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Full text of "William Nussbaum Collection 1908-1975"

Leo Baeck 
Institute 



William Nussbaum 

Collection 



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wallst. Page 5 

l^omment 

comments 

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_rT-time and over 

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traham's Hebron 
^Will Be Excatatei 
By 1/.S. Expedition 



Special to The New York Times 

PRINCETON, N. J., Sept 11 
—Hebron, the traditional burial 
place of Abraham and his sons 
Isaac and Jacob, will be ex- , 
cavated by American archeolp- 
gists next summer, it was an- 
nounced here tcjday. 

Prof. Philip C. Hammond of 
the Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary will direct the expedition 
at the Site 25 miles south of 
Jerusalem in Jordan. Other 
participating organizations in- 
clude the University of South- 
ern California, the Southwest 
Baptist Theological Seminary, 
the American Council of Learned 
Societies the American Friends 
of the Middle East. 

The last major Biblical site 
in the Holy Land still unex- 
cavated, H abron was the ü rst 

to Hel5ron that Josliua sent his 
men to "buy up land" in Canaan| 

The Roman Emperor Hadrian 
established a major market near 
the City and Emperor Constan- 
tine later built Christian 
churches around it. With the 
rising influence of Islam in the 
Middle East, Hebron became 
revered as the burial place of. 
the Biblical Patriarchs. "* 

Pretimlnary preparations for 
the expedition were completed 
this summer by Professor Ham- 
mond. The Government of Jor- 
dan will provide transportation 
to the Site and a Government 
school building for housing the 
expedition staff. 



■•;[ 



The genealogy of the Bible: 
earliest Hebrew to latest American versions 



OLD TESTAMENT 
BASIC SOURCES 



NEW TESTAMENT 
BASIC SOURCES 




Flnt Hebrew textt 
tet down on pspyrut 

and leaCher scrollt 
between 1300- 165 B.C 



Texts edited 

into present-day form 

by Jewish scholar« 

called Massoretes, 

7th-9th centuries A.D. 



First printed 
Hebrew text, 1488 A.D. 




Dead Sea Scrolls, 

oidest available texts, 

»ome dating to 300 B.C., 

ditcovered 1947 and slnce 



DOUAY, 1582-1610 

English translation for Catholics 
brought to America by Lord Calvert 





CONFRATERNITY, 1952- 

First U. S. Catholic version 
entirely from basic sources 



SEPTUACINT, 250- 50 B.C 

First translation 
from Hebrew to Creek 



ST. JEROME'S VULCATE 
ABOUT 400 A.D. 

Latin translation, Catholic Standard 



WYCLIFFE'S BIBLE 
ABOUT 1382 A.D. 

First English translation 




TYNDALE, 1525-30 

First printed English translation 
from basic sources 



CREAT BIBLE, 1539 

First English translation 
authorized by Church 




KING JAMES, 1611 

Translated by 47 scholars, 
most famous English Bible 



REVISED STANDARD 

VERSION, 1952 
Newest U. S. Protestant Bible 





CUTENBERG, ABOUT 1455 

First printed Bible, 
used Vulgate text 




GENEVA BIBLE, 1560 

Published by English exiles, 
brought to America by Pilgrims 



ALGONQUIN BIBLE, 1663 

Translated for Indians, 
flrst Bible printed in America 




written in Creek 

on papyrus 

between 50-100 A.D. 



Earliest complete texts 

on parchment, 

around 350 A.D. 




First printed Creek text 
edited by Erasmus, 1516 




Codex Sinaiticus, 

oidest complete text 

dating to about 350 A.D. 

found on Mt. Sinai, 1859 



Papyrus fragments, 
dating to Second Century, 
discovered 1930 and since 




137 



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kAMMAMiH 



Reviews 



Abstracts 



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Edited hy 

LOUIS M. HELLMAN, M.D 



Reviews of new books 



Heredity Counseling. Edited by Helen G. Ham- 
mons. 112 pages, 1 figure, 4 tables. 
New York, 1959, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. 
$4.00. 
It can hardly be doubtcd today that the young 
science of genetics is rapidly reaching niaturity, 
nor can the importance of its contributions and 
its Potential to the Solution of difficult medical 
Problems be denied any longer. In this rather 
sniall book based on a Symposium sponsored by 
the American Eugenics Society in 1958, genetic 
counseling, as one aspect of the relationship of 
genetics to medicine, is discussed by 17 well- 
kiiown leadcrs in the field. 

The content is divided into two parts. Part I — 
Genetics in Medical Practica— is concerned with 
the need for genetic counseling in pediatrics, 
dentistry, and Pu))lic Health nursing. Part II— 
Heredity Counseling— discusses the structure of 
heredity counseling Services, referral procedures, 
lypos of advicc givcn by heredity counselors and 
the dangers of inadcquate counseling. 

It is regrcttable that the discussions do not go 
far enough to satisfy more complctely the desire 
for a long sought aftcr and much needed guide 
to this increasingly important subject. Quite 
properly, counseling by those not trained in 
genetics is discouragcd, but despite these ad- 
inonitions it would appear that a more detailed 
discussion of vital problems encountercd and 
the advicc ßiven in spcc ific instances drawn from 
the undoubtedly vast experiences of this clite 
group of aulhors would have enhanced the value 
of the book. For its size, nonethcless, it does 
contain much useful and timely information, 
especially for those not genetically trained and 
who arc intercstcd in becoming acquainted with 
the problcm of heredity counseling as it is today. 



Therapeutic Radiology. By William Moss. 403 
pages, 146 illustrations. St. Louis, 1959, 
The C. V. Mosby Company. $12.50. 
Dr. Moss has described the contents of his book 
in its preface. It is not a recipe for radiotherapy 
nor is it an encyclopedia. But it is an introduc- 
tion to selected clinical problems in therapeutic 
radiology, and it expresses a philosophy of 
radiotherapy intended to improve patient care. 

The introductory chapter Stresses the clinical 
nature of radiotherapy, wherein the patient and 
his disease comprise the ultimate reality. To cope 
with this reality the therapist combincs his clini- 
cal oxperience with the disciplincs of radiation 
physics, surgical pathology, and radiobiology. 
Each patient must be treated with an individual- 
ized technique and dosage, but general treatmcnt 
policy is based on the end results that have becn 
reported from major Cancer treatment centers. 
The remaining chapters discuss the tumors of 
the various major anatomic regions of the body. 
The natural history of the tumor and the efTects 
of radiation on the normal tissues of each region 
are described. End results of various modalities 
of treatment arc tabulated. The author then 
proposrs treatment policy and technique based 
on the rational evaluation of these factors of 
tumor history, radiation tolerance of normal 
tissues, and end results. 

Dr. Moss is a therapeutic radiologist and 
Assistant Professor of Radiology at Northwestern 
University School of Medicine. His text is in- 
tended for the Student of radiotherapy. Its" 
brevity, emphasis on major issues, excellent 
bibliography, illustrations, and tables arc all 
assets. A general discussion of clinical Staging 
and methods of presentation of end results would 
be useful additions to the book. 



1218 



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Volume 80 
Number 6 



Book reviews 1219 



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•>Fernicntc— Hormone— Vitamine, Vol. 2, Hör- 
mone. By R. Ammon and W. Dirschcrl. 
Third cdiiion. 897 pagcs, 144 figures, 
88 tablcs. New York, 1960, Intcrcon- 
linontal Modical Book Corp. $35.25. 
Tho trtMncndoiis aminuilaücm of facu in the 
field of hornioncs has madc nccossary an cntirc 
volumc dcvotcd to a subject whicii in 1948 
fillcd only thc middlo part of thc second cdition 
of Fcrynentc— Hormone— Vitamine. Written by 
lu'o cxperts in biocheniistry, in rollaboration 
wiih aiithors rontribiiting chaptors on zoology 
ai.id imtany, ihis book ronrcrns itself with a de- 
scription and disrussion of the chomistry of 
horinonrs, iheir physiology, and thcir role in 
niammals, vcrtcbralcs, invcrtcbratcs, insorts, and 
plants. This is truly an interdisciplinary en- 
dcavor, an cxrcllcnt guide in thc biorhemistry of 
hormoncs and related problems, pointing out the 
significanre of horniones with referenre to en- 
zymes and vitaniins. A clcar and roncise style 
and an enij)iia.sis on rhcniistry contribute to a 
niore fundamental understanding of the new 
research problems. 

The obstetrician and gynecologist now has the 
benefit of an up-to-date book for reference and 
a systemic presentation, authoritative and criti- 
cal, of the most advanced knowledge in the field. 
He should not, hovvever, expect to find a clinical 
endocrinology, although clinical problems are 
deait with briefly. 

Of special interest are chapters on sex hor- 
moncs, the relationship between female and male 
hormones, and the influence of the sex hormones 
on the embryo. 

An index of authors at the end of each chap- 
ter and one of subjects at the end of the book 
add to the practical vahie of this basic work, for 
which the authors as well as the publisher are 
to be highly commended. 

Trends in Genetic Analysis. By G. Pontecorvo. 

145 pages, 18 tables. New York, 1958, 

Columbia University Press. No. XVHI 

of thc Columbia Biological Series. 

Pricc $4. 

The conccpt of thc" gene as a simple entity with 

thc simultaneous propertics of indivisibility in 

hcredity, specificity of function, and ability to 

mutate is no longcr satisfactory as a working 

model for an understanding of the fme structurc 

of thc genetic material. Above all othcr recently 

dcvelopcd techniqucs, those of microbial genetics 

have enormously incrcascd what the author re- 



fers to as thc "resolving power of genetic 
analysis." Thc essential j)rocess on whirh gcneiic 
analysis is based is recombination, i.e., the ap- 
parent exchangc of genetic material (informa- 
tion) between chromosomes. Hence, the discus- 
sion is ceniered about this powerful l)ut littie 
understood genetic tool and its use in one of the 
most exciting developments in genetics, the 
Splitting of thc functional unit of inheritancc, 
previously calied a gene, into subunits. By re- 
combination, these subunits can be distinguished 
within thc functional organized structurc now 
refcrrcd to as the cistron. References are madc 
to various works with microorganisms and 
fungi, particularly neurospora and aspcrgillus, to 
illustrate the text. 

Thc six chapters that make up thc book are 
cntitled: I. Genetic Analysis and Its Resolving 
Power, H. Allelism, HI. Structurc and Function 
of the Genetic Material, IV. Recombination, V. 
Mapping Chromosomes via Mitotic Recombina- 
tion, and VI. Novel Genetic Systems. Based on 
a series of lectures delivered by Professor Ponte- 
corvo to the Department of Zoology of Columbia 
University in 1956, the scope of which was a 
reappraisal of the theory of the gene in the light 
of the prcscnt knowledge, the text is concerncd 
with only those avenues of dcvclopment in ge- 
netics with which the author is most conversant 
from firsthand cxperience. 

Quite clcarly, the book is intendcd for the 
geneticist and hence may at times be difficult 
for the novice since a more than cursory knowl- 
edge öf thc subject by thc rcader is assumed. 
For the geneticist and those in related ficlds 
familiär with classical genetics the book ofTers a 
concise and clcarly written discussion of the 
prcscnt conccpt of the gene as dcvelopcd from 
the work of Benzer, Watson and Crick, Levin- 
thal, Plaut and Mazia, Kacser, Pritchard, and 
others, including those of the author. 

Clinical Endocrinology. Editcd by Edwin B. 

Astwood. First edition. 724 pages, illus- 

trated. New York, 1960, Grüne & Strat- 

ton, Inc. $18.75. 

This 724 pagc book is editcd by one of the fore- 

most cndocrinologists of this country. Fle has 

gathered together 82 contributors most of whom 

are well known in thcir various ficlds. 

As its title would indicatc, it is primarily 
devoted to the clinical aspccts of the subject 
although by nccessity the research and laboratory 
components are discnssed in many areas. 



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1220 Book reviews 



IW 



Karh \op\c is i)r('scnt('d in a concise nianncr 
with oiily ihc niost iinportaiu points discusscd. 
Tliis is roiiducivL' to .sliort cliaplcrs ihat aic 
roadablc and thc iiKUerial casy lo dig('si uiihoiit 
gctling lost in a mass of words. As far as ])ossiblc 
only matrrial tiiat is fairly >vrll nrfrptrd i" givon. 
Tlic lack of ihc iheorcliial niakos thc book prac- 
tica! for ihc ( linirian. 

C()nsid(;rabl(,' spacc is dcvotod to thc ab- 
nornialitios of sex and thus cmphasizcs thc 
progrcss that has bccn niadc in rcccnt ycars in 
knoNvlcdgc of thcsc i)rol>hMns. 

Thc last scction of thc I)ook is dcvoicd to 
hormonc assays and special tcsts. This is a valu- 
ablc portion for it brings togcthcr in onc place 
thc varions tcsts for all thc hormoncs and should 
provc to bc a vahiablc rcfcrcnce. 

Thc rcvicwcr cnjoycd thc book and found it 
not only informative, but casy reading. It can 
bc rcconimcndcd for all interested in endo- 
crinology. 

/hrbuch der Gynäkologie. By Heinrich Martins. 
Sixih cdition. 447 pagcs, 476 fignrcs. 
New York, 19G0, Intcrcontincntal Med- 
ical Book Corp. $12.85. 
Heinrich Martins is no stranger to thc inter- 
national Community of anthors and teachers in 
gynecology, and his works cxcel in snbstance 
and clarity. This sixth cdition, bringing nj) to 
datc his textbook, originally pnblishcd in 1946, 
is no cxccption. Intcndcd for thc German stndcnt 
of gynecology as well as for thc practicing 
gynccologist, it prcscnts 12 chapters in pleasant 
style. In gcneral, thc prcsent Status of gyneco- 
logical knowlcdge and practice in Germany ap- 
pcars to bc on a level with that in this country, 
but a few difTcrences deserve mention. 

It was surprising, for cxamplc, to Icarn that 
in cascs of diflicult dilatation, laminaria is still 
being used in Germany, while that instrument 
is taboo in the United States. Rubin's insuflla- 
tion test, an ofTicc proccdurc here, is rccom- 
mendcd for hospital treatment only; colposcopy, 
however, is advocated as a must in ofTicc gyncc- 
■ ology. Surprising also was a report that treatment 
of sterility by artificial insemination ab alieno 
was rejectcd by the Sixty-second Convention of 
thc German Medical Society in 1955. 

For Cancer of the cervix the gynccological dc- 
partmcnt of thc Woman's Hospital in Göttingen, 
under thc author's directorship, has dcvelopcd 
intravaginal radiation of thc paramctrium by 
mcans of a special tubc. No rcfcrcnce is madc 



Dcccinl>rr, i960 
Am. J. Obst. & Gyncc. 



to thc selcction of cascs for operative and non- 
operative treatment on thc basis of SR and RR 
cytotechnique of Graham and Graham. 

In paticnts with severe amenorrhea, whcn thc 
funrtioning cndomctrium no longer exists be- 
« uu««7 of ijiditnnnaiinn, ihcinileal cauierlzation, 
or too vigorous curcttage, Martins transplants 
cndomctrium. 

Also of intcrest arc observations concerning 
so-callcd "grippe Salpingitis," aftcr which the 
Salpinx frcqucntly heals without dcfect, regaining 
its patency, and hypoplasia of thc uterus duc to 
mental and physical strain during war. 

The chapter on gynccological urology calls 
attention to the pedunculatcd muscle fat trans- 
plantation from the musculus bulbocavcrnosus 
for Support aftcr urcthroplastic. 

A prescntation of hormonc therapy bascd on 
thc most rcccnt rescarch in thc ficld makes this 
text worthy of a place on cvery gynecologist's 

Atlas der gynäkologischen Operationen. By O. 

Käser and A. Ikle. 451 pagcs, 720 fig- 
nrcs. Stuttgart, 1960, Georg Thieme 
Verlag. $35.25. 
This splendid atlas, in thc opinion of thc re- 
viewer, is the cqual, if not the supcrior, of any 
rcccnt gynccological surgical atlas. 

In gcneral it follows the form of similar 
atlascs, with illustrations and division into thc 
appropriate sections. It has an cxcellent scction 
on minor operative proccdurcs, particularly ring 
biopsy. It shows marsupialization of the Bartho- 
lin gland, a rclatively new proccdurc. It has, in 
addition to thc usual Standard Operations in thc 
gynccological ficld, a scction on nrological and 
proctological proccdurcs and radical and ultra- 
radical proccdurcs for Carcinoma, as well as 
intestinal Operations. 

In gcneral this is a most complete and beauti- 
fully illustrated atlas, which the rcvicwcr believcs 
is thc finest he has ever seen. 

High Blood Pressure and Prcgnancy. Lance 

Townsend. 115 pagcs, 22 figures, 26 

tables. New York, 1960, Cambridge 

University Press. $8.50. 

This thesis, submitted for a doctoratc in medi- 

cine, is a detailcd analysis of the pregnancics of 

109 hypertensivc women sccn in 1956, which is 

compared with an analysis of the pregnancics of 

1 1 1 hypertensivc women sccn in thc same clinic 

in 1946 ^nd 1947. In the 1956 series, all patients 



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VOL. LXm, Articles 192-217 



OCTOBER, 1963 



M 




N 



A Monthly Record of Anthropological Science 




Structure of Personal Names on Tory Island 

(with two tables) 

J. R. Fox 

Obituary 
K. P. Chattopadhyay: 1898-1963 

Professor J. H. Huttoti, C.I.E. 

Shorter Notes 
A Terra-Cotta Hcad in the Ife Style from Ikirun, Western Nigeria (with five text figures) 

P. A. Allison 

Some Kaguru Riddlcs 

Dr. T. O. BciJclman 

* Negative Wishing ' aniong the Slavs and Western Peoples 

Professor P. A. Radwanshi 

The Third Edinburgh Conference on Minoan and Myccna;aa Writing, 13-14 June, 1963 

Correspondence 

RevicwjSu^ 

America a Asia , 




Puhlished hy 

THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 
21 Bedford Square, London, W.C.I 



Each Issue 3s. 



Annual Subscription 36s. 



CONTENTS 

The numbers refer not to pages but to articles, by which references are maäe in Man itself to matter published in Man; when 
Man articles are quoted by number elsewhere, it is suggested that the number be preceded by the word 'artick: 



OcTOBEU, 1963 



MAN 



No. 19- 



Structure of Personal Names on Tory Island. J. R. Fox. With two tables 

OBITUARY 

K. P. Chattopadhyay: 1898-1963. Professor}. H. Hutton, C.I.E. 



CORRESPONDENCE 

Moslem Prayer Places. J. H. Chaplin. With a textßgttrc 

The'Determinants of Differential Cross-Cousin Mairiage. Dr. A. D. Coult 

Confusion Worse Confounded: Mrs. Seligman's Birthday 

REVIEWS 

AMERICA 

Ancient America: The CiviUzations of the New World. By H.-D. Disselhoff and S. LinnL Dr. G. H. S. Bushnell 

Les Incas. By A. M^traux. Dr. A. J. Butt 

Maya Archaeologist. ByJ. E. S. Thompson. Commander G. A. Bateman 

Prehistori c Rock Art of Nevada and Eastern Californ ia. By R. F. Heizer and M. A. Baumhoff. Dr. R. Gruhn 

Th e HäsiHic Community of Williamsbu rg. By S. PoILDr. P. S. Cohen 

West Indian Migrants. By R. B. Dauison. Dr. F. Henriques 

TraU to California: The Overland Journal of Vincent Geiger and Wakeman Bryarly. Edited by D. M. Potter. 
G. E. S. Turner 

ASIA 

Ainu Creed and Cult. By N. G. Munro. Dr. E. M. Mendelson • 

The Mongols of Afghanistan: An Ethnography of the Moghols and Related Peoples of Afghanistan. By 

H. F. Sckurmann. Dr. L. Krader 

Social Structure of the Yami of Botel Tobago. By Wci Hwei-Lin andUu Pin-Hsiung. Dr. E. R. Leach 
Himalayan Polyandry: Structure, Functioning and Culture Change: A Field Study of Jaunsar-Bawar. 

By D. N. Majumdar. H.R.H. Prince Peter of Greece and Denmark 

Gaste in Modem India and Other Essays. By M. N. Srinivas. Dr. T. N. Madan .... 
The Hindu Family in its Urban Setting. By A. D. Ross. Dr. Ram P. Srivastava 

Gopalpur: A South Indian Village. By A. R. Beals. Dr. T. N. Madan 

Myth and Reality: Studies in the Formation of Indian Culture. By D. D. Kosambi. Lord Raglan 
Indian Anthropology: Essays in Memory of D. N. Majumdar. Dr. D. F. Pocock . 
Mesopotamia and the Middle East. By L. Woolley. T. C. Mitchell 



19a 



193 



SHORTER NOTES 

A Tcrra-Cotta Head in the Ife Style from Ikirun, Western Nigeria. P. A. Aluson. Withfive textßgures . 194 

Some Kaguru Riddles. Dr. T. O. Beidelman ^95 

•Negative Wishing ' among the Slavs and Western Peoples. Professor P. A. Radwanski . . . .196 
The Third Edinburgh Conference on Minoan and Mycenaean Writing, 13-14 June, 1963. Communicated by 
W. C. Brich 



197 



198 

199 

200 



201 
202 
203 
204 
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207 



208 

209 
210 

211 
212 

213 
214 

215 
216 
217 



ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 

President:]. S. Weiner, M.A., M.Sc, P/i.D., M.R.C.S. 
Hon. Secrctary : A. H. Christie, M.A. Hon. Treasurer : H. E. Wadsworth 

Hon. Editor of the Journal : G. W. B. Huntingford, B.Sc, D.Litt. 
Hon. Editor o/Man ; W. B. Fagg, M.A. Hon. Assistant Editor o/Man : D. Af. Boston, M.A, 

Hon. Editori al Advisers to Man : 
Dr.J. H. M. Beattie, W. C. Brice, D. R. Brothwell, Professor]. Euans, R. H. Robins 



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STRUCTURE OF PERSONAL NAMES ON TORY ISLAND* 

By J. R. Fox, London School of Economics and Political Science 



min The Aran Ishmds ' Syngc niakcs the foUowing 
observations 011 the System of personal names 
thcn in usc (1898-1902): 

Whcn a child begins to wander about the Island, the neigh- 
bours speak of it by its Christian name, foUowcd by the 
Christian name of its father. If this is not enough to identity it 
the fathcr's epithet— whether it is a nicknanie or the name of 
liis own father — is added. 

Sometimes when the fuher's name does not lend itselt, the 
mother's Christian name is adopted as epithet for the childrcn. 

Üccasionally the surname is employed in its Irish form, but 
I have not heard them using the 'Mac' prefix when speaking 
Irish among themselves; perhaps the idea of a surname which 
it gives is too modern for them, perhaps they do use it at tnncs 
that 1 have not noticed. . 

Sometimes a man is named from the colour of his hair. 1 here 
is thus a Seaghan Ruadh (Red john), and his children are 
'Mourteen Seaghan Ruadh,' etc. . 

The schoohnaster teils nie that when he reads out the roll in 
the morning the children repeat the local name all together in 
a whisper after each otficial name and then the child answers. 
If he calls, for instance, 'Patrick O'Flaharty,' the children 
murmer, 'Patch Seaghan Dearg' or some such name, and the 

boy answers. • 1 1 • 

If an islander's name alone is enough to distinguish him it is 
used by itself, and I know one man who is spoken of as Eamonn. 
There may be other Ednmnds 011 the island, but it so they have 
probably good nicknames or epithets of their own. 

While on Tory Island (Oiledn Thoraighc), Co. Donegal 
in 1962, I coUectcci the names of all living adults and found 
the System to be basically that reported by Synge for the 
Aran Islands, with enough chstinctiveness to be worth a 

separate analysis.- 

Kinship terms are rarely used among the islanders except 
bctween voung children and their parents and parents 
sibhnes. Cousinship is nuhcated by saynig of a person 
somethmg like 'his mother and my father were the 
children of two brothers' {Bhi a mhdthair a^iis m nthnir 
claun na hcirtc dcarbhrntliar), or 'we are children ofbrother 
and sister' (rdmind claun dcarhlirdthar agus dcirhhshcatiar). 
But in a small Community where the genealogical hnks 
between persons are common knowledge, such descriptivc 
explanations are rarely called for. Personal names are used 
instead and in themselves help to indicate a person s 
Position in the kinship structure by showing his linc ot 
descent for up to four generations. 

A person will in fact have three sets of names: a Gaclic 
'ceremonial' set; an English 'practical' set, and a Gaelic- 
Endish 'personal' set. A man's füll Gaelic name will 
consist of bis baptismal name foUowed perhaps by his 
'cpitbet' such as Ög (young-usually means youngest of 
several brothers), Bdn (fair), Mor (big , Beag (smal -wee), 
followed by bis surname. Such a combmation might yield, 
for example, 'Pddraig Ög Mac Ruadhraigh. A woman 
strictly speaking, retains her family name on marriage and 
addsthedescriptivephrase'wifcof (hterally woman of ) 

* With two tabh's 



and the names of her husband, c.^^k 'MAire Ni Dhiibhghain 
bean Sheamuis Mhic Ruadhraigh '-hterally, Mary, 
daughter of Doohaii, wife of James the son of Rory. A 
nuinber of circumstances will determine whether or not 
her husband's name will 'stick' as a surname or whctlier 
she will go on being known by her maiden name. These 
names in their fuirforms are only used on ceremonia 
occasions such as dances— when a man or woman is called 
upon to sing or step-dance— , or for prayers in churcli 
during a serious illness, or for calling the roll in school, or 
for putting on a tombstone. 

The practical names are the rough English equivalents 
of the Gaelic names, used in dealing with English-speakers 
generally and particularly for use when working in England 
and Scotland. The Government is usually dealt with in 
Enghsh for several reasons, mainly because although the 
islanders all speak Gaelic as their native tc^ngue, the 
language they read and write is English— a Situation 
brought about by the pattern of migrain labouring which 
forced literacy on them when working in Britain. Also 
they find 'Dublin' or 'civil service' Irish diftkult to foUow. 
Most islanders, thcn, have an 'Enghsh' name. Our examples 
would be ' Paddy Rogers' and ' Mary Doohan' to the out- 
side World. Sometimes these names stick and are used 
amongst the islanders rather like nicknames. Usually the 
English Version is a rough phonctic equivalent of the 
Gaelic— Ö Duibhir beconies Diver, Ö Dubhgain becomcs 
Doogan or Duggan, Mac Fhlaithbheartaigh becomes Mac- 
Glafferty, etc. Sometimes this is abaiidoned and an English 
name taken for its 'hkeness' to the Gaelic as with Mac- 
Ruadhraigh and Rogers— Roger being the English name 
most like^'Rory.' The name Fioruisce is sometimes hope- 
fuUy rcndered Whorriskey, but mostly this is not cvcn 
tried and the simple 'Waters' is substituted. Those going 
to England for work are particularly inclined to pick an 
'Englidi' name, i.e. one the foreman will recognize. 

The third set of names, used for reference, consists of 
two or more Christian names, either Gaelic or English or 
both, 'strung' together in the manner described by Synge 
for Aran. Some people have as many as five or six names 
and 'epithets' strung together in this fashion. These names 
are the names of lineal ancestors either on the mother's or 
the father's side of the family. A person will take as many 
names as is necessary to distinguish him from all other 
persons, the surname System being inadequate for this task. 
(Four surnames cover 80 per cent. of the population.) He 
does not, however, pick these names arbitrarily but inhcrits 
the whole string. He can stop at any point m the string. 
Thus if a man was called 'Jimmy-Dhonnchadha-Mhuire- 
Mhici,' his father must have been ' Donnchadh-Mhuire- 
Mhici',' his paternal grandmother 'Maire-Mhici" or maybe 
'Mairc-Mhici-Tom.'"' '^ Thus if our man wanted to add to 
his names, he would have to add 'Tom.' Usually one or 
at most two names are enough to distinguish a person, in 

153 



SECOND INTENTIONAL EXPOSURE 



CONTENTS 

The numbers refer not to pages but to articles, by which references are made in Man itself to matter publisheä in Man; when 
Man articles are quoted by numbcr clsewhere, it is suggestcd that tlie number be preceded by the ivord 'arttde. 



Structure of Personal Names on Tory Island.]. R. Fox. With two tabks 

OBITUARY 
K. P. Chattopadhyay: 1898-1963. Professor J. H. Hutton, C.I.E. 



CORRESPONDENCE 

Moslem Prayer Places.J. H, Chaplin. H^if/i <i rcx/^^igurc 

The T5etemunants of Differential Cross-Cousinl^^ 

Confusion Worse Confounded: Mrs. Seligman's Birthday 

REVIEWS 

AMERICA 

Ancient America: The Civilizations of the New World. By H.-D. Dissellioffand S. UnnL Dr. G. H. S. Bushnell 

Les Incas. By A. Mctraux. Dr. A. J. Butt 

Maya Archajologist. ByJ. E. S. Thompson. Commander G. A. Bateman 

Prehistoric Rock Art of Nevada and Eastern Ca lifornia. By R. F. Heizer and M. A. Baumhoff. Dr. R. Gruhn 

The' HasiHic^Comniunity of Williamsbu rg. 'BfS.Poll. Dr. P. S. Cohen 

Westlndian Migrants. By R. B. Davison. Dr. F. Henriques 

Trail to California: The Overland Journal of Vincent Geiger and Wakeman Bryarly. Edited by D. M. Potter 
G. E. S. Turner .....••• 



192 



193 



SHORTER NOTES 

A Terra-Cotta Head in the Ife Style from Ikirun, Western Nigeria. P. A. Allison. Withßve textßgures . 194 

Some Kaguru Riddlcs. Dr. T. O. Beidelman ^^5 

•Negative Wishing ' among the Slavs and Western Peoples. Professor P. A. Radwanski . . . .196 
The Thu-d Edinburgh Conference on Minoan and Mycenaean Writing, 13-14 J«ne, 1963. Communicated by 
W. C. Brich 



197 



198 

199 

200 



201 
202 
203 
204 

207 



ASIA 



Alna Creed and Cult. By N. G. Munro. Dr. E. M. Mendelson 

The Mongols of Afghanistan: An Ethnography of the Moghols and Related Peoples of Afghanistan. By 

H. F. ScUurmann. Dr. L. Kräder 

Social Structure of the Yami of Botel Tobago. By Wei Hwei-Un and Liu Pin-Hsiung. Dr. E. R. Leach 
Himalayan Polyandry: Structure, Functioning and Culture Change: A Field Study of Jaunsar-Bawar. 

By D. N. Majumdar. H.R.H. Prince Peter of Greece and Denmark 

Gaste in Modem India and Other Essays. By M. N. Srinivas. Dr. T. N. Madan .... 
The Hindu Family in its Urban Setting. By A. D. Ross. Dr. Ram P. Srivastava 

Gopalpur: A South Indian Village. By A. R. Beah. Dr. T. N. Madan 

Myth and Reality: Studies in the Formation of Indian Culture. By D. D. Kosamhi. Lord Raglan 
Indian Anthropology: Essays in Memory of D. N. Majumdar. Dr. D. F. PococK . 
Mesopotamia and the Middle East. By L. VVoolley. T. C. Mitchell 



208 

209 
210 

211 
212 

213 
214 

215 
216 
217 



ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 

President:]. S. Weiner, M.A., M.Sc, Ph.D., M.R.C.S. 
Hon. Secretary : A. H. Christie, M.A. Hon. Treasurer ; H. E. Wadsworth 

Hon. Editor 0/ f/ic Journal ; G. W. B. Huntingford, B.Sc, D.Litt. 
Hon. Editor o/Man ; W. B. Fagg, M.A. Hon. Assistant Editor c/Man ; D. M. Boston, M.A. 

Hon. Editorial Advisers to Man ; 
Dr.J. H. M. Beattie, W. C. Brice, D. R. Brothwell, Professor]. Evans, R. H. Robins 



(^( TOBP.R, T963 



MAN 



No. 192 



STRUCTURE Ol PERSONAL NAMES ON TORY ISIANP 

By J. R. Fox, London Sihool of Fcononiics and PoUtical Science 



mlii The Aniii Ishiiids ' Syngc niakcs tlic folUnviug 
ohscrvatioiis on rhc systcm o( personal naiiics 
tlicu in usc (1898-1902): 

Whcn a child bcgins to wander about the island, the neigh- 
bours speak of it ^iy its C:hristiaii naine, tollowed by the 
Christian nanie of its fither. If this is not enough to identity it,^ 
the father's epithet— whether it is a nicknanie or the nanie ot 
his own father — is added. 

Sonietinies when the tather's nanie does not lend itselt, the 
niother's C:hristian nanie is adopted as epithet for the clnldren. 

Occasionallv the surnanie is eniployed in its Irish torni, but 
I liave not heard tlieni using the 'Mae' prefix when speaking 
hish among theniselves; perhaps the idea ot a surnanie which 
it gives is too modern for theiii, perhaps they do use it at tiines 
that 1 have not noticed. . 

Sonietinies a man is nanied from the colour ot his hair. 1 here 
is thus a Seaghan Ruadh (Red John), and his ehildren are 
'Mourteen Seaghan Ruadh,' etc. . 

The sehoohiiaster teils nie that when he reads out the roll m 
the morning the ehildren repeat the local nanie all together in 
a wliisper after eaeh otiicial nanie and then the ehild answers. 
If he ealls, tor instanee, 'Patrick CVFlaharty,' the ehildren 
niurmer, ' Riteh Seaghan Dearg' or some such name, and the 

ho\ answers. 11 

If an islander's name alone is enough to distmgmsh him it is 
used by itself, and 1 know one man who is spokeii ot as Eamonn. 
There may be other Edmunds 011 the island, but it so they have 
probably good nieknames or epithets of their own. 

Whilc on Tory Island (Oilcan Thoran^hc), Co. Ooncgal 
i,i kX)^ 1 collcctcd the names of all livniir adiilts and Kniiul 
the svstem to he hasically that reported hy Synge h^r the 
Aran' Islands, with enoui^h distinctiveness to be worth a 

separate analvsis.- 

Kinship terms are rarelv used among; the islanders except 
hetween voun- ehildren and their parents and parents 
sihlm-s. Cousinship is mdieated hy saynig ot a pcrson 
somediiiu^ like 'his mother and my huher were the 
ehildren \^( two hrothers' {Bhi a mhäthair a^us ni athm 
,l,„n ua hcirtc dcarhhräthar). ov ' we are ehildren othrother 
ind sister' (Tüniiiid chwn dcarhhräthar a^us dcirbh^hcothar). 
But m a small eommunity where the geiicalogical links 
hetween persons are commcMi knowledge sueh deseriptive 
cxplanations are rarely ealled for. Personal names are nsed 
instead and m themselves help to indieate a person s 
Position m the kmship strueture by showin- his line ot 
dcscent for up to foiir ireneratic^ns. 

A person will in t^iet have three scts ot names: a Caelie 
'ceremonial' set; an En-hsh 'praetieal' sef and a Gaelic- 
EnM.sh 'personal' set. A man's tt.ll Gaehe name vviU 
consist o{ his baptismal name tollowed perhaps by his 
'epithet' snch as Ög (yonng-nsnally means yonngest ot 
several hrothers), BAn (tair), Mor (big , Beag (smal l-wee , 
tollowed bv bis surname. Sueh a combmation might yield, 
for example, ' PAdraig Ög Mae Ruadhraigh. A woman 
strictlv speakmg, retains her fl^nnly name on marriage and 
adds the deseriptive phrase ' wite ot (hterally vNcnnan ot ) 

* With two tiihlcs 



and the names of her htisband, c.o. 'Maire N( i:)luibhghain 
bean Sheamuis Mhie Riiadhraigh'- hterally, Mary 
daughter of Doobaii, wife of James the son o{ Rory. A 
number oi circumstances will determine whether or not 
her husband's name will 'stick' as a surname or whetiier 
she will go 011 bemg known by her maiden name. These 
names in thcir fuir forms are only used ou eeremoma 
occasions such as daiices— when a man or woman is ealled 
upon to sing or step-dance— , or tor prayers m churcii 
during a serious illness, or for calling the roll m school, or 
tor putting on a tombstone. 

The practical names are the rough English eciiiivalents 
of the Gaehe names, used in dealing with Enghsh-speakers 
<rencrally and particularlv for use when w orking m Eng and 
and Scodand. The Government is usually dealt with m 
Eiiirlish fc^r several reasons, mamly because althcmgh the 
islanders all speak Gaelie as their native tongue, the 
language they read and write is English— a Situation 
bro'Iight about by the pattern o\ nngram labouring whieli 
forcexl literacy c^n them when working in Britain. Alsc^ 
they find ' i:)ublin' or 'civil service' Irish difficult to follow. 
Most islanders, then, have an 'English' name. Cur examples 
would be ' Paddv Rogers' and ' Mary Ooohan to the out- 
side World. Sonietinies these names stick and are used 
amongst the islanders rather like nieknames. Usually the 
English Version is a roui^h pluvnetic ecjuivalent ot the 
CJachc— Ö Ouibhir becomes Diver, Ö Hubhgain becomes 
i:)oogan or Ouggan, Mac Fhlaithbheartaigh becomes Mac- 
Clatferty, etc. Sometimes this is abandoned and an English 
name taken for its 'hkeness' to the (iaelic as with Mac- 
Ruadhraigh and Rogers-Roger being the English name 
most likc^'Rorv.' The name Fioruisce is sometimes hope- 
fullv rendcred Whorriskev, but mosdy this is not cvcii 
tried and the simple 'Waters' is substituted. Those going 
to England for work are parncularly inclined tc^ pick an 
'Engli^sh' name, i.e. one the foreman will recognize. 

The third set o^ names, used for reference, consists ot 
two or more Christian names, either Gaelic or English or 
both, 'strung' together in the manner described by Synge 
for Aran. Some people have as many as five or six names 
and 'epithets' strung together in this tiishion. These names 
are the names of liiieal ancestors either o\\ the mother s or 
the flither's sidc of the family. A person will take as many 
names as is nccessary to disdnguish him trc^m all other 
persons, the surname wstem being inadequate tor this task. 
(Four surnames cover'8o per cent. ot the population ) He 
docs not, however, pick these names arbitrarily but inherits 
the wholc string. He can stop at any point in the string. 
Thus if a man was ealled 'Jimmy-Ohonnchadha-Mhuire- 
Mhia" his tather must have been 'Donnchadh-Mhuire- 
Mhici!' his paternal grandmother ' Maire-Mhici' or maybe 
'Maire-Mhici'-Tom.'"' ^ Thus if our man wanted to add to 
his names, he would have to add 'Tom.' Usually one or 
at most two names are enough io distinguish a persc^n, in 

153 



No. 192 



MAN 



OCTOBER, 1963 



additioii to his own. As Syngc obscrves, if a maus namc is 
unique in some way hc may bc known by it alonc, althoiigh 
on Tory he will usually havc a 'latent' string of namcs 
which he never actually uses but which could be uscd if 
his Christian nanie were to crop up again. If any of the 
ancestors in the 'string' had epithets (using this to mcan 
descriptive terms), thesc are included. But therc is a tendency 
to usc only the epithet of the last person in the string. 
Sometimes, if an ancestor was firmly known by his sur- 
name (if, say, he was an inmiigrant and the first of bis 
name on the island) then this is added also. 4 Below are 
some examples of these names : 

Eoghan-John-Doolcy-Mhalainnc 



Mary-John-Doolcy-Mhalainnc 

Katc-Doolcy-Mhalaiiinc 

Jimmy-Mhuirc-Bhilli 

Pcggy-Phaidi-Shcamuis-Dhonihiiaill 

Padraig-Hughdic-Dhuibhir 
Paddy-Johnnic-Fhlaithbhcartaigh 



Dooley was a man from 
Malin in Co. Donegal. 
Eoghan's sister. 
His patcrnal aunt. 
Jimmy-Mary-Willy 

(Billy) 
Pcggy-Paddy-Jimmy- 

Donal 

Patrick Hugh Divcr 
Paddy John (Mac)- 
Claffcrty ^ 



An alternative type of name— and a man may havc two 
or three alternative types — consists of the addition of the 
Christian name of a parent to the surname. Thus two 
paternal first cousins might be respcctivcly 'Jimmy Diver 
Nancy' and 'Jimmy Diver Madge.' 

The segmentary process in the cognatic dcscent groups 
on the island affects this naming mcchanism. This is ilhis- 
trated ni the following diagram : 

Ncllic (Eibhlin) 



Liam-Ncllic 



Eoghan-Ncllic 



Ncllic-Liaim- 
Ncllic 



Liam-Liaim- 
Ncllic 



Doohan 



John-Eoghain- 
Nellic 



Anabclla-John John ? 
(Nabla) | 



This is an actual dcscent group tracing its ancestry to a 
widow, Ncllic Doohan. The first foiir gcnerations of the 
group are shown here, thcre being eight altogcther. Nclhe's 
descendants, 'Clann Nclhc,' are dividcd mto the Liam- 
NcUies and the Eoghan-Ncllics. Clann Liaim-Ncllie are 
subdividcd into the Ncllic-Liaim-Ncllics and the Liam- 
Liaim-Ncllics. The descendants of Eoghan-NeUie are 
segmented into the John-Eoghain-Ncllies and another 
group known as the Doohans. Thcre havc only been sons 
in this latter group, and they havc tcndcd to be kncwn by 
the 'John Doohan Nancy' type of namc. The four or five 
gcnerations below those shown on the diagram are not 
clearly scgmcntcd as yet. Amongst thesc, the name con- 
tinuity is not so strong, but they all regard thcmsclves as 
'Liam-Ncllies' or 'John-Eoghain-Nclhcs' or Doohans' 
according to the Icvcl of segmentation relevant to their 
various collective activitics.^ The degrce to which the 



name continuity of such a group can be maintained, con- 
verging on the foundcr's name as in our cxample, is some 
measure of the continuing sohdarity of the group. This 
tends to weaken after about six gcnerations and the dis- 
integration of the group is rcflectcd in the native com- 
mentary— Trt na h-ahwuicacha cailltc, 'the names is lost.' 
The attempt to keep the namc continuity often conflicts 
with the desirc to distinguish person from person, hcnce 
the existence o( alternative name types. 

The following formula shows the ideal structure of the 
Tory namc using the following symbols: C = Christian 
name, S = surname, E = epithet, Fa = father's Christian 
namc, Mo = mothcr's Christian namc. A symbol in the 
lower case indicates that the item can be omittcd from the 
progrcssion of names. 

Gciwrathu 



+ 1 



+ 2 



Patrilateral 



Ce 



+ < 



Matrilatcral 



Fa 



fa 
S 
mo 



c 

CS 

s 



+ < 



e 

FaFa es 

s 

e 

FaMo es 



L 



Mo es + <( 
s 



e 

MoFa es 
s 
e 

MoMo es 
s 



The columns rcprescnt the alternative possibilitics, the 
row^s the matrilatcral and patrilateral 'progrcssion' of 
namcs. The formula can be expandcd according to the 

same rules. 

To see how this basic choice between matrilatcral and 
patrilateral 'progressions' worked out in practicc I tabu- 
lated instances of cach type o{ namc progrcssion in my 
collection, distinguishing by sex of nomince (m and f ) 
but ignoring the optional epithets and surnames (Table I). 
I collcctcd thesc names separatcly from the two Settle- 
ments on the island. Hast Town [Bailc Thoir) and West 
Town {Bailc Thiar), and they are so listed on the table. It is 
commonly bclieved that the East is more traditional than 
the West, but this does not show up in any differences 
in the naming Systems. 

What emcrges from this table is the ovcrwhclming 
prcfercnce for taking the father's namc (and his father's) 
by both men and women, and the fact that for both scxcs 
onc possible combination does not occur — m/f+Mo+ 
MoMo. I am told that this has occurred in the past, but 
infrequcntly. The fourth clustcr of namc types in the table 
is a group of residual types. The odditics here are the girl 
who'took her father's brother's name and the rest which 
skip a gencration and Start with the grandparental namcs. 
These cases usually rcsult from an uncle or grandparents 
bringing up children in the absence of parents. If thesc 
relatives are seen as /// loco parcutis then the pattern remains 
the same as for the majority. 



154 



OcTOBER, 1963 



MAN 



Nos. 192, 193 



Table I 



m + Fa 

f+ Pci 

m + Mo 

/+ Mo 

in + Fa+FaFa 

J + Fa + FaFa 

in + Mo + MoMo 

f + Mo -{-MoMo 

in + Fa-\-FaMo 

f + Fa-\-FaMo 

in + Mo -\- MoFa 

f + Mo + MoFa 



Namc type 



in 
in 



+ 
+ 

/ + 

/" + 

/ + 

/// + 

./" + 



MoMo 

MoFa 

MoFa 

Fa + FaFa + FaFaFa 

FaFa + FaFaFa 

FaBro 

MoMo-\- MoMoFa-\- MoMoFaMo 

MoMo -\- Mo MoFa -\- MoMoFaMo 



West 
Town 
24 
26 

13 
6 

15 

13 

o 

o 

o 

2 

o 
o 

2 

3 
I 

3 
o 
o 

3 

I 



East 
Town 

25 
16 

4 

4 

5 
4 
o 
o 

3 
I 

3 

I 

I 
I 

o 
o 
I 
I 

o 
o 



Total 

49 
42 

17 

IG 

20 

17 
O 

o 

3 
3 
3 
I 

3 
4 

I 

3 
I 
I 

3 
I 



112 



70 



182 



Table II summarizes the 'latcrality prcfercnce' as it 
aft'ccts men and women respcctivcly. 



Table II 
Patrilateral Matrilateral 



Total 



m 
f 

Total 



72 (70-6 per Cent.) 30 (29-4 per cent.) 102 

67 (83-75 per cent.) 13 (i6-25 per cent.) 80 



139 (76-4 per cent.) 43 (23 -6 per cent.) 



182 



The ji^mes in parenthesis are percentages of the row totals. 

The Overall prcfercnce is, as wc havc seen, patrilateral, 
but thcre is an intcresting minority prcfercnce amongst 
malcs for matrilatcral namcs. Practically a third of the men 
and less than a sixth of the women havc matrilatcral namcs. 7 
Thcre are several cxplanations for this trend amongst 
malcs. It may stein from the largc number of widows with 
sons, or from the namc continuity of the dcscent System. 
In a number of cases it foUows from the fact that a man is 
given his father's Christian namc as his own and hcnce 
takes his mothcr's name to distinguish him, although this 
is not all that common. 

Such a highly pcrsonalizcd naming system only works 
within the particularistic boundaries of a small Community. 



The World at largc is not interested in the particular antc- 
cedents of a man and the islandcrs recognize this in their 
usc of surnames with the outside world. The old 'family 
or clan names placcd a man in his wider kinship group in 
the days when this was important — it no longcr matters 
today. Within the conmumity the naming system dcs- 
cribcd above distinguishes a man from othcr men and 
places him in his immediate kin group. It hclps to cstabhsh 
his dcscent. Research in small connnunitics in Western 
societies may reveal similar Systems serving similar ends 
but based on different diacritical criteria.^ 

Notes 

• J. M. Synge, Fonr Plays and The Aran Islands, Oxford, 1962, 
pp. 263 f 

2 Brief ethnographical details of Tory Island can be found in 
J. R. Fox, 'The Vanishing Gael,' New Society, Vol. I, No. 2, 1962. 

3 The second and subsequent names, when in Gaelic, are in the 
genitive. Some English names are Gaelicized and given a genitive 
form. I make no claims for the correctness of the spelling of the 
names given here (Irish spelling is pretty fluid), except that they are 
the forms recognized by literate islanders. I could not have made 
any headway with the Tory naming system and genealogies with- 
out the patient help of Mäire Nie Fhlaithbheartaigh bean Aodha 
Ui Dhubhghain, Padraig Ög Mac Ruadhraigh, and Aodh O 
Dubhghain. 

4 See Synge's comment on the use of the surname and the 'Mac' 
prefix. In the 'ceremonial' names on Tory both Mac and O are 
used, but when a surname is included in the 'personal' set, these 
prefixes are not usually used. 

5 This could be Paddy-John Ui Fhlaithbheartaigh— roughly 
Paddy John O'Flaherty. The pronunciation would be the same. 

'' A fuller analysis of the structure and functions of these dcscent 
groups is in preparation. They seem to be mainly concerned with 
landholding — as a consequence of the equal division of land amongst 
all a man's (or woman's) heirs, and the system of keeping land in 
trust for migrants. Their other functions lie mainly in the sphere of 
mutual Support amongst members in times of crisis. 

7 This distribution could only occur by chancc in one sample out 
of 20: x\i) = 4-30: p = <-05. 

^ The Wclsh system of stringing ancestral names together with 
'ap' is obviously similar to the Tory method, but the Welsh, I 
believe, used only male names. Mr. Andrew Dunsire teils me that 
in some Scottish coastal villages a man will be known by the boat 
he owns, his children inheriting this epithet. In some working-class 
communities which I know in England a system similar to that on 
Tory operates. A man may be known as 'Mary 's Tom' and his son 
as 'Mary's Tom's Johnnie,' etc. Syngc notes the use of occupations 
as marks of distinction in Wales and comments on the lack of 
occupational difirrentiation on the Aran Islands which makes this 
method impossible. In some rural communities a man is known by 
the name of his farm. W. M. Williams in The Sociology oj an English 
l'illage (Routledge, 1956) gives examples of this. See also his fasci- 
nating discussion of Naming and Family Continuity, pp. 79-82 and 
229f. The contrast with the Tory system is markcd, however, in 
that one can, in Gosforth, move from 'side' to 'side' in choice of 
names — both surnames and Christian names being used. 



OBITUARY 



K. P. Chattopadhyay: 1 898-1963 

The ncws from Calcutta of the dcath of Professor 
TQIJ K. P. Chattopadhyay at the untimcly agc of 65, 
^-^^ just when hc was planning a visit to this country 

carly ncxt ycar, will bc rcccivcd with grcat rcgret. 

Professor Chattopadhyay started his career as a physicist, and 

having takcn a first class in physics in Calcutta came to this 



country to work undcr J. J. Thompson, but turned from physics 
to anthropology, in which his tcacher was W. H. R. Rivers, and 
his son teils mc that Rivers Icft to him in his will the ms. of his 
Social Organization. After returning to India Chattopadhyay 
icctured on anthropology in the Univcrsity of C.i.lcutta for a 
time, but when the Congrcss capturcd the Calcutta Corporation 
he was appointed, through the influencc of C. R. Das and Subhr 



lias 



155 



Nos. 193, 194 



MAN 



OCTOBEU, 7963 



Chandra Bosc, to bc its chicf caucation ofticcr. Towards die ciu 
of thc diirtics hc rcturncd to die Univcrsity as Professor, aiid Head 
ofdie Department ofAiidiropology, a post wliidi lie lield tili Ins 
retirement last March, after wliich he went on working tor tlie 
hidian government's Council on Scientific and Indiistrial Research. 

Apart from his acadeniic work he was always active in pro- 
moting the welfarc of his fellovv nien. As a Student in England 
hc had workcd among seamen in the East End of London; in 
hidia thc free primarv education system in Calcutta was largely 
his work; as Treasurer of the People's Relief Comniittee, faniine 
relicf and rehabilitation work in the rural areas ot Bengal owed 
much to him, and during the comnninal riots of 1946 he organized 
a 'Peace Corps' to restore order. 

He was a Fellow o\ the National Institute oi Sciences oi india, 
an Honorarv Fellow of the Sanskrit College and a meniber ot 



th- Ecole Fran^aise d'Extrenie-Orient; he had been president of 
the Arclia-c^loi;ical and Anthropc^logical Section ot the Indian 
Science Congress, oi the All liulia Education C:oiilereiice and of 
the andiropological section of the All india Sociological Associa- 
tion He was a Vice-l^resideiit of thc International Congress of 
Anthropologv, and a meniber of scveral governing bodies and a 
Irustee of the Vidvasagar Institute, being a descendant of l>andit 
Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar as well as of Raja Rani Mohan Roy, 
whose nanie is more familiär in this country. 

He sat for a tinie as an independent member of the West 
lieiigal State Legislature, and being a man with the courage of 
his convictions he suhfered imprisonmeiit more than once during 
the civil disobedience movement in die thirties. 

His death is a serious loss to India and to aiithropology. 

J. H. HUTTON 



SHORTER NOTES 



A Terra-Cotta Head in the Ife Style from Ikirun, Western 
Nigeria. By P. A. Allisoii, Dcpürtment of Antiquitics, 

IQ-^- Ni<^criih IVith fii'c tcxt ßi^un's 
■^ burini> thc carlv vears of die Century, die British 

Museum acquired a plaster cast ot a terra-cotta head ni the Ite 
style wliich was published by Sir Hercules Read in 1910 as a 
refutatioii of claiiiis bv Leo Frobenius to be the first discoverer of 
thc art of Ife.' Frobcnius's Gernian Inner Atrican Expedition ot 
T910-12 reported and acquired a number ot lieads and tragnients 
of tcrra-cotta figures from Ifc- and since tliat timc inany more 
cxamples of this naturalistic style of sculpture liave coiiie to light, 
cithcr in liithcrto unreported shrincs or as a result ot excavations 
such as diosc at Ita Yenioo in 1957 wherc tragnients ot at least 
sevcn figures of about two-thirds life sizc were discovcred.3 

So far all thc cxamples of tliis particular style have been reported 
from the vicinity of Ifc itself, but in October, 196], I photo- 
graphed thc head illustrated in figs. i and 2 at the Yoruba town 
of Ikirun, somc 30 miles north ot Ifc. 

Thc total height of the head is 15 inclics, of which 6^ inches 
comprisc thc clongatcd neck wliich is scorcd around with six 
inciscd lincs; a siiiall, pointcd, bib-like proccss is indicated on 
die neck bclow the cliin. Thc face is covcrcd with parallel inciscd 
striations. Thc wholc head is liollow with an aperture running 
through from the base of thc neck to thc top ot thc head, which 
is surroundcd by a brimmed licaddrcss. The aural aperturcs are 
pierced through to thc hollow intcrior. 

An claborate tasselled ornament is suspendcd troni the headgear 
by two cords, which converge to a point below the right car 
wherc tlicrc arc tour circular bosses; bclow diis die three-tiered 
ornaiiicnt is moulded down thc right side o{ thc clongatcd neck. 
Thc siiiall objects suspendcd from the ornament niay represent 
bclls. The inciscd rings round thc neck niay be intendcd to 
represent thc crcascs to bc sccn round the neck of a healthy 
full-bodied pcrson, which arc much admired, as a sign of physical 
wellbcing, particularly in womcn, in West Atrica today. 

Thc facial striations, the aperture at thc top of thc head and 
thc rings round the neck arc all teatures appearing frcquently in 
thc Ifc bronzcs and terra-cottas but the clongatcd neck and thc 
tasselled ornament arc unusual. 

Thc rcar and lett-hand side ot thc brimmed licaddrcss are 
slightly damaged but the tcrra-cotta is otherwise in a good statc 
of prcscrvation and appears to have been modellcd as a head and 
not to bc a fragment broken troiii a wholc figure. Thc wholc is 
covcrcd widi a shiny, purplish patina, prcsumably thc result of 
rcpcatcd anointing with blood and oil. 



The head is sacred to thc cidt of Irunmalc, which secnis to be 
peculiar to the town of Ikirun, akhough dicrc is a class of Yi^rub.i 
cardi spirits referred to generali y as hwwiale or IinonIcA Thc head 
is displaycd on thc Irunmalc shrinc only at thc aiinual festival in 
Dcccmbcr or at tiiiies wlicn thc town is in necd ot cspccial 




156 



Fig. 1. TERRA-COTTA HEAD AT IKIRUN 
Plwto\iriipli : P. A. Allison, 1961 



OCTÜBER, 1963 



MAN 



No. 194 



protection from war, pestilence or orlier disasters; odicrwise it is 
kept by thc Olu Awo Onishegun, the priest of thc cidt, together 
with die other cult objects mentioncd bclow. 




Fig. 2. FURTHER VIEWS Ol THE IKIRUN TERRA-COTTA 

Photo^raph : J. Picton 

These ccMisist of six carvcd stone figures (which arc sliown 
in figs. 3-5) which are considercd to bc inferior in importance 
to tlie tcrra-cotta. They arc carvcd in soft stone, probably steatite, 
and represent: a Standing woiiian fiftcen inches high; a knccling 
woman fourteen inches' high; a scated woman fourtcen inches 
high with a child on her 'back and another in her arms (from 
which the head is broken otf ) ; two kneeling womcn cach 7^ inches 
high and a plaque, fourteen inches by ten inches, carvcd widi a 
crudc male figurc in low relicf All thesc objects are of rclativcly 
crude execution in a stvle similar to recent Yoruba wood-carving. 




Fig. 3. louR stone figures at ikirun 
Photoiiniph: P. A. AUison, 1961 

Thc Olu Awo could not give mc aiiy information as to thc 
origin of any of these objects. Historically, Ikirun is connected 
with Oyo and Ibadan ratlicr than with Ifc and, durnig die latter 
half of thc ninctccnth Century, scrvcd as a war camp from which 
thc Baloguns of Ibadan carricd out raids castwards iiitc^ Ekiti 
and Ilcsha and opposcd thc incursions of the Iloniis from thc 

north. ^ , . ^1 

A few ycars ago, a fragment of a tcrra-cotta head was reported 



from Ire, about thrcc milcs north-east of Ikirun, which is con- 
sidercd to have stylistic at^initics with thc art of both Itc and 
Nok.^ This head also sliows a pointcd 'bib' bclow thc cUin 
similar to that noted 011 thc Ikirun tcrra-cotta. 




Fig. 4. TWO stone figures at ikirun 
One (//X'/zO ''/>" ^UW'T'-' '".^A'- 3- Photoi^raph: P. A. Allison, i^^n 




Fig. 5. stone plaque at ikirun 
Plioh\{:riiph: P. A. All hon, 1961 

Notes 

■ Frank Willctt, 'Ifc and its Arch;vology,' J. Aß. Hist., Vol. I, 
No. 2 (i960). The original camc to light a few ycars ago, and is 
now in a New York private coUcctioii (scc E. Elisofon and W. B. 
Fagg, The Scnlpture ofAßica, 1958, fig. 4)- 

2 Leo Frobenius, the Voke oß Africa, London, 1913. 

i Willctt, op. cit. 

4 R. C. Abraham, Dictionary oß Modern Yoriiha, London, 1958, 

S.l'. 

^ B. E. B. Fagg, *The Nok Culturc in Prchistory,' J. Hist. Soc. 
N/.ucrkJ, Vol. I. No 4 (i959). 



T57 



No. 195 






195 



Some Kaguru Riddles. By Dr. T. O. Bcidclman, Harvard 
University 

In prcvious articlcs publishcd clsewhcrc ' I prcscnt 
tcxts in Chikaguru, thc languagc spokcn by thc 
Kaguru of Kilosa and Mpwapwa Districts of cast central Tangan- 
yika. These texts appear to be the only publishcd cxamplcs of 
this languagc. hi view of the comparativcly small amount of 
matcrial publishcd on Bantu languagcs of Tanganyika and, in 
particular, on thosc of thc matrilineal peoples of castern Tangan- 
yika, I hopc to continuc publication o{ further texts in thc 
Kaguru languagc. These niay be of some usc to linguists and to 
those intcrestcd in the socioloev of thc Bantu of East Africa; 
they may also aftord some plcasurc and entcrtainment in their 
own right as cxamplcs of East African traditional literaturc. 

The prcscnt texts illustrate a far diffcrent aspcct of Kaguru 
literaturc from that of thosc previously publishcd, even though 
all of these arc merely ternied siino, story, by the Kaguru. Most 
of thc prcvious tcxts arc tales or fablcs illustrating certain values 
held in Kaguru society. Thc prcscnt texts arc riddles which 
teach no nioral, but which arc intendcd solely to amuse and to 
demonstrate the superior wit of thc person setting thc problenis. 
Riddles may be posed by any Kaguru, but they tend to be 
espccially populär among young pcople. The most connnon 
occasions for riddlc-tclling arc the gatherings of adolcscents at 
night when boys and girls often competc against one another in 
demonstrating thc superior mtclligcncc of thcir respective sexes. 

In this articlc I have followed the same procedure which I used 
in presenting other Kaguru tcxts. I prcscnt thc riddle first in 
English and then in Chikaguru with a litcral English translation. 
I then do thc same with thc riddle's answer. I provide supplc- 
mentary information in focnnotcs. Further sociological informa- 
tion on thc Kaguru is publishcd clsewhcrc. 2 

1. I am grccted by thc dead while the living rcmain silcnt 
(Nilamusi^wa na woßlc aiinmii waiii uyatualila, I am grccted by dcad 
hving arc silcnt). A. ]:)ricd pigcon-pcas (Sinihanirc sinyalilc, pieeon- 
peas dricd (sc. not silcnt, rattling)). 

2. I hcrd my cow by its tail {Nina n^y'onihc yan(;n nidima^a umukila 
I havc cow my I hcrd by tail). A. Yams and potatocs {Dilomho na 
inandolo, yams and potatocs). 

3-1 have childrcn all of onc agc {Nina wana^yn wamulioano I 
have my childrcn arc of onc agc). A. Black ants (or) mkomba trccs3 
{Masalasa, black ants; niakoniha, mkomba trccs). 

4. I havc cut sugar canc with only thc top and bottom parts 
swcct {Nhcma mn(;iwa wan^u kwisina wamiililc hwisohwa, I have cut 
sugar canc my at bottom swcct at top). A. Thc sun4 {Dijuwa thc 
sun). -^ 

5. Dig at thc top! Dig at thc bottom! {Kulan^^c nya^cmhc hau 
nya^^cmhc, upward with hoc downward with hoc). A. Thc ditnoa 
vinc^ {Ditn^a, thc ditu<;ia vinc). 

6. I stood on thc mountain and rccognizcd by fathcr's cow 
{Nnna kwitnnda nhan^^a ini^'omhc ya haha, I stood on mountain I 
rccognizcd thc cow of fathcr). A. Ashcs in a rcfusc hcap'- (Difn 
wastc ashcs). r v ./ . 

7. Stccp until thc coast {Cha hata mhwani, stccp until coast) 
A. Thc way, thc path {Njila, path). 

8 I cat and am satisficd and then I play with grandmothcr 
[Ndiya ni^nta sn^^ih' mama, I cat satisficd play grandmothcr) A A 
bcd7 {Disasi, bcd). 

9. Thc mousc's child atc and slcpt on thc trip {Mwana mhchi 
kadiya ka_(^ona mn mnlila, child mousc atc slcpt on animal track or 
path). A. Thc tonguc^ {Dilimi, tonguc). 

10. C:hinguhi passcd along thc hiil {Chin^rnhi kakola mwitonoo <> 
a personal namc givcn to a short woman passcd alone thc hill) 
A. A razor {uhmio, razor). " 

11. I cultivatc a largc gardcn but harvcst littlc {NHima mnounda 
nmkulu ntfiola mun^anja, I cultivatc gardcn largc I harvcst not niuch) 
A. Hair (plural) {Sinywcli, hair). 

12. I wcnt to my gardcn and killcd a Baraguyu with his skin 

158 



MAN OCTOBER, 1963 

garmcnt'" {Nduta kwihh'' n<^homa miihiimha'^- na makopc (raku'e 
I wcnt to rivcr-valley gardcn I killcd Baraguyu with skin garmcnt 
his). A. A banana {Im^liowo, banana). 

13. I cat husks cvcrywhcre I go {Ndia^^a mhumha lioiwsc honikuhtta 
I cat husks cvcrywhcre I go). A. Laughter > ? {Luscko, laughtcr). 

14. Thc mwiiio bird cried from night until dawn (A/j/z/^om 
kalilila usiku kucha, munj^o bird cried night to dawn). A. A rooster 
{Dijo^oh, rooster). 

15. My grandmothcr's Walking stick was washed away by thc 
rivcr {Pando dya mama dihita no huanda, Walking stick of grand- 
mothcr wcnt with rivcr). A. Sweat {Dikwe,'^ sweat). 

16. Thc small bird fought for thc mnkwanihc ^'' fruits, but it did 
not eat any {Chide^c chikwda mukwamhc no mnkwamhc chisindiilc 
small bird fought mnkwamhc fruits and mnkwamhc fruits it did not 
eat). A. A hoc {Dii^cmhc, hoc). 

17. Grandmothcr died and Icft a stench behind her {Mama kafa 
kandckcla dihofn, grandmothcr died Icft behind stench). A. Beer '7 
{Uj^imhi, millet beer). 

18. We are everywhere {Chili hwee, we arc cvcrywhcre). A. 
The Stars '"^ {Shiyclesi, stars). 

19. My eider childrcn sit on thc ground while the younger oncs 
sit on stools {Nina wanan^n awaknhi wckala hasi awadodo wckala 
nmmaj^oda, I havc my childrcn cldcr they sit down younger oncs 
they sit on stools). A. Calabash vinc"' (or) A type of cggplant 
{Amayuni^n, calabash vines; Singoi>wc, cggplant vincs). 

20. No matter what is dropped into it, it never fills up {Tnhwi 
n^rliamcma, dropping into it it is not being fiUed up). A. A termitc 
hill {Isn(^n}n, termitc hill). 

21. You Step on my belly {Kandwata nninda, You step on me 
bclly). A. The overhead granary within a house-" {Ikano, granary). 

22. A Baraguyu stood 011 onc leg-' {Imnhnmha kcnia mniinhi 
nmwc, Baraguyu stood leg one). A. A mushroom {Uyo<^a, nmsh- 
room). 

23. A Baraguyu feil down throwhig off his headdrcss" {Imn- 
hnmha koi^wa kataj^a in^ah, Baraguyu feil down throwing off hcad- 
drcss). A. A type of rat trap-? {Diliwa, type of rat trap). 

24. At thc same timc that it is laying eggs, it bears childrcn {Akn 
diknta^a, akn diknwan^nla, while it lays eggs while it bears offspring 
(or childrcn)). A. Thc cucumbcr v'mc-^ {Ditan^^a, cucumbcr vine)\ 

25. Which things.are similar ? {Fana n^ilnifanc? similar when 
(or which) similar). A. Honcy and oil (or) milk and thc juicc of 
thc cuphorbia trcc-5 {nki na mafnta, honcy and oil; mck na nsnh, 
milk and juicc of thc cuphorbia trec). 

26. I bcat a drum and make Sagara tribcsmcn come {Nitowa 
n^ omamnanf^a wasa^^^ala, I bcat drum I make come Sagara pcople). 
A. l)cfaTation or thc latrinc-^' {Mntala, Dcfxcation (or fa.Tcs)). 
, J-'^: ^^^ ^'O" of Mkata Piain ^ 7 is Walking about on four legs 
{Simba sa mnkata si<;icndai^a ine ine. Hon of Mkata Piain is Walking 
about four four). A. Thc legs of a bed^'^ {Matcn<^n, legs of a bcd). 

28. Thc pcstlc-'» kecps bouncing as it strikes the stone {Dandala 
iiandaUi mutwani^o wima mwiwc, bouncing bouncing pcstlc Standing 
on stoiic). A. Thc mswaki plants^" {Masheyn, the mswaki plants). 

29. Drop to the rivcr valley ! {Bnn kwihh ! Drop to the rivcr 
Valley .)^A. A type of rat-trap ^^ {Diliwa, a type of rat trap). 

30. Who never shows his footstcps ? {Nolwncka h'ayo? Never 
Shows footstep). A. A fly {N^hosi, fly). 

31. Make a hcadcloth for carrying a load! I make onc and carry 
Makutwi rock^^ on my head {Sin^^a m^ata nani sin^a nf^ata chikcnnlih- 
atwc Makntwi, make hcadcloth for carrying a load and I make 
ncadcloth WC lift stone Makutwi rock). A. thc moon n {Dimwcsi, 
thc moon). 

32. I told him to go ahead, but he refused {Nimn^amha hn^ola, 
i^^cina,l told him to go ahead, he refused). A. Thc back of thc head 
{Un^osij;>osi, thc back of thc head). 

33. My fathcr's cldcr brother bcat mc and Icft me crying; my 
ratner s younger brother bcat mc and then made mc not cry {Baha 
niK'nm kanhowa kandcka niknlila Baha mndodo kanhowa kaninyamasa, 
ratner cldcr bcat mc Icft I am crying fathcr younger bcat me made 
mc not cry). A. Thc specics of becs which do not produce honcy 
aiid thc specics of becs which produce honcy 34 {dihndoh, bee 
wnicn docs not produce honcy; njnki, bee which produccs honcy). 

34. 1 wcnt to find thc mwcngcle plant 35 and could not scc it 



OcTOBER, 1963 



MAN 



No. 195 



<- 



{Nigcnda nihai^Q^a nm>c)\gck no mcwn^ick sinn>cnc, I go I scck mwcni^ch' 
plant and mwcngck plant I do not scc). A. Fa,*ces of a snakc {Mntala 
WC dijoka, fa.Tes of snakc). 

35. In the forest there is a tail trec on which no bird cver perches 
{Knmnhnlo kwina ihiki itali disikngwa ndcj^c. In forest is trec tail it is 
not rcsted upon bird). A. A spcar {Mn^^oha, spcar). 

36. It flows and flows; it remains and rcmains {Kapilima kapilima 
kahandama kahandama). A. The rivcr and thc sand in its bcd {Ltranda 
no disanga, rivcr and sand). 

37. In thc forest thcrc is a largc pot which says, 'Munycsi! 
Munycsü' {Knmnhnlo kwina injnngn di(iand)ai^a Mnnycsil Mnnyesi! 
In forest there is largc pot it says Munycsi Munycsi (a woman's 
namc). A. White ants (termites) 3'' {Mnsnwa, white ants). 

38. I havc a child which crics through thc soft spot on the top 
of its head {Nhia nnrananj^n kililih{>a kwidosi, I havc my child it crics 
soft Spot on the top of an infant's head). A. A hubbly-bubbly pipe 
{diptindc, pipe). 

39. My house is not opcn {Nynmba yrt/;ij// yachililija, house my 
it is not opcn (its doors arc shut)). A. An egg {ditatii, egg). 

40. I havc thrcc childrcn. If onc gcts tircd, thc othcr two cannot 
work {Nina wanangn wadatii. Yiimofi(^a yat^hasoka aitwli nao n'asma 
mulimo, I have my childrcn thrcc. Othcr if tircd two thcir they do 
not havc work). A. Thc thrcc hearthstoncs of a Kaguru house 37 
{Mafiga, hearth-stones) . 

41. The mousc's childrcn arc pattcring on the ground {Wana 
mhcln wasalalika, Childrcn mousc they make a pattcring sound). 
A. Simsim 3>< {mnhcja, simsim). 

42. Lct US pass around the hut to kill thc mousc {Chistuij^uhitc 
chikomc chipnknmwikondc, Let us pass around lct us kill a type of 
mousc). A. A serving of ngali porridgc39 {Isima yo ngali, serving of 
ngali porridge). 



Notes 

^ T. ü. Bcidclman, 'Hyena and Rabbit: a Kaguru Representa- 
tion of Matrilineal Rclations,' Africa, Vol. XXXI (i9^>i), PP- 61-74; 
'Further Advcnturcs of Hyena and Rabbit: Thc Folktalc as a 
Sociological Modcl,M/nV<j, Vol. XXXIII (1963), PP- 54-^9; 'Thrcc 
Kaguru Tales,' Afrika und Uebersee, in press; 'Four Kaguru Tales,' 
Tanganyika Notes and Records, in prcss; 'Thc Blood Covcnant and 
thc Concept of Blood in Ukaguru,' Africa, forthconnng; ' A Kaguru 
Version of thc Story of thc Sons of Noah : An Examplc of thc 
Inculcation of the Idca of Racial Superiority,' Cahiers d'etudes 
africaincs, in prcss. 

^ Ibid. and T. O. Bcidclman, 'Kaguru Justice and thc Concept of 
Legal Fictions,' >Mr/;rt/ of African Law, Vol. V (1961), pp- 5-2o; 
' Right and Left Hand among thc Kaguru : A Note 011 Symbolic 
Classification,' Africa, Vol. XXXI (1961), pp. 250-7; 'Withcraft 111 
Ukaguru,' in Withcraft and Sorcery /// Hast Africa, cditcd by J. 
Middlcton and E. Winter, London, 1963- 

3 Thc offspring of black ants arc thought to hatch all at onc 
timc. Thc mkomba trec {mbambakoß, Swahili; Af::elia qnanzensis) 
bears fruit all of which is said to maturc at thc same timc. 

4 Thc warmth of thc morning and evening sun is plcasant, but 
the heat of thc midday sun is not. 

5 Thc ditni^a vinc produccs cdiblc fruit and cdible roots, but thc 
stem and leavcs havc 110 usc. I could not securc thc scientific namc 

for this plant. 

<• If onc Stands on a mountain top, onc can scc white objects 
bclow quite distinctly, such as a white cow or thc ashcs from a dry 
season grassfirc. In this riddle, thc whitencss refers to the ash hcaps 
of villagcs. In thc past, when Kaguru had larger Settlements than 
they havc today, these ash hcaps used to be quite conspicuous. 

7 After a person cats, hc is tircd and lies down. Thc rcfercncc to 
grandmothcr indicates bcd, sc. sexual intercoursc. Thcrc is a sexual 
ioking relationship between persons of altcrnatc generations; onc 
can slccp with and marry classificatory grandmothers not of onc's 

own clan. 

8 After onc cats, onc is silcnt, sc. slecps. 

9 This is probably an allusion to thc fact that most Kaguru hills 
and mountain tops are wooded. 

10 This riddle clcarly expresscs thc great hostility bctwccu thc 



Bantu Kaguru cultivators and thcir neighbours, the Nilo-Hamitic 
Baraguyu pastoralists. For an account of the traditional hostility 
between Kaguru and Baraguyu, scc T. O. Bcidclman, 'Becr- 
Drinking and Cattlc-Thcft in Ukaguru: Intcrtribal Rclations in a 
Tanganyika Chiefdom,' Amer. Anthrop., Vol. LXIII (1961), pp. 534- 

549. 

' ■ One of thc most frequent situations in which Baraguyu and 
Kaguru fight is when Baraguyu lead thcir herds to water in the 
rivcr Valleys whcre Kaguru have some of their best gardens which 
are often tramplcd by Baraguyu livestock. 

'2 Mnhnmba is an insulting word used by Kaguru to refer to 
Baraguyu, scc T. O. Bcidclman, 'Thc Baraguyu,' Tanganyika Notes 
and Records, Vol. LV (i960), footnote on p. 246. Baraguyu warriors 
used to wear skin, shcath-like garments and thc term mnhnmba is 
undoubtcdly hcrc a pun on mhnmba, husk, which here refers to the 
pccl of a banana, the subjcct of this riddle. 

'3 Laughtcr is somcthing external, like a husk, and it is, like 
cating, performed by thc mouth. 

14 I could not obtain thc scientific namc for this type of night 

bird. 

'5 A pcrson's sweat is washed away in the rivcr water hi which 
onc bathcs. The rcfercncc to grandmothcr is made because of thc 
jokhig relationship with such a person (scc riddle 8), hcrc an im- 
polite rcfercncc to thc more unplcasant aspects of thc human body. 

■(> I could not obtain thc scientific namc for this fruit-bearing 

trec. 

17 After one drinks beer, it is gonc, but thc smcU remains on 
onc's breath. Again thc rcfercncc to grandmothcr in an impolite 
and hostile tone involves thc joking relationship (scc riddles 8 and 
15). A beer club is a place of jocular rclations and sexual liaisons. 
Beer may only be made by women. 

18 Pcrhaps this may also refer to quartz gravel (also callcd nyelesi) 
which is found cvcrywhcre in Kaguruland. 

19 These vincs creep along the ground. In their carly stages, their 
fruits are held aloft but as they increase in size and weight, they lie 
011 the ground. 

-" In Order to take food out of such a granary, one must climb 

up into it. 

- 1 A rcfercncc to the celcbrated Nilotic staiicc which is character- 
istic of Baraguyu warriors. 

22 This refers to the ostrich-plumc headdress which was some- 
times worn by a Baraguyu warrior in thc past. As in riddle 12, the 
text expresscs intcrtribal hostility. 

-3 This type of rat trap consists of a stone propped up by a stick. 
When the stick is sprung, thc stone falls down 011 the rat. Some 
Kaguru, espccially childrcn, still hunt wild rats to eat. 

24 Both flowers and fruits may be found at thc same time on the 
same cucumbcr vinc. 

->' Honcy and oil arc both yellowish, viscous and semi-opaquc. 
Milk and cuphorbia juicc arc both white, liquid and opaque. 

-<• This obsccne riddle refers to the noises of defvcation. When 
one uses thc latrinc, flies and other insects come out. Thc Sagara 
arc a matrilineal Bantu pcople inhabiting the area bordering 
Kaguruland on thc south. As thc riddle indicates, the Kaguru do 
not hold thc Sagara in much respect. 

-7 Thc Mkata Piain lies to thc cast of Kaguruland. 
•^ I could not dctcrminc thc reason Kaguru considcr a bcd 
similar to a lion. 

-'» A wooden pcstlc used in pounding maize or millet. 
^" Thcrc arc a number of plants which arc callcd mswaki in 
Swahili, bccausc they are used for toothbrushes. Thcrc are sevcral 
allusions involved in this riddle. A toothbrush bounces on the teeth 
as a pcstlc bounces on a mortar. Thc tecth may be compared with 
stoncs. Mswaki plants tend to grow in very rocky arcas. 
3' See riddle 23. 

32 Makntwi rock is a famous stone formation which is located 
near Idibo in northern Kaguruland. It is said to be shaped like 
makntwi, cars. 

3 3 The riddle tries to convey the idca of somcthing of fantastic 
weight. Thus, one might as easily carry Makutwi rock as the moon. 
The riddle has diffcrent forms depending upon whcre it is told in 
Kaguruland. I collccted the riddle in Idibo whcre the largest stone 



159 



Nos. 195, 196 

formation is Makutwi rock. In other arcas, difFcrcnt stoiic forma- 
tions arc mcntioncd. 

34 Both typcs of bccs sting, but onc type compensatcs for this by 
producing honcy. 

3 5 This is a plant collcctcd for usc in various nicdicincs. (Fcrhaps 
it is iiscd as a laxativc.) I could not tlnd thc scientific tcrm for this 
plant, but it is said to havc Icavcs rcscmbling thosc of a yani and 
to bc a trce-clinibing vinc. 

B*" Tcrmitcs live in a grcat hill which niight bc coniparcd to a 
largc pot; thcy arc said to makc a sound siniilar to thc nanic 
'Munycsi.' 

3 7 All thrcc hcarthstoncs arc rcquircd to providc a proper rcsting 
place for a cooking pot. 

38 This refers to thc sound of sinisini grains bcing shaken froni a 
stalk. 

39 Housc micc arc killcd in a hut by having persons stand inside 
the hut, along thc sidcs of thc circular hut's walls, and then driving 
thc niicc out froni thc walls and towards thc hut centrc. Pcople sit 
around a serving of tiiiali porridge and take their portions from thc 
cdgcs, cating towards thc centrc of thc serving. 



* Negative Wishing' among the Slavs and Western Peoples.* 

By Pierre A. Radwanshi, Professor of Aiithropolo^iy and 
I ^K\ Slavouic Ethnolo^iY at the University of Montreal 

In comparing thc lifc of civilizcd and of primitive 
man wc find that thc chicf diffcrenccs arc conccrncd with magic. 
Civilizcd man, living in a world in which most things can bc 
rationally cxplaincd, has largcly climinatcd magical clcmcnts 
from his lifc. Magical bclicfs and practiccs hc in gcncral rcgards 
as supcrstitions and, vcry oftcn, is ashamcd of thcm. 

In spitc of thc cxtcnt of this climination of thc magical clcmcnts 
from lifc, thcrc is onc ficld of magic which has rcmaincd quitc 
untouchcd, that of wishing. Onc can say without fear of cxaggcr- 
ation that this ficld has bccn cntircly conscrvcd by civilizcd man. 
Dcspitc his rationalism, man bclicvcs, somctimcs profoundly, in 
thc forcc and power of wishing, that is, in thc words of thc wishes 
Coming true. Wishes arc nevcr considcred to bc supcrstitions. 
Thcy arc somctimcs cven obligatory, for instance on New Year's 
Day and similar occasions. Everyday grectings such as 'Good 
morning,' 'Good evcning' or 'Good night' arc actually wishes. 
Civilizcd man, as well as primitive man, thus attachcs importance 
to thc magical value of words. Likcwisc, both fear the unknown. 
Whilc ncarly everyonc likcs good wishes, thcrc arc occasions on 
which some pcople dislikc thcm. For example a racing driver or 
a pilot may dislikc such wishes as 'Havc a good trip.'*^ Similarlv, 
some hunters do not likc to bc wishcd 'Good hunting.' A. S. 
Rappoport' writes: 'The fishcrman is firmly convinccd that if 
someone speaks to him or cven wishes him good luck, hc is 
sure not to catch any fish. In Portcssic fishcrmcn cven wcnt so far 
as to beat the cnquirer and to "draw blood," so as to turn thc 
ill-luck.' 

In Order to find an cxplanation, wc must first take into con- 
sideration thc universal dement which is rootcd decply in the 
tradition of all pcoplcs, namely thc belief that caution must be 
exercised in saying certain words, as thc attention of evil spirits 
may bc attracted. Above all, it is forbidden among some tribes 
to speak onc's own name. Some members of priniitivc socictics 
actually havc two names, onc for oBkial usc, thc other (thc real 
name) kept secret and known only to thc immediate family. 
Thc purposc of this is protection against cvil spirits, who arc 
trickcd through ignorancc of thc identity of thc owner of the 
real namc(J. G. Frazer,^ G. L. Gommc,3 m'. Mauss,4 A. Mctraux^). 
Among other tribes onc must also avoid speaking the namcs of 

* Presenfcd to thc Amiual Mcct\n<^ of thc Canadian Association of 

Slavists, 13 June, 1961 



MAN OCTOBER, 1963 

ancestors, as thcy might comc back and take rcvcnge. According 
to populär Slavic (espccially Polish) bclicfs, onc has to keep 
secret until the day of baptism thc forcnamc choscn for a new- 
born baby so that bad spirits, ignorant of it, may bc unable to 
härm him (J. St. Bystroii^). In thc linguistic ficld, thc gcncral 
problcm of forbidden words is discusscd by A. Mcillct. 7 In the 
purcly Slavonic ficld wc owc a vcry dctailcd piccc of rcscarch to 
1). Zclenin.^ 

From a psychological Standpoint, certain abstcntions in spcccli 
somctimcs stein not only from a fear of cvil spirits, but also from 
simple caution ; for it is better not to aroils^lfc intcrest of some 
spirits or divinitics — Quieta non movere. Divinitics and spirits arc 
somctimcs capricious: some of thcm do good, but thcy can act 
badly too. In view of their capriccs, it is somctimcs better to 
avoid their attention. For instance, wishing somconc 'Good luck' 
mav havc the oppositc cffcct, by arousing thc attention o{ a 
divinity whilc momentarily in a bad mood, For this reason, thc 
Polish mountain dwellcrs from Tatra, Goralc, somctimcs do not 
answer when askcd about their childrcn, as thcy do not likc to 
arousc the attention of thc spirits. 

In thc magic of modern pcoplcs, espccially among thc Slajf«, 
thcrc arc cven some practiccs aimed at countcracting spirifs or 
demons. For instance, among the Poles of any social class, when 
speaking about personal or fainily good hcalth, onc knocks on a 
wooden objcct (which according to thc magical rulcs must bc 
unpainted), or simply says 'to knock' [odpukac), in ordcr to 
ncutralizc thc dangcrous forccs. Again, in abstaining from saying 
certain words, onc may bc influenced by a fear of charms or 
spells which may bc cast by other persons. The populär bclicf in 
charms is universal. Wc find it in abundancc among thc cxotic 
pcoplcs as well as among thc Slavic, Latin, Tcutonic and other 
civilizcd pcoplcs. In populär bclicf, almost cvery negative cvent, 
and above all sickncss, is associated with charms. Somctimcs thcy 
arc duc to somcbody's look, 'a bad look' ('niaUoccio' of the 
Italians, 'jettatore' of the Spaniards, ' zaziory' of the Poles). Somc- 
timcs thev rcsult from somconc's bad intcntions; onc fears bad 
wishes, belicving that thcy can bring bad luck. Thcy can resuit 
also from somconc's cvil powers provoking misfortune (|. 
Mellot9), At thc same time, bclicf in charms suggests discretion 
in social lifc: keeping secret all that is of vital importance to thc 
individual, such as his projects, plans and actions, so that 110 onc 
will bc ablc to cast charms on thcm, 

Poles of all social classcs in speaking about personal or family 
good hcalth gcncrally add thc words 'Na psa iwokj 'May thc 
charm fall on the dog,' that is 'not on nie.' This expression is so 
decply rootcd in thc everyday languagc ofjJip Poles that, ignoring 
its magical significance, onc can considcr-it an inscparablc clcmcnt 
of the Polish languagc. — ^ 

According to R. H. Robbins,i*» 'Protection against thc 
malicious charms and harmful amulets of witchcs could bc 
secured by counter charms.' Among thc Slavic pcoplcs, espccially 
the Poles, a red ribbon is somctimcs attachcd to thc neck of a 
ncw-born baby in ordcr to protcct it against charms. According 
to Bulgarian peasants, thcrc arc brilliantly colourcd flowers 
which turn away a 'bad look.''' Thcrc arc also magical practiccs 
which aim at ncutralizing charms or thc diseases causcd by thcm 
(J. Manninen, '2 J. Zacharievn). 

Thcrc is also a sociological clcmcnt in thc bclicf in charms. 
Pcople gcncrally havc some idea of their ncighbours' thoughts, 
and know vcry >yjdLtliat their expressed wishes arc not always 
frank owing to^jcalousv; or (cnv yj thus onc can wish a person 
good orally, at thc sam e tim r wrshing him cvil mental ly. This is^ 
clcverly expressed irPT^popular Polish anccdote: two Jcwishjl 
pcople, afier bcing angry at cach other all ycar, madc up on thcA 
Day of Atoncmcnt, in accordance with thc principlcs of thcir| 



OCTOBER, 1963 



MAN 



No. 196 



rcligion. One said to thc other, *I wish you whatevcr you arc 
mvvishing me.' Thc sccond becamc angry and yellcd, ' You arc 
/ 1 Hfstarting it again.' Thus, man usually does not havc much confi- 
dcncc in thc wishes of othcrs. 

Thc facts so far presentcd constitute an cthnological parallelism, 
bcing vcry casily cxplicablc by thc common psychological 
clcmcnts of human nature, manifesting themsclves in populär 
traditions. Ncvcrthcless thcrc arc clcmcnts in the ficld of wishes 
which suggest cthnical specificity. This scems to bc linkcd with 
'negative wishing.' Onc wishes a person aloud the oppositc of 
what onc rcally wishes him. Before an examination, Polish 
students usually wish cach other: 'Break your neck!' or 'Break 
your jaw ! ' or 'Break your arms and Icgs ! ' (Zlani kark, zlani pysk, 
ziam recc i tio<^i). Onc also hcars the same wishes on other occasions 
of vital importance. Wc find the same among the other Slavic 
groups likc the Czechs ('Break your neck,' ' zhmi vdz!'). Among 
thc Russians onc finds in similar situations the expression, 'May 
you havc ncithcr fcather nor down ! ' (M puha, ni pera!). According 
to Professor R. Pletnev'4 this is a vcry archaic expression, applied 
originally only to hunting, and then extendcd to apply to all 
situations in lifc. Similar wishes can somctimcs also bc found in 
thc Western countrics as in Germany {'Hals und Bein bruch!,' 
Break your neck and Icgs), or in England ('Break your neck!'). 
Thc psychological motive behind this kind of expression is to 
producc the oppositc resuit, that is fulfilmcnt of the true wishes 
of good luck. Their aim is to trick the *cvil spirits' which makc 
cvcrything turn out to thc contrary. 

All sorts of 'negative wishes,' found among the Western 
pcoplcs, scem to bc duc only to Slavic influencc, since it is in 
populär bclicfs of the Slavic pcoplcs that the dement related to 
thc tricking of divinitics or spirits is most strongly rcprescntcd. 
Wc do not find it to such a degree in Western populär bclicfs. 
In Grcat Russia, peasants suffering from fever change their 
clothcs and paint their faces black ; guests at a wcdding somctimcs 
do the same thing. On New Year's Eve Russian girls, going to 
hcar fortunc-tclling, makc masks out of dough and put thcm on 
their faces to cheat the spirits (K. Moszynskiv=^). 

Many magic practiccs connected with thc tricking of die 
spirits arc conccrncd with the time of birth, since in Slavic 
populär bclicfs demons arc then most active. Thcy can kill, 
devour, kidiiap or exchange thc child. An cxchange is particularly 
feared. If the ncw-born baby is crippled or sick, this is said to bc 
duc to demons which stolc the child and left their own child in 
its place. Oftcn this is attributed espccially to aquatic demons. In 
Bulgaria it is bclicved that the spirits visit thc child 011 the third 
day afier birth to determinc its fatc. Therefore, thc period 
between birth and baptism is espccially important, calling for 
sevcral vcry intense magical effc^rts to ncutralizc the spirits. Such 
magical practiccs arc thus found among all Slav groups, Eastern, 
Western and Southern. 

Among thc Eastern Slavs (K. Moszyiiski'^) whcrc prcvious 
childrcn m a family havc died, certain fictitious transactions arc 
madc, such as a pretence of selling thc ncw-born baby to a relative, 
a fricnd or any passerby (this is supposed to bc most effective). 
Sonictimes in Grcat Russia thc child is given to a beggar instead 
of alins; later, the child is taken back and the beggar is given 
ordinary alnis. Thc peasant wonicn of Western Ruthenia put thc 
child's clothcs on a rolling pin and place it beside the mother, and 
thc child is transferred to another place. Among thc Kashubes 
the coiifincd woman wcars nicn's clothing to trick the evil spirits. 
In Bulgaria thc child in thc same Situation is transferred to a 
friend's honic and a tadpole is placcd in the child's clothing 
instead of the child. Another Bulgarian method of tricking 
demons is to give thc childrcn special forenames likc 'Znajda,' 
'Najden,' 'Najda,' which mcan 'Found.' Sometime a child is left 



ncar a road. The first person to pass (knowing this custom) takes 
the child to his liome and gives him back to thc parcnts latcr 
(D. Marinov'7). 

Among the Southern Slavs childrcn are oftcn given thc forc- 
namc ' Vuk' (Wolf) to protcct thcm against witchcs, which would 
not bc bold enough to attack a 'wolf In thc Balkans (Bulgaria, 
Serbia, Montenegro, Herzegovina), according to F. Krauss,'^ 
thcrc is a custom that when a boy is born into a family, thc oldcst 
woman of thc family runs in front of the house and shouts in 
ordcr to ncutralizc the demons : * News for all and hcalth for thc 
child. The she-wolf gave birth to the wolf!' 

Whilc thc tricking of demons is found evcrywhcre in thc 
Slavic countrics, comparative study shows that it is not cxclu- 
sivcly Slavic. It is also found among some non-Slavic pcoplcs of 
Asia (Caucasia, among thc Yakuts) and Europe (Finland). Among 
the Yakuts (E. Pickarski and N. Popov,i9) if a prcvious child in a 
fainily has died, onc makes an agreement with friends to steal thc 
ncw-born baby. Immediatcly aftcr thc birth, when thc mother falls 
aslccp, the grandmother gives thc child to thc friends and puts 
beside the mother a puppy or a sniall cat wrapped in rags. Somc- 
timcs the child stays away from honic until he is sevcn ycars of 
agc and somctimcs thc parcnts do not cven know whcrc he is. 

Wc may concludc that 'negative wishes,' derived from custonis 
of tricking divinitics or demons, are a Slavic pcculiarity, since 
WC do not find thcm in that form in Asia (which is charactcrizcd 
rather by ' Superlative wishes'). 'Oppositc mcanings' contained 
in some Asiatic expressions, may arisc from thc same psycho- 
logical reason as 'negative wishes,' but thcy concern not so much 
thc wishes as thc State of possession. For this reason a Chinese 
millionairc may, in speaking about himsclf, say that hc is a vcry 
poor man, not so much from modesty as from fear of cvil spirits. 
As for thc Finns, who share many bclicfs with Slavic pcoplcs, 
thcy do not scem to be the creators of 'negative wishes.' According 
to Stith Thomson and J. Balys,2'> thc Finns havc bccn most 
influenced in their bclicfs and supcrstitions by other Europeans, 
and above all, according toj. Jakobson,-' by thc Slavs. 

The Slavs thus scem to havc bccn the originators of 'negative 
wishing'; thc Germans, as dieir nearest ncighbours, may havc 
bccn thc intermcdiarics who intrt^duccd it to thc Western world. 
This conclusion is confirmed by comparative analysis of cthno- 
logical traits such as thc vampire concept (A. Taylor-). 

Notes 

I A. S. Rappoport, Supcrstitions of Sailors, London, 1928, p. 256. 
- J. G. Frazer, The Golden Boui^h, London, I954- 

3 G. L. Gomnie, The Handhook of Folklore, London, 1890. 

4 M. Mauss, Manuel d'ethno^raphie, Paris, 1947. 

=: A. Metraux, South American Indian Folklore, in Funk t\ Wag- 
nall's Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythohiiy and Le^^ends, New 
York, 1950, p. 1057. 

*^ J. St. Bystroii, Enu\{iraßa Polski, Warszawa, 1947. 

7 A. Mcillct, Quelques iiypothcses sur les interdictions de vocahulaire 
dans les lani>ues indo-europeennes, Chartrcs, 1906. 

^ D. Zelcnin, Tabu Slor, Shornik Muzeja Anthrop. i Etnof^r., 
Vols. VIII, IX, 1929, 1930. 

9 J. Mellot, La superstition ersatz de foi, Paris, 1959, p. 47. 

'" R. H. Robbins, Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Denionology, 
New York, 1959, p. 87. 

" Izpcstija na NarodnijaEtm\^rafski Muzej w Sofija, Vol. XI (1921). ' 

I- I. Manninen, Die dämonische Krankheiten imßnnischen Volksaber- 
^lauhen, 1922. 

'3 J. Zachariev, Kjustendilso Krajscc, Sofija, 191 8. 

'4 R. Plctncv, Oral information. 

15 K. Moszynski, Kultura Ludowa Slowian, Krakow, 1934. 

''' Ibidem. 

17 D. Marinov, Narodna vera i reli(iiozni uarodni obicai, Sofija, 1914. 

^8 Fr. Krauss, Volksglaube u. religiöser Brauch der Südslauen, 1900. 



160 



161 



Nos. 196-199 



MAN 



OCTOBER, 1963 



19 E. Pickarski and N. Popov, quotcd in K. Moszynski, Ktiltma 
Ludowa Slon'ian, Krakow, i934- 

^-" Stith Thomson and J. Balys, Finuish Folklore, m Funk & 
Wagnall's Standard Dktionary, 1950, p. 387. 

2« R. Jakobson, Slavk Folklore, in Funk ^ Wagnall's Staudard 
Dutionary, 1950, p. 1019. 

22 A. Taylor, Gmiiaiiic Folklore, in Funk & Wagnall's Standard 

Dictionary, 1950, p. 445. 

The Third Edinburgh Conference on Minoan and Mycen- 
sean Writing, 13-14 June, 1963. Conuminicatcd hy 

107 IV. C. Brice, Manchester University 

This mccting, arrangcd by thc Department o^ 
Grcck at thc University of Edinburgh, survcyed a wider ränge 
of topics than its precursors. Now that the basic principles o^ 
Minoan writing are becominq clearer, notablv in the recurrence ot 
certain combinations of signs, sometimes written separaten- and 
sometimes in ligature, it seemed that a useful further step would 
bc to study the significance o^ thesc features when they occur in 
other Scripts. Dr. fe. A. E. Reymond therefore presented a survey 
of the earliest Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions, from Abydos, 
Sakkara and Hierakonpolis. They contain a strong ideographic 
element, and often display a rigid formulaic arrangement, with 
repetition and inversion oi signs, which is reminiscent of certain 
Minoan texts. Dr. J. Eric S. Thompson gave a lucid analysis of 
the naturc of Mayan writing. Though there was of course no 
question of any historical link between the two cultures, Dr. 
Thompson's demonstration of the wide ränge of expression 
possible in a script which was basically ideographic, cspecially 
by the varied use of ligatured combinations or 'Compounds, 
threw much fresh light on the question o'i how the Minoan 



Scripts may liavc opcrated. The Mayan signary was perhaps four 
times as large as that of the Minoan linear Scripts, but at the same 
time the ränge of topics which it was uscd to express may have 

been much wider. 

There were also three papers on Minoan topics. Dr. Jane E. 
Henle gave reasons why she considered that no simple systcm of 
open sVllabic signs, of the type proposed by Ventris, could bc 
accepted in any' deciphermcnt of Linear B into Greek. She was 
inclined on archcxological grounds to accept the language of this 
Script as Greek, but argued that a proportion ot the signs at least 
must have expressed closed syllables. Professor A. J. Beattie listed 
a number of 'inflectional endings' in Linear B, of the type which 
Dr. Kober collected in her studies of the nature of this writing. 
He showed that the phenomenon now seems, through the dis- 
co very of further texts since Dr. Kober's work was done, to bc 
much more complex than she supposed, and certainly not cxplic- 
able in terms as simple as those chosen by Ventris. Certain texts 
of the Ta scrics involved an apparent use of claborate prefixes 
and infixes as well as of suffixes, and in some cases at least an ideo- 
graphic interpretation of individual signs might be preterable to a 
phonetic interpretation. Mr. W. C. Brice dealt with the 'Libation 
Formula,' well known on some six vesscls inscribed in linear 
Script, and on two hieroglyphic seals, and already subjected to 
fourteen differcnt interpretations, including five as the names of 
goddesses. From a study of similar inscriptions and of artistic 
evidence, he concluded that this group o^ signs appears to be an 
ideographic formula rather than a word speit phonetically; and if 
this Were so, there was a strong presumption that the remainder 
of the linear inscriptions in which it occurred should be under- 
stood in a like fashion. 



Moslem Prayer Places. With a text ßf^ure 

Sir, — During April of last year, I was passing by road 

TQQ through thc arca north-wcst of Nok-Kondi in Balu- 

^ -^^ chistan (f. 29 North, 62° East). Thc track is the onc 

followcd by most vchiclcs travclling bctwccn Pakistan and Iran, 

and has for a long time been uscd by thc nomads 011 their journcys. 




Fig. I. MOSLEM prayer ilace in baluchistan 

Photoj^raph: J. H. Chaplin, 1962 

The land lies about 1,000 nictrcs abovc sca Icvcl, thc surfacc .„ 
stoiiy dcscrt, with low dry hills as a background. Thcrc is no Vege- 



tation. 



Thc purposc of this notc is to rccord thc prcscncc along thc road- 
way of prayer places, mnsallä (fig. i). Their simple form is thc b 



CORRESPONDENCE 

of all Islamic architccture; this is thc fundamental unit that undcr- 
lics thc splcndours of thc Umayyid Mosque of Damascus, thc 
Sultan Ahmed of Istanbul, thc Shah of Isfahan. While other world 
religions cvolve into complexity, and their basic activities rcquirc 
buiidings of some size or pcoplc set apart, it has been thc strength of 
Islam that thc basic unit of thc individual and his prayer place have 
been retained. It is perhaps worth considering that stonc-surroundcd 
Spaces found in archxological contexts may also indicatc places set 
apart rather than rcsidcnccs. 
London J- H. CHAPLIN 



The Determinants of Differential Cross-Cousin Marriage. 

Cf. Man, 1962, 47, i79, 238; 1963, 11, 87 
TQQ Sir,— In his latcst comment on my theory of cross- 
^^ ^ Cousin marriage, Dr. Leach puiports to disprove my 
arguments by rcferencc to his K achin data. I do not understand his 
logic since it is very clcar from his analysis that the Kachin do not 
practicc any form of cross-cousin marriage. Dr. Leach maintains 
that a Kachln may marry a girl junior to himself who is a nicmbcr 
of a wifc-giving lincagc. From his description it appears that rhe 
girl need have no particular gcncalogical rclationship to her husband. 
hx. Leach cxplicitly statcs that since thcrc are a number of witc- 
giving lincagcs thc girl will probably not belong to her husband s 
mother's lincagc or cven to his mothcr's clan. 

Now thc usual iiotion of cross-cousin marriage cntails that a 
person marry a woman who is related to himself in onc or anothcr 
of a limited number of ways. If, for cxamplc, matrilatcral cross- 
cousin marriage is practiscd among patrilineal descent g^oups thcii 
this mcans that a man will marry his MBD, or MBSD, or MBSbU 
or MFBSD, or MFBSSD, etc. Marriage with thc MBD is rcgardcd 
as truc cross-cousin marriage; marriage with any of thc rcmainmg 
kin typcs as marriage with a classificatory cross-cousin. 

If unilineal groups, not having any past rclationship, bcgan a 



IS 



asis 



OcTOBER, T9<^3 



MAN 



Nos. T 99- 202 



162 



systcmatic cxchangc of women, of cithci thc symmetrical or the 
asymmetrical variety, it is clcar that this would lead ovcr a short 
period of time to a high incidence of marriage with truc or classifi- 
catory cross-cousins. If thc groups were patrilineal, then mcn would 
marry members of their mothers' lincagcs or morc inclusive descent 
groups. 

Among the Kachin, a wifc-giving group is apparently any group 
from which anothcr group has taken a wifc. Thcrc sccms to bc no 
necessity to take wives with rcgularity from any particular group. 
This practicc will therefore not lead to cross-cousin marriage as 
defined abovc. If my theory of cross-cousin marriage docs not 
apply to the Kachin, it is simply because thc Kachin do not practise 
cross-cousin marriage. 

Although I have rcplied herein to Dr. Lcach's criticisms, this note 
in 110 way endorses his practicc of dismissing thcorctical arguments 
by reference to a siiiglc cthnographical source. In the final analysis 
no theory can be a match for the awcsomc and far-ranging memorics 
of individual ethnographers. ALLAN D. COULT 

Department of Anthropoloiiy and Geofiraphy, University of California, 
Davis, Calif. 



Confusion Worse Confounded: Mrs. Seligman's Birthday. Cf. 

Man, 1963, 112, 158 

O (^(^ Thc Honorary Editor wrotc his note on Mrs. B. Z. 

^^^^^ Scligman's birthday on the basis of information 
supplicd to him that it would occur on 28 June. It would appear 
that a well mcaning person who saw the page proof in the Insti- 
tute's Office corrcctcd onc, but not thc other, of thc two references 
to thc datc in thc notc, by informing the printers, but not thc Hon. 
Editor, that 28 should bc changed^ to 26. Whcn thc June issuc 
appcarcd, a sharp-cycd reader pointcd out to thc Hon. Editor the 
discrepancy bctwccn thc two references to thc date, and he, still 
rclying on thc original information and wrongly attributing the 
discrepancy to a printcr's error, therefore inserted his 'correction' 
in the August issuc. Whcn this in turn appcarcd, Mrs. Scligman 
hcrsclf was kind enough to tclcphone him to say that her birthday 
was indccd 011 26 June (thc day before thc Annual General Meeting 
of thc Institute). Thc 'correction (1963, 15«) should therefore be 
ignored, and thc Hon. Editor can only cxprcss his regrets to Mrs. 
Scligman and oMicrs for his contribution to this sorry confusion 
by not vcrifying his facts with thc only unimpeachable source. 



REVIEWS 



AMERICA 

Ancient America: The Civilizations of the New World. By 

H.-D. Disselhoff and S. Linne. Art of the World Series. 

^/^T London {Methnen), 1961. Pp. 274, 60 plates, 148 text 

^^^ ^ fi^s., 2 tahles. Price £2 ss. 

The market for art books shows no signs of diminishing, and 
they are even being imported. This cxamplc cmploys a somcwhat 
unfamiliar method of production, since thc colourcd plates, most 
of which are very good, are pasted looscly into blank spaces which 
have been Icft for them in the text. They includc some littlc-knowii 
objects which well deservcd illustrating, including a finc feather 
shield and an impressive statue of thc Aztec god Xolotl, both now 
in the Lindenmuseum, Stuttgart, and a very nice nuimmy mask 
from Pachacamac, now in Berlin. On thc other hand, thc bowl 
from Code, Panama, is neither particularly attractivc nor rcally 
typical of thc style. In the list of plates and maps, thc publishcrs 
have uncomprehendingly inserted topographical hcadings which 
have produccd absurdides like listing Sacsahuaman and onc view 
of Pisac under Border Provinces of thc Inca Empire, anothcr vicw 
of Pisac under Ecuador, and a second view of Sacsahuaman under 
the Lastern lowlands; wrong 011 all four counts! In addition to thc 
plates, thcrc are numerous linc drawings in the text, many ot them 
placcd in the margin. In general thesc convey a good Impression 
but thcrc are some exceptions among thc serics illustrating Hart 1, 
for instance fig. i which docs not give a good idca of a Folsom 
Point even if it is after Covarrubias, and hg. 28, a palma ^omc, 
c.e. figs. 41, 42 and 47, are copied, with duc ackiiovv cdgment, 
from Vublished sourccs, but not too accuratcly. An O incc jaac 
from thc British Museum, fig. 37, drawn from an Illustration 
published by Krickebcrg, has at some point suftercd some quitc 
astonishing modifications. In thc map of Colombia, ChibUia is 
misplaccd- it IS cquivalcnt to Muisca which is corrcctly placcd near 

Bogota. , 1 u 1 ;.. 

In a ficld unfamiliar to most of thc public to whom thc book is 
addrcssed, it is incvitablc that the comnientary should be more ot 
an archa>ological account than an artistic critique. Linnc s part 
which covcTs Mexico and Central America, presented a greatcr 
Problem to thc author than Dissclhot^'s, which covcrs thc Andcan 
Lands, by reason of thc greater divcrsity ot thc known high eil urc 
in thc former arca. I disagree with some points of detail, bu both 
parts are adequate for thc purposc for which they ^^•■^' '"^^ ^^cd 
and Dissclhotf 's account of Peru shows a particularly good g asp o 
thc present State of arch.Tological knowlcdge, although I fi d it 
surprising that he is givcn credit by his co-author tor »^^^ving es ab- 
hshed the affinity bctwccn thc pottery of Tlatilco and that of 
Chavin. As regards the arcas in South Ameria. outsidc Pc u, hc 
seems to have missed the important work of Evans and Mcggcrs 

163 



on Marajo Island, although hc rcfcrs to their latcr work on thc Rio 
Napo. The allocation of a separate chapter to San Agustln, giving 
it equal prominence to that on Colombia whcre it belongs, is not 
justificd. I find it cqually unjustifiable that Disselhoff, in his account 
of archivological exploration (p. 141), givcs credit to German, 
Pcruvian and French archcxologists for work in Peru, with no 
mention of thc Americans whose contributions have been at least 
as great as anyonc's, although references to them cannot but slip 
out latcr in thc text. (Onc of thesc Germans is givcn credit for work 
which hc did 30 ycars ago and is about to pubhsh!) 

Some slips in translation could have been avoidcd by Consulting 
someonc familiär with thc subjcct. ' Etflorcscencc ' may be strictly 
correct for a period of flowering, but whcn uscd for what is called 
'Florcsccnt' in some American publications, as it is many times, it 
sounds rather chemical. 'Clay tilcs' is not a good cquivalcnt for 
adobes (p. 161). Thc coastal Valleys of Peru were not inhabited by 
many differcnt 'races' (p. 172). For 'roundcd' lines (p. 185) read 
'curved.' Black wäre dccoratcd with 'polishcd finc-linc incision' 
is what is called 'pattern-burnished,' or by American archcX^ologists 
'linc lustrc,' and incision is not involved (p. 186). Thc translation 
may perhaps also bc rcsponsible for the use of the word 'knotted' 
in connexion with Preccramic textilcs (p. 148), when 'twincd' is 
correct, and for a confusion on p. 185 whcre a resinous binder is 
Said to bc uscd in painting bcforc firing instead of after. 'Cursory' 
on p. 210 should bc 'cursivc' Finally a 'loin board' (caption to 
flg. 67) sounds like a more uncomfortable garment than the well- 
knowii but curious objcct illustratcd. G. H. S. BUSHNELL 

Les Incas. By Alfred Metranx. Paris {Editions du Senil), 1962. Pp. 192 

This is a small book presenting a complcte account 

^ C^^ of thc most important dctails of Inca conquests, their 

^^<J ^ State Organization, religion and culture at the time of 

the Spanish Conquest. It includcs a chapter on Andcan prehistory, 

showing how important features in tcchnology, art and govern- 

ment were inherited by thc Incas. Anothcr discusses the local 

Organization of Andcan peasant communities on which the Inca 

State was superimposed. The book concludes with a brief survey 

of thc pcoplcs of thc Empire after thc Conquest and their position 

today in conthiuity with thc past and in thc grip of present change. 

It is abundantly illustratcd with some striking photographs and has 

appendcd a useful assessment of major sourccs as well as a guiding 

chronology of events. 

No new facts are incorporated, but thcrc is a mature consideration 
of some of the wcll-known data and related problems which raises 
thc book abovc that of a merc compendium. For example, Dr. 



Nos. 202-205 



MAN 



OCTOBER, 1963 



Metraux applies his extensive ethnological cxpcriencc of Aniazoiiian 
tribcs to Andcaii historical and archxological, niatcrial with 
intcrcsting and uscful rcsults. This has produccd a notable chaptcr 
on Inca religion and also an intcresting account of contact bctwcen 
forest Indians and how thcir trading and raiding for mctal goods 
gavc rise to stories of a kingdoni of fabulous wealth. Such accounts 
began the myth of E/ Dorado which lasted long aftcr thc conqucst 

ofPcru. .- . r 

Dr. Metraux considers the vexed problem of the Classification ot 
the hica State and compares it to Dahomey, bureaucratic, totali- 
tarian — an ancient civilization without writing. 

The careful assessnient of well chosen material, the application 
of ethnological experience, the simple, direct and elegant style of 
writing make this a niost uscful book for students and for all who 
wish to possess a reliable and readable account of the Incas. 

AUDREY J. BUTT 

Maya Archseologist. ByJ. Eric S. Thompson. London {Haie), i(X)3- 

Pp. 208, 16 phitcs. Pricc onc <^uinca 

O (^"^ This lighthearted account of 35 years' work in the 

^^^^ ficld of Maya research is intended for the ordinary 

reader. Those who look for hair-raising adventures with wild 

aniinals and still wilder men in any book about the lesser knowii 

parts of America will be disappointed. There are no wild animals 

larger than ticks to be vanquished: the Jaguar, spotted in the distance, 

always has disappeared before the writer can reach the place where 

it was seen. The men, the Maya, are offen intelligent and hard 

workers and we are introduced to two of them who became 

valued friends of the author. 

Of particular interest are the brief sketches of archa?ologists at 
work in the same field. Sylvanus Morley, known to all Maya 
students by his books, but rather a hazy figure, suddenly becomes 
a real person, and how different from the preconceived idea ! 

The most important feature of the book is the description ot 
travel in Yucatan, the Peten and British Honduras under conditions 
not so very different from those described by Stephens in 1S41. 
Villages had little contact with towns; travel was often by mule or 
011 foot and, on the rivers, by canoe. These conditions are rapidly 
changing: heavy lorries with equipment for oil wells are pene- 
trating the forests of the Peten; air Strips are cut out of the forest 
and journeys that used to take many days are now accomplished in 
a few hours; and in reniote villages the juke box has arrived. Still 
unchanged, however, are the ticks, the red bugs and the fleas, 
which though mentioned frequently are not stressed as the trials 
and discomforts that they undoubtedly are. 

The reader who is not well acquainted with the work of archivo- 
logists in this area will find much that is ditficult to follow. The 
reading of glyphs and the correlation of the Maya calendar with 
our own are discussed, but, in a book of this kind, written quite 
briefly and for those with little previous acquaintance with the 
subject, the enormous contribution made by the author to our 
knowledge on these matters will not be appreciated. 

There are a few errors in the printing: on p. 27, Chichen Itza is 
translated as 'the month of the well of the Itza' and this may cause 
confusion in the mind of the reader who will meet many references 
to months but 110 other to the mouth. Also the references to plate 
numbcrs in the text are not all correct. G. A. BATEMAN 

Prehistoric Rock Art of Nevada and Eastern California. By 

Robert F. Heizer and Martin A. Baiunlioff. Berkeley and 

O (^ A Los Ansieks (L7. Calif. P.) {London: C.U.P.), 1962. 

^^^ ^ Pp. 412, 2.\p\ates, 201 textßgs., 15 tables. Price £3 4s. 

This large volume presents the results of an extensive survey and 

a stylistic analysis of the rock art in the western part of the Great 

Basin of North America. All known petroglyph and pictograph 

sites in this area are systematically tabulated and described, and the 

Clements at each site are fully illustrated by photographs or drawings 

made from photographs. This corpus of materials was classified 

into 58 design Clements according to an intuitively derived typo- 

logy; thc authors wisely did not become involved in attempts to 

Interpret the numerous non-representational symbols. The geo- 

graphical distribution of each of the design Clements is shown 011 a 



series of maps. A nuinbcr of stylcs are dcfmcd— Pit-and-Groovc ; 
Puebloan Painted (largely limited to thc southern part of the area); 
Great Basin Painted; Great Basin Scratched; and Great Basin 
Pecked which is further divided into Great Basin Rcpresentational, 
Great Basin Rectilinear Abstract, and most important, Great 
Basin Curvilinear Abstract. , , , 1 • , , 

hl the concluding chapters of the study the chronological and 
geographical distribution of each style is discussed in terms of 
culture-historical significance and as cvidence for a hypothesis of 
thc use of petroglyphs as elements of hunting ritual. The authors 
-ire able to demonstrate a high correlation between the location of 
petroglyph sites and known or probable game trails, the petro- 
glyplis usually bemg placed along cliffs, in narrow canyons, near 
waterholes, and at other places favourable for ambush. It will be 
intcresting to see if this correlation holds in the neighbouring semi- 
arid arcas'with rock art yet to be carefully studied, in Utah, Idaho, 
Oregon and Washington. Conclusions regarding the dating and 
cultural associations of the various styles are much less secure, since 
cases of superposition of styles are relatively few, direct association 
of petroglyphs with dated occupation sites is rare, and diagnostic 
artifacts are not illustrated in the art. The Pit-and-Groove style is 
believed primarily on the basis of relative weathering to be much 
older than thc other styles, and is estimated to date bctwcen 5000 
and 3000 B.c. in the Great Basin. The Great Basin Curvilinear style 
is equated with the Lovclock culture, dated bctwcen 1000 b.c. and 
A.D. 1500. The other styles are believed to have begun much later 
tlian the Curvilinear style. Since representations of figures demon- 
strably historic are rare and the local Numic-speakers disclaim any 
knowledge of the petroglyphs, the authors assume that the practice 
virtually ceased before thc historic period. 

This volume is an outstanding cffort in the analysis of a ditficult 
subject. In many areas of western North America petroglyphs and 
pictographs are present in such number and variety that local 
archa.'ologists for thc most part have avoidcd tackling thc problem s 
which they pose. Thc authors have shown what can be accomplished 
by a systematic recording of sites and a distributional analysis of 
styles; thcir work Stands as a challenge to archcTologists in neigh- 
bouring areas to report thcir data as fully. RUTH GRUHN 

The Hasidic Community of Williamsburg. By Sohrnon Poll. 
Glencoe {Free Press), 1962. Pp. ix, 308. Price $5-50 
^ r\ r The Hasidim are distinguished from other ultra- 
^Vy J orthodox Ashkenazi Jews by ccrtain featurcs of thcir 
culture and social structure, and are renowned for thc tenacity with 
which they cling to them. Dr. Poll's study deals with a group of 
Hungarian Hasidim who settlcd in Brooklyn shortly aftcr the last 
war; his primary aim is to show how various internal rclationships 
valu'cs and practices serve one principal goal— the prescrvation of 

Hasidic identity. . 

In the tirst, shorter part ot' this book, thc author givcs an outline 
Sketch o{ the relationship between the commumty and the wider 
society, as well as of thc internal structure of thc conimunity and 
of its System of values. He shows how the family, the social strati- 
fication and thc mechanisms of social control all contnbute to the 
maintenance of Hasidic values, and he analyses the way in which 
the Community combats thc threat of assimilation to the values ot 
the wider society, particularly thc wider Jewish society with its 
compromises and accommodations. In thc second part, the author 
discusses the economic activitics of thc commumty, and his atten- 
tion to these is fully justified: for it is thc pccuhar form ot these 
activitics which enables the Community to survive in its present 
environment: though the author does point out that this cnviron- 
ment does favour these activitics. Of particular interest here is thc 
author's discussion of thc way in which various commodities, like 
refrigerators, bccomc gradually transformed into 'rchgious objects 
and of how this transformation fulfils a number of economic and 
other social functions. . r 

This book is a valuablc contribution both to the socioiogy ot 
immigrant communities and to thc socioiogy and ethnography ot 
thc Jews. The author's insight is at its sharpest when analysing thc 
Problems of social and cultural identity and of the group mechan- 
isms of defence against any threat to it; his interpretations are well 



164 



OcTOBER, T963 MAN 

illustrated by reference to incidcnts and to Statements by informants. 
Hut the stuciy as a whole exhibits a number of niarked defects: the 
first part contains no description and analysis ot actual networks 
)f relationship; both parts lack demographic and other Statistical 
material; there is no evidcnce concerning the alleged typicality of 
attitudes, values and norms. 

Dr. Poll readily accepts the Durkheim — RadclitTe-Brown — 
Kingsley Davis theory of religion. And why not? This theory 
woiild seem to have been tailor-madc to fit thc Jewish case. (Was 
Durkheim not the descendant of rabbis ?) And yet one is bound to 
cxpress dissent. For in his last chapter, in which he brilliantly sums 
up his analysis, as well as in those in which he provides his evidcnce, 
the author of this book has convinced at least one reader that the 
Durkheim theory can be stood on its head; it can be argucd that 
many or most featurcs of social life in this Community perform 
thc function of maintaining Hasidic rcligious values. 
^ PERCY S. COHEN 



Nos. 205-209 



West Indian Migrants. By R. B. Davison. London (O.U.P.), i9^>2. 

Pp. xix, 89. Price 7s. 6d. 

This is a most uscful compilation of flicts and figurcs 

concerning the migration of West Indians to this 
country Its publication is timely in view of the recent legal re- 
strictions imposed. The author has attempted to fnid reasons for 



206 



the differenccs in thc rate of emigration from the various Caribbean 
tcrritories. Hc catcgorically dismisses an Interpretation in terms ot 
a Malthusian forinula— that population pressure 011 thc land is 
responsible. He suggests that a possible explanation lies in the 
relationship between thc per capita national income and the pressure 
of migration. This is a uscful hypothesis which sheds considerable 
light on the discrepancy between Jamaican and Trinidadian statistics 
of immigration. The real contribution that Mr. Davison has made 
is to have charted a field of enquiry in which a great deal more 
research needs to be done. FERNANDO HENRIQUES 

Trail to California: The Overland Journal of Vincent Geiger 
and Wakeman Bryarly. Ldited by David M. Potter. 

^^^ ' 266, map. Price \2s. 6d. 

The Charlestown, Virginia, Mining Company set out some 80 
strong from St. Joseph in May, 1849, and reachcd the Cahtorman 
goldficlds I IG days later, thcir daily progress logged first by Geiger 
and then by Dr. Bryarly. The few Indians encountered wcre mamly 
sightscers or wayside pilferers and so the narrative is i^ot f J^^j^^'; 
rJading for anthropologists-who, nevertheless, may well find it 
absorbing. Mr. Potter's editorial contributions are admirably füll, 
and espJcially informative on the log.dcs of t a^vd by wa|on 
train. yj^^ 



ASIA 



Ainu Creed and Cult. By Neil Cordon Munro, editcd hy B. Z. 
SeU^iman. London {Routlediic & Ke^^nn Paul), u/'^- 



9OÖ P/j-'a-ci/i, 182. Price £1 I5>\ 



— - The Ainu are knowii to the general reader, if at all, 

for thrce things: thcir 'hirsute' appearance (T'ang records speak of 

beards four fc^^t long), thc bear ceremony (^"^.^^'^'^^^'^V^ ,.^' ^i; \,,^ 
Kitagawa should be read in a recent issue of Hisory of Reh^wns) and 
L so-called n.oustache sticks. Havmg always been :^ ;ttle w-^^^^^ 
by the dcvoting of so much art to such a trivial object I was glad 
o learn in this book that these iknbaslmi are really prayer or 
' toLn wands,' important instrumenta of coiri^vuiicaUo 
between Amu and thcir gods. Today, most Ainu ^- ^ '^;? ^^^^^ 
scmi-Japanesc-sty le houses, to intermarry -:-^-^'!^l^^^ 
and to be givcii a Japanese education. They also providc, ratner 
::^;^s ds^here in Lch cases, one ofthe l-ding^trac^ ^ 
tourists on the island of Hokkaido. Tantalized by he '"^"7;^^^;^^ 
correspondences between Aniu and Japanese ^f^^^^J^^ 
Munro's descriptions thc ritual of the tea ^7,^''"^'"^ ^\ ^'^ ^Ij o 
to my mind-the ethnographer may well bc^constantU ^^ P^^^^ ^^ 
lurn to historical source^. Alas, despite the ^^-;^^^^X^^nl 
Chiri, Kindaichi and Takakura, these remain obstinatcly turgid^-.^ _^ 

controve 

to j. ^. , . 

Ainu society feil apart too soon for 1 
in thc roster of 'our primitive ^^^'''^''';';'^^ ^^,,,,,: ,, consists 
The present book is a rescue Operation "^/^^ /''Xcted at the 
of documents by a doctor, Neil Gordon ^^^^^'^^,,,,, 
cnd of thc last Century and m ^>-\f-V,om bv it c^ev t d friend 
one and now cdited, after many ^"^f ^^;";' ^j^,,^^^^^^^^^ 
Mrs. Brenda Sehgman with the help of a ^«"' "'^ ^/^J;,^,, ,t piece 
scholars. Apart fron, a courageous ^^^^-^^^^Z book is 
together im.dcquatc material of ^«^^^^ "'^^^^ ^^'^^^^^^^^^^ descriptions, 
nJmly made up of straightforvvard ^^ »^ ^ ^"^^^^^^^^^^^^ „ny uscful 
first of basic concepts and of ritual P'^^^^P^!^" " ^^^J^^ „'^^^^ with 

photographs), later of leading ^^'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
die house, with ancestors, with cxorcism, hu ting d 

Reminiscent of Shmto in thcir "-^--^^^ Zpu^,^. atten- 

httle can be said about these beyond """"^ \' ^ ^j^^^, ^,,0 have 
tion to detail and faithfulness to t^cd ob. aU^ • Tha^^^^ ^^^ 

seen Munro's finc bear ^-^•'"^'"^""y/^^ " J ^ook is Hkely to remain 
Problems it raised m these P^^S"..^^ .^;' ^"^^^ery speciahzed field 
principally as an important ^^^^"^^ ^^nuL between its 
and as a tribute to the long and P'^^^' ' ^^^l MENDELSON 
author and the Scligmans. ^' -^^ 



The Mongols of Afghanistan: An Ethnography of the Moghols 
and Related Peoples of Afghanistan. By H. 7 . 

"1 C\Q Schnrmann. Central Asian Stndies, IW The Ha^^ine 
^yj y {Mouton), 1962. Pp. 435, P^'^f^'-'^ Indexes, maps 

Migrations of peoples and herds during the Chingiside period of 
CYMitnü Asian history introduced Mongolic-speakers mto Iran and 
Afghanistan. The presence of descendants of these herding popu- 
lations has been adumbrated in western literature with thc publica- 
tuMi of Leech's vocabulary of Moghol in 1838. Further attempts 
have been made during the intervening Century to make prccise the 
cthnic and Imguistic aftiliations of the contemponiry Mongols of 
Afghanistan by von der Ciabelentz, Ramstedt and Ligeti. Schur- 
numn made field trips m 1954 and I955 to investigatc these prob lems. 
The results have been combmed with study of library materials. In 
fut this IS two books, the one a series of brief charactenzations of a 
dozen "major peoples of Afghanistan; the other an extensive 
ethnography of the Moghols. The first provides context for thc 



sec 



ond. 



rn üo nisu)iicai 5\juh.vo. — r , ^- ,„.,,]., r,,rtTirl and 

.iri, Kindaichi and Takakura, these remain obst atcly t ir Md^ d 
.uroversy rages against an insurmountable l^;;^ ^^^.^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
J. E. Kidder, at some three centuries ^^«"/^ "'J, ',;!,, jed 
■,L .ori.rv feil aoart too soon for it ever to be fruitfullv includcu 



The Moghol habitat today is the Ghorat region of wcst-central 
Afghanistan. According to Schurmann they ^;;'\^''''f'^''' 
part from a nomadic group, Nikudäris, of generally Mongol atfilia- 
non who came to Ghorat in the fourteenth-tiftecnth centuries 
fVoin Persia, where they had nugrated in the thirteenth Century. 
The move to Afghanistan was dissident to the Ilkhamde Chingi- 
side) rule. This view, while speculative, conforms more closely to 
known data than any other. 

The ethnography of the Mongols Covers social Organization, 
both kinship\ind pohty, law, religion, trade, agnculture and its 
technics, and habitations. It is systematic, accurate and well pre- 
sented. The entire work is an cncyclopxdic compendium of greatest 

Utility in arrangement. , . . 1 / 

The author assumes incorrectly that the Mongols proper (pre- 
sumably in the Classical period) possessed an Omaha kinship 
terminology. It is equally untenable to assert that the process of 
development of their current System out of the (erroneous attribu- 
tion of thc) earlier Omaha was subject to thc coursc of social 
evolution. By his own description it is clear that non-evolutionary 
culture contact or acculturation played a part in thc development of 
the present System. This System is generally found among Islamic 
peoples of north-eastern Africa and south-western Asia, and is 
distinct from that of Central Asia (where in fact Omaha is repre- 
sented among contemporary Kalmuks and Kazakhs) 

Some attention is paid to the process of formation of thc Moghols, 
but the main focus is on ethnographical description. This somewhat 



165 



Nos. 209-212 



MAN 



OCTOBER, 1963 



old-fashioncd intcnt is cxccllcntly well achicvcd.lt is a plcasurc to 
rccommcnd this book for thc acconiplishincnt oi its task. 

LAWRENc:H KRAPIR 

Social Structure of the Yami of Botel Tobago. By IVci Hwci- 

Liii atiii Uli Piti-Hsiuii<^. Inst, l-thiiol., AciUÜ'iiiiü Siiiiüi 

^ ir^ A/()//OA'r(j/)// No. I. NivikiViii, Taipci, Taiwiiii, Rcfuihiii 

^^-^^ of China, 1962. 7V.\7 //; Chinese irifh hricf ahstuut in 

Enj^lish. Pp. 285, platcs, (//<J.e''"">" 

in a review of thc rcviscd cditioii ofKaiio and Scgawa's lUnstratcd 
Ethno(^raphy of thc Forniosan Ahori^^incs: I'o/. /, I1ic Yanii (Man, 
1959, 342) I notcd with rcgrct that a dctailcd sociological study ot 
this fascinatiiig socicty was rulcd out by the circunistance that thc 
island of Botel Tobago had become a political conccntration camp. 
I spokc too sooii. Thc ficldwork on which this present cxtrcnicly 
impressive monograph is based had alrcady becn coniplctcd in 
July, 1957, and the 'sonic hundred innnigrants' did not bcgin to 

arrive until I95^- 

Messrs. Wei and Liu have tackled their work with truly Tcutonic 
thoroughness. The Japancse-Chinese bibliography runs to 239 items 
with an additional 29 items in European languagcs. The text 
includes dctailcd gcncalogies of every living Yami. There is massively 
dctailcd information concerning kin corporations, marriages, kin- 
ship terminology, tcknonymy, labour Organization, and property 
categorics, with a final rather more cursory chaptcr on legal 
procedures. 

Thc authors themsclvcs consider that their most important 
fmding is that the Yami have a prcviously unrecordcd patrilincal 
lincacre system, but more fundamental is thc tact that now tor 
the first timc wc have the kind of dctailcd cthnographical evidence 
which can fit the Yami in the wider pattern of Formosan and 
Northern Luzon societics. 

The research was financed by the Asia Foundation and the 
Harvard-Yenching histitute and it is very much to bc hoped that 
thc gencrosity of thcse foundations can bc stretched to cover a 
translation of thc whole work, tables, charts and all. 

EDMUND LEACH 

Himalayan Polyandry: Structure, Functioning and Culture 
Change: A Field Study of Jaunsar-Bawar. By 

O TT D. N. Müjinndar. London {Asia Pnbl. House), 1962. 
^-^^ Pp. 389, 19 platcs, 4 niaps, 5 charts, index. Pricc £4 

The late Professor D. N. Majumdar was, until his suddcn 
demise in i960, Hcad of the Department of Anthropology 
at Lucknow Univcrsity. He was an M.A. and Ph.D. (Cantab.) 
(thcse titles appcar nowhcrc in his book), and a fcllow Student of 
ours at Professor Br. Malinowski's seminars at thc London School 
of Economics in 1935-36. This is therefore a posthumous publica- 
tion, which all those who knew him arc happy to sec at last come 
out in print. 

Wc have been looking forward a very long timc to reading this 
book because of our common anthropological intercst in polyandry; 
cspecially as our studics, madc principally in hidia and in the Himr- 
layan region among Tibetans, purposely did not include the 
Jaunsar-Bawar area which wc thought best to Icavc to our hidian 
collcagues under the guidance of Dr. Majumdar, hi recent years, 
many articlcs and dissertations on thc polyandry of this particular 
region have been published by thcse research workers, all of whom 
have givcn us considerable insight into thc form which this matri- 
monial practice takes in this area. 

That is why it is disappointing to have to admit now that Hima- 
layan Polyandry does not, unfortumtcly, come up to cxpectation 
as it does not teil us anything rcally ncw about the polyandry of 
Jaunsar-Bawar. 

For a book of this length (389 pagcs) with thc title which it bears, 
there is relativcly little about polyandry in it. Thc last sub-titlc 
should rcally have becn used as thc principal one, because this is 
actually, for all practical purposes, ' A Field Study of Jaunsar- 
Bawar,' and a very complete and dctailcd one at that. hi Part I, 
thc Analysis, there is a very good topographical description of thc 
environmcnt of the three villagcs chosen: Lohari, Baila (speit Bayla 



on thc map) and Lakhamandal, in the C:hakrata tehsil of thc Dehra 
Dun district, U.P. The historical account too is very thorough and 

well donc. 

Polyandry cnters thc picture in C:haptcr IV of Part II, whcrc 
Kinship Structure and its Dynamic Functions arc discussed. But in 
our opinion, thc analysis of thc polyandrous unit is quite insufficient: 
no kinship terms arc givcn, it is not said who constitutes thc unit, 
there is no mcntion of ideas about incest, etc. Only thc eldcr son 
in a family actually marrics thc common wife and wc should bc 
indincd, in thc circumstances, to agree with Fischer here when he 
calls this practice 'polvkoity' rather than polyandry. Majumdar 
coins a ncw tcrm for what is gcncrally callcd conjoint marriage: 
'polygynandry,' for familics in which a number of women arc 
shared by brothers. And he is very sweeping when he attributes 
polyandry to geo-economic causes and leaves it at that (p. 75). 

It is incorrcct to say that there is polyandry in Kulu. There is 
what it has becn agreed to call 'cicisbeism' in that area, but it does 
not involvc marnagc. This applics to Malana too, whcrc it is not 
right, surcly, to look upon the concubinagc which exists as neccs- 
sarily a rcmnant of polyandry. 

Thc most intcresting fact reported by Dr. Majumdar is the 
behaviour of thc common spouse, thc ryanti, when she is at homc 
with her parents and changes her kinship Status to dhyanti (kins- 
woman). In thc parental house, her promiscuity is tolcratcd and 
she appears to indulgc in it frecly as an escape valve for the othcr- 
wise sevcrely restraincd behaviour expccted of her as a spouse. This 
is something which wc have never encountcred elscwhcrc bcfore, 
neither in the field nor in anybody's writings, and for this reason, 
WC think that this is thc main contribution to the knowledge of 
polyandrous pcople which Dr. Majumdar has made. 

PETER, PRINCE OF GREECE AND DENMARK 



Gaste in Modern India and Other Essays. By M. N. Srinivas. 
London {Asia Pnbl. House), 1962. Pp. 171- Pricc £1 lOs. 

^ TO Sincc the publication of his famous work on thc 

^^^ Coorgs in 1952, Professor Srinivas has written a 
number of highly germinal essays. Sonic of thcse are devoted to 
the analytical ethnography of rural Mysore; in others he discusses 
more gcneral themes (like 'Gaste in Modern India' and 'Hindu- 
ism'), or analyses various concepts, problcms and processes (such 
as 'Varna and Gaste,' 'Gastes: Gan they Exist in the India of To- 
morrow?,' and 'A Note on Sanskritization and Westernization'). 

The II essays includcd in the present volume, most of theni wcll- 
known to Indianists, fall into the second category. Except for some 
'verbal altcrations,' thc essays arc reprinted here as originally 
published. However, the author provides an Introduction in which 
he briefly discusses some of them. He also refers to 'a certain amount 
of change' which his views have undergone during the eight-year 
period to which the essays bclong. The reader would have got a 
better idea of this change had the original dates of publication 
becn mentioned. 

Sincc limitations of space preclude a Icngthy review, we will 
comment only on two topics. First, (what Srinivas calls) the '"book- 
view" of Indian socicty and culture' More than once he rightly 
wams against the dangers of a preoccupation with traditional 
texts; in the past it has led to an ovcrsimplification, and even 
falsification, of thc social reality. Apparently there arc scveral 
important areas of sociological research in India which the ficld- 
worker can tackle adequately without referencc to thcse texts. 
However, when the pcople under study themsclvcs refer to the 
Contents of thcse traditional sourccs, in cxplanation or justification 
of their behaviour, it is difficult to ignore them. Srinivas's comments 
draw attention to an old but still unresolvcd problcm : the proper 
cstimation of thc place and valuc of traditional textual sourccs in 
sociological studics of Hindu India. 

Second, Sanskritization as a two-way process. As is well known 
the concept of Sanskritization and thc process that it describes werc 
first discussed by Srinivas in thc Goorgs book itsclf. Therein the 
Clement of imitation was emphasized: how the members of a low 
caste try to improve their Status by 'thc adoption of the Brah- 
minic way of lifc' In the essay on Hinduism he explains that 



166 



Nos. 215-217 



MAN 



OCTOBER, 1963 



there. In the course of it he says: VBcing the first male child in thc 
direct line after thc death of my grandfathcr, I automatically 
inherited his soul, nickname, was givcn his actual namc on the 
twelfth day and though my widowed grandmothcr's tavourite 
grandson, had to bc addressed by her in the indircct discourse 
necessary for every modest woman of thc class, so real was thc 
transmigration of the soul' (p. 158). 

Though some of his theories are open to criticism, Professor 
Kosambi'sjDook is very well written and intcresting. It is also well 
produce^I notcd but three trivial shps. RAGLAN 




Anthropology: Essays in Memory of D. N. Majumdar. 

London {Asia Puh\. House), 1962. Pp. 000. Pricc £3 
^ T/T These essays, originally intendcd to form a prescn- 

-^ -^ ^ tation volume for Professor Majumdar's sixticth birth- 
day, have become a memorial volume. He died in i960. 

Such volumes inevitably present a problcm for thc reviewer, a 
problcm not unconnected with thc intentions of those who have 
contributed to them. It is an unfortunate fact that the contributions 
to many such compilations arc lost to thc mainstream of scholarship. 
A namc as the solc link between thc essays is not enough to cnsure 
a wide or lasting circulation. Such considerations cannot bc present 
in the minds of contributors. 

There scem to bc two possible Solutions which can producc not 
only a memorial but a living one. Either the essays are important 
cxegeses of one man's thought— T/u- Phihsophy of Ernst Cassircr is 
an example — or, as in Hoinnia{Jcs ä Gcori^cs Dinnc::il, they arc the 
products of research on themes inspired by or closely associated 
with thc work of thc man honoured. 

In thc volume under review the presence of essays by archivo- 
logists, physical anthropologists and social anthropologists tcstihes 
to Professor Maiumdar's wide ränge of intcrcsts and to his immense 
cncrgy. But thcse essays by spccialists show, for thc grcatcr part, 
how'clcar arc thc divisions which have come about sincc Protessor 
Majumdar cntcred thc hcld of anthropology. Most apparent is the 
Separation of physical anthropology rcprescntcd here by seven 
essays. It is a pity that thcse authors did not take thc opportunity 
otlcrcd to demonstrate thc rclevancc of their enquirics to thc 
intcrcsts of their associatcs. 

Thc archivology section secms thc most fitting to a book of this 
naturc. Thc essays are complete in themsclvcs and arc not mcrcly 
intcUigiblc to non-arch;vologists but intellcctually open to tindings 
in othcr ficlds. The authors' cnthusiasm for their subjcct is con- 
tagious and at least the social anthropologists of India must bc gratc- 
ful for thcse glimpses of their mcticulous restoration ot history. 

Among thc social anthropologists, Professor von Fürcr-Haimen- 
dorf's essay 'Moral CxMiccpts in Three Himalayan Societics' secms 
the most suitablc. The remaining authors, with the partial exception 
of Dr. Meyer, write in gcneral terms about gcneral problcms ot 
their subjcct. Precise cxamplcs of the kind of work which social 
anthropologists are doing in India might more fittingly have com- 
bincd piety with scholarship. It is a great pity that thc longest essay in 
this section, and the one which claims to make a particular contri- 
bution, Professor Ranikrishna Mukhcrjce's 'On Glassification of 
Family Structures,' should bc a disastrous example of pretentious 
sDccialization in a volume dedicated to a pioneer of the scieiices of 
man m India. 1^- F- POGOGK 



Mesopotamia and the Middle Hast. By Leonard Woolley. Art of 
the World, 17/. London {Methuen), 1961. Pp. 259, 

917 Ullis- Pricc £2 5S. 

^L i ji-,is^ oiie of the last works of the late Sir Leonard 

Woolley, forms part of a scries of regional histories of thc visual 
arts a fact which is reflected in its scope. It is clcar that the organizing 
cditor has decidcd that ancient Persia should bc givcn a volume to 
itself (to bc contributed by Dr. Edith Porada, as wc learn from 
p 41 note 3), but while this is admirable it is uttcrly out of scale 
to squeeze the whole of Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Hittite 
and scveral other Icss well rcprescntcd arts into an equivalent 
amount of space. The book sets out to deal with the art of western 



Asia from prehistoric timcs to thc Islamic conquests, and thc 
yawning gap Icft by thc Omission of Persia is very obvious. In thc title 
of Ghaptcr III, 'Elam bcfore the C:oming of thc Indo-Europcans, 
one can almost sec the words of thc organizing editor anxious to 
gct this inconvenient loosc end out of the way for the volume on 
Persia, and thc Icap from Ghaptcr VIII, 'Assyria and Neo-Baby- 
lonia,' to Ghaptcr IX, 'Gnvco-Roman Art in thc Middlc Last, 
gives thc lattcr thc air of a sort of appendix atterthought. In 
planning thc scrics it would have becn bcttcr, if Persia was to bc 
treated \eparately, to allow also a separate volume for Anatoha 
and the Hittites, and to have permitted a brief chaptcr on Persia in 
its right place here, even at thc risk of overlapping within the scrics. 
Apart from this it is a very good idea to include a discussion ot 
(;nvco-Romaii art in thc area, instead of hnishing with Alexander 
thc Great as is usually donc, turinng point though this was When 
this is said, however, the rest of thc book does not proyidc any- 
thing which has not been givcn just as well in Frankfort's Art and 
Architecture of the Ancient Orient, or now in Seton Lloyd's Art of the 
Ancient Near Last, though this last was published at the same timc 
as thc present volume. 

It is not fair, however, to blamc this upon Sir Leonard Woolley, 
who must have becn invited late in lifc to undertake an ill conceived 
task. He will not bc remembercd for books such as this, but for Ins 
achievements in the field, chiefly at Garchemish, Ur and Alalakh 
whcrc he showcd himsclf to bc in thc heroic tradition of Layard 
and Rawlinson. Likc them his prosc, in spite of certain signs ot 
carclcssncss, is easy to read, and free of the Jargon which permeates 
much of thc archxological litcraturc of today. Something of his 
contribution to the study of thc ancient Near East may bc judged 
from thc fact that 12 of the 60 colour platcs and 15 of the 73 text 
figures illustrate objects whosc discovery was in whole or in part 
duc to him. A good many of thcse arc of course from thc 'Royal 
Tombs' of Ur,'but there are also such things as the rhyton of gold 
and silver (p. 143) whosc acquisition is so amusingly narrated in 
As I Seein to Reineinber, pp. 35f- 

In the presentation of the historical setting, one or two points 
call for comment. The Statements regarding the Hittites on pp. 24- 
26 arc n^t entircly satisfactory. The author here assumes his theory, 
by 110 incans universally accepted, that thc Khirbct Kerak pcople 
werc thc ancestors of thc Hittites, and that the lattcr consequently 
came to central Anatolia from the Araxes Valley i'ia north Syria. 
This is presumably why the Hittites arc said to bc of 'Gaucasiaii 
stock,' for this is not correct racially or linguistically, so must bc 
meant geographically. The Statement that the Hittites werc ' Aryan- 
spcakiiig' IS also of course incorrcct. Again the Statement on p. 30 
that the Israclites arrived in Palestine ' with the Habiru in the timc 
of Akhenaten' gives a view of thc Exodus now hcld by very few. 
There would bc no profit in citing points of this kind through thc 
whole book (except to mcntion a few, more obvious, errors: p. 32, 
for Tiglath-pilescr IV read Shalmaneser V; p. 125, tbr 'Akkadian 
merchants' read 'Assyrian merchants'; p. 226, there is no evidence 
that Sargon and Ashurbanipal 'fought campaigns in the Yemen'; 
p. 224, fig. 73 caption, for b.c. read A.D.; p. 235, for Teil Uzair 
read Teil Uqair), but they do serve to warn the reader that not all 
Statements can bc accepted without question. In spite of this, how- 
ever, many of the artistic judgments are just and illuminating. 

In form thc book is mixed, Most of the colour platcs are exccllcnt, 
but the text figures are poor. These are mostly peii sketches which 
would adorn a dig note book but which are almost without excep- 
tion quite unsuitable for a book of this kind. Thc text is clearly 
printcd (in Holland), but causes a certain irritation in that none of 
the Paragraph opcinngs arc indented. This may bc in keeping with 
modcri/book design' but there secms little point in it. It is also 
Strange that thc list' of platcs, figures and acknowledgments should 
come bcfore the table of contents. There are a fair number of 

misprints. 

The shortcomings of the book must however be attributed to 
the publishcrs rather than the author, as they acknowlcdgc them- 
sclvcs in a preliminary note. One can appreciate that to deal with a 
manuscript without the author to consult is no easy task, and there 
arc many good things in the book to compensate for thc bad. 

T. G. MITGHELL 



Mcuk' and print ed in Great Br itain hy William Clowe.s and Sons, Limited, London and Beccles 



OCTOBER, 1963 



MAN 



NOS. 2T2-2T5 



'Bccause Sanskrit was thc language of thcsc highcst groups, this 
process of cultural propagation is hcrc callcd ' Sanskntization 
Hc furthcr points out that though Hinduism docs not sanction 
prosclytisni, 'this docs not mcan that thcre is no convcrsion in it. 
Various Factors, Hkc thc improvcmcnt of communications m 
modern timcs and thc activitics of ccrtain sccts such as thc Lin- 
gayat and thc Swaminarayan), also havc aidcd thc process ot 
cultural propagation. Thc nnphcation of Snnivas s rcmarks sccms 
to bc that two complcmcntary proccsscs-mimcsis./rom /h>/ou. and 
propagation from ahovc-h^wc bccn at work To work out t 1 
imphcation more fully, thc two proccsscs will havc to bc adcquatcl> 
recognizcd and thcir mutual rclationship clanficd.^ ^ MADAN 



The Hindu Family in its Urban Setting i3y .4,7crH D^ Ross 
Toronto {U.P.) {London a^cuts: O.U.P.), 1961. Pp- 32$, 
01^ avvcudiccs, tablcs, iudex. Pricc £2 ^ 

Z^ID This study is an outcomc of thc author s onc year 

of rcscarch in hidia, and is bascd on thc data collcctcd by a 'rcscarch 
team of six Hindus' who togcthcr spcnt a total of 31 mon hs 
intcrvicwing 'fricnds or acquaintanccs' of thcir own choicc (p. 299). 
The 157 interviewees consistcd of 84 nialcs and 73 Geniales. Among 
thc malcs, all cxccpt six had univcrsity dcgrccs (including cight 
Ph.Ds.) and among thc fcmalcs, all cxccpt ninc had more than a 
High School education (p. 302). Thc sainplc is thus heav^y weigh cd 
in favour of individuals who are highly cducatcd and, in a largc 
mcasure, come from prosperous and sophisticatcd familics. 

hidia has always bccn considcrcd to bc onc of thosc placcs whcre 
the classical joint family has bccn thc rulc rathcr than the exccption 
According to the author also, the nuclcar fannly is ^und mo c 
often in largc towns and citics than in villagcs (p. 35), and tnc 
small jomt family is now the most typkal form of family hfc amongs 
the middlc and upper middlc urban classcs in hidia (p. 49, emphasis 
added). In this study, carricd out mamly in Bangalorc, a city in 
South hidia, thc author's mam objcctivc has bccn to analysc thc 
Factors which are tending to break up the largc joint family, and 
to seck out thc main ways 111 which thcsc changes are affecting thc 
family roles' (p. 280). Thc structure of the family has bccn dcfincd 
here to include sevcral sub-structurcs-a biological sub-structure of 
age, sex and kinship, an ecological sub-structurc of houschold 
g?oups, and sub-structures of rights and dutics, of authority and 
sentimcnts— for purposes of analysis. 

The author shows considcrablc insight m her undcrstanding, 
analysis and Organization of the matcrial. Her typology of the 
famihes has bccn carcfully evolvcd and her analysis of the sub- 
structures of rights and dutics, and of sentimcnts, has bccn done 
^^:i^^aglnatlo!l and ingcnuity. Thc nuances f ^-^-^/f^ ^"^^-;^^ 
and rcciprocal obhgations havc bccn clearly brought out with thc 
heb of well documented case studics. •,• , 

Thcre are, however, a fcw points that may bc made in criticism 
of this book. First, the all-inclusive title is somcwhat misleading in 
V cw of thc fact that whilc hidia is a land of contrasts and regional 
pecuharitics and divcrsitics, thc author's sample >s biascd highly 
Sectivc and localizcd. Part of thc author's gencra izations, thereforc, 
havc only a local or a regional validity. S-ondly, her assump tion 
regarding thc distribution of nuclcar and joint-Fmuly typcs, 1 
rufal and urban hidia, are not bornc out by othcr studics An 
[ntercsting point which thc author could havc iiscfully brought out 
i her dLussion is how thc old joint-family pattern gets rc- 
estaWished in the 'urban sctting' in thc event of economic success. 
?n thfauthor's sample, 33 nuclcar families changed to largc or 
mall ioh^t familics (pp. 36f.), and 20 individuals livcd in joint 
freier hroughout. A largc Joint family if economic rcsourccs 
pcrmlt its smooth continuancc, is probably also a Status symbol 

Tcterthd^cf rra"u'scful and a well written book which will 
bc^cad " crest by sociologists and anthropologists. It provides 
uLful IcTds for future work and somc of the hypothcscs advanced 
usctul ^c^'f 7^ . ,, . clscwhcre in hidia 111 diffcrcnt regional 

here may bc fruittully testca ciscw. ^^^^ ^ SRIVASTAVA 

settings. 



Gopalpur: A South Indian Village. By Ahm R. Bv.h. N n; York 

^ (Höh, Rimlum & Winsun,), .962. Pp. .v. 100. Pruc lOs. 

O T A Dr Bcals's book is onc of a serics of casc studics 

-^^T" in cultural anthropology,' which 'are dcsig.icd to 

brin, to studots, ,u bcginnm« and imcrn>cdiatc '°""« '" ^°™1 

scicnccs. insights n,to thc richnc;ss and coniplcx.ty of human hfc, 

as it is livcd in diffcrcnt ways and diftcrcnt placcs 

Tic book cons>sts of cigh, chaptcrs dcvotcd to (, a gcncral 
dcscription of Gopalpur, (ii) pattcrns of child-rcar„,g, (,„) marr.agc 
6VW «tc U') religio.,, (vi) social control and fact.ons, (,'m) social 
^c Inge nd l, thc rcgion to which Gopalpur bclongs. Thc rcadcr 
^c manv i itcrcsting glimpscs of social lifc in thc villagc, but not 
ciVough nu lation! and is Icft with a fcchiig of want.ng n.orc 
Twö cxamplcs should sufficc: (i) Thc chaptcr on j,«, castc) tc Is us 

of hitcrcastc economic transactions rcma.n largely und.ffcrcntiatcd, 
a, d I e significance of the difference between aniiual payments in 
Cdand on-the-spot payments in cash is not touehed upon. {„) 
T c ch Ptc o religioiUs so coneise as to make it hard for a bcginncr 
to dcterm nc what applics to Hindus and what to Muslnns. Thus 
Beal docs not makc it clcar that it is a Hindu, and not also a Muslim, 
who may he iiamcd after Hanumantha, or that it is only thc Mus- 
m who bury thcir dead. Onc of the real fasemations of Gopa pur 
obviously lies in the mfluencc which thc Hindus and thc Muslims 
have txcrted on cach othcr's ways of litc, but thc-^ author ,s tanta- 

zh'gly brief on thc subject. One is not ask.iig for too much 111 
wändng a fuUcr analysis of such curious situations as a Brahman 
priest ceremomally washing a Mushm's tomb. 
"^ Bcals succcssfully indicates 'the richness and complcx.ty of human 
htV m Gopalpur, but, withiii the limits of the available spacc, s 

ot always able to provide thc 'msights' promiscd at the outsct^ 
^rat hc is capablc of doing so is beyond doubt, and wc will look 
forwardtoextcudedpubhcationofhis matcrial. ^ ^ ^^1-,^^, 



Myth and Reality : Studies in the Formation of Indian Culture. 

By D. D. Kosambi. Bonthiy (Popiil.n Pmhcislum), 1962. 
OTC Pfi. .V, 187- PfiVc Rs 12.50 r u- u 

AID This is a collcction of tivc cssays, four of which 

havc beeil previously pubhshed. Professor Kosambi begins by 
secking to cxplain ccrtain aspects of thc history of Hinduism, but 
hesc cxplanations do not always carry conviction. Thus he says of 
t e hccntious Holi festival that ' when food gathcring was thc norm, 
w th a n,ost uncertain supply of food and nieagrc dict, a coiisidcr- 
ablc Stimulus was nccessary for procrcation Obscemty was thc 
cssentnl in Order to pcrpctuatc the specics p. 10). It is more 
prob ble that, in thc words of Or. R. Patai, 'thc general Union of 
fhc sexcs at the seasonal fertility feasts may bc regardcd as a de- 
mocratization of thc originally aristocratic represcntation of the 

"Ttt whh tl^^sacrcd marriagc that he is conccrncd m Chapter .1 

in which he puts up a good casc for regarding thc myth of Urvas. 

änrPururav.;s as an account of a sacrcd marriagc followed by thc 

cril-icc oHhe bridcgroom. He holds that ^^^f-^'V^^^ 

for a matnarchal socicty such as that postulated by ^^ * »^^ 

Robert Graves, both of whom hc citcs with approval. It is unlikcly, 

however, that thcre ever was such a socicty. ^^^ , ^_, ^hesc 

In thc district of Poona thcre are many ancie.it trackways. These 

are strcwn wi.h microhths, which are in placcs so numerous that 

1 thc author's vicw they must have takcn 'ho--ds of ycars to 

accumulatc. Bes.dc thcsc trackways are "'»"V ^^ are stTll wo - 
stoiies which represent mother goddesscs, and vyhich are still wor 
hk pcd and painted red, by the villagcrs. The v."ag^-'-"l»r°;;h,p 

göds whose cult IS, m somc iiistanccs »' >-<• -»™"-d ^^'^ j ^^t 
^ . 1 j _• ,.r imin-iii sTrnticc Thc autnor noias tnac 

<;win(TinjT aiid traditioiis ot numan saLimc«.. x« • r j 

he Ss caiuc m with thc Aryans and that thc marriagc ofa god 
to prcvtm y umnatcd goddcss nidicatcd a fusion of eults (p. 86 . 
Bu asacred marriagc caiinot bc a, thc -";""- .^,^°™ "^ ?"' 
historic ritual and the rcminisccncc- of a,i '" " '^» ' Xl-r givcs 
Professor Kosambi is a iiativc of Goa, and 111 the last chapter givcs 
an aatunt of thc archa.c System of land tcnurc which obtaincd 



ll 



1, 



i 



! 



RECENT R.A.I. PUBLICATIONS 

The following Occasional Papers are available from the 
Publications Department: 21 Bedford Square, London W.C.l 

No. i6 Studies in Kinship and Marriage 

Editcd by I. Schapera with a foreword by E. E. Evans-Pritchard. 

Essays, prcsented to Brenda SeHgman on her 8oth birthday, by E. E. Evans-Pritchard, 
R. J. Firth, D. Forde, Meyer Portes, E. R. Leach, Godfrcy Licnhardt, Lord Raglan, and 
I. Schapera. 
Price : Paper 26/- (iucl. postage), Cloth 37/- (incl. postage). 

No. 17 Ores and Metals 

A report of the Ancient Mining and Metallurgy Committee, R.A.I., by H. H. Coghlan, 
J. R. Butler, and George Parker. 

This publication includes a note on Irish copper ores and metals, on elements in Irish 
copper ores and a metallurgical study of four Bronze Age implements. 
Pp. 64, with analytical tables and 34 figs. on 7 platcs. 
Price : Paper 36/- (incl. postage). 

No. 18 Man and Cattle 

Editcd by A. E. Mourant and F. E. Zeuner. 

This report of a Symposium on domestication contains papers on genetical, hxmoglobin 
and protein studies of bovine populations and notes on cattle breeds from the prehistoric 
Sites as well as studies from contemporary Europe and Africa and extensive bibhographies. 
Much of thc matcrial is pubhshed here for the first time. 
Pp. 166, 33 tables, 32 figs. and 21 plates. 
Price: 3 gns. (p. & p. 2/-). 

Forthcotning 

No. 19 A Study in Ritual Modification — the work of the Gods in Tikopia in 1929 and 

1952. 

Raymond Firth and James Spillius. 

No. 20 The Swanscombe Skull 

A definitive monograph by various authorities which contains ncw studies of the 
Swanscombe matcrial, together with a number of fundamental papers printed from earher 
publications, and a comprehensive bibliography. 



SECOND INTENTIONAL EXPOSURE 



Octübi:r, 1963 



MAN 



NOS. 2T2-2I5 



'Bccausc Sanskrit was thc languagc of thcsc highcst groups, this 
proccss «f cultural propagation is hcrc callcd " Sanskntization . 
Hc furthcr pomts out that though Hmduisni docs not sanction 
prosclytisni, 'this docs not nican that thcrc is no convcrsion in it. 
Various f\ictors, likc thc iniprovcmcnt ot connnunications m 
modern tinics and tlic activitics of ccrtain sccts such as thc Lin- 
gayat and thc Swaininarayan), also havc aidcd thc proccss ot 
cultural propagation. Thc nnplication ot Snnivas s rcmarks sccnis 
to bc that two coniplcmcntary proccsscs-nuincsis./ro/M /'c/ou' and 
propagation from abovc-h.xvc bccn at work. To uork out this 
iniplic'ition niorc fully, thc two proccsscs will liavc to bc adcquatcly 
rccognizcd and thcir nuitual rclationship clanhcd.^ ^ MADAN 



The Hindu Family in its Urban Setting By 4//cr;, D l^^s^. 
Toronto (U.P.) {Lon^ion n^cnts: O.U.P.), nM. Pp. 32>, 
T"^ üvpciidiccs, tahlcs, index. Pricc £} ^ 

jLIO ji,„ studv is an outcomc of thc author s onc ycar 

of rcscarch m India, and is bascd on thc data collcctcd by a 'rcscarch 
tcam of six Hindus' who togcthcr spcnt 'a total o 31 mon hs 
intcrvicwing 'fricnds or acquamtanccs' o thcir own choicc (p 299 
Thc IS7 intcrvicwccs consistcd of 84 malcs and 73 cmalcs. Aniong 
thc malcs, all cxccpt six had univcrsity dcgrccs (including cigh 
Ph.Ds.) and among thc fcmalcs, all cxccpt ninc had morc than a 
High School cducation (p. 302). Thc sample is thus hcavily wcightcd 
in favour of individuals who arc highly cducatcxl and, in a largc 
mcasurc, comc from prospcrous and sophisticatcd tamihcs. 

hidia has always bccn considcrcd to bc onc ot thosc placcs whcrc 
the classicaljomt tlumly has bccn thc rulc rathcr than thc ^"xcc-p lon 
Accordmg to thc author also, thc nuclcar tam.ly is ^ound ni 
oftcn in iargc towns and citics than in viUagcs (p 35), and thc 
small Joint fainilv is now thc most typiaü form ot tamily hfc amongst 
thc middlc and uppcr middlc urban classcs m hidia (p. 49, cmphasis 
addcd). hl this study, carricd out mainly in Bangalorc, Y^^Y ;"^ 
South hidia, thc author's mani objcctivc has bccn to analysc thc 
factors which arc tcnding to break up thc largc joiiit tamily, and 
to seck out thc maiii ways in which thcsc changcs arc at^ccting thc 
familv rolcs' (p. 280). Thc structurc of thc timily has bccn dctincd 
hcrc to includc scvcral sub-structurcs-a biological sub-structurc of 
agc, sex and kinship, an ecological sub-structurc of household 
groups, and sub-structurcs of rights and dutics, of authonty and 
scntinicnts— for purposes of analysis. 

■ Thc author shows considcrablc insight in her undcrstanding, 
analysis and Organization of thc matcrial. Her ^?-^y ^ ^ 
famihes has bccn carefully cvolvcd and her analysis o thc ub- 
structurcs of rights and dutics, and ot scntinicnts, has bccn donc 
with Imagination and ingcnuity. The nuanc:es ot change in authority 
and rcciprocal obhgations havc bccn clearly brought out with the 
hclp of well documented case studics. -,- • , 

Thcrc arc, however, a few points that niay bc madc in criticism 
of this book. First, the all-inclusivc title is somcwhat mislcadnig in 
V cw of the flict that white hidia is a land of contrasts and regional 
pccuharitics and divcrsities, thc author's sample is biasec , highly 
sclcctivc and localizcd. Part of the author's gencr^i izations, theretore, 
have only a local or a regional vahdity. Secondly, her assumptions 
regarding thc distribution of nuclcar and joint-tnmly types, in 
ruril and urban hidia, arc not bornc out by othcr studics. An 
lUcrcs'nig poiiit which the author could havc usctully brought out 
her dtussion is liow thc old joint-family pattern gets rc- 
cstablishcd m thc 'urban sctting' in thc event ot economic success. 
hl thc author's sample, 33 nuclcar flmulics changed to largc or 
small ioiiit flmulics (pp. 36f.), and 20 individuals lived m joiiit 
fäniies throughout. A largc jomt f^imily if economic resource 
pcrniit its snu'oth continuancc, is probably also a Status synibol 
cvcn in thc urban sctting. , , ... 

NcvcrtlK-lcss, it .s . uscful and a well wnttcn book ulml: will 
bc read with m crcst by socologists n„d a.uhropolot^jsts. It prov.dc^ 
uscful lc*ds for futurc work and so.nc ot tlic bypotbcscs advanccd 
hcrc" nay bc fr.ntfully testcd CcwlK-rc i., 1,k1. -n «^.«"--^-'-^ 
scttings. 



Gopalpur: A South Indian Village. By A\m R- Bc../.«. N<"' York 

T IJ. nr licals's book is onc of a smcs ot casc stildics 

Z,lT- ,„ ,,,hm.^\ antbropology; whicb 'arc dcs.gncd to 

br,n.. to stndcnts, in hcsu.ning and intcrn.cdiatc courscs n, soaal 

scil^lTccs, ,ns,ghts n„o tbc richncss and con.plcxity ot lunnan l,tc, 

IS u is livcd in dificrcnt ways and diHcrcnt placcs 

Tic book consists of csbt cbaptcrs dc-votcd to ,) a gcncral 
dcscr.pt,on of Clopalpur, (,i) pattcrns of ch.ld-rcanng. („,) n.arnagc 
t c stc (r) rcligun. (.',) social control and tactions, (.'") «'C-al 
1 n;c;,d (.,..) .lic regio,, to wb,ch Gopalpur bclongs. Tbc rcadcr 
c n a ,v , ntcrcst,,,^ glinipscs of socal l,tc ,„ thc v,llagc, bt,t „ot 
c, t,g , k„n,„at,on-, and ,s Icft w„h a fcchng ot want.ng morc 
Two'^^-xan^plcs sh<H,ld snfficc: (i) Thc chaptcr o„ .,,,. (-- ^^^ ^^ " 
hardlv anvthing about thc ,ntcrnal strnctnrc ot castc. Var o , t es 
of intcrca;tc cc^^noniic transactions rcn,a,„ largcly i,nd,rtcrcnt,atcd, 
, d h sig,„f,ca„cc of thc d,rtcrc„cc bcwcc, a„nt,a payn.cnts 
k.nd „,d on-tbc-spot pavn,cnts in cash ,s not tottchcd npon. (n) 
Tl c ch ptcr on rcliU«nsso concisc as to n.akc it bard tot a bcg.nncr 
u. d cnmnc what'apphcs to Hindus and wha. to M- -.. Thus 
Bcals docs not ,nakc ,t dcar that u ,s a H.ndu and not also ^ Musin. 
who n,ay bc nan,cd aftcr Hannn.antha, or that .t .s only thc Mus- 
, who bury thcr dcad. Onc of tbc real tascu,a„o,,s "f (■"P^' P""- 
vuntslv lies n, thc influcnee whuh the H.ndus and tbc Mushn s 
h VC cxerted on eaeb othcr's ways ot htc, bu. tbc autbor ,s tanta- 
zLlv bnef on tbc st.bjct. Onc ,s not ask.ng tot too mnch n, 
« in'tin.. a fuller analysis of such curioiis s.tuations as a lirabnian 
priest cercnionially washing a Muslnn's lonib. 

^ B ,1s snccessfuUV n.dicatcs ' .he r,ebncss and e<„nplex,ty ot bun.an 
l,t-c' ,n Ciopalpnr.bnt, w,th„, thc linuts ot thc av.ulable space ,s 
„ot alwavs able to prov,dc tbc 'insights' prcmnscd at tbc ottset. 
That he ,'s capable of do,ng so ,s beyond doubt, and wc w,ll look 
forward to cxtcndcd pubbcat.on ot b.s ,nater,nl. ^ ^ ^^^DAN 



Myth and Reality : Studics in thc Formation of Indian Culture. 

By D. l). Kos.w,hi. Bomlnty (P,>;m/,/r l'ivl^itsluv,). iy62. 

T T C /'/.. v, 1S7. Prifc Rs 12.50 .- , , 

Z,1J j|„s ,s a collcctioi, of f,vc cssays, tour ot wb,eh 

|,ave bccn prev,«usly pubhshcd. Professor Kosa.nb, bcgn.s by 
!^c'k,n« to exphun certa,,, aspects of the Instory of H.ndu,s,„, but 
thcsc explanat o„s d<, „ot always carry co„v,et,on. Tbus bc says of 
■ bccn ,ous Hob t-cst,val that 'wlicn food gatber,ng was tbc „or,,,, 
w,th a ,nost nncerta,,, supply of fo<,d and .neagrc d,ct a cons,der- 
ablc stnnnlus was „ecessary for proerca„o„ «^srnnty ssas 
csscntial ii, .«der to pcrpcntatc the speccs p. lo). 1 .s ,"ore 
probable tha,, „, tbc words of Dr-K. Pata,, tbc S^'"™' "»'"". f 
he scxes at the seasonal fcrt,lity teasts ,nay he regardcd as a dc- 
,nocTat,zat,on of the orig,nally aristocrattc rcprcscntat,o„ .^t tbc 

s.icred ,narriage.' i ;., r l, ,„t..r II 

It is with tbc sacrcd ,uarr,agc that he ,s coneetned i, Chapter 
,n whieb bc puts np a good case tor regard.ng thc ,ny,b ot Urvas 
"„d Pun,rav.« as an aceoun. of a sacrcd ,narr,agc foUowcd by tbc 
„,f,ec c,f ,bc br,dcgroo„,. Hc holds that the 1-t "cn. .s cv,dc,,cc 
for a n,atr,arcbal society such as .hat postulatcd by ^^ « '"' 

|!.obcrt C.ravcs, bo.b of whom he c.cs w.tb approval. I. .s unbkely, 
bowcvcr, tha. tbere ever was such a socicty. 

h, tbc d,strict of Poo.,a thcrc arc n,a.,y a„c,e„t trackways Tl e 
,re strewn w,th ,n,croh.hs, which arc n, placcs so ntnncrous tha 
thc author's v,cw they nu.st have taken thousands of years o 
ccu u'lue lics.dc tbese ttackways ue n,a„y shn,,cs of anteonR 
töne wl eb rcprcscnt ntothcr goddesses. and w uch arc st.ll wor- 
soncswnicii "•> hv the villa.'crs The vi lagers also worsbip 

sbippcd, and paintcd red, by tlle vilia^crs. i ^ l,,>,,k- 

godl wbosc cnlt IS, i„ sonic mstances »V l"--^««- "^"^V: tl 1 o ds that 
swin 'ii.g and traditions of human sacnhcc. Tbc author hold that 
he " ods came m with tbc Aryans and that die marriagc of a god 
o \;:;iously unmated goddcss indicatcd a ttision ot ™ ts (^ 8.^ 
1hl. a sacrcd marriagc cannot bc at the same ' " "' P'^^ 

historic ntual and thc rcminisccncc- of an 1''^'" '^ f ^.^ 

|>rofess«r Kosambi is a nativc of Goa and i„ thc 1''^ P ',' h ^^^ 
;,„ aceoun. of .hc arcbaic sys.cm ot land .enurc which ob.amcd 



<l 



' 



RECENT R.A.I. PUBLICATIONS 

Thc following Occasional Papers arc availablc from thc 
Publications Department: 2i Bedford Square, London W.C.I 

No. i6 Studics in Kinship and Marriagc 

Editcd by I. Schapcra with a forcword by E. E. Evans-Pritchard. 

Essays, prcscntcd to Brcnda ScHgnian on her 8oth birthday, by E. E. Evans-Pritchard, 
R. J. Firth, D. Forde, Meyer Fortcs, E. R. Leach, Godfrey Lienhardt, Lord Raglan, and 
I. Schapcra. 
Price: Paper 26/- (incl. postagc), Cloth 37/- (ind. postage). 

No. 17 Orcs and Metals 

A rcport of the Ancient Mining and Mctallurgy Committec, R.A.I., by FI. H. Coghlan, 
J. R. Butler, and George Parker. 

This publication includcs a notc on Irisli copper orcs and mctals, on clcmcnts in Irish 
copper orcs and a mctallurgical study of four Bronze Age implcments. 
Pp. 64, with analytical tables and 34 figs. on 7 plates. 
Price : Paper 36/- (incl. postage). 

No. 18 Man and Cattlc 

Edited by A. E. Mourant and F. E. Zcuner. 

This report of a Symposium on domestication contains papers on gcnctical, hacmoglobin 
and protein studics of bovine populations and notcs on cattlc breeds from the prehistoric 
Sites as well as studics from contemporary Europe and Africa and extensive bibliographies. 
Much of the matcrial is published hcrc for thc first timc. 
Pp. 166, 33 tables, 32 figs. and 21 plates. 
Price: 3 gns. (p. & p. 2/-). 

Forthcoming 

No. 19 A Study in Ritual Modißcation — thc work of the Gods in Tikopia in 1929 and 

1952. 

Raymond Firth and James Spillius. 

No. 20 Thc Swanscombe Skull 

A dcfmitive monograph by various authoritics which contains ncw studics of thc 
Swanscombe matcrial, togcthcr with a number of fundamental papers printed from carlicr 
publications, and a comprehensivc bibliography. 



167 



THE 

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OF 

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21 BEDFORD SQUARE, LONDON, W.C.I 

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1 



Vol. 173, No. 13 



1509 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Surgery as a Human Experience: The Psychodynamics «f 
Surgical Practice. By James L. Titchencr, M.D., Assistant 
Professor of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of 
Medicine, Cincinnati, and Maurice Levine, M.D., Professor 
of Psychiatry and Director of Department, University of 
Cincinnati College of Medicine. Cloth. $6. Pp. 285. Oxford 
University Press, 417 Fifth Ave., New York 16, 1960. 

With the grovving tendency of medical men to 
specialize, it is no longer possible for any practi- 
tioner to be all things to all patients, and the need 
for an interrelationship of surgical and Psychiatric 
Services becomes apparent. The authors of this 
extremely vvell-written book have delved deeply 
into the emotional problems of the surgical patient 
which can aflFect bis recovery and adjustment to bis 
altered condition. 

Reporting the results of a two-year study of 20() 
surgical patients selected at random, who were 
followed up for six months after their Operations, 
the authors have produced a text which is illumi- 
nating to the surgeon, the general practitioner, and 
the patient himself. They have investigated pre- 
operative and postoperative depressions, the re- 
action of patients with psychosomatic illness to 
Operation, the influence of deep-seated emotional 
stress on recovery, the personality changes that can 
be expected after the patient has lost a body func- 
tion or organ, adjustment problems of children and 
the aged after surgery. Danger signals are pointed 
out, and methods of psychological treatment and 
guides for referral of the patient to the psychiatrist 
are presented. Reports of surveys by other ps\'- 
chiatric teams are evaluated. There is an impres- 
sive bibliography and a comprehensive index. 

The book is aimed at better understanding of the 
surgical patient, and the authors plead for a closer 
collaboration between the psychiatrist and the sur- 
geon. They urge that some form of psychotherap)' 
be made available during hospitalization for pa- 
tients who show personality difficultics. This is a 
fascinating text and a pionccring work in its field. 

Philip Thorp:k, M.D. 

Comprehensive Medical Insurance: A Study of Costs, Use, 
and Attitudes under Two Plans. By Odin W. Anderson, 
Ph.D., Research Director, Healtli Information Foundation, 
New York, and Paul B. Slieatsley. Health Information Foun- 
dation research series 9. Paper. Pp. 105. Healtli Information 
Foundation, 420 Lexington Ave., New York 17, n. d. 

The term "dual choice" as applied to health in- 
surance is relatively new. It means that the persons 
in an employee group may choose one of two alter- 
native insurance plans. Sometimes the dual choice 



can bc exercised only once— usually initially; how- 
ever, in other instances employees are permitted, at 
intervals, to transfer from one plan to the other. 
Prior to the advent of dual choice Systems under 
contributory group plans most employees had only 
the alternatives of participation or nonparticipation 
in a Single plan either oflFered by an employer or 
negotiated by a union. 

This publication is listed by Health Information 
Foundation as Research Series No. 9 and described 
as, "a study of costs, use, and attitudes under two 
health insurance plans." The two original objectives 
of the study were "(1) to analyze to what extent the 
Provision of virtually complete hospital and phy- 
sicians' Services through prepayment helps families 
to pay for costs of all Services in two contrasting 
methods of organizing physicians' Services, and 
(2) to determine the attitudes toward and percep- 
tions of medical practice that households had who 
chose Group Health Insurance, Inc. (GHI) or 
Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York (HIP), 
as well as the reasons for their choice and the im- 
pressions they gained of the plan they chose after 
some experience with it." A third objective emerged 
which was a comparison of utilization and cost 
patterns between these two insurance plans which 
have different methods of paying for the Services of 
physicians. GHI pays for professional Services on 
the basis of a benefit schedule whereas HIP uses 
the so-called group practice approach where phy- 
sicians are paid on a capitation basis. 

Persons selected for interviews were members of 
the Dress Joint Board of the International Ladies 
Garment Workers Union, International Association 
of Machinists and Office Employees Union. These 
persons were drawn from a sampling of the sub- 
scribers under the two insurance programs. To the 
extent possible, these samples were matched with 
regard to their socioeconomic Status. Of the 9(K) 
persons selected, interviews were completed with 
841. Each person in the survey sample was asked 
what motivated him to select the plan he chose. 
From among those enrolled in GHI, 72% cited "free 
choice of physician." Of the HIP enrollees 40% gave 
"nothing to pay" as their reason. The next reason 
most frequently given by each group was "others 
in the shop were joining." The foregoing were listed 
as spontaneous responses. Later the interviewees 
were shown a listing of reasons following which 
"free choice of doctor" was checked as a reason by 
88% of GHI subscribers and "nothing to pay'* was 
a reason checked bv 61% of the HIP subscribers. 



135 



i 



1510 



BOOK REVIEWS 



J.A.M.A., July 30, 1960 



' 1 



The study report indicates that niost enrollees in 
both plans expressed favorable attitiides toward the 
plan he selected and toward their physicians. Of 
the CHI subscribers 90% and of the HIP enrollees 
79% had favorable attitudes toward their chosen 
plans. Of the HIP subscribers 12% and of the CHI 
subscribers 3% expressed dissatisfaction with the 
plan. Moreover, more HIP subscribers said, "doc- 
tors don't let you explain troubles," and "you wait 
too long in their offices" when citing dissatisfac- 
tions regarding physicians. The report showed that 
very few GHI subscribers changed doctors on join- 
ing the plan while 46% of the HIP subscribers 
did so. 

The main portion of the text deals with costs of 
health care Services, proportion of costs paid by 
insurance, utilization of Services, background on 
choice, attitudes, and experiences as well as sum- 
mary and conclusions. The five appendixes discuss 
methodology, estimates of sampling errors, compo- 
sition of samples, costs for families, and costs for 
three union groups. The study report indicates that 
there were more hospital admissions, surgical pro- 
cedures requiring hospitalization of the patient, 
and nonhospital surgical procedures per 100 sub- 
scribers for GHI than for HIP enrollees. Such data 
seemingly are at variance with pronouncements of 
certain protagonists for group practice coordinated 
plans to the eflPect that other program benefits are 
deterrents to the timely seeking of health care. 
Enrollees under both groups had about the same 
number of physicians' home, office, and hospital 
calls, and about the same proportion of both groups 
did not see a physician du ring the period of the 
survev. 

The book is well indexed. A number of the tables 
presented relate to previous studies undertaken or 
sponsored by the Health Information Foundation. 
Some of the tables, however, are not explained 
sufficiently to have much meaning to those who are 
uninitiated in Statistical studies, 

Howard O. Browkr 



Principles of Aniinal Virology. By F. M. Burnot, Director, 
Walter and Eliza Hall, Institute of Medical Researeh, Mel- 
bourne, Australia. Second edition. Cloth. $12. Pp. 490. with 
34 illustratioas. Academie Press, Inc., 111 Fifth Ave., New 
York 3; Academic Press, Ine. (London), Ltd., 17 Cid Queen 
St., London, S. W. 1, England, 1960. 

Virology has advanced with unprecedented 
rapidity in the last decade, making a second edition 
of this book necessary. The author states, "the 
etiologies are defined, the principles of immuniza- 
tion are well known, the routine of diagnosis, of 
Vaccine production, of public health action, can run 
smoothly. . . ." The term "animal viruses" is used 
to designate viruses found in the animal kingdom 
as opposed to "plant viruses." 



The first chapters on the history and general 
Problems of animal virology are excellent as are the 
succeeding chapters on cellular infection, patho- 
genesis, and immunity. Other chapters discuss ac- 
tive and passive immunity, latent infections, and 
the ecological aspects of viral disease. The Variation 
and evolution of the viruses are stressed, and the 
author predicts there will be a new influenza A 
virus within 20 years whereas another enterovirus 
will become the major cause of poliomyelitis within 
50 years. The final chapter is devoted to Classifica- 
tion and nomenclature of viruses, presenting the 
"official" Suggestion of four groups of pathogens in 
humans and the "nonofficial" Suggestion of nine 
groups. Another decade of investigation will show 
great progress in these matters. The numerous ref- 
erences at the end of each chapter represent excel- 
lent background material on the subject of viruses. 

Thomas G. Hüll, Ph.D. 

Genetic Basis of Morphological Variation: An Evaluation 
and Application of the Twin Study Method. By Riehard H. 
Osborne and Franees V. De George. Study eondueted at 
Columhia-Presbyterian Medieal Center under auspiees of 
Institute for Study of Human Variation, Columbia Univer- 
sity. Cloth. $5. Pp. 204, with illustrations. Published for 
Commonwealth Fund by Harvard University Press, Cam- 
bridge 38, Mass.; Oxford University Press, Amen House, 
Warwiek Sq., London, E. C. 4, England, 1959. 

This monograph presents a brief review of the 
methodology of twin studies and the results of 
applying some of these methods to a series of 
measurements on a group of monozygotic and 
dizygotic twins. In addition to containing variance 
analyses for detecting genetic components in 62 
classical anthropometric measures, the book in- 
cludes analyses based on Sheldon's somatotyping 
Scale and on a masculine-feminine body-build scale 
devised by the authors. Unlike many previous twin 
studies, the authors have wisely included the 
variances of measurement errors (based on the dif- 
ferences between two measurements of the same 
dimension on a Single person). Both the foreword 
(by Theodosius Dobzhansky) and the text empha- 
size the importance of learning more about poly- 
genic inheritance in man and the fact that twins 
provide an excellent resource, not only for this 
purpose, but also foT^t he r i x^mtlv important task of 
assaying the role of environmental factors in man, 
both in health and in disei\se. Although the book 
does not quite reveal tbe "Genetic Basis of Mor- 
phological Variation," it does provide methodologic 
approaches for partitioning s.qurces of hiirnan Vari- 
ation. It will be an important reference for anyone 
planning a twinstudy and it may stimulate some 
readers to recognize the applicability of the twin 
study method to their own area of interest. J> 
- — " C. N. Herndon, M.D. 



136 



S U RGE R Y 



technic, about 82% of gallbladders 
containing benign tumors can be 
visualized. In 84% of the visualized 
gallbladders, a radiolucent shadow 
can be detected. 

SURGICAL TREATMENT 

Because malignant transforma- 
tion may occur, cholecystectomy is 
the preferred treatment even when 
manifestations and roentgenologic 
findings are slight. Carcinoma in 
situ is completely cured by chole- 
cystectomy, whereas advanced Car- 
cinoma of the galibladder is usually 
fatal. 

Small, soft benign tumors often 



cannot be palpated during laparot- 
omy. In these instances, resection 
on the basis of the roentgenologic 
diagnosis is warranted. 

PATHOLOGY 

Excluding cholesterol polyps and 
inflammatory polyps, 45 gallblad- 
ders with benign tumors were re- 
moved during a fifteen-year period. 
Nonpapillary or glandulär adeno- 
mas were found in 18, papillary 
adenomas in 15, adenomyomas — 
usually sessile and in the tip of the 
galibladder fundus — in 9, Carcino- 
ma in situ in adenomas in 2, and 
fibroadenoma in 1. 



Transplantation of Kidney to Nonidentical Twin 

Functional survival of a kidney transplanted between fraternal 
twins is possible, apparently through development of partial 
immiinologic tolerance. Because of prolonged survival of a 
first skin graft from the urcmic to the hcalthy brother and 
consanguinity of the twins in 24 of 25 blood groups, kidney 
transplantation was attempted, even though accelerated rejec- 
tion of a second skin graft occurred. John P. Merrill. M.D., and 
associates of Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and Harvard Univer- 
sity, Boston, explain that subtotal whole-body irradiation was 
given preoperativeiy to temporarily depress antibody forma- 
tion in the recipient. The uremic State and size and position of 
grafted kidney tissue also favored tolerance production. In the 
recipient, the preoperative skin homograft was rejected eight 
months after grafting. Urine contained erythrocytes and pro- 
tein eight months after transplant, and renal biopsy findings in- 
dicated that rejection of the transplant had begun. Urinary ab- 
normalities disappeared after protracted low-dose irradiation 
and corticosteroid therapy. Renal function was normal fourteen 
months after kidney transplantation, and the urine was free of 
protein. 

New EiiHland J. Med. 262:1251-1260, 1960. 



118 MODERN MEDICINE, Ocfohcr 1, 1960 



S U RGE R Y 



Benign Tumors of the Gallbladder 

SEYMOUR FISKE OCHSNER, M.D., AND ALTON OCHSNER, M.D. 
Ochsner Clinic, New Orleans 



Benign neoplasms of the gallbladder 
are often apparent on roentgenograms 
and tvarrant cholecystectomyr' 



Tumors of the gallbladder as small 
as 2 or 3 mm. in diameter can be 
demonstrated on cholecystograms. 
The tumor appears as a fixed radio- 
lucent defect in the opacified gall- 
bladder. 

MANIFESTATIONS 

Benign neoplasms of the gall- 
bladder produce no specific Symp- 
toms. Most patients have gaseous 
indigestion and upper abdominal 
pain. Gallstones are often associat- 
ed and may produce right upper 
quadrant pain and biliary colic. 
Biliary colic may also result from 
a detached tumor passing through 
the biie ducts. About a third of pa- 
tients with benign tumors have 
multiple growths. 

ROENTGENOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS 

The radiolucent shadow, which 
may be between 2 and 10 mm. in 
diameter, may resemble a gall- 
stone. Differentiation is accom- 
plished by roentgenograms made 




Roentgenogram shoivs radiolucent shad- 
ow oj adenonia of gallbladder. 

with the patient in upright and de- 
cubitus positions. Gallstones move 
around, but tumors maintain a 
constant position. 

Gallstones may hinder recogni- 
tion of tumor by producing othei 
radiolucent shadows or by causini 
Cholecystitis and, as a consequence, 
nonvisualization of the gallbladder. 

With good cholecystographic 

Ann. Surg. 



♦Beniyn neoplasms of the gallbladder: diagnosis and surgical iniplications 
151:630-637, 1960. 



MODERN MEDICINE, Octobcr 1, 1960 117 



LDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1961. ^1 

L+ + 



to Be Shown 



ibull will be 
rt Galleries. 



jration of 

jguration. 

Ition— 20 by 

as Trum- 

linted "con 

|in my best 

ied as an 

respect." 

painting 

L790, and 

records 

^tting. In 

made a 

jduction 

where 



ire 



ng 

Ldders 

two 

[ar- 

her 

Luod 

;t 



lands 

Space. 

Michael 

Irong grip 

fegs. Mar- 

reach the 

kld by Mrs. 

jthe ledge. 

un and Mr. 

they lifted 

ih the wln- 

jnt. 

le to this 

lative Nor- 

[argarette, 

10 Stands a 

^t, is a sec- 

Bay Ridge 

ist in Nor- 
prevented 
le sport at 
le of an in- 




Electrical Waves of Identical 

Pairs Calculated First 

Time by Scientist 



INHERITANCE IS IMPLIED 



Biophysicists Get Report on 

Experiments at M. I. T. 

Employing Computers 



\t he the 

Wagner, 

ly in the 

IS trading 
Page 25 
tag proc- 
Page 25 

l^d by Gen- 
Page 25 



By JOHN A. OSMÜNDSEN 

Special to The New York Times 

ST. LOUIS, Feb. 17 — The 
first quantitative evidence that 
electrica! activity of the brain 
may be inherited was reported 
here today. 

A young Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology scientist 
told of finding that brain waves 
are more alike in identical 
twins than in unrelated persons. 

Although strong corrclations 
between intelligence levels of 
identical twins have been re- 
ported, it has not yet been de- 
termined whether similarities 
between their brain waves are 
responsible. 

The new findings seem at 
loast to suggest, however, that 
closely related persons such at 
twins might possess similar be- 
havior patterns by virtue of th« 
siniilarities between their neuro» 
electrical activitics. 

Language of Nervous System 

The scientist who made th« 
report during a meeting of the 
Biophysical Society at th« 
Chase Hotel this afternoon was 
Stanley Levine of the institute's 
Research Laboratory of Elec- 
tronics. 

His work was part of the 
laboratory's broad program 
aimed at learning something 
about the language of the ner- 
vous System. What the scien- 
tists want to know is what the 
spikes and wriggles on electro- 
encephalograms mean IB t<<VBB 
of bchavior. 

To find out, they ar* aludy- 
ing such things as eleetiiciü 
pvotentials recorded from dM 
round window of the inner eat 
of anesthetized cats and re- 
sponses to sensory Stimuli re- 
corded from the scalp of awake 
humans. 

Taken one at a time, such 
experiments disclose little about 
the relationships between the 
Stimuli, nerve responses and be- 
havior of the animal or person. 
And then it takes a trained ejr» 
to distinguish between th« »lfl[- 
'lificant and the meaningl«« 
^^uiggles that are recorded. 

For this reason the scientisto 
ui per the direction of Dr. WaK 
ter A. Rosenblith process • 
lar^-e number of experimental 
runs with high-speed Comput- 
ers. Their object is to develoy 
mathematical formulas frotf 
which' neuroelectrical activity 
can be predicted, Dr. Rosenblith 
explained during his symposlun» 
this morning. 

Computers Employed 

Dr. Levine employed comput* 
ers in this way to determln« 
quantitatively whether similarl-» 
ties between the electroenceplv- 
alograms of idential twins ac- 
tually exist. 

He examined the alpha 
rhythms in brain waves of five 
pairs of identical male twins 
between the agos of 18 and 21, 
An alpha rhythm is a Signal 
that can be recorded from the 
Vear of the brain when a per- 
son relaxes. . 

Dr. Levine plotted the brain 
wave recordings of each twin 
on Charts according to various 
Statistical factors such as the 
amount of alpha activity a re- 
cording, the length of the alpha 
bur.st, its shape and the fre- 
quency of the alpha rhythm. 

He found that in every case 
but one alpha rhythms of twins 
were more closely related than 
those of non-twins. 




Slje ^'^w ^^^^ ®i^^^ 



Mav 2. 1965 



Uli 



agazxtte 



SECTION 6 



20 YCABS AGO: 
THE END COMES TO THE THIRD REICH 

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Tabie o/ Confeiit3>-Pa9e 22 

1 





THE WEIGHT OF THINGS 



"S 



IPORCE OF CIRCUMSTANCE. By Simon« 
de Beauvoir. Translated by Richard How- 
ard from the French, "La Force des 
Chotes." 658 pp. New YoHi: G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. $10. 

By BRIGID BROPHY 

►INCE her conversatlon makes 
lt8 polnts by way of ellipses, 
allusions, impUcations and un- 
flnished sentences, I always feit it 
would be pedantic of me to finlsh 
mlne, but I just couldn't get used to 
breaking them off halfway through, 
and always wound up unable to think 
of anything to say." 

Thus Simone de Beauvoir describes 
her "rare meetings** with Frangoise 
Sagan and Incidentally defines the 
dlfference between her own and Sa- 
gan's hterary personality. To my 
mlnd, Sagan is the most underesti- 
mated and Mlle. de Beauvoir the most 
overestimated presence in postwar 
French writing. Both are the result, 
I believe, of a fundamental misesteem 
of art. Our age has been bullied into 
the misconception that the clumsy 
and laborlous must somehow be 
worthier than intellectual penetration 
achieved by economy and with ele- 
gance. Only in such a climate could 
critical opinion have put the cart 
horse before the race horse. 

The more I read of Mlle. de Beau- 
voir, the more I have the Impression 
that I met her, under various mani- 
festations, during my schooldays. No 
doubt there is one in every education- 
al establishment. She was the one in 
the front row of the class whose high 
marks led you to hope for an original 
intelligence. Disappointed (quickly) 
of that, you still looked for a reli- 
able, academic mind. It tumed out to 
be a mind capable of missing entire 
Points, and incapable both of the pre- 
cision of an artist and of the accur- 
acy of a scholar. Not Inspired enough 
to be slapdash, it was often slipshod. 
In the end, you were obliged to admit 
that the high marks reflected noth- 
ing but obedient work, that what 
seemed to be intellectual passion was 
only a sense of duty — ^plus a devotion 
to the Professor; in short, that you 
were up against a plodder. 

Mlle. de Beauvoir is a plodder par 
exceUence and even, I almost suspect, 
by wanton and perverse choice. Her 
first novel, "L'Invit^" ("She Came 
to Stay"), in-articulated as it was, 

Mi88 Brophy, an Engliah novelist 
a$td critic, ffubliahed two books last 
yeoTf '*Mozart the Dramatist" and 
the noveUa "The SnowbaU and 
The Finishing Touch." 



did generate an intensity of moral 
atmosphere. It was a thunderous aft- 
emoon from which something might 
have flashed. Since then she has made 
it piain that in her judgment the 
flash of wit, irony or poetry is no 
better than the flashy. Neither strat- 
egy nor the tactics of her writing will 
have any truck with metaphor. She 
disdains — or does not command — 
those moments of thought or lan- 
guage which simultaneously fuse two 
Images and illuminate or sear the 
reader. Not for her the master stroke 
which cuts a long story short; she 
opts each time for the Long March — 
the long plod. 

Whereas her essay on the Marquis 
de Sade approached the brink of in- 
sights (though it promptly looked 
away from them into an undergrowth 
of irrelevant, and perhaps actually 
factitious, metaphysical problems), 
"The Second Sex" revealed her as a 
Compiler of trees rather than a dis- 
cerner of woods. The section she 
boldly called "The Psychoanalytic 
Point of View" betrayed (incredible 
as it seems) that Mlle. de Beauvoir 
had simply missed the point of Freud. 

IyIoREOVER, unless the English 
edition belies her utterly, she was not 
to be depended on even as a reporter. 
She could refer without explanation 
to Freud's "later calling the femi- 
nine form of the [Oedipal] process 
the Electra complex." (What makes 
me think an explanation necessary is 
Freud's remark of 1920, "I do not see 
any . . . advantage in the introduction 
of the term 'Electra-complex,' and do 
not advocate its use.") Indeed, she 
could not teil chalk from cheese — 
that is, in this case, Jungian from 
psychoanalytical terminology; she 
could speak of psychoanalysis doing 
something or other "in the name of 
the 'collective unconscious.' " 

The thlrd and latest volume of her 
autobiography is Mlle. de Beauvoir's 
most pedestrian plod yet. It Covers 
the years— 1944 to 1962 — in which 
she was pretty much top of the class, 
thanks partly, it seems fair to guess, 
to her devoticm to the professor but 
thanks also to the prevailing mysti- 
cal belief that the tedious must be 
profound. Her method here is simply 
to amass: "Since June, my slster and 
her husband had been living in 
Casablanca . . . Sartre's thought, as 
I have Said, was gradually Stripping 
itself of all idealism; but he did not 
reject the existential postulates and 
continued to demand, withln the 
realm of praocia, a synthesis . . . Sartre 




Sinnone de Beauvoir with Jean-Paul Sartre, Paris, October, 1964. 



also had personal troubles." A pr6cis 
of the newspapers is piled on her 
and Sartre's (separate) love affairs; 
friends* names ring no more intimate 
or vivid than those of politicians; 
recording her love af f air in the United 
States, Mlle. de Beauvoir jots down 
the Population of Cincinnati. 

It is a sheer heap. ("La Force des 
CThoses" is the French title of the 
book; should it not have been the 
weight of things!) In it, intellectual 
analysis and atmosphere are alike 
suffocated. The political Vision is as 
banal as a leader-writer's : there are 
two power blocs in the world, and it 



is hard for a Euroi>ean intellectual to 
choose between them. Mlle. de Beau- 
voir's account of her trip from a still 
austere France to the luxuries of 
Switzerland is less evocative than one 
stylish nail-paring from Colette's aged 
and arthritic band — the baroque paean 
of gluttony, for instance, which (in 
"The Blue Lantem" ) she made of her 
postwar Visit to Geneva. 

Mlle. de Beauvoir compiles away. 
Sartre's magazine, Les Temps Mod- 
ernes, is founded (who would have 
guessed its name alludes to Charlie 
Chaplin?); Sartre encouräges her to 
work at, and (Continued on Page 24; 




5'*^,* 






Wirkungen 
skeptische 
nen Beitritt 
ersten Stel- 
regung, als 
jnd Groß- 
|er Vollmit- 
[aftliche und 
jm so mehr, 
liten seines 
jie Bindun- 
lieitern der 
In diesem 
Frankreichs 
[bereits ist, 
futige Stel- 
daß eine 
Jen Partner 
fie Ver mitt- 
lrem guten 
zu finden, 
und Groß- 
|e Mitglied- 
kmillan bei 
sich selbst 

SED-Partei- 
hs makabre 
ler Verurtei- 
^versitzende 
ig, Belgrad, 
IröfFnungs- 
[in der Zone 
1970 eine 
onhört, wie 
^•nsstandard 
geduldiger 
[rtg des Vor- 
aus seinem 
«um Vor- 



reißig Jahre donocii 

Die Fackeln in der Wiiheimstroße - Hitlers Machtübernahme am 30. Januar 1933 - Von Stefan Schnell 



<" \ \ 



Mit der Miene von Leuten, die 
es besser wissen, pflegt man heute 
gern über den Staat von Weimar 
zu reden, dessen fundamentale 
Sdiwädien und Fehler ja zu gar 
nidits anderem hätten führen kön- 
nen, als zu dem, was am 30. 
Januar 1933 geschah. In der Tat, 
der Nationalsozialismus, sdion in 
den ersten Jahren der ersten deut- 
schen Demokratie zu einem politi- 
schen Programm entwidcelt und in 
das Sdiema einer ausgesprochen in- 
tellektfeindlichen,kleinbürgerlichen 
Partei gegossen, wurde mit 
jedem Jahr stärker, in dem diese 
Demokratie sdiwädier wurde. Als 

lie Braunen triumphierten, wurde 

.'iner lEpoctie te'^eul.sdlß» Ge-J 

schidite die Tot^glod te^ geläutetli 

)0 sdieint denn dieseTheorie s^ 
klar und eingängig, daß man sie 
als einen wohlfeilen Beitrag zur 
Bewältigung der Vergangenheit be- 
nutzen zu können glaubt, insbeson- 
dere dann, wenn man sie nodi mit 
dem Bemühen verquickt, möglidist 
viel Verantwortung auf die Alliier- 
ten, den Vertrag von Versailles, 
die Kriegsschuldfrage und die Re- 
parationen abzuwälzen. Was bei 
diesem Verfahren herauskommt, 



Nicht die Demokratie als Form 
eines deutschen Staatswesens war 
so ungeeignet, nicht ihre Verfas- 
sung war so schledit, daß mit Not- 
wendigkeit der 30. Januar 1933 
hätte folgen müssen. Zwar, der 
erste Versuch, Demokratie in 
Deutschland nicht mehr nur theo- 
retisdi zu erörtern, sondern prak- 
tisch zu erproben, hatte einen aus- 
gesprodien schlei|iten Start. Der 
Zusammenbruch einer Welt, die 
1918 schon zu einer Traumwelt ge- 
worden war »;ind die dennoch mit 
seltsamer Hartnäckigkeit auch heu- 
te noch manchmal als „gute alte 
Zeit" gepriesen wird, hatte viele 
Menschen /in Deutschland mehr als 
in andere/n Ländern, die sich unter, 
den Siegern befanden, mutlos ge 
macht. Andererseits rief die bittere 
Stunde« der Erkenntnis im Walde 
von Cjbmpiegne jene Sdiaren auf 
den Plfcm, die es immer und zu al- 
len Zelten gegeben hat. Sie zeidv 
nen siAi dadurch aus, daß sie die 
Wahrhlit nit^jc_^wjJii»haben wollen 
und aLegenHen" anhängen. Aus 
ihnen llormierten sich die Kräfte 
des ifchten Radikalismus, die, 
wennBudi in manchem unterschie- 
den. Bdi dennoch emig waren in 



andere Chance- als unterzugehen. . 

Hätte die Demokratie damals in 
Deutschland gerettet werden kön- 
nen, wenn es einen Vertrag von 
Versailles wenigstens in dieser 
Form nicht gegeben hätte, wenn 
Deutschland nicht genötigt worden 
wäre, die Schuld für den ersten 
Weltkrieg auf sich zu nehmen? Die 
Frage ist wie alle derartigen histo- 
risdien Hypothesen spekulativ. 
Aber man wird doch sagen kön- 
nen, daß wir uns selber das schlech- 
teste Zeugnis ausstellen, wenn wir 
ständig nach der Verantwortung 
der anderen sudien nicht um der 
Objektivität, sondern um der Ent- 
sdiuldigung willen. Brüning war 
1932 in der Reparationsfrage 
.hundert Meter vor dem Ziel", 
wie er es in einem berühmt gewor- 
' denen Ausspruch vor dem Reidis- 
tag formulierte. Dennoch wurde 
er gestürzt, und mit den kurzlebi- 
gen Kabinetten Papen und Sdilei- 
cher nahm das Verhängnis bereits 
seinen Lauf. Audi die Weltwirt- 
schaftskrise kann nicht als Ursache 
für das Heraufkommen des Ter- 
rors in Deutschland behauptet wer- 
den. 

All diese Ereignisse waren be- 



nodi das Ziehen von Konsequen- 
zen. Sie erledigten das allerdings mit 
einer bis dahin für unmöglidi ge- 
haltenen Grausamkeit. Der Glaube 
der Papen u pd Hugenberg, sie 



nur eine Mmderhe it im K abinett 
besaß, war ebenso unsiimig wie die 
Annahme, man könne den Bau der 
A u t obaJiag jUAndjdJ 6 _ fia s ö f e n von 
AusoiwTtzt rennen als zwei nicht 
zusammengehörige Dinge. Wer 
solchen Meinungen anhängt, ver- 
steht nichts von der unheimlidien 
Dialektik der Gesdiiditc. 

Die Nazis hatten niemals vor 
dem Ermächtigungsgesetz und der 
Vernichtung der demokratischen 
Parteien eine qualifizierte Mehr- 
heit. Selbst am 5. März 1933, als 
die braunen Schläger schon unge- 
hindert die Straße beherrschten, 
erreichte die Nationalsozialistische 
Deutsche Arberterpai'tci nu 



jl 



Prozenfder S timrnen und 2& 8 Sit 
ze im Reichstag. Erst mit ihren 
„Koalitionspartnern", den Deu 
nationalft ^ zusammen vj jcTugt 
sic'trHer eine knappe absolute 
Mehrheit. Diese in vielerlei Hin- 
sidit eindrucksvolle Tatsache, daß 
die deutschen Wähler, solange sie 



-«H(''#- 




en y^ 



\ 



jfag wi«d«r 

rortlich ge- 

ist genug 

ztrffören. 

»nigffens in 

|r wird, sind 

rroBbritan- 

Itich stärkste 

ilidi klar in 

ASZ 

[esregierung 
ir einer alliu 

ISA glaubte 
[jetzt als den 

ler USA in 

sehen Ge- 
leipolitische 
ler Bundes- 
sachüche 
[rteidigungs- 
denn die 
lie beste Lö- 
mg der ge- 
keineswegs 
trteitaktische 



hat ^er katholisSic^ubliilst Päül 
Wilhelm Wenger gelegentlich sehr 
treffend als „Autobahj^Na^j^ hc- 
zeidinet. Er öiemF ^mlt diesCto 
bildkräftigen Ausdruck jene Ty- 
pen, die zwar die Gasöfen von 
Ausdiwitz nidit billigen, und audi 
sonst Hitler mandie „Fehler" an- 
kreiden, im übrigen aber darauf 
beharren, daß dieser Mann doch 
audi manches Positive gesdiaffen 
habe. Es ist allenfalls begreiflidi, 
daß unter den Älteren soldie, die 
eine nicht Leben rühmliche Rolle 
gespielt haben, nun am liebsten auf 
eine möglidist unauffällige Weise 
damit fertig werden möditen. 
Aber man darf es nicht zulassen, 
daß den Nadifolgenden durdi 
willkürliche Manipulationen der 
geschichtlichen Wahrheit ein fal- 
sches Bild der jüngsten dgu^si^»^ 
Vergangenheit übSfrHffteft wird. 



leifi Ael, aur jea^SOSii «las r-^reuc^ 
das lieh mit dem Ausgang des 
ersten) Weltkrieges auf tat, zu zer- 
störenj In merkwürdiger Gemein- 
schaft ifanden sich völkisch-altmo- 
dischel Kleinbürger u. Spießer mit 
großbirgeriichen und noblen Re~ 
aktiowiren zusammen. Aber das 
Erstaunliche an diesem widerna- 
türlicnrn Zweckbündnis ist viel- 
leidit |ur, daß sie schließlich den 
Sieg d»ontrugen über die linken 
Radika^, die ebenfalls das Ziel 
hatten, den erfolgreichen Aufbau 
eines demokratisdien Rechtsstaa- 
tes in DeutA-hland zu verhindern, 
um statt des!5Cn eine kommunisti- 
sche Diktatur cu erriditen. Unter 
dem partikulariiJtischen Eigensinn 
eines Volkes hemmungsloser In- 
teressenten und den zielbewußten 
Angriffen von rechts und links 
hatte der Weimarer Staat keine 



Hitler und Goebbels und den gro- 
ßen wie kleinen Nazis landauf, 
landab fanatisch hinausgeschrien 
und in den Rang von Ursachen er- 
hoben, die es in der Wurzel zu än- 
dern gelte, als ob die Wiederher- 
stellung der Ehre des Vaterlandes 
nidit das Anliegen der großen de- 
mokratischen Politiker gewesen 
wäre, die Deutschland während 
der zwanziger Jahre in Männern 
wie Ebert oder Stresemann besaß. 
Als SA und SS am Abend des 30. 

(J anuar 1933j nit Fackeln durch die 
.tJTilhelmstraße zur Rdc hskanzlei^ 
zogeiT' urtd -ihlTgn TaüTende frene- 
tisch und enthusiastisch zujubelten, 
war das Werk vollendet. Was Hit- 
ler und den Seinen in ihrer nihili- 
stischen Gesinnung während der 
K ihnen noch zugedachten zwöl]^ 
A/lahre zu^ tun übrigblieb, ^^suf'imr 



'ßen frei waren, Hitler niemals dc.i ' 
Triumph eines eindeutigen Wahl- ' 
sieges verschafften, ist eines der 
wenigen minder schmerzlichen Er- 
eignisse in unserer jüngsten Ge- 
schichte. Aber es gewährt uns auch 
keine ungeteilte Freude, denn es 
stand zuviel Passivjtät und Un- 
mut zur tiil!>Üiiudeiieii Abwehr der 
Gefahr dahinter. Es war zuviel 
politische und historische Unwis- 
senheit dabei, zuviel Kritiklosig- 

ikeit gegenüber dem vernebelnden 

;'iGeschwätz jener, die seit Genera- 
|tionen schon die deutsche Geschich- 

I te dazu mißbrauchten, um Legen- 
den und Verfälschungen zu kon- 
struieren. So bleibt die bittere Ein- 
sidit uns dreißig Jahre danach 
nicht erspart, daß die W^iüiSÄir 
Demok ratie an uns selbst und mi t| 
uns selbst zugrunde gegaiT^n ist.' 




|rde General- 
Iren. Sie wis- 
Jst? ich auch 
lutsche Solda- 
ein Informa- 
sere Soldaten. 
ien, wann im 
ibiläumsflüge 
Ae\ Orden — 
lerKehen wur- 
„Fuhrer und 
gibt im Vor- 
izu! HofTent- 
Irerteidigungs- 
immerhin ein 
Fabian von 
tut, nidit sei- 
dazu gege- 
lan es fast, 
L9rgleich den 
U 1963 des 
imtes der 
kht. Keine 
|ilL seine Silbe 
IhT f • „Reichs- 

\h finstigen of- 
ig^n zu diesen 
Ing^n? Die „In- jjjjpjj— — — i^— ^— — ^— ^ 

tegenf „Dal Wangenkuß und gegenseitigen Beifall gaben sich N. S. Chruschtschow (links) und Walter Ulbricht bei der Ankunft der sowjetischen ^^'^^'^'^^^^^'.'^^^^J^^« 
U« der Eile..." auf dem Ostbahnhof in Ost-Berlin. °^°' ^y^^°"^ 



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gfd; machte; SÄh 

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Mötf freut sich 

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1^ 



Anthropology in Israel 



by Harvey Goldberg 

Department oj Sociology and Smql. Anthropology, Hebrew Uni- 
versity, Jerusalem, Israel. 10 vi(75 y 

Anthropology in Israel is a diversified set of activities, exhibiting 
thc variety in the interests, training, and general background 
•^f its practitioners. I will try to sketch briefly the major settings 
'^n which anthropological studies have developed, relating 
^ese to the present-day scene. The focus will be cultural and 
^i al anth ropology, with biological anthropology^ and pfe- 
itistory reserved for another item. 



• ■>. 



\ 



The theme of the ''return^^to^ion,'' in its various versions, 
h'is implied different conceptianTof Jewish life in the diaspora. 
, In some cases the dominant attitude has been that of outright 
^jr^cction (see Spiro 1958), but most views mix criticism with 
some sort of positive attachment. The most politically active 
Jewish Immigrant groups in Palestine combined Zionism with 
socialism, which laid claim to a "scientific" understanding of 
Society. Analysis of Jewish life abroad, therefore, was a logical 
concomitant of the effort to reestablish a national homeland. 

A well-known example of this combination is the work of 
Arthur Ruppin, an economist-sociologist who directed Jewish 
colonization activities in Palestine, dealing with the demog- 
raphy and sociology of the Jews from an historical perspective 
(Ruppin 1930-31, 1934). Culturally, we need only mention 
Haiml^ahmart BäJÜc, best known for his role in the develop- 
ment of modern Hebrew poetry, who was active in the prep- 
aration of foüclofe anthologies. He was one of the editors of 
Reshumot, an annual established in 1925 for the publication of 
"memoirs, ethnography, and folklore in Israel." 

Not only the "fends of exile," 'ßut the new homeland as well, 
inspired Images which have their reflections in ethnologic work. 
Here, both the Jews living in the Middle East and the Arabs 
of Palestine took on significance. An oft-cited story concerning 
Eliezer Ben Yehudah, one of the main figures in the revival of 
spoTcerrTleHrew7~claims thal_he_ivas inspired by the Hebrew 
pronuncTätion of thecJewsof_A]gier*. He considered it closer 



to the "true" (Biblicai)T7ebrew and attempted to have Jews 
from European countries alter their phonetic habits to con- 
form with it (cf. Blanc 1968). The Jews oT^^emen, who began 
to reach Palestine at the time of thel ^rjt ZTönist immigj ;ation 
<;>in 1881, were enthusiastically received as represcntatives of an 
^""inüientic Jewish culture. Their music, dance steps, and em- 
broidervAvere consciously incorporated by European Jews into 
the developing art forms of the Jewish Community. In addition, 
archaeologists from many diflferent countries found that the 
names of Biblical towns were often preserved in current Arabic 
place^mes? The Finnish ethnologist Hilma Granqvist care- 
fully scrutinized customs in a village near Bediiehem with an 
eye to Biblical parallels (Granqvist 19M-35, 1965). 

One major work on a Jewish group was produced in the 
1930s, Rrauer's (1934) Ethnologie deLJ mmäschen Juden. His 
materials on the Jews of Kurdistan (Brayer 1947y~wefe edited 
posthumously by Patai, who'alS^es a resume of the activities 
of the Palestine Instrtute of Folklbce and Ethnolgg^in the 
years before the establishment of the stät^^^^jail^^).^ 

Quite a diflferent ancestor of contemporaTyfsraeTi anthro- 
pology is found in the person of Martin Buber. The orientation 



^The overview that follows is descriptive rather than analytic 
and the references cited representative rather than exhaustive. 
Insofar as possible I have emphasized (a) monographs, {b) by 
anthropologists, {c) in English, in the latter. Thc reader is directed 
to the diseussion of social anthropology in Israel (Handelman and 
Desher/1975) which appeared while this item was in preparation. 
An eaiiirr survey is found in Weingrod (1968). 

Vol. 17 • No. 7 ' March 1976 



of his courses on the "Sociology of Culture" at the Hebrew 
University was philosophical, histonpal, and comp^ative and 
still characterizes woÄ in the D^artment of Sociology and 
Social Anthropology at that Institution. Several of Buber's 
students studied in London, where they came into contact with 
lines of thought characterizing social anthropology in the late 
'40s and early '50s. This influence was especially important in 
the case of Yonina Talmon, as sketched by Eisenstadt's intro- 
duction to her posthumous book on the kibbutz (Talmon 19224^ 
The three and a half years followmg tKe estaBÜshment of 
the State witnessed a mass Immigration which doubled the 
Jewish_po£ulation of tiTrTourüryTT^pproximately'Tialf of tKe 
newcomers represented the remnants o^uropean Jewry, while 
the other half came from the/lvliddle East ancH^orth Africa. 
In addition to the immense pi^tical challengeVtt posed, this 
Immigration raised questions about the best way to conceptual- 
ize and study the processes of absorption, Integration, or the 
lack thereof. The Department of Sociology at the Hj^w 
University, then the only Institution of higher learning m the 
country, consciously debated and carved out an approach to 
this Problem. This approach is well formulated ,rn a^Daper by 
Ben-David (in Eisenstadt, Bar-Yosef, and Adler (WOj) entitled 
"EtTTmc ^fiferences or S^o cjaL Change?" and uTTequivocally 
opts for 'theTatter. It argues thaTthe immigrants have little 
attachment to their traditional cultures and that their main 
orientation is toward penetration of and acceptance in the 
"old-timer," European-derived nucleus of the Jewish popula- 
tion. Consequently, one need know only very general back- 
ground Information concerning these groups, whose absorption 
history is best understood in terms of the overall institutional 
development of the country. The studies carried out within 
this framework provided important insights into the bases of 
many of Israel's institutions, seen through macrosociological 
eyes. From the anthropologist's point of view, they do not give 
detailed attention to behavioral forms, whether one is interested 
in custom, social inter^ction, or the links between the two. 

Thismay be seenm the literature on theCwojrAflJ, or small- 
holder's co^er;ative, which is both an institutional form and 
an ecolo^ical setting that has attracted Israeli social scientists 
together with anthropologists from abroad. These new village 
communities were particularly important in expanding the 
agricultural base of a growing society after many of the Arab 
villagers had fled during the 1948^ war. Some of the moshavim 
(a minority) may be considered "transplanted communities," 
in which a group of people from one locale in the country of 
origin continue to reside together in an Israeli village. These 
cases naturally attracted anthropologists coming to do research 
in Israel, who were trained to study situations in which culture 
and Community neatly coincide. All of the researchers, how- 
ever, quickly apprcciated that much of what happened in these 
villages must be seen in terms of their relationship to central- 
ized bureaus and national policies (Abarbanel 1974, Baldwin 
1971, Kushner 1973, Shapiro 1971, Weingrod 1966, Weintraub 
et al. 1971, VVillner 1969). At the same time, other studies 
have shown that one ignores the hi story and culture_of_Uiese 
groups at one's peril (H. Goldberg XTf2, Sholceid 1971). 

The question of(cthnicit^ within the Jewish majority has 
always been problcmatTTTfi. Cohen 1968, 1972; Patai 1953; 
Strizower 1971; Weingrod 1965; Zenner 1967), at times lying 
dormant and at other times bubbling to the surface. It is far^/ 
too simple to view ^^^ rvatt^r ^« F...rnpp;^ns vs Mi ddle Eastern -'?! ^ 

jotrataf läb'el for threer ' i \ 



el^s . Th6 YemeTlIte JeWTMve'ehJöyed 3" popnta 
quarters of a Century. The German immigrants of the late '20s , 
and~r50srwho brought important economic skills to the 
country, were the object of brutal ethnic Stereotyping on the 
part of the East Europeans who preceded them. I have men- 
tioned Reshumot as one annual devoted to folklore; it was pub- 
lished for four years and then discontinued (to resume, again 
briefly, in 1945). About half a dozen other Journals of varying 
emphasis and quality, devoted to similar ends, appeared for 

119 



ff 



^ 



Short periods of time. While no less a figure than Ben-Zvi, 
seco nd prcsident of Israe l, was personally active in pursuing 
and^romoting researchQj[L_Palestine and on the Jews of the 
Middle East (Ben -Zvi i9 57)i there remains a great deal of 
ambivalence, and varied opinion, about the importance of 
perpetuating c. ultural djf fcxiences among various Jewish groups. 
During the last five years or so there has been an ethnic cul- 
tural revival (Deshen 1974). To vvhat extent this should be 
Seen as the result of cultural inertia and in what ways it is 
linked to other social, poliücal, and cultural developments is 
a matter that awaifs detailed investigation. 

A number of governmental and quasi-governmental agencies 
have recognized the possible contribution of anthropological 
study to their domains of concern. Two anthropologists have 
served as directors of the Settlement Studv Cent er, concerned 
with rurayevelopment (tVeingrod 1966, Wülner 1969), and 
the Ministry^f Health has been utilizing anthropological find- 
ings for many years (Orent 1974, Palgi 1963, 1970, 1973). 
Recently, there has been some work on the Georgian immigrants 
from Russia under the auspices of the Ministlyxif Absorption. 
The administrative fate of research, and recommendations re- 
sulting therefrom, is a topic unto itself. 

The most recent input to Israeli anthropology has been a 

research scheme organized at t>ie"Üniversity of Manchester 

under the direction of the late Max Gtncicman (see his" Fore- 

word to Deshen 1970). This scheme put ten. anthropologists 

into the field, some of them Israelis whose mTtiaTtrarntng was 

\ in sociology and others students from elsewhere. It is very much 

to the credit of this project that it has concerned itself with 

Veteran groups (Aronoff 1974, Baldwin 1971) as well as with 

new immigrants and with Europeans__(Abarbanel 1974, 

Aronoff 1974) as well as Mid^jeZUasterners (Deshen and 

Shokeid 1974). Also, several of the studies were carried out in 

deve lopment to wns (Aronoff 1974, Deshen 1970, Marx 1972), 

*1iot only in villages, and in institutional settings in largecities 

V ^(Handelman n.d.). These works provide the etHnograp^ic 

\\^co ncreteness often ^missing in sociological studies ST parallel 

'\^topIcs and relate ^ociirrenl cöTicerns In anthropology. 

The Ar ab pppulation of Israel has also received considerable 
attention,'^ocKWfflg*-mamiy"ofrvillages and Bedouin (A. Cohen 
1965, E. Cohen 1974, Kressel 1975, Marx 1967, Nakhleh 1975, 
Oppenheimer n.d., Zenner 1972). Some work has been done 
on urbanization processes and urban influences (Kasdan 1971; 
Rosenfeld 1964, 1968, 1972), and-tKiT is clearly an area de- 
manding more research. The kibbutz has been a strong attrac- 
tion for anthropologists (Diamofn!n957, Evans 1975, Kressel 
1975, Shepher 1972, Shepher and Tiger 1975, Spiro 1958, 
Talmon 1972), together with many other social scientists (E. 
Cohen 1964; Shamir 1972). Com pared to interest in the kib butz, 
yi interest in urban settings is re lativelv me^^er (P. Cohen 1962, 
Shai ISiTüTZenner 1967). 

With regard to historically oriented studies, the Ben-Zy] 
^itute in Je pj&akm contains a great deal of material relating 
to the history of the Jews of the Middle East, but to date only 
a few studies (Feitelson 1959, Goitein 1955, H. Goldberg 1971) 
have attempted a social-historical_^analysis of a group's life 
"lefore migration to TsräcTT^heToJklQrc^Res^arch Center (O. 
Goldberg 1970, Noy 1963, Noy and Ben-Ami 1972) studies folk- 
tales and customs from an ethnologic perspective (cf. Klein- 
Franke 1967), while recently a structuralist point of view has 
been brought to bear on oral literäture'Qason 1969, n.d.). 
Linguists have analyzed the'lpölcen dialects of Jewish com- 
mVmifies in their countries of origin (Blanc 1963, Garbell 1965), 
as well as their traditional pronunciation of Hebrew (Morag 
1963). 

Ant hropology is currc n tly taught in a llof Israel's universi- 
ties, always in departrncnts includin g socio JQp^y. It wäT'first 
established at T el^^A^^Univ ccsUvTsHaped bv participants in 
the Manchtiiler research scheme. Most Israeli anthropologists 
have studied some aspect of their own soctety, but there are 

120 




specialists in Africa as well (Almagor 1972, Eilam 1973, Orent 
1970, Saltman 1975) — two of them at the Hebrew University 
in Jerusalem. The Univer^it^j^of Haifa is the önl^ school to ' ' 
offer a course in general ant hropolo gy .'ÄhtEröpoIogy Ts tauglvP^ [1 



in a behäyioral-sclence program m the Ben-Gurion University 
of the I^egfi^'-fB^ef'^heba) and is included in the Sociology 
Department of Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (cf. Gunders 
and Whiting 1968). 

Ethnographie collections are found in museums in Jecusalem 
(Lancet-Muller 19/4), H^tf^y md 'T'eLAvLv. An^TsragfTVmhyo- 
♦pölogic^Associatmp waf^^cently iSffiüd (see CA 16:182), 
nd there is a Society for Ethnography. Anthropologists are 
represented in the I^ra^lr^ocfeiögiöat-A^SSöcTation and in the 
Association for Prehistory 



# 






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The Split Brain and the 
Cuhure-and-Cognition Paradox 

by ]. Anthony Paredes and Marcus J. Hepburn 

Department of Anthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 
Fla. 32306, U.S.A. 21 vii 75 

The following article was viewed by referees as presenting a con- 
troversial viewpoint worthy of argument and discussion from 
various subdiscipline perspectives. Debate and comment will ap- 
pear in the June issue and subsequently. — Editor. 

Preamble. The inspiration for this paper was a 1970 article in 
which psychologist Gordon Bower used the dramatic results of 
"split-brain" research to interpret his findings on the role of 
mental imagery in memory. Although Bower's own findings 
were powerfully interesting in their own right, it was his daring 

Vol. 17 ' No.1 ' March 1976 



linkage of those results to neuropsychology which Struck us as 
having revolutionary implications for anthropology. In a gen- 
eral way we sensed that here, perhaps, was the Rosetta Stone 
by which such intriguing, yet troublesome, ethnographic curi- 
osities as Trukese navigation and "non-lineal codifications of 
reality" could be translated into general scientific terms. Al- 
though neither of us is a specialist in neuropsychology or experi- 
mental anthropology, we were sufficiently impressed by the 
potentialities of split-brain research for resolving some long- 
standing and fundamental problems in cultural anthropology 
to venture to develop the ideas presented here. We hope they 
will stimulate discussion in this exciting but controversial area 
of inquiry. If our ideas and interpretations have merit, we hope 
that specialists will translate them into testable hypotheses so 
that the complementary perspectives of cross-cultural research- 
ers and neurological specialists may jointly be brought to bear 
on the understanding of human "thinking." We are aware that 
since we first began developing this paper there have been 
further advances in the understanding of lateralization of 
cerebral processes and others have developed ideas similar to 

121 



ours on its implications (e.g., Marsh 1971, Bogen, Marsh, and 
TenHouten 1971, TenHouten 1971).^ Nonetheless, we feel it 
is worthwhile considering the split-brain idea from the stand- 
point of the need for an adequate Interpretation of existing 
ethnographic accounts of apparent differences in mental func- 
tioning. In so doing, vve hope to have achieved some small 
advance toward the understanding of a true synthesis of biology 
and culture in the Operation of human minds. 

One of the most fundamental intellectual contributions of 
cultural anthropology is the Illumination of the role of cultural 
patterning in human Cognition and problem solving. In brief 
form, this anthropological insight is expressed axiomatically as 
"what is rational in one culture is not necessarily rational in 
another." In conjunction with the notion that human thought 
processes are to a large extent culturally determined, this in- 
sight has made anthropologists outstanding critics of intelli- 
gence tests as culture-bound (Beals and Hoijer 1971:94). At 



^ One of the reviewers of this paper directed cur attention to 
these recent works on the cognitive implications of cerebral lateral- 
ization. Although TenHouten and Kaplan (1973) have published 
a book dealing with the subject — of which we were unable to 
obtain a copy in time for incorporation into this paper — the first 
reports appeared in government documents which we were able 
to locate only with some difficulty. 

The research of TenHouten et al. is a rather sophisticated 
attempt, using a variety of instruments, to test for "right-brained" 
("appositional") and "left-brained" C'propositional") differences 
in thinking, and accompanying valuations, among male and female 
rural and urban Whites, Blacks, and Hopi Indians within the 
United States. Much of the work is guided by an attempt to under- 
stand patterns of social discrimination in modern American society 
and developed from the previous work of the researchers in, on 
the one hand, cerebral lateralization and, on the other, stereo- 
typing. In developing their theoretical framework, however, these 
researchers articulated many ideas which are almost identical to 
many of those expressed here. Our work and theirs appear to 
represent a genuine case of independent invention. Nonetheless, 
there are some important differences. 

Although Bogen, Marsh, and TenHouten (1971) draw upon the 
literature of anthropology, even citing some of the same sources 
we have used, they neglect entirely the seminal works by Gladwin 
(1964, 1970). Gladwin's speculations contain the core of the idea 
of the propositional/appositional contrast, and it was his 1964 
article which most quickly came to mind when we learned of the 
split-brain research. Given such ethnographic problems as con- 
tained in Gladwin's work, we "reasoned our way," in effect, to 
many of the same conclusions arrived at by these workers. In so 
doing we feel that we have constructed a more cross-cultural and 
tempered paradigm for understanding the relationship of cerebral 
lateralization and cognitive styles than theirs, a framework which 
might be helpful for interpreting their sometimes ambiguous 
empirical results. 

The general thrust of their work tends toward the assumption 
of a categorical and constant distinction between propositional 
and appositional thinkers, although the authors do make observa- 
tions to the contrary here and there. We, in contrast, worked in 
terms of the idea of a gradient of differences between the two 
"types of thinking" in the development of logical processes and, 
at a higher order of taxonomy, cognitive strategies. Moreover, 
largely as a result of the work of Cole et al. (1971) — which ap- 
parently was unavailable to Marsh, TenHouten, and Bogen — we 
allowed for the possibility of situation-specific differences in the 
employment of particular cognitive processes, be those differences 
panhuman or culturally determined. Related to this point, as 
anthropologists we were sensitive to the apparent propositional 
(left-hemisphere) identity of all languages at the grammatical- 
code level and, thus, suspicious of ordinary, linguistically assisted 
mental tests for more complex Operations of right-hemisphere 
modes of thought. Finally, we have operated with the assumption 
that while relatively appositional modes of thought are atemporal, 
time is a critical dement in the analysis of such cognitive processes; 
as Gladwin says, "thinking is continuous." 

Despite our general differences with TenHouten et al., we must 
acknowledge the major contributions they have made toward the 
empirical verification of qualitative differences in human think- 
ing, and we regret that their work has not been more widely known 
among anthropologists — including ourselves. Working in Isolation 
but having arrived at some startlingly similar conclusions, we hope 
that our respective works will lend complementary support to the 
ideas expressed. 



the same time, anthropologists have been adamant that the 
"average" human brain functions the same regardless of cul- 
tural difTerences and have opposed views such as those of Levy- 
Bruhl which suggest fundamental difTerences between the 
mental functioning of primitives and our own (see Cole and 
Gay 1972:1066-68). Likewise, although rejecting the extremes 
of the notion of "psychic unity" manifested by the 19th-century 
cultural evolutionists, as a rule anthropologists take it for 
granted that human brains are governed by a single set of 
neurological principles vvithout regard to time or place. Yet, 
many anthropologists matter-of-factly discuss differences be- 
tween "native thought" and that of their own society — indeed, 
there appears to be high professional prestige value placed 
upon being able to show just how far removed "the thinking 
of the Such-and-such" is from our own ordinary modes of^ 
thought. 

There seems to be a serious inconsistency in simultaneously 
asserting that the human mind functions the same everywherfo 
and that fundamental Operations of the brain differ radically 
with cultural background. Such a position appears roughly 
analogous to arguing that the human alimentary canal func- 
tions the same in all individuals, but the constituent digestive 
processes are altered by the particular species of plants and 
animals consumed. We shall refer to these contrastive but 
jointly held views of human mental functions as the "culture- 
and-cognition paradox." Cole et al. (1971) have reviewed 
various approaches to resolving the paradox and, on the basis 
of their experimental studies of Kpelle, proposed a Solution: 
"cultural difTerences in Cognition reside more in the situations 
to which particular cognitive processes are applied than in 
the existence of a process in one cultural group and its absence 
in another" (p. 233). Thus, many of the problems in the cross- 
cultural study of mental actlvity are recast from searching for 
"culture-free" intelligence tests to a search for the proper con- 
text in which to elicit a particular logical process and an under- 
standing of the ways in which change in external circumstances 
effects shifts in the selection of cognitive processes from the 
cerebral repertoire to solve any particular type of problem. 

The experimental anthropology of Cole and associates ap- 
pears to have made considerable advances toward remedying 
the lacuna noted by Gladwin (1964:176): "Anthropologists 
stoutly defend the equality of all men, especially with respect 
to intellectual potential, without any attempt to analyze or 
document the nature of similarities and difTerences in thinking. 
In this vital area we make no cross-cultural comparisons, and 
indeed have no theoretical framework within which to make 
them." The important contributions of Cole et al. notwith- 
standing, their framework does not include consideration of 
the organismic bases for the existence of plural cognitive pro- 
cesses. Without at least a model of diflferent physiological loci 
for difTerent cognitive processes, the crux of the culture-and- 
cognition paradox remains: the human mind functions the 
same everywhere, but the way it "behaves" in response to 
any particular Stimulus is culturally determined. 

Given current controversy over the resurgence of genetic 
theories of intelligence difTerences, caution demands that we 
make it clear from the outset that our exploration of a possible 
physiological basis for cognitive difTerences is not intended to 
Support such theories. On the contrary, what we shall propose 
is a powerful argument against them, for our concern is physio- 
logical difTerences within each human brain, not difTerences 
between diflferent brains. 

Apart from the absence of an operating model for the bio- 
logical foundations of multiple cognitive processes, the Cole 
et al. paradigm is weakened by the apparent assumption that 
all cognitive processes are equally accessible to language. 
Although the researchers conduct their experiments in the 
native language, and many of the experimental tasks require 
little or no linguistic Output from the subject, language plays 
a critical role in the eliciting procedures for all the tests, even 



122 



CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY 



Wenn Dichter über Dichter urteilen.. 

Shakespeare ein ,tfunkener Wilder und roher Possenreißer« - Ibsen ein »nordisches Waschweib« - Von Helmut Diterich 



Audi wenn man nidit gerade an Six- 
tu$ Peckmesser denkt, den Kunst- 
banausen aus „Die Meistersinger" von 
Richard Wagner, bleibt das '_/rteiI über 
Kunst und Kunstwerk problematisch. 
Die Geschmäcker sind verschieden und 
der Kunstrichtungen gibt e-; viele, an 
denen Kritiker und Kritikaster ihr 
Mütchen kühlen können. „Die Kritik 
ht leicht und die Kunst ist schwer", 
behauptete der 1754 verstorbene fran- 
zösische Dichter Destouches in einer 
seiner einst vicigespielter Komödien. 
Die Nachwelt hat daraus den Satz ge- 
prägt: „Kritisieren ist leichter als Bes- 
sermachen". 

Wo andere aus berufenem Munde 
glauben, ein Werk loben zu können 
oder aber den Stab darüber bredien zu 
müssen, haben auch Fachleute geurteilt, 
Männer, die es wissen müßten, weil sie 
selbst jenem Fluidum ausgesetzt sind 
oder waren, in welchem Kunstwerke 
gedeihen. Vielleicht ist es gar kein Feh- 
ler, daß sich im kritischen oder unkri- 
tischen Urteil über Berufskollegen ein 
Hauch jenes Profanen niederschlägt, 
der den Abstand zwischen den großen 
Künstlern und ihrer vergötternden 
Nachwelt verkürzt und das beruhigen- 
de Gefühl hinterläßt, daß auch sie nur 
Menschen waren, irrende, fehlende 
Menschen, die, von Neid und Miß- 
gunst oft nicht frei, dem schreibenden 
Nachbarn scheel über die Schulter blick- 
ten. 

Als Voltaire über Shakespeare ur- 
teilte und ihn einen „trunkenen Wil- 
den und rohen Possenreißer" nannte, 



stian Dietrich Grabbe urteilte sarka- 
stisch über Goethe: „Armes deutsches 
Volk, das ist dein größter Mann!" 
Nicht minder scharf, aber wortreicher 
äußerte sich Ludwig Börne, der Revo- 
lutionär aus der Zeit des jungen 
Deutschland über Goethe, als er schrieb: 
„Goethe hat eine ungeheuer hindernde 
Kraft, er ist ein grauer Star im deut- 
schen Auge ..." 

Goethe und Börne waren keine K*--». 
kurrenten auf dem Büchermarkt, denn 
als der eine seine Bücher erscheinen 
ließ, konnte er kaum hoffen, die des 
anderen, des gewaltigen Dichterfürsten, 
vom Markt zu verdrängen. Aber in 
diesem Aufeinanderprallen dokumen- 
tiert sich etwas, das zu allen Zeiten 
typisch ist, wenn sidi eine Welt im Um- 
bruch befindet und eine neu geboren 
wird. Die großen Männer der Vergan- 
genheit werden als Götzen abserviert, 
die neue Zeit sieht mit anderen Augen, 
wie die Jugend vort heute auch die gei- 
stigen Ideale ihrer Väter und Groß- 
väter niciit mehr billigt. Das Alte, das 
überholt geglaubt wird, trifft das un- 
geredite Urteil genau so, wie das Neue, 
das um Anerkennung ringt. 



Strindberg und Ibsen, in der glei- 
chen Zeit lebend und dichtend, waren 
einander fremd, obwohl sie eigentlich 
in ihrer Geisteshaltung nahe Verwandte 
waren. Strindberg nannte seinen Kol- 
legen Ibsen ein „nordisches Wasch- 
weib" und Thomas Mann erklärte 
Jahrzehnte seinem Kollegen Jean Coc- 
teau, „Sie gehören zu der Rasse jener 
Dichter, die im Spital end*n . . .". Zeit- 
weise sah es wirklich so aus, als habe 
sich Orpheus in der Türe der Unterwelt 
geirrt und betrete eine poetisch ver- 
kleidete Opiumhöhle, wie Thomas 
Mann weiter gemeint hatte. Doch Coc- 
teau zeigte, aus welchem Holz er ge- 
schnitten ist und endete statr — wie 
prophezeit — im Spital, in der Acade- 
mie franfaise. Friedrich Hebbel ging 
die Stiftej-sche Kleinmäleei auf die 
Nerven, weil sie seiner Anschauung 
von Poesie nicht entsprach. Er verfaßte 
einen Spottvers, der in mehreren Zei- 
tungen erschien und in ironischer Form 
Stifters Schilderung des Kleinen und 
Kleinsten apostrophierte, eben deret- 
wegen Stifters Werk berühmt wurde: 
„Wißt ihr, warum die Käfer, 

die Butterblumen so glücken? 



Weil ihr die Menschen nicht k^nnt, 

weil ihr die Sterne nicht seht! 
Schaut ihr tief in die Herzen, 
wie könntet ihr schwärmen für Käfer? 
Säht ihr das Sonnensystem, sagt doch, 
was war euch ein Strauß? 
Aber das mußte so sein; 

damit ihr das Kleine vortrefflich 
Liefertet, hat die Natur klug 

euch das Große entrückt." 

Erstaunlich auch, daß zwei Männer, 
die im Grunde derselben Geistesrich- 
tung, der Romantik angehörten, Joseph 
von Eidiendorff und E. T. A. Hoff- 
mann, keine Brücke zueinander finden 
konnten. Eichendorff sagte über den 
Musikerdichter in völliger Verkennung 
von dessen wirklichen Wesen und Wert 
nur: ^Er schrieb, um zu trinken, und 
trank, um zu schreiben". 

Wie meint doch der französische 
Diditer Francois Mauriac über die 
Kritiker der Gegenwart? „Heute käme 
niemand mehr auf die Idee, Manet 
vorzuwerfen, daß er Manet gemalt 
habe. Aber solange Manet lebte, mach- 
te man ihm den Vorwurf Manet zu 
sein." 



Jiddisches Theater in Deutschland 

Von Goldenfodim bis KEshon nur ein kleiner Schritt? - Von Gerhard Krause 



ni( 

im 

, Sehe! 
spiel« 
bot ui 
ihr Si 
mit m\ 
den ZI 
dieser 
ein Ertl 
ruter 
bende, 
Flair u| 
Es ginj 
strecke] 
teraber 
Kibbu2 
ten si« 
ein Ai 
Typei 
Goldej 
fragte] 
war. 
Das 
und f| 
lagertll 
so odei 
nicht 
Ich 
die ja 
Zugang 
Stücke,] 
auffühi 
langer 
Amandi 
Mutteri 
„Glasi 
alles 11 
der BüH 
lern, ui 
sem (%\l 
gen) AI 
Akr.ent 
und Al 
dieses 
irrealitj 



fällte er ein Urteil, das aus seiner Zeit 
und seinen eigenen Werken zu verste- 
heii ist. Der Aufklärer Voltaire wollte 
mit dem Realisten aus England nichts 
zu tun haben, dessen Leidenschaft und 
ungebärdiges Maß den Schöngeist und 
Philosophen abstieß. 

Goethe hat einmal gesagt: „Man 
k^nn in Deutschland oft bemerken, daß 
derjenige, der einen sogenannten Lieb- 
lingsschriftsteller der Nation strenge 
tadelt, immer wegen eines bösen Her- 
zens in Argwohn steht." Ob er dabei 
aus eigener übler Erfahrung als Kriti- 
ker sprach, weil sein eigenes Urteil bei- 
spielsweise über Webers „Freischürz" — 
„ein kolossales Nichts, aus dem Nihilo 
geschaffen!" — auf den Widerspruch 
der ZoH^etiossen stieß? A'u^'^tA 4Ah$i 
gemünzt kann er ^diesen Spruch Wicht • 
haben. Dertn Goethes Kritiker nahmen 
sidi kein Blatt vor den Mund, wenn sie 
gegen ihn zu Felde zogen. Etwa Karo- 
line Herder, die Frau seines Freundes 
und Gönners Johann Gottfried Herder, 
die knapp und schnippisch erklärte: 
„So brav und gut Goethe im Innern 
ist, so hat er doch seinen Beruf als 
Dichter verfehlt!" Der Feuerkopf Chri- 



Der berühmte jüdische WynÄ „|)is 
zu hundertundzWanzig JahreiWj hat 
sich auch bei Abraham Goldf aden((Ori- 
ginalname: Gojdenfodim) nicht etfüllt, 
aber 120 Jahre und sogar noch eine 
Kleinigkeit darüber sind es seit seiner 
Geburt, genau fünfundzwanzig Jahre 
seit seinem Tode her, und nichts rührt 
sich mehr von ihm und seinem Werk, 
in Polen vielleicht ausgenommen und 
ein wenig in Israel, wo er noch gekannt, 
wenn auch nur platonisch-historisch ge- 
liebt wird. Hat ihn in der Popularität, 
der lange ausgeklungenen, Ephraim 
Kishon, der 1924 in Ungarn geboren 
wurde und nun in Israel lebt, über- 
troffen? Kennte man Goldfadens Werk, 
sein Wirken als Theatermann wie als 
Folkloristen im Sinne auch des Wöl- 
wil Zbraraschher Ehrenkrani (1826 bis 
1883), des Mark Warschawsky (184j 
bis 1907), des EHakum Zunser, der 'j 
einem Halbjahrhundert verstarb -J 
alle waren echte Volkssängeij^ 
Volksliedersammler — man w 
nicht so schmählich verkomi 
und neu bearbeiten und rj 
Ausdrudestypus einer 



baren, mit Stumpf und Stil rabiat aus- 
gerotteten Epoche jener scheußlich- 
braunen Sintflut. War Goldfaden ein 
jiddischer Bellrnann, ein slawischer Ne- 
stroy? Eine nützliche literarisch« Lei- 
stung, übrigens daß die Amadeo-LP 
jetzt Nestroys Werke auf Langspiel- 
platten herausgibt, und ich ergreife die 
Gelegenheit beim Schöpfe: wie wäre es, 
wenn sich die so aufmerksame und sich 
so oft schon dem Individuellsten er- 
schlossene Amadeo-LP- dem Gesamt- 
werk eines Goldfaden zuwendete und 
Spezialisten beauftragte, es zu rekon- 
struieren, zu überarbeiten, um so zur 
Ehre des austrocknenden Jiddisch eine 
Kulturleistung ersten Ranges neu zu 
schaffen? Oft kommt es ja nur auf 



schreibt Szczepanski in s^tü 
lung »Ein ausgezeichnetes Theater" 
(nämlich das jiddische in der polni- 
schen Metropole) über Goldfadens 
Schauspiel „Der Traum von Goldfa- 
den". Die Literaturwissenschcftler ha- 
ben eine reiche Quelle zu erforschen. 
Elh Wettlauf zu ihr wird kaum ein- 
sehen; wir nehmen es erst gar nicht an, 
aber es könnte ein paar Individualisten] 
auf diesem Gebiet reizen, Neuland zu] 
entdecken und das alte Land jiddischer 
Theaters gründlich zu durchforschet 
und zu durchforsten. 

Kishon steht Goldfaden, was di^ 
Vielfalt der schöpferischen Leistui 
angeht, kaum in etwas nach, aber 
sdieint ihn auch gelegentl! h zu 




26 September 1975 

Volume 1 89, No. 4208 



MERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



iiiiiiii,';;ff,"' I 



l 




Index Issue 







IN 





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26 September 1975 



Volume 189, No. 4208 




LETTERS 



X YY Gejiülypi&: P A.Jacobs; E. B. Hook; Bicentennial Beils: D. C. Schmidt; 
^^"Jöurnal Reviews: 7. F. Bunnett; Particle Discoveries at SLAC: 

W. K. H. Panofsky; Promising Chimpanzee: G. M. Burghardt; D. Premack 



1044 



EDITORIAL 



Social Determinism and Behavioral Genetics: Ä. Z). Z)flvw 1049 



ARTICLES Energy Analysis and Public Policy: A/. W.Gilliland 1051 

Technical Assistance and Foreign Policy: G. S. Hammond dnd W. M. Todd 1057 

Psychobiology of Reptilian Reproduction: /). Crevv^ 1059 

NEWS AND COMMENT Technoiogy Incentives Program: Success or a Phony Hard Seil? 1066 

Medicine Without Frills: A Rural Hospital in Colombia 1067 

Preventive Medicine: Legislation Calls for Health Education 1071 



RESEARCH NEWS Astronomy from Space: New Class of X-ray Sources Found 

Antibody Structure: Now in Three Dimensions 



1073 
1075 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Dynamics of Growth in a Finite World, reviewed by E. van de Walle; The Science 
and Politics of I.Q., D. N. Jackson; Environmental Dynamics of Pesticides, 
J. R. Roberts; The Mitochondria of Microorganisms, R. A. Butow; Homogeneous 
Catalysis by Metal Comptexes^ G. M. Whitesides; The Coast and Shelf of the 
Beaufort Sea,/. D. Milliman; Fossil and Living Dinoflagellates, W. R. Evitt; 
Ice Physics, 5". /4. /?/ce; Books Received 



1077 



BOARD OF DIRICTOIIS 

MAIRMCN AND 

SIORITARIIS or 

AAAt SBCTIONt 



»IVItlONS 





ROGER REVELLE 

Retiring President, Chairman 



MATHEMATICS (A) 
Victor L. Klee 
Truman A. Botts 

PSYCHOLOGY (J) 
Richard C. Atkinson 
Edwin P. Hollander 

EDUCATION (Q) 
F. James Rutherford 
Phillip R. Fordyce 



MARGARET MEAD 
President 

PHYSICS (B) 
Victor F. Weisskopf 
Rolf M. Sinclair 



WILLIAM D. MCELROY 
President-Elect 

CHEMISTRY (C) 
William E. Hanford 
Leo Schubert 



RICHARD H. BOLT 
KENNETH B. CLARK 



EMILIO Q. DADDARIO 
EDWARD E. DAVID. JR, 



SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SCIENCES 
Seymour M. Lipset 
Daniel Rieh 



(K) 



HISTORY AND 
Roger C. Bück 
George Basälla 



ASTRONOMY (D) 
Carl Sagan 
ArloU.Iandolt 

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (L) 



ENGINEERING (M) 
Edward Wenk, Jr. 
Paul H. Robbins 



DENTISTRY (R) 
Clifton 0. Dummett 
Sholom Pearlman 



PHARMACEUTICAL 
James T. Doluisio 
Raymond Jang 



SCIENCES (S) 



INFORMATION, COMPUTING. 
Martin Greenberger 
Joseph Becker 



AND COMMUNICATION 



ALASKA 



DiVISICm 

Donald W. Hood Keith B. Mather 

Chairman. Executive Committee Executive Secretary 



Richard Walker 
President 



PACIFIC DIVISION 

Alan E. Leviton 
Secretary-Treasurer 



SOUTHWESTERN AND 

M. Michelle Baker 
President 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN DIVI!^ }| 

MaxP. Dunford 
Executive Off icer 




ingle 



a»lS ÜMMChuMttt h\n. 

JA t^fS^i^sl'i^jaTe^Spt Food" Inrtrumwit» is $6. School year subscripfipn: 9 months $37.50; 10 months $41.75. Provide 6 ^veeTis 

SSSS for chani of addris^^^^^^ oid address and zip codes. Send a recent address label. Setonc. ta indM«d In th« n.,d^'* Quid« to P«riodic«l Utwrtur.. 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



REPORTS Paleociimatological Analysis of Late Quaternary Gores from the Northeastern Gulf 

of Mexico: C. Emiliani ci'dl 



Spatial Scales of Current Speed and Phytoplankton Biomass Fluctuations in Lake 
Tahoe: T. M. Powell ei al 



The Possible Role of Histones in the Mechanism of Chromosomal G Banding: 
R. L. Brown, S. Pathak, T. C. Hsu 



Goldfish Abducens Moloneurons: Physiological and Analomical Specialization: 
P. Sterling and P. Gestrin 



Nascent Stage of Cellulose Biosynthesis: G. G. Leppard, L. C. SowdenJ. R. Colvin 

Incisor Size and Diet in Anthropoids with Special Reference to Cercopithecidae: 

W. L. Hylander 

Crustacean Intestinal Detergent Promotes Sterol Solubilization: R. Lester et al. . . . 



Arteriovenous Anastoiiiosei^4fl-ih£^km of the \yeddell Seal, Leptonychotes weddelli 



^üyS: MülVheux and M. M. Brvden 



Color Vision and Brightness Discrimination in Two-Month-Old Human Infants- 
D. R. Peeples und D. V. Teller >. rr.' 7 TT7 7 TT7". 



Strange Females Increase Plasma Testosterone Levels in Male Mice: F. Macrides, 
A. Bankers. Dalterio 



Dystrophie Spinal Cord Transplants Induce Abnormal Thymidine Kinase Acliviiy in 
>^ovmd\M\x^c\e^. M. P. Rathbone, P. A. Stewart, F. Vetrano 



Conditioning and Reversal of Short-Latency Multiple-Unil Responses in the Rabbit 
Hedvd\Gemc\x\dieNwc\eu^: I\4. Gabrielas. F. SaltwickJ. D. Miller 



1083 

1088 

1090 

1091 
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1095 
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1100 

1102 
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1106 

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PRODUCTS AND 
MATERIALS 



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1110 



RUTH M. DAVIS 

WARD H. GOODENOUGH 

GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY (E) 
William c. Benson 
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MEDICAI. SCIENCES (N) 
Robert Austrian 
Richard J. Johns 

STATISTICS (U) 
Carl A Bennett 
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FREDERICK MOSTELLER 
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Hans Lauter 

Jane C. Kaltenbach 

AGRICULTURE (0) 
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ATMOSPHERIC AND HYDROSPHERIC 

SCIENCES(W) 
Charles E.Anderson 
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ANTHROPOLGGY 
Ruth L. Bunzel 
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(H) 



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onran Association for the Advancement of Science was founded in 1848 and incorporated in 1874. Its 
The '^"^^^7'f further the werk of scientists, to facilitate Cooperation among them, to improve the effective- 
objects are lu I ^^ ^^^ promotion of human welfare, and to increase public understanding and appreciation of 
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gf,^5'<e^'^l|T5*Massachusetts Avenue, NW. Washington, D.C. 20005, 



COVER 

Female Weddell seal and her pup lying 
on the ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarc- 
tica. These animals are the most souther- 
ly rangmg mammals and spend much of 
the year beneath the ice. When on land, 
thermoregulation, by dissipation of heat, 
is aided by the high density of arterio- 
venous anastomoses which occur super- 
ficially in the skin. See page 1 100. [R. A. 
Tedman, University of Queensland, St. 
Lucia, Brisbane, Australia] 





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Circle No. 205 on Readers' Service Card 




LETTERS 

XYY Genotype 

Barbara J. Culliton, in an article about 
the Suspension of XYY Screening at the 
Boston Hospital for Women (News and 
Comment, 27 June, p. 1284), reports that 
the original XYY study was "premature" 
and that today "all responsible scientists 
insist that the XYY chromosome is quite 
innocent of causing any crime." 

Let me attempt to set the record 
straight. The first survey that demon- 
strated an excess of men with an additional 
Y chromosome in an institutionalized pop- 
ulation was conducted by myself and my 
colleagues (/) among a group of mentally 
subnormal male patients in a State hos- 
pital, an institution for patients "who re- 
quire treatment in conditions of special 
security on account of their dangerous, 
violent or criminal propensities." We re- 
ported our observations on 197 such pa- 
tients, 266 randomly selected newborn 
males, 209 randomly selected adult males, 
and an additional 1500 males whose chro- 
mosomes we had examined. We found 
seven males with an XYY chromosome 
Constitution in the patient population, 
none in the 475 randomly selected males, 
and only one in the remaining 1500 males 
(X^ = 13.8, P = .0002). Our conclusion, 
"the finding that 3.5% of the population we 
studied were XYY males must represent a 
marked increase in frequency by com- 
parison with the frequency of such males at 
birth," could hardly be considered pre- 
mature by even the most conservative 
Standards. 

Further studies, both of men in mental 
and penal settings and of control popu- 
lations were undertaken. The results of 
these investigations were excellently and 
exhaustively reviewed by Hook (2). Con- 
sideration of the facts show (i) that the 
original observations have been amply 
confirmed; (ii) that the excess of males 
with an abnormal chromosome Constitu- 
tion in mental-penal settings is not con- 
fined to XYY individuals but also applies 
to XXY men and, most dramatically of all, 
to men with an XXYY chromosome Con- 
stitution, who are found ICX) times more 
frequently in mental-penal settings than 
among the newborn; and (iii) that, while 
the excess of men with an abnormal sex 
chromosome Constitution is most marked 
in mental-penal groups, it is also evident 
among men in exciusively penal and exclu- 
sively mental settings. 

We know nothing as yet about the mech- 
anism of action of the additional sex 
chromosomes nor their effects, if any, on 
the intelligence and behavior of the major- 
ity of afTected individuals in the population 



at large. It seems reasonable to suppose 
that human behavior, like virtually all oth- 
er human traits, is determined both by 
genes and environment and that the pos- 
session of an abnormal chromosome Con- 
stitution may make its carrier particularly 
susceptible to the effects of an adverse en- 
vironment. 

Those who consider "the attempt to de- 
termine a genetic basis for antisocial be- 
havior a diversion with harmful effects" 
have succeeded in suppressing a research 
project which was deemed by peer review 
to meet the rigorous ethical and scientific 
Standards rightfully required of all re- 
search involving human subjects. 

The suppression of this project denies to 
XXY, XYY, and XXYY men, their fam- 
ilies, and society the liberty to understand 
and intelligently modify the behavioral ef- 
fects of a high-risk genotype. 

Patricia A. Jacobs 
Department ofAnatomy, 
University of Hawaii School ofMedicine, 
Honolulu 96822 

References 

1. P. A. Jacobs, M. Brunton, M. M. Melville, R. P. 
Brittain, W. F. McClemont, Nature (Lond.) 208, 
1351(1965). 

2. E. B. Hook,Science 179, 139 (1973). 

3. P. A. Jacobs, M. M. Melville, S. Ratcliffe. A. J^ 
Keay, J. Syme, Ann. Hunt. Genet. 37, 359 (1974). 

4. A. G. Bell and P. N. Corey, Can. J. Genet. Cytoß 
16,239(1974). 

5. W. M. Court Brown, Int. Rev. Exp. Pathol. 7, 31 
(1969). 

~* 

Despite the implication in Culliton's ar- 
ticle, there is a clear association of th^ 
XYY genotype with deviance, as judge 
from the frequency of XYY men in securi 
ty settings compared to the rates in new 
born or adult populations. While the na'| 
ture and extent of this association are stilji 
not defined, the first report (/) has beeil; 
amply confirmed and would be better d 
scribed as "seminal" rather than "prema', 
ture" [see (2) for review]. Those who deny 
evidence for a "link" between this geno 
type and criminality can only mean thai 
there is still no direct evidence for a cau 
connection between the two; there is n 
question that there is an association. Bul 
Culliton appears to endorse an eveii.| 
.strenger view when she states "all respon 
sible scientists insist that the XYY ehr 
mosome is quite innocent of causing 
crime." The issue is, however, a complex 
one not subject to such simple gener- 
alizations, and revolves about our under*; 
Standing of causality and human behavior.'^ 
The XYY genotype may well contributetoj 
the eventual problems of the affected mal?! 
by resulting in patterns of neural organiz^*^ 
tion that affect cognitive function or pro^ 
duce other behavioral "difficulties" (of th^^ 
type Walzer and others have described)| 
which tend to make it harder for such \nöH 
viduals to cope with environmental stresS' j 

SCIENCE, VOL. 1^^ 



«i-J 



es. While there is no direct evidence for 
this view, the data Ihat are accumulating 
appear to make it increasingly plausible. 
(Such a model does not assume that pre- 
ventable or remedial environmental fac- 
tors make no contribution to either be- 
havioral difficulties in earlier life or de- 
viance in later life.) The connection pos- 
tulated between the genotype and devi- 
ance is not an inevitable one; whether it is 
"causal" awaits universal agreement on 
the definition of the term as applied to hu- 
man behavior genetics. 

Statements such as Culliton's or debate 
as to whether the XYY genotype is 
"guilty" or "innocent" only polarize the 
issues without addressing them. The im- 
portant questions concerning the XYY, 
XXY, and XXYY genotypes are what Fac- 
tors— physiological, psychological, social, 
and their interactions — are associated with 
the increased frequency of affected males 
in security settings and mental institutions, 
and what we may learn about the possible 
contribution of such factors to the ultimate 
behavior of all individuals, irrespective of 

genotype. 

Ernest B. Hook 
New York State Birth Defects Institute 
and Albany Medical College. 
Albany 12208 

References 

1. P. A. Jacobs, M. Brunton, M. M. Melville, R. P. 
Brittain, W. F. McClemont, Nature (Lond.) 208, 
1351(1965). 

2. E. B. Hook, Science 179, 139 (1973). 



Bicentennial Beils 

. 'i 

Constance Holden, in her article "The 
Bicentennial: Science loses out" (News and 
Comment, 8 Aug., p. 438), mentions the 
American Revolution Bicentennial Ad- 
ministration's plan for 4 July 1976: "The 
afternoon is to be devoted to town meet- 
ings and Speeches, and at 4 p.m. (II a.m. 
Hawaii time) all the bells in the nation will 
ring out simultaneously." 

Has anyone considered what the effect 
might be of all that simultaneous sound 

Vibration? 

Darlene C. Schmidt 

Public Information Office, 
American Society for Quality Control, 
161 West Wisconsin Avenue. 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53203 



somewhat analogous to the book review 
sections that are so familiär. 

Critical reviews of Journals would be of 
interest to the scientists who read them or 
publish in them. They would also be of 
value to librarians and others who must 
decide which Journals to take on subscrip- 
tion. Librarians currently have little to go 
on except citation counts, the significance 
of which is controversial. 

I would like to see a respected scholarly 
or professional Organization, one free of fi- 
nancial interest in the Journals that would 
be reviewed, undertake to publish critical 
reviews of scientific Journals at intervals of, 
say, 5 years. The Organization that comes 
immediately to mind is the AAAS, and 
Science is the obvious publication in which 
the Journal reviews should appear. If each 
issue of Science carried reviews of 5 Jour- 
nals, 260 Journals could be reviewed each 
year, or 1300 in 5 years. 

The scientist invited to review a Journal 
obviously should be a person of distinction 
and should not have an ax to grind. On the 
other hand, complete innocence of in- 
volvement with any Journal as an editor or 
member of an editorial advisory or publi- 
cation board is unlikely to be found in the 
case of many persons of the requisite scien- 
tific distinction. A Hsting of current or re- 
cent connections of that type, following the 
name of the reviewer, would make piain at 
least some of his current entanglements. 

The Journal review should include cer- 
tain Standard information about the jour- 
nal's history, sponsorship, size, circulation, 
and cost, which should be furnished to the 
reviewer by staff, but the heart of the re- 
view would lie in quahtative assessment of 
what function the Journal is serving, what 
clientele it caters to, where it Stands with 
respect to comparable Journals, and what 
trends of emphasis or quality can be dis- 

cerned. 

Joseph F. Bunnett* 

University of California. 
Santa Cruz 95064 



*The author is editor of Accounts of Chemical Re- 
search, published by the American Chemical Society. 



Journal Reviews 

It has long Struck me as odd that scien- 
tific Journals are not reviewed in "Journal 
review" sections of scientific magazines 

26 SEPTEMBER 1975 



Particle Discoveries at SLAC 

Martin Deutsch and Samuel C. C. Ting 
wrote letters published in the 5 September 
issue of Science (p. 750) with respect to 
the exciting discoveries in high energy par- 
ticle physics. These letters contain selected 
references to conversations pertaining to 
the history of the new particle discoveries, 
reports of which were published in Physi- 
cal Review Letters of 2 December 1974 
{1.2). 



CHARLES C THOMAS • PUBLISHER 



MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY edited 
by Robert A. Good and Stacey B. 
Day, both of Sloan-Kettering Institute 
for Cancer Research, New York, and 
Jorge J. Yunis, Univ. of Minnesota 
Medical School, Minneapolis. (52 Con- 
tributorsj Presenting an interdisci- 
plinary structure of concepts of dis- 
ease at all levels of chemical and 
cytological architectural structure, this 
book discusses fundamental principles 
and primary mechanisms which can 
lead to enhancement of therapeutic 
programs and more specific treatment 
of disease states. The authors stress the 
need for investigation and analyses of 
disease processes at the subcellular 
(molecular) level and the perturbations 
of structure and function of organelles 
in health and in disease. '75, 888 pp. 
(6 3/4 X 9 3/4), 259 iL, 56 tables, 
$67.50 

NUTRITION AND OUR OVERPOPU- 
LATED PLANET by Sohan L. Ma- 
nocha, Yerkes Regional Primate Re- 
search Center, Emory Univ., Atlanta, 
Georgia. Attention is drawn here to 
the intimate relationship between nu- 
trition, population and the task of 
feeding the masses. Directed toward 
thinking people of all socioeconomic 
strata in all countries, rieh and poor, 
this book highliglits the nutritional 
requirements of various age groups and 
the relationship between the available 
food supply and the number of 
mouths which lay claim to it. Edu- 
cated laymen as well as students of 
sociology, anthropology, nutrition, 
medicine, biology, political science 
and history should find this book both 
interesting and informative. '75, 488 
pp., 6 iL, 11 tables, cloth-$24.50, 
paper-$ 16.75 

A STUDY GUIDE IN NUCLEAR 
MEDICINE: A Modern Up-to-Date 
Presentation compiled and edited by 
Fuad Ashkar, August Miale, Jr., and 
William Smoak, all of the Univ. of 
Miami, Miami, Florida, (22 Contrib- 
utors) Covered are such topics as 
interaction of gamma rays with mat- 
ter, control of radiation exposure to 
man, basic mathematics of nuclear 
medicine, electrolytes and body com- 
position, and essentials of rectilinear 
scanning. '75, 488 pp., 312 iL, 44 
tables, cloth-$22. 75, paper-$l 7.50 
Prepaid Orders sent postpaid, on approvai 



301-327 EAST LAWRENCE 
SPRlNGFIELD-ILLINOIS-62717 



Circle No. 229 on Readers' Service Card 



26Seplember 1975, Volume 189, Numbcr4208 




AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 
THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 

Science serves its readers as a forum for the presenlalion 
and discussion of imporlant issues related to the advance- 
ment of science, including ihe presenlation of minority or 
conflicting points of view, rather than by Publishing only 
materiai on which a consensus has been reached. Accord- 
ingly, all articles published in Science including editori- 
als, news and comment, and book reviews are signed and 
reflect the individual views of the authors and not official 
points of view adopted by the AAAS or the institutions 
with which the authors are affiliated. 

Editorial Board 

1975 

H. S. Gltowsky Donai I) Lindsley 

N. Bruce Hannay Ruth Patric k 

Donald Kennedy Raymond H. Thompson 
Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. 



Ai ERED E. Brown 
James F. Crow 
Hans Landsberg 
Edward Ney 



1976 

Frank Press 
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Maxinl Singer 
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Editorial Staff 

Editor 
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M anaging Editor: Robert V. Orm ES 

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Assistant to the Editors: Patrk ia Rowe 

News and Comment: John Waish, Luther J. Carter. 
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Research News: Alien L. Hammond, William D. 
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Social Determinism and Behavioral Genetics 

The fusion of evolutionary theory with genetics has yielded several profound 
insights into the nature of man. We now know that most traits are determined 
by interaction between genes and the environment, rather than by either acting 
independently. Moreover, the traditional view of race, as a set of stereotypes 
with minor variations, has been invalidated by the knowledge that races differ 
statistically and not typologically in their genelic composition. Finally, the rap- 
id evolution of our species implies wide genetic diversity, with respect to behav- 
ioral as well as to morphological and biochemical traits. 

Unfortunately, the idea of genetic diversity has encountered a good deal of 
resistance. Some egalitarians fear that its recognition will discourage efforts to 
eliminate social causes of educational failure, misery, and crime. Accordingly, 
they equate any attention to genetic factors in human behavior with the primi- 
tive biological determinism of early eugenicists and race supremacists. But they 
are setting up a false dichotomy, and their exclusive attention to environmental 
factors leads them to an equally false social determinism. 

Ironically, this Opposition parallels that of theologians a Century ago: both 
saw the foundations of public morality threatened by an implication of evolu- 
tion. But neither religious nor political fervor can command the laws of nature. 
One might accordingly expect scientists, knowing this very well, to encourage 
the public to accept genetic diversity both as an invaluable cultural resource 
and as an indispensable consideration in any approach to social equality. Yet in 
a recent "NOV.A" program on the Public Broadcasting Service a distinguished 
Population geneticist denied the legitimacy of human behavioral genetics, 
scorned the belief that musical talent is inherited, and even minimized the con- 
tributions of genetics to agricultural productivity. Similarly, members of a 
group called Science for the People, criticizing a study of possible behavioral ef- 
fects of chromosomal abnormalities, wrote* of the "damaging mythology of the 
genetic origins of 'antisocial' behavior," as though one must choose between ge- 
netic and social causation rather than study their interaction. 

To be sure, in behavioral genetics premature conclusions are all too tempting, 
and they can be socially dangerous. Moreover, even sound knowledge in this 
field, as in any other, can be used badly. Accordingly, some would set up lines of 
defense against acquisition of the knowledge, rather than against its misuse. 
This Suggestion has wide appeal, for the public is already suspicious of genetics. 
It recognizes that earlier, pseudoscientific extrapolations from genetics to So- 
ciety were used to rationalize racism, with tragic consequences; and it has devel- 
oped much anxiety over the allegedly imminent prospecl of genetic manipula- 
tion in man. Hence one can easily visualize an American Lysenkoism, pre- 
scribing an environmentalist dogma and proscribing or di.scouraging research 
on behavioral genetics. But such a development would deprive us of knowledge 
that could help us in many ways: for example, to improve education (by build- 
ing on the diversity of individual potentials and learning patterns), to decrease 
conflicts, to prevent and treat mental illnesses, and to eliminate guilt based on 
exaggerated conceptions of the scope of parental responsibility and influence. 

In the continuing struggle to replace traditional myths by evolutionary 
knowledge the conflict over human diversity may prove even more intense and 
prolonged than the earlier conflict over special creation: the critics are no less 
righteous, the issues are even closer to politics, and guilt over massive social in- 
equities hinders objective discussion. What the scientific Community should do 
is not clear. At the least we might try to help the public to realize the value of 
scientific objectivity, separated from political convictions, in understanding hu- 
man diversity. Long ago men began to understand chemical diversity when they 
gave up the search for a philosopher's stone, which they had hoped would trans- 
mute other Clements into gold. Today in human biology we face a similar prob- 
lem in learning to build on facts as well as on hopes. Bernard D. Davis, Har- 
vard Medical School. Boston, Massachusetts 02115 



*J. Beckwith, D. Elseviers, L. Gorini, C. Mandan.sky, L. Csonka, J. King, Science 187, 298 (1975). 



Why would a chemist 
want an engineer's 
liquid Chromatograph? 

What you value in a liquid Chromatograph depends a 
lot on your point of view. A salesman may be 
proudest of a big name and classy styling; the 
engineer is mainly concerned with specifications; but 
the chemist first asks what it will do. Actually the 
engineer and the chemist aren't far apart. Good 
Performance can onlv follow sound design and the 
right specifications. 

Let's look at the pump first. Every basic discussion 
of HPLC equipment points out the advantages of a 
constant flow rate, free of pulsations and microscopic 
noise. Yet most chromatographs only offer you 
constant pressure, or "constant flow" from a more 
or less damped reciprocating pump, unless you are 
really ready to pay. The only HPLC pumps made by 
ISCO produce a constant flow with rate Variation and 
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a Dialagrad gradient will 
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matter how many times you p - 

run it. ^«4<*1 



Sample application can mean 
the difference between a 
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tor has three big advantages 
(it's cheap, cheap, cheap) 
but if you want perfect 
uniformity over long periods 
and from different Operators, 
use a good 6 port sample 
injection valve. It's Standard 
onall ISCO chromatographs. 
Another Standard, but unex- 
pected, feature is a fast 
purge System for one minute 
washout. 




There are many Performance points for the UV 
detector which don't show up in the specifications, 
but our engineers haven't ignored them. Like 
reliability, and operating convenience such as the 
quick changing of wavelengths or flow cells. You can 



add other things that may mean a lot, such as 

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the dual beam ISCO detector is still unsurpassed on 

specifications, and our specifications are real. Eight 

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are linear), typical noise ± 0.00005 A, typical 

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13 wavelengths from 254 __^, 

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response in two seconds. 

For some reason, that last 

one is usually left out of 

other people's spec 

sheets. 




These basic ISCO advantages are available on 
chromatographs from most other manufacturers. 
The main difference is what you have to pay for 
them. An ISCO Model 1440 isocratic Chromatograph, 
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described here, costs only $5,275.00. The multilinear 
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SCIENCE, VOL. 189 



Antibody Structure: Now in Three Dimensions 



The structure of a protein is not com- 
pletely known until the arrangement of all 
of its atoms in space has been determined. 
That goal is now in sight for antibodies, the 
large, complex proteins that are critical 
components of the body's defenses against 
disease. X-ray crystallographers have 
worked out the three-dimensional struc- 
tures of portions of four different anti- 
bodies from two species. The structures 
they describe are remarkably similar to 
one another and indicate that all antibody 
molecules may fold in the same character- 
istic way. The results of these investiga- 
tions confirm the predictions made about 
antibody structure on the basis of bio- 
chemical and immunological studies and 
should lead to a better understanding of 
antibody evolution and function. 

Crystallographers naturally need crys- 
tals to study; normal antibodies, however, 
can only be isolated as heterogeneous pop- 
ulations of molecules that will not crystal- 
lize and would not give usable data even if 
they did. To get around this problem, the 
four groups of investigators made use of 
the fact that certain tumors of plasma 
cells— the antibody-secreting cells— arise 
from the multiplication of a Single cell and 
thus produce only one kind of antibody or 
immunoglobulin molecule, often in large 
quantities. The tumors, which are calied 
plasmacytomas, may occur in mice and in 
humans who have multiple myeloma, a 
Cancer of the bone marrow. 

Although investigators have not yet 
been able to obtain crystals suitable for 
high-resolution x-ray studies of even these 
homogeneous immunoglobulins, certain 
portions of the molecules do form good 
crystals. One such portion is the lighter of 
the two kinds of Polypeptide chains that 
make up immunoglobulins. Patients with 
multiple myeloma may secrete large quan- 
tities of light chains (known as Bence- 
Jones proteins) in their urine. Two groups 
of investigators have performed their x- 
ray crystallographic studies on human 
Bence-Jones proteins. One includes Allen 
Edmundson, Marianne Schiffer, and Kath- 
ryn Ely of Argonne National Laboratory 
and Harold Deutsch of the University of 
Wisconsin; the other includes Robert 
Huber and his colleagues at the Max- 
Planck-Institut für Biochemie in Munich, 
Germany. 

The portion of the antibody molecule 
named the Fab (for fragment, antigen 
binding) fragment, because it contains the 
Site that binds the corresponding antigen, 
may also form the kind of crystals needed 
for x-ray crystallographic studies. Fab 
fragments are obtained by enzymatic 

26 SEPTEMBER 1975 



cleavage of immunoglobulins (Fig. I). 
Roberto Poljak and L. M. Amzel of the 
Johns Hopkins University School of Medi- 
cine obtained the Fab fragment they are 
studying from the blood of a patient with 
multiple myeloma, whereas a group of in- 
vestigators at the National Institutes of 
Health (NIH), including David Davies and 
Eduardo Padlan of the National Institute 
of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive 
Diseases and David Segal of the National 
Cancer Institute (NCI), obtained theirs 
from the antibody produced by a mouse 
plasmacytoma. 

The resolutions of the structures ob- 
tained by the investigators ränge from 
about 3 Ä to about 2 Ä. This is as good as 
current techniques — and the quality of the 
crystals examined— permit. With this de- 
gree of resolution, the backbone of the 
Polypeptide chain can be traced and some 
side chains of the large amino acids can be 
identified, but each atom cannot be distin- 
guished. For this reason the investigators 
have had to determine the amino acid se- 
quences of their proteins in order to inter- 
pret the x-ray crystallographic data and 
build molecular modeis. At NIH, this was 
done by Michael Potter and Stuart Rudi- 
koff of NCI; Potter provided the antibody 
being analyzed by Davies and his col- 
leagues. 

What is striking about the results of the 
crystallographic studies is that all of the in- 




Fig. I. Schematic diagram of an IgG molecule. 
The variable and constant regions of the light 
chain are represented by V^ and Gl, respective- 
ly. The variable and constant regions of the 
heavy chain are represented by V^^ and Ch 
Ch2, and €^3, respectively. Certain enzymes 
cleave IgG's in the vicinity of the "hinge" to 
form two Fab fragments and one Fe fragment. 



vestigators find almost the same folding 
pattern in every region or domain of the 
four antibody components they are study- 
ing. As is known from the work of Gerald 
Edelman of Rockefeller University, Rod- 
ney Porter of Oxford University, England, 
and the numerous other investigators who 
contributed to the elucidation of the chem- 
ical nature of antibody molecules, immu- 
noglobulins of the G class (IgG's) consist 
of two equivalent heavy chains, with a mo- 
lecular weight of about 55,000, and two 
equivalent light chains, with a molecular 
weight of about 20,000. (The researchers at 
Johns Hopkins, Argonne National Labo- 
ratory, and the Max-Planck-Institut are 
working with IgG components; those at 
NIH are studying an immunoglobulin A, 
or IgA. The overall structure of an IgA re- 
sembles that of an IgG but the two classes 
of immunoglobulins have different types of 
heavy chains.) 

Each heavy and light chain can be subdi- 
vided into domains on the basis of its ami- 
no acid sequence (Fig. I). A light chain has 
two such domains, one variable and one 
constant. The amino acid sequence of the 
variable domain varies from one antibody 
to another, whereas that of the constant 
domain is the same for all chains of the 
same type. An IgG heavy chain has one 
variable domain and three constant do- 
mains. The variable domains confer spe- 
cificity on the antibody molecule, and two 
of them— one from the light and one from 
the heavy chain — form the binding site for 
antigen. An IgG has two such binding sites. 
The amino acid sequences of the four con- 
stant regions display considerable similari- 
ty with one another. Those of the variable 
domains also have a number of similari- 
ties. There is little resemblance between 
the sequences of the variable and constant 
domains; however, they all contain approx- 
imately 1 10 amino acids and all have an in- 
ternal disulfide bridge. Edelman hypothe- 
sized that the domains, although having 
different functions, would have similar 
three-dimensional structures— and this is 
what has now been found. 

A Fab fragment, which consists of a 
light chain plus half of a heavy chain, thus 
contains four domains. In earlier studies, 
Poljak and Davies each determined the 
structures of the Fab fragments to a reso- 
lution of 6 Ä. They found that the frag- 
ments measure 40 by 50 by 80 Ä and con- 
sist of two globular regions of approxi- 
mately equal size (Fig. 2). One globular re- 
gion contains the two variable domains 
and the other the two constant ones, with 
the four domains arranged in a roughly tet- 
rahedral shape. 

1075 




Fig. 2. Molecular model of an IgG. The Fab fragments make up the arms of ihe "T." Fach can be 
Seen lo consist of two globular regions. The arrows show the pari of ihe antibody that binds antigen. 
The Fe fragment constitutes the leg of the "T." Since crystals suitable for determining the three-di- 
mensional structure of this portion of the immunoglobuUn molecule have not yet been obtained, the 
model was constructed by combining information about the known sequence of an IgG heavy chain 
with the newly determined three-dimensional structures of the constant domains in the Fab portions 
ofthe molecule. [Source: David Davies and Eduardo Padlan, National Institute of Arthritis, Metab- 
olism, and Digestive Diseases] 



The higher-resolution studies revealed 
that both variable and constant domains 
are cylindrical and that the antiparallel ß- 
pleated sheet is the predominant structural 
feature of both (Fig. 3). In this kind of 
structure the backbone of the Polypeptide 
chain is extended and the neighboring 
chains run in opposite directions. The ami- 
no acid side chains are oriented at right an- 
gles to the direction of the Polypeptide 
chain, with adjacent side chains appearing 
on opposite sides of the backbone. 

In each domain two layers of pleated 
sheet fold into a sandwich-like structure. 
One layer is composed of a four-segment 
sheet and the other has three segments. 
The disulfide bond is located between the 
layers and connects the same segment of 
the four-chain layer of all domains to the 
same segment ofthe three-chain layer. Hy- 
drophobie side groups flank the disulfide 
bond and fiU the interior of each domain. 
Variable domains usually have an addi- 
tional loop that is not found in constant 
domains and is not part of the sandwich 
layers. 

Despite the similarities in the three-di- 
mensional structures of the variable and 
constant domains, there is a major difTer- 
ence in the way the variable domains asso- 
ciate compared to the way the constant re- 

1076 



gions do. The former are in contact 
through their three-segment surfaces, 
whereas the latter associate through their 
four-segment layers. This requires that the 
constant domains rotate about 165° with 
regard to the variable domains. There 
is also a difference in the way the two 
chains ofthe Fab fragments are bent. Both 
bend in the area between domains but the 
heavy chain bends more than the light one. 
Although the Bence-Jones protein that 
Edmundson and bis colleagues are study- 
ing is equivalent to a Single light chain, 
they found that it crystallized as a dimer. 
Moreover, the dimer looks like a Fab frag- 




Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the three-dimen- 
sional structure of a human Bence-Jones pro- 
tein. The arrows represent the amino acid se- 
quences forming the antiparallel /t^-pleated 
Sheets. The dark bars represent the internal di- 
sulfide bonds in the constant (C) and variable 
(V) domains. [Source: Allen Edmundson, Ar- 
gonne National Laboralory] 



ment since one of the chains assumes the 
same conformation as the heavy chain 
does. This is surprising because the amino 
acid sequence of a Polypeptide determines 
its conformation, and yet here is a Situ- 
ation in which two chains with identical se- 
quences have different three-dimensional 
structures. 

Another important question about anti- 
body structure that the x-ray crystallogra- 
phers have answered concerns the nature 
of the Site that combines with antigen. It 
was known that the variable domains 
formed the site and that certain segments 
of amino acid sequences in these domains 
were more variable than others. These 
were calied hypervariable regions by Elvin 
Kabat of Columbia University Medical 
School and Tai Te Wu, now at Northwest- 
ern University, who found that they gener- 
ally center around amino acid residues 20, 
50, and 90 (as counted from the end of the 
Polypeptide chain that has the free amino 
group). On the basis of their immuno- 
logical and chemical studies, these investi- 
gators predicted that the hypervariable re- 
gions formed the antigen-binding site— 
and the current studies have now con- 
firmed this prediction. They show that the 
variable regions of the light and heavy 
chains fold and associate in such a way 
that the hypervariable regions are brought 
together to form a fairly large antigen- 
binding surface. The hypervariable regions 
are largely outside the regions constituting 
the pleated sheet framework of the do- 
mains. 

The investigators were aided in their 
analysis ofthe antigen-binding sites by the 
identification of small molecules or hap- 
tens that bind to them. Haptens, when 
complexed to large molecules such as a 
protein, will elicit the production of specif- 
ic antibodies. The Bence-Jones dimer acts 
like an antibody in that it too will bind 
haptens. 

The materials studied thus far have anti- 
gen-binding sites of different shapes. In the 
Fab fragment studied by Poljak and bis 
colleagues, the site is a shallow groove. In 
the one studied by the NIH investigators, 
it is a wedge-shaped cleft. And the Bence- 
Jones dimer has a conical site that termi- 
nates in a bulb-shaped pocket. 

None of the investigators observed a 
change in the conformation of their mate- 
rials as a consequence of hapten binding. 
Such a change might be expected because 
antigen binding to the variable domains in 
effect turns on certain activities ofthe anti- 
body molecule that are thought to be func- 
tions of the constant domains. The investi- 
gators point out that these experiments do 
not ruie out the possibility of such a change 
in shape. The haptens they use are small 

(Continued on page 1 1 14} 

SCIENCE, VOL. 189 



-^heiKt» 



DST of 30 mAf or greater. The Solutions 
were Tyndall-negative, thermodynamically 
Stahle, and Isotropie under crossed nicols 
at a magnification of x 500. By extrapola- 
tion, the data suggest that miceiles capable 
of cholesterol solubilization begin to form 
at 21 mAf DST, a figure similar to the crit- 
ical micellar concentration (CMC) of 
decanoylsarcosyltaurine as estimated by 
surface tension under somewhat different 
conditions (72). It can be calculated from 
the slope of the solubility line and the 
CMC under these conditions that 14 mole- 
cules of micellar DST are necessary to so- 
lubilize 1 molecule of cholesterol. In sim- 
ilar experiments, it was possible to estab- 
lish that 60 molecules of the bile salt so- 
dium taurocholate (NaTC) and 100 
molecules of the common paraffin chain 
detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 
were required to solubilize 1 molecule of 
cholesterol in mixed micellar Solutions. 

In a series of emulsification experi- 
ments, 0.5 ml of pure triolein was mixed 
with varying amounts of aqueous DST, 
NaTC, and SDS in water atpH 6.8, to give 
2 ml of total mixture. After vigorous treat- 
ment in a Vortex for 1 minute, the break- 
ing times of the emulsions were measured 
arbitrarily. DST and the bile salt were very 
poor emulsifiers, the emulsions breaking 
within 1 minute. However, SDS produced 
a relatively stable emulsion which persisted 
for several hours. 

Cholesterol is mixed with lecithin in 
both the crustacean and vertebrate in- 
testinal luminal contents {12, 18). The 
phase behavior of ternary Systems of mix- 
tures of cholesterol, lecithin, and DST in 
excess water was, therefore, determined 
(Fig. 3). The single phase micellar zone 
was defined and compared with that ob- 
tained when NaTC and SDS were sub- 
stituted for DST. The addition of lecithin 
(egg yolk, grade 1, Lipid Products, Surrey, 
U.K.) to each detergent increased choles- 
terol solubilization. Maximum cholesterol 
solubilization was 10 percent [percent = 
(moles cholesterol solubilized divided by 
the total moles of all lipids) x 100] for the 
System containing DST and lecithin, 6 per- 
cent for the System containing NaTC and 
lecithin, and 4.5 percent for the System 
containing SDS and lecithin. 

The concentration of the constituents in 
fasting intestinal juice of the crustacean 
species Cancer borealis was determined. 
The mean concentration of total solids 
equaled 6.9 g/lOO ml with 40 percent acid 
precipitable material. The total cation 
concentration was 335 mM, and the elec- 
trolyte concentrations resembled those in 
seawater (79), with 91 mg/dl of Mg and 49 
mg/dl Ca (20). The mean sterol concentra- 
tion was 0.06 g/lOO ml, and was shown to 
be exclusively cholesterol by hexane ex- 



traction and GLC-mass spectroscopy. The 
mean phospholipid concentration was 0.12 
g/lOO ml, and, as shown by TLC, con- 
sisted entirely of lecithin. Hydrolysis and 
GLC of the lecithin fatty acids (as methyl 
esters) established that approximately 50 
percent were saturated and monounsatu- 
rated C,4 to C20 even-chain fatty acids, 
with the remainder being C22, C24, and C26 
polyunsaturated fatty acids (27). A mix- 
ture of C,o to C|4 yV-acylsarcosyltaurines, 
lecithin, and cholesterol were the only 
constituents of deproteinated fasting in- 
testinal juice identifiable on TLC. No 
measurable hydrocarbons, glycerides, or 
free fatty acids were detected. When the 
relative concentrations of detergents, 
lecithin, and cholesterol from seven 
samples of juice from different animals 
were quantitated by conventional methods 
{22) and plotted on triangulär coordinates, 
all values feil within the predicted single 
phase micellar zone (Fig. 3). 

The results establish that crustacean in- 
testinal detergent is a very poor emulsifier 



^ 




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I 


1 


I 


I ■■ 


3 












• 


2 20 


- 










/• - 


ivi 












/ 


_j 










y 


/ 


CO 

=3 










./ 




— 1 










/ 















/ 




<r> 










/ 




ä '0 


- 






/ 




- 


et 








/ 






LU 








^ 






»- 








7 






to 








/ 






LU 








/ ^ 






_J 






/ 


' • 













/ 








I 






/ 








" 






./ 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


c 


) 


10 


20 
OST 


30 
(mM) 


40 


50 



of triolein but solubilizes both lecithin and 
cholesterol as mixed miceiles. The capa- 
bility for cholesterol solubilization by DST 
alone and in the presence of small amounts 
of lecithin is not only in excess ofthat of an 
analogous paraffin chain detergent (SDS) 
but also exceeds that of the vertebrate 
hepatic steroidal detergent taurocholate. 
However, the maximum capacity of DST 
for lecithin solubilization is much less than 
that of the bile salt (Fig. 3). For these rea- 
sons the shape of the micellar zone is sig- 
nificantly different when compared with 
that of taurocholate and SDS. The reasons 
for the greater cholesterol solubilizing ca- 
pability of DST as compared with SDS 
and taurocholate are not entirely certain. 
Superficially, both DST and SDS are 
straight-chain detergents with identical 
paraffin chains and acidic sulfate or sulfo- 
nate head groups. The interposition of the 
Peptide bonds and the carbon atoms of sar- 
cosine and taurine between the fatty acid 
and charged terminus makes DST a longer 
and more polar molecule than SDS. These 



Fig. 2. Cholesterol solubilization by DST. Dried 
mixturesof DSTand l'^CJcholesterol, total lipid 
concentration, 55 mA/, were hydrated in I ml of 
0. 15A/ phosphate buffer, pW 1.4, mixed. equili- 
brated for 24 hours at room temperature (23°C) 
under N2, and centrifuged at 25,000 rev/min; 
the cholesterol concentration was determined by 
scintillation counting of the clear supernatant. 
Cholesterol concentration in micellar Solution is 
plotted as a function of the DST concentration. 
Below an estimated DST concentration of about 
21 mM, the amount of cholesterol solubilized is 
unmeasurable. Once this concentration is ex- 
ceeded, the Solution concentration of cholesterol 
increases linearly. An estimate of the CMC of 
the System is given by the DST concentration at 



the intersection of the straight lines. The ratio of the number of DST to cholesterol molecules in 
micellar Solution is obtained from the slope of the steep part of the curve with correction for the 
concentration of DST molecules present as monomers. 




80 70 60 

DETERGENT % 



Fig. 3. Lecithin (L)-cholesterol (C)-detergent (D)-water phase diagram. Total lipid concentrations 
were 3 g per 100 ml in 0.1 5A/ phosphate buffer or 0.15A/ NaCl,/?H 7.4, 23°C. Mixtures of dried lipid 
were hydrated, mixed, equilibrated for 24 to 96 hours under N^, and examined under a slrong point 
light source by polarizing microscopy. The shaded area of the small triangle on the right shows the 
relevant segmenl of the phase diagram. The triangle in the center shows this segment expanded, with 
the Single phase micellar zone demarcated for the detergents DST (LI1--L]), taurocholate 

( • • ), or SDS (A — A). The encircled insert on the left shows the relative concentrations of 

cholesterol, lecithin, and DST in deproteinated, fasting C borealis gut juice (x). Note that all 
values fall within the single phase micellar zone. 



26 SEPTEMBER 1975 



1099 



properlies difTerentiale ihe physical chem- 
ical characleristics of DST from SDS. The 
CMC of SDS was 4 n\M under ihe condi- 
lions of ihese experiments, whereas ihe 
CMC of DST was 21 mA/, and choleslerol 
was more efficienlly solubilized by ihe 
longer DST molecule. The bulky hydraled 
head group should slabilize ihe DST mi- 
celle, and reduce ihe hydrophobic chain in- 
leraclions, ihus opening ihe palisade layer 
of ihe micelle for inleraclions wilh ihe 
bulky, nonpolar parls of slerols. For ihe 
same reason, ihe slrong, bulky, polar head 
group may render ihe molecules so soluble 
in waler ihal ihey are poor oil-waler emul- 
sitiers. The rigidily of ihe sleroidal hydro- 
phobic parls of simple bile sali micelles 
reduces iheir efficiency for choleslerol 
solubilizalion. However, once lecilhin is in- 
corporaled inlo ihe micelles, ihe acquired 
liquid hydrocarbon core increases choles- 
lerol solubilily signiticanlly (Fig. 3). 

Whalever ihe precise explanalion for 
those differences, ihe resulls eslablish ihal 
the cruslacean delergenl is nol an efficienl 
emulsiher bul exhibils a marked capacily 
to solubilize choleslerol and lecilhin as 
mixed micelles. While furlher sludies will 
have lo be performed lo see ihe effecl of 
free fally acid and olher consliluenls of ihe 
poslcibal inleslinal milieu on solubiliza- 
lion, our resulls supporl our hypolhesis 
thal ihese delergenls promole ihe in- 
leslinal absorplion of ingesied slerol. The 
high capacily of cruslacean delergenl for 
choleslerol solubilizalion ensures ihe 
mainienance of choleslerol in solulion in 
the exocrine secrelion of hepalopancreas 
even al low concenlralions of lecilhin, and 
promoles ihe efhcienl solubilizalion of 
dielary slerols prior lo absorplion. The re- 
sulls also suggesl ihal DST may serve as a 
model for delergenl replacemenl in bile 
sali deficiency Syndromes in humans. 

Roger Lester 
Department of Meäicine. University 
of Pittshurgh Schoul of Medicine, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 

Martin C. Carey 
Department of Medicine. 
Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and 
Harvard Medical School, 
Boston, Massachusetts 021 15 

JOANNA M. LlTTLE 

Lawrence A. Cooperstein 
Department of Medicine. University 
of Pittshurgh School oj Medicine 

Susan R. Dowd 
Protein Research Lahoralory, University 
of Pittsburgh School of Medicine 

References and Notes 

I. CR. Treadwell and C. V. Vahouny, in Handhook 
of Physiology, C. F. Code, td. (American Physi- 
ological Society, Washington D.C., 1968), vol. 3, p. 
72; A. F. Hofmann, ibid.. vol. 5, p. 2507; M. C. 
Carey and D. M. Small, Am. J. Med. 49, 590 
(1970). 



10. 



12. 
13. 
14. 



15. 



H. Daniellson, in Bile Sali Melaholism, L. SchitT, 
J. B. Carey, J. M. Dietschy, Eds. (Thomas, 
Springlield, 111., 1969), p. 91; in The Bile Acids, P. 
P. Nair and D. Krilchevsky, tds. (Plenum, New 
York, 1973), vol. 2, p. 1; E. H. Mosbach. Anh. In- 
tern. Med. 130, 478 (1972); G. A. D. Haslewood, in 
Handhook oj Physiology. C. G. Code, Ed. (Ameri- 
can Physiological Society, Washington, D.C., 
1968), vol. 5, p. 2375; M. C. Carey and D. M. 
Small, Anh. Intern. Med. 130, .SÜ6 (1972). 
H. O. Wheeler, Anh. Intern. Med. 130, 533 (1972); 
S. Nilsson and T. Schersten, Gasiroenterologv 57, 
525(1969); A. F. Hotmann and M. S. Mekhjian, in 
The Bile Acids. P. P. Nair and D. Kritchevsky, 
Eds. (Plenum. New York, 1973). vol. 2. p. 103; V. 
L. Sallee and J. M. Dietschy. Science 174. 1031 
(1971); W. G. M. Hardison and J. T. Apter. Am. 
J. Phvsiol. 222, 61 (1972); H. O. Wheeler and K. 
K. King, J. Clin. Invest. 51, 1337 (1972); R. H. 
Dowling, E. Mack, D. M. Small. ihid. 50, 1917 
(1971). 

H. J. Vonk, in The Physiology ofCrustacea, T. M. 
Waterman. Ed. (Academic Press. New York. 
1960). vol. 1. p. 291; Arch. Int. Phvsiol. Bio- 
chim. 70. 67 (1962); H. BrockerhotT, J. E. Stewart. 
W. Tacreiter. Can. J Biochem. 45. 421 (1967); H. 
BrockerhotT and R. J. Hoyle. ibid., p. 1365; 

P. C. Hwang.y. Fish Res. Board Can. 27, 

1357 (1970); A. H. A. van den Oord, thesis, Uni- 
versity of Utrecht ( 1965). 

Scientific Tables (Ciba-Giegy, Basle, Switzerland, 
1970). p. 498; A. Kanazawa, N. Tanaka, S. 
Teshima, K. Kashiwada, Comp. Biochem. Phvsiol. 
37,211(1971). 

A. H. A. van den Oord, Comp. Biochem. Phvsiol. 
13, 461 (1964); D. \. Zandee, Nature fLond.) 202, 
1335 (1964); Comp. Biochem. Phvsiol. 20. 811 
(1967); Arch. Int. Phvsiol. Biochim. 74, 435 (1966); 
L. Gosselin. ibid. 73. 543 (1965). 

D. R. Idlcr and P. Wiseman, Comp. Biochem. 
Phvsiol. 26. 1113(1968). 

A. H. A. van den Oord. H. Danielsson, R. Rvhage, 

Nature (Lond.l 203, 301 (1%4): D. A. Hol'werda 

and H. J. Vonk. Comp. Biochem. Phvsiol. 45B. 51 

(1973). 

S. Teshima, Comp. Biochem. Phvsiol. 39B, 815 

(1971); and A. Kanazawa, ihid. 38, 603 

(1971); A. Kanazawa and S. Teshima, Bull. Jap. 
Soc. Sei. Fish. 37, 891 (1971); M. Florkin and BT. 
Scheer, Eds., Chemical Zoologv (Academic Press, 
New York, 1970), vol. 5. pp. 24 j 242. 
A. H. A. van den Oord, H. Danielsson, R. Ryhage. 
J. Biol. Chem. 240. 2242 (1965). 

Comp. Biochem. Phvsiol. 17. 715 (1966). 

H.J. Vonk./^/V/. 29. 361 (1969). 

S. R. Dowd. J. M. Little. R. Lester. in preparation. 

E. KraiVl and H. Wiglow. Ber Deutsch. Chem. 
Ges. 28. 2566 (1895); F. Lachampi and R. Perron, 
in Tratte Chim. Organ., V. Grignard, G. Dupont. 
R. Locquin, Eds. (Masson & Cie, Paris, 1953), vol. 
22. p. 837. 

The apparent pK of DST was calculated by taking 
the pH corresponding to the point on the curve 
where half an equivalent o'i the delergent was ti- 
trated. The equivalent weighl was calculated from 
the gravimetric weight and the formula molecular 
weight of the delergent. Titration of the sulfonate 
group of the detergent was assumed to commence 
al the inllection point of the curve. 



16. F. Rosevear. J. Am. OH Chem. Soc. 31. 628 (1954); 
J Soc. Cosmet. Chem 19, 581 (1968); F. La- 
champi and R. M. Vila, Rev. Fr. Corps Gras 
(February 1969), No. 2, p. 87; J. M. Corkill 
and J. F. Goodman, Adv. Colloid Interface Sei. 2, 
297(1969). 

17. D. M. Small. M. C. Bourges. D. G. Dervichian, 
Biochim. Biophvs. Acta 125. 563 ( 1966). 

18. B. Isaksson. Acta Soc. Med. Upsal. 56, 177 (1951); 
ihid. 59, 277 (1953 54); thesis. University of 
Gothenberg, Sweden (1954); W. M. Admirand and 
S. M. Small. J. Clin. Invest. 47, 1043 (1968); 
M. C. Carey and S. M. Small, in Bile Acids in 
Human Diseases III, S. Matern and J. Hacken- 
schmidt, Eds. (Schattauer Verlag, Stuttgart, in 
press). 

19. Handhook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. West. 
Ed. (Chemical Rubber Company, ed. 54. Cleve- 
land.Ohio. 1973). F 186. 

20. A considerable physiological advantage may be 
provided by these straight-chain delergenls over 
bile salts in the presence of high concenlralions of 
divalent calions. K. Hofmann [thesis. University 
of Lund. Sweden (1964)] demonstraled thal the 
common vertebrate bile salts are readily precipi- 
lated from Solution by calcium salts. whereas we 
found thal synthetic DST in concenlralions found 
in crab juice was soluble in artificially prepared 
seawater. It is of inlerest thal better detergency in 
washing is reputed to be associated with delergenls 
with branched head groups [A. M. Schwanz and 
J. W. Perry. Surface Active Agents (Inlerscience, 
New York, 1949). pp. 102, 385], and a group of 
industrial delergenls (Igepons) which are mixtures 
of A'-acyl-A'-methyllaurines have been developed 
for use in condilions of acidity and hard waler in 
the lextile induslry [M. L. Kastens and J. J. Ayo. 
Ind. Eng. Chem. 42. 1626(1950)]. 

21. Marine crustacea. like olher marine animals. have 
high concenlralions of long-chain polyunsaturated 
fally acids in both tissue triglycerides and phos- 
pholipids [Fish as Food, G. Börgslröm. Ed. (Aca- 
demic Press, New York. 1961). vol. 1. pp. 164. 
213]. In the lobster hepalopancreas. these unsatu- 
rated fally acids are located predominantly al ihe 
2-posilion of triglycerides, phosphalidyl cholines. 
and phosphalidyl elhanolamines [M. Brockerhoff. 
R. C. Ackman. R. J. Hoyle. Arch. Biochem. 
Biophvs. 100.9(1963)]. 

22. C. R. Bartletl, J. Biol. Chem. 234, 406 (1959); J. J. 
Carr and I. J. Drekter. Clin Chem. 2, 353 (1956); 
L. L. Abell, B. B. Levy. B. B. Brodie. F. E. Ken- 
dall. J. Biol. Chem. 195, 357 (1952) (the concen- 
iralion of delergenls was calculated by the ditfer- 
ence between the deproteinized dry weighls and the 
analytical sums of choleslerol. lecilhin, and elec- 
trolvles in each sample). 

23. Supported by PHS grants AMHD17847, HD- 
08954, AM 11453. AM 18559. and AM01I28 and a 
grant from the Medical Research Foundation. 
Inc.. Boston. Massachusetts. Facilities of the Bio- 
physics Division. Department of Medicine. Boston 
University School of Medicine. and the Marine 
Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole. Massachu- 
setts, were used. We thank Drs. Klaus Hofmann 
and D. M. Small for their advice. assistance. and 
encouragemenl. 

12 May 1975 



Arteriovenous Anastomoses in the Skin of the 
Weddell Seal, Leptonychotes weddelli 

Abslracl. Arteriovenous anastomoses of epithelioid type were demonstraled in Wed- 
dell seal skin. The majori ty occurred Just heneath the epidermis and among the hairfol- 
licles. There was no significant Variation in density of these anastomoses between body 
and ßipper skin. These observations suggest that arteriovenous anastomoses are impor- 
tant in thermoregulation in the Weddell seal. particularly as heat dissipating structures 
when the animal is out of the water, and thal the entire body surface is involved rather 
than specific regions such as the flippers. 



In ihis reporl we describe ihe slruclure, 
dislribulion, and densily of arleriovenous 
anaslomoses (AVA's) of epilhelioid lype 
(/) in Ihe skin of ihe Weddell seal, Lep- 
tonychotes weddelli. To our Knowledge, 
AVA's have nol been described previously 
in Ihe skin of marine mammals, allhough 



iheir presence was suspecled in Iwo species 
of seals {Callorhinus ursinus and Phoca 
vitulina) by TarasotTand Fisher (2). 

Skin samples of a 2-day-old female pup 
and an adull female Weddell seal were 
laken from ihe dorsal midline belween ihe 
scapulae, and from ihe dorsal aspecl of ihe 



100 



SCIENCE, VOL. 189 



carpal region in the foreflipper, and fixed 
in 10 percenl neutral buffered formalin. 
Serial sections (6 ^m) were stained with 
hemaloxylin and eosin and examined to 
delermine the size, slruclure, and distribu- 
tion of AVA's. In the delermination ofthe 
density of AVA's, each anastomosis was 
identitied from its arterial origin through 
its epithelioid segment to its venous termi- 
nation, and its location was entered on a 
diagram of the skin sample to insure that it 
was counted only once. 

Arteriovenous anastomoses in the body 
and flipper skin of the Weddell seals re- 
sembled the simple type of AVA's de- 
scribed in the skin of other mammals (7). 
In the seal the anastomoses were C-shaped 
or slightly coiled vessels in which the char- 
acteristic segments, artery, epithelioid seg- 
ment, and vein could be recognized (Fig. 

1). 

Anastomoses occurred throughout the 
dermis and hypodermis, the majority (65 
percent) occurring superficially beneath 
the epidermis and among the hair follicles. 

In both the pup and the adult there was 
no significant Variation in density of 
AVA's between body and foreflipper skin 
(Table I). In the pup the AVA's were 
smaller, but of a higher density, than in the 
adult. Assuming that the total number of 
AVA's in the skin is established at birth, 
these differences may indicate merely a 



Table 1. Density of arteriovenous anastomoses 
(AVA's) in Weddell seal skin. 



Ani- 


Re- 
gion 


Skin area 
(cmO 




AVA's 


mal 


m 


{N/cm') 


Pup 
Pup 

Adult 
Adull 


Body 
Flipper 

Body 
Flipper 


0.049 
0.119 

0.098 
0.080 


69 
153 

93 

78 


1408 
1286 

949 

975 



relationship between density of AVA's and 
total skin area. 

The structure, distribution, and density 
of AVA's in the skin ofthe seal differ from 
those in a terrestrial mammal, the sheep. 
In the sheep, the majority of AVA's occur 
at the dermal-hypodermal junction, and 
the greatest complexity and density of 
AVA's is found in forelimb skin (i), which 
has been shown to have a thermoregula- 
tory function (4). In contrast, our study has 
shown that in the Weddell seal there is 
no dilTerence in structure, distribution, and 
density of AVA's in body and flipper skin. 
All the AVA's are relalively simple in 
structure, the majority are in a superficial 
Position just beneath the epidermis and 
among the hair follicles, and their density 
is many times greater than that in the 
sheep. 

Weddell seals inhabit Antarctic coastal 



waters associated with sea ice, where the 
water temperature varies little from its 
freezing temperature of 1.7°C (5). Heat 
stress in the aquatic environment is ex- 
pected to be virtually nonexistent, while 
heat conservation is of major concern. 
Seals are well adapted to conserve body 
heat, having a heavy blubber layer which is 
a most efl'ective insulator (6) and a vascu- 
lar pattern in the flippers that suggests a 
heat-conserving mechanism (2). It is un- 
likely that AVA's are involved in heat con- 
servation, as suggested by Tarasoff and 
Fisher (2), because they are too superficial 
to be efTective in this way. It has been dem- 
onstrated that general peripheral vaso- 
constriction in the extremities conserves 
body heat (7). However, on the rocks or ice 
where these seals haul out there is a wide 
Variation in ambient temperature, and heat 
stress can occur on occasions (<^). 

The high density of the AVA's in Wed- 
dell seal skin and their position superficial 
to the blubber suggest that they are impor- 
tant in dissipation of heat, particularly 
when the animal is out ofthe water. Dila- 
tion of AVA's accompanied by heat loss 
has been described in the ear of the rabbit 
(9). A similar relationship of AVA's to 
heat loss in the leg of the sheep has been 
suggested (i). In the seal, if the large num- 
bers of AVA's present were to open there 
would be a considerable increase in blood 





















V, -V , V ^ »■ \ '• ,, 

« ^^'''A/-^' 0.5mm ,'"' 



AX- 






TT^p-: 



itftfa 



.:.•' • 



-^" 






* 



. ,:■#*<% 



./\ 



Fig. 1 . (a) Dermal A V A in 2-day-old Weddell seal pup. A , artery of origin; EP, epithelioid segment; K, collecting vein. (b) Arrows show AVA's in flipper 
skin of a Weddell seal. Sections were stained with hemaloxylin and eosin. 



26 SEPTEMBER 1975 



1101 



circulalion ihrough ihe skin, allowing heat 
ioss. In this respect, our findings suggesl 
that dissipalion of body heal may occur 
from ihe enlire skin surl'ace or from local 
regions of it, rather than from spejific pe- 
ripheral areas such as thc flippers. 

G. S. Moi.YNELX, M. M. Brvden 
School of Anatomy, 
University oj Queensland, 
St. Lucia, 4067. Australia 

References and Motes 

1. S. von Schumacher, Anh. Mikrosk. Anal. Ent- 
wicklunii.utiech. 71, 58 (1908). 

2. F. J. TarasolT and H. D. Fisher, Can. J Zooi 4«, 
821 (1970). 



3. G. S. Molyneux, in Biology of ihe Skin and Hair 
Growih, A. G. Lyne and B. F. Short, tds. (Angus 
& Robertson, Syndey, 1965), p. 591. 

4 M. t. D. Webster and K. G. Johnson, Nalure 
f/,o/jJ.i 201, 208 (1964). 

5. J. S. Hart and H. D. Fisher, Fed. Proc. 23, 1207 
(1964). 

6. M. M. Bryden, Nature iLond.llOX 1299(1964). 

7. P. F. Scholander, Hvalradets Skr. 22 (whole issue) 
(1940). 

8. C. Ray and M. S. R. Smith, Zoologica 53, 33 
(1968).' 

9. E. R. Clark and F. L. Clark, Am. J. Anal. 54, 229 
(1934). 

10. This project was fmanced by a grant from the Aus- 
tralian Research Grants Commiltee, with field 
Support generously supplied by the National Sci- 
ence Foundation. Washington, D.C. We ihank R. 
A. Tedman Tor assislance with field collection of 
tissue samples and L. Bell lor lechnical assist- 
ance. 

lüFebruary 1975 



Color Vision and Brightness Discrimination in 
Two-Month-Old Human Infants 

Abstract. A red or white bar. emhedded in a white screen, was systematically varied in 
intensity. Infants consistently located and siared at the white bar unless it closely 
matched the screen in intensity. They also stared at all intensities ofthe red bar. presump- 
tivelv including the red-white brightness match, and hence must have someform of color 
Vision. 



If an organism can discriminale a col- 
ored light from a "white" lighl, solely on 
the basis of their ditTerence in wavelength 
composition, then the organism is said to 
have color vision (/). In this report we 
present evidence that 2-month-oid human 
infants can make such a discrimination. 

It has been demonstrated severai times 
that infants can discriminate between ob- 
jects or lights having different wavelength 
compositions (2). The difficulty lies in 
proving that the discriminations are being 
made on the basis of wavelength (or chro- 
matic) differences rather than just on the 
basis of infant luminance (or brightness) 
differences. 

Infants' spectral sensitivity curves the 
relative sensitivity to different wavelengths 
of light— are known to be quite similar to 
those of human adults, especially in the 
middle- and long-wave regions ofthe spec- 
trum (i). Hence a heterochromatic bright- 
ness match made by a color-normal adult 
provides a good first approximation to the 
brightness match for an infant, but does 
not guarantee the complete elimination of 
brightness differences. 

Our approach toward eliminating the 
brightness cue was to use a long wave- 
length (red) light and test the infant's ca- 
pacity to discriminate it from a white light. 
We Started from the adult red-white bright- 
ness match, and explored a ränge of rela- 
tive intensities centered around this match. 
We explored this ränge in small enough 
intensity 5/ep>9 to ensure that in at leastone 
casethe red and white lights would have 
to be indiscriminable in brightness for the 
infant. If the infant could discriminate 

1102 



between red and white for all of the rela- 
tive intensities used (including, then, which- 
ever one is a brightness match), the infant 
must have color vision. 

It is extremely likely that, for red light, 
the ränge ±0.4 log unit around the adult's 
red-white brightness match will some- 
where contain each individual infant's red- 
white brightness match (i). Thus, we chose 
intensities about 0.4 log unit above and be- 
low the adult brightness match as the end 
points of the ränge, for a total ränge of a 
little more than 0.8 log unit. 

In Order to choose the size of the in- 
tensity Steps needed for detaiied exam- 



c 



80 



o 



o 



£ "Oh 



Q. 



Wide 
white bars 



Karen (N 34) 
• »Free (N 43) 



V 



% 80 
O 



White bar 



"t 



*Katrina (N 36) 



t 



J- 



-04 -02 00 +02 +04 

Log relative luminance of bar or bars 

Fig. 1. (Top) Brightness discrimination func- 
tions in Iwo 2-month-old human infants, Karen 
and Free. Zero on the abscissa represents ihe in- 
tensity at which a sei of wide white bars 
matched a surrounding white screen. Both in- 
fants are sensitive to very small intensity differ- 
ences. (Boltom) Same as top, but the four wide 
bars were replaced by a Single narrower white 
bar, and a third infant, Katrina, was used. The 
brightness discrimination funclion is broadened 
somewhat. The plus marks (-}-) indicale data 
collecled during ihe last day's session. 



ination of the 0.8 log unit ränge, we de- 
cided to leave color aside temporarily, and 
find out how sensitive the infant is to small 
brightness differences, using only white 
lights. 

In this experiment, each of two 2- 
month-old female infants {4) was held 34.5 
cm from a 0.1 log miam white screen of a 
color temperalure of about 2650°K. An ob- 
server watched the infant's face through a 
peephole in the center of the screen. On ei- 
ther side ofthe peephole (centered 1 6.5 cm, 
or 24.2°, laterally) four vertical rectangular 
openings (8.4 by 1.2 cm, or 13.9° by 2.0°) 
were cut in the screen. The openings 
formed four cycles of a square-wave grat- 
ing of about 0.25 cycle/deg. 

Diffusing screens were located about 10 
cm behind the openings, and could be inde- 
pendently back-illuminated. On every trial, 
the back illumination was arranged to 
make the light Coming through one set of 
openings match the screen in brightness 
and hue, so that the screen looked virtually 
homogeneous (to us) on that side of the 
peephole. The light from behind the other 
set of openings could be set to a variety of 
intensities, above or below that of the 
screen, and formed (for us) a set of readily 
visible bars. The intensity of these bars, 
and the side on which they were presentcd, 
varied randomly across trials. 

When the intensity of the bars differs 
enough from that of the screen, an infant 
will Stare fixedly in the direction ofthe bars 
(5), and this behavior forms the basis of 
our response measure (6). The observer, 
looking through the peephole, was not told 
the Position or intensity of the bars. On 
each trial, the observer was required to 
judge the side on which the bars were lo- 
cated by observing the pattern of the in- 
fant's eye and head movements. If the ob- 
server performs bettcr than chancc at judg- 
ing the location of the bars, it follows that 
the infant can see the bars. Thus, percent 
correct on the part of the observer was our 
dependent measure and above-chance val- 
ues indicate that the infant sees the Stimu- 
lus. When the intensity of the bars ap- 
proaches that of the screen, the infant's 
staring behavior becomes random and the 
observer's Performance drops to chance. 

Figure I (top) shows the observer's per- 
cent correct in naming the position of the 
bars, as a function of the log relative lumi- 
nance ofthe bars. For intensity differences 
of about 25 percent (0.1 log unit) and 
above, the observer's Performance was al- 
ways 90 percent or better. Of the in- 
tensities we used, only the increment of 5 
percent (0.02 log unit) above the back- 
ground intensity was small enough that the 
infants faiied to stare at the bars. Under 
the Stimulus conditions of the experiment, 
then, the U-shaped dip in the discrimina- 

SCIENCE, VOL. 189 



tion function ihe intensity ränge yielding 
near-chance Performance -is remarkably 
narrow. For example, the width at 65 per- 
cenl correct in these data is only about 0.08 
log Unit (7). 

The very sensitive brightness discrimina- 
tion shown here is sufficient to raise serious 
doubts about previous studies claiming evi- 
dence of color vision in human infants (2). 
In those studies, if the slimuh were mis- 
matched in brightness to the infant by only 
a few percent, the infants may have re- 
sponded on the basis of brightness and not 
hue (or Saturation). These data then dem- 
onstrate the need for rigorous brightness 
controls in color vision experiments. 

Next, we altered the Stimuli in a way 
that we hoped would reduce the infants' 
Performance on the brightness discrimina- 
tion task. The four wide white bars were 
replaced by a single narrow vertical white 
bar (8.4 by 0.6 cm, or 1 3.9° by 1 .0°). 

The data from one infant, Katrina, are 
shown in Fig. 1 (bottom). With the narrow 
bar, the bottom of the U-shaped brightness 
discrimination function was made a little 
broader. For the infant tested, the observ- 
er's Performance remained at chance 
across at least 0.075 log unit (from ^.015 
to +0.06 log unit around the matching in- 
tensity), and the width of the curve at 65 
percent correct is about 0. 1 log unit. 

In our third experiment, we replaced the 
white bar with a red (Kodak Wratten No. 
29; dominant A = 633 nm) bar. As dis- 
cussed above, we assume that at some in- 
tensity within ±0.4 log unit of an adult 
brightness match, the infant's brightness 
match should occur. If the infant has no 
color vision, her Performance should drop 
to Chance at her brightness match, and the 
infant should generate a U-shaped func- 
tion identical to her white-bar function. 
Furthermore, if the infant has a brightness 
discrimination function like that in Fig. 1 
(bottom), then exploration of the 0.8 log 
unit ränge of intensity of the red bar, in in- 
tensity Steps of about 0.1 log unit or less, 
ought to be sufficient to find the U, if it ex- 
ists. If no dip to chance Performance oc- 
curs, one can conclude that the infant has 
color vision. 

In the color vision experiment, 12 in- 
tensities of the red bar were used (8). They 
spanned the ränge around the adult hetero- 
chromatic brightness match in steps of 
0.085 log unit or less. In addition, four in- 
tensities of white light were used, to estab- 
lish the brightness discrimination function 
(see Fig. I, bottom) for each individual in- 
fant. 

Figure 2 shows the data from two in- 
fants. The lower graph shows the observ- 
er's percent correct with the four white 
Stimuli. The data are very similar to those 
of Fig. I (bottom), and verify the adequacy 

26 SEPTEMBER 1975 



^ 80 

o 

« 

o 

u 



T^ 



Red bar 



TT 



* 






! • 



S 40> 



a. 



o 



80 



40 ir 



White bar 



• Barbara,.. -,.. 



J_ 



-0.4 -02 00 +02 

Log relative lummance of bar 



J^^ 



+04 



Fig. 2. (Top) Color vision in iwo 2-month-old 
human infanls, Barbara and Lyndi. A red bar 
replaced the white bar of Fig. 1 (bottom). Zero 
on the abscissa indicales the log luminance of 
the red bar needed for a (heterochromalic) 
brightness match to the white screen, for two 
color-normal adults. The above-chance Per- 
formance al all poinls shows that both infants 
could discriminate the red bar from the white 
screen, across a wide ränge of luminances. 
Hence both infants must have at least dichro- 
matic color vision. For the plus mark (-}-), see 
(9). (Bottom) Brightness discrimination func- 
tions (as in Fig. I, bottom), for the two infants 
whose color vision was tested. 



of the 0.085 log unit step size for the red 
Stimuli for these individual infants. 

The Upper graph shows the data collect- 
ed with the red bar. For all intensities, with 
both infants, the observer's percent correct 
remained clearly above chance (9). Both 
infants can discriminate the red bar from 
the white screen for all intensities tested, 
providing very strong evidence that these 
2-month-old infants have some form of 
color vision. 

If an organism can discriminate between 
any single pair of lights (such as a red and 
a white light) on the basis of a dilTerence in 
wavelength composition, then the orga- 
nism must have at least dichromatic color 
vision. It follows that at least two receptor 
mechanisms of differing spectral sensitiv- 
ity, plus the neural circuitry necessary to 
compare the Outputs of the two receptor 
types, must be functional in that organism. 
The data of Fig. 2 indicate that 2-month- 
old human infants are at least dichromatic. 

If an organism can discriminate every 
wavelength of light from white light, then 
the organism is at least trichromatic, and 
must have at least three functioning recep- 
tor mechanisms. Color-normal human 
adults are trichromatic (/), as are 6-week- 
old macaque monkey infants (/Ö). Clearly, 
the present data do not establish whether 
or not 2-month-old human infants are tri- 
chromatic. Discrimination data using 
wavelengths from all spectral regions will 
be necessary to test this question. 

The present data allow us to infer that 
all of the neural Clements necessary for at 
least dichromatic color vision, and for re- 
markably sensitive brightness discrimina- 
tions, are present in 2-month-old human 



infants, and, conversely, that any Clements 
of the System which are not yet present are 
not necessary for these visual functions. 

David R. Peeplhs, Davida Y. Teller 
Psychology Department, 
University of Washington. Seattle 98195 

References and Notes 

L T. Cornsweet, Visual Penepiion (Academic Press, 
New York, 1970), pp. 155 267; G. Brindley, Phvsi- 
ologv of the Retina and Visual Pathwav (Arnold, 
London, ed. 2, 1970), pp. 199 259. 

2. W. Chase, J. Exp. Psychol. 20, 203 (1937); M. 
Bornstein, J. Exp. Chilä PsxchoL, in press; J 
Eagan Hl, Science 183, 973 (1974). See also W. 
Kessen, M. Haith, P. Salapalek, in Carmichael's 
Manual of Child Psvchologv, P. Mus.sen. Ed. 
(Wiley, New York, 1970), vol. 1, p. 287; B. Wooten 
and J. Eagan \ll, Science 187,275(1975). 

3. D. Trincker and L Trincker, in Behavior in Injancv 
and Early Chitdhood, Y. Brackbill and G. Thomp- 
son, Eds. (Eree Press, New York, 1967), p, 179; D. 
Teller and D. Peeples, paper presenled at the 
spring 1974 meeting of Association for Research 
in Vision and Ophthalmoiogy, Sarasota, Elorida, 
and report in preparation; V. Dobson. thesis, 
Brown Universily (1975). Eor red light (about 635 
nm) the latter iwo studies show that infants and 
adults differ in relative spectral sensitivity by no 
more than 0. 1 5 log unit. 

4. Eemale infants were used in all experiments to re- 
duce the probability that a color-blind infant 
would be tested inadvertently. Sex and availability 
were our only Screening crileria; no subjects were 
discarded. The infants were run in five lo ten I- 
hour daily sessions, within a 1- to 2-week period, 
between the 58th and 75th postnatal days. 

5. R. Eantz, J. Ordy, M. Udelf, J. Comp Phvsiol. 
Psychol. 55,901 {\962). 

6. This forced-choice preferenlial-looking. or "peep 
and teil," technique is described fully in D. Teller 
etal., Vision Res. 14, 1433 (1974). Typically one of 
the authors was the observer, and the other held 
the infant. A naive observer was used to generate 
the data of Lyndi in Eig. 2, and in some instances 
the infant's molher held the infant. The person 
holding the infant could not see the Stimulus dis- 
play and thus could not provide cues about the Po- 
sition of the bar or bars. Corneal reflections of the 
bar or bars were not visible to the observer. 

7. The brightness discrimination functions are asym- 
metrical, in the sense that both infants were more 
sensitive to small decrements than lo small in- 
crements of intensity. The asymmelry occurred 
with all infants tested. This suggesls that the in- 
fants' responses are not governed solely by the lo- 
cal contrast between the screen and bars but 
rather by some more global aspect of the overall 
Stimulus configuration. The asymmelry in the in- 
fants' behavior is similar to adult supra-threshold 
responses: there is a greater subjective brightness 
difference between a dim center and a bright Sur- 
round than between a bright center and a dim Sur- 
round [see E. Heinemann, y. Exp Psvchol. 50, 89 
(1955); H. Wallach, ihid. 38, 310 (1948)]. The in- 
fants in the first experiment reveal very high sensi- 
tivities to brightness differences. The two infants 
show a 67 percent correct discrimination at a 3 
percent (0.015 log unit) contrast decrement. a level 
of sensitivity higher than that of previous reports 
[for example, J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, E. Brad- 
dick. Naiure ILond.j 241, 403 (1974); J. Doris, M. 
Caspar, R. Poresky, J Exp. Child Psychol. 5, 522 
(1967)]. The plus marks ( + ) in Eig. 1, bottom, in- 
dicate data collecled during the last day's session. 

8. Eor each day's session six intensities of the red bar 
and two intensities of the white bar were used. In 
one type of session, the leftmost and every aller- 
nate intensity in Eig. 2 (top) were used, plus the 

0.19 log unit and the +0.06 log unit white in- 
tensities. In the other type of session, the remain- 
ing six red and two white intensities were used. The 
type of Session was counterbalanced across days. 
Within a session, the position, color, and intensity 
of the bar were randomized. 

9. With one of the infants, Lyndi, at one relative in- 
tensity of the red bar (-»-0.365 log unit) the observ- 
er's Performance feil to 70.6 percent. A retesling of 
this value at the end of the experiment yielded a 
percentage of 91.2, which is indicated by the plus 
mark ( + ) in Eig. 2. 

10. R. Boothe et al.. Vision Res., in press. 

11. Supportcdby PMS grant EY00421 to D.Y.T. and 
PHS postdoctoral fellowship EY04085 to D.R P 
Wethank H. Lai, .1. Poli. and M. Bell for labora- 
tory assistance. and Drs. .1. Schaller, V. Dobson, W. 
Makous, N. Weisstein, D. Yager, T. Cornsweet, and 
J. Eagan III for comments on the manuscript. 

7 April 1975 

1103 



Strange Females Increase Plasma Testosterone Levels 
in Male Mice 

Abstract. Male house mice paired with a normal female for l week do not have higher 
plasma testosterone levels than do males that remain in all-male groups, but paired males 
have markedly elevated testosterone levels 30 to 60 minutes after the resident female is 
replaced by another female. Elevation of testosterone levels in these males is similar to 
that in isolated males paired with a female, does not depend on copulation with the 
Strange female. occurs under housing conditions that permit continuous exposure to the 
odors ofotherfemales and males, and does not occur when the resident female is replaced 
by another male for 30 to 60 minutes. The elevation thus appears to be a specific endo- 
crine response to an encounter with a stränge female. These results, along with previous 
findings suggesting that stränge males affect endocrine function infemales, indicate that 
bisexual encounters are likely to produce endocrine changes in members ofboth sexes. 



Exteroceptive Stimuli from males can al- 
ter endocrine function in females (7). Ex- 
posure to the odor of males accelerates the 
onset of estrus in female mice, and can 
block pregnancy (implantation of fertilized 
eggs) in mated females. Pregnancy block 
does not occur when females continue to 
be exposed to the odor of their individual 
studs, and therefore the block has been 
described as an endocrine response to a 
Strange male. Pregnancy block by ex- 
posure to Strange males also has been re- 
ported in the nonmurid deermouse and the 
vole. Recent studies indicate that sex-re- 
lated Stimuli can affect endocrine function 
in males as well as females. Exposure to 
females or copulation (or both) have been 
reported to elevate plasma testosterone (T) 
levels in rats, rabbits, hamsters, rams, 



bulls, monkeys, and men (2). In the studies 
with rats, rabbits, hamsters, and bulls, 
copulation is not required for a rapid in- 
crease (within 30 to 60 minutes) in plasma 
T levels. In male hamsters, rapid increases 
in plasma T foUowing exposure to vaginal 
odor can be comparable in magnitude to 
those following physical pairing with 
females. Thus the odors of the opposite 
sex can be adequate Stimuli for altering 
endocrine activities in both males and 
females. 

In this study we determined the short- 
term effects of an encounter with a stränge 
female on plasma T levels in male mice un- 
der conditions intended to minimize such 
possible general effects of female odor on 
the male hypophysiogonadal axis. We re- 
port that male mice paired for 1 week with 



30 1— 



25 



20 



E 
n 



c 



15 



10 







Grouped 
males 



Paired 1 wk 
with 9 



Isolated 
1 wk 



P<05 — ' Paired with Paired with 

Baseline (stränge) 9 (f 

30-60 min 30 60 mm 
Fig. 1 . Mean testosterone levels for six groups of male house mice; NS, not significantly differenl (4). 



a female, and permitted continuous ex- 
posure to the odors of other normal fe- 
males and males in neighboring cages, ex- 
hibit high T levels 30 to 60 minutes after 
the resident female is replaced by another 
female. The rapid T elevation does not de- 
pend on copulation with the stränge fe- 
male, and does not occur if the resident fe- 
male is replaced by a male. 

Subjects were random-bred house mice, 
Mus musculus, more than 55 days old. 
They were housed in stainless steel cages 
(22 by 22 by 13 cm) with wire tops, in a 
common room with a lighting schedule 
of 14 hours light, 10 hours dark. Plasma 
T levels were determined by radioim- 
munoassay (3). The assay has a sensitiv- 
ity of approximately 50 pg of T, and an in- 
tra-assay coefficient of Variation of 8 per- 
cent. Blood samples (one per subject) were 
collected approximately at the middle of 
the light period by cardiac puncture with- 
out anesthesia. The housing conditions 
permitted common exposure of subjects to 
odors in the room, and only the number 
and sexes of subjects in individual cages 
were varied. Average T levels were deter- 
mined for males that (i) remained caged in 
all-male groups of three to five since wean- 
ing, (ii) were removed from all-male 
groups and paired with a normal female 
for I week, and (iii) were isolated in a sepa- 
rate cage for I week. For some of the 
paired subjects, the resident female was re- 
moved 30 to 60 minutes before blood col- 
lections, and either another female was in- 
troduced or male-male pairs were formed. 
For some of the isolated males, single fe- 
males also were introduced into the cages 
30 to 60 minutes before collections. All fe- 
males were caged in groups of four to five 
prior to pairing with males. Weither males 
nor females had previous sexual experi- 
ence. The females that were presented to 
the isolated males or replaced the resident 
females of the paired males were not recep- 
tive during the 30- to 60-minute exposures 
and did not copulate. None of these fe- 
males had vaginal plugs after their short 
exposure to males. 

Mean plasma T levels and Standard er- 
rors for the six conditions are illustrated in 
Fig. 1. Subjects that remained in all-male 
groups had an average T level of 7.8 ± 2.2 
ng/ml. The mean T level after pairing with 
a female for I week was not different from 
that of grouped males {P > .05), whereas 
males that were isolated for I week did 
have a higher mean T level {P < .05). As 
expected from findings in other species (2), 
isolated males exposed to a female for 30 
to 60 minutes had a higher mean T level 
than isolated males that were not present- 
ed with a female {P < .01). Paired males 
similarly had elevated T levels 30 to 60 
minutes after the resident female was re- 



1104 



SCIENCE. VOL. 189 



Coenzyme A 

and Derivatives 




Coenzyme A[3H(G)] NET-455 

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RESEARCH NEWS 

(Cunlinued from page 1076) 

(phosphorylcholine al NIH, a derivative of 
Vitamin K at Johns Hopkins, and 2,4-dini- 
truphenyl groups at Argonne) compared to 
ordinary antigens, and they interact with 
only a few residues in the combining site. 
They might miss the ones involved in trig- 
gering conformation changes. Further- 
more, the antibodies were studied in the 
crystalhne State, and the results may not be 
appUcable to what happens when the pro- 

teins are in Solution. 

At least one group of investigators, in- 
cluding 1. Z. Steinberg and J. Schlessinger 
of the Weizmann Institute of Science in 
Rehovot, Israel, has evidence that anti- 
bodies in Solution undergo a conformation 
change when they bind antigen. They 
determined the elTect of antigen bindingon 
the circular polarization of fluorescence of 
antibodies. The investigators observed 
changes only with large antigens and not 
with phosphorylcholine. 

The picture of antibody structure emerg- 
ing from all this is one in which certain Seg- 
ments of both variable and constant do- 
mains form a structural framework that 
has changed little throughout the course of 
antibody evolution. Several investigators 
pointed out that the resemblances in the 
three-dimensional structures of the differ- 
ent domains support the hypothesis that 
they all originated from duplication of a 
Single primordial gene. When changes in 
amino acid sequences did occur in the 
framework regions, they were such as to 
not markedly disturb the basic folding pat- 
tern. On the other band, alterations outside 
of this framework, for example, in the hy- 
pervariable regions of variable domains, 
can give rise to antibodies with different 
specificities, Alterations in the non- 
framework sequences of constant domains 
would permit the evolution of domains ca- 
pable of performing different functions. 

Because of the similarity between the 
Bence-Jones dimer and the Fab fragments, 
Edmundson thinks that the dimer may rep- 
resent a prototype for a primitive anti- 
body, and a possible intermediate in the 
evolution of the four-chain immunoglobu- 
lin molecule. He suggests that the rotation 
of the constant domain relative to the vari- 
able one was a critical step in the evolu- 
tionary process because it means that dif- 
ferent amino acid residues would be 
needed for maintaining the association of 
each domain pair. Those not involved in 
the interaction would necessarily also be 
different and hence the domains could 
evolve to perform different functions. The 
eventual result would be Immunoglobulins 
with the structures and functions that we 
know today.—jEAN L. Marx 



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my. Dr. Wilson, Route 2, Box 575, Russell Springs, 
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SCIENCE, VOL. 189 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



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CONTENTS 



Edmund Leach. Melchisedech and the emperor: kons of Subversion and orthodoxy 
(Presidential Address 1972) 



Page 



L, L. Cavalli-Sforza. Origin and differentiation of human races 
(Huxley Memorial Lecture 1972) 



• • • • 



• • • • 



15 



Mary Douglas. Self-evidence 
(Henry Myers Lecture 1972) 



• • • • 



• • • • 



27 



James Urry. Notes and queries on anthropology and the development offieldmethods in British anthropology, 45 
1 870-1 920 (Hocart Prize Essay 1972) 



List of Officers and Council of the Royal Anthropological Institute . . 



59 



Report of the Council for the year ending 31 December 1972 



Accounts for the year ending 31 December 1972 



• • • • 



60 
68 



ORIGIN AND DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN RACES 

Huxley Memorial Lecture, 1972 

L. L. Cavalli-Sforza 

Stanford University 



Evolution is the transformation of species through 
time; but it is also the formation of differences among 
populations of the same species (or among species) 
that occupy differing environments. The two pheno- 
mena — differentiation in time and space — are naturally 
complementary aspects of the same process. Palaeont- 
ology has demonstrated that evolutionary trans- 
formations take place slowly; genetics has shown why 
this should be so. It is not at all surprising, therefore, 
that in human evolution long periods of time can 
elapse before substantial changes take place. Actually, 
some of the transformations characteristic of the 
evolution into Hom o (such as the trebling in the c apa- 
city of the hominid sku ll in a coü^j e^of million years) ^ 
are among the fastest evolutionary changes observed. 
When we look at the Variation between the human 
ethnic groups now living, we are amazed by the 
magnitude of such Variation. In particular, skin 
colour inevitably impresses us very deeply, being a 
conspicuous, though in many respects superficial, 
difference. Other traits, mostly facial ones, are well- 
known aids in diagnosing the racial origin of an 
individual. Even a child learns soon to distinguish a 
white man from a black man or from an oriental. But 
when many more 'races' are distinguished, assign- 
ment of an individual to one of them on the basis of 
his external attributes is usually less successful. A test 
on this basis of the validity of taxonomies of human 
races has not been done. Probably, if one tried to 
allocate an individual, on the bas is of his or h er 
external appearance, to one of theC thirty o r so r aces^ 
which GaTn(19^D— dktinguishes, fbr inslariöe,^the 
diagnosis woCflZTb&'in error relatively often. Most of 
the difficulties for taxonomy of human races arise from 
the fact that no matter how races are defined almostjQo 
measur able trait shows rea lly sharp discontinuities 
from one^race j toTheoe xEIÜn a map m'üsttrgiTs^^e 
they ^nthropometrics or gene frequencies — show 
gradual TfarisiTTSfi?~or patterns'^'öT'cfmaPvariation 
This suggests that during human evolution the extent 
of Crossing must have been fairly large. Naturally 
ethnic maps will show this clinal behaviour if in our 
analysis we concentrate on aboriginal populations 
and avoid those known or suspected major dis- 
placemerTfe' ovef^tHelasr iwe^^Ru ihdr^^ or so. 

Otherwise we are confronte3~with extensive hetero- 
geneities. There are many communities of blacks and 
orientals and caucasians living ^de_by,si4e_irL_mail^ 
countries with \py little, if a;iy-4fttefmixtüre:^SocTäl 

•DT 



b arriers^ to interbreüdtng have^in some ^jases ^rviveü 



over the short time elapsed since these migrations took 
place. 

The traits which the man-on-the-street recognises 
overlap largely with those used in what might be called 
cla ssical physical anthro^ ojogy, Many of these traits 
are likely to represent an adaptive response to the 
environment. Which of the many environmental 
factors may have been important in shaping the 
phenotype is still di fficult to _ass£ss. However, it is 
likely that climate has been a dominant factor. Even 
if the evidence is incomplete, it seems reasonable that 
skin colour, body build, hair colour and shape and 
even some facial traits (eyeli ds, nose_s b^aj3£^ and 
nostrils, etc.) all varied (Tnder climatic selecj 
pressures. They all affect the* body ^g ui {d^z "^Vmch is 
the major physical Interface of the body with the 
environment. But surface characteristics are also those 
which are most conspicuousJlis no wonder that we 






are impressed by the magnitude of ethni c differefree ^ 
that we see. ^ ^T^ ^^ " 

On the other band, the possibility should be kept in 
mind that at least part of these superficial differences 
may be simply the outc ome of se xuaLs dectioru Dis- 
crimination between the^clapta^ört and the sexual 
selection hypotheses is ndreasy and must await more 
detailed investigations of the physiology of these 
traits than are now available. 

There are various reasons why these 'conspicuous' 
characters are not the best choice for an evolutionary 
analysis of the origin and history of formation of 
human races. The first is that, for the reasons just 
stated, they are unlikely to be a random sample of 
genetic differences existing between races. Only a 
random sample would ensure that these differences 
are^epresentative of the total gene tic difference s that 
exist. The second is that^Mrc-^nHeritance of these 
conspicuous traits is usually complex, with many 
genes often determining a given trait; for instance, 
skinjioleür differences between-Afncans and Caucas- 
ians^&fe due to at least four gene fixations (Harrison & 
Owen 1964; Stern 1970). The th1rd is that they are 
often subject to phys^^ical or sh ortjgr m adapta- 
tions, so that these traiTsmay vary durmg^e lifetime 
of an individual as a function of the environment in 
which he lives. Even if a high heritability has been 
shown for some of these traits (e.g. s^^ikfre, or the 
cephalic iodex) sh ort-term changes d_ue,to environ- 
mental effects canTioF'Be^excluHeHand have in fact 
been demohsffäled.Thüs~, differences observed between 
populations with respect to these traits do not neces- 



15 



V 



sarily reflect genotypic differences. Finally, there is 
reason to think that character s representing enyi ron- 
mental.^daßtations, evenTf inherited, may be of little 
value for the purpose of evolutionary analysis. This 
point will require some further explanation. 

The main hope of reconstructing the phylogeny of a 
group when palaeontological evidence is not available, 
is to m^asure geneti.c_dj.fi£j:£nces that allow us to 
evaluate flie^irne since Separation oft wo (or m ore) 
populations. A tree ot descertt bäsed on times^since 
Separation can then be built. There are, of course, 
many limitations to the conclusions that can be 
reached in this kind of analysis. The populations may 
not be sharplyjeparated ; some intermigration may 
have beerTToccurring and later fusions may blur the 
picture. The rate of evolution must be constant for the 
computation of Separation times from observed 
divergences to be valid. This is not necessarily true 
even if we consider a large sample of genes. But we 
are more likely to satisfy the requirement that the 
observed genetic^ißg rence is prop ortion al to the time 
since separationo£j^vo_^opiüations, iFwe consider 
genes that' undergo a~M^an3om' type of evolution 
(Cavalli-Sforza 1973). Random genetic drift and 
selective drift (Kimura 1954) come closer to this 
expectation, as I will discuss more fully in the next 
section. The Situation beomes more complicated when 
there is an adaptation to local environmental condi- 
tions. For genes whose Variation is principally in 
response to differpnt environmental niches, the rate 
of change depend-^on the difference of the intensity of 
selection in these niches: the phenotypic response will 
reflect the environmental differences or similarities 
rather than the Separation time. 

It is known that fairly similar but geographically 
separated ecological environments have been occupied 
by populations of quite different origins. The tropical 
forest in Africa was occupied by Africans, in India 
and south-east Asia by people of Caucasian and/or 
mixed or of Asian origin; in New Guinea by south-east 
Asians, and in central and south America by American 
Indians. Some Australian aborigines, Africans and 
American Indians have occupied arid areas and savan- 
nahs in their respective continents. There are some 
phenotypic similarities in body build and pigmentation 
of these widely different groups occupying similar 
habitats, which can perhaps be viewed as examples of 
convergent or parallel evolution. 

It is likely that the simijarity of populations evolving 
in similar, but geographically separated, environments 
is higher at the phen otypic (anthrop ometric) than at 
the genotypic levei; as d^flerent genes may have 
brought about supe^Äqaljy simil^r^henotvmc re- 
sponses to a common selective stiVnuTürinmnerent 
populations. An example which may help to^nder- 
stand this concept is that of res|stance_toj]ia]aria. It is 
true that evolutionary convergence has occurred, as 
one finds, for instance, in the case of sickle cell anaemia 
in Asia^ Africa and Eurppe. But ma^^TaHaptatlbn 
has ^olved'Tn other populations t^ouring thalas- 




saemia (at two diff'erent loci) ipstead of^ he sic kle 
cerräi^aemia genes and in other still uSPD, of which 
there exists a great variety of .alleles with different 
geographical distribution. This may reflect, but only in 
part, diff'erences in the parasites against which resist- 
ance is developedTTiTötTiersituations as well, genetic 
analysis may indicate that there is agreatva£ig_ 
gengtig res ponse s to similar envirdairTienlii Stimuli. 
Tff^^a^ptaTions to similar environments may off'er 
Problems of^y\^uiionßi^^.2^isA^^s^thai can be mor^^ 
easily understk^^'when g enes rath er than phenoti;^^2^ 

are studied. 'j^ C^^^^ 

These considerations on one hand generate the 
desire to study evolutionary divergence between 
human races at the level of smgje gene differences, 
and on the other add interest to the understanding of 
the relative role of evolutionary faciors, m particular 
drift^and selection, in^determining chan^s in the 
:enV frequencies of human pbpulationsl^We will 
ortTy evaliiate tlie evidence on the latter problem. 

Mechanisms of biological evolution in man 

A first re quirement mentioned for studying evolu- 
tionary divergence between human races is the jglec- 
tion of a random sample of genes. We come dosest 
to this require^menl Tf we"select Polymorphie genes, i.e. 
those for which more than one allele has been shown 



to exist at a substalitlal trequency in at least one 
Population. The choice of a 'substantial' level is 
somewhat arbitrary, but in practice this usually means 
that in addition to the most common allele there is at 
least one other with a frequency of not less than 1 per 

Cent. ' "~^ — 

Our data on populations will then consist of 

U/fre£uenciesof_^^ as many poly- 

Vmorphic genes as possible. In the majority of cases, 

the differericesjjetween races for frequency of alleles 

of a gTven gene are moderate or ^mall. Only a few 
J/loci— Gm and Fy— whtclT show an unusually high 
^^^ariation between races, approach this limit. This 

immediately indicates that thegenetic^iüfiGererices 



jy between races cannot bejarge, br elseThere would be 

' ^ such^dS^sT "^ 

Measures of genetic difference or distance will 
therefore be based on diff'erences between the fre- 
quency of the given allele between two (or more) 
populations and usually averaged over all alleles and 
loci. A number of logi-Cgenes) in man, above 50, has 
been shown to be" poly morplT Jc with a number of 
alleles varying froni_2_t£LOver^30j)er locus. Data are 
not yef ävailible for a sufficient variety of populations 
for all the loci and analysis has to be restricted today 
to polymorphisms, which are better known. A great 
variety of measurements of * genetic j^ance' have 
been suggested; the choice between them may diff"er 
somewhat depending on the purpose (Cannings & 
Cavalli-Sforza 1973). 

We will here^^onsider- -die. Yajiance_o^fjj£queücies 
of aiTaliele between racial gro^s^ncluding at least 



16 




e three major ones). This variance,( a^ djvided by 
— p), where p is the mean fr^cmajcVnfthat allele 



all groups, is a suitable measuTeTor comparing the 
Variation of dififerent alleles. Calling it f = ^^/pCl -p)» 
we expect this quantity to be the same for all alleles 
for which random genetic drift is the main cause of 
evolutionary divergence. If drift were the only cause, 
the value of f could also be predicted on the basis of 
demographic information or 'effective' population 
sizes (Ne; for an explanation of Ng, see Cavalli-Sforza 
& Bodmer 1971) and migration coefFicients between 
populations (m). When studying the genetic Variation 
between villages located at close distance, it is found 
that drift (Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1964; Cavalli-Sforza 
1969a; Bodmer & Cavalli-Sforza 1972) can account 
essentially for all the Variation. Here, however, 
environment is very similar and demographic data 
for the last few generations may be adequate. When 
comparing racial groups that occupy virtually the 
whole World, environmental Variation and therefore 
selection conditions are likely to vary considerably 
over Space (and time). Demographic data would be 
required for a very long period, but such data do not 
exist and at most Orders of magnitude can be guessed. 
For ethnic groups widely separated geographically, it 
is likely that intermigration is close to zero and can be 
neglected. The predict ion of^ ^JLhen depends on 
population sizes Ne^ and trme since Sepa ration. Over 
shoiTlHTies and^^FoT populations of equal size Ne, the 
value of f is approximately equal to t/2Ne, where t is 
the time of Separation in generations. Actually, the 
times of Separation involved in racial differentiation 
are too large for this simple formula to be valid. 
Formulas covering less simple cases are given else- 
whereby Cavalli-Sforza (1969b) and Cavalli-Sforza & 
Bodmer (1971). If the ethnic groups whose Separation 
is studied were of sizes Ne= 10*, 10^, the f values that 
would be expected for various Separation times are 
given in table 1 . 

The ränge of population sizes chosen in table 1 
derives from our present uncertainty as to the popula- 
tion sizes of the major ethnic groups during most of 
the history of human racial differentiation. Even if 



Table 1 

f value expected under random genetic drift for 
various population sizes (Ne) and Separation times (t). 

No intermigration. 



Time t of Separation 


Ne=10* 


Ne=10^ 


in generations 


in years 


200 

400 

1,000 

2,000 

4,000 


5,000 

10,000 

35,000 

50,000 

100,000 


0-01 
0-02 
0-05 
0-15 
0-23 


0-001 

0-002 

0-005 

0-01 

0-02 



such estimates were known, however, we would not be 
allowed to use them directly. If geneticjdivergence 
were d ue mostW or entirely to dnlfTT weTcoüld expect 
all f values to ße equal, or, m practlce, show a modest 
degree of Variation, but this does not seem to be true 
(Cavalli-Sforza 1966; Lewontin & Krakauer in 
press). 

Figure 1 shows that considerable variations in f 
values are observed. Variouskinds of natural selection 
may j)e r esponsibl e. We niay constder^as~exa!TrpTes : 
(1) StaETlising selection (usually, selection in favour of 
heterozygotes), which would lower f values with respect 
to those due to drift but by an amount which is not 
large; (2) Disruptive selection (selection different in 
different environments); (3) 'Selective drift' (selection 
varying at random in time and space). Both the last 
two factors increase the f values above the level of 
drift. 

Because of these considerations and the uncertainty 
of Ne values, an estimate of times of evolutionary 
divergence is not possible. However, an alternative 
possibility is available if one can use a time yardstick 
for separations that have been dated by archaeo- 
logical means. The amounts of evolutionary divergence 
allocated to such separations can then supply an 
estimate of rates of evolutionary divergence. If such a 
rate is constant, it may be used for dating separations. 
One time yardstick available is that of the migration 
of Arneri can Indians into America , which has vari- 
ously "BeerT placed between 10,000 and 25,000 years 
ago. Using this as a rough yardstick, with all the 
uncertainties that are associated with such an estimate, 
the earliest^ssiün in human racial divergence (leading 
to the two most widely different groups — Africans and 
Eastern populations, the latter being the hetero- 
geneous group formed by all populations living around 
the Pacific, from Australian aborigines to Orientais 
and American Indians) has been dated between 
25,000 and 100,000 years ofage (Cavalli-Sforza 1969b). 
Increased knowledge available today may permit us 
to refine this estimate and reduce its wide ränge of 
error. It is interesting that this estimate is not incon- 
sistent with the notion that modern man appeared on 

WORLD VARIATION QT GENE FREQUENCIES 



0^ 

P4 



0.5 






















Lm 

I 


O.M 
























0.3 




















«1 




0.2 


















0.« 


r 




0.1 

0. J 


Kell 


"^(Lv 


Gc^ 





A 


MS 
B 


Ns 


Diego 


HP^ 


*a 





Figure 1 . World Variation of gene frequencies for some human 
alleles. The measure of Variation given on the ordinate is the 
V quantity f as explained in the text. 



17 



X 



y \ 



the World scene, as judged from skeletal remains, at 
least 50,000 years ago. The extension of modern man 
to the Old World (mostly Asia and Africa) may have 
been fairly rapid and the differentiation into major 
races may have started soon thereafter. 

If the Separation b etween rac es is of the order of 
j)r5 0,000 yea rs, as"tTie ^palaeontological'cfäta'would sug- 
ge'st, then the median f välue^observed in fig. 1, which is 
approximately 0-1, would be somewhat inferior to 
that expected under drift alone if Ne=10^ and 
definitely higher if Ne= 10^. If the first value is correct, 
then selection forces of the stabilising kind must have 
prevailed. If the second, higher value of Ne should be 
accepted, then other kinds of selection (disruptive 
selection or selective drift, or both) prevailed. All types 
of selection are likely to be present, in any case, 
considering the ränge of f values for individual 
alleles. The lowest f values observed would correspond 
then to genes mostly subject to stabilising selection 
and the higher f values to genes subject to disruptive 
selection. 

Estimation of the effective population sizes Ng rele- 
vant to racial differentiation in man would demand 
much better archaeological knowledge than is 
available today. An upper limit is fixed by using the 
estimate of world population (perhaps 1-10 million) 
during the last 50,000 years, before the onset of the 
neolithic, which increased population sizes and thus 
to some extent froze the effects of drift. The estimate 
of 1-10 million people for the whole world has to be 
decreased multiplying it, l)bya factor of 1/4 to 1/3 to 
account for overlapping generations; 2) by a further 
factor, which is most difficult to assess but may ränge 
from 1/10 to 1/100. This second factor should take 
account of the fact that the Ne being estimated is not 
that of the model population, but a fraction of it, 
namely the average for the ethnic groups being com- 
pared. The problem of definition of 'groups' is com- 
pounded by the difficulties of finding reasonably 
Sharp discontinuity in gene frequencies between 
groups, as mentioned earlier. 

If the groups have had migratory exchanges of 
some magnitude, f will be lower than the values 
given in table 1, which are computed on the assumption 
of no intermigration, and will not tend to 1 but to an 
Upper limit smaller than 1, whose magnitude depends 
on the amount of migration. In the simplest Situation, 
with groups of equal size Ne and migration m, the 
Upper limit of f is approximately l/(l+4Nem), 
applying Wright's island model. The median value 
(fig. 1) is f=OT ; for such a value of f, an upper limit 
to the migration m must be of order 2/Ne, or eise f 
could not reach a value as high as the observed one. 
Migration of this magnitude is small, but it refers to 
whole ethnic groups, which are usually sizeable. This 
migration may be of two kinds: 1) migration of large 
groups of people moving collectively from one terri- 
tory to another in search of better environmental 
conditions. 2) A short-range migration due to 
exchange of individuals between neighbouring tribes, 



which probably took place even across language 
barriers. It is more difficult to anticipate the magnitude 
of the collective type of migration; as to the latter, the 
individual type of migration, it may be large between 
nearest neighbours but it would be mostly restricted 
to the periphery of large ethnic groups where they are 
in contact one with the other. Thus, migration of the 
individual type evaluated for a whole, large ethnic 
group is likely to be small. The existence and extent 
of intermigration in palaeolithic times should not be 
underestimated, however, considering the surprising 
homogeneity that can sometimes be seen in material 
culture over wide ranges. 

From the above considerations, the estimates of Ng 
for an ethnic group between 10'* and 10^ are not 
unrealistic, confirming that the observed mean f of OT 
is not far from that expected under drift alone; but an 
even more considerable uncertainty remains con- 
cerning the effects that intermigration between groups 
may have had on this quantity. Perhaps independent 
approaches will help in the future to solve this 
problem. 

In an analysis of evolution of domestic cattle in one 
specific instance, it could be shown that the f values 
observed (between 0-03 and 0-07) are very close to 
those expected under drift alone. The divergence 
investigated was that between Norwegian and Ice- 
landic cattle where the time of Separation is well 
known (approximately 1000 years) and demography 
relatively well known (Kidd & Cavalli-Sforza in press). 
It should be noted, however, that the environmental 
conditions in the cattle breeds being compared after 
the Separation are relatively close, thus making the 
expected contribution of disruptive selection, which 

. would tend to inflate f values, relatively modest. 
Moreover, under domesticjliün^natural selection may 

' be less forceful than for wild populations. In the case 
studied, the role of drift relative to natural selection 
may have been higher than it would be in general. 



Phylogenetic analysis based on genetic polynwrphisms 

The usefulness of g£jifi^ic_polymr>rphisms for under- 
standing human racial Variation was clearly recognised 
laps for tMJxst-Uiae..byJjii:szljdd_.ajTd^^ 

'ho analysed ABO blood group frequencies 
"variety of ethnic gfo^s. The information Coming 
from the other polymorphisms that have since been 
discovered were analysed and compared with classical 
anthmpol^gical knowledge in Llie3k)neering efforts of 
Bo)^(195^and of Mourant(0954ijThe monumental 
wori^^sTMourant has been the greatest effort to date 
to bring t^g^wra^very large body of information. 

In collaboration with Anthony Edwards (1963; 
1964; 1967), we tried the phylogenetic analysis of 
/human races or th^jce^onstruction of a tree of descent 

We worked out suitable 
rorTand applied them to data on 

^]/lJ2te24Si2ilPy^^^"^^ for a total of 20 alleles, from 
fifteen populations chosen to \epreselit^~die whole 





18 



Origin — 



• Australian (Central) 
New Guincan 



*— Korean 



Venezuela Indian 



Eskimo (Victoria 1) 
- Arizona Indian 



Maori 



41 



Gurkha (Nepal) 

Veddah (Ceylon) 

Swedish Läpp 

"" South Turk 



English 

(- Tigre (Ethiopia) 



c 



Banlu 



Ghanaian 



FiGURE 2. Evolutionary tree computed from blood-group gene 
frequencies. (From Cavalli-Sforza & Edwards 1963.) 



worLirFigure 2 shows the results of this early analysis. 
Irseparates clearly the three African groups from the 
three European groups, with Asiatic, American 
Indian and Oceanian representatives occupying the 
other end of the tree and forming a more heterogen- 
eous group. Coon (1963), commenting on our analysis, 
thought it reached essentially the same conclusions 
that he did, without using m athema tjc al t e chni 4mes. 

The picture thus obtätiied didliot agree all that well 
with a reconstcuclion attempted along similar lines 
usi ngj£diropometric^^ta~aT^^ 
foT^nstance, populations as "diverse in origin as 
A merican Indians^ d Europeans. The analysis^ased 
upoh anthropometric?~^ai^dmittedly carried out 
with imperfect Statistical techniques due to a lack of 
information on the correlations between characters, 
but this shortcoming was not necessarily the major 
cause of the discrepancy. 

A related analysis was repeated ten years later by 
JÜdiL> The tree shown in fig. 3 is based on a tree 
obtained by him to which 1 have added (with the 
collaboration of Sgaramella-Zonta) a few more 
populations in order to increase comparability with the 
earlier analyses. All these populations, and therefore 
the data, are independent of those used in the first 
analysis, but they were chosen according to similar 
criteria. They represent aboriginal populations of the 
five continents, all typed for a number of the best 
known polymorphisms. In addition to the five loci 
originally employed (ABO, MN, Rh, Fy and^ego), 
four markers (Hp, Tf,'TCTVlirAlCy were add'ed? The 
results are essentially the same. In addition, as noted 
by Kidd, this tree shows even more clearly that the 
control branches are shorter. It may be questioned 
how any branch of a phylogenetic treecan be 'central', 
as in a tree representation every node can be rotated at 
will. We find it convenient, however, after a tree has 
been generated to rotate its branches so as to maxi- 
mise the correlation of the order of populations with 



Simcku (Mclancsia) 



■A 



Malaq (Australian Aboriqine) 

A\akir)tarc 

^ CS. Am. Indian) 
Chinese ^^^ \ \ 

^Cakchiq^uel (C.Am.Indian) 
Läpp (Norway) 

u^To^^'^l^nbal 'indian 
Konda RcddiJ 

Indian (Andhra Pradcsh) 

Norwccjian 

Irish 

Towara (S.Sinai) 



•4 



/ 
ßushmcn 

Bantu 

Pyqmy (R.C.A) 

FiGURE 3. A tree of 15 populations, 3 per continent, recon- 
structed on the basis of 9 loci. Three populations were added 
to the 12 used by Kidd (in press). 



the first principal component. When this is done, the 
central branches belong to populations which are 
located more centrally also from a geographic point 
of view. They have had, therefore, more chances for 
admixture, which tends to reduce the length of the 
branches. In addition, they have also undergone an 
earlier increase in population size, mostly connected 
with the development of early agriculture, which also 
tends to decrease the rate of Variation due to drift. 

In additionS^E3I(T97l> has carried oiiLaa^nalysis 
of the crarnopietric ^^\ ^ collected by^j gwelis^ on a^ 
large sam'pleof skulls of diflferent racial groups. The 
tree using craniorneTfic data shows one major differ- 
ence with respect to the tree obtained for genes. The 
general gradient is more along a north-south, rather 
than an east-west axis. For instance the tig^rifrom 
craniometry conj igc ts Afn cans with Atßtralians, 
which m tTiegenetic tree tend to'WnTsTead at opposite 
poles. Probably, the craniometric data indicate 
adajgtations to climatic conditions. If this interpreta- 
tion IS cöfrecf, TT shows at once that information 
expressing adapt^tionJo_diQerent environments may 
teil more about si milarity of env ironments than 
similarity of origin. The importance of u^ng *random' 




19 




Variation for phylogenetic purposes is further stressed 
by this comparison. 

Reconstruction of trees of descent is satisfactory if 
certain postulates are met on which the estimation 
methods depend (Edwards & Cavalli-Sforza 1963; 
Cavalli-Sforza 1966; 1973). We cannot yet be certain 
that such postulates are fully satisfied. The rna jor 
postulate is that the measurement of g^n^tic distanj 
employed is proportional to separati3ir--tnTr^rThis 
can be more easily achieved if Wmajor source of 
differentiation is random. Knowledge that drift is an 
important part of the sources of Variation helps to 
reinforce belief in the results. Even so, the precision 
of the analysis depends on the number of independent 
characters used. With the number of genes actually 
employed, a tree with fifte en po£ ulationsJias_aJairly 
lar^geerrorj thre^ to five" exchänges between neigh- 
bouring branches of the tree may be expected between 
the tree inferred and the 'true' one. Increase in 
available data on polymorphisms will undoubtedly 
improve the accuracy of reconstruction. 

The impact of plant and animal domestication on human 

evolutioi 

Th^eoHthi^arted aboij/tjen thousan d yea^ s ago, 

j>hundredth 

. Sil 



beginning a period which i^ per 
of the whole history of the genus 



aps^ 



/ 



Jince that 



time we have started growing in numbers and are 

today over threebUHt 

The inn^vaüonwhich initiated or at least made 
possible this tremendous increase in population num- 
bers was the d omestication of plants and a mmals. 
Several centres of origin of domesticates are known 
today, some more and some less accurately defined. 
Figure 4 is slightly modified from Harlan (1971) who 
has called centres those which are small and clear-cut 
and non-centres those that appear to be broader. It 
seems reasonable to assume that the 'centres' are the 
better known ones, while poorly known ones are 
'non-centres' in Harlan's terminology— most prob- 
ably for lack of archaeological information. But even 
for the best known 'centre', that of the Ne^t-^Eftst, in 
which wheat-.i|arl£^ sheep and gpats were initially 
domesticStedy^ffiepin^fJointing m a Single centre is 
difficult, and the expectation of a Single centre com- 
mon to all these is probably misleading.'- 

The development of domestication has had a 
considerable demographic impact. The carrying 
capacity of the land may have increased, on average, 
by a factor of at least 10 and possibly 50 or 100. A 
number of demographic, ecological, social, economic 
and genetic consequences were to follow. We are 
primarily interested here in genetic consequences. 
They are of two orders: 1) numlaei:§__of_people^ 
increased, and this may have determined considerable 



1 :- öOö-^^J_ 







-a 



r/. 






J 



Figure 4. The centres of origin of agriculture indicated in black and other less well-known centres indicated in the hachure areas 
(after Harlan). 



20 




changes in gene frequencies as a form of intergroup 
selection, by differential growth in different areas; 
2) food and mode of life changed, and with them 
selecti vg pres sures altered. 

'he demographic changes accompanying plant and 
anomal breeding have spread, along with farming, 
from its centres of origin to almost all corners of the 
earth, except for a few areas of mostly inhospitable 
land, where hunters and gatherers still remain and have 
so far resist«d-ftcculturation (or elimination). 

For a^eneticistNone question of importance is: is it 
farming'' that spfead or the farmers themselves? In 
the first case we would be dealing with an expansion 
of people who carried and spread their own genes 
with them. We have called this 'demic dijfusion' in 
contrast with cultural or Stimulus diffusion (the case 
that farming rather than farmers, spread). The two 
mechanisms, demic and cultural, are not mutually 
incompatible, and a better way of phrasing this 
Problem would be that of assessing the relative 
importance of the two. It is clear, however, that 
the first mode of spread, the demic one, has more 
radical genetic consequences, even though the cultural 
spread as well would not be without them (i.e. 
through possible changes in selective pressures). But 
there should be enough differences that the two modeis 
should be kept distinct if possible. In fact, under 
demic diffusion all genes may be influenced, while 
only a few would be under the second model. 

Archaeologists have gone for one or the other of the 
two alternatives without exploring many aspects of 
either of the interpretations. The accumulation of 
evidence on the first appearance of early farming in a 
number of locations, mostly in Europe but also else- 
where, has made it possible to follow one type of 
approach. This was done in collaboration with A. 
Ammerman (1971 ; 1973) and consisted of measuring 
the rates of spread of early farming using radiocarbon 
estimates of the dates of its first appearance in various 
parts of Europe. 

An appropriate measurement of the rate of spread 
was suggested by a study by Skellam (1951) who 
extended to ecology a theory originally devised by 
R. A. Fisher (1937) for the spread of advantageous 
genes. The model prepared by Skellam provides an 
analytical description of demic diffusion in that it 
shows the spatial expansion of a population under the 
combined action of growth and migration. In Skel- 
lam's model, the former is assünted tt>-be logistic and 
the latter analogous to Brownian motion. Under these 
conditions, a frontier tends to form which moves 
forward in all directions at an essentially constant rate, 
which is a function both of growth and migration rates. 
The rate of spread has been computed (Ammerman & 
Ca vafc>t örza-497-!-r in press) to be approximately 
(ne kmpervear and was found to be essentially 
olTSTarfrov^r spa^re^afwhtime. The constancy of the 
te is, of course/Ttot absolute, being subject to some 
ocal fluctuations. Another way of evaluating the 
(Constancy of the rate is to interpolate isochrones of 



first arrivals by fitting with least Squares a surface of 
sufficient flexibility to the data. If the simple hypothe- 
sis of a constant rate were true, the surface fitted 
would give isochrones circular around the central area 
of origin, with a radius increasing proportionately 
with time. The surface interpolated (fig. 5) shows 



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FiGURE 5. The spread of early farming from the Near East 
to Europe. A surface has been interpolated by least Squares to 
first arrival dates obtained by radiocarbon (uncorrected). 
The lines indicated are isochrones for the years before present 
given in the figure. The data are the same used by A. Ammer- 
man and L. Cavalli-Sforza (1971) but some new sites have been 
added and a more general type of surface has been fitted, which 
does not assume the hypothesis of the constant rate of spread. 
The isochrones are limited to the ränge for which archaeological 
data are available. 



isochrones that do not dififer too much from this simple 
expectation, reinforcing the notion that the rate of 
advances has been by-and-large constant. 

All these interpolations (some 70) were based on 
)carbon values related to first appearance of early 

Ihing in differe nt ^parts of Europe. Radiocarbon 
date?^5Te7iot corrected for the secular trends recently 
shown by comparison with absolute dating from tree 
ring data (see, e.g., Suess 1970; Dämon et al. in press); 
but in the time ränge here considered, 8,000 to 5,000 
B.c., the net eflfect would be essentially a shifting back 
by an almost constant amount of about 800 years. 
An exact evaluation of this correction is in progress. 
Data from outside Europe, dating the expansion in 
other directions (i.e. Asia and Africa) are too few to 
be really useful, but are in general agreement with 
ideas of an outward spread. 

The discovery of a constant rate of expansion does 
not in itself lead to an answer to the question of how 
the spread of early farming took place. Mathematical 
modeis and expectations could be employed if one were 
looking at the question of the spread of an epidemic or 
a rumour (Kendali 1948; 1965), or, in this case, of an 
Innovation by Stimulus diffusion, that are fuUy similar 



21 



to those we have just seen for demic diflfusion. But 
one possible method of testing the hypothesis suggests 
itself, for the rate of advance can be predicted under 
the model of demic diffusion, once its components 
(i.e. growth and migration rates) could be measured. 
In fact, the expected rate of advance of the front is 
approximately proportional to the geometric average 
of the growth and migration rates, suitably measured 
(see Ammerman & Cavalh-Sforza in press). This 
supplies a way of testing the relative importance of the 
demic diffusion hypothesis, as one can, given suflficient 
knowledge of growth and migration of early farmers, 
predict the rate of advance and compare prediction 
and Observation. 

^ It is clear that early farming was accompanied by an 
in crease in population density and hence, by popula- 
tiorPpowin; and that early rarming, as in cases of 
swidden agriculture, often entails frequent short-range 
migration. Thus, the farmers as such were likely to 
spread, but was the rate of the farmers' spread 
sufficient to justify the total rate of expansion observed 
or is part of the expansion cultural? This question 
den^ands^ greater knowledge of early farming than is 
today availaBTe: Hints that the orders of magnitude are 
compatible with expectation for demic diffusion are, 
however, available from Ethnographie estimates. 

The change involved in a7eTT?nTce--oft--dtTmesticates 
for maintenance clearly cannot have occurred over- 
night. It may have required a long period of transi- 
tion which in a way has never been completed — we 
all still depend to some extent on hunting, especially 
fishing and even some kind of gathering as sources of 
food. The transition to farming was no doubt asso- 
ciated with changes in birth and death rates of early 
farming populations: otherwise growth would not 
hai:e occurred. Mos ^hunters and gatlierers_living 
^^a5^l^V£-50cialJ^ustams which keep their birth rates 
ratfiier low and matching their death rates^with the 
result that the net growth rate is close fo^zgro. A 
similar Situation may have prevailed thfoughSm most 
of the Pleistocene. Thus, at the time of growth 
following the beginning of doj^i^ication of plants and 

^y^'-Si^S^ls, something must have cfialtgkrx-eiTlTjflTfe 
birth rate went up or the death rates went down or 
both phenomena happened. Rirt h pU tj>^ are largely 
controlled in man by .social c usf ^T nrrmäior roles are 
played by such thingsasag?^marriage an d birt h 
intervals. From palaeo-antTiropt nugical ubS ervatj 
(Angel 1969; 1971) it may be possible that th<^ 
between successive births among early farmürs' oi 
Turkey was less than three years (Ammerman et al. in 
press). But among hunters and gatherers living today 
it is close to foür yeaTsJseeXavalli-Sforza 1972; Lee 
1972). Perhaps^'öTfe'TyPthe most convincing rationales 
for this behaviour is that among hunters and gatherers 
who are nomadic, young children can be observed to 
travel more or less continuously with adults. While a 
child of three can follow the parents, a younger one 
has to be carried and a mother cannot carry more than 
one infant. This appears to increase birth intervals, 



; 




which in effect implies a lowering of fertility rates. It 
is ^miUuipwn in_ detail how a b irth interval of four 
yeaVs is obtainedin practice; proTö^ige^ lact^onTfray" 
l/'contribute (Skolnick & Canning^ '1972]7^l5Ln~f^ not 
^^ sufficient since even under extreme conditions of 
'prolonged lactation, menstruations have practically 
always resumed 2-3 years after pregnancy (Bonte & 
van Baien 1969). Sex taboos, abortions, infanticide, 
or perhaps other methods still are conscious or 
subconscious factors potentially contributing to 
birth ^ 2acii2g.Jhere is probably less need for such 
Imitations to birth intervals among farming commun- 
ities. Here a high fertility is usually desired on econo- 
mic grounds, in order to increase m^npower availay 
for farm work and as an insurance fm^ld age, "which 
is perhaps reached more easily under a farming 
rather than a hunting-gathering way of life. A decrease 
in birth interval from four to three years can increase 
the birth rate by a factor of almost one third, and the 
net reproductive rate from nearly zero, which seems 
to be characteristic of hunters and gatherers, to a 
high value. In order to compute the intrinsic rate thus 
achieved, however, one needs information also on age- 
specific death rates, which of course may also have 
been affected by the transition to agriculture. Espec- 
ially away from tropical areas, the availability of 
easily stored food may have contributed to lower 
winter mortality. Available ethnographic data indicate 
that human populations which occupy an empty land 
can multiply at the rate of about 3 per cent. per year, 
which reprt^spnts; roiighly a doiihlinp in population 
size evefv generation o^ twenty-fivj 



(Birdsell 

1957; Roberts 1971). 

One of the ways that populationjensity can be kept 
from becoming ^x^essiye in tHecontext of population 
growth is l^irpjjLglyTTTgrat]^. In addition to population 
growth ratest migration rates are needed in order to 
evaluate the expected rate of advance of the frontier 
under the demic model. It is more difficult, but perhaps 
still possible, to compute migration rates from 
archaeological data, once the problem is clearly posed. 
We have no figures to offer as yet; if we use instead 
data from modern populations (e.g., African forest 
farmers), it is interesting that the values obtained, in 
conjunction with growth figures, yield very nearly 
the observed rate of advance. This agreement may be 
accidental, of course, and figures derived from direct 
archaeological sources, if possible, are the only ones 
that can be relied upon. Moreover, the approach 
through comparison of observed and expected rates 
(computed from demographic data on population 
growth and niigfation)Tsm3treet>^or a more complete 
Solution of uhe problem, g enetjc^N^a ta should be 
analysed with\his problem in rrütRt:'^ 

UnfortunatelW ihe gg ll& t i c ana -lyjis^ould seem to 
be no less demanding. /Öne can expect deinicdjffusion 
to determine circular/clines of genes, but such clines 
can hardly be expected to be regulär. The expanding 
farmers did not necissarily move into a vacuum, but 
may, and certainly aid in many cases, encounter local 



22 




ith whom they may have 
populations probably differed 



hu 

mix^ These 
greatly in genetic composition from one place to the 
other, and thus the postulated expansion may have 
determined admixture with people of highly diflferent 
background in the different direction of the spread. In 
addition, later migrations may have ahered the pattern. 
Some of these have taken place in historical times and 
can be to some extent accounted for, but clearly there 
is a grey area between the postulated expansion of 
early farmers and the beginning of recorded history, 
during which many largely unknown events may have 
taken place. Thus the problem is especially complex. 
Moreover, one can expect a circular cline of a given 
allele with the peak at the centre of origin only for 
alleles which the expanded population happened to 
have at a frequency higher (or lower) than elsewhere, 
because of drift or selection accidents. 

Thus, in some especially fortunate circumstances, 
one may expect to find circular clines of alleles with a 
peak at the centres of origin of farming. One wonders 
if this is the cause of some quasi circular clines 
observed for genes such as Hb*^ in west Africa or Hb^ 
in south-east Asia (for geographic maps see Cavalli- 
Sforza & Bodmer 1971). 

Even if the hypothesis that centres of origin of 
agriculture have acted as centres of demic dififusion 
seems attractive, much work still remains to be done 
to give them adequate credibility. No known allele 
seems to show a circular cline with a centre in the Near 
East, t h^ be s t-known agricultural centre. Even so, 
some alleles that show wide population differences — 
Europeans, Africans — do give some support to demic 
dififusion from the Near East. Thus the Rh° allele 




FiGURE 6. Map of the frequencies of the Rh° in Africa and 
central Africa; only aborigine populations are included. 
Interpolations of surface by least Squares. 



shows a fairly regulär increase in frequency from the 
Near East where it is low (less than 10 per cent.) to- 
wards the tropical belt where it reaches almost 100 per 
cent. (fig. 6). Certain major deviations are easily 
explained; the high frequencies of Rh° around the 
Upper Congo are due to the fact that the groups 
represented there in the map are Pygmies who have 
had least admixture, while the belt of lower gene 
frequencies around and south of them is largely the 
outcome of what has been called the Bantu invasion, 
which Started probably from Nigeria some thousand 
years ago and is mostly responsible for the similarities 
of West, Central (non-Pygmy) and southern (non- 
Bushmen or Hottentot) Africans. The lower frequency 
of Rh° among Bantus than among Pygmies (or Bush- 
men) may represent the outcome of the partial ad- 
mixture of them with farmer-pastoralists that had 
spread across the then non-desert area of the Sahara. 
Other markers (e.g. HLA-1, a typical Caucasian 
marker found in low frequency among west Africans: 
Bodmer, personal communication) are in agreement 
with this hypothesis. For the spread towards Europe or 
Asia, Rh diflferences may also be informative. The 
finding of a high frequency of Rh negatives among 
Basques has already long been considered a sign that 
proto-Europeans might have been high in this allele 
(Mourant 1954). 

Naturally, no data based on single genes are suflFic- 
ient to accept the hypothesis that present Europeans, 
west Asians and north Africans are large descendants 
from the early farmers of the Near East, even though 
their blood may be more or less strongly diluted with 
the blood of local pre-agricultural populations. All 
the genetic information should be tested in a synthetic 
fashion. The simplest way would seem to be that of 
correlating the genetic distance between people from 
Europe, west Asia and north Africa and the people 
who today inhabit the Near East with the correspond- 
ing geographic distance. A monotonic increase of 
genetic with geographic distance from centre would be 
expected. The power of this method is at present 
being tested by a Simulation (Sgaramella-Zonta & 
Cavalli-Sforza in press) of what might have been 
the process of dispersion of an originally homogeneous 
group of farmers growing, migrating and mixing with 
a highly diversified background of hunters and 
gatherers. 

I have mentioned that, apart from this complex 
process of inter-group selection, farming may have 
had direct selective efifects. One of them has been 
described in the recent literature: adult lactose 
toleranc^--^his trait, which seems to be mheritt 
fKTCtcmTieipl9TIT^is found in a high frequency only 
among thos>&--gf<3Ups in which milk continues to be 
consumed in some quantities by adults (Simons 1970). 
An evaluation of the selection coefficient necessary to 
give rise to the observed diflferences in gene frequency 
indicates that values of the order of 2-4 per cent. 
would be suflRcient to explain the high lactose toler- 
ance of north Europeans. This is computed on the 



23 




assumption that this evolutionary change took place 
within the last 1 0,000 y ears (i.e. since the domestica- 
tion ofLcattic^ and^afting tröm a low (tO^^^^tcnTT^^ 
initiapTrequency for this allele. 

Several other selective eflfects may have accompanied 
the spread of agriculture, for instance, adaptation to 
a low protein diet, which is customary for farmers, 
especially when animals (wild or domestic) are 
scarce. Kwashiorkor is a frequent disease in tropical 
countries, mainly due to inadequate amino-acid 
intake. Qualitative observations indicate that this 
disease is even more frequent amongPygmies vylien 
they live for prolonged periods alongside'Iarmers, 
and have to accept a low proj£in_d4et to which they 
are unaccustomed (Cav^Ht^^forza 1972). Finally, one 
other possible selective consequence of agriculture, at 
least in the northern part of the temperate zone is 
white skin colour itself. It has been postulated that a 
lo wer sola r intensity at higher^lätltuSes is responsible 
for insufficient Vitamin^ production, unless the skin 
is unpigmented (Loomis 1967). When the supply of 
animals and fish is abundant, hypovitaminosis will 
not appear; there is no need for depigmentation of the 
skin. Eskimos or Lapps l ive at high latitudes but their 
skin haTTemgiJiedlSlItlY^y^ daiTc i heir to63"lTabits 
very'^^robably involve high vitaiyu.a„P intake. But 
where the staple food is cereals, there is a greater 
Chance that at a high laj kude hypovitaminosis will 
develop. If this line of reasornng~i5~corree4, we would 
expect to observe rickets (a disease associated with 
Vitamin D deficiency) among early farmers. Oniy 
traces of this disease have been found in a few investi- 
gations made so far, but in addition considerable 
osteoporosis was noted whose origin could be due to 
y possible causes (Angel 1969), including perhaps 
an imbalance of calcium due t o vitamin D dgfickiigy. 
shoulaB^"-rTt5tedrTTowever,'that tiie~mcidence of 
rickets needed to explain selection in favour of white 
skin is quite low. It can be computed that one serious 
case of rickets in every 200 people born would be a 
sufficiently strong selection to make in 5,000 years the 
average skin colour lighter by an amount equal to half 
the present difference between Africans and English. 
This computation is based on the assumption that all 
the Variation between and within races as measured by 
Harrison and Owen (1964) is genetic, that 'serious 
rickets' means fatal for life or reproduction, and that 
selection is by culling. Today, skeletons of early 
farmers examined are still too few to confirm or 
discard this postulated, relatively low incidence of 
rickets, and thus to accept or reject the hypothesis. If 
the development of white skin was not a selective 
consequence of the transition to agriculture at Euro- 
pean latitudes, the alternative explanation would be 
that a white skin colour had already developed among 
preneolithic proto-Europeans before the arrival of 
farmers. Observation of rickets among early farmers 
may help in throwing light on the origin of white skin. 
I hope that archaeologists digging neolithic sites will 
keep it in mind. 



REFERENCES 

Ammerman, A. & L. L. Cavalli-Sforza 1971. Measuring the 
rate of spread of early farming in Europe. Man (N.S.) 6, 
674-88. 

— & — in press. A population model for the diffusion of early 

farming in Europe. Proceedings, Research Seminar in 

Archaeology and Related Subjects, Sheffield, December 

1973. 
— , — & D. K. Wagener in press. Towards the estimation of 

Population growth in Old World prehistory. School of 

American Research Seminar. 
Angel, J. L. 1969. The basis of paleodemography. Am. J. phys. 

Anthrop. 30, 427-37. 

— 1971. Early neolithic skeletons from Catal Huyuk: demo- 

graphy and pathology. Anatol. Stud. 21, 77-98. 
BiRDSELL, J. B. 1957. Some population problems involving 

Pleistocene man. Cold Spring Harbor Svmp. quant. Biol. 

22, 47-69. 
BoDMER, W. & L. L. Cavalli-Sforza 1972. The analysis of 

genetic Variation using migration matrices. Proc. IV int. 

Congr. hiim. Genet. Paris, 1971. 
BoNTE, M. & H. Van Balen 1969. Prolonged lactation and 

family spacing in Rwanda, J. biosocial Sei. 1, 97-100. 
BoYD, W. C. 1952. Gen etics and t/jf rrua ff/ffTmr— Rnitnn • Little, 

Brown. ^^^ — "^ 
Cannings, C. & L. L. Cavalli-Sforza in press. Human popula- 
tion genetics. In Advances in human genetics, vol. 4 (eds) 
is^& K. Hirschhorn. New York, London: Plenum 

Press. 
C^alLT-Sforza_Is? L. 1966. Population structure and human 
^XonTProc. R. Soc. Lond. 164, 362-79. 

— 1969a. Genetic drift in an Italian population. Sei. Am. 11\, 

2, 30-7. 

— 19696. Human diversity. Proc. XII int. Congr. Genet. 3, 

405-16. 

— 1971. Pygmies, an example of hunters-gatherers, and genetic 

consequences for man of domestication of plants and 
animals. Proc. IV int. Congr. hiim. Genet. Paris. 

— 1973. Some current problems of human population genetics. 

Am. J. hum. Genet. 25, 82-104. 
— , 1. Barrai & A. W. F. Edwards 1964. Analysis of human 
evolution under random genetic drift. Cold Spring Harbor 
Symp. quant. Biol. lA, 9-20. 

— «& W. Bodmer 1971. The genetics of human populations. W. H. 

Freeman. 

— & A. W. F. Edwards 1963. Analysis of human evolution. In 

Genetics today (Qd.) S. J. Geerts, vol. 3 (Proc. XI int. Congr. 
Genet.). New York: Pergamon Press. 

— & — 1967. Phylogenetic analysis: modeis and estimation 

procedures. Am. J. hum. Genet. 19, 233-57. 
CooN, C. S. 1963. The origin of races. London: Jonathan Cape. 
Dämon, P. E., A. Long & E. I. Wallick in press. Dendro- 

chronologic calibration of the carbon-14 time scale. 

Proceedings, International Radiocarbon-dating Conference, 

October 1972. 
Edwards, A. W. F. & L. L. Cavalli-Sforza 1964. Reconstruc- 

tion of evolutionary trees. In Phenetic and phylogenetic 

Classification (eds). V. E. Heywood & J. McNeill. London: 

The Systematics Association. 
FiSHER, R. A. 1937. The wave of advance of advantageous genes. 

Ann. Eugen. 7, 355-60. 
Garn, S. M. 1961. Human races. Springfield: Thomas. 
Harlan, J. R. 1971. Agricultural origins: centers and non- 

centers. Science 174, 468-74. 
Harrison, G. A. & J. J. Owen 1964. Studies on the inheritance 

of human skin colour. Ann. hum. Genet. 28, 27-37. 
Hirszfeld, L. & HiRSZFELD 191^. Essai d'application des 

methodes serologiques au pröbleme des races. Anthropologie 

29,505-37. ~--^ -::::ri:r— , r—-^ 

Kendall, D. G. 1948. A form of wave propagation associated 

with the equation of heat conduction. Proc. Cambr. phil. 

5or. 44, 591. 

— 1965. Mathematical modeis of the spread of infection. In 

Mathematics and Computer science in hiology and mediane. 
London: Medical Research Council. 
Kidd, K. K. in press. Genetic approaches to human evolution: 
L'origine dell'uomo. Proceedings of Darwin Centennial 
Symposium, Rome, 1971. 

— & L. L. Cavalli-Sforza in press. The role of genetic drift in 

the diflFerentiation of Icelandic and Norwegian cattle. 
Symposium ofthe Icelandic Committee for Human Genetics, 
Reykjavik, 1973. 



KiMURA, M. 1954. Process leading to quasi-fixation of genes in 

natural populations due to random fluctuations of selection 

intensities. Genetics 39, 280-95. 
Kretchmer, N. 1971. Memorial Lectures: Lactose and lactase: 

a historical perspective. Gastroenterology 61, 805-13. 
Lee, R. B. 1972. Population growth and the beginnings of 

sedentary life among the Kung ßushmen. In Population 

growth: anthropological impUcations (ed.) B. Spooner. 

Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press. 
Lewontin, R. C. & J. Krakauer in press. Distributions of 

genetic frequency as a test of the theory of selection 

neutrality of polymorphisms. 
LooMis, W. F. 1967. Skin-pigment regulation of vitamin-D 

biosynthesis in man. Science 157, 501-6. 
Mourant, A. E. 1954. The distribution of the human blood 

groups. Oxford: Blackwell. 
Roberts, D. F. 1971. The demography of Tristan da Cunha. 

PopuL Stud. 24, 465-79. 
Sgaramella-Zonta, L. & L. L. Cavalli-Sforza in press. A 



method of the detection of a demic cline. Proceedings, 
Workshop on Population Structure, Hawaii, 1972. 

SiMOONs, F. J. 1970. Primary ad ult lac tose intoleran£e_and the 
milking habit: a problem in~biolüglC' and'Tiritural Inler- 
relations. 2, A culture historical hypothesis. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 
15, 695-710. 

Skellam, J. G. 1951. Random dispersal in theoretical popula- 
tions. ßiometrika 3S, 196-218. 

Skolnick, M. & C. Cannings 1972. Natural regulations of 
numbers in primitive human populations. Nature, Lond. 
239, 287-8. 

Stern, C. 1970. M(üa^est4«iales-o£-the number of gene pairs 
/ involved in pigmentation variability of the Negro-American. 
' Hum. Hered. 20, 165-8. ^ ^~" ^- ^^ ' 

SuESS, H. F. 1970. Bristlecone-pine calibration of the radio- 
carbon time-scale 5200 b.c. to the present. In Radiocarbon 
variations and absolute chronology (ed.) 1. U. Olsson. New 
York: Wiley. 



25 



) Sfee JJetu J}0rk Slme$ Jfaak äReUleUr 

) ^"^ * FEBRUARY 7, 1976 SECTION 7 




By THEODORE SOLOTAROFF 

The first generation tries to retain 
as much as possible, the second to 
forget, the third to reniemb er. Little 
wonfler that the outcr3pP!rig"of Ameri- 



oan-Jewish writing in the past 30 
years is so often a literature of memo- 
ry, an attempt to recover the world 
of childhood and adoiesccnce as the 
last place the trail of Jewish identity 
was Seen before it faded into the 
lawns of suburbia and the bright corri- 
dors of the professions. Why this 
interest, though? "Why not stick to 
the present," as my father would 
say. "The farther back you go, the 
more miserable it gets.*' 

The main reason, I think, is Ihat 
the third-generation Jew like myself 
intermittently experiences himself as 
Walking ^round in Am erica with a 
case ol^ ^tural amnesjj jt füll of ance- 
stral promptings and'^murrers puls- 



World of Our Fathers 

By Irving Howe. - 
With the assistance of Kenneth Liho. 

lUustrated. 714 pp. New York: 
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. $14.95. 



f 



^odore Solotaroff is a senior edi- 
tor ^f Bantam Books and the editor of 
Arxierican Review. 



ing away. That's why "Portnoy's Com- 
plaint" rang bells like mad. But Roth's 
novel was a two-generational psycho- 
logical farce — t'reud played by the 
Marx Brothers — which can only ex- 
plore its point .by simplifying and 
tickling it. The secret Communications 
between the generätions are^^'ore 
long-term arid bfoad änd vague, and 
run through other switchboards be- 
sides the Oedipal one. So one also 
reads Bellow and Leonard Michaels. 
Grace Paley and Malamud, Cynthia 
Ozick and I. B. Singer, among many 
others, looking for kinship and Instruc- 
tion. Cr one can study Judaism, even 
learn Hebrew, hoping to find the way 
back to its shaping significance on 
one's spirit that must have preceded 



the tense, perfunctory bar mitzvah 
lessons and seders of one's childhood. 
However, contemporary fiction tends 
to be too immediate and too stylized 
to carry one back far enough, while 
the covenants, principles and move- 
ments of Judaism, like its warmmg 
bui remote observances, are difficult 
to carry forward (except perhaps for 
Hasidism). Probably the most useful 
contact is the fiction of Chaim Potok, 
which is solidly plugged into the Jew- 
ish tradition, though the messages 
it delivers are a little too bland to 
persuade, censored by their author's 
hmh^iTl^ill^s, hisLede/te^^ 
^^So^the context of^lfiese^intuitions 
of Jewish being, or these moral slants 
and emotional tilts in the way you 



do your work, relate to your children, 
vote, justify your life, chase your 
desires remains, elusive, füll of blank 
Spaces and darkness. A temporal link 
seems to be missing. 

Jewishness, then, is like a language 
in which one knows only a few words 
and yet is thoroughly responsive to 
its intonations and rh^hms, its lights 
and darks of feeling. Like Russian, 
as I found out on a recent visit. 
And, more to the point, like Yiddish. 
Yes! The dark language in which our 
parents mainly kept their secrets from 
US. What remains !s a few expressiöhs, 
a coarseness to the ear which once 
had a stigma attached, like slurping 
soup; also a certain long breathing 
frenzy underneath that makes it seem 
a little dizzying; also a vibrant tone, 
a mingling of laughter, heartfulness, 
irony. So one puts tliese bits and 
drops into one's English, now and 
then, like salt and pepper and a touch 
of horseradish. But one also does 
.so because they feel right, confirm 
something basic. 

Of course, one says, hitting his 
Continued on next page 



1976, The New York Times Co. All rights reserved. 



head at finding what was beforo (ho 
eyes, or rather, on the tongue. Tho 
miss ing linkj sjfiddish, and the rvasivc 
context, as one recognizes and icrt>s 
nizes in reading "World of Our \s\{\\ 
ers," is Yiddishkeit» the cuKuro of 
our grandfathefs. " 

Irving Howe has wrltten a gronf 
c^ook, Tfiöse who are not Jewish nin 
stlTTread a marvelous narrativo nbout 
two generations of "bodraggUHl am! 
inspired" Jewish immigrants on thi* 
Lower East Side and beyond in virturtl 
ly all of their social and riiltur;«! 
bearings and in most of their (K>litii nl 
and economic ones. A work of hislory 
and of art, "World of Our Fathors'* 
is brilliantly^jorganized and »vutsi l>y 
brisk. pitKy^haplers that nuko up 
large perspectives — the detonations of 
newjioßes and re newgj J c^v ThM 
dr^'e the immigrant^out of the Rus- 
sian Pale after the assassination of 
Alexander II and the pogromST^Tfiat 
f(5frowedrtlie"wretchedness and culture 
sJTOcjc of the first two decades in 
l^few York; the daily family and work 
life in the filthy, noisy, flaring streets 
off East Broadway; the dynamics of 
the Jewish labor movement and of 
the culture of Yiddishkeit and the 
rapid, fated dispersion into America. 
All of which is exhaustively researched 
and documented, often in the words 
of the peaple themselves. "World of 
Our Fathers*' is also a complex story 
of fulfillment and incompleteness, a 
work of meditätiDn...^näLj^ion — the 
eye of kno wle <!ge and of imagijiation 
seeing together. Finally, it is'^cidly 
and sensitively written. A richness 
almost ever^jithere. ""^ 

But if^you are Jewish you will 
also realize that Howe has written 
a necessary book, particularly for 
those of you who need its blowop 
the he0_^todeliveryou_frmju,^ur 
^oar^gg^iaorTbetter, to help youbegin 
'itorescue yourself. Not that Howe*s 
pages are ever particularly startling. 
Their effect is cumulative — the slow, 
dawning realization that this world 
is as familiär to you as it is fresh. 
Howe's just, remarkably just, descrip- 
tions and explanations, along with 
the voices of bis sources, will minister 
- to your residues of Jewish Intuition 
and memory and cause them to unfold 
and blossom like those Japj.^iese_pel- 
»lets which^jBKljenputintjLwat£i_türn 

[g flow ers. Ai^^jTmT'fead'along, it 
is often difficult to distinguish be- 
tween what you are discovering and 
what you are recollecting of this all- 
but-vanished life. For this life, as 
you will see, still lives — right behind 
your sense of your own distinctive 
mind and heart and face. And slowly 
you will begin to understand. 

A few examples — some almonds and 
raisir.s and a bite of honeycake for 
remembrance sake. Savor for a mo- 
ment Howe's detail that the Yiddish 



woixl t%n o x<'oininuni(, 'ation, horom is 
«Iso Uir >flükdLjor--.-AJiQycoFr Or 
Mowo N Ima^o of Jacob Adler, the 
mrttinno id<»l of the Yiddish theater, 
lyins «»^ State, as he instructed, in 
I nitlish morninK coat. Windsor cravat, 
rtnd tiiUt. Or a sketch by Z. Libin — a 
writer frt)m the terrible first years, 

ftllfnvrpm' luonKrhon " 

— aboul a woikor who 

fears" that hei^ause a wall blorkinj? 
bis Window has been torn down he 
will bave to pay more rent. Or let 
the follnwing words work on you 
fmm an unpublished niemojr by David 
GoldenbU^om, one of the seif educated 
workers who become the composite 
her« of Howe*s narrative: 

"[When T was about 17] I began 

to take an interest in books. Since 

I had also gone a little to the Russian 

school. \ Ix^gan to swallow — 1 mean, 

really swallow — Russian books. . . . 

Tuj;genev was my favorite, pcrhaps 

IxMrauso thcre is such a sweetness 

to his voice. And then Tolstgy and 

Dosto^iifiky. I read, of course, Shojoiu 

^Aleichem, who made the ugliest thine s 

oFJn jife seem beautifu lC and Tqretz 

wfio, in his own way, taught Tne 

(Ä not to ln sf> rgtipect for qv^l f.'* 

In Order to perceive the force of 
the attitudes and values that Yiddish- 
keit pumped through the generational 
conduits, one often has to recover 
the conditions that charged and 
shaped them. It is a platitude, for 
example, that Jews are mercenary be- 
cause our forefathers were desperately 
poor, that Jewish mothers dote on 
and stuff, worry about their children 
because of the immigrants' experience 
of hunger, illness, self-sacrifice and 
- hope. How banal, one says, until he 
reads Howe's harrowing account of 
the poverty of the Lower East Side 
during the l^SaüIs^^andL^'s. "Have 
you ever seen a hun^rvchiy^cry?'' 
asks the social woÄS^iiflianWaTS^ 
explakihig the dedication of her life. 
By H^85j the crying was everywhere. 
Wages in the garment industry — the 
main source of Jobs — were cut in 
half. The po pulation j ensity^of^ the 

I Lower E^st; JÜdg-^aJUSoonJ greater 
than in thie_worst_sections orBömBay, 
the'^jaQrt^||^{!i^^t^wa>-'qmihiP that 
of the re.st oElIhfi^city. Project these 
figures into conditions^^nd you get 
men working 70 hou^& a week in 
the unspeakable swealshops and tak- 
ing piecework home to scrape by, 
of people sleeping f ive or six to a 
room._wit h_ the ir hffgrders. of near 
epidemics of dysentery, typboi^ fever, 
and of course ful^erculosis, the **tSX:. 
lors'^^^ease." For 20 years or so, 
it was as though the fabled wretched- 
ness of the steerage passage never 
ended, that those dark packed ships 
simply came upon land and turned 
into factory lofts and tenements. 
What was most traumatic was the 



UniÄg£__daÖcnö^ Tot^lly_u£rooterf and 
alien, driven by ~a TempotKey had 
never known before, their austere, 
decorous spirits assaulted and derided 
by the br^tal^ jjQg-eat-dog cSnditions 
of their exisi^ce, their religious insti- 
tutions in disarray, theimmlgMints 
^ seemed-^tüJoseJheic^jna^jS^^ 
I the culture that had preserved s 
i\ many "generations of the Pale d ^spit 
po verty and other oppre ssions. The' 
collapse of its center, rabblFücal au- 
thority, is brought home by the anec- 
dote Howe teils of the attempt to 
cstablish a chief rabbi to restore order: 
soon there were three — a Lithuanian 
and a Galician (traditional antagonists) 
and a newcomer from Moscow. When 



ts 




asked who had made him the chief 
rabbi, he replied "the sign painter." 
"They were Jews without Jewish 
memories or traditions," reports one 
Yiddish writer. "With every day that 
passed," recalls another, "I became 
more and more overwhelmed by the 
degeneration of my fellow-country- 
men." And in the wordU-i^fJ jie po^t , 
Moshe^Lieb Halpern: "If a wolf stum- 
bled in Tiere7He'd lose his wits/ 
He'd tear his own flesh apart." In 
a radical newspaper of the day, Howe 
teils US, "the word jij^t^rriish, dark- 
nes^r^recurs again arid againT^ . 
their lives are overcome by finsternish 
and it is to escape from finsternish 
that men must learn to act." So they 
listened meekly to their flamboyant 
agitators, went on bitter and usually 
doomed strikes, saved their p»ennie^ 
for the Yiddish theater, but mamly 



lived on their las^hope that "here 
they might yet "S^^neir sons_and 
daughters move on to something bet- 
ter." "^ 

Finsternish didn't begin in the New 
York ghetto. It came in the immi- 
grants' luggage and dreams, the dark- 
ness of being cooped up for centurie s 
in their decaying vttläges and 'prSyer- 
houses and in their sustaining but 
hapless messianism. But in the Russian 
Pale it was already lifting, thanks 
in good part to the Bund, the nascent 
Jewish socialists from the cities. Here 
is David Goldenbloom again: 

"... just a few years before I 
came [from Russia] people of my 
generation became very restless. We 
heard of the Bund, which had recently 
been started, and to us it meant 
not only socialism but the whole idea 
of stepping into the outside world. 
When a Speaker from the Bund came 
to our town, we saw him . . . as a 
new kind of Jew, someone with com- 
bativeness in his blood and a taste 
for culture on his tongue. ... He was 
our lifeline to the outside world, and 
that was enough." 

In America, it was the distinctively 
Jewish socialism developed by the 
Bund that largely rebuilt the Communi- 
ty and morale the immigrants had 
lost. Indeed_j ocialism, mostly thr ough 
the organj^iniljQf_the_^aTi2ien^ , 

provided a coliective enterprise. not 
only as a consequence of despair but 

also as a movement toward the vision 
of a "normal life" at last, not merely 
as a response to privation but also 
as a recycled moral yearning. Jewish 
socialisnijißpiv^d, as Howe shows, 
froni Jewis h messia nism, in which 
the worldly and other-worldly were 
aspects of the same destiny, a tradition 
that was quick to produce political 
and social movements that had a 
strong utopian, un ivers ellst east and 
fervor. •" " 

The radicals of the early Lower 
East Side had been mostly Russian- 
style anarchists to whom the benight- 
ed workers were the shock troops 
of revolution, good for strikes but 
hardly worth organizing. The socialists 
from Warsaw^ andj^ilna— who came 
in droves afTer 1905 brought Organiza- 
tion. They also brought the idea that 
the Jewish trade unions should reorga- 
nize the Jewish Community and bring 
it into the 20th Century by replacing 
the religious framework with rriore 
adaptive^ and effecTiVe social and culj- 
tural institutipws. The BuncTTeaders 
saw the7ri>pening in the great strikes 
of the shirtwaist-makers in l^OÖ. many 
of them, like their leader, teen-age 
girls and of the cloak-makers in 1910, 
in which, as the writer Abraham Lies- 
sen declared, "the 70,000 zerogs be- 
came 70,000 fighftgs." Froififfiese 
strikes rose th6 irfrense feeling?that 

Continued on Page 28 



How cän we seil the Protestant ethic at a psychedelic bazaar? 



By RAYMOND WILLIAMS 



Daniel Bell has a fine ear for titles. 
To publish in 1960 "The End of Idgolo- 
gy" and in 1976 "The CutturaTContra- 
dicti ons ofCapitaji^ni^'^ir'ttr^its own 
way remSTRatJly^nsitive. During the 
1950's it was widely believed that 
all reasonable men had come out on 
the far side of "ideology," which in 
context usuaily meantsocialis^^ 
Today the^pfirases, if not the sub- 
stance, of socialist theory are the points 
around which much contemporary ar- 
gument turns. Bell, a professor of 
sociology a^üarvard, is an' inffuglitiäi 
pohtical^,^aZ^ftural_lhi»ker, and 
we might pause to consider whether 
these book titles are examples of 
what he himself calls "Tendenz vend- 
ing": the promotion of intellectual 
fashions, within what he calls "cultur- 
al mass production." ^^^" 

YeflTfie^case is more subtle. The 
key words — "contradictions," "capital- 
jsm" — and some of the key questions 
— notably those concerning the rela- 
tions between an economic System and 
an ideology — are taken from radi^ or 
spe cifica lly3toi3ci st argu meiltTThe an- 
sw^ers are from quite another tradition. 

The mix is not uniquc It can even 

properly be called a tendency. Yet like 
many other phenomena of its kind, in- 
cluding intellectualjnovements ("fads") 
of which Bell dfsapproves, it cannot be 
reduced to "vending." The ränge that 
matters, in cultural work of any kind, 



is from descriptions of restlessness and 
confusion to analyses dfthe same 
statcsr* Bell, with some Consistency, 
is seeking the re covery of or der. His 
specifications of disorder are excep- 
tionally familiär, but it is always inter- 
esting to see how a responsive order 
is conceived and outlined. 

This is a book of essays, with 
some real if limited continuity of 
theme. The argument which will prö- 
bably be most widely quoted, and 
which is indeed central to the book, 
rests on an alleged contradiction be- 
tween the prudential, cost-conscious 
rationality of bureaucratic capitalism 
>and the self-gratifyingr seif -seeking 
mode of the actuaj Jives qf its Citizens, 
jranging (in Bell's phrases agau^^from 
rpop hedonism" to "the Dionysiac 
pack?*"^ "~ — ^^ 

"■^fTiere is confusion here, as well as 
some real Observation. In the sweep of 
history it is easy to discern some sig- 
nificant movement "from the P cpje;^ - 
t ant eth ic to the ps ychedelic bazaa r." 



Raymond Williams is author of 
"Culture and Society*' and "The Coun- 
try an^^lKe-'^ty" and teaches at 
Cambridge University. 



The Cultural Contradictions 

Of Capitalism 

ßy Daniel Bell 

301 pp. New Yorfe; 

Basic Books, $12.95. 



What is not faced is the possibility that ment, throughout the Industrial capi- 
the mutation of ethics is itself a mu ta- talist societies, agaijjt-^iiftjvaste? and 
tion n/ rap^talism as certäin of its (Y] y resses of a headlonTcdmpetitiy e asd 
features^^^iotably the extension and VI%roW-away economv. There is a grow- 
propagation ofC^jS? for instant pur- ing public despair at the amount of 



chase, IT'distinct froinolder proce- 
dures of ßvinfe and ^Tccumulation — 
would seem^viously to'mdicate. Bell 
has read such arguments, but as a 
matter of principle, which is related to 
his whole intellectual method, he puts 
his emphasis elsewhere. "Havejtjjpw," 
the central maxim of the supposed 
new ethic, which many of us first 
heard from the advertisers and the 
credit houses, he traces to "cu^^iral 
modefnism" and especially the con- 
temporary "coujiteEifiuilure." 

This decision has a curious effect. 
"Bourg<»«i5 socjety" becomes the rela- 
tiverjrstabter^latively orderly world 
of the remembered past. InstabjJity 
and disQrder become properties of 
the an ti-bourgeois-revo lt. In this frame 
only one view can be taken: a barely 



sheer breakdown, or at least of chronic 
Interruption, in the theory and practice 
of public Service. Jogether, or poten- 
tially together, these feelings outline 
a constituency for certain kinds of 
change. 

Bell does not choose to consider 
the important possibility that they 
could be mobilized to Hmit "ap peUte" 
and Jlsfil Ü^ime ss" by Impöfm^iew 
discipliiresr The "Protestant ^thic." 

which tends to function^^asTth^Ü-^*^ 
in Bell's book, has historicäHy support- 
ed Srot-tJfily a publicconsciepce but 
also pub lic_ repres sion. and this has 
especially been the case when its 
enemies are identified as the heretical 
and the licentious. This is where the 
identification of "have it now" as 
a cultural phenomenon of th^ ^tj- 



controlled, pseudo-anstocratic__anger } bou ^eois rev olt is especially sig^S^ 



at each new sympf?5TTr-örconf usipn y 
and degradatipn, coupled with a mrbral j 
appeal for^llie recovery of a sense ' 
of Community. This is Bell's position, 
yet the ifTterest of this book is not 
so much in its reiteration as in the 
addition of a tentative pr agtical c on- 
clusion. The final moral appeaPIs 
given an interesting procedural gloss: 
a definition in broad fiscal terms of 
the "public household," in which the 
reconciliation of competing group in- 
terests and appetites would be nego- 
tiated by the organs of a new liberal 
State. , 

This has an air of pracü^ality, and 

it is much to Bell's credit that he 

does not underestimate the difficulties. 

Indeed he wavers, to the end, between 

a belief in the possibility of such 

procedures, based on a n ew " fiscal 

so ciolog y" (in effect the sociofeg^of 

thj^ management ^ of group s_ihrQHgh 

ta xation poU ciesV and a moral skepti- 

-.fcCism that the will to limi^^pfl^ 

v^tojjeeds, and jelf^nterggLjSI^^äSn 

^ImferfiSt can come through and be 

^made to stick. 

This uncertainty is honest, but its 
political dangers should not be over- 
lookcd: there is a growing public senti- 



cant and probably dangerous because 
it ascribes to modernists and protest- 
ers, in a prejudicial way, what can 
as readily be seen as a general ethical 
change in society. "T^^^^^ 

Take~four oBservable phenomena: 
the withdrawal to personal satisfac- 
tion and immediate human contacts 
from the imperatives of a competi- 
tive careerism; the public display not 
simply of blatant nonconformity but 
of deliberatelyi ^selected y jplence and 
peryecsityr the collabpxaUve — revoH 
against a w ar, against fraud* and 
against lies; the frenzied overreach 
of Protest into a destruction which 
aped its objects. Nobody, truly, can 
make these into a culture, or a coun- 
ter-culture, in Bell's restricted sense 
of a System of meanings and values. 
Such classifications are the work of 
a sensibility requiring simplicity and 
Order, but also, perhaps, of a mind 
requiring a generalized disorder to 
be able to project a contrasting sanity. 

It is the generalization ^ disorder 
that deceivejg^ Mych of ^he movernent 
"against capitalism" was a movement 
towards a new "lejsure" capitalism, 
propagated and funded by some of 
capitalism's most evident cultural 



agencies — movies, television, advertis- 
ing, etc. Much of the revolt "against 
bourgeois society" was a mutation 
within bourgeois society, cutting such 
traditional ties as loyalty to family and 
hometown, which had to an important 
extent limited the availability and ex- 
posure of individuals to a System that 
would see them as no more than units 
of production. New freedoms and new 
kinds of exposure and availability ar- 
rived together, and are still painfully 
difficult to disentangle. '^ ' 

Yet, in his serious search for the eth- 
ics of a public household, Bell cuts 
himself off from the elements of radi- 
cal Community and social participation 
that were also there in the "counter- 
culture" and which are the most evi- 
dent signs, anywhere, of a will to a 
new way of life. No new radical or 
socialist ideas or proposals are serious- 
ly admitted. Everything of this kind is 
held within a frame of reference to the 
Soviet Union, or to labor disputes as 
merely "jlwniEtiye." Yet the revolt 
against p^Jini*m>«md more generally 
against j ^^ate socij ljgyi, was a key fac- 
tor in th6 emergence of the real, and 
not caricatured, NewLjft. The idea of 
"wor ker's control . wmch is not only a 
new sSckd. jfcthic, but in its »lore^devel- 
oped forms a Key procedure ift any 
serious "fiscal s5)ciology," Bell impa- 
tiently brush^s^sid^. 

Where then, in Bell's view, are 
the probable components of a will 
to public virtue? No answer could 
be easy, but for all the sincerity 
of his moral appeal, the mode of 
Bell's analysis would make any answer 
difficult. The real name of this mode 
is criticism, which has dominated a 
whole infellectual generation. The cen- 
tral assumption in Bell's blend of 
social history and cultural commenta- 
ry is a confidence in the act of judg- 
ment by reference to past Standards: 
not^analysis, not ne^SL^irections, but, 
worried as it IsT^cfiticism. This is 
why he can seriously link the idea 
of a new "public household'* with 
"reaffirmation of our past," which 
in fact destroyed the ethic he mourns. 

His distaste for the_presentjs_genu- 

another will 



ine and in one way an 
be widely shared. But only people 
can create a new social order, and 
they may find their task marginally 
harder if they have to encounter — as 
now they do so often — this kind of 
blend of cultural conservatism and the 
recommendation, in its name, of a pub- 
lic Order that could well turn out to 
be a more developed and more sophis- 
ticated social engineering, expressed 
/ primarily through fi§£^LpoUcies. The 

\rnntriidirtinn<! pf rfip'tfljj^, mean- 

fwhile, will omlinue. "" 



s - 



The New York Times Book Revlew/February 1, 1976 




Lvndon B. Johnson and Juck Valenti, 1964. 



A Very Human 
President 

By Jack Valenti. 

iHustrated. 395 pp. New York: 

W. W. Norton & Co. $9.95. 



By ERIC F. GOLDMAN 



Back in the L.B.J. days, Washington 
used to have a great time with the 
subject of President Johnson's aide, 
Jack Valenti. People analyzed, re-ana- 
\yzed and re-re-analyzed Valenti's 
idolatry of Lyndon Johnson. Did it 
come from the assistant's bantam size 
compared to the President's 6 feet 
4 inches? Was it a result of his 
being that none too comfortable com- 
bination, a Texan Italian-American, 
now bedazzled by his post as a key 
aide to a Texan WASP President of the 
United States? Whatever the stum- 
blings of amateur psychiatry, the una- 
bashed worshipfulness was there. In 
1965 the whole nation learned the 
extent of it — with loud guffaws — ■ 
when Valenti. went to a Boston adver- 
tising Convention and delivered bim- 
self of a description of L.B.J. as a 
"sensitive," "c ultivated," "extraordi- 
nary man," having "extra glands" of 
energy and an "instinct for rightness. 
... I sleep each night a little better 
. . . because Lyndon Johnson is my 
President." 

Eric F. Croldman, Roll ins Professor 
of Histor>^ at Princeton and Special 
Consultant to President Johnson (1964- 
66), is the author of "The Tragedy of 
Lyndon Johnson." 



Valenti's reminiscences of the John- 
son years, "A Very Human President," 
have the authentic tone. He includes 
a forthright chapter on L.B.J.'s im- 
possible attitude toward the press and 
here and there he drops a quick critical 
or questioning word. But for the most 
part the volume is still the Jack Val- 
enti of the 1965 speech. He was, 
Valenti writes, "in thrall continuously 
to him," "this avalanche of a man." 
And the adulation can become, like the 
Boston speech, downright embarras- 
sing, as when Valenti, meeting L.B.J. 
for the first time, describes his feelings 
as "somewhere between the fascination 
of watching a great athlete in motion 
and the half-fear, half-admiration of 
seeing a panther ona cliffside, silken, 
silent, ready to spring." 

The Valenti attitude goes beyond 
words. In 1975, press reports, later 
ccnfirmed by the Senate Committee 
on Intelligence, stated that President 
Johnson had used the F.B.I. for im- 
proper purposes. Discussing this, Val- 
enti writes that he saw "every piece 
of paper that crossed the President's 
desk" and heard almost all his phone 
conversations during the period in 
question; no such F.B.I. Information 
was included. He does not consider 
the possibility that he did not see 
or hear all materials that went to 
Lyndon Johnson. 

The Valenti worshipfulness is not 
ccnfined to L.B.J. or even to his group. 
Lady Bird Johnson, able and engaging 
woman that she is, becomes an "in- 
credibly warm . . . unduplicatable hu- 
man being, an impossible target for 
enemies." John Connally does things 
"awesomeiy," a "prescient" man, who 
"unfastens others' fears, dissolves all 
hesitancies." Important -or at least 



conspicuous people keep "mesmeriz- 
ing" Jack Valenti until I stopped 
counting at Adam Clayton Powell Jr. 
I could hardly stop noting his many 
references to imposing physical attri- 
butes like Connally's "animal Charis- 
ma" or his persistent reverence for 
people of high social background and 
for what he calls their "certainty of he- 
redity." It is glaring in his treatment 
of Joseph Alsop, McGeorge Bundy, 
Senator Harry Byrd and Henry Cabot 
Lodgc. In one particularly painful 
passage he writes of Bundy, "He never 
patronized me." 

All of this moves along in the 
Valenti style, for the most part a 
kind of Texas baroque compounded 
of clichös and homilies, phrases that 
can soar high and flop hard, snippets 
of Will Durant-ish learning, and efforts 
at being ultra-modern or just-one-of- 
the-fellows. "Every man must be par- 
doned faults," we learn, "for there 
is none without some." Power is "an 
enchantment" and also "a mainline 
fix every morning." J.F.K. "reminded 
me of a Plantagenet captain, a wise, 
brave, splendid knight"; so did L.B.J., 
and besides, Johnson had troubles with 
the "Augean Stahles task of Hercules." 
The "quiver of the ultimate question 
. . . lay feathered against me," a 
White House female aide was "an 
emollient," bringing "sounds of soft- 
ness patting one's ears," L.B.J. and 
Hobby Kennedy had "the eccentricity 
of their similarity." Amid the "epipha- 

nies" of legend and personal slights 
that "swelled into gargoyle masses" 
comes the language, "it was a helluva 
lunch" and "I wasted not one damned 
second." L.B.J. "slotted in his mind" 
what he proposed to do, murder hung 
like a "miasmic mist," people played 
on the White House "varsity," othe'-s 
were "desking" in the West Wing, 
and death "stalked'* Lyndon Johnson. 

Yet it must be hastily added that 
"A Very Human President" is anything 
but an inconsequential book. After 
all, Jack Valenti was President John- 
son's dosest aide in the sense that 
he was With him during countless 
hours when the President was speak- 
ing his private thoughts, attended 
scores of Conferences of high impor- 
tance, served as the main conduit 
for much that happened in the Johnson 
Administration. If the book contains 
no startling revelations, page after 
page provides fresh detail or revealing 
context for major and minor events 
of the Johnson years. 

Both the general reader and the 
public affairs specialist — with some 
judicious skipping and necessary winc- 
ing — will find rieh reading: added in- 
stances of Johnson's shrewd barnyard 
humor (alas, too few — one is decorous 
in writing about a Plantagenet cap- 
tain), as when L.B.J. defined a "brief" 
15-minute appointment, "Hell, by the 
time a man Scratches his ass, clears 



his throat, and teils me how smart 
he is, we've already wasted fifteen 
minutes"; the scene late the first night 
after the assassination, the new Pres- 
ident in pajamas sitting upright in 
his huge bed, declaring his determina- 
tion to change things drastically for 
the poor, the blacks, the aged; a 
Jchnson soliloquy, in his rocking chair, 
sipping one of his endless Frescas, 
on how to get Congressmen to vote 
with you, a little classic that is far 
the best thing we have had on the 
"Johnson treatment"; the eternal Sen- 
ate maneuverer, who believed that 
anything could be solved if men would 
only "reason together," telling Valenti, 
"Every night I try to put myself 
in the shoes of Ho Chi Minh"; the 
last period at the ranch and the L.B.J. 
fury when, so he was sure, Richard 
Nixon or his aides exploded an excel- 
lent opportunity for a Vietnam cease- 
fire in order to gain votes. 

Naturally, most interest centers in 
what Valenti has to say about the 
Vietnam decisions, and here he is 
plainly not at ease, seemingly wanting 
to defend the L.B.J. policy all-out 
but also affected by today's climate 
of opinion and the knowledge that 
the war ruined his hero. Many 
thoughtful Americans have long won- 
dered just how Lyndon Johnson got 
himself so deeply into the Vietnam 
mess. In the course of his reminis- 
cences. Valenti includes a 37-page 
section that is close to a verbatim re- 
port on the Conferences in 1965 that 
led, as Valenti puts it, to the choice 
between the only two alternatives: 
"get out or get in with more, much 
more." It is all there, intimately por- 
trayed, or at least all that Valenti con- 
siders the essential story, written from 
the point of view of the aide and 
presumably of the President. 

At the meetings Under Secretary 
of State George Ball, greatly respected 
by President Johnson, warned: "We 
can not win, Mr. President." Most mili- 
tary and civilian leaders argued that 
letting Vietnam go down would weak- 
en American security around the world 
and added a variety of other points 
to the case for large-scale Intervention. 
Lyndon Johnson, almost physically, 
twisted between his fear of being en- 
meshed in an escalating Asian land 
war and his concern that American 
national interests were indeed threat- 
ened. 

In this part of the book, Valenti's 
language is restrained. He is especially 
mea^sured as he summarizes what he 
bel'eves is the nub of the matter: 
President Johnson came to his decision 
for large-scale intervention "reluctant- 
ly, stubbornly resisting all the way. 
He had no illusions about a war. He 
had no great faith in the predictions 
of the military, but he had no sound 
countervalling arguments." ■ 



A President, a general, a publisher 




Gen. William C. Westmoreland. 



A Soldier 
Reports 

By General William C. Westmoieland. 
Jllustrated. 446 pp. f^ew York: 
Douhleday & Co. , / 
$12.95. 



By WARD JUST 

Tbis is the first full-fledged war 
memoir by a senior member of the 
American Government. "A Soldier Re- 
ports," by the Commander of United 
States forces in Vietnam from 19^ to 
mid-19^ deserves to be reviewed on 
its own terms, not as a literary docu- 
ment but as a soidier's version of 
events. Gen. William C. Westmoreland 
does not explore the moral aspects of 
the war and displays virtually no 
understanding of the struggle as seen 
from the United States. But therein lies 
much of the book's value; this is the 
view from inside the whale. 

Some view. The Westmoreland 
thesis is that the war was winnable, 
and was lost only because civiiian 
leadership in Washington failed to sup- 
ply the necessary means. The United 
States lost its last chance to "renege" 
in 1965. Victory was at band in 1968, 
but owing to Amf^rirnn timifUty was 
lost forever. The tmns of the Paris 
Agreement were disastrous. Failure to 
resupply the Vietnamese at the end 
guaranteed disaster. 

No surprises so far. This is a classic 
h%rd-fine account, not the first or the 
last. It is when the General comes to 
his own role that interest accelerates. 
He writes that he was not truly in 
Charge of the war; that what he 

Ward Just was the Washington 
Post's correspondent in Vietnam in 
1966 and 1967. 



wanted was to head e^outheast Aslan 
Command, overseeing all aspects of the 
war throughout Indochina. He portrays 
him.self as a field Commander at the 
end of a long string that wound back 
to CINCPAC, Defense, State, the var- 
ious embassies, the C.I.A. and finally 
the White House. The civilians im- 
posed the strategy of "graduated res- 
ponse" on him and, when it failed, 
blamed him. 

Its priorities chronically askew, 
Washington refused to supply West- 
moreland with the ways and means to 
train and equip the South Vietnamese 
Army. Washington declined to dis- 
patch additional American troops to 
consolidate the aMied victory (sie) at 
Tet, 1968. This was because the politi- 
cians lost their nerve, having witnessed 
the war for too long through the blood- 
shot eyes of the American press. Ditto 
the American public, which became 
depressed and discouraged and quickly 
lost heart and patience for a pro- 
tracted struggle. Civiiian "field mar- 
shals," "niggling officials" in the De- 
partments of State and Defense, 
harassed the American command with 
witless requests and suggestions. 

The "wily Vietnamese" themselves, 
heirs to a Mandarin tradition of las- 
situde and graft, were not always 
eager to carry the battle to the enemy 
— and Douglas MacArthur's injunction 
("Treat them as you did your cadets," 
he told Westmoreland in late 1963) 
was apparently meffective. There were 
unfortunate conflicts within the Ameri- 
can military, specifically between 
Westmoreland and the proud and hide- 
bound Marine contingent in the I 
Corps. Finally, defeatist members of 
Congress, Edward Kennedy in the van- 
guard, used every opportunity to un- 
dermine the allied effort. And by con- 
trast, the enemy was fighting a single- 
minded war. 

Vo Nguyen Giap, for example, "was 
apparently an influential member of 
his government, [while] I was a field 
Commander restricted to decisions and 
actions within South Vietnam, subject 
to the dictates of my country's govern- 
ment, and influential in policy matters 
only to the extent that Washington 
chose to act on my recommendations." 
-According to the General, Washing- 
con didn't very often. "As American 
Commander in Vietnam, I underwent 
niany frustrations, endured much inter- 
ference, üved with countless irrita- 
tions, swallowed many disappoint- 
ments, bore considerable criticishn. I 
saw any number of my proposals, 
which I was convinced \yere legitimate 
and would speed the conclusion of 
the American assignment, disapproved 
— such matters as troop strength . . . 
drives in Laos and Cambodia and so 
on. I took issue with the strategy of 
graduated response in the bombing of 
North Vietnam, with bomb halts, with 
holiday ceasefires. . . ." 



a 
he 



In Short, almost nothing about the 
conduct of the war met with the ap- 
proval of the field Commander. But he 
mounts a spirited defense of his 
strategy of search and destroy, of the 
defense of Khe Sanh, and of the con- 
duct cf American troops. He concludes, 
"A Co mmander must learn t o live with 
frustration, interfergrxce.' irrltätion. dis- 



ppdTrifm^jjt. an3 "crjticisrn, a^long as 
le can '^Tgüte they do not contribute 
to f^ailure. I suffered my problems in 
Vietnam because I believed that suc- 
cess would eventually be ours despite 
them, that they were not to be, as 
Napoleon put it, instruments of my 
army's downtali." Hence, no resigna- 
tion; the General soldiered on. 

Well. One hardly knows where to 
begin. Throughout this sad and defen- 
sive memoir there is an air of con- 
fusion, bewilderment and pain. And no 
wonder. Westmoreland was not in 
Charge, though he was very much the 
man out front. From the evidence pre- 
sented here, he did not himself under- 
stand what the American role was 
meant to be — he did not see the war 
as essentially a political struggle, and 
his descriptions of the development of 
American strategy and tactics are as 
chaotic as the strategy and tactics 
themselves. His accounts of meetings 
with Washmgton officials are sketchy 
and muffled, and occasionally incom- 
prehensible. There is account of a 
meeting with Lyndon Johnson in 1966, 
Johnson seeming "intense, perturbed, 
uncertain how to proceed with the 
Vietnam problem, torn by the apparent 
magnitude of it." L.B.J. alludes to 
Truman's problems with MacArthur 
and teils Westmoreland, "I hope you 
don't pull a MacArthur on me." 
Westmoreland's coinment: "Since I had 
no intenlion of crossing him in any 
way, I chose to make no response." 
Hummm. — 

He loves "my Army" and histributes 
to it, officers and men, is one of the 
attractive features of the book. It 
seems evident to me that he was very 
i)juch less concerned about the effects 
of the war on Vietnam or on America 
than on the Army. He is not ready to 
propose a stab-in-the-back theory, 
though he comes close and chooses to 
end his book with these words: "Mili- 
tary men must remember that to serve 
as a scapegoat for one's government 
is one of the wounds they must be pre- 
pared to accept." He appears to be- 
iieve that the civilians would have done 
the right thing (i.e., widen the war) 
had they been permitted access to the 
real facts of the struggle; they were 
denied these by cynical journalists. The 
journalists are the true villains, their 
defeatist influence never more ap- 
parent than during the Tet Offensive, 
described by the General as "a strik- 
ing defeat for the enemy on anybody's 
terms." 

This judgment, quite simply, is cock- 



eyed unless one places oneself in the 
General's shoes. Then it becomes 
plausible: 37,000^߻emy killed in ac- 
tion, UDwa>tKm^ 5 0,000 w ounded. no 
general uprising among the"l>ej^lation, 
and "for the South Vietnamese. . .a 
kind of unifying catalyst, a Pearl Har- 
bor." Given Westmoreland's cast of 
mind, there is no other way to analyze 
it. But that was not the view from 
Washington, nor, I believe. will it be 
the view of history. 

He believes, with reason, that he 
was badly used. But at no point in this 
unhappy book is the American military 
made to share in the blame for the 
disaster. He is fascinated by blame, 
and distributes it everywhere eise; I 
suppose it's naive to expect otherwise. 
William Westmoreland, a proud man 
and a good soldier, has written a 
petu'ant memoir. He deserves better of 
himself. So do we. ■ 





1 ^K .#=>>':*>>. '. 


^m 


H^j^^^^HH 1 


•1 






=j 



William Loeb. 



W^ho the Hell 

Is 
William Loeb? 



/ 



By Kevin Cash. 

472 pp. Manchester. N. H.: 

Amoskeag Press. Cloth, $8.95. 

Paper, $5.95. 



By MARTIN F. NOLAN 

Perhaps we.have Orson Welles to 
blame. "Citizen Kane" glamorized 
cantankerous newspaper publishers, 
and made attractive the life of a bully 
protected by the First Amendment. 
The remarkable thing about American 
journalism is that it produces so few 
William Loebs. whether out of pro- 



.> 



Martin F. Nolan is Washington bu- 
reau chief of The Boston Globe and a 
syndicated columnist. 



The New York Times Book Heview/February 1, 1976 



1 



fessional piide or commercial re- 
straint. This book is a portrait of 
when, where, how and why — fairly 
weak on the why — William Loeb came 
to power. 

Loeb's soapbox of power is the New 
Hampshire Presidential primary, which 
projects onto a national stage views 
that would otherwise echo quaintly 
from the slopes of the White Moun- 
tains to the Massachusetts border. 
With distorted news coverage and 
front-page editorials, Loeb assaults 
most public figures who wander into 
the circulation area of The Manchester 
Union-Leader and The New Hampshire 
Sunday News. "Who the Hell Is- Wil- 
liam Loeb?" seems an apt titie for non- 
New Englanders who must endure the 
publisher's shenanigans only quad- 
rennially. The simplicity of the title 
is reflected in the journalism-school- 
textbook simplicity of the book's 
Organization — five long chapters of 
when, where, what, why and how. 
An editor would have helped this 
journalistic effort, but none seems to 
have been available at the Amoskeag 
Press, the Company Cash established 
to publish his book. As a result, the 
book seems a parody of a William Loeb 
editorial — a longwinded, clich^-ridden 
tirade of innuendoes and name-calling. 

And yet the book is also as f ascinat- . 
ing as a William Loeb editorial as 
it slogs through the life of Loeb, from 
his hoyhood spent in the Company of 
Theodore Roosevek (whom his father 
served as executive secretary), through 
a succession of enough marital ad- 
ventures to make a movie star bluL-h 
(and to make anyone wonder how 
he could have called Nelson Rocke- 
feiler, as he did in 1964, a "wife swap- 
per"), to his lively and successful cor- 
respondence with the Selective Service 
System that kept him out of uniform 
in World War IL The peccadilloes of 
Citizen Loeb receive far more attention 
from Cash than the motivations of his 
political philosophy. We are titillated 
by a secondhand tale of how the pistol- 
packin* publisher once shot the office 
cat. No scrap of luridly litigious prose 
escapes Cash's vacuum cleaner, includ- 
ing accounts of an alienation-of-affec- 
tion suit against Loeb, his own 
mother's law suit against her son and 
— after she disinherited him — Loeb's 
suit against his mother's estate. 

To sustain the reader*s attention 
during these misadventures requires 
a touch of the poet, which Cash lacks. 
His prose isn't bad, but it isn't good, 
either. A mercifully small sample on 
the condition of the Republican Party 
in the State in 1964: "When the smoke 
had cleared it was a disaster. If the 
New Hampshire G.O.P. had looked 
like the Titanic before, it now looked 
like the Hesperus. . . ." 

Cash describes Loeb's corporate 



moves in acquiring a commercially 
successful newspaper: dealing with 
the Ridder chain, meeting with Joseph 
F. Kennedy to help finance the paper, 
then, after that failed, courting James 
R. Hoffa and the rieh pension funds 
of the Teamsters Union to bail out 
The Union-Leader. Cash also docu- 
ments Loeb's political pow€?r: the de- 
livery of an almost automatic 15 per- 
cent or more of the electorate for can- 
didates of what Cash calls "the Loeb 
Party." 

Sometimes Loeb finds Presidential 
candidates instantly to his liking — 
Robert Taft, Barry Goldwater, Sam 
Yorty, Ronald Reagan. In State elec- 
tions, however, precisely because so 
many would-be candidates are ter- , 
rorized by the thought of sharing public 
consciousness with William Loeb, the 
publisher has to go and find them. 
My favorite of these was Gen. Harrison 
R. Thyng, an Air Force brigadier gen- 
eral with Strangelovean views whom 
Loeb propelled to victory in a five-way 
Republican primary fight in 1966, only . 
to see him lose to Democratic Senator 
Thomas J. Mcintyre, one of several, 
New Hampshire politicians who has 
made a profitable career of "standing ' 
up to Bill Loeb." 

The election statistics weighed by 
Cash add up to "the inescapable con- 
clusion that the Union-Leader and 
Sunday News had a hard core of 
readers who would follow the news- 
papers' lead at election time, even if 
it meant voting for Snow White and 
the Scven Dwarfs." Another inescap- 
able conclusion is the importance, de- 
spite attempts by demographers to be- 
little it, of the New Hampshire pri- 
mary, still the first in the nation. 
Every President elected since 1952 has 
had to win the New Hampshire pri- 
mary. Loeb's influence must be _ 
reckoned with, but how? 

Kevin Cash is faced with the Prob- 
lem of documenting his story, and . 
there is no eye-catching way to do it. 
The Single most useful section of the 
book is a six-page glossary of Loeb's 
attacks on public figures. This litany 
of calumny is required because, in his 
day-in, day-out prose, Loeb sates the 
Imagination and dulls the senses, in- 
cluding outrage. Cash, a newspaper- 
man who used to work for Loeb, teils 
his story exhaustively, if not en- 
gagingly. But the question of why re- 
mains, recalling the wise words of 
two social commentators: one, Mary 
McGrory, who wrote, "To be a celeb- 
rity in America is to be forgiven 
everything,"* and the other, Nora 
Ephron, who finds herseif "continually 
fascinated at the difficulty intelligent 
people have in distinguishing what is 
controversial from what is merely 
offensive." ■ 



Four novels 



Family Feeling 

By Helen Yglesias. 

309 pp. New York: 

The Dial Press. $8.95. 



By IVAN GOLD 

Helen Yglesias's second novel begins 
with Anne Goddard, its heroine and 
sometime-narrator, meditating on her 
earliest memories of her mother and 
trying to piece together, from shards 
of Information and misinformation, 
her mother's European past. Anne 
is the youngest of seven children, 
born in her mother's middle-age, an 
accident; she seems to recall being 
carried "in a bushel basket from the 
top floor of the tenement where we 
lived to my father's grocery störe 
a few blocks away," although one 
of her sisters disputes that her memo- 
ries could go back that far. 

Anne's recollections of her immi- 
grant mother are vivid, discrete, un- 
chronological — in the space of a page, 
and in that order, Anne is "in the 
middle of a divorce," 10-years-old, 
25, and 15. It becomes cl^ar early 
that the mother is dead, and that 
her death took place some time 
ago. Anne sat shiva with the family 
in the posh Westchester home of a 
brother who has made it big in busi- 
ness. ("How preposterous of me," she 
says, "to have ever worried that Jew- 
ish was not American.") She joins 
her father and brothers in synagogue 
(the only woman there), rushes past 
that part in the service where she 
thinks to herseif, "The men bless 
God because He has not made them 
women. The women, in smaller print, 
bless God for having made them ac- 
cording to His will," goes on to her 
private Kaddish, says it, is comforted. 
And from the present, the novelist's 
slippery vantage point, we learn 
that she has "other magic. . . . From 
my garden I cut a spray of dill and 
add it to the last cooking minutes 
of the chicken soup and evoke her 
in the delicate sharp scent. I insist 
on her existence, and on my own." 

Chapter Two foUows, and another 
immediate dislocation, a half-step back 
in time; we are in the original, vaulting 
Penn Station, waiting to meet the 
Silver Meteor, which bears her moth- 
er's body north from Miami. Every one 
is there, either waiting for, or aboard 
the traih — Papa Goddard and Anne 
and her six siblings and their mates, 
and they come at you in a body; the 
feeling is of having blundered into 
a stranger's wedding or funeral, it is 
not that easy for a time to teil ihe 
folk apart. But by the end of "Family 

Ivan Gold is a novelist who teaches 
at Boston University. 



Feeling" you know them — the old man 
(and the garish second wife he takes), 
brother Barry (Baruch), who straightens 
out his father's financial affairs on his 
way to the top, then lords it oyer 
the rest, brothers Saul and Josh, who 
make no great mark on the world, 
sisters Connie, Jenny, Shana, the vari- 
ous in-laws, and children, and grand- 
children, and if you know some of 
them more and some of them less, 
why, so does Anne, and so do we 
all have more knowledge of, and more 
feeling for, some members of our 
immediate and proliferating (and dy- 
ing> families than others. 

To my mind, this book is an ex- 
ample of one kind of first-rate fiction: 
the rcification and artful shaping of 
the obvious and overlooked. For in all 
her incarnations-^school-girl daughter, 
dance-instructor, sister, political radi- 
cal, wife, divorc^e, magazine editor, 
mother, aspiring intellectual, grand- 
mother, widow, and finally novelist — 
Anne Goddard is defined and self-de- 
fined against the matrix of blood and 
other kin, exists chiefly as a member 
of the family, and this, 1 venture, how- 
ever much we may sometimes war with 
the process, is one of the profounder 
ways in which we see ourselves. 

The story follows Anne from her 
earliest memories of Brooklyn child- 
hood on through her middle fifties, 
and the death of her second husband 
in a mugging in Central Park. Some- 
times it comes at you in the third pcr- 
son, sometimes in Anne's own voice, 
almost always in the historical pres- 
ent, and in that series of flashbacks 
and fiash-forwards which seem to defy 
ordinary notions of real or narrative 
time. Yet the book is not "experi- 
mental" (a despairing catchword, 
nowadays, for lack of craft or lack of 
substance), since the coexistence of 
past, present and future in the inside 
of our skulls is yet another truism, one 
which mysticism on the one band and 
physics on the other have lately been 
helping to articulate. Her seeming arbi- 
trariness is Helen Yglesias's art. She 
commands, as well, a style of decep- 
tive simplicity, a language pared of ail 
frills and distractions, and as fine 
an ear for the Speech rhythms of 
her scores of complex characters as 
I've lately encountered. 

Anne, in her book-reviewing days, 
has some trouble getting a notice 
off the ground. What she wants to 
say — ^This is a good book, reader, 
read it — of course ". . . won't do. 
A review must be clever to be 
noticed and she wants her review 
to be noticed — whether or not the 
book is. That's what reviewing is all 
about." Well, maybe so. But notice 
"Family Feeling," and, if you do, you 
might also wind up, as I did, discover- 
ing Yglesias's fine first novel, "How 
She Died." ■ 



6 



i 



The Gull 
\A^all 

By Clayton Eshleman. 

Hl pp. Los Angeles: 

Black Sparrow Press. 

Cloth, $15. Paper, $4. 

By PAUL ZWEIG 

"The Gull Wall" is a sprawl- 
ing, unwieldy book which al- 
most repels the reader with its 
broken syntax and deliberately 
private Images. Despite Whit- 
manesque invocations in sev- 
eral titles, the energy of the 
poems is strangely solitary, as 
if it did not care to share itself. 
The opening poeni, "To the 
Creative Spirit," lets the reader 
know what to expcct: 
Guide her now, O great joy of 
to live, who I do love more 
than any other hegins to 
hang 
in thy sting, guide her, 

assume in her perception . . . 
relax her hefore the feared 
ant 
the spider on the hathroom 

floor 
Allow thy seif to he seen 
thy seif the power to 
see, if thy thorax be gold 
& crimson before 
her mind flees, 
join with her ... 
The "creative splriV spurts 
forth, drenched »n body fluids. 
But instead of gathering us into 
its lap, as Whitman's limit-dis- 
soWing expansiveness surely 
does, Eshleman's "creative 
spirit" seems isolated, a lone 
performer, exuding a kind of 
clammy narciss'sm: 

I gnaw and tunnel, ^ 

feeling your living pressure in 

their bodies' dents 

l raise * ' 

through you into '-: ■ 

that Venus, 

leaving my buttecks 

as a fly's eyes. - l ^ 

the -earth is foetal ' "' 




Lung Lunfi 



'WU-HSIA is 
a thoroughly 
readable Chi- 
nese Version of 
the American 
western." — 
Fred Ferretti, 
The New York 
Times. 

WU-HSIA is 
fresh. fascinat- 
ing and breath- 
taking." — The 
United Journal. 
"WU-HSIA is 
charming in its 
öwn way." — 



Joseph W. Hotchiss. Executive Edi- 
tor, Readers Digest Condensed 
Books. 

$1.95/copy. Send order/check to 
CHIN America, P.O. Box 1196, 
Elmhurst Corona. N.Y. 11386. 

■ Library Orders welcome ■ 

■ Sales agents wanted ■ 

■ Distributors wanted ■ 



swimming. with flippers, 
face upward, lonely 

l want to enter its cnthill. . 
The impress'on, finally, is 
less one of individual po^ms, 
than ot a pressing flow of 
Images, fragmentary scenes, 
autobiographical recalls, sprin- 
kled with cultural and historical 
references which bob through — 
Lascaux, Japanese movies, 
medieval gargoyles — like faint- 
ly glimpsed road-marks of the 
Space Eshleman's "creative 
spirit" gallops through. 

Often the poems seem to out- 
run their own words, as if 
Eshleman believed that gram- 
mar were too small and narrow 
to accommodate the inner lava 
which he Claims as his poetic 
domain. 

Yet, in the end, the unrelent- 
ing intensity of the poems holds 
one's attention. The Images 
have a disturb'ng originality. 
The reader seems to be witness- 
ing the most private, most 
tropical of obsessions revealed 
to iiim in an exhibitionistic 
dance. Eshleman's dance may 
be grim and narcissistic, but it 
contains all of a man's being; 
it holds nothing back, and the 
reader looks on, uncomfortable, 
a little irritated, but still 
looking. 

The high point in the book 
is a lucid prose meditation on 
Eshleman's friendship with the 
late Paul Blackburn. It is a 
moving tribute to Blackburn, 
and the presence of a mediating 
subject matter brings out quali- 
ties of grace and sympathetic 
intelligence which the book 
lacks elsewhere. The medita- 
tion ends with a brooding poem 
which gives a sense of what 
Eshleman can do when he al- 
lows himself time and restraint. 
These lines in particular have 
an eerie power: , 
Blackburn's presence was 

now ^verywhere, about a 

mile from the cavern 
l could see the blue Mediter- 

ranean waters, out on the 

beach in solitude 
a figure was seated on a little 

wooden chair at a table 

writing, 
as I approached il turned and 

watched me. its beah 

closed. its eyes 
heady, unmoving, at the hase 

of its feathered neck were 

human Shoulders, 
from the freckles l knew, yes, 

and from its short muscular 

build— 

Can you speak, I said, 
the creature nodded yes 
then shook its beak no. . . 
For all its defects, "The Gull 
Wall" is an intrigumg book 
that repays the patient reader 
with passages such as this. ■ 



Paul Zweig*s most recent 
volume of poetry is "The 
Dark Side of the Earth." 



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ne 
the 



Continued from Page 2 

ttie Je WS had onee again fought 
their way out of captivity and 
darkness; this ölan, along with 
the moral and psychic restless- 
ness of believers who were 
disc ardinp the re li^ii 
w, was rapidly chan- 
into'the I.L.G.W.U. and 
Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers. The socialists pro- 
duced the major Yiddish news- 
paper and set up organizations 
such as the WojJLüoeiVsCircie, 
which provided nealtJT'an^Iife 
insurance, hospitals and sani- 
tariums, schools that offered a 
"se qülar Jewish education," a» 
well as all manner oflectures, 
courses and other cultural ac- 
tivities, mostly in Yiddish. From 
this example, all of Jewish 
unionism would take its cue: 
thus the communists would 
challenge the socialists with 
their own children's camp9i»and 
schools, cooperative housing 
projects, theater, dance, and 
Choral groups, mandolin ensem- 
bles and literary panels, as well 
as an excellent newspaper. In 
Short, in trying to revolutionize 
the World that ground them 
down, the immigrant Jews re- 
vo^tionize d them selves both 
r^sfi 



to 



-and to help-fheir chil- 



dren rise in it. 

Reading Howe's pages on 
Jewish socialism and the labor 
movements — meticulously fair 
and even-tempered, though 
patently written by the editor 
of Dissent, one of the remain- 
ing few to whom socialism was 



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a belief "to which they would 
pledge their lives"— one can see 
the powerful strains of Jewish 
idealism and skepticism work- 
ing away like yeast in bread. 
Also in Howe's descriptions 
of the intricate, shifting, but 
always bitter struggle between 
the left and right, of the slow 
giving way of radical aspira- 
tions to practical ambitions in 
the rank-and-file, one can find 
an evolving paradigm of the 
political behavior of Jews in 
America as well, perhaps, of 
the ideological tensions that 
mark one's own politics. This 
comies home in Howe's argu- 
ment with th^fe^^revku^nisj 
that the Jew'lsn sociaHst move-w 
ment was_ maia W ^ a mo de jor 
ac cylturaü pn insf5ad^eSrfoixe 
dedfeate£-4cr a new society, 
which was the way it mostly 
saw itself and the way it ac- 
tually transformed the con- 
sciousness of masses of Jews. 

The other powerful force that 
brought the immigrant Commu- 
nity together and* enabled it 
even to flourish was Yiddish- 
keit, also originally an'"^äjt 
Eüföpean movement of the late 
19th Century. Its mar row was 
the vernacular of the Jews, "a 
language crackling with clever- 
ness and turmoil, ironic to its 
bones.** Its substance was the 
Jewish way of life, through 
thick and thin, the "shared 
experience, which goes beyond 
opinion and ideology." Its func- 
tion was to hold a people 
together who were undergoing 
one challenge after another, 
including, after 1881, dispersion 
and acculturation in a totally 
Strange secular society. Its spir- 
it was an ironic acceptance 
of its role of straddling two 
World views — the religioiis.4nd 
.secuUir — which w5re slowly 

Tovmg apart and one of which 

ras withering. 

Even so, it perforpied „won- 
derswhile it lasted. It carried 
tKeTfagmented, rivalrous S^ 
Euroßgftnjews into the modern 
wofiS-It prövided an essential 
network of Communications be- 
tween the Pale and New York 
that reached into their respec- 
tive theaters, union halls, news- 
paper Offices, poetry move- 
ments, political cells, life- 
styles, schools of fiction. It 
also negotiated the uneven and 
fateful tramsactions between 
trad ition and -mode rnitv. be- 
twe^ communal and individual 
expression, between its owji 
survival and its peopl ej ac^uj « 
turation. In its ver^ premises 
that the Jews could remain 
Jews and yet regain their 
worldly bearings and lead a 
"normal life" in Russia and 
America, laiy the sources of 
its enormous encrg ies^and^ con- 
tradictronsTitS startHnglull life 
and its inexorable destruction. 

A few examples, necessarily 
brief, that do little justice to 



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^UBUSHED ir 

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TiMsa Mirmon 



Howe's superb account of Yid- 
dishkeit. In his chapters on the 
Daily Fofl yard> he describes 
how this leading newspaper 
functioned as a teacher of the 
Iribe — a kindergarten that 
taught new manners and a uni- 
versity that explained the intel- 
lectuals to the masses (and 
vice versa); a counselor in all 
manner of family, work and 
personal problems; an organ 
for high socialist essays and 
lurid crime stories, for Yiddish 
soap Opera on one page and 
the fiction of I.B. Singer on 
the next. In sum, as Howe 
puts it, '*a large enclo5in&-«ur- 
ror that refl^eeted th^g^-wh^le" 
of tfie ~^¥orhl of Yiddish — its 
best, its worst, its most in- 
grown, its most outgoing, its 
soarm ß ideali sm. its - xrass 
^ Infe^a lism, everything."**« — -H 
wäsaft held together by the 
remarkable Abraham Cahan, 
wrho wrote the one distin- 
guished novel in English about 
the Immigrant experience, 
"The Rise of David Levin- 
sky," whose theme is the mel- 
ancholy wages of success; 
Cahan knew from the Start that 
the mo r£ the Forward built 
a Kriij gp tn Am«>rira the more 

of its readers would cross it. 
At the same time, his newspa- 
per held up the idea of the 
underlying unity of a culture 
that would strongly mark the 
work of American Jews, from 
the movies of Hollywood to 
the pages of Commentary. 

Yiddish theater began as the 
one refuge in the years of 
darkness, serving up lofty sen- 
tentiousness, flooded emotiona- 
lity and low pageantry: Moshe 
Lieb Halpem called it a cross 
between a synagogue and a 
bawdy house. In the ^^.years 
that foUowed it tried xiFinch 
its way toward modern realism 
and theatrical artT nespecIäUy 
the Russian mod^el. But its au- 
dience continued to clamor for 
the warhorse»^ of historicsik 
spectacle or ^anniif ^ch maltz/ ^ 
preferably a toucl or boin, ^cfi 
as "Mirele Efros, first called 
"The Jewish Queen Lear," in 
which ungrateful, worldly sons 
eventually retum to confirm 
their mother's wisdom. Such 
plays provided the audience 
with what th'ey wanted: the 
brilliant genre acting of Ad- 
ler, Thomashefsky, Maurice 
Schwartz, in the higher and 
lower registers (the best acting 
in New York, according to 
Stark Young), and a plot that 
confirmed the ol d wisdo m that 
La pp Tgecu^ed p imo ntv Teguire s 
Mstri ct _ family ^disciD] ine---i.e.. 
^arHina knows best? Yet it 
was just this function that en- 
abled Yiddish theater to flou- 
rish, creating something akin 
to Italian Opera, in Howe's 
view, by tliie expressiveness and 
vigor of its uncomplicated thea- 
tricality. Perhaps in time, with 
the development of more soph- 



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A 



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isticated Yiddish audiences. 
the theater wouid have caught 
up with the aspirations and 
abilities of its Joseph Ben Amis 
and H. Leivicks. But there was 
no tliTie: "a wink of history 
and it was over." 

« 

I have not touched on Howe*s 
chapter on Yiddish poetry — the 
souI of Yiddishkeit and the 
most highly developed of its 
literary arts, leading the 
rharmfid ^"d h^t,gr ''f^. aS l^Qf- 
try usu ally doe s, of public ne- 
glect. Nor have I indicated 
Hcwe's treatment of the disper- 
sion of the immigrant ethos, 
through the comedians from 
EddieCantor to Lenny Bruce, 
the^pauKers such as lacob Ep- 
stein and the Soyer brothers, 
ortTe^American novelists from 
Henry to Philip Roth. Here 
Howe bears down on the point 
I began with — the legacy of 
Yiddish culture in the deeper 
levels of consciousness and 
mcral will: for example, the 
abiding commitment to the es 
thetic of Judaism itself — "bgau- 
t y is a Quality . not a form;! 
ä cODl^t. nbi an arrängerSenl 

and estheti^"5^ong' 
to the same realm. Or in recent 



t 



fiction, one sees the creation of j 
a new American prose with a j 
Yiddish flavor, and a carrying j 
out of the strategy of the great 
Yiddish actors — "realism with 
a little extra," as Harold Clur- 
man puts it. At the same time, 
Howe observes the waning of 

the Yiddish influence under 
the same paradox that 
governed its own rapid deve- 
lopment and attenuation. 

The sense of this rieh and 
terrible brevity provides the 
tone of "World of Our Fathers" 
— the note of up-and-doing, 
striving, even frenzy mingling 
with the note of fru^itration, 
sacrifjce.Jncomßlßteness. This 
to^e^now bnsk, now elegiac, 
also arises from Howe's feeling 
for the tragic dialectic of his 
Story — that the ^rrotmal life" 
that thes6 self-educated work- 
ers and their tribunes strove 
to create proved to be but 
a Staging area for their child- 
ren's escape from the family, 
Community and culture. Per- 
haps the last word fittingly 
belongs to David Goldenbloom, 
whom Howe, like the world 
he lived in, has rescued from 
near-oblivion: 

"What eise can I teil you. 
Mv ch ildren went t heir own j 
"arn proud ot mem, bui ^ 
are things we can't talk 1 
about. Still, I have no com- j 
plaints. My circumstances werc 
what they were. Mvfamily 
h as been a wh ^i«? <^n?re\ ya 
fe!^ r still take pleasure in 

tolom Aleichem, and to me 
Bazarov and Raskolnücov are 
like friends of myvyÖuth. But 
to think of them is to be re- 
mlnded that there was a door 
which, for me, never opened." ■ 



•X- 



Vexed again, 
Perplexed again, 
Thank God 1 can be 
over-sexed again... 

■ What famous song lyric contains these little known 
and frequently suppressed lines? It's Larry Hart's "Be- 
witched," and you^l find the complete original version 
in this terrific new collection of great Broadway lyrics by 
Hart, Ira Gershwin, Cole Porter, Oscar Hammerstein, 
"Yip" Harburg, Alan jay Lerner, Stephen Sondheim, and 
othor songwriting greats. Included are the lyrics of over 
3.50 classic songs— most of them accompanied by fasci- 
nating, detaiied analyses— plus a generous sampling of 
future hits by aspiring young lyricists. 



c> n 

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rr — —■ 

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■D XZ 
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3 » or| 

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- m Dl 

% ^z 



n c 
c o- 



THCI 

>¥C)I3 



^^^Kfy'i- 



'<:^^. 



Il 



lA 



The Great Theatre Lyricists and Their Lyrics 

by LEHMAN ENGEL, lllustrated. SizeSVi" x 11". $14.95, nowat 
your bookstore, or send check to CROWN PUBLISHERS, INC., 
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iCRom 



The glories of the medieval Arab 
World • . . A handsome exampleH>£ 

hookmaking/' -Publishers WeeUy 




The Genius 

of Arab 
Civilization 

SOURCE OF RENAISSANCE 
Editcd by JOHN R. HAYES 



For a civilization that 
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it should become a 
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Genius of Arab 
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speeded up by vascular, infectious, 

id toxic factors, Dr. Barbeau believes 

is conditioned by a hypothalamic de- 

:iency in cells equipped with decar- 

►xylases ncccssary for synthesis. 

[cnce, Parkinson's disease is a form 

|f cell dcficiency Syndrome. 

The cells in question belong to the 

-called APUD system, he said. 

he acronym indicatcs their main char- 

Icteristics— fluorogcnic Amine content 

|catecholamine, Serotonin) and/or 

inline Precursor Uptakc (dopa or sc- 

[oionin precursor) with presencc of 

imino-acid Dccarboxylases. 

Dr. Barbeau noted that thcse cells 
Ire found in the pituitary, thyroid, 
Ind various parts of the digestive tract, 
md "usually manifest their presence 
[hrough hypersecretion." Examples of 
ibnormal activity include the Zollinger- 
[Ellison Syndrome and other secrcting 
[tumors. 

But the cells he considers of partic- 
ular interest in Parkinson's disease and 
aging are the pituitary "m" cells known 
to produce melanocyte-stimulating hor- 
mone (MSH) under the influence of 
monoamines and the inhibitory con- 
trol of an MSH-release inhibiting hor- 



motion of lipofuscin storage at the ex- 
pense of melanin accumulation in pig- 
mented cells, Dr. Barbeau believes that 



imDalance m neurotransmitter Sys- 
tems within the basal ganglia, causing 
the Symptoms of Parkinson's disease 
and aging. 



Academy of Pediatrics Favors Use of 
Brand-Name Drugs in Children 



Mcdical Trihune Report 

EvANSTON, III.— Physicians treating 
children should generally prescribe spe- 
cific brand-name drugs, because "the 
data which would allow the pediatrician 
to prescribe generically and expect con- 
sistent therapeutic results do not exist," 
according to the American Academy of 
Pediatrics' Committee on Drugs. 

"Few drug products have been ap- 
propriately studied for bioavailability 
or therapeutic equivalence in infants 
and children," the committee said in 
the February, 1976, issue of Pediatrics. 

The committee "strongly supports 
the use of the Icast expensive medica- 
tion which provides effective therapy. 
However, the physician's duty to the 
patient is to prescribe reliable drugs 
with reproducible therapeutic eflfects at 
a given dose. Therefore, until suitable 
bioavailability data in children are de- 



termined and therapeutic importance 
recognized, the physician should con- 
tinue to prescribe the products which 
have shown significant clinical ef- 
fectiveness in his hands or in published 
clinical trials." 

Kidney Airlift 

Medical Trihune World Service 

Tokyo— Plans are underway to airlift 
a kidney from New York to Tokyo for 
transplantation into a Japanese patient, 
according to Dr. Takeshi Koshiba, of 
Kitasato Medical School near here. 

The kidney will be kept at 4° to 8°C 
during the 10-hour plane trip. 

The New York phase of the project 
will be supervised by Dr. Samuel 
Kountz, of State University of New 
York Downstate Medical Center, 
Brookyln, Dr. Koshiba said.""' 



Missing Enzyme Ted' to Tay-Sachs Cells 




HPhe ENZYME lacking in patients with Tay-Sachs disease has been introduced 
-*• in vitro into human Tay-Sachs cells. The enzyme, hexosaminidase A, was 
dehvered to the leukocytes by antibody-coated Hposomes containing the en- 
zyme Solution— a technique previously employed by Dr. Gerald Weissmann in 
enzyme-deficient sharks. How to induce Hposomes to deliver their content to 
critically affected tissues remains a problem. Also it is not known whether 
treatment started after birth can stop progressive degeneration. 



1,.^' C.Ü 





Dr. Weissmann Oeft), Professor of Medicine at New York University Medical 
Center, develop ed the technique whereby a primary lysosome of a Tay-Sachs 
neutrophil fuses with a phagocytic yacuole containing an enzyme-laden li- 
posome (center). The iiposome is then enclosed within the vacuole (right). 



LBI NEWS 



Page 3 



\ 



mann, the statesman Walther Rathenau, and 
the philosopher Martin Bvber, But there are 
also letters from the English Prime Minister 
Benjamin Disraeli, the French politician 
Leon Gambetta, the Dutch painter Joseph 
Israels, Afred Dreyfus, the French officer, 
and Chaim Weizmann, the Zionist leader 
and later first president of Israel. The 
Weizmann letter, written in Cairo in 1925, 
expresses his impressions of events in 
Palestine at the time of the opening of the 
Hebrew University. There is also a small 
collection of prints, including portraits of 
political leaders of the 1848 Frankfurt 
Parliament, and depictions of Jewish cos- 
tume from the 17th through early 19th 
centuries. 

The collection was purchased from Mr. 
Sally Bodenheimer, administrator of the 
Jewish cemetery in Frankfurt. Originally 
from Rexingen near Stuttgart, he emigrated 
to Palestine in 1935 and returned to 
Germany in the early 1960's. 

This newest acquisition was prominently 
featured in the April 16th New York Times 
in an illustrated article titled "German's 
Collection of Old Jewish Documents Travels 
to the New World." The article, which calls 
the LBI "the outstanding repository of 
material dealing with the distinguished and 
long history of Europe's German-speaking 
Jews," has brought more than 100 people to 
the Institute to view a display of selected 
items from the collection. 



catalog will be of considerable assistance to 
scholars. The eventual exhibition of portions 
of the collection will benefit a wide ränge of 
the public." 

The Institute's holdings of paintings, 
sculptures, engravings, lithographs, medals, 
ceramics and ritual objects include works by 



FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 

BROADENS ITS SUPPORT 

OFLBI 



The National Endowment for the Arts, 
one of the foundations established by the 
Federal Government to support cultural 
institutions in the United States, has 
awarded the New York Leo Baeck Institute a 
matching grant of $5,000 to catalog the 
Institute's art collection. 

While the government's National Endow- 
ment for the Humanities has supported 
important scholarly Institute projects for 
some time, this grant represents the first 
recognition of the LBI by the prestigious 
Endowment for the Arts. An evaluation 
report submitted to the Endowment at its 
request by the co-chairman of the Conserva- 
tion Center of New York University's 
Institute of Eine Arts states: "I believe the 
LBI art collection to be a significant resource 
worthy of the attention of a visiting 
specialist. The preparation of an adequate 




Efraim Frisch, publisher of "Der Neue Mer- 
kur." Oil painting by Suzanne Carvallo- 
Schulein. (From the LBI Art Collection.) 



such artists as Max Liebermann, Moritz 
Oppenheimer, Hugo Steiner-Prag, Her- 
mann Struck and Lesser Ury. Etchings and 
engravings depicting aspects of Jewish 
communal and religious life, some dating 
back to the 17th Century, are especially 
valuable as documentary sources of history 
where other sources are rare. The large 
collection of portraits and busts comprises a 
veritable gallery of famous as well as less 
prominent German Jews. 

The Endowment grant, together with 
matching funds to be collected from outside 
sources, will be used to catalog the art works 
at the Institute and then to produce slides of 
each cataloged item, thus enabling the LBI 
to show its art collection outside the Insti- 
tute. 

The six-month project, which began in 
April, is being carried out by Aline Isdebsky 
Pritchard, a Ph.D candidate at New York 
University's Institute of Eine Arts specializ- 
ing in European art of the 18th, 19th and 



20th centuries. Mrs. Pritchard has held 
positions at the art museum of Cornell 
University, among other posts; and has 
taught art history at Wells College, Elmira 
College and Central Michigan University. 

In a related area, as this issue went to press 
the LBI received word that the chairman of 
the National Endowment for the Humanities 
has decided toallocate an additionalS 12,575 
for the Institute's major project to complete 
the cataloging of its 50,000 volume library. 



FACULTY SEMINAR 

CONCLUDES FOURTH 

YEAR 

The LBI Faculty Seminar program 
continues to grow in scopeand membership. 
Some twenty-five professors from the tri- 
state area and Pennsylvania attended each of 
six sessions which, this year, examined 
"Methods and Perspectives of Historio- 
graphy" as they relate to modern Jewish 
history in Central Europe. 

The intent of the 1976-77 program, stated 
at the year's outset by seminar chairman Dr. 
Uriel Tal, professor at Tel Aviv University 
who is currently visiting professor at the 
University of Pennsylvania, and a Fellow of 
the LBI, was to reconsider several classical 
methodological questions in the light of 
current research, and to scrutinize the 
applicability of new techniques to the study 
of modern Jewish history. Professor Tal also 
presented the first paper on the subject of 
"Intellectual History." 

Dr. Fred Weinstein of the State University 
of New York at Stony Brook introduced the 
second session with a talk on "Psycho- 
History," one of the newer methodologies. 

In January, Dr. Monika Richarz, LBI 
research associate and editor of the recently 
published volume of memoirs from the 
Institute's collections, spoke about "Social 
History." 

A fourth paper, on "Economic History," 
delivered by Professor Lawrence Schofer of 
the University of Pennsylvania, deah with 
the interrelationship of Jewish and general 
history. 

At the April session on "Interdisciplinary 
History," Professor Carl E. Schorske of 
Princeton analyzed the profession of histori- 
an today, at a time when history is increas- 
ingly becoming a social science. 

The final session, a discussion of external 
and internal approaches to Jewish history, 
was based on a paper presented by Professor 
Ismar Schorsch of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary. 

At all sessions, stimulating discussions 
among the participants followed the presen- 
tation of introductory papers. 



Page 4 



LBI NEWS 



TRACING YOUR FAMILY 



The publication of Alex Haley's Roots 
and the television broadcast of his bestseller 
precipitated a tidal wave of American 
interest in the field of genealogy. But as a 
recent New York Times 2iVi\c\t, "The Search 
for Roots, a Pre-Haley Movement," points 
out, the roots movement had been growing 
for some time. Earlier books undertook 
genealogical excursions, ethnic magazines 
had been launched prior to the current 
upsurge, and the Ethnic Heritage Studies 
Program Act, passed by Congress in 1974, 
had funneled funds for roots research to 
American universities. 

Family research in German-Jewish circles 
predates the current interest in genealogy. 
Select Jewish families in Germany had 
engaged in tracing ancestors and descend- 
ants as soon as they had reached promi- 
nence. Scholars began subjecting them, as 
well as entire communities — or cemeteries — 
to genealogical research during the last two 
decades of the 19th Century. In 191^2J^x 
Grunwald foun^ed theL^^hortdÜLvecT^^c/^ 
fuer juedische Familienforschung. Howjever, 
in 19 ^4, w hen Arthur Czellitzer, an ophtlTaJ- 
mologist and amafeur genealogist, founded 
the Gessellschaft fuer juedische Familien- 
Forschung, "ä~roClHTy"Whtch"published its 
own Journal, hundreds of Jewish families 
were stimulated to research their ancestry, 
compile family trees and write family 







IHtHetlunQen bet {BMeUdhoH fäi jübilthe f amtlien-f ocichung 




Title design of German-Jewish genealogical periodical. (From the LBI Collections.) 



Coat ofarmsofthe Kallir family, Vienna, 1869. 
(From the LBI Kallir Collection.) 



^ 



A 



histories reaching even into the Nazi years. 
While much of this material was lost or 
destroyed during the Holocaust, many 
records have fortunately survived. 

Today, the Leo Baeck Institute is the most 
important specialized depository of genea- 
logical material pertaining to German 
Jewry. Hundreds of family trees and family 
histories, preserved in the LBI Archives, 
some published and others in manuscript 
form, trace ancestry to the 18th, 17th and 
still earlier centuries. 

Since the Institute's founding, a number of 
Professionals and laymen have given their 
research or family papers to the LBI. Among 
the most recent acquisition in this field is the 
large Rudolf Simonis Collection which 
contains the family trees, related correspon- 
dence and typed and mimeographed histo- 
ries of several hundred Jewish families in 
'Berlin, Northern Germany and Sweden. His 
collection, like many others, is profusely 
illustrated. 



For the patient researcher the possibilities 
for genealogical discoveries in the Institute 
are endless. Family papers found through- 
out the collections often include birth and 
marriage certificates, testaments and land 
deeds — all of them valuable sources for 
genealogical study. Registers of vital statis- 
tics and tax lists, compiled by Jewish 
communities and town governments, some 
dating back to the 18th Century, have also 
been preserved. Especially notable at the 
LBI are the considerable number of Mohel- 
buecher (circumcision registers). 

The amateur genealogist with family roots 
in Worms, for example, will be directed to 
the collection of Berthold Rosenthal (1875- 
1957), which deals exclusively with the Jews 
of Baden and the Palatinate. He will find 70 
family trees; a 500-page listing of family 
names adopted by Baden Jews in 1809, the 
year in which Jewish last names were 
officially fixed; and the unique Book of 
Worms, copied by Rosenthal, which con- 



LBI NEWS 



Page 5 



tains an extensive compilation of data about 
the Jewish population of Worms from 1560 
to 1812. 

Numerous regions are represented in the 
LBI collections. One collection contains 
3,725 handwritten pages of documents from 
the 19th Century for 150 Jewish communities 
of Lorraine and Alsace, including the 
general and Jewish census and population 
statistics and other demographic informa- 
tion. 

A large portion of the newly catalogued 
collection of Jacob Jacobson, the last chief 
archivist of the Central Archives for German 
Jewry, contains valuable birth, marriage and 
death records. The Berlin Jewish Communi- 
ty, for example, is covered from 1714 to 
1855; many other cities and towns are also 
represented. Of equal interest are the lists of 
Prussian Jews taking last names during the 
early 19th Century. 

A discussion of German-Jewish genealogy 
must mention the criminal abuse to which 
such research was put by the Nazis. They 
established a special office, the Reichsstelle 
fuer Sippenforschung, to gather data which 
were used to determine "Aryan" or "nop- 
Aryan" Status. Ironically, some Jewish vital 
statistics have survived as a by-product of 
this Nazi pseudo-science. 

Given the scope of available genealogical 
material at the Institute, it is not surprising 
that professional and amateur genealogists 
number high among visiting researchers. 
Dan Rottenberg, author of Finding Ow 
Fathers: A Guidehook to Jewish Genealogy, 




recently published by Random House, wasa 
frequent visitor. Since his book appeared in 
March (with a lengthy and favorable write- 
up of the LBI as a valuable source for 
genealogists), and was excerpted in the May 
2nd issue of New York magazine, more than 
50 New Yorkers in search of their Jewish 
roots have come to the Institute. Letters of 
inquiry from Florida, Los Angeles, Wa- 
shington, D.C., Texas and the local area 
have also been numerous. All inquiries are 
carefully handled and even when the staff 
archivists of the LBI cannot provide an 
answer, they often can refer individuals to 
other sources of information in the United 
States, Germany and Israel. 



The Leo Baeck Institute is eager to add to its 
rieh holdings of genealogical material. Any 
donation of family trees, family histories or 
family papers will serve to make the LBI 
collections more comprehensive and valua- 
ble. 



Coat of arms of Hermann Groedel, made a 
Baron in 1905. (From the LBI Nussbaum 
Collection.) 



GERMAN-JEWISH 
EMIGRATION ANALYZED 



Herbert A. Strauss, professorof history at 
the City College of the City University of 
New York, also serves as director of the 
Research Foundation for Jewish Immigra- 
tion. At his March LBI lecture on "Nazi 
Policies and Jewish Emigration from Ger- 
many," Professor Strauss discussed two 
areas of inquiry which, he stressed, are in 
need of comprehensive scholarly analysis: 
the social character of the emigration itself 
and the meaning of the emigration expe- 
rience. 

To provide a framework, Professor 
Strauss cited several sets of statistics. He 
began with German census figures: in 1925, 
568 j300 Jews lived in Germany; by 1933, that 
fTgure had decreased to 503,000; by May of 
1939to214,000;inOctober, 1941, 1 40,000 to 
150,000 Jews remained. 

While Jews over the age of fifty comprised 
one-third of the Jewish population in 1933, 
the same age group was represented by as 
much as one-halfof the Jewish population in 
1939. Children were the first to emigrate. In 
1933 there werg,^2^|MKLJewish children in 
Germany SLg0^ont to fifteen; in 1939 only 
15,000 reuräined. ^- '" " 



Analyzing the patterns of emigration is far 
more complex, Professor Strauss stated. 
Perhaps 270,q00 to 300,000 Jews left 
Germany between the y^ar^^ lyf^ anrj IQIQ^ 
But an annual breakdown of this emigration 
shows that the flow was not regulär but 
rather a response movement taking place in 
uneven waves. In 1933, for example, 3JJKK) 
Jews left Germany, including repatriates 
who went to Poland and later returned. In 
1934, the figure dropped to 23,000 and in 
1935 to 21,000. By 1936, the number 
increased to 25,000, but in 1937 it agairrfell 

• to 23,000. During 1938 and 1939, 118,000. 
Jews "emTgrated and from 1940 to 1941, 

.23,000 additional Jews were able to emi- 
grate, 

Detailed study of numerous factors is 
necessary, Professor Strauss continued, to 
determine why Jews emigrated at a given 
time. Did the economic Situation and high 
rate of unemployment, for example, also 
play a role in the decision of the 37,000 Jews^ 
who epTi£r^Xed_iJi-i933? And, v^fiäTwäs the 
time lag at different periods b&lween the 
decision to emigrate and the actual depar- 
ture? 

Professor Strauss suggested various other 
factors that influenced German Jews regard- 
ing their decision to emigrate. An analysis of 
the Nazi years shows recurrent cycles of 
severe persecution followed by retreat — 
what Professor Strauss termed "a forward 
and backward movement" — in the Nazi 
pattern of persecution. Thus, for example, 
Julius Streicher unleashed a strong wave of 
anti-Semitism in mid-193^^-fr^sud€lenly 
eased in April of 1935, but in September of 
the same year, the Nuernberg laws were 
issued. 

In terms of the actual experience of 
emigration, Professor Strauss reported that 
while 200 refugees have been interviewed for 
his study project, it has been extremely 
difficult to obtain accurate psychological 
data. There is the fact, often overlooked, 
Strauss stated, that after Hitler took over, 
the Jewish authorities set up "communal 
Systems" that brought about a measure of 
internal normalcy. This success of Jewish 
officialdom, he suggested, to some degree 
involved a pattern of deception that had a 
retarding effect on the Jews' capacity for 
analytical foresight. 



The Library and Reading 

Room of the LBI are open 

Monday through Friday 

10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 

Except in August 




Page 6 



LBI NEWS 




Dr. Friedrich S. Brodnitz 



ELECTED TO THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS 



Dr. Brodnitz is an ear, nose and throat specialist. After graduating from the University of 
Berlin in 1924, he practiced mediane in Berlin until 1933. For the next four years, before 
emigrating to the United States in 1937, he served as press chief of the Reichsvertretung der 
deutschen Juden and as chairman of the Central Committee of the Jewish Youth 
Organizations. 

Dr. Brodnitz is associate attending otolaryngologist at Mount Sinai Medical Center and 
adjunct professor of Communications sciences at Hunter College of the City University of New 
York. An authority on voice, he is the author of two books, Keep Your Voice Heahhy and 
Vocal RehabiHtation, and of thirty scientific papers. 



HOW THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT SUPPORTED ZIONISM: 1897- 1918 



There exists abundant literature on 
Germany's penetration of the Orient. But, 
according to Professor Isaiah Friedman, 
associate professor of modern Jewish history 
at The Dropsie University, who delivered 
this season's final LBI lecture, its Jewish 
aspects are less well known. 

Professor Friedman began his presenta- 
tion with the year 1898, immediately prior to 
Wilhelm II's departure for the Hast, when it 
appeared that the Emperor intended to 
declare his support of Jewish plans for 
colonization in Palestine. Turkey, the 
argument was, would benefit economically 
from Jewish settlement in Palestine, and 
Germany would gain a strong foothold in the 
Orient. The Sultan, however, averse to 
European powers gaining influence in 
Turkey's internal affairs, brusquely rejected 
the proposals and, as a reult, Wilhelm's 
enthusiasm for Zionism waned. 

Yet, interest in the Jewish settlement of 
Palestine did not die down. By 1912, the 
conviction had gained ground that the 
Zionists would be able to do valuable work 
for Turkey and this would benefit Germany 
by strengthening her cultural and economic 
influence in the Orient, thus balancing the 
existing influence of the French. 

Germany's sincerity was demonstrated 
during World War 1 by her policy of 
protection which proved invaluable for the 
preservation of the existing Yishuv. Con- 
cerned lest they be held responsible for the 
persecution of the Jewish settlers in Palestine 
initiated by Djemal Pasha, Commander of 
the Ottoman IVth Army, the Germans 



repeatedly intervened with the Turkish 
government, their ally. But neither the 
Turkish Minister of the Interior, who was 
friendly to the Jews, nor the Grand Vizier 
were able to curb Djemal Pasha. 

In 1915, in spite of strained relationships 
with the Turks, the German government 
issued top secret Instructions to its consulate 
in Palestine. These stated that it was 
"politically advisable to show a friendly 
attitude toward Zionism and its aims." 
Obviously, the Germans had considered the 
Potential Propaganda value, but the deeper 
motive involved long-term considerations. 
The German military conquests in the Fast 
had created a Jewish problem. By the end of 
1915, over five million Russian Jews were 
under German domination. And as the resuh 
of expulsions by the Tsarist regime, more 
than one and a half million Jews were 
uprooted from their homes. A serious 
refugee problem emerged and it was feared 
that many would migrate westward. Con- 
fronted with this Situation, the German 
government feit it should prevail on its 
Turkish ally to remove immigration restric- 
tions, after a victorious end of the war, and 
let Zionism meet the refugee need. 

According to Professor Friedman, it 
would not be difficult to detectanti-Semitic 
undertones in a number of memoranda, but 
it would be incorrect to say that Germany's 
policy toward Zionism was largely motivat- 
ed by anti-Semitism. 

In April, 1919, no longer inhibited by the 
need to pay heed to Turkish susceptibilities, 
the German government did come out 



openly in support of Zionism, declaringitself 
in "fundamental agreement" with its pro- 
gram. While Germany was denied a say at 
the Peace Conference, she should, Professor 
Friedman believes, be given due credit. Had 
it not been for Germany's persistent inter- 
ventions with the Turkish government, he 
stated, the Yishuv would not have survived. 
Although the limelight was turned on Britain 
following the Balfour Declaration, Germa- 
ny's help was of no less Import. For, in a 
judenrein Palestine, the later development of 
the Jewish National Home would have been 
unlikely. 

Dr. Friedman's latest book, Germany, 
Turkey and Zionism: 1897-1918, will be 
published soon by Oxford University Press. 



LBI WOMEN S AUXILIARY 



The 1976-77 Women's Auxiliary season 
was successfully launched with its annual fall 
lecture, delivered this year by Ilse 
Blumenthal-Weiss of the LBI. In her talk, 
Begegnungen mit Else Lasker-Schueler. 
Nelly Sachs, Leo Baeck und Martin Buber, 
Mrs. Blumenthal-Weiss related the unfor- 
gcttable impressions made on her by 
personal encounters with these prominent 
figures from the German-Jewish past. 

The Institute wishes to thank Mrs. Edith 
Brunner, vice president of the Women's 
Auxiliary, whose generosity made possible a 



been used to account for some impor- 
tant recent experiments. 

lew Doubts 

^would seem, then, that the iniroduc- 
of quarks and the penetration to a 
i layer of reality would provide the 
I justification of the Assumption of 
Vlicity. Events in the last few years, 
ever, have started to cast doubt on 
Ji conclusion. The two major prob- 
[ns with the quark model today are 
[st, the Problem of quark confinement 
Jid, second, the problem of quark pro- 
I feration. Let's look at these separately. 



Quark Confinement. As soon as 
le quark model was put forward exten- 
Ive attempts were made to "bring one 
\ick alive" — to find an isolated quark in 
Lture. Most of the attempts to do this 
ive involved looking for a particle 
[lose electrical charge is less than that 
the proton or electron — a distinction 
lieh would be easy to see with modern 
[-thods. In spite of the importance of 
\i question and the extreme ingenuity 
the experiments involved, there has 
?n no generally accepted claim for the 
covery of the quark. (As of this writ- 
r, there is only one candidate left in 
[e ring — an experiment by a group at 
' inford which is in the peculiar limbo 
jserved for important discoveries 
jiimed by one laboratory but not yet 
»rified by any others). In view of the 
l^ie which has elapsed since the 
larches began, this raises very real 
liestions about what it means to say 
|at quarks "exist." 

Most quark theories now take as 
en the fact that although quarks may 
rst inside of particles, they cannot be 
-n in isolation. This is referred to as 
luark confinement." Let's look at two 
[iple pictures which illustrate how 
arks may be said to "exist" and still be 
; ifined to the interior of particles. 

Suppose that the ultimate matter 
[;ide of particles is analogous to an 
tstic string, and what we identify as a 
ark is actually the end of such a 
I ing. If we were to reach inside of the 
krticle and try to pull a quark out, we 
[ild probably snap the string if we 
\\\ed hard enough. But then we would 
e extracted a shorter piece of string 
ch had two ends. In the quark picture, 
h a string would be a meson, and not 
isolated quark. A little reflection will 
vince you that in such a Situation it is 
cally impossible to see one end of a 



string by itself, so that confinement 
would follow naturally. 

Another example of the same effect 
was cited recendy by Sidney Drell of 
Stanford. We know that an ordinary bar 
magnet always has a north and a south 
pole. If we saw the magnet in half, how- 
ever, we do not wind up with isolated 
north and south poles, but with two 
shorter magnets, each of which has two 
poles. If we continued this cutting proc- 
ess down to the atomic level, we would 
find that each atom of iron can be 
thought of as a tiny dipole magnet, simi- 
lar in everything except size to the origi- 
nal bar magnet. In this sense, we could 
say that magnets "exist" inside of the 
piece of iron: we can actually pull a 
small magnet out and point to it. If we 
continue the cutting process beyond the 
atomic level, however, the picture 
changes. If we take an atom apart and 
lay the constituent protons, neutron, 
and electrons out, there is nothing we 
can point to and say, ''There is the thing 
which makes the atom look like a mag- 
net." The reason for this is that atomic 
magnetism exists mainly because of the 
motion of electrons around the nucleus. 
An electron circling a nucleus consti- 
tutes an electric current, and such a cir- 
cular current produces a magnetic field. 
(This is the operating principle of the 
electromagnet.) So the fact that the 
atom looks like a magnet is because of 
the arrangement of its constituents, rath- 
er than to the fact that any single con- 
stituent may be a magnet in and of itself. 
In the same way, elementary particles 
may appear to be composed of quarks, 
but these quarks may be the result of the 
arrangement of matter inside of the 
particles, rather than distinct entities 
which can have a life of their own. Be- 
cause of arguments like this most physi- 
cists today would probably not accept 
the failure of quark search experiments 
as strong evidence against the quark 
model, but there is an underlying un- 
easiness about the whole business. 



collision of a proton with a beryllium 
nucleus, so there was no serious doubt 
about the particle's existence. It was 
called the ^ particle on the West Coast 
and the J particle on the East Coast, and 
its dual discovery is reflected in the cur- 
rent usage, which is to refer to it as the 
J/^.The particle was not stränge, but it 
decayed slowly. From our discussion of 
strangeness, we know that this can mean 
only one thing: there must be a fourth 
kind of quark in nature, a quark whose 
existence has been unsuspected until 



now. 



Quark Proliferation. In the fall 
of 1974, two Nobel Prize winners, 
Burton Richter (working at Stanford) 
and Samuel Ting (of MIT, working 
at Brookhaven) simultaneously an- 
nounced the discovery of a new kind of 
particle. The Stanford experiment in- 
volved producing the particle from the 
collision of an electron and a positron, 
while the MIT-Brookhaven experiment 
produced the same particle from the 



The new property associated with 
the particle is given the name "charm," 
and the quark which carries this proper- 
ty is called the charmed, or c quark. The 
J/^is now known to be composed of a 
charmed quark and its anti-quark (a 
particle with the same mass as, but 
opposite electrical charge from, the 
charmed quark), so that the J/\^does not 
itself possess charm in the sense that we 
have been using the term. Although this 
may seem to throw some doubt on the 
existence of charm, the Situation has 
been resolved by a recent experiment 
which turned up particles that exhibit 
charm explicidy. These particles contain 
a Single charmed quark, and hence de- 
cay slowly because of the need to con- 
vert the charmed quark to an up or a 
down quark. 

By itself, the addition of a fourth 
quark to the subnuclear zoo does not 
seem to have much significance for the 
Assumption of Simplicity. After all, we 
can interpret four quarks as being "few" 
as well as we can interpret three. The 
real problem comes from the fact that 
theorists have suggested that there 
might be two more kinds of quarks, 
called the t and b (for top and bottom, 
or truth and beauty). And although 
these new quarks have been in the air 
for only a short time, there is already 
evidence in an experiment carried out 
by Leon Lederman at the Permi Nation- 
al Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois that 
a particle containing one of them has 
been seen. So if we take this Suggestion 
seriously, we now find that the number 
of quarks has proliferated from three to 
six in the last few years. 

And if this were not enough, most 
quark theorists now assume that each 
type of quark that we have discussed so 
far is actually three quarks which are in- 
distinguishable to us, but which are in 
fact different from each other. The rea- 

(Continued on page 30) 



THE SCIENCES FEBRUARY1979 9 



How the Other Half Lives: 




Twins and Science 



by Richard D. Smiih 



Collecting twins — or, more precisely, data about 
twins — has been an occupation of scientists ever 
since Sir Francis Galton published his paper, "The 
History of Twins, as a Criterion of the Relative Pow- 
ers of Nature and Nurture," just over a hundred 
years ago. Twin studies are the oldest scientific 
method of analyzing human heredity and today the 
twin methodology is so much used that gemellology, 
the science of twins, has spawned its own interna- 
tional Society and scientific Journal. 

The recently published proceedings of the Sec- 
ond (1977) International Congress on Twin Studies 
(AlaTi R. Liss, 1978) contains nearly a hundred pa- 
pers, including" twin studies of sexual attitudes, 
depression, socioeconomic success, birth defects, 

Associate editor Richard D. Smith reports on biomedicine and 
the behavioral sciences. 



Thousands of pairs of twins 

are under close scrutiny 

by biologists and psychologists 

heart-disease risk factors, albinism and the effects of 
Vitamin C on colds, in addition to articles on the bi- 
ology and genetics of the twinning process itself and 
twin-research methods. 

Around the world data on twins are being col- 
lected and analyzed at a prodigious rate. Each of the 
Scandanavian countries maintains a detailed twin 
registry. The Swedes störe information on nearly a 
hundred thousand pairs of Swedish twins, with 
birthdates going back as far as 1886. In Rome. the 
unique Gregor Mendel Institute for Medical Genet- 
ics and Twin Studies provides free medical care for 
life to more than fifteen thousand pairs of twins. 
(The twins are seen together in the clinic for all ex- 
aminations.) Although legal, political and logistic 
considerations make the establishment of a national 
twin registry in this country unlikely, the National 



10 



THE SCIENCES FEBRUARY 1 979 



Academy of Sciences and the National Research 
Council maintain a registry of sixteen thousand 
pairs of twins in which both members have served in 
the armed forces. The Kaiser-Permanente medical 
group in California has recruited a cohort of almost 
eight thousand pairs of twins from its subscriber- 
ship. And all across the country Mothers of Twins 
Clubs, groups with names like "Double Delights," 
cooperate with researchers on a variety of projects. 

A "Natural Experiment" 
Why twin studies? Gordon Allen, a medical statisti- 
cian at the National Institute of Mental Health and 
President of the International Society for Twin 
Studies, sums it up succinctly: "Twins provide a 
means of studying the effects of environment when 
heredity is held constant, and of some environmen- 
tal influences when others are held constant." 

In animal research, such as the testing of cancer 
drugs, hereditary factors can be controlled by exten- 
sive inbreeding, producing strains of experimental 
mice and rats that are genetically uniform. The only 
Segment of the human population that offers re- 
searchers comparable uniformity is the "natural ex- 
periment" of identical twins. These twins, called mo- 
nozygotic (MZ) because they develop from a single 
fertilized egg that divides to produce two embryos 
early in pregnancy, are virtually identical genetical- 
ly — a "clone of two," aptly phrased by Yale biologist 
Clement Markert. 
\ The caiises of single-egg twinning are still large- 
ly unknown. Such twins are born at a steady rate — 
about one birth in two hundred fifty — that has re- 
mained remar^ably uniform over a wide' ränge of 
factors such as maternal age, size, social class or pre- 
vious history of pregnancy. Although a recent study 
at the department of human genetics at the Medical 
College of Virginia found some slight Support for 
the notion that identical twins "run" in families, the 
researchers concluded that the causes of MZ twin- 
ning in human beings "remain somewhat obscure 
and it seems likely that most cases represent spora- 
dic events." 

Immunologically, the tissue of a pair of mono- 
zygotic twins is interchangeable; a kidney or sample 
of bone marrow from one twin will not be recog- 
nized as foreign and rejected when transplanted to 
the other. A striking example of this phenomenon 
took place last year in Rochester, Minnesota. Sur- 
geons transplanted a testicle from one identical twin 
to his brother whose testicles had never developed. 

The fact that the testicles of one twin devel- 
oped, while those of the other failed to, demon- 
strates why the term "monozygotic" is more accurate 
than "identical." Actually, no monozygotic twins are 
ever completely identical; any number of random 
events while the f etus is in the Uterus can contribute 



to creating large and small differences between the 
twins. There have even been cases, extremely rare, 
of "identical" twins who, because of chromosomal 
abnormalities, were of opposite sexes. 

Only about a third of twin births are of mono- 
zygotic twins. Möt^ commonly, twinning occurs in 
the*3izygotic form, usually called "fraternal" twins. 
Dizygotic (DZ) twins arise from two separate fertil- 
ized eggs and are therefore no more similar geneti- 
cally than any two siblings from the same parents. 
They may be of different sexes, coloring, even dif- 
ferent gestational ages at birth. And unlike identical 
twins, the rate at which fraternal twins are born var- 
ies according to a number of known factors. Besides 
running in families, DZ twins are also more likely to 
be born to mothers who are taller, heavier, older, 
and who have had more children. The rate of DZ 
twinning is higher in underdeveloped countries, 
and it can be affected by drugs, such as some used to 
promote fertility, and even by diet. Very high DZ- 
twinning rates in Nigeria — as much as one birth in 
22— were recently demonstrated to occur in a demo- 
graphic pattern that almost precisely matched the 
pattern for consumption of a certain species of yam. 

Before the nineteen-twenties, twins were often 
categorized on the basis of whether or not they 
shared the same circulation through a single placen- 
ta during gestation. It is now known, however, that 
not only fraternal twins, but most identical ones as 
well, have separate circulations in the womb. Fewer 
than a third of MZ twins share a circulation through 
a Single placenta. 

Today, the best method of determining into 
which category a set of twins falls is a sedes of blood 
tests that compares samples from each twin for bio* 
chemical markers. Such tests are almost a hundred 
percent accurate, but because they are expensive, 
and relatively recent, they are not usually the basis 
on which MZ and DZ twins are distinguished in the 
large twin registries or in studies requiring many 
subjects. For such purposes, it's often enough to ask 
twins whether they were "as alike as two peas in a 
pod" during childhood and whether parents, 
schoolmates or strangers had difficulty telling them 
apart. The answers given by the twins themselves 
provide a sufficiently accurate diagnosis. 

MZAs and Others 

When most people think of "twin studies," what they 
have in mind is the study of monozygotic twins 
raised apart (MZAs in the Jargon of the field). This 
type of study on a large Scale is actually quite rare. 
Perhaps the best-known study of so-called "identi- 
cal" twins raised apart is that of Sir Cyril Burt in 
England. His analysis of separated identical twins 
showed that genetic factors contributed a great deal 
to "intelligence." But Burt's study has recently be- 



THE SCIENCES 



FEBRUARY 1979 



11 



come suspect. Several scientists, looking closely at 
his data claim that Burt*s twins were fictions. (The 
late James Shields of the Institute of Psychiatry in 
London, one of the few scientists besides Burt who 
carried out large-scale MZA studies, told the second 
twin congress that "even if it is best to discount 
Burt's data, if only because of the careless, casual, 
and ca valier way it was presented, his conclusions 
may not be incorrect. The planting of the Piltdown 
skull did not disprove the theory of evolution.") 

Unfortunately — although only from a research 
perspective to be sure — the Separation of identical 
twins at birth or in infancy, never a common event 
to begin with, apparently occurs today with less fre- 
quency than it did in the past. Factors that previous- 
ly accounted for many separations — such as extreme 
poverty and the social disgrace associated with ille- 
gitimate birth — are no longer as significant. What's 
more, it is the policy of most adoption agencies (at 
least of those in most developed countries) to make 
sure that twins are placed together, if at all possible. 
As a result, while researchers may still occasionally 
be presented with such a dramatic MZA scenario as 
that described by Shields of twins whose biological 
father, an "unstable" ship's carpenter in Scan- 
danavia, kept one twin and sold the other to a doctor 
in South America, more commonly, when twins are 
separated at all they are placed with different mem- 
bers of their own f amilies. The separate environ- 
ments in which such twins grow up can be compared 
with those of cousins. 

Just because most identical twins grow up 
together, however, doesn't mean they lose their in- 
terest to science. One of the most populär forms of 
twin research is the comparison of concordancy — 
similarity — between identical twins of any back- 
ground. Such studies are especially useful in un- 
ravelling the cause of disease. The reasoning behind 
them is that while similarities between identical 
twins raised together may be caused by either genet- 
ic factors or environmental ones, differences must 
be the result of environmental influences. Thus, 
when identical twins are found to be discordant for 
a State or trait — when, say, one develops Cancer and 
the other doesn't — that trait or State can be attribut- 
ed, at least in part, to nongenetic causes. A typical 
retrospective study of this kind might look at the 
life-histories of a twin pair in which one member 
contracted emphysema while the other didn't. A 
prospective study might follow the medical history 
of twins, when one is a heavy smoker or drinker and 
the other is not, to evaluate the effects of such be- 
havior when heredity can be ruled out. 

In this kind of study, one twin serves as a natu- 
ral control for the other, a circumstance that can 
have tragic overtones. David A. Pyke of King's Col- 
lege Hospital in London described such a Situation 



at the second twin congress: 

If one twin is diabetic and the other is not affected, 
the affected twin has before him the living example of 
what he might have been if he had not had diabetes. One 
pair of twin girls is particularly poignant in this respect. 
One twin developed diabetes at the age of four years, 
which was always badly controlled and she was in poor 
health; when she grew up she was 7.5 cm shorter than her 
co-twin. She lost one child and then bore another, only to 
die five years later at the age of 36 years from diabetic 
complications. Her co-twin won a beauty contest at the age 
of 21 years, had three children, and remains in perfect 
health at the age of 37 years. 

The co-twin control method of study is not lim- 
ited to identical twins. Even though they are not as 
close geneticaily, fraternal twins, because they are 
the same age, often the same sex, and have shared 
the same environment, are more like each other 
than selected subjects in so-called "matching" stud- 
ies that seek to compare effects of factors like alcohol 
use or treatment techniques. Even more important, 
a classic form of twin study requires dizygotic twins 
as a means of Controlling for the experience of twin- 
ship in studies employing data from both kinds of 
twins. 

The classic twin study compares the variance, or 
difference, within the two types of twin pairs to de- 
termine to what extent heredity can be counted as 
the cause of the trait being studied. Researchers 
know that fraternal pairs of the same sex share, on 
the average, only half their genes, while identical 
pairs share the füll complement. When they find a 
greater resemblance between identical pairs than 
fraternal pairs, measured for a particular trait (such 
as height or intelligence), they assume genetic influ- 
ences play a greater role. In other words, if a genetic 
factor is determining the trait, identical twins should 
be more similar than fraternal twins. 

One of the assumptions underlying this classic 
method is that both kinds of twins, identical and 
fraternal, have comparably similar backgrounds, 
that the experience of being a twin is the same for 
both. Although there are still few systematic studies 
of its validity, this assumption is often challenged. 
Many researchers believe, based on case histories 
and long-term Observation, that identical twins 
spend more time together, are more strongly 
identified with one another and are more similar in 
stature and physique than fraternal twins. As a re- 
sult, it seems likely that identical twins are more of- 
ten treated alike or as a unit than are fraternal twins. 

"We suspect," writes John Loehlin of the Uni- 
versity of Texas at Austin, "that there is a law of least 
parental effort in twin rearing, which, in the absence 
of a specific policy to the contrary, ensures that un- 
less twins act differently they will get treated pretty 
much alike." Loehlin, who with Robert Nichols of 
the State University of New York at Buffalo recently 
completed a study of eight hundred fifty pairs of 



12 



THE SCIENCES FEBRUARY 1 979 



teenage twins, concludes that "most probably, iden- 
tical twins are treated more alike because they look 
and act more alike." 

Other assumptions about twin studies have also 
been challenged, among them the fundamental idea 
that twins — except for the obvious fact that they 
come in twos — are essentially like the rest of the 
Population. And while this assumption probably 
holds quite well for most of the traits and conditions 
that are examined in twin studies, there are none- 
theless definite features that distinguish twins as a 
group. According to Luigi Gedda of the Mendel In- 
stitute in Rome, while more than ninety percent of 
singletofts are born at term, the percentage for twins 
is less than sixty. Because twins are more likely to be 
prejnature and of lower birthweight than average, 
they might also be more susceptible to the host of 
developmental complications and vulnerabilities 
that go along with those conditions. 

Psychologically, too, there is evidence that the 
twin experience has a profound effect on those who 
undergo it. How profound? "To ask whether a twin 



Personality exists is a question as laden with am- 
biguities as to ask whether a Jewish personality or a 
working class personality exists," writes Rene Zazzo 
of the Laboratory of Child Psychology at the Ecole 
des Hautes Etudes in Paris. Nonetheless, the fact 
that most twins are very close in growing up, that 
"the we is anterior to the I and determines it," may 
produce what Zazzo calls "couple effects," a special 
aspect of twinhood that has to be taken into account 
in interpreting the results of many twin studies. 

As a group, for example, twins do slightly less 
well on intelligence tests than the general popula- 
tion. This well-documented tendency is sometimes 
attributed to minor brain damage resulting from the 
low birth weight common in twins. But it may also be 
the result of what Zazzo terms "cryptophasia," the 
tendency of twins, at the beginning of language de- 
velopment, to make use of sounds, words and syntax 
that are not those of the common language. This 
slower socialization of language in twins may pro- 
duce deficits in the many intellectual and social skills 
that depend upon verbal ability. Continued 



Doubletalk 



Grace and Virginia Kennedy are auractive eight-year- 
old identical twins. In the summer of 1977 their par- 
ents brought them for treatment to Children's Hospital 
in San Diego, California. Their father is a native Speak- 
er of English. Their mother speaks English with a 
strong German accent. An^ their grandmother, who 
raised them through infancy, speaks only German. But 
the girls were speaking a stränge language that no-one 
at the hospital tould identify. To the trained ears of the 
speech pathologists who listened to it carefully, the 
twins' speech feil into no familiär category of speech 
disorder. Had the girls invented a new language? 




Grace and Virginia posed more than just a chal- 
lenge to their speech therapists. Leonard Newmark, 
Professor of linguistics at the University of California 
at San Diego, told a New York Times reporter that stud- 
ies of the Kennedy twins* speech "may help us in re- 
soiving one of the most intriguing and controversial 
enigmas of linguistic and cognitive science." 

That enigma is whether or not human beings have 
an innate endowment for language, some kind of gene- 
tically programmed neurological wiring that accounts 
for the deep structural similarities that have been ob- 



served among all known human languages. If the twins 
could be shown to have invented an original language, 
the nature of that language would provide either 
strong Support, or a disturbing counter-example, for 
structural linguistic theory. 

The task of deciphering the twins' bizarre speech 
feil lo Elissa Newport, a psycholinguist at UC San Die- 
go. She and her colleagues spent hundreds of hours 
painstakingly transcribing and analyzing tapes of the 
twins, unravelling the mysterious language from with- 
in. What did their structural study reveal? 

"Our analysis suggests that it's English," Newport 
says. "There are a couple of words that we can't identi- 
fy, and there may be a very small number of construc- 
lions that are not English, But it is not an invented lan- 
guage." The tapes revealed that the twins' talk was füll 
of phonological distortions such as the replacement of 
fricative sounds like "f" and "s" with füll stops like "t" 
and "d". But the girls tended to apply their ruies of dis- 
tortion randomly rather than systematically. 

"If you Start putting together enough deforma- 
tions like that which operate only probablistically," ex- 
plains Elissa Newport, "you get an output that's very 
unintelligible." 

After almost a year and a half of intense therapy at 
Children's Hospital, Grace and Virginia have begun to 
master recognizable English. They have been separat- 
ed in school to encourage them to communicate with 
others. But while they will talk to Outsiders in English, 
they will still not use their twin speech with others. 
Alexa Romain, the principal therapist, who works with 
the Kennedy twins with co-therapist Anne Koenecke 
told a reporter, "when Anne or I try to imitate their 
language and talk to them in it, they look at us as if we 
are crazy." R.D.S. 



THE SCIENCES 



FEBRUARY 1979 



13 



A further confounding aspectof twin 
development is the eff ect of competition 
and contrast. Twins may alter their per- 
sonalities, or their descriptions of their 
Personalities, in response to their part- 
ners. Sandra Ganter of the Glasgow de- 
partment of psychological medicine 
found that twins raised apart had very 
similar scores on the "extraversion 
Scale" of a psychological test. Twins liv- 
ing together, however, had very low cor- 
relations for the same trait, suggesting a 
high degree of contrast within the pairs. 
"Genetic factors," remarks Rene Zazzo, 
"appear to play a very significant role 
when the twins live apart, but almost 
completely disappear when the twins 
live together. For this group of subjects 
and for the trait extraversion, the twin 
Situation apparently erased genetic 
effects." 

Glearly, then, the study of twins is 
by no means a flawless way to reach con- 
clusions about human heredity and en- 
vironment. "The twin method is based 
on many assumptions, some discredited, 
some untested, and some untestable," 
according to G.E. Boklage and R.G. Ei- 
ston of the University of North Garoli- 
na. Like many researchers, they have se- 
rious reservations about the use of the 
twin method by itself to estimate genetic 
variance or heritability. But the meth- 
ods of analysis first worked out in twin 
studies are being adapted to other kinds 
of studies, such as those of adopted chil- 
dren, and those studies may correct for 
some of the inherent uncertainties or 
biases of the twin method. ("It is a para- 
doxical fact that there is now a great 
deal more . . . information available for 
twins than for ordinary brothers and sis- 
ters, normal parents and their children, 
or other relatives," comment Loehlin 
and Nichols.) 

In addition, twins themselves as 
twins are receiving increasing attention 
from researchers in all fields. New 
findings will not only sharpen the meth- 
odological tools of those using twin data 
as a means to an end, they might also be 
useful to the world's estimated 100 mil- 
lion twins and tF^ose who serve them. 

"Legends, populär traditions, and 
romantic literature have always attribut- 
ed unusual traits to twins," writes Rene 
Zazzo. ". . . But our scientific evidence is 
extremely scanty, andlhis is not because 
of experimental difficulties, but because 
twins have always served psychology, 
whereas psychology has almost never 
served twins." Q 

14 THE SCIENCES FEBRUARY 1979 



Equal 
Rites 



by Lilli S. Hornig 



With men setting the ruies, 
it's not easy for women to play 

Let US look at some of the rules by which 
the game of science is played. It is taken 
as axiomatic that productive scientists 
are young, highly motivated, energetic 
and dedicated. They had better be, be- 
cause there is a long, tough trip ahead. 
They are expected to define their intel- 
lectual interests in early adolescence in 
Order to have enough time to learn all 
they will need to master. They under- 
take an arduous educational sequence, 
which ideally is completed in the early 
twenties. By the time that happens, their 
mentors have made it clear to them that 
the only good life is the academic one 
and that theory is somehow a higher- 
order good than application. 

It is a curious contradiction that dis- 
ciplines which deal in exploring the 
physical world value most highly those 
activities which don't get your hands 
dirty. What follows from that, however, 
is that one advances even in purely ex- 
perimental fields by getting progressive- 
ly farther away from the actual work, 
becoming a producer of ideas and a 
manager of the many young and pre- 
sumably willing heads and hands who 
test them. This leads quite naturally to 
helping to manage the institutions nec- 
essary for the conduct of most science 
and, if at all possible, to shaping them in 
one's own image. 

None of this is necessarily bad, and 
if it were demonstrably the only or best 



Lilli S. Hornig is execulive director of 
Higher Education Resource Services 
(HERS) at the Wellesley College Center for 
Research on Women, and a former chemistry 
Professor. This is an excerpt from a talk de- 
livered at the Academy's Conference on Ex- 
panding the Role of Women in the Sciences 
in March 1978. The complete text and the 
other papers presented at the Conference will 
be published in a volume of the Academy's 
Annals. 



way to do excellent work in science one 
might accept it without further com- 
ment. I would suggest that there are 
other possible patterns. 

Caricature 

It is probably obvious, if only by associ; 
tion, that the abbreviated caricature/ 
have drawn depicts a man, and only oi 
kind of man at that — the successful aci 
demic scientist who in bis middle an< 
later years will accumulate a few prizes^ 
and medals, help to determine the poli- 
cies which ultimately govern the educa- 
tion and progress of more scientists, and 
advise our government at some level. 
He is not so much typical as exem- 
plary — a model for us to emulate — and 
therein lies bis importance. 

Note that bis personal and physicaJ 
characteristics have not been men- 
tioned: but the Omission is not acciden- 
tal. They are not of great importance to 
his progress. Gharm and good looks are 
an asset in any walk of life, but it is wide- 
ly acknowledged that so long as he is a 
good scientist he will get along fine with- 
out them. 

Many have shared my Observation 
that prominent scientists are often 
Short, fat, have had acne, wear glasses, 
are patchily bald or excessively hairy, or 
have as much personality as slugs. In 
fact, these traits follow a normal distri- 
bution curve among scientists. None of 
these characteristics, singly or collective- 
ly, have kept these men out of Berkeley 
or Harvard either as students or faculty 
members, significantly diminished their 
eligibility to various honorary acade- 
mies, or denied them access to the seats 
of professional power. Yet recently the 
Supreme Court upheld the right of a 
medical school to dismiss a woman Stu- 
dent in her last Semester on grounds of 
an unattractive physical appearance and 
a less than gracious bedside manner. 

Although even a successful scientist 
may worry about his looks at times, he is 
seldom troubled by the view, widely 
held by even his colleagues in other dis- 
ciplines, that he is cold, unfeeling and 
inattentive to the needs of others — 
sometimes described as an "emotional 
cripple." If he pays attention to this cri- 
tique at all, it does not seem to trouble 
him much, since he perceives it as clear- 
ly unrelated to his chief mission in life, 
the pursuit of objective truth. The dis- 
cussion of whether perception of a phe- 
nomenon may also constitute objective 
truth is best left to the philosophers. 



is commonplace in our culture to snipe 
at the assumed mindlessness and fri- 
volity of women. Quite frankly, when I 
read Science I expect the analysis and 
humor to be more sophisticated and 
trenchant than the usual bland, stereo- 
typed fare oflfered the mass audience. 

Jean Leonard Elliott 
Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology, Dalhousie University, 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada 

R. H. Shannon's letter castigating 
the housewife and adolescent female 
for their "unanalyzable, unscientific, 
uncontrolled" consumption of power 
is a frivolous attempt to escape accept- 
ance of an equal share of the blame 
for the westernized world's current 
energy crisis. At the research labora- 
tory where I work there is an equally 
appalling waste of power. This in- 
cludes everything from burning 200- 
watt light bulbs and running radios 
throughout the night when there is no 
one in the building to neglecting to 
completely shut off faucets after pre- 
surgical scrubbing or washing of glass- 
ware. After speaking with some of our 
maintenance personnel, I find that this 
is a universitywide Situation that exists 
not because of housewives or nubile 
daughters, but rather because Profes- 
sors, technicians, and graduate students 
— all supposedly rational women and 
men — fail to conserve the energy that 
appears so unlimited to them. Shannon's 
indictment of only one segment of the 
Population is therefore unfair and un- 
scientific. 

A. H. Katz 
Falls Road, 
Sunderland, Massachusetts 01375 

Last night my husband handed me 
the 6 April issue of Science and called 
my attention to a letter by R. H. 
Shannon concerning the energy crisis, 
which he (Shannon) fears has been 
precipitated primarily by the practices 
of his wife and teen-aged daughters. 

My husband has always been aware 
of the careless use of our precious 
natural resources and routinely snaps 
off the porch lights which I have left 
on for dinner guests or a late-returning 
child. (Fortunately, all injuries so far 
have been minor.) After reading Shan- 
non's letter I realized that I too must 
face the reality of our dwindling energy 
supply and do what I can to conserve 
it. Surely I can do without a washer or 
dryer when a scrubboard and a clothes- 
line will suffice. The refrigerator will 
cause something of a problem because 



I am having difficulty locating a man 
to deliver ice. The electric stove must 
also remain because I have not been 
able to convince my husband to chop 
wood for a woodburning stove. We will 
fill the bathtub on Saturday and draw 
lots for the order of bathing. Think 
what fun that will be for the family. 
Of course, the second car must go. I 
plan a monthly trip to the market to 
replenish the larder (sugar, flour, and 
so forth). The rest of our food will 
come from a home garden — perhaps I 
can keep a few chickens and a cow. 

When I consider how my husband 
(already a careful consumer) can stave 
off the energy flow, I meet with greater 
difficulties. He, of course, must continue 
to drive himself to work (the bus for 
the laboratory leaves at an unconscion- 
ably early hour, and car pools are so 
inconvenient). It would be difficult for 
him to perform his experiments with- 
out the use of the cyclotron (that's 
only a few million watts), vacuum 
pumps, drying lamps, electronic coun- 
ters and calculators (whatever happened 
to the slide rule and a bit of paper?). He 
could not be expected to work without 
air conditioning in his office. I know 
how uncomfortable he is when he leaves 
the oflice to come home in the summer. 

Since we cannot cut down (energy- 
wise) in the laboratory, we must con- 
centrate on the home, therefore today 
I am placing an advertisement in the 
paper offering for sale his power saw, 
drill press, lathe, shop vacuum, several 
power Sanders, and paint compressors. 
Think how much fun he will have now 
that he is back to basics with just a 
band saw and a plane. I know that both 
he, and Shannon, will be proud of me. 

Betty G. Hulet 
Calle los Collados, 
Diablo, California 94528 



Analy^s >6f Anthropological Data 



7 



/ 



For the last several years anthro- 
pology has been undergoing evolution- 
ary change. One used to be able to 
analyze data in any way he saw fit, 
but now it is considered useless to 
perform an analysis simply because 
one has available Computer time. Be- 
cause of the debatable value of an- 
thropological data, it is also desirable 
that any problem-oriented analysis be 
conducted within as rigorous a sci- 
entific, methodological framework as 
possible. Unfortunately, the article by 
Alan Lomax with Norman Berkowitz 




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(21 July 1972, p. 228) fulfills neither 
requirement and is, therefore, less ac- 
ceptable as anthropology. The follow- 
ing points should be considered. 

Lomax and Berkowitz add factors 
to their analysis until the results con- 
form to their model. One cannot help 
but wonder what the results would 
have been if one more factor had 
been added, or if human communi- 
cation had been the first factor to be 
analyzed. 

An alternate hypothesis for the sim- 
ilarities found between cultures is that 
they represent ecological adaptations 
to roughly similar environments. This 
hypothesis was not suggested, and cer- 
tainly not tested. The climatic simi- 
larities which exist between Patagonia 
and the North American Plains would 
certainly suggest to ecologists that 
they look for similar adaptations. No 
contact would be necessary. 

An association of human subspecies 
with culture types is unacceptable, 
not simply because of sociological 
pressures present today, but because 
there is no support for the Statement. 

Kenneth A. Wolfe 
Departments of Anthropology and 
Biology, LJniversity of Oregon, 
Eugene 97403 

Wolfe seems vaguely to resent the 
use of Computers in our work, although 
comparison and clustering of such multi- 
parameter profiles (for example, the 
sets of norms that structure culture) 
is otherwise impractical. He doubts the 
validity of anthropological data in gen- 
eral, and our methodological rigor in 
particular, without specifying his Stan- 
dards of validity or rigor, or saying 
where we failed. This seems an unfair 
tactic. 

He confounds our specialized use of 
the term "factor" with vector (or in- 
dex) when he charges us with adding 
"factors . . . until the results conform 
to their model." Actually, we discovered 
the cultural "factors" (sets of similarly 
acting vectors are indices of social and 
communication structure), by means of 
Cluster analysis of the reliable scalar 
indices available to us for a large sam- 
ple of World cultures. The results of 
many other trial runs with somewhat 
different groups of indices were strik- 
ingly similar — about 14 main factors of 
social and communication structure in- 
volving the indices always showed up. 

Our finding is that these 14-plus fac- 
tors are sufficient to describe the main 
variations in human culture patterns. 
Operations with measures of other 



kinds of human Performance (such as 
dance, speech, and breathing rate) reveal 
similar geographic distributions. It 
seems likely that (i) every cultural 
tradition consists of a stylistic core that 
is reinforced in every aspect of cultural 
activity; and (ii) these dynamic cul- 
ture styles have continuous distribu- 
tions. Ultimately these regional styles 
are hooked into environment, but it is 
eminently clear that environment biases 
rather than forms culture style. The 
successful interzone migration of cul- 
tures is proof of that. 

The environment, Barth, has not 
changed drastically in the last 20,000 
years, whereas in that time the human 
race has developed many cultural styles 
that differ from each other as pro- 
foundly as do the subspecific habits of 
other kinds of animals. Our finding 
that these cultural styles have clear-cut 
geographical distributions, which ac- 
count for the fact of human history, 
reinforces the main thesis of anthro- 
pology. In man, culture (inherited, 
learned norms and skills) replaces ge- 
netic inheritance and enables human 
societies to adapt more flexibly than 
animal groups. In this (metaphorical) 
sense, human subspeciation is cultural. 
In fact the key dement seems to be 
man's keen esthetic sense of the cul- 
turally appropriate, which provides the 
baseline for cooperative endeavor in all 
human societies. 

Alan Lomax 
Cantometrics and Choreometrics 
Project, Columbia LJniversity. 
New York 1002 5 



Doctorate Output 

I wish to note for the record a re- 
grettable error in my article "Shifts in 
doctorate Output: History and outlook" 
(9 Feb., p. 538). In table 2 of the article, 
the University of Pittsburgh should 
have been listed as a public university, 
and among the 60 universities ranked 
highest for the article. 

The University of Rochester should 
be counted as granting about 2.6 doc- 
torate degrees in 1969 for every 1 in 
1960, rather than the 3.6 multiple 
shown in the article. The 3.6 figure re- 
sulted from an unusually low number 
of degrees granted in 1960 and an un- 
usually high number in 1969. 

Charles V. Kidd 
Association of American Universities, 
1 Dupont Circle, NW, 
Washington, D.C. 20036 

SCIENCE. VOL. 180 



o 

n 
o 

m 






<: 

o 

o 

I 



üHIHROPOUCr 




"^ ^nnumm pKinsnw 



JUNE-OCTOBER 1972 




rent Anthropology 

A WORLD JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCES OF MAN 



n 
C 

m 

> 
H 

O 

•TS 

O 
f 

o 
o 



SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL CHANCE AMONC THE PORE OF NEW CUINEA 
hy E. Richard Sorenson 

WITH CAl^ COMMENT 

PEASANTRIES IN ANTHROPOLOCY AND HISTORY 
by George Dalton 

WITH CA^ COMMENT 



349 



385 



CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR THE SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF 
VARIATIONS IN FAMILY STRUCTURES 
by Ramkrishna Mukherjee 

WITH CAl^ COMMENT 

COCNITIVE ASPECTS OF UPPER PALEOLITHIC ENCRAVINC 
by Alexander Marshack 

WITH CA'w' COMMENT 



417 



445 



CAi^ Book Review of PROPER PEASANTS 

by Edit Fei and Tamäs Hof er and 
UNE C0MMUNAUT£ RURALE DE L'IRLANDE 

by Robert Cresswell 



IXth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological 



Sciences. 



(W-^i«^.V-v_.>',- " ■ 



f.- ^ - V ■ ttfi tf^^ ^ :» 4 



.•SÄ 



Srf?-" 



.v:^ä)*. 



DISCUSSION AND CRITICISM 
On Firewalkers in Europe 
On Thumb-Sucking . . . 



479 



498 



384 
384 



CALENDAR . . . insidc back cover 

CONFERENCE 444 

EDITOR'S REPORT 347 

FOR SÄLE 416 

FREE MATERIALS 416 



WANTED 



INSTITUTIONS. 
NOTES ON NEW BOOKS . 
OUR READERS WRITE 
PERSONAL OPPORTUNITIES 
PRIZES 

.... 443 



416 
501 
345 
443 
443 



Puhlished hy the university of Chicago press 

Sponsored hy the wenner-gren foundation for anthropological research 



Current Anthropology 



is published five times a year by 
The University of Chicago Press in 
February, April, June, October, December. 
Copyright 1972 by The Wenner-Gren Foundation 
for Anthropological Research. 
VOL. 13 . NO. 3-4 . JUNE-OCTOBER 1972 
Second-class application pending at Chicago, III. 
Printed in U.S.A. 



CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY, patrocinada pela The Wenner- 
Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, e o docu- 
mentärio de uma experiencia em comunica^äo, de uma 
comunidade internacional de estudiosos, os Associados de 
CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY.^ Todos OS aspectos importantes da 
politica editorial — taxas, formato, diferentes idiomas utiliza- 
dos, criafäo ou extingäo de departamentos — so säo pro- 
cessados apös consulta previa aos Associados, quer em 
conferencias ou atraves o ''Editor 's Report," que vem im- 
presso no comefo de cada edi^äo, para o quäl se solicita 
resposta na "Reply Letter." Por este permanente diälogo, 
CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY funciona como um verdadeiro 
orgäo centralizador e esclarecedor de noticias e ideias, um 
indicador de tendencias e necessidades da profissäo, bem 
como um instrumento de ayäo sobre estas, ä medida que se 
evidenciem. O acentuado aspecto de ''foro aberto" que 
CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY possüi imprime caracteristicas 
especiais ao processo editorial, como se pode verificar a 
seguir. 

PROCESSO EDI TORI A L 

O trafo marcante da revista e o artigo com o "Comentario 
CA-^." Tal como o titulo sugere, este tipo de artigo trata, 
de uma rnaneira compreensiva, um topico de releväncia para 
as ciencias do homem, com visäo larga, perfeitamente 
documentado, e claramente delimitado em termos de tempo, 
espago, dados disponiveis, metodologia, ou qualquer outro 
criterio. Como tambem e dirigido a especialistas de outros 
campos, deve o autor usar clareza e simplicidade na apresen- 
ta<fäo, especialmente na terminologia e nos conceitos 
empregados. Estes artigos consistindo, äs vezes, de contri- 
bui^öes de dois ou mais autores, frequentemente atingem a 
propor^-äo de uma apreciävel monografia. Antes de serem 
aceitos para publicagäo, o artigo e submetido a um julga- 
mento mültiplo.^ So depois que um manuscrito passa por 



1. Depois de indica^äo e elei^äo pelos atuais Associados, estudiosos de 
competencia em uma disciplina de um determinado pafs pode ser 
convidado a se tornar Associado. Os Associados pagam uma con- 
tribuifäo anual nominal, porque sua cooperagäo com current an- 
thropology envolve gastos de tempo e dinheiro. Estudante, professor, 
ou pesquisador em antropologia ou campo correlato que 6 recomendado 
por um Associado pode tornar-se assinante a uma taxa especial igual a 
dos Associado de seu pafs. Qualquer pessoa interessada pode assinar a 
revista pelo preco comun assinalado na contra-capa de current 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

2. Cöpias do manuscrito säo enviadas a cörca de 20 estudiosos cujas 
fichas de inscrigäo revelem competencia no assunto do manuscrito. 
Solicita-se-lhes que julguem o mesmo atendendo ä precisäo, importäncia, 
e, de um modo geral, inter^sse para a profissäo, fazendo sugestöes para 
o seu aprimoramento. Suas respostas, analisadas pelo corpo editorial, 
fornecem uma base segura para a decisäo söbre o manuscrito — si aceito 
corno estä, ou devolvido ao autor para que acate as sugestöes ou procure 
revista mais apropriada para publicafäo. Uma descrigäo deste sistema 
estä publicada na edigäo de fevereiro 1972. 



esse processo e entäo impresso em sua forma final, da quäl 
säo enviadas cöpias a 40 ou mais comentadores, que podem 
ser autores citados no texto, especialistas sugeridos pelo 
autor, pesquisadores que tenham respondido ao ''Editor's 
Report," ou outros escolhidos por uma seleyäo. O ^'Comen- 
tärio CA*^" assim elaborado, acrescido da replica do 
autor, e entäo publicado simultäneamente com o artigo 
original e, de certo modo, expressa uma "opiniäo da pro- 
fissäo." Si, de tudo isto, surge concordäncia num deter- 
minado assunto ou si, ao contrario, surge uma controversia 
que, debatida, leva a um consenso, considera-se atingido o 
aspecto de uma tomada de opiniäo. O ''CA'^ Book Review" 
se processa, exatamente, dentro do mesmo espirito que a 
revisäo de artigo. Um livro, em qualquer idioma, e escolhido 
com base na qualidade^e no Interesse geral dos Associados e 
enviado a 20 criticos para a aprecia^äo. Estas apreciagöes 
säo entäo publicadas junto com a resumo do livro, feito pelo 
autor, bem como sua replica äs apreciaföes dos criticos. 
Esta revisäo critica pode incluir värios livros sobre o mesmo 
assunto, de um ou de värios autores, mesmo que näo sejam 
recem-publicados. current anthropology publica tambem 
artigos de forma comun ä da maior parte de revistas tecnicas, 
tais como exposifäo de uma nova teoria ou metodo, ou 
mesmo um relatörio de pesquisa. Estes tambem säo sujeitos 
a um previo julgamento, antes de serem aceitos para 
publicafäo. Novos itens, material de referencia, corres- 
pondencia de interesse para os Associados aparecem tambem 
nas seföes publicadas regulär ou eventualmente. Destas 
se0es, as de "Discussion and Criticism" and "Our Readers 
Write," frequentemente abrem uma preveitosa discussäo 
söbre um artigo ou livro recentemente publicado ou criti- 
cado. 

IDIOMA 

Embora os Associados reconhegam vantajosa a publica^äo 
de CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY em um ünico idioma (ingles), o 
Editor aceita e julga o manuscrito, faz apreciagäo critica de 
livros, e recebe comentärios tambem em tcheco, holandes, 
frances, alemäo, italiano, japones, polones, portugues, russo, 
espanhol, e linguas escandinavas. Isto diminüi, de cerlo 
modo, as desvantagens da publica^äo em um ünico idioma. 
O Editor coopera com os autores na preparafäo de traduföes, 
proporcionando auxilio financeiro quando necessärio. Au- 
tores fluentes na lingua inglesa recebem do Editor um 
Modelo-esquema para a preparafäo de suas contribuiföes. 

HISTÖRICO 

CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY c, em todos OS scntidos, uma ex- 
periencia de um tipo de cooperayäo e comunica^äo inter- 
disciplinar, em nivel internacional. Um histörico minucioso 
de tal empreendimento — funda(;:äo e precedentes, problemas 
resolvidos ou ainda insolüveis, desenvolvimento da politica 
editorial, dados estatisticos, e observaf^öes relativas aos 
primeiros quatro anos de publica^-äo — podem ser encontra- 
dos na edifäo de junho 1965. 






■i 



FOR THE ARABIC VERSION, SEE DECEMBER 1969; BENGALI, DECEMBER I 1968; CHINESE, JUNE 1%7; CZECH. DECEMBER II 1968; ENGI.ISH, FEBRIARY 1972 
FRENCH. OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1971; GERMAN. APRIL 1972; HEBREW. APRIL 1971; HINDI. DECEMBER 1965; ITALIAN, APRIL 1970; JAPANESE. OCIOBER- 
DECEMBER 1970; RUSSIAN. OCTOBER I 1969; SPANISH. JUNE I97I. 



fliRMiccs inhcrcnl in thcir owii socicty. 
K.g., \hv woicl "pcasanl" in ihe Knglish 
language is of pejorativ c t hai acicr and 
dcnolcs a rustic living in a Foreign 
coinitry. ()n thc olhci band, in thc 
L'.S.A. we still find thc cffect of poj^ul- 
ism and of a iradition hasing thc na- 
tional sclf-imagc on thc agrarian pop- 
ulation (cf. Halpcrn and Brodc 
1967:51, 57). Vicwing fioni Kurope 
the Swing of thc anthiopological iniage 
of pcasants froni idyllic to wholh neg- 
ative, onc gcts thc imprcssion that it is 
only partially niotivatcd by thc internal 
dcvelopment of the sciencc and that in 
part il is an expression of ideological 
polcs. Pcasants are, by definition, j^art 
of a complex socicty and a coniplex 
cullurc. Ihc scholars of East-C.entral 
Kurope and North America alike bc- 
long to complex socicties which still 
have, or had not long ago, a com- 
ponent of agrarian-peasant characlei . 
I hus the i'cscarcher's opinion of jx'as- 
ants is j^robablv inHuenced to a largcr 
cxtent by the self-imagc of bis oun 
socicty than is bis view of primitive 
sociclies. 



Fei & Hofer: proper peasants and Cresswell: une communaute rurale de l'irlande 



Tbc longish procedure of printing 
our book has had a favourablc result 
inasnuich as its publication comes ai a 
time üben thc earlier totalh dark aegis 
of "amoral familism" and "limited 
good" is giving way lo a certain day- 
break for the peasantry. We are glad 
that Von Fhrenfels had plcasure in 
reading about the pride of thc Atäny 
pcoi3lc "at being peasants and having 
horses" and that Freeman uelcomcd 
thc usc of thc woid "peasantrv" in our 
book in thc sense that it had "before 
anlhropologists began to meddle with 
it." 

We are far from trying to maintain 
that our dcscription of thc pcasants is 
as objectivc as, or more objcctivc than, 
that of onc or anotber anthropologist. 
In a different social and ideological 
context, in Hungary, too, therc is a 
polari/.ation in the cvaluation of peas- 
ants similar to the polai i/ation in thc 
l'nited States. Wc can tracc a certain 
"division of labour" among thc diffei- 
cnt branches of knowlcdgc. While 



cthnogiaphy as such has j3ortrayed 
primarih thc harmonic aspects of 
rural cultuic, history, sociograj)hy, 
and literary village rcscarch (thc laltcr 
mentioncd by Bodrogi) have concen- 
trated primarih on poverty and con- 
Hict. VVben our only Hungarian rc- 
vicwei , Bodiogi, points out that Proper 
Peasants actuallv dcals with peasants 
who are landowncrs (and this is true), 
he is trying to bring thc mainly positive 
peasant-image in thc book into har- 
mony with thc negative onc, which in 
this context may refer simultancously 
to the poor peasantry. 

In thc course of the argumentation, 
it has been suggcsted that it would bc 
fruit ful to carry on, probably in thc 
columns of CA, the cxchange of views 
concerning the differences between 
antbropologN and national ethnog- 
raph\. Onc of the themes that could 
bc discussed is thc comparison of dif- 
ferent opinions, biases, and prejudices 
concerning compatriot and stränge 
pcasants, in thcir own social context. 



References Cited 



Arknsbkk(,, C M., and S. 1. Kimbai. r. 
1940. Family and Community in Ireland. 
(lanibridge: Harvard l'iiivcrsitx Press. 

Basso, Rkhu H. H)7(). Commeiu oii: Kii- 
culuuation — a lecoiisideraiion, by 
Nohiio Shimahara. (aRRF.M amuro- 
poKM.v 11:149. [l'RVK-j^] 

Bk.rnoi, L., and R. Bi.ancard. 195,'i \on- 
ville: in village fran^ais. liaxaiix et 
Mcnioires de riiistiuii (rKthiiologie ()2. 

[.S TK. HL-)>] 

Bloch, Marc. 1940. Les caracteres originaux 
de Ihistoire rurale franqaise. Paris: Albin 
Michel [MIP(h^] 

IHN HoiiANDKR, A.N. j. 1 967. "S(K lardc- 
sci iption: 1 he piobk-in of reliabilit\ and 
\ali(lit\," in Anthropologists in the field. 
V.dwcd bv D. C jongmans and P. (iiit- 
kiiul, jjp. 1-34. New ^'()lk: Huiiianities 
Press. [HS-)^] 

Dia/, May N. 1967. "Kcononiic lelaiions in 
peasani s(Kiei\,"in Feasant society. Kdited 
by Jack M. Potter, Mav N. Dia/, and 
(ieorge M. Foster, jjp. 5()-3(v Boston: 
Linie, Brown. [MK(h^] 

Frixox, SuaRi). 1962. Folk-lifc- resiarc h in 
our time. Cwerin 3:275-91. [R 1 A,^] 



Glrvitch, (iroRCKS. Fdiioi. 1949. Indius- 
trialisation et technocratie. Pai is: A. Colin. 

Hai.pk.rn, joFi M., and John Brodf. 1967. 
"Peasani so( ieiy: Fcononiic changes and 
revoluiionaiN transforniaiion," in Bien- 
nial review of anthropology. Kdited hv Bei- 
naid J. .Siegel. Sianfoid: Slanloid l'ni- 
versity Press. 

Haipfrn, Jofi. M., and F. A. Hammfi.. 
1969. I he intelledual liistoiv of ethnolo- 
U\ and othei social sdeiucs in ^'uur()- 
slavia. (^mparative Studies in Society and 
History 11. 

HoFFR, 1 amAs. 1968. .Anthrojjologisis <nid 
nali\t' eihnogiaphers in ("-enlial Fiirope- 
an \illages: Coniparative notes on ilie 
jirolessional personaliis of luo dis- 
ciplines. ci rrfnt an ruR()POi.o(;v 
9::ni-Hi. 

. 1970. Anlhropologists and naiive 

eihnogi<iphers at work in Central 
Fmopean villages. Anthropologica. N. S., 
12(1): 5-22 . ( )t Kl wa . ' [MS V.-^] 

Hri.iKRAMZ, .\kf. 19(>0. "Ceneral eihno- 
logi(al coiuepts," in International dictio- 
nar-y of regional European ethnology and 
folklore, \()1. 1. Cojx'nnagi'n: Rosenkilde 
and Bagger. 

JAii.iN, RoBFRi. 1970. Fe droit desdvilisa- 
lions a disposei (relles-ineines. Science et 
Avenir, no. 278. [l'RVFi^] 

loNFS, Dfi.mos |. 1970. Towaids a naiivc 
anthropologv. Human Organization 
29:251-59. 



Kisi.iAKOV, N. A. Fditor. 1954. Kurtura i 
b\i tad/hikskogo kolkho/.nogo krest'i- 
anst\a. I'rudy Instituta Ftnograpi im. N. N. 
Miklukho-Maklaia, N.S., 24^ [MSFi^] 

Ffacu, f. R. 1961. Rethinking anthropology. 

Fondon: .\thlone. " [ TB^^] 

Ffwis, (). 19.')1. Life in a Mexican village: 

lepoztlan restudiea. L'ibana: L'niversit\ of 

Illinois Press. 
MoRiN, FiKiAR. 1967. Commune en France: 

La Metamorphose de Plodernet. Paris: 

Favard. fMlP(h:^] 

Nfmffh, F 1970. Die I ürkische Sprache in 

l'ngarn. .Amsterdam: (iriiner. [FRVFi^] 
()pi Fi<. Marmn K. 1967. "(ailiuial peispec- 

tives in reseaich on schi/ophienias," in 

Culture and social psychiatry, pp. 282-.303. 

Neu York: Atheiton Press. fMKOi^] 
Radci.ifff-Brown, .\. R. 1957. A natural 

science of society, (ilencoe: Free Press. 
Rfdfifii), R. 1930. Lepoztlan: A Mexican 

village. Chicago: Universitx of C>hicago 

Press. 
. 1955. Lhe little Community. Chkdgo: 

l'ni\c'isil\ ol Chicago Press. 
Vara(.n.ac., Am>rf.. 1948 Civilisation tradi- 

tionnelle et genres de vie. Pai"is:.-\lbin 

Michel. ' [MlPQi^] 

Warrinfr, Dorffn. 1939. Fconomics of 

peasant jarming. Fondon, New Voik, Fo- 

lonio: Oxfoid Fni\cMsit\ Press. 
Woi F, Fric R. 1964. Anthropology. Fngle- 

wood Clilfs: Prenlice-Hall. 



Vol. 13 • So. :i-4 • June-Octoher 1972 



497 



IXth International Congress of Anthropological and 
Ethnological Sciences 



■ The IXth Iniernaiional Congress of 
Anthropological and Ethnological Sci- 
ences will convene in Chicago, U.S.A., 
August 27 - September 8, 1973. 

Progress Report 

Meeting in Copenhagen, May 1971, 
the Permanent Council of the Interna- 
tional Union of Anthropological and 
Ethnological Sciences revised and ap- 
proved plans of the Organizing Com- 
mittee for the IXth International Con- 
gress (see the minutes, to be published 
in CA, December 1972). Accordingly, 
the First Circular was sent by airmail 
in July 1971 to some 24,000 names 
drawn from lists of the VIth Congress 
(Paris), Vllth Congress (Moscow), and 
Vlllth Congress (Tokyo), checked 



against the latest lists of current 
ANTHROPOLOGY, the Amcrican An- 
thropological Association, and the 
Linguistic Society of America, both for 
address corrections and to identify ad- 
ditional scholars, particularly younger 
persons. Despite great efforts to avoid 
duplication, and to get correct ad- 
dresses, possibly 4,000 circulars may 
have been wasted; it is remarkable 
enough that as many as 20,000 per- 
sons could have been identified as an- 
thropologisis and elhnologists for ihis 
purpose. 

This First Circular announced the 
dates of the Congress, September 1-8, 
1973, and the place, Chicago, U.S.A.; 
stated the rules of membership; and 
included the call for volunteered pa- 
pers and subjects of Conferences for 



consideration by the Program Com- 
mittee. 

Although a deadline of January 1 
was set, the Organizing Committee 
permitted the lists to remain open. By 
April 24 there had been received a 
total of 1,315 registrations, 850 pro- 
posed papers, and 115 Conferences. 
All persons whose papers were ac- 
cepted by the Program Committee 
were sent a style sheet ("Information 
For Authors," p. 501, which gave in- 
structions (in English, Prench, 
German, Portuguese, and Spanish) for 
the preparation of papers. After sev- 
eral meetings, including the largesl in 
February 1972, it was possible to syn- 
thesize all proposals into a tentative 
program, which was then included in 
the Second Circular, sent by airmail 
during June 1972 and reprinted here 
for the benefit of interested persons 
whose names are not on the Congress 
mailing list. 



IXth INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 
ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

SECOND CIRCULAR - MAY 1972 



DAXES: Monday, 27 viii-Saturday, 8 ix m£^ 
Research Sessions, 27-31 Augtist; 
General Sessions, 1-8 September 

PLACE: Conrad Hilto n Hotel. Chirag oJTS A^ 
DEADLINE for completed papers: 1 xi 1972 



DEADLINE for abstracts of newly propose d pap ers 
for consideration by the Committe^r~fTirT972. 



The Tentative Program belovv was derived from the 
offers of 850 papers and 1 15 Research topics received 
by 24 iv 1972. Every paper and absiraci will be 
classified according to the numbered sessions listed. 
Authors may indicate their Ist, 2nd, and 3rd choices. 
TENTATIVE PROGRAM CONTENT 
I. Nature and Development of Man, a 

look at the species both developmentally and 
in its present character and variety. From its 
origins among the primates the character of 
man is traced in all its dimensions — biological, 
emotional, intelleclual, and "spiritual" — in- 
sofar as such distinctions are tenable. 
A. Body and Behavior 

1. Man and the Primates. — Concerns the 
comparison of Homo sapiens with non- 
human primate species. Livingand fossil 
forms are considered. An attempt at 
understanding modern man's mind and 
body through the study of his close rela- 
tives is made. 

2. Paleoanthropology: The Pleistocene. — Deals 
with the physical and the material re- 

498 



mains of man's ancestors and covers: 
paleoanthropology; origins of behavior 
patterns; tool cultures; paleodemogra- 
phy, and all related subjects. It provides 
a unified review of the various areas of 
study dealing with this time period. 

3. Human Differentiation: Genetic and En- 
vironmental Factors. — Encompasses both 
coniemporary living men and the re- 
mains of earlier peoples. It Covers 
human variability as revealed by metric 
and non-metric morphological traits; ef- 
fects of drift and isolation upon the 
genetic makeup of man; the influence of 
human culture on the human body; and 
the influence of the environment on the 
human body, including pathological ef- 
fects. 

B. Mind and Culture 

4. Language and Thought. — Analyzes cul- 
ture via verbal and non- verbal expres- 
sion of symbolic thought. This includes 
all studies of communicative behavior: 
language as a phenomenon and studies 
of particular languages and language 
groups; metacommunication, paralan- 
guage, and semiotics; non-verbal sym- 
bolic behavior, conceptual categories, 
and Cognition; sociolinguistics and ap- 
plied linguistics. 

5. Science, Technology, and Invention. 
— Studies man's attempts to deal ration- 
ally with his environment. The emphasis 

C U R R K N I A N r H R O P O L O G Y 



is on pre-modern times, although con- 
temporary topics are also included. 

6. Sociological Innovation and Change. 
— Includes changes in cultural patterns 
and social Organization through evolu- 
tionary processes or as a response to 
stress. 

C. Expression in Man 

7. The Arts: Plastic and Graphic— Indudes 
all material forms and color (two- and 
three-dimensional representations of 
thought and perception) viewed as affec- 
tive responses from earliest times to the 
present. 

8. The Performing Arts: Music, Dance, and 
Theater. — Viewed as affective response 
influencing all the senses — as the re- 
creation of social situations vvith the in- 
tent of satisfying emotional as well as 
intellectual needs. 

9. Folklore: Oral and Written Literature. 
— Encompasses the study and analysis of 
myths, legends, fairy tales, riddles and 
foiktales and creative oral and written 
story-telling from the viewpoint of aes- 
thetics, psychology, and anthropology, 
and their social and cultural matrix. 

10. Ritual, Cults, and Shamanism. — Includes 
studies usually associated with religious 
behavior (manifestations of a special 
type of affective response, covering: 
supernatural beliefs, deity worship, ob- 
servance of ritual and ceremony, and the 
manipulation of the social and the natu- 
ral World through esoteric means). 
II. LOOKING AT THE WORLD GEOGRAPHI- 
CALLY, each of the areas first treats its an- 
thropological whole from early to contempo- 
rary times emphasizing the interchanges of 
peoples and cullures and then selects one or 
more particular problems which are central to 
the study of the area. (The seven points of view 
were seiected for freshness and promise of 
international interdisciplinary interchange.) 

D. The Circumpolar Regions, from the icecap 

through tundra and taiga. 

1 1 . General Anthropology. 

12. Mans Adaptability to New and Difficult 
Environments. — Including the first peo- 
pling of and dispersion throughout the 
Americas. 

E. The Pacific Rim, from Japan and the main- 

land northern coasts of Asia through the 
Aleutians and Alaska and including the 
mountains south to Tierra del Fuego. 

13. General Anthropology. 

14. Maritime Anthropology and Mans Relations 
with the Sea. 

15. Communications Along a Cordillera. 
— Compared with relations to the plains 
on one side and the sea on the other. 

F. Asian - African Hot and Gold Desert and 

Steppe, a belt comprising northern and 



eastern Africa, the Middle East, and 
Central Asia. 

16. General Anthropology. 

17. Relations Between Sedentary and Nomadic 
Lifeways in the Context of Modernization. 

G. The Indian Ocean Areas, including Mada- 
gascar, the eastern seaboard of southern 
Africa, the South Asian plains, and 
Southeast Asia through Malaysia. 

18. General Anthropology. 

19. The Comparative Study of Post-Colonial 
"New Nations." 

H. Ghina to the Antipodes, includes the main- 
land and.Oceanic peoples and cultures. 

20. General Anthropology. 

21. The Contrast of China as a ''Mother" Cul- 
ture with Island Cultures as Historie Recep- 
tors. — Using as examples the close Philip- 
pines and relaiively isolated New 
Guinea. 

I. Europe, from the North Pole to the Mediter- 
ranean and from the Urals to the Atlan- 
tic. 

22. General Anthropology. 

23. Urbanization as a Central Historie Process. 
J. The Atlantic, from the eastern shores of the 

American continents east to the Europe- 
an maritime nations and south along the 
western shores of Europe and Africa. 

24. The Afro- European Littoral. — Emphasiz- 
ing north-south interrelations from ear- 
liest times uniil 1500 a.d. 

25. The South-Middle-North American Littor- 
al. — Emphasizing north-south interrela- 
tions from earliest times until 1500 a.d. 

26. Northern Maritime Europeans (from both 
shores) and the Development of an Interna- 
tional Plantation Economy. — With its mov- 
ing of populations from east to west thus 
stimulating the emergence of new cul- 
tures after 1500 a.d. 

III. A & E SCIENCES: PROFESSIONAL CON- 
CERNS, the intellectual enterprise of the 
human sciences, including: philosophical and 
methodological bases in relation to other fields 
of knowledge; changing research methods and 
techni(|ues; problems of communication be- 
tween specialties and with other scholars and 
the public; and worldwide problems of in- 
formation control, of relating to political pow- 
ers and the general public. It is here that all 
methodological arguments within the dis- 
cipline of "how scientists uncover knowledge" 
are focused. 
K. Theoretical Perspectives 

27. Alternative Theoretical Orientations. — Re- 
(juired for analysis of differences in eco- 
nomic and socio-political development, 
involving discussion of past and present 
evolutionary and revolutionary changes. 

28. Anthropology of Complex Societies. — Con- 
cepts and methods retjuired in the study 
of "macro-societies" in all their cultural 



Vol. 13 ■ No. 3-4 • June-October 1972 



499 



compicxity; and ihc relalionships be- 
tween "great" traditions and bciwecn 
"great" traditions and "small" traditions. 

29. Current Theories, Methods, and Techniques 
of Research. — In biological anthropology, 
cultural anthropology, archeology and 
prchistory, and linguistics. 

L. Data Storage and Retrieval 

30. Bibliographie Resources, Museology, Car- 
tography, and Visual-Aural Anthropology 

M. History and Future of Anthropological Sci- 
ences. I hc following arc vicvvcd in his- 
lorical perspective: 

3 1 . Ways of Overcoming Centrifugal Tenden- 
cies. — Due to increasingly specialized 
knou'ledge. 

32. Difflculties of Communication. — Across 
disciplines and across linguistic cultural 
and national boundaries. Included are 
Problems of iraining and establishing 
ethical nornis on a worldwide scale. 

IV. A & E SCIENCES: SOCIAL CONCERNS, the 
uses of knowledge of the human sciences at all 
levels — from deeper understanding to assis- 
tance in solving specific social problems. On 
the one band there is consideration of three 
Problems affecting the species vvith varying 
interpretations of their nature and possible 
outcomes. On the other band there are the 
specific Problems of modern urban societies, as 
exemplified in selected cases in "aspects of 
social life." 
N. Species Problems seen in the broadest per- 
spective 

33. Population and Technological Increase. 
— On a limited planet. 

34. Colonialism, Power- Abuse, and War. 

35. Systems of Injustice and Discrimination. 
O. The Fates of Indigenous and Minority Peo- 

ples seen throughout history by histori- 
ans, anthropologists, and the survivors 
themselves 

36. Possibilities and Prospects of Cultural Plur- 
alism. — Kxisting in an industrial age. 

P. Aspects of Social Life, contributions of an- 
thropological perspectives for under- 
standing and improving 

37. Mental and Physical Health. 

38. Nutrition. 

39. Reproductive and Early Childhood Behavior. 

40. Kducation. 

41. Lrban Life. 

Q.The Future of the Species 

42. I he Future. — As seen in the context of its 
past. 

Membership Fees and Payment: Payment of the fees 

is accepted now . 

US $25 for each Subscribing Institution. An Institution 

paying this fee receives a copy of the Pro- 

ceedings. 
US $25 for each litular Member. 4 bis membership 

fee entitles one to submit a communication; 

receive a limited number of abstracts and 



papers in advance of the Congress; partici- 
pate in Research and General Sessions; re- 
ceive a free copy of the Proceedings; receive 
a post-Congress discount on all publications. 
US $15 for each Associate Member. llie Associate 
Member is a family member or an assistant 
accompanving a " I itular Member." Payment 
of the fee entitles an Associate Member to 
Privileges during the Congress in Chicago. 
US $15 for each Student Member. 4 bis membership 
category is available for those who are stu- 
dents at the time of the Congress and entitles 
them to Privileges during the Congress and a 
copy of the Proceedings. A Student should 
register as a " I itular Member" if he wishes to 
receive advance abstracts and papers and 
post-C'ongress publication benefits. 
Travel and Subsistence Expenses: It is assumed that 
every regist rant pays bis own expenses, and indeed 
established scholars usually obtain funds from their 
institutions, and their own resources. 1 he Organizing 
Committee is seeking funds to assist scholars from 
outside the United States, particularly younger scho- 
lars and those from the moredistant points, toattend 
the Congress. We do not yet knovv the extent to which 
help will be available, and we must distribute it widely 
and wisely. Registrants who think the\ will need some 
financial support should write at once to the Congress 
office, providing information about their own and 
institutional resources and a calculation of the subsidy 
thev might need. 4he following information will 
make this possible. A minimum estimate for food, 
lodging, and incidentals in Chicago is $30 per day. 
($360 for the entire 12 days of the Congress, includ- 
ing both research and general sessions.) We hope to 
reduce travel cosls for all by arranging charter or 
group flights from the following cities: 
London New Delhi Lima 

Plague Svdney Caracas 

Athens I okyo Mexico City 

Naii obi Rio de Janeiro Lagos 

Please teil us from which city you are likely todepart. 
4 he examples of approximate round trip air fares 
listed below are for illustrative purposes only, since 
commitmenis have not yet been made. 

4ouri st Lxcursion C^roup Charter 
London $674 $499 $360 $215 

New Delhi $1,402 $1,337 $891 $556 

It will be possible to achieve these economies only if 
all those Coming from outside North America will 
plan to use the charter or group flights as arranged. 
I he savings should make up for the additional cost of 
subsistence for the extra days in Chicago. The flights 
will be scheduled to arrive in Chicago on M onday, 
August 27, and to depart on Sunday, September 9. 
Further information will be sent to registrants as 
plans become more definite. 

Address all commimications to: International Con- 
gress of Anthropological and Kthnological Sciences, 
1 126 Last 59th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, U.S.A. 

Sol I ax, President 



500 



C l R R F. N r A N r H R () V () I. () (i V 



INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS 



Written Communications to thc IXth Congrcss are due in Chicago by 
/ November 1972. These Communications will not be read aloud at the Con- 
gress, but will be availablc to all members before and during the Congress. 
They will be discussed in appropriate sessions of the Congress. These discus- 
sions will have simultaneous translation into fivc (5) languages: English, 
French, German, Russian and Spanish. 

All papers will be reproduced in English. Papers submitted in French, 
German, Portuguese and Spanish will be accepted and reproduced in the original 
language as well as in English. (If possible the English translation should 
accompany the original manuscript.) 

Members submitting papers in any languages other than French, German. 
Portuguese and Spanish must submit the original and an English translation. In 
these cases, only the English translation will be reproduced. 

An abstract should accompany each paper. Each abstract will be repro- 
duced on a small sheet of paper for airmail distribution and must be limited 
to 200 words. Underline a maximum of 10 key words (including important 
concepts, geographic areas, tribes, languages etc.) by which your paper will 
be indexed. 

FoUowing the November Ist deadline, an INDEX to subject-matter will be 
prepared (using the key words described above) and distributed to Congress 
registrants, to enable them to order a limited number of abstracts and completed 
papers. 

All written Communications submitted in English, French, German, Portu- 
guese and Spanish will be reproduced by photo-ofTset as they are received and 
without re-typing, Every author must make his copy as legible as possible. 
We ask therefore, that you follow the Instructions below in the preparation of 
your manuscript. 

1. Type double-spaced on one side of white paper. 

2. The typewriter should have clean type and a good ribbon. 

3. Leave adequate margins. 

4. Tyj)e your last name and Initials on the top of every page. 

5. Number the pages consecutively. 

6. Footnotes, numbered in sequence throughout the paper, should be 
gathered together at the end. 

7. References should be citcd parenthetically in the text as per example 
(Malinowski, 1940, pp. 70-90). 

8. All references cited should be listed alphabetically by author at the end 
of the paper. 

9. Follow the bibliographic style used in CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY. 
(See examples below) 

a. Example of a Journal article: 

SAPIR, EDWARD. Culture, genuine and spurious. American 

Journal of Sociology 24: 410-12. 
Note that: — there is a period, not a comma. aftcr thc author's name. 



— there is a period after the date. 

— only the first word of the title (as well as proper nouns) 

should be capitalized. 
— there are no Quotation marks or italics. 
— the füll name of the Journal is underlined; that there is 

no punctuation after the Journal; that only volume 

number and page numbers are included, separated by a 

Colon and followed by a period. 

b. Example of a book: 

RACE. R.R. and R. SANGER. 1962 4th edition. Blood groups in 

man. Oxford: Blackwells. 
Note that: — the first author's name has the surname first. 

— the second author's name has the surname last. 
— there is a period, not a comma, after the author's name. 
— the title of the book is underlined; that only the first 
word of the title (as well as proper nouns) should be 
capitalized. 
— the title of the book is followed by a period. 
— the city where published appears first, then the pub- 
lisher, separated by a colon. 

c. Example of a seclion of a book: 

POLLITZER. R., and F.F. MEYER. 1961 "The ecology of 
plague," in Studies in disease ecology. Edited by J.M. May, 
pp. 4.13-501. New York: Hafner. 
Note that: — the first author's name has the surname first. 
— the second author's name has the surname last. 
— the title of the section of the book is listed in Quotation 

marks, followed by a comma. 
— the title of the book is underlined and followed by a 

period. 
— the city where published appears first, then the pub- 
lisher separated by a colon. 

For further examples consult any recent issue of CURRENT ANTHRO- 
POLOGY. 

10. Tables and drawinps should be made in black India ink only; num- 
bered clearlv; provided with captions; cited in the text; and grouped 
together at the end of the paper Photographs must be black-and-white 
of Sharp Quality; include no color prints; scales where relevant should 
be indicated on the photograph itself or in the caption. 

1 1 . Abstracts should be typed single-snaced on a separate sheet of paper 
and limited to 200 words. Include your name the title of the paper and 
underline a maximum of 10 key words by which the paper will be 
indexed. 



Notes on New Books 

■ Human Sexual Inadequacy, by W. N. 
Masters and V. E. Johnson (Boston: 
Little, Brown, 1970) icpresents a 
major brcakthrough in the field of the 
intcraction of biology and culture. It 
throws lighl on Dollard's frustration- 
aggression hypolhesis, on the postii- 
lates of Freud, Rank, and Mead, on 
violence, on differenlial fertility, 
on demographic planning — in short, 
on practically all aspects of that broad 
Segment of human behaviour that has 
to do with sex. Further, il provides 
concrete and valid answers to Prob- 
lems that are not much talked aboui, 
but very important in people's lives, 
such as premature ejaculation, secon- 
dary impotence, clitoris caressing and 
lubrication, oral and anal practices, 
etc. By focusing on the couple, and not 
on the male or the female as has been 
done in all previous studies, the 
authors have achieved scientific insighi 
into what was formerly mystery, leg- 
end, or erroneous hypolhesis. 

Physical anlhropology has long 
awaited such a breakhrough. Watson 
and Crick's research of almosl iwo 
decades ago greatly changed the ap- 
proach and scope of physical anlhro- 
pology. Simpson's and Mayr's work, 



showing that anatomical traits can only 
be understood in terms of behavioural 
studies of man and other primates, 
and the work of Washburn, Benoist, 
Hiernaux, and others on human bi- 
ology as a function of ecology have 
had a positive but lesser effect. Physical 
anlhropology continues to be the 
study of human biological Variation 
mainly in terms of biologically ex- 
plained variants. Since sexual behav- 
iour has little to do with penis or 
vagina size, physical anthropological 
studies of it have been totally lacking, 
and at the same time research inieresl 
in the subject on the pari of human 
biologists has been virtually nonexis- 
tent. ^ Fieud's work, dealing with the 
psychological rather than the physical, 
has remained outside our interest and 
beyond our understanding. Kinsey's 
research, though its iinportance was 
recognized by individuals, was seen as 
too descriptive by a profession shifting 
from the study of the relation be- 
iween, for example, nose breadth and 
plaiymeria to more sophisticaied, but 
somelimes e(|ually unjustified, genetic 
comparisons. 

' In my annotatcd bibliography (Gc- 
noves 1%:^) I was only ablc to lisl 6 studies 
(of a total of 744) dealing with sex and sex 
ratio cai ried oiit in 1963 and recognized by 
the field. 



Maretl used to begin a lecture by 
saying, "Anlhropology is the science of 
man [pause] embracing woman." The 
study of this embracing is essential for 
those of US who do research on the 
evolution and survival of the species. 
Moreover, sexual behavioin , pervaded 
by iradition and showing wide cullural 
Variation, offers an unparalleled C3p- 
portunity to study how biology and 
culture interact. Lei us hope that 
physical anthropologists, particulai- 
ly well-ec|uipped inethodologically as 
well as technically to follow up Maslers 
and Johnson's ferlile apprc:)aches to 
the understanding of a broad segment 
of our field of research, will apply 
themselves to the task. 

Santiago Genoves 
Mexico, D.F., Mexico 



References Cited 

Gknoves, S. 1963. "Studies and advances in 
physical anlhropology during 1963," in 
Yearbook of physical anthropolopy. Kdited 
by J. Kelso, G. Lasker, an(l S. Y. Brooks, 
vol. 2, pp. 1-100. Mexico: Instiluio Na- 
tional de Antropologia e Historia and 
Universidad National Autönoma de 
Mexico. 



Vol. 13- No. 3-4 • June-Odober 1972 



501 



Our Readers Write (continued from p. 346) 



CA's most important Service is thc Provi- 
sion of an international forum on sig- 
nificant issucs. Ihc coninicnts on ar- 
ticles arc often morc valuablc ihan the 
articics. Space should be alloited wiih 
this in mind. 

Simon D. Mlssin(; 
New Haven, Conn., U.S.A. 

CA^ articles and letters are all I evcr 
really pay miich attention to in CA. I 
ihink the other stuff could be cut out. 
The niore general kinds of review and 
discussion articles are most consistent 
wilh the raison d'etre of CA. The 
directories are useful but perhaps 
could be sold separalely. 

David G. Epsthin 
Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.A. 

On quality control to reduce the mass of 
published material in CA: One of the 
most interesting and valuable features 
of CA is that in reading it one is 
exposed to schools of thought in an- 
thropology that are not necessarily 
very common in one's parochial tradi- 
tion. This is especially true for readers 
vvhose native language or principal 
scholarly milieu is English. I suspect 
that most Hungarians are familiär 
uith ihe anthropology of the English- 
speaking world, but those of us w ho do 
not usually read Journals in languages 
other than English are (]uite un- 
familiar with Hungarian anthropology 
except as \ve are exposed to it through 
CA and a few other Journals. There- 
fore, particularly in the case of arti- 
cles by writers oulside the English- 
speaking world, it would be advisable 
to have the readers who recommend 
publication or nonpublication come 
from the traditions concerned, so that 
an artide by a Japanese or a Soviel 
anthropologist will be to some small 
extent representative of what is ac- 
ceptable and sensible in the context of 
Japanese or Soviet anthropologv in 
general. 

David K. Jordan 
La Jolla, Calif., U.S.A. 

Lists of people to whom free books have 
been sent and from whom reply letters 
have been received are surely a waste 
of money — of which CA is short. 

H. Nkvillk Chittick 
Nairobi, Kenya 

On Köbben's letter {CA 12:417): I am in 
agreement with his suggestions as to 
policy changes. As an American an- 
thropologist, I too am amazed! If ma- 
jority reaction does not support the 
suggested restrictions, I will be content 
to tolerate personally nonielevant ma- 
lerials out of respect for the need of 

502 



colleagues aroimd the world. Other- 
wise, let's save funds and scrvc reader- 
ship needs. 

William W. Stein 
Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A. 



Contrary to Köbben's Suggestion (CA 
12:417), I strongly feel, as a profes- 
sional anthropologist, that physical an- 
thropology, linguislics, and archaeolo- 
gy shoiild not be excluded from the 
purview of CA. 

Pranab Gan(;l'ly 
Calcutia, India 

I would like more articles on physical 
anthropology, especially (a) an occa- 
sional survey of body development in 
connection with enviionment, particu- 
laily in underdeveloped coiuitries, 
and (b) short repoi ts on current paleo- 
anlhropological discoveries. We also 
nccd standardization in ontogenetic 
research for a better evaluation of the 
published data; for this purpose, dis- 
cussion among anthropologists and 
statisticians would be very useful. 

JözLF Glinka 
Suiabaja, Indonesia 

1 he fewer papers in the style of Magu- 
bane's (CA 12:419-30) the better. 

Mich FL Panoff 
Canberra, Australia 

CA has become the only anthropologi- 
cal Journal I look foi ward to receiving 
and reading. It maintains, for the most 
part, a good balance between im- 
portance, relevance, and substance. 
The CA'w' review still retains a high 
degree of interest for me. Discussions 
such as those between Magubane and 
Van den Berghe (see CA 12:438, 
441-43), while bitter, are nevertheless 
impoi tant and should not be suppres- 
sed in the interest of "dispassionate 
research." 

I would like to suggest that greaier 
attention and several articles be de- 
voted to the fate of the peoples of 
Indo-(^hina. The AAAS research into 
the effects of herbicides and chemicals 
lipon Indo-(]hina was very important. 
It is time that anthropologists devoted 
more effort and attenticjn to the peo- 
ples, particularly of Laos and Cambo- 
dia. 

William Dfrman 
East Lansing, Mich., U.S.A. 

Associates Suggest Articles 

I suggested some time ago in CA a 
review article to discuss changing pat- 



terns of kinship and marriage in the 
"Arab world" in response to local, 
national, and international economic 
and political change. May I repeat this 
Suggestion? The Middle East appears 
somewhat neglecled. 

J. D. Seddon 
London, England 

[Suggestions are printcd lo encoinage ap- 
propriaic people to submit uanied articles 
to CA. Whcn a Suggestion includes the 
nanie of a prospective author, he is ap- 
prised of this at once; ihe letter is ihen 
printcd for general information and to en- 
courage interested volunteers. — Editor.] 

I suggest a leview article or group 
presentation of ideas on anthropology 
and enviionmental pioblems. I'm 
working in this field myself and would 
like to take part. 

Thomas J. Maloney 
Ripon, Wis., U.S.A. 

1 would strongly recommend the 
tianslation and publication of "Or- 
ganisation de l'ethnologie en France 
en 1969," bv Veroni(jue Campion- 
Vincent (L'Homme 1()[3]: 106-24). 
Analogous articles on the oiganization 
of anthropology (or some of its 
bianches) in other countries would 
also be very welcome. 

William V. Dessaint 
Coleraine, North Ireland 

[CA policv, based on the responses of As- 
sociates — sec CA 1:306 and Letter to As- 
sociates No. 5 — has been to limit reprinting 
to materials in languages that are not wide- 
ly undersiood, and French does not (lualify 
as one of these. — Editor.] 

I would like to see a study of socializa- 
lion that takes into account the in- 
Huence of culture, geography, history 
on the observer's own education. Is 
such a study possible? 

Jose Rafael Arboleda 
Bogota, Colombia 

A review article on the major projec- 
tive techni(jues used in cross-cultural 
reseaich would be welcome. 

Jon D. Swartz 
Austin, lex., U.S.A. 

Farmer's Suggestion (CA 12:146) of a 
typology of grinding implements of 
the Middle East has my endorsement. 
Studies of the food-grinding methods 
and resulting stone forms in Australia, 
New Guinea, and Souiheast Asia 
might permit belter undersianding of 
the Middle Lastern archaeology of 
such implements. 

Norman B. Tindale 
Blackwood, Australia 

current anthropology 



Views on Proposais for Enlarging the CA Community 



In Leiter lo Associates No. 56, As- 
sociates were asked lo consider a 
"levoluiionary" measure aiiiiecl al 
reducing ihe cosl of the Journal and 
thus coniribiiting lo ils survival: 

Wc have long feit pressure lo expand ihe 
idea of (>A lo scholars in related fields. VVe 
have bioiogists, geographers, historians, 
sotiologisls, econoinists, poiitical scientisls, 
and oihers among our Associates. But they 
are feu in number. At one lime we estab- 
lished a category of "Associates of As- 
sociates" to make pariicipation easier for 
scieniists in other disciplines. If ue again 
simplify talegories and invile related schol- 
ars at all our "edges," we mighl add greatly 
to our readership; and in the long run not 
only be niore useful i)ui be economicallv 
beller off. One uay lo do this is lo eni- 
phasize "The Sciences of Man" rather ihan 
"Anihropology" in our tiile. It has been 
suggested ihai we tould change the naine 
easily lo CA: A World Journal of the Sciences 
of Man. Ihe word "anihropology" iiself 
does noi evervwhere siand for an inlegrai- 
ed sei of disciplines; and afier ten years 
"CA" may have achieved ihe necessary 
symbolic and anibiguous significance to 
permii universal accepiance. VVe shouk) 
also open again the matter of the words 
which have appeared around the synibol on 
the Cover: "Prehistoiy, Archaeology, Lin- 
guistics, Folklore, F.ihnology, Social An- 
ihropology, Physical Anihropology." These 
words received considerable discussion in 
our first year (CA 1:260 and 1:354). Ihe 
first responses to a (|uestion as to ihe ap- 
propriateness of these terms were so nega- 
tive and produced so liitle agreement on 
alternatives ihat I suggested (LT A No. 4, 
May i960) ihat "the best Solution mav be lo 
drop such names. Ihis Solution, or the 
alternative [suggested bv the leadersj ot 
using a proverb or moito insiead, is 
attractive, and we mav in a few years come 
lo thai as we come to agree upon the 
tomposition of our subjecl matter. Ihe 
best compromise seems to be lo general- 
ize the traditional subdiseiplines; and my 
own lentative suggeslion is to Substitute 
for the names now on the symbol the terms 
'Cultural, Social, Histoiical, Biological 
Anihropology.'" When the responses to 
this were unfavorable, I had to lespond 
(LIA No. 6, September-November 1960) 
ihat "ihere is no clear mandate to move in 
any direction, so for ihe lime being we shall 
leave the symbol as it is." Now, len years 
laier, I hope thai Associates will take a fiesh 
look at the (|uestion. Mighl we not omit all 
names around the familiär CA map? Mighl 
we encourage an enlargemeni of our Com- 
munity by reducing "ctRRKNT anthro- 
poLO(;v" lo "(]A" so as lo stress ihe subtitle 
"A World Journal of the Sciences of Man"? 
(Reply Letter, Ilem 4.) 



Of the 273 Reply Leiieis returned, 
214 included conimenls on ihe pro- 
posed change of naine: 80 were for it 
and 134 against. A closer look al the 
responses shows, however, ihal the 

Vol. 13 ■ No. 3-4 ■ June-October 1972 



change of emphasis behind the naine- 
change has niany respondenls' ap- 
proval: of ihose who voied against ihe 
nanie-change, 17 said thai ihe em- 
phasis could be changed wiihoul 
changing ihe naine, and 14 oihers 
eil her suggested ivpogiaphic aids lo 
accomplishing this oi offered alterna- 
tive new, broad lilles. In addilion, 28 
gave as reasons foi iheir "no" voles 
objeclions lo the name iiself or lo ihe 
idea of changing names of Journals in 
general. If the former 31 aie con- 
sidered pari of the group favoring a 
change in emphasis, the vole may be 
read as 108 for change and 100 
against; and ihe "against" figure ma) 
conceal soine simple rejeclions of ihe 
name-change in iiself. (Only 30 le- 
spondents argued specifically against 
broadening CA's scope.) 

Arguments against the name- 
change have to do wiih bibliographic 
difficuliies and wiih ihe ambiguilv of 
ihe abbrevialion "CA": 

VVhy not leave the naine as it is? We should 
not succumb to ihe mania for abbieviations 
thai no one undersiands. Besides, the 
change poses serious bibliogiaphic prob- 
lems. (Ciermany) 

I do not like turning the name into a touple 
of letiers. A Journal should have a füll title 
to show whal it is about. Moreover, a 
change to "C^A" is going to make library 
caialoguers tear their hair. (South Afi ica) 

The title seems all right to ine as it is. 
"Anthiopology," in the sense in which it is 
used in CA, is "science of man." What is the 
problem? (Peru) 

Ihe change could bring us tiouble, for in 
the Soviel Union "CA" is the usual ab- 
brevialion for Soviet Archaeology. Besides, it 
Sounds Strange. It isn't the name t hat's 
important, but ihe conients. (U.S.S.R.) 

I here aie too many "science of man" Jour- 
nals wiih ambiguous lilles alreadv! (U.S.A.) 

"CA" alone on a bibliography or lisi of 
1 eferences would be obscure, especially for 
nonanthiopologisis. (U.S.A.) 

Whal is the use of changing a füll title into 
an abbrevialit)n with the same meaning? 
Ihe subtitle gives sufhcient stress to whal is 
meani by "anihropology." ((iermany) 

"CA" has already been laken over by char- 
tered accounianis. (Canada) 

"CA" is the generally recognized abbrevia- 
lion for Carcinoma or Cancer — is this ap- 
propiiate for ciRRKNr anthrofolücv? 

(U.S.A.) 

In Iialian and Spanish, "CA" happens lo be 
the initial symbol of e(|uivalenls of "four- 
letter words" — better stick to "currknt 
ANTHR()i'oi.()(.v"! (Italy) 



I am definitely against d change of name. A 
World Journal should be the last to express 
ils essence in an algebraic formula of dete- 
rioraiing civilization. Nor should Journals 
of Standing change their names al all. An 
ediior of Paideuma iried to do so; afier bis 
deaih, the Journal received ils old, dis- 
carded name again. Videant consules! 
(Sweden) 

Several other respondenls argued ihal 
noihing would be accomplished simply 
by changing ihe name in any case. 

Typographie ways of bioadening 
ihe appeal of the Journal wiihoul 
changing the name were suggested by 
some respondenls: 

I am not in favor of dropping the spelled- 
out "Anihropology"— but there mighl be 
some value in enlarging the subtitle so ihal 
it Catches ihe eye more. (U.S.A.) 

I am alwavs against changing names, excepl 
linder sirong pressure. "CA" would be one 
more faceless affront in a world of initials. 
(I have always ihoughi PMLA a hideosity, 
especialh for literary scholars.) Why not 
just prinl in bolder type "A World Journal 
of ihe Sciences of Man"? (U.S.A.) 

To reduce "current an thropoi.oc.v" to 
"CA" is lo reduce il to a meani ngless 
acronym. By all means stress the subtitle, 
but do so by changing the typographical 
design. (U.S.A.) 

Extending the scope of the Journal 
wiihoul doing anvthing lo ils name 
was advocaied by many: 

I consider ihat the name should not be 
changed. We can and should open our 
doors to related disciplines, but CA should 
not change hands. If an anthropologisl 
wams to coniribute to the American Psychol- 
ogist or the American Journal of Medicine, he 
is welcome, bui neiiher profession would 
consider changing the name of ils Journal 
— and right ly so. (Canada) 

"CA" does not mean anylhing! "cirrent 
anthropolo(;v" does — so do not leduce it. 
By all means adinit bioiogists, geogiaphers, 
historians, etc., as long as their works are in 
some way related to "anihropology" in ihe 
American sense of the woid. (Mexico) 

II seems to me ihat scholars in other dis- 
ciplines should be able to contribiüe to a 
Journal on anihropology without undue 
embanassment, and ihat any change of 
name would be largely subjective in its 
effecis. (U.S.A.) 

Perhaps because I am getling old, I do not 
like initials — there are so many setsof them 
in use thai I cannot remembei what theV 
mean. But I am all in favoui of extending 
the scope of CA to covei all human sci- 
ences, and I do realize that in some coim- 
iries and languages "anihropology" does 
not Cover all these. So expand scope, but 
prefeiablv not bv forgeiling ihe origin of 
the leiters"CA." (Kngland)' 

503 



"CA" is not sufficient as a title. Covcrage 
can be expanded regardless of the jomnars 
name. (Austria) 

Let's keep "current anthropology," and 
extend outward from there. (Mexico) 

Alternative new litles — World Journal 
of the Sciences of Man, World Journal of 
Human Ecology, World Anthropology, 
Current World Anthropology — weie also 
suggested, and seveial respondenisof- 
fered modifications of ihc subtil le — A 
World Journal of the Science of Man, A 
World Journal for the Sci( nces of Man, 
A World Journal for the Human Sciences, 
A World Journal of Anthropological Sci- 
ences. At least the last of these sugges- 
tions must perhaps be considered a 
vote against broadening the scope of 
the Journal: 

It was a neo-encytlopedic error to in- 
troduce, in a general sense, the term and 
concept of "anthropology" into the Anglo- 
Saxon countries and to abolish the in- 
dependent activities and evolution of many 
human sciences. It is a bigger error to try to 
impose this concept on the rest of the 
World, wheie "anthropology" simply means 
"physical anthropology." It is more projDer 
to speak of "anthropological sciences." Fur- 
ther, it is absurd to dehne this so-called 
anthropology as "the" science of man, as 
the majority of American textbooks do. Are 
there no other sciences, such as medicine, 
pharmacy, law, economics, public adminis- 
tralion, educaiion, history, etc., that could 
be classified as "sciences of man"? Either we 
must classify the greatest part of the sci- 
ences of the World as "anthropology" or be 
logical and free the anthropological sci- 
ences from the "science of man" fallacy. I 
suggest retaining the present title but sub- 
stituting the subtitle "A World Journal of 
Anthropological Sciences. " (Fi ance) 

A number of respondents argued that 
CA's coverage is broad enough — and 
some Said too broad — already: 

Stay wiih "current anthropoloc;y" — 
there are too many "sciences of man" to try 
to be all ihings to all scientists. (U.S.A.) 

I am not certain that the idea of expanding 
coverage too much is a good one. CA 
should try to reach more readers within the 
ränge of its present interests. (Israel) 

I feel sure that more would be lost than 
gained in obscuring the "anthropology" 
emphasis. Whatever strength this term and 
integrative entity does have, in many insti- 
tutions, would be in danger of dissipation 
through wider and (even) fuzzier focus. As 
things are, nonanthropologists may indeed 
continue to be welcomed for vigorous par- 
ticipalion — but keep the center of gravily 
anthropological! (Canada) 

I would be disappointed to see the scope of 
CA broadened more than it is. Ihe variety 
of subjects already eligible for inclusion in 
CA is very great, so that Associates continue 
to clamor for articies in which they have an 



interest. Broadening the guidelines would 
only make this problem more acute. It 
would also threaten CA, if the price is to go 
up, foi readers to have less chance of 
finding articies on topics they are interesied 
in. (Mexico) 

"Anthropology" in the Anglo-Saxon mean- 
ing is broad enough. (Denmark) 

By further extending the very wide cover- 
age of current anthropolo(;y to any of 
the sciences of man, the Journal may in the 
end lose its usefulness. The Journal should 
concentrate on review articies with good 
bibliographies on fields of interest to most 
of its present readers. (Germany) 

I prefer "current anthropology" to "CA" 
because anthropology is a broad field 
covering various subfields and has always 
been a science of man. What with recent 
specialization and diversification in the 
field, it is already difficult to keep up with 
subfields other than one's own. I am reluc- 
tant to broaden the coverage of the Journal 
beyond anthropology. (Japan) 

The "Sciences of Man" include medicine, 
physiology, psy'chology, sociology, political 
science, economics, and some aspects of 
education, history, classics, etc. I still opt for 
the present focus on anthropology, with 
various "Associates of Associates" repre- 
senting related disciplines. To open it up 
could easily inundate the cross-cultural 
viewpoint so valuable at present. (U.S.A.) 

"Anthropology" is suflficiently "holistic" to 
umbrella the other fields. I feel that to 
broaden would tend to dilute. (U.S.A.) 

I would prefer to keep the name as it is, 
because the term "anthropology" seems to 
ine sufficiently broad to include a vast array 
of related and/or ancillary disciplines. "Sci- 
ences of man" has, in our academic tiadi- 
tion anyway, a diffeient, and too vague, 
meaning. (Belgium) 

To extend the scope runs the risk of too 
much dilution of interest. We may become 
all "fringe" and no "core"! (England) 

In the light of these views, the remarks 
of some of those who strongly favor 
extension of CA's scope are of interest: 

I feel that CA performs an important func- 
tion in counteracting the tiend towards 
specialization. Giving the Journal even 
wider (theoretical) scope by changing the 
title is, I think, in accord with CA policy, 
and if it helps to increase synthesis, all the 
better. (Austialia) 

We can only benefit by allowing greater 
participation from other disciplines. 
(U.S.A.) 

If by the inclusion of biologists, ge- 
ographers, historians, sociologists, and oth- 
eis the number of subsciibers can be in- 
creased and CA's survival assured, these 
other scientists should be invited to join; 
but the Editor will have lo be doubly careful 
in the selection of papers for publication if 
CA is not to lose its chaiacter as an anthropo- 
logical ]inivnd\. (India) 

As a geographer, I'm not especially put off 



by associating with anthrojxjlogy (indeed, it 
is often preferable), but if it will encourage 
wider participation in an extremely lively 
academic Journal and thereby strengthen 
its economic base as well, then change the 
title. The suggested title is very appropriate 
as we enter the age of concern for human 
survival. (U.S.A.) 

I strongly support emphasis on "Sciences of 
Man." First, all Associates have the study of 
man as a common goal; second, distinction 
between the differeni fields will become 
more and more hazardous, even with spe- 
cialization; and third, "Sciences of Man" is 
open to eventual new disciplines. Theie- 
fore the new title seems indicated; enlarg- 
ing the Community can only be of great 
Utility to everybody. (Belgium) 

Isn't "the Sciences of Man" in line with a 
irend, visible in most sciences today, 
towards iniegration of the many specialties 
into a holistic scientific symbiosis? "The 
Sciences of Man," then, could eventually 
lead to "the Science of Man" (cf. Laura 
Thompson, CA 8:67-77). Hasn't the cata- 
strophic contamination of air, water, and 
soil demonstrated the bankrupicy of our 
highly specialized sciences? (Norway) 

The wide geographic spread of opin- 
ions on both sides of the issue that is 
observable in the (|uotations above is 
borne out by detailed examination of 
the responses from this point of vievv. 
There were 96 responses from ihe 
U.S.A. and 118 from other countries; 
the vote on the name-change proposal 
is U.S.A. 40 for, 55 against, other 
countries 40 for, 79 against, and the 
vote on extending the scope withoul 
changing the name is U.S.A. 52 for, 51 
against, other countries 56 for, 49 
against. Thus it seems that enthusiasm 
for broadening the coverage of the 
Journal is more or less independent of 
whether "anthropology" is defined in 
U.S. or other terms. 

On the companion proposal todrop 
the words surrounding the map sym- 
bcil on the cover, somewhat fewer re- 
spondents (166) had comments; 59 
were in favor of dic3pping the words 
and 59 in favor of leaving them as they 
are, while 48 made alternative sugges- 
tions. Two Associates (Sweden, Italy) 
remarked that the words should be 
omitted because they represent a spe- 
cifically American understanding of 
"anthropology," and from this one 
might expect that respondents from 
outside the U.S.A. would prove readi- 
er to abandon them. In fact, the re- 
verse seems to be the case: a greater 
Proportion of respondents from other 
countries — 37 out of 85, in contrast to 
22 out of 81 for the U.S.A. — voied to 
leave the words alone. Ihe reasons for 
this difference are not apparent. 
Where respondents elaborated on 
their rejection of ihe proposal to drop 
the names aliogether, they said ihings 
like the foUowing: 



504 



current anthropology 



The names shoiild bo rciaincd so as lo 
maintain thc idcniiiy and individualiiy of 
anthropology. (India) 

Sincc by iniplication "scicnccs of man" in- 
cludes economics, psychology, and cven 
history — which, though langcntial, arc oiii- 
side the scope of anthropology — I would 
like the woids that embrace the world map 
to remain as they are. (L'.S.A.) 

Leave them as they are! (ieneialh speak- 
ing, make thanges only uhere it is absolute- 
ly unavoidable, e.g., for economic reasons. 
(Sweden) 

The terms should not be changed. New 
terms iisually introduce thaos. (Poland) 

Changing the first page in any way repre- 
sents important costs. Aren't we talking 
aboiit eeonomy and financial (hfficuhies? 
(Canada) 

1 vote for no change. These uords are a 
good explanatory devite — and a leinforce- 
ment. (Canada) 

It will be in our interest to retain the names 
around the map. Omission of them may 
make the Journal rather too general. l'lti- 
mately it suggests a sori of drift away from 
the anthropological subdisciplines. (India) 

The words arountl the m.ip svmbol miist 
remain the same, in order that a delimita- 
tion from soeiology, economics, historv, etc. 
may be possible. (Romania) 

The present words are the best known in- 
ternationally. (Austria) 



Symbols shoiild not altered. Psvchologicallv 
they engender familiarity and loyalty. I'hey 
are visibly expressed consiructs represent- 
ing basic contents that have been accepted. 
To name the subdisciplines as has been 
done since the beginning is the best Solu- 
tion. (Australia) 

rhe words at least set certain limits to the 
global tendencies of anihiopology. Ihe 
map with C;.\ printecl on it will make no 
sense whatsoever. ((iermans) 

Significantly ciioiigh, 12 of ihosc whcj 
voied lo rciain thc words around the 
map Symbol at thc samc timc ap- 
proved ihe reduciion of thc title lo 
"CA"; ihe appareiii iiiconsisieiuy here 
puls iheir previous responses in a neu 
lighi. 

Allernalives suggesied include pui- 
ling ihe subiiile around ihe map (11 
responses) or arranging ihe uhole liile 
around it (3); subsiiluiing the sei of 
words earlier suggesied by ihe Edi- 
tor — "Culiural, Social, Hisiorical, Bio- 
logical Anihiopology" (7); using a 
moito insiead — and one suggesied by 
several respondenis is Terence's "Nihil 
humani a me alienum pulo" (6); find- 
ing some new , broader sei of terms to 
refleci the broadened scope (4); and 
eliminaiing not only the words, bul ihe 
Symbol iiself (2). Olher suggeslions are 
ihe following: 

Why not lump piehistoi v and archaeology 



into "culture history," change "lingiiistics" 
and "folklore" to "Cognition" and "expres- 
sive culture," and sneak the woid "ethnog- 
raphy" in somewhere? I especially miss the 
latter term, foi it is what so manv of ns do 
that distinguishes us fiom othei disciplines. 
(U.S.A.) 

Alternatives (assuming that is meaningfiil 
to retain the map at all!) might include 
eithei (1) the word "man," repeated in each 
of the langnages in which the policv State- 
ment appears from time to time; (2) "man: 
biological, hisiorical, cultural, social." 
(U.S.A.) 

"Interrelationships of man-culture and 
physical environment." (L'.S.A.) 

"Archaeologv" and "prehistoiy" aie diipli- 
cate teinis, at this level of consideration; 
some Substitute might add to the scope. 
How about "C-oinpaiative cultural, social, 
biological, political, economic, histoiical, 
etc." or "Comparative sociologv, political 
science, economics, cultural geography, 
etc."? (U.S.A.) 

"Culture Societv History Biolog\ Humani- 
t\" — tianslated foi each issue into the lan- 
guage of the inside front covei . (L'.S.A.) 

One respondenl suggesied leplacing 
"phvsical anthropology" uiih "human 
biology"; one reconmiended adding 
"historv" (in bis view "the oldest sci- 
ence of man"); one would add "cul- 
iural" lo ihe lisl as il nou Stands. 



Views on the Titling of Letters and Comments 



The April 1971 issue induded a minor 
slvlislic Innovation foi C>A, the "titling" 
of lellers to the Kditor by ihe use of 
iialics for ihe fiisl few words. I he 
change was made, provisionalh , in re- 
sponse lo a recjuesl from Leo S. Klejn 
(see CA 12:170) for somelhing that 
would make ii easier to refer lo lellers 
when ciiing them elsewhere and easier 
to find them for reexaminaiion. In 
discussing ihe change (in Leiter to 
Associates No. 58), ihe Ldiloi re- 
poried a complainl from an anony- 
mous Associale ihal the absence of 
tilles on CA'w' comments makes il im- 
possible to claim ibem as publicaiions 
in the "publish-or-perish" sysiem. 1 he 
Editor wem on lo say: 



Heretofore people have leferred lo their 
comments simpK as "Conuuents on . . . ," 
which can appear in theit bibliographies. 
Authors who wish titles to their comments 
(for whatevei reason) may hereafier in- 
clude them; and we shall assess the editorial 
and stvlistic pioblems that thev entail, par- 
ticularlv if not all authors wish to include 
titles. It would also appeat to be legitimate 
for authois to use appropi iate titles in 
bibliographies even if these weie not origi- 
nally printed. 

(-ommenl on the (|ueslion of titles was 
inviied. 

Of the 66 Reply Leiters retui ned, 18 
included leinarks on the subjecl. Ap- 
proval of the sysiem of ilalici/ing the 
first word or phiase of a leitet was 
expressed by nine lespondents. Ewo 



others poinied out that lellers can 
be leferred lo simply as "Letter to 
the Editor"; one of ihese ciied a 
bibliographic Convention lecjuiring 
brackeis around these words lo show 
that the title is not a printed one. One 
argued, on ihe olher band, that "the 
liile, if any, should be in block letters 
and on a separate line." One feit that 
the maller did not merii discussion. 
Ehe rest of the respondenis addressed 
ihemselves to the problem of titles for 
CvA-M- comments. Ewo saicl that refer- 
ring to these as "Comments on . . ." 
was appiopriate and sufficieni; one 
said that the problem was of im- 
poriance onlv for ihose Americans 
who had nol managed lo free ihem- 
selves from ihe lyranny of "publish- 
or-perish"; and ihree said ihai com- 
ments should be given tilles by their 
authors. 



Vol. 13 • No. 3-4 ■ June-October 1972 



505 



AMERICAN MUSEUM 

SOURCEBOOKS 
IN ANTHROPOLOGY 

Paul Bohannan^ General Editor 



American Museum Sourcebooks in Anthropology 
are compiled from the writings of anthropologists 
both in the United States and abroad. They are 
designed to offer the reader a wide ränge of 
ethnographic facts, varied and original research, 
and scholarly analysis. 



All books in the series are fully indexed and in- 
clude extensive bibliographies. They are available 
in both hardcover (priced fronn $6.95 to $9.95) 

and paperbound edi- itrsIr^^-^TTOT rr^ a x/ 

tions (priced from ©IDOUBLEDAY 

<tQ QC *X <tA QR\ NATURAL HISTORY PRESS 

q)CJ.yD TO C^^.yo;. Address all Orders to Double- 

day & Co., Inc., 501 Franklin 
Ave., Garden City, N.Y. 11530. 






■ ■■■ ' nuMwwwiMWMmM w.mwijmmunwwii.i.j.i.iwi.m w.im^>iwwiiwimm<iwl i iuuw i .<jjji^^^ 
-^'•^•^^^ xiji:^i i x^Yt > >>)j:^ ^ v.^y ■:...^ -.-....s ...:..„ w 



Mim^ 




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l'^ti 



19. Dezember 1980 ' \ 

Di/Juden - doch eine Rasse 




eigener Al^ 

Entgegen der Ansicht von i^^ TT "^ '^ 

ropoloe^en. ^o„. t.... , . ^^^^ gemeinsame Züge mit den 



I 



_ = — ^uaicoi von An 

V ''"•»Po'ogen, dass Juden keine ei- 

Vene Gruppe mit rassischen Beson- 

• /f *«;*'"' darstellen, haben in ft. 
y-el durchgeführte genetische Stu- 

/ "^ '° «"^'"'»«"^ dass sie doch eine 
/ -genoEasse bilden bzw. eine 6e 
/ me,nschaft mit Eigentümlichkeiten, 

• / '" ^!'"'*«"=«^'=h für sie sind 
\ und sie von der eingeborenen Be- 
völkerung, unter der sie seit Be- 
ginn der Zerstreuung vor 25 Jahr- 
hunderten leben, mehr unterschei- 
«aterscheiden. Dies «reht »„; • - 
Artikel von Prof BaSTh """" 

der ^^;S?^^|=^^^^^ 
'''"•^»'' abg edrucH / "' ^^ g^^*' 

demOrgandesSma t" "'""• 
Aus ihm erlt ."'"*"*'• 

aschk^ciridr^en:::: '-' 

-it -feieren Merkmalen 1 "* 
stattete üntergrurje . ^'^'" 
^'e die Judert!?? darstellen 
chin 7„ "^"3®" und Co- 

i dirVr '^^^ «-^ergrupp^-n 
"^« Juden aijq t ;u 

Marokko. Sie all. V^" "'"' 

uute^nand grös^r" "^^^'' 
Affinität als zu der .^""'"'<"'« 

f-'-^erung, ij::, ;rir- 

K fünfz efin !„/ !, "^' T ^»° 



^f^iS^^^Ju^ auf ;is jede T^. 
■3"« Jüdische_Gruppe • 

stehen sich genetis^ näher als 
jeder einzelne von ihnen z^ den 
d eutschen J ude, steht ■ ""^ 
^schkenasischeJuden im allge- 

tisch ganz stark von enronäi,.!,» 
NichtJuden. ■^'— -^ i'«3«äl|chw 







Kabarettist als Kandidat. ' 

~~^i^'^ Kabarettist 

steu jX Weih-" '■"''""^'fft-- 
alie Aussicht i™^"'.'^'"' "»at 

«uiker hegt daÄ-.?"' Ko- 

der Vierer;^.? '^"''" ''««er 
d'Estaing 7|9"PPf „«scard 

Mitterrand '(itlis >«"')' 
Chirac ri3~in d "ozent), 

Marchais ns 5 Tl°''^*^ ™d 
Das ist das>;*K?'"'''"'*^- 
. ^'-uugsum^rage '^,t"' ^--' 
dien de Paria" kI-^ _, ..Quoti- 
erstenmal die K-'„ J], '''"' ^um 
ehes in Eechn,!^"''""'' Colu- 
de. Coluche S ?:T' """ 
lergunst weit vof a^der ' ^'^^■ 
»n .,RandkandMate„r'°'r"°- 
nur um 2 Prozent q*' ''^''«'' 
teile vorausgesart w ''f""""*"- 
politische Sprssm„.r'''''''- ^«r 
sehöpft of fefs ett' ^'"•""'« 
Beservoir komi • " ^us dem 

testwähler 1^?""^ ""«^ P^" 
an der sici, r^i f ^'»ehwahl. 



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ee 



King of Saudi Arabia Joins Nasseres Parley in Cairo 




Associated Press Radiophoto 

Premier Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, right, escorts President Shukri ^'-KuwaUy o^^^^^ 
left and King Saud of Saudi Arabia into palacc in Cairo, where the Arab lead^onlerred. 



kl 

ei 

al 

nj 

i 

t' 

t 

tl 



By OSGOOD CARUTHERS 

Special lo The New York Tim«. 

CAIRO, March 6— King Saud 
of Saudi Arabia came to Cairo 
today to take part in ntajor 
Idiscussions with Egyptian and 
Syrian leaders regarding the 
future of Jordan and United 



Arab defense against Israel. 
The dcscrt monarch and his 
entourage of ministers and 
aides arrived at the Cairo air- 
port from Riyadh by a special 
plane that had been escorted 
all the way by a squadron of 
Egyptian jet fightcrs pur- 



chased from 
Aside from a 
Salute and the usuäl 
ties attending the greetil 
a visiting head of State, the] 
was little of the pomp and 
panoply that has attended the 

Continued on Page 3, Column 5 



i 



.ATT STAATS - ZEITUNG UND HEROLD, 



1 einer 
litragödie 

ir erschiesst 
Mutter, Sohn 



niedergeschossen, 
»s Angeles erschlägt 
int Matter 



f(!)D|fcn, mö^renb i^r Onfcl, bcr 41i. 
^ournalift 0quI 2u[tiq, Icbenlgefä^r* 
lief) uetlelit mürbe. 5Dic ^oligci fuc^t 
f^ranci§ SBroo!man, bcn 21 ^a^xt alten 
So^n bet ©rmorbetcn, bcr box einiger 
3eit bon bcr Butter qu§ bcm §aufc 
gcmiejcn mürbe, ßuftig berichtete, ba^ 
er burd) Scf)ü|fe aufgcmecft mutbe, baä 
2icf)t önbrcF)tc unb bann felbft öcrmun» 
bei mürbe. 



< • > 



Skelett eines Zwillings 
in Babys Bauchhöhle 



fUl 



Hopkins 
Lösung 

Untersuchnngsl 

Jahresverdiecs^ 

$111 



..Assurlated PretB") 

^ja§, 22. Tlal (gini 
lie| l^ier bier Opfer 

[rbe bcrmunbct; ein ans 

!orbe§ inhaftiert, ^er 

Sampicr crfd^o^, mic 

|cf)ter 3:)abib m. SDßliite 

jtrigen IMbcnb guerft feine 

fi^m tcbenbc i^iau, bann 

^rau 2öm. ipelbig fr., 

^oui§ ^elbig, cl)e (oampicr 

(fliam iQclbig jr. nicber^^e^ 

)e. 2)cffcn 'i^xüVi murbc 

littclt merbcn !onnte, mar 

[i §aufe bcr §clbtg§ geJcm^ 

le bte bciben grauen im S3ett 

[£Dui§ !Ö^ihiQ, ber auf bie 

^eiciltc, mürbe auf bcr 23e= 

it unb niebergefnallt. (Sam* 

mn jum -^au^ üon Ifflitliam 

er ^rau ^dU(\ noii) öer^ 

inte, e^e .^clbig Ü^n mit einem 

[bcrfd^ofe. SSor fecf)§ 3\)Dc^cn 

(Gampier mit bcn fccf)§ .Rin= 

jrer (5i)e fortgcjogen unb ^uni 

fc guriicfgc{cl)rt. 

riiualtbc nl§ ^cuttcrmürbcr 

n g e l c §, 22. Wai. (Sin ^s"^ 

(c fici) ö!)ne 3i^onftu()l garnid)t 

(cn fann, mirb qkx be§ 5Jiutter* 

feefd)ulbigt. ©eoroe Jöidiam 

[v. 41, fo'a feine 78iäf)rige UluU 

[igen ^aben. (5r gab bereits gu, 

Ic^ter 3fit biel Gtrcit mit ber 

Jattc unb man fd^liepd) i^anb^ 

)urbe. "^'it ^Kutter f}atte an- 

)af^ fic t(}m bell 9f?Dnitul)l fort= 

[erbe, um itjn m SSctt 3U Ijal^ 

Inffnrfjcr 9)törbcr Iorf)t 

.burgf), *;ia., 22. 5Jiai. ^ar= 

iban, ein 73iäf)rigcr friif)erer 

]nb ein .'oünc an ©cftalt, la:^tc 

auf, al§ if)m ber 2:rb im clcf^ 

itu^I bcrüinbct murbc. ^ul^ 

te am 17. 2)egember bor. ^al)* 

tncm SOßutanfall in ^uqueSne, 

tf !Jlat^barn crfd^offcn. @:3 mar 

(Umnacfitung bon ber SScrteibi^ 

fitcnb gemacht morben. 

3ro3C^' murbc bon bcr ©taatSan* 

[aft gcltcnb gemalt, bafe ©ulli« 

\t fünf ßeute, brei grauen unb 

länncr, crfd^o^ meit fie gefliiftert 

'bafe er fid^ an einem jungen ^äb^ 

frgangcn ^aht, Sn aller 3lu!)C 

^(Suriibon feinem ?Inmalt unb 

bann abführen. 

lörbcr Dom Wob ficbroljt 

r c , S. 2)., 22. Vlal — 3it)el 

lurfcf)cn au8 S^icago mußten 

bcfonbcren poligcilidjen Srf)u^ 

[an befüriihtrtr aittJ^nrae^e 



,,Teratoma" genanntes, seltenes 

Phänomen soll in Portland, Ore., 

operativ beseitigt werden 



(Meldung der „Assorinted Press") 

^ortlanb, Orc, 22. ^^oi. (Sin 
14 üJlonatc alte§ meiblicf)c§ S3abt) mirb 
näd^fte 5öorf]e in 2)oernbcc^er§ Slinbcr* 
«Qofpital operiert merben, um ba§ 6m* 
brt)o eine§ Smilling?, ba§ ficE) in feiner 
58aud^{)i5()lc cntmicfclt f)at, gu entfernen. 
e§ ^anbclt fid) um ein§ ber fcUcnften 
mcbiginifdien ^^änomene, ba§ in mebi* 
ginifrfjcn 2el)rbüd^crn al§ „Keratoma" 
begeic^nct mirb. 

giöntgen^^ufnal^mcn geigten, ba^ ba§ 
Stelctt be§ (5mbrt)o§ im S3audE) be§ Sa* 
bi^§ faft boüftänbig entmicfcU ift. 2)a§ 
58abt) mar au§ 2)ougla§ ©ounti) ^ier^cr 
gebradjt morben, aU bic bortigen ^ergtc 
fic^ feinen 9?at mußten. 

5Dr. IRic^arb 93. 6iacf)unt, ber ßeiter 
bcr mebigiuifdien ^afu^tät ber Uniberfiti) 
of Sf)icago, meinte, ba^ fic^ ba§ ^^äno» 
•nien burd^ eine 3föenfpaltung unmiteU 
bar nac^ bcr ömpfüngnil erflären laffe. 
^Jan miffe oon ?^äflen, in benen fici) ein 
3mining teiliocife im .Körper beg anbe= 
reu entmicfeltc; boci) feiten fei e§ gu einer 
fo bonftänbigcn V(u^bttbung bc§ SIelett§ 
gelommcn. 

5)a§ 5JJäbi^en ift in jcbcr anbcren Se- 
giel)ung burc^au» normal, i|it unb fd^Iaft 
ol)nc ©t-ijrungen. 

.^inberfpegialiften au§ allen 5;eilen be§ 
2anbc§ merben ^ierl)er tommen, um bcr 
Operation beigumoT^ncn. S^ir (Srfolg 
f)(ingt bnbon ai, erflärte 2)r. 2)incf)unt, 
ob interne SScrmad^fungen borliegen ober 
nid^t. 



< • » 



SEC beschuldigt zwei 
New Yoricer MaJclerfirmen 



(Meldung der ..Assorlated Press") 

^ßaf^ington, 22. ^lal TlanU 
pulationen mürben beute gmei !ßem 
^or!cr ^mallerfirmen, ' Abbott, giroctor 
$aine unb Safer, 2öeefö & färben, bon 
ber Sörfen* unb ^ertpapicrtommiffion 
borgemorfen. 

i)ic beiben f^^irmcn mürben bon bcr 
S(5(5. aufgeforbert, bcn 5^attmeiä gu er* 
bringen, mc§f^alb ftc nid^t bon bcn ame* 
rifanifdf)en Sörfcn auigeftofeen merben 
foflen. 2)ic Untcrncl^mcn fo&cn in bcn 
5Ifticn bcr Sfloot Petroleum Sompa 
bcrbotcnc ©cfc^äftc borgcnommcn l^ab. 



ZEITUNG UND HEROLD, DEN 23. MAI 



tschen V 



int der 
onvent 



Teilen des 
'an wichtiger 
Igen 



)ent§ bcs 

bon bcr 
Saöurg 

;5IboIpf) 
idfcrbcr* 
fargatct 
§berflcr, 
lomber, 
icjj, ber 

• 

[Romis 
gc= 



Ma!:f smmung wird heute im 
N. Bergen-Park herrschen 

2)er ^^orbkba« unb 2ßannasS3crctn 
foltitc bie ^mt OtternbDtfcr Societt) 
l^abcn ftd^ bcn heutigen f(f)bncn Wakn- 
fonntag gcrabegu prärf)ttg au§gefuc^t, um 
im ^^lattbcutfdien (Sd)ü^enpart bon 
'Slotih Sergen, D?. %, iln ^idnicf ab= 
Su^alten. (51 gie^t je^t mo^I jeben in 
öiefer onfietmclnb = f)eimQtl!cf)cn ^a^n§== 
jett mit i^rem Slütenteid^tum unb fri* 
j(f)en @rün, an bcn (Sonntagen l^inaui 
in§ O^reic. ©!*t)ife ift c§ bälget eine be^ 
[onberS glüdlic^e ^bec bon bem befanns 
tcn plattbeutl(^en 2)reibunb, biefcn ^iai; 
auSflug ins @rüne für feine 5}litglicbcr 
unb biclcn O^reunbc mit einer fo feiten 
fcf)önen @eIegenl)C(t gu bcrbinben, ouc^ 
in bcrtrautcm ^reunbee- unb 5lamcra= 
benfreife teilen gu fönncn. t5^eftpräfi= 
beut So^n Stegmann fann olfo geiüife 
fein, ba^ c§ i)cute „InüppelboH" fein 
mirb im ^Iattbcutfd)en ©(f)üfeenparf, 
unb bie Vorbereitungen, bie er unb fein 
©tob für ba§ ^idnidf getroffen baben, 
werben öud) bie Ermattungen aller bi§ 
in^ fleinfte rcd^tfertigcn, 



Literatur und Kunst 
in deutschen Vereinen 



Literarischer Verein 

2)a§ bfutigc (Spagiergang§gicl bei 
2iterarifrf)en ^creinl ift bie ißinbobona 
in 3:brogg§ !Rcc!, 230 SSfair ^bc. Sßon 
4 llfjr nad^mittaga an 5laffcetafcl unb 
2an3, aurf) bei iRcgcnmettcr. ®ä[tc finb 
n^ilKommcn. 

9fm näd^ften tJ^rcitag, beu 28. Tlai, 
fprid^t bor bem SSerein in ber ^(uftrian 
^aU, 245 Oft 82. ©tr., ißcrr ögon 
Steuer über „.^iporifdjeS Song S^Ianb". 
^cr 53ortrag mirb burcb f^ilmftreifen in 
nütürlidben färben illuftricrt hjerbcn, bie 
ber 3f?cbner felbft bor furgem an Ort 
unb Steße aufgenommen ^at. Scginn 
biefe§ ?5=iImbDrtrageS 9 Ufjr abenbä — 
©öftc finb miatommcn. 



D.-Ai Forum 

%U 5Ibf(f)Iufe ber SBtnterfoifon mirb 
am O^reitag. ben 28. ^ai, bom 2).*2I. 
iJfDrum ein „t5?ttmabenb" beranftaltct, bcr 
ein abmed^fiung§reic^c§ Programm bie* 
tet. (5ri5ffnet mirb ber ^bcnb burd^ ben 
^ilm ber Stabt ^«em ^oiU „i^irft 
Öoufe§." !Da§ 5ÖD^nung3e!cnb ber 
(5Ium§ unb beren Sefeitigung burdj mD= 
bernc unb billige 5DDl)nI)äufcr merben 
gegeigt unb erläutert, ^^m gmciten 2:eil 
geigt ©ibit.i) ÜJJorife, bcJTen ?ViIme mef)r= 
fac^ bom „!Ü?obic Camera ß^Iub" prci§s 
[cftönt mürben, ben ^\\m „^k micbcr 
^ieg" (5:crror of ©or). 5tl§ britten 
geigt §err ^UJorit; einen „^alä* 
■t^'iim, ben er geiegentlid^ feiner 
ireifc aufgenommen^ ^at unb ber 
^imen geigt, bie man fonft nic^t 
in befommt. — ^aä^ bem i5?ilms, 
fi gcmüt 
mt b. 



Nächsten 
Skagei' 

Deutsclier Marine-V 
York Icündigt grosser' 
jälirliclien Ged(| 



Ociegcntlid^ cine§ 
abenb^, ben ber 25eutfd^c 
37. 2)v 3nc., in ber 5Tr 
f^iclt, tonnte 5tommanb| 
ißenbt betanntgcbcn, ba 
Stab and) für bie bie§iäf)i1 
®ebäcf)tni^ifeier, bcn 21. 
I)iftorifd)cn Gecfc})Iad^t, 
(Sametog, bcn 29. 5}lai, 
Softno, 210 Oft 86. <B^ 
Söorbcrcitungcn für einen i] 
einbrudöboflenSßcrIauf be§ 
obenbö getroffen Ijat. 
5ßcrcin min mit ber iabrliij 
rat^^cier nict)t nur ba§ iinh 
fallenen !D?arincfamcrabcn ti 
rat e{)ren, fonbern alle cbcmc 
börigen ber beutfd^en .^riccj 
mäbrenb be§ 5Be(t!riegeg au| 
!IRccren ben .t)c(bcntob ftarbei| 

.^on,^crt unb ^cbenfj 

@inc bcfonbere Ucberraf' 
aber borläufig ®e[]eimnig 
bleibt, fofi in bicfem '^a'i)xt bi 
beforation bilbcn, bie bemäbl 
fcnte be§ 93crcin§ übcrne!)m>| 
SRebeaft mirb bon einem g^oB^ii 
fongcrt umrabmt, :)a§ bie W(\ 
pcfle in Uniform unb ber 
Spielmann^gug gemeinfam 
5)en 9(uftaft bilbet ber t^al)ncnc] 
bcr beuti"d[)en 23crein»melt, beni 
nad^ bcr ^^otencl^rung baS 2^0] 
bc§ „groficn 3QpfcnftreidL)§". 

"Der 5iamerab[c^aft§abenb 
bie Icfjtc SSerfammlung im ^i\ 
®ebäd^tni§et)rung für bie „§t' 
2oten, bie befanntlii^ am gleij 
bie le^tc i^a^ü nad) bcr alten 4] 
cnbeten. ^ommanbant ?paut ' 
nalim in feiner 5tnfprad^;e auf ^ 
fa(!^c S3egug unb befunbetc in 
f^form bte enge S5erbunbcnl)cit 1 
gen !0?flrinei!amctaben mit bei 
gung§mitgliebern bcr bcutfc^cn] 
Itne^ 5115 neue 5JlitgIteber hju^ 
5lamcraben S'^eobor 5tr?rncr, f1 
Sordf), SRicf)arb ®Ieid^, §an§ ^) 
i&ctmann §auf(f)i!b, lefeterct c 
Vertreter bcr neuen bcutfd^cn St^ 
rine. eingefütjtt. 

Wü bem Jtameröb[df)aft§abcr] 
bte S5orfüf)rung cinc§ ^iimprofj 
unter ber iRt(\k ^on 5Tom. W\\ 
berbunben. ©egetgt mürben 5Bii 
bcr letjtiäfirigen ?8u§fal^rt bc8 
bte le^te ^afirt bc§ „^inbcnbui 
5Rcm ^orf unb bte 5tataftrop]^ d 
^urft, [omic ein -lon ^errn 5/ 
brcbter (^ül^crftlm: „5)fc 



[imm^m^^^m^^^mmm 



By WILLIAM L. LAUBENCB 

THE Fourth International Con- 
gress of the International 
Union for the Scientific In- 
vestigatlon of Population 
Problems, which opened In Paris 
on Thursday and closes today, once 
more focuae» attention on many 
vital Problems concerning the life 
of man on thig llttle planet in the 
"back yard of the unIverse." 

The purpoaes of the International 
Union, which started with the 
World Population Congress at 
Geneva in 1927, may be best de- 
scribed by quoting the opening 
Paragraph of the announcement of 
that congress as published in its 
Proceedinga. It reads: 

The World Population Confer- 
ence represents a pioncer effort 
on an international scale to 
grapple with one of the most 
fundamental problems which 
mankind faces today. The earth, 
and every geographica! division 
of it, is strictly limited in size 
and in ability to support human 
populations. But these populat lons 
keep on growing; and in so doing 
they are creating social, economic 
and political Situation» which 
threaten to alter profoundly our 
present civilization, and perhaps 
ultimately to wreck it. What can 
be done about It? 
In the beginning the population 
of the World, like Topsy, "just 
growed" without giving the matter 
any particular thought. But there 
are indicatlona that even in very 
early civilizations some kind of a 
rudimentary census was taken, per- 
haps as far back as 300O or 4000 
B. C, in Babylonia, China, and in 
Egypt. The first biblical account 
of the enumeratlon of the people ia 
found In Exodus, where it Is stated 
that Moses was directed to number 
the children of Israel and levy a 
poll tax. It has been estimated that 
the date of this event was about 
1500 B. C. Modern censuses, how- 
ever, are of relatively recent origin, 
having been evolved essentially dur- 
ing the nineteenth Century^ 
Modern Approach 
But the mere counting of the pop- 
ulation is a very small part of the 
modern science of population anal- 
ysis. Among the first to turn men'a 
thoughts very seriously to the prob- 
lems Involved was Malthus, who, 
somewhat pesaimistically, pointed 
out that human populations tend to 
grow regardless of the threat of 
shortage of food supply. The bogy 
of Impending exhaustlon of our nat- 
ural food supplies bobbed up from 
Urne to time ever slnce, and at the 
end of the last Century Sir William 
Crookes, in particular, sounded the 
alarm of a forthcoming shortage of 
the stuff of brcad for large 



become avallable for the ralslng of 
crops for human consumptlon. 

In 1920, Professor Raymond Pearl 
of Johns Hopkins Unlverslty, at- 
tacking the problem from a mathe- 
matical standpolnt, brought for- 
ward evidence that populations gen- 
erally tend to grow less and leas 
rapldly, and ultimately to approach 
an essentially stable condltion with- 
out further Increase In numbera. 

FoUowing thls came a funda- 
mental development ushered In by 
Dr. Louis I. Dublin and Dr. Alfred 
J. Lotka of the Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Company. In a publica- 
tion in 1925 they drew attention to 
the fact that the commonly fol- 
lowed method of gauging natural 
population growth, by simply con- 
sidcring the excess of the birth rate 
ovcr the death rate, was very mis- 
leading. 

Age Group« Studied 

In their study, Drs. Dublin and 
Lotka, both of whom presented pa- 
pers befora the Paris Congress, 
showed that, with the constant.de- 
cline in the birth rate that had 
been characteri-stic of many yeais 
past, there tends to he an accumu- 
lation of'^persons in the reproduc- 
tive ages. The result is a temporary 
balance of births over deaths, which 
will cease to appear when the pe- 
culiar age disti4bution produced by 
past high birth rates has waned. 

Thus, for example, at the preaent 
tlme the birth rate In the United 



H.l , 

thcir 

contaii 

ible 

whi( 

to. 



pared with the death rate^^hlc 
must lead to a deterioratio* of th 
population in quantity aArWell a 
quality, because the so-calld^ "lowei' 
classes" perpetuate theingelves at' 
an alarmingly low rate. 7hi« school 
seems to be currently inTvogue 

There is a third scWoc^l, whicj| 
holds that the world paäseö througtt 
cycles of declining and ri/sing birth 
rates, the end result bein^ a natural 
balanco between the world's popu*. 
lation on tho one band and the 
means available for it.'3 support on 
the other. This school^ which scoffs 
at the pessimism of both the Mal- 
thusians and the depopulationists, 
was represented at the Paria Con- 
gress by Dr. Norman E. Hirnes, 
wßU-known sociologist of Colgate 
University. He said: 

"Population phenomena are equi- 
librium phenomena. Overpopulatlon 
.sets up social and economic forces 
tending to check lt. Depopulatlon 
does the same thlng. The current 
birth £trlke is really a revolt 
against eome of the anomalies of 
capltalism. I predict that that re- 



^ .-iiJl ' ^^ 



»vf* 






[iF^^ 



and sugar it can aynlhesiz. in a fiven t,m« out «f *''™'' «"""„„" 



numberg of people 

Hls warning had one very Impor- 
tant practical result. He had 
pofnted out that the Chilean nitrate 
bedfl, our main supply of nltroge- 
noua fertilizer at the time, was ap- 
proachlng exhaustion, and urged 
chtimists to work on the problem of 
Converting atmospherio nitrogen 
into Compounds capable of being 
used for fertilizer. The problem was 
brilliantly solved by the late Fritz 
Haber, and a large industry today 
extracts nitrogen from the air and 
converts it not only jnto fertilizer 
but into other important industrial 
products. Unfortunately, among 
these products are war materials, 
and the development of the new in- 
dustry was hastened, at least in 
part, by the desire of military au- 
thorities to make themselves inde- 
pendent of the Chilean nitrate de- 
posits. 

In 1923 Professor E. M. East of 
Harvard University, in a note- 
worthy work entitled "Mankind at 
the Crossroads," made a careful 
study of the land areas available 
for raising foods and the possibili- 
ties of finding sustenaxice for the 
growing population of the world, a 
book still inspired by pessimism as 
regards our future food supply. 
Since then a complete change in 
polnt of view has occurred. 

Food Snough for All 

Today, it was emphasized at the 
congress at Paris, there is no longer 
any fear of shortage of food. We 
have learned greatly to increase our 
lagricultural yields, and still more 
Ican be done in this way. The 
fast-growing field of tray agricul- 
Iture, namely, the raising of vege- 
tables and other agricultural prod- 
|ucts, in tanks containing Chem- 
icals, without any soil whatsoever, 
opens the posslbillty that the day 
may come when man will no longer 
idepend on the »oil for hls auste- 
nance. 

Again, the horse has been very 
largely dlsplaced by the gasoline 
lengine and, as a result, acres for- 
merly^j^lanted for animal food have 



fcSÄ-iSiijJÄ 



States is about seventeen per thou- 
sand and the death rate about ten 
per thousand. This appears to give 
a roargin of safety of seven per 
thousand on the right aide of the 
ledgcr. Actually, according to Drs. 
Dublin and Lotka, computation 
Shows that when the population has 
settled down to the age distribution 
corresponding to presfent fertility 
and mortality, we shall be having a 
deficiency of births and an excess 
of deaths, unless the future should 
see an increase over our presert 
fertility or, to put it another way, 
an increase in the average of our 
families. 

There is at present, Dr. Lotka 
told the congress, no indication of 
a trend toward increasing the size 
of families, but quite the reverse, 
and "the Situation at the present 
time certainly looks critical." The 
Problem, he added, is by no means 
restricted to the United States, but 
appears in greater or lesser degree 
in all civillzed countries, and is re- 
ceiving the very serious attention 
of statesmen. In Germany and Italy 
definite administrative steps are 
being taken to try to arrest the 
movement toward a declining popu- 
lation. 

It was with Problems of this kind 
that the International Congress at 
Paris concerned itself, though Its 
field extended beyond the mere 
questions of number, covering also 
the questions of the so-called "qual- 
ity" of population. In the latter re- 
spect, however, there is no objec- 
tive scientific basis to go on. 

Three Schools 

Population theories roughly group 
themselves Into three main schools. 
The Malthusians held that the 
World must reach a stage of over- 
population with not enough food to 
Support the Inhabitants of the 
earth. This »chool held sway until 
recently. 

The depopulationists hold that 
present trends indlcate a decided 
decllne in the Mrth rate as com- 



volt ^K^'^ ^^^ cease until some r 
tlonaj «goclal institutions are de- 
velopedl 

"No g\o?i purpose will be aerved 
by populä^io^ authorities preaching 
large famw^K^o the masses. Ex- 
perlence hl^ cauRht the working 
classes a difK^^^nt lesson. Certainly 
experience lÄP^ b-^tter guide than 
Statistical real^V'^ based on fal- 
lacies." W^'^ 



LIGHT TOl 



LP FISH 






INFANT GARE 

By ANGELO PATRI 

Author of "OUR CHILDREN" 



CHILDS RELATIONS TO ADULTS 

WHEN the new baby arrives mother has a double job. She has to 
bring up the baby and the grown members of the family at the 
same time. Often it is easier to get along with the baby than it is 
with the relatives. Grandparents want to help and they are very 
sure they know more about the job than mother does. 

Fond aunts and iincles are eager to lend a band. They are anxious 
to see the child growing perfectly and like the rest of us, they are 
inclined to think that perfect growth would be something in their 
own likeness. So mother has to be a diplomat, a parent. and a stern 
gnardian at one and the same time. 

MOTHER'S COMMAND SUPREME 

It is during infancy that mother has the best Chance to establish 
her place as the one in supreme authority. She is the one to lay 
down the law. In the early months a baby sleeps most of the time. 
He is not to be disturbed. Strangers are not to be allowed in bis 
room Close membera of the family must stay at a distance. They 
may iook but not touch. The baby is not to be kissed. He is not to 
be tossed up on Uncle Dan's Shoulder. He is not to be tickled b"/ bis 
brothers. his sisters or bis aunts. He is not to be rocked by any- 
body and that includes grandma. He is never to be shaken or scolded 
or frightened. Anyone who is annoyed by the actions of the baby 
must keep out of the way. 

Sometimes there is among the relatives one who insists upon 
taking the place of the mother. Usually it is an elderly relative who 
longs to bring up this child in the right way, her way. When this 
happens there is only one thing for mother to do and that is to say 
nolitely, sweetly. firmly, "I am the baby's mother The responsibility 
U mine. In the long run I must manage with him alone as best I 
c^n No I cannot let anyone take my place." Say something like 
this" and mean it and that will end the interference. 

HEED DOCTOR'S ORDERS 

Some of the friends and relatives will want tc give you adyice 
about the child's food. Teil them you do not need their adv ce You 
nre following the doctor's orders about the child's diet stnctly and 
you don't want to spoil his work and waste time and money. 

^nme will offer gifts to the baby and a mother must decide what 
is to be done about that. Talk things over with these friends who 
mean so well. Let mother show them that the gifts had better take 
the form of some lasting benefit such as an insurance for the educa- 
tion of the child. Don't shower money or useless gifts upon childrem 
They need very little. Just food. clothes. toys and these all of the 
simülest kind. Enough is enough. Waste, show are useless. Wise 
pe^Se put their gifts into insurance funds for College, for travel. 
for wedding gifts. for a rainy day. 

PARENTS GIVE DIRECTIONS 

Grownups should never tease the child They should not order 
him abmlt He is to Iook to one person for directlon^-his mother. 



CHILD'S RELATIONS TO ADULTS 



Later father comes into the picture, but nobody eise is to say a word. 
Too many words bring confusion and cause rebellion. 

And yet mother must remember that her child is going to need 
friends. She must be diplomatic and in that way keep the friends 
and shut out the troubles. She must do the best she can ander dif- 
ficult circumstances, but always she must protect her child. 

That is the point I would leave with you. Protect the child from 
grownups who mean well but who do not understand the Situation. 
The child is the mother's responsibility, and mother is the flrst 
authority. 



(Released hy The Bell Syndicate, Inc.) 



SEX INSTRUCTION 

By ANGELO PATRI 

SCHOOLMASTER TO MILLIONS 



SEX is inherent in all healthy creatures. It is activ© in little 
children as well as in older people and quite normal and decent 
in both. To think otherwise is to deny one of the great forces or 
life, if not the major one. 

The manifestations of sex vary in individuals and 1? the different 
spans of growth. Sex in an Infant has diff erent qualities f rom the 
sex of a youth and sex in youth is different from sex in old age. 
Yet sex is in all and blesses all life if rightly understood and ap- 

preciated. v. * u* 

This understanding and appreciation is what is to be taught 
children and young people. Not the question of where the babies 
come from Sex has broader implications than this one physlcal 
aZct sets. It has power to raise man to the heights o glory and 
the power to put an everlasting curse upon him and his children^ 
It is the great Creative force, the energizer, the life-giver It lä to 
be reverenced and feared and honored. It is this tremendous force 
^halwe are asked to teach children about so that they may not in 
ignorance destroy themselves in learning its way with them. 

GIVE PLAIN FAOTS 

Who is to teach this? Mothers. in the beginning. They teach 
thA PlPmentarv facts truthfully, briefly. without reference to thelr 
mpUcXns'^The little ones ask questions about babies because 
they are miellectually curious, not because they are interested in 
sei nractices They will accept the simple fact as an answer. Ex- 
n'LaUons will co/fuse them. They are not ready for them, can- 
not use them do not want them. Give them piain facts. Any in- 
Llligent pe^on, who can read the governmenfs Pamphlet can do 
that and so set the stage for the later phases when personal interest 
in sex is increasing. 

The teachers of physiology and biology in high schools can and 
do teach the physical facts of sex. But sex is not purely physical. 
?.• ^ o^^ fhP soul if they can be spoken of as two qualities, are 
Sy concernÄ^t^^^^^ The father and mother who in 

love created This child. can best teach the spiritual psychic values 
of the sex that Vs expressed in love, and the love that is expressed 
?i «p^ Books cannot do this. Nor can the physician. the clergyman, 
tL teacher alonT do the teaching. However silent parents may 
be itistheir teaching, their way of living and loving, that does 
this final bit of sex Instruction. , ^ ^ », 

Wp arP not doing our duty by the young people when we teach 

here than in »ny other nem ^»[^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^i^k of actuality 
;VJr': llXlt^VS lno:iXV7nL -There Stands the burning 

^"^^- HELPFUL BOOKS 

r. * «f« ,r„i«t hP taucht The pamphlet that is furnished by the 
Sex facts must be Jf^fl';^ .g'^J^au, for ten cents and a stamped, 

Department of ^ab«^' ^^{J^f^^^ fny mother needs for a beginning. 

?fr'Tru\'nbTr;t'^'PaU's and' Sex^'s a good book for parents to 



SEX INSTRUCTION 



read. Dr. Roy Dickerson's book, "Growing Into Manhood" Is flne 
for boys. So is the booklet, "In Training," send out by the American 
Medical Association. There are many good books for girls which 
can be had by asking the librarian for them. 

Parents should read these books before passing them to the 
children first, to know what is in them, next, so as to understand 
the questions the children will ask concerning them. 

Try to see sex as an element of life, a glorious fact to be accepted 
and used for the growth, progress and development of mankind. It 
is not to be isolated from the other facts of life, made a thing apart, 
an end in itself. It is one of the cooperative forces of life that used 
wisely leads to great happiness, unwisely, to great grief. 



(Released hy The Bell Syndicate, Jnc.) 



ork Wmt^ 




imm mim 

Glueck Discovers the Ruins of 
70 Viiiages of 3500 B. C. to 

Twelfth Century A. D. 



FARMS HIGHLY DEVELOPED 



Discoveries Confirm Genesis 

Narrative in Which Lot Teils 

of Valley's Fertility 



VVireless to The New York Times. 
JERUSALEM, May 31— Recent 
excavations in the Jordan River 
Valley by Dr. Nelson Glueck, di- 
rector of the American School of 
Oriental Research of Jerusalem, 
resulted in the discovery of the 
ruins of seventy viiiages that 
existed between 3500 B. C. and the 
twelfth Century A. D. 

Between the thirteenth and sixth 
centuries B. C. there were about 
thirty-five viiiages along thirty- 
five miles of the eastern side of 
the Jordan Valley. The inhabitants 
then totaled 35,000 to 40,000, com- 
pared with the 12,000 in Arab en- 
campments today. 

Explorations of Dr. Glueck con- 
tradicted earlier authorities since 
Sir George Adam Smith who <1«*- 



giarden of the Lord." 

Elephants roamed the Jordan area 
area and the hills above and the 
aoastal plains years ago. Among 
the remains dug up from the an- 
dient bed of the Jordan River was 
in elephant's tusk two yards long, 
rhe finds also included bones of 
rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses and 
jmaller animals. 

The story of a culture starting 
?rom the beginning of the fifth 
Century B. C. until the present can 
De clearly read along the banks 
3f the river. It is now well known 
that the earliest Settlements in 
Palestine were on the coastal 
plains and in the Jordan Valley. 

What was not well known until 
recently were the locations of num- 
bers of the centers of the agricul- 
tural civilization in the Jordan Val- 
ley. 

Dr. Glueck established that the 
eastern side of the valley was 
densely settled from earliest his- 
torical times onward by a large 
thriving permanent agricultural 
Population dwelling in numerous 
viiiages of considerable size. From 
the area, however, must be ex- 
cluded much of the western side 
of the Jordan Valley where the 
hills come so near the river that 
little space is left and because of 
the scarcity of water. 

Large, permanently settled, high- 
ly developed farming communities 
dwelt here in ancient times under 
climatic cönditions that geological 
experts say were generally the 
same as today. The reasons for 
the richness of the eastern side of 
the Jordan Valley, said Dr. Glueck, 
were "a soil of exuberant fertility 
plus the presence of plentiful 
water." 

One place had the greatest 
masses of ancient pottery frag- 
ments Dr. Glueck had ever seen in 
any ancient site in Palestine or 
Trans-Jordan. Inhabited about 
3500 B. C, this site contained more 
pottery than exists throughout the 
whole Jordan Valley today. 

The ancient civilization of the 
Jordan Valley is ascribed by the 
American archaeologist to Irriga- 
tion. Undoubtedly tremendous res- 
ervoirs of subsurface water exist 
in this Valley. Only recently have 
they been explored. The farmers 
of ahtiquity made excellent use of 
the rieh supplies of surf ace waters. 



Prehistoric Race 
of Araericans 



Find "Missing Link" 
in Utah Caves. 



By DAVID DIETZ, 

Scripps-Howard Science Editor, 

Traces of an ancient American 
race, a "missing link" in the story 
of prehistoric America, have been 
found in caves near Great Salt Lake 
by Dr. Julian H. Steward, archeol- 
ogist of the Smithsonian Institution 
and former member of the faculty 
of the University of Utah. 

In one cave Dr. Steward found a 
skeieton, a sharp bone dagger, ar- 
row heads and knives of bone, and 
fragments of charcoal that testified 
to campfires that had been lit upon 
the gravel floor of the cave. The age 
of these f inds is tentatively estimated 
at between 10,000 and 15.000 years. 

This would fit the inhabitants of 
these caves in between the hypothe- 
tical Folsom men who are supposed 
to have been the first inhabitants 
of America, and the Basket Makers 
of the Southwest who lived about 
2,000 years ago. 

* • • 

The last glacial age came to an 
end 25,000 years ago. Following this 
a race of nomads are ' believed to 
have ranged over the eastern foot- 
hills of the Rocky Mountains. This 
race is known only from certain 
types of arrow heads or spear points 
found by archaeologists and known 
as "Folsom points." There is still 
some argument about the antiquity 
of these finds but many archaeolog/^ 
ists are now certai n that.thev rep 
sent fi 



//- 



America. 

Until the announcement of Dr. 
Steward, there was a complete blank 
between Folsom men and the Bas- 
ket Makers of the Southwest. 

Great Salt Lake, according to ge- 
ologists, was approximately 1,000 
feet above its present level at the 
end of the last glacial period. It 
gradually contracted during the 
centuries of drought which ensued. 

As the lake grew smaller, caves 
were cut into its bank. Some of 
these caves, now high above the 
water's edge, were once upon the 
water's edge, as geological evidence 
of the ancient shorelines testify, 
By estimating the time it took the 
lake to contract to its present size, 
it is possible to date these ancient 
shorelines. 

These calculations show that the 
caves belong to the period between 
the Folsom men and the Basket 
Makers, the period which had pre- 
viously been a blank in American 
prehistory. It is this fact which 
lends particular importance to Dr. 
Steward's Investigations. 
* * * 

Discussing the finds of the one 
cave, which is now 364 feet above the 
level of Great Salt Lake, Dr. Ste- 
ward says that there can be no 
question but that these finds ante- 
date the Basket Makers by many 
thousands of years. 

The skeieton which Dr. Steward 
found was that of an Infant. It 
was buried only six inches below 
the gravel floor of the cave. The 
arrow heads and other artifacts 
found In the cave differ In many 
respects from the so-called Folsom 
points. 

There was evidence also that the 
cave had been inhabited at a later 
date for above the layer of debris 
in which the very ancient artifacts 
^ere found, other weapons, believed 
;o be contemporaneous with the 

lasket Makers, were discovered. 



til 



si 



tl 
fi 



Wtmmmnm9mmmtw> . A \w ti 1 ' «i hku '» » jwuwwjjw ' H p ix wiix tui i ii /WBCcif»-^«' 



■««?-,** I 



Wie Goethe Uebrais^tmm 

(Aus „Dichtung und Wahrheit", Erster Teil) 

Indem ich mir das barocke Judendeutsch zuzueignen und es ebenso gut zu schreiben 
suchte als ich es lesen konnte, fand ich bald, daß mir die Kenntnis des Hebräischen fehlte, 
wovon sich das moderne verdorbene und verzerrte allein ableiten und mit einiger Sicher- 
heit behandeln ließ. Ich eröffnete daher meinem Vater die Notwendigkeit, Hebräisch zu 
lernen, und betrieb sehr lebhaft seine Einwilligung; denn ich hatte noch einen höhern Zweck. 
V eberall hörte ich sagen, daß zum Verständnis des Alten Testaments sowie des Neuen die 
Grundsprachen nötig wären. Das letzte las ich ganz bequem . . . Ebenso dachte ich es nun 
auch mit dem Alten Testamente zu halten, das mir wegen seiner Eigentümlichkeit ganz 
besonders von feher zugesagt hatte . . . 

. . . Ich fand ein Alphabet, das ungefähr dem griechischen zur Seite ging, dessen Ge- 
stalten faßlich, dessen Benennungen mir zum größten Teil nicht fremd waren. Ich hatte 
dies alles sehr bald begriffen und behalten und dachte, es sollte nun ans Lesen gehen. 
Daß dieses von der rechten zur linken Seite geschehe, war mir wohl bewußt. Nun aber 
trat auf einmal ein neues Heer von kleinen Buchstäbchen und Zeichen hervor, von Punkten 
und Strichelchen aller Art, welche eigentlich die Vokale vorstellen sollten, worüber ich mich 
um so mehr verwunderte, als sich in dem größeren Alphabete offenbar Vokale befanden 
und die übrigen nur unter fremden Benennungen verborgen zu sein schienen. Auch ward ge- 
lehrt, daß die jüdische Nation, so lange sie geblüht, wirklich sich mit jenen ersten Zeichen 
begnügt und keine andere Art, zu schreiben und zu lesen, gekannt habe. Ich wäre nun gar 
zu gern auf diesem altertümlichen, wie mir schien, bequemeren Wege gegangen; allein mein 
Alter (der Lehrer Rektor Albrecht J erklärte etwas, streng: man müsse nach der Grammatik 
verfahren, wie sie einmal beliebt und verfaßt worden. Das Lesen ohne diese Punkte und 
Striche sei eine sehr schwer^. Aufgabe und könne nur von Gelehrten und den Geübtesten 



^,;-,;:-^-*- 



geleistet \\\ / JJL . , rfilJü rn n f f ^ " '^-''*-* ' ' -^'— '*'^" auch diese kleinen Merkzeichen kennen- 

'zuternen;'aRrdieS^e ward mir immer verworrener. Nun sollten einige der größern Ur- 
zeichen an ihrer Stelle gar nichts gelten, damit ihre kleinen Nachgebornen doch ja nicht 
umsonst dastehen möchten. Dann sollten sie einmal wieder einen leisen Hauch, dann einen 
mehr oder weniger harten Kehllaut andeuten, bald gar nur als Stütze und Widerlage dienen. 
Zuletzt aber, wenn man sich alles wohl gemerkt zu haben glaubte, wurden einige der großen 
sowohl als der kleinen Personnagen in den Ruhestand versetzt, so daß das Auge immer sehr 
viel und die Lippe sehr wenig zu tun hatte. 

Ein Wort Sdhillcrs 

l^iV danken der mosaischen Religion einen großen Theil der Aufklärung, deren wir unA 
heutigen Tags erfreuen. Denn durch sie wurde eine kostbare Wahrheit, welche die sich 
selbst überlassene Vernunft erst nach einer langsamen Entwicklung würde gefunden haben, 
die Lehre von dem einigen Gott, vorläufig unter dem Volke verbreitet und als ein Gegen- 
stand des blinden Glaubens solange unter demselben erhalten, bis sie endlich in den hellen 
Köpfen zu einem Vemun iisbegriff reifen konnte. Dadurch wurden einem großen Theil des 
Menschengeschlechtes alle die traurigen Irrwege erspart, worauf der Glaube an Vielgötterei 
einst führen muß, und die hebräische Verfassung erhielt den ausschließlichen Vorzug, daß 
die Religion der Weisen mit der Volksreligion nicht in direktem Widerspruche stand, 
wie es doch bei den aufgeklärten Heiden der Fall war. Aus diesem Standpunkt betrach- 
tet, muß uns die Nation der Hebräer als ein wichtiges universalhistorisches Volk erschei- 
nen und alles Böse, welches man diesem Volke nachzusagen gewohnt ist, alle Bemühun- 
gen witziger Köpfe es zu verkleinern, werden uns nicht hindern, gerecht gegen dasselbe zu 
sein. Auf diese Art werden wir gleich weit entfernt sein, dem hebräischen Volk einen 
Werth aufzudringen, den es nie gehabt hat und ihm ein Verdienst zu rauben, das ihm nicht 
streitig gemacht werden kann, Schiller, Die Sendjmg Mosis^ 




ral Union of Jews 

\r%fiem IPY ^^ Hitler 
bam« ifnto Power. 



T?. 



BECAN ^hI ^^ "^^^ ^^^ 



First. Editor tf Newspaper of 
Large Circul Uion Founded 

3 lttfÄlcit^» Cause. 



.H ;'. '?:~\:-^')''^-- 



^RLIN/vFeb; If <Jewish Tele- 
,h. Agency)*---Bl{ö^8 HoUaen- 
fprmep" direcioi |ö« the Central 
löf Jewa iä Ge:|nany, died to- 
\the ^g# of 59 ;^ter a long Ul- 
ke had been fwced to retire 
Reichsfuehrer P^tler ^ came 

in Berlin, he bicame active 

'tlng anti-Seinit|Bm in 1900, 

became a leitder of the 

nion's National Leag^e at 

"^ollaenHer inaintained 
ism and Jud|ism were 
»tory but beWnged to- 

>gically. i \^ -, 

eapect we ;(\he Ger- 

ful and worViy Ger- 

ves US puat^ication 

f attemptd iP jeop- 

ty/' he ohcef Said. 

illingtoteiTxour- 

g to the ^ewish 

are proud.^ But 

^ewish natP^al- 

ely." 

1 about to 'om- 

irk. "The ^er- 

an Envüon- 

hadjf,: gi'«n 

• ten yetfs, 

ihcellor. .?e 

destroyd, 

life. •' 

if he fet 

« Jew, h 

*ovLlä ask 
Other or 

in Ber- 
ed jur- 
'f Mu- 
ed aa 
Ber- 
the 



a 



le University MediJr School is spons.fing 
;i.i;<' cQunseling clinic .Hhrough its Depai'tments of^ i 
Italrj^ anlJ tjbsfetrTcs t tid Gynecology. The clinioj 
'^erve couples in the Is >w Haven area and will 
Trk in Cooperation with othe ? agencies that may wish 
to refer'cases to it. It will also work witli the Yale 
infertility clinic, now in its lifth year. The project will 
be Ässisted by a grant froiti the Plajincd Parenthoo d 
Lea gue of Connec ticut and, if successtul, it is planned 
to offer a course m counseling service at a professional 
level. 



^erage and the journ™ c!, Je "ostracteä. Tfil ^ 
Ind, appointed by the Excerpta Medica Foundation,^ 

fcet, ^ave about 40 members, 9 from the United States. 

Committee for the Aging Expands.-The National 
^he Committee for the Aging of the National Social Wei- 

fare Assembly has reeeived a half-million-dollar grant 
jFrom the Ford Foundation for the general support of 
Ots activities. The fund will be used over a period of 
[v (^^^^^^^^ y^^^s chiefly to establish and maintain an in- 
LX^ formation and consultation service to organizations 
and Community groups providing Services to older 
persons. A central library of books and pamphlets on 
aging will be established, with provision for loan, 
folders for groups and exhibits for Conferences. Ai 
national roster of Speakers and Consultants will be 
assembled. The National Committee is made up oj 
some 200 persons broadly representing interests coJ 
cerned with meeting the needs of the aged. For infor^ 
mation write Geneva Mathiason, Secretary of th( 
Committee, 346 E. 45th St., New York City. 

World Health Assembly Budget.-The World 
Assemblv a( 



Mental Disorder in the Aged.— Such terms as senility and senile psychosis do not give a clear 
Impression of what is going on, either anatomically or functionally. The extent of cerebral athe- 
rosclerosis cannot be correlated with mental Symptoms. Evidence has been collected to show 
that socio-psychologic stress is an important determinant in the initiation of mental deteriora- 
tion in the aged. Mental deterioration, qualified as to mild, moderate or severe, would seem a 
good working Classification for use in dealing with the aged. It should be recognized . . . that 
the behavioral evidences of mental deterioration ebb and flow. We are too prone to hüstle the 
mildly deteriorated patient off to a mental institution at the lirst aberrant sign. I was much im- 
pressed, on a recent visit to a large London County Hospital, to see how they handle this Prob- 
lem in England. There are special wards, as part of the general hospital, with especially skilled 
attendants; the tempo i s calmly geared down to the special wants of these patients. They are 
kept in these wards for as much as a year, or longer. More than half of these people are able 
to return to other wards in the hospital, or the homes of relatives when that can be arranged.— 
W. Hammond, M.D., Common Disorders of the Aged, Journal of the American Geriatrics So- 
ciety, March, 1956. 




-^ 




Disaster Planning. The Preservation of Life and 
Property. Harold D. Posten. Springer-Verlag, New 
York, 1980. x, 276 pp., illus. $29.80. Springer Senes 
on Environmental Management. 

DNA Repair. A Laboratory Manual of Research 
Procedures. Vol. 1, Part A. Errol C. Friedberg and 
Philip C. Hanawalt, Eds. Dekker, New York, 1981. 
XX, 274 pp., illus. $29.75. . .- ^ vi » i 

Earthkeeping. Christian Stewardship of Natural 
Resources. Loren Wilkinson, Ed. Eerdmans, Grand 
Rapids, Mich., 1980. viii, 318 pp., illus. Paper, 

$10 95 

Fundamentals of Chemistry. James E. Brady and 
John R. Holum. Wiley, New York, 1981. xvui, 798 
pp., illus. + plates. $23.95. 

Fusion Plasma Analysis. Weston M. Stacey, Jr. 
Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1981. xviii, 376 pp., 

illus. $32.95. ^ _, * ,• 

General Systems Thinking. Its Scope and Applica- 
bility T Downing Bowler. North-Holland (Else- 
vier), New York, 1981. xiv, 234 pp. $29.95. The 
North-Holland Series in General Systems Research, 

vol 4. 

Hypnosis and Relaxation. Modern Verification of 
an Old Equation. William E. Edmonston, Jr. Wiley- 
Interscience, New York, 1981. xvi, 256 pp., illus. 
•f 50. Wiley Series on Personality Processes. 
Identical Twins Reared Apart. A Reanalysis. Su- 
fan L. Farber. Basic Books, New York, 1981. xvi, 
'384 pp., illus. $26.50. 

Identification and Sjstem Parameter Estimation. 
Proceedings of a Symposium, Darmstadt, Germany, 
Sept. 1979. R. Isermann, Ed. Published for the 
International Federation of Automatic Control by 
Pergamon, New York, 1980. Two volumes. xlvi, 
1348 pp., illus. $195. 

Kimberlites and Their Xenoliths. J. Barry Dawson. 
Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980. xii, 252 pp., illus. 
$47.25. Minerals and Rocks, 15. 

Lasers in Biology and Medicine Papers from a 
Symposium, Camaiore, Italy, Aug. 1979. F. Hillen- 
kamp R. Pratesi, and C. A. Sacchi, Eds. Plenum, 
New York, 1980. xii, 464 pp., illus. $49.50. NATO 
Advanced Study Institutes Series A, vol. 34. 

Linear Programming and Extensions. Nesa Wu 
and Richard Coppins. McGraw-Hill, New York, 
1981. XX, 476 pp., illus. $27.95. McGraw-Hill Seri 
in Industrial Engineering and Management Sei 
Microprocessor System Debugging. Noordi-^ 
and Edward Farrell. Research Studies P- 
ley), New York, 1981. xii, 144 pp 
$43.50. 

Mushrooms of Western Nort 
Orr and Dorothy B. Orr. D 
Schonewald and Paul Veg 
*omia Press, Berkeley 

Paper. S6.95.Califo " 
Reprint of the V97 
Neuroethoi 

Halsted " 

$24 



P 



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EDUARD SPRANGER 



Über Gefährdung 
und Erneuerung 
der deutschen 



Universität 



Sonderdruck aus der Zeitschrift „Die Erziehung" 






/ 



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:.U'(,A/> ■'''^l^vi^T-'' 



VERLAG QUELLE & MEYER IN LEIPZIG 



EDUARD SPRANGER 



Über Gefährdung und Erneuerung 
der deutschen Universität 






1) 



Über Gefährdung und 
Erneuerung der deutschen 

Universität 



Von 



EDUARD SPRANGER 



Sonderdruck aus der Zeitschrift 
„DIE ERZIEHUNG" 




9 



VERLAG VON QUELLE & MEYER IN LEIPZIG 






Alle Rechte vorbehalten 

Buchdruckerei Oswald Schmidt G. m. b. H. 
Leipzig 



I 

DIE deutsche Universität ist von sehr \delen Seiten 
her gefährdet. Am meisten wird sie dadurch be- 
droht, daß man ihren Sinn in weiten Kreisen des In- 
lands nicht mehr versteht. Das ist an sich nicht ver- 
wunderhck Denn die wesentUche Bestimmung der 
deutschen Universität hegt eben darin, den Sinn, d. h. 
das geistige Auge, für jenen ihren Sinn, d. h. ihre 
geistige Funktion und Leistung, in Menschen zu er- 
wecken, die bereit sind, sich dieser Umwandlung ihres 
Wesens hmzugeben.i Wer sie nicht an sich selbst er- 
fahren hat, kann die tiefere Absicht der Universität gar 
nicht verstehen. Wenn ihr dies aber mit den eigenen 
Jüngern einmal so wenig gelingen sollte, daß ihr nicht 
mehr genügend Verteidiger zur Verfügung stehen, so 
wäre das zwar keine Widerlegung ihrer Idee, gegen 
deren Ewigkeit allenfalls eine noch höhere Idee anzu- 



1 „Hieraus erklärt sich die kürzere Zeit, welche jeder auf der 
Universität zubringt als auf der Schule ; . . . weil eigentlich was 
auf der Universität erlebt wird, nur ein Moment ist, nur ein 
Akt vollbracht wird, daß nämlich die Idee des Erkennens, das 
höchste Bewußtsein der Vernunft, als ein leitendes Prinzip in dem 
Menschen aufwacht." (Schleiermacher). 






I 



kämpfen vermöchte, wohl aher ein Anzeichen, daß es 
ihr nicht mehr in ausreichendem Maße glückt, ihre 
Idee in der Wirklichkeit wirksam zu machen. 

Dieses Wirksammachen aber besteht jedenfalls im 
Lehren und Bilden, im Eingreifen in die Tiefe persön- 
lichen Lebens. Deshalb beschränken sich die folgen- 
den Erwägungen bewußt auf die Universität als Lehr- 
anstalt. Sie betreffen den Punkt, an dem die voraus- 
gesetzte Idee zünden soll, und werfen die Frage auf, 
infolge welcherUmstände das Überspringen des Funkens 
ausbleibt. Alte Klagelieder sollen dabei nicht wiederholt 
werden ; es kommt vielmehr auf eine möglichst richtige 
Zeitdiagnose an. 

Was der Organismus der deutschen Universität, der 
vor I20 Jahren Gestalt empfing, in seinem Kern be- 
deutete, muß für diesmal als bekannt vorausgesetzt 
werden.2 Wir begnügen uns mit der kurzen Formel, daß 
die Universität als Lehranstalt damals überzeugt war, 
mit einer wissenschaftlichen Durchbildung zugleich per- 
sönliche Weltanschauungsbildung zu geben und die 
innere Bereitschaft der PersönUchkeit für höhere be- 
rufhche Kulturfunktionen zu erzeugen. Der Wissen- 
schaftsgodanke der Universität war so beschaffen, daß 



2 Vgl. Fichte. Schleiermacher, Steffens über das Wesen der Univer- 
sität, herausgeg. von Ed. Spranger (Philos. Bibl. Bd. 120) Leipzig igio. 
— Ed. Spranger. Wandlungen im Wesen der Universität seit 100 
Jahren. Leipzig igiS. — Das Sammelwerk „Das akademische 
Deutschland". 3 Bde. Berlin igSo, herausgeg. von Scheel, Schlink, 
Sperl, Spranger u. a. — Bd. 3 wird eröffnet durch einen Aufsatz 
von mir über „Das Wesen der deutschen Universität". 



er das Ganze der Persönlichkeit beleben und sie für 
ihre geistige Sonderfunktion erwecken konnte. 

Wenn wir heute in der Universität an diesem unserem 
klassischen Gedanken festhalten, so bedeutet dies, daß 
wir der entstandenen Wirklichkeit gegenüber mit drei 
Fiktionen arbeiten, deren Undurchführbarkeit wir mit 
jedem Tage schärfer spüren. 

Die erste besteht darin, daß die Besucherzahl der Uni- 
versität an ihrer Grundgestalt nichts Wesentliches habe 
ändern können. Und doch weiß jeder, daß in der geistigen 
Welt quantitative Verschiebungen notwendig mit quali- 
tativen Wandlungen verbunden sind. Wir wollen keine 
ausführliche Statistik geben, obwohl sie für Verwal-g\ 
tungsmaßnahmen entscheidende Aufschlüsse gewähren^ 
würde. Schalten wir die Verhältnisse nach dem Kriege, 
die in jeder Hinsicht unnormal sind, aus, so ergibt ein 
Blick auf die Zahlen von iSAo— 1910, daß sich schon 
in diesem Zeitraum die Zahl der Studenten verfünffacht, 
die Zahl der ordentlichen Professoren nur verdoppelt 
hat. Die rein mathematische Berechnung, daß i84o 
auf I Ordinarius 18 Studenten, 1910 43 Studenten 
kamen, hat praktisch wenig Wert. Denn es gibt viele 
Fächer, in denen die Studentenzahl nur unbedeutend 
gewachsen ist, während sie in anderen Gebieten das 
Zwanzig- und Vierzigfache beträgt. Diese Fächer aber 
sind es zugleich, denen sich das gesellschaftliche Inter- 
esse und also auch die öffentliche Kritik der Leistungen 
am stärksten zuwendet. Solche „Notstandsgebiete" müs- 
sen wir daher ausdrücklich ins Auge fassen. 



Die Ursachen des erhöhten Andranges sind mannig- 
fach und größtenteils bekannt. Abgesehen von der 
allgemeinen Bevölkerungsvermehrung, der doch eine 
größere Anzalil von Hochschulen einigermaßen ent- 
spricht, sind zu beachten: i. Die veränderte Bedeutung 
des Abiturientenexamens : es ist heute nicht mehr Kenn- 
zeichen der Hochschulreife, sondern einer allgemeinen 
Lebensreife für höhere Kulturfunktionen, wirkt aber 
seiner Tradition nach immer noch als Saugapparat für 
die Hochschulbildung. 2. Ungünstige Wirtschaftslage 
hat immer eine Überfüllung der Universitäten zur Folge 
gehabt, weil man auf ihnen manche Erleichterungen 
findet und arm sein kann, ohne deklassiert zu werden. 
Sozialistische Beurteiler sprechen daher von einem letzten 
Rettungsweg vor dem Schicksal der Proletarisierung. 
3. Von der Verwaltung wenig beachtet scheint der große 
Umfang der „Mitbenutzung" der Universität zu sein, 
die von selten anderer Bildungsinstitute stattfindet. Die 
meisten Besucher von Sonderhochschulen, ja von Fach- 
schulen, besitzen heute das Reifezeugnis; andere er- 
werben den Gasthörerschein. Ihre Absicht ist in jedem 
Falle ehrenwert: es treibt sie ein erhöhtes Bildungs- 
bedürfnis. Aber sie rücken in ganzen Kolonnen in die 
Universität an, und da sie sie doch nur „passieren", 
bringen sie unvermeidlich einen anderen Geist mit als 
den, der in der eigenthchen Universität heimisch war. 
Sie suchen anderes und finden folgUch nur bedingt, 
was ihnen helfen könnte. — Das alles aber ist noch 
nicht das Entscheidende. Die wesentliche Umbildung 



I 



liegt darin, daß eine FüUe von Berufen entstanden ist, 
für die niemand früher eine vollakademische Ausbil- 
dung gefordert hätte. Diese Berufe brauchen wolil eine 
höhere BUdung, aber sie brauchen nicht, ja sie ertragen 
kaum eine tiefere wissenschaftliche Bildung. Schon da- 
durch werden wir auf eine Feststellung geführt, die 
für das Folgende ein leitender Gesichtspunkt bleiben 
wird: Es enthüllt sich jetzt als ein Mangel die Tatsache, 
die in der Zeit des Aufblühens unserer deutschen Bil- 
dung ein Segen war: nämlich, daß es kein CoUege in 
Deutschland gibt, sondern nur eine philosophische Fa- 
kultät, keine Stätte für die Entfaltung derjenigen In- 
tellektbegabung, die allgemeineren Kulturbedürfnissen 
genügt. Für sie ist Fachschulung und Erweiterung des 
Geisteshorizontes erforderlich. Sie verlangt aber nach 
eigenlHcher WissenschaftUchkeit so wenig, wie die be- 
treffenden Begabungen dafür zureichen. 

Das führt unmittelbar auf eine zweite Fiktion, mit 
der die deutschen Universitäten notgedrungen arbeiten. 
Sie tun noch immer so, als ob ihre Schüler sämtlich 
ein eigenüich wissenschaftliches Bedürfnis hätten. Wer 
Menschen und Dinge sieht, wie sie sind, kann daran 
nicht mehr glauben. Ich gehöre zwar nicht zu denen, 
die von einer unbedingten Verschlechterung des Nach- 
wuchses reden. Nach meinem Eindruck haben wir heute 
zahlreiche junge Leute mit viel erweckterer Geistigkeit, 
als sie vor 3o Jahren unter den Studenten vorkam; da- 
neben freilich - entsprechend der absoluten quanti- 
tativen Vermehrung - eine 2. und 3. Garnitur, die 



8 



'.i^/%^'- 



•v*'«^' 



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damals überhaupt nicht an den Universitäten zu finden 
war. Aber in der geistigen Oberschicht haben sich die 
Qualitäten nicht unbedingt verschlechtert. Man könnte 
höchstens sagen, daß heute der bewegliche Geist, der 
esprit, mehr kultiviert wird als die GründUchkeit selb- 
ständigen Denkens. Dadurch verschieben sich die Auf- 
gaben der Universitätsbildung, aber sie smken noch 

nicht. 

Mit dieser Veränderung des Menschen„materials" ist 
jedoch eine ebenso tiefgreifende Veränderung der 
Wissenschaftslage verbunden. Es gibt heute eine große 
Zahl von Studiengebieten, die überhaupt nicht mehr in 
streng methodischer Weise aufgebaut sind, sondern nur 
die empirische Kenntnisnahme von komplexen Sachver- 
halten fordern. Ohne Zweifel liegt hierin ein Absinken 
gegenüber alten Idealen. Solche Fächer tragen den Cha- 
rakter der „Kunde", nicht der methodisch durchdachten 
Problematik und Systematik. Dahin gehört z. B. das Ge- 
biet der W'ohlfahrtspflege, der Sozialpädagogik, der 
Sprachen/tunde, Auslands/cunde, \o\ks>kunde, Kultur- 
kunde — lauter Namen, über die der Gelehrte alten Stils 
die Nase rümpft. Aber man frage ihn, loo man bei uns 
in diese Dinge eingeweiht werden kann, es sei denn 
nebenbei irgendwie auf der Universität l Wie viele suchen 
heute, wenn sie Volkswirtschaftslehre studieren, die Ge- 
rüste einer strengen Theorie? Sie streben aber nach 
Wirtschafts/ciznrfe und Gesellschafts/c uncie. Und solange 
Deutschland keine eigenen Stellen hat, wo man diese 
„höhere Bildung" erwerben kann, müssen eben die Uni- 



10 



versi täten herhalten, mögen sie sich auch tausendmal 
aus ihrer Auffassung von eigentlicher Wissenschaft her- 
aus gegen diese Zumutung sträuben. 

Zum zweitenmal also finden wir uns in der bezeich- 
nenden Lage, gestehen zu müssen, daß Deutschland kein 
College in amerikanischem Sinne hat, und daß dar- 
unter seine angestammte Universitätsidee leiden muß. 
Denn was leistet jenes College? Es leistet zweierlei, was 
wir immer wieder aus den Vorwürfen der Gegenwart 
gegen die Universitäten heraushören : Es gibt eine tüch- 
tige, auf pr^tische Fachbedürfnisse gerichtete Aus- 
rüstung mit Sachkenntnissen (oder „Kunde"), und es 
gibt zweitens eine im mittleren Maß abgerundete allge- 
meine Kulturbildung, wie sie einen geistigen Halt zu 
bieten vermag für die vielen, die nicht aus dem letzten 
Quell der Wissenschaft schöpfen können und wollen, 
sondern die Zeitungskunde, Missionskunde, Gesell- 
schaftskunde, ja wiederum Naturkunde, Bergwerks- 
kunde, Landwirtschaftskunde treiben wollen. 

Man lese die Kritiken gegen die deutsche Universität. 
In seltsamer, aber doch nicht zufäUiger Gegensätzlich- 
keit behaupten sie zweierlei: den Mangel an zielgerich- 
teter Berufsbildung und die Überherrschaft des Spezia- 
lismus — also durchaus Widersprechendes, wenn man 
es nicht so deuten dürfte: es fehle da eine mittlere 
Stufe, die von der Kulturlage gefordert wird, und diese 
müsse eben zugleich direkt zielgerichtet und doch tota- 
litätsbezogen sein. Die letztere Forderung, die vor zehn 
Jahren in dem verfehlten, aber doch nicht grundlosen 



II 



\. 






/ 



/ 



y 



.^ 



/ 



./ 



/ 



Plan einer humanistischen Fakultät zutage trat, ent- 
hielt ein achtbares Teil guter alter deutscher Geistes- 
tradition: man wollte sich im Ganzen orientieren. Aber 
ebenso will man im Einzelnen und im Bestimmten 
Kenner werden. Nicht mehr gibt man zu, daß dieses 
Ziel allein auf dem Höhenwege über eine methodisch 
streng gefaßte WissenschafÜichkeit erreichbar sei. Man 
braucht heute wieder so etwas wie gesicherte und zu- 
sammenfassende Tradition, im Ganzen wie im Einzel- 
nen, und man kann sich in der Durchschnittslage den 
Weg über die volle Spitzenbildung weder leisten noch 
die Kraft dazu zutrauen. Das ist der Sachverhalt, der 
zunächst einmal zur Kenntnis genommen werden muß. 
Hinter ihm liegen noch wesentlichere Verschiebungen, 
die das Verhältnis von Theorie und Praxis betreffen. 
Man erwartet heute eine nähere Verbindung zwischen 
beiden. Man hat — so scheint es — weder Kraft noch 
Willen — die methodisch-philosophische Durchreifung 
des Geistes anzustreben und abzuwarten, von der man 
^früher die innere Freiheit der Person gegenüber der 
nie ganz voraussehbaren Mannigfaltigkeit und Proble- 
imatik der konkreten Aufgaben erhoffte. Das ist ein- 
fach die selbstverständHche Folge der — Demokrati- 
sierung der Bildung. Kulturfunktionäre, Gesellschafts- 
funktionäre sind etwas anderes als die philosophisch 
gebildeten „Regenten", von denen Plato oder Fichte 
sprachen. — 

Aus diesen Tatsachen ergibt sich die dritte Fiktion, 
mit der wir arbeiten, von selbst. Sie besteht in dem 



12 



Glauben, daß wir, die Dozenten, bei alledem noch 
wissenschaftliche Persönlichkeiten bleiben könnten. An 
ganz kleinen Universitäten und in den „stilleren" Fächern 
mag dies der Fall sein. In den Hauptfächern des Lehr- 
betriebes zerreibt sich der Dozent zwischen der Fülle 
seiner Pflichten: Anfängervorlesung, Spezialkolleg, Pro- 
seminar, Oberseminar, Sprechstunde, Institutsverwal- 
tung, Manuskriptlesen für Staatsprüfung und Doktor- 
prüfung, Kulturverpf Uchtung gegenüber der Öffentlich- 
keit und — eigener wissenschaf thcher Weiterarbeit, unter 
der noch gar nicht einmal die selbständige Forschung, 
sondern nur die Beschäftigung mit der neuen Forschung 
anderer verstanden werden soll. Man mag es anstellen, 
wie man will: auf irgendeiner Seite bleibt das Gewissen 
schlecht und ein berechtigter Anspruch an uns unerfüllt. 
Mit einem Wort: die Unterrichtsorganisation an den 
deutschen Universitäten ist in den geisteswissenschaft- 
lichen Fächern — in den Naturwissenschaften hat der 
sichtbare Zwang der Sache längst reformierend gewirkt — 
primitiv und naiv. Ein Amerikaner würde nach seinen 
Vorstellungen von Wissenschaftsorganisation darüber 
lächeln. 

II 
Nun tröstet man sich über diese Mißstände vielfach 
damit, daß sie nur aus ungesunden Augenblicksverhält- 
nissen stammten, die wieder verschwinden würden. Eine 
besondere Rolle spielt in diesen Tröstungen der Hin- 
weis auf die kommende Wirkung des Geburtenrück- 
ganges im Kriege. Es ist an sich ein trauriger Behelf, 



i3 



/\ 



dUi^/j ^ ^^Uf- 



wenn man der Krankheit eines Organs durch die Erwar- 
tung abzuhelfen glaubt, daß sie unter den noch schlim- 
meren Symptomen einer Gesamterkrankung nicht mehr 
so fühlbar sein werde. Aber die Beurteilung der Sachlage 
ist überhaupt falsch. Es handelt sich nicht um eine 
vorübergehende Zeiterscheinung, sondern um eine Ver- 
änderung der Gesamtverhältnisse, die man nicht recht- 
zeitig erkannt hat. Jene Mittelschicht von Bildungs- 
bedürfnissen, von der die Rede war, wird in der gegen- 
wärtigen Kulturform dauernd bestehen bleiben. Und so 
lange es keine Anstalten gibt, an denen sie sachgemäß 

\ und — was in Deutschland sehr stark mitspricht — 
„standesgemäß" befriedigt werden, wird sich der An- 

I Spruch mit Recht auf die Universitäten richten, die 
nun einmal aus öffentlichen Mitteln erhalten werden. 
Es gehört zu ihrem Wesen, den Charakter einer plato- 
nischen Akademie, die der reinen Wahrheit dient, mit 
einer Reihe staatlicher und gesellschaftlicher Bildungs- 
funktionen verbinden zu müssen, die durch die allge- 
meine Zeitlage bestimmt werden. Beide Aufgaben liegen 
nicht unmittelbar in einer Linie. Man könnte daraus fol- 
gern, daß nun endlich der notwendige Operationsschnitt 
geschehen und beides auch organisatorisch reinlich ge- 
trennt, d. h. auf verschiedene Anstalten verteilt werden 
müsse. Die Forderung nach der Trennung von For- 
schung und Lehre (gedacht ist an Berufslehre) wird 
immer lauter. Sie ist allerdings sehr auffällig in einer 
Zeit, die für die vorangehende Bildungsstufe den Ar- 
beitsschulgedanken entschieden fordert und durchsetzt. 



i4 



\i 






Denn was bedeutet Verbindung von Forschung und 
Lehre anderes als das Arbeitsschulprinzip auf der Hoch- 
schulstufe? Manche scheinen zu glauben, in jedem 
Seminar würden von jedem geradezu wissenschaftliche 
Neuentdeckungen verlangt, während es sich doch im 
besten Falle so verhält, daß der Student neue Methoden, 
die meistens der Professor gefunden hat, selbsttätig auf 
einen kleinen Ausschnitt von Gegenständen anwenden 
soll. Der Name Forschung ist für diese Art zu arbeiten 
in der Regel etwas hoch. Aber was wir über Aufgaben 
und Möglichkeiten der Arbeit m der höheren Schule 
hören, ist relativ mindestens in gleichem Maße zu hoch 
gegriffen. Eine bloße Berufsbildung, die überall auf 
das unmittelbar für den Verbrauch Notwendige zuge- 
schnitten ist, bliebe nicht nur ein passives Lernen, son- 
dern würde auch bald zu einer erstarrten Dogmatik füh- 
ren, die sich ein einigermaßen lebendiger Kopf im Stu- 
dienalter einfach nicht gefallen läßt. 

Die Isolierung der wirklichen Forschung andererseits 
von der MögUchkeit des Lehrens und der Nachwuchs- 
schulung würde der Wissenschaft selbst den Lebens- 
faden abschneiden. Die Geldmittel für solche proble- 
matischen Studierstubenversuche würden vermuthch vom 
Staate her spärlicher und spärlicher füeßen. Es würde 
in vielen Fällen heißen: „Zeigt regelmäßig eure Resul- 
tate vor." Das wissenschaftliche Leben verläuft aber nur 
selten in einer unablässigen Folge von Neuschöpfungen. 
Aus der Berührung mit Menschen, aus dem befruchten- 
den Dialog des Unterrichts erwachsen neue Gedanken, 



i5 



r 



und nur so behält die Wissenschaft jene Beziehungen 
zum Leben, die heute auch in der öffentüchkeit ent- 
schieden gefordert werden. 

Der Grundgedanke der deutschen Universität ist also 
nicht nur gesund, sondern er ist geradezu eine ewige 
Wahrheit, deren Recht manche andere Nation erst unter 
unserer Führung einzusehen gelernt hat. Wenn nun- 
mehr Reformen notwendig werden, die die veränderte 
Gesamtlage der Kultur und der Gesellschaft fordert, so 
müssen sie so geleitet werden, daß jene Grundidee dabei 
erhalten bleibt, und zwar nicht nur, weil es nicht rat- 
sam ist, die Tradition der vom Volk geschaffenen gei- 
stigen Formen einfach abzubrechen, sondern deshalb, 
weil das Wesen der Sache es so gebietet und immer 
gebieten wird. 

Nach diesen Erwägungen hoffe ich nicht mehr miß- 
verstanden zu werden, wenn ich um der Kürze willen das 
Verfahren, das mir vorschwebt, in die Formel kleide: 
In die deutsche Universität muß eine College-artige 
Stufe so eingebaut werden, daß nicht nur im Oberbau 
das Zusammenströmen von Forschung und Lehre er- 
halten bleibt, sondern dieser befruchtende Strom auch 
die Unterstufe erreicht und sie dauernd mit Leben und 
Bewegung füllt. Damit ist eine Aufgabe bezeichnet, die 
im wesentlichen auf didaktischem Gebiete hegt. — 

Nur solche Reformen sind organisch und zukunft- 
reich, die bewußt weiterführen, was sich aus der zwin- 
genden Logik neuer Verhältnisse schon von selbst un- 
merkhch angebahnt hat. In der Tat befindet sich die 



i6 






deutsche Universität längst ganz automatisch auf dem 
hier angedeuteten Wege. Sie hat Veranstaltungen in sich 
aufgenommen, die man mit dem College vergleichen 
darf. Denn drei Funktionen könnten in Deutschland die- 
sem Gebilde zugeschrieben werden: Nachschulung, ziel- 
gerichtete Fachbildung und doch zugleich synoptische 
Kulturbetrachtung. 

1. Daß das Abiturientenexamen heut nicht mehr für 
alle Studienfächer die notwendigen Vorbedingungen 
sichert, ist bekannt und soll hier nicht noch einmal aus- 
führhch beklagt werden. In der Hauptsache handelt es 
sich um Sprachen (die eben nicht durch allgemeine 
Denkbegabung ersetzt werden können), aber auch um 
andere Gegenstände. So hat sich eine neue „facultas 
artium" herausgebildet, deren Funktion je nach dem 
Gesichtspunkt, den man wählt, als nachschulend oder 
als für das eigentliche Studium propädeutisch bezeich- 
net werden kann. Griechisch, Lateinisch, Hebräisch, 
Englisch spielen als Vorstufe der geisteswissenschaft- 
lichen Studien die Hauptrolle. Etwas Verwandtes könnte 
man in den Gegenständen der vorklinischen Semester 
bei den Medizinern und in den chemischen Studien, die 
vor dem Verbandsexamen liegen, erbUcken. In all diesen 
Fällen hat sich die Stufenbildung in der Universität ganz 
automatisch eingestellt. 

2. Die zweite Aufgabe besteht in der zweckmäßigen 
Gestaltung der An/äTigfervorlesungen und -Übungen im 
Fache selbst. Das Hineinkommen in sein Studiengebiet 
ist heut für den Mittelbegabten äußerst schwierig. Die 



2 Spranger, Cbcr Gefährdung 



17 



Kl 



Fülle sich widersprechender Standpunkte und Systeme 
muß den Anfänger erdrücken. Es gibt heut in keinem 
Fach mehr jene „summa", wie sie das Mittelalter kannte. 
Ein weiterer Mangel unserer Einrichtungen besteht 
darin, daß die allgemein-notwendigen Einführungsvor- 
lesungen nicht in jedem Semester wiederkehren. In 
manchen Fächern muß der Anfänger wie beim Puff spiel 
eine ganze Zeitlang warten, bis er „einsetzen" kann. 
Darin äußert sich die ungünstige Kehrseite unserer ganz 
freien Unterrichtsorganisation. Gewiß, dem führenden 
Gelehrten ist nicht zuzumuten, daß er immer wieder 
dasselbe liest. Sein Reichtum besteht in der immer- 
währenden Neugestaltung des Stoffes. Aber jene Fein- 
heiten, die gerade er gerade in die Einführungsvor- 
lesungen hineinlegen möchte, werden von den Anfän- 
gern als solche weder bemerkt noch geschätzt. Sie brau- 
chen für ihre Wanderung zunächst eine ganz einfache 
Landkarte. Nun haben wir in Deutschland bisher die 
Einrichtung der sog. „Kurse" nicht gekannt, wie sie 
in vielen ausländischen Hochschulsystemen gebräuch- 
hch ist. Zu ihrem Wesen gehört, daß sie einen im gan- 
zen feststehenden Stoff behandeln, daß sie ihn elemen- 
tar behandeln, daß sie regelmäßig wiederkehren, und 
vielleicht auch, daß ihr Besuch pflichtmäßig ist. Wir 
brauchen die Bindungen nicht allzu fest zu machen; 
aber das Bedürfnis nach Darbietungen, die in solchem 
Sinne didaktisch gut sind, zugleich aber innerUch be- 
leben und anregen, besteht bei weitaus den meisten Stu- 
denten. In manchen Studienfächern wird es heut bereits 



i8 



■■ i 



durch eine sorgfältig organisierte Unterstufe befriedigt. 
In anderen fehlt es daran noch ganz. Wir dürfen uns 
nicht schämen, auf diesem Wege weiterzugehen. Dabei 
taucht dann auch die vielbehandelte Frage der Studien- 
pläne wieder auf. In Wissenschaften, die selbst eine 
strenge Systematik haben, ergeben sie sich von selbst (so 
z. B. in den Anfängen des mathematischen und tech- 
nischen, teilweise auch des juristischen Studiums), in 
anderen Fächern wird mindestens eine sinnvolle Be- 
ratung zu planmäßigem Aufbau des Studiums stattfin- 
den müssen. Eine solche Planmäßigkeit aber ist nur 
möglich, wenn auch die Darbietung von Vorlesungen 
und Übungen planmäßiger erfolgt als bisher. 

3. Die Aufgabe dieser einführenden Fachvorlesungen 
wäre aber nicht im deutschen Sinne erfüllt, wenn sie nicht 
zugleich in einem humanistischen Geiste den Blick wei- 
teten für die größeren Zusammenhänge, denen sich das be- 
grenzte Fachgebiet und Berufsstudium einordnet. In frü- 
heren Zeiten hat man diese Leistung von der Philosophie 
erwartet. Der philosophische Gesamtrahmen alles Wis- 
sens war ja fast die Hauptidee der klassischen deutschen 
Universität. Später verengte sich die Philosophie zu einer 
allgemeinen Erkenntnis- und Methodenlehre. Das ist aber 
nicht mehr das Ganze, was heut gesucht und gebraucht 
wird. Vielleicht handelt es sich dabei überhaupt nicht um 
eigentliche Philosophie, sondern um eine allgemein ge- 
richtete Kultur- und Lebenskunde. Die Brücken zum Ge- 
samtleben, vor allem auch zum praktischen Leben, müs- 
sen sichtbarer gemacht werden. Der Plan der huma- 



19 









\ ^ 



nistischen Fakultät, den die studentische Generation von 
1920 vertrat, lag wohl schon in dieser Richtung. Heut 
erwartet man etwas Älinliches von der Soziologie. Wer 
ihr diese Kraft nicht zutraut, wird lieher von inhaltlich 
ausgemalter Kulturphilosophie reden. Irgendein Gegen- 
gewicht gegen das Fachbanausentum aber vnup es geben. 
Ich habe den Eindruck, als ob sich die Ausstrahlungen ins 
Allgemeine, ins Methodische wie ins Weltanschauliche, 
heut mehr vom Zentrum eines jeden Faches selbst aus 
bildeten, als daß farblos neutrale pliilosophische Vor- 
lesungen noch dieses Wunder wirken könnten. Der junge 
Mann sucht Orientierung in der Welt, Durchblicke ins 
Ethische und Metaphysische. Aber er steht an einer be- 
stimmten Stelle, von der aus er seine Zukunft meistern 
will, und er versteht das Allgemeine am besten, wenn 
es zunächst in der Sprache vorgetragen wird, die man 
in seiner geistigen Provinz zu reden pflegt. — 

Dies alles aber wäre unvollkommene Hilfe für das 
Leben wie die Wissenschaft, wenn nicht die ganze Unter- 
stufe stets umweht würde von dem Hauch der vorwärts- 
eilenden und produktiven Wissenschaft. Deshalb muß 
die geschilderte Unterstufe mit der Gesamtuniversität in 
organischer Verbindung bleiben. Es muß von Anfang an 
dem Lernenden fühlbar sein, daß es über diese elemen- 
taren Darbietungen hinaus ein Höheres gibt, zu dem er 
sich emporarbeiten kann, wenn er das Zeug dazu in sich 
hat. Er muß gleichsam aufgelockert werden, damit ein 
geistiger Wille in ihm wird. Nicht die Trennung der ziel- 
bewußten Berufsbildung von der wissenschaftlichen Uni- 



20 



versität \AÜrde dem deutschen Wesen gemäß sein, son- 
dern nur der Organismus einer einheithchen Anstalt. Sie 
hat, ganz im Geiste der ursprünghchen Universität, den 
Sinn für die Bedeutung der Grade wieder zu beleben. Es 
gibt ein Stufensystem von Weihen. Und es war verfehlt, 
daß wir im 1 9. Jahrhundert diese Abstufungen fallen 
ließen, unter der Fiktion, die Wissenschaft sei vom 
ersten bis zum letzten Schritt in der gleichen, ganz freien 
Weise, ohne eigentlich methodische Hilfeleistungen, zu 
erobern. 

Die Durchführung dieser Stufenbildung aber ist für 
jedes Fach ganz individuell. Sie muß für jedes folglich 
neu und originell durchdacht werden. Ich weiß, daß sich 
da im einzelnen viele Schwierigkeiten entwickeln wer- 
den, die meine Ausführungen noch nicht umfassen. Die 
Hauptsache ist, daß der Aufbau und das Wachstum stän- 
dig von dem produktiven Kopf des Faches überwacht 
wird; der Idee nach soll es also der Ordinarius oder die 
Ordinarien des Gebietes sein. Deshalb vollzieht sich das 
Ganze im Rahmen der Institute oder Seminare; die 
Fakultät als Ganzes tritt nur ein, wo ihre Arbeitsbereiche 
sich berühren oder schneiden. Glückt ein solcher Auf- 
bau, so muß er den wissenschaftlich führenden Haupt- 
vertretern des Faches die Mögüchkeit liefern, nun mit 
einer Elite zu arbeiten, d. h. mit denen, die aus der 
Unter- oder Mittelstufe als erprobte Talente heraus- 
gewachsen sind. Zu seinem eigenen Nutzen wird er von 
Zeit zu Zeit (falls er es versteht) auch mit den An- 
fängern arbeiten. Liegt aber die ganze Verantwortung 



91 



// 



I ' 



für sie auf ihm, so muß notwendig seine Kraft für 
Pflichten draufgehen, die ihm die Freiheit zu schöpfe- 
rischem Weiterstreben nehmen. 

Damit berühren wir f reiUch den schwierigsten Punkt 
des ganzen Planes. Denn für diese Umstellung muß ein 
Dozententypus geschaffen werden, den es bis heut nicht 
gibt. Er müßte nämlich vom guten Assistenten, vom 
guten Studienrat, vom guten Repetitor, aber auch vom 
frei suchenden Gelehrten je eine Seite an sich haben. 
Und damit ist unendlich viel verlangt. Vor allem sei be- 
tont, daß der Privatdozent als solcher nicht der Mann 
ist, an den hier in erster Linie gedacht wird. Der Privat- 
dozent als durchaus freie, im Forschen wie im Lehren 
ungebundene Person ist für das Gesamtgefüge der Uni- 
versität zu wichtig, als daß man ihm die Bindungen zu- 
muten könnte, die hier erwachsen. Er mag sich be- 
teiligen, wenn ihm die Aufgabe Hegt. Aber selbst der 
Lehrauftrag, den er etwa hat, darf nicht durch Fes- 
selung an feste Linien des Lehrens beengt werden. 
Andernfalls würden die Kräfte schon an der Wurzel 
gehemmt, die wir für die Wipfelbildung inuner brau- 
chen werden. Gerade im Augenblick ist es besonders 
schwer, Lehrtalente, wie sie für die Unterstufe gebraucht 
werden, in genügender Zahl zu gewinnen; denn die 
zahlreich entstehenden Sonderhochschulen saugen ge- 
^rade jetzt die Persönlichkeiten an sich, die durch beson- 
dere Gabe wissenschaftlichen Lehrens ausgezeichnet 
sind. Überhaupt wird das Ziel nicht mit einem Schlage 
erreicht werden können. Die neue Form muß sich ent- 



22 



\ 



\ 



wickeln. DibeUus hat in seinem Aufsatz ,,Die Über- 
füllung der Universität" (Deutsches Philologenblatt 
igSo, Nr. i8, S. 266 ff.) Vorschläge gemacht, die mir 
um so beachtlicher scheinen, als sie einen ständigen 
Wechsel des Personals und damit die innere Lebendig- 
keit und Fruchtbarkeit des Lehrbetriebes gewährleisten. 
Aufträge für Lebenszeit würden jedenfalls etwas Be- 
denkliches haben. Andererseits gehört zu erfolgreichem 
Lehren eine Beherrschung des Stoffes und durchge- 
bildete Erfahrung, die der wissenschafthch tüchtige, 
junge Doktor noch keineswegs hat. Um im fruchtbaren 
Sinne elementar zu sein, bedarf man der Kennerschaft. 

III 

Unter den Reformvorschlägen taucht immer wieder 
die Forderung auf, die Vorlesungen abzuschaffen oder 
sie doch zugunsten der Übungen in die zweite Linie zu 
drängen. Es ist dies einer jener Gedanken, die jeder für 
vernünftig halten muß, bis ihn die Erfahrung über die 
Schwierigkeiten der Durchführung belehrt hat. Wir 
sprachen schon von dem fruchtbaren Prinzip der Ar- 
beitsschule. Wenn es sich aber um wirkUches Arbeiten 
handelt, so ist es selbstverständlich, daß niemand mehr 
als höchstens drei Arbeitsgemeinschaften im Semester 
mitmachen kann. Mehr gibt die menschliche Natur ein- 
fach nicht her. Und diese Gemeinschaften dürften 
schwerlich mehr als 3o Teilnehmer haben, wenn jeder 
zur Aktivität herangezogen werden solL Der Stab an 
Übungsleitern müßte also ungeheuer erweitert werden. 

23 



1 



( 



1'/ 

I': 



■ » 



/ 1 

) '! 



Unsere heutigen Proseminare, die oft 3oo und mehr 
Teilnehmer haben, gehören natürhch auch in den Be- 
reich jener Fiktionen, mit denen die Universität sich 
trösten muß. Es zeigt sich bald, daß die Mehrzahl in die 
Passivität des Zuhörens versinkt. 

Aber auch aus anderen Gründen ist die Vorlesung 
unentbehrlich. Sie soll — der Idee nach — den neuesten 
Stand der Wissenschaft in persönhcher Durchdringung 
zeigen. Sie enthält folglich, wenn sie dieser Forderung 
entspricht, etwas, das in keinem Buch zu finden ist. 
Vielmehr ist sie gleichsam das Buch im Prozeß seiner 
Entstehung, mit lebendiger Sprache vorgetragen. Schon 
der Lautsprecher setzt diesen lebendigen Kontakt herab. 
Von da ist nur ein Schritt bis zur Verbreitung durch 
den Rundfunk. Es ist eigenartig, daß viele, die sich nicht 
nur mit den Mängeln der Rundfunklehrvorträge ab- 
gefunden haben, sondern diese neue Form geradezu be- 
geistert begrüßen, nicht genug gegen die Vorlesungen 
auf der Hochschule Sturm laufen können, weil diese 
die Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst ignorierten. Mit 
Recht kann gegen die Vorlesung gesagt werden, daß 
sie oft schlecht ist, d. h. schlecht gehalten wird ; ebenso, 
daß sie schlecht gehört wird (die Älehrzahl der Studen- 
ten vveiß gar nicht, wie man von einer guten Vorlesung 
Gebrauch macht und sich durch sie zur Aktivität an- 
regen läßt). Schlecht ist die Stoff auf schwemmung in 
manchen Vorlesungen, die zur Ausdehnung auf immer 
mehr Stunden und gar Semester führt. Denn die Vor- 
lesung bleibt Hilfsmittel zum Studium. Sie ist keines- 



24 



wegs schon selbst Studium. Für die Einführungsvor- 
lesungen ist die Verbindung mit einem Kolloquium in 
besonderen Stunden zu empfehlen. Auch dies aber setzt 
eine mäßige Hörerzahl voraus. Und eine Täuschung wäre 
es, zu glauben, daß ein Kolloquium schon den Namen 
der Übung verdiente. Allerdings ist auch die heutige 
Schule bisweilen nicht ganz frei von der Gefahr, einen 
Debattierklub mit dem Prinzip der Arbeitsschule zu ver- 
wechseln. Diese beginnt doch erst da, wo in heißer eige- 
ner Mühe und in tätiger Berührung mit dem Stoff ge- 
rungen wird, der seine strengen Forderungen stellt. 

Das Arbeitenkönnen in diesem Sinne muß voraus- 
gesetzt werden, wenn die höhere wissenschaftüche Ar- 
beit einsetzt. Nach unseren Erfahrungen wird diese 
Fähigkeit, ja schon die Fähigkeit verständnisvollen 
Lesens und geordneter schriftlicher Gedankenäußerung, 
nicht immer von der Schule mitgebracht. Es ist un- 
denldiar, daß der Universitätsprofessor diese Dinge in 
seinem Hauptseminar erst lehren soll. Deshalb muß ihm 
eine „angelernte" Teilnehmerschaft zugeführt werden, 
die bereits in den Anfängerübungen die allgemeinsten 
Einstellungen und Handgriffe geübt hat. Ich gestehe, 
daß ich mich unter diesem Gesichtspunkt mit einem 
Gedanken zu befreunden beginne, den ich bisher aus der 
alten Universitätsidee heraus entschieden abgelehnt 
habe: nämUch mit der Einführung von Zwischen- 
prüfungen. Sie haben nicht nur den Wert, die Tüch- 
tigeren auszusieben und sie dem höheren „Grad" zuzu- 
führen, sondern sie dienen auch der Selbstprüfung, zu 



25 



i 



li 



'i 



i 



der der Student bei dem heute herrschenden System 
während eines langen Studiums viel zu selten Gelegen- 
heil erhält. Die Folge ist, daß auch die Abstoßung der 
Ungeeigneten zu spät erfolgt. Berufstragödien wie die, 
daß jemand erst am Schluß der praktischen Ausbil- 
dungszeit seine Unfähigkeit für den gewählten Beruf 
einsieht, haben hierin ihre Wurzel. Der alte Liberalis- 
mus unseres Verfahrens hatte Sinn bei einer überseh- 
baren Zahl. Handelt es sich um Massen, die die Be- 
rührung des Dozenten mit dem einzelnen nicht mehr ge- 
statten, so muß organisiert werden. 

Unter diesem Gesichtspunkt sind auch die sog. „gro- 
ßen Vorlesungen" für Studierende sehr verschiedener 
Fächer zu verwerfen. Sie stammen aus einer Zeit, wo 
es dem Spezialisten noch möglich war, auch seine 
Hilfswissenschaften von einem rein wissenschafthch- 
systematischen Standpunkt aus in sich aufzunehmen. 
Heute braucht der Mediziner, der Botaniker, der Apo- 
theker einen Chemievortrag, der ihn auf die gerade 
für ihn wichtigen Methoden und Resultate hinleitet. 
Keine didaktische Kunst vermag selbst eine Philosophie- 
vorlesung für all die verschiedenen Mentalitäten, die 
sie treffen soll, gleichmäßig geeignet zu gestalten. Da- 
her die viel bemerkte innere Unfruchtbarkeit der Be- 
schäftigung von fachwissenschaftUch Interessierten mit 
der Philosophie. 

Wenn alle hier geäußerten Vorschläge in der Richtung 
lagen, die Universität in einem guten und berechtigten 
Sinne pädagogischer zu machen, so wird freilich auch 



36 



• 



eine Abänderung der Staatsprüfungen damit verbunden 
sein müssen. In vielen Gebieten kommt es noch heute 
vor, daß über das Ergebnis eines vieljährigen Studiums, 
über den inneren Berufswert oder -unwert eines Men- 
schen nur auf Grund einer einstündigen Berührung, 
ohne sonstige persönliche Kenntnis, entschieden wird. 
Das ist für ein Zeitalter, das sich seines psychologischen 
Verständnisses und seiner Auslesemethoden rühmt, ein 
„Skandal der reinen Vernunft". Aber wir überschreiten 
damit die Grenze unseres Themas. — 

Der Grundgedanke, von dem meine Anregungen ge- 
tragen sind, stellt sich im Rückblick dar als ein entschie- 
denes Bekenntnis zu der Idee der deutschen Universität, 
die in deutschen Formen nichts anderes ist als die Idee 
der platonischen Akademie. Beide sind geboren aus der 
Überzeugung, daß Menschen von höherer Kulturverant- 
wprtun^ innerlich dazu erweckt sein müssen, aus der 
Wahrheit zu leben. Der Wahrheitssinn ist nicht eine 
der vielen mögUchen Ideologien, d.h. der Gedanken- 
bildungen, mit denen man sich in der Welt durchsetzen 
kann. Sondern die Wahrheit soll sich im Menschen und 
durch ihn in der Welt durchsetzen; mit ihr die Ge- 
rechtigkeit und das Gute überhaupt. Denn diese drei sind 
untrennbar. Mag diese Wahrheit uns im Ergebnis nie 
rein beschieden sein: wenn das Suchen nach ihr nicht 
an der Wurzel des Bemühens gesessen hat, so ist es 
nichts als Sophistik und geistige Klopffechterei, was 
herauskommt. Wenn wir also unter diese Idee eines sich 
selbstüberwindenden, der Sache und ihrem Gesetz die- 



27 



A 



( 



'. 



;M 



I ■ 



l 



if 



iS 



1< 



nenden Wahrheltsuchens herabsinken, so ist ein ewiges 
Licht erloschen, das der Menschheit schon einmal sicht- 
bar geworden war. Schwerlich wird jemand sich gegen 
das Ziel der Wahrheit in den Naturwissenschaften ver- 
härten. In den Geistes- und Gesellschaftswissenschaften 
aber möchte man wieder in die Übersetzung zurück- 
fallen, die das griechische xpeixxcov mit „mächtiger * 
statt mit „besser" wiedergibt. Und damit wären wir wie- 
der bei der Auseinandersetzung, die schon vor 2/^00 Jah- 
ren gespielt hat und zu deren Trägern Plato damals 
Sokrates und Polos-Kallikles machte. Wohin wir in die- 
sem Streit gehören, ist uns keinen Augenblick zweifel- 
haft. 

Liegt also hier das Ewigkeitsmoment im deutschen 
Universitätsgedanken, so bedarf es doch immer neuer 
Formen, um die Erweckung dieser Idee dem Leben, der 
wechselnden Geistesart der Menschen und den Besonder- 
heiten der geschichtlich-gesellschaftlichen Lage anzu- 
passen, zugleich aber auch den neuen Anwendungs- 
bereichen gerecht zu werden. Dieses Wirksammachen 
der Idee auf den besten uns möglichen Wegen, die päd- 
agogische Besinnung über unser Verfahren mit den 
Menschen, gehört auch zu unseren Pflichten. Und in 
dieser Hinsicht dürfen die Formen nicht starr werden. 

Vielleicht bedarf es ausdrücklicher Erwähnung, daß 
die Hüter der deutschen Universität nicht im entfernte- 
sten danach fragen, aus welchen gesellschaftlichen Schich- 
ten ihre Jünger herkommen. Ja es ist ihr beglückendstes 
Erlebnis, wenn der Funke der echten Wissenschaft, die 



28 



1 



immer auch gestaltend ist, in solchen Seelen zündet, die 
einer bisher unervveckten gesellschaftlichen Schicht ange- 
hören. Man sende uns so viele von ihnen, als nur kom- 
men können. Freilich haben wir ihnen nichts anderes zu 
bieten, als unser eigenes Bemühen um Wahrheit und 
Erkenntnis. Wer da meint, dieser Geist der Wahrheit 
mache untaugHch zum Leben, mit dem werden wir ver- 
geblich Verständigung suchen. Denn wir deuten Goethes 
berülmiten Satz so, daß das Wahre immer fruchtbar ist |^ 
Aber wir können nicht zugeben, daß das Fruchtbare, 
verstanden als das liier und jetzt NützHche, deshalb auch 
schon immer im höheren Sinne wahr ist. 



r 

r 



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1 



VERLAG VON QUELLE & MEYER IN LEIPZIG 



EDUARD SPRANGER 

Psychologie 
des Jugendalters 

13. Auflage. 375 Seiten. In Leinenband M. 9. — 

„Dieses Buch verdient die Beachtung, die es gefunden, 
in vollem Maße. Rückt es doch eine Epoche des Menschen- 
lebens, die ein jeder gelebt hat, und die nicht vielen be- 
kannt ist, aus dem trügerischen Helldunkel in pracht- 
volle Klarheit. Klug und verständig abwägend, weiß 
es die heikelsten Probleme mit feinem Takt und warmem 
sittHchem Empfinden darzustellen. Aber auch die Ab- 
schnitte über die religiöse Entwicklung, die Weltanschau- 
ung des Jugendlichen und viele andere greifen hinein ins 
volle Menschenleben. Hier spricht ein Psychologe, der 
mehr als Fachmann, der wirklich Seelenkenner 



ist.* 



Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 



Kultur und Erziehung 

Gesammelte pädagogische Aufsätze 

11.— 14. Tausend. 306 Seiten. In Leinenband M. 7.60 

„Das Wesen des Erziehers Hegt in einem doppelten Eros; 
in der Liebe zu den geistigen Werten und in der Liebe 
zu den sich entwickelnden Seelen, in denen es produk- 
tive Wertmöghchkeiten ahnt. Durch diese Formel läßt sich 
auch Eduard Sprangers pädagogisches Wirken charakte- 
risieren. Das vorliegende Buch, das einen ausgezeich- 
neten Einblick in die gesamte Forschungsarbeit Spran- 
gers gewährt, zeigt, wie er die Liebe zu den geistigen 
Werten zu wecken vermag, wie er zugleich auch die Er- 
zieher mit Verständnis und Liebe zu der heranwachsenden 

Jugend erfüllt." Zeitschrift für pädagogische Psychologie 






'I I 



I 



VERLAG VON QUELLE & MEYER IN LEIPZIG 



EDUARD SPRANG ER 

Das deutsche Bildungsideal 
der Gegenwart 



^g 



in geschichtsphilosophischer Beleuchtung 

Sonderdruck aus „Die Erziehung" 

2. Aufl. 75 Seiten. Geheftet M. 3.—. In Leinenbd. M. 4.— 

„Verfasser behandelt hier die Kernfragen unseres geistigen 
Daseins. Er untersucht die Kräfte unseres geistigen Le- 
bens und kommt zu der Feststellung, daß kein Realismus 
Bildung zu heißen verdient, der nicht aus einer Mensch- 
heitsform heraus gesucht und gelebt wird, und daß kein 
Humanismus in die Tiefe geht, der sich nicht am Ab- 
soluten der ethischen Verpflichtung und der Gotteser- 
fahrung entzündet hat." Archiv für Volksbildung 

Die Verschulung Deutschlands 

Sonderdruck aus „Die Erziehung" 

2. Auflage. 16 Seiten. Geheftet M. 1.— 

„Hier handelt es sich also um die Zukunft der Volksge- 
samtheit, und daher kann allen gar nicht dringend genug 
geraten werden, diese kleine Schrift recht eingehend zu 
studieren und mit Worten und Taten einer Gefahr ent- 
gegenzuarbeiten, der unser überorganisiertes Schulwesen 

mit vollen Segeln entgegeneilt." Schulbote für Hessen 

Gedanken über Lehrerbildung 

2. Auflage. 76 Seiten. Geheftet M. 2.— 

„Sprangers Schrift hat das Verdienst, eine 
rege öffentliche Diskussion über die Frage der Lehrer- 
bildung veranlaßt zu haben. Wie man sich zu seinen Vor- 
schlägen auch immer stellen mag: sie sind der An- 
stoß gewesen, daß die verschiedenartigen Ansichten 
in dieser Frage sich deutlicher aussprachen, prinzipieller 
wurden, so daß die Gegensätze schärfer hervortraten und 
die Situation in dieser Frage eine geklärtere wurde." 

Zeitschrift für pädagogische Psychologie 



J 



M 



\ I 



l 

\ 



1. Jhdguosc der hJiiffkcit 



i=) 



fast iihei'piiistiniinend; ( ■ ) iiiclit selir VfMscliieden. 



17 











Ta 


belle 


2 










Paar 
Xr. 


i 1 




= et 






il 

.X. 2 


II- 




i 5f' 


mm* 


1 


^ 


= 


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— 


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( X r 


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( = ) 


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( X) 


( ■- ) 


( x) 


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15 


X 


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1 = 


( = ) 


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( X ) 


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= h 


edeiitet 


: iihereiiistiinmend : 


X 


ver.sc 


liiedeii; 









Diese Zusanimenstellimg zeigt sehr schön in fast bildhafter 
Form das Wesen und den Wert der Ahnliehkeitsdiagnose. Das 
homogene l^ild der (Jleiehheitszeiehen bei den E. Z. wird nur an 
wenigen Stellen unterbrochen durch kleine Verschiedenheiten. Bei 
den Z. Z. dagegen ist kein Paar, das nicht in mindestens .") geniseh 
bedingten Merkmalen Verschiedenheiten aufwiese. Von ernstlichen 
Schwierigkeiten der Eiigkeitsdiagnose kann also bei diesen 20 Zwil- 
lingspaaren nicht die Rede sein. Kleinere Schwierigkeiten sollen 
immerhin erwähnt werden : 

Bei J\aar 4 ist die Haut bei der im ganzen zarteren a etwas 
gelblich-blasser als bei der robusteren b; auch ist der Gesichts- 
ausdruck bei a zarter, nervöser als })ei b. Jk^ide haben aber eine 
in Form und Ausdehnung cähnliche Rosacea und stimmen auch 
in den übrigen Testmerkmalen völlig iiberein. einschließlich Fa- 
])ilIarnHister. An der P^ineiigkeit dieses Paares würden wir nie 

IJeiheft (>! zur Zoitscliiift für antrewandto Psycholos^ie 2 



18 



V. Ergebnisse. A. Allgemein' Zwillingsforsrhung 



ZW 



eifeln ; die kleinen Verschiedenheiten hissen sich um so eher als 
modifikatorisch bedingt erklären, als diese Zwillinge recht ver- 
schiedene innere und äußere Schicksak^ gehabt haben. 

Die Irisfar])e bei Paar Nr. 7 konnnt bei beiden Zwillingen dem 
Muster 1:5 der Augenfarbentafel von Martin am nächsten; die Ins 
von b ist aber ganz leicht mehr pigmentiert als die von a. Auch 
im T\a])illarnmsterbild sind kleine Verschiedenheiten, die zwar 
nicht unbedingt gegen Eineiigkeit s])rechen. die aber doch bei E. Z. 
selten sind. Nehmen wir hinzu, daü die Kör])ergröße und einige 
sonstige anthropologische Daten recht verschieden sind, und daß a 
intellektuell deutlich leistungsfähiger ist als b. so nmß in diesem 
Falle die Frage der Eiigkeit doch etwas schwieriger erscheinen. 
Die Entscheidung für Eineiigkeit stützt sich bei diesem Paare auf 
die Tatsache, daß außer den 1) TestnuM-kmalen der Tabelle, in denen 
diese Zwillinge übei'einstinnnen (was bei Z. Z. schon ganz auffallend 
und ungewöhnlich wäre) genügend weitere Übereinstimnumgen 
bemerkenswerter Art vorhanden sind (z. B. Vorhandensein und 
Verteilung von Sonnners])rossen. Throraxform. Mammae. Nagel- 
falzka])illaren usw.). Vielleicht haben bei diesem Paare schon in 
utero besondere modifizierende Einflüsse vorgeherrscht. Es wurde 
von der Mutter der Zwillinge nämlich angegeben, daß es sich eigent- 
lich um Drillinge gehandelt hätte, von denen die eine Frucht als 
verkiunmerte Totgeburt zur Welt gekommen sei. Auch sei hervor- 
gehoben, daß die kleinere, intellektuell tief erstehende b als erste und 
in Kopflage geboren wurde, a dagegen 7 Stunden sj)äter als Steiß- 
lage. 

Hervorzuheben ist schließlich das i^uir 1(1. Hier liegt eine 
völlige Übereinstimmung aller vorwiegend genisch bedingten Merk- 
male vor bei einer auffallenden Verschiedenheit des ganzen Habitus, 
des Kräftezustandes und zum Teil auch des psychischen Verhaltens, 
a ist ziemlich kräftig, hat gut ausgebildete Muskulatur und ge- 
nügendes Fettpolster, b dagegen nuiß als asthenische Kümmerform 
bezeichnet werden (s. Abb. 3 auf S. 23). Psychisch macht a einen 
etwas ausgeglicheneren, b einen ges])annteren Eindruck; daneben 
sind aber auch ])sychisch so auffallende und tiefgreifende Ähnlich- 
keiten vorhanden, wie sie bei Z. Z. kaum beobachtet werden. Eine 
Erklärung für die Verschiedenheit dieser E. Z. liegt nahe: b, der 
von jeher kleiner und schwächer war als a, hat ein kombiniertes 
Mitralvitium. Wie und wann dieses Vitium erworben wurde, 
war nicht festzustellen. Daß es einen nachhaltigen und vielleicht 



J 



/, Piagfiose der Eiigkeit 



h) 



schon sehr fridien Einfluß auf die ganze Entwicklung des Knaben 
ausgeübt hat (in utero i), muß als wahrscheinlich angesehen werden. 
Bei den Z. Z. ist ein Zweifel an der Eiigkeitsdiagnose nirgends 
zu erheben, da die festgestellten Verschiedenheiten sich größtenteils 
auf Eigenschaften beziehen, deren überwiegend genische Bedingt- 
heit nach allen Ergebnissen dei* Zwillingsforschung als gesichert 
angesehen werden kann. 





a 



Abb. 1. Eineiige ZwiMinge 



Wertvoll und unerläßlich ist es. bei allen Zwillingen die Blut- 
gruppe festzustellen, da es sich hier um ein genisch bedingtes 
Merkmal reinster Ausprägung handelt, von dem modifikatorische 
Wandlungen bisher id)erhau})t noch nicht l)ekannt sind. Nach 
allen bisher vorliegenden Erfahrungen nuiß Eineiigkeit als ausge- 
schlossen gelten, wenn die Blutgrui)pen nicht übereinstinnnen. 
Andererseits spricht die Gleichheit der Blutgruppenjillein genau so 
wenig für Eineiigkeit, wie die Übereinstimmung in anderen ein- 
zelnen Merkmalen. Die Eiigkeitsdiagnose ist eben immer eine 
Gesamtbestimmung und darf sich niemals auf die Uberein- 
stimniung in wenigen Merkmalen stützen. Da es sich bei den zur 
Agglutination führenden Eigenschaften des Blutserums und der 
Erythrocyten um Merkmale handelt, die einen einfachen domi- 
nanten Erbgang zeigen, so entspricht es durchaus der Erwartung. 

2* 



1 



( 



20 



r. luw^'nusse. A. AUgewcinv Zu'illing.sforschumj 



(laß auch (Mu Teil der Z. Z. gleiche Blutgruppen aufweisen wird. 
Das kommt bei unserem Material auch klar /.um Ausdruck : alle E.Z. 
haben iil)eieinstimmen(le l^lutgruppen von den Z. Z. zeigt (he 
Hälfte ri)ereinstimmung. die andere Hälfte Verschiedenheit der 
Blut<nu|)i)e. Ks wäre nun interessant und aufschlußreich, zu unter- 
suchen, ob die Übereinstimmung (\vv Blutgruppen bei den K. /. 
eine vol 1 kommenere ist als bei den Z. Z. mit gleicher Blutgruppe. 




n 1> 

Ahl). -. Z\\'«'i(MiLr(' Zwilliiiuc' 

Derartige Untersuchungen (piaiititativer Alt werden an unserem 
Material von IhMiti Dr. l.\i i;k z. Z. durchgeführt. Die l)isherigen 
(zahlenmäl.^ig noch ungenügenden) Hesultate scheinen in (kr Tat 
(hifin- zu s|)rechen. dal.^ die l'bci-einstimmung der Blutgiuppe bei 
den K. Z. übei- das (Qualitative hinausgeht und sich aucli ins 
Quantitative hinein eistreckt. (Bei den K. Z. fand sich häufig 
eine größere i'bereinstimmung des Titers als bei den Z. Z. mit 
gleicher Bhitgruppi.) 

2. Aii11in)|M)l<m:is(lH' Kr^cbiiissc. 

a) K()r])erl)au. AHgemeinzustand 

Das Problem (k's K(")r])erl)auty])us nimmt mit Recht in der 
jiingeren Anthropologie einen breiten Pvaum ein. Viele Fi'agen 



. 



A nf/i rojx/hxfi.sr/ic hJr(/(htii,s.se 



21 



physiologischer, pathologischer und ])syehophysischer Art haben 
eine einfacliere und biologisch tiefer l)egriin(lete Beantwortung 
erfahren, seit wir es gelei-nt. oder besser gesagt: wieder gelernt 
haben, das Morphologische und das Funkticjnale einander irgendwie 
zugeordnet zu sehen, nicht im einzelnen. s(m(kM'n bezogen auf die 
(Janzheit des lndivi(hiums. Wir dürfen aber nicht vergessen, daß 
alle diese Bemühungen von den Typusbildungen eines Akisto- 
TFj.Ks. !*()!{ lA und Thi:()i>hrast an bis zu den bahn])rechen(len Auf- 
stellungen Krhtscilmeks an der Unvollkommenheit kranken, daß 
sie noch nie mit strengen erbbiologischen Maßstäben gemessen 
worden sind. Ks ist wiederum ihr Zwillingsfoi'schung vorbehalten, 
durch umfangreiche rntersuchungsreihen aus den bisher ge- 
schaffenen Typisierungen (bis herauszuschälen, was wirklich 
genoty])iseh l)e(lingt ist. Es sei nur an die durchaus ungeklärte 
Problematik des sogenannten asthenischen oder lei)tosomen Ty})us 
erinnert. Ob es sich hierbei wirklich um einen einheitlichen Ty])us 
handelt, oder ob nicht vielmehr unter dem gleichen Namen geno- 
ty})isch und modifikatorisch bedingte ..Schmalformen'" nebenein- 
ander laufen, wird sich in Zukunft zu erweisen haben. 

Wenn es auch nicht eigentlich im Rahmen dieser Arbeit liegt, 
so soll doch zum Zwecke späterer statistischer Verweiuhmg einiges 
über den Kör])erbautypus unserer l^robanden mitgeteilt werden. 
Eine zahlenmäßige Verarbeitung wird erst l)ei der Zusammen- 
stellung eines größeren (k^rartigen Materials mögUch sein. Noch 
aus einem anck'ren (Jrunde müssen wir uns davor hüten, aus dem 
vorliegenden Material Schlüsse auf die genische Bedingtheit des 
Körperbautypus zu ziehen: unsere Probanden stehen in der über- 
wiegenden Zahl noch im Entwicklungsaltei'. in dem es zuweilen 
schwer ist. die"^Zugeh()rigkeit zu einem bestinnnten Typus festzu- 
stellen. 

Unter vorwiegender Benutzung der Einteilung und Nomen- 
klatur von Khf.tschmkr (192()a) können wir unsere Probanden in 
folgender Weise eingru])])ier(Mi (s. Tabelle 3 auf S. 22): 

Unter den E. Z. ist bei 7 Paaren (Nr. 1. 2. 5. 0. 7. S. 9) eine 
Übereinstimmung des Korperbautypus v(m a und b festzustellen. 
Zweimal finden sich kleine Unterschiede des Habitus: Bei Paar 
Nr. 3 ist a fast rein pyknisch. während bei b an eine leichte le])to- 
some Legierung zu denken ist. Und das Paar Nr. 4 ist insofern 



. «~.«i^v|#n-:wikw- 



0') 



l ' . Enjvhnlssv . A. A Uge meine Zwillinysforsch v hu 
Tabelle .S. Körperbautypus der Probanden 



2 . A nth ropolog isch c Erffchnisse 



•2H 



Nr. 



a 



A 



b 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



Leptosom = Leptosom 
Astheuiscli = Astiiem'scl» 

Pykiiiseh (=) Pykniscli (letzieit Icplosoi 

Asthenisch (=) Asthenisch (legiert athh>t 
(' berw ie^^end astheniscli = i'heiwiejzcMul astlienisch 
Le])tosom = 
Pyki lisch -athletiscli = 
Asthenisch = 
Leptosom = 

Athletisch(-Ieptosom) ( x ) Astlienisch 

l'vknisch x Astlienisch 



nY) 
isch ?) 



Le))tosom 
Pvkniscli-atiih'tiscli 

f. 

Astheniscli 
Le])tos()m 



Le|)tos()m = 

I\vknisch(-atliletiscli) ( x) 

Asthenisch (=) J^e]")tosoin 

l*yknisch(-leicht asthenisch) (=) Pykniscji 

Asthenisch = Asthenisch 

Pykiiisch-athletisch x Asthenisch 

Athletisch = Athletisch 



Le])tos()in 

Pvknisch( -leicht asthenisc 



h) 



Asthenisch x 
Athh'tisch-astluMiiscli ( x) 



Athletisch 
Asthenisch 



(,, leptosom": reiner Pi'oportioiishejirift' tili' Schmalw iichs: 
,,asthenisch"': enthält danehcii den \Vei'tl)egriff ..Kiimmerwuchs' 



•)• 



verschieden, als a rein asthenisch erscheint, (be im ganzen rol)ustere 
b a])er etwas ins Athletische hinüberspielt. 

Bemerkenswert verschieden sind die Zwillinge Nr. 10 (s. Abb. 3). 
]^ei aller morphologischer Ähnlichkeit der meisten Einzebnerkmale 
sind die rroportionen des Längen-Dicken-Wachstums bei a und b 
verschieden, a stellt einen vorwiegend athletischen Typus dar, 
dem leptosome Züge ])eigesellt sind, während b als reiner Tyi)us von 
Asthenie anges])rochen werden nmü. Daü bei b modifikatorische 
Kinflüsse einschneidende!' Art (vor allem ein schweres Vitium 
cordis) eine Rolle spielen, wurde schon im vorigen Abschnitt betont. 
Wir wissen bei den gerade im Beginn dei- Pubertät stehenden 
Kna1)en noch nicht, wie sie nach 5 Jahren aussehen werden. Sollten 
beide — was nicht unwahrscheinlich ist — ihren jetzigen Tvdus 
bei})ehalten. so würde dieses i^aar einen wertvollen Beleg für die 
Existenz einer modifikatorisch bedingten Asthenie abgeben. 
Und es würde sich durch eine größere Reihe derartiger Paare (zu 
denen in geringerem Ausmaße auch Paar Nr. 4 zu rechnen ist) 



beweisen lassen, daß Le])t()somie und Asthenie etwas durchaus 
Verschiedenes darstellen, klinisch sowohl als erbbiologisch. 

Unter den Z. 
Z. findet sich eine 
fast vollkommene 
Ubereinstinnnung 
des Kör])erbauty- 
^^ns nia* dreimal 
(Paar Nr. 12. l(i 
und IS). Bei 4 
Paaren finden sich 
mäßige Unterschie- 
de (Paar Nr. 18. 
14. IT) und 20). 
wählend :\ Paare 
(Nr. 11.17 und 19) 
einem deutlich ver- 
schiedenen Tv])us 
zu gehören. 

Weitergehende 
»Schlüsse können 
und sollen aus die- 
sen Ergebnissen . 
wie schon betont, 
nicht gezogen wer- 
den. Nicht nur 
die kleine Zahl 
hält uns davon ab. 
sondern auch die 
Tatsache, daß ju- 
gendliche und weib- 
liche Individuen sich in den nicht extremen Fällen oft sehr 
schwer in die richtige (Jru])])e einordnen lassen. 

b) Die anthropologischen Maße 

Zur Bestimmung des Umwelteinflusses auf die Körj)er'inaße ist 
ein sehr großes, völlig unausgewähltes Material notwendig. Über 
größere Zahlen verfügen in dieser Hinsicht vor allem Weitz (1924) 
und V. VERSciirER (1927). die eine große Zahl von (größtenteils 




Abh. 3. K. Z. 10 



I 



PI ' 

/ 

4 

\ 



24 



r. tJn/chnissc. A. Alhjcnir'nx' Zirilll nc/.sfor^rhiUKj 



jugendlichen) Zwillingen gerade in anthropologischer Hinsieht ein- 
gehend hearheitet hahen. Es ist aher ert'oi'derlich. daB hei allen 
weiteren Zwillingsuntersuchungen die P'eststellung der wichtigeien 
anthropologischen Maße genügend berücksichtigt wird. Wenn 
sich auch aus den einzelnen derartigen Beitrcägen keine Regel 
ableiten läßt, so geben sie doch die Möglichkeit einer s[)äteren 
größeren Zusannnenfassung mit dem Material anderer Untersucher. 
Darüberhinaus gewähren sie aber auch häufig trotz der relativ 
kleinen Zahlen einen Einl)lick in den generellen Unterschied 
zwischen den Verschiedenheiten der E. Z. einerseits uiul denen der 
Z. Z. andererseits. Die Mitteilung eines großen und zunächst etwas 
langweilig erscheinenden Zahleinnaterials läßt sich hierbei ebenso 
wenig vermeiden, wie die Errechnung der notwendigen \'ergleichs- 
zahlen. 

Die Tabellen 4 und .")' geben zunächst das ermittelte Material 
an anthropologischen Maßen wieder, soweit sie in der nachfolgenden 
Verrechnung berücksichtigt werden. Einige gebi'äuchliche Maße 
(Ohrhöhe des Kopfes. Breite der Hand und des Fußes) wurden aus 
der statistischen Verarbeitung fortgelassen, da sie bei einigen 
Zwillingspaaren nicht aufgenommen wurden, wodurch der ..Fehler 
der kleinen Zahl" unvei'hältnismäßig vergrößert würde. 

Zur vergleichenden Bearbeitung der absoluten Zahlen l)e- 
dienten wir uns der von v. Vkusciuhk (192r)c) angegebenen mitt- 
leren prozentualen Abweichung. Es wurde also bei jedem 
l*aare für jedes Maß dvr Mittelwei-t festgestellt und dann die Ab- 
weichung vom Mittelwert in l^iozenten des Mittelwertes ausge- 
drückt. Diese Rechnung ergibt die ..durchschnittliche prozentuale 
Abweichung' für jedes Zwillingsi)aar. Die ..mittlere })rozentuale 
Abweichung ' stellt nun (\vn Mittelwert aus den durchschnittlichen 
prozentualen Abweichungen dar. Diese Form der Verarbeitung 
wurde gewählt, da sie bei relativer Einfachheit für die meisten 
Vergleichszwecke genügt. Außerdem ermöglicht sie den Vergleich 
mit den Resultaten anderer Untersucher, die größtenteils diese 
Methode angenonnnen haben. Zur Kritik der ..mittleren pro- 
zentualen Abweichung" ist nur zu sagen, daß sie dem wichtigen 
Faktor des ..wahrscheinlichen Meßfehlers" nicht Rechnung trägt 
wodurch die Abweichung bei den meisten kleinen Maßen (z. B 
Gesichtsmaße) relativ zu groß erschenit. da hier der prozentuale 

J Siehe Anhang' S. KU u. 102. 



2. Anthropolo(fische Ergebnisse 



25 



Meßfehler viel größer ist. als bei den gi()ßeren KörjUMinaßen. Eine 
ents})rechende Korrektur dei- Formel für die mittlere |)r()zentuale 
Abweichung wäre also für die Zukunft zu erwägen, könnte aller- 
dings nur von anthro})()logischer Seite vorgenommc^n werden, die 
in der Lage ist, den durchschnittlichen Meßfehler an sehr großem 
Material zu ermitteln. 

Die durchschnittliche prozentuale Abweichung der 
einzelnen Maße ist aus den Tabellen (> (E. Z.) und 7 (Z. Z.)' zu 
ersehen. 

Ermitteln wir nun aus diesen Werten die mittlere })rozentuale 
Abweichung fiu' die einzelnen Maße, so wird ein direkter Vergleich 
der entsprechenden Zahlen der E. Z. mit denen der Z. Z. möglich. 
Diese vergleichende Aufstellung l)ringt die Tabelle S-. 

Ein Verizleich dieser Zahlen mit denen von v. VERscurKH wäre 
sinnlos, da unser Material (bei dem die Bearbeitung der anthi'o- 
pologischen Daten nicht im Mittelpunkt dei- Aufgabe stand) viel 
zu gering ist. Unter unseren E. Z. sind einige i*aare (besonders 
Nr. 7 und Nr. 10), bei denen modifikatorische Einflüsse in be- 
sondei'em Ausmaße wirksam geworden zu sein scheinen. Derartige 
Fälle belasten eine kleine Statistik sehi* nach dei" Seite dei" Diver- 
genz, während sie in einem großen Material viel mehr ausgeglichen 
würden. Es wurde daher bei den Werten für die E. Z. in Tabelle S 
immer in Klammern der entsprechende Wert eingesetzt, der sich 
ergibt, wenn das sehr aus dem Rahmc^i noinialer Entwicklung 
fallende Paar 10 nicht mit berücksichtigt wird. 

Trotz der erwähnten Belastung der Statistik der E. Z. zeigt 
die Zusammenstellung in fast allen Maßen eine größere mittlere 
prozentuale Abweichung bei den Z. Z. gegenüber den E. Z. Nur 
bei 8 Maßen (Länge der vorderen Runi{)fwan(l. iJinge der rechten 
Hand und physiognomische (iesichtshöhe) ist der Wert bei den E. Z. 
größer als bei den Z. Z. Die physiognomische Gesichtshöhe erweist 
sich auch hier als ein unzuverlässiges Maß; der wahrscheinliche 
Meßfehler ist bei diesem Maße schon so groß (infolge Verschieden- 
heit des Haaransatzes), daß es aus einer sinnvollen (Jegenid)er- 
stellung fortbleiben nniß. Bezüglich der anderen beiden Maße 
muß der Fehler der kleinen Zahl für das Resultat verantwortlich 
gemacht werden. Nach den Untersuchimgen von v. VEHsciirEH 
kann es keinem Zweifel unterliegen, daß die mittlere ])rozentuale 



1 Siehe Anhaim S. 103. 



2 Siehe Aiihan^r S. 104. 



\ 



26 



r. Ergebnisse. A. All</emeine ZwiUingsforscJnmff 



2. Anthropologische Ergebnisse 



27 



Abweichiuig der Länge der vorderen Riunpfwand und der Länge 
der rechten Hand bei Z. Z. deutlich größer (etwa doppelt so groß) 
ist. als bei E. Z.. wenn ein sehr großes, ziemlich homogenes Material 
der Berechmuig zugrunde gelegt wird. 

Irgendwelche Schlüsse auf die Modifikationsbreite der einzelnen 
Maße lassen sich aus unseren Zahlen noch nicht ziehen. Hier wird 
die Zusammenstellung mit weiteren, im Gange befindlichen Unter- 
suchungen al)zuwarten sein. 

Li der Tabelle O' werden schließlich noch einige Index- 
werte angegeben. 

Der Index H ( Kuinpflaiijz*' in Prozent (Ua- Körpergröße) enthält den 
erwähnten Fehler iK^zü^lieh der Länge der vorderen Hnnipfwand in ahge- 
.selnväehtein (Jrade. Die anderen beiden Indizes zeigen die gioüere Ab- 
weielnnig der Z. Z. gegenüber den K. Z. deutlieh. Dies ist um so eher als 
branc]i])ares Resultat zu werten als unsere Zahlem'eihe der K. Z. Jiaeh der 
Seite der Divergenz unverhältnismäßig stark belastet ist. 

Es sei nochmals betont, daß das gesamte hier mitgeteilte 
Zahlenmaterial niu' einen Überblick tuid eine Handhabe zur 
s])äteren J^earbeitung in gr(")ßerem Rahmen gewähren soll. Alle 
Schlüsse über die Modifikationsbreite der einzelnen Merkmale 
müssen hier noch unterbleiben. 

c) Sonstige Eigenschaften 

Im Anschhiß an die ^Ltteilimg der anthropologischen Maße 
seien einige weitere körperliche Eigenschaften bezüglich ihrer 
Konkordanz oder Diskordanz bei den Zwillingspaaren aufgeführt. 
Dieser Abschnitt soll in keiner Weise Vollständiges bringen; schon 
deshalb nicht, weil ein großer Teil gei'ade der wichtigeren Merknuile 
(Papillannuster. Ka})illarf()rmen. Stigmata) in besonderen Ab- 
.schnitten behandelt werden. Die meisten Pigment- und Jk4iaarimgs 
merkmale wurden außerdem schon im Abschnitt 1 dieses Kapitels 
(s. Tab. 2. S. 17) genannt. 

Fürdie folgenden Mitteilungen gelten im allgemeinen folgende, 
in der Zwillingsforschung eingebürgerte Zeichen: 

+ + = positive Konkordanz: +( + ) = das Merkmal ist bei 

einem Träger schwächer, beim anderen deutlich; H Diskordanz : 

( + ) — = bei einem angedeutet, beim anderen fehlend: ( — ) — = bei 
einem s})in'weise; = negative Konkordanz. 

Bei Merkmalen, für die nicht so sehr das Vorhandensein oder 



1 Siehe Anhang S. 105. 



Nichtvorhandensein in Frage kommt, sondern die (Qualität, wird 
folgende, von Lknz (1 1)2(5) vorgeschlagene Bezeichnungsweise be- 
nutzt: -- = Ähnlichkeit; x = Unähnlichkeit : (^) = bei beiden 
vorhanden, aber in verschiedener Stärke; (x) = bei einem an- 
gedeutet, beim andern fehlend. 

\Virl)el- und Scheitelbildung des Kopfhaares: 

K.Z. S -. 2 (-). (I ( ; ). >:. 

( Doppelw irl)el tand sich eiiunal u)id zwar bei K. 7j. ++) 
Z. Z. 1 -. 2 (-). 2 ( ■ ). r> V. 

Begrenzung des Ko])fhaares: 
K. Z. <) -. 1 (-). U ( ), ... 
Z. Z. 2 -. 2 (-). 3 ( ■ ). :i X. 

E X t r e m i t ä t e n b e h a a r u n g : 

IvZ. :) ++.4 (+)(+), 1 (— )~, 2 . 

Z. Z. I ++, 1 (+)(+). 2 ^-(+). 2 (+)-. 2 (— )— . 2 . 

S c h a m b e h a a r u n g : 

1. Stärke: 

K. z. n ++, 3 (+)(+), 1 ( ")— . 

Z. Z. 3 +-I-. 2 (+)(+), 3 +(+). 1 (+)--, 1 (— )— . 

2. Form: 
K. Z. 10 -. 

Z. Z. 4 -. :i ( -). 2 ( ). 1 . 

Ausbildung der Mammae: 

K. Z. 4 -f-+, 1 (+)(+). 1 ( +)— • 
z. z. :i ++, (+)(+). .") +(+). 

Hochstand der linken Mamma: 

K. Z. l{ )( — ). H ,4 ; (Hoelistand dei- reehten Mamma : I t 4). 

Z. Z. 1 ++,1 (—)(--). 2 +— , 4 . 

Form des Mundes: 

i^:. z. 7 --. :i (^). ( > ), ■ . 

Z. Z. -. 2 (-). 3 ( ■, ). ö ■, . 

H a 1 1 u X V a 1 g u x : 

K.Z. 2++, 5 (4-){+), 1 (—)(), 2 (also alle konkordant). 

Z. Z. 2 ++, 3 (+)(+), 2 +(4-), 1 +— , 2 . 

Pedes plani: 

P:.Z. 2 +4-, 2 +(+),() . y 

Z. Z. 2 ++, 1 +{+). 1 -f— /l (+)—, 5 . 

Cubita valga: 

E. Z. 3 4-+. 6 (+)(+), 1 +(+). 

Z. Z. 2 -f +. 3 ( 4-)(+). 4 +(4-). 1 (4-)-. 

Linkshändigkeit: 

fand sieh unter unseren Probanden nur einmal, nämlich bei Nr. 4b. 
(4a ist Heelitshänderin). 



■ 0mt » i w * 



'■ y F*»» 



28 



r. Ergebnisse. A. AUgcnwinv ZirilllHUsjorschung 



o. Die rupilUirniusler der Fingerheeren 



9() 



Hüdeiistellung: 

K. Z. la reclits tief(n- als links. 11) ( ilriclistaiid. 
Da ,, .. . !ll) links tiefer. 

Kla ., .. . lol) links tiefer. 

/. /. IS und lUa und 1) links tiefer. 

E]) he Helen : 

i:. z. 1 ++,9 . 

Z. Z. l +(+), 1) . 

Akne rosacea: 

Iv Z. 1 +(+), 1 (+)—, 8 . 

Z. Z. 1 +— , 1) . 

Akne vulgaris: 

K. Z. 

Z. Z. 1 + +, 2 +— . 
Seborrhoe des behaarten Kopfes: 

K. Z. 

Z. Z. 1 +( +). 2 +— . 

Seboi ihoisehes Ekzem des (Jesiclites: 
K. Z. 1 -r^ 
Z. Z. . 

Wangenrötnng: 

K.Z. 2 ++, .S (+)(+). 4 -f(+). 1 (-)(--). 
Z. Z. I +-f, 3 (+)(+)-•">+( + ). • + (- )• 
Form i\vv Ohren: 

K. Z. 10 -. ( -). ( ■ ), X. 
Z. Z. 2 -, :i ( -). :M ■ ). 2 X. 

Stellung der Ohicn: 

K. Z. !)-.!( -), ( ). ■;. 
Z. Z. 7 -. :M -). <» ( ). ■;. 

VergroÜerung dei' K aehentonsi 1 len : 

K. Z. :i r +, 1 ( -r)(+), 2 (darunter I*) 4-(^t-), 1 "( +)— , 1 +— , 2- 

Z. Z. -f+, (+)(+), :i (darunt(>r I*) +(+), (+)— , 1 • — 

* -^ bei einem früiier ektomicit ; 

= ,, l^eiden früher ektoniiert. 

1)1 utd ruck : 

K. Z. :i -. 4 ( -), 1 ( ). I X. 

Z. Z. I -. .-) (^), 2 ( ,■ ), 2 X. 

Pulszahl : 

K. Z. 2 -. 4 (-). 2 ( X ), 2 X. 
Z. Z. I -.()(-). I ( - ). 2 X. 

Anliang: 

Beginn der Menses: 

E.. Z. 2 --, :J (-),!( X), X. 
Z. Z. -. 1 (-), I { ■ ), 4 X. 



Stärke der Menses: 

K. Z. 4 -. 1 ( -). «» ( ). 1 X. 

Z. Z. 1 -, (-),!(•). 2 X. 

Regelmäßigkeit der Menses: 
i:. z. :i + +, 3 . 

z. z. :i + +, 1 +— . 

Stimmbrueh: (ö mänidiche Paare) 

\\. Z. 2 --. I noch nicht. 
Z. Z. 1 ( -). I X. 

:i Die Papinanmisler der Finnerheereii 

Die IVdeutung der l*a])illarmuster der Einger als feinste, 
während (\i^^ ganzen Lel)ens unveränderliche Jndividualeigen- 
schaften wurde von (Jamon (ISI)I. 1S92. iSiKi) erkannt. Die Zwil- 
lingsforsehung und die Erforschung i\vv Papillarnnister siiul also 
gewissermaßen ( Jeschwister. Abkömmlinge desselben Sch()])fers. 
Schon (J ALTON selbst brachte diese seine beiden geistigen ..Kinder" 
in P>eziehung zueinander, indem er die Pa])illarmuster der Einger 
von Zwillingen als ein besonders geeignetes Objekt der Erblich- / 
keitsforschung bezeichnete (1S1)2). Dei' amerikanische Eorscher I 
Wii.DKK hat dann eine Pveihe von Zwillingspaaren daktyloskopisch 
untersucht (HMI2. DM)4. HM)S) inid hat festgestellt, daß die t'ber- 
einstinnnung der Muster bei E. Z. eine bedeutend größere ist als bei 
Z. Z. Diese Untersuchungen blieben noch beim Studium des rein 
Mor])hol()gischen. also bei der Feststellung der Art imd des Aus- 
maßes der Verschiedenheiten und Übereinstinuninigen stehen, ein 
Standi)unkt. über den beis])ielsweise Ekvkn im Jahre 11)24 iu)ch 
nicht hinausgekommen war. Inzwischen (1914) hatte jedoch Poll 
eijie große Zahl von Zwillings])aaren auch bezüglich ihrer Pa])illar- 
muster studiert und die Ei'age der Erblichkeit der Muster von neuen 
Oesichtspmikten aus in Angriff genonnnen. Ergab sich nicht mit 
der der Feststellung der großen Übereinstimnnmg der E. Z. in ihren 
Papillarmustern zufrieden, sondern er glaubte gerade in den Ver- 
schiedenheiten noch Verwandtschaften zu entdecken, die in der 
Ähnlichkeitsbestimmung weiterführen kramten. Diese Ansicht hat 
sich durch weitere, seit DUS planmäßig fortgeführte Studien (vor- 
läufig mitgeteilt von Vom. und LAn-u 1929) bestätigen lassen und 
steht in prinzipieller Beziehung in Übereinstimmung mit Bonnhvh: 
(192:5. 1924. 1929). die eine der besten Kennerinnen der Erblich- 
keitsverhältnisse der l»ai)illarmuster ist. Entgegen der Ansicht von 



■•••**«fe. 



k 



Hi) 



V. Ergebnisse. A. Allgemeine ZwiUüujsforschun{f 



\ 



Leven. daß die Papillarmiister rein genisch bedingt seien, die E. Z. 
also regelmäßig Verschiedenheiten der Erbmasse haben müßten, 
kann heute als sichere Erkenntnis gelten, daß mir bestinnnte 
(.^rundeigenschaften dei- Pa])illarnuister genisch ])edingt sind. Es 
scheint, daß feinere modifikatorische Einflüsse schon in einem sehr 
frühen Stadium der Entwicklung der Mu.ster wirksam werden und 
zu Verschiedenheiten der Muster führen können, die mm keineswegs 
willkürlich sind. Es scheint daher geboten, mehr als es bisher ge- 
schehen ist. bei Zwillingsuntersuchungen auch die LVpillainuister- 
befunde einer eingehenden erbbi()k)gischen Analyse zu unterziehen, 
oder besser: sie von besonders geschulten Kennern der ganzen 
Fragestellung l)earbeiten zu lassen. Das bei den Hamburger Zwil- 
lingsstudien gewonnene und laufend zu vermehrende daktylo- 
skopische Material wird von Voll und seinem Schüler Laihu ver- 
arbeitet. Hier sollen die von mir erhobenen Befunde deshalb nur 
in gröberen Umrissen und ohne sj)ezialistisches Eindringen be- 
arbeitet werden, und zwar lediglich unter dem (Gesichtswinkel der 
Eiigkeitsbestimmung. 

Nach der Ansicht von Bo.n.nhvii:. die übrigens die Funde von 
PoLL (H)14a) nicht richtig gedeutet hat. sind nicht die Muster 
selbst (Wirbel. Schleife. Jk)gen) und ihre Richtung (ulnar oder 
radial) genisch bedingt, sondern die Form (Verhcältnis von Breite 
zu Höhe, also: elliptische oder circuläre Form) und die Quantität 
(Leistenzahl). Diese AniuUime stinnnt gut zu der Auffassung von 
PoLL und Lauer (und wird durch sie auf eine natürlichere, inhalts- 
vollere Formel gebracht), daß nämlich zwischen Bogen und Schleife 
einerseits und zwischen Schleife und Wirbel andererseits Zwischen- 
formen bestehen. Deren verwandtschaftliche Nähe kann be- 
stinnnt werden durch einen ., Maßstab", der etwa folgendermaßen 
aussieht (Abb. 4): 

Bogen (a) und Wirbel (e) stehen an den beiden Enden des 
Maßstabes und sind als hochgradig unv^erwandt anzusehen. Das 
Schleifenmuster (c) steht in der Mitte und steht durch die Zwischen- 
formen (b und d) in einer verwandtschaftlichen Beziehung zu den 
beiden Polen, wobei der Grad der Verwandtschaft mit der Ent- 
fernung vom Mittelpunkt des Maßstabes abnimmt. Die Auf- 
deckung dieser Zusammenhänge gestattet nun bei erbbiologischen 
Untersuchungen an Papillarmustern ein sinnvolleres und weniger 
mechanisches Vorgehen, als es bei rein diskriptivem Vorgehen bisher 
möglich war; es bringt einen klaren Zusammenhang in Tatsachen- 



3. Die Papillarnu ister der Fingerheeren 



31 



komplexe, die bisher als einfaches Nebeneinander dastanden. 
LTnd es gestattet vor allem eine tiefer reichende Erfassung des 
genisch Bedingten, eine Tatsache, die uns schon bei Zwillings- 
untersuchungen zugute kommt. 

Es wird in folgendem versucht, die Papillarmuster von Zwil- 
lingen zu vergleichen unter Wahrung der (Gesichtspunkte, die sich 
aus der von Pull ermittelten ,,Äquivalenzbreite'* der einzelnen 
Muster und Finger ergeben. Die Untersuchungen von Poll und 
Laikk (1029) zeigten u. a.. daß nicht nur unter korrespondierenden 
Fingern der rechten und lijiken Hand \\ echselbeziehungen be- 
stehen, sondern besonders auch zwischen Mittelfinger und Ring- 





^',*:ii 



m 









a 



Abb. 4 



finger. Ringfinger und Kleinfinger der gleichen Hand, selteii zwi- 
schen Daumen oder Zeigefinger und einem der übrigen Finger, 
während Daumen und Zeigefinger unter sich wieder enger zu- 
sammenhängen. Ich habe nun diese Tatsachen mit dem erwähnten 
,,Maßstab"" zusammengefaßt zu einem Zählsystem, das beim 
Vergleich der Papillarmuster von Zwillingen die Differenzen 
quantitativ bestimmen läßt. Vergleicht man gleichnamige 
Finger von Zwillingen, so kann man die Differenz der Papillar- 
muster nach Punkten werten. Die Differenz beträgt, je nach der 
Bewertung derselben, i/4, 1 oder 2 Punkte nach folgender Wertskala: 

Art der Differenz: Punkt- 

zahl : 

Schleife — Wirbel oder Schleife — Bogen 1 

l^ogen — Wirbel 

Schleife, Wirbel oder Bogen — entsprechende Zwischenformen . ^2 

Vertauschiing von ulnar und radial 2 

Svininetrietansch zwischen rechter und linker Hand 2 

Mustertausch zwischen 3. und 4. oder 4. und 5. Fniger .... 2 

Mustertausch zwischen 1. oder 2. und einem der übrigen Finger . 1 

Mustertausch zwischen 1. und 2. Finger 2 



1 



82 



\U 



Hl 



1'. Ergebnisse. A. Allyernehte ZwUlin(jsjorschun<j 



3. Die Papillarmuster der Fi tigerbeeren 



33 





1 



Biese Skala stellt einen ersten Veisueh dai'. beim X'crgleieh dvr 
gleichnamigen P^inger von Zwillingen vom Äußerlichen und Mecha- 
nischen loszukommen. Die einzelnen Werte können allmählich 
vei'feinert und korrigiei't weiden. Auch sollen die genannten 
I'unkt/ahlen mn- gelten, wenn die Form der Muster (zirkulär oder 
elliptisch) gleich ist: im anderen Falle ist die Differenz viel höher 
zu l)ewerten. was inan vielleicht durch Multij)likation mit einer 
Konstanten ausdrücken k()nnte. 

Folgende Beis[)iele m()gen das geschilderte Zählsystem ver- 
deutlichen: 
'•"1^^= Vergleicht 

man hei diesem 

i^aaredicMustcj- 

gleichnamiger 

Finger, so findet 

^^^' ^^^^^^ man an 2 Stellen 

Differenzen dei' 
Muster, die he- 
weitet wei'den 
müssen. I^.j trägt 
l)ei I) ein hohes 

Bogennuister. 
hei a dagegen 
eine Zwischen- 
form im Sinne 
des Einl)aues 
einer kleinen 
Schleife in den 
iiii übrigen 

gleichgeformten 
Bogen. Punkt- 
zahl dieser Diffe- 
renz: >^. Eine 
ganz ähnliche 
Differenz findet 
sich am 4. Finger 
der rechten 

Hand: auch hier 
findet sieh bei 
b ein Bogen (in 







ivclits : 




Abb. r>. Pnpillannuster vo.i K. Z. (i. a oben, h uutvu 



links 



s: 







o 



3 



dem die Schleifenbildung gerade angedeutet ist, aber noch nicht 
durchdringt), bei a dagegen ist es schon zu einer eingebauten 
Schleife gekommen. Wieder eine Zwischenform, die mit H zu 
bewerten ist. Alle übrigen Finger stimmen genügend überein; es 
handelt sich fast überall um Ulnarschleifen. Nur R., trägt Bogen 
mit angedeuteter Schleifenbildung, aber bei a und b ziemlich 
übereinstimmend (vielleicht doch als 1/2 I'"»^!^^ zu bewerten, da 
bei b die Schleifenbildung fast durchgedrungen ist ?). Die Summe 
der Differenzen beträgt also bei diesem Paare 1 (1 ^2?) Punkt. 

Vergleichen 
wir die Finger 
dieses Paares 
von links be- 
ginnend, so er- 
geben sich fol- 
gende Differen- 
zen : 

L4 zeigt bei 
a einen Wirbel, 
bei b eine Schlei- 
fe; 1 Punkt. L3 
hat bei a eine 
reine Schleife. 
beibeinenBogen 
(mit ganz gerin- 
ger Andeutung 
einer Schleifen - 
bildung ? ) ; 1 
Punkt. L2 zeigt 
bei a ein Bogen- 
muster . bei b 
eine Schleife, 
die aber bei der 

Übereinstim- 
mung der Form 
des dar überlau- 
fenden Bogens 
mit dem von a 
noch als Zwi- 
schenform be- Al)b. 0. Papillarmuster von Z. Z. 20. a oben, b unten 

o 

Beiheft (11 zur Zeitschrift für antrewandte l'sycholoi^ie o 





rechts: 




2 



i) 







w 



34 



V. Ergebnisse. A. Allgemeine ZwiUinnsjorsehumj 



zeichnet werden kann; '2 l'»iikt. Lj führt bei a ein Bogennnister, 
bei b ein Schleifenmuster; l I^mkt. Rj hat bei a eine Schk'ife, bei 
b als gut passendes Zwischennnister eine Do])pelschleife : \^ Punkt. 
Und schließlich steht noch bei R4 dem AN'irbel bei a eine Schleife 
bei b gegenüber 1 Punkt. Die übrigen Muster stimmen gut ül)er- 
ein. Summe der Differenzen: 5 Punkte. 

Der Vergleich der Papillarmuster aller Paare ergab das in 
Tabelle 10 wiedergegebene Resultat: 

Tabelle 10 



Paar Nr 



ruiiktzalil 



Paar Nr. 



Punktzahl 




Der Unterschied der Differenzen bei den E. Z. gegenüber denen 
der Z. Z. springt in die Augen. Die Gesamtabweichung aller E. Z. 
beträgt zusammen 12 Punkte, die der Z. Z. 47I/2 l'imkte. also fast 
viermal soviel ! 

1 Paar der Z. Z. liegt unterhalb des Mittelwertes der E. Z. 
Dieses Paar (Nr. 18), ein Paar jüdischer Knaben, ist somatisch 
von großer Verschiedenheit neben einigen konstitutionellen 
Übereinstimmungen. Das Paar 12 der Z. Z. liegt nicht weit über 
dem Mittelwert der E. Z. Diese Schwestern zeigen auch sonst 
somatisch große Übereinstimnunigen, müssen aber als sicher 
zweieiig angesprochen werden. Verschiedenheiten der Form des 
Musters (Verhältnis der Höhe zur Breite) fanden sich bei den E.Z 
niemals, bei den Z. Z. aber auch nur zweimal in geringem Umfange, 
einmal in deutlicherem Grade. 

Sichere gesetzmäßige Folgerungen lassen sich aus diesen Er- 
gebnissen noch nicht ziehen. Sollten sich jedoch bei großen Unter- 
suchungsreihen die Abweichungen der E.Z. stets in so engen 
Grenzen halten, wie wir es hier gefunden haben, so würde diese 



4. Die Form der N agelfahka ])i Ilaren 



35 



Tatsache eine gewichtige Stütze für die Eiigkeitsdiagnose abgeben. 
Wenn man aus großer Ü bereinst innnung der Papillarmuster auch 
nie folgern kann, daß Eineiigkeit vorliegt, da auch Z. Z. gelegentlich 
derartige Ähnlichkeiten aufweisen, so kann man doch in Zweifels- 
fällen Eineiigkeit mit großer Wahrscheinlichkeit ausschließen, 
sobald eine gewisse Punktzahl von Differenzen überschritten ist. 



4. Die Form der Nai^elfalzkapillareii 

Die von O. MCllkr (1922) und seinen Mitarbeitern in die kli- 
Jiische Arbeit eingeführte Kapillarmikroskoj)ie hat in den letzten 
Jahren ein besonderes Interesse beans])rucht. vor allem durch die 
Arbeiten von W. Jaexsch (1921. 192(). 1929). Wittneben (1925, 
1927, 1929), HuEi'FNEH (192S. 1929) u. a. Die letztgenannten Au- 
toren vertraten ziemlich übereinstimmend die Ansicht, daß die 
Struktur der Nagelfalzkapillaren ein wichtiges Symptom sei, aus 
dem sich Schlüsse über konstitutionelle Abartigkeit verschiedener 
Art. über vegetative imd endokrine Stimnuuig des Organisnnis 
ziehen ließen. Diese Ansichten sind von vielen Seiten bestritten 
worden, besonders den Zusammenhang bestimmter Ka})illarformen 
mit dem Schwachsinn betreffend (Doxiades und Hirschfeld 19.S0, 
Ubenauf 1929. Kreyenber(; 1929): zum großen Teil fordern sie 
durch ihre leichlich sj)ekulative mid hyi)othetische Begründimg 
zu kritischer Stellungnahme heraus. Eine imglückliche und recht 
eigenwillige Terminologie hat ein übriges dazu getan, daß dieser 
ganze Fragenkom])lex eigentlich noch als Objekt des Kampfes der 
Meinungen dasteht und einer soliden Verankerung entbehrt. 
Erst die letzte Arbeit von W. Jaensch (1930) enthält zur Frage der 
Terminologie einige Reformvorschläge. die vielleicht in dieser 
Hinsicht eine gewisse Besserung bringen werden. 

Es ist weder beabsichtigt noch möglich, hier in diesen Kampf 
einzugreifen. Es soll nur betont werden, daß es sich wohl verlohnen 
würde, wenn durch regelmäßige Beobachtung des Kapillarbildes 
bei allen Zwillingsuntersuchungen allmählich ein fester Grund 
für die Frage der erblichen Bedingtheit der Kapillarformen ge- 
schaffen würde. Die Form der Nagelfalzka])illaren stellt ein so 
feingefügtes und so gut zu beobachtendes Sym])tom dar. daß es 
durchaus zu begrüßen wäre, wenn wir in diesem Symptom einen 
einigermaßen zuverlässigen Indikator für die psychosomatische 

Struktur des Individuums besäßen. — ' 

3* 



\ii 



■V 



\} 



■ I 



m 



m 



V. Ergebnisse. A. Alluettiehie ZiriUhxjsjnrsclmnfi 



Die ersten und wohl auch einzi^ien Mitteihuigen üIht die Foi'ni 
der Hautkapillaren bei Zwillingen verdanken wi?- M \vi:u-Lis i und 
HÜBENKR (192')). die bei einem Teil der von \Vi:nz untersuchten 
Zwillinge die Ka})illarforni festgestellt hal)en. Sie fanden bezüglich 
des Auftretens von ..Vasoneurosefornien" unter 27 E. Z.- Paaren 
22mal Konkordanz, öuial Diskoi'danz. untei* 21} Z. Z. -Paaren 
dagegen nur 3 mal Konkordanz und 2(hnal Diskordanz. Sie 
schlössen hieraus mit Recht, daß das ..vegetative Syndioin" geno- 
typisch bedingt sei. 

Wir haben bei allen untersuchten Zwillingen die Xagelfalz- 
kapillaren photographieren lassen (dieser Arbeit unterzog sicii 
freundlicherweise Herr WoLFCiANu Trattmann unter Benutzun<'- 
(kn- ZKissschen Ka])illarmikrosko])iereinrichtung ..Foku"): lun- vom 
Paar Nr. 1 wunk^i die Bikk^r nicht duivh JMiotographie. sondein 
(hn-ch Zeichnung festgehalten. Untersucht w urde stets der 4. Fin<^er 
beider Hände. Eine Beschränkung auf (k'ii sonst als Testfinc^er 
angesehenen linken Ringfinger schien uns Glicht statthaft, (ki gerack' 
bei Zwillingen eine Seitenverkehrung nicht selten sein soll. Es 
ergaben sich im einzelnen folgende IMunde. 

Der Übersichtlichkeit halber werden folgende Abkürzungen 
benutzt : 



A.K. H. 
J.M. F. 
H. ]>. F. 

V. N. F. 
S]). H. N. F. 



= Archi kapilläre Hemnunu^ 
= Intermediärformen 
= Hypoplasieformen 
= Vasoneuroseformen 

= S])astisch-hypoi)lastische Neurose- 
formen 



Paai- 1 a L: A. K. H. ^- 
R: = L 

2 a L: A.K. H. (+) 

K: des^rl. etwas mehr als b 
i L:| 
R:| ^^•^-"- + 

R:n-^-- "••( + ) 

5 a L:| 

^^, V.X.1-. ,+) 

a L: V. X. F. -|- 

R: V^ N. F. { +) 

7 a L:| 

' \ X V 
I R:| '-^•' 



wie l)ei a 



(+) 



b L: A. K. H. + 

H: z.T. normal, z. T. \ . X. F 

( + ) 
•> 1^: wie l)ei a L 

^^' .. ,. a H 
b L:) 

R:l 
b L:| 

R:| ^'-NF- + 

b L:| 

H:| V.X. F. ((+)) 

b b: .1. M. F. + 
R : V. X. F. + 
b L:| 

R:| ^^N.F. (+) 



!' 



fmm 



4. Die Fortti der Nagelfalzk'dpillaren 



37 



IG 
I I 



i a L: A.K.H. 4- (mit V. X. F.) 

H: V. X. F. -f 
> a L:l 

R:| ' -^- '^• 

^ !l'] V.X. F. 



+ 
(+) 



+ 



K:| 

a L: Si). H. X. F. + 
H: H. P. F. -f 

12 a L:| 

H : j ' -^ • '^ 

a L: V. X. F. ( +) 

K: V. X. F. + 

a L: .). M. F. (+) 

K: .1. M. F. -I- 

a L: .1. M. F. + + 

K: J.M. F. -f 

a L: V. X. F. + 

R: V.X. F. {+) 

a L:| 
K:( 

a L: W X. F. + 

R: V. X. F. ( -f) 



i:j 

14 
l.j 
1() 
17 
IS 
J9 
20 



V. X. F. (+) 

(+) 



h L 

R 
b L 

R 
b L 

R 
b L 

R 

b L 

H 
b L 

R 
b L 

R 
b L 

H 
1) J. 

R 
1:) L 

R 
li L 

H 
b L 

R 
1) L 

H 



I 



wie a L 
V. X. F. (+) 
Sp. H. X. F. -f 
V. N. F. + 

V.X. F. ((-f)) 
V. X. F. + 

V. X. F. 4- 

A.K.H. -t- 

.j. M. F. {+) 
V. X. F. + 



A. F\. H. + 
^ Sp. H.X. F. + 
normal 
V.X. F. (4-) 

normal 

)) 



I 
l 
f 

I 
) 
) 
I 
I 

f 

V.X. F. (( 

normal 





Die wichtigsten und bekanntesten Formen der Störung sind 
die a r c h i k a ]) i 1 1 ä r e H e m m u n g und die von ( ) . M ü ller so genannte 
Vason e u r os e- 
form^ Das Vor- 
konnnen dieser 
beiden Formen 
beiden Zwillingen 
soll nun bezüg- 
lich seiner Kon- 
kordanz oder 
Diskordanz ge- 
piiift werden. 
Das luiterschied- 
liche Vorkommen 
einer Form an 
der rechten oder 




^ »^! 





^-*i 




Abli. 7. F. Z. 3. .Arcbika])illäre Hemmung bei 
a oben und I) unten 



' Den von .Iaknsch eingeführten .Ausdruck .,Xeurosetorm*' vermeiden 
wii- aiisdrüeklicli, da er die an sieh ungliiekliehe Wortbildung „Xeurose", 



';is 



\\ £/-v( />/n.v.s, . ,1. Alhjrmdtu ZtriHiHOsforsrhunfj 



linken Han-l winl nur da lu'incksichtiut . u(, es uns benierkens- 

weit ci-eheint. 

Die airliikapillän' Hcniniunü tritt Ix'i den K. Z. viermal 
aut. nanilich l.ri .Im i'aaren 1. iV '-Umd S. Sie ist hei diesen 4l*aaren 
stet- l)ei iM-id.-n Zw illiiiL^en. alx» konkordant vorhanden. — Tiitei- 
den Z. Z. winde >ie mn- zweimal heohaehtet. nämlich hei Xr. I :i h 
und Xr. i:»h. iM-idc Male i>t der andere Zwilling- fiei. die Str.innj: 
i-t in diex'ii Fallen aUo diskordant. Zusanunenstellnng : 



kdiikordaiit diskordant 



K.Z. 
Z. Z. 



4 Paare 



2 Paare 





'J'rotz dei- kleinen Zahl wird man hei der Kindeutitikeit dieses 

Resultats doeh an i'ine 
m ■ ^ _^ Bfc» ' üi)ei\viegend genoty- 

1^1^. . , . j ^B»i» \ piseh hedingte Ent- 

^K^ ^^ ^Bl' ' ' .i^H Stellung der ai"c-hikaj)il- 

^H. ^ IJhI^I ^Ki V "^i i^^l lären Hemnuing (lenken. 

DieX'asoneurose- 
f orm (gemeint ist immer 
mn- die der Xeo- 
Sehieht!) tritt hei 7 
E. Z. -Paaren auf (Xr. 4. 
"). <). 7. S. \) und ]()). 
und /,\\ai' ist sie stets 
hei heiden Zwillingen zu 
finden. Die Konkoidanz 
ist eine vollkinnmenc^ 
(d. h. auch hezüglieh dvs Crades) hei den Paaren (). 7 nnd \). 
Viermal dagegen ist der Crad ein verschiedener: Xr. 4: zu ( • ): 
^^^'- 'r. { ^ ) YAi ({ ■ )): Xr. s H (hei hVu\vu nur am rechten Ring- 
finger): - zu {- ): Xr. 10: ( - ) zu (( • )). 

Die Z. Z. zeigen hei U Paaren (alle außer Xr. IC.) mindestens 
an einem Einger eines Zwillings X'asoneurosefoi-men. Xui- zweimal 
findet sich Konkordanz, nämlich hei Paar Xr. 12 ( h : -j ) und 
Xr- 1« [( • ) : ( )|. Die ührigen 7 Paare sind diskordant. und zwar 
fünfmal im Sinne völliger Diskordanz (4-:__) „nd zweimal als 
unvollkonnnene Diskordanz: J^ei Paar Xr. 11 steht der V. X. F. 

die z. I^ heute etwas ganz anderes hedeutot als vor 20 .lalnvn. in uanz niil.^ 
verständlielici' A\ ciso ins l\Foi-|)liologisc-lio einführt. 



.\l)l). 8. a (oben) X'asoneuroseforni 
h (unten) la>t normal 



7. Derfenerative und neurojxtthiscln' Stiyniata 



89 



bei 1) eine 8j)astisch-hy|)oplastische Neuroseform bei a L gegenüber; 
und hei Paar Nr. 20 liegt ein so erhehlicher Gradunterschied der 
Vasoneuroseformen vor. daß von Konkordanz nicht gesprochen 
werden kann, wählend auch keine reine Diskordanz voiliegt. 

Z u s a m m e n s t e 1 1 u n g : 



Konkordanz 

- (-) 



Diskordanz 

X (X) 



E.Z. 
Z. Z. 



3 
2 



Auch hier ist das Resultat eindeutig genug. (hiB man eine über- 
wiegend genotypisch bedingte Natur (kn* ..Vasoneuroseformen'' 
vermuten möelite. Die Tatsache, daß unter 7 E. Z.- Paaren viermal 
deutliche (Jradverschiedenheiten zwischen den I^irtnern gefunden 
wurden, (knitet al)er mit ziemlicher Sicherheit darauf, daß bei der 
Ausbildung der ..Vasoneuroseformen" modifikatorische Einflüsse 
nennenswert beteiligt sind. Als rein konstitutionelles Stigma kann 
die ..Vase neuroseform" also nicht gelten. Auch muß hei der außer- 
ordentlichen Häufigkeit dieser Form, die von vielen Autoren be- 
stätigt wird, gefordert werden, daß auch der Ausdruck ..Vaso- 
nem-oseform" aufgegeben wird. Es nniß initer allen Umständen 
widersinnig erscheinen, ein Merkmal, das in leichterem (Irade bei 
mindestens dreiviertel aller gesunden Normalmenschen gefunden 
wird, mit einem Krankheitsnamen zu l)ezeichnen. Wie weit die 
schwereren Grade dieser Form als neuro])athisches Stigma gelten 
können, wird im folgenden Ka])itel zu ])rüfen sein. 



B. Spezielle Zwillingsforschung 
1. I)('i»:eiiera1ive iiimI iieiiropalliisclie Slii^niata 

Die Lehre von den degenerativen Stigmata hat seit dem Aus- 
gang des vorigen Jahrhunderts, besonders seit den Arbeiten von 
CUARCOT über die Hysterie und den Verbrecherstudien von Lüm- 
HKoso. in der klinischen Medizin großes Interesse gefunden. Glaubte 
man doch, mit Hilfe dieser leicht feststellbaren körperlichen 
Symptome die Diagnose auf psychische Abnormität rasch und 
sicher stellen zu können. Die Erfahrung brachte dann innner mehr 
die UnZuverlässigkeit dieser ..Methode" an den Tag. Es folgte 
bei den meisten erfahrenen Klinikern eine Zeit weitgehenden 



u^ 



40 



r. Ergehnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillirigsforsclunig 



Skeptizismus, der sich etwa in dem Satz kund tut ..Nichts anzu- 
fangen ist mit den Stigmata degenerationis" (Krais in Mkkin(;- 
Krehls Lehrbuch). Und doch hat wohl niemand in der klinischen 
Arbeit die diagnostische Verwertung der Stigmata ganz auf- 
gegeben, in der richtigen Erkenntnis, daß auch in dieser Frage 
zwischen verkehrten Extremen eine brauchbare W'ahr-heit liegen 
muß. Das immer weitere Vordringen einer saldieren erbbiologischen 
Denkweise hat auf diesem Gebiete wie auf so vielen anderen Teil- 
gebieten der Konstitutionslehre den Fehler aufgedeckt, der in der 
Verwechselung der Anlage (des (ienotypus) mit den manifesten 
Eigenschaften (dem Phaenotypus) begründet war. Gilt doch 
gerade im Psychischen die Tatsache, daß das Konstitutionelle 
immer nur eine Möglichkeit, manchmal eine Disposition und nur 
in einer bestimmten Zahl der Fälle die Teil Ursache zu einer Krank- 
heit abgibt. Die seelischen Inhalte, deren Kenntnis durch alle 
Arten der ..verstehenden Psychologie" in den letzten Jahrzehnten 
so sehr gefördert worden ist, entscheiden darüber, ob bei den ver- 
schiedenen Formen seelischer Überdifferenzierung ..psychopathi- 
sche Reaktionen" oder aber hohe geistige oder willensnicäßige 
Leistungen resultieren. Wenden wir diese (Gesichtspunkte auf 
unser Gebiet an. betrachten wir also die Stigmata zunächst nur 
als den Ausdruck bestimmter psychosomatischer Konstitutionen, 
so können wir voreilige und oft unzutreffende Urteile, die den 
Phaenotypus betreffen, vermeiden, ohne den Wert dieser Sym])- 
tome aufgeben zu müssen. Vorerst gilt es aber, die Modifi- 
kationsbreite der sogenannten ..Stigmata degenerationis" zu 
bestimmen, wozu angesichts der Manifestationsschwankungen, die 
diese Bildungen zu haben scheinen/wohl nur die Zwillingsmethode 
in Frage kommt. 

Es sei ausdrücklich vorausbemerkt, daß unsere Erhebungen 
an nur 40 Probanden zunächst nicht viel mehr bringen können 
als eine Einführung in die I^roblemstellung, und daß es nicht berech- 
tigt wäre, aus diesen Resultaten schon weitgehende Schlüsse zu 
ziehen . 

Die Tabelle 11> enthält eine Aufstellung der bei den 

untersuchten Zwillingen gefundenen ..neuro].athischen" „der 

«legenerativen Stigmata". Es wurden außer den bekanntesten 

Degenerationszeichen die wichtigsten vasomotorischen und ..vege- 

1 Siehe Anhang S. 106 — 107. 



1. Degeneratice und neuropathische Stigmata 



41 



tativen'' Stignuita berücksichtigt, denen einige ananmestische 
Daten von psychopathischer Bedeutung (Stottern. Enuresis noc- 
turna, ausgesprochene Dunkelangst) beigefügt wurden. Außerdem 
wurde das Vorhandensein deutlicher Anomalien der Nagelfalz- 
ka])illaren (deutliche ,,Vasoneuroseform", archikapilläre Hem- 
mung) angegeben. Daß diese Aufstellung heterogene und in ihrer 
Bedeutung zum Teil noch durchaus zweifelhafte Symptome enthält, 
liegt in der zuzugebenen Verschwommenheit des ganzen Problem- 
kreises begründet und kann bei Versuchen, die der Klärung dieser 
Fragen dienen sollen, nicht vermieden werden. Über die Rubrik 
..nervöser Ghaiakter" ist zu bemerken, daß dieser Ausdruck ziem- 
lich weitgefaßt gemeint ist und alle bemerkenswerten Züge von 
psycho])athischer Reaktionsbereitschaft. Aufgeregtheit, Reizbar- 
keit, Unruhe u. dgl. umfassen soll. 

Abstehende O h r e n (sog . Henkelohien ) : 

K. Z. 4 ++, +— 

Z. Z. I ++, 1 (+)-^, 1 +(+) 

Helixrand ungesäumt: 

E.Z. l (+)(+). 1 (+)— 
Z. Z. 1 +( +). 4 ( +)— 

A n g e w a c h s e n e s O h r 1 ä p ]) c h e n : 

E.Z. 4 ++, 4 (+)(+) 

Z. Z. 2 +4-, 2 + — . 1 +(+). 1 (+)— = 2 

Zusammengewachsene Augen brauen (Morsupilie) : 

E.Z. 1 ++, 1 (+)(+), 1 (+)- , 2 ((+))- = 2 konkonl.. 8 diskord 
Z. Z. 2 (+)(+), 1 (+)((+)), 1 +-- 

Prognathia su})erior: 

E.Z. 2 ++, 1 (+)(+) 
Z. Z. 2 -f— , 1 ( + )— 

Hoher, spitzer Gaumen: 

E.Z. 2 ++, 2 ( + )(+), 2 (+)— 



= 4 konkoid., tliskord. 

= 1 "> 

= 1 konkord., I diskord. 

^^ '' 9 9 9 O ,. 



= 8 konkord. 



^) diskord. 
4 



= 2 



2 



= 3 konkord., diskord, 



= 



= 4 konkord 



1 -f(+) = 2 



3 

2 diskoj'd 



Z. Z. 1 ++, 1 (+)(+). 4 +- 

Stark asthenischer Hal)itus: 

E.Z. 2 4- +, 2 (+)(+), 1 + — = 4 konkord., 1 diskord. 

Z. Z. 2 +^, 3 (+)— , 1 +(+) =0 „ ,6 

Diese rein morphologischen Merkmale zeigen also fast durch- 
gehend eine ganz überwiegende Konkordanz bei den E. Z. und 
eine überwiegende Diskordanz bei den Z. Z. Bemerkenswert ist 
aber doch, daß kleinere Verschieden hei t.(^n aiu'h bei E. Z. vor- 
kommen, vor allem bei der Morsuj)ilie. seltener bei der Form des 
Gaumens und einmal bezüglich der Umsäunnmg der Ohrmuschel. 



U' 



II 

I 



>^ 



II 

I 



42 



1'. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle ZiHIIingsforschiwrj 



= 4 konkord.. 2 diskord. 

= 2 ,, . H ,, 

= 4 koiikord.. diskord. 

^= ^ ^? . •) .. 

= 1 konkord.. 2 diskord. 

= 1 2 



Dies Resultat iil)ei'rascht keineswegs, da ja gerade an der Kon- 
figuration und Ausbildung des Schädels oft grobe niodifikatoi-isehe 
Einflüsse (intrauterine Lage. (Jeburt) mitwii'ken. Bezüglich des 
diskordanten Auftretens von Asthenie ])ei dem eineiigen Paar 
Nr. 10 sei auf die Erörterung dieses Punktes im Abschnitt A 2 
(8. IS) verwiesen. 

Es folgen die Stigmata, die das Verhalten der Reflexe l)e- 
t reffen : 

Fehlender Würgreflex : 

E.Z. 4 +-f, 1 + — , 1(4-)— 
Z. Z. 2 ++,7 +— , 1 (+)— 

Lebhafte Patellarref lexe : 

\:. Z. 3 4- +, 1 ( + )(+). + — 
Z. Z. 2 4-+. 4 4-—, 1 (4-)— 

Lei) h a f t e A c h i 1 1 e s s e h n e n r e f 1 e x e : 

E.Z. 1 +4-, 1 +— . 1 (+)— 
Z. Z. l +4-, 1 +( + ). 1 (+)— 

Auch hier ist die Diskoidanz der meisten Z. Z. augenfällig 
gegenüber der überwiegenden Konkordanz der E. Z. Die Ver- 
schiedenheit der Achillessehnenreflexe kann l)ei dem Paar Nr. 2 
wohl mit der besonders schwei-en E])ilepsie der einen Partnerin in 
Zusannnenhang gebracht werden (die andere l*artnerin leidet an 
einer viel leichteren Form von E])ile|)sie); l)eim Paar Nr. 10 kann 
das verschiedene Verhalten bezüglich des Wih'greflexes und der 
Achillessehnen reflexe wohl kaum mit der exogenen ( ?) Asthenie des 
einen Partners in I^eziehung stehen, finden sich doch beide Stigmen 
in schwacher Form gerade ])ei dem nicht asthenischen Paitnei' a. 

Die cardiovaskulären und sonstigen vegatativen Stigmata 
verteilen sich in folgender \\ eise auf die Paare : 

Feuchte Hände: 

IvZ. 4 ++, .3 (+)(4-). 1 (4-)— =7 konkord 

Z. Z. 2 4--f. 2 (+)+, 2 (4-)— =2 

Feuchte Füße: 

E.Z. 1 4-4-, 3 (4-)(4-). 2 (4-)— = 4 konkord 

Z. Z. 1 -f4-. 1 4-(+), 1 (4-)((-^)). 3(+)— = 1 

1) e r m o g r a ]) h i s m u s : 

E.Z. 4 -f +, 4 (+)(4-), 1 4-(4-) = 8 konkord 

Z. Z. 4 4-4-, 3 4-(+), 1 4-((4-)). 2 (+)— =4 

Cutis marmorata: 



1 diskord. 
4 

2 diskord. 
1 diskord. 



E.Z. 1 +4-, 1 (4-)(4-), 1 (4-)- 
Z. Z. 4- 4-, 1 4-—, 1 (4-)— 



= 2 konkord 
= 



I diskor<l. 
2 



1. Deyetterat i re und t)enrop((tJiiscJie Stigwftta 



43 



= 2 konkord., i) diskord. 
= .. .1 



>> 



= 2 konkori 



= 



., 1 diskord 
, 2 



= 4 konkord.. 1 diskord. 



Akroc yanose: 

K. Z. l 4-4-, 1 ( +)(+) 

Z. Z. 4- 4-, 1 ( +)-- 
Paukende Herzaktion: 

v:. Z. I 4-4-, 1 (-f )(+), 1 ( 4-)— 

Z. Z. 4-4-, 2 4- - 
Starke respiratorische Arhythmie: 

E. Z. 3 4-+, 1 (4-)( + ), 1 4- — 

Z. Z. 1 4-+. 1 (4-)(4-), T) 4- — 

Es ergibt sich bei all diesen Merknuden (hi.sselbe Bild : fast 
reine Konkordanz der Eineiigen bei überwiegender Diskordanz der 
Zweieiigen. Trotz der zahlenmäßigen Kleinheit des Materials wird 
bei der relativen Gleichmäßigkeit des Resultats in allen Gru])pen 
der Schluß ei'laul)t sein, daß es sich bei allen bisher genannten 
Stigmen um vorwiegend genisch bedingte Merkmale handelt. Das 

wenn auch seltene — Auftreten von Diskordanz bei Eineiigen 

erinnert aber daran, daß auch diese Eigenschaften in ihrer Mani- 
festation von modifikatorischen Einflüssen nicht unab- 
hängig sind. Diese Feststellung ist um so mehr hervorzuheben, 
als "es sich durchweg um :\lerkmale handelt, die als tiefverankert 
in der ganzen somatischen Konstitution gelten. 

Es folgen einige Eigenschaften, die schon mehr in den Bereich 
der ])sych()])athischen Reaktionen geh()i'en. teils anamnestisch, 
teils bei der Untersuchung festgestellt: 

Aufgeregtheit oder Zuckungen während der Unter- 
suchung: 

E.Z. 2 4-4-, 1 (-f)(+). 2 4-(4-) 
Z. Z. 4-+, 1 (4-)— 
..Facies neuro])athica" : 

VI. Z. 3 4-4-. 1 4-(4-). 1 4- — 
Z. Z. 4--f, 2 {(4-))— 
Enuresis nocturna in der Kindheit: 

y y^ 1 ++ 2 4 = 1 konkord.. 2 diskord 



= 3 konkord.. 2 diskord. 

= ,, , 1 

= 3 konkorck. 2 diskord. 

= „ , 2 







() 



1 konkord., 1 diskord, 



Z. Z. () + — 
Stottern in der Kindheit: 
E.Z. 1 -f -H, 1 + — 

z. z. — 

Dunkelangst als Kind: 

E.Z. 2 4-+, + — 

Z. Z. 3 4-4-, 3 4-(+), 3 4- — 

Vergleicht man die Verteilung von Konkordanz und Dis- 
kordanz in diesen Chuppen mit den Verhältnissen bei den vorher 



= 2 konkord. 
= 3 



diskord. 
() 



»> 



I 
j 

i 



\f 



\ 



r 



44 



1'. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwilli ngsjorsclmng 



1. Degeneratire vml nenropathische Stigmata 



45 



erwähnten Merkmalen, so fällt auf. daß die bei den mehr somati- 
schen Stigmen immer wieder hervortretende Regel (deutliches 
Überwiegen der Konkordanz bei den E. Z.. der Diskordanz bei den 
Z. Z.) hier nur noch gerade erkennbar bleibt. Sie wird abgeschwächt 
durch die relative Zunahme der diskordanten Paare unter den E. Z. 
Sollten sich bei einer größeren Anzahl von Paaren ähnliche Ver- 
hältnisse wie die hier festgestellten finden, so würde man daraus 
mit Recht den Schluß ziehen dürfen, daß bei diesen ins Psvcholo- 
gische hineinreichenden Stigmata das genisch Bedingte mehr in die 
Rolle einer bloßen Disposition zurückgedrängt wird. Eine solche 
Auffassung würde durchaus der immer mehr durchdringenden 
klinischen Erfahrung entsprechen, daß das Zustandekommen 
psychopathischer Reaktionen nicht einfach konstitutionell erklärt 
werden kann, sondern der Mitwirkung (mehr oder weniger exogener) 
psychogener Momente bedarf. Mag das Vorhandensein derartiger 
psychopathischer Stigmata auch den Schluß auf eine Konstitution 
zulassen, die für psychogene Störungen disponierend wirkt, so 
spricht doch ihr Nichtvorhandensein nicht für das Fehlen einer 
solchen Disposition. Und umgekehrt s])richt das Vorhandensein 
somatischer Stigmata degenerationis nicht für das Vorliegen einer 
Psychopathie, sondern für eine Konstitution, die zu psycho- 
]iathischen Reaktionen disponieren mag. 

Diese Tatsachen kommen bei dem vorliegenden Material auch 
deutlich zum Ausdruck, wenn wir die Belastung der einzelnen 
Probanden mit Stigmata zahlenmäßig erfassen. Rechnen wir zu 
allen bisher genannten Stigmata probeweise auch die deutlichen 
..Vasoneuroseformen" und die archika])i]läre Hennnung der Nagel- 
falzkapillaren hinzu und zählen jedes volle Stigma als einen, jedes 
angedeutete als einen halben Punkt, so ergibt sich (unter Nicht- 
mitzählen des ,, nervösen Charakters) folgende Aufstelhmg: 
Nr. 



a 



A 



Nr. 



a 



A 



1 
2 



121. 
41., 



3 


8 


V2 


4 


8^2 


IV2 


6 


81.. 





6 


3 


3 


7 


3 





8 


12 


2 


9 


10 i 





10 


7 








131.. 


1 1 




51., 


12 




7!2 


13 


7 


14 


81. 


15 


() 


l<) 




3 


17 


10 1 


18 


10 


1!) 


: 7 


20 



TA.-n = 'O,^ 



4^2 


T) 1 .. 


10 


2^2 


4 


«14 


() 


'^ 


«1/, 


8 


24 


5 Y, 


4'2 


2 


014 





2 


4 


9 


V2 


8 14 


.5 


V2 


4^2 


7 


K 


7^2 


-)'. 


^% 


10 


LA:ti 


= 2,25 





Wenn diese Auszählung auch den Nachteil hat. daß sie nur 
die Quantität, nicht aber die Qualität der vorhandenen Stigmen 
vergleicht, so ergibt sie doch einen gewissen Überblick über den 
Grad der ..Stigmatisation" der einzelnen Probanden. Addieren 
wir die jeweiligen Differenzen zwischen a und b. so ergibt sich bei 
den E. Z. die Differenzsumme von 9 gegenüber einer solchen von 
2214 bei den Z. Z. Trotz der Grobheit der Methode kommt also 
die größt^re Verschiedenheit der Z. Z. deutlich zum Ausdruck. 

Obwohl es außerhalb der Zwillingsmethode liegt, so soll doch 
die Korrelation zwischen ..nervösem (Jharakter'' und Grad der 
Stigmatisation kurz erwähnt werden. Auf die nicht ])sycho- 
]mthisch erscheinenden Probanden konnnen durchschnittlich 
7,1 Punkte, auf die leicht ])sychopathischen Probanden 5.S Punkte 
und auf die deutlicher ])sychopathischen S.4 Punkte. Hierin konnnt 
also die schon erwähnte mangehide Berechtigung, von der ..neuro- 
pathischen Stigmatisation'' direkt auf Psychopathie schließen 
zu können, klar zum Ausdruck. Es bestätigt sich das. was unvor- 
eingenommene klinische Beobachtung schon immer ergab : bei fast 
allen Menschen finden sich bei eingehender Prüfung einige der 
..neuropathischen" oder ..degenerativen" Stigmata. Die Über- 
schätzung des diagnostischen Wertes dieser Symptome liegt nicht 
nur in der eingangs erwähnten Verwechslung von Disposition und 
Krankheit l)egründet. sondern ebenso stark in der Tatsache, daß 
man bei manifesten Psycho])athien unwillkürlich mehr nach 
vStigmen sucht als bei psychisch Gesunden. 

Versuchen wir schließlich, die Korrelation der ..Vasoneurose- 
formen" der Nagelfalzkapillaren zur übrigen Stigmatisation zu 
bestimmen, so zeigt sich, daß auf die Prol)anden ohne Vasoneurose- 
formen durchschnittlich 7.4 Punkte entfallen, auf diejenigen mit 
leichter ..Vasoneuroseform' 7,S Punkte und auf diejenigen mit 
deutlicher ,,Vasoneuroseform" nur 6,6 Punkte. Hier kann also 
von einer Korrelation nicht gesprochen werden Der entsprechende 
Wert für die Probanden mit deutlicher archikapillären Hennnung 
ist 8,3. derjenige für die Probanden ohne dieses Merkmal 7.0. Dieser 
Befund, der für einen gewissen Wert der archikai)illären Hennnung 
als Stigma degenerationis sprechen würde, steht immerhin im Ein- 
klang mit der Vorstellung der Kapillarforscher, daß die archi- 
kapilläre Hemnnnig auf eine tieferliegende Entwicklungsstörung 
des betreffenden Organismus schließen läßt, während die — zu 
Unrecht so genannte — ..Vasoneu roseform*' lun- einen relativen 
Differenzierungsgrad anzuzeigen scheint. 



1 



\u 



46 



V. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillingsforschung 



2. Charakterologische Beobachtungen 



47 



'ili 



)! 



2. Charakterologisclu' H(M)ba(liluiii;eii 

a) Einführung 

Der Frage nach der Vererbung geistiger und seehscher Eigen- 
schaften gebührt innerhalb des ganzen Bereiches der ErbHchkeits- 
forschinig ein besonderer Platz. Lag es für eine naturwissenschaft- 
liche Denkweise von jeher nahe, daß es im Reiche des Somatischen 
weitgehende ,, Erdgebundenheiten" gibt, ein Abhängigsein von 
Herkunft und biologischem Gesetz, so standen die entsprechenden 
Meinungen über Seele und Geist des Menschen weit mehr unter 
der Herrschaft traditioneller, ])hiloso|)hischer. weltanschaulicher 
und religiöser Ansichten oder Vorurteile. Die Denkakte und IHum- 
tasieschöpfungen des Menschen stehen weiter entfernt von Kritik 
und Beweispflicht, als die Beobachtung von Tatsachen. Dem 
Geistigen im Menschen wohnt unzweifelhaft ein Hang zur Emanzi- 
pierung von biologischen (Gebundenheiten inne. Man denke nur 
an die geistreichen, über den Tatsachen schwebenden Gedanken- 
gänge der Empiristen wie Locke oder Rousseau. Ja. jedem Ein- 
zelnen wohnt auch heute noch etwas die Erwartung oder Hoffnung 
inne. daß nicht etwa nur das Cieistige selbst, sondern auch die 
geistige Betätigung eines Jeden souverän sei. Es liegt eine nur 
durch Gradunterschiede gekennzeichnete prinzipielle Ähnlichkeit 
zwischen dem Gedanken des einfachen Mannes, daß es ja ganz 
in seiner Macht und Willensfreiheit läge, ob er einen Gegenstand 
für eine Mark kaufe oder nicht, inid dem (iedankenbauwerk eines 
Denkers, der die Meinung vertritt, man könne aus jedem Menschen 
jedes machen, es läge nur an den äußeren Bemühungen und Mög- 
lichkeiten. In diese oft zu Weltanschauungen verdichteten An- 
sichten hat die Erblichkeitsforschung eine Bresche geschlagen, 
nicht selten begleitet von den Bestürzungen imd Enttäuschungen 
derer, denen diese Rückbeziehung der geistigen Sj)häre in die Welt 
der natürHchen, lebendigen Verbundenheiten und Gesetzmäßig- 
keiten ungelegen kam. 

Es ist nicht beabsichtigt, an dieser Stelle die Geschichte der 
aufs Seelische und Geistige gerichteten Vererbungsforschung dar- 
zulegen. Außerordentlich mühevolle Forschungen, die vor allem 
an die Namen Galton, Pearson, Heymans und Wiersma, Esta- 
BROOK, Davenport uud W. Peters geknüpft sind, haben den CJrund 
gelegt zu dem Wissensschatz, der dieses Gebiet heute beherrscht 
und der im letzten Jahrzehnt in hervorragender Weise von medi- 



zinischer Seite (Kretsciimer, Hoffmann u. a.) befruchtet und be- 
reichert wurde. Es war selbstverständlich, daß die Zwillings- 
forschung bald nach ihrem Aufblühen auf diesem Kampfplatz 
eingesetzt wurde. Die psychologische Erblichkeitsforschung steht 
einer solchen Fülle von methodischen und sachlichen Schwierig- 
keiten gegenüber, daß sie des Einsatzes ihrer ..Elitemethode*' — 
als solche muß man die Zwillingsmethode bezeichnen — gerade 
auf diesen Gebieten nicht entraten kann. Es zeugt von der Klug- 
heit und dem naturwissenschaftlichen Mute Galtons (1870). daß 
er seine Zwillingsforschungen, und damit die Zwillingsforschung 
überhaupt, begann mit einer Studie, die die Vererbung geistiger 
und charakterlicher Eigenschaften zu bestimmen suchte. Die un- 
ähnlichen Zwillinge seiner Beobachtung blieben im Leben seelisch 
ungleich, auch wenn sie lange Zeit ähnlichen Umwelteinflüssen 
(z. B. Waisenhaus) ausgesetzt waren; und umgekehrt verwischte 
sich die seelische Ähnlichkeit der körperlich übereinstimmenden 
Zwillinge auch dann nicht, wenn sie verschiedene Schicksale durch- 
machten, es sei denn, daß sie durch Unfälle oder Krankheiten in 
ihrem ganzen Organismus tiefergreifend gewandelt wurden. Tiiorn- 
dike (1903) nahm zuerst eine Zwillingsuntersuchung mit psycho- 
logischen Meßmethoden vor. Seine Resultate, die für überwiegend 
genische Bedingtheit der untersuchten psychischen Leistungen 
sprachen, verlieren dadurch allerdings an Wert, daß er eineiige und 
zweieiige Zwillinge bei der Auswertung nicht trennte. Berechtigtes 
Aufsehen erweckte die Mitteilung von Popenoe (1922) über ein Paar 
eineiiger Zwillingsschwestern, die schon im Alter von wenigen 
Wochen getrennt wurden, um dann in ganz unterschiedlichem 
Milieu, bei verschiedener Schulausbildung und Berufstätigkeit 
groß zu werden. Die von dem Zoologen Muller (1925) angeregte 
und mitgeteilte psychologische Untersuchung dieser Schwestern 
ergab eine überraschende Übereinstimnuuig der intellektuellen 
Leistungen bei tiefreichenden Ähnlichkeiten und oberflächlicheren 
Verschiedenheiten der charakterlichen Sphäre (Wille, Gefühls- und 
Temperamentsgestaltung. Interessenrichtungen). Ähnliche LTnter- 
suchungen an 8 E. Z. -Paaren, die ebenfalls lange Zeit getrennt 
gelebt hatten, hat Newman (1929) angestellt. Seine Resultate 
weichen in bemerkenswerter Weise von denen Mullers ab : Newman 
fand bei einem Paare (,,A und O"), das bei gleicher Erziehung in 
einem sozial recht verschiedenen Milieu groß wurde, deutlich 
verschiedene Leistungen bei der Intelligenzprüfung bei auffallender 



I 



48 



V. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillings jorschung 



2. Charakterologische Beobachtungen 



49 



Ähnlichkeit der Charalitereigenschafteii. Ein ganz ähnlicher Ausfall 
der Untersuchung ergab sich bei dem Paare ..E und CV. das jedoch 
bei großer Ähnlichkeit des familiären und sozialen Milieus eine 
verschiedene Erziehung genossen hatte. Mir ist bei der Durchsicht 
der einzelnen von Newmax angewandten Tests aufgt^fallen. daß 
sowohl ..A und O" als auch ..E und G" bei den verschiedenen Prü- 
fungen ein bemerkenswert verschiedenes Verhalten an den Tag 
legten, sei es. daß der eine Zwilling rascher imd fester zufaßte bei 
den Aufgaben, daß einer befangen und zaudernd war. der andere 
nicht, daß der eine in bezug auf Überlegung. Sorgfalt und Aus- 
dauer dem Durchschnitt entsprach, der andere aber deutlich dar- 
über stand luid ähnliche Unterschiede mehr. Handelt es sich da 
wirklich noch um reine Intelligenzprüf ungen und nicht viel- 
mehr um die Prüfung geistiger Funktionen, die in der Leistung 
(nicht in der zugrunde liegenden Fähigkeit) in weitem Umfange 
von charakterlichen, emotionalen und erlebnisgebundenen Ein- 
flüssen abhängig sind ? Es wird bei der Besprechung unserer 
eigenen Beobachtungen noch auf diese Fehlerquelle zurückzu- 
kommen sein. Das dritte von Newmax ge})rüfte Paar {..C und 0") 
zeigte bei großer Ähnlichkeit des sozialen Milieus und der Er- 
ziehung nahezu gleiche Leistungen auf intellektuellem Gebiet bei 
ziemlich deutlichen Unterschieden der Persönlichkeitsstruktur. 
Es entsprach also bezüglich des erhobenen Befundes noch am 
meisten dem Resultat von Miller. Weitere Test})rüfungen wurden 
an einer großen Zahl (204 l^aaren) von Zwillingen von Merriman 
(1924) angestellt. Er teilte nicht nach E. Z. und Z. Z., sondern 
nach gleichgeschlechtigen und ungleichgeschlechtigen Paaren 
ein imd fand die Ähnlichkeit der intellektuellen Leistungen bei 
Gleichgeschlechtigen viel größer als bei den Pärchen. Eine 
stärkere Mitwirkung der LTmwelt nimmt Merriman für den Grad 
der Intelligenz nicht an. Zu ganz ähnlichen Resultaten kommt 
Lauterbach (1925). der fast 200 Paare durch Intelligenzprüfungen 
nntersucht hat. Wichtiger sind die Resultate von Winofield (1928), 
vor allem deswegen, weil er unter den gleichgeschlechtigen wieder 
die kör})erlich ähnlichen, also größtenteils E. Z.. aiissonderte. Er 
fand folgende Korrelationskoeffizienten der Intelll^enzleistungen : 

Ähnliche ZwiHijige + 0,!K) 

(illeichgosehlec'htige ZwiMiuf^e . . + 0,82 

Verschiedengeschlechtige Zwillinge + 0,5*) 

Geschwister + 0,50 



^.k 



Ki 



Diese Zahlen sprechen für den ausschlaggebenden Einfluß der 
Anlage für die Intelligenzleistungen. Weitere Intelligenzprüfungen 
an Zwillingen hat in jüngster Zeit v. Verschuer (1930a, b) vorge- 
nommen und zwar mit Hilfe der BiNET-SiMONschen Methode 
(modifiziert von Terman) und unter Ausführung des Rorschach- 
schen Formdeute Versuchs. Es ergaben sich durchgehend geringere 
Unterschiede zwischen den Partnern bei den E. Z. als bei den Z. Z. 
Bei der Intelligenzprüfung nach Binet-Simon ist dieser Ausfall 
deutlich, beim RoRscHACHschen Versuch nicht sehr groß. Wenn 
V. Verschuer schließlich zu dem Resultat kommt, daß „die durch 
den Versuch zum Ausdruck kommenden psychischen Eigenschaften 
von der erbUchen Veranlagung mitbestimmt sind", so ist damit 
eigenthch gar nichts gesagt, denn Eigenschaften, die nicht irgend- 
wie von der erblichen Veranlagung „mitbestimmt'* sind, dürfte es 
kaum geben. ^ 



1 Anmerkung bei der Korrektur: Es sollen hier noch zwei 
zwillingspsychologische Arbeiten Erwähnung finden, die nach Abschluß 
dieser Arbeit (Juli 1930) erschienen sind. W. Köhn hat kürzlich 
{ArEaBi 25, 62; 1931) „Vorfrüchte aus einer psychologischen Reihen- 
untersuchung an Zwillingen, Geschwistern und nicht verwandten Schul- 
kindern" mitgeteilt. Es handelt sich um experimentalpsychologische 
Untersuchungen, nämlich um die Deutung von stufenweise unvollständigen 
Zeichnungen und um die Fortführung einer abgebrochenen Märchen- 
erzählung. Die sehr komplizierte und dadurch doch wohl recht proble- 
matische Auswertung des Deutungstests ergibt fast durchgehend eine 
stärkere Korrelation der E. Z. gegenüber den Z. Z. und den übrigen Ver- 
gleichspersonen. Das gelegentliche stärkere Divergieren der E. Z. gegen- 
über den Z. Z. usw. deutet u. E. auf eine Überspitzung der Methode bzw. 
ihrer Auswertung. Der in dieser Hinsicht einfachere Märchentext gibt 
dann auch ein eindeutigeres Resultat. Es ist zu begrüßen, daß Köhn selbst 
vor der Kraftvergeudung an ungeeigneten psychologischen Zwillingsunter- 
suchungen warnt und auf den Nutzen charakterologischer Beobachtungen 
hinweist. — Frischeisen-Köhler {ZAngPs 37; 1939) hat die Schulzeugnisse 
einer größeren Anzahl von E. Z." und Z. Z. verarbeitet. Wie zu erwarten 
ergab sich durchweg eine größere Übereinstimmung der E. Z., wenn auch 
trotz des relativ großen Materials einige paradoxe Resultate (z. B. im 
Rechnen) zutage traten. Daß Schulzeugnisse ein sehr problematisches 
imd durch viele Fehlerquellen belastetes Material darstellen, wird von der 
Verfasserin selbst betont. Uns scheint, daß man sich deshalb mit einer 
relativ groben Auswertung eines solchen Materials zufrieden geben sollte. 
Die feinere Bearbeitung dieses Zensurenmaterials entspricht gewiß nicht 
mehr der großen Fehlerbreite und führt daher bereits in Scheinexaktheit 
hinein. Es kommt hinzu, daß Zwillingszeugnisse noch problematischere 
Entstehungsbedingungen haben als gewöhnliche Zeugnisse, was in der be- 



üeiheft 61 zur Zeitschrift für angewandte Psycholosie 



4 



!l 



1, 



!l 



50 



F. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillingsforschung 



Bezogen sich die bisher erwähnten Arbeiten vorwiegend oder 
ausschließlich auf Intelligenzprüfungen und ähnliche Tests, die an 
Zwillingen angestellt wurden, so finden sich Beobachtungen über 
das charakterliche Verhalten der Zwillinge in vielen der neueren 
Zwillingsstudien. Siemens teilt in der ,, Zwillingspathologie" (1924) 
mit, daß die von ihm untersuchten E. Z. größtenteils charakterlich 
sehr ähnlich waren oder aber geringe Unterschiede (z.B. ein Partner 
scheu und empfindlich, der andere kouragierter und starrköpfig) 
zeigten, von 24 Z. Z. -Paaren dagegen waren 22 deutlich verschieden. 

sonderen Psychologie und Soziologie der Zwillinge, insbesondere der E. Z., 
begründet liegt. Für sehr beachtenswert halte ich die folgende Stellung- 
nahme zu dieser Frage von Poll, die er mir freundlichst zur Verfücune 
stellte : ^ ^ 

„Bei der Untersuchung von Schulzeugnissen von Zwillingen muß ein 
Gesichtspunkt beachtet werden, der gewölmlich vergessen wird. Es gibt 
bei Zwillingen, wie jeder weiß, der mit Zwillingen lebt und sie nicht nur 
untersucht, keine „gerechten" Schulzeugnisse; ja, nur sehr selten „gerechte" 
Noten. Das Urteil der Lehrenden wird von der höheren pädagogischen 
Aufgabe zwangsweise außerordentlich stark gefärbt, zu starke Ähnlich- 
keiten bei Zwillingen herabzumindern, zu starke Unähnlichkeiten auszu- 
gleichen. Sogar bei der Frage der Versetzungen spielt dieses Rücksicht- 
nehmen auf die Soziologie der Zwillinge eine oft entscheidende Rolle Er 
sieht man aus dem Verhalten der beiden, daß eine Trennung voraussichtlich 
von außerordentlich schädlichen psychischen Folgen wäre, so wird der 
Ausgleich entweder durch Heben des Schlechteren oder durch Senken des 
Besseren herbeigeführt. Und bei der umgekehrten Sachlage, bei der Er- 
kenntnis psychischer übler Nachwirkungen des Getrenntbleibens während 
der Schule, erfolgt ebenfalls der Ausgleich durch irgendeine „ungerechte" 
Zensur. Diese Erfahrungen bestätigen jedem, der das Vertrauen eines 
Zwillingspaares durch längeren Verkehr gewonnen hat, nicht nur die 
Zwillingspaare selbst, sondern auch einsichtige und überlegene Pädagogen 
die das zweifelhafte Vergnügen gehabt haben, während des Durchlaufens 
durch eine Schule ein eineiiges Zwillingspaar pädagogisch zu betreuen. Die 
fabelhafte Begabung einer großen Anzahl von Zwillingsgeschwistern sich 
- volhg unbemerkt von einem Dritten - zu helfen, kommt hinzu, um 
die Unsicherheit in der Beurteilung der Schulleistungen außerordentlich 
zu vermehren. In ihre Begabungsrichtung und ihren Begabungsgrad mehr 
einzudringen, gehngt gewöhnlich, wenn die Zwillinge als reifere Menschen 
etwa die Universität beziehen. Da sich die Zwillinge im allgemeinen außer- 
ordentlich gut kennen, gelingt es dann leicht, durch gemeinsame Besprechung 
durch das Lrteil jedes über den anderen, Unterschiede und Ähnlichkeiten 
festzulegen, die in den Schulzeugnissen ihren Niederschlag niemals emp- 
fangen konnten. Diese Bemerkungen beruhen zum größten Teil auf An 
gaben und Beobachtungen von vier eineiigen Studenten-ZwülinesDaaren 
drei männlichen und einem weiblichen." 



} 



2. Charakter ologische Beobachtungen 



51 



Ähnlich, wenn auch nicht ganz so ausgeprägt, fanden sich die Ver- 
hältnisse bezüglich der Schulleistungen. Weitz (1924) berichtet, 
daß er Charakter, Temperament und Begabung bei fast allen E. Z. 
außerordentlich ähnUch fand; oft fanden sich gleiche Neigungen 
in bezug auf Lieblingsbeschäftigungen, Musik, Vereinszugehörig- 
keit. Bei der Untersuchung verhielten sich die E. Z. meist ganz 
ähnlich, entweder beide offen oder verschlossen, beide dreist oder 
ängstlich usw. Oft erwiesen sich die E. Z. -Partner in einem Grade 
als unzertrennlich, der bei gewöhnhchen Geschwistern kaum vor- 
kommt. Daneben erwähnt aber Weitz auch leichtere Verschieden- 
heiten einiger E. Z. -Paare in bezug auf Schulbegabung und Tem- 
perament. Auch Paulsen (1925) findet die geistige Begabung und 
die Charaktereigenschaften bei E. Z. einige Male konkordant, bei 
einigen Paaren aber auch diskordant und schließt daraus auf 
die Abhängigkeit dieser Eigenschaften von äußeren Umständen. 
Eine ganze Reihe von Mitteilungen aus der Zwillingspsychiatrie 
enthalten Hinweise auf das charakterliche Verhalten der Zwillinge. 
Erwähnt seien die Mitteilungen von Schulte (1922, 1929a), 
BosTROEM (1924), Gordon (1925), Grote und Hartwich (1925), 
JoHNSTON (1925), Burkhardt (1929), J. H. Schultz (1929), 
Smith (1930), Hartmann und Stumpfl (1930), die alle über Psy- 
chosen berichten. Die in diesen Arbeiten enthaltenen Hinweisen 
auf das charakterliche Verhalten der Zwillinge wird man nur sehr> 
bedingt auf die Frage der Erblichkeit der normalen Charaktereigen- 
schaften anwenden können, wenn auch der Übergang vom Nor- 
malen zum Psychotischen oft ein fließender ist. Eine besondere 
Hervorhebung verdienen die Mitteilungen von Hahn (1926), 
der ein in manchen körperlichen Zügen sehr ähnliches, in anderen 
wieder nicht übereinstimmendes, im ganzen Aussehen doch recht 
unähnHches Zwillingspaar beschreibt. Es handelt sich um früh- 
zeitig getrennte und in verschiedenem Milieu großgewordene Mäd- 
chen, die bei einem leichten Grad von Schwachsinn eine auffallende 
Hypermotorik und Lebhaftigkeit zeigten und deshalb in psychia- 
trische Beobachtung kamen. An diesem Paare konnte nun verfolgt 
werden wie anscheinend tiefgreifende Persönlichkeitsunterschiede 
zwischen den beiden Mädchen schwanden unter dem Einfluß eines 
bestimmten Erlebniskomplexes, dem das eine Mädchen ausgesetzt 
war. Dieser wertvolle, fast experimentellen Charakter tragende 
Fall von exogener Persönlichkeitsänderung unter Annäherung an 

das Wesen des Partners leidet sehr an der mangelnden Eiigkeits- 

4* 



ir 



it 



I 



52 



F. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillingsjorschung 



bestimmung. Hahn selbst vermutet, daß die körperlichen Ver- 
schiedenheiten der Mädchen durch eine viel stärkere Rhachitis des 
einen Partners bedingt sein könnten. Er würde sich sicher den 
Dank aller Zwillingsforscher erwerben, wenn er eine nochmalige, 
genaue anthropologische Untersuchung (unter Beifügung von 
Photographien!) dieses psychologisch so sorgfältig studierten 
Paares veranlassen könnte. Eingehende psychologisch-charaktero- 
logische Studien an 2 E. Z. -Paaren hat Hedwig Meyer (1929) mit- 
geteilt. Wieder muß dem charakterologisch eingestellten Leser 
auffallen, daß die Intelligenz -Tests zum großen Teil charaktero- 
logische Tests sind. Man mißt bei derartigen Prüfungen nicht 
eigentlich die Intelligenz, sondern eine Intelligenzleistung in 
einem bestimmten Augenblick und in einer bestimmten Situation, 
die für den Untersuchten stets mehr oder weniger etwas Un- 
natürliches darstellt. Kann man noch von einer Reinheit der Auf- 
gabe sprechen, wenn man hört, daß der eine Zwilling scheu wird 
und stammelt, der andere zwangloser reagiert; hat es einen Wert 
für die Bestimmung der Intelligenz, wenn man die Leistungen 
eines bei der Prüfung ängstlichen Kindes mit denen eines nicht 
ängstlichen vergleicht ? Und muß man nicht solchen experimen- 
tellen psychologischen Untersuchungen noch skeptischer gegen- 
überstehen, wenn man nachher hört, daß das Kind, das sich bei 
verschiedenen Tests scheu, stammelnd oder ängstlicher zeigte, 
,, gleichgültiger gegen unbehagliche Situationen" sein soll ? Die 
ausgiebigen und übereinstimmenden Erfahrungen, die uns die 
letzten Jahrzehnte durch den Aufschwung der Tiefenpsychologie 
und der medizinischen Charakterologie (Freud, Jung, Adler, 
Kretschmer u. a.) gebracht haben, sind die wichtigste Ursache für 
den Abbau von psychologischen Leistungsprüfungen der er- 
wähnten Art. Sei es, daß andere und neue Prüfungsmethoden ge- 
schaffen werden müssen, die die Errungenschaften der Charaktero- 
logie mehr berücksichtigen, sei es, daß man solches Experimentieren 
und ,, Prüfen" als Mittel der psychologischen Diagnostik wegen 
seiner Fehlerhaftigkeit und Scheinexaktheit noch mehr einschränkt : 
eine Verwendung überspitzter Methoden sollte aus der Zwillings- 
forschung fortbleiben, da sie zu Trugschlüssen Anlaß geben. 

Demgegenüber haben die mannigfachen Zwillingsstudien von 
Lange (1928a, b, c, 1929a, b) den Vorzug, daß er die einfache und 
natürliche Beobachtung zur Grundlage seiner Arbeiten machte. 
Seine sorgfältigen und methodisch vorbildlichen „Studien an 



2. Charakterologische Beobachtungen 



53 



kriminellen Zwillingen" haben ebenso wie seine Mitteilungen über 
hysterische und psychopathische Zwillinge zu der ziemHch ein- 
heitlichen Erfahrung geführt, daß bei E. Z. die tiefer verankerten 
Grundzüge des Wesens genotypisch bedingt sind, daß daneben 
aber für die Gestaltung des Oberflächenbildes modifikatorische 
Beeinflussungsmöglichkeiten bestehen, deren Eindringlichkeit unter 
Umständen eine recht große und praktisch bedeutungsvolle sein 
kann. Zu einer ähnlichen Auffassung kommen Holzinger (1929) 
und Löwenstein (1929), die u. a. auch die pädagogischen Folge- 
rungen aus diesen Tatsachen ziehen. 

Fassen wir die bisherigen Erfahrungen der Zwillingspsycho- 
logie zusammen, so hat sich ziemlich übereinstimmend die Er- 
kenntnis ergeben, daß die Rolle und die Auswirkung des Geno- 
typischen wichtiger ist und weiter reicht, als es alle nicht biologisch 
orientierten psychologischen Richtungen früherer Jahrzehnte er- 
warteten und annahmen. Daß innerhalb der charakterlichen 
Sphäre, der Gestaltung von Temperament und Emotionalität 
modifikatorische Einflüsse einen breiteren Spielraum zu haben 
scheinen als innerhalb des Bereiches der intellektuellen Fähigkeiten, 
konnte wahrscheinlich gemacht werden. Nicht übereinstimmend 
sind die Erfahrungen über die Modifikabilität der Intelligenz; 
hierbei spielen aber Mängel der Methodik und der individuellen 
psychologischen Beobachtungs weise sicher eine große Rolle. Es 
fehlt bis heute noch an serienmäßigen Zwillingsuntersuchungen 
über die Charaktergestaltung der Normalen, und es fehlt vor allem 
an einer einheitlichen, auf einer brauchbaren Systematik aufge- 
bauten Methodik hierfür, die gerade die Zwillingspsychologie nicht 
entbehren kann, weil sie Qualitatives quantitativ verarbeiten muß. 
Beide Lücken sollen die nachfolgenden Studien aus- 
füllen helfen. 

b) Material 
Es entspricht dem Plan der vorliegenden Untersuchungen, 
nicht von Begabungsprüfungen oder sonstigen quantitativen Me- 
thoden psychologischer Diagnostik auszugehen. Der Grund hierfür 
wurde bereits im vorigen Abschnitt angedeutet und liegt vor allem 
darin, daß wir den bisher auf diesem Gebiete in der Zwillings- 
psychologie benutzten Methoden nicht das nötige Vertrauen ent- 
gegenbringen können. Erbbiologische Untersuchungen müssen auf 
dem Gebiete der Psychologie danach trachten, soweit wie möglich 



! 







54 



V. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillings jorschutig 



an die Elemente der seelischen Äußerungsformen heranzukommen. 
Demgegenüber ist nun her vorzugeben, daß die allermeisten Formen 
der Intelligenzprüfungen ihren großen Wert im rein Utilitaristischen 
haben. Sie bestimmen die Leistungen und können dadurch 
praktisch wichtige Fingerzeige für die Verwendung bestimmter 
Personen in bestimmten Berufszweigen oder für ihre Unterbringung 
in bestimmten Schulgattungen geben. Sie bestimmen aber oft 
nur sehr bedingt die Fähigkeiten. Ein so sicherer und erfahrener 
Gewährsmann wie William Stern betont selbst ausdrücklich, daß 
für die Intelligenz nicht so sehr ausschlaggebend seien die Denkakte 
als solche, sondern ihre Verwertung, daß es sich nicht so sehr 
handle um die Fülle der Möglichkeiten, sondern um die Auswahl 
und Einsetzung der geeignetsten Möglichkeit. Es handelt sich 
bei den Funktionen der Intelligenz also sicher um komplizierte und 
komplexe Vorgänge, deren Messung nur einen sehr bedingten 
Wert haben kann, sobald man sich ausdrücklich auf dem Gebiete 
biologischer Diagnostik bewegen will. Oder um es an einem 
konkreten Beispiel zu verdeutlichen: Wenn eineiige Zwillinge von 
40 Jahren, die sehr verschiedene Lebens- und Ausbildungswege 
hinter sich haben, bei einem bestimmten Test verschiedene Lei- 
stungen zeigen, so ist daraus über die den Intelligenzleistimgen 
zugrundeliegenden Anlagen noch keineswegs ein bindender 
Schluß zu ziehen. Es ergibt sich vielmehr die Aufgabe, aus den 
IntelHgenzleistungen die charakterlichen, erlebnismäßig bedingten 
^ und durch die individuelle Reaktion auf die Prüfungssituation 
gegebenen Einflüsse zu eliminieren. Dieser Forderung entsprechen 
die bisherigen zwillingspsychologischen Untersuchungen keineswegs. 
Wir halten es auch vorderhand für sehr schwierig, bei Serien- 
Untersuchungen eine Methodik einzuführen , die der geschilderten 
Sachlage gerecht werden könnte und kommen deshalb zu folgendem 
Schlüsse : So sehr es gerade bei Zwillingsuntersuchungen erwünscht 
ist, zu zahlenmäßigen, meßbaren Resultaten zu kommen, so sehr 
müssen wir uns doch von einer Scheinexaktheit fernhalten, die 
in dilettantischer Weise Leistungen und Fähigkeiten ver- 
wechselt. Es erscheint uns dringender und vor allen Dingen mög- 
licher, zwillingspsychologische Untersuchimgen vorerst im Be- 
reiche des Charakterologischen durchzuführen, und wir gehen 
deshalb, wie es Lange für das Gebiet der Charakteranomalien 
bereits getan hat, beobachtend und beschreibend und nicht 
messend vor. 



r^a^.«* «..«4 «>^ j» «^ ^T . f^ % 



'••»•-'*- 



2. CharaJcterologische Beobachtungen 



55 



Eine Methode, wie die hier gewählte, wird schließlich auch für 
die experimentalpsychologischen Leistungsprüfungen einen ge- 
wissen Nutzen abwerfen. Die Experiment alpsychologie hat sich 
in den letzten Jahren in lebendiger Wandlung mehr und mehr auf 
die Berücksichtigung charakterologischer Beobachtungen umge- 
stellt. Intelligenzprüfungen ohne genügende Berücksichtigung der 
Gesamtpersönlichkeit, ihrer Situationsgebimdenheit usw. werden 
von fast allen Psychologen als ungenügend und fehlerhaft ver- 
worfen. Umso wertvoller muß es für diese Arbeitsrichtung sein, 
die Modifikationsbreite der einzelnen Charakteranteile möglichst 
genau bestimmt zu sehen. 

Die nachfolgenden Schilderungen bringen in kurzen Zügen 
ein charakterologisches Bild von den Probanden. Vollständigkeit 
in irgendeiner Richtung wurde absichtlich nicht angestrebt. Es 
wurde vielmehr immer das vermerkt, was für die betreffende 
Person weseüÜIotL-erschien, und was sie auf den Hauptgebieten 
des Lebens an Verhaltungsweisen und -rj chtun gen zu zeigen pflegt. 



Eineiige Zwillinge 

Paar 1. 18jährige Akademikersöhne, die gerade ihre Reifeprüfung 
auf dem Gymnasium gemacht haben. Es handelt sich um ein Paar typische 
Leptosome, die die Untersuchung mit einem gewissen trockenen Humor, 
öfter leicht ironisierend, beobachtend, aber durchaus verständnisvoll über 
sich ergehen lassen. Sie haben nach Angaben der Mutter erst spät sprechen 
gelernt, unterhielten sich bis dahin in einer ,, unverständlichen Sprache" 
und speisten ihre Angehörigen ,,mit ganz vereinzelten Wortbrocken ab". 
Beide lutschten als Kleinkinder gern. B. war Bettnässer bis zum 6. Lebens- 
jahre, A. scheint auch etwas über die gewöhnliche Zeit eingenäßt zu haben. 
Als Kinder sollen sie lebhaft, gutmütig und folgsam gewesen sein. Beide 
hatten stets gute Schulzeugnisse. Nach der Meinung der Mutter sind sie 
jetzt noch recht lebhaft (objektiv nicht erheblich), haben beide rasche Auf- 
fassung, beobachten scharf. A. ist aufgeschlossener, anhänglicher, hat einen 
stets frischen Humor und Witz. B. ist ,,viel verschlossener", zurückhalten- 
der, sensitiv. Sie musizieren ganz gern: auf Wunsch der Eltern lernte A. 
Klavierspiel, B. Geigenspiel. Sie spielen beide ,,ganz gut", halten sich 
nicht für übermäßig talentiert, gehen gern ins Konzert. Für die Schule 
haben sie sich nie sehr begeistert, betrieben mit mehr Vorliebe Segelsport, 
haben ein eigenes Boot und ,,pütjern" gern daran herum. Sie sollen beide 
gut skifahren. Besonders gesellig waren sie nie, hatten nicht viel Freunde, 
waren sich meist selbst genug. Anscheinend bildeten sie eine Clique für sich 
und brauchten keine anderen dazu. Sie sind beide skeptisch, beobachtend, 
ruhig. B. soll früher aufgeregter gewesen sein als A. Bemerkenswerte reli- 
giöse Neigungen haben sie nicht, sind ziemlich nüchtern und realistisch 
eingestellt. Politisches Interesse ist deutlich bei beiden vorhanden, aber ohne 



• to «* ».» ' A- r^mA' 



56 



F. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Ziuillingsforschung 



ö 







Anhängerschaft an eine Partei. Mädchenfreundschaften liegen ihnen fern; 
natürhche SinnUchkeit ohne Drang nach Auswirkung. Beide betonen, daß 
sie großes Selbstvertrauen haben. Sie sind korrekt gekleidet, sind nicht 
bemerkenswert eitel. Schlaf und Appetit gut. A. ist etwas lebhafter, kecker, 
B. etwas stiller, kommt aber doch auch oft mit interessierten, manchmal 
etwas spöttelnden Bemerkungen heraus. Der Unterschied in der Aufge- 
schlossenheit ist wohl feststellbar, erscheint aber bei der Untersuchung ge- 
ringer, als er von der Mutter empfunden wird (eine Beobachtung, die wir 
bezüglich der verschiedensten Eigenschaften bei vielen Paaren machen 
konnten; Überschätzung der Unterschiede scheint bei E. Z. infolge der 
Herausforderung zum Vergleichen ebensosehr vorzukommen wie das Gegen- 
teil. Differenzen und Ähnlichkeiten werden oft gleichsam durch eine Lupe 
gesehen). Beide sind in bezug auf Berufsfragen ziemlich nüchtern und rea- 
listisch eingestellt, haben praktische Neigungen mit leicht wissenschaftlichem 
Einschlag. A. will Ingenieur-Kaufmann werden, B. Diplom-Kaufmann oder 
kaufmännisch tätiger Jurist. 

Paar 2. 28jährige, unverheiratete Mädchen, leiden beide, wie auch 
eine 1 Jahr ältere Schwester an genuiner Epilepsie i. Die Anfälle traten bei 
beiden im 9. Lebensjahre auf, bei A. ein Vierteljahr früher als bei B. Beide 
hatten die Anfälle zuerst alle 6 Tage; nach einem halben Jahr blieben die 
Anfälle aus, um bei beiden nach 3 Jahren, während des Krieges wiederzu- 
kehren. Menarche bei beiden mit 17 Jahren, bei A. erste Regel 2 Tage 
später als bei B. Seit der Zeit hat A. die Anfälle alle 3—4 Wochen, meistens 
kurz vor der Regel, B. alle Vierteljahr. Die Anfälle sollen bei beiden leichter 
geworden sein. B. machte mit 17 Jahren einen schweren Status epilepticus 
durch, war darnach 8 Tage „völlig von Verstand", glaubte, man wolle sie 
begraben, sah wilde Tiere. A. machte 1928 eine Reihe schwerer Dämmer- 
zustände durch, war 1/2 Jahr in Friedrichsberg. Im April 1930 war sie 
wiederum wegen eines rasch abklmgenden Verwirrtheitszustandes in Fried- 
richsberg. 

Beide lutschten als Kind gern, B. war Bettnässerin bis zum 7. Jahre. 
Sie waren als Kinder ruhig, folgsam und gutmütig, waren außer Kinder^ 
krankheiten und Mandelentzündungen nicht ernstlich krank. Beide haben 
nach Angabe der Mutter gute Schulleistungen gezeigt, B. vielleicht etwas 
besser als A., gingen aus der 1. Klasse ab. A. lernte als Schneiderin, war 
3 Jahre als Regenmäntelnäherin tätig, wurde 1928 nach den schweren 
Dämmerzuständen invalidisiert, ist seitdem zu Hause, hilft der Mutter 
B. ist Kontoristin und hat seit dem 18. Jahre regelmäßig gearbeitet, außer 
2 Perioden von monatelanger Arbeitslosigkeit. Einmal verlor sie ihre Stel- 
lung wegen eines im Geschäft aufgetretenen Anfalles. Seit 3 Jahren ist 
sie bei der gleichen Firma tätig. 

A. ist im Laufe der Jahre immer eigensinniger geworden, ist umständ- 
lich und langsam, hört öfter nicht auf Mahnungen. Manchmal soll sie wenn 
sie in Stimm ung ist, bei der Arbeit schneller sein. Im ganzen schwerfällig. 

1 Eine ausführliche Publikation dieses Paares mit eingehender Berück 
sichtigung der Epilepsie erfolgt an anderer Stelle. Hier soll nur das Charak- 
terologische erwähnt werden. 



N 



2. Charakter alogische Beobachtungen 



57 



Sie hat sich nie an Freundinnen angeschlossen, hält sich nur an die Zwillings- 
schwester. Sie redet nach Angaben der Mutter „nicht so ganz normal, ist 
nicht ganz intakt". Sie näht ganz gern, macht dabei öfter Fehler, zerriß 
dabei neulich vor Wut ein Hemd. Sie sei nicht besonders musikalisch, hätte 
ihre ganze frühere Begabung (Schulzeit) verloren. Sie redet wohl einmal 
so vom Heiraten, gibt sich aber in keiner Weise mit Männern ab. Sie ist 
eigen mit ihren Sachen, packt viel umständlich herum. Nicht religiös. 

B. ist nicht eigensiimig nach Ansicht der Mutter (objektiv doch etwas) 
auch nicht langsam. Sie soll sehr sparsam, knickerig sein. Ist ziemlich 
ruhig, zielstrebig, resolut, führt durch, was sie wül. Früher „saß sie auch 
oft in der Ecke", seit Jahren ist sie freier und lebhafter geworden, seit sie 
weniger Anfälle hat. Sie geht gern ins Geschäft, man ist dort angeblich sehr 
zufrieden mit ihr. Ebensowenig musikalisch wie die Schwester, treibt keinen 
Sport. In letzter Zeit hat sie Interesse für Photographie bekommen, hat sich 
einen Apparat gekauft, zeigt stolz einige ganz nette Bilder. Sie ist wie A. 
sehr eigen mit ihren Sachen, näht gern alles selbst, ist sehr geschickt dabei. 
Früher war sie wie A. still und zurückgezogen; jetzt hat sie eine Freundin. 
Geht gern ins Freie. Nicht religiös. Keine literarischen und sonstigen 
geistigen Interessen. Keine Herrenbekanntschaften. B. zeigt bei den üb- 
lichen klinischen Prüfungen mittlere Intelligenz. Merkfähigkeit leicht 
herabgesetzt, Kopfrechnen gut. Sie ist, wie ihre Schwester, sauber gekleidet, 
beide halten offenbar auf ihre Sachen. Etwas umständlich und geistig em- 
geengt ist sie auch, nimmt alle Dinge, die mit der Untersuchung zusammen- 
hängen, sehr genau und mit Pflichtbewußtsein. A. ist deutlich beschränkt, 
klebrig, umständlich, schüttelt lange und mit Nachdruck die dargebotene 
Hand, wiederholt sich bei ihren Versprechungen, ist sehr dankbar und an- 
hänglich, nur weil man Interesse an ihr nimmt. Freut sich in naiv dementer 
Weise darauf, „bald ganz gesund" zu sein. Sie schließt sich ohne Konkur- 
renzgefühl an ihre Schwester an, folgt ihr willig. Beide wirken kmdlich, A. 
mehr als B. A. rechnet schlecht. Merkfähigkeit etwas schlechter als bei B. 
Trotz des Gradunterschiedes hat man das Empfinden, daß die leichte psy- 
chische Veränderung bei B. verwandt ist mit der schweren von A. 

Paar 3. 19jährige, große, kräftige Mädchen von nahezu pyknischem 
Habitus. Töchter eines Feinkosthändlers. Sie sind ohne ernste Erkrankungen 
komplikationslos groß geworden, lernten fast gleichzeitig laufen und sprechen. 
Menarche mit 14 Jahren. A. 2 Monate später als B., beide im ersten Jahr 
mit Rücken- und Kopfschmerzen, von da ab ohne Beschwerden, gleich 
stark und lange. Seit dem 16. Jahre sind sie beide ziemlich rundlich ge- 
worden. Die Mutter gibt an, daß sie immer ein „heiteres, sonniges Wesen" 
gezeigt hätten (das ist sehr laienhaft gesehen und stimmt nicht ganz). Sie 
hätten viel Sinn für Musik ( = Klavierspiel der höheren Tochter) und seien 
fügsam und gutmütig. Sie unterscheiden sich in „fast nichts", wurden von 
jeher bis heute leicht verwechselt. Aus den Angaben der Mädchen selbst 
ist zu entnehmen, daß sie mittelgute Schulleistungen zeigten, beide Vorliebe 
für Mathematik und Musik hatten, dagegen mäßig zeichneten und kein 
Sprachtalent besitzen. Sie mochten von jeher gern turnen, gehen gern zum 
Schwimmen. B. turnt etwas besser, hat mehr Mut. Sie hatten als kleine 
Mädchen schon Klavierunterricht auf Drängen der Eltern, allmählich be- 



^1 



amm>'m0-^ ••iiMi» ' 



I 



1! 



i 



) 



m 



58 



F. Ergehnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillin^sforschung 



kamen sie Lust dazu. Sie halten sich für musikalisch, behalten Melodien 
gut, singen nicht besonders gut, aber richtig. Ihr Klavierspiel ist gleich 
gut; sie spielen gern vierhändig, abwechselnd Baß und Diskant. Sind beide 
gern mit Freundinnen zusammen, sind gern lustig. Vertragen sich gut 
untereinander und auch mit anderen, sind nicht rechthaberisch. Sie haben 
gemeinsam eine enge Freundin. Eine Anführerin gibt es unter ihnen nicht. 
Im allgemeinen sind sie ziemlich ruhig, werden in Gesellschaft lebhaft, be- 
sondere Ausgelassenheit liegt ihnen nicht. Sie waren im vorigen Jahre je 
^ Jahr in Pension zu verschiedener Zeit und an verschiedenen Orten. Jetzt 
arbeiten sie beide im Hause mit; und zwar sind sie immer sich gegenseitig 
abwechselnd im Geschäft (Delikatessenladen) und im Haushalt tätig. Ihr 
Geschick als Verkäuferin ist gleich. B. hat etwas mehr Freude am Deko- 
rieren des Schaufensters, verziert auch gern Kuchen und Torten; A. liegt 
das nicht so. Sie gehen beide gern ins Theater, tanzen gern, sind gern mit 
jungen Leuten zusammen, haben reges erotisches Interesse. Besonders 
religiös sind sie nicht. Lesen ganz gern mal einen Roman, sonst keine gei- 
stigen Neigungen. Besonderes Nähgeschick haben sie nicht, häkeln ab und 
zu einmal, halten sich aber nicht lange damit auf. Auf ihre Kleidung halten 
sie sehr, sind sauber und ordnungsliebend. Sie behalten sowohl Namen wie 
Gesichter gut, Gedächtnis auch für Zahlen und geschäftliche Dinge gut. 
Bei der Arbeit ausdauernd. Bei der Untersuchung sind sie nett, natürlich, 
interessiert, machen den Eindruck geistiger Einfachheit, kehren gern hervor, 
daß sie die höhere Schule bis zur mittleren Reife besucht haben, sind sonst 
nicht auffallend eitel. Vorwiegend synton, nicht sehr lebhaft. 

Paar 4. 39jährige, ledige Fabrikantentöchter aus angesehener west- 
preußischer Familie. Die Mutter gibt an, daß die Gravidität ungewöhnlich 
beschwerlich war; die Geburt verlief rasch und normal, B. kam 20 Minuten 
nach A. zur Welt. B. wurde 1/9 Jahr gestillt, bekam dann Beikost; A. war 
schwächer, litt unter Ernährungsstörungen, bekam länger Brustnahrung. 
A. hatte leichte Rhachitis, B. nicht. Beide sprachen früh, bekamen zugleich 
die ersten Zähne und liefen erst mit 1% Jahren. A. schrie viel, hatte viel 
Durchfälle, war ein „kranker, elender Säugling", B. war nach Ansicht der 
Mutter ziemlich normal. Beide litten unter Dunkelangst. Sie machten 
Keuchhusten und schwere Masern, beide mit Otitis durch. Als Kinder 
waren beide still, nervös, eigensinnig. A. deutlich mehr als B. Sie besuchten 
eine ländliche Töchterschule, waren gute bis mittelgute Schülerinnen, B. 
etwas besser als A. A. hatte Drüsenschwellungen mit Nasenpolypen, schlief 
mit offenem Munde. Menarche: B. mit U% Jahren, A. mit 15 Jahren. Die 
Periode war zuerst sehr unregelmäßig, wurde nach Jahren, bei B. früher 
als bei A., ziemlich regelmäßig. Beide hatten von jeher starke dysmenor- 
rhoische Beschwerden, auch jetzt noch, B. schlimmer als A. B. wurde des- 
wegen 1911 an einer Retroflexio uteri operiert. Während der Pubertätszeit 
waren beide reizbarer, leichter gekränkt. Mit 15 Jahren wurden die beiden 
getrennt. A. blieb zunächst im Hause, B. ging aufs Lehrerinnenseminar. 
Sie hatte immer mittelgute Zeugnisse, sie „haßte Zeichnen und Französisch"! 
A. bezog mit 19 Jahren eine Handelsschule, war dort ein Jahr lang, hatte 
mittlere bis schlechte Zeugnisse. Dann nahm sie eine Stellung als Kontor- 
istin an, wechselte nach 1^^ Jahren die Stellung und ist seit 18 Jahren bei 




2. Charakterologische Beobachtungen 



59 



einer Firma als Stenotypistin tätig. Ihre Tätigkeit besteht in Stenographie, 
Maschinenschreiben und Buchführung. Sie hat kein Interesse an ihrem 
Beruf, ist nach 5 Stunden Tätigkeit „erledigt". Alles geht ihr auf die Nerven, 
der Betrieb ist ihr zu unruhig. Sie ist sehr empfindlich, hat keine eigent- 
lichen Konflikte mit anderen, übt mehr stille Kritik. Sie hat Sinn für ruhige, 
eigene Häuslichkeit, für eigene Möbel, hält auf Sauberkeit, ist eigen mit 
ihren Sachen, liebt Behaglichkeit. Sie ist nicht besonders ordentlich, verlegt 
leicht etwas. Ihr Appetit ist ganz gut ; sie ist aber empfindlich mit demMagen, 
kann Saures und Fettes nicht vertragen. Hat öfter unter Kolikschmerzen 
und Blähungen zu leiden. Ab und zu Hinterkopfneuralgien. Sie ist interes- 
siert an netter Kleidung, gibt gern etwas dafür aus, hat aber einen einfachen 
Geschmack. Freundinnen habe sie früher öfter gehabt, es ist damit aber 
immer weniger geworden. Früher sei sie aufgeschlossener gewesen; sie 
wurde jedoch durch böse Erfahrungen (Klatsch) immer vorsichtiger: „Je 
weniger man von den Menschen sieht, um so besser". Sie geht selten aus 
Im allgemeinen ist sie sehr still, kann aber lebhaft werden, wenn sie auf 
Sympathie und Verstänchiis stößt. Früher sei sie gern in Gesellschaft ge- 
wesen, war sogar manchmal tonangebend; allmählich wurde sie immer 
zurückhaltender. Politik findet sie gräßlich. Nicht kirchlich. Bedürfnis 
nach Männerfreundschaften hat sie immer gehabt, hat auch jetzt einen 
Frevmd. Wenn sie jemanden wirklich liebt, ist sie aufgeschlossen und hm- 
gebungsvoll. - B. war nach dem Abgang vom Seminar Hauslehrerm, 
3 Jahre in der Großstadt, dann auf dem Lande. Mit 28 Jahren ging sie ms 
Ausland als Hauslehrerin, sie machte dort nach privaten Aufregungen eine 
Herzneurose durch; sonst hat es ihr draußen gut gefallen. Nach b Jahren 
kam sie zurück und ist seitdem als Lehrerin in klemen ländlichen Orten 
tätig gewesen. Sie möchte gern in der Nähe der Großstadt sein wohnt aber 
lieber auf dem Lande. Ihr Beruf gefällt ihr; sie geht gern mit Kindern um, 
wenig gern mit Vorgesetzten. Sie ermüdet leicht, hat mittags genug von 
der Arbeit. Sie ist in der Schulklasse sehr energisch, hält auf strenge Zucht 
Sie hatte öfter Konflikte, „wahnsinnige Krache" mit Vorgesetzten, geht 
kräftig und energisch drauflos; Durchsetzungsdrang. Empfindlich oder 
leicht gekränkt will sie nicht sein. Sie gibt sich ganz gern einmal mit haus - 
liehen Dingen ab, liebt gutes Mobiliar. Handarbeiten „haßt sie, ist aber 
auch Handarbeitslehrerin. Kicht sehr eigen, nicht ordnungsliebend Sie 
hat gute Freundinnen, die aber weit von ihr entfernt wohnen; im übrigen 
schließt sie sich nicht leicht an, ist wählerisch, ist dann schon lieber allem, 
„kann es allein ganz gut aushalten". Der Appetit ist gut, Essen ist im 
übrigen „Nebensache" („hält zu lange auf"); bezüglich der Kost ist sie mcht 
wählerisch. Etwas empfindlich mit dem Magen, leidet unter Blähungen, 
kann fettes Fleisch und saure Sachen nicht gut vertragen (die Anamnesen 
von A. und B. sind getrennt aufgenommen!). Sie liebt nette Kleidung, 
mag sich nur nicht lange damit befassen, ist ungeschickt im Nahen. Ist 
gern mit Männern zusammen, hatte immer einen Freund, „wählerisch, aber 
nicht knauserig" in Liebesangelegenheiten. Für Politik sei sie zu dumm, 
schätzt so etwas nicht. Religiös sehr frei, geht nur zur Kirche, wenn es ihr 
Beruf erfordert. Moralisch ziemlich frei eingestellt, nicht konventionell. 
Sie ist meist ruhig, kann in geeigneter Umgebung lebhaft werden. Nicht 



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60 



V. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillings forsckung 



besonders anpassungsfähig, etwas schon, z.B. mit den Leuten auf dem Lande. 
Sie kann dickköpfig sein, wenn ihr etwas nicht paßt. — Die Mutter gibt an, 
daß beide nervös seien. A. sei „gutmütig bis zum Fehler", sie sei fleißig 
imd treu, könne nicht gut mit Geld umgehen. B. wird als gewissenhaft und 
sehr wahrheitsliebend geschildert, sie fährt unbedenklich und nicht immer 
sanft mit allem heraus. Oft sei sie sehr imentschlossen. Bei der Unter- 
suchung sind beide aufmerksam, sensibel. B. ist aber viel frischer, „wur- 
stiger", scheint alles leichter zu nehmen. A. ist von der ganzen Unter- 
suchung und Befragung etwas peinlich berührt, macht aber alles entgegen- 
kommend mit. Beide „pflaumen" sich fast unaufhörlich an, necken sich, 
fordern, wenn eine etwas gefragt worden ist, die andere zum Antworten auf. 
Nach der einige Stunden dauernden Untersuchung sind sie recht erschöpft, 
A. viel mehr als B. Sie erzählen ihre Lebensgeschichte beide mit Freimut 
und verständnisvoller Offenheit, wenn man A. auch anmerkt, daß es sie 
Überwindung kostet. A. gibt später brieflich zu verstehen, daß ihr das 
ganze eine Tortur war. B. bleibt auch in Briefen freundlich und entgegen- 
kommend. Man erfährt, daß A. immer überaus empfindlich sei; eine ältere 
Schwester meidet sie deswegen, obwohl sie am gleichen Ort wohnt. Einige 
Wochen nach der Untersuchung erlitt B. (!) einen Nervenzusammenbruch 
infolge einer Enttäuschung und schrieb einen recht verzweifelten Brief. — 
Dieses Paar war im uimiittelbaren Eindruck ungemein interessant. Man 
hatte bei diesen beiden Frauen das Gefühl, daß B. bei ganz ähnlichen, z. T. 
bis in die Einzelheiten übereinstimmenden Grundeigenschaften das aktive 
Kompensat von A., der leidensbereiten hyperästhetischen Ressentiment- 
Natur, darstellte. Beide zeigten ganz gleiche psychopathische Reaktions- 
typen in verschiedener Ablaufsform, unter verschieden starker Selbst- 
behauptung st endenz . 

Paar 5. 15jährige Mädchen, Töchter eines Eisenbahnlademeisters. 
Die Mutter starb vor 1 Jahre, seitdem führen die beiden Mädchen den Haus- 
halt. Soweit die Mädchen orientiert sind, kamen sie ohne Schwierigkeiten 
zur Welt. Beide wurden 9 Monate gestillt, sollen als Säuglinge sehr viel 
geschrien haben. Die Sprachentwicklung setzte ziemlich spät, mit 2 Jahren 
etw^a, bei beiden gleichzeitig ein. Sie haben als Kinder gestottert, bis zum 
10. Lebensjahre, kamen deshalb erst mit 7 Jahren zur Schule. Seit 5 Jahren 
sprechen sie normal. Auch das Laufen lernten sie etwas verspätet, mit 2 
Jahren, gleichzeitig. Beide machten die Kinderkrankheiten gemeinsam 
durch, haben beide große Mandeln und halten den Mund gewöhnlich etwas 
geöffnet. Sie besuchten die Volksschule, hatten mittelgute Zeugnisse, A. 
etwas besser als B. Für Sprachen und Zeichnen sind sie nicht begabt, inter- 
essieren sich für Musik, A. auch für Mathematik. Menarche mit 14 Jahren, 
A. 2 Monate später als B. A. hat die Periode alle 28 Tage, B. alle 22 Tage, 
beide mittelstark und ohne Beschwerden. Seit 1 Jahre sind sie beide etwas 
dicker imd rundlicher geworden. Die Mädchen machen bei der Unter- 
suchung einen mäßig intelligenten, etwas ungeweckten Eindruck. Enger 
Gesichtskreis. Sie machen gemeinsam den Haushalt, werden gut damit 
fertig. Das Kochen besorgt allerdings der Vater. B. ist ziemlich für den 
Haushalt interessiert, mag gern kochen, weniger gern reinmachen. A. hat 
keine besondere Neigung zur Hausarbeit. Seit der Schulentlassung vor 



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2. Charakterologische Beobachtungen 



61 



1/ Jahr besucht A. die Handelsschule; sie will Kontoristin werden. B. hat 
sich noch zu keinem Beruf entschlossen und besucht die Haushai tvmgsschule. 
In der Freizeit lesen sie gerne, meist gute, ruhige Lektüre: Storm oder dgl., 
keine Reisebeschreibungen. Bis zur Schulentlassung spielten sie gern auf 
der Straße, mochten gern Ballspiele; jetzt kommen sie nur noch selten dazu. 
Sie gehen gern zum Schwimmen, betreiben sonst keinen Sport. Sie haben 
jede eine Freundin, schließen sich nicht besonders schwer, aber auch nicht 
leicht an. Für die Kleidung sind sie nicht besonders interessiert, wenn sie 
auch alles sauber und in Ordnung halten. Sind beide nicht sehr eitel. Im 
Wesen sollen sie immer sehr gleichmäßig gewesen sein, immer ruhig, nicht 
schwierig, nicht leicht aufgeregt. Sie sind für Tagesfragen und P-olitik nicht 
interessiert, nicht kirchlich. Die verstorbene Mutter soll sie immer für ganz 
ähnliche Charaktere gehalten haben. In letzter Zeit sei wohl B. etwas leb- 
hafter als A. Beide machen gern Ausflüge. Sie erscheinen beide recht un- 
differenziert, haben aber auch wenig Anregung gehabt. A. ist ein wenig 
geweckter, gibt mehr Antworten, wenn beide gefragt werden. Als man auf 
die verstorbene Mutter zu sprechen kommt, fangen beide still an zu weinen. 
Paar 6. 16jährige, kecke, sehr geschickt und adrett angezogene Mäd- 
chen, Töchter eines Betriebsleiters. Die Mutter litt während der Gravidität 
sehr 'an Hyperemesis, machte außerdem eine Schwangerschaf tsnephritis 
durch. B. war eine Querlage, wurde in Kopflage durch Zange geboren, war 
sehr schwächlich und kam auf 3—4 Wochen in den Brutofen. A. kam 10 
Stunden später als Steißlage zur Welt, war etwas kräftiger. Sie wurden 
beide künstlich ernährt, hatten keine Ernährungsstörungen, bekamen gleich- 
zeitig die ersten Zähne, liefen mit 1 Jahr, A. 14 Tage später als B. Mit 
34 Jahren fingen sie an zu sprechen. Die Mädchen waren zunächst folgsam, 
ziemlich lebhaft, B. mehr als A. B. soll einmal einen Wutanfall gehabt 
haben, von dem sie jetzt noch reden. Keuchhusten und Masern machten 
sie gemeinsam durch; B. mit Otitis media rechts, A. ohne solche. B. litt 
außerdem an Drüsenschwellungen und großen Mandeln. Die Madchen be- 
suchten die Volksschule, kamen nach 4 Jahren in die Oberrealschule, kamen 
dort im Rechnen und Englisch nicht mit, wurden nervös, unruhig, magerten 
ab, wurden ängstlich und kamen deswegen auf die Volksschule zurück, wo 
sie sehr gut mitkamen. Schulleistungen bei A. wenig besser als bei B.Me- 
narche: B. vor 34 Jahren, A. vor 1/4 Jahr. A. hat die Regel mittelstark, 
B. ziemlich stark und lange, hat dabei Kopfschmerzen (A. nicht). — Die 
Mutter gibt an, daß die Mädchen als Kleinkinder lebhaft, aber nett im Um- 
gang waren. Sie malten und zeichneten gern, spielten gern mit Puppen und 
kleinen Kindern. Sie waren körperlich zart, schlechte Esser. Auch in der 
späten Schulzeit spielten sie gern, hatten Freundinnen, waren keine Stuben- 
hocker. In den ersten Schuljahren schloß sich A. weniger leicht an als B. 
Letztere war jedoch immer etwas nervös, weinte viel, fühlte sich öfter 
zurückgesetzt, die Mutter weiß eigentlich nicht, weshalb. B. ging weniger 
aus sich heraus. A. turnte gern, B. weniger gern. Handarbeiten und Eng- 
lisch hätten sie gut gekonnt. Rechnen weniger gut, alles übrige ganz gut. 
Seit dem 14. Lebensjahre hätten die Mädchen sich geändert. Es begann 
schon während der Schulzeit. B. hatte damals eine Freundin, A. nicht; 
sie wurden aufgehetzt, vertrugen sich schlecht, stritten viel. A. hatte meist 



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62 



V. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillings forschung 



die Oberhand, hatte die „glücklichere Natur". Jetzt hat A. auch wieder 
eine Freundin. Vorübergehend waren sie sehr verschlossen, in letzter Zeit 
wieder etwas weniger. Vor allem aber wurden sie unzufrieden, ungefällig, 
in alledem war A. gleich B. Im ganzen ist sonst A. ruhiger, harmonischer, 
tiefer, B. oberflächlicher, unruhiger. Beide gehen zum Schwimmen und 
Turnen. A. ist im Schwimmen etwas ängstlicher, turnt lieber. Die Mädchen 
besuchen jetzt einen Jahreskursus der Haushaltungsschule. Zur Hausarbeit 
müßten sie immer angehalten werden; nörgeln darüber. Sie sind aber beide 
peinlich sauber. Sie machen ganz gerne Handarbeiten, B. weniger aus- 
dauernd als A. Musikahsch sind sie beide nicht; B. singt vielleicht etwas 
besser. Sie haben jetzt beide guten Appetit, schlafen gut. Im Wesen sind 
sie sprunghaft, lebhaft; sind gern außer dem Hause, poussieren ganz gern, 

A. mehr als B. A. möchte Kinderfräulein oder Säuglingspflegerin werden, 

B. Drogistin oder Laborantin. — Die Mädchen selbst geben an, daß B. ganz 
gern mal Hausarbeit macht, A. weniger gern. Sie seien ordentlich. Die 
von der Mutter geklagte Charakteränderung erklären sie damit, daß die 
Mutter sie zu viel ,, begängelt" und beaufsichtigt; sie möchten mehr Freiheit 
haben. Mögen gern sich fein anziehen, spazieren gehen mit Freundinnen. 
Sprechen frei darüber, daß sie gern poussieren, A. mehr als B. Sie sind jetzt 
gute Esser, sind aber wählerisch. Interessieren sich sehr für ihre Kleidung, 
sind ausgesprochen eitel, kommen zur Untersuchung zweimal in feinen, 
auf Wirkung berechneten Kleidern. Sonntags gehen sie ganz gern hinaus 
auf Wanderungen, meist mit dem Turnverein, in dem sie viel mit jungen 
Männern zusammenkommen. Tanzen tun sie nicht gern. Auf Befragen 
wird B. als die Anführerin angegeben. Objektiv macht A. einen frischeren, 
harmonischeren Eindruck, reagiert mehr adäquat. B. ist sensibler, unaus- 
geglichener. Beide sind sehr geweckt, aufmerksam, scharfsinnig, ganz auf 
Wirkung eingestellt. Sie erscheinen sehr selbständig und drängen nach 
Unabhängigkeit. Die fürsorgliche Mutter ist ihnen lästig. In Briefen be- 
dienen sie sich einer gewandten, manchmal etwas affektierten und geschro- 
benen Ausdrucksweise. 

Paar 7. 15jährige, stämmige Mädchen, unintelligente Gesichtszüge, 
besonders bei B. Diese ist fast 7 cm kürzer als A. Die Mutter gibt an, daß 
die Gravidität normal verlief. B. wurde als erste in Kopflage geboren, 
A. 7 Stunden später in Steißlage. Es waren eigentlich Drillinge; die dritte 
Frucht war tot, verkümmert. Die Mädchen wurden 4 Wochen gestillt. B. 
nahm zeitweise schlechter zu als A. Sie bekamen gleichzeitig mit 5 Monaten 
die ersten Zähne, liefen mit 1 14 Jahren. In die Schule kamen sie im Alter 
von fast 7 Jahren. Die Mädchen waren als Kleinkinder ruhig, folgsam und 
gutmütig. B. wird als etwas nervös geschildert. Sie war immer etwas zarter, 
aber durchaus nicht zimperlich; B. war von jeher kleiner als A., aber nicht 
schwächlicher. Mit ^ Jahr machten beide eine Lungenentzündung durch, 
später hatten sie (alles gleichzeitig bei A. und B.) Masern, Keuchhusten, 
Diphtherie. Sie hatten beide große Mandeln, atmeten zeitweise durch den 
Mund. Bei A. wurden die Mandeln vor 2 Jahren entfernt. Anginen hatten 
beide öfter. B. machte mit 5 — 6 Jahren eine Otitis media durch. Die erste 
Regel hatten sie beide im November 1929, seitdem unregelmäßig und ziem- 
lich stark bei beiden. Seit 1 Jahre stärkerer Fettansatz bei beiden. — A. 



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2. Gharakterologische Beobachtungen 



63 



soll immer etwas verständiger, selbständiger. n.i,tterl eher. "^ 'egen^r ge 
wesen sein. In der Schule war A. von vornherem v.el besser als B B ver 
rZirl Rechnen und Deutsch; die Differenz wurde .mmer starker. D.e 
MutL sagt B. sei „von Natur weniger begabt", bei der Geburt schon sei 
^^TgL blau gewesen. A. hätte sie wohl ..verdrängt". A. ze.gte mittlere 
»eltungen. war nur im Kechnen und Deutsch etwas schwach, aber v.el 
besser I BB blieb im 2., 3. und 5. Schuljahre sitzen. Gut war s.e nur 
L Geographie und Turnen, schlecht in allen theoretischen Fächern sow.e 
n ReXn und Deutsch. Handarbeiten machte sie ganz gut, -* - - A 
Beide sind sportlich interessiert, turnen und schwimmen gut. S.e smd be.de 
SusUch mlchen alle Hausarbeiten gern, B. nicht schlechter als A v.elle.cht 
etwas langsamer. Sie sind ordmmgsliebend u..d halten .hre Sachen gut .n- 
Tn. A möchte Verkäuferin werden; B. hat das Bestreben, .hr nachzu- 
e fern möchte Packerin oder Strickerin werden. Sie haben Interesse an 
me d^nTstopfen alles Schadhafte sofort, shul etwas eitel. S.e haben be.de 
gar kehfe Freundhmen. schließen sich schwer an. S.e s.nd v- - Ha e 
fesen gern machen Handarbeiten. Sie wollen jetzt .n den Juge..dbu.id 
ntret'en um etwas hinauszukommen, haben Lust ms Frc.e zu wanc^ern^ 
Beide waren leicht erziehbar und sind auch jetzt noch g"* '«f ^;;^^'j"^ ^^^^^ 
noch ganz gern Märchen. Ab und zu gehen s.e ...s K.no. ^^^J^T^^^^l 
ten n!t jungen Männern steht ihr Sinn nicht, reden auch me über De art.ges 
sind noch sehr kindlich. Sie singen ganz gern, aber n.cht g^J^fs^ 
Musik (Radio). Sind beide gute Esser, nicht wähler.sch. ^^^Tl^Z 
beide sehr ruhig, gleichmäßig, wenig temperamentvoll. B-^^^-^J'XTn 
wegs empfindlich. Bei der Untersuchung machen be.de ^^^'^^^^^^ 
ziemlich gleichmütigen, unbeweglichen, le.cht beschrankten &ndmck^ 
Llteres tritt bei B^mehr hervor. Bei der Blutentnahme -«;*-- 
ängstlich, im übrigen nicht schwierig. Ihren Lebenslauf schre.ben 

'"at^"f5jl'rige:Tchlaffasthemsche Mädchen. Kutschertöchter von 
neurop^hisheL undtschränktem Aussehen. Sie wurden nach „.er 

Gravidität im 8. Monat geboren, beide ohne ««"^-^f «■*;" ti^^^^H 
Sie wurden % Jahr lang gestillt; B. war etwas schwacher und kleiner a s A 
wurde später die kräftigere. Erste Zähne gle.chze.t.g "^^ ^ J«^"^^ 
Gehen mit 2 Jahren, Sprechen mit etwa 1% Jahren Zur ^"»"'e kamen «^ 
mit 63/4 Jahren. Sie machten die Kinderkrankhe.ten geme.nsam durch. 
": ten beide Drüsenschwellungen ; bei A. wurden Nasenpolypen entfent^ 
Beide atmen viel durch den Mund. A. mehr als B. ««e waren be.de öfter 
erkältet (Schnupfen). A. wurde 1925 wegen B'-^Warmentzundung openert 
B 1929. B. machte 1926 eine Otitis media durch. D.e Per.ode haben be^le 
!och nicht gehabt. Als Kleinkinder haben "eide viel geUUscht waren sei. 
ängstlich, waren zeitweise unruhig, eigensinnig, hielten den ^»"^ ^»'- 2' 
A. war Bettnässerin bis zum 4. Jahre. Allmählich wurden s.e ™h.g, olg- 
fam gutmütig. In den letzten Jahren sind sie viel vernunftiger geworden. 
Im 3 Schuljahr blieben beide sitzen, kamen dann immer so S^r^'^J^t 
Sie schrieben schlecht. Diktat schlecht, lernten Lesen, ^^f''^''^'i^~ 
„ganz gut", waren im ganzen schwache Schülermnen. B. etwas besser a^^ 
A kein großer Unterschied. Sie turnten ganz gern, s.nd aber steif. Schw.m 



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64 



F. Ergehnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillings forschung 



men haben beide gelernt und gehen gern zum Baden. Die beiden Mädchen 
sind nach Ansicht der Mutter ziemUch still, sind meist für sich, schließen 
sich schwer an, haben wenig Freundinnen gehabt. Sie sind jetzt in der 
Fortbildungsschule, interessieren sich sehr für den Haushaltungsunterricht. 
Sie sind überhaupt häuslich interessiert, mögen gern kochen. Sie machen 
ganz gern Handarbeiten, B. lieber als A.; A. muß mehr dazu angetrieben 
werden. Die Mädchen lesen gern, gehen öfter zum Baden, sind immer noch 
recht still. Sie gehen öfter zur Kirche (auf Wunsch der Mutter), sind im 
kirchlichen „Freundschaftsbund", gehen ganz gern hin. Im ganzen Wesen 
sind sie gleichmäßig, nicht sprunghaft. Mit ihrer Kleidung sind sie sehr 
eigen, wohl ein wenig eitel. Beide singen gern und richtig, keine besonders 
schöne Stimme, hören auch gern Musik. Sie werden von der (engstirnigen, 
herrschsüchtigen, von Moral triefenden) Mutter zur Hausarbeit angehalten, 
dürfen nicht viel ins Freie. Möchten gern Plätterin werden, sind aber zu 
schwach dazu. Jetzt sollen beide als Hausmädchen in Stellung. Sie sind 
noch sehr kindlich, lassen keine erotischen Regungen erkennen, gehen nicht 
ins Kino. Die beiden Mädchen waren von jeher sehr ähnlich und sind es 
jetzt eher noch mehr als in der frühen Kindheit. — Bei der Untersuchung 
machen sie einen sehr ungeweckten, unselbständigen und kindlichen Ein- 
druck. Intellektuell unbeweglich, naiv. Dabei sind sie sehr zappelig, zucken 
dauernd mit den Armen und Beinen, können keine Minute still halten, sind 
auch darin ganz gleich. Lebensläufe kurz, in unbeholfenem, langweiligem 
Stil, fast der gleiche Wortlaut bei A. und B. 

Paar 9. 29jährige Leptosome, neuropathischer Gesichtsausdruck, 
B. mehr als A., Beamtensöhne. Der Vater ist eine pedantische, bürokra- 
tische Natur, scharfe Gesichtszüge, Flügelohren ohne Saum, asthenischer 
Habitus. Die Zwillinge sind nach normaler Schwangerschaft rechtzeitig 
durch Zange geboren, Geburtslage unbekannt. Die Mutter starb mit 55 
Jahren an Gallenstein- und Nierenleiden. Die Zwillinge wurden 2 — 3 Monate 
gestillt. B. hatte zeitweise sehr viel Durchfälle, war sehr schwächlich da- 
durch, deswegen notgetauft. Sie bekamen gleichzeitig die ersten Zähne, 
liefen mit IVa Jahren, lernten sprechen mit iy2— 2 Jahren. Als Kinder 
waren beide zunächst ruhig; B. war zeitweise Nachtwandler; er war sehr 
empfindlich, wurde als Schüler bald nervös. A. nahm die Schule leichter, 
war aber reizbar, jähzornig und etwas lügenhaft. A. war nach seinen An- 
gaben immer zart, aber zähe, nicht ängstlich oder nervös. In der Schule 
(Gymnasium) war er gut in Griechisch und Naturwissenschaften, hatte be- 
sonders Lust zu letzteren. Weniger gut in Deutsch und Aufsatz, schlecht 
in Mathematik. Er schloß sich als Kind leicht an, hatte Freunde, war nicht 
sehr lebhaft. Stimmung schon als Kind wechselnd, sprach immer sehr auf 
Gefühlseinflüsse an, sonst nicht besonders sensibel. Er blieb in der Ober- 
tertia einmal sitzen infolge Umschulung, machte die Kriegsreifeprüfimg 
(Mathematik ungenügend, das übrige genügend bis gut). Zeitweise war er 
faul, experimentierte viel für sich. Betrieb viel Sport: Rudern, Schwimmen, 
Turnen. Er war 9^4 Monate Soldat, nach dem Kriege noch einige Monate 
beim Militär geblieben. Er wollte Medizin oder Chemie studieren, der Vater 
wollte nicht wegen der Kosten. A. ging darauf, wenn auch ungern, ins Bank- 
fach. Als er in der Inflationszeit viel verdiente, gefiel es ihm besser. Ernst- 



2. Char akter ologische Beobachtungen 



65 



lieh krank war er nie. Seit 2 Jahren hat er ein „nerv^öses Magenleiden", das 
ihm besonders nach Aufregungen Beschwerden macht. 1923 will er einmal 
4 Wochen die Gelbsucht gehabt haben. Zur Zeit ist er kaufmännischer An- 
gestellter, ist nicht gern bei seiner Firma. Die Arbeit und der ganze Betrieb 
sind ihm zu ,,grob". Er hat immer noch wissenschaftliche, vor allem natur- 
wissenschaftliche und medizinische Interessen, ist künstlerisch uninteres- 
siert. Hört ganz gern mal Musik, singt nicht gut. Für Sport hat er leider 
keine Zeit mehr. Politisch interessiert, national gesinnt, nicht radikal. 
Nicht kirchlich. Er sei in letzter Zeit sehr stül, sei bedrückt wegen seiner 
schlechten finanziellen Lage. Ist nicht lebensfroh, hat viel Ärger. Er gibt 
sich ganz gern mit Frauen ab, ist jedoch ,, nicht sehr stark sexuell veranlagt". 
Meist habe er ein festes Verhältnis gehabt. Mäßig ordnungsliebend, penibel 
in Kleidung. Er ißt gern und gut, ist wählerisch, trinkt gern eine gute Flasche 
Wein, kein Bier. Neigt ganz allgemein zur Reflexion, zum Grübeln, habe 
viel Pech gehabt (es handelt sich um Schulden, wie der Bruder angibt). — 
Objektiv macht A. den Eindruck eines schizoiden Psychopathen. Er hat 
etwas Verschwommenes, Unauf gedeckt es im Wesen. Durchaus unharmo- 
nisch. 

B. gibt an, daß er körperlich etwas schwächlicher war als sein Bruder. 
Die Schulleistungen seien zuerst ziemlich gleich gewesen, B. las schlechter 
als A. In der Obertertia blieben beide infolge Umschulung sitzen. A. war 
fauler als B., wurde aber doch leichter mit den Anforderungen der Schule 
fertig, da er weniger nervös und erregbar war. Die Zeugnisse von A. waren 
aber nicht viel besser als die von B. 1916 vor dem Einjährigen erlitt B. den 
ersten ,, Zusammenbruch". Die Eltern vertrugen sich nicht; B. litt mehr 
darunter als A.; außerdem bekamen sie schlechte Kost in der Kriegszeit, 
er hätte dadurch die Schularbeiten nicht leisten können. Da er den Zwang 
auf der betreffenden Schule „nicht vertragen" konnte, wurde er umgeschult. 
Einmal verprügelte er einen Mitschüler, der ihn hänselte. Nach der Um- 
schulung hatte er gute Zeugnisse in Sprachen und Mathematik, schlechte in 
Deutsch und Geschichte. Er hätte ein schlechtes Gedächtnis gehabt. Im 
Mai 1918 wurde er eingezogen, hatte beim Müitär keine Schwierigkeiten, 
der Schliff fiel ihm nicht schwer. Er war allerdings nur garnisondienst- 
verwendungsfähig — Heimat. Nach der Entlassung machte er einen Kriegs- 
teilnehmerkursus durch und bestand im Sommer 1919 die Reifeprüfung 
(Sprachen und Mathematik gut, Geschichte und Deutsch genügend). B. 
studierte dann auf der Technischen Hochschule Berlin Schiffbau. 1923 vor 
dem Vorexamen Nervenzusammenbruch, hatte Examensangst, Geldsorgen, 
Schulden, Angst vor dem Vater, auch eine Liebesenttäuschung war dabei. 
Erholte sich in den Ferien zu Hause. 1928 vor dem Hauptexamen wieder 
Nervenzusammenbruch, Examensangst, hatte etwas gebummelt, nicht viel 
getrunken. Vom Vater zur Erholung in den Harz geschickt. Wollte dann 
ins Examen gehen, brach wieder zusammen, traute sich nichts zu. Im März 
1929 machte er endlich das Examen, fiel in einzelnen Teüen durch, wurde 
auch damit im Herbst 1929 fertig. Seit November 1929 arbeitete er als 
Arbeiter auf einer Werft, fand keine Stellung als Diplom-Ingenieur. Von 
Anfang Mai bis Ende Juni 1930 lag er in unserer Klinik wegen eines erneuten 
„Zusammenbruches", war überarbeitet, schlaflos, konnte das Gehämmer 

Boilieft 61 zur Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie 5 



66 



V. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillings jorscliung 



auf der Werft nicht vertragen, redete in verträumter, wirklichkeitsfremder 
Weise am Tage der Aufnahme davon, daß er sich mit einer Werftbesitzers- 
tochter verloben wolle. Machte einen schwer schizoiden, entwurzelten, ver- 
träumten Eindruck, konnte sein erneutes Abgleiten in Krankheit nicht recht 
begründen, kam dauernd mit merkwürdigen Fragen zum Arzt: ob er nun 
gesund sei, ob er wohl entlassen werden könne, ob er weiter zur Erholung 
bleiben könne usw. Keine Halluzinationen oder Wahnideen. Im Laufe von 
Wochen wurde er verständiger, verhielt sich vernünftiger, adäquater, war 
höflich und korrekt, aber entschluß- und energielos. Unsere Diagnose 
lautete: Schizoider Psychopath, präpsychotisch? Inzwischen hat B. noch 
keine Arbeit wieder gefunden, blieb geordnet und etwas disziplinierter, ver- 
sucht, auf irgendeine Weise wieder in die Kinik zu kommen; ist sehr an- 
hänglich, anscheinend aber auch etwas aus egoistischer Berechnung. — 

B. gibt an, daß A. 1926 auch einen „Nervenzusammenbruch" erlitten 
hätte, nach einem Krach mit der Haushälterin des Vaters ; er sei damals sehr 
aufgeregt imd nervös gewesen und sei einfach von Haus und Beruf weg- 
gefahren. A. sei überhaupt sehr reizbar und aufgeregt. Der Vater gibt an, 
daß beide Söhne die Beciuemlichkeit lieben; sie seien nicht besonders eifrig 
und fleißig. Sie seien leicht erregbar; die Mutter hätte sie reichlich verwöhnt. 
B. sei verschlossen, schwerfälliger, schwermütig, halte wenig auf sein Äuße- 
res, sei wenig gewandt im Auftreten, eigensinnig. A. sei etwas lebhafter, 
begabter, gewandter, er halte mehr auf sein Äußeres, sei sehr jähzornig. 
Wir hatten A. von auswärts kommen lassen, da B. hier i^ngegeben hatte, 
er hätte einen Zwillingsbruder, der ,,ganz anders" sei als er, obwohl sie 
körperlich zum Verwechseln ähnlich seien. Die Untersuchung ergab in 
selten eindrucksvoller Weise, daß beide avis „demselben Holz geschnitzt" 
sind, große grundlegende Ähnlichkeiten im Wesen haben bei bemerkens- 
werten Verschiedenheiten des äußeren Bildes von Lebensweg und Lebens- 
inhalt. — 

Paar 10. 13jährige Kaufmannssöhne, die erst vor kurzem nach Ham- 
burg gezogen sind und hier das Realgymnasium besuchen. Die Mutter gibt 
an, daß die Knaben nach normal verlaufener Schwangerschaft geboren 
wurden, Geburt ohne Schwierigkeiten, A. in Steißlage, B. Y2 Stunde später 
in Kopflage. A. wurde J Monate gestillt, der schwächere B. 9 Monate. 
Ernährungsstörungen traten nicht auf. Die ersten Zähne bekamen beide 
mit 1 Jahre, laufen vind sprechen lernten sie mit 1^ Jahren. Besondere 
Kinderfehler sollen beide nicht gezeigt haben ( ?). Beide Knaben machten 
sehr viel Erkältungen, Husten, Schnupfen und Mandelentzündungen durch. 
A. soll im Alter von 2 — 3 Jahren öfter hohes Fieber gehabt haben, das nach 
einem Ciebirgsauf enthalt wegblieb. B. hatte als kleiner Knabe einen doppel- 
seitigen Leistenbruch, war deswegen in einer Klinik; trug längere Zeit ein 
Bruchband, bis die Brüche verschwanden. Als kleine Kinder w^aren beide 
etwas eigensinnig, A. war im ganzen aber mehr gutmütig, B. reizbarer, 
nervöser und manchmal jähzornig. Im ganzen war B. lebhafter als A. B. 
ist nach Aussagen der Mutter jetzt noch sehr nervös und reizbar, im übrigen 
sind aber beide folgsam und fleißig. Die Knaben besuchten zunächst 4 Jahre 
die Volksschule, dann 3 Jahre das Gymnasium. Seit 14 Jahre sind sie auf 
einem Realgymnasium. Beide turnten von jeher gern; B. muß sich jetzt 



1 



i: 



3. Charakterologischc Beobachtungen 



67 



wegen eines schweren Herzfehlers (kombiniertes Mitralvitium unbekannter 
Herkunft) mehr davon zurückhalten. A. ist im ganzen etwas besser m den 
Sehulltturen Er ist gut in Turnen, Keehnen, Zeichnen, Erdkunde, ge- 
nfgend n Ssch, Latel, Musik und Englisch; 13 ist nur im Turnen gut; 
genügend in Zeichnen, Erdkunde, Rechnen, Deutsch, Englisch; nicht ganz 
genüLnd in Latein. Beide sind keineswegs schüchtern. Sie sind unmusika- 
hsch singen beide schlecht. A. war früher etwas änsgtlich; B litt noch 
bs vor kurzem ausgesprochen unter Dunkelangst. Beide sine, ziemlich 
lebhlft B etwas mehr, er spielt mehr, läuft mehr herum, ist wilder, beide 
stndti'cht erregbar, B. mehr als A. B. ist besonders aufgeregt wem. er 
etwa Verbotenes angestellt hat; bei Ärger ist er gereizt, boxt leicht drauflos. 
E?hatkeü.e Angst vor Größeren. Auch A. rauft ganz gern einmal. Beide 
^nd beetflußbaf durch Stimmungen, sind aber nie lange traurig A. ha 
beseren Appetit als B., beide sind nicht wählerisch. 8ie halten beide viel 
aSIL Kleidung, sind eitel, bürsten ihr Zeug oft ab. ^^^^;f'Zl 
sich stundenlang". Beide ziemlich ordnungsliebenu. 8ie spielen gern 
draußen tob n'herum, spielen Handball oder Fußball. K-rüher machten 
"el Kriegsspiele, sind viel mit gleichgesinnten Freunden zusammen, 
hrhebster Sport ist Baden; sie körnten schon lange schwimmen, sind sehr 
d i ir^ efen Wasser. Sie sind ganz allgemein lieber draußen als im Hause 
Sehr artig sind sie nach ihren Angaben nicht, müssen öfter geschimpft 
werden. Li Spielen mit Freunden lassen sie meist einen andern vorgehen 
damit sie nicht gefaßt werden. Sie ärgern gern andere Leute, B. ist hienn 
^Anführer. 5. wurde längere Zeit von den Eltern vorgezogen, weil 
er der Kleinste ist". A. liest ganz gern einmal, meist Indianergeseh.chten ; 
B «ndet kein Vergnügen am Lesen. Sie spielen öfter Karten ( Schaf skop); 
Ska haben sie schon vom Zusehen gelernt. Alle 3 Wochen werden sie m che 
Kirche geschickt, langweilen sich dort. - Objektiv erscheinen beide Jungen 
sehr zappelig, sensibel, nervös; sie siml motorisch recht unruhig, zucken 
viel Im Wesen lebhaft und äußerst pfiffig. B. ist noch etwas kecker und 
pfiffiger als A., paßt „wie ein Schießhund" auf. A. ist etwas ausgeglichener, 
selbstsicherer, m'üheloser, B. aufmerksamer, gespannter. J™ 8--" ^^^^J 
sich Unterschiede, die vor allem auf eine größere Erregbarkeit und Selbst- 
unsicherheit mit überkompensienmg bei B. hinauslaufen. Daneben bestehen 
aber ganz erhebliche Ähnlichkeiten in den Grundzügen ihres Wesens. 

Zweieiige Zwillinge 
Paar 11. 14 jährige Mädchen, Vater im Krieg gefallen. Die Mutter 
ist eine geweckte, saubere, für das Fortkommen ihrer Töchter 'ntere-ierte 
Frau. Die Gravidität war durch ziemlich starke Hyperemesis komphz.ert. 
Die Zwillinge wurden in einer Entbindungsanstalt ^^^°';'^ .''%^~ 
monatskinder, A. als erste in Kopflage, B. 10 Minuten spater m Steißlage 
Beide mußten einige Wochen in der Wärmzelle gehalten werden, B. langer 
als A Die Kinder wurden 14 Monate genährt. A. erhielt vom 7. Monat 
^ Beikost, die zartere B. vom 9. Monat an. Beide erbrachen in den ers en 
Monaten öfter, waren sehr empfindlich mit der Ernährung. B«'^--«" 
viel wund, hatten Kopfausschlag. Im ganzen zeigte A. eine bessere Ent- 



y 



!'■' 



68 



F. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillings forschung 



Wicklung als B., die mit 3 Jahren einmal körperlich sehr herunter war. Die 
ersten Zähne bekam B. mit 1 Jahre, ohne Beschwerden, A. mit 11/4 Jahr, 
mit viel Schmerzen und „Krämpfen". Laufen lernten beide mit 13/4—2 
Jahren. In der Sprachentwicklung war B. weiter als A., sprach besser und 
mehr. A. war als Kleinkind sehr ängstlich, B. nicht. Dafür schrie B. sehr 
viel, lutschte stark, kaute die Nägel ab, pflückte viel an den Haaren, war 
in Vollmondnächten unruhig, schrie laut, war Bettnässerin bis zum 5. Jahre; 
Enuresis kommt noch jetzt manchmal vor. B. war unruhiger, nervös, 
reizbar, A. folgsamer, gutmütiger, ruhiger. Gemeinsame Kinderkrankheiten. 
Beide hatten große Mandeln; bei A. wurden sie entfernt. Später waren 
beide oft erkältet, A. hatte öfter Leibschmerzen, B. einmal eine Blasen- 
und Nierenbeckenentzündung. A. soll mit 10 Jahren einen Lungenspitzen- 
katarrh gehabt haben. Die Tuberkulinprobe sei bei ihr +, bei B. gewesen. 
Mit 12 Jahren machte A. eine Lungenentzündung durch, angeblich auch 
Herzmuskelschwäche. B. hatte vor 1 Jahre einen Stirnhöhlenkatarrh. 
Menarche bei A. mit 11 Jahren, bei B. mit 13 Jahren, Periode bei A. regel- 
mäßig, stark, alle 3 Wochen, beiB. regelmäßig, weniger stark, alle 4 Wochen. 
Die Mutter gibt an, daß A. feinempfindend, leicht gekränkt sei, sie käme 
mit allem nicht so leicht zurecht, sei mehr „Prinzessin" -Typ. B. ist resolut, 
weiß was sie will, ist energisch und zielstrebig. Sie ist allerdings auch 
zappeliger, redet schnell und viel, ist temperamentvoll. A. erlahmt in allem 
leichter. Sie betreibt gern Handarbeiten, Zeichnen und Malen, ist im ganzen 
ruhiger, seßhafter. B. ist vorwiegend für praktische Arbeiten, geht lieber 
auf die Straße, schließt sich leicht an andere an, während A. sich viel für 
sich hält. Musikalisch sind beide, B. singt besser als A. A. sitzt am liebsten 
zu Hause; sie ist geistig deutlich zurück gegen B. Besonders einige Tage 
vor der Periode sei sie leicht beschränkt; nachher würde es dann wieder 
besser. Freundinnen hat A. nicht; B. dagegen hat immer welche gehabt. 
A. möchte Reklamezeichnerin werden; dafür reicht die Begabung aber 
nicht aus; nun wolle sie Kinderpflegerin werden. Sie lese alles, was sie be- 
kommen könne, besonders gern Reisebeschreibungen. Früher hätte sie sehr 
viel mit Puppen gespielt, Puppenzevig genäht. Sie bastelt und modelliert 
gern. In der Schule zeigte sie mäßige Leistungen, rechnen fällt ihr heute 
noch schwer. B. war in der Schule viel besser. Zuerst wollte sie immer 
schreiben; später hatte sie besondere Neigimg für Rechnen, Turnen, Eng- 
lisch, Physik und Mathematik. Im übrigen war sie ein lebhafter ,,Deuber', 
war auf der Straße, sobald sie Zeit hatte, hatte immer Lust zum Streiche 
machen. Sie möchte Kontoristin werden, am liebsten Privatsekretärin. — 
Die Mädchen sind körperlich und geistig sehr verschieden, A. ungeweckt, 
aber freundlich -harmonisch, B. sehr lebhaft und geweckt, kompliziert, be- 
wvißter. A. ist wenig unternehmend, beschaulich, etwas bequem, B. ener- 
gisch, aktiv, ehrgeizig. 

Paar 12. 18jährige Akademikertöchter, schlank, gepflegt, geweckt. 
Sie wurden nach normal verlaufener (Gravidität ohne Schwierigkeiten ge- 
boren, A. 1% Stunden früher als B. Über eine sichere Anamnese der frühen 
Kindheit verfügen sie nicht, da wir die Mutter nicht selbst sprechen konnten. 
Die Mädchen geben an, daß sie komplikationslos groß wurden, keine be- 
sonderen Schwierigkeiten boten und nicht ernstlich krank waren. Eintritt. 



2. Charakterologische Beobachtungen 



69 



Dauer und Abstand der Menses sehr ähnlich. Die Mädchen besuchten das 
Lyzeum, gingen mit dem Zeugnis der mittleren Reife ab, besuchen jetzt auf 
Wunsch' der Mutter die höhere Handeslschule. Beide sind sehr musikalisch, 
A. spielt Geige, B. singt gut. A. zeichnet gut, B. ist hierin mittelbegabt. 

A. ist besonders sprachlich interessiert, hat auf diesem Gebiet gute Schul- 
leistungen. B. etwas weniger gut, nicht dafür interessiert. Beide sind 
literarisch interessiert, spielen in einer Schülerschauspielergruppe. B. ist 
schauspielerisch talentiert, A. weniger, kommt nicht so aus sich heraus. 
Beide sind sportlich sehr interessiert, spielen viel Tennis. Beide spielen gut, 

B. mit mehr Ausdauer. Im Schlittschuhlaufen hat B. einmal einen Preis 
errungen; A. läuft weniger gut. Beide schwimmen gern. A. ist mehr geistig 
eingestellt, B. dagegen „Sporttyp". B. macht ganz gern häusliche Arbeiten, 
ist im ganzen fürs Praktische; A. hat wenig Neigung zur Hausarbeit. Sie 
halten beide auf gepflegte Kleidung, B. ist etwas eitler als A. Der Appetit 
ist bei B. besser, auch ist sie weniger wählerisch als A. B. interessiert sich 
für junge Männer, A. etwas weniger. Im Wesen ist A. mehr still und ab- 
wartend, B. impulsiver, temperamentvoller, beide sind nicht launisch oder 
reizbar, haben eine gute, gleichmäßige Stimmung. Die Schulzeugnisse 
waren bei A. etwas besser, besonders in Sprachen und Deutsch. Im Zeich- 
nen, Turnen und Singen waren beide sehr gut. A. möchte am liebsten 
Bibliothekarin werden, B. technische Assistentin oder Sportlehrerin. Kauf- 
männisch ist B. nicht sehr interessiert, A. etwas mehr. Beide besuchen 
nicht aus eigenem Antrieb die Handelsschule. — Der objektive Eindruck 
entspricht durchaus der Schilderung der Mädchen. Beide zeigen ein aus- 
geglichenes, gepflegtes Verhalten; A. ist entschieden intellektueller, tiefer, 
B. unmittelbarer, weniger abstrakt. 

Paar 13. 18jährige, adipöse Mädchen, Vater Arbeiter; die Mutter 
hat ein Konfitürengeschäft. Die Zwillinge wurden nach normaler Schwanger- 
schaft in Kopflage geboren, A. als erste; B. 12 Stunden später als Zangen- 
geburt. Beide wurden 4 Wochen gestillt, keine Ernährungsstörungen. B. 
hatte Ausschläge, A. nicht. Beide hatten leichte Rhachitis, krumme Beine. 
Erste Zähne A. mit 8, B. mit 9 Monaten, freies Gehen A. mit 14, B. mit 
16 Monaten. Sprechen: beide mit 2 Jahren. Beide lutschten viel. A. war 
immer lebhaft und gutmütig, B. stiller, verschlossener, nervös. Die Mutter 
nennt die Zwillinge „in jeder Beziehung unähnlich". A. machte keine 
ernsteren Krankheiten durch, war immer robust, widerstandsfähig; B. ist 
schwächlich, nicht sehr ausdauernd, war skrofulös, „lungenschwach", mußte 
öfter auf Erholung geschickt werden. Menarche: A. mit 13^4 Jahren, B. 
mit 15% Jahren. Bei beiden Periode alle 4 Wochen, A. mittelstark, B. 
schwach! keine Beschwerden. B. leidet seit der Schulzeit an Kopfschmerzen. 
A. war mittlere Schülerin, gut in Rechnen und Diktat; Interesse hatte sie 
für Zeichnen, Turnen, ( Jymnastik, Diktat und Biologie. B. war in der Schule 
etwas schlechter; mochte auch gern Zeichnen, Turnen und Biologie. Beide 
sind zur Zeit Packerin. A. würde gern im Kontor arbeiten; B. möchte 
schneidern und handarbeiten, ist darin geschickter als A. Beide treiben 
gern Sport: Schwimmen, Wanderungen. B. ist unmusikalisch, A. etwas 
musikalisch. Sie gehen gern ins Kino, tanzen gern, haben keine Herren- 
bekanntschaften, sind beide gern mit Freundinnen zusammen. A. ist häus- 



11 V 



T. 



: I i 






I 



i 



1 



i I 






» 



70 



V. Ergehnisse,, li. Spezielle Zwillings forschung 



lieh interessiert, Kochen, Reinmachen; \^. ^ar nicht. JJeide halten ihre 
Kleidung in Ordnung. ]>>. ist etwas eitler als A. Sic sind beide gegen auf- 
fällige Menschen, Jugondhündlor usw. Appetit bei A. gut, bei B. maßig, 
beide sind wählerisch, mögen keine Milchsuppen, keine „Haut". B. ist 
ziemlich still, nervös, aufgeregter, reizbar; A. ist lebhaft, lustiger, nicht sehr 
laut oder tonangebend, sie ist etwas träumerisch, gleichmütig. Besonders 
temperamentvoll sind beide nicht. A. ist kinderlieb, B. weniger, wird 
leichter ärgerlich. A. ist mutiger, B. ängstlicher. Als Kleinkinder waren sie 
wohl beide ängstlich. Sie lesen beide nicht viel. A. singt ganz gern, B. nicht. 

A. war nicht gern in der Reformschule, vermißte die Zeugnisse, B. dagegen 
gefiel es besser dort. Von Politik verstehen sie beide nichts; von kirchlichen 
Dingen wollen sie nichts wissen. 

Paar 14. 15 y^ jährige Kaufmannstöchter. Nach normaler (Gravidität 
(etwas Hyperemesis) geboren als Zangengeburt. Beide wurden künstlich, 
ohne Störungen ernährt; A. lernte mit 11 Monaten, B. mit 13 Monaten 
laufen, beide sprachen mit 18 Monaten. Sie lutschten viel, A. schrie nachts 
öfter auf. B. war bis zum 7. Jahre Bettnässerin. A. war als Kleinkind leb- 
haft, eigensinnig und nervös, B. dagegen ruhig, folgsam, gutmütig. Die 
üblichen Kinderkrankheiten machten beide gemeinsam und gleich schwer 
durch, beide hatten geschwollene Mandeln und Nasenpolypen. Ernstlieh 
krank sind sie beide nie gewesen; die Periode haben sie noch nicht gehabt. — 
Nach Ansicht der Mutter ist A. naiver, kindlicher, schließt sich leicht an. 

B. ist verschlossener, wenig anschlußbereit. B. ist häuslich interessiert; A. 
spielt lieber mit kleinen Kindern. Beide sind nicht musikalisch. B. ist 
mit ihren Sachen eigener, ordentlicher, A. gleichgültiger. In den Schul- 
leistungen waren sie nicht sehr verschieden. Sie besuchten eine Privatschule. 

A. rechnete besser als B., ist wohl im ganzen etwas geweckter. B. ist ver- 
träglich, A. hingegen oft rechthaberisch. Beide essen gut, sind aber wähle- 
risch. Das Temperament von A wird als lebhaft angegeben, das von B. 
als ziemlich phlegmatisch : A. ist besonders in Gesellschaft ziemlich munter, 

B. weniger. Beide geben sich nicht mit jmigen Leuten ab, sind erotisch noch 
unentwickelt. A. ist kaufmännisch interessiert, möchte Kontoristin werden. 
B. hat Lust zum Haushalt, möchte sonst Säuglingspflegerin w^erden. — A. 
hat immer Freundinnen gehabt, schließt sich leicht an; B. ist meist für sich, 
hat keine feste Freundin. Bei der Untersuchung macht A. einen kindlicheren, 
geweckteren, lebhafteren Eindruck, mehr Intellekt, wenn auch noch un- 
entwickelt. B. ist ungeweckter, ruhiger, weiblicher, harmonischer. A. ist 
ein Spaßvogel und Pfiffikus, B. langweiliger, weniger Äußerungsbedürfnis. 

Paar 15. 16^2 jährige Töchter eines Kaufmanns. A. kam als erste 
zur Welt, B. 3 Stunden später als Zangengeburt. Beide wurden nur kurze 
Zeit genährt, sollen keine Ernährungsstörungen gehabt haben. B. lernte 
mit 10 Monaten laufen, A. mit 1^ Jahren. Sprechen lernten sie zur ,, nor- 
malen Zeit", B. etwas früher als A. Beide waren als Kleinkinder ängstlich. 
B. war bis zum 9. Jahre Bettnässerin. In ihrem Verhalten waren sie nicht 
sehr schwierig, A. war ein wenig lebhafter und nervöser als B., im ganzen 
waren sie sehr ruhig und folgsam. Masern und Keuchhusten gemeinsam. A. 
hatte Drüsenschwellungen, beide waren ,, lungenschwach" wie die Mutter. 
Mit 6 Jahren machte B. Scharlach durch, A. lag dagegen 14 Jahr mit einer 



2. CharaJcterologische Beobachtungen 



71 



Meningitis epidemica im Krankenhause. Später war A. öfter erkältet. 
Beide galten als schwächlich und anfällig. Menarche: mit 14 Jahren, A. 
etwas früher als B.; beide haben die Periode regelmäßig, A. alle 4 Wochen, 
B alle 3 Wochen. B. leidet dabei an leichten Kopfschmerzen. Die Mädchen 
besuchten die Volksschule, zeigten beide mittlere Leistungen, keinerlei 
hervorstechende Begabung. A. mochte am liebsten Geschichte und Religion, 
Turnen Zeichnen, Singen; alle intellektuellen Gebiete lagen A. besser als B. 
A ist unmusikalisch, B. durchschnittlich musikalisch. Beide sind häuslich 
einc^estellt. B. möchte immer gern Sport treiben, hat nur zur Zeit keine 
Möglichkeit dazu. Beide waren nach der Schulentlassung als Tagmädchen 
tätig- B ist zur Zeit stellungslos. B. schwimmt und turnt gern, A. weniger. 
Im gLnzen mag B. lieber praktische Arbeit, bei der sie sich bewegen kann; 
sie hilft der Mutter im Haushalt. Nähen, Handarbeiten oder Lesen liegen 
ihr nicht 4. hingegen näht und liest gern, geht nicht so gern spazieren 
wie B und hilft, sobald sie Zeit hat, gern beim Kalenderkleben in einer 
Fabrik Beide achten auf ihre Kleidung, A. ist aber eitler als B. Im Essen 
sind sie beide nicht wählerisch. B. ißt mit mehr Appetit als A. In den 
Schuljahren hatten sie beide gern Freundinnen, in letzter Zeit wenig. Sie 
schließen sich nicht leicht an, haben auch keine Neigung zu Herrenbekannt- 
schaften. B. tanzt ganz gern, A. weniger, wird zu leicht schlapp. Politisch 
oder religiös sind beide nicht interessiert. A. ist die gewecld:ere Natur, ist 
auch lebhafter und ausdauernder als B. Beide sind recht primitiv, un- 
intellektuell, B. mehr als A., sie sind aber fleißig und sorgfältig, schreiben 
auch ihre Lebensläufe sauber und ausführlich. 

Paar 16. 1414 jährige Tischlermeisterstöchter, die nach normaler 
Schwangerschaft ohne Schwierigkeiten zur W^elt kamen, B. als erste, A. 
1/1 Stunde später. Die Zwillinge wurden 1/4 Jahr gestillt, machten keine 
Ernährungsstörungen durch. B. hatte als Säugling Ausschlag; A. machte 
eine ziemlich schwere Rhachitis durch, von der B. angeblich verschont blieb; 
sie hatte krumme Beine und lernte erst mit 4 Jahren Laufen, B. dagegen 
schon mit knapp 2 Jahren. Als Kleinkinder waren beide ängstlich, A. mehr 
als B. A. war lebhaft, B. sehr ruhig. B. war bis zum 5. Jahre Bettnässerin. 
Im übrigen boten sie keine großen Erziehungsschwierigkeiten. Beide mach- 
ten Masern durch; B. hatte mit 1 Jahr eine Nasendiphtherie, A. hatte 
Drüsenschweilungen am Halse, w^ar skrofulös. Sonst waren sie nicht ernst- 
lich krank. Die Periode hat B. vor 14 Tagen zum erstenmal gehabt, A. noch 
nicht. B. ist körperlich zäh und widerstandsfähig, A. nur mittelkräftig. 
In den Schulleistungen sind die Mädchen recht verschieden. A. ist im 
Rechnen gut, B. schlecht, in Deutsch sind sie beide mäßig, sprachlich un- 
begabt. Turnen, Handarbeiten und Zeichnen mag B. gern, ist gut in diesen 
Fächern; A. turnt schlechter, handarbeitet und zeichnet schlechter. Geo- 
graphie bei beiden gut, CJeschichte schlecht. 13. singt ganz gut, A. schlecht; 
beide hören gern Musik. A. hat schwimmen gelernt, wenn auch nicht mit 
guten Leistungen; B. schwamm schlecht, ist nicht frei geschwommen. Im 
ganzen waren beide mittelmäßige Schülerinnen, A. etwas nach der besseren, 
B nach der schlechteren Seite hin. B. blieb einmal sitzen, während A. 
immer glatt mitkam. — B. ist für Handarbeiten interessiert, A. dagegen 
gar nicht. Beide sollen ordentlich und sauber sein; sie machten bei der 



f 



'f 



72 



V. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillingsforschung 



Untersuchimg jedoch einen ungepflegten Eindruck. Handarbeiten, Sticken 
und Häkeln mögen beide jetzt ganz gern. Sie turnen beide im Turnverem, 
B. ist geschickter; A. mag lieber Ballspiele als B. B. hatte die Absicht, 
Hausangestellte zu werden, sie soll aber ins elterliche Möbelgeschäft. A. 
will Verkäuferin werden. Beide gehen gern ins Freie, lesen wenig, haben 
keine geistigen Interessen. Ins Kino gehen sie nicht (kirchlicher Einfluß). 
Beide schließen sich leicht an, sind am liebsten mit Freundinnen zusammen. 
In der Stimmungslage sind sie ziemlich gleich, meist lustig aber auch leicht 
vorübergehend verstimmt. B. ärgert sich leichter, ist auch leichter auf- 
geregt. Politisch sind beide nicht interessiert. Alle 2—3 Wochen gehen sie 
zur Kirche, sind vor 2 Monaten konfirmiert. Objektiv machen beide INIädchen 
einen wenig differenzierten, wenig kultivierten Eindruck, sie haben anschei- 
nend einen engen Horizont, sind durchaus ungeistig, an die engen persön- 
lichen Interessen gebunden. A. ist jedoch deutlich lebhafter, etwas geweckter 
und beweglicher. Sie ist aufmerksamer und hat auch entschieden mehr 
geistiges Fassungsvermögen. Äußerungsbedürfnis bei A. etwas größer als 
bei B.; Äußerungsvermögen deutlich verschieden, bei B. geringer. 

Paar 17. IGi/o jährige Kaufmannstöchter, die nach normaler Schwan- 
gerschaft, allerdings 4 Wochen zu früh, geboren worden, A. als erste in 
Kopflage, B. 1 Stunde später als Steißlage. Beide wurden von vorn herein 
künstlich ernährt, keine Ernährungsstörungen. Die ersten Zähne hatte 
A. mit 4, B. mit 5 Monaten. A. lief mit I14 Jahren, B. 3 Wochen später. 
Sprechen lernten beide gleichzeitig mit II/2 Jahren. Beide hatten Masern 
und Keuchhusten, B. außerdem Diphtherie und Mandelentzündungen. Die 
Periode hatte A. zuerst mit 141/2 Jahren, seitdem unregelmäßig, B. seit dem 
15. Jahre regelmäßig. Beide gelten als körperlich zäh und widerstandsfähig. 
Beide Kinder waren zunächst gutmütig und nicht schwierig. Die zartere B. 
war immer lebhafter und etwas nervös, A. im ganzen ruhig, aber leicht 
emjjfindlich. A. litt zeitweise an Dunkelangst, B. wenig, letztere war aber 
leicht aufgeregt. In der Schule (Mittelschule) gehörten beide zu den besten 
der Klasse. Sie waren in fast allen Fächern überdurchschnittlich ; B. rechnete 
nur etwas schlechter als A., schrieb dafür etwas besser. Singen können 
beide nicht, sind unmusikalisch, spielen jedoch auf Wunsch der Eltern 
Klavier. Schwimmen liegt beiden nicht. Im Turnen ist B. gut, A. schwer- 
fälliger. B. ist im ganzen sportlich interessierter als A. Auch im Zeichnen 
ist B. besser als A. Von der Mutter wird angegeben, daß beide Mädchen 
fleißig und aufgeweckt seien, beide seien gleich begabt. A. liest gern lange 
Erzählungen, Romane, B. dagegen kurzweiligere Sachen. B. ist in der 
Freizeit lieber draußen als im Hause. Sonst gehen aber beide in der Freizeit 
gern hinaus. Sie sind seit einem Jahr zum Erlernen des Haushaltes in einem 
Krankenhaus tätig, arbeiten dort geschickt und fleißig, wie die leitende 
Schwester berichtet, sind von allen gern gesehen, besonders B. A. ist im 
ganzen mehr häuslich interessiert als B. In Handarbeiten sind sie gleich 
geschickt. B. ist nach ihrer Ansicht mehr praktisch eingestellt als geistig; 
A. ist für beides gleich interessiert. Beide haben immer Freundinnen gehabt, 
schließen sich leicht an. Mit Herrn haben sie keinen Umgang, keine Neigung 
zum Poussieren. A. ist nicht leicht aus der Ruhe zu bringen, mittellebhaft, 
ist friedlich, kaum jemals zornig. A. ist lebhaft, leichter aus der Ruhe zu 



i 



2. Charakterologische Beobachtungen 



73 



bringen. Mit den Eltern stehen beide gut, sind überhaupt sehr verträglich. 
\n ihrer Kleidung sind beide „normal" interessiert, etwas eitel, beide 
ordentlich mit ihren Sachen. Appetit bei beiden gut; B. ißt mehr, beide 
sind nicht wählerisch. Die beiden Mädchen waren bisher immer zusammen. 
Anführerin war manchmal A., manchmal B. B. will Säuglingspflegerin 
werden A will sich weiter im Kochen ausbilden. Objektiv erscheint A. 
unbewegter, ungeweckter, phlegmatischer, besinnlicher, „vernünftiger"; B 
dagegen lebhafter, beweglicher, anpassungsfähiger, reagiert starker, ist 
aufgeschlossener. - Ein Paar wie dieses demonstriert sehr schön, daß zwei- 
eiige Zwillinge in bezug auf Fähigkeiten und Interessen sehr ähnlich er- 
scheinen können (eigentlich nur „auf dem Papier"), dabei aber doch von 
Grund aus verschieden sein können in ihrer tieferen Persönhchkeitsstruktur. 
Paar 18 ITjährigo Akademikersöhne jüdischer Abkunft, die zur 
rechten Zeit ohne Schwierigkeiten geboren wurden, Kopflage. Sie wurden 
gut 3 Monate gestillt, keine nennenswerten Ernährungsstörungen. Sprach- 
entwicklung normal, gleichzeitig. Laufen mit knapp 2 Jahren, auch gleich- 
zeitig. Kinderfehler werden nicht angegeben. A. war als Kleinkind etwas 
nervös, aber folgsam und gutmütig, B. ruhig, heiter, manchmal eigensinnig 
A. war nie ernstlich krank, B. hatte öfter Anginen, hatte Scharlach imd 
Mumps sowie 1 Jahr lang CJesichtsneuralgien. Stimmwechsel bei beiden 
mit 15 Jahren, erstes Rasieren: A. 15 Jahre, B. 16 Jahre. Körperlich sind 
sie zäh und widerstandsfähig. Schon vor der Schulzeit wurde B. etwas 
lebhafter, aktiver als A. Beide waren immer gute Schüler, besuchen eme 
deutsche Oberschule, sind jetzt in der Oberprima. Beide sind sehr gut in 
Kulturkunde, B. außerdem in Sprachen, Physik, Mathematik, Erdkunde, 
Zeichnen. A. ist etwas schlechter in Englisch und Mathematik, viel schlechter 
im Zeichnen (eigentlich ungeschickter, bei mehr Phantasie). Turnen bei A. 
mäßig bei B. gut. Beide Knaben sind sehr musikalisch, B. spielt Geige, 
\ bei dem das Gehör nicht so genau ist, Klavier. Sie gehen gern ms Konzert, 
haben den gleichen Geschmack, bevorzugen die gleichen Komponisten. In 
Handfertigkeit (Holzschnitzerei, Plastik) ist B. deutlich geschickter als A. 
B liest „furchtbar viel", alles, was er bekommen kann, am liebsten moderne, 
psychologische Romane. A. liest mit mehr System, gründlicher. Sie treiben 
crem Sport (Wassersport, Leichtatheltik, Schwimmen, zeitweise Tennis); 
B ist in allem geschickter. A. wird als ruhiger, aber erregbarer, leichter 
aus der Ruhe zu bringen, bezeichnet. Er kann gelegentlich (selten) aufgeregt, 
wütend, eigensinnig sein. B. ist lebhafter, beweglicher, weniger erregbar, 
nicht so leicht aus der Ruhe zu bringen. Er ist durchaus anpassender. 
Beide haben nie viel Freundschaften gehabt, schlössen sich nicht leicht an, 
kapselten sich aber auch nicht ab. Im ganzen sind beide vorwiegend prak- 
tisch konkret, materiell eingestellt, A. etwas idealistisch. Kein Interesse 
an Mädchen, lesen Romane nicht der Liebesgeschichten wegen B. ist nach 
seiner Ansicht egoistischer, künstlerisch etwas begabter, viel eicht etwas 
frecher draufgängerischer; A. sei freundlicher, hilfsbereiter, altruistischer. 
A. hält sich für erregbarer, gründlicher, dringt tiefer in die Dmge em; welt- 
anschaulich sieht A. mehr die andern, B. ist „Macchiavellist . B. will 
Katmann werden, Lebensziel „materieller Art". A ist noch nich^zu e n 
Beruf entschlossen, will vielleicht studieren, vielleicht auch Kaufmann 



* 



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74 



F. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Ziuillin-gsforschung 



werden. — Objektiv ist A. still, komplizierter, wenig lebhaft, kontem])Iativ, 
besinnlich; empfänglicher, im ganzen wohl schwieriger. B. ist kecker, har- 
monischer, flotter, redet frei und gern; er zeigt mehr praktische {Sicherheit, 
ist die unmittelbarere, glücklichere Natur. 

Paar 19. 15 y^ jährige Kaufmannssöhne, ohne Schwierigkeiten nach 
normaler (jiravidität geboren, A. 14 Stunde vor B. Sie wurden 4 Monate 
genährt, keine Ernährungsstörungen, A. etwas Ausschlag. Gemeinsame 
Masern, B. machte außerdem Scharlach durch sowie vor 1 Jahr eine Appen- 
dicitis. Beide hatten öfter Mandelentzündungen. Stimmwechsel: B. 14 
Jahre, A. noch nicht. Erstes Rasieren: B. vor kurzem, A. noch nicht. 
Beide lernten schon im ersten Jahre laufen, sprechen mit 1 Yo Jahren. Die 
Mutter gibt an, das beide als Kleinkinder ruhig waren. Allmählich wurden 
sie lebhafter, besonders A. Bis zum 9. Jahre war A. geweckter, war stärker, 
tonangebend, in der Schule besser. Seit dem 9. Jahre wurde B. stärker und 
überholte A. bald. Dieser mußte ,, abdanken"; B. übernahm die Führung. 
Sie vertragen sich gut, streiten sich wohl einmal, aber nicht gehässig. A., 
der viel kleiner und zarter ist als B., möchte diesem gern nacheifern, ebenso 
kräftig werden. Beide Knaben sind lebhaft, A. entschieden zappeliger. B. 
litt als Kleinkind an Dunkelangst; er war Bettnässer bis zum G. Jahre. 
Beide sind mittlere Schüler. A. ist gut in Sprachen, genügend in Mathematik 
und Naturwissenschaften sowie in Aufsatz. B. ist in Geschichte, Deutsch 
und Naturwissenschaften gut, genügend in Englisch und Mathematik, un- 
genügend in Französisch. Beide sind sehr sportliebend. B. turnt etwas 
besser als A., A. spielt besser Tennis, B. schwimmt besser, A. wandert gern, 
B. nicht. A. singt gut, B. singt verkehrt. Sie hören beide gern Musik. Beide 
spielten kurze Zeit Klavier, A. mehr als B. Sie lesen gern, A. am liebsten 
Karl May, B. klassische Romane. Mittlere Ordnungsliebe. Keine besondere 
Handfertigkeit. A. ist sehr lebhaft, ist viel mit Freunden zusammen, ist 
in einer Jugendgruppe, geht gern auf Wanderungen. B. ist ruhiger, aber 
aufregbarer, leichter aus der Ruhe zu bringen, ärgert sich leichter als A. 
Er ist auch gern mit Freunden zusammen, gehört aber keinem Verein an. 
Beide halten auf saubere Kleidung, sind nicht besonders eitel. Kein Mädchen- 
interesse. Nicht religiös. Beide sehr politisch interessiert, lesen die Zeitung. 
Appetit gut. B. ißt mehr als A. Sie wollen beide Kaufmann werden, wollen 
ins väterliche Geschäft eintreten; einer soll im Ausland arbeiten, der andere 
hier. — Objektiv ist A. sensibler, lebhafter, reagiert stärker; er ist geweckter, 
aber auch gespannter, mehr intellektuell eingestellt, kecker. B. ist sicherer, 
ruhiger, phlegmatischer, verschlossener. 

Paar 20. 15jährige Polizeibeamtentöchter, nach normaler Schwanger- 
schaft ohne Schwierigkeiten in Kopflage geboren, A. als erste, B. 1.^ Stunde 
später. Die Kinder wurden nicht gestillt, hatten keine Ernährungsstörungen. 

A. litt zeitweise an Ausschlägen, beide machten Rhachitis durch, und zwar 

B. in viel stärkerem Grade. Bei B. mußte die erhebliche X-Bein- Stellung 
mit 10 Jahren operativ beseitigt werden. Masern und Keuchhusten wurden 
gemeinsam durchgemacht. A. litt außerdem an Drüsenschwellungen, mußte 
am Halse geschnitten werden. Die ersten Zähne bekamen beide gleichzeitig; 
A. lief mit 14, B. mit 16 Monaten, beide sprachen mit 1 Jahr. Besondere 
Kinderfehler sollen nicht bestanden haben. A. war als kleines Kind lebhafter. 






2. Charakter ologische Beobachtungen 



75 



erregbarer, B. war gutmütig aber empfindlich, beide waren folgsam. Sie 
waren im Dunkeln ängstlich, waren nicht schwierig oder eigensinnig. A. 
wird als zappeliger bezeichnet. In der Volksschule kamen beide gut mit, 
sie waren in fast allen Fächern guter Durchschnitt; A. im Rechnen etwas 
schlechter, B. gut. In Handarbeiten ist A. geschickter und interessierter 
als B. Beide sind nicht besonders geistig eingestellt. Sie gehen gern ins 
Freie, sind keine Stubenhocker, lesen nicht viel. Hausarbeiten mögen beide 
gern,' sowohl Kochen als Reinmachen. B. ist im Turnen und Schwimmen 
geschickter als A. A. schließt sich leichter an, hat mehr Freundinnen; B. 
ist still, mehr für sich, hat nur eine Freundin. A. ist unmittelbarer im Wesen, 
lustiger, lebhafter, kommt mehr aus sich heraus. B-. ist ruhiger, gleich- 
mäßiger, empfindlicher und ernster. Sie ist im ganzen komplizierter, denkt 
mehr als A., die die Sachen einfach nimmt, wie sie sind. Beide halten ihre 
Kleidung sauber, sind etwas eitel, haben kein Interesse an Herren; A. hat 
wohl etwas mehr Sinnlichkeit als die in dieser Hinsicht noch unentwickelte 
B. A. will Friseuse werden, B. Kontoristin. Objektiv erscheint A. aufge- 
schlossener, freier, ungehemmter. Sie wirkt natürlicher und niedlicher, aber 
auch oberflächlicher als die besinnliche, schizothyme B., die stiller und 
ernster und sicher intelligenter, geistiger ist. B. geniert sich bei der Unter- 
suchung mehr als A. 

c) Auswertung 

Der Charakterologie fällt die schwierige Aufgabe zu, die Ge- 
samtheit psychischer Eigenschaften von einheitlichen, syste- 
matischen Gesichtspunkten aus zu erfassen. Sie stellt die grund- 
legende und wichtigere Forschungsrichtung dar gegenüber der 
Begabungsforschung, die nur ein Teilgebiet der Charakterologie ist. 
Es ist nun eine große Schwierigkeit in die Bearbeitung dieser Ge- 
biete dadvuxh hineingetragen worden, daß die psychologische For- 
schung sich seit Jahrzehnten ganz überwiegend auf die Begabungs- 
forschung eingestellt hatte, während die Charakterologie lange Zeit 
ein Stiefkind der Wissenschaft war. Man darf heute ohne Über- 
treibung sagen, daß eine umgekehrte Entwicklung gesünder und 
fruchtbarer gewesen wäre. Erst die letzten zwei Jahrzehnte haben 
zu einem Wandel geführt, einerseits durch das Aufblühen der mehr 
Charakter ologisch orientierten medizinischen Psychologie, das 
vor allem den Arbeiten von Kretschmer, H. Hoffmann, Ewald, 
Freud, Jung, Adler, Kunkel, Häberlin u. a. zu verdanken ist 
und andererseits durch die Schaffung einer groß angelegten und 
streng wissenschaftlich durchgeführten Charakterkunde durch 
Klages. Die ,, Prinzipien der Charakterologie" von Klages (1910, 
1926) sind nach einer anfänglichen Latenzperiode in den letzten 
Jahren mehr und mehr in die psychiatrische, medizinisch-psycho- 



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76 



F. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Ztüillingsforschwig 



logische und rein psychologische Literatur eingegangen und haben 
wesentlich dazu beigetragen, die Psychologie auf eine lebendigere 
Grundlage zu stellen. Wenn beispielsweise Homburger (1926), 
Jaspers (1923), Kretschmer (1926) und Hoffmann (1930) dem 
Werke von Klag es Anerkennung zollen, so glauben wir, ihnen 
darin nur folgen zu können. Wer die fast beispiellose Un- 
ordnung und Systemlosigkeit der älteren Charakterologie und den 
Mißbrauch so vieldeutiger Begriffe wie etwa ,, Wille" und „Gefühl" 
genügend ausgekostet hat, der muß in der Systematik von Klages 
einen ganz bedeutenden Fortschritt sehen. Schwierig wird die 
Charakterologie immer bleiben; das liegt in ihrer Materie. An 
Klarheit und festem Boden hat sie aber bedeutend gewonnen. 

Klages hat die Eigenschaften des menschlichen Charakters 
eingeteilt in 3 große Gruppen, denen noch einige kleinere Gruppen, 
die wir hier vernachlässigen können, zur Seite stehen. Er unter- 
scheidet die Materie, die Qualität und die Struktur des Cha- 
rakters und hat 1926 vorgeschlagen, diese Bezeichnung durch die 
mehr ausdrückenden deutschen Wörter Stoff, Artung und Ge- 
f üge zu ersetzen. Der Stoff (die Materie) des Charakters umfaßt 
seine elementaren Gegebenheiten an Vorstellungsinhalten, deren 
Reichtum oder Armut an Gehalt, Tiefe oder Flachheit, Aufnahme- 
fähigkeit, Gedächtnis usw., kurz die Bausteine, ,, Anlagen" im 
weiteren Sinne, Fähigkeiten, deren sich jedes charakterhche Ge- 
schehen bedienen muß. — Die Artung (Qualität) des Charakters 
enthält alle Richtjingsgrößen, Triebfedern, Interessen. Die 
Eigenschaften dieser Gruppe bestimmen also, in welcher Richtung 
eine Strebung eingesetzt wird, welchen Zielen oder Maßstäben 
jemand folgt. Eine der Hauptunterteilungen dieser Eigenschaften 
ist die nach den Tendenzen der Selbstbehauptung und der Selbst- 
h^ngebung. Die Artung eines Charakters gibt also Aufschluß über 
die Ziele und Interessen einer Persönlichkeit, vor allem auch über 
(| ihr Verhältnis zu Ichgefühl, Egozentrizität, Selbstentäußerung u. ä. 

Im Gefüge (der Struktur) der Persönlichkeit schließlich sind 
alle Eigenschaften zusammengefaßt, die über die Ablaufsformen 
des seelischen Geschehens Auskunft geben, z.B. über die Schnellig- 
keit oder Langsamkeit, über die Gleichmäßigkeit, den Grad und die 
Art der Gehemmtheit, die Stimmungseinflüsse usw. Die ganze 
Lehre von den Temperamenten ist in dieser Gruppe aufgegangen. 

Dieses System, das hier nur in den gröbsten Zügen angedeutet 
wurde, stellt in seiner Wohldurchdachtheit und relativen Einfach- 



H 



I 



) 






2. Char akter ologische Beobachtungen 



11 



heit eine große Verbesserung und Erleichterung für psychologische 
Untersuchungen dar. Es ist streng genug, um eine klare Klassi- 
fizierung für jede nur denkbare Eigenschaft zuzulassen, und es ist 
vor allem frei von jeder künstlichen Einteilung, die in der älteren 
Charakterologie so viel geschadet hat. Für biologische Probleme 
ist die Einteilung von Klages deshalb besonders brauchbar, weil 
sie einer durchaus natürlichen und von keinem intellektuellen 
Programm beeinflußten Betrachtungsweise entstammt. Stoff, 
Artung und Gefüge des Charakters sind natürliche Gruppen, 
die weit mehr als eine äußerliche Ordnung darstellen. Deshalb 
dürfen wir uns von der Verwendung dieser Systematik in der psycho- 
logischen Erblichkeitsforschung einen großen Nutzen versprechen. 

Im Anhang Seite 108 bis 122 findet sich eine Aufstellung der 
Charaktereigenschaften unserer Zwillingspaare unter Aufteilung 
in die Eigenschaften, die dem Stoff, der Artung und dem Gefüge 
der Persönlichkeit zugehören. Zugleich sind die Eigenschaften 
geordnet nach Konkordanz oder Diskordanz, wobei folgende, schon 
früher benutzte Zeichen gelten: 

= heißt Übereinstimmung beider Partner (Konkordanz) 

(=) kleine Verschiedenheiten (un vollst. Konkord.) 

( X ) deutliche Verschiedenheit (un vollst. Diskord.) 
X Diskordanz. 

Soweit sich eine Eigenschaft auf das Verhalten in der Kindheit 
bezieht, wurde ein (K) hinter die betreffende Bezeichnung gesetzt. 
Einzelne Eigenschaften, die nicht zu den eigentlichen Charakter- 
eigenschaften gehören, die vielmehr einem komplizierteren psychi- 
schen Inhalt zugehören (z. B. Bettnässen), wurden erwähnt, da 
sie auf wichtige Charaktereigenschaften deuten; sie wurden in 
Klammern gesetzt. Daß die Zuteilung zu der betreffenden Gruppe 
bei einigen Eigenschaften recht schwierig ist, liegt schon an dem 
Umstand, daß die Eigenschaften der Artung und des Gefüges zum 
Beispiel immer auch Eigenschaften des Stoffes in sich fassen (z. B. 
die zum Gefüge gehörige Entschlossenheit enthält die zum Stoff 
gehörende Willenskraft usw.). Kleinere Fehler der Einordnung 
müssen daher von vornherein als möglich bezeichnet werden. 

Die genannten Tabellen enthalten nur die Eigenschaften 
unserer Probanden, die uns bei der Untersuchung und der Auf- 
nahme der Anamnese bekannt wurden, und mit deren wirklichem 
Vorhandensein wir rechnen konnten. Von einer Vollständigkeit 
der Charakter beschreibung kann also keine Rede sein. Schon aus 



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78 



F. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillingsjorschung 



diesem Grunde, aber auch wegen der relativen Kleinheit der 
Zahlen, kann die folgende Auswertung nur mehr als ein tastender ,[| 
Versuch betrachtet werden, wenn wir auch glauben, daß er einen 
systematischen Ausbau dieser Methode einleiten kann. 

Ein Überblick über sämtliche Tabellen zeigt sehr deutlich, 
daß die überwiegende Mehrzahl aller ermittelten Eigenschaften 
bei den E. Z. in den links gelegenen Spalten der vollkommenen 
oder fast vollkommenen Konkordanz liegen. Schon viel geringer 
und ungleichmäßiger ist die Besetzung der 3. Spalte, während reine 
Diskordanz (Spalte 4) bei den E. Z. überhaupt bei keiner Eigen-I^ 
Schaft gefunden wurde. Vergleicht man diese Tatsachen unter An- 
wendung der ,, zwillingsbiologischen Vererbungsieger' mit der weit 
stärkeren und größtenteils überwiegenden Besetzung der Dis- 
kordanz spalten (3 und 4) bei den (gleichgeschlechtigen!) Z. Z., 
so wird man trotz aller Vorsicht der Auswertung zu dem sicheren 
Schluß kommen müssen, daß in allen 3 charakterologischen 
Bereichen das genisch Bedingte den überwiegenden 
Anteil ausmacht. 

Wenden wir uns nun den einzelnen Gruppen zu, um das Aus- 
maß der Modifikabilität in ihnen gesondert zu bestimmen. 

Zur Erleichterung des Überblicks haben wir den Inhalt der 
im Anhang befindlichen Tabellen der Charaktereigenschaften in 
den Abbildungen 9 — 11 graphisch zusammengefaßt. Die Zahl der 
Eigenschaften in den verschiedenen Gruppen und Spalten wurde 
jeweils als Fläche dargestellt. Hierdurch wird ein unmittelbarer 
Vergleich der einzelnen Gruppen ermöglicht, wenn auch diese Me- 
thode der Darstellung nur eine relativ grobe Annäherung an die 
tatsächlichen Verhältnisse zur Anschauung bringen kann. Ins- 
besondere stellt es nur einen technischen Behelf dar, alle einzelnen 
Charaktereigenschaften quantitativ gleich zu werten, da doch in 
Wirklichkeit eine durchaus verschiedene Ausdehnung und Durch- 
schlagskraft der verschiedenen Eigenschaften angenommen werden 
muß. Da jedoch imsere Tabellen ein ziemlich gleichmäßiges Ge- 
misch von quantitativ verschiedenartigen Eigenschaften darstellen, 
so ist dieser Fehler nicht allzu groß und wird durch die Vorteile 
dieser Darstellungs weise reichlich aufgewogen. 

1. Für den Stoff (die Materie) des Charakters ergibt sich eine 
ganz überraschende Eindeutigkeit in Richtung auf fast völlige 
Konkordanz bei den E. Z. Kleinere Unterschiede finden sich zu- 
nächst bei den Paaren Nr. 1, 4 und 9. In allen drei Fällen handelt 



2. Char akter ologische Beobachtungen 



79 



es sich um sensitive, schizothyme bzw. schizoide Persönlichkeiten, t*^ 
Paar 4 und 9 zeigen deutliche psychopathische Züge, stehen in 
höherem Alter als die meisten übrigen Probanden ; auch haben bei 
ihnen die Partner verschiedene Berufe und Lebenswege durch- 
gemacht. Trotzdem sind die ermittelten Unterschiede sehr gering; 
die rein konkordanten Eigenschaften sind durchaus in der Überzahl. 





a 



Abb. 9. Stoff des Charakters, a E.Z., b Z. Z 

Die geringen Unterschiede beziehen sich vor allem auf die Schul- 
begabung, das Gedächtnis und die Gewecktheit, also Eigenschaften, 
von denen es wohl immer schon feststand, daß sie durch Übung, 
Gewohnheit oder störende Erlebniseinflüsse in lej^chj^m Umfange 
modifizierbar sind. Daß die dem Stoff zuzurechnenden Fähig- 
keiten überhaupt einer gewissen Modifikabilität ausgesetzt sind, 
weiß jeder unbefangene Beobachter und kann nur von ErbHchkeits- 
fanatikern (für das Gebiet der Fähigkeiten war Schopenhauer 
einer) geleugnet werden. Erinnert sei an Goethes Ausspruch: 



^^^' 



fl tf . 



\ 4 ' , ' 



ik. 



; m 



80 



V. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillings forschung 



* 



« 



„Fähigkeiten werden vorausgesetzt, sie sollen zu Fertigkeiten A^ 
werden" (Wahlverwandtschaften) und an die Problematik der 
Begabungsprüfungen. Zugleich aber wird aus unserer Aufstellung 
klar — vor allem durch Vergleich mit der vorherrschenden Dis- 
^9£4.?£Ll>,g.den Z. Z. — , daß die erwähnte Modifikabilität d^es 



i 



Stoffes der Persönlichkeit nur ganz gering sein kann. Die 
Paare Nr. 2 und Nr. 7, die einige deutlichere Verschiedenheiten 
bezuglich des Stoffes aufweisen, müssen aus der Betrachtung 
ausgeschaltet werden. Bei Paar Nr. 2 handelt es sich um Epi- 
leptikerinnen mit verschiedener Schwere der Erkrankung und 
verschieden starker epileptischer Charakterveränderung- die deut- 
lichen Unterschiede (Auffassungsvermögen, Gedächtnis,' Enge de. 
Gesichtsfeldes) liegen durchaus in der Richtung dieser patholo^i- 
sehen Veränderung. Und das Paar Nr. 7 wurde schon in dem 
Kapitel über die Eiigkeitsdiagnose besonders erwähnt. Hier legen 
verschiedene anamnestische Umstände in Verbindung mit einigen 
auffallenden körperlichen und psychischen Unterschieden die 
Vermutung nahe, daß B vor oder bei der Geburt einer organischen 
Schädigung ausgesetzt war, so daß man auch dieses Paar wird aus- 
schalten müssen. 

2. Eine etwas deutlichere „Rechtsverschiebung" (d h in der 
Richtung nach der Diskordanz hin) findet sich für die Eigenschaften 
der Artun^^Qualität) des Charakters. Hervorzuheben ist daß 
auch hier die^^^lTfeonimene und die unvollkommene Konkordanz 
bei allen E Z.-Paaren noch ganz augenfällig ist; an einer ganz 
überwiegend genisch bedingten Natur auch der Eigenschaften dieser 
Gruppe kann also gar kein Zweifel sein, wenn wir die deutlichen 
Diskordanzanteile bei den Z. Z. wieder als „Hintorgrund" benutzen 
Bemerkenswert ist aber, daß bei einer Reihe von Paaren unvoll- 
kommene Diskordanz bereits in viel höherem Grade hervortritt 
als bei den, Stoff-Eigenschaften. Sehen wir aus den bereits 
genannten Gründen wieder von dem Epileptikerpaar Nr 2 ab so 
sind es vor allem die Paare Nr. 4, 6, 9 und 10, bei denen die Rechts- 
verschiebung deut ich ist, in geringerem Grade auch bei dem Paar 
Nr. 1. Dies Resultat zeigt zunächst die charakterologisch nahe- 
liegende Tatsache, daß die Interessen und Neigungen und die 
qualitative wie quantitative Ausgestaltung des Selbstgefühls 
eine nicht geringe Modifikationsbreite zeigenr^Jelraucl 
das Genotypische die breite Grundlage beherrscht. Unser Material 
zeigt aber, wie wir glauben, noch mehr: Die Paare Nr. 1, 4, 6. 9 



'i 



2. Charakterologische Beobachtungen 



81 



und 10 umfassen unter unseren Eineiigen interessanterweise die 
differenzierten, intellektuell beweglichen, komplizierten oder dochfil^ 
zum mindesten sensiblen Naturen. Es sind fast ausnahmslos 
Leptosome oder Astheniker , und es sind ausnahmslos Schizo-^ 
thyme. Diese Tatsache soll hier zunächst nur vermerkt werden; 





a 



Abb, 10. Artung des Charakters, a E. Z., b Z. Z. 

wir kommen bei der Besprechung der dritten Gruppe auf sie zurück. 
Werfen wir noch einen Blick auf die Artungstabellen der Z. Z., so 
fällt immerhin auf, daß die Eigenschaften recht gleichmäßig über 
das ganze Feld verteilt sind; die Diskordanz ist weniger stark als 
bei den Stoff eigenschaften der Z. Z. Daß hierbei vielleicht die 
Milieugleichheit zu der nicht geringen Konkordanz beigetragen 

Beiheft 61 zur Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie 6 



V 



I 



•.•uaMlnMBMilM 



l 



,.>! 



\m 



^' 



L \\ ■ 



^ 82 



l 



V. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zivilli^tgsforschung 




^{ .^H haben mag, kann nur als Vermutung geäußert, an unserem Material 
uV aber nicht bewiesen werden. Eine gewisse gegenseitige und ge- 
meinsame Milieubeeinflu ssung der Neigungen und Interessen (man 
nehme nur: Ordnungssinn, Interesse an Kleidung usw.), ist aus 
rein charakterologischen Gründen zu erwarten und kommt viel- 
leicht in der teilweisen Z. Z.- Gleichheit zum Ausdruck. 

3. Eine noch stärkere ,, Rechtsverschiebung" findet sich bei 



\^" 



NV'v den E. Z. nun hinsichtlich des Gef üeres des Charakters. Wenn auch 

IM V"^\ . . . . 

^\y\ ^ \^ :^^^ dieser Gruppe die reine Konkordanz noch sehr häufig ist, so 

N^ Oy/^j" '^©igt doch eine Reihe von Paaren eine ganze Anzahl von Eigen- 
vj^chaften, in denen der eine Partner sich deutlich anders verhält als 
^^^jt"^ der andere. Man bekommt den Eindruck, daß die kleinen Diffe- 
renzen des Stoffes zu den etwas deutlicheren der Artung addiert, 
ungefähr den Grad von Diskordanz ausdrückt, der im Gefüge des 
Charakters gilt. Man wird diese Tatsache nicht überraschend 
finden, wenn man bedenkt, daß die Eigenschaften, die das Gieüjge 
y des Charakters ausmachen, zweifellos die kompliziertesten sind, 
I , daß sie außer den TemperÄmentsanlagen die dem Stof f., ange- 
' hörenden Fähigkeiten und die der Artung entstammenden Stre- 
bungen und Interessen mit enthalten. Besonders zu unterstreichen 
f ist nun die Tatsache, daß es (außer dem Epileptiker-Paar Nr. 2) 
wieder ganz deutlich die schon erwähnten Paare Nr. 1, 4, 6, 9 und 10 
sind, die die meisten diskordanten Eigenschaften aufweisen. Die 
Grade und Arten der ,, nervösen Reaktionen", die IJarmonie oder 
Wideistandskrait, Energie und Entschlossenheit, Frische und 
Äußeiamgsvermögen : diese und mancEe^ähnlichen Eigenschaften, 
von denen wir nach dem Gesamtergebnis annehmen müssen, daß 

«sie tief im Genischen wurzeln, sind doch einer bemerkenswerten 
Modifikabjlität fähig. Sie können — anscheinend besonders bei 
diHerenzierten, komplizierten und vorwiegend schizothymen Na- 
turen — bei dem einen Partner ein ganz anderes Verhalten hervor- 
rufen als bei dem andern, wenn nur die Lebens- und Erlebnis- 
vorgänge zu einer Modifikation führen. Immer haben wir bei den 
E. Z. jedoch auch bei solcher relativen Diskordanz noch eine 
große innere Ähnlichkeit der betreffenden Eigenschaften finden 
können und haben uns in keinem einzigen Falle berechtigt gefühlt, 
von einer absoluten und reinen Diskordanz zu sprechen. Oder 
konkreter ausgedrückt: bei einem E. Z. -Paare, das eine bemerkens- 
werte Verschiedenheit beispielsweise in der Energie des Auftretens 
zeigte, fanden wir doch noch immer eine genau herauszufühlende 




f 



A 






2. Charakterologische Beohachtungen 



83 



Verwandtschaft der betreffenden divergierenden Eigenschaft, 
wie sie bei den unähnlichen Z. Z.-Paaren nur selten angetroffen 
wird. Wir müssen uns bei der relativen Kleinheit unseres Materials 
zunächst noch von Schlüssen zurückhalten, die ins Einzelne gehen, 
können vor allem nicht die Feststellung wagen, welche Eigen- 
schaften des Gefüges der Modifikation mehr zugänglich sind und 
welche weniger. Zu der allgemeinen Feststellung aber fühlen wir 
uns berechtigt, daß das Gefüge d es Chara kters zwar über- 

















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11 








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18 








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19 








20 










9 






1 








10 mr 




b 


iiiiiiiiiiii 


* 



a 



Abb. 11. Gefüge des Charakters, a E. Z., b. Z.Z. 

wiegend genisch bedingt und bestimmt ist, daneben 
aber eine nicht zu unterschätzende Mo difika bilität 
aufweist. Vermutungsweise können wir hinzufügen, daß die 
schizothymen, die komplizierten und die psychopathischen Cha- 
I räHerTeiner solchen Modifikabilität besonders ausgesetzt zu sein 

scheinen. ~ "" 

Alle festgestellten Modifikabilitäten berechtigen jedenfalls zu 
der Feststellung, daß den erziehenden, vorbeugenden und ,| 
heilenden Einflüssen auf psychischem Gebiet bedeutende Auf- 
gaben zufallen, trotz der starken genischen Verankerung 
& 6* 



V 



( 



li 



üStm 






w 



■• I 



\ r 

IM 



i 



äi 



F. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillingsforschung 



aller Eigenschaften. Gilt dies schon für den Stoff des Charak- 
ters, also vorwiegend für die Fähigkeiten , die ja nur durch Übung 
und Anstrengung zu „Fertigkeiten" werden können, so gilt es in 
viel hervorragenderem Maße für 4£tung und Gefüge. Die richtige 
Leitu ng und Erziehung gerade der differenzierten Naturen erweist 
sich auch von diesem Standpunkt auTgesehen als eine dringende 
und lohnende Aufgabe. Und ferner: die psychotherapeutischen 
Bemühungen der letzten Jahrzehnte, die von Freud aufge- 
deckten psychischen Mechanismen können in weitem Ausmaße 
^fruchtbar sein innerhalbdes Bereiches der modifikatorischen Ver- 
\ änderungen. Mit besonderer Sorgfalt sollte in Zukunft die Zwillings- 
psychologie der „nervösen Charaktere" gefördert werden, um zu 
erweisen, wieviel an neurotischen Erkrankungen unabwendbares 
Schicksal darstellen, und wieviel durch falsche Denk- und Lebens- 
weise und durch äußeres Erleben bedingt, also prinzipiell „heilbar" 
sind (LoTTiG 1931). Daß die schon früher erwähnten" Studien 
von Lange an psychopathischen und kriminellen Zwillingen die 
wertvollsten Ansätze zu einer derartigen erbpsychologischen 
Neurosenforschung darstellen, sei nochmals erwähnt. Unsere 
Ermittlungen über die Modifikations breite der einzelnen Bereiche 
der menschlichen Persönlichkeit stimmen noch am besten mit den 
Anschauungen von Lange überein. 

Daß die Modffikabilität von Artung und Gefüge des Charakters 
einen nicht unerheblichen Einfluß auf die intellektuellen Lei- 
stungen ausüben muß, sollte für jeden charakterologisch Denken- 
den eine Selbstverständlichkeit sein. Wenn einige der NEWMANschen 
Paare eine Verschiedenheit der intellektuellen Leistungen auf- 
weisen, so ist daraus — um es nochmals deutlich auszusprechen — 
nicht so sehr ein Urteil über die genische Bedingtheit der geistigen 
Fähigkeiten abzuleiten, als vielmehr ein solches über die geistigen 
Leistungen; zwischen diesen beiden aber liegt die ganze 
Schicht der Artung und des Gefüges des Charakters, die durch 
verschiedene Lebensschicksale zu großen Unterschieden auch bei 
eineiigen Zwillingen geführt haben kann. Und umgekehrt: wenn 
bei dem berühmt gewordenen Paare von Popenoe-Muller trotz 
verschiedenster Schulbildung eine gleiche intellektuelle Leistungs- 
fähigkeit resultierte, so sollte als wesentlich hervorgehoben werden 
daß beide Partnerinnen (auch die mit der geringen Schulbildung') 
in ihrem Berufsleben Gelegenheit hatten, die ihnen gegebenen An- 
lagen („Fähigkeiten") zur vollen Entfaltung zu bringen 










3. Zur Frage der Zwillingsgraphologie 



85 



Wir müssen auf Grund unserer Mitteilungen über die fast aus- 
schließliche genische Bedingtheit des Stoffes des Charakters an- 
nehmen, daß das Paar von Popenoe-Muller eine größere Beweis- 
kraft hat als die diskordanten Paare von Newman. 

Unsere Resultate enthalten zum mindestens den Nachweis 
und die Aufforderung, daß wir in der nächsten Zukunft Zwillings- 
charakterologie in größerem Umfange treiben müssen. Nach 
genügender und grundlegender Ermittlung der Modifikationsbreite 
der einzelnen Schichten und Eigenschaftsgruppen des Charakters 
wird es dann möglich sein, die bisher sich widersprechenden Re-* ' 
sultate über Begabungsforschungen an Zwillingen richtig zuX 
deuten und von ihren Fehlern zu reinigen. 

8. Zur Frage der Zwillingsgraphologie 

Die nachfolgenden Ausführungen verfolgen den Zweck, die 
Aufmerksamkeit der Zwillingsforscher auf ein Gebiet zu lenken, 
das bisher noch keine systematische und wissenschaftliche Be- 
arbeitung erfahren hat. Gemeint ist die Frage, ob und wieweit sich 
aus der Betrachtung und Vergleichung der Handschrift von 
Zwillingen wichtige Tatsachen gewinnen lassen. Die Bemerkiuig, 
daß das eine oder andere eineiige Zwillingspaar unter anderem 
auch eine große Ähnlichkeit der Schriftzüge aufwies, findet sich 
an einzelnen Stellen der Zwillingsliteratur (z. B. Weitz 1924). 
Andererseits bemerkt Lange (1929), daß er die Handschriften bei 
E. Z. ,, meist verschieden" fand. Auch H. Meyer (1929) hat bei den 
beiden von ihr eingehend studierten E. Z. -Paaren gewisse Unter- 
schiede in der Schrift der Partner gefunden (Ursula und Babette B. : 
U. schreibt sorgfältiger, mit zartem Druck, B. ganz unordentlich, 
rücksichtsloser im Druck ; Pauline und H^rmine A. : P. nachlässiger, 
aber flüssiger, H. sorgfältiger, steifer, breiter); With (1930) bringt 
ebenfalls Schriftproben eines E. Z. -Paares, die sich ,,im äußeren 
Bilde sehr wenig ähneln". Diese gelegentlichen Bemerkungen 
gehen alle von der Beobachtung in die Augen fallender äußerer 
Züge aus. Eine Untersuchung auf einzelne Schrifteigenschaften 
oder gar auf den Zusammenhang zwischen bestimmten Schrifteigen- 
schaften und Charakterzügen findet sich bisher nichts. 

1 Eine Arbeit von Thorndike: The resemblance of young twins in 
handwriting (1914) enthält keine im heutigen Sinne des Wortes grapho- 
logischen Gesichtspunkte, sondern nur äußerhche Schriftvergleiche, dazu 
noch bei mangelnder Eiigkeitsbestimmung der ZwilHnge. 









w 



H 



V' f^« 



86 



T'. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle ZvMllinrjsforschung 



Es muß nun darauf hincrewiesen werden, daß die Psychologie 
der Handschrift, die noch im vorigen Jahrhundert mehr einer 
dunklen Deutungsmystik als einer Wissenschaft glich, in den 
letzten Jahrzehnt<rn eine entscheidende Befruchtung und. man 
darf wohl sagen. Neuschaffung erfahren hat durch die gründlichen 
Arbeit'Cn von Klages (1913. 1916. 1924). die die Graphologie zu 
einer exakten Wissenschaft von hohem Niveau gemacht haben. Die 
von Klages gefundenen Gesetze der Ausdruckspsychologie haben 
es möglich gemacht, eine Handschrift auf ihre einzelnen Merkmale 
hin eingehend zu untersuchen mit dem Ziel, die in den einzelnen 
Schrift merkmalen zum Ausdruck kommenden Charakterelemente 
rückschließend zu erfassen. Die Schwierigkeit eines solchen Unter- 
fangens liegt auf der Hand ; sie kann nur durch sorgfältigste Kennt- 
nis und große Übung auf diesem Gebiete überwunden werden. Sie 
bietet aber in der Hand des Kundigen die Möglichkeit psycholo- 
gischer Forschung an Stellen, an denen die bloße Beobachtung des 
Menschen nicht ausreicht. Für die Verwendung der Graphologie 
in der Psychiatrie hat sich Blume (1926, 1929) warm eingesetzt; 
seine Mitteilungen über graphologische Untersuchungen bei einem 
Fall von induzierte m Irresein (1929) sind ein gutes Beispiel für den 
Wert dieser Methoc[e?"TJrr'Zwillingspsychologie sollte um so eher 
Gebrauch von diesem ausgezeichneten Hilfsmittel machen, als sie 
bei großen Untersuchungsreihen von Zwillingen meist auf die 
Schwierigkeit stößt, daß der einzelne Proband nicht lange imd 
eingehend genug charakterologisch untersucht und beobachtet 
werden kann. 

Eine serienmäßige Untersuchung von Zwillingshandschriften 
ist im Rahmen einer vielseitig eingestellten Untersuchung nicht 
möglich ; sie erfordert ein(i ganz eingehende und spezielle Bearbei- 
tung. Die Prinzipien einer derartigen Untersuchung lassen sich 
jedoch auch in engerem Rahmen darlegen, und das soll im folgenden 
an einigen Beispielen geschehen. 

Von 19 unter unseren 20 Paaren verfügen wir über Schrift- 
proben, die den Voraussetzungen für eiijf graphologische Be- 
arbeitung entsprechen, d. h. sie sind zwanglos, in natürlicher 
körperlicher und seelischer Verfassung mit Tinte geschrieben. Wir 
greifen nun aus den mannigfachen Schriftmerkmalen 4 heraus, um 
das vorliegende ^chriftenmaterial auf sie hin zu untersuchen: Die 
Regelmäßigkeit, das Ebenmaß, das Formniveau und den 
Schriftwinkel. 



3. Zur Frage der Zwillingsgraphologie 



87 



Die Regelmäßigkeit der Schrift ergibt sich aus dem Grade der 
mathematischen Gleichheit gleicher Schriftelemente. Sehr regelmäßig ist 
also eine Schrift, wenn alle Abstriche im gleichen Winkel laufen, wenn alle 
Großbuchstaben gleich hoch sind, ebenso alle Oberlängen, alle Unterlängen; 
wenn alle Druckbildungen gleichmäßig sind, wenn alle Zeilen gerade laufen 
Es darf als sicher gelten, daß die Regelmäßigkeit der Schrift ein Aus-: 



usw 



druck ist für das Verhältnis der Willensstärke zur Gefühlslebhaftigkeit. i{ 
Sehr regelmäßig ist also eine Schrift, wenn bei ihrem Urheber die Eigen- 
schaften, die der W^illensstärke entstammen, dominieren über diejenigen 
der Gefühlslebhaftigkeit, sei es weil die W jllgnsgtärke besonders groß oder 
aber die Gefühlslebhaftigkeit besonders gering ist. (In diesem Zusammen- 
hange sei S5isc!ruc5TTcn hervorgehoben, daß hier nur die generelle Be- 
arbeitung der ausgewählten 4 Schrifteigenschaften beabsichtigt ist; die 
spezielle Feststellung, welche einzelnen Charaktereigenschaften bei einer 
bestimmten Handschrift z.B. durch die Regelmäßigkeit ausgedrückt werden, 
ist nur durch Mitberücksichtigung aller übriger Schrifteigenschaften mög- 
lich und würde in diesem Rahmen zu weit führen.) 

Das Ebenmaß drückt den Rhythmus des Schriftbildes aus; es gibt 
an, in welchem Grade ein Schriftbild (abgesehen von der Regelmäßigkeit!) 
harmonisch gegliedert ist, eine natürliche, fließende Bewegungsverteüung 
aufweist. Kann die Regelmäßigkeit in gewissem Umfange durch Absicht 
und Aufmerksamkeit erhöht werden, so ist das Ebenmaß einer solchen will- 
kürlichen Beeinflussung fast völlig entzogen. Durch das Ebenmaß der 
Schrift wird der Grad der Gefühlserregbarkeit (z. B. Affizierbarkeit, Emp- 
fänglichkeit, Reizbarkeit) angezeigt. 

Das Formniveau ist eine der wichtigsten und für den Anfänger am 
schwersten zu beurteilenden Schrifteigenschaften. Es drückt die Originalität 
und produktive „Echtheit" der Formgestaltung einer Schrift aus und darf 
nicht etwa verwechselt werden mit der Ausschmückung einer Schrift. Eine 
sehr einfache Schrift (z. B. Nietzsche) kann also ein höheres Formniveau 
haben, als eine sehr auf Effekt eingestellte (z. B. Richard Wagner). Das 
Formniveau einer Schrift drückt das ^eigügsSßelische Wertniveau ihres 
Inhabers aus, zeigt also seine qualitative Lebensfülle oder Ärmlichkeit, 
seine eigentliche produktiv e Begabung. 

Der Schriftwinkel (schräge, steil, linksschräge) schließlich gibt 
Aufschluß über das Verhältnis der Verstandesauswirkung zur Gefühlsaus- 
wirkung, wobei es wieder der weiteren Schriftanalyse überlassen bleiben 
muß, über die nähere Bestimmung und die Ziele der resultierenden Haltung 
zu entscheiden. 

Wir beabsichtigen also zunächst nicht die feinere Charakter- 
analyse aus unseren Zwillingshandschriften, sondern nur eine vor- 
bereitende Untersuchung über die Konkordanz oder Diskordanz 
der genannten 4 Grundeigenschaften. Diese Eigenschaften lassen 
sich gut in Ziffern von 1 — 5 ausdrücken nach der Art, der Schul- 

O ^_ I II HL I I ~ 

zeuj^i§.§ßr-wenn auch hier mit einer solchen Klassifizierung kein 
Werturteil verbunden ist (mit Ausnahme des Formniveaus). Die 



l 



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. ^•** 



* • ■ 

1 

I 



! ii 



.11 I 



.: i 



1 



H' 



V 



l ' 



88 



F. Ergehnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillingsjorschwu) 



Ziffer 1 bedeutet große Regelmäßigkeit bzw. großes Ebenmaß 
bzw. sehr hohes Formniveau, bzw. geringe Neigung (Steilheit) der 
Schrift. Die Ziffer 5 zeigt entsprechend große Unregelmäßigkeit, 
sehr geringes Ebenmaß, niedriges Formniveau und starke Nei- 
gung (Schrägheit) der Schrift an. Die Linksschrägheit einer 
Schrift (\) kann man durch —1 oder —2 (je nach dem Grad) be- 
zeichnen . 

Die nachfolgende Tabelle enthält die entsprechenden Werte 
für unsere Probanden. (Da eine derartige Bearbeitung von Hand- 
schriften nur dann wissenschaftlichen Wert haben kann, wenn 
jahrelange graphologische Erfahrung vorausgesetzt werden kann, 
ist wohl die Bemerkung notwendig, daß der Verfasser sich seit etwa 
10 Jahren eingehend mit graphologischen Studien befaßt hat, also 
einige Übung auf diesem schwierigen Gebiet besitzt). 

Tabelle 12. Punktwertung der vier wichtigsten Schrift- 
eigenschaften 



Paar 


Regelmäßigkeit 


Ebenmaß 


Formniveau 


Schriftwinkel 


Nr. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


1 


3 


3—4 


4 


4 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3-4 


2 3 


4 


2—3 


4 


3 


2 


2 3 


3 


2 3 


3 


2—3 


2 3 


3 


3 


2 3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3—4 


3—4 


2 3 


2 3 


2 


Vi 


5 


2 3 


2 3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


1 





6 


1—2 


1—2 


3 


3 


2 3 


2 3 


V2 


1 


7 


3 


3 4 


3—4 


4 


3 4 


4 


- V2 


Vi 


8 


2—3 


3 


4 


4 


3 4 


3—4 


- Vi 


Vi 


9 


2—3 


3 


2—3 


2—3 


2 


2 


Vi 


Vi 


10 


2 


3-4 


3 


3 4 


2 3 


3 





1 


11 


i 1 2 


2 3 


2 3 


3 


2 3 


2 





- Vi 


12 


3 


2 3 


3 


2 3 


2 


2 3 


Vi 


1 


14 


3 


3 


2 3 


3 


3 


2 3 


1 


Vi 


15 


3 


2—3 


3 


2—3 


3 


3 


2 


1 


16 


2 3 


2—3 


3 


3 


3 


3 








17 


3 


2 3 


3 


2—3 


3 


2 


1 2 


2 


18 


4 


3 


3 4 


2—3 


1—2 


2 





- Vi 


19 


2 3 


3 


3 


3—4 


2 


3 





1 


20 


3 


3—4 


2—3 


3 


2—3 


3 


Vi 


2 



Sehen wir von dem Epileptikerinnen-Paar (Nr. 2) wiederum 
ab, da es sich hierbei nicht um normale, sondern um pathologische 
Modifikation handelt, so stehen sich zum Vergleich 9 eineiige und 
9 zweieiige Paare gegenüber. 



V 



^ 



3. Zur Frage der Zwillingsgraphologie 



89 



Es fällt nun beim Betrachten der Tabelle auf, daß im Bereich 
der Regelmäßigkeit und des Schriftwinkels Differenzen 
zwischen den Partnern eines Paares ziemUch häufig sind, sowohl 
bei den E. Z., als auch bei den Z. Z. Besonders deutlich sind 
die Unterschiede bezüglich des Schriftwinkels ; und hier findet sich 
dazu noch die Tatsache, daß die E. Z. eine deutlichere Diskordanz 
aufweisen als die Z. Z. Wenn dies letztere auch gewiß der Wirkung 
des Zufalles und der kleinen Zahl zuzuschreiben ist, so unterstreicht 
dieses paradoxe Resultat doch die Tatsache, daß die E. Z. bezüglich 
des Schriftwinkels keinesfalls mehr konkordant sind als die Z. Z. 
Etwas geringer ist die Diskordanz im Bereiche der Regelmäßigkeit, 
aber auch hier ist zwischen den E. Z. und den Z. Z. kein nennens- 
werter Unterschied festzustellen. Addieren wir die Punktdifferenzen 
zwischen den Partner jeden Paares und teilen durch die Zahl der 
Paare, so erhalten wir die mittlere Abweichung zweier Partner von- 
einander : 



Regelmäßigkeit j ^Schriftwinkel 



E.Z. 
Z. Z. 



0,44 
0,50 



0,89 
0,67 



Die Modifikabilität ist demnach ziemlich groß für die Regel- 
mäßigkeit, und sie ist bemerkenswert groß für den Neigungswmkel 
der Schrift; hier wird bei den E.Z. eine durchschnitthche Ab- 
weichung von fast Vio Punkt erreicht! Das Resultat ist m zwei- 
facher Hinsicht interessant. Es stimmt sehr gut mit der grapho- 
logisch bekannten Tatsache überein, daß die Regelmäßigkeit und 
der Neigungswinke l der Schrift zu den EigenschIT!in gehören, die 
einer Beeinflussung in höherem Grade zugängig sind. Die Ver- 
schiebung des Schriftbildes nach der Seite der regelmäßigen Ge- 
staltung und der Aufrichtung der Schrift zur Steilheit oder Links- 
schrägheit ist ein typischer Zug der „erworbenen" (im Gegensatz 
zur ursprünglichen) Handschrift und kündet die Mitwirkung mehr 
oder weniger bewußt oder willensmäßig gestaltender Faktoren an. 
Und zweitens: die Charaktereigenschaften, die durch die Regel- 
mäßigkeit und den Neigungswinkel der Handschrift zum Ausdruck 
kommen (das Verhältnis der Willensstärke zur Gefühlslebhaftigkeit 
und das Verhältnis der geselligen Gefühle zur verstandesmäßigen 
Zurückhaltung), gehören zu den Anteilen der Artung und des Ge- 
füges der Persönlichkeit, die ebenfalls einer bedeutenden modi- 
fikatorischen Beeinflussung zugängig sind. Es sei nur daran er- 



•I» 



'1/ 




tf 1 



k-r~-.--iÄ. 



II 



r 



'ii 



I 1 



) 



'■ .1 



90 



V. Ergebnisse. B. Spezielle Zwillingsjorschung 




innert, daß die Aufrichtung der Schrift zur Steilheit bei gleich- 
zeitig unrhythmischem Schriftbild einen Kompensierungsakt des 
Willens gegen die Anstürme der zu großen Gefühlserregbarkeit 
darstellt und z. B. in Pubertätsschriften oft zu finden ist. 

Ganz anders steht es nun mit den beiden anderen Schrift- 
eigenschaften, dem Ebe.nmaß (= R hyth sj^s) und dem Form- 
niveau der Schrift. Hier findet sich nämhch eine fast durch- 
gehende Konkordanz bei den E. Z. bei deutlicher Diskordanz der 
Z. Z. Die mittlere Abweichung bringt dies zahlenmäßig klar 
zum Ausdruck: 



Ebenmaß 



Formniveau 



E. Z. 
Z. Z. 



0,11 
0,50 



0,11 
0.50 



Ja, es zeigt sich sogar, daß unter den Eineiigen die einzigen 
Differenzen des Ebenmaßes und des Formniveaus sich bei den 
Paaren Nr. 7 und Nr. 10 finden; für diese beiden Paare wurde 
aber schon früher mehrfach die Auffassung geäußert, daß die großen 
körperlichen und z. T. auch seelischen Verschiedenheiten der 
Partner durch eine gröbere somatische Beeinträchtigung des einen 
Partners bedingt sein dürfte. Alle übrigen E. Z. -Paare zeigen 
völlige Konkordanz in bezug auf Ebenmaß und Formniveau. Hier 
dürfte also der Schluß erlaubt sein, daß der Rhythmus und das 
Formniveau einer Schrift ihre Entstehung solchen Eigenschaften 
verdanken, die in fast reiner Weise genisch bedingt sind. Und 
auch hierfür gibt die charakterologische Kontrolle einen weiteren 
Beleg : Das Ebenmaß drückt den Grad der Gefühlserregbarkeit aus, 
das Formniveau die produktiven Gestaltungskräfte; beide Eigen- 
schaften gehören dem Stoffe des Charakters an und wurden 
bereits als fast ausschließlich genisch bedingt erkannt. 

Schon die Untersuchung der hier bearbeiteten 4 Schrifteigen- 
schaften zeigt deutlich, daß man bei Handschriftsvergleichungen 
nicht von ,, Ähnlichkeit" oder ,,Unähnlichkeit" schlechthin sprechen 
sollte. Einen wirklichen Sinn haben solche Vergleiche nur, wenn 
man sie nicht auf die Schrift als Ganzes, sondern auf ihre einzelnen 
Merkmale anwendet. Dann zeigt sich, daß sehr ,, unähnlich" er-j 
scheinende Schriften doch sehr ähnliche Merkmale enthalten! 
können, die nur auf den ersten Blick nicht so stark hervortreten! 
Wenn die Handschriften eines eineiigen Zwillingspaares eine unter- 
schiedliche Regelmäßigkeit und verschiedene Steilheit aufweisen, 



1 



5. Zur Frage der Zwillingsgraphologie 



91 



'' 



SO erscheinen sie dem Laien als ,,sehr unähnlich", und erst der 
graphologisch geschulte Blick erkennt in ihnen die wichtigen und 
z. T. vollkommenen Übereinstimmungen (vgl. z. B. die von With 
(1930) publizierten Schriftzüge eines E. Z.-Paares!) 

Weiterhin aber sollte nachdrückUch auf den diagnostischen 
Wert graphologischer Hilfsmittel für die Zwillingscharakterologie 
hingewiesen werden. Sollte sich die Zuverlässigkeit der grapho- 
logischen Methodik weiterhin erhärten lassen, so würde sie für die 
Entscheidung der Frage, ob eine bestimmte Eigenschaft bei einem 
Probanden angenommen werden kann oder nicht, unter Umständen 
sicherer sein, als die direkte Beobachtung. 



i 



ii 



f" 



v-^^. 



1^ 



\u 



VI. Schlußbemerkung 

Die vorstehenden Zwillingsstudien wurden mit Absicht aus- 
gedehnt auf die verschiedensten, z. T. heterogen erscheinenden 
Gebiete. Und doch ist es gerade der tiefere Sinn einer derartigen 
Untersuchung, zu zeigen, daß es eigentHch Heterogenes in dem Er- 
scheinungsbilde eines Individuums nicht gibt. Die eingehende 
und möglichst vielseitige Erforschung der anthropologischen und 
somatisch-pathologischen Grundlage einerseits und das Studium 
des psychischen Geschehens in seinen Formen und Ausmaßen auf 
der anderen Seite — diese Versuche, von zwei Seiten an die Auße- 
rungsformen menschlichen Lebens heranzukommen, führen doch 
immer mehr und unabweisbarer zu der Erkenntnis, daß Psyche 
und Soma aus denselben Wurzeln entstehen und gespeist werden. 
Kaum eine Forschungsrichtung vermag das eindrucksvoller zu 
erweisen als die Zwillingsforschung. Geben schon die mitgeteilten 
Schilderungen, die sich der Worte und Zahlen bedienen müssen, 
einen guten Einblick in diesen Zusammenhang, so zeigt er sich doch 
weitaus am deutlichsten — und auch für den, der viele Zwillinge 
gesehen hat, immer aufs Neue — bei der direkten Betrachtung der 
Zwillinge selbst. Deshalb fühlten wir uns eingangs berechtigt, 
die isocygoten Zwillinge als ein Forschungsobjekt von außer- 
gewöhnlicher und besonders reizvoller Art zu bezeichnen. 

Daß die mitgeteilten Ergebnisse unserer Untersuchung diese 
Tatsache zu beweisen imd zu illustrieren geeignet sind, ist sicher. 
Wären eineiige Zwillinge in ihren phänotypischen Merkmalen völlig 
und ununterscheidbar identisch, so würden sie nur ein auffallendes, 
aber kaum ein interessantes Phänomen darstellen. Das was in 
Wirklichkeit den Blick und den Forschungssinn bei den E. Z. fesselt, 
ist ihre eigentümliche Ähnlichkeit, ihre Vereinigung von Gleich- 
heit und Verschiedenheit. Anlage und Umwelt, die in allen 
Lebewesen untrennbar verkettet sind, lassen sich durch die Zwil- 
lingsmethode so weit voneinander lösen, daß wir ihr beiderseitiges 
Ausmaß mit immer größerer Genauigkeit abschätzen können. Darin 






VI. Schlußbemerkung 



93 



liegt der Wert der Zwillingsforschung für alle Gebiete menschlichen 
Lebens, seien es nun medizinische, soziologische, psychologische 
oder pädagogische Belange, die durch sie gefördert werden. Daß 
das Zwillingsproblem auch in der schönen Literatur eine große und 
besondere Rolle spielt, sei nur kurz erwähnt und wurde erst kürzlich 
in einer sehr reizvollen Arbeit von Poli (1930) dargetan. 

Mehrfach mußte in diesen Studien darauf hingewiesen werden, 
daß zur Erlangung von Resultaten, die auch im Bereich des Quanti- 
tativen Geltung haben sollen, eine viel größere Anzahl von Pro- 
banden nötig ist. Diese Tatsache sei zum Schlüsse nochmals aus- 
drücklich unterstrichen. Wir haben den Versuch gemacht, die 
Zwillingsmethode auf Gebiete auszudehnen, für die es bisher an 
brauchbaren Methoden noch durchaus mangelte. Dieses Ziel 
schrieb uns von vornherein vor, bei unseren Untersuchungen mog- 
£t eingehend und vielseitig zu verfahren, wodurch wiederum 
die Zahl der Paare in gewissen Grenzen gehalten werden mußte. 
Die mitgeteilte Methode ermöglicht nun eine Ausdehnung der 
Untersuchungen auf ein großes ZwiUingsmaterial. Besonders die 
n^rologische'und die charakterologische Zwillingsforschung wer ^n 
im Rahmen des Hamburgischen Zwillingsarchivs von uns fort- 
gesetzt. Für derartige Untersuchungen d-J '";*h^; 
dischen Untergrund zu schaffen, war das Ziel dieser 

Arbeit. 



1/ 



IV' 



i 






r'ii 



1 



1 1 



1': 



/JX 



I i! 



1, 



Schrifttum 

(Arbeiten, die im Original nicht zugängig waren, sind durch R gekenn- 
zeichnet.) 

Adler, A., Über den nervösen Charakter. 4. Auflage. München 1928. 

Bauer, J., KIW, S. 1223 u. 2150. 1924. 

Blume, ZNPt 103, 1926. 

Blume, ZNPt 123, 1929. 

BoNNEVlE, Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, S. 1059, 1919. 

— , Hereditas (Lund), Bd. 4, S. 221, 1923. R. 

— , Journal of Genetics 15, 1, 1924. R. 

— , ZAhstLe 50 (2), 219, 1929. 

BosTROEM, ZhN 38, 478, 1924. 

BURKHARDT, ZNPt 121, 1929. 

Cohen, KIW 1924, 2150. 

CuRTius, ZAbstLe 54, 278, 1930. 

DoNFORTH, JHer 10 (9), 1919. R. 

Davidenkow, ZNPt 108, 408, 1927. 

Doxiades und Hirschfeld, KIW (1) 20, 1930. 

Freud, S., Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse. Wien 1920. 

Friedemann, AgZPt 90, 221, 1929. 

Galton, Fr., Journal of the Anthropological Instituts 1876. R. 

— , Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 182. 1891 R. 

— , Finger prints, London 1892. R. 

— , Finger prints directories, London 1893. R. 

Gesell u. Thompsen, Genetic Psychology Monographs 6, 1, 1929. R. 

Gordon, ArN 13, 636, 1925. 

Grote u. Hartwig, Zeitschrift für Konstitutionslehre 10, 567, 1925. 

Grüneberg, ZAbstLe 50, 76, 1929. 

Hahn, ZKi 32 (6), 1926. 

Hartmann u. Stumpfl, WienMdW 911, 1928. 

— , ZNPt 123, 251, 1930. 

Herrmann, MdKl (41), 1928, 1919. 

Herz, ZNPt 116, 251, 1928. 

Hoepfner, Die Strukturbilder der menschlichen Nagelfalzkapillaren, Berlin 

1928. 
— in W. Jaensch u. Mitarbeiter: Die Hautkapillarmikroskopie. Halle 1929. 
Hoffmann, Über Temperamentsvererbung. 1923. 
— , in Just, Vererbung und Erziehung, Berlin 1930. 
Holzinger, Journal of Educational Psychology 20, 241, 1929. 



Schrifttum 



95 



Homburger, Psychopathologie des Kindesalters, Berlin 1926. 
Jaensch, W., Kongr. f. innere Med., Wiesbaden 1921. 
-1, Grundzüge einer Physiologie u. Klinik der psychophysischen Per- 
sönlichkeit, Berlin 1926. 
— Die Hautkapillarmikroskopie, Halle 1929. 
_', Handbuch d. biolog. Arb.-Meth., Abt. IX, Teil 3, H. 5, 1930. 
Jaspers, Allgemeine Psychopathologie, Berlin 1923. 
Johnston, Journal of nervous Diseases 62, 41, 1925. R. 
Kalmus, AgZPt 79, 496, 1923. (a) 
— , ZbN 34 (4), 1923. (b) 
Keyes, ArN 21, 219, 1929. 
KiFFNER, Archiv für Gynäkologie 136, 1929. 
Klages, Handschrift und Charakter, Leipzig 1916. 

-, Einführung in die Psychologie der Handschrift, Stuttgart -Heilbronn 1924. 
— ' Die Grundlagen der Charakterkunde, Leipzig 1926. (a) 
_', Ausdrucksbewegung und Gestaltungskraft, Leipzig 1926 (b) 
Kraus, in Mering-Krehls Lehrbuch der inneren Medizm, 14. Aufl., Jena 

1922 
Kretschmer, Körperbau und Charakter, 5. Aufl., Leipzig 1926. (a) 
— , Medizinische Psychologie, 3. Aufl., Leipzig 1926. (b) 
Kreyenberg, ArPt 88, 545, 1929. 
Kückens, KIW 4, 2289, 1925. 
Lange, Bumkes Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten 6. Teil 11, U^»- {^) 

— , ZbN 48, 507, 1928. (b) 

— , ZNPt 112, 253, 1928. (c) 

— , ZKi 34, 377, 1928. (d) 

— , AgZPt 90, 122, 1929. (a) 

— , WienMdW (38/39), 1929. (b) 

— , Verbrechen als Schicksal, Leipzig 1929. (c) 

Lauer u. Poll, Kriminalistische Monatshefte 3, (10), 1929. 

Lauterbach, Genetics 10, 525, 1925. Zit. n. v. Verschuer 1930. 

Leavitt, ArN 19, 617, 1928. 

Lenz, MünchenMdW 993, 1924. 

-, in Baur-Fischer-Lenz, Menschliche Erblichkeitslehre, München 1J27. 

Lenz u. v. Verschuer, ArRaBi 20, 425, 1928. 

Leven, KIW 1817, 1924. 

Löwenstein, Monatsschrift für Pstjchiatrie 70, 35, 1928. 

— , AgZPt 90, 220, 1929. (a) 

— , CgHeilpd 4, 1929. (b) 

Lottig, Reichsgesundheitsblatt (43), 1926. 

— , DZN 117/119, 277, 1931. 

LuxENBURGER, ZNPt 116, 297, 1928. (a 

— , ZNPt 112, 332, 1928. (b) 

— , AgZPt 90, 209, 1929. (a) 

— , FsNPt 1, 82, 1929. (b) 

_, FsNPt 2, 1930. (a) 

— , Nervenarzt (7), 385, 1930. (b) 

— , ZbN 56, (3/4), 145, 1930. (c) 



»^' 






J 






i 



; I 



■;! 



1 






i :' 

i 



96 



Schrifttum 



Martin, MünchetiMdW (11), 1922. 

Mayer-List u. Hübener, MimchenMdW (51), 2185, 1925. 

Merriman, Psychological Monographs 33, Nr. 5, 1924. R. 

Meyer, Hans, Zur Biologie der Zwillinge. Dissert. Stuttgart 1917. 

Meyer, Hedwig, ZNPt 120, 501, 1929. 

Müller, O., Kapillaratlas, 1922. 

Muller, JHer 16, 433, 1925. 

Newman, The Biology of Twins, 2. Aufl., Chicago 1924. R. 

— , JHer 20, (2, 3 u. 4), 1929. 

Nonne, DZN 83, 263, 1925. 

Paulsen, ArRaBi 17, 165, 1925. 

Peters, Die Vererbung geistiger Eigenschaften, Jena 1925. Aus diesem 
Werke wurden auch die Arbeiten von Pearson, Davenport, Heymans 
und WiERSMA, EsTABROOK u. z. T. vou Galton referiert. 

Poll, ZEtJm (1), 1914. (a) 

— , Grenzbote, Heft 19/20, 1914. (b) 

— , ZbN 27 (6), 415, 1922. (a) 

— , ZbN 29 (5), 320, 1922. (b) 

— , AnaiAnz 66, Ergänz. -H., 8. 18, 1928. 

Poll u. Blümel, MdKl (37), 1928. 

PoLL u. Lauer, siehe unter Lauer. 

Poll, ZNPt 128, 423, 1930. 

Popenoe, JHer 13 (3), 1922. 

RiEBELiNG, ZbN 51, 831, 1929. 

Schulte, ZbN 33, 128, 1923. 

— , AgZPt 90, 220, 1929. (a) 

— , Psychiatrisch- Neurologische Wochenschrift 31 (30), 375, 1929. (b) 
Schultz, ZNPt 123, 1929. 

+ Siemens, Die Zwillingspathologie, Berlin 1924. (a) Hierin ziemlich vollstän- 
diges Literaturverzeichnis aller bis 1923 erschienenen Zwillingsarbeiten. 
— , MünchenMdW 1924. (b) 
Smith, ZNPt 125, 678, 1930. 

Stern, W., Die menschliche Persönlichkeit, 3. Aufl., Leipzig 1923. 
— , Die Intelligenz der Kinder und Jugendlichen und die Methoden ihrer 

Untersuchung. 4. Aufl., Leipzig 1928. 
Sternberg, L., ZEthn 61 (1—3), 1930. 

S tiefler, Journal für Psychologie und Neurologie 37, 362, 1928. R. 
Thorndike, Columbia University Contributions to Philosophy, zitiert nach Lenz 

1927, 1903. 
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übeNauf, ArPt 88, 511, 1929. 
V. Verschuer, MünchenMdW (5), 184, 1925. (a) 
— , ZAbstLe 41, 1925. (b) 
— , ArRaBi 17, 149, 1925. (c) 
— , MünchenMdW 1562, 1926. 
— , Erg. inn. Med. u. Kinderhlkd. 31, 35, 1927. 
— , ZAbstLe. Supp. 2, S. 1508, 1928. (a) 
— , Anthropologischer Anzeiger 5, 244, 1928. (b) 



Schrifttum. Abkürzungen 



97 



V. Verschuer, ZAbstLe 54, 280, 1930. (a) 

— , Beitrag in Just, Vererbung und Erziehung, Berhn 1930. (b) 

v/ Verschuer u. Lenz, siehe unter Lenz. 

Walcher, MünchenMdW. 134, 1911. 

Weitz, Zeitschrift für klinische Medizin 101 (1/2), 1924. 

Wilder, AmJAnat 1, 423, 1902. 

— , AmJAmt 3, 387, 1904. 

_, AnatAnz 32, Nr. 8, S. 193, 1908. 

Wilson u. Wolfsohn, ArN 320, 1929. 

Windt u. Kodicek, Daktyloskopie, Wien und Leipzig 1904. 

WiNGFiELD, Twins and Orphans, London 1928. Zit. n. v. Verschuer 1930. (b) 

WiTH, Uhu, Juliheft, Berlin 1930. 

Wittneben, CgHeilpd 2, 1924, Berlin 1925. 

— , CgHeilpd 3, 1926, Berlin 1927. • „ ii. 1Q9Q 

_, in Jaensch u. Mitarbeiter, Die HautkapiUarmikroskopie, Halle 1929. 



II 



Beiheft 61 zur Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie 



. ' . ' 



f 



tl 



im 



\ 



I 



' i 



I 1 



Abkürzungen 

AgZPt = Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie 

AmJÄnat = American Journal of Anatomy 

AnatAnz = Anatomischer Anzeiger 

ArN = Archives of Neurology 

ArPt = Archiv für Psychiatrie 

ArRaBi = Archiv für Rassenbiologie 

CgHeüpd = Kongreß für Heilpädagogik 

DZN = Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde 

PsjSfPt = Fortschritte der Neurologie und Psychiatrie 

JHer = Journal of Heredity 

KIW = Klinische Wochenschrift 

MdKl — Medizinische Klinik 

MünchenMdW = Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift 

WienMdW = Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 

ZAhstLe = Zeitschrift für Abstammungslehre 

ZAngPs = Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie 

ZEthn = Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 

ZKi = Zeitschrift für Kinderforschung 

Z^Pi _ Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 

ZhN = Zentralblatt für Neurologie. 



I f 



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Tabellen 



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Anhang: Tabellen 



103 



Tabelle 9y Durchschnittliche prozentuale Abweichung 
/ bei den Eineiigen 



1 



6 



8 



9 ! 10 



Körpergewicht 

Körpergröße 

Länge der vord. Rumpf wand 
Länge des rechten Beines . . 
Länge des rechten Armes . . 
Schulterbreite (Akromien) . 

Beckenbreite 

Länge des rechten Fußes . 
Länge der rechten Hand . 
Mittlerer Brvistumfang . . 

Taillenumfang 

Kopflänge 

Kopfbreite 

Jochbogenbreite 

Unterkieferwinkelbreite . . 

Kopfumfang 

Physiognom. Gesichtshöhe . 
Moipholog. Gesichtshöhe 

Höhe der Nase 

Breite der Nase 

Breite der Mundspalte 



1,09 2,64 0,63 1,42 2,04 0,00 
0,35 0,80 0,70 0,06 0,59 0,20 
12,86 5,28 1,87 — j — 1,43 
1,412,95 3,04 0,19 1,33 2,16 
'o,54 0,42 1,10 0,35 1,03 0,52 
1,13 0,93 0,87 0,29 0,16 1,31 
1,75 0,92 0,90 0,00 1,59 1,01 
1,50 1,10 1,96 1,47 0,64 1,11 
2,45 4,43 1,45 2,56 1,75 3,30 
0,06 1,36 0,57 0,29 0,94 0,68 
0,64 1,112,07 1,04 1,39 0,39 
0,00 0,28 0,00 1,69 2,09 1,14 
0,00 0,64 0,00 0,99 0,00 0,70 
1,63 0,79 0,74 1,12 2,95 0,00 
0,00 3,55 1,45 5,56 1,00 1,52 
0,26 0,00 0,92 0,87 0,47 0,28 
,0,74 1,86 3,23 2,35 2,82 0,29 
'6,61 1,26 0,43 0,41 1,77 2,39 
;0,81 0,93 1,03 0,95 1,92 0,95 
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,59 
1,05 1,03 1,18 5,59 0,00 1,15 



5,26 0,510,58 15,62 

2.09 0,93 0,72 3,49 
7,07 0,42 3,77 3,28 
1,610,43 0,36 3,39 
1,15 0,37 0,07 2,92 
0,910,32 0,42 6,89 
1,53 1,43 0,37 3,84 
1,05 1,06 0,40 2,03 
1,42 3,64 0,53 2,97 
1,910,69 0,30 4,89 
0,72 1,96 1,75 7,94 
1,810,56 2,02 3,60 

1.10 0,33 0,31 2,80 
2,810,39 0,76 2,11 
0,00 0,49 2,83 3,45 
0,97 0,00 0,46 2,75 
2,62 0,56 2,36 3,41 
0,93 0,41 1,75 0,00 
3,03 2,86 0,99 1,08 
3,45 1,64 0,00 3,45 
0,00 3,53 0,00 5,26 



Tabelle 7. Durchschnittliche prozentuale Abweichung 

bei den Zweieiigen 



11 12 13 i 14 1 15 ; 16 17 18 19 20 



Körpergewicht 

Körpergröße 

Länge d. vord. Rumpf wand 
Länge des rechten Beines 
Länge des rechten Armes 
Schulterbreite (Akromien) 

Beckenbreite 

Länge des rechten Fußes 
Länge der rechten Hand . 
Mittlerer Brustumfang . . 

Taillenumfang 

Kopflänge 

Kopfbreite 

Jochbogenbreite 

Unterkieferwinkelbreite 

Kopf umfang 

Physiognom. Gesichtshöhe 
Morpholog. Gesichtshöhe . 

Höhe der Nase 

Breite der Nase 

Breite der Mundspalte . . 



11,58 0,09 4,80 
0,16 0,03 0,13 
0,49 0,84 1,66 
1,09 1,06 2,91 
1,40 2,82 0,66 
1,610,540,43 
4,67 4,93 2,19 
1,103,330,00 
2,94 0,84 0,55 
0,74 0,85 0,00 
5,19 0,37 2,67 
1,37 0,26 1,37 
0,00 1,70 0,67 
0,00 3,91 2,57 
2,56|5,38 2,70 

1.85 0,90 0,90 
3,70 3,23 2,45 
3,09 3,54 1,30 

2.86 4,95 0,00 
0,00 3,23 1,64J 
7,50 2,33 7,32 



2,04 5,20 7,06 
1,02 1,16 3,52 
3,46 1,19 0,44 
1,33 1,67 4,73 
1,23 1,44 2,81 
|1,19 2,02 2,07 
0,86 2,33 5,05 
1,61 1,710,65 
0,52 1,710,59 
2,84 0,11 3,68 
3,29 3,90 6,98 
1 1,3710,532,56 
:0,32 0,00 1,99 
0,78|2,77 3,25 
0,99 0,99 3,16 



0,89 
0,30 
0,00 
0,00 
4,35 
6,93 



0,440,28 
3,83 0,29 
4,19 1,83 
3,230,00 
4,48 6,67 
7,69 1,11 



9,09 0,49 
0,09 0,29 
3,35 2,88 
1,72 4,13 
2,33 2,88 

4.26 0,28 
0,00 3,10 

1.58 2,45 

2.59 4,00 
5,88 2,41 
8,57 1,68 
3,33 1,93 
3,40 1,00 

2.27 0,38 
2,91 3,23 
1,37 0,18 
0,841,09 
1,80,0,44 
3,090,93 
0,00|3,13[ 
2,181,10, 



19,36 2,27 
3,66 0,06 
3,87 1,15 
1,00 2,94 
2,56 3,61 
6,35 2,09 
4,54 2,50 
2,32 1,24 
1,79 3,54 
7,72 2,19 
6,32 4,72 
2,03 1,14 
1,32 2,10 
4,76 0,39 
7,11 1,52 
1,31 0,00 
1,65 0,86 
0,00 0,93 



1,03 
5,41 

7,87 



0,00 
4,62 
6,25 



*\' 



I 



f 



, •.-•V >■ urf*-^ 



< I 




104 



Anhang: Tabellen 



Tabelle 8. Mittlere prozentuale Abweichung der Ein 

eiigen und der Zweieiigen 



'E 



Körpergewicht 

Körpergröße 

Länge der vorderen Rumpfwand 
Länge des rechten Beines . . 
Länge des rechten Armes . . . 
Schulterbreite (Akromien) . . 

Beckenbreite 

Länge des rechten Fußes . . . 
Länge der rechten Hand . . . 
Mittlerer Brustumfang .... 

Taillenumfang 

Kopflänge 

Kopfbreite 

Jochbo genbreite 

Unterkieferwinkelbreite .... 

Kopfumfang 

Physiognomische Gesichtshöhe . 
Morphologische Gesichtshöhe . 

Höhe der Nase 

Breite der Nase 

Breite der Mundspalte .... 



2,98 ( 


1,57) 


0,99 ( 


0,72) 


3,25 ( 


3,24) 


1,69 ( 


1,50) 


0,84 ( 


0,61) 


1,32 ( 


0,70) 


1,33 { 


1,06) 


1,23 ( 


1,14) 


2,45 ( 


'2,39) 


1,17 1 


[0,76) 


1,90 


(1,23) 


1,32 


(1,07) 


0,69 


(0,45) 


1,33 


(1,24) 


1,98 


(1,82) 


0,70 


(0,47) 


2,02 


(1,87) 


1,60 


(1,77) 


1,46 


(1,50) 


1,01 


(0,74) 


1,88 


(1,50) 



£jr = mittl. proz. Abweichung der Eineiigen 
Ey^ = mittl. proz. Abweichung der Zweieiigen 



Z 



6,20 

1,01 

1,93 

2,26 

2,17 

2,08 

3,02 

1,60 

1,91 

2,64 

4,37 

1,59 

1,25 

2,11 

3,06 

0,81 

1,82 

1,71 

1,61 

3,35 

5,03 



Anhang: Tabellen 



Tabelle 9. Indexwerte 



105 




R 
U 
M 
iE 
'Z 



Rumpflänge in Prozent der Körpergröße 
Mittlerer Brustumfang in Prozent der Körperlänge 
Morphologischer Gesichtsindex 
mittlere Indexabweichung der E. Z. 
mittlere Indexabweichung der Z. Z. 



' I 



i 



?i 



*' 



I' 1 



! i 



.»„K.>-,«kll%A.-- — — ~ 






106 



Anhang: Tabellen 







C CO 

■2 ^ ^ 



* p \W 9r ,»»T«*T«>i 



Anhang: Tabellen 




+ 



+ + + + I + + + 



I I + 



+ 



107 



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c3 



00 



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11 li 







108 



Anhang: Tabellen 



Tabellarische Zusammenstellung der Charaktereigenschaften 

Zeichenerklärung : 
= vollständige Konkordanz ( X ) unvollständige Diskordanz 



( = ) unvollständige 



»> 



X vollständige 



>> 



A. Stoff (Materie) 



Nr. 


(=) (X) 


X 


1 


1 
Mittl. Musikali- 
tät 
Mathemat. Be- 
gabung 
Rasche Auffas- 
sung 
Achtsamkeit 
Besonnenheit 
Talent z. Skilauf 
Vielseitigkeit 
Gutes Gedächt- 
nis 
(Späte Sprach - 
entwicklung) 


Aufgeschlossen- 1 

heit 
mehr extensiv 

nicht sehr tief 


A. mehr Witz 




2 


Unmusikalisch 
Manuelle Ge- 
schicklichkeit 
Naivität 


Zartfühlend 

Besinnlichkeit 

Willensstärke 


Auffassungsver- 
mögen 

Beobachtungs- 
gabe 

Gedächtnis 

Enge d. Gesichts- 
feldes 




3 


Musikalisch 

Gedächtnis 

Willensstärke 

Kein bes. Näh- 
geschick 

Mathemat. Be- 
gabung 

Auffassiingsgabe 

Vorstellungsrich - 
tung 

Extravertiert 

Achtsamkeit 

Geschick als Ver- 
käuferin 


Turnerische 
Fähigkeit 







Anhang: Tabellen 



109 



A. Stoff (Forts.) 



I 



Nr. 



(=) 



(X) 



X 



(Frühe Sprach- 
entwicklung) 

Keine manuelle 
Geschicklichk. 

unmusikalisch 

Gedächtnis 

Auffassungsgabe 

Gedankenreicht . 

wenig Ordnungs- 
sinn 

Mittl. Phantasie 

Zart besaitet 

Geistige Begab. 



Willensstärke 
Kritisches Wesen 
Selbständigkeit 
des Urteils 



(Späte Sprach- 
entwicklung) 

Spät laufen gel. 

( Größtenteils 
gleiche Schul 
leistungen) 

Musikalisch 

Ungeweckt 

Undifferenziert 

Gedankenarmut 

Ungeistig 

Enger Gesichtskr. 



( Sprachentwick- 
lung) 

Schlechte Rech- 
ner 

Geringe Sprach- 
Begabung 

Begabung für 
Zeichnen 

Spieltrieb 

Manuelle Ge- 
schicklichkeit 

Sauberkeit 

Ordnungssinn 

Musikalität 

Schmucktrieb 

Aufmerksamkeit 

Scharfsinn 

Verstandesaus- 
bildung 
Gewecktheit 



B. oberfläch- 
licher 



-.!0-..*A^ 



i 



k» 



110 



Anhang: Tabellen 







A. Stoff 


(Forts.) 




Nr. 


(=) (X) 


X 


7 


Prakt. Begabung 




Ungeweckt 


Besonnenheit 






Handarbeit 


Begabung im 


Verstand 






Turnerische 


Rechnen und Selbständigkeit 






Fähigkeiten 


Deutsch 


Theoretische Be- 






Ordnungssinn 




gabung 






Kindl. Gemüt 










Langsame ero- 










tische Entwick- 










lung 










Musikalität 








8 


Langsame Ver- 
nunftentwick- 
lung 
Kindlich 
Schulbegabung 
Steif b. Turnen 
Auffassungsgabe 
Musikalität 
Erotisch unent- 
wickelt 
Ungeweckt 
Unselbständig 
Geistiges Fas- 
sungsvermög. 






j 


9 


( Sprachentwick- 


1 

Schulbegabung ; Schulbegabung 






lung) 


z. T. 


z. T. 






Unkünstlerisch 


Gedächtnis 








Musikalisch nicht Gewecktheit 








begabt 


Findigkeit 








Introvertiert 










Willensschwäche 










Träumer 










Grübler 










Zartfühlend 






, 




Oberflächlichkeit 








10 


Musikalität 


Sprachenbega- 








Spieltrieb 


bung 








Gewecktheit 


i Pfiffig 


.' . 






Motor. Anlage 










Auf f assungsbe - 










gabung 










Achtsamkeit 









ii 

4 



Anhang: Tabellen 



A. Stoff (Forts.) 



111 



:'i Nr.j 


(=) 


(X) X 


'k 11 




Musikalität 


Sprachentwick- 


Geschicklichkeit 








lung) 


Gewecktheit 


"fr 






Feinfühligkeit 


Verstandesbegab. 


■ rf 

*(*•■ '■, 






Manuelle Ge- 


Seelische Kom- 






schicklichkeit 


pliziertheit 


1 , (, 1 
■>. ■'• 








Fassungskraft 


'i-i 








Selbständigkeit 


J 








des Urteils 


:i 








Rechenbegabun g 


1 12~ 


Musikalität 


Zeichnerische 


Sprachenbegab . 


Geistesrichtung 


1 




Begabimg 


Schauspielerische 

Begabung 
Geschick im 


(nach innen- 
außen) 


1 






Schlittschuh- 








laufen 
Konkret -abstr. 




13 i 




Denken nicht tief 


Abstrakte Begab.! Auffassungsgabe 








Manuelle Ge- 


Fassungskraft 








schicklichkeit 


Gewecktheit 








Musikalität 










Träumerei 




14 ! 


Musikalität 


Erotisch unge- 


Intellektuelle Be- 


Naivität 






weckt 


gabung 
Gewecktheit 


Kindl.Gemüt(A.) 
Aufgeschlossen- 
heit 
Witz (A.) 
Pfiffigkeit (A.) 


15~ 




( Sprachentwick- 


Intellektuelle 


Musikalität 






lung) 


Regsamkeit 


Manuelle Ge- 






Keine hervorste- 


Gewecktheit 


schicklichkeit 






chenden Bega- 


Primitivität 


Sportliche Ver- 




^ 


bungen 


Auffassungsgabe 


anlagung 






Geistige Fas- 




> 




1 


sungskraft 






16 


Sprachenbega- 


Geistesrichtung 


Körperl. Ge- 


Rechenbegabun g 


• 


bung 


Ü ndif f erenziert 
Enge des Ge- 
sichtsfeldes 


schicklichkeit 
Manuelle Ge- 
schicklichkeit 
Gewecktheit 
Geist. Beweg- 
lichkeit 
Aufmerksamkeit 
Geist. Fassungs- 
vermögen 


Musikalität 



1 






..^ Vc*- *»4^k 



'SM 



•^tm^ne, '"-' 






(' 



fl 






ii I 






ü 



j 




112 



^nfeans; Tabellen 
A. Stoff (Forts,) 



Nr. 


= 


(=) 


(X) 


X 


17 


( Sprachentwick- 


Konkret -abstr. 


^ 1 
Turngewandtheit 


Besinnlichkeit 




lung) 


Willensstärke 


Z eichenbegabung 






Intellektuelle Be- 


Gewecktheit 


Feinfühligkeit 






gabung 




Geistesrichtung 






Musikalität 




Besinnlichkeit 






MJanuelle Ge- 










schicklichkeit 








18 


( Sprachentwick- Intellektuelle B e - 


Phantasie 


Manuelle Ge- 




lung) 


gabung 


Turnerisches Ge- 


schicklichkeit 




Gedächtnis 


Musikalität 
Willenskraft 


schick 
Gründlichkeit 
Tiefe 

Besinnlichkeit 
Denkweise (in- 

tensiv-extens.) 




19 


( Sprachentwick- 
lung) 




Gewecktheit 
Sprachenbega- 
bung 
Turngeschick 
Spielgeschick 

(Tennis) 
Entw. d. Intel- 
lektes 
Feinfühligkeit 
Verstandesaus- 
bildung 
Schlagfertigkeit 


Musikalität 


20 


( Sprachentwick- 


Schulbegabung 


Rechenbegabung Manuelle Ge- 




lung) 




Sportl. Geschick- 
lichkeit 
Denkbegabung 


schicklichkeit 
Geistesrichtung 
Unmittelbarkeit 
Aufgeschlossen- 
heit 
Besinnlichkeit 
Geistige Einfach- 
heit (A.) 
Tiefe 

Seehsche Kom- 
pliziertheit 



Anhang: Tabellen 
B. Artung (Qualität) 



113 



Nr. 



(=) 



Gutmütigkeit 
(K.) 



Anhänglichkeit 
Skeptizismus 



Folgsamkeit (K.), nicht sehr gesel- 
Wenig Freunde j lig 
Keine Mädchen- Berufswahl 
f reundschaf ten Wissenschaf tl . 



Sportliches In- 
teresse 

Politisch interes- 
siert 

Nicht religiös 

Großes Selbst- 
vertrauen 

Selbstgenügsam- 
keit 

Nüchternheit 

U nabhängigkeit 



Neigungen 



Kein Sportinter- Sparsamkeit 
esse I (Knickerigk.) 

Sehr eigen mit 
Kleidung 



Nicht sehr eitel 
Nicht religiös 



Wenig Freun- 
dinnen 

Schwache Libi- 
do 



Sport 



Dekorationsnei- 
gung 



(X) 



X 



Eigensinn 
B eruf sinteressen 
Naturliebe 
Nebenbeschäfti- 
gungen 



Interessen ; 

Musik 

Mathematik 

Geschäft. — 

Gutmütig, füg- 
sam 

Gern in Gesell- 
schaft 

Gern mit Freun- 
dinnen 

Tanz, junge Män- 
ner, 

Libido 

Kleiderlieb 

Etwas eitel 

Wenig religiös 

Theater, Kino 

Nicht rechthabe- 
risch 

Beiheft Gl zur Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie 



8 



I 



1 

Im 



4'' 



(1 



('S)«?' 



114 



Anhang: Tabellen 
B. Artung (Forts.) 



Nr. 



(=) 



(X) 



X 



Anhang: Tabellen 
B. Artung (Forts.) 



115 



Dvinkelangst (K.) 

Vorliebe für gu- 
tes Mobiliar 

Sinn für nette ; 

Kleidung ] 

Nicht sehr eitel 

Kein politisches 
Interesse 

Nicht kirchlich 

Erotik 

Auf geschlossen u. 
hingabefähig b. 
Vorhand. Sym- 
pathie 

Wählerisch 

Moralische Ein- 
stellung 



6 



Sinn für Häus- 
lichkeit 

Durchsetzungs- 
drang 

Freundschafts- 
fähigkeit früher 

Anschlußbereit- 
schaft 

Selbstgenügsam- 
keit 

Dickköpfigkeit 

Gutmütigkeit 

Pflichtgefühl 

Neigung zu 
Neckereien 

Verträglichkeit 
untereinander 

Freimut beim Er- 
zählen 



Typus der Be- 
rufswahl 

Berufsinteresse 

Freundschafts- 
fähigkeit z. Zt. 

Kränkbarkeit 



Nr. 



(=) 



(X) 



V 



Beschäftigung in 
der Freizeit 

Spielneigung 

Schwimmen, 
sonst wenig 
Sport 

Freundschafts- 
fähigkeit 

Anschlußbereit- 
schaft 

Interesse f. Klei- 
dung 

Keine Eitelkeit 

Uninteressiert f. 
Politik u. Ta- 
gesfragen 

Nicht kirchlich 



Interesse für den 

Haushalt 
Berufswahl 



Folgsamkeit (K.) 
Kinderspiele 
Puppen 

Ängstlichkeit n. 
d. Umschulung 
Drang ins Freie 
Handarbeiten 
Geltungsbedürfn. 
Etwas affektiert 



Anschlußbereit- 
schaft 

Zeitweise Ver- 
schlossenheit 

Sportliche Nei- 
gungen 

Hausarbeit 

Neigung z. Pous- 
sieren 



Empfindlichkeit 

(B.) 
Berufswahl 
B. Anführerin 



8 



Auflehnung geg. 
die Mutter 

Selbständigkeit 

Unabhängig- 
keitsdrang 

Eitelkeit 

Kleidung 

Tanzen nicht 



Folgsam 

Gutmütig 

Sportsinteresse 

Häusl. Arbeiten 

Pflege ihrer Sa- 
chen 

Interesse an Klei 
düng 

Etwas eitel 

Anschlußbereit- 
schaft 

Selbstgenügsam- 
keit 

Meist im Hause 

Benutzung der 
Freizeit 

Naturliebe 

Nicht empfindl. 



Berufswahl 



Eigensinnig (K.)| Handarbeiten 

Sehr ängstl. (K.); 

Später gutmütig I 

Folgsam 

Schwimmen gern 

Wenig anschluß- 
bereit 

Wenig Freund- 
schaften 

Häuslich interes- 
siert 

Kochen gern 

Lesen gern 

Kirchlich 

Eigen mit Klei- 
dung 

Wenig eitel 

Berufsabsichten 



8' 



tmt^ 



\f 



:\ 



Ml 



is 



116 



Anhang: Tabellen 



B. Artung (Forts.) 



Nr. 



( = ) 



(X) 



X 



9 



Nicht kirchlich 

Politisches Inter- 
esse 

Erotik 

Egoistische Be- 
rechnung 

Verschlossenheit 

Eigensinn 



Empfindlichkeit 
jetzt 

Aufrichtigkeit 

Schulneigungen 
z. T. 

Anschlußbereit- 
schaft 

Naturwissen- 
schaftlich in- 
teressiert 

Ordnungsliebe 

Kleidung 

Wählerisch 



Empfindlichkeit 
(K.) 

Schulneigungen 
z. T. 

Nebeninteressen 
(K.) 

Berufswahl 

Anpassungsfähig- 
keit in der 
Kindheit 

Selbstvertrauen 

Skrupellosigkeit 

Zeitweise Wirk- 
lichkeitsent- 
fremdung 



Anhang: Tabellen 



B. Artung (Forts.) 



117 



10 



11 



12 



Sportliebend ' Draufgängertum Gutmütigkeit 



Nicht schüchtern Kleidung 
Drängen ins Freie Eitelkeit 
Gerissenheit Mäßig folgsam 

N*icht kirchlich , Aggressiv 



(K.) 
Neigung zum 

Lesen 
Selbstsicher 
Ängstlichkeit 

(K.) 



Folgsamkeit 
Gutmütigkeit 
Leicht gekränkt 
Handarbeiten 
Angriffslust 
Ehrgeiz 



\ 



Dunkelangst (K.) 
Häusliche Be- 
schäftigung 
Drang ins Freie 
Anschlußbereit- 
schaft 
Freundschaften 
Berufsneigungen 
Benutzung der 

Freizeit 
Puppenspiel 
L^nternehmungs- 
geist 



Sportsinteresse 

Tennisspiel 

Schwimmen 

Gepflegtheit 

Nicht launisch 

Selbständigkeit 



Literarische 
teressen 



In- 



Spracheninter- 

esse 
Häusl. Interessen 
Eitelkeit 
Wählerisch 
Interesse f. junge 

Männer 
Kaufmännisches 

Interesse 



A. Geistige Ein- 
stellung 

B. „Sporttyp" 
Berufswahl 



Nr.j 


= 


(=) I (X) 


X 


13 


Sportinteresse 


Erotik 


Anschlußbereit- 


Gutmütigkeit 




Tanzen, Kino 


Freundinnen 


schaft 


Verschlossenheit 




Kleidung 


Wählerisch 


Eitelkeit 


B eruf sneigungen 




Lesen nicht viel 






Häusl. Interesse 




Politisch und 






A. kinderlieb 




kirchlich un- 




1 
i 


B. leicht geärgert 




interessiert 


! 


Ehrgeiz 


14 


1 




Ordnungssinn 
Eigen mit Klei- 
dung 
Eitelkeit 
Verträglichkeit 


Eigensinn 

Folgsamkeit 

Gutmütigkeit 

Anschlußbereit- 
schaft 

Begeisterungs- 
vermögen 

Kaufmännisches- 
häusl. Inter- 
esse 

Berufswahl 


15 


Ängstlichkeit(K.) Leitbarkeit (K.) 


Hausarbeit 


Nähen 




Politisches und 


Folgsamkeit (K). 


Sportinteresse 


Handarbeit 




religiöses In- 


Ordnungsliebe 


Eitelkeit 


Lesen 




teresse 


Anschlußbereit- 
schaft 


Tanzen 


Lust am Aus- 
gehen 






Träge Erotik i 




16 


Ordnungssinn 
Sauberkeit 


Ängstlichkeit(K.) Sportinteresse 
Keine größeren 


Hausarbeit 
Berufswahl 




Anschluß bereit- 


Erziehungs- 








schaft 


schwierigkeit. 








Freundinnen 


Interesse an Mu- 








Politisch uninter- 


sik 








essiert 


Interesse an 








Handarbeit 










Unkultiviert 






17 


■. Anschlußbereit- Nicht schwierig 


1 

'' Empfindlichkeit 






Schaft 


(K.) 


Dimkelangst 






Freundinnen 


Friedlich einge- 


Sportinteressen 






Keine Herrenbe- 


stellt 


Lesestoff 






kanntschaften 


Verträglichkeit 


Benutzung der 






Kleidung 


Führung 


Freizeit 
Häusl. Interesse 






Ordnungssinn 
Eitelkeit 




Berufswahl 






Nicht wählerisch 


L 


Offenheit 





m .t t^tKiM iM -^t^t^^ti^^^^fi^m/m^m» 



f^i^mtßi^^^m^ 



^t^*■•^01^ ..-^ ■ "»^ -^ « 



»•»«#««'**'*••».•*** «r'««* .^w"»#*49. 



¥ 



H 



118 



Anhang: Tabellen 



B. Artung (Forts.) 



Nr. 


= 


(=) 


(X) 


X 


18 


Musikinteresse 


Sportinteresse 


Lesestoff 


Freundlichkeit 




Freundschaften 


Anschluß bereit - 
Schaft 

Praktische Ein- 
stellung 

Konkret 

Materiell 

Erotik 

Begeisterungs- 


Anpassungsfähig- 
keit 
Idealismus 
Egoismus 
Draufgängertum 


Hilfsbereitschaft 






vermögen 






19 


Verträglichkeit 


Musikhören 


Führung 


Dunkelangst (K.) 




Ordnungsliebe 


Leselust 


Ehrgeiz 


Wanderlust 




Kleidung 


Anschluß bereit- 


Keckheit 


Lesestoff 




Eitelkeit 


schaft 


Offenheit 






Sehr politisch in- 


Freunde 








teressiert 


Erotik 








Nicht religiös 










Berufsabsichten 








20 




Dunkelangst (K.) 


Empfindlichkeit 


Anschluß bereit- 






Leit barkeit (K.) 


(K.) 


schaft 






Geistige Interes- 


Interesse an 


Freundinnen 






sen 


Handarbeit 


Berufswahl 






Keine Herrenbe- 


(Sinnlichkeit) 








kanntschaften 


, »Vernünftigkeit' ' 





fr 



i 



C. Gefüge (Struktur) 



Nr. 



(=) 



(X) 



Mäßiges Äuße- | Lebhaftigkeit 
rungsbedürfnis Etwas Steifheit 

Willenstypus 

Widerstands- 
kraft 

Entschlossenheit 



Sensibilität 
Empfindsamkeit 
Frische 
Aufgeregtheit 

(K.) 
Äuß erungsver- 

mögen 



2 



Empfindsamkeit j Erregbarkeit 



Stimmungsbe- 
reitschaft 

Beharrlichkeit 

Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 

Lebhaftigkeit 



Langsamkeit 
Tatkraft 
Energie 

Äußerungsfähig- 
keit 
Klebrigkeit 
Affektlabilität 



ti 



Anhang: Tabellen 



119 







C. Gefüge 


(Forts.) 




Nr. 


= 


( = ) 


(X) 


X 


3 


Fröhl. Naturen 

Meist ruhig 

In Gesellschaft 
lebhafter 

Nicht ausgelas- 
sen 

Mäßig erregbar 

Nicht sehr sen- 
sibel 

Nicht sehr äuße- 
rungsbedürf ti g 

Tatkräftig 

Mittlere Wider- 
standskraft 


B. manchmal 
ernsthafter 

B. mehr Mut b. 
Turnen 






4 


Stimmungsab- 


Pubertätskrise 


still, nervös 






hängigkeit 


Geringe Aus- 
dauer 

Mangel an Wi- 
derstandskraft 

Ruhiges Wesen 

Werden i. Gesell- 
schaft lebhaft. 

Neigung zu Zu- 
sammenbrü- 
chen 

Ermüdbarkeit 

Fleiß. Äuße- 
rungsbedürfnis 

Reagibilität 


Eigensinnig (K.) 

Empfindlichkeit 

Aktivität 

Initiative 

Energie des Auf- 
tretens 

Äußerungsver- 
mögen 

L^nentschlossen- 
heit 

Frische 




5 


Ruhig 

Geringes Ein- 
drucksver- 
mögen 

Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 

„Langweiligkeit" 

(Stottern) 


Äußerungsver- 
mögen 
Wenig lebhaft 






6 


Nervosität 


Lebhaftigkeit 


Reizbarkeit als 






Unruhe 


(K.) 


Kleinkind 






Pubertätskrise 


Ausdauer 


Nervosität vonB. 






Sprunghaftigkeit 


Frische 


A. größere Har- 






Äußerungsver- 


Sensibilität 


monie 






mögen 









r/ 



u - 



p 
I 



i(;| 












120 



Anhang: Tabellen 



C. Gefüge (Forts.) 



Nr. 



(=) 



(X) 



Ruhig 

Widerstands- 
fähig 

Erziehbarkeit 

Leitbarkeit 

Wenig Tempera- 
ment 

Gleichmut 

Äußerungsver- 
mögen 

Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 



Schnelligkeit bei 
der Arbeit 



B. etwas nervös 
(K.) 



8 



Unruhig (K.) 

Später ruhig, 
still 

Gleichmäßig zap- 
pelig 

Motorisch un- 
ruhig 

Äußerungsver- 
mögen 

Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 



9 Unharmonisch 
Erregbarkeit 
Lebhaftigkeit 
Stimmungs- 
bereit Schaft 
Jl^'illenstypus 
^ (Magenneurose) 
Empfindsamkeit 
Zügellosigkeit 
Bequemliclikeit 



(Gesichtsaus- 
druck) 

Nervosität jetzt 
Reizbarkeit 

Verschwommen- 
heit des Cha- 
rakters 

Fleiß 

Stimmungslage 

Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 

Außerungsfähig- 
keit 



Ner\^osität (K.) 
,, Zusammen- 
brüche'* 
Widerstands- 
kraft 
Entschlossenheit 
Energielosigkeit 



10 



Stimmungs- 
bereitschaft 

Affekte nicht 
nachhaltig 



Jetzige Ner\'osi- Reizbarkeit 



tat 
Lebhaftigkeit 
Erregbarkeit 
Zappelig 
Sensibel 



Ner\-osität und 
Jähzorn (K.) 

Wildlieit 

Jetzige Reizbar- 
keit 

Ausgeglichenheit 



X 



Anhang: Tabellen 

C. Gefüge (Forts.) 



121 




(X) 



Energie 

Zielstrebigkeit 

Zappeligkeit 



12 I Nicht reizbar 



13 



14 



15 



16 



Ausgeglichenheit 
Gleichmut 
Eindrucksver- 
mögen 
Stimmungslage 

Nicht tempera- 
mentvoll 

Äußerungsver- 
mögen 



Äußerungsfähig- 
keit 

Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 

Reagibilität 



Lebhaftigkeit 
Gleichmut 
Entschlossenheit 
Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 



Frühpsychopa- 
thische Züge 



(B ettnässen ), son- 
stige frühpsy- 
chopath. Züge 
Nerv.Unruhe (K. ) 
Langsamkeit 
W ededrang 
Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 
„Temperament'* 
Aktivität 
Lebhaftigkeit 
Erregbarkeit 

A. still, abwar- 
tend 

B. temperament- 
voll 

Impulsivität 

Nervosität 
Widerstands- 
kraft 
Ausdauer 
Reizbarkeit 
Stimmungslage 

Lebhaftigkeit 
Nervosität 
B. phlegmatisch 
Beweglichkeit 
Ausgeglichenheit 
Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 



Fleiß 
Sorgfalt 
Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 



Stimmungslage 
Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 
Willenstypus 
Sensibilität 



' Lebhaftigkeit 

,,Ner\'osität" 

Ausdauer 

Äußerungsver- 
mögen 

Eindrucksver- 
mögen 

Lebhaftigkeit 

Aufregbarkeit 

Ärger 

Äußerungsver- 
mögen 

Eindruckver- 
mögen 



(Bettnässen) 
Bewegungsdrang 



(Bettnässen) 



122 



Anhang: Tabellen 
C. Gefüge (Forts.) 



Nr. 



17 



(=) 



Fleiß 



18 



19 



Äußerungsver- 
mögen 
Tatkraft 
Energie 



20 



(X) 



X 



Nervosität 
Beweglichkeit 
Eindrucksver- 
mögen 
Äußerungsver- 
mögen 



Nervosität (K.) 
Eigensinn (K.) 
Harmonie (K.) 
Beweglichkeit 
Gründlichkeit 
Gleichmut 
Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 



Lebhaftigkeit 
Erregbarkeit 
Phlegma 
Beschaulichkeit 
Reagibilität 
Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 

Erregbarkeit 



Innere Spannung 
Sicherheit 
Äußerungsbe- 
dürfnis 
Ablenkbarkeit 
Eindrucksver- 
mögen 



Stimmungslage 

Erregbarkeit 

Gleichmut 

Natürlichkeit 

Ernst 



Lebhaftigkeit 

Zappeligkeit 

(Bettnässer) 

Sensibilität 

Reagibilität 

Phlegma 

Gleichmut 



Lebhaftigkeit 
(K.) 

Erregbarkeit (K.) 
Zappeligkeit (K.) 
Empfindsamkeit 
Außerungsbe- 
dürfnis 
Äußerungsver- 
mögen 
Lebhaftigkeit 
Gehemmtheit 



^ 



■f=--^ C 



Handschrift und Charakter 

Gemeinverstiindliclier Abriß der graphologischen Technik. 
Von LUDWIG KLAGES. 11.— 13. Anfhige. XII, 258 S. 
mit 187 Figuren und 21 Tabellen (Handschriftproben) in 
einer Beilage. 1929. gr. 8^. RM. 8.—, geb. RM. 10.— 

Deutsche Rundschau: Durch seine Arbeiten ho» Klages die Graphologie zum Range einer Wissenschoft erhoben. Es isf 
eine große schöpferische Leistung, die er in seinen Büchern niedergelegt bot; er faßt die unendliche Kleinarbeit methodischer und 
praktischer Art, die von seinen Vorgängern vollbracht ist, zu einem System zusammen, das eine Grundlegung bedeutet. 
BiJcherei und Bildungspflege: Wer die kühne Eigenwüchsigkeit der Klagesschen Wellanschouung und die leidenschaftliche 
Lebendigkeit und vornehme Klarheit seiner Darstellungsweise kennt, weiß von vornherein, daß das vorliegencfe Werk keines der 
übrigen anspruchsvoll aufgemachten Rezeptbücher eines mehr oder weniger instinktbegabten Handschriftendeuters ist, sondern ein 
psychologisches Werk großen Stils . . . Große Büchereien dürfen dieses Standardwerk nicht entbehren ; aber auch mittlere Büchereien 
sollten sieb lieber die mit seinem Ankauf verknüpfte größere Ausgabe leisten . . . 

Graphologisches Lesebuch 

Hundert Gutachten aus der Praxis unter ^litwirkung von 
Fachgenossen. Von LUDWIG KLAGES. VI, 291 S. mit 
117 Handschriftiiroben. 1980. gr. H'\ RM. 9.H0, geb. RM. 12.— 

pchweizerische Lehrerzeitung: Das Buch wird allen, die sich mit Hondschriftenkunde beschäftigen, bald unentbehrlich werden; 
denn es füllt eine längst empfundene Lücke in der graphologischen Literatur aus. Gibt es doch graphologischer Lehrbücher zwar 
eine ganze Anzohl ; aber es gab bis jetzt keine wirklich gute Beispielsammlung von Analysen, anhand deren der Schüler sein 
Wissen überprüfen, vertiefen und gründlich ausbauen konnte. Eine sachgemäße Benutzung dieses Lesebuchs kann ihm nun einiger- 
maßen den Uebungskurs bei Fachgraphologen ersetzen. M. N. 

Mitteilungen der deutschen graphologischen S t u d i e n g e s e 1 1 s c h o f t : Alle die, welche in Klages den Führer der 
Graphologie verehren, werden dieses Buch mit besonderer Freude studieren. Es gibt die Mögliclikeit, theoretisch erworbene 
Kenntnisse durch praktische Uebung zu festigen, und kommt damit einem longe gehegten Bedürfnis entgegen. Besonders zu be- 
grüßen sind die einleitenden Ausführungen, welche teils ausführlichere Anleitungen zum Deutungsverlahren bieten, teils sich mit 
den Ansichten anderer Autoren, welche im Laufe der letzten )ahre grophologische Arbeiten geliefert haben, kritisch auseinandersetzen. 
Wir stehen nicht on zu sagen, daß die Veröffentlichung das Wertvollste darstellt, was seit langer Zeit erschienen ist, und holten 
^s für notwendig, daß jeder, der die Graphologie mit Ernst betreibt, sich in dieses Werk vertieft. K. B. 

Die Grundlagen der Charakterkunde 



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8"\ 



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Zeilschrift für Menschenkunde: So ist, wie wir abschließend sagen dürfen, mit den „Grundlagen" ein Werk geschaffen, 
welches ols Grund- wie als Denkstein des neuen Wissensgebietes turmhoch hervorragt und über die Zeiten weist, rückwärts und 
vorwärts, einsam und hellsichtig, eine sprechende Urkunde der Vergangenheit, der Gegenwart aber eine Malinung, die kein ehrlich 
Suchender überhören kann. Dr. M. Ninck. 



<^ 



Ausdrucksbewegung und Gestaltungskraft 

Grundlegung der Wissenschaft vom Ausdruck. Von 
LUDAVIG KLAGES. 8. u. 4. AuH. XI, 205 Seiten mit 
41 A])bild. im Text. 1923. gr. 8^*. RM. 5.40, geb. RM. 6.90 



P*,**..® j.'t"""^' ^*i**''/^ '" *^^' deutschen psychologischen Fachliteratur schwerlich ein zweites Werk geben, das philosophische 
Tiefgründigkeit, wissenschaftliche Eigenwüchsigkeit und dialektische Eindringlichkeit auf einem so hohen literarischen Formniveau bietet. 

Frankfurter Zeitung: Dos Werk, dessen wesentliche Leitgedanken wir nur aufzuzeigen versucht hoben, trägt seinen stolzen 

Unlerlitel: Grundlegung der Wissenschoft vom Ausdruck" mit Recht. Als Ganzes genommen mit all der Vielfolf seiner tief- 

reifendcn Andeutungen und Einschaltungen könnte es mit gleichem Recht Grundlegung einer Wissenschaft vom 

eben schlechthin heißen. p,o|. Emil Proetorius. 



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Philosophie, Psychologie, Pädagogik 10. Jahrg., 1934^ Nr. 11 



Inhaltsverzeichnis 

Sind psychische Eigenschaften erblich? Von I. H. Schultz, Berlin .. . 125 

Vom Handeln. Von Karl Fahrenkamp 131 

V^esen und Berechtigung der Tierpsychologie. Von Priv.-Doz. Dr. 

J. A. Bierens de Haan, Amsterdam * . . . 136 

I. Geschichte und Systeme der Philosophie 126 

n. Logik und Erkenntnistheorie, Metaphysik . 127 

III. Ethik, Kulturphilosophie, Religionsphilosophie 128 

IV. Allgemeine Psychologie 129 

V. Angewandte Psychologie 130 

VI. Entwicklungspsychologie und Psychologie der Kultur . . . .132 

VII. Geschichte der Pädagogik, Schulorganisation 133 

VIII. Allgemeine Unterrichts- und Erziehungslehre 134 

IX. Volksschule 135 

X. Höhere Schule 135 

XI. Berufsschulwesen 135 

XII. Psychologie des Jugendlichen 135 



Konstitutions- 

uiid Erbbiologie 

in der Praxis der Medizin. Vorträge eines Inter- 
nationalen Fortbildungskurses in der Berliner Akademie 
für ärztliche Fortbildung im Frühjahr 1934. Heraus- 
gegeben von Prof. Dr. Walther Jaensdh, Berlin 

Mit einem Vorwort von Stadtmedizinalrat Dr. Klein, 
Berlin. VT, 385 S. mit 21 Abb. i. T. 1934.. sr.S«. Kart. RM. 19.60 

Die Mitwirkunj^r führender Männer aus Wissenschaft und Forschuni^ 
gibt dieser Sammlung ihr Gepräge. Jeder einzelne von ihnen: Diepgen, 
Rössle, von Bergmann, von Verschuer, I.enz, Gross, Bommer, Frieboes, 
Jaensch, Kohlrausch, Hoske, Gebhardt u. a., gab aus seiner reichen Er- 
fahrung das Wesentliche und Wissenswerte. Diese Darstellung der Erb- 
biologie unter medizinischem Gesichtswinkel bringt völlig neue Ausblicke 
von gemeinwichtiger Bedeutung. 



JOHANN AMBROSIUS BARTH • VERLAC ■ LEIPZIG 



Philosophie, Psychologie, PSdagogilt 10. Jahrg., 1934, Nr. 11 



III 



Zeitschriffen gehen mit der Zeit 

Zeitschrift 

für angewandte Psychologie 

Hrsg.: Prof. Dr. O. Klemm, Leipzig, Priv.«Doz. Dr. Philipp Leridi^Dresden 

6 Hefte bilden ^inen Band. gr.S''. 1934 ersdieinen 2 Bände und zwar 
Band 46/47. Je Band RM. 24.— 

Das Arbeitsfeld: Pädagogisclie Psychologie, charakterologi.sche Anthropologie, .lugeiul- 
kniKie. Wirtscliaftspsychologie. geiiciitliche Psychologie. 

Ohne das Organ eines einzelnen wissenschaftlichen Instituts zu sein, will die Zeitschrift die 
wahren Fortschritte der wissensciuiftlichen Arbeit iiires Gebietes fördern, gleichermaßen 
durch eine sorgsame .A^uslese der Originalabliandlungen. wie <liirch zuverlässige Berichte über 
andere Arbeiten. 

Zeitschrift für Psychologie und 
Physiologie der Sinnesorgane 

I. Abteilung: 

Zeitschrift für Psychologie 

Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie 

In Gemeinschaft mit mehreren Gelehrten des In- und Auslands heraus- 
gegeben von Prof. Dr. F. Schumann, Frankfurt a. M., Prof. Dr. E. R. Jaensch, 
Marburg, und Prof. Dr. O. Kroh, Tübingen 

1934 erscheint Band 131/133 mit 6 Heften, gr.8". Je Band RM. 22.— 

Diese älteste psychologische Zeitschrift ist bestrebt, die Erforschung der geistigen Vorgänge 
zu einer exakten Wissenschaft zu gestalten. Sie beschrankt sich indessen nicht auf die ex- 
perimentelle P.syciiologie, bringt vielmehr Aufsätze aus allen (iebieten der Psychologie. Der 
Jjiteraturbericht sucht die Leser mit allen Neuerscheinungen auf dem «ebiete der I'sychologie 
und ihrer (Jrenzwissenschaften bekannt zu machen. 

II. Abfeilung: 

Zeitschrift für Sinnesphysiologie 

In Gemeinschaft mit Gelehrten des In- und Auslands herausgegeben 
von Prof. Dr. Martin Gildemeister, Leipzig 

1934 erscheint Band 65 in 6 Heften, gr.8". RM. 22.— 

Die Zeitschrift widmet sich nicht einseitig einer Richtung oder einer Schule, sondern 
zeichnet sich durch Vielseitigkeit der behandelten Probleme aus. Für die weitere Entwick- 
lung und die Verbreitung der Forschungsergebnisse auf dem (iebiet der Sinnesphysiologie 
bat die Zeitschrift wichtigt^ Aufgaben zu erfüllen. 

Verlangen Sie bitte ein Probeheft kostenlos 



JOHANN AMBROSiUS BARTH - VE R L AG - LE iPZI G 



IV 



Philosophie, Psychologie, Pädagogik 10. Jahrg., 1934, Nr. 11 



BIOS 



Abhandlungen zur theoretischen Biologie und ihrer Ge- 
schidite, sowie zur Philosophie der organisdien Natur- 
wissensdiaffen 

Herausgegeben von 26 deutschen und ausländischen Gelehrten 

BAND I: 

Ideen und Ideale 

der biologischen Erkenntnis 

Beiträge zur Theorie und Geschichte der biologischen Ideo- 
logien. Von Prof. Dr. ADOLF MEYER, Hamburg. XIII, 
202 Seiten. 1934. gr.8«. RM. 9.75 

Berichte über die wissenscliaftliche Biologie, Heft 9/10, 1934: 
Als Ganzes gesehen ist das Buch ein großer Wurf mit vielen neuen 
Gesichtspunkten, welche auch den experimentell arbeitenden Forscher 
^. angehen, denn die Analyse der Begriffe, die Herausarbeitung der Prin- 
zipien und Axiome ist für die Biologie ebenso wichtig wie die Ver- 
besserung der technischen Methoden und die Verfeinerung der 
Apparate. Friedrich Brock, Hamburg 

BAND II: 

Die tierpsydiologisdie Forsdiung 

Ihre Ziele und Wege. Von Priv.-Doz. Dr. I. A. BIERENS 
DE HAAN, Amsterdam. XI, 96 Seiten mit 34 Abbildungen 
im Text. 1934. gr.8^ RM. 6.60 

Trotzdem die Tierpsychologie in den letzten Jahrzehnten beacht- 
liche Fortschritte erzielt hat bestehen doch immer noch Zweifel und 
Unsicherheiten über ihr Wesen und ihre Ziele. Der Verfasser gibt 
deshalb eine iCinführung in die Tierpsychologie, er erörtert das Wesen 
dieser Wissenschaft, inwieweit sie überhaupt möglich ist und wo die 
Grenzen ihres Arbeitsfeldes liegen. Das Buch erweist, daß alle biologisch 
Interessierten sich mit der Tierpsychologie beschäftigen sollten. 

Verlangen Sie bitte meinen Prospekt „Bios" 



JOHANN AMBROSIUS BARTH ■ VERLA«» . LEIPZIG 

Ve™n,wo«Hch_für^den^Ä„«,j.n,en: B«„h.rd v. ^--^/^'P'« C_.._S,,„™„,,,,. ,8„. 



Sind psychische Eigenschaften erblich? 

Von I. H. Schultz, Berlin 

Bei der Frage, ob „psychische Eigenschaften erblich sind'*, interessieren 
den Arzt zwei große, nur teilweise verbundene Gebiete. Zum ersten, ob 
normale, zum anderen, ob krankhafte psychische Eigenschaf- 
ten erkennbar erbgesetzlichen Regeln folgen. Da in den vorangehenden Dar- 
legungen von Creutzfeldt und P o h 1 i s c h der Stand spezieller psychia- 
trischer Konstitutionsforschung behandelt und von Heun das Problem Konr 
stitution und Psychotherapie erörtert wurde, soll im folgenden die Frage 
nach der Erblichk eit normal er seelischer Eigenschaften 
mehr in den- Vordergrund gestellt werden. Auch die Frage nach der Erb- 
bedingtheit krimineller Reaktionen soll hier nicht erörtert werden. 

Nicht als wenn die Verhältnisse im Normalen durchsichtiger liegen wür- 
den. Viel eher ist das Gegenteil der Fall, indem auch im Problemgebiet der 
Vererbung krankhafter seelischer Eigenschaften, wie so oft im Pathologischen, 
Zusammenhänge klarer erkannt werden können, als im Normalen. Ein kurzer 
Ueberblick über unser heutiges Wissen von der Vererbung normaler seelischer 
Eigenschaften erscheint aber wesentlich, weil er einerseits die allgemeinen 
Schwierigkeiten des Begriffes einer „psychischen Eigenschaft" deut- 
lich werden und andererseits eben aus diesen Schwierigkeiten die richtige Ein- 
stellung zur Lebendigkeit seelischer Verhaltungsweisen ge- 
winnen läßt. Lebendiges aber ist bildsam. Je schärfer wir erkennen, 
wie weit der Weg von den primitiven, genotypisch festgelegten, schicksalhaft 
gegebenen Urreaktionen zum Erwachsenden oder gar Erwachsenen ist, um so 
kritischer werden wir gegenüber vorschnellen Festlegungen von „Eigenschaf- 
ten", die das lebendige Ganze gleichsam als starres Skelett begrenzen oder 
gar als festes Mosaiksteinchen zusammensetzen. Ein kritisch begründeter 
Wille zur tätigen, behandelnden Arbeit darf und muß so erwachsen, kein be- 
quemes Schematisches Einordnen und Verwahren in handliche und sauber 
etikettierte Zettelkästchen. 

Erbwissenschaftlich unterliegt die Entscheidung, ob und nach welchen 
Gesetzen normale psychische Eigenschaften erblich sind, so großen Schwierig- 
keiten, daß Eugen Fischer, der bekannte Berliner Erbforscher, unlängst 
meinte, die ganze Frage sei noch so verwickelt, daß kaum etwas Sicheres aus- 
zusagen sei. 

Unter voller Anerkennung dieses theoretischen Bedenkens sollen doch 
einige Gesichtspunkte und Ergebnisse kurz angedeutet werden. 

Voraussetzung jeder Bearbeitung der Frage, ob „psychische Eigenschaften 
erblich sind", ist eine Bestimmung dessen, was unter „psychischer Eigen- 
schaft" zu verstehen sei und welche Methoden zu ihrer Unter- 
suchung zur Verfügung stehen. 

Es ist ohne weiteres einleuchtend, daß die meisten Eigenschafts- 
bezeichnungen der Alltagspsychologie wohl sehr anschaulich 



— 126 — 

und zur praktischen Verständigung geeignet, aber in ihrem inneren Gehalt 
sehr mannigfaltig und oft widerspruchsvoll sind. Nehmen wir etwa das All- 
tagsurteil, ein Mensch sei „fleißig-, so ist dami nur gesagt daß dieser 
Mensch sich, soweit ihn andere kontrollieren, als ein „Viel-Tuender , als em 
Viel-Arbeitender" zeigt. Ob aber diese Verhaltungsweise irgendwie semem 
inneren Wesen, einem naturhaften Tätigkeitsdrang entspringt, oder ob sie 
Ausdruck einer Angst vor Verlust an Ehre, Besitz, Genuß usw. oder einer 
besonderen Gier nach solchen Gütern ist; ob sie ein Dressur- oder Erziehungs- 
produkt darstellt; ob sie getragen ist von inneren seelischen Drangen ganz 
anderer Art etwa seelischer Not, Triebzwang und dergleichen, also einen neu- 
rotischen Fleiß, etwa eine Art „Arbeitssucht" bedeutet; ob sie einem Mangel 
an anderen Erlebnisweisen, also einer seelischen Armut entfließt, oder ob sie 
tiaturhafter Trägheit abgerungen wird in innerer Verpflichtung durch ethische 
und soziale Forderungen - alle diese und sehr zahlreiche andere Möglich- 
keiten bleiben bei der Feststellung „X. ist ein fleißiger Mensch" völlig offen 
Man könnte sich nun helfen, indem man von einem echten ursprunghchen ) 



1440 *) Entnommen aus: Konstitutions- und Erbbiologie in der Praxis der 

Medizin. Vorträge eines Internationalen Fortbildungskurses in der Berliner 
Akademie für ärztliche Fortbildung im Frühjahr 1934. Herausgegeben von 
Dr med Walther Jaensch, a. o. Professor an der Universität Berlin, Leiter des 
Ambulatoriums für Konstitutionsmedizin an der Charite Berlin. Mit einem Vor- 
wort von Stadtmedizinalrat Dr. med. W. Klein, Berlin. VI, 385 Seiten mit 
21 Abb. i. T. 1934. gr.80. Kart. RM. 19.60. 



I 



i 



— 127 — 

1313. Londhe, D.: Das Absolute (The Absolute, dt.). Ein Entwurf zu e 
Metaphysik des Selbst. 1934. (V, 130 S.) 80. RM. 6.— 

1314. Mettler, A.: Max Weber und die philosophische Problematik in unserer 
Zeit. Mit e. Bibliographie d. Arbeiten über Max Weber 1934 (162 S) 
gf-8'- 'RM.4.50 

1315. Meyer, H.: Die Wissenschaftslehre des Thomas von Aquino 1934 
i™^') 40. RM.3.6Ö 

1316. Nietzsche, F.: Vom Nutzen und Nachteil der Historie für das Leben 
^ Neue AufL 1934. (VII, 98 S., 1 Titelb.) kl.S«. RM. -.75; Lw. 1.— 

1317. Philosophie, Deutsche systematische, nach ihren Gestaltern. Unter Mitw. 
von . . . hrsg. von H. Schwarz. Bd. 2. 1934. (301 S.) gr.S«. 

\ ^ , Lw. RM. 14.— 

l3>«r Rickert, H.: Grundprobleme der Philosophie. Methodologie Ontologie» 

^ Ajithroßologie. 1934. (IX, 233 S.) gr.S«. RM. 7.50; Lw. 9.50 

1319. Schopenhauer, A.: Aphorismen zur Lebensweisheit. Mit 1 Bildn Ueber- 
trag. d. fremdsprachl. Zitate u. seltenen Worte: R. Marx. Neue Aufl 
1934. (231 S., 1 Titelb.) kl.80. Lw. RM. 1.75 

1320. Silentio, J. de: Die Lüge der Anthroposophen Rudolf Steiner's. Eine 
experimentierende Voranzeige. 1934. (39 S.) 80. RM. 1.— 

1321. Steiner, R.: Bauformen als Kultur- und Weltempfindungsgedanken. 
Worte Rudolf Steiners am 3. Jahrestag d. Grundsteinlegung d. ersten 
Goetheanum in Dornach am 20. Sept. 1916. Hrsg. von M. Steiner. (16 S) 
^^- RM. 1.90 

1322. Wolff, E. G.: Grundlagen einer autonomen Musikästhetik 1934 095 5^ 
4'- ■ RM. 8.- 

1323. Zeitschrift für Aesthetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft. Hrsff. von 
M. Dessoir. Bd. 28, H. 4. 1934. 4^ rm. Q.— 



Internationale Bibliographie 

Die Preise der ausländischen Werke, in Originalwährung angegeben, sind den jeweiligen 
Kursverhältnissen unterworfen. Wo nicht anders angegeben, verstehen sich die Preise 
in Mark und Pfennigen. Es sind die vom Verleger festgesetzten Grund-(Laden-)Preise. 

I. Geschichte und Systeme der Philosophie 

1308 Cameades, D.: La materia, lo spirito ed il vivo intelletto. In stretto 
rapporto ed al lume delle scienze positive antiche e moderne: della filo- 
sofia della storia, della religione, del monismo, del dualismo, pleiadismo 
e miriadismo Un tentativo di volgarizzazione filosofica. Versione ital. di 
N. Latanza. 1934. (238 S.) gr.S«. RM. 10.- 

1309. Erasmus von Rotterdam: Klage des Friedens (Querela pacis, dt.). Unter 
Beigabe e. efeschichtl. Einl. übers, von R. Liechtenhan. 1934. (63 S.) 
gr.80. RM, 1.80; schw. Fr. 2.20 

1310 Gentile, G.: Philosophie der Kunst. Uebertr, aus d. Ital. von H. Langen. 
' 1934. (VIII, 285 S.) gr.80. RM. 12.— ; Lw. 14.— 

iW^Hellpach, W.: Heilkraft und Schöpfung. Aus d. Welt d. Arztes u. vom 
^ Geheimnis des Daseins. 1934. (275 S.) 8«. RM. 4.30 

1312 Idealismus. Jahrbuch für die idealistische Philosophie. Bd. 1. 1934. 
' (280 S.) 4». Jährl. RM. 10.— 



11. Logili und Erkenntnistheorie, Metaphysik 

1324. Chappuis, A.: Der theoretische Weg Bradleys. Die Hauptgedanken d. 
Wahrheits- u. Wirklichkeitslehre d. engl. Philosophen Francis Herbert 
Bradley 1846-1924. 1934. (138 S.) gr.80^ fr. Fr. 12.-; schw. Fr 2 50 

1325. Donat, J.: Ontologia. Ed. 8. emend. 1935. (VII, 292 S.) 8^. RM. 3.60 

1326. Erkenntnis. Zugleich Annalen der Philosophie. Bd 12 H 4 Im Auftr 
der Gesellschaft für empirische Philosophie, Berlin, und' des Vereins 
Ernst Mach m Wien. Hrsg. von R. Carnap u. H. Reichenbach. Bd. 4 
H.4. 1934. RM. 2.8Ö 

Inhalt :K Ajdukiewicz: Das Weltbild und die Begriffsapparatur. - G. Mannoury 
Die sigmfischen Grundlagen der Mathematik. I. — K. Grelling: Bericht über d 8 In^ 
ternat. Kongreß für Philosophie in Prag vom 2.-7. IX. 34. 

1327. Fuchsmeyer, J.: Das Gesetz der Einheit der Kraft. Neue Anschauungen 
über Bewegungsvorgänge in d. materiellen Welt. 1934. (74 S m Abb ) 
Sr-S^- Seh. 3.- 

1328. Kuhin H.: Sokrates. Ein Versuch über d. Ursprung d. Metaphysik. 
1934. (161 S.) gr.80. ^^ RM. 6.- 

1329. Raphael, M.: Zur Erkenntnistheorie der konkreten Dialektik 1934 
(263 S.) 80. ..fr. Fr. 15.- 



— 128 — 



III. Ethik, Kulturphilosophie, Religionsphilosophie 

1330. Broderick, J.: The economic morals of the Jesuits. Doli 2.25 

1332. Grünagel, F.: Rosenberg und Luther Rosenberg's Mythus d 20_Jh. 
u d. theol. Probleme. 1934. (Vll, Mb.) gr.ö . 

1333. Häberlin P.: Wider den Ungeist. Eine ethUd. Orientierun^g.^ 

{(Ä nL u. sign. Exempl. auf Japanpap., Hperg. schw. Fr. 18.- 

1334. Handbuch der Kulturgeschichte Lfg.l3, 14. E. Ermatinger: Dt KuUur 
im Zeitalter d. Aufklarung. H. 2, J. ■» 

1335. Handbuch der deutschen Voiliskunde. Hrsg. von W. Peßlerj^jLfg.4. 

1336. Karutz, R.: Vorlesungen über moralische Völkerkunde. l-fg^43,^44/45, 

46/47 • ' 

(Di pag. XXII, 212.) 160. •-'« i"- 

1339.Knuth, W.: Vom Wandel des religiösen Bewußtseins. Ein Wort zum 

Glaubensproblem unserer Tage. 1934. (//i>.) 0. 

1340. Koch, W.: Mathematicus. Die 4. der 19 SJ^f ßf^^«?,,^^^^^^ 

Quintilian. Eine Unters, zur Geschichte d. Willensfreiheit. iyJ4^ ^ ^^ 

1341. Kühler, O.: Sinn, Bedeutung und Auslegung der Heiligen Sch^^^^^^^^ 
Hegels Philosophie. Mit Beiträgen zur Bibliographie über dbteiiun^^ 
Heieis (u. d. Hegelianer zur Theologie, insbes.) zur Hl. Schritt 1 w. 
(XII, 110 S.) 40. 

1342. Ludewigs, W.: Von der sozialen zur politischen Ethik. 1934. j^^^.^S^o. 

1343. Margolius, H.: Vom Wesen des Guten. Prinzipien d. Ethik. 1934. 
(95 S) 80. ^^■^- 

1344 Martensen-Larsen, H.: Sternenhimmel und Glaube. Das moderne we - 
tilduT Christentum. Nach d. Tode d. Verf. im Einvernehmen mit d. 
Familie Martensen-Larsen aus d. Dan. übers, u. f. d- ,5%^'- ."^^^ 4 ^ 
bearb. von Gräfin C. Wedel. 1934. (182 S.) 8«. RM. 3.-, Lvv. 4. 

1345. Noldin, H.: Summa theologiae moralis. Scholarum usui accommodaviit 
H. Noldin, ab ed. 17: A. Schmitt. 1. De pnncipiis. Scholaruni usm 
accommodaverat H. Noldin. Recogn. et emend. A. Schmitt. n.a^j 
1935. (Vni, 358 S.) 8«. *^^^- "• 

1346. Rausch, J.: Zum Problem des Primats. Studie zum Charakter d. Sitt- 
lichkeit u. ihrer Stellung im Wertreich. 1934. (121 S.) ^^-^^-^ 5 _ 

1347. Simon, P.: Mythos oder Religion. 1934. (107 S.) 80. R^. 1.60 

1348. Strauß, D. F.: Der alte und der neue Glaube. Ein Bekenntnis. Neue 
Aufl. 1934. (296S., ITitelb.) kl.80. Lw. KM. i-o 



— 129 




IV. Allgemeine Psychologie 



1349. Biere^s de Haan, J. A.: DJe tierpsychologische Forschung. Ihre Z:iek 
und Wege. 1934. (XI, 96 Seiten mit 34 Abb. 1. T.) gr.S". KM. o.ou 

(Bildet: Bios, Abhandlungen zur theoretischen Bi?J°f « "J^ '^''^H^rautÄ 
zur Philosophie der organischen Naturwissenschaften, Band 2. Herausgegeoen 
26 deutschen und ausländischen Gelehrten.) . , , ^ lur i-v^^a^ 

Inhalt : Wesen und Berechtigung der Tierpsychologie (Objekt, ^^ufgabe und Methode 
der Tierpsychologie - Das Erkennen des Psychischen in den Tieren und die Kenn- 
zeichen der,!verhaitens'' - Verschiedene Auffassungen über das Vorkommen von 
ptych'chen Erscheinungen bei den Tieren _ Neue Untersuchungen ^e^ Jrage nach 
dem Vorkommen von psychischen Erscheinungen bei den ^eren - ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
der Protozoen - Das Arbeitsfeld des Tierpsychologen). - Methodik der Tierpsycho- 
- iogie (Die Entwicklung - Die anekdotische Methode - Die Methode der Enquete -- 
SacMung und Experiment - Das analytische Experiment " ^^^^/^f^^f^^^^^^ 
Experiment). - Die Interpretation des tierischen Verhaltens. - Zwei Betrachtungen 
speziellerer Art (Reflexbewegung und Handlung - Das Bewußtsein der Tiere). 
Siehe auch 4. Umschlagseite dieses Heftes ! 

1350 Brugger, C: Medizinisch-biologische Grundlagen der »"odernen euge- 
Sfn Bestrebungen. 1934. (19 S.) gr.80. RM. 1.20 

1351. Bühler, K.: Sprachtheorie Die Da^!tf/""f/""%M " 20 -'1^^ 2?^5^6 
JXVI, 434 S. m. 9 Abb. 1. T. u. auf 1 Tat.) gr.8". KM. ^u. , lw. zi.au 

NLaa^riedrich Wilhelm, Prinz zur Lippe: Rassenseelenkunde ^ür's Dritte 

X^* Reich. 1934. (29 S.) gr.80. R^- — ^ 

1353 G^rard, W.: Stereophänomene in vergleichender Darstellung. 1934. (in, 

' 107 S. m. Fig.) 80. »^^- ^• 

1'^^4 Groeben M. v. d.: Konstruktive Psychologie und Erlebnis Studien z. 
^^^ Lo^k d'. Diltheyschen Kritik an d. erklär. Psychologie. 1^34 (VU^^j 
173 S.) gr.80. • • 






1355. 
1356. 



1357. 

1358. 

1359. 

1360. 

1361. 
1362. 



— 130 — 

Hoppe, E.: Liebe und Gestalt Der Typus d. Mannes in d Dichtung d. 
Frau 1934. (304 S., mehr. Taf.) 8«. KM. 4.5U lw. o. 

io..rn;,l für P^^vcholoöie uttd Neufologie. Mitteilungen aus d. Oesamt- 
S der Tn^tomk^ Physiologie und Pathologie des Zentralnerven. 
Systems sowie der medizinischen Psychologie. Organ des Kaiser-Wilhelm- 
Ss f H rnforschung, Berlin, des Instituts ^ "^''"t^^'lf «' ^^f^^"' 
Mitgegründet von A. Forel u. K. Brodmann. Hrsg. von C. u. a Vogt. 
Red von M. Vogt. Bd. 46, H.4 u. 5. 1934. 40. ^^'T^r' 

Kaßner, R.: Betrachtungen über den Ruhm, die Nachahmung und das 
Glück. 1934. (46 S.) 80. .... io^. 

Koninski, K.: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Entoptischen Erscheinungen 1934 

(57 S. m. 50 Fig.) 8«. ,..,.. cj 

Müncker, T.: Die psychologischen Grundlagen ^erkathohschen bitten- 
lehre. 1934. (340 S.) 4». RM. 10.80, geb. 12.ÖU 

Vauquelin, R.: Les origines de la psychologie pedagog. de Ro^^^^eau^ 

Zeddies, A.: Wörterbuch der Psychologie. 1934. (^^^ ^'^^w "^RM 4 70 
Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie rfer Sinnesorgane Gegr von 
H Ebbinghaus u. A. König, hrsg. von F. Schumann, E R. Jaensch, 
": Kroh, M. Gildemeister. Abt. 2^ Zeitschrift für Sinnesphysiologie. In 
Gemeinschaft mit ... hrsg. von M. Gildemeister. Bd. 65, H 5. u ö. 1934. 
gj.go Der Bd. RM. 22.— 



V. Angewandte Psychologie 



1363. 



1364. 
1365. 

1366. 
1367. 

1368. 

1369. 

1370. 

1371. 

^: 

1374. 



Feige, K.: Präzisionsleistungen menschlicher Motorik. Beitrage zur 
Psychologie der Leibesübungen. 1934. (VI, . . . S.) gr.80. RM. 5.40 

(Bildet: Beiheft 69 zur „Zeitschrift für anfiewandtc Psychologie".) 

Inhalt: Uatersuchungen der zeitlichen Präzision. - L^^^tersuchungen der raumlichen 

Präzision. — Untersuchungen der Leistungsprazision. — Folgerungen aus unseren i^r 

gebnissen. 

Firth, L. E.: Testing advertisements. Doli. 2.50 

Hellmut, M.: Menschenerkenntnis aus der Handschrift. 12 Hefte Hl 

-12. 1934. (286 S. mit Hs.-Proben.) 8». In Hülse RM. 5.40 

Hermanin, I.: Die Psychoanalyse als Methode. 1934. (113 S.) 4«^ ^^ 

Kogerer, H.: Psychotherapie. Ein Lehrbuch f. Studierende u. Aerzte. 
1934. (V, 167 S.) gr.80. Lw. RM. 10.— 

Luhde, E.: Die gute Schrift. Ein Ratgeber f. d. Unterricht in zeit- 
gemäßer Schriftpflege. 1934. (112 S.) gr.8«. RM. 1.95; Seh. 2.90 
McLachlan, N. W.: Loud Speakers, theory, Performance testing and 
design. - Doli. 13.50 
Murchison, C: Psicologia del potere politico. Traduzione e introduzione 
del M. F. Canella. 1935. (Di pag. LVI, 262.) 16«. Lire 10.— 
Plate, R.: Zur historischen und psychologischen Vertiefung der eng- 
lischen Schulsyntax. Ein Hilfsb. in Frage u. Antwort. 1934. O^'^^-'^kq 

Vauquelin, R.: Les aptitudes fonctionnelles et l'education. fr. Fr. 35.— 
Verweyen, J. M.: Praktische Menschenkenntnis und richtige Menschen- 
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Beispielen. 1934. (IIOS.) 8^». RM. 2.50; Lw. 3.80 

Viteles, M. S.: The science of work. lUustr. Doli. 3.75 

Fortsetzung Seite 132. 



li 



1 



- 131 — 

Vom Handeln 

Von Karl Fahrenkamp 

Von den Quellen des Lebens weiß der Mensch nichts. Viel älter als die 
von dem Propheten mit einer bestimmten Einstellung geprägte Schöpfungs- 
geschichte, von der wir als Kinder erfuhren, ist seit Menschengedenken die 
gleichnishafte Vorstellung aller Völker in ihren Schöpfungsgeschichten über 

den Sinn des Daseins. 

Andern Völkern, durch die Fügung dem Lichte inniger verbunden, ver- 
blieb in ihren Religionen, in Ihrem Suchen nach Gott ein Wissen und Glauben 
an den Baum des Lebens und die HeiHgung der Quelle. Dieser Glaube prägte 
östliche Religionen und bewirkte, daß Völker dieses Glaubens dem Wissen 
allen lebendigen Seins nahe blieben und alles lebendige Sein ihnen heilig ward. 

Weit mehr zugewandt allem lebendigen Sein erwuchs eine Abkehr vom 
eigenen Ich und dem wachsenden Drang eines tätigen Handelns. 

Diesem Wissen vom Baum des Lebens und der Quelle des Daseins ent- 
sprang die Gewißheit um die ewige Wiederkehr allen lebendigen Seins mit 
der östlichen Völkern eigentümlichen Haltung zu Leben und Tod. 

Anders prägte ein Wissen vom Baume der Erkenntnis das Sein und 
Handeln der westlichen Völker. Wir aber lernten in der Kindheit die Schöp- 
fungsgeschichte des Alten Testamentes kennen. 

Das Wissen eines erkenntnisgeprägten Handelns überwucherte em Wissen 
um die Hilflosigkeit eines duldenden untätigen Seins. 

Erst Jesus von Nazareth brachte ein neues Wissen um die Hilflosigkeit 

menschlichen Seins. 

Unter der Wucht seiner Offenbarung durften die westlichen Volker er- 
kennen, daß neben dem Baum der Erkenntnis immer wieder im Kinde die 
Quellen des Lebens lagen. In seinem Tode wurde uns der Glaube zur Gewiß- 
heit, daß Jesus von nun ab in seiner Verbundenheit mit Gott für uns der 
Baum des Lebens wurde. 

Zweitausend Jahre wurden die Evangelien sinndeutend für unser Dasein 
und gaben dem Handeln die Richtung. 

Heute erwacht im eigenen Volke ein Suchen nach dem Wissen um die 
Wahrheiten des Daseins und Handelns. 

Nach zweitausend Jahren sind die Völker Europas - die Kluft zwischen 
Sein und Handeln, Handeln und Sein der Menschen wuchs ms Uncrmcß iche — 
plötzlich vor eine neue Wahl gestellt: der Baum der Erkenntnis, sinndeutend 
für das Handeln des Menschen, der Baum des Lebens, die Wahrheiten des 
Seins offenbarend, stehen im neuen Lichte in unserer Bewußtheit. 

Schon beginnen Millionen Menschen, trotz allem Wissen, Forschen und 
Erkennen, zu begreifen, daß der Glaube Berge versetzen kann 

Leistungen und Handlungen, die dem kritischen Intellekt des Menschen 
unmöglich erschienen, stehen als Wahrheiten der Wirklichkeit vor uns. 

Wer wird siegen? .... i- n /. 

Siegen wird in der Entwicklung des McnscIuMigeschicchtes nur (lir Ma^ht 
in der Hand des Menschen, die in ihrem Wissen um das Mandeln dem unnij^ 
stößlichen Wissen um das Sein in gerechtester Weise iolgt. Aut die Dauer ) 



1441.*) Aus: Sein und Handeln. Von Karl Fahienkanip. 1 
von Albrecht Dürer. 1<J3L l". RM. 1.80, geb. RM. ().-. 



115 Seiten m. 1 Bild. 



— 132 - 

VI. Entwicklungspsychologie und Psychologie 

der Kultur 

1375. Delius, R. v.: Die Weltmächte des Geistes. Zum Endkampf d Kulturen 
1934. (130 S.) gr.80. KM. 4.4U, lw. d.du 

1376. Dolberg, R.: Theorie der Macht Die Macht als soziale G/""f ^^sach^ 
u. als Elementarbegriff d. Wirtschaftswissenschaften. 1934. (^VI^ ™^^^ 

gr.80. 

1377. Gercke, A.: Das Gesetz der Sippe. 1934. (63 S.) 80. • RM. -.70 
1378 Gesundheit und Erziehung. Neue Folge der Zeitschrift für Schulgesund- 
"''• Snege. Hrsg. von H.^HosKe. 47. Jg^N^ll. November. ^.34. ^gr.SO. 

Tagungen. 

1379. Goldbeck, G.: Technik als geistige Bewegung in den Anfängen des 
deutschen Industriestaates. 1934. (85 S.) 8«. KM. 4. 

1380. Ihde, H, u. A. Stockfisch: Vom Vater hab» ich die Statur .^-^ E^-b- 
gesundheitspflege für Schule u. Volk. 11. Aufl. 1934. (59S. m. ADD 
ITaf.) kl.80. 

1381. Konstitutions- und Erbbiologie in der P^-^xis der M^^dizin. Vo^^^^^ 

Internat. Fortbildungskurses in der Be»■l,V".^^^^^'^^*^ M?f /vnrw^^^^^^ 
bildung im Frühjahr 1934. Hrsg. von W Jaensch. Mit e. Vorwort von 
W. Klein. 1934. (VI, 385 S. m. 21 Abb. i. T.) gr.80. Kart. RM. 19.60 

Mitarbeiter- P Diepgen, R. Rössle, G. v. Bergmann, O. v Verschuer. F. Len», 
Mitaroeiter. r. xyicy««", ^ > Petow, S. Bommer, W. Fneboea, Gottron, 

L D^Ss k lohSsch,' SwSdt H GutVmann. W. Jaensch H Helmchen E Heun. 

W zSler H OpHz F. Rott, Kühne, M. Jung, E. Philipp, Kohlrausch. H. Hoske. 

K. Gebhardt, Schuster, Wiethold. 

Siehe auch 2. Umschlagseite dieses Heftes I 

1382. Karutz, R.: Die Ursprache der Kunst. 1934. (221 S m. 8 Kunstdr u 
225Zeichn. auf Taf.) gr.80. RM. 6.-; Lw. 7.50 

1383. Kronacher, C: Genetik und Tierzüchtung. 1934. (VI, 280 S. m. 61 Abb 
u. Kurven.) 40. R^- ^^-^^ 

1384. Nachrichtenblatt für deutsche Vorreit. Mit Unterstützung <Ies Preuß. 
Minist, für Wissenschaft, Kunst und Volksbildung. Hrsg. von M Jahn. 
Jg. 10, H.5. 1934. Jährl. ersch. 12 Hefte. Jahrg. RM. 5.- 

1385. Riehl, W. H.: Die Naturgeschichte des deutschen Volkes. In^Ausw 
hrsg. u. eingel. von H. Naumann und R. Haller. 1934. (407 S. m. 16 Bild.) 
gr.go. RM. 4.— ; Lw. 6.50 

1386. Selchow, B. v.: Der bürgerliche und der heldische Mensch. 1934. (41 S.) 
go RM. 1.— 

1387. Sondermann, H.: Die Welt als Gegenwille. Für alle Zeiten unumstößl 
.naturwiss. Begründung d. völk. Idee. Buch 1. (Erstmalig hrsg. 1920.) 
3., verb. u. erg. Aufl. 1934. (70 S.) 80. RM. 1.50 

1388 Spieß, K. v.: Deutsche Volkskunde als Erschließerin deutscher Kultur. 
" 1934. (268 S. m. 54 Abb. i. T. u. auf Taf.) kl.80. Lw. RM. 4.80 

1389. Stürzenacker, E.: Geschichte, Siedlung, Rasse. 1934. (58 S. m. Fig) 8^- 

RM. 1.5Ü 

1390 Volkskunde, Die deutsche. Hrsg. von A. Spamer. 2 Bde. Bd. 1. Textbd. 
1934. (631 S.) 40. , ^, ^^ 

Lw. RM. 17.50; Vorbestellpr. 15.— ; Hldr. 22.50; Vorbestellpr. 20.— 

Der Vorbestellpreis erlischt mit Erscheinea voa Bd. 2. Der Bezug vou Bd. 1 ver- 
pflichtet zur Abnahme des gesamten Werkes. 



— 133 — 



Bestellungen 

wollen Sie bitte an die auf der 1. Umsctilagseite 
angegebene ßuc/ihandlung richten! 



1391. Zeitschrift für deutsche Kulturphilosophie. Neue Folge d. Logos. Unter 
Mitw von ... hrsg. von H. Glockner u. K. Larenz. Bd. 1, H. 1. 1934. 
(118 S.) 40. H. 1: RM. 5.60; Abonn.-Pr. RM. 5.— 

Inhalt : Zur Einführung. — H. Glockner: Deutsche Philosophie. — K, Lareuz: Volks- 
geist und Kecht. Zur Revision der Rechtsanschauung der historischen Schule. — W. 
Schönfeld: Rechtsphilosophie, Jurisprudenz und Rechtswissenschaft. — H. Schrade: Die 
Abstimmungsurnen des Deutschen Reichstags. Ein Beitrag zum gegenwärtigen Problem 
der künstlerischen Aufgabe. 



VII. Geschichte der Pädagogik, Schulorganisation 

1392. Allen, R. D.: Organization and supervision of guidance in public educa- 
tion. Doli. 3.65 

1393. Brücke, Die. Monatsschrift ins neue Studententum. Forts, von: Neues 
Studententum. Hrsg.: H. v. Ackeren. Jg. 14. 1934. 12Hefte. Hl. Juli 
1934. (32 S.) gr.80. Viertel]. RM. 1.50; Emzelh. —.50 

1394. Cobban, A.: Rousseau and the modern state. sh. 19.— 

1395. Deffke, P.: Die nordische Lehrerpersönlichkeit. Untersuchungen über 
den wissenschaftl. Lehrer an d. höh. Schulen Schwedens. Laroverks- 
Lehrer. 1934. (116 S.) gr.S«. RM. 2.80 

1396. Feld, F.: Hochschule und Arbeitsdienst. 1935. (40 S.) kl.80. RM. — 50 

1397. Gruppenarbeit. Werkblatt f. d. Führerinnen in d. kath. Kindergruppen 
Nr. 6/7. Mai. ^^- ~'^^ 

1398. Hadley, A. T.: Education a. government. sh. 11.6 

1399. Jahrbuch für katholische Erziehung ui Oesterreich. Hrsg. von B. Reetz 
Bd.l. 1933. 1934. (XV, 262 S.) 8". bcn. y.^u 

1400. Kallus, J., H. Käfer, W. Katzenbeißer: Lehrbuch der Geschichte für 
Lehrer- und Lehrerinnenbildungsanstalten. Tl. 2. Für d 2- Jg. Mittel- 
alter seit d. Aussterben d. Karlinger u. Neuzeit bis zum Beginn d Jranz^ 
Revolution. 1934. (316 S. m. Abb.) gr.80. Hlw. RM. 4.65; Seh. 6.90 

1401. Lehrplan für Volksschulen. Schulaufsichtsbezirk Kreis Kempen-Kref eld 2 
1934. (74 S.) 80. *^^- ^■ 

1402. Macadam, E.: The new philanthropy. ' ^^- "^'^ 

1403. Meissner, K.: Nationale Erziehung in Japan. Vortr., geh. in d. Dt.-Japan. 
Ges. E. V., Berlin. 1934. (48 S.) gr.S«. ^^- ^' 

1404. Pharus. Katholische Monatsschrift für Orientierung in der gesamten 
Pädagogik. Hrsg. von der Pädagogischen Stiftung Cassianeum Donath 
wörth. 25.Jg. H.H. 1934. gr.80. »^Ibj. RM. o. 




— 134 — 

1405. Rapport au Canseil de la Soci^te^desNattas sur Ja s^^^^^^^ 

Conseil d'administratian. Tenue a Stresa le 25 juin 1934. Institut inter 

.national du Cinema educatif. 1934. (HS.) 40. RM.-.4Ü 

Scholtz-Klink, G.: Aufbau des deutschen Frauenarbeitsdienstes Hrsg 

2.Aufl. 1934. (27S.,3S. Abb.) kl.80. • u/7^ 

Soencer H.: Die Erziehung, intellektuell, morahsch und physisch (Edu- 

cS Intel ectual moral and physical, dt.). Uebertr u. eingel von 

H SchmTdt.""/.^^^^ 1934. '(xV, HS S. m. 1 Bildn. Spencers^)^kl.8^ 

1408 Haupt- und Mittelschulgesetz 1934, Das neue. Verordnung der Bundes- 
reeierunrvom 23. März 1934, womit einige Bestimmungen des Reichs- 
XssSge^tzes vom 14 Mai 1869 R.-O -Bl. Nr. 62 - der F^sung 
des Bundesgesetzes vom 2. August 1927, B'-ö-f| ^r /45, ,^^^^^^^ 
werden. Verordnung der Bundesregierung vom 23. März 1^34, /)etr di. 
Mittelschulen. Hrsg. vom o.-ö. Landesschulrate in Linz. Nebst Nachtn 
1934. (45; 16 S.) kl.80. n uV*.. 

1409. Volkserzieher, Der neue. Hrsg. von E. Bargheer^ i^''fä^4n5^T2 Hefte" 
. Schaft Volksschule im Nat.-Soz. Lehrerbund Jg. 1. 1^34/35^ 12 H^tte 
H.l. Okt. 1934. (56S.) gr.80. Viertel]. RM. 2.-, tinzein. ./^ 



Vin. Allgemeine Unterrichts^ und Erziehungslehre 

1410. Allers, R.: Sexualpädagogik. Grundlagen u. Grundlini^en. J934. ^(270^5^) 

1411. Bartsch, M.: Erbgut, Rasse und yoik. Ein L^s^" ^- ^^^^^^^^^jf^" ^ f{ 
Schulgebr. 2., verb. Aufl. 1934. (16 S. m. Abb.) 80. RM. .u 

1412. Erziehung, Weibliche, im NSLB. Vorträge d \^ Erf;^herinnen^agung d 
NSLB. in Alexisbad am 1., 2. u 3. Jum 1934. Hrsg. ^on^ Reber 
Gruber. 1934. (VHL 130S.) ^r.^^^^^^^ , ^,^, ,^^ ^|-^; ^^: {^ 

1413 Feld, F.: Deutscher Arbeitsdienst als Volkserziehungsproblem 1934 
' (46 S.) kl.80. RM. -öU 

1414. Gundermann, O.: Beitrag zur schulärztlichen Praxis auf dem Lande. 
1934. (18 S., 4S. Anl.) gr.80. ^^! o^ 

1415. Heinen, A.: FamiHenpädagogik. 1934. (86 S.) gr.80. Lw. RM. 3.60 

1416. Herrera Oria, E.: Educacion de una Espana nueva. Pes. 5. 
1417 Hiller F.: Deutsche Erziehung im neuen Staat. Lf g. 3. RM. 2.25 
1418*. Hörburger, F., u. A Simonie: Lehrbuch ^^^^dag^^^^^^^ 

schule: Philos. Einführungsunterricht. 1934. ^^^^^^^ '4^05:^5 eh. '6. 90 

1419. Musikerziehung, Völkische. Monatshefte f^ '\rHekf ^uT^ki ^mX 
bildung. Hrsg.: E. Bieder. Jg.l. ^934/35- ^^ Hefte H l.Ukt iv^^^ 
(67S., ITaf.) gr.80. Viertel]. RM. 2.-, Einzeln. —W 

1420 Schaefer D.: Liturgischer Religionsunterricht nach dem neuen Lejirplan. 
Mit e Geleitw. von G. Götzel. 1934, (325 S.) gr.80. Lw. RM. 6.- 

1421. Trillhaas, W.: Von der Uebung des Gehorsams. 1934. /^"^ ^'^ p|J[-^J. qq 

1422. Vorwerck, E.: Kulturelle Erziehung. 1934. (24 S.) 80. - RM. -.30 

1423. Weber, W.: Methodik des Deutschunterrichts mit J^usländern. Tl. 2 
1934. (IV S., S. 141-294 m. Fig.) 8«. RM. 4.50; geb. 5.50 

1424. Wißmann, E.: Religionspädagogik bei Schleiermacher. Lfg.4^^^__ 



i 



V 






— 135 — - 

IX. Volksschule 

1425. Alnor, K.: Vergleichende Geschichtszahlen der letzten 50 Jahre für den 
völkischen Geschichtsunterricht.. 1934. (48 S., 7 S. Fig.) 25x34,5 cm. 

RM. 3.50; Hlw. 4.80 

1426. Bauer, J., u. E. Leitl: Fertige Sprachübungen f. d. 3. Klassen d. Baye- 
rischen Volkshauptschulen. 1934. (40 S.) 80. RM. — .35 

1427. Dieterich, J.: Zum Unterricht im ersten Schuljahr. Zugl. e. Wort zur 
Fibelgestaltung im Blick auf d. geschichtl. Entwicklung d. ersten Lese- 
unterrichts. 1934. (32 S.) gr.80. RM. — .70 

1428. Monsheimer, O.: Schule und Boden. Lehrplan, Methode, Arbeitsblätter 
zum gartenbaulichen Gesamtunterricht. In Verb, mit C. Müller und 
Rohrbach hrsg. Lehrerheft. 1935. (114 S. m. Abb.) 40. 

In Mappe RM. 3.80 

1429. Tuschnig, J. H.: Papp- und Buchbin^erarbeiten für Schule und Haus. 
Ausführl, Anleitung zur Herstellung versch. praktischer Pappgegen- 
stände u. einfacher Bucheinbände. 1934. (48 S. m. 25 Abb.) 80. 

Seh. 1.20 



X. Höhere Schule 

1430. Schoenichen, W.: Der lebenskundliche (biologische) Unterricht an den 
höheren Schulen. 1934. (7 S.) kl.80. RM. — .15 



XI. Berufsschulwesen 

1431. Ehm, M.: Das Gastgewerbe. Lehrbuch f. d. fachkundl. Unterricht in 
Kellner- u. Köcheklassen d. Berufsschule. Tl. 2. Speisenkunde. 2. Aufl. 
1934. (96 S.) gr.80. RM. 1.70 

1432. Stecher, M.: Wirtschaftliche Bildung auf der Grundlage hauswirtschaft- 
licher Erziehung. 1935. (52 S.) gr.80. RM. 1.20 



XII. Psychologie des jugendlichen 

1434. Das Buch der Hitlerjugend. Die Jugend im Dritten Reich. Hrsg. von 
U. Uweson u. W. Ziersch. 1934. (XV, 318 S. m. Abb., zahlr. S. Abb.) 
gr.80. Lw. RM. 4.80 

1435. Hanselmann, H.: Sorgenkinder daheim und in der Schule. Heilpädagogik 
im Ueberblick für Eltern u. Lehrer. 1934. (140 S., 16 S. Abb.) kl.SO. 

Lw. RM. 2.40 

1436. Jugend, Franziskanische. Relig. Monatsschrift. Werkblatt f. Jung- 
terziaren u. d. franziskan. Jungvolkgruppen. Schriftl.: E. Schiprowski. 
Jg. 4. 1934. 12 Hefte. H. 8/9. Aug./Sept. 1934. (S. 57— 88 m. Abb.) gr.80. 

Jährl. RM. 1.— ; Einzelh. —.10 u. Porto 

1437. Jugendfreund-Kalender, Christliclier. Hrsg. von J. Josten. Jg. 39. 1935. 

1934. (48 S. m. Abb.) 80. RM. —.20 

1438. Kampf. Lebensdokumente dt. Jugend von 1914—1934. Mit e. Geleitw. 
von Reichsminister W. Frick. Zsgest. u. hrsg. von B. Roth. 1934. (323 S., 
mehr. S. Abb.) 80. RM. 3.— ; Lw. 4.80 

1439. Mutter und Kind. Jahrbuch f. Kinderpflege u. Familienglück. Hrsg. 
unter Mitarb. erster Aerzte, Erzieher, Schriftsteller u. Künstler. Jg.l. 

1935. 1934. (114S., 7B1. m. Abb.) gr.80. schw. Fr. 1.— 



— 136 - 



Wesen und Berechtigung der Tierpsychologie 

Von Priv.-Doz. Dr. J. A. Bierens de Haan, Amsterdam 

Es gibt wohl keinen anderen Zweig der biologischen Wissenschaften, 
wo es so sehr not tut, wie bei der Tierpsychologie, daß ein jeder, der sich 
mit dem Studium derselben beschäftigt, sich von vornherein klar macht, was 
er eigentlich mit diesen Studien bezweckt, ob dieses Ziel wirklich zu erreichen 
ist, und in welcher Weise er sich ihm dann am besten nähert. Während den 
Morphologen oder Physiologen solche Fragen gemeinhin nur wenig Sorge 
machen, hat man bei den Arbeitenden auf dem Gebiete der Tierpsychologie 
bisweilen das Gefühl, daß sie selbst noch nicht immer die richtige Klarheit 
über diese Fragen gewonnen haben, und wenn sie sich darüber aussprechen, 
stimmen ihre Meinungen öfters recht wenig überein. Es scheint darum in 
dieser Zeit, wo sich ein vielseitiges Aufblühen einer kritisch gearteten tier- 
psychologischen Forschung an verschiedenen Orten bemerken läßt, nicht über- 
flüssig, einmal auseinanderzusetzen, was das Wesen dieser Wissenschaft ist, 
inwieweit sie überhaupt möglich ist und wo die Grenzen ihres Arbeitsfeldes 
liegen, insbesondere zum Behuf der Biologen, die in den letzten Jahren je 
länger je mehr anfangen, sich mit tierpsychologischen Studien zu beschäftigen. 

Wenn wir uns dann zuerst die Frage stellen, was die Tierpsychologie 
will und erstrebt, so wird eines sofort deutlich sein, nämlich daß die Tier- 
psychologie dasselbe für die Tiere, was die menschliche Psychologie, die ihr 
Prototyp war, für den Menschen erstrebt. Es liegt darum wohl die Antwort 
auf der Hand, daß die Tierpsychologie die Wissenschaft von der 
„Tierseele** sei, wie man wohl ihrem Namen nach geneigt ist, die mensch- 
liche Psychologie als die Wissenschaft von der „Seele" des Menschen zu 
definieren. 

Nun sind aber gegen diese Definition der Psychologie als „Wissenschaft 
der Seele** ernste Bedenken anzuführen. Der Begriff der „Seele** ist sehr alt, 
und hat im Laufe der Zeiten beträchtliche Verwandlungen durchgemacht. 
Er entstand als Ausdruck der uralten Auffassung, daß die menschliche Persön- 
lichkeit aus zwei verschiedenen und relativ unabhängigen Teilen bestehe, die 
als „Körper** und „Seele** unterschieden wurden. Ueber die Frage, was 
diese „Seele** sei, und wie sie mit dem Körper zusammenhänge, liefen aber 
die Auffassungen auseinander. Ursprünglich dachte man sich die Seele von 
fein materieller Art, wie ein gasförmiges Duplikat des Körpers; später wurde 
sie immateriell gedacht. Während die älteren Griechen sie sich als einen 
„Gegenstand** dachten, war sie für Aristoteles ein Komplex von vitalen 
Funktionen, und für Descartes wieder mehr oder weniger identisch mit 
unserem Begriffe des „Geistes**. Bei dem Wechseln dieser Vorstellungen 
wurde die „Seele** mit verschiedenen Eigenschaften bekleidet, die den reli- 
giösen und metaphysischen Bedürfnissen der Menschheit entsprachen, wie z. B. 
die ihrer Unsterblichkeit nach dem Tode des Körpers, ihres Vermögens in 
andere Körper überzugehen usw. So ist im Laufe der Zeiten der Begriff der 
„Seele** zu einem komplexen und vieldeutigen Begriffe geworden, einem 
Resultat mehr der Spekulation als der wissenschaftlichen Beobachtung*) 

1442.*) Aus dem Werk: Die tierpsychologische Forschung, ihre Ziele und 
Wege. Von Dr. J. A. Bierens de Haan, Priv.-Doz. an der Universität Amster- 
dam. XI, 96 Seiten mit 34 Abb. i. T. 1934. gr.SO. RM. 6.60. 

(Bildet: Bios, Abhandlungen zur theoretischen Biologie und ihrer Geschichte, 
sowie zur Philosophie der organischen Naturwissenschaften, Band 2. Heraus- 
gegeben von 26 deutschen und ausländischen Gelehrten.) 



Bücherzettel 




Firma 



Robert Müller 

Buchhandlung und Antiquariat 
für Medizin und Naturwissenschaften 



Hrsg. und verlegt voa Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig. — Druck von A. Meister, Leipzig. 

Printed in Germany. 



Berlin NW7 

Postschi iefjfach 47 



Ich erbitte aus 

Medizinische Novitäten 

Polytechnische Bibliothek 

Philosophie, Psychologie, Pädagogik 




I 



Name 



Postansiclirift: 



(Bitte recht deutliche Handschrift) 
(Nichtzutreffendes bitte durchstreichen) 




DOSTOJEWSKI 

DIE 
JUDENFRAGE 



EINHORN'VERLAG IN DACHAU BEI MÜNCHEN 




MOUTON & CO . PUBLISHERS • THE HAGUE 



Just out: 



A STUDY 

OF 

POLYANDRY 



by 

H. R. H. PRINCE PETER 
OF GREECE AND DEN MARK 



606 pages, 44 photographs, 4 figs., 2 sketches, 6 maps, 
48 genealogical tables. 16; 24 cm. Cloth. 

Price: Glds. 68.— 



(= ab. US $ 19.00, £ 6.16.-, DM 75.50, 94.50 F) 



MOUTON & CO . PUBLISHERS . THE HAGUE 



MOUTON & CO . PUBLISHERS • THE HAGUE 



This thorough study of polyandry, wliich has been undertakeii in order to 
obtain greater anthropological knowledge of a little known custom, is the 
result of several years o^ field-work. Tn the examination of the theoretical 
background, four primary questions are asked: 1) Does polyandry really 
exist? 2) If so, what are the distribution and incidence of polyandry? 3) How 
does polyandry function? 4) What are the reasons for (or correlates of) 
polyandry? A comparative review of the existing material available on the 

subject is given. 

The ethnographic study begins with a summary of people& reportedjoly- 
androus and only briefly investigated by the author, in india and Ceylon. 
There are more detailed accounts of the polyandry of the TKSf'ndans C^l^s), 
Kammalans and other artisan castes of Kerala, of the Todas of the Nilgiris, 
and especially of the Tibetans, both of Western Tibet and of Tibet proper. 
The resultant conclusions provide the answers to the questions initially 
asked in the examination of the theoretical background. These replies are 
obtaincd by a comparative analysis of the evidence, from both the existing 
material on the subject and from the material supplied by the ethnographic 

study. 

In the final chapter, an anthropological theory of polyandry is presented, a 
working hypothesis which attempts tö account for the emcrgence of poly- 
andry among the peoples studied. 

This is followed by some theoretical considerations embodied in a conclusion, 
by two appendices — which contain, the one, a narrative of the journeys made 
by the author, the other, acknowiedgements -, and by a bibliography. 
Photographs, taken in the main by the author, genealogical tablcs, and maps, 
serve to illustrate the work throughout. 



M O UTO N 



PUBLISHERS . THE HAGUE 



MOUTON & CO . PUBLISHERS • THE HAGUE 



Table of Contents 



List of Illustrations. 
Introduction. 

I. The Theoretical Background: 

1. The Anthropological Problems of Polyandry. A: Does Polyandry really exist? 
ß: What are the Distribution and Incidence of Polyandry? C: How does Polyandry 
function? D: What are the Reasons for, or at least the Correlates of, Polyandry? 

2. Comparative Review of Some of the Existing Material available on the Subject. 
A: The Distribution and Incidence of Polyandry in Mythology, History and 
Geography. B: Anthropological Theories concerning Polyandry. 

JI. The Ethnographic Study: 

1. Summary Account of Peoples Reported Polyandrous and Only Briefly In- 
vestigated in India and Ceylon. A: Peoples which proved not to be Polyandrous. 
B: Peoples which proved to be Polyandrous or to practise Cicisbeism. Addendum: 
Recent legislation designed to bring Kandyan marriages into line with general 
marriages. 

2. The Polyandry of the Thandans (Tiyas), Kammaians, and Other Artisan Castes 
of Kerala. A: Kerala, a Description. B: Polyandry in the Walluvanad Taluk of 
South Malabar and in North Cochin: Personal Observations. C: Polyandry in a 
Thandan Family of the Walluvanad Taluk of South Malabar. D: Polyandry and 
Social Change in Kerala. Addendum: Act XVII of 1 115, the Cochin Makkathayam 
Thiyya Act. 

3. The Polyandry of the Todas of the Nilgiris. A: General Study: the Todas of the 
Nilgiris. B: Special Study: Melgarsh. Addendum: Observation of the children's 
behaviour. 

4. The Polyandry of the Tibetans. Part 1 : The Polyandry of the Tibetans of 
Western Tibet. A: Polyandry in Lahul. B: Polyandry in Rupchu (Rup-ch'hu) and 
Ladak (La-Dwags). Part 2: The Polyandry of the Tibetans of Tibet Proper. A: 
Polyandry in Ü (dbUs), Tsang (gTsang), Kham (K'hams) and other Provinces of 
Tibet, as investigated from Kalimpong, West Bengal, India. B: The Polyandry of 
Fathers and Sons in Central Tibet. Addendum: Effects and Aims of the Chinese 
Communist occupation of Tibet. 

III. The Resultant Conclusions: 

1 . Comparative Analysis of the Evidence. A : Answer to Question 1 : Does Poly- 
andry really exist? B: Answer to Question 2: What are the Distribution and Inci- 
dence of Polyandry? C: Answer to Question 3: How does Polyandry function? 

2. An Anthropological Theory of Polyandry. A: Reasons suggested by the 
Existing Material and by the Ethnographic Study. B: Critical Analysis of the 
Reasons suggested. C: The proposed Anthropological Theory of Polyandry. 

Conclusion. — Appendices. — Bibliography. 



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American Anthropologist 



NEW SERIES 



Vol. 42 



APRIL-JUNE, 1940 



No. 2, Part 1 



^' 



CHANGES IN BODILY FORM OF DESCENDANTS 
OF IMMIGRANTS 



< 

) 



By FRANZ BOAS 



MESSRS. G. M. MORANT and Otto Samson have published in Bio- 
metrika, Vol. 28 (1936) pp. 13 et seq., a detailed discussion of my 
report on Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants of Tmmigrants, 1912. 
Although I believe that the question of stability or instability has been 
definitely settled by the experiments of Eugen Fischer on rats and by the 
results obtained by H. L. Shapiro in a study of the changes in bodily form 
of Japanese immigrants, the disinclination of m any to accept the legitimate 
demand _that the stabilit y of anthropometnr tmi fn in difpfirrnt t}^pp^i of 
enyironili ent shoul d be in\ ;^stigated before it can be assumed as seif- 
evident makes a reply to the new criticism desirable. 

The complaint that the method of taking the measurements of length 
and breadth of head and of zygomatic diameter has not been described is 
irrelevant because there is complete agreement among anthropologists in 
regard to this method: maximum length is the distance from glabella to 
occiput, transversal diameters are maxima. The difhculty is rather that 
notwithstanding detailed Instructions, personal equations are not ncgligi- 
ble. Differences in the amount of pressure, failure in obtaining complete 
symmetry, failure to move over a sufhciently wide area in transversal 
measurements are all sources of error which can be obviated in a staff of 
^observers solely by constant mutual control. Although Dr. Fishberg, whose 
book is discussed in the same paper, was instructed by me, thercwasno 
rnrmfapt fnntrpl and for this reason slight differences between his results 
and those of my observers are likely. For this reason also I did not use his 
data in a detailed comparison with mine. 

The authors lay particular stress upon the point that East European 
Jews are not homogeneous as indicated by Fishberg's and my own tables. 
In Order to strengthen their point the authors have calculated with un- 
necessary exactness the Standard deviations of the data given by me on 
pp. 247-249 of my report. Since the approximate value of the Standard 
error can be told at a glance from these tables and since this approximation 

183 



184 



AMERICAN ANTHROFOLOGIST 



[n. s., 42, 1940 



is sufficient to form a judgment of the significance of the difference, I did 
not print them. 

However, an important theoretical au estion is involv ed. The authors 
seem to think that the Statistical error of the average of a sample has a 
meaning except for that sample and that it is the same as the variability 
that would be obtained if more samples were taken. This would be true 
if it were possible to collect identical samples, or if the whole of Galicia, 
Poland and so on were each absolutely homogeneous. Actually, taking into 
consideration the shifting centers from which emigration proceeds no two 
series would be composed in an identical way, so that, besides the Statistical 
error, this Variation must be taken into account. I have shown that the 
Standard variability of family lines for the cephalic index of East European 
Jews is +2.29. The most closely inbred group I have been able to find are 
the South African Bastards with a family line variability of ± 1.26. Euro- 
pean groups, like Bohemians or Scotch have a family line Standard vari- 
ability of more than ± 2.00. The lowest European value is the one obtained 
from Frets' Dutch series 1.95.^ On account of the irregulär distribution of 
family lines, a shifting of the areas from which immigrants proceed, and 
the differential effects of causes of selection of immigrants, we are not 
allowed to assume that the Statistical error is equal to the variabilityof the 
immigrating groujis. "" -^ - 

Ä3ded to this is the dißiculty of a satisfactory Classification of areas of 
provenience. I stated in my report that on account of intermarriages of the 
immigrants from Eastern Europe, regardless of their provenience from 
Galicia, Poland, White Russia, etc., the Classification was unsatisfactory. 
I do not see why the authors should consider this Statement as obscure. 
There are also many for whom the only Information available is that they 
were born in Russia. 

In my report (p. 65) I have shown that the head measurements of im- 
migrants for quinquennial periods from 1880 to 1909 show no appreciable 
difference and this justifies our method of treating them all as a unit. The 
corresponding table given by the authors (Table VII) adds nothing new. 

In their further discussion of the homogeneity of the material the au- 
thors say that *'of the total of 799 adult Jews measured for the Immi- 
gration Commission 733" (according to Table XVII, p. 373 of Final 
Report, 730) '*are known to have been born in Eastern Europe, 39 were 
born in America and some of the remaining 27" (34 according to my count) 
''may have been born in Germany." This is an error. Those simply marked 

1 (American Anthropologist N. S, Vol. 18, 1916), p. 9; (Anthropologischer Anzeiger, Vol. 
7, 1931), pp. 207, 208; The Cephalic Index in Holland (Human Biology, Vol. 5, 1933), p. 592; 
The Miftd qf Primitive Man, Revised Edition (1938), p. 61. 



BOAS] 



CHANGES IN BODILY FORM OF IMMIGRANTS 



185 



Russia or Eastern Europe could not be included in the classified table of 
East European countries (p. 373 Final Report, hereafter calied FR). 

In regard to the 39 American born adult Hebrews the authors suggest 
that they must have been descendants of German Hebrews because they 
had arrived here before the influx of East European Jews began. According 
to my records there are, among these 39, one whose father is from Saxony, 
motherfrom France, and two whose ancestry could not be ascertained. The 
rest are descendants of East European Jews from Lithuania, Poland, 
Galicia, White Russia, Ruthenia, Hungary, Roumania. A few are simply 
marked ''Russia." 

In the discussion of the actual measurements the authors lay much 
stress on the influence of the changes of the cephalic index in adult life, 
and on the problem in how far it is possible to reduce the observed index 
of children and of females to adult male Standards. 

The age factor in adult life is not negligible. The authors call attention 
to the greaterlength of head of the older Jewesses (p. 18). A. Hrdlicka finds 
for "Old American" men a length of head of 197.1 mm. for 91 men 22-29 
years old; combining his group of 156 from 30 up we find 198. 3^; for women 
the corresponding values are 185.5 and 186.6. My own material coUected 
for the Immigration Commission gives the following results: 



Males 



Females 



20-25 



26 + 



20-25 



26 + 



Hebrews 
















Foreign born 


187.0 


(187) 


187.5 


(573) 


177.7 


(168) 


179.8 (628) 


American born 


188.4 


( 27) 


189.7 


( 12) 


178.8 


( 27) 


180.1 ( 15) 


Sicilian 
















Foreign born 


191.8 


(175) 


192.3 


(667) 


183.5 


(242) 


184.8 (705) 


Neapolitan 
















Foreign born 


189.9 


( 79) 


189.1 


(433) 


179.3 


(104) 


181.7 (528) 


Bohemian 
















Foreign born 


188.7 


( 47) 


189.8 


(450) 


178.2 


( 76) 


180.7 (598) 


American born 


188.6 


(56) 


188.0 


( 60) 


178.7 


( 96) 


178.7 ( 71) 


Slovak and Hungarian 














Foreign born 


188.0 


( 21) 


186.8 


(143) 


177.6 


( 26) 


179.6 (161) 


Poles 
















Foreign born 


190.1 


(30) 


189.3 


(113) 


179.6 


( 30) 


181.2 (134) 


(The last four groups 
















combincd) 


188.8 


(154) 


189.0 


(766) 


178.5 


(228) 


180.4 (964) 



The question is, in how far these increases may influence the results. The 
width of head does not show appreciable changes so that the cephalic 



2 The Old Americans (Baltimore, 1925), p. 133. 



186 



AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 



[n. s., 42, 1940 



index for the older group must be slightly lower than that of Ihe younger 
group. 

The various series published in FR give for the cephalic index of two 
age groups the following results, the difference meaning the excess of the 
younger group over the older one: 

20-25 

82.8 (214) 

84.0 (195) 



Jcws, Male 

Fcmale 
Bohemian, Slovak, Hun- 
garian and Pole, Male 

Female 
Sicilian Male 

Female 
Ncapolitan Male 

Fcmale 



83.2 (155) 

84.9 (230) 

77.9 (177) 

78.1 (249) 

80.8 ( 79) 



26 + 


Difference 


82.9 (584) 


-.1 


83.3 (643) 


+ .7 


83.6 (767) 


-.4 


84.1 (965) 


+ .8 


77.7 (666) 


+ .2 


77.8 (707) 


+ .3 


80.8 (433) 


.0 


80.6 (530) 


+ .6 



81.2 (104) 

or, on the average +.29 units of excess for the younger group over the eider 
group. Sinc