
Captain a small detail from the Forty-Fifth Ohio, under a 
Sergeant, to escort his flag to the enemy's lines. About 11 
a. m., Capt. Pell met Col. Dibrell's Cavalry command mov- 
ing on Philadelphia. Col. Dibrell did not feel willing to ad- 
vance and disregard the flag, and surrendered the command 
to Gen. John C.Vaughn, who was along. Vaughn, from his own 
report, was not so conscientious, but violated the flag, keep- 
ing Pell and his escort prisoners until the morning of the 22d. 

About 10 a. m., Col. Wolford received information that a 
large force of the enemy had attacked his wagon train out 
foraging about six miles west of the town. Col. Wolford 
not expecting that the enemy would so grossly violate all hon- 
orable military usage as to capture a flag of truce, sent 
Lieut. Col. Silas Adams with the effective strength of the 
First and Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry, about 600 strong, to 
their relief, supposing the enemy attacking the train was 
only a heavy scouting party, unacquained with the fact that 
a flag of true was pending. Col. Adams, with his usual im- 
petuosity, dashed out, reached the train, and drove the enemy 
off. They now became cut off from the rest of the brigade, 
and in the rear of the Rebel Col. Morrison's force, 1,800 
strong, then moving to get between our forces and Loudon, 
and in connection with Vaughn's force draw a coil around 
Wolford at Philadelphia. 

Soon after Adams started, Col. Wolford got information 
that a large body of the enemy was approaching from 
Sweetwater. He mustered up the rest of his command, about 
600 or 700 effective men, took position, and boldly attacked 
the formidable numbers moving against him. Wolford's 
position was on a commanding elevation, and here with his 
men, the gallant Twelfth Kentucky, under the brave Del- 
fosse, the noble Forty-Fifth Ohio, under the accomplished 
Lieut. Col. Ross, Law's Howitzer battery, under the unflinch- 
ing Lieut. Warren Lamme, and fragments of the First and 
Eleventh Kentucky, under Maj. W. N. Owens, for one long 
hour stubbornly maintained his position and drove the enemy 


While this contest was going on, Morrison with his 1,800 
men, was making his way around to the west and rear of our 
position, thus cutting us off from White's Infantry support 
at Loudon. After getting in the desired position in our rear, 
he sent one of his regiments to make a demonstration on 
Loudon to prevent reinforcements from them, and with his 
remaining 1,200 men, after cutting the telegraph wires, he 
moved on Wolford's rear. 

Surg. Hawk Brown, who was always a right-hand man of 
Col. Wolford, was the first to discover through his field-glass 
the threatening danger in the rear, and notified his chief. 
Wolford could not believe it was the enemy, but contended 
that the men seen were reinforcements from Gen. White till 
Dr. Brown handed him his glass, and he examined for him- 
self. Capt. Stover, of the Forty-Fifth Ohio, with his pro- 
vost guard, was sent with lightning speed to meet the new 
danger, but his men were " swept back like chaff from the 
threshing-floor" by the immense numbers. At this point, 
most men, situated as Wolford was, would have surrendered, 
or let his men scatter in confusion, but not so with Wol- 
ford. With the exertions and assistance of Surg. Brown the 
different parts of his command were about-faced and put in 
position, and he sternly and indignantly faced the danger. 

It will be left to the Rebel Col. Morrison to tell what im- 
mediately followed : " * * * * I dismounted my men 
and commenced the attack. * * * The enemy on dis- 
covering me in their rear, at once turned their whole force, 
with six pieces of Artillery, against my command, which was 
now reduced to about 1,000 men. Afterwards ensued one of 
the hardest Cavalry fights of the war, both sides struggling 
vigorously for the mastery. I was made to fall back twice, 
but with little effort each time rallied my men and soon 
had the enemy completely routed." During the whole con- 
flict Capt. Thomas Rowland, of Wolford's Staff, was all over 
the field, now here and now there, carrying orders, and en- 
couraging the men. Dr. Brown was conspicuous at different 
points forming portions of the command and giving orders. 
The brave and soldierly Delfosse fell while leading a gallant 
charge against the enemy in the rear. When Wolford turned 
upon Morrison, Dibrell's command, under Vaughn, opened 


upon our men a heavy Artillery fire, and marshaled his whole 
command and made a charge. Spartan heroism could have 
stood no longer against such fearful odds. Wolford, gather- 
ing a portion of his men, dashed against the enemy's lines 
with such irresistible fury that they gave way, and he made 
his way to Loudon. Before he made the dash, Lieut. War- 
ren Lamme reported to him that he had fired his last round 
of Artillery ammunition, and Wolford ordered the Lieuten- 
ant to abandon his guns if necessary, and follow him out. 
With flying speed they rushed the howitzers down to the 
camp, cut the harness from their horses, and most of them 
made their escape with the rest. Dr. Brown hastily rode to 
other portions of the command and ordered them to make 
their way out the best they could. When the general stam- 
pede commenced there was a small gap open on the King- 
ston road, and many of our men made their way through it, 
but the gap was closed immediately behind us, and we were 
chased at full speed for several miles. It was on this road 
that many of the men were captured. 

While this fearful and unequal contest was going on at 
Philadelphia, Lieut. Col. Adams had driven off the enemy 
who were left to guard our captured forage train, and cap- 
tured a number of them. Learning from a resident colored 
man of the large force that passed to the rear of Wolford's 
position at Philadelphia, Col. Adams made no halt, but got 
on their track and pursued. He soon heard the fire of Ar- 
tillery, and after getting on high ground could hear the small 
arms. He was now convinced that a general engagement 
was going on with Wolford, and he pushed for the scene of 
the contest. His advance soon came upon about 300 Rebels 
in a depression near the railroad, who seemed to be found in 
no particular order. A volley was opened on them, and a 
charge made into their ranks, capturing many. The rest 
ran into the main line. Adams now formed his men across 
the road and put out skirmishers. From some cause Adams 
sent Texton Sharp to call in the skirmishers and commenced 
receding toward Loudon. The firing had ceased at Phila- 
delphia. Lieut. Vincent Peyton, from his position, now dis- 
covered the head of the column of the enemy, which proved 
to be the North Carolina regiment sent to make a feint on. 


Loudon, coming down toward our men, and called Capt. Drye's 
attention. The enemy discovered our men at the same time 
and fronted into line. Drye motioned to Adams and at- 
tracted his attention. Adams only had to make a partial 
wheel to face the enemy. Both lines seemed to be of the 
same strength in numbers, and both charged at the same 
time, and met, but the feeble " tar heels " of North Carolina 
were no match for the hardy mountaineers and robust Blue 
Grass men composing Wolford's Cavalry. Many were cap- 
tured, and the rest made their way into the main line of the 
^nerny. Men were discovered now moving around on the 
elevation occupied by Wolford, and Adams supposed he 
might be still holding his position, and was for making his 
w r ay to him; but by the earnest entreaties of Maj. Graham 
of the Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry and others, who were 
convinced that they were the enemy, he desisted. It was 
now found out for certain that Wolford was defeated, and 
the large force of the enemy now advancing, Col. Adams 
made his way to Loudon, closely pursued by the Rebels, un- 
til he met Gen. White's Infantry coming to his assistance. 

Adams's men captured many prisoners that day, and the 
precaution was taken to send them to the supposed rear un- 
der guard, but everywhere seemed to be front at times, and a 
great number of them were retaken, but he got through with 
from fifty to eighty of them. The enemy reported their loss 
at fifteen killed, eighty-two wounded and seventy-three cap- 
tured, and the enemy was never known to exaggerate his 
losses. The Union forces' losses reported were seven killed, 
twenty-five wounded and 447 captured, an aggregate of 479, 

Wolford's men had the reputation of being very hard to 
hold when captured. Many of the captured escaped in the 
evening and at night. As they were rapidly marched by a 
sorghum cane patch after dark, a number dodged in among 
the thick cane and got away. Our men were chased like rab- 
bits, and when their horses broke down they took to the thick 
woods on the roadside, and lay concealed in the thickets all 
night, and were coming in a good part of the next day. 
Among the number was our Surgeon, Dr. Hawkins Brown, 
who came in with a very weather-beaten cap upon his head, 
Lis own having been knocked off by the limb of a tree, and 


lie would not take the time to get it. In the fight the Doctor 
was all over the field performing valorous deeds, but when 
all hope of withstanding the enemy was gone, hi3 milk-white 
steed took him away with the speed of the wind, until by 
some means he became disabled and gave down. Many of 
the Forty-Fifth Ohio, as well as of the First, Eleventh and 
Twelfth Kentucky came in hatless. 

Our Mountain Howitzer battery and all our wagons, ex- 
cept those out foraging in the morning, together with camp 
equipage and official records, fell into the hands of the 

From the 21st to the 28th of October, the command 
skirmished continually with the enemy, and sometimes very 
heavily. The Rebels would fall back within supporting dis- 
tance of Sweetwater, where they would make a stubborn stand, 
having Stevenson's division of Infantry at Sweetwater in 
helping distance, and Cheatham's division at Athens. In the 
meantime, W. P. Sanders having lately been confirmed as 
Brigadier-General, came on and took command of all the 
Cavalry in front. 

The following are the losses of the First Kentucky Cav- 
alry on the 20th, and including the skirmishes a few days 
afterward. Those of the captured, marked with a (*), are 
known to have died in prison. The list of casualties is very 
imperfect on account of loss of papers, meager and deficient 
reports, scattered condition and imperfect memories of offi- 
cers and men. 

Killed : Andrew Bottoms, of Company B, and James H. 
Adams, Company L. Wounded and captured : Edward 
Hickman, Company B. 

Commissioned officers captured: Maj. W. N. Owens and 
Capt. Irvine Burton, of Company G. 

Non-commissioned officers and privates captured : James 
E. King, Francis H. Ward*, William French*, Stephen F. 
Lee*, Jessee F. Harris*, Geo. W. Raiborn, of Company A ; 
Tharp Huston, N. B. Brown and Edward Hickman, Company 
B ; John C. Beard, Jonathan E. Southerland, Corp. Artkur 
M. Kennedy, Corp. Joseph W. Means, James F. Chance, 
Jacob Kanatzer, Joseph Poore, John Roe, Wm. L. Zachary, 
David F. Huddleston, Chas. H. Myers and Alfred Young, of 


Company C ; John A. Collins, Joseph Hughes [Oct. 12th] r 
Wm. P. Minton*, James F. Wicker and William G. Miller, 
of Company D ; Hiram Brown, Patrick Craton, William 
Clift, Thomas R. Grinstead, Michael Parker, Thomas H. 
Williams, Smith Byrse, John Mathis and Samuel Todd, of 
Company E ; Henderson C. Marlanse, Geo. W. Spaw, Jas. K. 
Eads, John M. Hatfield, Perry C. Hicks, Willis Lucas, James 
Roads, William Rogers, Maston Semonius, John Sercy, 
Franklin Shelton, Jacob Bacon, Robert A. Bell, Tilford Bur- 
ton, Thomas Dalton, Jeremiah Dawse, Mathew Floyd, Thos. 

B. Graybeal, George New, Thomas New and Thomas G. Wood, 
of Company F; John E. Wright, Benj. Merrill, John H. 
Burton, Alexander Bland, Charles Cummings, John A. Dunn, 
James Hammach, Thomas Murphy and John P. Easton, of 
Company G ; Sergeant Nicholas N. Keith, Edward Sharp, 
Mathew F. Worley, Joseph N. Bottoms, Wm. Gooden, Rich- 
ard Gabeheart, Preston Head, Nathan W. Hancock, Martin 
Kidd, John F. Mills, Granville Morgan, Joel Rednow, Stephen 

C. Nelson, Archibald Sharp, Geo. W. Sandusky and James 
F.White, of Company H; Serg. James E. Gillespie, Serg. 
John K. Anderson, Henry P. Cull, John W. Mayes*, Levi 
Funk, Calvin Badgett*, John A. Gillespie, John Howard*, 
Simeon Hellard, Geo. Divine, jr., John A. Watkins and Rob- 
ert Yeast*, of Company I ; Sergeant John Herd, Corp. Rich- 
ard C. Smith, John Jaeans, Edmund Marshall, James K. 
Riddle, Jonathan Simpson, Robert N. Williams, Mathew 
Williams, James Bow, Jeremiah Carter and Berry W. Neely, 
of Company J ; John Masters and Abner Isabel, of Com- 
pany K; Rufus M. Patterson, Ebenezer T. Haynes, Wesley 
H. Silvers, James M. Ashley, John Ashley, John P. Grigory, 
Walter Large, David Richardson and Ephraim Sath, Com- 
pany L. 

Casualties of the other regiments of the brigade. Eleventh 
Kentucky Cavalry : Killed, enlisted men, one : wounded, 
three, and captured, one commissioned officer and eighty-eight 
men. Total, ninety-three. 

Twelfth Kentucky Cavalry : Killed, Maj. Julius N.Del- 
fosse and one enlisted man ; wounded, thirteen enlisted men ; 
captured, ninety-seven enlisted men. Total, 112. 

Forty-Fifth Ohio Mounted Infantry : Killed, Capt. Com- 


fort E. Stanley and four enlisted men; wounded, one officer 
and eight enlisted men ; captured, three officers and 131 men. 
Total, 147. 

To the above add the casualties of the First Kentucky 
Cavalry, making a grand total of losses : Killed, two officers 
and eight men ; wounded, one officer and twenty-five men ; 
captured, six officers and 434 men. Aggregate, 476. 

If the foregoing figures are not mathematically exact, 
they are at least approximately correct. 


Dr. Hawkins Brown relates that Serg. Luther Green displayed the 
greatest heroism in managing the howitzer battery, but when the order 
was passed around for every man to take care of himself, the Sergeant got 
out of the inclosure with the speed of a cyclone. 

The Author is indebted to the Rev. W. H. Honnell in his War Remin- 
iscences for the following : Serg. Farris tells this incident of the battle of 
Philadelphia, in which part of our Cavalry were defeated. This defeat 
was always attributed to treachery ; as it was held that the enemy had no 
right to capture a flag of truce, for if he was unwilling to treat with the 
bearer of the flag at the time, he had no right to violate the flag, but 
should have refused to receive it in his lines. The Rebel forces charged 
into our unguarded camp, capturing our men and officers. The revenge 
of Wolford's men was terrible, but not in violation of the dreadful usage 
of war. They met the same forces in part soon afterwards, while crossing 
the Little Tennessee River. As the head of the column came up the bank, 
Wolford's men charged them, drove them into the river, and opened fire 
upon them from the north shore, shouting at every volley: "Remember 
Philadelphia!" Many went to the bottom until the horses and riders 
reddened the foaming surface. It was pitiful ; it was sad, but who can Bay 
the other scene was not the more so, where there was the most sacred of 
all confidences of war violated in the capture or death of the largest num- 
ber ever lost in any one battle. The brave French Maj. Delfosse, was left 
dead on the field. Many others were taken to the Rebel prisons to die, or 
Buffer worse than death. But this heartrending scene is only introduced 
to tell of Farris's escape. He had a small mountain howitzer of which he 
was proud as sole manager in many a small battle and skirmish up to that 
time. When the word rang out peculiar to Wolford's manual of arms, 
" Every man take care of himself,"' the Sergeant was on his cart in a min- 
ute, aud with a shout to his horses, was making his way by a dim road 
through the woods. By one horse jumping ahead, his cart veered to one 
side, and running astride a sapling, which bent beneath its load, he was 
in a fair way of passing over its top. when a protruding limb too large to 
bend, stopped his advance. He jumped oft", but what was his surprise, 
when he saw his cart, carriage and off horse, swing above his breast. 
The one next to him being on the ground, he hastily loosed him, mounted, 
and so left his darling howitzer and off horse as trophies in the enemy's 


hands. Ho avows revenge if lie ever finds the nian who took them down. 

It is difficult to determine from the enemy's official reports who really 
commanded the attacking force from the direction of Sweetwater. Col. 
Dibrell made a full official report, and claims all honors due him and his 
men as participants in the success of the day. Although Dibrell was only 
a Colonel, ho refers to Gen. Vaughn as a volunteer subordinate and 
kind of supernumerary, and lauds him for gallantry on the field. The 
official reports of Gen. Carter L. Stevenson, Cols. G. G. Dibrell and 
J. J. Morrison, make no allusion to the flag of truce, or why it was vio- 
lated. Gen. Vaughn, however, in a letter to Jeif Davis, dated October 23, 
1863, which bears the mark of being partly private and partly official, re- 
fers to the flag of truce, and explains the part he took in the great victory, 
cla imi ng the lion's share of the honors for himself. The following is an 
extract from the letter spoken of : 

«###** I proposed a plan to Maj. Gen. Stevenson, who was 
to follow with a small division of Infantry, which was adopted. We had 
one brigade in the rear of the enemy, and ready to make the attack, when 
a flag of truce met our forces. Col. Dibrell, who was commanding Gen. 
Forrest's old brigade, did not feel willing to advance and disregard the 
flag, and surrendered the command to me. I knew then that the attack 
should be made, or Col. Morrison's brigade would be all cut to pieces and 
captured, so I carried out my programme and routed Col. Wolford's brig- 
ade; and such a rout I never saw, and if the men had acted as true sol- 
diers, and had not commenced plundering the train, etc., I could have 
captured half his command. * * * It was a grand victory." 

Col. J. J. Morrison, who seems to have a greater respect for truth than 
any of the others, closes his report with the following significant sentence : 

"Although the victory was complete, the fraits fell far short of what 
they would have reached if I had had the prompt co-operation of the 
forces in front." 



The Union forces evacuate Loudon — Wolford moves to 
Knoxville and then to Maryville — The Cavalry re- 
organized — Sanders commands the First Division, and 
Wolford the First Brigade — Scouting south of the 
Holston — Lieut. Col. Adams at Motley's Ford — The 

enemy driven into the river — drowning men sad 

SIGHT — Retire to Rockford — The 14th of November — 
Maj. Graham overwhelmed — The disastrous charge 
of the First Kentucky — Wounding of Drye and cap- 
ture of Kelly, Roberts, Carr and others — Heavy 
fighting and skirmishing — Across the Holston — Casu- 
alties — Escape of Lieuts. Roberts and Carr. 

On the 28th of October the Union forces evacuated Lou- 
don and moved to the north side of the Tennessee River. 
Wolford's brigade had marching orders to Knoxville, and 
reached there on the 29th, and camped on the same ground 
we left the 21st of September. On the 30th, Wolford 
had orders to move to Maryville with the effective men of 
his brigade, and two pieces of Artillery, and scout on the 
south side of the Holston as far as the Little Tennessee 
River. The dismounted and ineffectve men were ordered to 
remain at Knoxville to be refitted. The command crossed 
the Holston on the 1st of November, accompanied by Lieut. 
Pease with a section of an Indiana battery, and arrived at 
Maryville on the 2d, and went into camp. 

November 3d, by Special Field Orders No. 68, Headquar- 
ters Army of the Ohio, in order to promote greater efficiency 
in the Cavalry arm of the service, a portion of the mounted 
forces of the Army of the Ohio, were organized for tempo- 
rary purposes into a body called the Cavalry Corps, with 
Brig. Gen. James M. Shackelford in command. The First 
Division was put under command of W. P. Sanders, lately 
made a Brigadier-General. The designation of Wolford's 
command was changed from the Independent Cavalry Brig- 
ade to First Brigade, First Division, Cavalry Corps. The 


Second Brigade of the same division was put under command 
of Col. R. K. Byrd, and the Third Brigade under Col. C. D. 
Pennebaker. Pennebaker's brigade also moved to Maryville 
and camped in the rear of Wolford's. 

November 2d, Capt. F. M. Wolford was sent on a scout, 
and went as far as Morgantown, capturing twelve prisoners, 
and returned, reporting a considerable force on the other side 
of the Little Tennessee River. 

On the 4th, Gen. Sanders received various sensational 
reports from citizens, prisoners and scouting parties, of a 
large force crossing the Little Tennessee River. These re- 
ports were so conflicting that he could not put much reliance 
in them. He was determined to find out the truth or falsity 
of the rumors, and sent out one who would not be frightened 
at shadows, and one in whose statements he could fully rely. 
Lieut. Col. Adams had always proved himself an adept in 
all such critical expeditions as Gen. Sanders required, and 
was selected to lead it. That night, at 1 o'clock, Adams hav- 
ing caused to be detailed the known daring fighting spirits 
of his own regiment, marched for Little Tennessee River, 
some eighteen miles distant. He reached the vicinity of 
Morley's Ford, concealed his men, and waited for the appear- 
ance of daylight. Adams had along with him about 150 men. 
It was early in the morning, about sunrise, or soon after, 
that he heard the advance of the enemy ascending an 
abrupt acclivity near the river bank. They were in fine 
spirits, laughing and talking jovially, little expecting the 
tragic scene to follow. Adams waited for their approach, 
when all at once he ordered a heavy volley poured into 
their column, and with a wild shout, like a lion from his 
lair, he rushed upon them. They were struck with the 
utmost terror, and fled down the narrow-cut road into the 
river. Adams and his men followed them to the very edge 
of the stream, capturing forty of their men, with four com- 
missioned officers. Those not captured tried to make their 
way back, but the firing into them in their perilous situation 
caused so much confusion that they soon lost self-control, 
and many of them, supposed to be forty or fifty, were either 
killed or drowned. The sight of the drowning, struggling 
men, their pitiful appeals for help, became most heart-rend- 


ing. The brave are always tender-hearted ; our men soon 
relented at the sad scene before them, Adams ordered the 
firing to cease, and helping hands were given to those near 
the shore, and they were assisted safely out on the land. 
Most of the Confederate regiment lost their arms in trying 
to keep from drowning. A considerable force soon appeared 
on the opposite bank, and Adams's chosen band was not of 
sufficient strength to successfully cope with them. Before 
they recovered from their panic he hastily withdrew with 
his prisoners and made quick time for Maryville, arriving 
there at 3 p. m. Among the prisoners was a gentlemanly 
Surgeon who was sent on to Gen. Burnside's headquarters, 
and held as a hostage for the return of the two Surgeons of 
the Twelfth Kentucky, captured at Philadelphia, October 

This brilliant exploit called out the following compli- 
mentary dispatch from Gen. Burnside's Chief of Staff: 

Knoxville, Nov. 5, 1863, 7 :30 p. m. 
Brig. Gen. Sanders, Commanding Cavalry Division : — 

General : Your dispatch of this evening announcing 
Col. Adams's forces on the Little Tennessee, just received. 
The General is much pleased with your report, and directs 
that you will please tender his thanks to Lieut. Col. Adams 
and his regiment for the daring attack and fruitful results. 
Very respectfully yours, John G. Parke, 


Gen. James Longstreet, November 4th, having been de- 
tached from Bragg's army in front of Chattanooga, com- 
menced his famous expedition up the East Tennessee valleys 
with a heavy force to crush Burnside. As soon as Burnside 
learned of the movement, he was apprehensive that a large 
Cavalry force would cross the Little Tennessee above Lou- 
don, and move upon Knoxville from the south side of the 
Holston, seizing the high elevations overlooking the city 
from that side. It was to watch and counteract a movement 
of this kind that Sanders's division was on the south side. 
A heavy force confronting him in the upper valleys from 
Virginia, and moved against from two directions from the 
south side, Burnside had not sufficient Cavalry to concen- 
trate at any one point a force strong enough to make a 


stand. A temporary check was the best his Cavalry could 
do. The enemy was now moving against us with such force 
that Burnside thought it no longer safe for us to remain in 
our position. On the 6th he gave orders to Sanders to move 
on the north side of Little River, at Rockford, leaving a 
strong outpost at Maryville or that vicinity. He also noti- 
fied Sanders confidentially that Col. Garrard had been badly 
whipped at Rogersville, and that Wilcox and Shackleford 
had been ordered to fall back. 

On the 7th, Sanders's division moved to Rockford. The 
next day, the First Kentucky, under Col. Adams, was sent 
to Maryville on outpost duty. On the 10th he reported to' 
Sanders that he had scouts on the Little Tennessee River, at 
Niles's and Motley's Fords ; also one sent to Unitia, which 
had not reported ; that there were no Rebels north of the 
river ; for Sanders not to be uneasy, for if they crossed ho 
wculd be among them. Col. Adams returned on the 11th, 
and Capt. Harrison, of the Twelfth Kentucky, took his place. 
On the 12th he reported his pickets attacked by a small force 
of the enemy. Later in the day he returned, and Maj. Mil- 
ton Graham, with the Eleventh Kentucky, moved his regi- 
ment to the vicinity of Maryville as an outpost, and to scout 
in his front. On the morning of the 13th, one of Sanders's 
scouts came in and reported all the ferries and fords on the 
Little Tennessee in front, guarded by the enemy, and all the* 
boats and canoes on the south side under guard. Later in 
the daj T Maj. Graham reported his scouts in from Niles Ferry 
and Morgan town roads, they having driven some Rebel pick- 
ets to within four miles of the brick mill, where there was a 
Rebel force 300 strong. In closing his dispatch to Gen. 
Burnside, Gen. Sanders promised to let him know more about 
the enemy on the morrow. His promise turned out to be 
prophetic, but not in the same way that Gen. Sanders in- 
tended it. The gaining of the knowledge of the position 
and movements of the enemy on the next day was destined 
to prove eventful to the whole division, and sad to many of 
Wolford's brigade, and particularly to the gallant Eleventh 
Kentucky Cavalry. 

On the morning of the 11th of November, Gen. Wheeler 
reported to Gen. Longstreet, then at Sweetwater, with four 


brigades of Cavalry, for orders. He received orders the next 
day to move by the most practicable route to Maryville, en- 
deavor to capture the Federal forces there, and make other 
demonstrations on the Union forces' flank. The object of 
this movement, as expressed by Longstreet's reports, was to 
make a diversion in his favor while crossing his main In- 
fantry force at Loudon, and, if practicable, to seize the high 
elevations of land south of the Holston, overlooking Knox- 
villle. At dark on the evening of the 13th, Wheeler crossed 
the Little Tennessee at Motley's Ford, and marched all night 
so as to come upon our forces by surprise. 

In the meantime, Gen. Sanders, though watchful and ex- 
pecting the enemy to move upon him in force, was not ex- 
pecting so terrible an onset at the time. It was early on the 
morning of the 14th. Many of our soldiers at Rockford had 
not left their couches of repose. The morning was dark and 
gloomy, and the rain had already commenced descending in 
a heavy shower. Everything seemed foreboding. As there 
is always a lull before a storm, even the air betokened im- 
pending danger. Suddenly the murderous roar of firearms 
was conveyed through the light atmosphere, clear and loud, 
in direction of the fated Eleventh Kentucky in vicinity of 
Maryville. There was a rapid mounting of steeds, and in a 
few moments the First Kentucky and Forty-Fifth Ohio were 
in line, and were ordered to the support of their comrades 
in the Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry, Adams with his regiment 
being in advance. The Eleventh Kentucky was weak in 
numbers, only nine companies, and they much depleted by 
their losses at Philadelphia only a few weeks before. The 
immense force of Wheeler, having a citizen along to show the 
exact position of the Eleventh, came suddenly upon them in 
line, opened a fierce fire upon them, dashed at them, captur- 
ing some of them, and scattering the rest in all directions. 
While Dibrell's brigade, being in front, was running down 
and capturing Maj. Graham's men, the Eighth and Eleventh 
Texas, and Third Arkansas regiments, assisted by Col. J. T. 
Morgan's brigade, had formed what was termed in old mili- 
tary tactics something like a crotchet. The enemy knew 
Sanders would send men to the rescue of the Eleventh Ken- 
tucky, and having set their trap waited for their appearance. 


The eagerness of the Captains of Companies A and B to 
reach the scene of carnage caused them to neglect the usual 
precaution of having an advance guard, and they found 
themselves in the dangerous trap set for them. Capt. Geo. 
W. Drye, of Company B, fell dangerously wounded, and was 
in the hands of the enemy. A charge was made, a hasty re- 
treat was ordered, and most of the First Kentucky escaped, 
but a number of them were hemmed in and captured, among 
whom were Capt. Daniel A. Kelley. Company D, Lieut. D. R. 
Carr, of Company C, and Lieut. Phil Roberts, of Company K. 
Bnfore the retreat was ordered, a heavy fire had been opened 
on our men from the front and both flanks. In the retreat, 
they were chased across Little River, where the First Ken- 
tucky and Forty-Fifth Ohio were rallied, reformed, and the 
enemy checked. 

Sanders's division now fell back in good order to the 
vicinity of Knoxville. The enemy, notwithstanding his 
morning's success, was dilatory about pressing his temporary 
advantage. Wheeler was afraid to cross Little River with 
his heavy force that day, and Sanders returned within five 
miles of Rockford and went into camp. That night Wheeler 
received instructions from Gen. Longstreet to move across 
Little River, if his success in the day justified it. To contend 
with Wheeler's immense force, Sanders only had Penneba- 
ker's brigade, composed of the Eleventh and Twenty-Seventh 
Kentucky Mounted Infantry, and Wolford's brigade, now the 
second time reduced by captures. 

On the 15th, the enemy advanced, and Gen. Sanders's 
whole line was soon engaged. Heavy skirmishing and fighting 
continued during the day until late in the evening, their 
superiority in numbers having pressed our Cavalry back into 
the Infantry lines south of the Holston, Cameron's force of 
Artillery and Infantry on the heights opened a heavy fire on 
the enemy, and he retreated to Stock Creek. Our loss was 
heavy in prisoners that day, which chiefly fell on the Forty- 
Fifth Ohio. 

The next morning, the 16th, Wheeler supposing our troops 
might have been withdrawn during the night to the north 
side, advanced with the object of seizing and holding the 
coveted heights ; but instead of finding the position aban- 

I. C. DYE. 


doned, found it much strengthened, and our batteries 
and other forces gave him such a warm reception that 
lie soon retired. Wheeler now received orders to report to 
Gen. Longstreet on the other side of the river. He moved 
immediately toward Louisville, crossing the Holston with 
much difficulty, and reported to his commander at 3 p. m. 
on the 17th. The enemy retired at 12 m. on the 16th. Our 
Cavalry command, after picketing for the Infantry on the 
south side for the rest of the day, crossed the Holston and 
went into camp. 

The following is the list of losses of Sanders's division in 
front of Rockford, November 14th, and after operations be- 
fore crossing the Holston, November 15th and 16th. 

The First Kentucky Cavalry : killed, one enlisted man ; 
wounded, Capt. Geo. W. Drye, badly, and . En- 
listed men wounded : Thomas Evans, Company B, and Serg. 
John Warren, Company E. 

The following were captured : Serg. Robert T. Pierce, 
Isaiah C. Dye, John R. Falconberry, Andrew J. Meeks*, 
Jacob Spaw, Martin Phelps*, Wm. Jeffries* and Alexander 
C. Carnan, of Company A; Wm. M. Dodd, James F. Yowell, 
Wm. L. Luster, R. N. Wiser, Milton Dever and Thomas L. 
Holder, of Company B ; Lieut. D. R. Carr, Wm. C. Cole, 
Landon C. H. Shipley, James Wright and James Harper, of 
Company C ; Capt. Daniel A. Kelly and Marcus Ryan, Com- 
pany D ; Richard Hukle, Hiram Roberts, William Cooley, 
Michael Purcell and William J. Armstrong, Company G ; 
Wesley W. Mullins, at Maryville, November 20th, Isaac 
Baker, November 10th, James Seloy, at Maryville, November 
20th, of Company H; John D. Adams and William Huff- 
man, of Company I ; Jacob S. Bruton, Philip Cash, Eph- 
raim W. Henager and Samuel Wade, of Company J ; Lieut. 
Philip Roberts and Corporal Palestine L. Bodkins, of Com- 
pany K; Corporal Wm. Owens, jr., and John Perkins, of 
Company L. Total, 39. 

The losses of the Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry, owing to 
absence of reports, are not clearly ascertained. The State 
Adjutant General's Report makes it seventy-six captured. 

Forty-Fifth Ohio, at Rockford : two men wounded and 



five captured. 15th and 16th of November : three men 
killed, one officer and seven men wounded, four officers and 
seventy-nine men captured. Total, 101. 

Pennebakers brigade : Eleventh Kentucky Mounted In- 
fantry, one man wounded and three captured. Twenty- 
Seventh Kentucky Mounted Infantry, three men killed. 

A few days after the fight near Rockford, Lieuts. Phil 
Roberts and D. R. Carr escaped from the enemy. The fol- 
lowing is an account of their escape and adventures as re- 
lated by Lieut. Roberts. 

When our pickets were fired on, early in the morning of 
November 14, 1863, we were ordered to saddle and mount 
immediately, and led by Col. Adams, we made a dash for the 
enemy, who retreated in great haste. Following them up 
led us into the main body of Wheeler's Cavalry before we 
could form a line. The enemy was formed on each side of 
us, and we were compelled to retreat as fast as our horses 
could carry us. My horse ran against a sapling, throwing 
me off. One of my men, Robert Shrewsberry, saw me on 
the ground, rode up to a stump for me to get behind him, 
when the Rebels came up, caught his mare by the bridle, and 
we of course surrendered. It was raining and cold. We 
were stripped of our overcoats, which were new and good.. 
We were taken back and surrounded by a guard. Here we 
found Capt. Drye with his leg broken by a gun-shot wound. 
I had a five-dollar bill which I slipped into my pants pocket. 
We were in a man's yard, and I stepped into the house and 
gave a girl whom I had seen before my watch. We were 
taken to Maryville that night and put into the courthouse. 
The people of the town being loyal, the ladies fed us well. 
The next morning we started and marched on foot all day, 
crossed a river that night, and camped, or was guarded in a 
barn lot. We remained here all the next day and night 
without any food, as the owner would not let us sleep in the 
barn. After freezing all night we started again on foot in 
the morning, and were guarded by Tennesseeans, who treated 
us very kindly. They hunted all day for something to eat, 
and found but little, which they divided with us. We reach- 
ed Philadelphia that evening and were crowded into a church r 
where we had no room to lie down. The guards were tired, 
and we talked of taking their guns, which we could easily 
have done, but concluded we might be recaptured and treated 
roughly. The next morning we were taken to Sweetwater, 
where we were crowded into another church almost to suffo- 
cation. Serg. Lawrence Roberts of my Company, and my- 


self, had been waiting for a chance to escape, but could never 
get an opportunity. About midnight a call was made for 
the commissioned officers to come out at the door, which we 
did, not knowing what our doom might be. We were marched 
to the depot and ordered into a passenger coach, and the 
private soldiers were locked in a stock car. The engine had 
gone up to Loudon and was detained. Some Rebel officers 
and a few ladies were in the car. The guard came inside. I 
was sitting with Capt. Kelley of our regiment, and spoke to 
him in low tones, telling him that our guard would be asleep 
in a few minutes, and " suppose we make our escape." He 
replied that he could not risk it ; that if they caught us we 
w T ould be hung. I told him it was death anyway if we went 
to prison. All in the coach had become very sleepy. I 
moved over to Lieut. D. R. Carr, knowing that he was a man 
of resolution, and told him my object. He readily agreed 
to run the risk. I walked cautiously and carefully to the 
door, followed by Carr. The guard was sitting asleep with 
his gun between his legs. I opened the door and walked out, 
followed by Carr, who pulled the door after him. We walked 
up in town, and through the back way, and were soon in the 
woods. We consulted the best route to take, and decided to 
go in direction of Kingston, on the Tennessee River. We 
walked until sunrise the next morning without being on any 
roads, and then went up on a mountain and spent the day 
in the sunshine, but without any food. We spent the next 
day wandering about to keep warm, but could do no good in 
making progress. We stopped at a negro cabin in a yard 
where there was a large brick house. We asked for some- 
thing to eat, and told the inmates that we were Union sol- 
diers trying to make our escape. They gave us some raw 
bacon, and informed us that the white folks' house was then 
full of Rebel soldiers. We left in haste, and next wandered 
on a mountain, getting hungry almost to desperation. We 
heard a chicken crow, and Carr proposed that he would go 
to the house, against my earnest entreaties, as we could trust 
none except the colored people. We started down the moun- 
tain side, and came in sight of a small cabin. Before reach- 
ing it, we found a dead man dressed in the Federal uniform. 
This alarmed us, and Carr was willing to retrace his steps 
and not go to the cabin. We came across a cornfield and 
entered it, where we found a girl, ten years of age, pulling 
corn. We approached her and entered into conversation. 
Finding from her talk that she was all right, we told her our 
condition, but it was some time before we could convince her 
that we were Union soldiers trying to make our escape. 
After convincing her, she informed us that her father was a 
Union man, and had crossed over the river to get away from 


the Rebels. She then said she would go home and bring us 
some food. As a precaution, we concealed ourselves on the 
opposite side from where she directed us to hide. After about 
an hour, to our great delight, we saw the girl and her mother 
coming with two small buckets, and when they reached us, 
we found they had a tine supply of meat, bread and milk, 
which we enjoyed very much. The lady informed us'that the 
people of the neighborhood were all for the Union, and that 
the men were all hiding from the Rebels, but that a man 

living about miles from there would be at home that 

night. We asked if her daughter might guide us to the 
man's house, and she readily consented. We started on our 
way through the woods, and when we came near a road or 
path, the girl would go in front and see if the road was clear 
-of passers, and then we would hurriedly cross over. 

We arrived at the house after dark, and the girl reported 
our presence. We found fifteen women there waiting to hear 
from their relatives and friends, and they were all glad to 
receive us, and invited us to have something to eat, but we 
had been previously served with plenty. The house was on 
the side of the road, and the women agreed to stand picket 
while we slept, for we had not slept for a week, except an 
occasional nap. 

The man came home about midnight, and we were awaken- 
ed. He agreed to put us across the river, ten miles from 
there, and above Kingston. He put us across the river 
in the smallest canoe I ever saw, but it carried us over 
with ease and safety. When we landed on the north 
bank, we were left tired and sore. We went down the river 
road thinking that we were safe. Carr stopped on the 
roadside and said he was worn out, and could go no fur- 
ther. I prevailed upon him to get up, and we started 
again. Coming to a house on the roadside with three or 
four horses in the lot, we asked the people found there to 
send us on to Kingston, which they refused, saying that pick- 
ets were on the road. Carr insisted that we must have their 
horses, and if they would send a boy along with us to the 
picket-post, that he could return with their horses, which 
proposition they finally agreed to. They caught the horses 
and took us four miles to the picket-post, where they left us, 
and we walked on to Kingston and reported to headquarters 
of the commandant there. They said they were besieged, 
but would divide rations with us. A citizen by the name of 
Martin was in the office, and he invited us to his house to 
take care of us. After reaching Mr. Martin's, the pickets 
were fired upon, the enemy was nearly on Carr and myself, 
a battle was fought, but the post was held, and we were safe. 
After remaining there a week, and not hearing of our com- 


mand at Knoxville, we became restless, and concluded to go 
home, as we could not join our command. We acquainted 
Mr. Martin with our intentions, and he offered for our use 
two small mules, only yearlings past, if we thought they 
could carry us. We procured old saddles and rope bridles, 
mounted our unshod mules, and started across the Cumber- 
land Mountains for Somerset, which place we reached safely. 
We then separated, Carr going to his home in Clinton coun- 
ty, and I to mine in Madison county. It was a hard and 
adventurous trip. We returned to our command at Dan- 
dridge, East Tennessee, remounted, and ready for service. 

Philip Roberts, 
Late Capt. Co. K, First Ky. Cav. 


Longstreet's object now fully known — Diversity of opin- 

he decides on knoxville — longstreet crosses the 
Tennessee River and assails Burnside — Heavy fight- 
ing — The infantry falls back to Knoxville — San- 

— Gallant fighting of the mounted forces — Pressed 
back — Heavy losses — Death of Gen. Sanders — Rev. 

w. h. honnell on the death of the general inside 

of the lines. 

It was now definitely known that Longstreet's object was 
not to make a mere feint or diversion, but to destroy Burn- 
side, or drive him from the fertile valleys of East Tennessee. 
There was much diversity of opinion among the chief mili- 
tary authorities in regard to what was best to be done ; what 
points were most proper to hold, and where to make the 
final stand. Some were for holding the line of the main 
Tennessee River, and concentrating at Loudon or Kingston. 
Burnside, after weighing the arguments on all sides, decided 
to fall back, and concentrate his forces at Knoxville. One 
of his reasons for not wanting to make a stand at Loudon, 
was that the enemy would have the advantage of reinforc- 
ing quickly by the railroad ; whereas, if he made a stand at 


Knoxville, not only the forces that Longstreet had at the 
time, but any reinforcements he might receive would have to 
march and haul their supplies forty miles over muddy roads 
before fighting. Another grand reason was knowing Grant's 
intention to attack Bragg as soon as his forces were all up 
and ready, he decided that he could serve Grant best by 
drawing Longstreet's forces too far to reinforce Bragg in the 
contemplated attack upon him. Burnside concluded to re- 
treat as leisurely as Longstreet would permit him to Knox- 
ville, so as to give his engineers time to prepare positions for 
his troops to occupy in defense of the city, and also to 
strengthen the works already there. 

As before stated, the two brigades of Sanders's division 
of Cavalry, on the withdrawal of Wheeler from the south 
side of the Holston on the 16th, crossed over to the north 
side into Knoxville and encamped. On the morning of the 
17th, Company C, First Kentucky, was ordered on picket be- 
yond and to the right of Fort Sanders, and remained during 
the day. Jacob J. Speck received a wound in his right arm, 
necessitating its amputation. \Volford and his brigade were 
ordered out on the Loudon road to meet the enemy. Our 
forces on that side of the river had had a severe engagement 
with him the day before at Campbell's Station, being pressed 
back, contesting all the way to the vicinity of Knoxville. 
The One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, which was in the 
fight of the 16th, occupied a position as outpost about two 
miles from town, with three companies on the extreme front. 
Col. Wolford with the First Kentucky and Forty-Fifth Ohio, 
moved out to the front, leaving the Eleventh and Twelfth 
Kentucky on a hill in the rear of the One Hundred and 
Twelfth Illinois, as reserve. He soon met a force too un- 
wieldy to handle, and fell back to the hill occupied by his 
reserve. On came the enemy and attacked and drove the ad- 
vance companies of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois 
back upon the regiment. Still on they came in overpower- 
ing numbers, and the One Hundred and Twelfth fell back in 
some confusion on Wolford's line. The Kebels followed up 
their advantage with a furious assault, and the Union line 
■wavered and broke. The brave color-bearer of the One Hun- 
dred and Twelfth Illinois, Serg. John L. Jennings, accom- 


panied by the color guard, now rushed forward and planted 
the colors on the hill. The One Hundred and Twelfth rallied 
around the flag, and the enemy's guns being empty, one well- 
directed volley sent them reeling back down the hill. The 
rest of the Union troops recovered their position and the 
line held the hill all day, engaged in heavy skirmishing, and 
meeting with considerable loss. At the close of the day, the 
First Kentucky, with the rest of the brigade, fell back to the 
suburbs of Knoxville, and went into camp. 

Gen. Burnside had already withdrawn his Infantry from 
the front, and put them in position in and around the city. 
•Sanders had orders to dismount his Cavaly and mounted In- 
fantry, and hold the whole Rebel force in check while the 
Infantry forces proper, and Artillery, were taking their posi- 
tions and fortifying. The troops around Knoxville worked 
all day and night of the 17th, and by noon of the 18th, they 
were pretty well covered. 

On the morning of the 18th, Sanders's division took posi- 
tion early to stay the heavy advancing tide of the enemy. 
'The One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois was in the center 
\rith its left resting on the Loudon road. To the left was the 
Eighth Michigan, with its right on this road, and its left ex- 
tending to the Holston River. To the right of the One Hun- 
dred and Twelfth Illinois, the Forty-Fifth Ohio went into 
line, with Pennebaker's brigade to its right, and Wolford's 
brigade held the right of the whole force in front. Wolford's 
brigade, though in the fight that day, owing to the position 
it occupied in the line, and other fortuitous circumstances, 
was not in the heaviest work. That morning nature seemed 
to shudder at the sad event which was to close the day's 
operations, and veiled the enemy from view by a dense fog. 
But a noble life was doomed, and the forthcoming catas- 
trophe could not be stayed. About 9 a. m., the fog had al- 
most disappeared. Suddenly the Union skirmish line was 
driven in. The enemy had formed in a narrow valley imme- 
diately in front. The force which occupied a ravine came 
up with deafening yells, but the deadly volleys from the 
Union lines sent them back with severe loss. The Fortv- 
Fifth Ohio was staggered under the severe shock, being per- 
haps more exposed, but the One Hundred and Twelfth and 


Eighth Michigan held fast. The enemy's dead and wounded 
lay in our front. Some of the wounded crawled into our 
lines and surrendered. The musketry was heavy until 12 
m., when the enemy opened on our lines with two batteries, 
but our men stood firm. At 2 p. m., the enemy moved his 
batteries within 600 yards, but our forces still stood un- 
daunted. Heavy columns soon passed down the ravine in 
front, and our men knew a charge was imminent. Maj. Dow, 
of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, ordered bayonets 
to be fixed. They came up, four lines deep, with their usual 
yell to within twenty-five yards of our lines. But such a 
shower of Minnie balls was poured into their ranks, that 
they fell back in disorder. Again and again they came up, 
only to retire as before. The fourth time they advanced, led 
by Col. Vance, a South Carolinian, commanding the brigade. 
The Union men reserved their fire, and when within thirty 
yards of the front of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, 
he ordered Maj. Dow to surrender, but the gallant Major rev- 
erently told him to go to h — 11, and the rash Confederate com- 
mander fell riddled with bullets. Maddened by the death of 
their leader, the Rebels charged with fury, but again were* 
driven back over the bluff. In the meantime they had moved 
another column up the ravine, around the right flank of the 
Union line, and now came charging down obliquely in the 
rear of the Union line, and at the same time in front. Gen. 
Sanders now received a mortal wound, and was carried off 
the field. The Forty-Fifth Ohio being in the greatest dan- 
ger, was the first to break. About this time Col. Adams was 
ordered with the First Kentucky to make a charge, by way 
of diversion, to save the Forty-Fifth Ohio and others en- 
dangered from being captured, but it was seen that they 
could get out without the charge, and the order was recalled. 
The whole force was now in danger of being captured, and 
by orders fell back down the hill across Second Creek, and 
up the opposite hill-side. A position was taken some dis- 
tance in front of the fort, afterward named Fort Sanders, in 
honor of the loved and gallant General who fell in its front.. 
The enemy advanced his lines to the bluff south of the 
creek, but the eventful day's work was done. Gen. Sanders 
died the next day, and his loss was lamented by both officers 


and men, as he was admired by all of his command. The 
One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois and Forty-Fifth Ohio lost 
heavily in killed and wounded, but the Eighth Michigan's 
loss was lighter on account of not being so much exposed to 
the heavy fire of the enemy's Artillery. Among the mor- 
tally wounded of the Forty-Fifth Ohio was Adj. Chas. W. 
Fearns, a brave man, and of high moral worth. Among the 
casualties of the First Kentucky, Stephen Foster, of Com- 
pany I, was killed while acting Orderly for Gen. Sanders. 
The daring Lieut. W. D. Carpenter, A. A. A. G. on Col. Wol- 
ford's Staff, was wounded, but not dangerously. Thomas 
Wood, Company F, was killed in action on the 21st of No- 

Chap. W. H. Honnell has given the following pathetic 
tribute to the memory of Gen. W. P. Sanders. 

Gen. Sanders's death occurred on the ground I had occu- 
pied lifting my fallen heroes as they were shot down by the 
sharpshooters from the Armstrong House. We were on our 
last struggle to save the day. As it is barely possible that 
had Longstreet made his assault that first sunset, instead of 
the daybreak two weeks later, he would have been successful. 
But it seems as if Sanders's blood formed an impassable 
stream over which no victorious Rebel could ever pass. The 
expectant bride poured her tears in rain to recall the hero 
slain. Ten thousand men stood in arms repelling all ad- 
vance into the city from that sunset hour which marked our 
slow retreat past the fort, forever to bear his name. The 
lonely burial by the dim light of the lantern, marks his 
funeral so like that of Sir John Moore. I was too busy 
even to attend it, and a city pastor uttered the solemn words. 

"Not a drum was heard, nor a funeral note, 
As bis corse to the ramparts we hurried; 
Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot 
O'er the grave where our hero was buried." 

The night settled down over many a dying soldier to fall 
next morning into the hands of others than ours. That 
fatal little cupola, built for sights of peace, was thus made 
the high fort of death for many of us. How bravely our 
Infantry threw up their fort, and dug deep trenches that 
night until morning's dawn we occupied impregnable de- 
fenses ! Our 12,000 brave defenders, to their 18,000 * till the 
end came in their bloody repulse, two weeks later. 

* According to Burnside's report, Longstreet was made to have 23,000 
men at the time. Author. 



The siege of Knoxville — Wolford in command of the 
First Division of Cavalry, Adams the First Brigade, 





TIONS — Starvation and suffering — Assault on Fort 
Sanders — Terrible carnage — Sad scene — News of the 
victory at Missionary Ridge — Looking for reinforce- 
ments — Adams's night ride — Sherman comes to the 
rescue — The siege raised. 

Knoxville was now invested, and the memorable siege 
commenced. Its thrilling scenes, its many incidents, the 
sufferings and privations of the men, and the heroic defense 
are themes often reverted to by the old soldiers who partici- 
pated in them. Our Cavalry was now drawn inside of the 
defenses. After the death of Gen. Sanders, Col. Frank Wol- 
ford was put in command of the First Division Cavalry 
Corps, and Lieut. Col. Adams took Woodford's place as com- 
mander of the First Brigade of that division. The Forty- 
Fifth Ohio Mounted Infantry, which had only been tempo- 
rarily assigned to our brigade, and had been with us for some 
time, returned to the Second Brigade, now under Lieut. Col. 
Bond, of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois. The First 
Kentucky Cavalry was at this time deficient in field officers. 
Our senior Maj., Francis M. Helveti, having been captured 
in 1861, was afterward exchanged and put on detached ser- 
vice. Maj. W. N. Owens was in the Rebel prisons, and Maj. 
Wm. A. Coffey had resigned in October, and his place had 
not been filled by promotion. Capt. Geo. W. Drye held the 
oldest commission, but he was dangerously wounded, and in 
the enemy's lines. Capt. Wm. Perkins, of Company C, held 
the next oldest commission, but he resigned about that time 


on account of disability from sickness. Capt. J. Brent Fish- 
back, the handsome, gallant and popular chief officer of Com- 
pany L, having the oldest commission of all the line officers 
present, and able for duty, took command of the First Ken- 
tucky Cavalry. 

There was skirmishing on the 19th and 20th, but no seri- 
ous fighting occurred. The enemy could be seen moving 
around, and going into position on the various hills and 
ridges on the north side of the river. An attack was ex- 
pected as soon as Longstreet's forces were all up and in 
proper position, but it was delayed. Heavy details from the 
Union regiments were at work night and day on the fortifi- 
cations. The works were strengthened and extended in all 
needed directions. Notwithstanding the previous hard march- 
ing and fighting of the troops, the men worked cheerfully 
at their tasks. Many of the loyal citizens showed eager de- 
sire in giving aid to the defense of the city. Unwilling dis- 
loyal citizens were pressed into service. The labor of the 
male descendants of Africa's dusky race, the principal 
" bone " of contention in the national conflict, was also 
freely " confiscated " for the benefit of the service. A long 
double line of " contrabands " might have been seen after 
nightfall marching in military order, if not with the exact 
military step, in direction of the forts and ditches, and just 
before daylight, they could be seen returning in the same 
order to the interior of the city. 

When we first entered Knoxville the regiment camped in 
a depression near the top of the Tennessee Hill. We had 
to ascend only a few steps to view an open valley between us 
and the enemy's lines on a ridge beyond. Our camp was in 
an exposed situation here, for we could plainly see the oper- 
ations of our Artillery on an elevation to our left, and also 
that of the enemy across the valley. It was an uncomfort- 
able place to sleep, and why the enemy neglected to shell our 
camp is still a mystery, as leaden compliments were fre- 
quently passed to our Artillerymen on our left. On the next 
day, however, we moved to the southwestern suburbs of the 
city, beyond Second Creek, and on the slope of the elevation 
on the front of which stood Fort Sanders. This slope was 
long, and the decline gradual, so that Fort Sanders was some 


distance in our front, and at first view it seemed a safe and 
sheltered position for the weary Cavalryman to repose. But 
appearances are often deceptive, as we soon found by practi- 
cal experience. We were in the exact line of the missiles 
that overshot Fort Sanders. Col. Adams's headquarters were 
put up in a beautiful yard, in the upper part of which was a 
fine mansion, said to be owned and occupied by some ancient 
nieces of the Hon. Hugh L. White, a former conspicuous 
candidate for President. It was about dark when the Rebel 
batteries opened a heavy cannonading, using solid shot and 
shell, on Fort Sanders. Their range seemed to be defective, 
for many of their missiles passed our batteries, lighting in 
close proximity to our camp, or went a little beyond. The red 
streaks of light made by the angry shells passing through 
the air so near us, caused a kind of panic, as we were not in 
the difficulty, and had nothing to do in raising it. There 
was a hasty rush for sheltered places. Some squatted be- 
hind small cedar trees in the yard ; some took down the hill 
toward the creek in search of friendly gullies ; the Author at 
first ran to get behind the Mansion House, but reflecting 
that a shot might strike the high chimney at the end, and 
shower a fatal quantity of brick down upon him, returned 
and flattened himself as thin as possible on the ground be- 
hind the Colonel's marque. Col. Adams, who happened to 
be in the house at the time, in hilarious glee, assumed charge 
of the females and other members of the family, took them 
down into the cellar until the shower was over. Lieut. W. D. 
Carpenter, of the brigade Staff, all this time sat on a camp 
stool before the Colonel's marque, convulsed with laughter 
at the ridiculous shelters we used to dodge the shot and shell. 
Among the solid shot that passed us, one was seen to strike 
a camp-fire on the creek below us, and make the sparks fly in 
all directions, spoiling the scanty supper of a soldier's mess, 
as was learned afterward. 

While camped on the north side of the Holston, we were 
enlivened every night by soul-stirring and patriotic airs of 
the band of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois. " Yan- 
kee Doodle" was a favorite with Col. Wolford, and it was 
often played in their own peculiar 6tyle for his special 


On the 22d, Lieut. J. S. Pankey, Company I, was ap- 
pointed to act as Regimental Adjutant for the time. 

The 21st was a rainy day, but the rain ceased on the morn- 
ing of the 22d. There was no duty performed by the regi- 
ment during daylight, but at dusk Col. Wolford took the First 
Kentucky, One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, and other 
mounted regiments, and went four miles up the river on a 
reconnaissance, but made no discoveries of the enemy, and 
returned at 11 p. m., and went into camp. 

Owing to the exhausted condition of the valleys of East 
Tennessee, most of the supplies of the Army of the Ohio, 
except forage for Cavalry hors6s and army teams, had been 
hauled in wagons across the almost barren Cumberland 
Mountains, and it taxed the transportation teams to the 
utmost to supply the army from day to day. Besides this, 
it was for some time uncertain whether Burnside would be 
compelled to retreat and give up East Tennessee or not, and 
after it was fully determined to hold Knoxville, there was 
not time enough, even with sufficient means, to accumulate 
supplies for a protracted siege. 

On the evening of the 23d, Wolford's Cavalry division 
crossed the Holston at dusk and took position on the south 

To understand the position occupied by the various troops, 
and the strength of the Union and Confederate forces, the 
following extract is taken from Gen. Burnside's official 
report : 

Capt. Poe had, before leaving Kentuckv, organized an en- 
gineer battalion from the Twenty-Third' Army Corps, and 
had by great efforts succeeded in bringing over the moun- 
tains a quantity of intrenching and other engineer tools. 
These proved to be of the greatest possible value to us dur- 
ing the siege. The line of defense established commenced at 
a point on the river, and ran at nearly right angles with the 
river to a fort which the enemy had commenced on the hill 
north of the Kingston road, and about 1,000 yards in front 
and to the right of the college, and from this point it ran ' 
along and nearly parallel to the river across First Creek over 
Temperance Hill, to Mabry's Hill, near Bell's house, thence 
to the Holston River at a point a little below the glass-works. 
An interior line was also decided upon, which ran from near 
the work on Temperance Hill to Flint Hill. The line on 


the south side was not continuous. We occupied four promi- 
nent hills, which commanded the city as well as the open 
country to the south of it. Gen. Ferrero's division of the 
Ninth Corps, under Gen. R. B. Potter, occupied the line from 
Holston River to Second Creek, and Gen. Hartranft's line 
was between First and Second Creeks. Chapin's brigade ex- 
tended from Second Creek over Temperance Hill, to near 
Bell's house, and the brigades of Colonels Hoskins and Case- 
ment extended from this point to the river. The interior 
line was occupied by some regiments of loyal Tennesseeans 
lately enlisted. 

The positions on the south side of the river Avere occu- 
pied by Shackelford's Cavalry and Cameron's brigade of 
HascalVs division ; Reily's brigade was held in reserve, and 
used frecpiently during the siege to reinforce lines on both 
sides of the river. 

Our force at this time in Knoxville was about 12,000 
effective men, exclusive of the new recruits of the loyal 
Tennesseeans. The enemy was estimated at 20,000 to 28,000 y 
including Cavalry. 

The beef cattle, hogs, etc., belonging to the Commissary 
Department, and many that belonged to the citizens, were 
driven into the city where they were slaughtered and salted 
down. Orders were issued reducing the rations, and as time 
advanced they grew meagerly less, and in quality worse. All 
useless animals were killed and thrown into the river to save 


Many efforts were made by the Quartermasters of the 
different commands to collect forage and supplies along the 
French Broad River, and out on the Sevierville road, both 
of which were kept open to foraging parties during the prin- 
cipal part of the siege. By good management we were kept 
from absolute starvation. The loyal citizens also aided us 
much in sending down the French Broad River meat and 
grain in flats during the dense fogs of the nights, which pre- 
vailed at that period. An excellent officer by the name of 
Capt. Doughty, maintained a small force up the river during 
the whole siege, and directed the efforts of the people in our 

The enemy made great efforts to break our pontoon 
bridge across the Holston by floating down rafts, but were 
prevented by the efforts of Inspector General Babcock and 


Chief Engineer Poe, who caused booms to be constructed 
across the river above the bridge, which caught the rafts. 

After Wolford's division crossed the river on the 23d, a 
patrol of the First Kentucky was sent four miles out on the 
Maryville road, but made no discoveries of the enemy in that 
direction. That same night a portion of Gen. Hartranft's 
pickets were driven in, but was reestablished the next day, 
with a loss of twenty-two killed and wounded. Houses which 
were occupied by the enemy's sharpshooters, or likely to be, 
were destroyed, and some gallant sorties were made for that 
purpose. The brilliant light made by the burning buildings 
illuminated the county for some distance arouud, and was 
seen by scouting parties belonging to Gen. Wilcox's com- 
mand, then holding Cumberland Gap, and uneasiness was 
felt by outsiders for our safety, as it was supposed by some 
that the city had been set on fire. 

On the 23d, an assault was made on the enemy's parallel 
by the Second Michigan, which, for a time, was successful, 
but they were finally driven back with a loss of six killed, 
among whom was the commanding officer, and forty-four 

From Longstreet's report it is learned that the Rebel 
forces first sent to the south side of the river to take position, 
were Law's and Robertson's brigades. 

When Wolford's division crossed the river the command 
occupied the heights, and the men of the First Kentucky 
Cavalry, with those of other regiments, were put to work 
digging rifle-pits and throwing up breast-works. This was 
continued for several days. Cameron's brigade of Infantry 
had been holding the highlands of this side since November 
1st to prevent the enemy from seizing them. 

The same night Wolford reinforced Cameron, the enemy 
also sent additional forces to the south side of the river, and 
on the 24th they were seen in considerable numbers by our 
men. Skirmishing was kept up on both sides during the day. 

In the afternoon of the 25th, a division of the enemy 
made a fierce assault on our position south of the Holston. 
When the enemy advanced, Company C, First Kentucky 
Cavalry, under Lieut. James E. Chilton, was on picket. 
About the time the skirmishing began, Chilton's command 


was relieved by the One Hundred and Third Ohio Infantry, 
which went into line on an elevated place considered to be 
the key of the position. Soon the firing became quite rapid, 
and the Infantry regiment being composed of new troops, 
soon began to waver. Lieut. Chilton, who was about to re- 
turn to join his regiment according to orders, saw the troops 
giving way, and ordered his company back in double-quick, 
regained the position before it was reached by the enemy, 
and by his example inspired courage in the Infantry, who 
afterward fought bravely. It frequently happens at the 
critical part of an engagement, that the tide of victory is 
changed by the gallantry of individual soldiers in humble 
rank. On this occasion, the heroic actions of Serg. Geo. D. 
Thrasher and Private James L. Garner infused such enthu- 
siasm in our men as had much to do with our after-suc- 
cess. The First Kentucky, in their rapid manner, soon came 
to the aid of the hotly-pursued Union forces. Reily's brig- 
ade of reserves from the north side also came in double- 
quick to the scene of conflict, and the enemy retreated back 
to their position on their own hill. Official reports give our 
loss at 50 men, and that of the enemy 150. 

As Burnside, with his main force, fell back to Knoxville, 
Colonel Byrd's brigade had been cut off at Kingston, and 
was in the time of the siege in an isolated situation. Col. 
Mott's brigade of Infantry had also been sent to Kingston 
on the 28th of October to reinforce Col. Byrd. On the 24th 
of November, Gen. Joseph Wheeler, with three brigades of 
Cavalry, made a fierce assault on the Union forces at King- 
ston, and after a heavy engagement was repulsed with con- 
siderable loss. 

Our rations, meager at first, now became extremely small, 
and of unwholesome and inferior quality. The headquarter 
attached drew a small piece of bread each day, not enough 
to satisfy hunger, but only sufficient to sharpen our appe- 
tites. It was coarse, and of very dark color, and wheat bran 
was undoubtedly one of its ingredients, and ground corn- 
cobs were supposed to be the other. To persons not in our 
situation the diet would not only have been impalatable, but 
loathsome in the extreme. Those who served in the ditches 
fared worse. Adams's Brigade Headquarter mess had "con- 


fiscated " a large hog straying around where it had no busi- 
ness, which lasted all the time we were penned up. A lot of 
beef cattle had been driven in from Kentucky just before the 
" round-up," and it was asserted that whenever one became 
too weak from starvation to stand on his feet, he was slaugh- 
tered for soldiers' use. 

As before stated, there was one road up the French Broad 
River in direction of Sevierville, which the enemy never 
closed. It was not supposed that this road was left open 
through kindness, but that their material gave out before 
reaching it. Forage parties went out daily on the road, and 
sometimes were interrupted by scouting parties of the enemy. 
We procured corn for a short time by crossing over a prong 
of the French Broad in a canoe to a large field on an island, 
but this supply soon became exhausted. We then had to ex- 
tend our trips further and further up the river. It finally 
took about a day to make the trip and return. The last time 
the Author remembers making the journey, he was gone all 
day, and his search was fruitless. This was the only means 
of saving the lives of our heroes. On our return, starving 
Infantrymen would waylay our road and beg so piteously for 
a few ears to parch that we could not resist their appeals. 

The beautiful and usually pelluced Holston so near at 
hand, it may be thought that we did not want for nature's 
healthy beverage to quench our thirst, and for culinary pur- 
poses. But while the quantity was unlimited, the quality 
was not such as to be enticing to fastidious tastes, unless 
environed, as we were, by military necessity. Only one weak 
spring, and no wells, was on our side of the river, and it was 
naturally drained by the Infantry near by. So many dead 
horses, mules, hogs and dogs were thrown into the edge of 
the Holston, and not far enough in to float them off, that 
we had to walk up and down the river for several hundred 
yards to find a place to fill our buckets without dipping in 
beside some dead quadruped. 

But little skirmishing took place on the 2Cth. Lieut. 
Milchrist of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, by direc- 
tion of Col. Wolford, taking part of his company, success- 
fully evaded the enemy's pickets after night, and went on a 



scout to Maryville in quest of information in regard to the 
movement of troops in that vicinity. They passed so near 
the Rebel pickets that they could hear their conversation. 
Lieut. Milchrist returned toward morning and reported to 
Col. Wolford. The Colonel deemed the information of suffi- 
cient importance to send the Lieutenant to Gen. Burnside to 
acquaint him with what he had learned, and his observations. 

The weather had become very inclement, and those in the 
ditches were exposed to much suffering. From Capt. B. F. 
Thompson's History of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illi- 
nois, the following extract is taken, detailing the manner of 
guarding the earthworks : " Each regiment was divided into 
three reliefs, and one-third of the men kept on guard all the 
time, night and day — two hours on, and four hours off. One 
man in every four of those not on guard, kept awake and on 
the alert, to wake his three comrades in case of an attack, 
and those who slept lay with their accoutrements on and 
their guns within reach, ready to spring into action at any 
moment's notice." 

In the meantime our forage had become exhausted, and 
our own rations had dwindled down to nothing worth men- 
tioning. On our side of the river our Cavalry and Artillery 
horses, and train mules, had already stripped the trees of 
small limbs and bark, and had devoured everything of an 
eatable nature within their reach. Those in Knoxville had 
eaten up all of the plank fences to which they were hitched. 
Our men in the ditches were frequently tantalized by the 
enemy in regard to their scanty and unsavory fare, in the 
frequent colloquies which would take place when not in a 
combative humor. Their pickets would frequently shout, 
" mule meat ! " " Vicksburg ! " Our men would retort in 
equally aggravating tones, and challenge them to try the 
strength of our works. But incredible as it may seem, situ- 
ated as we were, almost surrounded by foes considerably su- 
perior in numbers, with starvation staring us in the face, we 
never became disheartened — were neither gloomy nor des- 
pondent, and never counted on being captured or defeated. 

Heavy skirmishing and Artillery firing continued all day 
of the 27th, and there was much activity with the enemy. 
On this day and the day following, Longstreet, in his report, 


acknowledged large reinforcements. Two brigades of Cav- 
alry, Giltner's and Jones's, reported to him for duty. Gen. 
Bushrod R. Johnson also came up from Chattanooga with 
Gracie's and Johnson's brigades of Infantry, nearly 4,000 
strong. From the activity and maneuvering of the enemy, 
Burnside and his principal officers anticipated an assault 
upon our works, and seemed to divine his intentions in regard 
to the probable points of attack. In the evening our troops 
had directions to be watchful, and lay on their arms during 
the night. 

Two days before this, Gen. D. Leadbetter, Chief Engineer 
of the Army of Tennessee, arrived at Gen. Longstreet's head- 
quarters. On the next day he and Longstreet made a hasty 
reconnaisance of the Union lines and works. From the 
heights on the south side, Leadbetter pronounced Fort San- 
ders assailable, but after riding around the lines he expressed 
his preference for an attack on Mabry's Hill, at the north- 
east of the position. On the 27th a more careful examina- 
tion was made of Mabry's Hill by Gens. Longstreet, Lead- 
better, Jenkins and Col. Alexander. The opinion of all on 
this day, was that the ground over which the troops would 
have to pass was too much exposed, and the distance to be 
overcome was too great. It was finally determined to assault 
Fort Sanders. 

On the 26th and 27th, Longstreet claims to have had vari- 
ous rumors that a battle had been fought at Chattanooga. 
There were so many reports leading to the same conclusion, 
that he determined he must attack, and if possible, get pos- 
session of Knoxville. He fails to tell the nature of those 

The assault was set for the 28th, but in order to get the 
Confederates as near as possible to the Federal's works, it 
was postponed until daylight of the 29th. 

The First Kentucky, under Col. Adams, went to Mary- 
ville the 28th on a scout, captured twelve prisoners and re- 
turned at 11 o'clock at night. 

To those versed in military affairs, a short description of 
Fort Sanders, destined so soon to be the scene of one ot the 
most brief but most sanguinary conflicts of the war, is here 


given from the report of Capt. Orlando M. Poe, Chief En- 
gineer of the Army of the Ohio : 

It is a bastioned earth-work, built upon an irregular 
quadrilateral, the sides of which are respectively, 125 yards 
southern front, ninety-five yards western front, 125 yards 
northern front, and eighty-five yards eastern front. The 
eastern front was entirely open, and is to be closed with 
stockade ; the southern front was about half done ; the 
western front was finished, except cutting the -embrasures, 
and the northern front was nearly finished. Each bastion 
was intended to have a pan coupe. The bastion attacked 
was the only one completely finished. * * * * The 
ditch of the fort was twelve feet in width, and in many 
places as much as eight feet in depth. Ihe irregularity of 
the site was such that the bastion angles were very heavy, 
the relief of the lightest one being twelve feet. The relief 
of the one attacked was about thirteen feet, and, together 
with the depth of the ditch, say eleven feet, made a height 
of twenty feet from the bottom of the ditch to the interior 
crest. This, owing to the dampness of the morning and the 
steepness of the slopes, made the storming of the fort a very 
serious matter. * * * 

On the night of the 28th, our men in the ditches stood 
on the alert, and were expecting something unusual to turn 
up, although not in full confidential relations with either 
Longstreet or Burnside. We subordinates at Col. Adams's 
headquarters had our rest much disturbed during the night. 
Early in the morning, before it was full daylight, a terrible 
fire opened all at once across the river at Fort Sanders. The 
noise was indescribable, and though the First Kentucky had 
been eye-witnesses of, and participants in many engagements, 
they had never heard anything like it before. It seemed to 
be one great noise with every kind of arm and missile curi- 
ously mingled together. It was reported to have lasted thirty 
minutes, but the time of its continuance appeared much 
shorter to those out of the fight. All at once it was hushed, 
and everything was as silent as death. Gen. Burnside thus 
describes the assault on Fort Sanders, aud the preliminary 
operations preceding it : 

On the 28th he [the enemy] opened a battery on the south 
side, which partly commanded College Hill and Fort San- 
ders. About 10 o'clock that night he drove in our pickets in 


the center of Gen. Ferrero's line, capturing many of them, 
and establishing his line on the crest of the ridge, about 
eighty yards in front of the fort. 

It was now supposed that the enemy intended to make an 
attack on that point. Orders were issued for the whole com- 
mand to be on the alert, and a brigade of Gen. Hascall's di- 
vision was sent during the night to reinforce Gen. Ferrero. 
I have before stated that the fort had been placed in most 
excellent condition for defense. Lieut. Benjamin, who had 
bent all his energies to this work, was on the alert during 
the night, and roused the men at an early hour. They were 
placed in position, and strict silence enforced. At about 6:30 
a. m., the enemy opened a furious fire upon the fort; our 
batteries remained silent, and the men quietly awaited the 
attack. The fort was so protected with traverses that only 
one man was injured during the heavy fire. In about twenty 
minutes the cannonading ceased, and a fire of musketry was 
opened by the enemy. At the same time a heavy column 
that had been concentrated under the ridge, near the fort, 
during the night, charged on the bastions at a run. Great 
numbers of them fell in passing over the entanglements, but 
the weight of the column was such as to force the advance 
forward, and in two or three minutes they reached the ditch 
and attempted to scale the parapet. 

Our guns opened upon the men in the ditch with triple 
rounds of canister, and our Infantry shot or knocked back 
all those whose heads appeared above the parapet. The forces 
placed on the flanks of the fort by Gen. Ferrero had a cross- 
fire on the ground over which the enemy approached. The 
first column of attack was reinforced by the second, which 
was pushed up to the fort as desperately as the first, but 
was driven back with great slaughter. Most of those who 
reached the ditch were killed or mortally wounded. Such as 
could not retreat surrendered ; in all, about 500. The ground 
between the fort and the crest was strewed with the dead and 
wounded, who were crying for help, and after the repulse was 
fully established I tendered to the enemy a flag of truce for 
the purpose of burying the dead and caring for the wounded. 
His loss was certainly over 1,000 men, while ours was but 

Longstreet, in his report, acknowledges a loss of killed, 
129; wounded, 458 ; missing, 226. Aggregate, 813. 

As the charge upon Fort Sanders was one among the 
most important in its results of any engagement during the 
war, and had due weight in giving an impetus to the down- 


fall of the already tottering Confederacy, more than usual 
space is given in this work to its details. 

The following, copied from Thompson's History of the 
One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, which was taken from a 
newspaper article at the time, gives such a correct account 
of the situation, and agrees so closely with both Federal and 
Confederate reports of the same, it will be inserted here. 

The existence of a ditch in front of the northwest angle, 
where the assault was made, was entirely unknown to the 
Confederate officers. No scaling-ladders were prepared, partly 
because it was supposed that none were needed, and partly 
because there were no tools with which to construct them. 
Longstreet says : " Something was said about fascines [small 
branches of trees in bundles], and I said they might be use- 
ful in protecting the men from bullets in their approach, but 
I did not consider them essential in crossing the ditch." 

The immediate vicinity of the fort had been zealously 
guarded from close observation, and was a terra incognita to 
citizens as well as Confederates. The deep and impassable 
ditch in front of Fort Sanders was as much a surprise to 
Longstreet's assaulting column as was the " sunken road " 
to Napoleon's Imperial Guard, as it made its last desperate 
charge at Waterloo. 

McLaws claims that the necessity for any appliance with 
which to reach the summit of the parapet was scouted by 
Col. Alexander; that he did not think of them himself, but 
as there were no tools with which to make anything, he did 
not mention them, as to do so would create hesitation, and 
detract from the dash and determined purpose so necessary 
to succeed, although he did not consider them essential. * * 

If the Confederate commander had designed to give his 
antagonist timely notice of his intended assault, he could 
not have done so more effectually than by prefacing it by the 
midnight assault upon the picket-line. Gen. Burnside at 
once sent Gen. Reily's brigade, which had been really in re- 
serve during the siege, to reinforce Gen. Ferrerro's line at 
the fort. The weather had been most unfavorable for the 
movements of troops during the week that had passed. Rain 
fell on the night of the 27th, and the mercury fell below the 
freezing point. Ice formed on the water in the ditch, and 
the almost perpendicular walls of the ditch and parapet 
were as smooth and slippery as a wall of marble. 

In advancing, the assault upon the Union pickets, Humph- 
rey's skirmish line became entangled in an abattis, which 
fact McLaws at once reported to the Commanding General, 
who replied curtly through his Adjutant-General, " that the 


feaut of an attack is not the time to make discouraging re- 
ports." * * * * * * * 
The garrison of Fort Sanders consisted of Lieut. Benja- 
min's battery E, Second United States Artillery, with four 
twenty-pounder Parrot guns, and Capt. Buckley's battery D, 
First Rhode Island Artillery, four twelve-pounder Napoleons, 
and two 3-inch steel guns, part of the Seventy-Ninth New 
York, and part of the Second Michigan Infantry, making an 
aggregate of about two hundred and twenty men, all under 
command of 1st Lieut. Samuel N. Benjamin, Second United 
States Artillery, Chief of Artillery, Ninth Army Corps. Such 
were the men who were called upon to repulse one of the 
most desperate charges recorded in history. 

The following vivid pen-picture of the assault and after- 
scenes was given by a Captain of the Fifty-First New York 
Volunteers, a Staff officer in the Ninth Army Corps, who 
was in the fort at the time. 

Across the railroad, up the gentle slope, and through the 
stumps they came, while our guns were making havoc among 
their ranks. On they came, never faltering, with that well- 
known war yell ; the stumps that the wires were attached to 
are reached, and down they fall, amid charges of grape and 
canister, while the steady fire of the Infantry from the ad- 
joining rifle-pits, although destructive, did not deter them 
from rushing forward. They filled the ditch, and every foot 
of ground showed evidence of their courage. Lighted shells 
with short fuses and hand-grenades were thrown over in the 
ditch, and in another moment, through the smoke, we dis- 
covered another brigade, closed en masse, rushing on them 
with renewed vigor. Yells mingled with groans as they fell, 
and unable to stand such a scorching fire, they broke and 
fled to the rear ; the few who returned in safety were truly 
fortunate One or two leaped the ditch, climbed the parapet, 
and planted their colors on the fort, but only for a moment, 
as they were instantly hauled in by our men. Such deeds of 
heroism are rarely recorded, and we could not help but ad- 
mire their pluck as they were marched off as prisoners of 

Before the smell of powder and smoke had passed away, 
I, with a few others, passed out of the fort over the ditch on 
a plank, and looked on that sad scene of slaughter. Such a 
spectacle I never again want to witness ! Men literally torn 
to pieces lay all around, some in the last throes of death, 
others groaning and their faces distorted under the extreme 
pains from their severe wounds. Arms and limbs torn from 


their bodies, lay scattered around, while at every footstep 
we trod in pools of blood. The ground was also strewn with 
split guns, bayonets and equipments, not to speak of hats 
and boots. Over a hundred dead bodies were taken from the 
ditch alone, while the vast number of the wounded were 
being carefully carried within our lines, to receive the best 
care in our hospitals. As they passed by us on stretchers 
their moans were pitiful to hear. Three hundred prisoners 
fell into our hands, representing eleven regiments, and it was 
evident to us that the enemy had met with a fearful loss, 
while ours was comparatively light. 

When the flag of truce previously spoken of in another 
part of this chapter was sent to the enemy's lines, offer- 
ing the opportunity for caring for their wounded and bury- 
ing their dead, Gen. Longstreet gratefully accepted the offer, 
and a cessation of hostilities till 5 p. m. was agreed upon. 
Their slightly wounded were exchanged for our slightly 
wounded which had fallen into their hands in late previous 
affairs, and theirs were sent to their lines. Among the dead 
were Col. Ruff, commanding Wofford's brigade, which led 
the assault, Col. McElroy and Lieut. Col. Thomas. 

At 5 o'clock the signal gun in Fort Sanders gave notice 
that the truce had ended, and the blue and the gray sepa- 
rated, returned to their places, and the two lines resumed 
their attitude of hostility. 

All was quiet on the 30th. Late in the day we learned 
of the glorious victory of the Union forces under Gen. U. S. 
Grant, at Missionary Ridge, or Chattanooga. At 9 a. m., 
December 1st, congratulatory orders from Gen. Burnside were 
read before our command. 

On the 29th of November, Gen. Grant, at Chattanooga, 
sent to Col. Byrd, commanding the post at Kingston, a dis- 
patch in duplicate. One copy in Gen. Grant's own hand- 
writing, and marked A, he directed to be sent by some trusty 
person, and without fail it was to be let fall into the hands 
of the enemy. The other copy, marked B, not in the Gen- 
eral's handwriting, but signed by him, was to be conveyed to 
Gen. Burnside at all hazards, and at the earliest possible 
moment. In this dispatch Grant congratulates Burnside on 
the tenacity with which he had thus far held out against 
vastly superior numbers. He urged him not to be forced to 


surrender on account of shortness of rations ; that in a few 
days he would be relieved. He also notified Burnside that 
there were three columns in motion for his relief — one from 
Chattanooga, moving up the south bank of the river, under 
Sherman ; one from Decherd, under Elliott ; and one from 
Cumberland Gap, under Foster. These three columns, Grant 
claimed, would be able to crush Longstreet's forces or drive 
them from the valley. At what time Burnside received this 
dispatch it is not positively stated, but it is intimated that 
it was on the 2d of December. 

In the meantime our situation was growing serious. Our 
rations, at best not calculated to tempt fastidious appe- 
tites, had almost played out. At first, the horses slaugh- 
tered or dying from other causes, were hauled away from 
camp and thrown into the Holston ; but now they died so 
numerously, and surviving teams became so weak, that they 
could not be removed. About a dozen or more dead horses 
lay within a few feet of brigade headquarters. In warm spells 
their stench became unbearable. If it had been in the sum- 
mer season an epidemic or plague would no doubt have re- 
sulted from their putrefaction. 

Starvation was already staring us in the face. How long 
we could hold out was not now a question of days or weeks, 
but a question of hours. The time was at hand when some- 
thing must be done. It is true we had notice of reinforce- 
ments marching to our relief, but the distance was consider- 
able, the roads bad, and unknown obstructions might be in 
the way. 

At this critical juncture of affairs, Gen. Burnside decided 
to send some capable officer through the lines, with' force 
sufficient to fight his way if necessary, and to go until he 
could hear from or meet the promised reinforcements. It 
would require a daring, discreet officer for this enterprise. 
Sanders was no longer among the living. Lieut. Col. Adams 
had, on many occasions, proven his skill in this particular 
line, whether at the head of a large or small force, and Burn- 
side had become well acquainted with his capabilities, and 
selected him for a work which might decide the fate of a 
large portion of the Ninth and Twenty-third Army Corps. 
Gen. Burnside left to Adams's discretion the size of his force, 


and offered to let him have any desired number. Adams 
chose three hundred men of his own selection. It was a force 
of sufficient strength to manage any ordinary scouting party 
of the enemy, and at the same time not too large to be cum- 

After the shades of night had clothed everything in dark- 
ness was the time selected to make the venture. When the 
time came, the selected band under their leader stole noise- 
lessly through their lines unobserved, as they supposed, but 
afterward they found out their mistake. As quietly as pos- 
sible they marched as far as Maryville, where they heard 
cannonading on the Tennessee River in direction of Loudon. 
Their mission was finished. Adams had orders not to run 
any unnecessary risks. In the same quiet manner they 
started on their return march. As the advance guard ap- 
proached within a mile or two of the fortified heights on the 
south side, it was halted and challenged. The enemy were 
waylaying for Adams. Their numbers were unknown. It 
would not have been discreet for a small force to be there. 
Adams sent a man to secretly notify the advance to with- 
draw, and turned squarely to the right through a dense 
woods, followed by his men, without even a path to guide 
them. As our men withdrew, the enemy f ed a few shots, 
but Adams ordered his men not to return Cnem. They soon 
came to the bottom land on a creek. Egyptian darkness 
surrounded them. Somewhere on this creek bottom they 
came to an humble habitation and captured a citizen. He 
was pressed as a guide with a threatened sudden stoppage of 
his life machinery, if he took them wrong. By narrow paths 
and by-ways, over rough, craggy places, and up steep acccliv- 
ities, he guided them safely across an elevation around our 
own as well as the enemy's lines, down to the Holston, which 
was reached about daylight in the morning. Adams reported 
to Gen. Burnside and received his thanks for the informa- 
tion gained and congratulations for his safe return. 

Capt. Audenried, of Gen. Sherman's Staff, reached Burn- 
side's headquarters on the night of the 3d of December, 
Longstreet, who had captured the autograph dispatch of 
Grant's, designed to fall into his hands, had become alarmed, 
and raised the siege. 


Col. Eli Long, of Sherman's relief force, who had been sent 
in advance with a command of Cavalry, reached our picket 
lines on the south side, at 2 :30 on the morning of the 4th of 
December. Longstreet withdrew his forces from the west to 
the east side of Knoxville the following night, and the siege 
had ended. 

Writers differ in regard to the exact duration of the siege. 
From the morning of the 17th of November, when our In- 
fantry went into position around Knoxville, to the morning 
of the 5th of December, when the enemy left, was eighteen 

The reported losses of the First Kentucky during the 
siege were as follows : Two enlisted men killed ; two Com- 
missioned officers and two enlisted men wounded ; died in 
hospital, three; captured, four. Total, thirteen. 

List of casualties : Killed, Thomas Wood, Company F, 
and Stephen Foster, Company I. Officers wounded, Lieut. W. 

D. Carpenter, Company G, and . Enlisted men wounded ; 

Felix G. Stailey, Company C, and . Captured, Jacob 

Humbird, Company F ; Wesley W. Mullins and James Selvy, 
Company H ; and Henry Elliott, Company L. Died in hos- 
pital ; William M. Parten and James M. West, Campany L ; 
and Gilbert B. Craft, Company J. 


Just after the attack and repulse of the enemy on the south side of the 
Holston, November 25th, a very young-looking prisoner was brought to 
Col. Wolford's headquarters. His garb was worn, coarse, and filthy. To 
use a slang expression, he was a hard-looking case. Col. Wolford and his 
Staff were sitting at their supper-table after the severe contest. The 
Colonel had only been in comand of Sanders's division for a few days, and 
his Staff were mostly stylish men from Northern regiments. Ignoring the 
frowns and sou looks of his Staff, Col. Wolford insisted on the half-starved 
youth's sitting down at the table and partaking of the meal, and he will- 
ingly consented. He devoured what was passed to him with a ravenous ap- 
petite. The Colonel then endeavored to draw him out on the strength of 
the enemy on the south side, but the youth sternly and savagely refused 
to give any information on the subject. The questions put to him did not 
lessen his appetite, for he finished his meal. This incident is only given 
to show Col. Wolford's kindness of heart, and that he did not con- 
sider himself above a fellow-being even though dressed in the humblest 
habiliments, and belonging to the ranks of the enemy. 

The following incident is related by Lieut. Thomas J. Graves, of Com- 
pany I : On the night of the attack on Fort Sanders, Company I happened 


to be on the north side of the Holston, in the suburbs of Knoxville. We 
were all tired aud hungry. We were camped not far from the fort, and in 
range of the enemy's guns. Corp. F. M. Willis and I were frying meat. 
The first shot from the Rebels knocked our lire all to pieces. I rekindled 
the lire and the same thing was done again. The third and last time I 
kindled my fire, a shot came along and demolished my frying-pan. I never 
saw it any more, and we had nothing to eat that night. 

Grant, in his memoirs, says that President Lincoln's anxiety, as man- 
ifested in his dispatches, became at last like the cry of a father for his 
son : "Hare you heard anything from Burnside ?" But Grant seemed con- 
fident all those weeks that Burnside and his boys were able to take care 
of themselves. — Eev. W. H. Hoxnell. 

The Chaplain tells the following good story of an Irishman. We had 
one Irishman in our regiment, and as usual, he was fond of whisky, apple- 
jack and other strong drinks. He always carried two or more canteens; 
was a good soldier, and was sober most of the time. While the Infantry 
kept inside of the city during the siege, our Cavalry made frequent fo- 
rays in quest of forage and rations, and so had many conflicts with the 
enemy's Cavalry. 

It was different on both sides from the common Cavalry encounters, 
as we were confronted by superior numbers, confident at all times of the 
backing of Longstreet's twenty odd thousand veterans, against our twelve 
thousand under Burnside. Many a time, when the search for fodder-stacks 
took us miles out among the little valleys, and we had our horses laden 
with corn blades, we would come face to face with a like troop of 
"Johnnies." A volley, and then a charge, pell-mell, and then the random 
pistol-shots gave an idea of the respective numbers in the affray. 

" Surrender! Surrender! " and then you would hear the sharp reply as 
sabers clashed. "Surrender? that's played out, Ave are Wheeler's men."' 
"We are Wolford's Cavalry!"' with an oath, as they clinched in vain to 
drag each other from his horse, now furious with excitement. We Avould 
eventually fall back toward Knoxville, or they in the opposite direction, 
both sides leaving their dead, and carrying oft* their wounded. 

We now come to our story : With both flasks and canteens empty, you 
can imagine the diligent search of our Irish Cavalryman, as he would try 
to find the apple-jack stills in the nooks of the precipitous hills, on the 
east side. At last his search was rewarded, and he cautiously enters the 
den, and soon fills himself and all he has with the delicious fluid, and 
gladly pays for it this time, in anticipation of other runs with increased 
forces for the future. As he is about to start, horror to tell ! two strapping 
well-armed "Johnnies,'" with pistols ready to lire in his face, confronted 
him, and yelled "Surrender, you d d Yank!" There was no alterna- 
tive but to give up his pistols, carbine, and alas! his well-tilled flasks 
and canteens of apple-jack. But our man's ready wit did not fail him. 
'•' Gintlemin," said he, as he handed over his arms, " I declare it is my turn 
to treat, sure; and here's plenty of it. paid for in me own greenbacks, the 
last I had in me pockets." 

They take his arms, his liquors, and being very dry, soon become boon 
companions, while our man tells how glad he is to meet such " gintle- 


min." He readily convinces them that he is tired of this Abolition war, 
bo different then from the time he enlisted, that he was ready to change 
sides, and was glad of the opportunity. "But," continued he, "if I had 
only known of this, I could have brought my fine horse from Wolford's 
camp, and then I could have done good service." After a while, when his 
captors had become more happy, he got their consent to ride in and leave 
his present horse and return on his fine one. Of course, as the distance 
was a number of miles, he never rode back even to capture his captors. 


Pursuit of Longstreet — Gen. Burnside relieved — Gex. 
John G. Foster takes command of the Army of the 
Ohio — Skirmishing with the enemy — Bean's Station — 
Longstreet at bay — Scouting and skirmishing — Long- 

Bean's station — Pressed back — Blain's Cross Roads — 
Shackelford on leave of absence — Reinforced — 
Sturgis in command of the Cavalry — Foster and 
Longstreet in a menacing attitude. 

When it was announced on Saturday, December 5, 1863, 
that Longstreet had withdrawn his men from around Knox- 
ville, and was retreating toward Virginia, the long cooped up 
soldiers of the Army of the Ohio felt like birds set free from 
a cage. We were ordered at once in pursuit. Our troops 
were in bad condition to chase a rapidly-fleeing enemy ; but 
fortunately or unfortunately Longstreet's gait was slower on 
a retreat than while advancing. Our Infantry were scantily 
clothed and badly shod, and their long fast had given them 
a somewhat emaciated and lank appearance ; and the coarse 
diet had severely taxed their digestive powers, so that many 
were becoming faint and sick. 

The Cavalry were in the same condition, with the further 
disadvantage that they were not trained to walking, and 
many were dismounted ; and the horses which survived were 
mostly feeble skeletons. The enemy took compassion on our 
debilitated state, and moved at their leisure. We had orders 


to pursue slowly and with great caution, and the commands 
we obeyed with cheerfulness ; for we already had sufficient 
experience with Longstreet to know that it would not do to 
intrude rudely on his privacy without good opportunities to 
get advantage of him. 

The First Division Cavalry Corps, still under command 
of Col. Wolford, was ordered in pursuit, and the Forty-Fifth 
Ohio led the advance the first day. 

In the meantime, Gen. W. T. Sherman, who after the 
battle of Missionary Ridge, by forced marches, came to the 
relief of Gen.Burnside's besieged army, halted his column at 
Maryville, and visited Gen. Burnside in person at Knoxville. 
After consultation between the two commanders, it was de- 
cided that Sherman's forces would be of more service in 
moving in another direction, and he decided to return, leav- 
ing with Gen. Burnside the Second and Third Divisions of 
the Fourth Army Corps, under command of Maj. Gen. Gor- 
don Granger. Granger, who also had been on a forced march 
to our relief, was ordered to Knoxville to hold the city while 
the troops of the Army of the Ohio hunted Longstreet. 

Wolford's division marched eight miles on the Rutledge 
road on the 5th, and camped for the night. A considerable 
number of prisoners were captured during the day. They 
belonged mostly to that class known as stragglers, and did 
not seem distressed at being taken. Dan Coy, of Company 
I, missing on the scout to Maryville on the 28th of Novem- 
ber, returned to his company that day. 

The movements of the troops on various roads were slow, 
and Wolford was directed to govern his movements accord- 
ingly. The command did not move until 10 a. m. on the 
6th, and the First Kentucky did not move far. A few pris- 
oners were taken by the men of the regiment, one of whom, 
according to Capt. Pankey's diary, who had an impediment 
in his speech, declared that he never had "dhrawed a thrig- 
ger or flirted a gun-lock back." 

On the 7th, advanced about four miles, skirmished some, 
took a few prisoners, moved forward and camped on Flat 
Creek. It was somewhere in this section, and about this 
time, that a poor woman of the neighborhood came to Col- 
onel Wolford's headquarters in great distress. She was 


mounted on a very lean horse, her dress was made out of the 
plainest brown jeans, and everything about her denoted that 
she belonged to the humblest walks of life. She related to 
the Colonel a pitiful tale : that her husband and sons were 
absent in the Union army ; that the troops of both armies 
had stripped her of all remaining provisions, and that she 
and her youngest children would be in danger of starving 
without help. Col. Wolford listened attentively to her 
tale of woe, and then looking around, espied about a half 
middling of fine bacon which some member of his Staff had 
pressed, or caused to be pressed on a foraging expedition, 
handed the entire piece to the woman, and told her when 
that was out to come back and he would give her more. It 
was the last piece of meat in his mess, and those of his Staff 
present frowned, but were afraid to say anything, for they 
could not have faced his stern rebuke. 

On the 8th, the command marched ten or fifteen miles to 
Rutledge, and encamped. On this day's march we struck a 
desert of land and disloyalty both. The land was barren 
and rough, and the people were unlettered and intensely 
Rebel. Several prisoners were captured during the day. 

The command moved forward at 7 a. m. on the 9th, press- 
ing the enemy hard, and captured a large number of pris- 
oners. We reached Bean's Station at 2 p. m. This place is 
forty-nine miles from Knoxville. Here we remained in camp, 
sending out scouts and skirmishing with the enemy until 
the 14th. 

On the 10th, Gen. Shackelford, commanding the Cavalry 
Corps, sent two brigades out to reconnoiter — Adams's brig- 
ade on the Rogers ville road, and Col. Garrard's on the Mor- 
ristown road. Adams went as far as Mooresburg, where he 
came upon the enemy in considerable force guarding a wagon 
train, and began a skirmish with them. The enemy dis- 
mounted and took a position in a gorge. Adams, finding the 
enemy too numerous, and their position unassailable, with- 
drew his brigade, and as he retired, the enemy came forward 
and occupied the ground that he had left. 

On the 10th of September, after getting full possession 
of East Tennessee, Gen. Burnside applied to the War De- 
partment to be relieved from the command of the Army of 


the Ohio, but was refused at the time. Again, in October, 
when quite ill, he sent a dispatch to President Lincoln stat- 
ing that he might be forced to ask to be relieved from the 
command of the department. Gen. Burn side had now ac- 
complished his task, and his request was no longer refused. 
Maj. Gen. John G. Foster was selected to fill his place, and 
arrived at Cumberland Gap some days before the siege was 
raised, and had directed operations in that section. He 
arrived at Knoxville on the 10th of December, and on the 
11th, assumed command of the Army of the Ohio. 

Gen. Burnside, while in command, had endeared himself 
to both citizens and soldiers. Loose foraging and wanton 
depradations on citizens' property were not allowed under 
his command. Parson Brownlow defined him as both a 
moral and military hero. The loyal people of East Ten- 
nessee, and the soldiers of the Army of the Ohio, will long 
remember him for his kindness and humanity. 

" A meeting of all the officers of the Cavalry Corps was 
held at Gen. Shackelford's headquarters on the evening of 
the 10th, and resolutions of confidence and respect were 
unanimously adopted, and several speeches made, highly 
eulogistic of Gen. Burnside, which were heartily indorsed by 
all present." 

In General Field Orders, No. 38, dated Knoxville, Tenn., 
December 11, 1863, Gen. Burnside took an affectionate and 
pathetic leave of the officers and soldiers of the Army of the 
Ohio and the loyal soldiers and citizens of East Tennessee, 
and regretted that he had not the opportunity of bidding 
them all a personal farewell. On the same day, Maj. Gen. 
John G. Foster assumed command of the troops. Gen. Burn- 
side started for Cincinnati on the 12th of December. 

On the 11th and 12th, there are no records of the First 
Kentucky doing any particular service. Lieut. Col. Bond, of 
the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, with his brigade, re- 
connoitered on the Rogersville road, meit the enemy, drove in 
his pickets, examined his strength, and returned to camp. 

Two hundred men of the First Kentucky Cavalry were 
ordered on a reconnaissance on the Rogersville road on the 
13th. This force was attacked and driven in by a force of 
the enemy, 600 strong, and several of Wolford's forage wag- 



ons were captured. Shackelford's whole command turned 
out in double-quick, met the pursuing Rebels at the picket- 
post, and drove them back five miles, returning to camp at 
dark. From all sources of information, Gen. Shackelford 
was convinced that the enemy was making preperations to 
make a bold attack on our advance at Bean's Station. 

Morning dawned on the 14th with nothing to excite ap- 
prehensions in the camps of the Union forces. Scouts were 
sent out early, and reported no enemy to be seen. All the 
command, except the necessary scouts and pickets, were en- 
joying themselves as much as possible in their badly-clad 
and still scantily-fed condition. But the quietness of all 
surroundings presaged what was to follow. A dead calm de- 
notes the gathering of a storm. 

December 12th, Longstreet received what he deemed re- 
liable information that part of our reinforcements from 
Chattanooga had returned to that place ; and that our ad- 
vance forces at Bean's Station consisted of only three brig- 
ades of Cavalry and one of Infantry, with our main force 
between Rutledge and Blain's Cross Roads. He was also 
aware of our enfeebled condition. At this time, Foster's re- 
ports showed only 10,000 Infantry and 4,000 Cavalry of the 
once buoyant Army of the Ohio in tolerable plight for ser- 
vice. They never had recovered from their long fast at Knox- 
ville. Our subsistence lines had not been reestablished ; and 
being compelled to subsist on a country already well stripped 
by the enemy, the quantity was not sufficient, and the qual- 
ity not the best. Many of the Cavalry were dismounted. 
Our horses were fagged, weak and lank. Such an adroit 
leader as Longstreet would not be slow to take advantage of 
all opportunities to injure an enemy. He therefore deter- 
mined to move suddenly upon Shackleford and make such 
disposition of his whole available force as to capture the 
Union advance by surprise. 

Orders were issued for his troops to be ready to march on 
the 14th. His main force was to move directly down the 
road from Rogersville to Bean's Station. Gen. Martin, with 
four brigades of Cavalry, was to move down on the south 
side and cross the Holston opposite Bean's Station, or below , 



Gen. W. E. Jones, with two brigades of Cavalry, was to pass 
down on the north side of Clinch Mountain, and prevent the 
Union force from escaping by way of Bean's Station Gap. 

The 14th came. Lieut. James E. Chilton in command of 
his company [C], was on picket in front of the First Brig- 
ade, commanded by Lieut. Col. Adams, and Capt. Colcord, 
of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, commanded the 
picket in front of the Second Brigade of "Wolford's division. 
The First Kentucky pickets had a commanding position 
from whence they could view the approach of the enemy for 
some distance. 

It was 2 p. m. before the enemy came in sight and com- 
menced the attack. Chilton was soon flanked, and fell back to 
a heavy detachment of the regiment under Capt. A. T. Keen, 
who managed his men with the coolest bravery. Keen had 
been sent at the first alarm to the support of Chilton. In 
the meantime other regiments of the command took position 
promptly, and soon there was a general engagement all along 
the line. As the Union Cavalry forces were slowly driven 
back by McLaws' and Bushrod Johnson's divisions of In- 
fantry, and as the enemy ascended the hill east of the Bean 
Station Hotel, the Union Artillery from three points opened 
a rapid and destructive fire from elevations on the west side 
of the hotel. So withering was the fire that the enemy were 
ordered to lie flat on the ground until Longstreet's Artillery 
could be brought into position. The engagement now became 
fierce and appalling. Brigade after brigade opened their 
volleys, and battery after battery poured shot and shell into 
our unflinching lines. A number of our men had taken posi- 
tion in the fine hotel building, and from the second and third 
stories, delivered deadly leaden pellets into the ranks of the 
6nemy. Here they were the terror of Longstreet's men until 
two batteries of Artillery were ordered to fire solid shot 
through the walls. This raised so much brick-dust that our 
marksmen's vision was obstructed, and they abandoned the 
building. Two of the enemy's shots were fired into a stable, 
but instead of the Union forces occupying the stables, they 
found to their dismay that it was their own men — the Six- 
teenth Alabama — and two of them were killed and three 


Our men, at the last stand they made on the elevation 
immediately west of the hotel, boldly held their position 
amid the showers of deathly missiles until night closed on 
the fearful scene. They then withdrew to a strong position 
three or four miles to the rear, and camped in line of battle 
until morning. 

Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson, who was one of Longstreet's 
favorite commanders, and whose division was in the heat of 
the contest in our front, gives our troops in his report the 
credit of resisting his attack " persistently and gallantly." 

Gen. Longstreet gives the following reasons for not fol- 
lowing up his advantage gained and completely annihilating 
the Union forces : 

" A little after night the enemy retreated, and our troopa 
occupied their defenses. The pursuit was ordered by day- 
light by Hood's division of Infantry and Martin's Cavalry. 
As I rode to the front, Gen. Law preferred a complaint of 
hardships, etc. Gen. McLaws was not yet fed, and there 
seemed so strong a desire for rest rather than destroy the 
enemy, that I was obliged to abandon the pursuit, although 
the enemy were greatly demoralized, and in some confusion. 
This was the second time during the campaign when the 
enemy was completely in our power, and we allowed him to 
escape us. Gen Martin was ordered to pursue with his 

The next morning after the Bean's Station fight, Wol- 
ford's division took position early. The enemy appeared 
about 8 a. m., and the Cavalry held them in check until the 
Infantry took their places, when the Cavalry retired. At 7 
p. m., the whole command fell back to Rutledge, arriving at 
1 a. m. on the 16th. At 7 a. m. the Union forces continued 
their retreat, the enemy pressing their rear all day, and our 
mounted forces skirmishing briskly with them, until reach- 
ing Blain's Cross Roads, where the whole command went 
into camp. 

This place being a strong position, and not easily flanked, 
Gen. Foster determined to make a stand and offor the com- 
bative Confederate General battle ; but Longstreet had been 
too easily induced to follow our retreating columns not long 
before, meeting with serious disaster, besides being cut off 


from Bragg's command at Chattanooga, and he was now 
more wary. 

Gen. Gordon Granger, with his command of the Fourth 
Army Corps, was ordered up from Knoxville. Gen. Elliott, 
Chief of Cavalry, Army of the Cumberland, also joined our 
forces on the 16th, with 2,500 Cavalry. 

About this time, Brig. Gen. James M. Shackelford, com- 
manding Cavalry Corps, obtained leave of absence, and de- 
parted for Kentucky. Brig. Gen. S. D. Sturgis was now put 
in command of all the Cavalry belonging to the Army of the 

The strength of the Union and Confederate forces now 
confronting each other was equal — 26,000 effective men each. 
If the prowess of the slender-shank, wire-grass soldier of the 
South had been what the leaders of the conspiracy boasted 
at the beginning of the war — that is one Southern equal to 
five Yankees — Longstreet need not have hesitated a moment 
in demolishing our half-starved, barefooted soldier boys, but 
he did. While Foster was anxious to cross blades with Long- 
street if battle was offered to him, yet owing to scarcity of 
ammunition, and the condition of his men, he thought it 
imprudent to make an attack ; so the two men stood making 
grimaces at each other. 

The First Kentucky moved on the 17th in direction of 
Strawberry Plains, with the intention of crossing the Hol- 
eton, but the river being too high, it was deferred. Moving 
toward McKinney's Ford on the 18th, we returned to our 
camp on the 19th, where we remained until the 23d. While 
encamped here our regiment was paid off, and the men were 
enabled to better their condition. 

In the campaign in pursuit of Longstreet, there is an ac- 
count of the following casualties of the First Kentucky Cav- 
alry in the State Adjutant General's Report : 

Killed — James M. Wagoner, Company J, December 13, 
1863; wounded at Bean's Station, December 14, Wm. J. 
Armstrong, Company G; Andrew J. Catron and James F. 
Humphries, Company L. Captured — Thomas Thompson, 
Company F, at Rutledge, December 16th. 



Across the Holston — New Market — Flat Gap — Wolford 
moves to dandridge to try to trap the enemy — the 
enemy mass on our left — hard fighting, and the 
enemy repulsed — wolford returns to mossy creek 

TAIN again — Move in force to Dandridge — Two noble 
Confederate ladies — Longstreet moves on Parke — 
Heavy skirmishing and fighting — Falls back to 
Strawberry Plains — Disagreeable night — March to 
Knoxville — Incident in Kansas. 

Longstreet, in his report, claims that after the Union 
forces retreated to Blain's Cross Roads, that a successful 
stand was made against the Cavalry. After exhausting the 
supply of forage between Rogersville and Blain's Cross Roads, 
the Confederate forces moved to the southeast side of the 
Holston, and took up winter quarters at Russellville and 
Morristown, and made shelters to protect them from the cold 
wintry blasts. Our own troops were still suffering for want 
of clothing, food and medicines. The issues of bread or 
meat rarely came up to one quarter of the ration, while the 
continued feeding on fresh meat caused sickness among the 
soldiers, which there were no remedies to check. This state 
of affairs arose from the impossibility of getting supplies 
over the impassable roads from Kentucky, and the necessity 
of living off the country. Our forage now had to be sought 
at distances varying from ten to forty miles. The stock of 
ammunition was also still limited. 

After the enemy crossed the Holston, there were several 
good reasons for the Union forces to make a corresponding 
movement. It was necessary to check the enemy and guard 
against a flank movement, or a movement on our rear. It 
was also desirable to occupy as much territory as possible of 
the rich valleys between Holston and French Broad, so as to 
obtain as much as possible of the supplies not already ex- 
hausted, to prevent their falling into the hands of the en- 


emy. It was our best policy to starve the enemy as much 
as possible, and to build up with food our own emaciated 
frames and those of our horses. Gen. Foster was also anx- 
ious to bring on a decisive engagement with the enemy as 
eoon as possible, therefore the Cavalry was hurried across 
the Holston as soon as it could be forded. 

On the 18th, one brigade of Gen. Elliott's Cavalry com- 
mand of the Army of the Cumberland crossed over, and be- 
fore day the next morning, the river had risen three or four 
feet, and was consequently unfordable. 

December 23d, Col. Adams's and Bond's brigades of Wol- 
ford's division, and Garrard's brigade of Col. John W. Fos- 
ter's division, crossed at McKinney's Ford. The river was 
still high and dangerous. The ford was very wide, and the 
water muddy. It could not be forded in a direct line across. 
There was a citizen guide on the bank to direct our course. 
On entering the river it was necessary to take a right oblique 
direction to the middle, and down stream, and then change 
to a left oblique up stream to the opposite bank. The First 
Kentucky took the advance in the First Brigade in crossing, 
and got over without any accident, but the Twelfth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, which was in the rear, by some means got too 
low down, became confused, and a number of its men were 

After crossing, our Cavalry force moved on to New Mar- 
ket on the railroad, and went into camp. On the next morn- 
ing Col. Campbell's brigade of the Army of the Cumberland, 
and Garrard's brigade of Foster s Division, Army of the 
Ohio, scouted in direction of Dandridge. Both brigades met 
the enemy and engaged him ; Campbell had a severe fight. 
Wolford's division was moved out on the Dandridge road, one 
mile from town, remaining in line of battle all day, and then 

Our command was now in a good and fertile section ; the 
citizens were loyal and intelligent, and our soldiers meeting 
with a hospitable reception in most of the family circles, 
our hardships were considerably ameliorated. 

The First Kentucky remained in camp until the 27th, 
when the regiment was ordered to Flat Gap to guard and 
picket the roads in direction of Dandridge. A Rebel force 


was at Dandridge, and their pickets were very close to our 

On the 26th, Gen. Elliott felt the enemy's Cavalry, caus- 
ing him to display his superior force, but was prevented by 
heavy rains from further operations. Gen. Elliott again ad- 
vanced on the 27th, driving the enemy from every position, 
to Talbott's Station, some three or four miles. 

About this time, Gen. Sturgis reported the Cavalry be- 
longing to the Army of the Ohio in a very weak state ; only 
about 800 or 900 effective men and horses reported for duty 
in Wolford's two brigades south of the Holston. The dis- 
mounted were reported at 1,200, and were ordered to Straw- 
berry Plains to guard that place. 

Gen. Sturgis, on the night of the 28th, received informa- 
tion that a brigade of the enemy's Cavalry had moved to 
Dandridge in the afternoon of that day, and had gone into 
camp. He concluded to take advantage of this division of 
the enemy's forces, and endeavor to surprise and destroy the 
brigade. He therefore ordered Col. Foster's division and 
four regiments of Wolford's division, with four mountain 
howitzers, to move on Dandridge by the Mossy Creek road, 
and Col. Adams's brigade of Wolford's division (picketing 
the gaps in Bay's Mountain) to move toward Dandridge by 
the New Market route, so as to reach there at daylight on the 
29th. Col. La Grange's brigade, of Elliott's command, and 
two 3-inch rifled guns, moved at dawn of day to the point 
where the Mossy Creek road to Dandridge crosses Bay's 
Mountain, for the purpose of watching the roads in Dump- 
ling Valley, and to be in easy supporting distance of the re- 
maining forces at Mossy Creek, or to go toward Dandridge 
should the enemy have massed his cavalry at either place 
during the night. 

But the enemy had withdrawn from Dandridge and 
massed his Cavalry against the remaining Union forces left 
at Mossy Creek. After a hard day's fight the Rebels were 
repulsed, and each side held its former position. Both sides 
lost heavily. The Union loss was seventeen enlisted men 
killed, nine officers and seventy-eight men wounded, and five 
men missing. Total, 109. The Confederate loss was much 
heavier, as they were the attacking party, and more exposed. 


Although their loss was estimated as high as 400, the best 
authority gives it from 250 to 300. 

Wolford's command, at Dandridge, started to return, but 
was cut off, and was under the necessity of going around by 
way of Bay Mountain, and after a hard march of twenty- 
four miles in a heavy rain storm, arrived at Mossy Creek at 
8 o'clock in the evening. The next day, Adams's brigade re- 
turned to its post at Flat Gap. The morning of the 30th 
was clear and cold, but at dark it commenced raining, and 
continued to rain constantly until the morning of the 1st of 
January, 1864, when the wind suddenly changed, and the 
temperature fell to 29 degrees below zero. The north wind 
was piercing, and our ill-clad Cavalry could do nothing but 
build great log fires and try to keep warm. Lieut. Chilton, 
of Company C, gives the following notes of this time. " * 

* * * About the first day of January one of the coldest 
nights came, and Company C had the outpost on Bay's 
Mountain, the videttes were relieved every hour, yet near- 
ly froze, and only by continued effort could keep from 

The Rev. W. H. Honnell, in his war recollections, writes 
of this time as follows : " I am ready to believe the story 
then accepted as true, that a picket-post of six men were all 
frozen to death, and were found next morning, four lying on 
their sides at the relief post, and two dead and stark, with 
their loaded muskets standing at their sides, and with sight- 
less eyes, as if looking toward the enemy's encampments. * 

* * * At Pompeii's ruin, the lava has leftmost touching 
memorials, which are dug out by the antiquarians. Among 
them all is hardly one more pathetic than that of the old 
soldier on duty, when the night of molten death swept its 
waves over the doomed city. He is now found, after two 
thousand years, with his arms, ready to challenge his foes, or 
salute his Generals, as they might come in the distance. So 
the grand remnant of the old armies of Grant and Sherman 
stand to-day, ready to obey their orders, whether they come 
from living lips or from the tongues palsied to silence, more 
profound even, than when he bore silently the reproaches of 
his enemy while living." 

The First Kentucky remained on picket duty at Flat Gap 


until January 14th. Thompson, in his history of the One 
Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, writes of this time as follows : 
" The weather was too cold for military movements, and by 
common consent, Union and Rebel pickets frequently stack- 
ed their arms and built fires on the posts, and stood around 
them in vain attempts to keep warm, until one side would 
warn the other to ' look out. ' " 

By January 13th, the Cavalry around Mossy Creek and 
New Market, having exhausted supplies in that section, were 
forced to move to Dandridge where some little forage was yet 
to be found. The draught animals of the Infantry and Ar- 
tillery, by this time being almost entirely without feed of 
any kind, were dying by hundreds daily. It became a mat- 
ter of first importance to move to a section where forage, if 
not corn for the men, could be obtained at once. Wolford's 
division received marching orders that day, and on the 14th, 
moved to Dandridge. The enemy occupying the town at the 
time, it was necessary to move them out, for the two forces, 
holding such opposite views about matters, could not associ- 
ate together in harmony. The One Hundred and Twelfth Illi- 
nois being in advance, drove them out and three miles beyond, 
and then returned and went into camp. On the same day, 
Col. Thomas J. Henderson, of that regiment, having been on 
leave of absence for several months, joined his command, 
and resumed command of the Second Brigade of Wolford's 

While the Cavalry were making these movements, the 
Fourth and Twenty-Third Corps were ordered to move across 
the Strawberry Plains Bridge (which was now passable) on the 
15th of January, to inarch to Dandridge, to cross the French 
Broad River near that place on a bridge hastily made with 
the best material at hand, and then to occupy the country 
as far up toward the Nola Chucky as possible. The object 
of this move was not only to procure forage for the horses 
and supplies for the men, but also to disturb Longstreet's left 
flank and communications in his rear, especially toward North 
Carolina. The Ninth Corps was to hold Strawberry Plains, 
and to be ready to support the movement while in progress, 
and afterward cover Knoxville. The troops were temporarily 
under command of Gen. Phil Sheridan, Gen. Gordon 


Granger then being at Knoxville consulting with Gen. Foster. 

All was quiet on the 15th. The Rebels attacked our pick- 
ets at night, but were driven off without loss. While at 
Dandridge, Col. Wolford held his headquarters at Mrs. Brad- 
ford's, whose husband was a Colonel in the Rebel army. 
Mrs. Bradford and her beautiful and accomplished young 
daughter, were perfect models of genuine ladies in every 
respect. The elder lady plainly told us that she would much 
prefer her own men present than ours, but that it was her 
habit to treat everybody with respect, whether they belonged 
to the ranks of friends or foes. All of our m«n, from the 
highest officer to the humblest private, were treated with the 
greatest courtesy. Not a word escaped to touch our feelings. 
She and her lovely daughter exerted and fatigued themselves 
in cooking and preparing the best they had for our half fam- 
ished officers and men. Her noble conduct was not caused 
by policy or fear, for there were several loyal East Tennessee 
soldiers present, neighbors of hers, who related to us how 
she had successfully exerted herself to save the lives of some 
of their comrades condemned to be executed before the occu- 
pation of East Tennessee by the Union troops. To the honor 
of the Union soldier, if any of their number even among the 
roughest, committed an) T depredation upon her property, it 
was never known. There was scarcely a man in Wolford's 
division, acquainted with her noble qualities, who would not 
have shed his blood for her protection. If these two had 
been fair samples of all the females of the so-called South- 
ern Confederacy, what a cruel war it would have been ! 

Mrs. Bradford and her lovely daughter may have long 
ago crossed the dark valley ; but whether they have or not, 
golden crowns, with starry gems, are due them " beyond the 

Gen. Foster had been disabled for active duty in the field 
for some time, and Gen. Parke came on and took command 
of troops at Dandridge. The Cavalry command moved out 
early on the 16th with Col. Adams's brigade in advance, on 
the Morristown road. About two mile6 out, Col. Adams met 
the enemy and engaged him. It proved to be Longstreet's 
Cavalry reconnoitering in force. The brigade fought and 
skirmished with the enemy all day. In the evening our force 


fell back to the Infantry lines, closely followed. Gen. Sheri- 
den then advanced and drove the enemy back, when the 
Union Cavalry retired, and went into camp. 

On Sunday the 17th, the enemy advanced again and at- 
tacked the Union skirmish line, which continued until the 
afternoon, when Longstreet advanced with four brigades of 
Infantry, with his whole available force in supporting distance, 
and Sturgis's Cavalry and mounted Infantry were heavily en- 
gaged until dark. The Infantry were now put in position 
for a general attack the next day. 

About this time Gen. Parke received reliable information 
that Longstreet had been reinforced by a division of Ewell's 
corps from Virginia, and the advance of the combined forces 
to Knoxville. Gen. Parke decided to fall back at once to 
Strawberry Plains, which he did without loss. 

At 9 o'clock in the evening, the whole command was or- 
dered to be ready to move at 11. Three companies of the 
One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, under command respec- 
tively of Capt. Otman and Lieuts. Milchrist and Thompson 
were ordered in an advance position in direction of the 
enemy, and to hold it until 3 o'clock the next morning, and 
then withdraw, following our marching columns slowly, 
checking the Rebel Cavalry until the army teams had crossed 
the Holston near New Market. 

The First Kentucky moved at 11:30 and marched all 
night through a dreary, drizzling rain, and also on the 18th, 
crossing the Holston late in the afternoon, and camped two 
miles below Strawberry Plains. 

Capt. Otman, who had command of the rear guard, was 
followed and attacked by the enemy early in the morning. 
Being overpowered, he was pressed back from one position to 
another during the whole day. Near night he was so hard 
pressed that Gen. Willich, in charge of the supply and am- 
munition trains, sent the Tenth Indiana to his support. 

During the night of the 17th, and until late in the even- 
ing of the 18th, the weather was pleasant, and the rain not 
eo disagreeable. About night the wind shifted to the north, 
enow commenced falling, and the ground was soon covered. 

Fatigued and hungry, after eighteen hours in the saddle, 
we bivouacked in our wet clothes and blankets, and soon 


were covered with snow. The keen wind was cut off, but not 
having a dry thread upon us, we soon became very much 
chilled. Fortunately, when the weather changed, a number 
of log heaps had been set on fire, and the only prevention 
against severe suffering was to spread an overcoat or blanket 
before the fire, lie down, and while scorching on one side and 
freezing on the other, keep constantly turning from side to 

The following day the command marched to Knoxville. 

From the Rev. W. H. Honnell. — When a Tennessee lady in Kansas waa 
dilating on the exalted character of the Rebel membership of the Mossy 
Creek Church, and its fine house of worship, as compared with her sur- 
roundings in Kansas: "Yes," I replied, ''I know that church building 
well ; I have slept on its front pew, when it resounded to the groans of 
dying heroes. For the ever-memorable cold new year of 1864 found us 
repelling an attempt to surprise the Yankee lines. My men froze to the 
ground in their blood ere I could reach them from the farther end of the 
line ; and after we had driven the enemy back in defeat, the dead of both 
sides were gathered for burial, and they were as stiff as blocks of ice." 
"Why were you there?" she excitedly exclaimed. "Simply because 
your good members, and others like them, were trying to pull down the 
house of our Union and freedom over our heads. We had no personal in- 
terest to hurt a hair of their heads, except to save our great nationality 
from destruction." 



Over the Holston and up the south side of the French 
Broad — Sevierville — Flat Creek — Fair Garden — 
Kelley's Ford — Cut off by the enemy — Around to 
Maryville — The situation in East Tennessee — Both 
armies worn out and unserviceable the flkst ken- 
tucky ordered back to kentucky to recruit rob- 

bers and guerrillas on the route the author's ex- 

Gen. Surgis's Cavalry corps, together with Gen. Elliott's 
command, was now ordered to cross the Holston at Knox- 
ville, and ascend the south side of the French Broad River 
in order to occupy the foraging grounds they failed to reach 
by way of Dandridge. 

Wolford's division crossed on the morning of January 
20th, marched twelve miles toward Sevierville, and en- 
camped. When we went through Knoxville, most of our 
horses had not been fed for forty-eight hours. We bivouacked 
at night where plenty of forage was obtained, and our horses 
were overjoyed ; using one of Gen. Sherman's slang expres- 
sions, they laughed heartily. Remained in camp till the 
afternoon of the 21st, when the men were supplied with 100 
rounds of ammunition each, the march was resumed on 
through Sevierville, and two miles beyond, when we went 
into camp, having traveled sixteen miles on that day. Pigeon 
Valley, which was passed through, was a beautiful and fer- 
tile region. On the 22d, the command moved eight miles 
to Fair Garden. On that day our advance captured five 
Rebel wagons and a guard of twenty men; on the 23d a 
train of eleven wagons and seventy prisoners. On the 24th, 
moved back about three miles on the Sevierville road ; and 
on the 25th, retired to within three miles of Sevierville. 

On the morning of the 26th of January, Wolford's com- 
mand moved out from Dr. Hodgeden's, where we were en- 
camped, to Fowler's, on the road from Sevierville to Fair 
Garden. Adams's brigade was in advance, followed by Col. 


Henderson's. The command arrived at 12 m., and halted. 
An hour or two later, our pickets were attacked by the enemy 
approaching from the direction of Fair Garden. Adams's 
brigade immediately formed into line, with the One Hundred 
and Twelfth Illinois, of Henderson's brigade to its right, 
with the Eighth Michigan Cavalry, of the same brigade, in 
reserve. Our pickets and skirmishers were driven in rapidly, 
and soon the firing was general all along the line. At this 
time, fearing the left of our line was exposed, Col. Wolford 
ordered a part of the Eighth Michigan Cavalry to picket the 
Dandridge road in our rear, and the rest to cover the left of 
our line, and guard against any movement of the enemy 
from that direction ; but before Major Edgerly, of the 
Eighth Michigan, got into position, the enemy succeeded in 
flanking us on the left. 

Capt. F. M. Wolford, on the extreme left of the First 
Brigade, now informed Col. Adams that the enemy were 
flanking him, when the Col. ordered the left to fall back to 
their horses and mount, after which this portion of the line 
swung back to the creek. The enemy appearing in an old 
field, the left of the line drove them back into the woods. 
The One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois and the Eleventh 
Kentucky Cavalry maintained their positions until order- 
ed by Col. Wolford to fall back and mount, which was 
done in good order ; and then by orders of Col. Wolford, 
eight companies of the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois 
moved back across Flat Creek, were dismounted, and formed 
in line on the hill to hold the enemy in check and cover the 
retreat of our forces, which they did in a gallant manner, 
until all had passed through the gap. The First Kentucky 
were in good spirits when they saw the One Hundred and 
Twelfth dismounted to protect the rear, as the enemy was 
peppering that portion of the column severely. 

The enemy did not pursue any further, and the command 
then fell back on the Sevierville road and went into camp 
two or three miles from town. The casualties of the First 
Kentucky this day were four men wounded. 

Back in the rear of the hot contestants, this day was per- 
formed one of the most gallant military exploits which hap- 
pened during the war. Chaplain W. H. Honnell, though hia 


position made him a non-combatant, was generally in front 
attending to the wounded and seeing the fighting well done, 
but on that day, from some cause now unknown to the Au- 
thor, happened to be left in camp with the wagon-train, 
when a large force of the enemy were found to be approach- 
ing. The Author well remembers the occasion, applied to the 
Chaplain for particulars, which are given in his own style : 

Col. Wolford had left his encampment and wagons in a 
deep ravine, and the smoke of the morning fires had covered 
the hills. He had been summoned by scouts to a pass six 
miles to the north, and in the evening the enemy pressed him 
back with superior numbers. The firing was so continuous 
that the eighty-five men left to guard the camp were mount- 
ed and under arms, when a long Cavalry line was seen ad- 
vancing in the distance to destroy the train and supplies, 
and strike Wolford's right and rear. The Lieutenant in com- 
mand faltered, and pleaded that the Chaplain was the rank- 
ing officer, and begged me to take command, not only of the 
sick and wounded, but of all, as I had more experience, and 
had always borne the title of Captain in that regiment. 

On taking the responsibility, nearly every man was placed 
on a long skirmish line, on a plain at the foot of the hills, 
which hid the train and smoldering camp-fires. Just then, 
seven scouts rode up from Col. Vance's Union regiment of 
North Carolina, and asked permission to strike the enemy's 
advance squad, now half a mile ahead of their column. 

It was like an arrow from a cross-bow, the swift dash of 
these seven brave men, with pistols in hand and carbines 
across their shoulders. They struck the front, and it was 
forced back by the blow, and emptying their pistols, they 
grabbed the reins of a wounded horse, and brought the rider 
in a prisoner. It was a most gallant and fortunate stroke, 
as the prisoner told, without hesitation, that seven hundred 
men and two pieces of Artillery confronted our single line 
of skirmishers. 

Men were sent on the swiftest horses with dispatches to 
Wolford and Sturgis both, making known our situation, and 
that we would hold the line till reinforced. Gen. Sturgis has 
been accused of tardy movements, and it seemed to us that 
he came slowly to our relief, but not a man faltered in 
plain view of the forming battle-line, a mile distant. If 
Sturgis was slow, they were slower ; and just as the Artillery 
opened upon the line, Sturgis's column formed in our rear, 
and our wagon train was saved, and also many lives. 

The roar of battle soon hushed on our distant left, where 
Wolford had been assailed for two hours, and the two col- 


umns of both armies concentrated and encamped on oppo- 
site hills two miles apart ; and a longer, thicker skirmish 
line occupied nearly the same front as at 1 o'clock, when 
the first and last skirmish line began, ever commanded by 
Wolford's Chaplain. From that vantage position, McCook's 
division of the Army of the Cumberland, assisted by Wol- 
ford, made a vigorous attack the next morning, and in the 
first charge, captured two pieces of their Artillery. The 
enemy's force was driven back all day, although we lost 
many brave men, and among the number was Lieut. Col. 
Leslie of the Fourth Indiana Cavalry. 

Wolford's two brigades moved back to Flat Creek Gap on 
the morning of the 27th — Col. Henderson's in advance — but 
found no enemy. After remaining in position about two 
hours, Col. Adams, with his brigade, was ordered to move to 
Dickey's, some three miles from Sevierville, followed by Col. 
Henderson. Near this place Col. McCook's division had en- 
gaged the enemy, and, when Wolford's command arrived, 
was driving him handsomely, and continued to do so during 
the day. Adams's brigade was put in position to guard the 
left flank of McCook's line, and the One Hundred and 
Twelfth Illinois, of Henderson's brigade, was dismounted 
and moved up in the center to fill an opening between the 
right and left of McCook's line, and guard against any re- 
verse that night befall Col. LaGrange on the left; but the 
gallantry of McCook's command left Wolford's men no op- 
portunity to display their own fighting qualities on that day. 
Our men, however, occupied during the night the last posi- 
tion from which the enemy had been driven, where a battle- 
flag, two pieces of Artillery and a number of prisoners had 
been captured, and where the lamented Col. Leslie, of the 
Fourth Indiana Cavalry, had fallen while leading a gallant 
and successful sabre charge on the enemy. 

On the 28th of January, the command moved early in 
the morning to Fair Garden, and on the road to Dandridge 
to a point near Kelley's Ford, where the enemy was found in 
strong position, and fortified. Here, under orders from Col. 
Wolford, the command was dismounted and formed into 
line, with Henderson's brigade on the right, and Adams's on 
the left. The line was then ordered to advance, charge the 
enemy, and drive him from the hill. The men advanced 


gallantly to within thirty or forty yards of the enemy, who 
lay on the crest of a hill extending around our entire front 
in crescent form, and behind temporary breast-works, when 
the enemy poured a terrible fire into the ranks of our men, 
and checked their advance ; in fact the line for a moment 
fell back a little, but the men soon rallied and held their 
position for more than two hours, and until ordered to fall 
back. In the fight the men were much exposed. As before 
stated, the hill occupied by the enemy was in the form of a 
crescent, and as our men advanced within the circle of it, 
our front not being sufficient to cover that part of the enemy, 
the men were much exposed to an enfilading fire on both 
flanks, as well as a heavy fire in front ; yet both officers and 
men behaved well, and fought bravely, until ordered to fall 

Among the casualties reported in the First Kentucky 
Cavalry on this day, were Lieut. Daniel Murphy, Company 
G ; Commissary Sergeant, Abraham F. Debaun, Company I, 
and Richard D. Hopkins, Company J, wounded, and George 
Hurst, Company E, missing. Wm. Prewitt, Company F, 
was reported missing at Dandridge on the 20th. It is diffi- 
cult to ascertain all the losses of the regiment owing to the 
meagerness of official reports. Lieut. Daniel Murphy, wound- 
ed in the fight, was afterward wounded in Georgia, and made 
a cripple for life. Serg. Debaun was shot in the forehead 
above the eye, the ball remaining in his skull several years, 
pressing upon his brain, and was then extracted. 

The gallant Maj. Milton Graham, commanding the 
Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry, was badly wounded in this ac- 

After the engagement on the 28th, our Cavalry fell back, 
and camped at Dr. Hodgeden's place on Pigeon Creek. But 
while our force had been fighting the Rebel Cavalry, a heavy 
Infantry force of the enemy had gained a position in our 
rear, and was between our command and Knoxville. Being 
cut off from the main body of the Army of the Ohio, our 
command was ordered to move a circuitous route to Mary- 
ville, the county seat of Blount county, fifteen miles south- 
east of Knoxville. 



The command moved at sunrise on the 29th ; marched 
about sixteen miles over miserable roads, passing through 
" Devil's Gap " into " Weir's Cove," and there camped for the 
night. Moved on the 30th, and camped in " Tuckaleeche 
Cove." Moved on the 31st down Little River, crossing it a 
number of times, and at sunset arrived at Maryville. 

These " coves " were small valleys surrounded by moun- 
tains, the inlets and outlets being narrow gaps at each end. 
They were inhabited by people who all their lives were 
secluded from the great busy outside world. They cared but 
little how the world was jogging along around them. In re- 
gard to their fashions they were primitive in the extreme. 
Many of them had been born, and lived and died in their 
little basins, without even having been outside. In regard 
to the progressive world, and march of arts and sciences, 
they were true Rip Van Winkles. 

The regiment remained at Maryville until February 4th. 
The principal occupation of our Cavalrymen was rest and 
recuperation after their hard winter's service. 

There was considerable anxiety at this time about Long- 
street's movements in East Tennessee. Fears were enter- 
tained that he would again besiege our forces at Knoxville, 
or interrupt our communications between that place and the 
Union forces at Chattanooga. Burnside had been censured 
by some high in authority for not, at the close of the siege 
of Knoxville, retaining Sherman and driving Longstreet out 
of the State. Halleck condemned it as a fatal mistake. It 
is a very easy matter for officials, hundreds of miles away 
from the scene of operations, sitting in their easy chairs, to 
plan campaigns, gain victories, and annihilate whole armies 
of the enemy. But Burnside, who knew the many obstacles 
intervening — the many unbridged rivers, the impassable 
roads at this season of the year, the worn-out, half-famished 
men and horses — was fully aware that capturing or running 
out such a foe as Longstreet, and one of his strength in num- 
bers, was easier done at Washington than it was in the field. 
Besides this, it was difficult for him to subsist the troops he 
already had there, with impassable barren mountain roads 
from Kentucky, and the inadequate railroad and river sub- 
sistence line by way of Nashville and Chattanooga, his only 


dependence. If Sherman had remained, Longstreet could 
have easily fallen back to the Virginia gaps, nearer his own 
base of supplies, and drawn the Union force further from 
their precarious base, while he, from his mountain fastness, 
and watching his opportunities, could have bounced upon our 
forces, and with the co-operation ef Gen. Starvation, could 
have easily defeated them, and East Tennessee's loyal citi- 
zens combined. 

Burnside remained in command until December 12th, 
when Maj. Gen. John G. Foster took his place, and was in 
command for nearly two months, being relieved February 
9th. There seemed to be no material change during this 
time. Both Union and Confederate armies were crippled, 
and indisposed, or fearful to make any serious offensive 
movement, and alternately advanced and receded, maneu- 
vered, menaced and snarled, as to which should retain the 
lion's share of the best foraging grounds. 

But there was a reasonable excuse for Foster's failure to 
oust Longstreet. During the whole time he was in command 
in East Tennessee, he was suffering so much from a wound 
received on a former occasion, that he was unable to take ac- 
tive command in the field. 

When Gen. John M. Schofield superseded Foster on the 
9th of February, 1864, those who sniffed the fumes of battle 
from afar, predicted that the audacious Confederate com- 
mander would be driven from East Tennessee in quick time. 
Even Gen. Grant became enthusiastically valiant, and de- 
clared that he would have Longstreet whipped in three weeks 
or get whipped himself. But Foster, after being relieved, 
went through Nashville, and explained fully the situation of 
affairs, and advised him. Schofield, on the 19th of February, 
dispatched to Grant that he was compelled to send 4,000 
mules to Kentucky to be recruited, or they would all starve 
to death ; that the army was almost destitute of Artillery 
horses and serviceable mules ; that no movement of the 
army could be made under six or eight weeks, and that 
Longstreet's army was in about the same condition as his 
own. Finally all, including Grant himself, came to the same 
conclusion as Gen. Burnside : that it would be best to let 
Longstreet remain where he was for the time ; that he could 


do less harm there than anywhere else ; that East Tennessee 
was already stripped of all supplies, and that the govern- 
ment would have to assist its loyal citizens in furnishing 
grain to sow and plant the forthcoming crop. 

The Governor of Kentucky having become anxious about 
the safety of the State from anticipated raids from the 
enemy, and having called on the Legislature to raise regi- 
ments for its defense, Gen. Foster decided to send Wolford's 
division to Mt. Sterling, Ky., to be reorganized, remount- 
ed, and re-equipped for service, and to guard against raids in 
the State, or to operate on the enemy's flanks or his commu- 
nications with Virginia. 

February 4, 1864, the forage wagons of the First Ken- 
tucky were sent out from Maryville, several miles in the 
country, and were filled with corn. The Author accom- 
panied John F. Rigney, the wagon-master, to give informal 
receipts for the same. We returned some time about noon, 
and were overjoyed to learn that our command was ordered 
to get ready in haste to march to Kentucky. This meant 
much to most of the regiment. As we had to pass through 
the section where a portion of the men resided, it assured 
them opportunities, after an absence of six months of hard- 
ships and sufferings, to once more meet their friends and 
loved ones. We were ordered to procure sacks, which it was 
difficult for some to get, and shell corn to sustain our horses 
for at least four day's march, while crossing the barren 
mountains on our route. The corn was shelled rapidly, and 
by 2 p. m., we started and crossed the Holston on the pon- 
toon bridge at Knoxville after night, went one and a half 
miles, and went into camp. On the 8th of February the 
command crossed the State line, marched fifteen miles, and 
went into camp. 

On coming near the State line, the regiment somewhat 
scattered, those having able horses going in advance. It was 
on this trip across the mountains, that the Author met with 
a critical experience. On approaching Jacksboro, Tennessee, 
Capt. Thomas Rowland and Lieut. W. D. Carpenter, of the 
brigade Staff; Lieut. James Humphrey, Company A, and 
several of the headquarter escort, including the Author, left 
the command, pushed forward, and got lodgings in Jacks- 


boro that night. The next day the Author remained with 
his companions until the afternoon, when his horse became 
dull and fagged, he let them leave him, and followed on 
leisurely, although warned by a colored boy that it was dan- 
gerous for one dressed in Federal uniform to travel in that 
section alone. When night came, he succeeded, after much 
pleading, in getting lodging with a clever, honest man by the 
name of Sharp, near Chitwood, on the State line. The next 
morning, Sharp urged the Author to wait until his command 
came up ; that robbers and guerrillas infested the forty miles 
of wilderness from there to Sloan's Valley. But impatient 
to proceed, he pushed forward alone. He was riding along 
carelessly, and had forgotten danger, when about 10 o'clock 
in the morning, on ascending a small hill, he saw five or six 
rough-looking men, dressed in the plain homespun garb of 
the country on the side of the road, in front of him. Sev- 
eral were sitting on a log, holding their horses, and the rest 
were standing. Each had from one to two navy pistols 
buckled around him. They were hard-looking fellows, and 
fully answered the description of those warned of by Sharp. 
Of course the Author was startled, and had a suspicion that 
his career might be suddenly ended then and there, but felt 
conscious that his safety could not be secured by showing 
the " white feather." A fight was out of the question, for he 
was unarmed, his business causing him to use the pen more 
than the sword for two years. It occurred to him on the 
moment, that his only chance of safety was in good acting ; 
so casting his eyes back, and assuming a look of careless 
confidence as if his men were near behind him, and coming 
on, he passed by them, speaking politely, as if unsuspicious 
of their character ; in forty or fifty yards he came to a turn 
in the road which threw a dense undergrowth between him 
and the supposed robbers ; and then as soon as prudent, 
under the inspiration of a pair of Cavalry spurs, he got life 
into his jaded horse, and made fast time for several miles, 
when he slackened his gait, and listened for the sound of ap- 
proaching hoofs, but they never followed. The Author was 
then clad in a much-worn suit, which had not been washed 
for some time, and they may have thought it would not pay 
to run any risks for the amount they would get ; or they 


may have heard the approach of our men, and vanished ; for 
our men commenced passing our lone horseman an hour or 
so later. But poor Tom Austin, of Company Gr, somewhere 
in the same wilderness section was mortally wounded by 
guerrillas, and never came through. His death is reported 
on his Company rolls as having taken place February 12th. 
A squad of our men met with some suspicious-looking char- 
acters, but being well armed, and assuming a warlike aspect, 
it was supposed they were afraid to molest them. 

As the first Kentucky men furnished their own horses, 
many of them owned one or more surplus horses ; and when 
the one in use would become unserviceable, if convenient, 
he was taken or sent home to recruit his strength, and a 
fresh one was mounted. On reaching the State, many of the 
men had leave to go by home, remain a few days, meet at 
some designated place, or to join the command at Mt. Ster- 
ling ; all able to do so, to be mounted on fresh horses. The 
regiment in a few days came together, and remained for some 
time at Mt. Sterling, refitting and reorganizing for the great 
campaign in Georgia. 



Thrilling adventure of Chaplain W. H. Honnell — Wol- 
ford's command wanted in the front — The ghosts of 
Wolford's Cavalry — Sturgis's report — Criticisms — 
First Kentucky Cavalry's early disadvantages — Mil- 
itary discipline — Military martinets — How great 
commanders manage their men — Changes — Injustice 
to the Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry — Major Graham 
and other officers. 

The following episode in the war experience of the Rev. 
W. H. Honnell, the First Kentucky Chaplain, is given in his 
own words : 

The most thrilling scene of my army life was when the 
guerrilla band came to kill me, some twenty miles northwest 
of the battle-field of Perryville. The command, after the 
terrible campaign of East Tennessee, including the siege of 
Knoxville, had to rendezvous at Mt. Sterling, Ky., to recruit 
its decimated companies to make its last campaign through 
the battles to Atlanta, Georgia. I had gotten permission to 
visit a pupil of mine, a sweet young girl, a daughter of Col. 
Jacob Sharp, near " Kirkwood " Church, from which I had 
gone into war, and which furnished my nom de plume for 
the Louisville Journal. 

I rode with the speed of friendship, if not on the wings 
of love ; for she had become my inspirer in battle, and I had 
heard that she lay, as an angel for my greeting, near Heaven's 
gate. I had only taken one long look on her face, which had 
so often given me cheer in battle, aud retired to my former 
room to spend the rest of the night in bed opposite to that 
of my successor in the pulpit of the little church near by. 
He was soon in sound sleep, but I tossed myself in sleepless 

At midnight I heard the dull thud of a pistol on my 
door, and hastily rose, to see horses at the stiles, and two 
men in neat, blue uniform, standing at the door, ready to 
enter from below. One or more could be plainly seen hold- 
ing the horses, while the two explained that they had come 
to stay the rest of the night, and accompany me to Mt. Ster- 
ling the next day. They belonged to Capt. Coppage's com- 
pany, and would just have their horses hitched at the fence 
till morning. 


I led the way up stairs with misgivings, but being un- 
armed, could not offer resistance if I had been so disposed. 
I threw down the covers on my own bed, and asked them to 
occupy it. I had no sooner turned my face than I heard the 
sharp click of pistols, as they drew two of them cocked on 
my breast, and swore that they were Morgan's men, and had 
been on my track for twenty miles, and had come to kill me ; 
that I was Wolford's Chaplain, and his right-hand man, 
and had written many a piece for the Louisville Journal, 
which they had read, telling of how Wolford's men had 
whipped theirs, and now they had me, and I had then and 
there to die ; that I had a cane from where I had taken up 
the dead Zollicoffer in the Mill Springs battle, and resistance 
would be of no use, so I had to die. Of course I argued for 
my life ; that I had taken care of their wounded, and had 
even paid for some of their expense home after parole, and 
had offered no insult to Zollicoffer's body, and had assisted 
in preparing his body for embalmment. 

Finding my pleadings fruitless, I said, " If you must kill 
me, take me from this room, as a very sick young lady lies 
in a room below us, and to kill me here would be a double 
murder." On their motion I followed them down, and 
out into the silent midnight, as I supposed, to die for my 

What made the case more capable of exciting alarm, was 
that I had already heard of the case of a Union neighbor 
having been killed in his wife's arms, only a few nights be- 
fore, possibly by these same fellows, pushing her aside to 
keep from killing both at the same time. By that time 
in the war, however, every one of Wolford's Cavalry had 
acquired some measure of self-possession, as our many expe- 
riences in critical situations, and particularly in the dreadful 
hazards of the East Tennessee campaign, had given us com- 
plete schooling in that line. 

They finally relented from murdering me, and grabbed 
my gold watch and money, took possession of my horses, one 
of which I was allowed to turn loose in the field, but was to 
make the effort to borrow its half value — seventy dollars — 
as they claimed they were already encumbered with horses. 
Seventy dollars thus saved a horse to ride away on the next 

At a neighbor's, whom they robbed a few miles further on, 
they swore if they were not given their demand, that they 
would kill him, as they had already done to me. 

I suppose that my life would have been taken if they had 
known that I had loaned eight hundred dollars of my last 
payment at Knoxville, to a neighbor, without even taking his 
note, thus cheating them of part of their expected prize. 


But the next morning I assured my young lady friend 
that I would have them as my prisoners within a month, 
and so notify her. In accordance with my plan, Governor 
Bramlette was requested to send a few of his guards dis- 
guised as citizens, into the Chaplin Hills country, and that 
I felt sure that they could find these three, and others carous- 
ing among their friends, or concealed somewhere in that sec- 
tion. He did so, and as we started South, I saw in the Louis- 
ville Journal that the Governor's Guard had captured a band 
of guerrillas in that same hill country, and had them safely 
housed in the Louisville prison. I got leave of Col. Adams 
to go and see them, and thus recognized the same fellows, 
and soon made them glad to confess and sign orders on their 
friends to pay me back the money extorted from me. I was, 
perhaps, the only man who ever recovered his money and 
saved his life from such a band of murderers. 

The Governor and Col. Price, commandant at Lexington, 
had me retained as a witness before the Court Martial before 
which they were arraigned. In the long delay, I was ap- 
pointed to preach to the prisoner audience there, and had my 
would-be murderers as part of my congregation for months, 
till the trial of the leader came on. After I had given my 
testimony, and his counsel, Mark Munday, saw there was 
certain death impending, his father was notified, and with a 
large sum of money, the guard in the rear of the stone 
prison was bribed, and stones taken out, and he and another 
one slipped through, and so my prisoner escaped. The others, 
with my permission, were sent off as prisoners of war, and 
held to its close. 

I was pleased that my oath sent no one to death, and 
often look out to meet the poor devil in Kansas. The young 
lady died soon after, and when the war closed, I passed her 
burial-place without making myself known, and with tears 
streaming over my face, threw wild roses over her grave and 
left Kentucky forever. I have been a home missionary since 
then, and no one can tell why I ride so constantly on horse- 
back in fields of labor so forbidding to others less devoted to 
the cause. 

This, with the orders to remain lest I be killed on the 
way, will explain my only absence from my men, near the 
close of the war. 

Wolford's command had scarcely reached Mt. Sterling to 
rest and recuperate from its long-continued scouting, fight- 
ing, marching and starving, when there was an urgent de- 
mand for its service back at the front again. The following 


is taken from a dispatch headed, Headquarters, Department 
of Ohio, Knoxville, Tennessee, February 15, 1864 : 

Brig. Gen. S. P. Sturgis, Chief of Cavalry : 

General : — By direction of the Commanding General, I 
have sent you orders by telegraph, through Capt. Anderson, 
Assist. Adj. General, at Lexington, to use all dispatch in re- 
mounting Wolford's division, and getting it ready to take 
the field. ******* 
Edward D. Potter, Chief of Staff. 

It seems though, that the ghosts of Wolford's Cavalry 
were everywhere ; for a few days later, Gen. Joseph E. John- 
ston telegraphed to Gen. Longs treet, at Greenville, Tennessee : 
" We have been skirmishing all day successfully. Enemy's 
forces estimated at nearly three corps, including Wolford's 
Cavalry. His plans not developed." 

March 6th, Gen. Sturgis, in a letter by mail, goes into de- 
tails to show why Wolford's men could not be sent immedi- 
ately to the front, from which the following extracts are 
taken : 

In my answer I promised to go more into details, in order 
that the Major-General commanding may be enabled to form 
an approximate idea of the dilapidated condition of Col. 
Wolford's, as well as the other division (still in Tennessee.) 
I would respectfully call his attention to the " inspector's " 
report of Capt. Gouraud, made at my request, and which I 
presume is on file in your office. It will be there seen that 
the arms are in a sad condition, and of every possible cali- 
ber ; the equipments are incomplete and worn out; curry- 
combs a novelty, etc. * * The want of discipline com- 

This was the condition of the Cavalry when I took com- 
mand of it, on the 14th of December, 1868. After I took 
command of it (and before, as far as I know), it was con- 
tinually on the march and fighting, more or less, almost 
every day, and subsisting off the country, until I left for 
Kentucky. These circumstances, and the march to this place, 
the General commanding will readily perceive, were not cal- 
culated to increase their discipline or general moral tone. 
Now that they are here, it is necessary to reorganize them, 
make thorough inspections, make out requisitions for almost 
everything required by a Cavalry soldier, draw horses, drill, 
and more than all. discipline them. This will require time, 
and the General may depend upon my entire energy being 
devoted toward shortening that as much as possible. I would 


respectfully repeat my recommendation that the other divis- 
ion be sent in, if possible, so that when the time shall arrive 
for Cavalry to operate according to its legitimate purposes, 
(which I do not think it has been doing for some time), it 
may start out with some reasonable hope of accomplishing 
such expectations as may be entertained of it. As it is, the 
spring will find us with a portion, and a large portion, too, 
of our Cavalry altogether worn out and worthless. * * * 
I will repeat that I believe it will take no less than six or 
eight weeks to place this division in anything like condition 
for successful service. 

In regard to the report of Gen. Sturgis, from a purely 
technical military view, the Author has no objections to 
make. Their drill work — that is their training in making 
all the skillful military maneuvers for mere display — was 
certainly deficient. Neither the officers nor men of the regi- 
ment claimed to be dexterous in that line. As explained in 
another part of this work, when the men of the First Ken- 
tucky Cavalry responded so spontaneously to the first call 
of their country in its dark danger, and assembled at Camp 
Dick Robinson, in the summer of 1861, being fresh from their 
various vocations and associations of life, they were totally 
unacquainted with military affairs, except a few who had 
served in the Mexican War, and a very small number in for- 
eign wars. The exigencies of the service demanded that they 
should stop drilling at once, and put to hard scouting. Be- 
ing expert horsemen and fine marksmen, if they had had the 
opportunities of others, they could not have been excelled, 
if equaled, in the Cavalry service for ornamental or useful 

All officers of military judgment and experience know 
that rapid marching, hard scouting, continued conflicts with 
the enemy, and being often forced to subsist on the country, 
are not conducive to proficiency in the mere formalities of 
military etiquette or discipline. 

In addition to other disadvantages the regiment labored 
under early in the war, they were badly equipped in the be- 
ginning, and for some time afterward, both in clothing and 
arms. In their first active service they were only armed with 
home guard sabers and old flink-lock horse-pistols. Some 
Companies, A, B and C, were armed with the army Sharpe's 


rifle, which was a very efficient weapon for the old-time 
dragoon service, that is, marching as Cavalry, but fighting as 
Infantry, but very inconvenient for mere Cavalry service. 
The rest of the regiment was for a long time armed with the 
old army musket, which was very disheartening and degrad- 
ing to men of the buoyant spirits of the First Kentucky. 
The rest of the companies were afterward armed at different 
times with carbines of different kinds and calibers. 

Another cause of the regiment's deficiency in going 
through merely prescribed forms of evolution, from long 
association, they had somewhat imbibed the notions of Col. 
Wolford, in believing that a soldier's effectiveness was more 
in his fighting qualities than in his capacity to perform fancy 

Notwithstanding all the disadvantages the regiment was 
under in its earlier service, it had soon a name throughout 
the country as scouts unsurpassed in the annals of warfare. 
In its dashing charges and heroic deeds on many a bloody 
field, it had gained the fear and respect of its enemies as well 
as the enthusiastic admiration of its friends. Our men had 
been made soldiers by the example and inspiration of the 
leading spirits of the regiment, rather than by rigid drill 
work and formalities. So we had the respect of such chiefs 
as Shackelford, Sanders, Burnside, Sherman, and our old 
commanders, the once-hated, but afterward admired, burly 
Nelson, and glorious, kind-hearted Thomas ; little did we care 
for the good or ill-will of those martinets whose only standard 
for an effective soldier was to make a blind machine of him, 
requiring him to stand in their presence in military attitude, 
with hat under his arm, and in subdued awe. This plan is 
no doubt best for the regular or professional soldier, but in 
sudden emergency, like the great war of the rebellion, when 
almost the entire available male population were called upon 
to save their government, the example of such commanders 
as Grant, Sherman, Thomas and others like them, who used 
their great personal influence to lead rather than drive their 
men, bore the best results ; and they will live in the hearts 
of patriots of future generations, long after the little " red 
tape " men shall have dwindled into oblivion. 

While it is not necessary to object to Sturgis's report 


from a strict military stand-point, as the General was a fair 
man, yet his judgment is not free from criticism, especially 
in regard to the First Kentucky Cavalry. After nearly three 
years' constant service in the held, and having its ways and 
character fully established, the idea of bending it in the 
course of six or eight week's drilling to mere machines to suit 
the fastidious tastes of those adherents for strict military 
discipline and etiquette, showed want of first-class judg- 
ment, and he found out his mistake. Even his successor, 
Stoneman, with his irascible temper and iron heel, found in 
his after-experience, with all of his absolute mandates, that 
it still remained the First Kentucky Cavalry. 

After arriving at Mt. Sterling several changes took place 
in Wolford's division before its different regiments were 
ready for the field again. The Forty -Fifth Ohio Mounted 
Infantry had not operated with our brigade for some time 
and the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois Mounted Infantry 
was dismounted at Knoxville, East Tennessee, before march- 
ing for Mt. Sterling ; these two regiments once more returned 
to the Infantry service and were changed to other commands. 
They were two noble regiments, and we had shared the 
dangers and privations incident to army life with them for 
about a year. Our associations had been the most pleasant 
and intimate. The Twelfth Kentucky Cavalry had not been 
with us so long, but it, too, was a fine regiment, and was 
assigned to other commands. The Eleventh Kentucky Cav- 
alry, though we had not operated with them as long as the 
Forty-Fifth Ohio and One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, yet 
our connection with them had been of the closest kind. In 
the East Tennessee campaign, it had been immediately with 
us in all dangers, and had gained a fine reputation under its 
plain, brave and efficient commander, Maj. Milton Graham. 
At Mt. Sterling, an injustice was done to its officers and men, 
which caused much dissatisfaction, not only among the mem- 
bers of the " Old Eleventh," as it was called, but also among 
the members of the First Kentucky, who deeply sympa- 
thized with them. 

Nin6 companies of this regiment had been enlisted, mus- 
tered-in, and went into active service early in the fall of 
1862. Maj. Graham was the first starter of the regiment, 


and was chief in making it up, yet Lieut. Col. Riley was 
commissioned over him, and after serving until July, 1863, 
resigned. Major Graham remained with his men, led them 
in all their severe engagements in East Tennessee, and the 
records of the War Department show that they were com- 
plimented on different occasions for gallantry on the field of 
battle, by different general officers under whom they served. 
Maj. Graham was now suffering from a dangerous and severe 
wound received in the last engagement in East Tennessee. 

About this time the Third battalion, which had been en- 
listed in the fall of 1863, under Maj. W. 0. Boyle, was united 
to the nine companies which had been consolidated into two 
battalions. Maj. Boyle, a son of Gen. J. T. Boyle, though a 
mere boy in looks and age, was brave and intellectual, be- 
came easily assimilated in the ways and habits of the vet- 
erans, and soon was very popular with the First Kentucky 
and " Old Eleventh." But the new battalion brought with 
it three other field officers, Maj. English, Lieut. Col. A. J. 
Alexander and Col. A. W. Holeman. Both Lieut. Col. Alex- 
ander and Col. Holeman were fine-looking, intelligent men, 
had been in several positions previous, but it was rumored 
that they never had much experience in the sulphurous 
smoke of battle. This caused the veterans to have for them 
a feeling somewhat akin to contempt. Even with these 
drawbacks, they might have become popular with the men 
other other circumstances, if it had not been for the in- 
justice done to Maj. Graham and other meritorious officers 
of the " Old Eleventh " in not giving them their due promo- 
tions. Who was responsible for the injustice done to these 
bronzed and war-scarred officers who had shared with their 
men all the hardships of the soldier's life, is not clearly 
known. Lieut. Col. Alexander, no doubt feeling that he was 
out of place, soon resigned. Col. Holeman resigned in De- 
cember; the gallant young Boyle, afterward promoted to 
Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, fell while leading his 
men in a desperate charge in Virginia. Tardy justice was 
finally done to Maj. Graham, for he was afterward promoted 
to Colonel, and the sterling old warrier led his brave men 
with honor through their trying scenes till they were mustered 
out in July, 1865. 


Before closing this subject, Gen. Sherman's remonstrance 
to the War Department at Washington, against an action of 
the authorities in a similar case, is cited as suiting this point 
exactly. After referring to the promotion of an officer to 
Major-General in the rear, he continues : " I am not object- 
ing to this appointment, but I wish to put on record this my 
emphatic opinion, that it is an act of injustice to officers 
who stand at their post in the day of danger to neglect them 
and advance such as , who left us in the midst of bul- 
lets to go to the rear in search of personal advancement. If 
the rear be the post of honor, then we had better change 
front on Washington." 


a delicate part of the history of the regiment — a fine 
sword presented to col. wolford hls visit to lex- 
ington to receive it presentation address and his 

reply — Strong speech against enlistments of col- 
ored soldiers — His arrest for violating the 5th sec- 
tion of the Rules and Articles of War — His arrest 
— Ordered to Knoxville — His dismissal from the ser- 
vice — Feeling in the regiment — Capt. Fishback's 
scout to Eastern Kentucky — Thrilling adventure 

with guerillas, and death of dlvine col. adams at 

Irvine — The regiment unite at Nicholasville — Fare- 
well of Col. Wolrord — Preparations for the front. 

That part of the history of the First Kentucky Cavalry 
is now reached which is difficult to deal with, and do justice 
to all parties, and it is also a very delicate subject. The Au- 
thor is conscious of the responsibility of his position, and 
distrusting his own ability, would shrink from the under- 
taking, if his duties as a historian would allow him to do so. 
Allusion is here made to the arrest and dismissal of Col. 

When the war-cloud burst, and the patriotic hosts as by 
a mighty impulse offered their services to the endangered 


government, the great object was to put down the conspir- 
acy and restore the Union. There was no time or inclina- 
tion to discuss the future disposition of the " bone " of con- 
tention, the dusky son of African descent. The whole Union 
element among the citizens and soldiers in the field were in 
unison with the exception of some slight difference of opin- 
ion in regard to the best manner of conducting the war. But 
after the war had progressed for more than a year, with suc- 
cess, sometimes in favor of one side and then the other, a 
strong party both in State and National councils, began to dis- 
cuss the advisability of destroying slavery as a war measure. 
Dissensions now arose among those espousing the Union 
cause, but nothing serious occurred at first. The Author has 
not the time, space, inclination, nor ability to discuss the 
question in all its various phases, nor to decide which party 
was right, or which wrong. His chief object is to write his- 
tory connected with his regiment. 

When President Lincoln issued his emancipation procla- 
mation, January 1, 1863, there was dissatisfaction in regard 
to its policy both among citizens and soldiers, but was great- 
est among those belonging to the border States. One side 
contended that the President had the Constitutional right 
only to prosecute the war for the putting down of the rebel- 
lion, and to restore the Union. His other side claimed that 
the States in revolt had forfeited their rights of protection 
to their property under the Constitution, and no permanent 
peace could be established without destroying slavery, the 
great " bone " of contention. 

It was not until after the enlistment of negro soldiers 
commenced that the dissatisfaction became demonstrative. 
Most of the great Generals of the Union army, no matter 
what might have been their private opinions, were non-com- 
mittal on the subject. They were soldiers, and not poli- 
ticians. Several officers about this time, from the grade of 
Colonel down, resigned, supposed to be on this account. Col. 
Wolford though still fought with unabating zeal, and de- 
nounced Secession, yet when an opportunity offered, would 
censure the President's policy. In denouncing the Eman- 
cipation Proclamation and the enlistment of colored sol- 
diers, in Bpeaking of the President, he would sometimes 


>s^^ / ,• 




call him the " rail-splitter." Those officers who were very 
intimate with the Colonel, and knew of his gallantry, 
kind-heartedness and other fine qualities, many of whom 
belonged to northern regiments, and were full advocates of 
the President's policy, looked on these ebullitions from the 
old soldier as a kind of infirmity, and paid but little at- 
tention to them. 

The great misfortune with Col. Wolford as a military 
commander was, that he had no mean reputation as an ora- 
tor in his own original style, and whenever he got full of 
speech, he could not rest until he relieved his mind of the 
burden, regardless of what effect it might have on the ene- 
mies of the Union cause. 

It was some time in March, 1864, the exact date is not 
preserved, and is immaterial, that the loyal people of Lex- 
ington, Ky., determined to present a fine sword to Col. Wol- 
ford as a token of their appreciation of his endurance in the 
long pursuit after the Rebel raider Morgan, through Ken- 
tucky, Indiana and Ohio, in July, 1863, and also for his gal- 
lant and distinguished services throughout the war. By re- 
quest Col. Wolford visited Lexington to receive the token of 
honor. A large concourse of distinguished citizens and sol- 
diers were present to witness the ceremonies on the occa- 
sion. After the presentation address was made, all might 
have gone well and pleasantly with those possessing all 
shades of political opinions, if the Colonel only had halted 
at the proper place ; but after thanking the committee for 
the distinguished honor done him, he could not resist the 
temptation to deliver a characteristic harangue, first de- 
nouncing John C. Breckenridge for going into Secession,, 
and then attacking the President and the policy of his ad- 
ministration in enlisting the " nigger " soldier. The Author 
has failed to get hold of any reports made of his speech at 
the time, and cannot tell the exact words he used, which 
were construed into a violation of the 5th Article of War. 
The substance of that article is this : That any officer who 
speaks disrespectfully of the President of the United States, 
or the Governor of the State in which he may be quartered, 
shall be court-martialed and cashiered. There were those. 


present who were strict adherents of the Administration's 
emancipation and colored enlistment policy, and were un- 
friendly to the free ways and manners of the officers and 
men of the First Kentucky Cavalry, and of course a highly 
colored report was made of the Colonel's speech for the 
press. The Colonel was in a few days put under arrest by 
the following order : 

Nashville, March 18, 1864. 
Maj. Gen. J. M. Schofield, Knoxville, Tenn. : — 

Col. Frank Wolford, First Kentucky Cavalry, has this day 
been ordered to report to you in person in arrest. You will 
cause your Judge Advocate, or some other staff officer to 
prepare charges against him, based on his recent speech in 
Kentucky, and cause, as soon as practicable, a general court- 
martial to be convened for his trial. 
By order of Lieut. Gen. Grant. 

T. S. Bowers, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Col. Wolford immediately reported to Gen. Schofield, at 
Knoxville, East Tennessee. Gen. Schofield's action on the 
case cannot be found in the Official Records of the Rebellion, 
of that date, which is now in the hands of the Author. His 
reasons for not ordering a court-martial, as directed by Gen. 
Grant, and give the old soldier, who had served honorably at 
red Buena Vista, and had shed his blood freely in the great 
War of the Rebellion, a chance to present his own side in 
defense of the charges against him, are not before the Au- 
thor. The inference drawn from circumstances is, that he 
recommended the Colonel's dismissal without a hearing, as 
power had been given to the President, where the exigencies 
of the service demanded it, to dismiss an officer without the 
formality of a court-martial. 

There is evidence that there was but little time spent in 
bothering with his case ; for in six days after his arrest, an 
order was issued from the War Department in the name of 
the President, for his dismissal from the service for violat- 
ing the 5th section of the Rules and Articles of War, dis- 
loyalty, etc. 

The following is from the pen of one who was present 
when Col. Wolford made his celebrated speech, belongs to a 


different political party from the Colonel, and is entitled to 
full credit : 

" Wolford's speech at Lexington, followed by his dis- 
missal from the service, has been greatly misunderstood, and 
was used to excite the political passions against the Presi- 
dent, even when Wolford himself acknowledged the kindly 
feelings toward him in an interview accorded to him soon 
after. The Chaplain of the regiment, the Rev. W. H. Hon- 
nell, himself a Northern man, and whose devoted loyalty to 
the Union cause was unquestionable, being well qualified to 
give a correct outline report of the speech, did so ; and it 
was published in the Cincinnati Commercial of that week. 
So correct was it, that Governor Bramlette gave him per- 
sonal thanks for its fairness, and that in the introduction 
placed himself in the proper relation to it. As he sat on the 
stand, there was a mark on his features even of approval. 
Of course a marked copy was sent to the President, and he 
sent for Wolford, and on his return the Colonel made a very 
affecting allusion to the tenderness of Mr. Lincoln, and his 
offer to have the charges withdrawn, and restore him to his 
command, if the Colonel would make it possible for him to 
do so by toning down the incendiary part of the speech to 
be made public ; as the interests of the Union cause were 
just then in peril. But Wolford was too much influenced 
by the enemies of the administration to yield in the slightest, 
and thus missed his time for honorable reconciliation. If 
he had foreseen the consequence of his stubbornness, he 
would, no doubt have accepted the generous offer. His votes 
years afterward, while a member of Congress, showed that his 
warmest feelings were with his old comrades in arms." 

While the dismissal of our popular old commander cre- 
ated considerable feeling and some excitement in his com- 
mand, and particularly in his own regiment, it did not pro- 
duce the fruits anticipated by the enemies of the Union 
cause. Only a few officers of the regiment indorsed his 
course, and two of them soon became ardent admirers of the 
President's policy. Even those of the same political faith 
as the Colonel thought that such a speech ought not to have 
been delivered on such an occasion. Part of the committee 
who presented him the sword were said to be indorsers of the 



Administration policy, and the Colonel's friends thought 
that he ought to have had more regard for their feelings. 
His friends in the regiment on both sides of the negro en- 
listment question would have much preferred, if his con- 
science prevented him from carrying out the emancipation 
policy of the Administration, that he would have resigned 
before making a public attack on the Commander-in-Chief 
of the Army and Navy of the United States. 

There were other brave officers in the regiment who 
doubted the advisability or legality of the Administration 
policy, but they were strongly opposed to Secession, and be- 
lieved in fighting it out on that line until the end was ac- 

A man is not compelled to indorse all the measures of his 
government to b6 a patriot. Gen. Winfield Scott and Gen. 
Zachary Taylor both affiliated with a political party that 
was opposed to the annexation of Texas, and condemned the 
policy of the Mexican War; yet they were the chief com- 
manders in subduing the Mexicans. But, while chastising 
the Mexicans, they did not harangue them on the injustice 
of the war. Though many devoted Unionists doubted the 
Administration policy at the time, yet as the years have 
passed by, and they have had full opportunities for sober 
reflection and investigation, they now rejoice that the hydra, 
Slavery, was destroyed, even if it was done amid the clash of 
arms. They realize the utter impossibility of having either 
a true Democratic or Republican government, and at the 
same time recognizing the worst form of slavery that ever 
existed — that of trading in human flesh as merchandise. 
Many now believe that Lincoln, Grant, Sherman, Thomas 
and others, deserve no particular praise for destroying the 
monster, only so far as doing their duty nobly was con- 
cerned, that they were the mere instruments in the hands of 
the Great Ruler of the universe for its destruction, and that 
all honor should belong to Him. The great thinking minds 
of the world are opposed to slavery. Its chains are being 
knocked off throughout Christendom. 

There was a deep feeling throughout the regiment, irre- 
spective of party bias, for Col. Wolford's unfortunate pre- 
dicament. A paper was gotten up in the form of a petition., 


and addressed to President Lincoln, requesting him to restore 
the old soldier to his command. While not indorsing or con- 
demning the Colonel's speech, this paper recounted his gal- 
lantry on many a bloody field, and his devoted labors in the 
Union cause. A large number of the officers of the regi- 
ment were then absent on a scout, but all present at Mt. 
Sterling at the time, irrespective of party, signed it without 
hesitation. The object of the petition was not to have Wol- 
ford restored ; for it was not expected that either the Presi- 
dent or the Colonel would relent ; on the one hand a settled 
policy was at stake, and on the other, stubbornness inter- 
vened ; but the grand object of the petition was to show 
respect to our commander, and to show that we believed that 
he was a true friend to his country, whatever faults he may 
have had. 

While at Mt. Sterling, Capt. Geo. W. Drye, of Company 
B, who had been severely wounded at Rockford, Tennessee, 
November 14, 1863, was promoted to Major, his appointment 
bearing date February 28, 1864. He was with the regiment 
at the time, but was unable for duty, his wound making him 
a permanent cripple. His promotion was given as a compli- 
ment for his efficiency as an officer, and for gallantry on the 
field of battle. He resigned June 9, 1864. 

The regiment only had a short time for rest and recrea- 
tion. The movements of the Rebel forces and marauding 
guerrillas in Eastern Kentucky soon demanded their atten- 
tion in that direction. On the 31st of March, Companies 
D, F, G, I, J and L, all under command of Capt. J. B. Fish- 
back, marched to Owingsville, in Bath county. From there 
the command moved to Rayland's Mill ; the Licking River 
being too full to ford, it lay over until the 3d of April, when 
the march was resumed on the south side of the river in 
direction of West Liberty. On that day, while encamped on 
Beaver Creek, John Y. Divine was killed in a contest with 
the guerrillas. Capt. Fishback gives the following thrilling 
account of the death of Divine : 

On the 3d of April, we went into camp in the afternoon, 
when the sun was about one hour or more high. We had' 
just unsaddled, and were preparing for supper, when some of 
the boys conducted to my quarters a small negro boy who 


said that he had come to inform us that there was a guer- 
rilla in a cave about four miles distance from camp. After 
listening to his story, and closely interrogating him, fearing 
that any delay would cause the guerrilla to hear of our pres- 
ence in the country, I did not stop for a detail of men, but 
took the boy and went in direction of the cave, knowing that 
we had pickets on the road near where the cave was said to 
be located. 

I reached the picket-post and took the four men on duty 
there, and rode quietly beyond where the boy reported the 
cave to be. Halting my small squad, the boy pointed out 
the direction of the cave, which he said was 300 or 400 yards 
distant, up a hollow, through the woods and brush. We 
started in the direction pointed out, and when within 200 
yards of the spot, we dismounted, and leaving one man to 
hold the horses, started through the bushes for the cave. 
When we got within thirty yards of it, instead of being one 
guerrilla, there seemed to be twelve or fifteen, and from 
their movements they evidently had heard our approach. 
We were in a critical situation. If they should discover our 
strength, and get between us and camp, and overpower us, I 
knew they would not hesitate to ornament the convenient 
limbs with our dangling bodies. On the impulse of the mo- 
ment, I conceived the idea that our only safety was to play 
the " bluff game " on them. I shouted back to the man hold- 
the horses: "Lieutenant, bring up the rest of the com- 
mand," and then said to the three men with me, " our only 
chance is to charge the hollow, and fire upon them." I now 
gave the command to " charge ! " which we did, and the ruse 
succeeded for the time ; for they ran away, leaving their 
horses and everything behind them. We reached the cave, 
and John Divine and myself entered it, finding a trunk, 
bacon and other provisions, butcher-knives and various camp 

The startling thought now occurred to me that they could 
reach the bluff over the cave, and have us in their power; so 
I said to Divine, " We must get out of here." So we each 
untied a horse belonging to the guerrillas that we had fright- 
ened away, and mounted. We turned to make our escape, 
which failed to be soon enough ; for they had ascended to 
the bluff immediately over the cave, and opened fire upon 
John and myself, when a ball struck my brave comrade, and 
he fell dead from his horse. I would have shared the same 
fate, but the mare on which I was mounted, fell in attempt- 
ing to jump over a fallen tree, and as she fell I went over to 
the opposite side from the guerrillas, holding on the mane 
and halter, and remounted and was off the instant she re- 


covered her feet, and was safe under cover of the thick 

No doubt the guerrillas thought they shot both myself 
and niare, as they ceased firing as soon as we fell. Falling 
back a little, I sent a courier to camp, and had a detail of 
men on hand in a short time to remove the body of poor 
John Divine to camp, where, on the following day, we per- 
formed the last sad rites over his body as we consigned it to 
the grave. 

The guerrillas now took such a fright, that they concealed 
themselves so completely in their mountain retreats, that we 
never came across any more. 

On my return I reported to the commanding officer, and 
after relating the story of our adventure at the cave, he gave 
me permission to keep the mare I had captured from the 
guerrillas. J. B. Fishback. 

After the burial of Divine on the 4th of April, the com- 
mand continued its march, and camped on Grassy Creek, ten 
miles from West Liberty. The next day, Company I went 
on a scout to Hazel Green, in Wolfe county, but no results 
followed. On the 6th, the command returned to its camp of 
the 3d, on Beaver Creek, where it remained until the 8th, 
when it returned to Ray land's Mill, on the Licking River, 
remaining there until the 16th. On the 10th, Company L 
went on a scout to Salyersville and returned on the 13th 
without getting any news of the movements of the enemy. 
The command now scouted to West Liberty, and as far as 
Salyersville, in Magoffin county, and was on the march al- 
most continually until the 24th of April, when it joined the 
rest of the regiment at Nicholasville, in Jessamine county. 

While Capt. Fishback was scouting in Eastern Kentucky, 
the remainder of the regiment, under Col. Adams, moved to 
Irvine, on the Kentucky River, in Estill county. This town 
is in a kind of basin, and surrounded by picturesque moun- 
tains, and shut off from the rest of the busy world. Our 
stay at Irvine was uneventful ; having no enemy to contend 
with, and no exciting scenes. There may have been some un- 
important scouts in search of guerrillas, but if such took place 
our memories are dim, and there are no records of the same. 

The time was now approaching for the First Kentucky 
Cavalry to mount the stage again, and once more be star 
actors in the bloody " drama of the day." Winter, with all 


of its hardships and sufferings, was now only a horrid mem- 
ory, and the biting winds of March had also departed ; and 
April with its sunshine and showers, and green verdure was 
at hand. We were now ordered to Nicholasville to fully 
equip ourselves and make final preparations to move to the 
front and participate in the great protracted movements 
which were destined to result in the downfall of the Con- 
federacy, and establish the supremacy of the Federal Gov- 

About this time, and previous, the following changes 
took place in commissioned officers : 

Company B. — 1st Lieut. Samuel Belden, April 10th, was 
commissioned as Captain in place of Geo. W. Drye, pro- 
moted to Major. 2d Lieut. Vincent Peyton was promoted to 
1st Lieutenant the same date. 1st Serg., Stephen G. Averitt, 
was promoted to 2d Lieutenant the same day. Other changes 
took place in non-commissioned officers. 

Company H. — 2d Lieut. William M. Haley, resigned Feb- 
ruary 5, 1864, and Serg. Abraham Grubb was promoted to 
fill his place, March 27, 1864. 

Company I. — 1st Lieut. Buford Scott, resigned February 
5, 1864, and 1st Serg. Thomas J. Graves, was promoted to 1st 
Lieutenant on the same day. 

Company K. — 2d Lieut. Phillip Roberts, was promoted to 
1st Lieutenant in February, 1864. 

The regiment was now deficient in field officers. Maj. W. 
N. Owens was still a prisoner of war. Those in power were 
tardy in making promotions to fill vacancies. Lieut. Col. 
Silas Adams being the ranking officer, commanded the regi- 
ment, and Maj. F. M. Helveti, who had been absent since 
1861, was now ordered back to the regiment. He had been 
gone so long that he was a total stranger to many of the 

There were several different organizations of the Cavalry 
while in Kentucky. On the 11th day of April, Col. Israel 
Garrard assumed command of the First Division, and re- 
lieved the following officers of the First Kentucky Cavalry 
from staff duty in that division : Capt. Thomas Rowland, 
Acting Assistant Inspector-General ; Lieut. W. C. Root, Act- 
ing Assistant Commissary of Subsistence. 


We had a few days of frolic and recreation at Nicholas- 
ville while getting ready for the rapid and eventful march. 
The men of the regiment were paid their dues, and many of 
them, with full pockets, knew well how to enjoy themselves. 

Previous to receiving marching orders, Col. Wolford made 
us a visit to take a farewell of the boys — his comrades in 
arms. He called the men around him, and delivered a short, 
affecting address. He told them that it would not be advis- 
able or proper for him to discuss the causes which separated 
him from them ; that it was his inclination to enroll as a 
private and fight by their sides in the ranks until the close, 
but the unhealed wound in his side, from which he still suf- 
fered, warned him that he could not do justice to himself or 
the service in doing so. We all felt sad in separating from 
our old commander. He had shared all the sufferings and 
hardships of camp life with his men. He had inspired his 
men with self-respect, and to do noble and gallant deeds. 
His associations with us had been more as a kind parent 
than a stern military ruler. 

Although we much regretted parting with Col. Wolord^ 
we knew that his position would be filled by a young leader 
whose gallantry had already brought luster to his own name, 
and in after service was destined to bring additional honor 
to his regiment. 

Many of our men had lost so many horses by the hard- 
ships of the service, that they felt unable to buy fresh 
horses for the forthcoming campaign, and they were allowed 
to draw government horses in their stead, and we were soon 
well equipped for the closing work of our service. 



Stoneman in command of the Cavalry of the Army of the 
Ohio — Romantic ideas of the great raider — Delu- 
sions vanished — Rigid orders — Attempts to discipline 
the boys — The General is out-generaled — The in- 
spection at Point Burnside — Flame and fury — Offi- 
STON — Carr and Roberts's report to Stoneman — Their 




Sturgis was superseded as commander of the Cavalry- 
corps, Army of the Ohio. After remaining in Kentucky a 
few days, he was ordered to Memphis to take command of 
all the Cavalry in West Tennessee. Gen. George Stoneman 
took his place. In regard to rhe reasons for the change, the 
Records are silent. Perhaps the stern iron will of the great 
raider was thought best to bend the dashing, frolicsome 
mountaineer Cavalry of this department into rigid discipline. 
He was first called to East Tennessee, and assumed command 
of the 23d Army Corps for a short time. On the 9th of 
April he was relieved of that command, and assigned to 
command the Cavalry corps, Army of the Ohio. He soon 
came on to Kentucky, and commenced reorganizing his com- 
mand preparatory for the forward movement. We had often 
read of Stoneman, who had gained an extensive reputation 
in his raids about Richmond, Virginia, and had an enthusi- 
astic admiration for his daring feats. We had pictured in 
our minds romantic ideas of the person of Stoneman, as 
being free from the imperfections of those in high rank with 
whom we had been familiar, with grand form and courtly 
airs, as belonged to the knight-errants in the days of chiv- 
alry. Whether these delusions vanished on more intimate 
acquaintance, and the General was found to be made of the 
unsifted dust of the earth, like others, will appear in after- 
pages of this work. 


Marching orders were issued from Corps Headquarters, 
April 28, 1864, to move to the front in Georgia. By these 
orders Biddle's brigade was to march on the 28th and 29th 
Holeman's brigade, consisting of the First and Eleventh 
Kentucky Cavalry, was to move on the 30th. Other portions 
of the command were to start on the 1st of May. 

Forage for our horses, and subsistence for the men, for 
the first time since we entered the service, were to be fur- 
nished by pack-mule trains attached to each regiment. This 
method of furnishing supplies was a new experience to the 
Army of the Ohio, and was found to be a favorite one with 
Gen. Stoneman. It proved to be an imperfection of judg- 
ment ; for as long as it existed with us it was found to be 
inadequate and unsatisfactory. 

On the day marching orders were issued, the following 
circular was sent to each regiment of the command : 

Headq'rs Cav. Command, Dep. of the Ohio, 
Nicholasville, April 28, 1864. 

1st. The Commanding General is aware of the active 
and valuable service, fatigue, and hardships which this com- 
mand has passed through during the past year, and the re- 
port that it has written for itself, worthy of a page in the 
history of warfare, by its rapid marches, its more than bril- 
liant achievements in the many hard-earned victories in 
skirmishes and battles against the enemies of our country. 
All has been borne alike by the officers and soldiers of the 
entire command. And while he feels proud of the achieve- 
ments and of such patriotic soldiers, he would enjoin upon 
them, now that we are about to enter on an active campaign, 
even to the crushing of the gigantic rebellion, the necessity 
for the most strict discipline for the good of the soldiers 
and for the efficiency of the command. He would call the 
attention of officers to fully provide their men for the field, 
and upon the soldiers' strict attention to duty, that all may 
share the fatigue, services, and honors alike. 

2d. A commissioned officer will march in the rear of 
each company, and allow no one to leave the ranks unless 
absolutely necessary, and when such necessity arises, a pass 
will be given by the officer in command. 

3d. Each regiment will have a rear guard, permitting 
none to fall behind without leaving a guard to bring him 

4th. No soldier will be permitted to straggle or enter a 
private dwelling-house unless on account of sickness, after 


getting a certificate from the Surgeon, and approved by the 
Medical Director of the command. 

5th. Excuses are often made to fall out of ranks to pro- 
cure water. There can be no necessity for this. Men must 
fill their canteens before marching. 

6th. Private property must be respected. No individual 
foraging will be permitted. 

7th. Each brigade will detail one commissioned officer, 
four Sergeants, and sixteen privates as provost guards. 

8th. As there is an opinion prevailing that an officer's 
duty ceases with his own command, which is incorrect, it 
will be enjoined upon all to arrest for, and correct all viola- 
tions of orders, or conduct tending to the prejudice of good 
order or military discipline coming under his observation 
within this command. 

Commanding officers will have this order read to their 
respective companies. No excuse will be received for neglect 
of duty or ignorance of orders. All offenses committed, 
punishable under General Orders, No. 18, must be promptly 
punished as therein stated. 

By command of Maj. Gen. George Stoneman. 

C. H. Hale, 
Captain, Aide-de-Camp, and A. A. A. G. 

The high compliments paid to the command in the first 
paragraph of the foregoing circular elicited our kindest 
feelings and warmest approbation, but were counterbal- 
anced by the apprehension, if not consternation, relative to 
the contents of those which followed. In our early service 
and drill-work we had been introduced to rear guards, and 
frequently in our after-service, when the occasion required 
them ; but there were some provisions in these orders be- 
yond which we had ever dreamed of or read about in the 
Army Regulations. The idea on a rapid march in certain 
cases to be compelled to have a written pass before leaving 
ranks, was preposterous ; and in case of a very sick soldier, 
far away from hospitals, not being allowed to enter a private 
house without a certificate from his Surgeon, approved by 
the Medical Director of the corps, was impracticable. The 
Medical Director on this march might have been one day's 
march or more in front or rear of the sick soldier. It was 
found on closer acquaintance with Gen. Stoneman's habits 
of conducting military operations, that like Col. Wolford, 
he had certain original tactics and regulations of his own, 


which he put in force as near as he could. There was 
evidently a conflict at hand, and there was a question of 
which should yield — the iron will of Stoneman, or the habits 
and rather free ways of the Cavalry. 

The first conflict came at the beginning, and in which 
the mountaineer riders got the best of the stern old warrior. 
While he had made effective arrangements for rear guards, 
not yet being informed of all of our boys' peculiarities, he 
had neglected to make efficient provisions for front and flank 
guards to keep them in column. 

Our first objective point in the march was Point Burn- 
side, on the Cumberland River. The habitations of most of 
the men of Companies G and L were directly on the route 
to that place. Companies E and K could reach that point 
by curving a little to the east, while A, B, F, and part of D 
could reach that place by curving to the west. 

Many of the men had fresh horses at home waiting for 
the expedition ; some who had drawn government horses 
wanted to leave their own worn-down ones at home to re- 
cruit ; others wanted to leave their late draw of money with 
their families, while many young men wanted to take a 
farewell, and to some a final one, of their sweethearts. 
The officers of the regiment were nettled on account of the 
injustice done in the reorganization in ignoring the claims 
of those who had won fame in many a bloody contest, and 
placing over them officers who had little or no fighting ex- 
perience, and whose chief duties had been on detached ser- 
vice in the rear, far from the smoke of battle. With passes 
from their company or regimental officers, or if not, private 
approval, the temptation to break ranks on the route was 
too great for a member of the First Kentucky Cavalry to 

The 30th of April came, and the column moved on the 
road. The rear guard was somewhat irksome at the start, 
but the men soon got up to it, and it was no serious obstacle 
only to those who wished to fill their canteens, by the way, 
to keep down thirst. The men of G, E and K would slip out 
of ranks as opportunities offered by convenient by-roads as 
we passed through Jessamine and Garrard counties. The 
rest of the regiment marched on as orderly as usual, until 


reaching Danville, where the many roads centering there, 
and its streets and alleys, offered superior facilities for the 
First Kentucky boys to execute one of their favorite maneu- 
vers. The following from Lieutenant James E. Chilton's 
notes explains what took place there : 

" The regiment was now put under command of Gen. 
Stoneman, who thought he would discipline the boys. On 
leaving camp, he issued orders to arrest all men found out 
of ranks, and the men did well until reaching Danville, Ky. 
There was the place for them to go by home, and there was 
the place they started. ' Big Horse Yowell ' gave the com- 
mand for the column to ' right face — march ! ' which order 
they obeyed with alacrity, marching through Stoneman's 
body-guard. Companies A and B, and parts of C and F 
composed the column which broke Stoneman's lines. The 
main command marched directly to Burnside, Ky., which 
place they reached on the 2d day of May. Here the com- 
mand was to draw rations sufficient for the men to take them 
to Kingston, Tennessee. A report being called for, showed 
only seventy-one men and two officers present, out of over 
800 effective men for duty." 

The blameless conduct of those two officers on that occa- 
sion deserve that their names be handed down to posperity. 
They were Lieuts. James E. Chilton and Joe. D. Beatie. Not 
a field or Staff officer was there. The Author, having ob- 
tained leave of Col. Adams to go by home, was not present, 
but was informed that the General was so much exasperated 
that he was almost inclined to use profanity. All of the ab- 
sent officers were ordered to report under arrest on coming 
up. The command remained at Point Burnside one day, 
when many of the officers and men arrived. 

We started early on the morning of the 4th of May, and 
by rapid marching of 110 miles, reached Kingston in the 
afternoon of the 7th, crossed the Tennessee at the mouth of 
Clinch River, and went into camp near the river, and oppo- 
site Kingston. By this time, most of the officers and many 
of the men, had overtaken the command— 300 having come 
up at one time. Here we lay over until the 9th, drawing 
rations, and making other preparations for the next onward 


While here, two gallant young officers — Capt. Delaney R. 
Carr, who afterward made a very creditable race against 
Col. Wolford for Congress, and wore the judicial robe with 
distinguished honors, and Capt. Phillip Roberts, who after- 
ward represented his constituents in the State Senate with 
much ability — being of a subordinate disposition, reported 
themselves to Gen. Stoneman under arrest, according to 
orders. The General showered so many maledictions upon 
them, that when they returned to the regiment and made a 
report of their reception to the rest of the officers, no others 
dared to approach the irate commander, and so the First 
Kentucky marched the rest of the way to Georgia with near- 
ly all of its officers still under arrest. 

The command resumed the march on the 9th, went twen- 
ty-eight miles, and camped at the mouth of Sewey's Creek ; 
on the 10th, reached Cleveland at 4:80 p. m. On the 11th, 
started earlier than usual, crossed the line into Whitfield 
county, Georgia, at 10:15 a. m., and encamped near Varnell's 
Station at 3:45 p. m. As we went into camp, firing was 
heard in front. At this time nearly all of the fighting men 
of the First Kentucky had come up, and we had the largest 
number of effective men in the command. 

The regiment had a reputation of having many absen- 
tees. This was only true at certain times. In active opera- 
tions, our absentees were few as compared with other regi- 
ments. This was due to the repugnance of our men to enter 
hospitals when sick. When one of the First Kentucky be- 
come sick, if practicable, he would get a " sick leave," or 
other permission from his officers, and as soon as convales- 
cent, and sometimes before, would become restless and join 
the " boys " again. It is true some would take advantage of 
the leniency of their officers, and abuse their privileges. But 
this was an exception rather than the rule. When the mem- 
bers of other regiments became sick or disabled, they were 
generally sent to hospitals, and when recovered, would have 
to wait for orders before joining their commands, and some- 
times their regiments would be inconvenient to reach, and 
then they would be put on some light post duty, and time 
would elapse before they would have the opportunity to join 
their comrades in arms. After the commencement of the 


Georgia campaign the Author served as clerk in the Medical 
Director's office, Cavalry Corps, Department of the Ohio, 
which reported directly to Gen. Schofield's headquarters, and 
he found that the effective strength of the First Kentucky 
was generally from 600 to 625 men ready for the field, while 
that of others was from 250 up to 400 men. 


Halleck relieved as Commander-in-Chief — Grant pro- 
moted to Lieutenant-General and assigned to the 
command of the armies of the united states, with 

headquarters in the field sherman assigned to the 

command of the military division of the mississippi 

McPherson to the Army of the Tennessee — Grant's 

criticisms and plans — sherman moves on johnston 

Varnell Station — Resaca — Adams's gallant charge — 
Reconciliation with Stoneman — Johnston falls back, 
and Sherman pursues — The fierce conflict at Cass 
Station — The black flag — Across the Etowa. 

By Gen. Orders, No. 98, War Department, Adjutant 
General's Office, dated Washington, March 12, 1864, the 
following changes and assignments were made : 

Maj. Gen. H. W. Halleck, at his own request, was relieved 
from duty as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, and Gen. 
U. S. Grant, who had been lately promoted to Lieutenant- 
Goneral, was assigned to the command of the armies of the 
United States, with headquarters in the field, and at Wash- 

Maj. Gen. H. W. Halleck was assigned to duty in Wash- 
ington as Chief of Staff of the Army, under direction of the 
Secretary of War, and the Lieutenant-General commanding. 

Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman was assigned to the command 
of the Military Division of the Mississippi, composed of the 
Departments of the Ohio, the Cumberland, the Tennessee, 
and the Arkansas. 


Maj. Gen. J. B. McPherson was assigned to the command 
of the Department and Army of the Tennessee. 

Before this time, according to Gen. Grant's report: " The 
armies in the East and West acted independently and with- 
out concert, like a balky team, no two ever pulling together, 
enabling the enemy to use to great advantage his interior 
lines of communication for transporting troops from east to 
west, reinforcing the army most vigorously pressed, and to 
furlough large numbers during seasons of inactivity on our 
part, to go to their homes and do the work of producing for 
the support of their armies. It was a question whether our 
numerical strength and resources were not more than bal- 
anced by these disadvantages and the enemy's superior posi- 

On taking command of all the armies in the field, the 
General gives the following as his plan for conducting his 
campaigns : 

" From the first I was firm in the conviction that no 
peace could be had that would be stable and .conducive to 
the happiness of the people, both North and South, until 
the military power of the rebellion was entirely broken. I 
therefore determined : First, to use the greatest number of 
troops practicable against the armed force of the enemy, 
preventing him from using the same force at different sea- 
sons of repose for carrying on resistance ; Second, to ham- 
mer continuously against the armed force of the enemy and 
his resources, until by mere attrition, if in no other way, 
there should nothing be left to him but an equal submission 
with the loyal section of our common country to the consti- 
tution and laws of the land." 

The enemy had concentrated the bulk of his forces east 
of the Mississippi into two armies, commanded by Gens. R. 
E. Lee and J. E. Johnston, his ablest and best Generals. 
The army commanded by Lee occupied the south bank of 
the Rapidan, extending from Mine Run westward, strongly 
intrenched, covering and defending Richmond, against the 
Army of the Potomac. The army under Johnston occupied 
a strongly intrenched position at Dalton, Georgia, covering 
and defending Atlanta, a place of great importance as a 



railroad center, against the armies under Gen. W. T. Sher- 
man. In addition to these armies, he had a large Cavalry 
force under Forrest in Northeast Mississippi ; a considerable 
force of all arms in the Shenandoah Valley and in the west- 
ern part of Virginia, and extreme eastern part of Tennessee, 
and also confronting our sea coast garrisons and holding 
blockaded ports where we had no foothold upon land. The 
armies of Lee and Johnston, and the cities covered and de- 
fended by them, were the main objective points of the cam- 

Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman, commanding the Military Di- 
vision of the Mississippi, had immediate command of the 
armies operating against Johnston. 

Maj. Gen. Geo. G. Meade had the immediate command of 
the Army of the Potomac, from where Gen. Grant exercised 
general supervision of the movements of all our armies. 

Gen. Sherman had instructions to move against John- 
ston s army, to break it up, and go as far into the interior 
of the enemy's country as possible, inflicting all the dam- 
age he could on their war resources. Gen. Meade, under 
the supervision of the commanding General, had like in- 
structions in operating against Lee. Gen Banks was in- 
trusted with operations in New Orleans, Louisiana and other 
places in that part of the country, with Gen. Steele, in Ar- 
kansas. Gen. Butler had instructions to move from direc- 
tion of the Atlantic coast in concert with Meade, against 
Richmond. Gens. Siegel, Burnside, and other commanders 
had subordinate forces, and had instructions to fill places, 
and be participants in the closing scenes of the great drama. 

It was the fortune of the First Kentucky Cavalry, in the 
closing part of its eventful career, to operate with the grand 
army of General Sherman — an army whose many brilliant 
achievements will occupy much space on the pages of his- 
tory. The exact strength of this great army cannot be given 
in figures, but only approximated. According to Sherman's 
report, it numbered, including Infantry, Cavalry, and Artil- 
lery, as follows : Army of the Cumberland, Maj. Gen. Geo. 
H. Thomas commanding, 60.773; Army of the Tennessee, 
Maj. Gen. J. B. McPherson commanding, 24,465; Army of 


the Ohio, Maj. Gen. Jno. M. Schofield commanding, 13,559. 
Grand aggregate, 98,797 ; guns, 254. 

These armies were grouped on the morning of the Gth of 
May as follows : Army of the Cumberland at and near Rin- 
gold ; that of the Tennessee, at Gordon's Mills on the Chick- 
amauga, and that of the Ohio, near Red Clay, on the Georgia 
line, north of Dal ton. The enemy lay in and about Dal ton, 
superior to Sherman in Cavalry, and with three corps of In- 
fantry and Artillery, viz : Hardee's, Hood's, and Polk's corps, 
the whole commanded by Gen. Jos. E. Johnston, of the Con- 
federate army. The strength of Johnston's army at this time 
cannot be fully ascertained from Confederate reports at 
hand. Previous to the opening of the campaign, for offens- 
ive operations, he was promised a force 75,000 strong. Sher- 
man estimated his strength at 10,000 Cavalry, and from 45,- 
000 to 50,000 Infantry. These figures, of course, varied at 
different times by losses and reinforcements. 

It is necessary for the student of history to understand, 
that though Sherman's numerical strength was superior to 
Johnston's by some 30,000 or 40,000 men, yet Johnston being 
on the defensive, had much the advantage. He was on his 
own chosen ground, and knew the roads and topography of 
the country to perfection. He could select his own position, 
and was usually protected by strong intrenchments. An 
army thus situated is equal to a far greater number in the 
offensive. As Sherman advanced, his force was continually 
weakened to guard important posts and his lines of commu- 
nications. As Johnston fell back, his garrisons were taken 
up and added to his fighting strength. 

As before stated, Holeman's brigade of the First and 
Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry, reached Varnell's Station in 
the afternoon of the Eleventh of May, 1864, and went into 
camp with the enemy disagreeably near at hand. 

The command had no time to rest from its long and rapid 
march. The next morning, the 12th, Stoneman's command 
of Cavalry relieved Gen. McCook on the left, and in advance 
of Gen Newton's division of Infantry of the Fourth Army 
Corps. At this time, Sherman, finding it impracticable to 
strike Dalton from this point on account of it being covered 
by Rocky Face Ridge and Buzzard Roost Pass, was making 


his way with his main force around through Snake Creek 
Gap, to strike Johnston's flank and rear. Johnston had 
been apprised of this movement of his antagonist, and 
to find out whether it was a general one or not, early on 
this morning, he sent Gen. Wheeler, with all his available 
Cavalry, supported by Hindman's division of Infantry, on a 
reconnaisance around the north end of Rocky Face Ridge, 
toward Tunnel Hill, to ascertain the extent of the move- 

Soon after relieving McCook's pickets, the enemy's Cav- 
alry attacked our line, from Varnell's Station all along 
south, having previously driven in our out-posts on the 
Cleveland and Dalton pike. Stonemaivs first line, consist- 
ing of the First and Eleventh Kentucky, extended along the 
ridge from Varnell's Station, west of the railroad. The 
First Kentucky's position was a little below the crest of 
the ridge facing toward the approaching enemy, and behind 
an improvised breastwork made of rough stones thrown up 
by the command which had preceded us. In front of our regi- 
ment was open ground for some distance toward the enemy. 
The Eleventh Kentucky was on lower land to our left, and 
in front of a dense patch of woods. 

It is necessary for the reader to remember that all the 
officers of our regiment were still under arrest, with two ex- 
ceptions, Lieuts. Chilton and Beatie. As the enemy came 
in sight and threatened immediate attack, our brigade com- 
mander, Col. Holeman, came dashing up with verbal orders 
from Gen. Stoneman relieving all our officers from arrest 
until after the fight was over. When the order was an- 
nounced, the rash and daring Lieutenant, W. D. Carpenter, 
retorted : " Tell Gen. Stoneman that's all we want — just to 
be released till the fight is over." But that was the last ever 
heard of the arrest. 

The enemy, now in plain view, fired a few shots at the 
First Keutucky, which were replied to by several of our 
Sharpe's riflemen. But they were advancing through the 
open woods to our position, and bore to our left, and un- 
der cover of the dense woods, approached the Eleventh 
Kentucky Cavalry, and made a fierce attack on that gallant 
regiment. The firing was very heavy for some time, and 


that regiment was pressed so closely that it was compelled 
to fall back in easy supporting distance of an Infantry regi- 
ment held in reserve in its rear. Though it was a heavy 
force of Infantry and Cavalry attacking our position, and 
could have " eaten up " our Cavalry, to use Stonernan's ex- 
pression, they feared a trap set for them, for they did not 
press their advantage after coming in sight of our Infantry 

The enemy was now repulsed, and Gen. Newton having 
changed his position, Gen. Stoneman made a corresponding 
disposition of his Cavalry, sending one regiment to Ringold, 
three to Tunnel Hill Gap, on the Varnell Station and Ring- 
old road, among which was the First Kentucky, and the 
other two to a position on Newton's left. 

The reconnaisance in force, by Johnston's orders, made 
for the purpose of developing Sherman's strength on the 
left, confirmed Johnston's impression that the main body of 
the Federal army was marching to Snake Creek Gap, on its 
way to Resaca. This march of the Union troops was made 
without exposure, being completely covered by Rocky Face 
Mountain. About one o'clock a. m., on the 13th, the Con- 
federate Infantry and Artillery were withdrawn from the 
position they had been holding and marched to Resaca, the 
Cavalry following after daybreak as rear guard. 

On the morning of the 13th, Gen. Stoneman being in- 
formed of the enemy's evacuation of his position, the re- 
maining Union forces were put in motion for Resaca. Stone- 
man's Cavalry moved by different roads. Holeman's brigade 
started early and entered Dal ton at 10:40 a.m. Here we 
were witnesses of transactions painful to behold. A number 
of Infantrymen, unrestrained by their officers, were burst- 
ing open stores, and rifling them of their scanty contents. 
Some of our officers were so indignant at the sight, that they 
could not resist the impulse to sternly rebuke those present 
of their officers, for allowing it. To the credit of the First 
Kentucky, whatever faults'or weaknesses they had, this sort of 
action was obnoxious to all of them save an exceptional few, 
and was particularly frowned on by our officers. Our prin- 
cipal warfare was against an armed enemy in an open field. 
It is true that some of our men, when very hungry, might. 


confiscate a chicken, a young hog, or even a mutton, when 
the owner was not in sight, but they could not bear the eyes 
of the famished-looking women and children gazing upon 
them in sorrowful silence. After passing through Dal ton, 
the regiment went five miles beyond and encamped ; Capt. 
J. S. Pankey was sent on the skirmish line. 

The Author's time and place will not allow him to give 
details of all the battles from Dalton to Atlanta, but only 
the outlines. For full particulars, the reader must peruse 
other works ; his chief object is to tell what part his regi- 
ment took in the conflicts. 

As before stated, it was the intention of the Confederate 
government when the spring campaign opened, for Johnston 
to make offensive movements against our forces ; but not 
being furnished with sufficient force and means soon enough, 
he was compelled to act on the defensive. 

Gen. Sherman, as intimated before, finding the enemy's 
position too strong at or near Dalton to successfully assault 
without great loss of life, made his masterly movement by 
way of Snake Creek Gap on his rear. This caused the enemy 
to fail back from his strong natural position on Rocky Face 
Ridge, and concentrate his forces about Resaca. 

To force Johnston from his new position, Sherman de- 
termined to send light columns to threaten his communica- 
tions in the rear, and to press upon him in front with his 
whole force. Polk was on Johnston's left, resting on the 
Oostenaula ; Hardee in the center, and Hood on the right, 
extending northeastwardly around Resaca toward Conna- 

Sherman ordered a pontoon bridge to be laid across the 
Oostenaula, at Lay's Ferry, and a division of the Sixteenth 
Corps to cross and threaten Calhoun ; also the Cavalry divis- 
ion of Garrard to move from its position at Villanow down 
toward Rome, cross the Oostenaula, and break the railroad 
below Calhoun, and above Kingston, while with the main 
army he pressed Resaca at all points. 

At 1 p. m., on the 14th inst., an attempt was made from 
Sherman's left center to break the enemy's line and force 
him from an elevated position in the immediate front. But 
the Union forces had to descend a hill in range of the en- 


emy's Artillery, ford a stream bordered with interlacing 
vines, and mount the opposite eminence. The attempt was 
gallantly made, but our forces were compelled to fall back 
with a loss of one thousand men. Further to the left, 
Judah's and Newton's division's, after a severe struggle, 
forced a point on the enemy's outer line, but could not 
hold it. 

At 3 p. m., Johnston attempted to turn Sherman's left 
flank, making a fierce attack, and at first was successful, but 
Hooker's corps coming up, the Confederates, about dusk, 
were driven back with great loss. McPherson, while John- 
ston was occupied with this movement, gained a position 
which would enable him to pour an enfilading fire on John- 
ston's works. It also commanded the bridges across the 
Oostenaula, and a determined effort was made to retake it. 
Strong lines, with fixed bayonets, advanced up to the very 
top of the hill, but were driven back. The fighting did not 
end till 10 o'clock at night. 

Stoneman, on this day, had instructions to cover Dalton, 
and guard Gen. Howard's left, following the enemy up to his 
positions on the Dalton and Resaca, and Tilton and Resaca 
roads. The First Kentucky this day marched early, passing 
Tilton at 11 :40 a. m., and camped at 7 :30 p. m. 

The night was spent in strengthening positions and pre- 
paring for the anticipated work of the next day. On the 
morning of the 15th, there was skirmishing all along the 
center of the Union lines. By request of Gen. Sherman, 
Stoneman was to move over on the Coosawattee and make 
demonstrations on the enemy's rear. He made the requested 
movement, but of the three bridges across the Connasauga 
River, he succeeded in getting possession of only the lower 
one, at File's Ferry, from which he was soon driven off. At 
the next one above, about noon, he received information of 
a wagon train being stationed there, and he sent Capt. F. M. 
Wolford, of Company A, First Kentucky, with one hundred 
picked men, to destroy it, holding a regiment of his division 
in reserve to support him. The bottom in which the sup- 
posed wagon train was located was covered with dense under- 
growth. Captain Wolford made a charge upon the wagons, 
and found that he had run into a hospital, which proved to 


belong to Gen. Hood's corps. \Volford succeeded in burning 
12 wagons loaded with supplies, and captured 40 or 50 ani- 
mals, when he discovered that he was in great danger. The 
Confederate Artillery, which was in range, played upon him, 
and Wheeler, with his two brigades of Cavalry, soon ap- 
peared upon the scene, scattering his men, who took to the 
woods, cutting off Wolford and some of his men, and it was 
several hours before they made their way through dangers 
and difficulties back to the command. Wheeler then dashed 
upon the regiment in support of Wolford, which was under 
immediate command of Gen. Stoneman, pressing it back in 
disorder, and. came very near capturing the General, who 
lost his hat in the confusion. Adams, with the First Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, coming up at this time, commenced fronting 
his men into line to stay the onset of the enemy. The re- 
treating regiment broke through his forming line about the 
center, Adams in vain trying to rally them. Gen. Stoneman 
coming up, hastily inquired of Adams if he could charge 
the enemy, and his reply was that he " could try." It was 
in the border of an open field, and by the time Adams had 
formed his men in the confusion, and the way was clear of 
the fleeing Cavalrymen, Lieut. James Humphrey, who was at 
the head of his line on the right was in a hand-to-hand con- 
test with the pursuing enemy. The trumpet-tone voice of 
Adams now gave the command — " charge ! " and the First 
Kentucky dashed at the enemy with its usual impetuosity, 
which caused such consternation in their ranks, that they in 
turn fled in the wildest disorder. Adams pursued them as 
far as safety would allow him, for being a discreet as well 
as a daring leader, and knowing that danger lurked ahead, he 
drew his men back to the other forces which had been rallied 
by Gen. Stoneman. On his return the General not only 
complimented the Colonel for his gallant charge, but also 
the wild riders of the First Kentucky. The ban of displeas- 
ure which the regiment and its officers had been under since 
its delinquencies at Point Burnside, was removed. The mu- 
tual reconciliation was more marked on one of the men pre- 
senting the lost hat which he had picked up on his return 
from the charge. Capt. Wolford, with one hundred select 
men from different companies, was detailed on special ser- 


vice at the General's headquarters. Col. Adams and his men 
afterward appeared to be special favorites with him. We 
forgave all his infirmities of temper, and soon began to 
look upon our commander with pride. 

But to return to the main army which was left skirmish- 
ing in the morning. About 1 p. m., after several unsuccess- 
ful attacks, the Confederates were driven from part of their 
lines, and our troops secured a position under the projecting 
works of a lunette, but so galling was the fire from the rifle- 
pits, that further advance was checked. Hood's corps made 
a resolute but unsuccessful attempt to dislodge the assail- 
ants. Afterward, under cover of the night, the Union sol- 
diers dug out the ends of the works, and hauled the guns 
away by means of ropes, under a very heavy fire. As soon 
as the breach was made, the men rushed in, and after a des- 
perate fight, captured the lunette. In the two days' fighting, 
Sherman's losses were between 4,000 and 5,000 ; the losses of 
Johnston, owing to his fighting most of the time behind 
earthworks, was less, being about 2,500. Johnston again was 
forced to retreat. He marched southward across the Oosten- 
aula, followed so closely, that though the railroad bridge 
was burned, the road bridge was saved. Thomas followed 
directly after the retreating column, McPherson by Lay's 
Ferry, and Schofield by obscure roads to the left. 

The First Kentucky lay on their arms on the night of the 
15th ; marched at 9:40 on the morning of the 16th, and fed 
and breakfasted on the Coosawattie, resumiug the march at 
4:30 p. m. 

On the 17th, Sherman's entire force moved on all avail- 
able roads. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis, with his division, was 
sent along the western bank of the Oostenaula to Rome. 
Late in the evening, Newton's advance division had a sharp 
encounter with the rear guard of Polk's Cavalry at Adairs- 
ville. On the same day Stoneman sent the First Kentucky, 
with other picked men — in all about 750 — with orders to cut 
the railroad between Kingston and Allatoona. The com- 
mand started early, but at 1 :30 p. m., encountered the en- 
emy's outposts in such force that it was compelled to halt, 
and it went into camp. 

The enemy retreated during the night, Polk and Hood 


taking the road from Adairsville to Cassville — a strong in- 
trenced position — and Hardee to Kingston. They did not 
remain, however, and Sherman pushed on through Kingston, 
and four miles beyond, where he found Johnston in force on 
ground well adapted for battle. The First Kentucky moved 
early on the 18th, and camped on Big Pine Log Creek. 

On the next day, the 19th, Stoneman's Cavalry, includ- 
ing the First Kentucky, moved early, skirmished all day, 
driving all of the enemy's outposts into Cassville, when the 
Infantry coming up at dark, the Cavalry went into camp. 

This same day Johnston made a proper disposition of his 
troops for battle, selecting a strong position. That evening 
he went to Hood's headquarters and had a consultation with 
him and Polk. Both Polk and Hood claimed that the posi- 
tion was untenable. Hood said that the enemy could enfi- 
lade his lines. A discussion of more than an hour followed. 
Although Johnston was of the opinion that the position was 
the best his army had occupied, yet he yielded at last, 
" in the belief that the confidence of the commanders of 
two or three corps of the army, of their inability to resist 
the enemy, would inevitably be communicated to the troops 
and produce that inability ; " he therefore replied : " I am 
not going to give battle here unless you all have your hearts 
in it." The Etowah River, or what was known by the old 
settlers by the name of " Hightower," was crossed that night- 
Johnston afterward asserted that he had always regretted 
the step. 

Holding Gen. Thomas's army about Cassville, Gen. Mc- 
Pherson's about Kingston, and Gen. Schofield's at Cass Sta- 
tion, and toward the Etowa bridge, the Union forces were 
given a few days' needed rest, and also time to bring forward 
supplies for the next stage of the campaign. 

While the main army was resting on the 20th, the First 
Kentucky moved out at 2 p. m., went into line near Cass- 
ville, and at 7 p. m. went into camp near a bridge. The next 
day, we still remained in camp. On the 22d, an inspection 
of the command showed that many of the horses were unfit 
for very active service. Hard marching and deficiency of 
grass and forage were telling upon them. On the 23d, Hole- 
man's brigade moved to Cass Station and encamped near 


Col. S. A. Strickland's Infantry command, consisting of the 
Fiftieth Ohio Infantry and Fourteenth Kentucky Infantry. 

In the meantime, Gen. Jeff. C. Davis had gotten posses- 
sion of Rome, its forts, some eight or ten heavy guns, and 
its valuable mills and foundries. Our armies had secured 
the possession of two good bridges across the Etowah, near 
Kingston, giving our forces the means of crossing toward 
the south. Satisfied that the enemy could hold him in check 
at the Altoona pass, Sherman resolved, without even at- 
tempting it in front, to turn it by a circuit to the right ; 
and having supplies in his wagons for twenty days from the 
railroad, and having left garrisons at Rome and Kingston, 
he made a general move on the 23d toward Dallas. 

Thomas's head of column skirmished with Johnston's 
Cavalry near Burnt Hickory, and captured a courier with a 
letter of Johnston's, showing that he had detected the move- 
ment, and was making preparations to meet him at Dallas. 
The country was rough, mountainous, and thickly wooded. 
The roads were few and obscure. 

As Schofield moved out on the 23d, he left Strickland 
with the Fiftieth Ohio and Fourteenth Kentucky Infantry,, 
together with Holeman's brigade of Stoneman's command, to 
guard some stores of corn at Cass Station ; also to protect 
the rear of his moving train, and as an outpost to the garri- 
son at Kingston, a few miles distant. 

At 10 a. m. on the 24th, Wheeler's command of Cavalry, 
consisting of three brigades, moving from direction of Car- 
tersville, attacked Schofield's wagon-train between King- 
ston and Cass Station, burning many of the wagons and 
capturing and driving off others. The alarm was sudden 
and unexpected. When the first shots were fired, the men 
of the First Kentucky, as if by a simultaneous impulse in 
apparently a moment of time, mounted their horses, and 
with Col. Adams in the lead, reported immediately to Col. 
Strickland for orders, which were given with the same speed 
that the men had mounted, and they were off with a flying 
gallop in direction of the attacked train, followed by Col. 
Holeman with the Eleventh Kentucky. 

They struck the enemy in an open field, and dashed upon 
them with such impetuosity that they were swept before 


them like chaff before the wind, until the heavy lines of the 
enemy's main force formed ready for their reception in the 
borders of the woods fronting the open ground. Here a short 
but desperate conflict took place. The enemy's lines were 
too strong to break, and of sufficient length to cover the 
flanks of our struggling men. No soldiers could long with- 
stand such superior advantage of the enemy, and such fear- 
ful odds in numbers against them. Our gallant men fell 
back with considerable loss. As they retreated through the 
dust and smoke, the First and Eleventh not only became 
mingled with each other, but also with the enemy, and sev- 
eral Rebel prisoners were brought back with them. A black 
flag captured from the enemy was likewise brought in. The 
enemy developed such a large force that Col. Strickland or- 
dered the forage at the depot burned, his Infantry already 
formed in line, and forming a regiment of Cavalry on each 
flank, with the Cavalry pack-mules and remaining wagons in 
shelter of the rear, marched in line of battle toward King- 
ston. We soon passed the burning wagons still unconsumed. 
When we came within a mile or two of Kingston, we met 
Col. Gallup with two regiments of Infantry, also in line of 
battle, coming to our aid. 

The black flag brought from the field had been dropped 
by its bearer, its staff either having been shot off, or volun- 
tarily abandoned. It was deep black in color, with a grin- 
ning skeleton painted in white upon its surface. It put bad 
feelings in the Union soldier even to look at the horrid thing. 
It was kept in possession of Dr. Brown during the campaign, 
and exhibited to all who wanted to see it. In justice to the 
Southern Confederacy, it is necessary to state that soon 
afterward, when the Doctor was appointed Medical Director 
on Gen. Sherman's Staff, two cultivated, gentlemanly mem- 
bers of a Texas regiment were captured— one a Captain, and 
the other a forage-master — of the same command which at- 
tacked us that day. They positively denied that the flag 
was hoisted by any proper authority, and insisted that an 
inquiry be made through a flag of truce about the matter. 
But Sherman's army was too busy then to attend to minor 
affairs, and it was neglected. 

In this engagement, it is a singular fact, that while the 


casualties of the First Kentucky were very light, those of the 
Eleventh Kentucky were very heavy ; and this cannot be 
accounted for, as both were equally exposed, and when they 
were environed they were all mixed up together. The official 
records of the engagement are meager. In the State Adju- 
tant General's Report are found the names of Private Tim- 
othy Lake, Company E, wounded, and Serg. H. H. Brinkley 
and Private Samuel Raney, Company L, captured. From 
the same source, the casualties of the Eleventh Kentucky, 
4 are reported killed, 2 wounded, and 7 missing. 

The next day, Capt. J. S. Pankey, Company I, was sent to 
Adairsville on a scout, and returned at 3:20 p. m.; then the 
regiment moved across the Etowah and encamped. 


From the Etow t ah to Atlanta — The battle of New Hope 
Church and around Dallas — The operations of the 
First Kentucky and other regiments of Stoneman's 
Cavalry — The turning of Allatoona pass — The First 
Kentucky, the first on the hill — Johnston falls back 
to Kenesaw — Pine and Lost Mountains — Dr. Brown on 
Stoneman's Staff — Changes in officers of the regi- 
ment — The terrible prophesy of A. H. Stephens ful- 
filled — Pine and Lost Mountains abandoned — Sher- 
man's assault on the enemy and its failure — Opera- 
tions of the First Kentucky on the right — Johnston 
retreats across the Chattahooche — Peach Tree 
Creek — Atlanta — Serg. Pierce escapes. 

May 25th, Gen. Thomas moved from Burnt Hickory for 
Dallas, with Hooker in advance. When approaching Pum- 
kin Vine Creek, he encountered a force of the enemy's Cav- 
alry at a bridge on his left. He pushed them across the 
creek and saved the bridge, though it was already on fire. 
About two miles to the eastward he met the Infantry. It 
was near 4 p. m. before he could get his whole command in 
position. When deploying two divisions by Gen. Sherman's 


order, he made a bold advance to secure possession of the 
point, New Hope Church, for Johnston did not stop at Alla- 
toona on his retreat, but made for the hills north of Dallas 
and Marietta, concentrating his army near New Hope Church, 
where the roads from the north, east, and southwest come 
together. Hood's corps was at the church, and Polk and 
Hardee lay in an eastern direction across the Atlanta road. 

A severe battle took place here, and the Confederates 
were driven back ; but they having lately thrown up some 
defences, and a dark stormy night having set in, Hooker was 
unable to drive them from the roads. All day the clouds 
had been threatening. At dark it rained heavily, but the 
troops had been working until a breastwork had been secured. 
The men had neither tents nor food. It was a gloomy night. 
If fires were kindled, they were quickly put out by the rain. 
The General and his staff spent the night under the canopy 
of Heaven with coats and saddle-blankets as their couches. 
The next morning (the 25th) the enemy was found intrench- 
ed in front of the road from Dallas to Marietta, and dispo- 
sitions on a large scale had to be made. 

Owing to the nature of the ground and the thick woods, 
it took several days to deploy close to the enemy. Sherman 
had determined to work gradually toward his own left, and 
when everything was ready, to push for the railroad east of 
Allatoona. While making the necessary movements around 
New Hope Church, many sharp encounters took place. On 
the 28th, McPherson was just about closing to his left on 
Thomas, in front of New Hope Church, to enable the rest of 
the army to extend still more to the left and to envelop the 
enemy's right, when suddenly he was boldly attacked at 
Dallas by the Confederates. His men had, fortunately, 
erected good defenses, and gave the enemy a teriible repulse. 

On the 27th, Howard's corps attacked Cleburne, and was 
repulsed. Johnston estimated his loss at this place, and at 
New Hope Church, at 900. 

The order was renewed for McPherson to move to his left 
about five miles, Thomas and Schofleld also moving to their 
left ; the movement was completed on the 1st of June. 

While these events were taking place, the First Kentucky, 
with other regiments of Stoneman's Cavalry, was covering 



the left and rear of Schofield's Infantry forces, which were 
at that time on the left of the main army. On the 26th, 
we marched all day, and camped at 10 p. m. The next day, 
camped within seven miles of Dallas. The regiment con- 
tinued its movements protecting the rear and left of the 
army until the 1st of June. From the 26th of May until 
the 2d of June, Gen. Schofield's Infantry troops remained 
in position, strongly intrenched in close proximity to the 
enemy's works, and engaged night and day in heavy skir- 

On the first of June, Gen. Stoneman was sent with his 
command to occupy Allatoona Pass, which he did at 6. p. m. 
of the same day. On approaching the place, the General 
halted his command and ordered one of his Colonels to form 
his men in line and occupy the crest of the hill, at the base 
of which was the Allatoona depot. It was considered at the 
time a critical movement, and the Colonel commenced mak- 
ing excuses about the numerical weakness of his command 
for such an undertaking, when the General turned to Col. 
Adams, giving him the order, " Col. Adams, form your men 
and take that hill." The only reply Adams made was, 
"First Kentucky, front into line — march!" and with a 
sweeping gallop they mounted the hill, and Allatoona Pass 
was taken. In a few days the Northern papers were teeming 
with accounts of Allatoona Pass being taken by a skillful 
maneuver of Gen. Stoneman. But the foregoing is all the 
fighting that took place on that occasion, as remembered by 
any of the soldiers. 

As this place perhaps will remain a noted spot in his- 
tory on account of noted incidents connected with it, a short 
description of it will not be out of place. It was the scene 
of the heroic defense made by Gen. Jno. M. Corse, October 
5, 1864, in which with a force of about 1,900 men, he re- 
pulsed, with great loss, a large force of the enemy, losing 
one-third of his own men. It is a narrow pass between 
sterile hills or mountains. The depot is situated at the base 
of a small round hill, not high enough to tunnel, but a deep 
cut is made for the railroad's passage. The depot building, 
the surrounding country and its inhabitants, have the most 
insignificant appearance imaginable. It was here that Gen. 


Sherman signaled Gen. Corse from Kenesaw Mountain, 
eighteen miles distant, to hold the fort, for he would rein- 
force him; and Gen. Corse gave the heroic reply, that 
though minus part of a cheek bone and an ear, he could 
whip all h — 11 yet. It was on this celebrated engagement 
and Sherman's dispatch that the stirring song was founded, 
" Hold the Fort for I am Coming," which has been sung with 
such enthusiastic effect on so many occasions. 

Gen. Stoneman's Cavalry now occupied the east end of 
the Allatoona Pass, and Garrard's Cavalry, the west end. 
Here our command remained, holding this important posi- 
tion and scouting and examining the surrounding country 
until the 7th of June. It was considered an exposed posi- 
tion, and the pack-mule train was not ordered up until the 
4th of June. While resting from the severe scouting and 
marching, Col. Adams, who possessed a frolicsome disposi- 
tion, could not resist the temptation to play a practical joke 
on his brigade commander, Col. A. W. Holeman. One day 
he invited Col. Holeman down to Allatoona Creek to see an 
alligator. The Colonel not being acquainted with the fact that 
the habitat of that saurian did not reach as far up as North- 
ern Georgia, eagerly " bit at the bait," and accompanied 
Col. Adams to the creek. Of course the alligator was not 
there, and the laugh was at Col. Holeman's expense among 
his brother officers for several days. 

Gen. Sherman now ordered the railroad bridge across the 
Etowah to be rebuilt, and continued operations on his left. 
The Construction Corps had already plans of the bridge in 
.their possession, and the timbers were shaped in readiness, 
and were brought on the train from Chattanooga. Though 
the bridge was 620 feet long, it was rebuilt by the Railroad 
Construction Corps, with 600 men in six days. 

On the 4th of June, Sherman had determined to abandon 
Johnston at his intrenched position at New Hope Church, 
and move to the railroad about Ackworth, when Johnston 
suddenly left his intrenchments and retreated to his strong 
positions at Kenesaw, Pine, and Lost Mountains. Sherman 
reached the railroad at Ackworth on the 6th. He examined 
in person the Allatoona Pass, and finding it suitable for a 
secondary base, gave orders for its defense and garrison ; and 



as soon as the bridge across the Etowah was completed, 
stores came forward to his camp by rail. 

Sherman sums up the results of his campaign up to this 
date as follows : 

" We have in one month's time, with a force not much 
superior to the enemy, compelled him to fall back nearly one 
hundred miles, obliging him to abandon four different posi- 
tions of unusual strength and proportions ; have fought him 
six times ; have captured 12 guns, 3 colors, over 2,000 pris- 
oners, with considerable forage, provisions, and means of 
transportation ; have placed at least 15,000 men hors de 
combat, and have destroyed several important founderies, 
rolling-mills, iron-works, etc., at Rome, and in the Allatoona 

The next movement of Sherman and his grand army was 
to turn Kenesaw Mountain and its consorts. 

On the 6th, Gen. Sherman ordered Gen. Blair, of the 
Seventeenth Army Corps, to leave one regiment of a brigade 
of his corps, to relieve Garrard's Cavalry at the bridge across 
the Etowah, and the rest of the brigade to relieve Stone- 
man's Cavalry at Allatoona. 

On the 7th, the First Kentucky moved its camp from 
Allatoona to near Ackworth. June 9th, the regiment moved 
out of camp, went to the front and pursued the retreating 
Infantry of the enemy, skirmished heavily, and returned to 
camp that night. 

On the same day, June 9th, Dr. A. M. Wilder was relieved 
as Medical Director, Cavalry Corps, Department of the Ohio, 
Maj. Gen. Stoneman's Staff, and appointed Medical Inspec- 
tor, Department of the Ohio, Maj. Gen. Schofield's Staff. 
Dr. Hawkins Brown, Surgeon of the First Kentucky Cav- 
alry, was appointed to fill his place as Medical Director on 
Gen. Stoneman's Staff. This position he filled with great 
honor and ability, and being of a martial disposition, he 
rendered his chief much aid in active field operations, and 
soon became a favorite of the General. The Author, being 
an old acquaintance of the Doctor, and having some defects 
which made him somewhat deficient for active field service, 
was appointed his clerk, and did the reporting and recording 
work of the office. v 


The communications of the Union army were now con- 
sidered secure, and the supplies were ample. Sherman now 
moved forward to Big Shanty. In front of him were Lost 
and Pine Mountains, almost in the shape of perfect cones, 
and Kenesaw, with a deep notch at its summit, its entire 
length at the base being nearly two miles. 

Sherman thus vividly describes the situation : "Kenesaw, 
the bold and striking twin mountain, lay before us, with a 
high range of chestnut hills trending off to the northwest, 
terminating to our view in another peak called Brushy Moun- 
tain. To our right was the smaller hill, called Pine Moun- 
tain, and beyond it, in the distance, Lost Mountain. All 
these, though links in a continuous chain, present a sharp, 
conical appearance, prominent in the vast landscape that 
offers itself from any of the hills abounding in that region. 
Kenesaw, Pine Mountain and Lost Mountain form a triangle ; 
Pine Mountain at the apex, and Kenesaw and Lost Mountain 
at the base, covering perfectly the town of Marietta, and the 
railroad back to the Chattahoochee. On each of these peaks 
the enemy had his signal station. The summits were covered 
with batteries, and the spurs alive with men busy felling 
trees, digging pits, and preparing for the grand struggle im- 

On approaching close to the enemy, Sherman found him 
occupying a line full twelve miles long, more than he could 
hold with his force. Sherman now speaks of what lay be- 
fore him : " The scene was enchanting; too beautiful to be 
disturbed by the harsh clamor of war ; but the Chatta- 
hoochee lay beyond, and I had to reach it." 

Gen. McPherson was ordered to move toward Marietta, his 
right on the railroad; Gen. Thomas on Kenesaw and Pine 
Mountain, and Gen. Schofield off toward Lost Mountain ; 
Gen. Garrard's Cavalry on the left, Gen. Stoneman's on the 
right, and Gen. McCook's, looking to our rear and communi- 
cations. Our depot was Big Sandy. The object of these 
movements was to break the enemy's weakened line at Pine 

On the 10th, the First Kentucky moved out from camp to 
the front, and sent out skirmishers. While engaged sharply 
with the enemy on the skirmish line, Henry 0. Wilds, of 


Company E, was mortally wounded, and died. The regiment 
in the evening moved back, and camped in line of battle. 

On the 12th, while heavy cannonading was going on all a- 
long the line, the regiment was dismounted and sent out to the 
defenses, and stood in line three or four hours in a cold rain. 

From Lieutenant Thomas J. Graves's diary, it is learned 
that 15 of Company I went on skirmish line on the 13th, 
that hickory leaves and " staked hay " was pulled for the 
horses, the only provender for three days. 

At this time, June 14th, several changes took place in 
commissioned officers, among which was the following : 

Company I — Capt. Alexander Smith, resigned. Lieut. 
James S. Pankey was promoted to Captain, his commission 
bearing the same date, and Serg. Thomas J. Graves was com- 
missioned 1st Lieutenant. 

Company L — Capt. J. Brent Fishback resigned, and Lieut. 
Joe. D. Beatie commissioned Captain the same day. 

While sharp cannonading was going on in the evening of 
the 14th, from Gen. Howard's right, and Gen. Hooker's left, 
the Confederate General Polk was killed. On the 15th, Pine 
Mountain was abandoned by the enemy. From Lieut. 
Graves's diary of that date, the following sentence is copied : 
" Sunshine to-day for the first time in ten days." It may 
be stated here, that according to those who kept notes of the 
fact, it rained twenty-three days in the month of June on 
this campaign. Even nature was weeking copious tears over 
the desolation caused by the w r arring parties in the once 
peaceful and romantic section. 

The terrible anathematical prophecy delivered by Alex- 
ander H. Stephens, in the Georgia Secession Convention, had 
now come to pass : " This step — Secession — once taken, can 
never be recalled, and all the baleful and withering conse- 
quences that must follow (as you will see) will rest on this 
convention for all coming time. When we and our posterity 
shall see our lovely South desolated by the demon of war, 
which this act of yours will inevitably provoke — when our 
green fields and waving harvests shall be trodden down by a 
murderous soldiery, and the fiery car of war sweeps over our 
land, our temples of justice laid in ashes, and every horror 
and desolation upon us, who but this convention will be held 


responsible for it, and who but him who has given his vote 
for this unwise and ill-timed measure shall be held to a 
strict account for this suicidal act hj the present generation, 
and be cursed and execrated by posterity in all coming time 
for the wide and desolating ruin that will inevitably follow 
this act you now propose to perpetuate." 

After Pine Mountain was evacuated, Thomas and Scho- 
field advanced and found the enemy again strongly intrench- 
ed along the line of rugged hills connecting Kenesaw and 
Lost Mountains. 

On the 15th, while cannonading and musketry was con- 
tinued by the Artillery and Infantry, the First Kentucky, 
with other regiments of Stoneman's command, were dis- 
mounted and moved to the front to strive to make a lodg- 
ment on Lost Mountain, but the position was too strong and 
too heavily guarded. On this day, Col. Adams made a nar- 
row escape with his life. The First and Eleventh Kentucky 
being posted at different places, in passing from one regi- 
ment to the other all alone, to give directions, two videttes 
of the enemy came out from behind a tree and took deliber- 
ate aim at him — one of their balls shaved off a lock of his 
luxuriant black whiskers, and the other passed close to his 
ears. Col. Adams was then commanding the brigade com- 
posed of the First and Eleventh Kentucky — Col. Holeman 
having received leave of absence a few days before. On the 
16th, Adams was commissioned Colonel of the regiment, vice 
Wolford out of the service. On this day the regiment, with 
others of Stoneman's command, was dismounted, and made 
another attempt on Lost Mountain, had a slight skirmish, 
but still found the position unassailable. 

An assault on the center had been ordered, but was de- 
ferred, when, on the 17th, the enemy abandoned Lost Moun- 
tain and the long line of splendid breastworks connecting it 
with Kenesaw. Early on that morning, Adams's brigade, 
with McCook's Cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland, 
made another move on Lost Mountain, Adams in front and 
McCook to the rear. Both reached the base of the mountain 
about the same time, but Adams's brigade was the first to 
mount the top of the lonesome elevation, the enemy having 
evacuated his strong works there. 


After descending the mountain, Adams was ordered down 
our lines about one mile, and in front of Gen. Cox's head- 
quarters. Gen. Cox assumed the responsibility of ordering 
the brigade to charge six pieces of Artillery in a strong posi- 
tion, and supported heavily by Infantry. About the time 
the brigade got half way to the point of attack, Gen. Stone- 
man came up, and sent an officer with lightning speed to 
order the brigade back. It was said that Gen. Stoneman 
showered the fiercest maledictions upon Gen. Cox for order- 
ing his Cavalry on such a dangerous errand without his con- 
sent. This caused a warm feeling of our men for our com- 
mander, notwithstanding he was afflicted with some irregu- 
larities of temper. It is supposed if it had not been for the 
opportune arrival of Gen. Stoneman, not a "greasy spot" 
would have been left of Adams's brigade. 

Sherman now continued to press at all points, skirmish- 
ing in dense forests of timber, and across most difficult 
ravines, until the enemy was again found strongly posted 
and intrenched, with Kenesaw as the salient, his right wing 
thrown back to cover Marietta, his left behind Noyes Creek, 
covering his railroad back to Chattahoochee. This enabled 
Johnston to make his lines shorter, and add much strength to 
them. Heavy cannonading and skirmishing was going on 
all the time, night and day. Some writer has truthfully re- 
marked of this campaign : " We crowd them day and night ; 
push them from tree to tree, from ridge to ridge, from earth- 
work to earthwork, from their first position to their last. A 
vast skirmish blazes from morning to night along ten or 
twelve miles of Infantry lines." 

Perched on Kenesaw, Johnston could look down on the 
national camps and observe every movement. His Artillery 
thundered constantly, but did little damage on account of 
their extreme height, the shot and shell passing overhead, as 
the troops lay close up against his mountain elevation. 

During the operations about Kenesaw, the rain continued 
to fall incessantly, much retarding the general movements 
of the army, but all kept in fine spirits, and every opportu- 
nity was embraced to work closer and closer to the intrench- 
ed foe, keeping up an unceasing picket firing, goading him 
without intermission. 


On the 18th of June, the First Kentucky made no partic- 
ular movement. On the 19th, the regiment moved out to- 
ward Powder Springs, and went into camp, the fighting still 
going on. The next day the regiment moved toward Powder 
Springs and formed in line of battle. The enemy appearing in 
too strong force for our men to manage, they fell back about 
two miles, and went into camp on a sluggish swamp or 
stream called Mud Creek, to the right of Gen. Cox's division 
of the Twenty-Third Army Corps. 

On the 21st, about 1 :30 p. m., a considerable force of the 
enemy's Cavalry made their way through dense timber to 
the opposite side of the creek, and near Adams's camp, and 
formed in line. Suddenly the line parted, and two pieces of 
Artillery were brought forward and opened upon our men, 
shelling them out of camp. But the men immediately rallied, 
and being reinforced by the Twelfth Kentucky Infantry and 
a section of Artillery from Cox's command, they in turn 
drove the enemy back, and held their position. 

On the 22d, Capt. J. S. Pankey, with company I, went on 
picket in the Powder Springs road, took the bridge from the 
enemy's picket over Mud Creek, and skirmished sharply, 
raised breastworks, and lay behind them all night. 

On the same day, as Hooker advanced his lines, with 
Schofield on his right,, Hood's corps, with detachments of 
other commands of the Confederate army, at 4 p. m., sud- 
denly attacked the Union lines. The assault fell mostly on 
Williams's division of Hooker's corps, and a brigade of Has- 
call's division of Schofield's force. The ground was com- 
paratively open, and though the enemy drove in the Union 
skirmish line, yet still persisting in the assault till sundown, 
and reaching the main battle line of the Unionists, the 
enemy received a severe repulse, leaving his dead and wound- 
ed and many prisoners in our hands. This engagement is 
known as the affair of the Kolb House. 

On the 23d, Company I was still behind breastworks be- 
yond the Mud Creek bridge. Four of the Company went out 
and drove some of the enemy's pickets from their posts. 

The regiment remained in camp throwing out pickets to 
the front and on each flank until the 26th, when it was 
marched out, dismounted, and made a charge on the enemy. 


driving them under the shelter of their Artillery, which 
opened upon our men and drove them back. 

At about this time several deserved and unnecessarily 
deferred promotions took place in the regiment of which 
were the following : 

Company J : Capt. A. T. Keen was promoted to Major for 
gallantry on many a field of battle. Lieut. John T. McLain 
was promoted to Captain, June 30, 1864, and 2d Lieut. Alex- 
ander C. Smith was promoted to 1st Lieutenant, and 1st 
Sergeant Sandusky Bruton was promoted to 2d Lieutenant 
the same day. 

Company K: The dashing and gallant Capt. Thomas 
Rowland was promoted to Major, July 16th, 1864. 1st Lieu- 
tenant Philip Roberts was promoted Captain the same date, 
and 2d Lieutenant Tilford N. Bruner was made 1st Lieuten- 
ant at the same time. 

June 27th, the regiment loaded up its camp equipage, 
moved across Mud Creek bridge, and to the right of the main 
army, formed in line of battle, drove the enemy one mile, 
and went into camp. 

Sherman's favorite plan of campaign heretofore had been 
to invite Gen. Johnston to attack his lines, repulse him, and 
then turn his position by flank movements ; but Sherman 
had an able foe to contend with, who would not always en- 
ter the traps set for him. He now determined to assault his 
position, for which he gives the following reasons: "Al- 
though inviting the enemy at all times to commit such mis- 
takes, I could not hope for him to repeat them after the 
example at Dallas and the Kolb House ; and upon studying 
the ground, I had no alternative in my turn but assault his 
lines or turn his position. Either course had its difficulties 
and dangers, and I perceived that the enemy and our own 
officers had settled down into a conviction that I would not 
assault fortified lines. 

" An army to be efficient must not settle down to a single 
mode of offense, but must be prepared to execute any plan 
which promises success. I wanted, therefore, for the moral 
effect, to make a successful assault against the enemy be- 
hind his breastworks, and resolved to attempt it at that 
point where success would give the largest fruits of victory. 


The general point selected was the left center, because if I 
could throw a strong head of column through at that point 
by pushing it boldly and rapidly two and a half miles, it 
would reach the railroad below Marietta, cut off the enemy's 
right and center from its line of retreat, and then by turn- 
ing on either part, it could be overwhelmed and destroyed/' 

June 24th, Sherman gave orders for an assault at two 
points south of the Kenesaw on the 27th of June, giving 
throe days' notice for preparation, one to be made near Lit- 
tle Kenesaw by McPherson's troops, and the other about a 
mile further south by Gen. Thomas's troops. 

When the appointed day came, the two assaults were 
made in the manner prescribed, and both failed, costing the 
Union forces many valuable lives, among them Gens. Harker 
and McCook, and Col. Rice and others badly wounded, our 
aggregate loss being nearly 3,000, while the enemy's loss was 
less, lying behind his well-formed breastworks. Sherman 
remarks : " Failure as it was, and for which I assume the 
entire responsibility, I yet claim it produced good fruits, as 
it demonstrated to Johnston that I would assault, and that 
boldly. And we also gained and held ground so close to the 
enemy's parapets that he could not show a head above 

June 28th, the regiment moved across the creek, Com- 
pany I was ordered on the skirmish line, and was engaged 
with the enemy's pickets all night. The next day, the regi- 
ment moved out and went into line, dismounted, and skir- 
mished with the enemy all day, both parties holding their 
positions until night, when the regiment fell back to camp. 
On the 30th, the regiment remained inactive. 

After the failure of the Union troops' attack on the en- 
emy's left center, Sherman had no other recouse but to re- 
turn to his favorite line of operations, that is, turn his posi- 
tion. On the 1st of July, Garrard's Cavalry took the place 
of McPherson's forces in front of Kenesaw, and his whole 
army was put in motion toward Turner's Ferry, which is on 
the Chattahoochee, at the mouth of Nickajack Creek. This 
movement had the desired effect. McPherson marched on 
the night of the 2d of July, and the next morning Kenesaw 
was found to be abandoned by the enemy. Early in the 


morning Sherman's skirmishers reached the mountain top. 

While the Infantry were making their grand movements, 
on the 1st of July, Adams's brigade moved out of camp at 
an early hour, crossed to the south side of Sweetwater Creek, 
went five or six miles further to the right wing of our army, 
and ran the Rebel pickets into their camp. A scouting 
party, consisting of Companies H, I, and K, of the First 
Kentucky Cavalry, and two or three companies of the 
Eleventh, was sent out but found no enemy. Gen. Stone- 
man had been ordered this day to demonstrate against 
Campbellton, on the Chattahoochee, supported by Gen. 
McCook of the Army of the Cumberland. On the 2d day of 
July, the regiment marched all day, captured some prisoners, 
and camped near Salt Springs. 

Our Infantry's right was now at a point five miles in rear 
of the enemy's left, ten miles from the key of his position 
— Kenesaw — and only four miles from his railroad, and six 
from the Chattahoochee, while we controlled the Sandtown 
road to the river. The position seemed exposed and the 
movement to gain it hazardous, yet when once gained and 
intrenched it was really secure, for the enemy could not de- 
tach force enough to dislodge our forces without abandoning 
his position about Kenesaw and hazarding a general engage- 
ment in open field. This was the situation when the move- 
ment commenced. The enemy retreated from the Kenesaw 
on the night of the 2d of July. 

The passage of the Chattahoochee now occupied both 
armies for some days. Sherman, in person, entered Marietta 
at 8:30 the next morning, just as the enemy's Cavalry were 
leaving. Thomas's line, having moved forward to the rail- 
road, turned in pursuit toward the Chattahooche. Marietta 
is situated in a beautiful valley in the rear of Kenesaw, to 
which place there is a drive through the most lovely groves. 

It was hoped that Johnston might be assailed in crossing 
the Chattahoochee, but he skillfully provided against this, 
and covered his movement with great skill. He had con- 
structed a strong tete-du-pont at the Chattahoochee, with an 
advanced intrenched line across the road at Smyrna camp- 
ground, five miles from Marietta. 

While the main army was making its skillful movements 


in pursuit of the enemy and the passage of the Chatta- 
hoochee, Gen. Stoneman was left to continue operations on 
the right in conjunction with Gen. McPherson. 

On the third, the command was ordered to the Chatta- 
hoochee on a scout, found the enemy on the opposite side, 
and in skirmishing with him, John P. Riggins, of Company 
A, was wounded in the thigh. 

On the 4th, the enemy's Cavalry crossed the river, fired 
upon our pickets, and Companies D, I, J, K and L, with 
three Companies of the Eleventh Kentucky, pursued them 
to the river at Campbellton, where a heavy skirmish took 
place, in which William Huff, of Company J, was killed, 
and three wounded of the same Company, among whom 
were Richard B. Campbell and "William M. Smith, the other 
name not given in records. 

In the meantime, Thomas had found the enemy in his 
strongly intrenched line at the Smyrna Camp-ground, five 
miles from Marietta, with his front covered by a parapet, 
and his flanks behind the Nickajack and Rottenwood Creeks. 
On the 4th of July his entire line of pits was captured, and 
strong demonstrations made along Nickajack Creek, and at 
Turner's Ferry. Next morning Johnston had abandoned 
his position and Sherman moved to the Chattahoochee. 
Thomas's left flank rested near Pace's Ferry, McPherson's 
right at Nickajack, and Schofield in reserve. The Confed- 
erate Cavalry crossed the Chattahoochee, Wheeler watching 
it above, and Jackson below. Johnston followed his Cavalry 
on the night of the 5th and took position on Peach Tree 
Creek and the river. His army lay behind a line of great 
strength, covering both railroad and pontoon bridges. In 
order to turn his position, it was necessary to cross the Chat- 
tahoochee, a rapid stream, which could be crossed only on 
bridges, except at one or two difficult fords. 

It was now necessary for Sherman to bring in requisition 
his highest military skill : he had to cross the difficult river 
in the face of 50,000 men. To accomplish this he made a 
feint on Johnston's left flank, by making strong demonstra- 
tions south of the railroad bridge, threatening to cross there. 
" His real object was, by shifting masses of troops from the 
extreme right to the extreme left, to turn Johnston's right 


flank, and hold the vital strategic point in that direction." 
Schofield was ordered across from his position on the 
Sandtown road, to Smyrna Camp-ground, and next to the 
Chattahoochee, near the mouth of Soap Creek, to gain a 
lodgment on the east bank. After making this movement, 
a good pontoon and trestle bridge was laid, and a lodgment 
on high and commanding ground was effected. Garrard 
moved rapidly north to Roswell, and destroyed the Confed- 
erate supply factories there. Over one of these — the woolen 
factory — the owner displayed the French flag; it was not 
respected, the factory was destroyed, Sherman claiming that 
he would not allow our own men to manufacture supplies for 
the enemy, much less foreigners in the enemy's country. 

Garrard got possession of the shallow fords at Rosewell, 
and McPherson's whole army was transferred from the ex- 
treme right of the Union lines to the left. Simultaneously 
Howard had built a bridge at Power's Ferry, two miles be- 
low Schofield ; had crossed over and taken position on his 
right. By the 9th of July, Sherman had three points of 
passage over the Chattahoochee above the enemy, with good 
roads leading to Atlanta. Johnston now abandoned his 
tete-du-pont, burned his bridges, and left Sherman undis- 
puted master north and west of the river. 

There was the utmost consternation now throughout the 
whole Confederacy. The works abandoned were of the most 
formidable kind. The inhabitants of Atlanta were terror- 
stricken. They had never dreamed until this time that the 
National forces could reach them. Railroads converge to 
this city from the four cardinal points. It was only eight 
miles distant, with its magazines, stores, arsenals, workshops, 
and foundries. 

Sherman's army now took a short rest before advancing. 
Rousseau was ordered from Decatur, Alabama, with 2,000 men 
to push rapidly south and advance to Opelika, and cut the 
only stem of railroad connecting the channels of travel be- 
tween Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, thus cutting off 
Johnston's source of supplies and reinforcements from that 
direction. At the same time Sherman was collecting stores 
of supplies at Allatoona, Marietta, and Vining's Station. 

While this grand shifting of scenes, and movements of 


actors in the great drama was taking place, it is necessary to 
return to the First Kentucky Cavalry. It was performing 
its part in the tragedy. Duty, as well as inclination, re- 
quired it to be busy. Though individuals might shirk their 
parts, Sherman allowed no idle organizations. He was ham- 
mering at the Confederacy continually. 

The regiment was left near Campbellton on the 4th, after 
having a severe skirmish at that place. On the 5th, the 
regiment took a day's rest in camp. The whole-souled and 
jolly Capt. Pankey was taken sick, and went to the rear for 
only a day or two ; he could not remain from his " boys " 
long at a time, and Lieut. T. J. Graves assumed command 
of Company I for the time. 

Stoneman's Cavalry still continued guarding and scout- 
ing down the river. On the 6th, at 2 p. m., Companies A, B, 
D, G, H and I, of the First Kentucky, went on a scout to 
Campbellton, met the enemy, had a lively skirmish, drove 
them back and pursued them, fell back, and went into camp 
one and one-half miles south of the regiment's former camp, 
and near the river. 

At 2 p. m., on the 7th, the regiment was ordered back to 
its former camp near Powder Springs, and Companies I and 
J were ordered four miles in the rear of the regiment to 
j*uard a bridge on Sweetwater Creek. On the 8th of July, 
the Eighth and Ninth Michigan relieved the two Companies, 
and they returned to camp. Nothing worthy of note trans- 
pired with the regiment until the 11th. 

Gen. Stoneman still continued making demonstrations 
on the right of our lines, while the chief movements for 
gaining Sherman's objective point, Atlanta, were made from 
the left. On the 12th, the First Kentucky, with other regi- 
ments under Stoneman, marched west in direction of Carrol- 
ton, twenty miles, and went into camp. The next day the 
command moved out early and went to Moore's Bridge, on 
the Chattahoochee River. The following is taken from Gen. 
Stoneman's report of the same date : 

" By taking a roundabout way, and by unfrequented 
roads, our parties succeeded in capturing or cutting off every 
scout the enemy had out. We surprised the guard at the 
bridge (the First Tennessee Cavalry) and drove them away 


before they had time to set fire to the straw and pine knots 
prepared for its conflagration. The Eleventh Kentucky 
Cavalry had the advance, under Col. Adams, and did th^ 
thing handsomely. The bridge had been partially destroyed 
by tearing up the sleepers and planks, but we will have it 
repaired during the night. It is a covered structure, 450 
feet long, very well built, on two main spans. One of the 
couriers we captured came down on this side of the river, bore 
a message to the commanding officer here that the Yankees 
were coming in large force, and that he must hold the bridge 
at all hazards, and that reinforcements were on the way." 

After driving away the enemy, the bridge was repaired, 
and a few men crossed over and captured a few wagons,, 
mules, and prisoners. The command was ready to cross the 
bridge at daybreak the next morning, but on attempting to 
cross, the enemy opened with four pieces of Artillery from 
the edge of the timber on the opposite side, and endeavored 
to retake their rifle-pits near the water's edge. Gen. Stone- 
man now deemed it inexpedient to push his endeavors fur- 
ther, ordered the bridge to be burned, and the boats which 
had been collected there for security, destroyed. It is the 
recollection of the Author, that Lieut. Wm. P. Bailard, 
Company E, First Kentucky, performed the dangerous duty 
of applying the torch to the prepared combustibles to de- 
stroy the bridge, as the climate was getting very torrid 
around that point at the time. Stoneman remained during 
the morning, sending scouts down the river to within thir- 
teen miles of Franklin, and finding neither fords nor .ferry- 
boats, in the evening fell back to Villa Rica, and encamped 
near that place. On the 15th, the regiment moved to Skin 
Chestnut, in the neighborhood of Sweetwater. 

On the 16th, the regiment marched on the Sandtown 
road, went one mile to the left and encamped, where it re- 
mained until the 19th. On this day the enemy was reported 
crossing the river, the regiment was formed in line of battle, 
and in this position it lay during the night. At 4 o'clock, 
Company J was sent to the picket-post near the river to 
relieve Company G. On the 20th, the regiment moved to its 
former camp near Sweetwater factory, where it remained 
until the 23d of July. 


Just at the time that Gen. Sherman, after giving his toil- 
worn Infantry a few days' rest, was in the act of making his 
movements against the enemy around Atlanta, after cross- 
ing his Infantry forces, at 10 o'clock on the night of the 
17th, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston received a dispatch from Ad- 
Gen. Cooper, C. S. A., that Lieut. Gen. J. B. Hood had been 
commissioned to the temporary rank of General, under the 
late law of the Confederate Congress; that he was directed 
by the Secretary of War to inform Gen. Johnston, that as 
he had failed to arrest the advance of the enemy to the 
vicinity of Atlanta, far in the interior of Georgia, and ex- 
pressed no confidence that he could defeat him, that he was 
relieved from the command of the Army of the Tennessee, 
which he was ordered to turn over immediately to Gen. 

Johnston, in self-defense, replied : " As to the alleged 
cause of my removal, I assert that Sherman's army is much 
stronger compared with that of the Tennessee, than Grant's 
compared with that of Northern Virginia. Yet the enemy 
has been compelled to advance much more slowly to the 
vicinity of Atlanta, than to that of Richmond and Peters- 
burg ; and penetrated much deeper into Virginia than into 
Georgia. Confident language by a military commander is 
not usually regarded as evidence of confidence." 

Only a few days elapsed before the Confederate Govern- 
ment had great cause to lament the injustice done to Johnston 
by superseding him with such a commander as Hood. He not 
only had the confidence of the officers and men principally 
of his own command, but the respect and admiration of the 
Union forces, leaving out that he was on the wrong side. 
Sherman, in all his movements, found Johnston to be a foe- 
man worthy of his steel. To illustrate the great flanker's 
opinion of the two Generals, Johnston and Hood, it was 
related to the Author by an attache of Stoneman's head- 
quarters, who was present at the time, that Sherman was 
asked by some General immediately after the change in Con- 
federate commanders, what movement he intended to make 
next. To this inquiry he replied : " I don't know. As John- 
ston is a military man, if he was in command, I would know 
what movement to make ; but as Hood is a fool I will have 


to wait and see what blunders lie makes, and then govern 
my movements accordingly." On the same occasion, Sher- 
man made the hyperbolic expression that Johnston had 
made one of the most masterly retreats ever known in his- 
tory; that in the campaign from Dal ton to Atlanta, one 
hundred miles, he had been flanked and hard pressed all the 
time, and had never lost a horse collar. 

All being ready for an advance, Sherman ordered it to 
commence on the 17th, Gen. Thomas to cross at Power's and 
Pace's Ferry bridges, and to march by Buck Head. Gen. 
Schofield was already across at the mouth of Soap Creek, 
and was to march by Cross Keys; and Gen. McPerson was 
to direct his course from Roswell straight against the Au- 
gusta road at some point east of Decatur, near Stone's 
Mountain. Gen. Garrard's Cavalry acted with Gen. Mc- 
Pherson, and Gens. Stoneman and McCook still continued 
watching the river and the roads below the railroad. 

At the time appointed the army advanced from their 
camps and formed a general line along the old Peach Tree 
road. Continuing on a general right wheel, Gen. McPerson 
reached the Augusta railroad on the 18th, at a point seven 
miles east of Decatur, and with Gen. Garrard's Cavalry and 
Gen. Morgan L. Smith's Infantry division of the Fifteenth 
Corps, broke up a section of about four miles, and Gen. 
Schofield reached the town of Decatur. 

On the 19th, Gen. McPherson moved along the railroad 
into Decatur, and Gen. Schofield followed a road toward 
Atlanta, and Gen. Thomas crossed Peach Tree Creek in force 
by numerous bridges, in face of the enemy's intrenched line ; 
all found the enemy in more or less force, and skirmished 

On the 20th, all the armies had closed in, converging to- 
ward Atlanta, but as a gap existed between Schofield and 
Thomas, two divisions of Gen. Howard's corps of the Army 
of the Cumberland, was moved to the left to connect with 
Gen. Schofield, leaving Gen. Newton's division, of the same 
corps, on the Buck Head road. 

In the afternoon of the 20th, about 4 p. m., the enemy 
sallied from his works in force, and formed a line of battle 
against our right center, composed of Newton's division on 


the Buck Head road, and Hooker's corps next south, and 
Johnston's division of Palmer's corps. The attack was sud- 
den and a little unexpected, but Gen. Newton had hastily- 
covered his front by a line of rail piles, which enabled him 
to meet and repulse the attack. Gen. Hooker's whole corps 
was uncovered, and had to fight in comparatively open 
ground. But after a severe and furious battle, the enemy 
was driven back to his intrenchments. The action in front 
of Johnston was light, he being intrenched. The enemy left 
on the field 500 dead, 1,000 wounded, 7 stand of colors, and 
many prisoners. Sherman's loss in killed, wounded, and 
missing, about 1,500; he supposed the enemy's entire loss 
could not have been less than 5,000. 

Hood, in this engagement, was only carrying out John- 
ston's plan as given to Hood on his leaving the command, 
that is, if the opportunity offered, to attack Sherman on 
crossing Peach Tree Creek, and he failed. He now tried the 
second plan, which was to withdraw the main army from the 
outer Peach Tree Creek intrenchments, to leave Atlanta un- 
der the protection of State troops, and to concentrate far 
out on the right, in readiness to fall upon Sherman's left 
flank, when he came up to form his regular line in front of 

On the night of the 21st, Hood moved beyond Decatur 
and lay in wait. Sherman came up and found the works on 
Peach Tree Creek abandoned ; he thought the city was aban- 
doned, too. His troops crossed the well-finished parapet of 
the enemy and closed in on Atlanta in the form of an arc 
. of a circle of about two miles radius. 

Sherman was soon apprised of the enemy's intentions. 
At 11a. m., on the 22d, the sound of musketry on the left 
and rear revealed the imminent danger. While Stewart and 
Cheatham were engaging Thomas and Schofield, Hardee was 
making desperate attempts to turn Sherman's left. 

In the maneuvers, McPherson had gained a high hill to 
the south and west of the railroad. Here he had a com- 
manding position from which he could view the very heart 
of the city. Gen. Dodge, with the Sixteenth corps, was or- 
dered from right to left to occupy the position and make it 
a strong left flank. In the morning Sherman and McPher- 


son consulted at the Howard House in regard to the move- 
ments necessary to be made, and separated about noon. The 
sounds of musketry were soon after heard to the left and 
rear ; at first scattering shots, but they soon swelled in vol- 
ume, and the Artillery opened. The Sixteenth corps had 
been ordered, as soon as their work was done, to move down 
a country road, and form on the left of the Seventeenth 
corps, refusing the line to a point nearer the railroad. The 
corps was in the act of moving according to orders, when 
they were attacked, and forced from the road to a position 
in a field on the right. Battery F, Second U. S., was lost 
here, and some of its men captured while unlimbering the 
guns. McPherson, with a single Orderly, rode rapidly down 
the line to the point of attack. He supposed that the Six- 
teenth had connected with the Seventeenth corps, and fol- 
lowed the line of the latter, and by so doing, went through 
space between the right and left of the two corps directly 
into the Confederate lines. He was instantly killed by the 
Confederate skirmishers. Gen. John A. Logan was directed 
to assume command of his forces — the Army of the Ten- 

For four hours now the fierce conflict raged along the 
whole line. At 4 p. m., Hood again plunged into the Army 
of the Tennessee, broke through its lines, captured several 
guns, driving a division 400 yards, and in the face of a ter- 
rific fire, carried two batteries. Two divisions of the Fifteenth 
corps, which wero on the right and left of the railroad, were 
separated. Sherman being at this part of the field, and 
knowing the importance of the connection at this point, or- 
dered some of Schofield's batteries to be placed in a com- 
manding position, to open with incessant fire of shot and 
shell upon the enemy, and the Fifteenth Corps to regain its 
lost position at any cost. The orders were executed ; the 
enemy at length gave way, the Fifteenth corps regained its 
lost ground, and all the guns except the two advanced ones, 
which had been removed by the enemy. With this ended 
the battle of the 22d. the Union loss being 3,722 killed, 
wounded, and prisoners. 

The enemy's dead were computed at 3,240, of which 2,200 



were actual count. They left on the field their dead, wound- 
ed, and about 1,000 prisoners. Their probable loss in all 
was not less than 8,000. It will be seen that the first stroke 
of the Confederacy's boasted fighting General proved ter- 
ribly disastrous to their cause. It was one of the chief de- 
cisive battles of the war. 

Garrard, on the 21st, had been detached with his Cavalry 
to Covington, forty-two miles east of Atlanta, with orders 
to break two important bridges across the Yellow and the 
Ulcofauhachee Rivers, tributaries of the Ocmulgee. He re- 
turned with the work thoroughly accomplished. The Au- 
gusta road was rendered useless. 

Gens. Schofield and Thomas had closed well up, holding 
the enemy behind his inner intrenchments. Gen. Sherman 
now ordered the Army of the Tennessee to vacate its line 
and shift by the right below Proctor's Creek, and Gen. Scho- 
field to extend up the Augusta road. About this time Gen. 
Rousseau, with 2,000 Cavalry, had arrived from his expedi- 
tion to Opelika, but the men were fatigued from their long, 
rapid march. Rousseau relieved Stoneman at the river about 
Sandtown, and his command was shifted to the left flank. 

All the principal railroads converging to Atlanta were 
now either in possession of Sherman, or had been cut by his 
forces, except the Macon road. The whole effective Cavalry 
was now prepared for a blow at the railroad, the particulars 
of which will be narrated in another chapter. 


One of the most adroit escapes from captivity took place while Stone- 
man was guarding the right flank of Sherman on the Chattahoochee. It 
was soon after the affair at Moore's Bridge. Serg. E. T. Pierce, of Com- 
pany A, First Kentucky, was the hero of this exploit, which for coolness 
in planning and skill in execution, stands unsurpassed in the annals of 
soldiering. The Sergeant had been captured at Eockford, East Tennes- 
see, November 14, 1863, and after remaining in prison for some time, he 
had, after several unsuccessful attempts to escape, finally succeeded in 
reaching our lines only a short time before. 

While the regiment was camped near the river, squads of the enemy 
would frequently cross over and harass our men. On one of these occa- 
sions, our men had engaged them, driven diem back, and on account of 
the density of the timber, could not successfully follow them further, and 
withdraw. Private Ed. Stephens had lost something, and by request, 
Serg. Pierce went back with him on a narrow path in the woods to help 


Mui hunt it. Suddenly some seven or eight Rebels rushed from conceal- 
ment with presented guns upon them, and demanded their surrender. 
With the "drop" upon him, Pierce was compelled to give up. Stephens 
being on a wild horse, on their approach to take his arms, the horse be- 
came frightened, and dashed away, thus enabling him to escape. Pierce 
was hurried across the river in an old canoe, and taken immediately to 
Gen. Hume's headquarters, about half a mile from the river. Here he was 
closely questioned for an hour in the fruitless attempt to get valuable in- 
formation from him ; for the Sergeant was true and loyal to the core. At 
the conclusion of the interview, Price proposed if the General would re- 
lease him, that on his return he would send a favorite Captain of theirs 
back in exchange ; or if he failed to effect the exchange, he would return 
and give himself up ; but a Yankee's honor could not be risked so far. 

The members of the First Kentucky Cavalry having a reputation 
among the enemy of being hard to hold, he was put under care of a strong 
guard, with strict orders to watch him closely. He was kept within fifty 
yards of the General's headquarters with the General's Staff, and escort 
around him. One guard was on duty all the time with a drawn pistol 
over him. 

When night came, the Sergeant, who was noted for great self-control, 
showed no anxiety about his unfortunate situation, but quietly lay down 
with an old blanket spread over him. His captors had confiscated sixty 
dollars of his money, and also his boots, therefore he was in his "sock 
feet." Our captive lay flat upon his back so that he could covertly watch 
his opportunities. Finally all lay down except the one on duty, who 
still stood over him with the ready pistol. Just at the first cock-crowing, 
about half an hour before day, Pierce apparently in a dead slumber, from 
a stealthy glance of his watchful eye, noticed that his guard had sat down 
and commenced nodding. He waited till his watcher's head slowly bowed 
down and remained in that position. He now slowly raised the blanket 
with his left hand, and smoothed it over to his right side ; raised himself 
up cautiously, and saw that his guard never waked. With cat-like tread, 
in his sock feet, he moved off, glancing back to see if his action was no- 
ticed, till getting a safe distance, he advanced more briskly until he 
reached the thick woods. He did not attempt to make for the nearest 
point at the river; but stealing through the undergrowth, now listening, 
his acute ears ever on the alert for voices and footsteps, now dodging, 
sometimes lying down in the weeds and bushes to keep from being seen 
by the passing enemy, about 10 o'clock he came near the river, a mile or 
two below the General's headquarters. He now cautiously made his way 
down a small branch bordered with weeds and bushes toward the river. 
On approaching its banks he found that a large number of the enemy were 
in the stream bathing. This would have alarmed most men in his situa- 
tion, but not so with the cool-headed, self-possessed Sergeant ; he saw a 
chance for his salvation. Good judgment told him that in the exhilara- 
tion of their sport, the difference between a naked Yankee and a naked 
Confederate would not be noticed. The weeds grew dense and rank 
to the very water's edge. He found a rail, and stripping himself of his 
loyal blue, he made a compact bundle of his few clothes yet unconfiscated, 


and tied it under the rail with his suspenders. He then adroitly slipped 
the rail into the -water without attracting attention. Playing the role of 
one who couid not swim without the rail, with his breast across the point 
where his clothes were fastened, he leisurely floated down through a gap 
among the Lathers, until he reached beyond the main current of the swol- 
len river, when he made for the opposite shore. Fortune favored him, for 
they seemed to pay no attention to his maneuvers. Hastily pulling his 
bundle from the rail, he ascended the river bank, in soft tones bidding 
his fellow-bathers " good bye," and swiftly made his way to a favorable 
spot where he donned his clothing. He rambled till late in the evening, 
when he found Adams's brigade headcpiarters. General Stoneman hap- 
pened to be present, and Pierce related his adventures to an admiring 
crowd, for his cool-headed bravery was well known in the command. It 
so happened that the captured Confederate Captain was present whom 
Pierce proposed to have exchanged for himself, and he lamented that Gen. 
Humes had not accepted his proposition for the exchange. 



The two great raids on the Macon Railroad — Sherman's 
object, and his orders mccook's successes, disasters, 


difficulties and attempts to return the fight near 

Hillsborough — Death of Capt. Wolford and Lieut. 
Humphrey, and wounding of Lieut. Murphy and others 
— C apron and Adams get out — Stoneman, with Bid- 
dle's brigade, surrenders — Capron's misfortune — 
Adams castigates the enemy. Wilshire's squad — 
Adams brings the brigade safely out — Honors be- 
stowed upon him — Huffman's narrative — Stoneman's 
ill-natured report — Others commend Adams — Ter- 

Smith, and others. 

The combined raids of Stonernan and McCook com- 
menced on the 27th of July, 1864. As there has been much 
misunderstanding on this subject, the Author deems it neces- 
sary to make the following extracts from Gen. Sherman's 
official reports : 

* * * I shifted Gen. Stoneman to our left flank, and 
ordered all my Cavalry to prepare for a blow at the Macon 
road simultaneous with the movement of the Army of the 
Tennessee toward East Point. To accomplish this, I gave 
Gen. Stoneman the command of his own and Gen. Garrard's 
Cavalry, making an effective force of 5,000 men, and to Gen. 
McCook I gave his own and the new Cavalry brought by 
Gen. Rousseau, which was commanded by Col. Harrison, 
of the Eighth Indiana Cavalry, in the aggregate about 
4,000. These two well-appointed bodies were to move in 
concert, the former by the left around Atlanta to Mc- 
Donough, and the latter by the right on Fayetteville, and on 
a certain night, viz., July 28th, they were to meet on the 
Macon road near Lovejoy's, and destroy it in the most effec- 
tive manner. I estimated that this joint Cavalry could 
whip all of Wheeler's Cavalry, and could otherwise accom- 
plish its task, and think so still. I had the officers in com- 
mand to meet me, and explained the movement perfectly, 
and they entertained not a doubt of perfect success. At the 


very moment almost of starting, Gen. Stoneman addressed 
me a note asking permission, after fulfilling his orders, and 
breaking the road, to be allowed with his command proper 
to proceed to Macon and Andersonville, and release our pris- 
oners of war confined at those points. There was something 
most captivating in the idea, and the execution was within 
the bounds of probability of success. I consented that after 
the defeat of Wheeler's Cavalry, which was embraced in his 
orders, and breaking the road, he might attempt it, with his 
Cavalry proper, sending that of Gen. Garrard back to its 
proper flank of the army. 

Both Cavalry expeditions started at the time appointed. 
I have as yet no report of Gen. Stoneman, who is a prisoner 
of war at Macon, but I know he dispatched Gen. Garrard's 
Cavalry to Flat Rock for the purpose of covering his own 
movement to McDonough, but for some reason unknown to 
me, he went off toward Covington, and did not again com- 
municate with Gen. Garrard at Flat Rock. Gen. Garrard 
remained until the 29th, skirmishing heavily with part of 
"Wheeler's Cavalry, and occupying their attention, but hear- 
ing nothing from Gen. Stoneman, he moved back to Conyers, 
where, learning that Gen. Stoneman had gone to Covington, 
and south on the east side of the Ocmulgee, he returned and 
resumed position on our left. ***** His [Stone- 
man's] mistake is in not making the first concentration with 
Gens. McCook and Garrard near Lovejoy's, according to his 
orders, which is yet unexplained. 

Gen. McCook went down the west side of the Chatta- 
hoochee to near Rivertown, laid a pontoon bridge, crossed 
his command, moved rapidly on Palmetto Station on the 
West Point railroad, tore up a section of track and left a 
detachment to make a diversion toward Campbellton. He 
then moved rapidly to Fayetteville, where he destroyed a 
large number of wagons and mules, taking 250 prisoners, 
mostly quartermasters and men belonging to the trains. 
He then pushed for the Macon road, reaching Lovejoy's Sta- 
tion at the time appointed. Hearing nothing of Gen. Stone- 
man, and finding his progress east strongly opposed, he 
moved south and west, and reached Newnan on the West 
Point railroad, where he encountered an Infantry force com- 
ing from Mississippi to Atlanta, which had been stopped by 
the break he had made at Palmetto. This force hemmed 
him in and forced him to fight. He was compelled to drop 
his prisoners and cut his way out, losing some 500 officers- 


and men, among whom was Col. Harrison. He cut his way 
out, reached the Chattahoochee, crossed, and arrived at 
Marietta without further loss. 

But to return to Stoneman and his immediate command. 
Lieut. Richard E. Huffman, of Company F, First Kentucky 
Cavalry, three days after reaching our lines in safety, wrote 
a full narrative of the raid to his brother, Mack Huffman, at 
Stanford, Ky. Lieut. Huffman was then a young man of 
good judgment, a fine writer, of high moral tone, and there- 
fore of unquestionable veracity. As his narrative agrees so 
closely with official documents, and every incident was fresh 
in his mind at the time, his narrative is copied without 
change, only eliminating those matters of personal or private 
nature, and interpolating at times necessary explanations : 

About 2£ miles from Marietta, 
Aug. 7, 1864 (Sunday afternoon.) 
Dear Mack : — 


After the 20th of July, we scouted the river until the 
26th, when we were ordered to prepare for a raid, and it was 
a raid I'll ever remember. 

* * * Stoneman went from the left wing of the army, 
and McCook from the right. Our raid was under Stoneman, 
and no one else had anything to do with it. I shall speak 
something about McCook's raid toward the last. To under- 
stand our march you had best get a good map of Georgia. 
But first, the object of the raid: It was the intention of 
Gen. Sherman, that Stoneman should cut the railroad com- 
munications between Atlanta and Macon. After this, if 
Stoneman was able, he had permission to go to Macon and 
release about 1,500 of our officers confined there. But Stone- 
man appeared to wish to go to Macon first, and release the 
officers, then do what he could to the railroad. You will see 
how he succeeded in his plans, and how he suffered by not 
doing what he was ordered [to do.] 

On the morning of the 27th, we were roused up and 
started off without our breakfast. We went toward Decatur, 
which is six miles from Atlanta, accompanied by Gen. Gar- 
rard's forces. Stoneman's command was made up of the 
First and Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry, Fifth and Sixth In- 
diana Cavalry, Fourteenth Illinois and Eighth Michigan 
Cavalry, aud First Ohio Squadron, with a section of Ar- 

Garrard stopped here [Decatur ] [and was ordered to 


Flat Rock] to conceal our movements. When the enemy- 
heard of our move — they were expected to come out that 
way — Garrard was to give them battle, so as to give us time, 

and make the enemy believe our Cavalry had stopped there. 

* # # # * # # 

You notice that Decatur is on the Atlanta and Augusta 
railroad. Following that road, we passed by Stone Moun- 
tain through Lithonia and Conyer's Station. 

Stone Mountain is a high, bald, rocky elevation, near the 
railroad, and doe3 not have dirt enough on it to make rifle- 
pits, consequently it cannot be fortified. 

We passed through Conyer's Station Wednesday night. 
We rested a little before day about a mile from Covington. 
Early Thurday morning we went into Covington. Our men 
[Garrard's] had made a raid here a few days before, and de- 
stroyed a railroad bridge over a small river. Covington is 
quite a nice place. The ladies were better dressed than any 
I had ever seen in Georgia. Two came out to talk to me, 
and were very polite. I gave them a Louisville Journal, 
which they were pleased to get. A good many sick and 
wounded Rebels were found here. Our regiment being in 
advance, got hold of some whisky and brandy, and a num- 
ber got drunk and noisy, and the ranks got into confusion, 
which caused the officers much trouble. Gen. Stoneman 
generally required us to march in column of fours, and 
would swear and charge about when he saw the men out of 
order. He chanced to come into town when the men were 
in confusion, and commenced cursing and ordering in a way 
that would have done credit to Gen. Nelson. I was acting 
as Adjutant, and was very busy, but I could not help laugh- 
ing at the General's imprecations, and the noise of the men. 

Leaving Covington on the 28th, we turned to the right, 
and traveled toward Monticello. We marched within four 
miles of Monticello and encamped, having traveled near 
forty miles that day. We burned several bridges across the 
Ocmulgee to keep the enemy from crossing and getting in 
our rear. We also burned a factory. We passed through 
Monticello early on the morning of the 29th, and went on 
through Clinton, passing that place about sundown. Here 
several roads came together, any one of which led to Macon. 

At this point, according to Maj. Haviland Tompkin's re- 
port, Col. Adams's brigade moved on the right hand road 
from Clinton to Macon, Col. Biddle's brigade on the left 
hand, and Col. Capron's brigade on the left hand to strike 
the railroad. Maj. Davidson, of the Fourteenth Illinois, 
with 125 men, was sent to strike the railroad near Gordon, 


and destroy it east and beyond Oconee River. But to return 
to Huffman's narrative : 

Our brigade — the First and Eleventh — under command 
of Col. Adams, took the right hand road. Gen. Stoneman, 
with the remainder, took another road. We had not gone 
far before dark came. It was so dark and cloudy that we 
could scarcely see anything. While marching along, one of 
our men who had been in advance, came rushing back to us 
on foot. He told us that he had just escaped from the 
Rebels, who had captured him a few minutes before. We 
put out a strong advance guard of select men, and pretty 
soon they were fired upon by the enemy. On going up, I 
found that Perry J. Porter, of Company I, was killed, and 
Serg. A. J. Catron, of Company L, was wounded nearly in 
the same place where he was shot at Knoxville. Moving 
forward again, the Rebels did not fire until we got immedi- 
ately upon them. The darkness was so intense that we 
could not tell of their proximity untill we saw the flashes 
of their guns. They fired two volleys after the one spoken 
of, and every time they wounded some one, and also killed 
a horse. We also did execution among them. Capturing a 
wounded Rebel, he informed us that it was a company of 
forty-seven men that we were contending with. 

After the third volley we were not interrupted any more 
that night. But soon we came very near killing some of our 
own men. Gen. Stoneman, on hearing the firing, sent Lieut. 
W. C. Root, Company C, First Kentucky, at that time Acting 
Commissary on his Staff, with a squad to see what was the 
matter. They came up in our front, and our advance, sup- 
posing them to be the enemy, fired at them, and they re- 
turned the fire. The Lieutenant continued shouting and in- 
quiring who we were, and by this means we learned they 
were our own men.. They also captured one of our party, 
and he informed them that it was Adams's brigade. For- 
tunately, no one was hurt in this engagement. 

We camped that night about five miles from Macon. We 
lay down in the road, tied our horses to our legs, and slept 
about one hour and a half. We were still on a different 
road from that of Stoneman. We marched to about one 
and a half miles of the city ; here we met the enemy with 
Artillery, and we could not advance any further. 

Stoneman had advanced to the railroad which runs from 
Macon to Augusta, and had captured two trains of cars : one 
of them was loaded with hogs and cattle for the Rebel army. 
He also tore up and burned a good deal of railroad track. 
We were ordered to leave the road we were on and join 
Stoneman. We joined him about 3 o'clock in the evening, 


and learned the Rebels had from four to six thousand State 
Militia and regular troops in the city. I will here number our 
forces so you can be informed of our strength : First Brig- 
ade, Fifth and Sixth Indiana, Col. Biddle commanding, 
about 500 men; Second Brigade, Col. Capron commanding, 
Fourteenth Illinois and Eighth Michigan Cavalry and First 
Ohio Squadron, about 1,000 men ; Third Brigade, Col. Silas 
Adams commanding, numbering about 550 men ; a section 
of the Twenty-Fourth Indiana Battery under Cant. Hardy 
Total, about 2,200 men. 

The foregoing were the forces we had here, in the very 
center of the rear of all the Confederate forces in and 
around Atlanta, Of course we could not enter Macon. Our 
skirmishers reached the suburbs of the city. Oh, Slowness ! 
If we had only hurried a little, we could have released 
nearly 1,500 of our officers confined in prison at Macon, and 
so materially injured the Atlanta and Macon railroad as to 
have caused the enemy to evacuate Atlanta. We were twelve 
hours behind time. They had only 500 men in Macon twelve 
hours before, guarding the Union prisoners, and we could 
have defeated them easily. "We had delayed so long — giv- 
ing the enemy time to' gather from Augusta and other 
places a force sufficient to withstand us — that we could do 
nothing more. We had not been interrupted on our march 
to Macon by any forces in our rear. We well knew tiiat 
Wheeler's Cavalry would soon be after us, and it was best 
for us to make our way out. The question was, what road 
to take. 

We started toward Florida, expecting to go to some point 
on the Gulf, where the United States had a garrison, and 
make our escape that way. We had not gone far before an 
order came for us to go out on the same road we came in. 

Col. R. W. Smith, of Gen. Stoneman's Staff, in his report, 
gives the following reasons why Gen. Stoneman ordered the 
column to retrace its steps : 

" When the head of the column [under Adams], with the 
pack train, had advanced in this direction some two miles, 
a scout reported a large body of Rebel Cavalry coming into 
Macon, estimated from 1,000 to 1,500 strong. Fearing that 
this column would reach the ferry, where it was designed we 
would cross, and intercept our column, the General ordered 
a countermarch, and started back on the road we had gone 
down, designing at the same time. I know, to strike out in 
an easterly course, in direction of Milledgeville, as soon as 
practicable, for he thus expressed himself to me personally, 


and I do not yet know why this course was not pursued." 

Maj. Haviland Tompkins, also of Gen. Stoneman's Staff, 
who seems to have had more information on the subject, or 
to have been deeper in Gen. Stoneman's confidence than Col. 
Smith, gives the following reason why the General did not 
take the eastern or Milledgeville route : 

" Information soon came that the demonstration east had 
drawn the enemy in that direction, and that but a small 
force was on the Covington road; hence, he desired to press 
hard on that road, and reach Hillsborough, if possible, at 
which point he could take choice of three roads at daylight. 
But the enemy were too strongly posted, and he could not 
reach Hillsborough by two miles." Lieut. Huffman con- 
tinues : 

We about-faced and started on our return. Passed through 
Clinton about dark on the 30th of July, and saw a house on 
fire. Inquiring I learned that it was the jail in which they 
had confined some of our men after we had passed through 
on our way down. Our men became so incensed that they 
set fire to the prison. Passing on, it was not far before we 
met pickets from Wheeler's Cavalry who had come down in 
our rear, and whose object was to cut off our retreat toward 
our lines. Here the best policy would have been to have 
kept a small force skirmishing with the enemy, while the 
main body, taking another route, should endeavor to go 
around the Rebels. But Gen. Stoneman, contrary to the 
wishes of his brigade officers, kept driving in the pickets 
of the enemy until daylight, when we came upon a large 
body of them. His officers still advised him not to risk a 
fight. He paid no attention to them, and about 8 o'clock, 
we were ordered to attack the enemy in our fronton the road 
leading from Clinton to Monticello. The enemy was posted 
on a hill in a strong position. This was on Sunday, July 
31st. Gen. Stoneman appeared almost mad. 

We made the attack, and got within thirty yards of the 
enemy, when they broke and gave way in our front. We 
went up dismounted. We had already silenced their battery, 
and almost captured it, when we saw a large force coming 
in on our left. They pressed on, and to prevent being cut off 
entirely, we were compelled to give back ; then the Rebels 
poured it into us hot and thick. Here we lost some good 
men killed and wounded. We gave back some distance, and 
it was with great difficulty that we could get the men to halt 
and form. I never saw men make a more gallant or better 
charge than they did that morning. They found the enemy 


too strong in numbers and too strongly posted ; our men 
were tired and worn out with severe marching. They began 
to lose confidence in their commanding officers, and seemed 
to think it useless to form against a force so much larger 
than their own ; so but little more fighting could be got out 
of them that day. We succeeded, however, in forming a few. 
I had mounted my horse, and as acting Adjutant, was form- 
ing a skirmish line. The Rebels had ceased to pursue. While 
I was stopping and talking with some of the Sixth Indiana, 
a Rebel sharpshooter concealed in the woods, saw my gray 
horse, took deliberate aim at me, and shot my horse in the 
side, close by my leg. Poor old gray ! he seemed to know 
what was the matter. I dismounted and pulled off my sad- 
dle, and he lay down and died in about twenty-five minutes. 
We lay quiet now for two or three hours. Capt. Carr 
was on the outer line with his Company, when a supposed 
woman came up and applied for permission to come in. The 
Captain asked her where she wanted to go. She replied that 
she was the daughter of the old lady living in a house near 
by. Capt. Carr would not permit the pretended daughter to 
enter, but went to the house and inquired of the woman if 
the person held at our lines was her daughter, and the old 
lady replied that she was not. Other assertions of the 
" daughter " were found to be untrue, and Carr became sus- 
picious that the alleged daughter was a male in the guise of 
a female, and such indeed was the case, and so we had caught 
a spy. Gen. Stoneman made him keep on his dress all day. 
I shall say something more about this "gent" hereafter. 

We lay still until about 1 o'clock, when the enemy ad- 
vanced upon us, shelling us very rapidly. We fell back and 
commenced forming at another place, still within range of 
their cannon. We had Companies A and B, and a few others 
formed. The shells were flying all about us. I was near 
Company A, and a shell burst in the midst of it. I heard a 
groan, and when the smoke and dust cleared away, I saw 
that Lieut. Humphrey had his leg shot off. Capt. Wolford 
and some others dismounted to help him, when here came 
another shell in the same place. After it burst we looked, 
and oh, what a sight! Capt. Wolford was lying on the 
ground, his head nearly torn off by a piece of shell ! He 
was killed so quick that he hardly knew what hurt him. 
Just then the Rebels charged and we gave way. 

While this was going on here, Ma]. Keen had several com- 
panies on a skirmish line. In the charge spoken of, Lieut. 
Daniel Murphy was wounded, and I am afraid killed. As 
soon as these casualties became known in the regiment 
it cast a gloom over the men. Besides these officers, 
there were many good privates killed and wounded. Our 


regiment was suffering this way, and others were faring no 
better. We then got out of range of their cannon, when we 
were surrounded on all sides. We now learned that Gen. 
Stoneman had determined on surrendering. I have seen ex- 
citement in our regiment, but when our men, whose time 
was nearly out, learned that they were about to be made 
prisoners, the excitement was uncontrollable. Already many 
of the men of their own accord had taken out on foot to 
make their way through the enemy's lines. 

The Author will here introduce information compiled 
from other sources. Col. Adams now went to Gen. Stone- 
man and vehemently protested against surrendering his 
brigade ; that it was unjust at the expiration of his own regi- 
ment's term of service to consign his men to captivity to 
waste their lives in the horrid prisons of the South ; that 
many of Maj. Boyle's new battalion of the Eleventh Ken- 
tucky Cavalry had once belonged to the Confederate army, 
and to surrender them was the same as putting them into 
the hands of the executioner. Others also protested against 

Stoneman, in answer to Adams's protests, replied : " If 
you attempt to get out, your command will be cut all to 
pieces and killed." Adams rejoined : " I will take the re- 

Stoneman then said : " If you attempt it, you must take 
all the responsibility upon your own shoulders." Huffman 
continues : 

The General then told Adams if he wished he might take 
his brigade, and attempt to go out. Adams came gallop- 
ing back, and told the men what he had permission to do. 
Every one was eager to follow him. Adams led the way. 
Many from other regiments united with us and followed our 
leader. I know not how Col. Adams found the way ; but he 
led us over hills and deep ditches— not the sign of a path 
being there— and took us out between the Rebel pickets 
without being seen, and without firing a gun. It was one of 
the most wonderful feats he ever accomplished. 

Col. Capron had taken out his brigade in another di- 
rection, but had some fighting before getting out. Stoneman 
with the greater part of the Fifth Indiana, and two pieces of 
Artillery, surrendered after we got out. Some of the officers 
of the Eleventh Kentucky surrendered with Stoneman. I 
do not know their motives in remaining behind. One thing 


I do know, that is that the brigade officers who came out in- 
formed Gen. Stoneman that they would not surrender their 
commands if they could get out, and I know Stoneman 
fought some after we started out, so that those who refused 
to come out with us cannot say we acted dishonestly. 

Dr. H. Brown, Surgeon of the First Kentucky, Acting 
Medical Director on Gen. Stoneman's Staff, remained and 
surrendered. Dr. A. A. Campbell seems to have a dislike for 
the Rebels, and thinking perhaps, that they would not ex- 
change a Surgeon for his convenience, took the wiser part, 
and came out with us. All of our wounded fell into the 
enemy's hands. I will speak more about our loss after 

After getting through the enemy's lines, we had to de- 
termine which road to take, and also to ascertain whether 
we were followed or not. We found that they were not at 
our heels, and we started out on the Edenton road. We 
marched leisurely, and learned that Col. Capron's command 
■was on ahead of us, and running their horses to kill. We 
soon learned this from the number of dead horses found on 
the road. We soon came up to those men spoken of as going 
out on foot. 

We traveled all night of the 31st of July, and passed 
through Edenton late. This is said to be one of the finest 
parts of Georgia, but we had no time to stop and see. We 
were moving away from the enemy in our rear, and began to 
feel relieved. We could now risk our voices loud enough to 
hear each other talk. We continued on our march to Madi- 
son on the 1st of August. [On this day, Adams's brigade 
was joined about noon by a detachment of the Eighth 
Michigan Cavalry under Maj. Buck, and Sixth Indiana under 
command of Lieut. Col. Matson. Passed Madison at 2 p.m. 
Capron joined Adams at dark the same day. — Author.] At 
Madison we burnt a quantity of quartermaster and commis- 
sary stores. We intended to go out by Laurenceville, but 
hearing that the Rebels had that road, we turned and went 
to Watkinsville. Here we played a regular "Yankee trick." 
Dressing some of our men in Rebel uniform, we succeeded in 
capturing the enemy's pickets. I will explain how it was 
done toward the close. 

Our brigade and Col. Capron's were together here. After 
passing through Watkinsville we went toward Athens. This 
last town is situated in the forks of the Oconee River. There 
were bridges over these streams that we aimed to cross, but 
found that the enemy had possession of them. We went to 
within about two and one half miles of Athens, and came 
upon a fort and rifle-pits. We were fired upon, and we again 
changed our course. Col. Adams determined to take a road 


about half way between Laurenceville and Jefferson, thinking 
perhaps that we could get out to the river [Chattahoochee] be- 
fore the Rebels could head us off from it. This was on the 
evening of August the 2d. After starting, we found that 
Oapron had left us, and had taken another road. Marching 
all night, we stopped a little before day and rested. Soon 
we started on again, and had gone but a short distance, 
when a courier overtook us with the information that Cap- 
ron had been attacked, and had been cut to pieces by the 
enemy. This was the first we had heard from Capron since 
he left us the evening before. He had camped a mile and a 
half from us that night and no one knew it. After the 
courier's report, Adams went in double-quick to the road 
where Capron had been attacked, and coming to the forks of 
the road, found one of his men lying dead in the road ; and 
upon examination, it was plain to be seen which way the 
enemy had been chasing Capron. We started on in a run 
after the Rebels, hoping to be able to recapture our men, as 
well as to give relief to that officer. As we charged down the 
road, we came across several Union soldiers lying dead, and 
at one place there were six dead Rebels. The road was 
strewn with the guns, pistols, blankets, etc., of Capron's 
men. We went nearly a mile, when we met some of the 
enemy coming with Capron's men as prisoners. We went 
into them, releasing a good many of our men as well as cap- 
turing some Rebels. The Rebels did not know that we were 
near, supposing that Capron and his men were the only Yan- 
kees in that section. 

When we went charging after them they were so confused 
that they did not know what to do. Many of them made 
no attempt to escape, while others went as fast as their 
horses could carry them. 

Let us explain a little how this affair happened. After 
the fight in which Stoneman surrendered, and the enemy 
learned of our escape, five hundred picked men under Col. 
Breckinridge was sent to intercept us and hinder our move- 
ments as much as possible until the main body of Rebel 
Cavalry could come up. Breckinridge hastened on, and got 
near where Capron encamped on the night of August the 
2d. Here is where Capron acted indiscreetly. Instead of 
keeping on with Col. Adams he left us and went on with his 
command. That night he told his men to unsaddle their 
horses, as there was not much danger. He had but few men 
on picket, and they were so tired out that they could not 
keep awake. One hundred and ten men were detailed to 
surprise the camp. Coming on to his pickets, and finding 
them asleep, they were awakened and made prisoners, then 
the camp was charged, and the men were scattered. This 


was about daylight. They were after Capron's men when 
we came up, and we took after the 110 men who were charg- 
ing them. We thus got between this detachment of the 
enemy and the remainder of Breckinridge's command. Breck- 
inridge himself was with the advance detachment, and in 
Adams's pursuit, Breckinridge was captured, but not being 
recognized by our men, he managed to make his escape in 
the confusion. 

This charge of ours was the most fortunate thing for us ; 
besides giving the Rebels a scare, it opened a road for our 
escape. When chasing the Rebels they failed to take the 
road which we had selected for our escape, so we pushed 
them beyond the chosen road, and our advance went yelling 
after them. When Adams came up with the main column, 
he took a road that led to the left and to the Chattahoochee 
River, thus putting all the enemy in our rear, and we, having 
the start, made it impossible for them to get ahead of us. 
You never saw brighter faces than ours when we learned 
that we were in advance of our foes. Poor Capron and his 
men were now scattered in our rear, and we knew the Rebels 
would pick up large numbers of them, but we could help 
them no more. [According to Col. R. W. Smith's report^ 
Adams's men were nearly out of ammunition, and he knew 
that a Rebel brigade was pushing on to strike his left,, and 
cut him off from the river.] 

We rode nearly forty miles that day, and crossed the 
Chattahoochee about twenty-five or thirty miles above the 
railroad bridge. [Struck the Chattahoochee when the sun was 
about an hour high, at an old and difficult ford, and got the 
command over at 9 p. m. — R. W. Smith.] We came into a 
cornfield on this side, unsaddled our horses and lay down to 
take a night's repose, a luxury we had not enjoyed for a 
great while. The next morning, stiff, sore, and worn out, 
what remained of Stoneman's command made their way to 
Marietta, arriving there at 3 p. in., on the 4th of August. 

In giving an account of our raid, I have left out many 
things that I could not put in without breaking the unity of 
my narrative. I will now speak of several things omitted. 


On our march we passed through some of the finest por- 
tions of Georgia. We had but little rations with us, and 
yet we did not suffer. The fruits — peaches and apples — 
were ripe, and were very acceptable to the boys on the march. 
Moreover, during the heat of the day, as we passed along, 
the men would get some of the finest melons I ever saw. 
These were very refreshing. When we came to the suburbs 
of Macon, some of the men found a large house in which a 



number were stored. These were ripe and cool. Oh, I tell 
you, I never enjoyed watermelons more than these. 

You may talk about Morgan pressing horses. He knew 
nothing about it. Stoneman can steal horses where Morgan 
can find none. Some very fine horses were obtained, and a 
large number of mules. Now, my notions about such things 
are thus: when a man is dismounted on such a trip as this, 
he has the right to press a horse to save himself. But to 
take horses when not needed, I believe to be wrong and in- 
jurious to a command. I so told several. I also contended 
that if we got into a fight we would be unfortunate. I en- 
tertain Col. Wolford's opinion on this subject, that thieving 
expeditions never thrive. Morgan's never did, nor will any 
one who loads his command with articles unfit for a soldier, 
and only burdensome to him. 

As we started back from Macon, our column began to be 
crowded with large numbers of negroes. These had come 
together in such numbers that they took the name of the 
" Negro Brigade." The morning of our fight, near Clinton, 
you could see them huddle together in the rear, with their 
eyes shining in a most wonderful manner. They were the 
black cotton-field, genuine negroes, and when we went into 
the fight they all huddled together with the led stock, and 
looked like a field full. When the shells commenced flying 
and bursting, you never saw such running as there was of 
the negroes and mules. They retraced the road we came, 
and the last seen of them they were still running, and were 
undoubtedly captured, for the enemy had a force on that 

I promised to tell you of the Yankee trick played on the 
Rebels at Watkinsville. Rouse Wilshire was the leader. He 
is tall, with no surplus flesh, has iron sinews, and is brave 
and shrewd. He once belonged to the Eleventh Kentucky 
Cavalry, but at present is not connected with any^egiment, 
as he goes along with us as a scout. He dressed himself in 
Rebel uniform, and obtained permission f r mi Col. Adams 
to take a few men with him dressed in the same manner. 
[The following are the names of the selected men belonging 
to Wilshire's squad: John A. Lawhorn, John P. Logan, John 
J. Elliott, of Company A; Corp. John Rhodes, Serg. M. A. 
Purdy and Corp. N. M. Waymen, of Company D.] 

When we came near Watkinsville, Wilshire with his 
squad dashed up to the Rebel pickets and ordered them to 
rally on Lieut. Quirk of a certain Confederate regiment, and 
attack the Yankees, who were approaching. The Rebels, 
taking them for their own men, rallied, while Wilshire and 
his men w r ere at their backs with drawn pistols. The Lieu- 



tenant in command of the Kebel pickets approached Wil- 
shire, slapping him familiarly on the back, exclaimed, "You 
are a man after my own heart." Wilshire, turning fiercely 
upon him, ordered him to surrender with his pickets. The 
genuine Rebel was perfectly astounded, but was forced to 
submit. Poor Wilshire was afterward dangerously wounded 
when we charged the Rebels. [An old buggy was pressed 
from a citizen, and he was brought through to the Union 

The men who charged Col. Capron, under Breckenridge, 
belonged to the "Kentucky Brigate " [Confederate.] When 
Ave came up, we captured a Captain Peyton, who informed 
us that we would not charge much farther, as it was a Ken- 
tucky squadron we were after. Some one present told him 
that we were Kentuckians ourselves. He then asked if it 
was Adams's brigade. On being answered in the affirmative, 
he gloomily replied : " Then our squadron is gone up." 

The Captain and a Lieutenant captured at the same time, 
were put on parol that day and night, but with Rebel honor, 
they escaped that night. 

Our loss, when Stoneman surrendered, was about 600 
men, with two pieces of Artillery. Add this to the number 
picked up by the enemy after we got out of the first battle, 
and our loss is not far short of 1,000 — nearly one-half of our 
command. Among the officers who surrendered were Col. 
Biddle, of the Sixth Indiana ; Col. Butler, of the Fifth In- 
diana, and Maj. Mix, of the Eighth Michigan — supposed to 
be killed. 

There is much indignation against Gen. Stoneman ; in- 
deed the misfortune of the whole raid is attributed to him. 
Col. Capron is also blamed for the way he conducted the 
men he had with him after he escaped the first fight. He, 
himself, got out, but he lost many of his men. 

Col. Adams gained for himself quite a name for the way 
in which he conducted his part. Gen. Sherman compliments 
him highly, and in my opinion, he richly deserves it, for he 
did his best for us; he brought his brigade out almost en- 
tire. The men of his brigade think very much of him. 

Good news: when we arrived at Marietta, Col. Adams 
went down to see Gen. Sherman. He informed him of the 
condition of our affairs, and also that the time of our regi- 
ment was nearly out. The time of three Companies, A, B, 
and C, is already out. Gen. Sherman directed him to pre- 
pare us for going back to Kentucky to be mustered out. Our 
horses will have to be inspected, valued, and turned over, 
before we can start, but I think we will leave very soon. 
Some efforts have been made to veteranize the regiment, but 
I don't think it can be done ; the men are worn out. 


As far as I know, everything is going on well at Atlanta. 
We have not taken the place yet, but I hear that Gen. Sher- 
man says that he can take it at the proper time. He does 

not wish to lose too many of his men. 

* * * ' * * * * 

I feel truly thankful to the Lord for preserving me 
through the numerous dangers which I have passed. * * 
This sketch is hastily written, but I believe it is correct. 
Your brother, R. E. Huffman. 

The following are the losses of the First Kentucky Cav- 
alry, as gleaned from the imperfect Adjutant-General's Re- 
port and other sources : 

Killed : Capt. Francis M. Wolford, 1st Lieut. James 
Humphrey and Private Benjamin Sharp, Company A, near 
Hillsborough, Ga., July 31st, 1864; Perry J. Porter, Com- 
pany I, killed in the advance guard on the night of July 
28th, near Clinton ; John T. Davis, Company K, missing in 
action, August 2d, and supposed to be killed ; Serg. Andrew J. 
Catron, Company L, mortally wounded, July 31st, near 
Hillsborough, and died that night. Total, 6. 

Wounded : 2d Lieut. Daniel Murphy, Company G, 
wounded at Hillsborough, July 31st, and left in the hands 
of the enemy ; also the same day the following were wound- 
ed and left in the enemy's hand ; Sidney Tudor, Company 
G ; John Robinson, Company I, and Martin L. McCoy, Com- 
pany J ; also Bailey P. Smith of same Company on same 
day, but not captured. Total, 5. 

Missing and captured : On the 31st of July, near Hills- 
borough, Robert Wall, Company A ; John W. Yowell, Wm. 
Lane, Wilson Sinkhorn, William N. Mounce, and Martin A. 
Love, Company B ; Francis J. Frogg, Stephen Gentle, Geo. 
W. Moles, Wm. G. Rains, James Wright [August 1st, near 
Laurence Mills], Joseph B. Bradley, James A. Thrasher, and 
Thomas N. Tabor, Company C; [Stephen Gentle returned 
August 8th] ; Wm. T. Carter and John D. Sanders, Company 
D ; David Baker and James R. Sims, Company E, were cap- 
tured, July 30th on this raid, but place not named. Wm. 
F. Pitman, Company F, near Hillsborough, July 31st ; James 
Cail, Nelson C. Stephens, and Peter Morris, Company H, 
August 1st ; Geo. W. Divine and James Riley, of Company 
I, and John R. Parish, of Company J, were captured near 


Hillsborough, July 31st ; James T. Hendren, Company J r 
August 2d ; Corp. Admice T. Saunders, Wm. Burton, James 
Estepp, Wm. Farmer, Robert H. Moore, John Frost, and 
David Jones, Company L, near Clinton, July 31st, 1864. 

Recapitulation: Killed, 6; wounded, 5; missing and 
captured, 33. Aggregate, 44. 

The Eleventh Kentucky also lost heavily, but there are* 
no official reports accessible giving the number. 

Capt. F. M. Wolford, killed on this raid, was the young- 
est brother of Col. Frank Wolford, and belonged to a family" 
of brilliant talents. He was a brave and efficient officer. 

The leg of Lieut. James Humphrey was nearly shot off 
by the enemy's Artillery, and some of his comrades dis- 
mounted and hastily bandaged it in order to stop the flow of 
blood, but were compelled to leave him. He then fell into 
the hands of t the enemy, and was taken to a citizen's house 
near by where the wounded limb was amputated. Fourteen 
days afterward, it being found necessary to again amputate 
the leg above the knee, he died under the operation. Lieut. 
Humphrey was a gallant and popular young officer, and was 
universally lamented by his comrades in arms, and the com- 
munity in which he resided. 

Lieut. Daniel Murphy, also one of the bravest of the 
brave, being badly wounded, and made a cripple for life, 
was taken to the same house with Lieut. Humphrey, where 
he remained for some time, returned to Garrard county, and 
was afterward elected a Representative in the State Legis- 
lature. In later years he moved to Kansas, where he filled 
responsible positions until 1892, when he passed away. His- 
remains were returned to the home of his youth in Ken- 

In order to give the reader a true history of the Stone- 
man raid to Macon, the Author has given Lieut. Huffman's 
unvarnished narrative of occurrences on that memorable 
and unfortunate expedition ; knowing that those who know 
the Lieutenant's character for truth and integrity will be- 
lieve his statements. He is also corroborated by the reports 
of other officers, and contradicted by none except Gen. 

In a few days after his surrender, August 6th, Gen. Stone- 



man sent through by flag of truce a brief report of his dis- 
asters, in which he vented his spleen upon the Kentucky- 
brigade, claiming that its conduct was the principal cause 
of his failure, instead of attributing it to its true cause — 
his own disobedience of orders. The Author would throw 
the mantle of charity over his report, and pass it by as the 
ebullition of a distempered brain, but it is on the records of 
the nation, and it is his duty to vindicate his regiment. 

The fact is, that both the First and Eleventh Kentucky 
Cavalry had too many experiences on many a bloody field 
not to know, after vainly charging the impregnable front on 
the 31st of July, and being attacked by a heavy force on the 
flank, that the wanton sacrifice of their lives was useless, 
and consequently became discouraged. Though Gen. Stone- 
man was a gallant officer, and had previously won honors 
as a successful raider, he, like others, no matter how dis- 
tinguished, was liable to make great mistakes ; and being 
always chary in bestowing compliments on subordinates, 
and of an ungovernable temper, he was mortified at the suc- 
cess of an officer inferior in rank, and much younger in age 
and military experience. But the petulance of Stoneman 
did not deter others from bestowing on Col. Adams the 
honors richly due him. Gen. Sherman complimented him 
personally; other officers did the same; soldiers of other 
commands looked upon him as a hero, and he received the 
heartfelt gratitude of the men of his own command for suc- 
cessfully leading them out of the terrible dilemma and giving 
them a chance to see the loved ones around their own firesides 
once more. The night after his return to Marietta, a band 
belonging to a Northern regiment serenaded him, to which 
he gave a happy response in a short and eloquent speech. 

Lieut. Col. R. W. Smith, Inspector-General on Gen. 
Stoneman 's Staff, who came out with Adams, in his report 
pays the following compliment to the Colonel : 

" Great credit is due Col. Adams for the energy and man- 
agement displayed in bringing his command out as safely as 
he has." 

Gen. Sherman, in his report, after detailing Stoneman 's 
disasters, says : " One brigade, Col. Adams's, came in almost 
intact ; another, commanded by Col. Capron, was surprised 


on the way back and scattered. * * * His [Stoneman's] 
mistake was in not making the first concentration with 
Gens. McCook and Garrard near Lovejoy's, according to his 
orders, which is yet unexplained." 

It is due to Col. Capron to state that he had the reputation 
of being a gallant officer, and was somewhat advanced in 
age. In his report he gives as a reason for not joining 
Adams on the 2d of August, that the guide sent to him mis- 
took the road, and led him six miles away from the route 
agreed upon between him and Adams, should either make 
a failure in demonstrations on certain intended crossing 


If all the hardships, trying scenes and adventures of those who be- 
came dismounted and otherwise separated from their command on this 
raid were written in full, it would make a volume of thrilling interest to 
after-generations. A few experiences have been obtained which will be 
briefly detailed. 

Lieut. Thomas J. Graves, of Company I, gives the following account 
of the adventures of one of his Company : 

Francis Hellard, in the terrible fight near Hillsborough, got his horse 
shot from under him, and in the retreat, took to the swamps. Four of 
the enemy, procuring two blood hounds, got on his trail, and followed 
him closely. When the hounds came up, being some distance in advance 
of the pursuing men, he shot them both, and passing through a dense 
thicket, he fortunately found a friendly cave in which he concealed him- 
self until night came on. Tbe enemy passed all around him in their dili- 
gent search. He could plainly hear them talk, and the remarks made 
about him. After failing to find him, tbey concluded that he was still in 
the swamp. When darkness hovered around, cautiously peering out, and 
finding no signs of the enemy about, he started on his journey through 
the enemy's lines, traveling exclusively after night. After ten days, 
weary and hungry, groping his way amid many dangers, he at last reached 
the camp of his regiment. 

In his wanderings he came across a hiding Rebel deserter and they 
both traveled together, until Hellard became suspicious of his companion, 
and fearful that he would betray him. At one time, finding a Rebel 
picket-post obstructing his course, he fired on them, and while they were 
in confusion, made his way around them. He returned to camp, near Ma- 
rietta, still holding on to his faithful gun and pistol. He was a soldier all 

In Lieut. Huffman's narrative he promised further on to give more de- 
tails of the spy captured by Capt. Carr on the 31st of July, but failed to 
do so. There are rumors handed down that he was put into the hands of 
the Brigade Provost, but what disposition was made of him still remaina 
unrecorded officially. 


Lieut. Huffman seemed puzzed to know how Col. Adams, having no 
previous knowledge of the country, could successfully lead his men out oi" 
their critical situation on the 31st of .July without even the sign of a path 
to guide him. This can easily be accounted lor when it is known that 
Col. Adams, in his young days, was a trained fox-hunter and an expert 
woodsman, and brought all his woodcraft knowledge into requisition on 
this occasion. 


Perhaps none on the Stoneman raid met with as many difficulties and 
ventures as Aden J. Rigney and Hiram Smith. Both were men of line 
physical forms, and had robust constitutions. Rigney was the smaller of 
the two, but was compactly built, had great powers of endurance, and 
was a young man of unllinching courage, and of a daring disposition. 
Smith was a good, brave soldier, obedient to his officers, of a kind-hearted 
disposition, and somewhat inclined to be despondent. 

In the battle of the 31st, near Hillsborough, when his regiment fell 
back after the unsuccessful charge dismounted, Rigney lost his horse, and 
was delayed so long in catching and mounting a loose one, that his com- 
rades left him. Going down a hill into a swamp, he came across many of 
the boys in much confusion. Giving the best advice he could, he made 
his way through to a deep ditch. After making the fourth trial, he got 
his horse to attempt to leap it, but the horse struck the opposite bank and 
fell back in it. Being given out, and no chance to extricate him, he 
hastily pulled off his saddle and bridle, and made his way through a corn- 
field to an elevation in the skirt of a woods, where he met with Hiram 
Smith and other dismounted comrades. While discussing their almost 
hopeless situation, Adams and his mounted men passed near by, and they 
all broke down the hill to reach them. Rigney and Smith became sepa- 
rated from the rest, and keeping together, reached the road just as the 
last Company went by in double-quick. They bailed some of tbe men, 
requesting them to see some of their comrades and get them to procure 
horses for them and send them back. The two men followed the retreat- 
ing horsemen, keeping near them until dark, when they lost sight of them, 
and never saw them any more for ten days. 

The road was nearly blockaded with colored contrabands, and as the 
Rebels came on in the rear, they picked up the stragglers. It becoming 
very dark, Rigney and Smith left the road, and soon came to a rude cabin 
occupied by an old colored woman. On inquiring of the old woman if she 
knew of any horses near, she replied that she did not, but that her son 
was then out hiding horses, and if they would wait until his return, they 
could get the desired information. He returned at 11 p. m., and they 
rested until 3 a. m. on the 1st of August, when they started again, taking 
the negro boy along as guide. They traveled until daybreak, when they 
came to the concealed stock. Finding bridles and one saddle, they mount- 
ed a horse and a mule. They listened to the boy's advice, and promised 
not to surrender either to three or as many as five men. 

Proceeding about one hundred yards, they saw two Rebel soldiers 


approaching, and Rigney requesting Smith to draw his pistol, when the 
Rebels halted them, the two presented their pistols, and Rigney de- 
manded their surrender. They readily consented, provided our men would 
spare their lives. Rigney told them to throw down their arms and they 
should not be hurt. They replied that they had no arms. The two parties 
now approached each other. On our men's inquiring as to the chance of 
traveling the road without being molested, the Confederates replied that 
there was none whatever without being captured, as there were three 
companies guarding the forks of the road in advance. Smith taking the 
lead, with the two Confederates following him, and Rigney in the rear, 
they now changed their course, turning back through the woods, they 
traveled all day, but did not advance very far on account of the many 
obstructions, as briars, thickets, ditches, etc. 

In the evening, in attempting to cross a road, they suddenly came 
upon a body of the enemy ascending a hill ; the enemy fronted into line, 
the whole body snapped their guns at our party, but fortunately only two 
guns fired. Rigney and his party wheeled right-about, and obliqued to 
the right — the enemy for some unknown reason failing to follow at the 
time — they made fast time down a creek until they reached a valley. Here 
they halted, got roasting-ears from a cornfield for themselves and horses, 
feasted, and held a council of war. It was decided that our two men 
could not get out on horseback ; that one of their prisoners was a cripple 
and could not walk, and that they would give their two horses to their 
prisoners as captured property, and release them. Traveling through the 
woods for about two miles, they met a woman who began to cry ; she 
told them that the whole Rebel army was passing the road, and that it 
would take until 11 o'clock at night for them to finish passing. They 
went two miles further and turned their horses over to their prisoners, 
and set them free. 

They now started back to find where the timber skirted the road on 
both sides in order to cross it, but could find no place where the timber 
was less than 200 yards of the road. Lying concealed for some time, and 
finding no one passing the road, they attempted to cross it in double- 
quick, but when getting half way to the road, two Rebels came in sight 
whistling, and the two rolled into a ditch. After the two Rebels passed 
about a fourth of a mile, they fired off their guns, which were answered 
by two others the same distance in the rear. Rigney and Smith now re- 
treated back to the woods. The sun now being down, they came to a ravine 
and descended it for a mile or more. Fearing, if hunted, the ravine would 
be searched, they left it and went to a ridge, and crouched under a low 
tree or bush with outer branches reaching to the ground, resembling a 
weeping willow. They had barely concealed themselves, when two horse- 
men came directly toward them, but stopped for consultation within one 
hundred yards. One remarked, '-The d — d Yankees are not in ten miles 
of here." The other replied: '"No, we will not find them this side of 
h — 11." They rode off, failing to discern the concealed " Yankees." 

They remained under the friendly bush all night. Worn out with 
fatigue, they dropped fast asleep, and might have been captured if an 
overruling Providence had not been watching over them. A horrible dream 


nwakened Rigney. He thought the enemy was throwing shells at them. 
He jumped to his feet and aroused his companion just in time to get 
across the road before daylight. They traveled all this day without being 
molested. Late in the evening, coming within fifty yards of a road, while 
cautiously watching to see if the way was clear of passers, a Rebel officer 
came riding along. Smith was strongly tempted to try his markmanship 
on him, but better counsel prevailed, and he w r as suffered to pass in safety. 
Finding the road clear, they resumed their journey in the supposed direc- 
tion of freedom, and traveled all night. Just before day they found them- 
selves in the midst of a camp, being made aware of their situation by the 
sounding of bugles, and camp-fires shooting up around them. Smith be- 
came despondent again, and proposed to surrender, as he thought it im- 
possible to get out. Rigney objected, claiming that they had entered the 
camp without any trouble, and that they could get out the same. way. Good 
luck favored them, and they got out without being discovered. They 
traveled until late in the evening, when they came across a colored man 
in a cornfield, who readily agreed to procure them something to eat, they 
concealing themselves in the mean time. He soon returned with a little 
corn dodger. He informed them of a bridge they had to cross, and con- 
cealing themselves until night, with the colored man along as guide, they 
crossed the river in safety, and he put them in an old barn, where they 
slept until the sun was an hour high in the morning. On awakening they 
discovered two Rebels standing near the barn, but they soon left and went 
to a large, white house not far distant. The two now crept out and en- 
tered a swamp near by in which they traveled nearly all day, coming in 
sight of a house, which they passed around, noticing a man in the house 
watching them. After getting out of sight they changed their course and 
traveled the rest of the day, lying up at night. On continuing their 
journey the next day, they met with no adventures until they came across 
a colored hoy, who started to run. Prevailing on him to stop, being al- 
most famished, they induced him to try to get them something to eat. 
After an hour's absence, he returned with a sack of hard apples, and fol- 
lowed by a large dog. The party were now alarmed at the approach of 
twelve horsemen, who rode up in plain view, then turned, and watered 
their horses. They were so close that the party lying fiat on the ground 
could hear them talk of a defeat of the Confederates in a late engagement. 
Strange as it may seem, the dog remained perfectly still. After watering 
their horses they moved on, not noticing the prostrate forms so near at 
hand. This was about 11 a. m., and Rigney and his companion resumed 
their journey, meeting with no incidents until some time in the evening, 
when they came across a negro man in a cornfield. In answ r er to various 
inquiries made of him, he informed them that the Rebels had hung three 
Union soldiers on a river near by, stripping them of their clothing, and 
leaving them suspended. He advised them to be careful, or they would 
share the same fate. Becoming rather suspicious of the negro, they left 
him, and continued on in their wanderings. Lying over for an hour or 
two to watch a road for an opportunity to cross, Rigney pulled off his 
pistol to rest, and in his anxiety to cross the road, forgot his faithful navy 
and its ammunition, but still retained his gun. 


Rigney's and Smith's feet were now full of sores, and they were almost 
worn out. They could see in the distance men apparently following them, 
but were uncertain whether they were friends or foes. Sometimes they 
supposed them to be their own scattered comrades, as they were going in 
the same direction. The next day Smith again became disheartened, los- 
ing all of his fortitude. He once more insisted on the necessity of sur- 
rendering: urged that they were starving to death ; that he had as soon 
die one way as another. But the indomitable spirit of Rigney would not 
consent to give up. He used all his persuasive powers on his comrade; 
he told him that their condition would not be bettered by surrendering; 
that they would starve in the loathesome prisons of the South ; that their 
privations and sufferings then were light in comparison with the hard- 
ships and abuses they would have to undergo if they put themselves in 
the hands of the enemy. 

On the eighth day after their separation from the rest of the com- 
mand, they found a peach tree full of ripe, luscious fruit, and after sati- 
ating their appetites, they considered themselves safe. They were then 
near the east side of Stone Mountain. They came near a solitary log 
house away from any road, and they concluded to approach it for some- 
thing to eat. Calling a woman to the door, they inquired if there had 
been any Rebels in that section lately. She replied that then.' had not 
been any there for several days. Rigney asked her if they could get 
something to eat. She replied in the affirmative, provided they could wait 
until she cooked it. They told her they could not wait. She then wanted 
to know who they were. They replied that they belonged to the First 
Kentucky Cavalry. They, however, ventured in, and she gave them some 
pie and milk. She also let them have a needle and some thread to repair 
Smith's pants, which were almost torn to pieces. 

They then left, and traveled about two miles, when they came in plain 
view of a house, which they surrounded. They supposed a dance was 
going on there from the noise they made. They soon reached a deep, dark 
hollow which they went down some distance, Avhen they stopped to rest 
and mend Smith's pants. While Smith was mending his pants, Rigney 
stepped off a short distance, and on his return, his companion informed 
him that two men had passed down the road in haste ; that one was white 
and the other looked to be black. The thought struck Rigney that the 
woman from whom they had procured the needle had sent them to warn 
them of danger, and they thought no more about it for the time. Two 
men soon appeared in the hollow just above them, and one remarked, 
" Yonder they are." The other exclaimed: •• Yes, we are just looking for 
you." Rigney called for them to come down ; they should not be hurt. 
As they approached with their right hands in their bosoms, Smith inquired 
in low tones of his companion: " What shall we do V Rigney answered, 
" Just whatever presents itself as best." 

They came up and walked around the left side of Rigney, where his 
gun was lying by his side. One of them asked what kind of gun he had, 
to which Rigney responded that it was a Sharpens rille. The Rebel citizen 
replied, "A needle gun." He wanted it in his hands, but Rigney told him 
that he gave his gun to no man. The Georgian got hold of the gun and 


tried to wrench it from Rigney 's hands, but our hero slung one hand loose, 
while the other retained its hold. The other man grabbed Smith's pistol 
lying by his side, and threw it at Rigney, and called on him to surrender, 
giving a keen yell about the same time. Smith faltered and wanted to 
surrender, but Eigney now being fiercely aroused, grabbed the one hold- 
ing his gun with one hand, and the other man by the throat with his other 
hand, completely shutting off his breath for the time. Rigney now called 
on his companion : "Smith, for God's sake help me!" As Smith arose to 
his feet, with oue blow of his brawny fist, he struck the one holding the 
gun, knocking him about ten feet. Rigney's attention was now drawn to 
see what they were doing, at the same time he had his hand in his antag- 
onist's bosom searching for the supposed pistol, but finding instead a 
large, round stone with which he was aiming to mash in his head, when 
the Georgian commenced pleading for God's sake to spare his life. The 
truly brave, however passionate they may be, cannot resist the pathetic 
appeals for mercy. He relented, and told the Georgian that for God's sake 
only, his life would be spared. He now addressed Rigney: "I am your 
prisoner, and will now guide you safely out." Rigney replied: "You 
have acted treacherous with me once, and I will not trust you again. Just 
remain where you are, for if you make a hostile motion, I will slay you." 
Rigney now turned his attention to Smith and his antagonist, who were 
parleying over which one should possess Smith's pistol. Presenting his 
gun, he requested Smith to get out of his way and he would settle the 
matter. The Georgian released the pistol, and in turn begged for his life, 
which was granted on condition that they both were to remain in their 
tracks until the two got out of reach. 

They now made their way to the river upon which the negro reported 
the three Union soldiers were hung. After serious difficulties — Rigney 
being washed off his feet and saving himself by catching the branch of an 
overhanging tree — they reached the opposite side. They soon arrived at 
the base of a mountain, and after consultation, they decided to ascend it, 
and keeping a direct course, they arrived within three miles of Decatur 
that night. In their travels during the night they ran upon parties at dif- 
ferent times, who ran off from them like wild men. They finally stopped 
and went into a brush pile and fell asleep. Rigney was again awakened 
by a dream, thinking that he was in a battle, and found that it was broad 
daylight, and on looking around, discovered that they were in a clearing 
between two farm houses, but they resumed their journey without being 

They now believed themselves safe from capture, and took the road. 
Soon they saw the ends of the guns of a body of soldiers approaching up 
a hill, and they backed down a hollow off the road. They concluded to 
change their course, and instead of making for Decatur, as they first in- 
tended, started for Mill's Cross Roads. ^Vhile Smith was watching the 
road to see what discoveries could be made, twelve women were seen ap- 
proaching with a big dog in advance. On seeing our men, the dog tucked 
his tail and flew back to the women, and they struck back in direction of 
Atlanta. They then crossed the road and concealed themselves in a tree 
top. After waiting for an hour, they changed their course, going through 


the woods to a mill below the Cross Roads. They were crawling through 
the brush when they suddenly came upon a house, with a man sitting in 
front reading a newspaper. Putting on a bold face, they inquired of him 
the situation of the troops of both armies. He pointed out the position 
■of the Rebels on a hill, and also that of the Uniou forces at the Cross 
Roads, but that the Union pickets were just ou the other hill not far dis- 
tant. They retired and consulted the best means of approaching our lines 
without danger. They started in direction of our picket-post, as pointed 
•out to them on a road blockaded with fallen timber every hundred yards. 
They crawled around the obstructions until they reached a blacksmith 
shop, where they found the horses of the Union videttes hitched. Look- 
ing around, they found the men in the shop enjoying a game of cards. 
Rigney deemed it his duty to give the careless videttes a rough reproof 
for their violation of their duties. Going to the picket-post, they learned 
that those remaining of Stoneman's Cavalry were then at Marietta. They 
started for the next post. It now commenced raining very hard, and being 
safe in the Union lines, their long strained powers began to relax, and it 
was with much difficulty they could get along. 

Before they came near the next post, which proved to belong to the 
Third Ohio, they were seen, and their condition divined, and on -their 
arrival, plenty was prepared for them, but they were so weak and worn 
out by their long fastings, severe struggles, and terrible experiences, that 
they could do but little justice to the hospitable meal set before them by 
their fellow-soldiers. After remaining two hours detailing their travels 
and many adventures, they were furnished a horse and a mule to ride to 
the headquarters of the Third Ohio, six miles distant, arriving there about 
sundown, where they were received very kindly by the commanding 
officer. He furnished them a tent, and they got a good night's rest. The 
next morning, making their way to the Chattahoochee River, they mount- 
ed a passing train and reached Marietta, where they met their comrades, 
who had given them up as either being killed or captured. As but few 
soldiers met with so many adventures in so short a time, the Author has 
given their experiences in full as a sample of others who had the misfor- 
tune of being separated from their command on that ever-memorable raid. 



Preparations to return to Kentucky — On the train — 
Historical scenes — Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, and 
Chattanooga — Louisville, and meeting with Col. 
Wolford — Lexington and Mt. Sterling — The Salt- 
ville expedition and return — the scout to owings- 

COUNTER with Pete Everett — Lieut. Thornton's ad- 
ventures — The men in a ferment — Adams goes to Lex- 
ington — The furlough home — Anecdote of Maj. Keen. 

While the effective mounted men of the First Kentucky 
Cavalry were absent on the Stoneman raid to Macon, the 
dismounted, and those with disabled horses, part of the time 
under Lieut. Thomas J. Graves, and part of the time 
under Lieut. Vincent Peyton, were ordered to camp near 
Gen. Schofield's headquarters, doing light duty. On the 1st 
of August, the detachment was ordered to Vining's Station, 
where it remained until the 4th, when it was ordered to 
Marietta, the same day that Adams and his men returned 
from the famous raid. 

In the meantime, Sherman continued his operations 
around Atlanta, but the time was not yet ripe to make his- 
grand move to capture the fated city. 

For several days the men remained in camp near Mari- 
etta, the raiders resting their wearied limbs, satiating their 
sharpened appetites with delicious army rations, and spin- 
ning long "yarns" of their many adventures and hair- 
breadth escapes. On the 9th of August, the regiment moved 
to Marietta to make preparations to return to Kentucky. 
Although most of the boys owned their own horses at the 
time, yet as Gen. Sherman needed them for future opera- 
tions, it was necessary for them to be turned over to the 
government. In ordinary civil transactions it generally 
takes two to make a contract, but in this case it only took 
the stronger party to decide the terms of the trade — that is 
the government. Though some few of the men objected, yet 


for the sake of peace and harmony with Uncle Sam, they 
submitted without many murmurs. 

Col. HartsufT was detailed to superintend the conveying 
of titles of the horses from the men to the government. 
The 12th and 13th of August was spent in inspecting, brand- 
ing, and delivering them to their new owner, the govern- 
ment. The 14th was employed in boxing up our saddles and 
making other preparations. The 16th was occupied in inves- 
tigating the title of each soldier to his horse. Notwith- 
standing the great reputation the members of the First Ken- 
tucky Cavalry had for unflinching honesty, the government 
was very particular in not giving vouchers for any horse un- 
less he was honestly paid for with the soldier's own money. 
The body, sweat, blood, and conscience of the soldier was 
regarded as being owned by the government, and whatever 
he captured or stole belonged to his master. 

On the 18th, and also the forenoon of the 19th, we still 
continued completing our preparations for our journey. At 
2 p. m., Friday, August 19, 1864, we mounted the train, and 
on the morning of the 20th passed through the historic 
fields of Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge, arriving at 
Chattanooga at 8 a. m., and took breakfast. We remained 
there two hours viewing the earthworks and the towering 
Lookout Mountain, now standing mute, overlooking the quiet 
hills and valleys below. At 10 a. m., we again boarded the 
train for Nashville. For a number of miles down the Ten- 
nessee river valley, the mountain scenery on each side was 
grand, and all along the route was connected with some 
struggle or movement in establishing the supremacy of the 
government. Crossing the river at Stevenson, and passing 
through the long tunnel southeast of Decherd, we emerged 
into the beautiful and undulating landscapes of Middle 
Tennessee. The road being in bad condition, and the train 
heavily laden, its movements were slow and laborious, and it 
was 5 a. m. on Sunday the 21st, before we reached Nashville. 
Here we remained until 5 :30 p. m., when we again mounted 
the train, and moving all night and all the next day, with- 
out meeting with any accident or incident worthy of men- 
tion, we arrived at Louisville, Ky., at 5 p. m., on the 22d. 

At Louisville we met our old commander, Col. Frank 


Wolford, who visited our camp, and there was a general 
hand-shaking all around with him among the boys, while 
busy memories were recalling the many scenes of camp life, 
toilsome marches, scouting, and fierce conflicts while he was 
our leader, counselor, and friend. There are but few men 
who ever belonged to the gallant old First Kentucky, no 
matter how they may have differed with him in some tilings, 
but who will always hold him in affectionate remembrance. 
It is true that some whom duty required him to punish or 
sternly rebuke, may hold some lingering resentment against 
him, but the number is few. His dealings and intercourse 
with his men were more those of a kind parent than a stern 
military ruler. He was subject to peevish spells, and some- 
times while in a " pet," he may have punished some few 
individual cases wrongfully, but he never suffered the sun 
to go down upon his anger. If he found out he was hasty 
in his judgment, and committed an error in punishment or 
censure, he was sure afterward to make it right, and apply 
balm to the wounded feelings. Whatever sins of omission 
or commission he perpetrated were generally on the side of 

Our regiment remained at Louisville until 5:30 a. m., on 
the 26th, when we took the train for Lexington. When we 
arrived at Frankfort, the State Capital, the Artillery opened 
in honor of our return, and the valuable services we had 
rendered our country in its hour of need. We did not 
reach Lexington until 6 p. m. Here we went into camp in 
a beautiful woodland just beyond the limits of the city, 
where we remained for some days resting from our long and 
eventful service. While here many of the regiment procured 
passes for a few days and visited their families from whom 
they had been absent for some time. 

A few days after reaching Lexington, the joyful news 
came over the wires that Sherman and his men had captured 
Atlanta. We felt now truly that the "backbone" of the 
Confederacy was broken, and that the end was drawing near. 
We remained in Lexington until the 15th of September, 
when the regiment received marching orders for Mt. Ster- 
ling, at which place it arrived on the 16th, and went into 


The time of the entire regiment should have expired 
about this time, as the ranks of all of the companies were 
full and complete, and all of them organized and officered 
previous and about the date in September, 1861 ; but owing 
to different detachments being in various directions scouting 
and watching the movements of the enemy, it could not be 
gotten together for muster-in until the 28th of October, 
1861, a few days after their engagement at Wildcat, and so 
it was decided that we could not be mustered out until three 
years from the date of muster-in. 

Our men had supposed that their term of active service 
had expired, but found they were mistaken. A part of the 
regiment was again mounted, and the rest guarded the post 
at Mt. Sterling from the inroads of Revel Cavalry raids and 
guerrilla bands. 

Late in September, Gen. S. G. Burbridge, commanding 
the District of Kentucky, was ordered on an expedition to 
Saltville, Virginia, to destroy the salt works of that place. 
He met the enemy on the 2d of October, about three and 
one-half miles from Saltillo, and drove him into his strong- 
ly intrenched position around the salt works, from which he 
was unable to dislodge him. During the night he withdrew 
his command and returned to Kentucky. 

A detail of 100 men of the First Kentucky Cavalry was 
ordered to cooperate with Gen. Burbridge on this expedition. 
The detail was made from different Companies, and put un- 
der command of Maj. A. T. Keen, with Lieut. James E. Chil- 
ton, of Company C, and Lieut. Thomas J. Graves, of Com- 
pany I, along as subordinates. The Author is indebted to 
Lieut. Chilton for the following account of the expedition : 

The men were detailed about equally from the different 
Companies of the regiment. The detachment went with 
Burhridsre's main force as far as Pikeville. Ky., and at that 
point Maj. Keen's attachment and a detachment of 100 men 
of the Thirty-Fifth Kentucky Mounted Infantry, were sepa- 
rated from the main force and ordered on a scout through 
Pound Gap. Virginia, and if possible, to form a junction 
with Burbridge at King's salt works. 

Maj. Keen's command proceeded to Pound Gap, and on 
beyond to Gladeville, Virginia. Before reaching the Gap we 
received information that the Confederates had blockaded 


the roads over the mountains by falling timber across them. 
When we came to the Gap we found no obstruction of con- 
sequence until we began to descend the mountain on the 
other side. There we found our way much impeded, and our 
progress very difficult ; but after winding our way through 
the fallen timber and rugged rocks, we at last succeeded in 
passing all obstacles. So completely had they blockaded 
the road, that the Confederates, under Col. Prentice, did not 
anticipate any danger, and had no pickets out; conse- 
quently the command under Maj. Keen was on them before 
they were aware of our presence. 

The little town was so situated that the road on which 
we entered was entirely shut off from view until we were 
within one hundred yards of the place; the undergrowth 
still being full of leaves, concealed our approaching column 
from the Confederates. Under cover of this undergrowth, 
Maj. Keen dismounted the command, leaving every fifth man 
to hold horses. Putting himself at the head of the First 
Kentucky detachment, and forming the men in line facing 
south, he sent Maj. Manigan with the detachment of the 
Thirty-Fifth Kentucky to the right, who formed his men 
in the undergrowth facing east. At the word of command 
both detachments charged on the town, and one volley stam- 
peded the Rebels. Their surprise was so complete that they 
left a 12- pound howitzer planted in the street, already 
loaded. Some of the men got hold of some fire, primed the 
howitzer, sighted it on the fleeing enemy, touched it off, and 
the load intended for the "Yankees" was turned on them, 
and their movements were much accelerated. [Lieut. Thos. 
J. Graves and Maj. Manigan managed the howitzer and fired 
it off. — Graves's notes.] The reported captures, besides the 
howitzer, were 100 stands of small arms and ten barrels of 

It was reported to us that Col. Prentice's command num- 
bered 400 men, and that there was a brigade in camp just 
three miles away. Maj. Manigan was wounded in the foot, 
which was our only casualty. 

After taking in the situation, Maj. Keen thought it best 
not to go any further, and preparations were made to take 
our trophy back with us. As the Confederates had run off 
with the front wheels and team, we had to improvise a team, 
procured the fore wheels of a wagon, limbered up, and moved 
back toward the blockade, reaching there just before night- 
fall, and after proceeding a short distance, rested for 
the night, leaving a strong rear guard just outside of the 

As soon as daylight appeared, the command began to 



move. It became necessary to loose the team from the how- 
itzer and take it through the blockade by hand, sometimes 
lifting it over the fallen trees by hand, and sometimes pass- 
ing it under them. After getting through the blockade safely 
we found a new obstacle to overcome. Our team was not 
able to pull our gun up the steep acclivity of the mountain ; 
so we had to improvise ropes, halters, etc., as means to draw 
it up by hand. 

About noon we reached the top of the mountain, and 
there went into camp and remained until the following clay. 

While the command was moving up the mountain, the 
Confederates came up on the rear guard, and a lively skir- 
mish ensued, in which three Confederates were reported 
killed, and a number wounded. They fell back after the 
skirmish and never pursued us any further. 

After resting one day in the Gap (our rations having 
given out), we took up our line of march to Prestonburg, 
Ky., taking our gun along with us. We were not interrupted 
on our way back. About seven miles above Prestonburg we 
found it necessary to cross to the east side of the Levisa 
Fork of the Big Sandy River with our gun, as the roads on 
the west side were too rough for its passage. No ford being 
near, we had to dismount it and convey it across in a canoe, 
and swim our horses over. 

After crossing, I was detailed with ten or fifteen men to 
take charge of the gun and convey it to Prestonburg, the rest 
of the command remaining on the opposite side of the river. 
After much trouble we reached Prestonburg in safety. About 
the middle of the afternoon we were joined by Burbridge's 
main force, now under Gen. Hobson, who had been left 
to bring the repulsed command from Saltville, Burbridge 
himself having gone on steamboat by way of Cincinnati, 
to report his failure, having lost his Artillery and many of 
his men. 

After resting one day, we took up our line of march for 
Mt. Sterling, Ky., after having been out about ten or twelve 

These are about the facts as near as I can remember 
them. J. E. Chilton. 

After the Saltville expedition, sometime late in October 
— the exact date cannot be determined — Capt. Samuel Bel- 
den, of Company B, with about forty men of different com- 
panies, was sent to Owingsville, in Bath county, to watch 
and intercept the movements of Pete Everett's guerrilla com- 
mand and other loose bands of marauders in that section. 
Early on the morning of the 19th of October, 1st Sergeant 


Buford Kinnett, of Company B, was sent out with fifteen 
or twenty men in the country to forage for the command. 
They had traveled about one and a half miles, when an old 
citizen living on the road side called the Sergeant to his yard 
fence and informed him that Pete Everett had just passed 
with 300 well-armed and well-mounted men. Kinnett, with 
his men, immediately returned to Owingsville and reported 
the information to Capt. Belden. A council was held whether 
it would be prudent to follow Everett or not. The Sergeant 
left it to the Captain to decide, and he concluded to follow 
him. This was about 8 or 9 o'clock. Belden mounted his 
men and put Serg. Kinnett in advance, with permission to 
select his men to accompany him. The Sergeant chose Abe L. 
McAnnelly and Serg. John C. Burke to go with him. Kennett 
had orders that if he should discover the enemy before they 
saw him, to quietly move to the side of the road, and Belden 
would close up with the main body ; but if they discovered 
him, he must charge them, and the Captain would support 
the Sergeant immediately with the rest. About noon or 1 
p. m., they ran upon them on turning a hill, and seeing from 
their actions that they had espied him, Kinnett according 
to orders, charged them, and Belden closed in upon him. 
They ran their pickets clown the hill into camp, where they 
were eating their dinners, and pouring a volley in amongst 
them, scattered the force. They fell back a few hundred yards, 
rallied, and came against Belden in overpowering numbers. 
The First Kentucky now became the pursued instead of the 
pursuers. John J. Elliott's horse was shot, and in the con- 
fusion, he ran across a ravine, unhitched one of the enemy's 
horses which had been left, mounted and escaped with the 
rest. They overtook Belden 's men, and having shot out their 
loads, a hand to hand conflict took place, several of our men 
getting knocked off their horses, among whom was Serg. 
John C. Burke. Though he was severely hurt, he simulated 
the dead man until the guerrillas had passed, when he dodged 
in the bushes and made his way to Mt. Sterling on foot. 
Jacob Isharn, of Company I, was badly wounded in the 
thigh, but escaped. Jeremiah Bruton, of Company J, was 
also wounded. Lieut. 0. M. Dodson was cut off from his 
men and came in on foot. Kinnett's horse was wounded, 


but brought him out safely. It was learned afterward that 
one guerrilla was killed, but the number wounded was not 
ascertained. They followed nearly a mile, when they ceased 
pursuit. The command reached Mt. Sterling without further 

Soon after the return of Belden, Lieut. Henry H. Thorn- 
ton, of Company D, with twenty-five or thirty men, was sent 
to Owingsville on a scout. While remaining there, having 
pickets out, in passing from one post to another, a guerrilla 
got the "drop " on him, and he was compelled to surrender. 
His captor took him to the main body, who made their way 
through the mountains toward Virginia, taking him along 
with them. He remained with them two days, when riding 
behind one of the band after night, he jumped off the horse, 
dodged into the bushes, and made his escape. Several shots 
were fired after him, but missed. After several days of 
hardship he made his way back to Mt. Sterling. He lay up 
for several days, before he recovered from the strain of anx- 
iety on his mind, and the toilsome journey through the rug- 
ged hills and mountains, beset by enemies on every hand. 

This scout about closed the active service of the original 
members of the First Kentucky Cavalry. They still did post 
and garrison duty to some extent. 

October 28th, the time of the expiration of our term of 
service, according to the date of muster-in, came and passed 
without any visibile preparations for the muster-out of the 
regiment. They had served several months beyond their 
time without a murmur, on a mere technicality. It was not 
the men's fault that they were not mustered in at the proper 

The weather had now become very disagreeable ; the cold 
wintry blasts had come on. The clothes of many of the men 
had become thin and threadbare. They did not wish to 
draw new army suits and have them to pay for. They were 
indifferently sheltered in dilapidated tents. They had given 
more than three years of the vigor of their manhood in 
faithful, toilsome, dangerous service to their country. They 
had become literally exhausted in arduous service. The 
strength of the great rebellion in which they had been such 
busy and prominent actors, they were conscious was already 


broken. They yearned to return to their families, friends, 
and neighbors, to enlist again in the service they had aban- 
doned in their country's darkest hour — the battle of life — in 
its peaceful walks. 

They now began to show symptoms of dissatisfaction. 
Their manifestations of displeasure soon became so visible 
that Col. Adams found it necessary to call the regiment to- 
gether and confer with them about their grievances. After 
the conference, Col. Adams went to Lexington to see Gen. 
Burbridge to find out the reason why his men were suffered 
to remain in camp exposed to all the inclemencies of the 
weather in their condition. The reason given was, that a 
mustering officer could not be procured at the time, but Gen. 
Burbridge consented to give the men a furlough for twenty 
days, at the expiration of which time he promised to have a 
mustering officer ready to muster them out. On Col. Adams's 
return, the men were easily pacified, and readily consented 
to the arrangements. It was not a spirit of contention 
that caused the men to murmur, but they did not wish 
to submit to mistreatment without some assigned cause. 

All of the men of good business qualifications in each 
company were put to filling out the prescribed forms of the 
regular army furlough, and on the 20th 'of November the 
men started to their homes, and were to meet again at Camp 
Nelson at the expiration of their furloughs. 

The weather was extremely cold, and most of the men 
being dismounted, reached their homes in various ways. 


Rev. W. H. Honnell, from his Kansas home, contributes 
the following anecdote of this gallant officer : 

You can scarcely know as well as I do, the wide and picturesque view 
taken over all the country of " Wolford and his men." When I am intro- 
duced as the Chaplain of the celebrated " Wolford's Cavalry," everybody, 
especially every old soldier, is expectant of some hazardous daring story 
to be told. I suppose you saw the short, graphic description given by 
the Toledo Blade when Wolford first took his seat in Congress, closing as 
it did, with the ludicrous ''Git ready to git on your horses, git on!" "Yet 
the First Kentucky Cavalry," it was added, " was the terror of the Rebel 
army, for they went in to kill, as they were in early, and at the close of 
nearly all of the battles of the Cumberland Army." 

I heard a man describe Maj. Keen not long since, in his movement 


through Pound Gap, in connection with the battle of the Salt works, un- 
der Burbridge, as he rode at the head of his batallion over the trees cut 
down to hinder the advance on the mill. 

Said Capt. Baker (of the Thirty-Fifth Kentucky) to Keen, " Isn't the 
odds too great with their Infantry brigade on their chosen ground?" 
"What else can we do?" replied Keen, "we are hungry; there is the 
meal and flour; let us put on a bold front, lead our horses, jump over the 
logs, and make our way through the tree tops ; they will think wo are 
only the advance, and when they retreat, we will take the mill and hold 
it." And 60 they did to the utter amazement of the Captain and his Com- 
pany, who, for the first time, were initiated into the ways of the First 
Kentucky Cavalry, and formed a part of it. 




The Author regrets that unavoidable mistakes are liable 
to occur in this part of his work. Many of the Company 
officers have emigrated to other States, and some are in the 
far west, numbers have passed away ; some failed to respond 
to his communications. Even those who have responded to 
his communications and have given him valuable aid, the 
time has been so long since the war closed, that they have 
imperfect means at hand to help him much in this line ; his 
principal source of information, therefore, is from the Adju- 
tant-General's Report of the State of Kentucky. That office, 
too, labored under inferior facilities, owing to many unavoid- 
able circumstances in getting up a faultless report. The 
proof-sheets of each company's roll ought to have been sub- 
mitted to competent Company officers of the various organi- 
zations before they were ever put to the press ; but the exi- 
gencies of the times prevented this. 

In most works of this kind, the names of the deserters 
are included in the roster; they will be omitted in this for 
good reasons. This work, though claimed to be as near as 
possible an authentic history of the regiment's service, yet 
is not an official report. Some names may have been put 
on the rolls unjustly; others afterward had the charges re- 
moved; and many, no doubt, have made good citizens: they 
were simply not composed of the full material to make first- 
class soldiers. It would do no good at this day to have such 
on record as a lasting stigma to their names, and a source 
of mortification to innocent descendants and other respect- 
able relatives. For the same reasons the Author will leave 
out charges on the rolls for minor offenses. Those who had 
no grave charges against them, either suffered the penalty 
attached at the time, or were pardoned with proper excuses 
or promises, and restored to duty, and their names will not 
be handed down to future generations merely to gratify idle 



Col. Frank Wolford. Received recruiting commission 
from Gen. Wm. Nelson, July 15th, 1861. Enrolled July IT, 
1861. Entered Camp Dick Robinson, Tuesday, Aug. 6, 1861, 
with Companies A, B, and C, and upon declination of Col. 
W. J. Landram, assumed command of the regiment, and 
mustered in as Colonel, October 28, 1861. Was dangerously 
wounded at the Battle of Lebanon, Tennessee, May 5, 1862, 
and afterward slightly at Knoxville. Was at different times 
commander of brigades and his own and other regiments not 
permanently organized into brigades. He commanded the 
Independent Cavalry Brigade during the East Tennessee 
campaign, in the fall of 1863, until the death of Gen. San- 
ders, November 18th, when he was put in command of the 
First Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Ohio. Ceased to 
belong to the service, March 24, 1864. 

Col. Silas Adams. Enrolled July 17, 1861. Promoted 
from Captain Company A, to Lieutenant-Colonel, November 
28, 1862, and to Colonel, June 16, 1864. Commanded First 
Brigade, First Division, Cavalry Corps, after the siege of 
Knoxville, and also commanded a brigade for some time in 
the Sherman campaign in Georgia, in 1864. Was captured 
in Danville, Ky., by Pegram's forces, March 24, 1863, but a 
few days afterward adroitly made his escape from Monticello 
and returned to his command. See Company A. 

Lieut. Col. John W. Letcher. Enrolled July 22, 1861. 
Mustered in October 28, 1861, and resigned November 28, 

Lieut. Col. Francis N. Helveti. Enrolled and entered 
the service as Major, August 4th, 1861. Mustered in with 
the regiment, October 28, 1861. Captured by the enemy near 
Somerset, Ky., December 4, 1861. Exchanged, and was ab- 
sent on detached service until April, 1864. Rejoined the 
regiment, and was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel June 16, 
1864. Mustered out with the regiment. 

Maj. John A. Brents. Enrolled July 27, 1861, and entered 
the service as Captain of Company C. Promoted to Major 
on organization of the regiment, and mustered in October 
28, 1861. Resigned July 2, 1862. 

Maj. William A. Coffey. Date of enrollment not given. 


Mustered in as Major, October 28, 1861. Resigned October, 

Maj. William N. Owens. Enrolled September 11, 1861, 
and entered the service as Captain of Company L, and mus- 
tered in with the regiment. Promoted Major July 31, 1862. 
Captured at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Was 
prisoner of war at muster-out of regiment. 

Maj. Thomas Rowland. Enrolled September 12, 1861, as 
a Sergeant in Company K. Promoted from Captain of that 
Company to Major, July 16, 1864. Wounded at Dutton 
Hill, Ky., March 30, 1863. See Company K. 

Maj. Anderson T. Keen. Enrolled July 25, 1861, as 
Sergeant of Company J. Promoted Major June 27, 1864. 
See Company J. 

Fountain T. Fox. Dates not given of enrollment and 
muster-in. Resigned June 4, 1862. 

Maj. George W. Drye. Enrolled July, 1861, and entered 
the service as Regimental Adjutant and 1st Lieutenant Com- 
pany B. Promoted Major February 28, 1864. Wounded at 
Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. Resigned on ac- 
count of disability from wound, June 9, 1864. See Com- 
pany B. 

Adj. Francis M. Wolford. Enrolled and entered the ser- 
vice as 2d Lieutenant Company A, July 27, 1861. Promoted 
Adjutant July, 1862, and to Captain Company A, November 
14, 1862. See Company A. 

Adj. W. D. Carpenter. Enrolled and entered the service 
as 1st Sergeant Company G, August 24, 1861. Promoted 
Adjutant, November 14, 1862. Wounded at Knoxville. See 
Company G. 

Regimental Quartermaster Mathew H. Blackford. En- 
rolled and mustered in as Regimental Quartermaster at 
Murfreesboro, Tennessee, July 27, 1862. 

Regimental Commissary Elijah Cox. Enrolled and en- 
tered the service as Sergeant Company B, July 18, 1861. Pro- 
moted Regimental Commissary June 3, 1863, and mustered 
in at Somerset, June 6, 1863. 

Surg. John A. Brady. Enrolled as Surgeon at organiza- 
tion of regiment. Mustered in with the regiment, October 
28, 1861. Resigned December 26, 1862. 


Surg. Hawkins Brown. Enrolled as Assistant Surgeon, 
June 28, 1862. Promoted to Surgeon, December 26, 1862. 
Acted as Brigade Surgeon on Col. Ed. M. McCook's Staff, 
and also as Division Surgeon on Wolford's Staff. Acted as 
Medical Director on Sturgis's Staff; was appointed Medical 
Director on Maj. Gen. Stoneman's Staff, Cavalry Corps, Army 
of the Ohio, June 9, 1864, and surrendered with the General 
on raid to Macon, Ga., July 31, 1804. Was exchanged and 
returned to the regiment, November, 1864, a short time be- 
fore it was mustered out, December 31, 1804. 

Assist. Surg. James C. Riffe. Enrolled and entered the 
service at the organization of the regiment, and mustered in 
with it, October 28, 1861. Resigned June 11, 1862. 

Assist. Surg. Andrew A. Campbell. Enrolled December 
27, 1862. Mustered in January 9, 1863, at Somerset, Ky. 

Assist. Surg. Albert G. Huffin. Enrolled and mustered 
in at Stanford, Ky., March 14, 1863. Resigned June 9, 1864. 

Chaplain William H. Honnell. Enrolled August 10, 
1861, and mustered in with the regiment, October 28, 1861. 


Serg. Maj. Philip W. Cox. Enrolled as a private Com- 
pany B, July 23, 1863. Promoted Sergeant-Major, Decem- 
ber 24, 1862. 

Quartermaster Sergeant David A. Davis. Enrolled as a 
private, November 9, 1861, and mustered in the same day at 
Somerset, Ky. Promoted to Quartermaster Sergeant, June 
6, 1863. Was captured by the enemy at Rockford, Tennes- 
see, November 14, 1863, but made escape and joined the regi- 
ment at Knoxville, soon afterward. 

Commissary Serg. James M. Swiggett. Enrolled as a 
private in Company B, November 1, 1861, and mustered in 

the same day at . Promoted Commissary Sergeant, 

December 20, 1862. 

Hospital Steward George H. Horton. Enrolled as a pri- 
vate, August 13, 1861, and mustered in with the regiment. 
Promoted Hospital Steward, November 1, 1862. 


Serg. Maj. Feland Bland. Enrolled July 23, 1861, and 
mustered in with regiment as Sergeant-Major. Discharged 


December 24, 1862, to enable hiin to accept promotion in 
Eighth Kentucky Cavalry. 

Hospital Steward Benjamin Owens. Enrolled August 25, 
1861, and discharged December 24, 1862, to enable him to 
receive promotion in the Thirty-Second Kentucky Infantry. 


Commissary Serg. Clinton Hooker. Enrolled July 23, 
1861, and died December 20, 1862. 

Note. — The regiment had several wagon-masters. Bas- 
combe Taylor, of Lancaster, Ky., filled the position for sev- 
eral months in the early service of the regiment. Afterward 
James P. Speake, of Company G, served for several months, 
and then John F. Rigney, of Company A, served faithfully 
in that position until the muster-out of the regiment, De- 
cember 31, 1864. 


Present and mustered out with the regiment 15 

Discharged 3 

Resigned g 

Prisoner of war 1 

Died 1 

Total 28 


Enrolled in Casey county, Kentucky, in July, 1861. Or- 
ganized at Liberty, Kentucky, July 27, 1861. Entered the 
service at Camp Dick Robinson, Garrard county, Kentucky, 
August 6, 1861. Mustered into the service at the same place, 
October 28, 1861. Mustered out of the service at Camp Nel- 
son, Kentucky, December 31, 1864. 

Date of muster-in and muster-out of each individual, the 
same as the Company and regiment, if not otherwise stated. 


Capt. George W. Sweeney. Enrolled July 17, 1861. 
Elected Captain of Company organization. Mustered out 
April 14, 1862. 

Capt. Silas Adams. Enlisted July 11, 1861. Elected 1st 
Lieutenant at Company organization. Appointed Regimental 


Quartermaster, and mustered in with the regiment. Pro- 
moted Captain, June 7, 1862; to Lieut. Col., November 28, 
1862. (See Field and Staff.) 

Capt. Francis M. Wolford. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
Elected 2d Lieutenant at Company organization. Promoted 
1st Lieutenant, June 7, 1862. Appointed Regimental Adju- 
tant, July, 1862. Promoted Captain, November 28, 1862. 
Killed in action at Hillsborough, Georgia, July 31, 1864. 

1st Lieutenant James Humphrey. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
Appointed Sergeant at Company organization. Promoted 
1st Lieutenant, November 28, 1862. Mortally wounded in 
action near Hillsborough, Georgia, July 31, 1864, and died 
14 days afterward. 

2d Lieutenant William Adams. Enlisted July 17, 1861. 
Appointed Sergeant at Company organization. Promoted 
2d Lieutenant, November 28, 1862. 

2d Lieutenant Thomas Watson. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
Appointed 1st Sergeant at Company organization. Promoted 
to 2d Lieutenant, June 7, 1862. Resigned November 24, 


1st Sergeant William T. Humphrey. Enlisted December 
10th, and mustered in December 31, 1861. Promoted to 1st 
Sergeant, November 28, 1861. 

Sergeant Eastham Tarrant. Enlisted as a private, July 
27, 1861, and mustered in as a Sergeant. Remained with 
the Company most of the time until February, 1863. Was 
then on detached service as clerk at regimental, brigade, and 
Cavalry corps headquarters, as long as the command re- 
mained in front. 

Serg. John G. Brown. Enlisted November 11, 1861, and 
mustered in at Liberty, Ky., December 31, 1861. Promoted 
to Sergeant, November 28, 1862. 

Serg. Geo. T. Wesley. Enlisted July 21, 1861. Pro- 
moted Sergeant, November 28, 1862. Wounded at Wildcat. 

Serg. Robert T. Pierce. Enlisted July 24, 1861, and ap- 
pointed Corporal at Company organization. Promoted to 
Sergeant, 1863. Captured at Rockforcl, Tennessee, November 
14, 1863. Escaped and was recaptured. Again escaped in 
North Carolina, and after many adventures, and traveling 


hundreds of miles, he reached the Union lines in Sweetwater 
Valley, Tennessee, April 5, 1864. He finally joined his regi- 
ment in Georgia, near Resaca, in May. He was afterward 
again captured on the Chattahoochee River, in July, but 
only remained with the enemy one night, when he escaped 
and joined his command the next evening. See account in 
another part of this work. 

Corporal James W. Stephens. Enlisted July 26, 1861. 
Captured at Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 186"3. Ex- 
changed, June 20, 1864. 

Corporal James M. Logan. Enlisted July 26, 1861. Pro- 
moted Corporal, July, 1863. 

Corporal Geo. W. Gadberry. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Pro- 
moted Corporal, July, 1863. 

Corporal William Bailey. Enlisted July 20, 1861. Pro- 
moted Corporal July, 1863. 

Corporal John M. Sharpe. Enlisted August 3, 1861. Pro- 
moted Corporal, July, 1863. 

Corporal Wm. L. Brown. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Pro- 
moted to Corporal, July, 1863. 

Corporal John 0. Staton. Enlisted July 20, 1861. Pro- 
moted Corporal, May 1, 1864. 



John C. Brown. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Richard Butt. Enlisted July 26, 1861. 

John L. Bowman. Enlisted July 21, 1861. 

Joseph G. Bell. Enlisted August 5, 1861. 

George W. Brown. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

John Chapman. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Alexander C. Carman. Enlisted November 14, 1861, and 
mustered in at Liberty, Ky., December 31, 1861. Captured 
at Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. Escaped several 
times, and after many hardships and adventures, spending 
five months in the enemy's lines, reached the Union lines, 
in East Tennessee, in May, 1864. 

James R. Carman. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Joseph Coffey. Enlisted December 21, 1861, and mus- 
tered in at Liberty, Ky., December 31, 1861. 

James F. Cams. Enlisted August 5, 1861. 


Willis A. Coffey. Enlisted July 27, 1801. Mustered in- 
to regiment at Knoxville, Tenn., September 16, 1863. Re- 
ported as joining Company by transfer, July 4, 1863. 

Shelby Coffey. Enlisted July 27, 1863. Reported as 
joining the Company by transfer, July 4, 1863. Mustered in 
at Knoxville, Tennessee, September 16, 1863. 

William A. Doulass. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Thomas J. Durham. Enlisted July 26, 1861. 

Milton H. Durham. Enlisted July 17, 1861. 

Isaiah C. Dye. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured at 
Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. Escaped, and after 
many hardships, was recaptured. Exchanged November 2, 
1864. Joined regiment at Mt. Sterling, Ky., soon afterward. 

James Edwards. Enlisted July 25, 1861. 

John J. Elliott. Enlisted July 26, 1861. Severely hurt 
by horse falling on hirn at Philadelphia. 

John R. Falconberry. Enlisted December 26, 1861, and 
mustered in December 31, 1861, at Liberty, Ky. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, November 14, 1861. Prisoner at 
time of muster-out. Died in prison. 

Eli Gilpin. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Pleasant Gooden. Enlisted July 28, 1861. 

Thomas J. Goode. Enlisted July 25, 1861. During the 
service acted as Chief Orderly for Col. Wolford and Col. 
Adams much of the time. 

James E. King. Enlisted July 17, 1861. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Exchanged, No- 
vember 2, 1864. 

John P. Logan. Enlisted July 24, 1861. 

John A. Lawhorn. Enlisted November 26, 1861, in Com- 
pany K, Nineteenth Kentucky Infantry. Mustered in at 
Harrodsburg, Ky., January 2, 1862. Joined the Company 
March 15, 1863, by transfer, as reported. 

James R. Minton. Enlisted September 27, 1861. 

Marion Minton. Enlisted July 26, 1861. 

David J. Marples. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

John Marples. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

William J. McGuire. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 

Andrew J. Meeks. Enlisted December 14, 1861, and mus- 
tered in at Liberty, Ky., December 30, 1861. Captured at 


Rockford, East Tennessee, November 14, 1863. Died in Rebel 

William M. Pierce. Enlisted August 5, 1801. 

James C. Portmau. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Green B. Patterson. Enlisted July 25, 1861. 

Larkin Phelps. Enlisted July 26, 1861. Severely wound- 
ed at the Battle of Wildcat. 

Aden J. Rigney. Enlisted November 14, 1861. Mustered 
in at Liberty, Ky., December 31, 1861. 

John F. Rigney. Enlisted July 20, 1861. Acted as Regi- 
mental Wagon-master much of the time of his service. 

John P. Riggins. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Wounded on 
the Chattahoochee River, in Georgia, in 1864. 

Jacob Spaw. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured at Rock- 
ford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. Prisoner of war at the 
time of muster-out of regiment. 

Texton Sharp. Enlisted August 30, 1861. 

Stanly G. Stephens. Enlisted July 28, 1861. 

Edward Stephens. Enlisted August 3, 1861. 

Alexander C. Sloan. Enlisted August 3, 1861. 

Hiram A. Smith. Enlisted July 25, 1861. 

William H. Speed. Enlisted August 7, 1861. 

John M. Wall. Enlisted July 28, 1861. Captured at 
Sweetwater Factory, Georgia, July 3, 1864. Died in Rebel 

Lewis Walker. Enlisted December, 1861, and mustered 
in at Liberty, Ky., December 31, 1861. 

Francis H. Ward. Enlisted July 25, 1861. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

William Woodram. Enlisted July 25, 1861. 

John W. Wilkinson. Enlisted July 26, 1861. 

Henry F. Walters. Enlisted August 5, 1861. 

William A. Wall. Enlisted November 14, 1861, and mus- 
tered in at Liberty, Ky., December 31, 1861. Captured at 
Murfreesboro, Tennessee, July 13, 1862. Exchanged June 
10, 1863. 

Robert Wall. Enlisted July 25, 1861. Captured near 
Hillsborough, Georgia, July 31, 1864. Exchanged December 
20, 1864. 

John G. Watson. Enlisted July 17, 1861. 


John Q. Wolford. Enlisted August 5, 1861. 


Serg. Geo. R. Murphy. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Dis- 
charged at Somerset, Ky., June, 1863, to enable him to ac- 
cept commission as Captain in Thirteenth Kentucky Cavalry. 

Corporal James M. Gibony. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Dis- 
charged at Somerset, Ky., June, 1863, to enable him to ac- 
cept commission as 1st Lieutenant in Thirteenth Kentucky 

Corporal John E. Sharpe. Enlisted July 13, 1861. Dis- 
charged in May, 1862, to enable him to accept commission 
as 1st Lieutenant in Eighth Kentucky Cavalry. 

Bugler Galen E. Taylor. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Dis- 
charged at Shelbyville, Tennessee, May 28, 1862. 

Jessee Edwards. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Discharged at 
Murfreesboro, July 20, 1862. 

Thomas G. Gaddis. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Discharged 
at Columbia, Tennessee, May 2, 1862. 

William J. Murphy. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Discharged 
, May 2, 1862. 

Job Sweeney. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Discharged at 
Nashville, Tennessee, May 24, 1862. 

Thornton West, Enlisted July 27, 1861. Discharged at 
Louisville, Ky., July, 1862. 

Edward R. Williams. Enlisted July 27,1861. Discharged 
at Columbia, Tennessee, June, 1862. 

Parker H. Grinstead. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Dis- 
charged July, 1862. 

, James E. Woods. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Discharged at 
Columbia, Tennessee, June, 1862, on account of disability 
from wounds received in action at the Battle of Wildcat, Oc- 
tober 21, 1861. 

Benjamin Bransom. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Discharged 
in June, 1863, to enable him to accept commission as 2d 
Lieutenant in Thirteenth Kentucky Cavalry. 


Corporal George W. Cabbell. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
Killed in Battle of Lebanon, Tennessee, May 5, 1862. 



Corporal Martin Phelps. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Cap- 
tured at Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. Died in 
Rebel prison, March, 1864. 

Samuel Bell. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died of disease 
in regimental hospital, May 8, 1862. 

John J. Douglass. Enlisted July 26, 1861. Died of 
measles while on furlough home, October 28, 1861. 

Jefferson Eubanks. Enlisted July, 1861. Captured at 
Rockford, Tennessee, N >vember 14, 1863. Died in Ander- 
sonville prison. 

William French. Enlisted April 30, 1863, and mustered 
in April 30, 1863, at Somerset, Ky. Captured at Phila- 
delphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Died in prison. 

Brown Elliott. Enlisted March 15, 1863, and mustered 
in, April 30, 1863, at Somerset, Ky. Died of disease at Lex- 
ington, Ky., April 28, 1864. 

James W. Gaddis. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died of dis- 
ease at hospital at Bardstown, Ky., March 23, 1862 ■ 

Green B. Lanham. Enlisted July 27, 1864. Died of dis- 
ease in regimental hospital, July, 1863. 

Stephen F. Lee. Enlisted July 28, 1861. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Died in prison. 

Mancil Garrard. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured at 
Creelsboro, Ky., November, 1861. Died of disease at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, April 21. 1862. 

Geo. W. Noland. Enlisted August 4, 1863. Mustered in 
at Knoxville, Tennessee, September 16, 1863. Died at Knox- 
ville, Tennessee, December 26, 1863. 

Richard Peach. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died at Bards- 
town, Kentucky, April 20, 1863. 

Benjamin Sharpe. Enlisted July 27, 1863. Killed in ac- 
tion at Hillsborough, Georgia, July 31, 1864. 

James Sweeney. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died in regi- 
mental hospital, June 7, 1863. 

James W. Staton. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died in regi- 
mental hospital, February 12, 1862. 

David L. Statham. Enlisted February 29, 1863. Mus- 
tered in at Somerset, Ky., April 30, 1863. Died in regimental 
hospital, June 20, 1864. 



Michael G. Warren. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died at 
Somerset, Ky., August 28, 1863. 


Zachariah Anderson. Enlisted January 12, 1868. Mus- 
tered in at Danville, Ky., February 28, 1863. 

John H. Black. Enlisted August 28, 1863. Mustered in 
at Knoxville, Tennessee, September 6, 1863. 

Leslie Carman. Enlisted January 30, 1863. Mustered 
in June 30, 1863, at Jamestown, Ky. Mustered out at Lex- 
ington, Ky., May 25, 1865, by General Order No. 27, Depart- 
ment of Kentucky. 

John Cochran. Enlisted January 12, 1863. Mustered in 
February 28, 1863, at Danville, Ky. 

James Eubanks. Enlisted August 12, 1863. Mustered 
in , at Somerset, Ky. 

Harvey Ellison. Enlisted August 12, 1863. Mustered 
in September 16, 1863, at Knoxville, Tennessee. 

Joseph Eubanks. Enlisted November 10, 1862. Mustered 
in November 12, 1862, at Nashville, Tennessee 

George A. Gibbins. Enlisted and mustered in February 
28, 1863, at Danville, Ky. 

Jessee P. Harris. Enlisted March 13, 1863. Mustered 
in April 30, 1863, at Somerset, Ky. Captured at Phila- 
delphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Died in prison. 

William Jeffries. Enlisted August 6, 1863. Mustered in 
September 16, 1863, at Knoxville, Tennessee. Captured at 
Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. Died in prison. 

James Pierce. Enlisted July 20, 1863. Mustered in Sep- 
tember 16, 1863, at Knoxville, Tennessee. 

James Reynolds. Enlisted April 1, 1863. Mustered in 
April 30, 1863, at Somerset, Ky. 

George W. Raiborn. Enlisted August 3, 1863. Mustered 
in September 16, 1863, at Knoxville, Tennessee. Captured 
at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Died in prison. 

Thomas J. Robinson. Enlisted July 3, 1863. Mustered 
in September 16, 1863, at Knoxville, Tennessee. 

James Spaw. Enlisted July 28, 1863. Mustered in Sep- 
tember 16, 1863, at Knoxville, Tennessee. 


Francis M. T. Sloan. Enlisted March 1, 1863. Mustered 
in September 1G, 1863, at Knoxville, Tennessee. 

John M. Tilford. Enlisted April 15, 1863. Mustered in 
September 16, 1863, at Knoxville, Tennessee. 

Levi Wilcher. Enlisted March 3, 1863. Mustered in 
April 30, 1863, at Somerset, Ky. 

Robert Wesley. Enlisted August 5, 1863. Mustered in 
September 16, 1863, at Knoxville. 

Robert W. Staton. Enlisted July 20, 1861. Mustered in 
with the regiment, October 28, 1861. Held on charges of ab- 
sence without leave. Proved charges incorrect, and mustered 
out at Louisville, , 1865. 

John R. Conner. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Was held on 
charges, but finally had them removed, and was mustered 

Nine of the Company are on the roll as deserters. 


Present and mustered out 59 

Absent in Rebel prison 2 

Recruits transferred 17 

Total belonging to the Company 78 


Promoted to Field and Staff 1 

Resigned and mustered out 2 

Discharged for disability and promotion in other regi- 
ments 13 

Killed in action 4 

Died in the service and in Rebel prisons 22 

Deserters 9 

Aggregate losses 51 

Total belonging to the Company during service • 129 
Enrolled on the Rolling Fork, in Casey county, Kentucky, 
in July, 1861. Organized July 27, 1861. Entered the service 
at Camp Dick Robinson, August 6, 1861. Mustered in, Oc- 
tober 28, 1861. Mustered out December 31, 1864. The date 


of the muster-in of each individual not given unless mus- 
tered in at a different time of the company. 


Capt. William Rains. Enlisted July 8, 1861. Captain 
at the organization of the Company, as the Company officers 
were appointed, and not elected. Mustered out, April 14, 

Capt. Geo. W. Drye. Enlisted July 18, 1861. Entered 
the service as 1st Lieutenant, and appointed Adjutant at 
regimental organization. Promoted Captain, April 14, 1862. 
Promoted Major, February 28, 1864. (See Field and Staff.) 

Capt. Samuel Belden. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Entered 
the service as 1st Sergeant. Promoted 2d Lieutenant, June 
23, 1862 ; 1st Lieutenant, July 1, 1863 ; Captain, April 10. 

1st Lieutenant William B. Carter declined accepting com- 

1st Lieutenant Stephen H. Coppage. Enlisted July 27, 
1861. Entered the service as 2d Lieutenant. Promoted 1st 
Lieutenant, June 23, 1862. Resigned December 21, 1862. 

1st Lieutenant Vincent Peyton.. Enlisted November 1. 
1861. Promoted 2d Lieutenant, July 1, 1863; to 1st Lieu- 
tenant, April 10, 1864. 

2d Lieutenant Stephen G. Averitt. Enlisted July 27. 
1861. Promoted from 1st Sergeant, April 10, 1864. 


1st Sergeant Buford Kinnett. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
Promoted April 10, 1864. 

Sergeant William M. Dodd. Enlisted July 18, 1861. Pris- 
oner of war from November 14, 1863, to April 15, 1864. 

Sergeant Sterling T. Brewer. Enlisted and mustered in 
at Camp Owens, November 1, 1861. 

Sergeant Thomas Evans. Enlisted and mustered in at 
Camp Owens, November, 1861. Wounded at the Battle of 
Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. 

Sergeant Sylvester Murphy. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 

Sergeant John C. Burke. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Wound- 
ed at Mud Lick, October, 1864. 


Corporal Benjamin Helm. Enlisted and mustered in at 
Camp Owens, November 1, 1861. 

Corporal John Capheart. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Corporal George W. Gray. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Corporal John W. Yowell. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Cap- 
tured at Hillsborough, Ga., July 31, 1864. 

Corporal James F. Yowell. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Cap- 
tured November 14, 1863. Exchanged November 18, 1864 

Corporal Perry F. Belden. Enlisted July 23, 1861 

Corporal William Cochran. Enlisted July 28, 1861. 

Bugler Robert Allgood. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 

Huston Tharp, wagoner. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Cap- 
tured at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Died in 
Rebel prison. 

Mathias Cox, saddler. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 


N. B. Brown. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Captured at Phila- 
delphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Died in prison. 

Thomas Cox. Enlisted July 25, 1861. 

William Coffman. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 

William Clemmons. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 

Adam Clemmons. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Absent. 

Hardin Coppage. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Elijah N. Decker. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 

Benjamin F. Eads. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Hickman Edwards. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Captured 
at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Died in Rebel 

Adam Ellis. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 

Tolbert Edwards. Enlisted July 24, 1861. Absent. 

Wesley Genheart. Enlisted November 27, 1861. 

Wesley Glazbrook. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Jacob Green. Enlisted and mustered in November 1, 
1861, at Camp Owens. 

Edward Harvey. Enlisted July 28, 1861. 

William Hill. Enlisted and mustered in, November 1, 

Wesley Hair. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 

Thomas J. Hafley. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 


John T. Lynn. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
William T. Lynn. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
Hays B. Lynn. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
Thomas Lynn. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
Alexander Lynn. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
Thos. F. Lankford. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
John W. Lane. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
William C. Lanham. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
Mathias Lanham. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
William Lane. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Captured near 
Hillsborough, Ga., July 31, 1864. Died in Rebel prison. 

Wm. L. Luster. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Captured at 
Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. Died in Rebel 

Davis Low. Enlisted and mustered in November 1, 1861. 
Eli Martin. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
Reuben P. Martin. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Absent. 
John E. Mills. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 

Wm. N. Mounce. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Absent, 
Charles Monday. Enlisted July 21, 1861. Captured at 
Hillsborough, Ga., July 31, 1864. Mustered out at Louis- 
ville, Ky., March 25, 1865. 

Thomas J. Peyton Enlisted and mustered in November 
1, 1861. Wounded at Mill Springs, January 19, 1862. 
James Powell. Enlisted July 26, 1861. 
David Pemberton. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
• Joel Pemberton. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Wounded at 
Lebanon, Tennessee, May 5, 1862. 

James Roney. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
Jacob Sluder. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
V. B. Sinkhorn. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
Richard Sinkhorn. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
Wilson Sinkhorn. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured at 
Hillsborough, Ga., July 31, 1864.. 

Samuel Sandusky. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
James Sandusky. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
William Taylor. Enlisted July 23, 1861. 
R. N. Wiser.' Enlisted July 23, 1861. Captured at Rock- 
ford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. Died in Rebel prison. 
Charles Wright. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 


George W. Ward. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 
Thomas J. Wright, Enlisted July 23, 1861. Badly 
wounded near Bear Wallow, Ky., in November, 1862. 
Joseph E. Wilcher. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 
James Willis. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 
Moses C. Yowell. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
William E. Yowell. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 




Serg. Joseph Anderson. Enlisted July 27, 186j.. Dis- 
charged for wounds received at Mill Springs, January 19, 1862. 

Serg. William F. Beard. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Dis- 
charged for wounds received at Mill Springs, January 19, 

Serg. Elijah Cox. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Discharged 
by order of Gen. Schofield to accept commission as 1st Lieu- 
tenant on Field and Staff. 

Corp. DeWitt C. Burk. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Dis- 
charged May 15, 1862. 

Corp. M. C. Bransom. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Dis- 
charged May 10, 1862. 

Corp. Geo. Lowe. Enlisted and mustered in, November 
1, 1861. Discharged March 1, 1863. 

Bugler Davis Cox. Enlisted July 23, 1861. • Discharged 
August 28, 1862. 

John W. Brewer, Farrier. Enlisted August 23, 1861. Dis- 
charged August 28, 1862. 

John G. Bibb, Farrier. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Dis- 
charged March 15, 1862. 

Lloyd Adams. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Discharged Jan- 
uary 19, 1862. 

John Ellis. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Discharged by or- 
der of Gen. Schofield to accept commission as 1st Lieuten- 
ant in Thirteenth Kentucky Cavalry. 


Serg. Philip W. Cox. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Trans- 
ferred to Field and Staff, December 29, 1862. 


Corp. James W. Eads. Enlisted August 26, 1863, and 
mustered in at Knoxville, Tennesse, September 20, 1863. 

Milton Dever, Farrier. Enlisted September 1, 1863, and 
mustered in at Knoxville, Tennessee, September 20, 1868. 
Captured at Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. Died 
in prison. 

Daniel Alstott. Enlisted January 18, 1863. Mustered in 
at Knoxville, Tennessee, September 20, 1863. 

C. M. Bowling. Enlisted June IT, 1863. Mustered in at 
Knoxville, Tennessee, September 20, 1863. 

James D. Coulter. Enlisted June 15, 1863. Mustered in 
September 20, 1863. 

Ricbard Dowsey. Enlisted August 24, 1863. Mustered 
in September 20, 1863. 

John P. Denham. Enlisted August 24, 1863. Mustered 
in September 20, 1863. 

Benj. F. Edmunds. Enlisted July 1, 1863. Mustered in 
September 20, 1863. Mustered out at Louisville, Ky., No- 
vember 18, 1865. 

William A. Griffin. Enlisted and mustered in Casey 
county, October 7, 1862. 

James L. Linville. Enlisted and mustered in Casey 
county, Ky., October 7, 1862. Wounded at Dutton Hill, 
March 30, 1863, and died in the service. 

Martin A. Love. Enlisted August 24, 1863. Mustered in 
at Knoxville, September 20, 1863. Captured at Hillsborough, 
Ga., July 31, 1864. 

Abraham L. McAnnelly. Enlisted May 15, 1863. Mus- 
tered in at Knoxville, September 20, 1863. 

James Peyton. Enlisted and mustered in at Bardstown, 
Ky., February 10, 1862. Mustered out February 17, 1865. 

James M. Swigett. Enlisted and mustered in, November 
1, 1862. Transferred to Field and Staff as Commissary 
Sergeant, December 20, 1862. 


Serg. William Lynn. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Died May 
8, 1863, at Liberty. Ky. 

Corp. Andrew W. Bottoms. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Killed 
in battle at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 28, 1863. 


Corp. Thomas L. Holder. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Cap- 
tured at Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1861. Exchanged 
and died in. the hospital at Baltimore, Md., May 31, 1864. 

Corp. William McCombs. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Died 
in prison at Richmond, Virginia, November 17, 1863. 

William T. Bailey. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Killed in 
an affray while absent, February 26, 1863. 

James Hailey. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Killed in an 
affray while absent, December 15, 1862. 

Elijah Hill. Enlisted and mustered in at Somerset, Ky., 
April 1, 1863. Died May 18, 1863, in Casey County, Ky. 

Bennett King. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Died September 
4, 1863, at Murfreesboro, Tennessee. 

William Payne. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Killed by acci- 
dent, October 23, 1862, at Nashville, Tennessee. 

Thomas S. Scott. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died October 
29, 1861, at Camp Dick Robinson, Ky. 

Sam P. Wizer. Enlisted July 23, 1861. Died September 
10, 1861, at Camp Dick Robinson, Ky. 


Three are reported on the rolls as deserters. 


Present and mustered out 60 

Absent 5 

Absent in Rebel prisons, including recruits 3 

Recruits transferred 10 

Total belonging to Company at muster-out • • . • 78 


Promoted to Field and Staff 4 

Mustered out and resigned 2 

Discharged for promotion 1 

Discharged for disability 10 

Killed and died 11 

Died in Rebel prisons 7 

Deserted 3 

Total losses 38 

Total belonging to Company during service • 116 



Enrolled at Albany, Clinton county, Ky., July 27, 1861. 
Organized on the same day by electing their officers. En- 
tered the service at Camp Dick Robinson, , 1861. 

Mustered in October 28, 1861. Mustered out December 31, 
1864. It must be understood that each individual is mus- 
tered in and mustered out with his Company unless other- 
wise stated. 


Capt. John A. Brents. Enlisted July 27, 1861, and 
elected Captain the same day. Promoted to Major on or- 
ganization of the regiment. Resigned July 2, 1862. 

Capt. John A. Morrison. Enlisted and elected 1st Lieu- 
tenant, July 27, 1861. Promoted Captain, September 12, 
1861. Resigned August 18, 1862. 

Capt. Wm. Perkins. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Promoted 
from Sergeant to 2d Lieutenant, September 12, 1861 ; to 1st 
Lieutenant, January 19, 1862 ; to Captain, August, 1862. Re- 
signed December 25, 1863. 

Capt. Delany R. Carr. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Pro- 
moted from Sergeant to 2d Lieutenant, January 26, 1862; 
to 1st Lieutenant, August 18, 1862; to Captain, December 
25, 1863. 

1st Lieutenant James E. Chilton. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
Promoted from Sergeant to 2d Lieutenant, August 18, 1862 ; 
to 1st Lieutenant, December 25, 1863. 

2d Lieutenant William C. Root. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
Promoted from ranks February 2, 1864. Acted as Brigade 
Commissary; also as Commissary on Major-General Stone- 
man's Staff, from June, 1864, to August, 1864. 


Company Quartermaster-Sergeant Wm. Thrasher. En- 
listed July 27, 1861. Promoted to Company Quartermaster 
Sergeant, May 15, 1864. 

1st Sergeant Geo. D. Thrasher. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
Promoted 1st Sergeant, September 14, 1863. 

Serg. John C. Beard. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured 
at Philadelphia, Term., October 20, 1863. 

Serg. Cornelius Huff. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 


Serg. Jonathan E. Southerland. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
Captured at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Serg. Jessee F. Thrasher. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Corp. Nathan Smith. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Corp. Arthur M. Kennedy. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Cap- 
tured at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Corp. Elihu A. Thompkins. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Cap- 
tured at Jamestown, Ky., April 14, 1862. Escaped and re- 
turned, May 15, 1863. 

Corp. James T. Chance. Enlisted September 15, 1861. 
Captured at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Corp. Albert W. Sewell. Enlisted September 1, 1861. 

Corp. John L. Wallen. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Corp. William Huff. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured 
at Creelsboro, Ky., May, 1863. Exchanged. 

Francis M. Cole, Farrier. 


Jasper C. Avary. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Jasper N. Acree. Enlisted September 6, 1861. Captured 
at Calhoun, Tennessee, September 26, 1863. Escaped and 
rejoined the Company, August 30, 1864. 

James W. Beard. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured at 
Mill Springs, Ky., May 25, 1863. Exchanged September, 

John Burchett. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

James H. Cumming. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

William W. Caster. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Prisoner of 
war from October 20, 1863, to December 28, 1864. Ex- 

Robert H. Chilton. Enlisted October 8, 1861. 

William C. Cole. Enlisted October 4, 1861. Captured at 
Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. 

Thomas A. Carr. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Absent, and 
case reported to Headquarters, District of Kentucky. 

James H. Eason. Enlisted August 13, 1861. 

Francis J. Frogg. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured near 
Clinton, Ga., July 31. 1864. 

Stephen Gentle. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captrred near 


Clinton, Ga., July 31, 1864. Escaped and rejoined the Com- 
pany, August 8, 1864. 

Peter H. Hare. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured near 
Calhoun, Tennessee, September 26, 1861. 

James A. Hare. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Thomas F. Hare. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

John Hare. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

John G. Hill. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured near 
Calhoun, Tennessee, September 26, 1861. 

Absalom T. Harper. Enlisted August 30, 1861 

Thomas Huddleston. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Moses Huddleston. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Ambrose J. Huddleston. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Thrown 
from horse and both thighs broken, in line of duty, Decem- 
ber, 1861. 

Jacob Kanatcher. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Josiah Kennedy. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Exchanged Oc- 
tober 26, 1864. 

Thomas Low. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Fletcher C. Land. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Geo. W. Moles. Enlisted October 14, 1861. Captured at 
Hillsborough, Ga., July 31, 1864. Exchanged. 

James L. Miller. Enlisted November 1, 1861. Mustered 
in at Camp Williams, Ky., December 31, 1861. 

Joseph Poore. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured at Phila- 
delphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Exchanged June 8, 

Starlin Pitman. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Andrew J. Roe. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

John Roe. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured at Burkes- 
ville, Ky., May 12, 1862. Exchanged October 18, 1863, and 
recaptured at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

William G. Rains. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured 
near Clinton, Ga., July 31, 1864. 

Felix R. Smith. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Wounded at 
Mill Springs, Ky., January 19, 1862. 

Landon C. H. Shipley. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured 
at Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. 

Mathew A. Smallwood. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 


Isaac B. Sandusky. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Daniel Thacker. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Samuel J. Vance. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Geo. W. Wallen. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

David Wallen. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

Wm. H. Walker. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

George Wallen, Sr. Enlisted Nov. 5, 1861. 

James Wright. Enlisted July 21, 1861. Captured near 
Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. 

Milton E. Wallen. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Captured 
near Lawrence Mills, Ga., August 1, 1864. Mustered out at 
Louisville, Ky., July 29, 1865. 

Henry B. Wallen. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

James M. Zachary. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 

William L. Zachary. Enlisted and mustered in at Camp 
Williams, December 31, 1861. Captured at Philadelphia, 
Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Pleasant J. Zachary. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 


Serg. Wm. H. Beard. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Discharged 
at Reynold's Station, Tennessee, June 25, 1862. 

Corporal Russell W. Hurt. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Dis- 
charged at Louisville, Ky, 1862. 

Corp. Ambrose F. Huddleston. Enlisted July 27, 1861. 
Discharged at Reynold's Station, Tennessee, June 25, 1862. 

Emanuel J. Tompkins. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Dis- 
charged at Reynold's Station, Tennessee, June 25, 1862. 

Thomas Carr, Sr., Farrier. Enlisted December 20, 1861, 
and mustered in at Camp Williams, December 31, 1861. Dis- 
charged at Columbia, Tennessee, June 25, 1862. 

Richard Dicken. Enlisted September 1, 1861. Discharged 
at Columbia, Tennessee, June 25, 1862. 

Elijah Harber. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Discharged at 
Reynold's Station, Tennessee, June 25, 1862. 

James K. Harvey. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Discharged 
at Columbia, Tennessee, June 25, 1862. 


Serg. James R. Howard. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Trans- 
ferred by promotion to Thirteenth Kentucky Cavalry. 


Serg. Elzy C. Smith. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Trans- 
ferred by promotion to Twelfth Kentucky Infantry. 

Corp. Martin Hurt. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Trans- 
ferred to the Thirteenth Kentucky Cavalry by reason of pro- 

Shepherd W. Beard. Enlisted March 8, 1862. Mustered 
in at Nashville, Tennessee, April 30, 1862. 

Henry J. Boles. Enlisted January 31, 1863. Mustered 
in at Danville, Ky., February 28, 1863. Wounded in action 
near Sandtown, Ga., July 23, 1864. 

Joseph B. Bradly. Enlisted May 23, 1863. Mustered in 
June 30, 1863, at Jamestown, Ky. Captured near Clinton, 
Ga., July 31, 1864. 

Benj. J. Bollin. Enlisted August 21, 1863. Mustered in 
August 31, 1863, at Creelsboro, Ky. Captured near Sku- 
chestnut, Ga., July 13, 1864. 

Alexander Beatty. Enlisted May 14, 1863. Mustered in 
June 30, 1863, at Jamestown, Ky. 

Lewis D. Frogg. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Transferred to 
Twelfth Kentucky Infantry, by reason of promotion. 

James L. Garner. Enlisted November 4, 1862. Mustered 
in at Glasgow, Ky., December 31, 1862. 

Wiley T. Huddleston. Enlisted November 20, 1861. Mus- 
tered in December 31, 1861, at Camp Williams, Ky. Trans- 
ferred to Eleventh Tennessee Cavalry, October, 1863, by 
reason of promotion. 

David F. Huddleston. Enlisted February. 1, 1862. Mus- 
tered in February 28, 1862, at Camp Morton, Kentucky. 
Transferred to Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry, October, 1863, 
by reason of promotion. 

William Hare. Enlisted July 4, 1863. Mustered in Au- 
gust 31, 1863, at Creelsboro. Captured at Philadelphia, 
Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Henry A. Harper. Enlisted May 1, 1863. Mustered in 
June 30, 1863, at Jamestown, Ky. 

James Harper. Enlisted August 20, 1863. Mustered in 
August 31, 1863, at Creelsboro, Ky. Capturned near Rock- 
ford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. 

Joseph Kanatcher. Enlisted August 12, 1863. Mustered 
in at Creelsboro, August 31, 1863. 



William F. Low. Enlisted July 27, 1863. Mustered in 
at Creelsboro, June 30, 1863. 

Asa Lawhorn. Enlisted August 20, 1863. Mustered in 
August 31, 1863, at Creelsboro. 

Micajah Lawhorn. Enlisted August 20, 1863. Mustered 
in at Creelsboro, August 31, 1863. 

Andrew J. W. Maxfield. Enlisted May 27, 1861. Mus- 
tered in at Columbia, Ky., January 30, 1862. Transferred 
to First Tennessee Battalion, September, 1863, by reason of 

Andrew Moles. Enlisted November 4, 1862. Mustered in 
December 31, 1862, at Glasgow, Ky. 

Young McFarland. Enlisted February 15, 1863. Mus- 
tered in February 28, 1863, at Danville, Ky. 

Chas. H. Myers. Enlisted May 27, 1862. Mustered in 
June 30, 1862, at Columbia. Mustered out at Louisville, 
June 6, 1865. 

Allen Northrif. Enlisted August 20, 1863. Mustered in 
August 31, 1863, at Creelsboro. Captured at Philadelphia, 
Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

A. B. Palmer. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Transferred to 
the Eleventh Tennessee Cavalry by reason of promotion. 

Larcum M. Pursell. Enlisted February 20, 1863. Mus- 
tered in at Danville, Ky., February 28, 1863. 

John N. Root. Enlisted April 5, 1862. Mustered in at 
Nashville, Tennessee, April 30, 1862. 

James J. Robinson. Enlisted May 7, 1863. Mustered in 
at Jamestown, Ky., June 30, 1863. 

William Riley. Enlisted May 20, 1863. Mustered in at 
Jamestown, Ky., June 30, 1863. 

Eli Story. Enlisted February 15, 1863. Mustered in at 
Danville, Ky., February 28, 1863. 

William Scott. Enlisted May 7, 1863. Mustered in June 
30, 1863, at Jamestown, Ky. 

James A. Thrasher. Enlisted December 4, 1862. Mus- 
tered in December 31, 1862, at Glasgow, Ky. Captured near 
Clinton, Ga., July 30, 1864. 

Thomas N. Tabor. Enlisted April 23, 1863. Mustered 
in April 30, 1863, at Somerset, Ky. Captured near Clinton, 
Ga., July 31, 1864. 


Francis A. Tabor. Enlisted April 23, 1863. Mustered 
in at Somerset, Ky., April 30, 1863. 

Eli Thacker. Enlisted August 20, 1863. Mustered in at 
Creelsboro, Ky., August 31, 1863. 

James F. Wright. Enlisted June 27, 1863. Mustered in 
at Jamestown, Ky., June 30, 1863. 

fin. B. Wright. Enlisted June 16, 1863. Mustered in 
at Jamestown, Ky., June 30, 1863. Mustered out at Louis- 
ville, Ky., October 17, 1865. 

Alfred Young. Enlisted August 15, 1863. Mustered in 
August 31, 1863, at Creelsboro, Ky. Captured at Phila- 
delphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 


1st Lieutenant Jonathan P. Miller. Enlisted July 27 r 
1861. Promoted from 2d to 1st Lieutenant, September 12, 
1861. Killed in battle of Mill Springs, January 19, 1862. 

Serg. James R. Hoy. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Killed in 
battle of Dutton's Hill, near Somerset, Ky., March 30, 1863. 

Corp. James Ferguson. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Killed 
by a citizen near Stanford, Ky., December, 1861. 

William C. Avery. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died at 
Nashville, Tennessee, November 25, 1862. 

Andrew McBird. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died in Lin- 
coln county, Ky., February 12, 1863. 

Samuel Beard. Enlisted March 8, 1862 [never mustered.] 
Died at Glasgow, Ky., April 15, 1862. 

Isaac D. Cole. Enlisted October 15, 1861. Mortally 
wounded at Mill Springs, January 19, 1862. Died in Pulaski 
county, Ky., January 20, 1862. 

Henry C. Davis. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Killed by a 
citizen at West Liberty, Ky., , 1861. 

John H. Groom. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Killed by a . 
citizen at Creelsboro, Ky., December 14. 1863. 

Elam E. Huddleston. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Killed by 
a Rebel in Russell county, Ky., January 1, 1863. 

Thomas Huff. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Killed by a citi- 
zen at Neetsville, Ky., August, 1863. 

James A. Huddleston. Enlisted September 15, 186K 
Died at Columbia, Ky., December 5, 1861. 


Philip M. Huddleston. Enlisted November 1, 1861. 
Mustered in December 31, 1861, at Camp Williams, Ky. Died 
at Neetsville, Ky., May 13, 1863. 

Elbert A. Harber. Enlisted October 8, 1861. Died at 
Camp Dick Robinson, November 6, 1861. 

Wesley A. Laud. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died in Casey 
county, Ky., January 12, 1862. 

Camden M. Laud. Enlisted April 3, 1863. Mustered in at 
Somerset, Ky., April 30, 1863. Died at Somerset, May, 1863. 

Alex. Phillips. Enlisted October 27, 1861. Died at Co- 
lumbia, Ky., December 20, 1861. 

Jacob J. Speck. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died in Clinton 
county, Ky., March 12, 1864. 

Felix G. Stailey. Enlisted September 6, 1861. Wounded 
in battle at Knoxville, Tennessee. Killed in battle at Som- 
erset, March 30, 1863. 

James Toombs. Enlisted August 13, 1861. Died at Co- 
lumbia, Tennessee, June 21, 1862. 

Oliver Wallen. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Died at Rowena, 
Ky., February 10, 1862. 

Peter A. Zachary, Jr. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Killed by 
Rebels in Russell county, Ky., January 1, 1863. 

Peter A. Zachary, Sr. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Killed by 
Rebels in Russell county, Ky., January 1, 1863. 

Michael P. Zachary. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Killed in 
battle of Mill Springs, January 19, 1862. 

William P. Harris. Enlisted July 27, 1861. Killed in 
battle at Lebanon, Tennessee, May 5, 1862. 


Number reported on Company rolls, 7. 


Present and mustered out 53 

Absent 1 

Absent prisoners 12 

Absent recruits prisoners 8 

Recruits transferred - 22 

Total belonging to Company at muster out • • • 06 




Promoted to Field and Staff 1 

Resigned 2 

Transferred for promotion 8 

Discharged for disability 8 

Killed and died in the service* 25 

Deserted 7 

Total losses 51 

Total belonging to Company during its service, 
including recruits 147 

*To the number of deaths should be added those who died in prison, 
which the Author has not exact means of knowing. According to Lieu- 
tenant Chilton, about fourteen died in prison. 

From the counties of Marion, Taylor and Casey mostly. 
Exact date of organization and entrance into Camp Dick 
Robinson not known, but it was early in August, 1861. Men 
enlisted principally by Capt. George Coppage and Capt. 
Samuel M. Boone. Mustered in with regiment, October 28, 


Capt. George Coppage. Enlisted August 1, 1861. Re- 
signed December 2, 1862. 

Capt. Samuel M. Boone. Enlisted August 1, 1861. En- 
tered the service as 2d Lieutenant. Promoted Captain, De- 
cember 2, 1862. Resigned August 12, 1863. 

Capt. Daniel A. Kelley. Enlisted August 6, 1861. En- 
tered the service as a Sergeant. Promoted 1st Lieutenant, 
December 2, 1862. Promoted Captain, August 12, 1863 Cap- 
tured at Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1863. 

1st Lieutenant Richard H. Vandyke. Enlisted August 1, 
1863. Resigned December 2, 1862. 

1st Lieutenant Henry H. Thornton. Enlisted Septem- 
ber 3, 1861. Entered the service as a private. Promoted 
Corporal in 1862. Promoted 1st Lieutenant, August 15, 


2d Lieutenant Warren Lamme. Enlisted September 8, 
1861. Promoted 2d Lieutenant, December 2, 1862. 



Serg. Nicholas Dunn. Enlisted July, 28, 1861. 

Serg. Leonard Ames. Enlisted September 12, 1861. 

Serg. Milford A. Purdy. Enlisted July 28, 1861. 

Serg. Simeon P. Hudson. Enlisted September 6, 1861. 

Corp. Nicholas M. Waymen. Enlisted July 28, 1861. 

Corp. Joseph Wilkerson. Enlisted August 10, 1861. 

Corp. Richard O'Donnell. Enlisted August 16, 1861. 

Corp. James Mann. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 

Corp. Lewis Huddleston. Enlisted August 1, 1861. 
Wounded at Cass Station, Ga., May 24, 1864. Absent in 
hospital in New Albany, Indiana. 

Corp. William Harper. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 

Corp. Josiah Bass. Enlisted September 23, 1861. On 
detached service for some time as Regimental, and also Bri- 
gade Postmaster. 

Corp. John Rhodes. Enlisted August 4, 1861. Promoted 
from private, May 31, 1864. 

Thomas Armstrong, Farrier. Enlisted August 12, 1861. 


John T. Aiken. Enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Andrew Carson. Enlisted August 15, 1861. 

Reuben Cooley. Enlisted August 13, 1861. 

William T. Carter. Enlisted August 13, 1861. Captured 
at Hillsboro, Ga., August 2, 1864. Died in Rebel prison. 

John A. Collins. Enlisted August 27, 1861. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Alfred Cox. Enlisted September 1, 1861. 

Thomas Christian. Enlisted September 1, 1861. 

William Craven. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 

Philip Dever. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 

James T. Edwards. Enlisted September 12, 1861. 

William J. Farris. Enlisted September 12, 1861. 

Nathaniel C. Farris. Enlisted September 12, 1861. 

John M. Fenwick. Enlisted August 7, 1861. 

William Gibson. Enlisted July 12, 1861. 

Jeremiah Harris. Enlisted August 6, 1861. 

Perry Harre. Enlisted September 1, 1861. 


John Hanly. Enlisted November G, 1861. Mustered in 
at Camp Boyle, December 5, 1861. 

Joseph Hughes. Enlisted September 20, 1861. Captured 
October 12, 1868, while in line-of duty, and paroled. 

George W. Hughes. Enlisted September 20, 1863. 

William P. Minton. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Cap- 
tured at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. Died in 

Thomas Murray. Enlisted August 15, 1861. 

Elijah Minor. Enlisted August 1, 1861. 

John Mc Williams. Enlisted September 10, 1861. 

John W. Mason. Enlisted September 5, 1861. 

James H Pickerel. Enlisted September 3, 1861. 

Marcus Ryan. Enlisted September 14, 1861. Captured 
at Rockford, Tennessee, November 14, 1861. 

Jacob H. Russell. Enlisted September 14, 1861. 

Joseph Romaggi. Enlisted September 3, 1861. 

John Riffe. Enlisted September 15, 1861. 

John D. Sanders. Enlisted September 12, 1861. Killed 
at Hillsborough, Ga., July 31, 1864. 

Bennett B. Sapp. Enlisted August 12, 1861. Captured 
at Red Clay Station, Ga., May 10, 1864 * Died in Rebel 

John A. Sapp. Enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Samuel Thompson. Enlisted September 13, 1861. 

Willis A. Wood. Enlisted August 14, 1861. 


Serg. Robert Purdy. Enlisted September 18, 1861. Dis- 
charged September 18, 1863, to enable him to accept promo- 
tion in Thirty Seventh Kentucky Infantry. 

Corp. John Calhoun. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Dis- 
charged July 12, 1862, at Louisville, Ky., on account of 
wounds received in battle of Lebanon, Tenn., May 5, 1862. 

James H. Brown. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Discharged 
June 30, 1862, at Columbia, Tennnssee. 

Leven M. Drye. Enlisted March 25, 1862. Mustered in 
April 30, 1862, at Nashville, Tennessee. 

* Reported by Miller A. Purdy. 


Stephen T. Gabheart. Enlisted August 1, 1862. Dis- 
charged at Lebanon, Ky., October 29, 1862. 

Stephen Glaysbrook. Enlisted September 5, 1861. Dis- 
charged May 31, 1862, at Lebanon, Ky. 

Joseph F. Harris. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Discharged 
July 15, 1863, at Nashville, on account of wounds received 
from guerrillas. 

Hugh Shannon. Enlisted September 15, 1861. Never 
mustered. Discharged July 31, 1862, at Louisville, Ky., from 
wounds received at Wild Cat, October 20, 1861. 

James Sharp. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Discharged 
at Lebanon, Ky., May 20, 1863. 

William Williamson. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Dis- 
charged at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, August 12, 1862. 


Serg. James T. Wicker. Enlisted January 10, 1863. Mus- 
tered in February 28, 1863, at Danville, Ky. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Philip M. Batey. Enlisted March 7, 1863. Mustered in 
April 10, 1863. 

Gabriel Collier. Enlisted October 11, 1862. Mustered 
in November 1, 1862, at Munfordville, Ky. 

George W. Campden. Enlisted March 7, 1863. Mus- 
tered in April 10, 1863, at Somerset, Ky. 

Thomas L. Clinkenbeard. Enlisted March 20, 1862. 
Mustered April 30, 1862, at Nashville, Tennessee. Mustered 
out June 12, 1865, at Lexington, Ky. 

Joseph F. Coppage. Enlisted March 25, 1862. Mustered 
in April 30, 1862, at Nashville, Tennessee. Mustered out 
August 21, 1865, at Lexington, Ky. 

Thomas Dunham. Enlisted August 1, 1863. Mustered 
in October 31, 1863, at Knoxville, Tennessee 

William R. Fausett. Enlisted October 3, 1862. Mustered 
in November 1, 1862, at Munfordville, Ky. 

David Harre. Enlisted July 1, 1863. Mustered in at 
Knoxville, Tennessee, October 31. 1863. 

James I. Johnson. Enlisted March 10, 1863. Mustered 
in at Somerset, Ky., April 10, 1863. 


William Large. Enlisted November 10, 1862. Mustered 
in December 31, 1862, at Glasgow, Ky. 

William F. Lime. Enlisted December 6, 1862. Mustered 
in at Glasgow, Ky., December 31, 1862. 

Willis G. Miller. Enlisted April 7, 1863. Mustered in 
at Somerset, Ky., April 10, 1863. 

John L. Nelson. Enlisted April 7, 1863. Mustered in at 
Somerset, April 10, 1863. Captured October 20, 1863, at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee. 

Milton Newcomb. Enlisted April 7, 1863. Mustered in 
April 10, 1863, at Somerset, Ky. 

John Newcomb. Enlisted July 1, 1863. Mustered in at 
Knoxville, Tennessee, October 31, 1863. 

Thomas F. Wayman. Enlisted February 6, 1862. Mus- 
tered in February 28, 1862, at West Liberty, Ky. Mustered 
out February 17, 1865. 

"William Woodmansee. Enlisted May 20, 1863. Mustered 
in June 30, 1863, at Jamestown, Ky. 

Milton Zachary. Enlisted May 20, 1863. Mustered in 
at Jamestown, Ky., June 80, 1863. 


Samuel Christison. Enlisted September 8, 1861. Killed 
May 21, 1863, by a citizen at Hustonville, Ky. 

Joseph Farris. Enlisted September 12, 1861. Died De- 
cember 20, 1861, at home, in Taylor county. 

Bluford Gaddis. Enlisted August 1, 1861. Died October 
4, 1861, at home, in Casey county. 

George Harre. Enlisted August 10, 1861. Died Decem- 
ber 5, 1862, in hospital, at New Albany, Indiana. 

George W. Huddleston. Enlisted March 5, 1863. Mus- 
tered in at Somerset, Ky., April 10, 1863. Killed by guer- 
rillas in Clinton county, July 20, 1863. 

Peter Lawler. Enlisted August 11, 1861. [Never mus- 
tered.] Died of disease in hospital at Washington, D. C, 
December 6, 1861. 

Travis Moore. Enlisted August 1, 1861. [Never mus- 
tered.] Killed in action at Wild Cat, October 20, 1861. 

Wesley Murphy. Enlisted August 1, 1861. Died near 
Somerset, Ky., Deeember 11, 1861. 


Peter O'Brien. Enlisted September 5, 1861. Died in 
hospital in New Albany, Indiana, April 10, 1864. 

Stephen Purdy. Enlisted August 1, 1861. [Never mus- 
tered.] Died at Camp Dick Robinson, October 1, 1861. 

William Quinn. Enlisted August 1, 1861. Killed at 
Bradfordsville, Ky., January 10, 1863. 

James M. Rivers. Enlisted September 12, 1861. Died 
June 3, 1862, in hospital at Columbia, Tennessee. 

James Sexton. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Died No- 
vember 1, 1861, in Rockcastle county, Ky. 

William Shipp. Enlisted October 3, 1862. Mustered in 
at Munfordvillo, Ky., November 1, 1862. Killed at Saloma, 
Ky., May 31, 1864. 

James Toner. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Killed at Camp 
Williams, Ky., December 26, 1861. 

John Tucker. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Died at New 
Albany, Indiana, December 6, 1862. 

To the above list of deaths should be added the names of 
Wm. T. Carter, Wm. P. Minton, and Bennett B. Sapp, who 
died in Rebel prisons, and John D. Sanders, killed at Hills- 
boro, Ga., July 31, 1864. 


Number reported on Company roll, 8. 


Present and mustered out 44 

Absent 1 

Absent wounded 1 

Absent in Rebel prisons 3 

Recruits transferred 17 

Total belonging to Company at muster out • • • 66 


Resigned 3 

Discharged for promotion 2 

Discharged for wounds and sickness 8 

Killed and died 20 

Deserted g 

Total losses 41 

Total belonging to the Company 107 


This Company was enrolled in Madison county, but some 
of its members belonged to Jackson and other surrounding 
counties. Entered the service at Camp Dick Robinson, in 
August, the exact date not known. Men principally enlisted 
by Capt. Boston Dillion and Maj. W. A. Coffey. Mustered 
in and out with the rest of the regiment. 


Capt. Boston Dillion. Enlisted August 16, 1861. Re- 
signed December 2, 1862. 

Capt. Franklin W. Dillion. Enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Entered the service as 1st Lieutenant. Promoted Captain, 
December 2, 1862. Captured at Fishing Creek, May 25, 1863. 

1st Lieutenant John Kimbrell. Enlisted August 16, 
1861. Entered the service as Sergeant. Promoted 1st Lieu- 
tenant, June 10, 1862. Absent at time of muster out. 

2d Lieutenant Win. P. Ballard. Enlisted August 16, 


Commissary Serg. Sidney Benge. Enlisted August 25, 
1861. Promoted from private, November 24, 1863. 

Serg. David Benge. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Promoted 
from private, January 1, 1863. 

Serg. Joseph Davis. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Pro- 
moted from private, July 1, 1863. 

Serg. Ansil D. Martin. Enlisted September 10, 1861. 
Promoted from Corporal, March 1, 1862. 

Serg. John Warren. Enlisted November 1, 1861. Mus- 
tered in December 31, 1861, at Somerset, Ky. Promoted 
from private, May 1, 1864. Wounded, November 14, 1863. 

Corp. Hardin Coyle. Enlisted August 16, 1861 

Corp. Benjamin F. Rose. Enlisted September 10, 1863. 
Entered the service as a private. 

Corp. Daniel L. Ballard. Enlisted October 1, 1861. En- 
tered the service as a private. 

Corp. Daniel Doolin. Enlisted July 24, 1861. Entered 
the service as a private in the Third Kentucky Infantry, 
July 24, 1861. Joined by transfer, March 17, 1863. 



Merril Baker. Enlisted August 10, 1861. 

David Baker. Enlisted August 16, 1861. Captured on 
Stoneman's raid, July 80, 1864. 

Sandford Baker. Enlisted August 26, 1861. 

James G. Benge. Enlisted September 10, 1861. 

John T. Benge. Enlisted August 16, 1861. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Hiram Bown. Enlisted August 25, 1861. 

William C. Burnett. Enlisted September 10, 1861, in 
the Fourth Kentucky Infantry. Joined by transfer, Decem- 
ber 1, 1863. Prisoner of war from September 25, 1863, to 
December 15, 1864, and then exchanged. 

Patrick Craton. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

John H. Chrisman. Enlisted September 20, 1861. 

William H. Creed. Enlisted February 27, 1862. Mus- 
tered in at Somerset, February 28, 1862. 

William H. Clifft. Enlisted February 22, 1861. [Must 
be a mistake, but it is according to Company roll.] Mus- 
tered in October 28, 1861. Captured at Philadelphia, Ten- 
nessee, October 20, 1863. 

Francis M. Durham. Enlisted September 10, 1861. 

Alford Foote. Enlisted September 10, 1861. 

Thomas R. Grinstead. Enlisted January 5, 1862. Mus- 
tered in at Bardstown, Ky., February 28, 1862. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

George P. Hopper. Entered the service in the Seven- 
teenth Indiana Volunteers. Joined by transfer, January 5, 

James T. Haley. Enlisted November 6, 1861. 

George Hurst. Enlisted August 6, 1861. Missing in ac- 
tion near Sevierville, Tennessee, January 28, 1864. Returned 
to command September 2, 1864. 

Elbridge W. Kelly. Enlisted August 25, 1861. 

John Lamb. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Mustered out 
January 14, 1865. 

Robert Lamb. Enlisted August 25, 1861. 

Jeremiah Lamb. Enlisted August 25, 1861. 


James Lartib. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Captured at 
Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Timothy Lakes. Enlisted October 15, 1861. Wounded 
at Cassville, Ga., May 24, 1864. 

Thomas J. Mullins. Enlisted August 16, 1861. 

Nathan McQueen. Enlisted August 25, 1861. 

Alexander Moore. Enlisted August 16, 1861. 

Uriah McNelly. Enlisted August 16, 1861. 

Thomas J. North. Enlisted August 25, 1861. 

Irvin Orchard. Enlisted August 16, 1861. 

Michael Parker. Enlisted August 16, 1861. Captured 
at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Christopher Shiflet. Enlisted August 16, 1861. 

Joshua Shiflet. Enlisted September 10, 1861. 

William Shockey. Enlisted August 25, 1861. 

James R. Sims. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Captured 
on the Stoneman raid, July 30, 1864. 

William B. Stile. Enlisted October 15, 1861. Mustered 
out at Lexington, Ky.. August 10, 1865. 

William Turner, Jr. Enlisted September 20, 1861. 

Jeremiah A. Todd. Enlisted September 15, 1861. 

Thomas H. Williams. Enlisted August 16, 1861. Cap- 
tured at Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 20, 1863. 

Daniel M. White. Enlisted August 16, 1861. 


Joseph David. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Discharged 
November 1, 1862, at Louisville, Ky. 

John M. Foley. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Dis- 
charged at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, September 20, 1862. 

John S. Fields. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Discharged 
March 5, 1863, at Somerset, Ky. 

Hiram Gray. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Discharged 
June 1, 1862, at Shelbyville, Tennessee. 

Elisha Harrison. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Dis- 
charged June 1, 1862, at Murfreesboro, Tennessee. 

John W. Hubbard. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Dis- 
charged at Camp Dick Robinson, September 28, 1861. 

Jessee Hurst. Enlisted August 16, 1861. Discharged 
June 1, 1862, at Shelb} T ville, Tennessee. 


James R. Isaacs. Enlisted August 16, 1861. Discharged 
January 5, 1868, at Louisville, Ky. 

William Jimerson. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Dis- 
charged April 10, 1862, at Bardstown, Ky. 

Overton Kindred. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Discharged 
May 1, 1862, at Nashville, Tennessee. 

John P. Kelly. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Discharged 
May 1, 1862, at Nashville, Tennessee. 

George W. Mathow. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tennessee, May 25, 1862. 

Jessee Roberts. Enlisted August 16, 1861. Discharged 
at Crab Orchard, Ky., November 20, 1861. 

Harvey Scarbrough. Enlisted August 25, 1861. Dis- 
charged June 1, 1862, at Louisville, Ky. 

William Turner, Sr. Enlisted September 16, 1861. Dis- 
charged May 1, 1862, at Shelbyville, Tennessee. 

Basil V. Vanwinkle. Enlisted August 16, 1861. Dis- 
charged June 1, 1862, at Shelbyville, Tennessee. 

Moses Williams. Enlisted August 16, 1861. Discharged 
June 1, 1862, at Nashville, Tennessee. 

John Wells. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Discharged 
June 1, 1862, at Nashville, Tennessee. 

William H. Young. Enlisted September 10, 1861. Dis- 
charged April 10, 1862, at Bardstown, Ky. 


Smith Byrse. Enlisted August 3, 1863. Mustered in at 
Oak Forest, Ky., August 31, 1863. Prisoner of war from 
September 29, 1863, to July 1, 1864. Exchanged and re- 
turned to command. 

Andrew J. Cruse. Enlisted January 11, 1863. Mustered 
in February 28, 1863, at Danville, Ky. 

Shelby Gregory. Enlisted August 25, 1863. Mustered 
in August 31, 1863, at Oak Forest, Ky. 

John Mathis. Enlisted July 25, 1863. Mustered in Au- 
gust 31, 1863, at Oak Forest. Captured at Philadelphia, 
Tennessee, October 20, 1863.