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HISTORICAL MAGAZINE ' 



Volume 2, Series 2 
1922 



EDITORS 
J. A. C. CHANDLER E. G. SWEM 




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President William and Mary Librarian William and Mary 
College College 



Published Quarterly by William and Mary College at 
Williamsburg, Va. 



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CONTENTS 



JANUARY, 1922. VOL. 2, No. 1. 

The Petersons, Claibornes and Harrisons, and some of their Con- 
nections. Edited by Clayton Torrence 1 

John Binns of Loudoun. By Rodney H. True 20 

William and Mary, the First American Law School. By Robert 

M. Hughes 40 

Origin of the Pegram Family in the United States, and History of 
the Same During the Eighteenth Century. By Henry Pegram, 

of the New York Bar 49 

James Boisseau. By Sterling Boisseau 71 

Genealogical Queries 72 

Lieutenant Spencer 73 

APRIL, 1922. VOL. 2, No. 2 

Remarks of R. W. Moore, upon George Johnston 75 

Colonel Tatham and other Virginia engineers. By A. J. Morrison 81 

Charlotte County, Va. By W. S. Morton 85 

Cuthbert Bullitt. By Inman Homer 89 

Will of William Parks, with note by L. C. Wroth 92 

Gifts to distinguished citizens, principally Virginians, authorized 

by the General Assembly, or Council of Virginia, 1780-1860.. 97 

William and Mary College in 1774 101 

Christ Church, Norfolk, bell and clock. By H. B. Bagnall and R. 

M. Hughes 114 

The McCarthy family. By A. L. Keith 119 

Bell-Jones-Lee note. By Trist Wood 133 

Taliaferro family. By W. B. McGroarty 134 

Gibbons family. By E. T. C 136 

Notes and queries Statham, Wood, Ballou, Shackleford, Lacock, 

Fox families 137 

Home manufactures in Virginia in 1791, Letters to Alexander 

Hamilton 139 

Letters of Henry Lee to Alexander Hamilton 147 

JULY, 1922. VOL. 2, No. 3 

Virginia Patents. A. J. Morrison 149 

Letters Written by Mr. Moray, a Minister to Sr. R. Moray, from 

Ware River in Mock-jack Bay, Virginia, February 1, 1665 157 

The Will of Joseph Pollard of King and Queen County, Virginia. 

By Mary Pollard Clarke 162 



iv CONTENTS 

McCarthy Family (continued). By Arthur Leslie Keith 162 

Wright Family. By Maggie McManaway 180 

Some Stafford Records 183 

Queries 184 

The Birth-Place of Bishop Madison. By Charles B. Kemper 185 

Letters of John Preston 187 

Col. Charles Lewis , 194 

Battle of Williamsburg, Va., May, 1862 195 

Roving Business. By A. J. Morrison 198 

Report of Executors of Estate of William Parks, the First Printer 

in Virginia 202 

William and Mary College 210 

Hampden-Sidney College : 211 

Petitions from Albemarle for Emission of Paper Money 213 

John Norton & Sons 217 

i 
OCTOBER, 1922. VOL. 2, No. 4 

Fredericksburg, Her People and Characters. By R. R. Howison . . . 221 
The Democratic Societies of 1793 and 1794 in Kentucky, Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia 239 

Letters of Robert Pleasants, Merchant at Curies, 1772 257 

James Macartney. By A. J. Morrison 276 

Queries 279 

Reviews of New Books 282 

Rev. John Lyon tried by a Court Martial in Accomack County, 

August 8, 1781. Contributed by Robt. B. Munford, Jr 285 

Inspection of Wheat 288 

Naval Office on the Potomac. ., . 292 



INDEX 



Abbott, Mr., 230, 231. 
Academicus, pseud., 101-113. 
Accomac Co., 51, 52, 124, 151, 152, 

284, 285-288. 
Acquia Creek, 129. 
Adam, James, 293. 

Robert, 293, 294, 295. 
Adams, , 147. 
Adams, John, 86, 176. 
Samuel, 177. 
Wesley, 30. 
William, 151. 
Addison, Works of, 76. 
Agriculture, history of in Va., 36. 
in Loudoun Co., 20-39. 
Albemarle Co., 137, 151,. 153, 154, 

155, 194, 213-216. 
Albemarle Parish, 136. 
Alburtis, Wm., 99. 
Alexander, Ann, 28. 

John, 29, 215. 
Robt., 183. 
Alexandria, 25, 31, 38, 75, 76, 82, 

151, 153, 288, 291, 292-295. 
Algebra, 43. 
Alien laws, 162. 
Allday, John, 85. 
Mary, 85. 

Alleghany mountains, 240, 244. 
Allen, Daniel, 73. 

John, 129, 215. 
Mary H., 73. 
Thomas, 122. 
William H., 97. 
Allison, Ann, 169. 

John, 169, 291. 
Ramsay, 293. 
Robert, 291. 
Allphin, John, 215. 
Alman, Mrs., 70. 
Almand Tavern, 228, 229. 
Almond, Edward, 87. 
Ambler, Richard, 205. 
Amelia Co., 4, 5, 136. 
American Museum, 44. 
Amherst Co., 8, 153. 
Andrews, Benjamin, 66. 
Robert, 46, 210. 
Annapolis, 94, 282. 
Apalachtan mountains, 240. 
Apple cutter, 155. 



Appomattox River, 16, 17, 50, 52, 

53, 57, 82. 
Apprentices, 55. 
Arbuckle, James, 288. 
Archer's Hope Creek, 51, 53. 
Archimedian screw, 153. 
Arell, Richard, 293. 
Samuel, 293. 
Arlington Co., 75. 
Armenian's magazine, 29. 
Armistead, William, 150. 
Arnold, Samuel, 151. 
Asbury, James, 180. 

N t ncy Wright, 180. 
Ashland, 223. 
Ashton, R. W., 291. 
Astronomy, 43. 
Atchison, Adam, 183. 
Athawes, Edward, 207. 
Atherold, Hannah, 128. 
Atherton, Daniel, 150. 
Atkinson, , 271. 

Roger, 11, 264, 269. 
Attakullah, 83. 
Atwell, Mary, 225. 
Augusta Co., 153, 155, 185, 186, 280. 
Austin, Elijah, 200. 

Emily M. B., 201. 
J. E. B., 199, 201. 
Mildred, 279. 
Moses, 199. 
Moses & Co., 199. 
Stephen, 199. 
Stephen F., 199, 201. 
Austinville, 201. 
Avera, Thomas, 145. 
Avery, Miss, 19. 

George D., 152. 
Axes, 274. 
Aylett, Philip, 169. 

William, 169. 
Babb, Elizabeth, 137. 
Backhouse, John, 217. 
Bacon Castle, 14. 
Bacon, Langston, 87. 
Badham, Lieut. Col., 196. 
Bagnall, H. B., 114-118. 
Bagwell, HIckerson, 145. 
Bailey Creek, 3. 
Bailey family, 280. 



vi INDEX 

Bailey, Absalom, 144. 

Ann, 280. 

Henry, 280. 

Roger Cock, 87. 

Simson, 176. 

William, 216. 
Baird, Absolem, 249. 
Baker, Col., 49. 

Daniel, 49. 

Mary S., 63. 

Mary Scott, 49. 

Wm., 291. 
Ball, Barton, 174. 

Frances Ravenscroft, 173. 
James, 174. 
Joseph, 128, 173. 
Mary, 128. 
Sarah, 128, 168. 
Sinah, 129. 
William, 128. 
Ballon, Leonard, 138. 

Rice Meredith, 138. 
Ballthrop, John, 153. 
Baltimore, 14. 

flour trade, 289, 290. 
Baly, John, 215. 
Baptists, 278. 
Barber, Ann, 128, 171, 172, 179. 

Charles, 172. 

Frances Glasscock, 172, 

179. 
Barbour, James, 100. 

Philip P., 43. 
Barclay, Thos., 291. 
Barge, Jacob, 25. 
Barilla, 150. 
Earley, 25, 158. 
Barnes, Abram, 131. 

Sarah, 131. 
Barrett, Rebecca, 69. 
Barren, James, 149, 152, 154. 
Barry, Mr. 258. 

Amelia, 169. 

William T., 43. 
Barterbrook, 185, 186. 
Barton, R. T., 51. 
Bason, Jacob, 137. 
Bassett, Anna Maria (Dandridge), 
8. 

Burwell, 8, 19, 171. 

Elizabeth, 19, 171. 

Elizabeth McCarty, 171. 

John, 7, 8. 

Bateman, Benjamin, 180. 
Susanna, 180. 
Bath, 57. 
Bath, N. C., 277. 
Bathing vessel, 151. 



Bathurst, Sir Edward, 16. 
Lancelot, 16. 
Lord, 6, 16. 
Susannah, 16, 17. 
Battaile, Mary (Thornton), 134. 
Batte family notes, 5. 
Batte, Frederick, 5. 
Henry, 3. 
John, 5. 
Martha, 5. 
Mary, 5. 
Robert, 5. 
Robert, Jr., 5. 

Batteaux on James river, 153. 
Batton, James, 183. 
Bayard, , 148. 
Bayley, Benjamin, 92. 

Robert, 124. 
Baylis, Robert, 175, 
Beale, Hannah, 128. 
Sarah, 128. 
Thomas, 128. 
Beatty, Andrew, 132. 
Margaret, 132. 
Winifred, 168. 
Beauchamp, David, 153. 
Bedford Co., 180, 181, 182, 279. 
Beef, 242. 
Beehives, 155. 
Belew, Peter, 215. 
Bell, Mr., 136. 

Ciscelia Fendall, 69. 
John, 133. 
Mary, 133. 
R. H., 98. 
Belles Lettres, 43. 
Bellfield, 98. 
Bellini, Charles, 46. 
Bells, Christ Church, 114-118. 
Benizet, Anthony, 266, 270. 
Bent, John, 215. 
Berkley, 11, 18, 19. 
Berkeley Co., 99. 
Bermuda Hundred, 53. 
Bernard, Benjamin B., 150. 
Berry, William, 215. 
Billington, Barbara, 119, 124. 
Carty, 125. 
Elitia, 124. 
Eliza, 124. 

Elizabeth, 119, 123, 175. 
Jane, 124. 
Luke, 119, 123, 124, 125, 

127. 

Mary, 124. 
Billstein, Nathan, 282. 



INDEX 



vii 



Binns, Ann, 29, 30. 

Anne Alexander, 30. 
Catharine Alexander, 30. 
Charles, Jr., 26, 27, 28, 29, 

30. 

Dewanner, 35, 36. 
family, 27. 

John Alexander, 20-39. 
Simon Alexander, 30. 
Susanna Pearson, 30. 
Thomas Neilson, 30, 35. 
Will?.am, 27, 36. 
William Alexander, 29, 30. 
Birchett, Jane, 68. 
Robt., 68. 

Bird, Francis Otway, 99. 
Bitterley, 94. 
Bixby collection, 81. 
Black, Si.muel, 216. 
Blackerby, James, 171. 
Blacklock, Eliza, 169. 
Blackstone's commentaries, 41, 42, 

47, 48. 

Blakeney, Gabriel, 249. 
Bland Co., 184. 
Bland, Richard, 76. 
Blandford, 53, 57, 72. 
Blount, Washer, 293. 
Board, John, 180. 
Board of public works, 81, 82. 
Boats, improvement in, 153. 

propelling, 150, 152. 
Bobbitt, William, 3. 
Bodley, Thomas, 243. 
Boisseau, Ada Cousins, 72. 

Erma Robinson, 72. 
James, 71, 72. 
Dr. James P., 72. 
James W., 72. 
John, 72. 
Preston, 72. 
Sally, 71. 
Sterling, 71, 72. 
Boiling's Point, 17, 57. 
Bolton, Amos, 150. 
Book trade, 149. 
Books, 36. 

Botetourt Co., 151, 191. 
Bott, Colo. John, 10. 

IViiss, 10. 
Bouldin, Thomas, 87. 

Wood, 88. 
Bowden, Wm., 184. 
Bowden & Farquhar, 205. 
Bowdoin, Presson, 184. 
Bowling Green, 164. 
Boye map, 81. 



Bozeley, Nancy, 177. 

Thomas, 169, 179. 
Bradford, David, 248, 249, 251. 

John, 251, 253. 
Braehead, 221. 
Brafford, Elizabeth, 85. 

John, 85. 
Brannan, , 173. 
Brayton, Patience, 259, 261, 262. 
Breckenridge, John, 41, 188, 189, 
243, 248, 253. 

Robt., 251. 

Brent, Benjamin, 183. 
Charles, 183. 
George, 183. 
John, 291. 
Richard, 34. 
Capt. William, 183. 
Brentsville, 89. 
Brewing, 157. 
Brian, John, 215. 
Brick apparatus, 150. 
Brick cornices, 151. 
Brickmaking, 152. 
Bricklayers, 62. 
Bricks, 155. 

Bridge water (battle), 98, 100. 
Bridges, frame, 151. 
Bridles, 151, 153, 155. 
Briggs, , 271. 

Nancy, 271. 

Bristol, merchants, 202, 204. 
Bristol Parish, 3, 4, 49, 52, 53, 54, 

59, 62, 63, 68, 72. 
Brit, Jno., 215. 
Briggs Point, 115. 
Brlget, James, 215. 
British debts, 213. 
Britt, Obadiah, 215. 
Broaddus, Edward, 216. 
Broadus, Rev. Andrew, 162. 
Brooke Co., 151. 
Brooke, George, 253. 

Geo. M., 98, 100. 

Robert, 187. 

Brookman, Samuel, 215. 
Brooks family, 184. 
Brooks, James, 215, 267. 

James Murphy, 184. 

Luella, 184. 

Mary, 184. 
Biown, Miss, 7. 

Brightberry, 151. 

Burrell, 2, 3. 

Edmund, 152. 

Geo. McAdam, 150. 

James, 239. 

Jeremiah, 2, 3. 



viii 



INDEX 



John, 41, 45, 215. 

Maria, 199. 

Saml. Montgomery, 291. 

W., 291. 

William Burnet, 7. 
Browne, Betty Carter, 8. 

Judith, 8. 

Browne family of Salem, Mass., 7. 
Bruce, P. A., 56. 
Brunson, David, 137. 

Elizabeth, 137. 
Brunswick Co., 2, 3, 4, 9, 16, 17, 

1*52 280 

Bruto'n Parish, 56, 59, 61, 162. 
Bryan, Benjamin, 60. 

Guy M., 201. 

James, 201. 

John T., 178. 
Bryant, John, 85. 

Milliner, 85. 
Buck-eye, 163. 
Buckley, Butler, 86. 
Buckner, John, 282. 

Capt. Mordecai, 86. 
Elizabeth, 16. 
Bullington, George, 124. 

Nicholas, 124. 
Robert, 124. 
Bullitt, Benjamin, 89. 

Cuthbert, 89-91, 131. 

Joseph, 89. 

Sarah, 89. 

Thomas, 89, 90. 
Bumpass, Diggs, 87. 
Burch, Joseph, 215. 

Samuel, 215. 
Burges, David, 215. 
Burgess, Philip, 169. 
Burke, Edmund, 79. 
Burnley, Elizabeth, 133. 
John, 214. 
Mary, 133. 
Zachary, 133. 
Burnett, Boling, 216. 

Joseph, 215. 

William, 7. 
Burns, Mary, 127. 
Burr, Aaron, 49, 63. 
Burton, Thomas, 285. 
Burwell, Miss, 130. 
Busby, Jos., 291. 

Wm., 291. 
Bush, George, 183. 
Bush river, 264, 266, 267, 269. 
Buster, Claudius, 215, 216. 

John, 215. 



Butler, Edward, 215. 

Jonathan, 281. 

Lawrence, 170. 

Sarah Morgan, 281. 
Butts, Augustine, 14. 
Daniel, 14. 

Daniel Claiborne, 14. 
Jobn, 14. 

Louisa, 14. 

Martha, 14. 
Mary Ann, 14. 
Mary Harrison, 14. 
Burials, registration of, 55. 
Buxton. James B., 115. 
Byrd, William, 138, 269. 
Cabell, John J., 151. 

N. F., 36, 37. 
Cadwallader, Gen., 100. 
Cage, Benj., 86. 
Cain, Daniel, 216. 
Caldwell, P., 253. 
Caldwell & Mease, 265. 
Calf skins, 270. 
Callahan, Griffin, 284. 
Campbell, Mr., 249, 251, 253. 
Jno., 256. 
Col., William, 97. 
Canal digging, 154. 
Candle making, 151. 
Canoes, 154. 
Capitol building, 56. 
Capon Bridge, 72. 
Carberry, Mary, 183. 
Carlyle, John, 293. 
Carmichael family, 233. 
Carmichael, James, 232, 233, 234, 

235, 237. 

Caroline Co., 151, 162, 16S, 164. 
Carr, William, 125. 
Carrington, Edward, 139-144. 
Carrollton, 111.. 66, 70. 
Carson, Hampton L,, 40-48. 
Carter, Ann, 18, 19, 171. 

Barnett, 215. 

Charles, 8, 19, 183. 

James, 170. 

Col. John, 83. 

Judith, 8. 

Lavinia, 173. 

Mary, 8. 

R. A., 293. 

Thos., 176, 203. 
Carty, Dennis, 123. 
Honora, 176. 
Gary, Robert, 202. 
Cash, Peter, 183. 
Casinove, , 148. 
Cate, Gyles, 124. 



INDEX 



IX 



Catocktin mountain, 27. 
Cattle, 159. 
Cawood, Sally, 169. 
Cawson's field, 52. 
Cedar Grove, 130. 
Cedar Lane, 71, 72. 
Chamberlayne, C. G., 4, 59. 
Thomas, 202. 
Chamre, William, 183. 
Champlain (Lake), battle, 98. 
Chancellorsvilie, 228. 
Chapin, Benjamin, 293. 

Gurdon, 291. 
Charlotte Co., 85-88, 150. 
Charlotte, N. C., 49, 67. 
Charles City Co., 16, 17, 51, 52, 54, 

57, 58, ol, 62. 
Charles river, 51, 52. 
Cbarlottesville, Va., 130. 
Chatham, 228. 
Chermeson, Joseph, 59. 
Cherokee Indians, 194? 
Cherokee Sketches, 83. 
Chesapeake Bay, 50. 
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, 82. 
Chescake river, 53. 
Chester Co., Penn., 37. 
Chesterfield Co.. .9. 10, 11, 17, 59, 

64. 

Chew, E., 135. 
Chicfcester, , 170. 

Daniel McCarty, 130. 
Doddridge Pitt, 129. 
Richard, 131. 
Sarah, 129, 130. 
Chickahominy river, 50. 
Childress, Benj., 85. 

Susan, 85. 
Chinn, Ann, 121, 131, 174. 

Bartholomew Carter, 174. 
Katherine, 175. 
Rawleigh, 174, 175. 
Chippewa (battle), 98. 
Chisel's Mines, 199. 
Chisholm, Elijah, 136, 137. 

James, 136. 

John, 136, 137. 

Lucy, 136. 

Miss, 136. 
Chiskiack, 52. 
Chisum, see Chisholm. 
Chiswell's Mines, 199. 
Chocolate, 270. 

Christ Church, Norfolk, 114-118. 
Christian, Francis, 175. 
Christian's Creek, 185, 186. 
Christy, Robert, 151. 
City Point, 11, 53. 



Clack, James, 11. 

Claiborne, Augustine, 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 

10, 14, 16, 18, 19. 
Bathurst, 6, 10, 16. 
Bernard, 6. 
Butler, 6, 8, 9. 
Cadwallader, 8. 
Charles, 14. 
Daniel, 14. 
Elizabeth, 1, 4, 15. 
Ferdinand L., 10. 
Frederick, 8. 
Gray, 8. 
Nathl., 10. 

Herbert, 6, 7, 8, 10, 18. 
John, 8. 

John Herbert, 6, 9, 11. 
Joseph, 215. 
Len, 6. 
Lucy, 8. 

Lucy Herbert, 15. 
Maria, 14. 
Martha, 14. 
Mary, 11, 14, 19. 
Mary Herbert, 1, 7, 15, 

16, 17. 

Mary Leigh, 10. 
Mary (Maury), 14. 
Mathew, 14. 
Matthew Murry, 14. 
Nancy, 14, 15. 
Richard Cook, 6, 9, 10. 
Sterling, 8. 
Susan, 14, 15. 
Thomas, 6, 9. 
W. P., 150. 
William, 6, 8, 10. 
Wm., C. C., 10. 
Clark, Edward, 124. 

Rich. Henry, 68. 
Thomas, 68. 
Wm. E., 68. 

Clarke, George Rogers, 163, 250. 
James, 152. 
Mary Pollard, 162-166. 
William, 215. 
Clarksburg, 151. 
Classics, 102 et seq. 
Clay, Henry, 199. 
Clay grinding machine, 152. 
Clayton, Betsy Lewis, 180. 
Decia, 180. 
John Lewis, 180. 
Thomas L., 180. 
Thomas T., 180. 
Clerk, Henry, 124. 
Cleve, 8. 



INDEX 



Cleveland, Jeremiah, 215. 

Oliver, 215. 

Clocks, Christ Church, 114-118. 
Cloth, manufacture of, 141-147. 
Clothing, 140. 

Clover, 25, 31, 35, 36, 37, 38. 
Clover Hill, 35. 
Clover seed, cleaner, 151. 

gathering, 151. 
Cluff, Matthew, 151. 
Coalfields near Richmond, 156. 
Coalter, Mrs. St. Geo., 228. 
Cobhs, Thos., 215. 
Coburn, Mr., 253. 

Jno., 253, 256. 
Cocke, Miss, 9. 

Augustine, 15. 

Herbert, 15. 

Colo. John, 15. 

John Ruffin, 15. 

Lucy, 15. 

Richd., 14, 15. 

Richd. Herbert, 14. 
Coffee, 158. 
Coffee pot, 257, 273. 
Coffman, James M., 184. 
Cogs, 155. 
Cole, John, 115. 
Coleburn, Robert, 285. 
Colechester, 131, 292. 
Coleman, Elizabeth Eppes, 64, 68. 
Martha, 70. 
Stanfield, 65. 
Williamson, 70. 
Coles, Wm., 215. 
Collier, Vines, 66. 
Collins, Bartlett, 248. 
ColumbJa-up-the- James, 84. 
Colvin, John B., 33. 
Combs, Amelia, 69. 

Mason, 183. 

Compass, universal, 154. 
Compton, Jesse, 216. 
Condensing tub, 151. 
Conic sections, 43. 
Conner, George, 215. 

Martin, 61. 

Constelation (ship), 192. 
Constitution (frigate), 97. 
Convention troops, 194. 
Conway, Capt, 135. 

Richard, 293. 
Robt., 295. 

Cooke, Philip St. George, 99. 
Cooper, James, 153, 155. 
Cople Parish, 126. 
Coppers, 157. 



Corbin, , 128. 

George, 285. 
Corks, 152. 

Corn, 25, 139, 140, 150, 151, 155. 
Corn sheller, 152. 
Cornwell, William, 151, 152. 
Cosby, Mark, 205, 208. 
Cotton, 140. 

Cotton manufacturing, 155, 156. 
Cotton packing, 152. 
Cotton seed oil, 153. 
Cotton spinner, 152. 
County courts, 54. 
County maps of Virginia, 82. 
Coupar, Robt., 291. 
Courts, 51, 53. 
Cousins, Martha Eliz., 72. 

Capt. W. H., 72. 
Covington, Va., 82. 
Cox family, 281. 
Cox, Hannah, 281. 

Jacob, 293. 

Martha, 138. 

Stephen, 138. 
Crab Orchard, Ky., 72. 
Craigie, 157. 
Cram, David, 151. 
Crane, W. M., 114. 
Craven, Francis, 216. 
Crawley, Nathaniel, 93. 
Criminal law, 47. 
Critcher, Thomas, 198. 
Crittenden, John J., 43. 
Crook, James, 177. 

Nancy McCarty, 177. 
Cropper, John, 285, 287. 
Crozier, Wm. Armstrong, 28, 30, 

181. 
Crumble, Geo., 268, 269, 270, 272, 

274. 

Crump, John, 235, 237. 
Crupper, Rich'd, 178. 
Crutchfield, , 137. 

Robert, 155. 

Crutchfield's Warehouse, 203. 
Cullen, Dr., 168. 
Culpeper minute men, 135. 
Culpeper Pres. church, 223. 
Culpeper C. H., 146. 
Culpeper Co., 150, 225, 227. 
Cumberland, Maryland, 36. 
Cumberland Co., 261, 274, 276. 
Curies, 257-275. 
Curlette, , 167. 
Currants, 156. 
Curwen families, 7. 



INDEX 



XI 



Custis, Daniel Parke, 202. 

Edmund, 288. 

Henry, 285. 

John, 285. 
Dabney, Col., 65. 

John, 209. 

William, 155. 
Dade, Frrncis, 131. 
Dakin, Thomas, 153. 
Dandrage, Miss, 6. 
Dandrage family, 6. 
Dandridge, Jane, 165. 
Daniel, Peter V., 91. 
Daniell, William, 124. 
Daniel's Branch, 89. 
Danville, Ky., 246. 
Darrell, Lieut. Sampson, 183. 
Davis, Capt, 198. 

Samuel, 291. 
Timothy, 258. 
William, 215. t 
Dawson, N. C., 153. 
Day, John, 215. 
Deane, Francis B., Jr., 155. 
Deaths, registration of, 55. 
De Bow's Review, 81. 
Decatur, Stephen, 97. 
Dedman, Nathl., 216. 

Samuel, 215. 
Deeds, recording of, 52. 
Degrees (college), 102 et sea. 
Delaplane, Va,, 167. 
Democratic societies, 239-256. 
Demopolis, Ala., 68 
Denbigh, 51, 52. 
Deneale. James. 150, 153. 
Derby, John, 286. 
Derrick, Benj., 183, 
Dettingen Parish, 178. 
Dew, Samuel, 154. 
Diamond Spring, 49, 63. 
Digges, Geo. P., 153. 
Diggs, Dudley, 61. 
Dinwiddie C. H., 63. 
Dinwiddie Co., 4, 8, 10, 14. 15, 16, 
49, 53, 57, 59. 62, 64, 65, 66, 68, 
70, 71, 72. 115. 
Diskin, John, 176, 178. 
Dismal Swamp Canal, 82. 
Distilling, 149, 150, 157. 
Ditchley, 133. 
Dix, John. 285. 
Doak, Samuel, 279. 
Dobson, T., 44. 48. 
Dodwheeler. Benj., 215. 
Dolen, Solomon. 215. 
Donald, S. M., 186. 
Donaldson, Robert, 290. 



Door frames, 152. 
Dough kneading machines, 152. 
Douglass, Daniel, 291. 
Gray, 291. 
Dow & Mclvor, 293. 
Downing, William, 183. 
Downman, Elizabeth, 172. 
Downs, Henry, 185. 
Draper collection, 250. 
Drinker & James, 271. 
Driskall, Darby, 123, 124. 
Duane, William, 100. 
Ducachet, J. H., 115. 
Dudley, Ambrose, 150. 
Duels, 90, 187, 227. 
Dugget, Capt. Richard, 86. 
Duke of York (ship), 159. 
Dumfries, 91. 149, 150, 153, 223, 

253, 292. 

Dungan, David, 150. 
Dungeness, 19. 
Dunlap, John, 291. 
Dunmore, Lord, 194. 
Durham & Pleasant's machine. 149. 
Eades, John, 215. 
Early, Capt., 196. 

Ruth H., 195. 
Easterly, George, 150. 
Easton, Md., 90. 
Eaves, Thomas, 183. 
Eckhart, Mr., 265. 
Ecoff, John, 152. 
Edgar, Sally, 180. 
Edgefield, 65- 
Ertmons-on, James, 175. 
Edmundberry, 162. 
Education in Va., 101-113, 210-212. 
Education of orphans, 55. 
Edwins, Sarah Jane. 70. 
Electricity, 43. 

Elevator for grain or fluids, 151. 
Elizabeth, N. J., 69. 
Elizabeth City Co., 51, 52, 58, 152 
Elizabeth river, 50. 
Elizabeth River Parish, 117. 
Ellis, Bartlet, 215. 

Charles, 183. 

Robr., 2. 
Elmwood, 228. 
Elsdon, Thos., 269. 
Elsing Green, 7. 
Elson-Green, 7. 
Eltham, 8. 

Engineers in Virginia, 81-84. 
Epes, B. J., 71. 

Colo. Peter, 4. 

Sarah, 4. 



Xll 



INDEX 



Eppes, Anne, 136. 
John, 2, 3. 
Mary, 136. 
Epping Forest, 173. 
Erie, Fort (battle), 98. 
Eskridge, Capt., 127. 

George, 125, 126, 178. 
Essex Cc , 151. 
Esten, Howard, 217, 218. 
Euclid, 43. 

Evans, Angelina Elizabeth, 181. 
Anthony, 181. 
David, 153. 
Evard, Thos., 93. 
Everard, Thos., 208, 209. 
Evergreen, 19. 
Ewell, Bertrand, 121, 178, 179. 

Maxey, 215. 
Ewing, Mr., 109. 
Ezell, Anne, 136. 

Fairfax Co., 25, 27, 30, 75-84, 129, 
130, 131, 138, 150, 151, 163, 164, 
168, 169, 170, 174, 177, 178, 179, 
288, 293, 294, 295, 
Fairfax Court House, 75. 
Fall Hill, 134. 
Falmouth, 223, 234, 235. 
Fan riddles, 274. 
Fan, wheat, 151. 
Farmington, 8. 
Farnham Parish, 120, 124, 127, 171, 

172, 175. 

Farquhar, , 205. 
Fauntleroy, Thomas T., 99. 
Fauquier, Francis, 79. 
Fauqv'er Co., 89, 91, 150, 151, 155, 

175, 176, 177, 179. 
Fayette Co., Ky., 248, 253. 
Federalists, 190. 
Ferguson. Bryant, 88. 
John, 216. 
Patrick, 60. 
Ferry Chapel, 53. 
Fickenson, William, 215. 
Field, Robert, 216. 
Fincastle Co., 151. 
Finch, Adam, 87. 
Fireproof ceiling, 151. 
Fisher, Redwood, 155, 156. 
Fitzgerald, Garrett, 137. 
John, 3. 291. 
Molly, 137. 
William, 136. 
Fitzgerald & Peers, 293. 
Fitzhugh, Mrs. Ann, 12E. 

Mrs. Ann Barbara, 127, 

128. 
Elizabeth, 128. 



Henry, 127, 128. 
.John, 127, 128. 
William, 125. 
Fitzpatrick, Thos., 293. 
Five Forks, 71. 
Flat Rock, 71. 

Flax, 29, 140, 141, 150, 155. 
Flax seed, 274. 
Fleming, Capt. Thomas, 86. 
Fletcher, W. G. D., 95, 96. 
Flour, 156, 242, 260, 270, 288-291. 
Flower dieu Hundred, 198. 
Fly killer, 155. 
Force, Peter, 83. 
Ford, W. C., 81. 
Fossaker, Richard, 183. 
Fothergill, S., 273. 
Fouls, M.*., 158. 
Fowler, Mathew, 145. 

Wm., 145. 
Fox, Miss, 168. 

Ann, 6. 

Ann Elvira, 138. 

Charles, 168. 

Nathaniel, 145. 
Fox Branch, 2. 
Fox Forest, 138. 
France, 254, 255. 
Frank, Graham, 93. 
Franklin, Benjamin, 77, 94. 
Franklin lightning rod, 29. 
Frederick Co., 77, 151, 287. 
Frederick (town), Md., 27, 33. 
Fredericksburg, 151, 221-238. 
Fredericksville Parish, 154. 
French, Mary, 132. 
French's Store, 276. 
Friends, Society of, 257-275. 
Fritts, Christian, 275. 
Frogghole Mill, 3. 
Fruit trees, 159. 
Fuqua, Joseph, 87. 
Fuller, Jacob, 152. 
Furniture,, 272. 
Gaines, Betsy, 135. 

Edmund Pendleton, 98, 100. 
Richard, 87. 
Gallego Mills, 149, 156. 
Garber, Michael, Sr., 150. 
Garden, James, 276. 
Garland, Edward, 209. 
Frances, 137. 
J., 99. 
John, 92. 

Garret, Elijah, 285. 
Gaston county, N. C., 63. 
Gee, Richard Henry, 41. 



INDEX 



xin 



Gentry, Benj., 216. 
David, 215. 
Martin, 215. 
Moses, 215. 

Georgetown, D. C., 82. 
Geography, 43. 
Germantown, Pa., 118. 
Gest, Capt. Nathaniel, 87. 
Gibb, William, 286, 287. 
Gibbons, Anne, 136. 

Edmund, 136, 137. 
Elijah, 136. 
Eliss, 136. 
Elizabeth, 136. 
Epps, 136. 
James, 136. 
John, 136. 
Laurence, 136. 
Mary, 136. 
Rebecca, 136. 
Salley, 136. 
Thomas, 13$ 137. 
William, 136. 
Gibson, Rachel, 135. 
Gifts to distinguished Virginians, 

97-100. 
Gilbert, Capt, 257, 259, 265, 267. 

Win., 136. 
Giles, W. B., 100. 
Gilkesou family, 185, 186. 
Gillenwater, Joel, 136. 
Gilliam, Dr. J. P., 71. 
Gillington, Ellener, 136. 
Nicholas, 136. 
Gillom, John, 215, 216. 
Gilpln, John, 127. 
Given, John, 216. 
Glasgow, 206. 

Glasscock, Ann Nichols, 172. 
Margaret, 179. 
Thomas, 172, 179. 
William, 174, 175. 
Glendening, Andrew, 155. 
Gloucester Co., 53, 218. 
Goldsmith, works of, 76. 
Gooch, Jese, 215. 

Phillip, 216. 
William, 215. 

Goochland Co., 98, 163, 104, 165, 

166. 

Goochland C. H., 138. 
Goodman, Horsley, 216. 
Goodwin, W. A. R., 56, 59. 
Goodwyn, Martha, 65. 

Col. Peterson, 4. 

Goose Creek, 32, 121, 129, 131, 132. 
Gooseberries, 157. 



Gordon, Alex., 291. 

Bazil, 222, 223. 
Joseph, 129. 
Samuel, 222, 223. 
Mrs. Samuel, 224. 
Gore, John, 124. 
Grady, Joshua, 215. 
Graham, Geo., 252. 

Mary Elizabeth, 222. 
Samuel Lyle, 222. 
Grain, 149, 150, 151. 
Grammar, John, 115. 
Grammer family, 15. 
Grammer, Mrs., 17. 
Granning, Anthony, 215. 
Granville county, 277, 278. 
Granville parish, 276. 278. 
Grass, 25, 32. 
Grayson, , 148. 

Mary Sayers, 130. 
William, 214. 
Great Britain, 252. 
Green, John, Sr., 152. 
Greene, Nathaniel, 97. 
Greenbriar Co.. 155, 190. 
Greenhill, Philip, 70. 
Greenwood, John, 262. 
Gregg, Thomas, 183. 
Gregory, Elizabeth, 134. 

Major Francis, 65. 
Frances, 134. 
Herbert. 4. 
Jemmie, 234. 
Martha Ward, 64, 68. 
Mary, 9. 
Mildred, 134. 
Richard, 9, 64. 
Roger, 9. 
Griffin, Wm., 86. 
Grigsby, Hugh Blair, 89-91. 
Guerrirre (frigate), 97. 
Guillen tine, see Gillington. 
Gun, Capt. James, 86, 87. 
Guns, 151, 152, 153. 
Gustin, Martha Bowden, 138. 

Mrs. W. S., 184. 
Gwinn, Benjamin, 291. 
Gypsum, 20-39. 
Hairston, Lieut. Col., 196. 
Halifax county, Va., 15. 
Hall, John, 215. 

William, 137. 
Halley, Wm., 291. 
Hallock, James, 275. 

John, 264, 275. 
Pheby, 275. 

Hambleton, Thomas, 180. 
Hamburg, John, 205. 



XIV 



INDEX 



Hamilton, Alexander, 139-144, 147. 
Hampcien-Sidney College, 211-212, 

276. 

Hampshire Co., 72. 
Hampton, 52. 115, 149, 152. 
Hams, 258. 
Hannah, Andrew, 87. 
Hanover Co., 8, 69, 92, 137, 163, 

204. 206, 208. 

Hanover C. H., 203, 206. 207. 
Hansford. Stephen, 176. 
Hardaway, Mary Simmons, 64. 
William. 70. 
Nancy, 63. 67. 
Hardeman Co., Tenn,. 136. 
Harding, William H., 30, 34. 
Hardwick, Sukey, 176, 178, 179. 
Hare, Charles Willing, 48. 
Harfield, Matthew, 62. 
Harlow, Nathan, 216. 
Thomas, 215. 
Harmer, 202, 203, 206. 
Harper, John. 291, 293. 
Joseph, 293. 
Robert, 293. 
William, 150. 

Harper's Ferry, 151, 152, 153. 
Harrington, Daniel, 151. 
Harris, Benj. James, 151. 
James, 215. 
John, 215. 

Harrison family, 19. 
Harrison, Ann, 19. 

Augustine, 12. 

Benj., 11, 16, 18, 19, 46, 

90. 

Benj. Henry, 12. 
Betsey, 19. 
Carter, 19. 
Charles, 1, 11, 12, 14, 18, 

19. 

Elizabeth Randolph, 14. 
Henry, 19. 
Mary, 14. 
Mary H. (C), 1. 
Mary Herbert, 12. 
Nathl., 19. 
Robt., 19. 
widow, 261, 264. 
Harrison and Hooe, 293. 
Harrisonburg, 155. 
Harrop Parish, 53, 55, 59. 
Harry, Peter, 155. 
Hart, Col. Thomas, 199. 

Webb, 152. 
Hartfield, 60. 

Hartshorne, William, 291, 293. 
Harvey, John, 183, 276. 



Harwood, William, 150. 

Hats, 153. 

Hawkins, Elizabeth, 125. 

Richard, 125. 

William M., 151. 
Hawkins Co., Tenri., 136. 
Haw,ie, Mrs., 145. 
Haxall Mills, 156. 
Hayden, H. E., 49, 119, 120, 127, 

131, 172, 173, 281. 
Hayes, James, 215. 
Raymond, William, 281. 
Hazlewood, 163. 
Heaton, Mr., 85. 

Anne, 85. 

Heavin, John, 149, 150, 151. 
Hedgman, Peter, 183. 
Hedric cottage, 283, 284. 
Hemp, 140, 141, 150, 155, 242. 
Henderson, Richard, 248. 
Hendricks, James, 291. 
Henings Statutes, 4, 51, 52, 53, 54, 

56, 67. 

Henley, Robert, 98, 100. 
Hennings, Lawrence, 125. 
Henrico Co., 52, 54, 58, 124, 149, 

150, 152, 264, 274. 
Henry, Patrick, 77, 78, 79, 80, 163, 

187, 194. 
Samuel, 87. 
Henshaw, Melissa, 70. 
Hepburn, Wm., 291. 
Herbert family, 15. 
Herbert, Lord, 15. 

Buller, 15, 16. 

John, 15, 16. 

Mary, 1, 6, 15, 16. 

Mary (Stith), 16, 17. 

Win., 291, 293. 
Hereford, John, 129. 
Herndon, William Lewis, 99. 
Hessian fly, 34. 
Hickman, John, 291. 

Wm., 291. 
Higgins, Christine, 128, 169. 

Penelope, 128, 169. 
Hill, Charles, 151. 
D. H., 195, 196. 
Capt. Geo., 203. 
John, 122. 
Martha, 174. 
Hinton, Samuel, 67. 
Hodgson, William, 150. 
Hoes, 274. 

Hoge, William, 249. 
Hogs, 159. 
Hoke, Col., 195. 
Holden, , 274. 



INDEX 



xv 



Holds,worth, Charles, 59. 
Hollins, John, 145. 
Holloway, Floyd, 93. 

Geo., 87. 

James, 87. 

Holmes, Andrew Hunter, 98, 100. 
Home manufactures, 139-148. 
Hominy, 258. 
Hone, metallic, 150. 
Hooe & Harrison, 293. 
Hoomes, Priscilla, 164. 
Hopkins, John, 181. 
Price, 181. 
Hord, Thomas, 151. 
Horn, G. K., 282. 
Homer, Gustavus B., 90. 
Inman, 89-91. 
William, 90. 
Horses, 261, 269, 272. 
House of Burgesses, 77. 
Houston, Esther, 279. 

John, 150. 

Houston Co., Ga., 135. 
Howard, James, 145. 
Samuel, 145. 
William, 136, 137. 
Howison family, 221. 
Howison, Anne, 221, 225, 228. 

Edward Moore, 222. 

Elizabeth, 221. 

Helen Judith, 222. 

Helen Mary, 221. 

James, 222, 225. 

Jane Briggs, 221. 

John, 221. 

Margaret Morton, 222. 

Marion Sterling, 222. 

Mary, 222. 

Mary Graham, 222. 

Nannie Watkins, 222. 

Neil MacDonald, 221. 

Robert Reid, 221-238. 

Samuel, 221. 

Samuel Graham, 222. 

Samuel Scott, 222, 232. 

William, 221. 

Hubbarj, Epaphroditus, 175. 
Hudson, Chas., 215. 
Hugnes, Agnes, 176. 

Blackmore, 204. 
James, 176, 239. 
Robert M., 40-48, 114-118. 
Hulet, Rebecca, 61. 
Hull, 24. 

Humes, John, 151, 154. 
Humphrey, Dnvid. 216. 
Humphreys, William, 215. 
Hundreds, 51. 



Hunt, Mr., 261, 265. 
George, 171. 
William, 61. 
Hunt & Waterman, 203. 
Hunter family, 279. 
Hunter, Andrew, 279. 

Francis, 180. 

Gao., 279, 291. 

James G., 247. 

Jane, 180. 

Col. John, 207. 

Stephen, 279. 

Wm., 205, 207, 291, 293. 
Hunting Creek, 76. 
Hunton, Eppa, 89. 
Hurkamp, Park, 236. 
Hutcheson, David, 87. 
Hydrostatics, 43. 
Hylton, John, 264. 
Immigrants, list of, 51. 
Indian affairs, 188. 
Ingram, T. B., 167. 
Internal improvements of Va., 82. 
Inventors in Va., 149. 
Iredell, James, 40, 44. 
Iron, 274. 
Iron ore, 141. 

Irons, for heating liquors, 157. 
Irvine, William, 248. 
Isham, Nancy, 137. 
Isle of Wight Co., 2, 3, 52, 58. 
Izard, Ralph, 42. 
Jamaica spirits, 270. 
James, Captain, 15H. 
James & Drinker, 271. 
James City Co., 50, 51, 52, 53, 58, 

181. 

James river, 18, 50, 51, 52, 54. 
James river and Kanawha canal, 

82. 

James river and Kanawha road, 82. 
James river navigation, Io3-154. 
Jameson, David, 203. 

Wm.. 87, 88. 
Jamestown, 50, 282. 
Jamison, Andrew, 291. 
Janney, Dr. Daniel, 36, 37, 38. 

Israel, 37, 38, 39. 

John. 37. 

Jarvis, Tom. 182. 
Jay, John. 252. 
Jeane, Betty, 85. 

Elizabeth, 85. 
Robt, 85. 

Jefferson Co., 151, 154. 
Jefferson, Thomas. 20. 21, 22, 23, 
5, 26, 34, 39. 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 
46. 78, 81. 82, 101, 153, 154, 162. 



XVI 



INDEX 



Jefferson's notes on Va., 47. 
Jenito Creek. 2. 
Jennings, Robert, 87, 209. 
Samuel K., 151. 
Jett, Margaret, 169. 
Joggins, James, 86 
Johns, Esther Ballou, 138. 
Johnson, Mr., 253. 
Johnson family, 280. 
Johnson, Caleb, 150. 

Elizabeth, 165. 
Joseph, 138. 
Marmaduke, 280. 
Virginia, 68. 
William, 215. 
Col. Wm. Ransom, 68. 
Johnston, Mr., 223. 
Anne, 138. 
Christopher, 16. 
George, 75-80, 131, 168. 
Joseph, 138. 
Robert, 248, 251, 256. 
Sarah, 131. 
Jones, Augustine, 15. 
Elizabeth, 133. 
Fredk., 8, 15. 
Griffin, 183. 
John, 62, 133, 215. 
Genl. Jos., 8. 
Leanna, 133. 
Capt. M. C., 197. 
Martha, 8, 138. 
Mary, 15. 
Paul, 223. 
Philip, 10. 
S., 94. 
Swan, 133. 
William, 133, 228. 
Jordan, John, 152. 
Jouett, Capt. John, 97. 
Joynes, Levin, 287, 288. 
Kanawa Co., 152, 190. 
Karsner, Benj. H., 167. 

George Washington, 167. 
Robert, 167. 
Reach, Mrs., 133. 
Keeling, Adam, 122. 
Keith, Arthur Leslie, 119-132, 167, 

179. 

Jas., 290. 

Kelly, Edmund, 183. 
Kemper, Charles E., 185, 186. 
Kenmore, 222, 223, 224, 228. 
Kennawer river, 90. 
Kennedy, James, 291. 
Kenner, Rodham, 125. 
Kenney, Wm., 215. 
Kent, 22. 



Kent Island, 52. 

Kentucky, 29, 81, 189, 239-256. 

Kentucky Land, 182. 

Keogh, Patrick, 129. 

Kerr, Jsmes, 216. 

Kettle, 165. 

Kindred, Bartolomeh, 215. 

King, Andrew, 85. 

John, 144. 

Mary Hammond, 85. 

Miles, 114. 

King and Queen Co., 151, 162-166. 
King George Co., 8, 169, 170, 281. 
King William Co., 6, 7, 11, 102, 139, 

145, 150. 
Kingsville, 276. 
Kinsolving, James, 215. 
Kirk, William, 183. 
Kirkaldbright, 222. 
Kiskyake, 53. 
Klavans, J., 118. 
Knight, William, 183. 
Kullah, 83. 
Lacey, Israel, 34. 
Lachaise, August, 250, 253, 254. 
Lacock, Abner, 138. 
Lacy, Benj., 216. 

jLmes Horace, 228. 
Lancaster Co., 53, 119, 127, 170, 172, 

173, 174, 175. 

Land clearing machine, 153. 
Land patents, 54. 
Landrum, Mark, 70. 
Lanford, West, 215. 
Langford, Robert, 216. 

Wm., 216. 
Langly, , 271. 
Languages, ancient, 43. 
Lanier, Robert, 65. 
Lannsman, James, 293. 
Laporte, Peter, 149, 153, 155. 
Larmer, Harry, 204. 
Latta, Mrs. Jennie Park, 72. 
Lauderdale, 161. 
Laurane, Richard, 86. 
Laurel Branch, 64. 
Law rnd Police, professorship, 40. 
Law of nations, 43. 
Law schools in U. S., 40-48. 
Law, study of, in Va., 101. 
Lawns Creek, 32. 
LawraFon, James, 291. 
Lawrence (ship), 97. 
Laws of Va., Hunter to complete, 

208. 

Lawson, M., 129. 
Lawson McGhee library, 283. 
Layne, Robert, 216. 



INDEX 



xvii 



Lead, 141, 199, 200. 
Leather breeches, 274. 
Lee, Miss, 130. 
Anna, 127. 
Arthur, 41. 
Charles, 133. 
Elizabeth, 133. 
Francis, 127. 
George, 169. 
Geo. H., 291. 
Hancock, 133. 

Henry, 127, 147, 148, 171, 178. 
Leanna, 133. 
Lettuce Corbin, 125. 
Ludwell, 41. 
Philip, 127. 
Richard, 125. 
Richard, Bland, 251, 252. 
Richard, Henry, 45, 77. 
Robert E., 280. 
Thomas, 127. 

Lee Co., 184. 

Leesburg, Va., 26, 27, 31, 37, 130, 

150. 

Leigh, Benjamin Watkins, 43. 
Lenox, James, 223. 
Leroy, , 148. 
Levers, 154. 
Lewis, Mr., 7. 

Betty (Washington), 8. 
Col. Charles, 194. 
Fielding, 8. 
Harvey, 100. 
Howell, 194. 
Robert, 8. 
Thomas, 194. 
William, J., 152. 
Lewisburg, West Va., 82. 
Lexington, Ky., 248, 249, 251, 253. 
Library of Congress, 21, 25, 34, 83. 

239. 

Lidderdale, John, 202. 
Robert, 202. 

Lidderdale & Harmer, 203, 206. 
Llllaston, Thomas, 285. 
Lilly, Christopher, 204. 

John, 61. 
Linen cloth, 146. 
Linseed oil, 153. 
Lipscomb, Bernard, 145. 
Charles, 145. 
Llptrott, Rachel, 275. 
Liquors, 151, 154. 
Litchfleld School of law, 40. 
Liverpool, 217. 
Ljungstedt, Milnor, 183. 
Logic, 43. 
London, 17. 



London Company, 56. 
Lonsdale, Earl of, 83. 
Looking glass, 164. 
Looms, 150, 151. 
Lords of Trade, 79. 
Lory, Alexander, 293. 
Loucks, Erne Wells, 184. 
Loudoun Agricultural Society, 38. 
Loudoun Co., 20-39, 75, 121, 131, 
147, 149, 150, 153, 155, 167, 174, 
177. 

Loudoun system, 20-39. 
Louisa Co., 77, 137, 147, 153, 154. 
Louisiana, 81, 200, 250. 
Louisville, Ky., 189. 
Loury, Wm., 291. 
Love, Th., 290. 
Lower Norfolk Co., 52. 
Loyalists in Va., 285-288. 
Lucas, Elizabeth, 85. 
Humphrey, 85. 

Lucy Walker (steamboat), 68. 
Ludlow, 94, 95, 96. 
Ludlow postman, 95. 
Lukens, Henry. 115. 

Ipaiah, 118. 
Lumberton, N. C., 84. 
Lunenburg Co., 14, 15, 65, 138, 182, 

279. 

Lungmann, Meyler E., 293. 
Luttrell, Louise, 283. 
Lyle, Jas., 274. 

Mary, 49, 63, 64. 
Lyles, Wm., 291. 
Lynchurg, 8, 81, 150, 151. 
Lynchburg Press, 153. 
Lyncoln, Genl., 6, 9. 
Lynnhaven, 122. 
Lynnhaven Bay, 192. 
Lyon, John, 285-288. 
Macartney, James, 276-278. 
McCarlagh, Dennis, 122. 
McCartee, Agnes, 176. 
Maco.i^tee, Dennis, 120, 122. 
McCarthy family, 119-132, 167-179. 
McCarthy, Dennis, 119, 120, 123. 
Donal, 119. 
Florence, 120. 
McCarty, Agnes, 176. 

Albert, 173. 

Ann, 127, 128, 129, 168, 
172, 175, 179. 

Anna Barbara, 128. 

Ann Barker, 174, 175. 

Ann R., 171. 

Armstead Thompson M., 
168. 

Arthur Lee, 167. 



xvm 



INDEX 



Barbara, 122, 126. 
Barbary, 122, 125. 
Bartholomew, 175. 
Betsy, 121. 
Betty, 167, 175, 177, 178, 

179. 

Betty (Elizabeth), 176. 
Billington, 120, 121, 126, 

127, 128, 131, 132, 167, 

170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 
175, 179. 

Bullington, 172, 173. 
Burr H., 167. 
Charles, 175. 

Charles Barber, 172, 175. 
Charles Fenton, 167. 
Charles Travers, 175. 
Cordelia Ball, 173, 174. 
Cornelius, 121, 176, 177, 

178, 179. 
Daniel, 119, 120, 121, 122, 

123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 

128, 129, 130, 169, 170, 

171, 172, 173, 175, 178, 
179. 

Dennis, 121, 122, 123, 124, 
126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 
132, 167, 168, 170, 172, 
173, 174, 179. 

Dennis Thaddeus, 132, 
167. 

Eleanor, 176. 

Eliza, 171, 173. 

Eliza Downman, 174. 

Elizabeth, 127, 128, 172, 
173, 176. 

Elizabeth, Billington, 125. 

Elizabeth Downman, 173. 

Elizabeth Francis, 168. 

Ella, 167. 

Ellin, 175. 

Emily Mason, 168. 

Enoch, 168. 

Fanny, 167, 175. 

Frances, 122, 176, 178. 

George, 173. 

George Billington, 168. 

George Washington, 132, 
168. 

Ignatius, 176. 

James, 176, 177, 178. 

James Ball, 173. 

James Byrd, 130. 

James William, 168. 

John, 130, 175, 176. 

John D., 167. 

Juliet, 173, 174. 

Katherine, 120, 123, 124. 



Keith, 168. 
Lavinia, 173, 174. 
Lettice, 126, 127, 128. 
Margaret, 132, 171, 176. 
Mary, 129, 130, 132, 167, 

168. 

Maria French, 168. 
Mary Chinn, 174. 
Mary Rose, 177. 
Nancy, 121, 132, 167, 173, 

176, 177, 178, 179. 
Ovid Downman, 173. 
Page, 130. 
Penelope, 128. 
Presley, 175. 
Richard, 167. 
Richard Chichester, 132. 
Robert, 167. 

Sarah, 127, 128, 129, 168. 
Sarah (Ball), 121, 131. 
Sarah Elizabeth, 121, 132, 

168. 

Sarah Karsner, 167. 
Sarah Richardson, 132, 

167, 168. 
Sinah, 131. 
Sinah Ball, 130. 
Stephen Washington, 168. 
Susan, 132. 
Tarpley, 175. 
Thaddeus, 120, 121, 127, 

128, 129, 131, 167, 168, 

171, 173, 174. 
Thomas, 121, 176, 177, 178, 

179. 

Thomas Bozeley, 177. 
Ttornton, 130. 
Virginia, 173, 174. 
William, 174, 176. 
William Beale, 174. 
William Downman, 173. 
William Gilmore, 167. 
William Mason, 130. 
William R., 132, 167. 
William Thaddeus, 168, 

173, 174. 

Winifred, 126, 127, 128. 
Winifred B., 168. 
Winifred Hall, 168. 
Winny, 175. 
McCaully, David, 215. 
McClanahan, John, 291. 
McClenr chan, Anne, 129. 
McClenahan, John, 185. 

Mary, W., 130. 
Robert, 185. 
McCluney, William, 249. 



INDEX 



xix 



McClung, Calvin M., 282, 283. 

James, 46. 

McCombs family, 185. 
McConathy, Jacob, 177. 
McCormick, Cyrus, 155. 
E. C., 184. 
Stephen, 155. 
McCormick plows, 149. 
McCoy, Charles, 137. 
McCrea, Robert, 291. 
McCrea & Mease, 293. 
McDonald family, 225. 
McDonough, Teige, 124, 125. 
McEvay, Daniel, 215. 
McFarland, J. N., 186. 

William, 293. 
McGee, Wm., 216. 
McGeorge, Wm., 180. 
McGregor, Alex., 253. 
McGroarty, Wm. Buckner, 134, 135. 
Machine for covering corn, 155. 
Mclver, Colin, 291. 

John, 291. 
Mclvor & Dow, 293. 
McKenzle, Col., 205. 
McKinnay, James, 291. 
McKnlght, Wm., 291. 
McManaway, Maggie, 180-182. 
Mcnamara, , 203. 
McNeal, Capt. John, 86. 
Macon, Wm., 215. 
McPherson, Isaac, 290. 

Danl., 290. 

McRae, Col. D. K., 195-197. 
McRobert, Archibald, 276. 
McWillla:n, Hugh, 216. 
Madison, Bishop J., 46, 185, 186, 

210. 

John, 185, 186. 
Thos., 187. 
Mrs. Thos., 187. 
Madison Co., m. 
Madison Hall, 185. 
Mahogany furniture, 266. 
Mail bags, 155. 
Maitland, Mr., 223. 
Malone, Mary, 85. 

Philip, 85. 
Manakintown, 280. 
Manchester, 10. 
Maae^ly & Sons, 116. 
Mangum, James, 136. 
Manly, , 281. 
Mansen, Mary, 63. 

Peter, 66. 

Thomas, 63. 
Mansfield, Joseph, 215. 
Mansion, The, 164. 



Manufactures, at home in Va., 139- 

144. 

Richmond, 155. 
Mapp, John, 285. 
Mapping lands, 153. 
Maps, Virginia, 82. 
Maries Mount, 52. 
Marriage licenses, 55. 
Marriages, registration of, 65. 
Marshal, James, 249. 
Marshall, John, 41, 249. 
Marsteller, T., 290. 
Marston Parish, 54, 56, 59. 
Martin, John, 215. 

Richard, 86. 

Robert, 215. 
Martinsburg, 151. 
Martin's Hundred Parish, 53. 
Maryland, 35. 
Maryland Gazette, 96. 
Mason, Ann, 129, 130. 

George, 78, 130, 183. 

Stevens, 130. 

Stephens T., 187. 
Mason Co., 111., 70. 
Massey, M., 131. 

Mrs.. 183. 

Mathematics, 43, 103 et seq. 
Matthews, Baldwin Smith, 174. 
John, 174, 215. 
John Ryburn, 174. 
Matthews Co., 152. 
Matthews Parish, 138. 
Mattiom, Fork of, 89. 
Mattoax, 17. 
Mattoponi river, 50. 
Maupen, Gabril, 215. 
Maupin, Daniel, 215, 216. 
John, 215. 
Zackarius, 215. 
Maury, MaJ., 196. 

James, 154. 

M. F., 99. 

Mary, 14. 
Maxey family, 280. 
May, David, 69. 
Mayer. Gotlieb, 116. 
Mayflower (ship), 284. 
Mayo, James, 215. 

William, 150. 
Mayse, Betsy, 180. 

Cynthia, 180. 

James, 182. 
Maze, John, 155. 
Meade, Wm., 53, 90, 121, 123, 176, 

276. 

Mealy, Daniel, 183. 
Mean, Robert, 291. 



XX 



INDEX 



Mearly, Edmund, 2. 
Mease & Caldwell, 265. 
Mease & McCrea, 293. 
Meccarty, Edward, 2. 
Mechanics, 43. 
Mecklenburg Co., 15, 66. 
Mecklenburg Co., N. C., 63. 
Meherrin river, 2. 
Melvin, James Monroe, 130. 

McCarty Ball, 130. 

Sinah Elizabeth, 130. 

William B., 130. 

William Grayson, 130. 
Mercer, John, 183. 
Mary, 170. 
Merchants, 214, 292-295. 

of Alexandria, 289-291. 
war of 1812, 193. 
Meredith, Frances, 137. 
Msriweather, Elizabeth, 165. 

Thomas, 165. 
Metals, 157. 
Methodist Church, 30. 

in Fredericks- 
burg," 235 et 
seq. 

Michbau, Abraham, 62. 
Micklam, John, 70. 
Middletown Parish, 55, 56, 59. 
Middle Plantation, 51, 54, 56. 
Midland, 135. 
Milam, Margaret, 86. 

Wm., 86. 
Miller, Emerson, 281. 

Mildred, 279. 
Mills, 3, 151, 152. 
Mills, John, 214, 293. 
Minerals, 157. 
Minge, George, 279. 

Sarah, 279. 
Minor, John, 129. 

Nicholas, 127. 
Minute men, 194. 
Minx, Charles, 214. 
Mississippi river, 240, 241, 242, 244, 

245, 246, 248, 250, 253, 255, 256. 
Mitchell, Littleton Downman, 174. 
Mitchell, Wm., 87, 152. 
Mobile, Ala., 69, 81. 
Mock-Jack Bay, 157. 
Monk-Snake Creek, 17. 
Monongalia Co., 281. 
Monongahela river, 82. 
Monroe, 167, 170. 
Monroe Co., 190. 
Monterey, 99. 
Monterey, battle, 98. 
Montgomery family, 279. 



Montgomery, Capt., 260, 266. 270. 
Esther, 273. 
John, 183, 279. 

Montgomery Co., 149, 150, 190. 
Montgomery Co., Tenn., 70. 
Montgomery C. H., 151. 
Moody, Josiah, 85. 

Mary, 85. 
Moore, Edmund, 122. 

Helen MacDonald, 221. 

James, 239. 

Jonathan, 183. 

R. Walton, 75-84. 

Richard Channing, 115. 
Moot courts, 41, 42, 47. 
Mopin, John, 215. 

Mathey, 215. 
Thomas, 215. 
Moping, Cornelyus, 214. 
Moray, Alexander, 157-161. 
Sir Mungo, 157. 
Sir Robert, 157-161. 
Moredcai, Mr., 130. 
Moreton, Sinah B., 130. 
Morgan family, 281. 
Morgan, Charles W., 97. 

Gen. Daniel, 97. 

James, 281. 

Sarah, 281. 
Morgantown, 281. 
Morris, Hugh R., 214. 
Morrison, A. J., 81-84, 149-156, 198- 

201, 276-278. 
Morton, Joseph, 170. 

Nannie W., 222. 

Richard, 73. 

W. S., 73, 85-88, 89. 
Moseley family, 280. 
Mosley, Littleberry, 155. 
Moss, Sylvester, 183. 
Mt. Air, 163. 
Mount Airy, 16. 
Muir, John, 291, 293. 
Mulberry trees, 157. 
Mullens, Gabriel, 215. 
Mun, Samuel, 215. 
Munder, Norman T. A., 282. 
Munford, Major James, 57. 

Robert B., 285-288. 
Munsie, James, 184. 
Murphy, John, 183. 
Murray, Alexander, 157-161. 

John, 29 r. 

Sir Robert, 157-161. 

William, 239. 
Musack, Ephraim, 216. 
Muse, , 170. 
Muter, George, 239. 



INDEX 



xxi 






Nails, manufacture of, 199. 
Nansemond Co., 53, 58, 115. 
Nansemond river, 50. 
Nash, Abner, 278. 

Sylvester, 152. 
Nassau (College), 109, 112. 
Natural philosophy, 43. 
Naturalization, 4. 
Naval office, 292-295. 
Navigation, James River, 153-154. 
Navigation of Miss, river, 239-256. 
Naylor, William, 178. 
Negroes, Free, 35. 

manumission of, 274. 

of Joseph Pollard, 164-166. 

runaway, 62. 
Nelson, Alexander, 183. 

Thomas, 46, 287, 288. 
Nelson, Fort, Va., 12. 
Nelson (ship), 203. 
Nevitt, Elizabeth, 177. 
New Castle, 204, 207. * 
New Glasgow, 150. 
New Kent Co., 8, 9, 19, 64, 59. 
New Orleans, 10. 
New Providence church, 280. 
New River, 199, 200. 
Newbern Academy, 277. 
Newcome, Mr., 69. 
Newell, Mr., 69. 
Newman, Wm., 145. 
Newton, Josiah, 88. 

Wm., 291. 
Niagara, battle, 98. 
Nicholas, Geo., 251. 

Philip Norborne, 100. 

W. C., 83, 100. 
Nicholls, George, 172. 
Nichols, Ann, 172. 
Eliz., 85. 
Wm., 85. 

Nicholson, John B., 97. 
Nicholson and Prentis, 210-212. 
Nixon, Samuel, 152. 
Noland, James, 215. 
Nomony Creek, 171. 
Norfolk, 51, 69, 114-118, 151, 152, 

153, 154, 155, 262. 
Norfolk Co., 58, 122. 
Norfolk. Fort, Va., 12. 
Norfolk System, 26. 
North Carolina, 5th regt., 195-197. 
North Farnham Parish, 123. 
Northampton Co., 51, 52, 53, 122, 

123, 125, 127, 133, 150, 171, 178. 
Northeatt, Sarah, 85. 
Terry, 85. 
Norton, John and Sons, 217-219. 



Norvell, George, 215. 
Nott, Joseph, 215. 
Nova Scotia, 31. 
Nulhead, William, 282. 
Nuthead, William, 282. 
Nunnally, Alex., 85. 
Eliz., 85. 

Nursing chairs, 154. 
Oats, 37, 285. 
O'Brien, Michael, 119. 
O'Bryan, John, 85. 

Mildred, 85. 
Oconostota, 83. 
Odometer, 152. 
Ogilvie, Rev. Mr., 276. 
Oglesby, Rev. Mr., 276. 
Ohio river, 82. 
Old Place, 50. 
Oldenburg, Mr., 158. 
Oldham, Samuel, 169. 
Optics, 43. 
Orange County, 133, 135, 150, 161, 

227, 229. 

Orange Lane, 131. 
Orange Pres. Church, 223. 
Orare, , 178. 
Orear, , 178. 
Oriental languages, professorship, 

40. 

Orphans, 55. 
Osborn, Lee Byrd, 138. 

Lucy, 3. 
Osborne, Bennet, 138. 

Thomas D., 138. 
Oswan, Frederick, 151. 
Oswestry, 94. 
Ovens, 150. 

Overstreet, John H., 211. 
Overwharton Parish, 122, 176. 
Owen, Ethan, 150. 
Owens, Edward, 293. 
Owsley, Capt. Thomas, 183. 
Oxley, Thomas, 153. 
Packe, Sarah, 203, 206. 
Page, Carter, 11. 
Palestine, 3. 
Palhoof, John, 215. 
Palo Alto, 98. 
Pamunkey River, 7, 50. 
Pandy, Wm., 293. 
Pannell, David, 145. 
Pantiles, 150. 

Paper manufacturing, 34, 94, 206. 
Paper money, 213-216. 
Parham, Mrs. Ann Harper, 64. 

Matthew, 2. 

Parish Churches, registers, 61. 
Parishes, 52. 



xxii 



INDEX 



Park Family, 72. 
Park, John, 72. 
"Park Hall," 94, 203. 
Parker, , 288. 

Geo., 288, 

Ira, 115. 

Thomas, 286. 
Parks, Elizabeth, 92. 

Elianor. 95. 

William, 92-96, 202-209, 282. 
Parliamentary rules, 41, 42, 47. 
Parr, Samuel, 216. 
Parramore, William, 285, 287. 
Parsons, James, 5. 

Rebecca, 85. 
William, 5, 85. 
Parsons' case, 77. 
Passano, E. B., 282. 
Patent Office, 149. 
Patents in Virginia, 149-156. 
Paton, William, 291, 293. 
Patterson, Mr., 253. 

Alexander, 137. 
Elizabeth Lucinda. 137. 
Robt., 256. 
Pattillo, Mr., 278. 
Patuxent River, 50. 
Paul, Mr., 69. 

Payne, Elizabeth, 125, 126. 
Jos. M., 166. 
Matthew M., 98. 
William, 125, 126, 127, 129. 
Peachy, Major, 86. 

Samuel, 124, 127. 
Peale, Capt. Malachy, 183. 
Peck, Benjamin, 285. 
Pedlar's Mills, 153. 
Peers and Fitzgerald, 293. 
Pegram, Adeline, 67. 

Ann, 63. 

Anne Lyle, 64, 67. 

Anne (Nancy) Lyle, 65. 

Augustine C., 70. 

Baker, 49, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67. 

Benjamin H., 67. 

Betsey, 64, 65. 

Caroline, 68, 69. 

Daniel, 49, 59, 60, 62, 63, 
66, 67, 69. 

David F., 60. 

Edward, 49, 50, 60, 61, 62, 
63, 64, 65, 66, 67. 

Edward Henry, 63. 

Edward Lyle, 68, 69. 

Edward Strange, 67. 

Edwin, 67, 70. 

Elizabeth, 63, 64, 66, 70. 

Emeline, 67. 



Ethelbert, 70. 

Fannie, 65. 

Frances, 62, 66. 

Franklin, 68, 69. 

George, 60, 63, 64, 65, 66, 

68, 69. 

Geo. Herbert, 68, 69. 
Harriet, 64, 65. 67. 
Henry, 49. 
Henry Daniel, 69. 
James, 70. 
James West, 68. 
Jane, 70. 
John, 49, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 

66, 68. 
John B., 67. 
John Coleman, 68, 69. 
Julia Ann, 67. 
Lelia Adela, 68, 69. 
Louisa Jane, 68, 69. 
Maria, 70. 
Maria Ward, 68, 69. 
Martha, 67. 
Martha E., 67. 
Martha P., 64. 
Martha Rebekah, 68, 69. 
Mary, 60, 62, 63, 67, 68, 69, 

70. 

Mary A. F., 67, 68. 
Mary A. L., 67. 
Mary Baker, 64. 
Mary Lyle, 68. 
Mildred, 70. 
Nancy, 67. 
Patsey, 65. 
Rebekah, 64, 65. 
Rich. Gregory, 68. 
Robert, 64. 

Robert Baker, 68, 69, 99. 
Sally, 66. 
Sarah, 60, 61, 62. 
Sallie W., 63. 
Susan, 67. 
Thomas, 67. 
Virginia Anne, 68, 69. 
William, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 

65, 66, 70. 

William Baker, 69, 70. 
Wtn. Benj., 68. 
William Henry, 67. 
Winchester, 67. 
Pemberton, , 271. 

Mr., 260. 

Jas., 265. 

Josey, 260. 

Nancy, 260. 

Pendleton, Edmund, 76, 162, 163, 
166. 



INDEX 



xxiii 



Fanny, 135. 
John, 165. 
Mille, 165. 
Sarah, 164. 

Pendulum steam engine, 150. 
Pennsylvania packet, 44. 
Pennsylvania, University of, 40, 45. 
Penticost, Joseph, 249. 
Perrin, John, 86. 
Perry, Joseph, 2. 
Peters, Judge Richard, 25. 
Petersburg, 1, 8, 14, 17, 49, 64, 65, 

68, 69, 71, 72, 152. 
Peterson Ann, 4. 

Augustine C. 4. 

Batt, 2, 3, 4, 6. 

Betty, 3. 

Elizabeth, 4. 

Elizabeth C., 1, 2. 

Frances, 4. 

John, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

John A., 12. 

Jno. Augustine, 12. 

John H., 1, 2. 

John Herbert, 4, 6, 12, 17, 
18. 

Kinchen, 3. 

Lucy, 4. 

Lucy Ann, 13. 

Maria Harison, 13. 

Martha, 3, 4. 

Mary, 3, 4. 

Patience, 3. 

Peter, 4. 

Rebecca, 3. 

Temperance Taylor, 4. 

Thomas, 1, 4, 15. 

William, 3. 
Petitions to Genl. Assembly, 194, 

213-216. 
Pettypool, Anderson, 66. 

Stephen, 66. 
Peyton, Francis, 290. 

Lucy, 173. 

R., 291. 
Philadelphia, 25. 

flour trade, 289, 290. 
Physiognotrace, 150. 
Pickens, Elizabeth, 137. 
Pilcher, Stephen, 176. 
Pilgrims, 284. 
Pittyslvania Co., 155. 
Plantations, 51. 
Plaster of Paris, 20-39. 
Plate, 257. 
Pleading, 47. 



Pleasants, Jas., 274. 
Jane, 279. 
John, 273. 

John Hampden, 153. 
Nancy, 258, 269, 273. 
Sammy, 264, 266, 267, 

269, 273. 
Sukey, 264, 266, 267, 

271. 

Robert, 257-275. 
Thos., 263, 267, 275. 
Tommy, 257, 259, 274. 
Pleasants & Robinson, 261. 265. 
Pleasants' Machine, 149. 
Plowing, deep, 34. 
Plows, 21, 149, 152, 153, 155. 
Plymouth, Mass., 284. 
Pneumatics, 43. 
Pohick Church, 163. 
Point Comfort, 51. 
Poison Fields, 229. 
Polk, William, 285. 
Pollard, Henry Robinson, 163. 
Dr. John, 163. 
John Garland, 163. 
Joseph, 162-166. 
Pricilla, 165. 
Robert, 164. 

Thomas, 163, 164, 165, 166. 
William, 163, 164, 165. 
Pope, Alex., works of, 76. 

Humphrey, 125, 126, 127, 169, 

179. 

James, 123. 
Nathaniel, 125. 179. 
Pope's Creek, 170. 
Pork, 242. 
Port Republic, 185. 
Port Royal, 226. 
Porter family, 280. 
Porter, Betsy, 169. 
Daniel, 169. 
Sarah R., 169. 
Thos., 290. 
Portraits, George Johnston. 75. 

McCarthy, 127. 
Portsmouth, 115. 
Posey, Capt, 87. 

Potomac river, 27, 50, 76, 292-295. 
Potosi, 200. 
Potts, John, 291. 
Powell, Burr, 132. 
Frances, 4. 
Joseph, 291. 
Wm. H., 290. 
Powell's Creek, 52. 
Powhatan Co., 152, 155, 280. 



XXIV 



INDEX 



Poythress, Francis, 55. 

Francis, Jr., 5. 
Mary, 5. 

Pray, Andrew, 215. 
Prentis, Jno., 13, 217, 218, 219. 
John P., 14. 
Maria, 14. 
Mary Harrison, 14. 
Thomas Augustine, 14. 
Wm., 13, 14, 92. 
Prentis & Nicholson, 210-212. 
Presbyterians, 278. 
Preston, Mrs. A., 192. 

Mrs. Frances, 187. 
Francis, 187-193. 
John, 187-193. 
Polly, 191. 
Samuel, 169. 
William, 41, 46, 72. 
Price, Oliver, 291. 
Prince Edward Co., 211, 276, 278. 
Prince George Co., 2, 3, 4, 5, 16, 57, 

58, 150, 152, 198. 

Prince William Co., 34, 75, 89, 90, 
121, 129, 131, 150, 168, 177, 178, 
239-256. 

Princess Ann Co., 59, 122. 
Princeton College, 109, 112. 
Printing, in Maryland, 282. 

in Virginia, 92-96, 206, 282. 
Procter, George, 215. 
Provost family, 7. 
Publishing business, 149. 
Puddledock, 16, 17. 
Pumps, 152, 155. 
Purcellville, 36, 37, 38. 
Purdie's Va. Gazette, 217-219. 
Purnell, John, 183. 
Quarrelstown, 152. 
Queen's Creek, 51, 54. 
Queritt, John, 215. 
Rabbit's fur, 153. 
Ragsdale, Drury, 139, 142, 145. 
Railways, improvement in, 153. 
Rainey, R. W., 69. 
Raleigh, N. C., 11. 
Ramsay, Dennis, 168, 290. 
Geo. W. D., 169. 
Robert T., 169. 
Jane A., 169. 
William, 168, 169, 179, 

215, 293. 
Randolph, Mr., of Amelia, 5. 

Miss, of Dungeness, 19. 
D. M., 149, 151, 154. 
Edmund, 46. 
Capt. Edward, 19. 
Harrison, 19. 



Isom, 215. 
J. W., 149. 
John, 216. 
Lovely, 184. 
Lovey, 184. 
Lucy, 19. 

Peyton, 19, 76, 79, 184. 
Richd., 269. 
Thomas B., 99. 
Thomas M., 100. 
Colo. Wm., 19. 
Rankin, Mary B., 280. 

Richard, 280. 

Rapidan river, 225, 229, 230. 
Rappahannock Co., 120, 123, 124. 
Rappahannock river, 50. 
Ratcliffe, John, 291. 
Rich., 291. 

Rawlinson, Annie E., 186. 
Read, Jonathan, 88. 
Real estate, 47. 
Redick, David, 249. 
Reed, James, 277. 
Thos., 215. 

Registers of Parish Churches, 51. 
Reid, James, 216. 
Republican Advocate, 33. 
Republicans, 190. 
Resaca de la Palma, 98. 
Revivals, 236. 

Revolutionary soldiers, 85-88. 
Reynolds, John, 291. 
James, 215. 
Rhetoric, 43. 
Rhoads, Sally, 260, 272. 

Sammy, 260, 272. 
Rhodei, Agnes, 65. 
John, 183. 
Ryland, 155. 
Rice, John, 123, 127. 
John Holt, 81. 
Rebecca, 123. 
Rice, 150, 158. 
Richards, William, 150. 
Richardson, John D., 73. 
Nathaniel, 124. 
Sarah, 121, 131. 
Sarah Elizabeth, 131. 
Richeson, Peter, 145. 
Richmond (city), 81, 149. 150, 151, 

152, 153, 154, 155, 156. 
Richmond College, 163. 
Richmond Co., 120, 121, 122, 123, 

125, 127, 171, 172, 174, 175. 
Richmond Standard, 5. 
Ricketts, John T., 150. 
Rifles, 151, 152. 
Riggs & Co., 115. 



INDEX 



Rind's Va. Gazette, 101-113. 
Ritchie, Archibald, 100. 
John, 98, 100. 
Thomas, 100. 
Rives, William C., 43. 
Roads, Edward, 85. 

Prudence, 85. 
Roads, in Va., 81. 
Roanoke river, 82. 
Roberdeau, Daniel, 291. 
Robert, Capt, 86. 

Francis, 86. 
Roberts, Joseph, 215. 
Mourning, 215, 
Wilson, 215. 
Robertson, , 285. 
Robinson, Ann, 124. 

Benjamin, 196. 
Catherine, 163. 
John, 76, 79, 150, 163. 
Moncure, 81, li*5. 
Robert, 150. 
William, 124. 

Robinson & Pleasants, 261, 265. 
Rochester, John, 198. 

Nathaniel, 198, 199. 
Nicholas, 198. 
Rochester, N. Y., 199. 
Rockbridge Co., 152, 155, 280. 
Rockingham Co., 185. 
Rodgers, Zorobable, 285. 
Rogers, Frances, 164. 

Francis Pollard, 163. 
George, 163. 
Hugh, 132. 
John, 165. 
Romney, 154. 
Rope, 151, 199. 
Resell, Peter, 214. 
Ross, David, 84. 

George, 293. 

Rothrock, Mary U., 283. 
Rouvier, Claude, 59. 

Elizabeth, 59. 
Rowlett, Wm., 88. 
Rowley family, 280. 
Rowley, Eng., 281. 
Rowley, William, 281. 
Royal Society, 157-161. 
Rucker, Anthony, 153. 
Rudder, James, 152. 
William, 60. 
Ruffin, Miss., 8, 19. 
David, 152. 
Edmund, 19. 
James, 145. 
Joseph, 152. 
Mary, 7. 



Robert, 7. 
Sterling, 145. 
William, 11. 
Ruffner, Tobias, 152. 
Ruffner salt apparatus, 149. 
Rum, 258. 
Rumney, , 290. 
Russell, 168. 
Russell, Elishe, 124. 

John, 124, 151. 
Nancy, 168. 
Sarah E., 132. 
Stephen, 115. 
Rye, 25. 

Saddle Trees, 155. 
St. Anne's Parish, 154. 
St. Asaph diocese, 95. 
St. George's Parish, 286, 288. 
St. Genevieve, Mo., 200. 
St. Patrick's Parish, 276. 
St. Paul's Parish, 170. 
St. Stephen's Parish, 125, 164. 
Salap, 281. 
Salem, Mass., 7. 
Sallee family, 280. 
Salt, 149, 150, 151, 157, 192. 
Salt water, 151, 152. 
Sampson, John, 61. 
Sanders, J. H., 276. 
Sanderson, Robinson, 290. 
Sandford, John, 293. 

Lawrence, 294. 
R., 294. 

Sandy Point, 178. 
Sandy River Church, 276. 
Sandford, Richard, 216. 
Saunders, Capt., 198. 
John, 291. 
John Hyde, 276. 
Sausage machine, 155. 
Saw mill, 150. 
Saw tooth setter, 151. 
Say, Dr. Thomas, 34. 
Scarburg, Edmund, 283. 
Scarburg's Neck, 284. 
Schley, W. H. H., 279. 
Schools in Va., 101-113. 
Scimino Creek, 54. 
Scotch, in Virginia, 159-160. 
Scotia, 232. 
Scott, Miss, 9. 

Ann, 65. 

Mrs. Fannie, 232. 

Francis, 87. 

Col. James, 64, 90. 

John, 232. 

Judge John, 89, 205. 

Rev. John, 90. 



XXVI 



INDEX 



Peter, 64, 65, 205. 
Rebecca, 63. 
William, 64, 66. 
Winlield, 43, 63, 64, 98, 99, 
100. 

Scott Co., 247, 248. 
Screws, cutting, 151. 
Scythes, 270. 
Seay, Lucien, 70. 
Sedition laws, 162. 
Servants in Virginia, 159, 160. 
Seule, R. H., 130. 
Shackleford. Benjamin, 138. 
Sharp, Root, 215. 
Sharroch, John T., 155. 
Sharswood, George, 48. 
Shaver, Peter, 215. 
Shelton, Eleanor, 92. 

John, 92, 93, 166, 202. 208. 
Joseph, 166. 
William, 215. 

Sheppard, Augustine, 216. 
Shenandoah Co., 155. 
Sherlock on Death, 30. 
Sherman, Elizabeth, 127. 

John, 129. 

John S., 129. 

Joseph, 174. 

Richard, 129. 

William, 129. 
Shields, Matthew, 61. 
Shingle dresser, 150. 
Shipbuilding, 151. 
Shirley, 19. 

Shoes, 140, 144, 146, 270, 274. 
Shot factory, 141. 
Shreve, Benj., 291. 

William, 291. 
Skinner, Charles W., 155. 
Shropshire, 94. 
Shurley, Thomas, 151. 
Silk, 157, 158. 
Simms, John, 63. 
Simpscn, Duncan, 183. 

Henson, 132. 
Sinclair, Maj., 196. 

Arthur, 97. 

I. J., 195. 

Sir John, 20, 21, 25. 

Mordecai B., 89. 
Slacom, Gabriel, 291. 
Slaughter, P., 49, 53. 
Slaves, in Loudoun Co., 35. 
manumission of, 274. 
Smarr, Mr., 132. 
Smether, Robert, 151. 
Smith family, 280. 



Smith, Mr., 253. 

Alexander, 291. 
B., 188. 
E. W., 280. 
Frank, 191. 
George, 280. 
Harold, 99. 
J. Brookes, 222. 
James, 256. 
John, 2, 151. 
John Blair, 212. 
Michail, 215. 
Thos., 93, 203, 280. 
Wm., 98, 198. 

Smoke, mode of consuming, 152. 
Snead, William, 285. 
Snell, Philemon, 215. 
Society for propagation of Gospel, 

277. 

Solicitor-General of Va., 56. 
Somervilla, 225, 226, 228. 
Somerville, James, 225, 226, 227, 

230, 231. 

Samuel Wilson, 227. 
Somerville Ford, 229. 
South river, 259. 
Southampton river, 52. 
Southgate, John, 114. 
Sowell, John, 215. 
Sowers, David, 215. 
Spain, Mary, 3. 

Spain and Miss, river, 240, 246. 
Sparta, 162. 
Speargrass, 31. 
Spears, Henry, 124. 
Spencer, Miss, 69. 
Eliz., 73. 
Eliz. A., 73. 
Francis, 126. 
Gideon, 88. 
James T., 73. 
John, 88, 215, 216. 
Lucy, 73. 
Lucy Ann, 73. 
Martha, 73. 
Scion, 73. 
Susan, 73. 
Thomas, 73, 88. 
Thomas J., 73. 
Wm. W., 73. 
Spickard, Henry, 151. 
Spitsburg, Jane, 92. 

Thomas, 92. 

Spotswood, Alexander, 34. 
Spotsylvania Co., 281. 
Sprinkel, Jacob, 151, 152. 
Sproul, John, 215. 



INDEX 



xxvii 






Stackho-JBe's History of the Bible, 

29. 
Stafford Co., 28, 75, 121, 127, 129, 

150, 170, 176, 178, 183, 184. 
Stainback, Charles, 69. 
Stamp tax, 77, 79. 
Stanley Hundred, 52. 
Stanton, William, 150. 
Staples, John, 150. 
Starke, William, 145. 
Statham, Frances, 137. 
Garland, 137. 
John, 137. 
Julia, 137. 
Love, 137. 
Martha, 137. 
Mary, 279. 
Mary B., 137, 138. 
Meredith, 137. 
Nancy, 137. 
Richmond, 137. 
Sarah, 137. 

William Dabney, 137. 
Staunton, 150, 185, 222. 
Steam engine, 150, 157. 
Steed, R. E., 114. 
Steel, Col., 187. 

Samuel, 280. 
Steele family, 279. 
Steele, Jane, 280. 

Richard, works of, 78. 
Steenburgen, Grn., 37. 
Stein, Albert, 81. 
Stephenson, Betsy Anne, 70. 
Steptoe, Jas., 181. 
Stevens, Edward, 97, 139, 142, 146, 
147. 

Mrs. John B., 138. 
Stevens & Brown, 95. 
Stewart, James, 253, 293. 
Stewart Co., Ga., 137. 
Stills, 1K1. 
Stith genealogy, 16. 
Stith, Buckner, 16, 17. 

Capt. Cincinatus, 65. 
Col. Drury, 16, 17. 
John, 17. 
Mary, 16, 17. 
Obadiah, 152. 
William, 17. 

Stockings, 144, 145, 146. 
Stockton, John, 215. 
Stokely, Alexander, 285. 
Stone, Mrs. H. W., 281. 

John, 124. 
Stony Creek, 57. 
Stover, Jacob, 185. 
Stoves, 151, 154. 



Strahan, David, 183. 
Straw cutter, 150. 
Stretch, Peter, 118. 
Stribbling, Joell, 183. 
Strickland, William, 20, 21, 36. 
Stuart, Rev. Mr., 183. 

Richard, 171. 
Studley, 163. 
Sturdivant, Miss, 49, 64, 65. 

John, 3. 

Suddearth, James, 215. 
Sudderd, William, 215, 216. 
Sugar, 270. 
Summers, Win., 291. 
Summon, John, 176. 
Sumner, Joseph, 183. 
Surry County, 14, 27, 53, 57, 58, 

115, 143. 
Surveying, 43. 
Surveyor-General of Va., 56. 
Surveyors, 56, 210. 
Sussex Co., Va., 1, 4, 6, 19, 59, 136. 
Sutherland, Joseph, 215. 
Swain, Levi, 114. 
Sweet Hall, 7. 
Swem, E. G., 83. 
Swift, Jonathan, 76, 291. 
Swift Run Gap turnpike Co., 228. 
Swords, presented by Virginia, 97- 

100. 

Syme, Mr., 265. 
Tabb, George, 151. 
Talbot family, 279. 
Talbot, Isham, 181. 

John, 279. 

Mathew, 279. 

Sarah, 181. 
Taliaferro, Mary (Battaile), 134. 

Nicholas, 134. 
Talmage, Ezra, 151. 
Tarpley, Fanny, 175. 
Tatham, William, 81-84. 
Tayloe, Barbara, 119, 127. 

John, 97, 127, 128. 

Joseph, 119, 124, 127. 
Taylor, Anne, 164, 165. 

Benjamin, 216. 

Col. Frank, 134. 

Hugh Paul, 81, 82, 83. 

J., 134, 135. 

Miss J., 135. 

Jesse, 291. 

Col. George, 135. 

James, 135. 

John, 162, 163, 165, 215. 

Mrs. John, 114. 

Nancy, 135. 

Robert B., 118. 



XXV111 



INDEX 



William, 61. 
Yardley, 36, 37, 38. 
Zachary, 98, 133. 
Tazwell, Henry, 187. 
Tazewell, Littleton Waller, 43, 118. 
Tea, 217-219. 
Teackle, Thomas 286. 
Tebbs, Daniel, 125. 

Judge Richard H., 26. 
Tennessee, 8, 10, 83. 
Terry, Col., 195, 196. 
Thaker, Benjamine, 215. 

Nathaniel, 215. 
Thomas, Ann, 259. 
I., 94. 

Nelson, 215. 
Thomason, Edwd., 183. 
Thomlinson, Thomas, 277. 
Thompson, Mr., 7, 185. 

Edw. K., 291. 
Josiah, 291. 
Nath., 183. 
William, 215. 
Thorn, Michael, 293. 
Thornton, Anthony, 170. 

Francis, 134, 170. 
Col. John, 134, 171. 
Mary, 134. 
Presley, 170. 
Reuben, 134. 
Sarah Fitzhugh, 170. 
Winifred, 170. 

Thrashing machines, 150, 152. 
Thursby, Eng., 277. 
Thweatt, Ann, 3. 

Ann H., 13. 
Archibald, 3. 
James, 4. 
John J., 3, 13. 
Judith, 3. 
Lucy, 4. 
Martha, 3. 
Miles, 3. 
Richd N., 3. 
Sally, 4. 
William, 3. 
Thos., 3. 4. 

Tile and brick apparatus, 150. 
Tillett, Samuel, 34. 
Timber cutting, 151. 
Tislow, Geo., 85. 
Mary, 85. 

Tobacco, 46, 51, 84, 139, 140, 150, 
152, 154, 158, 159, 213, 242, 261. 
Todd, Levi, 251. 
Robert, 239. 
Thomas, 243. 
Toncray, Lewis, 193. 



Torrence, Clayton, 1, 2, 83. 
Torres, Manuel, 84. 
Townes, Joel, 87. 
Travers, William, 124. 
Treadway, John, 87. 
Tredegar Iron Works, 156. 
Trenton, Va., 13. 
Trigg, Col., 190. 
Trigonometry, 43. 
Tripplett, Robert, 69. 
Thos., 291. 

True, Rodney H., 20-39. 
Truro Parish, 129. 
Tryon, Gov., 276, 278. 
Tuckahoe swamp, 164. 
Tucker, St. George, 42, 47, 48. 

Wood, 67. 

Tuley, Joseph, 151. 
Tullock, William, 150. 
Turberville, George, 128. 
Turner, Jane Inglish, 72. 

Joseph, 67. 
Twine machine, 151. 
Tyler, John, 41. 

Lyon G., 62. 
Tyler's Quarterly, 280. 
Underwood, Joseph Rogers, 163. 

Oscar W., 163. 

Union Theological Seminary, 222. 
United States (frigate), 97. 
Universal Asylum, 44. 
Updegraff, Sergeant, 99. 
Upper Norfolk Co., 52, 53. 
Upton, Jos., 216. 
Valandingham, , 167. 
Van Home family, 7. 
Vaughan, Elivia, 70. 
Vera Cruz (battle), (99). 
Verts, Conrad, 34. 
Vessels, ventilating, 155. 
Via, Micajah, 215. 
Village View, 63. 
Virginia (ship), 217. 
Virginia Gazette, 47, 101-113, 210- 

212, 217-219. 
Virginia Literary & Evangelical 

Magazine, 81. 

Virginia Resolutions of 1798, 162. 
Virginia State Library, 83. 
Wagener, Sinah, 129. 
Wagoner, Mr., 131. 
Peter, 131. 
R. R., 129. 
Wagons, 274. 
Walker family, 279. 
Walker, Freeman, 279. 

William, 178, 181. 

Wyatt, 279. 



INDEX 



Wallace, Andrew, 87. 

Howson H., 235. 
Josiah, 215. 
Waller, Benjamin, 92, 93, 204. 

Thos., 205. 
Walsh, Th. S., 178. 
Walthoe, Natl., 205. 
Walton, George, 181. 
War of 1812, 192. 
Ward, John, 87. 

Samuel, 34. 
Ware River, 157. 
Warham's Pond, 53. 
Warping mill, 28. 
Warrenton, 89. 

Warrington, Lewis L., 98, 100. 
Warrofciquj oake, 51, 62. 
Warsaw, 172. 
Warwick Co., 52, 58. 
Warwick river, 51, 52. 
Warwick River Co., 52. * 
Washing machines, 149, 154, 155. 
Washington, Augustine, 170. 

Gen. Geo., 7, 12, 44, 
77, 125, 128, 137, 163, 
168, 170, 173. 
John, 125. 
Lund, 291. 
Mary, 228. 
Nicholson C., 197. 
W. H., 34. 
William, 5. 
Washington Co., 193. 
Washington Co., Pa., 239-256. 
Washington Parish, 171. 
Water power, Richmond, 156. 
Water wheels, 152, 153, 155. 
Waterman, , 203. 
Waterworks, systems in Va., 81. 
Watkins, Joel, 88. 

Wm. B., 73. 

Watson, Andw., 93, 202. 
Evan, 215. 
Jonah, 290. 
Josiah, 293. 
Watt, Rev. Mr., 36. 
Watts, Ann, 181. 

Benjamin, 180, 181. 
John, 181, 183. 
Mary, 181. 
Wm., 181. 
Watt's Island, 285. 
Waugh, Alexander, 30, 180. 

Polly, 180. 
Wayne, Genl., 188. 
Wehb, George, 204. 



Webster, Isaac, 264. 

Jas., 264, 266. 
Joney, 269. 
Webster Co., Ga., 137. 
Weeks, L. H., 94. 

M. E., 279. 

Weevil prevention, 150. 
Weld, Isaac, 153. 
Wellington, 177. 
Wells, sinking of, 152. 
Wesley, John, 29. 
West, John, 150, 183. 

William, 37, 38. 
West river, 258, 259, 269, 273. 
Westerly river, 3. 
Westmoreland Co., 54, 119, 120, 123, 

124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 169, 170, 

171, 174, 178, 179, 198. 
Westwood, 90. 
Wetnell, Alexander, 215. 
Weyanoake, 52. 
Weyman, Henry T., 95, 96. 
Whaittington, Francis, 3. 
Wheat, 25, 31, 134, 139, 140, 150, 

151, 257, 260, 268, 269, 270, 272, 

273 274, 288-291. 
Wheatley, James, 151. 
Wheeler, Joel, 215. 

Micajah, 215, 216. 
William, 180. 
Wheeling, 152. 
Whetstones, 270. 
Whitacre, , 167. 
White Co., Tenn., 136. 
White Plains, 162. 
Whitehaven, 127. 
Whiteley's Commentaries, 29. 
Whithall, 161. 
Whiting. Maria F., 130. 
Whitlow, Elizabeth, 86. 

John, 86. 

Whittle, Lieut. Col., 195. 
Wicomico river, 123. 
Wigton, Eng., 277. 
Wigton grammar school, 277. 
Wild, Thomas, 202, 206. 
Wilkinson, Genl., 188. 
Wiles, Col., 160. 
William & Mary College, 40-48, 56, 

91, 101-113, 117, 163, 164, 210. 
Williams, Charles, 153. 
John, 215, 252. 
Simon C., 155. 
T. J. C., 199. 
Thomas, 155. 
Williamsburg 19, 41, 42, 56, 57, 61, 

76, 77, 92, 93, 96, 102, 150, 162. 

194, 203, 208, 265, 282. 



INDEX 



Williamsburg, battle of 195-197. 
Williamson, Miss, 63. 
David, 124. 
Thomas, 93, 114. 
Willing family. 269. 
Willis, Henry, 134. 
Wilson, Lieut., 12. 
Bird, 45. 
Henry, 124. 

James, 40, 44, 45, 47, 48. 
Wilton, 19. 
Winchester, 155, 184. 
Windmill improvement, 152. 
Window frames, 152. 
Windsor, 1, 6. 
Wingfield, J. H., 115. 
Winship, Capt., 198. 
Wirt, William, 79, 163. 
Wise, John, 291. 
Withers, Mr., 15. 

Capt. John, 183. 
Wood, David, 138. 

George, 138. 

Henry, 138, 214. 

James, 187, 215, 291. 

John, 81, 82, 138. 

Johnson, 138. 

Leighton, 204. 

Martha, 138. 

Patsy, 138. 

Sallie, 138. 

Stephen, 138. 

Trist, 133. 

Valentine, 138. 

Wm., 216. 
Wood Co., 152, 153. 
Woodford, 174. 
Woodford, Capt. Thos., 86. 
Woodlawn, 65. 
Woods, Andrew, 154. 
John, 216. 
Wm., 215. 

Woodson, Tarlton, 214. 
Woodson, W., 291. 
Woodville, 138. 
Wool, 140, 152. 
Woolen cloth, 146. 
Wooten, Dudley, 201. 
Wray, James, 61. 
Wright family, 180-182. 
Wright, Abigale, 180. 

Angelina Elizabeth, 181. 

Anthony, 180. 



Benjamin, 181. 

Betsy, 180. 

Catherine, 180. 

David, 181. 

Dorcas, 180. 

Elizabeth, 180, 181. 

Francis, 180. 

Jas., 8. 

John, 180, 181, 182. 

Joseph, 180, 181, 182. 

Kitty, 181. 

Mary, 180. 

Nancy, 180. 

Orrey, 180. 

Orville, 181. 

Polly, 180. 

Rhoda, 180. 

Robert, 181. 

Ruth, 180. 

Sally, 181. 

Sarah, 180. 

Thomas, 180, 181. 

Tommy, 180. 

Wilbur, 181. 

William, 181, 182. 

Wm. S., 180. 

Wilson Benjamin, 181. 

Winifred, 181. 
Wroth, Lawrence C., 92-96, 209, 

282 
Wythe, G., 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 

48, 77, 162. 

Wythe Co., 151, 152, 190, 199, 201. 
Wythe C. H., 189. 
Yancey, , 147. 

Chas., 216. 
Robert, 215. 
Yarnall, John J., 97. 
Yeocornico Church, 126, 127. 
Yeocomico warehouse, 169. 
Yerby, Col. Beverly, 173. 

Elizabeth Woodbridge, 173. 

Oscar, 174. 
York, 53. 

York Co., 54, 58, 59, 61, 93, 2J8, 218. 
York river, 50, 53. 
Yorktown, 56, 94. 
Young, Edward, 66. 

Elian Harrison, 13. 

John, 86. 

Mary Harrison, 13. 

William, 61. 

Wm. H., 13. 



OTtllram anli Jiarp College 

tiarterlp JMtftoncal jWagajme 



Second 



Vol. II. redes JANUARY, 1922 No. 1 



THE PETERSONS, CLAIBORNES, AND HARRISONS, 
AND SOME OF THEIR CONNECTIONS. 

Edited by CLAYTON TORRENCE. 

The editors of the QUAETEELY are indebted to Miss Elizabeth 
Claiborne Peterson, of Petersburg, Virginia, for permission to publish 
the following \eiy interesting paper. This account of the early Peter- 
eons and of the Claibornes and Harrisons was written in 1829 by 
John Herbert Peterson, and while his statements have been quoted 
time and again it is believed that the account of his family in full as 
written by him has never before been published. The manuscript, 
now very much worn by age, and in some small sections undecipherable 
from having been broken by folding, is now the property of Miss Eliza- 
beth Claiborne Peterson, of Petersburg, a granddaughter of John Her- 
bert Peterson. The manuscript consists of nine closely written legal 
sized pages and a small slip on which the note on the Harrisons was 
added. 

John Herbert Peterson, the writer of the following paper, was 
the son of Thomas Peterson and Elizabeth Claiborne, daughter of 
Colonel Augustine and Mary (Herbert) Claiborne, of "Windsor," 
Sussex County, Virginia. He was born circa 1777, and married April 
9, 1795, Mary Herbert, daughter of General Charles and Mary Her- 
bert (Claiborne) Harrison, the latter a daughter of Colonel Augustine 
and Mary (Herbert) Claiborne. Thus, John Herbert Peterson married 
his own first cousin. This account as written by Mr. Peterson is very 
interesting, and exceedingly valuable, as he personally knew so many 
of the people to whom he alludes. 



2 WILLIAM AND MAKY QUARTERLY 

A Scetch or Memo, of the Family of Jno. Herbert Peterson 
and his Wife Mary Herbert By Jno. H. Peterson in 1829. ' 

John Peterson my Great Grand Father emigrated to Virginia 
from the Island of Great Briton about the Year 1660, or 70 as ap- 
pears from his papers, and settled in the County of Isle of White 
and died about the Year [1732] 2 leaving two Sons, John and 

iThe following note gives Miss Peterson's (the owner's) permis- 
sion to publish the above account of the Peterson and allied families, 

Mr Clayton Torrence. 

Dear Sir, It gives me pleasure to grant your request to publish 
the family history of the Petersons written by my grandfather John 
Herbert Peterson and, I feel much complimented by your desire to 
have it done. 

Most respectfully, 

Elizabeth Claiborne Peterson 

July 18, 1918. [417 Pilmore Street, Petersburg, 

Virginia] 

2The following data are from the records of Isle of Wight, Prince 
George and Brunswick Counties. 

John Peterson, of Isle of Wight Co., will dated Mar. 1, 1731; pro- 
bated Jan. 24, 1731/2; To Burrell Brown, 400 acres being plantation 
whereon I now live and two other tracts adjoining; and in default 
of issue then said land to my son Batt Peterson; To Jeremiah Brown, 
200 acres being plantation whereon Joseph Perry formerly lived, and 
in default of issue to said Brown, said plantation to my son John 
Peterson; Son Batt Peterson, 100 acres adjoining John Smith; To 
Matthew Parham, of Isle of Wight, 100 acres out of said tract on Fox 
Branch and next adjoining to his land; Grandson John Eppes, 100 
acres whereon Jonathan Carter did live, also 300 acres on Fox Branch, 
and if said Eppes dies without lawful issue said land to my sons John 
Peterson and Batt Peterson; Grandson John Eppes, 100 acres whereon 
Robt Ellis formerly lived also 400 acres I bought of Edmund Mearly 
on Meherrin River on Jcnito Creek and for default of issue said land 
to my sons John and Batt Peterson; son John Peterson all my land in 
Isle of Wight binding on south side of Meherrin River; Son Batt 
Peterson, plantation whereon said Batt now liveth containing 400 
acres; Son John Peterson, 333 acres on Meherrin River which I bought 
of John Smith; Son Batt Peterson, 500 acres on Meherrin River which 
I purchased of Edward Meccarty; To Burrell Brown, 4 negros and for 
default of issue to said Brown then to my sons John Peterson and 
Batt Peterson; To Jeremiah Brown, 4 negros, under same conditions 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 3 

Batte as appears by his Will, John was my Grandfather, he inter- 
married with Martha Thweatt, the Sister of the Grand Father of 
Jno. James Thweatt, Archibald, Eichd N. & Thos. Thweatt who 
were born at Palestine in Prince George County of an nntient & 
respectable family english stock My Grand Father John Peter- 
son died in the Year 1773 Octr. leaving three Sons and three 

as the negros to Burrell Brown; Grandson John Eppes, when 21 years 
old, 4 negros under same condition as negros to Burrell and Jeremiah 
Brown; Daughters Mary Spain, Judith Thweat and Ann Thweat, one 
negro each; To Burrell Brown, Jeremiah Brown and grandson John 
Eppes, stock and personal effects; Residue of estate to sons John and 
Batt Peterson, and all debts due and demands in England, Virginia 
or elsewhere, and they fire named executors; Witnesses Miles Thweat, 
John Sturdivant and William Thweat. (Isle of Wight Records, Will 
Book 3, pp. 292-5.) , 

Nov 12, 1723, John Peterson of Prince George County, Bristol 
Parish, to John Fitzgerald, of same; for 200 currency; water grist 
mill and corn mill called Frogghole Mill on Baily Creek, Prince 
George Co, in parish and county aforesaid; 3 tracts of land in parish 
and county aforesaid: (1) 118 acres as by deed Jan 26, 1677 from 
Francis Whaittington to John Peterson, the feoffor "as heir at law to 
said John Peterson, deed." (2) 60 acres as by deed October 11, 1703, 
from Henry Batte to John Peterson, the feoffor, which said land de- 
scended to said Henry Batte "as heir at law to his father Henry 
Batte"; (3) 95 acres purchased by John Peterson, the feoffor, of Wil- 
liam Bobbit, by deed May 12, 1703, being land on which said Bobbit 
then lived and was granted to William Bobbit, father of the said Wil- 
liam Bobbit, by patent October 27, 1673, and descended to said Wil- 
liam Bobbit, as heir at law to his said father (Prince George Co 
Records, vol 1713-28). Jan 10, 1723/4, John Peterson, Senior, of Isle 
of Wight, to John Peterson, Junior, of Prince George County; for 
5 currency; two tracts of land: (1) 100 acres at head of Frogghole 
Mill Pond, Bristol Parish, Prince George Co; (2) a tract on Westerly 
Run. Recorded at a court held for Prince George Feb 11, 1723/4 "in 
open Court acknowledged by John Peterson the subscriber thereto 
... to his son John Peterson". (Prince George Records vol 1713-28) 

The inventory of the estate of Batte Peterson was recorded in 
Brunswick Co in 1752 and an account of his estate in 1758. The will 
of John Peterson, of Brunswick County, dated May 16, 1763, probated 
in Brunswick Co Jan 23, 1769 names sons Batte, William, John and 
Kinchen Peterson; daughters Mary, Martha, Patience, Rebecca, Betty 



4 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Daughters, and a valuable Estate both real & personal his eldest 
Son Peter intermarried with Lucy Osborn, I believe of Amelia, by 
whom he had only two daughters, the elder of which intermarried 
with James Thweatt, of Dinwiddie, who left two Daughters, Lucy 
& Sally Lucy married Herbert Gregory & Sally Married Thomas 
Thweatt above named, both respectable. The 2d Son of my Grand 
Father was named John, he died a single man at twenty four Years 
of age leaving all his estate except some trifling legacies (which 
were given to some young Men of his acquaintance) to his Brother 
Thomas my Father; My Father married Elizabeth Claiborne, the 
Daughter of Colo. Augustin Claiborne of Sussex County Va. by 
whom he had three Sons, myself John Herbert, Thomas, Augustine 
Claiborne, and One Daughter Ann. My Father died in November 
1788, my Sister an Infant in 1794. my younger Brother Augus- 
tine Claiborne, in 1803, a single man & under age by about two or 
three Months. My Brother Thomas married Sarah Epes dughter 
of Colo. Peter Epes of Prince George, by whom he had no issue 
and died in about five months after marriage in the Year 1809, 
leaving his Estate real; & some, personal to me his elder Brother. 
I have omited accounting for the 2d. Daughter of my Uncle Peter 
Her Name was Elizabeth, She married Colo. Peterson Goodwyn 
of Dinwiddie, who was long a Member of the Virginia assembly, 
and also for many years a Member of Congress, and a Member at 
the time of his death, they left many Sons & Daughters who mar- 
ried very respectably. This compleats an Acct. of the Sons, of 
my Grand Father and of there issue. 

I stated as above that my Grand Father left three Daughters 
There Xames were as follows, Martha Mary, and Frances. Martha 

and Lucy Peterson and daughter Temperance Taylor; sons Batte and 
John executors; "all the negros that Prances Powell holds in her 
right of dower, they and their increase to be equally divided among 
my above said children". (Brunswick County Records). 

See Hening, Statutes at Large of Virginia, vol 2, page 339 and 
vol 3, page 479 for naturalization of Petersons who had come to Vir- 
ginia; see also Chamberlayne, Bristol Parish Vestry Book and Regis- 
ter for Peterson entries in Bristol Parish. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 5 

married Kobert Batte of Prince George County Va. 8 an ancient 
Family of respectability by whom she had three Sons and two 
daughters to wit John, Robert and Frederick, Mary and Martha 
all of whom (except Robert, who died a Young, & single Man) 
married in respectable and reputable Families, & leaving issue 
Sons & Daughters. The next Daughter married Francis Poythress 
of Amelia County by whom she had a Son & Daughter the Son 
Francis was a Horsemain in the Troop of Capt. William Parsons 
during the revolution, and discharged himself in every instance 
with great Merit as I have always been informed, for he was in 
several engagements in the South, under the ilustrious General 
William Washington; soon after the close of war he returned to 
Virginia & died a Single Man at about twenty four years of age, 
his Sister Mary married a Mr. Randolph of Amelia county and 
died leaving I believe, an only Daughter. 

The Youngest Daughter of my Grand Father married James 
Parsons Brother of the above named Capt. William Parsons, by 
whom she had no issue & died soon after marriage. 

It now remains for me to account for my Grand Fathers 
younger Brother Batte Peterson, of him I can give no account. 
It appears that after the Division of my Great Grand Fathers 
Estate between his two Sons John & Batte that John the eldest 
my Grandfather, came up to Prince George County & settled at 
the Place of my Now residence, soon after which he married as 
before stated &c. his Brother Batte or any of his issue I have 
never been able to trace, but I have been informed that there are 
several Petersons in North Carolina probably they may be his off- 
spring. For I have never seen any person from whom I could 
trace any account, of any decendant of my Great Grand Father 
except my Grand Father and his decendants, all of which I be- 
lieve I have embraced in the foregoing. 

My Mothers Family 
The Mother of John Herbert Peterson: my Mother was the 

For Batte family notes, see Richmond Standard, II, No. 40, June 
4, 1881. 



6 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Daughter of ... Colo. Augustine Claiborne 4 of Sussex County 
took an active part him & his Sons in the Revolutionary war the 
assembly at Williamsburg and his place of residence (Windsor) 
Colo. Claiborne my Grand Father on the side of my Mother mar- 
ried a Miss Mary Herbert (she was an heiress and had an emence 
estate perhaps little less than a Million of Dollars, of her and 
her Estate more will be said hereafter. My Grad Father Clai- 
borne died about the Year 1785 quite an old man and left by Miss 
Herbert Thirteen Children, Eight Sons and Five Daughters the 
Sons were Herbert, William, Augustine, Buller (who was one of 
the Aids of Genl. Lyncoln of the revolution) John Herbert, Rich- 
ard Cook, and Bathurst called after Lord Bathurst of England 
a Near relation of my Grand Mother Claiborne formerly Miss 
Herbert 5 I will first, before giving an acct. of my Maternal Grand 
Fathers issue, give an act. as far as I can of his ancestors. My 
Grand Father Claiborne, was the Youngest Son of Capt. William 
Claiborne who was sent to Virginia, by the King of England aa 
Surveyor General, and who reed, a mortal wound from an Indian 
arrow in the County of King William about what time I dont know 
where he died soon after, and in which County he was buried and 
there stands I believe at tin's day, the Stone over his Grave marked 
with the occurrence. Capt. William Claiborne my Maternal Great 
Grand Father left several Sons, to wit Len, Bernard, William, 
Thomas & some whose Names I do not recollect, and Augustine my 
Grand Father. My Great Grand Father Capt. William Claiborne 
married I believe a Miss Dandrage, of this family I know but little, 
but have always understood they were very respectable, at least the 
family of Dandrages are all now in my day spoken off very hily &c.* 

*For a full account of Colonel Augustine Claiborne and his de- 
scendants, see Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 1, 
p. 320, et seq. 

6See note 14 post. 

The statement here from "Capt William Claiborne^ my great 
grandfather" and ending "in my day spoken of very hily" is incorrect 
as shown by facts in the Claiborne pedigree worked out many years 
after Mr. Peterson's death. The line of descent runs thus: William* 
Claiborne had a son Thomas2 Claiborne, who had a son Thomass Clai- 
borne (married Ann Fox) who was father of Col. Augustine* Clai- 
borne. Compare Claiborne Genealogy in Virginia Magazine of History 
and Biography, vol. 1, p. 314 et seq. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 7 

I now return to give the Acct. of my Maternal Grand Fathers 
Children as I before stated I should, in doing this I shall begin 
with the Sons first and with his first Son, Herbert & so on in rota- 
tion. 

Herbert Claiborne the elder Son, married Mary Ruffin a 
Daughter of Robert Ruffin Esqr. of Sweet Hall on the North Side 
of Pomunky River in King William County Va. a Gentee of great 
fortune & one of our first familys by whom he had an only Daugh- 
ter Mary Herbert, who married a Scotch Gentleman by the Name 
of Thompson & soon died with the family complaint the consump- 
tion & which her mother died with. After this Herbert Claiborne 
intermarried with Miss Brown, a Daughter of William Burnet 
Brown commonly called count Brown, a man of the first family, of 
King William who also resided of the North Side of Pamunkey 
River. Also by this last marriage Herbert Claiborne, got a large 
Estate, but he had acted so improvidently with the emence Estate 
his Father had given him & what he got by Miss Ruffin, that Count 
Brown had the estate given his daughter so fixed that Claiborne 
could only enjoy the profits during his life, & at the death of Clai- 
borne & his wife the landed estate & mansion Elson-Green was to 
go to Claibornes eldest Son provided he would drop the Name of 
Claiborne & take that of William Burnet Brown, which he did, 
and an act of the Va. assembly passed to that effect. The person- 
able property that Herbert Claiborne had the use of was so fixed by 
his [Father and Count Brown] that at the death of Herbert & 
his wife it was divided between the Children of Herbert. 

Count Brown had no Son, only Daughters, one of which mar- 
ried a Mr. Lewis a Nephew of General Geo. Washington & the 
other a Mr. Basset John I believe. 7 William is the Next Son of 

TWilliam Burnet Browne, of "Elsing Green," King William Co. 
(and said by Mr Peterson to have been called "Count") was a de- 
scendant of the distinguished Browne family of Salem, Massachusetts, 
and of the William Burnett, governor of New York and New Jersey 
and of the families of Curwen, of Massachusetts, Provost and Van 
Home, of New York. William Burnet Browne was born in Salem, 
Mass., Oct. 7, 1738, died in Virginia May 6, 1784. He married Judith, 



8 WILLIAM AND MAKY QUARTERLY 

my Maternal Grand Father a man of easy genteel manners, a 
farmer & beloved by all that knew him he also married a Miss 
Ruffin and Sister to his Brother Herberts first wife. William & 
his wife both died in about twelve years leaving several Children 
some of which married & quite respectable Men, & others never 
Married, all of which though are now dead, & died I believe gen- 
erally with the consumption. 

Augustine is the next Son, no Man more generally beloved, 
& no Man fonder of retirement, he married an amiable woman 
Martha Jones A Daughter of Fredk. Jones of Dinwiddie, and a 
Near relative of Genl. Jos. Jones near Petersburg. By this mar- 
riage he reed a handsome estate which with his own fully ample, 
made him rich, he was never a good manager, & though he kept 
his Estate together, yet he never increased it, but died about the 
year 1796 quite clear of debt, leaving his Estate to his Children, 
Six Sons & one Daughter. His Sons were Buller, Fredk. John, 
Gray, Augustine, & Cadwallader the four first died soon after him, 
the other two and Daughter are now living, the Sons though, soon 
waisted the Estate, & the two latter & their Sister has since moved 
to Tenesee. 

Buller is the Next Son to acct. for. He also married a Miss 
Ruffin sister to his Brother Herberts & Williams wife, all of whom 
were amiable fine women, possessing beauty of person, and an un- 
common share of fine Mind which had been much improved by a 
good education, she also died quite young with the consumption, 
leaving four Sons & an only dughter, the Sons all died early, ex- 
cept Sterling now living near Lynchburg in Amhurst County, a 
lawyer of cleverness, the Daughter Lucy is also ded & with the 
consumption. She married Jas. Wright a Merchant of Petersburg ; 

daughter of Charles and Mary (Walker) Carter, of "Cleve," King 
George Co., Virginia. Judith Browne (their daughter) married Rob- 
ert Lewis (son of Fielding and Betty [Washington] Lewis). Betty 
Carter Browne (daughter of William Burnet Browne, above) married 
Sep. 12, 1786, John Bassett (1765-1826) of "Farmington," Hanover Co., 
son of Hon. Burwell and Anna Maria (Dandridge) Bassett, of "Elt- 
ham," New Kent Co. (QUAETERLY, V., p. 37.) 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 9 

she was a woman of an extraordinary fine Mind & possessing all 
those virtues & qualities that is an ornament to the fair sex. This 
Son Buller was one of the aids of Genl. Lyncoln of the Ee volution, 
and he was the real soldier in all his deportment, warm, sincere, 
firm, & friendly to a fault; in all his conduct no man possessing a 
more noble sole; and soldier like knew not the value of money nor 
how to take care of a fine Estate, consequently he like many other 
amiable men died poor, but universally beloved. 

John Herbert is the Next Son, he is now living in Brunswick 
Va. he married Mary Gregory the Daughter of Roger Gregory 
& sister to Richard Gy. of Chesterfield, John was near related to 
his wife, her Mother being a Miss Claiborne and Niece to his Father 
Colo. A. Claiborne. Amore amiable woman never lived. I knew 
her well. She was handsome, she was lovely, she was all & all, 
that man could desire to make his passage through this trouble- 
some world desirable; Yes and her amiable husband knew it, she 
was his almost idol for he loved her dearly. I knew it from many 
circumstances, his whole deportment proved it, & she knew it and 
she lovely like set a proper value on his marked affection. No man 
more amable than John H. Claiborne not only as an affectionate 
Parent a [kind?] master, but a sinere friend, and one of the Most 
dutiful Sons I ever saw. He was also prudent in the management 
of his domestic affairs, for he kept a Handsome Estate together, 
though could never increase it; he always lived genteely & enter- 
tained much company. This perhaps in some measure prevented 
[an increase of his estate] this union produced two lovely Daugh- 
ters & a dutiful Son, all of whom married in families of wealth 
and respectability. 

Thomas is the Next Son. A more honest, a more amiable, & a 
better Man never lived, a Man of fine Mind, & notwithstanding 
his apparent exertions, he yet coiild not even keep his handsome 
Estate together during life, & now reduced almost to poverty, he 
married a Miss Scott, the Daughter of a Scotch Gentleman who 
married a Miss Cocke on James River. Thos. is now living in 
New Kent County and has two Sons & two Daughters one of which 
Sous Thomas, I learn is doing well. 

Richard Cook is the Next Son, he died about 1818 leaving a 



10 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

pretty Estate to an only Son, who soon got through it, & who ap- 
peared to have all necessary Sence but that requsite to take care of 
himself. Richd C. married the only Daughter of Philip Jones of 
Dinwiddie, by whom he got an Estate of $20 or $30 thousand Dol- 
lars which with his own handsome property was a good deal les- 
sened before his death. Richd was bred to the Law, & though well 
educated too rich & too lasy to practice ; an amiable Man & his wife 
a sweet a little woman as I ever saw & Richard knew it & loved 
her sincerely. She died soon after marriage & he never married 
again. 

Bathurst is the Next. He was born when his Mother was about 
forty Eight years of age, her darling if she had one, which I ques- 
tion, for no woman on Earth ever made a fonder Mother, or de- 
lighted in her Children Yeas ; her Grand & Great Grand Children, 
than she did. Bathursts first wife was a Miss Bott of Chesterfield, 
a Daughter of Colo. John Bott. I think she was one among the 
Handsome women of the day. she, poor Girl enjoyed the married 
state but a little while, for she was married on Thursday, the Sun- 
day following went to Church, & there taken sick and died the 
Wednesday following, Year 1796. Bathurst next married Miss 
Mary Leigh Claiborne, a near relation, & Daughter of Wm. Clai- 
borne of Manchester & sister of Governor Wm C. C. Claiborne of 
New Orleans & the Hbl Nathl. Claiborne & Genl. Ferdinand L. 
Claiborne of the state of Tenesee. He had by this marriage one 
Son & two Daughters, what has become of them I know not, but 
have understood that the Honl. H. Claborne an old Batchellor has 
taken them as his adopted Children. Bathurst like the other Sons 
(except Herbert the elder who had a Princely estate) had a very 
fine estate & like them nearly exausted it before his death. He 
& his wife both died about the year 1810, he possest all the good 
qualities of man thats necessary to be beloved except the one of 
knowing how to take care of Money. 

Next comes the Daughters of Colo. Agustin Claiborne, & their 
Husbands. Oh Heaven, could there have been, from what I have 
ever seen, & heard, more lovely mortals? [obliterated by 
folding of page] . . all . heard spoken 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 11 

off even by strangers, and those by no way connected or 
related to them in most exalted terms. Finely educated of easy 
and genteel deportment with that modest and gentle demeanor 
that always accompany s good sence, and good breeding with a 
share of Beauty; two particularly, that perhaps was scarcely ex- 
celled by any of their day. His eldest Daughter Mary married 
Charles Harrison 8 about the year 1763, who was the youngest Son 
of Colo. Benj. Harrison of Berlcly Va. laying immediately on the 
North side of James Eiver, about Ten miles below City Point, 
which Handsome estate is now at this distant day in the posses- 
sion off & owned by Benj. Harrison the Great Grand Son, a man 
of fine education, & j)ff the true old Virginian character in his 
whole deportment. This union took place at an early age, Charles 
not quite nineteen, & sweet lovely Mary just compleating her Six- 
teenth year; often have I heard them spoken off by those before 
me, in exalted terms for their many accomplishments, their high, 
noble, modest & genteel deportment & her extream Beauty, & his 
manly & polished Manners; this could not be otherwise, for they 
were brought up in the most polished circles, and under Parents 
of the first standing, for their knowledge, their property, their 
wealth & universal good conduct. This lovely Mary died about 
1776. By this Union had issue three Sons & three Daughters 
Charles the eldest Son. Yeas I knew Charles & I would, I could, 
say off, & do justice to his merits. But this I cannot do, I will 
not offer to eligise one whose merits are beyond my praise. At 
Sixteen he entered a Volunteer in a troop of Cavalry, that waa 
raised by a company of Young men of fortune & who elected one 
of them Mr. Carter Page as their Capt., there were about sixty 
of these young men, who furnished & equipped themselves, & of- 
fered their services free of cash to their oppressed & invaded Coun- 
try for Six Months, some few of them I knew to wit Jno. H. 
Claiborne uncle to Charles Harrison, Eoger Atkinson of Chester- 
field, William Ruffin late of Roily N. [Raleigh] Carolina, James 
Clack of King William &c. I have heard many annecdotes of 

&See post for Harrison reference. 



12 WILLIAM AND MAEY QUARTERLY 

Charles while in this Volunteer troop all all though bearing him 
out as he proved to the last, though then young, a Boy of un- 
daunted courage. In the year 1794 he was appointed by Genl. 
Washington then President of the United States, a Capt in the 
regular army & was stationed at Fort Norfolk or fort Nelson Va. 
I forgot which ; he there had some missunderstanding with a Leut. 
Wilson of the U. S. Army, a Duel ensued & Charles fell, universally 
beloved by I believe all that knew him. 

The Next Son was Augustine, he died an infant. 

The Next was Benj. Henry. A sincere friend, an honest Man. 
But like all his relatives could not take care of the needfull 
(Money) he had some foibles, but these a drop in the Bucket to 
his other good qualities. 

Now For the Daughters of Charles & Mary Harrison formerly 
Mary Claiborne. Their Elder Daughter, Mary Herbert, married 
her own Cousin, the Son of her Mothers Sister; John Herbert 
Peterson This Dr. Mary is my Bosome companion, my amiable 
wife, to whom I have been married this very year, thirty five years, 
and in all this time I have never repented my puppy selection, and 
yet do pray a kind providence to continue the union, that has 
produced so much happiness, so much comfort, and so many bless- 
ings as long as in his Wisdom he has intended mortals to enjoy 
in this live. This happy Unon took place on the 9t. of April 
1795, the most beautiful day I ever saw, every tree loaded with 
blossoms, & all nature appeared to be smiling Of my lovely Mary, 
a great god knows my feeling This happy Union produced five 
Children, the two first (Daughters) died in a few days after 
Birth, they just entered this world, found it unpleasant & by a 
Kind Maker, bid it adieu for a Better. 

The third Child was a Son, my only Son christened Jno. Au- 
gustine, possessing in my humble opion (perhaps too portial) 
every quality that constitutes a good Man, no Child more dutiful, 
no Man more honourable, & none a more sincere friend or a Bet- 
ter Master, an affectionate Brother, & a loving & sincerely affection- 
ate Husband & Father He has been married & to a lovely & 
Buteful woman, who possessed all those accomplishments & virtues 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 13 

thats an ornament to the female. By this fine & lovely woman, 
my Son had two Children A Son who was called after his Father, 
& a Daughter called Virginia after her Mother, two sweet little 
creatures, (But here? the cloven Foot) perhaps as they are mine 
is the cause. After this last Burth a Daughter, this sweet Vir- 
ginia departed this life with a consumption in the year 1824. She 
was the Elder Daughter of John Jas. & Ann H. Thweatt of Tren- 
ton Virginia, both of whomVere the decendants of reputable & 
high standing families. 

The Next child of Jno. & Mary Peterson, [John Herbert Peter- 
son and Mary H., his wife], was a Daughter, Lucy Ann, always 
of delicate & weakly constitution, but by the good care of herself, 
& an affectionate Motner she lived to the age of 27 & departed 
this life in Oct. 182'8. She married in her 22 year, Wm. H. Young, 
of the Town of Petersburg, a deserving, meritorious & amiable 
Man, and an affectionate Husband; this good Man, stands it ap- 
pears alone; he has no Father, no Mother, no Brother, no Sister, 
no Uncle Aunt or any relation or connection on eath that he knows 
of He is the offspring of a German that came to America as a 
Cavalry Man (a Lieutenant) in the French Army during the re- 
volution & aided to establish our libertey. He married an Irish 
Lady, & he is the only issue, & both parents are no more. Though 
a mechanic, & he prides in it, his company is of the best & ... 
This Union produced issue three, one a still born Child & the other 
two, lovely babes Mary Harrison & Elian, two sweet babes that 
God thought best to take to his holy keeping. 

The Xext & last Child of Jno. & Mary Peterson is a Daughter, 
Maria Harrison, this little Daughter, is yet by the permission of a 
kind providence permitted to remain with us, & with her only 
Brother, are no doubt the blessing of a kind Maker to there aged 
parents parents, whom it is to be hoped will be ever thankfull for 
the blessing of having them to close the Eyes of there affectionate 
Parents This dear Daughter Maria, possest all the amiable 
qualities that parents could wish, or a husband could desire, she 
married Jno. Prentis, the third Son of Capt. Wm. Prentis of 
Petersburg of antient & respectable family &c, who emigrated to 
this Country (from England) long before the revolution, a de- 



14 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

cendant of an old & reputable family. By this Unon Maria has 
two Sons & one Daughter living to wit John Peterson, Thomas 
Augustine, & Maria she lost two sweet babes, her first Daughter 
Mary Harrison called after her Grandmother, & William called 
after his Grandfather Prentis. The Husband of my Daughter 
Maria, I would utter [ ?] in no respect whatever, except I could 
make him know how to take care of Money, he posses many amiable 
qualities, and none bad but the one just alluded to. He is a Man 
of fine education, & nature has been bounterfull & kind to him, 
but the needfull he knows not the value of. 

The Next Daughter of Charles & Mary Harrison married 
Matthew Murry Claiborne, a man of respectable family & Con- 
nestions. He was the Grand Son of one of Colo. Augustine Clai- 
bornes Brothers. 9 This Union produced two Sons Mathew, & 
Charles & three Daughters Susan, Martha, & Maria, this family 
has moved to the Town of Baltimore, and I am told there have 
formed respectable connections, the third & last Daughter of 
Charles & Mary Harrison, is named Elizabeth Bandolph. She 
married one of the most deserving of Men Daniel Claiborne Butts 
of Dinwiddie County, 10 now of Petersburg. This Union produced 
four Sons, John, Daniel, Augustine & four Daughters, Mary Har- 
rison, Martha, Louisa and - there are several of the Sons 
& Daughters married, who connected themselves, with good de- 
serving Men & amiable women of respectable families. 

The Next Daughter of Colo. Augustine Claiborne & Mary 
his wife This was Nancy she intermarried with Colo. Eichd 
Cocke of Surry County, 11 a decendant of one of our most respect- 
able families, by whom she had Children three, Eichd Herbert (now 
owner of Bacon Castle in Surry Va.) a relation I have been too 



Claiborne (brother of Col. Augustine Claiborne) married 
Mary Maury, and lived for a time in Lunenburg Co., and afterwards 
in Dinwiddie County, where he died. 

loGeneral Daniel Claiborne Butts was the son of John Butts, of 
Dinwiddie County, and his wife Mary Ann, daughter of Daniel and 
Mary (Maury) Claiborne. 

11 and i2See Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. v, 
pp. 75 and 76. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 15 

partial to, to say much of, except that I loved him & held him in 
the highest light. Augustin who died a Young Man, a practising 
Lawyer of great merit, & promis Lucy the only Daughter died 
about Sixteen, a sweet pretty girl of polished manners. Susan 
was the Next Daughter of Colo. Claiborne. She I knew but 
little of [ ?] when I was young, but I heard her spoken of 
in very favourable terms, she Married Frederick Jones of Din- 
widdie by whom she had a Son Augustine, & Mary who married 
a Mr. Withens [Withers?] of Dinwiddie and who mar- 
ried ... of Lunenburg or Macklingburg, of respectable, family 
I have been told. 

The Next Daughter of Colo. Claiborne was Elizabeth (My 
Mother) of this dear source of my existence I cannot, say enough, 
because she was too amiable & lovely in my eye to say enough of 
her. In beaty & noble deportment none surpassed him [her] a 
most dignified carriage, & a coentinance, & a demeanor that drew 
admiration, & applause from all who knew her. she died in the 
year 1794. Thirty Six years of age leaving issue refer to the 
History of my Father Thos. Peterson before given. 

The Next & last Daughter of Colo. Claiborne was Lucy Her- 
bert In beauty her equal scarcely ever seen, in form & mind, 
none superior, she married Colo. John Cocke, 12 younger Brother 
to Richard who married her sister Nancy Lucy left two Sons 
only; Herbert, & John Ruffin both of whom married in the most 
respectable familys in Halifax County Va. 

And Now for the History of My Grand Mother Claiborne Miss 
Mary Herbert. My Grand Mother Claiborne, was Mary Herbert 
the only issue of Buller Herbert, a Grand Son of Lord Herbert of 
England. 13 Buller with a Brother of his John Herbert, emigrated 
to Virginia from England at some early period about the year and 

iFor an account of what is verified about the Herbert family of 
Prince George County, see QUARTERLY, VIII, p. 148, and Virginia Maga- 
zine of History and Biography, XVIII, p. 190. It is not improbable 
that the Herbert connection in England could be worked out by piec- 
ing together the facts in the case and getting from Prerogative Court 
of Canterbury, and the court in London the wills of Herberts and 
Crammers. 



16 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

settled at a place now in Prince George County called Puddledock 
the residence at this time of Benj. Harrison of Mount Airy. John 
Herbert in some few years returned to England, & what else of him 
I know not. Buller Herbert the father of my Grand Mother Clai- 
borne married a Miss Mary Stith (of what family I dont know, 
but likely of the family in Brunswick, for she often spoke of her 
cousin Buckner Stith, & in that family in Brunswick their is one 
of that name, therefore it may be a family Name 14 ) and my 
Grand Mother was the only Child, her Father died while she was 
quite young leaving her sole Heir to an Estate of great value. 
Not less than three Hundred slaves, and in Dinwiddie County 
on the South side of appomattox River and Bordering on it for 

"Every genealogy published of the Herberts and Claibornes has 
made the statement that Mary Herbert (wife of Col Augustine Clai- 
borne) was daughter of Buller Herbert and Mary Stith. Some in- 
vestigation (though not very thorough) was made several years ago 
in order to try and identify this Mary Stith; but a reply in the nega- 
tive, to an inquiry addressed to the late Doctor Christopher Johnston, 
of Baltimore (who was at that time publishing a Stith genealogy in 
the QUARTERLY see vol. 21) put a stop to the investigation. It 
seemed indeed a hopeless undertaking if Doctor Johnston in his wide 
investigation had not run on some item that would serve to identify 
Mary (Stith) Herbert. The statement by Mr Peterson above "but 
likely of the family in Brunswick, for she [i. e., Mrs. Mary (Herbert) 
Claiborne, daughter of Buller and Mary (Stith) Herbert] often spoke 
of her cousin Buckner Stith, d in that family in Brunswick their [sic] 
is one of that name"; coupled with Mr Peterson's statement (see ante, 
p. ) that "Bathurst [son of Col. Augustine and Mary (Herbert) 
Claiborne] called after Lord Bathurst of England a Near relation 
of my grandmother Claiborne formerly Miss Herbert," seems certainly 
to point to Mary Stith's connection with the line descending from Col. 
Drury Stith (died 1741) of Charles City Co. and his wife Susanna 
Bathurst, daughter of Lancelot Bathurst, son of Sir Edward Bathurst. 
(See QUARTERLY, XXV, p. 182 et seq.) Mr. Peterson says that his own 
grandmother "often spoke of her cousin Buckner Stith." Now it is 
quite well verified that any one named Buckner Stith in that day de- 
scended from Col. Drury Stith, of Brunswick who married Elizabeth 
Buckner, and that Drury Stith was the son of Col. Drury Stith and 
Susannah Bathurst. As a matter of fact Drury and Elizabeth (Buck- 
ner) Stith, had a son Buckner Stith, who lived in Brunswick Co. and 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 17 

Fire or Six miles about fifteen Thousand acres of valuable Laud 
also on Monk-snake Creek in same County upwards of three thou- 
sands acres and in addition to this, the Puddledock estate, and a 
valuable tract of Land in Chesterfield County on the North side 
of appomattox River called Mattoax, and in addition to this sev- 
eral Lotts, & Houses in Boiling point, now called Petersburg with 
an interest also in Lots & Houses in the City of London In about 
fifteen or twenty years after the marriage of Colo. Claiborne with 
Miss Herbert, she had left her by will by a Near relation in Eng- 
land Mrs. Grammer a compleat square Block of Buildings in the 
City of London. This Estate in London much against the wishes 
of my Grand mother was sold, by Her Husband Colo. Claiborne, 



was a contemporary of Mrs. Mary (Herbert) Claiborne. The will of 
Col. Drury Stith, of Charles City Co. (who married Susannah 
Bathurst) was probated in 1741 in Charles City Co. but the will book 
in which it was recorded has been destroyed and only the probate 
order (in an Order Book) remains. The names of only three of the 
children of Drury and Susanna (Bathurst) Stith are known, viz.: 
(1) Drury, of Brunswick (2) William of Charles City, and (3) John, 
of Charles City. It is not at all improbable that there were other chil- 
dren; and when all of the facts, as above stated, are taken into con- 
sideration we have very good circumstantial evidence of the identity 
of Mrs. Mary (Stith) Herbert. It must be borne in mind that John 
Herbert Peterson was an own grandson of Mrs. Mary (Herbert) Clai- 
borne, whose mother was the Mary Stith under discussion; and 
(though we have not the date of Mrs. Mary [Herbert] Claiborne's 
death) it is not improbable that John Herbert Peterson had heard her 
allude to her cousin Buckner Stith (he says that "she often spoke of 
her cousin Buckner Stith": one would infer that the person so record- 
ing the fact had heard the party make the statement). John Herbert 
Peterson wrote his account in 1829; his father died in Nov. 1788 (see 
ante, page 4) and John Herbert Peterson makes the statement 
(see ante, page ) that he [the said John Herbert Peterson] was 
married in April 1795; from his allusion to his "puppy selection" 
(which turned out such a wonderful source of joy) one would Infer 
that he was quite young at the time, but probably not less than eigh- 
teen years old, which would place his birth in the year 1777. Equally 
hard problems in Virginia genealogy have been solved before, and the 
coming years may reveal some hitherto undiscovered document that 
may settle this interesting "Mary Stith" matter. 



18 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

to a Company in London for Eighty one thousand pounds Sterling, 
about three Hundred & seventy Thousand Dollars. Thun you see, 
the emence estate Miss Herbert brought her Husband ; and though 
Herbert Claiborne her eldest son, had wasted a handsome estate 
given him by his Father yet his being the elder Son & from the 
partiality of his Father, he had a draft on this House in London for 
fiften thousand pounds of the purchase Money; and all could not 
answer his extravagance & wastf ull disposition. It is [told ?] that 
notwithstanding Grand Father Claiborne was call a violent Whig, 
& a strenuous supporter of the Revolution, yet my grand Mother 
was quite the reverse, she was for nobility & distinction & he for 
liberty & equality. No Man, and no Lady ever stood hier than 
Colo. Claiborne & his Lady, with every description of reputable 
people, for their gentility, ther virtue & grandure & universal 
good conduct. No Man a more affectionate loving husband and 
no lady a more affectionate, loving & dutiful wife, his only fault 
was he indulged his Son too much, in their wishes of extravagance 
& Idleness. They could not move without a Servant with a large 
poartmantue & horse following them, & every thing of a [piece?] 
&c. 

Thus endeth the scetch, or narrative, of my family, on my 
Fathers & my Mothers side, and also on the Side of my Wifes 
Mother and it is with pleasure I can say, that I never have heard, 
of a disrespectable charge against one of the Males or feemales, in 
my life, not of Virtue or integrity, on the part of the fee Male 
or Honesty on the part of the Male. The only charges I have ever 
heard was that the Male Claibornes generally, & my Father also, 
were too extravagant, & did not take care of their estates, for- 
geting it was their duty to provide for old age, & their Children, 
and this is a trate I do not admire in them I have felt severely 
the smart of it. 

Next Comes the narative or scetch of my Wifes Fathers family 
J. H. P. [i. e., John Herbert Peterson] Wifes Father was Chas. 
Harrison, the younger Son of Colo. Benjamin Harrison of Berk- 
ley on Jas. River. 15 he married Ann Carter the Aunt of the late 



a full account of the Harrison family, see Keith's Ancestry 
of Benjamin Harrison. 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 19 

Chas. Carter of Shirley Colo. Harrison of Berkley was killed 
by lightning in 1742 as he opend the North door at Berkley, & at 
the same time or by the same flash of lightning 2 of his daughter 
were killed then young women. Colo. Harrison by his wife Miss 
Carter left 6 Sons & 3 daughters Benjn., Carter, Eobert, Henry, 
Nathaniel, Charles Benj. was the signer of the declaration of 
Independence & married Elizabeth Basset, sister of Colo. Burwell 
Basset of New-Kent County Va. Carter married a Miss Ran- 
dolph of Dungenest Sister of that Randolph & left several Chil- 
dren Robert married who I dont know Henry married a Miss 
Avery[?] Nathl. Miss Ruffin the daughter of Edmund Ruffin of 
Evergreen & Charles married a Mary Claiborn the daughter of 
Colo. Augt. Claiborn^ of Sussex the daughters Betsey married 
Peyton Randolph of Williamsburg (generally called Speaker Ran- 
dolph) speaker of the House of Burgesses & one of the signers of 
the declaration of Independence, both died without issue, the 
Next Daughter Ann married Colo. Wm. Randolph of Wilton who 
left issue Peyton &c, the Next Daughter Lucy married Capt. Ed- 
ward Randolph who went to England long before the Revolution, 
& died & left 2 children Harrison & Lucy. 



20 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 



JOHN BINNS OF LOUDOUK 
By Rodney H. True.* 

It is probable that if Thomas Jefferson had not mentioned him 
in a correspondence on agricultural matters with Sir John Sinclair 
and Mr. William Strickland of England a little over a hundred 
years ago, the name of John Alexander Binns, of Loudoun County, 
Virginia, would long since have passed permanently into oblivion. 
As it is, he has been well-nigh forgotten. Jefferson's testimony, 
however, continues to call our attention to a little book "written 
in the plain stile" for fellow farmers, a book which discovers an 
act of social service and gives us glimpses of a personality which 
seems distinctly to merit consideration. Mr. Jefferson, President 
of the United States, turning from trouble at home at the hands 
of his bitter enemies, the Federalists, and from the perplexities 
incident to steering his country in a peaceful course amid the bois- 
terous seas of foreign war, addresses Sir John Sinclair, the head 
of the English Board of Agriculture as follows: 

"Washington, June 30, 1803. 
Dear Sir 

It is long since I had the pleasure of hearing from you, of which 
I take the blame on myself acknoledging myself to be entirely 
the defaulter, with a mass generally before me which will not ad- 
mit delay, I have suffered those things to lie too long which might 
bear some postponement without reproach, knowing your love of 
agriculture, and your skill in it, I could not pretermit the occa- 
sion of sending you the enclosed pamphlet on the use of gypsum, 
by a mr. Binns, a plain farmer, who understands handling his 
plough better than his pen. he is certainly somewhat of an en- 
thusiast in the use of this manure; but he has a right to be so. 
the result of his husbandry proves his confidence in it well found 

*Botanical Department, University of Pennsylvania. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 21 

for from being poor, it has made him rich, the county of Loudoun 
in which he live[s] exhausted & wasted by bad husbandry, has, 
from his example, become the most productive one in Virginia: 
and its lands, from being the lowest, sell at the highest prices, 
these facts speak more strongly for his pamphlet than a better ar- 
rangement & more polished phrases would have done, were I now 
a farmer I should surely adopt the gypsum, but when I found 
myself called from home for four years certain, perhaps for eight, 
I leased the farms in which I had begun the course of husbandry 
which you saw: obliging the tenant to continue the same, he 
does so in a good degree, and I have reason to be content with the 
result." 


Jefferson then turns to discuss Napoleon and the European 

War. 

On the same day he addresses a letter to Mr. William Strick- 
land, likewise of the Board of Agriculture. Jefferson had had the 
pleasure of entertaining Mr. Strickland at Monticello, on the occa- 
sion of his visit to America some years before when he had shown 
to that gentleman an improved plow of his own design novel for 
America in being made wholly of iron. 

"Washington June 30. 1803. 
Dear Sir 

It is so long since I had the pleasure of writing to you, that it 
would be vain to look back to dates to connect the old & the new. 
yet I ought not to pass over my acknoledgements to you for vari- 
ous publications received from time to time, and with great satis- 
faction and thankfulness. I send you a small [a short word is 
here torn from the mss.] in return, the work of a very unlettered 
farmer, yet valuable, as it relates plain facts of importance to 
farmers, you will discover that Mr. Binns is an enthusiast for 
the use of gypsum, but there are two facts which prove he has a 
right to be so. 1. he began pour, & has made himself tolerably 
rich by his farming alone. 2. the county of Loudoun, in which he 
lives, had been so exhausted & wasted by bad husbandry, that it 
began to depopulate, the inhabitants going Southwardly in quest 



22 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

of better lands. Binn's success has stopped that emigration, it is 
now becoming on[e] of the most productive counties of the state 
of Virginia, and the price given for the lands is multiplied mani- 
fold." 

Again the War and Napoleon succeed John Binns and his 
gypsum. 

It seems clear that both of the gentlemen addressed received 
their copies of Binns' little book and gave them prompt attention. 
Eeplies from both are to be seen in the Division of Manuscripts of 
the Library of Congress, accompanied by the copies of the letters 
from Jefferson just quoted. 

Sir John Sinclair, writing from Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, 
on New Year's day, 1804. to that greatest of democrats, addresses 
his reply to "His Highness, Thomas Jefferson." 

"Dear Sir, 

On various accounts, I received with much pleasure, your ob- 
liging letter of the 30th of June last, which only reached me, at 
this place, on the 19th of November. I certainly feel highly in- 
debted to Mr. Binns, both for the information contained in the 
pamphlet he has drawn up ; and also, for his having been the means 
of inducing you to recommence our correspondence together, for the 
purpose of transmitting a paper, which does credit to the practical 
farmers of America. 

As to the Plaster of Paris, which Mr. Binns so strongly recom- 
mends, it is singular, that whilst it proves such a source of fer- 
tility with you, it is of little avail, in any part of the British Is- 
lands, Kent alone accepted. I am thence inclined to conjecture, 
that its greatest advantage must arise from its attracting moisture 
from the atmosphere, of which we have in great abundance in these 
kingdoms without the intervention of that agent; and the benefit 
which has been found from the use of this article in Kent, (one 
of the dryest Counties in England) tends to countenance this hypo- 
thesis." . . . 

Mr. Strickland's reply is written but a fortnight later, and is 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 23 

interesting as showing that while the pamphlet sent by Jefferson 
greatly interested him, the subject of gypsum in agriculture was 
not new and had received some attention at his hands. 

"York, JanT 13th, 1804. 
"Dear Sir 

"Your letter of the 30th of June, I received on the 22d of 
October, since which time I have been waiting for a safe conveyance 
of my answer. I am highly flattered by your recollection, particu- 
larly at a period when you must be occupied by so many mo- 
mentous engagements, an unwillingness to interrupt which has 
been the cause of my long silence. I have many times wished for 
an opportunity of expressing my respect for you, & congratulating 
you & your country on the elevated rank you now hold, equally to 
your honour & the benefit of your Country. 

I have read with attention & satisfaction the unassuming narra- 
tive of your practical farmer, & have no hesitation in confiding in 
what he relates. My countrymen who know nothing of the use of 
gypsum will hardly give credit to the account, but I who have 
paid all the attention to it in my power, in the country where it is 
used, & have witnessed the surprising effects produced by it, can 
without hesitation give credit to a little more than I have seen. 

Confirmed as I am at present in a town life, in order more ad- 
vantageously to educate a very numerous family, I have never been 
able to make the various experiments on gypsum, which my knowl- 
edge of the application of it in America, has enabled me to plan, 
& which I certainly shall execute as soon as I am able, for though 
I could, by communicating them to others, have them sooner 
brought to the proof, yet should they fail under such a person's 
management, the practice might at once be brought into discredit, 
& farther trials be totally put a stop to; whereas under my own 
direction they might succeed, which would more than compensate 
for the loss of time. Certain it is that many trials on the utility 
of Gypsum have been made in this country, but either from in- 
judicious management or some peculiarity of our climate, no suc- 
cess has attended them, nor any benefit that can be reived on. Xo 
country could reap greater advantage from the use of Gypsum 



24 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

than England & this part of it in particular, since no country 
produces it in greater variety or purity, and within ten miles or a 
little more of this city, it is found to the East, the South, & the 
West in inexhaustible quantity. While on the subject of Gypsum 
it may not be useless to mention, that after having witnessed the 
effect of it in America & wishing to ascertain the quality of what 
is produced here, I had a considerable quantity got in this neigh- 
bourhood, imported into N. York from Hull, & wag informed by 
the manufacturer there, that he had never ground any of so fine a 
quality, & I have heard that it answered equally well in the use; 
Upon gaining this information I endeavored to make it known to 
the Masters of American Vessels that it might be procured at 
Hull, & that were it only substituted for ordinary ballast, each 
vessel might take 20, or 30 tuns, by which a considerable saving 
might be made, that persons at Hull had usually a supply by them 
& that, an increased demand would insure it; but I believe little 
consequence has attended any attempt, so difficult is it to make an 
alteration in the usual course of practice. I believe the price at 
Hull is generally about 20/sterl: a tun & it might be delivered 
cheaper, & would be if the demand was increased, as it does not 
cost at the pitts more than 4/ or 5/. 

In return for the pamphlet you were so obliging as to send, I 
transmit to you (not know of anything at present more valuable 
to communicate) the corrected Agricultural survey of this part of 
the County drawn up under the direction of the Board of Agricul- 
ture. It will serve as a specimen of the manner in which these 
surveys are drawn up, not more than a third part of which are yet 
published & this is thought to be one of the best. The author is a 
practical Quaker farmer residing near this City with whom I am 
well acquainted & being the survey of my own country, I can vouch 
for the accuracy of it. It may not prove so full & complete a de- 
scription, as you or any person unacquainted with the general 
practice of agriculture in this Kingdom might wish, because some 
practices of universal notoriety are omitted, as are also some less 
generally known, but which had been fully treated of in other 
surveys previously published ; but it is as complete as was necessary 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 25 

for this country." ., _. . The remaining pages are largely given 
up to Napoleon. 

Through these unpublished letters we are put in possession of 
more information concerning John Alexander Binns than is avail- 
able in any published work known to the writer. 1 

The services of this pioneer experimenter seem to have received 
greater recognition than the man himself, since in contemporary 
prints, one finds references to the Loudoun system in much the 
same matter-of-course way in which the Norfolk system in Eng- 
land is mentioned. The work spoke for itself but had little to say 
of the man who was its author. 

It cannot be claimtd for Binns that he first pointed out the 
importance of the service rendered by gypsum. This had been 
done some years before by Judge Eichard Peters and Jacob Barge, 
and by still others of Philadelphia, and earlier still by German 
farmers near Leipsic. Binns, though ridiculed and scoffed at, be- 
came its prophet and proceeded to demonstrate to Loudoun County 
what gypsum could do for it. His experiments, briefly described in 
the little book that caught Jefferson's eye, were begun in 1784, 
when he procured from a ship's captain at Alexandria in the neigh- 
boring county of Fairfax, "two small stones, weighing about 15 
Ibs. which I beat with a sledgehammer, pounded it fine in a mortar, 
and sifted it through a hair sifter." The resulting powder was 
given to a tenant with instructions that it be put on some four or 
five hundred hills of Indian corn. Experiments with blue grass, 
clover and other forage crops, wheat, rye, barley and other grains 
followed. Applications were made to all types of soil found on 
his lands and the different sorts and grades of plaster coming to 
Alexandria were tested. He had thus studied the action of gypsum 
for nineteen years before he put pen to paper in 1803 to tell what 
he had learned of this new and invaluable substance. A second edi- 

iThe letter from Jefferson to Sinclair has already been printed in 
the twenty-volume Memorial Edition of Jefferson's works, but the 
remainder of the correspondence, so far as I have observed is to be 
found only in the collection of Jefferson Manuscripts in the Library 
of Congress at Washington. 



26 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

tion, differing from the first in the addition of some short essays 
on agricultural subjects, but chiefly in the addition of a long series 
of certificates from persons in a position to know the facts, regard- 
ing the accuracy of Binn's account, appeared in 1804. 

Here our knowledge of Binns seems to end. His name is lost 
while the "Loudoun system" grows and becomes famous as a cause 
of agricultural progress in many parts of the country, especially 
in the South. 

It might seem that this were a fitting ending to the story, in 
harmony with the character of the obscure man who was at the 
heart of it and sufficient as a recognition of the limited and hum- 
ble service he rendered in his day. There is, however, a touch of 
something in his little book unnoted in Jefferson's comment. There 
runs through it an element of high purpose, a sincere anxiety for 
the general good which led him to face indifference and ridicule, 
and even reflections on his honesty, in order that he might per- 
suade others for their own good to break with habit and to try the 
new way. His book lacks all attempts at literary grace, presenting 
a plain tale with a bold simplicity of style. The phraseology, 
though to Jefferson that of an unlettered man, was that of one 
used to short words sparingly employed and chosen as by one more 
familiar with the English of the Bible and of the Puritans than 
with the Greek and Latin classics. Here was an elementally plain 
man, so socially minded in agricultural matters that he could not 
do other than preach his gospel the gospel of gypsum. It is not 
given to many men tied by their circumstances to the soil to make 
a poor county the richest in a great state and to make that county 
the synonym of progress among thinking men in all parts of the 
nation. The character and the achievement of John Binns of 
Loudoun County perhaps justify some inquiry into the ordinary 
circumstances of his life. 

In this quest, the writer has had recourse chiefly to two sources : 
first, the editions of the book already referred to, and second, the 
official records of Loudoun County at Leesburg, Va. Of great help 
has been the aid given by Judge Kichard H. Tebbs, of Leesburg, 
a descendant of Charles Binns, junior, the younger brother of the 
John A. Binns with whom we are now concerned. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 27 

Although its author had no other thought than to present the 
subject of gypsum, the book itself is autobiographical to a high 
degree. The naive, almost child-like way of telling his story 
argues a man who had not become sophisticated and diplomatic. 
His self-revelation is as unconscious as it is unintended. He evi- 
dently lived near enough to the Potomac River to know familiarly 
certain of its islands and to have dealings in Frederick [town], 
Maryland. He lived near enough to "Catocktin Mountain" to be 
acquainted with crop and soil conditions in that neighborhood. 
This would seem to indicate that he lived in that part of the coun- 
try settled by emigration of Virginia farmers from the tide water 
country. North were the Germans and West were the Quakers. 

There were several 'groups of families by the name of Binns in 
older parts of Virginia. Surry county was perhaps the earliest and 
chief seat of people of this name. That branch of the family, 
however, which concerns us most appears in the records of Loudoun 
County at the date of its separation from Fairfax County in 1756. 2 
Charles Binns, of whom nothing prior to that date has been learned, 
became the first Clerk of Loudoun County, an office which he held 
until his death in 1796, 3 forty years later. In 17A6 he was a vigor- 
ous man probably approaching middle age. He lived in Leesburg, 
the county seat, located near the Potomac in that part of the coun- 
try that had been occupied by Virginia planters coming from the 
tide water regions in search of new lands. He was clearly a man 
of affairs in whom people had confidence and he had certainly been 
used to doing business. 

Such a study of the records of Loudoun County as the writer 
has thus far been able to make indicate that all the early Binnses 
of Loudoun, with but one possible exception, are descended from 
this Charles Binns. The possible exception is William Binns, of 

aJohnston. Memorials of Virginia Clerks, 1888:239. 

^According to Johnston, the death of Charles Binns took place 
In 1796, but the records of Loudoun County show that his will was 
made in 1800 and probated in July of the following year. 



28 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Loudoun who for three years served as a private in the Virginia 
line of the Continental army in the Revolution. 4 

Charles Binns was the father of John Alexander Binns, the 
writer of the little book on gypsum, who in the course of time was 
to rescue Loudoun County from its "land-murdering" owners. Al- 
though the records fail to tell us whence he came or when he 
was born, they do give us considerable information concerning 
this first clerk of Loudoun County. 

On April 17, 1760, probably at approximately the date of 
Charles Binns' marriage to Ann Alexander, the father of the bride 
settles on his daughter certain property. The deed of gift begins 
in these words : "I, John Alexander, the Eldest of Stafford County 
Gent, for and in consi deration of the natural Love and Affection 
which I have and do bear to my daughter Ann Binns wife of 
Charles Binns of Loudoun County Gent, and for and in considera- 
tion of the marriage already had and solemnized by and between 
the said Charles and Ann and for their better maintenance, liveli- 
hood and support and for other good causes and considerations me 
hereunto moving." Then, after the usual preliminary form, he 
presents her with five slaves, six head of horses, twelve head of 
cattle, two beds and furniture, and ten barrels of Indian corn. 8 
This document seems to establish the social class to which Binns, 
as well as his wife's family, belonged. It further conveyed con- 
siderable valuable property. The fact that this gift consisted 
largely of such items as would be valuable only when employed on 
a considerable area of land seems to indicate that Mr. Binns was 
already the owner of a fair number of acres which may not have 
been under cultivation or the crop from which was not to be his 
property. At all events, his father-in-law seems to have deemed it 
wise to present with the slaves and live stock enough Indian corn 
to provide for their maintenance until a crop could be grown. 

This marriage seems to have been followed by a long life to- 
gether, the husband dying first. Charles Binns' will, 6 drawn in 

KJrozier. Virginia County Records 9:27, 1911. 
Deed Book, B, folio 49. 
Will Book F, 317. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 29 

December, 1800, was probated in July of the following year, his 
wife and the two older sons being appointed as executors. Bond 
to the sum of $15,000 each was provided by them. The terms of 
the will and the items of the inventory of the estate are of interest 
chiefly as throwing further light on the constitution and conditions 
of the family to which the eldest son, with whom we are especially 
concerned, belonged. That the family affairs had not suffered dur- 
ing his life is shown by the fact that in his will, Charles Binns 
disposed of 2109 acres in specified areas, 240 acres being in Lou- 
doun County, the remainder being in Kentucky, and of a further 
indefinite area in that state divided among his five sons. Ample 
provision was made for his wife's future in the following words: 
"I give to my beloved wife Ann Binns my clock to be by her dis- 
posed of as she shall think proper by will or otherwise and I also 
give unto my said wife the use of all my Estate both real and per- 
sonal to be by her possessed during her natural life . . . ' The 
area containing the family burying ground was given to his son 
William Alex. Binns. In addition to these legacies, Binns had 
previously presented land to each of his sons under such terms as 
suggest that their coming of age was in some cases celebrated in 
this substantial way. In a deed dated September 7, 1782, T John 
Alexander, the oldest son, was presented with 220 acres and build- 
ings, located doubtless in Loudoun County. 

An examination of the Inventory 8 of the estate of Charles 
Binns Sen. showed him to be the owner of 19 slaves valued at 
$2,316. The live stock, grain supply, flax machinery, loom and 
warping mill throw much light on the nature of the operations 
likely to have been carried on in the Loudoun county of his day. Of 
interest is the valuation of the "Franklin lightning rod" at $2. 
The books listed are such as to justify our guess that the Binns 
family were Dissenters. Three volumes of Wesley on the New 
Testament, Wesley's Life, Wesley's Sermons, two volumes of the 
Armenian's Magazine, six volumes of Stackhouse's History of the 
Bible, seven volumes of Whiteley's Commentaries, together with 

TDeed Book N, folio 367. 
Will Book F, folio 322. 



30 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Sherlock on Death, a hymn book, and a copy of the Discipline 
of the Methodist church. These names have no uncertain sound. 
The family of Charles and Ann Binns has already been briefly 
alluded to. There were five boys, John Alexander, our author, 
doubtless the oldest, Charles junior, Simon Alexander, Thomas 
Neilson, and William Alexander, and four daughters, Susanna 
Pearson, who married Alexander Waugh, Anne Alexander, who 
married William H. Harding, Catherine Alexander, who married 
Wesley Adams of Fairfax County and was deceased prior to the 
making of the will. 

Of this family our interest chiefly concerns the oldest son, John 
Alexander, for it was he who later saved Loudoun County. No 
records thus far seen give the date of his birth. If we assume that 
the farm given him by his father on Sept. 7, 1782, was a present 
celebrating his coming of age, the date sought would be found in 
1761. There is little evidence to either disprove or confirm this 
supposition. This date would fall about one year and four months 
after the probable date of the marriage of his parents. Another 
significant date in the life of John A. Binns was March, 1781, 
when he was recommended by the gentlemen justices of the county 
court of Loudoun County to the Governor for appointment to the 
position of first lieutenant in the militia, 9 his brother Charles 
being at the same time recommended for the second lieutenancy. 
In order to be recommended for the position of lieutenant, it would 
be expected that the person in question should have reached years 
of discretion and should have demonstrated in his every day rela- 
tions with men that he could accept such responsibility and would 
be accepted by his men. Assuming 1761 as the year of Binns' 
birth, he would have about reached his majority when recommended 
for the command in the militia. The considerations mentioned do 
not establish the date of the birth of our Loudoun County farmer 
but seem to the writer to make it probable that he was born in 
the year 1761. 

For information concerning his further course in life, we find 
much in the records of the county that he made famous, and in his 

Crozier. Virginia County Records 9:54, 1911. 



WILLIAM AND MART QUARTERLY 31 

book. After receiving the farm from his father in 1782', we may 
suppose him to have promptly attacked the problem of running it. 
At all events, two years later, in 1784, we find him as his book 
relates, at Alexandria, probably his chief place of business, getting 
the stones which he powdered and had sown on his Indian corn. 
This farm was probably near Leesburg, where he lived on the tract 
given him in 1782 not far from his father, now aged but still first 
Clerk of the County. This seems to have remained his place of 
residence till 1793, when he pithily relates, "After getting this 
plantation to produce luxuriant crops of grass by the use of plaister, 
in the years 1788, '89, '90, '91, and '92, 1 exchanged it for the place 
I now live on. It was generally thought by my friends that I was 
going to a place which* was worn out, and that I must starve on 
it." 10 He tells in succeeding pages how this farm under gypsum, 
clover and deep plowing became very productive and was visited 
by people from various parts of Virginia and Maryland who came 
to see the "Loudoun system" in operation. This place seems to 
have still been his place of residence at the time of writing his 
book in 1803 and 1804. 

The records at Leesburg show that Binns began in 1793 to buy 
tracts of land large and small in Loudoun County, a lot in Lees- 
burg being a minor item. Up to 1797 his transactions are chiefly 
purchases. After that time he buys and sells actively for many 
years. Owing to some difficulty in tracing individual tracts, the 
writer has not attempted to determine the profits coming to Binns 
but from such evidence as is at hand, they seem to have been sub- 
stantial. 

For several years he was in possession of a mill at which he 
seems to have ground the lump gypsum from Nova Scotia for sale. 11 
This mill was located in a settlement (p. 39) and was doubtless 
one of the many small mills scattered plentifully through those 
parts of the wheat country that were supplied with water power, 



, John A. A Treatise on Practical Farming. 1st ed: 
5, 1803. 

uBinns, J. A. A Treatise on Practical Farming, ed. 1:33-35. 

1804. 



32 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

possibly along Goose Creek. Here he doubtless combined busi- 
ness with his efforts for the public welfare. He seems not only to 
have demonstrated gypsum on his place but to have been an active 
missionary in its favor, and to have met some of the experiences 
usually met by missionaries. On one occasion he presented a bushel 
of "plaister" to a doubting neighbor, upon the condition that he 
would buy a like quantity and sow it on his meadow and grain, 
"hoping from the operation it would encourage other farmers to 
use more largely." This the neighbor reluctantly agreed to do, 
Binns himself assisting in the sowing of the plaster. No imme- 
diate results appearing, the farmer complained that his money 
had been thrown away. The year following he "acknowledged that 
he never got in one year one half of the grass he did this . . . 
This convinced many of the farmers, and was the means of my 
selling a great quantity of the plaister, altho' about this time I 
was much persecuted about it." Binris "gave some to an old and 
aged farmer in the settlement and directed him to sow it on some 
speargrass (bluegrass). It was with difficulty I could prevail on 
him to take the trouble of taking it home and sowing it ... 
The year following he purchased 30 or 40 bushels of me and has 
since by the use thereof made his farm rich, and his stock of horses 
and cattle constantly fat and in fine condition. About the same 
time there was another circumstance happened. I was at a public 
place ridiculed by a gentleman about plaister, he declared that he 
verily believed flint stones equal to plaister; after scoffing at me 
and deriding the use of it, I offered to compliment him with a 
bushel, if he would try the experiment; after this he was so well 
pleased with it as to be induced the year following to purchase 
several tons, as I am informed ; upon discoursing with him on that 
subject, since, I find him a warm advocate in favour of its virtues." 
Thus he worked among his neighbors persuading the reasonable, 
almost forcing gypsum without price on the more ignorant and 
prejudiced. It must, therefore, have given him great satisfaction 
in 1803 to be able to witness the general prosperity that followed 
his efforts, (p. 38) "The difference it has made on the farms of 
my neighbors, who have (generally) made use of this valuable 
manure in sufficient quantities, in the course of two or three years 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 33 

past, would astonish any man who knew them before the use of the 
plaister; and should see them now with a crop growing thereon. 
First, they yield nearly double the corn off the same quantity ef 
ground that they did before. Secondly, farmers make three or 
four times the wheat that they did prior to using it; . . . the 
greatest complaint at present is against its luxuriant growth, and 
their force not being sufficient to get the wheat threshed and manu- 
factured in the winter season, so as to get their flour to market 
before the next harvest. I do not think that the millers in the 
compass of ten miles square, in the settlement where I live, al- 
though a great many of them, will be able to manufacture much 
above one half ; there are some in the settlement that will be obliged 
to desist from thresliing, being unable to find room in the mills, 
or "yet deposit any more in their granaries/' He proceeds to tell 
how by the use of plaister (p. 41) "lands which at present are eo 
light and subject to be washed in gullies, will become stiff and 
prevent the washing away of the soil." 

Who can deny to our humble agricultural prophet the genuine- 
ness of his inspiration or the great reward that came to him through 
the bursting granaries of his neighbors! 

But he was not to be allowed the joy of his triumph without 
alloy. Those who came and saw, believed, and they were a great 
number from different parts of his own state and some from be- 
yond the Potomac. His book, written after an experience of nine- 
teen years with gypsum, and at the request of his "friends and ac- 
quaintances as well as of sundry persons from a distance/' was not 
convincing to all who read it, and the accuracy of his statements 
was challenged. These doub tings were brought to his attention 
and like the missionary who realizes that his message must be 
received before it can save, he immediately set about the task of 
convincing these Thomases. While his first edition was still being 
advertised by the publisher, John B. Colvin, the editor of the Re- 
publican Advocate of Frederick-Town, Maryland, Binns announced 
in the columns of this paper that a supplement was being prepared 
which, in addition to further notes on gypsum and other matters 
of farm practice, should include certificates from many who knew 
his farms before and after his occupation, stating what changes 



34 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

had taken place and by what means these changes had been wrought. 
This list of witnesses to the honesty and accuracy of John Binns 
included almost all sorts and conditions of men. 

Neighbors who had seen the wonders wrought testified. W. H. 
Washington, Samuel Tillett, Israel Lacey, William H. Harding, 
and others said that he had told the truth. Congressman, (later, 
United States Senator), Richard Brent, of Prince William County, 
and Alexander Spotswood, the grandson of the old Royal Governor 
of the Colony of Virginia, for whom the County of Spotsylvania 
was named, testified to the correctness of his statements. Con- 
rad Verts, who helped to cradle the heavy grain testified to the 
difficulties experienced in cutting so heavy a crop and made his 
mark in the presence of witnesses to prove it. Samuel Ward, 
for many years Binns' right hand man in his farming and milling 
operations, testified to the accuracy of Binns' statement from long 
experience in contact with all operations. 

With this vindication, Binns seems to have closed his career as 
a writer. He states in the "Advocate" that copies of this supple- 
ment "will be lodged at sundry places as soon as time will permit" 
for the accommodation of those who purchased his book. 

This little pamphlet sold for the modest price of fifty cents 
and was probably printed in a small edition, the printer complain- 
ing of the scarcity of paper "among the paper mills" of the vicinity, 
a trouble he seeks to rectify by anxiously offering to buy rags at 
good prices in the hope of replenishing the supply. The little book 
is now hard to find, and the first edition, but for the copy pre- 
served by Jefferson and now treasured among that great man's 
books in the Library of Congress, would be well nigh lost. 

In spite of the fact that "it is not written in a scholastic stile" 
few books have been written in which more sound practical agri- 
culture is crowded into so small a space. Binns' chapter on the 
life history of the Hessian fly stands as a piece of careful observa- 
tion that might have done credit to Dr. Thomas Say himself. The 
three fundamental supports on which agricultural prosperity in 
Loudoun County rests were never more clearly or soundly appre- 
ciated: gypsum, clover and deep plowing. This was the back- 
bone of the famous "Loudoun System" which came to be recog- 



WILLIAM AND MAKY QUARTERLY 35 

nized as the progressive practice for that part of the country a 
hundred years ago. 

And what happened to the missionary himself? Again Lou- 
doun County records must answer. He seems to have continued 
to handle large areas of land and to buy and sell. He seems not 
to have lived to the ripe old age we should expect. He boasts in 
his book that by keeping his stables, yards, cow-pens, hog-pens, 
and the other parts of his premises thoroughly clean, "my family 
have never experienced an intermittent or a remittent unless at- 
tacked with them away from home first, and upon their return 
they have immediately left them ... If every family would 
observe this most strictly, they would have little need of having 
recourse to the apothetary . . . * 

Whether induced by remittents or intermittents or by some- 
thing else, we find on record that Binns made his will on Jan. 11, 
1813, and that it was not much too soon, since it was offered for 
probate on Nov. 1 of that year. If our surmise be correct that 
he was born in 1761, he met his end while still in the years of 
active life. Since certain characteristics of Binn's personality 
are revealed in this document and light is likewise cast on condi- 
tions long since passed away, it will reward us to notice certain 
features of this last expression. "I give and bequeath the place 
I now live on called Clover Hill unto my loving wife, Dewanner 
for and during her natural life . . . It is also my desire that my 
beloved wife may hold all my young slaves untill they arrive to 
the age of Twenty-five years old, also Elijah is to serve his mistress 
six years from this present time. ... 1 give and bequeath unto 
my brother Thomas Neilson Binns five hundred dollars provided he 
will be at the trouble of taking to Maryland or any other state all 
my negroes so that they obtain their freedom at the within time 
mentioned in my will and if he should BO refuse to do then in 
that case any other of my relations steping forward for that pur- 
pose shall be entitled to the above sum of five hundred dollars and 
in case all my relations shall refuse to assist my blacks obtaining 
their freedom then in that case any other person stepping forward 
to bring about the emancipation of my negroes shall be entitled 
to the aforesaid sum of five hundred dollars." 



36 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Since he leaves his property in the end to his "neises," we are 
probably justified in concluding that he had no children. He was 
"tolerably rich" as Jefferson told Strickland he was. The execu- 
tors of his will gave bond for $30,000 each and the inventory of 
his personal property shows that he was actively engaged in farm- 
ing operations at the time of his death. His grain bins and hay 
mows were well stocked, his farm machinery ample, his live stock 
abundant. He had a book case and desk and a parcel of books 
valued at $35. Unfortunately the titles are not given. And he 
had on hand Plaister-of-Paris valued at about $39. 

Where his body was buried has not been learned, but perhaps 
in that family burying ground his father mentioned as being on 
the farm given to his brother William, wherever that may have 
been. It was doubtless in Loudoun County and probably not far 
from Leesburg. Perhaps in the future some one may seek to know 
more about this village Liebig and may be able to trace the very 
spot. He has left an ample memorial in the rich acres of a still 
prosperous county, but few know whom it commemorates. 

Concerning the later years of Dewanner, his wife, we learn 
from a letter written to K F. Cabell by Yardley Taylor of Pur- 
cell ville, "on 10 mo. llth 1854, . . .his widow married a Meth- 
odist minister of the name of Watt, who died some years ago and 
she died at Cumberland in Maryland only about a year since." 

Binns seems to have been pretty thoroughly forgotten as early 
as 1853 when the continued prominence of Loudoun County as 
a prosperous agricultural community called the attention of an 
historically minded Virginian, N. F. Cabell, to a consideration of 
the underlying cause. 

Cabell was at that time interested in collecting material for 
his projected history of agriculture in Virginia, and seems to have 
stirred the memories of some of the older men of Loudoun County 
in his endeavor to get light on the already darkening question of 
the introduction of gypsum and clover into that county. His in- 
quiries seem eventually to have reached Dr. Daniel Janney resid- 
ing near Purcell ville. The reply elicited was seen by the writer 
among the papers of N. F. Cabell, at the Virginia State Library. 
Since it not only throws some light on John Binns but also sheds 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 37 

some interesting sidelights on the way history is sometimes made, 
I will quote the letter entire. I am able to do so through the cour- 
tesy of the authorities of the Library. 

"Loudoun Co. Va. 1 mo 2 nd 1845. 
Esteemed Friend 

N. Francis Cabell, 

Thy letter directed to my cousin John Janney, of Leesburg 
was handed me being the only surviving son of Israel Janney out 
of seven. [I] take pleasure in giving any information relative to 
the first use of plaster or gypsum and red clover in Loudoun 
County, Va. I well remember hearing my father in conversation 
with Gen 1 . Steenburgen and numerous others, state his first trial 
with Plaster, with a small quantity he brought home from Ches- 
ter Co. Pennsylvania in his Saddle Bags, procured I believe from 
William West, of that County a great practical farmer, and Grazier, 
an intimate acquantance of his, from whom he received many 
valuable hints in the improvement of lands, this was previous 
to the 6 month 1792 for I find on reference to his store Books at 
this date he Purchased ten tons of Plaster and used it much more 
extensive than before, being convinced of its power by the small 
experiments made heretofore, in the third month 1794 I find in 
his Books Clover seed sold out to the neighbours very few of 
whom purchased more than 1 quart for trial, in the 4th month 
1794 John Binns is charged with one ton of plaster furnished him 
being as I understand his first experiment with its use. my father 
continued its use combined with Grazing untill his death in the 
8th month 1823. often I have heard him express he had no ambi- 
tion for fame as the first Pioneer in this cause, so the County 
derived the benefit therefrom, the first experiment that T remem- 
ber was sewing it on Oats, leaving some lands without its use. 
the difference was so striking, that it was the wonder of the neigh- 
borhood. . . . 

Daniel Janney, M. D." 

It seems that Cabell's inquiries were made known to Mr. 
Yardley Taylor, likewise of Purcellville, a corresponding rr; ember 



38 WILLIAM AND MAKY QUABTEBLY 

of the Loudoun Agricultural Society and in two long letters 
written by him in 1854, he sketches the agricultural progress of 
Loudoun County. To Israel Janney, he gives great credit for 
many of the improvements seen in the agriculture of the County. 
A pioneer in the matters of good roads and grazing, Israel Janney 
did much to advance agriculture. Taylor does not repeat Dr. 
Janney's testimony regarding the introduction of plaster and red 
clover, but endorses the accuracy of the Doctor's statements. Even 
though he does not mention Binns, we seem to get the jingering 
echo of ancient discord in the remark, "And what was a distin- 
guishing trait in his character, he appeared not to care who had 
the credit so that his fellow citizens were benefit." 

One is a little at a loss to understand why this testimony to 
Israel Janney's carelessness about his fame, as a pioneer in the use 
of gypsum keeps recurring thirty years after the death of Janney 
and forty years after Binns was gathered to his fathers. One is 
tempted to see here some possible connection with the rather hasty 
preparation of the list of testimonials which Binns appended to 
the second edition of his little book. Whether he sought to meet 
the priority claims of the perhaps somewhat ambitious relatives of 
Israel Janney, or whether he also was satisfied "if but the County 
were benefit" is not clear; the latter alternative seems more proba- 
ble when one re-examines these testimonials. They deal with the 
later years of Binns' activities, with those falling after the date 
at which Israel Janney's store books showed the sale of gypsum 
to John Binns. These certificates still seem to be what they 
purport to be, the message of those who have seen and believed to 
those who believed not in gypsum. 

In spite of Dr. Daniel Janney and Mr. Yardley Taylor we can 
see no reason to question the honesty of John Binns, when he de- 
scribes his experiments with the powder obtained by beating up the 
two stones obtained in Alexandria, more than ten years before 
the Friends of Purcellville saw Israel Janney produce from his 
saddle bags the plaster-of-Paris obtained from William West, and 
a decade before the ton purchased at Janney's store. The experi- 
ments carried on by Binns during that decade had perhaps not come 
to the attention of the neighbors at Purcellville, and the appear- 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUABTEBLY 39 

ance of his little book may have surprised some who had belieyed 
Israel Janney to have been first. 

In closing let me quote our practical farmer in the preface to 
his first edition of 1803, copied from the pamphlet that belonged to 
Thomas Jefferson: "Having been frequently requested by several 
of my friends and acquaintances, as well as sundry persons from 
a distance, to publish my Experience in Farming generally, and 
more especially on the use of the Plaister-of-Paris ; (the use of 
which has made my farm, from that of being tired down, or the 
natural soil entirely worn out, a rich and fruitful one), I have been 
induced to present them with the following Pamphlet, whicb my 
other pursuits have prevented me from doing sooner. Although 
it is not written in a Scholastic stile, yet I hope my meaning may 
be plainly understood ; and I further hope, that it may hare a fair 
trial before it is condemned. 

With respect, I remain, 

The public's humble servant, 

John A. Binns." 



40 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 



WILLIAM AND MARY, THE FIRST AMERICAN LAW 

SCHOOL. 

By ROBERT M. HUGHES. 

Hon. Hampton L. Carson, in his interesting article on James 
Wilson and James Iredell, published in the March number of the 
American Bar Association Journal, says : 

"In 1790 he (James Wilson) was chosen as Professor of Law 
in the University of Pennsylvania the first publicly established 
law school in the United States." 

I presume Mr. Carson intends by the expression "publicly es- 
tablished" the first law school in a public institution or estab- 
lished by public authority, as distinguished from one run as a 
private enterprise, like the Litchfield School in Connecticut. In 
any event, that is the construction which would usually be put 
upon his language. 

I regret to join issue with Mr. Carson, for whose qualities as a 
lawyer, a scholar and a man I have the highest esteem. I would 
not do so if I had to rely upon my own arguments. But for- 
tunately I can cite contemporaneous documentary evidence, which 
demonstrates that the first law school in America of any character, 
public or private, was established at the College of William & 
Mary in Virginia in 1779. 

Jefferson says in his Autobiography 

"On the 1st. of June 1779, I was elected Governor of the Com- 
monwealth, and retired from the Legislature. Being elected also 
one of the Visitors of William & Mary College, a self-electing 
body, I effected during my residence in Williamsburg that year, 
a change in the organization of that institution, by abolishing the 
Grammar School and the two professorships of Divinity and Orien- 
tal languages, and substituting a professorship of law and police, 
one of Anatomy, Medicine and Chemistry, and one of Modern 
language". 

George Wythe, a signer of the Declaration and later a distin- 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 41 

guished Virginia Chancellor, was the first professor, and had active 
charge till his resignation in 1789. Among his most distinguished 
pupils were John Marshall, Spencer Eoane and John Breckinridge. 
His text book was Blackstone, supplemented by his own lectures. 
Those lectures were in existence in manuscript form as late as 1810, 
for they are described in a letter of the first Governor Tyler to 
Jefferson. (Letters and Times of the Tylers, vol. 1, p. 249.) 
But the character of his instruction is abundantly shown by con- 
temporaneous letters. 

On August 31, 1780 Eichard Henry Lee writes to his brother 
Arthur : 

"If Ludwell is not useful to you there, I think he may benefit 
himself by repairing to Williamsburg and finishing his law studies 
under Mr. Wythe, who is now most worthily employed in the char- 
acter of Law Professor at William & Mary College which pro- 
fessorship he discharges the duty of with wonderful ability both as 
to theory and practice." 

John Brown, afterwards one of the first senators from Ken- 
tucky, writes on February 15, 1780 to his uncle "William Preston: 

"I apply closely to the study of the law and find it to be a 
more difficult science than I expected, though I hope with Mr. 
Wy the's assistance to make some proficiency in it ; those who finish 
this study in a few months either have strong natural parts or 
else they know little about it." 

In a later letter dated July 6, 1780 he says: 

"Mr. Wythe, ever attentive to the improvement of his pupils, 
founded two institutions for that purpose, the first is a Moot 
Court, held monthly or oftener in the place formerly occupied 
by the Gen. Court in the Capitol. Mr. Wythe and the other pro- 
fessors sit as judges. Our audience consists of the most respecta- 
ble of the Citizens, before whom we plead causes given out by Mr. 
Wythe. Lawyer like I assure you. He has form'd us into a 
Legislative Body, consisting 'of about 40 members. Mr. Wythe is 
Speaker to the House and takes all possible pains to instruct us in 
the Rules of Parliament. We meet every Saturday and take under 
our consideration those Bills drawn up by the Comtee appointed 
to revise the laws, then we debate and alter (I will not say amend) 



42 WILLIAM AND MAKY QUARTERLY 

with the greatest freedom. I take an active part in these Institu- 
tions and hope thereby to rub off that natural bashfulness which at 
present is extremely prejudicial to me. These exercises serve not 
only as the best amusement after severer studies, but are very useful 
and attended with many important advantages. 

Jefferson in a letter to Ralph Izard, dated July 17, 1788, says: 

"I can not but approve your idea of sending your eldest son, 
destined for the Law, to Williamsburg. . . . The pride of the 
institution is Mr. Wythe, one of the Chancellors of the State, and 
Professor of Law in the College. He is one of the greatest men 
of the age, having held without competition the first place at the 
Bar of our General Court for 25 years, and always distinguished 
by the most spotless virtue. He gives lectures regularly, and holds 
Moot Courts and Parliaments, wherein he presides, and the young 
men debate regularly in Law and Legislation, learn the rules of 
Parliamentary Proceeding and acquire the habit of public speak- 
ing. Williamsburg is a remarkably healthy situation, reasonably 
cheap, and affords very genteel society." 

Wythe removed to Richmond in 1791, on account of the fact 
that he had been made sole Chancellor; and his place had been 
filled by St. George Tucker, the author of Tucker's edition of 
Blackstone, which, so far as my sources of information go, was the 
first legal text book published in America. His annotations show 
fairly well the character of the course at William & Mary at the 
time, when taken in conjunction with the main text. 

One of the live subjects before the Bar Association to-day is 
the degree of preparation which should be required as a condition 
of a law degree. The William & Mary law school is notable as 
having gone on record in its infancy in favor of requiring an 
academic degree. 

In the compilation of the College statutes published in 1792 it 
was provided: 

"For the degree of Bachelor of Law, the Student must have the 
requisites for Bachelor of Arts; he must moreover be well ac- 
quainted with civil History, both Ancient and Modern, and par- 
ticularly with municipal Law and police/' 

These statutes were a compilation of previous regulations. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 43 

The records of the Board of Visitors for that period are lost, 
so that the exact date of this regulation can not be fixed, but it 
was probably very soon after the organization of the law 'depart- 
ment. 

The same statutes set out the requirement for the A. B. degree 
as follows: 

"For the degree of Bachelor of Arts, the Student must be ac- 
quainted with those branches of the Mathematics, both theoretical 
and practical, which are usually taught as far as Conic Sections, 
inclusive, viz. The first six books of Euclid, plain Trigonometry, 
the taking of Heights and Distances, Surveying, Algebra, the llth. 
and 12th. books of Euclid, Spherics, Conic Sections: must have 
acquired a knowledge *of Natural Philosophy as far as it relates 
to the general properties of Matter, Mechanics, Electricity, Pneu- 
matics, Hydrostatics, Optics and the first principles of Astronomy ; 
must be well acquainted with Logic, the Belles Lettres, Khetoric, 
Natural Law, Law of Nations, and the general principles of Poli- 
tics; he must also have a competent knowledge of Geography and 
of Ancient and Modern languages." 

More than half the judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals of 
Virginia prior to 1861 were educated at William & Mary, some 
before the establishment of the law department, and many after- 
wards. Among the distinguished alumni were Littleton Waller 
Tazewell, Benjamin Watkins Leigh, John J. Crittenden, Philip 
P. Barbour, William T. Barry, Winfield Scott and William C. 
Rives. 

The law department had a continuous existence till 1861. The 
outbreak of the Civil War compelled the closing of the College. In 
1862 the main building was destroyed by fire, except the massive 
old walls, which had already withstood two conflagrations. At the 
close of the war the dilapidated condition of the buildings neces- 
sitated the use of the diminished endowment in rebuilding, so 
that it has not been possible to revive this historic law school, 
though the other departments of the College are in full operation. 

The time may yet come when some patriotic citizen will repair 
the injury inflicted by the devastations of war, and endow the law 
school so liberally as to restore it to the rank it held so long. 



44 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

II. 

March 31, 1921. 
Robert M. Hughes, Esq., 
Plume & Granby Streets, 

Norfolk, Va. 
My dear Mr. Hughes: 

I have read your paper entitled WILLIAM AND MARY THE 
FIRST AMERICAN LAW SCHOOL with interest. Far be it 
from me to wish to pluck even a single leaf from the chaplet on 
the brows of William and Mary. 

I see no reason in the evidence you submit in support of the 
Virginia claim to priority of establishment, to change the state- 
ment made by me in my recent article on Wilson and Iredell, pub- 
lished in the March number of the American Bar Association 
Journal. My statement was that in 1790 James Wilson was chosen 
Professor of Law in the University of Pennsylvania "the first 
publicly established law school in the United States." 

The evidence on which I rely in making this statement is as 
follows: The Minutes of the Board of Trustees of the University 
of Pennsylvania of July 10th, August 6th, 10th, 14th, 1790, dis- 
close the formal establishment of the Professorship of Law, and 
the election on August 17th of James Wilson. It was a contested 
election and not a private appointment as in the case of the ap- 
pointment of Wythe by Jefferson. On October 26, 1790, there was 
published in the Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser an 
account of the establishment of the Professorship. The plan of 
the Law School as sketched by Justice Wilson was printed in full 
in the columns of the Packet.. On the 15th of December, 1790, 
the Introductory Lecture by Wilson was delivered to a large au- 
dience in Philadelphia, then the National capital, in the presence 
of President and Mrs. Washington, the members of the Cabinet, 
the Congress of the United States, State officials, and citizens of 
Philadelphia. The proceedings, inclusive of the address, were pub- 
lished in The Universal Asylum and Columbian Magazine for 
1791, Vol. 1, page 9 et seq : also in The American Museum or Uni- 
versal Magazine, 8th Vol., page 259. The Introductory Lecture 
was separately published in pamphlet form by T. Dobson, to which 



WILLIAM AND MART QUARTERLY 45 

was added a plan of the Lectures. The Lectures were delivered 
in 1791-92, and were subsequently gathered together with other 
works of Wilson by his son, Bird Wilson, Esq., in 1804. 

I am in possession of all this evidence. 

I submit that as evidence of the public establishment of a Law 
School, it is far more cogent than private letters of Jefferson, 
Richard Henry Lee and John Brown, even though such letters be 
earlier in date than 1790. 

As to the merits and abilities of George Wythe as a teacher of 
eminent men there can be no doubt, but eminent as he was his 
lectures were never printed as were Wilson's, nor can I discover 
in the evidence you submit anything which would indicate the 
public establishment tit the Law School at William and Mary. 
Diligent though Wythe doubtless was in lecturing to pupils, it is 
clear that open acknowledgment of his work does not rest on a basis 
comparable to that which sustains the labors of Wilson. 

I am 

Yours very truly, 

HLC/D Hampton L. Carson. 

III. 

Norfolk, Virginia, April 8, 1921. 
Hon. Hampton L. Carson, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dear Mr. Carson: 

I regret that the necessity of writing to Williamsburg and Rich- 
mond for information not accessible to me here has delayed a reply 
to your letter of March 31st. 

Your emphasis, if I understand you correctly, is placed not on 
the question of priority as between the Wythe and Wilson schools 
but on the question of publicity. You first vouch the minutes of 
the Pennsylvania Board of Trustees showing the establishment of 
the school and the election of Wilson in 1790. Unfortunately the 
records of the William and Mary Board were destroyed when 
the College was burned. But the fire did not undo the fact, though 
it entitles me to use secondary evidence. The first which I sub- 
mit is the record of the Faculty Book of that date, which is in ex- 
istence. It recites under date of December 29, 1779: 



46 WILLIAM ANI> MARY QUARTERLY 

"At a meeting of the President and Professors of Wm. & 
Mary College under a statute passed by the Visitors the fourth 
day of December 1779. Present. 

James Madison, President & Professor of Natural Philosophy 
& Mathematics. 

George Wythe, Professor of Law & Police. 

James McClurg, Professor of Anatomy & Medicine. 

Eobert Andrews, Professor of Moral Philosophy, the Laws of 
Nature & of Nations, & of the Fine Arts. 

Charles Bellini, Professor of Modern Languages. 
******* *** 

For the Encouragement of Science, 

Resolved, That a Student on paying annually one thousand 
pounds of Tobacco shall be entitled to attend any two of the fol- 
lowing Professors, viz: of Law & Police, of Natural Philosophy 
and Mathematics, & of Moral Philosophy, the Laws of Nature and 
Nations & of the Fine Arts, & that for fifteen hundred punds he 
shall be entitled to attend the three said Professors. ..." 

I now submit the following extract from a letter of John Brown 
to William Preston, dated December 9, 1779 : 

"William & Mary has undergone a very considerable Revolu- 
tion; the Visitors met on the 4th. Instant & form'd it into a 
University, annuPd the old Statutes, abolished the Grammer School, 
Continued Mr. Madison President & Professor of Mathematics, 
Appointed Mr. Wythe Professor of Law, Dr. McClurg of Physick, 
Mr. Andrews of Moral Philosophy & Monsr. Bellini of modern 
Languages." 

You state that Wythe was a private appointment by Jefferson. 
In this you are mistaken. He was elected by the same Board that 
established the professorship, of which Jefferson (then Governor) 
was an influential member. But the Board also included John 
Blair, James Madison, Edmund Randolph, Thomas Nelson and 
Benjamin Harrison, so that three of its members had been Wythe's 
companions in signing the Declaration. 

You state that an account of the Wilson professorship was 
printed in a Philadelphia paper on October 26, 1790. 

The statute of the William & Mary Board establishing the 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 47 

Wythe professorship was printed in the Virginia Gazette of Decem- 
ber 18, 1779. 

In Query XV of Jefferson's Notes on Virginia (the first edi- 
tion of which was printed in 1787) it is described and stated to 
be the action of the Visitors. 

You state that Wilson's lectures were printed and Wythe's 
were not. They were not printed till 1804. St. George Tucker, 
Wythe's successor, printed his edition of Blackstone in 1803. 

The preface to Wilson's Lectures shows that only a part of 
those printed were ever delivered. If the plan given in vol. I, p. 
41, is the one which was published in the Packet, the lectures even 
as printed, fell far short of it. They are practically limited to 
governmental and criminal law. There is nothing on the four per- 
sonal relations, nothing on real. estate, and nothing on pleading. 
Wythe on the other hand covered all. His work in his moot court 
and parliament could not be printed from its very nature. His 
other lectures were in writing and in existence in 1810. While 
posterity may have suffered from their loss, his classes did not. 

The Wythe school lasted until broken up by the losses of the 
College in the Civil War. The Wilson school did not survive its 
second summer. 

In short, the difference is that the Wythe lectures were given 
though never published, while the Wilson lectures though post- 
humously published, were never given, except in part. 

Yours Sincerely 

Robt. M. Hughes. 
IV 

April 9, 1921. 
My dear Mr. Hughes: 

I have no objection to your rejoinder save that it seems to me 
to raise an issue not intended. I never wrote a word in deprecia- 
tion of The Virginia Law School, nor attempted a contrast be- 
tween it and the Law Department of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. In my Wilson-Iredell article, published in the Journal of 
the American Bar Association for March, I used as to the Penn- 
sylvania School, the words "the first publicly established law school 
in the United States." I still submit that the evidence as de- 



48 WILLIAM AITO MARY QUARTERLY 

tailed in my former letter in reply to your first is far the weightier 
in character. Philadelphia as the national capital, and the public 
delivery in the presence of the President of the United States of 
Wilson's introductory lecture, the publication of that lecture by 
Dobson (which you have overlooked in your rejoinder) followed 
by the publication of three solid volumes of Wilson's lectures, de- 
livered and prepared for delivery, no matter what the topic so long 
as it relates to law, are all items of greater publicity than what 
took place at Williamsburg, or was made the subject of private 
correspondence. 

Your reference to Tucker's Edition of Blackstone's Commen- 
taries does not seem to be pertinent. The work was Blackstone's, 
not Wythe's, nor Tucker's except as to the latter's notes, which 
were printed as an appendix to each volume in the form of essays 
showing the differences between the English and Virginian law. 
If it be pertinent, however, let me remind you that the first Ameri- 
can edition of Blackstone's Commentaries was printed and pub- 
lished in Philadelphia in 1769 nearly seven years before the 
American Eevolution, and was referred to by Burke in the House 
of Commons in his great speech on the conciliation of America. 

It is scarcely accurate to say that the "Wilson school did not 
survive its second summer." Wilson's other public duties and sub- 
sequent death interrupted his work, as I imagine Wythe's resigna- 
tion from the professorship and the election of Tucker interrupted 
his, but the school survived, not continuously it is true, but in 
1817 Charles Willing Hare was the Professor and actually lectured, 
followed in 1854 by the eminent George Sharswood, an editor of 
Blackstone. 

But all of this is afield. I am perfectly willing to concede that 
Wythe by the almanac lectured at William & Mary before Wilson 
at Pennsylvania, but I assert that the publicity attending his able 
efforts was not a tithe of that which was accorded to Wilson. 

Let us of this generation be thankful that the sons of both of 
these great schools of law so auspiciously begun, respect the glory 
of their founders without any detraction from the fair fame of 
either. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert M. Hughes, Esq. Hampton L. Carson. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 49 



ORIGIN OF THE PEGRAM FAMILY IN THE UNITED 
STATES AND HISTORY OF THE SAME DURING 
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

By HENRY PEGRAM, of the New York Bar. 

The published account of the origin of the Pegram family 
in the United States is as follows: 

"The ancestor of the Pegram family in Virginia was ,* 

surveyor, who settled in what is now Dinwiddie County and mar- 
ried , daughter of Col. Baker, and had issue 
5 sons of whom : Major Baker 2 ; Daniel 2 of Charlotte, N. C. ; Ed- 
ward 2 an officer of the Revolution and a juror on the trial of 
Aaron Burr married Mary Lyle." 1 

The principal traditional account is as follows: 

"The history of the Pegram family in this country begins with 
Edward Pegram I, who came over from England in the latter part 
of the year 1669 with a party of Engineers under Col. Daniel 
Baker. He was 'Queen's Engineer, or Surveyor to the Crown', and 
reported directly thereto. He married Mary Scott Baker, daugh- 
ter of Col. Baker, and was the father of twelve or more children, 
among whom were: 1. John Pegram, 2. Edward Pegram II f 3. 
Baker Pegram, 4. Daniel Pegram. After his term of office ex- 
pired, he settled on a tract of land, ten miles square, granted to 
him by Queen Anne, situated some 18 miles below Petersburg, 
Virginia, in Dinwiddie County. He lies in the old burial ground 
on that place. John Pegram married Miss Sturdivant and was 
the father of Edward Pegram III, who was born January 20, 1772. 
Edward Pegram II was born in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, about 
the year 1720; he resided in the Colony, or Province of Virginia, 
at 'Diamond Spring 7 , from 1720 to 1795, where he died at the age 

i Bristol Parish, Philip Slaughter, 206; Va. Genealogies, H. E. 
Hayden, 314. 



50 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

of 95 and was buried on the Old Place some 16 miles below Peters- 
burg." 2 

Other traditional accounts give the date of the ancestor's ar- 
rival from England as 1699; and the age of Edward Pegram II, 
at the time of his death, as 75. 3 

The earliest permanent settlement in Virginia was made at 
James City, now Jamestown, on the north bank of the James 
River. From thence, settlements gradually spread up and down 
both banks of the James River and of its tributaries, the Chicka- 
homini, Appomattox, Nansemond and Elizabeth Rivers. Next, 
came the settlements along the banks of the York River and of its 
tributaries, the Pamunkey and Mattapony Rivers, and the eastern 
shore of Chesapeake Bay; and, finally, came the settlements along 
the banks of the Rappahannock, Potomac and Patuxent Rivers. 
It was not until tide-water Virginia had become fairly well set- 
tled that the inland development of the colony was undertaken. 
The reason for this is quite obvious. The tidal rivers and creeks 
afforded a safe and ready means of communication, at a time when 
the country was covered with dense forests, infested by hostile In- 
dians and beasts of prey. In addition, the peninsulas, formed by 
the tidal rivers and creeks, rendered it a comparatively easy mat- 
ter to keep the early settlements free from attack by Indians and 
wild beasts, once the aboriginal denizens had been expelled there- 
from. 

From well authenticated facts, it is definitely established that 
there were persons by the name of Pegram in Virginia, during the 
time that the tide-water regions were in process of settlement, and 
long before any inland settlements had been undertaken. There- 
fore, before proceeding to a consideration of the facts relating to 
these early settlers, it is advisable to review, briefly, the historical 
facts relating to the settlement of tide-water Virginia, so far as 
they have a bearing upon the early history of the Pegram family 
in that colony, as set forth in the published and traditional accounts 
thereof. 

Various family papers. 
Ibid. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 51 

James City was settled in 1607 in the reign of James I, after 
whom it was named. It was the seat of government of the colony 
throughout the seventeenth century, and, in 1619, the first colonial 
Assembly was held there. 4 Until 1623-4, the only court in the 
colony was held at James City; 5 but, in that year, owing to the 
remoteness of Charles City and Elizabeth City from the seat of 
government, monthly courts were authorized to be held in these 
two corporations. 8 In 1631-2, additional monthly courts were auth- 
orized to be held at "Warwick River (Denbigh), Warrosquyoake 
(Norfolk) and Accawmacke (Northampton) ; and quarterly courts 
only were directed to be held, thenceforth, at James City. In the 
same year, the practice was instituted of requiring the masters of 
all incoming ships to .furnish the commander of the fort at Point 
Comfort with lists of their passengers, setting forth their names, 
ages, nationalities and places of birth. 7 

At the Assembly held on Sept. 4, 1632, the ministers of the 
parish churches were directed to keep registers of the dates of all 
christenings, weddings and burials, occuring within their parishes ; 
and, at the next Assembly, held on Feb. 1, 1632-3, an act was 
passed providing for the seating (settling) of a new plantation, 
to be known as Middle Plantation, in the forest lands between 
Queen's Creek, emptying into Charles River, and Archer's Hope 
Creek, emptying into James River. 8 

At this time, the political divisions of the colony were called 
Hundreds and Plantations; 9 the Parishes not yet having attained 
the dignity of a political status. These political units had grown 
up in a very informal way and were so loosely defined that the 
lands embraced by them were constantly shifting. The act of 
Aug. 21, 1633, providing for the erection of seven central tobacco 
storehouses, gives a fair idea of the very limited territory which, 
up to that time, had been settled. This act provided that two 

4lHening's Statutes at large, 119. 

1 Hist. Introd. Va. Col. Dec., R. T. Barton, 72. 

1 Hen. Stat., 125. 

Tlbid., 166, 168, 174. 

1 Hen. Stat., 182, 183, 208. 

1 Hist. Introd. Va. Col. Dec., R. T. Barton, 73. 



52 WILLIAM AND MAEY QUARTERLY 

storehouses should be built at convenient places for the use of the 
inhabitants of both sides of James River, from the falls to Weyan- 
oake ; a third at James City, for the use of the inhabitants on both 
sides of James Eiver, from Weyanoake to Stanley Hundred and 
Lawnes Creek; a fourth at Warrosquyoake ; a fifth at Denbigh, 
for the use of the inhabitants from there down to Maries Mount; 
a sixth on Southampton Eiver, for the use of the inhabitants of 
Maries Mount, Elizabeth City, Accawmacke and the Isle of Kent; 
and the seventh on Charles River, for the use of Kiskyake, York 
and the places adjoining. 10 In 1634, the colony was divided into 
eight shires, or counties, which were named James City, Henrico, 
Charles City, Elizabeth City, Warwick River, Warrosquyoake, 
Charles River and Accawmack. 11 

By act of Assembly of Jany. 6, 1639-40, James City was for- 
mally designated as the capital of the colony; and, at the same 
session, Warrosquyoake County was subdivided into three counties, 
which were named Isle of Wight, Upper Norfolk and Lower Nor- 
folk, and Chiskiack, subsequently re-named Hampton, was created 
a parish, this being the first formal recognition of a Parish as a 
political division. At this session, likewise, deeds and mortgages 
were first directed to be registered by the local monthly courts. 12 
At the Assembly held Mar. 2, 1642-43, the name of Achommack 
County was changed to Northampton, that of Charles River to 
York, and that of Warwick River to Warwick; and Bristol Parish 
was created as follows: 

"Be it also enacted and confirmed for the conveniency of the 
inhabitants on both sides of Appomattock River being farr remote 
from the parish church of the said plantation upon Appomattock 
be bounded into a parish by themselves as followeth, to beginn at 
Causon's ffeild within the mouth of Appomattock River on the east- 
ward side, and at Powell's Creek on the westward side of the river, 
and so to extend vp the river to the falls on both sides and the 
said parish to be called by the name of Bristoll." 13 

101 Hen. Stat., 211. 
iilbid., 224 n. 
islbid., 226, 227, 228. 
"Ibid., 249, 251. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 53 

The mother church of Bristol Parish was at Bermuda Hundred, 
opposite City Point. In 1723, a second place of worship, known 
as the Ferry chapel, was erected near the Falls, not far from the 
site of the Old Blandford Church, by which it was replaced about 
1737. 14 

At the foregoing session, an Order of Court, made Oct. 8, 1630, 
for a grant of land to the Undertakers, who seated the first and 
second years upon Chescake and Yorke, was ratified and confirmed ; 
and measures were taken to encourage the discovery of a new river 
or unknown land bearing west southerly from Appomattox River. 15 
It would seem, from the foregoing, that, as late as 1643, the terri- 
tory, known as Dinwiddie County, was still unexplored. 

At the Assembly neld on Feb. 17, 1644-5, a new county, North- 
umberland, was mentioned; and the inhabitants of the east side 
of Archer's Hope Creek, to the head thereof and down to Warhanvs 
Pond, were authorized to separate from James City Parish and 
unite with Martin's Hundred Parish, or become a separate parish, 
as they preferred; and at the Assembly held on Nov. 20, 1645, 
these inhabitants, having signified their desire to become a sepa- 
rate parish, were authorized to call the same Harrop Parish. At 
the same session, the name of Upper Norfolk County was changed 
to Nansimum (Nansemond) ; and the county courts were author- 
ized to administer estates and to probate wills and were directed 
to record the latter and all estate inventories and accounts. 16 

At the Assembly held on April 26, 1652, two new counties, 
Gloucester and Lancaster, were mentioned; and, at the Assembly 
held on Nov. 25, 1652, another new county, Surry, was mentioned. 
At this session, the following special powers were conferred upon 
the inhabitants of Bristol Parish, viz: 

"The inhabitants of Appomattock River shall have power to 
keep courts according to the sence of the act of Assembly for courts 
in the like nature, to hear and determine all differences within the 
said parish, which said court is to be kept by the commissioners 

"1 Old Churches &c., Bishop Meade, 439; Slaug. Brist. Par. 7. 

isi Hen. Stat, 257, 262. 

ielbid., 294 n, 298, 302, 303, 317, 321. 



54 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

resideing in the said parish of Bristoll, and they to take place 
respectively as by act of Assembly they are nominated; appeals 
lying from this court to either Henrico county or Charles City 
county court, as also to have power to treate with the Indians ac- 
cording to act." 17 

At the Assembly held on July 5, 1653, a new county, Westmore- 
land, was mentioned; and, at the session held on Nov. 20, 
1654, New Kent County was formed from the upper part of 
York County; and the land from the head of the north side of 
Queen's Creek as high as to the head of Scimino Creek was made 
a separate parish and named Marston Parish. 18 At the Assembly 
held on Mar. 31, 1655, courts in Charles City County were di- 
rected to be held on the south side of James River, and, at the 
Assembly held on Mar. 13, 1657-8, it was directed that no patents 
of land be made, without exact surveys being produced in the Sec- 
retary's office, and the name of the monthly courts was changed to 
county courts. 19 

At the Assembly held on Mar. 30, 1657-8, an effort, which had 
been made to subdivide Charles City County, was denied in the 
following form: 

"Ordered, That the county of Charles Citty shall not be divided, 
but that it remaine one entire county and for the ease of the people 
that there shall be two courts kept, one on the south side where it is, 
and the other on the north side by turnes. The commissioners 
of both sides to assist at both courts indifferently : And each side 
of the river to beare the charge of building their own court house 
and prison." 20 

At the session held on April 1, 1658, the following order was 
adopted, viz : 

"Upon the petition of the inhabitants of Middle Plantation and 
Harrop parishes, it is ordered, That both of them be henceforth 
incorporated into one parish which is to be called the parish of 

"I Hen. Stat, 371 n, 372 n, 376. 
"Ibid., 381 n, 387 n, 388. 
i9lbid., 426, 445, 462. 
201 Hen. Stat., 497. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 55 

Middletowne and the bounds of the same to be those already in- 
cludeing both the aforesaid former parishes." 21 

At the Assembly held on Mar. 13, 1659-60, an act entitled "An 
Act to record all Marriages, Births and Burrialls" was passed in 
the following form : 

"Be it therefore enacted, That every parish shall well, truly 
and plainly record and sett downe in a booke provided for that 
purpose, all marriages, deaths and births that shall happen within 
the precincts of the parish, and in the month of March in every 
yeare, the person appointed by the parish so to do, shall make true 
certificate into the clerke of every county to the intent the same 
may there remaine on <record for ever/' " 

At an Assembly held on Oct. 11, 1660, all licenses, including 
marriage licenses, were directed to be returned to the Secretary's 
office; 23 and, at the same time, an act entitled "Concerning Or- 
phants" was passed, so far as material, in the following form : 

"if the said Will be soe made that noe person will undertake 
the management of the estate, or education of the orphants ac- 
cording to the tenor of it, then that the estate by appointment of 
the court shalbe managed according to the rules sett downe for 
the ordering the estate of persons intestate, as followeth: 

First, that noe account be allowed for dyett, cloaths, phisick, 
or else against any orphants estate, but that to be educated and 
provided for by the interest of the estate, and increase of their 
stock according to the proportion of their estates, if it will bear it ; 
but if the estate be so mean and inconsiderable, that it will not 
extend to a free education, then it is enacted that such orphants 
shalbe bound apprentices to some handycraft trade until one & 
twenty years of age, except some kinsman or relation will maintain 
them for the interest of the small estate they have, without di- 
minution of the principall which whether greate or small always 
to be delivered to the orphants at the years appointed by the 
law." 2 < 



497. 

542. 
232 Ibid., 28. 
2*2 Hen. Stat, 93. 



56 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

In 1669, when, according to the principal traditional account, 
the ancestor of the Pegram family arrived in America, Charles II, 
grandson of James I, was king of England, having succeeded his 
father, Charles I, upon the restoration of the monarchy at the 
close of the Commonwealth era. In 1674, Middle town and Mar- 
ston Parishes were united under the name of Bruton Parish. The 
original parish church was at Yorktown; the present parish church 
is at Williamsburg. 25 

In 1685, Charles II was succeeded by James II, who, in turn, 
was succeeded, in 1689, by William and Mary, as joint sovereigns 
of England. On Feb. 8, 1693, the College of William and Mary 
was incorporated by royal charter and, as one of the means of 
raising revenue for the College's support, the office of Surveyor- 
General of Virginia was bestowed on that institution. 26 The office 
of Surreyor-General was created after the abolition of the London 
Company, the original proprietors of Virginia. The Surveyor- 
General was appointed by warrant, drawn by the Solicitor- General 
of England under the great seal of the kingdom. His duties con- 
sisted in keeping a record of the surveys and in commissioning the 
whole body of surveyors. The latter reported to him, annually, 
at James City, where their books, showing the work performed by 
them during the preceding year, were examined by him. 27 

In 1694, Queen Mary died and, thenceforth, King William 
reigned alone, under the title of William III. At the Assembly 
held Apr. 27, 1699, an act entitled "An act directing the building 
the Capitoll and the City of Williamsburg" was passed. This act, 
after reciting the destruction by fire of the State-House at James 
City and the healthiness of the locality in which Middle Plantation 
was situated and the ease with which supplies could be delivered 
there by means of the creeks emptying into the James and York 
Rivers, appropriated land for building a capitol and a city, to be 
named Williamsburg, there; and directed how the capitol should 
be built and how the city should be laid out. 23 

"Bruton Ch., W. A. R. Goodwin, pref.; personal interviews 
8/17/21, 

*1 Bruce's Inst. Hist., 390. 
aTBruce's Econ. Hist., 534. 
"3 Hen. Stat., 168, 197, 229, 419, 420, 422. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 57 

William III died in 1701-2' and was succeeded by Queen Anne. 
At the Assembly, begun at "her Majestyes Roial Colledge of Wil- 
liam and Mary, Adjoining to the City of Williamsburg," on Dec. 
5, 1701, and thence continued to Aug. 14, 1702, Charles City 
County was subdivided and the portion thereof lying south of the 
James River was created a new county, by the name of Prince 
George County. 29 

Queen Anne died in 1714 and was succeeded by George I, who, 
in turn, was succeeded by George II, in 1727, who died in 1760. 
At an Assembly, held at the Capitol in the City of Williamsburg 
on May 6, 1742', Bristol Parish was subdivided, as follows: 

"the said parish <jf Bristol shall be divided, by a line, to begin 
at Major James Munford's mill, on Appomattox river, and running 
thence a course parallel to the lower line of the said parish to 
Stony Creek; and thence down the said creek to Surry county, and 
all that part of the said parish, situated below the said line, be 
erected into one district parish, and retain the name of Bristol: 
And all that other part thereof, situated above the said line, be 
erected into one other distinct parish, and called by the name of 
Bath." 80 

At an Assembly, held at the College in Williamsburg on Feb. 
27, 1752, Prince George County was subdivided, as follows : 

"the said county of Prince George be divided into two coun- 
ties; that is to say; All that part thereof, lying on the upper side 
of the run which falls into Appomattox river^ between the town of 
Blanford, and Boiling's point warehouse, to the outermost line 
of the glebe land, and by a south course to be run from the 
said outermost line of the glebe land, to Surry county, shall be 
one distinct county, and called and known by the name of Din- 
widdie, and all that other part thereof, below the said run and 
course, shall be one other distinct county, and retain the name of 
Prince George." 31 

From the foregoing, it is apparent that, at a very early period 



223. 

05 Hen. Stat, 212, 213. 
16 Ibid., 254, 255. 



58 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

in its history, the colony of Virginia made careful and ample provi- 
eion for the preservation of all matters of subsequent genealogical 
interest, in the county court records and in the parish registers. 

Of the counties, into which lower tide-water Virginia is now 
divided, the present condition of their early records is as follows: 

James City County, all records, prior to 1865, are said to 
have been destroyed during the War between the States. 82 

Henrico County, no information obtained. 

Charles City County, all seventeenth and eighteenth century 
records destroyed, except for the years 1655-65, 1737-57 and 
1764-72, which are in the State Library. 33 

Elizabeth City County, the records, between 1632-1865, are 
rery much broken and only a few scattering ones remain. 84 

Warwick County, the only records, prior to 1865, are about a 
dozen old wills and part of a Court Order Book. 35 

Norfolk County, no information obtained. 

Nansemond County, the only record, prior to 1865, is one book 
of recorded deeds. 38 

Isle of Wight County, the records are pretty well preserved, 
from about 1735-1740, and possibly some few as far back as 1721. 8T 

York County, the records, from 1633 to date, seem to be com- 
plete; but some of the early ones are seriously mutilated. 38 

Surry County, the records go back to 1652, a few of the earlier 
books are missing. 39 

Prince George County, all eighteenth century records destroyed, 
except for the years 1713-1728, 1759-1760, 1787-1792 and 1794- 
1824 and, possibly, a package of old wills. 40 

32Fers. Interv. 8/18/21. 

33County Clerk's letter, 11/15/21; State Librarian's let., 
11/22/21. 

34 Co. Cl's let. 11/14/21. 
35Co. Cl's let. 11/19/21. 
86Co. Cl's let. ll/ /21. 
"Co. Cl's let, ll/ /21. 
sepers. Exam. 8/17/21. 
89Co. Cl's let. 11/12/21. 
4oco. Cl's let. 11/11/21. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 59 

Dinwiddie County, all records, prior to 1865, except the Court 
Order Book for 1789, destroyed. 41 

Sussex County, no records missing, since formation of county 
in 1754. 42 

Chesterfield County, no information obtained. 

New Kent County, no information obtained. 

Princess Anne County, no information obtained. 

From a personal examination of the York County records and 
from the reports received from various County Clerks, it appears 
that most of the seventeenth and eighteenth century records, now 
extant, are not indexed, and that none of them is cross-indexed. 
Consequently, a complete inspection of these records can only be 
made by a page to page examination thereof. It is said that the 
registers of Harrop, Marston and Middletown Parishes are lost; 48 
and that the registers of Bristol and Bruton Parishes, prior to 1865, 
were destroyed in the War between the States. Fragments of these 
registers are, however, preserved in the histories of these two 
parishes. 44 

The earliest reference of record to a Pegram in Virginia, thus 
far found, appears in the York County records for 1713. It is 
believed, however, that, if a page to page examination of the prior 
records of this county were made, still earlier references would be 
found. The following entries have, thus far, been found, in the 
records of York County and in the history of Bruton Parish, viz. : 

Jany. 18, 1713 : Action upon the Case by Claude Rouvier and 
Eliza, his wife, Executors &c of Joseph Chermeson, dec'd, against 
William Pegram. Confession of judgment by defendant for .2s.lO 
by account. Execution issued Aug. 16, 1714. 45 

Jany. 18, 1713: Action of debt by Daniel Pegram against 
Charles Holdsworth.. Judgment for plaintiff for Ibs. 750 tobbaco 
and cask. 4 * 

"Co. CI's let. ll/ /21. 
42Co. CI's. let. 11/12/21. 
Bruton Ch., W. A. R. Goodwin, Pref. 

"Peru. Interv. 8/18/21; Brut. Ch., W. A. R. Goodwin, 133 et seq.; 
Bristol Par, C. G. Chamberlayne, 354 et seq. 
14 York Co. Order. &c, 300. 
"Ibid., 300. 



60 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Jany. 15, 1719: Lease, by Feoffees or Trustees of land appraised 
for building and erecting City of Williamsburg to Daniel Pegram 
of York County, of lot 183 on platt of City, for one year at an- 
nual rent of one grain of Indian corn ; Release, by same to same of 
same lot, in free and common soccage, consideration s.15.* 7 

1725 : Death of John Pegram. 48 

June 19, 1727: Probate of following will: 

In the name of God, Amen, I Sarah Pegram being weak of 
body but of perfect Sense and memory do make this my last Will 
and Testament in manner and form following : I give to my Son, 
David Foese, his freedom and all the tools formerly belonging to 
my husband Daniel Pegram; Item, I give to my daughter Mary 
my best bed and furniture thereunto belonging and a chest of 
drawers and large looking glass; Item, I give to my daughter 
Sarah my second best bed and furniture thereunto belonging and 
six leather chairs and a brown table; and after my debts and fun- 
eral expenses are defrayed. The rest of my Estate equally to be 
divided between my five children, Mary, Sarah, Daniel, George and 
Edward; I do likewise appoint John Pegram to be the Executor of 
this my last Will and Testament. Signed and Sealed in the pres- 
ence of William Rudder, Benjamin Bryan. Sarah Pegram, (L.S.). 
This Will and Testament of Sarah Pegram was presented by Pat- 
rick Ferguson (John Pegram the Executor therein named having 
relinquished) and being proved by the Oaths of the Witnesses 
thereto is admitted to record. 49 

July 17, 1727: . Inventory and appraisement of Estate of 
Sarah Pegram. Personal estate appraised at .54 s. 8 d. 4-% 50 

May 19, 1729: Return of Settlement of Sarah Pegram' s Es- 
tate. 

Mentions receipt of . 2 s. 3 d. 6 from . . . Hartfield for rent 
of the plantation after death . . . year 1727. (record is badly 
mutilated). 51 

"3 York Co. Deeds &c., 323, 324. 
48Good. Brut. Ch., 140. , 

*916 York Co. Ord., Wills *c., 466. 
Boibld., 476. 
"Ibid., 607. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 61 

May 17, 1731: Complaint of Sarah Pegram against Dudley 
Digges, Martin Conner and William Hunt; Digges and Conner not 
appearing, Hunt ordered to answer for misdemeanor at next Gen- 
eral Court. . 10 Bond of Sarah Pegram to prosecute him. 62 

Sept. 18, 1732: Action upon the Case by John Lilly against 
John Pegram, former order continued till next Court. 53 

Dec. 18, 1732 : Information of riot exhibited by Sarah Pegram 
against William Taylor and others dismissed for failure of in- 
former to prosecute 54 

Nov. 15, 1742: Upon motion of Sarah Pegram on evidence 
for John Sampson against Kebecca Hulet, ordered that John Samp- 
son pay her for two days attendance according to law. 55 

May 16, 1745: B. *& S. deed by William Pegram, bricklayer, 
Bruton Parish, York County, and Sarah, his wife, to William 
Young, carpenter, conveys lot 323 on platt of City of Williams- 
burg, purchased by William Pegram of Matthew Shields and wife, 
by deed dated Jany. 28, 1745. Consideration . 60 Va. 86 

May 20, 1745 : William Pegram and Sarah, his wife, acknowl- 
edged their bond with receipt endorsed to James Wray. 5T 

1748: Death of Sarah Pegram. 68 

Jany. 21, 1754: Personal estate of John Pegram f dec'd, ap- 
praised at . 4 s. 11 d. 1-1/2- 59 

Doubtless, if a page to page examination of the early York 
County records were made, other Pegram references would be 
found therein; as some of the foregoing were found in the unin- 
dexed books. 

In the Charles City County records, there appears the follow- 
ing entry : 

Apr. 17, 1737: "The Court approves that Edward Pegram 

6217 Ibid., 167, 168. 

BS17 Ibid., 316. 

8*17 Ibid., 337 

"19 York Co. Wills &c., 132. 

6 York Co. Deeds &c., 134. 

Brig York Co. Wills &c., 364. 

"Good. Brut. Ch., 142. 

"20 York Co. Wills &c., 308. 



62 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Should be bound to Matthew Harfeild to learn the trade of a brick- 
layer and that he be bound accordingly as the Law directs." 60 

It is possible that other references to Pegrams might be found 
in the Charles City County records, upon a thorough examination 
thereof. 

The only references to Pegrams in the history of Bristol Parish 
are the following: Sara, d. of Daniel and Francis Pegram, born 
Dec. 29, 1741, baptized Feb. 28, 1742. William, s. of Edward and 
Mary Pegram born June 18, 1742, baptized July 4, 1742. 61 

In the Journal of Council, appears the following entry: 

Dec. 15, 1742 : Daniel Pegram v. Abraham Micheau, The De- 
fendant to have an Order for the Land paying the Plaintiff 50 
shil. 62 

In the Journal of the House of Burgesses, appear the following 
entries : 

Nov. 22, 1753 : A Petition of Edward Pegram, in the County 
of Dinwiddie, setting forth, That Some Time in the year 1748, 
the Petitioner, in taking up a Runaway Negroe, was obliged to 
give him several Blows, Some Time after which he died ; that John 
Jones, Gent, to whom the said Negroe belonged, brought a Suit 
against the Petitioner, and obtained a Judgement against him for 
40 . and praying Relief, was offered to the House : And the Ques- 
tion being put, that the said Petition be received, Resolved in the 
Negative. 88 

Jany. 14, 1764 : A Claim of William Pegram for taking up a 
Runaway therein mentioned, was presented to the House and re- 
ceived. 84 

It is possible that other references to Pegrams might be found 
in the foregoing journals, upon a thorough examination thereof. 

The foregoing constitute all of the references of record to Pe- 
grams, prior to the Revolutionary War, which have been thus far 
found. 

estate Lib. Let. 11/22/21. 
iChamb. Brisk Par. 354. 
"XVI Va. Mag. Hist. & Biog., 21. 
"Lyon G. Tyler let. 3/17/17. 
"Ibid. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 63 

The earliest pedigree, set forth in the traditional accounts of 
the Pegram family in the United States is that of Edward Pegram, 
the father of the William Pegram born on June 18, 1742, accord- 
ing to the Bristol Parish Register. The Edward Pegram in ques- 
tion was born on Mar. 4, 1722, and married Mary S. Baker, born 
Nov. 12, 1723, by whom he had eleven children, viz: 

William Pegram b. June 18, 1742; 

Mary Pegram b. Mar. 6, 1744; 

Edward Pegram b. Jan. 13, 1745 ; d. Mar. 30, 1816. 

John Pegram b. Dec. 20, 1748 ; 

Elizabeth Pegram b. Aug. 24, 1750; 

Sallie W. Pegram . b. Jan. 12, 1753; 

George Pegram b. Aug. 29, 1755 ; 

Baker Pegram b. Jan. 27, 1758 ; 

Daniel Pegram b. Apr. 25, 1760 ; 

Ann Pegram b. July 4, 1762 ; 

Daniel Pegram b. Mar. 30, 1767; d. Oct. 23, 1832. 

Of the foregoing it is stated that: 

Mary Pegram married Thomas Mansen. 

Edward Pegram was appointed Special Commander by the 
Colonial Government to defend his Parish and County from the 
attacks of the Indians; he was a Captain in the Revolutionary 
War and one of the grand jury which indicted Aaron Burr for 
treason; he married Mary Lyle, who died June 30, 1779, and, 
then, Mrs. Ann Harper Parham, who died Sept. 18, 1814; he died 
at "Diamond Spring" or "Village View," near Dinwiddie C. H. 

George Pegram married Miss Williamson; among his chil- 
dren was Capt. Edward Henry Pegram of Dinwiddie Co. who 
married Rebecca Scott, a sister of Gen. Winfield Scott. 

Baker Pegram married Mary Mansen; he was a Major in the 
Revolutionary War. 

Ann Pegram married John Simms of Scotland. 

Daniel Pegram married Nancy Hardaway; he was the ances- 
tor of the Pegrams of Mecklenburg and Gaston Counties, N. C. 



64 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Edward Pegram, who first married Mary Lyle and, then, Ann 
Harper Parham, had fourteen children, seven by each wife, viz: 

Elizabeth Pegram b. Jan. 28, 1766; 

Mary Baker Pegram b. Nov. 16, 1767; 

Rebekah Pegram b. May 28, 1769; 

Anne Lyle Pegram b. Aug. 6, 1771; d. Jan. 26, 1825. 

John Pegram b. Nov. 16, 1773; d. Apr. 8, 1831. 

Baker Pegram b. May 8, 1776 ; 

Edward Pegram b. May, 10, 1778; 

Martha P. Pegram b. Dec. 24, 1780; d. Aug. 15, 1855. 

Robert Pegram b. Dec. 8, 1782; d. Apr. 16, 1824. 

William Pegram b. Apr. 26, 1785; 

Betsey Pegram b. Jan. 31, 1787; 

William Pegram II b. Mar. 25, 1789; 

Harriet Pegram b. Oct. 30, 1793; 

George Pegram b. Sept. 26, 1795; 

Of the foregoing, it is stated that : 

Mary B. Pegram married William Scott of Petersburg. 

Rebekah Pegram married Peter Scott, brother of William 
Scott, of Dinwiddie Co. 

Anne (Nancy) Lyle Pegram married Edward Pegram, son 
of John Pegram and Miss Sturdivant. 

John Pegram was born in Dinwiddie Co. and resided on a 
part of the original ten mile square grant from Queen Anne, until 
his death; he was a Member of the Virginia Assembly 1798-1799, 
Major General of the Virginia Forces in the War of 1812, Mem- 
ber of Congress, 1818-1819, and, at his death, U. S. Marshal for 
the Eastern District of Virginia; at the age of twenty, he married 
Elizabeth Eppes Coleman of Dinwiddie Co., who died in 1797; in 
1800, he married Martha Ward Gregory, daughter of Richard 
Gregory of Chesterfield Co., who was born Sept. 15, 1781, and 
died Dec. 31, 1836. 

Martha P. Pegram married Col. James Scott of "Laurel 
Branch", Dinwiddie Co., brother of Gen. Winfield Scott. 

Robert Pegram married Mary Simmons Hardaway; he was 
a Colonel in the War of 1812. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 65 

Betsey Pegram married Major Francis Gregory. 

Harriet Pegram married Capt. Cincinatus Stith of Dinwiddie 
Co., who moved to Alabama. 

Baker Pegram, Edward Pegram, William Pegram, William 
Pegram II and George Pegram, all died in infancy. 

It is stated that the John Pegram, who is said to have married 
a Miss Sturdivant, had four children, viz. : 

Edward Pegram b. Jan. 20, 1772; d. Nov. 5, 1814. 

Fannie Pegram 

Patsey Pegram 

John Pegram, Jr. . .^ b. Apr. 13, 1785; d. July 3, 1864. 

Of the foregoing, it is stated that : 

Edward Pegram married his first cousin, Anne (Nancy) Lyle 
Pegram, and resided at "Edgefield", Dinwiddie Co. 

Fannie Pegram first married Colonel Dabney and then Robert 
Lanier. 

Patsey Pegram married Stanfield Coleman of Dinwiddie Co. 

John Pegram, Jr., first married Ann Scott, daughter of Re- 
bekah Pegram and Peter Scott, and then Martha Goodwyn; he re- 
sided at "Woodlawn", Dinwiddie Co., about four miles from 
Petersburg, where he died. 

The foregoing, are the only pedigrees, prior to the Revolutionary 
War, which have, thus far, been established; and, of these, doubt 
is still entertained as to the correctness of the Pe^ram-Sturdivant 
pedigree. That there were other contemporaneous pedigrees which 
are missing, is obvious from the following references of record to 
Pegrams, in the last quarter of the eighteenth century, viz.: 

Jany 29, 1779 : Marriage bonds of William Pegram and Agnes 
Rhodes, recorded in Lunenburg County. M 

1779: Edward Pegram, Captain of Dinwiddie County Mili- 
tia/ 6 

IX Wm. & M. Col. Quart., 178. 
Va. Must. Rolls Rev. War, 345. 



66 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

1782: William Pegram, head of family in Mecklenburg 
County, consisting of 6 white and 4 blacks. 67 

1782: Personal Property List of Dinwiddie County. 68 

Free Infant 

Tithing List Male Negro negroes Horses Cattle 

John Pegram 1 3 7 6 25 

Capt. Edward Pegram . . 1 8 13 11 32 

George Pegram 1 1 2 5 8 

Baker Pegram 2 4 1 4 12 

George Pegram, Jr 1 3 3 15 

Elizabeth Pegram 1 3 1 4 8 

William Pegram Estate . . 1 

Edward Pegram 1 4 5 5 21 

Jany. 19, 1789 : Edward Pegram, Jr., Joseph Turner, Wood 
Tucker and George P&gram, Justices of Dinwiddie County Court. 69 

1789: Distribution, by Dinwiddie County Court, of Estate of 
William Pegram, dec'd, between the widow, Elizabeth Pegram and 
children Daniel, eldest son, Sally, Elizabeth, Frances, William and 
Baker. 70 

1789: Action of Debt, brought in Dinwiddie County Court by 
Edward Pegram, Jr., assignee of Vines Collier, against Stephen 
Pettypool and Anderson Pettypool. 71 

1789: At Dinwiddie County Court, Baker Pegram, Captain 
William Scott, Lieutenant, and Benjamin Andrews, Ensign, of the 
Company of Light Infantry in the militia severally took the oath 
required by the Militia Law and Act of Congress. 72 

1789: At Dinwiddie County Court, Edward Young, orphan of 
Edward Young, made choice of Baker Pegram as guardian. Peter 
Mansen security. 73 

Feb., 1789 : John Pegram, mentioned as an Executor of Sam- 

7U. S. 1790 Census. 

XXVI Wm. & M. Col. Quart., 103, 252. 
922 Va. Mag. Hist. & Biog., 86. 
70XIV Wm. & M. Col. Quart., 139. 
TiXXIII Ibid., 214. 

215. 

215. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 67 

uel Hinton's Will, upon probate of same by Dinwiddie County 
Court. 74 

The following are the only eighteenth century pedigrees, sub- 
sequent to the Revolutionary War, which have, as yet, been estab- 
lished, viz. : 

Daniel Pegram, who married Nancy Hardaway, had eleven 
children, viz. : 

Edward Pegram b. Feb. 14, 1787; 

Mary Pegram b. Feb. 27, 1789; 

Thomas Pegram b. Apr. 20, 1791 ; 

Susan Pegram b. Aug. 20, 1793 ; 

Nancy Pegram b. Jan. 31, 1796; 

Winchester Pegram b. June 23, 1799; 

Martha Pegram b. Mar. 10, 1802; 

Harriet Pegram b. June 6, 1804 ; 

Julia Ann Pegram b. Aug. 21, 1806 ; 

Emeline Pegram b. June 20, 1809; 

Adeline Pegram b. Mar. 26, 1812; 

Of the foregoing, it is stated that Winchester Pegram was the 
ancestor of the Pegrams of Charlotte, N. C. 

Edward Pegram, who married Anne Lyle Pegram, had twelve 
children, viz. : 

Baker Pegram b. Nov. 3, 1790; d. Feb. 9, 1815. 

Martha E. Pegram b. Sept. 24, 1792; d. Jan. 31, 1793. 

Mary A. L. Pegram b. Nov. 20, 1793; d. July 20, 1794. 

Mary A. F. Pegram b. Nov. 24, 1795; d. Sept. 9, 1881. 

Edwin Pegram b. June 27, 1798; d. Sept. 29, 1828. 

John B. Pegram b. Oct. 30, 1800; d. Mar. , 1869. 

William Henry Pegram... b. July 8, 1803; d. Nov. 27, 1852. 

Infant (not named) b. Aug. 17, 1806; d. Aug. 17, 1806. 

Edward Strange Pegram.. b. Jan. 19, 1808; d. Aug. 23, 1888. 

Infant (not named) b. Apr. 27, 1810; d. Apr. 27, 1810. 

Benjamin H. Pegram b. Mar. 20, 1812; d. July 28, 1816. 

Infant (not named) b. Nov. 16, 1814; d. Nov. 16, 1814 

., 215. 



68 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Of the foregoing, it is stated that Mary Ann Frances Pegram 
married Thomas Clark of Petersburg and was the mother of 
Judge William E. Clark, of Demopolis, Ala., and of Eichard Henry 
Clark, Member of Congress from Alabama. 

John Pegram, who first married Elizabeth Eppes Coleman and, 
then, Martha Ward Gregory, had two children by his first wife and 
twelve by his second wife, viz. : 

John Coleman Pegram b. Sept. 27, 1794; d. Mar. 27, 1840. 

Edward Lyle Pegram b. June 26, 1796; d. Aug. 10, 1843. 

Richard Gregory Pegram.. b. May 7, 1801; d. Nov. 8, 1829. 

Mary Lyle Pegram b. Feb. 1, 1803 ; 

James West Pegram b. Jan. 22, 1804; d. 1844 

Maria Ward Pegram b. Feb. 16, 1806 : 

Virginia Anne Pegram b. Feb. 21, 1807; 

George Herbert Pegram.. b. Apr. 3, 1810; 

Robert Baker Pegram b. Dec. 10, 1811; d. Oct. 24, 1894. 

Louisa Jane Pegram b. Feb. 1, 1813; 

Martha Rebekah Pegram.. b. July 11, 1815; 
William Benjamin Pegram . b. Mar. 1, 1817; 

Lelia Adela Pegram b. Nov. 23, 1820; 

Franklin Pegram b. Sept. 27, 1822 ; 

Of the foregoing, it is stated that: 

John Coleman Pegram was a physician and a vestryman of 
Bristol Parish in 1802; he married Caroline, daughter of George 
Pegram, and moved to Carrollton, 111. 

Edward Lyle Pegram married Mary, daughter of George Pe- 
gram; he died in Dinwiddie Co. 

Richard Gregory Pegram married Jane, daughter of Robert 
Birchett. 

James West Pegram was a General, a vestryman of Bristol 
Parish in 1839 and President of the Bank of Virginia; he mar- 
ried Virginia, daughter of Col. William Ransom Johnson, who 
was born in 1818 and died Dec. 2, 1888 ; he lost his life in rescuing 
a lady and her children upon the explosion of the steamboat Lucy 
Walker. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 69 

Maria Ward Pegram married David May. 

Virginia Anne Pegram married Robert Triplett of Kentucky. 

George Herbert Pegram was a Captain and Adjutant General 
of Generals Taylor and Scott in the Mexican War; he married a 
Miss Spencer of Elizabeth, N. J. 

Robert Baker Pegram served in the U. S. Navy and in the 
C. S. Navy. 

Louisa Jane Pegram married R. W. Rainey. 

Martha Rebekah Pegram married Charles Stainbach. 

William Baker Pegram was a lawyer and married Amelia 
Combs of Kentucky. 

Leila Adela Pegram married a Mr. Paul of Petersburg. 

Franklin Pegram Vas a first lieutenant in the First Virginia 
Volunteers in the Mexican War. 

A Daniel Pegram married Rebecca Barrett, by whom he had 
three children, all of whom were born in Petersburg, Va., viz. : 

Henry Daniel Pegram b. June 23, 1796; d. Feb. 1, 1844. 

(daughter) Pegram 

(daughter) Pegram 

Of the foregoing, it is stated that: 

Henry Daniel Pegram on Aug. 10, 1815, married Ciscelia Fen- 
dall Bell of Hanover County, who was born on Mar. 10, 1797, and 
who died at Richmond, on July 31, 1880; he died at Mobile, Ala. 

One daughter married a Mr. Newell of Norfolk. 

The other daughter married a Mr. Newcome of Norfolk. 

A George Pegram married , by whom he had two 

children, viz. : 



Caroline Pegram 
Mary Pegram . . . 



Of the foregoing, it is stated that : 

Caroline Pegram married John Coleman Pegram. 

Mary Pegram married Edward Lyle Pegram. 



70 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

A William Baker Pegram, son of William Pegram and Eliza- 
beth , born Feb. 15, 1776, in Dinwiddie County, married 
Martha Coleman, daughter of Capt. Williamson Coleman and Mil- 
liam Hardaway of Dinwiddie County, and moved to Montgomery 
County, Tenn. He had ten children, all born in Dinwiddie County, 
viz.: 

William Pegram b. 1801 ; 

James Pegram b. 1803 ; 

Mildred Pegram b. 1804 ; 

Edwin Pegram b. 

Ethelbert Pegram b. 

Mary Pegram b. 

Elizabeth Pegram b. 

Maria Pegram b. 

Jane Pegram b. ; 

Augustin C. Pegram b. Feb. 5, 1815; 

Of the foregoing, it is stated that: 

William Pegram moved to Baton Rouge, La. ; he married Betsy 
Anne Stephenson. 

James Pegram moved to Baton Rouge, La. 

Mildred Pegram married Lucien Seay in 1836, who moved to 
Mason Co., 111. 

Edwin Pegram died unmarried. 

Ethelbert Pegram married Elvia Vaughn. 

Mary Pegram died unmarried. 

Elizabeth Pegram married Mark Landrum. 

Maria Pegram married John Mieklam, who moved to Mason 
Co., 111. 

Jane Pegram married Phillip Greenhill. 

Augustin Coleman Pegram married Sarah Jane Edwins (Mrs. 
Alman), who died Jan. 15, 1852, and, then, Melissa Henshaw; he 
moved to Carrollton 111., and from there to Mason Co., 111. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 71 

JAMES BOISSEAU. 
By STERLING BOISSEAU. 

James Boisseau, the subject of this sketch was born in Peters- 
burg, Va., June 10th 1822, his father, James Boisseau died when 
he was two years of age, and his mother when he was just five. 
He made Dinwiddie County his home at an early age, living at 
"Flat Rock" with his maiden aunt Sally Boisseau whose estate he 
managed when he grew up. 

He entered William and Mary College in 1839 from which place 
he graduated in 1842 in which year the A. B. degree was conferred 
on him. Returning to Dinwiddie he taught school and bought 
"Cedar Lane" just south of the Five Forks where he farmed and 
prepared himself to enter the University of Virginia to take the 
law course from which he graduated in 1851 (The University Cata- 
logue erroneously has him as M. D.) He soon built up a large 
practice and had charge of the affairs of many large estates. Poli- 
tics seem also to have entered largely into his life, for he was 
elected to the following offices: 

Commissioner of the Revenue, 1848-49 and '50; Common- 
wealth attorney 1852-53-54-55 and '56; Justice of the Peace, and 
Presiding Justice in 1860; there were no County Judges in those 
days, a bench of Justices having about the same jurisdiction; 
Member of the Legislature in 1857-58 and member of the famous 
Secessionist Convention in 1861. Was elected as the first County 
Judge in 1870 which position he held to the time of his death. 
Was a corporal in the Confederate army in Capt. Epes, (B. J.) 
Company of which Dr. J. P. Gilliam was first lieutenant, after- 
wards Captain; he was captured a short time before the surrender 
of Lee, was in the battles of Drewry's Bluff, Howletf s and other 
places. The roster of his company was also captured, and there is 
no record of it in the state's archives except a list made from the 
memory of some of its members, the records, however, are in 
Washington. 

In his younger days he was familiarly called "Jimmy Straight," 



72 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

being very erect in stature, but not more so than in character. This 
name might also have been applied to him to distinguish from 
Dr. James P. Boisseau, and James W. Boisseau, also of Dinwiddie. 

He was a son of James Boisseau, a merchant of Petersburg, 
and Jane Inglish Turner, his wife, the latter is buried in Bland- 
ford Cemetery Petersburg near the old church on whose tomb- 
stone appears James Boisseau 1780-1824, "An honest man is the 
noblest work of God/' He was also a grandson of John Boisseau, 
and as the name indicates, was of French Huguenot extraction, the 
family having been refugees to the American Colonies after the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The name has been prominently 
identified with Bristol Parish, and Blandford Church, Rev. James 
Boisseau having been a minister of the church of England in the 
Virginia Colony in 1687, and some years preceding and succeeding 
that time. 

Judge Boisseau married Martha Elizabeth Cousins, daughter 
of Capt. William Henry Cousins (of the war of 1812) of Din- 
widdie Feby 29th 1860, four children having reached maturity, 
Sterling, Ada Cousins, Emma Robinson, and Preston. He died 
Nov. 2'9th 1872, and is buried at Cedar Lane, in Dinwiddie. 



GENEALOGICAL QUERIES. 

PARK FAMILY. Who were the parents of John Park of Hamp- 
shire County, near Capon Bridge. He received a deed from Lord 
Fairfax Aug. 18, 1762. His will is dated Apr. 20, 1816. Where 
did he come from to Virginia, or from what part of Virginia to 
settle in Hampshire Co. Mrs. Jennie Park Latta, 4412 Univer- 
sity Ave., Des Moines, Iowa. 



The Editors are in receipt of a query in regard to William 
Preston who moved from Virginia to Crab Orchard, Kentucky. 
No name is attached to the query, and the letter accompanying it, 
if sent, has not been found. Will the writer please communicate 
with the Editors. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 73 



LIEUTENANT SPENCER. 

(Order Book No. 29.) 
1833, Nov. 4th. 

A Copy "The Court upon proof made to them doth certify 
that Lucy Spencer is the widow of Col. Thomas Spencer, late of 
this county, a Lieutenant in the Continental line, and that the 
following are his children, to-wit, Elizabeth, who has intermarried 
with John D. Richardson, Susan, who has intermarried with Wm. 
B. Watkins, Martha, who has intermarried with Richard Morton, 
Mary H. Allen, widow of Daniel Allen, deed., Scion Spencer, Wil- 
liam W. Spencer, Thomas J. Spencer, the said Thomas J. Spencer 
died leaving a widow, Elizabeth A. Spencer and two infants, James 
Thomas and Lucy Ann Spencer, and that there are no other chil- 
dren or grand children." 

W. S. Morton, Charlotte C. H., Va. 



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uarterlp ?N*toricai iWagajme 

Vol. II. lS d APRIL, 1922 No. 2 

REMARKS OF R. WALTON MOORE IN THE FAIRFAX 

COURT HOUSE, MAY 30TH, 1921, ACCEPTING FOR 

FAIRFAX COUNTY THE PORTRAIT OF 

QEORGE JOHNSTON. 

The County of Fairfax, honoring George Johnston, one of her 
foremost sons, welcomes the opportunity of placing his portrait on 
the walls of this Court room, in company with the portraits of 
Washington and Mason, to whom he was bound by many strong 
ties. 

Such records of the County as are still preserved afford evi- 
dence of his prominence and activity. 

As a lawyer he was in the front rank of the bar of this section. 
His name constantly occurs in the minute books of the County 
Court which detail its proceedings, while the County seat was 
maintained at what is now called the Old Court House Hill, and, 
afterwards, following its removal from there to Alexandria, near 
the middle of the 18th century. The town of Alexandria, and what 
is now Arlington County, were of course, until the end of that 
century a part of Fairfax. As Johnston was born in 1700, it is 
interesting to note the evolution of the counties as he himself 
witnessed it. Prince William was detached from Stafford in 1730. 
Fairfax was detached from Prince William in 1742, and Loudoun 
was not detached from Fairfax until 1757. 

In the deed books are conveyances of land with which he was 
connected. The will books contain his last will and testament, 
written in 1766 within a few months of his death, which is brief 
and simple compared with the prolix wills customary in those days. 
The will books also contain the inventory of his estate from which 



76 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

it seems that he was a man of considerable wealth. He owned a 
residence in Alexandria. Across Hunting Creek from the Town, 
and lying along the Potomac River, was his very extensive farm, 
well stocked with cattle and horses, equipped with all the agri- 
cultural implements then in use, and cultivated by his numerous 
slaves. 

The inventory indicates that he was studious and widely read. 
The catalogue of his library includes an excellent collection of 
law books that had been then published. It includes also a large 
number of other books, among them the works of Addison, Steele, 
Goldsmith, Swift and Pope, who were his contemporaries, and who, 
as all know, contributed to making theirs one of the golden periods 
of the literature of our language. 

While capable of engaging in the largest affairs, Johnston was 
concerned about everything that affected the general welfare. He 
was an ardent and untiring public servant, exerting himself to 
advance the interests of the colony and his own community. For 
several years, he represented the County in the House of Bur- 
gesses. At home, he found time from the labors of his profession 
to look after local matters. For instance, he assisted in organizing 
new parishes ; settling their boundaries, and acting as the adviser of 
the vestries that had charge of such business. 

Johnston's participation in one of the most memorable events 
of our political history was so outstanding as to insure him against 
$he possibility of ever being forgotten. It was the event that 
occurred at Williamsburg on the 30th of May, 1765, exactly 156 
years ago today. Williamsburg was the seat of the Colonial Gov- 
ernment. From the Capitol waved the flag of Great Britain. On 
every hand were the insignia of royalty. Devotion to the Crown 
was almost universal. The House of Burgesses, which had been 
in session several weeks, was made up of the most eminent char- 
acters of the Colony. America could not then have produced a 
more distinguished or brilliant assemblage. Those who were sup- 
posed to guide and dominate the House were the unswerving ad- 
herents of the Crown. The Speaker was John Robinson, an ultra- 
conservative, and among the members who supported him were 
Peyton Randolph, Richard Bland, Edmund Pendleton, George 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 77 

Wythe and Richard Henry Lee. To these names many others not 
less notable might be added. One of the older members was George 
Johnston, representing Fairfax, and one of the younger members 
was George Washington, representing Frederick. 

The English Parliament had just passed a statute placing a 
tax on all legal instruments executed in America, ranging from 
three pence to ten pounds the famous Stamp Tax. This had 
aroused some indignant comment, but many possibly a large 
majority of the Colonial leaders were inclined to submit. For 
example, Benjamin Franklin, then in London, where, as agent of 
some of the colonies, he had endeavored to prevent the passage of 
the Act, was sure that there would be acquiescence. Writing to a 
friend he said that tye could no more have hindered the passage of 
the Act than he could have hindered the sun from setting. "That," 
he said, "we could not do. But since the sun is down, my friend, 
and it may be long before it rises again, let us make as good a night 
of it as we can. We can still light the candles." Many members 
of the House of Burgesses were in the same attitude and not a few 
of them were aggressively loyal in supporting the authority of Par- 
liament. But there were some who were willing to risk their all 
rather than submit, and, after a while, three days before the close 
of the session, they found a leader. 

It seems almost providential that the member representing 
Loujsa when the House met, resigned during the session, and thus 
made way for the election of Patrick Henry, who was chosen to 
fill the vacancy. Henry was then 29 years old, and only known 
as the lawyer who by his ability and eloquence had won The Par- 
son's case. He did not belong to the wealthy or aristocratic group 
and was new to the field upon which he entered at Williamaburg. 
Nevertheless, he determined upon a course of resistance to the 
enforcement of the Stamp Tax. He planned to offer resolutions 
of protest and condemnation, and these he wrote upon the fly 
leaf of an old law book. The fifth and concluding resolution was 
as follows: "Resolved, therefore, that the General Assembly of 
this Colony have the sole right and power to levy taxes and im- 
positions upon the inhabitants of this Colony; and that every at- 
tempt to vest such power in any person or persons whatsoever, 



78 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

other than the General Assembly aforesaid, is a manifest tendency 
to destroy British as well as American freedom." 

In advance of their introduction the resolutions were shown 
by their author to but two members, one of whom was Johnston. 
It is easy to believe that the inexperienced member who was about 
to challenge the power of the British Government, consulted with 
Mr. Johnston because of his desire to have the cooperation of a 
statesman and lawyer of wide experience and mature judgment. 
Nor is it difficult to believe that, knowing of Johnston's in- 
timacy with George Mason, Henry assumed that his views were 
similar to those entertained by the political philosopher of Gun- 
ston Hall. Certain it is that the resolutions received Johnston's 
unhesitating approval and that at the critical moment he was 
relied upon for the support that Henry regarded as essential. 

They both understood the strenuous nature of the struggle 
they were bringing on in an unsympathetic House they were pre- 
pared for what happened. As soon as the resolutions were offered, 
to quote from a memorandum Henry left for his executors : "Vio- 
lent debates ensued. Many threats were uttered and much abuse 
cast on me by the party for submission." He described as "long 
and warm" the contest which resulted in the resolutions being 
passed by the smallest possible majority. 

It is fortunate that we. have the illuminating testimony of 
Thomas Jefferson as to what transpired. He describes the scene 
as marked by confusion and excitement. The two principal figures 
which appear in his picture are those of Henry and Johnston. It 
seemed to him that "Henry spoke as Homer wrote." He "never 
heard such a splendid display of eloquence from any other man." 
But he is emphatic in recognizing that by Johnston "the learning 
and logic of the case was maintained." Says the Jefferson narra- 
tive: "Torrents of sublime eloquence from Henry, backed by the 
solid reasoning of Johnston prevailed. The last and strongest 
resolution, however, was carried by a single vote. The debate on 
it was most bloody. I was then but a student at William and 
Mary College, and stood at the door of communication between 
the House and the lobby (for as yet there was no gallery), during 
the whole of the debate and vote] and I well remember that after 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 79 

the members of the division were told and declared by the Chair, 
Peyton Randolph, the King's Attorney ' General, came out of the 
door where I was standing and said as he entered the lobby: 
'By God, I would have given five hundred guineas for a single 
vote.' '' One sentence from Henry's speech has survived, his ex- 
clamation that "Caesar had his Brutus Charles I his Cromwell 
and George III may profit by their example. If this be treason 
make the most of it." As he named George III he was interrupted 
by Speaker Robinson crying out "Treason," and that cry was 
echoed throughout the House. Waiting until order was restored, 
the tradition is that he drew himself up to his full height and de- 
fiantly continued his unreserved comparison of the English King 
with the tyrants who had suffered for their misdeeds, and scorn- 
fully left the charge of treason to be dealt with by those who had 
made it. Fauquier, the Governor of the Colony, in a letter 
to the Lords of Trade, written on June 5th, expressing regret and 
humiliation at the conduct of the House, severely criticised Henry's 
words. "In the course of the debate," he wrote, "I have heard 
that very indecent language was used by Mr. Henry, a young law- 
yer who had not been but about a month in the House, who carried 
all the young members with him." One of the young members 
who followed Henry and Johnston was the man who was to become 
the leader of the American Revolution and the first President of 
the Republic. 

There is no report of the argument of Johnston in favor of 
the resolutions, but we can think of him as calmly summarizing the 
facts and precedents, and contending with irresistible force that 
the Stamp Tax was not only inexpedient and the beginning of an 
oppressive policy, but that it was in violation of the fundamental 
principles of English liberty. We can think of him as urging 
many of the same considerations that were urged upon the House 
of Commons less than a decade later by Edmund Burke in his 
wonderful speeches on "Taxation in America" and "Conciliation 
with America." William Wirt, himself a remarkable lawyer and 
orator, and for a longer time than any other man Attorney General 
of the United States, in his account of the struggle over the resolu- 
tions, describes Johnston as "a lawyer highly respected in his pro- 



80 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

fession, a scholar distinguished for vigor of intellect, cogency of 
argument, firmness of character, love of order, and devotion to 
the cause of natural liberty. In short, exactly guided by his love of 
the cause and the broad and solid basis of his understanding, to up- 
hold the magnificent structure of Henry's eloquence." 

Except for Henry the House would have adjourned without 
taking a definite stand against the enforcement of the Tax. Except 
for Johnston the resolutions condemning the Tax would have 
failed to pass. 

Their joint effort having triumphed, they could well be indif- 
ferent to the fact that on the next day, when Henry and other 
members had already left Williamsburg, some step was taken that 
prevented the Journal from showing the passage of the fifth reso- 
lution. But whatever might be said or done, it had been adopted 
along with the other resolutions and the situation could not be 
materially affected by any subsequent attempt to reverse the action 
of the House. The most powerful Colony had made plain an- 
nouncement to the world of its purpose not to submit to any legis- 
lation by the British Government constituting, in its opinion, 
a serious infringement of its rights. The example of Virginia 
had an immediate and decisive effect on other colonies. The step 
taken by Virginia started an agitation that led to the Declaration 
of Independence and the Eevolution. 

What had occurred established Henry's leadership and his 
fame grew as time went on. Johnston returned to his County and 
died the next year, leaving the scene before the new order of things 
was fully accomplished. Two of his sons served in the Army of the 
Eevolution, one of them on the staff of the Commander-in-Chief, 
and many of his descendants have rendered valuable service to the 
public. 

The portrait is an authentic picture of the man whose memory 
we honor and it seems to me to give a vivid impression of the high 
qualities with which he was endowed. While the County exists, 
those who look upon the portrait will recall the career of the Fair- 
fax citizen, who, next to Washington and Mason, is best entitled 
to be remembered, of those who dignified and adorned its colonial 
history. 



COLONEL TATHAM AND OTHER VIRGINIA ENGINEERS. 
By A. J. MORRISON. 

The most interesting sketch of the life of Moncure Robinson, 
in the October number of this magazine, suggests the importance 
of setting forth facts in the careers of other Virginia engineers. 
There was Albert Stein, for instance, who it is likely was brought 
to Virginia as a result of Mr. Robinson's visit to Holland about 
1825. Albert Stein probably began his work in Virginia on a 
system of waterworks for the town of Lynchburg. He was 
also (was he not?) in charge of the installation of a system for 
Richmond. Settling finally at Mobile, Mr. Stein worked out many 
excellent plans for the improvement of the Mississippi River. ( See 
his articles in De Bow's Review, 1849 and after.) 

As it happens, a recent edition of Letters of Jefferson (Bixby 
Collection, edited by Worthington C. Ford, Boston, 1916) con- 
tains items throwing light on three Virginia engineers, two of 
whom ended their days about the time Mr. Robinson was beginning 
his work, and the third seems to have lived not much longer. A 
book might be written about any one of them, William Tatham, 
John Wood, and Hugh Paul Taylor. 

Colonel Tatham was writing at length to Mr. Jefferson in 1790 
and 1791, regarding many plans for historical and topographical 
studies, a surveyorship of roads, and a road guide for strangers 
in Virginia. John Wood in 1805 reported to President Jefferson 
on surveys he had been making in Kentucky and in Louisiana. 
Hugh Paul Taylor in 1823 wrote to Mr. Jefferson about the 
activities of the engineering department of the Virginia Board of 
Public Works, in which the correspondent was employed. Internal 
improvements, and topographical surveys were what interested 
Hugh Paul Taylor. In this letter he made mention of the Boye 
map, itself the outcome of John Wood's official surveys around 
1819. These letters from Tatham, Wood and Taylor are to be 
found in the Bixby collection referred to above. 

In John Holt Rice's Virginia Literary and Evangelical Maga- 
zine, March, 1825 (Vol. VIII, p. 153), there is printed a pros- 



82 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

pectus of Hugh Paul Taylor's "Historical Sketches of the Internal 
Improvements of Virginia." The book is exactly described as to 
contents and number of pages 430 pages, $2.50 bound. Is this 
manuscript still in existence in the Covington or Lewisburg region ? 
Mr. Taylor was at Lewisburg in 18*33. Two years later, by the 
prospectus, he had shaped up his manuscript containing : 

"1. A history of the laws, surveys, maps, and charts for a new map 
of Virginia. 

2. A detailed history of the James and Kanawha road and canals 

from their origin. 

3. History of the Board of Public Works. 

4. History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and of the Dismal 

Swamp Canal. 

5. History of the improvement of Ohio, Monongahela, Roanoke, 

Appomattox 1 and other rivers, roads, etc., in Virginia. 

6. Appendix Treatise in behalf of the energetic consummation 

of the James and Kanawha scheme of improvements." 

It is certainly very much to be hoped that this valuable manu- 
script may be recovered. It covers the ground. 

John Wood apparently did not leave much behind him in the 
way of topographical material of a narrative form. But he left 
his county maps, (whoever did the actual work), and those maps 
are of immense interest. Wood owed his appointment as in charge 
of these surveys to Mr. Jefferson, who might have recommended 
Colonel Tatham. The tragical history of Colonel Tatham affords a 
dreadful example a man of wit, of proved capacity, of endless 
ideas who came to nothing, as we say. 

The brief account of Colonel Tatham in the Dictionary of 
National Biography is pretty good, written by one who knew noth- 
ing of Virginia, Tennessee or North Carolina, where Colonel Tat- 
ham spent his most active years in America. Why should that 
notice, and others, have it that Colonel Tatham ended his life in 
Alexandria ? He seems to have made his residence in the District 

iLatrobe's work on Appomattox River about 1798, as shown by 
his published journal. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 83 

of Columbia a good deal after 1806. He offered his topographical 
collections to Congress that year in a letter written from Jefferson 
St., Georgetown. In 1814 he had a house near the Treasury, and 
it was then that Peter Force may have purchased a good many 
items from the Colonel's collections. After his death in 1819, 
the Virginia Board of Public Works bought the residue of the 
Colonel's papers, and it is extremely likely that Hugh Paul Taylor 
had access to those papers in compiling his book. It seems proba- 
ble that Colonel Tatham helped to found both the Library of Con- 
gress and the Virginia State Library. (See Johnston ? History 
of the Library of Congress, 1904, pp. 50-53.) 

The fullest account of William Tatham's life is that given in 
Ann. of Biog. and Obit, (cited in Diet, of Nat. Biog.) year 1820, 
Vol. IV, pp. 149-168. This writer knew the man, but did not 
know the Virginia region. The article, however, is well worth 
reading, and besides biographical items gives some Cherokee 
sketches, observations of Colonel Tatham when he was in the Ten- 
nessee country, matter relative to Attakullah, Kullah, Oconostota, 
and other head men. The Colonel, like many other ministers' sons, 
had a great fancy for wild life. He was well connected, was a dis*- 
tant relation of the Earl of Lonsdale, but his family seems to have 
done very little for him. He came to Virginia in 1769, when quite 
a boy, and followed his employer, Colonel John Carter, to the 
Tennessee country. 

Interest in William Tatham was started a few years ago by 
Mr. Clayton Torrence who published in the William and Mary 
College Quarterly (XXV, 83) extracts from obituary notices in 
the Eichmond papers of 1819. Following that article, the present 
writer sent to the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 
(XXV, 198) a few Tatham memoranda. Mr. Swem grew inter- 
ested in the subject and assembled a good many notes. There is 
certainly material to be had for a voluminous essay on Colonel 
Tatham. Many letters from him are listed in the Calendar of 
Jefferson Correspondence (State Department) ; there are letters 
to Wilson C. Nicholas (1807-1809) listed in the Handbook of 
Manuscripts in the Library of Congress; (see also Poore's Index) ; 



84 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

and a bare list of Colonel Tatham's writings has not yet been ade- 
quately made out. 

At least one of William Tatham's books should be republished, 
in whole or in part his excellent "Historical and Practical Essay 
on the Culture and Commerce of Tobacco/' London 1800, pp. 330. 
This book shows the author's sound common sense, and yet he was 
not what we call a commonsense man. At p. 70 the very informing 
statement is made that David Ross was a great man, was the 
founder of Columbia-up-the-James, and of the upland warehouses 
generally. William Tatham was a pleasing and witty writer. In 
the preface to this book he remarked, "An useful work needs no 
indelicate recommendation, nor can a bad one be supported by it ? 
although a sonorous patron might happen to help the sale This 
work being devoted to the prosperity of commerce bids me take my 
leave of compliment and attend to my subject. November, 1799." 

Around 1800 the author was employed at London in the engi- 
neering and construction of docks. A few years later he was in 
our coast survey off North Carolina. He had been a member of 
the North Carolina House of Assembly, soon after the Peace of 
1783, and was one of the founders of the town of Lumberton in 
North Carolina. His experience about the world, on the continent 
of America, in Cuba, Spain, and in England, made it possible for 
him to take broad views of commercial and political affairs. In 
1800 he published at London "Observations on the Commerce of 
Spain with her American Colonies in time of War. Written by a 
Spanish gentleman in Philadelphia (Manuel Torres?) this present 
year 1800. Edited in London by William Tatham." The editor 
spoke thus timely : "When many nations of the world seem to be 
running mad, as it were, with the intoxicating pleasure of cutting 
each other's throats by way of lottery (without any man's being 
able to identify the depending prizes or calculate the chances), it 
may perhaps do some good if men of more cool and dispassionate 
observation are permitted to lead them into a more productive way 
of thinking." 



CHARLOTTE COUNTY, VA. 

Contributed by W. S. MORTON. 

1778. Revolutionary Soldiers, (Order Book No. 4) 

A list of soldiers whose families were furnished with sup- 
plies while they were in active service: 

1. William Parsons, (wife Rebecca), continental service. 

2. John Bryant (wife Milliner), in service from this county. 

3. Josiah Moody, (wife Mary), " " " " " 

4. Benjamin Childress, (wife Susan), continental service 

5. Humphrey LuCas (wife Elizabeth),- " " 

6. Robert Jeane (wife Elizabeth), " " 

7. David Jeane (wife Betty)- " 

8. Andrew King (wife Mary Hammond), service of the U. S. 

9. Alexander Nunnally, (wife Elizabeth). " " " " 

10. Wm. Nichols, (wife Elizabeth), service of the U. S. from 

this county. 

11. Heaton, (wife Anne), in the service of the U. S. from 

this county. 

12. John O'Bryan, (wife Mildred), in the service of the U. S. 

from this county. 

13. John Brafford, (wife Elizabeth), in the service of the 

U. S. from this county. 

14. Edward Roads, (wife Prudence), in the service of the 

U. S. from this county. 

1779. 

15. Terry Northeatt, (wife Sarah), in the service of the United 

States 

16. Philip Malone, (wife Mary), in the service of the United 

States 

17. George Tislow, (wife Mary), in the service of the United 

States 

18. John Allday, (wife Mary), in the service of the United 

States 



86 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

19. John Whitlow, (wife Elizabeth), late a soldier in conti- 
nental army, died in the service at the northwest in the 
course of the summer of 1778, certified to the Auditor of 
Public Accounts for half pay. 

20. William Milam, a soldier in continental army, had recently 
died, his widow, Margaret, was furnished with supplies 

1780 Colonial Soldiers. 

A partial list of Colonial soldiers who "came into court 
and made oath that" they "served in the late war between 
Great Britain and France", that they were "recruited in 
Virginia, served to the end of the war, (or full time of 
enlistment), regularly discharged, never received, or 
claimed, the bounty of land, under the proclamation of 
1763, as a compensation for that service, which, on" their 
"motion, is ordered to be certified" : 

Feb. Ct. 1. Richard Martin, private, in Capt. Mordicai Buckner's 

company, of the 1st., Va., Regiment. 
" 2. John Adams, in Capt. Thomas Woodford's company, 

1st., Va., Regiment. 

" " 3. James Joggins, corporal, in Major Peachy's com- 
pany, 1st., Va., Regiment. 
" 4. Richard Laurane, corporal, in Capt. James Gun's 

company, Ist.Va., Regiment. 
" 5. Francis Robert, private, in Capt. John McNeaPs 

company, 1st. Va., Regiment. 
" 6. John Pen-in, sergeant, in Capt. John McNeal's 

company, 1st Va., Regiment. 
" " 7. Butler Buckley, private, in Capt. Thomas Fleming's 

company, 1st Va., Regiment. 

Mch. " 8. John Young, private, in Capt. James Gun's com- 
pany, 1st Va. Regiment. 
" " 9. William Griffin, private, in Capt. Robert's company, 

1st Va. Regiment. 

" " 10. Benjamin Cage, private, in Capt. Richard Dugget's 
company, of Virginia Regiment. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 87 

" 11. John Tread way, private, in Capt. Nathaniel Gest's 
company, of Virginia Regiment. 

" 12. Roger Cock Bailey, corporal, in Capt. James Gun's 
company, Virginia Regiment. 

" 13. David Hutcheson, private, in Capt. Posey's com- 
pany, Virginia Regiment. 

Militia Officers. 

1778. The follow gentlemen produced their commissions in court 
and took the oath of a militia officer as by law directed: 

Jan. Ct. 1. William Jameson, a lieutenant. 
Feb. " 2. Diggs Bumpass, a 2d. lieutenant. 
Mch. " 3. Robert Jennings, a 2d lieutenant. 
May " 4. Adam Finch, an ensign 
" "5. John Ward, an ensign. 
July " 6. Wm. Mitchell, an ensign. 

" 7. Joseph Fuqua, a first lieutenant. 

" " 8. Samuel Henry, an ensign. 
Sept " 9. Andrew Wallace, a 2d lieutenant. 

Nov. " 10. Joseph Fuqua, a 2d lieutenant. 

Dec. " 11. George Holloway, ensign. 

" 12. Adam Finch, 1st lieutenant. 
" 13. Wm. Jameson, 1st lieutenant. 

1779. 

Feb. Ct. 14. Francis Scott, ensign. 

" " 15. Samuel Henry, 2d lieutenant. 

" " 16. Thomas Bouldin, ensign. 

" 17. Langston Bacon, 1st lieutenant. 

" " 18. Joel Townes, 2d lieutenant. 

Mch. " 19. Edward Almond, 2d lieutenant. 

" " 2'0. Richard Gaines, Captain. 

Apr. " 21. James Holloway, 2d lieutenant. 

May " 22. Francis Scott, 2d lieutenant. 

" " 23. Andrew Hannah, ensign. 



88 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

July " 24. Bryant Ferguson, 1st lieutenant. 
" 25. Josiah Newton, major. 

Aug. " 26. Jonathan Read, ensign. 

Sept. " 27. Thomas Spencer, Jr., Captain. 

" "28. Gideon Spencer, ensign 

" " 29. John Spencer, 2d lieutenant. 

Nov. " 30. Joel Watkins, Lt. colonel. 

" "31. Wm. Rowlett, 2d lieutenant. 

" " 32'. Wm. Jameson, captain 

" " 33. Jonathan Eead, 1st lieutenant. 

" " 34. Wood Bouldin, ensign. 



CUTHBERT BULLITT. 

LETTER OF INMAN HORNER TO HUGH BLAIR GRIGSBY. 
Contributed by W. S. MORTON. 

Warrenton, October 10th, 1859 
Dear Sir: 

I have been expecting from Mr. Mordecai B. Sinclair or from 
Gen. Eppa Hunton, of Brentsville, Prince William County, Va. 
fuller and more minute information of Cuthbert Bullitt than I 
possess, the latter informed me that the former was making dili- 
gent inquiries, and ^would give me the result of them. Although 
I have communicated by letter with Mr. Sinclair, and personally 
more than once with Gen. Hunton, the promises made to me have 
not been performed. That you may not be kept in suspense, I will 
now furnish you with some facts, as I possess and have obtained 
from different sources. 

It appears from the will of Benjamin Bullitt, proved in the 
County Court of Fauquier, that Cuthbert Bullitt was his son, and 
that the wife of Benjamin was Sarah Bullitt. Benjamin Bullitt 
was also the father of Thomas Bullitt. Thomas Bullitt was a mili- 
tary man of distinguished courage and merit. Irving in his life 
of Washington gives a striking instance of his coolness, and cour- 
age, in the several conflicts with the Indians. In Sparks' Wash- 
ington Correspondence, if my memory is not greatly at fault you 
will find letters between him and Washington. 

In the will of Benj. Bullitt, he gives to his son, Thos., two 
tracts of land in the Province of Maryland, and situated in a 
Fork of Mattioman, where his Father Joseph Bullitt was buried. 
The other on Daniel's Branch. 

The will of Benj. Bullitt is dated 3d May 1756, and was proved 
on the 27th October 1766 [?] in the County Court of Fauquier, 
he appoints his two sons Thos. & Cuthbert, and his wife Sarah his 
Executors. 

The will of Thomas Bullitt was also proved in the County 
Court of Fauquier, it is dated the 17 September 1775 and was 



90 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

admitted to record on the 23d Feb. 1778. Cuthbert Bullitt was 
appointed his Executor. 

It appears in this will that Thos. Bullitt owned lands on the 
Kennawwer River at the mouth of Elk. 

The letters to which I have reference in Sparks, I think refer 
to Western Lands in which Wash. & he were interested. 

After some special legacies, Thomas gives to his Brother Cuth- 
bert all the rest of his estate, real and personal, and all entries 
and interest in any land whatsoever. 

The will of Thos. Bullitt shows that he had a fondness for fine 
horses. In one clause he gives two colts, one a horse and another 
a mare, to Benjamin Harrison. 

In a letter now before me, dated July 12th, 1790 and ad- 
dressed to Dr. Gustavus B. Horner, my Uncle, Cuthbert Bullitt 
among other things speaks of the rect of a letter from the former, 
after the return of C. Bullitt from the Eastern Shore, that is, I 
suppose, of Maryland. The lands in Maryland spoken of above 
descended or were devised, to Judge Thomas I. Bullitt a son of 
Cuthbert Bullitt, the Brother of Thomas. Judge Thomas I. B. 
died in or near Easton Maryland. Cuthbert Bullitt married a 
daughter of the Rev. James Scott of Westwood, Prince William. 
She was a sister of the Rev. John Scott, the father of the late 
Judge John Scott of Fauquier County. She was also a first cousin 
of Dr. Gustavus B. Horner and of William Horner, my father. 
There is a letter now before me, addressed to the mother of the 
two last named, by Mrs. Bullitt, in which she speaks of the illness 
of her husband, but it is without date. 

The Rev. John Scott above named is one of the Principals in 
an affair of honour, of which I send you an account. The facts 
are derived from the records of the County of Prince William. 
The statements will enable you to judge of the prominent char- 
acteristics of C. Bullitt. 

In Bishop Meade's -History of the Church you will find an 
account of the duel, and the connection of the Rev. John Scott 
with it. 

C. Bullitt was born and died in Prince William and was there 
buried. 

I cannot give you any confident account of his person, educa- 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUAETEBLY 91 

tion, or religious character or style of speaking. But I have often 
heard him spoken of by persons who knew him and were either 
related to or connected with him. The impression derived from 
them is that he was of medium size, and compactly formed, that 
he had been a student of Wiliam and Mary College, possessed a 
quick, strong mind, that he was well informed and was earnest 
and vehement in voice, thought and gesture. The statement ac- 
companying this letter will persuade you, that he was a warm, 
faithful, candid friend, that he was generous, cool and intrepid, 
humane and noble. 

He C. B. was born and died in the County of Prince William 
and was buried in or near Dumfries. 

It appears by tn*e Minutes of Fauquier County Court that he 
qualified to practice as an attorney in the court on the 24th May 
1759, and that on the 3d- day of April 1761 he produced a certifi- 
cate appointing him Deputy Attorney. 

Judge Peter V. Daniel of the Supreme Ct. U. S. is connected 
with him and he probably can make you better acquainted with 
the subject. I am about to leave home, and thinking that further 
delay might be inconvenient to you, I have without method written 
this letter. If any further information shall come to me, I will 
send it to you promptly. It gives me pleasure to serve you. 

Yrs very try, 

Inman Horner 
Hugh B. Grigsby, Esq., 
Charlotte Court House. 



WILL OF WILLIAM PARKS, THE FIRST PRINTER IN 

VIRGINIA. 

With Note by Lawrence C. Wroth, Assistant Librarian Enoch 
Pratt Library, Baltimore. 

In the Name of God Amen I William Parks of the City of 
Williamsburg in the Dominion of Virginia Gent being sick and 
weak of body but of Perfect and sound Mind and MeMory do make 
and ordain this my last will and Testament in manner and form 
following That is to say I bequeath my Soul to God hoping through 
the merits of Christ the same shall be saved and my body to be 
buried in a decent manner. Imprimis I give and [bequeath?] 
all my Estate whether Real or Personal to my Daughter Eleanor 
Shelton and the heirs of her body lawfully begotten after all my 
Just Debts and legacys hereafter bequeath [ed?] are duly dis- 
charged. 

Item I give and bequeath to my sister Jane Spitsburg fifty 
pounds current money of Virginia. 

Item I give and bequeath One hundred Pounds like money to be 
divided equally amongst my said Sister Jane Spitsburgs children 
to be paid to my brother in Law Thomas Spitsburg or his lawful 
Attorney 

Item I give and bequeath to my Sister Elizabeth Parks fifty 
Pounds current money of Virginia aforesaid. It is my desire 
that my wife Eleanor Parks and my son in Law John Shelton do 
carry on and complete Printing the Laws of Virginia which I 
have undertaken. And it is my desire that the accounts now oPen 
between Mrs. Sarah Pack and me be settled by Mr. John Garland 
on her part and Mr. Benjamin Waller on my part and all con- 
tracts or agreements between the said Sarah Pack and me to stand 
void til the determination of John Garland and Benjamin Waller 
aforesaid. It is my will and desire that my Executors hereafter 
mentioned do take care of and perform the articles stipulated be- 
tween me and Benjamin Bayley. 

I do hereby constitute and appoint my Son in law John Shelton 
of Hanover County and Benjamin Waller and William Prentis of 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 93 

Williamsburg Gentlemen Executors of this my last Will & Testa- 
ment And it is my Will and desire that Mr. Benjamin Waller 
will be pleased to accept of twenty pounds for executing this my 
Will. 

In WITNESS whereof I have hereunto set my hand and af- 
fixed my Seal this thirtieth day of March Anno. Dom. One thou- 
sand seven hundred and fifty. 

Wm. Parks 

Signed Sealed and Declared in presence of. 

Andw Watson 

Thomas Williamson 

Graham Frank ^ 

Thos. Smith* 

At a Court held for York County the 18th day of June 1750. 

This will was proved by the Oaths of Andrew Watson Thomas 
Williamson and Thomas Smith Witness thereto sworn to by John 
Shelton one of the Executors therein named and ordered to be 
recorded and on the motion of the said John Shelton who with 
Benjamin Waller Gent, and Nathaniel Crawley his Secureties 
entered into and acknowledged Bond according to law certificate 
was granted him for obtaining a Probat thereof in due form: 
liberty being reserved to the other Executors named in the said 
Will to join in the Probat when they shall think fit: 

Tester 

Thos. Evard Ct Clerk 
A Copy Tester 

(Signed) Floyd Holloway 

Clerk- 
page 183: Wills & Inventories 20: 1746 to 1759 

Until his death in the year 1750, Parks continued to fill an 
important place in the public life of Virginia. In the course of 
a voyage to England undertaken in this year, he came down with 
a pleurisy and died after a short illness. His body was carried to 
England and there buried. That his labors after all had been 
unrewarded may be inferred from the fact that at his death his 



94 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

assets were found to be slightly more than six thousand pounds, 
while his liabilities were only a few pounds less than this amount. 
There was no printer of his day, however, Franklin alone excepted, 
whose service to typography and letters in America presents a 
greater claim on the interest and gratitude of posterity. 

For information as to Parks in Virginia, consult the Journals 
of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, [for the years 1727-1758]. 
Eichmond, 1909-1910; Thomas,, History of Printing in America; 
William and Mary College Quarterly, 7: 10-12; Weejcs, L. H., 
History of Paper Manufacturing in the U. S., 1690-1916. N. Y. 
1916. See also his will and inventory and accounts in the Court 
House, York Town, Va. Copies of these are in the Maryland His- 
torical Society. 

After this account of William Parks had been set and paged, 
and consequently when it was too late for an extensive investiga- 
tion, the author came upon a clue which may lead to the discovery 
of the origin and early life of this interesting printer. In the 
Catalogue of an Exhibition of Books Illustrative of the History 
& Progress of Printing and Bookselling in England, 1477-1800, 
Held at Stationers' Hall 25-29 June, 1912, by the International 
Association of Antiquarian Booksellers, item No. 895 is an edition 
of Jones, S., The Most Important Question, What is Truth, 
printed by William Parks at Ludlow in Shropshire, England, in 
1719-20. The editor of the catalogue has appended this note: 
"The first book printed at Ludlow, The printer afterwards emi- 
grated to America and started printing at Annapolis/' Imme- 
diately after perusing this entry, the author began a search in 
available histories of Ludlow and Shropshire for verification of 
fche statement as to the identity of William Parks of Ludlow and 
Annapolis, but in the short time at his disposal secured no definite 
information. He discovered, however, that at a short distance from 
the town of Oswestry in Shropshire there is a celebrated "half- 
timbered" mansion known as "Park Hall", and, that there is an- 
other "Park Hall" at Bitterley near Ludlow. Recalling, as is stated 
in this narrative, that on April 19, 1731, a tract known as "Park 
Hall" was surveyed in Maryland for William Parks, and knowing 
the tendency of the colonial American to name his tract after some 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 95 

English estate dear or familiar to him, he felt that he was in the 
way of throwing light of an interesting nature on the early life 
of this emigrant printer. Through the kindness of the New Eng- 
land Historic Genealogical Society examination was made of the 
parish registers of Oswestry in the Shropshire Parish Register 
Society (Diocese of St. Asaph) series, but with negative results, 
except to show that Parks was a common name in that neighbor- 
hood, as it seems to have been also in the neighborhood of Bitterley. 

This evidence is so slender in amount and character that the 
author hesitates to add to it more of the same nature, but the fact 
that among the slaves left by William Parks was a negro man 
named "Ludlow" seems to have sufficient significance to justify 
its inclusion among* the other indications of the identity of William 
Parks, printer of Annapolis, Maryland, and William Parks, printer 
of Ludlow, England. 

Through Messrs. B. F. Stevens & Brown of London the fol- 
lowing additional information has been received concerning Wil- 
liam Parks, the first printer of Ludlow, England. The Rev. W. G. 
D. Fletcher, Honorary Secretary of the Shropshire Parish Register 
Society, writes that the Ludlow Parish Register records the bap- 
tism on March 20, 1719/20 of "William, son of William Parks 
and Elianor." This was doubtless the son of William Parks the 
Ludlow printer. The connection which this entry provides be- 
tween William Parks of Ludlow and William Parks of Annapolis 
lies in the name of the wife, which is given as Eleanor in the will 
of the Maryland and Virginia printer (Wills and Inventories, 
20: 183, 1746-1759 in Court House, Yorktown, Va., dated March 
30, 1750.) No son was mentioned in this will. Mr. Fletcher com- 
municated the matter of the inquiry to Henry T. Weyman, Esq. 
F. S. A. of Fishmore Hall, Ludlow, who transmitted to him in 
reply some interesting facts as to the activities of William Parks 
of Ludlow. Mr. Weyman writes in reference to this Parks that 
he was the publisher of the first newspaper of Ludlow, probably 
the first in Shropshire, entitled "The Ludlow Post-Man, Or the 
Weekly Journal." Some copies of this newspaper are in the British 
Museum and a reproduction of the first page of its first issue was 
printed in Cassell's Family Magazine in October 1896, p. 885. In 



96 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

this reproduction of No. 1, the date of publication is given as Fri- 
day, October 9, 1719, and the introductory address of its publisher 
is signed "Typographer". One familiar with Parks' Maryland 
Gazette, seeing this reproduction, will notice immediately the simi- 
larity in the arrangement of the two headings; that is, the title 
centered between two decorative and symbolical woodcuts, repre- 
senting Neptune and Mercury in the Maryland Gazette, a mounted 
postman and the arms of Ludlow in the Ludlow Post-Nan. The 
imprint of this journal is "Ludlow published by William Parkes". 
Mr. Weyman refers to an announcement by W. Parkes in 1720 of 
the forthcoming publication by him of a "Prospect of the Demi 
Collegiate Church of Ludlow", price one shilling. 

In the information here set forth, for which thanks are due to 
Messrs. Fletcher and Weyman, there appears no proof that William 
Parks of Ludlow and William Parks of Annapolis were the same, 
but the facts presented in this and in the preceding paragraphs 
seem to indicate their identity with a sufficient degree of certainty 
to justify one in thinking of this interesting printer as "William 
Parks of Ludlow, Annapolis and Williamsburgh," even though the 
evidence so far collected is not enough to prove this claim. 



SOME NOTES RELATIVE TO GIFTS TO DISTINGUISHED 
CITIZENS, PRINCIPALLY VIRGINIANS, AUTHOR- 
IZED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, OR 
COUNCIL OF VIRGINIA, 1780 TO 1860. 

Horse and sword presented to Col. William Campbell. House 
journal, Nov. 10, 1780, p. 13. 

"Elegant sword and pair of pistols" ordered to be presented 
to Capt. John Jouett. House journal, June 12, 1781, p. 15. 

"To procure General Edward Stevens an elegant horse together 
with furniture pursuant to a resolution of the assembly/' Council 
journal, July 30, 171. 

"Two elegant geldings to be purchased and presented to Gen. 
Nathaniel Greene". Ordered by the general assembly, and by 
the council, Jan. 14, 1782. 

Horse and furniture voted to Gen. Daniel Morgan by the gen- 
eral assembly. Council journal July 11, 1782. 

An elegant sword to be purchased for Capt. John Jouett. Coun- 
cil journal Dec. 14, 1786. 

"To Commodore Stephen Decatur, and to lieutenants William 
H. Allen and John B. Nicholson, appropriate swords, commemo- 
rative of the late gallant exploit of themselves and their brave 
compatriots of the frigate United States." Resolution of general 
assembly passed Jan. 2, 1813. 

"For his gallant conduct in the action between the United States 
frigate Constitution and his Britannic Majestie's frigate Guerriere", 
an appropriate sword to Midshipman John Tayloe. Resolution 
of general assembly passed Feb. 5, 1813. 

Sword for Lieutenant Charles W. Morgan of the Constitution. 
Resolution of General Assembly, Feb. 10, 1813. 

To John J. Yarnall, a lieutenant on board the Lawrence, in 
the battle of Lake Erie, an appropriate sword, commemorative of 
that gallant exploit. Resolution of general assembly passed Jan. 
1, 1814. 

To Captain Arthur Sinclair, distinguished in the battle which 
took place on Sept. 28, 1813, between the United States squadron 



98 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

and that of the enemy, on Lake Ontario, an appropriate sword, 
commemorative of his distinguished gallantry. Resolution of gen- 
eral assembly passed Jan. 13, 1814. 

To Major General Winfield Scott, for gallantry at Chippewa 
and Niagara, an appropriate sword. Resolution of general assem- 
bly Feb. 12, 1816. 

To Major General Edmund Pendleton Gaines, for repelling an 
attack on Fort Erie Aug. 15, 1814, a suitable sword. Resolution 
of general assembly Feb. 12, 1816. 

To Lieutenant Colonel Geo. M. Brooke, for conduct in sortie 
from Fort Erie, and at battles of Chippewa, Niagara and Bridge- 
water, an appropriate sword. Resolution of general assembly 
Feb. 12, 1816. 

To nearest male relative of Capt. John Ritchie, who fell covered 
with wounds on plains of Bridgewater, an appropriate sword. 
Resolution of general assembly Feb. 12, 1816. 

To nearest male relative of Major Andrew Hunter Holmes, 
who fell, covered with wounds, near Michillimackinac, an appro- 
priate sword. Resolution of general assembly Feb. 12, 1816. 

To Captain Lewis L. Warrington, for skill and gallantry in 
capturing the enemy's brig Epervier, an appropriate sword. Reso- 
lution of general assembly Feb. 14, 1816. 

To Capt. Robert Henley for important services in capture of 
British forces on Lake Champlain, an appropriate sword. Resolu- 
tion of general assembly Feb. 14, 1816. 

Sword for Captain R. H. Bell. Resolution of General Assembly, 
Feb. 2, 1835. 

To Major General Zachary Taylor, for skill, courage, gallantry 
and patriotism displayed at Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Mon- 
terey, a sword with suitable devices. Resolution of general assem- 
bly, Feb. 9, 1847. 

To Lieutenant Colonel Matthew M. Payne, for services at Palo 
Alto and Resaca de la Palma a sword with suitable devices. Reso- 
lution of general assembly, Feb. 9, 1847. 

Letter of Col. M. M. Payne, of Bellfield, Goochland County, 
Va., dated 5th March, 1847, to Governor Wm. Smith, acknowledg- 
ing receipt of a letter of 2d February transmitting resolution of 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 99 

the legislature, instructing the governor "to procure a sword with 
suitable devices to be presented (to Col. Payne) for services in 
the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma." 

To Lieutenant Colonel J. Garland, for services at Monterey, 
a sword with suitable devices. Resolution of general assembly 
Feb. 9, 1847. 

To each of the company officers of the Virginia regiment of 
volunteers, a sword. Resolution of general assembly, Feb. 20, 
1847. 

Swords to "annexed officers, natives of the state, who distin- 
guished themselves in the late brilliant campaign in Mexico; also 
a sword to William Bertrand Alburtis of Berkeley County, only 
surviving child of Capt. William Alburtis who was killed at Vera- 
Cruz. . . . ; also a silver medal to Sergeant Updegraff. . . . ' 
(List of officers follows) Resolution April 4, 1848. Journal House 
of Delegates 1847/48, p. 458, 459. 

Swords for Thomas B. Randolph, Francis Otway Bird, and 
Harrold Smith "who distinguished themselves during the last 
war with Great Britain." Resolution April 4, 1848. Journal 
House of Delegates 1847/48, p. 460. 

Gold medal for General Winfield Scott, Feb. 7, 1848. The in- 
scription was changed by Resolution of general assembly of March 
26, 1850. 

Gold medal for Capt. William Lewis Herndon of the United 
States Navy. Resolution of general assembly adopted Jan. 23, 
1858. Va. acts, 1857/58, page 286. 

Promotion of Lieut. M. F. Maury. Resolution April 8, 1858. 
Va. acts, 1857/58, p. 287. 

Sword for Lieut. Robt. B. Pegram, of the United States Navy. 
Resolution of general assembly, Apr. 6, 1858. Va. acts 1857/58, 
p. 287. 

Resolution relative to the presentation of a sword to Col. Philip 
St. George Cooke, H. Doc. 62, 1859/60 

Joint resolution complimentary to Col. Thomas T. Fauntleroy, 
colonel first regiment, U. S. dragoons, for "gallant and distin- 
guished service," and commending him for promotion to rank of 
brigadier general. Joint resolution 30. Acts of assembly 1859/60, 
p. 706-707 



100 WILLIAM AND MABY QUAETEBLY 

Governor Barbour, from the difficulty of having the swords 
made in Richmond had directed the swords to be made in Phila- 
delphia, and confided the superintendence of the work to CoL 
William Duane. The delay was due to the war. The swords were 
finished in October and two had already been received. (Letter of 
Governor W. C. Nicholas, Dec. 30, 1815. House journal 1815/16, 
p. 86. In the archives there are letters of Duane on this subject 
attached to the governor's letter.) 

Sword presented to date only to Col. Geo. M. Brooke, accord- 
ing to resolution of General Assembly of 1815/16, adopted Feb. 
12, and 14, 1816. Governor was ordered to present suitable swords 
with appropriate emblems, devices and inscriptions, to Major 
General Scott, Major General Gaines, and Col. Geo. M. Brooke 
of the Army of the United States ; to nearest male relative of Capt. 
John Ritchie and Major Andrew Hunter Holmes, both of whom 
fell in battle, in late war with Great Britain, also to Captains Lewis 
Warrington and Robert Henley of the United States Navy. All 
the swords which had been voted before February, 1816, were made 
in every part, ornamented and- finished in Philadelphia, with de- 
vices and inscriptions furnished by Col. Wm. Duane of that city. 
(Abstract of letter of Governor Thomas M. Randolph, Feb. 24, 
1822) 

Governor Giles presented a sword to Philip Norborne Nicholas, 
as representative of nearest male relative of Major Andrew Hunter 
Holmes. Received on behalf of Governor Holmes. (House journal, 
1827/28, Document 2, p. 10) 

The swords were executed by Harvey Lewis under the direction 
of Gen. Cadwallader of Philadelphia. Presented publicly July 
4, 1827. No one appeared to receive the sword for nearest male 
relative of Captain Henley and it was retained. (Governor's mes- 
sage and documents 1827/28, p. 1) 

-To Mr. Thomas Ritchie, as the representative of the nearest 
male relative of Captain John Ritchie, "who fell covered with 
wounds and with glory, on the plains of Bridgewater, fighting in 
defence of his country's rights and honor." "To be passed over 
to your elder brother, Col. Archibald Ritchie." Mr. Thos. Ritchie 
replied and received it on behalf of his brother. (House journal 
1827/28, Document 2, p. 9, 10). 



WILLIAM AND MAEY COLLEGE IN 1774. 
LETTERS IN RIND'S VIRGINIA GAZETTE. 

Mrs. RIND, 

It is a very common, and, I believe, a very just complaint, that 
the college of William and Mary hath 1 as yet been far from an- 
swering the ends of its institution, and, indeed, those ends which 
might reasonably be expected from a college so well endowed. 
Superior in its revenues to any literary establishment upon the 
continent, it hath fallen greatly short of some of them as a semi- 
nary of learning. To suppose that the gentlemen who have been 
entrusted with the jnanagement of it have been always in fault 
would certainly be very unfair. Many of these, without doubt, 
have been both ably qualified and heartily inclined to promote its 
good intention. But a wrong mode of education, at the first 
adopted, and since too blindly followed, together with an evil 
which the professors had no power to remedy, seem to have frus- 
trated all endeavours to make it flourish. A grammar school at 
the foundation of the college was annexed to it, a measure which 
at that time might have been dictated by the circumstances of the 
country, and the low state of the funds, but which experience has 
since taught us to be attended with many bad consequences. Little 
or no distinction is made between the boys of this school and the 
students of the college. Entitled to, or at least indulged with, 
nearly the same privileges, the former too soon forget that they 
are boys, and the latter too seldom perceive that they have a su- 
perior character to maintain. As this is not merely speculation, 
but real matter of fact, it is surely worthy of the most serious at- 
tention of the visitors. The revenues of the college are now much 
encreased, the assembly has ever shewn a willingness to assist it, 
and a large extent of country is equally populous, and equally well 

iThis letter is interesting as foreshadowing some of the changes 
that were made in 1779, under the influence of Thomas Jefferson, 
who at the time was governor of Virginia. The grammar school was 
eliminated as a department of the college, and the first law school in 
the United States was established. 



102 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

cultivated with that in the neighbourhood of Williamsburg. What 
then is there to prevent the visitors from removing the grammar 
school to some of the college lands, at a distance from the metro- 
polis ; for instance, to those in King William ? Every thing neces- 
sary for the accommodation of the boys could there be easily 
procured, temptations to idleness and vice would be less common, 
seeing none enjoy greater liberties than themselves, they would be 
satisfied with their portion, nor would they languish for such 
as it would be improper to grant them. Having compleated their 
classical education there, then let them be removed to the college. 
This removal would create in them a higher idea of the dignity 
of a student. They would look upon themselves as entering upon 
a nobler scene of action; a scene wherein puerility was to be ex- 
changed for the manly and philosophical life. I can easily foresee 
that the step which I have proposed would meet with opposition 
from those in and about the city of Williamsburg. But if it be 
considered that this grammar school was intended for the benefit 
of the public, and not of individuals, that by such a removal no 
general inconvenience could be produced, but that several good 
consequences, as shown above, would result from it, their opposi- 
tion must appear selfish and unreasonable. 

The great imperfection in the present mode of education seems 
to be this; that instead of a regular process in their studies, the 
students are permitted, for the most part, to attend what lectures 
they please, and in the order most agreeable to themselves. That 
such a liberty will put it into their power to waste much of their 
time is very evident. For instance, a student chuses to attend 
lectures upon natural philosophy. As these are not given oftener 
than twice in a week, he has four days entirely at his own disposal. 
For these, it is true, he may find sufficient employment, in making 
himself acquainted with what different authors have said upon the 
immediate object of his study; but he is under no obligation to do 
this. If he is indolent, or vicious, or fond of pleasure, he has it 
in his power to indulge himself. And thus, after throwing away 
three or four of the most precious years of his life, does many a 
youth quit the college with only the credit of having been so long 
there. Degrees have been indeed lately conferred on some few 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 103 

students, and from this it might be presumed, by a stranger, that 
these at least had gone through a regular course of education. This, 
however, as far as I have been able to learn, was not the case. Some 
of them were acquainted with the classics, others with the mathe- 
matics, others had attended lectures upon rhetoric and moral philo- 
sophy, but none had run the general circle, none had been called to 
an examination, previous to the conferring of this literary honour 
upon them; a custom in all other colleges and universities. The 
impropriety of this mode of education is so very apparent, that any 
farther demonstration of it would be an insult upon the most 
common understanding. 

An improvement upon the present plan would, I think, require 
another professor, whose business it would be to read with the 
students the higher classics, and to give lectures upon chronology, 
geography, and history. Part of this duty is at present expected 
from the moral professor, but he has, exclusive of this, as much as 
he can well perform; and these are branches of literature with which 
erery man of liberal education ought to be acquainted. 

The students should be divided into three classes, which might 
be distinguished by the titles of seniors, juniors, and freshmen. 
The qualifications of such as enter the freshmen, or lower class, 
ought to be a good acquaintance with the Latin and Greek school 
authors, and with arithmetic. At their entrance into college, they 
should begin with algebra, under the professor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy, logic under the moral professor, and Ho- 
race, Homer, or some other classic, under the other, whom we will 
call the professor of humanity. Euclid's elements should succeed 
to algebra, metaphysics to logic, and chronology and history might 
be intermixed with the classics. This would be ample employment 
for the first year. Let them then be examined, and as many as 
are approved of raised into the junior class. Such as are deficient, 
should be obliged to remain amongst the freshmen another year. 
The juniors should begin with plain trigonometry, which they 
might apply to surveying, then proceed to fluxions, conic sections, 
and spherical trigonometry, which might conclude the business of 
the second year in this department. The same period, in the other 
two, should comprehend the study of moral philosophy, and of 



104 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Cicero's moral works, with other Eoman and Greek moralists. Let 
them be again examined, and either preferred to the senior class, 
or continued juniors, as they acquitted themselves. The study of 
natural philosophy and astronomy, of rhetoric and the best English 
poets, of the Roman and Grecian critics and orators, together with 
a general review, should be the business of the third and last year 
of their college education. Let, then, such as chuse to stand for 
degrees, be examined by the professor, either privately or before 
a few of the visitors, in every branch of academical learning. If 
they pass this with credit, let a day be appointed for public ex- 
amination, when every one, who is inclined, may attend. After- 
wards it may not be improper to fix a day for public exercises, 
when each candidate may have an opportunity of displaying his 
abilities as a writer and an orator. At the conclusion of these 
exercises, let them be rewarded with those honours which ought 
only to be conferred upon the sons of science. These two last regu- 
lations, though not absolutely necessary, would have this use: 
They would give satisfaction to the country, raise the reputation 
of the college, and be a powerful incitement to the youthful mind, 
which is ever fond of pomp and public applause. 

(We are obliged to defer the remainder of ACADEMICUS 
till next week) From Virginia Gazette, May 19, 1774. 

The Remainder of Academicua 

A batchelor of arts, of three years standing, might be entitled 
to a master's degree, without attending any part of this time at 
college, provided he ever testified a proper respect for it, and 
sustained a good moral character. This indulgence would be neces- 
sary in an infant country, where the majority are but illy able to 
support their sons at a college for any great number of years. 

Were this or some similar mode of education adopted, I am 
persuaded that the college of William and Mary would, in a few 
years, rival any literary institution in the world. This at least 
is certain, that its reputation would not, as it does at present, de- 
pend so much on the idle and dissolute, who may chance to spend 
some time in it, but from such only as had gone through a regular 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 105 

course of studies, and had been dignified with the honours of the 
college, would its character be taken. 

The charter very properly appoints two professors of divinity; 
the one to read with the students the scriptures in the original 
languages, the other to give lectures upon the controverted points 
of theology. To those who have any regard for religion, the im- 
portance of these two professorships must be very evident. Were 
the design of them attended to as it ought, what advantages might 
we not expect to reap from them ! Instead of clergymen, who can 
scarcely construe a sentence of Greek, whose utmost reading ex- 
tends not beyond Burnet and Pearson (I mean not to reflect upon 
these gentlemen, 1^ lament their want of opportunity for greater 
improvement) our church would be supplied with men skilled in 
the original languages of our sacred writings, well furnished with 
arguments in defence of Christianity, and thoroughly acquainted 
with its doctrines and precepts; and to render them thus useful 
seems to be much in the power of the visitors. They have already 
passed a statute entitling a student of this college, who enters into 
holy orders, to a certain sum of money. They might make his 
attending lectures in divinity, for such a term as might be thought 
proper, a necessary condition; and to enable him to continue at 
college the term prescribed, a few fellowships might be established, 
and given to such as had taken a batchelor of arts degree, and in- 
tended to enter into the church. 

It might conduce still more to the advancement of learning 
in the colony if the charter were enlarged, and professorships of 
law and physic established. A fuller consideration, however, of 
this matter, I shall defer to some future time, having already ex- 
ceeded the limits which I had assigned to this paper. 

ACADEMICUS. 
From Virginia Gazette, May 26, 1774. 



TO ACADEMICUS 
SIR, 

It is with pleasure that I read every ingenious proposal for 
the advancement of literature, and the improvement of our college. 



106 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

The object is such as must necessarily engage the attention of 
every one who regards the improvement of the mind. But as a 
misunderstanding, and consequently a misrepresentation, of the 
present mode of education, can be of no service to so laudable a 
design, I must beg leave to rectify a few mistakes, which, I doubt 
not, took its origin from ignorance, rather than maliciousness. 
Your zeal has certainly somewhat outgone your knowledge; but 
that is a defect too common in human nature to be much com- 
plained of. In pointing out the great imperfection, you have un- 
luckily made a very great blunder. The students have no such 
liberty as you mention, of attending what lectures they please. It 
is contrary to the rules of the college, which are never dispensed 
with, except in circumstances of a particular nature; such as the 
certainty of a short stay, and the necessity of prosecuting that 
study, which is more immediately requisite. To place this great 
imperfection in a clearer light, you being an instance, which is, 
indeed, a very unfortunate one, for I will bring the same instance 
to shew, that you know as little of the great imperfection as of a 
proper mode of education. "As for instance, then, a student onuses 
to attend lectures on natural philosophy. As these are not given 
oftener than twice in a week, he has four days entirely at his own 
disposal." Now there is no choice in the case; he must attend 
only once a week. But is it not so much the worse, say you? 
For admitting that I was a little too positive as to the chusing, 
you will allow that he has five days instead of four, wherein, "if 
he be indolent, or vicious, or fond of pleasure, he has it in his 
power to indulge himself." Not at all, my literary projector; 
for he will find no days at his own disposal. Each day is alter- 
nately employed either in the school of moral philosophy, or in that 
of the mathematics. This piece of information may be of service 
to you in your future lucubrations on so important a subject, 
wherein you should avoid even the appearance of error. You will 
be cautious, however, to strike out of your calendar those inter- 
vening days of idleness which you so much complain of. You 
would also do well to lay aside those insinuations of the pre valency 
of ignorance, as well as idleness; for if my information be just, 
as I have reason to believe it is, idleness is become dishonourable, 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 107 

and that love of science universally prevails, which even Academi- 
cus, was he better acquainted with the present disposition of the 
students, would acknowledge to forbode the happiest effects. 

Another important deficiency is, the manner in which degrees 
have been conferred. Though they were acquainted with particular 
branches of the highest value, "they had not run the general circle, 
none had been called to an examination previous to the conferring 
of this literary honour upon them." Academicus, I fear, has been 
born the heir of mistakes, since not a literary honour has been 
conferred which was not the prize of public contest, or which 
merit did not claim. The classic, the mathematician, and the moral 
philosopher, are seldom found united in every academician. An 
acquaintance with* either of those branches of science is generally 
esteemed worthy of a reward in every seminary. Your Nassaus 
alone can boast the truly magic art of forming, in a year or two, 
the classic, the mathematician, the moral philosopher, and the 
patriot. It is there they run the general circle, and, as Academicus 
would have it, it is there they end where they begun. 

But we cannot pass over the triumph. "The impropriety of 
this mode of education is so very apparent that any farther demon- 
stration of it would be an insult upon the most common under- 
standing." Surely, Academicus, you should, like a second Pytha- 
goras, have offered at least a hecatomb. You have afforded the 
world a noble specimen of those demonstrating powers which can 
bring forth the clearest demonstration without a single true posi- 
tion. But convincing as it appeared to you, others perhaps may 
now think that a farther demonstration would be no insult upon 
the most common understanding; or must they not rather be 
struck with astonishment at that boldness which should dare to 
prostitute the name of demonstration, in order to vilify a mode of 
education of which you are entirely ignorant ? 

You will probably discover the great imperfection, upon a 
second search, to be in the present establishment. Whenever that 
is altered for the better, a more enlarged mode of education must 
take place ; not such, I hope, as every puny genius of fancied litera- 
ture shall dictate, but such as shall carry along with it whatever is 
great and noble, whatever shall tend most effectually to improve 



108 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

the mind and mend the heart. Nor do I doubt but the gentlemen 
of the visitation will gladly promote every means which may con- 
duce to so important an end. That they have it in view, every 
one knows; and that they will use their utmost endeavours to ex- 
pedite as much as possible so happy an alteration, no one can doubt. 
The universities in England will afford them the best general plan, 
while their own good sense must judge of such particular exigencies 
as shall arise. But you should remember that weak, hasty, and ill- 
timed efforts, may often baffle the most noble designs. I am your 
humble servant. 

A. B. 
From Virginia Gazette, May 26, 1774. 

To A. B. 
SIR, 

When I offered to the public my thoughts on the defects of 
the [ ?] of education at the college, and proposed such a mode 
as I thought would be most likely to remedy them, I was too well 
acquainted with the disposition of mankind to expect that I should 
pass uncensured; I was therefore not in the least surprised to see 
your address to Academicus in the last paper. You have, however, 
in some points, rather outgone my expectations, and in others you 
have disappointed me. You have been profuse in reflections, but 
you have not ventured a single objection to the plan which I pro- 
posed. To let you into a secret, it was by no means a plan of my 
jown. Nearly the same has long been pursued in more colleges 
than one of established reputation, and it has been deemed worthy 
of the adoption of the professors of William and Mary by some of 
the most sensible and learned men of this country. This, sir ? will 
shew you how little I deserve the title of "literary projector/' which 
you have been pleased to confer upon me. 

You have accused me of misrepresentation. If you will again 
peruse what I have said, and examine impartially into the matter 
of fact, you will perhaps find reason to recall your heavy charge. 
Not to recur to the past, I could mention many, who, at this time, 
are suffered to proceed in the irregular manner of which I com- 
plained; and if there are others more regular, A. B. may find that 



WILLIAM AND MAEY QUARTERLY 109 

it is what I have never denied. You tell us indeed, of particular 
circumstances, in which the rules of the college are dispensed with ; 
but you should know that the rules of a college should submit to 
no such circumstances. To teach the particular branches of any 
science is the business of private masters only, and beneath the 
dignity of a professor, as well as subversive of all order and regu- 
larity. 

You next inform us that "not a literary honour has been con- 
ferred which was not the prize of public contest, or which merit 
did not claim." This is a sentence, the meaning of which I do not 
well understand. You were speaking, I believe, of degrees, and 
I never before knew that these were, as a medal sometimes is, 
"the prize of public contest," unless by public contest is to be 
understood a private examination before one or two professors. 
I am sorry that you should have asserted that "an acquaintance 
with either of the branches of science is generally esteemed worthy 
of a reward (by which, if you mean any thing, you must mean a 
degree) in every seminary," as there is no gentleman of a liberal 
education who does not well know that, except honorary degrees, 
none are conferred but upon such as have attended a general course 
of lectures, and have proved themselves, as well in public as in 
private examination, acquainted with the principles of all the lib- 
eral arts and sciences. I am sorry, also, that you should have taken 
the unnecessary trouble of reflecting on the college in the New 
Jersies. I assure you, sir, I am no son of Nassau, nor am I much 
acquainted with it. This, however, I do know, that it deserved to 
be better spoken of. The name of Ewing, who there laid the foun- 
dation of that knowledge, which has since made him esteemed 
amongst the literati in Europe, as well as in America, should have 
secured to it more respect. 

Your flashes of wit and ridicule are unworthy of a serious no- 
tice, and I am by no means disposed to imitate you in so con- 
temptible a species of writing. I shall only observe that this 
vitiated taste has of late years prevailed but too much in the pro- 
ductions of William and Mary. Suffer me also to add, that how- 
ever "weak, hasty, and ill-timed," you may judge my "efforts/ 1 
I have the pleasure of knowing that they have met with the appro- 



110 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

bation of several gentlemen in this colony, whose judgment I esteem, 
and which, I fancy, A. B. himself would be far from despising. 
I am, sir, your humble servant, 

ACADEMICUS. 
From Virginia Gazette, June 2, 1774. 

TO ACADEMICUS 
SIR, 

The first appearance of your address to the public on the sub- 
ject before us with difficulty extracted from me a reply to a particu- 
lar part. Silence was considered for some time as the proper treat- 
ment which it merited. Not that I was deterred from any diffi- 
culty in the undertaking, for it is an easy but disagreeable task 
to point out the absurdities which are often to be met with in the 
opuscula of little writers. But since you have dragged me forth, 
I must once more attend you. To do you justice, your last should 
really be analysed; for by this means the strength of your rea- 
soning, and the truth of your assertions, will become more con- 
spicuous. By this means you will appear in your proper dignity, 
especially in the first paragraph, which must add a peculiar force 
and energy to your modes and plans. "When I offered to the public 
my thoughts on the defects of the present plan of education at the 
college, and proposed such a mode as I thought would be most 
likely to remedy them," etc. So far we allow that the thoughts, and 
consequently the mode and plan proposed in those thoughts, were 
entirely your own. But let us see what follows a sentence or two 
below : "To let you into a secret, it was by no means a plan of my 
own;" that is, the thoughts wherein the mode and plan were pro- 
posed were by no means your own, or your thoughts were not your 
thoughts. This is indeed a mode of reasoning of your own (and 
as you are fond of degrees) cujus te doctor em creo. It was highly 
necessary, however, that you should let us into this secret. But let 
us go a little farther : "It has been deemed worthy of the adoption 
of the professors of William and Mary by some of the most sensible 
and learned men of this country." Now indeed you have emerged, 
and broke forth the great luminary of the western world. These 
plans and modes were not your own, but some of the most sensible 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 111 

and learned men of this country have thought them worthy of 
adoption. Academicus was the first who saw their merit, and 
thought them worthy of adoption ; therefore Aeademicus is the first 
among the most sensible and learned of this country. Ye sages! 
it is now ye must hide your diminished heads, it is Academicus who 
shines the cynosure of America, to him ye shall look up as your 
faithful guide and monitor in all your researches ; for what are the 
labyrinths of philosophy but so many mazes, which lead to error, 
unless he shall guide and direct you! "This, sir, will shew you 
how little I deserve the title of literary projector;" or rather this, 
sir, will shew how cautious you ought to be in controverting opin- 
ions before you know from whence they come; this will shew you 
that I am the proper judge of all modes and plans, and to let 
you into another secret, that my knowledge in all the branches of 
science has rendered me the great, the wise Academicus. 

The merit of the following paragraph will be found to deserve 
the same analysis. The beauties of a writer are never so clearly 
discovered as when we trace and consider each separate part, its 
connections and dependencies upon the whole. After recommend- 
ing a second perusal to your plan, which is indeed a hard injunc- 
tion, you observe, "I could mention many who at this time are 
suffered to proceed in the irregular manner of which I complained." 
Suppose there are one or two of those who may properly be called 
students, the reason which was given, you say, was, that there must 
be (in an infant country especially), particular circumstances in 
which the rules of a college are dispensed with. But Academicus 
observes, "you should know that the rules of a college should sub- 
mit to no such circumstances." So far our assertions may at least 
balance one another. But let us try whether we cannot throw the 
confident Academicus into my scale, and whether he may not be 
found in another piece to admit of some material indulgencies in 
an infant country. You will find at the head of the tail of 
Academicus that "a batchelor of arts, of three years standing, 
might be entitled to a master's degree, without attending any part 
of his time at college. This indulgence would be necessary in an 
infant country, where the majority are but illy able (an expression 
which should be adopted in William and Mary) to support their 



112 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

sons at a college for any great number of years." What are we to 
judge of an author who, on the same plan, can advance sentiments 
so diametrically opposite? Be it your's to reconcile contradic- 
tions. To make a reflection here would really ~be an insult upon 
the most common understanding. Permit me, however, to observe, 
that this irregularity not only might, but doth prevail, in those 
models from which you have taken your plans and modes, and 
that, so far from an obligation to attend any part of his time at 
college, his master's degree is sent in pursuit of him to the most 
distant provinces. 

Let us try the next. It had been observed, "that not a literary 
honour has been conferred which was not the prize of public con- 
test, or which merit did not claim." This is a prof ound sentence, 
the depth of which you cannot discover. Degrees, you say, were 
never known to be the prize of public contest. In your models, 
perhaps, they never were ; but at Oxford they are considered as the 
most honourable ; for you should know that they are not all, though 
of the same standing, considered as equally honourable, but that 
they have their distinctions and differences according to the abili- 
ties of the person on whom they are conferred, which are discov- 
ered by public contest, or if you will, by public disputations. You 
sound an alarm also about public examinations before the candi- 
dates are admitted to degrees. In this, too, you are sadly con- 
fused ; for at Oxford each candidate is in fact "privately examined 
by the masters of arts. Now for your sorry sentences. "I am sorry 
that you have asserted that an acquaintance with either of the 
branches of science is generally esteemed worthy of a reward in 
any seminary," etc., because I suppose you have never heard of 
degrees of doctor of laws, doctor of divinity, and many others. 
As to Nassau, it matters not much, I believe, whether you are a 
son of this or that place. It will scarcely make so much noise in 
the world as the natale solum of a Homer, and others of the an- 
tient sages. Your plans and modes were worthy of her adoption, 
and therefore it was probably they came from thence, or its en- 
virons. 

You were pleased in a former piece to lay down a proper plan 
by which the mathematic school should be conducted. I shall not 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUAHTERLY 113 

take up time to consider its particular merits, I shall not ask you 
why algebra is to precede the first elements of geometry, why 
fluxions must precede spherical trigonometry or conic sectiong; it 
would be as useless as absurd. The method which has been for 
three or four years adopted is such as has received the sanction of 
a Barrow, a Newton, a McClaurin, a Whiston, a Saunderson; and 
shall this Academicus scarcely emancipated, perhaps, from some 
noisy, pompous school, presume to dictate? You may be of use in 
some departments of life; but let me recommend modesty, and a 
proper attention to your own affairs, as your best, your surest 
guide. Beware of the blushing merits of a Rigby ! 

We now advance towards the conclusion, where we find yon 
extending your plbns, and in your greatness descending to correct 
"that vitiated taste which has of late years but too much prevailed/' 
It is to be lamented that you had not given some general plans 
here also, from which a proper taste in composition might be at- 
tained. But no doubt considerable advantages must be derived 
from the perusual of your late performances, so fraught, as we 
have seen, with all the elegancies of language, so strengthened with 
all the powers of reason. But I must confess that your entrance 
into this field has made me almost repent my undertaking. We 
should soon have a quarrel with the criss-cross-row, and be obliged 
to fight it out, in a short time, through all the squadrons of the 
vowels, the mutes, -the semivowels, and the liquids. Here indeed 
would be a sore and endless labour. Therefore, to spare both time 
and pains, I must beg leave to bid you adieu, but recommending 
a like behaviour on your part, unless you can oblige the world with 
something less crude, and better digested than your present plans. 
Trust me, Academicus, the public has too serious a game to play 
to be much entertained with ours. 

A. B. 
From Virginia Gazette, June 9, 1774. 



CHRIST CHURCH, NORFOLK, BELL AND CLOCK. 
By the late H. B. BAGNALL, with a Sequel by ROBERT M. HUGHES. 

In every community churches which have the prestige of age 
are always of historic interest to the people, but with those who 
have worshipped within their walls in childhood and maturer 
years, the feeling is deeper; they are the heart's holiest shrine to 
many. This is what old Christ Church stands for today, although 
present conditions are so much out of harmony with the past it is 
still the sanctuary of memory, the church of bygone years which 
the heart loved. 

The conflagration of Friday, March 9, 1827, destroyed many 
buildings in Norfolk, among them was Christ Church, the first of 
the name. This left the Episcopalians of the borough without a 
home as the old parish church from long disuse had become dis- 
mantled, prompt action was therefore necessary. 

The building committee, consisting of Messrs. John Southgate, 
R. E. Steed, Thomas Williamson and Miles King, procured a new 
site on the corner of Freemason and Cumberland streets and pro- 
ceeded at once to have a church built thereon. 

Mr. Levi Swain, architect and contractor, was entrusted with 
its erection. The building was so satisfactory that upon comple- 
tion Christ Church^ the second, was conceded to be the handsomest 
church of its date in Virginia. The imposing pillared vestibule 
prepared the visitor for the attractive interior; there were eighty- 
eight pews below and forty-two in the galleries; the chancel arch 
was of artistic finish and on a ground of blue in gilt letters were 
inscribed the words from Jeremiah: "0 Earth, Earth, Hear the 
Word of the Lord !" Loving friends had already made costly gifts 
to the sanctuary, among them was Mrs. John Taylor, who presented 
the pulpit lamps; Commodore W. M. Crane, U. S. N., sent from 
Italy the beautiful marble font so long in use, the new organ was 
highly praised by the musicians of the day for the quality of its 
tone. 

Sunday, November 9, 1828, marked the completion of the 
church, and was the date of its dedication. The clergymen present 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUAETEELY 115 

at the morning service were Et. Rev. Richard Channing Moore, 
bishop of the diocese of Virginia ; Rev. James B. Buxton, of Eliza- 
beth City, N. C. ; Rev. J. H. Wingfield, of Portsmouth ; Rev. Mark 
L. Cheevers, of Hampton; Rev. John Cole, of Surry; Rev. John 
Grammar, of Dinwiddie; Rev. Ira Parker, of Nansemond, and 
Rev. J. H. Ducachet, the rector of the church, who preached the 
dedicatory sermon from the text inscribed on the arch; of course 
the bishop was in charge. There was a second service in the after- 
noon with a sermon from Mr. Grammar. The bishop confirmed a 
class at night. 

Monday evening, November 10th, a grand oratorio was given in 
the new church, with a large audience present to enjoy the music 
and also to observe the beauty of the building when lighted. 

The citizens were deeply interested upon being informed that 
the church was to have a bell and clock, the only church bell in the 
town hung in the steeple of the Presbyterian church; the promise 
of the clock meant much to all classes. In January, 1829, Stephen 
Russell came to Norfolk from Philadelphia and established a foun- 
dry on Briggs Point, at the eastern end of Holt street. The order 
for the bell was given to the new firm, the first and only church bell 
ever cast in Norfolk. Some of the members showed their interest 
by visiting the foundry and when the metal was in a state of fusion 
threw in silver coins to add to the silvery tone and also to have a 
personal part in its composition. The cost was $490.95 ; as the bill 
was paid January 4, 1830, the bell was probably delivered in the 
fall of 1829. 

Henry Lukens, of Philadelphia, was in his day perhaps the best 
known of the American clock-makers. Messrs Riggs and Co. are 
his successors. The historic timepiece of Independence Hall came 
from the Lukens establishment. To this firm was entrusted the 
order for Christ Church clock, which was carefully executed. The 
schooner Naomi arrived in Norfolk, November 25, with all the 
parts ready for installation in the new tower. The cost was $863.63, 
as shown by bill paid December 11, 1829. 

The new timepiece became the friend of all the citizens, house- 
hold and business affairs were largely regulated by it as the town 
clock, when its hammer fell upon the bell and the strokes an- 



116 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

nounced the passing hours the sound was musical to the ear. For 
30 years it reckoned time without an accident, but in 1859 as the 
sexton was ringing for a service the bell cracked under the pres- 
sure! although its discordant notes were unlike the tones of the 
olden days it was not disturbed until 1860 when the order for a 
new one was given to Messrs. Maneely and Sons, of West Troy, 
N. Y. This bell arrived in Norfolk June 5, 1860; its weight of 
1,218 pounds indicated that it was larger than the old. . 

The Russell bell of 1829 sounded its farewell notes Sunday, 
June 6, 1860. On the day following it was removed and the new 
one took its place. This is the bell which now hangs in the tower 
of Christ Church, the third on Olney Road. To those who cher- 
ish the past, its music is sweeter than cathedral chimes or the bells 
of Shandon. 

At a meeting of the Select Council held November 16, 1865, 
it was ordered that because of its public convenience the city ap- 
pointed a keeper of Christ church clock at an annual salary of $50 ; 
his duties being to wind and regulate the same. The Common 
Council concurred December 5th, 1865, and the office then created 
became effective January 1, 1866, Mr. Gotlieb Mayer was the first 
appointee ; he and his successors remained in office until September 
1 ? 1904, when the councils failed to appoint a keeper; the question 
was reopened but nothing was definitely determined and the an- 
cient timepiece entered upon the period of its long silence. 

Reader, do these lines bring back any recollections to you? 
Was the clock a part of your life, its place in the hearts of many 
was that of a friend; are you among the number? Does memory 
recall school days at the Norfolk Academy, when you rejoiced to 
hear it strike because it told that the closing hour was near and 
freedom would soon be yours? Have you forgotten the vigils of 
the night when illness in the home made sleep impossible the clock 
struck the early morning hours and you were encouraged, believ- 
ing that when "the day broke the shadows would flee away"; are 
there old wounds which bleed afresh when the heart is reminded 
of funeral processions leaving the church for the cemetery, while 
the bell tolled so solemnly? 

Above everything sweeter than all else earthly, are memories 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 117 

of the services held within the dear old church with clock and bell 
calling the people to the house of prayer. The different rectors 
beloved and honored, the bishop's visitations, the peaceful hours 
of the Holy Communion, the Christmas festivals, the solemn fasts 
and joyful Easter days, the organists and their choirs. Reader, are 
all these memories yours; could anything tempt you to part with 
them? 

The old clock, the worn sentinel of time, now rests in its quiet 
grave in the church tower, after marking the passing hours for 
seventy-five years; its voice is hushed into the stillness of death 
though silent it yet speaks for the past is in the keeping of hearts 
that do not forget. 

H. B. BAGNALL. 



CONTINUATION. 

By Robert M. Hughes. 

As stated in the above eloquent article of Boswell Bagnall, the 
bell which had been in use in the Freemason street building of 
the Christ church congregation was removed to the new building on 
Olney Road, where it still performs its ancient duties. But it 
was found, much to the regret of the vestry, that the clock could 
not be removed. There was no place on the tower of the new church 
where it would fit, except at an elevation so great as to make it 
too indistinct. Consequently it was left in the Freemason street 
building. 

When that building was sold to the Greek congregation, the 
clock was excepted from the sale. 

On January 10, 1919, the vestry decided that the best disposi- 
tion to make of it, in view of its historic associations, was to do- 
nate it to the College of William and Mary, and passed a resolution 
to that effect. The board of visitors of the college accepted it in 
the following resolution: 

RESOLVED, That this board tenders its cordial thanks 
to the vestry of Christ Episcopal Church, Elizabeth 
River Parish, Norfolk, Virginia, for the clock, which was so 



118 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

long in service in its Freemason street building; and wel- 
comes it as a renewed bond between the College of William 
and Mary and that church which furnished to our roll of 
alumni Littleton Waller Tazewell, Robert B. Taylor and 
others hardly less distinguished. 
The clock had not run for many years. Mr. J. Klavans, of this 

city, was employed to examine it, and if found capable of repair, 

to remove it to the cupola of the college. It was found to need 

nothing but a general overhauling and cleaning. The works were 

all of metal, and not a cog was even worn. 

It was thoroughly re-conditioned, taken to Williamsburg and 

installed in the college belfry, where it is performing good service. 
When the clock was taken down preparatory to its removal, the 

following inscription was found upon a plate attached to the main 

frame : 

ISAIAH LUKENS 

Fecit. No. 14 

Philadelphia, Nov. 12, 

1820. 

Isaiah Lukens came from a Dutch family, which settled in 
Germantown, Pennsylvania, as early as 1685. In 1820 he con- 
structed -in the tower of Independence Hall, Philadelphia, the 
clock which replaced the original one made by Peter Stretch in 
1759. In 1878, it was decided to substitute a larger one, and his 
clock was taken down and removed to the town hall at Germantown, 
where, so far as the writer is informed, it still remains, having 
thus by a happy coincidence, found its way to the ancestral home 
of its constructor. 



THE MCCARTHY FAMILY. 

By ARTHUR LESLIE KEITH, Northfield, Minn. 

Introduction. A new book, The McCarthys in Early Ameri- 
can History, by Michael J. O'Brien, has just come off the press. 
This book represents a prodigious amount of work, and for the 
data assembled from so many sources Mr. O'Brien is certainly en- 
titled to a vote of thanks. No one interested in the McCarthy 
family can afford to be without this book. It is of course impos- 
sible that a work so extensive as this is should be altogether free 
from errors. But while this is so, it is extremely unfortunate that 
errors of a most se*rious nature occur, particularly, in the account 
of the Virginia McCarthys, which can not be overlooked. The 
author shows a regrettable incapacity for distinguishing between 
tradition and record, an inability to analyze a record even when 
he has one, and a tendency to jump too readily to conclusions. He 
offers statements without the faintest semblance of authoritative 
record in a manner that is staggering. It will be sufficient to in- 
dicate only a few such cases. 

On pages 14-15 he makes Daniel McCarthy of Westmoreland 
County the son of a Donal McCarthy. Not a shred of evidence 
does he furnish to prove this claim. Nothing can be more certain 
than that this Daniel was the son of Dennis who married Elizabeth 
Billington. The author lightly dismisses Hayden's claim that 
Daniel was the son of this Dennis with the cavalier remark that 
"he is clearly mistaken in this assumption." But did Mr. O'Brien 
ever read the will of Daniel McCarty, probated in Westmoreland in 
1724? In this will the testator mentions "uncle Joseph Tayloe" 
and "aunt Barbara Tayloe", wife of Joseph. Now Joseph Tayloe 
and wife Barbara of Lancaster County on May 22, 1710 made deed 
for land patented by Luke Billington, and Barbara's two sisters as 
coheirs joined in this deed. That is, Joseph Tayloe married Bar- 
bara Billington and she was aunt of Daniel McCarty of West- 
moreland. But if that is not sufficient proof that Daniel was the 
son of Dennis who married Elizabeth Billington, what will Mr. 
O'Brien say of the clause in the will of Daniel McCarty of West- 



120 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

moreland, 1724 (the will in which he mentions sons Dennis, 
Daniel, Thaddeus, and Billington) in which he leaves son Billing- 
ton, land in Farnham Parish, Richmond County, which (as the 
testator says in his will) belonged to my "grandfather Billington" ? 
The matter is beyond dispute. The evidence is overwhelming (if 
Mr. O'Brien cares for evidence) that Hay den was right in assum- 
ing Dennis of Eappahannock as father of the Daniel of Westmore- 
land, the same whose will was probated in 1724. 

With this claim goes also the claim of the author that the 
Daniel of Westmoreland was exiled to the colonies about 1692. 
His sole evidence for this assertion is a letter written in 1884, 
nearly 200 years after the supposed event, a letter which offers not 
one scrap of contemporary record. It is past understanding that 
the author should consider this as evidence. 

On page 10 the author says: "This latter Dennis Maccartee 
must have been the son of the first Dennis, since the latter died in 
1694." How does he know this? By inspiration? The will of 
Dennis Me C arty was in existence a few years ago, in which will he 
names his children Daniel and Katherine, minors, as joint heirs. 
If there had been a son Dennis, we should expect him to be men- 
tioned, and lacking such mention we should want concrete evi- 
dence from some other source that he had a son Dennis. Mr. 
O'Brien on page 13 assigns a son Florence to the Dennis of Eap- 
pahannock. On what evidence? 

On page 15 he says that Daniel, son of Dennis, was buried in 
Farnham Parish on Aug. 6, 1739. How does he know that this 
Daniel was the son of Dennis? It is far more likely that this 
Daniel was the young son of Billington (and the records show 
that he had a son named Daniel) and since he is not mentioned in 
Billington McCarty's will, 1745, this son Daniel had probably pre- 
deceased him. Certainly, the Daniel dying in 1739 was not the 
son of Dennis. 

The author on page 15 refers to the discrepancy in the age of 
Daniel McCarty, the register giving his birth as 1684 and the 
tombstone showing that he died in 1724 at the age of 49. From 
this discrepancy Mr. O'Brien may excusably infer that there were 
two of the same name. I admit the difficulty of the situation but 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 121 

nevertheless I believe they are one and the same Daniel. There 
are far worse discrepancies that undoubtedly refer to the same per- 
son. 

On page 55 he states that Thaddeus, son of Major Dennis and 
Sarah (Ball) McCarty, was born Apr. 1, 1739 and married Ann 
Chinn. This is undoubtedly erroneous. The present writer has 
the testimony of several descendants of Thaddeus, son of Major 
Dennis, to the effect that the said "Thaddeus married Sarah Rich- 
ardson, and that he was the son and not the nephew of Major 
Dennis. He lived in Loudoun County where in 1740 land was 
patented for him by his father. This land was on Goose Creek. 
He refers to this land in his will probated in Loudoun County in 
1812, in which will he mentions wife Sarah Elizabeth. There was 
a Thaddeus McCarty who married Ann Chinn but he was of Rich- 
mond County and there is no reason for doubting that he was the 
son of Billington McCarty. 

On page 83 the author assumes as the father of Cornelius, 
Thomas, Nancy, and Betsy McCarthy (they were brothers and 
sisters) a Cornelius McCarthy. He gives no evidence for this as- 
sertion. He apparently means the Cornelius McCarthy mentioned 
on same page who bought land of Bertrand Ewell on Aug. 18, 1749. 
But this Cornelius died in 1755. His will, describing himself as 
of Prince William County, was probated in Stafford County, in 
1755. The writer has copy of this will. It is obvious that he could 
not be the father of Thomas, Cornelius, Nancy, and Betsy, for 
Cornelius was not born before 1765 and Betsy was born in 1771. 

In his book the author has without doubt assembled many 
valuable facts. But the ascertainable errors throw the shadow of 
doubt upon them and make it necessary to scrutinize them care- 
fully before accepting them. 

The accompanying article, now for the first time offered for 
publication, was written before Mr. O'Brien's work was out. 

McCARTY. 

Meade and others in speaking of the McCarty family say that 
there were two brothers, named Daniel and Dennis McCarty who 
came to Virginia about 1670. This statement of the two brothers 



122 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

may be correct but no certain record has as yet been found that 
the Daniel and Dennis McCarty who appear in the early Virginia 
history were brothers. Dennis McCarty's history is fairly well 
known, and will be given below. The following references con- 
cern Daniel McCarty, the supposed brother of Dennis. Daniel 
McCarty in Northumberland County, Virginia, had wife Frances 
in 1691, at which time they received a grant for land. In same 
county on Jan. 19, 1708, one Dennis McCarty, born 1693, chose 
John Hill as guardian. This Dennis could not have been a de- 
scendant of the older Dennis, mentioned above, but was very proba- 
bly the son of the Daniel appearing in Northumberland County 
in 1691. One Daniel McCarty and wife Barbary made a deed 
in Richmond County, Virginia, in 1698. Both made their marks. 
This Daniel may have been the one given above as of Northumber- 
land County. Possibly however he was the son of Dennis Mc- 
Carty but if so he must have been married very young and we have 
no record that this Daniel ever had a wife named Barbara. If this 
Barbara was the wife of Daniel, son of Dennis, the other marriages 
of Daniel were his second and third and not his first and second, 
as has commonly been supposed, and the marriage with Barbara 
was the first. If, as seems more likely, this Daniel was the older 
one of the name, then the marriage with Barbara was the second 
and the marriage with Frances, the first. No further record of 
Daniel McCarty, supposed brother of Dennis, and of his descendants 
is known. Possibly the McCartys of Overwharton Parish^ Stafford 
County, Virginia, descend from him, for whom see below. 

Before taking up the Dennis McCarty in whom we are particu- 
larly concerned in this paper we note a few references pertaining 
to a Dennis McCarty who is possibly not identical with the above. 
Dennis McCartee in 1675 in Norfolk County, Virginia, sold to 
Adam Keeling 250 acres formerly belonging to Thomas Allen of 
Lynnhaven. In same year Dennis McCartagh of Norfolk County, 
Virginia, bought 150 acres of Edmund Moore on east shore of 
Lynnhaven. This same Dennis apparently, received grant for 400 
acres on Oct. 20, 1691, in Princess Ann County, Virginia, and in 
1693 is described as being old, lame, and poor. If he was any 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 123 

relation to the Dennis appearing in the counties farther north, it 
is not now known. 

We take up next the Dennis McCarty of Rappahannock County, 
Virginia, one of the two brothers to whom Meade refers, and here 
we are on surer ground. He is probably identical with the Dennis 
Carty (sic) of Northumberland County, Virginia, Ensign in the 
Susquehanna war, 1676. On Dec. 20, 1686, Rebecca Rice, wife of 
John Rice, merchant, of Rappahannock County, appointed Mr. 
Dennis McCartie of Rappahannock County, her friend, as her 
attorney to give consent in the matter of a deed made by herself and 
husband. On Sept. 15, 1691, Mr. Dennis McCartie of Rappahan- 
nock County, received 250 acres in Northumberland County, Vir- 
ginia, on a branch ftf Wicomico River and joining l^r. James Pope. 
Dennis McCarty married about 1677 to Elizabeth Billington, 
daughter of Luke Billington, of whom some account will be given 
below. By this marriage there seem to have been only two chil- 
dren who grew to maturity, namely, Katherine and Daniel. Ac- 
cording to the records of North Farnham Parish, Richmond 
County, Virginia, Catherine, daughter of Dennis and Elizabeth 
McCarty, was born Apr. 16, 1678; and Daniel, son of Dennis and 
Elizabeth McCarty, was born Mch 19, 1684. This last date how- 
ever is in conflict with the age of Daniel McCarthy as given on his 
tombstone, which is given as 45, and as he died May 4, 1724, this 
age if correct would carry his birth back to 1679. Undoubtedly 
they refer to the same Daniel. I am inclined to accept the earlier 
date as correct-. 

Dennis McCarty's will was probated in Richmond County, Vir- 
ginia on Apr. 4, 1694, in which he names his children Daniel and 
Katherine, minors, as his joint heirs. As Daniel appears to have 
been the only son, all the later generations of McCarty s descend 
from him. The daughter Katherine is probably the Mrs. (sic) 
Kath McCarty who with Capt. Daniel McCarty, was named as heir 
of Darby Driskall in 1720 in Westmoreland County, Virginia. 
The Mrs. prefixed to her name might indicate that she had mar- 
ried a man of the same surname but more likely it designates a 
spinster lady of mature years and she probably died unmarried. 
At this point we digress in order to trace the history of the 



124 WILLIAM AND MAEY QTJAETEELY 

Billington family. Nicholas Bullington (sic) was in Henrico 
County, Virginia, in 1624. In the same county George Bulling- 
ton appears in 1664 and Robert Bullington in 1679, and Nicholas 
Bullington again in 1691 (will). Between these Bullingtons and 
Luke Billington there is no known connection. Luke Billington 
first appears in Accomac County, Virginia, in 1654 (patent of 
land). Luke Billington in 1663 patented 250 acres in Rappahan- 
nock County, Virginia. In 1669 he patented 679 acres in Rappa- 
hannock County. Luke Billington in Farnham Parish, Rappa- 
hannock County made will Nov. 13, 1671, probated May 2'3, 1672. 
He names his wife Barbara as executor ; he names son Luke ; daugh- 
ters Eliza, Elitia, Jane, Barbary, and Mary; grandchild William 
Daniell; friends William Travers, Gyles Gate (?), Dr. John 
Russell, as trustees. The will was witnessed by Henry Spears and 
John Russell. Barbary Billington (undoubtedly the widow of 
Luke) of Rappahannock County, made will Aug. 7, 1674, pro- 
bated Oct. 21, 1674. She mentions son Luke Billington; daugh- 
ters Jane and Barbary; daughter Elishe (Elitia?) Russell; son 
Luke and daughter Elishe to be executors; Robert Bayley, Henry 
Clerk, and Samuel Peachey to act as overseers. The will was wit- 
nessed by John Stone, Henry Wilson, and Nathaniel Richardson. 
Eliza (Elizabeth), mentioned in the will of Luke Billington in 
1671, is not mentioned in the will of his widow. She had proba- 
bly before this time, that is, Aug. 7, 1674, married Dennis Mc- 
Carty. Barbara Billington, daughter of Luke and Barbara, later 
married Joseph Tayloe. As seen in Barbara Billington's will, 
1674, Elitia had married a Russell. Another daughter, possibly 
one of those named in Luke's will, had married a Daniell, prior 
to 1671. Possibly Darby Driskall who made will in Westmoreland 
County in 1720, probated 1720, married one of the other daugh- 
ters of Luke Billington, for as we have already seen, he names 
Capt. Daniel McCarty and Mrs. Kath McCarty as his heirs along 
with Robert Bayly, John Gore, David Williamson, and Edward 
Clark, some of which names are found in the will of Barbara Bill- 
ington, 1674. Luke Billington of Rappahannock County made will 
Jan. 25, 1686, probated Mch. 2, 1686-7, in which he mentions 
Teige (?) McDonough, William Robinson, Ann Robinson, and 



WILLIAM AND MAEY QUARTERLY 125 

brother Carty; sister Barbara; his pistols are to go to "little 
Daniell McCarty". This will was nuncupative. The witnesses 
were Teige (?) McDonough and Lawrence Hennings. As Luke 
Billington apparently died without issue and as he was the only 
son of Luke Billington Sr it is evident that the male line of Luke 
Billington, Sr became extinct with the death of Luke Billington, Jr 
in 1686-7. The name Billington as a first name was carried down 
througd many geiitiations in the HcCoity family. 

Daniel McCarty, son of Dennis and Elizabeth Billington Mc- 
Carty, was born in 1679 or 1684 (see above) and died May 4, 
1724. He was possibly but not likely the Daniel McCarty who had 
wife Barbary in Eichmond County, Virginia in 1698. He cer- 
tainly married Elizabeth Payne, widow of William Payne and 
eldest daughter of Col. Humphrey Pope. She had four children 
named Payne and eight named McCarty. Daniel McCarty mar- 
ried again to Mrs. Ann Fitzhugh, widow of William Fitzhugh und 
daughter of Richard and Lettice Corbin Lee. Daniel McCarty had 
no children by this marriage. Col. Humphrey Pope by virtue of 
being the father of Daniel McCarty's wife is the ancestor of all 
the subsequent generations of McCartys of this line. Ho married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Hawkins. He lived not far from 
Col. Nathaniel Pope, the ancestor of George Washington, and 
there was probably a relationship between these two Popes but it 
is not known now. 

The following references pertaining to Daniel McCarty are 
found. William Carr of Westmoreland County in his will dated 
Jan. 13, 1702-3 mentions his grandsons (so Crozier but probably 
intended for godsons) Daniel McCarty and George Eskridge. In 
1704 Daniel McCarty and Daniel Tebbs patented 1350 acres in 
Richmond County, Virginia. On July 26, 1706 Daniel McCarty in 
St. Stephen's Parish, Northumberland County, Virginia, witnessed 
the will of Rodham Kenner. In 1707 he patented 151 acres in 
Westmoreland County. On Feb. 5, 1707 he was attorney for the 
King in Richmond County, Virginia, in regard to the estate of 
Col. John Washington. In 1706 Daniel McCarty was a member 
of the House of Burgesses representing Westmoreland County. He 
was Speaker of the House of Burgesses for the years 171548, and 



126 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

a Burgess again in 1723. In 1718 he was recommended as a Com- 
missioner of the Customs for the Potomac Eiver. In 1715 he was 
named as executor to the will of Francis Spencer of Westmoreland 
County, George Eskridge Jr, being one of the heirs. We shall 
return to Daniel McCarty's will a little later. 

Col. Daniel McCarty was buried at Yeocomico Church. In 
1907 as his tomb was being righted an unknown and unsuspected 
slab, broken and badly mutilated was found beneath his tomb. This 
slab is hopelessly defaced in places but still gives very valuable 
information. It marks the burying place of Elizabeth, wife first 
of William Payne and second of Daniel McCarty. It reads as 
follows : ... h the Body of ELIZABETH . . . er of 
Humphrey Pope Gent by .... is wife, first the wife of ... ne, 
Gentleman, to whom sh . . . . ns and two daughters and las ... 
Daniel McCarty, Esq to .... was married the 19th Oct .... 
ore four sons and four daug .... BARBARA the 30th of No- 
vem .... 7th of Novem .... of March .... 1705 .... 
.... 1709 .... 1709 Sarah .... and Thaddeus the .... 
1 BER 1712. She was Born ... of June 1667 & departed . . . e 
21st and was entombed .... year of her A .... 

Some of these lacunae can be filled from other sources of in- 
formation. We know that Elizabeth Payne bore her husband Wil- 
liam Payne two sons. The names of only three of Daniel's chil- 
dren appear in the above inscription but the other five can be made 
out from Daniel's will dated 1724. Dennis should probably come 
next to Barbara as he was maried in 1724 and was the oldest son. 
Daniel, who is called the second son of Daniel, probably comes next 
to Dennis. As he is the second son his place obviously could not 
be after 1709. Billington may be the one represented by the inscrip- 
tion as born in 1705 or else one of the twins born in 1709. If Bil- 
lington belongs to 1705 the twins of 1709 are Winifred and Lettice. 
It will be observed that Elizabeth, daughter of Humphrey Pope, 
was born in 1667. If we assign Daniel McCarty the earlier of the 
two dates found for his birth she was twelve years older than her 
husband. 

Capt. Daniel McCarty of Cople Parish, Westmoreland County, 
Virginia, made will Mch 29, 1724, probated June 9, 1724. To son 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 127 

Dennis he leaves all land in Stafford County. Son Billington is 
to receive land in Farnham Parish, Richmond County that be- 
longed to the testator's grandfather Billington, and also land in 
Northumberland County. Son Daniel is to receive land in West- 
moreland County. Son Thaddeus is to receive land in Richmond 
County that belonged to Capt. John Rice. Daughters Winifred 
and Sarah are mentioned ; also daughter Mrs. Anna Barbara Fitz- 
hugh and his grandchildren (probably her children were his only 
grandchildren at this time). Son Mr. Henry Fitzhugh (his step- 
son). Son-in-law William Payne (stepson again, the son of his 
first wife by her first husband). First wife's daughters Elizabeth 
Sherman and Mary Burns. Mention is made of "my uncle" Mr. 
Joseph Tayloe, late clerk of Lancaster and "my aunt" Mrs. Bar- 
bara Tayloe (she was the daughter of Luke Billington). "My 
brothers" Philip, Francis, Thomas, and Henry Lee (his second 
wife's brothers). Friend Capt. Eskridge. Directs that his son 
Daniel he continued under the care of Mr. John Gilpin of White- 
haven until his education comes to 100 pounds, which is to be paid 
on his arrival in Virginia. Also directs that his younger sons be 
educated "one as a lawyer, one a divine, one a physician, Chirur- 
geon or mariner." Pictures of son and daughter Fitzhugh are to 
go to their son when he is seven years old but the pictures of him- 
self and first wife are to remain in his dwelling house. Wife Anna 
and her brothers Col. and Capt. Lee. Appoints Col. John Tayloe, 
Humphrey Pope, Nicholas Minor, John Fitzhugh & Samuel 
Peachey gents, as executors until son Thaddeus is 17 years old. 
Only three daughters are mentioned in the above will whereas it 
is certain there was a fourth daughter. Her name was Lettice and 
we can only guess at the reason of her being unmentioned. She 
will appear in the will of her stepmother Ann McCarthy in 1728. 
Hayden inclines to think that she may have been Ann McCarty's 
daughter by her first marriage, that is, with Fitzhugh. In that 
case we may suppose that Daniel's fourth daughter predeceased 
him. 

Aside from the slab marking the grave of Elizabeth McCarty, 
mentioned above, there are three other McCarty tombstones at the 
Yeocomico Church. One belongs to Daniel McCarthy and states 



128 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

that he died May 4, 1724, at the age of 45 years. Another belongs 
to Thaddeus McCarthy youngest son of Daniel, saying that he died 
Feb. 7, 1731 in the 19th year of his age (the inscription referred 
to above shows that he was born in 1712). The fourth tombstone 
belongs to Penelope, wife of Daniel McCarthy, second son of Daniel, 
and daughter of Christine Higgins, Esq., saying that she died Mch 
26, 1732' in the 19th year of her age and one child. 

We take up next the will of Ann McCarty widow of Capt. 
Daniel. Her will is dated Nov. 7, 1728, probated May 31, 1732. 
She leaves to each of her brothers and their wives a ring, also to 
Col. John Tayloe. Son Henry Fitzhugh is to receive "my grand- 
father Corbin's mourning ring". Also to Elizabeth Fitzhugh, 
daughter of Maj. John Fitzhugh, to Billington McCarty, to Thad- 
deus McCarty, and to Sarah Beale. 

Of the eight children of Capt. Daniel McCarty, Anna Barbara 
married Maj. John Fitzhugh in or before 1719. Descendants not 
traced farther. Dennis McCarty married Sarah Ball in 1724, see 
below. Daniel McCarty married 1. Penelope Higgins who died in 
1732, see above. Married 2. . Billington McCarty mar- 
ried June 16, 1732 to Ann Barber. Thaddeus McCarty died at 
the age of 19, probably unmarried. Lettice McCarty married 
George Turberville, descendants not traced. Sarah McCarty mar- ' 
ried Thomas Beale Apr. 27, 1728 and died without issue. Noth- 
ing is known of Winifred, daughter of Daniel McCarty. 

We now take up the three sons of Daniel McCarty, who left 
issue, in the order of their age, that is, Dennis, Daniel, and Billing- 
ton. 

Dennis McCarty, son of Daniel and Elizabeth, married Sarah 
Ball, Sept. 22, 1724. She was the daughter of Col. William Ball 
by his wife Hannah Beale. Col. William Ball was the son of Wil- 
liam Ball, born 1641 who was also the son of William Ball, the 
emigrant, by his wife Hannah Atherold. William Ball, the emi- 
grant, had another son named Joseph Ball, whose daughter Mary 
Ball was the mother of George Washington. Thus the descendants 
of the marriage of Dennis McCarty and Sarah Ball are blood rela- 
tives of our first President. We have already seen that Dennis re- 
ceived by the terms of his father's will all the testator's lands in 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUABTEBLY 

Stafford County. This land lay in the portion which later be- 
came Prince William County and later still Fairfax County. In 
1732-41 he was a vestryman of Truro Parish. In 1741 he was 
the only McCarty on a poll list of Prince William County (Fair- 
fax was formed from Prince William in 1742). On Dec. 13, 1739 
he bought 522 acres in Prince William County of John Minor. 
This deed was witnessed by Jno. S. Sherman, M. Lawson, and John 
Allen. On Dec. 16, 1740 Maj. Dennis McCarty of Prince William 
County, patented 1220 acres in Prince William County on Goose 
Creek in the name of his son Thaddeus McCarty, who at that time 
must have been very young. Dennis McCarty, gent., of Prince 
William County, made will Mch 18, 1742, probated Jan. 20, 
1742-3 in Fairfax County. It was witnessed by William Payne, 
William Sherman, Kichard Sherman, and John Sherman (these 
witnesses were probably related to the testator on his mother's side). 
Mentions land bought of John Hereford in Prince William 
County ; land lying in Stafford County on the Acquia. Wife Sarah ; 
sons Daniel, Dennis, and Thaddeus; daughters Sarah and Ann. 
Mentions joiner John Allen. Brother Daniel McCarty, gent., of 
Westmoreland County, friend and kinsman John Minor and son 
Daniel are appointed executors. The will was proved Jan. 20, 
1742-3 but not admitted to record until Apr. 21, 1743 at which 
time the court appointed wife Sarah as executor. The John Minor 
mentioned as kinsman in the will was related to the testator proba- 
bly through his mother's side, that is, the Pope line. 

We follow now the children of Maj. Dennis in the order in 
which they appear in the will, that is, Daniel, Dennis, Thaddeus, 
Sarah, and Ann. 

Daniel McCarty, the oldest son of Maj. Dennis married Sinah 
Ball. He died in Fairfax County, Virginia, about 1792 leaving 
will in which he mentions son Daniel (apparently his only son), 
daughters Mary McCarty, Sarah Chichester, Sinah Wagener, and 
Anne McClenachan; grandson Daniel; wife Sinah and son Daniel 
are appointed executors. The will is witnessed by John Hereford, 
Jr., Joseph Gordon, Patrich Keogh, Doddridge Pitt Chichester, 
and R. R. Wagoner. Col. Daniel McCarty, son of Daniel and 
Sinah Ball McCarty, married about 1778 to Ann Mason, daugh- 



130 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

ter of George Mason, author of the famous "Bill of Rights". They 
had Hon. William Mason McCarty, who represented his district in 
Congress for several times, and John McCarty, who killed his 
cousin Gen. Stephens Mason in a duel in 1818. William Mason 
McCarty sold his beautiful estate, Cedar Grove, in Fairfax County 
and moved to Richmond in 1852 where he died in 1863. His first 
wife was his cousin, Miss Mason, sister of Gen. Stephens Mason 
killed by John McCarty in a duel. By her he had Thorton Mc- 
Carty and Dr. James Byrd McCarty. By his second wife, a Miss 
Burwell, he had son Page McCarty. Thornton McCarty was a 
lawyer at Charlottesville, Virginia, and left three sons who in 
1905 were living in Texas. Dr. James Byrd McCarty died with- 
out issue. Page McCarty killed young Mordecai in a duel in Rich- 
mond and was himself severely wounded and died single a few 
years later. John McCarty, son of Col. Daniel and Ann Mason 
McCarty, married a Miss Lee of Leesburg and had one daughter 
who married and left heirs. Unless the three sons of Thornton 
McCarty, who were living in Texas in 1905, left heirs, the male 
line of descent from Col. Daniel McCarty who married Ann Mason, 
has become extinct. 

Mary McCarty, daughter of Daniel and Sinah Ball McCarty, 
died single in Fairfax County, Virginia, in about 1815 leaving 
will in which she mentions niece Sinah Elizabeth Melvin, wife of 
William B. Melvin; William Grayson Melvin, McCarty Ball Mel- 
vin, and James Monroe Melvin, sons of William Grayson Melvin; 
nieces Sarah Ball Moreton and Mary Sayers Grayson. William 
B. Melvin is appointed executor. The will is witnessed by Sinah 
B. Moreton, Maria F. Whiting, Mary W. McClenachan (?), R. H. 
Seule (?). The heirs mentioned in this will are probably all 
descendants of the Daniel McCarty who married Sinah Ball but 
the connection has not yet been made out. 

Daniel McCarty Chichester who died in Fairfax County, Vir- 
ginia, on Aug. 7, 1820 at the age of 51 (therefore born about 1769) 
was probably the son of Sarah Chichester, mentioned in the will 
of Daniel McCarty. This Daniel may have been the grandson 
mentioned by the testator in his will of 1792. Nothing further is 
known of the Chichester family, excepting that Sarah Chichester's 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 131 

husband was named (Col.) Bichard Chichester. Sinah McCarty 
married Peter Wagoner and died in about 1809 presumably leav- 
ing heirs. 

We return now to Dennis McCarty, second son of Dennis and 
Sarah Ball McCarty. He served as Ensign about 1756 in the regi- 
ment of Col. George Washington. In spite of the fact that they 
were second cousins the two seem to have had some misunderstand- 
ings. Dennis McCarty resigned and returned home but his resign- 
tion may have been partly due to ill health for he died soon after, 
about 1757, leaving a will in which he mentions mother Sarah 
Barnes (his mother after the death of her first husband Dennis 
McCarty had married Abram Barnes) and George Johnston, Sr 
and Sarah, his wife. The will was witnessed by M. Massey, Cuth- 
bert Bullett, and Francis Dade, Jr. From this will it is apparent 
that Dennis McCarty, son of Dennis and Sarah Ball McCarty, died 
unmarried. Sarah, wife of George Johnston, Sr, was his sister. 

We take up next Thaddeus McCarty, third son of Dennis and 
Sarah Ball McCarty. We have already seen that his father Maj. 
Dennis McCarty on Dec. 16, 1740 patented 1220 acres on Goose 
Creek in Prince William County in the name of his son Thaddeus 
McCarty. This patent was probably in present Loudoun County, 
Virginia. He married April 20, 1768, being at that time probably 
past 30 years of age, Sarah Elizabeth Eichardson, as tradition 
has it, in the home of George Washington. There seems to be no 
reason for disputing this tradition. Hayden represents this Thad- 
deus McCarty as marrying one Ann Chinn, in which he is certainly 
in error. As we shall see below there was a marriage, between a 
Thaddeous McCarty and an Ann Chinn but it was another Thad- 
deus, namely the son of Billington, and a first cousin of the other 
Thaddeus. Sarah Eichardson was from Colechester, Orange Lane, 
England, and was visiting her uncle Wagoner in Fairfax County, 
but while there she met Thaddeus McCarty and married him and 
never returned to England. He took up his residence in Loudoun 
County probably on the land patented in his name in 1740 by his 
father. This plantation was of quite ample proportions but there 
was a feeling among his descendants for several generations that 
his father had not adequately provided for him in his will. Thad- 



132 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

deus McCarty made will on Aug. 4, 1812, probated Dec. 14, 1812 
in Loudoun County Virginia. This will was witnessed by Burr 
Powell, Hugh Rogers, and Henson Simpson. He refers to land 
lying on Goose Creek. He mentions wife Sarah Elizabeth; sons 
Dennis, William E., and George Washington; daughters Sarah E. 
Russell and Mary McCarty. 

Dennis McCarty, eldest son of Thaddeus and Sarah Richard- 
son McCarty, was born Jan. 1772 and on Nov. 16, 1792' married 
Margaret Beatty who was born Sept. 16, 1777 and was the daugh- 
ter of Andrew Beatty by his wife Mary French. Margaret Beatty 
died about 1859. Dennis McCarty and his wife Margaret Beatty 
had six children, as follows: 1. Susan McCarty, married Smarr. 
2. Richard Chichester McCarty, born 1806, married but died about 
1873 without issue. 3. Dennis Thaddeus McCarty, born 1808, 
died 1868. For his children see below. 4. Margaret McCarty, died 
single about 1876. 5. Billington McCarty, died about 1897, leav- 
ing a family. 6. Nancy McCarty. 

[To be continued.] 



BELL-JONES-LEE NOTE. 

In the QUARTERLY of last October is an article entitled "Tay- 
lor and Jones Families/' I cited records to show that Elizabeth 
Lee, dau. of Hancock Lee of "Ditchley," m. 1st. Swan Jones of 
Northumberland Co., Va., and 2nd. Zachary Taylor of Orange Co., 
Va. (the President's grandfather), and that by her first husband 
she had Capt. John Jones of Orange Co., will dated 31 May 1758, 
proved the same year, who m. Mary Bell, and, furthermore, that 
this Mary Bell m. (2dly) Zachary Burnley in 1759. 

Mrs. Keach's researches among Northumberland records, pub- 
lished in the QUARTERLY, were liberally used by me in writing the 
article, and again I had recourse to them to establish the probable 
identity of the above.Mary Bell who m. 1st, Capt. John Jones, and, 
2dly, Zachary Burnley. 

Captain William Jones, first cousin to Swan Jones mentioned 
above, m. (as Mrs. Keach shows) Leanna Lee, and, among other 
children by her, had Elizabeth Jones, b. 1707, who m. Eev. John 
Bell, and Leanna Jones, b. 1720, who m. Charles Lee, and who in 
her will, dated 24 Jan. 1761, names her "neice Mary Burnley." 

Here then is the evidence as it unfolds: 

Mary Bell, Capt. John Jones' widow, m. Zachary Burnley in 
1759. 

Above testatrix mentions "niece Mary Burnley" in 1761, and 
testatrix' sister, Elizabeth, was married to Rev. John Bell. 

Surely this establishes the identity of Mary Bell. She was 
daughter of Rev. John Bell and Elizabeth Jones. 

In my article in the October number appears, bottom of p. 
288, the following: . . . "was testator's half-sister that is to 
say, the sister of testator's mother by her second husband, Zach- 
ary Taylor." 

The family relationship I was dealing with was complicated 
enough without an error being thrown in for lagniappe. So for 
"the sister of testator's mother" please read "the daughter of 
testator's mother." 

Trist Wood. 



TADIAFERRO FAMILY. 

Editor : 

Wm. & Mary Quarterly: 
Sir: 

In the "Family Register" of Nicholas Taliaferro, published in 
the July, 1931, QUARTERLY, I have discovered some errors, and 
have had others pointed out to me, chiefly in connection with the 
notes with which it was accompanied. It is advisable of course 
that these should be corrected. 

The date of the marriage of the honored grandparents, page 
146, is given as 1708; this should be 1718. 

Note 15, page 151, gives dates of Mary (Thornton) Battaile's 
birth and death as 1731-1757, which is really, as your readers have 
of course discovered, the dates belonging to her daughter, Mary 
(Battaile) Taliaferro; (page 146). The correct dates for Mary 
Thornton are, Born 1706, married 1726, died 1757. 

It may be noted in passing in connection with note 16, that 
Col. John Thornton and Mildred Gregory were married Oct. 18, 
1740 : Francis Thornton and Frances Gregory were married Sept. 
3, 1736 and Henry Willis and Elizabeth Gregory were married 
April 30, 1742: Elizabeth married secondly Reuben Thornton, but 
the date of this marriage I have not found. 

On page 153 the second and third lines from the bottom of 
the page need alteration: "One of the sponsors was Mr. Francis 
Thornton; another Francis Thornton" should read, "One of the 
sponsors was Mr. Francis Thornton and he was a" &c. This was 
Francis 5 of "Fall Hill," son of Francis. 4 

Page 159, second paragraph, note 43: "In This will" should 
be "In his will." 

Page 161, note 54, quoting from Col. Frank Taylor's Diary 
(as originally quoted by Dr. Slaughter in "Old St Marks," "My 
son and daughter went to the wedding." Col. Frank Taylor lived 
and died a bachelor. What he wrote was this, under date of March 
18, 1797: 

"To J. Taylor's and dined. J. Taylor returned from wedding 



WILLIAM AND MAKY QUARTERLY 135 

at Captain Conwa/s; the horses having got away, J. Taylor Jr & 
wife & Nancy Taylor had not got home when I came away ; Fanny 
Pendleton & Betsy Gaines & B, Chew there." 

This was the Hay Taliaferro- Susanna Conway wedding but 
Col. Taylor does not mention the contracting parties. The J. 
Taylor mentioned was the Diarist's brother, James. It is not 
known how Dr. Slaughter made the curious error he did. 

Col. Frank Taylor was one of the sons of Col. George Taylor 
and Rachel Gibson, his wife; he was born in 1747 and died in 
1799; he lived at "Midland/' Orange Co which was left him by 
his father's will, dated Sept 5, 1789. He was Colonel in the 
"Liberty or Death" Culpeper Minute-Men, and on their march to 
Williamsburg was Commanding Captain 2d Va. Regt. (May 8, 
1776), Major 15th Va., 1778; Lt. Col. Convention Guards Dec. 
24th, 1778; Colonel, March 5th, 1779. 

William Buckner McGroarty. 

Jan. 7, 1922. 



GIBBONS FAMILY. 

Thomas Gibbons, son of John Gibbons and his wife Rebecca 
, born 2'0 October 1734, Surry County, Virginia; he mar- 
ried Anne (her name is believed to be Eppes who were 

her parents?); their children were as follows (the, birth dates of 
the four eldest from the Albemarle Parish Register Sussex 
County, before 1754 Surry) : 

1. Mary Gibbons (b. 7 Dec. bapt 6 Mar. 1763; sponsors, 
Wm. Gilbert, Anne Ezell, Mary Eppes; married William Fitz- 
gerald who died, 1815, White County, Tennessee. 

2. John Gibbons (b. 26 Mar. bapt. 3 May 1767; sponsors, Lau- 
rence Gibbons, jr., James Mangum, jr., Eliss Gibbons). 

3. Thomas Gibbons (b. 20 Oct. 1769) ; married 

Chisholm and had a son, Elijah Gibbons. 

4. Anne Gibbons (b. 1 Apr. 1772) ; married William Howard. 

5. Elizabeth Gibbons (b. 12 Nov. 1774 date from family 
record) ; married Major James Chisholm (or Chisum), son of 

Elijah Chisholm and his wife, Lucy , and grandson of John 

Chisholm and his wife, Ellener Gillington (daughter of Nicholas 
Gillington, or Guillentine, of Amelia County, Va.) ; both Elijah 
Chisholm and his wife died in 1818, White County, Tenn. ; Major 
James Chisholm (Chisum) died, 1835, Hardeman Co., Tenn. 

6. Edmond Gibbons (in 1807, his father gave him power of 
attorney to collect numerous claims, Hawkins County, Tenn.) 

7. William Gibbons (in 1807, he was deeded property by his 
father in Hawkins County, Tenn.) 

8. Salley Gibbons m. Joel Gillen water. 

9. Epps Gibbons (in 1807, he was deeded property by his 
father, Hawkins County, Tenn.; 15 Mar. 1817, deeded land in 
Hawkins County, Tenn., lived for a time in Madison County, 
Tenn., and is said to have died in Texas). 

10. Rebecca Gibbons m. Bell. 

11. James Gibbons m. (issue). 

(James Gibbons pre-deceased his father.) 

At what time Thomas Gibbons left Sussex County, Va., is not 
known but in 1786, he was living in Hawkins County, then North 



WILLIAM AND MAEY QUARTEELY 137 

Carolina, for in that year the first court in Hawkins County was 
held at his house; after 1796, Hawkins County was under the 
jurisdiction of Tennessee; his name appears in numerous trans- 
fers of land in Hawkins County; his will was probated there, 13 
June 1809, and in it the above-named children were mentioned 
he also mentioned his daughter, Molly Fitzgerald's children, Nancy 
Isham, Garrett Fitzgerald and Elizabeth Babb. His executors 
were his son Edmond and son-in-law, Wm. Howard. 

The names of Thomas Gibbons' mother and his wife, and the 
names of their parents, are desired; also the names of John Chis- 
holm's parents; also the name of Elijah Chisholm's wife's parents. 

E. T. C. 

I have some earlier Gibbons' records. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

STATHAM. Would be obliged for the proof of the maiden name 
of the wife of William Dabney Statham, 8 born about 1759, son of 
John Statham, 2 of Albemarle County, Virginia, and grand son of 
Love and Martha (Meriwether?) Statham 1 of Louisa County and 
Hanover, Virginia. William Dabney Statham 3 is said to have 
married about 1780, Frances Meredith, or Garland, of Virginia, 
and he died in Houston County, Georgia, 1846 ; had issue : 

i. John, 4 ii. Richmond, 4 born 1805, died 1854, married Eliza- 
beth daughter of David Brunson, of North Carolina, both of them 
died in Webster County, Georgia, iii. Meredith; 4 iv. Garland, 4 
married Elizabeth Lucinda, daughter of Alexander Patterson and 
Elizabeth Pickens his wife. v. Nancy, 4 married William Hall; vi. 
Frances, 4 married Jacob Bason, of North Carolina; vii. Sarah, 4 

married Crutchfield; viii. Julia, 4 married Charles McCoy. 

iv. Garland Statham, 4 the fourth son, was a member of the Georgia 
Legislature from old Stewart County, Georgia, between 1846 and 
1850. (Family Bible Records in Georgia.) Miss Mary B. Statham, 
20 Third Street, S. E., Washington, D. C. 



138 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

"Wanted a copy of the Will of Colonel Henry Wood, who died 
May 2, 1757, at "Woodville," twelve (12) miles north of Gooeh- 
land Court House, Virginia. He married Martha Cox and had 
son Valentine Wood. Did he have a son Stephen named after 
Stephen Cox? 

A Stephen Wood of Lunenburg County, Virginia, married 
July 6, 1756, Anne daughter of Joseph Johnston or Johnson of 
Lunenburg. Stephen Wood's Will in Lunenburg, dated October 
30, 1781, proved 1782. (Will Book 2, page 111) had sons John, 
David, Johnson and George. Daughters Patsy or Martha (named 
after Martha Cox?) and Sallie Wood." Mary Beaumont Statham. 

Wanted: Eevolutionary data of Rice Meredith Ballou, Jr., 
or Leonard Ballou' (or Ballow). Esther Ballou Johns was the 
daughter of either of the above mentioned. Mrs. John B. Stevens, 
801 K Yakima Ave., Tacoma, Wash. 

Would like the names of the children of Benjamin Shackleford, 
whose wife was Martha Jones, married Dec. 24, 1770, in Matthews 
Parish. Martha Bowden Gustin, 839 Ogden St., Denver, Colorado. 

LACOCK FAMILY. Who were the parents of Abner Lacock, 
born in Fairfax County, Va., in 1770, died in Freedom, Pa., Aug. 
12, 1837. U. S. Senator from Pennsylvania, 1813-1819. Presi- 
dent of the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal Company. Address 
Editor of the William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Maga- 
zine. 

Fox FAMILY. Who were the parents of Amos Fox, of "Fox 
Forest," Fairfax County, Virginia? Where did they come from? 
He removed to Kentucky, where his daughter Ann Elvira married 
Lee Byrd Osborn, who also came from Virginia. His father Lt. 
Bennet Osborne was a friend of Col. William Byrd, for whom he 
named his son. Who were Bennet Osborne's parents? Where did 
they come from? Thomas D. Oslorne, 450 Riverside Drive, New 
York City. 



HOME MANUFACTURES IN VIRGINIA IN 1791. 

Letters to Alexander Hamilton, from Gen. Edward Carrington. 1 

Richmond, October 4th, 1791. 

The enclosed papers contain parts of the information which I 
expect to furnish upon the subject of Manufactures in Virginia, 
and are transmitted agreeably to your request. These papers have 
come from the two lower Surveys of the District, the information 
they contain as to the particular Neighbourhoods from which they 
are drawn may be applied with propriety to the whole of these Sur- 
veys ; indeed, so equally do the People of Virginia go into Manuf ac- 
turies within themselves, that the application might be made to the 
whole Country, with only a few allowances from a consideration of 
their respective staples which I will in some degree inable you to 
make, upon the following principles. In regard to staples, Vir- 
ginia is contemplated under three divisions, the Lower, the Middle, 
& the Upper: the first is comprehended between the Sea and the 
falls of our great rivers; the Second between these falls and the 
blue ridge of Mountains the latter takes all the Country beyond the 
mountains. 

The staples of the first are Indian corn principally, small crops 
of indifferent Tobacco small crops of wheat, & in some parts, lum- 
ber. 

iThe letters herewith presented are in the Hamilton manuscripts in 
the Library of Congress. When as Secretary of the Treasury Alexander 
Hamilton was preparing his report on manufactures, he collected in- 
formation from the federal officials and others in the different States. 
General Edward Carrington, who had been appointed by Washington, 
the marshal of the United States District Court of Virginia, and who as 
marshal had had charge of the census returns in 1790, gathered the 
information from his friends and federal officers in the State. One of 
the letters is from General Edward Stevens, well known as an efficient 
officer in the Revolution. The report of the home manufactures of King 
William county is especially valuable, having been made out with care 
by Mr. Drury Ragsdale. It gives us some information of the extent of 
the old industrial life which was centered about the home. 



140 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

The Middle Country produces our great exports of Tobacco & 
wheat. 

The Upper Country produces Hemp, Flax, & wheat principally, 
and small and indifferent crops of Tobacco. 

I have observed that the people of the whole country are in 
habits of Domestic Manufactures pretty equally, except that some 
allowances must be made on Account of field labour upon their re- 
spective staples, these are as follow : the staples of the lower country 
require moderate labour, and that at particular seasons of the year, 
the consequence is that they have much leisure and can apply their 
hands to Manufacturing so far as to supply^ not only the cloathing 
of the Whites, but of the Blacks also. 

The great staple, Tobacco, in the Middle Country requires much 
labor when growing, and, what with fitting it for market, and pre- 
paring land for succeeding crops leaves but little time for the same 
hands to Manufacture : the consequence is, that the latter business 
is carried on only by white females in poor families^ and, in wealthy 
families, under the Eye of the Mistress, by female slaves drawn out 
of the Estates for that purpose, aided by the superfluous time of a 
superabundance of house-servants; the consequence is, that less is 
manufactured here than in the lower country, yet the difference is, 
I believe, no greater than as to the cloathing of the field slaves, for 
which purpose Kendal Cotton, oznabrigs, & hempen rolls are pur- 
chased, but the owner of every plantation tans the hides of the cattle 
which are killed or casually die, and, by that means, supplies the 
slaves in shoes for winter. The staples of the upper Country re- 
quire somewhat more field labour than those of the Lower and much 
less than those of the Middle, & having however but few slaves, and 
being distant from foreign intercourse, the people depend princi- 
pally upon home manufactures, and, at least, equal the lower coun- 
try in them. 

As to raw materials, no Country under the sun, is capable of 
producing more than Virginia, the lower Country produces fine 
Cotton & Wool, and both might be increased even to satisfy great 
foreign demands in many parts good flax is also made. The middle 
Country produces fine Cotton, but the more valuable staples of 
wheat and Tobacco, confine the production to the demand of the 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 141 

private Manufactures of the Country itself it is also well adapted 
to Hemp & Flax, of the first, some is produced for market : of the 
latter, every family makes for its own use : to the same extent Wool 
is also produced. The Upper Country supplies our Markets with 
great quantities of hemp, said to be equal to any in the World, flax 
is also here produced in high perfection, and in great quantities, 
the People using it for purposes to which, Cotton is applied below : 
for supplying the Article of Wool this part of Virginia is so favor- 
able that large droves of sheep go from it, to the lower Town 
Markets. 

The Mountainous parts of Virginia, abound in Iron Ore, from 
which most of the Iron, and some of the steel, used in the state, are 
supplied, and the productions of both might be so increased as to 
make great exports. We have also a valuable lead mine, in the 
Southwestern part of the upper Country, from which new manufac- 
tures are daily coming into practice, such as sheet lead for roofing, 
shot &tc. there is a shot factory in Richmond, well established by 
the present worker of this Mine, and the same hand has furnished 
the lead for covering the roof of our Capitol, or State House, This 
mine was during the War, worked under the public direction of the 
state, and supplied all the lead used in the Southern service; sup- 
plies of it, also went to the Main Army, but whether for the whole 
service I will not undertake to say. 

As to regular Trades we have but few, they are however, in- 
creasing daily in the upper Country, there are severall fulling Mills 
from which good Cloth is seen, I will endeavour to obtain samples. 

I have now endeavoured to give you, in addition to the inclosed 
papers, such information as will furnish a general idea of the Man- 
ufactures throughout the Commonwealth, and having been tolerably 
attentive to these circumstances for several years, as I have passed 
through the various parts of the Country, am persuaded you may 
rely upon it, as well founded. I have been led to do it, from a 
consideration, that the approach of the session requires an early 
communication, and from the information expected from the upper 
Inspectors, having not yet arrived: When I receive their reports 
they shall be forwarded immediately. 

I beg you to be assured, that this business has been attended 



142 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

with no material trouble or inconvenience, and that it has given 
pleasure to both myself & the Inspectors that you requested our as- 
sistance in obtaining the desired information. 
I have the Hono. to be 
With great respect 
Sir 
Your Most Obt. si 

E. J. CARRINGTON 

Supervisor of Virg. 
Alexr. Hamilton Esq. 

N. B. D. Ragsdales return is made upon 20 Families in one 
neighbourhood comprehending all classes in life from the richest to 
the poorest Upon my Census returns of the district of Virg. (ex- 
clusive of Kentucky). 70,825 Families appear, this note is made 
upon a supposition that it may possibly be useful in calculation 
which the Secretary may wish to make. 

Richmond October 8th 1791. 

Since mine of the 4th Instant, conveying some information 
upon Manufactures I have received an additional report from Gen- 
eral Stevens Inspector of Survey No. 2 which together with his 
letter, and a Copy of one he received from one of his Collectors I 
now do myself the pleasure to inclose. It was my intention, at first, 
to have obtained the Reports of all the Inspectors, and then have 
made a general one, with certain allowances, and remarks, for you. 
This would have been attended with but little trouble, and although 
you was good enough to desire that it might be dispensed with, yet 
I should have done it. The detached manner in which my informa- 
tion comes & the late period at which I should be enabled to com- 
municate it to you were I to delay for this purpose, dictates the 
greater propriety of complying with your dispensation, and giving 
you the information by parts, as it comes in. You find that Genl. 
Stevens & Mr. Ragsdale have, both, reported the domestic manu- 
factures made in twenty families, comprehending the various classes 
of life, from the richest to the poorest : this is done in consequence 
of a request I made of each Inspector in order to form a principle 
of calculation upon the whole number of families in the State, 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 143 

expecting that, as these Gentlemen reside in different parts such 
reports might enable us to judge how far a general principle of 
calculation might be relied upon, or what deviations might be 
proper to lead the nearest the truth. You will observe that each of 
these reports already received, take in the whole year 1790, the 
others will do the same and as they come to my hands, they shall 
be forwarded to you. 

The enquiries upon this subject gave rise, at first, to suggestions 
from the Enemies of the Government, that the object was a Tax 
upon manufactures, this led to the necessity of the Inspectors ef- 
fecting their enquiries in such manner as would not favor such an 
alarm, and this they Jiave been so judicious in, that there is nothing 
said about it now. indeed it is generally believed in the true light 
as leading to some project for the encouragement of home manufac- 
tures. 

I am with the greatest respect 

Sir 

Your most ob. st. 
E. J. CARRINGTON 

Supervisor Va. 
Alexander Hamilton Esq. 

Surry Augt 23d 1791 2 

Dr Friend 

Thine of the 2'6th of last Mo. I received & set about with much 
chearfulness to comply with thy request but thou'l be perhaps sur- 
prised at hearing that most of the people in these parts have got 
into such spirit of Jealousy that they suspect some design unfavor- 
able to them in every thing that is attempted of a public nature. 
"What are they going to Tax our cloath too? was the reply of sev- 
eral, and as nothing I could say in respect to the real intention 
would satisfy, was inclined to think it would be best to decline the 
attempt. I suppose however that several of the neighbours make 
from three to four hundred yards of Cloth each year, which is 

2This letter is addressed to Gen. Carrington. 



144 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

mostly Cotton, a small proportion of it is mixt Cotton & Wool and 
Cotton & Flax but there is very little made that is all Wool or Flax 
I am inclined to think that for ten Miles round me the average 
quantity of Clo. would be nearly two hundred yards to each Family. 
That at least 5/6 of all the Cloth, Shoes & Stockings that are used 
in those Families are home made. The average price of which are 
nearly as follows. Cloth 2/ Shoes 5/6 or 6/ 

Thy Friend 

ABSOLM BAILEY 



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spacX jo -on IB^OX 



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II 



146 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLV 

Culpeper Court House October 6, 1791. 3 

Expecting this to be nearly about the time you would wish to be 
receiving the reports respecting the manufactures of this State. I 
have made Out and now Inclose you such a one as (I conceived) 
you required of me ; at least as nearly so as was in my power ; And 
I hope it may be such as will answer. You will understand the 
information was taken entirely from persons of this County, in- 
deed I found great reluctance in many of my Acquaintances, re- 
fusal from others, at least their conduct produced the same effect, 
as they never could find a proper time to detail to me or sit down 
and acct. themselves. However it will make no difference my get- 
ing the intelligence intirely from persons of this County as I 
think the circumstances of all the Countys in my survey are nearly 
similar, as to Cultivation, Produce and Domestic manufacturies, 
except perhaps in one or two of the little Countys in the Lower 
parts of it In averaging the prices of the different Articles I gov- 
erned myself from the information as well as by the following 
Principles. The Linnen Cloth made by the Rich is generally for 
their negroes which is course, that made by the midling Kind, in 
great proportion, is also made in the same way, and that by the 
lower Sort for their own wear, therefore a greater part of theirs 
would be somewhat of a finer Quality In the Woolen Cloth both 
the Rich and the middling by what I could learn was nearly the 
same Kind for negroes, and Children some of it [ ?] colour and other 
in the Shape of a Stuff which is imported from Britain and called 
Twayo [ ?] The poorest people among us raise few or no Sheep and 
what wool they commonly have is I fancy mostly made into Stock- 
ings. The Cotton Cloth made by the Rich, a great proportion for 
Coverlet [?].... which is valuable. It is also nearly the case 
with the middling, or at least what they may be deficient in Cover- 
let ...[?] they make up in Womens fine Gowns. The Poorest is 
generally coarse. With Respect to Stockings and Shoes the Rich 
commonly purchase the greater parts of the fine Kinds which they 

sThe inclosed papers mentioned by Gen. Stevens in this letter have 
not been found. 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 147 

wear and the other Classes dont make much use of them. Therefore 
after taking into Acct. that the largest Quantity are for negroes 
and the poorest people, I think I may be pretty near the value of 
these Two Articles. 

I have received one Report of the Stated Trades, or rather a 
List of the names of the deferent Tradesmen, distinguishing 
whether leaving in Town or Country, from Mr. Adams of Loudon, 
he says it was not in his Power to do more, he seems to be of a dis- 
position to oblige and has the Character of a very active attentive 
Industrious good man. I have also received from Mr. Yancey of 
Louisa by way of a Paragraph of a Letter of some thing on the Sub- 
ject, but in order to give you a better Knowledge of it, than a de- 
scription, I have taken, the Liberty to inclose you a Copy. In what 
manner do you wish me to hand them to you ? I mean as to waiting 
until they all come forward to me, and make a General report. I 
am with very much respect. Sir 

Your most hum. Servt. 

EDWARD STEVENS Inspector 

Revenue, Survey No. 2 

FROM GEN. HENRY LEE TO HAMILTON. 

Alexa. 12th August 1791 4 
My Dear Sir 

our parting conversation has deeply employed my mind & I con- 
tinue to lament exceedingly the existence of any event which puts 
us even politically opposite. 

No man is more warmly attached to his friends than I am; 
among the first of whom my heart places you. I thoroughly con- 
fide in the unstained purity of your principles, altho I feel enmity 
to the measures flowing from them. I am solicitous for your en- 
creasing fame & yet cannot applaud your system. The superiority 
of your understanding I am not a stranger to & therefore very often 
am led to doubt the accuracy of my own conclusions; my conse- 
quent apprehensions introduce redeliberation which always termi- 
nates in confirmation of my opinions. 

'Hamilton manuscripts in the Library of Congress. 



148 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

In one thing I am nearly decided, to advocate a patient trial for 
a few years of the fiscal plan because by this the harmony of the 
community will be undisturbed & such alterations may be effected 
as will go to banish from among us bickerings & discord. Amend- 
ments of this nature yourself would surely patronise, because the 
undivided confidence of a nation is not only highly gratifying to a 
public minister but is the best foundation for complete success to 
just & wise measures. I wish I could know your mind on this sub- 
ject & whether you cannot project a mode which will in our day 
gradually extinguish a debt which so many abhor & dread. This 
would ease the hearts of thousands, allay the fury of faction & 
relaurel your brow 

I have partly contracted for your riding horse & as soon as I 
can will forward him to you. 

Since my return, in consequence of a conversation with Mr. 
Oasinove I have received a large sum in funded paper & shall send 
the same as soon as I get the transfer to Mr. Leroy & Bayard re- 
commended to me by Mr. C to turn into cash. 

The money being soon wanted & the price allowed by me very 
high, disappointment in the agency will be injurious & distressing. 
Therefore do I take the liberty to request you the moment you read 
this letr. to walk to Mr. Leroy', see my letr. to him & urge him to 
do the business in the best manner for me, as I am a stranger to 
him. 

By return of the post I expect to receive your reply; if you 
will then enclose Graysons bond, I shall be able to put it in a prob- 
able road to payment. 

most affy. yours always 

HENKY LEE. 
Col. Hamilton 



MiUmm anb jfflarp College 

(Quarterly Historical 



Vol. II. JULY, 1922 No. 3 



VIRGINIA PATENTS. 
% A. J. MORRISON. 

The genealogy of our industrial works in Virginia is worth no- 
tice. It has been a good deal forgotten that John Heavin, of 
Montgomery County; James Barren, of Hampton, D. M. Ran- 
dolph, of Henrico, and others were considerable inventors before 
1825. We know hardly anything of the famous McCormick plough 
of 1826 or of Durham and Pleasants's "machine for cutting grain 
by horse power," of 1827. The Ruffner salt apparatus of 1817 
and later was very important. We have to be reminded thai 
Loudoun County produced washing machines in the old times, 
that Dumfries was a place of invention, that the distillery busi- 
ness of the State was regularly patented, and that Peter Laporte, of 
Richmond and elsewhere, was a very capable man. For that mat- 
ter, who knows anything worth mentioning about the old Gallego 
Mills, or the book trade and publishing business of Richmond 
"before the war?" Who was J. W. Randolph? 

The items given in this list through 1824 (and a few" beyond) 
are drawn from the printed statements issued from the Patent 
Office, at first in 1805 for the period since 1790, and then annually. 
The Patent Office was in the State Department at first and Secre- 
tary Madison to 1805 neglected to order the lists complete so as to 
show the residence of the inventor. Later he was more careful, 
and Secretary Monroe was careful to have the inventor's place of 
residence appear. These extracts therefore begin with 1805, and 
it must be eaid that through 1824 the Patent Office seems now 



150 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

and then to have thrown the lists together in a hurry. Some one 
could render a service by working out this matter of early Vir- 
ginia patents. 

1805. John Houston, Williamsburg. Metallic Hone. 
Daniel Atherton, Richmond. Physiognotrace. 
John Heavin, Montgomery Co. In propelling boats. 

" " " Machine for cutting straw. 

William Hodgson, Richmond. Tile and Brick apparatus. 
William Harwood, Richmond. In making pantiles. 

1806. William Tullock, Orange Co. Grain screens. 
James Deneale, Dumfries. Perpetual oven. 

1807. Benjamin B. Bernard, . In thrashing machines. 

1808. Caleb Johnson, New Glasgow. Double lever tobacco press. 
John Thomas Ricketts, Fairfax Co. Rice huller &c. 

John West, Stafford Co. In ovens. 

1809. John Robinson, Charlotte Co. In curing tobacco. 
James Deneale, Dumfries. Wheat rubber machine. 
Robert Robinson. Leesburgh. Washing machine. 

1810. George Easterly, Richmond. Mfg barilla from tobacco 

stems, corn stalks &c. 
Michael Garber, Sr.^ Staunton. In distilling. 

1810. William Armistead, Prince William Co. Weevil prevention. 

1811. David Dungan, Loudoun Co. Washing machine. 
John Staples, Richmond. Pendulum steam engine. 
William Harper, Richmond. Hemp and flax breaker &c. 
Wm Presley Claiborne, King William Co. For cutting wheat 

1812. William Richards, Culpeper Co. Threshing machine. 
John Heavin, Montgomery Co. Shingle dresser. 

Geo. McAdam Brown, Northumberland Co. Grain separa- 
tor. 

Ambrose Dudley, King William Co. In mfg salt. 

William Stanton, Lynchburg. Washing machine. 

William Mayo, Henrico Co. For grinding Corn in cobb. 

Amos Bolton, Fauquier Co. Mill water-gate. 

Ethan Owen, Prince George Co. Saw mill to be worked by 
animal power. 

John Heavin, Montgomery Co. In the loom. 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 151 

Kobert Christy, Jefferson Co. Elevator for grain or fluids. 
Robert Smether, Orange Co. In bridles. 

1813. David Cram, Clarksburg. Machine for cutting timber. 
John J. Cabell, Lynchburg. Apparatus for mf g salt. 
John Heavin, Montgomery C. H. Rope and twine machine. 
Daniel Harrington, Fairfax Co. A warm bathing vessel. 
James Wheatley, Fauquier Co. Still and condensing tub. 
John Humes, Richmond. Machine for cutting screws. 

1814. Samuel K. Jennings, Lynchburg. A warm and portable 

bath. 

John Heavin, Montgomery Co. In looms. 

Ezra Talmage, Hichmond. In stills. 

Thomas Hord, Caroline Co. For mfg salt. 

Brightberry Brown, Albemarle Co. Water loom. 

William M. Hawkins, King & Queen Co. Salt water eva- 
porator. 

Jacob Sprinkel, Wythe Co. In the loom. 

Benj. James Harris, Richmond. Fireproof ceiling. 

Joseph Tuley, Frederick Co. A family stove. 

Thomas K. Beale, Alexandria. Method for brick cornices. 

1814. John J. Cabell, Lynchburg. In mfg salt. 

Charles Hill, Essex Co. A machine for weeding corn and 

other crops. 

Henry Spickard, Fincastle. Clover seed cleaner. 
Thomas Shurley, Madison Co. Heater for mfg spirituous 

liquors. 
William Cornwell, Accomac Co. Horizontal water wheel for 

mills. 

1815. Samuel Arnold, Botetourt Co. Clover seed cleaner. 
Frederick Oswan, Harper's Ferry. In guns and rifles. 
John Smith, Fredericksburg. For gathering clover seed. 
David M. Randolph, Richmond. In making candles. 

In ship building. 

Matthew Cluff, Norfolk. In steam engines. 
John Russell. Brooke Co. Saw tooth setter. 

1816. George Tabb, Martinsburg. Frame bridges. 
William Adams, . Wheat fan. 



152 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

John Green, Sr., . Overshot water wheel. 

Jacob Fuller, Rockbridge Co. Machine for shelling Indian 
corn. 

1816. William Mitchell, Henrico Co. Making bricks. 
James Barron, Elizabeth City. Windmill improvement. 
Jacob Sprinkel, Wythe Co. Cotton and wool spinner. 
William Cornwell, Accomac Co. Improvement in the horse 

mill. 

1817. David and Joseph Ruffin, Kanawha. Mode of obtaining 

salt water. 

Webb Hart, Accomac Co. Mode of applying draught horses 
to machinery. 
[And 1825, of Petersburg. A mode of packing cotton.] 

William Mitchell, Richmond. Brickmaking and clay grind- 
ing machine. 

John Jordan^ Rockbridge Co. Window and door frames. 

1818. [Name not given], Mathews Co. Thrashing machine. 
Samuel Nixon, Prince George Co. Dough kneading ma- 
chine. 

John Ecoff, Wheeling. Mode of consuming smoke. 
Sylvester Nash, Harper's Ferry. Machine for turning gun 

barrels. 
James Clarke, Powhatan Co. Odometer to ascertain the 

distance. 

1818. Tobias Ruffner, Kenawha. Sinking wells. 
George D. Avery. Wood Co. Plough. 

1819. James Barron, Hampton. Machine for making bottle 

corks. 
William J. Lewis, . Mode of propelling boats or 



James Rudder, Norfolk. Anti-friction bush for sheaves in 
blocks. 

James Barron, Hampton. Pump for air or water. 

Obadaah Stith, Brunswick Co. ("Quarrelstown"). Im- 
provement in the gun or rifle. 

Edmund Brown, Richmond. Tobacco press. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 153 

James Cooper, Augusta Co. Improvement in the Archi- 
median screw. 

1820. Charles Williams, Richmond. Improvement in railways 

and carriages. 

Thomas Dakin, Harper's Ferry. Machine for draw grind- 
ing gun barrels. 

James Deneale, Dumfries. Instrument for mapping lands. 

John Ballthrop, Loudoun Co. Double shovel plough. 

David Evans, Alexandria. Knapping hats with rabbits's 
fur. 

David Beauchamp, Wood Co. Improved water wheel. 

Geo. P. Digges, Albemarle Co. Application of the oil of 
cotton seed for all the purposes of linseed oil. 

1821. Peter Laporte, Louisa Co. Bridle for stopping horses when 

running away. 

Thomas Oxley, Norfolk. Land clearing machine. 
N. C. Dawson & A. Rucker, 1 Amherst Co. Improvement 

in boats for rivers. 

i JAMES RIVER NAVIGATION. 

The Lynchburg Press (John Hampden Pleasants), August 17, 1821, 
in discussing Anthony Rucker's patent, mentioned the objections of 
the paper to the patent laws as those laws were often made to work, 
but added that in this case it would seem that a patent was quite 
warranted. "Anthony Rucker was unquestionably," said The Press, 
"the inventor and original constructor of the James River Batteaux, a 
species of boat essentially different from any before that time used 
on the waters of America. Mr. Jefferson, we understand, is pre- 
pared to give his testimony in favor of the ancestor (Anthony Rucker, 
Sr.) of the patentees, and it is said was a spectator of the launch of 
the first boat of the kind ever used on James River, and which oc- 
curred somewhere in Albemarle." 

That is to say, the patent to N. C. Dawson and A. Rucker, of 
Pedlar's Mills, Amherst County, April 3, 1821, was possibly [like so 
many patents] in litigation very soon after issuance. It may be that 
Anthony Rucker, Jr., and N. C. Dawson thought it well in 1821 to 
patent the device of Anthony Rucker, Sr. And it may be that the 
elder Rucker's boats were those that Isaac Weld [Travels Through 
the United States of North America, &c] saw at Lynchburg in 1796 
"boats in which produce is conveyed down the river are from forty- 



154 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

David M. Randolph, Richmond. Improvement in drawing 

liquor. 

John Humes, Richmond. Machine for digging canals. 
James Barron, Norfolk. Washing machine. 
1822. Andrew Woods, Jefferson Co. Improvement in the nursing 

and other chairs. 
Samuel Dew, Romney. Improvement in the universal com- 



James Barron, Norfolk. Angle lever. 

Stove. 

eight to fifty-four feet long, but very narrow in proportion to their 
length. Three men are sufficient to navigate one of these boats, and 
they can go to Richmond and back in ten days. They fall down with 
the stream, but work their way back again with poles." 

At any rate, it seems likely that the Rose and Rucker methods 
were the improved methods of getting down James River from Albe- 
marle before the coming of the canal. James Maury, Thomas Jef- 
ferson's teacher, explained the Rose method in 1756, and registered 
the name of the inventor, that remarkable man Robert Rose, min- 
ister of St. Anne's Parish, Albemarle, who died in 1751. Mr. Maury, 
minister of Fredericksville Parish, Louisa, was no less remarkable, 
as the whole of this letter, treating of the navigation of our western 
waters, gives proof. Mr. Maury said, writing from Louisa January 
10, 1756 (see Memoirs of a Huguenot Family): 

"Although one single canoe will carry but a small weight, yet 
nothing is more common than to see two of these tottering vehicles, 
when lashed together side by side with cords, or any other strong 
bandages, carrying down our upland streams eight or nine heavy hogs- 
heads of tobacco at a time to the warehouse, rolled on their gunwales 
crossways, and secured against moving fore or aft by a small piece 
of wood drove under the bilge of the two extreme hogsheads; an al- 
most incredible weight for such slender embarkations. But as they 
will bear such a burden, their slender contexture is an advantage; 
they draw but few inches water, move down a current with gFeat 
velocity, and leave the waterman nothing but Palinurus's task to per- 
form when going downwards, and when they return two men will 
shove the canoes with poles as far against stream in one day as four 
brisk watermen with oars can a boat that will carry the same burden, 
In two days. For this great improvement of inland navigation we 
mountaineers are indebted to the late Reverend and ingenious Mr. 
Rose/' (See also Brown, Cabells and Their Kin," 51, 215.) 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 155 

[And 1826 Carrying and lifting trunk dock Capt. U. 

S. Navy.] 

Peter Laporte, Richmond. Bridle (improvement). 
Charles W. Skinner, Norfolk. Method of ventilating ves- 



Thomas Williams, Pittsylvania Co. Improvement in ma- 
chine for covering corn. 

1823. John Maze, Greenbrier Co. Vertical water wheel. 

Peter Harry, Harrisonburg. Elastic spring girth and sad- 
dle tree. 

Littleberry Mosby, Powhatan Co. Raising water by suc- 
cessive pumps. 

Ryland Rhodes,* Albemarle Co. Plough. 

Simon C. Williams, Shenandoah Co. Bee hive. 

James Cooper, Augusta Co. Wheel to prevent chain from 
slipping, 
[and 1826. Machine to supersede the use of cogs.] 

John T. Sharrock, Winchester. Improvement in mf'g cotton. 

1824. Robert Crutchfield, Botetourt Co. Burning bricks. 
Peter Laporte, Richmond. Mail bags. 

[1828 of Augusta Co. Cloth for boots of stages.] 
Andrew Glendening, Loudoun Co. Apple cutter. 

Fly killer. 

" " " Washing machine. 

" " " Sausage machine. 

William Dabney, Richmond. Machine for raising water. 
The first McCormick plough (Stephen McCormick, of Fauquier 
County) was patented in 1826. In 1828 Moncure Robinson, of 
Richmond, was granted patent on his "method of transporting 
carriages on inclined planes." We come to modern times with 1830, 
in which year Robert McCormick, of Rockb ridge County (father 
of Cyrus McCormick) received patent on his flax and hemp ma- 
chine. Around 1830 Virginia patentees were in number about 
twenty-five a year. 

In this connection, it is well to note a letter on the "Manufac- 
tures of Richmond," written by Francis B. Deane, Jr., in 1845. 
(See Redwood Fisher's National Magazine and Industrial Record, 



156 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

New York, Dec., 1845, Vol. II, 631-633). Mr. Deane began his 
letter by comment on the unused opportunities at Richmond the 
coal fields and the water power there. He spoke of the cotton fac- 
tory established in 1826; of the Tredegar Iron Works [which he 
had been greatly instrumental in getting started about 1836] ; 
and of the Gallego and Haxall Mills, "the largest in the United 
States, and the best flour in the United States." That flour was 
then going almost exclusively to South America. Mr. Deane said 
to Redwood Fisher. "I cannot withhold my acknowledgments for 
so enlightened and patriotic effort [as yours] to teach the me- 
chanic and manufacturer properly to appreciate the important 
position they occupy, and how much of true national greatness is 
dependent upon their moral and intellectual culture. We of the 
South, who have ventured to become pioneers in manufacturing, 
require in an especial manner such support and teachings as are to 
be found in your work." 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY MR. MORAY, A MINISTER TO 

SR. R. MORAY/ FROM WARE DIVER IN MOCK- 

JACK BAY, VIRGINIA, FEB. 1, 1665. 2 

read Mar. 28. 66 
entd L. B. 1 241 

I am disappointed at this time of some rarities of stone, min- 
erals and mettals, whereof I writ to you before, and was promised 
by a gentleman of good esteem here, but you may have them any 
other time as conveniently. He is above 100 miles distant from 
me, up upon the freshes, at the falls of the mountains ; and there 
is but seldom occasion of meeting with him. But I shall not be 
wanting to take all occasions herein, to serve you. I writ to you 
before of those bals or irons, for heating liquors, for brewing or 
distilling in barrels, and desire, that according to that letter you 
would satisfy me therein, "[and buy 2 or 3 of them if they will be 
so far usefull as to save the charge of coppers, to distill or brew in] 
And I desire further, that you would procure me, the easiest and 
best receipt for making common white salt; and how they make 
bay salt at Rochel in France, for, salt is very dear here, and what 
else you can recommend to me for any thing worth improving 
here; I would willingly be at the Charges, to improve art and 
vertue. I have planted here already ten thousand mulberry trees, 
and hope, w^in 2 or 3 years to reap good silk of them. I have 
planted them in an extraordinary way, w ch advances them 2 or 3 
years growth, in respect of being sown in seed; and they are now, 
at writing hereof all holding good, in bud and herbs ; although this 
has been a very long and bitter winter with us, much longer and 
colder than ever I did find it in Scotland or England. I intend 
likewise to plant them all, as if they were currans or goosberries, so 
thick as in hedges, whereby one man may gather as many herbs, as 



Robert Moray or Murray, born about 1600, died 1673, was one 
of the founders of the Royal Society. He was the son of Sir Mungo 
Moray of Craigie in Perthshire. 

*Royal Society MSS. y M. I. 36a. Extract only in Transactions I, 
No. 12. 



158 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

otherwise planted "in trees at distance 4 persons may doe. For 
expedient is the benefit of this trade, and having discoursed of 
this new way to all here, they may inclinable to this way, consider- 
ing the planting their trees, as before, at distance, and let- 
ting them grow high, has been the only obstruction of that work 
hitherto, and the losse of their time and gain : For being in hedges 
they will be always young tender plants and herbs, and early be 
cut in a great quantity w th a pair of sissers : and yet I intend, at 
more leasure, a better way, w ch is to sow some Acres with mul- 
berry seed, and cut it with a sith, [and to keep it ever under]. 
I have bethought also of a new way, for a few hands to serve many 
worms, and that more cleanly, than before: w h also will be a 
means, w t hout more trouble or pains, to separate unwholesome 
worms from healthfull, and by w ch a great many more may be kept 
in a room, than otherways upon shelves as is usual here, and how 
to kill worms with expedition, w ch here is a great difficulty, they 
lying sometimes 3 or 4 daies in the sun, before they dye, and 
bring many inconveniencies upon those, who have endevored the 
work, but of those things, as my experience shall confirm me, I 
shall afterwards inform me more at large. I have sown a little 
French barley and rice seed, and have thought on a way of pre- 
paring them for the marchant, as they are to be, but if you inform 
me, how they are prepared, you may save me some labor, if you 
can procure me any coffee in husks, or any thing else of com- 
modities, from the Straits to try here, you will oblige me : its like 
that some of those marchants that are of yr Society, who keep a 
correspondency there, may help you hereto. By the latter ships, 
I intend to send you a new sort of sweet sented Tobacco, w ch yet 
I have not had time to have emproved, and having none to do any 
thing, but myself and another friend, whom I brought along with 
me to keep me Company, but afterwards I shall send it w th its 
propertie, and leave it to yr censure. 3 

S r * 

Your Last by M r fouls about 10 days agoe I received: which 

3ln the catalogue said to be a copy by Mr. Oldenburg. 
*Royal Society MSS., M. I. 37. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 159 

argued no less your mindfulness in writing to me, then your re- 
spect, in requiring my advise in such concerns, truly my obliga- 
tions to you, should have made me adventure any thing, for youi 
friends good : but I hope he is so much happier, by recomendation 
to others, upon whom he is now cast himself ; that he is altogether 
out of my way of serving him : being gon into another Eiver : and 
relying on great mens promises. I have ordered you a token of 
Tobaco by a former ship, and 4 letters: and by the Duke of York, 
whereof Cap : James is Commander, you may expect my wiffe and 
another token; she will sail hence about 5 weeks: had not this 
last year, been so fatal to me, and to all this Country, I should 
have been able to have acquitted my self, of part of those great 
ingagements but by .the great gust, and my familys passage, and 
the death of several of my family, and the death of my cattel, 
and now my wyfs return for England again: I have lost above 
twenty thousand weight of Tobaco, too much saving Gods pleasur, 
for a beginner : but I hope en a year or two : to recruit a litle. my 
wyfe, will acquaint you of my endevors; and what hopefulness of 
providing settlement, of my own: to let free, from being 
Chargeable to the Gospel, if I could once procure two or three men 
servants more. I have by Gods blessing a Considerable stok of 
Cattle left, about 20 head of Cattle and 3 mares, yong & old and 
30 hogs and 3 or 4 servants : and I am now upon seating som land 
of my own, with my servants, and provided above a 1000 fruit 
-[p. 2] trees to plant upon it and after I have setied it, 
I intend to return for England: which may be in the 
spring following this nixt spring: with a designe of recomend- 
ing, to our Country men a settlement and plantation to the South- 
ward of this : which may be the hopefullest busseness, yet hes been 
aimed at. as here after I shall have better occasion to acquaint 
you, and how farr I have with many of our Country men here, 
proceeded therein: and made discoveries for the same: being the 
hopefullest place in the world. I should think my self very happy 
in living in this Country : being so pleasant, so fertil & so plenti- 
ful a country: but that the emulations, and differences betwixt 
us and the English, not only givs discouragement but that when wee 
have occasion, we meet with many disapointments in justice, both 






160 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

for securing states [ ?] & persons & our peace : however we must 
take the bitt and the busket with i,t, and they tell us, we are like 
the jews, we thrive being crost: I hope our afflictions work for our 
good: for they make us spare, and ther prosperity make them 
spend so as generally the condin betwixt the English and us, 
is not fair different as to outward things, many of our Country 
men, living better then ever ther forfathers, and that from so 
mean a beginning as being sold slavs here, after hamUtons engage- 
ment and Worster fight are now herein great masters of many 
servants themselfs: my zeal for my Country; oversways all things 
else with me nixt the Gospel, and I hope ther is no true Country 
man will be wanting when occasion may serv for a good endevor 
micat ut sol inclyta virtus; he who is altogether self he is but as 
the beast, he is born a beast, he livs a beast, he dies a beast, and 
forgot as a beast: but the righteous and vertous shall be had in 
everlasting remembrance and he that will be discourag[ed * * * 
be] cause of difficulties is worse then the beast: which fears nothing 
to attain its designe. Difficilia quae pulchra, says the pro- 
verb. And wee must not expect by dalliance and daintes 
to attain them dulcia non meruit qui non gustavit amara: 
you have been venturing all your lyfe, but I think the greatest ven- 
ture is your Court venture: which so many fondly affect, and 
blindly, if they Considerd procul a jove procul a fulmine: ther is 
no quiet, lyk to the desart: qui bene latuit bene vigit: Could a 
publick good, consist with a hermetik condin, I should prefere it 
before all others, but the nixt to it which is the settling in a 
wilderness of milk and honey: non can know the sweetness of it: 
but he that tasts it: one ocular inspection, one aromatik smel of 
our woods: one hearing of the consert of our birds in those woods 
would affect more then a 1000 reported stories let" the authors be 
never so readible. I doubt I am tedious now for my former brevity. 
I recomended in my last unto you a gentleman Col Willes my pa- 
rishoner and friend : with whom being conversant you may satisfie 
yourself of those phylosophick speculations, and Quyries you re- 
comended to me, and for further satisfaction, I shall en- 
devour it at my return. Thus recomending my all, unto you as 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 161 

unto its own: for tho circulation in logick be had: yet in affec- 
tion and blood its as natural and good so I rest 

Y rs or not my own 

Alex r Moray 

from my house in Ware Riv. in 
Mockjack bay in Virginea Jun. 12 1665. 
My wyf desires to present her Service 
unto you until she attend on you herselfe 
[Addressed on the back] 

for 

S r Robert Moray 

$i the Earl of Lauderdales 

Lodgings in the ston Gallery 

in Whithall 

London 

these 



THE WILL OF JOSEPH POLLARD OF KING AND QUEEN 
COUNTY, VIRGINIA. 

By MARY POLLARD CLARKE. 

The will of Joseph Pollard (1701-91), the ancestor of three 
U. S. Senators, one Congressman, and an Attorney-General of 
Virginia, is here published for the first time. The will is re- 
markable for the number of distinguished names it contains. 

1. The son-in-law, named as one of the executors, was Judge 
Edmund Pendleton (1721-1803), member of the first Continental 
Congress, author of the resolutions of the Virginia Convention 
of May, 1776, proposing a declaration of independence, presi- 
dent of the Virginia Convention which ratified the Constitution 
of the U. S., and president of the first Supreme Court of the State. 
Jefferson said of him, "He was the ablest man in debate I have 
ever met with." (Jeifersonian Enc., p. 685.) With Jefferson 
and Wythe, he wrote the first Code of Virginia. His home "Ed- 
mundberry" in Caroline Co., was standing in 1906. His remains 
were removed from his family burying ground and placed under 
the aisle of Bruton Church, Williamsburg, about 1910. He left 
no issue. 

2. The other son-in-law mentioned as executor, Edmund Pen- 
dleton, "the younger," was a Colonel in the Revolutionary War. 
He lived at "White Plains" near Sparta, Caroline Co., Va. His 
home is still standing and is owned by Rev. Andrew Broadus. 

3. The grandson, John Taylor (1750-1824) mentioned in the 
will was Colonel in the Revolutionary Army, three times senator 
from Virginia. He offered the famous Virginia Resolutions of 
1798 against the Alien and Sedition laws. He was a prolific writer 
on political and agricultural topics. Among his books are "An 
Inquiry into the Principles and Policies of the Government of 
U. S."" (1814), and "New Views of the Constitution of the U. S." 
(1823) and "Arator," one of the first American books on Agri- 
culture. Jefferson said that his book, "Construction Construed/' 
was "the most logical retraction of government to the original 
and true principles of the Constitution creating them, which has 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 163 

appeared since the adoption of that instrument." (Jeffersonian 
Enc., p. 859.) John Taylor's home in Caroline Co., "Hazlewood," 
where he is buried, is still a fine estate and is owned by a son-in- 
law of William Jennings Bryan. 

Both the Col. Edmund Pendleton and John Taylor were edu- 
cated by their uncle, Judge Edmund Pendleton, at the College of 
William and Mary. 

4. The daughter, Francis Pollard Rogers, mentioned in the 
will was the wife of George Rogers (1721-1802) of Mt. Air, Caro- 
line Co. the uncle of George Rogers Clarke. From this daughter 
was descended Joseph Rogers Underwood (1791-1873) born in 
Goochland Co., Va., JJ. S. Senator from Kentucky, 1835-43, and 
also the present U. S. Senator Oscar W. Underwood, of Alabama, 
Democratic Leader. 

5. The son, William, mentioned iji the will was William Pol- 
lard, clerk of Hanover County, 1740-81. He was a friend and 
neighbor of Patrick Henry. His name is signed to the resolu- 
tions of the famous gathering of Hanover's citizens to take action 
concerning the formation of a Congress of the colonies to formu- 
late plans to resist British oppression. (See William Wirt's Life 
of Henry, p. 98.) His home, "Buck-eye," near Studley is still 
standing and is. owned by the family. 

6. The son, Thomas Pollard, mentioned in the will lived in 
Fairfax Co., Va., and was a friend and neighbor of George Wash- 
ington and served with him as vestryman in Pohick Church. (See 
History of Pohick Church.) He afterwards moved to Kentucky, 
and has many descendants in the West. 

7. The grandson, Joseph Pollard (son of William) men- 
tioned in the will was a soldier in the Revolutionary War and was 
at the surrender at Yorktown. He married Catherine Robinson, 
great-granddaughter of John Robinson, President of the Council, 
and acting Governor of Virginia 1749. From him were descended 
the late Col. John Pollard, of King and Queen Co., his sons, the 
late Dr. John Pollard, of Richmond College, and Henry Robinson 
Pollard, former City Attorney of Richmond, and John Garland 
Pollard, former Attorney-General of Virginia, and now professor 



164 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

of Constitutional History and Law at the College of William and 
Mary. 

Joseph Pollard, the maker of the will here published, was a 
son of Eobert Pollard, of King and Queen Co., Va., who received 
from the King a grant of land in St. Stephens Parish near Tucka- 
hoe swamp in said county. (See records in the office of the Regis- 
ter of Lands at Richmond.) Joseph Pollard lived in King and 
Queen County until 175 1 and then moved to Goochland County, 
where he became treasurer of the county. He married Prissilla 
Hoomes, of Caroline, who lived at "The Mansion," near Bowling 
Green. 

The writer, Mary Pollard Clarke, 1815 Hanover Ave. t Rich- 
mond, Va., is collecting data for publication and would be glad to 
receive information concerning the descendants of those men- 
tioned in the will. 

In the name of God amen I Joseph Pollard of Goochland 
County being in an advanced Age but by Divine favour of sound 
& disposing memory do make this my last Will and Testament 
for setting my temporal Affairs. Imprimis my eldest daughter 
Sarah Pendleton having received her due proportion of my estate 
is therefore omitted herein. 

Item. I give to the Children of my son Wiltiam Pollard deed, 
a negro Woman named Lucy & her children fc a boy Sawney now 
in the possession of the sd children, and a fifth part of my stocks 
of Cattle, Sheep & Hoggs in Goochland & a sixth part of my 
household furniture. 

Item. I give to my daughter Frances Rogers Four Negroes 
Brutus, Hannah, Patty & Chloe now in her Husband's possession 
with the children of the females born or to be born, also one fifth 
part of my Cattle, Sheep & Hoggs in the County of Goochland 
& a sixth part of my Household furniture. 

Item. I give to my son Thomas Pollard & his Heirs the Land 
whereon he lives in Fairfax County & all the stocks thereon, also 
three Negroes named Gilbert, Scopeo & Moll with her children 
now in his possession & a sixth part of my household furniture. 

Item. I give to my daughter Anne Taylor a large looking 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 165 

glass & a large Kettle which I purchased of her Husbands estate 
also one fifth part of my stocks in Goochland County & a sixth 
part of my household furniture: also I confirm to her daughter 
Elizabeth Johnson a negroe woman named Janey and her chil- 
dren to go according to the terms of her marriage settlement. 

Item. I give to my daughter Elizabeth Meriwether the use 
of young negro woman named Rachel & her increase during her 
natural life & at her death to be equally divided between her chil- 
dren. I also give her one fifth part of my said stocks in Gooch- 
land and a sixth part of my Household furniture. 

Item. My daughter Jane Dandridge having received her due 
proportion of my estate is therefore omitted herein. 

Item. I give tonny daughter Mille Pendleton, my Negroes 
Flora & her children born or to be born & Emos now in her Hus- 
bands possession, also one fifth part of said stocks in Goochland 
and a sixth part of my Household furniture. 

Item. It is my meaning that none of the bequests of stocks 
in Goochland or of Household furniture shall take effect until 
the death of my wife who shall have the use thereof during her 
life. 

Item. All the rest of my Estate I give to my wife during her 
natural Life and after her death I give a Young Negroe or Forty 
pounds Specie (at the current value of Gold or Silver) to each 
of my Grandsons Joseph Pollard (son of William) Joseph Pol- 
lard (son of Thomas) John Rogers, John Taylor, Thomas Meri- 
wether & John Pendleton and the remainder of my estate or resi- 
due after my just debts being paid I give at the death of my wife 
to be equally divided between my son Thomas Pollard and the 
children of William Pollard, deed. 

Item. If any Child should die before me the legacies herein 
devised to such child shall not lapse but go to the representatives 
of him or her according to the Statute of distributions, except 
where it is otherwise limited. 

Item. The looking glass & kettle to m^ daughter Anne Tay- 
lor are to be taken out before a General division of my Household 
furniture. 

Lastly I do appoint my sd wife PricUla Pollard, my son Thomas 



166 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Pollard, and my sons in law Edmund Pendleton & Edmund Pen- 
dleton the Younger Executors of this my will who I desire may 
not be compelled to give security and that my estate may not be 
appreaised. 

Witness my hand and seal this Twenty Third day of November 
one thousand seven hundred and Ninety one. 

Joseph Pollard seal 

Sealed and Published before us who subscribed the same in the 
Testators and at his request. Jno Shelton, Joseph Shelton, Jos. 
M. Payne. 

Recorded in the Clerks Office of Goochland Co Va Deed & 
Will book #6 p. 56 



MCCARTHY FAMILY. 

(Continued.) 
By ARTHUR LESLIE KEITH. 

Dennis Thaddeus (in later years the Thaddeus was dropped) 
McCarty, born 1808, died 1868, married and left the following 
issue. Richard McCarty living in 1908 near Delaplane, Vir- 
gina, with five sons and one daughter. Billington McCarty died 
single during the civil war. Robert McCarty living in 1908 near 
Delaplane, Virginia, with five sons and one daughter. Dennis 
McCarty living in 19Q8 near Delaplane, Virginia, with six sons 
and two daughters. Daughter married Whitacre and had two 
daughters. Daughter married Curlette (?) and had no issue. 
Betty McCarty living single near Delaplane, Virginia, a few years 
ago. 

We return now to William R. McCarty, second son of Thad- 
deus and Sarah Richardson McCarty. We do not know whom 
he married but the following must certainly be his children 
though no known contemporary record proves it. Sarah Kichard- 
son McCarty (said to have been named for her grandmother), 
born about 1805, married Benjamin H. Karsner about 1824 and 
moved to Florence, Alabama. Daughter (Nancy?) married Mon- 
roe. Daughter Fanny McCarty married Valandingham. Burr 
Harrison McCarty, born June 10, 1810, in Loudoun County, 
Virginia, in 1888 living at Jefferson City, Missouri. Benjamin H. 
Karsner and wife Sarah Richardson McCarty had sons George 
Washington Karsner, born 1828, living in 1908 at Florence, Ala- 
bama, with daughter who had married T. B. Ingram; and Rob- 
ert Karsner. Burr Harrison McCarty had the following children 
living in 1888. William Gilmore ( ?) McCarty, Charles Fenton 
McCarty, Arthur Lee McCarty, John D. McCarty, Mary McCarty, 
Ella McCarty, and Sarah Karsner McCarty, all of whom except- 
ing John D. lived in 1888 at Jefferson City, Missouri. 

We take up next George Washington McCarty, third son of 
Thaddeus and Sarah Richardson McCarty. He married Winifred 



168 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Beatty, sister of his brother Dennis' wife. They had the following 
children. Maria French McCarty, born about 1800, died about 
1864. William Thaddeus McCarty, born about 1807, see below. 
Stephen Washington McCarty, born about 1808 (married Eliza- 
beth Francis and had two sons, James William who died in Eagle- 
lake, Texas, about 1904, leaving four sons, and Enoch who was 
killed at the first battle of Manassas). George Billington McCarty, 
born about 1812, died single. Armistead Thompson Mason Mc- 
Carty, born about 1815, died sirigle in Texas. Winifred Hall Mc 
Carty, married Dr. Cullen and moved to Mississippi. Sarah Bich- 
ardson McCarty, born about 1818, died about 1850. 

William Thaddeus McCarty, born about 1807, son of George 
Washington and Winifred Beatty McCarty, married a Miss Fox, 
daughter of Charles Fox of Prince William Couatv, Virginia. 
They had William Thaddeus McCarty, an attorney living a few 
years ago at Emporia, Kansas, and Emily Mason McCarty, un- 
married and living at Emporia, Kansas. William Thaddeus Mc- 
Carty of Emporia had at least one son, named Keith McCarty. 

Sarah Elizabeth McCarty, daughter of Thaddeus and Sarah 
Bichardson McCarty, has the distinction of being called by Gen- 
eral George Washington his "red-haired pet/' and we do not 
learn that any offense was taken at this designation. She married 
a man named Eussell and had at least one child named Nancy 
Eussell, and probably others. Nothing seems to be known definitely 
of Mary McCarty, the other daughter of Thaddeus and Sarah 
Eichardson McCarty. 

This ends the account of the sons of Maj. Dennis McCarty 
who married Sarah Ball and died in 1743. We now take up his 
two daughters Sarah and Ann. Sarah McCarty married George 
Johnston and they are mentioned in the will of her brother Dennis 
McCarty in 1757. George Johnston died in 1766 in Fairfax County, 
Virginia. Nothing further is known of her family. Ann Mc- 
Carty married William Eamsay who was born in Scotland in 1716 
and settled in Alexandria in 1744. They had sons Dr. William 
Bamsay (surgeon in the American army in the Ee volution) and 
Dennis Bamsay who was mayor of Alexandria in 1793. The follow- 
ing heirs of Dr. William Eamsay, surgeon in the Eevolutionary 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 169 

army, request bounty land due to him, on Jan. 23, 1836: Eliza 
Blacklock, Robert T. Ramsay, Anne McCarty Blacklock, Jane 
A. Ramsay, George W. D. Ramsay, of Alexandria ; Amelia Barry 
of Baltimore; Daniel Porter, Sarah R. Porter, Betsy Porter, and 
Sally Cawood of Washington; and Ann Allison and John Allison 
of Frederick, Maryland. 

William Ramsay bought land in Fairfax County, Virginia, be- 
tween 1755 and 1761 of Thomas Bozeley. For a supposed Mc- 
Carty and Bozeley connection, see below. 

We now return to Westmoreland County, Virginia, to take up 
Daniel McCarty, the second son of Captain Daniel who died in 
1724. Capt. Daniel McCarty left all his lands in Westmoreland 
County to his son Daniel and apparently this Daniel is the only 
one of the name remaining in this county. He represented West- 
moreland County in the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1736, 
1738, 1740, 1742, and in 1744 his place was taken by George Lee, 
Daniel McCarty having died. He appears in many deeds in West- 
moreland and adjacent counties. In 1732 he was appointed as one 
of the executors of the will of Humphrey Pope (the testator calls 
him cousin Daniel McCarty). In 1735 Daniel McCarty, Gent., 
of King George County, Virginia, sold to Philip Burgess (?). 
Also he sold to Samuel Preston in 1736 land devised to him by 
his father Daniel McCarty. No wife signs these deeds. 

The Daniel McCarty of King George County and the Daniel 
McCarty of Westmoreland County were undoubtedly the same 
man. Daniel McCarty, Gent, sued Samuel Oldham, one of 
the inspectors at Yeomico on Oct. 18, 1737. On Nov. 
7, 1738, Daniel McCarty, Gent., was restored to his former 
place as Commissioner of the Peace for Westmoreland County. 
On Mch. 29, 1744, he was appointed with Philip Aylett as execu- 
tor of the will of William Aylett of Westmoreland County. On 
Sept. 26, 1739, he was appointed executor of the will of Mar- 
garet Jett. Daniel McCarty married 1. Penelope Higgins, daugh- 
ter of Christine Higgins, and she died Mch. 2'6, 1732, in the 19th 
year of her age. His will cited below, shows that he married 
again but the name of his second wife is unknown. Furthermore 
it is not known whether his only child, a son named Daniel, was 



170 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

the child of his first or second wife. The terms of the will seem to 
imply that his first wife was the mother of his child. Daniel 
McCarty of Westmoreland County, Gent., made will May 16, 
1744, proved June 26, 1744. It was witnessed by Anthony Thorn- 
ton, Francis Thornton, and James Carter. He gives his wife 
(name not given) the use of all Ms estate until son Daniel is 21 
years of age, who is then to inherit the whole estate excepting his 
dwelling-house and 15 slaves which at her death are to go to son 
Daniel. He provides that in the event of his son Daniel dying 
without issue that all his estate is to be divided among the heirs 
of his brothers Dennis and Billington McCarty. He appoints 
Col. Presley Thornton, Mr. Joseph Morton, Mr. Augustine Wash- 
ington, and Mr. Lawrence Butler, Gents., as executors. By codicil 
he provides for possible unborn child. 

Capt. Daniel McCarty as therefore the only son of the Daniel 
McCarty who died in 1744. On Dec. 6, 1769, he wrote a letter to 
George Washington, which is included in the latter's published cor- 
respondence. In this letter he refers to land devised by his grand- 
father's will lying in Fairfax County (but at the making of the 
will lying in Stafford County). He sends Washington a copy 
of his grandfather's will (clearly that of Capt. Daniel McCarty 
who died in 1724). He refers in the letter to deeds made by him- 
self and wife to Mr. Chichester and also a deed made by Mr. 
Chichester and wife to himself. He mentions 6000 acres owned 
by him in Loudoun County. Eefers to his wife's father's will a 
copy of which he could not send Washington because it was filed 
in Lancaster County. This Daniel is called Capt. Daniel McCarty 
of Pope's Creek, and later Col. Daniel McCarty. He married in 
St. Paul's Parish in Stafford County, now King George County on 
Jan. 15, 1765 to Winifred Thornton, daughter of Francis and 
Sarah Firtzhugh Thornton. Possibly he is identical with the 
Daniel McCarty who in about the same place on Apr. 3, 1764, 
married Mary Mercer ( ?), or Monroe ( ?), or Muse ( ?). But the 
two marriages seem to have been rather close together if they be- 
long to the same Daniel. If they were not the same Daniel we have 
no idea who the other Daniel was. Daniel McCarty of Pope's 
Creek, Westmoreland County, on Jan. 10, 1788, gave consent for 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 171 

the marriage of his daughter Eliza McCarty to Burwell Bassett. 
On Jan. 5, 1789, he is named as executor of Ann Carter in West- 
moreland County. Daniel McCarty of Washington Parish, West- 
moreland County, Virginia, made will Apr. 17, 1793, probated 
Sept. 28, 1795. He leaves to son Daniel McCarty land that he 
bought of John Thornton, on Nomony Creek. He also makes 
bequest to daughter Elizabeth Bassett. 

Daniel McCarty, only son of the Daniel who died in 1795., 

married Margaret . He made will in Westmoreland County 

on Apr. 27, 1800, probated June 22, 1801, in which he mentions 
wife Margaret. In same county on July 27, 1802, Margaret Mc- 
Carty was married to Richard Stuart. She was probably the 
widow of the last named Daniel. Elizabeth McCarty Bassett died 
without issue so the line of Daniel McCarty, son of the Capt. 
Daniel McCarty who died in 1724 terminates here. From 1731 
down to 1817 no other McCarty aside from this line of Daniels 
appears in Westmoreland County, but on Mch. 24, 1817, license 
to marry is granted to Henry Lee and Ann R. McCarty. The as- 
sociation of the names Lee and McCarty seems significant but we 
have no clue as to this Ann R. McCarty. She may have been a 
descendant of Billington McCarty who lived in an adjoining 
county. 

We now take up Billington McCarty, third son of Daniel Mc- 
Carty, who died in 1724 in Westmoreland County. We have al- 
ready seen that by the terms of his father's will he received land 
in Farnham Parish, Richmond County, and in Northumberland 
County, Virginia. About 1740 Billington McCarty and wife 
Ann sold land in Northumberland County to James Blackerby and 
to George Hunt. This is probably the land heired to him by Capt. 
Daniel of 1724. The following records from Farnham Parish, 
Richmond County, undoubtedly refer to this Billington McCarty. 
Billington McCarty and Ann Barber were married June 16, 1732. 
Daniel, son of Billington and Ann McCarty, was born Oct. 22, 
1733 and died Aug. 6, 1739. Billington McCarty, son of Billing- 
ton and Ann McCarty, was born Oct. 3, 1736. Thaddeus, son of 
Billington and Ann McCarty, was born Apr. 1, 1739. Charles 



172 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Barber, son of Billington and Ann McCarty, was born Aug. 23, 
1741. Ann McCarty died Jan. 7, 1753. 

Ann Barber who married Billington McCarty was the daughter 
of Charles and Frances Glasscock Barber and was born Aug. 16, 
1709. Frances Glasscock was the daughter of Thomas and Ann 
Nichols Glasscock and was born July 14, 1680. Thomas Glass- 
cock was the son of another Thomas Glasscock who appears in 
Lancaster County, Virginia, in 1652. Ann Nichols, wife of 
Thomas Glasscock, Jr., was the daughter of George Nicholls who 
died in Richmond County, Virginia, in 1677. Such was the an- 
cestry of Ann Barber who married Billington McCarty and she is 
apparently the Ann McCarty who died in 1753, see above. The 
civil records pertaining to Billington McCarty have not been 
searched diligently. However there are two wills under the name 
Billington McCarty recorded at Warsaw, Richmond County, Vir- 
ginia, one dated July 1, 1745, and the other Mch. 1771. Hayden 
seems to have known only of the latter one and he erroneously takes 
him for the son of the Daniel who died in 1724. I believe that 
Billington McCarty, son of the Daniel of 172'4 is identical with 
the one of the will dated 1745. The testator of the 1745 will names 
son Billington, Jr., and others. As Daniel, the oldest son of 
Billington and Ann Barber McCarty, had died in 1739, the testa- 
tor is naming his oldest surviving son, namely, Billington, born 
1736, and the others are unnamed. The Billington McCarty of 
the 1771 will I make to be the son of the Billington who died in 
1745 and therefore only 36 years at his death. Neither Billington 
lived past middle age. Incidentally, we may observe that almost 
all the earlier generations of McCartys died comparatively young. 
The emigrant Dennis, his son Daniel, and the latter's four sons 
as well as some of the next generation seem to have died at the 
age of 45 or younger. Billington McCarty of the 1771 will, mar- 
ried Elizabeth Downman Oct., 1756, and some of their children 
appear in the Farnham Parish records. They are as follows. 
Daniel, son of Bullington (sic) and Ann McCarty, was born Aug. 
24, 1757. I think this Ann must be an error for Elizabeth or 
else this Billington was married twice in quick succession for his 
wife in 1759 was Eliza (Elizabeth). Bullington, son of Bulling- 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 173 

ton and Eliza McCarty, was born Mch. 18, 1759. Thaddeus, son 
of Bullington and Eliza McCarty, was born Sept. 1, 1763. Eliza- 
beth Downman, daughter of Billington and Elizabeth McCarty, 
was born Nov. 30, 1768. Now these children correspond well with 
the heirs of Billington McCarty as given in the will of 1771. The 
few differences may be accounted for by deaths and unrecorded 
births. In this will the testator mentions children Nancy Mc- 
Carty, Daniel McCarty, William Thadias McCarty, Dennis Mc- 
Carty, and Elizabeth Downman McCarty. Hayden calls this Bill- 
ington, Senior. If he found that in the record the question arises, 
Who was the Junior? He had a son Billington as shown by the 
parish records but he is not mentioned in the will, having appar- 
ently predeceased his father. The clerk who reported the will to 
the present writer makes no mention of Sr. in connection with 
the testator of 1771. Perhaps Hayden has erred here as he cer- 
tainly did in representing that this Billington was the son of 
Daniel who died in 1724. Billington, the son of Daniel of 1724, 
must have been born in 1709 or earlier. He did not likely begin 
to rear his family when he was almost 50 years old. 

We take up now Dennis McCarty, son of Billington and Eliza- 
beth Downman McCarty. For his line we are indebted almost 
wholly to an account appearing in The Baltimore Sun, Apr. 
16, 1905. The part relating to the line of this Dennis appears 
to be correct though other portions are not free from errors. This 
Dennis McCarty (according to this account) married Elizabeth 
Woodbridge Yerby, daughter of Col. Beverly Yerby. They had 
three children, as follows. 1. William Downman McCarty. 2. 
Albert McCarty, who married Lucy Peyton. 3. George McCarty, 
who married Brannan. 

William Downman McCarty, son of Dennis and Elizabeth 
Yerby McCarthy, married Frances Ravenscroft Ball, great-grand- 
daughter of Joseph Ball of Epping Forest, George Washington's 
grandfather. They had two sons and four daughters, as follows. 
Capt. James Ball McCarty. Ovid Downman McCarty. Cordelia 
Ball McCarty. Juliet McCarty. Virginia McCarty. Lavinia Mc- 
Carty. Capt. James Ball McCarty married Lavinia Carter of Lan- 
caster County, Virginia, and they had six children. Grid Down- 



174 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

man McCarty married Martha Hill and they had two children. 
Cordelia Ball McCarty married 1. Bartholomew Carter Chinn and 
had three children, and 2. Oscar Yerby and had one child. Juliet 
McCarty married Barton Ball of Lancaster County, Virginia. 
Virginia McCarty married William Beale McCarty of Woodford, 
Virginia, and had two children. Lavinia McCarty married Litel- 
ton Downman Mitchel of Lancaster County, Virginia, and had 
seven children. 

Col. William McCarty of Eichmond County, Virginia, Speaker 
of the House of Representatives in 1799, was probably identical 
with Wil'liam Thaddeus mentioned in the will of Billington, 1771. 

We now return to the Thaddeus McCarty, son of Billington and 
Ann Barber McCarty. He was born Apr. 1, 1739. It was this 
Thaddeus and not the son of Maj. Dennis of Fairfax County, who 
in Lancaster County, Virginia, married Ann Chinn on May 19, 
1758, William Glasscock being the security. On Oct. 8, 1773, 
Thaddeus McCarty, Senr., and wife Ann sold to Joseph Sherman 
200 acres in Loudoun County, Virginia, which the said Ann had 
inherited from her deceased father Eawleigh Chinn. They are 
undoubtedly the Thaddeus and Ann of Lancaster County. The 
Senr. attached to the name of Thaddeus occasions some difficulty. 
Who was the Junior? If he was thus styled in order to distin- 
guish him from the Thaddeus, son of Maj. Dennis, the latter must 
have been born after Apr. 1, 1739, and before Dec. 16, 1740, the 
date on which land is patented in his name. There is nothing in- 
herently improbable in this. The father may have taken this 
way to provide for a younger son. Or else Thaddeus of the deed 
1773 was called Senr. in order to distinguish him from Thaddeus, 
son of Billington and Eliza Downman McCarty, who as we have 
already seen was born Sept. 1, 1763. Thaddeus McCarty (who 
married Ann Chinn) was from 1778 to 1787 the clerk of Lan- 
caster County, Virginia. James Ball was security to his bond on 
July 28, 1786. He seems to have died about 1787. He had at 
least one daughter, named Mary Chinn McCarty, who married 
John Matthews of Westmoreland County, Virginia, and they had 
two sons, namely, John Ryburn Matthews and Baldwin Smith 
Matthews, both of whom were still living in 1821. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 175 

We return now to Charles Barber McCarty, son of Billington 
and Ann Barber McCarty. He was born Aug. 23, 1741. The 
Farnham parish records show that Charles and Winny McCarty 
had daughter Fanny, born Aug. 3, 1763, and daughter Winny, 
born Sept. 4, 1775. In 1775 in Richmond County, Virginia, 
Charles McCarty was security to a marriage between Eawleigh 
Chinn and "Fanny Tarpley. Charles McCarty of Richmond County, 
Virginia, made will Nov. 11, 1784, probated Apr. 4, 1788. He 
was undoubtedly the son of Billington and Ann Barber McCarty. 
In this will he mentions sons Bartholomew and Charles Travers 
who are to be continued with their two uncles; daughters Fanny, 
Winny, and Betty; and also sons Tarpley, Presley, and John. 

Before leaving tliis part of the state we mention several other 
records which seem to refer to this branch of the family. James 
Edmonson and Ann McCarty married in Richmond County Apr. 
19, 1775. She is probably identical with Ann McCarthy who in 
Fauquier County, Virginia on Oct. 20, 1785 (license) married 
Epaphroditus Hubbard. Katharine Chinn, born June 7, 1686, is 
said to have married a McCarty. William Glasscock and Billing- 
ton McCarty in Lancaster County in 1750 witnessed marriage of 
Francis Christian and Katharine Chinn. This Billington may 
have been the one born 1736 though he would be rather young to act 
as witness. Robert Baylis and Ellin McCarty were married in 
Richmond County in Nov., 1711. 

In the preceding pages we have followed the history of the 
McCarty family so far as it has been definitely traced. There 
probably are certain un traced (as yet) branches of this same family 
tree. As noted at the beginning of this article, Meade, a very 
reliable Virginian historian, believes that the McCarty family in 
Virginia begins with two brothers, one of whom married Eliza- 
beth Billington and whose line has been traced in these pages, and 
the other, namely, Daniel, of whose family Meade seems to know 
nothing. There are other McCartys in the Virginia records which 
seem to connect with the known line, yet proof of such connection 
is lacking. I shall now proceed to give some of these McCartys, 
but the reader must keep in mind the general caution that as yet 
no certain connection has been established. 



176 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Overwharton Parish in Stafford County, Virginia was the home 
of some of these McCartys. We have already seen that certain 
of the line traced above had Stafford connections. The McCarty 
records from this parish follow. 

John McCarty, son of William and Agnes, was born Mch. 27, 
1741. 

James McCarty, son of John, was born Apr. 1, 1741. 

William McCarty died Sept. 15, 1743. 

Agnes McCartee (probably widow of the preceding William) 
and James Hughs were married May 6, 1744. 

Agnes Hughs died Mch. 4, 1747. 

Elizabeth McCarthy married Simson Bailey Dec. 24, 1747. 

Eleanor McCarty married John Summon Apr. 10, 1748. 

Honora Carty (sic) married John Adams Sept. 2'3, 1750. 

Thomas Cartee (sic) died at Stephen Pilcher's, June 18, 1751. 

Cornelius McCarty (I think Cornelius must be right though 
the published records give it as Ignatius McCarty; there was cer- 
tainly a Cornelius McCarty, who died about this time in Stafford 
County) died Feb. 18, 1755. 

Frances McCarty (apparently widow of the preceding Cor- 
nelius) married John Diskin, June 19, 1755. 

Margaret McCarty and Stephen Hansford were married Oct. 
14, 1755. 

In the January and July, 1914, numbers of The William and 
Mary Quarterly, the present writer published an account of a 
McCarty family beginning with two brothers and two sisters. They 
were named Thomas, Cornelius, Nancy (the writer's great-great- 
grandmother), and Betty (Elizabeth) McCarty. Thomas Mc- 
Carty married Elizabeth Dec. 5, 1777, and reared a family 

of two sons and ten daughters. He moved to Kentucky about 
1797 finally settling in present Meade County, Kentucky, where 
he died Feb. 23, 1828. Cornelius McCarty, born about 1766, mar- 
ried in Fauquier County, Virginia, Dec. 12, 1787 (license) to 
Sukey Hardwick. They reared a family of eleven children. He 
moved to Kentucky about 1797 finally settling in present Meade 
County, Kentucky, where his will was probated Feb. 28, 1831. 
Nancy McCarty, sister of Thomas and Cornelius, married about 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 177 

1780 to James Crook. James Crook appears in the Virginia cen- 
sus for 1785 as a neighbor of James McCarty, probably his father- 
in-law. James and Nancy McCarty Crook had three children. 
In 1789 he was living in Loudoun County, Virginia. Probably 
James Crook died soon after as his children were reared in the 
family of their uncle Thomas McCarty and accompanied him to 
Kentucky. An unconfirmed tradition states that Nancy McCarty 
Crook married again, to a man named Samuel Adams. This, 
however, should be received with caution. Betty McCarty, sister 
of Thomas, Cornelius, and Nancy, was born Apr. 20, 1771, died in 
Fayette County, Kentucky, Mch. 1, 1807. She married Mch. 
19, 1789, to Capt. Jacob McConathy near Wellington, Prince Wil- 
liam County, Virginia, and bore him five children. The subse- 
quent generations of Thomas, Cornelius, Nancy, and Betty will 
not be traced here, as they have already been published in the 
article referred to above. 

These McCartys seem to have lived in the four adjoining 
counties of Fairfax, Prince William, Fauquier, and Loudoun. 
Their father was almost certainly James McCarty who appearg in 
the census of Fairfax County, Virginia, in 1782 at the head of a 
family of five (a neighbor of Thomas McCarty) and in 1785 at the 
head of a family of six (a neighbor of James Crook. The mother 
of Thomas, Cornelius, Nancy, and Betty McCarty (and the w^fe 
of James McCarty?) was Nancy who died in the home of her son 
Thomas McCarty in Kentucky on April 18, 1813. Thomas Mc- 
Carty had a granddaughter named Mary Rose McCarty, born 
Apr. 9, 1805, who was much interested in family history. In her 
Bible is the following inscription in her own handwriting : "Nancy 
Boseley from Scotland, Elizabeth Nevitt from England. These 
were my Great-Great-Grandmothers." This would indicate a 
Bozeley connection one generation farther back than the Nancy 
McCarty, who died Apr. 18, 1813, in the home of her son Thomas 
McCarty, yet she might have been in error on the particular gen- 
eration and the Nancy Bozeley may be identical with the Nancy 
McCarty who died in 1813. One of Cornelius McCarty's grand- 
daughters informed the writer about 12 years ago that she be- 
lieved that Cornelius' mother was a Bozeley. Certain it is that one 
of Cornelius' grandsons was named Thomas Bozeley McCarty, and 



178 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

the Bozeley was supposed to be a family name. We must however 
note that there is also some good reason for believing that Cor- 
nelius' (and also of his brother Thomas and his sisters Nancy and 
Betty) mother was named Orear or Orare. 

From here we pass to one Cornelius McCarthy who first ap- 
pears in 1749. Because of the region in which he lived it seems 
that he must have been a relative of the Cornelius McCarty who in 
1787 married Sukey Hard wick. Cornelius McCarthy in Prince 
William County, Virginia, with wife Frances on Aug. 18, 1749, 
bought 200 acres on the Potomac River from Bertrand Ewell. 
This land was bounded by a survey which the said Cornelius Mc- 
Carthy had made when he was a resident of Sandy Point, Vir- 
ginia. The deed was witnessed by John T. ( ?) Bryan, Rich'd 
Crupper, Th. S. ( ?) Walsh. Sandy Point is in Northumberland 
County, Virginia, which county has associations with the line of 
Dennis-Daniel-Billington McCarty. 

Cornelius McCarty of the Parish of Dettingen, Prince William 
County, Virginia, planter, made will May 21, 1754, probated Apr. 
8, 1755, in Stafford County, Virginia. He mentions no children; 
appoints wife Frances heir and executor. The will was witnessed 
by Henry Lee, William Naylor, and William Walker. Frances 
McCarty who in the following June in the same parish married 
John Diskin is probably his widow. 

It seems very probable that James McCarty of Fairfax County, 
Virginia, in 1782 and 1785 and the Cornelius McCarty who had 
wife Frances in 1749 and died in 1755 were brothers. The refer- 
ence to Sandy Point may indicate a Northumberland County origin. 
Further than this we can not go at present. 

What connection had these McCartys with the Daniel McCarty 
of Westmoreland County, Virginia, who died in 1724? This ques- 
tion can not now be answered, but we may note a few associations! 
that suggest strongly that there was some connection. 1. Sand} 
Point from which Cornelius McCarthy hailed was the home of 
Col. George Eskridge, who was a close friend of Capt. Daniel Mc- 
Carty, Westmoreland County, 1724. 2. Henry Lee, a witness to 
the will of Cornelius McCarty, 1755 was a friend and kinsman 
(by marriage) of the same Daniel and is mentioned by him in 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 179 

his will. 3. Sukey Hardwick who in Fauquier County, Virginia, 
in 1787, married Cornelius McCarty, descended from the Hard- 
wick family of Westmoreland County, and Bertrand Ewell who 
sold to the other Cornelius McCarthy, was closely related to this 
same Hardwick family. 4. This same Hardwick was early con- 
nected with the family of Col. Nathaniel Pope, and Daniel Mc- 
Carty, who died in 1724, married a daughter of Col. Humphrey 
Pope (it must be admitted however that the connection between 
these two Popes is not yet proven). 5. The mother of Sukey 
Hardwick who married Cornelius McCarty in 1787, was one Mar- 
garet Glasscock. She was undoubtedly of the same Glasscock 
family referred to several times in the preceding pages as con- 
nected with and associated with the other McCarty family. We 
have seen that the mother of Ann Barber who married Billington 
McCarty was one Frances Glasscock Barber, daughter of Thomas 
Glasscock. Maj. Dennis McCarty of Fairfax County, Virginia, 
had a connection by marriage with the Glasscock family. 6. 
Thomas Bozeley in Fairfax County, Virginia, between 1755 and 
1761 (name in index but volume to which index refers has been 
lost) sold to William Bamsay. We have just noted the connection 
between the Bozeley family and the family of McCartys repre- 
sented by Thomas, Cornelius, Nancy and Betty. The William 
Ramsay of this deed married Ann McCarty, daughter of Maj. 
Dennis McCarty of Fairfax County, representing the other line 
of McCartys. This does not exhaust the list of associations which 
seem to represent something more than a mere coincidence, but as 
stated above, the actual proof of any connection has not yet been 
discovered. 



WEIGHT FAMILY. 
By MAGGIE MCMANAWAY, Stewartsville, Va. 

Thomas Wright died in Bedford County in 1763. He made a 
will dated 15th Dec. 1762; it was proved and probated 22nd Nov. 
1763. In it he mentions his wife Mary Wright, daughters Eliza- 
beth Wright, May Wright, Abigale Wright, Sarah Wright, Dorcas 
Wright, Catharine Wright, son John Wright, and son Joseph. 
Wright. 

His wife Mary Wright and John Board were nominated as 
executors of his will. 

John Wright died in Bedford County in 1803. Mentions in 
his will his wife, Elizabeth Wright, and children, viz., 

Tommy Wright married Cynthia Mayse. 

Sarah Wright married William Wheeler. 

Anthony Wright married Betsy Mayse. 

Nancy Wright married James Asbury. 

Betsey Wright married Thomas Hambleton. 

Polly Wright, married Benjamin Watts. 

Ehoda Wright, married Wm. S. Wright. 

John Wright. 

Joseph Wright married Sally Edgar. 

Ruth Wright married Wm. McGeorge. 

My mother knew Tommy Wright and his wife, Anthony Wright 
and his wife and Nancy Wright Asbury. All of these were old 
persons in her youth. And she knew they were related to her but 
she did not know the relationship. 

Another John Wright died in 1810, will probated in the 
county of Bedford 25th June 1810. He mentions in will his wift 
Mary Wright and children: 

Jane Hunter, wife of Francis Hunter; son Francis Wright; 
daughter Susanna Bateman, wife of Benjamin Bateman ; daughter 
Decia Clayton, wife of Thomas T. Clayton; grandchildren, John 
Lewis Clayton, Betsy Lewis Clayton, children of Thomas L. Clay- 
ton and Betsy his wife; daughter Orrey Wright, wife of 

Bateman; daughter Polly Waugh, wife of A. Waugh; daughter 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 181 

Sally Wright; daughter Kitty Wright; son Thomas Wright; and 
son John Wright. 

John Wright died in Bedford county in 1814. He made a will 
dated 28th Dec. 1814, probated 26th Sept. 1814. He left a wife, 
name not given in will, and children to Wilson Benjamin Wright, 
son Joseph Wright; grandchildren Mary Watts, Benjamin Watts, 
and John Watts, children of Wm. Watts, and Ann his wife; son 
John Wright ; son Thomas Wright; daughter Mary Watts, wife 
of Benjamin Watts; daughter Elizabeth Wright and son Wil- 
liam Wright. The witnesses to his will were Wm. I. Walker, John 
Hopkins, and Price Hopkins. Benjamin Wright was nominated 
executor of will. 

David Wright was* appointed deputy sheriff of Bedford County, 
Oct. 26th 1778. 

In the marriage licenses of Bedford county there is a record of 
the marriage of David Wright, Jr., to Sarah Talbot, daughter of 
Isham Talbot 28th Sept. 1782, Jas. Steptoe, Secretary. 

In the Virginia Colonial Militia: Wm. Armstrong Crozier, 
Land Bounty Certificate, page 51. 

John Wright soldier under Colonel Byrd, 1758, and was then 
discharged. Bedford County Records, March 1780. 

One John Wright, received a deed from George Walton in 
1760. Bedford County Records. 

Now about the Wright Brothers, inventors of the airship. 
Several years since in the lifetime of my mother, an article ap- 
peared in a magazine in which it was stated that Winfield Wright 
and his wife Angelina Elizabeth Wright were ancestors of Wilbur 
and Orvi.lle Wright. My mother at once said that she in her youth- 
ful days knew this couple and knew that Winfield Wright was 
related to her, but did not know the relationship. 

The county records give the marriage of Winfield Wright to 
Angelina Elizabeth Evans, daughter of Anthony Evans, 8th of 
April, 1791. 

From the Land Office Richmond, Virginia, I learn that the 
first Wright patent of Record in that office was issued to Robert 
Wright for 12 acres situate and being in the Eastward of James 
City, Sept. 1, 1627. There was a patent to Thomas Wright for 
150 acres of land July 19th, 1635. Land Office Records. 



182 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

In Lunenburg County, Va., in 1760, there is a deed to John 
Wright from James Mayse, Lunenburg Court Records, 1790. 
Lunenburg County Deed, Joseph Wright from Tom Jarvis. 

Other Wrights are mentioned in the early records of Lunen- 
burg County. 

From the Land Office, Richmond, I learn that William Wright 
received a grant of land in Bedford county, Virginia, 200 acres, 
Sep. 1, 1780. 

I have given you a full account of the Wrights as I have 
learned of them in Bedford county. In talking with one of the 
old time colored men whose wife belonged to my family, he told 
me that some of the large bodies of land which belonged to some 
of the descendants of John Wright who died in 1803 was always 
known as "Kentucky Land." He said he understood Wrights 
were the first settlers on this land. Some of the land is still in 
the family. 



SOME STAFFORD RECORDS. 

From the First Order Book of Stafford County, p. 276. 

" . . . All the Justices and officers both Civil and Military 
being . . . Sumoned . . . met at the Courthouse of 
[STAFFORD] County on the 8th day of June Anno 
Dom 1692 being . . . Capt Malachy Peale Mr, Edw d 
Thomason Capt John Withers Mr. Nath Thompson Mr. 
Rob 1 Alexander Cap 1 George Mason Cap 1 Thomas Owsley 
Mr John Harvey Cor r Rich d Fossaker Cap 1 Lieu 1 Thomas 

Gregg Lieu 1 Sampson Darrell Lieu 1 Charles Ellis Lieu 1 
Joseph Sunrner Lieu 1 John West Lieu 1 David Strahan 

& the Rangers Coronet William Downing Ensign Joell 
Stribling Justices & Militia Officers" 

A LIST OF THE RENTS belonging to the Estate of Capt William 
Brent, Deced Virginia, yrs 1746-1749. 

James Batton Daniel Mealy 

George Bush Alexander Nelson 

Mr. Charles Brent John Waters 

John Purnell John Rhodes 

Mason Combs Mary Carberry 

Benj a Derrick Adam Atchison 

Thomas Eaves The Rev d Mr. Stuart 

Charles Carter Duncan Simpson 

Griffin Jones John Montgomery 

William Knight Mr. George Brent 

Edmund Kelly John Murphey 

William Kirk Peter Cash 

Benjamin Brent William Champe 

Jonathan Moore Peter Hedgman 

John Mercer, Gent. Mrs. Massey 

Sylvester Moss took Possession 1748 of a New Plantation. 

Vol. 0, p. 163. 
Milnor Ljungstedt. 



184 WILLIAM AND MAKY QUARTERLY 

QUERIES. 

'^Wanted information concerning the family history of 

Brooks, first banker of Richmond, Va. The bank failed in one of 
the early financial panics and his children moved West. He was 
the father of James Murphy Brooks, born at Winchester, Va., 
June 11, 1798; Luella Brooks, who died at New Orleans, La., in 
1861, and Mary Brooks who married James M. CoSman, of Galli- 
polis, Ohio. Any one who has information concerning this family 
will please address E. C. McCormick, 311 N. Harvey Ave. ? Oak 
Park, 111." 

I am very anxious to trace a Lovely, or Lovey, Randolph born 
about 1794, who married James Munsie and removed at or after 
marriage from Bland Co., Va., to Lee Co., Va. Her brother, 
Peyton, came to Lee Co. with her. 

Any information about this Lovey Randolph and her parents 
will be greatly appreciated. 

(MRS.) EFFIE W^ELLS LOUCKS. 
319 E. French St., 
Pipestone, Minn. 

Information is desired concerning the ancestry and descendants 
of Presson Bowdoin and Wm. Bowden, the latter Atty-Gen. of the 
Colony 1743. Address Mrs..W. S. Gustin, 839 Ogden St., Denver, 
Colo. 






THE BIRTH-PLACE OF BISHOP MADISON. 
By CHARLES E. KEMPER. 

The Virginia historians all unite in saying that Bishop Madi- 
son was born in 1749 at Madison Hall near present Port Republic 
in Rockingham Co., Va., but there is evidence which tends to show 
conclusively that such was not the case. 

John Madison, father of the Bishop was appointed the first 
clerk of Augusta Co., Va., in 1745, and in 1746 a court order was 
entered ordering a road to be cleared from "The court house to the 
clerk's office." 

In 1745 (Dec. 1%) John Madison bought from Moses Thomp- 
son 1041 acres of land, and in 1752 John Madison sold 731 acres 
of this land to Robert McClenahan, and it is described as lying 
"on the north branch of Christian's Creek." In 1763 Robert Mc- 
Clenahan sold a part of this land to John McClenahan, Sr., his 
son, and his son, John inherited the remainder of the land from 
his father. On April 13, 1751, John Madison bought from Henry 
Downs ( ?) 1010 acres of land, which had first been granted to 
Jacob Stover, a part of the upper grant of 5000 acres to Jacob 
Stover, which is well known. This was the Port Republic land and 
Madison Hall was built on it, and there Bishop Madison grew to 
manhood, but the evidence of the records quoted clearly shows that 
Bishop Madison was born in the present county of Augusta, Va., 
on the north branch of Christian's Creek, in the vicinity of the 
present village of Barterbrook, about 6 miles south of Staunton. 
John Madison was clearly living at the place in 1746 and owned the 
clerk's office at his house and he did not buy the Port Republic 
land until April 13, 1751, so if Bishop Madison was born in 
1749, he was born at the place stated and not at Port Republic. 
There is an old abandoned road which leaves the Lexington 
road some distance south of Staunton and goes down to the north 
branch of Christian's Creek. This was evidently the old road to 
the clerk's office. The Madison lands on Christian's Creek have 
been owned in recent years by the Gilkeson estate, by the McClana- 
hans, and by the McCombs, and the old road mentioned en- 



186 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

tered the Madison land at the Gilkeson place, and Mr. S. M. Donald 
the postmaster of Staunton, Va ? informs me that near the 
Gilkeson place an old log structure stood years ago. This was in 
all probability the birth place of Bishop Madison, about 1% miles 
north of present Barterbrook, Augusta Co., Va., and the house 
stood on the Gilkeson place. The Madison lands lay in the fork of 
the north and south branches of Christian's Creek in the pres- 
ent county of Augusta. I hope to collect the facts still 
more fully but the facts are so interesting that I send them to you 
in this way, at the present time in order to prevent any possibility 
of their being lost. 

Charles E. Kemper. 
March 8, 1922. 

I wish to add this to the information recently sent you con- 
cerning the birthplace of Bishop Madison. As stated, he was 
born on the Gilkeson estate on Christian's Creek about 6 miles 
south of Staunton, Va. This was the home of his father John 
Madison until 1751, when he acquired the Port Republic land 
and moved to that place. That portion of the Gilkeson estate 
on which the Madison house stood is now owned by Mrs. Annie 
E. Eawlinson. This was undoubtedly the birthplace of 
Bishop Madison. The house in which he was born was a log 
structure and Mr. J. N. McFarland, the county treasurer of 
Augusta Co., informs me that he was a visitor in the old Madison 
house just prior to the civil war in 1859 or 1860. 

Charles E. Kemper. 

March 14, 1922. 



LETTERS OF JOHN PRESTON. 1 

To FRANCIS PRESTON. DESCRIBING DUEL BETWEEN GEN. WOOD 
AND THOS. MADISON. 

. . . I will join in an attempt to procure him pay during 
his captivity, so that I think he had better be sent to this place as 
soon as possible that he may be here before the rising of the As- 
sembly which I expect will be short; as nothing of importance 
is likely to come before us this Session. 

Stephen T Mason & Henry Tazwell are our Senators Robert 
Brooke our Governor! 

A few mornings ago some misunderstanding took place be- 
tween Genl Wood & Mr. Thos Madison, 2 about the election of the 
Governor, in which tho not face to face some things were said 
which they supposed involved their public & private characters A 
Chalenge passed, was accepted & they met at the Church yard, & 
fired at each other once, but missed; a second load was put into 
the pistols, when the seconds (Colo Steel & myself) interposed & 
compromised the difference amicable & honorably; It was a mis- 
understanding of terms & not of sentiments & the too officious 
conduct of their pretended friends that created the difference 
They both behaved bravely & stood very firm. 

Ive not heard from home lately I'm in good health, so is the 
rest of our relations in this quarter 

I am Dr Brother yours most affectionately 

J Preston 

Nov. 25, 1794 



iFor other letters of John Preston see the William and Mary Col- 
lege Quarterly, new series, Jan., 1921, v. 1, no. 1. 

zMrs. Madison was a sister of Patrick Henry, and an aunt of Mrs. 
Francis Preston. 



J88 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

To FRANCIS PRESTON. INTERESTING DISCUSSION OF INDIAN 

AFFAIRS. 

Jo. Breckenridges Lexington May 3, '93 
Dear Francis 

After a very tedious tho' (after I left Kanawa) not a very dis- 
agreeable journey, I arrived at this place the 28th Int; having 
parted with Billy two days before at Limestone on the Ohio, who 
went on to head quarters with his company all in good health & 
Spirits. I should have accompanied them but heard of Genl Wilk- 
enson whom we met on the River that B. Smith has been just sent 
on command to one of the frontier posts; this journey I then put 
off untill I can hear of his return; I'm happy to say that from 
Genl. Wilkenson's information B. Smith who is now promoted to 
a Major has intirely reformed ; become a new man both in his con- 
duct & constitution, & abandoned both women & wine forever, 
as his greatest enemies & the only cause of his former disgrace; 
God grant he may persever in this judicious & prudent resolution; 
in which if he succeeds his friends may again have some hopes of 
him. I have collected very little news since I came to this state; 
the Indians have done no mischief for some time past; it is sup- 
posed the treaty which is on the Carpet has put an end to this for 
a time. What will be the result of it no one can tell, but it is 
generally supposed, the Indians will not treat upon any terms 
which will be acceptable to us; it is however wished for in this 
country, that their terms may be refused and the war against them 
continued. I think in all probability there will be no campaign 
carried on against them this season should the treaty fail as Genl. 
Wayne has orders to act only on the defensive untill the result of 
the treaty can be known; the treaty commences about the 10th of 
June somewhere near the lakes (under British protection) 
some time must be necessarily spent in conferences, etc, 
which .will nearly spend the month of June; the report 
of the Commissioners to the President & the time he will 
take to consider & adopt other plans, will exhaust July; 
& then to give Genl Wayne official notice of this & he to put some 
necessary measures on foot will bring about the first of Sept. a 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 189 

period too late in the year to call on the militia for aid, who cannot 
return in the winter seasons; & his own army is too small to pro- 
ceed without this assistance; I've heard it amounts only to 2500 
effective men. The business of this treaty & the effect that it may 
have is highly disagreeable to the people of this country. The set- 
ting it on foot is contributed to the President of the United States, 
for which he is spoken of freely here ; indeed much more so than I 
ever heard before at any time or place. Some few politicians in 
this country talk of a disunion with the U States; of an intire in- 
dependent government; of an alliance with G Britain etc God 
only knows what event a few years may bring about. 

I have done but little business since my arrival only enquired 
the price of Land, T proposed some for sale, & yours at the falls. 
The seat of Government seems to influence the price of Land in 
this country more than any other circumstance; Lands situated 
near it bear a very high price, from 2l/ 2 to 10 Dollars an acre ac- 
cording to its conveiniences. I've seen Genl Breckenridge, & told 
him that you wished to sell, he appeared desirous to purchase; no 
proposals were made or terms offered, tho' I thought I collected 
enough to discover that his price would not be sufficient; Two or 
three more have spoken to me about it; Lands are rising & I think 
it would be improper for you to sell if a good price cannot now be 
had provided you can in any manner make out without it. The 
fit for purchasing land near the seat of Government where every 
persons attention is now turn'd will shortly cease. & then lands 
distant from it will again begin to be in better repute. Pray write 
me every oppertunity. Your friends are all in good health & cir- 
cumstances in this County. John Breckenridge will make a for- 
tune hastily, he is in high repute; 

My love to your wife etc, Adieu 

J, Preston 

To FRANCIS PRESTON. DISCUSSES POLITICS OF TIME. 

At Smithfield Deer. 19th, 1802. 
Dr Brother 

It would have given me much pleasure to have seen you when 
you was at Wythe Court-house last week & had I not been confined 
with a fit of the Rheumatic would have went up : 



190 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

i 

It has been a matter of much conversation among the Republi- 
cans throughout the Counties I have travelled in the last two 
months past respecting a change of the Congressional district of 
Botetourt etc- They conceive ( I believe with propriety too) 
that unless the contemplated change is made, a Federal candidate 
may or will be elected, which will give courage again in this quar- 
ter of Virginia to that party. I know every exercion on the part of 
the Federalist will be made, but not openly untill a short time 
before the election; The private system of attack is now visible. 
Every kind of artifice is used, ridicule, contempt, & treating in 
the lightest manner the present mode of administring the Gov- 
ernment, as trifling & puerile, & unworthy of so great a nation as 
we are; This is to prepare the way for introducing a man who 
will assist in conducting the Government with more dignity, that 
is like the former administration conducted it etc with a thou- 
sand other little modes which may have some weight with people 
who have not fairly descided on the late important question re- 
specting principle in this state a very large majority of the Peo- 
ple of Greenbriar, Monroe & Kanawa are & they would be as apt 
to decide in favour of a Federal as a Republican Candidate The 
Republicans of Virginia wish ardently that there should not be the 
least division in sentiment among their Representatives in the next 
Congress & and without this & one or two more changes in the 
districts laid off last session of the Assembly there is great danger 
of this division. I have been frequently consulted on the occasion, 
but I confess never strongly encouraged the thing, for two reasons. 
One that I feared that if Montgomery should be added to Botetourt 
that a man might be elected in your district who would be more 
to be feared than an open professed honest Federalist; I thought 
two men would be candidates, neither of whom can in my opinion 
be trusted & the one or the other of them would be chosen if no bet- 
ter offered. The other reason is that I feared I might be suspected, 
for wishing a district that might suit myself to the prejudice of 
the present Representative ; as by adding Montgomery to the lower 
counties, & Kanawa to Wythe, it would place me in a district in 
which I was infinitely better known that Col. Trigg, & would cut 
off from him almost all his acquaintances this latter objection 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 191 

I could get over by positively declining to offer in case Col. Trigg 
did, but the former I could not without you would agree to be a 
Candidate for the upper district, & I believe sincerely if you would, 
that the district would be changed: I gave my opinion to all 
who spoke with me on the subject freely respecting the two persons 
whom I reckoned would be candidates in your district; it was al- 
most always accorded to & the same opinion seemed to have possess- 
ed nearly all I spoke with on the subject, & all mentioned you. Now 
I think if you will agree to offer that the change ought to be 
made & can be done if it is known in time that you will offer 
Would you say whether or not you will ? Our Cousin Frank Smith 
I have learnt wishes to be a Candidate in case the alteration is 
made; I sincerely wifch to see him advanced in life as much as 
is proper, but I doubt whether it would be right in him (suppose 
he could be elected) to turn himself into that route for a time 
to come I heard he had consulted you & that you approved of 
his plan. I would be glad to hear upon what ground you did it. 

Brother William informs me that you complained of a scarcity 
of hands to carry on your iron works & would be willing perhaps 
to hire some; Should this be the case and we can agree I would 
hire seven of my best negroe men to you for a year & also the 
waggon and team you had last summer; The horses are in good 
order again & every thing about the gears will be well repaired. 
The men that I would hire are, Billy Pointer, Will Braxton, 
Butcher Ned, Henry, Daniel Farrow, Hanibal, & Tom with the 
last mentioned, China must be hired, as she is his wife, the others 
have not wives. Should you feel any disposition to hire these men 
& the woman, & waggon & team you will please to let me hear 
from you by the return of the next post, as I have another plan 
in view to dispose of them if this does not succeed in a few days. 

I am happy to hear that your Lady is in better health & pray 
she may continue to get better untill she is perfectly recovered. 
My little ones are in great health. Polly & myself have both been 
unwell she with the mumps, I with the Eheumatism, we have 
however so far recruited as to venture out this far. Our Mother 



192 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

is well, Mrs. A. Preston also, & that is the family who are at this 
place at present : 

With love I am Dr. Brother 
Yours sincerely 
J Preston 

P. S. Our Mother begs 
you would send her 4 or 8 bushels of 
salt in a barrel or two by Mr. John Preston's wag- 
gon when it comes down, or by some other opportunity. 

J Preston. 



To FRANCIS PRESTON. DISCUSSES POLITICAL CONDITIONS. 

Eichmond Mar. 3rd. 1813; 
Dr Brother 

Nothing material has occured since you left this, nor have 
had any news of consequence from the Blockading Squadron since 
you left us. It is said that several of the vessels have disappeared 
and two only remain in Lynhaven Bay; if these have realy gone 
off we shall shortly have a scuffle with those remaining. The Con- 
stelation, the 26 Gun Boats near Norfolk, together with such 
force as could & ought to be sent down the Patomack, making a 
simultaneous, & combined movement under a favourable wind 
might make a successful attack on any two frigates of the Block- 
ading Squadron. But my opinion is that all the Vessels that have 
disappeared are out, gone out on a cruise, or to look into some 
of our other seaports, & harbours to give alarms. This is the kind 
of war w&ahall be subjected to, & more indeed for whenever a fav- 
ourable opportunity offers & we are found off our guard the enemy 
will make a landing, & destroy & plunder some one or more of our 
towns. You will see in the papers the infamous attempt of the 
British Government to seduce out Citizens from their allegeance, 
& to produce discord & a seperation between us, in the infernal 
orders to their Governors etc & the proclamation of the Prince 



WILLIAM AND MAEY QUARTERLY 193 

Regent. I realy fear that the cupidity of the merchants will be 
ready to seize on such an offer & thereby create great disturbances 
among our citizens. I wish Congress would lay an Embargo & 
make it felony to violate it. 

Enclose you have the Auditors Quietus to Lewis Toncray, 
Jailor of Washington for $389.25 the nett proceeds of the sale of 
a run away slave called Mingo, which sum I advanced for you 
agreeable to your request. 

We are all well & wish you may find your dear family in 
. . . state to whom we all desire to be affectionately remem- 
bered. 

Yr Brother 
J Preston 



COL. CHARLES LEWIS. 

Nov. 25, 1795 

To the Honourable Speaker and Members of the Virginia 
House of Delegates The Petition of Thomas Lewis sheweth 
that your petitioners father, Charles Lewis, late of Albemarle 
County Dec'd. was one among the first Citizens of this Common- 
wealth who took arms against Great Britain, that early in the 
year 1775 he was on his march to Williamsburg at the head of 
a company of Volunteers to restrain the outrages then committed 
by Lord Dunmore, he was met by Col. Henry who informed him 
he had effected that object, he was soon after appointed to the 
command of a Regiment of Minute men, that serving as long as 
there was occasion for his services on the Eastern part of the State, 
he was sent on an expedition against the Cherokies which was 
not terminated untill about December, 1776, on his return he 
was appointed to the Command of the 14th. Virginia Regiment, 
that he continued in that service untill sometime in the year 1778, 
that then the care of a large family obliged him to resign, that 
in December, 1778, he was appointed to Command a Regiment 
destined to guard the Convention Troops at the Barracks in Albe- 
marle and that he died in that Command, the 26th day of Feb., 
1779. 

Your petitioners father not having served the term of three 
years either in the Continental Army or in the service of this 
State, he is not entitled as his representative to the bounty of 
land given to officers who did serve for that time, but as your 
petitioners father was in the Service of the United States, and 
of this State at least three years, and died in the service of this 
State, your petitioner trusts that he will be allowed the same 
bounty in land that has been allowed to others who your petitioner 
humbly conceives were not better entitled to it and your peti- 
tioner will pray as in duty bound 

Howell Lewis 

Endorsement Howell Lewis, Petitioner, 25th., Nov., /95 

Reasonable A Colonel's Bounty to Representative. 

(From Virginia State Archives, State Library.) 



BATTLE OF WILLIAMSBURG, VA., MAY, 1862. 

Report of Col. D. K. McRae, 5th No. Ca. Regiment. 1 
Headquarter's Early's Brigade. 
May 10, 1862. 

General. I have the honor to report, under your order, the 
casualties in the 5th No. Ca. commanded by me on May 5th in 
the battle near Williamsburg. 

About 3 P. M. my regiment was formed in line of battle, com- 
posed of the 5th No. Ca. on the right; 23d No. Ca. (Col. Hoke) 
next; 38th Va. (Lieut. Col. Whittle) next; and 24th Va. (Col. 
Terry) on the extreme left, with orders from Gen Early to ascer- 
tain the position, and charge a battery of the enemy supposed to 
be stationed in the woods on our front. After the formation of 
the line we were moved forward by direction of Maj. Gen. I). H. 
Hill with instructions to approach the enemy with trailed arms, 
without firing, until close upon him. 

The line passed down into a marshy ravine and my regiment 
found itself in a dense undergrowth composed chiefly of pines, 
which made the advance in line difficult. On the verge of the 
field beyond I halted and reformed the line and examined 
for the enemy's battery. Not seeing any indications of hia 
presence, I advanced the line about 100 yards into the field and as 
soon as I did so a battery, situated at a distance of 800 or 900 yards 
on the left, opened upon us with shell. I immediately changed 
the direction of the line so as to face towards this point and found 
that the battery was posted in a skirt of woods near a redoubt 
crossed and in which there appeared to be at least a brigade of the 
enemy. As soon as I made this movement I found that the line 
was broken, and I could neither see Col. Hoke with the 23d No. 
Ca. Reg. nor Lieut. Col. Whittle with the 38th Va. The ap- 
proach was through an open field of soft earth without any cover 
for my troops and feeling great anxiety, I dispatched my adjutant 
(Lieut McRae) aand Maj. I. J. Sinclair to General Hill with a 
request to be informed what battery I was to charge. Maj. Sin- 
clair returned with an answer that I was "to charge the battery 

iThe manuscript, from which this is printed, has been presented 
recently to the library of William and Mary College by Miss Ruth H. 
Early. 



196 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

that opened on us, and to do it quickly." I immediately put the 
line in motion, and the men sprang off at a rapid pace. 

About this time a regiment, which I found afterwards to be the 
24th Va. (Col. Terry) engaged the enemy at some 300 yards to my 
left, in front and drove him out of some houses towards his re- 
doubt. Finding the 23d and 38th still absent, I saw the neces- 
sity of connecting my line with this to support it and at the same 
time get the cover of the houses referred to. I orderd my line to 
advance, obliquing to the left and when I found my men advanc- 
ing too rapidly and sufficiently obliquing, I ordered a halt, passed 
to the front of the line and urged my men to move less rapidly and 
to press more sensibly to the left, and in order to compose them, 
I ordered them to lie down. The enemy had now commenced to 
fire upon us with rifles, which began to be fatal and at that mo- 
ment, I observed Captain Early (Gen. Early's aid) some distance 
on my left waving me on : I then pushed on. My color-bearer was 
first struck down when his comrade seized the flag and he fell 
immediately: a third one took it and shared the same fate then 
Capt. Benjamin Robinson of Co. "A," carried it until the staff 
of the flag was shivered to pieces in his hands. 

Under this fire of grape from the battery and volleys from the 
infantry, the regiment continued to advance until I formed a slight 
shelter of a low fence within 100 yards of the redoubt. The fire 
was terrific : my officers and men were falling on every side. The 
24th Va. on my left, was suffering in like proportion. I had de- 
lievered my first fire at the distance of about 150 yards and my 
men were now firing with effect upon a body of the enemy who 
were retreating into the redoubt. At this time Col. Terry fell 
upon my left, Lieut. Col. Hairston also and the horse of Maj. 
Sinclair had been killed under him. Lieut. Col. Badham fell upon 
my right and I found that Maj. Maury of the 24th Va. and myself 
were the only field officers remaining mounted. I had previously sent 
my adjutant to Gen. Hill announcing my loss and the danger of 
my position and earnestly begged for reinforcements; but finding 
my force too small, and the position fatally destructive, I did 
not await his return, but ordered my command to fall off down 
to the cover of the fence and immediately afterwards I received 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 197 

the order to retreat. The charge upon the battery was not attended 
by success. 

I have no doubt it would have been, had the 23d No. Ca. and 
the 38th Va., as originally designated, participated in the as- 
sault, for the enemy were so much disconcerted at the persistant 
advance of the troops that he drew off one or more of his pieces and 
his infantry, under the severe fire, of the two regiments, hastily 
sought shelter in and behind the redoubt. How heroically my 
men and officers endeavored to execute the charge intrusted to 
them. The list of casualties hereto appended will exhibit results, 
and it is a matter of pride to the survivors, as it was to all, to know 
that their whole conduct was under the direction and immediate 
observation of their Major and Brigadier generals, the latter of 
whom fell while bravely leading the attack. 

All of my officers and men behaved with equal courage, and 
no discrimination can be made among them. My regiment is now 
reduced so as to be insufficient. I beg that it may be speedily 
supplied, and I ask you, general, in calling to the attention of the 
Department, this request, to suggest that my first lieutenants, who 
are now with me, may be assigned to the companies which have 
lost their captains by death, wounds and imprisonments, except 
in the case of Capt. M. C. Jones, who was wounded, but who es- 
caped and who, I hope will soon resume his command. My ad- 
jutant, who was with me throughout the fight rendered me valua- 
ble assistance, and his good conduct did not, I am sure, fail to 
attract your attention. I beg to bring to your notice another in- 
stance of patriotic action which merits remark. Mr. Nicholson 
C. Washington, a young gentleman from St. Louis, Mo., who vol- 
unteered as a private in my ranks, and on this occasion accom- 
panied me as my orderly on the field. He maintained his position 
by my side and delivered my orders along the line with coolness 
and precision. I ask your favorable consideration of his claims 
for a commission. 

I was unable to bring off more than forty of the wounded. 
I have the honor to accompany this with a list of casualties in this 
and other regiments of this brigade. 

Very resp'y 

D. K. McRae, Colonel of 5th No. Ca. 
Reg., Commd'g Brigade. 



ROVING BUSINESS. 

Smith, Rochester and Austin. 
By A. J. Morrison. 

The incomparable Niles printed in his Register during 1820 
(XVIII, 417) a sketch of the life of William Smith of Flower 
dieu Hundred, Prince George County, who had made eight voy- 
ages around the world, besides one voyage to China and back. Wil- 
liam Smith was born November 14, 1768. He was first at sea in 
ship Tartar, both navy vessels. For some years to 1790 he was 
1779 in the U. S. row gaily Manly, Captain Saunders, up and 
down the Chesapeake. He then was on the brig Jefferson and the 
in the West India trade, out of Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Vir- 
ginia ports. After 1790 he was sailing out of Boston. On his 
eighth voyage around the world he left Boston in the ship Alba- 
tross July 6, 1809, and did not come home (and then in another 
ship) until the middle of October, 1817. For some seven years of 
that voyage, Smith was in command of the Albatross, a great 
part of the time, transporting sandal wood from the Sandwich 
Islands to Canton, under a contract of King Tamaanah of the 
Islands with Captains Davis and Winship of Boston. The war 
spoiled the contract. Smith then engaged in the sea otter trade off 
the California coast (for the China market), was captured by the 
Spaniards and held two months; he then joined the Ship O'Cain, 
and came home. On his ninth voyage, from which he returned 
in 1820, he was shipwrecked on the voyage out. According to 
Mies, Smith held the record for circumnavigations. 

The year William Smith was born, Nathaniel Rochester began 
his business career. Rochester was a native of Westmoreland 
County. He was born in 1752. His grandfather Nicholas Roches- 
ter had come to Westmoreland from England. His father, John 
Rochester, died in 1756, and his mother married Thomas Critcher, 
who in 1763 settled in the western part of Granville County, North 
Carolina. Nathaniel Rochester began his long and successful 
business career at Hillsboro, in North Carolina. He became in- 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 199 

terested with Col. Thomas Hart (father-in-law of Henry Clay) in 
the manufacture of nails and the manufacture of rope. With 
Colonel Hart he removed to Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1780, and 
in 1785 first ventured to Kentucky in a business way. That year 
his capital of 1100 sent in merchandise to Kentucky returned 
him 1000 net. Soon after another venture to Kentucky in 1800, 
Rochester began taking up land in New York. He settled there 
in 1810, establishing the town of Rochester a good deal by means 
of his large paper mill there, re-engaged in banking, and died at 
the age of eighty in 1831. Unquestionably Nathaniel Rochester 
was a first-rate man of business and showed his character very 
early.* 

About the time Rochester, with headquarters at Hagerstown, 
was withdrawing from Kentucky and investing in New York, 
Moses Austin, a Connecticut Virginian, was fixing his home in 
Upper Louisiana. Stephen Austin has told the story briefly and 
well. The following is a copy of a memorandum made and kept by 
Stephen F. Austin for the information of his brother, J. E. B. 
Austin : 

"My father was a native of Durham, Connecticut, and was 
regularly educated a merchant. He was a partner of the import- 
ing house of Stephen Austin & Co., in Philadelphia, and married 
Miss Maria Brown in that city, a native of Morris County, New 
Jersey, shortly after which a branch of the mercantile house was 
established in Richmond, Virginia, under the firm name of Moses 
Austin & Co., and my father settled in that city. 

"Some years afterwards the company purchased the lead 
mines in Wythe County, Virginia, on New River, known as 
Chisel's (ChiswelPs) Mines, to which place he removed and con- 
ducted the mining and manufacturing of lead on an extensive 
scale. 

"He was the first who brought to this country English miners 
and manufacturers of lead, and he established the first manufac- 

*See autobiography of Nathaniel Rochester in T. J. C. Williams's 
History of Washington County, Maryland. Hagerstown, 1906. Vol. 
I. pp. 136-139. 



200 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

tory of shot and sheet lead in the United States, at Eichmond and 
the mines on New River, Virginia. 

"A brother of my father, Elijah Austin, was well known to the 
mercantile community of New York and New Haven as being the 
first who ever fitted out a ship for a sealing voyage to the north- 
west coast of America, and from there to India. My uncle fitted 
out Captain Green, who made the first trip of that kind that was 
ever undertaken. 

"In 1796 my father^ finding the mines on New River less pro- 
ductive than he had expected, and having accidentally met with 
a person who had been in the mining district to the west of Saint 
Genevieve, west of the Mississippi River, in Upper Louisiana, and 
who gave a favorable account of the prospects in that country ? de- 
termined to visit it. After much difficulty he obtained the neces- 
sary passports from the Spanish minister, as at that time the 
Spanish possessions extended to the Pacific Ocean, and were closed 
to the admission of foreigners. 

"During the winter of 1796 and 1797 he explored Upper 
Louisiana and with his whole company nearly perished in the 
wilderness between Vincennes and St. Louis. At that time Vin- 
cennes was the only settlement between Louisville and St. Louis. 
He obtained a grant for one league of land embracing the lead 
mines of Mine A. Burton [now Potosi], and in 1798 removed his 
family from Virginia to his new grant. Mine A. Burton is forty 
miles west of St. Genevieve, and at the time my father moved 
there was uninhabited. . . . 

"Considering that when he first visited Upper Louisiana in 
1797, the country from Louisville to the Mississippi^ now compos- 
ing the States of Indiana and Illinois, was a total wilderness with 
the exception of Vincennes on the Wabash, and Kas-Kas-Kia and a 
few French settlements in the Mississippi bottoms opposite St. 
Louis and St. Genevieve ; that he moved by a new and almost un- 
explored route down the Kanawha river in large flat boats, a thing 
which never before had been attempted from the point where he 
embarked ; the mountainous and wilderness country through which 
he had to pass between Austinville and that point ; the thinly popu- 
lated situation of the western portion of Virginia and of the States 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 



201 



of Kentucky and Ohio ; and to this add the immeasurable distance 
which it was then thought separated Louisiana from the settled 
portions of the United States, and the universal prejudice which 
existed against the Spanish government; the long and tedious 
trip by flat boats down the Kanawha and Ohio rivers, and up the 
Mississippi to St. Genevieve, and the hostile condition of the In- 
dians [It is curious that the Osages in Moses Austin's way had 
learned from the Pacific Coast to call Americans 'Bostonians/ 
The Creeks at that time were in the habit of calling Americans 
'Virginians/] and I think it will be readily conceded that my 
father is justly entitled to high credit for his enterprise in having 
even conceived the idea of moving his own and many other families 
from the interior of Virginia to so remote a country. His success 
affords a proof of his judgment and perseverance. 

"His family consisted of three children Stephen Fuller, the 
eldest, born at Austinville, Wythe County, Virginia, November 3, 
1793 ; James Elijah Brown, the youngest, born at Mine A. Burton, 
1803; and Emily Margaret Brown, born June 22, 1795, at Austin- 
ville, Virginia, who married James Bryan."* 

How picturesque things were before 1830! The railroad has 
done much to make such a century as never was. And by 1930 it 
is not impossible the railroad will be rather secondary. 

*See chapters on the early history of Texas, by Col. Guy M. 
Bryan (son of James Bryan and Emily Austin), in History of Texas, 
edited by Dudley Wooten. Dallas, 1898. Vol. I, pp. 440-442. 



KEPOKT OF EXECUTORS OF ESTATE OF WILLIAM 
PARKS, THE FIRST PRINTER IN VIRGINIA. 



Parks 
Wm. 

Settlement 
1750 



Dr. The estate of Mr. William Parks deed, returned 
by John Shelton acting Exr. 

Current 



To cash paid for a judgment obtained 
against the estate of Robt & John 
Lidderdale Merchts in London 
To the Sheriff Clerk & Lawyers fees 
To Cash paid for a judgment obtained 
agst the estate by Daniel Parke 
Custis Esq 

To the Sheriff Clerk & Lawyers fees 
To cash paid for judgment obtained 
against the estate Messrs Lidder- 
dale & Harmer surviving partners 
of Thomas Chamberlayne mer- 



239-13- 3 
10- 2- 2 



239- 1- 2-1/2 
10- 1-11 



chants in Bristol 

25 P-cent advance on Do 
To the Clerks Sherifs & Lawyers fees 

(Sherifs fee for collecting 600 

of the above) 
To a judgment obtained against the 

estate by Capt- Andrew Watson 

25 P cent 
To the Clerks Sherfs & Lawyers fees 



Sterling 
932- 9- l-i/ 2 
233- 2- 3-1/2 



To cash Mr. Parks funeraL expenses 
as p acct pd. Capt Watson 

To cash paid Robert Cary & Co Mer- 
chants in London 

To cash paid Thomas Wild as P 



17-15- 8 

Sterling 
50- 0- 0- 
1210 - 

1-19 

1736-14- 7-1/2 
6-15- 
31-15- 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUAETEBLY 



203 



1751 
April 1 



agreement made by Mr. Parks for 

63 hhds tobo 63 

To paid the inspection of the above 

63 hhds of tobo shipt Lidderdale & 

Harmer 9- 9- 

To paid David Jameson as P accot 

for paper 7- 2- 

To the white servants expenses from 

Wmburg to Hanover Court 
To paid Hunt & Waterman Merchts 

in London Bond & Interest 113-16- 4 

To paid Capt. Geo. Hill Mariner 6- 8- 9 



To cash paid Sarah Packe P agree- 
ment & award 100- 

To cash paid the inspectors at Crutch- 
fields Warehouse as P acct 0- 4- 3- 

To cash paid the inspector at 

[?] Do Do 09-6 

To cash paid by the guardian of Thos 
Carter 45-16- 9 

To cash paid Mr. Macnamara Attor- 
ney at law in Maryland his fees 
docking Intail of a tract of land 
call Park Hall & also Lot at an- 
napolis & other services) 14-15- - 

To the Secretarys Clerks & other offi- 
cers fees for the above 13-12- 9 

To my expenses for five journeys to 
Maryland 25- - - 

To paid Doctr Thomas Smith for 
attending Mr. Parks in his sickness 
on board the Nelson 6-12- 6- 



454- 6-10 



204 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 



To cash paid Blackmore Hughes for 
finishing a house sold Mr. Geo. 
Webb in New Castle) 15- - - 

To paid Mr. Leighton Wood Mercht 
in Bristol upon a protested Bill of 
exchange & account 136- - - 

To paid Judgment obtained by Chris- 
topher Lilly Mercht in Bristol 345-16- 8 

To cash paid Harry Larmer his share 

of crop as & overseer for parks 10- - - 

To cloathing Mr. ? Negros 2 years 

in Hanover 19-12- 

To paying their levies & white ser- 
vants Do 1194 Ibs tobo a 2 d 9-19 

To finding working tools 6- 

To cash paid the Midwife for deliver- 
ing 2 negro women 1- - - 

To paid quit Rents for the land 2 years 3- 1- - 



546- 8- 8- 



To one Negro Women 
mole valued at 10 

To one Negro Man Ben 30 

To one Negro Worster 40 

To 2 sorrel horses 3 
one Gray do 4 7 

To six shoats at 6/7 
steers at 45/ 

To 11 cows at 30/4 
three year old at 25/ 

To 7 2 year old at 20/5 
calves at 6/ 

To 1 Bull at 20/1 tum- 
bler & wheels 

To 1 leaden tray 2 
feather beds one bol- 
ster & 2 sheets 1 pot 
rack 10 cart & chain 






Delivered to Mrs Packe 
by agreement with Mr. 
Parks & by order of Mr. 
Ben. Waller and others 
Arbitrators 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUABTEBLY 



205 



1752 



To cash paid Sarah Packe as P award 100 

To cash Mr. John Hanbury Merch 

in London upon Bond 1186- 8- 4 

To a judgment obtained against the 
estate by Peter Scott & costs 105-13- 

To a judgment obtained agst the es- 
tate by Col McKenzie a Protested 
bill of exchange 157-14- 7 

To a judgment obtained agst the es- 
tate by Mr. John Scott & costs 59-15- 3-i/ 2 

to cash paid Natl Walthoe by acct 
due to Thos. Waller Bookseller 
London 159- 3- 8 



These two 
judgm 
are not 
pd off tout 
believe 
I have 
sufficient 
funds to 
pay them 



1708-14-10 l/ 2 
To sundry debts pd by Mark Cosby 

as may more fully appear 663-19- 9 

To sundry debts pd by Mr. Wm. 

Hunter Wmburg exclusive of the 

above sums 317-17- 4 

To a judgment obtained by Sarah 

Packe 118-11- 3 

1100- 8- 4- 
5606-13- 3- 

To a judgment obtained Richard Am- 
bler Esq on bond 500- - - 
Interest on do 

To a judgment obtained by Messrs 
Bowden & Farquhar in London 
Bond 360 sterling 

25 P c 91 

interest on do 
To sundry traveling expenses 



206 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 



The Estate of William Parks deed Or. 

By sundry goods shipt by Mr. Parks 

from London reed in Hanover 

sterling 261- 5- 1- 
By sundry goods from Glasgow reed in 

Hanover 269-11- 9- 



530-16-10- 
sold at 50 P ct advance 265- 0- 5 



796- 5- 3- 
By sundry outstanding debts reed in 

Hanover 121-16- 3- 

By 63 hhd tobo reed Thos Wild P 
agreement made by Mr. Parks shipt 
Lidderdale & Harmer sterling 332-14-10 

25 Pet advance 83- 3- 8-% 

By cash reed of Thomas Wild 

sterling 397- 7- 7- 
25 P ct advance 99- 6-10-% 



496-14- 5-1/2 

1830-14- 6 
By the sale of Hanover Courthouse 

taken by execution 660- 5- 

By the sale of the paper Mill do 96- 3- 9 

By the sale of the printing office do 156-14- 7 
By the sale of 5 Negroes in Hanover 

do 220 - - 
By the sale of 9 do do 300 
By the sale of 5 horses do 16- 7- 6 
By the sale of 21 head of cattle Han- 
over 16- 1- 
By the sale of 29 hogs Hanover 4- 
By the sale 1225 gros Pork do 12/6 7- 7- 6 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUABTEELY 207 

By the sale of drest " do 19/ 10- 1- 7 
By sale of cart & trases do 1-7- 



1488- 7-11 

By sale of a parcel of corn do 6- 3- 6- 

By the sale of a set of Black- 
smith tools do 15- - - 
By the sale of 7 white 

servants men & women do 94- - - 

By the sale of a silver watch do 4- - - 

By the sale of one scarlet Rockalow 3 3- - - 
Two velvet waist coats 4 4 - - 

2 pr velvet britches 4-6-8 4- 6- 8- 

Wig & box 35/ one coat &c 48/ 15- 9- 8- 

By one years rent of Hanover Court- 
house 50- 
By the sale of a House and Lot in New 

Castle 150 

By cash reed of Edwd Athawes 

Mercht in London 31 10 

By the sale of Negro man Casar at 

Wmburg 69-10 

By the sale of a Negro Women Brid- 
get & Child do 53-10 
By the sale of one pr hand irons 22 / 
2 elbow chairs 16/ 6 leather 
chairs 31/ 3- 9- 
By sundry outstanding debts reed in 

Wmburg by Hunter 526-19- 6 



1019-11- 8 



By an order on the Treasurery payable 
to Col John Hunter the ballance 
due to the estate for printing the laws 
after paying Mr. Wm. Hunter for 
his completing the same P agree- 
ment 850- 



208 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

By Ballance of sundry Printing mate- 
rials sold Mr. William Hunter after 
paying him for completing the laws 
as P account settled will more fully 
appear 359- 1- 5- 



1209- 1- 5-% 

By cash received 280- 

By sundry debts Kecd by Mark Cosby 
in Williamsburg as the book cannot 
be found I suppose it to be 
383-19-9 being the balance of 
the( ?) we find he paid after deduct- 
ing 280 reed of treasury out of 
663-19-9- the money we find paid 
by Cosby 383-19- 9 



663-19- 9 

6211-15 -3 

Errors Excepted 
1754 April 25th 

P John Shelton 

Returned into York County Court the 17th day of June 1754 
and ordered to be recorded 

examd Teste Thos. Everard Clr-Cur 

Parks An inventory of the estate of Mr. 
appr William Parks deed in Hanover 
County as appraised by the subscri- 
bers Viz: 
1 Negro man name Stan ton 37 1 do 

name George 37 74 

1 do name Taylor 20 1 do name 
Ned 40 60 

1 Negro Women name nan 25 1 old 
white hours 4 29 

2 cows & calvs 46/ 1 yearling 10/ 

4 cows & calvs 6 8-16 

2 barron cows 56/ one large 45/ 1 
bull 20/ 3 small steers 48/ 8- 9- 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 209 

4 smaller steers 28/ one small heffer 

12 / one bay horse 37/6 3-17- 6 

1 roane bourse 50/1 old white do 4 

1 old do 4 10 10 - 

1 old cart & wheels 15/ 1 pr horse 

hames & iron trases 12/ 1- 7- 

1 old set Smiths tools 10 3 sows 20/ 

7 shoats 17/6 11-17- 6 

2 pigs 2/ 17 do 22/6 6 sows 36/ 3- 0- 6 
one silver watch 4 1 scarlet Kocka- 

low 3 7 

1 black velvet waist coat 40/ 1 uncut 
velvet do 40/ 4 

2 pair velvet britches 4-6-8 1 gray 

wig & Box 35/ 6- 1- 8 

1 all a peen coat wainst coat 48/ one 

old Gray wig 6s 1 old Banyan 2/6 2-11- 

1 negro man named Tom 37 1 Negro 
women named Phillis 35- 72 

1 Negro man named Worcester 40 1 

Negro man Named Ned 40 80 

1 Negro man named Peter 36 1 Ne- 
gro Women Lucy & her child 45 81 - 

1 Negro Women Sarah & her child 45 
1 negro man Ludlow 37 82 



545-11- 2 
Eobt Jennings 
John Dabney 
Edward Garland 

Returned into York County Court the 18th day of May 1752 
and ordered to be recorded 
examnd Teste: Thos Everard Clr. Cur- 

iThis report adds considerable information to our knowledge about 
Parks, and is printed here through the courtesy of Mr. Lawrence C. 
Wroth, of the Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore. 

The Virginia Press Association has appointed a special committee 
to consider the project of establishing some memorial to William Parks 
in Williamsburg. 



WILLIAM AND MARY COLLEGE, 
August 9, 1782. 

The public are hereby informed, that the University of William 
and Mary is now open for the reception of students; the com- 
mencement of public lectures is postponed until the first Monday 
in October, in order to afford time for those to assemble, who wish 
to profit by them; but the Professors will give instructions pri- 
vately to those who attend before the above mentioned time. Many 
respectable families in town will board students upon reasonable 
terms. The inconvenience which have been formerly felt make it 
necessary also to inform the public, that the usual fee will be ex- 
pected upon entrance. 

J. MADISON 

From Nicholson & Prentis's Virginia Gazette and Weekly Ad- 
vertiser, Richmond, Aug. 17, 1782. 

WILLIAM AND MARY COLLEGE, 

August 20, 1782. 

As few surveyors have settled with the college of William and 
Mary for many years, notice is hereby given that, to render a set- 
tlement as convenient as possible to them, the Burser will attend 
at Richmond from the 27th of October next to the 2nd day of No- 
vember. Suits will be immediately commenced against those who 
shall not then bring or send in their accounts, unless ihey may 
have previously within the present year. 

It is expected that all persons indebted to the college for board 
or otherwise, will also take that opportunity of discharging their 
respective dues, the circumstances of the college indispensibly re- 
quiring a speedy and general collection of what is owing to it. 

ROBERT ANDREWS. 

From Nicolson & Prentis's Virginia Gazette and Weekly Ad- 
vertiser, Richmond, Aug. 31, 1782'. 



HAMPDEN SIDNEY (PRINCE EDWARD), 
Oct. 16, 1782. 

The confusions of the war have been very unfavorable to the 
cultivation of science in general, and to the interests of the Acad- 
emy of Hampden Sidney in particular. The present more agree- 
able prospect of public affairs, has induced the Trustees to at- 
tempt the revival of it. They are about making the necessary re- 
pairs in the rooms of the principal buildings, and have engaged 
Major John H. Overstreet to act as steward for the ensuing year. 
They hope that the friends of learning will patronize an institu- 
tion capable of being eminently useful, in a country so extensive 
as Virginia, and at a time when knowledge of every kind is pecu- 
liarly necessary. The Academy will be open for the reception of 
students on the first of November, and I beg leave to pledge my- 
self to the public for the faithful discharge of my duty as director 
of the institution. The same attention to the morals and instruc- 
tions of the students, which distinguished this seminary as long 
as we could have them boarded on the spot, shall again be given; 
and I hope for the favour of those Gentlemen, especially, whose 
relations have ever been here for any considerable time. The cul- 
tivation of the English language, Geography, Mathematics, and 
Philosophy, shall be the principal objects of instruction, and a 
very accurate acquaintance with the Latin and Greek languages 
shall be added, where it is desired. If any gentleman could fur- 
nish Boyer's French grammers or any of a later date, I would 
engage a native of France, who is a man of learning, to teach the 
pronunciation, etc., of that tongue, where the number should be 
considerable enough to enable me to do it. The steward will fur- 
nish boarding for 16 per annum, one half to be paid at entrance, 
and the other half in six months. The" price of tuition is settled 
at 5 , to be paid in the same manner. Mr- Overstreet desires me 
to inform the public that his accomodations and attention shall 



212 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

never be deficient, especially if his payments are punctually re- 
ceived. 

JOHN BLAIE SMITH. 

N. B. I have five or six hundred acres of good land in this 
county, to dispose of, on reasonable terms. 

From Nicolson & Prentis's Virginia Gazette and Weekly Ad- 
vertiser, Oct. 26, 1782. 



PETITION FROM ALBEMARLE FOR EMISSION OF PAPER 

MONEY. 

Albemarle County, Anno Dom. 1788 

To the Honorable Speaker, and House of Delegates Convened 
together at the City of Richmond; to take under their considera- 
tion, what may attend to the good of the Commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia, etc. 

We your Humble petitioners sendeth these lines to this Hon 
ourable House, to inform you of our distressed condition, which is 
coming on us daily, for want of a circulating Medium among us, 
therefore we pray you to take it under your consideration, and 
grant our request, which is this, We pray and wish you to emit as 
much paper money as will pay our domestic debt, and said money 
to be a Lawfull Tender, in all debts dues and Demands, whatsoever 
(Except the Demands of Congress, which we ever shall be happy to 
be Taxed in Tobacco, Etc. to answer that of paying our Foreign 
debt & Loan Pjtc.) For admitting the enemies of said paper 
Money, Should depreciate it a little at first, it is better for a few 
to suffer a little than a majority of the State to become Servants 
to the rest, and it appears to your petitioners likely to be the case 
when we consider the quantity of money it takes to pay off our 
Sivel list annually, and also our Six per cent Interest Warrants, 
And we Consider it just and right, that the old british debts should 
be paid that was contracted before the War, but also we remember 
that when those debts was contracted, that there was a paper Cur- 
rency among us that they generally was willing to recover, therefore 
we wish to pay them off in paper money, and then they will be will- 
ing to allow us a reasonable price for our Tobacco Etc., and leave 
our money among us, for we are not so doubtfoll of the faith of our 
State as many appearantly is, for we are heartoly willing to sell 
our property for said money, as well now, as when George the third 



214 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

was our head, for we believe, when said money is calld in by Tax- 
ation, that you our Legislature has wisdom enough to lay it out on 
purchasing Tobacco Etc., to help to Ease a fund, and admitting 
some persons should say that this cannot be done we are very clear 
that there can be as good a fund Rased to redeem this said money, 
as was done to redeem our Militia Certificates Etc. 

and now, if this Honourable House will not grant this our re- 
quest, we still will pray farther, for our property to be received in 
payment of our debts, at the valuation of two or three good men, 
and we wish to leave it to your wisdom to point out what kind of 
property shall be received in payments of our debts, and if some- 
thing similar to our requests is done what heart can stand by and 
see his property that he hath laboured hard for, sell for one fourth 
of its value and in a few years perhaps not for over one tenth of its 
value, then power will naturally follow property, then God help the 
poor Therefore by these hints you may know what our prayers 
and wish is and now we wish that good Spirit above may inspire 
your breasts so that you may never consent to the Tnstaulment Act, 
for it alarms your petitioners when they consider that the Mer- 
chant is the channel by which the money must come through to 
the planter, then will they not consult together, And fix the price 
on our Commodity as they see fit, and will they not keep back more 
than six per cent upon all their debts due to them that they do not 
receive in the first years payment Etc. Etc. 

Alass will Instaulment put a stop to that eating Canker of six 
per cent Interest Warrants, and also the old British Debts must 
be paid under the same Act which will make the old proverb true 
a new Broom sweps clean, then that saying will soon come to pass 
They have taken Virginia without the fere of a gun, and now we 
conclude wishing that God May direct you for to act and do what- 
sover may attend for the good of the Commonwealth of Virginia in 
general, Amen 

Then thy Humble Petitioners shall ever Pray 

Hugh R. Morris Charles Minx John Burnley 

William Grayson Henry Wood Cornelyus Moping 

John Mills Talton Woodson Fetter Rosell 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 



215 



Grabriel Mullens 

John Maupin 

Gabril Maupen 

Thos. Reed 

Bartolomeh Kindred 

Jno. Brit 

Joel Wheeler 

John Sproul 

Jesey Gooch 

James Briget 

Micajah Wheeler, Jr. 

Bartlet Ellis 

Maxey Ewell 

Jno. Mopin, sen. 

James Harris 

Peter Shaver 

John Jones 

David Gentry 

Wm. Macon, Sen. 

Wm. Woods 

James Kinsolving 

William Thompson, Tax 

Payer 

Joseph Mansfield 
John Martin 
John Hall 
Zackarius Maupin 
John Day 
Robert Layne 
Banj. Dod wheeler 
Daniel Maupin, Jr. 
James Reynols 
Thomas Harlow 
Claudius Buster, Jr. 
William Fickenson 
David Sowers 
David Burges 
Joseph Burnett 
Daniel Me. Evay 
Peter Belew 

his 
George X Procter 

mark 

James Hayes 
Isom Randolph 



his 
Jeremiah X Cleveland 

mark 

John Williams 
George Norvell 
John Baly, Sr. 
Samuel Burch 
John Alexander 
Wilson Roberts 
William Shelton, Sr. 
Anthony Granning 
John Eades 
Joseph Sutherland, Sr. 
John Allen, Tax P. 
Joseph Burch 
Moses Gentry 
Nelson Thomas 
William Ramsay 
Robt. Sharp, Jr. 
John Buster, Sr. 
John Allphin 
John Queritt 
James Siddearth, Sr. 
James Suddearth, Jr. 
Samuel Dedman 
Josiah Wallece 
John Harris 
Solomen Dolen 
John Stockton 
William Davis 
William Gooch 
Alexander Wetnell 
James Brooks 
Joseph Nott 
John Brown 
Evan Watson 

his 
Joshua X Grady 

mark 

Obediah Britt 
Benjemine Thaker 
Nathanuel Thaker 
West Lanford 
Claudius Buster 
Barnett Carter 



John Taylor 
Wm. Coles, Sen. 
Edward Butler 
Michail Smith 
Chas. Hudson 
Wm. Kenney 

his 
John X Palhoof (?) 

mark 

Samuel Mun 
Micajah Via 
Martin Gentry 
John Matthews 
James Wood 
Daniel Maupin 
Mourning Roberts T. P. 
William Humphreys T. P. 
Joseph Roberts T. P. 
John Bent 
George Conner 
John Gillum, Senr. 
John Gillum, Jun. 
William Berry 
Thos. Harlow 
Philemon Snell 
Samuel Brookman 
Oliver Cleveland 
James Noland 
Andrew Pray 
Mathey Mopin 
Robert Yancey 
David Me. Caully 
William Sudderd 
Joseph Claiborne 
John Sowell 
Thos. Cobbs 
James Mayo, T. P. 

his 
John X Brian 

mark 

William Johnson 
William Clarke, T. 
Robert Martin 
John Spencer 
Thomas Mopin 



216 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 



Ephraim Musack 
David Buster 
Edward Broaddus 
John Spencer, Jr. 
Nathl. Dedman, T. P. 
Jesse Compton 
Robert Field 
James Reid 
Wm. Wood, Jr. 
Benjamin Taylor 
Wm. Langford 
Daniel Cain 

his 
John X Randolph 

mark 
William Bailey 



Micajah Wheeler 
Daniel Maupin 
Robert Langford 
William Sudderd 
Chas. Yancey 
David Humphrey 
Nathan Harlow 
Richard Sanford 
John Fergusson 
Augustine Shepperd 
Phillip Gooch 
James Kerr 
John Gillom 
William Wood 
Samuel Parr 
Samuel Black 



John Given 
Boling Burnett 
Jo. Upton 
Wm. Me. Gee 
Benj. Lacy 
Benj. Gentry 
John Woods 
Hugh Me. William 
Francis Craven 
Horsley Goodman 
Endorsement 

Albemarle Petition for 
an Emmision of Paper 
Money 3rd of Nov., 1787, 
Petition A174, Nov. 3, 
1787. 



JOHN NORTON & SONS. 
From Purdie's Virginia Gazette of May 12, 1775. 

Narrative of facts relative to John Norton and Sons shipping 
two half chests in the Virginia, Howard Esten, humbly address to 
the inhabitants of Virginia. 

JOHN NORTON and sons, some time in the month of June 
1774, received a letter from Mess. John Prentis and co. covering an 
invoice of a cargo of goods, in which were contained two certain ar- 
ticles, viz. a chest of hyson tea, and another common green ditto. In 
the course of the same month, they received likewise another letter, 
with a copy of the said invoice, in which were inserted the same ar- 
ticles of tea. However, J. Norton and sons, being uneasy at the or- 
der, did not give it out till the month of August, hoping and expect- 
ing they should have received countermanding orders with respect to 
the shipping the same; but none such ever came to hand, though 
they had a letter from Mess. Prentis and co. dated the 26th of 
June, and afterwards a copy thereof, both of which were received 
in the month of August. Thus disagreeably circumstanced, J. 
Norton and sons, much against their inclinations, complied with 
shipping the two chests of tea in the latter end of the month of 
August, amounting to the precise quantity of 154 Ibs. neat; no 
other chests of tea being on board, to their best knowledge and be- 
lief. Their letters and invoices were made up, and dated the 31st 
of August : about which time, some other goods offering, J. Norton 
and sons were induced to detain the ship fourteen days longer than 
they intended. On the 15th of September, in the evening, they 
received a letter from Mr. John Backhouse of Liverpool, by the 
post, dated the 12th of the same month, enclosing a copy of the 
Virginia association entered into the beginning of August, which 
they verily believe was the first account received in any part of 
England. Under these circumstances, how could J. Norton and 
sons act? The ship Virginia was then cleared pit. and at Graves- 
end; and the commencement of the non-importation agreement 



218 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

fixed for the first of November, a time scarce thought sufficient for 
her arrival in Virginia. To apply, therefore, for permission to 
land the tea (could it have been obtained) was thought inadviseable, 
since, during the course of such an application, the time allowed 
by the association for importation was running on fast, and their 
correspondents might have been subject to many inconveniencies 
therefrom, in case the ship did not arrive in time ; therefore, it was 
not attempted. Capt. Esten left London very early on the morn- 
ing of the 16th of September, and passed through the Downs the 
next day ; and that no step, which prudence could suggest, might be 
ommitted, he was directed to consult with the committee, and other 
Gentlemen in Virginia, immediately on his arrival, and honestly 
to lay the case before them; and that, if he found it disagreeable 
to the inhabitants that the tea should be landed, stored, or returned 
in the ship, he was then to propose destroying it, but by no means at- 
tempt the landing it without leave. From such a plain and faithful 
narration of facts, and from a conviction of the candour which they 
possess to whom these lines are addressed, J. Norton and sons are 
induced to hope that the imputation of injustice to America will 
cease, that truth will trample over calumny or misrepresentation, 
and that they shall recover that place which they formerly held in 
the esteem of their friends and countrymen in Virginia. 

JOHN NORTON & SONS. 
LONDON, Jan. 5, 1775. 

Since my writing the above, on reading the Virginia Gazette of 
the 24th of November last, it gives me infinite concern to find that 
I have unhappily fallen under the heavy displeasure of the Gentle- 
men of the committee for York and Gloucester counties, by inad- 
vertently shipping two half chests of tea on board the Virginia, 
Howard Esten master, ordered by Mess. Prentis & co. My excuse 
is set forth in the foregoing narration of facts, which I submit 
to the committees in particular, and the publick in general; and 
hope I shall be acquitted from any evil intentions of prejudicing 
a people I have a great esteem for ? and among whom I have 
lived (I may say) the happiest part of my life. A censure also, 
for a supposed contempt of the resolutions entered into by the 



WILLIAM AND MAKY QUARTERLY 219 

worthy members of the late Assembly, respecting the importa- 
tions of tea into Virginia, being passed upon me by the above 
mentioned committee, I must confess that I thought all the re- 
solves made at that time were preparatory only to those intended 
at the general meeting in August; that they were then to receive 
a sanction from the Congress; and that the resolve particularly 
alluded to, in the hurry of business, entirely escaped my notice, 
for which I am heartily sorry. I must sincerely declare, that in 
shipping the tea there was not the least design intended of um- 
brage to the inhabitants of Virginia, or lending an aid to govern- 
ment towards raising a revenue in America; that my avowed prin- 
ciples (which I now publish) are, that the Parliament of Great 
Britain have not the 'least shadow of right to tax America: that 
I never will, directly or indirectly, deviate from these principles, 
which I have always professed, and which ought to govern every 
person that has any regard for the liberty of America; and I 
also farther declare, that, so far from having any connexion with 
the Ministry, my person is even unknown to any of them, and 
that I never was in their presence, except when I attended about 
the copper coinage for Virginia, in which I was employed, instead 
of a better agent. 

JOHN NORTON. 
London, Jan. 16, 1775. 

In answer to an objection made to my charging Mr. Prentis 
the duty on the two half chests of tea in the invoice, it has ever 
been the custom of the house so to do; as by that means the 
whole amount of costs and charges appears to the persons debit, 
in one sum, in their account current. The Captain draws for the 
amount of the duty when he pays the same in Virginia; but, in 
the case of Mr. Prentis, he must now have credit for it. And as 
to the relanding of the tea at Gravesend, I am creditably informed 
(the ship being cleared) it could not have been allowed; bond and 
security having been given at the excise office for the exportation 
thereof, some time before the ship was cleared. 



Mtllmm anb JWarp College 

(Quarterlp JMstorical #lajja?me 



Vol. II. OCTOBER, 1922 No. 4 



FREDERICKSBUKG, HER PEOPLE AND CHARACTERS. 1 
BY ROBERT REID HOWISON. 

Having thus sufficiently introduced the antecedents of the 
"Howison" family and of their home in the Old World, I feel at 
liberty to begin some of the reminiscences of Fredericksburg, 
which has long held, in the public prints of Virginia, the title 
of the "Old Burg/' 

She is not quite as old, in recognized life, as the remains of 
Jamestown and of the island on which they stand. These have 
been taken under the care of the "Society for the Preservation of 
Virginia Antiquities," and it is certain that without that fatherly 
and especially motherly care, the remnant of the once solid old 
chimney and the very ledges of the island itself would have crum- 
bled into ruin. But Fredericksburg is older than Dumfries or 
Richmond, or Norfolk, or Petersburg. She deserves her title. 

The highest science of psychology at present known teaches 
that even after a child is born into this world, self consciousness 
does not immediately come. A period longer or shorter of con- 

iThis is chapter 2 of the autobiography of R. R. Howison. 

Robert Reid Howison was born in Fredericksburg, Va., June 22, 
1820, and died at his country home, Braehead, near Fredericksburg, 
November 1, 1906. He was the tenth of twelve children born to 
Samuel Howison and his wife, Helen MacDonald Moore. The twelve 
were as follows: William Howison, lawyer, unmarried; Neil Mac- 
Donald, naval officer, unmarried; Anne, twice married; John, married; 
Elizabeth, died in infancy; Helen Mary, married; Jane Briggs, mar- 



222 WILLIAM AND MAEY QUARTERLY 

sciousness, and then of semi-consciousness attends the infant 
progress, and is often more complete and protracted than the cor- 
responding period of some of the lower animals. 

But this is what might be expected from the teachings both of 
reason and revelation. It gives confirming strength to the belief 
that both the soul and the body of the infant are derived from the 
parents, and that a preparation, for a life of endless duration, and 
of immortal destiny and duty, is very different from the quickly 
matured preparation for the brief and entirely earthly life of the 
very highest of the lower animal creation. 

I had emerged from unconsciousness, and had learned to utter 
a few words expressing conscious thought, though not in the best 
pronunciation, when the germs of the proclivity to the study of 
history, afterwards so plainly developed, first made their appear- 
ance. I was so nearly infantile that memory alone, in myself, only 
dimly recalls any of the facts. But they are perfectly authenticated 
by testimony. 

Next to our garden paling on the west lay the residence and 
grounds of the ample estate known still as "Kenmore". There 
lived the Scottish family of Mr. Samuel Gordon. He and his 
younger brother, Bazil, were sons of a prosperous landed proprietor 
near Kirkaldbright, a little village which has sent forth many 

ried; Marion Sterling, married; James, married; Robert Reid, mar- 
ried; Samuel Scott, married; Edward Moore, married. 

Robert Reid married Mary Elizabeth Graham, daughter of Samuel 
Lyle Graham, Professor of Oriental Languages in Union Theological 
Seminary, Va. Their children were Helen Judith, unmarried, died 
1920; (Samuel Graham, married Nannie "Watkins Morton; Mary, un- 
married. 

The grandchildren are Margaret Morton, married to J. Brookes 
Smith; Mary Graham, and Nannie Watkins Howison. 

Dr. Howison was twice a lawyer, and twice a minister. At twenty- 
three he relinquished a brilliant law practice to study for the min- 
istry at Union, and on graduating was called to the First Presbyterian 
Church, Staunton, Va. After a year's successful pastorate he suffered 
a nervous breakdown and at command of his physician he resumed 
the practice of law in Richmond. 

Here he continued until severe injuries received in the Capitol 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 223 

successful merchants to America, among whom were Lenox, Mait- 
land and Johnston of New York. 

Bazil Gordon, the younger brother, was at school with a son 
of the celebrated Paul Jones of naval memory who was himself a 
neighbor of the Gordon family. Samuel and Bazil Gordon both 
determined to seek residence and occupation in Virginia. Naturally 
enough, they first thought of Dumfries, where so many Scottish 
colonists had settled and prospered. But their choice finally fell 
upon Falmouth, which was not more than a mile from Fredericks- 
burg, and at the head of the tide-waters of the Rappahannock, 
on the northern side. 

Here they settled themselves about the year 1786, and became 
eminently successful merchants. After accumulating a fine for- 
tune, Samuel bought the Kenmore estate, and abandoned mer- 
chandise. Bazil continued in business, and at his death left to his 
family an estate in varied forms of safe investment which was 
moderately estimated to amount to between two and three millions 
of dollars. His adventures were nearly always successful, but he 
owed much of his success to his native Scottish good sense, his 
perfectly temperate and regular habits, his self-reliance which 
enabled him patiently to wait for results when he had formed his 
plans, and his serene temper, which secured for him friends in 



Disaster, April 27, 1870, compelled his retirement from active work. 
Upon recovery of his health he returned to the ministry, and spent 
twenty-three years preaching, teaching and writing. 

His charges were as follows: .Samuel Davies, 1880-'82; Richmond 
Third, 1882-'88; Culpeper and Orange, 1888-'93; Ashland, 1893-1903. 

During 1890-1903 he taught History in the Frederickshurg College. 

Among other books, Dr. Howison wrote "Predericksburg, Past 
Present and Future," 1880; "A History of the United States," 1892; 
"History of the War Between the States," published serially in the 
Southern Literary Messenger; "A History of Virginia," In two volumes, 
1848. Dr. Howison was the author also of a work entitled "God and 
Creation," which created considerable discussion at the time, due 
to the fact that the author was an independent and fearless thinker. 
In his later years, Dr. Howison prepared this autobiography, of which 
we print herewith, Chapter 2. It is the intention of the editors to 
publish several other chapters of this autobiography. 



224 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

nearly all with whom he came in contact. He died in 1847. 

The "Kenmore" Gordon family consisted of the husband and 
wife, and a number of children sons and daughters all of whom 
married, and from whom very numerous lineal descendants are 
now living in the United States. They were carefully educated, 
and fitted for practical duly, and success in life. Mrs. Samuel 
Gordon was a lady of taste and culture, very fond of reading 
especially of its more solid elements in history and literature. She 
was genial and cordial to those whom she esteemed. She often 
visited my mother, and manifested her kindly spirit to her and 
her children. 

Before I could talk plainly, I had taken so much interest in an 
old school copy of Goldsmith's "History of England',' that I mas- 
tered the names of each king and queen, and connected them with 
the somewhat rude and doubtful pictorial faces given in this now 
antiquated school book. I was specially emphatic and indignant, 
in identifying and naming "Buddy Maywy," the ''bloody Mary/' 

Mrs. Gordon was visiting my mother one forenoon. And 
as we had no special nurse, and I was an infant, it was natural 
that I should be in the parlor near my mother's feet. The old 
copy of Goldsmith was open, and in a short time I had pointed 
out and named the kings and queens, especially "Buddy Maywy." 
Mrs. Gordon was really interested, and expressed surprise that a 
child so young should have so early manifested the love of history. 
After her return home, in a few days, a packet was received directed 
to me, care of my father and mother. On opening it, a number 
of very beautifully executed and colored historical cards were seen, 
each one bearing the name and the best ascertained face of each of 
the kings and queens of England, with a brief sketch in pica type 
of the life of each. The inscription on the inside casing bore my 
name with the words "To the young historian" from Mrs. Gordon. 
These cards were long my treasure and delight. 

It was about a year after this time that I passed through a 
phase of experience in life, through which, of course, all young 
persons pass, but, in most cases, there is reason to believe that 
they pass it without real recognition without active conscious- 
ness of its novelty. I was about three years old, was full of health 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 225 

and good spirits, and was able to talk on all childish subjects. 

One morning, after breakfafst, while sitting quietly on the 
steps of the stairway which led to the chambers above, I became 
vividly conscious that I was "talking to myself." I felt 
troubled and agitated. I tried, but tried in vain, to stop 
this interior talk. But it went on on on passing from one 
subject to another, but never failing to find incessant and constantly 
renewed subjects on which some power within me "talked to itself." 

I changed my position, came down from the steps and walked 
several times quite rapidly up and down the passage, with some 
vague hope that this self-conversation would cease. But I soon 
found that it continued all the time unless when I was sound asleep. 
As the days passed, my* trouble on the subject seemed to fade away- 
But the impressions then made have never left me. Materialism 
became an absurd and impossible hypothesis to me. For me, at 
least, there remained no doubt that the soul was not the body, 
and the body was not the soul. 

An interval of five years occurred between my birth and that 
of the son next born into our family. As my mother's health was 
not strong, and she needed all the quiet and rest that could be 
secured for her, an arrangement was made by which our oldest 
sister Anne took charge of my brother, James (who was only 
one and a half years older than I was), and myself, and under a 
loving invitation the three, attended by a faithful servant, Lucy, 
went, in a hired hack drawn by two horses, to "Somervilla," near 
the Somerville Ford on the Rapidan river. Somervilla was a 
beautiful country seat surrounded by a fertile farm and large 
wooded tract of land in Culpeper County. 

It was the property of James Somerville, a Scottish gentleman 
of considerable property who had married Mary Atwell who was 
a first cousin of my mother and descended as she did from that 
same McDonald grandfather. Mr. Somerville came from a family 
of wealth in Scotland, and a family firmly established in Christian 
profession and life according to the creed and forms of the Pres- 
byterian Church. 

After coming to Fredericksburg, and receiving there the large 
estate devised and bequeathed to him by his uncle born in Scot- 



226 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

land, but for many years resident in Fredericksburg, and who 
died in Port Royal in 1798. Mr. Somerville married, and for some 
years lived in Fredericksburg. His uncle, who was also James 
Somerville, had been three times elected Mayor, and had discharged 
the duties faithfully. The nephew was much esteemed for his 
social and genial qualities. His life was remarkable. 

In Fredericksburg he had yielded too much to an increasing 
fondness for the taste and the effects of Scottish whiskey, and 
when he went with his family to live at his lovely home, known 
as Somervilla, he came more and more under the thraldom of this 
insidious habit. But, although he indulged himself every day, 
he manifested a singular prudence even in resisting the complete 
domination of this appetite. 

He devoted all the early hours of the day up to 12 o'clock 
noon to the skillful management of his farm and his business 
He was sagacious and successful in nearly all of his investments, 
and thus kept his large estate substantially sound, and increasing 
in value. 

On each day, as 12 o'clock approached, he eyed with growing 
appetency the crystal jug containing the finest Scottish whiskey, 
and the tumblers on the table before him. When his tall eight-day 
clock struck 12, he grasped the decanter, and began his potations. 
He was generally in an exalted state of hilarity by 3 o'clock. In 
this condition, his belief in his own prowess was immeasurably 
high, and he openly expressed his opinion concerning all the most 
athletic men of his neighborhood, and declared his ability to "twirl" 
any of them. 

One day about half an hour after 12 o'clock, a respectable 
gentleman came to "Somervilla" to see the owner on business 
relating to a bond. He was so importunate, and had ridden so 
far, that it was deemed best to conduct him into the apartment 
in which Mr. Somerville was. 

That gentleman pleasantly informed his visitor that his known 
habit was that no business matter should be urged upon his at- 
tention after 12' o'clock. The visitor persisted- Warm words were 
uttered on both sides. The Scottish gentleman pronounced a chal- 
lenge to mortal combat. The Virginia gentleman accepted it. Mr. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 227 

Somerville drew from his desk a pair of loaded and primed pistols. 
He conducted his opponent to one corner of the room, and handed 
him the two pistols, giving him his choice. Holding the one not 
chosen, Mr. Somerville walked to the opposite corner and faced his 
opponent. "Now," said he, "when I drop my handkerchief, do 
you fire, and I will fire." 

By this time, some sensible thoughts had passed through the 
mind of the visitor. He found words. "Oh ! Mr. Somerville," he 
said, "have you no thoughts of your family, your wife, and your 
children ?" "Hah," said Mr. Somerville, with a start, "that is true. 
I had not thought of them before. Come, let us shake hands, and 
be friends !" This invitation to peace was cordially accepted. The 
business matter was taken up and promptly settled on honorable 
terms. The visitor joined his host in drinking each to the health 
of the other and then he departed with thanks for a pressing 
invitation to stay longer. 

His life of daily indulgence in undue appetite for Scottish 
whiskey was continued by James Somerville for many years. But 
he never lost the impressions of his youth in favor of the necessity 
for renewal and repentance, and the life in Christ, the Saviour 
of Sinners. 

About the year 1839, a warm and sound interest in personal 
Christianity passed through Culpeper and Orange Counties, and 
found its way to Fredericksburg. Mr. Somerville was deeply im- 
pressed. He attended the religious services. He read the Holy 
Word. He sought his closet for prayer. He yielded to the invita- 
tions of the Spirit of God. He hoped in Christ, and took His 
name upon him, in an open confession- And from that time to 
the hour of his death, he persevered in a course so manifestly Chris- 
tian and consistent that even worldly men were sometimes heard 
to ascribe to a miracle the change in his case. 

Many lineal descendants from his family survive. Among 
them is Professor Samuel Wilson Somerville, of Fredericksburg, 
who has held close relation to the "Home and School" and the 
"College" for the support and education of the children of mis- 
sionaries, and the orphan children of deceased ministers, and who, 
with his family, occupies an attractive residence builded under his 



228 WILLIAM AND MABY QUABTEBLY 

own direction on his lot near the monument and tomb of Mary 
Washington, in view of the rock and chasm on the "Kenmore" 
estate. 

The ties of blood and friendship, between the Somerville family 
and our own, led to many happy meetings and visitings. In lome 
cases arrangements were made for exchanging, for years, the resi- 
dence of the boys and girls of each clan with a view to advantages 
of education in Fredericksburg, and of gaming health and agri- 
cultural knowledge at Somervilla. 

It was to this delightful rural home, "Somervilla/' that my 
sister, Anne, my older brother and myself, attended by the faithful 
''Lucy" of African descent, started at about four o'clock in a re- 
freshing summer morning. We went by Chancellorsville then 
kept by Mr. 'Chancellor, whose notable wife kept an excellent 
table, the pickle from which had, on a previous occasion, been 
keenly enjoyed by our sister. 

We passed up the graded dirt road of the "Swift Eun Gap 
Turnpike Company" passed in sight of "Elmwood," the estate 
and residence of a wealthy Virginia gentleman, named William 
Jones, who was the father of Mrs. Judge St. George Coalter, of 
"Chatham," opposite to Fredericksburg, and who, being left a 
widower and in his 70th year, sought another wife, and found 
one in a very attractive young lady of sixteen years, with more 
than the normal share of beauty and grace and a pair of bright 
dark eyes which looked out from a cheerful soul. From this mar- 
riage a daughter was born so nearly the image of her mother that, 
as she grew up, the parentage spoke for itself. This daughter 
became the wife of Major James Horace Lacy, of Norman-English 
blood. He had been famed as a politician and legislator in Vir- 
ginia, and his style of oratory, in his best moods, was magnetic 
and strong. From this marriage many well known and much 
loved sons and daughters have been born- 

A short distance beyond "Elmwood," our somewhat wearied 
horses stopped at the "Almand Tavern" a wooden building of 
homely look, and somewhat tumbled-down condition, especially as 
to its enclosures and front steps. But we were all too glad to find 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 229 

a resting place and a prospect for dinner to be disposed to find 
fault with the "Almand Tavern/' Only our servant, Lucy, in- 
dulged herself in a few sharp criticisms and comparisons between 
this country inn and its surroundings and her flower-environed 
home in Fredericksburg. 

The dinner spread for us was all that our health and habits 
could have craved. Fat roasted pullets with plenty of egg and 
other appetizing dressings, perfectly fresh vegetables of the best 
kinds, wheat bread, corn bread, delightful butter, cups of skillfully 
prepared coffee, and at last, an apple pie with cold milk just from 
the spring below the hill. After we had dined and had enjoyed 
a brief season of sleep, our horses and driver were refreshed and 
rested. We started a^ain, turning off, however, from the turnpike, 
and making our way through woods well shaded, even though they 
passed through the region known as the "Poison Fields" of Orange. 
We were soon crossing the "Somerville Ford," near a magnificent 
and lofty ledge of Rock on the Eapidan, and in a few minutes we 
were welcomed by the family in the wide and breezy hall, to which 
an ample porch admitted us. 

Our visit covered the part of the summer and fall, ending when 
the closing days of September began to impart to the forests all 
those rich hues for which the wooded regions of North America 
have been distinguished. The impressions made on me even thus 
early in life, by the fields, the orchards, the hills, the river with 
its towering rock, the dam with its darker water above, on which 
floated a small flat bottomed boat that gave us the means of fish- 
ing and excursions, the blacksmith's shop with its bright fires, 
anvil and strokes of the hammer the mill for grinding corn, with 
an appendage of a saw mill for logs and boards, and above all, 
the barns in which worked the great stationary threshing mills 
and machinery moved by horses and mules, driven around and 
around by boys of African descent generally about fourteen or 
fifteen years old the winnowing by the fan, and the gathering 
of the wheat into garners in the barns have retained their fresh- 
ness all these afforded to the young souls from the town sources of 
the purest and most healthful enjoyment. 

The huge rock of which I have spoken rose from the edge of 



230 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

the water, and had a height probably of sixty feet or more. But 
on its frowning face there were several ledges or strong platforms, 
by a skillful use of which a resolute and athletic climber could 
make his way from top to bottom, or from bottom to top. The 
Eapidan was subject to freshets, after protracted rains, and these 
were sometimes so strenuous and violent in their effects that the 
waters thundered over the dam with a voice heard, at a distance 
of many miles, and which agitated the minds even of the quiet resi- 
dents at Somervilla. Several times the dam was carried away, but 
was afterwards restored with added strength by the resolute pur- 
poses of the Scottish owner. It was many years after his death, 
and while the property was owned and occupied by his son, Samuel 
"Wilson Somerville and his family, that a freshet came with so 
much of fury and persistent power that dam, mills and all ma- 
chinery and appurtenances were swept away in a wreck so hope- 
less, that all idea of rebuilding them was abandoned- 

But during the life-time of James Somerville, the floods of 
water were never so destructive as to deprive him of his resolute 
will to up build and repair. The tumbling, rushing currents seemed 
rather to incite him to poetic fervor. Memory retains one of these 
occasions. 

Among the successive teachers employed in his family, to in- 
struct his children and sometimes also several other children and 
young people collected into a school, was a gentleman of uncertain 
age, named Abbott. He was a good scholar and reasonably suc- 
cessful teacher. But he had the misfortune to have a tender and 
susceptible heart not always under the wise control of the head. 
He fell in love with several of the daughters of course in due 
succession and with only one at a time. But, greatly to his 
tribulation, not one of these young maidens received his lover-like 
attentions with the slightest favor. They refused to practice even 
the faintest approaches to the modern forms of gentle flirtation. 
When he whispered of love, they grew cold and distant. He became 
a sad, gloomy, moody man. He wandered in the lanes and the 
woods. His favorite place for sad musings on his disappointment 
was the summit or one of the ledges of the rock over-looking the 
river. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 231 

Few suspected that James Somerville had ever bestowed 
thought on all these movements or their sources. But they knew 
not of the deep fountain of poetic possibility within him. On one 
occasion a succession of summer rains had raised the river. The roar 
of the waters tumbling over the dam was heard. Unheeding this, and 
listening only to his own sad thoughts, Abbott had crossed the 
pond, and was gloomily stretched, at full length, on the rock look- 
ing down on the foaming currents. 

James Somerville saw him, and, yielding to the divine af fllatus, 
instantly composed, in his own mind, this stanza: 

Abbott, beware! 

No longer dare 

To tempt the dangerous flood 

I thought my friend 

His life would end 

On the rock where lovers wooed. 

While the poetry yet had life, in memory, he hastened up to 
the house, and repeated to all of his family whom he could find, this 
soul-moving stanza. In due time, Abbott also made his appear- 
ance, and heard how the poet had been moved, and what words 
had come. In a few weeks, Mr. Abbott took his leave of the family, 
and went his way to other fields of love and teaching. 

Of course I was too young to have any personal knowledge 
of these incidents. But they are fully established by testimony 
not to be questioned. 

When wte returned to our home in Fredericksburg, I have a 
Yivid recollection of my surprise at seeing a cradle near my 
mother's bed, and a small infant sleeping therein. I was told 
that he was a little boy, and was my youngest brother, and that 
my ''nose was broken." Feeling no pain nor fracture in that im- 
portant facial appendage I was unable to comprehend this declara- 
tion; and to this day, no clear light has come to my mind ex- 
plaining the origin of this statement. But I afterwards discovered 
that it was a well understood suggestion in such cases. 

My mother had been in feeble health for some time before her 



232 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

infant was born, and after his birth she did not regain her 
strength, and suffered with a continued fever which threatened 
her life. Her own family, and many loving friends did all that 
the most sedulous care and nursing could do. But others knew 
what I did not then know, that for many weeks, her life trembled 
in the balance. 

Then came manifestations of sincere friendship. John Scott 
of a well known Scottish clan had settled in Freidericksburg as a 
merchant and had gained a good repute and prosperous business. 
His wife, Mrs. Fannie Scott, was widely known by reason of her 
firm and steadfast virtues her courage to befriend the unfortunate 
her zeal in organizing "Ladies' Fairs" and other Christian en- 
terprises, and her almost despotic rulings and managings of the 
young people who patronized or took part in them. The title by 
which she was generally known among them was that of "the old 
queen/ 5 

But though she loved to rule, she loved also to befriend and 
comfort. She was a warm friend of my mother, and now in the 
time of her illness and danger, Mrs. Scott, though she lived in 
the well known residence then and since known as "Scotia," which 
was then worthily filled by her own large family consisting of hus- 
band, sons and daughters, so lovingly and earnestly asked that she 
might be permitted to take the young infant to her home and care 
for him, that, under all the circumstances, her request was recog- 
nized as one not to be rejected. 

Accordingly, my infant brother passed several months of his 
earliest life in the pleasant and happy home of "Scotia." When 
a name was to be given to him, that of "Samuel Scott" was pro- 
posed in our clan, and no dissenting voice was raised. 

The illness of our loved mother was long and critical. For 
many weeks, fever was constantly with her, preying on her native 
strength and menacing her life. Our family physician was Doctor 
James Carmichael. He was skillful and highly esteemed in his 
profession, in all its branches, and was followed by two sons and 
as many grandsons bearing that same name of Carmichael and 
deserving the reputation as physicians and surgeons which they 
gained and held for a large part of a century. 



WILLIAM AND MAST QUARTERLY 233 

The name "Carmichael" is primitively Irish, and has carried 
with it, for two hundred years, the memories of the traits and 
characters of that Emerald Isle the mother of poets, orators, 
statesmen, historians, patriots, freemen, and men of genius and 
of the ebullitions and eccentricities which have so often attended 
genius and checked its highest attainments. 

With no feeling save one of respect and affection for all who 
ever bore the name in Virginia or elsewhere in our country, I 
am liberty to give some facts which illustrate and explain these 
ebullitions. 

Doctor James Carmichael attended on my mother with sedu- 
lous care and skill. He came day after day and watched the symp- 
toms of the persistefH fever, and applied cautiously and gently 
the remedies which his science suggested- All of us, old enough 
to perceive it, noted his anxiety, and we looked for his visits with 
mingled hope and fear. 

One morning we thought our mother was better. When Dr. 
Carmichael arrived, he went to the bedside looked at her face 
looked in her eyes took her wrist in his fingers and felt her pulse. 
A look of relief passed over his features. But these were the first 
and the exact words he uttered : "Well, I am glad to tell you, that 
the devil will not get you this time/' 

She knew well some of his ways. She answered him, "Doctor 
you ought not to talk so. I hope that if it had pleased God to 
take me away from this world, He would have saved me from the 
Evil power you speak of." He shook his head, but a smile 
beamed over his face, as he answered : "I don't know about that. 
Not so certain. Satan is very busy with all of us." 

But he welcomed the symptoms of the favorable crisis and 
the return of strength and he seconded them with so much of skill 
and care, that in a few weeks my mother was able to leave her 
bed. She grew stronger daily, and was soon fully recovered. 

This skilled yet eccentric physician had a large practice and 
was very successful- Everybody believed in him, and trusted him. 
But, though not a case was known in which wilful neglect on his 
part had ever jeoparded life or permanent health in any of his 



234 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

patients, his habits sometimes made the occurrence of such cases 
probable. 

He was generally abstemious and clear in mind. But, at long 
intervals, often more than six months apart, he got into what is 
called both in England and North America a "spree." This 
word is found even in Worcester, and of course in Webster. 

He became unduly elevated by the effects of wine or of other 
worse intoxicants. And when he began, he would spend several 
days sometimes a week in performing vagaries of the most 
eccentric character. He did not become morose or quarrelsome. 
His moods always tended to the hilarious and the ridiculous. Yet, 
it is not to be denied that, in them, he occasionally performed 
feats very annoying, and destructive to the peace of well ordered 
society. 

In those days, he always found some companions in Fredericks- 
burg, ready to countenance and join him in his revels. Their 
cherished amusement was to run through the streets about mid- 
night, ringing at every door which had a door-bell, and disappear- 
ing long before man, or mistress, or servant, or child could open 
the door. 

In some cases the doctor stopped at the houses of some families 
in which he practised, and after knocking for admittance, if he did 
not gain it, actually broke out one of the lower panels of the 
front door, and crept in. In such cases, his friends generally suc- 
ceeded in causing his "spree" to come to what he regarded as a 
premature end. 

Once while he and a boon-companion whom I am entirely un- 
able to identify except as one "Jemmie Gregory" were in a high 
frolic near the bridge across the Eappahannock which connected 
Falmouth with the road leading northward from Fredericksburg, 
they saw two middle-aged ladies dressed with more than ordinary 
care, who were walking across it to Falmouth. A wagon was near 
the two hilarious gentlemen- They borrowed from the wagoner 
two currycombs. Each took one, and they set off, with such speed 
as their potations would allow, to catch the ladies and give them 
a lesson against the love of fine dressing. Fortunately these 
ladies had passed them, and knowing something of their ways, 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 235 

had looked back, and, seeing them coming each brandishing a 
curry-comb fled at full speed and with screams and cries drew 
the aid of some brave man on the Falmouth side who came to 
their rescue. The pursuers of the ladies stopped in time, turned 
back and retreated, and the Falmouth man, having a shrewd sus- 
picion as to their persons and condition, forbore to chase them. 

During these seasons of festive interregnum Doctor Car- 
michaePs patients were carefully attended by one or more of the 
other physicians of the town, according to a comity well under- 
stood. He would never visit a patient while he was, in the 
slightest degree, affected by intoxicants. After his "spree" had 
spent its force, and it was known where he was, Mrs. Carmichael 
a lady of resolute Spirit and tact would go after him, and 
generally succeeded in inducing him to accompany her to their 
home. But if she found him obstinate, she returned home, and 
sent a faithful female servant of African descent to look after 
him. This skilled domestic was never known to fail to conduct 
him to his home. Here he would remain, quiet and thoughtful, 
and frequently reading the Bible until he was entirely himself 
again. 

One more incident must be narrated which brought serious 
trouble to him and one of his cherished friends. This incident 
probably occurred before my birth, but it is fully proved. It was 
circumstantially related in my presence and in that of Howson H. 
Wallace, a highly esteemed merchant of Fredericksburg by John 
Crump who not only witnessed it, but bore a part of its evil 
effects- 
Mr. Crump had come with his pleasant family wife, sons and 
daughters, from the piedmont country on the Rapidan to reside 
in Fredericksburg. Their genial qualities soon gained for them 
many friends. The office of Inspector of flour was bestowed upon 
Mr. Crump, and its duties were diligently performed by him during 
many years. He was witty and humorous in conversation. He 
was free from unduly convivial habits. But he loved cards, whist, 
loo, and all the train. He and Dr. Carmichael were fast friends. 
At that time, the members and adherents of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church and congregation in Fredericksburg were not 
BO numerous nor BO cultured and wealthy as they now are. Their 



236 WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTEBLY 

church was a large framed building then located just beyond the 
grave yard which has since been converted into the shaded and 
beautiful public resort kown as the "Hurkamp Park." The monu- 
ments and grave-slabs, and (as far as known) the bodies of the 
dead have all been removed. 

Our Methodist brethren at that time often held protracted 
meetings with a special view to revival of sluggish Christians and 
awakening and conversion of impenitent sinners. These scenes 
were often attended by several ministers and the services were 
varied by loud and exciting sermons, deep responses in prayer, 
alarming appeals, groans, shrieks, shoutings and bodily contortions- 
As the interest increased, mourners and seekers were invited to 
come into a part of the church in front of the pulpit cushioned 
rail. This part was generally covered with clean straw, so as to 
prevent the clothing and the persons of the many who crowded 
this place from suffering with soiling or bruising. 

In truth, a well-established tradition prevailed which has often 
come to my ears, though I cannot personally vouch its truth, that 
on one occasion when unusual numbers of awakened men, women 
and well grown children had cast themselves down in all the space 
covered by clean straw, one of the most zealous of the church- 
officers shouted in stentorian sounds the words: "More straw! 
bring more straw here! Souls are perishing here for the want 
of more straw !" 

Whatever view may be taken of those religious services by the 
staid and grave admirers of order and quiet, especially in the 
sanctuary of God, it is certain that these revival scenes were 
often followed by numerous additions of members to the visible 
church of Christ, and that these members afterwards adorned the 
doctrine of God their Saviour in all things, and led lives of con- 
sistent Christian zeal and purity. It is through such scenes that 
the Methodist Episcopal Church has borne the banner of the Cross 
over hill and valley until she has attained the numbers, the 
strength and the influence which give to her the leading position 
in the march of pure Christianity in the United States. 

But it was one of the inevitable results of such scenes to excite 
in some of the people of Fredericksburg a disposition to seek mere 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 237 

amusement in witnessing them. It was in this mood that Dr. 
James Carmichael who had just tasted the opening joys of a 
"spree" came to John Crump, and urged him to accompany him 
to the church promising him that he would see something worth 
seeing. In an unguarded hour, Mr. Crump assented and went 
with him. 

They arrived just as the mourners began to pour into the straw 
covered space in front of the pulpit, and just as the mingled 
voices singing, shouting and praying varied by appeals from 
the ministers were most exciting. 

They had pressed through the crowd and were close to this 
space. Of course no one sought to stop them, though they were 
seen and identified. Suddenly Mr. Crump saw the doctor pass 
into the mourners' space, and begin to wave his hands and join in 
the singing. He drew from the ample pockets of his professional 
overcoat handful after handful of the strongest Scottish snuff made 
from pulverized tobacco and threw them broadcast over the mourn- 
ers, sometimes varying his aim and sending many successive hand- 
fuls into the midst of the crowded congregation- 

For a moment, amazement stilled every sound. But it was 
only for a moment. The potent Scotch snuff began to work. Tre- 
mendous sneezes burst from every part of the house. At first they 
were separated claps of thunder. But quickly they united, and a 
prolonged roll of the startling sound of continuous sneezing in 
every form of noise made by that resistless movement of the 
mucuous membrane of the human soul and body shook the entire 
pace within the church, and threatened to shake the roof itself. 

John Crump in a state of mind not to be described made for 
the door. The doctor having exhausted all of his tobaccco ammu- 
nition, sought likewise to escape. But several stalwart men in 
the congregation, pursued and seized them. Others ran for the 
police. In a short time, both of these gentlemen were in jail, 
and passed the night there. 

They were carried before the Mayor the next morning. He 
was a sensiible and well balanced man. He grasped the situation 
instantly. After hearing so much of the testimony as was needful, 
he delivered to the culprits a serious lecture- He imposed moderate 



238 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

fines on each but differing in amount, because of the difference 
in offence; put them under recognisances to keep the peace and 
be of good behavior for a year, and then released them. 

The conduct of the church officers was admirable. They per- 
suaded their people to be silent on the subject. Gradually its 
memories grew dim, but were not forgotten by the two most 
prominent actors. Mr. Crump asserted his own entire innocence. 
Yet some accessorial spirit was imputed to him. 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 239 



THE DEMOCEATIC SOCIETIES OF 1793 AND 1794 IN 
KENTUCKY, PENNSYLVANIA AND VIRGINIA. 1 

FELLOW -CITIZEN. 

THE Democratic Society of Kentucky have directed us to 
transmit to you the Address and Remonstrance which ac- 
company this letter. The subject of those papers is highly inter- 
esting to the Western People. We flatter ourselves that the meas- 
ures recommended in the Address will meet your approbation; 
and that you will exert your influence to induce your neigh- 
bouring fellow-citizens to give their sanction to the Remonstrance. 
The Remonstrance when signed, may be transmitted to the 
representative in Congress from your district, or to any other 
member of that body, delegated from the Western Country. It is 
intended that a decision upon this subject should be obtained 
during the present Session of Congress, and to effect this, it is 
necessary that the Remonstrance should be presented as soon as 
possible. 

The inclosed Resolution of the Democratic society is one on 
which we are directed to request your sentiments; and should 
you approve it we promise ourselves that you will assist in carrying 
it into effect- 

WILLIAM MURRAY, \ 

JAMES HUGHES, n 

JAMES BROWN, Committee of 

JAMES MOORE, Correspondence 

ROBERT TODD, 

December 31, 1793. 
To George Muter 

"RESOLVED, That it will be proper to make an attempt 
in a peaceable manner, to go with an American bottom properly 
registered and cleared, into the sea through the channel of the 



iThese documents are printed from manuscripts in the Library ot 
Congress. 



240 WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 

Mississippi; that we may either procure an immediate acknowl- 
edgment of our right from the Spaniards; or if they obstruct us 
in the enjoyment of that right, that we may be able to lay before 
the Federal Government, such unequivocal proofs of their having 
done so, that they will be compelled to say, whether they will 
abandon or protect the inhabitants of the western country." 

26 

To the Inhabitants of the United States West of the Allegany and 
Apalachian Mountains. 

Fellow Citizens. 

The Democratic Society of Kentucky having had under con- 
sideration the measures necessary to obtain the exercise of your 
right to the free navigation of the Mississippi, have determined 
to address you upon that important Topic. In so doing, they 
think, that, they only use the undoubted right of Citizens to consult 
for their common welfare. This measure is not dictated by 
party or faction, it is the consequence of unavoidable necessity. 
It has become so, from the neglect shewn by the general Govern- 
ment, to obtain for those of the Citizens of the United States, 
who are interested therein, the Navigation of that Eiver. 

In the Present age, when the rights of man have been fully 
investigated and declared, by the voice of Nations, and, more 
particularly, in America, where those rights were first developed 
and declared, it will not be necessary to prove, that, the free 
Navigation of the Mississippi is the natural rights of the Inhabi- 
tants of the Country watered by its streams. It cannot be believed, 
that the beneficent God of Nature would have blessed this Country 
with unparalleled fertility, and furnished it with a number of 
navigable streams, and that, that fertility should be consumed 
at home, and those streams should not convey its superabundance 
to other climes. Far from it : for if we examine the wise diversity 
of the Earth as to Climate and production, Lands, seas and Eivers 
we must discover the glorious plan of infinite beneficence to unite 
by this exchange of their surplus, various Nations and connect 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 241 

the ends of the Earth, in the bands of commerce and mutual 
good offices. From the Everlasting decrees of Providence, then, 
we derive this right: And must be criminal either to surrender 
or suffer it to be taken from us, without the most arduous struggles. 
But this right is ours, not only from nature but compact. We 
do not mean to urge this, as if a compact could give an additional 
sanction to a natural right; but to shew that our claim is derived 
from every source, which can give it validity- The Navigation 
of the Mississippi was solemnly given and confirmed, by great 
Britain, to the Citizens of the United States, by the provisional 
articles entered into, at Paris, between the two Nations. More 
than Eleven years have since elapsed, during which we have been 
denied the exercise of a right, founded upon such irrefragible 
grounds. What has been done by the former or present Govern- 
ment, during that period, on our behalf ? In the former, we have 
been able to learn of no attempt to procure from the King of 
Spain, even an acknowledgement of our right. Repeated memo- 
rials were presented to Congress upon this Subject, but they 
were treated with a neglect bordering on contempt. They were 
laid upon the Table, there to rest in endless oblivion. Once indeed, 
we know, this Subject was introduced into Congress, under the 
former Government; but it was by an unwarrantable and dis- 
graceful proposition to barter away our right. The Proposition 
was not adopted; the attempt being rendered abortive by the 
Spirited and patriotic opposition of a part of the Union. The 
time at length came, when the voice of the people called for a 
change in the General Government; and the present Constitution 
of the United States was adopted. We then flattered ourselves that 
our rights would be protected ; for we were taught to believe, that 
the former loose and weak confederation having been done away, 
the new Government would possess the requisite energy. Memo- 
rials upon the subject were renewed, six years have passed away 
and our right is not yet obtained. Money is to taken from us by 
an odious and oppressive Excise: but the means of procuring it, 
by the exercise of our just right, is denied. In the mean while 
our Brethren, on the Eastern Waters, possess every advantage 
which Nature or contract can give them. Nay, we do not know 



242 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

that even one firm attempt to obtain it has been made. Alas! 
Is the Energy of our Government not to be exerted against our 
Enemies ? Is it all to be reserved for her Citizens ? 

Experience, Fellow Citizens, has shown us that the general 
Government is unwilling, that we should obtain the navigation 
of the River Mississippi. A local policy appears to have an undue 
weight in the Councils of the Union- It seems to be the object of 
that Policy to prevent the population of this country : which would 
draw from the Eastern States their industrious Citizens. This 
conclusion inevitably follows from a consideration of the measures 
taken to prevent the purchase of and settlement of the lands bor- 
dering on the Mississippi. Among those measures, the unconsti- 
tutional interferance, which rescinded sales, by one of the States 
to private Individuals, makes a striking object. And, perhaps, 
the fear of a successful rivalship in every Article of their Exports 
may have its weight. But if they are not unwilling to do us justice, 
they are at least regardless of our rights and welfare. We have 
found prayers and supplications of no avail, and should we con- 
tinue to load the Table of Congress with Memorials, from, a part 
only, of the Western Country, it is too probable, they would meet 
with a fate, similar to those which have been formerly presented. 
Let us, then, all unite our endeavors in the common cause. Let 
all join, in a firm and manly remonstrance to the President and 
Congress of the United States, stating our just and Undoubted 
right to the Navigation of the Mississippi, remonstrating against 
the conduct of Government with regard to that right which must 
have been occasioned by local policy or neglect and demanding of 
them speedy and effectual exertions for its attainment. We cannot 
doubt, that you will cordially and unanimously join in this measure. 
It can hardly be necessary to remind you, that considerable quanti- 
ties of Beef, Pork, flour, Hemp, Tobacco &c the produce of this 
Country remain on hand for want of purchasers, or are sold at in- 
adequate prices. Much greater quantities might be raised, if the 
Inhabitants were encouraged by the certain sale, which the free 
navigation of the Mississippi would afford. An additional in- 
crease of those articles and a greater variety of produce and manu- 
factures would be supplied, by means of the encouragement, which 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 243 

the attainment of that great object would give to Immigration. 
But it is not only your own rights, which you are to regard. Re- 
member that your posterity have a claim to your exersions to obtain 
and secure that right. (Let not your memory be stigmatized with 
a neglect of duty)- Let not History record, that the Inhabitants 
of this beautiful country lost a most invaluable right and half 
the benefits bestowed upon it, by a bountiful Providence, through 
your neglect and supineness. The present crisis is favourable. 
Spain is engaged in a war, which requires all her forces. If the 
present golden opportunity be suffered to pass without advantage, 
and she shall have concluded a peace with France, we must then 
contend against her undivided strength. 

But, what may be* the event of the proposed application is still 
uncertain. We ought therefore to be, still, upon our guard and 
watchful to seize the first favourable opportunity to gain our object. 
In order to this, our Union should be as perfect and lasting as 
possible. We propose, that Societies should be formed, in con- 
venient Districts, in every part of the Western Country, who 
shall preserve a correspondence, upon this and every other subject 
of general concern. By means of these Societies we shall be enabled 
speedily to know what may be the result of our endeavours, to 
consult upon such further measures, as may be necessary, to pre- 
serve Union, and finally by these means to secure success. 

Remember that it is a common cause, which ought to unite 
us, that, that cause is indubitably just, that ourselves and posterity 
are interested, that the Crisis is favourable, and that it is only 
by Union, that the object can be atchieved. The obstacles are 
great, and so ought to be our efforts; Adverse fortune may attend 
us, but it shall never dispirit us. We may for a while exhaust our 
Wealth and Strength, but until the all important object is procured, 
we pledge ourselves to you, and let us all pledge ourselves to each 
other, that our Perseverance and our firmness will be inexhaustable. 
JOHN BRECKINRIDGE 
Chairman 

December 13th 1793. 
Teste 

Thomas Todd > Clks. 
Thomas Bodley 



I 



244 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 



TO THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS OF THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA- 

The Remonstrance of the Citizens West of the Allegany Mountains. 
Respectfully sheweth. 

THAT Your Remonstrants are entitled by Nature and by 
stipulation, to the undisturbed Navigation of the river 
Mississippi, and consider it a right inseparable from their prosper- 
ity. That in colonizing this distant and dangerous desart, they 
always contemplated the free enjoyment of this right, and con- 
sidered it as an inseparable appendage to the country they had 
sought out, had fought for, and acquired. That for a series of 
years during their early settlement, their petitions to government 
to secure this right, were answered by its alledged weakness, and 
your Remonstrants taught to expect, that the time was approaching 
fast, when both power and inclination would unite to establish 
it on the firmest grounds. In this anxious expectation they waited, 
and to the insolence of those who arrogated its exclusive exercise, 
they patiently submitted, till the government of America had so 
strengthened itself as to hold out an assurance of future pro- 
tection to all its citizens, and of redress for all their wrongs. 

That protection has not been extended to us, we need only 
refer to our present situation, and that that situation has not been 
concealed from, or unknown to, Congress, we appeal to its archives. 
We have, without ceasing, deplored to you our degraded situation, 
and burdened you with our humble petitions and requests. But 
alas! we still experience, that the strong nerved government of 
America, extends its arm of protection to all the branches of the 
union, but to your Remonstrants. That it is competent to every 
end, but that single one, by which alone it can benefit us; the 
protection of our Territorial rights. It is competent to exact 
obedience ; but not to make that return which can be the only just 
and natural exchange for it. 

Long have your Remonstrants been anxiously in quest of the 
obstacles that have stood in your way, to the establishment of this 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 245 

our right; and as long has their pursuit been fruitless. Formal 
and tardy negociations have no doubt been often projected, and 
have as often miscarried. It is true, some negociations were once 
attempted, that were neither formal nor tardy, and gave an early 
shock to our encreasing population and to our peace of mind; but 
your Remonstrants are constrained to be of opinion, that the neglect 
or local policy of American councils, has never produced one single 
real effort to procure this right- Could the Government of America 
be for ten years seriously in pursuit of the establishment of a 
grand Territorial right, which was arrogantly suspended, and 
return to that quarter of the union to whom it was all-important, 
but an equivocal answer ? We think it high time that we should be 
thoroughly informed ctf the situation on which your negociations, 
if any, have left this right; for apathy itself has grown hopeless 
from long disappointed expectation. 

Your Eemonstrants yield not in patriotism to any of their 
fellow-citizens : but patriotism, like every other thing, has its 
bounds. We love those states from which we were all congregated, 
and no event (not even an attempt to barter away our best rights) 
shall alien our affections from the individual members who com- 
pose them: But attachment to governments cease to be natural, 
when they cease to be mutual. To be subjected to all the burthens, 
and enjoy none of the benefits arising from government, is what 
we will never submit to. Our situation compels us to speak plainly. 
If wretchedness and poverty await us, it is of no concern to us how 
they are produced. We are gratified in the prosperity of the 
Atlantic states, but would not speak the language of truth and 
sincerity, were we not to declare our unwillingness, to make any 
sacrifices to it, when their importance and those sacrifices result 
from our distresses. If the interest of Easterp America requires 
that we should be kept in poverty, it is unreasonable from such 
poverty to exact contributions. The first, if we cannot emerge 
from, we must learn to bear; but the latter, we never can be 
taught to submit to. 

From the General Government of America, therefore, your 
Remonstrants now ask protection, in the free enjoyment of the 
navigation of the river Mississippi, which is withheld from them 



246 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

by the Spaniards. We demand it as a right which you have the 
power to invest us with, and which not to exert, is as great a 
breach of our rights, as to withhold. We declare, that nothing can 
retribute us for the suspension or loss of this inestimable right. 
We declare it to be a right which must be obtained; and do also 
declare, that if the General Government will not procure it for us, 
we shall hold ourselves not answerable for any consequences that 
may result from our own procurement of it. The God of nature 
has given us both the right and means of acquiring and enjoying 
it; and to permit a sacrifice of it to any earthly consideration, 
would be a crime against ourselves, and against our posterity. 

Danville January 6th 1793 2 

Gentlemen 

In obedience to your request & in duty to my fellow Citizens I 
shall briefly state to you my sentiments upon the impt subject 
submitted to my consideration. 

The resolution of your Society is in my opinion not only 
proper but indispensible in the procurement of that right it 
has for its object. 

My reasons for approving the resolutions are these. I consider 
it the duty of those who complain of a grievance to show where 
it exists, that the remedy may be apportioned to the disease. We 
have hitherto complained of the infraction of a right which Nature 
and compact had ceded to us, this complaint cannot (unless we 
adopt the resolve of your Society) be fully supported, admitting 
that the Spanish Government have restrained individuals in the 
exercise of commerce thro the Channell of the Mississippi, it does 
not follow as a consequence that our National rights were thereby 
infringed, for whoever has the most superficial Knowledge of com- 
mercial intercourse among Nations must know that certain rules are 
and ought to be established for their reciprocal benifit. Here- 
tofore it appears to have been the Practice for individuals to emerge 
from this Country on commercial enterprizes without a single 



2As this letter refers to the remonstrance of December 13, 1793, the 
date in the letter must be a mistake for 1794. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 247 

Muniment of any kind to shew what they were or to whom they 
belonged, such an omission the most shortsighted Policy wold con- 
demn. For in order to legalize trade between Nations, it is as 
necessary to have the sanction of our own laws as the seal of the 
Soverign with whom we traffic, and in Order to evince both or either 
of these such public Acts of Notoriety are necessary as contract, 
immemorial usage or the Laws of Nations require, those defects 
will be removed by carrying the resolve of your Society into effect, 
& if the right of navigation should then be denied to us, then & 
not before ought our complaints to begin. It may be infered from 
my last sentence, at what period I approve of a remonstrance and 
shall for perspicuity, that I think a remonstrance prior to the 
legal demand of tlfe Navigation in the manner proposed by the 
resolution, would be premature. 

The remonstrance in the General meets with my hearty con- 
currence, it is laudable and spirited, and when the necessary pre- 
paratory steps to its proper introduction are taken, I shall cheer- 
fully annex my signature and as many more as my influence can 
command thereto, in the interim I shall do nothing to impede its 
operations. Any services I can render to promote the resolve, are 
at the command of the Society, 
I am 
Gentlemen 

With high Esteem 
Your respectful Servant 
James G. Hunter 
To the Committee 
of Correspondence 
of Democratic Society. 

Scott County January the 19th 1794. 
Fellow Citizens 

Having Eeceived your Address to the Inhabitants of 
Western America, and your Remonstrance to the President and 
Congress of the United States and called a meeting expressly for 
that purpose, we laid them before our Society. After maturely 
considering the Address we conceived it very necessary and ex- 
treamly well calculated for the purpose of rousing the lethargic 



248 WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 

Spirits of our fellow Citizens in unanimously joining in your 
Spirited remonstrance. Your Remonstrance was also accorded to 
and distributed among the persons we conceived best qualified from 
inclination and influence to render the most service to your Spirited 
undertaking. Your Resolve with respect to the vessell properly 
Cleared and Registered to pass down the Mississippi met with con- 
siderable opposition and we were obliged to let it ly on the Table 
for further discussion, from your Democratic Bretheren we are 
with 

esteem your fellow 
Citizens 

Robt- Johnston \ Committee of 
Richd. Henderson ^Correspondence 
Bartlett Collins ) for Scott County 

To the Corresponding Committee of Kentucky for the Meeting of 
Fayette in Lexington. 

Washington (in Pennsylvania) April 8th 

1794 
Citizen Brakinridge 

On the 24th ultimo, a form of a Remonstrance drawn up by 
the Democratic Society of Kentucky, was laid before the Demo- 
cratic Society of this place, by David Bradford, our Vice-President. 
Several of the members were opposed to the adoption of the precise 
form, as inapplicable in all respects to the Washington Democratic 
Society, but rather suited the people of the Western Country 
generally, and in one particular, to the people of Kentucky only; 
however so earnest were a majority to remonstrate before the 
present session of Congress would rise, and others in order to 
convince the people of Kentucky that we feel ourselves the same 
people with them in many of the most important political con- 
siderations, the form so presented, was adopted and signed by 
the President of the society and transmitted under cover to the 
President of the United States and a duplicate thereof to Genl. 
William Irvine, a member in the House of Representatives, for this 
State, in order to be laid before Congress, in case the President 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 249 

should omit laying the one presented to him before that body. You 
Sir, may assure the Democratic Society of Kentucky that the 
Democratic Society of Washington will be at all times happy in 
communicating to them, or receiving from them such communica- 
tions as may tend to procure and establish both our and their na- 
tional and personal Rights. 

If this Letter should happily reach you, we shall be glad to 
know in future, where to address our communications for your 
Society. Yours for this may be addressed to Citizen James Mar- 
shel, President of the Democratic Society of Pennsylvania, in 
Washington County. 

The officers of this Society are 

James* Marshal President 

David Bradford Vice-President 

William McCluney Secretary 

William Hoge Treasurer 

David Redick 

Absolem Baird 



Joseph Penticost 



Corresponding Committee 



John Marshal 
Gabriel Blakeney 

we are Citizen President with Respect & 
Esteem your Fellow Citizens 

David Redick 

A Baird 

J Penticost 

J. Marshal 

Gabl. Blakeney 
President 

and members of the 
Democratic Society of Kentucky. 

To the Democratic Society of Lexington 

/ 9th May 1794. 
Citizens 

Your most pleasing answer to my fortunate address has been 
handed to me by Citizen Campbell. The obliging & flattering 
things which it contains, have filled me with the most lively 



250 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

gratitude, & would increase my zeal, & my attachment to the 
interests of your Country if those sentiments were susceptible of 
an increase. 

I have read with the same sensibility the report of your Com- 
mittee & can not but applaud to the wisdom of the motives which 
have dictated it. I will communicate those two pretious pieces 
to the Executive Council. Although not official papers, they will 
not be the less favorably received, being the authentic porofs of all 
I will advance upon the favorable dispositions of the inhabitants of 
Kentucky, towards the French Republic, their sincere and continual 
prayers for the success of her arms, & the universal Joy which I 
have seen exprest in every quarter at the announce of her different 
victories. 

Citizens, I go with the firm assurance that my Steps with 
the Constituted powers of the Republic will be crowned with Suc- 
cess. Was I deceived in that hope, I have still the resource of 
making an attempt on the minds of the head men of the Trading 
& maritime Towns, & their patriotic Societies. Why should not 
I have the luck of that fanatic priest, whose name I have forgot, 
who preached in France & the other States of Europe for the 
Conquest of the Holy Land. Louisiana & its wretched inhabitants 
are assuredly more interesting than that barren Country: The 
Spaniards who defend the Mississippi are more worthy of Contempt 
than The Ottoman ; & the French of the eighteenth Century, freed 
from the yoke of Despotism, Superstition, & religious fanat- 
icism, burn with the Divine fire & sacred enthusiasm which Liberty 
inspires. Subscriptions will be opened & immediately filled up, & 
Thousands of brave patriots will present themselves for that suberb 
& truly Holy Expedition. 

Citizens, Receive these new assurances of my zeal, activity, 
perseverance, & punctuality to inform you, as often as possible 
of every Circumstance relative to my Mission. 

Salus in Patria 

August Lachaise 8 

sFor references to Lachaise see Selections from the Draper collection 
to elucidate the proposed French expedition under George Rogers Clark 
against Louisiana in 1793, 1794. Amer. Hist. Assn. Report 1896 v. 1, 
p. 930-1107. 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 251 

At a meeting of the Democratic Society at the State house on 
Monday the 12th of May 1794. 

Mr. Bradford in the Chair 
Levi Todd Clerk pro Tern 

The Society adjourned until Tomorrow at Eleven o'clock 
to meet this place. 
Teste Levi Todd. 

The Committee appointed to superintend the printing of Demo- 
cratic Publications, Report, 

That they have attended to that Business, and have received 
the Printers Account of Ten Pounds Six Shillings for his Services ; 
and now lay it before the Society. 



Lexington, May 13th 1794. 

At a numerous meeting of the Citizens of this State at this 
place Mr- Campbell Appointed to the Chair. 

On Motion ; Resolved, that the Citizens this State present, may 
be invited to give this [illegible] and join themselves with us, in 
our deliberations. 

John Bradford was appointed Clerk protem. 

On motion Resolved that whin this meeting adjourn that they 
adjourn until next Saturday week at 10-Clock in the Morning 
to meet at this place. 

That Rob. Breckenridge & Geo. Nicholas, Rob Johnson be 
appointed a Committee to take such means to make the sd. meet- 
ing known to the Citizens of this State. 

At a meeting of the Democratic Republican Society of Prince Wm. 4 
held at the Court house of the said County on Saturday the 7th 
day of June 1794. 

Present, Twenty two members 

Resolved unanimously that the System of Politicks pursued in the 
present session of Congress by Richard Bland Lee the representa- 

Prince William Co.. Va. 



252 WILLIAM AITO MAEY QUARTERLY 

tive for this district is such as in the opinion of this Society 
ought to meet the most pointed disapprobation of his constituents 
and that the said Eichard Bland Lee as a public character is alto- 
gether unworthy of the future confidence of Good Republicans. 
Resolved, (Eighteen member voting in the affirmative) that this 
Society conceives it the duty of every Friend to democracy when 
a person shall come forward as a Candidate for a post of Profit 
or honor if he has heard any such person deliver sentiments 
Antidemocratical to make the same public. 

Resolved unanimously as the opinion of this Society that it is in- 
compatible with the genuine principles of republicanism that offices 
of high trust and great emolument should be heaped on the same 
person. 

Resolved as the opinion of this Society that it is contrary to the 
Spirit of the Constitution that the Judges of the Supreme Court 
should be permitted to accept offices emanating from and at the 
disposal of the President as it has a tendency to give the Execu- 
tive an undue influence and to destroy the Independency of the 
Judges. 

Resolved unanimously that as the chief Judge is by the Constitu- 
tion to preside on an impeachment of the President the appoint- 
ment of him to any additional office that may be in the gift of 
the President is peculiarly improper. 

Resolved unanimously that as treaties are the Supreme Law of 
the Land it is improper that Judges be appointed to make such 
treaties for it has ever been held as a true principle in all republican 
Governments that it is improper for the same person to make and 
expound the Law- 
Resolved therefore unanimously that for these reasons this 
Society disapprove of the appointment of John Jay chief Judge 
of the Supreme Court of the United States as Envoy extraordinary 
to the Court of Great Britain. 

(Signed) Geo. Graham President 
A Copy 

Test. Jno. Williams Secy. 



WILLIAM AND MAEY QUARTERLY 253 

Dumfries, June 9th 1794= 
Citizens, 

We the Committee of Correspondence of the Democratic repub- 
lican Society of Prince William in Virginia having Seen in the 
public prints your Constitution and part of your subsequent pro- 
ceedings and most heartily Concurring with you in your laudable 
endeavors to promote the general good of our Country do therefore 
propose that a Correspondence may henceforth be Carried on be- 
tween us for the purposes directed by our Constitutions. We here- 
with, present you with a Copy of our Constitution and Sundry 
resolutions and proceedings which have resulted from our institu- 
tion. It will at all times afford us satisfaction to receive from you 
any Communications wliich you may Deem expedient to make and 
to further as far as we can whatever may tend to the public good. 
By order of the Committee 

George Brooke Chairman. 

At a meeting of the Democratic Society for the County of Fay- 
ette held at the State House in Lexington on Thursday the 4th of 
August 1794. 

John Breckinridge Chairman 
Present Members 

A Letter from Augt. Lachaise in Ansr. to the Address & re- 
port of a Comee. of this Society was read. 

A Letter from the Democratic Society of Washington County 
Pennsylvania read- 

A Letter from Demo. Society prince William Virginia Read. 
Whereupon 

Resolve No. 1 read & agd to & jl 
Resolve No. 2 read & agd to /Unanimously 
Resolve No. 3 read & agd to / 

Society went into Comee of the whole on the subject of the 
Navigation of the Mississippi. 

Mr. Campbell in the Chair 

Repd No 4. agd to. Mr. Campbell, Mr. Coburn, Mr. Johnson, 
Mr. Patterson & Mr. Smith 

No. 5 agd. No. 6 agd to, Jno Coburn, Js Stewart, Alex. Mc- 
Gregor Jno Bradford & P Caldwell. 



254 WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 

Printer requested to publish the proceedings. 
Chairman to request the attendance of Members 
adgd til Stated meeting 3 o'Clock. 

Citizen 8 

Your address to the Democratic Society, has been received, and 
became the subject of their consideration: In that address you 
were pleased to signify your intention of visiting your fellow citi- 
zens in France, who are now gloriously engaged in the cause of 
Freedom, and the happiness of the whole human race. We regret 
our separation, and lament the occasion, tho we applaud the motive 
and acknowledge it consistent with those sentiments of ardent 
affection so often intimated by you for your countrymen ; and while 
we love the man that sympathizes with bleeding France, we admire 
the sublime virtue which is not checked by any distance, difficulties, 
or dangers, from joining the standard of Freedom. 

The impediments to the Scheme (in which you had been des- 
tined to act an important part) for removing the Shackles created 
by a Despot that prevent our uninterrupted use of the river Mis- 
sissippi, our natural right, as well as a right obtained by cession, 
we do not take a retrospective view of, without receiving those im- 
pressions of concern, that naturally flow from a knowledge of Op- 
pression and injustice, imposed on a people who have a right to be 
free, and altho' there have been obstructions to this first design 
contemplated, we are not yet without hopes, that the brave and gen- 
erous Republic of France, of which you are a Citizen, will not lose 
sight of effecting the possession of it, and thereby extend from her 
bountiful hand, compleat happiness to us and to Millions yet un- 
born. "We are the more solicitous for this event, as they are the 
only people on earth whose sensations of freedom, vibrate in per- 
fect unison with our own, wherefrom we are flattered, that per- 
petual amity and affection will subject between us, without a tran- 
sient cloud of dissatisfaction interrupting its reciprocity. 

Accept Citizen our thanks for your friendly disposition to- 
wards our interests, and be assured, we wish you a safe and speedy 

sprobably to Lachaise, In answer to hit; letter mentioned in the 
proceedings of the meeting of Aug. 4, 1794. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 255 

passage to our friends and brethren in France, and that you may 
there act a distinguished part, in healing the wounds of your coun- 
try, and substantiate the freedom thereof, either by your exertions 
within its own limits, or in any other quarter where the wisdom of 
her councils may direct. 

RESOLVED that the coresponding Committee be requested to 
open a correspondence, with such persons as they may think proper, 
residing within So. Western Territory respecting the navigation of 
the Eiver Mississippi, in order to obtain the joint cooperation of 
the citizens of that Territory in our attempt to obtain the free navi- 
gation of that river, and that they communicate from time to time 
their correspondence on that subject. 

RESOLVED that 'the Second Article of the Constitution be 
suspended for two months & during that time any Person may be- 
come a Member of the Society on his Subscribing the Constitution 
& paying three shillings. 

RESOLVED that our Members in Congress who are now with- 
in this State be requested by the said comee to give such informa- 
tion to them as they possess on the above mentioned subject. 

RESOLVED that the commee. of correspondence, be directed 
to address the Democratic Republican Society of Prince William 
in Virga- in answer to their letter of the 9th of June last, assuring 
them of our perfect readiness to carry on a correspondence with 
them, & assuring them also, that their resolutions inclosed to us in 
their Sd. Letter, meet our hearty concurrence, & contain the senti- 
ments of true & undefiled Republicanism And that the said 

commee. do communicate to them, such of the proceedings of this 
Society, as they may think fit. 

No. 1. 

RESOLVED that the commee. of correspondence be directed to 
address the President of the Democratic Society of Washington 
county in Pennsylvania, in answer to a letter from the correspond- 
ing commee. of said Society, dated the 8th of April last, assuring 
them of our strong desire & perfect willingness to open a corre- 
spondence with them, on the subject of our unredressed Griev- 
ances, & assuring them also, that being all equally fellow-sufferers 
we shall heartily cooperate with them in endeavouring to attain & 



256 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

secure their & our natural rights. And that the said Commee. do 
communicate to them such of the proceedings of this Society, as 
they may think proper. 

Kesolved that the Corresponding Committee be directed to in- 
form the Democratic Society of Washington County in the State 
of Pennsylvania, that this Society concurs with them in their Reso- 
lutions relative to the Official Conduct of the President of the 
United States adopted at their meeting on the 23 day of June 
1794. 

KESOLVED, That Jno Campbell, Jno Coburn, Robt John- 
son, Robt Patterson & James Smith 

be a Committee for the purpose of requesting our Members in 
Congress now within this State by letter or otherwise to attend the 
next States meeting of this Society in Order that we may obtain 
certain information relative to the important matters respecting 
this Country ; more especially regarding the Negotiations that have 
taken place respecting the free use of the Navigation of the River 
Mississippi, and in what State those negotiations (if any) noy 
rest, as also respecting such other public national matters as may 
be interesting to the good people of this Commonwealth. 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUABTEBLY 257 



LETTERS OF ROBERT PLEASANTS, MERCHANT AT 
CURLES, 1772. 



Virginia 1th mo. 11 1772 
Dear Brother 1 

My last was of the 17th ult- p. Post since which Thy Favour 
of the same dated to our Co come to hand as also that dated the 
23d 11 mo which I before informed thee was not come to hand. I 
am sorry to find by the first that Capt. Gilbert was not arived, 
and being inform'd thaj; he saild from Hampton Road the 29th 11 
mo two days before the Cold blustering weather we had the begin- 
ning of last mo. set in. I apprehend he must be enevitably lost; I 
observe however that the Insurance Order'd on that Vessel was ef- 
fected tho at a very high premium ; I wish thou had mentioned the 
sum, for tho' I did not perticularly order Insurance on the Estates 
of my own Wheat, Tommy Pleasants, tels me he had advised thee 
of the quantities in the same letter ordering Insurance for the 
Comp. & am in some expectations thou might (as hath heretofore 
been the case) have the whole interest cover'd without such per- 
ticular orders. I observe what thou says about the Plate, the price 
of which is certainly higher than I Expected ; but its best that we 
rightly understand each other in time, for tho' I was willing to 
have bought it for the reasons before mention' d, yet I cannot think 
Plate of 15 or 16 old that have gone through such hands as that 
has, can be of equal value to new, I dont remember much of the 
waiter or Rim more than that one of the legs of the latter was 
broke, but the Coffee pot beside several bruses, hath the handle 
crack'd, so as probably it may not hold long, and must I appre- 
hend in that number of years be considerably lighter & so certain 
I am that the price I offer'd was the full value that I should not 
agree to give it for any other of equal goodness, however as the 
Coffee pot is here, the difference in price between thee & me I dont 

iThe first instalment of the Letters of Robert Pleasants was in the 
April number, 1921, of the William and Mary Quarterly, 2d series. 



258 WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 

value and conclude to keep it. Thou mentions debeting my acct for 
an error in casting the Rum sent me p. Barry but having examind 
that Invoice can find no Errors either in the cast or extending any 
part of that Invoice The Boy, Bobby, mention'd to his Aunt of 
the name of Jamey, is the same who went to Richmd for letters for 
thee when last in Virg, and is a very handy sensible Boy. If iny 
sister should conclud to take him and thou wilt agree to give him 
proper schooling and have him brought up to some Business by 
which he may be likely to get an honest lively hood, I have at pres- 
ent 110 objection to sending him the first sutable opertunity altho 
he is a very useful servant of his Size. 

I shall take care to send the Hams & hominy by some sutable 
Operty towards the Spring or the first that offers after they are 
sufficiently cured. 

With much Love to thee & thine I conclude 
Thy affect- Bro. 
EP 

Curies 3d mo. 8, 1772. 
Dear Mother 

I wrote Bror, Jony the 17th 12 mo p. Post which I doubt not he 
would receive, but have not the pleasure to acknowledge the re- 
ceipt of a line from any one of my friends about W R, since I left 
that place nor have I heard a word respecting their welfair &c but 
altho this is a matter which gives me pain as I have so often ear- 
nestly requested it I must endeavor to reconcile my self to it and 
not burthen my Friends with my uneasiness My Dear Nancy is 
well & hath been so for the most part of the time she hath been 
here and now goes to school in one of my Houses close by being my 
self now moved to the place where my Dr. Deed. Father lived 1 
am at present in a very poor state of Health and have been so most 
part of the winter this with the care necessary towards the accommo- 
dation of our Friends at the Yearly Meeting, & some other af- 
fairs, will (I expect) effectually prevent my being at W R sooner 
than the fall. This is intended by our Worthy Friends Timothy 
Davis & Compn. whose services as a minister of the Gospel hath 
been very agreeable & acceptable to Friends in general this way. I 



WILLIAM AND MART QUARTERLY 259 

am with much love & affection to all my Friends at W. E. The 
Iron Work over South River, not forgeting Bror. Joney & Henry 
and am 

Thy obliged & affect son in law 

RP 
To Ann Thomas 

Curls 3d mo. 8. 1772. 
My Dear Son 

My last was of the llth 1st month p. Post which I hope thou 
hast reed., since which thine of the 14th same month is come to 
hand, by which I observe thy small Trunk, with the money & other 
Contents (among which were apr gold Buttons & divirs old Silver 
Buckles, besides other things of less value) were missing, Gilbert 
is since arived in Virginia tho' I have not yet seen him, he tels 
Tommy Pleasants that he never saw any thing of the small Trunk, 
but as I can prove the delivery & contenes of it, if I have an Operty 
of bringing a Suit against him in this County I intend to try 
whether or not he is liable for it, for I think It will not be doing 
Justice to the Public not to endevor at least to expose such viliny. 

This is intended p. our Friend Patience Brayton who expects 
(in case she meets with no hinderance on acct. of the loss of her 
Horse) to be at the half yr meeting in Phila. and desire thou wilt 
write to me by Post or some other direct Operty to let me know, 
what progress thou hast made in the mathematics, and what time 
thou would incline to return home, I think it may be best for 
thee to come the first Operty after thou may have learn't the most 
useful Branches, but if no prospect of Compy should appear, I 
suppose Phil, would gladly take a trip up, to see his Friends there 
& to come down with thee in case an Operty by water should offer, 
however if there should be a prospect of any perticular service in 
thy longer stay, I shall endevor to aquiesce, altho I must say, if 
there is not almost a Certainty of that being the case, it would be 
much more agreeable to me that thou should return sometime this 
spring, of which I would have thee consult thy unkle. I have been 
very poorly most of this winter & continue in a bad state of health, 
but not so as to be much confin'd to the House, the rest of the 
family & our Frds this way are generally pretty well. 



260 WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 

When thou does come down I would not have thee omit calling 
to see thy Grandmother & other Relations at B K it may be the 
only operty thou may ever have of doing so. 

I desire thou wilt give my very kind Love to unkle & aunt 
Pemberton, Sammy & Sally Rhoads, Josey & Nancy Pemberton 
with any other of my kind Friends & acquaintances who may en- 
quire after thy affect Father 

RP 

Curies 3 mo 8. 1772'. 
Dear Brother 

I wrote thee of the llth. 1 mo to which refer and have now 
to acknowledge the receipt of my acct. Curt, dated the 31st of 
same month as also that against our Fathers Estate which I have 
examined amd don't find any material Error except in My Cr. for 
Montgomerys Cargo, thou hast wholy omitted (as I suppose) 
alowing me anything for the purchase of Barl Flower, or the 
alow'd T & R Pleasants being 3d p. [ ? ] I paid them more than 
was Charg'd in the Invoice, or 2.12 alow'd Montgomery for the 
screenings of a parcel of wheat purchais'd without cleaning to fill 
him up, it not being to be had on any other terms, these I suppose 
were overlooked by thee, for as I find thou hast alow'd me no more 
than 2 p. b. for the purchase of thy part of the wheat, I can't 
suppose thou meant to give me short Cr. on the Value of the 
Cargo as well as to reduce the Commission one half, however if 
thou did advert to these articles in making out thy acct., and on 
second consideration thinks it is not reasionable to alow them, I 
shall not insist on it. 

I observe what thou says about Insurance on the Effects onbd. 
the Industry Gilbert, but if the Insurance order'd in London should 
be effected, I suppose it will be done in thy own name, and if 
that is the Case I don't see how my property or that of the Estates 
can be benefitted by it, on this consideration I have deferred send- 
ing either Bill of Lading or Invoice until I hear further from thee 
depending that if either the Estate or myself are included in the 
policy or that any part of the Effects can be cover'd by the Insur- 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 261 

ance thou order'd thou wilt give me timely advice to forward to 
thee what may be necessary. 

This is intended p. our Friend Patience Brayton who expects 
to be at your half yr meeting & by the same operty I have wrote 
to Bobby to inform me what progress he hath made in his learning 
& to consult thee when it might be sutable for him to return, for 
if the prospect of improvement by his longer stay is not very 
considerable I should much desire his return this spring, and in 
case no compy by land should be likely to offer & [ ? ] should be 
in Virg this Spring I make no doubt Phil would gladly go up in 
order to accompy him down, in that case Its likely I shall request 
thee to procure me a pair of Chaise Horses for them to ride down on. 

RP 

Virginia 3mo. 23d 1772. 
Dear Brother 

The day after I wrote thee p. our Friend Patience Brayton, 
I reed thy acceptable letter of 17th 1st mo. to which this is in- 
tended as a reply. 

Thou very Justly observes that Bannister has had the use of 
the money due to our Fathers Estate long enough, but as by the 
bond he has the priviledge to keep it jet longer on interest, there 
is no insisting on its being discharged before the 12th mo Next, 
nor can I see at present how the money due to the Widdow Harri- 
son can be paid before that time. The Debts due from our Fathers 
Estate are not considerable, as far as I know at present, his debts 
in this country did not exceed 100, nor in England much (if 
any) above 300 Ster. beside a debt due to our Brothers Estate 
for Household Furniture &c which he directed not to be sold & 
took on himself at the appraismt. In Order to discharge the first, 
I suppose the whole Crop of Tob. will not be more than sufficient, 
by reason of the loss therein sustained by the fresh, and as Hunt 
has for some time had a Judgmt agt. our Brors. Estate for a Debt 
due from Pleasants & Robinson, in order to keep the Estate from 
being sold by Exc. it is absolutely necessary to apply the first moneys 
which can be collected from the Debts in Cumberland towards the 
Discharge of that Debt, but as to giving thee an estimate of the 



262 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

debts due to the Estate so as to be any ways exact, its altogether 
out of my power tho' I do suppose there may be something like 
1000, exclusive of the Cumbd debts, the amount of which I can 
at present give no guess, for tho' I was up in the 1st month and 
had a list of them taken, I was taken sick & returned without casting 
it up, or making any calculation of the amount of those that there 
may be a probability of getting some time or other, but this is 
beyond a doubt, that the greatest part are bad, however if my 
health permit I do intend up again shortly, after which, its 
probable I may form some better Judgment of those affairs. I 
have not been unmindful of thy request respecting hams & hominy, 
but for want of an Opertunity they could not be sent but, as it 
now groes late & no certanty of a better, I intend sending them 
with this to the Care of John Greenwood at Norfolk, and hope 
they will get safe to hand & prove acceptable. I am pleas'd to 
hear that Bobby applies himself so well to learning, and hope his 
next will inform me that he is in readiness to return, when (as I 
mention'd before if no sutable Company should be likely to offer 
for him to come down with, I propose sending Phill, who seems 
very desirous to see his Frds once more in Phila, when, if thou & 
my Sister concludes to take the Boy, it might be sutable time to 
send him up in case any operty by water should offer. 

My children Join me in love to thee, their Aunt Brother & 
Cousins & am Thy Affect. Bror. 

EP 

P S I propose sending Sammy 
to Phila. the first sutable Opery- 

Curies 3mo 23d. 1772. 
Dear Bobby 

Since writing thee of the 8th Inst. p. our Friend Patience 
Brayton I have reed thy letter dated the 28th 1st month and am 
well pleased at the account thou gives of thy application to learning, 
& keeping out of all loose & unprofitable company, I greatly desire 
thou may so improve thy time, as that thou may have to reflect 
with sattisfaction on the time spent in thy youthful days, which 
thou can never do without due attention to the dictates of the 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 263 

Divine Principle whereby thy duty is made manifest & as it is 
observed, will make thee happy in thyself & truly useful in the 
Creation. I am very desirous thou should return as soon as thou & 
thy unkle may think it may be proper and a sutable operty offers, 
however if none such should present I intend sending up Phil as be- 
fore intimated in order to come down with thee. Thy sisters are both 
poorly at present with Colds & feavers, but as to myself I seem 
better than when I last wrote thee and hope shall continue mending 
having lost some blood & Undergone some evacuations which seem 
to have been of service to me, and am Dr. Child Thy affect. 
Father 

R P 



Virginia 5 mo 10 1772. 
Respected Friend 

Thy letter dated the 12th 2 mo. last inclosing a power of att. 
I reed, but lately, to which this is intended as an answer ; and may 
advise that as thy Bror. James's Effects were in a wasting situa- 
tion my son in Law & Partner Thos- Pleasants Junr. took the ad- 
ministration thereon (he being the largest creditor) before the rect. 
of thy letter in order to Secure what little Estate there was which 
sold for of which I suppose the Debts may take about 

he also undertook to rent the plantation for the present 

year thinking something better than nothing, it is in very bad 
order and was then late in the season so that he could get but 
40/ for it. I highly approve thy generous intention of giving 
James's Children the residue of the Estate after paying his Debt to 
thee, and am very willg to act for thee or them in the best manner 
I am capable. 

I believe if thou art disposed to sell the land the Int. of the 
money it would fetch, would exceed the Rents of it, more expe- 
cially, if thou should not choose to give a lease on it for a term 
of years, for as it is in very bad order, held only for 50 Acres, & 
but little timber of any kind on it, I suppose it would not rent 
from yr to yr for more than about 3. but if thou should choose 
to dispose of it & comes down from the yearly meeting in Phila. I 
will render thee any assistance in my power, or if thou should 



264 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

conclude to do it by a power of Attorney, I suppose thou might 
get Capt. John Hylton of New York & some of his men to witness 
it, who frequently trade up this Eiver from thence; there must 
be three witnesses at least. I believe from the best information I 
have reed James Died of an inflamitary disorder, but at present 
can't inform thee of the day of the month ; the County's name is 
Henrico, the Land lays about one mile & half from James River, 
but some distance from any Town. 

I am Respectfully Thy assured Friend 

RP 

To John Hallock West Chester County 
Province of N. York. 



Virginia 5 mo 10 1772. 
Dear Brother 

I wrote thee a few lines the 5th Instant relative to and at the 
request of Roger Atkinson, and had only time then to acknowledge 
the rect of thy acceptable letter p. my son, & just hint that I in- 
tended sending up Sammy Pleasants in Compy with my sister 
Sukey, as fare as Bush River; This is now intended by him as a 
reply to thy last, and may inform thee that I have wrote my Bror 
Isaac & Jas. Webster to hire some person to accompany Sammy up 
to Phila-, which if they have an opertunity of doing soon after his 
geting to that place, he may ride up the mare Bobby left there, & 
she may be return'd by the same messenger in time to be sent down 
to Virga. at sister Sukeys return, but if that can't be done nor a 
man & Horses can't be procured at B River to convey him from 
thence, he must there wait until thou can send for him, or an 
opertunity does offer of his getting up, I have delivered him 
for his expences up & deliver'd him seald up, towards paying 
seald up, towards paying the Ball. I now owe thee, or any emedi- 
ate expence thou may be at for Sammy, for as I had but short 
notice, he is not so well provided as otherwise he might have been 
for such a journey. 

Thou may depend the money due to the Widdow Harrison shall 
be remitted as soon as I may be inabled either by Collection, or 
Crops of the Estate to do it and hope her Circumstances are not 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 265 

such as to suffer any great inconvenience for the want of it for that 
time. 

It is with great pleasure I observe what thou says respecting 
my sons conduct while under thy care & think my self under great 
obligations to thee & my Sister for your care of & kindness to him 
as well as thy kind wishes for his good & my satisfaction, and 
if he should be prudent enough to make a right use of the operty 
he has had of improvement in that place you will have the satis- 
faction to think you were instrumental therein altho' it may not 
be in my power to make aminds sutable to the favour received 
therein. 

Bobby tels me that Gilbert embaseled part of the wheat saved 
from the wrack, if \t is so, & any proof can be made of it, I 
request thou would procure and forward it p. first opertunity; 
for as I believe him to be a villain, I have order'd him to be sued, 
in hopes if I dont get my money, I may at least expose his villany 
& put it out of his power to act such another part where he is known. 
I must refer thee to T P for an answer to what thou says about 
the money reed of Mease & Caldwell, as well as the sales of the 
goods consign'd to us Hoggs note Eckarts order on Syme, for tho' 
he told my son he would pay the corn, there is yet no price fixd 
or any agreemt about it, but suppose that will be done at the 
present meeting in Wmburg, for the Court is over. 

The 3 Bill sent by Bobby is Bad & is now returned inclos'd 
agreeable to thy request. I can't at present inform thee the amt 
of Hunts Judgmt agt Pleasants & Robinson, but think it may be 
about 400 Ster. but know of no other demand he has agt. any of 
our Family. I decline writing again to Jas. Pemberton about the 
insurance, for as he never favoured me with an answer to my former 
on that subject, I conclude Hunt is a favourite, & the Business 
disagreeable so I suppose I must rest sattisfied without it, but 
this I must say & believe, that if Hunt was so desirous to clear up 
his conduct as he has on another ocasion, that alone might have 
induced him to have done it without the promises he made that it 
should be done. I thought I had desired thy acceptance of the 
Hams, I never thought of making a Charge of them, and wish they 



266 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

may prove good, but am doubtful they are not equal to what we 
used to have- 

I am with much love & affectn. to thee my Sister & the Childn. 
Thy Frd & Bror 

EP 

P. S. I am indebted to Anty Benizet 2'0/ 
for Books which please to pay. 

I am in want of a Mehogany Table to suit the one thou sent p. 
Montgomery & request it may be sent p. first opertunity it is 
square and wants about aqr of an inch of 4 feet in length & when 
the leaves are up measures near 3 feet 8 In. wide & is 2 feet 4% 
high with Claw feet, please also to send a Mohany side board 
table & 1 droping do. also one Easy chair coverd with leather. 

Virginia 5 mo 20th 1772. 
Loving Brother 

1 am very much oblig'd to thee for accomodating my son with 
a Nagg to ride down to Virga. on, and as I purpose sending my 
Nephew Sammy Pleasants to Philada. I intend taking this oper- 
tunity in Company with Sister Susy as fare as Bush Kiver, and 
to ride thy mare ; this will occasion me to ask another favour which 
is, that in case there is no prospect of a pretty ready opertunity 
for him to get forward, that thou wilt write a line hy Post, or any 
other direct operty to my Brother in Philad, to send for him, or 
hire a man & Horses to accompany him up, the expence of which 
my Brother will pay on Demand, or if a man & one Horse could 
be imediately provided so as the messenger might return before 
sister Susey sets out for Virga-, Sammy might ride up Bobby mare 
(if well of her lameness) and then if it can be contrived with any 
degree of convenience, I should be glad she could be sent down to 
Virga. when my Sister returns. 
James Webster 

Curies 5mo. 21th. 1772. 
Dear Brother 

I wrote thee pretty fully of the 10th Inst. intended p. my 
Nephew S P who was to have gone up as fare as Bush River in 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 267 

Compy wth. Sukey Pleasants, but Just at the time she was to 
have taken her departure Cousin Robert was taken very 111, which 
put a stop to her Journey; and tho' I have some thoughts yet of 
sending him as fare as James Brooks's in Compy with Thos. 
Pleasants & his famaly who propose seting out in expectation that 
he may have Compy to W R Meeting & from thence quite up to 
Phila. but as he is young & the way roundabout 1 am not fully 
determined whither or to send him then, or to wait in expectation 
of some Friends being down at our Yearly meeting, if he goes I 
propose sending that Letter yet by him, and therefore only pro- 
pose at this time mentioning what may be most material & refer 
thee to the other for further particulars. 

Bobby tels me thai Gilbert embasiled part of the cargo of wheat 
saved out of the Schooner Industry, if it is so, and any proof can 
be made of it, I request thou wilt furnish me with it as soon as 
pcssible, for as I apprehend he is a villain, I have order'd him to be 
sued in expectation that if I don't recover my Effects out of his 
hands, it may be a means of Exposing him, so as to put it out of 
his power to act the same part in future where he is known. 

Curies. 6 mo. 13th 1772- 
Dear Bror. 

I wrote thee of the 10th 5 mo. last intended by my nephew 
Sammy Pleasants, who was to have accompany'd Sister Susey as 
fare Bush River on his way to Phila. but they were prevented by 
the Indisposition of Robt. Pleasants, who was taken 111 the very 
day they were to have set out, with a violent Pluracy or inflami- 
tary fever, which terminated (as some think) in a galloping con- 
sumption, and put a period to his life the 7th Inst. about 3 o'clock 
in the morning the 27th day of his Illness, much regretted by most 
who knew him, but more expecially by our Dear Sister who seems 
almost inconsolable for her loss indeed she hath much need, 
for he was an uncommon tender & affectionate Husband & Father, 
however I believe our Friends at B River may rely, that everything 
will be done in our power to endever to mittigate her grief and 
serve her & the Children in every needfull matter, but If thou with 
one of our Sisters could come down & stay a while with her, it might 



268 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

contribute greatly to her Comf. & sattisfaction. This intelegence 
I thought proper to communicate knowing by experience, that tho' 
advices of this sort must be afflicting yet it is a sattisfaction to be 
acquainted with every state & situation of those we Love, & in 
whose welfare we are interested; and Dear Bror. since we find 
that nothing (not even virtue itself) is a defence from the Stroke 
of Death, and the time of his approach to each of our tabernacles 
altogether uncertain, I greatly desire that every day which we may 
in Mercy be continued on the stage of life, may be improved to the 
glory of our Creator, & our own eternal felicity, which are insep- 
erable. I reed thy acceptable letter dated the 28th and observed 
that thou hast been in a poor state of health for many months past 
but that thou wert then Geting the better of it, which I rejoice 
to hear, & may advise that I too have had but few well days to- 
gether since last fall, & some part of the time been very 111 ; I am 
still poorly, but desire patiently to submit to the will of Providence 
who knows best what is best & sometimes Permits afflictions as 
Blessings in disguise. I am with much love & affect, to every 
Branch of the family. 

Thy Frnd. & Bror- 

RP 

Curies 8 mo. 3d 1772. 
Dear Brother 

Having none of thy Favours unanswered, this is intended to 
accompany 206 Bushl. very fine new wheat, & 16V4 Bushl. Old 
p. our Schooner Peggy, Geo. Crumbie Master, who I wish may 
have a safe & quick passage; for tho' we have taken the precaution 
of shiping the new wheat in sacks, & it appears to be in uncommon 
fine Order for the time, yet it may probably get warm if it should 
continue long on board : It was with inconvenience we could get 
it ready so soon, but a view of Employing our new Vessel, and 
in hope of geting the prices lately going for wheat in Phila. we 
have exerted our selves in her dispatch and doubt not thy care in 
the disposal of it to the best prices your Market will afford, our 
Millers now give 5/ this Currency but whether those prices will 
continue or not must depent on the demand from abroad. If the 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 269 

furniture I requested thee some time ago to procure for me should 
not be ship'd before the rect. of this I reqt. thou wilt send it by 
return of Capt. Crumbie and if it should be convenient to procure 
me apr. of good Chaise Horses for abt. 50, or 60. price not old, & 
such as thou thinks would suit me, I request thou would send 
them also, with the few articles mentioned below, and in case 
my remittance p- this vessel should not be sufficient to pay the Ball. 
I owe thee, and the Cost of the Articles now Order' d, I expect if 
this vessel returns safe and the prospect of a Wheat market should 
be encouraging, she will emediately load again for Phila. & in that 
case shall make up all deficiency, on my Own Acct., & probably 
make a Considerable remittance on acct. of the Estate. 

I am waiting with impatience for a sutable opertunity of send- 
ing Sammy, and have been for some time in Expectation that 
Joney Webster or some of our Friends from B Kiver would be 
down, in that case I intended to have sent him up that way for tho 
he is not willing to go with Capt. Crumbie & the vessel being 
new I don't choose to force him contrary to his inclinations, least 
some accident might happen; but in case no sutable one should 
offer sooner, I intend taking him up with me to West River in 
the 9 or 10th month in case my own health & that of my Family 
will admit my going up, as at present I intend with my Daughr. 
Nancy, but whither I may have the pleasure of seeing my bror. 
sister and children in Phila. is uncertain tho' I much desire but if 
I find that can't be conveniently accomplish'd would thou meet 
me at W River. 

I have sent p. Capt. Crumbie a large Bible which I request 
thou wilt get Bound & (if it can be done in time) to be returned 
by him the Bad 3 Bill which I intended to have sent p. Sammy 
is now inclos'd as also Thos. Elsdons note, which thou sent inclos'd 
to me some time ago for Richd- Randolph, and which he desired me 
to return to thee & inform, that he is a man who married a nurse 
that Col. Byrd had from Phila., & now lives near or in the City, & 
may be known by applying to some one of the Willing Family and 
request thou wilt endever to get the money. Roger Atkinson writes 
thee p. this Operty. & no doubt will inform thee that in depend- 



270 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

ance of thy geting Bills of Exch. on Interest to the ami of 2000 
Ster. for him he hath goth the money here, & will I dare say be a 
great disappointment if they cannot be had to come by return of 
our Schooner; his Bonds with sufficient Security being Executed, 
no doubt he has inclos'd to thee. InclosM I send thee Capt. Grum- 
ble's rect. for 12 half Jos. which pass to the Or. of my acct. 

KP 

Goods to be sent from Phila- 

3 doz Calf skins 2 doz of which black'd on the Flesh side & 1 
doz. on the grain. 
3 doz pr. womens woodden heals. 
6 Dutch grass syths & 6 whitstones for do. 
1 Barl. good Muscavado sugar 

1 do. good Jamaica Spirits. 12 Chocalate 

2 doz Antony Benizets Treateses, & request thou wilt pay him for 
1 doz already received. 

Virga. 8 mo. 4 1772. 
Esteemed Friends 

I was sorry to hear of Capt- Montgomery Miscarriage, as well on 
acct. of the people, as those concerned in the Vessel & Cargo, but 
hope your interest was fully Cover' d ; it was a fine Cargo of wheat, 
& should have been glad it had got safe to a sutable Market, 
however if the first attempt hath not discouraged your Speculation 
in the same way, we have a Crop of Wheat now housed, which I 
apprehend it equal both in quantity & quality to any ever made in 
this Colony, a sample of which you may see by applying to my 
Brother, to whom my self & Compy. have ship'd a few hundred 
Bushls. as a tryal to a forward Market in your City. At present 
the price seem as if it woulcl break high on acct. of the demand 
for Flour, the millers . agree to give 5/ until the 1st of 9th mo. 
but whither that may be the general market is at present uncer- 
tain; If you should at any time incline to be further adventurers 
in this or any other article of our Country produce our Situation 
puts it in our power to serve you as well on as good terms as 
any House in the Province, and be assured the utmost attention 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTER? 271 

will be observed in the Execution of any Orders you may intrust 
with my self & Co for whom I am 

Your Assured & Eespectful Frd. 

E P & Co. 
To James & Drinker 

Virga. 8 mo; 4 1772. 
Dear Sister 

I have long wished, & indeed had some expectation of being 
favoured with a few lines from thee, but as I must confes I have 
been too deficient my self in writing to thee, I have not so much 
room to complain, but must say, whenever thou canst find leisure 
& inclination thy letters will be perticularly acceptable, more espe- 
cially if they convey an account of thine my Bror. & the Dear 
Children's welfair, which I much desire, & had I my self a suf- 
ficient degree of health & could accomplish it with any degree of 
convenience I would chearfully undertake a Journey to Phila. the 
ensuing fall in order to enjoy the greater satisfaction of being an 
eye witness thereof, but tho I find my self lately ruther better, I 
have long been in a very poore state of health & part of the time very 
111 so as scarcely to expect a recovery, beside this I have a large 
family to care for, & the old woman who hath lived with me for 
some years in quality of a House Keeper proposes to leave me this 
fall, but that indeed ought to be inducement to exert my self in 
endevering to supply her place with another and I know no place 
that abounds more with good ones than Phila. were they not so 
attached to the place as not easily to be enduced to leave it. 

However I must acknowledge the great kindness of my good 
Friends towards the most near & dear part, that of my Children, 
and perticularly thine to my son & Daughter which I shall ever 
remember with gratitude. Sister Langly & children are well & 
is now on a Visit to us at Curies, & have some expectation of seeing 
Sister Atkinson here in a few days, poor Sister Briggs is in much 
affliction for the loss of her Daughter Nancy as is poor Sukey for 
that of an uncommon kind & affect. Husband R P whose Death 
I suppose thou some time ago heard of. I desire my very kind 
love may be acceptable to unkle & aunt Pemberton with whom I 



272 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

sincerely sympathise for their late great loss of a hopeful son, be 
pleas'd also to remember me very affectionately to cousin Jony & 
Nancy also Sammy & Sally Eoads and am thy very oblig'd & affect. 
Bror. 

RP 

I have deliver'd into Capt. Crumbles care a p. of Tabby, which 
being of a pretty good Colour, I desire thy acceptance of it for 
a Goun. 



Curies 10 mo. 1st 1772. 
Dear Brother. 

Thy Favour of the 28th 8 mo. p- Capt. Crumbie I reed, together 
with the furniture & other articles ship'd me p. the schooner, the 
Horses only excepted, which it seems were lost from of the Deck 
in a hard gale of wind he met with soon after he left the Capes 
of Delaware. This, beside the loss, is a considerable disappoint- 
ment to me, they being intended for my northern Journey, & will 
I apprehend effectually deprive me of the pleasure I some times 
flattered my self with of seeing my Friends in Phila. this fall, 
nor can I help blaiming the Capt. seeing he had room and might 
with so much ease & safety have brought them in the hold. The 
furniture I find comes high from Phila. more so than I expected, 
and by some means or other the workman has made a mistake 
in the length of the large table being about three inches shorter 
than the directions which was given exactly to fitt one I had before 
which purpose this will not answer for that reason I should have 
inclined to have return'd it p. the schooner was I certain the 
Joiner would have changed it as it is I shall endever to fitt it & 
then order another of the right size or get one here. The Table 
thou sent for sale met with an accident & got the Cross piece below 
broke, and am doubtful it will be a dul article at a price nearly 
what mine is Charg'd at not being (as I think) a handsom piece 
of Furniture. Inclosed is Bill of Lading for 300 Bush, wheat 
which I wish safe & to a good Market, the price here continues 
to be 5/ nor do I expect it will fall, it is however remarkably 
good in quality. Its uncertain at present what further quantity I 
may ship to Phila. this year. I hope however this may be fully 



WILLIAM AND MAEY QUARTERLY 273 

sufficient to Ballance my acct. with thee after being Charg'd with 
the Coffee pot which by thy last acct. was not done, but if it 
should be otherwise, a further remittance shall be made sufficient 
to do it. I also propose to make a further remittance sometime this 
fall on acct. of the Estate either in wheat or Bills. Our Cousin 
John Pleasants intend going in the Schooner to Phila. and have 
endeverd to prevail on Sammy to accompany him, but as he seems 
very averse to it and chooses to go with me by land I am loth 
to force him for fear of some Accident, in that case I should 
both blame my self & be blamed by others, to which I desire to give 
no Just occasion for. however if I should find it impracticable my 
self to go as fare as Ply la, I intend to send a Servant up with him, 
for I am very sencible he is loosing time, & am as anxtious to 
get him up as thou canst be, being fully convinced it may be more 
to his advantage than anything in my power to do for him, pro- 
vided he makes the proper use of the opertunity for his improve- 
ment. I propose to send my Boy Jamey, and with him a Certifi- 
cate for it is my intention to give him his freedom at the age of 
twenty seven years; he is now about 14, and is to serve thee on 
the terms thou proposes, Seven years, or in case of misbehaviour 
to have the liberty of returning him, or rather if it can be done, 
to put him to a Trade there until he is 21 yrs. of age, but I have 
little doubt but he will answer thy purpose as well as any Boy 
of his colour that I know. The Expressions of that great good 
Man S. Fothergill whose removal I was truly concern'd to hear, 
were not inclos'd in thy last as thou intended, & hope thou wilt 
send them p. next operty. for every thing that came from him I 
doubt not was worthy attention more especially at such an awful 
period and will be perticularly acceptable to me. 

Our monthly meeting having appointed two Friends to Collect 
the most material expresions of our Dr. Father in his last Illness 
by way of Testimony which I expect will be soon accomplished, 
when it is I propose sending a Copy thereof- I shall want a 
few articles p. return of the Schooner an acct. of which is below 
which please to send me, if the shoes for Nancy are not sent before 
the rect. of this, its probable it might be best when an operty. 
offers to send them to W River, as its probable she may be gone up 



274 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

before this Vessel comes back; the shoes thou sent me were too 
small one size too short, & too low in the instep, shall therefore 
want two other pare p. Capt. Crumbie. 

I suppose E. S. is gone to Cumberl. to order Execution agt. 
my Bror. Estate for Hunt's Debt for it seems he is determ'd to 
wait no longer, and Jas- Pleasants neglect or bad Success has dis- 
abled me from payt. more than 175 beside an agreement of Tommy 
Pleasants for 100 ster. in consequence of an order given by Jas. 
Pleasants on Jas. Lyle to the last court wch they agreed to pay at 
the Octo. Court, beside these sums I suppose there will be a Ball, 
of upwards of 250 due on that Judgmt & at present know not how 
it will be paid except it be by an order on thee for part of the 
purchase of wheat for Holden, or can be got on Int. I don't care 
the Estate should be sold, and have given directions in case of an 
Execut. to replevy wch will 3 months longer time. 

1 Ton Bar Iron, sutable for Country work, such as Waggons, 
Hoes, Axes 

1 womans Black Satten Bonnet with a Hood 

1 Girls do. 

1 doz. Setts fann Riddles 

2 pr. Shoes for my own use. 

I pr. good leather Breeches to measure 

1 Bush- Flax Seed. R P 

To all people to whom these presents shall come. 
I Robert Pleasants of Henrico County in the Colony of Virg. 
Merch. Send Greeting, Know ye that I the said Robert Pleasants 
for divers good Causes and valuable Considerations me thereunto 
moving and more especially for & in consideration of the sum of 
five shillings lawful money of the Said Colony to me in hand pai.' 1 
by my Negro Boy Slave James, The Receipt whereof I do hereby 
acknowledge Have Manumited remised and released, and by these 
presents Do manumite remise & release unto the said Negro Boy 
James all his servitude from hence forth to acrue, all my Estate 
Right Title and Interest whatsoever of in and to the said Negro 
Boy ; And I do declare that it shall not be lawfull for either my self 
my Heirs Exect. administrs. or assigns or any other person or 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 275 

persons whatsoever to deprive the Said Negro Boy of the full free 
& uninterrupted enjoymt. of his liberty, but that he shall possess 
& enjoy the same as full as any other person who hath never been 
in Bondage Witness my hand & Seal this 8th day of Octo. 1772. 

Robt. Pleasants 
Sealed & delivered 
in presence of 

Curies 10 mo. 1, 1772 
Respd. Friend 2 

I wrote thee of the 10th 5 mo. last acknowledgd the rect. of 
thy letter dated the 12jji 2'd mo., and advising, that my Son in Law 
Thos- Pleasants had administered on thy Bror. James's Estate, 
had rented out the land for 40 / the present year, discribing the 
situation thereof, & giving a tender of any service, which may be 
in my power for thee or the Children ; since which I have received 
thine dated the 14th 5 mo. to which this is intended as a reply. 
I have supplied the Children with some necessaries, and shall con- 
tinue to do so as fare as the personal Estate & rents of the land 
will amot. or until thou gives further directions. 

The names & ages of the Children I now send thee below and 
am inform'd that James died on the 3d day of the week and 12th 
of the 12th month 1771, of an inflametary or pluritic disorder. 
The name of the Children's mother is Rachel Liptrott. I am 
pleas'd to hear of Christion Fritts, I should be glad to hear of his 
being in a way to do well in every respect, he conducted himself 
much to his Masters satisfaction while in this Country, be pleased 
to Remember me to him, & am respectfully 

Thy Friend 

Robi Pleasants 

Martha born the 31st 5 mo. 1768 
Pheby Do 7.. 6 ... 1770. 

zprobably written to John Hallock. 



276 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

JAMES MACARTNEY. 
By A. J. MORRISON. 

Bishop Meade overlooked James Macartney in his statement 
of the facts of Virginia Parish history before the Revolution. Mr- 
Macartney was for a short time minister of St. Patrick's Parish, 
Prince Edward County, following James Garden. Bishop Meade 
seems not to have examined the Vestry Book of St. Patrick's Parish 
(now preserved in the Library of the Episcopal Seminary at 
Alexandria), and lists Archibald McRobert as minister in charge 
immediately after Mr. Garden. James Garden died February 
19, 1773. At the August meeting of St. Patrick's vestry, a minute 
was entered "Revd. Mr. Oglesby [or Ogilvie]. Mr. Sanders 
[John Hyde Saunders, of Cumberland County], and Mr. McCart- 
ney have offered themselves for the care of the parish. On mature 
consideration, Mr- McCartney, late of Granville Parish in North 
Carolina, was chosen. So Mr. McCartney hath agreed to preach 
and administer the Sacrament at Sandy River Church the second 
Sunday in October next; the Sunday following at the Upper 
Church, and the Sunday following at the Chapel. He will remove 
himself into the parish and take possession of the glebe." Mr. 
Macartney is traceable on the Vestry Record through the year 
1774. It does not appear what became of him afterwards. Very 
likely he left the colony at the outbreak of the Revolution. His 
"Upper Church" in Prince Edward County was very near the site 
of what is now Hampden- Sidney College. This Upper Church 
was built about 1763 near French's store (now Kingsville). Mr. 
Macartney must have been displeased at the rise of Hampden- 
Sidney College. We take it that he was a Tory. 

Governor Tryon, writing from Newbern in North Carolina, Feb. 
12, 1768, commended James Macartney to the Bishop of London 
"The bearer hereof, Mr- James Macartney a native of Ireland, 
waits on your Lordship for orders of ordination. I am induced 
to be an advocate for him with your Lordship in consequence of 
the warm recommendations I received in his behalf from the 
Speaker of the House of Assembly of this province [John Harvey] 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 277 

under whose roof he lived some time in the character of tutor to 
his children. Mr. Macartney was during his residence in Newbern 
employed as an assistant to Mr. Thomlinson,* who speaks hand- 
somely of his diligence in the school and regularity of life out of 
it. I am therefore to wish your Lordship may find Mr. Macartney 
qualified for the sacred function into which he very ardently wishes 
to be admitted, as it is in the expectation of such happiness singly 
that he is soon going home/' 

Writing the next year from Bath in North Carolina, May 27, 
1769, Governor Tryon said in his letter to the Bishop of London: 
"I purpose on my journey through the Province to induct Mr. 
McCartney into Granville County. If your Lordship has the least 
objection to my inducting clergymen coming into this Province 
with a license from your Lordship for a different colony only, if 
you will signify such your objection, I shall observe it in future, 
tho' the vestries in the colony of Virginia make no scruple to get 
what clergymen they can from this Province." 

That was an interesting statement of Governor Tryon's. The 
very active Society for the Propagation of the Gospel let Virginia 
alone, deeming that colony and no other practically if not perfectly 
able to take care of itself in the cure of souls. The Society main- 
tained in North Carolina excellent men like James Reed, School- 
masters like Thomlinson and Macartney; and when a parish in 
Virginia needed a minister they sometimes enticed away a mis- 
sionary in North Carolina who was being carried on the venerable 
Society's books. Governor Tryon was particularly attentive to the 



"Thomas Thomlinson deserves a memoir. He came to Newbern 
during the year 1763. He was a native of Thursby, Cumberland 
(North of England), and had been a schoolmaster either at Thursby 
or at Wigton. Making friends at Newbern at once, Mr. Thomlinson 
set up a school there early in 1764 the excellent Newbern Academy, 
an endowed school that was long active. During 1771 certain of the 
Trustees fell out with Thomlinson on very slender grounds. Governor 
Tryon (a Just man) was leaving for New York and the business was 
not properly handled. Thomlinson gave up the Academy the spring 
of 1772. Applying his talents to affairs not academic, he accumulated 
a pretty good estate, and at his death in 1805 bequeathed funds to 
endow four schools in his native Cumberland, among them the cele- 
brated Wigton Grammar School and the school at Thursby. 



278 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Society's business in North Carolina and furthered its affairs. 

James Macartney writing under date October 28, 1769 to the 
Society's Secretary described himself as already settled, by the 
advice of Governor Tryon, in Granville County and Parish- "There 
are many Presbyterians in this Parish and they have a minister 
settled amongst them [Henry Pattillo was the minister who could 
argue church history with Macartney]. There are likewise many 
Baptists here who are great Bigots, but be well assured, reverend 
sir, that I will (from a sense of my duty and just gratitude to the 
Society) take every prudent method I am capable of to abolish 
Dissention and make converts to the church." 

Governor Tryon thought so well of Mr. Macartney as to make 
him chaplain to his celebrated Kegulating Army, the spring of 
1771. Mr. Macartney was not thoroughly satisfied in Granville 
County (parishes now and then rather starved "the inducted 
parson"), and would have been glad to go with Colonel Tryon 
to New York. The principal men of Newbern among them Abner 
Nash of Prince Edward County, in Virginia tried to help Mr. 
Macartney away to New York, but not to get rid of him. They 
were careful to say in their letter that they regarded him as "a 
credit to his holy profession," and were persuaded he would 
''continue to exercise his abilities for the benefit of mankind " 

[See North Carolina Eecords, vols viii and ix]. 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 279 

QUERIES. 
HUNTER FAMILY. 

Wanted Information about the following Hunter marriages: 
1, Andrew Hunter and Jane Pleasants (about 1740) ; 2, Stephen 
Hunter and Mary Statham (about 1765) ; 3, George Hunter and 
and his two wives, Mildred Miller and Mildred Austin. I should 
especially like the exact dates and the names and marriages of 
their children. Please communicate with M- E. Weeks, 602 Madi- 
son Avenue, New York City. 

TALBOT AND WALKER FAMILIES. 

Would like to know from whence Matthew Talbot came, whether 
England or Maryland, and when he settled in Bedford County, 
Virginia, or, then, Lunenburg County. The first court held in 
Bedford County being convened at the home of Matthew Talbot 
on May 27th, 1754. 

This Matthew Talbot was the father of John Talbot, for many 
sessions a member of the House of Burgesses. 

Did any Talbot locate in Virginia prior to the above named 
Matthew Talbot? 

Would like to know of the Walker family in Virginia of whom 
Freeman Walker and Wyatt Walker were members. Freeman 
Walker was the husband of Sarah Minge, daughter of George 
Minge, whose will was dated September 19th, 1781, Wyatt Walker 
being one of the Executors. 

W. H. H. SCHLEY. 

230 Orleans Square, Savannah, Ga. 

MONTGOMERY AND STEELE FAMILIES. 

John Montgomery m. Esther Houston. Has he Revolutionary 
Record? His daughter Esther married Rev. Samuel Doak, of 



280 WILLIAM AND MARY QUABTEJ&LY 

Augusta Co., Oct. 1, 1775, Rockbridge Co., Va., New Providence 
Church. 

Query two: Jane Steele daughter of Samuel Steel of Rock- 
bridge Co., Va., married Eichard Eankin and moved to Tennessee. 
Did Samuel Steele have Revolutionary Record? 

MARY B. RANKIN. 
1234 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, K Y. 

* 
SMITH, BAILEY, MAXEY FAMILIES. 

1 

Smith-Bailey. Wanted, information about George Smith who 

died about 1744, and his wife, Ann Bailey (1694-1768), daughter 
of Henry Bailey. They lived in or near the Huguenot settlement 
at Manakintown, on the James River, Virginia. The parentage 
of each is desired as well as the names of their children other 
than Thomas Smith (1719-1786), of Powhatan Co., Virginia. 
Correspondence desired on the subject of this Smith family. 

Maxey. Information requested as to the very early history of 
the Maxey family of Virginia, members of which intermarried 
with the Porter, Sallee, Smith and Moseley families, both in Vir- 
ginia and later in Kentucky. Who was the Immigrant ancestor of 
this family? 

E. W. SMITH. 

501 East Colfax Ave-, Denver, Colorado. 

July 18, 1922'. 

JOHNSON, ROWLEY FAMILIES. 

Wanted: Information relative to the family of Marmaduke 
Johnson, said to have been born in Ireland about 1716. Came 
to Virginia (probably Brunswick County, see Tyler's Quarterly, 
Vol. 2 pg. 358) and was surely the ancestor of Marmaduke John- 
son, captain of artillery in Longstreet's Brigade, C. S. A., who 
is said to have been complimented for bravery by General Lee on 
the field of battle. Data is desired on the ancestry as well as on 
the descendants of Marmaduke Johnson of 1716. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 281 

Information is also desired relative to Colonel William Rowley, 
of Spottsylvania or King George County, Va., mentioned in Hay- 
den's Virginia Genealogies, page 704, etc., who seems to have been 
the ancestor of several prominent Virginia families. Who were 
his parents? Was he born in Virginia? A Captain William 
Rowley is mentioned in Va. County Records Vol. 2, as participating 
in Lord Dunmore's War. Colonel William Rowley may have 
been a descendant of the Rowley's of Rowley, Co. Salop, Eng- 
land, one of the oldest and most distinguished families of Great 
Britain, as the name William appears in every generation for more 
than five centuries. 

EMERSON MILLER. 

1022 South Second Street, 

Louisville, Kentucky. 

MORGAN AND Cox FAMILIES. 

Ancestry desired of James Morgan, and his wife, Hannan Cox. 
James Morgan b. April 5, 1748, in Frederick Co., Va., d Mar. 1st, 
1840, near Valparaiso, Ind. Served in Rev. War with Cap- 
tain William Haymond's Company of Monongolia Co., Militia. 
Copy of Pay Roll, containing names of five Morgans, in possession 
of writer; Hannah Cox b., probably near Morgantown, West Vir- 
ginia, d. in 1839, near Valparaiso, Ind. They had nine children. 
A daughter Sarah, m. Jonathan Butler, Feb. 4, 1805, Rev. Manly 
officiating, perhaps a Baptist clergyman. Marriage recorded in 
Morgantown, W. Va., as well as various Morgan land conveyances. 

Family tradition says that the father of James Morgan was a 
Rev. soldier. Proof wanted. The family of James Mor- 
gan, including Sarah Morgan Butler, husband and small son, 
moved to Ohio before 1806, later to Indiana. Interesting data, 
especially concerning Sarah Morgan Butler's journey over the 
plains to Oregon in 1852, available. 

Any information concerning the parents of James Morgan and 
his wife, Hannah Cox, greatly appreciated. Correspondence with 
descendants desired. 

MRS. H. W. STONE. 

Wilder, Idaho, Route 1. 



282 WILLIAM AND MARY QUAETEBLY 



KEVTEWS OF NEW BOOKS. 

Wroth, Lawrence C. A history of printing in Colonial Mary- 
land, 1686-1776. By Lawrence C. Wroth, First Assistant Li- 
brarian of the Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore. Published 
by the Typothetae of Baltimore. 1922'. 275 pages. 

This is a most exhaustive study of the printing press and litera- 
ture of Colonial Maryland. There seems to have been no source 
that was not carefully investigated. Mr. Wroth has not only 
assembled all the information that could be obtained about his 
subject, but he has presented it in a most attractive manner. The 
arrangement, editing and style of the book are hardly to be ex- 
celled. This work will rank as one of the great contributions to the 
history of Colonial American literature. It is of special interest 
to Virginians on account of the fact that William Nuthead, first 
printer of Maryland, was undoubtedly the same as the William 
Nulhead or Nuthead who was employed by Buckner when he 
established the short-lived press at Jamestown. William Parks, who 
settled at Williamsburg in 1730, and operated a press there until 
his death in 1751, had a press also at Annapolis, which had been 
established before the one in Virginia. All of these questions are 
most thoroughly discussed. Mr. Wroth has added a most elaborate 
bibliography of Maryland imprints, 1689-1776, a fine example of 
what work of this nature should be. Throughout the text are 
many fac similes of title pages. The typography of the work is 
as excellent as its editing. The Typothetae of Baltimore seem 
to have hesitated at no cost in order to provide a monumental 
work of typographical excellence. The Committee in charge of 
its publication was Nathan Billstein, E. B. Passano, G. K. Horn. 
The author and publishers were fortunate in having as printer Mr. 
Norman T. A. Munder, who has exercised his skill to the utmost 
to produce a book worthy of the highest traditions of the craft. 

Calvin Morgan McClung historical collection of books, pamph- 
lets, manuscripts, pictures and maps relating to early western travel 
and the history and genealogy of Tennessee and other Southern 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 



283 



States, presented to the Lawson McGhee library by Calvin M. Mc- 
Clung. Knoxville, Knoxville Lithographing Co., 1921. 

This catalog of 200 pages of a carefully selected collection has 
been prepared according to the best bibliographical standards. The 
work has been faithfully and skillfully done by Miss Louise Luttrell, 
and Miss Mary U. Rothrock. The typographical work is as excel- 
lent as the editing. It is encouraging to see such a notable collec- 
tion as this find its home in the Lawson McGhee library. It was 
a passion of Mr. McOlung to collect whatever pertained to East 
Tennessee and the adjoining parts of North Carolina, Kentucky 
and Virginia. The dispersion of such a library, as often happens 
to private collections, would have been a calamity. The State of 
Tennessee, and in fafct, the whole South, may well be congratulated 
upon the far-seeing generosity of Mrs. McClung, who presented 
this collection to the Lawson McGhee Library. This carefully 
prepared catalog is good evidence that the collection has been 
placed in good hands. 



COL. EDMUND SCARBURG'S "HEDRIC COTTAGE." 




Hedric Cottage, the residence of Col. Edmund Scarburg, Sur- 
yeyor General of Virginia (1630 &c.) is located at the bottom of 



284 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

Seal-burg's Neck in lower Accomac County, (on the Eastern Shore 
of) Virginia. Scarburg had extensive business interests with resi- 
dents of Plymouth and vicinity and it has been said that he made 
use of parts of the Mayflower in the construction of Hedric Cot- 
tage. The Colonial Eecords show that Scarburg once owned a 
vessel by the name of Mayflower, in his dealing with the residents 
of Plymouth and vicinity the question is was this Mayflower the 
Mayflower of the Pilgrims of 1620? 

GRIFFIN C. CALLAHAN. 
No. 30 K Morris Ave., Chelsea, Atlantic City, N. J. 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 285 

REV. JOHN LYON TRIED BY A COURT MARTIAL IN 
ACCOMACK COUNTY, AUGUST 8, 1781. 

Prom Va. State Archives. 

Contributed by ROBT. B. MUNFORD, JR., 
Member Va. Historical Society. 

"At a Court Martial held in Accomack August 8 1781 for the 
trial of The Rev d John Lyon on a charge Exhibited against him 
by Coll John Mapp setting forth that the said John Lyon on the 
fifteenth day July Anno Domini one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty one while this .state was invaded both by land & water by 
the forces of the King & Parliament of Great Britain did furnish 
the Enemy afors d with provisions or other necessaries and did 
further from his wicked inclination against the Independence of 
the United States of America diswade & discourage the militia of 
the County afors d from opposing the enemy giving the said 
Enemy intelligence aid & comfort by voluntarily going on board 
a British Barge commanded by a certain Robertson then an Enemy 
and carrying war against this Common Wealth and also by fur- 
ishing the said Enemy with three hundred bushels of Oats at or 
near Watt's Island in the County afors d : 

George Corbin Esq r Judge Advocate being present and the 
following Commissioned Officers duly sworn as a Court Martial 
(to wit) 

Coll : John Cropper President, Coll : William Parramore, Maj r 
Henry Custis, Captains William Polk, John Custis, Robert Cole- 
burn, William Snead, Elijah Garret, Zorobable Rodgers", & Alex- 
ander Stokely ; John Dix Lieut. ; Thomas Lillaston, Thomas Bur- 
ton, & Benjamin Peck Ensigns. 

The said Prisoner being set to the Bar & the above charge 
read to him, he said that he was not of any part thereof guilty, 
whereupon sundry witnesses being sworn & examined & the pris- 
oner heard in his defence, It is the opinion of the Court that he is 
guilty of diswading the Militia from turning out, doing their 
duty, & opposing the Enemy, and that for such his offence, it is 



286 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

the sentence of the Court afors d that lie be imprisoned for the 
.space of five years in such safe place as his Excellency the Gov- 
ernour shall direct and ordered that Cap 1 Thomas Parker take him 
into custody & him safely keep until orders are received from his 
Excellency concerning him. 

The Depositions ta.ken before the court afors d in this matter 
are as follows (To wit) 

The Deposition of William Gibb who being duly sworn here 
before the Court deposeth & saith that on the thirteenth day of 
May 1781 near the upper church in S l George's Parish in the 
county of Accomack, the congregation being gathered previous to 
the celebration of divine service, and a number of them present 
discoursing concerning the Enemy's having plundered & burnt the 
dwelling house of a certain John Derby a captain of the Militia 
he the Deponent heard the said John Lvon tell the people that it 
was very imprudent for the Militia to fire upon the enemy coming 
up in their Barges to plunder that they (the enemy) had no orders 
to burn houses provided they were not attacked & upon this depo- 
nent's asking the said John whether they had or had not orders or 
permission to plunder he acknowledged they had but insisted upon 
it before the company present that it was very imprudent to oppose 
them and further saith not. 

William Gibb 

Thomas Teackle deposed that the said John Lyon on meeting 
him some time in the month of April last ask'd the said Deponent 
the reason why he so strenously endeavored to injure him by re- 
porting that his vessel carried on an illicit trade & why he tJireatned 
to seize her on her return and then told this Deponent that he had 
better be peaceable for that his property (to wit the Deponents) 
lay at his mercy and that he the said John had a friend at Ports- 
mouth that would do anything for him, whereupon the Deponent 
told him he would do his duty and he further declared that in the 
space of twelve days after this conversation his dwelling house was 
plundered & burnt to the ground by the enemys barges. And fur- 
ther saith not 

Thomas Teackle 



WILLIAM AND MAEY QUARTERLY 287 

William Parramore Deposes that the said John Lyon applied 
to him sometime last spring to purchase a vessel together in com- 
pany that he the said John would take half of her, that he would 
go in her himself, but desired it might not be known that he had 
any share, upon this deponents telling him that he thought it too 
great a risk at that time said John Lyon told him that there was 
no danger that he had that from his friend which would render 
it safe for the vessel to pass & repass and further saith not 

William Parramore 

The Minutes of the above Court Martial were signed 

John Cropper 
Jun r Lieut & Presid 1 ." 



"A true copy test William Gibb Clk e ." 



A Letter addressed to His Excellency 

Thomas Nelson Jun r Esq. 1 Endorsed on back as follows. 

"Augt 18 1781 From Levin Joynes & others to the governor 
respecting the Rev d John Lyon's case." 

"Accomack August 18 1781 
Sir 

We are induced to apply to your Excellency for a Eemission 
or Mitigation of a Sentence passed on the Reverend John Lyon 
(by a Court Martial held in this County the 8* Instant) to five 
years imprisonment. From a review of the Testimony we are led 
to think the sentence severe, but are far from meaning to cast the 
Slightest reflexion on the Courte. 

As the people here are just now very much irritated as well as 
alarmed by the plunderings and -Burnings of the Barges as well as 
the more aggravating circumstances of murder and Robberies 
comitted among us by some of our most unworthy countrymen, but 
to do justice to him we petition for we must say that as far as we 
have heard him speak of such conduct it has been with the greatest- 
abhorrence. Such an act of Clemency would be a means of re-* 



iPile Exec. Papers Thomas Nelson August 1-19, 1781. Va. State 
Archives. 



288 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

lieving a Most Worthy Woman and Three children from real dis- 
tress, their only dependence being on the Emoluments arising 
from his office as rector of Saint Georges Parish, and we trust 
would not injure the common cause as he might be put under 
sufficient restrictions in respect to his future behaviour; which 
we believe he fully means shall be friendly and inoffensive so as 
not to give the least cause of suspicion; or he would engage to 
leave the State and go to New England the place of his Nativity. 

Tho we could wish his case would allow him to continue in his 
parish as nine tenths of the people in it are of the Church of Eng- 
land and we believe a large majority would wish him to continue 
their minister. 

We are with due respect 

Your Excellency's 

Most obedient Servants 

Geo Parker 
Levin Joynes 
James Arbuckle. 

Parker, 

Edm d Custis." 
His Excellency Thomas Nelson Jun r . Esq r . 



INSPECTION OF WHEAT. 

To the Honorable Speaker of the House of Delegates and the 
rest of the members of the Honorable House 

The Petition of several Merchants and other Inhabitants of 
the Town of Alexandria and County of Fairfax Humbly sheweth 

That the Manufacturing Wheat has been for some years past 
carried to such an extent by the Inhabitants of the Western Coun- 
ties as to render Flour and Broad Staple Commodities of the State 
and which like our other Staple Tobacco can never be carried on 
with a proper Character and prospect of Success to Foreign Mark- 
ets unless every precaution and care is taken to render the Quality 
of them equal to the quality of the Flour and Bread shipped from 
the neighbouring Sta.tes That the Wheat raised upon our Lands 
is in quality equal to the wheat raised in neighboring States is a 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 289 

point not denied and it is a point equally certain and acknowl- 
edged that in all Foreign Markets our Flour in point of Char- 
acter and we greatly fear in point of Quality is far inferior to the 
Flour of the neighbouring States and this your Petitioners can 
ascribe to no other cause than a stricter attention being paid by 
them to the Quality of the Flour which they intend for exporta- 
tion and a greater exactness in examining into the Flour actually 
shipped than is met with in this State 

That the City of Philadelphia has for a number of years carried 
on a very extensive Flour Trade and the Flour shipped from that 
Port has been generally held in higher estimation in all Foreign 
Markets than the Flour Chipped from any other part of the Con- 
tinent: This your Petitioners conceive must arise altogether from 
the different modes established by them for the inspection of their 
Flour founded on a long course of experience 

That the Town of Baltimore Tho' young in that Business com- 
paratively speaking yet having of late having adopted all the es- 
sentials of the Philadelphia Inspection begin this day to rival 
Philadelphia in that Branch of Business at Foreign Markets : It 
is unnecessary for your Petitioners to point out to the honorable 
House the benefits a Country will enjoy or the evils it will sustain 
from the good or evil reports respecting the Quality of the Staple 

That the City of Philadelphia from long experience in that 
Branch of Business has discovered that the appointing of a single 
Inspector for the examination of all Flour brought to that Port 
is one of the most beneficial regulations they have ever made in 
that Business and one person only is appointed Inspector with 
power from time to time to appoint as many Deputies under him 
as the Throng of Business will require, for whose abilities and 
integrity he alone is responsible This Regulation has been found 
upon long Trial & repeated experiments to answer every end better 
than any other they ha.ve heretofore adopted and these your Peti- 
tioners conceive to be the obvious Causes of the advantages result- 
ing from that regulation When there is a number of Inspectors or 
more than a single one, in all Cases where there has been any rc- 
missness or Inattention in passing Flour not strictly merchantable 
the Censufe has fallen indiscriminately upon the Inspectors by 



290 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

which the person guilty has in a great measure escaped the Stigma 
by bearing only a divided part which is generally considered as 
none at all and this motive or spur to a proper discharge of Duty 
being in a great measure destroyed the Officer becomes remiss and 
is sometimes tempted to become criminal Whereas when there is 
but a single person to perform the Duties and become responsible 
for the Inadvertencies or Frauds that may be committed, the dread 
and apprehension of a detection will keep up an attention which 
will rarely be procured by any other means Besides a very strong 
temptation is thrown in the way when there is more than one In- 
spector (and the odium of misconduct through that means divided 
& in a great measure lost) arising from the Pecuniary emoluments 
of the Business for as each Inspector is paid for the services re- 
spectively performed by him, the more of the Business he can draw 
to himself the greater will be his emolument ; this will lead him to 
be less rigid in the Business in order to draw the bulk of it to him- 
self ; for the Farmer and Miller being in no way interested in the 
sale at Foreign markets, have no further object than to get their 
Flour passed by the Inspector, and the less he is in respect to the 
Quality, the more they can make of it, and the meanness of the 
Quality will induce them to take it where it will be passed with 
the least difficulty, and this conduct alone would in a short time 
quite reduce the quality of the Staple Your Petitioners therefore 
humbly pray the Honorable House to take the same into considera- 
tion and adopt those measures which in the neighbouring States 
has discovered to be so highly beneficial in appointing only one 
Inspector of Flour at the different places where Flour is received 
for exportation with power in cases of emergency to nominate and 
appoint under him as many Deputies as may be necessary for his 
good conduct he to be accountable and also to appoint one Inspector 
of Bread at all such places And your Petitioners as in duty bound 
shall ever pray Etc. 

Danl. Mc.Pherson Jonah Watson 

Isaac Mc.Pherson Dennis Ramsay 

T Marsteller Francis Peyton 

Jas. Keith Wm. H. Powell & Co. 

Thos. Porter Th. Love 

Robert Donaldson Robinson Sanderson & Rumney 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 



291 



John Mc.Clanahan 
Win. Hartshorne 
James Lawrason 
John Murray 
Andrew Jamieson 
Win. Hickman, Jr. 
John Dunlap 
Wm. Hunter 
George Hunter 
Wm. Paton 
Jona. Swift 
John Brent 
Josiah Thompson 
Thos. Barclay 
Benj. Shreve , 

John Saunders 
Eobt. Coupar 
James Kennedy 
Gurdon Chapin 
John Mc.Iver 
John Hickman 
John Allison 
James McKinnay 
James Hendricks 
Alex. Smith 
Jesse Taylor 
Robert Allison 
Wm. Hepburn 
Wm. Mc.Knight 
Alex,. Gordon 
Robert Mc.Crea 
Robert Mean 
Wm. Newton 
John Reynolds 
Ja, Wood W. R. D. 



W. Woodson 

Saml. Montgomery Brown 

John Muir 

Wm. Halley 

John Fitzgerald 

John Harper 

Saml. Davis 

Gabriel Slacom 

William Shreve 

Daniel Douglass 

Wm. Baker 

Wm. Loury & Co. 

R. W. Ashton 

Wm. Herbert 

John Potts Jr. 

Oliver Price 

Wm. Lyles 

John Wise 

Jos. & Wm. Busby 

Wm. Summers 

Colin Mc.Iver 

W. Brown ( ?) 

Gray Douglass 

Thos. Triplett 

Daniel Roberdeau 

Will Hunter 

Edw. K. Thompson & Co. 

Lund Washington 

Rich. Ratcliffe 

Benjamin Gwinn 

John Ratcliffe 

Joseph Powell Jr. 

R. Peyton 

Geo. H. Lee 



Endorsed 



Merchants of Alexandria 

Their Petition 
October 19, 1787 
Referred to Trade 



Reasonable reported 



292 WILLIAM AND MABY QUARTERLY 



NAVAL OFFICE ON THE POTOMAC. 

To the Honourable Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen, Delegates for 
the Commonwealth of Virginia. Remonstrance and Petition of 
the Merchants & Adventurers to Sea, in the town of Alexandria, 
Humbly Sheweth to your Honours, 

The inconveniences and hardships that a great part of the 
traveling People in Virginia labour under, from the establishment 
of the Naval Office at the mouth of the Potomac or near it. For 
a considerable distance up the Eiver, it is many miles wide. In 
the Spring, Fall, & Winter the winds hang much from the North- 
ward, are generally so violent, and the Virginia shore so open to 
them, that no vessell can with safety ride at anchor near it, but in 
general are obliged to make a harbour on the Maryland side. Be- 
sides every day's experience proves to us the extreme danger Ves- 
sells that come to anchor near the mouth of the River, either to 
clear out or to enter, whilst the enemy so commonly watch & take 
those under sail thereabouts. How much more dangerous must 
the situation of those be, that are obliged to come to anchorage on 
the Maryland Side, the Captain, and at least four of his crew, go 
from the vessell, several miles to enter or clear at the Virginia Of- 
fice, in which time the Enemy appears, those left on board the Ves- 
sell too weak to get her under way to make their escapes, and the 
Master perhaps looking on, unable to return to the assistance and 
care of his Vessell. This is a matter of Consequence to those to 
whom the present Office is usefull, we wish it may be kept open, 
and to those whose interest it is to have another established, we 
pray your attention. 

Alexandria, Dumfries & Colchester, own almost all the Ves- 
sells on this River, and their is scarcely a foreign Vessell but what 
comes addressed to some Merchant in one part of these towns. For 
these reasons, & just ones we think they are, you must permit us 
to request that you take this our remonstrance and petition under 
your serious consideration & that you pass an Act for a separate 
Office to be erected and established in the Town of Alexandria, and 
the Officer to be appointed, to be obliged to reside in the said Town 



WILLIAM AND MABY QUABTEBLT 



293 



and the Office not to be executed by a Deputy. In this case, those 
whom it may suit, can clear out at the present Office, and the Mer- 
chants and Trading People at Potomac River and Foreigners bound 
to the Towns aforesaid, can with safety and convenience enter and 
clear. We hope your Honours will think our request highly rea- 
sonable and grant us relief in the premises. 



William Mc.Farland 

Richard Arell 

Jacob Cox 

Washer Blount 

Benj. Chapin 

John Muir 

Thos. Fitzpatrick 

George Ross 

Meyler E. Lungmann (?) 

John Carlyle 

Wm. Ramsay 

John Mills 

Michael Thorn 

James Lannaman 

Robert Harper 

Wm. Pandy 

Wm. Paton 

James Stewart 

Allison Ramsay 

Samuel Arell 



Alexander Lory 

Edward Owens 

Wm. Hunter 

Wm. Herbert 

R A. Carter 

James Adam 

Richard Conway 

Robert Adam 

Joseph Harper 

Hooe & Harrisons 

Josiah Watson 

Wm. Hartshorne 

Mc.Crea & Mease 

Fitzgerald & Peers 

John Harper 

Dow & Mc.Tror 

Reverse Alexandria Petition 
Oct. 25, 1779 
Refd. to propositions 
Reasonable 



Fairfax County, Oct. 19, 1779 

The deposition of Capt. John Sandford taken before me, one 
of the Magistrates for the County aforesaid & in the Common- 
wealth of Virginia. 

The deponent being sworn deposeth and saith that he hath 
saild from the town of Alexandria to Sea these eight years past, in 
the course of which time the Vessells to which he belonged & com- 
manded have frequently been detained by calling at the Naval 
Office so as to loose a fair wind that would have carried them to 
Sea immediately, & that therefore they have been obliged to wait 
till a shift of wind which has taken up many days that the case 



294 WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 

has been the same oftentimes on their return from Sea with a fair 
wind that would have brought them quite to Alexandria, they have, 
by being obliged to stop to enter, been detained so as to loose their 
wind and taken up several days afterwards in getting to the afore- 
said Town against head winds That in the Winter, Fall and 
Spring the winds frequently blow so violently upon the Virginia 
shore as to oblige Vessells to anchor on the Maryland Side, that 
then they have about 12 or 15 Miles to go in their boats to the Vir- 
ginia Side, & that during the continuance of the winds no row 
boat can return or board the Vessells on the Maryland Shore. That 
he on his return from Cape Francois last December 12 months 
Came too in the schooner Sidney opposite the Virginia Office to 
enter, that the wind came on so violently as to part both his cables, 
that he was obliged, and it was with difficulty he got the Vessell 
under way, that he stood back and forward in the Eiver during a 
whole night, and next morning run his Vessell ashore in Smith 
Creek on the Maryland shore & there lay till he could draw anchors 
that he had almost his whole cargo to unlode on the beach before 
he could get his Vessell off again, that one of his anchors he found 
again & that the other was totally lost. That the Office lyes ex- 
tremely open to the Enemy and that he has known them to be as 
high up the River many times and has frequently heard of their 
taking Vessells thereabouts and further saith not. 
Sworn before 

Robert Adam 

Capt. R. Sandford's deposition 

A-459 

Fairfax County, Oct 19, 1779 

The deposition of Capt. Lawrence Sandford taken before me, 
one of the Magistrates for the County in the Commonwealth of 
Virginia. 

The deponent being sworn, deposeth and saith that he hath 
sailed from the Town of Alexandria to Sea these fifteen years past, 
in the course of which time the Vessells to which he belonged and 
Commanded have frequently been detained many days by calling at 
the South Potomack Naval Office to clear and enter ; particularly 



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 295 

in the Winter season, he has been obliged to stop at said Office 
with a fine Southerly Wind, that would have carried him to his 
destined port of Alexandria, that while he was entering, the wind 
has chopped about to the Northwa rd, turned intensely cold, blocked 
the River up with ice, endangered Vessell and Cargo & prevented 
his getting to Alexandria for many weeks. That the Harbour at 
said Office lies so exceedingly bleak & open to Northerly and East- 
erly Winds,, which makes the Harbour in the Winter Season very 
dangerous for Vessells to ride in. that he has often went ashore in 
his Boat and before he could get his business done, the Wind has 
spruhg up so Violently as to render it impossible for him to return 
to his Vessell for Twenty Four hours the Vessell at the same 
time bing in great cfanger of being driven ashore. 

Sworn before 

Robert Adam 
Endorsement 

Capt. L. Sandford's Deposition 
A 459 

Fairfax County, Oct. 19, 1779 

The deposition of Capt. Robt. Conway taken before me, one of 
the Magistrates of the County in the Commonwealth of Virginia 

The deponent being Sworn, deposeth and saith that he has saild 
from the Town of Alexandria for several years past, in the course 
of which time he has been detained at the South pctomack Naval 
Office that in his opinion the Harbour at said office is extremely 
dangerous, at many times for Vessells to lye at, it being so much 
exposed and open to Northerly and Easterly Winds as often to en- 
danger Vessells driving ashore in short the inconvenience & dan- 
ger are so obvious that they are not worth enumerating, but upon 
the whole he thinks it is a very improper place for Vessells to call at 
either Inward or Outward bound. 

Sworn to before 

Robt. Adam 

Captain Robt. Conway's Dep. 



COATS OF ARMS beautifully illuminated 
in correct colors, etched in pen and ink, or 
painted in black and white water color 
wash. 
Address 

MISS JANE C. SLAUGHTER 

William and Mary College 

Williamsburg, Va. 



County Court Note Book 

An every-other monthly devoted to abstracts from the County 
Court and other records, prior to 1800, and with a department 
of notes and queries. 

MILNOR LJUNGSTEDT 

Editor and Publisher 

Bethesda, Route 1, Maryland 

ONE DOLLAR A YEAR IN ADVANCE 

EDWARD D WELLY 

RECORD SEARCHER AND GENEALOGIST 
Wellington Ave., Fleet, Hants, England 



Searches undertaken with care in England. Special facilities 
for Somerset, Devon, and records in London. Index of 303,000 
Somerset names. A few copies of Dwelly's Parish Records, 
Bishops' Transcripts, Registers, and Marriages of Somerset 
still to be had. 



The Wllli am end Mary 
quarterly 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 




UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY