Skip to main content

Full text of "The Williams history, tracing the descendants in America of Robert Williams of Ruthin, North Wales, who settled in Carteret County, North Carolina, in 1763"

See other formats

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 
State Library of North Carolina 



The author of the Williams History, taken December 1920, in his 75th year. 

Hart^ C*rotina Stat* Ubrary 








IN 1763. 





Published by 


iND Printed in Our Own Print Shop 

A. n. 1921. 


3n ■") :.\ 



By Milton Franklin Williams 

St. Louis. Mo. 

All rights reserved 











This Williams History is the result of neai'ly ten years' eori'cspoiuleiice 
and investigation, by which the facts stated have been obtained. The 
genealogy has been completed as fai- as possible, including my antobiography 
and evolution from Ohio to the city of St. Louis, Mo., giving a brief history 
of the business that I have started and have continued with the aid of ray 
sons; I have been able to locate the burial place of my great-grandfather, 
Robert Williams, and have erected a tomb \n his iiieimii'v on llie old home- 
stead in Carteret County, North C^i'ojina ; I have also included in my history 
the data given by Jolm Shoel)ridge Williams, son of Robert AVilliams, which 
was published in 184:! in Cincinnati, in his book entitled the "American 
Pioneer, or history and sketches of the early pioneers and backwoodsmen 
of Ohio." 

In my 7()th, 71st, 72nd, 7:b-d, 74th and 75th year 1 have been engaged in 
cari-ying out the idea of writing a genealogical history of our branch of the 
Williams family and have done so to the best of my ability. I have not been 
able to find any earlier reference to my great-grandfather, Roltei't Williams, 
except that he emigrated from North Wales, from the town of Ivuthin, 
although I had a searcher in London endeavoring to look up further data 
regarding him. 

As an incentive to further investigation, and in order to supplement this 
history, I repeat a codicil to my will: that I will offer $500.00 placed in trust 
for any grandchild of mine who will take up the work within fifty years after 
uiy decease. 

Most faithfully and I'espectfully submitted, 


St. Louis, Mo., U. S. A. 

Septemlier, 1921 . 



I\Iy thanks arc hereby gratefully extended to the following correspond- 
ents for olitaininii' facts regarding the Williams History: 

Mrs. Jennie !'>. Po\vlei-. 5758 Ilai-oUlway, Hollywood, Calif. 

Mm. Francis Owen, 70 Sewall Ave., Urookline, Mass. 

Mrs. Waltei' Williams, 730 North Main St., Wheeling, W. Va. 

:Mrs. Emma 0. Wells, 1028 Broadway, Martins Fei-ry, Ohio. 

Ma-s. Sarah 1>. Maris, Damascus, (^hio. 

3Irs. Mary Walling, Bridgepoi't, I'.clmont County. Ohio. 

J. C. Edgerton, Salem, Ohio. 

Eli W. Gibbons, Barnesville, flelmont County, Ohio. 

Mary Louise Williams, Paris, Ky., Box 238. 

Mrs. John Stevens, Mason City, Iowa. 

Mrs. Ethel Bartlett. Wheeling, W. Ya., care Haucher's Jewelry Store. 

Seth 01i\-er Williams (my bi-other), Bridgeport, Belmont County, O., 
R. F. D. 

Anna B. Hampton (Cousin Robert Hampton's widow), Whittiei', Iowa. 

Uncle Amos H. Hampton, P'orrest Gt'ovc, Ore. On April 22, 1920, he 
reached his 88th milepost. 

Mrs. Mary L. Chandler (my sistei-), in her 75th year, Newton, Kan. 

D. W. Morton, Beaufort, N. C. (our searcher employed for a year in 
searching records in Carteret County, North Carolina). 

M. J. Williams (our eldest son), 37 West Van Buren sti-eet, Chicago, 111. 
(who is author of the idea of placing $500.00 in escrow in a ti'ust company 
in order to induce some near relative to perpetuate this history in forty to tifty 
years later). My incentive was the satisfaction of doing the work. 

Oliver J. Williams, 67 Second Street, San Francisco, Calif, (the Com- 
pany's Pacific Coast man, who donateil to this History a descri2)tion of his 
ladimeter, which enabled Lieut. Reed and his two associates to i\y to Europe). 

And last, but not least, H. M. Plaisted (our editor), of St. Louis, Mo.. 
who has so wonderfully assisted the historian in editing the work. 




Cut No. Page 

JMiltou Fi-nnklin Williams, in liis TGth year Frtjiitispieee 

1 Prehistoric ]Maii ] 

■2 iMap of Wales 3 

3 Wilds of Snowdon 5 

4 Twiliglit After a Stoi'in. Dinas ilaiidway 6 

5 Llandollen and Dinas ISran 7 

6 Bala Lake, Aran Mt. and ( 'edar [dris 8 

7 Cascade on the I\[oar fl 

8 The Wondrous Valley of Celert 10 

9 Above Copel Curig on the Road to P>ant>or 11 

10 In Anglesey Red Wharf Bay 12 

11 Punp Saint 13 

12 Remains of Sti'ata Fh)ri(lay Ahhcy 14 

13 Front of Ruthin Castle 15 

14 Court Vai-d of Ruthin Castle 15 

15 Devil's Bridge and Bi'idge of the ilinister IH 

16 Chirk Castle-y-Waen 17 

17 Eastern St. Machyullcth 18 

IS A Quaker in North Carolina P) 

P) Robt. Williams' Ci-ist Mill and Saw Mill P) 

20 Robt. Williams" Store at Beaufort, N. C 20 

21 Robt. Williams' Store at Newbern, N. C 20 

22 Robt. Williams' L(>tter of August 5, 1776 22 

23 Robt. Williams" Letter of August 5, 1776 23 

24 Robt. Williams ' Letter of August 9, 1776 21 

25 Robt. Williams' Letter of September 14, 1776 24 

26 Robt. Williams" Letter of September 14, 1776 (continued) 25 

27 Robt. Williams' Letter of Septend>er 14, 1776 (continued) 26 

28 Robt. Williams' Letter of September 14. 1776 (continued) 27 

29 Robt. Williams' Letter of Septem'oer 14, 1776 (continued) 28 

30 Robt. Wdliams' Letter of Septemlier 14, 1776, Postscript 29 


Cut No. Page 

■il Robt. Williams' Letter of Septembei' 14, 1776, Ending 30 

32 Robt. Williams' Lcttei' of September 14. 1776. Superscription... 31 

33 Old Mill Pond 32 

34 Present (irist Mill on Old Dam 32 

35 Old Bnllet Molds 33 

36 Old Pewter Plates ; 34 

37 Summons by Robt. Williams, iSlny 26, 1776 35 

38 Endorsement of Summons 36 

39 Summons Dated March 22, 176-) 38 

40 Endorsement 3!) 

41 Summons Dated Deoeml)cr, 1770 40 

42 Endorsement 41 

43 Summons Dated June 19, 1771 42 

44 Endorsement 43 

45 Summons Dated May, 1787 45 

46 Endorsement 4!i 

47 Account of Amln-ose t'roker Proved 47 

48 Endorsement 48 

49 Linch Ledger Account ( half p. 1 ;) 49 

50 Linch Ledger Account (balance p. 1) 50 

51 Linch Ledger Account (half p. 2) 51 

52 Linch Ledger Account (balance p. 2) 52 

53 Linch Ledger Account (half p. 3) 53 

54 Linch Ledger Account (balance p. 3 ) 54 

55 Linch Ledger Account (p. 4) 55 

56 Linch Summons, December 4, 1786 56 

57 Endorsement, December 4, 1786 57 

58 Linch Bond, December 9, 1786 59 

59 Endorsement 60 

60 Linch Peace Bond, January 8, 1787 (i2 

61 Endorsement 63 

62 Map of Robert Williams' Old Houu\stead in Cartei'et County, X. C. 65 

63 Map of ' ' Dinnant " 67 

64 Plan and Persp.ective of Robt. Williams' Biick House 68 

65 Letter by John Shoebridge Williams 69 

66 Keeper "s House 70 

67 Old Cedar Tree 70 

68 Grave of Robt. Williams 71 

69 Portrait of John Shoebridge Williams 76 

69A "Religions," from back of Card Photograph Cut No. 69, opposite 96 

70 Log Cabin of Samuel and John Shoebridge Williams 82 

70A Grave of John Shoebridge Williama — opposite 97 

7 J Enlarged Portrait of John Shoebi-idge Williams 94 


Cut No. Page 

72 Poi'trait of Sarah Patterson, His Wife 95 

7;^ The Ship "Rose"" 97 

74 Portrait of Sarah Jane Williams Fanner 100 

75 Map of Carteret County, N. ('., Coined by Franeis Fowler 101 

76 Gi'oup Photograph of 88 Descendants of John Slioehridt;e Williams 102 

77 Kej' to Group Photograjih lO.S 

78 Portrait of Mrs. Jennie B. Fowler 104 

79 Portrait of Francis C. Fowler 103 

80 Portrait of Frederic A. Fowlei' 106 

81 My Father's Cabin in the Woods 109 

82 My Cradle 109 

83 My Father and IMother 110 

84 " My Mother at the Churn 110 

85 My Trundle Bed Ill 

86 Our Second Home in Jerusalem, Ohio Ill 

87 ITncle Joseph Williams and Family — facing 254 

88 Representing the Author at Three Years of Age 112 

89 Uncle Samuel B. Williams and Family— facing 120 

90 Log Cabin School House li:^ 

91 My Grandfather Samuel Williams' Log House 114 

92 Mother at Her Spinning Wheel 117 

93 Old Franklin Mill 118 

94 Cross-cut Sawing with Father 119 

95 Franklin Mill at Baresville 122 

96 Section of French Buhr Millstone 123 

97 Ferry Boat at Baresville, Ohio 124 

98 Going to the Grocery, Aged Eight 126 

99 Hunting Cows in the Woods 127 

100 Hoeing Sugar Cane 127 

101 Mary and I Fishing 128 

102 A Fishing Gaff 128 

103 Mai-y and I Picking Stone 129 

104 Portrait of Mary Louisa and Milton F. Williams 129 

105 Our First Home in Baresville, Ohio 130 

106 Our Second Home in Baresville, Ohio 130 

107 First School House in Baresville 131 

108 Brick School House in Baresville 131 

109 Father and I Planting Cherry Trees 134 

110 Father's Old, Worn Spade 135 

111 Father's Broad Axe 135 

112 Method of Splitting Rails 136 

113 The Wiley Weeks House 137 

114 Father and I Quarrying Stone 137 


Cut No. Pag-e 

115 Sister JMary Louisa (Chandler') 138 

116 Later Home in Bridgeport, (^hio 140 

117 My Brother Seth Oliver 141 

118 Three Generatious 142 

119 Robert Earl Williams 143 

120 Mowing en Uncle Johnnj- Weeks' Farm 141 

121 Plowing on Uncle Johnny Weeks' Farm 144 

122 Riving and Si)litting Palings 145 

123 A Shavins Horse 145 

124 Shingle Punching ^Machine 14G 

125 Threshing Grain with a Flail 146 

126 A Pioneer's First Mill 147 

127 Chinese Making Rice Flour 147 

128 Hand Cradle for Grain 148 

129 Hand Cards for Wool 148 

130 Spinning Carded Rolls 148 

131 Hackling Flax ' 149 

132 A Flax P>rake 149 

133 A Hand Weaving Loom 150 

134 A Hand Loom for Flax • 150 

135 Wolf Creek Mills in 1789 154 

136 Portrait of My Uncle Samuel 1!. Williams 155 

137 Learning to Be a Millwright 157 

138 Working on a Plank Road 151 

139 Grinding Sugar Cane 152 

140 An Old French Buhr-Stone Mill 159 

141 An Early Printing Press 160 

142 A Fanning ilill 161 

143 Threshing Wheat in a Tramping Ring 161 

144 Going to Wheeling Market 1 62 

145 My Tool Chest 164 

146 Old Garland House, St. Louis 16S 

." 147 Going to Work Avith My Dinner Pail 168 

148 M. F. Williams at 27 169 

149 Mrs. M. F. Williams at 17 169 

150 Men Hauling Lumber 170 

151 Bringi]ig Coal Across the River on the Ice 170 

152 Union Market During the Epizootic 171 

152A Board from M. F. Williams' Work-bench 172 

153 The First Steamboat on the Mississippi River 173 

154 Steamboats at St. Louis in 1873 173 

155 My Best Drawing 179 

156 Portrait of W. 11. Foreman 175 


Cut Xo. Pniie 

1.')? Ninth find I'ii'ooklyn Stfccts. St. Louis 174 

158 Our First House on liacon Street 176 

159 Oui' Seeond House on I'.aeon Street 177 

160 $1000 Deed of Trust C.-ineelrd ISl 

161 Our Fii-st Oelivci'v W;ii-on 182 

162 M. F. AVilli;nns in 1!)0:} I'M 

163 Mothei' and tlie Oifl in 1008 19S 

164 King- Fishing in Floi-ida 199 

165 Mrs. M. F. Williams, 1906 202 

1 66 Ten WiUianises 20:5 

167 Our Automobile • 204 

16S Thi'ee Generations 205 

169 Grandfather and (ii'andson 206 

170 Surrounded by :\Iy Family 207 

171 Present Honir on \\'rnon A^-e , St. Louis 208 

1.72 M. F. Williams' Hall Oloek 209 

173 Our Fi'ont Hall 210 

174 Our Parlor 211 

175 Our Parlor and Dining Koom 212 

176 Our Dining Room 213 

177 Southeast Corner of Dining Room 214 

178 East Corner of Dining Room 215 

179 Well at Main Staii-way 216 

180 Our Librai'y 217 

181 East End of Our Bedroom 218 

182 Arthur's Room 219 

183 My Cabinet of Curiosities 220 

184 Our Garage at Vernon Ave 225 

185 Packard Auto, and Mr. and :Mi's. M. F. Williams 220 

186 Stutz Auto, and Mr. and Mrs. M. J. Williams of Chicago 227 

i85A Residence of II. J. Williams 228 

187 Hudson Auto, and Mr. and Mi's. A. F. Williams 229 

187A Residence of Arthur F. William,s — opposite 229 

188 Stutz Auto, and Mr. Oliver Williams and P^amily of California. . . 229 
188A Residence of 0. J. Williams 230 

189 Oakland Auto, and Dr. Edgar Carson and Family of St. Louis. . . . 231 
189A Residence of Dr. Edgar M. Carson 232 

190 Edgar Carson and Milton Franklin Williams 11 233 ■ 

190A Arthur Franklin Williams, Jr. — opposite 233 

191 M, F. Williams in His Daily Garb at Office 234 

192 M. F. Williams in Garb of Knight Templar 235 

193 M. F. Williams in Pull Dress Suit 236 

194 Grandchildren's Tree 237 


Cut No. Page 

194A Mabel V. Williams, My Grauddaughtei-, at Five Years of Age. . . 239 

194-2 Second Grandchildren's Tree — opposite 238 

195 Parents of Milton Franklin Williams and Their Family 240 

196 Struggle Mountain 242 

197 Sysbolie of a Man Who Has Faith 244 

198 Side View of Bridge Near Paris, Ky : 251 

199 End View of Bridge at Paris, Ky 252 

200 Joseph Williams, My Uncle 253 

201 Amos H. Hampton, My Uncle 250 

202 Samuel B. Williams, My Uncle 259 

203 Father and the Boys 2(34 

204 Trade Mark of Williams Patent Crusher & Pulverizer Co. (small 
size) 265 

205 Company 's Trade Mark — Medium Size 265 

206 Company's Trade Mark— Large Size, with Photo 265 

207 President Williams at Work in His Private Office 266 

208 Superintendent's Office, First Floor 267 

209 Purchasing Agent's Office, First Floor 271 

210 Main Office Lobby, Second Floor 272 

211 Office Corridor— Gallery of Notables 273 

212 Office Corridor— Gallery of Notables 274 

213 Accounting Room, Second Floor 275 

, 214 Section of Stenographers' Office 276 

215 Sectio)! of Drafting Room, Third Floor 277 

216 Section of Sample Room, Third Floor 278 

217 Section of Cage Department, First Floor 279 

218 Section pf Machine Shop, Second Floor 280 

219 Feed Mill Machinery Warehouse 280 

220 Main Forging Shop, Ninth Street .' 281 

221 Hammer Department No. 1 281 

222 Shafting Warehouse, Ninth Street 282 

223 Heavy Steel and Iron Warehouse, Ninth Street, North Side 283 

224 Steel Warehouse, South Side 284 

225 Section of Sheet Metal Department, Ninth Street 284 

226 Section of Main Engine Room (now removed) 285 

227 Old Atlas Engine in Engine Room 286 

228 Broadway Machine Shop, Front Section 287 

229 South Side Broadway Erecting Shop 287 

230 Section of Broadway Machine Shop 288 

231 Section of Broadway Erecting Floor 289 

232, Tool Room (formerly old office) 290 

233 Section of Old Pattern Shop 290 

234 Section of Old Pattern Loft, Ninth Street 291 


Cut No. rase 

235 Section of Testing and (iiiniliiiij Department 2!)'2 

23tt Section of Bvoaclway Wai-rh<iuse, Second Flooi' 2!):'. 

237 Broadway Wafeliousc, Front Section 21)3 

238 Bi'oadway Machine Shop, Middle Section 2')4 

239 Oui' l^roadway Erecting Shop 2!)ri 

240 Our Printing- Establishment 2i)(i 

241 Our Manufactuving Plant 2!)7 

242 Our Infant Grindei' 2!I,S 

243 A Pyramid of Gi'indcrs 21)!) 

244 Our Mammoth Crasher 300 

245 Eight Men in Our ilammoth ( 'rusher 301 

246 A Car Load of Ore (foir> Into Oui' Mammoth Ci'usher 302 

247 A Six-ton Piece of Oi e 303 

24S Our No. I) (iiant I'nivei'sal Limestone Grinder 304 

24!) New Concivte Building 305 

24!)A 0. J. Williams' Kadimeter ; 311 

250 Our Ne^^• Pierce Arrow Truck 315 

251 One Horse Delivery Wagon and il. F. Williams 315 

252 Oui' New Five-ton Truck and :\I. F. Williams ;}16 

253 NcAv Building, North Bay 317 

254 New J^uilding, South Bay 317 

255 New Building, Second Floor, South Bay 318 

256 New Building, Third Floor, South Bay -318 

257 New Building, Third Floor, North Bay 319 

258 New Building, Third Floor, South Bay 319 

259 New Building, Fourth Floor, Pattern Stoi'age 320 

2(i0 New 15uilding. Testing Plant 321 

261 Monument to the Business of Milton F. Williams, Pres 322 

262 The Conundrum 343 

263 Christ of the Andes 346 

264 Looking Up His Family Tree 379 

264A Footprints on the Sands of Time — opposite 3.54 

265 Christophei- L. Sholes, the Father of the Typewrite)' 363 ' 

266 Peary Expedition Walrus Hunting 375 

267 Peary's Ship After Hitting an Iceberg 376 

268 Tree of Williams Generations — opposite 37!) 

269 Beginning St. Louis, 1764 429 

270 Making Treaty with tin' Indians 430 

271 Sioux Indians in Missouri 434 

272 Lovejoy 's Printing Press Frame 435 

272 A Map Showing Where Lovejoy 's Pi'ess Frame Was Found 436 

273 Old Fort Bellefontaine 437 

274 Round Tower Near :\Iullanphv Street 438 


Cut No. Page 

275 First Court House in St. Louis 439 

276 First Presbyterian Church in St. Louis in 1840 440 

277 Chouteau Pond in 1840 441 

278 Chouteau Pond in 1850 442 

279 Selling Slaves at Coui't House 443 

280 Biiyiug SlaA'es at Court House .' 443 

281 Breaking Family Ties 444 

282 Old Union Steam Mills in 1865 445 

283 Old City Jail 446 

284 Big Mound in 1852 447 

285 Eads Bridge 448 

286 Baruum 's Hotel 449 

287 St. Louis in 1915 451 

288 Hoyt H. Green 472 

2S8A Eulogy Upon Hoyt H. C4i'een 473 

289 jMonument to King Mausolus 498 

289A Mausoleum of Emperor Hadrian 499 

290 Taj Mahal 500 

291 Westminster Abbey 501 

292 Lincoln "s Tomb 502 

293 U. S. Gi-ant "s Tomb r 502 

294 Garfield 's Tomb 503 

295 McKinley's Tomb 503 

296 Campo Santo, Genoa, Italy 504 

297 Grand View Mausoleum 504 

298 Alton Mausoleum Chapel 505 

299 Mausoleum in Toronto, Canada 505 

300 Mausoleum in Buffalo, N. Y 503 

301 Mausoleum, Rose Hill, Chicago 506 

302 Interior of a. Mausoleum 507 

302A Exterior of a Mausoleum 507 

303 Valhalla, St. Louis County 508 

304 Entrance to Valhalla 508 

305 Williams Coat of Arms — English : 522 

306 Williams Coat of Arms— Welsh 522 

307 D. W. Morton and Wife 537 

308 Ye Editor, II. M. Plaisted 560 



Part One AValcs and (1) Roliert Williams PaKOs 7- 74 

Part Two John Shoebi-idgc Williaur 

Part Three Milton Franklin Williams' Autohiouraphv 

Part Four Business Section 

Part Five Philosophical Sayings and Useful Data. 

Part Six Gencalos'ieal Section 

Part Ten App(>ndi: 

Pai-t Eleven Glossarv 

Part Twelve Index 

Part Seven St. Louis and Vicinity " 429-468 

Part Eiaht Obituaries 

Part Nine Mausoleums " 497-510 




How Old Is Man? — Prehistoric man— Early races in Wales and Great 
Britain — Origin of the Welsh people — First Celt invasion — Second Celt inva- 
sion — Roman invasion — Histor.y of Ruthin, North "Wales — City Twice De- 
:'.tr:iyed — Scenery of Wales — Noted Men oi Wales — Sailors, bards, writers and 
poets of Wales — Examples of Welsh triads — Three great Quakers — Ruthin 
Castle as rebuilt after destruction — My Great-grandfather Robert AVilliams — 
Marries the English lady Elizabeth Dearman and sails for North Carolina — 
Anne Shoebridge, second wife of Robert William;, and my great-grandmother 
— My sister Jane remembers seeing Great-grandmother Anne Shoebridge Wil- 
liams — Death of Great-grandmother Anne in 1845 — Business enterprises of 
Robert Williams in North Carolina, at Beaufort and Newborn — Reproduction 
of original reports of Robert Williams en the salt works constructed by him 
in 1776, being the first Avorks of the kind in the new world — Mill dam for 
grist mill and saw mill constructed by Robert Williams across Black Creek 
at what is now Newport, N. C. — His ancestral c:5tate — Old water power still 
ill use — Carteret Lodge, Inc., new the owner of the homestead of Robert 
AViliiams — Reproductions of .original coni't records pertaining to Robert 
Williams and explanation of the same — Change of government from Great 
Britain to the United States of America shown in said records— Reproduction 
of original ledger account of Jonas Linch with Robert Williamj — Remarks 
thereon — Description of Robert Williams' estate with map drawn by his son 
John Shoebridge Williams, and explanation of the same — Plan and elevation 
of Robert Williams' house, the brick for which were brought from England 
— Cedar tree where John Shoebridge Williams hid the clam shells as a lioy — 
Keeper's house on the site of Robert Williams' old home — Grave of Robert 
Williams and the stone and fence erected to his memory by his Crreat-grand- 
son, Milton F. Williamr; — County records referring to the will of Robert 
Williams — Richard Williams, first son of Robert Williams — Elizabeth Wil- 
liams Garretson, daughter of Robert Williams — A Quaker marriage — Robert 
Williams' first land purchase — Improvements nov; being made at and near 
the homestead of Robert Williams — Public higliway lunning past Robert 
Williams" grave and exteiidinji from Boitmi. Mass.. lo Tampa, Floi'ida. 



My Great-uncle, John Shccbridiie, son of Robert Williams and younger 
brother of my Gi'andfatlier Samuel Williams — Only three of the eight childi'en 
of Robert Williams' second mai'riage survived to leave descendants — Testi- 
mony of John Shoehridgc regai'dinii' his father's marriage to his first wife and 
their coming to this (Miuntry — Roi)ert Williams' business reverses — Early life 
of John — His early schooling — Cause of his father's business reverses — His 
father's death, and emigration of his mother, Anne Shoebridge Williams, with 
his sister Elizabeth and his l)rother Samuel, to what is now the state of Ohio 
— Sailing from Beaufort to Alexandria — Travel through the A^i]-gi)iia moun- 
tains — Sojourn at B'redericktoAvn, Pa. — Travel through Pennsylvania moun- 
tains into Ohio — Their new home in the woods occupied Christmas, 1800 — 
The life of a pioneer family, their hardship3, pleasures and daily employment 
— A pioneer's daily life — John's visit to his old home, 42 years later — Char- 
acter of a pioneer — Improved nu)de of living — Getting out of the woods — 
Light for winter evenings in pioneer days — Substitutes for shoe leather and 
clothing — Domestic animals — John's account of his brother Richard's school, 
and John's own schooling attained under difficulties — John's experience as 
a surveyor of the National Road — John's family of ten children by his hi-st 
wife, Sarah Patterson — John's later life and descendants, and his death at 
the age of 88 — Samuel Williams, older brother of John, and my grandfather 
— Samuel's eleven children — Earlier Williamses of Massachusetts, another 
braiich of the family — Review of Robert Williams and his descendants — 
Genealogy of Jennie B. Fowler, a descendant of John Shoebridge Williams — 
Group photo of John Shoebridge Williams and his descendants preiiared by 
Jennie B. Fowler — Her autobiography and photos of her twin sons. 


Pages 107-262 

Born October 13, 1846 — Description of our cabin in the woods — Father and 
mother — Childhood recollections — Our home at Jerusalem and incidents of my 
childhood — Our log school house — Grandfather Samuel Williams — My visit 
home in 1916 — Emigration to Monroe Count}' at six years of age — Williams 
Brothers' mill — Helping my father saw logs — My apprenticeship with Uncle 
Samuel — Revo'ses of the Williams Brothers — Old French bulir millstone — 
Return of the Williams Brothers — I meet Alexander Voegtly after 41 yi'ars 
— History of the old Franklin millstone — Our family life in Baresville — Sister 
Mary and myself at work and fi.^hing — Description of our first home in Bares- 
ville — Our second home in Baresville — Our schoolhouse and school life in 
Baresville — Personal habits and character of the author — ily first literary 
attempt — Sister Mary's letter — Helping father plant trees at oui' home in 
Bridgeport, Ohio — Father's spade and In'cad-axe — Laying the foundation of 


our Rridgeport home — My sistei' Mary Louisa — And her marriage — Appear- 
auce of our old home at Bridgeport at the present time — My only brother, 
Seth Oliver Williamc — Farm life near Bridgeport — Getting out shingles and 
claiDboards — Old-time mill construction — Pioneer methods of threshing and 
grinding grain — Preparing wool and weaving cloth — Hackling, breaking and 
weaving flax for cloth — My experience on the Plank Road from Bridgeport 
to Maultown — Helping father make molasses from sugar cane — Making ba- 
gasse from sugar cane — Boiling down siTgareane syrup — Reminiscence regard- 
ing Wolf Ci'eek Mills — My Uncle Samuel B. Williams — My last experience a?; 
a i'ai'iuer — Leai-ning the millwright trade with my Uncle Samuel — Incident 
at Yokum and lUitcher's saw mill near Somerton — My experience at Hall's 
mill — Threshing and winnowing grain— ^Tramping ring for threshing grain — 
Going to Wheeling Market in 1861 — My millwright experience in Kansas — 
My tool chest — My work in St. Louis as journeyman millwright — An impor- 
tant incident at Starmton, Ills. — My fii-st boarding place in St. Louis at the 
old Garland House — Going to work in St. Louis — Photos of the author and 
his wife before marriage — Incidents of the smallpox and epizootic in St. 
Louis — River traffic at St. Louis — Relic of m_y first work-bench — Going into 
partnership with W. H. Foreman — My marriage and first housekeeping — 
Our first home on Bacon Street — Our Bacon street home as improved — With 
Eobert L. Downton, millwright — Short partnership with Wm. H. Scott — The 
author's best drawing — Partnership with Wm. G. Rheinhart — .$1000.00 deed 
•of trust paid — My son running our first delivery wagon — My friend J. H. 
Spinning — Edward H. Pi-iekey — I buy a shop at 2705-7 North Broadway — 
My conception of the Hinged Hannner Crusher — First commercial crushei- — 
Incidents on the road introducing my crusher — Lessons in politeness — A 
Marsden episode — And my returning good for evil — Early imitators of ray 
machine — My travels in foreign countries and world-Avide introduction of my 
crusher — An incident on leaving Glasgow on the steamer — The voyage to New 
York — My best photograph, at the age of 57 — King fishing in Florida — My 
wife and daughter — Incidents in Florida at St. Augustine, Palm Beach, Deto- 
nia, Miami, and my Aasit to Havana, Cuba — Ten Williamses in a row — The 
author surrounded by his family — Three generations — Our home on Vernon 
Ave., St. Louis — Our hall clock and pertinent remarks thereon — Illustrations 
and description of our i-esidence on Vernon Ave. — My cabinet of curiosities 
— Illustrations and descriptions of automobiles belonging to myself and mem- 
bers of my family — Homes of my sons, Milton. Arthur and- Oliver Williams, 
and of my daughter, Florence — My two grandsons — The author in his daily 
garb, in dress suit and as a Knight Templar — My grandchildren's tree — Recol- 
lection of my Sister Jane of President Lincoln's assassination — Group picture 
of the parents of the author and his brothers and sisters — Allegory of Struggle 
]\Iountain — Signposts on the road to success — Discourse on Faith — The 
author's narrow escapes from death — My Great-aunt Elizabeth Williams Gar- 
retson — ]\Iy Aunt Peninah Gibbons — Amos H. Hampton, my mother's brother 
—A wooden bridge at Paris, Ky. — Joseph Williams, my father's oldest brother, 
and his letter to his intended wife — Clipping from the oldest newspaper in 
Kentucky, giving early historical incidents of the National Road, laid out by 
ray Great-uncle John Shoebridge Williams — My Uncle Samuel B. Williams 
and his elevator — Final remarks. 



The sueccssfnl man — Fathei' and the boys — My fii'st visit t(i California — 
Harry Parti'idge — Oni- Company ti'ado mai'k : arm and hammer device — 
President Williams in his private ol'tiee — Superintendent's office — Former 
Superintendent E. II. Frickey — Manufaetni'inii- manaoement and advance 
under "William M. Davidson as superintendent — Oui- last sti'ike in October, 
1916 — Impressive comparisons of our output of lirindei's — Puix-hiisiiifj- At^ent's 
office — Lobby of the main office — Picture gallery cf notable persons in our 
main lobby — Our Accountant's office — Stenographer's office— Drafting room 
— Sam.ple room, showing oui' early forms of hammers — Cage Milling Depart- 
ment — Montgomer}' Street Machine Shop — Former Cage ShojD — Main Forging 
Shop — Hammer Department — Ninth Street Shafting Department — Steel and 
Iron Warehouse — Sheet Metal Department — Old Engine Room — Old Atlas en- 
gine — Former Broadway Machine Shop — Broadway Erecting Shop — Broad- 
way Machine Shop — Broadway Erecting Floor — Broadway Tool Room — Old 
pattern loft, Ninth street — Old Testing Department — No. 1 Broadway Ware- 
house, second floor — Broadway Warehouse — first fioor — Main machine shop — 
Broadway Erecting Shop — Our printing establishment — Our manufacturing 
plant — A pyramid of our grinders — Our infant crusher — Our growing outp\it 
and number of crushei'3 — Our Mammoth and Jumbo crushers — Use on iron 
ore and coal — Scope of the Williams Jumbo and Mammoth ci'ushers — Our new 
four-story concrete building — Machine sliop on first and second floors, new 
building — Thii'd floor woodworking shop — Fourth floor pattern loft — Adju- 
dicated patents — List of patents and trade marks — 0. J. Williams' radimeter 
— Its invention and importance as applied to aeroplanes in the U. S. Navy — 
List cf millionaire Williamses — A step above the wheelbarrow — Our one-horse 
delivery wagon — Our five-ton Pierec-Arrow truck — Our new machine shop 
and woodworking shop and testing plant in the new concrete building — A 
good monument illustrating our trade mark and business. 


AVords spoken avul written and their influenca on mankind — Remarks 
by the author on the world food supply — Advice to use the best part of wheat 
ground in the Williams way — The Blake Milling Company letter and com- 
ments thereon — Letter to the Post-Dispatch on "Justice, Not Revenge" — 
Fountain Park Congi'egational Church and good business advice on reducing 
a mortgage — Letter to Globe-Democrat newspaper regarding the poem writ- 
ten by the sou of C. E. Haase and the action of the School Board thereon — 
Letter to Mr. Danforth of the Ralston Purina Company regarding settlement 
for repair parts — Comments on A. L. Shapleigh's invitation to a social gath- 
ering — F. L. Smith and Company, Engineers, and statement of advantages 
of the Williams Cross Groove, Never Slip Pulley — Senator Ingalls' essay on 
Grass — Letter from one Milton to another, and comments thereon by the 
author — ^Allegory of David and Goliath and analogy of man from the cradle 
to the grave — Christ of the Andes — The seven ages of man and conunents on 


Shakespeare's play — Remarks on Pope's Essay on Man — The glory of parent- 
hood and comments thereon — Gems of good advice approved by the author 
— Fourteen points in the League of Success — CoramentG on the I. W. AV. — 
Carelessness our worst enemy — Gold as a standard of money — Footprints on 
the sands of time, and comments thereon — Life is as you make it — Philosophi- 
cal sayings — Hard facts of the iron age — Wise sayings and doings — Business 
proverbs — Comments on John Ruskin and his work — A stationary engineer — 
Examples of successful men — A rich man's son — Protits — Inventors and ex- 
amples of their work — The high cost of living — Christopher Latham Sholes, 
inventor of the typewriter — Accumulating a surplus — Work, save and think 
— The wisdom of men — Special privileges — Study, think, act — Coaunents by 
Gladstone, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington and Daniel Webster on the 
American Constitution — The Star Spangled Banner — Lives of a few great 
men^The power of will — Education and information and results — Great dis- 
coverers — The first white child born in Ohio — Taxation due to the Woi'ld 
War — Many family names and given names in the war list — jMortality rate 
of the world — A tribute to the Quakers and history of the movement — Peary 
expedition to the North Pole — Drawing blood from walrus — Repairing Peary's 
i-elief ship — World explorers. 

PART SIX— GENEALOGICAL ■. . . Pages 379-128 

Explanation of figures in genealogical record — Looking up his family 
tree — A noteworthy statement by the author — Synopsis of the four main 
limbs, branches and twigs of the genealogical tree — Chart of Williams of 
Ruthin, Wales — Chart of (3) Joseph Williams — Chart of (3) Anne Williams 
(Patterson) — Chart of (3) Robert Williams— Chart of the author's family — 
Chart of (4) Ruthanna Williams (Murdock) — Chart of (4) Sarah Angelina 
Williams (Weeks'! — Chart of (4) Seth Oliver W^illiams— Chart of (3) Mary 
Williams (Hampton) — Chart of (3) Peninah Williams (Gibbons) — Chart of 
(3) Martha Williams (Stanton)— Chart of (3) Samuel B. Williams— Chart 
of (2) John Shoebridge Williams — Chart of (3) Benjamin Franklin Williams 
—Chart of (3) Robert Fulton Williams— Chart of (3) Anne Shoebridge Wil- 
liams (Beman) — Chart of (3) Joseph Patterson Williams — Chart of (3) Sarah 
Jane Williams (Farmer)— Chart of (3) Martha Belle Williams (Van Yleck). 


Founding of St. Loui.s — Indian treaties — Pierre Laclede Ligueste — City 
incorporated 3822- — Interesting items regarding the early city — Indians of 
Missouri — Elijah P. Lovejoy and his printing press at Alton — Old Fort Belle- 
fontaine near St. Louis — Round tower at St. Louis — First court house in- St. 
Louis — Chouteau's Pond in 1840 and 18.50— Selling slaves in St. Louis — Old 
Union Steam mill — The city jail in 1870 — The big mound^The Eads Bridge 


— linniuiu's Ildtel— Fii'st iuito license — Dow iMdWii sci-lioii of SI. Louis in llHr. 
— Evolution of the strcd i-;iihvay — Intorurhaii railways — Illinois ti'action 
system — City improvpinciil, widoiino' Twelfth street — St. Louis as a fui' mar- 
ket—Facts about St. Louis— City parks— Growth of St. Louis since 1828— 
War losses of the Unite,! States, showino' :!4.S44 killed in action— The tin. 
epidemic of lOlfl and the moi'tality rat( — The Hu iiuu'e disastrous than the 
World War — Ancient tin epidemics — Flu statistics — Telephone statistics — 
Mississippi River traffic and the new haroe line. 


Mark Antony's eulogy of Julius Caesar — Gettysburg Addi'ess of Abraham 
Lincoln — Senator Vest's tribute to the dog as man's friend — Longfellow on 
our dumb companions — Mortuary statement regarding my friend, Hoyt H. 
Green — M. P. Williams' eulogy on Hoyt H. Gi'cen — Letter to Ruggles- 
Coles Engineering Company, on the death of their' pi'csident — Eulog.v 
on the life and death of Samuel Grigg^^Short eulogy upon the 
death of Porter Pleasant, and a letter of • condolence — Eulogy on the 
life and death of Thomas H. Howard, ray old companion — Eulogy of 
Thomas Richards — Letter of condolence upon the death of Mrs. A. G. Olds 
— My suggestion of a triumphal arch in Forest Park in memory of. our soldier 
boys who died in the late war — Let the coui't house stand — Eulogy on Charles 
G. Henning — Eulogy on my father Robert Williams by Robert W. Hampton 
— Obituary of Robert W. Hampton by his wife, Anna — Notes on Robert Edwin 
Peary, and the Farthest North, and comments by the author — Oldest pho- 
tographer in St. Louis, Emil Boehl, and his death — Death of the Roman 
Antoninus Pius — Meditations of a Roman General on life and death — Tribute 
to Death by the Persians — Bryant's Thanatopsis — Gray's Elegy — Sir Walter 
Raleigh's apostrophe to Death — The author's statement of his belief — Honor 
to our St. Louis dead — Poem in memoi-iam — A new Thanatopsis — Whittier's 
serene trust as a Quaker — Reipiiescat in ])ace — Extract fi'om Whittier's 
"Snow Bound" — A Quaker's bi'oad charity — The Best Authority on death 
and resurrection. 


Reason for this section — Meaning of the word — The first mausoleum of 
King Mausolus at Halicarnassus — Emperor Hadrian — And mausoleum of 
the Castle of San Angelo — Taj Mahal, at Agi-a, India — Westminster Abbey in 
London — Lincoln's Tomb — Grant's Tomb — Garfield's Tomb — McKinle.v's 
Tomb — Mausoleum at Canipo Santo, Genoa, Italy — Grandview Mausoleum, 
Alton, Illinois — Mausoleum at Toronto, Canada — Mausohnnn at BniTalo, N. Y. 
— Rose Hill Mausoleum, Chicago — Valhalla Cemetery at St. Louis. Mo. — A 
Grand American Monument at Washington, D. .0 


PART TEN— APPENDIX Pages 51 1-562 

Wills of various Edward Williamses and abstracts — Abstracts of other 
Williams wills found by Constance White — List of wills and administrations, 
1720-1727 — Williams coat of arms — The Williams family by Eleanora Lexing- 
ton — Records of Denbigh and his Lordship — Roger Williams and the Quakers 
in America — The New England Williamses — Abstract of will of Thomas Wil- 
liams, 1757 — Notes from records of, Carteret County, N. C, by D. W. Morton 
showing property bought by Robert Williams and deed of trust sales by him 
— Extracts from court records regarding the salt works built by Robert Wil- 
liams — Only record found of the will of Robert Williams — Report of the exec- 
utors of Robert Williams' will — Letter from Cousin R. W. Hamilton — Morton's 
letter on the Stanton family — Data by Cousin Flora Williams regarding rec- 
ollections of Aunt Sarah Williams — Parents' record from the Bible of John 
Shoebridge Williams — Record of children, marriages and deaths from John 
Shoebridge Williams' Bible — Some others of the Williams family name, with 
their addresses and business rating by Boyd's City Dispatch — Record of Car- 
teret Lodge regarding the grave of ray Great-grandfather Robert Williams — 
Fui'ther reminiscences of Muscatine, Iowa—Robert AVilliams Surgeon— James 
A. Fisher's letter regarding locomotive brought across the Mississippi River 
on the ice — Great-uncle John's statement regarding "Religions" — Andrew 
Carnegie's Memoirs — Questions b3^ Thomas A. Edison and answers thereto — 
Trip liy the author and Mrs. Williams in their auto to Mason City, Iowa — 
Closing statement by the editor. ■ 




How old is Man? 

Cut No. 1 — Reproflucf 

Xational Geographic ]\Iagazine representi 
man, or the cave chveller. 

Our present historical records begin in 
Egypt and the country near tlic Tigris and 
Euphi-ates rivers, and go l)acls; about 5,000 
years, but the first dim indications of anytliing 
that can properly be called history do not go 
further back than 7,000 years. 

How small a length of time seems the pei-iod 
of historical records, when we compare such 

records Mitli the mute evidences of the life of 
man which have been found only within the 
last 200 years, and mainly in central France. 
These relics are in the shape of carvings on 
ivory and paintings on stone and bone, juad" 
by hands long since crumbled to dust, awd 
pei-haps in some cases preserved by coverings 
of material that prevented the corroding action 
of air, and had kept out the moisture, which 


powei-fiilly upon the gran- 
Is of wliicli oui- eai-tli is 

two elemonts 
ite and all n 

The Avhite man lias not been an important 
element in history for mueh more than 3,000 
years. Less than 1liat time ago a new race 
eame out of Kfaiiee, wliieli race 'was formed 
by the combination of men from Denmark and 
the Scandinavian countries, who as sea roveis 
and sea i-obbers comjuei-ed and settled the 
northern part of Fi-ance, and combined in time 
with the inhabitants to form that powerful I'ace 
of Normans from Normandy or northern 
.France, which spread over England and all the 
Bi'itish Isles, and fronr which the present stub- 
born race of Britain is descended. They also 
formed a new type of race in Finance. 

All through Finance, Great Hi-itain and Eu- 
I'ope there are traces of four oi- five different 
types of man. all of which types may be dis- 
cerned today in the population of Europe. 
These i-aces oi- types of men seemingly eame 
from sonu^ iiai't of .Asia, hut i)i'<'vi<ius to tlicir 
coming was a I'ace of man that has no di'sccud- 
ants today, as far as known. This race also 
came from Asia, and is called the "Cro-^Iag- 
non.'" A race of hunters — strong, w(>ll built, 
having considerable ai'tistic ability as shown by 
their carvings, drawings and paintings, of the 
mammoth Bison, aurocs, i-hinoceros, horse, 
reitideei-, cave bear and cave lion, which have 
been found in the caves of France. Think of 
such a i-aee living 25,000 to 80,000 years ago, 
and now entirely vanished from the earth after 
having reached considerable height in what 
might be called civilization, when we consider 
their predecessors. 

Previous to this noble race of Innitei's who 
have left their I'l-lics in the ca\es of France, 
Avas a race that « a ; not i-elatcd at all to these 
Cro-Magnons, Init apjiai-ently eame from Asia 
and lived for twice that pei-iod of time fi'om 
the present day to the time of Cro-Magnon, or 
50,000 years, in those same caves, fighting for 
their lives against the cave bear, the saber 
tooth tiger, the mammoth and the woolly rhinos 
of that third interglacial pei'iod. 

Some 60 years ago a skull of one of these 
men was found in a cave called "La Chappelle- 
aux-Saints" near Correze, Prance, which is in 

the Yt'/.cvr valle.v. These men wei'e sipiat, 
bui'l.A'. big-headed thick skull savages, with 
bi'ows projecting <)\ov cavei'uous eyes, knees 
permancjitly bent, and .jaws abnost chinless. 
This is indicated by this skull found about 60 
yeai's ago in a Fail' state of ]ii-cs<'i'vation. and 
along with the bones of the woolly i-hinocei'os, 
musk-ox, i-eindeer and steppe horse which 
swai'incd over the laml. 

Primitive tools of flint and other stone were 
the only implements they had to defend them- 
selves and to gain their food, mainly from ani- 
mals nearly as wild as themselves. They did 
not ha\(' bread noi' cultivate the ground and 
could not therefore in that sense, be said to 
"earn their bread by the sweat of their brow." 
They M'ere, ho>\ever, might.v hunters, consider- 
ing till' animals they had to fight against and 
with: and they spread all over Europe 
although thinly, as the relics that have been 
found surely indicate. They were not our 
ancestors, h(>wever, and the C'ro-Magnous who 
followed them wim'i' not descended from them. 
At the tiiiK' that these Neanderthal men lived 
in Fin'ope, the Uritish Isles A\ere connected to 

I'rior to this race of savages the only man 
I hat we at in-eseut can locate are three races or 
types of man known as the "Piltdown" or near 
man, a being seemingly but half human and 
possessing eight canine-like teeth. 

Before him was the type called -'Heidel- 
burg" man who lived in the warm second intei'- 
glaeial iieriod. He was a chinless being whose 
ja\\- was still so primitive it must have made 
his s]ieech iin|ierfect, and he was much lower 
than any existing savage of the pres(>nt day. 

Prior to him is the earliest man yet found, 
whom we call the ape man of Java, a pre- 
human creature, who lived ])robably 500,000 
years ago. At this time the mammals which 
for ages had existed as small warm-blooded 
beasts of low type, developed along many dif- 
ferent lines, including that of the primates and 
anthropoid apes, aiul finally the half human 
predecessor of man himself. Whether man ever 
descended fi'om th(> apes was never fuU.v 
pi'oven by l)ai'\vin, the great exiionent of the 
theory, and it is remarkable that amongst all 


ihesc iTlics, 
found, showi 

iiJi'iimst, and li 
thcii- (iwii Mi'v a 

and I a' 
ivcd i ii 

icli of tlicsc I'aci's of iiicii came from soiiit' 
III hicality in x\sia, spi'ead over the wor'ld 
y kiirw it at theii' tinu', I' some dt'grt''' 
I- mode of life, and then di.'d and left no 

howinf; Sorrow's Route. 

It is remai-kahle that man's researches 
have not been able to find the central point of 
origin of the hiuuan I'aee and have only l>een 
able to locate it somewhere in Central Asia. 
It has been the conclusion of snch men as Os- 
boi'H, -who has recently published "Men of the 

mankimi, always better than its predecessor, 
Imt not dev<'loping from those who inhabited 
the land they entered. Some place in Asia was 
the nursery from which each race of man Avas 
sent out fully developed, and always better 
developed than the race 2o,000 or 100.000 years 


previously iiiliabitiiig the Eiu'opean countries. 
It is only by comparison of the strata of the 
earth or rocks, and comparison of the bones of 
animals found alons' with the bones nf man- 
kind, that the estimate of time ean. l)e made: 
but it is certain that it took luaiiy -lo'es for the 
growth of man upward from the time of the 
"rough stone'" to the "polished stone age,'' 
through the "bronze age'" and within sight of 
our present historical records A\ineh fdnii mi 

very small a fraction of the tin 
mankind of some type oi' othi 
our eai'th. 

dui'iii- wh 

In winding up the article, Dv. Osborn's con- 
chisions are stated tentatively— that is, scien- 
tifically — as strong iiroba1iilities not certain- 
ties: they are as follows, ;)n(l lliey i-cpi'esent the 
conelusidHs A\liieli are in accord ^vith our pres- 
ent knowledge. 

From the eai'licst I'aleoli 
times. Western Euro])e was i 
human evolution. It did ii 
single species of iiiaii. nor did 
in any marked ,'voliili,.n ,„• 1 
liuman tyjies. The main i-aei 
place to the Eastwar.l, wlien 
live and aftcrwai-ds modei-i 
found their way Westward. 

Of all the raees of i'alro 
appeared in I'hii-opc. no mir 
any other: tliey all siieeessi\ 
formed. Thm'eroic the fain 
of descent of tlie i-a<'es of ilic < 
sist of a numbei- of cnlirely > 
which had been eomplelely 
Eastern mass of tln> ureat En 



a1 that tiuK 

. It 


ai-e scatter 

d ov 


iidiabited '. 



shin-t, well 


The sudden ap])earanec in Europe some 
25,000 years ago of a human race with a high 
order of brain was not a local leap foi-ward, or 
the result of a long process of evolution else- 
where. Throughout the whole period there was 
a long slow process of checkered progress, 
marked by the rise and fall of races, of cultures 
and of industries. 


at Ihc island.'- 
re part of tin 

Ages ago. Geologists st 
that now form Great l'>rit, 

main land of Euroi3e. The inhabitants of what 
is now Wales and Great Britain woi-e stunted 
savages, living in caves, using stone hatchets. 
and like imi^lements, and not cultivating the 
soil iioi' herding cattle. They were the men of 
the ■river drift" — that is, the early men called 
Paleolithic nn.Mi who lived among the trash and 
di-ift fi-t))n the melting of the glaciers that pre- 
viousl.A- eovei-ed the whole European continent. 
What fe\^■ relics have been found of this race 
of men, indicate that they have nothing in 
common \\itli any tribe or race of the present 

Ages passed and the climate grew milder. 
Volcanic changes occurred in other pai-ts of 
Europe, causing the land along the ocean to 
change its elevation, to sink in some places and 
rise in others. ]'>y these changes, the islands 
that we ]iow know as the British Isles, became 
separated from the mainland and a new race 
of men appeared who still used crude imple- 
in.Mits of stone, but m\ieh nu)rc perfect than 
those of the nnm of the "i-iver drift." They 
also <Milti\atcil the soil and had herds of domes- 
lie animals, and fi'om the thread of their own 
s|)innin,u foiini'il garments to ])rotect them 

;!nd eromleehs iioM' found in (ii-e;it l>ritain. 
Their govei-nment was i)atriai-ehal. in which 


■iests wei-,' the only rulers 
;)Ugh1 fi-om the tcnnlis that 
!i-itaiu, that these people 
of the laud. They were 
with bla(d< hair and dark 
eoniph'xions. Their pli,\'sical characteristics 
were much like the Iberian race of Avestern 
Europe. At the present day in many of the less 
settled ])arts of Ireland, Scotland and Wales, 
men (if similar characteristics are fouu^l — that 
IS, sin.rt, sti-ong, dark haired and dark skinned 
men who are doubtless desceutlants of these 
Xeolithie men, who followed the earliest sav- 
ages in possession of Britain. 

It w; 



abited the 
I by the Celts, 
that separated 
It is not known 



when this invasion hcufin. ikiv Imw lonsi it 
lasted. It miitht luivc hiM-ii jioiiij;' (in for yrars 
or foi- a century, hut it is known that tliis Celtic 
invasion consisted of two groups or races of 
men. The first jiroup have their descendants 
in the lliglilands of Scotland, the Isle of Man, 
and tile people who speak Gaelic in Iirland. 
These first ( -elts were called Goidels, which in 
iiuxlern lan!i;uage means Gaels, and which we 
IhinU of as the Flighlandi'rs of Scotland. 

After III 

ui\ \('ai's 

imasion li 

<1 si.ira.l 

vaders ha' 


which this 


itiveiiess as well as the stuhborn will 
and never knows when it is licked, 
never gives up, have come down to 1 
race inhabiting England and Wales. 
Iluxley says that the only lacc in i 
before the coming of tlic Celts was 
skinned, dark-haired nicn that \\rr 
Iberians of the South. 

England and Wales until a 
century before Christ, when a 
tician named Pytheas. set sail 1 
Alarsrillrs in France on the .M< 

that fights 
because it 
he pi-csent 


the ,lark- 

the four 
: matheii 
•hat is IK 

Cut No. 3— Tlie Wilds of Snowdon. 

the early inlialiitants, another inva.sion by the 
Celtic race occurred from another bi'anch. This 
second invasion forced the early celts to the 
westward into Wah^s and Ireland, and to the 
North into the Highlands of Scotland, where 
tlieir descendants now li\-e. The secoiul gi'oup 
of Celts wer(> called (Jauls oi- Brythons, from 
which we get the mndei-ii liritons, and they 
seem to liave lieen stronger physically than the 
first Celts, as they succeeded in driving them 
out of England. These light-haired Celts fol- 
lowed up and drove out the short dai'k-skinncd 
Cells. It is evident that the great .stick-to- 

passed around Spain aiul through the "Pillai-s 
of Hercules.'' now called Gibraltar, and sailed 
North along the coast of France until he 
reached the Southern coast of England. He 
nuide a landing there and endeavored to 
ari'ange foi' trade with the inhabitants who 
Avere said to have mines of tin. He then sailed 
to the mouth of the Rhine and went back across 
France bj' land, for at that time sea voyages 
were looked upon as extremely dangerous, and 
those who passed the Rock of Gibraltar into the 
Atlantic scarcely expected ever to reach their 
homes again. 


When Caesar with his legions conquered all 
Ganl, he looked for new worlds to coniiuer, and 
the Avhite chalk cliffs of England aroused his 
curiosity. He took his con(|uering- legions 
across the channel eai'ly one morning, fifty-five 
years before Christ, and made a landing on the 
Southern coast of England at what is now 
Deal. The savages opposed his landing and 
storms scattered bis ships so that he was glad 
to m:d<e a truce with tlic warrior tribes and 
I'eturned to Ronu'. The foUowing year, how- 
ever, he again invaded England and after many 
battles succeeded in 1)riiigin.'i- tlu^ islands niuh'i' 

Welsh people, and their history under succes- 
sive rulei's or invaders of Clreat Britain. It 
was not until the time of Edward the First, 
King of England, that Wales was brought into 
acknowledged subjection to England's King. 
This little promontory composing Wales is only 
135 miles long. North and South, and 95 miles 
wide. Its Northern part diminishes to 35 miles. 
It has about 1,800,000 inhabitants at present, 
and something over 7,000 scpiare miles. So 
when we see some shoi't, stocky, dark-skinned 
son of a Welshman, we will undei-stand that 
lie iirohiibly came from the eai-ly inhalntants of 

Cut No. 4— Twilight after a storm, Dinas M:indwa\ 

Roman rule. Tlic wild iiuiuntainous parts of 
Wales were inbai)ited by men who lield out 
against all attacks, but the Romans proceeded 
to make through that marshy land, a scries or 
net work of roads like the Roman highways 
of their native bind, •which I'oads were so Avell 
built that they are used to this day two thou- 
saml years after they were made. England 
and Wales remained under Roman rule for five 
centuries and when the Romans left the coun- 
try unpi'otected, the Picts and Scots took ad- 
vantage of their leaving to enter and assume 
the rulership of the Early liritous. That is as 
far as we need to gii in tracing the origin of the 

that country and is a descendant of the first 
('(>ltic invasion. On the other haitd, a blue- 
eyed, fair-skinned, light-haired Britisher is 
probably a descendant of the Brithonic type 
of the second Celtic invasion. 

But in reality in this genealogical book it is 
only designed to give a brief sketch of the 
writer's understanding of the first great cause 
of our tribe of the Welshmen, and that he be- 
longed to the Celtic ti'ibe: and the best author- 
ity goes to prove that in his coming and devel- 
opment and starting point possibly from Asia 
or perchance, from Asia jMinor, that the early 
beginning was bloodthirsty and contentious. 


All of the races in fact which eman;ited i'l-oiu 
Asia Minor oi- Asia more j)roporly, were at 
war and war is still going on between the Ger- 
mans and French, the Turks and the English, 
so that in this year of 1918 it would seem by 
the World's greatest war that instead of the 
ascendancy and enlightenment of man, we are 
descending and going back to Harltai'ism. 

But "sufficient unto the day is the evil 
thereof." While it re(inired many bimdrctls of 
years to tone down the members of the human 
family and. cause them to be law abiding citi- 
zens, in tile Gei-man race it has cropped out 

appeared on this cai'tli. 

Therefore the )-eadei-s must <lra\v iMUiclusions 
as best they can and take the wiiter's ideas for 
what thry ai-c worth as to the tirst great cause 
oi- ('\-()lutioii of mankind. 


Ruthin, or Rhuddddin as it is sometimes re- 
ferred to in early records, is located in Den- 
bighshire, Wales. It is an extremely old town, 
having ))een an ancient British fo!-tress prior to 
the time of Edward the First. The Jiame, free- 
ly translated, means "red and brown town," 
licinii- (Icrivi'd from a sti'atnm of red fi'eestone 

mo)-e bloodthirsty than in previous years. W'e 
had hoped and still hope for the toning down 
of Humanit,y. Let us continue to hope that 
Democracy may pervade the whole world after 
this inhuman war is over, and in presenting 
these few prefaces of the origin and evolution 
of mankind we show the engravinsis of prehis- 
toric wildness in Wales to call the attention of 
the reader more vividly than by any other 
means to the evolution of nmn alongside acts 
of the Great Architect, the Lord of all, and his 
book of knowledge handed down to the genera- 
tions following each otlu-r ever since nuui tii'st 

pervadinii' tlu- sui-rounding country. The to^vn 
of Ruthin from the earliest days of its exist- 
ence has been used as a liattlegroimd by one 
faction after another until many of the early 
records havt' been destroyed or lost, hi 1400 
Owain Glyndwe, in I'cvolt Henry the 
Fourth, attacked the place during a Fair and 
captured the town, although the castle held out 
successi'ully. During the struggle between the 
soldiei's of Cromwol] and the Monarchy the 
town was the scene of several bitter struggles. 
In 1(U4 an attack was made by the Parlia- 
ment::ry trooi)s under Col. :\lytton, liut the 


Royalist garrison beat oS the attack. In 1646 
Col. Myttou made another attempt to capture 
Ruthin, and after long and savage fighting suc- 
ceeded. The fortifications were all demolished 
after the garrison had surrendered. Only a 
few ruins of the ancient castle remain. Near 
the present town hall of Ruthin is a crude 
block of limestone called MaenHuail on which 
it is said the celebrated Prince Arthur behead- 
ed his rival Huail. Another quaint reminder 
of the early days is Ruthin-mill. On its east- 
ern gable is a red stone cross. 

Mv ancestors came from Xorthei'ii Wales 

extensive it is one of the most pictures(iue 
countries in the world, a country in which Na- 
ture displays herself in her wildest, boldest 
and occasionally most lovely forms. The in- 
habitants, who speak an ancient and peculiar 
language, do not call this i-egion AVales nor 
themselves Welsh. They call themselves 
CymiT or Cumry and their eounti-y Cymru, or 
the land of the Cumry. Wales or Wallia, how- 
ever, is the true, proper and without doubt 
original name, as it relates not to any partic- 
ular race, which at pi-esent inhalnts it, or may 
bav(> sojourned in it at any long bygone pe- 



t ■;._ 

: ~ z -^ 


Xo. fi— Balan Lake 

ig the Aran Mountain and Cedar Tdr 

and thcrcfdi'c it is of intei-cst to know what 
>;took, and wliat cii'i-iuiistances and suiToiaul- 
ings had tlieii- intlnence upon my ))rogenitors, 
that, descending through our family trees, ac- 
count for the influence upon our lives and 
those of oui- descendants. Therefore the fol- 
lowing quotation from ' ' Borrows Wild Wales, 
written by Geoi'ge Borrow in 1S54, and illustra- 
tions of the scenery of Northei-n Wales that 
was familiar to our ancestors, are here intro- 
duced : 

"Wales is a country intei-estinu- in many 
respects and deserving of moi'e attention than 
it has hitherto met with. Though not verv 

i-iod, but to the country itself. Wales signifies 
a land of mountains, of vales, of dingles, 
chasms, and springs. 

"But it is not for its scenery alone that 
Wales is deserving of being visited; scenery 
soon palls unless it is associated Avith remark- 
able events and the names of remarkable men. 
Perhaps there is no country in the whole Avorld 
which has been the scene of events more stir- 
ring and remarkable than those recorded in 
the history of Wales. What other country has 
been the scene of a struggle so deadly, so em- 
bittered, and protracted as that between the 
Cumro and the Saxon? A struggle which did 

FAMors \vAi{i;[()i;s ok •walks 

not terminate at Caernarvon, ^\■\n^n Kihvanl 
Jjous'shanks foistctl his youn^' son ii|)(iii the 
Welsh Chieftains as Prinee of Wales: l.iit was 
kept up until the battle of Koswoi-th Kield, 
when a prinee of Cuiiiric blood won the erowii 
of fair Britain \eut\nig tlic olden ^\old Axhich 
had cheered the hunts ot the Antic nt Hiitons 
foi' at least a thoiisind m us t\t\\ in tnius ot 

rod I 


^ full share. Kirst 
of aelinii. tliei'e was .Madoe, llie son of Owaili 
(i\\yne(hl. who discovered America centuries 
before Columbus was born; then tlnii' was 
■■Ihe irre-idar and wild ( deiHh.wcr. ' ' who 
iMimd i( b, I It th, u, ol si\t\ was cmiu ned 
KiiU ot \\ ,1 s It Ma(h\nlhlh in. I for loiir- 
tcdi \(ais Lontm.d to Indd his own auaiiist 

the darkest distress and gloom :- 

"J Jut after long pain 
Eepose we shall obtain, 

When the sway barbaric has purg'd us elean; 
And Britons shall regain 
Their crown and their doiiiaiH, 

And the foreign oppressor be no more seen." 

'■Of remarkable men Wales has assuredly 

the whole power of England: then there was 
IJyee Ap Thomas, the best soldiei' of his time, 
whose hands placed the British crown on the 
brow of Heiiry the Seventh, and ^\liom bluff 
Henry tlu' Eighth deliohte.l to eall Kather 
Pi-ee-e: then theiv was— who .'--w li.\-, Harry 
Morgan, wlio led Ihose li-emeiulous fellows, the 
Hueean<'ers, ,-,c]-oss ihe Isllnnus of Darien to 
Ihesaek-and burning (W Panama." 


(Note. — Right here allow me to introduce the 
fact that Milton F. Williams, the author of this 
work, and his good wife, Mrs. Milton F. Wil- 
liams, visited old Panama and new Panama in 
February, 1912, and saw the ruins of Morgan's 
destruction of stone houses in old Panama so 
long ago that trees one foot oi' a foot and a 
half in girth had grown ui) inside of the walls 

him, permitting him to attain the noble age of 
ninety, and to die peacefully and tranquilly at 
Jamaica, whilst smoking his pipe in his shady 
arbour, Avith his smiling plantation of sugar- 
canes full in view. How unlike the fate of 
Harry Morgan to that of Lolonois, a being as 
daring and enterprising as the Wel.«'hman, but 
a monster Avithout ruth or disei-iuiii'ation, ter- 



'j'S ^if^*"- " 't^^^f'^^^Mi 


Cut No s— n 

yet standing of some of the l)idldini>s in old 
Panama, or more properly, the fort aiid aeeom- 
panying houses.) 

"What, a buccaneer in the list? Ay I and 
why not? Morgan was a scourge, it is true, 
but he was a scourge of God upon the cruel 
Spaniards of the New World, the merciless 
taskmasters and butchers of the Indian race, 
on M'hich account God favoured and prospered 

]-ible to friend and foe, who perished by the 
hands. ]iot of the Si)aniards, but of the Indians, 
who tore him limb fi-oiu liiul), Inu'uing his 
mendjers, yet quivering, iu the tire — which very 
Indians Morgan contrived to mak'6 his own 
firm friends, and whose difficult lahguage he 
spoke with the same facility as English, Span- 
ish, and his own South Welsh. 

" Fo]- men of uenius, Wales dnriny a long 


period was particulai'ly rclcln-aicd. Who lias 
not heard of the Wrish I'.ai'ds .'— Ihoiiiili it is 
true that, beyond the hoidei-s of Wales, only a 
verj^ few are ac(juainted ^vith their songs, ow- 
ing to the language, by no means an easy one, 
in which they were (•onii)()seil, Iloiunii- to th<'m 
all! everlasting glory to the tlirec greatest — 
Taliesin, Ab Gwlyin and GroinvN- Owen: the 
first a professed Chi'istian, but in i-cality a 
Druid, whose poems tiiiig great light on the 
doctrines of the ])rimitive lU'iesthood of Europe, 
which corresj^ond i-cmai'kably witli the philoso- 
phy of the Hindus, before the time of l^rahma ; 
the second, the grand i)()i't of Nature, the eon- 

aliounding with nohlc si-i'ii('i'.\-, rich in eventful 
liistories, and which arc not s])ai'iiigly dotted 
with the bii'thplacps of hei'oes and poets, in 
whicli ;it the jnvscnt (Uiy thei'e is either no 
liopn.lation at all, or one of a character which 
is anything Imt attractive. Of a coimtry in the 
fii-st predicament, the Scottish Highlands af- 
ford an example : What a connti'.y is that High- 
land I'Cgion I What scenery, and what associa- 
tions ! If Wales has its Snowdon and C'ader 
Idris, the have their Hill for the 
Water Dogs, and that of the Swarthy Swine: 
If Wales has a hist.irv. s.. have the Iliuhlands 

Xo. !t — Above Copel Curi,? on tlie Road to Bangor. 

temporary of Chaucer, but worth half a dozen 
of the accomplished Avord-master, the ingenious 
■y'ersifier of Norman and Italian tales; the 
third, a learned and irreproachable minister of 
the Church of England, and one of the great- 
est poets of the last century, who after several 
narrow escapes from starvation, both in Eng- 
land and Wales, died master of a paltry school 
at New Brunswick, in Noi'th America, some 
time about the year 1780. 

"But Wales has something l)esides its won- 
derful scenery, its eventful history, and its 
illustrious men of yore to interest the visitor. 
Wales has n population, and a remarkable 

— not indeed so remarkable as that of Wales, 
but eventful enough : If Wales has had its he- 
roes, its Glendower and Father Pryee, the 
Highlands have had their Evan Cameron and 
Ranald of Moydart ; If Wales has had its ro- 
mantic characters, its Griffith Ap Nicholas and 
Harry Morgan, the Highlands have had Rob 
Roy and that strange fellow, Donald Macleod, 
the man of the broadsword, the leader of the 
Fi'eacadan Dhu. Avho at Fonteno.y caused, — the 
Lord only knows, — how many Frenchmen's 
heads to fly off their shoulders, who lived to 
the age of one hundred and seven, and at sev- 
ent.v-one performed gallant service on the 
Heights of Abraham; wrapiied in who';e plaid 


the dying' Wolfe ^vas cari-icd fi'oni the liill of 
victory.— If Wales has been a Ian. I of son- 
have not the Highlands also? — If Wales can 
boast of Ab Gwilym and Gronwy, the High- 
lands can boast of Ossian and Maclntyre. In 
many inspects the two regions ai'e e(iua]s or 
Jieai'ly so. In one respect, however, a matter 
of the present day, and a very imijortant mat- 
ter, too, they are anything but equals. Wales 
has a population — but where is tliat of the 
Highlands; Plenty of noble scenery, plenty of 
delightful associations, historical, poetical, and 
romantic — lint, where is the ]io])nlation ? 

"All i-an pei'ceive a fault, whei-e there is one — 
A (lii'ty seam]) will find one, where there's 

— George Barrow. 

The following is from "Knightly Legends 
of Wales" edited by Sidney Lanier: 

"Among the Welsh, indeed as far liack as 
histoi'y can pierce, we find an almost ado!-ing 
i-everence for the poet. To assume the fnue- 
tion of a bard is to assume the function of 
the wisest man and best teaehei' in society; 
;.nd thei-efore the utmost pains are taken with 

Cut Xo. to— In Anglesey Red Wharf Bay. Traethcoch and the Count\ o 

"The population of Wales has not departed 
across the Atlantic, like that of the Highlands; 
it remains at home, and a remarkalile pojju- 
lation it is. — very different from the present 
inhabitants of several beautiful lands of olden 
fame, who have strangely degenerated from 
their forefathers. Wales has not only a popu- 
lation, but a highly interesting one — hardy and 
frugal, yet kind and hospitable — a bit crazed, 
it is true, on the subject of religion, but still 
retaining plenty of old Celtic peculiarities, and 
still speaking — Diolch i Duw ! — the language 
of Glendower and the Bards.'' 

the young bard's education and he is held 
bound to know all that can be known. Among 
the oldest remains of Welsh Poetic wisdom that 
have come down to us, are what were called 
The Triads, in Avhich wise aphorisms and say- 
ings are effectively grouped together by threes. 
This is similar to the double arrangement of 
King Solomon's pi-overbs which have long been 
quoted as among the best maxims for Business 
as well as Morals, — one man making it a prac- 
tice to present to every new omiiloyee in his 
office a copy of the Proverbs with directions 
to studv them for his own benefit and that of 


the company. 

The following four examples of the Welsh 
form of composition show an insight and 
breadth which render them instructive to the 
wisest readei's of our own time. 

(1) "The thi'ee (lualifications of poetry are: 
Endowment of genius, judgment fi'om expei'i- 

(4) "The three foundations of learning: 
Seeing much, suffering much, and studying 

It would be difficult to find more wisdom in 
fewer words, or loftier thought in simpler 
terms. Especially note that one of the founda- 
tions of judgment is "freciuent mi.stakes,'" on 

Cut No 11— Punp Samt 
enee, and happiness of mind. 

(2) "The three primary requisites of gen- 
ius: An eye that can see Nature, a heart that 
can feel Nature, and boldness that dares fol- 
low Nature. 

(3) "The three foundations of judgment: 
Bold design, constant practice, and frequent 

small town ii b'Outh W ale> 

the theory that "the man who never makes a 
mistake never does anything;'" that, I think, 
should be supplemented by the statement that 
"he should never make the same mistake 
twice," as that indicates that he learns from 
his mistakes. 

Wastefulness shows poor breeding- and is 
sure to bring Want. 

-M. F. W. 


The AVelsli are equal in genius and intellect 
and learning to any people under the sun and 
speak a language older than Greek and may 
be the Parent of the Greek. 

No mention is made of Quakers in North 
or South Wales in Borrows' "Wild Wales," 
except at or near Cardiff; there he mentions 
a Quaker burying ground with no tombs, no 
marking, except a plain slab over a tomb with 
the following inscription: 

"To the memory of Thomas Edmonds, who 
Died April 9th, 1802, aged 60 yrs., and of Mary 

Great Grandfather, Robert Williams. His 
father, Edward Williams, according to the best 
authority, was born at or near the same place. 
Ruthin is in North Wales and is known in 
Welsh as the "Red Fortress" and is spelled 
Rhudd Ddin. The castle is situated upon a 
hill rising from the river Clwyd and the near- 
est county seat to said castle is.Denbig; the 
town itself is very old, and according to a leg- 
end of Arthur, it is told that his limestone 
block is shown in the market place to this day. 

The town was connected with the DeGrey 


. ;l. M 

m Wale 

Edmonds, who died Jany. 4th, 1810, aged 70." 

Three great Quakers were George Pox, Wil- 
liam Penn and Joseph Gowney. His mention 
of Quakers is a place, Caerfili Castle, a great 
castle built by one John De Bryse, a Norman. 

Also near extensive iron works and forgei 
belonging to one Sir Charles Morgan, which 
castle was ruined by CromAvell. 

The Welsh language contains 80,000 words. 
It has seven vowels. 

The town or village of Ruthin in Denbigh- 
shire, North Wales, was the birthplace of my 

a\ A.bbey from the church yard standing 
m 1901 

de Ruthyn family, the first lord of Avhich died 
in 1353. Owen Glendower. a warrior of olden 
times riuoted frequently in Borrows' Wild 
Wales, attacked the town of Ruthin but unsuc- 
cessfully in the year of 1400. Later the castle 
was sold by the DeGreys to Henry the Seventh, 
and Elizabeth, who inherited same, gave it to 
Dudley, Earl of Warwick. 

In 1646, after a two months' siege, the cas- 
tle was dismantled by the parliamentarians. 
The new castle occupies the same site and is 
built of the same colored sandstone as the old 
castle. A free Grammar School was founded 


in 1595 by Gabriel Goodman, dean of Weslinin- 
ster, and the new bnildiiiRs wei-e comnk't-d in 

The town of Ruthin is small, and the pop- 
ulation as given in 1901 was 2643; but Ruthin 
has been the scene of many desperate battles 
and has been twice destroyed by the eiHMiiy. 

Pictures of Ruthin Castle are given on jjage 

372, Annals. An1 ii|iiities of llir Coinilics and 
County Families of Wales, published hy 
Thomas Nicholson and pi'inted by Longmans, 

Green, Reader & Com 


Pater Nos1( 

r Row, 

London, England, rr( 

Ill wlii 

■li cuts Nns. 

13 and 

14 are here reproduc 
Loui^ Library. 

■d rnii 

1 a ropy in 

llie St. 

The EneyeloiuMlia 


nica, letli 


ifX^l ^-j% 


Lut \ J 14— Lu 


refers to the destuiction of Ruthiii iii \ nth 
"Wales in the 18th ceutun, <in(l to othn inon 
or less complete de&ti'uetioiis oi this ('it\ l)^ I i^ 
and sword, by which iccoids a\cic destiovcd 
In the locality in Caiteiet County, Noith ( aio 
Una, Avherc our aneestoi, Roberi "Williaip of 
Ruthin, located m Aincuca fiit also occiiii^d 
and destroyed luaiij Aaluahk u oids a)\<\ 

IS tlhit ot JaiK i: Williams hu daufihtcr. 

Ill Idiiiiu l)a(k t.i ( <iit(i(t ( ouiity. Xortli 
( .iioliii I a iiiiiiil (1 ol iiiteKsfiiio- (Idcuiiieiits 
lla^e bcui sKuud li\ I) W Moi ton, scan-her. 
A\hich I ha\( liad i(|)iodu(ed and which are 
shoAN 11 111 I his his1(ii \ 

Til. k.omIs „I cMii laniih, as obtained from 
1hi \M(1<I\ M.iltdcd iiKiuhds, all aK-rec in 

Cm No. 15— The D 


therefore the writei' has beei 
successful in obtaining; coiiics 

and other records pertaiiiiiisi to his ancestors : Iraciiiii- hack their lini'' to Kohert Williams. 

in those localities. who was horn in Rnlliin. North Wales. Ajiril 

In PiUthin, little is left o|- the Old Grave Yard, ' -'!>. ]T2:l. in 1h,. Coiinty Denbighshire, and died 

described in Borrows' Wild Wales; hut one Septemher 4, 17!l(l, on his estate called Dinnant 

tomb he states is left staiulins--, designatiiiii' near Beaufort, Cartm-et County, North Caro 

the grave of Elizabeth Williams, and an epi- lina. He \\as of a roaming disposition, and 

taph also inscribed uiuiii the same tombstone went 1o l-jighind, from Mlieiice he is said to 

North Carolina Sfafe Library 


have sailed in liis own shij) lor tlio ('aroliiiaa. 
Extracts from the eoui't i-ceord.s of Noi'tli (Jar- 
olina show that he bouf^ht land in 176;') in dif- 
ferent parcels ainoiinting; to over 300 acres 
along the north side of Newport Rivei', and on 
both sides of Black Creek. Various piwchases 
of land amountinc: to 4.000 acres and sales bv 
iinu ot land m this loealit\ np to the tnne of 
his death ni 17')(), .ni touinl in the leeoid of 
dc< ds ot this c()niit\ (Sie aj)])! ndi\ ) 

Kobeit Williams < sta 
1 \e\\l)enie and also a 

.hshed t 
1 r.ea 11 lo 

t, N 

stoi ( s 
, aiMl 



Only one son was born to liobeit Willi) 
and Elizaiieth Dearman, his wife. His n; 
is Richard Williams, who was boin Nov. 


The second wife of Robert Williams was 
daiif,'hter of Richard Shoebridgc an<l Mai 
|{<lle Hichaid Sho. biKlc bom 171_' 
K<nt En-rland, and Ann<, the daufrlit. i 
Kichaid .iiid .NL'utha, boi n Sept 7, I' 
111 London Entrland, .ind was 2f) \eais old w 
111 1774 sh< became the si cond Mlfc ot Kol 
Williams Sh. Incd to be 't7 \,ais old 


Cut No. 16— Chirk Cast 

on one of his trips to England he married an 
English lady, named Elizabeth Dearman, in 
the year 1767. It was a long trip of upAvurds 
of three months in a sailing vessel at that time 
from England to North Carolina, and it was 
natural that the young l3Tide should desire 
company. She prevailed upon her friend. Anne 
Shoebridge of Essex or London, to go with 
them. When Elizabeth Dearman Williams died 
in 1773 on the family estate near Beaufort, 
Robert Williams, after a suitable interval, mar- 
ried on Oct. 10, 1774, this friend and compan- 
ion of his first wife. 

died June 9, 1845, noai- Somerton, Belmont 
County, Ohio, at the home of her sou, Samuel 
Williams, my grandfather. During the latter 
10 years of her life she was blind, but was abh^ 
to do plain knitting, although she had to de- 
pend upon others for the heels and toes of the 
socks that she knitted. It is of record tliat in 
the last year of her life she partially recovered 
her sight, so that she was able to recognize her 

It is worthy of note in this connection that 
this Anne Shoebridge Williams was seen by 
Jane E. Williams, the oldest sister of the a-uthor 


of this autobiography: though uow (1919) 80 
years old, she has a distinet recollection of her 
visit when a little girl to Somerton, Iiclraont 
County, Ohio, whore this blind old lady, Anne 
Shoebridge Williams, was living with her son, 
Samuel Williams. She distinctly remembers 
that this C4reat Grandmother, Anne, was blind, 
hut A\as able to find her way about the liouse 
and that she was ahvays knitting. Thus the 

proac'hing death \\as given her. ^ly sister 
Jane was 6 ,yea]"s old at the time of Great 
Grandmother's death in 1845, and remembers 
that she and the other children were sent over 
the hill to Gi'andmothei- Hampton's house 
while Father and Mother went to the funeral 
of Great Grandmother Anne at Grandfather 
Williams' house. Grandfather Hampton and 
Grandfather Samuel Williams lived about a 

past of seventy-five years ago is linked u]i ivith 
the present by the testimony of a li\ing wit- 
ness. Jane Elizabeth Williams, my sister. 

AiHitliei- recollection of Sister Jane is that 
our mother told her that Great Grandmother 
Anne Shoebridge Williams died while sitting 
in her chair and that her Son Samuel (my 
grandfather) was holding her hand when she 
died. Probably some premonition of hei' ap 

mile apart ncai' Somerton, Ohio, and we lived 
at lliat tiiiu" between the two Grandfatl'ers. 
Wlieii a funeral was at one house the children 
would be sent to the other liouse, and ovi this 
occasion Jane and her younger sisters, Har.nah 
and I\lary Louisa, were sent to Grandmother 
Hami)ton. Father and Mother returned from 
the funei'al the same day. and Great Gi-and- 
mother Williams was Iniried in the Fri' nds 
burying ground, ,i\ist outside of Somerton, 


No. IS is syiuljolie of our great grandlallu'i' 
Robt. Williams in North Caiolina. Possibly 
in those da.ys they did not understand the art 
of photography. It is more prol)al)le -that 
artists understood only the science of sketch- 
ing from imagination. It Avill bring more 
vividly to the mind of the reader the Williams 
family's first great cause in America liy this 
symbolic picture of our great grandfather 
Williams standing in front of his Avindow at 
this brick house near Newberne, Carteret Coun- 
ty, N. C, a sketch of Avhich is pre- 
sented in another part of the book along M-ith 
Robt. Williams" history, later than this picture. 

mill, which w.^re erected about 177:! I,y liol.t. 
Williams, oui- great j-rainlfal h,T from liuthiii. 
Wales, on llie old fai'in of 1,100 acres in ''ar- 
tcret Couiily, X. C. Our great grandfallier. 
being a thrifty Welshman and a live wire in 
1700 pei-iod, Imving both a sawmill and 
mill on the same dam which is mentioned in 
Uncle .Tohn Shoebridge Williams' history, triv- 
ing a portion of his father's autol)iogi-aphy in 
Carteret County. He mentions that a great 
freshet came and destroyed the dam, and the 
water poui'ing ovei' the dam washed out a hole 
below the dam about DO feet in depth. This 

is to call attention of the reader moi-e vividiv 

Cut \c 19— (.11 t Mill ml Sawmill t k bert Williams 

Cut No. 18— The Quaker. 

Let this be the beginning of what historical 
facts we have been able to find thus far. Not 
even a tombstone, not even a death i-ecorrl, as 
the town of Newberne vas destroyed b.v fire 
after 1776. We have searched in Newberne, 
Beaufort, and made searches in four conuties 
surrounding Carteret, and nothing have we 
found thus far except the record of this man 's 
transactions in real estate, and the originals 
of several letters between himself and the Com- 
monwealth in I'eference to him being employed 
to collect salt from the marshes for the Conti- 
nental Army and the community at large. 

Cut No. 19 represents a gi-ist mill and saw- 

to the thrift of our great grandfather arid to 
the fact further enlarged upon, that this Wil- 
liams and the following Williams were mill 

Robert Williams, in North Carolina, had two 
mercantile establishments, one at Newberne 
and the other at Beaufort. The one (No. 20^ 
showing the two prairie schooners with oxen 
hitched to same, and a load of bay in the fore- 
ground, we will say represents his store in 
Beaufort, then no doubt a country side. This 
store ho operated about the year 1776 and 
earlier, aceoi'ding to all authentic accounts, and 
this picture of a mercantile establishment is 


more to show that ho was a man of thrift in 
those da.y than for any other purpose, what we 
would term in the year 1919 "a live wire" and 
a "leading citizen." This description compiled 
by Milton V. Williams, the author and pub- 
lisher of the book. 

The counterpart picture (No. 21) represents 

was larger than the other and more pi-etentious 
and I commend the same to my followej-s and 
they can judge of Great Grandfather's business 
in these early days. A man who saibM from 
London is his own ship, and had two mercan- 
tile establishments in the 1776 days was a Tnan 
who undoubtedly was upon the firing line at 

Cut No 20— Rolxrt Williaiis store it Tcautoit 

Cut No 21— Robert Willuims' Store at Xcnliirne 

another mercantile establishment with only one all times and a leading citizen. If he did in 

prairie schooner drawn b^' oxen. I think my , , , , • „ . ■ ■ i 

, , ' ,' -^ , , , later davs lose his property as lorteit on a i)ond 

engraver must have made a mistake — he has ^ ^• . 

a modern buggy with a horse hitched to it, it showed him to be an honest and upriiiht man 

another horse at the hitching post. If this is and no doubt he sold his pi-operty ni order to 

not correct, they will both be a horse on him. pay his just debts, which is a trail of character 

I take it for granted that one establishment "t" all Williams in our lineage. 


y^ii- w'^^. f^-.-t7>c/- f]^^.-^<j A^^^^^f- 

Aw (t 


& , 

J ^ ^u 




/r^ f,.../' <^.''-^ .Cm^-..^ fl.^:j ^'- --^^^ V 





■ ^ j»^ • H f\ \ 


V H 

i I f ^ 

N4^1 =^ 




UT4^^4 ^. x^J U I 

^ '^=='*:^ ^%^ 

Cut No. 23— Robert Williams' Letter of Aug. 5, 1776. 




- $ 

> : 

; ^- 

- Ni ^ >- ^ "^ > -^^ N. O -^ ^ 

1 >s\ 



Cut No. 25— Robert Williams' Letter of Sept. 14, 1776. 







s . ^ • > ^ i' - 
< • .\ ^-. v^ Vt* ■ i 





■ A 

^1 \ >o ^ ; ■ ^ •- -^ 



5 '■ 

'S .- 

: * 

-. v.- ^^ -X ' ^ 




, ^ t i V- ^^v w 









. "^ .J. -'^ >-^ 


'■• '• 

Cut No. 26— Robert \Villianis' Letter of Sept. 14, 1776, continued. 




1 f ? ^ 

5 -^ ^' ^-; 

■- r ^ -X. 


■^ ^ ' < ^ A ^ n: .* \ \ 






^'^ >. 

4^ ^ 

J >^' 

Cut No. 28— Robert Williams' Letter of Sept. 14, 1776, continued. 


Cut No, 29 — Robert Williams' Letter of Sept. 14, 1776, continued. 


Cut No. 30 — Robert Vviiliams' Letter of Sept. 14, 1776. i'ostcript. 


^' y^ - I ? 'i -- ' s: 


■'■^ ly ^"c^ -^^^^ ^- 

Cut Xo. 31— Robert Wi 

Letter of Sept. 14, 1776. Ending. 


Cut No. 32— Superscription of Robert Williams' Letter of Sept. 14, 1776, 



Besides his stores at Newberne and Beaufort, 
N. C, great grandfather Robert Williams built 
some salt works, as shown by extracip from 
Colonial Records of North Carolina, "Volume 
10, pages 723, 724, 620 and 538, and from Sta+e 

90 feet in depth from the top of the dam. This 
was rebuilt, howeve)-, and the mills were run 
until Robert Williams' death in 1790, when the 
executors sold the property that included the 
dam and mills to William Fisher (see Ai)pcn- 
dix). This pi'operty included "a hundred 
ac)-es of land lying continuous thereto" and 

Cut No. 33— Old Mill Pond made by Robert Williams' Dam 

Records, Volume 22, pages 739, 745, to V:p 
Council in 1776. These records are shown u 
Cuts 22-32, inclusive. This was an important 
public work, as salt was a necessity. Newport 
River was on tide water, and Black Creek led 
from a great swamp called "Poeoson" into 
Newport River. 

was sold foi' 900 pounds current money of the 
State. It remained in the Fisher family until 
about 1839 or 1840, when one David S. Jones, 
Avho was Fisher's grandson, inherited part of 
the property and got part of it by purchase 
from the other Fisher heirs. The property 
remained in the Jones family until 1878 or 1879 

Cut No. 34— Present Grist Mill on 

Across Black Creek Robei't Williams liuilt 
a dam on which was located a lumber mill and 
grist mill, and a large pond was formed by the 
back water. (See Cuts Nos. 62 and 63.) 

No sooner had this dam been completed than 
a heavy freshet carried it away, making a hole 

St end of the old Dam. 
Avhen the heirs of David S. Jones sold to tliffer- 
ent parties and the property finally was pur- 
chased by the Dukes and the Trinity Land Co. 
of Durham, N. C, and New York, who kept the 
property as a hunting preserve for several 
years. It is now (1920) owned by Carteret 
Lodge, a eorpoi'ation having its main office at 
Kinston, N. C, 


The old si'ist mill uscil liy \lo\u-r\ WiHi;iins 
was washed away by tlie hreakinK of tlic dam 
about 90 years ago, or about 1829. An over- 
seer of Jones, named Martin, rebuilt these old 
mills about 65 or 70 years ago. 


In 1919 a saw mill si; 
the dam when- Ihe ol. 
mill formerly stood. Ti 
for the last two or tlii'c 

id of 

(See Scci-ctary (Jfiodson 's letter in Ai)peiidi.\.) 

The old mill pond i.s still practically the 
same as it was in sresit grandfather's time, as 
illustj'ated ))>• Cut No. 33. 

Cut No. :',:> shows an old ],\vr,' of furniture 
wliicli is supposed to have been handed down 
from my great grandfathei- thi-ough his de- 
sceiidanls, with a button mold, and shows the 
mode of makinii- Inittons at that time. All 
larmcrs, all settlers, all pioneers, made their 

mill, as rebuilt at the west end of the dam, is 
still in operation in 3919 (see Cut No. 34). 
About 200 yards from the present grist mill is 
the spot amongst the trees Avhere Robert Wil- 
liams is buried. 

The Directors of Carteret Lodge, at a meet- 
ing held September 9, 1920, at the Lodge, reit- 
erated through their Secretary, J. W. Goodson, 
the permission given to M. F. Williams to fence 
in and care for this grave of his greatgrand- 
father, Robert Williams. Under the laws of 
North Carolina the State protects a private 
burying ground, and the future owners of Car- 
teret Lodge, should it change hands, cannot 
molest or interfere with this grave and fence. 

own buttons in those days, as they had no other 
means of getting them in this countiy. 

Cut No. 36 shows a stand or table containing 
a pewter platter and two pewter plates, which 
legend states are relics of oui- ancestor in North 
Carolina, Robt. Williams, and now in posses- 
sion of my first cousin, Levina Gibbons, living 
near Barnesville, Belmont County, Ohio, at 
this date. 

Barnesville, Ohio, 6/19/iS 
Dear Cousin Milton : 

Thy letter received with check inclosed for 
which please accept my thanks. As far as the 
history of the pewter plates is concerned I can 


1ell you vory little. It has always heoii my 
iiiKlcrstaiuliiig that the set of pewter was 
l)i-oui;ht over from England by our ancestor, 
who tii-st came over from that country. The 
pewter platter and the two plates in the picture 
are all that remain in our possession of the 
set. The button molds were used to make but- 
tons foi- the family, and 1 ])resume each family 
had one. T mean each pioneer family. The 
liutloiis wei'e made of a composition mostly 
pewrter. '{"he explanation on the backs of two 

noticed the faint, Tinfanuliai' odoi' coming from 
these relics of the past? Perhaps an old pair 
of knit gloves and scarf still contain the odor 
of the camiDhor by which they wei'e preserved; 
01' an old tobacco box gives forth a fragrance 
of the weed that was smoked in your grand- 
father's time, and which none of the present 
blends of tobacco appear to equal. Or some 
old papers — whether from business associates 
or other more personal friends and ac([uaint- 
ances — are found in such a chest where thev 

Cut X 

of the jiictures which 1 sent might be used in 
connection with this shoi-t history. 
With loAe. th.v cousin, 
Per Ejiuna. ELI W. rJIP>P.ONS. 






Have you ever opened an old chest contain- 
ing clothing and papers of a bygone age and 

rewter Plates. 

have lain for years; and when the baud is 
broken the papers se])arate as they used to do 
in yeai's gone by when they were read or re- 
I'ead by eyes that have long ceased to look on 
mortal sphere with mortal eye— howevei-, the 
spii-it eyes of the writer may still behold us — 
and thei'e comes to you)' nosti'ils the faint, 
elusive fi-agi'ance oi' odors of othei' days and 
doings, that take you back in inuigination till 
you seem to see the \\-ritei's in their (puiint old- 
time dress and habit, and heai' faintly Ihoiv 
speech in the |)eculiar half-forgotlen idiom or 
dialect of formei' \-ears. which, if vou be 

R()1!1-:i;t aviijja.m> 


Cut Xo. 3/— Summons. May 26, 177 


Cut No. 38 — Endorsement of Summons. 


descended t'l'oin tlieiii, will nor seem cii'irely 
strange to yon, as your lips will I'oiin with 
comparative ease Ihe words and jiecnliar con- 
struction of conversation and lan<,niaae tliat 
you find wi'itten in tlu'sc- nld-tiiiic lettci-s. 

Sometimes we ji^et a recoi-d sbowinv; the 
a.ctivity of those from whom we are descended, 
i'l manufacturini^' oi- fai-min-; lines, ur other 
lines, in which their int(>rests nu^et and '•i-o;,s 
those of their associates, and liy such crossing 
arc drawn into the entangh-ments of leyal pro- 
ceedings. DoMii in Carteret County, N. ('., 
whei'c oiu' of the Quaker communities that' 
branched off from the neighhoi-hood of Phila- 
delphia, located in the early 17th eentui-y, thtme 
is a town called Heaufoit. There lived and 
moved and had his being the great grandfather 
of Milton F. Williams, and the court records of 
that time and place show that he was not a 
"dead one." In fact, he was veiy much alive, 
as indicated by various wiits, subpoenas, and 
bills in set off, that wei'e filed in several cases, 
and which beai- date from 1766 to 1787. as 
shown by the accompanying copies. According 
to the old-time phraseology, the sheriff of that 
county was commanded, by authoi'ity of 
George th(> Thiid, King- of "Great Britain, 
France and Ireland," to take the "body of 
Robert Williams," to keep safely, and bring 
before the next eouj-t, then and there to an- 
swer, etc., etc. Coui-ts take note of many 
things, both matei-ial and spii'itual, things liv- 
ing and things dead, things seen and things 
unseen, but when a writ is given to the sheriff 
for execution the body of the person luentioned 
therein is particularly specified, on the theory 
that if his body be bi'ought into the court the 
spirit of the person will likewise accompany it. 
So also in our celebrated jn-actice of "habeas 
corpus," meaning "have the body" of the 
person mentioned brought before the court, 
thus preventing any secret disposal of the per- 
son himself. 

In this connection, a case was once before 
the court in which a man had committed burg- 
laiy by breaking and entering the house of 
another. His lawyer, however, contended that 
since his client had broken the window and 
reached only his hand and arm into the house 
he had not j-eally entered the house, and there- 

f(n'c technically had not committed a 'Mmrglar- 
ious enti'ance. " The jury, however, under in- 
sti-uction from the judge, bi'ought in a verdict 
of gTiilty according to the indictment, of the 
hand and arm of the defendant, and the iudge 
sentenced said hand and arm to the ]ienitcn- 
tiary, giving the defendant pei'mission to ac- 
company his arm or not as he saw tit. This is 
said to be an actual case. 

The first court case on the record is that of 

Robert Williams against Ailing & Shearman. 

(See Cuts 87-38.) The writ is as follows: 
North Carolina. 

George the third, by the Grace of God, of 
Great Bi'itain, France and Ireland, King, De- 
fender of the Faith, etc. To the Sheriff of the 
County cf Carteret. Greeting: W^e command 
you to take the bodys of Timothy Ailing and 
John Shearman in comps. and late of said 
county, merchants ( if to be found in your Baili- 
wick) and them safely keep, so that you have 
them before the justices, of our Inferior Court 
of Pleas and Quarter Sessions at our next 
Court to be held for our said County, at the 
Court House in Beaufort, on the third Tuesday 
of June next; then and there to render to 
Robert Williams, merchant, the sum of five 
pounds, four shillings and eight pence, procla- 
mation money, which they unjustly detained 
from him, Tr. on the Case, to his damage ten 

Herein fail not ; and have you there this 
Writ. Witness, Robert Read, Clerk of our said 
Inferior Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, 
the 26th Day of May in the Sixth Year of our 
Reign. Anno Dom. 1766. 


On the back of this writ was the endorse- 
ment Robert Williams vs. Ailing and, Shear- 
man. To June Carteret Justice Court. This 
writ is also marked : Executed Security given. 
Solomon Shepard. 

Another case (see Cuts 39-40) in which 
Robert Williams sues John Boll, claiming dam- 
ages of twenty pounds, is as follows : 
North Carolina. 

George the Third, by the Grace of God, of 
Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, De- 


Cut No. 39— Summons, Alarch 11, 1769. 







Cut No. 40— Endorsement 


Cut No. 41 — Summons, Decen^ber, 1770, 





-^ ^ / / 


Cut No. 43— Summons, June 19, 1771. 


Cut No. 44— Endorsement of June 19. 1771. 


fender of the Faith, etc. To the Sheriff of the 
County of Carteret Greetinji'. We eominand 
you that you take the body of Jolm Boll, late 
of said County, planter — 

(if to be found in your Bailiwick) and him 
safely keep, so that you have him before the 
Justices of our Inferior Court of Pleas and 
Quarter Sessions, at our next Court to be held 
for the County of Cartei'et at the Court House 
in Beaufort town on the third Tuesday of June 
next; then and there to answer unto Robert 
Williams of a plea of Trespass on the Ca"e to 
the damage of the said Robert twenty pounds 
proclamation money. 

Ilei-ein fail not ; and have you there this 
Writ. Witne:^s Robert Read, Clerk of our said 
Court, at his office the 22nd day of March, 
in the ninth Year of our Reign, Anno T)om. 
nm. Rol)ert Read, C. I. C, Clerk of the In- 
ferior Court . D. Gordon, Atty. 

This was duly endoi'sed Robert Williams vs. 
John Boll, Damaged 20 pounds and referred to 
the June Inferior Court, 1769. 

In another writ (see Cuts 41-42) Robert Wil- 
liams and John Easton are associated as de- 
fendants in a case brought by John Rose, 
claiming 20 pounds damage proclamation 
money, trespass on the case. This was in the 
year 1770. The writ was duly executed by 
Charles Gilliken for action at the March Car- 
teret Inferior Court, 1771. 

In this same cause (see Cuts 43-44) the fol- 
lowing subpoena was issued for William 
Thomson and John Mason : 

North Carolina. 

George the Third, by the Grace of God, of 
Great Britain, France and Ireland, King. De- 
fender of the Faith, etc. To the Sheriff of the 
County of Carteret, Greeting. We command 
you to summon Wm. Thomson and John Mason, 
personally, to be and appear before the Jus- 
tices of our Inferior Court of Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions, to be held for the County of Carteret 
at the Court-house in Beaufort on the third 
Tuesday in September next, then %nd there to 
testify, and the Triith to say in Behalf of John 
Rose in a certain Matter of Controversy in_ our 
said Ciiiii't depending, and then and there to 
1ie tried, between John Rose, Phiintitt', and 

Robert Williams, Defendant; and this they 
shall in no-wise omit, under the Penalty of 
Twenty Pounds, Proclamation Money. Wit- 
ness Robert Read, Clerk of our said Court, the 
19th Day of June in the Eleventh Year of our 
Reign, Anno Dom. 1771. 

Test. Robert Read, C. I. C. 

This wi'it was duly endorsed in the above 
case over to the September Court, 1771, and 
was marked : Executed Thomas Chadwick. 


And now comes a change in the heading of 
the Writ. The State of North Carolina no 
longer recognizes the authority of George the 
Third in the following writ (Cuts 45-46) issued 
in May, 1787, though the same clerk, Robert 
Read, signs his name at the bottom thereof. 

State of North Carolina. 

(Seal) To the Sheriff of Carteret County, 

Gi'ceting : 

You are hereby commanded to take the body 
of Robert Williams, late of your county joyner, 
if to be found in your Bailiwick; and him 
safely keep, so that you have him before the 
Justices of the county court of Pleas and Quar- 
ter Sessions to be held for the county of Car- 
teret at the coui't-house in Beaufort, on the 
third Monday in June next, then and there to 
answer James Paqueret of a Plea of Trespass 
on the Case Damage Two Hundred and Fifty 
pounds specie. 

Herein fail not, and have you then and there 
this Writ. Witness Robert Read, Clerk of the 
said Court, at Beaufort, the 20th day of March 
in the Eleventh year of the Independence of 
the said State, Anno Domini 1787. Issued the 
4th day of May, 1787. 

We note that the ending of the writ refers 
to the yeai' 1776 as the beginning- of the Inde- 
pendence of the State of North Carolina and 
of the other I'-i colonies from the authority of 
George the Third. 

This writ was referred to the June Court, 
17S7, and duly executed by the Sheriff' David 


-Summons, May, 1787. 


Cut ^lo. 46— Endoiseinent, Mav, 1787. 


* w . 

Cut No. M — Account of Ambrose Croker proved. 



- • ' ■ 

♦ . 

»• ■ : 

. ■ ' ■ ^\ 

■■:„ «■.'" 


•,. vv -yv,:-^. :• 

4 **' 

*" ' ■■ ■ ' -■ ' - '. 

f . . 

, -J^^r- ■■-„ 


-■ . '- ■■ A ■ ■■ -; 



:',■"■/■ " ■* ".Vv;-'^- ^':''- 






■■-^^■: vK^''-' -• ■ 


^■''-•v^v .♦s.ii^:,;*.- ' ;; 

■ r-. ■,. 


Cut No. 48 — Endorsement. 


1/5^^^ .i^^"^^^**^ '^^^^^ "^^-^^ 



^7 *'*'^ 


^ f^^vc^"^/^ ^4 j'^nS^^f/i ^ i^y^//^ 



c^-^-f^ O- ^-c) V»«-rf f^za*^ 1*^^^^ 

y ^^ 

^ c ^ 


. . i 






Cut No. 49 — Linch Account. (Half p. 1.) 




r^^\. \ ^ __ 


cr . i y, ^ i? ^ / c 


5^ ,.. 

^>7U- /: ^ ^/^--z ^^ - - 


f o 


Cut No. SO— Linch Account. (Balance p. 1.) 











% 6> 








/ ^. 

% ■ ^ 


A S 





Cut No. 51 — Linch Account. (Half p. 2.) 








ST. 34 /S 

te ^.^_%^; US^^_^^^ ^_^1^X^ 













Cut No, 5?— Linch Account. (Balance p. 2.) 



■ /<»-«.,**■ ''<^^"«^ J^" 


-^ . / . Tg ^ 







O ^Z,.- 

^-r/^ o-y i^^^- a^j.^M r-c^^^- tf-*-*^: 












Cut No. 53— Linch Account. (Half p. 3.) 




-^f i- 


/.^ m 


,% ^'^^^-.^^ /^^ S^, /h ^_ 

.^ - A ^-^.^ /^.^^^ /^.^^^ //_._/,,:• /j^. 


J ' o 

0> r*r T 

^^ T <P 



->7^/f^^ £:c.. .^ 

^/O Jif-v-c^ju 

^ .'^d^.y.,! l.i:it^ j:.£^-^:^ ^ 
^ ?'i ''^f ^" ^'■' t-^Z^f ^ >^^ y:;^-.-4> -^^i 




^ ^ 




. ^ 


~-\ ^ 






Cut Xo. 54— Liiich Account. (Balance p. 3.) 




^V/^^^ ^^^.-^^^g^;-^^ ^ 

: tyH 















/S^. Iz^Jtif^^^y'^'^^i^*^- 




Cut No. 55— Linch AccouiTt. (.P- 4.) 


.lii^ ^^-^- --^f ^^^::!1j 

Cut No. 56— Linch Summons, Dec. 4, 1786. 



Cut No. 57— Eudorsement, Dec, 4, 


There is another relic of bygone times in tlie 
following account No. 3 of Robert Williams, 
duly signed by him, and made out in his own 
handwriting, and probably used as an exhibit 
to secure a set-off in the case of Robert Rose 
above mentioned; or, perhaps, of another com- 
plainant. (See Cuts 47-48) : 

The Estate of Ambrose Croker, Deceased, Dr. 
to Robei't Williams. 

To Sundry Plank and Account of the same, 
delivered to himself in 1784 

Amounting to £44 9 3 
To Rum and pi'ovisions 

for his People 8 

44 17 3 
Supra Ci". 
By Tassia & Melasses as 

per his own account.. £23 12 6 
money reed, of 
1 10 25 2 6 

15 V 1! 

19 14 9 
Robert Williams. 

The a])ove account was proved befoi-e me in 
Beaufort 3 mo. 22d, llSo. and that all just 
credits were given. 

Thos. ("hadwick, J. P. 


Among the customers of Great Grandfathei' 
Robert Williams at his store of general mer- 
chandise in connection with the grist mill that 
he first operated near Beaufort was a man 
named Jonas Linch. Apparently Jonas had a 
saw mill, possibly located on the same place as 
the present saw mill now occupying the oppo- 
site end of the dam from the old grist mill of 
Great Grandfather Williams. The relations 
between Jonas and Great Grandfather Robert 
are indicated by a court record in the latter 
part of 1786, relating to a running account of 
over two years standing in which there was a 
difference of opinion as to the balance owing 
fi'om Jonas. (Cuts 49-55, inclusive.) 

In spite of the proverbial reluctance of 
Quakers .to go to law, Robert Williams sued 
out a writ against Jonas Linch in the early 

pai't of December by which he was commanded 
to appear before the court in the latter pari of 
the month to show cause why he should not 
pay his debt. (Cuts 56-57.) 

Debt is a duty that we owe to some other 
person, or an obligation undertaken or devolv- 
ing upon us, or regarding some action of our 
own, and may be present or future, may be 
contingent and indefinite, or liquidated and 
certain. Thus we speak of "paying the debt 
of Nature," on the theory that life is a loan 
to us, and when we die we pay it back or 
leturn it to the Giver, with interest according 
to the use we have made of it, and of the talents 
foi' which we are responsible. A debt assumed 
by a young man is often an incentive for 
greater effort, and may be the salvation of a 
careless spendthrift by causing him to take 
better care of his earnings. One of the greatest 
joys a man can have, however, is to pay off a 
debt that has long been hanging over him, 
which he has assumed from business necessity, 
and without at the time knowing where he will 
be able to obtain the necessary wherewithal. 
1 have elsewhere in this history recorded my 
joy on paying off the mortgage that I had to 
assume Avhen I took over the millwright busi- 
ness from my partner. Like a good business 
man, Robert Williams required yearly settle- 
ment, and when the account with Jonas had 
7-un for over two years with partial payment 
in the meantime, and a difference arose as to 
the balance owing, Robert went to law. The 
writ of the sheriff was duly served on Jonas, 
and not wishing to go to jail near Christmas 
time and miss the usual festivities of the time 
and occasion, Jonas gave bond to the sheriff 
for his appearance at the court after Christmas 
holidays. It was necessary for him to find a 
friend who would go on the bond with hi'u, 
and such a one he found in James Paquinet, 
who bound himself with Jonas Linch "jointly 
and severally" in the sum of 100 pounds — this 
amount being twice that of the debt in ques- 
tion, as is customarJ^ (See Cuts 58-59.) We 
do not know what consideration was given to 
obtain the signature of Paquinet upon this 
bond whether friendship or some business 
agreement, or money paid, or promised. 
It may have been from friendship, and 


Cut No. 58~Liiich Bond, Dec. 9, 1786. 
















we would like to think it so, and that 
it was a modern instance of tiie loyalty 
of Damon to his friend Pythias that caused 
Paquinet to put his money in jeopardy. In 
those times money was more valuable than life. 
"Money, or your life!" said the highway rob- 
ber. "Take my life, I am saving my money 
for my old age," was the reply. But we like 
to think of the mutual trust and loyalty of 
Damon and Pythias, although this case oc- 
curred 400 years before Christ. We remember 
that it was in the Island of Sicily, at the city 
of Syracuse, I'uled by Dionysius the Tyrant, 
who had condemned Pythias to death. Pythias 
asked and received permission to visit his home 
and settle his affairs, and Damon, his friend, 
took his place as hostage. When the time set 
for the execution approached, and Pythias had 
not returned, Dionysius taunted Damon with 
having given his life for a false friend. Noth- 
ing could shake the faith of Damon, however, 
who asserted that some unavoidable delay was 
lesponsible for the absence of Pythias. The 
return of Pythias, who forced his way through 
the crowd just in time to prevent the execution 
of his friend, so surprised and affected the 
tyrant, Dionysius. that he not only pardoned 
Pythias, but asked to be admitted to such a 
friendship as that existing between the two 
that the danger of death itself could not shake 
the trust of one in the other. 

When we look over the copy of the account 
filed as one of the coui't records we find several 
items of interest. Here is one of £3 10s. (about 
$17.50) paid by Robert on account of Jonas 
for a cow that he bought of Hope Stanton. 
There are numerous entries for rum and "me- 
lasses" as it was spelled ; also for tobacco. One 
item was for a bushel of "Aisters at Beaufort," 
charged at one shilling, which were probably 
oysters in the shell. There are several charges 
for potato plants, powder and shot, and one for 
two turkeys costing 4s. and 8d., or about $1.16 
for the two. With the present price of turkey 
at 43c per pound this Thanksgiving time of 
1918 we are sure he did not overcharge Jonas. 
In fact, Robert seems to have assumed and paid 
for him, a charge of £4 2s. and 2d., to Lock- 
hart, and another account to Richard Dennis 
of about the same amount. He has also an 

item of money paid foi' Sally Cooper's shoes; 
another of £3 for sugar for Crany Bell; and 
another of 2s. for "nails for his wife's coffin 
and gimlet lost." There is a charge also of 4 
shillings for "one bottle of claret sent to Ben- 
ners for the time Linch went to take ye sacra- 
ment." Thrifty Robert also has charges 
against Jonas "for the use of my horse, himself 
and John Bell going to Newberne Superior 
court"; also for money paid Robert Read on 
his account in several cases, which indicate that 
Jonas was being sued by other creditors. Dur- 
ing 1784 and 85 the amount of indebtedness 
amounted to a hundred pounds, and this was 
reduced in the early part of 1786 by credit of 
some £70 on account of boards and lumber, 
and work of Jonas and his men at night, 
sawing up several hundi'ed feet of lumber; 
also by "7 days mowing and part of the hay," 
showing that the account was largely that of 
exchange of labor and material between Jonas 
and Robert. 

The record of the result of the trial of the 
case in the latter part of December is not at 
hand, but it may be inferred that it went 
against Jonas, because in the early part of 
January, 1787, Jonas Linch was put under 
bond to "keep the peace to the State and the 
good people thereof, but more especially to- 
ward Robert Williams" in the sum of £200, 
in company with another man named James 
Potter, who bound himself to the amount of 
£100 on his "goods and chattels, land and 
tenements to the use of the state." (Cuts 

Perhaps the husky lumberman, Jonas Linch, 
made threats against Robei't to "take it out of 
his hide" after the result of the December 
trial was adverse to himself. Apparently the 
end of the suit was not reached, for Jonas was 
likewise commanded to "make his personal 
appearance at next March court in the said 
county to do and receive what shall be then 
and there enjoined him." 

What was the result of the trial at the March 
court our historian of the present day is not 


Cut Xo. 60 — Linch Peace Bond. 


Cut No, 61 — Endorsement — Peace 


Rohei't Williams" son, John became a civil 
eno-ineer and snrveyor and visited his boyhood 
home many years after he left it as a boy of 
nine years old in company with his widowed 
mother. Anne Shoebridge Williams, and his 
older si.'-iter, Elizabeth, and his brother, Samnel 
(my Grandfather), to make their new home in 
Ohio, which he describes in his autobiography 
-which is reproduced in Part II of this history. 

Copied from the map, Cut No. G2, the follow- 
ing notes by John, a son of Robert Williams, 
are interesting: 

"I think the upland upon which i)eoplo lived 
and on which the roads were mostly laid, was 
as much as 20 feet higher than the lowlands 
and sti'cams and about as level, as well as I 
can remember now. 

New River 
Clubfoot creek. 

Jos. Dew. ('lul)foot creek meeting house. 

Horton Howai'd canal Howard's mill. 

I never until this minute (12 m.) could 
imagine why that creek was called "clnlifoot." 
I now see that as I have drawn it, there is a 
resemblance to a clubfoot in its outline. 
Gi'cat swamp called Poeoson. 
A. Martin. Mill jiond. Isaac Sampson. 

To white oak. Tide watei'. Mill pond. 
To Xewbei-n 4(J miles. 

Boi'den's. Creek. Robt. Williams. 

Wm. Fisher. Wm. Borden. 

Borden's saw mill. Jos. Borden. 

Newport River. Harless creek. Cause way. 
R, Lovet. Hardesty. 

Core sound meeting house. B. Stanton. 

Beaufort. Point of Core Sound. 

Borden Stanton was a Friend and preacher 
and Grandfather to the Secretary of War, and 

his widow came with us out West, with her 

1 remember well to have seen the canal in 
prccesn of ecnstrnction. I think as early as 
1797. It was undoubtedly the tirst canal pro- 
.iected (by Dr. McClure) in the United States, 
if not in the Western hemisphere." 


The locality is now known as Newport as 
drawn by John Shoebridge Williams in 1864. 
The meaning of Dinnant is this: Din means 
Town or Fort : Nant means a little Bi'ook. Din- 
nant — Fortified Brook or River, or Brook 
Town. The dam across Black Creek makes 
Ihe name "Dinnant" veiy appropriate, as it 
means "Fortified Brook." 

This note is to his (John's) grandson, the 
son of his .youngest daughter, Martha Belle 
Van Vleck: 

"Cnicinnati, Feb. 1st, 1864. 
■Willie Van Vleck. 

Dear Grandson : As you requested I should 
draw something for you, and as I never could 
without urgent reasons, refuse a boy Avho 
wishes to learn, I attempt a sketch of the part 
'of North Carolina where I was boi'u and lived 
the first nine yeai's of my life. See American 
Pioneer, Vol. 2, page 441. The top of the 
sketch is intended for North. 

You can see the position of your Great 
Grandfather's house and mills. At the west 
or left end of the dam, a grist mill. East end, 
or nearest the house, saw mill. Next to the 
grist mill, near the middle of the dam, was the 
first mills that Avent away (page 437). Be- 
tween that and the saw mills was the waste- 
gates, for in wet weather all the water that 
came naust be let go, without running over the 
dam, as in hilly, stony countries public roads 
always crossed the dams." 

Cincinnati, Monday, Feb. 1st, 1864. 

Dear Son : 

Enclosed please find a sketch of the country 
wherein your Grandfather was born. It is 
from the memory of a child less than 10 years 
of age, somewhat assisted by that of an old 


Cut No. 62 — A map of the old Homestead of Robert Williams in Carteret County, N. C. 


black man and a white man, both of whom, like 
myself, left North Carolina (Clubfoot Creek) 
before or at the same time I did and had to 
think back sixty-three years, for neither of 
them ever went back. The black man is named 
Minor Edwards, lives near Belmont County, 
Ohio, and the white man, Elias Dew, lives in 
Illinois, son of Joseph Dew, a Friend Preacher, 
who came (with us) from Clubfoot Ci-eek 
meeting. Minor came out in 1799 with Horton 
Howard (see Am. Pioneer, page 442). 

I have always thought since I thought on the 
subject, that Dr. MeClure deserves a nitche in 
the Temple of Fame for projecting and per- 
severing with so new and unheard of project 
as the canal at that early day. By it 150 to 
200 mil(^s of dangei'ous navigation is saved, as 

I presume between Newljcrne and Beaufort. 

I also enclose one of your Cousin's bills, 
which has two of my drawings on it. I took 
as many days at them as I did half-hours at 
the enclosed sketch. Still my drawings did 
not look as well as the engraver has made them 
look. If you get a trunk or drawer appropri- 
ated to vdui' drawings and keep them carefully 
they will, many of them, be of use to you in 
after life. 

Love to each, everyone, and all of you. 

Your Grandfather, 


Plan of my father's (Robert Willianrj') 
homestead, Avhich he named Dinnant. 


1 Homestead Looking South, as you 

2 Meat house i, i j . v, 

now hold the paper, one 

3 Little house 

4 East garden "li'e ^^ Newport River and 

5 West garden Pisher's landing. After 

6 Dial 

7 Asparagus bed '^^-' father's death in 1790, 

8 Spring ^s I have heard, Wm. 

9 Bee shed 

10 Pear tree Fisher bought the mill 

II Apple orchard and lived at the landing, 
12 Entrance 

TO -D • lo which point vessels 

lo Persimmon 

tree came up. They took on 

fine dwelling with a cellar 

14 C:ow pen luml)er after it was boat- 

15 Chinquepin , ,^ -, ,. ^, .,, 

ed or rafted from the mill, 

16 Pop or Passion Tli'T ^'^so took on tar, 

'^'i'l*-' turpentine, rosin, spirits 

17 Saw mill ,. ' ^. -, , , 
IS W- ■+« t turpentine, pitch, etc., 

19 Grist mill dt-., ^\hich were staples in 

20 Plum and |ii;,t country. My father 

grape thicket 

21 Potato house ' °^^""^ '^'^^^ '"''''"' '"' ^ 

22 Liquorice bed understood, and Fisher 

23 Lumber yard ,^^,^^1^^ all Init 1,120 with 

24 Log yard 

25 Hog pen ^^c mill? on his purchase. 

26 Fodder house i i^emember his building a 

27 Miller's house 

28 Old piles 

29 Tide water walled with stone brought 

30 Fishing l,auk ^^.^^^^^ ^^j^^^. ^,,^^,^^^ .^ 

31 Sawyer s house 

32 Clav hole ballast, there being no na- 

33 Old stump tive stone in that part of 

34 Flag root ^., ^. ^ ^ . 

.^c- 1, -IT ( aroliua. See American 

35 Budding 

36 Sand hole Pioneer, Vol 2, page 437. 

Black Creek. 
iMarshy Path to Absalom's. 

Ihicked marsh 

path to Isaacs, 
another path to Isaac's 

Pine knot Branch 

My father would have every road, fence, 
house, etc.. North and South, East and West, 
where it was at all convenient, and sometimes 
where it was not. 

(Note by the Editor.) 

Benjamin T Stone married Hannah Marmon 
Williams, the second child of John Shoebridge 
Williams, and had no children. 

William Van Vleck of Boston, Mass., mar- 
I'ied Martha Belle Williams, the tenth child of 
John Shoebridge Williams. 

Anna l!elle \ !\n \'lcck, daughter of William 
and jMartha licllc \';iii \'li'ek, married Francis 
H, Owen, of Bostcn. and I am indebted to her 
for the loan of the original maps reproduced 
above and for the autograph letters from John 




Cut No. 63 — Map of "Diiinant" on a larger scale. (The top of the map is south.) 


Shoebridge Williams to his grandson, Wiliie, 
who wati her brother, William Van Vleck, Jr. 

Another letter of John Shoebridge Williams 
to his grandson, Willie Van Vleck, Jr., who 
was 11 years old at that time: 

Grand Pa's Recollections No. 3. 


Cincinnati, Monday, Feb. 29th, 1864. 

Willie Van Vleck. 
Dear Son : 

Enclosed jDlease find a sketch of your CTi-eat 

pins grow singly in a round burr. They are 
smaller, blacker, harder and sweeter than 
chestnuts. They are fine, good nuts. They 
grow mostly on shrubs. I never saw any other 
tree as high as that which grew on the point 
marked 15. It was, I think, twelve feet high. 
I Have seen the top look to be blackened with 
nuts when the burrs were mostly open. We 
would take a sheet, table cloth, wagon cover or 
something to spread on the ground under and 
around the tree, which we would thresh with 
a pole and bring the shiners down by whole- 
Kale. They wei'e very plenty. 

It is astonishing how my memory of child- 
hood incidents and events improves as I think 


-f.„«.y -■ 

Cut No. 64— This cut, Xo. 64, shows the Homestead and Me 
and No. 2 in the Map of Dinnant No. 63. 

House marked No, 1 

Grandfather's homestead, with divers refer- 
ences to particular parts. Connected with 
many of those things referred to are tales of 
my childhood, some of which might interest 
you, and I may at some time write some of 
them for you, if I continue to write to you. 
There is some doubt about that, however, for 
1 receive nothing from you. My rule is, not 
to write to anyone that neither answei's nor 
acknowledges my letters to them, for I have a 
right to suppose that my letters are not wanted 
and I stop. 

You, perhaps, do not know the difference 
between chimpiepins and chestnuts. Chini|ue- 

about these things and put the things con- 
nected with them on paper! This being a kind 
of an odd day, I thought I would Avrite to you, 
as I am going down to bring up Mary's clock 
that I took down to be I'egulated. She says she 
is vei'y lonesome without it. We have had fair 
weather ever since Unkle & Aunt Stone left us; 
till yesterday it rained nearly all day, and then 
snowed, which lies today say 2 inches deep. 
It h cloudy and cold. 

Your Grandpa in love to all, 


joirx srioKRRiDOK wir.LiA:\is' ijottkr 

C ^} '^c</<l4y>.i, (aj/i 


;• .. 

f I 

'mmmm. mTioHi.L bahi:. 

•^:>U n^-y4^- (y^f^^ 

'(/%-^^^^>/;y^aA'^j')')^f^^i>k'^ i)l<!^./. /)^Jf 

Cut No. 65— Autograph Letter of Robert Williams' son John, 



Great Gi-aiidfathei- Robert Williams built the 
first brick house in Carteret County, N. C. He 
brought the brick over from England in his 
own ship. A plan of this house was drawn by 
Robert's son, John Shoebridge Williams, in 
1864, and also a perspective view (Cut 64). 
The front of the house faced the North, and a 
path led down from the front door to a spring. 
It consisted of a large dining room with fire- 
place, a large kitchen with tireplace and chim- 
ney at the Southwest corner, the family bed- 
I'oom at the Southeast corner, a large room 
next to it with a door opening to the passage 

Cut No 
the s 

i — ktcpcr C.anni's Hous 
of the old Robert \\ illij 

leading to the East door. The dining room or 
parlor had two pantry or store rooms at one 
end at the Northwest corner. A flight of stairs 
went up +0 the attic chamber, which were 
lighted w'h windows in each gable end. 

None of the original buildings are now stand- 
ing, but a keeper's house is located at the 
present time on the site of Robert Williams' 
brick house and is shown in the illustration 
herewith (No. 66). The keeper's name is 
Ganm. Near the house there is an old cedar 
tree, 150 years old or more (Cut No. 67). This 
tree had a hoUoAv in it and some clam shells 
were placed in tliis hollow by John Shoebridge 

Williams, the soil of Robert Williams, when 
John Avas a boy. John Shoebridge Williams 
was the great uncle of the writer . In 1863 oi- 
'64 Mr. Ganm stated that John Shoebridge 
Williams, then over 70 years of age, visited the 
old homestead and told Keeper Ganm of plac- 
ing some clam shells in the hollow of this cedar 
tree when he was a boy. This hole in the tree 
hi^s nearly grown together at the present 
writing, but Keeper Ganm remembers finding 
the clam shells in this tree, and the statement 
of lohn Shoebridge Williams that he placed 
them there when a boy. 

Robert Williams, besides being a Friend, was 

'^^- ■ • ' ' ' 'in 







Shoebridge W'llhanis hid the 

a Tory in his political belief. During the war 
he accepted a good deal of Continental money 
in his trading transactions and many accounts 
owing him Avere not paid. He also suffered 
reverses by the loss of one or more of his trad- 
ing vessels, and from being a wealthy man 
beeauae in the last years of his life considerably 
involved in debt. When his estate was settled 
up there was found very little of his former 
■wealth, and his family estate is said to have 
suffered from bad management or Avorse on the 
part of the exectitors. 

Robert Williams died September 4th, 1790, 
and was buried on the family estate about 200 


yards from the old grist mill and dam. 
grave was finally discovered tliroufih the 
forts of the present writei'. and a suitable st 
and enclosing fence were erected by me, 
great grandson. 

The accompanying cut (No. 68) shows 
testimonial of my regai'd that I have h 
privileged to ei'ect to his memory. 

Beaufoi't, N. C, was founded in 171:!, 
years ago, and was destroyed b.v fire ab 

liams, living- in Beaufort 50 years after Beau- 
fort was founded in 1713, wiU say he lived here 
during 1775-1776. If you v/Ul look over the 
copies of the letters that I sent you relative to 
his making salt at Gallants Point, and at what 
is now known as the old Salt Works which is 
on what is now known as Taylor's Creek, about 
one mile East of Beaufort, during this period. 
He lived in Beaufort, according to our Colonial 
records, and the early history of North Caro- 
lina states he was the first person that ever 
extracted salt from sea or salt water. This 

Cut No. 08— St 

id fence erected 
grandson. Mil 

of Robert Williams by 

Beaufort, N. C, 12/28/19. 


Mr. M. P. Williams, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Dear Mr. Williams: 

Your recent favor of the 20th received. In 
regard to your Great Grandfather, Robert Wil- 

method, as I understand, was to turn the salt 
water into a drying vat and wait for it to evap- 
orate or dry out; and while this seems to the 
present generation to have been a primitive 
mode, I judge from his letters to the Council of 
State that it was successful. 

Wishing .von a Merry Xmas and a prosper- 
ous New Year, I am, 

Yours very ti-nl.v, 




"Benjamin Stanton, of Carteret County, N. 
C, acting- Trustee and Executor of the Estate 
of Robert Williams, deceased, late of Carteret 
County, N. C, to William Fisher, Carteret 
County: Whereas the said Robert Williams 
did hy his last will, dated September 2nd, in 
the year of 1790, nominate and appoint the 
said Benjamin Stanton with sundry other per- 
sons as Trustee and Executors to manage and 
settle all the worldly affairs after his decease, 
giving them full power and authority to sell 
and dispose of so much of every part of his 
estate, whatever real or personal as they should 
find necessary for discharging the said debts 
brought against the estate, having due regard 
at the same time to the welfare and support of 
his family, whereas the said Benjamin Stanton, 
who is the only person who has since been 
qualified to act as aforesaid, has after advice 
and due consideration found it most consider- 
ate with the intuition of the said Testator and 
least injurious to the welfare of his family, to 
sell the mills on Black Ci'eek, with 100 acres 
of land lying continuous thereto, and accord- 
ingly on the day, the date hereof being the 
18th day of March. 1791, the said mill and 
land being set up at public sale and struck off 
the aforesaid Wm. Fisher for 900 pounds cur- 
rent money of the State afoi-esaid, the receipt 
whereof the said Benjainin Stanton doth here- 
by acknowledge, etc." 

It appears from the above that Robert Wil- 
liams made his last will two days before he 
died. A careful search has not revealed a 
record of this will, and it is possible that it was 
destroyed with other records by a fire that 
occurred in the Carteret Countv court house. 


Seth Oliver Williams, the brother of the 
writer, was visiting Joel Kirks near Alliance, 
Ohio, about the year 1880 and was told about 
an Edward Williams, who had a fruit farm 
near Salem, Ohio. He went over to visit Ed- 
ward Williams and found he was a widower 
with one daughter named Anna. Edward 
Williams' father was Richard Williams, the 

only Son of my Great Grandfather, Robert 
Williams, and Elizabeth Dearman of England. 

Edward Williams some time afterwards left 
Salem, Ohio, and went to Florida. 

NOTE: I am indebted to Eli W. Gibbons 
(oldest son of my father's sister, Peninah Wil- 
liams, who married Joseph Gibbons), who is 
now (January, 1920) living, in his 82nd year, 
near Barnesville, Ohio, for the following data 
of the only daughter of my great grandfather, 
Robert Williams, who reached maturity, mar- 
ried and left descendants. He also relates the 
Friends' method of performing the marriage 

Elizabeth Garretson, daughter of Robert and 
Anna Williams, was born 4th month 28th, 1778, 
in North Carolina, and removed with her 
mother and two brothers, Samuel and John S. 
WiJliams (her father having departed this life 
in 1790), to Concord, Belmont County, Ohio, 
in the year 1800; and was married to Joseph 
Garretson, 4th month 26th. 1804, in Friends' 
meeting house at that place, performing the 
ceremony themselves according to the practice 
of the Society of Friends, which they believe 
to be the most proper and orderly way of 
solemnizing the occasion of two being made 
one — the congregation simply hearing the cere- 
mony and marriage certificate read and wit- 
nessing the couple signing it to the number of 
not less than twelve or more; and now, after 
a lapse of more than 100 years, if anyone 
should read these lines who are unacquainted 
with the manner of Friends' procedure in 
marriage, I will add hereunto a few extracts 
taken from a copy of the original certificate 
copied by Joseph Garretson himself. 

Whereas Joseph Garretson of Belmont 
County and State of Ohio, Son of William and 
Mary Garretson. and Elizabeth Williams of 
County and State aforesaid, daughter of 
Robert and Anna Williams, having declared 
their intentions of marriage Avith each other 
before several monthly meetings of the people 
called Quakers at Concord in the County afore- 


said, and having consent of parents and parties 
concerned, tlieir said pi'oposals of marriage 
were allowed by said meeting. 

Now these may certify all whom it may 
concern, that for the full accomplishment of 
their said marriages this 26tn day of 4th month, 
1804, they, the said Joseph Garretson and 
Elizabeth Williams, appeared in a public meet- 
ing held at Concord aforesaid, and the said 
Joseph Garretson, taking the said Elizabeth 
Williams by the hand, did in a solemn manner 
openly declare that he took her to be his wife, 
promising with Divine assistance to he unto 
her a loving and faithful husband, until it 
shall please the Lord by death to separate 
them — or words to the same etfect — and then 
and there in the said assembly the said Eliza- 
beth Williams did, in like manner, openly de- 
clare that she took him to be her husband, 
promising through Divine help to be unto him 
ajoving and faithful wife until it should please 
the Lord by death to separate them. 

And, moreovei', for further information of 
said marriage, they, the said Joseph Garretson 
and Elizabeth Williams, did then and there 
hereunto subscribe their names, she according 
to the custom of marriage assuming the name 
of her husband. 


P. S. — None of Joseph Garretson 's writings 
or the record of his birth in our Family Bible 
gives any account of him having a T in his 
name as a middle initial. 


Joseph Garretson was the Son of a William 
and Mary Garretson and was born in Penn- 
sylvania, 29th of 11th month, 1782. He re- 
moved to Ohio about the year 1800 and 
settled at Concord. In 1811 he removed to 
Barnesville, Ohio, and later settled on a farm 
one and a half miles South of town, where he 
ended his days in 1855. He was an old-time 
wiclder of the birch and rule, and spent much 
of his lime teaching school; he taught school 
orie year in Barnesville in 1811 for $6.00 per 


Robei't Williams purchased a tract of land 
of .jOO acres located about 12 miles from Beau- 
fort, N. C, fi-om Patrick Conner, September 
24th, 1774. The consideration was 15 pounds 
and was sold by Robei-t Williams, Februaiy 
4tli. 17!I0, to Joseph Leech for 30 pounds. 

At 1h;.t time this land was 10 miles from any 
house and formed pai-t of the 4,000 acres ac- 
(piired by Robert Williams. The lands are now 
being developed in that neighborhood up to 
and adjoining this pi'operty, and a new I'oad 
that will cost about $36,000 per mile is now 
being prepared which will form part of the 
public highway fi-om Boston to Floi'ida nnd 
will pass the family lot in which Robert Wil- 
liams is buried. This scenic water roadway 
from Boston, Mass., to Florida, runs a mile 
east of Harless and Clubfoot Creek Canal, and 
about three-quarters of a mile from the present 
public I'oad leading from Newberne to Beaii- 
fort. Since my Great Grandfather's lot and 
burial place has been protected by an iron 
fence and monument that I have erected to his 
memory, a great many people passing on the 
highway have stopped to inquire about Robert 


The old homestead on which the burial lol is 
located is now owned by a company that is 
expending half a million dollars in improve- 
ments. This company purchased this old home- 
stead property about five years ago for $30,000 
and it is reported that it will now bring in the 
open market $750,000. Developments are also 
going on adjoining the 300-acre tract men- 
tioned above that will probably cause this 
tract to sell for $50.00 or more per acre within 
the next three or four years. 

I am indebted to Hon. Jones Fuller of Dur- 
ham, N. C, who is Attorney for the Cai-teret 
Lodge Company, for permission to erect this 
monument and fence around the last resting 
place of my Great Grandfather, Robert Wil- 
liams. This permission was later confirmed by 
the Director.* flt a regular Board meeting. 




Robert Williams had oiio son, Richai'd Wil- 
liams, born November 28, 1770, bj' his wife, 
Elizabeth Dearmaii Williams; and by his sec- 
ond wife, Anne Shocbridge Williams, he was 
blessed with eight children, only three of whom 
survived: viz., (1) Elizabeth, born April 28, 
1778, who married April 26, 1804, Joseph Gar- 
rctscn, and bore five children. 

grandfather), who was born 
d died November 4, 1856, 

(2) Sanuiel (i 
March 1, 177il, 
aged 77 years. 

(3) John Shoebridge Williams. l)orn July 
31, 1790, near Beaufort, N. C, and died April 
27, 1878, at Viola, Iowa, age 88, at the honu^ of 
John Hampton. 

The above three are the only ones of the 
eight children of Great Grandmother Anne 
Shoebridge Williams, who reached maturity 
and had descendants. I am fortunate in being 
able to quote from the "American Pioneer," a 
magazine edited and published in 1842 and 
1843 by John Shoebridge Williams, the son of 
Oreat Grandfather Robert. In the October 
number of this magazine, John Shoebridge 
Williams gives an account of his parentage 
and iniancy, and his removal with his widowed 
mother to the ' ' Northwest Territory, "so called, 
in the State of Ohio, the building of a log cabin 
in the woods (see cut No. 70), where the mo- 
notony cf life for several of the first year.i of 
their residence was broken and enlivened by 
the howl of wild beasts. This cabin was occu- 
pied December 25, 1800. About two years later 
his half brother, Richard, who had been a sea 
captain for many years, abandoned his sea- 
faring life at the age of 32 and came to their 
settlemoit. John Shoebridge Williams was then 
12 years old. His brother, Richard, had lost 
his first wife, by whom he had a son, Robert, 

who die<[ youny. He bad married again, and 
no\v had a daughter Elizabeth, nearly three 
years old. He had left his family at or near 
Wheeling, but the neighbors soon had a cabin 
erected for him neai' the meeting bduse. and a 
school was opened and taught b\- Kicliard. 


veniences for want of distinction, I add to 
my name Shoebridge, in the 22.- d of the 2nd 
month, 1820. John S. Williams." 

This is a record frdiii the l>ible of John Shoe- 
bridge Williams, showing that at the age of 30 
be rc'inired a distinguishing name and there- 
fore took his middle name, Shoebridge. (This 
record is by the courtesy of Mrs. Jennie Belle 
Fowler of ilollywood, Cal.) 


An extract from the "American Pioneer," a 
monthly pei'icdical, edited by John Shoebridge 
Williams, then living at Cincinnati, Ohio, iir 
1843. This book from which we take the ex- 
tracts begii iung this history of the emanation 
cf our brajieh of the Williamri family, was pub- 
lished in 1843, R. L. Polk, printers, Cincin- 
nati, 0. It was called the "American Pio- 
neer," a monthly periodical, and contained 
letters from old settlers in the State of Ohio: 


"My father's name was Robert. He was 
f)orn in the town of Ruthin, in Denbighshire 
just 120 years ago. A love of novelty soon led 
him to England, and thence to America. He 
opened two mercantile establishments in New- 
bern and Beaufort, N. C. In 1767 he married 
Elizabeth Dearnum, an English lady, and by 


nay of a honeymoon excursion, brought his 
wife to America, with the prospect of a speedy 
return for settlement. She invited Anne Shoe- 
bridge, of Essex, or London, my mother, then 
a young lady of 19. to visit America, as her 
companion. The mvitation was accepted. 
"When we consider that to cross the Atlantic 
it then re(|uired to bo tumbled and tossed on 
the waves from eight to twelve weeks at a 
time, it will be seen that that visit heads most 
of the honeymoon trips now in fashion. 

■'Twice they were ready to i-eturn, once 
packed up, but a wise Providence ordered that 

and myself, J. S. Williams. (Samuel Williams 
M'as M. V. Williams' grandfather on his 
father's side, they of Belmont County, in the 
State of Ohio.) I mention the time of my 
mother's mari'iage with some degree of pride. 
It took place very near, if not the very day 
that Logan made his celebrated speech, and 
not far from the time the Bostonians made 
their great dish of cold water tea. 


"My father is said to have been wealthy. 

Cut No. 69 — John Shoebridge Williams, son of Robert and Anne Shoebridge Williams, 
Born near Beaufort, U. C, July 31, 1790, Died April 27, 1878, at John Hampton's, in Viola, la. 
(This portrait was presented to my father Robert Williams, his nephew, about 1840) 

M. F. W. 

tlie children of these women should l)e born 

'"I!y his first wife. Elizabeth, he had but one 
child, Richard, now (1843) living in Massillon, 
or near ilassillon, in the State of Ohio. She, 
Robert Williams' first wife, died in 1773, and 
he, Robert Williams, married my mother Octo- 
ber 1st, 1774. by whom he had eight children, 
three only of whom lived to be known by 
name: Elizabeth ftarretson, Samuel Williams 

but several causes contributed to lessen his 
fortune, until at the time of his death, in 1790, 
a few weeks after my birth, his estate was eon- 
siderabl.y embarrassed. A great storm at sea 
seemed, as I have heard, to put the first check 
to his success. Then the failure of an extea- 
sive house in London, then the Revolutionary 
war. and the reception of continental money. 
This he kept, in dependence on the Govern- 
ment, until it was nearlv worthless. The break- 


ing out of the Revolution (1771), which was 
ooncliidod in 1775, added to other considei'a- 
lions, determined him to retire from mercan- 
tile pursuits, which he did, to a tine estate in 
Carteret County, N, ('., chosen with inference 
to its value for timber and water powei'. He 
built a' fine milling establishment, both tloui'ing 
and sawing, breasting against a lam, which 
held an inexhaustible supply of watci' in a 
poud of from six to ten miles in circuit. Scarce- 
ly was this done till the whole dam and all 
went down stream into tide water, which 
flowed up the mill-tail. 


"The vast iiuantity of water wliieh rushed 
through this breach in the alhivians of Caro- 
lina left a hole of 90 feet in depth from the 
top cf the dam. This it was ncccsary to repair 
befoi'o water could again bo accumulated. 

"He, mj' father, was not to be outdone in 
that way. but mills were built separate at each 
end of the dam, Avhich are standing yet for all 
I know. His benevolence, a charaeteristic of 
his nation, grew upon him with age; and 'tis 
said he carried this very far. He also at one 
time set liis whole plantation of slaves free, 
proI)ably in or about 1780, when the Society 
of Friends (of which he was a member) manu- 
mitted theirs. Several of these stayed about 
us until we left Carolina, and two, an ancient 
man named Qnani, lived in our house until his 
deafli in 1794; and a female named Jenney 
followed lis to Ohio in 1802, and died in our 
house in 1804. From what was known of these 
native Africans, it was believed they were 
nearly, if not (|uitc, 100 years of age at their 
deaths If thci'e is a Heaven for the good, 
which 1 doubt not, these two must be in it. 

"ify father's estate, being somewhat embar- 
rassed, and, as is understood, mismanaged by 
his executors, left niy mother little except our 
homestead cf 1100 aci-e". of fine land, and part 
of the personal property. She was still in com- 
fortable, but not by any means in aftlnent cir- 
cumstances. It may now be seen that we wei'e 
neither born with a silver spoon in our months 
nor a very good prospect of having one placed 
thei-e to remain, and until we shall be satistied 
that such things are of i-eal advantage to youth 

we shall not sutTo' rcgi'cts to ai'ise on account 
of the darkening of oui' youthful sky. 


"In one thing we count ourselves most for- 
tunate. As is eustomai'y in the South, aged 
blacks take care of the children. Old Quam 
was appointed my guardian, and a more faith- 
ful one never protected a ward. There is some- 
thing surprising about blacks, as well as In- 
dians, that attach them to children, and chil- 
dren to them, more firmly than can, under simi- 
lar circumsitanees bind whites. It is an un- 
deniable fact that blacks are more faithful 
nni'scs than whites, or at least children seem 
to think so. I thought nobody e(|ual to old 
Quam ; he thought there never was such a fine, 
black-haired, curly headed, blue-eyed boy be- 
fore bom. as I was, although I kept him run- 
ning after me in day time, like a hen after one 
chicken. I had a deal of Welsh blood about 
me, and would go when I plea'sed, and Quam 
w^ould not crosT me, not he; and thus he was 
perpetually in a stew to keep me out of every 
danger, both real and imaginary. He loved my 
mother as if she were his own, and he knew 
besides the loss I would be to him ; my death 
would almost kill her, as I was by more than 
ten her youngest living child. Old Quam es- 
caped from a deal of anxious concern at his 

"My being so much the youngest, and living 
in a slave country, which makes white children 
scarce, my only companion during my first four 
years was old Quam. He w^as eminently pious 
and pre-eminently innocent. He was just such 
a nurse as was calculated to have a good effect 
upon me. I remember him well and vei'y viv- 
idly the time of his death, by which, at four 
years, I lest my friend. Previously he had 
taught me many of the essentials of religion. 
He had most firmly impressed on my mind 
that thei-e was a Great Good Man who made 
everything. That he lived away up in the sky. 
That he could see all we did. That when we 
did good he loved and smiled at us, but when 
we hurt anything or did anybody harm he was 
sorry, and would frown at us and would not 
like us. That it was very wrong to displease 


him. Although Quam knew not a letter, he 
could repeat whole verses of Scripture, and, as 
I have heard, some chapters. He use to tell me 
of wicked people, how they oppressed and de- 
stroyed one another, and how the Great Good 
Man was so angry at some wicked people that 
he made their country so dark that they could 
foci the darkness like grains of corn. 

''In this way he would so impress me as to 
make me cry, till the family would be drawn 
'to know what was the matter. My good moth- 
er was eminently pious, too, and always took 
much pains to impress my mind Avith love and 
fear for the Supreme Being, but I could not 
understand her as I could Quam's simple illus- 

"1 was ver_y much indulged, and had it not 
been for Qaani's pious influence, a boy of my 
wayward propensities could scai'cely have been 
kept within tolerable bounds. There is no 
wonder I was indulged when we consider my 
situation as last in the family and tirst in the 
heart of my widowed mother, who, however, 
never let her feelings overcome her prudence, 
but kept me within reasonable bounds after 
Quam's death. While Quam lived, he was not 
satisfied to be parted from me the whole of 
any night. He would get up every night in 
sweet-potato time, and have some roasted by 
three or four o'clock, and then I was just as 
regular to wake and my sister must carry me 
out to Quam in the kitchen. There I would 
eat potatoes and ask him questions, and we 
would chat over all onr concerns till near day- 
light, when I would tumble down on his bunk 
and finish the night in sleeping and he in 
watching. These things seem to me almost as 
if the.y haiJi)ened last year. Old Quam's great 
indulgence in satisfying all my inquiries to the 
best of his ability, and never checking me in 
asking and inquiring, I have no doubt, the 
same was of essential service to me. I have 
not a pai'tiele of doubt that it gave me an early 
memory. I can well remember when two and 
a half years old, being held one night in a door 
by my sister to see the sawmill burn, which 
was, say forty rods from the house. I remem- 
ber the fire that flew towards our house, and 
their anxiety and precaution in extinguishing 
sparks on the roof on which was old Quam, 

and how my teeth chattered with fear and cold. 
I believe, too, that not only this early and defi- 
nite memory was the result of his indulging all 
my inquiries, but that it gave me great facili- 
ties in attending to studies and in. acquiring 
knowledge in afte?' life. 

"It is miserable treatment to rebuke a child 
who. from the afl'ection of knowing., will ask a 
thousand (juestions. Sometimes burdensome, 
to be sure, but when we consider that upon 
that affection of knowing is built all the child's 
advancement in knowledge afterwards, how 
cruel it is to rebuke the inquiries of the infant. 
Many a parent has ruined his child by this 
kind of discouragement, and afterwards chas- 
tised him for not loving and attending to 
studies and for making sIoav progress therein, 
when his own thoughtless course had produced 
that apathy and inability. All innocent in- 
(|uiries by infants and children at all proper 
times should be indulged and encouraged, how 
pestcrsome soever they may seem. 


"Being born among a dense slave popula- 
tion, and twelve miles from the nearest settle- 
ment of friends, white children Avere very 
thinly scattered, so that country schools could 
not be maintaijied. White children Avere sent 
from home for schooling. I never kncAv a 
school in that country except one quarter 
(Avhich Avould be three months), kept by one 
Thomas Eccles, Avhen I Avas four and a half 
years old. My sister and brother attended. I. 
hoAvever, under the tuition of my mother, 
learned so as to read Avith ease at the age of 
seven. Being divested of all playmates in 
childhood, induced a singular turn of mind, 
Avhich may be seen to this day, and Avhich I 
shall never be bereft of, Avere it desirable. I 
learned rapidly, never Avore out or abused a 
book in my life. I kept my first primer, toy 
books, spelling books, slate, arithemtic, and 
Avithout a leaf amiss, until I had a nephcAV old 
enough to use them. I have sometimes re- 
gretted giving them to him, as I Avas grieved to 
see they Avere soon gone Avhen placed in other 

"Owing to the Ava.VAvardness of my disposi- 


tion, and evil propensities of my natiire, I do 
think that had it not l:een foi' the early iiiHu- 
onees of old Qiiani and my niothei', that I eoiikl 
not have been a man that society would have 
tolerated. They took sinsulat' pains to impress 
my mind with a horror ef inllidin^ pain on 
even the meanest insect. When a child I would 
cry to see one wounded. I could not bear to 
witness the ■ writhings of a conch, boiling to 
death in its own shell. That seemed to be the 
only maimer of killing them. I could not bear 
to ?ee fish struggling en the shore for hrcalli. 
nor clams roasting fcr dinnei'. To my early 
tuition may be attributed the fact that, al- 
though in boyhood and youthfulnes.s I was an 
inhabitant of the woods, in the naidst of and 
often annoyed by wild animals, and I had a 
gun at command, I never shot at but four liv- 
ing creatures, all of which escaped; and when 
I considered that some of them might be se- 
riously ^^ounded and suffering in pain, and 
writhing in death, all thoughts of shooting at 
animals were abandoned. I always consid- 
ered it fortunate that my early infanej', in 
which is laid the foundation of the future man, 
fell into such hands as old Quam and my nioth, ■ 
er; but, unfortunateh^ that while I have lost 
much of the good infantile education, I have 
retained much, if not most of that which "was 
erroneous, and added of my own what is 
wrong. My early seclusion from children in- 
duced a singular turn of mind and propensity 
to be alone. This will show itself frequently 
in the e.yes of otiicis to great disadvantas'o. 
Perhaps my voluntary relinquishment of my 
right among the Friends at the age of 37 may 
in part be traced to this source. 


"The most severe stroke that I remember 
to have fallen on my mother was in 1799. She 
received information that the heirs of one Sam 
Connell.were coming on us for debt, contracted 
before the Revolution. At a certain time, .ts I 
have heard, my father expected three vessels 
from England, that he had engaged to reload 
with naval stores. He had the loading on the 
wharf, in Newbern, when a long and tempest- 
uous storm set into the mouth of the Neus 
River until it was so swollen as to float oft' his 
loading, iluch of it was lost, and before he 

could collect criouiiii more the vessels came, 
and of Sam Connell he purchaseil to tlie value 
of seventy pounds, foi' which he gave his bond. 
The Revolution commenced soon aftei-. Con- 
nell was a Toi-y and ran oft' to England with 
the bond. This prevented its scttlemenl. After 
Jay's treaty the heirs came upon us, not oidy 
lor principal and interest but compound inter- 
est. Twenty-five or thirty years had swollen 
it to a considerable sum. However question- 
iible the compulsion of a widow, who had not 
anything like her third at the final settlement 
of the estate, might be, mother was never the 
woman to think that any circumstances could 
justify debts being left unpaid while anything 
was remaining. 1 am proud to say that she 
never got into the late fashion of believing that 
the widow of a landholder or speculator ought 
to be wealthy, whether her husband was ever 
really worth a cent or not. The executors 
agreed to take the homestead and let her have 
all the remaining personal property. She 
agreed to the proposal, and in order to enable 
her to remove to the Northwest Territory she 
cold what the family could spare. Her per- 
sonal property f.old very low, as it was a time 
of general emigration. 


"In April, 1800, we sailed from Beaufort for 
Alexandria, in company with seventy other 
emigrants, large and small, say twelve families. 
AVe had one storm and were once becalmed in 
Core Sound, and had to wait about two weeks 
at Curritue Inlet (lunv filled up) for a wind 
to take us to sea. From thence to Alexandria 
we had a line run, especially up the Potomac 
Bay. While cooped up in the vessel a circum- 
stance happened to me that 1 shall never foi-- 
get, and was always of use to me. One of the 
first nights cf the voyage 1 lost my trousers, 
so that when it was time to dress in the morn- 
ing my indispensables were non est inventis. 
There were man,y of both sexes present, for the 
schooner had very little loading but emigrants. 
The mortification felt for half an hour at the 
accident was never erased from my memory, 
and from that time to this I never undress 
■without knowing precisely where my clothing 
is left. During the storm we were in, the ma- 


jority on board were seasiek, and we had 
rather a disagreeable time among, say forty 
or fifty vomiting individuals. Neither that nor 
the rolling of the vessel affected me, as it hap- 
pened. This is mentioned as one of the dis- 
agreeabilities of emigration that makes set- 
tling in the woods feel more comfortable by 
contrast. At Alexandria we remained several 
days before we got wagons to bring us out. 
Here everything was weighed. My weight was 
just 75 pounds. 


We stopped here two weeks, on what 
I think was called Goose Creek in Vir- 
ginia, before we could be supplied with a 
wagon to cross the mountains, in place of the 
one we occupied which belonged there. We 
stayed one night at Dinah Besor's Tavern, at 
the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains. It was 
called Dinah Besor's house, because the gray 
mare was there the better horse. Some of the 
boys mounted a fine cherry tree, for which the 
old man gave them a scolding, lest they might 
break the limb. I noticed the immense num- 
ber of whippoorwills that were here, and the 
difference in their note from what I was used 
to. Here their cry resembled their name, but 
in Carolina it resembled the words 'whip the 
widow whiteoak.' The mountain roads (if 
roads they could be called, for pack horses 
were still on them), were of the most danger- 
ous and difficult. I have heard an old moun- 
tain tavernkeeper say that although the tav- 
erns were less than two miles apart, in years 
after we came, he has known many immigrant 
families that stopped a night at every tavern 
on the mountains. I recollect but few of our 
night stands distinctly, say Dinah Besor's, 
Goose Creek, old Crocks, near the South 
Branch, Thomlinson's, Besontown, and Simp- 
kins, and Merritstown. Our company consist- 
ed of Joseph Due, Levina Hall, and Jonas 
Small, with their families. After a tedious 


joiirney, we all arrived safe at Frederiektown, 
Washington county. Pa., where we stopped to 
await the opening of the land office at Steuben- 
ville, Ohio. Hei'e we found Horton Howard 

and family, \vho had come on the season pre- 
vious. Here also the children had the whoop- 
ing cough. Those whom we left at Alexandria 
came to Redstone old fort, ten miles below 
Frederiektown, where they sojourned for the 
same purpose; and although as we thought un- 
fortunately detained, they were first at their 
resting place. We regretted much to leave 
them, but considered ourselves fortunate in be- 
ing the first to start; but, like many circum- 
stances in life, where appearances are not real- 
ities, they were fortunate in being left for a 
better and more speedy conveyance. 

"Jonas Small, Francis Mace and several other 
families from Red Stone, returned to Carolina, 
dissatisfied with the hills, vales and mud of the 
Northwest, little dreaming of the level and 
open prairies of this valley. Horton Howard 
and family started first from Frederiektown. 


Jo.-.eph Due, Livina Hall and ourselves made 
another start in September or early in October. 
We started in the afternoon, and lay at Ben- 
jamine Townsend's, on Fish Pot Run. We 
lay also at the Blueball, near Washington; at 
Rice's OH the Buffalo; and at Warren on the 
Ohio. These are all the night stands I now rec- 
ollect, in 55 miles. We arrived safe at John 
Leaf's, in what is now called Concord Settle- 
ment. I''rom Warren, Joseph Due and Mrs. 
Hall proceeded up little Short Creek and 
stopped near where Mount Pleasant now is, in 
what is now called Concord Settlement. Four 
or five years previously five or six persons had 
si|uatted and made small improvements. The 
P^i'iends. chiefly from Carolina, had taken the 
land at a clear sweep. Mr. Leaf lived on a 
tract bought by Horton Howard, since owned 
by Samuel Potts, and subricquently by William 
Millhouse. Horton Howard had turned i)i on 
Mr. Leaf, and we turned in on both. 

' ' If any one had an idea of the appearance of 
the remnant of a town that has been nearly de- 
stroyed by fire, and the houseless inhabitants 
turned in upon those who were left, they can 
form some idea of the sf|uatters' cabins that 
fall. It was a real harvest for them, however, 
for they received the rhino for the privileges 


granted and woi'k done, as well as in aid of 
the immigrants in gettinj^- eahins up, as foi- 
their improvements. This settlement is in Bel- 
mont County, on Glen's Run, about six miles 
northwest of Wheeling, and as much northeast 
of St. Clairsville. Immigrants poui'ed in fi'oni 
different part.s, cabins were put up in every 
different direction, ^\omen, childi'en and goods 
tumbled into them. The tide of immigration 
flowed like water through a breach in a mill- 
dam. Everything was bustle- and confusion, 
and all at work that could work. In the nudst 
of all this, the mumps, and perhaps one or two 
other diseases prevailed, and gave us a season- 
ing. Our cabin (see cut Xo. 70) had been 
raised, covered, part of the cracks chinked and 
part of the floor laid when we moved in on 
Christmas day. There had not been a stick cut 
except in building the cabin. 


' ' We had intended an inside chimney, for 
we thought the chimney ought to lie in the 
house. We had a log put across the whole 
width of the cabin foi- a mantel, but when 
the floor was in we found it so low as not to 
answer, and removed it. Here was a great 
change for my mother and sister, as well a; the 
rest, but pai-tieulai-ly my mother. She was 
raised in the most delicate manner in and near 
London, and lived most of her time in aftiu- 
enee and always comfortable. She was now 
in the wilderness, surrounded by wild animals; 
in a cabin with about half a floor, no door, no 
ceiling overhead, not even a tolerable sign for 
r. fireplace, the light of day and the chilling 
winds of night passing between every two logs 
in the building, the cabin so high from the 
ground that a bear, wolf, panther or any ani- 
mal less in size than a co>v could enter without 
even a squeeze. Such was our situation on 
Thursday and Thursday night, December 25th, 
1800, Christmas, and wliieh was bettered but 
by very slow degrees. We got the rest of the 
floor laid in a few days, the chinking of the 
cracks went on slowly, but the daubing could 
not proceed till weather more suitable, which 
happened in a few days ; doorways were sawed 
out and steps made of the logs, and the back 
of the chimney was raised up to the mantel, 

I but till- funnel of sticks and clay was delayed 
j until Spriiiii-. 

I "My mother had hern weakly on our yaiv- 
I ney, and at Ki'edei'iektowu was mo!-e sei'iously 
' ill than 1 cvci- knew her before or since She 
still lives, a monument of the Lord's meT-cy, 
and a liright illustration of the di.scipline of 
which the human mind is susceptible. She has 
been blind about eight years, and to my recol- 
lection she never complained of anything, but 
trusted all to Divine Providence. She now. at 
the age of ninety-five, waits her change with 
patience, is little or no trouble to anyone : en- 
joys good health, a serene and sound mind, and 
the age of dotage seems never to have over- 
taken her; never gives unnecessary pain or 
trouble to any one, and is pleased when by 
i-epeating verses she learned when a girl, she 
can add to the happiness of the social circle. 
She has been a woman of strict economy and 
great industry, but nevei' milked a cow, and 
perhaps never spun a thi'ead in her life, and 
scarcely ever cooked, but was a great sewer 
and knitter. This she does now with great 
facility, saying that if she could not knit .she 
would be very unhappy. She is vei-y little of 
her time without her knitting, except on First 
Days, as she calls the Sabbath. She was always 
a member of the Society of Friends. She is 
much delighted with hearing the Word or any 
religious books read. 


' ' Our family consisted of my mother, a sister 
of twenty-two, my brother past twenty-one and 
very weakly, and myself, in my eleventh year. 
Two years afterwards Black Jenney followed 
us in company with my half-brother. Richard, 
and his family. She lived two years with us in 
Ohio and died in the winter of 1S03-4. 

"In biulding ou)- cabin it was set to front 
the north ami south, my brother using my fa- 
ther's pocket compass on the occasion. We 
had no idea of living in a house that did not 
stand scfuare with the earth itself. This argued 
our ignorance of the comforts and conven- 
iences of a pioneer life. The position of the 
house, end to the hill, necessarily elevated the 
lower end, and the determination of having 


both a north and south door added much to thr- 
aiiyiioss of the domicile, particularly after the 
green ash pnncheons had shrunk so as to have 
cracks in Ihe floor and doors from one to two 
inches Avide. At both the doors we had high, 
unsteady and sometimes icy steps, made by pil- 
ing up the logs cut out of the wall. We had, 
as the reader will see (cut No. 70), a window 
(if it colli J he called a window), when perhaps 
it was the largest spot in the top, bottom, oi' 
sides of the cabin at which the wind could not 
enter. Jt was made by sawing out a log, plac- 

ter displayed, in ample order, a host of pewter 
plates, basins and dishes and spoons, scoured 
and bright. (See cut No. 36.)" 

Note by tha Author, Milton F. Williams 

The above cut (No. 70) is reproduced from 
"The American Pioneers," edited and pub- 
lished by Great Uncle John Shoebridge Wil- 
liams, in Cincinnati, 0., in 1843. There are 
two principal reasons for reproducing this 
cabin. One is to perpetuate the cabin for the 
rising generations to know, as, no doubt, in 

Cut Xo. 70 — Log Cabin of Samuel and John Slioebridge Williams, built ; 
Glen's Run, Belmont Countv, O. (later called Parker's Farm)- 

ing sticks across, and then by pasting an old 
nevrspai^er over the hole and applying some 
liog's lard, we had a kind of glazing which 
shed a most beautiful and mellow light across 
the cabin when the sun shone on it. All other 
light entered at the dooi's, cracks and chimney. 
Our cabin was 24x18. The west end was occu- 
pied by two beds, the center of each side by a 
door, and here our symmetry had to stop ; for 
on the side opposite the window, made of clap- 
boards, supported on pins driven into the logs, 
were our shelves. Upon these shelves my sis- 

geuci-ations to come the early pioneer book 
may be lost and become a thing of the past. 
For that reason alone it is my duty and my 
obligation to have it reproduced. The repro- 
duction of this cabin is very dear to my heart, 
more particularly because ray father, Robt. 
AVilliams, son of Samuel Williams, was born in 
this cabin in the year 1809. He was a studious 
and hard worker, had no advantages only from 
his two hands, not having learned a trade, but 
working at anything he could get to work at, 
sometimes chopping Avood, sometimes digging 


coal, at other tiiiios workint;- fdi' his noi^hljors. 
He followed the Biblical advice: "Whatever 
thine hand findeth to do, do it Avith all thy 
might." Father knew only industry, frugality 
and sobriety, and while he knew not how to 
aecninulate wealth, he alway.s knew enough to 
make a good living for his family and possess 
his own home, no matter how humble it may 
liave been, and died in his 94th yeai-, 7th day, 
an honored and respected citizen. 


"It was none of your new f angled pewter 
made of lead, but the best of London pewter, 
which our father himself bought of Townsend, 
the Manufacturer. These Avere the plates upon 
which you could hold your meat, so as to cut 
it without slipping, and without dulling your 
knife. But alas, the days of pewter plates 
and sharp dinner knives has passed away 
never to retui'n. To return to our internal 
arrangements: A ladder of 5 rounds occupied 
the corner near the window. By this, when we 
got a floor above, we could ascend. Our chim- 
ney occupied most of the East end. Pots and 
kettles opposite the window under the shelves, 
a gun on hooks over the North door. Four 
split bottom chairs, three three-legged stools, 
and a small SxlO looking glass, sloped from 
the wall over a large towel-and-comb case. 
These, with clumsy shovel and a pair of tongs, 
made in Frederick, with one shank straight, 
as the best manufacturer of pinches and blood 
blisters, completed our furniture, except a 
spinning wheel and such things as were neces- 
sary to work with. It was absolutely necessary 
to have three-legged stools, as four legs of any- 
thing could not all touch the floor at the same 
time on account of tho uncvoiniess of a punch- 
eon floor. 

"The completion of our cabin went on 
slowly. The season was inclement. "We were 
weak handed, and weak pocketed, in fact, 
laborers were not to be had. We got our 
chin\ney up breast high as soon as we could, 
and got our cabin daube'd as high as the joists 
outside. It never was daubed on the inside, 
for my sister, who was very nice, could not 
consent to 'live right next to the mud I' My 
impression now is that the window was not 
constructed until spring, for until the sticks 

and clay were put in llie eliiiiini-y we could 
possibly have no need of a window, foi- tli.- 
flood of light wliich always imurcd into llie 
cabin from the flrcplace would lia\c extin- 
guished our papei' window, in the place of 
glass, and rendered it as useless as the nioon 
at noonday. We got a floor layed oveiheail 
as soon as possible, perhaps in a month, l)ut 
when it was layed the reader will readily con- 
ceive of its imperviousness to wind and 
A\-ea1lier ^^ lien we mention that it was layed 
of loose eh)]) boards split from a red oak, the 
fitump of which may be seen beyond the cabin. 
That tree grew in the night and so twisted 
that each board layed on two diagonally oppo- 
Eite corners, and a cat might have shaken 
every board on our ceiling. It may be well 
to inform the unlearned reader that clap 
boards are such lumber as pioneers split with 
a frow, and resemble barrel staves before they 
are shaved, hut are split longer, wider and 
thinner ; of such our roof and ceiling were 


"Puncheons were planks, made by splitting 
logs to about 2i or 3 inches in thickness and 
hewing them on one or both sides with a In-oad- 
axe. Of course, our floor, doors, tables and 
stools were manufactured. The eavebearers 
are those end logs which project over to re- 
ceive the butting poles against which the lower 
tier of clap boards rest in forming the roof. 
The trapping is the roof timbers composing 
the gable end ; and the ribs, the ends of which 
appear in the drawing, being those logs upon 
which the clap boards lay. The trap logs are 
those of unequal length, above the eavehearers, 
which form the gable ends and upon which 
the ril)s I'est. The weight poles are those small 
logs layed on the roof, which weigh down the 
eoui'se of clap boards on which they lay and 
against which the next course above is placed. 
The knees are pieces of heart timber placed 
above the butting poles successively to prevent 
the weight poles from rolling ofl*. To many 
of our learned readers these explanations will 
appear superfluous, but the Pioneer may be 
read by persons much less enlightened on these 
subjects, and to such these explanations may 
be of real service. 


'"It was evidently a mistake to put oin' chim- 
ney at the lower end of the house, for as soon 
as Me put the funnel on in the spring we found 
that the back of our breastwork settled and 
was likely to topple our chimney down. This 
we might have remedied by a kind of frame- 
work had we thought of it and had tools to 
make it with. So scarce were our tools that 
our first pair of bar posts were morticed by 
pecking them on each side with a common axe 
and then, blowing coals in the holes, we burned 
them through so as to admit of the bars. But 
I do not think the framework to support the 
chinniey was thought of. To prop it with a 
pole first suggested itself, at the foot of which 
was a large stake. These remained an incum- 
brance in the yard for years. 

"There never was any unmixed good or 
unmixed evil that fell to the lot of men in the 
pi'obationary state. So our fireplace, being at 
the East end, was much more like our parlor 
lireplace in Carolina ; and besides this, while 
the chimney was only breast high, we should 
have been bacon before Candlemas had the 
chimney been in any other position : but situ- 
ated as it Avas, and the prevailing winds that 
blew inside of the house, as Avell as outside, 
being from west to east, most of the smoke was 
driven ofl: except occasionally an eddy which 
w^ould bring smoke and fianie full in our faces. 
One change of wind for a few days made our 
cabin almost uninhabitable. Here is prerjcnted 
an advantage of an open house. Let the wind 
be which way it would, the smoke and ashes 
could get out without opening doors and win- 
dows, and all that sort of trouble known at 
the present day whenever a chimney seems to 
draw best at the wrong end; besides this, a 
little breeze would not, as now, give \i:; colds. 

"We have heard that the position in sleep- 
ing makes a material difference in the sound- 
ness of it; but M'hich (to lay with the head 
north or soxith) produces the sounder sleep 
we have forgotten. At any rate, my brother 
and I slept in the southwest corner with our 
heads to the -south, and I remember well that 
from the time I lay down until I had to get 
up and go to w-ork only seemed about a half- 
minute, if so long. My mother and sister 
nccnpied the northM'est cornei', but as to the 

soundness of their sleep I knew little, there 
being no complaints. My brother and I took 
it in the healthy open air, while my mother 
and sister still had a partiality for old fashions 
and hung some kind of curtains on sticks sus- 
pended by strings over the joists. The cur- 
tains were very likely partly, if not wholly, of 
good old furniture check, which, with many 
other relics of times gone by, were treasured 
by the family. 


"There arc two modes of keeping warm. 
One is to clothe thin, lie on straw or leaves, 
and let the heart and lungs be active to keep 
up the heat. The other, and at present the 
most fashionable one, is to clothe very Avarm, 
lie on feather beds and let the heart and lungs 
become lazy and of little account. The former 
was our plan, especially that of myself and 
brother, perhaps not so much from the choice 
of sound philosophy as from other circum- 
stances. We soon found, however, that to 
make rag carpeting, such as sometimes covers 
kitchen floors now, and to sew two breadths 
of proper length together, was a good substi- 
tute for blankets, especially if there could be 
heic and there a rag of red fiannel, even if the 
rest wei-e tow linen rags. These cadders (for 
so ^ve called them) were of great help in bed. 
not so much from any warming qualities they 
possessed in^ them-elves as from their great 
ability to ]5ress a sheet or blanket close, if we 
had any under them; -and also by their gravi- 
tating propensities they very materially aided 
tl'.e imagination in coming to the conclusion 
that we were well covered. We would look 
npon our new cadder, when we were so. fortu- 
nate as to get one, and especially if there were 
red stripes in it, with the same feeling of 
delight as a modern belle does upon her new 
Brussels carpet and piano. 

"I had another source of comfort in ccld 
wcathei', which I \v\vit I never shall forget. 
My good old mothei- (God bless her) never 
went to bed in winter without seeing that the 
cadder was tucked close to the back and feet 
of her John; nor would she suffer him to go 
out in cold weather without his .jacket. This, 
I sometimes thought, was rather officious in- 
terference on hei' part, but like other giddy 

pi()np:er comforts of life 

cliildi-en, I did not know, oi' rather I did not 
care, properly to appreciate her kindness. If 
T had taken a cold or liad been exposed un- 
usually she would see that my feet were soaked 
in warm water and that I had a hearty drink 
of warm pennyroyal tea before going to bed. 
The simple remedies of some of the pioneer 
women may be pitted against the shops of the 
druggists for simple and effective cures, and 
if their prescriptions wei'e not as fashionable 
find costly as medicinal ones now, they some- 
limes did much less harm. 


"The evenings of the first winter did not 
pnss off as pleasantly as evenings afterward. 
We had raised no tobacco to stem and twist, 
nc corn to shell, no turnips to scrape; we had 
no tow to spin into rope yarn nor straw to plait 
for hats, and we had come so late we could get 
but few walnuts to crack. We had, however, 
the Bible, George Fox's Journal, Barkely's 
Apolog.y, and a number of books, all better 
than much of the fashionable reading of the 
present da.v, from which, after reading, the 
reader finds he has gained nothing, while his 
understanding has been made the dupe of the 
writers' fancy, that while reading he had given 
himself up to be led in mazes of fictitious imag- 
ination and lost his taste for solid reading, as 
frothy luxuries destro.y the appetite for whole- 
some food. To our stock of books were soon 
after added a borrowed copy of the Pilgi-im's 
Progress, which we read twice through with- 
out stopping. The winter our living was 
truly scanty and hard, but even this winter 
had its felicities. We had part of a barrel of 
flour which Ave had brought from Frederick- 
town. Besides this we had part of a jar of 
hog's lard brought from old Carolina; not the 
tasteless stuff which now goes by that name, 
but. pure leaf lard, taken from hogs raised on 
pine roots and fattened on sweet potatoes and 
into which, -while rendering, were immersed 
the boughs of the fragrant ba.y tree that im- 
parted to the lard a rich flavor. Of that flour, 
shortened with this lard, my sister every Sun- 
da.v morning, and at no other time, made short 
biscuit for breakfast — not these greas.v, gum- 
olastic biscuit we mostly meet with now, rolled 
out with a pin or cut out with a cutter; or 

those that arc, perhaps, speckled by or puffed 
up with refined lye called salaeratus, but made 
out, one by one, in her fail- hands, placed in 
neat juxtaposition in a skillet or spider, 
pricked with a fork to prevent blistering and 
baked before an open fire, not half baked and 
half stewed in a cooking stove. If all the 
pleasures and happiness imparted to the inhab- 
itants of Cincinnati for one week, by all the 
ice creams and other nicknaeks, could be ac- 
cumulated in the mind of one individual, I 
conceive it would hardly e(|ual what I felt 
between the time the process of making them 
began in the house and the process of digesting 
them ended in my stomach. 


"I do not believe that bankers, brokers and 
misers could, from the sight of gold, experi- 
ence such feelings of delight as I felt at the 
sight of the first skillet full, piled on a plate 
by the fire awaiting the cooking of the second. 
To attempt to describe the felicity of eating 
these breakfasts is useless, when I cannot con- 
vey even a tolerable idea of the happiness of 
anticipation. Those bi-eakfasts made the Sab- 
bath doubly dear and kept us in good humor 
all the week, thinking of the past, and antici- 
pating the future. If there is any way to enjoy 
that da.v that excels all others, of a temporal 
nature, it is to reserve all the good things to 
be enjoyed in it, and in idea to be associated 
with it. and for which we thank the Giver of 
all good things. The relish of these biscuits 
was that of real temperance in the use of food. 


The reader is not to suppose from anything we 
say that a log cabin life in the woods produces 
unallo.ved happiness. This is not to be found 
in a palace in a crowded city, log cabin, nor yet 
in a Fourier association. Everv advantage 
seems to bring with it a disadvantage, to give 
it a relish by contrast. In the ordering of a 
good Providence, the winter was open but 
windy. While the wind was of great use in 
driving the smoke and ashes out of our cabin, 
it shook terribly the timber standing almost 
over us. We were sometimes much and need- 
lessly alarmed. We had never seen a danger- 
ous looking tree near a dwelling, but here we 


Avere surrounded by the tall giants of the 
forest, waving their boughs and uniting their 
brows over us, as if in defiance of our disturb- 
ing their repose and usurping their long and 
uneoutested pre-emption rights. The beech on 
the left often shook his bushy head over us 
as if in absolute disapprobation of our settling 
there, threatening to crush us if wc did not 
pack up and start. The walnut over the spring 
branch stood high and straight ; no one could 
tell which way it inclined, but all concluded 
that if it had a preference it was in favor of 
<uiarteri]ig on our cabin. We got assistance 
to cut it down. The axeman doubted his abil- 
ity to control its direction, by reason that he 
riiust necessarily cut it almost off before it 
vrould fall. He thought by felling the tree in 
the direction of the reader, along near the 
chimney, and thus favor the little lean it 
seemed to have, would be the means of saving 
the cabin. He was sviccessful. Part of the 
stump still stands. These, and all other dan- 
gerous trees, were got down witiiout other 
damage than many frights and fre(|uent de- 
sertions of the pi'cmises by the family, while 
the trees were being cut. The ash beyond the 
house crossed the scarf and fell on the cabin 
b;:t without damage. We visited the premises 


in August, 1842, to take a sketch and found it, 
as well as the country around, amazingly al- 
tered. In place of the towering beech on the 
left stands a fine brick house, owned and 
occupied by Jose])h Parker. Instead of a view 
confined to a few rods by a dense forest the 
tops of ridges and knobs may now be seen 
for miles, resembling a slanting view across 
a nest of eggs. Not one of the trees in the 
drawing now remain. Well do I remember 
the rude figure of a man which I cut on the 
beech to the left of, and in the distance beyond 
the walnut, as well as the stormy night and 
the tremendous clap of thunder that shivered 
the ash, seen a little more to the left. The 
black locust, also, that is seen beyond the cabin 
leaning to the left is remembered. It was con- 
sidered to be a valuable tree and was allowed 
to stand after other trees were cut. Oft have 
I looked at its slim body and proportionably 
towering height. At length fire got around it, 

and as is the ca:e with every hypocrite under 
persecution, being rotten-hearted, it burned 
down. I measured its length ; it was just ninety 
feet, and to tliis day in estimating heights, I 
refer to the appearance of that locust and a 
stump of eighty feet which was also measured. 

"The little hickory between the house and 
spring was a mere hoop pole and we saved it. 
It grew very thriftily, and the last time I saw 
it the finest shellbarks graced its top ; but like 
many other things, it had but a short life after 
a promising youthfulness. It, too, is gone as 
well as the white walnut which stood over the 
spring, and the sprout 0]i Avhich the spring 
goui'd was wont to hang. But the fine, the 
clear, the gushing fountain of cold limestone 
water is still there in the same shallow depres- 
sion, and there its health-giving stream will 
I'emain and run long after Miller and his 
theory of the end of time happening thi, year 
uill both be consigned to oblivion. 


"'l"he iiuinotojiy of the time for several of 
the fii-st years was broken and enlivened by 
tlie li(n\l cf wild beasts. The wolves howling 
ai-ound us seemed to moan their inability to 
drive us from their long and undisputed do- 
main. The bears, panthers and deer seemingly 
got miffed at our approach or the partiality 
of tiie hunters, and but seldom troubled us. 
We did not hunt foj' them. The wildcat, rac- 
coon, possum, hornet, yellow-jacket rattle- 
snake, copperhead, nettle and a host of small 
things M'hich seemed in part to balance the 
amount of pioneer happiness, held on to their 
rights until driven out gradually by the united 
efforts of the pioneers, who, like a band of 
brothers, mutuallj- aided each other in the 
great work. These things, as well as getting 
their bread, kept them too busy for lawsuits, 
crinu's and speculations and nmde them happy. 

"One bag of meal would make a Mhole 
family rejoicingly happy and thankful then, 
when a loaded East Indianman will fail to do 
it now, and is passed olf as a common business 
ti'ansaetion without ever once thinking of the 
Giver, so independent have we become in the 
short space of forty years. Having got out 


of the wilderness in less time than the chil- 
dren of Israel, we seem to he even more 
forgetful and unthankful than they. 

"When spi'ing' was fully come, and our little 
patch of corn (three aci-es) put in among the 
beeeh roots, which at eveiy step contended 
with the shovel and plough for the right of 
soil, ynd held it, too, we enlarged our stock of 
conveniences. As soon as bark would run 
(peel off) we could make ropes and bark 
boxes. These we stood in great need of, as 
such things as bureaus, stands, wardrobes, or 
even barrels, were not to be had. The manner 
of making ropes of linnbark was to cut the 
hark in strips of convenient length and water- 
rot it in the same manner as rotting flax hemp. 


When tins was done, the inside bark v/onld 
peel olf p.nd split up so tine as to make a pretty 
considerably rough and good-for-but-little 
kind of a rope. Of this, however, we were vei'y 
glad, and let no shipowner with his grass ropes 
laugh at us. We made two kinds of boxes for 
furniture ; one kind was of hickory bark with 
the outside shaved off. This we would take 
off all around the tree, the size of which would 
determine the caliber of our box. In the one 
end we would place a flat piece of bark or 
puncheon, cut roiuid to fit in the bark, which 
stood on end, the same as when on the tree. 
There was little need of hooping, as the 
strength of the bark would keep that all right 
enough. Its shrinkage would make the top 
unsightly in a parlor nowadays, but then they 
were considered quite an addition to the fur- 
niture. A much finer article was made of slip- 
pei'v elm bark, shaved smooth and with the 
inside out, bent round and sewed together 
wliere the ends of the hoop or main bark 
lapped over. The length of the bark was 
around the box and inside out. A bottom was 
made of a piece of the same bark dried flat, 
and a lid like that of a common band box made 
in the same way. This was the finest furniture 
in a lady 's dressing room ; and then, as now 
with the finest furniture, the lap or sewed side 
was turned to the wall and the prettiest part 
to the spectator. They were usually made 
oval, and Avhile the bark was green it was 
easily ornamented with drawings of birds, 

ti'ees, etc., agreeably to the taste and skill of 
the fail' manufacturer. As we belonged to the 
Society of Friends, it may be fairly presumed 
that ou)' band boxes were not thus ornamented. 
Many a sly glance M'ould be cast at the new 
band boxes, and it is hoped that no modern 
belle will laugh, because a pioneer might 
be proud of her new band box. For it is just 
as easy to be pi'oud of such things, and as 
much sin. too. as to be pi'Oud of a new dressing 
table, glass, etc. 

"On the other hand, it is (|uite as easy to 
be happy, and easier to be properly thankful, 
for the small favors in the woods than it is 
now for a pampered Miss to be happy with, 
or thankful for, all the finery of her toilet. 
The amount of happiness received or acknowl- 
edgment to the Giver is by no means regulated 
by the appearance or cost of the article. 

"To the above store of bark ropes and bark 
boxes nmst be added a few gums before the 
farmer considered himself comfortably fixed. 
It may be well to inform the unlearned reader 
that gums are hollow trees cut off, with 
puncheons pinned on oi' fitted in one end, to 
answer in the place of barrels. 


"The privations of a Pioneer life contract 
the wants of man almost to total extinction 
and allow him means of charity and benevo- 
lence. Sufferings ennoble his feelings, and the 
frequent necessity for united effort at house 
raisings, log rollings, corn huskings. etc.. pro- 
duced in him habitual charity, almost unknown 
in these days of luxury, among the many 
tyrannical wants of artificial tastes and vi- 
tiated appetites. We have now but little time 
left to think of good, and still less to appreci- 
ate it. Our system of action now seems to be 
a general scramble for the spoil. From the 
reverend divine who looks upon the fatness of 
his salary as being the good of his profession, 
down through all the grades of speculators, 
swindlers and jockeys, whose maxim is 'their 
eyes is their market,' the leading principles 
are near akin, if not the very same. Most, if 
not all, of these, if it were not for public opin- 
ion, Avould cheat their dim-sighted mothers out 
of their good spectacles by giving them empty 


frames in trading and then brag of their skill 
in cheating'. There are many honorable excep- 
tions to the too prevalent system of grabbing. 

"That system reminds ns of the scramble 
which went on for years among the squirrels, 
raccoons and groundhogs for our corn crops, 
and frequently they left us little except the 
husks, and our path around the tield made in 
our own defense. 


■'We settled on beech land, which took much 
labor to clear. We could do no better than 
clear out the smaller stuff and burn the brush, 
etc., around the beeches which in spite of all 
the girdling and burning we could do to them 
would leaf out the first year and often a little 
the second. The land, however, was very rich 
and would bring better corn than might be 
expected. We had to tend it principally M'ith 
a hoe-that is, to chop down the nettles, the 
water weed and the touch-me-not grass ; car- 
less lamb's quarters and Spanish needles were 
reserved to pester the better prepared farmei-. 
AVe cleared a small turnip patch, which we 
got in about the tenth of August. We sowed 
in timothy seed, which took well the next year. 
We had a little hay; liesides, the tops and 
blades of the corn were also carefully saved 
for our horses, cows and the two sheep. The 
turnips were sweet and good, and in the fall 
we took care to gather walnuts and hickory 
nuts which were very abundant. These with 
the turnips which we scraped supplied the 
place of fruit. I have always been partial to 
scraped turnips, and now could beat any three 
dandies at scraping them. Johnny-cake also 
when we had meal to make it of, helped to 
make up our evening's repast. The Sunday 
morning biscuit had all evapoi'ated, but the 
loss was partially supplied by the nut; and 
turnips. Our regular supper was mush and 
milk, and by the time we had shelled our corn, 
stemmed tobacco and plaited straw to make 
hats, etc., the mush and milk had seemingly 
deeampered from the neighborhood of our 


"To relieve this difficulty, my brother and 
I would bake a thin Johnny-cake, part of 

which we would eat and leave the rest until 
morning. At daylight wc would eat the bal- 
ance as we walked from the house to work. 
The methods of eating mush and milk were 
various. Some would sit around the pot and 
everyone take therefrom himself. Some would 
set a table and each have his tineup of milk, 
and with a pewter spoon take just as much 
mush from Ihe dish or the pot as if it was on the 
table, as he thought would fill his mouth or 
throat; then lowering it into the milk would 
take some to wash it down. This method kept 
the milk cool, and by frequent repetitions the 
pioneer would contract a faculty of correctly 
estimati]ig the proper amount of each. Others 
would nux mush and milk together. Many an 
urchin who was wont to hit his little brother or 
sister with a spoon in (juari'el around the mush 
pot on the floor, in aftei' life learned to quarrel 
on the floor of Congress, or to exchange shots 
on M'hat is sometimes called 'the field of 
honor. ' So quick, if not magical, has been the 
transition of this counti-y. To get grinding 
done was often a great difficulty by reason of 
the scarcity of mills, the freezes in winter and 
droughts in summer. We had often to manvi- 
facture meal (when we had corn) any way we 
could get the corn to pieces. We soaked and 
pounded it, we shaved it, we planed it, and at 
the proper season grated it. 

"When one of our neighbors got a hand 
mill it was thought (juite an acquisition to the 
ncighborhocd; no need then of steam doctors. 
We could take hand mill sweats of our own 
when we pleased, nor of homeopaths, for our 
stomachs needed larger doses; nor of the pro- 
fessional physicians, for Avhite walnut bai'k 
boiled and the decoction stewed down was the 
fashionable medicine used by those unfashion- 
able ones who chanced to have a qualm. As 
for d.yspepsia and the like, saw mills might as 
well be suspected of having it. In after years, 
when in time of freezing or drought we could 
get grinding by waiting for our turn no more 
than one day and a night at a horse mill, wc 
thought ourselves happy. 

''To save meal M'e often made pumpkin 
bread. When meal was scarce, the pumpkin 
would so predominate a; to render it next to 
impossible to tell our bread from that article 

A pionp:er's evenings 

oither by taste, looks or the ainount of imti'iiiicnt 
it contained. To rise from the table with a good 
appetite is said to be healthy, and with some 
is said to be fashionable. "What then does it 
signify to be hungiy for a month at a time 
when it is not only healthy but fashionable ? 
Beside all this, the sight of a bag of meal when 
it was scarce made the family feel more glad 
and thankful to Heaven than a whole boat- 
load would at the present time. 

"Salt was $5.00 per bushel, and we used 
none in our corn bread, which we soon liked 
as well without it. Often has sweat ran into 
my mouth which tasted as fresh and flat as 
distilled water. What meat we had at nrst 
was fresh, and but little of that ; for had we 
been hunters we had no time to practice it. 


VVc had no candles and cai-ed but little about 
them except for summer use. In Carolina wc 
had the real fat light wood, not merely pine 
knots, but the fat, straight pine. This, from 
the brilliancy of our parlor on winter evenings, 
might be supposed to put, not only candles, 
lamps, camphine, Grcenough's chemical oil, 
but even gas itself to blush. In the west we 
had not this, but my business was to ramble 
the woods every evening for season sticks or 
the bark of the shelly hickory for light. 

" 'Tis true that our light was not even as 
good as candles, but we got along without 
fretting, for M'e depended more upon the good- 
ness of our eyes than we did upon the bril- 
liancy of the light. At that day none but the 
aged wore glasses. My mother said she in- 
jured her eyes by the early use of them. Such 
a thing as a young dandy of either sex peering 
throiigh gold frame concaves till their eyes 
push out like the lumps on calves' heads before 
the horns appear was not known. The moi-o 
concaves are indulged in the more the eyes will 
push out, for the shape of the eye will accom- 
modate itself to the lens. The use of glasses 
either concave or convex nine times in ten 
injure both eyes and the sight, and is a species 
of intemperance. If you physic for eveiy com- 
plaint you will soon lose your health. If you 
never exercise your muscles to fatigue they 
will soon become weak; so with the eye. Be 

idra\d of fiitiguiiig it, aid it with glasses so as 
never to [/ut its power to test, an<l it will 
soon be useless without them. I am now in 
my 54th year and have never used a glass and 
never shall unless aeeideiit or disease should 
act upon my eyes. I w rile and read no little. 
My wife had so indulged her eyes by the use 
of glasses as five years ago to require those 
of 16-inch focus. My remonstrance became 
strong, and she consented to follow ray direc- 
tions. The conse(iuence is that she has not 
used a glass for four years, although she sews, 
reads, threads her needle and often by candle 
light. Who would not prefer to be a Pioneer 
and enjoy all his sources of happiness than to 
be a slave of fashion or indolence and suffer 
heat, cold and disease to serve it? 


"One of my employments in winter even- 
ings, after we raised tlax, Avas the spinning of 
rope yarn from the coarsest swingling tow to 
make bed cords for sale. Swingling tow is a 
corruption of singling tow, as swingle tree is 
of single tree. The manner of spinning rope 
yarn was by means of a drum, which turned 
on a horizontal shaft, driven into a hole in one 
of the cabin logs near the fire. The yarn was 
hitched to a nail on one side of the circum- 
ference next to me. By taking an oblifjue 
direction and keeping up a regular jerking or 
pulling of the threads the drum was kept in 
constant motion, and thus the twisting and 
pulling out went on regularly and simultan- 
eously until the length of the walk was taken 
up. Then by winding the yarn tirst on my 
forearm and from that on the drum I was 
ready to spin another thread. A late improve- 
ment of this kind of Pioneer spinning is called 
political wire- working, and had I kept pace 
with the improvements of the age I might at 
present have been a most expert political dem- 
agogue of wealth and influence. 

"The \inl earned reader might inquire what 
we did with the finer kinds of tow. It is well 
enough to apprize him that next to rope yarn 
in fineness was filling for trousers and aprons; 
next finer, warp for the same and filling for 
shirts and frocks; next finer, of tow thread, 
warp for shirts and frocks, unless some of the 
higher grades of society would use flax thread. 


Linen shirts, especially seven hundred, Ava§ 
counted the very toiJ of the pot, aud the one 
wbft- wore an eight hundred linen shirt was 
counted a dandy. He was not called a dandy, 
for the word was unknown, as well as the 
refined animal which bears that name. Pion- 
eers found it to their advantage to wear tow 
linen and eat skim milk and sell their flax, 
linen and butter. 


"Frocks were a short kind of shirt worii 
over the trousei's. We saved our shirts by 
pulling them off in warm weather and wearing 
nothing in the daytime but our hats made of 
straw, our -frocks and our trousers. It will 
be thus perceived that these things took place 
before the days of suspenders, when every- 
one's trousers lacked about two inches of 
reaching up to where the waistcoat reached 
down. It was counted no extraordinary sight, 
and no matter of merriment, to see the shirt 
work out over all the waistband two or three 
inches and hang in a graceful festoon around 
the waist. Suspenders soon became a part of 
the clothing, and were a real improvement in 
dress. Not so with the underfoot strap of the 
dandy, the upward strain of which, together 
with the ascentional power of vanity in the 
walking balloon, seems nearly to lift him from 
the ground. 

"The girls had forms without bustles, and 
rosy cheeks without paint. Those who are 
thin, lean and colorless from being slaves to 
idleness or fashion are, to some extent, ex- 
cusable for endeavoring to be artificially what 
the pioneer girls were naturally ; who, had 
they needed lacing, might have used tow 
strings, and, if bran were U3ed for bustles, 
might have curtailed their suppers. Those 
circumstances which frequently occasioned the 
bran to be eaten after the flour was gone laced 
tight enough without silk cord or bone-sets, 
and prevented that state of things which some- 
times makes it necessary to eat both flour and 
bran together as medicine, and requires bran 
or straw outside to make the shape respect- 


"Not only about the farm, but also to meet- 
ing, the younger part of families, and even 

men. went bai-efoot in summer. The young 
women carried their shoes and stockings, if 
they had them, in their hands until they got 
in sight of the meeting house, where, sitting on 
a log, they shod themselves for meeting ; and 
at the same place, after meeting, they unshod 
themselves for a walk home, perhaps one or 
two miles. Whether shoes, stockings or even 
bonnets were to be had or not, meeting must 
be attended. Let those who cannot attend 
church without a new bonnet, who cannot go 
Lwo or three squares because it is so cold, or 
CO rainy, or so sunny, net laugh at the zeal of 
those pioneers for religion. Religion barefoot 
is as acceptable as religion shod, and as easily 
come at, too. If those barefoot girls could not 
knit as fine lace they could knit better stock- 
ings. If they could not cut as fine figures in 
dance, they could make healthier mothers and 
housewives ; and if they could not make as fine 
music, they could sing lullaby to much better 
effect. It is to be noted that among the pion- 
eers all was neither goodness "nor happiness. 
It was as easy to go to church for fashion's 
pake, or to see and be seen, then as now; in 
fact, the ways of Heaven are equal, but man 
very uneiinally acts the part on earth. 


"Turnips, walnuts and hickory nuts sup- 
plied the place of fruit till peaches were 
raised. In five or six years we sometimes went 
to Martin's Ferry on the Ohio to pick peaches 
for the owner, who had them distilled. We 
[40t a bushel of apples for each day's work in 
picking peaches. These were kept for partic- 
ular eating, as if they had contained seeds of 
gold. Their extreme scarcity made them seem 
valuable and stand next to the short biscuit 
that were so valued in times gone by. Paw- 
paws were eaten in their season. When we 
got an abundance of apples they seemed to 
lose their flavor and relish. It is the same with 
everything but heaven and virtue, which never 
fail, but greatly increase in relish with their 
abundance and stand in direct contact with all 
Kubliinary good. 


"Mrs. Leaf gave me a beautiful white, black 
and yellow kitten, which made the best squir- 


rel cntc'her in the country, ilicc and rats 
thei'e wci'c none. She was worth iiioiu'y and 
lived fifteen years. We bought a heifer in 
the same Fall of 18C0, which made us a fine 
cow; she lived about as long as the cat. Pas- 
turage was abundant in summer, being com- 
posed mostly of nettles, waist high, which 
made us fine greens, and thus sei'vcd foi' both 
the cow and her owner, and yet, lil<e every- 
thing else on earth, seemed to balance the 
account by stinging us at every turn. Even 
the good pasturage of this new country, con- 
fddered as a pastur(\ had its lialan^-ing pi-op- 
erties, for the same rich soil from wliicli spi-ang 
nettles and pastui-e in such abundance l)rought 
forth also the i-amps or ^yild garlic, which 
springing first were devoured by the cows. 
Cows could not be confined for Avaiit of fences, 
nor dared we neglect milking lest they might 
go dry ; and for two or three weeks cows were 
milked in pails and the inilk thrown out and 
given to the hogs. We never milked on the 
ground, as it seemed a pity and some s:aid it 
was bad luck. We never heard of milk sick- 
ness or we might have been less disposed to 
fret at the ramps, and might have been thank- 
ful for being blessed with a disadvantage less 
frightful. Our axe handles were straight and 
egg-shaped. Whether the oval form and the 
quick bulbous ends of the present day is an 
improvement or not is immaterial here to in- 
(iuire, but had we used the present form then 
I should at times have been fixed to the axe. 
The hand that holds this pen had, before it 
felt the cold of twelve winters, been so be- 
numbed by chopping in the cold as to have the 
fingers set to the handle, making it necessary 
to slip them off at the end, which could not 
have been done were they of the present shape. 
After the fingers were of? a little rubbing and 
stretching from the other hand would restore 
them, but would not dry up the blood nor heal 
the chaps with which they were covered. 
These and kindred things are well calculated 
to make one, by contrast, appreciate the bless- 
ings cf leisure and ease until they become too 
common, when we lose our relish of them, and 
the gratitude we ought to feel for time even 
to think. 

•; "On Saturday, July 31st, 18C"2, my brother 

Richard ai'rived at our cabin. He had been a 
sea captain for many years, and at the age of 
32 abandoned his seafaring life. I was exactly 
12 years old to an hour when he arrived. He 
had left his family at or near Wheeling. His 
arrival was greeted as a great accjuisition to 
the settlement, as he had a good education. 
He was born under auspicious circumstances. 
The neighbors soon had him a cabin up near 
the meeting house and a school opened. I had 
never been sent to school. He put me in thi'ec 
syllables in Dilworth's spelling book. I think 
the first lesson connnenccd with the word 
'abandon,' and I abandoned that lesson, and 
that book, for I swallowed the whole of it 
vei'y soon. I never did confine my studies to 
a single lesson at school, but must know all 
the book contained. The teachers could keep 
me back in recitation, but not in knowing. I 
soon found that the head of the class was my 
place by pi'e-cm|)tion. 

"xVftcr the (|uartcr was out, sugar making, 
land clearing, corn planting, etc., put an end 
to my regular schooling, but not to my prog- 
res.s. Within \hf hour allowed foi- rest at noon 
I used to I'un a mile over the deepest and 
steepest kind of a hollow to spell at school. 
Having misled the evening spellings, I ahvays 
began foot, but that did not annoy me, nor 
prevent me from ending head, when the mile 
must again be run over to dinner and I to my 
work. One sirring, while I was hewing the 
side of a stump to set a flax brake, I was for- 
tunate enough to split the middle'toe of my 
right foot. Although a stiff joint, a large, 
crooked toe and a liad nail was the conse- 
quence, I always counted myself fortunate 
under the accident, for it gave me a chance 
of going to school a quarter. It was sore two 
months and a half, most of which time I never 
touched the forepart of my foot to the ground 
but walked to the school, when the bare men- 
tion that my foot would be no worse hurt to 
stay at home would insult me. It was not 
altogether, and perhaps not half, the love of 
study that made me love school. There was 
in my composition a good portion of the love 
of play and frolic. Subseciuently a strained 
wrist and a strained ankle, as well as a disease 
of one of my heels, which gave me great pain 
for four months, baffled the skill of Doctor 


Hamilton of Mount Pleasant, were all, with 
other wounds and In-uises, counted as blessings 
because they gave me bettei' opportunities for 


Going home from school one evening I 
took a different route. Upon the hillside 
above me 1 saw a most beautiful white and 
black livel.y aninuil with a fine bush. I thought 
surely no one had ever before seen so fine a 
frisk. Agreeably to a prevailing trait in my 
youthful character, which determined me 
never to leave any mystery in a book or on 
land without knowing something more about 
it, I took two clubs in my hand and went to 
reeonnoiter his whereabouts. On approaching 
I perceived by the smell that I had heard of 
the animal before, but as I never backed out 
because difficulties were presented, the ap- 
proach was continued unperceived until within 
a few paces of him. He then discovered me 
and ran very impertinently towards me and 
looking me fully in the face, seemed to ask 
what I wanted. Keeping my ground, he made 
for a retreat, when the temptation to throw 
became too strong. The last I saw of him was 
just as the club was about to hit him, when he, 
by a way peculiarly his own, administered 
a perfume to my body not so agreeable as 
Bergamot, but certainly preferable to the 
breath of a confirmed sop in the use of tobacco 
or alcoholic spirits. He also at one and the 
same operation administered eye water to both 
eyes. It was for a few minutes powerful in 
effect, if not lasting in efficacy. In this re- 
spect, however, it was not behind most of the 
nostrums sold by less skillful (juacks, and in 
one respect at least very much like many of 
them. I pocketed the joke and went home 
laughing about it. It was a lesson. Had I 
made the best use of it and taken warning 
from it never again to be so much deceived by 
appearances, it might have saved me some 
trouble; but I thought more of Blair's maxim 
1hat it was better to be imposed upon than to 
foster a suspicious disposition, and have let 
others impose upon me by specious appear- 
ances very frequently since. I was not in (|uite 
as good a humor about it as might be supposed 
from the face I put on, for I silently vowed 

vengeance on the next of the race I met with. 
The vow was faithfully redeemed about five 
years afterwards without my being the least 
ineommoded. By this time I was 19, and knew 
much better how to conduct an affai?' on the 
field of honor. 

"My faithful and industrious sister did 
much for us as she did afterwards for her own 
family by weaving. In the Spring' of 1804 she 
and also my l:)rother got married, the one to 
Sarah Arnold, and the other to Joseph Garret- 
sou, whose autograph our readers have seen. 
The circumstances of our family very much 
changed by these movements. The infants, 
iuslend of webs and nursing, exchanged for 
weaving. Change and contrast are both nec- 
essary to happiness, and novelty has most 
frequently a charm independent of things 


"(^n October 24th, 1804, my brother and I 
went out to the Fi'iends settlement to a corn 
husking. As was common, the heap was di- 
vided. We were chosen on different sides. 
They had peach brandy, and handed it around 
freely. I thought that to be a man I must 
drink when men drank, and I got most com- 
fortably drunk. The last of the husking I 
remembered was throwing corn in the husk. 
Total abstinence from all remembrance over- 
took me until they let me fall in carrying me 
to the house. Again I relapsed into total 
forgetfulness until three o'clock, when I awoke 
with the chimney at the wrong end of the 
house, my brain turned topsy turvy, and my 
feelings otherwise much worse than when I 
took the quack medicine above described. My 
brother had gone home. I followed him at 
daylight and joined him at work. I expected 
surely that friends would disown me. and was 
afraid to go to meeting or see an ovei-seer for 
months. I marked the day in the almanac and 
determined never to be 'so beastly again, which 
resolution has not yet been broken. 

"About tlie same time, like other boys of that 
age, I wanted to be a man or as near like one 
as possible, so I tried to chew tobacco. This 
made me most uncommonly sick. When I got 


over that spree I licteniiined to hr a man Avitli- 
oiit it or not at all. To o>e neither spii'its or 
tobacco 13 soinetiines very inieoinrorlahle, I'oi' 
a person cannot always keep eleai- ol' the hrcalli 
and stench of those "ho arc eonlirmed in the 
use of one or l)oth. In such situation 1 liave 
been nauseonsly sick and I'eady to say: 

Oh wad some power the giftie gie ns 
To smell ourselves as others smell ns ; 
It wad from sic habits frae ns 
And make us men. 


" i went to several teachers, the last of which 
was the present venerable citizen of Dayton, 
Aquillia M. Bolton. After going to school in 
all thirteen months and eighteen days — three 
months of which time was to him — I gradu- 
ated, not by receiving parchment in form, but 
by again taking upon me my mual occupation 
of farming. While I Avas going to his school 
I walked near two miles, morning and evenhig, 
and chopped wood and fed cattle for my board- 
ing. I often thought that if I only had the 
opportunities of some boys, how happy I would 
be. I Avould then check such a rising com- 
plaint by thinking that had I their chances ten 
to one I would be jnst as idle as they. 

"Previous to this last quarter I signified to 
a teacher a wish to learn surveying. He loaned 
me the books and I gathered some of father's 
small instrnnTcnts. We had a large crop in, 
but I knew I could find time. Surveying was 
all wrought out that summer and, in the old 
fashion, written down. In my book I made 
this memorandum: 'I have in the last three 
days calculated, plotted and written down 14 
pages of Gibson's Surveying, besides plowing 
10 acres of coi'n.' I counted that good work. 
When I entered Bolton's school I wa3 either 
well versed in surveying and its kindred math- 
ematics, or else he said what he did not think, 
or thought what he did not know. 

"In my 22nd year I took up school near 
Barnesville, where the bright blue eyes of one 
of my pupils, Sarah Patterson by name (the 
same eyes which don't wear glasses now), to- 
gether with her rosy cheeks, seemed to monop- 

'ihzc ni themselves all that w:is u.hhI. hnjiht 
or ])retty iii Knclid, Ferguson, Xewtmi, IJaeon, 
Martin and ;i linst nf ntlier antlioi-s that wcri' 
dear to me. The purpose nf my life seemed to 
be changed. Hen' ji'l me drop :\ caution to the 
fair lasses, imt to let their eyes shine loo spai'k- 
ingly around, foi- they know ncjt what Imi-iii 

[irospeet they miiiht spoil, and how much tlie 
course of life mieht he changed by them.' 

"In reinoving to Fi-edericktowu before I was 
10, somewhere near JMerritstown, Fayette 
County, I saw a most beautiful valley of 
meadow. This impression made me detei'miiu> 
in after life to live in Pennsylvania, and Avas 
the moving can-?e of my living in that state 
twelve years. 


"In 1824 I entered Shrivei-"s Bi-igade as engi- 
neer under the general government in the ex- 
aminations of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 
J. Knight ar.d I Avere the first two Avho com- 
menced that Avork, and hei-e it might be said 
I Avas again in the Avoods and again a pioneer. 
Tavo campaigns Avere spent in those examina- 
tions, until the country from the very head of 
the Yonhagany to Pittsburg, became familiar. 
Those examinations convinced me that a canal 
from Cumberland to the Youghagany never 
could be eonsti-ucted,but a railroad through- 
out the middle section to supply its place could 
— an opinion I have yet seen no cause to 
change. At that time it was unpopular to 
mention railroads in any degree of connections 
with canals. General Siman Bernard Avas chief 
engineer of our department, a man truly dis- 
tinguished for his industry, as he Avas for 
other excellent i|ua]ities. 

"In 1826 I became the assistant of C. W. 
Wever, Es((., in the consti'uetion of the Na- 
tional road in Ohio, east of Zanesville. Here 
it AVEs my fortune again to be a pioneer, for 
(here Avere then no McAdaraized roads in the 
West, and none in the United States except 
tAvelve miles of about half an experiment in 
Maryland. It Avas my business to superintend 
the gradation and McAdamizing for the United 
States until 1829, Avhen I commenced the Mays- 
ville turnpike, Avhich I superintended the Avhole 


rsix yoai's of its construction. That road, to- 
gether, with the engineering of clivers roads in 
Kentucky and several diverging from this city, 
Cincinnati, and some other roads in this state, 
will long remain as marks of 17 years' labor, 
and •will be looked upon as starting points from 
which it may be seen whether the science of 
road making has advanced or retrograded. 

dollar than otherj with their thousands, the 
conclusion has been forced upon me that riches 
are more fre(iuently detriments than bler;sings. 
This is, however, not the fault of the property, 
but of those who possess it. 

"Thus, kind readej', you will pee that we 
have in this article endeavored to coiniect the with the pre "cnt, not only bj' .the direct 

Cut No. 71 — John Shoebridge Wi 
born Jul 

. (son of Robert Williams and Anne Shoebridge). 
1790; died April 27. 1878. 


"Ten fine childi'en in times past sat around 
my table. Other kinds of wealth I never wa"> 
an adept at either collecting or keeping to- 
gether. The lack of such a trait of character 
1 shall not regret until it is seen that money 
bestows merit, or that the value of the man is 
in direct proportion to the weight of his purse. 
Having seen some men do niove good with one 

line of survey, but by frequent offsets from 
the main line as we proceeded. All we have 
said was thought either to belong to the history 
of the coiuitry, past or present, or to bear 
materialj.y upon it until the time we again as- 
",umed the task of pioneer in publication b}' 
fitarting the first purely historical periodical 
that was ever attempted. 


Of Cincinnati, Ohio, 1843." 



John Shoebridge Williams, when lie was (:8 
years old, married a second time, Auiiust 26th, 
1858, to Drusilla Ilornei'. At that time lie was 
(iuite poor. His dauij,hter, llaniia JIarmon 
Williams, had married a wealthy man, H. T. 

Ihis house foi' his wife's falho-, J(din SI 
hri.Ue Williiuiis. 

John Sh.K'liri<Uc Williams, after thr <l 
cf his second wife, Drusilla, in 1S70. went 
to Iowa, where John Hampton, the fathe 
Robert Hampton, lived, and died thei'c at \' 
Iowa, April 27th, 1878, at the age of 88. 


Cut No. 7Z 

-Sarah Patterson, born April 8. 
iber 16, 1813, by whom she; liad te 

Stone of Cincinnati, who built a cozy little 
home on one corner of his place and supported 
them there until Drurdlla's death, October 2ith, 
1870, 12 years later. 

His youngest daughter, Martha Belle Wil- 
liams, born 1833, married a wealthy man, Wm. 
Van Vleek, who made his money in oil, and 
he also paid part of the expense of building 

790. Married John Shoebridge Williams 
1 children. She died May 29, 1858. 

His daughter, Martha Belle, and her hus- 
band, Van Vleck, attended his funeral. 

The Bible cf John Shoebridge Williams is in 
the possession of Jennie B. Fowder, Hollywood. 
Cal., and from this she has helped me make up 
the record for this history. 

The daughter of Martha Belle Williams and 
William Van Vleck is Anna Belle, who married 


Frances H. Owen of Boston, Mass. Martha 
Belle Williams, her mother, died at her house. 
William Van Vleek lost most of his money 
before he died and his son lost the rest after 
Ills father's death through bad investment. 

Hannah Harmon Williams, born 1817, mar- 
ried B. T. Stone of Cincinnati, who Avas very 
wealthy. The_y later moved to California ior 
Hannah's health, and slie died in San Jose, 
Cal. Later B. T. Stone married again and had 
a fine home at San Jose, Cal., where he after- 
wards died. 


Returning now to my hi-auch of the family, 
my grandfather. Samuel/Williams, born in 1779, 
was married in May, 18a4, to Sarah Arnold, my 
grandmother. Grandmother Sarah Avas born 
May 26lh, 1782, and died May 20th, 1856, at 
the age of 74. Her father was Joseph Arnold 
and her mother's name was Sarah. 

I-lleven children resulted from this union as 
follows : 

Joseph Williams, born March 10th, 1805. 

Anne Williams, born June 5th, 1806 ; mar- 
ried Edwin Patterson 

Sally Williams, born 1808, married July 9th, 
1828, to Exune Bundy, and died February 15th, 
1875. ■" 

Robei-t Williams (the father of the author), 
born September 18th, 1809, married May .'^rd, 
1838, to Sarah Ann Hampton, and died August 
23rd, 1903, at the age of 94. *=•-, " 

Mary Williams, born April 28th, 1812, and 
mari-ied ilay 5th, 1830, to John Hampton, son 
of John Hampton and Mary Belts Hampton. 

Elizabeth Williams, born June 7th, 1815, 
married December 30th, 1841, to James Gib- 
bons, and died March 11th, 1856. 

Peninah Williams, born July 30th, 1817, 
married March 9th, 1836, to Joseph Gibbons, 
and died Januai-y 16th, 1888, age 70 years. 

John Williams, born October 17th, 1819, died 
September 16th, 1821. 

Martha Williams, born April 7th, 1822. mar- 

I'ied November 21st, 1843, to Jonathan Stanton, 
and died December 29th, 1849. 

Richard Williams, born May 5th, 1824, died 
June 15th, 1843. 

Samuel B. Williams, born March 17th, 1827, 
mai-ried Mai'ch 14th, 1850. to Ruthana Hamp- 
ton, and died May 19th, 1904. Married second 
wife, Rebecca Warrell Bundy, December 23rd, 

D. W. i\Iort6n of Beaufort, N. ('., who has 
assisted me in following up clues in the family 
h.istory, wrote me in 1918 from Beaufort as 
follows : 

"Mj' father, for whom I am named, -was over- 
seer for David S. Jones from 1849 to 1865, and 
while in Jones' employ rebuilt the dam and 
mill, and with the exception of some minor 
repairs, it has been in operation ever since. I 
have heai-d m.v father say that Jones' troubles 
were caused by his losing his negToe.i and vast 
estate during the Civil War. Jones went in- 
sane and died about 1880 a raving maniac. 
My father frequently pointed out to rae when 
I \Yi\s a bo.v. as we would pass the dam on our 
way to Newport, the point where the old Wil- 
liams and Fisher Mills formerly stood. I am 
sending a picture of the old cedar tree (see 
Cut 67) that stands in the yard near where the 
house of Robert Williams formerly stood. This 
tree is 150 .yeai's old or more and is good for 
100 years yet. When I was a boy of 8 years 
old, in 1873, I lived with ray father in a house 
on the old Fisher place, which house was said 
to l)e the same one occupied by Robert Fisher 
when he owned the farms and water mills at 
Black Creek, which were afterwards sold by 
his executor, Ben,jamin Stanton, to one William 
Fisher. ' ' 


John Shoebridge Williams was a civil engi- 
neer, and along in the early thirties he engi- 
neered and built a turnpike road from Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, to Florence, Ala. This road runs 
through Lexington and Paris, Kv., and is 
known at Paris, as the Ma.ysville and 
Lexington turnpike. John Shoebridge Wil- 
liams was then about 44 years old, and he 
had working with him his brother Sauuiel's 

.J(»ll.\ SI loKI IK 1 1 )(;!•: WIIJJA.MS 

<^A-^ ^Cm iAJJt^Z^ <f>lt l^.Ci " ^A^ *^'l /Ii(UC V-t^ <!'*<<A>> «<dfcj 

^U>»^X*4i /t*.^Ti-«*«v^*^v i/'^-t-t^t*^*^ h-^i^^^>'*<^^ftrv<:lCt-^ 
^•"trt^fiCs jU^ery.9^ /t-tXA-*^ (jL^r^^Xs,^^ /UXlAX. c^^ >tWi^^« W > V 

» ■ ■ * I III I m i i i M iii iir i IT rtTi i i i i n' I i n I I BW aaMaaMfA^ 

Cut No. 69-A— Religions. 


Cut No. 70A— Grave of John Shcebridge Willi; 


oldest soil, Joseph Williams. .lo.scpli at this 
lime was just uihIim' .'!() years (ili.l ami was a 
millwright by triuie, hut lie eoulil turn his 
hand to any mechanical woodwork. This turn- 
pike ran across the eornei' of a farm owned hy 
a man named Wi'iiilit in Paris, and Joseph 
Williams built a wouileii l)rid!^e aei'oss Stonei' 
creek, between Paris and East Pai'is. that was 
located near the Wright farm. 

Living with their Oi'andfather Wi'ight were 
two ;iranddaughters, S:ii'ali and Ruth Mitchell, 
who were twin sisters. No doulit they often 
came down to watch Joseph and his men build- 
ing this bridge. It was a good bridge and 
heavily timbered, and is in use to this day 
(1920). altln.ngli it vias built over 85 years ago. 

It has had new planks on the roadbed a 

he would follow the exami)le of his cousin, 
Joseph. The taet is. he came back a year later 
and married Kebecca, when he was not yet 
21, and took hei' to llillsboi'o, Ohio, whei'e his 
first four cliildren were Ixirn. Then he moved 
to Ciiieiimati, ()hi<i, where the twins. James and 
John, were born, lie was probably connected 
in business with his father, John Shoebi-idgc 
Williams, at that time. After the death of 
lienjaiiiin's iirst wife, he married Lucy Nye, 
by whom h.' ha.l four children. 

One of the children of Benjamin Williams is 
now living, at the age of 80 years, in Paris, Ky. 
She is the granddavighter of John Shoebridge 
Williams, and has sent me many items of inter- 
est regarding him. She says she has often stood 
undei- this bridge when it has been raining and 




73— The si 

ip 'Ro-i,' that in It)35 brought over to Ne 
Wilhams ot Great \drmouth, England 

number of times and the footbridge has been 
replaced, Intt the old timbers are still service- 
able. For some years past, however, there has 
been talk of putting an iron bridge in at this 

It was while building this bridge that Joseph 
Williams courted Sarah Mitchell, one of the 
twin sisters, and about the time it was finished 
and he was ready to leave he married her. This 
was in 1835. He sent for his cousin, Benjamin 
William?,, a young man about 20 years of age, 
the oldest child of John Shoebridge Williams. 
Benjamin came to the marriage and was best 
man. One of the bridesmaids was Relieeca 
Ward, a cousin of the twin sisters, and it did 
not take young Benjamin long to decide that 

England, Robert 

she was near the bridge. This style of covered 
bridge is common in countries where lumber is 
plentiful. The design is simple and strong, 
and being covered, the framing is not liable to 
rot, but will last a long time, as in this instance. 

AVe are able to show a picture of this bridge 
(Nos. 198 and 199), taken from a photograph 
in 1920. 


Great Grandfather Robert Williams was not 
the first of the Williams from Wales to come 
to America. The records of John Shoebridge 
Williams mentioned an early Robert Williams 

THE willia:ms history 

who married an Elizabeth Stratton and came 
out to America in the ship Rose in 1635. He 
settled in Roxhnry, Mass., in 1638, and lived 
to the age of 100 years, and from him descended 
Decan AVilliaras and son, John Williams, who 
was the tirst minister in Decrfield, Mass. (See 

I am also indebted to Mrs. Jennie B. Fowler 
for the copy of a torn newspaper, the name and 
date of which T am nnable to trace, for a gen- 
eral account of the Williams family by Eleanor 
Lexington. This account refers to the Northern 
branch of the family and is included in the 

I also refer to extracts from the Records of 
Denbigh and its lordship by John Williams in 
1860, and extracts from "The Quakers," by J. 
S. Turner, 1911, in Appendix. 


I have now traced the family history of 
Great Grandfather Robert Williams in Car- 
teret County down to the time of his death in 
1790, and have planted him in the burying 
ground on the old homestead in the midst of 
the trees that sui-rounded the bui'ial lot, — 
which grave has now been marked with an ap- 
propriate stone in his memory by the present 
author. I have also thrown upon the back- 
ground of the past, incidents and events of 
later date, that like glimpses of sunlight in 
darkened places, serve to bring into temporary 
relief and remembrance, much correlated his- 
tory of interest to the descendants of Great 
Grandfath-rr Robert. 

By the help of the autobiography of John 
Shoebridge Williams in the American Pioneer 
as given by extracts in previous pages of his 
volume, we see the widowed mother of John 
Shoebridge Williams endeavoring by the sale 
of the homestead acres, to pay the debts of her 
late husband, which debts were increased by 
the departure to England of a man having 
Robert's bond, and the urgency of heirs of 
that man that she pay the debt which had been 
largely increased by compound interest from 
the time when Robert gave his note for 70 
pounds to pay for the balance of goods re- 
(:|uii-ed for loading certain vessels, after a 
fre-bet had destroyed a large portion of the 

goods which he had prepared and which were 
kept in the warehouses on the wharf. With 
but little pei'soual property, therefore, Great 
(xrandmother Anne, with her daughter Eliza- 
beth, her son Samuel (the Grandfather of the 
author), and her ycnng son John Shoebridge 
Williams, sailed in April, 1800, from Beaufort 
for Alexandria in company with twelve other 
families. Elizabeth was then 22, Samuel 21 
and John nearly 10 years of age. We see them 
after remaining several daj's in Alexandria, 
take a wagon train to Gocse Creek, Va., where 
they waited a couple of weeks before obtain- 
ing another wagon to take them across the 
mountains. After a tedious journey in com- 
pany with the families of Joseph Dew, Levina 
Hall, and Jonas Small, they arrived at Fred- 
cricktown, Washington County, Pa. It wa5 
not till the fall of 1800 that they were able 
again to continue their journey, through Fish- 
pot Run, Blue Ball near Washington, and 
Warren on the Ohio. They finally located in 
Ccncord settlement, where many Friends, 
chiefly from Carolina, took up all the land in 
the neighborhood. This settlement is in Bel- 
mont County, on Glen's Run. about six miles 
northwest of Wheeling, W. Va., and the same 
distance nortlieast of St. Clairsville, Ohio. 

Again Great Grandmother Anne becomes a 
Picneer woman and bravely starts life again 
with her children in a cabin in the woods that 
was completed for occupancy by Dec. 25th, 
1800, 26 years after she had taken up the re- 
sponsibilities of her friend Elizabeth Dearman. 
We are glad to note that her stepson Richard 
Williams, for many years a seafaring man, 
arrived at her cabin nearly two years later, 
and with the help of his neighbors soon set up 
a cabin of his own near the meeting house, for 
himself and family, and opened a school. It 
is said he afterwards moved to Masillon, 0. 

Regarding, this Richard Williams^, first son 
of Great Grandfather Robert Williams, Robt. 
W. Hampton, of Whitticr, la., gives the fol- 
lowing sketch: 

'"I remember well Great Uncle Richard Wil- 
liams, then 80 years old, visiting at my father's 
house about the year 1830. I think he was the 
eldest son of Great Grandfather Robt. Wil- 
liams bv his first wife. I thir.k her maiden 


name was licH. I also rciiu'iiil)cr an incident 
lie told 1110 vrhic'ii iiaiippiicd when he was a 
yoiuiti' man. lie was at a ^athei'ing' of young 
folks, and in the afteriidoii tliey were soint;' 
to take a walk (and as that was ahont the (inly 
way to go in those days), and as Ihere was not 
enough youn;^' men ])i'esent for Uie youiii; 
women, Uncle Richard Williams made the 
remark that he would take the three Sarahs, 
and it so happc-ned in after life that he did 
take the tlir<e Sarahs, and married each after 
the preceding ones died." 

"It is not good that the man sliculd be 
alone." — Genesis 11-liS. 

Elizabeth married, in April. 1804, Joseph 
Garretson. and a month later Samuel married 
Sarah Arncld (the grandmother of the present 
author), who was the daughter cf Joseph and 
Sarah Arnold. As mentioned previously ' in 
this histoiw. Great Grandmother Anne made 
her home with her son Samuel, my Grand- 
father. It was here that my father Robert 
Williams was born Sept. 18th, 1809, being one 
of 11 children. M.y father's brothers were: 
(1) Joseph Williams, born March 10th, 1805, 
who on June 18th, 1835, married Sarah Wright 
Mitchell of Kentucky, and died January 22nd, 
1891. He was my Uncle Joseph. (See cut 
No. 200.) 

(2) John Williams, born Oct. 17th, 1819; 
died three years later. 

(3) Richard Williams, born jMay 5th, 1824; 
died June 15th, 1843, at the age of 19. 

(4) And Samuel B. Williams. l)orn March 
27th, 1827, and died May 19th, 1904, age 77 
years. (See cut No. 202.) He was my Uncle 
Samuel, and on JMareh 14th, 1850, married 
Eutlianna Hampton (my mother's sister), by 
whom he had seven ehildren— four l>oys and 
three girls. 

My father, Robert Williams, married on May 
3rd, IS '38, Sarah Ann Hampton (who was my 
mother). Ten children made up our family, 
of whom at this writing in 1919, six ai-e living. 
These are Jane Elizabeth Williams, born April 
2, 1839, and thus 80 years young; Mary Lou- 
isa, who married John C. Chandler, but is now 
a widow. She is 75 years old at present writ- 
ing. Ruthanna, born Feb. 18, 1850 (married 
Murdock), and now living in Bridgeport, l>el- 


moiit County. Ohio; Sarah Angelina, born Jul 
3, 1852, married Ross Weeks and n 
in Chattanooga, Tcnn. These four are my sis- 
ters. (See cut .\o. 195.) 

My only living brother is Scth Oliver Wil- 
liams, b<,rn Feb. Hi, l,s55, ;ind residing on the 
old homestead nr.-ir l!ridgcp<n't, O. 

The other four ehildren of my j.arents who 
have passed into the Great Beyond, are Hanna 
Ann, born Sept. 13, 1840, died Dee. 21, 1896. 
Harri(>t B-eeher, born Sept. 9, 1857. died Oct. 
20, 1862. Frances Cornelia, born Dec. 26, 18S1, 
died Feb. 3, 1911. Alice Roberta, born April 
14, 1865, died Jan. 18, 1891. 

The fourth child of Robert Williams and 
Sarah Hampton is Milton Franklin Williams, 
the author of this history, who wa-; born Oct. 
13th, 1846, and is now past his 73rd year. He 
is still at the head of his eompany, the Wil- 
liams Patent Crusher and Pulverizer Co., and 
has not missed a day from siekne :s for over 
sixty years. (See cut No. 203.) 

Harriet Beecher Williams was buried at 
Baresville, Monroe County, Ohio, at the upper 
gTaveyard, at the foot cf the hill. Frances 
Cornelia, Alice Roberta and Fannie are buried 
on top of the hill at the Bi-idgeport Graveyard 
adjoining our present family homestead. 

Nov. 23rd, 1875, I married Emma P. Stevens 
of Gillespie, Ills. We have five children, of 
>vhom four are living, as follows: 

ililton Jiulson Williams, born Jan. 19th, 

Arthur Franklin Williams, born Dec. 20th, 

Oliver Julian Williams, born ilarch 4th, 

Florence Williams, born April 9th, 1886 
(now ^fi's. Edgar Carson). 

Another child named Maude was born Jan., 1881, l;ut lived only a month. 

The above .synopsis of my immediate family 
will be tilled in, rounded out, exemplified and 
illustrated by the following personal reminis- 
eence.s of my own life and experience, as writ- 
ten by myself, and fully illustrated by suitable 
photographs and pictorial illustrations, and 
entitled: Part HI. A Man's History, written 
bv himself. 


Cut No. 74 is a reproduction of No. 8. top row, in Mrs. Jennie B. Fowler's collec- 
tion of the descendants of John Shoebridge Williams of Cincinnati, Ohio, who edited 
the "American Pioneer" book on life in the woods of Ohio. She is Sarah Jane Williams 
Farmer, Great-uncle John's fourth daughter, an old lady in her 90th yeaV, a well-pre- 
served and most beautiful old lady, now residing at Hollywood, Calif., with her daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Jennie B. Fowler. 


The eighth child iiiu 
John Shoebridge Willia 
Jane and was boT'n Miv 

No. 74.) 

ishtcr of 
i',l Sai'uh 
(See ent 

She married in 1848 Oeorge Clinton Farmer 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, and her daughter, Jennie 
Belle Farmer, born Octobei- 9th, IS.^'i, married 
Prank Gridley Fowler of Bi'idgeport, Conn., 
and had twin boys, Francis and Fi'edei-ick, 
who were born Septenilter 18th, 1887. 

They live at this date (1919) in Hollywood, 
Cal., and Sarah Jane Williams Farmer is mak- 
ing her home with her daughter, Jennie Belle 

ilie jceoi'ds of said transaelions is D. W. 

We are very proud and lia|ip.\- to iTct-ivc 
from Mrs. Jennie B. Fowler thesr maps 
(Cuts Nos. 64 and 75), copied l)y her own son, 
and also the privilege of copying hei' photo- 
graph showing 88 descendants of Jolm Sboe- 
bridge Williams and his relatives, which she in 
hei' search for the genealogy of her great- 
grandfathei-, loaned I\I. F. Williams to help his 
effort and love for research. We are handing 
down our combined eflforts to our rising gen- 
eration of relatives in the lineage of Williams 
— a name no doubt which could be traced, 
were the records not lost, back to Noah and 

Cut No. 75— Map of Carteret County, N. C. 

Also I am indebted to Mrs. Jennie B. Fow- 
ler for the copy of a map, drawn by John S. 
Williams in 1864, copied by Francis Fowler 
in 1904. (See cut No. 75.) In 1864, John S. 
Williams went back to North Carolina, drew 
this map, and there shows a little plan of his 
father, Robt. Williams' house, close to a creek, 
and also close to the Newport River, where 
Wm. Fisher's farm was at that time. From 
recent accounts from North Carolina. William 
Fisher later acquired Robt. Williams' farm or 
plantation. Our recent searcher, both in Beau- 
fort and Newbern, who discovered a nuniber 
of deeds of tracts of land both bought and 
sold by our great-grandfather, also copies of 

certainlj' back to Adam. After again calling 
attention to Cut No. 69, my great-uncle John 
Shoebridge Williams, which photograph was 
given to my father and his ideas upon religion 
written upon the back, inserted at the begin- 
ning of the ending of his version in the Amer- 
ican Pioneers of Ohio, we now introduce Mrs. 
Jennie B. Fowler's group photograph ex- 
plaining and describing 88 persons, with a 
key to same. This group photograph we num- 
ber as our No. 76, along with the key which is 
No. 77. 

No. 76. A group photograph, furnished by 
Mrs. Jennie B. Fowler, now of Holl.ywood, 
Calif., T consider a most generous gift, the 





5-» S = o " = ft ox, ^ „ => » =, o » c =, o c 9 S »^ o . » =^ » o »^ = =^ <. o =^ o = » 

1 ; D la= -c-S S 




A^^X.^_>^ ^ 1 > \JJ *\ "^ 

V"'/'^ 7 \ "> / \ >~~_--< /^^ ^J^ \ 

R^fiiiM^tZ) ■ 



l^^^ — ~i \ / \\. y^^^<-~^i \ 



V "° ^ S / — \ /^ \ > 



A_,^-— (sV—xi - ( ^ /-^-"^^ 



Vv ^r\^ KnSv^ C7^^<^ 




(vA "^ i ^ \ ' M "" ( ^ 








( & juA /( "o / (^ \ ■>? / 

T*/~f»s— <A ^A»'?~T\ 








i": : i ^ :-. i 1' ■'•''''"-' S: r :: 1" ' ^: :::.• Sil' ^i S 

I .ij. . 1 . != 4J4iiil j 

-'^"'"'°'-=°"S = 22222 = 22g-aagsaSSSSSS5!35SSSSgS;S5J 


work of years in collecting' and getting data, 
which Avill be fully described in great Uncle 
John's biography. The 88 faces represented 
are fully explained in the key to same, Cut 
No. 77, and is the work of a genius (ilrs. Jcn- 

in the Woods." The key explains fully by 
numbers better than any description which I 
(fould give. ]\[rs. Jennie B. Fowler, of Holly- 
wood, Calif., in the year 1918, is described in 
the key to the Williams pictures as No. 30, 

Cut No. 78 — Mrs. Jennie B. Fowler, of Hollywood, Calif., shown in her collection of 

88 persons, Number 30 in the group. We are indebted to Mrs. Jennie B. 

Fowler for this collection and other reminiscences of Great-uncle John. 

liie B. Fowler) ; and if our Great-uncle John 
could rise from his smoldering tomb, he would 
have many words of praise to offer to his 
granddaughter, being equally as great a work 
as his version regarding Williams'' •' genealogy 
from the "Early Pioneers of Ohio" or "Life 

seen in the fifth row of circles from the top be- 
tween the two numbers 28 and 16, on the right- 
hand side ; and her autobiography, coupled 
with that of her grandfather, will make the 
picture and key more complete. 



Jennie Belle Farmer Fowler, daughter of 
George Clinton and Sarah Jane Williams Far- 
mer, was born October 9th, 1852, near Cin- 
cinnati, 0. 

Octolier 1st, 1S84, she was married to Frank 
(Jridley P^wler of Bridgejiort, Connecticut. 
At the time of their mari'iage Mi-. Fowler was 
the oftieial stenographer for Fairfield County, 
Coiniecticut, with hcad(|uarters at Bridgepoi't, 

When about ten years of age her parents 
moved from Ohio to Keokuk, Iowa, where she 
spent her girlhood, attending first the public 
schools and afterwards finishing her education 
at a private seminary. 

I\Irs. Fowler, being proficient in stenogra- 
phy, assisted her husband with his court work. 

Her duty was to attend the first part of the 
morning session, hearing the testimony and 
watching Mr. Fowler write it down. The notes 
were then taken to the office and transcribed. 


Thus Mrs. Fowler was responsible for half of 
the morning's testimony. 

It has always been considered a difficult 
task for one stenographer to read the report- 
ing notes of another stenographer, and at that 
time Mrs. Fowlor was one of only four ladies 

Anson Fowler, — boys whose weights were ex- 
actly the same and resemblance to each other 
so remarkable that a ribbon was tied on the 
wrist of one as a distinguishing mark. 

After Mr. Fowler's death, which occurred in 
1907, Mrs. Fowler changed her residence from 

Cut No. 80 — Frederic Anson Fowler. A plioto of Mrs. Jennie B. Fowler's other son. 
who is now a civil engineer, liviug at Hollywood, Calif., and twin brother of Francis. 

in the United States who could accomplish it. 

While engaged in court work, she also had 
large private classes in stenography and type- 

On September 17th, 1887, the family was 
increased and the home blessed by the arrival 
of twin bovs. Francis Clinton and Frederick 

Bridgeport, Conn., to Hollywood, Cal., where 
she now resides. Her mother, Sarah Jane Wil- 
liams Farmer, is itow (1919) in her 90th year, 
and lives with her daughter, Mrs. Fowler. 





I, Milton F. Williams, was born in the State 
of Ohio in Belmont County, about two miles 
north of the town of Somorton, in Somerset 
Township, on the 13th of October, 1846, in a 
log cabin in the woods off the main road. This 
cabin was situated, as I recollect, west of the 
old sawmill operated by waterpower which 
belonged to my grandfather Samuel Williams, 
and which sawmill and residence is descrilied 
later on in this history. 

The accompanying illustration. Cut No. 81, 
shows the cabin in which I was born, and also 
the cradle (Cut No. 82) that I occupied at 
that time. This ci-adle now hangs up in my 


This old house, the old Williams house, was 
nearly two miles from Somerton, Belmont 
County, Ohio, and the following letter from Eli 
©ibbons is of interest, as it mentions Anne 
Shoebridge Williams, who lived there in her 
later years and died at the age of 97. 

Barnesville, Ohio, February 18, 1918. 
Milton F. Williams: 

Dear Cousin— Thy good letter just received 
last evening and was glad to get it. I read it 
with pleasure and have made a mental note 
of the contents. I took my diaries down this 
morning, and I find on the 2nd month 6th, 
1869, father and I were in Wheeling market; 
after market we went out to Uncle Robert's 
to stay over first day the 7th of the month, 
and while there Milton F. Williams came home 
that day; also John Bare came there that 
evening. Aaron and Miranda DeWees were 
there. I looked through the 3rd month of 
that year, 1869, this morning, and I did not 

find any mention of thy name. I drew that 
picture of the old Williams house many years 
ago; the old house has been torn down, the 
old well in the yard where we got a drink that 
day when we were there and I got a portion 
of the old walnut stump. The well was on 
the back perch cf the old house, the end of 
the house where Great-grandmother Anne 
Shoebridge Williams, Grandfather's mother, 
lived ; her name was Shoebridge, not Arnold. 
Grandmother's name was Arnold. I am told 
that my Great-grandfather was married twice; 
his first wife died, and then in time he raar- 
I'ied Anna Shoebridge. To that vuiion three 
children were born : Aunt Betsy Garretscn, 
aiul Uncle John S. Williams, and Grandfather 

Now for a more descriptive mention of the 
old house: The well was on one end of the 
back porch; the porch extended the entire 
length of the house with a pantry on the other 
end from the well, and a stairway from that 
porch led up to the loom-room above the 
kitchen where blind Great-grandmother used 
1 sit bj' that window and knit and smoke ; 
.'■he kept her pipe and tobacco on the window 
■^ill. There was a porch the full length of the 
bouse in front with a pantry on each end. Now 
for the yai-d : It extended from the front of 
tlie porch to the tail race, which ran a few feet 
in front of the yard, and we used to cross the 
tail race on a broad board. 

Now for the garden: It was at the end of 
the house where the big chimney was; the gar- 
den extended back to the sawmill lot, and the 
fence around the garden ran parallel with the 
tail race; then at the back of the garden next 
to the hill, we used to go out to the sawmill; 
there were apple trees above the garden. 
There was a big ash tree at or near the big 
gate that led from the sawmill lot where there 


was a pole-swing fastened to one of the limbs, 
and I ain told that Uncle Samuel used to get in 
that swing and make it go up to a level on 
each side. Our Great-grandfather was a Welsh- 

■ ide cf the path from the front to thf 


I do not think of any more at this time that 
will he of interest to thee. 

-]\I} fathers Labm m the woods Fathers first house m the woods on the 
old farm, in 1840, now called Jerusalem 

Now about the old reel: We have one of 
them and the girls, when the weather is suita- 
ble, can take a photograph of it and have the 
picture developed. Sister Lavina can have a 
picture of the pewter plate taken. 

So with love to all, I am as ever, thy cousin. 

—Eli W. Gibbons. 

P. S. — I am tip at Sister Lavina 's now; she 
las that old pewter platter and also one of 

Cut No 82 — W. F. Williams, at the age of three months, in his cradle 

This is the 7th day morning, all well ; the the plates, and we will have a picture taken 

snow is in a slush aiul very icy— it is danger- of tliem when convenient, and send them to 

cus to get about. There was a large cedar ^'""^'^• 

tree in the corner of the front yard next the C'ut No. 84 is made to represent my mother, 

tail race, siid a row of smaller cedar trees on Sarah Ann Williams, as a young married 


woman of doinostio habits and frugal ways 
churning- oream ta butter in a churn of the 
olden times, possibly at the age of 18. 

Cut No. 85 represents M. F. Williams and 
one of his sisters sleeping in a trundle bed at 

and under their bed they kept the trundle bed. 
How well I remember one night I woke up 
and could think of nothing practically but 
hearing or sounding in my ears curse words, 
which I had heard from some men who were 

Cut No. 83 Robert and Sarah Hampton Williams, father and mother of M. F. 
Williams, the author of this history. (Taken in 1853). 

Cut No. 84 — My mother at the churn 

Baresville, Ohio, which is one of my earliest 
recollections, between the ages of 5 and 6, 
Avitli mj' mother and father at Baresville, in 
the old house before the fire, and even in the 
new house after the fire. In the new house 
my mother and father slept in the west room. 

fuiarreling and fighting, and I got the imprint 
(It their voices so strongly in my mind that I 
was crying and woke my mother up. and she 
wanted to know what was the matter and I 
(old her, a:id she asked me to think of the dif- 
ferent people whom I knew and count them to 


see how many I could remember, so that my 
mind might be changed from the subject, and 
freed from what I had heard from older and 
wicked people. My father was very strenu- 


Cut No. 86 shows my father's second house 
after marriage, the first being a log house and 

Cut No. 85— My trundle bed 

ously opposed to profanity. I have frequently 
heard him lecture people for swearing. He 
would always say it was neither just, manly, 
polite nor wise. This same trundle bed was 

described earlier in my autobiography (see 
Cut No. 81). This is a four-room house with a 
kitchen, showing the garden to the left, the 
orchard beyond the house, a woodshed and 

Cut No. 86 — Our home at Jerusalem, Belmont County, Ohio 

used by our family before Ave moved to Bares- 
villc, but I do not remember the trundle bed 
being used in Belmont County, but I do in 
both houses in Monroe County at the Frank- 
lin mill. 

service house for out-of-door implements. Back 
of the house, across the road from the fence, 
was the barn. This house stood upon a piece 
of ground comprising 41 acres, which my fa- 
ther purchased by money saved from working 


by the day, perliaps 50e to 75c per day in 
those times. This 41 acres lies between his 
father's premises and my mother's father's 
farm. He bought this 41 acres from Grand- 
father Hampton, my mother's father, and kept 
it until he sold it for between $700 and $1000. 
Then he moved the family to Baresville and 
put the proceeds in the old Franklin mill at 
Baresville, which Avill be described later. The 
house today has been remodeled, the kitchen 
enlarged and the roof covered with slate. When 
originally built the roof was covered with 
i-ived and shaved shingles, which father made 
by hand out of the virgin logs from the woods, 
and the shaving of shingles is represented by 
the cut No. 123, showing a shaving-horse. I 




I recall the incident of my first pants, when 
I was taken down to the coal bank where 
father was digging coal, at the old farm in 
Belmont County, and just Avho accompanied 
me (I expect was my Sister Jane)-, of this I 
am not positive, but when we got down to 
the coal bank there we met a man by the name 
of Pettycord, who was disposed to make sport 
of my first pants. Father had just come out 
of the mine with a car of coal, and we met him 

The next recollection was of a Sunday in 

e age of three years 

was at this house two years ago last August, 
and it had been recovered with new weather- 
boarding and the slate roof installed as de- 
scribed above, and looked quite modern to 
what it did when built in about the year 1840. 

My parents belonged to the Fraternity of 
Friends, commonly called Quakers, and were 
farmers in a small way. A year or two after 
I was born father built a frame house, across 
the field and across the public road, which 
frame house we here illustrate by a cut from 
a photograph taken recently. (See Cut No. 

The above. Cut No. 88, shows me at the age 
of 3 years, a pretty good-looking boy, if I do 
say it myself. 

I he winter, when father had made a sled, and 
took us to Somerton with the horse Ave called 
Doll, to visit LTncle Samuel, who then lived 
in Somerton. I cannot now recall who Avas 
along besides mother and father, but naturally 
nil the children would have gone, and it runs 
in my niiml that at tlie back of Uncle Samuel's 
bouse was a high wall, -where once there had 
been a mill, or they intended to build a mill, 
which as a matter of fact Avould be a grist mill. 
Upon another occasion father was planting- 
trees across the road from the house where we 
had our stable and barn. I can see him today 
\vheeling the trees in a wheelbarrow down to 
the road, Avhich road leads down to this day 
to Grandfalher Williams' home and sawmill, 
past the log school house. We came back over 


the road from Gi'aiulfather Williams' old 
place, in August, 1916, in an automobile, and 
I remember it was a vei'y steep hill and almost 
too much for the auto. How I recall that the 
trees father was planting were peach trees I 
cannot now relate, but I think he got the trees 
in the orchard back of the house. 

Upon another occasion, at this age and time, 
I recall that father went to Wheeling market 
\vith produce along with some of the neigh- 
bors, and when he returned he brought me a 
Billy Barlow knife. I can remember the knife 
as well today as though it happened yester- 
day; and about this same time I can recall go- 
ing to Gr;uidmothcr Hampton's, I expect with 

The bow and arrow gun which 1 brought 
back and have amongst my cui'ios I expect was 
made by my Uncle Samuel. I brought it from 
the old home in August, 1916, and got it from 
the man who lived in the house at that time. 
I paid the owner's daughter one dollar for this 
gun at that time, in 1916. 

The leg of an old-fashioned bench which I 
have amongst my old I'elics, my fathei' made. 

At the same visit in 1916, and upon going 
to the old frame house, I secured a leg of an 
oak bench, which was hewn out with an axe, 
as lumber was very scarce in those da.ys and 
vei-y high in price, and my recollections of the 

Cut No. 90— Our first school house 

Aunt Rutli, and grandmother would give me 
')read and butter with brown sugar, because 
in those days there was no white sugar. I 
well remember the occurrence of going on the 
sled to Somerton, because I was out where 
father was making the sled a day or two 

I also can I'ceall Uncle Samuel making fur- 
niture upstairs in our front room fronting the 
road. I presume he was making the furniture 
for himself and wife, as they lived at our house 
when they were first married, and I busied 
myself burning the shavings in an open fire- 
place, but I know my ^mcle must have exer- 
cised lots of care that I did not set fire to any- 
thing in the room. 

old frame house where several of the family- 
were born, and vividly through my mind 
passed early recollections of my childhood. I 
remember the garden, the oi'chard, the wood- 
shed, the well which Avas close to the house, 
the stable across the road. Avhich was a north 
and south i-oad. Also the lane in those days, 
which led down to Grandfather Hampton's 
home. In going towards Somerton, in the 
North and South road, east of the garden was 
the lane which led west to the right towards 
our Grandfather Hampton's place. 

The garden and the orchard and at least one 
field bordered upon this lane leading down to 
Grandfather Hampton's place. On the south 
side of this lane, if my memory serves me cor- 


rectly, was Grandfather Hampton's field. Our 
home was between Grandfather Hampton 's and 
Grandfather Williams', which were about a 
mile apart. A slight ridge hid Grandfather 
Hampton's place, so we could not see it from 
our home, and Grandfather Williams' place 
was down near the creek and also out of 


A little farther south towards Somerton the 
lane led to the left, down the hill toward 
Grandfather Williams' place, and in going 
down the lane to the latter named place, to the 
right was a log schoolhouse, which stood up 
above the road several feet from the road. 

"He kind to thy sister, — 

Not many can know 
The depths of a true sister's love; 

The pearls of the ocean lie fathoms below. 
The wavelets that sparkle above." 

I now remember going to this school with 
my sisters, perhaps Sister Jane, as she was the 
eldest, and I could not have been at this time 
more than 3-J or 4 years of age, and about all 
v/hich I can remember of my first day's school- 
ing in the old log schoolhouse was that the 
teacher went out in the brush, cut a switch, 
brought it in and gave it to me, and told me to 
whip any one who didn't behave themselves. 
I remember of undertaking to use the switch 



Cut No. 91 — My Grandfather Samuel Williams' log house anil 

Here my sister and I attended school. Like 
Whittier's boy, with "face of tan, with my 
turned-up pantaloon and a merry whistled 
Tune, ' ' we raced along this lane to the school- 
house. I remember, however, that I was never 
able to whistle, so Whittier was wrong in de- 
scribing me in that connection. However, the 
cut No. 90, herewith, shows the old school- 
house and my sister going with me to school. 

The above cut. No. 90, shows the log school- 
house, across the road from the old farm, on 
the road down to Grandfather Williams' saw- 
mill. This log cabin or log schoolhouse with 
a puncheon floor, puncheon seats, and punch- 
eon desks, was certainly primitive. 

iiiid getting into trouble. This is all the 
schooling which I can recall, that I received 
iji Belmont County — or this was my first step 
at education in Belmont County. I also re- 
member my first pants. The day upon which 
I wore my first pants was the occasion of my 
going from the frame house across the North 
and South road through the gate by the barn 
to the coal bank which father had on the place, 
as he dug our own coal and sold some to the 

Another incident M^hich I can remember was 
going out to where father was chopping trees 
and spraying the leaves of quite large oaks, 
hickory, and other kinds of wood, and those 


trees which would make sawlogs were hauled 
down to the sawmill and cut into lumber by 
my fathei'. ' Many occasions I remember of go- 
ing to my Grandfather Hampton's. I was a 
favorite with my aunt, Ruthanna — commonly 
called Aunt Ruth — and A\iien I would go there 
on a visit she would feed me bread, butterand 
brown sugar, as white sugar, granulated sugar, 
was not known in our part of the country at 
that time, but brown New Orleans sugar and 
molasses was an everyday commodity. On 
another occasion, on the Sabbath day, I re- 
member my father and mother going with me 
to the town Somerton, where my Uncle Sam- 
uel and Aunt Ruth lived. I suppose they went 
to a Quaker meeting — that pari;, of the inci- 
dent I do not now recall. We went in a sled, 
pulled by our bay horse called Doll, and i-e- 
turned back the same day from Somerton. 

Afterwards Doll received her death, by 
father feeding her upon green corn, before it 
was matured, which gave Doll what is called 
cholera morbus, and poor Doll passed away 
To the happy hunting ground. I do not now 
recall our family having another horse, while 
we lived near Somerton, now called Jerusa- 
lem Post Office, although we may have had 


Cut No. 91 represents a log house erected by 
Grandfather Samuel Williams, who se1>tled on 
ivhat was called Township 16, on a small creek, 
and the house was built as shown Avith a front 
and back porch, having a pantry upon the front 
and back porch. In those days of log houses he 
was also considered a thrifty man, and he nat- 
urally would have been, being a son of Robt. 
Williams of Carteret County, N. C. To the 
left is shown a water sawmill. He also took up 
the thriftiness and evolution of his prede- 
cessor, built a sawmill — which sawmill was 
built by his sons, Joseph, the eldest, Robert, 
the next in age, and Samuel B., the youngest. 
The eldest and the youngest having learned to 
be millwrights, built this sawmill for their 
father, and my father, Robert Williams, after- 
wards ran the sawmill and sawed logs for the 
neighborhood, sawed lumber to build his own 
home. Of this sawmill not a trace was left in 

August, 1916, when I visited the premises. In 
this sawmill, when there was sufficient water 
in the dam, my father, just after being mar- 
ried no doubt, spent his best and happiest 
days. He was energetic, he loved to woi-k, he 
loved to be useful, and he was a man beloved 
by the community. 

While "rowing u|) fi-oiu l)abyh()od to boy- 
hood, to about the age of four oi' five years, 
the eai'liest incident which I can remember is 
that in the second-story front room, next to 
the public road, my Uncle Samuel and Aunt 
Ruthanna lived at our house, Ruthanna being 
my mothc'-'s youngest sister, and Uncle S. B. 
Williams being my father's youngest brother. 
Uncle Samuel was making, I think, some fur- 
niture for my father, and I remember helping 
to sweep up the shavings and burn them in an 
open fireplace, which was common in those 
days. I think the cradle, which is illustrated 
above (Cut No. 82), was probably made in 
this house by my Uncle Joseph Williams, from 
cherry wood, M'hich cherry wood or lumber 
was sawed by my father at our Grandfather 
Williams' sawmill, down on the run called 
"sixteen," which sawmill I remember being at 
many a time when I visited my Grandfather 
AVilliams, but which sawmill has- long since 
])assed away, not one stone left of the founda- 
tion. Even the topography of the country ad- 
.iaeent to it has been so changed that there was 
little I could possibly recognize in August, 
1916, when I visited the old homestead with 
my cousins, Elam and Eli Gibbons, who lived 
upon the ridge west of Barnesville. They 
were with me upon this occasion, and in ex- 
amining the suiTounding country. Cousin Eli 
pointed out the tail race, of which a little could 
be seen ; hut the head race, none of it could be 
discerned, as Nature had filled it up. This 
mill, as a matter of course, in these times was 
a water mill. 


The sawmill tail race, or 20 feet of it, can 
^till be seen, as a barn is now standing over 
that portion of the tail rflce which is discerni- 
ble, and the sawmill. The foundation of the 
sawmill has also been obliterated, and none 
of the stone composing the foundation remains. 


The flume or head race and the head gate are 

Cousin Eli observed a walnut stump close 
by the tail race, and from this walnut stump 
he borrowed an axe and severed a portion of 
it which I broiight away as a souvenir of the 
old water mill and surroundings. Also we 
f.awed a crotch out of a cherry tree which I 
had as a remembrance of the old Grandfather 
Williams place. Where this sawmill stood now 
stands a barn, and in the tail race, just below 
the water mill, stands a second barn. 

Cousin Rli stated that this walnut tree when 
standing v^-as a portion of Grandfather Wil- 
liams' rope walk. Grandfather made his own 
lopes in those days out of hemp which he grew 
upon his little farm, as out in this country 
the people had to make their own roper,. Prob- 
ably at that time there was not a rope factory 
or rope walli nearer than Philadelphia, Penn. 

Another vivid recollection I have is of one 
evening while we were at the supper table, 
"Bang!" came a stone against the side of the 
house, and frightened the children very much. 
Mother immediately spoke up and remarked, 
"That is Bailey." Elisha Bailey married my 
mother's sister, Mary. The said Elisha Bailey 
was a worthless vagabond, or proved to be. He 
was lazy, I should have said he was indolent, 
and what he did for a living I cannot now re- 
call, but r do know that he wound up in the 
penitentiary for i3assing counterfeit money. 
After he served his time he tried to become a 
Methodist preacher and moved to Indiana with 
his family, which we called in those days 
"away out West." 

(Note. — I am now writing my Cousin Emma 
Williams Wells, Uncle Samuel's daughter, who 
lives with her daughter in Detroit, to give 
me the history or the winding up of the Bailey 
family in Indiana. I have just had a letter 
from Cousin Flora, who does not I'emember 
much of anything about the Bailey family.) 

During this period of my life I can well re- 
member the families of both Grandfather Wil- 
liams and Hami:)ton. I also remember all the 
Ivrothers and sisters. I can well remember my 
father building the sled, an old-fashioned sled. 

Avhich he had for the horse called Doll to pull 
and do some hauling, and also visiting with 
him when sleighing was good. Father was 
not a horseman; he did not like horses — just 
like his son Milton F., who does not care for 


On our tirst visit to Uncle Samuel's house at 
Somerton, I recall that there was some kind 
of a legend in connection with this Sunday's 
visit that I have thought of hundreds of times 
in my lifetime ; it has always appeared to me 
that Uncle Samuel's house was on the brink 
of a precipice — that back of it, or more prop- 
erly back of *the kitchen, was a stone wall and 
a declivity, ajid it appears to me quite faintly 
i'l my mind that there had stood upon this site 
at one time a mill. This faint recollection of 
my childhood would be in accordance with the 
fact that such a mill was built and operated 
by Uncle Samuel. 

In August, 1916, on my visit to the ridge 
with my cousins Elam and Eli Gibbons, and 
after visiting the old homestead, and going 
towards Somerton, about half way over, Eli 
lemarked to me, that down on the run or 
creek which was flowing from "Sixteen," 
where the old sawmill of Grandfather AVil- 
liams stood, he pointed out to me where the old 
grist mill stood, possibly 75 years ago. This 
point Was, I should judge, about half way be- 
tween the old Williams sawmill and the town of 
Somerton. This stream of water in flowing 
down between the hills, finall.v joined the 
creek where the Yokum and Butcher's mill 
stood, where I worked when I was an appren- 
tice boy with Uncle Samuel. This Yokum and 
Butcher's mill building is yet standing and 
can be plainly seen after descending the hill 
on the way from Somerton to Jerusalem. 


Cut No. 92 represents my mother at her 
small spinning wheel spinning rolls into yarn. 
The engraver drew upon his imagination in 
placing a ruffle upon the bottom of the skirt 
of the dress. It is entirely too fancy looking 
for my mother's garb in those days, as mother 


was a very plain Quakeress woman, and she 
did not dress as this dress is shown. Neither 
did they have andirons as is shown in the 
srate ; neither did they have a fancy clock as 
is shown upon the mantel. Neither did they 
have vases or any bric-a-brac, as the engraver 
has shown, but they did have comforts of life 
which were real comforts: plain food, plenty 
cf hard work, which any woman would do 
upon a farm and in farm life. In her early life 
she lived a pure, next-to-nature life, which 
enabled her to raise a healthy and plain family. 


In 1S52, when I was six years old, the three 
Williams ])rothers, Joseph Williams, Samuel 

the name oi' the place, as I was about six 
years old at that time, but I am inclined to 
believe that the tavern was in Monroe County. 
I remember the wagon shed, the wagon yard 
and my first night sleeping in a tavern. This 
made a great impression on my boyish mind, 
and I can never forget it. I cannot recall any 
other incident of this trip until we got down 
lo the stream called Sunfish. Sunfish was in 
Monroe County, and flowed into the Ohio 
River. As we descended the hill from Mon- 
Toe Kill to Sunfish, where we were ferried 
over, the first object which attracted my at- 
tention was a canoe — possibly a dugout, but 
I think it was a canoe made out of pine 
boards. On the river bank at Sunfish was a 
water mill owned by Mortimer and Julius Pol- 


Cut No. 92— Mothe: 

spinning wheel 

B. Williams and Robert Williams, joined their 
finances and moved to Baresville, Monroe 
County, Ohio. Joseph and Samuel Williams 
were millwrights, having learned the trade and 
were quite expert millwrights as long as they 
lived. The three Williams brothers, as above 
mentioned, moved to Baresville, Monroe Coun- 
ty, Ohio, on the Ohio River, thirty-six miles 
below Wheeling, W. Va., which town has long 
since been called Hannibal. 

It was in the spring of 1851 or 1852 that our 
family moved from Jerusalem, Belmont Coun- 
ty, to Hannibal, Monroe County. We traveled 
in farm wagons, and on the road we had to 
stay over night at a tavern. I cannot recall 

lock. Pollock in later years moved to Wheel- 
ing and l)uilt a In-ick mill at the corner of 
Market and [Main streets. 

This was mj^ sight of the mill at Sunfish, 
M'here later on my Uncle Samuel found em- 
ployment, and when I grew into manhood and 
was sei'viag my apprenticeship I also worked 
there as a millwright on several occasions. 

The Williams brothers joined their finances 
and bought a millsite, as I remember, from 
someone who had started to build a mill. They 
built this frame mill witli their own hands, 
out of hewn timber, and named it the Franklin 


Cut No. 93 is not a representation of the oM 
Franklin mill at Baresville, Ohio, or Hannibal, 
Ohio, which mill was started in 1852 and fin- 
ished and operated in 1853 by the three Wil- 
liams brothers, but this illustration is more to 
give the idea of an old sawmill, with overshot 
wheel, and was furnished to the writer by the 
Allis-Chalmers Company of Milwaukee, Wis- 


In the year 1852 the mill was partly fin- 
ished — that is, the grist mill part — and while 
building the frame part of the mill my Uncle 
S. B. Williams and a carpenter by the name 
of Brock, in weatherboarding this mill on the 

which we now call a houseboat and this boat 
he had loaded with merchandise, and stopped 
along the river towns and sold his goods and 
wares. Dougherty claimed to be a pious Meth- 
odist, was active in the Sunday school, and a 
deacon in the church, and having the faculty 
of ingratiating himself with the people of that 
town, and my uncle wanting to go to school 
(as he had but a meager education) he sold 
his interest out to Dougherty, and went out to 
school with his wife at McConnelsville, in the 
western part of the state of Ohio ; and when 
he returned and had partially recovered from 
his injury, he taught school. I remember of 
attending his school, in the little town of 
Baresville in a very small cottage school- 

&ML., :-■ ^ ■ ' ■ ■■'= ■ 

h r " 



All old sawmill 

south side of it, met with an accident — a scaf- 
fold upon which they were working fell and 
these two men were badly injured. Brock, as 
I remember, did not live many years after the 
accident. My uncle, S. B. Williams, lived for 
many years after the accident, until he was 75 
years of age, but Avas a sufferer from the day 
upon which he fell until his death, from an in- 
jured spine I have often thought since that 
could he have had access to the medical science 
of today, they could have cured him. But he 
did not have the funds at that time. He sold 
out his interest to a man by the name of 
Dougherty. Dougherty came down the river in 
what was called in those days a store boat. 

house, and this was my first education in the 

Now returning to the Franklin mill, Robert 
and Joseph Williams thinking that Dougherty 
was such a good man, a Avise man, a business 
man, they made him bookkeeper, cashier and 
custodian of the fundi. This wrought their 
ruin. But during the time of Dougherty's 
administration, the store of goods was placed 
down under the logway, as a store house, upon 
the first floor, northeast corner of the building. 
As this country was filled with residents from 
Switzei'land, they sent to Switzerland, got a 
)nan to run the store, and for a j'ear or two 


thoy operated this country store in the mill, 
and in addition they built a sawmill; they 
built a drying house for drying lumber; they 
added a carding mill to this steam mill, and 
did a thriving business, and while so doing 
Brother Dougherty took cai-e of the funds and 
he got into a condition about like this: 

In his right hand pocket he kept the tii'm's 
money. In his left hand pocket he kept Dough- 
erty's money. By so doing in his absent- 
minded moments he got the moneys in each 
pocket so badly mixed that he could not tell 
which was Dougherty's money and which the 
fii'm's, and as discretion is the better part of 
valor, he tlionght to make himself straight he 

them out, or were about to. In those days the 
banki'upt law was in vogue, and they took 
advantage of the l)ankrupt law. Hut in the 
meantime my father had been fai'-sighted 
enough to saw out lumber sufficient to build 
a two-story house, over in the new addition lo 
the town of Baresville, which town was called 
"Dugout." Father and his friends finished 
this two-stoi-y house, which is standing today 
in a good state of preservation. I visited this 
house about seven years ago, and said to the 
lady, the owner, who was a little schoolgirl 
^vhen I left the town, that I wanted a souvenir 
from the old house where our family lived for 
11 years. She said: "Milton, take a piece of 
wenlherboarding ofl' the house." I then and 

\ *!l .*«» .H IK'- 

Cut No. 94— Cross-cut sawing with fatln 

would keep all the money, or at least enough 
stored away in an old woolen sock until the 
Williams brothers began to get wise from in- 
formation given them b.y my mother. Mother 
kept telling the brothers that Dougherty was 
stealing. No, they were so wrapped up in the 
good Methodist Dougherty that they couldn't 
listen to ii:; and finally they woke np one 
morning with Dougherty and his household 
goods missing, the money missing, and the 
W^illiams ]?rothei"3 left with the property on 
their hands without any funds. Not being 
financiers, and thej^ being heavily indebted for 
goods which thej^ had purchased, and supplies 
ivhich they had purchased for the steam mill, 
soon their creditors came upon them and closed 

iliere exti-acted a piece of poplar weather- 
i^oarding, which I have in my ease of souvenirs. 


Cut No. 94 shows an incident that I can well 
call to mind when we lived at Baresville, ilon- 
roe County, Ohio. After the bankruptcy pro- 
ceedings of the old Franklin mill and after 
Uncle Joseph and Uncle Samuel Williams had 
gone to work at their trades, father not hav- 
ing a trade, lie did whatever his hands found 
to do, and upon one certain occasion he went 
up the river to a run; in that country today 
any small stream of running water is called a 
"run." In the State of Ohio, up to 


this yoar in ilarch, 1918, little sti-eams are 
called "runs." If I mistake not, this place in 
the woods where the rvm or water ran down 
to the Ohio River, I think up to this present 
writing- that it is called Glen's Run. Father 
went into the woods to cut timber, as he was 
very handy with his axe and a cross-cut saw. 
He might have been cutting timber to split for 
palings, or it may have been for shingles, or 
possibly clapboards for some of the neighbors. 
I was so small that I wa"> not tall enough to 
guide my end of the saw from the ground 
when starting in to cut the tree into lengths 
so that he would build up a pile of juggles, — ■ 
and I liave had the tri;il of my life getting my 
engraver to nndoi'sland what a juggle was. 
It is true they understand how to juggle on 
Wall Street in New York, but that is juggling 
of accounts, juggling of finances, but what is 
a wooden juggle? Part of a tree. In liewing 
stjuare timber in the wood;? they first cut the 
round portion in as far as the log will sqiTare 
into juggles, split ofi:" the juggles, then score 
find hew to the line, allowing the chips to fall 
v.-hero they may. Upon this occasion he had 
])'.-ob;!bly licen getting out what is known as 
hewn timber, and so he used the juggles for 
mc to stand upon to help guide the saw. I 
may have been at this time nine years of age. 
I was of very little help, I imagine, but there 
were two objects: cne was to help all that I 
could, and the other — more valuable one — was 
that of teaching me industry, so I was taught 
the rudiments of industi'v, really in an early 
pioneer life, and I attrilnite my longevity to- 
day to my early I'ugged ti'aining. Few men 
have passed through the strenuous vicissitudes 
of life that I have — not so much of manual 
labor, but strain upon my nervous system ; yet 
I am today, though in my 72nd year and the 
11th year of an attack of diabetes, e(|ual to 
any emergency which comes up. There are so 
many biisiness reverses, so many trials in a 
business life, and the way to look out for the 
breakers is not to expect too much, not drive 
your stake 100 miles in advance, and back off 
that distance with a string tied to the stake, 
expecting to walk up to it as you advance in 
life, and not meeting any cross roads, or any 
bypaths or any snares, as you certainly will. 
Many rosy propositions loom up before you 

and you bite before you know it. and many 
times comes a reverse ; but when it comes take 
it philosophically, expect that it will come be- 
fore it does come, be on the lookout for it, — 
and without all such guidance, you will be sure 
to walk into the trap before it is discovered. 
Few boys at nine years of age ever helped 
Iheir father to operate a two-hand sawmill, as 
M. F. Williams did in his boyhood days. 


When my Uncle Samuel was repaii-ing Pol- 
lock's mill just before the rebellion broke out, 
I was serving my apprenticeship with him and 
worked with him on this mill, I think in 1860, 
as it was finished just before the war began. 
In one-half of the building was Pollock's mill 
and the other half was leased to a brewer for 
brewing ale. However, the ale brewer did 
not seem to be successful. The business was 
abandoned in later years, and hundreds of 
kegs of ale were left in the basement. When 
I had grown to manhood, and was learning my 
trade, Moss Can-old, another apprentice, and 
myself frequently had business down in the 
basement. We would take a brace and screw 
bit, bore a hole in the head of a barrel or half 
barrel and bore another air hole in the top of 
the barrel near the bung, and the li(|uid did 
not know yny better than to run out into a tin 
bucket. What happened to it after that, the 
deponent Siiyeth not. 

Ill tile past 20 or 2.5 years, when I could stop 
at Wheeling on my way to Pittsburg and the 
East, I would visit the old place where the 
mill stood. The last few times I passed 
through I found it occupied by a dry goods 
store, — possibly a wholesale calico house, 
which calico was woven and colored by Steifel. 
This family of Steifel originally came from 
Germany, and members of it settled in Wheel- 
ing, W. Va., also in Pittsburg and Alleghany 
City; but in Wheeling they make calico. They 
made the famous Dutch Blue, made polka dot 
and many other brands. These Steifels are 
all related to the Steifels of St. Louis and also 
to the Cammerers at St. Louis. In Alleghany 
City the Steifels are tanners. 

(:i) SAMUEL 

Cut No. 89 — Uncle Samuel B. Williams and Fami 



1. Samuel B. Williams, born March 27, 1827; died May 19, 1904. 

Ruthanna Hampton Williams, born Sept. 11, 1826; died Oct. 31, 1891. 

Willoughby Leroy Williams, born Feb. 14, 1851 ; died March 2, 1854. 

Emma Orilla Williams-Wells, born March 27, 1853. (Married Jos. L. Wells) 

Sarah Jane Williams, born Jan. 27, 1856 ; died Dec. 25, 1862. 
6 Mary Ella Williams, born Feb. 13, 1859 ; died July 2, 1860. 

7. Joseph Comley Williams, boi'n Sept. 20, 1861; died Dee. 7, 1862. 

8. Flora Anna Williams, born Dec. 17, 1863. (Married Walter L. Williama ) 

9. Samuel Mortimer Williams, born Nov. 1, 1867. 

un(;le josp:pirs good ne[giihors 


Returning back to the careei- of tiie Wil- 
liams entei'pi'ises at Haresville, Monroe Coun- 
ty, Ohio, now Hannibal, as I now i-ecall. S. B. 
Williams came back into the Williams brothers 
enterprise and remained with it until they lost 
the properly by being so heavily indebted, and 
the creditors foreclosing, which today to my 
mind would not have been necessary had the 
three brothers had a little more financiering 
qualifications. I feel in my 71st year that I 
could have brought the enterprise out of the 
tangle, but Robert Williams, my father, 
moved over to "Dugout" and finished his 
house. S. B. Williams went to work at his 
trade — back to first principles. Uncle Joseph 
Williams moved to West Virginia, cast of 
Wheeling, took a position with a mill prop- 
erty, which was owned by whom I now dis- 
reniembcr, but I can recall that in those days 
he got what we called an enormous salary, 
$1800.00 per .year, which in those days was a 
fabulous price. He ran the mill for the own- 
tr, improved the property, and the three Wil- 
liams brothers, let it be said to their credit, 
paid back every dollar of indebtedness during 
the course of years that they all woi-ked at 
their respective callings ; and when they re- 
turned to the old stamping ground they could 
look every man in the face, and say with a 
clear conscience that they were free from debt. 

This old Franklin mill at Baresville was the 
only grist mill within a radius of many miles 
at this time — perhaps thirty miles. The resi- 
dents on the surrounding hills were mostly 
Switzers. The hills being covered in the sum- 
mer season with abundant verdure, which was 
nutritious to cattle, the Switzers turned their 
attention to making Switzer cheese, and 
shipped hundreds of tons of this cheese to the 
Wheeling market upon steamboats which plied 
the Ohio river at this period. 

Reverting back to the town of Haresville^ 
and to the meager education which the writer 
received at Baresville, which was a common 
country town school, — the advantages were 
not very great, and while living at Baresville 
my father did for an occupation anything he 

could get to do, sometimes woi-kiufr with his 
brother Samuel at the millwright ti'ade when 
they could find work, but the remuneration 
was quite limited, as my Uncle Samuel, being 
a most excellent millwright, received foi- his 
sei'vioe at this time only $2.00 per day. 

In the Fall of the year, while at Baresville, 
mj^ father would make sorghum molasses, as 
he had a cane mill and an evaporating pan, 
and made some little money out of sorghum 
molasses. It was my duty to feed the cane 
into the mill, and I have scars on my body 
which I will carry to my grave where I be- 
came injured from the sugar cane, — the out- 
side coating when it is broken being as sharp 
a& a knife. 

I Avish here to call attention to my Uncle Jo- 
seph Williams and his exit from the town of 
Baresville. Though he was a debtor, his 
neighbors all felt that taking away the prop- 
erty by the creditors was an unjust cause and 
unjust action. The creditors did not disturb 
the property or household goods of either my 
father or my Uncle Samuel, but they did in- 
tend to take away from Uncle Joseph even his 
household goods; but the neighbors came in 
Ihe night, cleaned out his premises, each one 
taking a poi-tion of his furniture to his own 
home and lading it. One near neighbor to my 
father, Adam Henthorn, and his sons rowed 
down the river in a skiff, four miles, to Mar- 
tinsville, W. Va., and he, Adam Henthorn, 
there hailed a steamboat and got it to land at 
Baresville on Sunday. The pilot blew the 
whistle three times for about a minute or pos- 
sibly two minutes at a time. It roused the 
whole neighborhood, as if there was a fire, or 
possibly an invasion from the enemy. It was 
the largest gathering I had ever seen on Sun- 
day. The captain of the steamboat understood 
the little game of the neighbors. Here came 
Sipring wagons, two-horse wagons and ox carts, 
with Uncle Joseph's family furniture coming 
from every i|uarter, and carried onto the 
steamboat. Their cooking stove, — four men 
went down over an embankment, where the 
cinders were Avheeled from the furnace of the 
mill, dug cut the cook stove, carried it to the 
steamboat, and after everything belonging to 
Uncle Joseph's family was stored upon the 


boat, he and his family wont upon tlie hur- 
ricane deck of the boat, and the pilot blew 
three niore loud blasts of the whistle. Uncle 
Joseph removed his hat, — I can see him right 
this day, — and said : ' ' Gentlemen and ladies, I 
want to thank you from the bottom of my 
heart, every one of you, as we are here, my 
family and myself, bathed in tears of thankful- 
ness to you for your cleverness. You have 
taken us completely by surprise, as we none 
of us knew anything about what was going to 
happen." However, why did Uncle Joseph's 
family not know what was going on? They 
were invited by the neighbors to go to their 
houses on Saturday night, dividing up the 

of going into bankruptcy. Between the card- 
ing of wool for the neighbors in the hilly 
country, the sawing of lumber, the drying of 
lumber, and the grinding of grist, — if they had 
managed these industries properly, — they 
could have become independent, or what would 
be termed independent regarding finances in 
ihose days. But their successors,, successors 
and successors — none of them made any 
money out of the business, and finally the mill 
burned to the ground. 

Cut No. 95 represents the old Franklin Mill, 
built by Joseph, Samuel and Robert Williams 
in 1852, at Baresville, Ohio, which comprised a 

family, so that they would not know what was 
going on at their own home. It was done very 
quietly. Even my father or his family did not 
know of the scheme. But again I wish to re- 
peat that Uncle Joseph lived in the country in 
West Virginia, saved from his salary, and paid 
back his proportion, every dollar, to the cred- 
itors in Wheeling and Pittsburg. 

Again reverting to the old Franklin mill, — 
had the brothers remained steadfast, they 
could have earned and saved money and paid 
back everj' dollar much sooner than it was 
done, and .?till retained the property. The.y 
Avere doing a prosperous business at the time 

grist mill, a saw mill, a drying house for dry- 
ing lumber, a carding mill for carding rolls 
by power, for the community upon the hills, 
where the rolls were woven into cloth by hand. 
It was the duty of thi'; autobiographcr to at- 
tend what was called "the picker" — the first 
operation upon handling the wool and greas- 
ing the wool after it was picked or disinte- 
grated or separated upon the machine called 
the picker before going to the carding roll, 
which of course operated by power. The Wil- 
liams brothers in those days in the fiftys, — 
two, three, four, five and si.x., — did what might 
be called in tho.^e days a prosperous business, 
but they met with reverses and had to go back 


To first principles, that of tlieii' Irades as mill- 
wrights. The engraver made a mistake in 
drawing these pictures, lie should have shown 
oxen attached to the teams instead of horses, 
as in those days oxen were plentiful, and 
horses were scarce, and a mule was seldom 
over seen. The sketch drawn was taken from 
a photograph which I purchased in a store in 
Ihe town of Baresville, now called Hannibal, 
jn the j^ear 1912. The picture represents to all 
intents and purposes the old Franklin Mill, as 
it stood from the year 1852 until perhaps ten 
or twelve years later, when it was burned, and 
during that time had several ownei's. 


Cut No. 96 shows a section of a French buhr 

of a, fcri-y boat is somewhat on the up-to-date 
order, as in my boyhood days at the town of 
Baresville only skiffs were used for ferrying 
across the river. There is nothing peculiar or 
remarkabl-^ about this ferry boat except it is 
more inodci-u than when I crossed the Ohio 
river fi'om the Virginia side in 1851 or 
J 852. After an absence from Bai-esville, or 
Hannibal, of 41 years I crossed in a skiff; but 
from five to seven years later I again crossed 
to Hannibal in this same gasoline launch which 
is represented by Cut No. 97, and which launch 
was operated by a grandson of David Null, 
the old Baresville blacksmith and horseshoer, 
and if I mistake not, the tall man to be seen 
standing upon the ferry boat with his right 
arm akimbo is the grandson referred to. 

Frencfj Butjr Mi//5forfe 

Cut No. 96 — An old millstone 

millstone which has its own history, written 
by my Unele Samuel many years ago from his 
memory, which history itself is worth reading. 
"When I was in Baresville, in the year 1900, 
seeing a portion of this French buhr millstone 
lying upon the site where the old mill stood, I 
induced Wm. Bare Jr., now in his 75th year, 
to box lip a section and send it to me by ex- 
press, which he did. (See later in this his- 
tory for the account of this millstone and its 

Cut No. 97 shows a ferry boat at Baresville, 
Ohio (now called Hannibal). This small ferry 
boat is operated by a gasoline launch, except 
at such times as the river is frozen in the win- 
ter season and blocked with ice. This style 


Joseph Williams left Baresville several years 
before Robert and Samuel left, and never re- 
turned; but after his career in West Virginia 
he moved to Bridgeport, Ohio, and in after 
years the ether two followed. 

When all three of the brothers got back to 
the same place, two of them, Joseph and Sam- 
uel, worked at their trade as millwrights, and 
my father Robert moved onto a few acres of 
ground which he purchased after selling his 
home in Baresville, and lived on this ground 
or homestead his remaining days, and died in 
his 94th year in 1903. 



When I went back to Ohio to my father's 
funeral I went down to Baresville (now called 
Hannibal), after having been away 41 years, 
going down in a steam railroad train opposite 
Hannibal, to a little station in Frank Wil- 
liams' corn field, and being- fei'ried across the 
river in a skiff by a man whose iather I had 
known when he was a boy, and going up the 
old wharf and passing by the millsite of the 
old Franklin Mill, I there saw lying in a group 

and souvenirs, to remember the old Franklin 
Mill by. The last time I was at Hannibal, 
which was five or six years ago, I took my 
eldest sister, Jane E. Williams, down to Bares- 
ville, and we visited the friends of William 
Bares' family; he, William Bare, long since 
having deceased, but the family now remain- 
ing are one of the brothers from old Jacob 
Bare, who was the founder of Baresville, and 
owned many hundred acres of land originally 
in and around the town of Baresville. Jacob 
Bare being an early pioneer, gave to each of 

three or four pieces of French buhr millstone. 
On making inquiry, I found it was the remains 
of a corn stone grinder which had been oper- 
ated in the mill by my father and his brothers 
during their administration as mill owners, 
and by their successors. From the effects of 
the fire, these French buhr millstones fell apart 
and were destroyed, and I wishing a souvenir 
from the old Franklin Mill, got William Bare, 
an old acqu.aintanee, to box up one of these 
pieces of millstone and send to me by express, 
which I now have in my collection of curios 

his sons and daughters a farm bordering on 
the Ohio River, several of which descendants 
are now remaining, having all of them spent 
useful and peaceful lives. 

On this occasion vipon taking the train over 
in Wheeling at the time my brother, Seth Oli- 
ver Williams, and I visited Baresville after my 
father's death, I noticed an old man with 
long whiskers pacing back and forth in the 
passenger coach. I could not help Init notice 
him, as his features were striking, and when 


he also stopped at the little station opposite 
Hannibal, I said to myself, walking down the 
path through the corn field : he is a passengoi- 
lor Hannibal. Getting into the skiff to cross 
the river there were three of them, and pres- 
ently I said, "Mr., may I ask your name!" He 
replied, "Certainly, my name is Alexander 
Voegtly. " I said, "What, not Alexander Voegt- 
ly?" He said, "Yes, — who might you be?" I 
replied, "I might be President MeKinlcy, but 
T'm not." I shook hands with him and said, 
"Aleck, try and guess who I am." He did try 
but he failed. I then replied, "Did you ever 
know Bub Williams?" "Oh, Lord," he re- 
marked, "Bub Williams, the little boy Bub 
Williams. I certainly do remember Bub Wil- 
liams. Bub, where do you live?" I replied, 
"St. Louis, Aleck; where do you live!" And 
he said, "Marion, Ind." I said, "I have been 
there." Then I asked, "Aleck, what are you 
doing?" He replied, "I am with So-and-So 
Olass Co., selling glassware." I further stat- 
ed, "Aleck, they arc crushing their cuUet with 
a Williams ci-ushcr. " He said, "Can it be 
possible?" My answer was, "Aleck, anything 
is possible with a Williams crusher. ' ' He said, 
"Your name is Milton, isn't it? Well, Milton, 
do you know who is rowing this skiff?" "Of 
coiirse not," T said. "Why, he is David Null's 
youngest son,^David Null, the blacksmith." 
He further remarked, "That girl in the stern 
of the skiff, she iz my youngest brother's 
daughter." Then I remarked, "Alexander 
Voegtly, it is .just 41 years since I left Bares- 
ville, and many things could have happened in 
40 years." In the evening of this day my 
Brother Oliver and myself went back to 
AVhecling. During the day we had quite a 
visit among old landmarks. We went to the 
cemetery where my sister Harriet wai buried 
who died in her fiftli year of diphtheria in 
spite of the efforts of Dr. Bcycc to save her, 
but net a mark remained of her renting place. 
It was during this visit that I came across the 
pieces of French buhr and got William Bare 
to box up a piece of it and send to me at St. 
Louis. After I returned to- St. Louis from 
this trip, I wrote my Uncle Samuel at Mar- 
tin's Ferry, Ohio, in reference to this stone, 
nnd he replied as follows: 


"Now, the history connected with this mill- 
.■■■.tone or buhr block is peculiai', and stai'ts back 
near 1800, for it was near that date that the 
millstone containing this block was placed in 
Burden Stanton's Mill on Glen's Run, not a 
mile below 'our cabin.' Just how long it was 
in use I cannot tell, but it was until the mill 
with its machinery was swept down to the 
Ohio River, where the millstone remained sub- 
merged until 1840. Being found by some boys 
who wanted salvage, they took it to Jesse 
Lantz of Wheeling, who kept it on hand, not 
finding any one green enough to buy it until 
J 853, when the Williams Brothers built a mill 
at Baresville, and they thought they saw suc- 
cess in that millstone and bought it. Now 
there is but little more interesting truthful 
history connected with that millstone. It must 
be borne in mind that this millstone was in 
use night and day for a long time in the Bares- 
ville Mill, and was run at a high rate of speed 
(212 revolutions per minute). The writer re- 
members the day very well when it was 
thought a higher rate of speed would do more 
grinding, so a speed of 220 revolutions was 
tried, and proved to be enough to burst the 
upper stone in a great many pieces. As there 
were about 115 people standing around wait- 
ing for their grinding, it has always been con- 
sidered that some of them broke the record 
for quick time in getting out of that mill, and 
it has always been a wonder to the writer that 
he took time himself to see how fast others 
were gohig to get away from that locality." 

This William Bare who boxed up the buhr 
stone for me was a grandson of Old Gi-and- 
father Bare, a Pennsylvania Dutchman, A\ho 
founded the town of Baresville, raised a lii^;;- 
family, got possession of a very large farm, and 
afterwards divided it amongst his children. He 
was considered the wealthiest man in the 
town of Baresville at the time of his death. 
During the eleven years that I lived at Bares- 
ville I went to school in the winter, and in 
the summer did whatever I could get to do, 
rs there were practically no industries in 
Baresville. A blacksmith shop, a post office, 
the old Franklin Mill, a few stores and a 


Avagon-maker's shop, just about constituted 
the industries. When an opportunity arose I 
helped my father clear away a eoal bank upon 
William Rare's hill. 


Cut No. 98 is an illustration of a boy be- 
tAveen the ages of 7 or 8 years, going to the 
grocery for his mother at Baresville, Ohio, as 
in our town called Dugout there were no 
stores. It was necessary to go over to the 
I'lain town, either b.v going around l)y the old 
Williams mill across the bridge, which crossed 
a creek, or by crossing Bare's Meadow when 
the river was low, which was a cut-otf and 
near way to the main town. In the year 1903 

l)ell which could be heard for miles in the 
quiet woods. Upon one special occasion we 
had a dappled cow, a young heifer, which did 
Jiot come home and which we could not find. 
After Inniting several weeks, some one of the 
famil.v or neighborhood ran across what was 
called a "slide" in the hills, or in the hilly 
land, after a Avet weather spring. This young 
heifer had become mired and could not get 
out of thi; slide and starved to death. 

My sister, Mary, and myself would go after 
the cattle Avhich would stray aAvay in the 
woods au'l ]iot come home at night. We 
Avould go to the neighbors to get apples and 
carry them in sacks and baskets for a mile or 
two. In berry time Ave Avent blackberrying. 

Cut No. 98 — M. F. Williams going to the grocery store at the age of eight years 
Baresville, Ohio 

I Avas Inick at Baresville, after having been 
gone from there 41 years, and I found a good 
sideAvalk and roadAvay made across Bare's 
MeadoAv as used to l)e, past Bare's old brick 
yard, over to the main town, Avhich shortened 
the route very materiall.y. 

Cut No. 99. Hunting Cows. The only pas- 
ture Ave had for our cattle, and Ave usually 
kept tAvo to three, Avas the Avoods upon the 
hills above the toAvn of Baresville, Avhich hills 
Avere numerous and very extensive. Fre- 
quently our cattle Avould lay out at night along 
Avith all the neighbors', almost, in that little 
toAvn; then it was the duty of the children 
to go into the forest and hunt the cattle, one 
of AA^hieh generally Avas embellished by a coav 

and Avhcn I was a little older I Avorked one 
season with Chas. O'Neal at ploAving corn for 
old Grandfj.ther Bare. 

At our respective ages of about 7 and 9, my 
sister Mary and myself Avere allotted by father 
ahvays the task of raising sugar cane ; and 
Avhen Ave failed properly to look after the 
farming of sugar cane father generally took 
a hand in raising a little cane himself. The 
illustratioit. No. 100, represents U3 hoeing 
sugar cane. The same lot Avas devoted each 
year to hoeing sugar cane. Later on Avill be 
illustrated M. F. grinding sugar cane near 
Bridgeport, Belmont Cotint.v. Ohio, Avhere 
father and my sister Jane did the boiling and 
clarifying and reducing into syrup. Each 


meinhci' of tlio l;iiiiil\' luui tlicir own duties 1o 
perform; the elder ji'ii'ls tlid the house work 
and otlier domestic duties. 

In my earliest days I had a teiuleney to he 
industrious, but thinkini;' seriimsly over luy 

illustration shows a hoy and a iiirl in a hoat, 
to illustrate tiie time that .Mary Jxiuisa 
thoug-ht shi> kiH'W hettei- than I did and let the 
largest fish that I had ever eau-ht -ict away. 
In this partieular ease I thouizht I had a whale 

Cut No. 99 — Milton and Sister Mary L. hunting cows at Earesville. Monroe Co., Oliio 

Baresville career I believe I enjoyed most 
going over to William Bare's and loafing with 
the boys. However, during the fishing season 
I was very fond of fishing. The accompanying 
illustration shows my sister and myself in the 

on the line and I was very much excited. My 
sister Mary, being two years older, said, "Mil- 
ton, let me get the fish," and I being tlie 
younger had to give up. Mary got hold of 
the line, but in pulling it in the fish got loose 

Cut No 100— Milton 

boat taking fish from a trout line.. (Cut No. 
101.) This is a fishing line attached to a stake 
on shore with a stone tied to the outer end, 
and short fishing lines attached about 4 foot 
apart to the main line which is thrown out, or 
Letter still, is pulled out by a boat, and an- 

Mar^ L hoc ng sugar cane 

from the line and dropped back into the river 
as happy as a lark, while I was left the saddest 
of them all. My heart was almost broken, as 
my greatest fish story had been spoiled. Had 
I had at that time a fishing gaff as illustrated 
herewith (Cut No. 102), and as used at the 


present day, we could have gotten the fish on 
board alright. I recollect that I made use of 
several adjectives which are not recorded in 
Sunday School books. Had we had a gaff we 
could have used it on the fish that was strug- 
gling in the water and secured it. However, 
1he best laid plans of mice and men "gang 
aft aglee." 

Baresville, Monroe County, Ohio, when the 
three Williams brothers joined hands and 
built the Franklin Mills, grist and saw mill, 
dry house and wool carding establishment for 
the people adjacent thereto. The leanto to 
the left is one built by Uncle S. B. Williams, 
and that was his domicile adjoining our house 
at Baresville, until the date of the .fire, when 

Cut No. 101 — Milton and Sister Mary L. fishing with a trout 

Cut No. 103. Picking Stone. One of father's 
most religious duties Avas to have his elder 
son, along with one of the girls, principally 
Mary L., pick stone off of our little lot. It 
seemed to ns in those days that we picked 
stone enough to build a dam across the Ohio 
river. Illustration No. 103 shows us picking 
stone on our little lot of one acre, and I think 

this house burned to the ground and left both 
families without a home. My eldest sister, 
Jane E. Williams, was ironing clothes when a 
spark fell from the kitchen stovepipe and 
someone, I disremember who it was, one of 
'.he sisters and perhaps mother, did the best 
Ihey could in trying to throw water upon the 
kitchen roof, and sister Jane remarked, "O, 


Cut \o 102 — \ fishing gntt 

we gathered stone to the extent that none was 
left except about the size of a three-cent piece. 

Cut No. 104 is a copy of a dagueri'eotype of 
my sister Mary L and myself, taken about 1857, 
Avhen we were 13 and 11 respectively, by a 
traveling photographer who came down the 
river in a flat boat. 

Cut No. 105 represents our first home in 

don't, mother, don't, Hannah, throw water. 
It's getting upon my clothes which I am iron- 
ing." It wasn't long until the neighbors came 
and helped carry out bedding and furniture, 
and two Dutchmen neighbors got something 
fast in the front door, some piece of furniture, 
and blocked the way for quite a while. 
Though I was very young, I remember of my 
mother and sister Jane telling about it vears 


afterwards, but the l)uil(linR biii'iied to the 
ground ami I aiu sorry that I have no evidence 
of where we moved. The neighbors took us in 
temporarily, but as we had no other home at 

Fi'anklin mill stood upon the I'ivoi- l)ank to 
the left. The fence in front shows the main 
street in Barcsville, and to the right an alley, 
or in those days called a lane. This lane led 

Cut No 103 — Picking stone in our cornfitld 

that time, we must have found temporary 

Later on, perhaps in two ,years, Ijotli moved 
over to "Dugout," or what would be termed 

down to lower ground where ran a creek close 
by the mill and flowed into the Ohio River. 
The fence enclosed all the Williams pi'operty, 
and close by was another house similar in con- 
struction, Avherc my L^ncle Jos. AVilliams and 

toda.y a "western addition," and both built 
new homes. Cut No. 105 is drawn from my 
memory of our first home in Baresville. The 
river was to the left of the picture, and the 

family lived while they dwelt at I>aresville 
(now called Hannilial), Monroe County. 
These recollections are dear to my memory, 
and I cherish them beyond description. 


Cut No. 106 represents our second home in 
Baresville, Ohio. Our first home Avas a frame 
house near the Franklin Mill, and in the year 
1854 it took fire and burned. Our Uncle Sam- 

stories containing four rooms; adjoining were 
two additional rooms represented by mother 
and one of her babes, with the chicks in the 
j'ard. Back of this house Avas a porch and a 

iiel, my father's brother, built a leanto next to 
the house being described, and lived in it along 
with father's family until bankruptcy oc- 
curred and they lost the Franklin Mill. Out 

well. Adjoining the house, to the right upon 
an elevation, was a building we called Father's 
Shop or workshop. Underneath was a cellar 
above ground, and between the cellar and the 

Si III (Hill I ■ hi PI 

Cut No. 106 — Our second home in Baresville, Oliio 

of the wreck father sawed lumber and saved 
it to build this house described by illustration 
No. 106. In those days it was quite a respect- 
able building, the main house being two 

kitchen to the left, where the woman is stand- 
ing, was the passageway to the back of the 
house. To the right up the hill was Uncle 
Samuel's house. Our premises comprised one 


acre of liround ; Uncle Saiuuers, two acres of 
ground. Oiu- property was a little declining, 
but Uncle SaniueUs, much more so and fairly 
Kteep. Along in front of the paling fence of 

honie \v«irkiii<i' i]i saw and <ii'istiiiills alonji' with 
my Uncle Samuel, to eai-n iu-ead and butter for 
his family, and got for his service at this time 
from 50 to 7o cents per day and his board. 

t '' 

the house was the main road up the hill located Still to the left we had a stable for our cows, 

in the town called Dugout, a new addition laid and to the right of the stable we had a sugar 

out to the old town of Baresville by old cane mill with a shed over it, and an adjoining 

Grandfather Jacob Bare. To the left of the shed for tlie evaporating pan where we boiled 



Cut No. 108— Brick schoolhouse in Baresville 

paling fence wa ; mother's garden, and back 
of the house was the poi'tiou of the one-acre 
where myself and sister Mary hoed sugar 
cane and picked up stone, which were tasks 
father left to us when he went away from 

down the sugar cane juices into molasses. At 
that place many a time did the young folks 
come and have great sport pulling taify, and 
sometimes wrapping it around each others 



Cut No. 107 shows a schoolliouse at Bares- 
ville, Ohio. A recent letter from Wm. Bare 
in his seventy-fifth year states, that as near as 
he can remember, the old school house where 
Uncle Samuel taught school was a ramshackle 
one-story building about 24x24 feet, where I 
got my first schooling in Baresville. This is a 
sketch of the old building, which is photo- 
graphed vividly in my mind along with my 
first actual school days. This school house 
was in Fakely's lot. These people were Ger- 
mans and the proper name was Voegtly. Not 
very far from their garden and barn yard, the 
last time I was at Baresville, now called Han- 
nibal, the old Fakely brick house was still 
standing intact. 

Cut No. 108 representfj the next step in 
Baresville education and the school house. 
This one was brick, and of some pretensions. 
We hereby represent a cut of the building 
drawn from memory. I also wrote to Wm. 
Bare to help me to describe it, but he says my 
recollection of it is much better than his own. 
This brick building had a gable roof fronting 
the road, but in the front of the school house 
were two entrances-the right hand side for the 
boys, the left hand side for the girls ; and out 
facing the road was the coal house. In front 
of the front fence and the school house was a 
pla.y ground where the boys indulged in play- 
ing bullpen ball-one each on four corners, and 
one in the center called the bull-pen. The boys 
would toss the ball fi'oiii one to the other en 
the corners and without notice one would take 
great pleasure in trying to hit the man in the 
center with the ball, and if he got struck then 
he M-ould have to take his place on the corner. 
and the one hitting him get in the bull-pen. It 
was my province to try to be the artful dodger, 
and I still imagine to this day tliat I could 
excel any of the boys in dodging the ball. I 
would do it by jumping to one side, by doub- 
ling up, by falling upon the ground flat, or 
always making the move which they did not 
expect, and at this juncture I can truthfully 
state that bull-pen ball was the only sport T 
ever enjoyed in my whole career except skat- 
ing. My father taught mc to skate-not upon 
my ear, nor upon my posterior, but upon my 

feet and the skates-as father was a good 
skater. At the right side of the school house 
Avas a declivity. At the corner of the fence 
near the new road running up the hill past the 
new cemetery, the boys would knock the 
boards off so they could get out into the fields 
to play, or in the summer time hunt crawfish 
in the little run, which ran down not far from 
the school house from the hills above. It was 
here in this school house that I recall a teacher 
by the name of Winnett, another Benson 
O'Neal, another a Scotchman, by the name of 
John Moore, from whom I learned more prac- 
tical traits of life from his almost daily lectures 
to the scholars about politeness. He taught us 
how to walk and how to turn. This was in the 
year of '5fi or '58, and certainly such etiquette 
was an advanced idea to ns country-town 
scholars. It was in this brick school house 
that I went to writing school, took 24 lessons 
and learned more about the Spencerian sj^stem 
than I have ever learned before or since, as 
writing came naturally to me and I took the 
premium, so the school master said, but I did 
not receive said premium-and have been pa- 
tiently waiting for it ever since. 

Acrosj the road lived an old German by the 
name of Cass, who ran a cooper shop. He made 
tight work, or tight barrels. Just what they 
wore used for I am not sure or where he found 
his market, as there were no distilleries in that 
neighborhood. It is possible that he may have 
shipped his barrels to Wheeling. I have since 
learned through Wm. Bare, Jr., in his seventy- 
fifth year that Joe Cass lives in Cleveland. 
What business he is engaged in I do not knoAV. 
He has three sons who follow the vocation of 
mechanics. It was at Cass's well tliat we went 
to get drinking water for the school. 


I, Milton F. Williams, never learned to play 
cards. I did not like them. Not even civil and 
innocent games, not even the game of euchre. 
While men of my age in younger manhood 
tried to teach me the game euchre, I took no 
interest in it-cared nothing for it. Upon one 
occasion, in Muscatine, Iowa, in 1869, being 
out of employment, a .young man with whom 
I associated tried to teach me to play billiards. 


I managod to get through one game, and I said 
to him: "William, that's enough, I will never 
try it again." As to chewing and smoking, I 
never learned either. As to gambling, I never 
indulged. Never gambled for a nickel value in 
my whole life except at the game of business. 
In business I have always been adventui'ous. 
I have always been willing to take a ventui-e 
upon any business proposition which looked 
consistent. As to buying stock in mining ven- 
tures or outside propositions, I have always 
been too careful to venture. I have always felt 
that I could best manage my own resources, 
and if I had any surplus outside of our own 
business (which I never have had) I have 
always felt and yet believe, that our business 
is of sufficient extent to become a sinking fund 
for all of our resources. While most people 
state that they do not carry all their eggs in 
one basket, my outside ventures have been a 
little bank stock and real estate which are gen- 
erally safe. However, in later years, as my 
resources have increased I have made a few 
very safe ventures. 


Milton F. Williams' essay, which he first 
wrote and read at schopl at Baresville, Ohio, 
on October 16th, 1862, just after his sixteenth 

Idleness-What Are We Placed Here For? 

In the first place, -when -we are young wc 
should learn to be industi'ious, learn no bad 
habits. If idle and learn bad habits when 
yoimg, we are apt to follow them when old. A 
good for nothing boy is not thought much 
of; he cannot do anything Avhere he is known. 
He goes to a strange place, he does very well 
for a while, gains the confidence of the people, 
and they think that he is a great fellow, toler- 
able high, they think he's somebody, but at 
last thej^ find him oiit and then he is ten times 
M'orse than before. He is not countenanced 
by nobody, he has no friends nowhere in the 
World. He first is lazy, he then gets to using 
bad words, and then thinks he is somebody, so 
he goes on in bad ways; he then thinks there 
is some great Sam, he thinks he must do like 
great Sam, he sees him drink something so he 
must do the same. After while he drinks more. 

and thinks it looks big to smoke; he smokes 
and then learns to chew tobacco, thinks he 
must go and get half-shot because others do, 
sees them playing cards and thinks he must 
do the .same. 

At last he gets drunk, plays cai'ds for money, 
he then thinks he must do something else. He 
likes money-how will he get some money? 
Play cards for it, gets drunk on his money ; 
his money is gone, he cannot get anybody to 
gamble with him, so he steals something, sells 
it and gets the money, gets whiskey with it; 
then sees somebody that has got some money — 
he waits to get a good chance to rob the man, 
and when he gets his money runs off and hides, 
steals all he can; after M'hile gets out of 
money, he robs some other person, and at last 
murders another man, at last it is found out, 
the murderer is at last hung for murder, rob- 
bing, stealing and nearly everything that a 
wicked man could do. Poor fellow, he was 
born for no good. 

The End of Idleness, by Milton F. Williams. 

(Note:-This essay was found in an old copy- 
book in the curio case, which book I brought 
from Ohio about 5 years ago, and it is now 58 
years old.1 


This lettei- fi'om my sister Mary Louisa 
Williams was written at the age of 17 years 6 
months : 

October 16th, 1862. 

Milton F. AVilliaiiis, Hannibal, Ohio: 

It is a very disagreeable thing to be sick, 
or to be shut up in the house. I would give 
almost any reasonable price to have my health 
restored to me again. Being contented is the 
best thing for me. I suppose I would rather 
Avork hard all day. from daylight till dark, 
any time. Dull day, no sunshine to be seen 
this day, fall weather commenced, — cool and 
dreai-y, short days. It is a busy time in the 
fall Avheu making molasses. Took the trade 
from the Southern Confederacy, make our 
own supply of molasses, and that is far better 
than going to the South for their black dirty 


stuff. In a few years we can make our own 
sugar, so that will be much better. 

To raise our own cotton is impossible, but 
we can raise flax and they cannot. 

There is mills enough to grind all the cane 
that is raised in the North, so there is pans to 
boil all the juice the mills can grind, and they 
can find people enough to eat all the molasses 
they can make. 

As the winter is approaching people's times 
are busy getting their wheat into the ground. 
Want to have something to live on the coming 

Just writing to pass the time. Proper punc- 
tuation is not necessary for this wi'iting, if it 
is worth anything be it so, and if not so say. 
— Sister Mary Louisa Williams. 


Our family moved in 1863, after the rebellion 
had broken out, back to Belmont County, one 
mile and three quarters north of Bridgeport, 
then on the old Cadiz Plank Road. The old 
homestead which i-emains is now occupied by 
my only brother, Seth Oliver Williams, and 
his family. At the time we moved to thi.s 
locality in 1863, the family all joined hands 

Cut Xo. 109— Father and AJ 

planting trees trom Tohcph Chandler's farm in 1864 

Baresville is one place, — tatteling, fighting, 
drinking, playing cards and all kinds of wick- 
edness is going on in this town. Some are 
leax'ing, some coming in get tired of it. De- 
ceitful peopel are the most thought of, the 
ones that can tell the biggest lies, the ones 
that can drink the most whiskey, and swear 
the hardest is the respectable person. 

We leave Baresville for to seek a better 
place, hope so it is between the hills, — they 
say where you have to look straight up to sec 
light, but that would be better than worse. 
Baresville is not at fault, but the people. 

and made a meager livelihood from the pro- 
ceeds of the few acres of ground, attending 
Wheeling mai-ket to sell our goods. 

The writer of this sketch, not feeling inclined 
to be a farmer boy, soon sought other fields of 
action. During the first or second year of 
our career at this locality, one of our neigh- 
bors, who was John Weeks. Jr. (his father 
being quite an old man, owning quite a respect- 
able farm adjoining our home, that orig- 
inally belonged to Uncle Johnnie Weeks, 
whose son John was drafted in the army), pre- 
vailed upon our family to run the farm. 


Father ))ought 8 acres or 8 1-4 acres from 
Wiley Weeks, the youngest son of Old Uncle 
Johnny Weeks, and paid i|i800.00 therefor. 
Later on he added a small piece of land, about 
J of an acre, from that of Benjamin Anderson, 
a neighboi' adjoining us on the east ; later he 
bought another piece of land from the same 
Anderson for which he agreed to pay $110.00, 
but not having the money at the time, he bor- 
i-OAved the money from old William Brown, a 
neighbor who lives over a mile away. In later 
yeai's father bought two more pieces of land 

Fat/?er5 Spade 

Cut No. no— My father's 

from Anderson, until he had all the land west 
of the Anderson farm, which was a narrow 
strip cut off by the Cadiz Plank Road, so that 
the old homestead at the present writing com- 
prises 14 or 15 acres from which the remaining 
members of the familj' have made a livelihood 
— market gardening and small fruit growing 
— for all these years. 

Cut No. 109 is an illustration of ti'ee plant- 
ing, showing my father and myself planting 
cherry and apple trees on our homestead, 
which trees we obtained from old Uncle Jo- 
seph Chandler's farm. 

In Cut No. 109 will be seen upon the ground 
next to M. F. Williams, Father's spade, which 
will be shown later in a cut by itself, as almost 
worn away from use and age. (See Cut 110.) 

Cut No. HO. Father's spade. This is an 
exact photograph of it, which hangs in our 
print siiop at Broadway and IMontgomery 
street, at the factory of the Williams Patent 
Crusher and Pulv. Co., among my cui-ios. My 
father used this spade until it was almost worn 
out upon his little farm. I prize it more highly 
than silver or gold; it is more precious to me 
than diamonds. Though it is valueless in 
dollars and cents, yet to memory and feelings 
it is priceless. 

Here is represented the broad axe which 
father did the hewing with, more precious 
than gold or rubies to hand down to the rising 

Fdt//ers Broad Axe 

s broad a.xe 

Cut No. 111. Father's broad axe. In the 
same line this broad axe hewed out the rafters, 
the studding, the joists, the frame timber, of 
our present house in Ohio, which we have de- 
scribed above and which we have a photograph 
of, and regarding which I have a letter in my 
files from a banker in Bridgeport, Ohio, presi- 
dent of the First National Bank of Bridgeport, 
Ohio, by the name of Wm. McComas. In 
recalling instances and happenings around the 
old homestead, in Belmont County, Ohio, in 
years past, when I was a young man, Wm. 
McComas states that in hauling hay to 
Wheeling market, he and his brother always 
returned on the plank road; at the bend in the 
road. Father would be over in the woods, in 
John Stuart's woods, hewing out the frame 
timber for this very house, and the IMcCom- 
as brothers would throw upon their empty 
hay wagon rack such of the frame timber as 
Father would have ready each day, and they 
Avould haul up to our house free of charge, as 
they had great respect for my father. 


Cut No. 112. Splitting- rails while helping 
young John Weeks make rail and paling 


We went over and dug up small trees, car- 
ried them across the country on our backs and 
planted them ourselves, but many of them 
have died. When I go back to visit the old 
homestead, upon every turn I can see the 
handiwork of my old father, where he planted 
trees and shrubs, built fences, dug ditches, 
made "drains," as he called them, to carry off 
waste water, to prevent the land from wash- 

self-made people ; they came from good, hon- 
est farmers on both sides of the house, but 
small farmers, as in those days there were no 
extensive farmers. The family sold the rights 
to the coal underlying the old homestead prop- 
erty, as it was all sold for miles and miles 
around. The greatest regret to myself in go- 
ing back to the old homestead is to find that 
the sugar trees on the lower acre toward 
Bridgeport have been cut away for firewood, 
and no more maple syrup, which I prize so 
highly, is made from them. It is possible that 
the trees died, and had to be cut up for wood, 
for the last time I visited the homestead the 
sugar grove was a cow pasture. 

Cut No 112— Milton I Williams splitting 

ing. During his active lifetime he brought 
order out of chaos by his arduous work, but 
when I now visit the old homestead I find 
many things and many pieces of his work have 
gone to decay and faded from the landscape. It 
is true no doubt that much of his labor has 
been in vain, and he did not receive much 
profit therefrom; but from my father's indus- 
trious habits I acquired the habit of industry, 
and from my mother frugality, which will last 
throughout my lifetime. 

Mother was a good planner, — much better 
than my father, — but neither of them had 
much education, as we call it, since they were 


AVhen we purchased the property of Wiley 
Weeks there was on it a little story-and-a-half 
house built bj^ him, and in a very few years 
we added to it a two-story house Avith an ell. 
Cut No. 113 shows this first house. This house 
became too small for comfort, and we had to 
build another. My oldest sister Jane was the 
master-mind of the household at that time, and 
encouraged father to build a new house — in 
fact, all the children did, including mother. 
I said, Father, I will help also to build a house 
and will help to pay for it after it is built. 
So we all chipped in, according to our ability, 


and a comfortable and I'cspcetahle houso, as 
good as any in the locality, was Innlt and still 
stands upon a foundation of sandstone, which 
stone was (|uarried out of the hillside or on 
the slope of our little farm and hauled down 



Our neiiihlxi 
this work. Th. 

Johnny Weeks helped us in 
foundation was built by stone- 

Cut No 113— The house lather bought from Wiley Week 

the hill upon a stone sled. Cut No. 114 shows 
my father and myself at work getting out 
this stone. 

Cut No. 114 represents Robt. Williams and 
his son Milton F. Williams, quarrying sand 

masons from Mount Pleasant, 0., whom we 
paid at that time $3.50 per day and their board 
and lodging. The lumber and finishing ma- 
terial was furnished by the Bagus Planing 
Mill at Bridgeport, and Uncle Joseph Williams 

Cut No. 114 — Milton F Wilh-inii, and hib father quirr\ing sandstone upon their little 

farm for a foundation for the present residence in the year 1868, when the 

present house was built. This (see Cut No. 116, from photograph) 

made in 1918, some fifty years later 

stone to build the foundation of the frame 
house above mentioned, as these sandstones 
were quarried upon our own little farm, hauled 
down the hill upon a stone sled by John 
Weeks, our neighbor, and laid in the wall by 
stonemasons from Mt. Pleasant. 

helped with the wood work. In fact, he built 
the chimneys, though it was an uncommon 
thing for a millwright to do, but he could 
build as good a chimney as any bricklayer. 
In the course of time Uncle Joseph was paid 
every dollar due him for his service and so 


was everyone else. Payino' theiv obligations 
is a strong trnit of character in onr branch of 
the Williams family. 


Cut No. 115 shows my sister Mary's picture 
at a time in life when she thought she was 
dressed like a ([ueen. After living four or five 
years, ujDon the old Wiley Weeks place, Sister 
Mary, of her own accord, procured a country 
school to teach at the old Tan Pelt school 

al)ont it as heing a waste of money, as father 
was very plain in character and habits and, 
being a Quaker in religion, he did not believe 
in making a show. Sister Mary married, De- 
cember 18, 1870, John Curtiss Chandler, and is 
still living at Newton, Kans.. surrounded by 
her family. If she lives to read this descrip- 
tion in the Williams geneology, it will bring to 
her heai-t both sadness and joy, — sadness for 
the remembrance of olden times, when we all 
had to struggle so hard for an existence, and 
ioy to her lieart because she was able to teach 

house, down on the road leading towards Mar- 
tin's Terry. This, however, was in 1870 or 71. 
I went to school to her myself; so did my 
good friend Joseph Anderson, the nearest 
neighbor. At that time we were both young 
men. In the Spring, with the money obtained 
from teaching school. Sister Mary bought and 
made with her own hands and the help of her 
sisters, what we all thought was a most ele- 
gant dress of flowered goods, as is shown in 
the picture, which I well remember. We all 
thought that Sister Mary had a most elegant 
dress, and poor father scolded considerably 

school. My education, — what little I had, — - 
was finished practically in this old frame 
school house that I think was called the "Van 
Pelt school house." This picture was taken 
in Wheeling, W. Va., before her leaving for 
Kansas, where she taught school near Marion 
Center, and the man whom she married, Cur- 
tiss Chandler, was a neighbor of ours in Ohio. 

A few weeks ago my sister, Mary L. Chan- 
dler, who lives in Kansas, in looking through 
some old manuscripts, found a piece of poetry 
written to her by John Hampton of Spring- 
ville, Lynn County, Iowa. 


1st Month, ;^i-d, 1871. 

Let not my niece, tho now a wife, 

Bid all her cares adieu, 
Comfoi'ts there are in married life 

And there ai'e crosses, too. 

I do not wish to mar thy mii-th 

With an ungrateful sound, 
But know that perfect bliss on earth 

No mortal ever found. 

Thy prospects and thy hopes are great — 
May Gcd those hopes fulfill — 

But thou M'ilt find in every state 
Some difficulty still. 

The rite which lately joined your hands 

Cannot insure content, 
Religion forms the strongest bands 

And love the best cement. 

A friendship founded on esteem 
Life's battering blasts endures — 

It will not vanish like a dream 
And this, I hope, is yours. 

But yet you must God's blessings crave 
Nor trust your youthful hearts, 

You must divine assistance have 
To act the prudent part. 

Tho thou hast left a parent's wing, 

Nor longer ask its care, 
It is but seldom husbands bring 

A lighter yoke to wear. 

They have their humors and their faults. 

So mutable is man. 
Excuse his foibles in thy thoughts 

And hide them if thee can. 

No anger nor I'csentinent ki'cp 

Whatever is amiss. 
Be reconciled before you speak 

And seal it with a kiss. 

Or if thei'e's cause to reprehend, 

Do it with mild address; 
Remember, he's thy nearest friend 

And loves thee ne'er the less. 

'Tis not the way to .scold at large 
Whate'er proud reason boast. 

For they their duty best discharge 
Who condescend the most. 

Mutual attempts to yield and please 

Each other will endear, — 
Then you will bear the yoke with ease 

Nor discord interfere. 

Thus give thy tender passions scope, 

Yet better things pursue ; 
Be Heaven the object of thy hope, 

And lead him thither, too. 

Since you must both resign your breath. 

And God alone knows when, 
So live, that you may part at death 

To meet with joy again ; 

And may the Lord your ways approve 

And grant you both a share 
In His redeeming, saving love 

And providential care. 

A New Year 

;ift from one who desires thy 

(Note.-John Hampton, father of Robert 
Hampton, died in Viola, Iowa., in 1917. He is 
the author of the above verses to Mary Louise 
Chandler at the time of her marriage.) 





Retracing my steps, from the sawmill Avhich 
my father operated, upon the hill westward, 
where his farm of 41 acres stood, which was 
considered quite a farm in those days, we now 
show an illustration of the frame house which 
ray father built on his original 84 acres. 

Cut No. 116 is from a photo of our old home 
in Ohio, — not the home where I was born, but 

to date very comfortably, showing the contrast 
between the later building and the earlier 
building. My brother and I helped to quarry 
the stone along with our father, which made 
the foundation of the main two-story house, 
as has been explained earlier in my history, 
when a large family was crowded into two 
rooms and a leanto kitchen. 

(Note.-Wiley Weeks' son, Ross, is my 
brother-in-law, living in Chattanooga, Tenn. 
He married my sister, Angelina Williams. Ross 
was in his sixtieth year and Angelina was in 

Cut No. 116— Old home in Bridgeport, Ohio 

the home where wo moved to from Baresville. 
Ohio, in IS61. This home father bought from 
Wiley Weeks, paid $800.00 for it. Three or 
four years afterwards we absorbed the old 
house, which new stands in the i-ear, and built 
a two-story and joined it, and since they have 
built a second two-story and a third building — 
all of which are connected together, both above 
and below, or downstairs and upstairs, making 
a very large house for a small family — my 
only brother and his family who now live 
there. They have a heating furnace in the 
basement and a telephone. They are living up 

her fifty-n.inth ycai 
in the fall of 1913. 

Thi-, wedding took place 


Cut No. 117. My brother, Seth Oliver Wil- 
liams, M'ho lives near Bridgeport, Ohio who, be 
it understood, figured prominently and e(|ually 
in all the work mentioned, with M. F. Williams 
and his father. Oliver was with us, both soul 
and body and determination, and was equally 
industrious with the other two Williams, and 
therefore should be in this history as pronil- 


nently moutioiied as any other. lie is now- 
living at the old home, is married anil has one 
sen, illustrated by photog-raph No. 119. 

Three generations of Williams ai'e shown in 
this cut (No. 118), showing my father and 
mother, my only hrothei- and his s(ni, Robert, 
sitting on the front porch of unr old home near 
Bridgepoi't, 0. 

This cut (No. 119) shows Robert Earl Wil- 
liams, son of S. 0. Williams, of 15rids>eport, 

to take eai'e of tiiei 
faiMiiers, we wi'i-e ; 
ers. ('nt No. 120 
Williams as a fan 

rm. While we were not 
tudious and hai'd work- 
nten.led t<, show M. F. 
hov, at the age of 18, 

running a mowing machine upon very hilly 
ground. We made that summer many tons of 
hay, and hay brought in this year from $30 to 

f;;40 per ton. 

(^nr father, not being a farmer, oui' mother 
Kaid "Yes, we can I'un the fai-m; 1 know Kow 

Cut No. 117— Scth Oliver Williams, my brother 

Ohio, at an older age than he was when the 
photo shown by Cut No. 118 was taken. He 
was born November 29, 1889, and was married 
March 7, 1919, to Dorothy Dean Smith, daugh- 
ter of Robert and Nancy Gow Smith. 


While living in Belmont County in 1863, old 
Uncle Johnnie Weeks' son, John, was drafted, 
and they prevailed upon the Williams' family 

to farm," and we children ran the farm for 
that season. We had a fair crop, and when we 
came to divide up the proceeds, our Williams 
family from the receipts of what we sold, had 
never been so bountifully supplied as we were 
in this fall from the proceeds of our share of 
Uncle Johnnie Weeks' farm. At this time hay 
was selling at from $36 to $40 per ton. Wheat 
ran up to $3.35 per bushel. Corn and oats 
accordingly. The writer was so enthused over 
the money we had received from the proceeds 


of the farm that a young man neighbor and 
himself rented a portion of the Widow Coch- 
ran's farm. She had four sons in the army. 
But before the next spring opened John Weeks, 
Jr., was discharged from the army and took 
over his father's farm. 

Cut No. 121 represents M. F. Williams as a 
plowboy in his 18th year, tending Uncle John- 
nie Weeks' farm. However, previous to this 
occasion, I worked for the neighbors in the 
country at general farm work, doing whatever 

(luartcred by a maul and frow. In the spring 
of the year, when the frost wa3 in the timber, 
riving and splitting was a very easy matter. 
I also helped to do the same class of work for 
a neighbor by the name of Anderson, also John 
Stuart, as the hill farms in that country all had 
a number of acres of timber which they would 
cut up for their own use. In riving out shingles 
and clapboards for covering buildmgs, the 
shingles (which wore of lesser length than 
palings, about 30 inches in length), had to be 
shaved so that they would lie upon the roof 





^HB^r^^^V^ iH 



Cut No. 

I was called upon to do. Amongst other work, 
I helped John Weeks, Jr., split rails, make rail 
fence, rive out and split palings for making 
paling fences. (See Cut No. 122.) 


The trees were chopped down, cut into sec- 
tions 4 to 5 feet in length, and after being 
quartered were then rived into palings. This 
illustration represents a paling length being 

properlj' ; and in order to shave them we used 
what was termed a "shaving horse," which 
shaving horse is described by Cut No. 123. The 
operator would be seated in front of the shav- 
ing horse, and with his foot would clamp the 
rough rived shingle, then shave it so it would 
lay down upon the roof. The next operation 
in backwoods manufacturing of shingles and 
clapboards would sometimes be a hand-punch- 
ing machine, which would punch a hole in the 
shingles for the nails. I have punched hun- 
dreds of shingles. If the shingles became dry 


tliey would first he fioaked in watoi'-what was 
termed the butt ond of the .shingle-so a; to 
make them soft enough to punch. Tn those 
days a sawed shingle was scarcely known, and 
I had never seen a sawed shingle until I had 
almost reached my naajority. In the early days 
while living at Bai'esville and working at what- 
ever I could find to do, amongst other kinds 
of work was punching shingles and carrying 
them up onto the roof for the carpenters to lay. 

Cut No. 124 shows a rived and shaved shingle 
punching machine, punching before nailing 
onto the roof. If undertaking to drive nails 

wright work, ai 


the roof. 


I have heliM',! 1o makr <.r coiislruct I he mill 
building, enclose the mill building, help to 
make the shingles or clapboai'ds, then ln-lpcd 
to make the gearing which was almost all wood. 
The shafting was wood, except the gudgeons, 
which were of cast iron, gotten miles away at 
some town with a foundiy. The shafting was 
made eight square (octagonal), and all the 
wooden wheels were fastened on .vith wooden 

Cut No. 119— Robert Earl Williams 

into a dry home-made shingle without punch- 
ing they would split and destroy the roof. 

In the early days sawed shingles were not 
known in our country, and rived shingles Avere 
the only kind that I knew of when I was a boy. 
In the process of making rived shingles the 
trees were cut down in the woods, sawed into 
shingle lengths, then rived with a frow, as in 
riving palings. (Cut No. 122.) 

After punching them (Cut No. 124) 1 carried 
the shingles up a ladder to the roof to my 
uncle, who built houses when he hadn't mill- 

wedges. Forty-three years ago 7 was working 
in a flouring mill at St. Char'.'s, I\Io., and I 
found there an old mill building upon the river 
bank. This mill was one of the original pioneer 
mills ; notwithstanding the building was brick, 
it had wooden gearing in it — the first and only 
one which I can now recall having seen west 
of the State of Ohio. In such mills as described 
above, M. F. Williams learned his trade or all 
he knew of it. up to the time he emigrated 
M-estward in 1869. Therefore the only metal 
ill a sawmill in those days were the gudgeons 
for coupling the shafting, the gudgeons for the 
wooden waterwheel, and the segments upon the 


outside of the ragwheel which van the carriage 
of the saws; all else practically was wood, ex- 
cept a few other parts forged out by the coun- 
try blacksmith from a drawing or pattern fur- 
nished by the boss millwright. The poetry, 
which reads as follows : 

"Oh, woodman, spare that tree, 
Cut not a single bough" — 

which consisted of a smooth floor upon the 
ground, where the clay was hard, cleaned and 
swept off; then the sheaves of wheat were dis- 
tributed around in a circle about 20 feet in 
diameter and horses or oxen were led around 
over the sheaves and they would tramp out 
the grain or shell it loose from its bearded com- 
partments in the wheat heads ; then, Avhen thor- 

g on Uncle Johnny Week's farm 

would not be appropriate upon these occasions 
and in these times. It would be just the oppo- 
site, as the woods and the trees in early pioneer 
days were the best friends that the eni'ly pion- 
eers had. 

oughly ti'amped r.nd shelled out, the straw was 
raked away all except the fine straw. Tlie 
wheat was gathered up from the ground and 
fanned in a fanning mill operated by hand, 
which fanning mills are used to this day by 


Cut No. 125 is meant to show the old-fash- 
ioned way of threshing grain. Before the horse- 
power threshing machine came into general use 
for farm service, the tramping floor was used, 

rome fai'mei-s in cleaning their grain in the 
early fall to get the first grinding for early 
liread. However, when the wheat goes to mar- 
ket, and when it is sold, all this fanning and 
cleaning is done by up-to-date machinery now 
manufactured for that purpose. 




Cut No. 126 I'cpresonts the i)i(ii 

cers' first 

foj'iii of a mill, <;iiiiif;' hack and jiattc 

ning after 

the noble red men \\iui, in tlie di 

ys of the 

of North Wal.'s, who was liorn Ainil 2ltth. 1 <2:;, 
and died Septemher 4th, ITDO. lie prohabiy 
did his first milliiif< in this primitive form, as 
authentic history states that later he had upon 
his plantation in Carteret County both a water- 
power grist mill and sawmill. 

Cut No. 122 — Rniiig and 

Indian, gi'ound their corn by mortar and pestle 
or by hollowing out a stone and pounding the 
grain with another stone — the Indian sittiug 
upon the ground, and principally done by the 

frow and maul 

Cut Xo. 127 shows the Chinese method of 
making flour from rice with an upper and lower 
millstone similar to the process of gri;)tling 
wheat described in the Bible. 

women, as the men were of]f hunting, Ashing or 
looking for the white man. This is truly a 
pioneer mill, and some of the Williams have 
been mill men in the line from our great grand- 
father, Robt. Williams, son of Edw. Williams 

-Shaving horse 

Cut No. 128 shows an old-fashioned cradle 
that was used in the olden days of the IStli 
century for harvesting grain. The cradle from 
which this eitt A^-iis made is novv' ov/ned by O. 
W. Converse of Springfield, 111. 



Cut No. 129 shows a hand-carding machine 
or a wool carder, the original of which is owned 
by Wm. Wilkinson of Roodhouse. Ills. In olden 
days, after wasliing avooI by hand, the next 

In those days most of the cloth was home- 
spun, and the tlax was raised and prepared on 
the home farm by the menfolks, arid wo^-en 
into cloth by the women. Also the y.'ool from 
the sheep was sheared by the men and carded 

operation was carding into rolls by a liaiid- 
cai'ding machine. After the rolls mitc cu'ded 
they were spun into yai'n. 

Cut No. 1:^0 shows one of our grandmothers 
spinning the rolls into yarn. Day after day 

and spun l:)y tlie women of the family. It will 
be of interest to those of the present o'oneration 
to see how our fathers and mothers of the past 
worked up the material that now is prejjared 
l'\- machines. 

Cut X 

I have seen both of my grandmothers spinning 
rolls into yarn, but whether the rolls were 
hand-carded in those days, or whether the.y 
were carded by machinery, I cannot state, but 
I think they were hand-carded. 

Threshing grain with a flail 


The early settlers in the dense woods of Ohio 
had to resort to primitiye methods for produc- 
ing cloth, yarn, ropes and homespun cloth. The 
first operation was to cut the flax with a sickle 


or seylhc or a fradlc— au old-fasliioiiod craiUc 
for ci'adlins' s'rain — then allow \\w Hax to lie 
in tlie open and go thi'oufjh the rotting pi-ocoss. 

cr oroulh and loosen the 
it' the stem ])rci)aratoi'y to 
i-ei)are the tiber foi- spin- 

Cut No 126 — \ pioneer mcrtar iiid pestle mill 

-Making r 

til the scriptural millstone 

Next operation would be the tlax brake. Cut 
No. 1:^2 represents the flax break — an old-fash- 
ioned method of breaking or pounding flax so 

ning. For this flax brake a cut of same we are 
indebted to the ]\Iissouri Historical Society, 
whose book, a volume of which they kindly 


loaned to the writer from the Histoi'ical Society 
of Illinois, and the real tiax brake is now in 
possession of O. W. Converse, Springfield, Ills. 

Cut No. 131 shows two young men seated 
upon a bench and breaking or hackeling flax, 
which is the second operation, for the purpose 
of reducing the fibrous portion to prepare it 

into socks. Cut No. 133 describes a hand loom, 
which was used in olden days, and even is used 
up to the present time, possibly in the moun- 
tains of Kentucky and Tennessee, and even in 
the raountains-of North Carolina, by backwoods 
people, but not, of course, any more by people 
living in advanced and enlightened countries; 
but most of our great grandmothers used the 


Cut No. 130 — Large spinning wheel for spinning carded rolls 

for producing yarn or thread, 
step — 

This the next 


Now that the rolls liave been spun, the next 
operation is to weave them into cloth, providing 
they are to be made into cloth and not knitted 

weaving loom. I think even my motlicr, in her 
younger days, used the weaving loom. If she 
did not, my grandmother on both sides of tlic 
house surely did, as in those days all of our 
grandmothers did. 

The two systems of treating fiax and yarn 
arc as follows: The big wheel for converting 


rolls into yarn is for woolen s'ooil^, while a 
little wheel was used foi' spinning Max into 
yarn. First wc show the Max cradle, or hand 
cradle. Secondly, the flax l)rake as the second 
operation for reducing the tibei-. Thii'dly, the 

wei-e made from Max 
specially sumiuei- weai 


quality of gooil 

gaiMuent.s, most 

the winter wear fi-om wool, all made by hand 

])y the early settler.s and early pioneers of the 


-Hackling flax 

flax haekle for combing- out the flax fiber from 
the woody portion, or pith of the stock. The 
fourth operation is the small spinni)ig wheel 
for spinning the flax fiber into yarn or into 
flax thread. (See Cut No. 92.) 


Cut No. 138, in the spring of 1863, near 
Bridgeport, Belmont Connty, Ohio, represents 
JM. F. Williams working on the Cadiz plank 

Cut No. 132— A flax brake 

Cut No. 134 shows a hand loom for weaving 
flax thread into cloth. In the olden days all 
the linen, the toweling, the sheets, the dresses, 
the underclothing, and most all household 
goods, were made from flax ; that is, the finer 

road from Bridgeport to Cadiz, at $1.10 per 
day, earning my first actual pay: In these 
days there were two plank roads to my knowl- 
edge. A plank road is a graded country road 
covered v.ith oak planks 2i to 3 inches in 


thickness, sawed out from sawlogs, as the coun- 
try afforded the timber. In the spring of 1863, 
when our family had just settled IJ miles west 
of Bridgeport, in the cove of the hill above 
Bridgeport, one Joshua Maul, who lived further 

ject to manj' slides down the embankment and 
steep hillsides which had to be renewed. In 
those days concrete curbs were not known, and 
if a stone wall was used it was rough rubble 
work laid up diy, one stone upon the other, 


I H^^^ J -a TWfSf- 

Cut No. 133 — .\ hand-weaving loom 

out on this same plank road at Maultown, was 
repairing the plank road and I secured work 
with his gang of workmen with pick, shovel 
and wheelbarrow. Joshua Maul, however, is 
represented in Cut No. 138 by No. 1. No. 2 

and no mortar or cement used; but in the 
present day such work is mostly concrete. No. 
3 represents Edw. Bare from Baresville, who 
worked in the party or with the party of work- 
men. No. 4 represents Chas. O'Neil, now an 

Cut No. 134 — ,\ hand loom for flax 

represents M. F. Williams working with pick, 
shovel and wheelbarrow, helping to grade the 
road, or regrade it for the planking, and 
cleaning out the gutters, as this road up the 
hill from Bridgepoi't in Avet weather was sub- 

aged man almost SO years old, living with one 
of his children in West Virginia. These two 
boys being mj' fellow townsmen when I was a 
boy, we often played together, went to school 
together, hunted the cows together, fished to- 


g'ether upon llic Ohio River, hunli'd cfawlisli 
togethci', dug' woi'iiis for liait togctlu'i', and did 
everything wliiidi hoys would do in those days, 
which was just and upriglit and jjossihly a 
little mischievous occasionally ; hut we oidy 
indulged in innocent niisclucf and not to do 
anyone any harm. In this dt'seiiption of the 
earning of my first money: we wei'e paid $1.10 
per day, which I thought was a wonderful com- 
pensation for the work of a novice as a com- 
mon laborer. No. 5 represents a colored man. 
a young man from Houston, Texas. His name 
was Ephraim Gubbins, as I now remember. 
There were three or four others of the Ethi- 

nciuhhors of onrs a1 
l)eoi)h' as yon wonld wish to 
of nei-hhors. We worked on 
roru Bridgeport to Jlaultowii 

.1 and washing-, iierrhan,- only .$2.50, 

villr, and as tin. 
n.ert an.l the he^ 
this plank I'oad 
until Joshua Maul considered it finished. The 
money A\-hich I earned I gave the most of it to 
my mother. Mother was very fond of ham and 
bacon, and something good to eat. As we had 
just nn)ved to this neighborhood and practi- 
cally \\('rc without money until we raised a 
crop, which was limited, I was glad to earn 
money with which to buy proper food for the 
family; and I have never regretted giving my 

Cut No. 138 — Making a plank road 

opian design as I recall ; they were a nice lot 
of boys, full of jokes. Joshua Maul, our boss, 
being a Quaker and an anti-slavery man, be- 
lieved in giving the colored man a show, and 
my father, also being an anti-slavery man, did 
not object to my working along with the col- 
ored men. It is true they were full of stories, 
and sometimes indulged in them while Joshua 
Maul would go to the spring to get a drink. 1 
tried hard not to allow the colored boys to get 
ahead of my stories, as I had inherited some 
most excellent stories from my father. Return- 
ing to the subject, Chas. O'Neil and Ed. Bare 
as we called him, boarded at our house, and I 
think mother charged them $3.00 per week for 

iirst earnings to the support of the family, as 
I continued to do many years afterwards — 
both when I was learning my trade and after 
I had gone into business. 

In the next fall. 1864, or the fall following 
my work on the plank road, father bought 
from Benjamin Anderson, a near neighbor, an 
apex in the bend of the plank road, which I 
should judge now to be about one-eighth of an 
acre, for which he paid $15.00. He and I 
graded this neck from both sides and filled up 
the gutter, which originally produced a wash 
on the plank road ; but Joshua Maul, being an 
honest man, saw that this was an injustice to 


us so we tui'iied the water into a suitable gut- 
ter, and fartlier down the road into a ravine, in 
places 30 and 40 feet deep-whieh land be- 
longed to Benjamin Anderson, but which father 
bought later on, and I judge comprised about 
two acres. This deep gully, or small run, did 
not harm our lands much, as it had been the 
washing for years. Reverting back to the 
$15.00 transaction — today I would consider it 
very, very cheap. 


Father, being a thrifty man, as well as he 

slides were made of white pine from 8 to 12 
inches in depth. The bottom was made of gal- 
vanized iron, nailed on, the furnace was made 
of stones, which were more plentiful than 
brick. The wall was made up of yellow clay 
and straw mortar mixed with straw, as father 
had learned to do in olden times when lime or 
a lime kiln was scarcely known.. This sugar 
pan had in it divisions, for racking off the 
syrup, or separating the syrup from the juices, 
when properly evaporated. Sulphate of lime 
was the chemical used for clarifying and caus- 
ing the scum and impurities to come to the 
surface, which were skimmed off with a home- 

Cut No. 139 — M. F. Williams grinding sugarcane in Ohio 

knew how, gave the word out to the neighbor- 
hood that he would buy a sugar mill or sugar- 
cane mill, grind sugarcane and make molasses 
for the neighbors on shares, or so much per 
gallon. Cut No. 139 represents the sugar mill 
on the side of the plank road, driven by oiie 
horse, and the boy feeding the cane mill repre- 
sents myself grinding the cane and running 
the juice into a barrel. From the barrel it ran 
through a pipe down the hill to the first bench, 
or mesa as it would be termed in the west, 
where is shown an evaporator. However, 
father's evaporator was not of this kind. It 
was what we termed a sorghum pan, and the 

made strainer, and this scum was fed to the 
pigs and used for fattening, as it contained 
considerable saccharine matter, and when al- 
lowed to ferment would make the pigs some- 
times drunk. I have seen pigs as drunk from 
fermented scum as I have ever seen men froiv. 
whiskey or other drinks, although my father 
(being a very strong prohibitionist) certainly 
would not set the example to pig's if he knew 
it ; but while it was fun for the younger chil- 
dren, it was not for father. The clarifying pan 
up next to the chimney was higher than at the 
lower end where we drew off the syrup, but it 
had divisions in it just like this reciprocating 


or rocking pan shown above and foi' the same 
purpose — so as to rack off the syru]) when fin- 
ished. But hefoi'e (loiiiR so the Hi'e iiuist always 
be drawn. This work was done durinii the fall 
season and in sugarcane season liei'ore the frost 
and sometimes after the frost, as the frost will 
ruin the sugarcane if allowed to freeze before 
cutting and will cause fermentation in the liehl ; 
and while it will still make syrup in that row- 
dition, the natural syrnp taste has been des- 
troyed and it will not bring more than half the 
price as sorghum molasses nuide before freez- 
ing. Some kinds of sorghum molasses will 
granulate and turn to sugar, of which I was 
very fond, both cf sugar and the syrup, and I 
certainly got my share of it as long as it lasted. 
Father would always take the surplus to 
Wheeling market and sell it, and would buy 
many barrels from the neighbors and had a 
regular stall or stand, as it was sometimes 
called in Wheeling market, for which he paid 
a license, and would remain there usually along 
with one of his daughters, all day Saturday, or 
up to about four o'clock, when the market bell 
would ring and the market would close. Father 
took in many a dollar selling nothing but sorg- 
hum molasses until he earned the nom de plume 
of "molasses Williams," or "Sorghum Wil- 
liams." Night after night, or in the early 
morning, say from three o'clock on, I have 
gone with father to the Wheeling market to 
help sell sorghum and pi'oduce from our little 
market garden. 


Another product from making sorghum uio- 
lasces — or properly, by-product — is called "ba- 
gasse," which is the sugarcane after being 
crushed and piled into a heap, where it will 
ferment from the saccharine still left in the 
stalks, as we did not extract all of it, as the 
sugarcane crushing mill was not of sufficient 
strength, possibly, to extract more than 80 per 
cent of the juice. In this state I have seen 
cattle stand and eat of the bagasse in order 
to get the SM'eetness from it ; but after the 
winter was over father would pile the bagasse 
into what was called a compost heap, known 
to farmers as a fertilizing process to make a 

so that this 1,'y-prodnet had its restorative 
((ualities returned to the land from whence it 
came. Some careless farmers would allow it to 

go to waste and not use it. Feitilization of any 

sary, as it is difficult to grow any plant or 
herb on high ground, which will be a self- 
fertilizer; but on low ground many plants 
belonging to the clover family, nucIi as al- 
falfa, the tap roots of which will grow un- 
til they find water; but vei'v few plants 
or hei'bage uiion hilly ground can do 
this. And more upon the subject of making 
sugarcane molasses or sorghum molasses — I 
had forgotten to state that we brought our 
sugarcane mill and sugarcane syi'up pan from 
Baresville, as father had used it down at that 
town perhaps for ten years before moving up 
to the Bridgeport hills. I distinctly now re- 
member of feeding the sugarcane mill at Bares- 
ville, and I carry upon my foot and hand a 
scar each from the sharp edge of the outside 
covering of the sugarcane stalk, from cuts re- 
ceived when feeding the cane mill ; and upon 
my left foot a sugarcane stalk fell and cut my 
foot most severely. But I recovered, as I 
always had, on account of the red and pure 
corpuscles contained in my body. 


Father always depended upon his two vet- 
erans in making sorghum molasses. My sis- 
ter, Jane, being my eldest sister, now (1919) 
in her 80th year, never failed to stand by 
father late in the night — sometimes up to mid- 
night — helping to boil the syrup. My sister, 
Hannah, long since deceased, also was one of 
father's standbys in helping to boil down sugar- 
cane syrup, or juices; and I myself, while 
modesty forbids me to speak, remained up late 
at night, night after night ; and we would all 
then embark to the house, using a lantern as 
it was the only means of lighting our wav. 
Many a night do I remember of the young 
neighboring people gathering around the fur- 


nace and the siigarpau, -waiting until we had 
gotten through boiling; and next after that 
was a taf¥y pulling, as father never failed to 
donate a gallon or two of his syrup to the 
young people with which to make taffy, as 
sorghum syrup made a splendid taffy, and the 
j'oung people had their enjoyment making and 
pulling taff.y. Sometimes I made a mistake, 
possibly to my delight, and instead of having a 


The representation of Wolf Creek Mills in 
1789 in Ohio (Cut No. 135) is worthy of note. 
When Great-Uncle John Shoebridge Williams 
edited the book called "American Pioneers or 
Life in the Woods of Ohio. ' ' little did he think 
that Wolf Creek mills was probably built and 

■WDiiTF -gaisssjs ieanri.ffi.s nsr as'ss. 

135 — Located about a mile above the junction of Wolf Creek 
Muskingum River 

hook on the wall to hook the taffy upon for 
pulling purposes, I might perchance have got- 
ten the taffy around some young girl's neck — 
and then there was a real taffy pulling. The 
authenticit.v of this demonstration is not 
vouched for in any book of records or data 
which I now can recall — at least it cannot be 
found in a public lilirary or a standard school 

owned by Samuel Retts Hampton, a relative 
of my mother's family, who was a Hampton, 
and the more I read of the Hampton book, 
edited by Doctor Solomon E. Hampton of Mil- 
ton, Ky., in 1911, the more I think of my 
mother and the splendid families from whom 
f.he descended. 

I have often heard my mother talk about 


Bucks County, Pa., the origin of the? Pennsyl- 
vania Hamptons in America : that three Hamp- 
ton brothers came from England and settled 
in three different states. 

Joseph Hampton came from England about 
the year 1720 or 1722, Avho was probably born 
in the 17th century, and in 1690 to 1700 mar- 
ried Mary Canbj' ; she was born on the 12th of 

the ninth month, 1828, he married Elizabeth 
Pierpoint, daughter of Jonathan and Anna 
Pierpoint of Morgan County, Ohio. The Pier- 
point home was on Wolf Creek, a few miles 
south of Paynesville. When I Avas a boy I 
have heard my parents talk about Paynesville. 
They, the Pierpoints, owned a tlour and saw 
mill on Wolf Creek, and Jonathan Pierpoint 
followed milling for many years. The Hamp- 

Cut No. 136 — Saiiiue 

clc of Stilton Franklin Williams 

September, 1697, and was buried at Wrights- 
town, Pa., aged nearly 97 years. 

Again referring to the Hampton history and 
the ownership of Wolf Creek Mills, and that 
■Samuel Betts Hampton came from Maryland 
in the spring of 1825, when about one month 
past 16 years of age, he moved with his fa- 
ther's family to Ohio and settled on a farm in 
Muskingum County, Ohio ; and on the 23rd of 

ton book states that they evidently came from 
Columbiana County, Ohio, to Wolf Creek. But 
where the husband came from to Columbiana 
County, there is no record. His wife's maiden 
name was Anna Steer, who was born in Low- 
don County, Va. 

Hampton History states that they were of 
good family and reported to have been in good 
circumstances before the Civil War. Their 


home was near the border and was ravished 
by both armies. The Pierpoints Mere Union- 

The supposition is that Samuel Hampton 
and his wife lived near the Wolf Creek mills. 
When Great-uncle John Shoebridge Williams 
placed the illustration in the book of "Amer- 
ican Pioneers," of Wolf Creek Mills, little did 
he know that it answers a double purpose and 
the latter purpose of connecting the relation- 
ship between Milton Franklin Williams, the 
composer of this book, on the Williams side, 
and the owner of the Wolf Creek Mills on the 
Hampton side. 


That Great-uncle John, after his family had 
grown and had children and interests of their 
OAvn, and after his second wife died and left 
him alone, that he should emigrate to Viola, 
Linn County, Iowa, and there live out his 
life until he died and was buried in a Fi'iends 
burying ground near Viola, Iowa, and spent 
his declining days at my Uncle John Hamp- 
ton's house, who married my father's sister, 

The strange part of it is that Great-uncle 
John raised liis family at Cincinnati. Ohio, and 
died at Uncle John Hampton's, at Viola, Linn 
County, Iowa. 


M. F. Williams and Joseph Anderson, hav- 
ing supplied themselves with farming utensils, 
started out to make some money farming, as 
we both had done the previous year; but be- 
fore the Fall of the year, and before we were 
ready to receive the big prices the war was 
declared over and prices went down perhaps 
lower than they were before the war. I hauled 
one load of hay to Martins Ferry, Avhich I 
sold at the munificent price of $6.00 per ton, 
instead of $36.00, as I had expected. The corn 
and oats (my share of them) I hauled to my 
father's crib and granary, made him a pres- 
ent of it, sold my interest in the hay to Wilson 
Cochran, who had returned from the war. In 

brder to bind the bargain he paid me $1.50 in 
silver, and that is all I ever got for the re- 
mainder of the hay, and I said to myself, 
"Good-by farming for M. F., I am a going 
with my Uncle S. B. Williams to learn the 
millwright trade, providing he will take me." 
I went down onto Wheeling Island, where he 
lived, and got my Aunt Riithanna to give me 
the address of where he was working. I wrote 
to him. He told me to come on in two weeks, 
that he would take me to learn the millwright 
trade. This must have been in 1865. I worked 
with my uncle out at Hall's water mill, which 
was a sawmill ; remained away two weeks, 
came back to my fathei-, turned over $16.00 
to him for my two weeks" woi'k — the proudest 
era of my life. Worked on with my uncle, 
iioth winter and summer, until the fall of the 
third year. We were then working at Butclier 
& Yokum's mill down at the creek, — a water 
mill,^ust below the town of Somerton, in 
Belmont County. I had been out before the 
woi'ld quite a little, and discovered when com- 
ing in contact with other people how ignorant 
I was, how little knowledge I had, how little 
schooling I had. I went down to Martins Fer- 
ry, talked with Professor Schreave, and ar- 
ranged to go to the Martins Ferry public 
school that winter. I walked to and from our 
home, which was at least 2i miles, studied 
hard, burned the midnight oil. (The little old 
coal oil lamp, which I used to study by, I now 
have amongst my collection of curios.) I re- 
main(Hl at that graded school until the term 
was out. I then bi-anched out into the world 
again, not a sadder, but somewhat a wiser 
young man. I then went back to work with 
m.v uncle, and remained a part of another 
season; then got the westward fever. 


Cut No. 137. At the age of 18 or there- 
abouts, in the month of November, I went to 
work with my Uncle S. B. Williams to learn 
the millwright trade, and the first job I worked 
on was at Hall's mill, about between two and 
three miles distant from Hall's Station on the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, oft' in the woods. 


After I had finished with Joseph Anderson 
attending a crop for the widow Cochran near 
our home in Belmont County, I started in with 
my Uncle Samuel to learn the millwright trade 
or trj- to. and I was about as green a hand 
as he ever had trying to learn the use of 
tools. This was a sawmill only, and not a 
grist mill, as one was located down at the rail- 
road station, operated by steam power. I 
worked at this mill, or ti-ied to, aj best I 
knew how, and how many hundred times did 
my dear old Uncle Samuel make the remark, 
"Milton, j'ou greenhorn" — that is the worst 
he would ever say, and I knew it because we 
M^ere building the sawmill out of gresn tim- 
ber. In those days pioneers went into the 

where they may." The four sides of each log 
were operated upon in this manner until square 
timbers were formed before a building could 
be built, for in those days sawmills were few 
and far between, and even at this late date the 
backwoodsmen hew out thousands of railroad 
ties where timber is many miles from railroads 
and sawmills. With these timbers a good mill- 
wright and a good framer would frame the 
building, in which all the frame part was 
hewn out of the solid tree, framed and 
raised. A raising was accomplished or per- 
formed with a jollification after the building 
was raised. A whole neighborhood Avould be 
invited to raise the building. It Avould be 
framed together upon the ground or upon 

.i"-4' - 

^^- \ 

Cut No, 137— M. F. Willi; 

earning the millwright trade, working at a water grist- 
at the age of eighteen years 

woods, cut down the trees, -awed IIhmii into 
frame timber lengths, blocked them up, lined 
them up with red ehalk and a chalk line, or 
if chalk was not available they used red keel 
from the creek. First the bark would be faced 
oflf so the chalk would make a mark. Then if 
the tree was large enough the woodmen would 
hack into the chalk line at intervals of every 
two or three feet, then commence at one end 
and split off what we called "juggles" — the 
round slab off the tree if it was in the splitting 
season. Then with an ax score into the line or 
near the red chalk line, and the next operation 
was with a broad ax, referred to in one of my 
former pictures, showing father's broad ax, 
and "hew to the line and let the chips fall 

blocks in what was called bents. Each bent 
was a section, transverse of the building. The 
raising was accomplished by first blocking up 
a section to the height of a man's shoulder (of 
course after the foundation timbers were first 
laid) ; then by main strength, by the neighbor- 
hood and use of pike poles (which were made 
for the purpose, having a socket on the top 
end, made of iron, from the backwoods black- 
smith shop), raised and fastened. When the 
building was raised and completed, — not I'azed 
to the ground like a cyclone, — there would be 
a big dinner at the house of the owner; and 
in the. evening the lassies would be there with 
their best bib and tucker, and an enjoyable 
time would be had. The old fiddler came from 


back ill the "woods with the lioys and girls, — 
sometimes the boys had their pants in their 
boot-tops, as in those days j'oung- men all wore 
boots, — only horses and women wore shoes. The 
next performance was to place on the i-afters, 
which A\ere either split out of a log and hewn, 
or hewn ont of saplings, framed and put in 
place, and the building covered with clap- 
boards, riven out by hand and after the bviild- 
ing was enclosed. Even the doors and sash 
were made by hand, but lumber for this finish 
Avas brought a long distance from a sawmill. 
Then began the work of getting out timber 
from the woods with which to make the wood- 
en gearing for the sawmill or grist mill, which- 
ever it might be, — everything made by hand, 
from the primeval forest. Think of a young 
man today gonig into the woods to select and 
chop down trees with which to build a mill ' 
Not one in 5,000 Mould have the courage, per- 
haps, but the old pioneer knew no other way. 




Uncle Sam, Moss Carroll and mj^self went 
one night up the creek peach hunting. I think 
another man went with us, Samuel Yokura, 
Eli Yokum's brother, and an old bachelor. He 
directed the wa.y to the peach orchard, and we 
climbed the hill, which was very steep, in 
silence. We climbed a rail fence into the peach 
orchard, and were just completing the filling 
of our sacks, when out came a man and a dog; 
we did not wait for an introduction, but 
scrambled over the rail fence with our peaches 
and down the hill we went, still clinging to 
our sacks. AVe took them to the mill and 
placed them in our tool chests. A day or two 
later the ov.iier of the peach orchard came 
to the mill hunting peaclies. Eli Yokum knew 
nothing about our taking the peaches, but 
John Butcher was "en.'" John came to me 
and told me the man who owned the peach 
orchard was hunting the men who took the 
peaches, as someone had given us awa.v. I 
introduced myself to the orchard owner. 

brought him to my tool chest, opened the lid 
and said, "There is my portion of the peaches, 
now much are they worth, I am willing to pay 
you for them.-' I cannot now recall how 
much he wanted, but we paid him for the 
peaches, and had a good laugh over our nar- 
row escape from lieing caught by him and his 


IlaU's Mill, a water power sawmill, "was 
about two miles l)ack in the connti'y from 
Hall's Station, on the B. & 0. R. R., and about 
59 miles west of Bridgeport. In the winter of 
1S65, while working at Hall's Mill and doing 
millwright Avork there, as Avas customary, the 
employer furnished board and lodging to the 
milhvriglits. We lived in a log cabin and did 
our own cooking, the Halls furnishing the 
supplies, but the Halls Avomen folks of the tAvo 
brothers baked our bread, though Ave did the 
other cooking. It fell to my lot to Avash 
dishes, and I got to be (|uite a dishAvasher; 
though I can't say I Avas in love Avith it, but 
as long as the novelty lasted I Avas all right. 
For amusement at night after supper, the seav- 
yer Avho lived at Halls and Avas a violin player, 
frequently came over to amuse us Avith hi.s 
many chords, and discords, upon the violin, 
commonly called a fiddle. I think his name 
Avas St. Clair, and he had tAvo daughters; I 
tried to get them to come over and help Avash 
dishes, but thej' never came, but I Avas invited 
to their leg cabin, and did not have to be 
asked more than six times before I Avent. I 
remember one night going up into the hills, 
about four miles, to a spelling school. I 
thought I Avas some speller, but after it was 
all over I had ([uite a spell of " reflection and 
decided that I could scarcely spell at all. 


Cut No. 140, from an old print, shoAvs a grist 
mill in France. The man carrying a sack of 
grain up the ladder on his shoulder would, in 
these days, dump the grain into an elevator 
that Avould deliver it to the hopper of the mill. 



Cut No. 141 shows ail old style printing press 
Avhich belongs to ancient days. The original 
is now at the Jefferson Memorial, Forest Park, 
St. Louis, in the basement, which original was 
loaned to the Jefferson Memorial, I think, by 
O. W. Converse, a pi'ominent brickmaker of 
Springfield, 111., and shows the old method of 
the first printing press operated by hand. 

Cut No. 143 belongs in the evolution of M. 

passed their early life in the country. After 
being thoroughly tramped or threshed, next 
came the cleaning process. Befoi'e fanning 
mills were invented the wheat would be gath- 
ered near a sheet spread upon the ground, the 
wheat thrown up in small quantities and al- 
lowed to fall, and the blowing out of the gen- 
tle zephyrs would blow out the chatf and the 
dust. Then the wheat was considered clean 
enough for milling purposes, for in those days 
in the early days of milling, a wheat scourer 
or wheat cleaner to operate by power was un- 

Cut Xo. 140— An old Froiich bulir 

F. Williams, in later life, when he v.'as about 
20 years of age, as a farmer boy, threshing 
wheat in an old-fashioned tramping ring, 
where the ground wan cleared off and swept 
clean and a levee thrown up around the I'ing 
filled with the sheaves of wheat. One would 
take a span of horses into the ring, lide them 
aroimd and their tramping upon the sheaves 
or heads of dry sheaves, would thi'csh out the 
grain, as is shown by the illustration. This 
was the earliest method in my observation, 
and my evolution of a threshing machine, 
which is known today to all old farmers who 


Cut No. 142. Fanning or wiiniowing is the 
next process of wheat cleaning, and this ma- 
chine is a step far in advance of the primitive 
way of throwing up the grist and allowing the 
wind to blow away the chaff. A fanning mill 
is used today by farmers where they wish to 
get the early grain to the mill. This cut rep- 
resents a farmer emptying the sack into a hop- 
per of the fanning mill, which is turned by 
hand. When I was a boy I helped to turn a 
fanning mill many a day, to clean wheat for 


the neighbors, and I would get as a remunera- 
tion sometimes 25 cents per day if the farmer 
was a liberal individual — and then he thought 
he was doing a great thing. In fact, turning 
the fanning jnill and the grindstone in my 
early life was quite an occupation, and that is 
really where I got my first start towards a 
millionaire (millions ol air). 

Cut No. 144. Entitled from "Povei-ty to 
Affluence," or more properly from pov(>rty to 
comfort — not extreme poverty, however, as 

chased the small farm from Wiley Weeks, cur 
onh' means of subsistence Avas that which we 
raised upon the little piece of land, and cur 
market M'as Wheeling, W. Va. The only means 
of going to market, like many other people did 
in those days, was to walk down the hill to 
Bridgeport, across Wheeling Island, over the 
two bridges to Wheeling market on Market 
street, and carry our product, as is shown in 
the iiiefure. This, however, did not extend 
to a very great period. Later on we arranged 
and joined with the neighbors, and M-ould go 
in one of tlieir wagons, and in after yeai-s 









Cut No. 141 — .\n early printing press 

none of our Williams race were in abject pov- 
ert}', but belonged to a class of people who 
could be termed poor, not in intelligence, but 
in this world's goods. Cut No. 144 represents 
Robert Williams, the father, Milton F. Wil- 
liams. Jane, the daughter of Robt. Williams, 
and Fannie C. Williams, or one of the younger 
children, going to Wheeling market from the 
old home in Ohio on the plank road leading 
from Bridgeport to Cadiz, that long since has 
been converted into a turnpike. At this pe- 
riod in life, when we moved from Baresville, 
in 1863, as previously described, and pur- 

father rented a stand in the Wheeling market 
and sold sorghum molasses upon each market 
da.y, besides selling other products. Later on, 
as the family prospered, we got a horse and 
wagon of our own, and attended market like 
white people, but this cut is to illustrate the 
family's days of struggling in the country; 
each succeeding year they became better fixed 
in this world's goods and much more advanced 
in comfort. 


"Veiilv I swear 'tis better to be lowly born 


and range with hnmble livers in content than 
to he perched up in a glistering grief and wear 
a golden sorrow." 


After the war I went west to Dayton. Ohio, 
where I remained for several months, helping 

onto the roof to hold and steady a guyline. 
This young man's name was Schneider. His 
father was one of the millwrights on the job 
and took the position of foreman when Mr. 
DeRush was absent. 

In raising the stack the stack began to lean 
to one side, pulled too heavily upon the rope, 

Cut No. 143 — A tramping ring for threshing grain 

to build a distillery for a man by the name of 
Eichelburger, on what they called the lower 
canal in Dayton. 

While I was working at the distillery they 
were installing the engine, boiler and smoke- 
stack. The boss millwright on this job was 
Daniel DeRush, and in raising the stack Mr. 
DeRush sent a young millwright with myself 

Schneider and myself let go of the rope (as 
we had no more sense) ; down went the rope 
and frightened Mr. Eichel^biirger 's black horse 
hitched to his buggy outside. The horse ran 
awa.y and broke the buggy, almost beyond 
repair, — l)ut we saved our lives. 

The leaning of the stack, however, was 
caught by a lower guy line on the floor below, 


as he took the precaution to have three sets 
of men with guy lines to steady it by. 

After having tinished that work, we worked 
in a tiour mill in the city of Dayton, and from 
there we went to Toledo and built an oil mill. 

After having finished the oil mill I went 
back home to my father's home, remained a 
few days, then started westward, in March, 
1869. I knew not whither I was going, but I 
did know that I was intent on finding work at 
my trade, that of a millwright, thinking I was 
then a fullfledged millwright. 

In Indianapolis, I went out upon west Me- 
ridian street, to tlie home of a millwright by 

Louisville, Ky., and we got to be very good 
friends. Mr. Pyne had nothing in my line, but 
he directed me to some men who were about 
to build a mill in the western part of Indiana. 
I visited them, — they were not ready; they 
wished to know how much per day I wanted. 
I stated $3.00. One of the men said to me that 
a dollar looked to them as large as a cart 
wheel. I bid them good-by, went over as far 
as the Illinois Central road, stayed over night 
at Pana, 111.; then went north, intersected the 
Wabash, west to the Mississippi River, oppo- 
site Keokuk; crossed over on the ferry, took 
passage on a steamboat going up the Missis- 
sijipi, landed at Muscatine, la., about six 

No. 144 — Going 

the name of Mai'tez, but he did not have any 
work for me. I then went to a millwright 
shop which was the only one in Indianapolis, 
I believe, at that time, which was operated by 
a man by the name of Sturdevant. I found 
one man only in the shop, lie dii'eeted me to 
go over near the river, which I believe is 
White River, as the proprietor was at one of 
David Gibson's mills. The gentleman had no 
work for me. David Gibson at that time 
owned two mills in Indianapolis. 

When I could not find anything in my line 
at Indianapolis I was dii'eeted to go to Co- 
lumbus, Ind., to see W. T. Pyne, a millwright 
of Columbus, who in after years located in 

o'clock in the morning. Went up on to Main 
street, saw a man Avith Hour on his clothing 
and followed him into a grocery store. I ac- 
costed him ; he said he was a millwright. I 
engaged Avith him to go to work a little later, 
but his work was not yet i-eady. His name was 

Knowing that I had relatives in Iowa, I went 
up to Atalissa, on the Rock Island road, and 
there met my mother's brother, Seth Hamp- 
ton, who Avas a carpenter and cabinet maker. 
Spent a few days with them, and from there 
I went to Viola, Linn County, Iowa. Met a 
number of relatives, and I'emained there and 
worked on the farm for Robt. W. Hampton 


until Mr. R. W. Scott, in Muscatine, notified 
me to come on. 

I worked with Mr. Scott upon three mills 
on Cedar River, la., the balance of the season ; 
one of them was Dean's mill, near Tipton, la., 
the other. Smith's mill, upon Sugar Creek, 
which creek led into Cedar River. The third one 
was down at Moscow, which mill was oper- 
ated by Peter E. Biglow. After finishing, Pe- 
ter did not have money enough to settle with 
me. Peter has joined the angels, no dotibt, 
and is still owing me $25.00 and interest, 
which I probably will nevei- receive imtil 
Gabriel blows his horn, — and then I will not 
even receive the interest. 

From that time I worked in the sawmills 
and tlour mills in iluscatinc, when I could get 


In the spi'ing of 1873, I heard of a mill 
building at or near Salina, Kans. I wrote to 
the head millwright, and received word to 
come on. I then pulled up stakes in Musca- 
tine and left foi' "bleeding Kansas " I ar- 
rived thei'c in January, and woi-ked on lioth 
the dam and the mill, 2t} miles northeast of 
Salina, and lived in a dugout. What is a dug- 
out ■? It is a hole dug out in the ground, cov- 
( i-ed with boards and the boards covered with 
cai-th, which makes a vei'y warm habitation. 
I remained at this mill until it was completed. 
During my administration at this mill the head 
millwright, who was really a ship carpenter, 
— he and myself got into a little trouble. He 
was jealous of me because I was a better me- 
chanic than he was. He then and there dis- 
charged me, said I was spending too much 
time on the work, making it too good and that 
he didn't want me. One of the proprietors, 
Mr. Bowne, was a young Quaker from Long 
Island City, N. Y. The other owner was Mr. 
Gower, from Iowa City. Bowne told me to 
remain there a few days until Mr. Gower came 
and he thought that Mr. Smiley might take a 
notion that he had business, back at Iowa City, 
and thev wanted me to remain and finish the 

work. I did as I was commanded and that is 
the way it turned out. 

While working upon the mill building, Mr. 
Smiley borrowed from me my hand axe, as he 
didn't even own one. In erecting a building 
Mr. Smiley was "setting joists." He bor- 
rowed my hand axe with which to space the 
joists. In so doing, he made a miss in hitting 
the joists; the hand axe flew out of his hand, 
came over and the blade of it struck me just 
above the right eye. (The cut left a scar an 
iiudi and a half to two" inches in length, which 
I will carry to my grave.) A young man from 
Minnesota pulled off his blouse and wrapped 
up my head. Mr. Bowne hitched up the Cher- 
okee ])ony to a spring wagon, took me to Sa- 
lina, a surgeon laid me down on the sidewalk, 
shaved off a portion of my hair on my fore- 
head, and took twelve or more stitches in the 
wound. I was taken to the American Hotel, 
and in le::s than three weeks I was back on the 

Coming back to the decision of the proprie- 
tors as to who should remain to finish the mill, 
the miller and the proprietor elected that I 
should remain, and Brother Smiley should go 
back to Iowa ('it.\-. 1 i-emained and finished 
the work and did a creditalde job, and it was 
the fir'st opportunity which I had had to see 
what I could do as my own boss. This job 
lasted al)out nine months. When I left, Mr. 
Bowne said, "Williams, let us settle up." I 
said, "Xo. you settle down to business. I have 
another job at Lincoln Center." I got a man 
to haul myself and tool chest forty miles west- 
ward to Lincoln Center. I paid him $3.50 for 
the trip. On the way we stopped at the half- 
way house, which was also a dugout. Ai-i'i\od 
at Lincoln Center, where I found another ship 
carpenter trying to build a flouring mill, as in 
those days in Kansas genuine millwrights were 
as scarce as hen's teeth. This was also a water 
mill as well as the one at Salina. Messrs. Todd 
and Stanley Co., of St. Louis, Mo., furnished 
the little bit of machinery for both mills. The 
owner of the mills at Lincoln Center was Mr. 
Bennett from Ohio. I being from Ohio and 
knowing my business, Mr. Bennett discharged 


his ship carpenter and employed me to finish 
the job. Upon this mill I received the highest 
remuneration that I had ever had in my life, 
namely, $4.00 per day and board. (Incident- 
ally remarking that on the Smoky River mill, 
near Salina, I got $3.75 per day and board.) 

When I left Bennett's mill I was hauled back 
to Salina with my tools, and in the 40 miles 
between Lincoln Center and Salina you could 
not see five dwelling houses. Prairie grass, 
prairie grass and more prairie grass. Much 
of it as high as a man'.s head, riding upon a 
horse. I remember one stcne house, built of 
yellow ston.e, which was the most substantial 
house I saw in forty miles. The prairies of 
Kansas at this time in some sections were cov- 

lifc. I remember when they migrated from 
this camp and wont westward. Not far from 
this place the government built them houses 
upon a i-eservation. They would live in tents 
and place their ponies in the houses. They 
would also chop up portions of the houses for 
kindling wood to build a fire in their tepees. 
After finishing at Lincoln Center, I went back 
to Salina, settled up with the mill company, 
and they gave me a New York draft for 
$750.00, — the most money I had ever had in 
my life. 

I had my tools hauled to the Station at Sa- 
lina, — that is, my tool chest, which chest I 
had made when I was a cub, or apprentice 
millwright, over in Pennsylvania. This chest 

Cut No. 145 — My tool chest 

ered Avith Texas cattle, grazing, herded by 
cowboys. Also in other sections there were 
droves and droves of buffalo, and incidentally 
remarking,.. while we lived out on the Smoky 
Eiver in the dugout, all of our meat wao buf- 
falo meat. Adjacent to the mill grounds was 
a camp of Kaw Indians. 

When I ai-rived at Salina, which wa-j Sun- 
day morning, and wended ray way out to tlie 
Smoky Hills, where the water mill was being 
built, I met an Indian on the bridge at Salina 
over the Smoky River, — the first live Indian 
I had ever met. He was a Kaw. He said, 
"Houh, " and I replied "How," but I soon 
discovered he was harmless and peaceable. I 
got to see afterwards quite a bit of Indian 

was made of walnut, cherry, poplar, oak and 
pine. The frame was of white oak. Just such 
lumber as I could pick up at a grist mill, which 
we were building in Pennsylvania. This chest 
I have yet, and would not part with it for 


Cut No. 145 belongs in my evolution to ray 
commencement in the city of St. Louis. This 
is a tool chest which I possess today. It Avas 
my stock in trade when I left Bridgeport, Ohio, 
in the year of 1869. This tool chest I built 
Miien I was an apprentice millwright learning 
my trade. I built it at a grist mill by working 
overtime nights and Sundays in Washington 


County, Pa. I bought the lumber from the 
owner of the grist mill and it was built of 
scraps. The corner posts were of white oak. 
The rails forming the panel were of cherry, 
walnut and oak, such as I could pick up 
armuid the mill. The panel in the lid was wal- 
nut. The frame around the panel in the lid 
was of white oak, ash and beech. The bottom 
was made of pine and poplar. The tills inside 
were finished after we had gotten through 
with the mill. The chest being unfinished, it 
was shipijcd to Wheeling Island to my Uncle 
S. B. Williams' millwright shop, and there fin- 
islied. The inside tills and finish were then 
made of white pine. As to the handles of this 
chest, the pattern was whittled out by my 
Uncle S. B. Williams. The handles were made 
by a country blacksmith over iu the woods in 
Pennsylvania, several miles from the grist mill. 
I walked over to this blacksmith shop in the 
evening after supper and engaged him to 
make the handles and paid him $1.00 a piece 
for them. The corner irons and binding around 
the bottom and lid was not finished for sev- 
eral years aftei'wai'ds, or until I came to St. 
Louis. This tool chest I then proceeded to 
fill with millwright tools as I could spai'c the 
money. When I landed in Iowa, Muscatine, 
my stock in trade was the tool chest and less 
than $25.00 in mone.v. 

After leaving Salinat and placing my tools 
in the railroad station, viz., the Kansas Pa- 
cific, I went to JIarion Center, as I had a sister 
and bi-othei'-in-law living at Marion Center tiy 
the name of Chandlei'. However, my Sister 
Mary L. was in Ohio. After remaining two or 
three days with Curtis and Georgia Chandler 
at Marion Center, Curtis drove me in a two- 
horse wagon over to Peabody. Peabody was a 
station only, and the station house, — the only 
house there on the townsite. There at the sta- 
tion whom did I meet but one George Spenee, 
whom I had met and known in Wilton Junc- 
tion, Iowa, when I was working at Smith's mill 
on Sugar Creek. George Spenee, while at 
Wilton Junction, was a brakeman on the C. R. 
I. & P. Raili'oad, and while in that capacity 
he got his loft hand mashed or lacerated in 
such a manner that it had to be amputated. 

In the \\inter of 1869, a portion of the winter 
I did not have work. George Spenee sued a 
doctor in Wilton Junction for malpractice, and 
the trial was being held at Muscatine. I was 
very anxious to learn how the trial would 
come of¥ and, having no work at this time, I 
attended court every day, until the trial was 
over, but George Spenee lost his case. I have 
.■lever forgotten this malpractice case. George 
Spenee told me he would share his bed with 
me in the station house, and next day he got a 
pass for me, — the only pass I ever had in my 
life, — and this was volunteered by Mr. Spenee, 
up to Topeka, on a freight train. 

From Topeka I went to Lawrence, Kans., to 
visit John C. Bare, a boyhood acquaintance 
from Baresville, Moni-oc County, Ohio. John 
was a millwright ; he learned his trade with 
my LTnele Samuel and at one time he was my 
boss on the mill menlioncd above, while LTnele 
Samuel went to coiuluct some olhci' mill job. 
John C. ISare at this time did not have any 
millwright work. I found him working in a 
Quaker church in Lawrence, putting in the 
seats. John was a very fine workman; he 
could turn his hand to carpenter work, cabi- 
net woi'k, or millwright work. 

ily next move was to Kansas Cit,v. While 
there I did not succeed in finding millwright 
woi-k. However, there was to be built, down 
on the bottom a six-run corn mill, but I did 
not wait until they were ready. At this junc- 
ture in m.y life I made up my mind that I would 
try some other occupation. I thouglit I would 
take up the life of a brakeman on the I'ailroad, 
as it would be a more stead.y occupation than 
millwright work ; but there was so much red 
tape connected with getting a position, being 
sent from one to another office, I finally got 
disgusted, and decided St. Louis for me. 
Therefore after remaining one or two nights 
at the old hotel, still standing, just north of 
the old depot in Kansas City, I bought a 
ticket for St. Louis, over the Missouri Pacific. 


In October, 1871, I arrived in St. Louis, after 
sitting up all night and snoozing a little, as 


there were no sleepers in those days; possibly 
I came in a chair ear. I arrived at the old 
Seventh Street depot, — Missouri Pacific. The 
only tovrn I remembered coining through the 
following morning was Kirkwood. I always 
remembered the name of the station. 

The Seventh Street depot is now occupied 
by a group of buildings known as Cupples 
Station. Immediately across the street, east 
of the old depot, was a hotel, I think called 
the Pacific House. I engaged room and board 
and remained there one day and one night. 
The first day that I arrived I inciuired for the 
building and office of Messrs. G. & W. Todd 
& Co., a mill-furnishing house, down on Sec- 
ond street and ("hen-y street, Avhich has long 
since been olilitcrated by railroad tracks and 
buildings. I was ushered before one Henry 
Stanley, long since deceased. However, I am 
ahead of ray story. After I left the Pacific 
House I engaged room and board upon the 
northwest corner of Sixtli and Market, at the 
old Garland House, where I remained for about 
three j^ears, as my liouio. It is now occupied 
by a picture show on the corner and as a room- 
ing house above, as it is a three-stoiy building 
I appealed to the landlord, Mr. Garland, fo 
know what to do with my New York draft to 
have it eonvei-ted into money, so 1 could de- 
posit it into a bank for a nest egg and a start 
in the city of St. Louis. Mr. Garland, a hotel 
proprietor, didn't know much more about it 
than I did. He took it down on Second street 
to a wholesale house, and he didn't get much 
satisfaction from them. He brought it back 
to me. However, he asked me to pay board in 
advance. I replied, "Mr. Garland, that is one 
thing I will not do. I will pay my bills, but 
will not pay in advance to anyone." 

I won his confidence, and as long as I re- 
mained there I never was asked to pay in ad- 
vance after that. But after going down to G. 
& \V. Todd & Co., and showing the draft to 
Henry Stanley, he, being a real live business 
man, told me what to do with it. I took it to 
the Mechanics Bank, at Seventh and Market, 
and deposited same, for an account and for a 

nest egg. and have never been without a sav- 
ings account to this day. 

The Mechanics Bank was then at Seventh and 
Market, but has long since been removed. An 
office building, of steel and concrete construc- 
tion, now stands there and is known as the 
Missouri Pacific Building, where the' offices of 
the Missouri Pacific Railroad Co. of St. Louis 
are located. 

I asked Mr. Stanley whei-e I could get mill- 
wright work. He directed me to go up to 
Twenty-first and Market streets, where Henry 
Schanafelt, a boss millwright, was building 
a flour mill at a place called Camp Spring, 
now covered by the LTnion Station, the west 
side of it, about where the baggage room is, 
— which mill was Jx'ing built for one Mr. 
Ackerman, long since dead. After having a 
talk with Schanafelt, and telling him I came 
to St. Louis to get into the millwright busi- 
ness, he stated, "You are the man I am look- 
ing for if you are all right. Where are you 
from?" I replied, "Born and raised in Ohio. 
I am a Buckeye." He remarked, "Some pretty 
good men come from Ohio." 

He said, "Go down to the shop and see my 
father at 1417 North Second street, who is not 
a millwright, but a carriage maker. He has 
charge of the shop and he will tell you what 
to do." 

After meeting old Grandfather Schanafelt, 
he asked mc where my tools were. I said in 
Salina, Kans. He said, "Get them here as 
(piickly as j'oii can." I immediately wrote or 
perhaps wired to the station agent at Salina, 
Kans., to forward my tools at once to St. Louis, 
Mo. Old Grandfather Schanafelt loaned me 
his son's tools, and I immediately went to 
work reconstructing a freight elevator, for the 
Globe Printing Co., now the Globe-Democrat, 
upon Fourth and Pine. I worked there until 
the job was completed, with another mill- 
wright by the name of McDowell. After fin- 
ishing there I repaired back to 1417 North 
Second street, and was placed upon construct- 
ing some ore ^vashers for the old Fulton Iron 
Works. Superintendent was one Geo. Fisher, 


who has been dead 12 or 15 years, perhaps 
longer. (However, his son George is running 
a machine shop on North Main street, which 
shop has been helping to build feed crushers 
and grinders for the Williams Patent Crusher 
and Pulverizing Co. for the past .vear, and 
just finished up all of his contracts, Saturday 
evening, November 24th, 1917.) 


After I had helped to tinish the lead ore 
wa:-hers. called gigs, I ran out of work and 
heai-d that ilessrs. Woodward & Dwight. of 
St. Louis, Mo., office doMn on Commercial al- 
ley, were rebuilding a mill which had burned 
at Staunton, Ills., Macoupin County. I wrote 
to the manager, whose name was John Jeanin. 
He said for me to come on ; that if I vras a 
good millwright he would pay mo •'t^:!.7;'i jier 
da.v. but that I must pay my own board. Ycm 
can rest assured tliat I went. This was upon 
the Wabash, some fifty or sixt.v miles noi'th- 
east of St. Louis. I bought my ticket at the 
Wabash ( Ifier, whci'i' now the Plarlers Hotel 
stands: went ovrr on the East Side, crossing 
on the ice in a bus, and took a Wabash train 
fo7' Staunton. I remained at Staunton \intil 
Oetolxr or November the ,\-enr, finished 
up the woi'k aihi was tlic last millv.i-ight left 
ui)oii the .iob. While at Staunton [ one Suiulay 
morning went to a eluii-cli. a .Metliodist ehureli. 
ar.d while there I saw in the audieiice a little 
curly headed gill in short di-esses. This t>irl 
was with hei' two sister; in Staunton, running 
a milliner shop. In passing the milliner sliop 
to and from my meals, I never forg,)t to nuike 
eyes towai-ds Ww nulliuer sho]), but it was a 
long tiuie before I could see this girl again, 
but occasionally I would pass her on the side- 
walk. While working at Woodward & Dwight 's 
mill, upon one occasion a man by the name of 
George Bly was in the retail department sell- 
ing feed — this was long after the mill had 
started running — and 1 knowing that the mil- 
liner lived in one side of a building and Geo. 
Bly and his wife in the other side of the build- 
ing, I remarked to George Bly as follows: 
"George, T will give you $50.00 if you will 

introduce me to the little milliner." He re- 
plied, "I can do better than that. I will have 
my wife invite the milliners and yourself to 
supper some evening, and it will not cost you 
50 cents," which he did, and I have been for- 
ever after grateful to George Bly, who is now 
Doctor Bly, of BeardstoMn, Ills. (Upon Labor 
Day, 1918, we made a trip to Peoria on a steam- 
boat, and while freighting at Beardstown I 
asked a gentleman to telephone and go up and 
get George Bly to come down, that jNI. F. Wil- 
liams and his wife were on the boat. George, or 
Doctor, Bly immediately came down and we 
renewed old aei|uaintance.) 


Cut No. 1-Ki is a lepresentation of the old 
Garbuul House, Avhich was situatctl upon the 
northeast corner of Sixth and ilai-ket streets, 
where I first boarded when I landed in St. 
Louis in 1!^71 and 1S7:2. This same old Gar- 
land House was my home for about three .vears. 
This picture or skelcli is dra\\'n fi-oni nu^mory 

a first story wliieli was of any value, A fi'uit 
stand was in fi'ont, which extended down into 
a basenn'iit not over six feet deep. Why all 
this first story wa ; ^vasted was because at the 
time th(> house A\as Imilt. probably fifty or 
sixty years previously, that they did not value 
ground sjiacc ns they do toda.\-. This house 
has been toi'n awa.\-. and is now superseded 
by a i)icture show. Tlie city number was 525 
Mai-ket street. 


Cut No. 147 is made to represent M. F. Wil- 
liams while boarding at the old Garland House 
or 525 Market street, in 1872-3 and 4, going 
to my work, carrying my dinner bucket. While 
this is only an illustration, it is a fact just tlie 
same, that frequently I would walk from 
Sixth and Market to 1417 North Second street 
or to mills, factories or other places where I 
was doing millwright work, but the engraver 
in one sense has misrepresented M. F. Wil- 
liams. He has gotten a portion of my raiment 


entirely too modern. I never wore a belt in 
my life. I never carried a gun in mj- life. I 
scarcely ever shot a gun or pistol in my life. 
I always wore, and do to this day, suspenders 
and a vest. The hottest day I wear a vest to 

give .$100.00 for my old dinner bucket with a 
cup in the top for coffee and a coffee cup with 
the handle on the outside. In later years I 
got to carrying a basket, as baskets became 
more common for workmen than buckets, and 

Cut No. 146— J lie old Garland House Sixth and Market streets, St. Louis 

in St. Louis 

and from my -work, and when I arrive at the 
office or factory I divest myself of my outer 
garments, including the vest. AVhy I refer to 
this characteristic is that I have no use for a 
belt, and I would at this day, as poor as I am, 

later on I have observed that workmen carried 
their lunch in a pasteboard box made of what 
is called stencil board ; but still more common, 
they would wi'ap their lunch in a newspaper 
and carry in their pocket, ashamed to be car- 


lying lunch. Later on, as I became more able 
financially, I did not carry lunch, but would 
buj' it at the nearest restaurant. But at this 
late date, in uiy 72nd year, I have quit eating 
lunch, eat b\it two meals a day, and hearty 
ones at that. 


Cut No. 148. M. F. Williams, photo taken 
in 1873, in his ■27th year, in St. Louis, ]\Io., two 
years before marriage. The hirsute appendage 
at that age was profuse. The sparse and scat- 
tered growth upon the ehiu might indicate 

the transporting was done by hand. This 
represents M. F. Williams and Owen Schana- 
felt hauling lumber from Sehulenberg and 
Boeckeler's lumber yard and planing mill at 
11th and Cass Avenue, down to 1417 North 
2nd Street, as there was no other possible 
means of transportation at that time. Busi- 
ness was practically paralyzed, so far as manu- 
facturing was concerned, except that which 
could be done by hand, hand carts and oxen. 

Cut No. 151 shows a more graphic descrip- 
tion of the effects of the epizootic, showing the 
Mississippi River frozen over and transpoi'ta- 
tion across the river on the ice by hand and 
bv a few oxen attached to sleds. The bnild- 

Cut No. 148— M. F. Williams 
seven j-ears of age 

M. F. Williams 
years of age 

that my father was a soldier and that the 
growth of whiskers came up in platoons. 

Cut No. 149 represents Emma P. Stevens, 
later Mrs. M. F. Williams, in her 17th year, in 
1878, before her marriage two years later; 
then living at Staimton, Ills., but married at 
Gillespie, Ills., Macoupin County, November 
23rd, 187.3. 

Cut No. 150. Illustration showing two men 
hauling lumber in a lumber cart, during the 
horse and mule scourge, called the epizootic. 
In reality this was an everday occurrence a'nd 
an everyday scene, during that period, as all 

ings upon tlie levee show about how they 
looked in some sections, but the observer will 
not see a repi-esentation of any bridge as there 
was none at that time. The reader will won- 
der how oxen could stand upon ice and icy 
streets. These oxen were shod like a horse 
and kept rough shod, otherwise they could 
not stand up. At this period coal went up to 
•$1.00 per bushel, and many poor families al- 
most froze to death, as at that time we had 
almost continuously zero weather, not a street 
car running oi-a horse or mule in service. This 
was in 1872-3-. 

In addition to the small-pox being an epi- 
demic in the winter of 1872-3, the epizootic 


■\\ns also prevalent; while medical books call How did we haul lumber from the lumber 

it ill the human "influenza," in horses and yards to our shops? We hauled it by hand, 

mules it was called the "epizootic." Every by man-power with wooden trucks, which was 

horse and every mule in the City of St. Louis slow. How did we get our tool chests to and 

and surrounding country, and I might state fi'om the station? By man power and hand 

Cut No. 150 — Men hauling lumber 

universally from the Atlantic Coast to the 
Pacific Coast, and from the frigid North to the 
Southern Coast — these animals would sneez'e 
and cough with the epizootic: a very profuse 
running at the nose, coughing, coughing. 

trucks. How did people get coal? Some of 
them didn't get it, and it went up to $1.00 
per bushel, as it all had to come from East 
St. Louis, 111. Hundreds and hundreds of men 
and women could be seen crossing the ice — 

Cut No 151 — Bringing coil across the Mississippi Ruer on the ice 

coughing — but as I now remember, very few 
died. Every street car and railway transpor- 
tation company — omnibus line or any other 
transportation company — were absolutely 
stopped dead still on account of the epizootic. 

(as we had no bridges, and the feri-ics were 
the only transportation otherwise, and the 
river Avas frozen over) — these people were 
cai-rying coal in sacks upon their backs. Think 
of going to East St. Louis with a gunny sack 


or a wheat sack to carry a bushel of coal to 
your home many blocks away, across on the 
rough ice. There was suffering untold by the 
poor, and enough suffering by the rich. How- 
ever, thanks to the good Lord, this spell did 
not last, for horre and mule sickness, more 
than a month at the outside. But what did 
the express people do and other people do? 
They sent agents out into the country in the 
adjacent states and bought oxen. Brought 
them in by droves. These oxen were hitched 
up both doubly and singly. The only vehicles 
we could see around the Union market, the 
express companies or any other transportation 
companies, were ox teams. Think about going 

then. The representation of this building and 
the vehicles surrounding same, are to show 
that the epizootic or the horse and mule dis- 
ease, which might be termed influenza in per- 
sons, rendered the City of St. Louis and pos- 
sibh^ the whole country from Maine to Cali- 
fornia, horseless and muleless during the time 
that this disease was prevalent. I entered St. 
Louis in October, 1871, and the disease got to 
St. Louis perhaps in the latter part of Decem- 
ber, or the early part of January ; the epizootic 
was so prevalent that traffic was practically 
stopped as regards animal hauling. Express 
wagons, grocery wagons or any kind of wag- 
ons for a period — as I now remember of from 


Union Market in /870Dur/n§ r/iefp/r6otic 
Cut No. 152 — Union Market on Ncrlh Broadway 

down tOAvn from North ilarkct Street to JMar- 
ket Street in an ox cart 1 It had to be done. 
Hundreds of people were carrying produce in 
baskets, as it was the only Avay on earth they 
had of getting something to eat. "While it is 
true the railroad companies were not closed 
down, the transportation was very, very slow, 
and we had reverted back many hundreds of 
years to the Hindu method and the Chinese 
method of transportation. 


Cut No. 152 represents the Union JIarket at 
St. Louis, Mo., in the winter of 1871 and '72, 
which building is now standing, same as it was 

four to six weeks, possibly eight weeks, haul- 
ing was absolutely paralyzed except as oxen 
were brought in from the country and UT;ed 
for hauling. Aside from oxen, men in droves 
did hauling where it was absolutely necessary, 
which was very slow progress. The man rep- 
resented with the hand cart came into use 
by hundreds. For instance, hauling a tool 
chest or small packages to and from the old 
Seventh Street depot at Seventh and Poplar, 
or any other depot, had to be done by hand. 
Coal had to be carried across the river or 
carted by hand-power. Coal, according to my 
recollection, went up to $1.00 per bushel and 
its scarcity caused much suffering. Cut No. 


152 is a fair example of what could be seen 
on the streets of St. Louis. One can imagine 
that oxen were not plentiful and not many 
could be obtained in so short a space of time; 
and, further, as I remember and as statistics 
will show, not a great many of the animals 
died, but got over the disease. A total street 
ear tie-up or strike which we have recently 
had in the month of February, 1918, is no 
comparison to the tie-up of traffic during the 
epizootic, for the fact was that there was 
but one mode of baggage transportation, and 
that by hand power. No automobiles were in 
existence, no horses or mule traffic available — 
nothing but hand power. While St. Louis was 
not as large a city at that time, yet the para- 
lization of traffic was e(iually as effective in 

tion with this anti(|uated piece of lumber are 
still fresh in my memory, and since I am fond 
of antiquity, it is well worth commemorating, 
preserving and placing in my book of history. 


At that time steamboating was at its best, 
both on flic Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, 
but about the time of the building of the St. 
Louis bridge steamboating began to decline 
and has gone down until it is almost a thing 
of the past. The ilissouri River has been de- 
serted by the government and is today an 
orphan in the sense of being backed up by the 
government. There has been a strong effort 
by a few friends of the deep waterway organ- 
ization to have a 14 to 16-foot channel from 

rd from i\l, K. Williams' work bench 

proportion and, in fact, more so that at any 
period in the history of the city of St. Louis. 
The Federal census of 1870 gives the popula- 
tion of St. Louis as 310,867. 


Cut No. 152-A represents a board from a 
work-bench which M. F. Williams did his first 
day's work on as a millwright at 1417 N. Sec- 
ond Street in October, 1872. This board and 
bench were in a millwright shop at 1417 N. 
Second Street, and the same board and work- 
bench in after years was moved to 2701 N. 
Broadway and passed through a fire which 
occurred September 18th, 1903, at 3:30 o'clock 
in the morning. The recollections in connec- 

Chicago through the canals to New Orleans. 
A steel barge line has been started and will 
probably be completed at no distant day, but 
since the government's attention is almost 
taken up with the European war it is possible 
that very little will be done in deepening chan- 
nels and protecting levees until the war has 
subsided and peace been declared throughout 
the world. 

Cut No. 153 represents the "W. S. Pike," 
which belongs to the history of the early 
srowth of the city of St. Louis, which history 
has been furnished by the Missouri Historical 
Society, of which organization I am a member, 
and is supposed to be the first steamboat ever 
coming up the Mississippi and lauding at the 
early town of St. Louis. Fuller description 

ST. LOUIS IN 1873 


will be given of this stcaniboat in tlie early 
history of St. Lonis. 

Cut No. 154 represents the landing at the 
City of St. Louis of steamboats in about the 


After finishing my work for Woodward & 
Dwight at Staunton, Ills., I worked for one 
other boss in St. Louis before I went to Staun- 

Cut No. 153 — The first steamboat .it St. Louis 

year 1873, showing some of the buildings upon 
the levee, the railroad track and train, the 
iiidiistry at that date of steamboating up and 
down the Mississippi River. The landing and 
levee in those days extended possibly from 

ton, but upon my return I came back to work 
for Foreman & Shanafelt. I did not work for 
Henry Shanafelt more than eight weeks, on 
the account that at this time the smallpox was 
an epidemic in St. Louis. Henry Shanafelt 

Cut Xo. 154— Steamboats at St. Louis in 1873 

Arsenal Street up to St. Louis Avenue. A few 
years ago I was told by an old veteran lumber- 
man, by the name of Druey, that he had seen 
tne day when 150 steamboats would come to 
St. Louis and leave St. Louis in one day — not 
one week, but one day. 

contracted the smallpox and died in a house 
on the southeast corner of Ninth and BTooklyn, 
and his death seemed to have left an opening in 
the millwright business three years later for 
M. F. Williams. At that time the smallpox was 
an epidemic. It came on a little before the epi- 


zootie. Seven men and -womon died from the 
Gai'land Honse with smallpox. M. F. Wil- 
liams remained, but went up on Morgan street 
to a doctor recommended by Mr. Garland and 
got vaccinated, and from the effects I scarcely 
had what was termed the varioloid. At the 
time of Henry Schanafelt's death, he was ow- 
ing me for six weeks' work, which I never 
received, as after his death his wife came on 
from Indiana and administered upon his es- 
tate, which was very small, and l)etween his 
wife and children his creditors were beaten 
out of their just dues. However, I did not 
regret it. for the reason that on the account 
of the death of H. A. Shanafelt it made an 

$1000." He seemed surprised. "Well, then, 
if you are willing we will go in together." 
We shook hands and I remarked, "Call it a 


Cut No. 156 is a portrait of Wm. H. Foreman, 
my first partner in business in St. Louis. Wm. 
H. Foreman and myself entered into partner- 
ship January 1st, 1875. He passed away about 
eight j'cars ago. His good wife, who is now 
living in St. Louis upon Greer avenue, fur- 
nished the photograph which we are now de- 

^=A 5 

Cut No. 157— Xint 

opening in the millwright l)usiness for Wm. 
H. Foreman and Schanafelt's father. Fore- 
man became tired of Sehanafelt for a partner 
because he was not a millwright, and while 
working for the firm of Foreman and Sehana- 
felt, in 1874, in the railroad station at Troy, 
Madison County, Ills., waiting for the train 
with Foreman to go to St. Louis, he made this 
remark to me: "Williams, how would you like 
to become my partner in the place of old man 
Shanafelt?" I replied, "Mr. Foreman, I 
came to St. Louis to get into the millwright 
business." His next question was, "Have you 
any money saved?" I replied, "Yes." "How 
much?" he asked. My answer was, "About 

scribing as No. 156. The most of her time is 
spent in California at San Diego, but this win- 
ter has been so mild that she has remained here 
in the city, has paid us a visit of a week at a 
time, twice this winter, and possibly will spend 
another week, providing she does not go to 
California yet this winter. Wm. H. Foreman 
was an honest man, not a very great business 
man, but as a millwright was a splendid me- 
chanic ; and as a wood-worker at his leisure 
moments making fine inlaid work of figured 
furniture, I must confess that I never saw his 
equal. Not being possessed of good health and 
a robust disposition, he was yet a most credit- 
able man and respected citizen, and left his 


wife in good circumstances, Avhich many an 
artisan does not. 

We remained in partnership for five years. 
During this copartnership we made very little 
money outside of a living. Neither of us knew 
much about doing business, neither of us had 
very much money; but during our copartner- 
ship each of us bought a home. W. H. Fore- 
man bought a double six-room house at 4020 
Peck street, the first street east of Grand ave- 
nue and east of the old Fairgrounds. M. F. 
Williams purchased a little cottage on Bacon 

I came to St. Louis, back to the old Garland 
House, and about one week later she fol- 
lowed. We remained at the Garland House 
possibly for three days. We selected four 
rooms on the corner of Ninth and Brooklyn 
streets (see Cut No. 157), upon the second 
floor, which roonij were owned by H. A. Mar- 
([uard. the groceryman west across the street. 
The building is now standing with tenements 
in the second and third story, and I am sorry 
to relate a saloon underneath ; but at that time 
when Ave lived there, a Mr. Rheinhart, son-in- 

street, one block cast of Grand avenue, just 
south of Montgomery street, and the way it 
came about was as follows: 


Milton F. Williams and Emily Priscilla Ste- 
vens, about three years after our first meet- 
ing, were married on the 23rd of November, 
1875, in the town of Gillespie, Macoupin Coun- 
ty, Ills., on a very dreary, rainy and cloudy 
day. After having a honeymoon of one week 

law of old Mr. Mar(|uard, had a tailor shop. 
We lived there about nine months and paid 
$15.00 per month for the four rooms. In those 
days when I was in the city I would go home 
to lunch, and one day in going for my lunch, 
I saw my wife on the opposite side of the 
street. I went across and hailed her, wanted 
to know where' she was going (as she was 
always ready to go some place) ; she remarked 
that she was house hunting. I wished to know 
why. She stated that she was tired of living 
in a house with other people, as it was her first 


experience. I j'eplied, "Come and go back 
home, get my lunch, and you will start out on 
another kind of house hunting — this time to 
buy.'" She looked uj) at me with surprise. 
"Why, can we buy a house?" I replied, "We 
can try. We will advertise in the Globe for a 
small cottage. We can buy a cottage. I have 
$1,000.00 in the Boatmen's Bank, saved up to 
buy a little home, and I have a little more 
besides. ' ' 


We finally found a two-room cottage at 
2450 (later numbered 251S) Bacon street, and 
we bought the cottage and paid $1200.00 down 

lived but two weeks, and her remains now lie 
in Bellefontainc Cemetery, and will soon be 
moved to Valhalla, in the county, where W€ 
have bought a lot and two crypts in the mauso- 

The printer who owned a $400 eciuity in the 
cottage, and whose name was Clark, had bor- 
rowtd money from one James Thurley, an 
Englishman, who afterwards proved to be a 
lasting friend of mine. Before the first year 
had expired I went to James Thurley, who 
kept an ice cream stand in old Lindell Pai-k, 
on the north side of St. Louis avenue, a few 
numbers east of Garrison avenue, where it in- 
tersects St. Louis avenue. There was an open- 

Cut No, 158— Ou.- first home in 1876 - 

jacon street 

(see Cut No. 1.58). The purchase price was 
$1,600.00. This was a little two-story cottage 
with a shed roof on the back end, on a lot 25 
feet front by 130 feet in depth. It had grass 
in the front yard, two peach trees in the front 
yard, a peach tree in the side yard, a maple 
tree in front, and a maple tree in the Iiack. 
Immediately after moving in, I contracted with 
one Robt. Charles to tear away the shed kit- 
chen and put up a two-story brick house ad- 
joining the frame house and 18 feet in length 
by 12 feet in width. In this house we lived, 
and in this house five children were born, 
namely, Milton Judson Williams, Arthur 
Franklin Williams, Oliver Julian Williams, 
Florence Iretic Williams, and little Maude, who 

ing to Lindell Park, and in the summer reason 
it was a very popular place for school picnics, 
and there Mr. James Thurley dispensed ice 
cream and soft drinks. At that time the Cass 
avenue car line ran west past the Lindell Park. 

I said to him, "Mr. Thurley, I want to pay 
up the balance on that deed of trust." He 
said, "What do you want to do that now for, 
Mr. Williams? I hoped you would let it run a 
while." However, I paid it all and cleared 
the property, so we could have cur lioine clear 
of delit. 

We would have moved in sooner, only Clark 
had leased it to another printer working at the 


Globe Printing Co., and we could not get pos- 
session "till the fall of 1876. 

It Avas in October of 1876 that we removed 
to 2518 Bacon street, and we lived there 
twenty-seven years. Bnt during that time we 


After our family had grown up and the 
accommodations of ovir first house were too 
small for us, we remodeled the old house by 
the artisanship of my Uncle S. B. Williams, in 

raised the cottage to a two-story building, 
built a vestibule hall on the south, and joined 
same with the two-story brick on the rear and 
made it a very respectable looking dwelling 
which stands today. 

1884 and 1885, commencing in October and 
finishing in January. This house is now rep- 
resented by cut No. 159, showing our little 
daughter Florence standing in the front yard. 
In said photograph the iron cresting upon top 


of the mansard front can hardly be seen, but 
when this house was completed it was second 
to none in that locality and presented a most 
respectable looking front. 


Upon November 19th, 1903, we moved to 
5153 Vernon avenue, where we now live, in a 
more pretentious neighborhood and more pre- 
tentious dwelling, which we paid $10,600.00 
for, and to which dwelling we have added 
considerable expense in the way of conven- 
iences and adornments. (See cut No. 171.) 


Now, going back to the business end of my 
career: After remaining with Wm. H. Fore- 
man for five years, in 1880 I made an engage- 
ment with the LaCroy Middlings Purifier Co., 
of Indianapolis, which purifiers were used in 
flouring mills. I remained with them as trav- 
eling salesman for ten months, became rest- 
less, wanting to get back into the harness 
again, and after quitting their service imme- 
diately engaged with one Robt. L. Downton, 
whom I had previously known, to reconstruct 
ex-Goveriior E. 0. Stanard's mill at Alton, 
Ills. Said mill was originally built and known 
as the J. Q. Burbridge mill. After this mill 
was completed and converted into a roller mill 
I worked for Robt. L. Downton about 18 
months and with Todd & Stanley four to six 


In 1882, in the month of August, I formed 
a co-partnership with one Wm. H. Scott, who 
had a little millwright shop at 311 Convent 
street, St. Louis. Scott had been trying to run 
a business in a small way for six years, and 
after we had arranged to join in another co- 
partnership, he wished to know how we would 
go about it. I stated, Take inventory of what 
you have got. He did so, and stated he would 
make me a half partner by my paying him 
$800.00, which I did. This co-partnership lasted 

just 90 daj^s, and during that time we had 
contracted to build a grain elevator in East 
St. Louis, remodel a flour mill in Henrietta, 
Texas, another flouring mill at Fulton, Mo., 
for J. C. Yantes, as I had previously remodeled 
a flouring mill for Mr. J. C. Yantes, at Mur- 
physboro, 111. 


After the co-partnership of 90 days, Wm. H. 
Scott concluded that we had better dissolve 
partnership and each one go his own way. He 
said : ' ' Williams,' you have mapped out a big- 
ger business than we are capable of carrying 
en." I said: " Very well. Brother Scott ; what 
do you want for your half interest?" He 
said, $800.00. Have you got the money ?" "If 
I haven't I will get it." I gave him a check 
for $800.00, and started out alone. 

I remained at this number, 311 Convent 
street, for another five years, and in the spring 
of 1886-or during my five years' experience 
running the business alone-I built a distillery 
for one Gustavus Sessinghouse, who was of the 
firm of the Sessinghouse Milling Co. at Ninth 
and North Market street. I planned, contract- 
ed and equipped the distillery at North Broad- 
way and John avenue, which never made an 
ounce of whisky and did not grind enough corn 
to make a mash. We probably ground 20 
bushels of corn, and the whisky trust bought 
over the distillery and closed it up and it never 
ran as a distillery. 


Cut No. 155 shows M. F. Williams' master- 
piece as a draftsman, as a millwright, as a self- 
made man, without a technical education, and 
in fact without scarcely any book knowledge 
except that obtained from the log school house 
in the woods. This building stands today, at 
John avenue and Broadway, in North St. Louis ; 
but while the building was erected and the ma- 
chinery installed for a Avhisky distillery, it was 
never run and operated for that purpose. The 
cause of the closing of this contract was, that 
I heard a remark passed on the street from a 


layman millwright about an ex-Congressman, 
Gustavus Sessinghouse by name, going to build 
a distillery. It resulted in my becoming both 
his architect and mechanical engineer, as would 
be called today; then, a plain old-fashioned 
millwright. I staked out the ground, found 
an architect to plan the building, and I in- 
stalled the machinery under contract, having 
my old boss, my uncle, S. B. Williams from 
Ohio, come out and help install the machinery. 
I received my pay for the work. In due course 
of time the plant ran and ground possibly not 

During the five years in business on my own 
account and getting my eye teeth cut, I took 
a contract at Ironton, Mo., to remodel a roller 
mill, and place in said mill the Stillwell & 
Bearce Rolls, made at Dayton, Ohio. When I 
wound up with the mill at Ironton, I found I 
had put into this mill just $1200.00 more than 
I was to get for the building of it. At this 
time I certainly was in bankruptcy,-! was down 
and out. Did I surrender, both hands up, tie 
my handkerchief to a pole and show the white 
feather? 1 should say not. What did I do? 

over 20 l)ushels of corn ; then closed down and 
was sold out to the trust. I have the drawing 
displayed in the corridor of our office, as being 
my greatest undertaking up to the year 1882. 
While I am thankful that the distillery never 
made whisky, it led me on to greater things 
in a mechanical way, and I am proud therefore 
of the mechanical undertaking. I drew this 
plan with my own hands, never having taken 
even one lesson in drawing or in a mechanical 
education, even after having learned my trade 
as a millwright. 

I wrote to my brother Oliver in Ohio to know 
if I could borrow a few hundred dollars, that 
I was down and out financially. He came back 
with the glad tidings and good advice: "Go 
to work for somebody else." I answered him 
by stating: "My dear brother. My pride 
will not allow me to do it. I will either 'make 
■a spoon or spoil a horn.' " He then borrowed 
for me $270.00, from one Addison Blackford 
in his neighborhood. Blackford and I were 
born on the same day. I took this $270.00, di- 
vided it up into checks of $5.00 each and mailed 


to my creditors, with a nice letter stating that 
I would soon be on my feet and pay my indebt- 
edness. This seemed to satisfy my creditors, 
that I would pay my debts and come out all 
right. I renewed my resources, which were 
mainly energy, a stiff backbone and a deter- 
mination to win. I ran along for another sea- 
son. This was the year I built the distillery 
for Sessinghouse, and that seas:in 1 made the 
most money that I had ever made in my life, 
paid all my debts, and I exclaimed, "Oh, for 
more worlds to conquer ! ' ' However, while 
building the distillery, I had to have some 
friction clutches. One day while at the ma- 
chine shop of Smith, Begs & Rankin, at Main 
and Clinton streets, Anthony Smith, who lived 
at Tenth and North Market streets, of whom 
I inquired about friction clutches, stated, ""Wil- 
liams, I saM" in the Elevator & Grain Trade, an 
advertisement of friction clutches. I will get 
the paper and show it to you." The advertise- 
ment was from one Wm. G. Rheinhart, of 
Terre Haute, lud. I wrote to Mr. Rheinhart, 
and soon negotiated with him for four friction 
clutches to place in the distillery of Sessing- 
house, paying him $400.00 for the four clutches. 
I have ahvays been happy in the thought that 
the distillery never ran, because I hadn't the 
greatest confidence in the clutches, and I Avas 
afraid they would return and get their clutches 
upon me. 


Through this purchase of the clutches, I 
made the acquaintance of Rheinhart, and he 
and I formed another co-partnership, as he 
claimed to be a patternmaker and machinist, 
and I was just a common old plug of a mill- 
wright. He stated he had $1000.00 to put in 
business. I hadn't any money to put in bmi- 
nes, but I had a little stock of machinery and 
appliances. I borrowed upon our home at 2518 
Bacon street. I borrowed $1000.00 from Hen- 
ry Heisler, a very wealthy attorney, who is 
now living in Southwest St. Louis, quite an old 
man. I paid 6% interest upon the $1000.00 
for 20 years, until I had paid $1200.00 in inter- 
est, and finally paid up the principal in full. 
I am proud of this transaction and have the 

original deed of trust in the corridor of our 
company's office. Few men there be who can 
point to a transaction, a business transaction, 
that started with $1000.00 and has grown to a 
valuation of at least a half million without bor- 
rowing more money than $1000.00 at any one 
time. It was accomplished by faith, by stick- 
toitivencss, integrity and a rigid backbone. The 
evolution of our company's business career will 
tell more regarding this transaction later on. 


Cut No. 160 is probably the most important 
event of niy business career. In the year 18S6, 
as is shown by cut No. 160, my note for 
$1000.00, dated on the 6th of February in said 
year, Avas taken by one C. R. Stinde. At this 
time I had arranged with Wm. D. Rheinhart, 
of Terre Haute, Ind., to go into the machine 
business with him, at 1417 North Second street. 
Each partner was to put in $1000.00. We had 
our little home at 2518 Bacon street, which had 
just been rebuilt and enlarged by my uncle, 
S. B. Williams, and the note and the deed of 
trust was secured by the property. I paid 
6% interest on this $1000.00 for 20 years, until 
I had paid $1200.00 in interest. I could have 
released the note several years before I did. 
Said note was held by three persons: First, 
by two sisters, clients of Herman Heisler, who 
i^ yet living in the southern part of the city. 
Finally, they wanted their money and the note 
was transferred or taken up by my old partner, 
Wm. H. Foreman, whose likeness appears as 
cut No. 156. Later on he Avanted the money, 
so my sister Angeline took up the note and I 
paid her interest for several years until finally 
I concluded not to pay interest longer and re- 
deenuxl the note. 


Cut No. 161 represents M. F. Williams & 
Co. 's first dray or delivery wagon. We bought 
this delivery Avagon in 1887 Avhen we started 
in a very small Avay. Both the driver and the 
horse hitched up to this horseless carriage, 
AA'hich ran by boy poAver, Avas the Avriter's eld- 
est son, Milton Judson Williams, noAv represent- 
ing our business in Chicago. The first of Jan- 


iiary, 1920, will be his 20th year in Chicago. 
Our shop then was at 1417 North Second street, 
my first effort at operating a machine shop, and 
a very small one at that. Our only dray or 

boy naturally demurred, as all boys do at that 
age, more especially if they are redheaded, 
which he was. He went after the castings, 
which was about six blocks awa.y. After he 

'^ J. j^^^ 

S /";';";'' 

,-..^^ ^V/... 

L ' , '-' 

ft',,,. ■, ' . , J 




: ! ■ ■ ■ 

up to tniit tiue . 

acouEulstofi very ::■:- 

tie coney, tut ! av - 

T/orlicd contlTmcu.-".;- 

ct hlr trtvfie Aurlrr 

all this tine. 

or. Jan.lrt-jr.75 

HIU :•-■ i.t fiouv ,;.: 

at ■-.'•7 ;:. s-jocrd St. 

inciS lit;-, him rt;r E 

his Interest cjid 

■■tarted et the LUll- 

m-lrht tiirlncna cr ■; r :■; ; 

l^ari'.t tT'.e !■- ■_ 

D(M?d of Trust. 



CoNVE:r«r!t£i4'...E:ri:; •": :* : 
— •• •• tf. 




Cut No. 160— $1,000 Deed of Trust canceled 

delivery wagon at that time was a wheelbarrow 
and I remarked to him, "Jud, go up to Kings- 
land & Douglas' I'"'oundry at Eleventh and Cass 
avenue and bring down certain castings." The 

started I began to feel sorry for him. I sent a 
laborer up to meet him and share the load 
with him by alternating. The laborer met him 
trudging along and Jud was so angry that he 


wouldn't give up, so the laborer had to Avalk 
by his side and not help. This same boy has 
spent about 20 years in Chicago, strictly upon 
his own resources, paying his rent for the Chi- 
cago office and representing our office in that 
locality. Ho pays a visit to his parents every 
Christmas time, and he never forgets to talk 

and his wife is running some other make of car. 
He has just recently paid $10,000.00 for a resi- 
dence in a good residence neighborhood in Chi- 
cago. As to our present manner of delivering 
shipments, the company owns a $6500.00 Pieree- 
Arrow Truck of 5 tons capacity. Besides this 
truck, we frequently are compelled to hire 

Our first delivery wagon 

of this incident of being my first drayman, 
and hauling the castings. He often states that 
it is the beat thing that ever happened to him, 
because it helped to teach him thi-ift as well 
as industry. He is noAv in his 42nd year and 
v.'eighs about 250 pounds, but he is not running 
a wheeIbarrow,-he is now running a Stutz car 

other teams, as our tri\ck is not heavy enough 
to haul crushers weighing 30 tons, called Jum- 
bos, which we build. 

This same young man, holding down an of- 
fice in Chicago, when he was about 20 years of 
age went to Chicago as a salesman and opened 


an office upon his own initiative, upon a com- 
mission basis, and not upon a salary, which is 
entirelj' to his credit. The writer has three 
sons, all in the business, -one in Chicago, one 
in San Francisco, and one in St. Louis — each 
of the three all upon his ow)i responsibility 
and never having been paid a salary, now owns 
securities which would net each over $100,- 

Reverting back to the firm of Williams, 
Rheinhart & Co. — this firm located back at the 
old stand, 1417 North Second street. The for- 
mer firm of Foreman & Williams, the latter firm 
of Foreman & Sellers, which lasted about five 
years and then dissolved partnership ; but allow 
me to state that they had put in some machine 
tools, and I loaned them the money with which 
to buy their planei'. In 1885, after Foreman 
bought out ]Mr. Sellers' interest, Foreman final- 
ly failed, and gave a bill of sale to the Smith 
Middlings Purifier Co. of Jackson, Mich. Wil- 
liams. Rheinhart & Co., in 1886, when they 
started into the machine and millwright busi- 
ness, at 1417 North Second street, assumed the 
bill of sale of Wm. H. Foreman, from the Smith 
Middlings Purifier Co. and started in business 
to do whatever they could get to do. After 
running along for ten months, the shorifl:' Avas 
staring us in the face, as under Mr. Rheinhart 's 
management as a machine contractor, we lost 
money at every deal. Then came the tug of 
war: Buy or sell. I stated I would buy. I 
hadn't the money to buy with, but I knew I 
could borrow it. 


I borrowed $800.00 and paid Mr. Rheinhart 
that amount. I then took the wheel in my own 
hands to steer the ship over the billows. I had 
not been managing the little shop under the 
hill, practically in a cellar, more than two 
weeks, before I could see there was a little 


When I first started in to the machine busi- 
ness, I met a friend, who proved to be a friend. 

one Jno. H. Spinning, who was connected with 
the Graham Paper Co., who had charge of the 
paper Avarehouse at Sixth and 'Fallon 
streets and also had charge of the rag 
warehouse upon North Main and Brook- 
lyn streets. At the Brooklyn street warehouse 
Mr. Spinning had rag pressers 'which run by 
power. Mr. Spinning said one day to M. F. 
Williams, "Williams, 1 aa ant you to make me 
an estimate upon building paper presses for the 
'Fallon street warehouse similar to those at 
the rag warehouse." 

At this evidence of confidence, 1 Mas almost 
thunderstruck. I was very, very much sur- 
prised. I replied reluctantl.y : "All right, Mr. 
Spinning, I will do so." I pondered upon the 
momentous subject. I slept over it, I dreamed 
over it ; I finally wound up by marveling at the 
confidence which had never been bestowed upon 
me before in my whole life. A few days sub- 
sequently. I met Mr. Spinning, at Main and 
Brooklyn. He said, "Williams, have you the 
estimate?" I hung my head in shame, and 
replied, "I have not." He said, "All right, I 
will go up to Smith, Beggs & Rankin and get 
them to figure on it." I replied, "Mr. Spin- 
ning, how much time will you give me?" "I 
will give you two days." I said "All right." 
He replied, "On the morning of the third day 
you meet me at the Graham Paper Co. 's office 
at Main and Olive streets with an estimate of 
just what I have asked you to do." I immedi- 
ately consulted one Albert Harape (my then 
foreman of my very small shop at 1417 North 
Second street, operating not over six men and a 
bo.v), and one David Strawbridge, who was a 
general patternmaker but who made our pat- 
terns. We immediately repaired to Main and 
Brooklyn streets, and in two hours' time we 
took measurements, we made sketches, and we 
came away with same ; and upon the day ap- 
pointed I met Mr. Spinning, in his office at 
Main and Olive, with a written estimate. 
He read it over, and he said: "Williams, you 
have done just what I have requested, but 
that is not what I want. Now take this esti- 
mate and increase the strength so and so," de- 
scribing how much stronger they wanted the 
presses made. Upon the morning of the sec- 


ond day I was there with the estimate which 
read as follows: 

"We, the undersigned, propose for the sum 
of $2625.00 to build two presses," describing 
how they Avere to be built. After hurriedly 
reading- it over, he said, "Williams, I accept. 
Go ahead with it. Now, I haven't yet got per- 
mission from jMr. B. B. Graham to do this work, 
but you start on it and I will get his permission 
after while by degrees." I said, "Mr. Spin- 
ning, how will I get money to carry it on?" 
He said, "Oh, I will endorse your note. Can't 
you get money from your bank ' " I then went 
to Mullanphy Bank, met Mr. Karaerer, who 
was then cashier. He replied, "I will have to 
place this matter before the Board," which he 
did, and, thanks to the good Lord, the Board 
all nodded their heads and we went to work. 
We built the presses, which Avere seA^eral times 
too large for our little shop. We delivered the 
presses to Sixth and 'Fallon. We had one 
of the presses almost erected one Sunday morn- 
ing (and in those days I always went to get 
the mail on a Sunday morning ; never failed, 
as that was my strongest religion), thei'c was 
a letter from Mr. Spinning stating that Mr. B. 
B. Graham had consented to this work. I cer- 
tainly was the happiest man in St. Louis. My 
mind had ])een considerably perturbed, as I 
had a great deal involved before this job wound 
up. It included the hydraulic pumps, the first 
we had ever built, — which pumps and presses 
contributed to the success of M. F. Wil- 
liams and his lieutenants. HoAvever, a feAV 
years after this Avork Avas installed, they had a 
fire and the plant Avas burned to the ground. It 
Avas rebuilt the folloAving season. M. F. Wil- 
liams & Co. reinstalled and rebiiilt the presses 
by placing in the center of each press an auxil- 
iary cylinder much stronger than the three for- 
mer ones; and this plant runs every day, and 
has since 1888. It's a lasting monument to the 
man and his helpers. When it Avas first pro- 
posed to me by John H. Spinning, my tongue 
clove to my mouth, my frame shook as an aspen 
leaf and my heart almost stopped pumping. 
So much for a man not knoAving his strength, 
and being prompted by another person Avho 
kneAv better than he as to his ability ; and the 

same man having fortunately business sagacity 
sufficient to be ashamed not to Avork out his. 
strength and do as the other believed. Not only 
this, but Mr. John 11. Spinning had M. F. Wil- 
liams & Co. remodel the Main and Brooklyn 
plant, to show that he Avas my best friend and 
had the greatest confidence in my ability from 
start to finish. I presume that I had done over 
$25,000.00 Avorth of Avork for Jno. H. Spin- 
ning, at the tAvo plants Avhen his business Avas 
superseded by the Paper Stock Co. of St. Louis, 
Mo. When they requested that I give them an 
estimate upon duplicating the plant at Sixth 
and 'Fallon, Jno. H. Spinning requested that 
I make the price so high that they Avould not 
give me the Avork. Therefore, respecting Avhat 
he had done, I did as he had requested and lost 
the other company's Avork, Avhich may not haA^e 
been good business judgment. 

Vei'y fe^\■ business men Avould have respected 
liis roiiiiest and given up the possibility of 
another good customer, but I have ahvays 
praised the bridge A\hieh carried me safely 
over the river. In the outcome I believe it is 
the right Avay to do, notAvithstanding the fact 
that Jno. H. Spinning once remarked, "Wil- 
liams, if you had .+50,000.00 you would not 
kiujAv hoAv to handle it. I cannot understand 
hoAv you run your business on so little money. ' ' 
Jno. H. Spinning Avhen traveling for his com- 
pany was suddenly stricken Avith heart failure 
in a hotel in Ohio, and, as I have been told, 
died sitting in a chair. Albert Hampc, my 
mechanical man at that time, has long since 
passed into the bej'ond. 


Now about EdAvard H. Frickey. He has 
helped father Williams in many mechanical 
problems, although he is not a man to take the 
initiative. He is not the man to take the initial 
steps, but he is the man to improve upon my 
mechanical ideas Avhenever I present them. I 
have remarked to him time and time again: 
"Frickej^ you ahvays steal my thunder. You 
come forth Avith a better idea, but I have to 
first prompt you as to Avhat is re(iuired." I 
have never claimed to be a captain of industry, 
supreme, but I have and do claim at this stage 


of the game in my 72nd year that I can take 
good lieutenants and direct their management. 
On one occasion when I was returning from 
Philadelphia upon the limited train which I in- 
tercepted at Harrisburg, all the seats were 
taken in the train except No. 13 in the car,whieh 
seat I occupied. Sitting to my right was one 
of Andy Carnegie's lieutenants. Sitting in 
front of mc was another. Sitting to the left 
in front of me was a third one. We got into 
conversation. They had been to New York 
City to a convention of Andrew Carnegie lieu- 
tenants and reprereutativcs. I asked the (jues- 
tion, "Gentlemen, to what do you attribute 
Carnegie's success in life.'" One of them re- 
marked, "Throwing bou(iuets at ourselves, — 
to the selection of his lieutenants." However, 
I had heard this slated time and tiiuo before. 
Andy perhaps didn't know how to do the work, 
but he knew how to place a man there who 
did, and he knew how to keep after that man. 
While I will never be an Andy, I am a strong 
admirer of self-made nuMi and men who have 
done things. 

Il(,\v did I come to select Ed. II. Friekey .' 
The little machine shop at 1417 North Second 
street, where Foreman, my former partner, had 
ehown the white feather and given a bill of sale, 
and where ]Milton F. Williams, along with W. 
H. Rheinhart, as has been previously exphiined, 
took up the gauntlet and subse(|uently after 
ten months' supervision, M. F. W. paid olf the 
bill of sale a year and half before it was due 
and saved the interest, — one Hyram Stype, who 
was then foreman of the little band of workers, 
remarked to me one day, ' ' Williams, you ought 
to get Ed. Friekey back here." I replied, "Hy- 
ram, who is Ed. Friekey?" "Why he worked 
for Foreman & Sellers. He i^ a good mechanic, 
he has the making of a good man." "Where 
will I find him?" "Address him up at Mari- 
dcsia. 111." I wrote him; he answered me. 
He knew who I was better than I knew who he 
was. I hired him. He came to work and it was 
my foi-tunate day and was my start trying to 
run a little machine shop. 

During the course of our hard times hunting 
around for work, I took a contract to e(iuip a 
stone (juarry out on Marcus avenue, furnish 

the steam engine, second-hand, also a derrick 
for hoisting the stone. The stone quarry be- 
longed to a Mr. Devereux, who was a clerk in 
the post office. He had fallen heir to the quar- 
vy, I think, and it Avas no use to him. He rented 
the quarry and had to install an outfit for 
hoisting stone in a stone boat (as they were 
commonly called for ruble masonry) out of the 
quarry some sixty feet, and swing it up onto 
a wagon on the top of the hill, perhaps forty 
feet farther. I got the contract. I had never 
had any previous stone (juarry experience. 
Friekey put in the engine. The old firm of 
Westlake & Button down on Carr street fur- 
nished the deri'ick and raised it. We got our 
money. We finished the job one afternoon. 
Friekey and I walked over eastward out of the 
iiuarry to ]\larcus avenue and while sitting 
there upon a plank waiting for a car, I said: 
"Fricke.y, Albert Hampe is going to leave us." 
"Is that so?" he remarked. "Friekey, he will 
only remain with us two weeks. I want you 
to take his place." Friekey turned white and 
then red, and turned around to me, looked me 
s(|uai-e in the face and said, "I don't know 
whetliei' I can or not, — haven't had any ex- 
perience." I said, "Ed, I can see in you a first 
class mechanic ; and more than that, I can see 
in you an inventor if someone does the invent- 
ing. If someone pushes the button you will do 
the rest in a mechanical manner." I said, "I 
will do the financing, I will manage the busi- 
ness, and I want you to work into an estimator 
and I will depend upon yon for my chief lieu- 
tenant." Friekey 's answer was, "I will let 
you know in two weeks." 

At the expiration of lliat time he said he 
would try it. 15y this time All)ert Hampe 's two 
weeks were up. 1 had known Albert many 
years before. I first met him in Staunton, 111., 
in 1873. He made some cold chisels for me, and 
other tools. Albert was a fine machanic, and 
also an inventor, but he was one of those men 
that his inventive genius was of no benefit to 
himself, but required to be governed by a busi- 
ness man. Friekey took hold, and we pros- 
pered during his administration. However, 
our advance was slow. Friekey is a man who 
is not a pusher of men. His nature is mild. 


and in these competitive days, a mild-mannered 
man cannot forge to the front and make the 
business pay. Furthermore, ^^•hile he is abso- 
lutely honest, he is more of a one-idea man; 
and as to the growth of a business, one to be 
forewarned must be forearmed, and the prin- 
cipal slogan of doing business today is that of 
looking ahead. Prepare ahead for that which 
is to follow. I believe that I have grasped the 
idea of looking ahead and I have always pushed 
Prickey, rather than he push himself, in the 
way of advancements. He is a splendid esti- 
mator. I do not know of his equal. He is a 
splendid mechanic, and a good designer, — what 
I would term a real mechanical designer. Our 
present equipment, I am satisfied upon its birth- 
day, the winding up of its birthday as far as 
the hammer crusher and pulverizer is eon- 
cerned,-is the best equipped all around, lieu- 
tenants and all, that it has ever been. 


Hewers — "There are hewers of wood and 
drawers of water," and bi-ought down to sharp 
brass tacks, properly interpreted, this means 
that in life there are hundreds of vocations and 
some were intended by nature to do special 

There are captains of industi'v. There are 
attendants at the gate, and lieutenants on down 
the line filling their places unto the most 
menial positions. 

"The whole people of the earth comprise a 
chain, which is no stronger than the weakest 

I ran this shop upon my own account, as- 
suming between $4000.00 and $5000.00 of in- 
debtedness; and when I was doing fairly well, 
the best I had ever done in my life, along came 
the railroad company and wanted the property. 
As I did not have a lease upon it, after remain- 
ing there five years, I had to give it up. 


In the meantime I was very much discon- 
certed, and did not know where to turn or what 
to do. One day while upon the Broadway car. 

having been up to the old distillery, which had 
been converted into a preserving factory, as I 
was doing work for them, I happened to notice 
a little shop which had been started and failed, 
at 2705 North Broadway. I immediately got 
off the car, and went into Rosenbaum & Hau- 
schulte Real Estate Office at 2407 North Broad- 
way, which is yet remaining and a'3ked Rosen- 
baum how much was wanted for the property. 
He stated $0500.00. He gave me a key. I 
went up and looked at it, and he said: "Wil- 
liams, how much money can you raise?" I re- 
plied I was in a building association; I would 
find out and let him know. "Can you raise 
$5000.00 ? " "I will see the building association 
secretary," which I did, and he stated by pay- 
ing $1100.00 more into the asoseiation I could 
offer $5000.00 for the property. This I did 
and it was accepted, and in October, 1891, 1 
bought the present property of 2705 and 7 
North Broadway, and began to improve it ; and 
upon the Gth day of February, 1802, as my lease 
had expired at 1417 Noi-th Second street, we 
moved our machinery to the number above 
mentioned and stai-ted to work with five men 
and a boy. 

The name of the secretary of the building as- 
sociation was Benj. F. Thornhill, whose mother 
ran a restaurant down on Broadway near Clin- 
ton, where I took my lunches for many years. 
Thornhill now lives in Gi'eenville, 111. 

We began opei-ations in February, 1892, at 
2705 North Broadway, with very little trade, 
but our advertisement had been upon the build- 
ing since October of the previous year when I 
acquired the property, and soon we began to 
attract attention at this locality. We were the 
only jobbing machine shop then on Broadway 
north of Cass avenue, as I can now recall, and 
during our administration at this number, we 
gradualh^ grew in customers and trade until 
we soon had to put on more workmen. How- 
ever, before we left the old stand at 1417 North 
Second street I received a contract to rebuild 
August A. Heman's brick plant, on Elliott ave- 
nue, near North Market street, which plant had 
previously burned. The superintendent and 
manager of this plant was one E. C. Little, a 
very fine gentleman, who had $3000.00 of stock 


in the brick plant, and he remarked to me, 
"Williams, why don't yon start to making- 
brick machinerj% as myself and my son, Geo. 
C. Little, are going to work for C. Dwight Ives 
of Quincy, 111., selling the Whittaker Brick 
Press, made at Akerington, England, and we 
will require pulverizers, mixers, elevators, 
screens, brick trucks, and such appliances for 
dry press brick plants." This gave me an im- 
petus to start a line, which was well adver- 
tised. I immediately got busy, began to build 
the above named machinery, which was sold by 
E. C. and Geo. C. Little in their contracts, 
which they would make for T. Dwight Ives, in 
selling the Whittaker Brick Press. I immedi- 
ately hunted up the Brick, Pottery and Clay 
Gazette, published in Illinois, had some cuts 
made, started to advertise, and began selling 
and contracting for drj' press brick appliances, 
and had quite a run of business, and was (|uite 
successful. During the course of manufactur- 
ing clay working appliances, I found that we 
would have to have an efficient clay grinder. 
I thought I had invented one, had made a draw- 
ing, and was making the patterns for a hori- 
zontal clay pulverizer. My patent was allowed, 
t)Ht I did not issue it, for the reason that I con- 
cluded it would be worthless, and in the mean- 
time I had invented one upon a different prin- 


What was uppermost in my mind in the 
M-ay of a clay pulverizer, was to throw a lump 
of clay in the air, strike it with a baseball bat, 
and cause the impact to disintegrate the clay. 
How to reduce this principle to mechanics was 
a puzzle. However, between the years of 1890 
and 1895 we were quite successful in equipping 
dry press brick plants, and during this period 
of five years I had many to my credit, sailing 
under the nom de plume of Milton F. Williams 
& Co. — the company being nominal, but it 
brought the answer. During this period we 
built many clay pulverizers of what is known 
as the Pin Mill type. This pin mill I's used 
today to a limited extent for grinding bones. 
A firm in Baltimore were manufacturing. these 

pulverizers for fertilizer plants, grinding bones, 
which firm sold out to Nathan Steadman of 
Aurora, Ind. 

After being fairly successful, manufacturing 
dry press brick machinery and other clay work- 
ing appliances, and after having manufactured 
about 150 pin mills for grinding clay and shale, 
I got the idea that the pin mill was too ex- 
pensive to keep in repair, and that a much bet- 
ter device nuist be designed, if possible, upon 
the principle of hitting- in suspension. This 
idea preyed upon my mind for many months. 
During our manufacture of clay working ma- 
chinery, I had become a member of the "Na- 
tional Brick Mfrs. Association" with head(|uar- 
ters at Indianapolis, Ind., the secretary l)eing 
one T. A. Randall, who is yet secretary. This 
same Theodore A. Randall published the "Clay 
Worker." In February, from the 7th to the 
12th, in 1895, this association held a convention 
at the Hollanden Hotel in Cleveland, 0. I went 
to this convention as my first advent in this di- 
rection, and while there I met a great many 
brickmakers, and everyone was calling each 
other "a brick," which is the greatest compli- 
ment one man can pay to another (if it be 
true). And why? A brick is an object in which 
each right angle corner is a square; therefore, 
"a brick" is strictly upon the square. 

From whom did I get this idea? I got it 
from one John H. Spinning. He remarked, 
"Williams, you're a brick." I replied, "Mr. 
Spinning, a brick is only a countersign of 
mother earth ; sometimes it is burned mud, at 
other times it is compressed, some pressed clay, 
dried and burned." But now back to the 
Hollanden. While meandering through the 
corridor after 12 o'clock at night, and after 
having made up my mind that the bed of Mor- 
pheus was the best place for myself to drown 
all my previous sorrows, trials and tribulations 
in a wicked world upon my pillow, I saw a gen- 
tleman coming toward me. As I neared, I 
judged his outlines to be either that of an Eng- 
lishman or a Canadian. As we approached near 
enough to speak, the following colloquy ensued : 
He stated he was from Deseronto, Ont. I stated 
I was from St. Louis, Mo. "I presume you are a 
brick maker," I said. "Yes, I am superintend- 


ent of a brick plant at DeseTonto, Ont. " I in- 
quired, "What is the name?" He gave nie the 
name. I immediately recognized it as a plant 
that we had sold a pin mill for pulverizing 
shale. To my next question, "Are you making 
5oft mud, dry press or pavers, and he replied, 
"We are making paving brick out of shale." 
My next question was, "How do you grind 
you shale?" He replied, "Upon a machine 
which we bought in St. Louis. " " From whom 
did yon liny tlie machine V His answer: "Mil- 
ton F. Williams & Company. ' ' I did not divulge 
myself, but began to pl.v him with questions as 
follows: "How do you like this grinder?" 
"Very well indeed." "Docs it grind your 
shale properly?" "Yes, but it wears out very 
rapidly," which I knew would be the answer 
before asking same. AVhile talking to the gen- 
tleman, a little bird, as the saying is, whis- 
pered in m.y tymi)anum. T had my ears set 
forward, like a quadruped hunting for water. 


At this juncture the invention of the hinged 
hammer crusher was brought to life. I imme- 
diately took from my left hand vest poek(>t 
my business card, also a pencil. I drew a circle, 
and a smaller circle in the center, and four 
beaters near the periphery of a disc plate, and 
extended four hammei-s, radiating from the 
center. I did lliis for feai- that tlie happy 
thought woidd li-ave me and never return. 
Here was born the Hinged Hammer Pulverizer 
of America, and Europe, or of the world. I 
stated to my friend that I thought it was time 
for men of our age to be in bed. He agreed 
with me, and I made for the elevator, went up 
to the foiu'th floor, and to room 288, where I 
hammered on the door. No reply, so kept on 
hammering upon the door until presently a 
man emerged from the door next to us to in- 
quire what was the matter. This man hap- 
pened to be one Peter L. Simpson, a manufac- 
turer of the Simpson Dry Press Brick Machine, 
who has since died. Also next came one F. 6. 
Steinkamper, a hand brick maker of St. Louis. 
After explaining that I could not get into my 
room they invited me into theii' I'oom, and we 

hammered on their door, which was between 
the two rooms. The sound sleeper in room 288 
was I. G. Wheeler of Carthage, Mo., who is 
still making brick at Carthage. Mr. Stein- 
kamper, being quite an elderly gentleman, has 
passed across the Great Divide several years 
ago. He was a North St. Louis brick maker; 
his brick yard was out on North' Kingshigh- 
way, just east of the Union Pressed Brick Co. 's 
plant, west on the same street, which is now 
being operated, and has been ever since. M. F. 
Williams as a millwright installed their trans- 
mission machineiw in the spring of 1887. 

Being unable to raise Mr, Wheeler from his 
slumbers, I had to go down to the office. A 
porter came vip with a step ladder ; he opened 
the transom, crawled in, unlocked the door and 
Wheeler Avas yet asleep. I pounded him good 
ajid hard before I could wake him from his 
slumbers. He woke up, sat up in bed, said, 
"Williams, what's the excitement?" I said, 
"Mr. Wheeler, in after years you will learn 
what the excitement is about. I have one of 
the gi'catest inventions of the age." I then 
;'nd there sat down at a table and finished my 
(Irnwing or fketch so it would not get away 
fi'oiii nu'. I kept the remainder of it to myself, 
until I arriveil at home Sunday morning, con- 
siderably indisposed from my first case of what 
is known as LaGrippc. After breakfasting, I 
went down to the house or home of Edward H. 
Frickey, our then superintendent, who lived 
on Hickory street. I being unable to draw out 
the hamnuM- crushei', asked Frickey to do it for 
me. He drew the plan of a cast iron frame, 
with lugs to bolt onto a wooden frame. We 
have a cut cf this ei-ushcr in our cut book. We 
have the crusher, the first one Ave built, in our 
print shop upon the mezzanine fioor, as a souve- 
nir of cur start in the hammer crusher busi- 

On the way home, coming over from Indian- 
apolis, I went into the smoking compartment, 
and there I met Anthony Ittner, an old St. 
Louis brick maker, who was 83 years of age on 
the 8th of October, 1920. (Incidentally re- 
mai'kihg, while the St. Louis business men were 
on a vacation to Panama, February, 1912, and 
while we were all stopping at the Tivoli Hotel, 


^vhicll belonged to the Government, and was 
the best hotel in Panama, — after supper, Mr. 
Ittner remarked, "Boys, who is going up to the 
top of Ancon liill ? I for one am going." Sev- 
eral young fellows volunteered, and they said 
Anthony got to the top of the hill before any 
cf them, in spite of his 74 years. j\I. V. Wil- 
liams did not go, but he did go downtown to 
sec the sights.) 

Another briek maker was on the train, by 
the name of Jno. Day, of Belleville, Ills., now 
deceased. Another, Juo. M. Williams, of the 
Union Hj'draulic Pressed Brick Co., now living 
oil North Kingshighway, iu»ar the Union 
Pressed Brick plant. Mr. Ittner remarked, 
"Yes, I expect Williams will be getting up a 
dry press brick machine. ' ' My reply was, ' ' No, 
gentlemen, but I have got something better 
than any dry pressed brick machine." "What 
is it.'"" inquired Ittner. I said, "A clay pul- 
verizer."" They wanted to know what kind, ilj- 
reply was, "In the course of time you will all 
know." However, I had forgotten that Mv. 
Wheeler was in the party and my reply Avas, 
"Ask :S\r. Wheeh'r.'" "p.ut of curse Mr. 
Wheeler did not kiU)W what it A\iis like, and 
I then related the circumstance of (metaphor- 
ically speaking) bringing Mr. Wheeler back 
to earth from the slumber of the dead, at the 
dark h ;ur of midnight. 

Coming back to Mr. Fr:ckey"s having made 
the drawing, — he made it showing it running 
backwards. I was so eager to patent the de- 
vice and my old patent attorney, Mr. Moody, 
having died, I went to Messrs. Higdon, Higdon 
& Longdon. They took out my first patent 
showing it running backwards, and while the 
public didn't know it, the patent was not 
worth much. Owing to my ignorance in taking 
out patents, the main feature of my device, 
which was in the first machine we built, was 
not mentioned in the specification. I did not 
file application for this device until two years 
had elapsed, and in the interim, I had switched 
over to one Frederick R. Cornwall, as my pat- 
ent attorney. He sent one Mr. Scott, his drafts- 
man, up to make the drawing off of our first 
crusher, showing an adjustable breaker plate, 
and subseijuently our patent was granted upon 

an adjustable breaker plate, but I failed to get 
a patent iipon a stationary breaker plate in 
conjunction with revolvable beaters, and that 
portion became common property. 

After building the first, crusher, which we 
now have in our print shop, as aboTe men- 
tioned, upon a wooden frame, we immediately 
began to build other crushers and grinders, and 
experimented with different designs, until Ave 
'-0W (1920) have 6000 and over in daily 
operation, and in over 60 foreign countries. 
Most of them, hoAvever, Avere contracted for 
before the present European AA-ar; but Ave are 
every month noAV exporting, notAvithstanding 
the Avar, to some European country; even in 
the last tAvo months of 1918, Ave shipped 
over fifty machines to the Dutch East India 
Islands of Java for grinding corn, AA'hich they 
call maize. 

After linilding tiu^ first crusher, and experi- 
menting AA-ith it, Ave had a great deal of trou- 
ble in getting it to feed pi'operly, and getting 
the breaker plate in the I'ight position. The 
second crusher AA-hieh Ave built, Ave remodeled 
one Avhich Ave l)ought second-hand from the 
firm of P. B. Mathesen, noAV deceased. Hoav- 
ever, at that time, Matheson was in California, 
and the Inisines:; A\-as managed by one Clarence 
Hanson, Avho opei'ated the plant for Mr. Mathe- 
son for many years; and finally he also Avent 
to California on a visit in 1909. During our 
visit in Los Angeles, with our son 0. J. Wil- 
liams and his Avife, Ave had gone one morning 
doAvn to the plant of the Hauser Packing Co., 
and in pieference to taking a street car in 
front of the plant, Ave Avalked up a fcAV blocks, 
and then met the car. 

Whom should Ave meet on the front seat? 
None other than Clarence Hanson, and in tAvo 
or three days he took my Avife and self on an 
automobile ride up through the Redlands 
orange district, Avhcre we had several of our 
grinders Avorking. 


Coming back to the first practical crusher 
Avhich Ave built, Avhich avc bought from P. B. 


Matheson, and usiii.u' tlie frame but discarding 
the cylinder of the machine, which they called 
"a headbreaker, "' Ave built the first practical 
working crusher for Mr. Geo. Beck, and placed 
it in a plant in East St. Louis, now belonging 
to the chain of the American Agricultural 
Chemical Fertilizer plants. In operating this 
first practical crusher day in and day out. we 
found that, at the speed at which we operated 
it, namely, 1200 R. P. M., it broke the bones too 
finely. All they wished the crusher to do was 
to cut up green bones about fist size, and not 
make any fine, so that they could extract the 
grease and sinew from same bj' the naphtha 
process. The machinery was installed in this 
plant by the millwi-ight firm of one Nicholas 
Cornelius, who has been dead five or six years. 
The first da.y's work that Nicholas Cornelius 
did in the city of St. Louis, in 1873, he did mi- 
der the supervision of M. P. Williams, at the 
old Pacific flouring mill, owned by J. B. M. 
Koehler, at Third and Cedar streets. After 
operating this bone crusher and finding that it 
ran too rapidly, we had to cut the speed down 
to 700, and in so doing the slow speed had a 
tendency for the beaters by their oscillating 
motion at slow speed to cut the hammer bolts. 
Mr. Beck and Mr. Cornelius decided that our 
principle was not a success. The more they 
argued this point, the stronger my faith was 
that we could overcome it. I immediately went 
to our Mr. Frickey, related the circumstance, 
and we concluded that we must find a metal, 
one which would not have an affinity for the 
other. At this juncture, going into the office 
of George Beck, his bookkeeper stated that he 
formerly worked for a railroad company ; that 
they had trouble with the locomotive slides 
connected with the cylinder ; that they encoun- 
tered great difficulty by the slides wearing out 
and they finally adopted a system of case hard- 
ening them and also the slide bars as well as 
the crosshead slides, and that ease hardening 
immediately stopped their cutting. So we 
adopted case hardening. After hvmting and 
searching the markets for some material which 
would case harden, we finally found Tennessee 
iron to be the best. Later on we used Swedish 
iron, with wires drawn into the iron rods or 

pressed in. to give the rods reiiliency after be- 
ing case hardened. 

The first crusher we built, as far as I know 
at this writing, is still being operated at the 
Empire Carbon Works at East St. Louis as a 
bone breaker. The third machine which we 
built is being operated in East St. Louis by the 
Commercial Acid Co. This machine has been 
in operation for over 20 years, and as far as 
we know, is as good today as the first day it 
was started. This third machine was first 
owned by the St. Louis Sanitary Company, and 
used at their lower plant. Their superintend- 
ent was named Bryant. One morning I went 
doAvn to the office of Rosenbaum & Hauschulte, 
and upon emerging from their office I saw Mr. 
Bryant coming in his buggy. I knew him 
((uite well, and knowing that they were looking 
for a machine with which to reduce green gar- 
bape and waste from commission companies, I 
caught his horse by the bridle — a black horse 
with a star upon his forehead, — and Mr. Bry- 
ant thought it was a hold-up in broad daylight. 

My remarks to him were to turn and go back. 
He asked, for what. I said, "Bryant, when 
you see what I want of you, you will want to 
pat me on the back." He immediately turned 
and went back to our little testing machine, 
which was the first machine, and which we had 
under belt, being operated by our first steam 
engine. ^'Now," he remarked again, "Wil- 
liams, what do you want to show me?" I im- 
mediately called Dan Brundage, as we called 
him, but his proper cognomen was Caleb Brun- 
dage. I gave him a dime, sent him to Mamie's 
to get two heads of cabbage. He returned 
with the cabbage. We ran the cabbage 
through the first crusher. Bryant looked 
on in amazement. His next ejaculation 
was: "Williams, I want to bring a wagon 
load of cabbage here, — that is, waste cab- 
bage leaves. I want also to bring Mr. 
Ed Butler, Mr. Herman, Mr. John B. Clem- 
mons, superintendent of the Christy Fire Clay 
Co. (who is now deceased) to look at the oper- 
ation." In due course of time they brought 
up the wagon load of cabbage. We gave a 
demonstration, and after grinding the cabbage 


leaves and stalk, Mr. Herman asked for a 
bucket of water. We produced what he want- 
ed. He took some of the ground cabbage, a 
double handful, placed it in the bucket of wa- 
ter. I stood there in amazement, and none of 
them explained what the operation was done 
for. It developed after they had purchased 
the first crusher for their Southern plant, that 
it was to reduce green garbage along with wa- 
ter, and run the same into the sewer and out 
into the river as a means of getting rid of it, 
as there were no fertilizer qualities worth men- 
tioning in the garbage. In later years, when 
they lost the city contract for reducing city 
garbage, they wrecked both plants and sold the 
contents ; and here I will record one of my mis- 
takes. Mr. JIcDonald bought the first Wil- 
liams practical crusher, which is now at the 
Commercial Acid Company's plant, and want- 
ed to sell it back to us. I should have pur- 
chased it for a real souvenir. I have since tried 
to buy it back, but the Commercial Acid Com- 
pany refused to sell it. As we have above re- 
marked, this same crusher has given now over 
20 years' service. The advertisements of the 
Williams Patent Crusher & Pulverizer Co., at 
2705 North Broadway, have been distributed 
throiighout the United States and many foreign 
eoiinti'ies, and it is probably the best adver- 
tised grinder on earth. In its eirV infancy 
the first machine which we built and we nov,- 
have as a souvenir, not one man out of 10.000 
Avould have offered a nickel for it. It em- 
bodies the most deceptive grinding, granulat- 
ing, pulverizing, crushing, triturating, or dis- 
integrating principle that it has yet been pos- 
sible or ever will be possible for a human 
mind to conceive. This is reaching far. It is 
going beyond the pale almost of possible be- 
lief. Yet the reason for it is this: It is the 
maximum of power. Why? A revolving cyl- 
inder with stiff arms is not the maximum of 
power. When the stiff arms strike resisting 
bodies, they impel rather than propel, while 
the loosely jointed hing-ed hammer propels, — 
and why? With the belt driving the cylinder 
which is the most approved form of drive, or 
when the motor drives the cylinder, or when 
the water wheel drives the cylinder, of a stiff 

arm disintegrator, the "back lash," as known 
in millwrighting, is the long lever against the 
short lever. The driven pulley is the short 
lever. The grinding arm is the long lever. The 
grinding arm meets with resistance. When it 
is rigid, it acts against the short lever quite 
perceptibly, and causes an intermittent motion 
to the cylinder and the revolving beaters. In 
the hinged haunner the opposite occurs; the 
cylinder meets with a back lash, the diameter 
of the cylinder is smaller than the diameter 
of the grinder. The diameter of the driven 
pulley is smaller than the diameter of the cyl- 
inder. When driven with a belt the belt acts 
as a cushion. The belt also acts as a hinge for 
the reaction and back lash. The hammers be- 
ing suspended upon a hammer bolt, also act as 
a cushion and a reaction. In the hinged ham- 
mer a large chunk of material to be crushed, 
or an overfeeding of the cylinder, occurring 
between the belt, the driven pulley and the 
hinged hammer, the back lash or reaction is 
all taken up and does not disconcert the cylin- 
der, as it does with a rigid arm. Hence Ave 
have the maximum of power. 


In the early stages of our existence, I, M. F. 
Williams, went upon the road displaying to 
the public the great bugaboo of a high-speeded 
machine. We had this prejudice to overcome. 
We had our enemies to fight, and they were 
many. The spinal column of M. P. Williams, 
the head pusher and the progenitor of the 
hinged hammer idea, being of Welsh descent, 
had the backbone to talk it down. The hard- 
er, the more pronounced the enemies would try 
to dissuade the public, sphinxlike, M. F. Wil- 
liams arose with new persistence and new ar- 
guments and conquered them all. 

I practiced these mottoes : 

"Screw your • courage to the sticking 
point and stick." 

"Between the two extremes follow Ihe 


The common saying, "Honesty is the best pol- 
icy"' is untrue. Honesty is no policy. Honesty 
is I'ight. 'Tis the will of God. It is the only 
policy. There is none other. 

In those dark days of adversity I was flam- 
ing M'ith enthusiasm. In Pittsburg, in the of- 
fice of the Park Steel Co., some of the young 
dudes made sport of my summer hat, which 
had been "called in," as is generally termed. 
They made sport of my summer clothes. I 
said, "Boys, gentlemen of this office, he who 
laughs best, laug-hs last. I will live to see the 
day tliat I can buy you all out."' (And I will 
guai'antee the day is now.) 

In the city of Philadelphia, where I was 
getting some work done for one of our grind- 
ers to improve upon it, — in the office of a 
machine shop, — they made sport of my um- 
brella. It was large enough to cover a real 
man when it rained. Some of the young dudes 
in the office asked me if 1 had robbed some 
expi'ess wagon of an umbi'ella. I I'emai'kcd: 
"Bo.ys, keep sawing wood and whistling. Fa- 
ther Williams will show you some day, because 
he is from Missouri." (The day has arrived.) 


In old Smoky City, in the office of Jones 
and Laughlin, I was invited to leave the office 
by a young smart Alick. In the front receiv- 
ing office, no one was in. A man came from 
the back office, and I should judge his stock 
in trade consisted of the raiment which 
adorned his body. He said, "We don't need 

any crushers." I remarked: "How in the h 

(which means Hastings, Minn.) do you know 
you don't?" "We have no time to talk to 
you." I said, "All right, brother, we will have 
no time to talk to your agent in St. Louis, as 
he now has a requisition for two cars of steel." 
He immediately changed his attitude. "I beg 
your pardon, I was hasty, I will give you all 
the time that is necessary." I replied: "Broth- 
er, I would be very sorry to take up your val- 
uable time. I will bid you a respectful good- 
day. I am on the way to the telegraph office 
to tell them to switch our orders from the 

Jones and Laughlin Steel Co." He followed 
me out the door and begged me to come back 
and sit do^vn, — and I held him for at least an 
hour. He then begged me to go to one of 
their coking plants and talk to the superin- 
tendent, which I did, and the echo brought the 
answer of a sale of a Williams crusher. 


Upon another occasion, while in Buft'alo, in 
the Ellieott Square building, I went up to an 
office to answer a letter which we had re- 
ceived from the firm about disintegrating pulp 
board into shreds from which to make paper. 
I had with me a long wooden case, a case con- 
taining my model, and one other article to help 
me explain what the Williams machine would 
do. In the long wooden case I carried vials 
full of crushed material, which interested any 
man or persons who wished to disintegrate 
material. A cheap bookkeeper over in the cor- 
ner remarked something to me adversely, 
which caused the bristles on my back to rise 
up like a boar going to war. In looking to the 
right, I saw the proprietor in a telephone 
booth talking to some one, perhaps their paper 
mill, over the long distance. While the book- 
kee]ier had insulted me and said the proprie- 
tor hadn't time to talk to me, I treated him 
with contempt. The proprietor looked out and 
laughed. I immediately knew that the propri- 
etor was a gentleman, that the chief bookkeep- 
er lacked experience; even a stenographer, a 
handsome blond-headed girl, smiled at me, and 
I returned the smile which would not come off. 
Pi'csently the gentleman emerged from the tel- 
ephone booth. I handed him my card and he 
said: "Mr. Williams, be seated." Then I pre- 
sented the letter. "Oh," he remarked, "I am 
glad to meet you." I showed my samples. I 
know I didn 't detain him over an hour and a 
half. We afterwards sold him one or two ma- 
chines. I afterwards asked him to call his 
bookkeeper over, and said: "Mr. Blank, will 
you kindly give your bookkeeper a lesson in 
etiquette? Tell him to treat every one who 
looks respectable with respectability." The 
bookkeeper has done so, no doubt, ever since. 



Upon another occasion, while in the City of 
Love, the city of peace, the statehouse of wliich 
is adorned by the statue of William Penn, the 
only man who ever treated the noble red men 
justly, the man who was of Quaker birth, as is 
the writer of these notes, — I was ushered into 
an office building, and upon the fourteenth 
story I met the great "I am," the great in- 
ventor, who was going to be a benefactor to 
cur navy, one Mr. Marsden, the man who in- 
vented, or claims to have invented, cellulose. 
Cellulose is the pith of the cornstalk, the inno- 
cent old cornstalk, which the farmers scatter 
broadcast, and plow under to no benefit. Mr. 
Marsden 's company was incorporated for 
about $50,000,000. They had written us to 
know if we could shred up cornstalks, and 
while in his office presenting my card, he 
turned to me with his refrigerator manner and 
undertook to freeze me out. When I presented 
to him my embellished piece of parchment, 
covered with hieroglyphics indicating the fact 
that I held the exalted position of President 
of the little 2x4 Williams Patent Crusher & 
Pulverizer Company of St. Louis, Mo., U. S. 
A., he replied, "I haven't time, I am too busy 
at other important matters." I did not va- 
moose. I said: "Mr. Marsden, your Mr. So- 
and-so lives in Toledo, doesn't he?" "Yes, 
what of it?" "He is the man who has made 
these inquiries." "Oh, have you answered 
him?" "Yes, sir, he requested that I call upon 
yon when in Philadelphia." "Is that a fact?" 
"Yes, sir." "Well, Mi-. Williams, our plant is 
at Owensboro, Ky. Go down and see them." 
I went to Lasalle, Ills., first, and I met a gen- 
tleman, Mr. Whitely by name, who formerl.y 
built agricultural machinery in Springfield, 
Ohio, whom I had met when I was a young 
man .just leaving the glorious old state of Ohio 
to take Horace Greele.y's advice to go west and 
grow up with the country. After relating the 
circuiustance, he gave me all the information 
they had, as they were only gathering corn- 
stalks to ship to Owensboro, Ky., from which 
to make cellulose. I immediately repaired to 
Owensboi'o, Kj-. I got no farther than the of- 

fice and very little more information than I 
did from Mr. Whitely, but I concluded that 
our principle was not the correct one to ex- 
tract the cellulose, as it would be too severe. 

Time passed on, Mr. Marsden was eradicat- 
ed from my memory, as hundreds and thou- 
sands of other crushing, grinding, and shred- 
ding propositions took its place. 


About one year ago, we had a letter from 
the celel)rated Mr. Jlarsden, wishing to know 
if we could shred up oat straw. I referred 
him to our Mr. P. C. McKinlay, in the Bourse 
building, and he, Mr. McKinla.y, arrailged for 
a meeting at our plant with Mr. Marsden, the 
celebrated Mr. Marsden. They sent on some 
oat straw. We shredded it, and in our oavii 
office I treated Mr. Marsden as a gentleman, 
— the great Promoter, as he would like to be 
called. I did not retaliate, as my father al- 
ways told me to return good for evil. Relat- 
ing an incident: when father was going to his 
home from a coal bank with a bushel basket 
of coal upon one shoulder and a coal pick in 
his right hand, his would-be brothei'-in-law 
slipped up behind him and struck him in the 
face, and then began to run. Father hallooed, 
"Elisha (as his name was Elisha Bailey) : 
"Come, hit me on the other cheek." Of course 
his son M. F., if he were in existence at that 
time in the shape of man, would have done the 
same thing (nit). 

Upon, another occasion, father discovered 
that Elisha Bailey was tearing down his shocks 
of fodder. Father secreted himself in one of 
the shocks with a pruning knife. Instinct must 
have told Elisha that Robert Williams was 
in a certain shock, for Elisha avoided that 
shock. Had he have come to that shock Elisha 
undoubtedly would have received a shock 
Avhich he would have carried to his grave, as 
that time father was determined and exasper- 
ated beyond measure at the dirty tricks which 
he played, living then upon father's farm, and 
not even paying rent. 



Back to the subject of the vicissitudes of the 
tribulations and adverse trials of M. F. Wil- 
liam's in trjdng to get a foothold with our 
grinding and crushing principle. I was in the 
office of a tannery in a town in Pennsylvania. 
I had heard that this tainiing company had 
undertaken to build one of our shredders, was 
stealing our thunder, copying our patents. I 
went to the office. I met the president, and he 
turned loose an iceberg upon me. I said: "Mr. 
President, a gentleman, an upright man, an 
honest man, will not infringe another num's 
patent if he knows it. I will find out just what 
you are building before I leave this town if 
it costs my compajiy a thousand dollars, and if 
I have to commit murder." (HoAvever, the lat- 
ter remark was something of a bluif.) I re- 
paired to the plant. It was in the Avinter sea- 
sou. I met the superintendent, but I did not 
get in. I gave a workman $5 for his over- 
clothes at noontime. I got into the plant as a 
workman. I saw all that was to be seen. I 
found that they were not infringing any of 
our patents, as they were not building our 

Upon another occasion I discovered that a 
man from Cory, Pa., by the name of Smith, of 
the Smith Pump Mfg. Co., whom I was told 
had built a Williams bark shredder, copying 
our patents. This I heard at Bradford, Pa. 
I heard this from Mr. Smith, who had built 
the infringing machine, who lived at Brad- 
ford. I got him to the hotel and had quite a 
conversation with him, quari'cling about pat- 
ents. He said that we had no patents, and 
that if we had they were no good. But it had 
the effect of causing Mr. Smith to desist from 
building the machines. However, he had only 
built one, Avhich was in a tannery at another 
town in Pennsylvania. This information about 
Smith I got from the president of the tannery, 
who said: "Williams, you are a Mason." I 
replied: "Yes." "I believe you are an honest 
man. Go over to our tannery and tell the su- 
perintendent to let you look at the bark shred- 
der which Smith has tried to build." 
However, it was not not a bark shredder, 

it was a cutter with knives extending 
across in the place of the beaters. It was a 
blank failure. The cage would choke, and Mr. 

told them it would not be used again 

or tried again; also told me the same thing. 
I won his confidence. I went back to^he man. 
who made it in Bradford, showed him our mod- 
el. He said: "Mr. Williams, we will not build 
any more machines for Mr. Smith," and they 
did not. But from Mr. Smith I learned that 
the Horseheads Brick Co., Horseheads. N. Y., 
had in a hammer pulverizer many years before 
I got mine out. I bought a ticket that night 
for Elmira, arrived there in the morning, went 
down to Horseheads on the trolley car next 
morning, met R. G. Eisenhart, and he and the 
writer have been warm friends ever since, — 
one of my best friends. But what did I find? 
No hammer crusher, but a pin mill. Since then 
our company has sold Eisenhart three hammer 
crushers, so the night's ride became profitable 
in after years. 


In my business trips in connection with the 
introduction of my hinged hammer crusher 
and pulverizer, I have traveled in Canada, 
Mexico, Cuba, Ireland, England, Scotland, 
Norway, Sweden, France, Panama and the 
Hawaiian Islands. 


M. F. Williams, from the time he reached 
his majority, had an innate desire to become a 
man amongst men; not politically, not as a 
statesman, but as a useful man in the world, to 
produce something new, something to hand 
down to posterity, — which I have done. I have 
embodied a principle in mechanics which gives 
the maximum of power, which will be used in 
crushing and grinding for the next million 
years, as there is no principle in mechanics 
which will ever supersede it. 


Advice to a business man, advice to a farm- 
er, advice to any man or woman upon receiv- 


ing a caustic or angry letter. When yovi open 
said letter, and see the blue smoke pent up in 
said letter from the irate writer who has tried 
to vent his spleen and ease his conscience with 
^dtuperation, or with vengeance, — lay said let- 
ter away for two or three days, perhaps a 
■week : then when your conscience smites yon 
and you feel in duty bound to answer, take up 
said letter, read it carefully, word for word, 
paragraph by paragraph, then answer system- 
atically. Now here's the secret, dear friend. 
Ninety-nine out of a hundred people expect a 
sarcastic and vituperative answer. Brother or 
sister, take this unto yourself: answer the let- 
ter iu diametrically the opposite Avay from 
what he would expect. "Oh." you will say, 
"vengeance is sweet." Yes, at the time per- 
haps, but vengeance availeth nothing. In this 
world there are two kinds of mats: A floor 
mat with which to wipe your feet upon; a 
diplomat, with which to glory over your an- 
tagonist, if such they may be, — and yon have 
the advantage of them every time in a heated 


During the early introduction of our ma- 
chines I made frecpient trips to the East and 
some to the West, but have since decided that 
I will not make any more ; I will allow them to 
be made by younger men. The greatest trip 
which I did make, in order to get our ma- 
chines introduced, was to the City of Honolulu 
and the Hawaiian Islands, which is bringing 
forth fruit. While very little is being done in 
that line during the war, when the war is over 
the whole of the sugar cane industry will have 
to be rehabilitated, and we will then get our 

In 1900. the first of July, I started for Lon- 
don, having had correspondence with a firm in 
Hull, Rosalowns & Thompson, who wished to 
take over the manufacturing of our crushers 
and grinders upon a royalty basis. Consequent- 
ly I made arrangements to make a European 
trip. A disaster destroyed the steamer which 
was allotted to take our party over, the major- 
ity of whom were Christian Endeavor repre- 

sentatives. Tlie contingent which went from 
St. Louis, 102 in number, was chaperoned by 
Mr. McClain of the Provident Association. 
Before Ave arrived at New York, the steamer 
which A^as to take our party burned in Hobo- 
ken ; (|uite a number of people were caught in 
the hold of this vessel and burned along with 
the vessel. The whole party, nearly or quite 
800 all told, was switched to the steamer 
Trauvc, which sailed from New York from pier 
No. 22 in the early part of July, so that our 
fourth of July was passed on board the steam- 
er. I remained in Europe four and one-half 
months, during which time I sold a few crush- 
ers, but did not negotiate with any one to 
manufacture them ; but while there did nego- 
tiate with a firm in London to take over the 
London branch. A firm in London agreed to 
raise $250,000, with which to start a plant, pre- 
sumably to be built out in Kent, about thir- 
ty odd miles from London. The town of Kent 
is the same town that has been bombarded 
during the late war so many times from air- 
planes by the Germans. (This same town is 
where Martin Earl & Co. and their associates, 
about 80 in numbei', had a wet material Port- 
land cement plant, — since, I believe, changed 
to the dry process.) Their negotiations were 
so slow, and it became so irksome, that I be- 
came tired and went from Hull to Glasgow, to 
meet a friend or acquaintance whom I had met 
in the Tremont Hotel, in Boston, one Walter 
Scott. After remaining a few days in Glas- 
gow, 1 sailed upon a return steamer down the 
Clyde, which today is the busiest shipbuilding 
district no doubt in the world. 


On sailing from Glasgow, many people came 
down to the dock to bid the emigrants good- 
by. Many demonstrations of love and of 
friendship were displayed. Many kerchiefs 
remained at the eyes of the people, especially 
the females. I went down upon the first deck, 
feeling lonely and neglected. I selected a chap 
on the dock, beckoned him to come to me, and 
I said: "Young man, I am not a distinguished 
passenger on this ship. Many have their 
friends. I am a stranger and an American. I 


would like to be selected as a distiiiguished 
personage. Here's an American dollar. I will 
go upon the hurricane deck, you step forward 
out of the crowd, I will have my hat oft", wav- 
ing it, and you sing out in stentorian tones: 
"Good-by, Captain Williams." He said: "All 
right, sir." I waved my chapeau and said: 
"Good-by, Colonel. God bless you!" At this 
juncture every hat went off and the ejacula- 
tion of "Good-by, Captain" reverberated 
through the air until they finally ceased to be 
heard ; but from that time on, across the ocean, 
and until we reached New York, I was desig- 
nated as "Captain." 

AVe left Glasgow about 6 o'clock in the 
evening, and as we sailed down the Clyde you 
f;ould see them and hear them working at 
/light, building hulls of steel ships, and you 
could hear hundreds of compressed air rivet- 
ers at Avork, using an American invention, and 
proljably manufactured by Jos. Boyer,' a man 
who started in St. Louis and became quite fa- 
mous, manufacturing the Burroughs adding 
machine. Mr. Burroughs is long since dead, 
and while Buri'oughs was the inventor, Boyer 's 
company is reaping the harvest. Also Boyer 's 
company manufactures very extensively air 
tools, a niuiilier of which we use in cur own 

My first recollection of Boyer was when he 
lived on Bacon street, the uext block north of 
where our family lived; he then moved west- 
ward to Maple avenue, two blocks west of 
where we now live, at 5153 Vernon avenue ; 
and his next move was to Detroit, Mich., where 
his company is new many times a millionaire 
concern. While Joe Boyer is a self-made man, 
an unassuming man, a man of quiet demeanor, 
he has been most eminently successful in busi- 
ness. Incidentally remarking that on the 
steamer Trauve his daughter made the same 
trip to Europe. Boyer 's Avife and dauglrter 
were Adsiting a sister upon the Hudson River, I 
think, at West Point. They came to Now 
York, and at the hotel in which they stopped 
a purse containing $50.00 was stolen from Mrs. 
Boyer from a settee in the parlor. When she 
came down with her daughter to the Trauve at 

the ship landing, the daughter's trunk was 
nussing, and she had to make the trip to Lon- 
don without her trousseau. The ladies on the 
steamship Avere very kind in loaning clothing 
to her until she arrived in London, Avhere she 
bought another outfit. I had a visit a few 
years ago from Joseph Boyer, and he stated 
to me that his daughter's trunk Avas not found 
until late in the fall of the year 1900. 

As Ave passed doAvn the Clyde and out into 
the ocean, I Avas fast in the arms of Morpheus, 
Avheu Ave struck the ocean, and as we had taken 
passage upon a slow steamer, Ave stopped the 
next day at Moville Bay, which is in Ireland, 
and remained there three or four hours to wait 
for the mail train to come from Belfast. While 
lying at anchorage, several of us Avent on shore. 
There we met a jaunting cart, the first I had 
seeU; AA'hich took us quite a jaunt up through a 
little village to the post office, where Ave bought 
postal cards and mailed them to America. 
This cart lock us a fcAV miles doAvn through 
the country, Avhcre Ave got to see a glimpse 
of Irish home life among the peasants. It Ava3 
late in the fall and the air Avas frosty. We 
stepped in several cabins, saw them burning 
peat in the little old fireplaces ; their children, 
even young Avomen merging into Avomanhood, 
Avere all barefooted, and Ave Avere hardly com- 
fortable Avith our overcoats. Our voyage Avas 
uneventful homeward, Avhich was sIoav and cold 
and the ship Avas very cold. It Avas a Canadian 
cattle ship. Upon nearing Sandy Hook, upon 
the forenoon of the fourteenth day after leaA^- 
ing GlasgoAV, Avhere Ave changed pilots, the 
most eventful and remarkable occurrence Avas 
the ncAvs of the election of President McKin- 
ley, second term. We all hailed the ncAvs Avith 
gladness, as Ave had taken a vote upon ship- 
board, a straAv vote, the majority of Avhich 
Avere for President McKinley. We arrived in 
NcAv York City and tied up at the pier at 22nd 
street; and upon going to our Ncav York of- 
fice, I found telegrams for me to go to Well- 
ston, Ohio, to negotiate for the sale of some 
of our grinders in a cement plant. Upon ar- 
riving there, I Avas requested to go to Detroit, 
and there meet the president of the company, 
Avhieh I did, and closed the deal for several 


grinders. I finally took the Wabash at 3 :30 p. 
m., and arrived home safely the next day from 
Detroit. In about two weeks after my arrival 
home the London iirm cabled me to return and 
the negotiations would go on. However, I de- 
cided I would not return, that we would fight 
it out on this side of the water, which we have 
been doing ever since, and each succeeding 

Push the right button, 
Pull the right string, — 
And success is yours. 
The opposite, — the contrary. 

Some have eyes and see not. 
Others hath ears and hear not, 
There are none so blind as those who can see 
and will not 

year far surpasses the preceding year in the 
manufacturing of our crushers and grinders. 


Back in the days of barbarism man was de- 
pendent upon nature for his food, his shelter 
and his clothing, he banded together for com- 
pany and protection — little more. 

February, !903 

Therefore a bird which can sing and will not 
sing must be compelled to sing. Birds sing 
only from happiness, extreme happiness ; hence 
make the birds happy and they will sing. 


Cut No. 162 shows a reproduction of a pho- 
tograph of M. F. Williams, which picture was 


taken in "Washington City in 1903, in the month 
of February. Ten minutes before it was taken 
I had no idea of having a photograph taken — 
in fact, I hadn't the least idea. My wife and 
I had just returned from the Brick Makers' 
Convention, February 4-7, 1903, at Boston. 
Coming over to New York, we there visited 
Walker Bowman, the Williams Patent Crusher 

they have." As we entered the show room, a 
very fine looking gentleman came up and said, 
"How do you do." I answered by stating, 
"I do as I please." He caught on instantly 
and remarked : " So do I when I can. ' ' I said : 
"Brother, Avell put! I accept your apology, — 
so do I when I can." He said: "Step this 
way," took me by the arm, led me upstairs. 

Cut No. 163— Mother and the girl 

and Pulverizer Company's representative. 
Walking along Pennsylvania avenue in Wash- 
ington, we passed a photographer's office, and 
upon the outside and in the windows I saw 
quite a collection of photos of senators and 
representatives, which showed exceptionally 
good artistic work of the photographer. I re- 
marked to my wife: "Let's go in and see what 

My Avife remarked: "Where are you going?" 
I replied : " I know not. ' ' The gentleman stat- 
ed: "Follow the flag! my road leads to suc- 
cess." Upstairs we went into the photogra- 
pher's room. He brushed my hair, seated me, 
he said: "Look handsome, watch the bird." 
Click went the machine and I was shot for 
life, not from a gun, but from a camera. He 


took two more views. He said: "Name and ad- 
dress, please." I replied: "M. F. Williams, 
St. Louis, Mo., U. S. A." He then remarked: 
'•Madam, your turn next." She flatly refused, 
and I have always thought that she was wait- 
ing to have her photograph taken with a hand- 
somer man. The gentleman finally did re- 
mark: '"How many, please?" I replied: "One 
dozen." I said: "Good-day, brother!" He 
replied: "The same to you," and there was 
not another word exchanged between us. He 
did not ask for reference, money or even an 
apology. He seemed to have confidence in the 

of 17. Daughter married Edgar M. Carson, 
June 17, 1911. 


Cut No. 164 depicts my greatest fishing event 
at Miami, Florida, in February, 1904. A party 
of men at our hotel emplo.yed the services of 
a captain owning a fishing smack operated by 
a gasoline engine. The pai-ty of us paid him 
$15.00 for the day. We ran out into the bay 
about ten o'clock to where the king fish were 
plentiful. King fish ai-e not considered good 

Cut No. 164— King fishing in Florida 

face of the subject. I have had occasion to 
use the photograph in a great many periodi- 
cals, and I have always considered it, so has 
my better half, the best photograph I have 
ever had taken. I was then in my 57th year, 
in the best of health, strength and vigor. 


Cut No. 163. Mother and girl. This photo- 
graph was taken in 1903 at 5153 Vernon ave- 
nue: Mrs. M. F. Williams at the age of 47, and 
Florence Williams, our daughter, at the age 

for eating, but are only worked up into fer- 
tilizer. We caught that day 180 odd fish. I 
caught the largest king fish which was caught 
that day. Of course it would be a poor fish 
story unless I did. The man standing holding 
the fish by its tail shows the largest fish caught, 
but who that man was I cannot now recall. I 
will be seen leaning against the mast and wear- 
ing a Panama hat, — the only Panama which 
was worn that day. The captain at my back 
wore a cap. Several times during our fishing 
(which was not done by bait, only a mechani- 
cal hook which represented in the water a 


minnow), the king fish would swallow the min- 
now with the hook. It then was all day with 
them. The boat would slack her speed. We 
would draw them in, hand over hand, with a 
strong line, and throw them into a box, one 
upon each side of the boat. The man wearing 
a fedora hat I remember was from Kansas 
City, down in Florida for his health. Next to 
him Avas another man wearing a fedora hat, 
who lived at Union City, Tenn. As we were 
about winding up our fishing, some sharks ap- 
peared, and the captain remarked: "Boys, if 
you are through, I will get that shark." He 
cut one of the king fish in halves, baited his 
hook, which was about one-half inch in diam- 
eter, and the line fully a half-inch line, let the 
line and bait trail behind the boat, and it was 
not long before we had Mr. Shark. Three men 
hauled the shark to the boat, rigged up a block 
and fall which they had ready upon the boom, 
brought tlie shark aboard and when he was 
weighed he weighed 800 pomids. Now, this 
fish story, and the one that I told which oc- 
curred with my sister Mary and myself, fishing 
in a boat, represents a lapse of 50 years be- 
tAveen my first fishing on the Ohio and pos- 
silily my last fishing in Florida Bay, just below 
Miami. While many men tell fish stories, this 
is one which can be relied upon. I have been 
fishing for customers in a business way all my 
life, but verj' little for the finny type. 


In April, 1904, at the time the Mississippi 
Valley Trust Company and some other trust 
companies had a run made upon same when 
there was a partial panic in St. Louis, people 
went wild almost, and at the Mississippi Val- 
ley Trust Company's plant one row of people 
were drawing out money while another row of 
people were making deposits. At noontime I 
went down to get my lunch at Hotel DeWick- 
ey, and before I reached the restaurant I met 
John Soy upon the sidewalk. John asked me 
if I knew of the panic in the banking district; 
I said I did not. He replied that every bank 
and trust company in the city was having a 
run, and tliat the people were drawing their 
money all out and that there would be a finan- 

cial collapse. I went on down past the restau- 
rant, went into Rubelman's and inquired of 
George whether he kneAv there was a run on 
the banks and trust companies. He said he did, 
and to make matters worse he said that Lucas 
was downtown trying to get their money. I 
inquired of him how much they had; he said 
$13,000.00. I replied that we had twice that 
and more in the Mississippi Valley. I imme- 
diately telephoned up to Arthur, who was then 
our accountant, and told him what I had 
learned. His only remark was: "Oh, Lord! 
I will go down and try and get our money 
out. ' ' 

He did so, and he will remember how it hap- 
pened. Ai'thnr managed to throw his hat over 
inside the line of men who were withdraAving 
their money, next to the banker's enclosure: 
he next got down upon his hands and knees, 
so he told mc afterwards, crawled betAveen and 
crowded between the legs of the men; one 
man kicked at him, cursed him and wanted to 
know Avhat he was after. He said he had lost 
his hat. Trying to get it, he Avent up to the 
teller's AvindoM% who kncAv him, and said: 
"Williams, you don't Avant your mone.y. " Ar- 
thur reijlied: "Yes, I came after it, my father 
sent me." He opened the door and let Arthur 
inside, gave him the money all in $20.00 gold 
pieces, and Arthur couldn't lift it in a great 
big metal pan. They told him to go into the 
next door, rent a safe deposit A'^ault, Avhich 
Arthur did ; they helped him put the money 
in the vault, — that is, someone in the Safe De- 
posit Department. After I had eaten my din- 
ner and come back to the office, I said to my- 
self: "Oh, what a fool I have been. Why. 
there is no cause for alarm. The Mississippi 
Valley Trust Company is as solid as a rock." 
I then hurried Keister down to the Missis- 
sippi Valley Trust Company's building to find 
Arthur and tell him that I had later informa- 
tion from the front, to leave the money there, 
but it was too late. Keister lost Arthur's trail. 
The scent had disappeared into $20.00 gold 
pieces. We kept the money in the deposit vault 
thi'ee or four days, then put it back under time 
deposit, and lost $200.00 in interest. Shortly 
after this time I Avent to Florida. 



Shortly after this time 1 weut to Florida, 
first stopping in Atlanta to see Keister, who 
was trying to sell machines or grinders ; re- 
mained Avith him two or three days, then went 
to Jacksonville. Nothing in Jacksonville oc- 
curred worthy of interest, except that I met 
in a dry goods store some people related to 
others whom I had known in St. Louis. After 
stopping in Jacksonville about three days I 
went to a town I cannot now recall the name 
of, where they were operating a palmetto tan- 
nery. The palmetto roots were piled up like 
cordwood around a mill or factory as in the 
olden days when wood was the principal fuel. 
The roots were being cut, — not shredded, but 
cut, — upon a disc wheel having knives in the 
same. These knives projected through a throat 
or hole through the disc wheel, which oper- 
ated upon a shaft with two journals, and had 
from four to six knives of solid steel, 6 or S 
inches broad by, say, 1 foot in length, and 
were bolted upon a throat-piece through the 
disc Mheel upon the opposite side from the 
cutting face, at 45 degrees, like a planer knife. 

They cut up the palmetto into chunks, and 
after being cut up it resembled somewhat a 
shredded condition; but the product was very 
irregular in shape and form, and was then ele- 
vated and conveyed up into the leaches, just 
the same as chips from a tannic acid plant 
or bark from any tannery, except that they were 
after the extract to ship to other tanneries, 
— this being an extract plant in every 
sense, and not a tannery. Thi.; was the reduction I had seen of palmetto 
root. The roots grow upon the gTound, 
upon the sui-face, and not under the sui-faee 
like the root of a tree; they are very much 
crooked, and have a kind of a fungus growth, 
and when they branch out upon the surface 
of the earth, manj^ shoots grow up from them 
which sometimes get to be as large as the main 

The earth where they grow is fertilized by 
nature from rotten leaves, mostly, and decayed 
vegetation, and the under formation is prin- 
cipally coral limestone, which is a porous 
growth of coral-like production, formed from 

the shells of fish which inhabited at one time 
all the peninsula of Florida. After remain- 
ing one day at this tannerj^ my next objective 
point was: 


Port Orange, Florida, is situated upon the 
east bay of the ocean, that extends from Miami 
up to Jacksonville, and is navigable for New 
York steamers, which go from New York to 
Jacksonville, and all along the coast of Flor- 
ida. At Port Orange my objective point, April, 
1904, \\-as the Acme Palmetto Extract Works, 
opei'ated by Robert L. Luffberry, of France. 
They had our regular No. 1 or No. 2 bark 
shredder, and the roots were fed iii at 45 de- 
grees and cut up as fast as they could be fed. 
But I don't believe Luffberry was a success, as 
he had never been connected with that kind of 
manufacturing, and a fcAV years after the in- 
stallation of the shredder we bought it back 
at a much less price than we sold it. After 
sojourning at Port Orange for perhaps a week 
or longer, I then went to St. Augustine, re- 
mained o^-er night, and from there to Palm 


While at St. Augustine I viewed the old fort, 
which was made of the eoquina rock, a soft 
whitish coral-like stone formed from broken 
shells and coi'al sub.stance. At this ancient 
town Ponce de Leon first landed from his sail- 
ing ship, believing that he would find the 
Fountain of Youth in a pure spring of water, 
which he did not. He then started to build 
the town of St. Augustine, which was walled 
in like ancient towns in Europe, and across 
the bay was an island upon which they found 
the cofjuina rock. They now have a bridge ex- 
tending over to the island and a narrow gauge 
railroad which hauls the eoquina product, and 
it is taken for building concrete work, besides 
the old fort which was built of it. 

On Sunday at St. Augustine, there were 
hundreds of sightseers, — some on their way 
down to Florida coast to Flagler's hotels, and 
others on their way back up North. While 
here I saw a sanitarium built by Flagler for 


his first wife, who in the course of time went 
crazy and Flagler placed her in this sanitarium, 
which must have cost him at least $30,000.00 
to build, and while there she was provided with 
sufficient attendants so that she wanted for 
nothing, though she knew not where she was. 
Adjoining this sanitarium was a Congrega- 

St. Augustine was founded in 1565. The streets 
are very narrow; a good sprinter could jump 
across almost any of the streets. 

The hotel in which I stopped was an ordi- 
nary frame building, but the main hotel was 
one of Flagler 's, for tourists, where they prob- 

No. 165— Alr,^. III. F. Williams (taken in 1906) 

tional Church built of the coquina rock, and 
dedicated by Flagler, and between the church 
and the sanitarium was a most beautiful gar- 
den, also kept up by Flagler. At St. Augustine 
there was also an old Spanish church where 
the Spanish natives still worshipped, and was 
said to be liSO years old, and history states that 

ably pay $10.00 per day at this time. I judge 
that would be the cheapest ; from that on up to 


After getting the historical facts of St. Au- 
gustine, I next went to Palm Beach, another 


Flagler town, built upon a little island ; and 
upon said island are located two immense ho- 
tels, — one upon the south side of the island, 
and a new and later one near the beach. Each, 
I should judge, would hold 1,000 people ; and 
upon the north side of the island and near the 
new or later hotel was a bathing beach. The 
town of Palm Beach (not much of a town) was 
over on the mainland. A few people lived 
there all the year around. Upon the island I 
saw a pi^pper tree, the coffee tree, and some 
other curiosities or tropical trees and plants, 
and at Palm Beach the year around grow most 

ored men haul the people around in an auto- 
mobile basket in connection with a motorcycle. 


Upon leaving Palm Beach in the evening, I 
got my supper at a restaurant, and after leav- 
ing the restaurant of the hotel I walked out 
to the station, about a half mile away, as I had 
to Avait about two hours for my train going 
south; and while sitting there meditating, a 
gentleman in dark clothes came into the sta- 
tion, looked all around, walked up to me and 


No. 166— Ten Williamscs 

beautifid tlowers and vines. Houses are cov- 
ered with vines, with tiowers of dift'erent col- 
ors, and their fragrance was delightful. It is 
here that Flagler has another home built of 
the coquina rock, surrounded by an iron fence 
— an artistic fence, at least 20 feet in height ; 
at certain seasons of the year he lived there. 

It was at Palm Beach where I saw the first 
one-horse lawn mower. However, we have 
them in Forest Park, St. Louis. I have seen 
them in California, upon the Hawaiian Islands 
and several other places. At Palm Beach col- 

said: "My friend, excuse me, have you got on 
your own hat?" I said: "I think I have." 
However, I took off the hat, examined it, and 
found another man's name in the hat. I then 
remarked: "Why, no, this isn't my hat, but I 
thought it was." He then handed me the hat 
which he was wearing and remarked : " Is this 
your hat?" I replied, "It certainly is." We 
shook hands and laughed over it, and got to 
talking about the characteristics of Flagler. 
He was an employee of Flagler, one of his 
foremen. I think he had charge of outside 
work in clearing the land of shrubs and small 


trees, as there were no large ti'ess. I don't sup- 
pose any of them -would girth over 6 inches, 
and the only way to clear the land was to grub 
up the stumps, which they did. Flagler made 
some beautiful places. 


Returning to Port Orange. While at Port 
Orange the automobile races were on at Deto- 
nia. Detonia is not much of a town — just a 
counti'Y railroad town, with a verv nice hotel; 


P'rom Palm Beach my next objective point 
was Miami. At Miami I stopped at the Amer- 
ican Hotel. At this point Flagler has a very 
large and fashionable hotel, but I stopped 
where they charge $1.00 a day and roomed at 
a private house across the street. While at 
this hotel I met two gentlemen from Union 
City, Tenn. I also met Dr. Groves, who man- 
ages the Paris Medicine Co., making the cele- 

Cut No. 167— Our first automobile 

but Detonia Beach is noted almost the world 
over for automobile racing. The beach in 
length is several miles, as level as the top of a 
table, and almost as smooth, — but receding to 
the bay; pure yellow sand, nothing but sand, 
and it makes an ideal race track. It was here 
that I saw the fastest racing of autos which I 
have ever seen, and practically all the racing 
which I have seen. Some of them went at 
times over 75 miles an hour — in fact, I expect 
a hundred miles an hour. 

brated Bromo Quinine, which he advertises to 
cure a cold in one night. Dr. Groves' plant is 
upon Chestnut street, near Beaumont. Dr. 
Groves belongs to the Presbyterian Church at 
Kingshighway and Cabanne avenue, St. Louis. 
I have been told that Dr. Groves gave to the 
church every Sunday $17.50, or did so sev- 
eral years ago. He may have increased his 
subscription or his pledge during these war, possibly double that amount. I remem- 
ber his remark while at the hotel. He said: 


"Gentlemen, I would enjoy myself here better 
than at the Royal Ponceano. " He further 
stated: "I am paying for myself and wife $7.00 
each per daj^, and we are not allowed to go to 
the table except in full dress and I do uot en- 
joy it." 

While at Miami I met Mr. Lawrence of the 
Boomer and Bosehert Press Co., of New York 

normal again. We went up into the city and 
stopped at the Phacaha Hotel, on the main 
street, fronting the Plaza. 1 remained in Cuba 
five daj^s and then returned to Miami via Key 
West, which is on the west coast of Florida. 
The two railroad lines which have made Flor- 
ida accessible were built by two enterprising 
men. The one upon the west coast, by Mr. 

City, having a factory in New Jersey. We 
took a steamer together for Cuba, and on the 
way over, which takes from 24 to 28 hours' 
time, I got seasick, — sicker than 1 had ever 
been before in my whole life. 


When we landed in Havana I had become 

Plant ; upon the east coast, by Flagler. Flag- 
ler, in his early days, was associated with, and 
got his start from, John D. Rockefeller, at or 
near Cleveland. Flagler has since achieved a 
most wonderful engineering feat, — that of 
building a railroad across the Florida Keys, 
at the expense of many millions, and instead of 
Miami being the most southern railroad sta- 


tioii in America, the road is now extended to 
Key West, and one can go from St. Louis to 
Key West direct by rail. 

Returning from Havana to Key West, I had 
an opportunity of seeing Flagler and his new 
wife upon the hurricane deck of the steamer, 
as they came over to Miami on the same steam- 
er on Sunday. T examined them carefully, and 
I discovered that they had but two feet each, 
two hands each, two eyes each, two ears each, 
and one nose each, and that they were only 
human and made out of the same kind of mud 
that the rest of us are. 

around through North and South Carolina and 
through Asheville. 

Seth Oliver Williams, my brother, and his 
son Earl are shown in cut No. 166, where ten 
Williamses are standing, — the first being Rob- 
ert Earl Williams; the second, his mother, Ida 
Williams ; the third, Seth Oliver Williams ; the 
fourth, Ruthanna Williams, my sister; the 
fifth, Milton F. Williams, the cause of it all; 
the sixth, our daughter Florence Williams Car- 
son ; the seventh, Mrs. Clare Murdock ; the 

-M. F. Williams and his giandson Edgar Mason Carson 


I immediately repaired to the Florida Ex- 
tract Company's plant at Miami to examine a 
palmetto root shredding machine, which plant 
was operated by a superintendent by the name 
of Willihan, who is now in California operat- 
ing a tannery. How successful the Florida 
Extract Co. Avas, I do not pretend to state; 
but I think they, like the other plants in 
Florida, all abandoned making tannic acid 
from palmetto root. On returning to St. Louis 
from Florida, I returned by a different route. 

eighth, Mrs M. F. Williams; the ninth, our 
eldest sister Jane E. Williams, and the tenth, 
last but not least. Miss Ethel Murdock, daugh- 
ter of Ruthanna Williams Murdock. 

Cut No. 167, in the evolution of M. F. Wil- 
liams and his struggle in life from adversity 
to a fair competency, represents M. F. Wil- 
liams, his wife and daughter, and his son-in- 
law, Edgar M. Carson, taken in our Cadillac 
automobile in Forest Park, St. Louis, Mo., in 
1S114, in the month of July or August, upon a 
very hot day, in the shade of an oak tree. At 


this time we had not owned an auto perhaps 
more than a year. One afternoon while we 
were out riding we met a photographer on the 
wav who insisted upon taking onr picture. 

ton Franklin Williams the second was baptized 
by Reverend Dean Davis, at Christ Church Ca- 
thedral, where his father was married seven 
years previously in 1908. 

170— The author, M. 


Cut No. 168 shows M. F. Williams, his son 
Oliver J. Williams, and Oliver's son, Milton 
Franklin Williams the second, taken in 1915, 
on or about Christmas, upon the day that Mil- 


Cut No. 169, taken upon one August day, 
1915, when the weather was very hot. The 
photographer started to take the picture un- 
der a cloud, and the sun came out very bright- 


ly, which caused the grandfather to almost close 
his eyes. This picture was taken on the back 
porch of our home at 5153 Vernon avenv^e, St. 
Louis, when Edgar Mason Carson was IS 
months old. 


Milton F. "Williams, the author, bom Oct. 13, 

Oliver Julian Williams, at the top. born 
March 4, 1884. 

Florence Williams, at the right, born April 
9, 1886. 


Cut No. 171 represents our present home at 
5153 Vernon Ave., St. Louis, where we moved 

Cut No. 171 — Our home at 5153 Vernon Avenue, St. Louis 

Emma Stevens Williams, my wife, born 
March 12, 1856. 

Milton Judson Williams, at the left, born 
January 19, 1877. 

Arthur Franklin Williams, at the right, born 
Dec. 20, 1879. 

in November, 1903 (the year in which we were 
to have had the World's Fair, which was de- 
ferred a year later, 1904), situated upon a lot 
of 50 feet front by 128 feet in depth, with a 
garage in the rear, in Avhieh we keep two ma- 
chines, one of which is a seven-passenger Pack- 
ard, and the other a three-seated Hudson. T'his 


Cut No. 172— 

Villiams' liall ciock 

house at present, in Februar.y, 1918, is occupied 
by Mrs. M. F. Williams, her son Arthur and 
her husband. This house is located in a neigh- 
borhood where the surroundings for several 
blocks are about the same style of houses. We 
paid for this property $10,600.00, and have 
added many improvements. 

It is my custom to gather my family around 
my festal board on each anniversary of my 
birthday. The following clipping from a St. 
Louis newspaper indicates my lack of super- 

"Man on Birthday Defies '13 Hoodoo' 

"M. F. Williams, president of the Williams 
Patent Crusher and Pulverizer Company, cel- 
ebrated his 70th birthday on Friday, the 13th, 
1916, by giving a diimer party to his thirteen 
children and grandchildren at his home, 5153 
Vernon avenue. In order to complete the num- 
ber of guests a son and daughter came from 
San Francisco and a son from Chicago to at- 
tend the dinner. Several floral gifts incor- 
porating the figure 13 were presented to the 


In regard to our hall clock, there is no his- 
torical fact connected with it, except that in 
1914 I purchased it from the Grand Rapids 
Clock and Mantel Co. They had an exhibit 
in Chicago of some 25 different shapes of clock 

In corresponding with the clock maker and 
seller in Grand Rapids, Mich., I wrote him to 
compose a piece of poetry suitable to his splen- 
did clock, and the following was his reply : 

"Your check received, 
"Twas (luite a shock. 
You miist have sent it by the clock. 
Some folks take a lot more time. 
They likely fail to hear the chime. 
Each clock is set 
The chime to hit. 
Which plainly says, 
Oh, please remit!" 



He descended from a Gloucester family in 
England and was born about 1360. His father 
died when he was but a lad, and Richard, who 

heard the chime of bells, called "Bow Bells," 
and that thej^ seemed to him to say, "Turn 
again, Turn again, Whittington,— thrice Mayor 
of London." He turned back, and it is true 
that he was afterwards three times Mayor of 

had no fortune, set out for London to endea\or 
to make one hy means of trade. It is proba- 
ble, although not well authenticated, that the 
stories regarding his leaving London and re- 
turn, were true. It is said that being much 
discouraged, he was leaving London when he 

London, being elected in the years 1398, 1406 
and 1419. He was also elected member of Par- 
liament for the city in 1416. He died in 1423. 

Cut No. 173 shows a section of our front 


hall, the mirror in said hall showing quite a 
reflection, first of our grandfather's clock, an 
eight-day clock, highly ornamented, having two 
sets of chimes, called Whittington chimes, aft- 
er Richard Whittington, who became thrice 
mayor of the city of London. He was a poor 

ard, thou shall be Mayor of London," — and it 
came to pass. 

The Whittington chimes four times every 15 
minutes, and the Westminster, eight times ev- 
ery 15 minutes. However, the setting can be 

country lad, who went to the city of London 
in the early days, to earn bread and butter for 
the family and his widowed mother, and the 
old legend is that he heard the chimes in the 
steeple of a certain London church, and in 
later years he claimed that they sounded as 
though they said, "Once, twice, thrice. Rich- 

made to suit anyone's fancy. This clock is a 
most beautiful one, and will only be a grand- 
father's clock when I have handed the same 
down to posterity. 

The ornament on the top of the mirror I had 
made by a man whom I \\'orked with at my 


trade in the early days before I was married. 
The lion's head which it intended to show is 
characteristic of the Williams coat of arms, 
while the Arm and Hammer represent our com- 
pany 's trade-mark. 

The ornamented beam was made by the same 

The Persian rngs ai'e only partially shown. 
In the back hall a hatrack of high ornamenta- 
tion is only shown by a side view. The same 
clock is shoM'n in cut No. 172. 

The front stairway is duplicated beyond the 
partition by a back stairway. These half 

g room 

person, simply as an ornament, representing in 
the center a pineapple, and is a most elegant 
piece of work. It conforms to other orna- 
ments of carved wood in the hall, and the em- 
bellishments in the way of vases are indicative 
of the author's taste in art. 

tones are to show the fruits of the labor of one 
who had faith to keep everlastingly at it. The 
wellhole above the stairway is some 16 to 18 
feet to the ceiling, where we have hung Texas 
steers' horns, and also a head of a Colorado 
moose having sixteen prongs or antlers. 



Cut No. 174 shows the front parlor of our 
residence, 5153 Vernon Ave. The photogra- 
pher had his instrument in the same room, 
pointing' eastward. The picture on the wall of 

The first photograph on the mantle shows 
that of M. J. Williams' daughter, Miss Mabel 
Williams, in her 18th year, while the photo- 
graph on the mantle to the right is that of Mrs. 
A. F. Williams in her 20th year. The photo- 
graph on the wall to the right of the mantle 

a very small boy. is our son A 
when he was 5 or 6 years of age. 

F. Williams is one of A. F. Williams, taken 

The one to the right is an oil painting, 
taken over at Catalina Island, in California, 
also looking westward, showing the moon upon 
the water. 

The oil painting on the wall to the right only 
partly showing, represents George Washing- 
ton, down upon his knees, with his head in his 
mother's lap, praying as she requested him to 


do, when he went to her for advice at the time 
he was about to be nominated for President. 
He sought his mother's advice, and she en- 
treated him to pray to the good Lord, then he 
would receive real advice, instead of that of 
his mother; so in taking his mother's advice, 
he did not possibly make a mistake. 

and the center one behind the chandelier is a 
small bust of Milton. 


Cut No. ] 75 shows a section of the west wall 
of the parlor and dining room, showing the 

Cut No. 177^0i; 

The vase to the left stands upon a music 
cabinet that is holding the rolls of music for 
our plaj-er piano. 

The marble statuette is simply to represent 
our taste for art; other small vases on the up- 
per shelf of the mantle are to show the same, 

player piano and the cabinet for the records. 

The pastel picture upon the wall above the 
piano shows the author of this book, from a 
portrait of him taken in Washington, D. C, 
in 1903. The ornaments on said piano have no 
special history that I am aware of. The pic- 


ture of the young babe represents M. J. Wil- 
liams, our eldest son. 


Cut No. 176 shows the west section of our 
dining room. The candelabrum upon the shelf 

ico upon my first and only trip to Mexico City 
in 1906, while investigating the grinding of 
the guayule shrub, from which mechanical 
rubber is extracted. 

The picture in the frame above shows two 
ruffed grouse, which I pi-ocured in Colorado 

Cut No. 178 — East end of dining 

is lighted by electricity, and shows very nicely 
when the light is on. The chair to the left is 
father's chair at the table. 

The diminutive on the Mall to the left of the 
buffet show.s three fighting cocks, made of 
feathei-s only, which I purchased in Old Mex- 

many years ago, on my trip to the mountains, 
about 1907, from a taxidermist ; they are the 
same ^ot, or of the same character, as quite a 
number he displayed at the Woi'ld's Fair in 

The case with one bird showing to the right 


of the buffet is a pheasant from the Rocky i very valiia)3le piece of calcined clay, commonly 
Mountains in Colorado, which I procured on I called burned mud, but when it is given a sci- 
the same trip. | entific name it is so much more valuable. The 

'^■^^^J _ y^ 



i ^fl 

^H -'.^sfti^^H 

Cut No. 179— Well at main stairway 

The vase in the corner upon the plate rack I tea table to the right was a present this last 
came from Vienna, Austria, and is said to be a Christmas from A. F. Williams and his better 


half, and the basket on top was a present from 
Mrs. 0. J. "Williams, filled with English wal- 
nuts from California. 

In the same dining room we have two other 
frames of birds more beautiful, I think, than 

dining room. I call particular attention to the 
stuffed prairie chickens, in a glass case, with a 
landscape background to same, and beneath 
this you will see photographs of M. F. Wil- 
liams in the uniform of a Knight Templar and 
in a two-tail behavior suit and silk hat. 


these shown, from the same 

axidermist in Col- 


Cut No. 177 shows an interior view of our 
residence, taken in the southeast corner of the 

Beneath and resting upon the heater is a 
most beautifully decorated bowl, that could 
be used for a salad bowl, and projecting from 
the same are handles of a large spoon and 
fork. Looking farther south is seen a portion of 
the east end of the parlor, which has been par- 


tially described previously, 
shown a Victrola. 

In the corner is 


Cut No. 178 shows the mantel and contents 
upon the east end of our dining room. The 

tel, being finished dark, doesn't show up as it 
does in the half-tone. 


Cut No. 179 shows the well at the main stair- 
way. The ornamental glass in the window 

East end of our bedroom 

vase at the left is an ornamented urn for flow- 
ers. The mantel-piece of carved wood shows 
for itself, with the clock, the horse and rider 
on top of the clock, with other ornaments 
around on the plate-rack, showing birds and 
fish, and even the dog with a fish in his mouth. 
Usually this corner is a dark corner ; the man- 

does not show the coloring in the halftone. 
The elk's head and antlers above, some six- 
teen prongs, speak for themselves. The steel 
engravings on the wall do not show; the one 
to the right displays our modern inventors, 
such as Singer, of the Singer sewing machine; 
McCormick, of the reaper and mower; also 



Erickson, the inventor of the caloric engine, 
and many other inventors of 50 years ago. 
Hung to the beam above are some Texas 

it is a well-known fact that a cowboy on a 
horse will not he harmed. 

The light on the electric fixture at the ceil- 

Cut No. 182— .Arthu 

steer's horns, which in the wild state it would 1 ing is to light this section, with one of the hall 
be well for a pedestrian to steer clear of ; while lamps suspended from the chain. 



Cut No. 180 shows the cast end of our library 
room on the second lioor. Hanging on the wall 
is tlie picture of George Washington, and be- 
hind the chandelier Abraham Lincoln, and to 

The jardinier to the right contains a small 
orange tree, a dwarf orange that was pur- 
chased by my son Arthur for his mother on her 
birthday. In this room I enjoy the evenings 
and early in the morning, reading the daily 
newspapei- and other periodicals. 


Cut Xo. 183— Ma 

the right. General Grant. The clock in the 
center of the mantel and vases to the right and 
left, with two othei' ornaments pui'chased in 
El Paso, Texas, on my trip back from Cali- 
fornia in 1915. 


Cut No. 181 shows the east end of our bed- 
room. The mantel is in a bay, and the orna- 
nu-nts on the mantel show for themselves. The 
mirror to the left shows father's revolvina; 


chair, reflecting it from the libr£ 


south It seems to be an index of authors, of some 
printed M'ork. 

Article No. 8. Chambers" Pittsburg Ahnanac, 
published in 1812. 

Cut No. 182 shows the west wall of a bed- 
room which was formerly our son A. F. Wil- 
liams' bedroom, but since he has taken unto 
himself a Avife they are living in an apart- 
ment on Pershing avenue, and had their first 
anniversary dinner on Monday night of this 
week, this being the 20th of February, 1920. 
The ferns next to the window show for them- 
selves, the bookcase in the corner holds his se- 
lection of books, the picture on the Avail rep- 
resents some kind of a bird found in Old 


Article No. 1. The American Pioneer, by the 
Logan Hi.storical Society, published in Cincin- 
nati, 0., in 1843. R. P. Brooks, printer. 

Article No. 2. Tho Book of St. Louisans in 
1912, a biogi'aphical directory of leading living 
men of tlie city of St. Louis and vicinity. 

Article No. ■]. An epistle to Friends, or 
Quakers, publisliod in 16-58. 262 years old. 

Article No. 4. Prominent St. Louisans, pub- 
lished in 1916, by Ileni'y Brown & Co. 

Article No. 5. M. F. Williams" letter copy- 
book, March 31st, 18.59. 

Article No. 6. A testament so old tliat the 
back is sewed together by I'awhide, having 
written on the flyleaf: "Joseph Williams was 
born on the 10th of the 3rd month, 1805. 

"Anna Williams was born 18th the 6 month 
in 1800. 

"Sallie Williams was boiii"' — and the re- 
mainder of the record is gone. My supposition 
is that this testament belonged to my Grand- 
father Samuel Williams, as they evidently 
started the family record in early days in this 

Article No. 7. An old book inscribed: "Rob- 
ert Williams's book, third month 28th, 1805." 

Article No. 9. A photograph of M. F. Wil- 
liams, taken in the Coliseum in 1914. 

Article No. 10. History of our flag, giving 
the origin of the flag. 

Article No. 10. Copy of the (."lay Worker, 
published in Indianapolis in 1907 ; reference to 
page 380. 

Article No. 11. A photograph of a fishing 
scene in Florida in 1907. 

Article No. 12. An obituary card of Daniel 
R. Witmore, an old member of Fountain Park 
Church, St. Louis. 

Article No. 13. An obituary of Mrs. Sophie 
D. Slanssen, died June 6th, 1910. 

Article No. 14. Copy of Post-Dispatch, April 
3i-d, 1917, giving full text of President Wil- 
son "s address urging Congress to accept war 
as thrust upon us, and use the full power of the 
nation to end it. 

Article No. 15. A very old book containing 
handwriting and examples in arithmetic, Avith 
tho fi-ont and back eaten away by time. This 
liook is Avithout date or name, but is supposed 
to be a copybook at school. 

Article No. 16. Bonnie Belmont, by John S. 
Cochran. John Cochran was one of the sons 
of the WidoAv Cochran, Avhose farm M. F. Wil- 
liams and Joseph Anderson tended in 1865. 

Article No. 17. One verse of poetry by W. J. 
Mannering for M. F. Williams : 

"Render wholesome praise to man 
For all the good that's in him, 
Censure him, or better still, 

Condemn the bad within him ; 

And bear in mind no man's so bad 

But there's some good in him. 

The above is little better than the thiee 
ideas on which it is based, but I fail to find 


better or more concise expression of them. For 
Mr. M. F. Williams. By W. J. Mannering. " 

Article No. 18. A Marconi wireless: "M. F. 
Williams, Willielmina. Greetings, hope voyage 
being enjoyed. Oliver," — which is a Avireless 
from our soil, 0. J. Williams, on our voyage 
either to or from Honolulu. 

Article No. 19. A scrap book of my father 
Robert Williams' album, 1895, containing pho- 
tographs of large families and descriptions of 

Article No. 20. Another Bible, presented to 
me five years ago, while I was in Ohio, by Aunt 
Elizabeth, Avife of my Uncle John C. Comley, 
which Bible belonged to Amos H. Hampton, 
22nd of the 4th month, in 1832. 

Article No. 21. A collection of ore or porous 
rock secured at the crater on the Island of Helo 
in 1918. 

Article No. 22. A guest ticket K-206, from 
the Republican National Convention, St. Louis, 
June 16th, 1896. 

Article No. 23. A piece of a brickbat se- 
cured from the farm, the old Parker farm in 

Article No. 24. A box of gravel from the sea- 
shore, procured from the Catalina Island, in 

Article No. 25. A billiken presented bj^ A. F. 
Williams, which he bought in Washington City 
on one of his trips. 

A paper weight showing Garfield's Monu- 
ment in Cleveland, Ohio. 

A small arithmetic which formerly belonged 
to my Cousin Joseph W. Patterson, who gave 
it to my father Robert Williams, which book 
was published in 1839, and is called the West- 
ern Calculator. 

A hickory handle made by my father from 
a hickory tree on the old home place in Ohio, 
after he was 80 years of age. 

A certificate given to Mrs. M. F. Williams by 
the ladies of the Congregational Church, — of 
no date, but evidently very old. 

A daguerreotype of my mother and father, 
made in 1858 or 1868. 

Another daguerreotype of a female child; 
name not known by me, nor age. 

An old pocketbook of M. F. Williams, con- 
taining old papers, from 30 to 40 .vears of age. 

Another small hip-pocket book containing 
old papers of J\I. F. Williams. 

A pine cone from California. 

A soldier's cap belonging to A. F. Williams 
at the time he joined the Cuban war, and at 
the same time his father got him discharged 
from the Ai'my. 

Some ornaments from Honolulu which are 
used to adorn one's friends when they leave 
on the ship. 

An old right-angle level which formerly be- 
longed to my Uncle S. B. Williams, and was 
presented to me by his daughter Emma, when 
we were in Ohio in August, five years ago. 

The above articles are all on the top shelf 
in the Curio Case. 

Old relics shown in the photograph lying 
upon the radiator at the south end of the Curio 

Case : 

One wooden gun or stock of a gun which 
was used 50 years ago with bow and arrow ; this 
gun stock was purchased by me five years ago 
at the old homestead at Jerusalem, Ohio, where 
a portion of our family were born. The gun 
stock was found under the house by the pres- 
ent owner. He brought it to me on that oc- 
casion, asked me if I would like to have it, and 
I gave his daughter a dollar for it. 

Another article which might be termed a 
spreader or cross-girt in a heavy old wooden 
bedstead — the kind that were made 50 to 75 
years ago, with turned posts and turned 
frames. The present owner at my Grandfather 
Hampton's old homestead had torn the house 
down. T saw this in the basement five years 
ago and begged it of him. 


A crotch of a cherry tree which I procured 
on the same trip in Ohio, down at Gi-andfather 
Williams' old homestead. 

Three sections of a -walnut stump which Elani 
and Eli Gibbons stated was a walnut tree, one 
which Grandfather Williams, in his early days, 
used for a rope walk when he made ropes for 
his OAvn use. 

A piece of sandstone secured at the old 
Grandfather Williams' place on the same trip. 

A piece of wood seven-eighths of an inch 
thick secured from our old home in Baresvillc. 
My sister Jane and I made a trip there, after 
I had been away 41 years. 

An encyclopedia, very old and very nuieh 
defaced; the owner's name is gone. 

Some pine cones procured on a trip, perhaps 
in California. 

A shaft made to represent Washington's 
monument, purchased and presented liy A. F. 
Williams, and which is made from the pulp 
of paper money after it is destroyed, then made 
into keepsakes souvenirs, and sold to the gen- 
eral pulilic. 

Two clam shrlls gotten in ilusoatine, Iowa, 
by myself and wife from a button factory, on 
our \\ay home from her Brother John's place 
in Mason City. Iowa, in 1913. 

An inkstand which wa ; u: cd by me several 
years ago. 

An olntua)-y eai'd of Guy G. JIajor, nuiyor 
of Toledo, Ohio, who was a vei-y \Aai'ni friend 
of the writer and who died about ten yeai-s ago. 

A Holy Bible, comprising the Old and New 
Testaments, aii illustrated Bible, which be- 
longed to Major Stevens, father of Mrs. M. F. 

Another Bible, comprising the Old and New 
Testaments, which is one belonging to Mrs. M. 
F. Williams. 

Another small Bible belonging to my wife. 

One old-fashioned nightcap belonging to my 
mother. One very old blue vest belonging to 

John Shoebridge Williams. A light or yellow 
colored vest was the vest which my father Rob- 
ert Williams was married in. 

A newspaper called the Saturday Union Rec- 
ord, dated Saturday, June 24, 1916, with a 
sketch about "a man with a punch, Milton F. 

A desk set, presented to M. F. Williams by 
his office girls in the year 1916. 

A walking cane which was presented to me 
by one of my cousins in Atlas, Iowa, which 
cane belongs to my Uncle Seth, my mother's 
brother. On this same trip to Iowa we stopped 
over night in Atalissa and I very much desired 
a polished cane and she gave it to me. 

An oak leg of an old-fashioned bench which 
I procured at the old homestead in Ohio some 
five years ago. This bench is the kind made 
by farmei's in olden times by hand. While it's 
very iloul^tful about my father making the 
bench, lio'vevcr it's worth the record to know 
that it was made at one of our old homes in 

A banister from Moro Castle, near Havana 
Ilarljor, Havana, Cuba. While over in Havana 
in 1907 I went with others over to visit Moro 
Castle, and while there I took a banister or 
what a wood turner would call a "round" en- 
clo.sing one of the windows. I took otf my 
coat, as 'twas a very warm day, and wrapped 
iu it this piece of turned coco-bola wood and 
brought it home in my trunk, as a memento of 
^[oro Castle. 

A case containing a few drawing instruments 
which I used when I was drawing plans but 
which tools were mostly lost. They were used 
by my son Judson Williams after I was 
through with them. 

A watch-holding case to fasten upon the 
wall, in the shape of a slipper, presented to 
me by Mary Goetz while I was in Muscatine, 
Iowa, in 1870. 

Three pairs of baby shoes which belonged to 
Mabel Williams, our eldest granddaughter. 


A profile of a man made from papier-mache 
or from pulped greenbacks, made in Washing- 
ton, D. C, and purchased by myself and wife 
some 20-odd years ago. 

A cane, a walking stick, which belonged to 
my father, and which was made and presented 
to him by Eli W. Gibbons, his nephew, when 
father was about 60 years of age. 

A willow basket made by Jane E. Williams, 
sister of M. F. Williams. 

A sheepskin or Avhite leathern apron which 
belongs to M. F. Williams, and was presented 
when he was taking his degrees in Masonry. 

A stamped dish representing Atlas flour. 

A lieadgear made from the fiber of cocoa- 
nuts, which we purchased on the dock at Colon, 
worn by the natives in that coimtry and sold 
as souvenirs. Many young folks, both men and 
women, bought them and wore them on the 
sliip until they got to New Orleans. 

Three ornamented canes which were made 
by the natives over in Culia and sold to travel- 

A ilexiean hat which I purchased in Old 
Mexico on my trip thei'e in ]!)05. 

A small lamp which was used by M. F. Wil- 
liams when he was going to school in Martin's 
Ferry, Ohio, the Avinter of 1867 ; he used this 
lamp to study by at night. 

Next to the lamp is a scorched card, one of 
M. F. Williams' cards, which he scorched on 
the great lava bed near the crater on the island 
of Helo in 1915. 

A number of badges which were collected 
from Brickmakers' Convention; there were 
probably a dozen more, but little Leontine Kal- 
tenbaeh Williams begged some of them, and 
took them with her to California when she was 
four or five years of age. 

Some konk shells which were procured on 
tlie Panama trip when we went to visit the big 

A cast iron paper weight made by Arthur F. 
Williams when he was learning the machinist 

A fish ornament, representing the shell of 
the starfish, which was procured on the Pan- 
ama trip. 

A rattlesnake skin which I bought at Miami, 
Fla., paid $15.00 for it, but it is now becoming 
old, decayed, rotten, and can scarcely be 

All the fish ornaments and shells on the 
lower shelf in the Curio Case were procured 
fi'om Panama on this trip. 

A pair of slippei-s, moccasin slippers, pur- 
chased from the Indians out in Idaho. 

A di'awing of Uncle S. B. Williams' friction 
clutch, of which he made one or two, while he 
was liere on one occasion. 

A pictui-e of Santa Barbara Mission in 18S9, 
made of California yucca palm. 

Two sugar tree spiles made by my father 
ninny years ago when he had a few sugar trees 
on the old homestead in Ohio. When I was 
there last I saw up in the wagon shed a flour 
bari'el half full of these spiles, made from box 

The framed photograph on the wall shows 
M. F. Williams, wife and Arthur, taken when 
he was quite small. 

The horns upon the wall back of the Curio 
Case were procured in El Paso, Texas, when 
coming back from California in 1915. Thej' 

ai'c cut to represent fish. 

Another photograph on the wall back of the 
Curio. Case represents my father and mother, 
my brother Oliver and his son Earl Robert, 
taken many years ago. 

The what-not in the corner we had formerly 
in our parlor. It has been supplanted by arti- 
cles moi'e pretentious. 



Cut Xo. 184 represents our present garage, 
of one story only, 40 feet in length by 20 feet 
in width, occupj'ing 40 feet of the 50-foot lot. 
The end on the west abuts a brick wall which 
is the partition line, leaving a vacancy of 10 
feet on the right to the east for a walk, and 
an entrance to the alley. This garage is capa- 

eilities and a driveway or entrance diagonally 
upo7i the corner, with the ash pit on the corner 
abutting the property on the east. 


The fii'st great cause of the M. F. Williams 
line of descendants, shown in Forest Park in 

ble of hdhling three machines, and could l)y 
crowding hold four. The family having but 
two, have provided ample room for the third 
machine, possibly an electric, for my wife, 
Mrs. M. F. Williams, for her own service, 
should she wish. There is nothing pretentious 
about this garage, though it is ciiuipped with 
electric lights, a heating service, washing fa- 

a favoi-able shady spot. M. F. Williams and 
his wife ai'c standing by their limousine Pack- 
ard car. M. F. Williams in his 73rd year 
and Mrs. M. F. Williams in her 63rd year. He 
having lived in the city of St. Louis, at the 
time of tlie -Hriting of this description, namely, 
November 11th, 1919, over 46 years; having 
been during all that time in the machinery 


business, first as a milhvrisjht -woi-king for oth- 
ers, later on getting in business for himself, 
and finally merging into the Williiuns Patent 
Crusher and Pulverizer Company's business, 
and having just completed our 23rd year in 
that line of business. These families and their 
autos are simply to show progress and ad- 
vancement along their respective pathways in 

and described elsewhere ; he also owned a 
plantation of 1,120 acres, including a sawmill 
and a grist mill, and history states that he 
lost all this property during the Avar of the 
Revolution, and in the spring of 1800 his widow 
and children migrated to Belmont County, 
Ohio, and moved into the log cabin, as is shown 
earlier in this book, on Christmas day, 1800. 
Milton F. Williams, his great-grandson, whose 

Cut No. 185— Mr. and Mrs. M. 

We have now in the year 1919 assumed the 
propoi'tions of a million-dollar corporation and 
have produced over a million dollars' worth of 
product for the past three years, which goes 
to show energy, push and sticktoitiveness. 

Robert Williams, my great-grandfather, set- 
tled in North Carolina about the year 1765 and 
established two mercantile stores, as are shown 

business ability, acquired from the line of de- 
scendants and without any college education, 
has made him the president of the Williams 
Patent Crusher and Pulverizer Company, has 
resided in the city of St. Louis for 46 years, at 
this writing. Our company makes over 257 
varieties of crushers and grinders, and pos- 
sesses over 260 patents covering our line, and 
our first grinder is still in operation in East 


St. Louis, Ills., over 23 years. We have offices 
throughout the world, and thousands upon 
thousands of our crushers and grinders are in 
daily operation in every State in the United 
States, and in over 60 foreign countries, — an 
achievement by a common artisan without 
money and without a precedent in the Wil- 
liams line, who has accomplished something to 
be proud of; but he has not done it all. — his 
three sons, Milton Jndson Williams of Chi- 

Park in Chicago, in the fall of 1919. They have 
another car, a smaller one, a Buick, which his 
wife has learned to drive, and likes very much 
lietter than the larger ear. 

This is M. J. Williams in the photograph, 
our eldest son, in his 42nd year. His wife, 
Anna Williams, is much younger than himself. 

Thc.v have selected a most beautiful spot in 
Jackson Park for a background. 

cago, 111. ; Oliver J. Williams, of San Francis- 
co, Cal., and Arthur F. Williams, of St. Louis, 
Mo., have been valuable assets to the progress 
of the company, and are entitled to due credit 
for same. 


Cut No. 1S6 represents another Williams 
fainilv with their Stutz car, taken in Jackson 

They reside in South Chicago, having pur- 
chased a home south of Jackson Park this 
.year. They have a very nice home and are 
very comfortably situated in a good neighbor- 
hood. (See cut No. 186 A.) 

Cut No. 186A represents the residence in 
Chicago of Milton Judson Williams, our eldest 
son. The premises are located at 7237 Oglesby 
Ave. It has a west frontage and is located in 


the South Shore district of Chicago, Ills., adja- 
cent to the South Shore Country Club. 

Milton Judson Williams is our representa- 
tive in our Chicago office in the Old Colony 
building, and is now rounding out his twen- 
tieth year in that capacity. The house above 
is of the bungalow pattern style, as the half 
tone shows, and is very cozily arranged. It is 

the outside is what is termed "rough cast," 
to make it as near fireproof as possible. The 
garage is of concrete and will hold two ma- 
chines comfortably, as he has a Stutz car and 
his wife a Buick. 

The foliage in the side yard and the hedge 
in front and the beautiful tree ado2-ning the 
sidewalk help to relieve the simplicity of 

in a strictly bungalow district, all of which 
habitations are occupied by business men of 
Chicago, and is but a half block walk to a 
street car line which leads into the city, and 
three blocks from one of the suburban stations 
on the Illinois Central Railroad, and also about 
three blocks from Lake Michigan. 

The premises cost something over ten thou- 
sand dollars. The house in style of finish on 


Cut No. 187 shows Arthur F. Williams, our 
middle son, out in Forest Park, St. Louis, 
Mo., in his Hudson car, along with his wife, 
Lydia Arthur Williams — he in his 40th year 
and she in her 21st year. A. F. Williams is 
vice-president of the Williams Patent Crusher 
and Pulverizer Co. His better half, nee Bray, 



Cut No. 1S7-A sho^vs the residence of Artluir F. Williams, located in 
■'Hillerest,'" St. Louis County, at No. ()8 Arundel Place. 

This residence is of the Spanish-Swiss style of architecture, with French 
windows throughout. It is situated on a lot 55 leet front and 139 feet deep, 
and the walls are of Chaldiau matte finish with stucco trimmings. 

It laces south, while the outlook from the i-eai- windows affords a most 
beautiful view of Nature's own production of sturdy old oaks. Open porches 
at the front and the I'ear are accessible from the casement windows, the front 
one being 30 feet in length, and the rear one adjoining the breakfast room. 

The house contains a reception hall and stairway, to the left of which are 
a lai'ge living room and breakfast j-uom, A\hile on the right are the dining 
room and kitchen. At the rear cf the main stairway is another stairway 
leading to the basement, with closets and all necessary accommodations adjoin- 
ing The house is e<iuipped throughout with hot and cold water, electric lights 
and hai-dwood tlooi's. The heating of the house is liy means of steam. 

The main stairway comprises a second landing, to the left of which is 
Ihc maid's room; next comes the bath room, which is of white tile and marble 
with built-in tub and sliower bath. Fronting the bathroom to the north and 
connecting witli the same, is the nuistcr's bedi-oom, which is 15 feet by 19 
feet, and iirovidcd with ample closets. To the east of the master's bedroom 
is a guest room, which, directly to the r.cnth, adjoins tlie sun parlor, the 
same having five French windows facing the soutli and east, making it a veT'y 
pleasant room thi'oughout the summer. 

At the i-ear of the yard is a brick garage, with capacity foi' two cars, with 
r, di-iveway from the front street and ample space for turning a car. 

Tiie coal is ivceivcd from this driveway directly from the wagon liy means 
of a coal chute leading to the liaseinent. 

Near the center i)f the rear yard is a bii'ds" l)ath made of tci'ra cotta, to 
■which many bii-ds of different hues come every day from the forest of trees 
in the rear of the premises. 



Cut Xo. 187— Mr. and Mrs. .-\rthur F. Williams and their Hudson 

Cut Xo. 188— Mr. and Mrs. O. J. Williams and family in their Stutz touring car 



was born in the Ozark country in Missouri, at his sixth year, and their dairghter; about ten 
or near Morehouse, Mo. years of age, Leontine Margaret Williams. 

A. F. Williams has held for many years the 
position of salesman for our product. For the 
past seven or eight years, dating back from 
1919, he has been the Company's financial man- 
ager, as well as salesman, and the business 
under his management has prospered more 
than ever before, and for the past three years 

This picture was taken in the year 1919, 
about the month of August, in their Stutz 
touring ear, having resided in California about 
11 years. Oliver has represented our company 
for that length of time, has made a showing 
for himself and has just moved into their new 
$15,000 home in Burlingame, Calif, (see cut 

Cut No. 189— Dr. and Mrs. Edgar Carson and son and their Oakland 

our output has been over a million dollars' 
worth per year. 


This cut No. 188 represents Oliver J. Wil- 
liams and his family in Burlingame, Calif., in- 
cluding his wife, Leontine Kaltenbach Wil- 
liams, their son, Jlilton Franklin the second, in 

No. 18SA), and has also finished three bunga- 
lows for sale. He shows energy and thrift by 
his past actions in California. He is well 
known all over the State, and, in fact, in the 
Pacific States, as our company now have al- 
most 700 of our crushers and grinders in the 
Pacific States alone. His office is located at 
67 Second street, San Francisco, near Market 


Cut No. 189 represents Dr. Edgar Carson 
and Florence Carson Williams, and their son, 
Edgar Mason Carson, Jr., sitting upon the 
running boai'd ; their child, our grandchild, is 
just rounding- out his fifth year. This photo 

city of St. Louis, Mo. It is the home of Mr. 
and Mrs. Edgar M. Carson and their two chil- 
dren, presented to them by Milton F. Williams, 
Mrs. Florence Carson's father, and her chil- 
dren's grandfather on her side of the house. 

Cut No. 189.^— Rebidencc of Dr Edgar M Carsc 

was taken in- Forest Park near the Swan Lake 
about July, 1919, in their Oakland car. 

Cut No. 189A illustrates No. 7166 Pershing 
Ave., situated in St. Louis County, about a 
half mile west of the westei'n city limits of the 

It is a cozy and a beautiful little home, with 
the back of the lot just across the street abut- 
ting a suburban railway track, which railroad 
connects to all the city lines as well as passing 
through (Dayton, the county seat of St. Louis 



Born at St. Louis, Missouri, June 22nd, 1921, to Arthur Franklin Williams 
and Lydia Bray Williams, a son, Arthur Franklin Williams, Jr. 


St. Louis, Mc, June 22, 1921. 

Messrs. M. J. and 0. J. Williams : 

My Dear Sons — Out in the offing, in the wee sma' hour of the night, be- 
cwceii the midnight hour and 1 o'clock, the watchman in the crow's nest 
siglited a beacon light by the use of his very strong telescope, and as the 
beacon light approached nearer and nearer, there was heard a cry of distress. 
And as said light approached nearer and nearer, this light was hailed by a 
guifling star which hallooed: "Ship ahoy!" — At this auspicious moment both 
officers and men were alert to discover the coming of a new-born Babe. 

He was not lodged in a manger, but in the arms of the attendants, and 
finally in those of a fond mother. This was not in Bethlehem, but it hap- 
pened in the City of St. Louis, Mo., where anxious expectations ripened into 
joy, as the arrival was pronounced a certainty, and the name was recorded 
,is Arthur Franklin Williams, Jr., and in this camp there was great rejoicing. 
And it is now recorded in the Lamb's Book of Life to the glory of both pro- 
genitors. All hearts are filled with gladness, and the commanding officer, 
after four bells, pronounced: "All is well," — and the meaning of the above 
is that your Brother and his good Wife are blessed with a Boy. 

Your Affectionate Father, 



Cut No. 190A— Arthur Franklin Williams Jr. 


County, which is about one mile west of the 

The surroundings for miles are all new 
buildings. There is not an old building in the 
vicinity. The streets are adorned upon both 
sides of the sidewalk with beautiful young for- 
est trees. This neighborhood is located in a 
valley, and the south landscape presents a 
beautiful view dotted with trees and nice new 
dwellings; it is the same on the north side, 
which is quite sloping and rising to a very 
high ridge, over which one views University 

was born January 29th, 1914. The photo from 
which this cut was made was taken in 1918. 


Cut No. 191 shows M. F. Williams, the au- 
thor, in a most natural position, as it shows 
my daily garb at the office of our factory, as 
it has been for years. In distributing these 
half-tones to relatives and friends, several pre- 
fer the one wearing the apron and the sleeve 
covers. Having been a workman for so many 
years, I feel more at home in this garb than 
anv other. It's rather an unusual garb for a 

Cut No. 190-Edgar Mi-, n C.t, «n .nd Milton l'nuikli!i Williams the Second 

City, a suburban town adjoining the city of 
St. Louis, but having its own corporation. 

This locality on Pershing Ave. is called West 
Portland place. 


Cut No. 190 shows Edgar Mason Carson, son 
of Dr. Edgar Mason Carson and Florence Wil- 
liams Carson, on the left ; and on the right, 
Milton Franklin Williams the Second, the son 
of Oliver J. Williams of Burlingame, Calif. 
Edgar ilason Carson was born February 6th, 
1914, and Milton Franklin Williams the Second 

lousiness man to wear, and 1 freqviently have 
callers remark about it, asking why I wear the 
outfit. The reason is obvious. First and fore- 
most, to keep my clothing clean. Secondly, to 
feel natural, which are two of the best rea- 
sons on earth. These three pictures, cuts Nos. 
191, 192 and 193, were taken in ray 72nd year, 
in 1918. 


Cut No. 192 shows M. F. Williams in the 
garb of a Knight Templar. These three posi- 
tions, taken at one and the same time and upon 


Cut Xo. 191— M. F. Williams in his 72nd year 


Cm No. 192— M. F. Williams in the garb of a Knight Tcmpla 




Cm Xo. 1^)3— M^ F. \\- 



Xo. 194— Grandchildren of M. F. Williams 


the same occasion, are to show the thi-ec dif- 
ferent positions in life. I have never attempt- 
ed to take but the three degrees in Masonry. 
However, my youngest son in California has 
gone to the highest position in Masonry, all 
inside of one year, and is a very enthusiastic 
Mason. I adopted Masonry too old in life to 
be as enthusiastic as some, but I would advise 
every young man to become a Mason early in 
life, as it places before him lessons which he 
cannot obtain in any other manner, even from 
reading the Bible, as Masonry places, before a 
man practical lessons in life that if he adheres 
to and lives by he can't possibly go wrong. 


Cut No. 193 shows Milton F. Williams in a 
dress suit, which is a very rare occasion, — the 
only dress suit he has ever owned, which he 
purchased in London, in 1900. At that time, 
being on a business trip and having to meet 
some of the upper tendom, it seemed to be 
necessary to have a dress suit made, and wear 
a silk tile, as that was all the go, and possibly 
is yet. Even the cab drivers wore silk tiles 
in London. About the only occasion upon 
which I wear a dress suit and silk tile is a ban- 
quet once a year to the Ohio Society. 


I have five grandchildren at the present writ- 
ing, 1920. 

1. Mabel Veronica Williams, the oldest, is 
the daughter of my son Milton Judson Wil- 
liams, and was born 27, 1900. 

2. Leontine Margaret Williams, at the top 
of the tree, is the daughter of my son Oliver 
Julian Williams, and was born May 12, 1909. 

3. Milton Franklin Williams the Second, on 
the left side of the tree, is the son of my son 
Oliver, and was born January 29, 1914. 

4. Edgar Mason Carson, Jr., on the right of 
the tree, is the son of my daughter, Florence 
Williams Carson, and was born February 27th, 

5. Florence Ethel Carson, in the center of 
the tree, is the daughter of my daughter Flor- 
ence Williams Carson, and was born December 
28, 1919. 

Cut No. 194-A shows Mabel Veronica Wil- 
liams, the daughter of my son, Milton Judson 
Williams, when she was five years of age, and 
posed with a model of our grinder and pulver- 
izer in her hand. 


My sister, Jane Elizabeth Williams, who is 
visiting me at St. Louis in November, 1919, 
has been talking over old times. Among other 
things she recalls that the night of the assas- 
sination of President Lincoln, April 14th, 1865, 
Father Robert returned alone from a visit he 
had made in company with Sister Mary and 
appeared much agitated. As Jane was the old- 
est of us children and had the care of us large- 
ly, she noticed Mary's absence, and feared 
from father's actions that something had hap- 
pened to her. She said, "Father! what's the 
matter? Where . is Mary Louise?" "Hush," 
said father, "dont" let your mother hear." 
Mother was confined to the bed for a few days 
at this time. Jane's anxiety was all on account 
of Sister Mary, whom she feared had suffered 
some accident that father was keeping from 
her, so she asked again, "Father, where is 
Mary Louise?" But his mind was full of an- 
other subject. Without answering her ques- 
tion, and with the tears running down his 
cheeks, he said, "President Lincoln has been 
a.ssassinated." The words did not impress Jane 
at the time, but she only felt relief that fa- 
ther's agitation was not on account of any 
misfortune to sister Mary, so she exclaimed: 
"Oh, is that all?" After over 54 years, that 
remark remains in a pigeonhole of our mem- 
ory, and was brought out in talking over old 
times together. 


^:.. ?: 

Cut Xo. iy-)-2— Grandchildren's Tree No. 2 



1. Mabel Yerouiea Williams (Sehiioider), the oldest, is the daughter of 
Milton Judsou Williams, and \vas born August 27th, 1900. 

2. Leontine Margaret Williams, near the top of th<> tree, is the daughter 
of my son Oliver Julian Williams, and was boi'u May 12th, 1909. 

3. Milton Franklin Williams the Second, on the left side of the tree, is 
the son of my son Oliver, and was boi'n January 29th, 1914. 

4. Edgar Mason Carson, Jr., on the right of the tree, is the son of my 
daughter Florence Williams Carson, and was born February 27th, 1914. 

5. Florence Ethel Carson, in the center of the tree, is the daughter of my 
daughter Florence Williams Carson, and was ))oi'n December 28th, 1919. 

6. Arthur Franklin Williams, Jr., jjei'died like a bird on the tip top of 
the ti-ee, is the first-born son of my son Arthur Franklin Williams, and was 
born June 22nd, 1921. 


Cut No. 194A— Mabel Veronica Williams at five years of age 



Cut No. 195— The parents of Milton Franklin Williams and their family 



Parents: Robert Williams, born Sept. 18, 
1809; died August 23, 1903. Married Ma}^ 3, 

Sarah Ann Hampton, born July 17, 1820; 
died July 23, 1906. 

Ten children, of whom six are living in 1920: 

1. Jane Elizabeth Williams, born April 2, 

2. Ilanjiah Ann Williams, born Sept. 13. 
1840; died Dec. 21, 1896. 

3. Mary Louise Williams (Chandler), born 
April 23, 1844. 

- 4. jMilton Franklin Williams, bos'n Oct. 13, 
1846 (author of this History). 

5. Rnthanna Williams (Murdock), born Feb. 

6. Sarah Angelina Williams (Weeks), born 
July 3, 1852. 

7. Seth Oliver. Williams, born Feb. 16, 1855. 

8. Harriet Beecber Williams, born Sept. 9, 
1857; died Oct. 20. 1862. 

9. Frances Cornelia Williams, born Dec. 26, 
]8(il; died Feb. 3, 1911. 

10. Alice Roberta AVilliams, born April 14 
1865; died January 18, 1891. 


What is meant l)y Struggle Mountain? It 
is to illustrate or depict the character of a de- 
termined man. No man in this world can 
make a mai'k worthy of notice without a de- 
termined purpose. It matters not so much 
what is his vocation, as stai'ting out with a 
determined purpose to accomplish an object 
worthy of mei-it. God in his wisdom created us 
all, the tall along with the short — and especially 

the tall,-each having a different disposition, 
some to lead and others to follow, others learn- 
ing teachings which they cannot swallow. M. F. 
Williams from early boyhood had a desire to 
be something, to be somebody, to be known in 
the world as a useful man. Born of humble 
and honest parents, and about as near to 
Nature as it was possible for one to live in 
those daj'S, after failing in farming, financially, 
principally on the account of the rebellion of 
i860 having closed, as has been described pre- 
viously, I started to learn the millwriglit trade, 
under ray uncle, Samuel B. Williams, and my 
earliest partnership experience was with one 
Wm. H. Foreman, whose photograph will adorn 
these pages (Cut No. 156), my partner in the 
millwright business for five years ; I then be- 
came very much dissatisfied witli our progress, 
A\-hich could scarcely be called progress. The 
ups and downs which we had were many, the 
vicissitudes of this period were not crowned 
with what I would term success. Many a time I 
have been discouraged at the difficulties of 
manhood, and thought of my boyhood days: 

"Backward, turn liackward, 
Oh, Time, in your flight. 
Make me a child again 
Just for tonight." 

And then took a new gi-ip. 

The repi'csentation of Struggle ]\Iountain is 
to show the vicissitudes in the life of an ener- 
getic man. It is to depict that a determined 
spirit, a man of energy, a man of sturdy back- 
bone, will not and cannot be downed if God 
spares his life, and if he has sufficient strength 
of character; and Struggle Mountain is intend- 
ed to portray the character of the author of 
this evolution, your humble servant, Milton F. 
Williams. While I had no certain ideals, and 
no height of goal to attain, illustration No. 196 
will show the pilgrim trying to climb Struggle 
^Mountain. While the engraver did not get my 
idea (piite correctly, you will note the repre- 
sentation of an individual on the left side 
amidst the boulders having made a few steps 
above the common level, in usefulness and in 


ability; and while many men are satisfied to 
spend the remainder of their lives upon the 
first mesa, you will kindly note that the pilgrim 
has advanced perhaps to the tenth level; then 
having remained there for a few years, he ad- 
vances on up to other levels which should have 
been shown. Init the reader can imagine. 
"With immense proficiency, a captain of indus- 
try is starting at the gutter and progresses only 
step by step. Then again in these days of 
multi-millionaires, it is more difficult than ever 
to define success. But this depiction will go to 
show that the writer has niet with hundreds of 
reverses, and has never forgotten the old sa.y- 

Struggle Mountain ; and the figure on the top 
of the mountain representing a man with the 
flag of victory in his right hand, is there pro- 
claiming "Eureka." While the easy road to 
success from the top of Struggle Mountain to 
higher peaks beyond is not visible to the naked 
eye, it may be shown by the person descending 
from that point down to the valley where he 
meets the little company of successful men, and 
might be in one sense described as a path 
strewn with roses, green verdure and beautiful 
white lillier;, emitting an aroma which many 
a person would love to enjoy; and when pil- 
grim advances down to the broad valley of sue- 


Cut No. 196 — Struggle Mountain 

ing tliat "when or where you lose an object 
there's the place to go to find it." That by 
having courage and sufficient perseverance one 
can and will (God giving him good health, and 
I always have had good health) -finally attain 
the goal. At some periods of my life I have 
climbed Struggle Mountain by making but one 
step at a time, and sliding backward two ; but 
being a strong believer that "everlastingly 
keeping at it will finally bring the answer "- 
after having spent many years in adversity, and 
after having tried three partners in life in a 
business way, I finally reached the top of 

cess on the right, the people who Avere not pres- 
ent when pilgrims stai'ted to climb the moun- 
tain of struggle, or the struggle of life,-they no 
doubt were busily engaged greeting others who 
had attained success. They are like the world : 
"Laugh, and the world laughs with you, weep 
and you weep alone." No truer saying hath 
ever been quoted. It is human nature over and 
over again. Thus, Struggle Mountain ends my 
autobiography of evolution from babyhood to 
manhood, and thus begins my real business 
career, that has continued with increasing suc- 
cess up to the present time of my 74th year. 



"Now is the winter of our discontent made 
glorious summer by this sun of York, and all 
the clouds that lowered upon our house in the 
deep bosom of the ocean bearing." 


One morning in the winter of 1917, going 
down to work, in our smoke wagon, and taking 
along a neighbor by the name of Thomas Web- 
ster, who has since deceased, he made a remark 
which is true to the life, and oh how simple. He 
stated that the most of our troubles are but 


Many men in the business world cater to 
danism. M. F. Williams never caters to clan- 
ism, but always caters to the public. Trying to 
treat every one alike, showing no favoritism 
or preference to any individual clan. Being a 
Welshman in descent, he believes in playing 
fair and squai'c with evei'y one and working 
strictly upon his merits. 

If possible, train yourself so as to be among 
the persons who hold their anger and do not 
retort until the angered have vented their 
spleen ; then comes your turn and you have 
every advantage, because you are fresh in 
mind, superior in knowledge and can vanquish 
your adversary with a very few words, as a 
soft answer turneth away wrath. This is 


"An honest man should be the noblest work 
of God, and we believe the Creator never makes 
mistakes. ' ' 


"Keeping everlastingly at it brings .success. 

"Constant dropping wears the stone." 

On the other hand, there is a saying: 

"Do others before they have a chance to do 

This is common everyday practice, but not 
one of the commandments. 

Does it pay? No, it does not. "Milton." 

"Save the pennies and the dollars will take 
care of themselves." 


"Industry, sobriety and frugality linked to- 
gether and properly husbanded cannot help but 
bring success." 


"While many men of many minds attend to 
other people "s business, they always get behind. 
Attend to your own business, first, last and all 
the time, and you will win out." 


"In sowing seed, while some will naturally 
fall upon shallow ground, the majority will fall 
upon good ground. Husband your resources 
for your own benefit, and let the devil take the 
hindmost, for he surely will." 

"Treat your fellow man fairly, treat him 
squarely, practice the golden rule, there is none 


"Don't strain at a gnat and swallow a 


Cut No. 197. Have Faith, as faith without 
works availeth nothing. He who hath not faith 
in the first great cause, in a Creator, the first 
beginning, the Divinity of all that is good, the 
reason why we are upon earth, and for what 
purpose we are upon oarth,-falleth by the way- 
side, and never reaches the goal. Should he 
live to a ripe old age he is unhappy, eaiising 
those with whom he comes in contact to be 
unhappy, and he who is without faith never 
accomplishes much in this life. When the babe 
is born and realizes life, the first action, the 


first display of that newly born babe is to 
smile ; and of course later it has to cry ; but a 
babe always smiles first, and its smile, — it 
blesses the world. In its smile it gives promise 
to the older ones surrounding. In its smile is 
a sufficient gviarantee that it came into the 
world for a good purpose. In illustration No. 
197, faith is represented by a most beautiful 
young lady; that young lady having grown to 
womanhood is the pride of her parents. There- 
fore in duty to her and in truth we endow her 
with the name "Faith." A smiling countenance 
denotes happiness. A frown and a wrinkled 
brow denotes melancholy. Some in the world, 
perhaps, all livin<i- beings in the world at times. 

bright side. Faith standing at his back is try- 
ing to encourage him to look through the win- 
dow of light, upon the beautiful hills in the dis- 
tance, the hills and vales which were once cov- 
ered with grass, as grass is immortal ; and in 
any part of the world where grass does not 
grow, man cannot live. Did you ever think 
of it in that respect? Hence grass is immortal. 
Grass is life. The torn up earth in France, 
in Belgium, in Italy and later in Germany and 
many other countries of the old world where 
devastation now reigns supreme, and . where 
vegetation has ceased to grow, — the rising gen- 
eration will have to level the ground, fill up the 
liolcs so ijvass will come again. Whv ? Because 

pass through melancholy ; and reverting back 
to one of the early readers in my boyhood days, 
I remember the following words: "The melan- 
choly days have come, the saddest of the year," 
which would indicate that the writer referred 
to the fall of the year, when the verdure had 
been dissipated by time; and when now is the 
winter of our discontent made only glorious by 
the Summer sun, the pessimist is shown sitting 
at his desk, possibly reading market reports 
which have gone against him. He may be a 
farmer, he may be a tradesman, but at all 
events he is a pessiniist,-no doubt born in the 
dark of the moon, and passing through life 
upon the dark side, seeing nothing of the 

grass is immortal. Grass will be sown by nuin, 
the seeds will be sown by the birds. The seeds 
will be blown by the winds, and grass will be 
immortal. Therefore, as grass is immortal, it 
will grow again over the ground which has 
been di-enched with the red corpuscles of the 
strength of each individual country, even 
America. Many a young man who has been 
the flower of the family, the pride of his 
mother, — his blood will be drained from his 
body, and will drench some foreign land to give 
evidence to Faith that the greatest devastation 
in the world's history will again be covered 
with herbage. 


After giving pessimism a lesson, or the mel- 
ancholy individual a lesson in faith, she last 
but not least finally points to success, — that of 
the optimist upon the top of the mountain. As 
light is everlasting, light will prevail ; Avhat has 
been, will come again. History does repeat 
herself, r.o (|uestion about it. Then the lesson 
which we are to draw from No. 197 is "Faith." 
The engraver tried to show pessimism by the 
entreaties of the young lady "Faith" to wear 
a smile, and we trust that he is wearing a 
smile after first having a frown. A person with 
a cheerful disposition lives longer, does more 
good in life, is a help to those who surround 
him or her. They are looked up to. They im- 
pose confidence. They become leaders. There- 
fore faith now leads on to success. The symbol 
of the optimist upon the top of the mountain, 
backed up by the sun's rays, just approaching, 
to light the traveler upon his weary road 
through life. It is most common in cloudy 
days for the generality of mankind to be pes- 
simistic, but upon the morning of the approach- 
ing sun, after the clouds of despair have been 
dispelled by the beautiful rays of the summei-'s 
sun, we all become more cheerful in life. Again 
repeating: Where there is faith, there is hope. 
We know in truth that the sun shines always, 
and that the sun never goes to sleep ; but while 
the sun is hidden by the earth fi-om our view 
and fi'diuently eovei'ed l)y the clouds of 
dispair, we become as changeable as the wind. 
Therefoi'c, let us remember that the good book 


entreats us: "Be ye steadfast." Have hope 
and be guided Iiy faith. Any man, any woman, 
any child, may have strength of mind. I am 
a strong believer in the fact that mind over 
matter has a veiy gi-eat effect, and we can 
allow ourselves to pass down into the slough 
of despond, or we can walk up to the eminence 
of success by being an optimist. 

IMany persons have faith in jirayci'. Some 
do not, but whether the prayers of the righte- 
ous availeth much, or whether they do not, the 
Creator placed within evei-y individual faith, — 
if thev will onlv exercise it bv strength cf luiiul 

to overcome all adversity, which can be done, 
as a strong mind, if continually exercised, will 
overcome matter. Some may say this is Chris- 
tian Science. Some may say it is moral suasion. 
Some may call it some other science, or some 
other ism, — but it matters not to the writer by 
what name it may be called, "have faith." I 
have seen my dear old mother with the blues. 
I have seen my dear old father with the blues, 
or both giving way to a melancholy mood. I 
have heard that my grandfather upon my 
mother's side at times was almost a mono- 
maniac with melancholy. That he would take 
his gun ujion shoulder, go into the woods near 
by. get near Nature and hunt sijuirrels all day 
long. Finally, after communing Avith Nature, 
being feasted with her beautiful verdure, her 
fragrant wild Houers. the song.s of the beautiful 
birds, the chii-p or bark of the siiuirrel, and per- 
haps lii'inging home two or three squirrels, — 
he would come home at night quite a different 
man. I have heard that my grandfather upon 
my father's side also passed through melan- 
choly periods. Then, that being the case, I 
know I inherited melancholy. Upon one occa- 
sion my father took me on a visit, \v\\n\ I was 
between seven and eight years of age, to my 
grandparents, upon my mother's side, and 
when I returned I was filled with melancholy 
and wanted to go l)aek. I cried, I reasoned 
with my mother, or she reasoned with me, and 
at that age I did not know the cause. Today 
I know the cause. It was houu'sickness to go 
liack to my grandmother. 


Therefore it behooves all of us to believe 
that there is more good in the woi'st of us, and 
some bad in the best of us, so that it never 
becomes any of us to talk about the rest of ns. 

Inasmuch as M. F. Williams inheidted mel- 
ancholia from both sides of the house, is it not 
a wonder that he hasn't been a failure? But 
being possessed by nature of more optimism 
or a greater amount of optimism than pessi- 
mism, and having practiced all my life the 
effect of mind over matter, and fi-equently 


having been swayed by feelings of reverses, 
into the slough of despond, yet I quickly rallied 
and sphinx-like arose from the ashes to accom- 
plishments greater than before, by constant 

The road that is roughest at the stai 
smoothest at the ending. 


In the year 1900, 1 went to Jonesville, Mich., 
to confer with the owner of a cement plant 
about a grinder. I sold the grinder. for grind- 
ing coal. On my way back home I had to take 
a circuitous route to get the Wabash to Chi- 
cago. At the railroad station where I took the 
train was a double track, and l>acking up to the 
station east and west were two othei- tracks 
and two other short connecting trains to the 
junction points waited for the main trains east 
and west. I saw my train coming from the 
east, on its way to Chicago. 1 started over to 
get the train. Coming from tlie west was an- 
other train from Chicago, which did not stop 
at tliis town, and going at brcakiu'ck speed. 
The station master saw my predicament. He 
was a man about 35 years of age, a regular 
athlete. He ran with all the strength within 
him, he put his arm around my body, he threw 
me sprawling onto the platform and saved my 
life, as I was about to cross the track of the 
fast train coming from Chicago, over to the 
second track Avhere the train stopped. That 
Avas as near as I ever came to lieing killed by 
a railroad train. 


The second raih'oad disaster, which I 
avoided, was in a town in Pennsylvania, at the 
tannery of Ganeslan & Fisher. They were 
trying out one of our bark shredders upon 
hemlock bark. The plant was driven electric- 
ally. Some several hundred rods away from 
the tannery, I went down to watch the grind- 
ing of the bark, and stepped out upon the track 
which carried the ground bark down to the 

tannery. A switch engine was coming down 
from the town after cars of leather presumably, 
and the track run close to a small brick build- 
ing, and crossed the tannery track right by the 
edge of the buildhig, which somewhat obscured 
the locomotive and tender from my vision. I 
was standing in the forks of the two tracks. 
Mr. Ganeslan and Mr. Fisher were standing a 
few rods away. They saw my predicament. 
They were afraid to halloo on the account that 
the tender was so close to me, and they both 
told me afterwards their hearts were almost in 
tlieir mouths, fearing to speak. They saw the 
lii-ciuan run over the tender and get down on 
the running board. He took one foot and 
kicked me clear of the track, and I fell sprawl- 
ing on the ground unharmed. 


Upon one other occasion, in 1874, I went up 
to Miller's Landing, Mo., for W. H. Foreman, 
who afterwards was my partner, to balance 
millstones for Mr. Maupin. I got through with 
my balancing. I had taken a train for Wash- 
ington, Mo., to interview the millers to see if 
there was more work there. A train came along 
going to St. Louis. I had promised my best 
gii-1, now my best wife, to go out to Staunton 
and bring her down to the St. Louis Fair, 
which was a great occasion in those daj^s at 
the eld Fair Grounds, which is now a park. 
The conductor, being a veteran railroad man, 
jumped off the train, went into the station win- 
dow to get his orders, and then jumped onto 
Mie train without her stopping. I thought I 
could do the same. I made the lower step. I 
had an umbrella in one hand, a grijj in the 
other. I lost my umbrella, I grabbed the rail- 
ing, a man standing on the platform came down 
and grabbed me by the other arm, and pulled 
me onto the train, or I would have fallen under 
and perhaps been ground to pieces. From that 
day to this, some forty-three years ago, I allow 
the trains to stop before I board them. 


Upon one other occasion, coming in from a 
job at Staunton, 111., while there I had made 
the acquaintance of one Samuel Rathwell, a 


carpenter, who always worked in St. Louis for 
James Stuart & Co. He was working at a 
church upon Beaumont Street. I went up to 
saj' hello to Samuel, and while standing on the 
lower floor of the church talking a 2 by 12 
joist, 16 feet in length, came down endwise 
within a foot of where I was standing. 


Upon another occasion in the mill of Messrs. 
Woodward & Dwight at Staunton, 111., Avhieh 
has long since been obliterated from the face 
of Mother Earth, and tenement houses built 
in its stead, I was busily engaged in instalUnff 
a three-run husk frame for ilessrs. Woodward 
& Dwight, and upon these three-run of stone, 
Robert L. Downton. afterwards manufactured 
the famous self-raising Hour. Either Gon- 
dolpho or \Vm. Downton could recall the name 
of that Hour, which was so famous that Messrs. 
Woodward & Dwight paid Robt. L. Downton 
.$5,000.00 for one year not to prepare any more 
flouring mills for a year. Downton took the 
money and went to Europe, and wlien he le- 
turned it is safe to say he hadn't any left. 
While I still cherish a warm and tender mem- 
ory for Robt. L. Downton, he ilii'd owing me a 
few dollars, and I attribute a portion of my 
success in the world to Downton 's push in 
•cursing me and telling me I had got to do 
what he commanded. What haiipcncd at this 
mill is this: In lowering d'lwn fiom the second 
floor, one of the master wheels into the pit of 
the husk frame having a two-ton chain lilock 
fastened onto a chain en the third Hoor with 
v.n iron rod extending thrcugh a link of the suddenly a link brcke. Thos. 11. llowniil 
Wi!;-, i 1 the well hole of the husk frann' handing 
soindhin?',- down to ;\I. F. Williams. Tlic fh;:in 
breaking, and the v.-eight of the mastei- wheel 
puUiiig down upon the chain l^locks, allowed 
the upper chain 1)lccks rheaves to fall upon my 
liiiht hand just grazing Thos. Howard's head, 
he stooping over with the back of his neck 
exposed. If it had hit him, he would have 
been a dead one ; and my right thumb from the 
joint out — the second joint — was so badly 
laeei'atfd that it had to be amputated. Thus I 

have been thumbing it ever since, and still feel 
one hundred cents on the dollar. 


In the year 1907, in the month of May, when 
we had our first strike, the effects of this striko. 
the shock from it, gave my nervous system such 
a shock that it brought on diabetes; and now 
in my eleventh year with diabetes, having 
fought it, and having a strong constitution, I 
feel that it has not weakened my system, or up 
to this writing shortened my days. One night 
in January, in our residence, I had a fall down- 
stairs, by backstepping from a telephone call, 
but notiiiiig serious resulted. A few weeks 
thereafter, I had another fall, from our eleva- 
tor pent-house hi the new concrete building; 
at this time I fell six or eight feet, or more 
properly I slid stairway and all. My ankles 
\\'cre caught between the two lower steps and 
must have been spraini-d. Although I looked 
around, to see if any one ::aw me, I had to laugh 
with joy that 1 was not seen in my foolish act, 
and AAas uninjmed. Alxmt three weeks after 
that time 1 was taken ivith a very severe pain 
in my right leg below the knee, and for ten 
nights I could nut lie in bed, could not sleep, 
only by sittinu- uj) with kntn's against the I'adi- 
ator. I went to a doctor, then had x-rays 
taken: and while at times my lower limbs are 
weakened b\- walkinti, at othei' times I feel as 
good as e\cr. bnt I h;iven't the action I for- 
merly had ill iii.\- limbs and feet; but I never 
was an athlete though a fairly good walker. 

:my iiosi>itai> experience 

Li ISSI! ai- 
:\fessi's. Down 
planning an,! 
August for th 

.V: M 

nl ceased woi'king for 
Hit at mill construction 
(ling. I went to work in 
C. & W. Todd & Co., at 

H]9 North Secmd Sti-eet. The first work they 
placed me at w as to I'cconstruct a mill at Ash- 
ley, 111. While there I contracted chills and 
fever, and there also developed a very severe 
pain, which caused me to go to bed, and go 
under the care of a doctor. This doctor, how- 
ever, not being the most proficient in medicine, 
I did not think he undei-stood my case. After 


treating me for at least three weeks, I decided 
and he advised, that I come to St. Louis and 
go under treatment of Dr. Gregory, who was 
then practicing at the Mullanphy Hospital. I 
came from Ashley alone upon the train, and 
from the old Union Depot at Twelfth Street 
upon a Cass Avenue car, and after arriving at 
home, at 2518 Bacon Street, and frightening 
my wife almost out of her wits (as she did not 
know I was ill) we called ;in Dr. Gregory. He 
diagnosed my case and stated I would have to 
go to the Mullanphy Hospital, which was prac- 
tically across the street. I went to the hospital, 
remained there about two weeks, and during 
that time a most severe internal abscess de- 
veloped. After being lanced and relieved in 
another week's time, I left the hospital and went 
to my home. This, however, was about the first 
of September of the year mentioned above. 
Lying there and looking out the window south, 
I can today plainly see our little red-headed 
boy playing out in the alley with his wagon, 
and other children (which boy at that time was 
our present son of 40 years, M. J. Williams). 
After the experience in the hospital, in about 
90 days T recuperated, ami soon -was l)ack to 
woi'k better than ever, as this abscess had the 
effect of draining my system of the poison 
which I received in IllinciT from the raiasmic 
condition of the country at tliat time. 

I continued on for G. & W. Todd & Co. this 
fall of 1883 and through the winter. I finally 
went back into business with Wm. H. Scott, of 
311 Convent Street, which incident has been 
previously related. Referring to the cause of 
the injury or that which brought on the 
abscess, I really attribute the cause to a fall 
which I previously had at Gillespie, 111., while 
working in a flouring mill in the Avinter of 
1882, for one Jacob Querbach, I was installing 
in this mill one stand of Downton Rolls, also 
constructing a double two-reel bolting chest, 
and one single reel bolting chest, and other 
machinery. While passing over one of the trap 
doors of the wheat bin — the first receiving 
wheat bin — some one had carelessly left the 
cover off, and I was precipitated downward 
with my right leg and was considerably 
bruised and injured for some little time ; and 

I am now convinced that the prime cause of 
my sickness and being laid up in the hospital 
was from this fall. 


The following newspaper clipping refers -to 
Joseph Garretson, who married my great aunt, 
Elizabeth Williams, the sister of John Shoe- 
bridge Williams, and the daughter of my great 
grandfather, Robert Williams. It was sent me 
by her son, Joseph W. Doudna, Atlas Star 
Route, Barnesville, 0. Joseph Garretson mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Williams, 
of Carteret Co., N. C, and had five children- 
Asenath (Doudna), Asa, Joseph W., Elizabeth 
Jr. (Wilson), and John W. Garretson. 

"Joseph W. Doudna, of this vicinity, has an 
article of agreement between the citizens of 
liai'iiesville and Joseph Garretson, made one 
hundred years ago. It was written on good 
paper -and is well preserved. The article agrees 
to employ Joseph Garretson to teach the 
liarnesville school for the term of one year, 
specifying that the branches to be taught were 
reading, writing, spelling and arithmetic in 
the best manner that he was capable of, at a 
price of six dollars for each scholar, to be paid 
(j'uarterly, one-half in cash and the other half 
in '\\-heat and corn, delivered at market price 
at his house or in such mill as he may direct. ' 
The article stipulated there should be not less 
than twenty-five scholars or more than thirty. 

"This was the condition of Barnesville one 
hundred years ago. The article was signed 
March 12, 1811, when the town was less than 
three years old. The teacher, Joseph Garret- 
son, was the father of the well-known Asa 
Garretson, of later years, and from accounts 
we have of him he was a man of great ability 
and was regarded as one of the best teachers 
in this part of the state. Among the subscrib- 
ers to that school we find the following names. 
How few of them are known to anybody living 
in Barnesville today: Jacob Myers, John Me- 
chem, James M. Rownd, Solomon Coles, Henry 
Grear, John Shannon, Tobias Coone, Rebecka 
Dodd, Joseph Arnold, William Hodgin, Richard 


Croj', Joseph Taj'lor, Richard Medley, Solomon 
Morris, Henrj' Barnes, Zacherias Bailey, Isaac 
Coppock, Robert Plummer, Joseph Middleton, 
Barnaby Clark, John Grier. " 


My father's sisters, Elizabeth and Peninah 
Williams, married brothers, James and Joseph 
Gibbons. My aunt Peninah -was the mother of 
Eli Gibbons. 

This letter from my cousin Eli Gibbons, in 
his SOth year, gives a glimpse of hard work, 
simple pleasures, and well-earned success in a 
tjuiet life — not one torn and tossed about in 
business competition, but content to strive 
earnestly, live honestly, and leave to his chil- 
dren a better farm than it was when he and 
bis ^brother Elam agreed to help their father 
Avork it and pay off the mortgage. 

P.arnosville, 0., 13/3rd mo/20. 

"Milton F. Williams: 

Dear Consin-Thy very welcome lettei' just 
received this evening and after the reading of 
thy truly good offer I thought that I would 
start to answer it tonight. It is now half past 
nine o'clock. 

"Now, my dear Cousin, a sketch of my life's 
history at the age of 74 years. In the company 
of my brother Elam (16 years old) and my 
grandfather, Samuel Williams, I left Somotton 
in the afternoon in the year 1854, and we 
walked to Barnesville, Ohio, and stayed all 
night at Cousin Robert Starbuck's. The next 
day we walked on to Baresville to visit three 
of my uncles that lived there and stayed aliout 
a week. Then Elam and I walked back to 
Barnesville and stayed all night at R. S. ; then 
came on home the next day. Grandfather 
stayed at Barnesville to have a longer visit. 

Now I am going to make a big .jump. In 
1864, when Elam and I were at school at Mt. 
Pleasant, our second term, my. father had a 
letter written to us at Mt. Pleasant. (Father 
never Avrote a letter in his life that I remem- 
ber). That he thought of buying a farm of 150 
acres, so he wanted to know if us boys would 
stay with him and help pay out on the farm ; 

Ave said all right. (Elam and I never eat crow). 
Finally the farm got to be over 200 acres. In 
1868 we put up a $4,000 house. Elam worked 
26 years after he was 21 years old, and I 
worked 24 years after I was 21 years old. Then 
we were under a mortgage of $2,500. We di- 
vided the mortgage and Elam took $1,250 and 
I $1,250. Elam got 70 acres and I got 58 1-4 
acres. Elam and I laid under a mortgage 44 
years of our lives. We finally lifted the debt 
and not a scratch of paper rests against this 
farm. Elam sold his farm years ago, all but 

21 acres; he sold that some two years ago. His 
health is pretty good now, and my health is 
pretty good. 

"I have been sick with the grip, but am bet- 
ter. I will (|uit this letter for tonight. 

"14th of the third month, morning. I will try 
and finish this letter before I go to town. I am 
feeling in my usual health this morning, the 
rest of the family are nearly in the enjoyment 
of health. 

"Now for some more history; there was a 
field on the place that had not been plowed for 

22 years and it had grown up in locust bushes 
and briars, etc., and we wanted to have it put 
in coi'u and oats so it had to be grubbed first. 
I went in to clearing the field. I worked three 
hours one day and took up 128 locust bushes 
in the three hours, then another day I started 
out with my mattock and looked back and saw 
my daughter Edith with her mattock on her 
shoulder following me. We both worked six 
hours that forenoon before we went to dinner. 
I think we took up as many grubs that fore- 
noon as the men that wanted $2.00 per day for 
work. I think we grubbed as much in that six 
ho^irs as the two men would have grubbed in 
a day, and would have cost us $4.00. Well, we 
kept on till wje finished the grubbing of all the 
field. Our estimate was we saved about .$50.00, 
what wn would have had to pay for hired help. 
Of course the men worked by the whistle, or 
eight hours a day. I never worked by the 
whistle, though when I was a boy, I used to 
make walnut whistles. Edith could grub up a 
bush as quicj: as her father could; she was a 
chip off' the old block. We got the grubbing 


done and the field was ploAved and planted in 
corn and oats. The girls had 32 hundred 
pounds of phosphate put on that eleven acres 
and it was the best crop of corn I have had on 
the farm ever sinee I lived on the farm, 49 

"I will not give my answer to thy offer at this 
time, but I wish to thank thee for thy generous 
offer. Now in regard to that list of names, — 

War. He left Ohio, along with two other 
brothers, about when he had reached his ma- 
jority. He now draws a pension as a Civil War 
veteivm. I have been corresponding with him 
for several years, as he is a survival of the 


The only Quaker wedding which I have wit- 
nessed was that of my cousin, Robert W. Hamp- 

-.^mos H. Hampton 

mother's brother 

we are waiting on Elwood and Joseph DeWees 
and Oliver I^innus for their list. 

As ever thy cousin Eli, with much love." 


Cut No. 201 represents my mother's brother, 
my uncle Amos H. Hampton, who lives at For- 
est Grove, Oregon, in his 84th year, still hail 
and hearty, and the only survivor of my moth- 
er's familv. He is an old soldier of the Civil 

ton, wedded to Anna IS. Bundy. Robert Hamp- 
ton at that time lived with his father, John 
Hampton, at Viola, Linn County, Iowa, or near 
there. Anna B. Buudj' lived out near Maul- 
town, near Colerain Post Office, in Belmont 
County, Ohio. 

It is previousl.y recorded in this history (page 
72) that the method of marrying among the 
Friends is for the contracting parties in wed- 
lock to announce their intentions of marriage 


at several previous monthly meetings, with the 
consent of their parents ; and then they both 
get up in open meeting, and without the aid of 
a minister, take their mutual vows in the pres- 
ence of the whole congregation of both men 
and w.omen who are witnesses, and I do net be- 
lieve that I have ever heard of Quaker people 
becoming divorced. 


Cut No. 198 shows a side view of the wooden 
bridge which spans a small river about live 

time and again, that he received 50 cents per 

day for his service. 

The photograph was taken in 1920 in Paris, 
Kentnck.y, and was authorized by the writer 
through the information received from Mary 
Louise Williams, near Paris, Kentucky, now 
living in the sulnirbs ; she is a distant cousin, 
and about eighty-one years of age. 

1 consider this acquisition a very ricn dis- 
coverv in mv historical work, and it is dedi- 

Cut No. 19S — Side view of bridge near Paris, Kj 

miles north of Paris, Kentucky, which wooden 
covered bridge was erected by my Uncle Joseph 
Williams, when my great uncle, John Shoe- 
bridge Williams, engineered and constructed a 
turnpike about 90 years ago from Zanesville, 
Ohio, to Florence, Alabama. 

My father, Robert Williams, worked upon 
this turnpike, as a common laborer at the time 
of its construction ; and I have heard him say 

iams, mv father's eidest 

cated to Joseph Wi 

This same turnpike passed througii the farm 
as above mentioned about live miles north of 
Paris, Kentucky, where Uncle Joseph Williams 
found his wife, my aunt Sarah Mitchell 

The railroad bi'idge seen in the distance 
underneath the suspended wooden bridge 


shows a more modern style than the wooden 
bridge of the old days. 


Cut No. 199 shows one end of the same 
bridge spanning the small stream and built by 

bridge which my uncle, Joseph Williams, built 
upon the same turnpike, and possibly spanning 
the same stream about five miles south of Paris, 
Kentucky. The latter bridge has been replaced 
by a steel and iron bridge, possibly for the past 
ten years. 

Cut No. 199— End 

bridge near Paris, Ky. 

my uncle Joseph Williams. This bridge is still 
standing and in good repair, almost 90 years 
of age ; as a matter of fact it is reasonable to 
suppose that some parts have been renewed 
from time to time. There is, however, another 


Joseph Williams, first child of Samuel and 
Sarah Arnold Williams, was born March 10, 
1805, at the old home of my grandfather. 


Samuel Williams, down on 16 Creek, where 
grandfather once operated a water power saw 
mill, which sawmill was built by Uncle Joseph 
Williams and was referred to in a letter in this 
history, written to his intended wife before 
marriage. He died January 21, 1891, aged 85 
years 10 months and 11 days. He was the eldest 
of eleven children and the brother of my 

Samuel B. Williams and Ruth Anna Hamp- 
ton Williams, had seven children. My mother 
and my aunt Ruth were sisters. 

Joseph Williams was a grand old man. In 
his early days, it is worthy of note, he Avorked 
with his uncle, John Shoebridge Williams, 
about 00 years ago in helping to build a turn- 

Cut Xo. 200— Josfpli \Vi 

my father s oldest brother 

father, Robert Williams, and of my uncle, San.- 
uel B. Williams. 

Joseph and Samuel Williams were mill- 
wrights together. My uncle Joseph Williams 
and his wife, Sarah Wright Mitchell, had si.x 
children ; my father and my mother Sarah Ann 
Hampton Williams, had ten children. 

pike from Zanesville, Ohio, to Florence, Ala- 
bama. My imcle Joseph constructed, accord- 
ing to history, all of the bridges of any ini' 
portance on this turnpike. 

In constructing said tui'npike, the same 
pas-.ed through the farm of a ]\Ir. Mitchell, 
which farm now is. located near and in the 


suburbs of the town of Paris — the boundary 
line in fact passed near the farm. At thii 
farm, while Joseph Williams was constructing 
a wooden bridge, he met and courted Sarah 
Wright Mitchell, and they were mari'ied June 
18, 1835. As no other kinds were built in those 
days but wooden bridges and stone bridges, 
we here present half-tones of the bridge about 
five miles north of Paris, Kentuek.y, which is 
standing today, almost if not iiuite 90 years 
of age. (See cuts Nos. 198 and 199.) 

As he was a millwright and a woodworker, 
this bridge building ability is very uncommon, 
and it would be strange today to think of a 
millwright building a bridge. But why not? 
My uncles Joseph and Samuel were exceptional 
iueehanies ; they were millwrights, wheel- 
wrights, and any other kind of a wright where 
mechanical wood work was concerned. I have 
seen one or two tiller wheels made by them 
for steering steamboats. They certainly were 
exceptional mechanics even in those days ; both 
were honorable men and filled a place in their 
time, and their children and de.:cendants to- 
day, and their grandchildren as well as their 
grandchildren's children, may well be proud 
of them. 


Note that it took a week in those days for 
a letter to go from Paris. Ky., to Barnesville, 
Ohio, about 250 miles. Their marriage took 
place, June 18, 1835. 

This letter is 85 years old, and was addressed 
to Miss Sarah W. Mitchell, N. Paris, Bourbon 
Countv, Kv. 

■Barnesville, Belmont Co., Ohio, 

January 27, 1835. 

Respected Miss : 

I have the extreme pleasure of informing you 
of the reception of your letter by yesterday's 
mail, it having been mailed on the 19th inst.. 
which shows that it came in due course of time, 
which if it had been detained on the way, as 
they frequentl,y have been, it would have given 
me great uneasiness, as I was waiting with 
interest, even anxiety, for the reception of 
yours, as I considered my happiness or misery 
entirely depending en your determination on 
the subject, that has and yet does claim oiir 
attention, which I sincerely hope may ever be 
the case, until the day ma_y arrive which will 
determine my sincerity by a confirmation of 
the same. I may assure _you that I have expe- 
rienced much uneasiness, J may say beyond my 
ability to expre 'S by words. 

"Since I received a letter from .vcu which 
arrived here in a few days after my arrival at 
home, and after I had written to you, which I 
answered immediately; the same you have not 
received, I suppose when you wrote to me 
last, in fact it had not time to come to hand 
against the time that you wrote. At the same 
time it gave me great satisfaction, as it is a 
decided evidence of your sincerity towards 
me, which I never have had the least reason 
to doubt at any former period. I say that it 
heightened you in ray estimation beyond ex- 
pression, which was unnecessary, as you before 
stood in higher estimation with me than any 
person that I ever before saw, which you no 
doubt understood from ray language when with 
you. I believe you when you say that you 
would not have neglected me as I did you 
under any circumstances whatever. 


Cut No. S7 — Uncle Joseph Williams and Family. 



L Joseph Williams, born March 10, 1805; died Jan. 22, 1891. 

2. Sarah Wright Mitchell Williams, born Jan. 8, 1808; died Dec. 19, 1888. 

-i. Martha Williams-Starbuck, born Jnly 28, 1836; died Ang. 16, 1911. 
(Married Robert Starbuck.) 

4. Josephine B. Williams-Baggs, born Nov. 16, 1837; died March 27, 1901. 

(Married Jaines T. Baggs.) 

5. Sarah Elizaljeth Williams-Baggs, born July 23, 1840; died June 24, 1864. 

(Married Andrew J. Baggs.) 

6. William Henry Harrison Williams, born Feb. 28, 1843 ; died May 7, 1845. 

7. Ruth Rebecca Williams-McKinney, born March 29, 1845 ; died Sept. 1, 1917. 

(Married William S. McKinney.) 

8. Virginia Hamilton Williams-Bedel, born Feb. 18, 1850; died Oct. 18, 1887. 

(Married Mahlon Bedel.) 


■'I thank you for forgiving me for the tres- 
pass that I eominitted towards you, which I 
feel incapable of ever obviating to my entire 
satisfaction, although you have tendered to me 
your forgiveness for the same, for which I 
shall feel ever grateful to you. 

"I beg of you to entirely eradicate the idea 
that it was an intentional neglect towards you, 
as I would consider it an unpardonable sin in 
me to in the least degree neglect you, or act 
in a way that would have the least tendency 
to injure your feelings ; as the past has taught 
me a lesson that I shall never forget, while I 
am permitted to remain on earth and among 
men. You must excuse me for saying so much 
on the subject, as I am constrained by my feel- 
ings to say what I have said on the subject. 

"Your letters shall be promptly attended to 
hereafter, and it is my particular reijuest for 
us to keep up a lively correspondence, as it is 
the next thing to being in each other's society. 
I have to give you information that it will be 
out of my power to see you before (forgive me) 
the first of April next, as I am now eng-aged in 
btiildingf a saw mill for my father, wliich will 
continue all the time between now and then ; 
and the distance between us being consider- 
able it seems indispensibly necessary for rae 
to get through before I leave here. I may state 
that my father's family are now enjoying 
pretty good health, which is the case with my- 

"You will please write on the reception of 
this, as I shall be looking for one in due season 
after this has had time to arrive. 

"I wish you much great success in the ex- 
cursion that yon mention. 

With much respect I remain, yours, 


This letter was received on the 23d day of 
March, 1920, from Mary Walling, my second 
cousin, and the wife of Arthur Walling, of 
Bridgeport, Belmont Co., Ohio. 

This letter was written by Uncle Joseph 
Williams, my father's eldest brother, after they 
had finished the turn pike and the bridges on 
the turnpike from Zanesville, Ohio, to Flor- 
ence, Alabama. 

And this very letter commemorates two other 
important incidents in our history. I have 
often wondered, but always supposed that 
Uncle Joseph Williams and Uncle Samuel B. 
Williams built Grandfather Williams' saw mill 
down on a little creek called "Sixteen,"' which 
I suppose was in township sixteen, in Belmont 

When I was a lad, I have been at this saw 
mill before I was five years of age, time and 
time again, which saw mill is described in the 
history by an imaginary picture of the saw 
mill, close by Gi'andfather Williams' house. 

But when I was in Ohio five years ago last 
August 1 visited this place, and there was 
nothing to be seen of the mill but the tail race. 


This clipping of the Kentuckian-Citizen, 
Paris, Kentucky, under date of Saturday, 
March 13, 1920, was sent me by Miss Maiy 
Louise Williams, the oldest daughter of Benja- 
min F. Williams and Rebecca Ward, of Paris, 
Ky. It is of interest because my great uncle, 
John Shoebridge Williams, laid out this turn- 
pike, and my uncle, Joseph Williams, built 
many of the bridges along the route. 



BRUCE MILLER, Publisher 

One Year ....- $2.00 Six Months.. 


The Western Citizen.... Established 1807 

The True Kentuckian Established 1866 

(Consolidated Sept. 1, 1886.) 

Established 1807 — 113 Years of Continuous Publication. 

(Oldest Newspaper in Kentucky.) 

Published Every Wednesday and Saturday 

The Kentucky Herald (Paris) ...1797 

(Approved March, 1797, by the Legislature as medium for official publi- 
cations. Name changed 1807 to W^estern Citizen.) 

Entered at Postoffice at Pai'is, Kentucky, as mail matter of the second class. 


(By R. S. Porter) 

A news item in the daily papers recently 
telling of the removal of one lone tollgate in 
the northern part of Indiana recalls the 
removal of these tollgates from the turnpikes 
of the State several years ago, some removed 
by order of the courts and others chopped 
down at midnight by bands of raiders, and also 
brings to mind memories of coaching and stag- 
ing through Kentucky in antebellum days. 

The first macadamized road in the South was 
surveyed by order of the Secretary of War 
from Zanesville, 0., to Florence, Ala., and the 
work of building it was begun in 1829 at Mays- 
ville, Ky., the road being extended to Lexing- 
ton by private individual subscriptions, though 
the State paid .$212,000, one-half of the entire 
cost of the road. 

In 1830 Congress passed a bill appropriating 
$150,000 to aid the enterprise, but President 
Jackson vetoed the measure. This turnpike, 
however, was called the National Road, and 
was used by the stage coaches in carrying mail, 
passengers and baggage, and by private car- 
riages carrying notables to the National 

Along this road may still be seen a number 
of iron mile posts, bearing the insei'iptious of 
Zanesville, Maysville, Paris, Lexington and 
Floi'ence. It is told that once when President 
Jac'k;;cn was passing over this road in his 
private carriage, en route to Washington, his 
driver made some inquiry regarding the direc- 
tion at a point whei-e two roads crossed, and 
was purposely sent the wrong way. The Presi- 


dent's driver went several miles before the mis- 
take was discovered, and General Jackson was 
much annoyed and angered over the occur- 
rence. This was before Congress voted the 
appropriation to aid in building the National 
Road, and probably accounts for the later veto 
of the measure. 

The stage coaches of those days were capa- 
cious vehicles, carrying about twenty-five 
pieces of baggage and about two dozen passen- 
gers-twelve inside and twelve on top-the oiit- 
side seats being in demand in summer, that the 
traveler might better view the beautiful coun- 
try through which the road ran. The coaches 
were drawn by four and sometimes six spii'ited 
horses of splendid size, which were changed 
every eight miles at regular stations. Often 
red plumes would be placed on the head of each 
horse, adding to the picturesque appearance, 
and the arrival of the stage at each station on 
summer days was a notable event, which 
always called forth the villagers to watch the 
travelers alight and depart. 

The drivers of the stages were in a special 
class, possessing firmness of character as well 
as great physical strength. Of the drivers who 
made regular trips through Kentucky may be 
mentioned Bob Goodrich, Alexander Winans, 
Joe Mays, Isaac Brown, Will Darby, Frank 
Parker, George Pierce, Jim Brown. Jack Hook, 
John Griffith, George Laws and Joe Smith. All 
of them have long since passed to their reward, 
but have left behind them many descendants 
to perpetuate their names. 

Jack Hook and John Griffith were residents 
of Paris. The formei" was known in his day as 
the best judge of horseflesh in Kentucky. 
Though small of stature, he was a perfect giant 
in strength, which lie used to good advantage 
on belligerent passengers. John Griffith was 
a typical Kentuckian in size, being six feet 
three inches, and weighing 285 pounds. He 
was noted for his remarkable .strength, and on 
one occasion when his stage was overturned he 
righted it without assistance. On several occa- 
sions he put trouble;oiiie and intoxicated pas- 

sengers out of the stage and drove off, leaving 
them standing by the roadside. 

One of the stage lines was owned by Maj. 
Henry Johnson, brother of Vice President 
Richard Johnson, who is said to have lost 
$50,000 in the business when an opposition line 
was started. James G. Blaine, who was then 
a teacher in Johnson's Military School at Blue 
Lick Springs, was a passenger every fortnight, 
going to Millersburg to call on his fiancee, Miss 
Stanhope, whom he afterward married. Miss 
Stanhope was at that time a teacher in John- 
son's Female College at Millersburg, Bourbon 

Tlie most noted stopping places for the 
stages in Kentucky were the Phoenix Hotel 
in Lexington, the Paris and Bourbon Hotels 
in Paris, Col. Jack Throckmorton's Hotel near 
Millersburg, and the hotel at Blue Lick 
Springs. On one occasion when Henr.y Clay, 
John Harlan and several other distinguished 
SoutliciMU'i's wci-e on route to Washington, they 
got out < f the stage to stretch their legs, per- 
haps, and went into the inn at Blue Lick 
Springs while the horses wore being changed. 
They lingered a low moments longer than 
pleased Pierce, an irritable South Carolinian, 
who drove off flud left them. Mr. Clay and his 
friends hired a private carriage and drove six 
miles before they overtook the stage. Mr. Clay 
gave Pierce a stinging rebuke, but he and Har- 
lan continued the journey with him. 

A short time afterwai'd Mr. Clay was again 
Pierce's passenger coming from Washington, 
and was given the most courteous attention 
throughout the journey. This time the famous 
statesman was giving public dinners at Mays- 
ville, Millersburg, Paris and Lexington, stop- 
ping a day at each place, and receiving hearty 
welcome at each point. 

There \vas much suppressed excitement along 
the line when Santa Anna was being taken in 
a coach through Kentucky to Washington, due 
to the massacre of Kentucky soldiers by the 
General's troops, and a few outspoken persons 
showed him but scant courtesy. Genei'al Santa 


Anna stopped overnight at Colonel Throck- 
morton's inn near Millersburg, and the next 
morning when the stage was ready to continue 
its journey, the famous Mexican soldier had 
not arisen. 

"Where's Santa Anna?" inquired ' Driver 

' ' The General is yet asleep, ' ' said one of the 
Mexican attendants, "and he never permits 
anyone to awaken him." 

"Damn Santa Anna," said Darby, "the 
United States mail don't wait for anybody," 
and with that Darby kicked on the General's 
door until Santa Anna arose from his bed. He 
was then hurried into the stage without being 
given an opportunity to eat his breakfast. 

Jefferson Davis, the President of the Con- 
federacy, was often a passenger over the stage 
lines, and frequently stopped over in Paris to 
see his niece, Mrs. Jane Alexander, and also 
at Blue Lick Springs to recuperate lys health 
at that fashionable Southern resort. Hugh 
Davis, a nephew of the illustrious Confederate, 
once fought a duel at Blue Lick Springs, M'ith 
one of Aaron Burr's dueling pistols, which was 
loaned him for the affair. During one of Jef- 
ferson Davis' visits at this watering place he 
witnessed Ben Johnson of Mississippi and a 
party of Southerners amuse themselves by 
pitching twenty dollar gold pieces at a crack 
in the floor— the gentleman whose coin fell 
nearest the crack winning all. 

Other distinguished men who were stage 
passengers to Blue Lick Springs were Gen. 
Winfield Scott, Gen. John R. Wood and Sur- 
geon Gen. Lawson, who came to Kentucky to 
acquire the Blue Lick Springs for the United 
States Government with the view of convert- 
ing the property into a military hospital. The 
deal was not consummated, however, and the 
Harrodsburg springs were purchased instead. 
General Scott, on one of his trips, stopped over 
at the Bourbon Fair in Paris (and made a 
speech in behalf of his candidacy for Presi- 
dent). Daniel Webster was another famous 

passenger who once came to Paris to make a 
speech at one of the barbecues which had made 
this section famous for its hospitality. 

The last stage coach to be run regularly in 
Kentucky made trips between Cave City and 
the Mammoth Cave before the cave was con- 
nected with the outside world by a railroad. 
This stage was held up several times by high- 
waymen, once, it is alleged, by the famous 
James bi'others of Missouri. The late Colonel 
John Givens Craddock, for many years famous 
throughout Central Kentucky and the adjoin- 
ing states as the editor of the Paris True Ken- 
tuckian, now the Kentuckian-Citizen, was once 
a victim of the highwaymen, and to the day of 
his death mourned the loss of a valuable watch 
presented to him by his mother, which the high- 
waymen relieved him of on one of his trips on 
the stage. 

The distance between the points made by 
the stage was ten miles over a rough and hilly 
road, and nearly half a day was required to 
make the trip. The road was so steep and 
rough in several places that for their safety 
passengers often climbed out of the coach and 
walked up or down the dangerous hills. Once 
on level road there was a scrambling among 
the passengers for places of vantage on top of 
the stage. 

But that was many years ago. Until a few 
years ago modern coaching parties were still 
fashionable in the Bluegrass. Now the familiar 
crack of the whip and cheery shouts of the 
driver have given away to the honk of the 
automobile horn, and the journey which in the 
days of the stage took several days to accom- 
plish are now made within as many hours. 


Cut No. 202 shows one of my father's bi-otli- 
ers, Samuel B. Williams, a millwright and 
natural inventor, who served for many years 
at mill building, and later from necessity in- 
vented what he called a self-lifting elevator or 


one-person elevator. This elevator had quite 
a number of advantages, and naturally some 

elevator ; if it were too heavy with the elevator 
and its load, he or she immediately rolled off 
into a receiving box sufficient weights in disc 

Williams, mv father's brother 

A person steps upon the platform of the 
elevator when it is on a lower floor, and by 
pulling upon a rope, tried the balance of said 

form, until they had attained their equilibrium ; 
then when the perfect balance had been 
attained or nearly so, up it would go to either 


floor without practically any exertion on the 
part of the operator, as it could be made a per- 
fect poise, or balance, except say five pounds 

The same way in descending, a two hundred 
pound man would land at the second floor and 
a 75-pound child could immediately get upon 
said elevator platform and if they understood 
the balancing by the adjustable weights they 
would not descend any faster than they would 
ascend. In this respect it was a very unique 
and a necessary adjunct to a family where 
there were cripples who wished to travel from 
one floor to another. At one time he came to 
St. Louis, and installed one in our office depart- 
ment, which was in use for many years. 

This cut (No. 202) shows his demonstration 
at the Omaha Exposition at Omaha, Neb., in 
1898. I received the half-tone from C. W. Ris- 
ley, of 1225 Arbor Drive, San Diego, California. 
I consider this a valuable piece of history, as 
it commemorates the greatest event and the 
pride of S. B. Williams, the invcjitor of the one- 
person elevator. 

This elevator, Juiwevei', lacked the qualifica- 
tions of being a universal hoist for this reason : 
Suppose that a 200-pound man or woman ele- 
vate themselves by their- own efforts, by pulling 
say five pounds weight, and if it were possible 
should thej^ go to the tenth story and go about 
their business, and then a 100-pound person 
would come to the hatchway and wish to 
descend, he would adjust the weight and 
down he would go to the bottom floor, and thus 
leave the 200-pound man high and dry on the 
tenth floor, and his only recourse M'ould be to 
walk down the stairway. 

I, as a practical business mechanic, pointed 
out this fault to my dear old uncle; he took it 
with good heart and replied: "Milton, I will 
get around that trouble," and later he did, he 
got up a gearing device for the head of the ele- 
vator, brought it to St. Louis and installed it. 

Then it was a pleasure to operate said Uni- 
versal elevator or one-man lift, as they are 

called in Europe. We used his latest inven- 
tion until we made changes in our plant and 
discarded the elevator entirely, and installed 
power elevators. S. B. Williams was a great 
mechanic ; he could conceive or devise almost 
any piece of mechanism. 

S. B. Williams served his purpose in his 
time, and had he been dominated by M. P. 
Williams, the author of this history, he could 
luive become a millionaii-e. 

He did not understand how to commercialize 
his inventions. I could have taken his elevator 
and made money out of it. He installed several 
in St. liouis, one or two in New Orleans and 
other places, but the officers of the company 
^vhich he formed at Lima, Ohio, were not mon- 
eyed people and did not have back of them the 
proper push to make a business go. 

Many ycai's earlier in his life, he invented a 
smut machine. He and his brother Joseph man- 
ufactured a few upon Wheeling Island in a 
building or shop which they built for the pur- 
pose; but he loved his trade so well tliat he 
iu'efcrrcd to stick to his trade. 

Had M. F. Williams developed the same as 
he has done in his later years, he could have 
fathered S. B. Williams' Smut Machine or 
Grain Cleaning Machine, and worked up a 
large business. 

Joseph Williams and Samuel B. Williams 
were splendid mechanics, but not being pos- 
sessed of business acumen necessary to buildup 
a large business, they as business men are not 
known today ; that part of their make-up was 
a failui-c. 

At one time they built a saw mill in Martin's 
Perry, Ohio. My uncle S. B. Williams invested 
a ten thousand dollar farm in the saw mill. 
Uncle Joseph invested nearly all of his means, 
as well as that of his wife, and the saw mill 
failed because they had gone up the Allegheny 
and Monongahela rivers, purchased pine logs 
by the thousand of dollars worth,- and they had 
not an efficient way of booming these logs ; the 


river rose rapidly and away went their log- 
rafts, and the best laid plans of both men and 
mice gang aglee. 

In this particular instance the elements were 
against them; had they had a suitable bayou 
or backwater pond, now in the west called a 
"slough," they would have made a success of 
the sawmill. 

They were both men of sterling qualities, 
they were men who would spend their last 
dollar to pay their indebtedness ; had they both 
been more avaricious for money getting they 
would have prospered more conspicuously and 
have left more luei'e to their children. 

In another part of this history it has been 
set forth how the three brothers, Joseph, Sam- 

uel and Robert, my father, entered into a mill- 
ing proposition and built a saw mill, a grist- 
mill, a drying house, carding establishment, 
and started a store in the mill building at 
Baresville, Ohio, now called Hannibal, Ohio. 
They sent to Switzerland and emploj'ed a store 
keeper, as nearly all of their customers were 
Switzers, but this entei-prise failed and they 
went into bankruptcy, but with the energy of 
these three brothers'^ they started life over 

The same old Welsh indomitable will was 
shown by these relatives of mine, as I have had 
to draw on and use continually in building up 
my business that will now be set forth in Part 






The successful man is the one who doesn't claim 
to "know it all." He is the executive who is not 
afraid of gathering about him a staff of brainy 
workers, some of whom know, perhaps, better than 
he, how to run some part of the business or govern- 

He is the one who allows his subordinates to work 
out the details — and mark ye. for this is the important 
point — and gives them credit, private and public, for 
so doing. 

He is the big man. the man of broad vision, who 
will remain cool and collected through any period of 
depression, or financial setback, that may come. 

Emulate him. It is hard to do. 

Cut No. 208 entitled "Father and the Boys'" 
is ffom a photo taken in 1910, — father was then 
()4 years of age; M. J. Williams was 33 years 
of ase; Arthur F. Williams. 31 years; ;>. J. 
Williams, 26 years of age, — all engaged in the 
business. 'SI. J. Williams living in Chicago, 
Oliver Williams in San Francisco, and Arthur 
F. WilliMius at the home oftiee in St. Louis. 

The territoi'y of the United States and for- 
eign country is divided between the three 
Williams boys and their suh-agcnis. 

A. F. Williams is Vice-President, and also 
for sevci'a! years has t)een our financial i-epre- 
sentative and has attended to this duty, we 
think, to much better advantage than his pred- 
ece.'^sor, being in close touch with the busi- 
ness, with the selling, with the finances, as well 
as the manufacturing end, which he has re- 
cently taken up, in 1917. We consider that 
the business end is closely watched and looked 
after, and conserved to much better advan- 
tage than it ever has been pi'eviously. 

M. F. Williams, the President, has not yet 
stepped down and out, but still exercises 
vigilance in constituting himself an advisory 
board about mattcT's which are of sufficient 

importance to look after their welfare, — most 
particularly in looking after new devices and 
the cutting of corners for facilitating the man- 
ufacture of our wares with the least possible 
expense, along with the assistance of Mr. Wil- 
liam M. Davidson, in naming labor-saving tools, 
up-to-date tools, and high-priced tools. The 
members of our company consider them- 
selves now upon the road to prosperity 
in their twenty-first year, in which year 
they have Iniilt a four-story concrete buildiug, 
equipped it with the latest labor-saving de- 
vices; they have e(iuipped an addition to our 
forging shop in the same manner. They have 
e(|uipped and filled the second warehouse, 
which is full 1(1 l!ic liriiii and overflowing, and 
wc can now sec the romii foi' the third ware- 
house. Thus in our 21st year (1917) our im- 
provements have amounted to over $100,000, 
roughly speaking, all of which is paid for, and 
in addition wc have declared two dividends of 
12 : and the thiixl one in sight, before the year 
1917 cuds. 

Iiicideutall_y remarking, M. J. Williams, the 
oldest son, of Chicago, will have sold since he 
has lioeu in Chicago over $2,000,000 of Williams 
product. A. F. Williams has done ecjually as 
well during his administration as a salesman. 

Oliver Julian Williams, the youngest son, 
born March 4th, 1884, is now (1917) in his 
ninth year in California. His present office 
and warehouse is at 67 Second St., San Fran- 
cisco. During his administration on the Pa- 
cific Coast he has sold hundreds of crushers 
and grinders. In the ci'ushing and grinding 
line he is known as being paramount, is looked 
upon as an authority, and has sold more than 
double the fpiantity of crushers and grinders 
for our class of work than all the other firms 


put together on the Pacific Coast; and to his 
credit, on the Pacific Coast and several foreign 
countries, can be named several hundred thou- 
sand dollars' worth of sales. While he is the 
youngest in the line of the Williams family, he 
has handled the business to good advantage, 
with credit to himself and that of his com- 
panj'. His predecessor, Harry Partridge by 
name, who handled our line on the Pacific Coast 

Cisco, where our Mr. 0. J. Williams had his 
office, he remarked to me when I was about to 
leave : ' ' Father, would you like to meet Harry 
Partridge's brother?" I said, "Most assuredly 
I would." He took me up two or three floors 
and introduced me to Harry Partridge's broth- 
er, and there I met another brother, who came 
to bid the present brother good-by, as he was 
sailing for Australia; and both the brothers 

Cut No. 203— Father and the boys — taken 

for about seven years, and whom none of us 
had ever seen when the earthquake and fire 
came in San Francisco, was found drowned in 
an irrigating ditch at Bakersfield, Calif. 


In the year 1909, upon my first visit to Cali- 
fornia, in the Monadnock Bldg., in San Fran- 

chimed in and made the remark: "Wasn't it 
unfortunate that our brother Harry was a 
drunkard!" I replied: "Gentlemen. I did not 
know about it." They Avere surprised that I 
did not know. I said: "Gentlemen, I will an- 
swer you as Abraham Lincoln answered the 
ladies of the W. C. T. U. faith who went to 
Washington and wanted to talk to Mr. Lincoln 
about General Grant's drinking habits. His- 


tory states that Lincoln replied as follows: 
'Ladies, with all due respect to temperance, 
would to God that all of our Generals were as 
bad as Ulysses S. Grant. I mean by that, 
ladies, that he is the best General the Northern 
Army possesses' — and I likewise mean that if 
Harry Partridge was a drunkard, would to 
God that we had fifty men like Harry Par- 

He was the straightest man to do business 
with in the way of an agent that we had upon 
our books, and justice be to him who merits 

We use it in three sizes as shown in cuts No. 
204, 205 and 206. 

While 0. J. Williams' territory is not half as 
good as that of his two brothers on the account 
of the scattered manufacturing centers of the 
Pacific Coast, it is constantly growing, and his 
office of usefulness each succeeding year far 
overlaps each preceding year, as he is also 
surrounded with a very respectable coterie or 
nucleus of sub-agents. It may be possible that 
when he has so administered to the Pacific 
Coast in a manner in which it will be safe to 

The Williams Patent Crusher & Pulverizer 
Co. of St. Louis, Mo., U. S. A., today is indebted 
to Harry Partridge for their trade mark. He, 
Mr. Harry Partridge, had great respect for 
M. F. Williams, and always felt as though he 
should bestow upon me something worthy in 
answer to a debt of gratitude. So along came 
a tramp engraver. Harry Pai-fridge had him 
draw our ti-ade mark, sent it to me as a present, 
stated he had paid the ti'amp $5.00 for it. I 
immediately mailed Harry Partridge a check 
for $25.00 for his kindness, and this trade mark 
as we show above is famous the world over. 

call him East, 
in a different 

greater efforts to con<iuer, 
possilily this may be done. 

Suff'ice it to say at this juncture that the 
three Williams boys had hardly a common 
school education. Their father didn't even 
have half of a common school education, except 
that which he ac(iuired from the business 
world. A. P. Williams and O. J. Williams were 
sent to a Commercial College and to a Steno- 
graphic School, while M. J. Williams did not 
even have this advantage, as he was very 
anxious to get out into the world of usefulness 
upon his own account. 


To (|uote the old moss covered book written 
ill the days of yore, it is said that Noah said 
liiito his three sons — Shem, Ham and Jap- 
heth — "Now, boys, go forth into the world and 
each make your mark." I likewise said unto 
my three sons: "Boys, go forth and bring the 
answer, and don't either of you come back 
until you have brought an answer worth com- 
puting." (However, they did not go all at one 

Williams has been paid for his services per- 
haps an equal amount. O. J. Williams, while 
he is much younger in the business, has also 
been paid a respectable amount, which is grow- 
ing each succeeding year. Each Williams son, 
each year draws a greater salary from their 
commissions several times over than their 
father, as their father has a fixed salary. The 
company did not see fit to trust him on a corn- 

Cut No. 207 — President Williams in his private office 

time as they could not be spared). I said : "My 
sons, neither of you will receive a salary. When 
you go forth into the world upon your own 
account, you will have to work upon commis- 
sion alone "-which they have done, and they 
certainly have brought, the answer. M. J. 
Williams, the eldest, in his sixteen and three- 
quarters years in Chicago, has been paid in 
cash for his commissions over $150,000.00. A. F. 

mission basis, hence he works upon a salary 
basis like any other hireling. But now in his 
fairly ripe old age, in his seventy-second year, 
reaps from his dividends a greater salary than 
all the others as he holds theniajority of the 
stock, from the fact tfint Father Williams 
always had faith in the stock of the company; 
and at this appropriate moment, he is buying 
100 shares of stock from our first and onlv 


secretary, paying a handsome premium for 

Cut No. 207 shows the President of the 
Williams Patent Crusher & Pulverizer Co., 
St. Louis, Mo., U. S. A., in his private oft'ice 
with his private stenographer, Miss Mabel 
Kincer. At this particular time we were hav- 
ing a factory photographer take pictures by 
sections of different departments of our fac- 
tory by flashlight. While it was not my real 
intention to turn my back upon my best ste- 

molested . exeejit by real business people. In 
our front office hangs the following- sign so 
that every one can read it if they wish : 

"Call upon a man of business 
In the hours of business 
Only upon business — 
Go about your business 
And allow others to attend to their business." 

The above when thoroughly analyzed means : 
Attend to business promptly, take up as little 

No. 208 — Superintendent's office, first floor 

nographer it can better be illustrated by the 
following poetry : 

Man wants but little hei'e below 
Nor wants he that little long, — 
It is not so with me at all, 
But it is only so in the song. 

This was a ease of having to satisfy the pho- 
tographer. My office is a very small corner, 
scarcely room for four persons, as I am 
secluded from the every day inquirers and not 

time with a business man as is really neces- 
sary, but give it all the attention that is neces- 
sary, but do not take up his time in idle talk 
unnecessarily, for a business man's time is his 
money. I am still occupying this same office 
with an additional telephone switchboard sys- 
tem all over the factory, having 21 stations, 
where each head of department, through the 
main telephone girl operating the switchboard, 
can communicate all over the plant and the 
outside world Avithout leaving his chair. The 


stenographer again referred to, Mabel Kincer, 
is a most valuable and amiable girl — studious, 
trustworthy, and loyal to our company. I am 
sorry to say she has broken her agreement with 
yours truly, and informs me to my sorrow and 
disappointment, that she has agreed to take 
upon herself another rib, a protector and sup- 
porter in male attire, and expects to leave our 
employment about possibly in June of this 
year, 1918 — all depending upon the call the war 
will make upon her intended. 


Cut No. 208 shows the Superintendent's 
office, first floor. The person shown at the left 
started with the business and grew up with it 
for 31 or 32 years. The younger man back in 
the corner was his assistant at the time this 
was taken, which was in the year 1909. All 
orders for machinery and repairs emanated 
from this office. Neither of these personages 
are no^v in our emplo.vment and have not been 
for the past three .years — they have been sup- 
planted by a different and later system which 
has shown more progress by several hundred 
per cent. 

Edward H. Prickey, our superintendent for 
over 30 years, beginning (now 1918) to show his 
age, remarked to the writer five or six weeks 
ago: "Williams, in your seventy-second year, 
you have me beaten at least 20 years." This 
is not bragging, it is only stating facts, and I 
cannot be too thankful to m_y Creator and to 
my parents, God bless them ! my mother died 
in her eighty-sixth year, my father in his 
ninety-fourth year, both born and bred in the 
rural districts and having lived lives of virtue, 
and not brought up under the strain which 
wrecked men's souls — that of a business being 
too strenuous. But Father Williams thanks 
God again for the faculty of throwing off any 
mental strain — always feeling that at the end 
of each day he has come out ahead of the game, 
and lets the other fellow worry ; always trying 
to treat his fellowmen in an upright manner. 
When occasion requires, telling them plainly 
what they should do and how they should do 

it, calling them down when necessary, but not 
heaping coals of fire upon their heads, but 
teaching them the plain truth to make them 
ashamed of themselves — which I have fre- 
quently done in bringing order out of chaos. 


In the management of the output of crush- 
ing and grinding machines and their appurte- 
nances, this coming first of January, 1919, will 
record the manufacturing management under 
one Wm. M. Davidson. In previous years, or 
for a number of years, this management was 
under the supervision of one Geo. Kroening, 
who had groAvn up from our apprentice boy, 
Init whom I never considered a good man for 
the place, and he was superseded by Wm. M. 
Davidson. However, before Geo. Kroening 's 
time as output manager, we had one Hal 
Frickey, who was a brother of Edw. H. Frickey, 
who was, to use a common phrase, "a cracker- 
jack." Under Hal Frickey "s management, we 
prospered. He was a studious worker, a hard 
worker, a splendid mechanic, and had good 
command of men. He was much more rigid in 
the handling of men than his brother Ed, and 
the company has to regret the evening which 
I discovered that Hal Frickey had tuberculosis 
and was compelled to leave this climate by the 
advice of a doctor, whom I took him to — a 
pathologist doctor, who said to Hal Frickey in 
my presence : ' ' Young man, one lung is gone. ' ' 
Hal immediately went to Albuquerque, N. M., 
and has remained there ever since, and is get- 
ting along fairly well in that climate. 


Previous to Davidson's administration now 
for the past year (1918) as production man- 
ager, he was our trouble man on the road. For 
fully 16 years, he brought the answer with 
decorum and pi'opriety. I saw fit to send him 
West up to the Pacific Coast, and between here 
and the Pacific Northwest he had to visit 
several alfalfa plants to get them straightened 
out. At that time we were new in the grinding 


Secretary and Treasurer of the 

Williams Patent Crusher & Pulverizer Co. 

Tiie above i)hoti)i;rai)h of George F. Cottrill, the Secretary and Treasurer of the Wil- 
liams Patent Ci usher & Pulverizer Co., since its formation, was taken when Mr. Cottrill was 
about ^0 years of age. He was born in St. Lnuis, Missouri, on April 29, 1858, and became 
Vice-President of the Green's Car Wheel Company of St. Louis. It was about the time when 
M. F. Williams moved to 2705 North Broadway, that Mr. Cottrill was introduced to him by 
]Mr. William Sessinghaus. The Green's Car Wheel Foundi-y supplied Mr. Williams with 
castings, and in that way Mr. Hoyt H. Green and Mr. Cottrill became impressed with the idea 
that the Williams Swing Hammer Mill Mas destined to become famous. After negotiating 
for a while, they formed a corporation on January 28, 1897, with a capital stock of $16,000, 
in which ]M. F. Williams was President, HoytH. Green Vice-President and George F. Cottrill 
SecTTtni-y and Treasui'ci'. This corporation was a selling company only, as Milton F. Wil- 
liams & Company were the ^Manufacturers. On June 12, 1907, the Williams Patent Crusher 
& Pulverizer Company increased their capital stock to $225,000 and purchased the manufac- 
turing business from 'SI. F. Williams & Co. — the same officers officiating until the death of 
Ilovt H. Green in 191 ;j, when Arthur F. Williams was made Vice-President. 


of alfalfa. I gave him a letter, not of credit, 
but of introduction to the public which read 
as follows: 

' ' To whom it may concern : The bearer of this 
letter, Wra. M. Davidson, comes to assist you, 
advise you if he can, and set you right if there 
are any wrongs. He has the confidence of our 
company ; he has the authority to collect money 
to settle accounts, to do whatever he deems 
best without recourse or reserve upon our com- 
pany. (Signed) Milton F. Williams, President 
of the Williams Patent Crusher & Pulverizer 
Co., St. Louis, Mo. U. S. A." 

Show me the next man who carries such a 
letter from his president; they are few and 
far between. I doubt whether such another 
letter has ever been written. When President 
McKinley had occasion to find a man to go into 
the wilds of Cuba to take a message from the 
United States to General Garcia, he called his 
cabinet together and asked for a man. Elbert 
Hubbard, who lost his life upon the ill-fated 
Lusitania, descrilies McKinley 's message to 
Garcia, and tells the name of the man 
whom McKinley sent to take the letter to Gar- 
cia. But one man was found ; he took the letter 
to Garcia. He was found in Washington City 
and is probably living there today. Any one 
wishing to know the message, read Elbert Hub- 
bard 's book, "A Message to Garcia." His name 
wan Rowan. 

Again I'eturning to Win. M. Davidson — 
since his administration, our firm has turned 
out more goods and has sold more goods than 
we ever sold during any other administration 
twice over. Whose choice was Wm. M. David- 
son as general administrator? On the last days 
of December, 1915, M. J. Williams came down 
from Chicago, called Geo. Kroening into his 
office, told him in a very pleasant way that he 
had outlived his usefulness as an output man- 
ager for our firm, and that he would be super- 
seded by AVm. M. Davidson. This was partly 
prompted by M. F. AVilliams hearing on the 
day before Christmas in 1914, Geo. Kroening 
making a remark in the downstairs office. I 
was just entering the front door on Montgom- 
ery Street, and that remark from Geo. Kroen- 

ing was enough to queer him forever as far as 
being trusted with any management as fore- 
man of a machine shop in our plant. I never 
replied to it, but I wrote to M. J. W., giving 
him verbatim just what I heard Kroening say, 
and it smacked very strongly of what is called 

During Wm. M. Davidson's administration, 
upon October 6th, 1916, we had a strike of 
machinists and helpers, being the second strike 
which we have had in our existence. During 
the first strike, 11 years ago, in 1905, Geo. 
Kroening walked out with the rest of the boys, 
and has maintained ever since a Union attitude, 
and has done many things detrimental which 
I could mention of interest to a corporation — 
one was that he held back production, which 
is a had feature for the money-making facilities 
for any corporation. 


On October 6th, 1916, 45 machinists and 
helpers walked out. For several weeks previ- 
ous to this strike, they had been laying down 
on their work, retarding output ; occasionally 
we let one go and finally we let 11 go at one 
time, which might or might not have been 
diplomatic. Frickey advised letting them go 
in a body. The St. Louis Metal Trades Asso- 
ciation advised the same. Upon their going 
the.v brought the business agent, Mr. Lamb, 
of the machinists union, to confer with Father. 
He said if we would take them back, reinstate 
them, there would be no strike. If we did not 
take them back he would call all the machin- 
ists out. I said, "Brother Lamb, call." He 
called, and in less than a week we had a few 
men back to work; still more came, and still 
more, until we had a full quota. We have 
hired and discharged three or four quotas, 
until we are now operating under better condi- 
tions than we ever operated before. Since the 
6th of October to the present writing, we have 
filled over 4,000 orders, large and small; we 
have shipped more goods in dollars and cents 
than we ever shipped before, in a three or four 
.year period. What are the causes? Partly due 
to having the rush orders, partly due to ad- 


vanced prices; but mostly due to good and 
efficient management, backed up by the confi- 
dence of the firm. The trials and tribulations 
have been many. The dispositions of our lieu- 
tenants during this strike period have had their 
nerves screwed to the breaking point. They 
have stood by us like men. We have encour- 
aged, them all we knew how. and during this 
period so much construction work going on 
which at times was most exasperating to those 
who were trying to turn out goods; but we 
have all, by our combined and dominating 
spirit of sticktoitiveness come out on top ; and 
we are today waving two American flags over 
two distinct departments of our factory. To 
go through another strike now would seem to 
us a mere bagatelle as out of the ruins (due to 
our lieutenants being possessed with characters 
full of staying qualities) sphinx-like we have 
arisen from the ashes of desertion to onward 
and upward, with progressiveness greater than 


My son Jud has sent me the following letter : 

Subject : Statistics for your l)ook. 

Chicago, Dec. 5, 1919. 

Dear Father: 

I have just had time to figure out the follow- 
ing statistics for your book, which I believe 
are very close to accurate: 

We have shipped approximately 5,150 
grinders and crushers. The weight of this ma- 
terial approximates 14,898,950 lbs. or 7,450 
tons. This tonnage would make 745 railroad 
cai's loaded to a capacity of 20,000 lbs. per car, 
which would make a train 5i miles in length 
if all ears were put together; but if they were 

split up into 50 ears to a train they would make 
up into 15 trains of 50 cars each, carrying a 
load of about 500 tons of crushers to the train. 

The length of these grinders, if set end to 
end would be 28,325 feet or 5i miles. 

The width of these grinders, if the shafts 
were set end to end. would be 41,200 ft. or 7.8 

The heiglit of these grinders, if set one on 
top of the other, would reach into the sky 
23,175 ft. or 4i miles, which is 40 times the 
height of the Washington Monument. 

The amount of money involved in the pur- 
chase price of these 5,150 grinders is approxi- 
■mately $5,000,000.00, and if you added the sup- 
plies and spare parts furnished to the users 
of these grinders, the total amount would be 
approximately $8,000,000.00. 

Some of the smaller grinders will grind about 
10 tons per day, and many of them 20 tons. 50 
tons and 100 tons a day. The larger crushers 
crush from 2,500 to 3,000 tons per day; there- 
fore, the 5,150 grinders and crushers would 
have a tonnage of about 500,000 tons of mate- 
rial reduced on these Williams Crushers and 
Grinders every working day converting this 
product from the raw material to the finished 
stock for commercial use. 

This is a very necessary and useful industry. 
It was classed by the government during the 
World's War, 1914 to 1918, as an essential 
industry, and in classifications of A-6 and B-1, 
very high ratings. 

Yours very truly. 





Cut No. 209, called Purchasing Agent's 
Office, first floor. This is a correct showing of 
the office at that time in the year 1909. The 
young lady, Miss Emiice Redding, has long 
since left the euiploynicnt of our company, 
having entered the state of matrimony, and is 
now living in Los Angeles, California. While 
she was quite efficient and very lady like, she 
took awav with her to California one of our 

sesses one trait of character which does not 
recommend any man to an employer. He has 
been displaced by a man of e([ual ability, if 
not greater, and the change which the Com- 
pany made speaks eft'iciency. 

The third man back in the corner is the same 
one represented in the first picture, and also 
the change made by replacing him spells 

iig agent's office, fir 

best machinists; and while I cannot state posi- 
tively, I was told by her father, not long since, 
that they are obeying the dictates of the Bible 
in regard to multii)lyiiig and I'cplenisliing the 

The man shown at tlie fronf is William 
A. Dunham, our Purchasing Agent at that time. 
He left our employment five or six years ago, 
and while we thought he was an efficient man, 
he is a man of considerable ability, but he pos- 


Cut No. 210, entitled main oft'ice lobby, sec- 
ond floor, is a good representation of same at 
the time it was made; but the same lobby pre- 
sents a more artistic appearance at this writing, 
as if is filled to overflowing with portraits of 
eminent men and philosophical sayings. While 
William McKinley of Canton, Ohio, cannot be 
surpassed as a President of the United States, 
the same lobby now represents Ilarriman, An- 


drew Carnegie, General Washington, Ulysses 
S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, Agassiz, Martin 
Luthei', Queen Victoria, Booker T. Washing- 
ton, Aln'ahani Lincoln, George Dewey, Christo- 
pher Colnmlnis, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin 
Franklin, William Penn, Daniel Webster, 
Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, George Wash- 
ington, John Bi'own, Oliver Wendell Holmes 
and M. F. Williams. 

Washington, one of the Ethiopians for whom 
John Brown gave his life in opposing the cause 
of slavery. 

This same corridor shows the cashier's win- 
dow to onr accounting office. 

This cut, No. 212, represents a po)-tion of the 
corridor of onr upper office, showing first, 
fathei' and the bovs and other notables. The 

Cut No. 210 — Main office lobby, second floor 


Cut No. 211, showing a view taken in 1920 
of our lobb.y to the second floor office, showing 
most of the portraits that have been described 
in the previou-; halftone. 

There ai'o two rows of portraits of these 
illustrious men who are worthy to be patterned 
after, and one in the corridor hanging upon the 
wall is no lesser personage than Booker T. 

walls are bedecked with sa.yings from Elbert 
Hubbard, who went to the bottom of the briny 
deep with the sinking of the Lusitania, among 
which is one called "Horse Sense," which gives 
advice to .young men. All the mottoes on this 
wall are very interesting, some being poetry. 
One entitled "Keep Fishin','' is a motto of a 
man who from his own efforts got to be gover- 
nor of one of our states, by studious work and 
hard application. Each picture and motto are 
intended for lessons for young men who can 


Cut No. 211— Our gallery of notables 


Cut No. 212— Office corridor, taken in 1920 


combine frugality with integritj- and honesty 
of purpose, who will finally make a mark in 
the world, and if their eiforts are properly 
directed they can become captains of industry. 
The portrait on the left is that of Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes, a poet and philosopher; the one 
to the right, Ulysses S. Grant — General Grant 
of the Civil War. The one to the right of Grant 
is John Brown, the martyr, who fought the 
rebel bushwhackers at Osawatomie, Kansas, at 
the beginning of the war, and who was finally 

grand old lady, Queen Victoria-God bless her 
soul! Her name has gone down in history as 
"the grand old lady of England," and our 
Williams' Geneology is somewhat indebted to 
Queen Victoria ; being of Welsh descent we all 
had the first and same beginning. The one to 
the right of Queen Victoria is a man whose 
modesty forbids him to speak ; and Mr. or Mrs. 
Reader, we will leave you to guess. The revolv- 
ing illustrated display and show card repre- 
sents a few of the grinding machines of our 

hung at or near Harper's Ferry, West Virginia 
— a world's martyr. 

His martyrdom will live as long as the world 
stands, as he espoused the cause of anti-slavery 
and his name has gone down in American his- 
tory to be revered by the rising generation. 

The one to the right of John Brown is that 
of Admiral Dewey, who did like Dewey did at 
Manilla Bay during the Spanish American 
War. The next to the right is that of the 

manufacture. We have almost 1,000 cuts illus- 
trating our product, and this revolving display 
sign shows less than one hundred of them. 


C'Ut No. 213 represents the south end of our 
Accounting Room in 1909. However, the same 
has been enlarged, more operatives added, a 
telephone exchange installed, and it is now an 
office more up-to-date in appearance, in the 


year closely approaching 1920. The boy repre- 
sented at the desk is a boy I took to raise and 
make a man out of him, but I made a sad fail- 
ure of it, I fear. I looked after him for a 
number of years, and the last account of his 
career would not look well in print. 


Cut No. 214 is a section of our inner office 
room over the alley. The four girls shown in 

the east and west sides, where we retain letter 
files for the past 20 years, and can refer to 
correspondence of thousands upon thousands of 
customers for that number of years. 


Cut No. 215 shows the east end of our draft- 
ing room, third floor, taken in 1909. The works 
in this room have been greatly enlarged, a 
thorough and most up-to-date system installed, 

Cut No. 214 — Section of stenographers' office, second floor 

said office room do not represent all the em- 
ployees in this department, as we have had, at 
times, as many as six or seven girls in this 
room ; but since we have shortened our system 
of letter writing by giving dictation direct to 
the machine and abandoned the use of the 
note book, it has made less work in this depart- 
ment. This department represents our adver- 
tising room and filing room where all letters 
are filed for future reference. Above this 
office room we have two mezzanine floors on 

and sometimes seven operatives working in 
said room, besides a girl with a typewriter 
making records of all drawings so that they 
can be systematically filed, and an index cabi- 
net is provided for keeping a record of the 
draAvings. An up-to-date blueprinting machine 
is now in this ''oom, so that we can make our 
own blueprints, and can have them in three 
minutes notice from the time Ave get an order 
from some one of our agents for a certain 


Also the operatives in this department have 
been changed, and later ones installed, but the 
old man at the desk has since passed away. He 
was a native Buckeye from the good old State 
of Ohio, and a better mechanic, a more up-to- 
date mechanical engineer, probably never lived 
in the City of St. Louis. 


Cut No. 216 is a half-tone from a photograph 
taken in the year 1909, and the mezzanine floor 

and upon this work bench I did my first day's 
work in the City of St. Lous as a millwright in 
the winter of 1872 and '73. 

Hanging upon a gas pipe railing next to the 
office files is a steel crowbar which passed 
through one of our crushers. It is 5 ft. in 
length and li in. in diameter, and suspended 
from one of the curves of this crow bar is a 
placard and upon the placard reads: "I have 
been thi'ough a Williams mill, have you." 

in this room shows our first attempt at building 
a crusher. The books and papers lying on the 
floor represent M. F. Williams' office docu- 
ments that he had years ago when he was doing 
business on a much smaller scale, thirty and 
forty years ago. The business at that time was 
small and hardly worth recording. 

The dark colored board hanging to the ceil- 
ing is a pine board belonging to a work bench 
which then was at 1417 North Second Street, 

Adjoining this exhibit is an old spade, Avorn 
to the quick; this spade was one of my father's 
working tools. He used it for many years on 
the little farm in Ohio. It is worn away too 
short for service, and adjoining this spade 
should have been shown two broadaxes-one 
being my father's and the other his brother's. 
These broadaxes were used for hewing timber 
in the woods, as was so common in those days 
of early pioneering. 


Back upon the mezzanine floor-shows M. F. 
Williams' tool boxes and tool chest — his stock 
in trade when he tirst came to the City of St. 

Suspended from this floor, along the edge, 
are quite a number of hammers or beaters 
which Ave use in our crushing machines and 
grinding machines. 

The door shown opens into the drafting 
room adjoining on the west. The cigar boxes 

own printing — which interior of the printing 
shop is shown elsewhere and described as a 
printing shop. 


Cut No. 217 shows a section of one of our 
machine shops west of the alley and properly 
is called a milling machine room. In this room 
we have four milling machines. A milling 
machine is a machine tool for cutting metal, 
cutting and grooving metal, something on the 

Cut No. 216 — Section of sample room over main office 

shown in their cases are samples of our grind- 
ing, as at that time we u^ed this for a sample 
room for the product which we ground. 

The cans setting upon the floor (there are 
many in number much greater than shown in 
the half tone) all contain feed of various kinds 
which we have ground upon our reducing ma- 
chines of various makes. This room has been 
dismantled as a sample room, and about seven 
years ago we installed a printing shop and for 
that length of time we have been doing our 

order of an iron planer, except it does the 
work much faster. 

This represents only the east end of said 
building, Avhich is 72 feet in length, and also 
has other departments in the same room. 

A freight elevator is also located in said 
room from Mhich we do consij^erable ship- 
ping, «s the goods to be shipped are hoisted to 
the heighth of a wagon or truck bed, as backed 
up in the alley opposite the elevator doorway. 



Cut No. 218 illustrates the south end of what 
we termed then our cage shop. The cages are 
the screens and grinding surfaces of our vari- 
oiis crushers and grinders, and serve two pur- 
poses: One is to grind on or against, and the 
other to screen through. This cage shop, how- 
ever, has now been moved to the floor above 
in the same building and occupies the whole 
floor. Later tools and appliances have beer 


Cut No. 219 shows a sectio*! ot the north end 
of the former cage shop described elsewhere. 
This department -shows both wood and iron 
work; however the woodwork parts are auto- 
matic feeders for a feed grinding plant, but 
were assembled near a freight elevator to be 
taken to the floor below to be crated ready for 
shipment. None of these employees are now 
in our service, having been exchanged for more 

Cage Milling Ucpartment, Montgomery street, tirst floor 

installed in the new cage shop and more up-tc 
date methods. 

Most of the operators in this room have been 
supplanted by later method workers. The fore- 
man in this .shop at the time this photograph 
was taken standing with one hand upon a fibre 
making machine turned to be Bolshevist, and 
we dispensed with his services in order to pro- 
dutf-e greater product and have this department 
fullv efficient. 

efficient men, which has been the order of the 
day for the past three years. We are now 
obtaining a small balance on the right side of 
the ledger. 


Gut No. 220 represents our main forging 
shop,. Ninth Street side, taken in 1909, show- 
ing bwt^OHe-side' and -one section of this forging 
shop. A full complement of employees in this 


Cut Xo. 21S-M 

tidur, Montgomery street 

f^^^^^^K^' "'"'''''' 






Cut No. 219 — Feed mill machinery warehouse, second floor, Montgomery street 


Cut No. 220— Main 

Cut No. 221 — Hammer Department No. 1 


department is an average of 25 persons. It 
does not show the forging machines proper nor 
the steam hammers — only a corner section of 
one or two and the pipes conveying the exhaust 
steam away from same. This department shows 
a very healthy looking set of employees, but 
even this shop has been remodeled and en- 
larged on the south side where several more 
employees can operate, with a tempering fur- 
nace installed, overhead cranes and some other 
improvements hai'dly worthy of mention. Our 


Cut No. 221 shows a section of the north 
side of the same forging shop, showing a slit- 
ting roll or shear for splitting large sheets of 
metal, by roller cutters, showiuff but three 
operatives in this department ; all of which 
machinerj', except the splitting rolls, has been 
moved away into another department, and the 
drill presses shown (four of them) called mul- 
tiple drills, have been sold to the second-hand 
dealer and a more improved and faster method 

improved conditions and appliances include 
an automatic forging machine for forging parts 
which Avill handle from 2,000 to 3,000 pieces 
per hour. This one forging machine alone has 
dispensed with the services of quite a number 
of men. One item in particular, where we had 
ten different belts operating fans and other 
appliances, one larger forging fan has been 
installed and caused us to do away with nine 
belts operating machinery, which is ijuite an 
item of saving alone. 

installed in the way of punches and shears, and 
this space has been, and is now, used by tem- 
pering machines. The new method of doing 
work has done away with several carloads of 
old machinery which has been relegated to the 
second-hand dealer, and the new methods in- 
stalled for facilitating work. 


Cut No. 222 represents our shafting ware- 
house, where we keep shafting steel to cut up 


for manufacturing purposes, the shafts being 
purchased in 20 feet lengths, cut up and used 
as we require them. This is adjoining and next 
to the Ninth Street side of the building adjoin- 
ing the forge shop. 


Cut No. 223 is one of our Ninth Street receiv- 
ing steel warehouses adjoining the forge shop. 
This small wai'ehouse is supplied with dimen- 

Cut No. 224 is an exact counterpart of No. 
223, and adjoins same, except that it is located 
south of 223 and is exposed to Ninth street in 
the same manner, and contains a heavier grade 
of steel, and is also supplied with an overhead 
trolley or crane for handling the goods. On 
the east end of same it adjoins the main forging 
shop so that the steel is handy and in front of 
the heavy shears — not shown in the pictures — 
for cutting up heavy steel bars and plates into 
manufacturing sizes for the use of the works. 

Cut No. 223 — Heavy steel and iron warehouse. Ninth str 

siou steel as is required for our manufacture 
of crushers and grinders, and is kept supplied 
with from eight to ten carloads of steel at all 
times, which steel is received through the door 
and window as shown in the back end of this 
department The walls of this building are 
heavy enough to support a ten-story building, 
thinking that we may add more stories later 
on. It is a part and adjoining the main forging 


Cut No. 225 shows one section of our Sheet 
Metal Department, which is on the second floor 
over the steel warehou.«es. Since 1909, this 
department has also be.en remodeled and sup- 
plied with up-to-date machinery and methods, 
for turning out sheet metal work which goes 
to form the pneumatic handling of goods in 
our feed grinding department where every- 
thing is handled by air (by fans) drawn away 


Cut No. 224— Dept. Ninth street (south side) 

Cut Xo 225— b-oction ot sheet iiKtal department, Ninth street 


from the grinders, and elevated by air into air 
receptacles called cyclone dust collectors. The 
parts on the floor are parts of dnst collectors 
and piping for this purpose, and where we 
manufactured these systems in 1909, we now 
manufacture from ten to twenty as many times 
over as we did at that time, and with much 
greater facilities for handling. 


Cut No. 226 shows a section of our old engine 
room in 1909. Since that time, however, steam 

electric or hydro-electric, so that each group 
of machines is operated by a separate motor. 
This is a later and more economical and advan- 
tageous method, most especially in the time of 
the coal strike which Avent into eft'ect on No- 
vember 1st, 1919, and which was settled yes- 
terday. Dec. 11th, 1919, when some 400,000 coal 
miners paralyzed the whole American country 
as regards fuel production ; they have now 
accepted President Wilson's proposition of 
paying them an advance of 14 per cent. An 
investigating committee has been appointed to 

Cut No. 226 — Section of main engine rooni 

power has been discontinued and a new four- 
story concrete building built where this engine 
room stood, and complete electric power also 
has been installed, operating the plant elec- 
trically now instead of with steam, and using 
some 45 separate motors. The current for this 
motive power is supplied from the dam in the 
Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa. Instead of 
operating with about 75 H. P. in 1909, we now 
use in 1919 from 250 H. P. to 300 H. P. of 

draft resolutions for the settlement, we hope, 
of future dealings with coal miners and their 
union managers, in which the editorial in the 
Globe-Democrat this morning states, that they 
hope and believe that this is the commencement 
of the ending of Bolshevism in America. Let 
us all hope and pray that it is, and that the 
Government's suggestions will be heeded and 
that a better state of feeling will exist from 
this time on, and that labor will not be so arro- 


gant, and will be more reasonable ; that the 
dawn of a new era in America will prevail 
regarding labor and worth. 


Cut No. 227 shows a different view of our 
old Atlas automatic engine and our power in 
3909 which has been more thoroughly ex- 
plained in illustration No. 226. This steam 
po^\'er engine was entirely abandoned in the 


Cut No. 228 shows a section of our old ma- 
chine shop on Broadway before the reconstruc- 
tion days, after which time this portion of the 
machine shop was re-arranged, which, how- 
ever, was done one section at a time in order 
to keep the plant running and not disturb 
working conditions too much. If we were to 
take photos and make engravings of the newly 
arranged working conditions, they would show 

27 — Old Atlas engine in engine room 

year 1917, at which time electric po.wer was 
installed, and the installation of the electrically 
operated machinery was completed in the latter 
part of 1917; and at the beginning of 1918 we 
Avere operating under electric power, at which 
time we increased under electric power three 
to four times the power that was obtained from 
the steam engine and boiler. After this change 
we used our new 250 H. P. steam boiler only 
for running our forging machines and heating 
the plant. 

different pictures altogether; much more room 
around each tool now ; men not so close to- 
gether in working, not standing in bunches for 
a photograph, but separated and isolated more 
for the benefit of the Company. 


Cut No. 229 shows a portion of our erecting 
shop in 1909 on the Broadway end, being how- 
ever the north side of the erecting shop near 


Cut Xo. :J8— Broadway Machine .^hop. 


Cut Xo. 229 — South side Broadway Erecting Shop 


the Broadway end. The cluttered condition as 
shown has since that time been very much 
improved upon, separated and thinned out so 
that the working; conditions are very much 
better than they were. However, this is our 
main erecting floor, but we have another in the 
new building which we term second floor, new 
building erecting floor, where we assemble our 
lighter class of crushers and grinders, which 
floor is 50 feet in width by 140 feet in length. 
We erect on said floor principally feed grinding 

to and re-arranged for the more commodious 
handling of the work. All the planing ma- 
chines in this section have been taken out and 
placed crosswise or at right angles with the 
machine shop extending north into the new 
building, and the 20 ft. lathe shown on the 
right hand side has been moved north 60 feet 
to the north wall of the new concrete building, 
where electric cranes handle the goods to be 
turned and bored by electric power, much 
more up-to-date than it was in 1909. If our 

Cut No. 230— Section of Broadway Machine Shop 

mills, and ]ione of our heavier grade of crush- 
ers. While in the Broadway erecting shop, we 
erect and mount all the heavier grade of crush- 
ers, ranging from five tons in weight up to 30 
tons in weight. 


Cut No. 230 shows the front section of our 
old Broadway machine shop. This section was 
first installed in 1891, but since has been added 

photographer had taken his flashlight pictures 
at the present time, anyone familiar with ma- 
chine tools M-ould be able to see a far difl'er- 
ently arranged machine shop or shops. 


Cut No. 231 shows a section of the south 
side of the Broadway erecting shop on the 
Montgomery Street side. The six workmen 
'shown in the illustration only represent the 


Broachvay end of this erecting shop, and not 
more than one-tenth of the whole floor is shown 
where our heavier crushers and grinders are 


Cut No. 232 represents one of our tool rooms, 
second floor, over the Broadway machine shop 
which formerly was our office room. When 
we moved to this location, on the 6th of Febru- 

turned into an office, and remained for office 
purposes until Sept., 1909, when we put up 
a three-story oft'ice building on Montgomery 
Street. Also a three-story machine shop, 40 
ft. by 72 ft., fronting on Montgomery Street, 
and a forging shop 60 ft. by 100 ft., one story 
in height, fronting the alley east. West of 
this is a three-story sheet metal shop fronting 
on Ninth Street. At this date we moved our 
offices to 813 Montgomery Street and built the 
second and third stories across the alley, mak- 

Cut No. 231 — Section of Broaclvva\ 

ary, 1891, this room 14 ft. by 38 ft. was both 
oft"iee room and pattei'u shop. As an office 
room several million dollars in checks have 
been received and banked from this office. 
However, this department has had its changes 
as well as other departments. When a small 
office was installed in 1891, the next move was 
to relegate the pattern shop to the extreme 
west end of the building, which was rebuilt 
and remodeled for a pattern shop. When this 
change was made the 14 ft. by 38 ft. was all 

ing same fireproof with cement floor and ceil- 
ing. On the first floor is our receiving office, 
shipping office. Superintendent's Department, 
Assistant Superintendent's Department, Buy- 
ers' Department, Time Keeper's Department, 
and Cost Keeper's Department. On the second 
floor of the office building now comprising 
three fairly large rooms, are located the Ac- 
counting Department, Telephone Exchange 
Department. Mailing Department, Advertising 
Department, Filing Department, and in an 


Cut No. 233 — Section of pattern shop 


obscure corner the President's office, which is 
described in another illustration (Cut No. 207). 
In two rooms we have mezzanine floors for 
filing and keeping records of previous years. 

Cut No. 233 shows a section of our old pat- 
tern and wood shop, which has been moved into 
the new concrete building adjoining the new 
woodworking shop in which the ceiling is 18 
ft. in height, and this woodworking building 
is of concrete and 50 ft. in width by 140 ft. in 

equipped at that time for a pattern loft. Since 
we built in 1917 the four-story concrete build- 
ing (which was originally intended for a three- 
story building) and has now been changed to 
a four-story 50 ft. by 140 ft., the fourth floor 
is now our fireproof pattern loft, and probably 
is the last move for a pattern loft for some 
years to come; unless we erect another four- 
story building of concrete adjoining, where we 
own the property, and now have in contempla- 

Cut Xo. 2iA — Section of pattern loft, \inth street 

length and lighted with fenestra windows and 
steel sash, making it fireproof, light and airy. 
The old pattern .shop shown in Cut No. 233 is 
now turned into a box and crating shop, where 
boxes and crates are made for shipping pur- 
poses and which is eiiuipped with suitable tools 
for this work. 


Cut No. 234 shows a section of pattern loft 
in the Ninth Street Building which was 

tion at a later date. We have in all of onr 
buildings under roof over two acres of floor 
space at the present writing. The patterns in 
the new pattern loft are all shelved, numbered 
and properly labeled in their respective kinds, 
and according to their different styles of crush- 
ing and grinding machines, and a large plat- 
form elevator 12 ft. by 16 ft, facilitates the 
handling of the patterns to and from this 



Cut No. 235 is a section of our old testing 
plant up over the erecting shop, where we have 
14 ditt'erent kinds of machines, grinders, for 
manipuhiting nearly 500 different samples of 
goods which our various machines reduce, and 
which runs every working day in the year upon 
some new kind of material or different from 
what has been tested previously. A complete 

of work and capacity. The WILLIAMS PAT- 
PANY started this business by M. F. Williams, 
its President, simply upon guess-work, and the 
cut-and-try plan, and in our early history the 
absolute determination of what a grinder would 
positively do it was more or less guess work. 
Just think of a business growing from a little 
"acorn" to a million dollar business and over 
each year, and not having once made a finan- 
cial failure. It is almost a phenomenon. 

Cut No. 235— Section of tes 

grinding departme 

record is kept of all the tests made, in tabulated 
form, showing the degree of coarseness and 
fineness; the capacities here obtained by dif- 
ferent sized crushers or grinders, and this 
department becomes a most important, integral 
part of our business. We would not attempt to 
try to get along without it although we have 
other testing departments (three others in 
number) in different buildings; and by this 
means all of our agents are informed as to 
what grinder to recommend for a certain class 


Cut No. 236 shows a section of our No. 1 
Broadway warehouse, second floor, used for a 
storeroom for machines and goods not in use, 
which we often draw from when a sale is made. 
The machines shown represent automatic feed- 
ers for hay grinders principally, for reducing 
alfalfa hay, and the machines are only partly 


Cut Xo. 236— Section of Broadway warehouse, second tUn>! 

Cut No. Zil — Broadway warehouse, front section 


equipped, as the automatic feeders are only a 
portion of the equipment. 


Cut No. 237 shows the front section of ware- 
house No. 1, fronting on Broadway, showing a 
five-ton traveler overhead, and a few crushing 
machines ready for shipment. The remainder 
of the space is occupied by supplies for other 

crane and five-ton hoist. Besides these two 
warehouse and storage places, we have five 
other storage places for receiving, loading and 
carrjnng in stock supplies ready for assem- 


Cut No. 238 shows a middle section of our 
Broadway machine shop, on the first floor, 
knoAvu as our main machine shop, showing a 

Cut No. 238 — Broadway machine shop, middle section 

crushers and grinders. In this warehouse de- 
partment we usually maintain from $20,000 to 
$25,000 worth of supplies ; but now adjoining 
it, on the north and fronting upon Broadwfty 
and St. Louis avenue, we have since built ail- 
other warehouse which contains many more 
parts than shown in this illustration, usually 
from $25,000 to $50,000 worth of supplies in 
this warehouse No. 2. Wagons can be loaded 
and unloaded, also trucks, from this traveling 

great variety of finished castings, ready to be 
assembled into crushers and grinders. 


Cut No. 239 shows a cross section of one of 
our erecting shops on the right, and to the left 
h section of one of our machine shops, taken 
as a whole ; however, it does not show the 
north side, which extends 50 feet north, to the 
left, beyond this picture. Taken ns a wliole. 


- -■ — ' - t . ^-^^j*%' 

"" ^- ■ ' ti 


1 iSe^Si- 

- i ^ 

\ ^ 



mraj ni iia i|.H»i 


it is a hundred feet in width by one hundred 
and forty feet in length, but this half-tone only 
shows a portion of it. 


In January, 1912, we started our own print- 
ing establishment, — a pet idea of M. P. .Wil- 
liams. All the other members of the eompany 
objected to this jirinting establishment, upon 

While the printing end of the business would 
be a burden and a millstone hanged about the 
neck of ac editor, to M. F. Williams it is a 
pleasure and a recreation. Sidestepping, get- 
ting up bulletins ij a pleasure. Getting up small 
catalogs is also a pleasure. Whether it has 
paid from a financial standpoint, it matters 
not. From a general advertising standpoint, it 

Cut No. 240— Our print shop 

the ground that outsiders who printed upon a 
larger scale than ourselves, and who were bet- 
ter prepared, could do our printing to better 
advantage than we could do it ourselves. Fa- 
ther Williams has been the editor of all of our 
bulletins, but not all of our catalogs. M. J. 
Williams of Chicago has been the editor of our 
catalogs for the past six years, which speaks 
well for his ability. 

has. In reading letters from customers or from 
a would-be customer, a new idea comes to me. 
I act upon it, get up a bulletin. Hence I add 
anothei' leg to our business. It may be true 
that an outside plant across the street could 
do our work cheaper, but not better, and when 
I get an impulse about printing a bulletin it 
must be done instaiiter. 

^^ Over 600 Firms have Duplicated their orders from 2 ^^^ 
^^^ crushers to 10, 20, 30, and one over 100 crushers. ^^ 

*'-^-»" Bulletin No. 107 



Installed in 1896 

The above cut represents machine 
No. 1. It is the first practical and 
commercial machine which we 
built, which machine we shipped 
February 22nd, 1896, and which 
machine has been in operation con- 
stantly ever since, and for all prac- 
tical purposes it is as good as the 
first day it was started. 

And why, because our machines 
are built with a view of renewing 
and adjusting, taking up the wear 
as it occurs and for this reason 
alone we prolong the lives of our 
machines such a length of time 
which is almost unbelievable. 

This machine now having been in 
operation for over 24 years is a just 
and sufficient reason why our 
claims are fulfilled. 

Should any one wish the above 
facts verified, we can refer them to 
present users of said machine. 



Guaranteed for all High Speeds. Write for Bulletin. 


HIGH SPEED BABBITT METAL. Write for Particulars. 

The best is always the cheapest. 

We have used 20 carloads of High Speed Metal, or 200 

tons in the past IS years, in WILLIAMS 

Crushers Granulators Slircdders and 

Pulverizers Triturators Masticators 

Grinders Disintegrators 

Williams High Speed Babbitt running for over 11 years in 

1 machine without renewing. See letter below. 


Hazelwood, N. C, April 19, 1912, 

The Williams Patent Crusher & Pulv. Co., 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Dear Sirs: 

We have been using one of your No. 2 Bark Crushers 
here since August, 1901. and the machine is doing good 
work; has never been baiibitted since put in; the bearings 
are in good condition at this time, 

Very truly yours, 

J. C. Fisher, 



Write for cut showing same with description and pr 



Guaranteed to cure all ordinar 

Write and ask for information 

Hot Journals, 

WILLIAMS Manufactures 

OVER 250 kinds and sizes of 





Triturators and e 
Nutmeg Graters. 


Builds Plants Complete from the ground up. 


WILLIAMS Patent Pneumatic System, Investigate. 
WILLIAMS Machines in over SO Foreign Countries. 

WILLIAMS has shipped 

9149 Tons of Crushers, Pulverizers and Grinders. 

If machines were placed end to end, they would cover 4 

miles of road or street. 

If placed one on top of another, they would reach 4 

miles into the sky. 

If loaded onto cars, would require 

600 cars of 20,000 pounds each to carry them, or 

30 train loads of 20 cars each, or 

a train 6'/, miles in length. 



No. of 


Alfalfa— Crushers and Grinders 103 

Apricot Kernels 1 

Anthracite Screenings 2 

Ashes 5 

Asphalt Rock 30 

Animal Charcoal 1 

Asbestos 8 

Algeroba Beans 1 

Analite Ore 1 

Asbestos Rock 1 

Asbestos Fibre 1 

Acorn Hulls 1 

Anise Seeds 1 

Alfalfa Seeds 1 


Barvtes Ore 3 

Burned Granite 1 

Bi-Carbonate of Soda 11 

Burned Clay 1 

Bark 54 

Bones 119 

Bran, Wheat 1 

Barley Screenings 1 

Blue Grass Seeding 3 

Brush 3 

Ballast 1 

Buckwheat Hulls 7 

Brick Bats 10 

Bricquette Coal Grinding 7 

Brass Foundry Dross 3 

Borax 2 

Beef Scrap 10 

Brazil Cotton Seed 2 

Books (Old) Shredding 1 

Bark 102 

Bagasse from Sugar Cane 1 

Burlap 1 

Bone Tankage 1 

Blood Tankage 1 

Borings (Cast Iron) 1 

Beef and Onions 1 

Burnt Lime 1 

Beans 1 

Burnt Tile 1 

Burnt Magnesite 1 

Broken Chinaware 1 

Broken Stoneware 1 

Broken Pottery 1 

Broken Saggers I 

Blocks CWood) 1 

Barrel Staves 1 

Broom Corn 1 

Brush (From Woods) 1 

Barley 1 


Coal 298 

Chemicals 6 

Copra S 

Cotton Seed Hulls 7 

Cotton Seed Cake 13 

Caustic Soda 2 

Coal (Wet) 2 

Coal Pitch 1 

Chalk 6 

Cement Rock 4 

Clay 45 

Corn in the Ear 10 

Corn (Snapped) 13 

Corn Husks 2 

Corn Bran 5 

Corn Fodder and Corn Chop...... 2 

Corn Cobs 32 

Corn Cake S 

Corn, Shelled 2 

-2 - 

No. of 

Corn (Kaffir) 2 

Conglomerate Quartz Rock 4 

Cotton Seed Oil Cake 34 

Clam Shells 21 

Castor Bean Pumice and Hulls 6 

Calcined Magnesite 3 

Conglomerate Sand and Stone 6 

Coal Cinders 1 

Coke, Crushers IS 

Cement Clinker 9 

Caustic Lime 2 

Coral Limestone 2 

Carborundum 1 

Crab Scrab 1 

Cocoanut Shells 3 

Charcoal 7 

Cork 13 

Candy 1 

Chips for Extract Manufacturers.... 39 

Chips (Pine) 41 

Chips for Paper Making 19 

Gullet 12 

Coffee 6 

Chile Peppers 3 

Clinker. Cement 1 

Condensite 1 

Cement Sacks (Shredded) 1 

Cotton Bags (Shredded) 1 

Carbonate Magnesia 1 

Cornstalks 1 

Cattle Manure 1 

Cellulose 1 

Codfish 1 

Cotton Stalks 1 

Cotton Hose 1 

Capsicums 1 

Cotton Bolls 1 

Cotton Seeds 1 

Clover Hay 1 

Clover Seeds 1 

Cohozo Nuts 1 

Cocoanut Fibre 1 

Corsets (Women's) 1 

Core Sand 1 

Cotton, Ducks 1 

Cactus 1 

Candalia Weed 1 

Cypus 1 

Caon Rock 1 

Cerea Malta 1 

Crackers (Broken) 1 

Cinnamon ] 

Cloves 1 

Debris in Coal Mines 1 

Dry Pan Tailings 1 

Dry Wood 2 

Drugs 3 

Dough Stock for Paper 1 

Dried Tile 1 

Dextrim of Maltose 1 

Disinfectant 1 

Egyptan Cotton Seed.. 

Expeller Cake 

Expeller Corn 


Ear Corn 

Emery Wheels 

Egyptian Clay 

No. of 

Feed 23 

Fertilizer 42 

Fire Clay 22 

Feldspar 1 

Furnace Slag 3 

Fire Proofing 2 

Ferro Manganese 1 

Fish 6 

Flax Straw '. 1 

Feathers 1 

Foundry Facings 2 

Fire Clay Tailings 2 

Floated Barytes 1 

Fire Clay (Calcined) 1 

Fire Brick 2 

Fuller's Earth 2 

Fiber 1 

Flax and Repressed Trimmings 1 

Felt, Shredded 1 

Flax Shives 1 

Fenugreek 1 


Guayule IS 

Gluten Feed 3 

Granite 2 

Glass : 14 

Garbage 8 

Gilsonite 2 

Gold Ore 2 

Guano 2 

Glucose Corn 1 

Glustock 6 

Gypsum Rock 39 

Glucose Sugar 1 

Gravel : 2 

Gunny Sacks 1 

Gelatin Material 1 

Grain 1 

Greasy Bones 1 

Granite Rock 1 

Graphite 1 

Graphite Ore 1 

Garbanzo Veins 1 

Garbanzo Straw 1 

Grainless Leather 1 

Grain Leather 1 

Ginger 1 

Gniess 1 


Horns and Hoofs 8 

Hydraulic Cement S 

Hydrated Lime 3 

Hominy Feed 2 

Horse Manure 3 

Herbs 1 

Hides 1 

Hemlock Bark 1 

Hard Carbon 1 

Hose, Shredded 1 


Iron Ore 3 

Iron Turnings 1 

Iron Lignite 1 

Iron Oxide 1 


Kanit for Fertilizer 1 

Kaolin 8 

Kaolinite 1 



No. of 



Linseed Cake 

Linoleum Scrap 


Leather Strap 13 

Lignite Material 

Licorice Root - 

Locust Beans 

Logs of Palmetto 

Linseed Cake Tailings 

Linseed Screenings 


Mine Debris 2 

Manganese Ore 5 

Moulding Sand 2 

Marble Grit and Flour 3 



Metallic Oxide Color 



Meat Scrap 



Metallic Yarn 

Muslin, Shredded 



Minerals - 

Myrobalans Ground for Tanning 

Mineral Paint 

Mixed Drugs 

Malt Sugar Grains 


Nitrate of Soda - - - 

Nitre Cake - 

Nuts - - 



Oat Hulls 

Oil Cake . . 

Onions (Green) 


Oxide of Iron 

Ovster Shells 


Open Hearth Cinder 

Onion Salt 






Pyrites Cinders 

Paper Stock 

Phosphate Pebbles 


Palmetto Root 

Poultry Food 

Peanut Hulls 

Plaster Paris 

Peavine Hay 

Pumice Stone 


Pulp Paper 

Palm Leaves 

No. of 



Phosphate Rock 1 

Pottery Clay .- 1 

Potatoes for Starch 1 


Quartz Rock 1 

Quick Lime 6 


Rags. Shredding for Paper 11 

Retarder 1 

Rock 9 

Rubber Scrap ._ 2 

Rubber Weed 2 

Rice Straw 2 

Rice Hulls 2 

Rubbish 2 

Resin 2 

Rubber Tires 1 

Rubber Shoes - 1 

Rubber Packing 1 

Rubber Belt 1 

Rubber Root 1 

Rawhide 1 

Rubber Turnings 1 

Rock Char (Chick Food) _. 1 

Refuse Waste 1 

Red Peppers 1 

Red Shale _ 1 

Rejected Silver Chips. 1 

Rope 1 

Rve 1 

Shellac 1 

Soap Powder 4 

Silica 1 

Shale Tailings for Brick Yards 14 

Sweepings ....- 1 

Sulphate of Iron 2 

Stone 1 

Sandal Wood Chips 1 

Shavings 11 

Sugar 13 

Sheep Manure 5 

Saw Dust ■ 1 

Salt Cake 3 

Salt 2 

Spices 5 

Sticlac 1 

Stock Food 2 

Sand Rock - 44 

Shale for Brick 64 

Sugar Cane Fodder 1 

Screenings for Food 6 

Sulphur 3 

Soya Bean Cake 1 

Snufif 1 

Sausage 1 

Salt Grass 1 

Swamp Hay 1 

Soft Carbon I 

Snap Corn - 1 

Sand 1 

Sandv Clay :.... 1 

Sand Stone 1 

Sesquioxide Iron 1 

Stone Root _. 1 

Sulphite Paper 1 

Shelled Corn 1 

No. of 


Sole Leather 1 

Steamed Bones 1 

Shives, Shredded 1 

Shucks, 1 

Straw 1 

Seed Hay 1 

Stock Rope or Twine, Shredded 1 

Scrags • : 1 

Soap 1 

Stearic ."^cid 1 

Sassafras Root 1 

Soda 1 

St. John's Bread 1 

Shrubbery 1 

Saw Mill Waste 1 

Sisal : 1 

Sugar Cane Stalks 1 


Tirnber Ends 1 

Tin Ore 1 

Tobacco Stems and Refuse 7 

Turpentine Chips 12 

Tankage 16 

Tobacco Tags 1 

Tobacco 1 

Tobacco Leaves 1 

Tobacco Stalks 1 

Talc, Powdered 1 

Tripoli 1 

Tailings, Ground 1 

Tree Limbs. Shredded 1 

Turpentine Cups 1 


Veneer Scrap 2 

Vanadium Ore 2 

Volcanic Ash 5 

Vegetable Ivory 1 


Wheat Knuckles 8 

Wood Fiber 1 

Wood Scrap - 9 

Waste Packing Box Shredding 1 

Wood Chips 7 

Waste Plaster 5 

Wheat Dough 1 

Wheat Screenings 1 

Wheat Bran 1 

Wood Pulp 1 

Wet Paper 1 

Wattle Bark for Tanning 1 

White Clay 1 

Wax, Granulated 1 

Wheat Straw 1 

Waste Felt 1 


Yellow Pine Chips 1 

Yellow Pine Shavings 1 

Yellow Pine Blocks 1 

Yellow Pine Boards 1 

Yellow Ochre 1 


Zinc Dross - 1 

Zinc Scum 1 

Zinc Ore 1 

Zinc Clinker 1 

For further information kindly write to 

The Williams Patent Crusher & Pulverizer Co. 

ST. LOUIS, MO., U. S. A. 


Apple Grit? 

Absorbent Cotton 

Analite Ore 

Arsenate of Lead 

Auto Tires 

Apple Pumice ' 


Aluminum Steurate 

Aluminum Resinate 


Aluminum Silicate 

Ash Veneer 


Aniline Dyes 

Beef Sinews 
Blood Root 
Boiler Compound 
Burnt Tile 
Baruim Carbonate 
Biachromate of Potash Crystals 
Brass Turnings 
Broken Phonograph Records 
Bagasse Leaves 

Bleached Straw Braid Clippings 

Beer Bottle CuUet 
Black Pepper 
Balsam Bark 
Bean Cake 
Blanc Fixe 

Chrome Yellow 


Cross Wraps 

Cotton Bolls 

Crude Naphtholine 

Congoleum Scrap 

Chloride of Mica 

Cohune Nuts 

Crude Rubber 

Coney Tails 

Crude Violet 



Chuchum Bark 


Calcium Carbonate 

Carbonaceous Shale 

Clover Seed Screenings 

Copper Scales 


Cannabis Americanus. 

Chili Peppers 

Congo Gum 

Cottage Cheese 

Copperas Crystals 

Caster Seed Hulls 


Corozo Nuts 

Cardui Herb 

Cassavi Root 




Divi Divi Beans 
Disc Record Scrap 
Dried Blood 
Dicarbonate of Soda 
Dough Balls 

Friction Fabric 

Fire Proof— Box Hard 

Floor Hardener 


Fossil Ore 

Finished SnufT 

Gum Copal 

Green Starch 

Gummed Fabric Waste 

Gypsum Sand 


Graphite and Grite (Mixed) 

Gilsonite Screenings 

Gray Cleaner 

Green Coffee 

Gum Benzion 

Gum Arabic 

Glauber Salts 


Gin Sang Root 


Henbane Branches 
Hard Coal 
Hard Rubber Scrap 
Hog Powders 
Hemp Hurds 
Hickory Shavings 

Infusorial Earth 

Ice Cream Cone Trimmings 

Epsom Salts 

English Walnut Shells 

Kiln Bone Black 
Kelp (Dry) 

Lead Ore 

Leather Tankage (Hard) 

Leather Tankage (Soft) 


Lump Camphor 

Lime Soap 

Linaboc Wood 


Lace Curtains 


Mangrove Bark 

Mangate of Soda 

Mineral Sulphate of Stronita 

Macaroni (Broken) 


Nodulized Alumina 


Nux Vomica Beans 

Nicotine Paper 

Nitrate of Lime 

Oil Shale 

Oat Straw 



Oxide of Lead 

Osage Orange Chips 

Oxilic Acid 

Pecan Shells 
Parchment Paper 
Peanut Stems 
Paper Drinking Cups 
Pressed Fish Scrap 

Paraflfine Wax 
Petroleum Coke 

Pigeon Manure 
Palm Kernels 
Preserved Peaches 
Pepsin Skins 
Pumpkins (Dried) 
Para Nitroaniline 
Palm Kernel Nuts 

Quartz Rock 
Quebracho Chips 


Red Wood Bark 


Roofing Paper 

Red Ore 

Red Pigment 

Raphanum Seed 

Sea Grass 

Silver Salt 

Soap Chips 

Sulfanilic Acid 

Sumac Leaves 

Steel Turnings 

Sodic Aluminic Sulphate 

Saratoga Chips 


Silica Aluminum 

Silicate of Magnesia 

Sotol Pines 

Sponge Clippings 


Sorghum Seeds 


Shell Dust 

Sulphide of Silver 

Scum Cake (Dried) 

Seasanum Seed 


Tile (Burnt) 

Telegram Blanks 

Tire Fabric 

Transformer Compound 


Trading Stamps 


Tile Piping 

Velvet Beans 
Volcanic Rock 
Varella Bark 
Vine Cactus 

Wax Paper 
White Factice 
Wire Scrap 
White Lead 
Wire Glass 

Yucca Glauca Grass 



In March, 1918, Herman Roling, who had 
charge of our printing establishment for six 
years previously, bought out our machinery 
and since then has run it on his own account, 
taking outside work. He has done all of our 
printing at regular rates, as we have continued 
our custom of advertising our new ideas to 
get them before the milling and other trades in 
the way that has proved so successful in the 
past. We liave therefore kept him fairly busy 
on our work, and at the same time he has been 

der press, capable of making 1,500 impressions 
per hour. This machine when new cost $3,200, 
but he obtained it secondhand and it is in good 
condition and it cost him installed $1,200. The 
present Williams History is now being printed 
on this press. 


Cut No. 241 represents a portion of our 
present building at Broadway and Montgomery 
street, extending to St. Louis avenue on the 

Cut No. 242 — Our infant crusher 

able to add to his income by working up trade 
for himself by outside jobs. In this way we 
have saved paying him for the time in which 
he might have been idle, and he has charged 
us the regular rates, which we believe to be 
less than such work would have been charged 
for elsewhere, and has done it to our satisfac- 

In 1920 Herman Roling added to his e(iuip- 
ment a 2ri x HO two-revolution AVhitlock evlin- 

right and up to Ninth street on the left, par- 
tially constructed of concrete, one portion of 
brick and a contemplated finish of concrete, 
which building possibly will eventually cover 
the block. It is the result of hard study, 
arduous labor, constant belief in one's ability 
to accomplish something worth while. From 
these corners the name Williams has gone to 
the four corners of the Morld almost, and is 
known as the greatest exclusively crusher and 
pulverizer establishment in the whole world. 


Cut No. 243 — A pyramid of our grinders 


It started from an idea which has been fully 
explained in the evolution of M. F. Williams' 
history, and also that portion which relates 
to the Williams Patent Crusher and Pulver- 
izer Company's business, — a business which 
has grown to both eminence and fame, from 
a one-man idea; and having started with but 
$1000.00, a business which has expended at 
least $200,000 in experimenting alone, as there 
was no other way to find out without experi- 
mentation; and now, in our twenty-second 
year, we are experimenting more and greater 
than ever, and reaching out with our various 


Cut No. 243 represents a pyramid of our 
pneumatic line of grinders. The bottom ma- 
chine with suction fan attached, for blowing 
the product up into a building, into a dust- 
collecting system, is of a size much larger than 
a full-grown man his head only reaching about 
to the half of the top of the fan piping. This 
we might properly term our "pneumatic fam- 
il.y, " where we handle goods entirely by air. 

The seventh machine on the top represents 
our "Infant," the smallest machine we build 



' • ' v; -^ 

Cut No. 244— Our Mammoth Crusher 

tentacles for more worlds to con(iuer in the 
crushing and grinding field. 


Cut No. 242 represents the beginning of our 
business in a small way, as the infant holds in 
his lap a model of our Infant Crusher. "Great 
oaks from little acorns grow," and we have 
likewise grown in fifty years from a small 
one-horse concern to a plant doing over a mil- 
lion dollars' worth of business each year. 

of this family, and each one of said family 
is built in sizes from 8 to 10. 

In the seven sizes, we have depicted a suf- 
ficient number to give the reader an idea of 
OTir line of crushing and grinding machines. 
If \ye were to go on down the line, we would 
go down and take in the "Jumbos," which are 
made in ten standard sizes with the largest 
weighing about 30 tons. 

We have a still larger line called the "Mam- 
moth," which is represented bj' Cut No. 245, 


showing eight full-grown men standing in the 
hopper, which Mammoth crushers weigh from 
35 to 40 tons. 


We manufactured and shipped our hrst 
Jumbo Crusher December 24, 1904. At this 
time, this Jumbo Crusher was the largest we 
had built. It was tried as an experiment in 
West Virginia, upon crushing coal for mak- 
ing coke. The results obtained from this 
crusher elicited from the users a second or- 

The Jumbo made in eight separate and dis- 
tinct sizes: The Giant Universal Limestone 
Grinder (Cut No. 248), made in 9 standard 
sizes, and the Mammoth Type Crusher, which 
has been used now extensively in Cement 
Plants, Gypsum Plants, Iron Ore Plants, and 
other plants of a similar nature. Bulletin No. 
ITS partially describes our Mammoth Crushers. 
The Mammoth is built in six standard sizes, 
and to give the operator some understanding 
of the capacity of this Giant Crusher, it will 
be noticed by Cut No. 245 with eight full-size 
men standing in the hopper of this Giant 

Cut No. 245— Eight men in our Mammoth Crusher 

der, both of which were to some extent ex- 
periments ; and these two crushers were oper- 
ated for about one year and a half continu- 
ously and most successfully until the same 
corporation ordered nearly a dozen more of 
these Jumbo Crushers. Since that time the 
Jumbos have become very popular, not only in 
crushing coal for coke making, but for crush- 
uig limestone in Cement Plants and other 
plants, for the various uses which limestone 
is required, and our Bulletin No. 40A now com- 
prises from several years of experience three 
classes of large crushers and grinders, viz. : 

Ci'usher, will give an oljservor a very good 
idea of the size and capacity of this Mam- 
moth Crusher by the general specification de- 
scribed on page 7 of this bulletin, No. 40-A. 

And for further evidence, referring to Cut 
No. 244, will give a further understanding of 
the size and strength of this Mammoth 

Also Cut No. 246 shows a carload of ore 
ready to be dumped into the mouth of the 



Our Company liave been very timid in in- 
troducing' our Jumbo family, our Giant Family 
and our Mammoth familj' of crushers. Now 
haA-ing been 21 years before the crushing 
and grinding public and having placed upon 
the market between four and five thousand of 
these crushers of the Hammer Type, and other 
types not mentioned here, we feel justi^ed in 
stating that we now have in successful opera- 
tion more ei'ushers and grinders, and these are 

tieipated and so much greater than our cus- 
tomers required, that we found it necessary 
to go down the scale and reduce our sizes 
from a No. 1 down to a No. 0. 

For several years we continued manufactur- 
ing the No. size, and even this size was too 
great for many manufacturers in. a smaller 
way. After a certain number of years of con- 
stant practice in manufacturing and selling, 
many smaller operations called for a still 
smaller pulverizer than the No. 0. We then 
decided to build a No. 00, hundreds of which 

Cut No. 246 — Dumping ore by the carload into our Mammoth Crusher 

^operating successfully on a greater variety of 
materials than any crusher or grinder institu- 
tion of whom we know or of whom we have 
any record. 


Our Company did not grow regularly in the 
adoption of our patent hinged hammer type 
of crushers. We stai'ted in a haphazard way. 
First, starting with Avhat we termed a No. 1 
size, after placing (juite a number of these 
crushers upon the market, we found that the 
capacities were so much greater than we an- 

have been built and sold, and they even have 
proved too large for still smaller operations. 


We then saw it became necessary to manu- 
facture a still smaller grinder, which we 
termed the Infant, and at this stage of the 
game we have concluded to stop. But in 
reality, and in fact, a Jumbo user, a Giant 
user, and a Mammoth user, would wonder why 
and how these very small grinders would in- 
terest them. 



We no^v explain why the smaller grinders 
will interest a larger manufacturer. It is be- 
cause they can be used for laboratory service 
or experimental service; therefore every large 
manufacturer who does crushing and grinding 
should have an Infant grinder, or possibly a 
little larger size, in his laboratory or experi- 
mental room ; and for this reason only are we 
going backward and enumerating our smaller 
machines and explaining how they would in- 
terest those using the larger class of crushers 

manufactured and sold 80 of them, ranging in 
weight from 11 tons each to 50 tons each. 


Cut No. 247 illustrates the installation of a 
No. 1) Mammoth Williams Crusher ready to 
receive a, 6-toii piece of iron ore. While these 
large pieces are not the regular feed to this 
crusher, they do have them occasionally, and 
about 50 per cent of the product is fed to this 
crusher in one and two-ton pieces. 


and grinders. And even yet, we have been 
called upon innume)'al)lc times to fui-nish a 
hand-grinder, but we have decided not to 
make one. 


Thus far in 1917, this being the first of 
June, we have booked orders for 24 of these 
large crushers, and since the beginning of in- 
troduction of this class of CT'ushei's, we have 


Tlio Jumbo Crusher had its origin in the 
coal field in connection with coke ovens, and 
for 20 yeai's we have manufactured coal crush- 
ers that are veiy important units in the coke 
industry. The increasing demand for by- 
product coke created a demand for a crushing 
unit mucli laigoi' Ihaii the standard machines 
on the mai-ket; a:; usual, we were called upon 
to design and develop such units, which re- 
sulted in the Williams Jumbo Crushers. 



The ol>ject in using the Williams Jumbo and 
Mammoth Crushers in the ([uarry end of ce- 
ment plants and other large industries where 
limestone, shale and coal are reduced in quan- 
tities, is to reduce bv one unit what is now 

material on the first break to about 8-ineh or 
10-inch size. The material is then reduced 
gradually by smaller crushers, using in some 
eases three and four installations of the small- 
er crushers at each reduction, an elevator and 
quite fre(iuently screens are used, taking out 
the finer product and returning the rejections 
fi'om the screen to a smaller crusher, thereby 

Cut No 248— Our Gunt In 

done in many plants bj^ three and four units 
of other crushers with elevators and screens. 

It has been for years past (|uite common 
practice to employ at the crushing plant first 
a very large Gyratory, Jaw, or Roll Crusher, 
to take the quarry size stone as it comes in 
cars loaded bv steam shovels, and reduce the 

gradually reducing this stone down to suit- 
able size for di'vers or other purposes. 

The Williams Jumbo and Mammoth Crush- 
ers take the place of these intermediate crush- 
ers, by taking the stone directly from the 
large crushers, in 8-ineh and 10-inch cubes, 
and reducing at one operation to li-inch, 1- 


inch or f-inch, as desired; and in doing- this 
work in one operation no screens are neces- 
sary, and it is onlj' necessary to elevate the 
product, after crushing;, to suitable storage 

Aside from doing away with a number of 
the smaller crushers which saves many thou- 
sands of dollars in purchase price, cost of 

(BUILT IN 1916-17) 

No. 8-one of our group, is a recently com- 
pleted concrete building, built to stand for 
ages, which will give us 28,000 additional 
square feet of surface. First tloor is devoted 
to heavy machine working tools and is equipped 
with two traveling cranes having electrical and 

Cut Xo. 249— Our 

installation, room occupied by such machinery, 
and a saving in cost of building construction 
to cover this (juantity of machinery, the 
Williams Jumbo Crusher also produces a 
greater tonnage per hoi-sc power, and the cost 
of maintenance is considerably less on the 
three or four interTnediate installations men- 
tioned above and frequently used. 

pneumatic hoists for taking care of the cast- 
ings of various sizes and kinds for the con- 
struction of a variety of Crushers and Grind- 
ers. This building is steam heated, electrically 
lighted, with the latest make of machine tools 
electrically driven, equipped with an electric 
elevator, also a Humphrey elevator for trans- 
porting workmen from bottom floor to pattern 


loft, which will accommodate six persons at a 
time and save the expense of the main ele- 
vator, which is 12x17 feet. On the first floor 
of this new building, it is equipped upon the 
most modern designs known in up-to-date ma- 
chine shop equipment, with individual motors 
for each machine tool. It is also supplied with 
a transformer room, absolutely fireproof, lat- 
est and up-to-date, installed by the General 
Electric Co. The boiler room is supplied by a 
pneumatic ash hoist, which will elevate the 
ashes into a steel tank attached to the side of 
the building with a hopper and lever under- 
neath, so that when the lever throws the slides, 
the teamster can fill his wagon with ashes with- 
out going aloft. No more shoveling of ashes 
by hand, no more hand handling of any 

This building is equipped throughout with 
metal sash and wire-glass to conform to the 
City Building Regulations and Fire-Safety 
Hazards. All parts of this floor and all floors 
are thoroughly lighted with prism ribbed glass 
which diffuses light, and is also provided with 
hinge sash for airing. Our new boiler is a 
Hawley down-draft smokeless water-tvibe and 
absolutely up-to-date ; our coal bin is in a 
basement upon a level with the fireroom. Coal 
will be discharged from wagons into the coal 
bin. Everything upon this floor is absolutely 
fireproof and of the very latest equipment. 

First story in heiglit, 20 feet ; second story, 
18 feet; third story, 17 feet; fourth story, a 
Pattern Loft of 10 feet in height. 


The second floor, devoted to a machine shop 
and erecting floor for a lighter class of Grind- 
ei'S, is equipped with trolleys, air hoists, elec- 
tric hoists, transportation trvicks, and all the 
latest designs of labor-saving devices for the 
quickest possible way of manufacturing a 
small line of Crushers and Grinders in lots to 
facilitate work and economy of cost. 

Each machine on tliis floor is also e(iuipped 
with an individual motor; a special motor of 
35 H. P. is used for testing out Grinders and 

running them up to speed before they are pro- 
nounced ready for shipment. 

The building throughout every department 
has been provided with the latest and most 
sanitary equipment that money can buy. The 
comfort of workmen and operatives in this 
building has been considered with the utmost 
care from a sanitaiy standpoint. ' 

We must not neglect to mention our Cranes 
provided for accessible handling with air 
hoists over each machine tool. It is expected 
when these shops are ready for operation that 
we will more than double our facilities. 

These floors are also provided with Concrete 
Fire-proof Staii'waj's for easy access to and 
from each floor. The second floor is provided 
w^ith a mezzanine floor devoted to a tool store- 
room for the accommodation of workmen on 
that floor. 


The third floor is devoted entirely to a Pat- 
tern Shoi3 and Woodworking Machine Shop 
for facilitating the getting out of various ma- 
chine frames made of wood, and is equipped 
with the latest design of woodworking tools 
for both millwright machine woodwork, as 
well as pattern Avoi'k. The refuse from all 
woodworking machines will be collected by 
pneumatics and delivered to a downspout to 
the fireroom as fast as same is accumulated. 
All woodworking machines on this floor are 
individual motor-di'iven. and this floor also is 
lighted by wire glass set in steel-sash, as the 
floors below. The floors proper on top of the 
concrete are first-layer of 2-inch yellow pine, 
second layer 1-inch hard maple, so as to make 
a beautiful smooth floor and to last for serv- 


The top floor is devoted entirely to a Pat- 
tern Loft, well lighted and second to none in 
the city of St. Louis. All patterns, several 
thousand of them, are shelved, separated and 
grouped into departments and labeled accord- 
ing to each department, so that should a pat- 



ternniaker wish to select one or two patterns 
he will ascend to the loft upon the belt man- 
hoist, also motor-driven, but should he wish 
to collect a number of patterns, a pattern 
truck is provided upon this floor so that he 
can collect and descend upon the large ele- 
vator to the Pattern Shop lloor. Upon this 
Pattern Loft floor a fireproof vault is provided 
for duplicate blue-prints, drawings, records, 
and in fact all records which should be kept 
in duplicate in case of fire in other depart- 
ments of our plant. As this company is now 
in its twenty-first year raanufactui'ing and 
selling- our hundreds of varieties of Crushers 
and Grinders, our fast growing business has 
prompted us to add the eighth building to our 
group and make it absolutely fireproof, and 
this department, most especially, we are very 
proud of as being the result of experience for 
many years in this line. Since we have more 
orders to dispose of on our books in our twen- 
ty-first year by four to six times over, than 
we ever had before in our history, we feel 
justified in stating to the public that we are 
second to none, and in fact we are the great- 
est in this line in the whole woi-ld. We there- 
fore feel very proud of our achievement in our 
twenty-first .year, resulting from studying the 
welfare of the public, and so that our efforts 
are now crowned with success. When we 
come to consider that we have our Crushers 
and Grinders in over 60 foreign countries, and 
well known thj'oughout the whole Ignited 
States, we feel that our development and our 
small beginnings, like great oaks from little 
acorns, to onr plant now covering a floor space 
of a little over two acres, is worth mention- 
ing; and that Ave are growing to greater 
developments, thanks to a most generous pub- 
lic for our increase. 

Another important fact worth i-elating is 
that, in our 21 years of existence in this spe- 
cial line, we have had returned to us, — either 
by buying back from firms who have gone out 
of business, or taking back from those who 
could not pay, or in some instances our Crush- 
■ ers and Grinders having been rejected be- 
cause they were not suitable for a special 
tlass of work, — some 370 machines, each and 

every one of which have been remodeled and 

•resold, some with later improvements, many 
for a different class of work. In dollars and 
cents during that period of time we have had 
at least $350,000.00 M-orth of Crushers and 
Grinders returned, and for the past five years 
they have all been disposed of and not even 
one of them left upon our hands, whether they 
were old models or later models, and when 
this fact is made public we feel that it's not 
a detriment to our business, but a star in our 
crown and an assurance that the Williams 
Way is a Money-Making Way for the public 
who have use of said Crushers and Grinders. 
Not another firm in the iiniverse can make 
such an assertion, a truthful assertion, which 
only redounds to our advancement. We there- 
fore thank a most generous public foi' their 


My first patent on a Hammer Crusher came 
out August 13tli, 1895, and subsequent pat- 
ents I have kept taking out as we evoluted. 
We a7-e still taking them out, until Ave have 
now taken out American patents alone over 
200, besides (juite a number of foreign pat- 


Judge Hazel of the United States District 
Court at Bufl:'alo, New York, on June 3, 1914, 
entered a final decree and granted a perpetual 
injunction against the Kinsey Mfg. Compa«y, 
restraining them from furt.ij,er infringing the 
Williams Patent, No. 939,7T§, owned by The 
Williams Patent Crusher Company of St. 
Louis, Missouri. 

This is the third patent, and tl^e third time 
that the Williams Company has b^en involved 
in litigation and had its patents. jpustained. 

The first suit was against a St. Louis firm, 
the St. Louis Pulverizer Co. ; the next suit was 
against a Pennsylvania firm, in which latter 
case the Williams Patent was sustained by the 
Court of Appeals and an accounting is now 
under way to recover profits and damages. 


The claims of this patent are found to be 
valid and infringed in suit brought against 
the St. Louis Pulverizer Co., reported 104 
Fed. 795. 

The United States Circuit Court of Appeals 
at Philadelphia rendered its final decision in 
the suit that we brought against the Pennsyl- 
vania Crusher Company some time ago for in- 
fringment of our patent No. 843,729 for im- 
provements in Dumping Cages for Crushers 
and Pulverizers. This decision of the Court 
of Appeals, handed down in the March term, 
1911, concludes: "The record will be remand- 
ed with instructions to the Circuit Court to 
enter a decree reversing the former one and 
adjudging claims 1 and 2 of the patent in 
suit to be valid and infringed and awarding 
to the complainant an injunction with the 
usual accounting and costs of suit." 

Under the law, a user of an infringing ma- 
chine is liable for his acts of infringements. 
The maker and seller of the infringing machine 
in qiiestion has been found to have infringed 
our patent No. 843,729 and the Court of Ap- 
peals, in addition, has found the infringed 
claims of said patent TO BE VALID. 

It is our intention to protect our rights ars 
secured to us by the above patent and numer- 
ous other patents which have been granted 
on improvements we have made in crush- 
ing and pulverizing machinery, and the pub- 
lic is warned against buying crushing and 
pulverizing machines which infringe any of 
the following patents: 

United States patent, 393,682, Nov. 27, ISSS 

441,998, December 2, 1890 

485,636, November 8, 1892 

514,690, February 13, 1894 

516,995, March 20, 1894 

544,336, August 13, 1895 

589,236, August 31, 1897 

590,748, September 28, 1897 
Re-Issue, 11,634, October 26, 1897 
Design, 30,347, March 14, 1899 
Designs, 30,348, March 14, 1899 
Germany, patent, 105,777 
Great Britain, patent, 19,998 
France, patent, 270,062 

Belgium, patent, 130,388 
India, patent, 434 
Canada, patent, 60,048 

646.249, March 27, 1900 

646.250, March 27, 1900 
646,278, March 27, 1900 
657,998, September 18, 1900 

Design, 35,211, October 22, 1901 

711.688, October 21, 1902 
726,602, April 28, 1903 
728,643, May 19, 1903 
728,643, May 19, 1903 
730,503, June 9, 1903 
738,507, September 8, 1903 
741,947, October 20, 1903 
741,947, October 20, 1903 
957,705, April 19, 1904 
758,288, April 26, 1904 
758,288, April 26, 1904 
758,288, April 26, 1904 
792,485, June 13, 1905 
806,383, December 5, 1905 
803,138, December 26, 1905 
808,133, December 26, 1905 
811,679, February 6, 1906 
813.190, Februarv 20. 1906 
815,087, March 13, 1906 
815,087, March 13, 1906 
818,328, April 17, 1906 
818,725, April 24, 1906 

836.161, November 20, 1906 

836.162, November 20, 1906 

836.162, November 20, 1906 

836.163, November 20, 1906 
836,422, November 20, 1906 
843,729, February 12, 1907 
845,171, February 26, 1907 
850,988, April 23, 1907 
851,390, April 23, 1907 

Reissue, 12,659, April 26, 1907 
858.772, July 24, 1907 

877.689, January 28, 1908 
877,fS9, January 28, 1908 
S77,C89, January 28, 1908 

877.690, January 28, 1908 
877,690, January 28, 1908 
877,876, January 28, 1908 
878.847, February 11, 1908 
878,921, February 11, 1908 



February 11, 1908 


February 11, 1908 


February 11, 1908 


November 24, 1908 


November 24, 1908 


November 24, 1908 


December 8, 1908 


November 2, 1909 


November 2, 1909 


November 2, 1909 


November 2, 1909 


November 2, 1909 


November 2, 1909 


November 2, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 9. 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November -9, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 23, 1909 


December 28, 1909 


December 28. 1909 


December 28, 1909 


March 29, 1910 


November 9, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 9. 1909 


November 9, 1909 


Novembei' 9, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 9. 1909 


November 9, 1909 


November 9, 1909 


August 22, 1911 


September 26, 1911 


January 9, 1912 


January 9, 1912 


January 9, 1912 


February 13, 1912 


March 12, 1912 


, March 12, 1912 


, April 9, 1912 


March 26, 1912 

1,025,177, May 7, 1912 
1,031,506, July 26, 1912 
1,034,552, August 6, 1912 
1,035,288, August 13, 1912 
1,039,487, September 24, 1912 

1.039.623, September 24, 1912 

1.039.624, September 24, 1912 
1,039,102, September 24, 1912 
1,037,232, September 12, 1912 
1,047,356, December 17, 1912 
1,048,621, December 12, 1912 
1,055,686, March 13, 1913 

Great Britain, 128,936, January 12, 1914 

1,051,044, January 21, 1913 

1 078,650, November 18, 1913 

1,103,219, July 14, 1914 

1,103,237, July 14, 1914 

1,107,830, August 14, 1914 

1,111,342, September 22, 1914 
13,820, October 27, 1914 

1,116,777, November 16, 1914 

1,122,453, December 29, 1914 

1,139,920, May 18, 1915 

1,144,352, May 15, 1915 

1,147,351, July 20, 1915 
Argentine, T. M., 43,155, January 31, 1916 

1,189,481, July 4, 1916 

1,212,596, January 16, 1917 

1,214,249, January 30, 1917 

1,215,890. February 13, 1917 

1,235,174, July 31, 1917 

1,236,805, August 7, 1917 

1,238,239, August 28, 1917 

1,235,868, August 7. 1917 
Canadian, 181,430, January 1, 1918 
U. S., T. M., 120.234, January 15, 1918 

1.258.969, March 12, 1918 

1.258.970, March 12, 1918 
1,266,894, May 21, 1918 

Japan, T. M., 79,907, June 6, 1918 

1,272,311, July 9, 1918 
Registered Print, 4,915, July 9, 1918 

1,274,126, July 30, 1918 
Canada Pat., 186,082, August 13, 1918 
Canada Pat., 186,083, August 13, 1918 

1.275.346, August 13, 1918 

1.275.347, August 13, 1918 
Canada Pat., 186,303, August 27, 1918 
Canada T. M., 99-23-798, September 3, 1918 


1,278,542, September 10, 1918 

1,281,829, October 15, 1918 

1,282,156, October 27, 1918 
Registered Print, 5,013, November 26, 1918 
Great Britain, T. M., 386,450, Nov. 30, 1919 
Mexico, T. M., 16,049, December 4, 1918 

Chili, T. M., 19,098, December 12, 1918 
Norway, T. M., 5,521, December 21, 1918 
French, T. M., 26,166, December 23, 1918 

1,288,785, December 24, 1918 
Holland, T. M., 37,764, December 24, 1918 
Union of So. Africa, T. M., 1208-18, Dec. 28, 1918 
Greek, T. M., 1,846, December 28, 1918 
Denmark, T. M., 689-18, December 31, 1918 
Australia, T. M., 24,227, January 2, 1919 
New Zealand, T. M., 14,958, January 6, 1919 

1,290,906, January 14, 1919 
U. S., T. M., 124,358, February 4, 1919 
Registered Print, 5,051, February 4, 1919 
Brazil, T. M., 5,680, February 6, 1919 
Canadian Pat., 188,703, February 11, 1919 
Canadian Pat., 188,893, February 25, 1919 
Great Britain Pat., 139,749, March 1, 1919 
Costa Rica, T. M., 1,067. March 4, 1919 
Copyright, 514,539, March 6, 1919 

1,296,891, March 11, 1919 
Uruguay, T. M., 8,155, March 11, 1919 
Peru, T. M., 129, March 14, 1919 

Venezuela, T. M., 2,435, March 28, 1919 
Copyright, 513,959, April 3, 1919 
Colombia, T. M., 1,727, April 10, 1919 
Registered Print, 5,086, April 15, 1919 
Registered Print, 5,087, April 15, 1919 
Guatemala, T. M., 1,113, April 16, 1919 

1,300,799, April 15, 1919 

1,301,316, April 22, 1919 
Canadian T. M., 24,492, May 10, 1919 
Italy, T. M., 17,375, May 28, 1919 

1,305,854, June 3, 1919 
China, Pat., 2,478, June 4, 1919 
Costa Rica, Pat., 194, June 7, 1919 
New Foundland Pat., 291, June 14. 1919 

1,306,772, June 17, 1919 

1,306,775, June 17, 1919 

191,024, June 17, 1919 

Spain, Pat., 69,673, June 25, 1919 

1,311,358, July 29, 1919 
Italy, Pat., 173,834, June 30, 1919 

1,308,384, July 1, 1919 

1,310,001, July 15, 1919 
Chili, Pat., 3,852, August 9, 1919 

1,312,658, August 12, 1919 

1,314,575, September 2, 1919 

1,314,575, September 2, 1919 

1,315,281, September 9, 1919 

1,317,769, October 7, 1919 

1,319,501, October 21, 1919 
Ecuador, T. M., 78, October 23, 1919 
U. S., T. M., 127,554, November 11, 1919 

1.322.210, November 18, 1919 

1.322.211, November 18, 1919 
1,322,339, November 18, 1919 
1,322,532, November 25, 1919 
1,322,546, November 25, 1919 

Bolivia, T. M., 274, November 28, 1919 
Canadian, 195,905, January 6, 1920 

1,327,452, January 6, 1920 
U. S., T. M., 129,250, January 27, 1920 
Argentine, Pat., 15,971, January 28, 1920 
Nicaragua, T. M., 542, February 7, 1920 
Portugal, T. M., 22,146, February 10, 1920 
Copyright, 562,758, February 12, 1920 
Cuba, Pat., 3,601, March 9, 1920 

1,334,511, March 23, 1920 
Registered Print, 5,251, April 20, 1920 
Registered Print, 5,258, May 11, 1920 

1,340,643, May 18, 1920 
Reissue, 14,865, May 25, 1920 
Canadian, 200,885, June 8, 1920 
Copyright, 573,051, June 14, 1920 
Egypt, T. M.. 394, June 15, 1920 
Belgium, T. M., 23,029, June 17. 1920 
New Foundland, T. M., 893, June 17, 1920 
Luxembourg, T. M., 3,723, June 21, 1920 
Re-Issue, 14,886, June 22, 1920 
Cuba, T. ]\1., 35,579, June 30, 1920 
Fndia, T. M., 1,135, July 3, 1920 
United States, T. M., 135,088, July Ifi, 1920 
Canadian Pat., 202.272, July 27, 1920 
Rc-lEsue, 14.926, July 27, 1920 
Finland, T. M., 4,806, July 31, 1920 
U. S., T. M., Womber, 134,202, Aug. 17, 1920 
Rhodesia, T. M., 2,254, August 23, 1920 

1,350,691, August 24, 1920 
Czccho-Slovakia, T. M., 85,932, Sept. 11, 1920 

1,355,270, October 12, 1920 

1,356,086, October 19, 1920 

1,359,215, November 16, 1920 


1,359,303, November 16, 1920 

1,359,426, November 16, 1920 
Canadian Pat., 206,135, November 30, 1920 

1,361,679, December 7, 1920 
Tientsin, China, T. M,, 507, December 17, 1920 
Copyright, 607,565, Jannary 15, 1921 


I am particularly interested in the follow- 
ing newspaper clippings, in connection with 
my son Oliver's description of his radimeter 

(Cut No. 249-A): 

The above numbei-s refer to United States 
patents, etc., unless otherwise specified. There 
are 264 in the above list and we have about 
50 now pending. 



NEW; YORK, March S, 1920.— St. Louis will be 
only a night's ride by airship t'rom the Cuban oasis 
in the near future, according to Col. William X. Hens- 
ley, Jr.. the American observer on the eastward 
flight of the British dirigible R-34, who has been 
abroad since July, 1919, making a study of military 
dirigibles, and who has just returned, accompanied 
by his wife and IS-months-old son. 

He said tl'.e dirigible would be a big feature of 
future transportation and that it was infinitely more 
comfortable to travel in than on a steamship. The 
passenger of the air, he said, does not feel the vibra- 
tion, pitch and roll of vessels at sea. 

He said that Germany operates an air service be- 
tween Berlin, Stockholm and Berne. Switzerland, 
and that the Germans have transported 14,000 pas- 
sengers by this air route without an accident. 
Eventually, he said, it would be feasible to leave St. 
Louis in the afternoon by dirigible and arrive in Cuba 
on the following day. 

Mrs. Hensley and his son, he said, lived in Switz- 
erland while he was traveling in Germany. Shortly 
before they left Switzerland, Col. Hensley said, an 
Austrian maid in their employ became mentally un- 
balanced and nearly killed the baby by covering him 
with hot ashes. 


The NC-4, under command of Lieutenant Com- 
mander A. C. Read, and the crew which took it safely 
across the Atlantic, arrived in St. Louis November 
23 and remained here several days. The NC-1 made 
a transcontinental trip in the interest of naval re- 

The first flying accident to the NC-4 on its present 
tour occurred November 22 at Hannibal, Mo., when a 
six-inch hole was torn in the bottom of its hull when 
it struck an obstruction in the river wliile landing. 

The NC-4 was delayed at Hannibal for two days, 
but when the damage to the hull was repaired it re- 
sumed its journey. It passed over St. Louis and 
directly over the plant of the Williams Patent Crush- 
er and Pulverirer Company, on its way to the gulf 
on November 26, 1919. 


The following lettef from 0. J. Williams, 
sou of the author, explains his radimeter and 
its advantages: 

"San Francisco, Feb. 18, 1920. 
"Automobile and Aeroplane Radimeter. 

"In the yeai' 1914 A. D., in the month of 
September, Oliver J. Williams and family 
made an automobile trip up into the moun- 
tains of California to beautiful Lake Tahoe. 
Ill climbing the extremely high mountains at 
an elevation of over 8000 feet, where the air 
is very rare, and it sometimes becomes neces- 
sary to change the adjustment on the carbu- 
retor, if one is not careful the water in the 
radiator and the jackets of an automobile en- 
gine will boil away, thus making it necessary 
to freijuently stop, cool off the engine, and re- 
plenish the water supply. 

"It occurred to him when this happened, 
that there was something lacking in the make- 
up of an automobile, Avhich should tell the 
operator of this condition. Accordingly, on 
his return to San Francisco, he thought over 
the subject quite extensively, and finally came 
to the conclusion that a bulb of mercury in- 
serted mechanically into the walls or water 
jacket of an automobile engine and connected 
to a steam gauge dial by means of a capillai-y 
tube, would show this danger to the operator 
by a glance at the instrument board of the 
automobile, where such a dial should be 

"Accordingly, application was made to a 
large thermometer manufacturing concern in 
New York, and after considerable correspond- 
ence, and an expense of about $100.00, it was 
necessary to purchase six instruments, rather 
bidky in appearance, but containing these 
ideas. Such an instrument was mounted on 
his automobile, tested out thoroughly, and by 
means of a recording therometer hung in the 
radiator, it Avas found that there was 20 de- 
grees difference in the temperature of the Ava- 
ter in the radiator and in the water jacket of 
the automobile itself. 

"After using this instrument for some time, 
and demonstrating its utility, an application 
was made in the United States Patent Office 
for U. S. Letters Patent. After several months 
of time had elapsed, the application was 
thrown out of the patent office, owing to the 
fact that someone else had thought of practi- 
cally the selfsame thing, and the claims of 
Oliver J. Williams were said to interfere with 
claim applied for on or about the same time 
by Mr. P. M. Gelatt, of LaCrosse, Wis. Upon 
receiving notification from the United States 
Patent Office, in less than twenty-four hours 
later, Mv. P. M. Gelatt telegraphed to Oliver 
J. Williams that both of our claims had been 
thrown out of the Patent Office, and wanting 
to know if we could not get together on a 
joint claim. Accordingly, Mr. P. M. Gelatt 
came out to San Francisco, and in less than 
thirty minutes' time purchased all rights from 
Olivei- J. Williams for his application, and it 
was then leai-ned that the claim of Oliver J. 
Williams antedated the claim of P. M. Gelatt 
by six months. 

"Mr. Gelatt then went to Washington, D. 
C., and had the application of Oliver J. Wil- 
liams filed in the Patent Office, assigned to 
P. M. Gelatt, and accordingly the United 
States Patent Office granted the patent March 
20, 1917, No. 1,220,150, application filed De- 
cember 8. 1915, Serial No. 65,720. 

"On or aliout this tinu% it will be remem- 
bered that the World War broke out, and 
some time later the United States Government 
entered the Avar. A call was made for aero- 


planes. The production of aeroplanes in the 
United States at that time is a matter of con- 
gressional record. 

•'The instrument invented by Oliver J. Wil- 
liams, the son of JI. F. Williams, the author, 
was of considerable importance to an aero- 
plane operator, inasmuch as he A\as enabled 
by this instrument to tell the temperature of 
the water in the cylindere of his engine, and 
the temperature of the lubricating oil. Unlike 
an automobile, it is impossible for an aero- 
plane in flight to stop and replenish the water. 
Therefore, before any harm was done, the 
aviator should know the condition of his mo- 
tor, so that if he foresaw trouble, ho could 
alight and remedy the difficulty. 

"Practically all of the United States Navy 
aeroplanes and Army aeroplanes were equipped 
■with two of these instruments. The bulb, in- 
stead of being fastened into the automobile 
jacket, or water jacket of the engine, was in- 
serted in the radiator, and through a long cap- 
illary the head or dial was mounted on the 
instrument board. 

"The figui'es and the hand, shown in Cut 
249-A, indicating the temporatui'c, were cov- 
ered with radium solution, so that the hand 
and figures on the dial would be lumiuant at 
night, without means of ai-tifieial light, as all 
aeroplanes must avoid artificial light, other- 
wise the enom.v could see them. 

"In the year 1917, it was proposed by the 
various governments of the world, in the de- 
velopment of aeroplane flight, that a world 
encircling tour should be made by aeroplane, if 
practical. Prizes were oflfered by foreign gov- 
ernments, as well as by the United States Gov- 
ernment, to the aviator who would suc- 
cessfully make a flight across the Atlantic 

"At or about the time of the signing of the 
Armistice, the United States Government had 
pei-feeted giant trans-Atlantic aeroplanes foi- 
purposes of communication, transporting high 

explosives, and for other uses, which were in- 
tended primarily for long flights from naval 
bases situated at extreme distances from the 
enemy. The Armistice having been signed 
November 11, 1918, there was no further use 
for these long-distance aeroplanes; hence the 
United States Government attempted a flight 
with what history shows was the N-C Fleet 
for ciossing- the Atlantic, and we all remem- 
ber the momentous and historical flight of the 
three trans-Atlantic aeroplanes, the NC-1, 
NC-3 and NC-4. These three fljing- boats, as 
it were, were equipped with duplicate instru- 
ments, vdth radium treated dials for recording 
the temperature of the water in the radiator 
and engine cylinders, and the oil in the crank 

"The value of the instruments invented by 
OUver J. Williams was thoi'oughly tested out 
on these fights, and it will be recalled that in 
the report made by Lieutenant Commander 
Reed of one of the legs of the NC aeroplanes, 
the temperature recording instruments indi- 
cated that they Avere in such a high altitude 
the oil in the crank cases and the water in the 
radiators and cylinders was at the boiling 
point, hence they dropped to a lower altitude, 
wliere the resistance would not be so great, 
and where the engines would not be ruined. 
The instrument invented by Mr. Oliver J. Wil- 
liams made this record possible for the avia- 
tors, and assisted materially in the successful 
trans-.'^tlautic aeroplane flight. 

'■Besides being used for aeroplanes, the in- 
struments are being installed on rutomobiles, 
tractors, motor boats, and are being used noAr 
commercially for recording temperatures at dis- 
lances from the point where the liquid is be- 
ing heated. For instance, in commercial use"? 
of internal combu.stion engines, in pumping 
plants, and various other industries, on their 
instrument beards they have these instruments 
invented by Oliver J. Williams, to indicate the 
temperature of the watei' surrounding the cyl- 

"In canning and preserving plants, where 
it is desired to see the temperature of the 


liquid being cooked, the bulb is simply im- 
mersed into the liquid, and the reading on the 
instrument at some distance indicates imme- 
diately the temperature taking place where 
the bulb is immersed. 

"In addition to these uses, it finds ready 
sale in all industries where they require dis- 
tance type thermometers. 


'Burlingame. Calif. 


Boston, Mass.: 

Jeremiah Williams, Boston, Mass. Business 
address, 481 Summer St. Residence, Common- 
wealth Ave. and Chas. Gate E. 

New York Cit.v: 

Geo. L. Williams, No. 1 Broadway, New 
York. Residence, 24 E. 51st St. 

Richard H. Williams, No. 1 Broadway. New 
York. Residence. 2 W. 51st St. 

Thos. R. Williams, No. 1 Broadway, 
York. Residence, 111 E. 61st St. 


Philadelphia, Pa.: 

Morris Williams, 907 Commercial Trust 
Bldg. Residence, 3904 Chestnut St. 

Chicago, Ills.: 

Lawrence Williams, 159 N. Dearborn St. 
Residence, 58 Belleveu Place. 

Idn grove, Iowa: 
Noah Williams. 

Portland, Ore. : 

Richard Williams, 82i First St. Residence, 
285 14th St. 

Charleston, S. C. : 

George Williams, No. 1 Broad St. Resi- 
dence, 15 Meeting St. 

Nashville, Tenn. : 

John P. Williams, Stallman Bldg. Resi- 
dence, Franklin Road, South. 

Boyd's City Dispatch of New York City 
gives a list of ninety-six Williamses who are 
rated from $250,000 to $1,000,000. 


The picture (Cut No. 250) of the five-ton 
Pierce Arrow truck shows quite a contrast be- 
tween M. F. Williams in his first beginning, 
when he had but a wheelbarrow and that pro- 
pelled by his eldest son, M. J. Williams (see 
Cut No. 161), but later on in business life is 
.shown, in Cut No. 251, a very fair looking 
horse with a one-horse wagon, M. F. Williams 
sitting upon same, or the seat of same, driving 
and hauling his own product. 


But later in life, as he progressed in busi- 
ness and the Pierce Arrow truck showing a 
crusher on same, and William M. Davidson, 
our shipping Superintendent, standing on the 
truck with his hand upon the crusher, M. F. 
Williams sitting in front on the bumper rail, 
A. F. Williams, the middle son, standing with 
his hands in his pockets by the truck, and 
Miss Mabel Williams, our eldest granddaugh- 
ter, also leaning against the truck, evidently 
shows progress in our business life, as the 
background shows a portion of one of the 
concrete buildings and inside one of our ma- 
chine shops, eight in number at this writing, 
certainly goes to show progress in the crusher 
line in our twenty-third year. 


Cut No. 251 — Our one-horse delivery wagon 

Cut No. 250 — Our new five-ton Pierce-Arrow truck 



Cut No. 252 shows anothci- view of the 5-ton 
Pierce Arrow truck, with a No. 4 Universal 
Cru.shcr resting upon the bed of same, and the 
old war-horae Williams in front, standing by 
the side with hi^ right hand upon the cab of 
the truck, which is a better view of the truck 
and crusher, taken in front of a 3-story busi- 
ness house the street from our factory. 

It shows an improved turning lathe, where 
the operator is standing turning a easting, three 
of which are in line but cannot well be seen, 
which cost about five years ago forty-five hun- 
dred dollars each ; and today, this 9th day of 
April, 1920, would cost at least one thousand 
dollars more for each machine on account of 
the rise in cost and price of all machines due 
to the World War. 

-Our new five-ton truck 

in order to get a l;ettcr view l)y the photogra- 
pher of the truck and its contents. This 
photo was taken in the year 1919 about the 
month of May or June. 


Cut No. 253 shows the noi'th bay of our new 
concrete bnikling. whicli is one hundred and 
fortv feet in Icn-th !)y fiftv feet in width. 


Cut No. 254 shows the south bay of our new 
machine shop in the concrete building, show- 
ing three iron planing machines in operation, 
and many castinrs rn the floor, some of which 
have been planed, others waiting to be planed ; 
the main body of the:c planing machines are 
located across the line, partly in the old ma- 
fhine sliop, and partly the new. as the inter- 


Cut No. 254 — South bay 


Cut \(). ^55 — New building, second floor, south ba 


I^^Hh -^SRHHi 


1 ' ii-iia 

\ I A 

BL " 




Hl^H^Bi^0^> '^-'^ 

r 1 



^K. "'^mH^ hBII^^^^I 

Cut No. 256— New building, third floor, south ba) 


tii^.^:^ k 





.ill II 

^'^^Sj"^ ^ 


W "' 






1 ' ' 

^—' ^ ->- 

Cut Xo. 257— Xew 

Cut No. 258 — New building, third floor, south bay 


veiling wall has been removed. This cut in- 
dicates a busy condition of our works. These 
castings are all being planed, and in the next 
operation they are to be drilled, and then 
moved into the erecting- shop by overhead 
traveling cranes which are operated by elec- 

There is another large planer in this same 
building called an open-side planer, which is 

Usually this floor is covered with hundreds 
of small crushers and grinders, as this erecting 
shop is devoted principally to feed grinders. 


Cut No. 256 shows the south bay of the 
third floor, our woodworking shop, also wood- 
erecting shop. The man at the right is in the 

Cut No. 259— New building, fourtli floor, patt 

shown at the far end of the bay in this illus- 


Cut No. 255 shows the south side of the sec- 
ond floor, concrete building, where small crush- 
ers and grinders are assembled, finished, tested 
and shipped. 

act of operating a wood-boring machine. These 
wood frames are placed under one class of 
our crushers and grinders. The boring of all 
holes is done by machinery — a Universal bor- 
ing machine, which reaches in all directions, 
and can be adjusted to wherever the hole is 
to be bored. It is called one of the modern 



Cut No. 257 shows the north bay of our pat- 
tern shop on the third floor in the new con- 
crete building, and to the left is what is known 
as the one-man elevator, for carrj^ing work- 
men from basement to garret by a method of 
rapid transit. Also one of the pipes in the 

constructed. This shop is equipped with up- 
to-date woodworking machinery. 

Notice the three men standing aro''^'i the 
work pretending to be very busily engaged — 
one of them is a lookout, no doubt, watching 
for the boss, glorifying themselves in laughter 
and thinking how they are beating the boss. 

,^^ ^^^L_3B^H^*^ 

Cut No. 260— Our new testing pla 

distance over the man at the handsaw, is a 
part of our heating system, and discharges 
hot air from our Baetz air-heating apparatus. 


Cut No. 258, south bay, third floor, shows a 
section of our wood shop, where woodwork is 

However, this condition is very often the 
case, but we have in this department one man 
who has been with the firm for about twenty- 
six years. 

We have some faithful and profitable em- 


No. 261— Monument to the business of Milton F. Willi: 


Cut No. 259 represents a section of our pat- 
tern loft on the fourth floor in the concrete 
building, on the south side of same, but only 
one section of same. This fourth tloor is de- 
voted entirely to pattern storage. It is en- 
tirely flrepi'oof as far as the building is con- 
cerned. It is provided with a large elevator 
and a one-maii elevator. 

Cut No. 260 shows our tine grinding, testing 
and separating plant, partly upon the fourth 
floor of the new concrete building and the pipe 
connections and receivers for the goods are 
located upon the top of the pent-house, which 
is over one hundred feet from the gi'ound. 
The bags of material shown represent goods 
to be ground and separated, as well as tested 
for fineness. It is motoi- di'iven or electrically 
driven, which is done thj'ough the whole plant, 
which formerly operated by steam power. 


Cut No. 261 represents a monument to the 
business of the Williams Patent Crusher and 
Pulverizer Co., and its president, Milton F. 
Williams. This is not a monument to a dead 
business, but to a living and a growing one. 
The trade-mark indicates this, and the cir- 
cular pediment of three-quarters of a circle 
indicates the 75 years of the president, whose 
likeness is shown in the center of the trade- 
mark. The base indicates the firm foundation 
on which the business is founded, and the vase 
with flowei's indicates the complimentary and 
testimonial lettei's received from our custom- 
ers with regard to our products. 






Words are deeds. The words we hear 

May revolutionize or rear 

A mighty state. The words we read 

May be a spiritjal deed 

Excelling any fleshly one, 

As much as the celestial sun 

Transcends a bonfire, made to throw 

A light upon some raree-show. 

A simple proverb tagged with rhyme 

May color half the course of time: 

The pregnant saying of a sage 

May influence every coming age; 

A song in its effects may be 

More glorious than Thermopylae, 

And many a lay that schoolboys scan 

A nobler feat than Inkermann. 

— Charles Harpur in Kansas City Journal. 

"Words — words — words,"' — .vet they indi- 
cate a man's inner mind. Words dress up his 
ideas that he has dug out of the gra.v matter of 
his eerel)elluin, so that they make their impress 
on other minds; that Ihi'y may the gap 
between you and your friend, whether it be 
two feet or 10,000 miles that separate you. 
Words — written words — have come down thv 
path of time from that dim period in the past 
when men first took the step al)Ove picture 
wi-iting and hierofilyphics in Avhich they crude- 
ly dressed their thoughts, and liy the use of 
arbitrary characters of definite meaning gave 
a sharpness and individuality to the silent mes- 
sengers emanating from one of the genus homo, 
long dead, to deliver the thoughts of other 
times and places to men of the living present, 
who shall likewise make their mark more or 
less legibly, and then pass on. "All the world's 
a stage 1" sui'e enough, and the time allotted 
to various actors is all too short. "Words fitly 
spoken are like apples of gold in pictures of 
silver," but words legibly expi-essing wise or 

beautiful thoughts and ideas are like tongues 
of eternal fire that never go out, or like Hope 
that "springs eternal in the human breast" — 
warming and enlightening the mind of each 
recipient in latei- incarnations. 

So these letters of business and friendship 
by the author are presented to the reader, that 
he may form a mental photograph of the per- 
sonality of Milton F. Williams, the great- 
grandson of Robert Williams of a century and 
a half ago. 

This characteristic answer by M. F. Williams 
to the following lettei' speaks for itself: 

IS Pa'cnt Cr 
Louis. Mo. 

r Co.. 

Dear Sirs: 

We rent Mr. A. P. Hi:sb;;nd, Cccrctnry of the MiU 
Icrs' Fcdcrntion, a copy of t'.ie inc'oseJ statement 
and ho was so impressed wi.h the story it tells that 
he asked us to send one to you. 

Of equal, if net greater, importance to your in- 
terest,., 1 believe, is a story which appears in the 
May number of the Nation's Business — "Can We 
Supply the World with Food." by the Kansa3 farm 
wizard, F. D. Coburn. 

Louder than the call for men and munitions, has 
been the call for bread to supply our allies and our- 
selves. Even if our wiieat crop is bountiful, we may 
have to call to our aid other grain hitherto little 
used in this co;;ntry. and Mr. Cobi:rn teUs how this 
may be done. 

Mr. A. W. Douglas, a far-seeins business statis- 
tician, agrees with Mr. Cobarn that, in spite of all 
the dolorous starvation stories, the food situation is 
encouraging, and he tells us why in his monthly 
survey of the nation's business, this month dealing 
with "A Forecast of Our Harvests." 


The deluge of information concerning the busi- 
ness outlook, together with a torrent of undigested 
advice, has confused the business man until he isn't 
sure whether he is standing in his shoes or his hat. 
He is anxiously looking for sane guidance. 

The Chamber of Commerce of the United States 
has made its official publication, The Nation's Busi- 
ness — to quote a friend — "a war-time shock absorber 
for industry." The May issue contains a careful and 
accurate analysis of War Congress measures affect- 
ing finance, censorship, railways, export trade, canal 
tolls, fuel, food, clotlning, etc. War taxes — a matter 
close to your pocket and business — have been care- 
fully gone into and reported by a body of the na- 
tion's business executives in the May number. 
Sincerely yours, 

Director of Circulation. 


St. Louis, Mo., May 19, 1917. 

The Nation's Business, 

Chamber of Conniierce of the U. S., 
Washington, D. C. 

Gentlemen : 

We have yours of the 14th. Whoever Mv. 
A. P. Husband is, Ave are sorry to inform you 
that we have never made his acquaintance. 

Although Ave have tried to hnsbiind our re- 
sources in s\ich a manner that Ave Avould be 
knoAvn throughout the world and form a por- 
tion of the Avorld's history, and before this ni- 
human Avar, this blood-thirsty Avar, caused by 
trying to knock a chip fi-om the shoulder of the 
Kaiser, Ave have succeeded in shipping our ma- 
chines to some 60-odd foreign countries; be- 
sides a fcAv of them, yea, a fcAV thousand, are 
in daily opei-alioii in the good old U. S. A. 

NoAv, about F. D. Coburn, he knows us and 
he knoAvs our product. We knoAv of him, Ave 
have corresponded with him, but Ave have neA^er 
met face to face. We haA'c requests to sub- 
scribe to so many publications that I found it 
necessary to hire a private secretary simply to 
read a portion of the publications, and since 

that time we have secured the services of an 
assistant for said secretary. 

HoAvever, since the Avar began avc have had 
more business than avc could attend to, and it 
has caused us to consti'uct three new buildings 
to add to our line and increase our line of 

While publishers generally are not mechan- 
ics and not supposed to be and even not familiar 
generally with the manufacture of goods made 
from steel, the writer of this letter, a product 
of the State of Ohio, born in a log cabin and 
untutored, has produced to the Avorld something 
new in mechanics : a grinding or beating princi- 
ple, which was not previously knoAvn and Avill 
leave a name to hand doAvn to posterity much 
greater in the mechanical Avorld than that of 
Abraham Lincoln, although avc have in our cor- 
ridor pictures of many eminent people. A gen- 
tleman, last week, asked the question Avhom I 
considered the greatest in the group, and I 
stated Abraham Lincoln. I am still of the same 
opinion. Abraham Lincoln was a man of the 
hour; to my mind, a much greater man and 
more resourceful than President Wilson. Al- 
though President Wilson is our President and 
Ave must support him, and Ave Avill support him. 
He did all he kncAV ; he tried his level best to 
keep us out of Avar, but uoav avc must praise 
him and pat him on the back for keeping us in 
Avar, so to speak. 

About the Nation's business; it is our busi- 
ness, it is every thinking man's business. Can 
Ave supply the Avorld with food? If Ave Avere a 
frugal, safety-tirst people, we Avould not be 
short of food, but the tremendous onslaught 
Avhich the submarines have made and the A\'ick- 
edness Avhich the Kaiser's subjects haA-e per- 
petrated upon all nations have to a considerable 
extent shortened the food supply in all eoun- 
ti'ic'? Avhere food h produced abundantly, Avhile 
no doubt the Kaiser has seen the handAvriting 
upon the Avail, and has escaped to Switzerland 
to procure a little needed rest. HoAvever, Ave 
are told that he has retreated back to his na- 
tive land and that someone shot at him three 
times in his armored smoke-Avagon : although 
this is a non-authenticated account, it only fol- 


lows that sojae crank or red-shirted euss may 
get him yet. We are sorry to speak of the 
Kaiser as we have, but his treacherousness — 
the treacherousness of his government, not of 
his people, as the most of them are good, hon- 
est people, led by a false prophet — will only 
eventually result in ruin to his nation. 

When the Kaiser started out his slogan was, 
"Rule the world, or ruin the world." The 
result is, he has been the means of ruining poor 
Belgium and a number of other small nations, 
which will re(iuire the next 100 years, if not a 
greater length of time, to recuperate. 

The onslaught which is now going on in 
Northern France is another example of their 
destruetiveness. Ruination and devastation to 
the multitudes and to the poor. A nation of 
people who have been at least 40 years pre- 
paring for the destruction of the world or the 
mastery of commerce and of commercial lines 
will yet be brought to bite the dust. 

The German people as a class are a wonder- 
ful people; their frugality exceeds by far our 
own. We can learn and be taught many les- 
sons from their preparedness, from their sav- 
ing habits; but eventually their nation, if not 
now, will become bankrupt and worn thread- 
bare. The great works of Krupp, in the town 
of Essen, will be brought to poverty, and while 
their works are now controlled by a woman, a 
daughter of probably the greatest manufactur- 
er on earth in his time, these works will prob- 
ably be reduced to ashes and will he known no 

At present American institutions in the man- 
ufacturing of steel and iron product are ad- 
vancing with leaps and bounds, and thej' are 
becoming abnormally wealthy, and European 
gold is flowing to our shores at almost an 
alarming rate. 

Let us not as a nation become so excited 
over our prospects and become drunk with en- 
thusiasm and lose sight of the fact that some 
of us may overstep the bounds of reason, pro- 
priety and of good judgment, and cause the 
wheels of progress to reverse, blow out our 
fuses and come to a sudden standstill. We 

must biiild better than' w%. know and greater 
than we need, and -we must not ignore the lit- 
tle garden patches that we daily see in our 
City of St. Louis along the outer and inner 
margins of the sidewalks even, not mention- 
ing the inner yards, some of which are fenced. 

This nation is not near the point of starva- 
tion. I believe one statistician has remarked 
that the world wastes through the garbage-can 
route $700,000,000.00 worth of food per year. 
Think of it ! If this be true the shame is upon 
the world in this respect. We believe it to be 
a sin; we believe it to be a sacrilege for a sub- 
marine to destroy food, our God-given food. It 
has been my one greatest thought during my 
whole life : who knows, how do Ave know, of 
the great problem of feeding the world? Why 
do we not come to starvation? And why has 
it been during my 70 years of existence that 
the world has not had a famine to starve all of 
its people? It is true that we have had famines 
in India and other parts of the world; it is 
true that the natives of India have been so 
nearly starved that they would hover around 
depots and pick up the fallen grain from the 
torn or untied sacks of cereals which would 
fall in the dust ; that they would shovel up the 
dust, including the droppings, from animals, 
sift it out, wash out and save the grain and 
eat it. 

May this condition never approach America. 
While we always have in America a few starv- 
ing people, it is not the frugal class. It is the 
improvident kind that have to be helped. 

If our scholars, if our teachers, if our 
learned school superintendents, would teach 
more of economy and less of Latin and Greek 
to the common people, teach them how to take 
care of themselves and teach them that it is 
dishonorable to accept charity — they would be 
greater imitators of the divine. 

The good book tells us that there are hew- 
ers of wood and drawers of water; there are 
captains of industry and there must be follow- 
ers, or who would do the work? 

There is a chain of circumstances which sur- 
rounds the whole human race — each of us is 


but a link in that chain ; and as to our being 
Samsonized, the strength of the chain is only 
that of its weakest link. 

God in His wisdom created us all, the wise 
and the unAvise, the strong and the weak; then 
it behooves those of greater intellect to be- 
come leaders to provide a way for the follow- 
ers. No credit to a man who has superior in- 
tellect ; no credit to a man or woman who has 
great knowledge by ac(iuisition, by learning, 
or b.y being taught. The credit belongs to the 
Creator of Mankind. 

If a follower is not inclined to take knowl- 
edge from the leader, it is his misfortune. 
Again, upon the subject of starvation in your 
letter of the 14th, Ave will not starve if Ave 
understand how to economize ; and Avhere, as 
a nation, Ave eat tAviee Ihe amount Ave need, 
and Avhere, as you state, that the English peo- 
ple ate bran, Ave presume that you refer in the 
Bulletin of Avhich Ave have a copy, that the cat- 
tle got the Avhole Avheat; and that the price 
of bran Avas $85.00 per ton, and that farmers 
found it more profitable to feed the Avhole 
wheat to cattle than to sell it and buy bran. 
A better proposition would be, and could be, 
and should be: if the cereal crop is short, after 
cleaning it thoioughly, grind it all, "THE M. 
F. WILLIAMS WAY," into a graham food, 
grind the bran and the contents; the l)ran 
which is the silex coating of the Avheat berry, 
which has three coatings of bran, and next the 
inner contents composed of gluten and starch 
in little cells. Before Ave should starve, if we 
have to, grind it all up together and make a 
bread of it, a broAvn bread, a much more Avhole- 
some bread than Avhat is knoAvn today as patent 
flour bread. 

It may not tickle our palates as the Avhite 
bread does, but avc Avould grind it all up to- 
gether "THE M. F. WILLIAMS WAY," be- 
fore Ave should starve. We would become a 
stronger people, a more sturdy people, and a 
greater people, and the product of bread, for 
both man and beast, Avould go much farther 
than it does today. 

Further refei-ring to the United States tak- 
ing pattern after Eui'ope and benefiting by 

their mistakes you state it the busi- 
ness of the Nation's Business to tell the story 
of Avhat Europe has done, and about the sci- 
entific distribution of food and the develop- 
ment of men to handle the guns; we hope that 
you Avill touch upon the subject and give due 
credit to the men who make the guns, as they 
have to be made first before they' can be used. 
We admit that the Nation's business and the 
Government's business is a subject common 
and equally interesting to all. 

Although Ave have been 21 years and better, 
manufacturing these Grinders, avc Avere unable 
to introduce one into France, — until after the 
Avar. The Avriter of this letter is an uneducat- 
ed farmer boy, and if I could be considered 
possessed of any education Avorthy of note, I 
have gotten it from a business life, as best I 
could, and as best I knew, having had no tu- 
tors or predecessors in that line. 

You speak of a Mr. A. W. Douglas, a far- 
seeing business statistician — by the method 
Avhich I have proposed I can shoAv F. D. Coburn 
of Kansas, no doubt the greatest agriculturist 
of the states, how to make the crop go farther; 
but it Avill have to be a naatter of necessity be- 
fore the people Avill resort to it. 

If 1 had the lime I Avould be very glad to go 
farther into the subject, but if these feAV re- 
marks from the pen of an old sinner are Avorth.y 
cf notice, Avould be glad to heai- from you. 

Yours very truly, 


By M. F. Williams, President. 

St. Louis, September 1!), 191S. 

The Blake Milling Co., 
Edwardsville, Ills., U. S. A. 

Gentlemen : — 

Mr. Henry L. Geisler at this Avriting sits at 
my I'ight hand, and Satan at the left, — that is, 


metaphorically speaking. Yoii state if Mr. 
Geisler could have been at Edwardsvillc at the 
psychological moment, that the Williams grind- 
er would not be camoutiaged down in the 
trenches and possibly in the dugout. You 
speak of our competitors — now, Christian 
friend and fellow-traveler to the Bar of Eter- 
nity, we haven't any — we know of none. 

Father Williams has been in the city of St. 
Louis this his 45th year. I worked in an Ed- 
wardsvillc mill as a millwright possibly before 
you were born, and since we are the pioneers 
before the Millers to build screenings grind- 
ers, we have never copied anyone ; we have too 
much personal pride and too many original 
ideas to copy or follow in the rut. 

Brave men go over the top .out into the open 
and meet the enemy with a liayonet cliarge ; this 
we have done and are continuing. Father Wil- 
liams has filed in the Patent Office thus far 
in 1918, forty-nine original applications for 
patent artielei-i lun-er known befoi-e, in the 

When 1 took out my Hrst patent upon the 
Hinged-IIannner principle, it was as new in 
America and all othei- countries as a new idea 
could be. We now have over 150 patents 
upon this grindei', appliances and improve- 
ments, and recently we got a eei-tificatc of reg- 
istration of oui' Trade ilark called the "Ideal." 
A would-be competitor has tried to steal this 
word "Ideal." He will have to surrender or 
go through the courts upon an infi'ingement 
trial. However, this has nothing whatever to 
do with the Williams grindei- No. 2586, with 
no doubt a sign upon same, "Foi' Sale to the 
Highest Bidder." Now, ilessT's. Blake Milling 
Co., Edwardsvillc, Ills., No. 2586 (using a mili- 
tary phrase) is not even the high private in 
the rear rank — it's a back number. It is anti- 
quated. We would not call it a veiy old model 
and away out of date. That being the ease, 
we could not possibly offer you for same more 
than $23.00 F. 0. B. ear, and we believe that 
even this sum for this dilapidated, anti(|uated, 
and back-in-the-woods grinder, in comparison 
to our later models, will be more than anyone 
else would be willing to offer for same. 

But as a general thing, the grinders of to- 
da.v will be back numbers tomorrow, as we 
never sleep, and are always on the qui vive for 
something better. The pneumatic metal catch- 
er Avhich we have been so vigorously advertis- 
ing is this day out of date, as I have devised 
something so much more simple which Avill 
work while j'ou sleep, like cascarets — does not 
require air, does not require anything but com- 
mon sense, and it avouUI be just as impossible 
for a bit of metal, a three-ounce tack, a minute 
particle of metal, the size of a grain of sand, 
including a grain of sand, and upward to the 
ship's anchor — to pass into a Williams grinder, 
using a Biblical phrase which is familiar to 
all Millers — that it would be just as impossi- 
ble for a particle of foreign substance to get 
into the grinder, as it would be foi- "a camel 
to pass through the eye of a needle." 

Yet upon the other hand, this hundred per 
cent safety device is not a hundred per cent — 
and why not? Suppose in the revolution of a 
Williams up-to-date grinder, with the beaters 
tempered too highly, and suppose a barrel stave 
or an car of eoi-ii which our latest metal catch- 
er wouhl not catch, and suppose they go down 
into the grimier — however, these sizes are some- 
what magnified — and suppose they would break 
a corner from one of our grinder beaters — 
would this cornel' go through the cage or would' 
it not ? It certainly would if the grinder was 
not provided with our feed hopper gravity 

They are all provided with this kind, — good, 
bad and indifferent, male and female, the long 
and the short, the high and the low, and of all 
denominations. Our A. B. C. line is provided 
with a hammer-corner metal catcher, that is 
also 100% on the dollar, and that is of today. 
In Mr. Geisler's meanderings over God's foot- 
stool calling upon old dusties, with their cheeks 
and the backs of their hands dotted over with 
tl:e miniature pieces of steel from the old-time 
mill picks, — he has found but one Miller, and 
he is in Minneapolis, who insisted upon both 

He saw the point at a glance, and he has 
both kinds, and his cognomen, or his business 


address, is the Barber Milling Co., of Minne- 
apolis. I would be glad to have you write 
them. We believe they are our friends, and 
yet we will trust to Providence as to hoAv they 
Avill answer. We hope you Avill write them. 
We have in Minneapolis alone, aboiit 25 or 30 
of our grinders. At one time Pillsbury's Best 
had five of our grinders, and they returned 
every one Avhen the Strong Seott people start- 
ed up and Pillsbury's head miller bought stock 
in the Strong Scott Grinder — which is strong 
in name only and is not as strong in practice 
as it was. An old wise ijatriai-eh, it is said, 
made use of the expression that "History re- 
peats herself every seven years.'"' 

Pillsbury's Best in Buffalo, Pillsbury's Best 
in Louisville, Pillsbury's Best in St. Joseph and 
Pillsbury's Best at other plants, have duplicat- 
ed orders for the latest Williams Way as they 
suppose — and yet they haven't got the latest, 
but they have duplicated orders, which is more 

Gentlemen, it is our fault and not yours that 
we haven't kept you advised as to our progress. 
We're going on and on and on, we are com- 
manded by the Sacred Book to come higher, 
we are commanded by Common Sense to go 
highei' — which we are doing in our line of im- 
provements; and anj'one who carefully watches 
the Operative Miller and reads our camouflage, 
they will keep fairly well posted. 

We are enclosing you a copy of Bulletin No. 
202 — yet this number is way back on the line 
— giving a few facts that we are proud of. A 
millionaire concern in Alleghany City, Pa. — 
they call him Heinz — he has over a million- 
dollar pier at Atlantic City. In 1900 I saw his 
automobile showing his proverbial bottle of 
pickles, in London and in Paris. In Alleghany 
City upon his bulletin board he has a wooden 
pickle at least 40 feet in length. He boasts 
of his 57 varieties, Avhile our 2x4 concern 
boasts of their 257 varieties and over. 

Now, in our 22nd year, our grinder No. 1 is 
still operating every day in East St. Louis! 
We think this is going some, and Ave hope it 
will stand for 22 years longer. Some reputa- 

tion! We are not ashamed of our reputation, 
we are not ashamed of any machine which vre 
ever constructed, and we have in our experi- 
mental shop a Avaiting list which would sur- 
prise anyone— like getting into the waiting 
line at a first-class theatre, or the election polls 
to vote before 6 o 'clock in the morning, or the 
waiting line to go over the blo'ody chasm to 
Ab.salom's bosom— but in this line I have failed 
to notice very many machinery men. perhaps 
occasionally a few millers and mill owners. 

Yours truJj^, 

M. F. WILLIAMS, President. 

St. Louis, October 11, 1918. 

St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 
St. Louis, JMo. 

Gentlemen: — 

Someone handed the writer a clipping which 
must have been from your paper of yesterday. 
The heading, "Justice, Not Revenge." If you 
cai'c to publish something near what I am writ- 
ing, I am taking exceptions to "Justice, Not 

While this article, may it be nearer Justice 
and nearer Christian-like, than my article will 
be, and referring to the criticisms of Maximil- 
Jian and the Hun Peace Protocol, you will re- 
call in days gone by when in Indian war times 
and in an old Fifth Reader, 50 years ago, a les- 
son was placed before the children from an 
Indian war fighter declaiming "Peace, peace, 
there is no peace"— the war has actually be- 
gun. I have written this as a copy over 60 
years ago, and while the writer of this article 
is of Welsh parentage or extraction, he is an 
American, also his father and his grandfather 
-but my great-grandfather was born in Wales. 

My people on both sides of the house Avere 
I^'riends, or Quakers, and the old, straight-back 
and sti-aight-laeed Quakers Avere not fighters, 
but Avere ahvays for Peace. But I have been 


called "a degenerate son," and if I am, I am 
willing to acknowledge it ; bnt I am a fairly 
good citizen — but I am not with the Germans 
for peace. 

My slogan is not '"Peace at any price,"' but 
my idea of the settling of this war is a lasthig 
peace. The intrigue, the trickiness, the mur- 
dering of the Belgians, are landmarks in luy 
life never to be forgotten. Any American citi- 
zen who loves his country as I claim to love my 
country can't understand an>- other way of 
having a peace than to brirg the Huns to their 
knees, and in a sense "in sackcloth and ashes." 

I have been sorely disappointed in our Goa- 
ernment not having more bombing aeroplanes 
in the enemy's countiy, destroying their rail- 
roads, destroying their public buildings, de- 
stroying their annnunition factories and devas- 
tating their country. I am in favor of the aero- 
planes '"hewinK to the line, and let the chips 
fall whei-e they may." Althoujih notwithstand- 
ing this fact, some of my family are closely re- 
lated to the German nation, — one of my wife's 
sisters married a man born in Germany, my 
youngest son married the descendant of a Ger- 
I'.vn whose grandfather was born in Germany 
and they were both splendid mi'n. I am a 
warm fi-icnd to German-Americans. Thank 1li!< 
Lord, this country is filled with the best citi- 
zens who ai'e descendant from Germany. All 
of our Gorman-Americans are good citizens and 
can be counted amongst our most esteemed 
citizens, and good, law-abiding Americans. 

K.'ad the daily list of our l)oys in tlu^ can- 
tonmcnls of oin- bciys ''Over There," and 1 be- 
lieve I am. correct in statinii' Unit .'lO'; if not 
more are the descendants of (io-mans and liear 
German names. 

The kind of wai-fare wliich I am in favoi' of 
is the sentiment expressed by an ofHeer in high 
command by the name of Wliittlesly. who was 
surrounded in a wood in Northern France, 
cithei- this week oi' last, and he had only part 
of his i-egiment. The Huns knew he was sur- 
rounded ; he knew he was surrounded. The 
boys had been without food for almost four 
days, according to the "Globe." The Germans 
sent one of our prisoners, an American boy. 

blind-folded, over into the camp with the re- 
quest for our men to surrender. What Avas 
Whittlesly 's answer ? It was plainly and simply 
"Go to Hell." That's the kind of an American 
citizen the writer of this document is — what- 
ever it may be called. Some of our men were 
too weak to stand or march, but, thank God, 
they had filled their canteens with good drink- 
ing water, and while the statement which I 
read did not say how they were delivered from 
the wilderness, they were delivered, and went 
over the top again. 

That is American determination! How many 
instances have we from our soldiers in trenches, 
by reading of their letters at first, but not now, 
thank God, when the Germans hallooed "Kam- 
arad" and our bo.ys gave up, believing them to 
be in earnest as one soldier should treat an- 
other in time of surrender; the result was, as 
everyone knows who reads the daily papei's, 
that our men were bayoneted — but not any 
more, thank God! We have an instance this 
week wJuM-e one nuin A\i-ote back to his mother 
that in a shell-hole he found three of the Huns 
who had been sharpshooting at our lioys. Th(\v 
hallooed "Kamarad," as he started ovei' +he 
top, but he states he answered Kamarad with 
his bayonet, and the three bit the dust. That's 
the kind of peace tluit we should mete out to 
the intriguers and mui'derei's and Ilohenzollcrn 
believers and Followers. 

The article "Justice, Not Revenge" states we 
are fighting for Justice and Liberty, nothing 
nmre. That is true in a sense, but in another 
sense we want such a peace as will last through- 
out the world for the next hundred thousand 
yea IS What will assure it? As long as there 
is a drop of blood left in Kaiserism, just that 
long these bones will rise as^ain. 

Presid(>nt Wilson, I look upon him as a very 
gi'cat man. While I did net vote for him 
either time, as soon as he was elected I said he 
is our President, we will support him. It is 
true enough, when we are assured of a lasting- 
liberty we have nothing more to fight for, as 
we do not wish to gain territory by acquisi- 
tion; we believe that America and her posses- 
sions are ample for her people. 


We have acquired considerable property, in- 
cluding several islands, but we do not fight for 
them as the savages did — we ac(iuired them for 
a moneyed consideration. America sets the 
pace, America is the greatest country on earth 
financially, mechanically, and in every other 
condition which goes to make up good citizen- 
ship and true manhood. 

"Justice, Not Revenge" states that we have 
pledged our power and intluence to a program 
for Justice to all, and malice towards none. Let 
us add : All we ask is that our enemies submit 
to our terms. That is correct; that is true 
Americanism : and before we talk peace, let us 
be sure that this condition will be maintained. 

As General Gi'init said to General Lee, an 
unconditional surrender or none, our good 
President Wilson \\ill say the same now, voic- 
ing Americanism in so doing. 

Our President's fourteen clauses, they state 
they are willing to accept. Yes. let us be sure, 
let us be morally certain, that this is not a 
camouflage. The facts are that the American 
people and our Government have been treated 
or subjected to so much intrigue, so much de- 
ception, so much incendiarism, so much work- 
ing in the dark — that not a country on the 
globe outside of Hunism has a scintilla of faith 
in their words or in their actions. 

What we mean by this assertion is Hohen- 
zollernism. Not one Amei'ican snldier out of a 
thousand who are now in the encauipments or 
who are in France, or who are in the Italtle 
front, ■will take or be satisfied with anything 
short of "On to Berlin" and that "Over the 
fence is out." 

"Justice, Net Reveng-e" — That an eye for an 
eye and a tooth for a tooth is all that will sat- 
isfy a true American. We are commanded by 
the Good Book: "If a man smite thee on one 
cheek turn to him the other one also." That 
is good Quaker doctrine, but the Quakers of 
themselves never fought a battle; they were a 
peaceful tribe ; but in war times, such as we are 
engaged in, "On to Berlin" is the only turn- 
ing of the other cheek which will answer 

About bombing German hospitals, killing in- 
nocent women and children, they have had 
ample warning, and the poor Belgians and oth- 
ers had no warning. Let the Kaiser say to his 
Lord: "I go to prepare a place for you." 

Many American citizens have decided that 
the battle will be won in the air. Many have 
been disappointed, but I believe we are now 
getting a pay-day move on us with our aero- 
planes in France, our flyers in France, our 
bombing machines in France, and let us hope 
to the good Lord that thousands more of these 
flying outfits with their engineers will soon be 
landed all over Germany. 

"Justice, Not Revenge" states in his article 
that the killing of German women and children 
and giving an eye for an eye and a tooth for 
a tooth is a disgrace and not Americanism. 
What did George Dewey do in Manila Bay? 
He severed the wires, he got out of touch with 
Washington, he got out of hearing of Wash- 
ington, he said in his nautical language to the 
Spanish ships "Surrender or I Avill shoot!" 
The Spanish ships refused, and George Dewey's 
ships shot. I always gloried in his spunk. But 
the American people who worshiped George 
Dewey in those Spanish war times, almost lost 
respect for him when he gave the house in 
Washington which they made him a present of 
to his wife. In this George did Avrong. We made 
George a present for the sake of George, not 
for his wife. Let him share it with his good 
wife if he thought best. 

Shall we become savages because our ene- 
mies are savages? Shall we perform the bar- 
I)arous acts, the same as those whom wo con- 
demn? I say: Yes, just a little — just enough 
till the call of Kamarad comes from every 
household. This is my kind of justice. They 
played with us, they deceived us. they lied to 
us. The Kaiser told our Gerard that the Amer- 
icans wouldn't fight. Let us therefore prove 
to the world that the American boys will fight, 
and that they are fighting — many of them only 
having had six months' training against 40 
years of militarism — not 40 years in the wil- 
derness, but 40 years in a nation which claimed 
to be a civilized and Christianized countrv. 


Were vre fighting with man eaters and can- 
nibals, we wonld set an example by teaching; 
but since ■\vc are fighting with educated canni- 
bals, let us treat them in the same light, let us 
call a spade a spade ! This h a war — no ques- 
tion al)out it — for humanity and civilization. 
Shall wo abandon both .' Using the language of 
"Justice, Not Revenge," he sa.vs never— I say: 
No, never! 

Let us not defile the prineiplcs laid down liy 
our forefathei-s in 1776. I say: Leave it to 
President Wilson and the Americini boys who 
are fighting under the Stars and Stripes in their 
khaki suits. 

We have been told l\v the collcetoi's ov sales- 
men fiH' Liberty bonds: "Subseiibe until it 
hurts." This ir; correct. It's the true way to 
look on the conditions now eont'ronling us. 

I am not criticising the article entitled "Jus- 
tice, Not Revenge." I am trying to go a little 
farther into the etu'iuies" land with America's 
kind of Ilohenzollernism, and teach a lesson 
which will never W forgott.-n, and by so assist- 
ing our lilies we are placing before the world 
the lesson taught us by the Declaration of In- 
dependence, and the lesson handed us by onr 

Since there was no occasion for this war, the 
Entente were not really fighting for an exist- 
ence, as the Kaiser tries to make believe. The 
Kaiser started out, in my estimation, truly and 
honestly believing that in 90 days be would Ite 
in Pai'is, and probably in less than two years 
his army would domineer the world; and eveiy 
American citizen knows — evei-y mothei- knows 
— that if it had not been for our declaring war 
against Germany, only the good Loi-d would 
know the condition Europe would liave been in 

I furthei- believe that by the help of the 
good Lord, that America is the Savior, or will 
be the Savior, of the whole world. Then if 
that be the case (and there is no other possible 
ending of this confiict), let us be world teach- 

ers of good, honest, fair and Christian citizen- 
ship. Very respectfidly, 


Broadway and Montgomery St., St. Louis, Mo., 
U. S. A. 

October 24, 1918. 

Fountain Park Congregational Church, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Bi-ethren and Sisters in Sin: — 

Once upon a time, we have been told by the 
records of the church, that it was located, I 
think, upon Fi'aneis street, and at that time 
only my Avife belonged to tho ehurcb. T think 

bath inornin''; T went to ehurcb. Tiie nnnister 
at that lime w:;s Tiev. Theodore Clifton (uoav 

His sernu-n, I disremembei- the text, but I 
listened to his appeal (|uite attentively, and 
was imjiresscd to this extent — that as soon as 
the sermon was finished I left my seat, without 
warning to my wife, without malie(> afore- 
thought, and v,;ilked up to the minister. I 
said: "Re\-. Clifton. I have been touched by 
your .'ei'nuiii. I wish to join the church in- 
stanter — not by holding a council over my pre- 
\ions life 01- my demeanoi' in the i)ast or pi'es- 
int. but now. If the laws of the church will 
not permit, then we will forget the incident; 
but if they will perndt, let those who ob.iect, 
keep Iheir seats; those who do not object may 
give their consent li.y rising." 

Brother Clifton (peace to his ashes) said, 
"Bi-ethren, arise." As I now recall, the rna- 
joi'ity arose, and I was taken into the fold and 
that probably in a manner in which not an- 
other individual in the city of St. Louis was 
taken into a church — without excitement and 
without a revival. The reason I joined the 
church was to assist my wife in trying to raise 
our family in the proper manner, as it was not 


fair to her to bear the burden and instill the 
moral obligation, saying nothing about the re- 
ligious life. 

As time passed on and the church moved, or 
joined with Fountain Park Church (selling 
their property on Grand avenue and probably 
from ten to fourteen years thereafter), there 
was a mortgage of $-5000.00 placed upon the 
propert.y, and subse(|uently to this time — a few 
years later — I was elected a trustee. After try- 
ing to perform my duty as such, I brought up 
one evening at the meeting the subject of the 
$5,000.00 mortgage; and I stated before the 
meeting that it was not good business policy 
continually, year after year, to carry the mort- 
gage and pay the interest thereon ; and my 
proposition was to reduce the mortgage each 
year $500.00. 

But such proposition was not favoi'ably re- 
ceived. It was decided by the Board of Trus- 
tees that as that particular year was the 40th 
anniversary of the founding of the chvirch on 
Boston street, that the mortgage should be paid 
on the 40th year. I remonstrated against the 
effort, but was overruled. The mortgage was 
paid ; the mortgage was burned on the 40th 
anniversary, but t|uite shortly after this period 
in one, two or three years another $5,000.00 
mortgage was placed upon the property, and 
shortly after still another, making $10,000.00 
indebtedness against the property as it stands 

The effort of Rev. Gonzales to reduce one- 
half of the indebtedness and then get the 
Church Building Society to take over the sec- 
ond $5,000.00 mortgage — this I call a business 
proposition ; and since my good friend and fel- 
low traveler. Hupp Tevis, has had the audacity 
to place me in the limelight by getting me to 
take the largest number in liquidating, I as- 
sent to same most graciously. I wish it most 
particularly understood that I am not paying 
it all, only 75% of it, and the other 25% is 
donated by my son, A. F. Williams. Also, in 
subscribing and tendei'ing this check of $1,000 
(which is to be marked "paid" at this date in 
gilt letters) I am doing it with the hope and 

belief that others will follow as best they can, 
and according to pledges, at the appointed 

It is marked on the face of the check, and it 
cannot be used for any other purpose — only as 
outlined above; and with these few remarks, 
not from a Patron Saint but from an ordinary 
layman, I respectfully subscribe myself, 

Sincerely yours, 


St. Louis, Mo., February 28, 1919. 

Messrs. Globe Printing Co., 
Editorial Department, 
St. Louis, Mo. 


C. E. Haase Tells of Verses Son Wrote 

While I do not wish to go into the distaste- 
ful controversy in the papers, between Super- 
intendent Miller and Doctor Withers, if I were 
to express an opinion I would say, for the 
moral effect of all schools in our city, that they 
should not have disagreed. I approve the ac- 
tion which the School Board took in condemn- 
ing an.ything which may be written by young 
men in the albums of young ladies which could 
l)e considered distasteful. 

Had T have been School Superintendent, it 
would have been my policy to hew to the line 
and allow the chips to fall where they may. 
If a tub cannot stand upon its own bottom, it 
shouldn't be in school. 

Many ycai's ago, when I had three sons in 
the public school, and the teacher sent notes 
home, or sent the children home (which they 
did on more than one occasion), we always 
patted the teacher on the back and said: 
Teacher, do your duty. A teacher or a Super- 
intendent who is afraid of a parent is not a 
good teacher and is not a good Superintendent. 


For the moral effect in all schools, public 
or private, back up your teachers, back up 
your Superintendents, as they are generally 

Mr. C. E. Haase, who fails to give his ad- 
dress in vindicating the cause of his son, is do- 
ing the proper thing. When he publishes over 
his name the lines from the would-be bard he 
did that which is correct. And in the verse 
the poetical effusion from young Mr. Haase, 
don't try to excuse yourself, the elder Mr. 
Haase, by stating that the St. Louis Republic 
copied, almost word for word, the same piece 
of poeti-y. Come out from undei' cover would 
be my verdict, were I the judge and jury both. 
And while the rhythms are not so bad, yet I 
should not advise, as a parent in his 73rd year, 
a repetition of the same kind of poetry writ- 
ten in school books. Teach young men to ele- 
vate their thoughts and be more lofty in their 
selections of poetiy; and while it is true that 
more than erne inference can lie di'awn from 
the Haase poetry, I doubt whethiM- it is orig- 

It may be the lines and may be the verse 
from some well-known bai'd who lived genera- 
tions ago ; and whose stentorian tones may have 
gone forth in print, as famous as those of Mil- 
ton, James Whitcomb Riley, Longfellow. Whit- 
tier OT- Lord Byi'on of England. 

Be that as it may, individuals in i-eading the 
poem can draw their own infei'ence; and I 
would advise that this incident be a lesson to 
the School Board to adopt some rigid rules 
which would make it a misdemeanor for like 
poetry or references to again be wi-itten in 
school books or elsewhere, where the eyes of 
the public will come in contact with that class 
of literature. 

Most respectfully submitted, 


813 Montgomery St., Business Office. St. Louis, 
Mo., U. S. A. 

St. Louis, October 7, 1919. 

Mr. William H. Danforth, Pres. 
Ralston Purina Co., 

821 S. Eighth St., City. 

My Dear :\Ir. Danforth:— 


Commencing Sept. 20th, 1904, our company 
shipped to your East St. Louis experimental 
plant an alfalfa grinder called No. 2XX. You 
experimented with this grinder for several 
months, and finally we accepted it back from 
your company, without any remuneration or 
charge for its service, which we thought at the 
time was an unusually liberal proposition, and 
we believe that your Mr. Danforth will have to 
admit that it. was a liberal proposition. 


Subse(|uent business has been transacted be- 
tween us from year to year, and fi'om that time 
until a few months ago. 


We furnished you grinders for your Fort 
Woith plant, in which you had an accident — 
just about at the time of starting up this acci- 
dent occui'i'ed. Your Mr. Noxon was either in 
Fort Woi'th at this time or may have gone to 
Fort Worth, but rather we believe that he was 
in Fort Worth when the accident occurred. 
The sum and substance of the accident was 
that the motor broke from its foundation — 
either the bolts holding said motor gave way 
or became loosened — and in the motor remov- 
ing from its foundation the c.ylinder of the hay 
grinder was forced out of its bearings, and 
both the motor and the hay grinder were very 
bad].y wrecked. 

I think while Mr. Noxon was in Foi't Worth, 
he talked over the long-distance phone to our 
Mr. A. F. Williams, and wanted a representa- 
tive of our company to go to Fort Worth and 
look at the condition. Mr. Davidson's report 


states that the motor gave way first on ac- 
count of the weakness of either the bolting to 
the foundation or of the legs or feet of the mo- 
tor; and in the gyrations of the motor the hay 
grinder was also wrecked. 


The hay grinder, or parts, were shipped back 
to us to repair. We repaired same and after 
same were repaired and returned to your Fort 
Worth plant, we rendered a bill to your com- 
pany, which bill is dated August 26, 1918; 
amount of said bill, $1707.85. Also we ren- 
dered a bill for our Mr. Davidson's trip, $77.92, 
to Fort Worth and expenses — total, $1785.57. 
And why did we render this bill? For the rea- 
son that Mr. Davidson's report, after having 
visited the plant at your re(|uest — a num who 
has been in this same class of woi'k for 18 
years, or had at that time (as lie is n^)w oar 
Manager) — said report stated that he did not 
feel or see that we were in any way to blame 
for the wreck or the smash-up. Mr. Davidson's 
conclusions were that the motor gave way first 
and in so doing bent the shaft of the Williams 
firindcr, and the momentum of same caused it 
to fly out of its laearings. 

We have on several occasions rendered you 
bills, and written conciliatory letters regard- 
ing this settlement. Your company claiming 
that it is not i-esponsible for the 1)111 incurred 
in repairing the grinder (however, we are to 
blame for not having the matter understood at 
the time before the repairs were made), but 
our dealings for nearly, if not (|uite fifteen years 
have been of the most pleasant nature, and we 
did not anticipate that there would be any dis- 
pute about the settlement of the account, and 
for that reason alone we did not suspect that 
thei'e would be a dispute. 


Should this account be taken to court for a 
settlement, all the Judges in Christendom, all 
the expert mechanics, couldn't possibly decide 
^vhat caused tlie wi'eek. 


We have been in this class of manufacturing, 
and now just rounding out our 23rd year, have 
had some experience with a few accidents with 
our crushers and grinders, but fortunately we 
have never heard of any one being hurt se- 
riously — and this is the best part about tlie 
accident at Fort Worth. 


Furthei-more, your company have ceased call- 
ing upon us for any repairs for the grinders in 
the way of hammers or beaters, which of course 
you have the right to do ordinarily, but your 
comiKiiiy ])robably does not know that some of 
the pai-ts wliich you are having made elsewhere 
are patented articles, separate and distinct 
from iiur gilnder. We have recently learned 
that you have had some of these tools made at 
a plant on or about Thirteenth and Chestnut 
sti'cets, called the Laclede Iron Works. While 
we do not Ihink for one moment that either 
your comi);niy or the Laclede Iron Works 
would manufacture and furnish these tools to 
your company knowing that they were patent- 
ed ai'ticles. We have had the tools examined 
l\v an exi)ei-t i)atcnt attorney. Fi-om a thor- 
ough explanation of what they are like, and a 
sketch 01' template made from same on paper 
and pi'esented to our attorney, he writes us a 
letter to the effect that undoubtedly said tools 
ai-e a direct infringement upon one of our pat- 

Gentlemen, we would hesitate a long time, 
and we have hesitated foi' more than a year, 
hoping that >-on would finally settle the ac- 
count by the force only of moral suasion, as we 
do not go into court unless we are absolutely 
compelled to. 


While the account in dispute, being less than 
$2,000.00, will neither make nor break either 
company — we mean either the Ralston Purina 
Co., noi' the Williams Patent Cru.sher and P"d- 


verizer Co. — but all business concerns have a 
pride in maintaining their rights ; and our com- 
pany, we most frankly state, would rather for- 
feit the disputed account than to enter into 
legal proceedings with the Ralston Purina 
Company. We do not believe that this matter 
has been brought to the attention of Mr. Wil- 
liam H. Danforth, and we further believe that 
aftei' the pros and cons have been gone over, 
between Mr. William H. Danforth and ]\Iiltou 
F. Williams, respective Presidents of each cor- 
poration, that an amicable settlement can be 
arrived at^ and that also all matters or feeling 
in dispute can be waived, and that a flag of 
truce can be patched up without going across 
the water to France. 

When Mr. William H. Danforth lias tlu^ time, 
or at a suitable time to us both, I would be 
be pleased to have us get together upon the 
subject and see if we cannot settle same amica- 
bly by pouring a little oil upon the troubled 
wateis hy the two heads of departments — 

]M(ist i-espcetfully submitted, 


]\nit(>n F. Williams, President. 

October n. 1919. 

A. L. Shapleigh, 

Care Shnpleigii Hardware Co., 

Dear Sii-: — 

In re])ly to yours of the 8th, asking that 1 
attend one of tlie seven meetings, and the last 
being Friday, Oct. 17th, and the first being 
Wednesday, Oct. 8th — that you are addressing 
me a'i one bu.siness man should address an- 
other, where all things should be e(iual, and for 
one general purpose and for the advancement 
and l)e1terment of oui' citv. I often think and 

wonder as I look back over the vicissitudes of 
ray past life, for I soon will have rounded out 
my 46th year in this city of St. Louis, having 
come here as an artisan, and having toted my 
tool-box and my dinner bucket from place to 
place in the city, while acting in the capacity 
of a meek and lowly millwright. If the Lord 
spares my life, on the 13th of this month I will 
have reached my 73rd mile-post. 

Few men (if any) by borrowing .$1,000.00 
only could have built up a business such as I 
have built, with the assistance of my three 
sons, one of whom is finishing his 19th year in 
Chicago, another his 10th .year in San Fran- 
cisco and the third hii 40th year in St. Louis. 

We have taken that A\hich was considered 
nothing, absolutely nothing, that which was 
common property, and yet we did not know it, 
and I have now taken out over 260 patents 
supporting and putting a foundation under 
that which was common property, and yet the 
world didn't know it; and when 1 jiass beyond 
the Great Divide, where the shaking of hands 
across the bloody chasm may or may not be 
possible, I will have left to the world a me- 
chanical principle more useful than any other 
in a crushing and pulvei-izing capacity, and one 
which will be used a million years hence — one 
which is the maximum of power. 

And yet the glad tidings from my own month 
have nevei' been shouted fi'om the housetops — 
only in the foiMu of printoi''s ink. I call my- 
self a natui'al advei'tiser. I am not a politician. 
There is not a drop of political blood in my 
veins. My motives have all been one of a 
selfish nature, and those to devote my interests 
to the Williams family. 

1 was born of humble jiai'cnts in the good 
old state of Ohio, and of the plain Quaker 
kind. I have nevei- sought the limelight as 
lieing a publie-spiiited num, for I have never 
considered myself such. And while I say my 
motives have been of a selfish nature, I have 
evaded politics or public meetings for one rea- 
son alone. I can write essays or dictate them 
until Kingdom come ; but to get up in public 
and make a speech — I am not gifted in that 


line. Sorry that I am not. If I were, it would 
oft times be a pleasure. I could rise in an audi- 
ence, even of thousands of people, and read an 
essay or read a speech ; but to rise and make 
either, or attempt either — my tongue would 
cleave to my mouth, and my oratorical senses 
would be deadened to the extent that I would 
simply make a fool of myself. I would become 
embarrassed, and my knees would knock to- 
gether like the leaves upon an aspen tree. I 
spend my days, weeks and months, and also 
years, in my office, haAang almost now rounded 
out my 46th year in St. Louis. 

It is not the general way of men who have 
attained the pinnacle of fame to the extent of 
being called a president of a corporation. 

There is more than one reason why I do not 
attend public meetings. One is that I am quite 
deaf, and though I have tried several appli- 
ances to assist in the hearing, they do not seem 
to benefit me. Neither myself nor my sons be- 
ing gifted with oily tongues and oratorical 
propensities, we have just got sense enough to 
know our place, and that is in strictly attend- 
ing to our own business, in our offices. That is 
quite selfish, I'll admit. Ever since the time 
that I boarded upon Sixth and Market streets 
and carried my dinner bucket I have often 
wondered and often thought how little has 
M. F. Williams -done for itJie .public, how little 
has he accomplished toward public spiritedness 
in building the city of St. Louis. 

Thei'O are 150 users of Williams grinders on 
both sides of the I'iver at St. Loiiis. 

While our product is known in many coun- 
tries throughout the world, our public spirit- 
edness is now known at home. It's true, We 
have been loyal to the good old U. S. A. ; it is 
likewise true that in buying Liberty Bonds, 
Thrift Stamps, and paying excess profits since 
1917 the Williams family, the Williams em- 
ployees and the Williams Company have paid 
to the Government over $350,000.00, some of 
which is an investment, and the remainder is 
paying taxes of various kinds. 

A man has scarcely a right to belong to any 
organization unless he helps to support it in a 
public-spirited way. We thought we would 
compensate by paying the Chamber of Com- 
merce a double fee, which we did: that of 
$100.00, instead of $50.00. I consider $50.00 
very reasonable. 

You will say. Mi'. Shapleigh, that too much 
of a good thing becomes irksome, and that the 
busy grind is wearing, while I hold the con- 
trary. I do not play golf, I do not play any 
kind of games, I do not drink, chew or smoke; 
luit I do get as much happiness out of the busy 
grind as any Inisinoss man in the city of St. 

T have my hobbies and I ride them. One is a 
genealogy of our family, interspersed with his- 
torical facts of many interesting subjects, a 
few sketches of the early history of the city of 
St. Louis. If you were to read my production, 
not of ethics, but of facts, happenings, and the 
English langiiage, j'cu would have to acknowl- 
edge Milton the philosopher, as well as Milton 
the poet. My historical book will be embel- 
lished with over 300 engravings. I am also 
compiling a book of poems, and I am the author 
of but very few. I did not start out to write 
my life's history, Init I am trying to justify 
the cause of the Williamscs, why they are not 
politicians, why they are not orators, why they 
do not love to get into the limelight. 

Oivitorically we have hidden our lights under 
a bushel, but in a business way we have not. 

If in these few words I have properly ex- 
plained and justified the reasons why we do 
not attend public meetings, T hope that you will 
accept the word for the deed, and I therefore, 

]Most respectfully subscribe, 


Milton F. Williams, President. 


St. Louis, December 31, 1919. 

F. L. Smith & Co., Engineers, 
50 Church Street, New York. 

Gentlemen : — ' 

Yesterday my son, A. F. Williams, of whom 
you know, called my attention to a ball-bearing 
iron frame belt tightener in your catalogue. 

I, being an old millwright, one of the kind 
who learned a trade when we went into the 
woods, chopped down trees, made our own wa- 
ter wheels of wood, our own master wheels of 
wood, our own bevel and mortise wheels of 
wood, our own pin gearing of wood, way back 
in the early days and in primitive times — was 

I find in our drafting room we have one of 
your catalogues showing the belt tightener. I 
have always been avei-se to belt tighteners. 
There are times and places, though, where a 
belt tightener can be used to good advantage. 
Wherever a belt tightenei' can be avoided, the 
machine or machines to ho driven can be di'iven 
with less power and in a better manner than 
with a belt tightener. 

We have recently designed a pulley which is 
a great impi'ovement over and above our non- 
pneumatic pulley with annular grooves. You 
have seen these pulleys in cement plants, many 
of them, and we thought they woie attaining 

We are satisfied today, since making addi- 
tional experiments, that they are really not in 
it with our cross-grooved pulleys. Our cross- 
grooved pulleys, which are shown in the testi- 
monial lettei's as per Cut No. 972, are as far 
ahead of our annularly grooved and drilled 
pulleys as day is ahead of night. There are 
numerous kinds of pulley coverings, made of 
paper and made of cotton cloth and even rub- 
ber, sometimes, which gi'eat elainis are made 

The writer has been studying belt slijipage 
for 23 years, ever since we fii-st got out the 
hammei-, crusher and pulverizer, and has at 

last struck the keynote of efficiency by our 
cross-grooved pulley, which we are patenting. 
When the observer first sees this pulley, his 
first thought may be that it will cut a belt all 
to pieces, but the facts are it will not. What- 
ever we say in our bulletin, whatever claims 
we make, they are based on actual scientific 
tests, and our greatest claim is that our cross- 
groove pulley is 100% more efficient than a 
plain, crown-faced cast iron pulley. 

JNIost anyone will say impossible, impossible 
— that this assertion cannot be borne out by 
actual facts. We say that it can. The testi- 
monials enclosed also say that it can. 

The proper man to give testimonj- is the 
close observer who is nuinaging the operation 
of any kind of a crusher or grinder. He is the 
man who knows best, and he is the man to be 
depended upon foi- actual knowledge. 

Again we will state that the belt tightener 
may become necessary in places, and is neces- 
sary in places, but the belt tightener, gener- 
ally speaking, is an abomination, and is to be 
avoided wherever possible. 

Anyone who has not made a study of belt 
slippage wouldn't begin to believe the follow- 
ing : Do you know, or does anyone else know, 
what amount of money is lost per year, power 
expended to no purpose, coal burned to no pur- 
pose, in the times of the H. C. L., by belt slip- 
page? When a belt slips it wears out and loses 
money for the operator. When a crusher or 
grinder oi' any kind of a machine operating and 
doing woi'k has a belt which is slipping it is 
both Avearing out the belt and losing money for 
the boss, company or corporation. 


When a belt travels 500 feet per minute and 
over, upon a common pulley, it slips. Upon a 
common pulley, covered with leather, it slips 
a little less. Upon a paper pulley it slips still 
less. Upon an iron or wood pulley having an- 
nular grooves with holes drilled in same, it 
slips still less. If you use Chas. Schieren's per- 
forated belt you have eliminated some of the 


slippage. If you use his leather link helt you 
have eliminated some of the slippage. 

If you us? a pulley covered with paper or 
cotton cloth, you eliminate some of the slip- 
page. But how can we eliminate all the slip- 
page? Whether it be a short distance between 
shaft centers, or whether it be a long distance 
between shaft centers, upon a common smooth- 
faced pulley, there is slippage. 

My great-grandfather was a millwright and 
millman. My grandfather was a millwright 
and millman. My father was a millwright and 
milhnan. 1 myself have been a millwright and 
millman, ])ut now in my 74th year I am a man- 
ufacturer in a small way of crushers and pul- 
verizers — the father and inventor of the hinged 
hammer type, and the first one in the world I 
have procured and have in my archives. How 
to eliminate belt slippage? How to get rid of 
air cushion? Just as easy as '■I'olling off a 
log.' It's done "The Williams Way," and if 
you have an engineer passing through our 
Fairy City at any time, have him stop; and we 
are from Missouri, not primarily but second- 
arily, we are here to show. 

The two testimonials enclosed from users are 
the only two lieing tried out up to date. 

We have shipped a few others, and in every 
case there is but one verdict for the user, and 
that is no slippage, non-slip— hold tight, won't 
wear the helt, as it would with the helt slipping. 

Suppose, gentlemen, in a plant which you 
or any other person is operating, that your 
belt slips 1,000 feet per day of 24 hours, and 
you i-un 300 days in a year, and you slip 300,000 
feet per year or 56 miles per year. How much 
have you slipped? The answer — a little over 
56 miles in one year. 

If every high-speeded belt slips 56 miles in 
one year, how much money has the boss lost? 
Or how much more would he have gained had 
his belts not have slipped? 

Now, to be reasonable, on account of his belt 
slipping he has lost money to pay a bonus to 

each operative. He has lost mojiey which 
would have paid the interest on his investment 
and his taxes. Is that item worth while? Well, 
I should say YES. 

He has lost money enough to become notice- 
able in the world, which all goes to overhead. 
Oh, efficiency thou art a jewel. • Everyone is 
talking efficiency. Smart engineers want to 
come into your plant and tell you how to save 
money, while we are telling you right off the 
reel to save money when you start your plant, 
and stop belt slippage. 

This can all be estimated. We have one of 
these pulleys in our testing plant, which belt is 
running 7,700 feet per minute. Hold a lighted 
candle all around the periphery where the belt 
contact is, and the air cushion under the belt 
and forcing air into the grooves, will blow out 
a candle at any point under the belt. 

Tliis, gentlemen, we call Chapter No. 1, and 
we ho]ie this letter will get into the proper 
hands and be answered. If it does not, we will 
go after you again, and again, and again, until 
we get your ear. 

Wishing you the compliments of the season. 
Thanking you for past favors, and while we 
connncnd you for your mechanical ball-bearing 
tightener pulleys, a tightener is doing it at the 
expense of power, while the never-slip pulley 
is helping you create power. 

We have a phenomenon in our testing plant. 
Would you believe it? The grinder running at 
4,700 R, P. M., I'uiniing empty with this pulley, 
runs almost 4,900 R. P. M. by speed indicator. 
Instead of running less than the figures 4,700, 
it gains in speed from 150 to 300. Is this not 
a phenomenon in belt drive If it is not, what 
would you call it? 

Yours very truly, 


Milton F. Williams, Presidenii 


John J. Iiigalls, the brightest statesman Kan- 
sas ever produced, has the following to say 
about GRASS: 

"Hay" There! What Is Grass? 


Grass is the forgiveness of nature : her con- 
stant benediction. Fields, trampled with bat- 
tle, saturated with blood, torn with the ruts of 
cannon, grow green again with grass, and car- 
nage is forgotten. Streets, abandoned by traf- 
fic, become grass grown like rural lanes, and 
are obliterated. Forests decay, harvests per- 
ish, tlowers vanish, but grass is immortal. Be- 
leaguered by the sullen hosts of winter, it with- 
draws into the impregnable forti-ess of its sub- 
tei-ranean vitality, and emerges upon the first 
solicitation of spi-ing. 

Sown liy the 
propagated liy t 


elements which are its ministers a 
it softens the I'ude oiitline of tlic 
tenacious fibres hold the earth ii 
prevent its soluble components ft' 
into the wasting sea. 

villi;' l)ii-(ls, 
UlT nf tlie 
d servants, 
world. Its 
place, and 
m washing 

It invades the solitude of deserts, climbs the 
inaccessible slopes and foi-hidden pinnacles of 
mountains, modifies climates and determines 
the history, character, and destin,v of nations. 
"Unobtrusive and patient, it has immortal vigor 
and aggression. Banished from the thorough- 
fares and field, it abides its time to I'eturn and 
when vigilance is relaxed, or the dynasty has 
perished, it silently resumes the throne from 
which it has been expelled, but which it never 
abdicates. It bears no blazonry of bloom to 
charm the senses with fragrance or splendor, 
but its homely hue is more enchanting than the 
lily or the rose. It yields no fruit in earth or 
air, and yet, should its harvest fail a single 
year, famine would depopulate the woi-ld. 



Dear Father Williams: — 

This will reply to your several letters which 
I have only partially answered, owing to in- 
compatibility of environment. 


' that you are familiar with the hills of 
Virginia, Western Pennsylvania and 

How dear to my recollection is the memory 
of those hills, rock-ribbed and ancient as the 
sun. How like a great stream at floodtide, my 
emotions swelled within me as I climbed to 
their dizzy heights and gazed far out over the 
vast expanse over the Ohio side and toward 
the setting sun, or stood transfixed, as the sun, 
like a golden goblet, sank into the sea, and the 
stars, one by one, appeared above me. 

Plow vast were the plans as I sat, hour after 
hour, that I made for the future as it all rolled 
in one vast pageant before my vision. 

To how litt 

account I have tui'ned it all. 

HoAV wonderful a being is man when viewed 
in the light of his achievements and to how lit- 
tle account he tumeth them. 

But the same stoi'v is to a greater or less ex- 
tent true of us all. We but catch at the skirts 
of the things we would be, and fall back on the 
lap of a false destiny. 

Stai' gazing was always in my line. I shot at 
the stars, and if I am never to hit them, ni.y 
aim, at least, was right. The vision still lives, 
and will ever live. 

Some day I hope that we may have the time 
and the opportunity to visit this country to- 
gether. I have always wanted to get better 
ac(|uainted with this side of .your nature. 

When I was at youi- home I formed many 
and strong resolutions of rising early and ac- 
companying you on your walks; but procras- 
tination, which is the thief of time, always 
robbed me of the right. 


When I arose Ijefore you, as I frequently did, 
I spout all the time that you were drinking in 
the fresh morning air in arranging my toilet, 
for I was then my oAvn barber, my shoe-shine 
boy and manicure girl all in one; thus chill 
penury repressed my noble rage, and froze the 
genial current of my soul. 

Still, there is the hope that springs eternal 
in the hearts of men. that tomoi-row will sup- 
ply the deficiencies of today, old age perform 
the promises of youth, and all our ships sail 
saf(>ly hoiii,> from the sea. Ah, well, the harbor 
would not hold so many sails as there would be 
if all our ships came home from sea, so since 
some must be lost, must never more come sail- 
ing- back— lose any, all I have at sea,!but bring 
my love-ship back to me. 

The love that is universal, that makes every 
man your Ijrother, and every woman your 
mother, wife, daughter, sweethearts all. 

I feel l:)etter today. I have somewhat- recu- 
perated from a task that taxed my physical 
powei'S to endure. The sun is shining brightly 
too today, and it always loses some of its glad- 
ness on me. 

I trust that you ai'e still improving and that 
when I return this time I will hud you in the 
same robust health that you were in the day 
after I came from Rapid City. 

Yon had the pep to you that day that bespoke 
the war-hoss you had been in former days. 

Give my regards to inipiiring friends, if any 
such there be. 

Yours very sincerely, 



Referring to the letter dedicated to and en- 
titled -'Dear Fathei' Williams." Who was Mil- 
ton L. Hickman? Milton L. Hickman was born 
in old Virginia, worked in a dry goods store 
about his first work, according to his version. 

He finally drifted to Rapid City, S. D., and 
while there he merged into the manufacture of 
mineral polish, and used one of our small grind- 
ers for powdering this polish. It Avas by this 
means that we made his acquaintance, through 

One day in the fall and month of October, 
1915, Milton L. Hickman walked into my of- 
fice, after first presenting himself by a piece of 
pasteboard to our telephone exchange girl ; she 
brought me the card. I told her to waltz him 
in. He came, and after casual conversation, 
he stated that he had invented a dust separat- 
ing process in connection with our grinder and 
that it was a wonder. I being very much in- 
terested in the sub.ject, had him explain Avhat 
he had to show. 1 then turned him over to 
Mr. II. M. Plaisted, editor of this book, and in 
less than 24 hours' tiuu^ Mr. Plaisted had pre- 
sented me with a drawing of Hickman's heli- 
coidal separator. Shortly after that time we 
built one, tried it out in our testing- plant, and 
the Avork done by it Avas simply marvelous to a 
certain extent ; Init I remarked to him that it 
Avould Avork all right in homeopathic doses, but 
when it came to Avoi'k upon large quantities of 
goods I feared that it Avould be found de- 

]\Iilt(Ui L. llicknum, not being possessed of 
large quantities of the AvorkVs lucre, and his 
exchccjuer being marked by its homeopathic 
size, I iuAdted him to our home. While at our 
home, fortunately he showed the other side of 
hi-i nature. We found that he was not a uuin 
to bear acquaintance. We found that at times 
he became disagreeable. During this time, hoAV- 
ever, Ave had begvm to build and install his, as 
Ave thought, ingenious devices, until our com- 
pany had spent about $28,000.00. 

We install(>d a nundier of plants in N(>w 
York State, in old Virginia, in West Virginia, 
in Kansas, in Missouri, also in Georgia, — and 
each and every plant Avas a disappointment ex- 
cept one in the State of New York: and that 
being the first, Ave received our nuiney inside 
of .30 days for this plant, Avhieh Avas that of 
grinding and separating brimstone: and that's 


the only plant which we installed that AVe did 
not have to take the separatoi' ))aok and poeket 
the loss. 

The letter above shows the l)e;;t side of his 
nature, shows his eloquent tendencies, and in 
due course of time, after he was owing our 
company $3,000.00, he went back to Rapid 
City, from whence he came, and shortly after 
that time (poor man, peace to his ashes), he 
died in an insane asylum. 


A symbolic picture — an imaginary picture — 
from which we hope to desci'ibe and depict the 

the kings or rulers of the world, I am the great 
I AM." 

Goliath, who is prostrate upon the ground, 
has been felled by the slingshot of David, the 
diminutive man. David in stature is the insig- 
nificant, diminutive man, and when Golii'th 
confronted him he saitl to David :" Wh,\-, you 
little insignificant son-cf-a-gun, just one little 
kick from my foot and over you will go ; I 
could trample you to the earth and you would 
never be heard from." David in his meek dis- 
position said unto himself : ' ' Well, Goliath, you 
wait and see what I can do with my slingshot." 
Picking up a gravel stone from the field, he 
hurled the stone witli all his miijbt into the 
forehead of Golialli, as slidwn ui)()n tlu' fore- 

Cut No. 262. The conundrii 

good (|ualities and the wick( 

of the 

The babe lying in swaddling clothes indicates 
the Ijegiuning of the evolution of man, in his 
helpless condition. Tlie little lamb standing 
looking at the babe indicates innocence and do- 
cility, easiest of management, and subject to 
the l)eek and call of its mastei-, jMan. 

The lion upon tlie mount i-oar-ing is the mas- 
ter of lieasts, and represi'uts unregulated Pride 
and Power, proclaiming to the world: "I am 
ma.ster of all I survey, I am master cf mam- 
mals, I am master of man, I am fvreater than 

iiead where the stone stiiick, and felled him 
to earth — reduced him to mother earth fi'om 
whence he came. In that position David is 
master; the small, diminiitive nmn is master, 
even of tbc lion, for lie c-iii t,-ike Goliath's 
sw(,rd, make a dash at him, cut tlu' lion, wound 
him, and finally wear him out; and since David 
has the power to sever Goliath's head, he has 
efiual power by hi^ sagacity to overcome the 
lion ; and David also has the power to cause the 
lion and lamb to lie down together. 

Therefore, Man in his greatness of mind, if 
properly trained, and of the proper tempera- 
ment, can overcome the beasts of the forest, the 


fishes of the sea, the birds of the air, and brute 
force, whatever its shape, and hence he is mas- 
ter of the sitviation. Inasmuch as there is a 
chain of circumstances which surrounds the 
whole, and said chain only has the strength 
of its weakest link. Man is master after all. 



The Babe in swaddling clothes (helplessness) 

Tlu Lamb — Innocence 

The Lion — Jlastery 

Goliath — Boastful might leveled to earth 

David — Right overcoming Might — 

It is said: "Great oaks from little acorns 
grow," and the smallest mustard seed con- 
tains a power to burn the tongue and bring 
tears to the eyes of the Kaiser. 

So a babe in swaddling clothes is the essence 
of power and future greatness in the garb of 
helplessness, depending for food, drink, warmth 
and care on the never-failing love of his moth- 
er — even as the acorn is hidden in the warm 
bosom of .mother Earth, is fed with moisture 
from hidden springs, and is cherished till it 
can sprout and grow in time into the mighty 

Man is the rulei' of the known world, the 
seeker after knowledge, which is Power — (he 
investigator of things seen and unseen — of 
things under the earth and above the earth — 
even in the heavens above — peering with far- 
seeing eyes of the telescope he has made, into 
the vast empty spaces of the sky, beyond the 
North Star, where no stars can be discerned — 
a vast, unmeasurable void, into which our sun 
with its circling planets and other heavenly 
bodies all appear to be hurrying to some un- 
known goal, in some unknown time millions of 
years from our present little span of life. 

Man, by thought, cannot add one cubit to his 
statui'c, but he can, and does, grow in body and 
mind, and he searches out knowledge that is 
hidden, like sweet nuts in a hard shell, till the 
helplessness of his babyhood, the innocence of 
the lamb, the mastery of the lion, the boastful 
pride of Goliath— all change to the true cour- 
age of David, who trusts to the God of Rleht- 
eousness and overcomes Might that knows no 

The lamb typifies "Innocence," even as the 
babe outgrows his swaddling clothes and in- 
creases in physical nature, but plays and gam- 
l5ols like a lamb in the joy of his innocent life, 
hurting no one, and without pride or boastful 
mastery. A great English painter. Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, has painted a picture of a child and 
named it '"Innocence," which pictiu-e has been 
made known throughout the Avorld by many 
printed copies. It shows a baby girl sitting on 
the ground, with her little bare feet peeping 
from under her dress, and looking forward to 
a gateway under arching trees. What lies 
beyond this gateway into womanhood — ^or man- 
hood? Some people find they grow into the 
boaslful pi'ide of Goliath, some into the rec- 
ognized mastery of the Lion, and others into 
the courageous confidence of David. Goliath 
relied on his own bigness and scorned any other 
power than mere physical strength. The lion is 
the acknowledged master of the animal king- 
dom, but he has courage and confidence with- 
out pride. David had courage and confidence 
also, but he relied on the help of the unseen 
God of Righteousness whom Goliath had defied. 

How similar to the above stated type does 
Man proceed thi-ough life I Some stop in their 
growth as innocent and helpless as children 
and lambs — perhaps they are called home to 
their Father's House, where the "Pure in heart 
shall see God." Others groAV large and mas- 
terful like the lion, and then become puffed up 
and boastful of themselves, till they are brought 
low by the power of David and David's God. 
The more we know of this world of ours, the 
more we fix our faith in an overruling Power, 
Creator and God. The ancient Egyptians were 


wise in the knowledge of planets and stars, and 
their study of Nature led them "from Nature 
up to Nature's God," whom they worshiped 
as the great god Ptha, the maker and ruler of 
the universe. Even the Avisest of them, how- 
ever, were not puli'ed up with pride in them- 
selves. At a great feast in Egypt, a yoimg man 
who had been taught all the knowledge of 
many masters, was asked to tell the assembled 
guests of the wonders of that age. He told of 
the life and growth of plants, of animals, and 
of man ; of the achievements of man in art, 
science and literature cf the times; of the heav- 
enly bodies — their influence on the conduct of 
man — of their oi-igin, growth and decay to dead 
uninhabited woi-ld.i, graveyai-ds of vanished 
forms of life. Hut when he came to speak of 
the ]Maker of these planets and stars, — the 
Euler who guided these worlds in space so vast 
as to be inconceivable, and caused them to obey 
these laws that man had discovered — he drew 
the cape of his garment before his face and 
stood dumb, as before the awful power and 
sublimity of the Creator. 

A man told me of his aAvakening to the glory 
of tl'.e stars at night. He had always been near- 
sighted, and only after he grew to manhood 
did he have glasses fitted to his eyes. When 
he left the optician that rveiiiuL;-. wearing the 
newly fitted glasses, the stai's shone in all their 
brilliancy. As he glanced upwai-d and caught 
sight of the stars, the planets and the wonder- 
ful milky way, that he with his myi^pic eyes 
had never seen — he stopped still in his tracks 
and drank into his soul the wonderful spirit 
of the heavens, till his feelings overcame him 
and his eyes filled with tears. He had heaid 
people speak of the stars, he had dimly per- 
ceived the moon, but when the glory of actual 
sight burst upon him he realized as never be- 
fore the feelings of David, the Psalmist, when 
he cried : 

"When I behold the heavens, the work of 
Thy fingers, the moon and the stars which Thou 
has ordained, what is man that Thou art mind- 
ful of him, and the Son of man that Thou visit- 
est him?" 

Some time, when our eyes have been opened 
and "our mortality has put on immortalit.v, " 
we shall also see and iniderstand what Paul the 
great apostle meant when he wrote: "Eye hath 
not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it en- 
tered into the heart of man to conceive, the 
things that God hath prepared for those who 
love him." 

In the upward growth of mankind through 
the ages of savage and civilized man, the spirit 
within also has changed from "the looking 
forAvai-d of a race, before it had a past to 
make it look behind." It will change from 
v.-ar's reversion — the hate and strife of the 
present day — to conditions of such opposite 
characteristics that the Prophet Isaiah could 
cnly express this changed spirit by referring to 
the changed behavior of those animals that we 
have always regarded as the fiercest. Speaking 
from a time over 700 years before Christ (2740 
years befoi-e the present day), he tells of the 
vision God has given him of the future Gov- 
ei-nment of ]\Iessiah, when "the wolf also shall 
dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie 
uown Avitli the kid; and the calf and tlie young 
lion ami tiie fatling together; and a little child 
shall lead them. And the cow and the bear 
shall feed ; their young ones shall lie down to- 
gether; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. 
They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy 
mountain ; for the earth shall be full of the 
knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the 

And again the prediction of the inspired 
prophet goes on to say : 

"And in that day thou shalt say: Lord, I 
will praise thee; though thou wast angry with 
me, thine anger is turned away, and thou com- 
fortest me. 

Behold, God is my salvation ; I wiU trust and 
net be afraid; for the Lord Jehovah is my 
strength and my song; he also is become my 
Ealvation. ' ' 

When this terrible war of the present day 
has run its course, those who have died for the 
truth and righteousness of their cause shall 


join with those who have passed through the 
fire and are of the same spirit ; then will be the 
beginning of the end of our present reversion 
to savagery, and this wonderful day of the 
Lord will be nigh. 

The statue of the "Christ of the Andes," 
which is located in the Andes Mountains be- 
tweeji Chili and Argentina, was erected by 
these countries to commemorate the treaty con- 
cluded in 1896 between Chili and Argentine. 


A monument of good-will standing at an ele- 
vation of 12,000 feet on the boundary line be- 
tween Chili and Argentina. 


Every boy loves to read of Robin Hood and 
his merry men, dressed in Lincoln green, who 
lived the life of outlaws and freedom, in the 


■wild woods of England. Shakespeare in his 
comedy "As You Like It," written about 1599, 
lays the scene of his play in the "Forest of 
Arden," in France, between the rivers Meuse 
and Moselle, it is claimed. This is in the French 
Flanders where the present battle is raging. 
At the time of Shakespeare, however, it was a 
beautiful forest, and Shakespeare's comedy has 
made everyone love it, or the descriptions of it, 
Vhich are brought out in this well-known play 
of the unmatched poet, whom Milton calls 

"Sweetest Shakespeare, fancy's cliild. 
Warbles his native wood-notes wild." 

In this play a Duke is driven fiom court by 
the fraud and hatred of his brother, and in the 
Forest of Arden, with faithful friends who 
have followed him there, lives a life of freedom 
and contentment — the only foes being winter's 
cold and seasons' diiferenees. One of his 
friends, Jaques, is a man of the world, having 
had man.v experiences in life, and had come to 
the point where he looks w ith a certain mel- 
ancholy on every act and scene, and, in fact, 
he is said to be able to "suck melancholy from 
a song as a weasel sucks eggs." In one of his 
conversations with his friend the Duke, Jaques 
speaks words that have been quoted so much 
that they are familiar to most people — at least 
in part. This is due to theii- simple and accu- 
rate description of the characteristics of the 
infant, the l)oy, the man, from the cradle to the 
grave, in what Jaiiues himself calls '•The Seven 
Ages of ^lan." 

Out thei-e in the green woods of Arden, 
Jaques tells the Duke : 

"All the world's a stage, 
And all the men and women merely players: 
They have their exits and their entrances; 
And one man in his time plays many parts, 
His acts being seven ages. At first the infant, 
Mewling and puking in the nurse's arms. 
Then the whining schoolboy, with his satchel 
And shining morning face, creeping like snail 
Unwillingly to school. And then the lover, 
Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad 
Made to his mistress ' eyebrow. Then a soldier, 

Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the 

Jealous in honor, sudden and quick in quarrel, 
Seeking the bubble reputation 
Even in the cannon's mouth. And then the 

In fair round belly with good capon lined. 
With eyes severe and beard of formal cut, 
Fiill of wise saws and modem instances ; 
And so he plays his part. The sixth age shifts 
Into the lean and slipper 'd pantaloon. 
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side, 
His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide 
For his shrunk shank ; and his big manly voice, 
Turning ag-ain toward childish treble, pipes 
And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all, 
That ends this strange eventful history, 
Is second childishness and mere oblivion. 
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans every- 
thing, ' ' 

Ja(iues himself has passed through most of 
these stages and knows whereof he speaks. 
How simple and accurate his description: 1. 
Of the Infant, its helplessness and dependence 
on his nurse. 2. The Schoolboy, unwilling to 
go to school and therefore creeping like a snail 
with his satchel and his shining morning face, 
fresh washed, that soon will be covered with 
the dirt of boyhood games. 3. The Lover, 
Avhose main characteristic is writing poetry and 
heaving sighs. Older grown, the fourth stage, 
of a Soldier, who has exchanged the Lover's 
sighs for strong oath and boisterous statement, 
seeking fame and reputation even at the can- 
non's mouth. If he passes safely through this 
stage with his life, then comes the fifth, that of 
the Justice, who has won the due honors of his 
rank and enjoys the luxuries of the table while 
he gives out justice from the bench. This is 
what Jaques looks forward to, perhaps, for 
certainly this fi-iend of the Duke has not yet 
reached the sixth age, which is that of "the 
lean and slipper 'd pantaloon with spectacles 
on nose and pouch on side." And last of all, 
the seventh stage, which Jaques calls a second 
childhood, and which comes to some men who 
have passed the allotted three score years and 
ten, "by reason of strength," and yet find such 
years "full of labor and sorrow," as their phy- 


sical condition is without teeth, without eyes, 
without taste and without everything — accord- 
ing to Ja(iues' description. 


This is a statement of the principles of hu- 
man nature as applied to man, which is given 
in the foi'm of poetry, as Pope found it more 
convenient to put his thoughts in that form 
than in prose. The four epistles on Man Avere 
written in 1732-33 and 34, and Voltaire, a keen 
critic, praised the beauty of the poem. 

Pope himself says that he has steered be- 
tween the extremes of doctrines, seemingly op- 
posite, and passed over terras utterly unintel- 
ligible, in the endeavor to form a temperate, 
short system of ethics. 

A critic of the present day would say that 
the form and the art of poetry and the thought 
thus expressed by the poem, "triumph, even in 
the midst of the error of his statements, as he 
presents a framework of fallacious generaliza- 
tion that gives coherence to the epigrammatic 
statement of a multitude of individual truths." 

Thus, in his first epistle he takes up Man in 
the abstract, and considers how he is suited to 
his sphere. How he has more knowledge than 
the brutes, but less than the spirits. He claims 
that ignorance makes for happiness, providing 
we have Hope to cheer us on: "What can we 
reason but from what we know of man? what 
see we but his station here?" 

He still links Hope with Happiness when he 
says : 

"Hope humbly then; with trembling' pinions 

Wait the great teacher Death, and God adore. 
What future bliss He gives not thee to know, 
But gives that hope to be thy blessing now. 
Hope springs eternal in the human breast^ 
Man never is, but always to be, blest." 

He speaks of Man in the state of the Indian 
with his ignorance of God, but his belief that 
God is in the wind, the cloud-topped hill, and 
in the woods through which he roams ; and he 

looks for a heaven in which his horse and favor- 
ite dog shall share his hunts and his pleasures. 

Pope states that pride is often the result of 
knowing too much and aiming too high for 
selfish men : 

' ' Men would be angels, angels would be gods. 
Aspiring to be gods if angels fell. 
Aspiring to be angels men rebel : ' ' 

But we do not err, if we keep in mind, he 

"The first Almighty Cause 
Acts not by partial but by general laws." 

That is. no one man is singled out to l)e the 
special pet of the Almighty, for whom his gen- 
eral laws, that are made for the good of all, 
must be broken or made obsolete for this one's 
special benefit. God is not the God of one man 
but of the whole race ; and he also made for 
man's use all creatures and gave them certain 
po^vers, some of them higher than that of man. 
Thus, for instance, the sight of man is not that 
telescopic sight of the eagle, nor has man the 
brute strength of the bear, uor has man the 
hearing of some of the wild animals — because 
it is not best for man that he should have these 
extremes of physical characteristics. 

"Each beast, each inrect, happy in its own." 

If man were provided with such powers of 

body as above mentioned, it Avonld lie misery 

to him instead of a pleasure. It would be a 

pain to him. He would be "stunned by the 

music of the sphere.^," and would have wished 

"that Heav'n had left him still 

The whispering zephyr and the purling rill. 

Who finds not Providence all good and wise, 

Alike in vv^hat it gives, and what denies." 

So Pope finds that 

"AU ars but parts of one tremendous whole, 
Whose body Nature is, and God the soul." 

So he advises man not to criticise God for not 
giving him things he hasn't got, but to recog- 
nize that what he has got is given him for a 
wise purpose, and that he should make the best 
of his talents. 


Then Pope takes up the nature and state of 
man with respect to himself as an individual, 
and says 

"Know then thyself, presume not God to scan; 
The proper study of mankind is Man" 

and the moi'c man studies and tiiuls out, the 
less he will be inclined "to teach Eternal Wis- 
dom how to rule. ' ' But in the midst of all this 
study of man, Pope finds two principles that 
guide human nature : Self-love, that urges man 
onwai-d to get whatever he wants; and second- 
\y. Reason, that acts as a balance wheel and 
restrains hisn from extremes. 

The Passions he calls modes of self-love, and 
says that vices are extremes of passion tliat 
have gone wrong, and virtues are often another 
form of these same passions guided by reason 
into gentler forms, and made up of the lights 
and shades that give strength and color to our 

"Yes, Nature's road must ever be preferred — 
Season is here no gTiide, but still a guard." 

Thus in man, passions join for some mysterious 
use, and just when vice becomes a virtue is 
often hard to define. Those people, however, 
who say there is no vice or no virtue, Pope 
says are as foolish as those who say that there 
is no white and no black, because white and 
black blend in a thousand ways and soften and 
unite in different shades. Pope says plainly 

"Vice is a monster of so frightful mien 
As to be hated needs but to be seen ; 
Yet seen too oft, familiar vsrith her face, 
We first endure, then pity, then embrace." 

"So virtuous and vicious every man must 
be" — not everybody extremely one or the other 
— "but each one in some degree." 

Still self directs man, and each individual 
seeks a several goal, 

"But heaven's great view is one and that 
the whole." 

So Reason also helps man to be happy in ex- 
ploring Nature; helps tlie fool to be happy that 
he knows no more, and the rich that he has 

plenty given, Avhile the poor are content with 
the care of Heaven. 

Still Hope travels with us, says Pope, and 
like the child M'ho is pleased with a rattle and 
tickled with a straw, the youth demands some 
livelier plaything, and the grown man asks for 
other things to amuse his riper age ; while old 
age is contented with quite different things 
until "tired, he sleeps and life's poor play is 
'er. " ' 

But in the midst of it all. Pope says one com- 
fort must still rise: " 'Tis this, though Man's a 
fool, yet God is wise. ' ' 

Having ended with man by himself, Pope 
then takes up the nature and state of man with 
respect to society, and shows how Reason 
teaches that society, or the good of society, 
must be considered by the Eternal Cause, more 
than the good of one individual, in the laws 
that are made for the regulation of mankind. 
Man is a fool — saj's Pope — if he thinks God 
works solely for his joy, pastime, tire and food. 
God also has given pleasures to the birds of 
heaven who sing ; to the animals who have their 
joys of life ; and the plants that bloom and add 
to the pleasure, comfort and food of other than 
man. So in a state of nature man is not puffed 
up by pride, ruled by Kings or tyrants, but 
walks in peace and love with the animals of the 

"Then in Nature's state they did not blindly 

For the state of nature was the reign of God. ' ' 
But when self-love in man and a state of 
society brought pride and knowledge and de- 
sire, it also brought the fury-passions that made 
him a fiercer savage, caused him to seek for 
personal gain, the stronger over the weak. Then 
were cities built, and societies made, and the 
state of love and the liberty of Nature's laws 
were exchanged for conquest. 
"Force first made conquest, and that conquest 

Till superstition taught the tyrant awe; 

Then shared the tyranny, then lent it aid. 

And Gods of conquerors, Slaves of subjects 
made. ' ' 


Instead of the good of all, 
Charity, became the guide." 

"Zeal then, not 

Mankind kept growing better, however, as 
self-love for the path it first pursued, "and 
found the private in the public good"; Pope 
says that 

" 'Twas then the studious head or generous 

Follower of God, or friend of human kind, 
Poet or patriot, rose bivt to restore 
The faith and moral Nature gave before." 

We have an illustration of this in the present 
day when the Kings and Kaisers of the old 
world are passing away, are losing their poAver 
which they have used for their own selfish love 
and selfish ends, and now the people of the 
world are thinking more of the good of the 
whole race than of the benefit to a few Kings 
or Rulers, and are fighting, bleeding, laying 
doA\'n their lives, for this idea and ideal of the 
good of the whole rather than the good of the 

And now Pope comes in the fourth epistle to 
the conclusion of the whole matter and tells 
of the nature and state of man with respect to 

'0 Happiness— our being's end and aim! 
Good, Pleasure,, Content, whate'er thy 

name — 
That something still which prompts th' eter- 
nal sigh. 
For which we bear to live, or dare to die. ' ' 

Pope is right when he says that happiness 
we justly call consists not in the good of one, 
but all, and then states that happiness lies in 
three words. Health, Peace and Competence. 
Health, however, consists in temperance, and 
temperance means moderation in the use of all 
things, whether of pleasure or pain, passion, 
profit, pride, or self-love. • : 

. Peace, however, is the one possession that 
virtue has alone, and it is all. her own. Peace 

does not consist in outside condition, circum- 
stances or possession, but is that "soul's calm 
sunshine and heartfelt joy, which nothing 
earthly gives or can destroy — and is virtue's 

Esteem and Love were never to be sold — 
Honor and shame from no condition rise, 
Act well your part: there all the honor lies." 

Then again he says what Bobbie Burns has 
also said in other words: "Worth makes the 
man, and want of it the fello\v ; The rest is all 
but leather or prunella." 

Pope says that some people think that vir- 
tue is being punished when accident or chance 
brings to them ill fortune, and that vice, 
wlien successful, is happy. 

Then he shows that, who noble ends, by 
noble ends obtain, is happier, though he fail, 
than rich and wicked are when they appar- 
ently succeed in their designs. 

"It is absurd to call a villain great. 
What can ennoble sots, or slaves, or cowards? 
Alas, not all the blood of all the Howards." 

and again he says, "Count me those only who 
were good and great. ' ' 

Sometimes when a man is ahead of his times 
in thought and action, he finds the people,- are 
not ready for him. Pope says 

"Truths would you teach, or save a sinking 

All fear, none aid you, and few understand." 

And yet, whether with or Avithout fame, 
with or without riches and power, in spite of 
clothing, and not because of it, "An honest 
Man's the noblest work of God." 

Bobbie Burns would say 
for all that, and all that. ' ' 

man s a man, 



"By what standard is a man's or a woman's suc- 
cess in life measured? 

The usual standard is that of worldly success. 
If a man makes much money, or raises to high 
office and influence, he is called a successful man. 
Nobody asks about, or is interested in, his domestic 
affairs. That is to say, these domestic affairs 
attract attention only when there is something to 
talk about, or when the house of the 'successful 
man' is open to his friends, to 'society,' resplendent 
in appointments and art treasures, and things of 
that sort. 

"Will the time ever come when we may measure 
the success of a well-lived life by the number of 
well-bred, useful children a man or a woman leave 
behind, instead of by the number of dollars and vain 

What do we live for. anyway? What is the mean- 
ing and glory of parenthood, of the home? 

The main purpose of human life, and the great- 
est glory of parenthood, is the rearing of children 
who can carry on the work of the race. It is for 
them we live and strive. We must give them our 
best, so that they may not only perpetuate our own 
efforts when we are gone, but may do better than 
we were able to cio. We must strive, through our 
childien. for the perfection of the race. 

Thus, from the point of view, not of 'society,' 
but of human society, the most successful man or 
woman is the one who gives to the race the great- 
est number of children of both sexes who can carry 
on the banner of humanity — that banner with the 
strange device, 'E.xcelsior,' to ever loftier heights." 

The Eminent Child Expert. 

M. F. AVILLLVMS" ANSWER.— A man's or 
•woman's standard or success in life is not 
always measured by what they actually do. 
Many a man, and many a woman have been 
started in life upon the wrong path. Some 
have liecn started downward, and made a 
■wretched failure, some have been started up- 
ward, and reached the goal, that of success. 
What is success! According to a man or 
woman's career in life, even if It's measured 
by dollars and cents, and they haven't reached 
that sioal, then they have failed. 

If it's measured by eloijuence, and they 
were not fitted for that career, then they 

haven't always failed. A man or a woman's 
career in this life sometimes fails, because 
they haven't found that for which they are 
best fitted. In ray early life the greatest de- 
sideratum, the greatest question which was 
always uppermost before me, was simply this: 
what was I intended for? — that was my great- 
est query. I frequently would talk with my 
mother in my young manhood days, and ask 
her what she thought I was fitted for. Of 
course she did not know. I simply had to 
make up my own mind as to what I would 
like to do, and that was -another stumbling 
block. Two of my uncles being millwrights, 
after failing at farming I decided to become a 
millwright, and after becoming one, that 
taught me many lessons aiid from that expe- 
rience I found a bettei- way to reaoli the goal 
of success as far as I was conccnuxl. 

Jly father, although a very good man, a 
well-meaning man, did not map out a line 
for me ; I had to choose for myself. I was not 
old enough in experience to be guided by the 
Good Book, where It states' that there shall be 
hewers of wood and drawers of water, the 
meaning of which being that there are many 
vocations in life from which to choose, and 
we never know until we try it ; but if we 
would only study in our younger days and 
have faith in the old saying, that "if you 
don't at first succeed, try, try again," more of 
us would be successful. 

ilaiiy a good man lacks the opportunity. 
Fortune knocks at evei'y man's door through 
the cou7'se of life, but he lacks decision at the 
opportune nuinu='nt. 

The greatest achievement of woman is and 
should be, motherhood. While there are so 
many opportunities for women today in the 
business world, and in public life, the greatest 
of all is 7uotherhood, and the raising of a 
large family, and branching them off each hx 
their proper course to multiply and replenish 
the earth, with well-meaning and well-behaved 

What are we all living for? — to fill our re- 
spective spheres, and all can make their mark 
in the world by reaching their respective 


goals, and shine like the stars in heaven — 
although they may not be captains of indus- 
try, as we cannot all be such captains; as 
there would not be places enough left to go 
around, and many of us could not fill the bill 
if there were, hence the definition is : Reach 
your sphere and aim at the highest, no matter 
upon what stratum of human society it may 


The key of our lives that opens all locks, 
passes all wards, is not "I will," but "I 
must " I nuist. I must, and I do it. 

An idle brain is the devil's workshop. 

Let me but do my work from day to day. 
In field or forest, at the desk or loom, 
In roaring market-place or tran(|uil room; 
Let me but find it in my heart to say, 
When vagrant wishes beckon me astray, 
' ' This is my work ; my blessing-, not my doom ; 
Of all who live, I am the one by whom 
This work can best be done, in the right way : ' ' 
Then shall I see it not too great, nor small, 
To suit my spirit and to prove my powers; 
Then shall I cheerful greet the laboring hours. 
And cheerful turn, when the long shadows fall 
At eventide, to play and love and rest. 
Because I know for me my work is best. 

(Henry van Dyke.) 

"Who is a philosopher? A man whom God 
has endowed with philosophy." (Milton.) 

"The best laid schemes o' mice and men 

Gang aft agley. 
And lea 's naught but grief and pain 

For promised joy." 

"A wad some power the giftie gie us 

To see oursel's as others see us, 

It wad frae monie a blunder free us 

An' foolish notion." 

(Bobbie Burns.", 

Judge not according to the appearance — but 
in these days and according to business par- 
lance, generally all men are judged according 
to their appearance. But foppery doesn't 
count — only genuineness found out does count. 

"Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he 
also reap." Those who live in glass houses 
must not throw stones. 

"I have fought a good fight. I have fin- 
ished my course. I have kept the faith." 

"He who is without sin, let him cast the 
first stone,'' and the Irishman's answer, "Divil 
a stone was there trowed." 

"Lay on, lay on, McDuff, and damned be he 
who dares to cry 'Enough.' " 

"But sci'cw your courage to the sticking 
place and stick." 

"Can such things be and overcome us like a 
summer's cloud without our special wonder?" 

"The better part of valor is discretion." 

"Judge not, that ye be not judged." 
Hold thy tongue, for it may be foul. 




By Bert Edward Barnes 

MANHOOD ivhieh stands for strength in pur- 
pose and virility in action. 

OPTIMISM, that which gives courage, sweet- 
ens toil and lightens the burdens. 

RESOURCEFULNESS which eontiuers obsta- 
cles and attracts other men to you. 

ENERGY, the power of success which pro- 
dvices the miracles of enthusiasm. 

ENTHUSIASM, the salt of life, that renews 
and enriches everything it touches. 

FRIENDSHIP, a beautiful and noble thing, 
which animates vii-tue and good resolu- 

FIDELITY, which puts more than an expecta- 
tion of pay into one's woi-k. 

INTEGRITY, an indispensable virtue, the cor- 
nerstone of most successes. 

CHARACTER, one of life's most precious 
things, cherished by all. 

INITIATIVE, the essence of character and the 
liasis of most big achievements. 

ENDURANCE, a better test of character than 
any one act of hoT'oism, however noble. 

NOBILITY, that which carries sunshine and 
good cheer to the poor and suffering. 

CHEERFULNESS, a public duty, irrelevant to 
any religious creed or doctrine. 

YOUTHFULNESS of spirit which has its fruit- 
age in the preservation of health. 


There are certain statements that are axio- 
matic or self-evident, needing no proof of 
their correctness. Amongst these are the fol- 
lowing : 

"History repeats itself." 

And also, "There is nothing new under the 
sun. ' ' 

So often in these latter days we read of 
men whose actions appear to be different from 
any heretofore and whose opinions are said 
to be new and progressive and in the advance 
of new thought, and then we are surprised 
when the opinions of people in the years gone 
by are found to be duplicates of the present- 
day expi'cssions. 

In this connection, who would expect that 
the statements and claims of the I. W. "W., 
who are supposed to be the latest exponents 
of personal liberty — which they mean of them- 
selves only, and not of other people — should 
be so well expressed as bj' the following lex- 
ti'act from a speech by Daniel Webster in the 
Senate in 1833, 87 years ago? The same peo- 
ple were common in his day, and he describes 
them as follows: 

"There are persons who eonstantl.v clamor. 
They complain of oppression, speculation and 
pernicious influence of accumulated wealth. 
They cry out loudl.v against all banks and 
corporations and all means by which small 
capitalists become united in order to produce 
important and beneficial results. They carry 
on mad hostility against all establish-ed insti- 
tutions. They would choke the fountain of 
industry and dry all streams. In a country of 
unbounded liberty, they clamor against op- 
pression. In a country of perfect equality, 
they would move heaven and earth against 
privilege and monopol.y. In a country Avhere 
property is ' more evenly divided than any- 
whei'C else, they rend the air shouting agra- 
rian doctrines. In a country where wages of 
labor are high beyond parallel, they would 
teach the laborer that he is but an oppressed 



I am more powerful than the combined 
armies of the world. 

I have destroyed more men than all the wars 
ef the nations. 

I am more deadly than bullets, and I have 
wrecked more homes than the mi^ditiest of 
siege guns. 

I steal in the United States alone over .'f::300,- 
000,000 each year. 

I spare no one, and I tind my victims among 
the rich and poor alike, the young and old, 
the strong and weak. Widows and orphans 
know me. 

I loom up to such proportions that I cast 
my shadow over every field of labor, from the 
turning of the grindstone to , the moving of 
every railroad train. 

I massacre thousand.s aipon thousands of 
wage-earners in a year. 

I lurk in unseen places, and do most ^of my 
M'ork silently. You are warned against me, 
but you heed not. 

I am relentless. 

I am everywhere — in the home, on the 
streets, in the factory, at railroad crossings, 
and on the sea. 

I bring sickness, degradation and death, and 
yet few seek to avoid me. 

I destroy, crush or maim ; I give nothing, 
but take all. 

I am your worst enemy. 



Gold is the basis of our money or the terms 
in which we state prices and measure Mealth. 
■ Gold is the only commodity the price of 
which is fixed by statute. 

The price of all other commodities rises and 
falls with demand and supply. 

The price of gold was fixed by international 
agreement in 1792 at $20.67 an ounce, and this 
price was legalized in 1843. 

The process of fixing this pi'ice was by an 
estimate of the time reciuired by man to pro- 
duce an ounce of gold at placer mining and 
based on the, then market rate and wage. 

For those who do not understand the term 
placer mining is meant dry mining on the sur- 

And all the while the price of gold has re- 
mained the same on a man-power basis before 
the age of steam, when man, by the force within 
himself, was the onl.y means of isroducing gold. 


"Lives of great men oft remind us 
We can make our lives sublime. 

And departing leave behind us 
Footprints on the sands of time. 

Footprints, that perhaps another 
Wanderer o'er Life's stormy main. 

Some forlorn and shipwrecked Brother, 
Seeing, may take heart again." 

— Longfellow. 

Commenting on the above, I would say that : 
The Sand shows grit, 

The Sundial indicates time. 

The Footprints .show that someone came along- 
past time, 

Going about his business — 

And .you begone about yours. 

The lesson to be learned from this, when 
properly studied, should indicate and point out 
that a wayfaring man of grief in passing 
through Life's journey while being active upon 
earth — that the footprints which he leaves 
upon the sands of time should produce fruit 
which will help to preserve him or her in the 
mature days when not able to procure daily 
bread of their own earning, in their aged con-' 
dition. — Milton. 



To the preacher, life's a sermon, 

To the joker, it's a jest; 
To the miser, life is money, 

To the loafer, life is rest. 

To the lawyer, life's a trial, 
To the poet, life's a song; 

To the doctor, life's a patient, 

^Vho needs treatment right along. 

To the soldier, life's a battle. 

To the teacher, life's a school; 
Life's a good thing to the grafter, 

It 's a failure to the fool. 

To the man iiijon the engine 
Life's a long and heavy grade; 

It's a gamble to the gambler. 
To the merchant, life's a trade. 

Life is but a long vacation 

To the man who loves his work ; 

Life's an cvei-lasting effort 
To shiui duty, to the shirk. 

Life is what we tt 
Brother, what is 1 

to make it — 
.' to you .' 

— E. S. Kiser. 


Produce 1 Produce! said the ijreat ('arlyle, 
and that should be the ci'y today. 

Count your lilcssin^s as nothing — unless 
you're willing to woi'k liai-d. 

The cities, however, advei-tisr their wicked- 
ness more vigorously tlian the country and so 
we get a wrong idea. 

Waste is the woi-st sin — next to that is talk- 
ing too much during woi'king hours. 

How many old married couples hate each 
other and remain together because separation 
wouldn't look well? 

Ever notice how a dog acts in presence of 
food? He takes a whitif and rejects instantly 
whatever is not good for him. Don't you Avish 
you had that much sense about your eating? 

If you want anything badly enough you can 
usually get it. 

A confirmed crook is a man who cheats when 
he's playino- solitaire. 

All the wealth 
someliodv's saviuii' 

The deeper we can implant thi 
the more secure ^vill be oui' Ai 
tut ions. 

savings idea 
n'icau insti- 

Red flags are nev( 

found in the hands of 

The dictionary contains over 400,000 words, 
Init the most interesting writers find they need 
only about 5,000 of them. 


The fii'st discovery of iron oi-e in the Lake 
Superior region of the United .States was made 
by William Burt, Federal Deputy Surveyor, in 
1844, Burt was the first to reveal the wealth 
of ore that has made the Lake Superior fields 
among the richest in the world. But iron was 
first foimd in this country by an expedition 
headed by Sir Walter Raleigh, which, in 1585, 
brought liack to England glowing accounts of 
ore in North Carolina. The history of iron in 
this country begins from that date. 

Shortly after the foinuling of the Jamestown 
colon}' in 1607, seven tons of Virginia ore were 
shipped to England, '" ■ ' • 


111 1620 the fii-st iron furnace was begun ai 
a convenient waterfall 65 miles up the James 
river from Jamestown, but delay, financial 
difficulties and the Indian massacre of 1622 
caused it to be abandoned. 

The first iron actually smelted in America 
was in Massachusetts in 1645, and that state 
was the chief iron maker among the colonies 
for the following three-quarters of a century. 

In 1658 iron works were founded in New 
Haven and, shortly after, in Rhode Island. 

About 1750 a new iron field was opened in 
the western part of Massachusetts. Iron works 
were not developed in NeM" York until 1740, 
in the region east of the Hudson. 

Foundries in northern Xcav Jersey made 
munition for Revolutionary cannon. Jersey 
ore fields had been discovered a little pi'evious 
to 1710. 

Pennsylvania, now admittedly the leader of 
the world in the making of iron and steel, was 
prominent in colonial days. 

Among the first plants was the foi'ge at 
Valley Creek which became famous as the 
Valley Forge of our Revolutionary history. 

When George Washington became president 
of the country, iron was being made in prac- 
tically- every state. 

Almost e-\eryone likes to sleep under 
now and then. 


The big problem before all big business is 
to educate the public to understand that large 
earnings are not in the size of the individual 
profits of each sale, but, rather, in the number 
of profits on many sales. 

That it is not, for instance, the amount of 
the profit per pound of meat the packers sell, 
but, rather, the aggregate of the fractional 
profit on the number of pounds. 

It is what the average merchant calls "turn 

It is a gigantic task to get the public to 
understand this, particularly when it is con- 
sidered that even the average merchant does 
not understand this principle. 

But an unprejudiced understanding can, and 
must be, accomplished. It will require time, 
persistency and primer-like illustration. 

Here is one illustration: 

The most profitable item in a 5 and 10-cent 
store is the one on which there is the smallest 
percentage of profit. 

This is candy. 

They only make 4% net, but they sell— 
turn over — their stock complete every week, 52 
times a j-ear. 

Now, 52 times 4% is 208% on the invest- 
ment ; yet the customers of these establish- 
ments purchase their candy with a profit of 
4 cents on the dollar to the dealer, 2 cents on 
50 cents, or less than one-half cent on 10 cents. 

It is all in the number of profits — not in the 
size of the individual profit. 

Another illustration : 

Some years ago the late Cora Dow, Cincin- 
nati, owner of a group of cut-rate drug stores, 
was sued by her retail competitors (or a group 
of manufacturers) for selling certain items 
below a fixed price. 

She testified at the trial that there was more 
money in selling Hood's Sarsaparilla at 75 
cents than at a dollar a bottle. 

The judge, jury, the lawyer — no one in the 
court room knew what she meant. 

On further direct examination she explained 
that Hood's Sarsaparilla cost her 50 cents a 
bottle wholesale. 

That in one of her stores she sold 20 bottles 
to five bottles by her competitors. 


That they made only $2.50 on five bottles 
in approximately the same length of time that 
she made $5.00 on 20 bottles— twice as much 
as her competitors ' profit and all the while the 
public was obtaining its supply 25 cents 
cheaper per bottle. 

An understanding by the public of this 
principle of turn over is the large question 
before big business and all business today. 


What can be expected of a Democracy which 
expends in a year twice as much for chewing 
gum as for school books, more for automobiles 
than for primary or secondary education, and 
in which the average teacher's salary is less 
than that of the average day laborer? — Frank- 
lin K. Lane, Secretary of the Interior. 

The other day Uncle Sam paid a bill that 
was 53 year.s overdue. 

A check for the amount — $15 — was sent to 
Fenwick McCloud of Clearfield, Pa., a son of 
the man to whom it should have been paid. 

McCloud 's father was a chajilain in the U. S. 
Army during the Civil War. He set in motion 
the red-tape-bound governmental machinery 
for the collection of the $15 which he claimed 
was due him from the goveiMimcnt. He never 
got it, for he died six years later. 

Anyone who has had any experience with 
officials and Inireaus in army circles knows 
that communications and claims and reijuests 
must go far before they are acted upon. 

They must make the rounds, receiving 
stamps and recommendations and 0. Ks., and 
gather voluminous appended coi'respondence 
before they finally end their wanderings. 

The heirs of Chaplain McCloud decided to 
carry on. At last, after 53 years, the bill M^as 

paid, after the claim had passed through the 
hands of officials in eleven and three-quartei 

And $15 today will buy about half as much 
as it would 53 years ago I 

Speaking of women having more sense than 
men, did you ever notice that when a baby 
gets big enough to walk father wants to give 
away the baby carriage but mother puts it up 
in the garret? 


Confidence is the companion of success. 

Money is a univei'sal language, speaking any 

Fuel is not sold in a forest nor fish on a lake. 

If money is not thy servant it will be thy 

A nimble sixpence is better than a slow shil- 

The courteous learns his courtesy from the 

Small profits and often ai'e lietter than large 
profits and seldom. 

Experience is the greatest test of truth and 
is pei'petually contradicting the theories of 

To do a good trade, want nothing Init reso- 
lution ; to do a large one. nothing but appli- 

A good customer won't change his shop nor 
a good shop lose its customer once in three 

The best advertising is courteous treatment 
of customers. 

The successful man is usually an average 
man who either had a chance or took a chance. 


A business, like the plants in the field, begins 
to go to seed as soon as it stops growing. 

Men who can't work without talking usually 
drift into the barbering profession. 

Every man wishes to make money. 

Here is the surest and safest way: Make 
yourself useful ! 

Don't gamble, don't speculate, don't try to 
get something for nothing. 

Give useful, conscientious service. Do each 
job that comes your way the best you can. 

Make yourself so useful that your employer 
cannot do M-ithout you. 

That's about all there is to it. 

We can't expect lower prices until we get 
volume production, and we can't get produc- 
tion unless we are all willing to work hard. 


John Ruskin's essays on art made him one 
of the greatest figures in modern English liter- 

It is not generally known, however, that 
Ruskin- spenti a .million ;<dollars in charities and 
social reform, and would have been a pauper 
many years before his death had it not been 
for the royalties on his books. 

Ruskin's father was a successful wine mer- 
chant of London. At his death in 1864 he left 
his son the family home, some London prop- 
erty and nearly 200,000 pounds. 

Ruskin was then 45 years of age. In seven 
years he had exhausted half his inheritance, 
and the remaining half rapidly dwindled away 
to nothing. 

Like many men of genius, Ruskin was vision- 
ary and impractical. Himself surrounded by 

every luxury, he felt keenly the misfortune of 
the poor and set about devoting his fortune to 
bettering their condition. 

He established model lodgings in Marley- 
bone for poor tenants and attempted to re- 
claim part of the slum district of London. 
Later he sold these tenements, the venture 
having proved unsuccessful. 

For the relief of the unemployed he orga- 
nized gangs of street cleaners, but also aban- 
doned this project. 

He founded the Guild of St. George and 
contributed $35,000 towards its maintenance. 
This guild was to be a model industrial and 
social organization which would own lands, 
mills and factories, all occupied along social- 
istic lines. Here is one of its basic principles 
as outlined by Ruskin: "Food can only be 
got out of the ground and happiness out of 

In spite of its good points, the guild failed, 
like most Utopian scliemcs and communistic 

Ruskin founded a museum for the study of 
art and science at Sheffield, which he endowed 
with money and works of art. This was the 
only one of 'his experiments which proved 
practicable. It survives today. 

He started a model shop for the sale of pure 
tea, to prove that retail trade might be hon- 
estly pursued. An old servant was put in 
charge and the shop did such good business 
that coffee and sugar were also added to its 

Ruskin supported hundreds of pensioners 
and small charities. He gave one friend 
$25,000 with which to start in business. He 
educated promising artists, and presented 
paintings and art collections to colleges. 

At the age of 57 he decided that the practice 
of taking interest for the use of capital was 
wrong and refused to accept it in return for 
loans. He lived on his capital, giving freely 
to innumerable friends, dependents and 
schemes for social reform. 


Disliking the methods of publishers and 
booksellers, he turned publisher himself. He 
did away with the middleman and advertising, 
selling his books only at the shop where they 
were printed. His works were so popular that 
people bought them in spite of their high pi'iee 
and the inconvenient way in which they were 

Later he was made to see the value of busi- 
ness methods, and that by demanding such a 
high price he was excluding the very readers 
he desired so to reach. He then put them out 
in cheaper form, and distributed them thru 
the booksellers, which greatly increased their 

From the age of 68 to his death in his eighti- 
eth year, his only income was from the sale of 
his works. This, fortunately, amounted to 
$20,000 a yeaj', and more than provided for his 


It is perfectly easy to stand still. The 
world is full of the immobile sort of people 
Avhose feet are so firmly planted just where 
they happened to land tliat the moss is grow- 
ing over their shoes. Tliis sliows that it must 
be a very simple thing to do. 

You can stand still by doing just exactly 
what you are paid to do and carefully avoiding 
any little oxti'a jol) whieli does not figure in 
your time-sheet. 

You can stand still by making everj-thing 
you do for the lioss spin out as long as possible, 
keeping one eye on the clock and the other 
upon your task so that you may easily cheek 
any tendency toward undue haste. 

You can stand still by making it apparent 
that you believe thei'C is no relation whatever 
between the firm's interests and j'our own in- 
terests; that the troubles of the boss are noth- 
ing in your young life. 

You can stand still by paying no attention 
whatever to the other fellow's job, thus avoid- 

ing the possibility of learning something out- 
side your own little sphere of action. 

But why stand still ? 

Why not cheerfully turn your hand to any- 
thing that comes along without worrying about 
whether it is exactly what you are paid to do ; 
why not admit that the firm's interests are 
your interests, and act like it; why not learn 
what you can by watching the other fellow 
and be ready to take his place should an emer- 
gency arise ; why not speed up your job — and 
get somewhere? 

In these days the average business man is 
tempted to cut the <|uality of his product 
rather than to increase his price. 


Sometimes a business gets so big that the 
man at the top appears to be doing nothing 
except to di-aw a stiff salaiy for looking wise. 
As a matter of fact he would gladly trade his 
job for your job. lie now has to depend on 
others to do things he once did himself. This 
is not easy. 

Years ago this man prol)ably did the most 
oi-dinary tasks. He did tliem so Aveil that lie 
was given moi-e work than he eciulil handle 
alone, so he hired others to iielp liiiiu He 
trained them to do things his A\ay. 

His emidoyees today may numhcr thousands, 
but the idea back of the whole business is hon- 
est, useful service, and the inspiration for his 
service comes from the man on top. 

That, brieHy. is the story of every successful 
man — Cyi'us ("urtis, the publisher; Charles 
Schwab, the steel man ; Woolworth, the 5 and 
lO-cent store man ; Heinz, 'the pickle man ; 
Proctor, the soap man. 

Each started by doing a useful job well and 
those that are living are still at it. 


If you're happy, you have achieved success, 
if that was your only aim. 

Speaking of treasures on earth — squirrels 
lay in about 20% more nuts than they actu- 
ally use. 

This is a contingency against the long and 
particularly cold winter that invariably comes, 
but with unknown frequency. 

It is a good deal like the insurance com- 
panies allowing 20% in their actuary tables of 
mortality, this being a factor of safety to pro- 
vide for epidemics that conic about every so 

The uiuised pai-t of a s<iuirrers hoard gocG 
to waste, but in the case of the insurance com- 
panies it is the law in numy states that the 
unused portion of this 20% contingency fund 
be returned to the policy holders — that is, if 
enough time elapses between epidemics as not 
to have it drawn upon. 


A rich man's son may be given a job in his 
father's establishment, but unless he really 
knuckles down to work he will never develop 
initiative, executive ability or power of de- 

There have been thousaiuls of English states- 
men but none accomplished more for the Bri- 
tish Empire than Disraeli, Queen Victoria's 
prime minister. He was a Jew, and to attain 
that office Disraeli was obliged to combat dis- 
trust, ridicule, envy and prejudice. 

Overcoming these handicaps gave him 
strength. He was one of the outstanding char- 
acters in English history. 

Invent something useful. Something the 
masses want and need. Though you hie your- 
self to a cabin in the woods, the world will 
make a beaten path to your door. 

W. W. Maxwell, an associate of Thomas A. 
Edison, advises all young men to start their 
business career by house to house soliciting, 
meeting rebuffs and sharpening their wits. 

The trying, disagreeable things which con- 
front us every day are the sandpaper and 
emery wheels of life. They wear the rough- 
ness off of our inexperience, sharpen our men- 
tal powers, prepare us to cope with harder 
problems, and enable us to handle bigger re- 

If instead of seeking to avoid difficulties we 
meet them boldly, Ave would soon find our- 
selves growing in a way that would greatly 
increase our earning power. 

An honest business attracts honest cus- 

A good customer is the business man's 
silent partner in building business larger. 

Profits begin with buying, profits are taken 
when the goods are sold. Profits are realized 
when the money is rung up in the cash drawer. 

If you sell with all the energy there is and 
leave .$1.00 in every $10.00 to blow away as a 
bad debt — there's your profit gone and your 
business wiped out. 

Business is done for cash or credit. The 
other thing is charity. 

The man who has something saved is the 
only good customer when times are dull. 

Profits that get as far as the cash drawer 
ai-c for the merchant who cultivates the cus- 
tomer who cultivates the habit of .saving. 

Permanent business, expanding business, is 
the object of the business man. 

Wise spending creates today's gains. Wise 
saving promotes permanent business — expand- 
ing business. And this is Avhat we are all 


Economies is the study of men's efforts to 
get a living. 

Quietness denotes efficiency. Noise is fric- 
tion and friction is wasteful. 

Stupidity is the banc of efficiency. 

What a howl youVl hear if the uiau wlio is 
always talking- about "the good old days" 
were magically whisked back 50 years! 

Growth is the natural lavr of life. 

The best things arc sti 
onlv knew it. 

?. if we moderns 


Comparatively few inventors rise to great 
fortune, for the reason that they ai'e merely 
inventors and haven't the ability to market 
their inventions. They are cue, two or three 
aee men. 

Nov.- an.d then, however, we liave both in- 
ventive genius and business genius in the same 
individual. Like the fcur-ac? liand of cards, 
this is a rare and profitable eoiubiiialion. 

Tliree outstanding examples of tliis d()ul>li' 
genius are (icoi'ge SU'p!un!-(in, William Sie- 
nu'us and Thomas Edison. 

Sti-iilieiison was the inv<';it(ir of the locomo- 
tive, lie not only l>uilt the Hrst sueccsful 
loeomolivc. but wa ; the father of the railway 
system of England. 

The Stockton and Darlingto:i Railway, 
-which he built and opened in 1825, was the 
first regularly operated steam line in the world 
for freight and pas.-^engcrs. 

He advanced from one success to another. 
serving as consulting engineer of practically 
every new railroad projected, and entered into 
business on his own account on a large scale. 

William Siemens and his brother, Werner, 
perfected a series of important inventions, each 

one of which they marketed Avith great profit 
to themselves. 

An electroplating process, a differential 
governor for steam engines and the regener- 
ation gas furnace for iron and steel working 
were among the devices developed. 

The brothers built up an international busi- 
ness devoted to the manufacture of electrical 
devices. The British factory in Kent occupied 
six acres and employed over 2,000 hands. 

The career of Thomas Edi'on is familial- to 
most of us, his contributions to science and 
cvv :y(la\- life mounting into hundreds. 

Numerous companies bear the name of Edi- 
son, and his associates say that his personality 
is expressed in all his business enterprises. He 
outlines their policies and picks his partners 
and executives. IL' is probably a multi-mil- 

Charles Tellier, the inventor of c^ild stoi-age, 
died of starvaticn. 

Rui!oIi)h Die I'l, iiivriitor of the Diesel en- 
gine, (lied bankrupt, under conditions that 
strongly suggested suicide. 

Daiiiel Di-avbaugh perfected scores of use- 
ful <ievices. Among them was a telephone, . 
patent p;!pei's foi- v.-hich he filed the same day 
Alexander Giaham EcU tiled his, and which 
l( st out in the ensuing case liefore the Su|ii-eiiie, 
<'ourt. Drawbaugh died poor at 84. 

Why do not mci'e in\'entors supplement 
their lack of ability and experience as business 
men by fcrming partnerships with men who 
po se s these qualities? 

This was done in the famous cond)ination of 
Matthew Boulton and James Watt. Watt, 
inventor of the first efficient steam engine, 
was a failure financially, iintil he met Boulton, 
who had capital, energy and business instinct. 
Combination of the two into the firm of Boul- 
ton and Watt resulted in one of the most suc- 
cessful and profitable entei-prises of their time. 


We frequently hear the question asked, 
"Has an advertisement in the Saturday Even- 
ing Post as good a chance of being read today 
as it had five years ago?" 

Of course it has, as there are many more 
people to read it. 

Afore people are reading advertisements to- 
day 1han ever before. 

M. F. Williams remarks: 

We frequently hear the following: "If I 
had only have been a young man when the era 
of big business began in this country I could 
have accomplished something. He says to 
himself, "All good things are gone now. Busi- 
ness has perfected itself. What chance has a 
man today without capital?" 

All this is nonsense. The opportunities of 
today exceed those of any period in our conii- 
tr\''s history. Probably more fortunes were 
made in the pait five years than the ;orevious 
tMcnty. It is possible that more will be made 
in the next twenty-five than in th« pre\'ious 

Some have thought that the building of 
movie picture houses had been overdone, and 
the business due for a collapse, and the n'ovie 
business has tripled and, in fact, just st;.)i-ted. 
Thev are a great source of learning. 

The United States is the most fertile field in 
the world for advertising. A dollar spen: in 
advertising in the good old U. S. A. will be 
more fruitful than several times that amount 
spent in Europe. 

Whether our own nation can stand prosperity 
will depend upon the discipline wc administer 
to ourselves. If we enter upon a riot of waste- 
ful consumption, another nation adopting the 
work-bench philosophy will own ns in a few 

The work-bench philosopher does not ap- 
prove of a man owning a dozen automobiles, 
four or five private residences, and maintaining 
a large retinue of servants. 

The work-bench philosophers say that of all 
the members of a community those who retire 
early in life are the very men who should con- 
tinue at work for the longest periods. The 
fact that a man can accumulate a fortune suf- 
ficient to keep him in idleness, after the age of 
fifty or even sooner, is evidence that he is 
highly productive. His particular talent is 

He is, let us say, the type of man who can 
promote, organize and operate a large factory. 
When such a man quits work twenty j'ears 
ahead of time the community loses not only 
his labor, but suffers in the reduced efficiency 
of perhaps a thousand others, who might be 
dependent on this one man for directing genius. 

A nation of work-bench philosophers is never 
a decadent nation ; its civilization is never 

A work-bench philosopher is always a desir- 
able citizen — a useful member of society. The 
foundation of Anaerica \s prosperity was laid by 
men and M'omen who took this view of life. 

Failure is harder than success. Who works 
the harder, the man who saunters down to the 
train ahead of time or the one who misses it 
Ijv fifteen secoiuls after runninsi' three blocks'; 

Kindness and courtesy would be seen oftener 
if some people didn't mistake the former for 
weakness and the latter for cowardice. 


A grand jury in Cleveland, Ohio, conducted 
m investigation into the high cost of living, 
uid at the conclusion of three weeks of testi- 


mouy from over a hundred witnesses the mem- 
bers said they were of the opinion that igno- 
rance was the prime cause of most economic 


It costs a lot of money to die comfortably, 
unless one goes oft" suddenly. 

The greatest of these is not charity but 
printers" ink, properly distrilnited. 

"In passing along Broadway I notice your 
many buildings. I remember thirty or thirty- 
five years ago (however, to be correct, it was 
in 1886) when you sold me my first clay pul- 
verizer. How you have grown since that time. ' ' 
He stated all due to advertising, which is cor- 
rect. Judicious advertising, backed up with 

Thomas X. Carver, the Harvard economist, 

Cut No. 265 

"All good things gone!'" The idea that all 
good things are gone is fallacy. Greater are 
the chances each day. Capital is always look- 
ing for good investment. 


the proper distribution of printers' 

The other night I met an old acquaintance 
at the Mining Congress in our Old Southern 
Hotel (long since abandoned), and he remarked 
to me, "Williams, how you have grown." (So 
much for advertising.) 

divides all people into two classes, according 
to the view they take of life : 

One class, he states, includes those who l)e- 
lieve that the sole object of production is con- 
sumption ; that our purpose here on earth is to 
cat, drink and be merry. 

While the other class comprises those whose 
M'orking philosophy of life is exactly opposite 
to this theory; their creed is Carlyle's — "Pro- 
duce! Produce!" They believe that we a?'e 
here on earth to produce and keep on produc- 
ing. This class he calls the "work-bench phi- 



Christopher Latham Sholes. the Father of the 
Typewriter, boru Februarj- 14th, 1819 ; died 
February 17th, 1890. 

The first practical typewriter made its ap- 
pearance at St. Lonis, Mo.. U. S. A., called a 
printing machine, and was exhibited in the 
office of Walbridge, Allen and Weller, steno- 
graphic I'eporters. It was a machine for print- 
ing which they used in transcribing their notes. 
It was the invention of Hon C. L. Sholes of 
Milwaukee, a practical printer and prominent 
citizen. It was capable of printing 50 words 
per minute, the impressions being all in capital 
letters. Its principal advantages Avere in pro- 
ducing legible copies, and has been a joy to all 
business houses of any repute, and has almost 
entirely superseded the tT'anscription of docu- 
ments by hand. This incident occurred January 
15, 1868. 

The old long-hand amanuensis must tcday 
step aside for the typewriter. 


The Williams Patent Crusher & Pulverizer 
Comijany of St. Louis, Mo., U. S. A., have no 
less than one dozen typewriters, a duplicator 
of the latest form and an addressograph for a 
mailing list of 200.000 names. 

All the wealth of this world is the result 
of toil and self-denial. 

If all the capital of the United States was 
distributed among the workers it would only 
equal two or three days' wages. 

Any person having a hundred dollars depos- 
ited in a savings bank is a capitalist, just the 
same as a millionaire — he differs onl.y in degree. 

Just charge it to the sand bank and the rain 
will settle it. 

When the boss places an 0. K. on your work 
it doesn't always mean he is entirely satisfied. 
He maj' be in a hurry to get out to the golf 
links. (M. F. Williams never played golf in 
his life.) 


Now, the very fact that a man possesses the 
ability to accumulate a surplus by the time he 
is 60, sufficient to keep him in idleness for the 
rest of his life, is positive proof that is exactly 
the type of man whom the community ought to 
keep at work. 

When a man who is ripe in experience and 
constructive ability quits work at 60 it is very 
nice for some young man who has been waiting 
for a chance to try himself out in the old man's 
job, Init that is a poor way for the community 
to find .jobs for its .young men. 

It is to the advantage of the nation to keep 
its industrial builders in harness just as long 
as it can. 

Had Edison retii'cd at 50 and enjoyed 
"graceful leisure" during the last twenty 
years, the cost to the nation would have been 
incalculable. What is true of Edison is also 
true in a greater or less degree of at least a 
score of other Americans of the last generation. 

Idleness is always waste. 

The ambition to live in idleness should always 
be discouraged, just as we discourage any other 
form of waste. 

Follow the good roads — they lead to good 

No one except a fool claims full credit for 
his own success. And, by the same token, no 
one but a fool would hold any one individual 
entirely responsible for a failure. 

The fact that we are all interdependent does 
not alter the truth of Emerson's observation, 
t'lial an institution is but the lengthened shadow 
of a man. 


What you will lie tomorrow depends upon 
wluit you save today. BUY WAR SAVING 

Do yon I'ememlier the good old days when 
two eculd live cheaper than one? 

Those in the class who remember when tlie 
dealer threw in a pair of suspenders with a 
hand-me-down suit will please raise their 

Wases a I 

not a factor in the cost of 

What profiteth it a man if he earns $10 a 
day and is then forced to spend his entire pay 
in bnyinp,- the necessities of life? That is the 
situation into wliieh wc are drifting. 

We are dissatisfied with ourselves when 
meeting a man with less sense than we have 
and who earns more than we do — until we meet 
another man with more sense who earns less. 

After a hair cut some men look likc> the little 
boys who wash their faces and forget their 

A beautiful day is the smile of the 

In one way or another, every active persoii 
works for somebody else — we ai-e all bound up 
in the same bundle of life. 

If we read the signs correctly, the labor 
troubles of this country will be solved in the 
individual workshops, and not by a political 
commission in Washington. 

Wise employers are studying their own par- 
ticular problems and working out their own 
plans without waiting for the politicians and 
walking delegates to tell them what to do. 

We think this is not only the i-ight way but 
the American way for employer and employed 
to get together. Neither employers nor em- 
ployed want a Washington-made labor formula 
handed to them. The problem is too complex 
for any formula to be universally applicable 
uo matter how good it may be. More thinking 
and less feeling by both sides should be in- 
dulged in; this course, in each individual fac- 
tory, mine, department store and office, will 
ultimately result in a mutually satisfactory ar- 
rangement. A patent nostrum injected from 
the outside pleases no one. 

We are convinced that the great mass of 
labor is honestly anxious to do a full day's 
work for a full day's pay. 

We do not tli 
gripped more t 
of this country. 

It el 

nt of tlie 

Democracy has been defined aa a state of 
order and system-effieieney. 

Our own Constitution of the United States 
has been detiiied by many good minds, as a 
masterful doennu'nt for the lU'derly conduct of 
a government. 

Our forefathei's were demoei'atic in the sense 
that they thought with order and system. 

The mass of the people who comprised the 
colonial revolutionists were fitted for self- 
government by the orderly and systematic dis- 
cussion of all their public affairs in town meet- 
ings for many years previous to the American 
Revolution, and in those good old days Bol- 
shevism was not known. 

A modern business is democratic for it in- 
volves order and system. 


Some of the big busines institutions were the 
first to distribute educational literature to their 
employees. There is a real hope for democracy 
in l)ig business, for it is finding that the ex- 
ploiting- of the public and its help, does not pay. 
There is more money in the larger market 
which comes as a result of increased purchasing 
power — the prosperity of both its help and the 

There is no hope for a higher democracy in 
any of the radical movements — that is, for a 
democracy that will make men dear and goods 
cheap; for the socialists seek- self-employment; 
the.y resent the will of the employer which is 
exerted to get things done and not for the 
pleasure of being mean. 

"We will never have a democracy according 
to the ideals of the dreamer until we ai'e all 
able to Avork without the will of the boss — and 
that will never come; for the boss's will is too 
often confused by the slothful as being the will 
of a despot rather than the will for systematic, 
orderly efficient responsil)ility. 


Collectively, men 

re wiser than thev are 

The encouragements to thrift to induce s.ys- 
tematie savings are so great today that any 
man or woman who does not acquire the habit 
of laying aside a little money every week now- 
can only blame themselves in later years if 
misfoi'tune overtakes them. 

Liberty Bonds and War Saving Stamps liter- 
ally shout their message from the housetops: 


Cost is the amount of energy expended to 
produce a thing. 

It takes a wise man to make a thing fool- 

Don't let idle slacker dollars accumulate — - 
turn them into thrift stamps. 

The success of successors to a business is 
often the profit of the mistakes of the prede- 

Success becomes a matter of hindsight rather 
than foresight. 

Very often there seems to be more of a chance 
of success on top of a failure than the initial 

The head of a big business has to sit in .judg- 
ment about as often as the average court. 

Every gain we make is the result of venture. 
We stand upright because our ancestors in the 
animal kingdom ventured to walk on two legs. 

Learning to \\'alk is a venture. 

Learning to talk is a venture. 

Watch a babe as it struggles to acquire the 
sense of equilibrium for walking and to artic- 
ulate the words for talking. 

P>ut age does not quiet all venturesome 
spirits. In the field of business are thousands 
of men who have passed the 60 and 70 milepost. 
and who are still the aggressive and domi- 
nating spirits back of the institutions they have 

In seeking health it is about as easy to eat 
lightly as it is to take nine different kinds of 

Till' commercial mind is the keenest mind, for 
there is a selfish interest incentive. 

Thrift is might, and might must win — Buy 
Thrift Stamps. 

An old saying has it, that since there is some 
good in the worst of us and some bad in the 
best of us, that it little behoves the least of us 
to talk aliout the rest of us. 

There is more lost by bein^ 
there is by taking time. 

in a hurrv than 

The acts of well-intentioned fools are often 
more disastrous than those of designiuR- knaves. 


It doesn't take the relatives as long to re- 
cover from the shock of a sudden death of a 
rich and eccentric uncle as it does from the fact 
that he didn't leave "em anything. 

The national assets of the United States equal 
the combined -wealth of Great Britain, Russia, 
France and Italy. America today has two and 
a quarter times as much wealth as Great 
Britain ; four times as mueli as France and eight 
times as much as Italy. 

Oui- gold reserve of about .-i^:j,000,000,000 is 
more than oi'.c-third cf the world's total. Our 
weahli is more than $2,000 for every man, 
woman and child in the country. This is the 
richest nation in all history. Xi/w think of the 
next Liberty Loan — and be ready. 

The imaginative emotionalism of the Bolshe- 
viki will not take root in this country because 
our people are too well schooled in the prin 
ciples of democracv. 

Speaking of 
you ever see an 

i-hild having a tantru 
I motln:'r dog shake her 

Experience is a large part of tlie going value 
of any business. 

Inaction in lu-ace is as liad as inaction in 
war — (_'ari-y on! 

The business of Swift & Company today is 
not radically different from the business of 
Gus Swift at the time he dressed a lone heifer. 
Instead of one heifer, the company now dresses 
several thousand each day. Instead of one em- 
ployee, the company now has thousands. In- 
stead of a capital of eighteen dollars, the in- 
vestment is millions. 

The figures have changed but the jninciple 
remains the same. 

Our industries must grow witli the country 
or drop out of the race. 

If we want small industries only we will 
have to devise a way to stop the United States 
from growing. 


Some of us never graduate from the Univer- 
sity of Hard Knocks. The person who does 
makes the best business man or woman. 

Education teaches men and women how to 
think, but not how to act. They have got to 
go to the school of experience and practice what 
they have learned in order to get anywhere. 

A stenographic, school turns out a stenog- 
rapher, and she thinks she is finished. When 
she enters a business office, give her the word 
to spell and write abracadabi-ocadudubdan- 
stanshiality. she is stumped. 

Somebody said that the last resort of the 
complex is the simplex. 

There is no formula by which a man can 
insure himself of riches. 

But there is a formula by whicli he can insure 
himself against po^-erty. 


Special privilege may helji to retain a for- 
tune, but some exceptional quality was re<|uired 
to gain the special privileges. 

Special privilege is not the basis of riches 
as the socialists so fondly assert, for most men 
who now own so-called privileges in America 
began life as poor boys with no assets except 
their hands and brains. 


Economy is simply a study of the problems 
of income and expenditure. 

What's become of the old-time sitting room, 
hard-coal base-burner stove that looked like a 

fiT'e engine? 


Eating too much is America's first aid to a 


There are certain nations — Germany, for in- 
stance — in which the lacking element was char- 
acter. A trner saying never was said. 

Coin thi-ift into Thrift Stamps. 


There is such a thing as a man being too busy 
for the amount of lirains he has to guide him. 


The weather is the real and final food con- 

A crop failure so far as to spell a world fam- 
ine is humanly impossible; the wovaX might 
spell more conservation. 

Without regulation cf cur wheat, flour \^"ould 
today be $40 a barrel, instead of at a universnl 
price of practically $12. 


The future belongs to the pi'ogressive, for- 
ward-looking men of all factions, both laborer 
and capitalist, and not the reactionist or incen- 
diary. Business must be clothed with a spirit 
cf accommodation, and any element opposed to 
a meeting of minds hai no place in the present 
future of this country. — (Bulletin cf the Arae;-- 
ican Exchange National Bank, New York.) 


Gladstone once said that the American Con- 
stitution was the most wonderful work evei' 
conceived and struck off by the hand of man. 
Any successful attempt to overthrow that Con- 
stitution would immediatel.v plunge this coun- 
try into a state of chaos — such as Russia is now 
engulfed in. 


' ' Let every American, every lover of liberty, 
every well-wisher of his posterity, swear by the 
blood of the Revolution never to violate in the 
least particular the laws cf the country, and 
never to tolerate their violation by others. Let 
reverence for the laws be breathed by every 
American mother to the lisping babe that prat- 

tles on her lap ; let it bs taught in the schools, 
in seminaries and in colleges; let it be written 
in the primers, in spslling books, and in alma- 
nacs; let it be preached from pulpits, pro- 
claimed in legislative halls and enforced in 
courts of justice. And in short, let it become 
the political religion of the Nation ; and let the 
old and the young, tho rich and the poor, the 
grave and the gay of all cexes and tongues and 
colors and ccnditicns, sacrifice unceasingly 
upon its altars." — (Abraham Lincoln.) 


"This government . . . has a just claim 
to your confidence and your support. Respect 
for its authority, compliance with its laws, ac- 
quierccncc in its measures, are duties enjoined 
by the fundamental maxirrs cf true liberty." — 
(George Washington.) 


Th^s governm_cnt is nothing more than the ex- 
pression of the people, and if we are to win the 
war it will be only because every man, woman 
and child charges himself daily and hourly 
with the test: Does this or that contribute to 
win the war? 


"Let our object be cur country, our whole 
countiy, and nothing but our country; and 
by the blessing of God, may that country itself 
become a vast and splendid monument — not of 
oppression and terror, but of wisdom, of peace, 
and of liberty — upon which the world may gaze 
with admiration," — (Daniel Webster,) 


Capital is the harness of natural resources. 
It raiides and assists the energy of Labor to pro- 
duce useful results. 


William Penn, in founding Pennsylvania, 
made only one crime punishable by death: that 
of willful murder. He also established work- 
houses instead of prisons, for he said that idle- 
ness was the cause of most crimes. 



Dreams of the future are more interestiug 
than the history of the past, Init castles in the 
air are not limited liy time or place. 


Some of the largest businesses today are 
wholly the result of the education of the pros- 
pective buyers. Therefore, business sagacity is 
shown l)y judicious advertising of what one has 
to sell. 


The best patriot these days is tlic man who 
says little and does much. 


Li 1S14 tlie "Star Si)angled Banner" was 
written during the war of 1S12 by Francis 
Sentt Key, an American prisoner who was 
watcliing the bombardment of Foi't McHeiiry 
from one of the l>i-itish boMts. When nmrning 
came Key saw that the Amei-ican flag wa; :;till 
flying ami wa-; inspired to wi'itc the ]iatri;)tic 

Judge Nicholson, of Baltimoi'e, aftei'wards 
discovered that the words fitted "'Anacreon in 
Heaven," an old English song, and the "Star 
Spangled Banner" ])ecame our National An- 


Lieutenant Rnyiinmd Harney, who wa'-; 
amongst the fii-st to go to France as a meudicr 
of the United States Medical Corps, says that a 
humar, bcinsr can stand more abuse than any 
ether animal. 


Read the lives of Washington, Lincoln, Glad- 
stone, Stanley, IlaiTinian, Jlorgan, — and you 
will find a tremendous will power dominating 
their lives. 

Lincoln's will held our states together in the 
rebellion of the '60 's. Lincoln was cramped for 
money to carry on the war, and I claim (M. F. 
Williams) that Lincoln was the greatest char- 
acter God ever made, up to his time. 

Staidey's will ena 

him to penetrate dark 

Washington's will held oui' little 
;-ether in the War of the Revolution, 

armv to- 

Harriman'.s will laid railroad ties through 
virgin fields (and died too early in life). 

Morgan's will (that is. J. P.) created the 
United States Steel Corporation — a very great 
blessing and not a curse to mankind, and the 
great, great steel strike attempted in October, 
191!), is now a thing of the past. INIany thanks 
to tlie g-.'cat American pubUe. 


le s ^^■lll wr 
oks of Kngl 

\\ legislation on 

Some of those old fellows who finally declare 
that life isn't worth living seem to have had a 
good time finding it out. 


:\Ir. p.. n. Arnold of tlie General Electric 
Comiviny says he has been able to eliminate 
"Blue ilonday." 

He has done it by cutting out a heavy Sun- 
day dinner. JM. F. Williams, the author of this 
book, commenced cutting out dinner in his 72nd 
year and believes that by so doing longevity 
will ensue; and I can truthfully say that I feel 
lietter for it. In regard to eating too miicli, the 
second helping r.ever tastes a; good as the 


A fello\\' wlio is the riulit sort i)reaches to 


Don't lilaine a successful man for bragging a 
bit — no one with a good catch of fish goes home 
by the way of the back alley. 



Children in the movies are seen and not 

Fifty years ago the man who had the equiva- 
lent of a modern high school education was 
considered a learned individual. 

The real purpose of education is not to give 
information but to give pc-ople an understand- 
ing that will enable them to use information. 


Don't be afraid of a small beginning. One 
grain of corn, if allowed to reproduce iinhin- 
dered, would in a few years produce about 
three million bushels. 


Our success depends on how well we can ex- 
press ourselves in terms of work. 


As a matter of fact, statistics show that about 
99 per cent of the people are honest. 


John Barleycorn is dead, but he left a whole 
lot of poor relations. 


The psychologists say men do their best 
thinking when they are frightened. So scare 
me again, please. 


We may not be able to break the other fel- 
low's record, but we can at least try to break 
our own record. 


For every dishonest, crooked advertiser, 
there are a thousand honest ones. 

There is no expedient to which a man will 
not resort to avoid the real labor of thinking. — 
(Sir John Reynolds). 


Why is it that a plug-ugly prize fighter is 
known to countless millions, while no one re- 
members the name of the inventor of a useful 
device like the seM'ing machine? 


Some philosopher has said there is little that 
the human mind can conceive that is not pos- 
sible of accomplishment. The thing to do is to 
make up your mind what you are going to 
drive for a goal and let nothing stand in the 
way of its ultimate accomplishment. 


Anyone who tells us what is wrong and fails 
to offer a remedy is our enemy and is dishon- 
est ; but any one who tells us what is -wrong and 
helps us to make it right is our best friend. 


Unusual results are the 

^ults of unusual 

Progress implies 
work against. 

resistance — something to 

The Romans first built good roads, for the 
benefit of all countries — Spain, Germany, Hun- 
gary, Macedonia, Africa, Asia Minor, England, 
Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia, — and built roads 
to the extent of fifty thousand miles, before any 
of us were born and before Columbus discov- 
ered America. Truly "all roads lead to Rome" 
— some of these roads in some places were ten 
feet deep of solid stone — laid by Nature ! 

Before things will follow our waj' we have to 
start things following the other fellow's waJ^ 


Armour & Co., getting to the front, have the 
means of acquiring the best lieutenants for 
management in the United States, but they do 
not get them that way. How do they get them ? 
They select from their own ranks. 



Delivering the goods is more important than 
getting the order. 


Who says "brains are not well paid""? Cyrus 
K. Curtis, who publishes the "Ladies' Home 
Journal,"' pays two of his editors sixty thou- 
sand dollars a year each. 


Nothing will attract a crowd to a booster's 
meeting (juicker than a free lunch. 


It was Benjamin Franklin who discovered 
electricity from lightning. Everj^ age has 
made its particular contributions to progress 
of mankind, and none of the modern day 
achievements would be possible were it not for 
the work of former ages. 

Ivnowledge is cumulative — it compounds it- 
self like interest. Progress is in geometrical 
progression — the great men of each new cen- 
tury are able to draw upon the painstaking la- 

boi' of the men of all precoeding ciiiturics. 

We l)oast of our modern architecture, our 
skyscrapers, our handsome monumental public 
buildings, and yet the Egyptians in 1900 before 
Christ erected a pyramid that Avas 4(J1 feet high 
and ciivci'i'il i;j acres at the base. 

The Greeks in 500 I'., C. built 
f Athens — the most beautiful 

of all 

A1)out this time Pythagoras worked out the 
multiplication table which we use today ; 

Euclid developed his geometry : 

Ai-chiiiiedi'S foniuilateil the principles of 

Ilijiparchus, the father of the science of 
asti'onomy. discovered the precession of the 
eifuindxes ; 

Ai-tosthense gave us the liasis of our modern 
geography ; 

Aesop wrote his famous fables which we still 
buj- for our children ; 

Thales proclaimed the world is round. 

These were all mighty men to whom we owe 
a great deal. 

We are proud of our modern culture, ex- 
pressed in our ability to support symphony 
orchestras, and yet the genius of Homer, of 
Pindar, of Sappho, of Ovid, of Aristophanes, 

still compels our recognition. 

And last but not least, it was left to IMilton 
Franklin Williams, born of humble parents in 
the good old State of Ohio, was the philoso- 
pher who invented and placed before the world 
the hinged hammer principle of crushing and 
grinding, — a new principle in mechanics, one 
which cannot or will not die, but will go on, 
and on, and on, ad infinitum. 


"The following account of the first white 
child boi-n in Ohio we have received from under 
her own hand. She is the daughter of Rev. 
John Heekewelder, whose early labors as a 
Moravian missionary among the Indians are 
well known. From the great accuracy of her 
memory, and from the beauty of her handwrit- 
ing, as well as from her easy style of writing, 
we are led to hope for many an interesting nar- 
rative from our fair correspondent. Ilei' nar- 
I'ative, we trust, will not embrace merely Indian 
history, in which her friends say she is real pro- 
ficient, but also many anecdotes relative to 
revolutionary and subsequent times. The read- 
ers of the Pioneer would, among other things, 
be much interested and instructed by an ac- 
count of the rise, progress and regulations of 
the town of Bethlehem, Pa., which from the 
singular beauty of its police and arrangements, 
has always been an object of admiration." 

The above was without date — just below it 
was a letter addressed to John Shoebi'idge Wil- 
liams from Bethlehem, Pa., Feb. 24th, 1843. 
And as this white child was a grown woman, 
it is presumed that she was born possildy 20 
yeai's previously, around about 1820. 

— M. F. W. 






• ' Place : Somewhere in America. Date : Some 
time lately. 
"To my Creditors — CTentlemen : 

"If it were possible, I would ])e glad to re- 
spond to youi' request for a generous subscrip- 
tion, Init I find myself unable to do so for the 
following I'easons; 

"I have been held up, held down, sand- 
bagged, walked on, sat on, tiattened out and 
squeezed, — first by the United States Govern- 
emnt for Federal War Tax, the Excess Profits 
Tax ; for Liberty Loan and Victory Loan Bonds, 
Thrift Stamps, War Savings Stamps-, for State, 
County, City, School, Road and Bridge Taxes ; 
the capital stock tax, merchant's license, auto 
tax, — and by every Society and Organization 
that inventive mind of men can invent or con- 
ceive, to extract what I may or may not possess. 

"I have responded to the appeals of the So- 
ciety of John the Baptist, the G. A. R., the 
Woman's Relief, the Navy League, the Red 
Cross, the Blue Cross, the Black Cross, the 
Double Cross, the Children's Home, the Dorcas 
Society, the Jewish Relief, the Armenian Re- 
lief, and every hospital in town. 

"The (4overinnent has so governed my busi- 
ness that I don't know who owns it, — I am 
inspected, suspected, examined and re-exam- 
ined, informed, required and commanded, so I 
don't know who I am, where I am, or why I 
am here. 

"All I knoAv is: I am expected to be an in- 
exhaustible supply of money for every known 
need, desire or hope of the himian race: and 
because I will not sell all I have and go out and 
beg, borrow or steal money to give away, I 
have been cussed, discussed, boycotted, talked 
about, lied to, lied about, held up, hung up, 
robbed and nearly ruined : — and the only rea- 
son I am still clinging to life is to see what the 
hell is coming next. 


December 29th, 1919. 

Shakespeare raised the (piestion, "What's in 
a name?" 

Records recently received from Washington, 
1). C, from the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, 
Avhere there are on file more than four million 
five hundred names of sailor.^, marines and sol- 
diers, show that there is scmething in a name. 


The Johnson family, a well-known family, 
leads the list of 53,200 names, — just of soldiei's 
and sailors alone. 


A triHe more than 51,000 names. 

Have -18,000 names, — they lieing third. 


Come to the front Avitli 47,000 names. Then 
in their order come: 

THE JONESES— 28,050 names strong; 




Of the 53,200—2138- were christened John, 
a]id 2062 were William Johnsons, while the fa- 
vorite Christian name in the Smith family is 
William. John was the given name of 2625 

Of the 48,000 Browns who wore the uniform 
in the late war 2000 were named plain John 

Of the WILLIAMS FAjMILY, 280 signed up 

There were 900 JOHN ANDERSONS— 800 
were christened Karl and 600 Charles. 



Fifty Mere named Mary A. John J. 'Brien, 
a soldier, wrote to the Bureau of War Risk In- 
surance about his insurance ; he gave neither 
serial nor certiticate number, but said he could 
be identitied by the fact that his beneliciary 
(his wife) was named Mary A. The research 
workers in the bureau in Washington, D. C, 
found in the tiles the names of 175 men listed 
as John J. O'Brien, the wives of 50 of whom 
bore the name of ]\Iary A. O'Brien. 

In the Bureau of War Risk Insurance files 
of our "Fighting Forces'' indicate that many 
prominent men were reijresented by name- 
sakes : 1 

There were 123 George Washingtons, 6 Rob- 
ert E. Lees, 119 John Quincy Adamses, 47 Abra- 
ham Lineolns and but 5 General Grants. 

General Wellington, General Pickett, Gen- 
eral Johnson — and even Napoleon Bonaparte — 
were all there, although their I'ank in the world 
war was that of a pi-ivate. 

While the Rodriguez family from Porto Rico, 
according to the files of the War Risk Insurance 
Bureau, sent 894 men into the American forces, 
and among this number (which was almost 
large enough for a battalion) there were but 
seven first names as follows: Domingo, Fran- 
cisco, Jose, Juan, Roman, Tomas and Antonio. 
The serial number of each man was in the 
600,000 class. 


A girl clerk in the Bureau of War Risk In- 
surance found from the card index files of Un- 
cle Sam's fighters that the name Aloysius is 
spelled in 49 dift'erent ways and Ignatz in 18 
dift'erent wa3's. Even the simple name John is 
spelled in 24 ways as follows : John, Giovanni, 
Jan, Jae, Jack, Jackie, Jacques, Jan Jans, 
Hans, Jean, Jno, Joahn, Jock, Johan, Johann, 
Johannes. Johni Johnie, Johnnie, Johnny, 
Johny, Jon, Juan. 

Some of the Great White Father's Indian 
soldiers bore melodious if complicated de- 
scriptive names. A few of them : Harry-Cries- 
for-a-Rib, George-Slecp-From House, Benjamin 

Comes-Out Bear, David Drops-at-a-Distanee, 
Charles Owl Walks-in-the-house, Wash Day 
Clouds, Isaac 

The town of Salmon, Idaho, furnished a sol- 
dier with five given names, Harry, Adolph, 
Thomas. Richard, Eugene, Bullock. 


In the world's population at this Avriting 
(March IS, 1918), which is 1,623,300,000, the 
average age at death is 33 years. 

Fifty-seven nuUion, three hundred and sev- 
enty-two thousand, seven hundi'cd and twenty- 
seven die annually. 

Nine hundi-ed and eight thousand five hun- 
dred and i^ixteen die weekly. 

Five thousand throe hundred and eight per- 
sons die every minute. 

About thi'ec die every two seconds. 

Sixty persons will have died while you are 
reading this item. 


The Society of Friends, commonly known as 
the Quakers, had its origin about 275 years ago 
in England. It first appeared as a group of 
men who difl'ered from the religious formalism 
of the times that was so oppressive in 1645. 
These men objected to the tyranny of the 
Romish religion and dictates of the Pope in 
England, and lielieved in Liberty of Conscience, 
individual leadership, and direct responsibility 
to God in all religious matters. At this time 
all who opposed the established religion in 
England were called Dissenters. These were 
combined and brought to prominence by the 
preaching of George Fox in Leiscestershire, 
England, in 1647, and the following 3'ears, 
during which he preached throughout England 
and obtained a large following 

During the next 40 years persecution was 
extreme against all Dissenters, and especially 


against the Quakers ; not because of any im- 
moral acts of the Quakers, but because they 
objected to taking any form of an oath, and 
therefore were subject to imprisonment because 
they would not take the oath of allegiance to 
the King and the established church. Over 
400 Quakers died in prison, and at least a hun- 
dred more from violence and ill usage. The 
numbers that were in prison were increased un- 
til they reached 4500 up to the year 1662. 

The Quaker Act of 1662 and the Conventicle 
Acts of 1664 and 1670, designed to enforce at- 
tendance at church, were responsible for the 
most severe persecution of all. The Quakers' 
refusal to pay tithes led to heavy and continu- 
ous distraints. The Quakers, although strong- 
ly persecuted, refused to hold their meetings in 
secret and were therefore the more easily ap- 
prehended and imprisoned. 

James II, on account of his well-known 
friendship for William Penn, was appealed 
to by the Quakers and other Dissenters when 
he was put on the throne, and in 1687 came his 
declaration of Liberty of Conscience. After the 
Revolution of 1688 and the Toleration Act of 
1689, the persecution of the Quakers and other 
Dissenters for non-attendance at church prac- 
tically ceased. The Quakers still objected to 
paying tithes and persisted in teaching school 
without a Bishop's license; and after the Tol- 
eration Act at least 12 were prosecuted for not 
having a Bishop's license and for keeping 

The Quaker movement is divided into three 
parts : The first, taking in the period from 
1647 to 1689; the second, from 1689 to the 
Evangelical movement of 1835; and the third 
from 1835 to the present time. The Quakers 
had no established creed or formal statement 
of belief, but believed in an inward light or 
personal experience of the Spirit. They also 

believe in woman's equality in church minis- 
try, and in peaceful solution of all (juestions 
in place of force, although they did not actu- 
ally refuse to use force when necessary. 

It has been said by a notable authority that 
all the aims of the Quakers of 250 years ago 

have become the aims of the present — notably 
that of equality of woman with man, which is 
now becoming the universal agreement in 
Church and State matters. As is usual, the 
persecution of the early days only served to 
solidify, combine and determine the opinions 
of the Quakers in all matters of conscience, and 
since they have been allowed freedom of re- 
ligious opinion the strict rules of their de- 
nomination have been relaxed and they have 
become more willing to unite or combine in ef- 
forts with other religious denominations. 

Formerly the Quakers were strongly op- 
posed to marriage of their members with those 
outside of their fold, and such marriage re- 
sulted in disbarment of the offending member 
from the Society of Friends and their meetings. 
At the present day such marriages are con- 
doned, and while they still continue their meet- 
ings, they are gradually changing them so that 
addresses and hymns are used in the services, 
instead of the total absence of all hymns or 
religious songs and dependence upon volun- 
tary speakers who would address the meeting 
when the spirit moved them to do so, after the 
period of thoughtful silence in which they met 
and communed with their inner spirit and made 
themselves subject to the guidance of the inner 

Also the distinctive dress of the Quakers is 
not insisted on, and they are accepting the 
usual garments of the time. Their religious 
convictions have resulted in a singularly pure 
moral and spiritual life, both in individuals and 
communities of Friends. 



Cut No. 266 was photographed by Underwood 

1000 to 1500 pound walrus yields from eight to 
ten gallons of blood. 

This illustration is to show that there was 
a Peary expedition, and whether Peary found 

Cut Xo. 266 — Eskimos drawing blood from the walrus 
the Eskimos. 

This hlood is drunk by 

& Underwood of New York City, on the trip 
with Peary to the North Pole. It shows the 
Eskimos' method of bleeding a captured wal- 
rus. This blood is drunk by the Eskimos. A 

the North Pole or not, or Avhether Amundson 
found the North Pole or not, everybody knows 
that there is a North Pole. I am quite satis- 
fied to take it for granted and enjoy the com- 


forts and plenty, and let someone else freeze to 
death finding the North Pole. 

I, therefore, have clone my duty in trying to 

Underwood & Underwood of New York City. 

The object of these three illustrations is to 
call to the minds of the rising generation the 

Cut No. 1(>1 — Bow of the Erick, Peary Relief Ship, showing damage done by colHsion 
with an iceberg off Queensbay, en the home voyage. 

show that there is both a North PoIp and a 
South Pole, and I call attention to Cut No. 
263, a monument entitled Christ in the 
Andes, which photograph is also furnished by 

hardships that men suffer for fame, love and 
desire to accomplish something out cf the ordi- 

Teddy Roosevelt a few years ago went to 


South America to discover the Lost River, 
which river rises near the Andes Mountains. 
Discoverers are a ehiss of people not after 
money. Discoverers or explorers of the world's 
peculiarities are more after historical fame and 
geographical knowledge than for any other 
purpose. Geographical discoverers never get 
into the millionaire class, though many of them 
die in the attempt. Some only leave a story 
behijid them to show their adventure and cour- 
age to attain greatness. 

Cut No. 267.— Peary's North Pole Expedi- 
tion, showing that the how of the ship came in 
contact with an icel)erg on its return ti'ip otf 
Queen's Hay on its home voyage, ;iftcr having 
discovered the North Pole, aceoi'ding 1o his 

The poles, the two extremes of the earth, 
are interesting facts to demonstrate that they 
exist outside of a geography and outside of 
geographic history — and mcrtal man, we be- 
lieve, has been close enough to both to come 
back and tell the tale. 

The Shackelton English Relief Exiiedition, 
which went to discover Scott, the n\an who was 
trying to locate the South Pole, found him in 
the region somewhere near the South Pole 
frozen to death in a hut, so that he lost his 
life for the lienetit of mankind as a discoverer. 






The figures in front of the names in this rec- 
ord refer to the generation of the persons so 
numbered, ccunting Robert Williams, who 
came to Carteret County, N. C., as the first 

The children of eacli marriage have the next 
higher number, indicating their generation, 
and all have the same number when they have 
the same proportion of blood of Robert Wil- 
liams in their veins. 


reference to the 
what generation 

Drawn by L\ng C\mpbi-ll 

Cut No. 264 — Looking up his family tree. 

Tlic figures with the letter M attached in- 
dicate the generation by marriage and not by 
blood. Thus where any descendant of Robert 
Williams, whether male or female, marries, the 
person so married has the same number as the 
direct descendant of Robert Williams, but with 
the letter M to indicate that it is a iiuiri'ied 
relation onlv. 

the piq-son is from the father of Robert Wil- 
liams, whether the descendant comes through 
the male or female line. Also it is evident that 
those persons bearing similar iinmbei-s may be 
widely separated but still be of the same pro- 
portional blood kinship, though bearing differ- 
ent names. 


It is believed that this method of iinmbering 
is better than to number numerically or by any 
other method, the descendants of Robert Wil- 
liams, as it establishes their degree of relation- 
ship to each other as well as to him. 


here is 


In our lineage of deseenda 
thing worth}' of note : There are some two 
hundred and seventy de3cendants of Roliert 
Williams the first, whose names I have been 
able to obtain for this history, and there is — 

Not a di-iinkard in the line, 
Not a criminal in the line, 
Not a tramp ever heard of, 
Not a deadbeat as known of. 
Not a jailbird has ever been recorded, and 
Not a millionaire- that I have ever heard of 
— but all are Jionorable and respectable i^eople. 

However, I know of a pei'son who is doing 
his level best to become a millionaire, but mod- 
esty forbids me to speak his name. 


Cut Xo. 2(i8 shows the names of two hundred 
and sixty-eight Williamses disposed in a genea- 
logical tree and numbered in their respective 
generations as they evolute from Robert Wil- 
liams of Ruthin, Wales, who was their first 
ancestor in Carteret County, N. C., U. S. A. All 
shown on this tree are descended from him — 
my great-grandfather. 

In this synopsis each of the four main limi)s 
is traced outwartl tlirough its successive 
branches, boughs and twigs, and the g(>uera- 
tions are numbered accordingly. In the cut 
mentioned, the beginning of five limb.'i is shown 
After Richai-d Williamrj. the first sen of Robei-t 
Williams. These five broken limbs represent 
the five children of Robert Williams by his sec- 
ond wife, who did not live to maturity and leave 
descendants, as was the case with Elizabeth, 
Samuel, and John Shoebridge Williams. The 
last three named, together with their half 
brother, Richai-d Williams, are the ancestors of 
all of the Williams family who de-^cended from 
Robert Williams, sho\\'u as the main stem or 


shown hy the trunk or main stem : 

( 1 ) Robert Williams. 

(Traditirn reports that his father was Ed-'d Williams, who renmined in Wales.) 


formed four main limbs, by whom the bleed of 
(I) Robert AVilliams was tr'ammitted to the 
l)ranehes of tin- third generation. Their names 

(2) Richard Williams, 1st limb. 

(2) Eli.^alH'th Williams (Garretson), 2d limb. 

(2) S;imuel Williams, .'5rd limb (grandfather 

of M. V. William;). 

(2) .lohn Slio,.l),-idgo Williams. 4th limb. 



Richard Williams, 

the first 


1, begot 

] CJl 

Idrcn of the third g 





Robert Williams, 


Elizabeth Williams 




Abigail Williams (Fawectt), 


Dearman Williams, 


Deborah Williams 



Asa Williams, 
Mary AVilliams (En 



P>enjamin Williams 


Lydia Williams (Si 
David Willinms, 
Edward Williams. 



("ii I]li.'',alHth Williams Dillingham, the sec- 
id cliild of (2) Richard Williams, bore eight 
lildrcn of the fourth generation as follows: 

14) Richard Dillingham, 

(4) Deltorah Dillingham, 

(4) Alfred Dillingham, 

(4) Abigail Dillingham, 

(4) Mary Dillingham, 

(4) Edith Dillingham, 

(4^ Sarah Dillingham, 

(4) Ellswood Dillingham. 



Four children of (3) Abigail Williams Faw- 
cett : 

(4;i Sarah Faweett, 

(4) Edwin Faweett, 

(4) Eliza Faweett, 

(4) Deborah Faweett. 


Seven children of (o) Dearuiau Williams: 

(4) John William", 

(4'' Rebecca Williams, 

(4) Sarah Williams, 

(4) Benjamin Williams, 

(4) Keturah Williams, 

(4) James Williams. 

(4) Edith Williams. 


One child r.( ( :i i Deborah Williams Osl)orn: 
(4) Josephus Osboni. 


Six children of ( :! ) Asa Williams: 

(4) .MifHin William:;, 
(4) Elma Williams, 
(4) Deborah Ann Williams, 
(4) Sarah Esther Williams, 
(4) Benezetle Williams. 
(4) Cadwalladr,' Williams. 


Three children of (:il Ly<lia Williams Stan- 

.'4) Richard Edward Stanley, 
(4) Sarah Talitha Stanley, 
(4) Chai-les Joseph Stanley. 


One child of (8) Edwards AVilliams: 
(4) Sarah B-rnff Williams (Maris). 


Five children of (2) Elizabeth Williams Gar- 
retson, the second limb : 

(3) Asenath Garretson (Dondna), 

(3) Asa Garretson, 

(3) Joseph W. Garretson, 

(3) Elizabeth Jr. Garretson (Wilson), 

(3) John W. Garretson. 


Four children of (3) Asenath Garretson 
Dondna : 

(4) Joseph W^. Dondna, 
(4) Anna Dondna, 

(4) Jesse Dondna, 
(4) Sarah Dondna. 


Four children of (3) Asa Garretson: 

(-^) Ani:a Garretson (Gibbons), 
(4) ilartha Garretson, 
(4) ilary Garretscn, 

(4) Joseph Garretson. 


Foni- children (4) Anne Garretson Gibbons: 

;.")) Oliver Gibbons, 
'5) Frank Gibbons, 
;.i: Ella Gibbons, 
(o) Rnth Gibbons. 


Three children of (4) Martha Garretson 
Dawson : 

(•Vi Lavina Dawson, 
(oi Sina Dawson, 
•1) Caleb Dawson. 


Seven children of (4) Joseph Garretson: 

(5) Jlary Leora Gari-etson, 
(5) Ross J. Garretson, 

(5) Belle Ruth Garretson, 
(.5) Myrtle Elizabeth Garretson, 
( ■) ) Eva Lucinda Garretson, 
i')) Everett A. Gari'etson, 
(5) Mabel Anna Gari'etson. 



Eleven children of (2) Samuel Williams, the 
third limb: 

(3) Joseph Williams, 
(3) Anne Williams (Patterson), 
(3) Sallie Williams (Bundy), 
(3) Robert Williams (father of M. F. Wil- 
liams, the author), 

(3) Mary Williams (Hampton), 

(3) Elizabeth Williams (Gibbons), 

(.3) Peninah Williams (Gibbons), 

(3) John Williams, 

(3) Martha Williams (Stanton), 

(3) Richard Williams, 

(3) Samuel B; Williams. 


Six children of (3) Joseph Williams: 

(4) Martha Mitchell Williams (Starbuck), 
(4) Josephine Bonaparte Williams (Baggs), 
(4) Sarah Elizabeth Williams (Baggs), 

(4) William Henry Harrison Williams, 
(4) Ruth Rebecca Williams (McKinney), 
(4) Virginia Hamilton Williams (Bedell). 


Five children of (3) Anne Williams Patter- 

(4) Eunice Patterson, 

(4) Sarah Ann Patterson, 

(4) Nathan Patterson, 

(4) Ruth Patterson (Worral), 

(4) Joseph W. Williams. 


Seven children of (3) Sallie Williams Bundy : 

(4) Josiah Bundy, 

(4) Joseph Bundy, 

(4) Sarah W. Bundy (Gregg), 

(4) Elizabeth Bundy (Stratton), 

(4) Samuel Bundy, 

(4) Peninah Bundy (CreAv), 

(4) David Bundy. 


Ten children of (3) Robert Williams: 

(4) Jane Elizabeth Williams, 

(4) Hannah Ann Williams, 

(4^ Mary Louisa Williams (Chandler), 

(4) Milton Franklin Williams (aiithor of 
this history). 

(4) Rnthanna Williams (Murdoek), 

(4) Sarah xVngelina Williams (Weeks), 

(4) Seth Oliver Williams, 

(4) Harriet Beecher Williams, 

(4) Frances Cornelia Williams, 

(4) Alice Roberta Williams. 


Five children of (4) Mary Louisa Williams 

(.■)) Minnie Myrtle Chandler (Dunlavy), 

(5) Milton Clyde Chandler, 

(5) Earl Perc.y Chandler, 

(5) Mary Ethel Chandler (Moore), 

(5) Lnln iMabel Chandler (Webster). 


Six children of (5) Minnie Chandler Dun- 

J n yy : 

(6) John Harold Dunlavy, 
(tn Mary Ethel Dunlavy, 
(G) Mabel Ijueille Dunlavy, 
(f)} Charles Lawrence Dunlavy, 
(fi) Frank Leonard Dunlavy. 


Two childien of (5) Milton C. Chandler: 
(fi) Dorothy Imogene Chandler. 
(li I Doris Ii'ma Chandler. 


One child of (5) Earl P. Ciiandler: 
(6) Percy Allison Chandler. 

Two ehildi'cn of (5) Mary Chandler Moore; 

(6) Virgil Dv.-ight Moore, 
16) Margaret Virginia Moore. 


One child of (5) Lulu Chaudler Webstei-. 
(6) Mary Ruth AVebster. 


Five children of (4) Milton Franklin Wil- 
liams (author of this history), 

v.j~i ^Milton Judson Williams, 
(5) Arthur Franklin Williams, 
(5) Maude Williams, 
(5) Oliver Julian Williams, 

(5) Florence Williams (Carson). 


One child of (5) Milton Judsou Willi:iins: 
((i) Mabel Veronica Williams (Schneider), 

Two children of (5) Oliver J. Wiilianis: 

(6) Leontine Margaret Williaius 

(6) Milton Franklin Williams the Second. 


Two children of (5) Floivnee Williams Gar- 
-^on : 

((5) Edgar Mason Cai'son, 
(6) Florence Ethel Carson. 


Two children of (4) Ruthanna Williams 
Murdock : 

(5) Ethel Roberta :Murdock (Bartlett), 
(5) Clair Murdock. 


One child of (4) Seth Oliver Williams: 
(5 I Robert Earl Williams. 


Ten children of (3)jMary Williams Hampton: 

(4) Oliver L. Hampton, 
(4) Sarah W. Hampton, 
(4) Robert Hampton, 
(4) Lucinda Hampton, 
(4) Anna Hampton, 
(4) Eliza Hampton, 
(4) Lovina Hampton, 
(4) John Hampton, 
(4) Edward Hampton, 
(4) Samuel Hampton. 


Five children of (3) Elizabeth Williams Gib- 
bons : 

•A) Maria Gibbons, 

( 4 j ilyranda Gibbcns, 

(4) Dillon Gibbous, 

(4) Lucinda Gibbons, 

(4) Peninah Gibbons (De Wees). 


Fourteen children of (3) Peninah Williams 
Gibbons : 

,4! Elam (iihbons, 

t4) Eli W. Gibbons, 

(4) Edmond Gibbons, 

(4) Homer Gibbons, 

(4) Samuel Gibbons, 

(4) Sarah Gibbons, 

(4) James Gibbons, 

(4i Mai'y Gibbons, 

(4) Joseph B. Gibbons, 

(4) Anna Gibbons (Spencer), 

(4) Martha Gibbons (De Wees), 

(4) Elizabeth Gibbons (Winder), 

(4) Lavina Gibbons, 

(4) Edward Gibbons. 


Three ehildrei 
Stanton : 


of (3) Mai'tha Williams 

(4) Richai-d W. Stanton, 
(4) John W. Stanton, 
(4) Eliza Jane Stanton. 



Seven children of (8) Samuel B. Williams: 

(4) Willougliby Leroy Williams, 

(4) Emma Orilla Williams (Wells), 

(4) Sarah Jane Williams, 

(4) Mary Ella Williams, 

(4) Joseph Comley Williams, 

(4) Flora Anna Williams (Williams). 

(4) Samuel iMortimer Williams. 


Three children of (4) Emma 0. Wdlianis 

(5) Lorlc Eh.isr Wrlls (Rider), 

(5) Paul Mortimei' Wells, 

(5) Lillian Rulhauna Wells (Gray). 


Four children of (5) Lorle E.Wells Rider 

(6) Lawrence Eugene Rider, 

(6) Lois Ruthanna Rider, 

(6) Emmy Lou Rider, 

(6) Jane Elizabeth Rider. 


Three children of (5) Paul M. Wells: 

(6) Paul Hampton Wells, 
(6) Lawrence ITenry Wells, 
(6) Nina Eloise Wells. 

One child of (5) Lillian R. Wells Gray: 
(6) Joseph Mortimer Gra.v. 


Four children of (4) Samuel M. Williams: 

(5) Flora Williams (Crist), 

(5) Samuel JI. Williams Jr., 

(5) Robert Williams, 

(5) Jafncs Williams. 



Uli-i'U of (2) John Shoebridge Wil- 
fourth limb : 

(o) Ben.iamin Franklin Williams, 

(S) llaiinali JIarnion Williams (Stone), 

(3) R(,hei-t Fnlt')!! Williams. 

(o) Aiiiie Shocbi'idge Williams (Bemau), 

(3) Jojiii I'.duvier Williams, 

(3) Eli/abeth Williams (Ayres), 

(3) Joseph Patterson Williams, 

(3) Sarah Jane Williams (Farmer), 

(3) ^lai'v Louisa Williams, 

(31 Martlia I5ellc Williams (Van Vlcck). 


Six ehilili'cn of (3) Benjamin Franklin Wil- 
iams by his first wife— 

(4) Chai'le:; F. Williams, 

(4) .Mary Louisa AVilliams (Paris, Ky.), 
(4) Henry Hairison Williams, 
(4) Virginia R. Williams, 
(4) James Williams, 
(4) John Williams, 

f(un' childi 

n- Ids second wife : 

(4) Edwin Williams. 

(4) Louis Williams, 

(4) James B. Wdliams, 

(4) Fi'ank W^illiams. 



Six children of (4) Edwin AYilliams: 

(5) Walter H. Williams, 
(5) Madge Williams, 
(5) Georgia Williams, 
(5) Karl Williams. 
(5) Frank Williams, 
{5) Christina Williams. 

FOURTH Li:\ii'.— SIXTH generation 

One child of [5) Walter Williams: 
(G) Christina Eli:^abeth Williams. 

One child of (o) Madge Williams Moore: 
((i) Ilai-old W. .Aloore. 


One child of (4) Louis Williams: 
(.1) Frank S. Williams. 


Six children of (4) James B. Williams: 

(5) Merle Williams, 

(5) Rexford Williams, 

(5) Amy Williams, 

(5) Hallie Williams, 

(5) Dorothy Williams, 

(5) Theodoiv R. Williams. 


One child of (4) Frank Williams : 
(6) Harvey Bellewood Williams. 

Five cliildren of (3) Roliert Fulton. AVilliams: 

(4) Walter Dark Williams, 

(4) Roberta Williams. 

(4) Robert Williams, 

(4) Hannah .Alarion Williams, 

(4) Charles Williams. 


Thi-ee chi 
liams I'.ema 

)f (;!) Anne Shoebridgc Wil- 

(4) Sarah Elizabeth lU-man, 
(4) John Henry ISenian, 

(4) Anna Beman (Swain). 


Three children of Anna I>einan Swain: 

(5) Lawrence Swam. 

(5) Anna \Mola Swain {Du Bose), 
(.1) Myrtle Swain (Damrcn). 



Five children of (5) Anna Y. Swain Du Bose : 

(6) Anna Louise Du Bose, 

(6) Wilds Du Bose, 

(6) Clifton Du Bose, 

(6) Clifford Du Bose, 

(6) Sidney Du Bose. 


Three children of (5) ilyrtle Swain Dauiron: 

(6) Anna Louise Dauiron, 
(6) Helen Damron, 
(6) Kathcrine Damron. 


One child of (3) EIizal.<-th Williams Ay res: 
(6) Bouvier Ayres. 

One child of [S) Joseph Patterson Williams: 
(4) Joseph Clifton Williams. 


Four- children of (4) William Gisborn 
Fai-mcr : 

(5) Roy Will Farmer, 

(o) Carl Prescott Farmer, 

(5) Fi-ederick Fenn Farmer, 

(5) Robert Lee Farmer. 


Two children of (4) Jennie Belle Farmer 

(5) Francis Clinton Fowler, 
(5) Frederic Anson Fowler. 


One child of (4) Charles Edward Farmer: 
(.5) Gcorsje Edward Farmer. 


Five children of (3) Sarah Jane Williams 
Farmer : 

(4) William Gisborn Farmer, 

(4) Jennie Belle Farmer (Fowler), 

(4) George Clinton Farmer, 

(4) Charles EdAvard Farmer, 

(4) Sadie May Farmer (Blanchard). 


Four children of (3) Martha Belle Williams 
Yan Meek : 

(4) William Yan Vleck. Jr., 

(4) Charles W. Van Ylcck, 

(4) George Yan Vleck, 

(4) Anna Bell ^'an Yleck (Owen). 

One child of (4) Charles W. Yan Yleck: 

(5) Ilelene Estelle Yan Yleck. 


Thi'ce children of (4) Anna Bell Van Vleck 
Owen : 

(.5) A'an Yleck Owen, 

(5) Francis Ilandet Owen, 

(5) Anna Belle Owen. 

This outline was prepared by Constance White, London, England, an agent 
employed {or research work on this History. 

J5 fe 


2s '^ 



-^i - 



-s^ ? 

S. i^^ 



■0 -i. a CD 



3 , "^7^ 

■g 2 2?^ 











•C M 

S a 

" ■a "^ - . 

— H 

S -" ^ 




— |i 




r " = 

— 1 


'c jda; 




c i 

y a) 3 



3 5-9 ^S 2: 

J ~^: 1^ i^, 



Is s 1^ -§• 


> u 



-3 r 



3 11 








<M •;= J 

3 c 



Pi 2 


p; j= s 
3 S 


- X 

a — 


a< ■ 


rt J g 

ji -6 


n "^ ' S 

. < -^ 


Xi 73 

^ ~ 




">> 3 


li 1 
it- "i 




H is 






■5 § " ^11 

^- ^ 



(1) Robert Williams: 

(Son of Edward Williams of Ruthin, North 

Born April 2!lth, 1723, at Ruthin, North 

Died September 4th, ITdO. near Beaufort, 
Carteret County. N. C. 

jNFarried 17H7. first ^vife (i:\[). Elizalieth 

Born in England. Died 1773, near Beaufoi-t, 

N. C. 

. One child: 

(•2) Richard Williams: 

(Sou of (2) Robert and Elizabeth Dearnum 

Born November 28th, 1770, at liouu'stead, 
Carteret ( 'ounty, N. C. 

Died iLarch 10th, 1852. 

Again (1) Robert AVilliams: 

Married ( )ctob('i' 1st, 1774, second wife. 

(IM) Aniu' Shofhridge of Essex County, 

(Daughter of Richard Shoebridge. Kent, 
England, born 1712, and Martha Belle Shoe- 

Born September 7th, 1748. 

Died June 9th, 1845, age 97. 

This second marriage resulted in (>ight chil- 
dren, only three of whom survived and left 
descendants, as follows: 

(2) Elizabeth Williams (Garretson) : 
Born April 28th, 1778. Died . 

(2) Samuel Williams (My Grandfather) ; 

liorn March 1st, 1779. 
Died November 4th, 1856. 

(2) John Shoebridge Williams:. 
Born July 31st, 1790. 
Died April 27, 1878. 

(2) Richard Williams: 

(Only child of (1) Robert Williams and (IM) 
Elizabeth Dearman Williams.) 

Horn November 28, 1770, in Carteret County, 
N. C. (on old homestead). 

Died :March lOtli, 1852, in Damascus, 0. (at 
home of his son I'^dward), aged 81 years, 3 
months and 11 days. 


lirst w: 

(2^1) Sai'ah Dew, by whom he had one son, 
Robert, Avho died young. 

Mai-ried Noveud)er 6. 179(i, in FruMids" :Meei- 
ing House, Core Sound, N. C. 

Second wife (2M), Sarah Stanton (daughter 
of licnjannn and Elizabeth Stanton). 


(3) Elizabeth Williams: 

lioi'U Septembei- II, 17911, in N. C. 

Married May :i(ilh, 1S22, Micajah Dillingham 
of Delawai-e Connly, ()., at Friends" ileeting 
at Kendal, Stark County, Ohio. 

Died, past 80 years of age, near Daumscus, 0. 

(3) Abigail AVilliams: 

Born September 19, 1802. 

Married December 26, 1825, to John Fawcett 
of Salem, Ohio. 

Died November 10, 1835, at Salem, 0., age 33. 

(3) Dearman Williams: 

liorn November 12, 1804. 

Married November 27th, 1830, to Mary 
Farmer of Sandy Spring, Ohio, 

Died November 27tli, 1867, in Humboldt 
County, Iowa. 


(3) Deborah Williams: 

Boni November 80th, 1806. 

Married May 27th, 1829, to Daniel Osborn 
of Delaware County, Ohio. 

Died Jlay 26lh, 18:U. 

(3) Asa AVilliams: 

Born December 27th, 1808. 

Married May 21st, 18:U. 1o Elizabeth Cad- 
walader of Salem, Ohio. 

Died .Tanuaiy 28rd, 18G1. 

(3) Mary Williams: 

Born April 7, 1811. 

^Married May 8, 1837, to Joseph Emmons of 
Auiiusta Meeting of Friends, 0. (no children.) 

Died March 15, 1838. 

(3) I'.en.iamin Williams: 

Born Api'il 3, 1814. 

Died October lOtJi, 1835, near East Rochester 
( unmarried). 

(■.]) Lydia Williams: 
I'.orn .Alay 2. 1816. 

]\Iarried May 1. 1851, to Joseph Stanb-y of 
Damascus, Ohio. 

Died about 181)7 or '!)8 at the house of her 
daughtci' ill I'.i'onidiawn, Jliss. 

(3) David Williams: 
I'.orn September 25, 1S18. 

Married August 9, 1853, to Hannah S. :\riekU 
of Washington, Pa. (no children). 

Died July 1st, 1877, neai' .Alarshalltown, la. 

(3) Edward Williams: 

Born February 5tli, 1821. 

Married March 29, 1849, to Hannah Biuff ol 
Damascus, Ohio. (Born August 27, 182 5. Died 
October 11, 1882.) 

Died September 2, 1894, at Damascus, Ohio. 

(3) Elizabeth Williams: 

(First child of (2) Richard and Sarah Stan- 
ton Williams.) 

Born September 9, 1799. Died about 1859. 

Married ilay 30th, 1822, to (3M) Mica.iah 

Nine childi'tMi — I'ourth genei'ation: 

(4) Rieiiard Dillingham, 
(4) Deborah Dillingham, 
(4) Jane Dillingham, 
(4) Alfred Dillingham, 
(4) Abigail Dillingham, 
(4) Mary Dillingham, 
(4) Edith Dillingham, 
(4) Sarah Dillingham, 
(4) Ellswood Dillingham. 

(3) Abigail Williams: 

(Second child of (2) Richard and Sai-ah 
Stanton Williams.) 

Horn September 19, 1802. Died November 
loth, 1835. 

Married Deeeudicr 2Gth, 1825, to (SM) John 
Fawcett (,f Salem, Ohio. 

Four children — Fniirth generation: 

(4) Sarah Fawectt, 
(4) Edwin Faweett, 
(4) Eliza Fawcett, 
(4) Deborah Fawcett. 

(3) Dearman Williams: 

(Thi)'d child of (2) Richard and Sarah Stan- 
ton Williams.) 

Born Novembei- 12th, 1804: Died Novendier 
27th. 18(i7. 


Married November 27th, 1830, to (oM) Mary 
Parmer of Sandy Spring, Ohio. 

Seven children — Fourth generation : 

(4) John Williams, 

(4) Rebecca Williams, 

(4) Sarah Williams, 

(4) Benjamin Williams, 

(4) Keturah Williams, 

(4) James Williams, 

(4) Edwin Williams. 

(3) Deborah Williams: 

(Fourth child of (2) Richard and Sarah Stan- 
ton Williams.) 

Born November 30th, ]S06. Died May 26th, 

Married May 27th, 1829, to (3il) Daniel Os- 
born of Delaware County. Ohio. 

One child — Fourth generation: 

(4) Josephus Osborn. 

(3) Asa Williams: 

(Fifth child of (2) Richard and Sarah Stan- 
ton Williams.) 

Born December 27th, 1808. Died January 
23, 1861. 

Married May 21st, 1834, to (3M) Edith Cad- 
walader of Salem, Ohio. 

Six children — Fourth generation : 

(4) Miftiin Williams, 
(4) Elma Williams, 

(4) Deboi-a Ann Williams, 
(4) Sarah Esther Williams, 
(4) Benezetle Williams, 
(4) Cadwallader Williams, 

(3) Lydia Williams: 

(Eighth child of (2) Richard and Sarah Stan- 
ton Williams.) 

Boi'n May 2nd, 1816. Died about 1897. 

]\Iarried May 1st, 1851, to (3]M) Joseph Staii- 
lev of Damascus, Ohio. 

Thi-ee childi'en — Fourth generation: 
(4) Richard Edward Stanley, 
(4) Sarah Talitha Stanley, 
(4) Charles Joseph Stanlej'. 

(3) Edward Williams: 

(Tenth child of (2) Richard and Sarah Stan- 
ton Williams.) 

Born February 5th, 1821. Died September 
2nd, 1894. 

Married August 9th, 1853, to (3M) Hanna 
15ruft' of Danuiseus, Ohio. 

One child — Fourth generation : 

(4) Sarah Bi-utf Williams, born January 3, 
1850, living 1920 in Damascus, Ohio. 

Married July 8th, 1896, to Abram Maris of 
Damascus, Ohio (no children). 

NOTE : This is as far as I have been able to 
trace the descendants of (2) Richard AVilliams, 
the only son of (1) Robert Williams by his first 
wife, Elizabeth Dearmau Williams, as shown by 
the first limb of the Genealogical Tree, Cut 
No. 268. 


(2) Elizabeth Williams: 

(Daughter of (1) Robert and Anne Shoe- 
bridge Williams.) 

Born April 28th, 1878. Died . 

Married April 26th, 1804, to (2M) Joseph 
Garretson. (Son of William and JIary Gar- 



Born November 29th, 1782, in Pennsylvania. 

Died 1855 near Barnesville, Ohio. 

Five children — Third generation : 

(3) Aseuath Garretson. Born Jannary 251h, 
1805. Married John Dondiui, Jr. 

(3) Asa Garretson. Born June 5tli, 1807. 
Mai-ried Ruth Edgerton (4 children). 

(3) Jo.seph W. fiarretson. Born August 3rd, 
181]. (Never married.) 

(3) Elizabeth (iarretson, Jr. Born Septem- 
ber, 1815. Slurried Joseph Wilson (no 

(3) John W. Garretson. Born July 7th, 1820 
(went to California, 1849). 

(3) Asenath Gai-retsou: 

(First child of (2) Elizabeth Williams and 
Joseph Garretson.) 

Born January 25th, 1805. Died . 

^tarried to (3]M) John Dondna, Jr. 

Four children — Foni'th generation : 

(4) Joseph W. Doudna. Born December 
2Gth, 1841. 

(4) Anna Doudna. Boi-n February 10th, 

(4) Jesse Doudna. Born June 4th, 1844. 

(4) Sarah Doudna. lioi'u Jidv 5th, 1846. 

(3) Asa Gari-etson : 

(Second child of (2) Elizabeth Williams and 
Joseph Garretson.) 

Born Jun.' 5th. 1807. Died . 

.Married to (3M) Ruth Edgerton. 

Four childi'cn — Foui-th generation : 

(4) Ann Garretson. liorn 1830. Mai'ried 
Homer Gibbons (4 children). 

(4) Martha Garretson. Born 1840-50. Mar- 
ried Chalkv Dawson (3 children). 

(4) Mary Garretson. Born 1840-50. (Died 
in childhood.) 

(4) Joseph Garretson. Born 1850. Mar- 
ried Melvina Bailey (1 child). Mai'ried second 
wife, Almcda Bailey (6 children). 

(4) Amie Garretson: 

(First child of (3) Asa and Ruth Garretson.) 

Born 1830. Died . 

Married to (4j\I) Homer Gibbons. 
Four children — Fifth generation: 

(5) Oliver Gibbons. 
(5) Fi'ank Gibbons, 
(5) Ella Gibbons, 
(5) Ruth Gibbons. 

(4) ilartha (fai'retson : 

(Second child of (3) Asa and Ruth Garret- 

Born lietween 1840-50. 

Married to (4M) Chalkley Dawson. 

Three children — Fifth generation: 

(5) Lovina Dawson, 
(5) Sina Dawson, 
(5) Calel) Dawson. 

(4) Joseph Garretson: 

(Poui'th child of (3) Asa and Ruth G«rret- 


Boi'u 1850. Died . 

Married to (4M) Melvina Bailey. 
One child — Fifth generation: 

(5) Maiy Leora Garretson. 


Again : 

(4) Joseph Gai-retsoii married second wife 
(■4M) Almeda Bailey (sister of first wife). ' 

Six ehildre;i — Fifth generation: 

(5) Boss J. Garretson, 

(5) Belle Rnth Garretson, 

(5) MyvUv Elizabeth (iarretson, 

(5) Eva Lueinda Garretson, 

(5) Everett A. Garretson, 

(5) Mabel Ann Garretson. 

NOTE : This is as far as I have been able to 
trace the descendants of (2) Elizabeth Williams 
Gai'ivts'.n. the dniit;litri- ,if 1 1 ) Hobei't Williams 
and Aniie SliMcbridgv Williaius. his second wife, 
as shown by the si ul lii;ib of the Genealog- 
ical Tree, Cut Xo. I'liS. 


(2) Samuel Williams (My Grandfather) : 

(Son of (1) Robert Williams and Anne Shoe- 
bridge Williams.) 

Bern March 1st, 1779. Died November 4th, 
1856, age 77. 

Married May, 1804, to (2M) Sarah Arnold. 

(Daughter of Joseph Arnold and Sarah 

Born May 26th, 1782. Died May 26th, 1856, 
age 74. 

Eleven children — Third genei-ation: 

(3) Joseph Williams: 
Born March 10th, 1805. 

Died Jaiuiai'y 21st, 1891, age 86. 

(3) Anne Williaiin (Pattei'son-Dodd). 

Born June 5th, 1806. 

Died August 15th, 1845, age 39. 

(3) Sallie Williams (Bnndy) : 

Born February 2nd, 1808. 

Died Febrnai-y 15th, 1875. 
(3) Robert Williams (my father) : 
Bom September 18th, 1809. 
Married (3M) Sarah Ann Hampton. 
Died August 23rd, 1903, age 94. 
(3) I\Iaiy Williams (Hampton) : 
I'.orn April 28th, 1812. 

Died . 

(3) Elizabeth Williams (Gibbons): 

Born June 7tli, 1815. 

Died March 11th, 1856, age 41. 

(3) Peniiiah Williams (Gibbons): 

Boi'n July 301 li, 1817. 

Died January 16tli. 1888, age 70. 

(3) John Y\'illiams: 

Bern Octcber 17th, 1819. 

Died September Kith, 1821. 

(3) .Alai-tha Williams (Stanton): 

Hoi'n April 7th, 1822. 

Died Dceembcr 29tli, 1849, age 27. 

{■■]) Richard Williams: 

Dom May 5th, 182 1-. 

Died June 15th, 1843, age 19. 

(3) Samuel B. Williams: 

Boi-n .March 27th, 1827. 

(jMarried Ruthanna Hampton.) 

(Maia-icd Rcbeeca, Worrall lUmdy.) 

Died .May lUtli, 1904, age 77. 

(3) Joseph Williams: 

(First child of (2) Samuel Williams and 
Sarah Arnold.) 

Born March 10th, 1805. 

Died January 21st, 1891, age 86. 


Married June 18th, 1835, to (3M) Sarah 
Wright Mitchell of Kentucky. 

Born FeliruniT 5th, 180S. 

Died December 19th, 1888. 

Six childi'en — Fourth generation : 

(4) Martha Mitchell Williams. 

Born July 28th, 1836. 

Died August 16th, 1011. 

(Married Robert Starbuck.) 

(4) Josephiiu' hionaparte Williams. 

Born November 16th , 1837. 

Died March 27th, 1901. 

(Married James T. Baggs.) 

(4) Sarah Elizabeth Williams. 

Born July 23rd, 1840. 

Died June 24th, 1864. 

(Married Andrew J. Baggs.) 

(4) William Ilcni-y Harrison Williams. 

Born February 28th, 1843. 

Died May 7th. 1845. 

(4) Ruth Rebecca Williams. 

Born March 29th, 1845. 

(ilarried Wm. S. IMcKinney.) 

Died September 1, 1917. 

(4) Virginia Hamilton Williams. 

Born February ISth, 1850. 

Died October 18th, 1887. 

(Married JMahlon Bedell.) 

(4) Martha Williams. 

(First child of (3) Joseph Williams and 
Sarah Wright Mitchell.) 

Born July 28th, 1836, died August 16th, 1911. 

Married to Robert Starbuck. 

Seven children — Fifth generation: 

(5) Sarah Starbuck, 

(5) Alice Starbuck, 

(5) Josephine Starbuck, 

(5) John Starbuck, 

(5) AVill Starbuck, 

(5) Fj'ank Starbuck, 

(5) Elmer Starbuck. 

(4) Josephine B. Williams. 

(Second daughter of (3) Joseph and Sarah 
Wright Mitchell Williams.) 

Born November 16th, 1837, died March 27th, 

Mai'ried to James Thompson Baggs. 

Five children — Fifth generation: 

(5) Ijui-a Baggs, 

(5) Edgar Baggs, 

(5) Geneva Baggs (first wife of Arthur L. 

(5) 'Slnvy Baggs (second wife of Arthur L. 


(5) Harry Baggs. 

(5) Geneva Baggs. 

(Third child of (4) Josephine B. Williams 
and James Thompson Baggs.) 

]\Iarried Arthur L. Walling. 

One daughter: 

(6) Lura Walling, Avho married Walter 
Kii'kpati'ick and had one child : 

(7) Mary Kirkpatrick. 

(•i) Jlary T^aggs. 


Married as second wife to Arthur L. Wal 
and had one son: 

(6) Arthur Thompson Walling. 

(4) Sarah Elizabeth Williams. 

(Third child of (3) Joseph and Sarah Wright 
Mitchell Williams.) 

Born July 28th, 1840. 

Died June 24th, 1864. 

Married Andrew J. Baggs. 

Two children — Fifth generation : 

(5) Joseph ISaggs, 
(5) Sherman Baggs. 

(4) Ruth Rebecca Williams. 

(Fifth child of (3) Joseph and Sarah Wright 
Mitchell Williams.) 

Born :\IaiTh 2:), 1.^43. 

Died September 1, 1917. 

Mairicd William S. :\IcKiiniey. 

One son — Fifth generation: 

(5) Raymond William ^IcKinney. 

(5) Raym.iiid MrKimicy. 

(Son of William S. and (4) Ruth McKinuey.l 

Married . 

Two daughters — Sixth generation : 
(()) Martha McKinney. 

(6) Katherina McKinney. 

(4) Virginia Hamilton Williams. 

(Sixth child of (3) Joseph and Sarah Wright 
Mitchell Williams.) 

Born February ISth, 1850. 

Died October ISth, 1887. 

.Alarried ilahlon Bedt'll (no children). 

(NOTE: For further information address 
ilrs. Josie Schafer, 1756 Anseon Avenue, Oak 
land, Cal.) 

(3) Anne Williaiiw 

(Second child of (2) Samuel Williams and 

Sarah Arnold Williams.) 

Born June 5, 1806. 

Died Sept. 15th, 1845. 

Married Nov. 5, 1826, to (3M) Edwin Pat- 
terson. Boi'u Oct. 2, 1808. Died Oct. 16, 1834. 

Five Children — Foui-th Generation 

(4) Eunice Patterson, born Oct. 3, 1827; 
died Sept. 5, 1843. 

(4) Sarah Ann Patterson, born Nov. 28, 
1828; died May 10, 1831. 

(4) Nathan Patterson, born Sept. 13, 1830; 

died ; nmrried (4]\I) Elizabeth Ann 


(4) Ruth Pattei'.son, b.irn Feb. 11. 1882; 
died ; married (4M) Zebnlon Wori-al. 

(4) Joseph W. Patterson, born Aug. 24, 
1834; died ; married and had 3 children. 

Xoti — (3) Anne Williams Patterson married 
June 5, 1837; second husband, Nathan Dodd. 

(4) Nathan Patterson. 

(Third child of (3) Anne Williams and (3M) 
Edwin Patterson.) 

Horn Sept. 13, 1830. 

Died . 

Married — (4M) Elizabeth Ann Swaney. Born 



rt o 



Aug. 23, 1S34. Died Jlareh 2, 1920. 
One child — Fifth ooneration : 

(5) Laurissa Jane Patterson. Born 1857. 
Married 1888 (5M) John W. Cassells. 

Thi-ee children — Sixth generation : 

(6) John Cassells Jr. Born 1S!)1. Married 
July, 1918. 

(6) Paul Ed^vin Cassells. Born 1893. 

(6) Margaret Elizabeth Cassells. Born 1898. 
Married 1919 (Stein). 

(4) Ruth Patterson. 

(Fourth child of (3) Anne 'Williams and 
(3M) Edwin Patterson.) 

Born Fel). 11, 1832, died . 

Married , (4M) Zebnlon Worral. 

Four childi'en — Fifth lieneration : 

(5) John Wnrral 
(5) Mary Worral. 
(.5) Carl Woi-ral. 

(5) Ellsworth Worral. 

(4) Joseph W. Patterson. 

(Fifth child of (3) Anne Williams and (3M) 
Edwin Patterson.) 

Born Auii-. 24, 1S34. died . 

Married . 

Three childien — Fifth generation: 
(5) Anna Pattei'son, 
(5) Louis Pattei'soii, 
(5) lyaui-issa Patterson. 

(3) Sallie Williams. 

(Third child of (2) Samuel Williams and 
Sarah Arnold.) 

Bern Feb. 2nd, 1S08 ; died Feb. 15th, 1875. 

^Married July 9th, 1828, to Exune Bimdy. 

Seven children — Fourth generation : 

(4) Josiah Bundy, 

(4) Joseph Bundy, 

(4) Sarah W. Bundy (Gregg), 

(4) Elizabeth Bundy (Stratton), Pasadena, 

(4) Samuel Bundy, 

(4) Peninah Ihuuly (Crew), Pasadena, Cal., 

(4) David Bundy (living, 1920). 

My father— (3) Robert Williams (fourth child 
of (2) Samuel and Sarah Arnold Williams). 

Born Sept. 18th, 1809 ; died Aug'. 23rd, 1903. 
Age 94. 

Married lAIay 3rd, 1838. 

(3M) Sarali Aim Hampton. 

( One of seven children of Anms Hampton 
and Jane ileai's Hughes Hampton.) 

Born July 17th, 1820. 

Died July 23r(l, 1906, age 86. 


(4) Jane Elizabeth AVilliams, born April 2d, 

(4) Hannah Ann, born Sept. 13th. 1840, died 
Dec. 21st, 1896. 

' (4) Mary Louisa, born April 23rd, 1844 
(married Dec. 18th, 1870) (4.A1) John Curtis 

U) Milton Franklin Williams, born Oct. 
l3th, 1846 (married Nov. 23rd, 1875 to (4M) 
Emma P. Stevens.) 

(4) Ruthanna, born Feb. 18th, 1850 (mar- 
ried Flemmin Jlurdock). 

(4) Sarah Angelina, born July 3rd, 1852, 
married Ross Weeks, Wheeling, W. Ya. 


I ! 

a) 13 

Q £ 


S^ 3 3 g 


(4) Seth Oliver, born Feb. 16th, 1855. 

(-t) Harriet Beecher, born Sept. 9th, 1857, 
died Oct. 26th, 1862, of diphtheria. 

(4) Frances Cornelia, born Dec. 26th, 1861, 
died Feb. 3rd, 1911, age 50. 

(4) Alice Roberta, born April 14th, 1865, 
died Jan. 18th, 1891, age 26. 

(4) Mary Lonisa Williams. 

(Third child of (3) Robert Williams and 
(3M) Sarah Aim Hampton Williams). 

Born Apiil 23rd, 1844 (living-, 1920). 

Married Dec. 18th, 1870, (4M) John Curtis 
Chandler, born July 14th, 1844, died Sept. 25th, 


(5) Minnie :\Iyrtle Chandler. 

P.orn Oct. 22nd. 1S72 (mairied .Mai-ch 21st, 
1899, to (5M- Viiliam Howard Dunlavy). 

(5) :\Iilton Cly.le Chan. Her. 

Born April 18th, 1874. 

]\tarried May 17th, 1903, to (5]\I) Pansy 
Minerva Pilclicr. 

(5) E.irl Percy (.'handler. 

Born April 6tli, 1877. 

(5) :\Iary Ethel Chaiidlei'. 

Bom Dec. 28th, 1881. 

Married Dec. 26th, 1906, to (5M) Delbert 
William Jdoore. 

(5) Lulu ilabel Chandler. 

Born Nov. 20th, 1884. 

Mari'ied June 15th, 1913. to (5M) Damon 
Pythias Webster. 

(5) Minnie jMyrtlc Chandler. 

(First child of (4) Mary Lonisa Williaii 
and (4) John Curtis Chandler.) 

Born Oct. 22nd, 1872. 

:Married, March 21st, 1899, William Howard 


(6) John Harold Dunlavy, born Dec. 22nd, 

(6) Mary Ethel Dunlavy, born April 13th, 

(6) IMabel Lucile Chandlei', l)orn Angn:;t 
10th, 1903, 

(6) Charles Lawrence Dunlavy, born August 
10th, 1910, 

(6) Frank Leonard Dunlavy, born June 25tli, 

(5) Milton Clyde Chandler. 

(Second child of (4) Mary Lmiisa Williams 
and (4M) John Curtis Chandler). 

Boi'u April 18th, 1874. 

:\Iari-ied :May 17th, 1903, (5M) Pansy Miner- 
va Pilcher. 


(6) Dorothy Tmogene Chandler, born Nov. 
15th, 1904, 

(6) Doris Irma Chandler, liorn June 15th, 

(5) Earl Percy Chandler. 

(Third child of (4) Mary Louisa Williams 
and (4M) John Curtis Chandler.) 

Born April 6th, 1877. 

Married June 8th, 1904, (5M) Lucille Shamel. 


(6) Percy Allison Chandler, born March 1st, 


i I, 



(5) Mary Ethel Chandler. 

(Fourth child of (4) Mary Louisa Williams 
and (4M) John Cui'tis Chandler.) 

Born Dee. 2Sth, 18S1. 

Married Dee. 26th, 1906, (5M) Delbert Wil- 
liam Moore. 

(6) Vii-sil Dwiiiht iloore, born Dee. :3rd, 

(6) ilaro-aret Virginia ]\Ioore, born Feb. 
24th, 1917. 

(5) Lulu ilabel Chandler. 

(Fifth child of (4) :Mary Louisa Williams 
and (4il) John Curtis Chandler.) 

r>orn Nov. 20th. 1S84. 

:\rari'ied Jmir l.")tli. 191:!, to (.')M) Damon 
Pythias Webster. 

One child— Sixtli generation: 

((i) Marv Ruth Wriister, lioni Oct. 2fith, 

(4) Milton Franklin Williams (fourth child 
and first son of (3) Robert Williams and (3M) 
Sarah Ann Hampton Williams). 

Born Oct. 13th, 1846. 

Married, Xovemhei' 2:!d, IST."), to (4M) Emma 
Priscilla Stevens i horn .Mairli 12, lS,| of Gil- 
lespie, Ills. 


(.'-)) ililton Judson Williams, born Jan. 19tli, 

(.-)i Ai'thur Fi-anklin Williams, born Dec, 
20th, 1S79, mari'ied Feb. 2(1. 19111, Lydia Arlliur 
liray of :\Ioorehouse, .Mo. (boi-ii May 12, IS!)!!). 

(.-)) :Maucle Williams, born Jan. 21st, bS«l, 
died Fc'h. 4th, ISSl. 

C)) Oliver Julian Williams, born March 4th. 
ISS4, mari'ied (oM) Leontine Kaltenbach. 

(5) Florence Williams, born April 9th, 1886, 
arried June 17th, 1911, (5M) Edgar Carson. 

(f)) Jliltou Judson Williams. 

(First son of Milton F. and Emma Stevens 

r.(n'u Jan. 19, 1877. 

]Mai'ried (Ti^M) Mary G. Farley (daughter of 
Thoums autl Ella Farley). 

One child — Sixth generation: 

(G) ]Mabel V(>ronica Williams. • 

Born August 27, 1900. 

IMarricd :Mareh :30, 1921, to (6M) Raymond 
Fred Schneider of St. Louis, j\Io. (sou of Louis 
II. and .Mary Norris Schneider). Born March 
10, 1894, St. Louis. :Mo. 

(.')) Arthui- Franklin Williams. 

(Second sou of (4) Milton F. and (4JI) 
Emnm Stevens Williams.) 

l!o|-n Dec. 20. iS79. 

:\laiTie(l Fell. 2(1, 1919, to (fiM) Lydia Arthur 
liray of, Mo. 

(.')) Oliver Julian Williams. 

(iMMii-lh eliild of (4) Milton F. and (4M) 
nima Stev.'us Williams.) 


4, 1SS4. 

ilarricd April 29. IDdH (.".M) Lconline Kal- 
lenbaeh (danghtei' of Joseph and Emma Kal- 
tenhaeh, of St. Louis, Mo., born Aug. 12, 1884). 


(6) Leontine ilai'gai'ct Williams, born Jlay 
12, 19()i), 

(6 1 Milton Franklin Williams the Second, 
born Jan. 29, 1914. 




(5) Florence "Williams. 

(Fifth child of (i) Milton F. and (4M) 
Emma Stevens Williams.) 

Bom April 9, 1886. 

Married June IT, 1911, to (5M) Edgar Mason 
Carson, son of Lowell Mason, born Feb. 27. 



(6) Edgar Mason Carson, born Feb. 6, 1914. 

(6) Florence Ethel Carson, born Dec. 28, 

(4) Ruthanna Williams. 

(Fifth child of iS) Robert Williams and 
Sarah Ann Hampton.) 

Born Feb. ISth, 1850. 

Married Flemmin Mnrdock. 


(5) Ethel Roberta :\Inrdock (Bartlett), 
(5) Clair ]\Inrdoek. 

(4) Sai'ah Angelina Williams. 

(Sixth child of C-ii Robert Williams and 
(3M) Sarah Ann Hampton Williams), boi'n 
July 3rd, 1852. 

Married to Ross Weeks, Wheeling. W. Va., 
late.- of Chattanooga, Tenn. 

(4) Seth Oliver Williams. 

(Sevtsth child of (3) Robert Williams and 
(3M) Sarah Ann Hampton Williams.) 

Born Feb. 16th, 18.^5. 

Married Oct. 25, 1888, to (4M) Ida Ora Hen- 
drix (dantrhter of Thomas and Laura Ilendi'ix). 

One child — Fifth generation: 
(5) Robert Earl Williams. 
Born Nov. 29, 1889. 

(5) Robert Earl Williams. 

(Son of (4) Seth Oliver Williams and Ida O. 

Born Nov. 29, 1889. 

Married March 7, 1919. to (5M) Dorothy 
Dean Smith (daughter of Robert and Nancy 
6ow Smith). 

(3) Mary Williams. 

(Fifth child of (2) Samuel Williams and 
(2M) Sarah Arnold.) 

Born April 28, 1812. 

Died, . 

Married. May 5, 1830, to (3M) John Hamp- 
ton (son of John Hampton and Mary Betts). 


(4) Oliver L. Hampton, liorn ]\Iar. 2, 1831; 

(4) Sarah W. Hampton, born Dee. 2, 1832; 

(4) Robert Hampton, liorn June 13, 1835; 

(4) Lncinda Hampton, liorn June 23. 1837; 

(4) Anna HamptDii, boi'u April 3, 1840; 

(4) Eliza Hampton, born April 5, 1844; 

(4) Lovina Hampton, born Jime 27. 1846; 

(4) John Hampton, born 1849, died 1850; 

(4) Edward Hampton, born July 2, 1851; 

(4) Samuel (twin), born July 2, 1851; died 
in two months. 

Note. — See page 38, Hampton History, pub- 
lished by Dr. Solomon E. Hampton, Milttni, Ky., 
in 1911." 



^ 5 


(3) Elizabeth Williams. 

(Sixth child of (2) Samuel and Sarah Arnold 

IJorii June 7th, 1815. 

Died ilarch llth. 185(3. 

.Married Dee. 30th, ISil, to (3M) James 


(4) Marie Gibbous, 

(4) Myranda Gibbons, 

(4) DiHon Gibbons, 

(4) Lueinda Gibbons, 

(4) Peninah Gibbons (DeWees). 

(3) Peninah Williams. 

(Seventh ehild of 1 2 ) Samuel Williams and 
Sarah Arnold Williams.) 

r.orn July :;(lth. 1817. 

Died Jan. Kith, 1888, aged 70. 

Married March 9. 183(5, to (3M) Joseph Gib- 
bons (son of Homer and Martha Gibbous). He 
■was one of the older sons in a family of ten 
sons and two daughters. Born Sept. 27th, 1811, 
near P>ridgepoi-t. Ohio. Died August 2Sth, 1006. 
ao-e 94 years 11 months. 



(4 I Klnm (iibbons. Poni 0,-t. :2:l, 18:18: 

(4) Eli W. Giiiboiis. I'.orn June 27, 1840 
Married Eliza J. .Me(;ra\v; 

(4) Edmond GilJions. Born 1842. Died Jan. 
22, 1856. 

(4) Homer and Samuel (iiblions (twins). 
Born IS 14. Died in infancy. 

(4) Sarah Gibbons. Born 184(i. Died in in- 

(4) James and Mary Gibbons (twins). Born 
March 19, 1847. James died Jan. 20th, 1848; 
Mary died May 7th, 1848. 

(4) Joseph B. Gibbons. Born Feb. 6, 1850. Died 

. ilarried first wife. Rebecca Edgerton; 

mari'ied second wife, Elma Tbonuis; 

(4) Anna and Martha Gibbons (twins). Born 
June 26, 1852. Anna married Geo. Spencer of 
Springville, Iowa, and died 1909. IMartha mar- 
ried Joshua DeWees and died at Cleveland, 
Ohio. Jan. 18, 1901; 

(4) Elizabeth Gibbons. Born Sept. 11, 1854. 
I\Iarried David Winder, and died at Nashua, 
Iowa, Oct. 10. 1887. 

(4) Lavina Gibbons. Born Aug. 25, 1850. 

(4) Edward Gibbons. I5orn April 5, 1862. 
MaiTied Olive R. Patterson. 

(4) Eli W. Gil)bons. 

(Second child of (3) Peninah Williams and 
Joseph Gilibons). 

Born June 27, 1840. 

aiarried Sept. 21, 1870, to (4M) Eliza J. Mc- 
Grew (daughter of Fiuley W. and Rebecca 
i\IcGrew, born July 31, 1846; died April 29, 
1918. age 72.) 


(5) Fi'ederiek R. (iibboiis. Born Sept. 22. 
1871. Died June 21, ISSl; 

(5) Edith K. Gibl>ons. P.orn Oct. 19, 1875. 
Married Charh-s T. Clai'k. 

(5) Albert W. Gibbons. I'.orn Oct. 9, 1879. 
Died April 8, ISS:!. 

(5) Emma L. Gibbons, P.orn :\Iarch 31, 1884. 

(5) Ernest il. and Edwin : D. Gibbons 
(twins). Born Oct. 28, 188(i. Ernest M. died 
March 3, 1888. Edwin D. died Julv 26, 1887. 

(5) Kditli E. 


(Second child of (4) Eli Gibbons and Eliza 
J. McGrew.) 











■3 -S 


P ^ 






.£ S 









Bom Oct. 19, 1S75. 

Married Sept. 1, 1908, to (5M) Charles T. 
Clark (son of Alexander and Adaline Clark; 
born Jan. 17, 1845; died April 20, 1911, aged 

(6) Jennie I. E. Clark. Born Feb. 10, 1910. 
(6) Elma C. Clark. Born June H5, 1911. 

(4) Jcsepli B. Gibbons. 

(Ninth child of (3) Peninah Williams and 
(3M) Joseph Gibbons.) 

Born Feb. (i, 1850. 

Married first wife Sept. 7, 1876, to (4M) Re- 
becca Edgerton (daughter of James and IMary 
Ann Edgerton, born July '2S, 1856, died Oct. 


(5) N. Allen Gibbons. Born July 21, 1877. 
Married Nov. 4, 1908, to (5M) Lida T. Kreis 
(born Feb. 28, 1881V 


(6) Infant, bi)rn Nov. 9, 190.9, died same day. 

(6) Lida Helen Gibbons, born ilareh 10, 


(4) Joseph B. Gibbons. 

Married second wife March 24, 18)7, to (4M) 
Elma Thomas (daughter of Bradna>- and Ra- 
chel Thomas). 


(5) Clara B. Gibbons. 

Born April 25, 1898. Died :May 9, 1900. 

(4) ]\Iartha Gibbons. 

(Eleventh child of (.3) Peninah Williams and 
(3M) Joseph Gibbons.) 

Born June 26, 1852. 

Died Jan. IS, 1901. 

iMarried to (4M) Joshua DeWees. 


(5) Elwood DeAVees. Born March 13, 1871 
(mai-ried Anna Giffen). 

(5) Marianna DeWees. Born Jan. IS, 1874 
(married Oliver Binns). 

(5) Joseph DeWees. Born Sept. 13, 1875 
(married Helen Fay Shipley). 

(5) William Wilbur DeWees. Born May 9, 
1879. Died Sept. 20, 1880. 

(5) Clifton DeWees. Born Sept. 4th, 1887. 
Died Feb. 27, 1888. 

(5) Elwood DeWees. 

(First child of (4) Martha Gibbons and (4M) 
Joshua DeWees.) 

Horn March 13, 1871. 

:Mari'icd -May 10, 1899, to (5M) Anna Gifit'en 
(daughter of Peter and Katherina Gilifen, born 
Sept. 1, 1874). 


(6) Katherina DeWees. Born July 11, 1904. 
((i) Dorothy DeWees. I!orn May 14, 1907. 

(5) IMarianna DeWees. 

(Second child of (4) Martha Gibbons and 
(4M) Joshua DeWees.) 

Horn Jan. 18, 1874. 

Married to (5M) Oliver Binns. 

(5) Joseph DeWees. 

(Third child of (4) Martha Gibbons and 
(4M) Joshua DeWees.) 

Born Sept. 13, 1875. 

Married Oct. 2, 1901, to (5M) Helen Fay 
Shipley (daughter of Vincent and Ann Ship- 


= E 



(6) Watson S. DeWees. Born July 4, 190-2; 

(6) Martha Grace DeWees. Born Feb. 28, 

(6) Helen M. DeWees. Born April 3, 1909; 

(6) Wilford J. DeWees. Born April 14, 

(6) Donald E. DeWees. Born May 13, 1913. 

(4) Edward Gibbons. 

(Fourteenth child of (3) Peninah Williams 
and (3M) Joseph Gibbons.) 

Born April 15, 1862. 

Married April 28, 1898, to (4M) Olive R. Pat- 
terson (daughter of Eli and Tabitha Patterson, 
born Oct. 11, 1869). 


(5) Lcland 8. Patterson. Born .Sept. 12, 1900, 

(5) Mortimer C. Patterson. Born March 2, 

(3) Martha Williams. 

(Ninth child of (2) Sa;nnel Williai 
Sarah Arnold Williams.) 

Born Apri 

1822. Died Dec. 29, 1849. 

Age 27. 

Married Nov. 21st, 1843, to (3M) Jonathan 
Stanton, wiio was one of six children of Borden 
Stanton and Nancy Stanton. 


(4) Richard W. Stanton, 
(4) John W. Stanton, 

(4) Eliza Jane Stanton. 

(3) Samuel B. Williams. 

(Eleventh child of (2) Samuel Williams and 
(2M) Sarah Arnold Williams.) 

Born near Somcrton, Belmont Co., Ohio, 
March 27, 1827 ; died May 19, 1904. Age 77. 

Married March 14, 1850, to (3M) Ruthannah 
Hampton,- born Sept. 11, 1826; died Oct. 31, 
1891, at Martin's Ferry, Ohio (sister of Sarah 
Ann Hampton, who was the mother of Milton 
F. Williams, the author of this history). 


(4) Willoughby Leroy Williams. Born Feli. 
14, 1851, Somerton, Ohio. Died March 2, 1854, 
Barnesville, Ohio. 

(4) Emma Orilla Williams. Born March 27, 
1853, Baresvillc, Ohio (mari-ied June 3, 1879, 
(4M) Joseph L. Wells, Martin's Ferry, Ohio). 

(4) Sarah Jane Williams. Born Jan. 27, 
1856, Baresville, Ohio. Died Dec. 25, 1862, 
Bridgeport, Ohio. 

(4) Mary Klla Williams. Born Feb. 13, 1859, 
Baresvillc, Ohio. Died July 2, 1860, Bares- 
ville, Ohio. 

(4) Joseph Comley Williams. Born Sept. 20, 
1861, Baresville, Ohio. Died Dec. 7, 1862, 
Bridgeport, Ohio. 

(4) Flora Anna Williams. Boi'n Dec. 17, 
1863, Wheeling Island, W. Va. (married Sept. 
18, 1889 (4M) Walter L. Williams, Wheeling, 

(4) Samuel Mortimer Williams. Born Nov. 
1st, 1867, Wheeling Island, W. Va., now living 
Lima, Ohio (married first wife, Eliza Hyer, of 
Hannibal, Ohio, who died August 26, 1907 ; 
married second wife (4M), Edith M. Kniseley, 
Oct. 7, 1908, of Lima, Ohio, who had two daugh- 
ters, Lucille and Jeanerette Kniseley, by her 
first husband). 



5 i 


m 1 





















i *j o .2 


Again (3) Samuel B. Williams. 

Married second wife Dee. 23, 1892, Rebecca 
Warrall Bundy, who died April 6, 1901. 


Orilla Williams. 

(Second child of (3) Samuel B. Williams and 
(3M) Ruthanna Hampton.) 

Born March 27, 1853. 

Married June 3, 1879, to (4M) Joseph L. 
Wells, Martin's Ferrv, Ohio. 


(5) Lorle Eloisc Wells. Born July 27, 1880 
(married Ralph E. Rider) ; 

(5) Paul Mortimer Wells. Born Sept. 16, 
1881 (married Elizabeth K. Swartz). 

(5) Lillian Ruthannah Wells. Born Aug. 4, 
1884 (married Colven Bird Gray). 

(5) Lorle Eloisc Wells. 

(First child of (4) Emma Orilla Williams 
and (4M)Joseph L. Wells. 

Born July 27th, 1880. 

Married March 24, 1904. to 
(5M) Ralph E. Rider (son of Eugene II. and 
Lulu Donahu Rider, Martin's Ferry, Ohio). 


Jan. 10, 

(6) Lawrence Eu<>ene Rider. Bon 
1905. Died Jan. 14, 1905 ; 

(6) Lois Ruthannah Rider. Born Dec. 12, 
1905. Died March 26, 1906 ; 

(6) Emmy Lou Rider. Born .Alarch 29, 1913, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

(6) Jane Elizabeth Rider. Born April 22, 
1915, Atlanta, Ga. 

(5) Paul Mortimer Wells. 

(Second child of (4) Emma Orilla Williams 
and (4M) Joseph L. Wells.) 

Born Sept. 16, 1881. 

Married July 25, 1905, to 
(5M) Elizabeth K. Swartz (daughter of Henry 
and Lucy Ellis Swartz.) 


(6) Paul Hampton Wells. Born Jan. 14,1911. 
Died Jan. 18, 1911. 

(6) Lawrence Henry Wells. Born March 18, 
1907 (Martin's Ferry, Ohio). 

(6) Nina Eloise Wells. Born April 5, 1909 
(Martin's Ferry, Ohio). 

Ruthamiah Wells 

(Third child of (4) Emma Orilla Williams 
and (4M) Joseph L. Wells.) 

Born Aug. 4, 1884. 

Married Aug. 30, 1903, to 
(5M) Colven Bird Gray (son of J. Colven Gray 
a)ul Clara Bird). 


(6) Joseph Mortimer Gray. Born March 25, 

(4) Flora Anna Williams. 

(Sixth child of (3) Samuel B. Williams and 
(3M) Ruthanna Hampton Williams.) 

Born Dec. 17, 1863, Wheeling Island, W. Va. 

:Married Sept. 18, 1889, to 
(4M) Walter L. Williams, Wheeling, W. Va. 

(4) Samuel Mortimer Williams. 

(Seventh child of (3) Samuel B. Williams 
and (3M) Sarah Arnold Williams.) 


£ S ^ I E 



Born Nov. 1, 1867, Wheeling Island, W. Va. 

Married (first wife) Eliza Hyer of Hannibal, 
Ohio, who died Aug. 26, 1907. . 


(5) Flora Irene Williams. Born Nov. 2. 
1892, Martin's Ferry, Ohio (married Carl Dean 
Crites) ; 

(5) Samuel Godfrey Williams. Horn Oct. 1, 
1895, Lima, Ohio. Died July 31, 1913, Lima, 0. 

Again — 

(4) Samuel M. Williams married, Oct. 7, 
1908, second wife, Edith Monuette Kniseley 
(born July U, 1S76. who had two daughters, 
Lucile and Jeanerette Kniseley, by her first 


(5) Robert ilonnette Williams. Horn June 
24, 1911 ; 

(5) James Mortimer Williams. ISorn Jan. 6, 

(5) Flora Irene Williams. 

(First child of (4i .Samuel Mortimer Wil- 
liams and '4M) Eliza liver Williams.l 

Born Nc 

Married Feb. 6. 191.5, to (5-M) C 
Crites, at Lima, Ohio. 


Note. — This is as far as I have been able to 
trace the descendants of (2) Samuel Williams 
(my grandfather), the son of (1) Robert Wil- 
liams and Anne Shoebridge Williams, as shown 
by the third limb of the Genealogical Tree, Cut 
No. 268. It only remains to trace the descend- 
ants of John Shoebridge Williams, as shown by 
the fouith liiid) of said tree. 

(2) John Shoebridge Williams. 

(Son of (1) Robert Williams and (IM) Anne 
Shoebridge Williams.) 

Born July 31, 1790, near Beaufort, N. C. 

Died April 27, 1878, age 88, at Viola, Iowa. 

Married Sept. 16, 1813, to 

(2M) Sarah Patterson (one of nine children of 
Joseph and Hanna Marmon Patterson.) Born 
April 8, 1790 ; died May 29, 1858, at Cincinnati, 
0. Age 68. 


(3) Benjamin Franklin Williams. Born June 
6, 1815. Died Aug. 15, 1S74. 

(3) Hannah Marmon Williams (Stone). 
Born Feb. 27, 1817. Died Dec. 15, 1876. 

(3) Robert Fulton Williams. Born May 21, 
1819. Died August 11, 1903. 

(3) Anne Shoebridge Williams (Beman). 
Born Aug. 8, 1820, Brownsville, Pa. Died Nov.. 

(3) John Bouvier Williams. Boi'ii Aug. 4, 
1822. Died Sept. 14, 1835, age 13. 

(3) Elizabeth Williams (Ayres). Born Nov. 
18, 1824. Died Oct. 21, 1846. 

(3) Jo:;eph Patterson Williams. Born June 
22, 1827. Died Oct. 12, 1909. 

(3) Sarah Jane Williams (Farmer). Born 
May 4, 1829. 

(3) Mary Louisa Williams. Born Nov. 21, 
18^1. Died May 24, 1836. 

(3) Martha Belle Williams (Van Vleck). 
Born Dec. 23, 1833. Died Jan. 11, 1903. 

Again — 

(2) John Shoebridge Williams married sec- 
ond wife Aug. 26, 1858 (2M) Drusilla Horner 
(the daughter of John and Lydia Horner, born 
Sept. 15, 1829, and died Oct. 24, 1870, without 



S > 

^ I |- 

15 1 

I — 3:'_^ 

S S S 

S=i B ^ 

I ^ 

E I 



" z 

Eg & 

^ I s 

s ~ 

— ro 0) ^ 

o i*- !5 -a 

■5 -= o o 

± E -. ^ 

L. n ^ 00 

c ^ -a 

S I 

•^ =" >,S o o 



Joseph Patterson. 

Born March IS, 1753. 

Died May 7. 1816. Age 63. 

Married, 1775, to 
Hannah Marmon. Born Feb. 27. 1753. Died 
Feb. 9, 1820. Age 67. 

Nine children : 

Benjamin, boi'n 1778 ; 

Jaminia, boin 1776: 

Anne, born 1779; 

John, born 1781 : 

Elizabeth, born 1783; 

Jool. born 1785. 

(2M) Sarah, born April 8, 1790. Died May 
29, 1858. She was married to (2) John Shoe- 
bridge Williams Sept. 16. 1813, and had ten 

Rebecca, 171)2. 

Isaac, 1795. 

(3) Benjamin Franklin Williams. 

(First child of (2) John Shoebridge Williams 
and (2M~) Sarah Patter.son of Cincinnati, Ohio.) 

Born June 6, 1815, ai ]\v 
Died Aug. 15, 1871. Ag, 


Married. April 7, 1836, to fiist wife 
(3M) Rebecca Wright Ward (child of James 
and Martha Wright Ward, of Paris, Ky.). Born 
Oct. 3, 1814. Died Feb. 4, 1844, at Cincinnati, 


(4) Charles F. Williams. Born in Hillsboro, 
0., Jan. 21. 1837. Died 1858. 

(4) Mary Louisa Williams. Born in Hills- 
boro, 0., Nov. 25, 1838. 

(4) Henry Harrison Williams. Born Jan. 10, 
1840, in Hillsboro, 0. Died Feb. 22, 1882. 

(4) Virginia R. Williams, born in Hillsboro, 
0., Feb. 14, 1842. Died 1846. 

(4) James and John Williams (twins). Born 
in Cincinnati, 0., Dec. 3, 1843. 

(4) Henry Williams 

(Third child of (3) Benjamin Franklin Wil- 
liams and (3M) Rebecca Wright 'Ward Will- 
iams), was married somewhere in Kansas, and 
there were two children born — a girl named 
Hallie, and a boy, but there is nothing definite- 
ly known of them — only that the wife and the 
little bov died. 

(4) Johi 

(Sixth (■ 


(if {:'.) Bcujaiiiin Fi-iiiklin Wil- 
liams and Rebecca Wright Ward Williams.) 

Born Dec. 3, 1843. Died . 

Married to 
(4M) Martha Crites (daughter of Langston). 
Born . Died Sept., 1892. 

Again — 

(3) l)cnjamin Franklin Williams. 

(Fi)-st child of (2) John Shoebridge Williams 
and Sai'ah Patterson Williams, Cincinnati, O.) 

Married Dec. 21, 1847, second wife, (3M) 
Lucy Nye, born April 5, 1824, Cincinnati, O. 
Died March 3, 1902, Waterloo, Nebr. Age 78. 


(4) Edwin Williams. Born July 12, 1850 
Twin Falls, Idaho). 

(4) Louis Williams. Born March 12, 1854 

(Seattle Wash.). 



(4) James B. Williams. Born Oct. 2S, 1S55 
(Stapleton, Neb.). 

(4) Frank Williams. Born Sept. 7, 1856. 

r4) Edwin William?, 

(First child of (3) Benjamin Franklin Wil- 
liams and (-'l) Lucy Nye Williams (Cincinnati, 

Born July 12, 1850, at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Died . 

Married April 10, 1873, to 
(431) Alice Huddleston (daughter of Solonnni 
and Christina Myers Huddleston of Dublin, 
Ind.) Born Jan. 18, 1855, Duhlin, Ind. 


(5) Walter H. Williams. Born Sept. 20, 

(5) Madge Williams. P.orn Oct. 24, 1880 ; 

(5) Georgia Williams. Born Feb. 5. 1883. 
Died March 14, 1883 ; 

(5) Karl Williams. Boi-n .March 2, 1884; 

(5) Frank Williams. Born Jan. 18, 1887. 
Died July 29, 1894. 

(5) Christina Williams 
(5) Walter H. Willian 

•n April 10, 1890. 

(First child of (4'i Edwin Williams and (4:\I) 
Alice Huddleston Williams of Dublin. Ind.) 

Born Sept. 20, 1874, at Dublin, Ind. 

Married June 2, 1901. to 
(5M) Mary Morris. Born Oct. 12, 1880, Dublin, 


(6) Christina Elizabeth Williams. Born May 
30, 1902. 

(5) Madge Williams. 

(Second child of (4) Edwin Williams and 
^4M) Alice Huddleston Williams of Dublin, 

Born Oct. 24, 1880, at Dawsonville, Ga. 

Married Sept. 12, 1900, to 
(5M) G. W. Moore at Dublin, Ind. 

(6) Harold W. Moore. Born March 17,1902. 

(4) Louis Williams. 

(Second child of (3) Benjamin fi'anklin 
Williams and Lucy Nye Williams, Cincinnati, 

Born March 12, 1854, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Married Dec. 12, 1890, to 
(4M) Minnie S. Shrader (daughter of Charles 
and Ellen C. Young Shrader of Lancaster, Wis. 
P>oru at Lancaster, Wis., Feb. 26, 1868.) 


(5) Frank S. Williams. Born Oct. 31, 1893. 
Died Oct. 16, 1895. 

(4) James B. Williams. 

(Third child of (3) Benjamin Franklin Wil- 
liams and Lucy Nye Williams of Cincinnati, 0.) 

Born Oct. 28, 1855, Cincinnati, 0. 

Married March 19, 1892, to 
(4M) Cora E. Lee (daughter of Joseph and 
Selina J. Douglas, Madison Co., Ind.) Born 
Madison Co., Ind., April 20, 1870. 


(5) Merle Williams. Born March 19, 1893; 
(5) Rexford Williams. Born Oct. 11, 1894; 
(5) Amy Williams. Born March 9, 1896 ; 


o o 
£ <n 


(5) Hallie Williams. Born May 14, 1897 ; 

(5) Dorothy Williams. Born Oct. 19, 1898; 

(5) Theodore R. Williams. Born April 21:, 

(4) Frank Williams. 

(Fourth child of (3) Benjamin Franklin Wil- 
liams and Lucy Nye Williams of Cincinnati, 

Born Sept. 7, 1856, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Married July 1, 1887, to 
(4M) Eunice McNeill (daughter of Allen and 
Ruth McNeill of Montreal. Canada). Born in 
Watertown, N. Y., Nov. 10, 1870. Died June 

A little baby j)oy was born and was l)uried 
with his mother. 

Again — 

(4) Frank Williams. 

(Fourth child of (3) Benjamin Franklin 
Williams and Lucy Nye Williams of Cincinnati, 

Born Sept. 7, 1856, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

ilarried May 14, 1895, to (second wife) An- 
nie Volck (child of Henry and Elizabeth Beech- 
er Yolek, of Chicago, Ills.) Born Oct. 3, 187(5, 
at Chicago. 


(5) Harvey Bellcwood Williams. 
Born Sept. 8, 1899. 

(3) Hannah ]\Iarinon Williams. 

(Second child of (2) John Shoebridge Wil- 
liams and (2M) Sarah Patterson Williams, of 
Cincinnati, Ohio.) 

Born Feb. 27, 1815, at Brownsville, Pa. 

Died Dec. 15, 1876, age 59. 

Married Sept. 13, 1838, to 
(3M) Benjamin T. Stone. Died June 24,1888, 
San Jose, Cal. (No children.) 

(3) Robert Fulton Williams. 

(Third child of (2) John Shoebridge Wil- 
liams and Sarah Patterson Williams.) 

Born May 21, 1818, at Brownsville, Pa. 

Died August 11, 1903, at Asbnry Park, N. Y. 
Age 84. 

ilarried Feb. 12, 1848, 

(3M) Louisa Farmer (the daughter of William 
and Mary Farmer of Cincinnati, Ohio.) Born 
March 3, 1823, Bath England. Died March 26, 
1893, New York Citv. Asie 70. 


(4) Walter Dark Williams. Born Aug. 16, 
1849. Died Dec. 28, 1870. 

(4) Rolierta Williams. Born June 19, 1855. 
Died Dee. 18, 18.58. 

(4) Robert. Born Sept. 9, 1858. 

(4) Hannah Marmon or (Dot). 

(4) Charles Williams. P>orn Nov. 18, 1865. 

(3) Anne Shoebridge Williams. 

(Fourth child of (2) John Shoebridge Wil- 
liams and Sarah Pattei'son Williams.) 

Born Aug. 8, 1820, Brownsville, Pa. 

Died Nov.. 1910. 

Married Sept. 13, 1838, to 

(3M) Isaac C. Beman (son of David and Eliz- 
abeth Beman). Born Dec. 23, 1813. at Boston, 
Mass. Died May 21, 1868, at Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Age 55. 

(Divorced May 20, 1846, at Cincinnati, 0.) 




(4) Sarah Elizabeth Beiuan. Born July 2, 

(4) John Henrj' Beman. Born Oct. 21, 1840 ; 
died Feb. 6, 1847 ; 

(4) Anna Beman (Swain). Born July 30, 
1843. Died July 29, 1886. 

(4) Anna Beman. 

(Third child of (3M) Isaac Chandler Beman 
and (3) Anne Shoeb ridge Williams Beman.) 

Born June 30, 1843. at Reading, Ohio. 

Died July 29, 1886, at San Jose, Cal., age 43. 

Married May 25, 1865, to 
(4M) Remus Swain (son of Jonatiian and 
Eunice Gardner Swain of North Carolina). 
Born Jan. 17, 1839, in Jlarion Co., Ind. 


(5) Lawrence Swain. Born Ma.v 1, 1866. 
Died Dec. 10. 1868 ; 

(5) Anna Viola Swain (Du Bose). Born Dec. 
13, 1869 ; 

(5) Myrtle Swain (Damron). Born Feb. 22, 

(5) Anna Viola Swain. 

(Second child of (4]M) Remus Swain and (4) 
Anna Beman Swain.) 

Born Dec. 13, 1869, at Richmond. Ind. 

Married Oct. 3, 1889, to 

(5M) Gordon DuBose of Darlington, S. C. Born 
Sept. 27, 1865. 


(6) Anna Louise DuBose. Born Aug. 9, 
"1890. Died June 2, 1891 ; 

(6) Wilds DuBose. Born Sept. 29, 1891 ; 

(6) Clifton DuBose. Born Aug. 19, 1893. 
Died July 15, 1894; 

(6) Clifford DuBose. Born Jan. 4. 1895; 

(6) Sidney DuBose. Born March 15, 1898. 

(5) Myrtle Swain. 

(Third child of (4M) Remus Swain and (4) 
Anna Beman Swain.) 

liorn Feb. 22, 1878, at San Jose, Cal. 

Married to 
(5M) Charles Pleasant Damron (son of James 
and Sidney Rose Damron.) Born Oct., 1868, 
near A'ienna, Ills. 


(6) Anna Louise Damron. Born Sept. 19, 

(6) Helen Damron. Boru Nov. 19, 1902; 

(6) Katherine Damron. Born Nov. 2, 1904. 

(3) Elizabeth Williams. 

(Sixth child of (2) John Shoebridge Wil- 
liams and Sarah Patterson Williams, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio.) 

Born Nov. 18. 1824, at Uniontown, Pa. 

Died Oct. 21, 1846. Age 22. 

Married May 29, 1845, to 

(3:\[) John Williams Ayres. Died Oct. 22, 1847. 


(4) Bonvier A.yres. 

Born Jul.v, 1846, at Cincinnati, 0. Died Nov. 
14, 1846. 

(3) Joseph Patterson Williams. 

(Seventh son of (2) John Shoebridge Wil- 





Born June 22, 1827, at Cambridge, Ohio. 

Died April 10, 1910. Age 83. 

Married Nov. 24. 1852, to 
(3M) Jane Clifton (child of Joseph and Alice 
Crosby Clifton, Barnard Castle, England.) 
Born in 1832. Died April 10, 1910. Age 78. 


(4) Joseph Clifton Williams. Born Oct. 7, 
1853, at New York City. 

(3) Sarah Jane Williams. 

(Eighth child of (2) John Shoebridge Wil- 
liams and Sarah Patterson Williams, of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio.) Born May 4, 1829, at Zanesville, O. 

Married Oct. 10, 1848, to 
(3M) George Winter Farmer (son of William 
and JIary Dark Farmer of Bath, England.) 
Born Oct. 10. 1826, near Bath, England. Died 
Sept. 19, 1908, at Oskaloosa, Iowa. Age 82. 


(4) William Gisborn Farmer. Born Feb. 1, 

(4) Jennie Belle Farmer. Born Oct. 9, 1852 

(4) George Clinton Fanner. Born June 29, 

(4) Charles Edward Farmer. Born March 7, 

(4) Sadie :May Farmer. Born May 10, 1869 

(4) William Gisborn Farmer. 

(First child of (3M) George Clinton Farmer 
and (3) Sarah J. Williams Farmer of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio.) 

Born Feb. 1, 1850, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Married to 

(4M) Emma J. Webb (child of Thaddeus and 
Sarah Farmer Webb of Cincinnati, Ohio.) Born 
Aug. 15, 1853. 


(5) Roy Will Farmer. Born Oct. 1, 1877; 

(5) Carl Prescott Farmer. Born May 17, 

(5) Frederick Fenn Farmer. Born Jan. 12. 


(5) Robert Lee Farmer. Born Jan. 7, 1889. 

(5) Roy Farmer. 

(First child of (4) William Gisborn Farmer 
and (4M) Emma Jane Farmer of Keokuk, la.). 

Born Oct. 1, 1877, at Monroe, Iowa. 

Married : 

(5M) Susie Nell Fischer. 

(4) Jennie Belle Farmer 

(Second child of (3) Sarah Jane Williams' 
and (3M) George Clinton Farmer.) 

Born Oct. 9, 1852, near Bantam, Ohio. 

Married Oct. 1, 1884, to 
(4M) Frank Gridley Fowler (son of Anson and 
Harriette Gridley Fowler of Wheatland, Mich.) 
Born April 24, 1836, Wheatland, Mich. Died 
Nov. 13, 1907, Bridgeport, Conn. Age 71. 


(5) Francis Clinton Fowler and Frederick 
Anson Fowler. Born Sept. 17, 1887. 

(5) Francis Clinton Fowler 

(Son of (4M) Frank Gridley Fowler and (4) 
Jennie B. Fowler.) 

Born Sept. 17, 1887, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Married Oct. 9, 1912, to 
(5M) Lillian I. Munson of Warehouse Point, 



(5) Frederick Anson Fowler 

(Son of (4M) Frank Gridley Fowler and (4) 
Jennie B. Fowler.) 

Born Sept. 17. 1887, at Bridgeport, Conn. 

Married Dee. 28, 1916, to 
(5M) Vira Antoinette Brailling of Stratford, 

(Fred is twin brother to Francis.) 

(4) Geo. Clinton Farmer Jr. 

(Third child of (3) Sarah Jane Williams 
Farmer and (3jM) Geo. Clinton Farmer of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio.) 

Born June 29, 1850. 

(4) Charles Edward P^'armcr (fourth child of 
(3M) George Clinton Farmer and (3) Sarah J. 
"Williams Farmer, Cincinnati, Ohi".) 

Born March 7, 1861, near Bantam, Oliio. 

Married Sept. 8, to 

(4M) Anna ^IcKittriek (daughter of Alex. 
Blakcly and Elizabeth Stewart McKittriek of 
Des Moines, la.). Born Feb. 28, 1868, Boons- 
boroush, la. 


(5) George Edward Farmer. Boi-n June 24, 
1899, in Oklahoma Territory. 

(4) Sadie May Farmer 

(Fifth child of (3M) George Clinton Farmer 
and (3) Sarah Jane Farmer, Cincinnati, Ohio.) 

Born May 10, 1869, at Keokuk, Iowa. 

Married Sept. 27, 1905, to 
(4M) Judge Lucien C. Blanehard of Oskaloosa, 

(3) Mary Louisa "Williams 

(Ninth child of (2) John Shoebridge Wil- 

Died in fifth year. 

(3) Martha Belle Williams 

(Tenth child of (2) John Shoebridge Wil- 
liams and Sarah Patterson Williams, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio.) 

Born Dee. 8, 1833, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Di«d Jan. 11, 1903, at Boston, Mass. Age 69. 

Married Dec. 8, 1852, to (3M) William Van 
Vleck (son of Tunis and Mary Brown "Van 

Born Sept. 9, 1820, Peterboro, N. Y. 

Died March 24, 1881. Cincinnati, O., age 60. 

Boin in Ohio. 

(4) William Van Vleck, Jr. 

Born Oct. 25, 1853. Died Sept. 25, 1880. 

(4) Charles W. Van Vleck. 

Born July 21, 1855. 

(4) George Van Vleck. 

Born Oct. 3, 1863. Died Aug. 20, 1864. 

(4) Anna Belle Van Vleck. 

Born Jan. 30, 1867. 

(4) Charles Van Vleck 

(Second child of (3M) William Van Vleck 
and (3) Martha Belle Van Vleek, Cincinnati, 

Born July 21, 1855, at Cleveland, Ohio. 

Married Oct. 10, 1883, to (4M) Egtelle Lashe 
of Atlanta, Ga. 

Born May 14, 1858. 



(5) Helene Estelle Van Vleck. 
Born Dec. 22, 1885. 

(4) Anna Belle Van Vleck. 

(Fourth child of (3M) William Van Vleck 
and (3) Martha Belle Van Vleck, Cincinnati. 

Born Jan. 30, 1867, at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Married Aug. 1, 1899, to (4M) Francis Ham- 
let Owen of Boston, Mass. 

(Son of Thomas Owen and Elizabeth Grif- 
fiths, Burslem, England.) 

Born June 5, 1867. 

(5) Van Vleck Owen. Born Oct. 21, 1900. 

(5) Francis Hamlet Owen, Jr. Born July 
12, 1902. 

(.5) Anna Belle Owen. Born Dec. 15, 1905. 








St. Louis, 510., U. S. A. Cut No. 269 repre- 
sents Auguste Chouteau, -who was bom August 
14, 1750, at New Orleaus, La., who came to the 
site of the future St. Louis, and arrived here 
February 14, 1764, diseoveriug the country in 
general en route, and making different land- 
ings. On February 15, 1764, he began with 
his selected mechanics to build log cabins for 

neering and the daj's of backwoods engineer- 
ing. These men were a thousand times great- 
er, taking into consideration the times, than 
any educated engineer of today, when every- 
body is ready to cater to his wants. 


Cut No. 270 represents Pierre Laclede 
Ligueste, real founder of St. Louis, who also 

'' ''■''' K. ^ 




Cut No. 269— Begmii 

storing their tools and housing tliemselves, 
where now is Second and Walnut streets, or 
near the former site of Barnum's Hotel. As 
to Bai'uum's Hotel, I very well remember, and 
I think this building later became the prop- 
erty of Herman Heislcr. However, this is not 
authentic. Cut Xo. 269 shows the wonderful 
courage and undertaking of the sturdy adven- 
turers and staunch backwoodsmen of those 
days — men of courage in the days of early pio- 

left New Orleans on the •'-ird of August, 1763, 
with a cargo of merchandise, arriving at St. 
Genevieve, which Avas the only large French 
settlement on the west side of the Mississippi 
River, on the 3rd of November, 1763, leaving 
St. Genevieve shortly and arriving at St. Louis 
on the 14th day of February, 1764. Early the 
next morning the first trees were cut for cabins. 
We show in the engraving the noble redmen sit- 
ting in a pow wow, ready for controversy, and 


with the man having his sword elevated in air, 
which would indicate peace, and his colleagues 
surrounding him ready for the pow wow, and 
two Indians and a white man with a gun stand- 
ing in the background listening to the speech- 
making. Notice the two canoes at the shore 
which the rcdmen used, no doubt, for transpor- 
tation, as in those days they had no other 
means of navigation upon the water or across 
the river. The trees on the bluff indicate where 
the city of St. Louis now stands, with St. Louis 
county and the whole country surrounding on 
the west side of the I'iver at the great apex 
of hind between the Mississippi river and the 
Missouri river. The most eastern portion near 
the Mississippi river was covered with heavy 

Louis, not for Louis IX, but in honor of Louis 
XV, on the 15th of March, 1764. The first trees 
were felled to clear the ground on the river 
front between our present Market and Walnut 
streets. A shed was built to protect the pro- 
visions and tools and some cabins to shelter the 
men. The first colony consisted of 30 men. 
During the summer Laclede's house and store 
were built upon ground now bounded by Main, 
Second, Market and Walnut streets. Colonel 
Auguste Chouteau was then a very young man, 
13 years old. 

Laclede named the village St. Louis. In 1770 
There were 115 houses — 100 of wood and 15 of 
stone. Population was 500. In 1803, when the 

Cut No. 270— Making treaty 

timber, so that the early pioneei's hadn't any- 
thing before them but hard work, but being 
adventurous sturdy men out in the open, work 
was no doubt their chief happiness. They en- 
joyed the best of health, and knew nothing of 
the bickerings and the difficulties encountered 
in doing business like today. They had no 
competition. They drank in the free pure air; 
they did not belong to any labor union. Their 
hearts were full of glory, and the harder they 
worked the more their happiness and the great- 
er their glory. The.y were the real pioneers 
of America. 

The settlement of St. Louis was first known 
as "Laclede's Village."' Laclede named it St, 

United States purchased "Louisiana," the pop- 
ulation of St. Louis Avas 925, and contained 180 
houses, mostly stone. 


(By Idress Head, Librarian of the Missouri Historical 

Pierre Laclede Ligueste, a Frenchman — to 
whom jointl.v with his associates, Maxent et 
al., the Spanish Government had granted a, 
monopoly of the Indian trade in 1763 — seek- 
ing a location for his trading post, chose the 
site now occupied by St. Louis because of its 
advantageous position; but to Auguste Chou- 


teau, then a lad, belongs the honor of laying 
out the town and erecting the first homes, he 
being sent here for that purpose by Laclede 
with a company of men in the Spring of 1764. 

Later Laclede (as he usually signed himself) 
landed at the foot of what is now Walnut 
street, and named the post St. Louis, in honor 
of Louis XV of France, and his patron saint. 

For many years Saint Louis was called 
"Pain Court," a nickname applied to it in de- 
rision by inhabitants of St. Genevieve, who 
supplied all the flour at first lieeause of the 
scarcity of bread, due to the disinclination to 
farming among the French. In 1S03, when 
Louisiana was ceded to the United States, there 
Avere only two American families in the town. 

There were ouly three streets at this time — 
La Rue Royale (Main), La Rue de I'Eglise 
(Church street), now Second, and La Rue des 
Granges (Barn street), now Third, and most 
of the one hundred and eighty houses compris- 
ing the town were biult along the first two. 
At this time there were only two cross streets 
bearing titles. La Rue de la Tour (Tower 
street), now Walnut, and La Rue de la Place, 
the "Place" being the puldic market. It may 
be of interest to know that in 1826. wiien a sys- 
tem of street names was addjited, tlic names of 
trees were used almost uiiivnsally, though 
only a few of these are now in use — Chestnut, 
Olive, Pine and Walnut, ar.d .' of ^Market 
a few others still retain tlie original names 
In the western part of the city tliei'e ari^ two 
streets bearing historic names — rirand avenue 
and King's Highway. Grand avenue was the 
eastern boundary of the "Grand Prairie" in 
pioneer days, and King's Highway was the old 
colonial road, the property of the King. 

In 180;!, when the transfer of Upper Loui- 
siana was made to the United States, this Gov- 
ernment insisted that it be received from 
France according to the terms of the treaty 
with Napoleon. In ordei- to do this, Delassus, 
Spanish Commandant at Saint Louis, must first 
deliver the counti-y to some representative of 
the French Government, who in turn would de- 
liver it to the United States. Pierre Chouteau 

wa'3 first chosen to represent the French Gov- 
ernment, but was objected to on the ground 
that his residence here as a Spanish subject 
barred him. Captain Amos Stoddard was 
finally chosen, and arrived on the 9th of March, 
1803, and on his arrival run up the French 
flag as the Spanish descended. As the two 
flags met on the flagstaff, salutes were fired. 

In deference to the French nation, and by 
request of the inhabitants, the French flag re- 
mained until the following day, March 10th, 
when the same ceremony took place in raising 
the American Hag: thus Saint Louis has the 
unique distinction of having seen the flags of 
three great nations floating' over her in token of 
sovereignty within the space of twenty-four 
hours, a distinction that p(issi))ly caiuiot be 
claimed by any other city. 

A petition for the incorporation of Saint 
Louis as a town was presented in July, 1808, 
but was not granted by the Court of Common 
Pleas until November 9, 1800, with a popula- 
tion of about 1800, 

It was incorporated as a City in December, 
1822, with a population of about 4800, and cov- 
ering an area of three luindred antl eighty-five 
acres. Now it embraces forty thousand acres, 
with a frontage on the Mississippi river of 
twenty miles, and a population of over 700,000. 
In October of the year 1922, it is planned to fit- 
tingly celebrate the one liumlrcdtli amiiver- 
sary of the incorporation of this great city, and 
to erect a permanent monument at this cele- 
hi"ition in commemoration of that event. 

The first fei'iy across the ilississippi was 
kept liy Calvin Adams, an American, below 
what is now Elm street. This ferry consisted 
of two pirogues tied together, with planks laid 
across the top, ami his chai'ge for bringing 
over a man and ji-irse was $2.00. Adams also 
kept the only American tavern, called "The 
Old Green Tree House." 

The first record of unusual high water at 
Saint Louis was in 1766, the next in 1785 — 
called "L'annee des Grandes Eaux" (the year 
of great waters), equaled only by that of 1844- 
1851-1858, and possibly 1903; the last being in 


Saint Louis has also been visited by other 
disasters. In 1849 a great fire swept the en- 
tire river front and business section, destroy- 
ing twenty-three boats and many blocks of 
buildings, the damage being estimated at 
$3,000,000. In the summer of the same year 
the cholera epidemic claimed four thousand 
persons; and in May, 1896, a destructive cy- 
clone swept over a portion of the city, destroy- 
ing much property and killing many persons. 

The first paper published in the town was 
"The Missouri Gazette," the first number being 
issued in July, 1808, with Joseph Charles as 
editor, he having the contract to do the print- 
ing for the then "territory of Louisiana." At 
that time the paper consisted of fo