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Full text of "Willem de Kooning in East Hampton"

Willem de Kooning in East Hampton 




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Hans Namuth 




Willem de Kooning 



in East Hampton 



by Diane Waldman 



This project is supported 

by a grant from the 

National Endowment for the Arts 

in Washington, D.C., 

a Federal Agency 



The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum 



New York 




^ 



The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 



president Peter O. Lawson- Johnston 

trustees H. H. Arnason, The Right Honorable Earl Castle Stewart, 

Joseph W. Donner, John Hilson, Eugene W. Leake, Frank R. 
Milliken, A. Chauncey Newlin, Mrs. Henry Obre, Albert E. 
Thiele, Michael F. Wettach 



The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum 



director Thomas M. Messer 

staff Henry Berg, Deputy Director 

Susan Halper, Executive Assistant; Vanessa Jalet, Secretary 
to the Director 

Louise Averill Svendsen, Curator; Diane Waldman, Curator 
of Exhibitions; Margit Rowell, Curator of Special Exhibi- 
tions; Angelica Zander Rudenstine, Research Curator; Linda 
Konheim, Curatorial Administrator; Linda Shearer, Assistant 
Curator; Carol Fuerstein, Editor; Mary Joan Hall, Librarian; 
Ward Jackson, Archivist; Susan Ferleger, Philip Verre, Clair 
Zamoiski, Curatorial Assistants 

Mimi Poser, Public Affairs Officer; Miriam Emden, Member- 
ship Department Head; Susan Hirschfeld, Public Affairs 
Coordinator 

Jane E. Heffner, Development Officer; Carolyn Porcelli, 
Development Associate 

Agnes R. Connolly, Auditor; Philip Almeida, Restaurant 
Manager; Elizabeth McKirdie, Railey Macey, Business 
Assistants; Charles Hovland, Sales Supervisor; Darrie 
Hammer, Katherine W. Briggs, Information 

David Roger Anthony, Technical Officer; Orrin H. Riley, 
Conservator; Lucy Belloli, Associate Conservator; Dana L. 
Cranmer, Technical Manager; Elizabeth M. Funghini, 
Cherie A. Summers, Associate Registrars; Jack Coyle, Regis- 
trars' Assistant; Saul Fuerstein, Preparator; Scott A. Wixon, 
Operations Coordinator; David Mortensen, Carpenter; 
Robert E. Mates, Photographer; Mary Donlon, Associate 
Photographer; Lola T. Fiur, Photography Coordinator 

David A. Sutter, Building Superintendent; Guy Fletcher, Jr., 
Assistant Building Superintendent; Charles F. Banach, Head 
Guard 



Lenders to the Exhibition 



RICHARD AARONSON AND LINDA LOVING, TORONTO 

MR. S. O. BEREN, WICHITA 

SUSAN BROCKMAN 

MR. AND MRS. JULIUS E. DAVIS 

NORMAN AND SHELLY DINHOFER, BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 

MR. AND MRS. JOHN L. EASTMAN, NEW YORK 

MR. AND MRS. LEE V. EASTMAN 

GERALD S. ELLIOTT, CHICAGO 

GOSMAN COLLECTION 

GRAHAM GUND, BOSTON 

THOMAS B. HESS, NEW YORK 

JOSEPH H. HIRSHHORN 

DR. AND MRS. HAROLD J. JOSEPH, ST. LOUIS 

GERTRUDE KASLE, DETROIT 

ALEX KATZ, NEW YORK 

MR. AND MRS. GILBERT H. KINNEY, WASHINGTON, D.C. 

HARRY KLAMER, TORONTO 

MR. AND MRS. OSCAR KOLIN 

ELAINE DE KOONING, EAST HAMPTON 

MR. AND MRS. RICHARD E. LANG, MEDINA, WASHINGTON 

MRS. H. GATES LLOYD, HAVERFORD, PENNSYLVANIA 

MARIELLE MAILHOT 

DR. AND MRS. ROBERT MANDELBAUM, NEW YORK 

MR. AND MRS. ROBERT I. MILLONZI, BUFFALO 

DAVID T. OWSLEY 

PHILIP T. WARREN, FARMINGTON HILLS, MICHIGAN 

SUE WORKMAN 



ALBR1GHT-KNOX ART GALLERY, BUFFALO 

THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL GALLERY, CANBERRA 

THE BALTIMORE MUSEUM OF ART 

HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, WASHINGTON, D.C. 

THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, NEW YORK 

STEDELIJK MUSEUM, AMSTERDAM 

THE TATE GALLERY, LONDON 

WADSWORTH ATHENEUM, HARTFORD 

WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART, NEW YORK 



XAVIER FOURCADE, INC., NEW YORK 
GALERIE ALICE PAULI, LAUSANNE 
ALLAN STONE GALLERY, NEW YORK 



Acknowledgements 



This exhibition and its accompanying catalogue 
could not have been realized without the support 
and cooperation of many individuals. Foremost 
among them, of course, is Willem de Kooning, 
whose enthusiastic collaboration has been inval- 
uable. I am extremely grateful to Xavier Fourcade, 
the artist's dealer, and also wish to thank his assis- 
tant Margaret Parker who worked closely with us 
on every phase of the exhibition. The following 
individuals have been most generous in contribut- 
ing their time and providing me with information: 
Allan Stone, Thomas B. Hess, Rini Dippel, Mar- 
jorie Luyckx, Harold Diamond, David Nisinson, 
Midge Keator and Gail Stavitsky. I would like to ex- 
press my appreciation for the dedicated and skilled 
assistance of virtually every department of the 
Museum, and to thank especially Linda Shearer, 
Assistant Curator, who aided me in the preparation 
of the exhibition, Susan Ferleger and Clair 
Zamoiski, Curatorial Assistants, for their efforts on 
behalf of both the exhibition and the catalogue, 
Carol Fuerstein, Editor, who edited the catalogue, 
coordinated its production and worked on all its 
documentation, and Elizabeth M. Funghini, Asso- 
ciate Registrar, who handled many technical mat- 
ters. Finally, I am most grateful to the lenders 
whose generosity has made this exhibition possible. 



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Willem de Kooning in 
East Hampton 

by Diane Waldman 



In 1961 Willem de Kooning began the move from 
his studio in New York to The Springs, East Hamp- 
ton. Prior to then he had summered occasionally 
in the Hamptons, but now he purchased from his 
brother-in-law a modest house situated directly 
across the street from the cemetery in which his 
friend Jackson Pollock was buried. The house 
became de Kooning's temporary working quarters 
while he began to build his ideal studio on a nearby 
piece of land. Although the studio's construction 
occupied much of his attention for the next two 
years, de Kooning continued to work, producing 
numerous drawings, some pastels and oils on 
paper and a few paintings based on the theme of 
Woman that had so engrossed him in the 1950's. 

That de Kooning chose to reject the abstract 
landscapes which had occupied him in the city dur- 
ing the late 1950's and early 6o's just at the moment 
he moved to the country may seem unusual. But 
this was merely one change in direction in a com- 
plicated artistic evolution marked by numerous 
transitions from figurative to abstract or semi- 
abstract modes. Indeed, the coexistence of these 
two seemingly contradictory poles in his work and 
de Kooning's position as one of the major figures 
of the Abstract Expressionist movement has raised 
many questions about the nature of his painting, 
the most significant of which concerns his role as 
an abstract artist. De Kooning has never claimed to 
be an abstract artist and, indeed, he has never 
entirely rejected the figure. In fact, his figurative 
and abstract styles sometimes evolve concurrently, 
sometimes in successive stages. The complex and 
ambiguous nature of his painting makes separation 
of his oeuvre into neat stylistic categories more 
limiting than revealing. As Mark Rothko once said: 
"I do not believe that there was ever a question of 
being abstract or representational. It is really a 
matter of ending this silence and solitude, of 
breathing and stretching one's arms again." 1 

While some critics have argued in favor of 
abstraction, others have seen the trend away from 
representation as the dehumanization of art. In 
reality, painting in the twentieth-century, especially 
as it developed in New York in the 1940's, was 
intensely personal; it sought out not revenge on 
humanity but refuge in the realm of the mind and 
the imagination in the face of two wars that came 
close to ravaging Western civilization. 



11 



The catalysts for the development of postwar 
American painting were the Europeans who came 
to New York out of the abyss that was Europe in 
World War II. Chief among these emigres were the 
Surrealists, whose influence dominated American 
painting in the early 1940's. Although he was far 
from committed to Surrealism as an esthetic doc- 
trine, de Kooning, like his friends and colleagues, 
found in Surrealist automatism the inspiration for 
what became the fundamental premise of the New 
York School: that the very act of creation is central 
to the content of painting. Surrealism not only 
liberated the imagination but helped to free artists 
as diverse in intention as de Kooning, Pollock and 
Barnett Newman from many of the conventions of 
traditional painting. It is undeniable that the ran- 
domness of automatism was important to de 
Kooning, and that the Surrealists' use of collage 
reinforced his own prediliction for this medium. 
Both collage and freely disposed automatic brush- 
work allow de Kooning to effect passages between 
unrelated parts of his composition. De Kooning's 
method, like that of his New York School col- 
leagues, originates in improvisation and accident. 
Like Pollock, de Kooning makes improvisation and 
process an integral part of his painting. However 
for Pollock the act of painting meant not only the 
use of his entire body so that it functioned as the 
hand and wrist had in earlier art, but the develop- 
ment of a drip technique through which he could 
bring improvisation to its height. This extension of 
his body inevitably led him to increase easel-sized 
canvases to the monumental scale of the muralist. 
De Kooning, in contrast, uses random placement to 
offset a basically preconceived horizontal-vertical 
grid structure derived from Cubism; he effects a 
unique synthesis of accident and control. Unwill- 
ing to take the process of painting to the extremes 
that Pollock did, de Kooning chose to retain cer- 
tain traditions, most notably the use of the figure 
and canvases that range from easel scale to slightly 
larger than the size of the artist himself. De Koon- 
ing does not make paintings that extend much 
beyond the span of his outstretched arms: he must 
retain the human dimension. 

During the late 30's and 40's there was an intense 
personal and artistic interchange between de 
Kooning and Arshile Gorky. De Kooning's link to 
Surrealism was reinforced by his connection to 
Gorky. Gorky's free flowing organic shapes rever- 



berate in de Kooning's figures and anthropomor- 
phic abstract forms. Surrealism offered de Kooning 
not only the freedom to act spontaneously, it en- 
abled him to seize upon the figure of Woman and 
make her the emblem of both reality and the imag- 
ination. He took both the automatic technique and 
biomorphic shapes of Surrealism, emptied them of 
myth, formalized and restructured them in his 
new esthetic order. 

Prior to and during World War II Mondrian and 
his fellow Neo-Plasticists upheld the standard of 
pure geometric abstraction in the United States. In 
the midst of political and social chaos and a native 
American art that was often provincial, they came 
to stand for a Platonic ideal in the sense that 
abstraction symbolized for them a higher reality. 
In this respect, Mondrian's remark to Max Ernst 
"It is not you but I who am the Surrealist" 2 is very 
revealing. Many painters of the New York School 
admired both Mondrian's adherence to the prin- 
ciples of pure painting and his dedication to a 
metaphysical goal. Neo-Plasticism proved mean- 
ingful to de Kooning in that it posited this meta- 
physical ideal. Moreover, Mondrian was extremely 
important to de Kooning in formal terms. The 
example of Mondrian's grid structure, based as it 
was on Cubism, reinforced de Kooning's own 
prediliction for Cubism and the grid. Although the 
connection between de Kooning and Mondrian 
may appear to be tenuous as their oeuvres are so 
very different, it is interesting to consider de Koon- 
ing's affinity with Mondrian in terms of their 
shared Dutch heritage. And Mondrian's tactility, 
explicit in the early abstract landscapes, restrained 
by his black grid in the later work, as well as his 
early soft pastels have a decided bearing on de 
Kooning's development. The tones and light of the 
landscape of Holland are reflected in both painters' 
work. Thus, neither an acolyte nor an ideologue of 
either movement, de Kooning has benefited from 
both Surrealism and Neo-Plasticism and has in- 
corporated into his paintings elements of both a 
real and an abstract nature. 

As early as the 1930's de Kooning was variously 
titling a series of related abstractions Pink Land- 
scape (fig.) Abstract Still Life, Elegy and Untitled. 
In the 1940's he alternated between giving the 
figure or so-called "abstract" forms greater promi- 
nence in his paintings, with the former appearing 
to dominate during the early part of the decade. At 



12 




Pink Landscape, ca.1938 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Reuben Tam 



Woman Sitting. 1943-44 

Courtesy Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




13 




Light in August, ca.1946 

Collection Teheran Museum of Contemporary Art 



Excavation. 1950 

Courtesy The Art Institute of Chicago, Mr. and 

Mrs. Frank G. Logan Purchase Prize and Gift of 

Mr. Edgar Kaufmann, Jr. and Mr. and Mrs. Noah 

Goldowsky 









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that time the figure is pictured against a backdrop 
of what can best be described as a no-man's land 
or, to use the term that de Kooning preferred, "no- 
environment," as, for example, in Woman Sitting 
of 1943-44 ( n g-)- "No-environment" is an indefin- 
able location, which may be indoors or outdoors, 
land or water, but is distinctly the place of the art- 
ist's studio and its environs. As Thomas B. Hess has 
explained, the studio and its appurtenances, the 
surroundings de Kooning has passed through, all 
merge in the painting. 3 Later in the 40's de Kooning 
achieved what to many critics were his most im- 
portant accomplishments, superb shiny black 
enamels and oils on paper, like Painting, 1948 (fig.), 
and their luscious pastel-colored equivalents, such 
as Attic, 1949, and Excavation, 1950 (fig.). 
Although many of these were considered to be 
totally abstract, de Kooning continued to title them 
as diversely as Light in August, 1946 (fig.), Orestes, 
1947, Black Friday, 1948, Dark Pond, 1948, Paint- 
ing, 1948, and Night Square, ca.1949. 

At roughly the same time he was being lauded 
for these and related "abstractions," de Kooning 
was working on a series of paintings of women 
which culminated in Woman I (fig.), begun in 1950 
and finished in 1952. The reality, of course, is that 
the so-called "abstractions" were far from pure, as 
figurative, symbolic elements are as vital to their 
resolution as they are in similar, related Surrealist- 
oriented canvases of the period by Pollock and 
Gorky. Nor are the Women entirely representa- 
tional; for abstract components are as integral to 
them as realistic forms. Clearly de Kooning 
achieved a radical synthesis of figuration and 
abstraction. This synthesis led to a gradual incor- 
poration into his paintings of "place," an ambig- 
uous but nonetheless tangible location for the 
figure which replaces "no-environment," and then 
to the creation of an autonomous role for land- 
scape and its recognition as a fitting subject for an 
abstract style. 

Palisade, 1957, Suburb in Havana, 1958 (fig.), 
and Door to the River, i960, are among de Koon- 
ing's major works in this landscape genre. While 
the term "landscape genre" is useful in a discussion 
of the subject of de Kooning's paintings of this 
period, it is by no means an accurate one. De Koon- 
ing, having destroyed the premise that representa- 
tion of the human figure and abstraction were 
antithetical, proceeded to demonstrate that land- 




Woman I. 1950-52 

Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York 



15 




Suburb in Havana. 1958 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Lee V. Eastman 



16 



scape and abstraction could also coexist in a 
dynamic relationship. Although the titles of these 
paintings proffer clues to their subjects, their 
images are far from descriptive. Instead of portray- 
ing the specifics of nature, de Kooning gives us a 
few broad swaths of color, some drips and splatters 
which suggest, rather than represent, landscape. As 
an artist who matured when Surrealism was at its 
height in New York, de Kooning mastered the art 
of ambiguity and allusion. These paintings are 
especially fascinating because de Kooning has 
chosen not to depict the landscapes themselves, but 
still conveys their inherent meanings. And he has 
done so within the context of abstraction, so that 
unlike the Surrealists whose art, for example, Max 
Ernst's The Entire City, 1935-36 (fig.), is symbol- 
laden, de Kooning's landscapes are, by the late 
1950's and early 1960's, about the nature of paint- 
ing. Color, shape, space and tactility as they 
function in relation to the picture plane are his 
central concerns. References to nature are sublim- 
inal. Allusions to a door, a horizon line, the grass, 
the soft moist night air, the dense dark shade of the 
trees, the jagged edges of a cliff are cloaked in the 
mystery of the act of painting. 

Pastorale, 1963 (cat. no. 4), the last painting 
de Kooning executed in his New York studio prior 
to his permanent move to The Springs, suggests 
neither the ambience of New York nor Long Island: 
it is a transitional canvas and also marks the end 
of a period. Although de Kooning resumed paint- 
ing after settling into his new space, he did not, as 
one might expect, make landscapes but instead 
began a new series of Women. However, as Hess 
has pointed out, Pastorale and the Women of the 
past and future are closely related: 

Pastorale marks the end of a series of abstractions 
which began around 1956 when the last of his 
Women opened up, becoming so interpenetrated 
by the background landscape elements that the 
figure itself turned into a landscape. Pastorale also 
signals a new beginning: the emergent shape of a 
standing figure can be seen if it is assumed for a 
moment that the left-hand side of the picture is the 
top — The idea of Woman is also indicated by the 
key color, a sun-struck flesh paint. The body is a 
hill. The legs are cut by tree-trunk verticals. The 
curves of her breasts are echoed in the sky. 4 




MAX ERNST 

The Entire City. 1935-36 
Collection Kunsthaus Zurich 



17 







Reclining Nude, ca.1938 
Private Collection 



Thus the ostensibly abstract Pastorale and works 
such as Rosy Fingered Dawn at Louse Point (cat. 
no. 3), another New York painting of 1963, share 
many specific figurative elements and allusions 
with the Women, so that they seem almost inevit- 
ably to point to a new series of Women. A conflict 
between the inherently three-dimensional nature 
of the figure and the two-dimensionality of the 
picture plane had emerged and was resolved by 
de Kooning in the Women of the 1950's. The land- 
scapes that followed them in the late 50's and early 
6o's did not provide the necessary figure-ground 
tension to sustain the artist's imagination for more 
than a few years. This tension does not exist in 
them, primarily because de Kooning eliminated all 
but the most subtle references to his landscape 
subjects. The intense impact of the totemic Women 
of the 1950's is vitiated and becomes amorphous 
in the more undefined and neutral forms of the 
landscapes. It would, indeed, be difficult to find an 
image in the realm of landscape as loaded emotion- 
ally, as topical and full of psychological ramifica- 
tions as the emblematic figure of Woman is in the 
context of the human form. 

De Kooning's contribution to drawing is as far- 
reaching as it has been to painting. His drawings 
and paintings are extremely close to each other in 
many respects. In fact, the drawings are often the 
starting point for the paintings. Often brutal, some- 
times lyrical, the drawings are replete with the 
same frenzied brushstrokes of the paintings. In 
addition, de Kooning's preference for relatively 
small scale relates the size of the paintings to the 
drawings and makes the connections between them 
very apparent. Moreover his pre-1970 paintings 
partake as much of the linear qualities of drawing 
as do the drawings themselves, because his forms 
in each are carried by line. And he uses the same 
materials, often interchangeably, in both his paint- 
ings and drawings, drawing in his paintings, paint- 
ing in his drawings and using collage in both. 

De Kooning's dependence upon line was espe- 
cially apparent in his work of the late 1930's and 
early 1940's which reveals his extraordinary skill 
as a traditional draftsman. These works display an 
incisiveness of contour that recalls Ingres as, for 
example in Elaine de Kooning, 1940 (fig.), or a 
Balthus-like deformation of the figure. In Reclin- 
ing Nude of ca.1938 (fig.), for example, parts of the 
body are so out of joint that the figure resembles 



L8 




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Elaine de Kooning. 1940 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Allan Stone 



19 



a mannequin. While the subject is still discernible, 
it clearly anticipates de Kooning's later more ab- 
stract forms. In the late 1940's de Kooning aban- 
doned even this semblance of realism and in his 
drawings as well as his paintings relies on barely 
recognizable fragments of human anatomy to 
convey a subliminal sense of complete anthropo- 
morphic form. 

De Kooning arrives at dislocations of forms in 
the recent drawings and paintings through the 
same procedures he established early in his career. 
Parts of the female anatomy — breasts, mouths, 
vaginas, legs — are torn from the figure and reposi- 
tioned at various places in a work. Although he 
distorts anatomy, he does not destroy it, and a 
sense of a whole figure persists. De Kooning, like 
many of his colleagues, adapted the techniques of 
both Cubist collage and the random or chance 
methods of composition advocated by the Dadaists 
to evolve this working method. This process usu- 
ally consists of cutting or tearing, shifting and re- 
assembling a series of images until he achieves a 
relationship between the parts that is both visually 
and emotionally compelling. 

Although the drawings and paintings of the 
1960's have a close family relationship to one 
another, and the drawings were in many instances 
the inspiration or catalyst for the paintings, they 
differ in one important respect. The images in the 
drawings, usually of one or two figures, tend to be 
clustered together, leaving much of the pristine 
surface of the paper untouched. The compact 
forms in such drawings as Untitled, 1967 (cat. 
no. 63), do not so much resemble those of the paint- 
ings as they predict the sculpture de Kooning began 
in 1969. Moreover, the forms in the drawings are 
bunched off-center, resulting in a kind of composi- 
tion which is at odds with the placement of the 
figures in the paintings, which, if not always cen- 
tered, are at least symmetrically disposed parallel 
to the horizonal and vertical edges of the canvas. 
In the paintings the figures are spread out so that 
parts of the images are strewn over the entire sur- 
face of the canvas. In their "all-over" surface 
articulation, the forms of these paintings relate 
both to the hidden imagery in the so-called "ab- 
stract" compositions of the late i94o's to early 
1950's and the baroque calligraphic drawings of 
the late 1960's. The sweeping curves of the recent 
paintings contrast decidedly with the more angular 



structure of the fragmented but nonetheless com- 
pact forms of the Women of the 1950's. The drawn 
line, so important in the earlier work, is not as 
prominent a feature of the recent paintings. Line is 
subsumed in the increasing painterliness and aban- 
don of the whole. The function of the drawn or cut 
edge, which defined the boundaries of forms and 
separated them from one another in earlier paint- 
ings, is carried by de Kooning's use of color, light 
and pigment. Much of this change in direction can 
be attributed to de Kooning's sensitivity to his new 
environment. 

He had acknowledged the light and color of New 
York, the filth and grime of Tenth Street and 
Fourth Avenue, the objects in his city studio which 
contributed to the particular, if ambiguous, 
ambience of the earlier paintings. His work of this 
period was defined, not entirely accurately, as 
Expressionist. 

De Kooning himself, albeit rather reluctantly, 
said: "I guess I am an Expressionist . . ." 5 as he 
looked at one of his more distorted figures. Of 
course, the presence of distortion does not in itself 
define art as Expressionist. Indeed, Cubism com- 
bines elements of distortion with a rational struc- 
ture, as Marcel Duchamp combines logic and the 
illogical, the Surrealists, order within disorder, the 
rational with the irrational. Expressionism, as it is 
embodied in the work of such German painters 
as Max Beckmann, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Emile 
Nolde, Karl Schmidt-Rotluff, and others focuses 
to a large extent on the morbid or decadent aspects 
of life and often contains a significant element of 
social criticism. It reflects a highly emotional state 
of mind from which feelings of misery, pathos and 
degradation emerge and dominate the more purely 
formal elements of art. While certain features of 
de Kooning's works, such as satirical and violent 
imagery and tempestuous brushstrokes may be 
loosely categorized as Expressionist, the basic na- 
ture of his oeuvre defies categorization and, in fact, 
reflects a sensibility that embraces both classic and 
romantic tendencies. Wit and humor, particularly 
important elements in de Kooning, have no place 
in the stormy Expressionist temperament. More- 
over, de Kooning's isolation of his Women in a 
no-environment invests them with a classic time- 
lessness sharply in contrast to agitated German 
Expressionist figures, which are usually shown in 
an unstable relationship with surroundings that are 



2d 



themselves in a state of turmoil. It is, however, 
more appropriate to point out de Kooning's rela- 
tionship to El Greco and Chaim Soutine, two other 
artists who have been characterized as Expression- 
ists, but who do not entirely fit into this tradition. 
De Kooning was drawn to the physicality and lus- 
ciousness of Soutine's paint. De Kooning and Sou- 
tine not only handle paint similarly, they treat their 
subjects in a remarkably like manner: whether a 
human figure or a carcass of beef, it is splayed out, 
frontal, straightforward. Although both Soutine's 
and de Kooning's art has been seen as brutal, the 
savagery involved is not in the attitudes the paint- 
ers express towards their subjects, but in their 
handling of material. 

Each artist savages, not the figure or landscape, 
but traditional concepts of how such subjects 
should be treated. De Kooning's link not only to 
Soutine, but beyond him to Rembrandt and the 
Baroque emphasis upon tactility, motion and light 
as a dynamic force is evident. El Greco appealed 
to de Kooning not by virtue of his tortured and 
twisted figures, but because of his active paint han- 
dling and abstract forms. Of Soutine and El Greco, 
de Kooning has spoken as follows: 

I've always been crazy about Soutine — all of his 
paintings. Maybe it's the lushness of the paint. He 
builds up a surface that looks like a material, like 
a substance. There's a kind of transfiguration, a 
certain fleshiness, in his work. 

I remember when I first saw the Soutines in the 
Barnes Collection. In one room there were two long 
walls, one all Matisse and the other, all Soutine — 
the larger paintings. With such bright and vivid col- ■ 
ors the Matisses had a light of their own, but the 
Soutines had a glow that came from within the 
paintings — it was another kind of light. 

[El Greco is] someone else I've always liked. In his 
paintings the material is broken into only a few 
enormous planes. It's so much more interesting to 
look at than all those intricate creases painted so 
naturalistically by someone like Tintoretto. 6 

The East Hampton paintings of the 1960's and 
70's demonstrate that de Kooning, unlike most of 
his New York School colleagues, in the rare tradi- 
tion of such masters as Monet and Matisse, has 
produced a great and innovatory late body of work. 
In the 1950's he had established once and for all 



that the female form was as relevant to contempo- 
rary art as pure abstract subject matter. Now he 
continued to experiment with the female figure, de- 
picting it as blond Venus in paintings that are often 
compared to Rubens. As the New York works are 
infused with the feel of the city, so the East Hamp- 
ton paintings convey the sense of the ocean. The 
hermetic space of New York is replaced by the at- 
mospheric play of light as it bounces off the water. 
Indeed, de Kooning said of these canvases: 

I'm working on a water series. The figures are float- 
ing, like reflections in the water. The color is influ- 
enced by the natural light. That's what is so good 
here. Yes, maybe they do look like Rubens. Yes, 
Rubens — with all those dimples. . . . I have to be 
careful not to make them look too watery. 1 

Light, color and air permeate this series. Willem 
de Kooning the "Expressionist" had become 
Willem de Kooning the "Impressionist." 

In 1964 de Kooning finished the first important 
example of this new group, the Clam Diggers (cat. 
no. 5). Relatively small for the artist, zoVi x 14V2" 
— the dimensions he usually prefers are approxi- 
mately 70 x 80", or just over life-size — it is, none- 
theless, a painting of monumental impact. The 
golden girls pictured here revert to some degree to 
the kind of figures in such earlier canvases as Two 
Women in the Country of 1954 (fig.). The two fig- 
ures in both paintings are similarly positioned 
frontal nudes; in each, portions of the bodies are 
cut off by the canvas edges. However, the earlier 
work suggests such prototypes as the Venus of Wil- 
lendorf and Picasso's Les Demoiselles d' Avignon, 
while the later painting appears to be a hybrid of 
Rubens and Reginald Marsh. Both the Picasso and 
the 1954 de Kooning reveal the modern respect for 
the primitive that evolved as a reaction against the 
Graeco-Roman ideal. The distortion in the Two 
Women in the Country stems from the emphasis 
upon and enlargement of their torsos and sex or- 
gans in relation to their heads and limbs. In con- 
trast, the proportions of the Clam Diggers are 
naturalistic, if overblown. The angular, flat Tivo 
Women in the Country seem far more savage than 
the rounded and fleshy whorish cuties of the Clam 
Diggers. Aggressive nudity becomes luxurious vo- 
luptuousness, primarily because the sharp, incisive 
contours and acrid color of the earlier painting are 
transformed in the Clam Diggers into their oppo- 



21 




Two Women in the Country. 1954 

Collection Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



sites, melting contours and soft, dappled color. The 
predator that is Woman has been tamed, but the 
female as an object of parody remains intact. 

De Kooning's image of Woman has been much 
discussed and generally described as a negative one. 
However, the Women, like the rest of his oeuvre, 
are not easily classified. Although he patterned 
his use of teeth, eyes and genitalia after Surrealist 
prototypes, as did many of his colleagues during the 
formative years of the New York School, de Koon- 
ing's figures relate more closely to the prostitutes of 
Manet's Olympia or Picasso's Demoiselles. In fact, 
they fit quite comfortably within the tradition of 
such depictions of demimondaines but are also 
rooted in popular fantasy. The smiling female of 
the magazine ads, the sex goddess as incarnated in 
Marilyn Monroe, are transformed into modern 
icons. Too dynamic to recall Titian's reclining 
pastoral nudes, they nevertheless echo Rubens, as 
already noted, and reflect a Baroque concept of 
pulchritude. 

But there is also an undeniable element of parody 
in de Kooning's approach which prefigures Pop Art 
attitudes. Moreover, de Kooning, like Stuart Davis, 
Gerald Murphy and certain other earlier Ameri- 
cans, was predictive of Pop Art in drawing inspira- 
tion from many facets of popular culture as well as 
in his choice of certain specific images. For exam- 
ple, a detail of the T-Zone from a Camel cigarette 
ad which appeared on the back cover of Time mag- 
azine in 1949 was incorporated by de Kooning into 
a Study for Woman, 1950 (fig.) . This is the very type 
of form that James Rosenquist might have used in 
the early 6o's, and the kind of subject Andy Warhol 
depicted in his Marilyn paintings. De Kooning's re- 
marks on collaging the Camel ad mouth throw light 
on some of the many levels of his imagery. He said: 

J cut out a lot of mouths. First of all I felt everything 
out to have a mouth. Maybe it was like a pun, 
maybe it's even sexual, or whatever it is, but I used 
to cut out a lot of mouths and then I painted those 
figures and then I put the mouth more or less in the 
place ivhere it was supposed to be. It always turned 
out to be very beautiful and it helped me immensely 
to have this real thing. I don't know why I did it 
with the mouth. Maybe the grin — it's rather like 
the Mesopotamian idols. s 

De Kooning has not only been inspired by ads. 
He was fascinated by the image of the movie star, 



22 




TWJT&lM, 



Study for Woman. 1950 

Collection Thomas B. Hess, New York 



he tacked up on his studio wall photographs of 
sports events and he named his paintings after such 
embodiments of our contemporary life as super- 
highways—for example Montauk I of 1969 (cat. 
no. 23). He continued to elevate the emblems of 
modern technology and commerce to the realm of 
high art into the mid-1960's, when he entitled sev- 
eral works Woman on a Sign, of which Woman on 
a Sign II of 1967 (cat. no. 15) is atypical example. 
De Kooning has been attracted since the late 1940's 
to the radiant American female pictured on bill- 
boards and trucks. He used such banal stereotypes 
as the movie queen to serve a dual function: he ex- 
ploited his subjects' loaded meanings as symbols 
of cultural phenomena and he gave them more 
profound significance as abstract images. It is but a 
short step from the transformation of this kind of 
popular imagery into abstract form to the flags 
and targets of Jasper Johns. 

Although de Kooning has generally been ac- 
knowledged as one of the founders of Action 
Painting and the major influence on subsequent 
generations of abstract painters, this contribution 
was based on the style rather than the substance 
of his art. De Kooning's broad sweeping gestures, 
the speed with which he executes his paintings, 
their facture are echoed in all the mannerisms of 
his followers. Far more fascinating, however, is the 
effect de Kooning had on Pop Art which touched 
on both attitudes and specific imagery, and espe- 
cially the works of Johns and Robert Rauschen- 
berg, precursors of this movement. Both Johns and 
Rauschenberg employed a form of brushstroke 
that called to mind, even parodied, if not specific- 
ally de Kooning's paint handling, certainly the 
technique of Abstract Expressionism in general. 
While the two artists are usually bracketed together 
as linking Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art, it 
is Johns' consistently painterly style and iconic 
treatment of his subjects, rather than Rauschen- 
berg's later constructed, additive art, that is most 
aptly compared to de Kooning. Although de 
Kooning, Rauschenberg and Johns all exploited 
the tension created by the opposition of figure and 
ground, de Kooning dematerialized the object in 
order to effect a reconciliation of its three-dimen- 
sional form with the flat picture plane. Johns and 
Rauschenberg, on the other hand, emphasized the 
materiality of objects such as flags or targets, as 
for example, in Three Flags, 1958 (fig.), making it 



23 



•*•*••*• 

***••„••••* 
•jrik **. •••••••• 

_1_ A ■** •••••*•• 

* *T ^^. **•*••** 

±+^* , ••*••••• 

* ~ •*"*■ •••••••• 
-*-••••*•'•' 



JASPER JOHNS 

Three Flags. 1958 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine, Meriden, 

Connecticut 



MARCEL DUCHAMP 

Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2. January 191 2 
Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Louise and Walter 
Arensberg Collection 




24 



both a literal object and a statement about the rec- 
tangle. As de Kooning tested the nature of illusion 
by incorporating images drawn from the vernacu- 
lar into his painting, so Johns and Rauschenberg 
did by inserting actual objects from the real world 
into their work. Synthetic Cubism set the historical 
precedent for de Kooning's integration of repre- 
sentations of commonplace things into his painting, 
but the example of this movement is by no means 
the paramount factor in this aspect of his art. 
Equally important is his catholic attitude that al- 
lows him to embrace parody, bawdy humor, even 
slapstick as a part of his work and to draw inspira- 
tion from film, TV and that master of the double 
entendre, Marcel Duchamp. 

The predecessor of de Kooning, Rauschenberg 
and Johns is the phenomenon that was Duchamp. 
Duchamp can be credited with challenging the 
sanctity of the art object by declaring common 
everyday things, "Readymades," such as the uri- 
nal and the bottle rack, to be works of art by virtue 
of his having chosen them and the addition of his 
signature. Successive generations of American art- 
ists in the 1950's and 6o's, inspired by his example, 
used art to question the nature and identity of both 
art and reality. Both de Kooning and Johns, elab- 
orating upon Duchamp's use of commonplace 
subjects, have transformed them into twentieth- 
century secular icons. As the father of Dada, 
Duchamp loosened the ties that bound twentieth- 
century artists to fixed concepts or rigid standards. 
His heretical ideas must surely have been impor- 
tant in helping to free de Kooning from the stric- 
tures of the craft tradition in which he had been 
trained in Europe. But de Kooning never entirely 
renounced his background, as he chose to keep 
his revolutionary acts within the framework of 
painting. Duchamp was captivated by the problem 
of reconciling the contradictory poles of tradition 
and innovation. His solutions were ironic com- 
mentaries on this dilemma. For example, his Nude 
Descending a StaircaseNo. z, January 1912 (fig.), 
is at once a highly skilled example of Futurism and 
Cubism and a parody of these styles. This painting 
may be seen as a precursor of de Kooning's Women 
of the 50's. Clearly de Kooning understood and 
was inspired by the paradox inherent in Du- 
champ's position, although he did not in any sense 
emulate the form of his work. 



Shortly after finishing his Rubensian blonds, 
de Kooning began a series of figures painted on 
doors which he obtained from a commercial manu- 
facturer. They were approximately 80 x 36", 
roughly half the width of his usual canvases, and 
he exploited their narrow proportions to great 
effect. The images on these doors represent a return 
to the more aggressive female of the 1950's. This 
may in part be due to the narrow format of the 
doors — they seem to press in upon the women — or 
their hard surfaces which resisted de Kooning's 
touch. Their raucous colors reinforce the generally 
more violent tone of the panels. 

While Woman, Sag Harbor, 1964 (cat. no. 7), 
floats to the top edge of the canvas and Woman 
Acabonic of 1966 (cat. no. 9) ascends like an 
avenging angel, the females of the later 6o's appear 
more tranquil and are integrated into their sur- 
roundings: first they clam or wade off shore, later 
they merge with the landscape. Severe frontality, 
the direct confrontation of figures and spectator, 
gives way, as the women recline, complacent and at 
ease in the countryside. The mood is pastoral. Ulti- 
mately the figures become so distorted that it is vir- 
tually impossible to disentangle torsos and limbs 
from the background. De Kooning achieves the in- 
tegration of figure and landscape in large part by 
means of his painterly technique. During the late 
1950's and early 1960's his landscapes were consti- 
tuted of a few large blocks of color, interrupted and 
bound together by smaller patches of pigment and 
a grid structure. In these new women, however, 
rectilinear superstructure is no longer overt, whip- 
lash line is replaced by large areas of freely brushed 
color held together by the force and rhythm of his 
gesture. Here de Kooning achieves a remarkable 
unification of figure and ground, form and color. 
The female figure, although still the theme of the 
painting no longer dominates its composition. By 
the late 1960's landscape assumes a new and more 
prominent role: de Kooning makes Woman a 
landscape. 

Now that the female figure has been subsumed 
into landscape in his paintings, de Kooning has 
turned to sculpture to embody Woman. While va- 
cationing in Rome in the summer of 1969, de Koon- 
ing ran into an old friend, Herschel Emmanuel, a 
sculptor who had recently acquired a small bronze- 
casting foundry. Emmanuel invited de Kooning to 



25 



visit the foundry, which was a small operation 
manned by himself with one Italian assistant. Al- 
though de Kooning at first resisted the idea of mak- 
ing sculpture, after a while he began to experiment 
with the clay his friend offered him. He soon pro- 
duced several objects which they cast. By the end of 
the summer de Kooning had finished a number of 
small bronzes. In addition, a set of thirteen Little 
Sculptures, ranging from 2% to 13V4" was cast in 
an edition of six after he left Rome. 

Although de Kooning was still ambivalent about 
sculpture in 1970, he was again encouraged to con- 
tinue working in the medium. Henry Moore, who 
was in New York for an exhibition, helped convince 
him that his sculpture should be enlarged, and 
de Kooning decided to try this with one of the Little 
Sculptures. Interestingly, Moore himself enlarges 
smaller sculpture to monumental scale and could 
readily see the potential for such a procedure in 
de Kooning's work. Dali also concurred and even 
suggested that de Kooning paint the pieces, an idea 
the artist considered but subsequently rejected. For 
this experiment he chose the Seated Woman (cat. 
no. 88), a piece that very much resembled certain 
earlier drawings (for example, cat. nos. 60, 67). 
De Kooning assembled the large version of the 
sculpture in much the same way he composes the 
figures in his paintings, pulling the body apart, dis- 
torting it, recreating and reassembling the anatomy 
so that she managed to acquire an extra pair of legs 
which he placed next to her. The work was so com- 
plicated that an assistant was required to finish 
much of it by hand. At this time de Kooning experi- 
mented with numerous alternatives to bronze, such 
as polyester resin coated with a bronze-like patina. 
Eventually he abandoned the idea of increasing the 
size of smaller pieces in favor of working directly 
on a large scale. 

In 1970 de Kooning began to work on a group of 
figures and produced a number of important pieces, 
among them the Clamdigger and Seated Woman 
on a Bench, both finished in 1972, Hostess, com- 
pleted in 1973, and Large Torso of 1974 (cat. nos. 
90, 89, 95, 97). The sculpture mirrors, indeed grows 
from de Kooning's paintings such as Woman Aca- 
bonic, 1966, or The Visit, 1966-67 (cat. nos. 9, 11). 
The kneaded and pummeled surfaces of the sculp- 
ted figures are the direct extension of his pigment. 
The tactility and the bulk of the forms also relate 
to both Medardo Rosso and Auguste Rodin. The 



twisted, knotted shapes of de Kooning's paintings 
assume an even more dramatic presence in the 
sculptures. Although the sculptures possess con- 
crete mass and volume, there is about them an 
element of ambiguity, a profound loneliness or des- 
pair that recalls the mood, if not the form, of Gia- 
cometti's isolated figures. 

In the early 1970's sculpture seemed to become 
more important to de Kooning than his painting. In 
1975, however, he began to focus his attention once 
again on painting and has since then produced an 
astonishing body of work, which is prolific, versa- 
tile, extraordinarily high in quality and in many 
ways different from the canvases that preceded 
them. 

The most dramatic change is in the realm of 
color. Always a superb colorist, de Kooning had al- 
ternated among black and white abstractions with 
brilliant jewel-like interstices, pastel figures and 
urban landscapes in which intense blues clashed 
with bright yellow and acidic green. He often offset 
his vibrant colors by contrasting them with sub- 
stantial areas of white or compartmentalizing them 
with line. Now, however, he softens the somewhat 
strident juxtapositions of color, line and shape 
that result from these devices by introducing flesh 
tones, which range from reddish to pink to blond. 
The strong value contrasts in the earlier work have 
given way to an astonishing range of subtle and vo- 
luptuous color — sun-drenched pinks and greens, 
mauves, blue-greens, reddish oranges and the fa- 
miliar but revitalized electric blue. Although 
de Kooning's color in many ways is similar to the 
palette of Bonnard, its effect is noticeably different. 
De Kooning's paintings have none of the cloistered 
hothouse quality of Bonnard's and clearly reflect 
the out-of-doors. 

De Kooning works only during the day, in order 
to take advantage of natural light. His crammed 
studio, which has been compared to a ship, itself 
plays a part in the creative process: the juxtapo- 
sition of the paintings suggests innumerable 
possibilities for arranging and rearranging his 
compositions. His technical process is very much 
the same as it was in the 1950's. He uses oil paint 
thinned with water and adds kerosene, safflower 
oil or mayonnaise as a binding agent. Pigment is 
applied with house-painters' brushes and then 
overlaid with sheets of paper, cardboard or vellum, 
which are subsequently pulled off, leaving the sur- 



lh 



face free of brushstrokes but marked with the tex- 
ture of the material that was placed upon it. This 
technique results in strong contrasts between vel- 
vety textures, rough pitted surfaces or blurred areas 
of paint and permits jumps from one kind of sec- 
tion to another. De Kooning employs spatulas and 
knives for some of the smaller details, but the most 
remarkable elements of his enormous technical 
repertory are his unorthodox methods of applying 
and removing paint. The ultimate effect of these 
calculated procedures is of freedom and improvisa- 
tion, and nowhere is this spontaneity more evident 
than in his most recent paintings. 

Unlike the works of the late 1960's, which seem 
to bulge and strain the two-dimensional integrity of 
the picture plane, those of the mid-1970's are a 
marvel of innovation and achieve a new reconcilia- 
tion of three-dimensional form with the canvas 
surface and an even further integration of figure 
with landscape. The "no-environment" of the ear- 
lier work, the subsequent emphasis upon the fig- 
ure, upon landscape and finally the integration of 
woman and landscape into woman as landscape 
has given way to a new synthesis which is as close 
to abstraction as the efforts of the late 1940's. 

"When de Kooning first settled in the Hamptons, 
he was so carried away by the light and color that 
he attempted to incorporate the feeling of the place 
quite literally in his paintings. As he remarked: 

7 even carried it to the extent that when I came here 
I made the color of sand — a big pot of paint that 
was the color of sand. As if I picked up sand and 
mixed it. And the grey-green grass, the beach grass, 
and the ocean was all kind of steely grey most of 
the time. When the light hits the ocean there is kind 

of a grey light 071 the water Indescribable tones, 

almost. 1 started working with them and insisted 
that they would give me the kind of light I 
wanted. One was lighting up the grass. That be- 
came that kind of green. One was lighting up the 
water. That became that grey. Then I got a few 
more colors, because someone might be there, or a 
rowboat, or something happening. I did very well 
with that. I got into painting in the atmosphere I 
wanted to be in. It was like the reflection of light. 1 
reflected upon the reflections on the water, like the 
fishermen do. They stand there fishing. They sel- 
dom catch any fish, but they like to be by them- 
selves for an hour. And I do that almost every day. 9 



The beaches, marshes, scrub oaks and potato fields 
of The Springs, East Hampton and Montauk and 
the image of woman are still very much the basis of 
these new canvases. But de Kooning has wrested 
from his environment elements of coolness and 
warmth and sunlight and has made the tangible 
forms of figure and landscape submit to them, so 
that they appear almost as after-images. Atmo- 
sphere fuses with and transfigures form. De Koon- 
ing's preoccupation in these recent paintings with 
the sensations and reflections of color and light 
may be compared to the late Monet. Since 1975 he 
has moved from the specific to the general, from 
concentration on particular areas to a more even 
articulation of the surface, away from shaping and 
placing colors and contours so that they resemble 
identifiable parts of the human anatomy or nature. 
Although some of the paintings of 1975 were given 
names that tied them to certain specific identifiable 
locations, such as Back Porch, 1975, the newest 
work is appropriately designated East Hampton 
or Untitled. Color may or may not suggest a fig- 
ure, the grass or the sky; freed from depiction, 
liberated from shape and contour it has a more 
random quality than in any other of de Kooning's 
canvases. But like everything else he has touched, 
it is far from random, but is subject to his master- 
ful control. 

In these recent works de Kooning reveals a new 
dimension in his oeuvre and reaffirms his central 
position in American art. Exuberant, free and in- 
novatory, they are a great late flowering of his 
painting. 

NOTES 
i. "The Romantics Were Prompted," Possibilities I, Winter 
1947/48, p. 84. 

2. Quoted in Morton Feldman, "After Modernism," Art in 
America, vol. 59, no. six, November-December 1971, p. 72. 

3. Thomas B. Hess, Willem de Kooning, New York, 1959, p. i5 

4. Thomas B. Hess, De Kooning: Recent Paintings, New 
York, 1967, p. 16. 

5. Ibid., p. 36. 

6. Quoted in Margaret Statts and Lucas Matthiessen, "The 
Genetics of Art," Quest '77, vol. 1, no. 1, March/April 
1977. PP- 7°-7i- 

7. Quoted in Charlotte Willard, "In the Art Galleries," 
New York Post, August 23, 1964, p. 44. 

8. Quoted in Thomas B. Hess, Willem de Kooning, 
Greenwich, Connecticut, 1968, p. 79. 

9. Quoted in Harold Rosenberg, "Interview with Willem de 
Kooning," Art News, vol. 71, no. 5, September 1972, p. 56. 



27 



28 



Works in the Exhibition Paintings 



29 



1 Untitled. 196a 

Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 
Private Collection, Belgium 




JO 



A Untitled. 1962 

Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 

Collection Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gar- 
den, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 




31 



J Rosy Fingered Dawn at Louse Point. 1963 
Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 
Collection Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 





3 






32 






4 Pastorale. 1963 

Oil on canvas, 70 x 80" 

Collection Thomas B. Hess, New York 




33 



D Clam Diggers. 1964 

Oil on paper mounted on plywood, 
zoVa x i 4 I / 2 " 
Private Collection 







X\f~ 













34 



Two Standing Women. 1964 

Oil and charcoal on paper mounted on canvas, 

29 1 /8X23 1 4" 

Collection Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gar- 
den, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



* *\ 




.4, ;■' 



35 



/ Woman, Sag Harbor. 1964 
Oil on wood, 80 x 36" 

Collection Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gar- 
den, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 




36 



O Running Figure. 1966 

Oil on paper mounted on masonite, 24 x zzVi" 
Collection Harry Klamer, Toronto 




37 



" Woman Acabonic. 1966 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 80V2 x 36" 
Collection Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, Gift of Mrs. Bernard F. Gimbel 




38 



10 Figure in Watermill Landscape. 1966 
Oil on canvas, 2.5 x 30" 
Collection David T. Owsley 




39 



11 The Visit. 1966-67 

Oil on canvas, 60 x 48" 

Lent by the Trustees of The Tate Gallery, London 




40 



12. Man. 1967 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 56 x 44V4" 
Courtesy Allan Stone Gallery, New York 




41 



1 3 Two Figures in a Landscape. 1967 
Oil on canvas, 70 x 80" 
Collection Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 




42 



It - "Woman and Child. 1967 
Oil on paper, 52.% x 47V2" 
Gosman Collection 




43 



1 J Woman on a Sign II. 1967 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 56 x 41 V4" 
Collection Philip T. Warren, Farmington Hills, 
Michigan 




44 



I 6 Woman on the Dune. 1967 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 48 x 54" 
Collection Marielle Mailhot 




45 



1 / Woman Seated in the Water. 1967 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 2.3 x i8'4" 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Harold J. Joseph, St. 
Louis 




46 



lo Two Figures in a Landscape. 1968 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 49 x 61' 
Collection Australian National Gallery, Canberra 




47 



Yy Woman in Landscape HI. 1968 
Oil on canvas, 55V2 x 48" 
Private Collection 




4N 



2X) Woman in Landscape IV. 1968 
Oil on canvas, 59M x 48" 
Private Collection 




49 



2.Y Woman in Landscape XI, 1968 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 23^ x 18 Va" 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Robert I. Millonzi, 
Buffalo 




50 



22 The Sim, the Sea, the Wind. 1969 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 72 x 80 
Collection Societe Generale de Banque, Brussels 




51 



2.D Montaukl. 1969 

Oil on canvas, 88 x 77" 

Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, The Ella 

Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner 

Collection 




52 



2J\ Amityville. 1971 

Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




53 



2.5 Flowers, Mary's Table. 1971 
Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 
Collection Graham Gund, Boston 




54 



Z.O Red Man with Moustache. 1971 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 73 x 36" 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




55 



Z. / Woman in the Water. 197a 
Oil on canvas, 59V2 x 54" 
Collection Gertrude Kasle, Detroit 




56 



2,8 Untitled. 1975 

Oil on canvas, 59% x 54M" 
Private Collection, New York 











57 



29 Untitled Lie 



1975 

Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 
Private Collection 




58 



30 Untitled X. 1975 

Oil on canvas, 77 x 88" 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




59 



31 Untitled XL 1975 

Oil on canvas, 77 x 88" 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




60 



32 Untitled XIII. 1975 

Oil on canvas, 88 x 77" 
Private Collection 




61 



33 Untitled XIV. 1975 

Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




62 



34 Screams of Children Come from Seagulls. 1975 
Oil on canvas, 77 x 88" 
Private Collection 




63 



3 J . . . Whose Name Was Writ in Water. 197$ 
Oil on canvas, 77 x 88" 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




64 



36 Untitled 1. 1976 

Oil on canvas, 76V2 x S^Vi" 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




65 



37 Untitled 11. 1976 

Oil on canvas, 88 x 77" 

Collection Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 




66 



38 Untitled III. 1976 

Oil on canvas, 69V2 x 79V2" 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




67 



39 Untitled V.i 97 6 

Oil on canvas, 77 x 88" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Oscar Kolin 




68 



40 Untitled VI. 1976 

Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 
Collection Graham Gund, Boston 




69 



41 Untitled XVIJI.1976 

Oil on canvas, 59V2 x 55" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Lang, 

Medina, Washington 




70 



T"Z Figures in a Landscape # 7. 1976 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 4iV£ x 3o 1 /4'' 
Private Collection 




71 



TO Untitled — Two Figures in a Landscape. 1976 
Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 30^ x 35" 
Private Collection 




72 



44 East Hampton I. 1977 
Oil on canvas, 36 x 30" 
Private Collection 




73 



4.J East Hampton IV. 1977 
Oil on canvas, 30 x 36" 

Collection Dr. and Mrs. Robert Mandelbaum, 
New York 




"4 



46 Untitled 1. 1977 

Oil on canvas, 76V2 x 87V2" 
Collection Sue Workman 




75 



47 Untitled 11.1977 

Oil on canvas, 77 x 88" 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




76 



48 Untitled III. 1977 

Oil on canvas, 88 x jj" 
Collection Graham Gund, Boston 




77 



49 Untitled V. 1977 

Oil on canvas, 80 x 70' 

Collection Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, 

Gift of Seymour H. Knox 




78 



50 Untitled VI. 1977 

Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 
Private Collection, New York 




79 



51 Untitled VII. 1977 

Oil on canvas, 70 x 80" 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




52 Untitled X. 1977 

Oil on canvas, 59 x 55" 
Collection Graham Gund, Boston 




81 



53 Untitled XIII. 1977 

Oil on canvas, 54 x 60" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert H. Kinney, 

Washington, D.C. 




82 



54 Untitled XIV. 1977 

Oil on canvas, 55 x 59" 

Collection Gerald S. Elliott, Chicago 




83 



55 Untitled XVM. 1977 

Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




84 



56 Untitled XIX. 



1977 

Oil on canvas, 80 x 70" 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




85 



Drawings 



86 



J / "Woman. 1963 

Charcoal on paper, 11% x 8%" 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Lee V. Eastman 




87 



5 O Trembling Woman, ca. 1963-64 
Charcoal on paper, Z3% x 17%" 
Collection Elaine de Kooning, East Hampton 



/ 




jy WomaninRowboat,ca.i^6$ 
Charcoal on paper, 24 x 18%" 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Julius E. Davis 



-/■' f 




R9 



uU Untitled (Seated Woman on the Beach). 1966-67 
Charcoal on paper, 2.4 x i8 3 /t" 
Collection Norman and Shelly Dinhofer, 
Brooklyn, New York 




90 



61 Untitled (Figures in Landscape). 1966-67 
Charcoal on paper, 18% x 24" 
Private Collection, Germany 




91 



6Z Untitled (Figures in Landscape). 1967 
Charcoal on paper, 18% x 23%" 
Collection Susan Brockman 




42 



63 Untitled. 1967 

Charcoal on tracing paper, 18% x 24" 
Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, Gift of the artist 



\ 




93 



64 Untitled. 1968 

Charcoal on paper, 19 x Z4" 

Collection Richard Aaronson and Linda Loving, 

Toronto 




4 Wf 



94 



65 Untitled. 1968 

Charcoal on tracing paper, 24 x 18%" 
Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, Gift of the artist 




95 



66 Untitled. 1968 

Charcoal on paper, 19 x 24" 

Collection Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 







/ '. i 7 










N 




46 



6 / Seated Woman, ca. 1968 

Charcoal on paper, Z4 x 18%" 
Collection Galerie Alice Pauli, Lausanne 




97 



6o Walking Figure, ca. 1968 

Charcoal on paper, 23% x 18%" 
Private Collection 




98 



Kiy Untitled (Figures in Landscape), ca. 1968 
Charcoal on paper, 18% x 24" 
Private Collection 




\1 



99 



70 Untitled, ca. 1968 

Charcoal on paper, 17V2 x 23" 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Lee V. Eastman 



■ : f: ^ 




100 



/ 1 Untitled (Woman and Child), ca. 1968 
Charcoal on paper, 23% x 18%" 
Collection, Mr. S. O. Beren, Wichita 




101 



72 Untitled. 1969 

Charcoal and traces of oil paint on paper, 
43 x 36" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. John L. Eastman, 
New York 




102 



73 Untitled. 1969 

Charcoal on paper, 18% x 24" 
Collection Alex Katz, New York 




103 



74 Untitled. 1969 

Charcoal on paper, 24 x 18%" 
Private Collection, New York 




I 



104 



75 Untitled. 1969 

Charcoal on paper, 18^ x 24" 

The Baltimore Museum of Art, Thomas E. 

Benesch Memorial Collection 




105 



/6 Untitled, ca. 1972 

Charcoal on paper, 19V2 x 24 l /z" 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Lee V. Eastman 














106 



/ / Untitled. 1973 

Charcoal on paper, 24 x 19" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. John L. Eastman, 

New York 



s 




107 



/o Man. 1974 

Charcoal and traces of oil paint on paper 

mounted on canvas, 51 '4 x 41V2" 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




k 1 v : ~-< u 1 *-%> 



108 



fy Two Figures. 1974 

Charcoal and traces of oil paint on paper 

mounted on canvas, 46 x 42W 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




109 



O Untitled (Figure in Landscape). 1974 

Charcoal and pastel on paper, 29% x 30V2" 
Collection Australian National Gallery, Canberra 




110 



Sculpture 



in 



81 Untitled No. 1. 1969 
Bronze, 7" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




- WHBI 



112 



o 2. Untitled No . 2 . 1 9 69 
Bronze, 6V2" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




113 



O 3 Untitled No. 4.1969 
Bronze, 6V2" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




114 



84 Untitled No. 5. 1969 
Bronze, 13%" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




115 



8 5 Untitled No. 6. 1969 
Bronze, 7V2" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




116 



86 untitiedNo.n.1969 

Bronze, 6 3 A" h. 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 











^* Am^g * 








^df.l 


(jS#* 



117 



87 Untitled No. 13.1969 
Bronze, i^Vi" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




118 



Seated 'Woman. 1969 

Bronze, 25%" h. 

Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




119 



oy Seated Woman on a Bench. 1972 
Bronze, 38" h. 
Collection Joseph H. Hirshhom 




120 



y\J Clamdigger. 1972. 
Bronze, 57V2" h. 

Collection Mrs. H. Gates Lloyd, Haverford, 
Pennsylvania 




121 



y\ Cross Legged Figure. 1972. 
Bronze, 24" h. 

Collection Dr. and Mrs. Robert Mandelbaum, 
New York 




122 



yL Floating Figure. 1972 
Bronze, 24 Vz" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




123 



yj Head No. 3.1973 
Bronze, i^Vi" h. 

Collection The Art Institute of Chicago, 
Gift of Margaret Fisher 




124 



"4 Head No. 4. 1973 
Bronze, ioV5>" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




125 



y J Hostess. 1973 
Bronze, 49" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




126 



yt> Small Seated Figure. 1973 
Bronze, xyVi" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




127 



y / Large Torso. 1974 
Bronze, 34" h. 
Lent by Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 




128 




129 



Chronology 



Born April 24 in Rotterdam to the former Cornelia Nobel 
and Leendert de Kooning. 

1916 

Leaves grammar school and is apprenticed to commercial 

art and decorating firm of Jan and Jaap Giddings. 

1916-24 

Studies evenings at Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten en 
Technische Wetenschappen, Rotterdam. Here he learns both 
fine arts and crafts, guild and academic disciplines: drawing 
from plaster casts and live models, anatomy, perspective as 
well as lettering and wood-graining. 

1920 

Leaves Giddings to work with Bernard Romein, department 

store art director. Interested in de Stijl group and Mondrian, 

Jugendstijl, Jan Toroop, modern Paris masters, Frank Lloyd 

Wright. 

1924 

To Belgium; visits museums, supports self with commercial 
art and odd jobs. Studies at Academie Royale des Beaux- 
Arts, Brussels, Van Schelling design school, Antwerp. 

1925 

Returns to Netherlands. Completes studies at academy in 

Rotterdam. 

1926 

To United States: without proper papers, hires on S. S. 
Shelley as wiper in engine room. Arrives in Newport News, 
Virginia, August 15. Settles in Hoboken, New Jersey; works 
as housepainter. 




The Wave. 1940-41 

The Vincent Melzac Collection, Washington, D.C.. 
Courtesy The National Collection of Fine Arts, 
Smithsonian Institution 



Moves to New York City; lives in Greenwich Village. 
Meets John Graham. 

1927-35 

Earns living at commercial art and odd jobs such as making 
signs and shop displays, lettering, carpentry, nightclub 
murals. 

Meets Stuart Davis, Arshile Gorky. 

1928 

Spends summer in Woodstock, New York. 

1934 

Early high-key color abstractions which often feature 
circumscribed shapes, for example The Wave. 1940-41 (fig.). 
Continues to work on these until 1944. Never rejects figure 
entirely, however, but pursues both abstraction and figura- 
tion throughout career, sometimes concurrently, sometimes 
successively. 

Beginning of close friendship with poet and dance critic 
Edwin Denby, painter-photographer Rudolph Burckhardt, 
contact with musicians, composers, among them Virgil 
Thompson and Aaron Copland, as well as performers in 
music and ballet. 

Around this time joins Artists' Union, but never becomes 
member of American Abstract Artists. 



130 




Two Men Standing, ca.1938 
Collection Thomas B. Hess, New York 



Works for one year in Federal Arts Project, WPA, enabling 
him for first time to devote self entirely to painting. 
Assigned several mural and easel projects, including work 
with other artists on model for French Line Pier mural 
(never executed), directed by Fernand Leger; projects for 
mural for Williamsburg Federal Housing Project (never 
executed). 

Starts paintings of standing and seated men in interiors 
influenced by Surrealism of Picasso and Gorky, for example 
Two Men Standing, ca.1938 (fig.). 

Shares studio with Gorky in late 1930's. De Kooning and 
Gorky are extremely close; intense interaction between the 
two is important to their stylistic development. 

1936 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New Horizons in 
America. First group show: work done under government 
auspices. Other participants include Ilya Bolotowsky, Byron 
Browne, Francis Criss, Stuart Davis, Gorky, Balcomb 
Greene, Jan Matulka, George McNeil. 

Meets Harold Rosenberg about this time. 

1937 

Through Burgoyne Diller, obtains commission for one 
section of three-part mural for New York World's Fair Hall 
of Pharmacy. 

Meets David Smith. 

Meets Barnett Newman about this time. 

Paints schematic still lifes. 



1938 

Meets art student Elaine Fried. 

Begins early figures of Women which culminate in Pink 
Lady. 1944 (fig.); theme has occupied him since then. 

1939 

World's Fair, New York, Painting and Sculpture in the 

World of Tomorrow. 

ca.1939-40 
Meets Franz Kline. 

1940 

Through Denby, receives commission for design of sets and 
costumes for Nini Theilade's ballet Les Nuages, music by 
Debussy, Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, Metropolitan Opera 
House, New York, performed April 9. 

Briefly attempts fashion illustration; some of these drawings 
published in Harper's Bazaar. 

1941 

Murals for U. S. Maritime Commission Administration for 

S. S. President Jackson. 

1942 

McMillen Gallery, New York, American and Trench Paint- 
ings. First group show in gallery. Selected by John Graham. 
Other participants include: Stuart Davis, Lee Krasner, 
Jackson Pollock as well as Braque, Matisse, Picasso. This 
was de Kooning's first exposure to Pollock's work, beginning 
of their friendship. 




Pink Lady. 1944 

Collection Betty W. and Stanley K. Sheinbaum 



131 








Pink Angels. 1947 

Weisman Collection of Art, Beverly Hills, California 



1943 

Marries Elaine Fried. 

Bignou Gallery, New York [Group Show]. Other partici- 
pants include Janice Biala and French artists. 

1944 

Abstract and Surrealist Art in America. Organized by Sidney 
Janis in conjunction with publication of his book of same 
title. Circulates in United States prior to opening at 
Mortimer Brandt Gallery, New York. Other participants 
include William Baziotes, Adolph Gottlieb, Robert Mother- 
well, Mark Rothko. 

1945 

Begins Surreal abstractions with close-value colors and bio- 
morphic forms, for example Pink Angels. 1947 (fig.); works 
on these until 1950. 

1946 

Designs backdrop, executed with help of Milton Resnick, 
for dance Labyrinth, by Marie Marchowsky, performed 
April 5 in New York. 

Starts black-and-white abstractions, many in commercial 
enamels, characterized by even "all-over" articulation and 
spatial ambiguity, continued until 1949. 

Close association with Baziotes, Gottlieb, Hans Hofmann, 
Motherwell, Clyfford Still. 

1947 

Initiates second series of Women, for example Woman, 

1948 (fig.), which he continues until 1949. 



1948 

Teaches during summer at Black Mountain College, Black 
Mountain, North Carolina, headed by Josef Albers; renews 
acquaintance there with Buckminster Fuller, John Cage. 

Meets Thomas B. Hess. 

Egan Gallery, New York. First one-man show: black-and- 
white abstractions. Establishes reputation as major painter. 
Largest black painting, Painting, 1948 (fig.), acquired by 
The Museum of Modern Art, New York: first museum 
purchase. 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1948 Annual 
Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting. Subse- 
quently represented in Whitney Annual, 1949-52.; 53 (two 
shows); 54; 56 (two shows); 59, 63, 65, 67, 69, 71. 

1949 

Takes part in Eighth Street Artists Club activities including 
Friday symposia with Franz Kline, Conrad Marca-Relli, 
Philip Pavia and others until 1949 when Club dissolves. 

Kootz Gallery, New York, The Intrasubjectives. Organized 
by Harold Rosenberg and Samuel Kootz. Other participants 
include Baziotes, Gorky, Gottlieb, Morris Graves, Hofmann, 
Motherwell, Pollock, Ad Reinhardt, Rothko, Mark Tobey, 
Bradley Walker Tomlin. 

1950 

Begins "Woman I (fig. in text, p. 15), completed 1952, first 

painting in third Woman series, continued until 1953. 

Delivers lecture, "The Renaissance and Order," at Studio 
35, New York, published 195 1 (see bibliography, p. 148). 



>/ 



/ 



x " - to a 




Woman. 1948 

Collection Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



132 




Painting. 1948 

Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York 

XXV Venice Biennale. Small one-man show in United 
States Pavilion. Organized by Alfred H. Barr, Jr., for The 
Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Kootz Gallery, New York, Black or White: Paintings by 
European and American Artists. Other participants include 
Baziotes, Gottlieb, Hofmann, Motherwell, Tobey, Tomlin. 

1950-51 

Teaches at Yale School of Art and Architecture, New Haven, 

under Albers, Chairman of Department of Design. 

1951 

Egan Gallery, New York. Second one-man show: color 
abstractions and large black enamel drawings. Critical 
success, though few paintings sold. 

7 Sao Paulo Bienal. Organized by The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York. 

The Art Institute of Chicago, Sixtieth Annual American 
Exhibition. Excavation, 1950 (fig. in text, p. 14), culminating 
work of abstract-surreal style, awarded Logan medal and 
purchase prize. 

9th Street Show. Artists' cooperative exhibition, first held 
in 9th Street store, then at Stable Gallery, New York. Many 
other participants include Kline, Motherwell, Pollock, David 
Smith, Jack Tworkov. 

Participates in The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
Symposium What Abstract Art Means to Me, and reads 
paper on this theme which is subsequently published in 
Bulletin of The Museum of Modern Art, 195 1 (see bibliog- 
raphy, p. 148). Symposium held in conjunction with exhibi- 
tion Abstract Painting and Sculpture. Other participants 
include Alexander Calder, Stuart Davis, Fritz Glarner, Philip 
Guston, Hofmann, Motherwell, Reinhardt, Tomlin. 

1952 

Summers in East Hampton; produces large body of studies, 

drawings, series of pastels, many of Women. 



Meets Motherwell through Baziotes. 

Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh International Exhibition of 
Contemporary Painting. Subsequently represented in Pitts- 
burgh International, 1955, 58, 61, 64, 70. 

1953 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. Third one-man show: 

Women paintings, pastels and drawings of 1950-53. 

School of The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. First retrospec- 
tive; travels to The Washington Workshop Center of the 
Arts, Washington, D.C. 

II Sao Paulo Bienal. Organized by The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York. Abstract and figurative pastels and paintings 
of 1947-52" 

1954 

XXVII Venice Biennale. Retrospective. Selected by Andrew 

C. Ritchie for The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

1955 

Begins abstract urban landscapes, such as Easter Monday. 
i9$6 (fig.), which he pursues until 1958. Women and land- 
scapes begin to merge. 

Martha Jackson Gallery, New York. One-man show: works 
of 1948-55. 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, The New 
Decade: 35 American Painters and Sculptors. 




Easter Monday. 1956 

Collection The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 

York, Rogers Fund, 1956 



133 




Palisade. 1957 

Collection Milton A. Gordon 




Black and White (Rome). 1959-60 
Courtesy Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York 



1956 

Daughter Lisa born. 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. One-man show: abstract 
urban landscapes. Widespread acceptance of work by 
American and European collectors, museums begins. 

XXVIII Venice Biennale, American Artists Paint The City. 
Selected by Katharine Kuh for The Art Institute of Chicago. 

1957 

Large, simplified landscape and parkway abstractions, for 

example Palisade, 1957 (fig.), continued until 1961. 

First print, etching for Harold Rosenberg's poem, "Revenge," 
executed; this published i960. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, First Exhibition. 
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, American Paintings: 
1945-1957- 

1958 

Visits Venice. 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, Nature in 
Abstraction; travels in United States into 1959. 

The International Council of The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, The Neiv American Painting, as Shown in Eight 
European Countries, 1958-1959; circulates in Europe, shown 
in New York, 1959. 

1958-59 

Visits David Smith at Bolton Landing; Albers in New 

Haven. 

1959 

Summer in Southampton. 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. One-man show: abstract 
parkway landscapes. 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New Images 
of Man. 

Kassel, Germany, 11. Documenta '59 Kunst nach 1945. 

1959-60 

Winter in Rome; does abstract black enamel on paper draw- 
ings there, for example Black and White (Rome), 1959-60 
(fig.). Works in Afro's studio. 

1960 

Abstract pastoral landscapes, continued until 1963, for 
example Pastorale, 1963 (cat. no. 4); new series of Women, 
for example Woman I, 1961 (fig.). 

Visits San Francisco. 

First lithographs, two black-and-white prints executed at 
presses of University of California at Berkeley upon invita- 
tion of Nathan Oliviera and George Miyasaku. 

Elected to National Institute of Arts and Letters. 

1961 

Begins to settle into The Springs, East Hampton house; does 

small works there, but retains New York studio. 

Paul Kantor Gallery, Beverly Hills. Retrospective. 



134 



The Museum of Modern Art, New York, The Art of 
Assemblage. 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 
American Abstract Expressionists and Imagists. 

1962 

Becomes United States citizen, March 13. 

Starts to plan construction of studio in The Springs. 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. One-man show: recent 
work. 

Allan Stone Gallery, New York. Two-man show with 
Barnett Newman: work of 1932-62. 

Seattle World's Fair, Art Since 19 jo. 

American Embassy London, USIS Gallery, Vanguard 
American Painting. Organized by H. H. Arnason. 

1963 

Moves from New York loft to The Springs, where he still 

lives. 

Begins new Women series, which includes Clam Diggers, 

1964 (cat. no. 5). 

The Jewish Museum, New York, Black and White. 

1964 

Paints Women on doors, for example Woman, Sag Harbor, 

1964 (cat. no. 7). 

Receives Freedom Award Medal from President Lyndon B. 
Johnson. 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 
Guggenheim International Award. 

Tate Gallery, London, Painting and Sculpture of a Decade: 

54M- 

Kassel, Germany, Documenta III. 

1965 

Continues paintings of Women depicted singly and in pairs; 

new series of free charcoal drawings of figures. 

Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Massachu- 
setts. Retrospective; travels to The Hayden Gallery, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, New York School: The 
First Generation. Paintings of the 1940's and 1910's. 

1967 

M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York. One-man show: work 

of 1963-67. 

Late in year, trip to Paris. Visits Louvre for first time; goes 
to London, meets Francis Bacon. 

1968 

Returns to The Netherlands for first time since 1926 for 

Stedelijk Museum opening. 

Receives first Talens Prize International in Amsterdam. 

M. Knoedler et Cie., Paris. First one-man exhibition in 
Europe: recent work, based on Knoedler, New York, 1967 
exhibition. 




Woman I. 1961 

Collection Thomas B. Hess, New York 



135 



Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. Major retrospective orga- 
nized by The Museum of Modern Art, New York; travels to 
London, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles into 1969. 

1969 

Begins Montauk series, for example Montauk I, 1969 

(cat. no. 2.3). 

Trip to Japan; becomes interested in classical Japanese 
drawing materials and techniques. 

Visits Spoleto on occasion of Festival dei Due Mondi; visits 
Rome and executes his first sculptures, small figures modeled 
in clay, later cast in bronze. 

M. Knoedler &C Co., Inc., New York. One-man show: work 
of 1967-69. 

Palazzo Ancaini, Spoleto, XII Festival dei Due Mondi. 
One-man show of drawings. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York 
Painting and Sculpture: 1940-1970. 

Pasadena Art Museum, Painting in Neiv York: 1944 to 1969. 

1970 

Begins life-size bronze figures, for example Seated Woman, 

1970 (cat. no. 88). 

1970-71 

Makes series of black-and-white lithographs at Hollander 

Workshop, New York. 

1972 

The Baltimore Museum of Art. One-man show: recent 

paintings and sculpture. 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. One-man show: recent 
work. Exhibition part of legal settlement of dispute between 
de Kooning and Janis underway since 1965. 



1974 

Receives Brandeis University Creative Arts Award Medal 
"in recognition of a lifetime of achievement in the field 
of painting." 

Australian National Gallery, Canberra, purchases Woman V 
for record sum for work of living American artist. 

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis. One-man show: drawings 
and sculpture; travels in United States. 

1975 

New series of oils in which landscape, figure and abstract 

elements merge; these continued to date. 

Receives Edward MacDowell Medal for "outstanding con- 
tribution to the arts." 

Awarded Gold Medal for Painting by American Academy 
of Arts and Letters. 

With Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence and Bill E. Caldwell 
conceives The Rainbow Art Foundation, to encourage 
young artists and printmakers. 

Fourcade, Droll Inc., New York. One-man show: new 
works. 

1976 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. One-man show: paintings 

and prints; travels to Duisberg, Geneva, Grenoble. 

Seattle Art Museum. One-man show: recent paintings and 
sculpture. 

Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York. One-man show: recent 
paintings. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., The Golden Door: Artist- 
Immigrants of America, 1876-1976. 

1977 

Xavier Fourcade, Inc. One-man show: recent paintings. 

Kassel, Germany, documenta 6. 



136 



Selected Exhibitions 
and Reviews, 1963-1978 



I. GROUP EXHIBITIONS AND REVIEWS 
"denotes that all work by de Kooning dates from before 1963 

"The Corcoran Gallery, Washington, D.C., The 28th Biennial 
Exhibition of Contemporary American Tainting, January 18- 
March 3, 1963 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, 11 Abstract Expressionist 
Painters, October 7-November 2, 1963. Catalogue 
with text by Hermann Warner Williams, Jr. 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, Annual 
Exhibition 1963: Contemporary American Painting, Decem- 
ber 11, 1963-February 2, 1964. Catalogue 

The Jewish Museum, New York, Black and White, Decem- 
ber 12, 1963-February 5, 1964. Catalogue with texts by 
Ben Heller, Robert Motherwell and Alan Solomon 

Max Kozloff, "The Many Colorations of Black and 
White," Artforum, vol. II, no. 8, February 1964, 
pp. 22-25 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Guggen- 
heim International Award, January 16-March 9, 1964. 
Traveled to: Honolulu Academy of Arts, May 14-July 5, 
1964; Haus am Liitzowplatz, Berlin, August 21-September 
15, 1964; National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, October 5- 
November 9, 1964; John and Mable Ringling Museum of 
Art, Sarasota, January 16-March 14, 1965; Museo Nacional 
de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, April 20-May 20, 1965. 
Catalogue with text by Lawrence Alloway 

Dore Ashton, "Cosmos and Chaos at the Guggen- 
heim," Arts and Architecture, vol. 81, no. 3, March 
1964, pp. 6- 7 

Cleve Gray, "The Guggenheim International," Art 
in America, vol. 52, no. 2, April 1964, pp. 48-55 

Tate Gallery, London, Painting and Scidpture of a Decade: 
54-64, April 22-June 28, 1964. Organized by Alan Bowness, 
Lawrence Gowing and Philip James for Calouste Gulben- 
kian Foundation. Catalogue with unsigned text by Bowness, 
Gowing and James. 

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, Within the Easel Convention: Sources of Abstract 
Expressionism, May 7-June 7, 1964. Catalogue with text by 
Rosalind Krauss 

Museum Fridericianum, Orangerie, Kassel, Germany, Docu- 
menta III: Internationale Ausstellung, June 27-October 5, 1964. 
Catalogue with texts by Arnold Bode and Werner Haftmann 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Van 
Gogh and Expressionism, July i-September 13, 1964. Cata- 
logue with text by Maurice Tuchman 

Max Kozloff, "The Dilemma of Expressionism," 
Artforum, vol. Ill, no. 2, November 1964, pp. 32-35 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Amer- 
ican Drawings, September 17-October 22, 1964. Traveled to: 
University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor, 
November 11-December 13, 1964; Grand Rapids Art 
Museum, Michigan, January 10-February 7, 1965; Univer- 
sity Gallery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Febru- 



137 



ary 24-March 21, 1965; Seattle Art Museum, April 8-May 2, 
1965; The Denver Art Museum, June 6-July 4, 1965; Dallas 
Museum of Fine Arts, July 25-August 22, 1965; The Colum- 
bus Gallery of Fine Arts, Ohio, September 12-October 10, 
1965; Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois, Cham- 
paign, November 15-December 5, 1965. Catalogue with text 
by Lawrence Alloway 

Donald Judd, "In the Galleries: American Drawings," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 39, no. 2, November 1964, p. 59 

"Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, The 1964 Pittsburgh Inter- 
national Exhibition of Contemporary Art, October 30, 1964- 
January 10, 1965. Catalogue 

*Los Angeles County Museum of Art, New York School: The 
First Generation. Paintings of the 1940's and 19 50's. July 16- 
August 1, 1965. Catalogue with excerpts from earlier texts 
by Lawrence Alloway, Robert Goldwater, Clement Green- 
berg, de Kooning, Harold Rosenberg, William Rubin, Meyer 
Schapiro 

Philip Leider, "New York School: the first genera- 
tion," Artforum, vol. IV, no. 1, September 1965, 
PP-3-I3 
Allan Stone Gallery, New York, De Kooning, Pollock, New- 
man, Gorky, Cornell, October 26-November 13, 1965 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1965 Annual 
Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting, December 
8, 1965-January 30, 1966. Catalogue 

Larry Aldrich Museum, Ridgefield, Connecticut, Selections 
from the John G. Powers Collection, September 25-Decem- 
ber 11, 1966. Catalogue 

Allan Frumkin Gallery, New York, The Nude-Note, opened 
January 10, 1967 

Dennis Adrian, "The Nude-Now," Artforum, vol. V, 
no. 7, March 1967, p. 58 

''The International Council of The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, organizer, T«<o Decades of American Painting. 
Traveled to: The National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, 
October 15-November 27, 1966; The National Museum of 
Modern Art, Kyoto, December 12, 1966-January 22, 1967, 
catalogue partially in Japanese, partially in English with 
texts by Lucy R. Lippard, Waldo Rasmussen, Irving Sandler, 
G. R. Swenson; Lalit Kala Academy, New Delhi, March 25- 
April 15, 1967, separate catalogue in English with texts by 
Lippard, Rasmussen, Sandler, Swenson; National Gallery of 
Victoria, Melbourne, June 6-July 8, 1967; Art Gallery of New 
South Wales, Sydney, July 17-August 20, 1967, separate cata- 
logue with texts by Lippard, Rasmussen, Sandler, Swenson 

University of St. Thomas, Houston, Six Painters, February- 
April 1967. Catalogue with texts by Morton Feldman and 
Thomas B. Hess 

Kurt von Meier, "Houston," Artforum, vol. V, no. 9, 
May 1967, pp. 59-60 

Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois, Champaign, 
Contemporary American Paintings and Sculpture 1967, 
March 5-April 9, 1967. Catalogue with text by Allen S. 
Weller ' 



Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, XXlIl e Salon de 
Mai, April 29-May 21, 1967. Catalogue with text by Gaston 
Diehl 

Fondation Maeght, St. Paul de Vence, France, Dix ans d'art 
vivant: 1955-196$, May 3-July 23, 1967. Catalogue with text 
by Francois Wehrlin 

M. Knoedler et Cie., Paris, Six peintres americains: Gorky, 
Kline, de Kooning, Newman, Pollock, Rotbko, October 

1967. Catalogue with translation of excerpt from earlier 
text by de Kooning. 

*M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York, Space and Dream, 
December 5-29, 1967. Catalogue with text by Robert Gold- 
water 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 7967 Annual 
Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting, December 
13, 1967-February 4, 1968. Catalogue 

*Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 
Kompass III: Schilderkunst na 1945- uit Neu> York, Paintings 
after 1945 in New York, November 9-December 17, 1967. 
Catalogue with text by Jean Leering in English and Dutch. 
Traveled as Kompass New York to Frankfurter Kunstverein, 
December 30, 1967-February 11, 1968. Separate catalogue 
with text by Leering in German and English 

Royal Dublin Society, Ireland, Rose '67: The Poetry of 
Vision, November 13, 1967-January 10, 1968. Catalogue 
with texts by Jean Leymarie, Willem Sandberg and James 
Johnson Sweeney 

Clement Greenberg, "Poetry of Vision," Artforum, 
vol. VI, no. 8, April 1968, pp. 18-21 

Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, The Obsessive 
Image: 1960-1968, April 10-May 29, 1968. Catalogue with 
text by Mario Amaya 

"'Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, The 19 jo's: 
Painting and Sculpture in America, October 15-December 1, 

1968. Catalogue with text by William C. Agee 

Robert Pincus-Witten, "New York," Artforum, vol. 
VII, no. 5, January 1969, p. 55 

San Francisco Museum of Art, Untitled, 1968, November 9- 
December 29, 1968. Catalogue with texts by Gerald Nord- 
land and Wesley Chamberlain 

Knute Stiles, " 'Untitled '68': The San Francisco An- 
nual Becomes an Invitational," Artforum, vol. VII, 
no. 5, January 1969, pp. 50-52 

'The Museum of Modern Art, New York, The New American 
Painting and Sculpture: The First Generation, June 18- 
October 15, 1969. Checklist with anonymous text 

Peter Schjeldahl, "New York Letter," Art Interna- 
tional, vol. XIII/8, October 1969, p. 74. Also reviews 
Knoedler exhibition, June 1969, below 

M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York, Gorky, de Kooning, 
Newman, June 26-September 20, 1969 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York 
Painting and Sculpture: 1940-1970, October 16, 1969-Febru- 



138 



ary i, 1970. Catalogue with text by Henry Geldzahler, re- 
prints of and excerpts from earlier texts by Michael Fried, 
Clement Greenberg, Harold Rosenberg, Robert Rosenblum 
and William Rubin 

Hilton Kramer, "30 Years of the New York School," 
The New York Times Magazine, October 12, 1969, 
pp. 28-29 lr 

Philip Leider, "Modern American Art at the Met," 
Artforum, vol. VIII, no. 4, December 1969, pp. 62-65 

Pierre Courthion, "Situation de la nouvelle peinture 
americaine," XX e Siecle, nouvelle serie, XXXII e 
annee, no. 34, June 1970, pp. 9-15, English summary, 
n.p. 

Andrei B. Nakov, "L'Exposition des artistes 
americains jugee par deux critiques europeens — 
une certaine nostalgie de l'histoire," XX e Siecle, 
nouvelle serie XXXII e annee, no. 34, June 1970, 
pp. 3-8 

"Pasadena Art Museum, Painting in New York: 1944 to 1969, 
November 24, 1969-January 11, 1970. Catalogue with text 
by Alan Solomon 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1969 Annual 
Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting, December 
16, 1969-February 1, 1970. Catalogue 

Heckscher Museum, Huntington, New York, Artists of 
Suffolk County, Part II: The Abstract Tradition, July 10- 
September 6, 1970. Catalogue with text by Eva Ingersoll 
Gatling 

Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, The 1970 Pittsburgh Inter- 
national Exhibition of Contemporary Art, October 30, 1970- 
January 10, 1971. Catalogue 

M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York, Lithographs by de 
Kooning, Fairfield Porter, Paul Waldman, May 4- June 5, 
1971. Catalogue 

Marianne Hancock, "New York Galleries," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 45, no. 8, Summer 1971, p. 57 

M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York, A Selection of Works 
By Louise Bourgeois, Salvador Dali, Willem de Kooning 
[and others], September 14-October 16, 1971 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1972 Annual 
Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting, January 25- 
March 19, 1972. Catalogue 

Heckscher Museum, Huntington, New York, Artists of 
Suffolk County: Part VI Contemporary Prints, July 16- 
September 3, 1972. Catalogue with text by Ruth B. Solomon 

Irving Blum Gallery, Los Angeles, Some Recent Graphics: 
de Kooning, Stella, Warhol, Johns, Ruscha, Kelly, Lichten- 
stein, opened January 30, 1973 

The International Council of the Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, organizer, Cuatro maestros contempordneos: 
Giacometti, Dubuffet, de Kooning, Bacon. Traveled to: 
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, April 1973; Museo de Arte 
Moderno, Bogota, May 1973; Museo de Art Moderno, 
Mexico, D. F., July-August 1973, catalogue in Spanish with 



text by Alicia Legg; Museu de Arte, Sao Paulo, September 13- 
October 7, 1973; Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro, 
October 15-November 4, 1973, catalogue in Portuguese with 
additional texts by Heloise Aleixo Lustosa and P. M. Bardi 

"Seattle Art Museum Pavilion: American Art: Third Quarter 
Century, August 22-October 14, 1973. Catalogue with text 
by Jan van der Marck 

Art Galleries, University of California, Santa Barbara, Five 
American Painters, Recent Works: de Kooning, Mitchell, 
Motherwell, Resnick, Tworkov, January 8-February 17, 
1974. Catalogue with text by Phyllis Pious 

Contemporary Art Society of the Indianapolis Museum of 
Art, Painting and Scidpture Today 1974, May 22- July 14, 
1974. Traveled to Contemporary Art Center and The Taft 
Museum, Cincinnati, September 12-October 26, 1974. 
Catalogue with text by Richard L. Warrum 

Suffolk Museum, Stony Brook, New York, Contemporary 
Long Island Sculptors, July 17-September 2, 1974 

Malcolm Preston, "Art — a special selection," 
Newsday, August 28, 1974, pp. 7A ff 

Noah Goldowsky Gallery, New York [Group Exhibition], 
December 3-31, 1974 

Jane Bell, "Art Reviews," Arts Magazine, vol. 49, 
no. 6, February 1975, p. 6 

Stadtische Kunsthalle, Diisseldorf, Surrealitdt-Bildrealitdt 
1924-19/4 — In den unzdhligen Bildern des Lebens, Decem- 
ber 8, 1974-February 2, 1975. Traveled to Staatliche Kunst- 
halle, Baden-Baden, February 14-April 13, 1975. Catalogue 
with texts by Jiirgen Harten, Schuldt, Bernhard Kerber, 
excerpt from earlier text by Andre Breton 

John Anthony Thwaites, "Diisseldorf," Art and 
Artists, vol. 10, no. 2, May 1975, pp. 44-45 

The Hayden Gallery, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Cambridge, Drawings by Five Abstract Expressionist 
Pamters: Arshile Gorky, Philip Guston, Franz Kline, Willem 
de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, February 21-March 26, 1975. 
Catalogue with text by Elia Kokkinen. Traveled in part to 
Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, January 10- 
February 29, 1976 

Kay Larson, "Boston — Identity Crises," Art News, 
vol. 74, no. 5, May 1975, pp. 66-73 

The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 34th 
Biennial of Contemporary American Painting, February 22- 
April 6, 1975. Catalogue with text by Roy Slade 

Benjamin Forgey, "Corcoran Show is Mostly Big," 
Washington Star News, February 21, 1975, pp. B1-B2 

'Whitney Museum of American Art: Downtown Branch, New 
York, Subjects of the Artist: New York Painting 1941-1947, 
April 22-May 28, 1975 

"Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, American 
Abstract Art, July 24-October 26, 1975 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Twen- 
tieth Century American Drawing: Three Avant-Garde 



139 



Generations, January 23-March 28, 1976. Catalogue with 
text by Diane Waldman. Traveled to: Staatliche Kunsthalle, 
Baden-Baden, May 27-July n, 1976; Kunsthalle, Bremen, 
July 18-August 29, 1976. Separate catalogue in German with 
text by Waldman. 

Thomas B. Hess, "Art: The Great Paper Chase," New 
York Magazine, February 16, 1976, pp. 74-75 

Malcolm Preston, "Art — Drawing Power," Newsday, 
February 26, 1976, pp. 8A-9A 

Harold Rosenberg, "The Art World: American Draw- 
ing and the Academy of the Erased de Kooning," The 
New Yorker, March 22, 1976, pp. 106-110 

The Art Institute of Chicago, Seventy-second American 
Exhibition, March 13-May 9, 1976. Catalogue with text by 
Anne Rorimer 

Heckscher Museum, Huntington, New York, Artists of 
Suffolk County: Part X Recorders of History, May 9-June 

20. 1976. Catalogue with text by Ruth B. Solomon 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., The Golden Door: Artist- 
Immigrants of America, 1876-1976, May 20-October 20, 
1976. Catalogue with texts by Daniel J. Boorsdn and 
Cynthia Jaffee McCabe 

Martha Duffy, "Rummaging the Warehouse," Time, 
June 28, 1976, p. 51 

Greenwich Arts Council, Connecticut, Sculpture 76: an 
outdoor exhibition of sculpture by fifteen living American 
artists, June i-October 31, 1976. Catalogue with text by 
Jacqueline Moss 

Contemporary Art Society of the Indianapolis Museum of 
Art, Painting and Sculpture Today 1976, June 8-July 18, 
1976. Catalogue 

The Seibu Museum of Art, Tokyo, Three Decades of Amer- 
ican Art Selected by the Whitney Museum, June 18-July 20, 
1976. Catalogue with text by Barbara Haskell 

Heckscher Museum, Huntington, New York, Heritage of 
Freedom: A Salute to America's Foreign-born Artists, July 4- 
August 29, 1976. Traveled to Montclair Art Museum, Sep- 
tember 12-October 31, 1976. Catalogue with text by Dorothy 
M. Kosinsky 

Guild Hall, East Hampton, New York, Artists and East 
Hampton: A 100-Year Perspective, August 14-October 3, 
1976. Catalogue with text by Phyllis Braff 

Allan Stone Gallery, New York, Masterpieces in Abstract 
Expressionism, October-November 1976 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Acquisi- 
tion Priorities: Aspects of Postwar Painting in America, 
October 15, 1976-January 16, 1977. Catalogue 

Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York, Twentieth Century Paint- 
ings and Sculpture: Matisse to de Kooning, March 29- April 

30. 1977. Catalogue 

The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England, Jubilation: 
American Art During the Reign of Elizabeth 11, May 10- 
June 18, 1977. Catalogue 



Museum Fridericianum, Orangerie, Kassel, Germany, docu- 
menta 6, June 24-October 2, 1977. Catalogue with texts by 
Klaus Honnef, Evelyn Weiss and Eberhard Freitag 

II. ONE-MAN EXHIBITIONS AND REVIEWS 

James Goodman Gallery, Buffalo, "Women," drawings by 
Willem de Kooning, January 10-25, J 9 6 4- Leaflet with text 
by Merle Goodman 

Allan Stone Gallery, New York, Willem de Kooning: retro- 
spective drawings 1936-1963, February 1-29, 1964. Catalogue 

D[onald] J[udd], "Willem de Kooning," Arts Maga- 
zine, vol. 38, no. 6, March 1964, pp. 62-63 

V[alerie] P[eterson], "Three more faces of Eve . . . 
Willem de Kooning," Art News, vol. 63, no. 1, March 
1964, pp. 30, 65 

Michael Fried, "New York Letter," Art International, 

vol. VII, no. 3, April 1964, p. 59 
Allan Stone Gallery, New York, De Kooning/ Cornell, Feb- 
ruary 20-March 18, 1965. Catalogue 

Vivien Raynor, "In the Galleries: Joseph Cornell, 
Willem de Kooning," Arts Magazine, vol. 39, no. 6, 
March 1965, p. 53 

Paul Kantor Gallery, Beverly Hills, Willem de Kooning, 
March 22-April 30, 1965. Catalogue with text by William 
Inge 

N[ancy] Mfarmer], "Los Angeles," Artforum, vol. Ill, 
no. 8, May 1965, pp. 12-13 

Nancy Marmer, "Los Angeles Letter," Art Interna- 
tional, vol. IX, no. 5, June 1965, pp. 40-41 

Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Massachu- 
setts, Willem de Kooning, April 8-May 2, 1965. Traveled to 
The Hayden Gallery, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Cambridge, May 10-June 16. Catalogue with text by Dore 
Ashton, reprint of earlier text by de Kooning 

Lucy Lippard, "Three Generations of Women: de 
Kooning's First Retrospective," Art International, vol. 
IX, no. 8, November 20, 1965, pp. 29-31 

Allan Stone Gallery, New York, De Kooning's Women, 
March 14-April 2, 1966. Catalogue 

D[iane] W[aldman], "Reviews and Previews," Art 
Neivs, vol. 65, no. 1, March 1966, p. 12 

Dennis Adrian, "New York," Artforum, vol. IV, no. 9, 
May 1966, pp. 49-50 

S. R. Bloch, "New York," Art and Artists, vol. 1, 
no. 2, May 1966, pp. 70-71 

R[ichard] S[wain], "In the Galleries," Arts Magazine, 
vol. 40, no. 7, May 1966, p. 62 

M. Knoedler &c Co., Inc., New York, De Kooning: Paintings 
and Drawings Since 1963, November 14-December 2, 1967. 
Catalogue published as Thomas B. Hess, De Kooning: 
Recent Paintings, New York, 1967 

Louis Finkelstein, "The Light of de Kooning," Art 
News, vol. 66, no. 7, November 1967, pp. 28-31, 70 



140 



Hilton Kramer, "De Kooning's Pompier Expression- 
ism," The New York Times, November 19, 1967, 
Section 2, p. 31 

"Art: Painting, De Kooning's Derring-Do," Time, 
November 17, 1967, pp. 88-89 

David L. Shirey, "Art: Don Quixote in Springs," 
Newsweek, November 20, 1967, pp. 80-81 

John Perreault, "Art: De Kooning's Teenyboppers," 
The Village Voice, November 23, 1967, p. 17 

Dore Ashton, "New York," Studio International, 
vol. 175, no. 896, January 1968, p. 39 
Rosalind Krauss, "The New de Koonings," Artforum, 
vol. VI, no. 5, January 1968, pp. 44-47 

M. Knoedler et Cie., Paris, De Kooning: peintures recentes, 
June 4-29, 1968. Catalogue with text by Thomas B. Hess, 
translations of earlier texts by de Kooning 

M. Conil Lacoste, "De Kooning a Paris," Le Monde, 

July 4, 1968, p. 15 

Pierre Cabanne, "De Kooning et les femmes," 
Combat, July 8, 1968, p. 10 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, organizer, Willem 
de Kooning. Traveled to: Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
September 19-November 17, 1968, catalogue with text by 
Thomas B. Hess, interview of de Kooning by Bert Schierbeek 
in Dutch and English, reprints of earlier texts by de Koon- 
ing; Tate Gallery, London, December 5, 1968-January 26, 
1969, separate catalogue with text by Hess; The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, March 6-April 27, 1969; The Art 
Institute of Chicago, May 17-July 6, 1969; Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, July 29-September 14, 1969, 
separate catalogue with text by Hess and reprints of earlier 
texts by de Kooning. 

C. Blok, "Willem de Kooning and Henry Moore," 
Art International, vol. XII, no. 10, December 1968, 
pp. 44-52 

Bryan Robertson, "De Kooning's Pink Angels," 
Spectator, London, December 6, 1968, p. 808 

David Sylvester, "Counter Currents: Willem de 
Kooning," New Society, London, vol. XXX, January 
1969, pp. 179-180 

Eddie Wolfram, "De Kooning's un-American Ac- 
tivities," Art and Artists, vol. 3, no. 10, January 1969, 
pp. 28-31 

Robert C. Kenedy, "London Letter," Art Inter- 
national, vol. XIII, no. 2, February 20, 1969, pp. 37-38 

Andrew Forge, "De Kooning in Retrospect," Art 
News, vol. 68, no. 1, March 1969, pp. 44-47, 61-62, 64 

Charlotte Lichtblau, "Willem de Kooning and Barnett 
Newman," Arts Magazine, vol. 43, no. 5, March 1969, 
pp. 28-33 

Hilton Kramer, "De Kooning Survey Opens At The 
Modern," The Neiv York Times, March 5, 1969, 
p. 38. Reply: Peter Selz, "Letter to the Editor," The 



New York Times, March 23, 1969, Section 2, p. 30 

Hilton Kramer, "A Career Divided," The New York 
Times, March 9, 1969, Section 2, p. 25 

Lawrence Alloway, "Art," The Nation, vol. 208, 
no. 12, March 24, 1969, pp. 380-381 

James R. Mellow, "On Art: A Passion for Destruc- 
tion," The New Leader, vol. 52, no. 6, March 31, 
1969, pp. 30-31 

Walter Darby Bannard, "Willem de Kooning's Retro- 
spective at the Museum of Modern Art," Artforum, 
vol. VII, no. 8, April 1969, pp. 42-49. Reply with 
rejoinder: Fairfield Porter, "Letters," Artforum, vol. 
VII, no. 10, Summer 1969, p. 4 

Dore Ashton, "New York Commentary," Studio 

International, vol. 177, no. 911, May 1969, pp. 243- 

245. Also reviews Knoedler exhibition, March 1969, 

below 

Barbara Rose, "Art: de Kooning and the old masters," 

Vogue, May 1969, p. 134 

Peter Schjeldahl, "New York Letter," Art Interna- 
tional, vol. XIII, no. 5, May 20, 1969 

M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York, De Kooning: January 
1968-Marcb 1969, March 4-22, 1969. Catalogue with text 
by Thomas B. Hess 

John Perreault, "The New de Koonings," Art News, 
vol. 68, no. 1, March 1969, pp. 48-49, 68-69 

Jerrold Lanes, "Current and Forthcoming shows: 
New York," The Burlington Magazine, vol. CXI, no. 
794, May 1969, p. 324 

Palazzo Ancaini, Spoleto, XII Festival dei Due Mondi, 

De Kooning: Desegni, June 28- July 13, 1969. Catalogue with 

text by Giovanni Carandente 

Powerhouse Gallery, University Art Museum, University of 
California, Berkeley, De Kooning: The Recent Work, August 
12-September 14, 1969 

Allan Stone Gallery, New York, Willem de Kooning: The 
40's & jo's, October 17-November 1, 1971 

Denise Green, "In the Galleries," Arts Magazine, vol. 
46, no. 2, November 1971, p. 63 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, Seven by de 
Kooning, December 23, 1971-April 1972 

Hilton Kramer, "Seven Large de Kooning Litho- 
graphs Are Shown," The New York Times, January 1, 
1972, p. 9 

Peter Schjeldahl, "Willem de Kooning: Even His 
'Wrong' Is Beautiful," The New York Times, Section 
2, January 9, 1972, p. 23 

The Baltimore Museum of Art, Willem de Kooning, Paint- 
ings, Scidpture and Works on Paper, August 8-September 24, 
1972 

Paul Richard, "A New de Kooning," The Washington 
Post, August 14, 1972, p. Bi 



141 



Benjamin Forgey,"De Kooning's Sculpture: Delightful 
Revelation," The Sunday Star and Daily News, Wash- 
ington, D.C., August 13, 1972, p. G 

Barbara Gold, "De Kooning's paintings in bronze," . 
The Baltimore Sun, August 20, 1972, p. D7 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, An Exhibition by de Koon- 
ing Introducing his Sculpture and Ncu' Paintings, October 
4-November 4, 1972. Catalogue 

Hilton Kramer, "Art: The Sculptures of Willem de 
Kooning Shown," The Neu> York Times, October 13, 
1972, p. 32 

Robert Hughes, "Slap and Twist," Time, October 23, 
1972, p. 71 

Laurie Anderson, "In the Galleries," Arts Magazine, 
vol. 47, no. 2, November 1972, p. 70 

Peter Schjeldahl, "De Kooning: Subtle Renewals," 
Art Neivs, vol. 71, no. 7, November 1972, pp. 21-23 

April Kingsley, "Reviews," Artforum, vol. XI, no. 4, 
December 1972, p. 81 

Carter Ratcliff, "New York Letter," Art International, 
vol. XVI, no. 10, December 1972, p. 56 

Allan Stone Gallery, New York, Willem de Kooning: 
Selected Works, October 17-November n, 1972 

Ellen Lubell, "In the Galleries," Arts Magazine, vol. 
47, no. 3, December 1972-January 1973, p. 84 

April Kingsley, "New York Letter," Art International, 
vol. XVII, no. 1, January 1973, pp. 65-66 

Fourcade, Droll Inc., New York, organizer, Lithographs 
19JO-19J2: Willem de Kooning. Traveled to: Art Gallery, 
University of Alabama, University (Tuscaloosa), March 4- 
April 15, 1974; The Amarillo Art Center, Texas, May 8- June 
23, 1974; Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego, July 13-Septem- 
ber 8, 1974; The Tucson Museum of Art, Arizona, October 1- 
November 17, 1974; The Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 
December 9, 1974-January 12, 1975; The Indianapolis Mu- 
seum of Art, January 27-March 9, 1975; The Joslyn Art 
Museum, Omaha, March 24-May 4, 1975; The Everson 
Museum of Art, Syracuse, May 19-June 24, 1975; The Geor- 
gia Museum of Art, Athens, September 8-October 19, 1975; 
The Grunewald Center for the Graphic Arts, University of 
California, Los Angeles, November n-December 14, 1975; 
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Decem- 
ber 29, 1975-February 8, 1976; The San Jose Museum of Art, 
February 23-April 4, 1976; The Krannert Art Museum, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Champaign, August 23-October 3, 1976; 
with additional works as De Kooning: Lithographs, Paint- 
ings and Sculpture to The University Art Museum, University 
of Texas at Austin, October 17-November 28, 1976; as 
Recent Works to Sarah Campbell Blaffer Gallery, University 
of Houston, January 14-February 28, 1977 

Adina Wingate, "Art Center Show has Perspective," 
The Arizona Daily Star, Tucson, October 13, 1974, 
p. 2E 

Henry J. Seldis, "Art Review: De Kooning, Gross 



Works Shown," Los Angeles Times, November 24, 

1975, Part IV, pp. 9, 17 

Mary Fox, "De Kooning: images in his shorthand," 
The Vancouver Sun, January 21, 1976, p. 43 

Janet Kutner, "Austin exhibit opens new vistas for 
student artists," Dallas Morning Neivs, October 31, 

1976, p. 6 C 

Charlotte Moser, "New De Koonings Bubble with 
youth," The Houston Chronicle, Zest Magazine, 
January 23, 1977, p. n 

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, De Kooning: draivingsl 
sculptures, March 10-April 21, 1974. Traveled to: National 
Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, June 7-July 21, 1974; The 
Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C., September 14- 
October 27, 1974; Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, 
December 3, 1974-January 19, 1975; The Museum of Fine 
Arts, Houston, February 21-April 6, 1975; Washington Uni- 
versity Gallery of Art, St. Louis, May 30-June 30, 1975. 
Catalogue with texts by Philip Larson and Peter Schjeldahl. 
Revised version of latter text in Art in America, March-April 
1974, see O n tne Artist, p. 147; in Norton Gallery, 
West Palm Beach, Florida, 1975, exhibition catalogue; 
translated in Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1976, exhibi- 
tion catalogue, see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 143 

Roy M. Close, "Books and the Arts: Sketches, Sculp- 
tures Illuminate de Kooning," The Minneapolis Star, 
March 14, 1974, P- 4 D 

"Drawings, Sculptures by de Kooning at Walker Art 
Center," Midwest Art, April 1974, p. 13 

Robert Hughes, "The Painter as Draftsman," Time, 
June 17, 1974* PP- 5^-54 

John Russell, "Art: Drawing Reborn in de Kooning's 
'Painted Women,' " The New York Times, September 

14, 1974, p. 24 

Benjamin Forgey, "De Kooning's Late Love and Our 
Good Luck," The Washington Star Neivs, September 

15, 1974, p. Fi,ff 

Paul Richard, "The Mixed Blessings of Willem de 
Kooning," Washington Post, September 17, 1974, 
pp. Bi.ff 

Galerie Biedermann, Munich, Willem de Kooning: Grafiken 
1970I ' 1971, September 26-November 9, 1974 

Richard Gray Gallery, Chicago, Willem de Kooning: 1941- 
1959, October 4-November 16, 1974. Catalogue with ex- 
cerpt from earlier text by Harold Rosenberg 

Franz Schulze, "Chicago: Reflections on de Kooning," 
Art News, vol. 73, no. 9, November 1974, pp. 46-47 

Pollock Gallery, Toronto, de Kooning: Major Paintings and 
Sculpture, October 15-November 15, 1974 

Kay Kritzwiser, "A week to focus on a Trio of 
Titans," The Globe and Mail, Toronto, October 19, 
1974, p. 30 

Barrie Hale, "Toronto: Willem de Kooning," arts- 



142 



Canada, vol. XXXI, no. 3-4, December 1974, pp. 
116-117 

Fourcade, Droll Inc., New York, De Kooning: New 
Works — Paintings and Sculpture, October 25-December 6, 
1975. Catalogue 

Hilton Kramer, "Painting at the Limits of Disorder," 
The New York Times, October 26, 1975, Section 2, 
p. 31 

Thomas B. Hess, "Water Babes," New York Maga- 
zine, October 27, 1975, pp. 73-75 

Jane Bell, "Willem de Kooning's New Work," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 50, no. 3, November 1975, pp. 79-81 

Gerrit Henry, "De Kooning: Reconfirming the apoca- 
lypse," Art News, vol. 74, no. 9, November 1975, 
pp. 60-61 

John Russell, "Art: 2 Shows and 2 Kinds of Land- 
scape— Nature in France; Human in de Kooning," 
The New York Times, November 1, 1975, p. 27 

David Bourdon, "Three Artists Draw on the Past," 
The Village Voice, November 10, 1975, p. 112 

Phyllis Braff, "From The Studio," The East Hampton 

Star, December 4, 1975, p. 10 
Galerie des Arts, Paris, De Kooning, October 29-November 
29, 1975. Catalogue with text by Sam Hunter. Reprinted in 
Cabinet des Estampes, Geneva, exhibition catalogue, 1977, 
see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 143; revised version in L'Oeil, 
November 1975, see On the Artist, p. 147 

Pierre Schneider, "De Kooning: Enfin une vraie Ex- 
position," L'Express, November 3-9, 1975, p. 24 

Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Matrix ij, December 
1975-January 1976. Leaflet with text by A[ndrea] M[iller]- 
Kfeller] 

Norton Gallery of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida, De Koon- 
ing: Paintings, Drawings, Sculpture 1967-197 •;, December 
10, 1975 -February 15, 1976. Catalogue with revised version 
of earlier text by Peter Schjeldahl 

Georgia Dupuis, "De Kooning — An Artist Reaching 
Out," The Palm Beach Post, December 13, 1975, p. Bi 

Griffin Smith, "Norton Offers Intriguing Look at de 
Kooning's Recent Work," The Miami Herald, Decem- 
ber 28, 1975, p. 271 

Seattle Art Museum, De Kooning: New Paintings and 
Sculpture, February 4-March 14, 1976. Catalogue 

R. M. Campbell, "Willem de Kooning and the 
European Tradition," Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb- 
ruary 15, 1976, p. G6 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Willem de Kooning: beelden 
en lithos, March 5-April r9, 1976. Catalogue with transla- 
tion of earlier text by Peter Schjeldahl and anonymous text. 
Traveled as Plastik-Grafik de Kooning to Wilhelm-Lehm- 
bruck Museum, Duisberg, January 18-February 27, 1977, 
catalogue in German; with additional works as Willem de 
Kooning: sculptures, lithographs, peintures to Cabinet des 



Estampes et d'Histoire, Geneva, March 17-April 24, 1977; 
Musee de Peinture et de Sculpture de Grenoble, June 23- 
September 20, 1977, separate catalogue with texts by Marie- 
Claude Beaud, Rainer Michael Mason, excerpts from earlier 
text by Sam Hunter, excerpt from earlier interviews with 
de Kooning. 

Hans Redeker, "De legendarische Willem de Koon- 
ing," NRC Handelsblad, March 12, 1976 

Jan Juffermans, "Willem de Kooning in het Stedelijk 
Museum," De Nieuwe Linie, March 17, 1976, p. 9 

Mathilde Visser, "Willem de Kooning," Het Financie- 
ecle Dagblad, March 19, 1976, p. 10 
Ferd op de Coul, "De plastiche wildgroei van Willem 
de Kooning," Eindhovens Dagblad, March 20, 1976, 
p. 31 

Fanny Kelk, "Willem de Kooning toont 'kneedsels 
emotie,' " Het Parool, March 26, 1976, p. r4 

Genevieve Breerette, "Les Sculptures de Willem de 
Kooning," Le Monde, August 24, 1977, p. n 

Collection d'art I/galerie, Amsterdam, Willem de Kooning, 
May i-July 1, 1976. Catalogue with text by Dolf Welling 

James Corcoran Gallery, Los Angeles, Willem de Kooning: 
Paintings, Drawings, Sculptures, May 20-June 26, 1976 

Henry J. Seldis and William Wilson, "Art Walk: A 
Critical Guide to the Galleries," Los Angeles Times, 
June 4, 1976, part IV, p. 6 

Judith S. Glass "Willem de Kooning," Art Week, 

July 3. 1976, p- 7 

Gimpel Fils, London, Willem de Kooning: Recent paintings, 
June 29-August 12, 1976. Catalogue 

Ian Jeffrey, "Willem de Kooning," Arts Review, 
London, vol. XXVIII, no. 14, July 9, 1976, p. 351 

John McEwen, "Art and Paradox," Spectator, July 31, 
1976, pp. 29-30 

James Burr, "Round the Galleries: Amorphous 
Forces," Apollo, new series, vol. CIV, no. 174, August 
1976, p. 140 

Bryan Robertson, "Art," Harper's and Queen, August 
1976, p. 6 

Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York, De Kooning: New 
Paintings — 1976, October 12-November 20; 1976. Catalogue 

John Russell, "Art: de Kooning's New Frontiers," 
The New York Times, October 15, 1976, p. 16 

Thomas B. Hess, "Art," New York Magazine, No- 
vember 1, 1976, p. 63 

April Kingsley, "De Kooning: 'The New Ones are 
Good Too,' " The Soho Weekly News, November n- 
17, 1976, pp. 18 ff 

Allen Ellenzweig, "Willem de Kooning," Arts Maga- 
zine, vol. 51, no. 4, December 1976, p. 29 

Judith Cardozo, "Willem de Kooning," Artforum, 
vol. XV, no. 5, January 1977, pp. 62-63 



143 



Carter Ratcliff, "Willem de Kooning at Xavier Four- 
cade," Art in America, vol. 65, no. 1, January/Febru- 
ary 1977. P- I2-9 
Galerie Daniel Templon, Paris, Willem de Kooning: pien- 
tares et sculptures recentes, September 17-October 29, 1977 

France Huset, "Made in U. S. A.," Le Nouvel observ- 
ateur, no. 671, August 19-September 2.5, 1977, pp. 
90-91 

United States Information Agency and Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C., organizers, Bel- 
grade Museum of Contemporary Art, Willem de Kooning: 
Paintings and Sculpture, October i-December 1, 1977. Will 
circulate widely. 

Collection d'art, Amsterdam, Willem de Kooning, October 
8-December n, 1977 

Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York, De Kooning: New Paint- 
ings 1977, October n-November 19, 1977 

The Arts Council of Great Britain, London, organizer, The 
Sculptures of de Kooning with Related Paintings, Drawings 
& Lithographs. Traveled to: The Scottish Art Council's Fruit 
Market Gallery, Edinburgh, October 15-November 12, 1977; 
Serpentine Gallery, London, November 26, 1977-January 8, 
1978. Catalogue with texts by David Sylvester and Andrew 
Forge, excerpts from earlier text by Harold Rosenberg 

James Corcoran Gallery, Los Angeles, Willem de Kooning: 
Recent Works, November n-December 5, 1977 

Visual Arts Museum, New York, Willem de Kooning: Draw- 
ings, November 15- December 9, 1977 



144 



Selected Bibliography 

This L'sting is primarily restricted to material published dur- 
ing de Kooning's years in East Hampton. 



I. GENERAL 

A. Books 

Harold Rosenberg, The Anxious Object: Art Today and Its 
Audience. New York, 1964, pp. 109-129 et passim. Reprints 
of earlier texts 

Maurice Tuchman, "Willem de Kooning," Peintres contem- 
porains, Bernard Dorival, ed., Paris, 1964, pp. 204-207 

Edwin Denby, "Willem de Kooning," Dancers, Buildings and 
People in the Streets, New York, 1965, pp. 267-2-6. Abridged 
version published as "My Friend de Kooning," Art News 
Annual, no. XXLX, 1963, pp. S2-99 

Henry Geldzahler, American Painting in the Twentieth Cen- 
tury, New York, 1965, passim. Includes excerpt from earlier 
text by de Kooning 

Max Kozloff, "The New American Painting," The New 
American Arts, Richard Kostelanetz, ed., New York, 1965, 
pp. 88-116 

Modern Art: From Fauvism to Abstract Expressionism, 
David Sylvester, ed., New York, 1965, pp. 75-77, 204-205 

Paul Cnmmings, A Dictionary of Contemporary American 
Artists, New York, 1966, p. 9S 

Edmund Burke Feldman, Art as Image and Idea, Englewood 
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1967, passim 

Brian O'Doherty, Object and Idea: An Art Critic's Journal, 
1961-67, New York, 1967, pp. S7-91, 99, 219. Reprints of 
earlier texts 

Barbara Rose, American Art Since 1900: A Critical History, 
New York, 196-, passim; revised and enlarged, New York 
and Washington, D.C., 1975 

H. H. Arnason, History of Modern Art, New York, 1968, 
p. 49S et passim; revised and enlarged, New York, 1977, 
pp. 522-523 et passim 

Max Kozloff, Renderings: Critical Essays on a Century of 
Modern Art, New York, 1968, passim. Reprints of earlier 
texts 

Edward Lucie-Smith, Late Modem: The Visual Arts Since 
194S, New York, 1969, pp. 40, 45, 48, 60, 86 224 

Harold Rosenberg, Artworks and Packages, New York, 
1969, pp. 157-170 et passim. Reprints of earlier texts 

William Rubin, Dada and Surrealist Art, New York, 1969, 
PP- 19. 393. 39+, 396. 4°7. 4°9, 446 

Barbara Rose, American Painting: The Twentieth Century, 
Geneva, 1970, passim 

Irving Sandler, The Triumph of American Painting: A His- 
tory of Abstract Expressionism, New York, 19-0, pp. 122-137 
et passim 

Art Since Mid-Century: The Neiv Internationalism, Green- 
wich, Connecticut, 1971, vol. 1, Abstract Art, with remarks 
on de Kooning by Werner Hafrmann, Lucy Lippard, Michel 
Ragon, Irving Sandler, passim; vol. 2, Figurative Art, with 
remarks on de Kooning by Mario Amaya, Jean Dypreau, 
Emile Langui, Wieland Schmied, passim 



145 



John Gruen, The Party's Over Now, New York, 1972, pp. 
206-226 et passim 

Sam Hunter, American Art of the Twentieth Century, New 
York, 1972, passim 

Harold Rosenberg, The De-Definition of Art, New York, 
1972, passim 

Martin Duberman, Black Mountain: An Exploration in 
Community, New York, 1973, pp. xi, 291, 293, 294, 296, 301- 
302,347,528,546 

The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Abram 
I.erner, ed., New York, 1974, with remarks on de Kooning 
by Milton W. Brown, Irving Sandler, Dore Ashton, pp. 501, 
502, 531, 532, 591, 681, 699, 727, 794, 971 



B. Periodicals 

William Rubin, "Arshile Gorky, Surrealism and the New 
American Painting," Arf International, vol. VII, no. 1, Febru- 
ary 25, 1963, pp. 27-38 

Richard Armstrong, "Abstract Expressionism Was an Ameri- 
can Revolution," Canadian Art, vol XXI, no. 5, September/ 
October 1964, pp. 262-265 

Sam Hunter, "Abstract Expressionism then — and now," 
Canadian Art, vol. XXI, no. 5, September/ October 1964, 
pp. 266-269 

W. A. L. Beeren, "Nieuw aspecten van het realisme," muse- 
umjoumaal, Otterlo, t. X, 1964-1965, pp. 70-81, French sum- 
mary, p. 84 

Artforum, vol. 4, no. 1, September 1965. Special New York 
School issue with articles: 

Lawrence Alloway, "The Biomorphic Forties," 
pp. 18-22 

Max Kozloff, "An Interview with Friedel Dzubas," 
pp. 49-52 

Barbara Rose, "The Second Generation," pp. 53-63 

Sidney Tillim, "The Figure and the Figurative in Ab- 
stract Expressionism," pp. 45-48 

Max Kozloff, "The Critical Reception of Abstract Expres- 
sionism," Arts Magazine, vol. 40, no. 2, December 1965, 
PP- 2-7-33 

William Rubin, "Toward a Critical Framework," Artforum, 
vol. V, no. 1, September 1966, pp. 36-55 

G. R. Swenson, "Peinture americaine 1946-1966," Au- 
jourd'hui, vol. 10, no. 55-56, January 1967, pp. 156-157. 
English summary [p. 3] 

Alan Bowness, "The American invasion and the British 
response," Studio International, vol. 173, no. 890, June 1967, 
pp. 285-293 

Harold Rosenberg, "The Art World: Art of Bad Conscience," 
The New Yorker, December 16, 1967, pp. 138, 140, 142-144, 
146, 148-149. Reprinted in Rosenberg, 1969, see General 
Books, p. 145 



Louis Finkelstein, "Gotham News," Art News Annual, no. 
XXXIV, 1968, pp. 114-122 

Darby Bannard, "Cubism, Abstract Expressionism, David 
Smith," Artforum, vol. VI, no. 8, April 1968, pp. 22-32 

Katharine Kuh, "The Fine Arts: Denials, Affirmations, and 
Art," Saturday Kevieiv, May 31, 1969, pp. 41-42 

Morton Feldman, "Give my regards to Eighth Street," Art in 
America, vol. 59, no. 2, March/April 1971, pp. 96-99. Reply: 
Clement Greenberg, "Letters: Mr. Greenberg revises," Art in 
America, vol. 59, no. 5, September/October 1971, p. 20 

Thomas B. Hess, "Pinup and Icon," Woman as Sex Object: 
Studies in Erotic Art 1750-1970, New York, 1972, pp. 222- 
237. Softcover edition published as Art News Annual, 
no. XXXVIII, 1972 

Charles Harrison, "Abstract Expressionism 1," Studio Inter- 
national, vol. 185, no. 951, January 1973, pp. 9-18 

Paul Laporte, "Turner to de Kooning; Non-Euclidean 
Geometry to Quantum Theory," Bulletin of the New York 
Public Library, vol. 79, no. 1, Autumn 1975, pp. 4-39 

Amy Goldin, "Abstract Expressionism: No Man's Land- 
scape," Art in America, vol. 64, no. 1, January/February 
1976, PP- 77-79 

Carter Ratcliff, "New York Letter," Art International, vol. 
XX, nos. 4-5, April/May 1976, pp. 51-56, 74 



II. ON THE ARTIST 

A. Monographs 

Thomas B. Hess, De Kooning: Recent Paintings, New York, 
1967. Published as catalogue for M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., 
New York, 1967, see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 140 

Gabriella Drudi, Willem de Kooning, Milan, 1972 

Thomas B. Hess, Draii'ings of Willem de Kooning, Green- 
wich, Connecticut, 1972 

Harold Rosenberg, De Kooning, New York, ca. 1974. Ex- 
cerpt reprinted in Richard Gray Gallery, Chicago, 1974, 
exhibition catalogue, see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 142 

B. Newspapers and Periodicals 

Harold Rosenberg, "The Art Galleries: 'Painting is a Way of 
Living'," The New Yorker, February 16, 1963, pp. 126-137. 
Reprinted in Rosenberg, 1964, see General Books, p. 145 

Hans Namuth, "Willem de Kooning, East Hampton, Spring 
1964," Location, vol. 1, no. 2, Summer 1964, pp. 27-34. 
Photographic essay 

Charlotte Willard, "In the Art Galleries," The New York 
Post, August 23, 1964, p. 44 

Harold Rosenberg, "De Kooning," Vogue, September 15, 
1964, pp. 146-149, 186-187. Reprinted in Rosenberg, 1964, 
see General Books, p. 145 



146 



George Dickerson, "The Strange Eye and Art of De Koon- 
ing," The Saturday Evening Post, November 2.1, 1964, 
pp. 68-71 

Max Kozloff, "The Impact of de Kooning," Arts Yearbook: 
New York, the Art World, no. 7, 1964, pp. 76-88 

Brian O'Doherty, "De Kooning: Grand Style," Newsweek, 
January 4, 1965, pp. 56-57. Reprinted in O'Doherty, Object 
and Idea, New York, 1967, see General Books, p. 145 

"Prisoner of the Seraglio," Time, February 26, 1965, pp. 74-75 

Thomas B. Hess, "De Kooning's new Women," Art News, 
vol. 64, no. 1, March 1965, pp. 36-3S, 63-65. Occasioned by 
Allan Stone Gallery, New York, 1964, and Paul Kantor Gal- 
lery, Beverly Hills, 1965 exhibitions, see One-Man Exhibi- 
tions, p. 140 

Milton Esterow, "Willem de Kooning Files Suit Against An 
Dealer," The Neu> York Times, March 31, 1965, p. 2.3 

"Cash Expressionism," Newsweek, April 12, 1965, p. <)6 

Grace Glueck, "Art Notes: A Tenth Street Loft in the 
Woods," The New York Times, July 2.5, 1965, Section 1, 
p. 11 

Gregory Battcock, "Willem de Kooning," Arts Magazine, 
vol. 42, no. 2, November 1967, pp. 34-37 

Peter Hutchinson, "De Kooning's Reasoned Abstracts," Art 
and Artists, vol. 3, no. 2, May 196S, pp. 24-27 

Brian O'Doherty, "Willem de Kooning: Fragmentary Notes 
Towards a Figure," Art International, vol. XII, no. 10, 
Christmas 1968, pp. 21-29. Revised version published in 
O'Doherty, American Masters: The Voice and the Myth, 
New York, 1973 

David Sylvester, "De Kooning's Women," The Sunday Times 
Magazine, London, December S, 1968, pp. 44-57 

Andrew Forge, "De Kooning's 'Women'," Studio Interna- 
tional, vol. 176, no. 906, December 1968, pp. 246-251. Occa- 
sioned by The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1968-69 
exhibition, see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 141 

"De Kooning's Year," Newsweek, March 10, 1969, pp. SS-93 

John Pet reault, "Art: De Kooning At The Springs," New 
York Magazine, March 17, 1969, pp. 44-47. Occasioned by 
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1968-69 exhibition, 
see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 141 

Nicolas Calas, "Venus: de Kooning and the Woman," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 43, no. 6, April 1969, p. 22 

Salvador Dali, "De Kooning's 300,000,000th birthday," Art 
Netvs, vol. 68, no. 2, April 1969, pp. 56-57, 62-63 

Charlotte Willard, "De Kooning: The Dutch-born U.S. 
Master gathers in the international honors," Look, May 27, 
1969, pp. 54-59 

R. H. Fuchs, "Willem de Kooning: the Quest for the grand 
style," Delta, 1. 13, no. 2, Spring 1970, pp. 29-44 

John Ashbery, "Willem de Kooning: A suite of new litho- 
graphs translates his famous brushstroke into black and 



white," Art News Annual: Painterly Painting, XXXVII, 1971, 
pp. 117-12.8 

Douglas Davis, "De Kooning on the LIpswing," Newsweek, 
September 4, 1972, pp. 70-73 

Stella Rosemarch, "De Kooning on Clay," Craft Horizons, 
vol. 32, no. 6, December 1972, pp. 34-35 

Giuseppi Marchiori, "De Kooning et l'Europe," XX e Siecle, 
nouvelle serie, XXXV e annee, no. 40, June 1973, pp. 110-115, 
English suramin', p. 189 

Peter Schjeldahl, "De Kooning's sculptures: Amplified 
Touch," Art in America, vol. 62, no. a, March/April 1974, 
pp. 59-63. Revised version of text for Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, 1974 exhibition catalogue, see One-Man 
Exhibitions, p. 142. Reply with rejoinder: Florence Hunter, 
"Letters," Art in America, vol. 62, no. 4, July/August 1974, 
p. 112 

Philip Larson, "Willem de Kooning: The Lithographs," 
Print Collector's Newsletter, vol. V, no. 1, March-April 1974, 
pp. 6-7 

"De Kooning Work Sold to Australia," The New York 
Times, September 28, 1974, p. 27 

Lawrence Alloway, "De Kooning: Criticism and Art His- 
tory," Artforum, vol. XIII, no. 5, January 1975, pp. 46-50. 
Occasioned by Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 1974, exhi- 
bition, see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 142 

Sam Hunter, "de Kooning," L'Oeil, no. 244, November 1975, 
pp. 74-75. Revised version of text for Galerie des Arts, Paris, 
1975 exhibition catalogue, see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 143 

Carter Ratcliff, "Willem de Kooning," Art International, 
vol. XIX, no. 10, December 20, 1975, pp. 14-19, 73. Occa- 
sioned by Fourcade, Droll Inc., Gallery, New York, 1975 
exhibition, see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 143 

Dore Ashton, "Willem de Kooning: Homo Faber," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 50, no. 5, January 1976, pp. 58-61 

Thomas B. Hess, "Four pictures by de Kooning at Canberra," 
Art and Australia, vol. 14, no. 3-4, January and April 1977, 
pp. 289-296 

Philippe Sollers, "Pour de Kooning," art press international, 
no. 11, October 1977. Occasioned by Galerie Daniel Temp- 
Ion, Paris, 1977 exhibition, see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 144 



C. Films and Television Tapes 

Paul Falkenberg and Hans Namuth, producers, Willem 
de Kooning: The Painter, c.1961 

Michael Gill for B.B.C., producer, de Kooning, Ten Modern 
Artists series, no. 10, 1964 

Lane Slate for N.E.T., producer, Willem de Kooning, USA 
Artists series, no. 10, 1966 

Paul Falkenberg, Richard Lanier and Hans Namuth, pro- 
ducers, De Kooni>ig at the Modern, 1969 



147 



III. BY THE ARTIST 

"The Renaissance and Order," trans/formation, vol. i, no. 2, 
1951, pp. 85-87. Reprinted in Smith College Museum of Art, 
Northampton, 1965 exhibition catalogue; translated in 
M. Knoedler & Cie., Paris, 1968 exhibition catalogue, see 
One-Man Exhibitions, p. 141 

"What Abstract Art Means to Me," Bulletin of The Museum 
of Modern Art, vol. 18, no. 3, Spring 1951, pp. 4-8. Reprinted 
in Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam exhibition catalogue, 1969, 
The Museum of Modern Art, New York exhibition cata- 
logue, 1969, see One-Man Exhibitions, p. 141 ; Rosenberg, 
c. 1974, see Monographs, p. 146; excerpts in Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, exhibition catalogue, 1965, see 
Group Exhibitions, p. 138; Geldzahler, 1965, see General 
Books, p. 145; Eric Protter, ed., Painters on Painting, New 
York, 1963, pp. 240-141, 248; Barbara Rose, ed., Readings in 
American Art Since 1900: A Documentary Survey, New York 
and Washington, D.C., 1968, pp. 153-154; Art now: New 
York, vol. 1, no. 3, March 1969, n. p. 

"Content is a Glimpse . . . ," Location, vol. 1, no. 1, Spring 
1963, pp. 45-53. Edited version of Sylvester interview, i960, 
see Interviews, p. 148; reprinted in The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, exhibition catalogue, 1969, see One-Man 
Exhibitions, p. 141; Rosenberg, c.1974, see Monographs, p. 
146 

De Kooning Draivings, New York, 1967, n. p. Facsimile 
reproductions and statement by the artist 

IV. INTERVIEWS 

David Sylvester, Painting as Self-Discovery, B. B. C. broad- 
cast, December 3, i960. Transcript published in David 
Sylvester, "De Kooning's Women," The Sunday Times Mag- 
azine, London, December 8, 1968, pp. 44-57; edited version 
published as "Content is a Glimpse . . . ," 1963, see By the 
Artist, p. 148 

James T. Valliere "De Kooning on Pollock," Partisan 
Review, vol. XXXIV, no. 4, Fall 1967, pp. 603-605 

Irving Sandler, "Willem de Kooning: Gesprek de Kooning's 
atelier, 16 juni 1959," museum journaal, serie 13, no. 6, 1968, 
pp. 285-190, English summary, p. 336 

Karlen Mooradian [Interview with de Kooning on Gorky], 
Ararat, vol. XII, no. 4, Fall 1971, pp. 48-52 

Harold Rosenberg, "Interview with Willem de Kooning," 
Art News, vol. 71, no. 5, September 1971, pp. 54-59. Re- 
printed in Rosenberg, c.1974, see Monographs, p. 146 

Margaret Staats and Lucas Matthiessen, "The Genetics of 
Art," Quest/ '77, vol. I, no. 1, March/April 1977, pp. 70-71 



148 







l-rii^Vt 



n 



■jP^ 





1/1 * 1^1 


itii^^^^^M 


in J k Oil 



Photographic Credits 



BLACK AND WHITE 

Daniel Budnik/Woodfin Camp & Associates, Inc.: 

pp. 6, 10, 149 

Courtesy The Art Institute of Chicago: p. 14 bottom 
Courtesy The Baltimore Museum of Art: cat. no. 75 
Geoffrey Clements, Inc.: pp. 18, 134 bottom 
Courtesy Coe Kerr Gallery, Inc., New York: p. 13 top 
Courtesy Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York: cat. nos. 18, 20, 
M. 47-51. 53, 59,68, 81-93 

Courtesy Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: cat. nos. 2, 6, 
pp. 22, 132 bottom 

Bruce C. Jones, Huntington, New York: cat. nos. 30, 31, 33, 
35, 36, 38, 41-43, 73, 78, 79, 94-97 

Courtesy M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York: cat. nos. 17, 
22, 61, 64, 67, 69, 71 

Martin Koeniges: pp. 2, 4-5 
Paulus Leeser: cat. nos. 9, 14, 74 

Robert E. Mates and Mary Donlon, New York: cat. nos. 70, 
72, 76, 77, 80; pp. 13 bottom, 17, 19, 23, 24 top, 131 top 

Courtesy Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: p. 133 
bottom 

Courtesy The Museum of Modern Art, New York: cat. nos. 
5,63,655 pp. 15,133 top 

Hans Namuth: p. 129 

Carl Paler/Broome Street Studio: p. 150 

Courtesy Philadelphia Museum of Art: p. 24 bottom 

Eric Pollitzer: pp. 16, 135 

Walter J. Russell: p. 134 top 

Speltdoorn, Photo d'art, Brussels: cat. no. 1 

Courtesy Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam: cat. nos. 13, 66 

Courtesy The Tate Gallery, London: cat. no. 11 

Courtesy Teheran Museum of Contemporary Art: p. 14 top 

Frank J. Thomas, Los Angeles: p. 131 bottom 

Malcolm Varon, New York: cat. no. 58 

Courtesy Weisman Collection of Art, Beverly Hills, 
California: p. 132 top 



COLOR 

Courtesy Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers: cat. no. 7 

Yvan Boulerice: cat. no. 16 

Courtesy Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York: cat. nos. 8, 23, 
26, 32, 46, 54 

Bruce C. Jones, Huntington, New York: cover, cat. nos. 25, 
2-8, 29, 34, 37, 39, 40, 44, 45, 52, 55, 56 



150 



Robert E. Mates and Mary Donlon, New York: cat. no. 4 

Hans Namuth: p. 1 

Courtesy David T. Owsley: cat. no. 10 

John Runco for Phototech, Buffalo: cat. no. 21 

Courtesy Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam: cat. no. 3 

Courtesy Allan Stone Gallery, New York: cat. no. 12 

Courtesy Philip T. Warren, Farmington Hills, Michigan: 
cat. no. 15 



EXHIBITION 78/1 

3,000 copies of this catalogue, 
designed by Malcolm Grear Designers, 
typeset by Dumar Typesetting, 
have been printed by Eastern Press, Inc. 
in February 1978 for the Trustees of 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 
on the occasion of the exhibition 
Willem de Kooning in East Hampton. 



151 



i