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Full text of "Willy Lou's house book; a collection of proved recipes, hints and suggestions for practical cooking, housekeeping and housewifery"

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 



WILLY LOU'S 
HOUSE BOOK 



A COLLECTION OF PROVED REaPES, HINTS AND 

SUGGESTIONS FOR PRACTICAL COOKING 

HOUSEKEEPING AND HOUSEWIFERY 



By 
WILLY LOU 



INDIANAPOLIS . ^ ' / c 



THE BOBBS-MERRILL COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS ' ', >' 



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L 7?i, uj 



Copyright 1913 
Charlotte C. Hough 



mesa or 

■RAUNWORTH A OO. 
"^OOKBINOCRS AND printchi 
BRQOKLVN, N, y. 



s\ 



INTRODUCTION 

To My Readers: 

I have tried all the recipes and the sug- 
gestions given in this book. Some of them 
I originated, many came from friends, a 
few from cooks whom I have employed. 
It was my wish to make a practical little 
book for housekeepers, because when I 
was a young housekeeper, just beginning, 
I would have been glad to have such an 
aid in doing things that now seem easy 
and simple. Nor does any housekeeper 
ever learn it all. If my book shall prove 
a sort of exchange of housekeeping wis- 
dom, I hope you will call me your friend. 

WILLY LOU. 



CONTENTS 



CBAPTBK FAGB 

I Things You Ought to Know .... 1 

II Insect Pests 28 

III WEIGHTS, Measures and Times . • .37 

IV The TRermometeil in Cooking ... 42 
V Breads 45 

VI Soups 55 

VII Fish 58 

VIII Good Combinations in Serving ... 65 

DC FiRELEss Cookers and Cooking ... 72 

X Cooking in Paper Bags . . . • • 82 

XI Cooking Game Birds ..... 90 

XII Cooking Vegetables 93 

XUI Salads .......•• 97 

XIV Cakes 106 

XV Icings, Frostings and Filungs • . .123 

XVI Puddings 127 

XVII Desserts, Ices and Fruits . • . .133 

XVIII Pies 140 

XIX Preserves and Pickles 145 

XX The Chafinq-Dish 151 

XXI Cold Dishes 156 

XXII Summer Drinks 158 

XXni Home-Made Candies 161 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 



I 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE 

BOOK 

Chapter I 

THINGS YOU OUGHT TO KNOW 

The Refrigerator 

The care of the food in the refrigerator is an 
all important thing. Butter and lard should al- 
ways be kept in covered packages. Meats should 
be covered with parchment paper. Parchment 
paper comes in rolls of five pounds each and can 
be purchased, from your grocer. It can be 
bought for fifteen or sixteen cents a pound. A 
pound will last the ordinary-sized family a long 
time. Parchment paper is better than paraffin 
paper, as it does not absorb the moisture so read- 
ily. Cheese, too, should be covered and kept by 
itself, as it gives out a strong odor. Never put 
onions, cabbage or other strong vegetables in the 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

refrigerator. Milk also should be kept in glass 
bottles tightly covered, as it takes odors very 
quickly. 

Buying in small quantities is the wisest plan, 
as the warm weather approaches, if ice is not 
taken and there is no cool cellar. The kitchen 
closet is usually too warm for keeping fresh 
meats and vegetables in perfect condition. 

Glass Jars 

It is a good plan to keep the staples used in 
the kitchen daily in labeled glass jars, those with 
wide mouth, preferred. Spices keep their fresh- 
ness and flavor longer in this way. 



To Preserve Lu 

Household linens should never be put away 
in drawers or on shelves until perfectly dry; 
otherwise they will mildew. 

The Broom Bag 

Bags of cotton flannel with a draw-string are 
good to place over the broom to remove the dust 

2 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

from the hardwood floors. These bags are labor 
savers. Draw the string in the bag tight to 
prevent slipping off from the broom and use 
it to clean the edges of the polished floor. 
This removes the dust and saves the washing 
of the floors so frequently, and also helps to 
keep the finish fresh for a longer time. A few 
yards of material will make a number of bags 
and there should be at least a half dozen, as they 
soil very quickly. They are inexpensive to make. 
The bag should be a little larger than the broom. 

The Dust Cloth 

A couple of yards of cheese-cloth make a 
good duster. First wash the cloth to prevent the 
lint from flying about when it is used. A little 
good furniture polish applied to the cloth occa- 
sionally keeps the furniture frames in good 
condition, and free from finger-marks. If care 
is taken the furniture is benefited by washing, 
once or twice a year, in lukewarm water in 
which a little very good white soap has been 
dissolved. It must then be rubbed dry and pol- 

3 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

ished off with a soft cloth, moistened with furni- 
ture polish. This is a good treatment for the 
dull finished wood, not the piano finish. I have 
had good success in taking care of old mahogany 
furniture in this way. Furniture does not need 
to be shining brightly to be clean and attractive. 
To remove the finger-marks and the filmy look is 
all that is really necessary. 

The Water-Pipes 

Water-pipes should be cleansed thoroughly, at 
least once a week, with hot water and ammonia. 
Chloride of lime is another good disinfectant. Sal 
soda is effective if used in hot water. 

To Remove Fly Paper 

If a sheet of Sticky Fly Paper, or Tangle-foot, 
should become fastened to your clothing, loosen 
it by the use of alcohol. 

The Furnace 

Put your furnace in order in the spring. It 
will then be reaay for the first cold days in the 
autumn. 

4 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Clean Bowls 

Kerosene may be used on a clotH for the clean- 
ing of porcelain bowls and bath-tubs. It removes 
the brown stains made by the water. Rinse off 
with warm water and wipe dry. 

The House Sponge 

If you will use sponges in house-cleaning you 
will avoid trouble and a useless lot of dirty 
cloths lying about. Two sponges are all that 
one person would need, one in the soapy water 
and one for the clean rinsing water vessel. 

To Clean Carpets 

Carpets and rugs may be freshened by the 
use of salt, brushing it off quickly with a broom. 
Wet newspapers dampened, torn and strewn over 
the rugs and carpet make another good bright- 
ener. 

To Sift Ashes 

Ashes should never, be sifted in the cellar or 
in any part of the house, unless a covered sifter 
is used, and even then the out-of-doors is better. 

S 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Keep Out Dust 

Cheese-cloth stretched over a light frame and 
placed in the bedroom windows will be found a 
good protection from the dust. The frames may 
be held in place by drawing the window down to 
rest on them. 

To Boil Potatoes 

Potatoes when cooked by boiling should be 
served immediately, but if they must stand, this 
will help to keep them fresh: Pour off the 
water, shake carefully over the fire to dry them. 
They will then become mealy. Place a clean 
cloth loosely about them and stand in a warm 
oven. The cloth prevents the potatoes from be- 
coming soggy through the absorption of the 
steam. 

To Remove Grease 

Grease can be removed from wall-paper by 
using a blotting paper and a hot iron. It may 
have to be treated several times before entirely 
removed. 

6 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Keep Fruits 

Dissolve paraffin and while warm pour over 
jars of jelly or marmalade, cover closely with 
brown paper and paste or tie down to side of jar. 
This prevents the air from reaching the fruit and 
keeps it from molding. 

To Take Paint From Glass 

Try oxalic acid dissolved in hot water to re- 
move paint spots from window-glass. 

To Keep Parsley Fresh 

Place in a Mason jar and screw the top on 
lightly. Parsley can be kept for some time in 
this manner. 

To Remove Mildew 

Rub the spot with lemon juice and salt and ex- 
pose in the hot sun. Salts of lemon may be used 
also; but first wet the material when spotted. 

To Clean a Sponge 

If a sponge is soaked in milk two hours and 
rinsed thoroughly in warm water with a spoon- 

7 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

ful of carbolic acid added, it will be cleansed per- 
fectly. It is well ta hang a sponge in the open 
air every day or two. This prevents the sppnge 
from souring. 

Temperature of Cut Glass 

Cut glass will not stand rough treatment. It 
will break as quickly from extreme cold as ex- 
treme heat, so be careful about putting contents 
of either temperature into the cut glass bowl be- 
fore it has been slightly heated or chilled. 

To Reduce Chocolate 

It is not worth while to spend time grating 
chocolate. Place the amount required in a dou- 
ble boiler. You will find that it melts quickly 
and is quite as desirable as chocolate grated. 

Concrete in Floors 

The cellar floor should be made of concrete. 
It can then be swept easily and washed when 
necessary. It is also well to have the walls of 
the cellar whitewashed once a year. 

8 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Clean Cut Glass 

The water for washing the glass should be 
tepid. Use white soap-suds and add a small 
amount of ammonia to soften the water. Place 
a soft cloth in the basin before putting the glass 
piece in. This will prevent the scratching pi the 
dish. Use a soft brush and a lintless cloth. 
Rinse in clear water of the same temperature. 
Dry with a soft cloth that is lintless. The pol- 
ishing can be done later with a clean chamois. 

To Remove Ink 

Chloroform will remove inlc stains from white 
goods if used before laundering. Buttermilk 
also will usually remove ink stain. 

Grease in Silks 

Grease spots can be removed from sillE ma- 
terials by using a small piece of magnesia. Wet 
the spot before rubbing on the magnesia, let it 
dry and brush away the powder. The spot 
should then be gone. Prepared chalk is good, 
top, but use the chalk dry and lay the garment 

9 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

away for a day or two before brushing the chalk 
off. If the spot has not entirely disappeared, try 
again; or place between two pieces of blotting 
paper and use a hot iron. 

Fish-Bone in Throat 

A fish-bone can be dislodged from the throat by 
using a gargle of viiiegar, the acid dissolving 
the bone. 

To Restore Mahogany 

Try rubbing the meat of a pecan nut over any 
scratched surface of mahogany. It will darken 
the scratched place. 

Sticky Pans 

A little flour dusted over the greased cake pan 
will prevent the cake from sticking and paper 
will not be necessary. 

Taking Out Cakes 

If cake tins are placed on a wet cloth when 
taken from the oven, the cake will slip f rpm the 
pans without sticking to the bottom. 

10 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Clean a Teapot 

If the teapot is fflled with water and a table- 
spoonful of soda put in it and boiled, the stains 
may be rubbed oflF. This may have to be tried 
more than once. 

To KiU Odors 

By applying a small coal to a lump of cam- 
phor gum you will have a good disinfectant. The 
fumes rid the room of unpleasant odors. Some- 
times a little sugar on a small fire shovel with 
a burning coal answers the same purpose. 

To Clean Bottles 

Try buttermilk in bottles that have become 
stained. Let it stand in the bottles for some 
time. 

To Kill Cabbage Odor 

When cooking cabbage or cauliflower place a 
cup of vinegar on the stove. It will help to kill 
the odors and also keep the flies away. A few 
spices may be dropped in the vinegar if liked. 

II 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Protect Jars 

Place a silver spoon: in the glass jars before 
putting in the hot fruit This will keep the jars 
from breaking as the fruit is poured in. 

To Smooth the Flat-Iron 

When the starch sticks to the flat-iron, rub 
on a piece of fine wire screening. The screening 
may be placed on a paper on the ironing board 
and the iron rubbed .over it. This is better than 
scraping with a knife and saves time. Wax in 
a cloth is also good to rub the iron with. 

To Restore Paint 

If the newly painted white surface has become 
scratched, try rubbing with a slice from a fresh 
lemon. 

To Aid Simps 

A little cream of tartar added to boiling sirups 
will prevent sugaring. To two cups of sugar 
add one-third of a teaspoonful of cream of tar- 
tar. 

12 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Aid Pie Crust 

Pie crust will not become soggy if rubbed 
over with egg white before the filling is put in. 

To Protect Dress Skirts 

To prevent a skirt placket from tearing, sew 
a hook and eye at lower end of opening, hpok 
and press flat. 

To Remove Spots 

Spots can be removed from wash fabrics if 
rubbed with yolk of egg before washing. 

To Extinguish Burning Oil 
Throw flour on burning oil instead of water. 

Handy Package 

Cut the comers from all heavy envelopes. 
They are good to hold coins sent through the 
mail. 

To Make Meat Tender 

Tough meat is benefited by laying in vinegar 
a few minutes before cooking. 

13 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Clean Brass Beds 

Rub the bed first with sweet-oil, rubbing hard 
to take off the spots, then rub with a clean flan- 
nel and dry rottenstone. 

To Clean Flat-Irons 

Rusty flat-irons should be rubbed with bees- 
wax and lard. 



To Clean 

CovtT the matting with a little com-meal. 
With a flannel cloth and warm water wash clean 
and wipe dry. Do not use too much water as it 
softens the matting, and do not wash too often. 

How to Hang Clothes 

When hanging out clothes hang skirts by the 
bands, night-dresses by the shoulders and stock- 
ings by the toes. 

To Freshen a Salt Fish 

Put the fish in an eartheti or granite pan skin 
side up. Never put salted fish in tin. 

14 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Fringe Celery 

Cut the celery in two-inch pieces, cut each 
piece into several thin strips and let them lie 
in cold water for an hour or more be f pre using. 
This will curl thcnu 

A Flour Help 

Always sift the flour before using. It is also 
well to keep a small amount of sifted flour on 
hand in case of an emergency. 

To Remove Coffee Stains 

Pour boiling water through the stained linen, 
then dip the spot in strong ammonia water, rinse 
in cold water and put in the sun to bleach. 

How to Iron Clothes 

When ironing never use a dirty sheet on the 
ironing board or the clothes will be a bad color. 

For Blues that Fade 

Put one small teaspoonful of sugar of lead 
into a gallon of water. Let the materials stand 

IS 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

in this for some time, then rinse thoroughly be- 
fore washing. Be careful, as sugar of lead is a 
poison. 

To Clean Marble 

Melt a small amount of soap into a jelly. Use 
this with pumice-stone on a flannel cloth. Cover 
the marble and let it dry, then wash the powder 
oflf and wipe dry. This should make the mar- 
ble clean and smooth. 

Care of ICnives 

Never put the handles of knives into hot 
water pr they will crack. This is especially true 
of ivory handles. Steel blades should not be put 
into hot water. It removes the temper. 

For the Bath 

This is a good toilet water for the bath, if one 
likes home-made lotions : two drams of the best 
oil of lavender, eight ounces of alcohol and two 
tablespoonfuls of ammonia. A little in the tub 
gives a delightful fragrance to the bath. 

i6 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Be Clean 

Never allow rubbish to accumulate. It makes 
a home for moths and gathers dust. 

How to Help Washing 

When washing woolens, especially stockings, 
shake thoroughly to remove the dust, before put- 
ting them into the water. 

To Use Batter Easily 

Put the griddle cake batter in a pitcher. It is 
easier to pour it on to the griddle than to dip 
from a bowl with a spoon. 

To Keep Bandages 

A box of bandages should always be kept 
ready in every household. They should be torn 
from strong cotton or linen cloth and wound 
tightly. There should be several widths and 
with good length, narrow pieces for tying pur- 
poses. Keep in labeled jars. The^e are a great 
convenience and often wanted in a hurry. A 
dirty bandage is dangerous. 

17 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Beat Eggs Quickly 

A pinch of salt aids in the quick beating of 
the whites pf eggs. 



Medicine 

All medicine bottles and boxes should be plain- 
ly labeled and nothing ever taken in the dark. Do 
not keep poisons with other drugs in the medicine 
cabinet. Poisons should have a place pf their 
own far from drugs intended to be taken inter- 
nally. There is not enough care paid to this. 
Little bells can be tied to bottles containing poi- 
sons. The bell will always ring when moved. 

To Keep Soap 

Purchase your laundry and other soaps in 
large quantities. Place on the upper shelf of the 
pantry to dry. Soap dried in this way lasts 
longer than soap freshly purchased each week. 

To Preserve Linens 

It is well to have tablecloths and sheets folded 
widthwise occasionally, instead of lengthwise, as 

i8 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

this prevents the folds from always coming in the 
same creases. The linens will last much longer 
if ironed in this way. 

To Clean Pillows 

Feather pillows should be washed occasionally 
to keep them sweet, fresh and light. This is 
quite a task, but it well repays one. Make a 
bag of strong muslin, larger than the pillow- 
ticking. Stitch all around, leaving an opening 
of about a half yard. Open the pillow about 
the same distance. Take the bag in your lap, 
leaving the heavy pillow on the floor in front of 
you. Place the hag over the pillow, baste to- 
gether carefully and then stitch down. Shake 
the feathers into the muslin bag. Put your hand 
all around in the pillow-tick after separating 
from the muslin bag, to collect any feathers that 
may not have gone into the bag. Stitch the bag 
up tight. There should be plenty of room for 
the feathers to Ke loosely. Have a good warm 
sudsy water in which there has been a little 
borax added to soften. Souse the bag up 

19 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

and down, and press softly with the hands. 
Repeat the process in different waters until the 
last water is clear, then you may know your 
feathers are clean. Run through a very loose 
wringer, so that the feathers will not be broken. 
Hang in the hot sun. The bag containing the 
feathers must be hung out each day for several 
days, say ten days, as it takes a long time for 
feathers to dry perfectly, and then the air helps 
to lighten them. Have your pillow-ticking 
washed and ready for the feathers when dry. 
Many times pillows have been thought worn out 
and this treatment has made them quite as good 
as new. This is a better treatment than a com- 
pressed air process. July is a good month for 
this work as the sun is hot. Hang the bag on a 
line so that there is a better circulation of air 
through the feathers. 

To Freshen Rubber Bands 

The rubber bands for preserve jars may be 
renewed by soaking them in strong ammonia 
water. 

20 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

To Remove Paint From Wool 

Paint stains on woolen material can be re- 
moved by using turpentine. 

To Polish Furniture 

A good furniture polish is made by taking 
equal parts of linseed oil, turpentine and vinegar. 
Shake the bottle well before using. 

To Launder a Lingerie Parasol 

Shave a good white soap into a pint pf water 
and let it stand on the stove until it has all dis- 
solved. Fill a tub partly full of warm clear 
water. Open the parasol and stand it over the 
tup of water and scrub with the hot suds, using 
a medium soft brush. When all the stains and 
spots are gone, rinse in the water, closing the 
parasol. Change the water and rinse again to 
be sure that all the grimy water has been re- 
moved. Rinse in a slightly blued water. Take 
the parasol out-of-doors, open and hang in the 
sun and wind, handle down until dry. You can 
tie the parasol on to a clothes-line if you like. 
The water drips from it more evenly in this way 

21 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

than when resting on the ground or porch. You 
will find your parasol will look quite as good as 
the day you purchased it. The bluing clears it 
and leaving it open until dry gives the cover the 
look and feeling of new material. 

To Wash Woolen Blankets 

Dissolve white soap enough to make a good 
strong suds in boiling water, add a tablespoonful 
of ammonia. This softens the water. .When hot 
pour this water over the blankets and work it 
thoroughly through them, without the use of the 
rubbing board. Rinse thoroughly in water to 
which has been added a little melted soap, then 
rinse in clear water. Put through a very lopse 
wringer, shake well and hang in the sun to dry. 
Always choose a clear sunny day with some 
wind as the blankets will dry quicker and look 
better. This is a much better way than sending 
woolen blankets to the cleaner. 

Simple Remedies 
It is always well to have in every household 
some simple remedies. If these drugs are at hand 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

it often prevent* the calling of the doctor. This 
is especially true where there arc little children 
in the family, f pr they meet with many accidents. 

Arnica is always good for a bruised knee or 
a pounded thumb. It helps to take the soreness 
out and also prevents the flesh from becoming 
black and blue. 

Carbolic salve or carbolated vaseline is another 
good remedy to keep pn hand, as well as listerine, 
peroxide, camphor. Prepared mustard plasters 
are good in an emergency, although not so good 
as those made from mustard mixed with the 
white of an egg pr mixed with lard. The tgg 
white or the lard will prevent the skin from 
blistering. 

Surgeon's court plaster should always be on 
hand. Absorbent cotton and gauze, too, are use- 
ful. 

There is a soft green soap that when dissolved 
in water is cleansing and useful in washing cuts 
and sores. It should be used warm. 

A few drops of camphor in a tablespoonful of 

23 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

water is useful in summer complaint. Sometimes 
a little camphor or sugar will stop a cold at the 
start A teaspoonful of ginger in warm water is 
also good for summer complaint. 

Keep on hand a bottle containing pne ounce of 
glycerin, one ounce of rose-water and ten drops 
of carbolic acid. It is good for rough or chapped 
hands. 

A bottle of goose-grease is good to have at 
hand in case of croup or tightness in the chest 
A bottle of camphorated oil is also good. 

The juice of a lemon stirred thick with sugar 
has been known to benefit hoarseness, also the 
white of an egg stirred thick with sugar is bene- 
ficial. 

Always shake any bottle containing liniment 
before applying. 

For the Sick 

The following recipes are very often found 
nourishing, palatable or refreshing to the sick. 

Jellied Chicken Broth 
The broth from a stewed chicken, boiled down 

24 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

until it will jelly, is good. When cool skim off 
the greater part of the fat, otherwise it will be 
too rich for a sick person. 

Beef Extract 

One pr two pounds of beef from which the 
fat has been removed. Cut into small pieces and 
place in a covered Mason jar, screw the top 
on tight and set in a kettle of hot water until the 
juice is extracted. Keep the water hot all the 
time, but not boiling. This will take some time, 
but in this way only the pure juice is obtained. 
This extract can be diluted with a little water, 
cream or milk, as desired. Do not add any of 
the liquids to the juice until the time of giving 
it to the patient. This is very nourishing. 

Milk Porridge 

Have a half -pint of water boiling. Mix a 
large tablespoonful of flour in cold water or milk, 
stir into the boiling water and boil fifteen min- 
utes; add a teacupful of cold milk and let come 
to a boil. Add a little salt. 

25 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Toast Water 

Toast slices of bread until quite brown, put 
them in a pitcher and pour over them boiling 
water and let them stand for some time, or un- 
til the flavor of the toast is drawn out. This 
water can be taken cold or hot, witji pr without 
sweetening. 

Mutton Broth 

Boil a piece of mutton until all the juice has 
been extracted. Let it cool and skim off all the 
fat. Serve it to the patient with a little milk, or 
clear if liked that way. 

A Few Don'ts 

Don't try to broil over a slow fire. 

Don't try to broil over a smoky fire. 

Don't leave the doors open while you are broil- 
ing, as it causes a draft. 

Don't leave the kitchen while you are broiling, 
as the fat sometimes takes fire, blazes up and 
spoils the meat or fish. 

Don't try to cook preserves without stirring. 

26 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

A few marbles placed in the kettle in which the 
preserves are cooking will help to keep the mix- 
ture in motion, but stirring with a spoon is bet- 
ter. 

Don't cook preserves or jams over a gas fire 
without an asbestos mat under the vessel. 

Don't cover the kettle in which preserves or 
jams are cooking, as it will cause them to boil 
over. 

Dpn't use any but the best materials if good 
results are expected. 



T 



Chapter II 

INSECT PESTS 
Mollis 

The moth is the cause of a great deal of worry 
to housekeepers, and must be looked after care- 
fully. The little millers are seen flying about the 
house as early as February, and March is the 
month when they are said to lay their eggs. Dur- 
ing that month and April all good housekeepers 
should bestir themselves to action against future 
troubles. 

Blankets and all woolens that are hanging in 
closets or are put away in drawers or boxes 
should be taken out and aired in the bright sun- 
shine. Moths do not like sun and air. Clothing 
that is not to be used during the summer should 
be put away early after airing, before the moth 
has had time to "sting" the garments, for the 
eggs once deposited will go on and hatch after be- 
ing put away in some dark place. Camphor gum 

28 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

and tobacco are good to sprinkle through the 
folds. Tie these packages up tightly in news- 
papers, as moths do not like printers' ink, then 
slip into an old pillow-slip or a muslin bag, and 
tic tightly. Formaldehyde is also disliked by 
moths. 

Furs should be put away as soon as possible and 
not left to hang in dark places or lie in boxes. 
The warm sun fades the furs as spring ap- 
proaches, and the moth will find them if they are 
left hanging in closets or halls. Before putting 
the furs away they should be hung in the fresh 
air, and spatted gently with a soft brush or beater. 
There are many prepared bags on the market in 
which furs can be put away, but I prefer a cedar 
box. It is easy to look into the box during the 
summer months, take out the furs, look them over 
and replace them after hanging in the air for a 
time. These hints are useful where furs can not 
be placed in cold storage. Moths can not stand 
much cold. 

The moth will hide away in the wool of the 

29 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

upholstered furniture. A small stiff brush 
should be used each week, one that can go down 
into the tufts and where the back comes against 
the seats. Moths will work all the year through 
in our warm, steam heated apartments, so con- 
stant care is needed against them if we da not 
want to lose our woolen garments and valuable 
furs. 

Fur rugs, mounted heads and stuffed birds can 
be made moth-proof by the taxidermist. This 
is always a good precaution. 

Strange as it may seem, moths always seek 
the soiled spots in garments and will eat away 
every particle of wool there, so put your garments 
away clean. 

The Bedbug 

I presume that all, or nearly all housekeepers, 

have had some experience with the annoying bed- 
bug. 

I believe it is said that it is no disgrace to 
have bedbugs, but it is a disgrace to keep them. 

30 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

A very old-fashioned remedy fpr this trouble 
is the white of an egg and quicksilver. Beat the 
quicksilver into the egg until it is in vety small 
beads, not larger than the eye of a needle. Use 
a swab and go over all the woodwork of the bed- 
stead, into all the cracks and comers and the 
springs. The bedstead and springs should first 
be washed. Put the mixture around the tufts of 
the mattresses if there has been much trouble 
and on the comers, also around the base-boards 
of the room. Use about as much quicksilver as 
the egg will take. This is a deadly poison and 
must not be left standing around. It will do no 
harm on the bed, however. Our grandmothers 
used to do this each spring whether there were 
bugs or not. 

Gasoline, turpentine and mercury tablets 
(quicksilver) make another good remedy. Equal 
parts of turpentine, gasoline and two dozen tab- 
lets are the proportions. The mercury tablets 
should be dissolved in warm water first This 
mixture must not be used when there are arti- 

31 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

ficial lights, as the gasoline will explode. Do 
not leave it standing arotind, as it is dangerous 
in many ways. 

FUes 

Flies arc more dangerous than wild beasts or 
venomous serpents. They carry disease contin- 
ually. Without the fly, typhoid fever would not 
be contagious or at least would not be so much 
spread. Therefore kill all the flies whenever and 
wherever seen. One killed early in the spring is 
better than hundreds killed later in the summer. 
They breed fast, and they breed in filth. 

Use screens at doors and windows, of course. 
Train the servants and children to keep the 
screens closed. 

Use fly paper and fly traps if fljes have got 
in the house. A damp towel is often used to 
"spat" them with, and helps to kill many. Bet- 
ter a spot than a live fly. In short, kill the flies. 

Roaches 

Roaches are a great nuisance af times, and 

32 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

difficult to eradicate in some city houses and 
apartments. If in reach of a professional in- 
sect exterminator pr "bug man/' as he is some- 
times called, send for him. His powder is apt 
to do better than the home preparations often 
recommended. You can use insect powder 
around sinks, pipes and base-boards, etc., but do 
not use Paris green. It is too deadly a poison 
to have about. Keep your house clean and fresh 
and roaches are less apt to come. Dirty houses, 
hotels, restaurants, groceries and markets near 
by you may breed these nuisances for you. 

Mosquitoes 

The mosquito is sometimes almost as danger- 
ous as the fly. It is now known that yellow 
fever is carried by a certain species pf mosquito. 
Malaria is carried by another species. One or 
another sort will each year kill a hundred times 
as many people as all the deadly snakes in the 
world. Keep the mosquitoes out of the house, 
or kill them when they get in. 

Any alkali will kill the sting of a mosquito 

33 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

bite. Salt and water will ease it. Ammonia will 
do the same. Borolyptol will answer the same 
purpose. 

There are many "dopes" to drive away these 
pests, but these are more for out-of-doors use. 
Some of them allay the sting of the bite as well as 
serve to drive away the biter. 

Anta 

Ants do not like tartar emetic or Paris green. 
But be careful in using poisons. 

Ants rarely, bother except in farm pr country 
houses. They come after sweets. Keep sugar, 
preserves, etc., tightly covered or corked. Keep 
the pantry clean. Ants and other insects forage 
least in clean kitchens and cupboards. 

Fleas 

Some of the most virulent plagues known to 
man are spread by fleas, which have lived on in- 
fected animals. The bubonic plague is the prod- 
uct of rats and fleas. Though we do not have 
that plague in America, we can not tell when it 

34 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

may come. Therefore kill the fleas when you can, 
even though they seem only to be annoying. They 
are hard to catch, and in some warm countries, 
parts of Europe, California, Florida, etc., are 
very numerous and torment some persons very 
much. 

Insect powder will tend to protect a room, if 
around the edges of the floor. They are usually 
carried in on the clothing. When annoyed, re- 
move the clothing as soon as possible and find the 
marauder. A damp finger or a damp cloth will 
aid in holding the offender, if located. It is well 
to stand on a blanket while searching for the of- 
fender, as they can not hop from the fuzzy sur- 
face. 



res 

Th& chigre or "jigger" is a minute insect that 
lives in old logs or bits of wood. It burrows un- 
der the skin and makes a very painful swelling. 
If any of the family is affected, rub the bite or 
sore with bacon rind. They do not like the salty 
smoky fat. Chloroform is also good. 

35 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Ticks 

Sometimes a child or an adult brings in a tide 
from the open, and it may be hard to dislodge. 
The application of chloroform will help to dis- 
lodge it. Kerosene will do if you have nothing 
better. 






Chapter III 

WEIGHTS, MEASURES AND TIMES 

Times for cooking vegetables are, approxi- 
mately : 

Boiled potatoes 30 minutes 

Baked potatoes 45 minutes 

Boiled sweet potatoes 45 minutes 

Baked sweet potatoes i hour 

Boiled squash 25 minutes 

Baked squash 30 to 45 minutes 

Boiled green peas 20 to 45 minutes 

Boiled string-beans about i hour 

Boiled shell beans 5^ hour to i hour 

Boiled green com 20 minutes to i hour 

Boiled asparagus 1 5 to 30 minutes 

Boiled spinach i to 2 hours 

Stewed fresh tomatoes i hour 

Tomatoes canned 30 minutes 

37 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Boiled cabbage 45 minutes to 2 hours 

Boiled cauliflower 45 minutes to i hour 

Boiled onions i to 2 hours 

Boiled beets i to 3 hours 

Boiled turnips 45 minutes to i hour 

Boiled parsnips 45 minutes to i hour 

Boiled carrots 45 minutes to i hour 

The domestic measures of capacity are accepted 
as below : 

2 even teaspoon fuls make one even tablespoon- 
fuL 

2 even tablespoonfuls make one ounce. 

4 ounces make one gill. 

8 ounces make one cupful. 

2 cupf uls make one pint. 

2 pints make one quart. 

A cupful, pint or quart means even full. 

8 even tablespoonfuls make one gill. 

16 even tablespoonfuls make one cupful. 

32 even tablespoonfuls make one pint. 

4 heaping tablespoonfuls make one gilL 

38 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT 

2 even or i heaping tablespoonful of sugar 
weighs a little less than i ounce. 

3 J4 even tablespoonfuls of flour weigh i ounce. 

I pint of light flour weighs 9 ounces. 

I pint of packed flour weighs 1 1 ounces. 

I pint of cream of tartar, pressed, weighs 13 
ounces. 

I pint of cream of tartar not pressed, weighs 12 
ounces. 

I pint of baking soda lightly packed, weighs 14 
ounces. 

I pint of granulated sugar weighs 14 ounces. 

1 pint of Coffee A sugar weighs 13 ounces. 

In weights and measures we make these allow- 
ances : 
4 tablespoonfuls, i wine-glass or J4 cupful. 
8 tablespoonfuls, J^ cupful or ^ gill. 

2 gills or I cup equal J^ pint 
2 pints equal i quart. 

4 quarts equal one gallon. 

39 



WILLY LOU^S HOUSE BOOK 

1 even tablespoon ful butter or lard, i ounce. 
Butter, size of walnut, i ounce. 

Butter, size of egg, 2 ounces. 
i eyen cupful of butter, ^2 pound. 
4 cups of flour, I quart or i pound. 
3 cups of corn-meal, i pound. 

2 cups of granulated sugar, i pound. 
2^2 cups of powdered sugar, i pound. 
I pint of liquid, i pound. 

I pint of chopped meat equals i pound. 
The ordinary half-pint cup is used for the above 
measures. 

Valuable Measures 

These measures will be found valuable in prac- 
tical use : 

I dozen eggs should weigh i}i pounds. 

I teaspoonful of soda is used to i cupful of 
molasses. 

I teaspoonful of soda to i pint of sour milk is 
used. 

3 teaspoonfuls of baking powder to i quart of 
flour is used. 

40 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

J^ cupful of yeast or J^ cake compressed yeast 
to Yz pint of liquid is used. 

I teaspoonful of extract to i loaf of cake is 
used. 

I teaspoonful of salt to 2 quarts of flour is used. 

I teaspoonful of salt to i quart of soup is used. 

In making bread, use i scant cupful of liquid 
to 2 full cupfuls of flour. 

Use I scant cupful of liquid to 2 full cupfuls of 
flour for mufiins. 

Use I scant cupful of liquid to i full cupful of 
flour for batters. 

Use I quart of water to each pound of meat 
and bone for soup stock. 

Use 4 peppercorns, 4 cloves, i teaspoonful 
mixed herbs for each quart of water for soup 
stock. 



Chapter IV 
THE THERMOMETER IN COOKING 

One fault of most cook books is that of in- 
definiteness, and some of this indefiniteness it is 
impossible to evade. No instructions are so good 
as those seasoned with actual experience. There 
are, however, some common terms which may not 
convey the same meaning to all persons. For in- 
stance, how hot is a "hot" oven, or a "very hot'* 
oven, or a "warm" oven? What are the proper 
heats for cooking different foods, and how can 
such heats be gaged ? One cook says, "I test my 
oven by putting my hand in and feeling how hot 
it is." But how can you convey an accurate idea 
in a phrase such as this, or describe the results of 
a method such as this, which is perfectly practical 
to the experienced cook ? 

The answer to some of these questions is the 
cooking thermometer. By its use there can be a 

42 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

standard established from which one can reason 
or measure, as it were, and thus produce, with cer- 
tainty the same results each time. 

It is not intended to give temperatures required 
for cooking all sorts of foods, but only to mention 
what may be called a few of the standard tem- 
peratures. From these the good cook will readily 
reason out what is proper for other articles. 

Roast Meat 

Put a roast of meat in an oven temperature of 
400 degrees Fahrenheit. The cold meat will lessen 
the temperature slightly. The heat should be 
great enough to sear the meat when first put into 
the oven, as this searing retains the juices. Meat 
will roast at 350 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Marmalades, Jams, Jellies 

Cook at 200 degrees Fahrenheit, testing fre- 
quently for consistency. The time varies. A 
marmalade may require an hour and three quar- 
ters, a jelly very much less. The theory for 
these fruit juices is steady and long-continued 

43 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

heat of moderate degree rather than extreme heat 
for a short time. 

The foregoing will give some idea of the use of 
the thermometer, and experiment will do the rest 
for the reader. Cooking thermometers can be 
purchased at good supply stores. They will reg- 
ister as high as 600 degrees, but so great a heat 
as this is not necessary in ordinary cooking opera- 
tions. 

Bread 

The temperature for baking bread should be 
300 to 350 degrees Fahrenheit, and at this heat 
bread should take about forty-five minutes. 

Loaf Cake 

The temperature for loaf cake is practically the 
same as for bread, and the time for baking is 
about the same, forty-five minutes. 

Layer Cake 

Give layer cake a temperature of 350 degrees 
Fahrenheit, and leave it in from twenty to twenty- 
five minutes. 



» Chapter V 

BREADS 

Potato Bread 

Boil one good-sized potato until thoroughly 
done. Mash through a sieve, and add enough of 
the water in which the potato was boiled to make 
one pint. One-half pint of scalded milk, one 
tablespoon ful of lard, one tablespoon ful of but- 
ter, one tablespoon ful of sugar, one teaspoon ful 
of salt, one yeast cake that has been dissolved in 
one- fourth cup of lukewarm water. Pour all into 
the bread bowl, stir together, and while lukewarm 
add one and one-half pints of sifted flour. Cover 
and set in a warm place to rise until it has doubled 
its bulk, then add enough flour to make a stiff 
dough, turn on a floured board and knead until 
smooth and elastic. Return to the bowl and let 
it rise again until its bulk is doubled, turn on the 
board and knead with as little flour as possible. 

45 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

When the dough is elastic and bubbles form, 
knead, and make into three loaves ; place in pans 
and let rise until light. Bake in a moderate oven 
three-quarters to one hour. Rub the crust with 
butter when taken from the oven. This makes 
the crust tender. Always take pains with your 
bread-making. 

Another Way of Making Bread 

Dissolve one compressed yeast cake in one-half 
cup of warm water. Scald one pint of sweet 
milk. Have ready in the bread bowl one quart 
of sifted flour, one large tablespoonful of lard or 
one spoonful of lard and butter together, one 
teaspoon ful of salt, one tablespoonful of sugar. 
When the milk has cooled add the yeast cake and 
pour it over the contents of the bread bowl and 
mix into a soft dough, cover and stand in a warm 
place to rise. When light, knead and let it rise 
again. When light, make into loaves and put in 
the baking pans and rise until again light, and 
bake in a moderate oven from three-quarters of 
an hour to one hour. It thus rises three times. 

46 



WILLY LOU*S HOUSE BOOK 

Brown Bread 

Three cupfuls sour miDc, one-half cupful of 
molasses, three even teaspoonfuls of soda, two 
cupfuls of corn-meal, one cupful of graham flour, 
one cupful of white flour, quarter teaspoonful of 
salt. Steam three hours. One cupful of seeded 
raisins may be added if desired. 

Nut Bread 

Three cupfuls of graham flour, one teaspoonful 
salt, one teaspoonful soda, one cupful of sugar, 
one cupful of chopped walnuts, two cups of sour 
milk. Mix thoroughly. Add one cupful of 
white flour in which is mixed one teaspoonful of 
baking powder. Mix again and bake slowly one 
houn 

Lruncheon or Tea Rolls 

One-fourth cupful of butter, two tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar and one-half teaspoonful of salt to 
one cupful of scalded milk. When mixture is 
lukewarm add one yeast cake that has been dis- 
solved in one-half cupful of warm water, the 

47 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

white of one egg well beaten, three and three- 
fourths cupfuls of flour. There should be a pint 
of liquid, including the tgg. Knead on a slightly 
floured board, return to bowl and cover with 
cloth, keep warm and let rise until light. Kiiead 
again until smooth and elastic, shape into small 
roimds about one-half inch think, butter and fold. 
Put in pan and let rise until light. Bake twenty 
to twenty-five minutes. This recipe will make 
eighteen rolls. 

Bran Bread 

Put into the bread bowl two cups of bran flour 
and two cups of wheat flour. Add to this one 
tablespoonful of lard, one teaspoonful of salt and 
one-fourth cupful of molasses. Dissolve one 
compressed yeast cake in one-fourth cupful of 
tepid water. When dissolved add to one cupful 
of sweet milk that had been scalded and cooled. 
Pour this over the contents of the bread bowl and 
stir into a soft sponge. Stand in a warm place 
until light ; when light knead, using as little wheat 
flour as possible and let it rise again until light 

48 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Knead and put into the baking pans and let stand 
until light. Bake from forty-five minutes to one 
hour. This will make two loaves. 

Baking Powder Biscuit 

One quart of flour and two teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, one-half teaspoonful of salt, one 
tablespoonful of lard, one large cup of sour cream 
in which one-half teaspoonful of soda has been 
stirred. Mix all together thoroughly and roll 
out, cut with a small cutter, bake in a quick oven 
twenty to thirty minutes. 

Mush Bread 

Sprinkle a half-pint of white corn-meal into a 
pint of hot milk, cook about five minutes. If the 
mush seems thick, add a little more hot milk, as 
it must be thin. Take from the fire and stir in 
four well-beaten egg yolks. Fold in the well- 
beaten whites of the eggs, turn into a baking i»n ' 
and bake in a moderate oven about twenty min- 
utes. Serve at once. To be eaten with butter. 
Serve by spoonful. 

49 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Southern Spoon Com Bread 

Pour two and one-half cupfuls of freshly 
boiled water over two cupfuls of fine white com- 
xneaL Cover and let stand until cool; add one 
and one-half tablespoon fuls of melted butter, one 
teaspoonful of salt, yolks of two eggs well beaten 
and one-half cupful of buttermilk, one teaspoon- 
ful of soda dissolved in the milk. Beat thor- 
oughly and add the whites of two eggs beaten to 
a stiff froth. Pour into a baking dish and bake 
in a moderate oven forty-five minutes. Serve by 
spoonfuls. 

Wa£9e9 

Two eggs well beaten, one large cup of sour 
milk with enough baking soda to cause it to foam, 
probably a scant half teaspoonful. Flour to make 
quite a thin batter. These waffles are very light 
and crisp. 

Com Pones 

To a quart of southern com-meal, that is, white 
cora-meal, add a small tablespoonf ul of lard, half- 

50 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

teaspoonful of baking soda, half-teaspoonful of 
salt. Mix with enough buttermilk to allow you 
to make the batter into small oblong pones, rather 
thin. Place on a buttered pan and bake quickly. 
Good with honey or maple sirup. 

Popovcrs 

Two cupfuls of milk, one teaspoonful of salt, 
two cupfuls of flour, two eggs. Beat the yolks 
with the milk. Add gradually to the flour and 
salt Add the stiffly beaten white. Bake in gem 
pans. Have the pans hot and greased. Bake in 
a moderate oven, twenty minutes. 

MufEns 

Two eggs well beaten, one tablespoonful of 
sugar, two tablespoonfuls of melted butter, one 
pint of milk, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. 
Flour enough to make a soft batter. Bake in but- 
tered gem pans a half -hour. 

Muffins 

One egg, one and one-half cupfuls of sweet 
milk, one pint of flour, one and one-half teaspoon- 

51 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

fuls of baking powder, pinch of salt. Bake in 
muffin pans in a hot oven. 

Bran Muffins 

One cup of bran flour, one cup of wheat flour, 
one cup of milk, two eggs, one-half cup of mo- 
lasses, a quarter of a teaspoonful of salt and two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Bake about 
thirty minutes. This batter may be baked in a 
tin and eaten as bread when cold. 

Graham Gems 

Two eggs, one and one-half teaspoonfuls of 
sugar, butter the size of an egg, one cupful of 
sour milk in which there has been one-half tea- 
spoonful of soda dissolved. Graham flour enough 
to make a thin batter. Bake in gem pans about 
thirty minutes. 

Graham Muffins 

One cup of graham flour, one cup of white 
flour, two level teaspoonfuls baking powder, one- 
half teaspoonful of salt, one egg beaten light, one 
cupful of sweet milk, two tablespoonfuls of mo- 

52 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

lasses. Bake in gem pans about one-half hour in 
a moderate oven. 

Griddle Cakes 

One well-beaten tgg, one pint of sour milk, 
one full pint of flour, one teaspoonful of soda dis- 
solved in cold water and added to the milk, a 
half teaspoonful of salt. Add one tablespoonful 
of butter melted. A little sugar may be added if 
desired. 

French Toast 

Add to one cup of sweet milk one egg thor- 
oughly beaten and a pinch of salt. Slice your 
bread thin, dip in the mixture and fry on a but- 
tered griddle. Serve at once or it will become 
soggy. 

Drop Doughnuts ^ 

Two eggs well beaten, one cupful of sugar, 
one cupful sweet milk, three cupfuls of flour, two 
teaspoonf uls of baking powder. Beat a good deal 
and drop from a teaspoon into hot lard. There 
should be enough lard to float the doughnuts. 

S3 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

These doughnuts should be small, and are very 
good. 

A Breakfast CofFee Cake 

One egg, three-fourths cupful of sugar, one 
cup of milk, two tablespoonfuls of melted butter, 
one and one-half cupfuls of flour, one and one- 
half teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Sprinkle 
cinnamon and sugar over top before baking. 

Rice Croquettes 

To one quart of boiled rice add the beaten 
yolks of three eggs and a little salt. Make into 
an oval shape about an inch thick, dip in beaten 
tgg, roll in cracker dust and fry in hot fat. 

Fritters 

Two eggs, beaten separately, one cup of milk, 
two cups of flour, one generous teaspoonful bak- 
ing powder, quarter of a teaspoonful salt, add the 

stiffly beaten whites' of the eggs. Beat hard and 
drop from a spoon into deep hot lard. 



Chapter VI 



SOUPS 



Asparagus Soup 

Boil one bunch of asparagus, tips and stalks 
separately. When tips are tender put aside in 
water in which they have been cooked. When 
the stalks are tender rub them through a coarse 
sieve. Melt a tablespoonful of butter, add a 
tablespoonful of flour, one pint of scalded milk, 
slowly added, and cook until smooth. Add this to 
the asparagus pulp, using the water in which the 
tips were cooked. Season and add one table- 
spoonful of cream. The tips should be added 
last. Whipped cream may be placed on each dish 

as served. 

Cream of Asparagus Soup 
Two bunches of asparagus, boil asparagus in 

salted water to cover, until tender. Put through 

a sieve, add small piece of butter, one tablespoon- 

55 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

ful of flour stirred to a paste. Boil this in the 
asparagus water and one quart of cream. Boil 
a few minutes and serve. 

Cream of Tomzto Soup 

One can of tomatoes, one pint of hot water, 
two teaspoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of pep- 
per, one teaspoonful of soda, one stalk of celery. 
Let this boil one hour or until tender. Strain 
through a sieve. Have ready one quart of scalded 
milk. Add the strained mixture and to this add 
one-half cup of butter and four tablespoon fuls of 
flour stirred smooth in cold milk. Let all come to 
a good boil and take from the stove at once. 
Sprinkle a little chopped parsley over each dish 
as served. 

Bouillon 

One ten-cent soup-bone, one tablespoonful of 
sugar, two sprigs of parsley, four cloves, two 
pounds of soup meat, one-half onion, one-half 
carrot, one stalk of celery, one blade of mace, one 
small piece of veal, one-half teaspoonful each of 

S6 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

salt and pepper, four quarts of water, two bay 
leaves and one-half lemon. Chop the meat fine 
and add the cold water. Cook slowly four hours, 
but do not let boil. Chop the vegetables, brown 
the sugar, add the seasoning to the soup, simmer 
one hour longer, strain and when cool remove the 
fat. Reheat and before it boils stir in the whites 
of two eggs slightly beaten. Strain through a 
cloth and serve with a slice of lemon in each cup. 
Bouillon should be served in cups. 

Croutons 

Small pieces of bread cut into dice and fried 
crisp and brown are served in clear soups. 



Chapter VII 

FISH 

Planked White Fisfa 

To plank a white fish weighing about three 
pounds: Clean, remove head and fins. Cut the 
fish open the entire length on the under side. 
With a sharp knife loosen the backbone and the 
flesh from the ribs until you can take hold of it 
and raise it up and draw it up and out at the neck 
where the head has been taken off. If you can 
not remove the bone yourself, the marketman will 
do so for you. Wipe the fish with a clean dry 
cloth, season with salt and pepper. Heat the 
planking board and rub over it a little butter be- 
fore placing the fish skin side down upon it. Cook 
about thirty or thirty-five minutes. The time must 
be determined by the heat and the size of the fish. 
Serve on the board with melted butter and finely 
chopped parsley. A few slices of lemon may be 

58 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

placed on the board. Standards or frames, nickel- 
plated or silver-plated, may be purchased for the 
planking board. If you do not have a standard 
the board may be placed on a shallow platter when 
sent to the table. There is usually a little dip in 
the board for the melted butter. 

There is something very fascinating about a 
nicely planked fish when sent to the table on the 
board. A beefsteak may be done to perfection, 
also, in this way. 

Brook Trout 

The brook trout is one of the most delicate of 
fish. It should be cleaned soon after being caught 
and then kept cold and dry. It will suit the taste 
of the most fastidious when cooked in the follow- 
ing way : Do not allow the fish to stand in the 
water as it will take away some of the flavor of 
the fish, but wipe the fish dry, inside and out, with 
a clean damp cloth. Sprinkle the inside, along 
the backbone, with salt and pepper and fry in 
deep salt pork or bacon fat. The fat should be 
boiling, and the fish fried until a golden brown, 

59 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

or until the fork will pierce the flesh without 
sticking, or until there is none of the feeling as 
though the fork were going into cotton. Gar- 
nish with sprigs of parsley and thin slices of 
lemon. These fish are also delicious if fried in 
olive oil, using about one cupful of the oil for 
eight or ten fish, I should say. 

Fried Shad Roe 

Shad roe should be fried in deep, salt pork fat. 
Bacon fat may be used instead, but there is a fla- 
vor from the salt pork that can not be got from 
any other fat. The fat must be boiling hot when 
the roe is put in, otherwise it is liable to break. It 
requires about twenty minutes to cook it thor- 
oughly. The fork must go in easily, with no 
sticking, before you nmy be sure it is done. The 
roe must be well cooked, as there is an unpleasant 
flavor to it unless thoroughly done. Parsley and 
lemon make a good garnish for this fish. Fried 
potatoes are good served with it, also potatoes 
au gratin. Spinach and asparagus are good vege- 
tables to serve with this fish roe. Let the roc 

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WILLY LOU^S HOUSE BOOK 

stand in salt water for a half-hour. Dry before 
putting it in the fat. If the roe is pierced with a 
fork before putting it into the fat it may prevent 
spattering. 

Planked Shad 

Shad comes rather early in the spring and 
should be 'eaten then, as later it becomes soft and 
not so palatable. Of course it must come from a 
distance to many of us. I would follow the same 
directions in planking shad that are given for the 
planking of white fish. 

Baked Salmon for Luncheon 

There should be about a pound of the fresh 
salmon when it has been cooked, the skin and 
bones removed. Use one-^half cup sweet milk, 
one-half cup of fine bread crumbs, one table- 
spoonful melted butter, pepper and salt to taste. 
Sprinkle a little grated cheese over the top and 
bake about twenty minutes. If the fish seems dry, 
add a little more milk before putting in the oven, 
or as it is baking. A drawn butter sauce can be 

6i 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

served with this dish. It can also be baked in 
individual shells. You can use canned salmon in 
much the same way. 

Sardines on Toast 

Drain the oil and remove the skins from one 
box of sardines. Put a tablespoonful of butter 
into frying-pan, when hot put in the sardines 
carefully that they may not become broken, turn 
once and when thoroughly heated place a sardine 
on a tiny strip of toast and add a few drops of 
lemon juice. These fish can be prepared nicely in 
the chafing-dish. 

Sardines on Sliced Tomatoes 

Peel and slice the tomatoes quarter of an inch 
thick and place on a small lettuce leaf. Put two 
small skinned sardines on each slice of tomato 
and cover with French dressing. This makes a 
good relish. 

Crab Meat BaUs 

Pick over one pint of fresh crab meat Pick 
it over very carefully to remove all bones and 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

skin. Boil and mash one pound of potatoes. 
There should be about one and one-half pints of 
potatoes when mashed. Mix the potato and fish 
thoroughly together, add one egg well beaten, two 
tablespoon fuls of melted butter, and add pepper 
to taste. Beat all until light. Make into small 
balls and fry in deep fat. 

Clam Fritters 

Chop three dozen fresh clams, but not too fine, 
add one pint of milk and three eggs beaten to- 
gether, salt and pepper to taste. Use the liquor 
from the clams and flour enough to make a thin 
batter. Fry in deep hot lard. 

Oyster Pics 

Line small, deep pie tins with a rich biscuit 
dough ; cover the bottom lightly with flour. Pick 
the oysters over carefully to remove any pieces of 
shell, place in the pans with the liquor, season to 
taste with salt, pepper and bits of butter and tiny 
sprigs of parsley. Sprinkle lightly with flour, and 
cover with an upper crust in which a few open- 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

ings are made to allow the steam to escape. Bake 
twenty minutes or until a good rich brown. The 
tins, or dishes used for the pies should be about 
the size of a saucer. 

Creamed Oysters 

Pick over one quart of large fresh oysters, 
freeing them of any bits of shell. Rub together 
two tablespoonfuls of butter and two tablespoon- 
fuls of flour. Put into the cooking pan one pint 
of sweet cream and the butter and flour. When 
it is beginning to boil add the oysters, season with 
pepper and salt. Serve on crisp toast. 

Creamed oysters are easily prepared in the 
chafing-dish. 



Chapter VIII 
GOOD COMBINATIONS IN SERVING 

With Mutton 

Serve with a boiled leg of mutton, a caper or 
tgg sauce, creamed or mashed potatoes, peas, 
cauliflower, asparagus or spinach. Sliced to- 
matoes are good. For the caper sauce, make a 
drawn butter sauce, using two tablespoonfuls of 
butter, one tablespoonful of flour and a large cup 
of milk. Water may be substituted for milk. Add 
three tablespoonfuls of French capers, remove 
from the fire and add a little lemon juice. For the 
egg sauce, have a drawn butter sauce, and add to 
it four hard-boiled eggs chopped fine. Also add a 
little finely chopped parsley. 

With Roast Beef 

Serve with roast beef or roast mutton a brown 
gravy, using a part of the dripping from the meat. 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Turn off a portion of the grease and add to the re- 
mainder one and one-half tablespoonfuls of flour 
and rub to a smooth paste, then add one cup of 
cold water and let cook until thick. Serve 
browned white or sweet potatoes, mashed turnips, 
peas, string-beans or baked com. 

Yorkshire pudding is also served with roast 
beef. Use three eggs, one pint of sweet milk, one 
and one-quarter cups of flour, a little salt Beat 
the eggs light and stir in the milk, add slowly to 
prevent lumps forming. Take four large spoon- 
fuls of dripping from the beef into a square pan 
and pour the batter into this, bake twenty min- 
utes. Serve in pieces placed around the beef on 
the platter. 

With Bacon 

Wash and slice, without peeling, four or five 
tart apples. Salt slightly. Place in the bottom of 
the baking dish two or three slices of bacon, cover 
with the apples, then add a few more slices of 
bacon. A thick covering of apples should be the 
top layer. Cover with a half-cup of water and a 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

little sugar. Bake until the apples are tender and 
a light brown. A piece or two of bacon may be 
added to the top layer if desired. This is a good 
dish for breakfast or may be served in place of a 
vegetable at dinner. 

With Meat Balls 

Mix one pound of raw beef chopped fine, about 
a half-pound of raw, lean fresh pork chopped fine 
and mixed with the beef. One-half cup of fresh 
bread crumbs, a large tablespoonful of butter 
melted, one egg well beaten, season well with salt 
and pepper, mix thoroughly. Make into small 
balls, about as large as a walnut, and fry in lard 
and butter until a light brown. A little milk may 
be added if the egg and butter do not make the 
mixture quite soft enough to handle well. Boiled 
onions, fried tomatoes and fried potatoes are 
good served with this dish. 

For Luncheon 

Use any cold roast, lamb, beef or veal and chop 
fine. Have about a pint of fresh bread crumbs 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

and a pint of stewed tomatoes. Cover lightly the 
bottom of the baking dish with crumbs, add 
chopped meat and a little of the tomato, season 
with salt, pepper and butter. Repeat until the 
dish is filled. Crumbs should be the top layer. 
Pour over all a half-pint of milk, unless there is 
a gravy to be used. The gravy makes the dish 
richer. It should be moist when served. Bake 
thirty minutes. 

Fried Apples 

Greening applies cut a quarter of an inch thick, 
having the skin on but removing the core. Cut 
in rings. Fry in hot butter and lard and sprinkle 
with brown sugar while frying. 

With Fish 

Tartar sauce is good with fish, whether broiled 
or fried. Make it of the yolks of two eggs, un- 
cooked, half a teaspoonful of dry mustard, half 
a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a teaspoonful of 
paprika and a little pepper. Beat together and add 
a small amount of oil and tarragon vinegar, alter- 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

nating until thick. Add a few finely chopped sour 
pickles or olives and French capers and a very 
small amount of chopped onion. 

With Roast Fowl or Pork 

To serve with roast pork, duck or goose : can- 
died sweet potatoes, creamed white potatoes, 
boiled onions, fried parsnips, baked tomatoes, or 
baked apples. Apple sauce is good also. I some- 
times bake the apples in the pan with roast pork. 

With Roast Chicken or Turkey 

With roast chicken or roast turkey serve a 
giblet sauce. Some prefer an oyster sauce with 
turkey. Mashed potatoes, boiled sweet potatoes, 
onions, mashed turnips, rice, peas, cranberry 
sauce, etc., go with fowls. 

With Beefsteaks 

With a nicely broiled beefsteak I like mush- 
rooms broiled or fried in butter, fried or broiled 
tomatoes, spinach, asparagus, peas. In fact al- 
most all vegetables are good served with beef- 
steak. 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

With BoUed Meats 

Horseradish sauce goes well with beef. Take 
three tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish root, 
one tablespoonful of vinegar, one-quarter tea- 
spoonful of salt, quarter teaspoonful paprika, 
four tablespoonfuls of rich cream. Mix the dry 
ingredients and add the cream beaten stiflf. Espe- 
cially good served with boiled meats. 

With Lamb Chops 

French fried potatoes or potatoes au gratin are 
good served with broiled lamb chops, so also are 
fried tomatoes, baked tomatoes, spinach, creamed 
cauliflower, cauliflower au gratin and artichokes. 
All meats should be served as soon as possible 
after cooking, especially steak and chops. 

With Roast Lamb 

A roast of young spring lamb is considered a 
delicacy. The hind quarter I think is preferable. 
Serve small new potatoes in melted butter with a 
little chopped parsley, green peas, asparagus or 
new cauliflower creamed or with melted butter. 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

With Pork Tenderloin 

A large pork tenderloin split and stuffed with 
bread crumbs well seasoned is good served with 
fried apples and mashed potatoes. Two tender- 
loins can be placed together and fastened with 
skewers. This is better than tying them together 
with string. The skewers may be purchased at 
the hardware store. 



1 



Chapter IX 
FIRELESS COOKERS AND COOKING 

There is no doubt that the fireless cooker has 
many advantages. It saves fuel, time and labor, 
and especially for the housekeeper who keeps no 
servant it is of the greatest assistance. 

There are so many kinds of these cookers on 
the market that one may be purchased to suit any 
purse. I prefer one in which baking and roasting 
can be done. These are provided with soapstone 
radiators, as they are called, which are heated on 
the stove and placed in the cooker, where they 
supply the source of heat. Care must be taken in 
heating these soapstone disks. If they are ex- 
posed to too great a heat at first they may crack 
open and possibly fall into pieces. They even 
have been known to explode violently when 
heated too rapidly while moist. They should be 
placed on an asbestos mat or an iron stove cover 

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WILLY LOU^S HOUSE BOOK 

until heated through. They may then be placed 
directly over the fire or gas burner and heated 
"sizzling hot." The heat can be tested by a moist 
finger. Never allow the radiators to become red- 
hot Never put a moist radiator over the fire. 
The radiators should be kept in a place where it 
is dry, on a steam radiator or in the sunshine. 
They must not be allowed to remain in the cooker 
when not in use. 

The cooker itself needs to be kept clean and 
dry. It should be placed in the open air and sun- 
shine occasionally. It must be wiped out care- 
fully after each using. Do not use too much 
water in washing it out. Dry it carefully, ab- 
sorbing all moisture. It is also best to allow the 
cover of the cooker to remain raised, as this will 
prevent any odor from gathering in it. If it re- 
mains closed all the time a musty smell is apt to 
come. 

Cooking can be done in these cookers without 
the radiators, but it is rather a steaming or stew- 
ing process. Meats and vegetables should first be 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

"started** on the stove. It requires more time for 
the cooking of food in the fireless cooker than on 
the stove, but after the articles are once in the 
cooker, they can be left to themselves. They are 
not liable to overcook. This helps the busy houses 
keeper very much. 

Boiled Ham 

Cover a half ham weighing six pounds with 
cold water, place on the stove and let it boil about 
five minutes, cover and remove to the cooker and 
cook for about five hours. Take from the cooker 
and remove the skin. A few cloves may be put 
into the ham, or it may be rubbed with egg, 
crumbs and brown sugar and placed in the oven 
for a half-hour or so before serving. 

Fricasseed Chicken 

Select a chicken weighing four pounds, clean 
and cut into pieces for serving. Place the chicken 
in the cooker kettle. Pour over a small amount 
of water, season with salt and pepper. Let it boil 
about five minutes before placing in the cooker. 

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WILLY LOU^S HOUSE BOOK 

The hot radiator is put in the bottom of the 
cooker first. No radiator is required to be placed 
on the top of the kettle. Do not use too much 
water. Less water is required in fireless cooking. 
It will require about three hours of cooking. 
Noodles can be put into the kettle the last forty- 
five minutes of the cooking, or the chicken with 
thickened gravy can be poured over hot biscuit. 

Roast Lamb 

A leg of lamb weighing five and one-half 
pounds will require four hours of cooking. First 
sear the roast in a little butter in a pan on the 
stove. When lightly brown remove the pan in 
which it is to be placed in the wire basket in the 
cooker. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Pour 
over it a half-cup of water and the butter that 
it was browned in. Place a hot radiator in the 
bottom of the cooker and place the wire basket 
containing the pan of meat on it. Put another 
hot radiator over the top of the wire basket. 
Close down the cover of the cooker and fasten. 
After the meat has been cooking one hour, raise 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

the cover and let the steam escape. At the end of 
two and one-half hours you will have a finely 
cooked piece of lamb. A gravy can be made from 
the liquor in the pan by thickening with a little 
flour that has been rubbed smooth in cold water. 
The cooking of the gravy must be done on the 
stove. It will take but a few minutes for it to 
boil up and be thick. 

Onions 

Allow the onions to boil five minutes on the 
stove, season with salt, cover with water and 
put in the cooker. It will require one hour to 
cook medium-sized onions. Use one radiator. 
There will be no disagreeable odor in the house 
when onions are cooked in this way. 

Pot Roast 

Have a three-gound pot roast (beef is bestj. 
Fry an onion in two tablespoonfuls of butter in 
a frying-pan on the stove. Place the roast in this 
and let it sear. Have ready two or three carrots 
diced, season with salt and pepper and place in 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

the cooker kettle. A little water may be added. 
Do not put kettle cover on, but place the frame 
for the holding of the radiator over the kettle. 
Place a hot radiator over the meat and cook three 
hours. Two radiators are used, one being put in 
the bottom of the cooker. The steam can be al- 
lowed to escape by raising the cooker cover once 
or twice during the roasting. 

Cauliflower 

Separate the cauliflower into small pieces. Put 
into the cooker kettle, cover with water and sea- 
son with salt. Let it come to a boil on the stove, 
cover and put in the cooker and let cook one hour, 
using one radiator. Melted butter may be poured 
over the cauliflower when removed to the serv- 
ing dish. This way of cooking is odorless. 

Asparagus 

Trim the tough ends from the asparagus. Put 
in the cooker kettle, cover with cold water and 
season with salt. Let come to the boil, place in 
cooker, using one radiator, and cook one hour. 

17 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

When ready to serve pour over the asparagus 
melted butter. Tie the asparagus together while 
cooking. 

Potatoes 

Pare and quarter, lengthwise, medium-sized po- 
tatoes. Place in the cooker kettle and cover with 
cold water, slightly salt. Let them cook five min- 
utes. Drain off the water and place in the cooker, 
using one radiator. It will require forty-five min- 
utes for the cooking. 

Spinach 

Wash the spinach carefully to remove all par- 
ticles of sand. Put in the cooker kettle and salt 
to taste. No water is required, as the leaves con- 
tain all that is necessary for the cooking. Cook 
one hour, using one radiator. 

Baked Potatoes 

Potatoes can be baked in the cooker. Place 
them in the wire basket, setting the basket on the 
hot radiator in the bottom of the cooker. A hot 
radiator is placed on top of the basket. Open the 

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WILLY LOU^S HOUSE BOOK 

cooker two or three times to allow the steam to 
escape. This must be done or the potatoes will 
be soggy. It requires some time for the baking 
of potatoes. Much depends on the size. It will 
require an hour and a half at least. 

Vegetables 

Vegetables cooked in a fireless cooker are ex- 
cellent. It makes them thoroughly tender. 

Cabbage 

Remove the outer leaves from a head of cab- 
bage. Cut the head in half and wash carefully. 
Put into the cooker kettle and salt slightly. No 
water is required, as the leaves of the cabbage re- 
tain sufficient water for the cooking. Use one 
radiator and cook one and one-half hours. Re- 
move from the cooker and season as desired. 

Bread 

Bread will bake very successfully in the fireless 
cooker. Put the tin containing the loaf of bread 
into the wire basket. Place the basket on the hot 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

radiator with another hot radiator on the top. It 
will require two hours to bake a medium-sized 
loaf of bread. Open the cooker cover two or 
three times to allow the escape of the steam. 
Small tins of bread will bake in less time, say one 
and one-half hours. 

Pies 

Pies require very hot radiators. Two should 
be used. The cooker cover must be raised to al- 
low the steam to escape, or the pie crust will be 
soggy. Pies are baked on ordinary pie tins and 
the tins are put in the wire basket. Apple and 
fruit pies require one hour for baking. Cakes 
and puddings are all good cooked in the fireless 
cooker. A loaf cake will require from forty-five 
minutes to one hour. Cakes containing fruit re- 
quire a longer time for cooking than a plain cake. 
Two radiators are always used in cake-baking. 

Sometimes a cake seems moist on the bottom 
when turned from the tin in which it has been 
cooked. If this is the case place it bottom side 
up in a hot oven for a few minutes. This can be 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

done without injury to the cake if handled care- 
fully. 

Do not become discouraged if a few failures 
are made. All cooking requires experience. Fail- 
ures come sometimes with coal and gas ranges. 
There is an old saying, 



If at first you don't succeed 
Try, try again." 



This may help when you first attempt fireless 
cooking. Almost any article of food can be 
cooked in a baking and roasting fireless cooker. 
The freedom from odors is a great advantage. 






Chapter X 
COOKING IN PAPER BAGS 

It is foolish to claim that cooking in paper bags 
will ever become universal, although there is a 
fascination about it for most. There are many 
things to take into consideration. First, buy the 
proper kind of bags. Bags are manufactured for 
this style of cooking and may be purchased from 
local news-dealers. They come in a number of 
sizes. It is well to have assorted sizes for the 
cooking of different articles of food. The sizes 
range from quite large bags to small ones. 

Do not try to use an imperfect bag; that is, 
one that may have a small hole in it or a split on 
the side, although it can be turned over and a 
clip used to secure the broken place. If the bag 
breaks while in the oven it is hard to manage. All 
bags must be thoroughly greased before using. I 

82 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

use a wad of tissue-paper for that purpose, al- 
though a brush may be used if desired, but one 
must be selected carefully, as the bristles in many 
of the brushes come out and they will stick on 
the greasy bag. Some of the bags come with fast- 
enings on them, but I usually fold the corners 
over, and slip a clip over each corner and three or 
four across the open end. This makes the bag 
tight so that no grease can escape or air enter the 
bag. 

My experiments in bag cooking have been made 
in a gas range, therefore I shall try to tell as 
nearly as I can about the heating of the oven. I 
turn on both burners to the full extent for about 
ten minutes before I put anything in the oven. 
This length of time should heat the oven very 
hot, 350 degrees Fahrenheit. I place my bag on 
a wire grid before placing the food in it. It is 
easier to handle in this way. Then I place the 
filled bag and the wire grid on the grid shelf in 
the oven and leave the full amount of heat on 
until the bag turns brown and the comers turn 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

up. This does not take more than a few minutes. 
Then I lower the heat about half and when the 
bag becomes quite a dark brown I turn off one of 
the burners and lower the remaining light to 
about one-third of full power and leave it so until 
the cooking is finished. Close watching is re- 
quired at first to make sure that no breaks come 
in the bags and that the heat is not too great. 
When done I remove the wire grid from the oven, 
with the bag on it, to a flat kettle cover. This 
helps to keep the bag from breaking, as by this 
time the bag is so charred that it will not stand 
very much handling. The seam side of the bag 
is always placed uppermost. 

Of course if a bag should burst it can be placed 
at once into another bag, or if the break is very 
slight it can be folded over and a clip used to se- 
cure the broken place. 

When the food is about done I make a tiny 
opening in the top of the bag to see if it has 
browned sufficiently and if it has not I open a 
little wider space. This can be done without in- 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

jury to the contents of the bag. The articles in 
the bags, however, are supposed to brown suf- 
ficiently without this being done. 

I will name a few articles of food that I have 
cooked successfully in paper bags. 

Halibut Steaks 

Use the ordinary slice of halibut, about one 
inch thick, season well with salt and pepper, and 
a little lemon juice if liked. Place in a thoroughly 
buttered bag and bake for twenty-five minutes. 
Before sending to the table sprinkle with chopped 
parsley. 

Roast Lamb 

Use a leg of lamb weighing about five pounds, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper and a little flour. 
Place in a thoroughly greased bag and add about 
half a tumbler of water. Tip the bag up a little 
while sealing, that the water may not run out. . It 
requires about one hour and a half to cook this 
roast. Large potatoes may be placed around the 
m^at and you will find them delicious baked in 

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.WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

this way. Large potatoes must be used or they 
will cook before the meat is done. 

White Fish 

The fish may have the bone removed if desired. 
Salt and pepper and place in the bag skin side 
down and bake for about twenty-five or thirty 
minutes. A hot oven is required for about ten 
minutes and a medium heat for the remainder of 
the cooking. Before sending to the table pour 
over the fish a little melted butter. 

Roast Pork 

Have a roast of pork weighing about four 
pounds, season with salt and pepper and place in 
a well-greased bag. Either apples or potatoes may 
be roasted with the pork. Add a little water. It 
will require about one and a half hours to cook 
this roast in a moderate oven. Pork should be 
well done. 

Pot Roast 

Use a piece of meat weighing about four 
pounds. Rub the meat well with salt and pepper. 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Have a large bag well greased. Place in the cen- 
ter of the bag a small piece of suet. Have ready 
two thinly sliced onions, three sliced carrots and 
some sliced potatoes. Place the meat in the cen- 
ter of the bag upon the suet and the vegetables 
around the meat. Add a small cup of water. It 
will require two hours for the cooking of this 
meat in a slow heat. 

Baked Apples 

Pare and core as many good-sized tart apples 
as your bag will hold, sprinkle over them a little 
cinnamon and a cup and a half of sugar. Place 
in a buttered bag and add half a tumbler of cold 
water. Seal the bag and bake thirty to forty min- 
utes. The oven must be hot at first, lessen the 
heat after the first ten minutes. 

Roast Quail 

Select fine plump birds and stuff them with a 
dressing made of bread crumbs and chestnuts. 
The chestnuts must be chopped very fine. No 
other seasoning is needed but butter and salt. 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Place a strip of bacon on each bird and place in 
a well-greased bag. They will require from forty 
to fifty minutes to cook. 

Meats shrink less in bag cooking than in any 
other way and also retain their juices. This con- 
stitutes the chief advantage of bag cooking. 



Pies should be placed on tin plates before put- 
ting into the bag. It will require about thirty 
minutes to cook a pie of the usual thickness. 
When cooking pastry there should be a few little 
openings made with a fork in the top of the bag. 

Baked Potatoes 

Potatoes are delicious baked in paper bags. It 

requires about the usual time, or perhaps a little 

longer, say forty-five minutes to one hour. 

Onions 

Onions may be cooked in the paper bag and so 
do away with much of the unpleasant odor. Se- 
lect onions of a uniform size, season with salt and 
pepper and place in a well-buttered bag with a 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

small piece of butter and a half-cup of water. It 
will require about forty minutes for the cooking. 
A little cream may be poured over the onions 
when placed in the serving dish. 

Cauliflower 

The same directions will apply to the cooking 
of cauliflower. 



Chapter XI 

COOKING GAME BIRDS 

Roasting Ducks 

Wild ducks should be roasted in a quick oven 

and should be a trifle rare rather than done dry. 

Use a dressing of finely chopped bread seasoned 

with salt, pepper and butter with a little chopped 

onion. The onion helps to do away with the fishy 

flavor sometimes found in wild ducks. A few 

slices of onions placed on the top of the duck 

while roasting is also good. A good filling is 

sometimes made from potatoes mashed and 

whipped until light, seasoned with salt, pepper 

and butter. Raisins and apples also make a good 
dressing. 

Broiled Quail 

Always pick the feathers from the birds instead 
of skinning them, for there is a little bit of fat 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

under the skin that is lost if the birds are skinned. 
Qean and rinse them out carefully, split open 
down the back, season with pepper and salt. Press 
the breast-bone as flat as possible, without break- 
ing. Place in the oven with the inside to the fire 
for about ten minutes, or until a little brown, 
turn over and place strips of bacon across the 
breast and broil about fifteen minutes, or until 
done, but not done dry. Serve on small pieces of 
buttered toast. 

Roasted Quail 

Roast quail are very good eating. Have the 
opening as small as possible where the intestines 
have been removed. Make a dressing of a small 
amount of bread crumbs, a teacup of finely chopped 
and boiled chestnuts, and season with salt, pep- 
per and melted butter. Do not have too much 
bread and other seasoning, as it will kill the flavor 
of the chestnuts. It takes very little dressing to fill 
a quail. It will require about thirty minutes to 
roast these birds. They should be basted with 
melted butter while roasting, and I usually put a 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

slice of bacon over each bird when placed in the 
oven. 

The above directions will apply to roast grouse. 
Squabs can also be cooked in this way. 

Canvasback Duck 

A canvasback duck is a great treat and should 
always be carefully cooked. I think twenty min- 
utes in a quick oven is about the right time for 
most tastes. There should be a dressing made 
from fine bread crumbs, well seasoned, but not 
too much onion, as it will kill the fine flavor of 
the bird. Another dressing can be made from 
prunes, apples and raisins. A tart jelly or some 
spiced fruit is always served with duck. 



Chapter XII 

COOKING VEGETABLES 

Candied Sweet Potatoes 

Boil the potatoes until tender, peel and cut 
lengthwise about a quarter of an inch thick. Place 
in the baking dish a layer of potatoes, sprinkle 
with light-brown sugar and small pieces of but- 
ter, repeat until the dish is filled. Cover the top 
layer with a sprinkling of sugar and butter and a 
little grated nutmeg, if liked. Pour over all a 
teacup of water or milk and let brown in the 
oven. 

Mashed Potatoes 

Try a little sour milk or cream in your mashed 
potatoes, about a quarter of a teacup of milk to 
enough potatoes to serve six people. The potatoes 
should be seasoned with salt and butter and 
whipped very light. The sour cream helps to 
make them light. 

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WILLY LOU^S HOUSE BOOK 

Potatoes Au Gratin 

Chop cold boiled potatoes very fine, cover with 
a white sauce. Put in the baking dish, cover with 
finely grated cheese and bake until brown, or until 
the cheese has melted and browned. 

White sauce is made with a pint of milk. Rub 
two tablespoonfuls of flour and butter together. 
Have the milk hot and pour gradually on the 
flour and butter, seasoned with salt and pepper. 

Cauliflower Au Gratin 

Boil a young cauliflower in salted water until 
tender. Separate the cauliflower into small pieces, 
put in the baking dish and pour over a white sauce, 
cover with grated cheese and set in ,the oven to 
brown. A little butter should be put over the 
cauliflower before covering with the cheese. The 
cauliflower should be placed in the water head 
down. It will retain its color betten 

Baked Tomatoes 

The following quantities will fill six good-sized 
tomatoes: one cup of bread crumbs, one small 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

onion chopped fine, one teaspoonful of sugar, one 
tablespoonful of melted butter, a little salt and 
pepper. Cut the top from the tomatoes, remove 
the pulp, chop fine and mix with the bread crumbs 
and seasoning. Fill the tomatoes with the dress- 
ing, replace the tops, place in a baking dish, lay a 
few slices of bacon over the tomatoes, cover and 
bake a half-hour. Remove the cover when about 
done and let them finish cooking while browning. 

Broiled Tomatoes 

The tomatoes should be ripe, but not soft. 
Wash, leaving the skins on, cut in about quarter- 
inch slices, salt and pepper, place in a wire broiler 
before a medium fire and let them cook done and 
brown. 

Stuffed Green Peppers 

Select good-sized sweet peppers. Cut off the 
lops, or stem ends, remove the seeds and fiber. 
Pour boiling water over the peppers and let them 
stand until the water becomes cool; repeat the 
process, then place the peppers in cold water to 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

harden them. Make a dressing of a half-teacup 
of bread crumbs, a teacup of cold boiled ham 
chopped fine, mix with melted butter until a soft 
dressing is formed. Fill the peppers and replace 
the tops, put in the baking dish with a few slices 
of bacon and bake imtil tender, about thirty or 
thirty-five minutes. 

Mushrooms Fried 

Peel and let the mushrooms He in salt and water 
about one-half hour, then drain and fry in hot 
butter. Be careful not to cook them too long, as 
too much cooking toughens them. Season with 
salt and pepper. The mushrooms are nice served 
on small crisp pieces of toast, or plain bread. The 
mushrooms become very dark when cooked. 



Chapter XIII 

SALADS 

Fruit Salad 

One can of sliced pineapple, one pound of Mal- 
aga grapes, three medium-sized tart apples and 
a few maraschino cherries. Drain the sirup 
from the pineapple and cut into small cubes, cut 
the grapes in half and remove the seeds, peel and 
cut the apples into small pieces and the cherries 
in half. A few English walnuts may be added 
if desired. Set aside to chill. When ready to 
serve add the following dressing: One cup of 
cream whipped, two tablespoonfuls of lemon 
juice, two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar. 
Place on lettuce leaves with a little of the dress- 
ing on top. 

Apples and Banana Salad 

Three good-sized tart apples cut into small 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

pieces, the tender parts from three stalks of celery 
cut in small pieces, two bananas cut thin, three- 
quarters of a cupful of broken pecan nuts. Sea- 
son with a little salt, and a teaspoonful of pow- 
dered sugar. Mix with a mayonnaise dressing. 
Serve on lettuce leaves with a little of the mayon- 
naise on each plate. 

Cherry Salad 

Use the large, black, sweet cherries. Remove 
the stones carefully with the fingers, keeping the 
cherries as nearly whole as possible. Insert a 
filbert in each cherry. Serve on the small white 
leaves from head lettuce. Cover with mayonnaise 
dressing in which whipped cream has been added: 
Serve quite cold. The nuts may be omitted, if de- 
sired. 

Grapefruit and Orange Salad 

Remove the pulp from two large grapefruits 
and three large oranges, keeping the fruit in as 
large pieces as possible. Serve on crisp lettuce 
leaves with a French dressing, using a part of 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

the juice of the grapefruit and a teaspoonful of 
tarragon vinegar. This salad requires more oil 
than is usually used in French dressing. 

Summer Salad 

. Peel and cut thin, fine ripe tomatoes, one fresh 
cucumber; add a few rings cut from a sweet 
green pepper. Mix with a French dressing or 
mayonnaise. Serve cold on crisp lettuce leaves. 

Alligator Pear Salad 

Remove the pulp of the pear from the skin, or 
shelly in small pieces with a teaspoon. Serve with 
French dressing on crisp lettuce leaves. This 
salad may also be served in the shells and without 
lettuce. 

Tomato Aspic 

One-half can of tomatoes (four or ifive fresh 
tomatoes may be used instead if desired J, one bay 
leaf, six cloves, a blade of mace, a tiny bit of gar- 
lic, one-half teaspoonful of salt, a little white pep- 
per and one-quarter of a teaspoonful of paprika. 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 



Cook for twenty minutes, — a longer time if fresh 
tomatoes are used. Strain and add one-third box 
of granulated gelatine which has been soaked in 
one-third cupful of cold water until dissolved; 
add two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, strain and 
pour into small cups. When cold remove from 
cups and serve on lettuce leaves with mayonnaise 
dressing. 

Marshmallow and Orange Salad 

Peel and remove all the white fiber from six 
sweet oranges. Cut the pulp into small pieces, 
one-half can of pineapple cut into small pieces, 
a dozen marshmallows cut fine, but not chopped. 
A small amount of nut meats may be added if 
wished. Mix with mayonnaise and serve on the 
tender leaves from a head of lettuce. 

Asparagus Tips 

Asparagus tips placed on crisp lettuce leaves 
and covered with French dressing make a good 
salad. Pimentos may be cut in small pieces and 
put over the tips, if liked. 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Shrimp Salad 

One pint of fresh shrimps cut rather fine, one- 
half pint of tender celery cut fine, one-half dill 
pickle cut fine. Mix with mayonnaise dressing, 
serve cold on lettuce leaves and top with mayon- 
naise. 

Lettuce Salad 

Use the small, crisp and more tender leaves 
from head lettuce. Let the leaves stand in cold 
water until they are crisp, drain and place in a 
cloth on the ice. Serve with French dressing. 
Serve cream cheese balls with this salad. 

Mayonnaise 

Yolks of four eggs, one pint of olive oil, one 
tablespoonful of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of 
vinegar, one tablespoonful of mustard, a little 
paprika and salt to taste, juice of two lemons. 
Into the thoroughly beaten yolks of the eggs 
gradually mix the oil, a few drops at a time, stir- 
ring constantly. Add the other ingredients. 
Whipped cream may be added at the time of 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

serving. All the utensils used and the ingredients 
must be cold. 

Banana Salad 

Cut the bananas in half, lengthwise. Cover 
lightly with mayonnaise, place on crisp lettuce 
leaves and cover with finely chopped nuts. A lit- 
tle mayonnaise should be placed on the side of 
the salad plate. 

Boiled Salad Dressing 

Use the yolk of one well-beaten egg ; into this 
stir a half-teaspoonful of mustard, a scant tea- 
spoonful of salt, a little white pepper and a quar- 
ter of a teaspoonful of paprika and one teaspoon- 
ful of sugar. Mix together and stir into the egg. 
Pour over this one-fourth of a cupful of warmed 
milk, add two generous teaspoonfuls of butter. 
When thick add three teaspoonfuls of vinegar that 
has been heated and one teaspoonful of tarragon 
vinegar. This dressing may be thinned with a 
little sweet or sour cream, if desired, at serving. 
This recipe makes a small amount. 

102 I 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Another Mayonnaise 

Use the yolks of two eggs, separating them 
from the whites as much as possible. Put them 
into a clean, cold, shallow dish. Stir them 
slightly with a silver fork. Add a quarter of a 
teaspoonful of salt. This will slightly thicken 
the yolks. Pour a half-pint of cold salad oil into 
a cold cup, and add drop by drop to the eggs, stir- 
ring quickly until it is thick or until all the oil 
has been used, then add two teaspoonfuls of tar- 
ragon vinegar, a little paprika and a tiny bit of 
garlic, if the dressing is to be used as a vegetable 
salad dressing. 

Aspic 

Cover a quarter of a package of powdered 
gelatine with a quarter of a cup of cold water ; 
let it stand a half-hour. Mix together a table- 
spoonful of butter and one tablespoonful of flour, 
put in sauce pan and add a half-pint of milk. 
When boiling add a half -teaspoonful of salt, a 
little white pepper, a half-teaspoonful of onion 

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WILLY LOU'S ftOUSE BOOK 

juice and the gelatine. Mix together and strain 
through a fine sieve. Aspic is used in preparing 
jellied meats, etc., also as a garnish for meats 
and salads. 



for Fruit Salad 

Yolks of three eggs well beaten, three large 
teaspoonfuls of sugar, a little mustard, salt, pep- 
per and paprika, pour over this five tablespoon- 
fuls of vinegar and one teaspoonful of tarragon 
vinegar. The vinegar should be hot. Put in the 
double boiler and cook until thick. Add one large 
teaspoonful of butter before removing from the 
kettle. When ready to serve add one pint of 
stiffly whipped cream and mix thoroughly with 
the fruits, serving on lettuce leaves. 

Cheese Balls 

Grate a half-pound of cheese and mix thor- 
oughly with two cups of soft bread crumbs, two 
well-beaten eggs, a piece of butter the size of a 
walnut Season to taste with salt, mustard and 
paprika. Mix into small balls, roll in egg and 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

crumbs, fry in hot fat. Serve hot with a plain 
lettuce salad. 

Cream Cheese Balls 

Two cream cheeses mashed and mixed with 
enough sweet cream to allow them to be made 
into small balls. A little very finely chopped 
green pepper or parsley may be added. Chopped 
nuts may be used instead of the pepper. These are 
nice served with salads. 



Chapter XIV 

CAKES 

Sunshine Cake 

Whites of eight small eggs, or seven if large, 
one scant cupful of powdered sugar mixed with 
the whites, then add the yolks well beaten, one- 
half teaspoonful of cream of tartar, two-thirds 
of a cup of flour. Bake forty or fifty minutes in 
a hot oven, cooling toward the last. Ice with a 
boiled icing flavored with lemon extract. 

Angel Cake 

One glass of flour measured after sifting, add 
one level teaspoonful of cream of tartar to the 
flour and sift flour six times. One and one-half 
glasses of sugar sifted six times. Beat the whites 
of eleven eggs until very stiff, add the sugar 
first, then the flour, add one teaspoonful of va- 
nilla extract. Rose or almond extract is pre- 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

ferred by some. Stir as little as possible after 
flour has been added. Put in an ungreased cake 
pan and bake in a slow oven from forty minutes 
to one hour, opening the oven door as little as 
possible and closing carefully. 

Snowballs 

The whites of four eggs. »One cup of sugar, 
one-half cup of butter, cream the butter and sugar, 
add one-half cup of sweet milk, two cups of pas- 
try flour, one and one-half teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder, one teaspoonful of vanilla. Fold in the 
stifily beaten whites of the eggs. Bake in a 
square tin. When cold cut in two-inch squares, 
cutting away all the brown. Dip each piece in 
boiled icing and roll in freshly grated cocoanut. 
Finely chopped nuts are sometimes used instead 
of cocoanut. 

Apple Jelly Cake 

Cream one cup of sugar and one-half cup of 
butter, add one-half cup of sweet milk, two and 
one-half cups of pastry flour, one and one-half 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

teaspoonfuls of baking powder, fold in the whites 
of four eggs well beaten. Bake in three layers in 
a quick oven. 

JeUy 

Three large tart apples grated, one cup of 
granulated sugar, the juice and grated rind of 
one lemon. Cook twenty-five or thirty minutes, 
stirring often to prevent burning. Before quite 
cooked, add one well-beaten egg. Put between 
the layers and on top of cake. This filling must 
be thoroughly cooked or it molds. 

Surprise Cake 

One egg, one cup of sugar, one-half cup of 
butter^ cream the butter and sugar, add one cup 
of sweet milk and the beaten egg, one and one- 
half teaspoonful of baking powder, two cups of 
flour, add one teaspoonful of flavoring or grated 
nutmeg. Two tablespoonfuls of currants may 
be added and baked in gem pans, or a loaf. 

Orange Cake 

One-half cup of butter creamed, add one cup 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

of granulated sugar and cream together. Three- 
fourths of a cup of sweet milk, two and one- 
half cups of flour. Add the well-beaten whites 
of three eggs. Two teaspoonfuls of baking pow- 
der. Before adding the eggs put in a tablespoon- 
ful of orange juice and a little of the grated peel. 
Bake in three layers. 

Icing 

Use the remaining orange juice and the grated 
peel of the orange. Stir in enough powdered 
sugar to spread evenly on the cake. A table- 
spoonful of cream is added last. This helps to 
keep the icing soft. 

Walnut Mocha Cake 

One-half cup of butter, one cup of sugar, one- 
half cup of coffee infusion, one and three- fourths 
cups of flour, two and one-half teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, whites of three eggs, three- 
fourths cupful broken walnut meats. Cream but- 
ter thoroughly. Add coffee and sifted dry in- 
gredients alternately. Add the nut meats with 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

the 'dry ingredients, cut and fold in the beaten 
egg whites last Frosting: cream together one 
cup of powdered sugar and one-third cup of but- 
ter and add two tablespoonfuls of coffee. 

Confectioner's Frosting 

For walnut Mocha cake. Two tablespoonfuls 
of cream, to which add enough confectioner's 
sugar to make the right consistency to spread. 
Add one-half teaspoonful each of lemon and va- 
nilla flavoring. A most satisfactory frosting and 
quickly and easily made. Good on other kinds of 
cake. 

Date Cake 

One pound of dates, stoned and chopped, one- 
half pound English walnuts chopped. Three 
eggs, one cupful pastry flour, one teaspoonful of 
baking powder, one cupful of sugar, one-half cup- 
ful sweet milk, one teaspoonful of vanilla. Beat 
the eggs separately, then together with the sugar, 
vanilla and flour. Add dates and nuts last. Bake 
about forty minutes, 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Sponge Cake 

Two eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, 
one cup granulated sugar, pinch of salt, one cup 
of flour, one teaspoon ful of baking powder. Add 
one-half cup of boiling water last. Flavor with 
lemon. 

Cocoanut Cake 

Three cups of sugar and one cup of butter 
creamed, one cup of milk, three and a half cups 
of flour, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, one- 
half teaspoonful of soda. Flavor with vanilla 
and fold in the well-beaten whites of ten eggs. 
Bake in layer tins in a quick oven. Make an icing 
of the beaten whites of three eggs and one pound 
of confectioner's sugar; ice each layer and 
sprinkle with freshly grated cocoanut 

Black Fruit Cake 

One pound of butter and one pound of sugar 
creamed. Cream the butter before adding the 
sugar, then cream sugar and butter together. 
Twelve eggs, four pounds of raisins, two pounds 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

of currants, one pound of citron. Seed raisins 
and have the citron cut in very thin slices. Lightly 
brown one pound of flour. Two ounces of nut- 
meg, two teaspoonfuls of cloves, one teaspoonful 
mace, one teaspoonful allspice. Add a little mo- 
lasses and one-quarter pint of good brandy to 
keep the cake moist. This will make two large 
loaves. Excellent for wedding cake. Bake slow- 
ly in a moderate oven for an hour and a half at 
least. 

Snow-Drift Cake 

Whites of five eggs beaten stiff, two cups of 
powdered sugar and one-half cup of butter, one 
cup of sweet milk, three cups of sifted flour, two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Flavor with va- 
nilla or almond extract. 

Loaf Cake 

* 

Cream one and one-half cups of butter and two 
cups of sugar. Add three beaten eggs, one cup 
of sweet milk, one and one-half pints of flour, 
two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Add two 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

cups of stoned raisins, one cup of currants, one- 
half cup of citron cut fine, one and one-half tea- 
spoonfuls of vanilla and one-half wine-glass of 
brandy. Bake in round tins lined with paper. 
Bake in a moderate oven, about forty-five minutes 
or one hour. 

Spice Cake 

One and one-half cups of light brown sugar 
and three- fourths cup of butter creamed, one egg, 
one cup of sour milk, one teaspoonful of soda 
dissolved in hot water. One-half teaspoonful of 
cinnamon, one-half teaspoonful of allspice and 
cloves together, one teaspoonful of nutmeg, two 
good full cups of flour. One cup of seeded rais- 
ins. Ice if desired. 

Chocolate Layer Cake 

Cream two large tablespoonfuls of butter with 
two cups of sugar, one cup of sweet milk, three 
cups of pastry flour, two heaping teaspoonf uls of 
baking powder. Fold in the whites of three well- 
beaten eggs. Take out one-third of the batter 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

and add to it one-half cup grated chocolate. Bake 
in three layers, putting it together with the dark 
layer between the two white layers. Ice with a 
boiled icing into which has been stirred two table- 
spoonfuls of melted chocolate. 

Sponge Cake 

Five eggs beaten separately, one cup of sugar, 
one-half lemon grated, using the juice, one cup of 
flour. Add a pinch of salt and one-half teaspoon- 
ful of baking powder. If a little sugar is sprink- 
led over the top of the cake before putting in the 
oven a light crust will form. Bake carefully. 
Add the grated lemon and juice last. 

Devil's Food Cake 

Put together in a porcelain-lined saucepan a 
half-cup of grated chocolate, a gill of milk and a 
half-cup of brown sugar. Boil together until thick 
as cream, set aside until cool. Cream a cup of 
brown sugar with a half-cup of butter, add two 
beaten eggs, two-thirds of a cup of milk and va- 
nilla to taste, mix thoroughly, then beat in the 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

boiled mixture, and two cups of flour that have 
been sifted with a heaping teaspoonful of baking 
powder. Bake in layer tins and when cool put 
together with boiled icing. 

Neapolitan Cake 

Three-fourths cup of butter and two cups of 
sugar creamed. Add well-beaten whites of five 
eggs, one cup of sweet milk, two and a half cups 
of flour, three teaspoonfuls of baking powder. 
Take four tablespoonfuls of the batter out and 
add to it one-half cup of molasses, one cup of 
raisins chopped, one-half cup of flour, cloves and 
cinnamon to taste. Bake in layer tins and put to- 
gether with tart jelly, currant is the best, the dark 
layer in the center. Cover the cake with icing. 

Spanish Sweet Cake 

One pound of raisins, three-fourths pound of 
currants, three-fourths pound of citron, one-half 
pound each of candied dates, cherries, pineapple, 
pears and peaches, one-third pound of preserved 
orange peel. Pour over this one tablespoonful 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

each of vanilla, maraschino, pistachio and one 
wine-glass of nectarine cordial. Let stand over 
night. Mix thoroughly one pound of butter, one 
and one-quarter pounds of sugar, one-half cup of 
molasses, yolks of twelve beaten eggs, one 
tablespoonful each mace, cinnamon, cloves and 
nutmeg, two pounds of browned flour. Dis- 
solve one teaspoonful of soda and add just before 
putting in the fruit. Stir in one cupful each 
cocoanut, English walnuts and almonds chopped. 
Mix with the hands. Add the beaten whites of 
the eggs. Bake slowly and not for too long a 
time, in a moderate oven. 

Pound Cake 

One pound of butter and one pound of sugar 
creamed, one pound of flour, one teaspoonful of 
soda, two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar. The 
beaten whites of sixteen eggs. Flavor as desired. 

Spanish Bun Cake 

One-half cup of butter and one pint of sugar 
creamed, four eggs, one cup of sour milk, one 
small teaspoonful of soda dissolved in the milk. 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

One cup of chopped raisins, two teaspoonfuls of 
cinnamon, one teaspoonful of cloves, one tea- 
spoonful of mace and one pint of flour. 

White Fruit Cake 

Cream one cup of butter and two cups of sugar, 
add one cup of sweet milk, three cupfuls of flour, 
two teaspoonfuls of baking powder and the 
whites of five eggs well beaten. One-half pound 
of citron cut fine, two cups of freshly grated 
cocoanut, one cup of hickory nuts chopped fine. 
Flavor as desired. 

Silver Cake 

One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, one cup 
of milk, one-half cup of cornstarch, two cups of 
flour, two level teaspoonfuls of baking powder, 
one teaspoonful of vanilla. Fold in the whites of 
eight eggs well beaten. 

Hickory-Nut Cake 

Cream one-h^lf cup of sugar and one-half cup 
of butter, add two eggs and one-half cup of cold 
water, two cups of flour, one and one-half tea- 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

spoonfuls of baking powder and one cup of hick- 
ory-nut meats chopped rather fine. Flavor with 
vanilla. This will make one cake. 

Ginger Cakes 

Three eggs, one cup of brown sugar, one cup 
of lard, one cup of molasses, a level teaspoonful 
of soda dissolved in a cup of hot water, five cups 
of flour, one large tablespoonful of ginger. Drop 
from a tablespoon on to a greased pan, portions 
about three inches apart 

White Mountain Cake 

One-half pound of butter and one pound of 
sugar creamed, one cup of milk, one pound of 
flour, two large teaspoonfuls of baking powder. 
Fold in the whites of six eggs beaten until light. 
Bake in three layers. Icing: the stifily beaten 
whites of six eggs, add to them slowly one pound 
of powdered sugar. Flavor with vanilla. 

Chocolate Layer Cake 

Cream one cup of butter, add two cupfuls of 

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WILLY LOU^S HOUSE BOOK 

sugar and cream together, one cupful of milk, 
three and one-half cupfuls of flour, scant meas- 
ure, four eggs, leaving out the whites of two, one 
and one-half teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Ic- 
ing: two cupfuls of pulverized sugar, two-thirds 
cupful of water. Boil ten minutes without stir- 
ring, pour over the whites of the two eggs beaten 
to a stiff froth, one teaspoonful of vanilla, one 
large tablespoonful of grated chocolate, one-half 
pound of grated cocoanut. 

Soft Ginger Bread 

One egg, two-thirds cup of New Orleans mo- 
lasses, fill the cup with granulated sugar. Butter 
the size of an egg, one-half cup of sour milk, one 
teaspoonful of soda dissolved in the milk, one 
heaping teaspoonful of ginger, flour enough to 
make a stiff batten Bake in a long tin in a quick 
oven. 

Maple Cookies 

One cupful each of granulated and maple 
sugar, one cup of butter, two well-beaten eggs, 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

two tablespoonfuls of water. Add flour enough 
to make the consistency of cooky dough or a 
dough that can be easily handled. Roll thin, cut 
in strips, sprinkle with sugar and bake a light 
brown« 

Vanilla Snaps 

One cup of sugar and two-thirds cup of butter 
creamed. Three eggs, three teaspoon fuls of bak- 
ing powder, one tablespoon ful of vanilla. Use as 
little flour as possible and roll very thin. Sprinkle 
with sugar before baking. 



Cookies 

One cup of butter, two cups of light brown 
sugar, three eggs, four tablespoonfuls of water, 
one cup of chopped raisins, one and a half tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder. Add flour enough 
to make it handle easily. 

Sour Cream Cookies 

One egg, one cupful of sugar, one cupful of 
sour cream, one small teaspoonful of soda dis- 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

solved in the cream, pinch of salt, flavor with va- 
nilla. Use only enough flour to make a soft 
dough. 

Oatmeal Cookies 

One-half cup of lard and one-half cup of but- 
ter, two cups of light brown sugar creamed. Two 
eggs, three cups of rolled oats, one-half cup of 
boiling water, one level teaspoonful of soda, three 
cups of flour. Drop on buttered tins, less than a 
teaspoonful at a time. Bake in a slow oven. 

Cocoanut Cookies 

One cup of white sugar creamed with one-third 
cup of butter. One egg, two tablespoon fuls of 
milk, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, one- 
half teaspoonful of soda, pinch of salt. One cup 
of freshly grated cocoanut. Flour enough to 
make the ordinary cooky dough. 

Fruit and Nut Cookies 

One and one-half cups of light brown sugar, 
one cup of butter, three eggs, two and a half 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

cups of flour, one teaspoonful of soda or one and 
one-half teaspoonfuls of baking powder, a little 
salt, one teaspoonful of cinnamon, one tea- 
spoonful of cloves, three-quarters of a pound of 
raisins, stoned and chopped, one cup of hickory 
nuts chopped. Drop from a teaspoon on buttered 
tin and bake in a quick oven. 

A Filling for Tarts 

Three or four large tart apples, greenings 
preferred, the juice and grated rind of one lemon, 
one cup of white sugar. Cook twenty-five min- 
utes and add one egg well beaten and cook five 
minutes longer. Serve in rich pastry shells and 
cover with whipped cream. 

Fig Filling for Tarts 

One pound of figs, chopped fine, one cup of 
sugar, one cup of boiling water. Put in double 
boiler and cook one hour; add the juice of one 
lemon and stir to a smooth paste. Fill pastry 
shells and cover with whipped cream. This may 
be used as a filling for a layer cake. 



Chapter XV 

ICINGS, FROSTINGS AND FILLINGS 

Chocolate Cream Frosting 

One and one-half cups of granulated sugar, 
one-half cup of sweet milk. Boil hard for four 
minutes, stirring constantly. It should be per- 
fectly white and creamy when ready for the cake. 
Add one teaspoonful of vanilla when cool. Spread 
over the cake when cool. Have ready one-half 
cake of Baker's chocolate melted, spread over the 
white icing when it has cooled. This icing is not 
intended for a layer cake. 

Caramel Filling 

Two cups of light brown sugar, one cup of 
white sugar, one-half cup of butter, one-half cup 
of cream. Add enough water to the sugar to dis- 
solve it, boil until it ropes, add cream and butter 
and boil five minutes. Beat until thick enough to 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

spread on the cake. Vanilla may be used as fla- 
voring if desired. Use care in cooking or it will 
become sugaiy. 

Butter Frosting 

Two cups of white sugar, a piece of butter the 
size of an egg, three-fourths cup of milk. Boil 
about fifteen minutes or until it strings a thread 
from the spoon. Remove from the fire and beat 
until thick enough to spread over the cake. Do 
not stir while cooking. 

Orange Filling 

Yolks of three eggs, grated rind and juice of 
one mediimi-sized orange, one cup of white sugar. 
Boil all together until thick enough to spread be- 
tween the layers of cake. A boiled icing may be 
used for the top. 

Sour Cream Filling 

Three-fourths cupful of thick sour cream, 
one large cupful of granulated sugar, boil about 
eight or ten minutes. Remove from the stove 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

and stir in one cupful of finely chopped nut meats. 
, Flavoring may be added if desired. If this frost- 
i ing is not thick enough when cool powdered sugar 

may be added without injury. 

Caramel Frosting 

\ One cup of light brown sugar, one-half cup of 
x^^weet cream, one-half tablespoonful of butter. 
Boil until thick enough to spread over cake when 
cool. 

Boiled Icing 

One cup of granulated sugar, one-third cup of 
cold waten Boil together without stirring until 
it threads. Have ready the stiffly beaten white of 
one egg, slowly pour the sirup over the egg, stir- 
ring constantly until cool. Flavor as desired. 

Chocolate Filling 

« 

One-quarter cake of Baker's chocolate, three- 
fourths of a cup of sugar, one cup of milk, yolk 
of one egg, two teaspoonfuls of cornstarch. Cook 
until thick enough to spread upon the cake. 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Maple Sugar Filling 

Scrape half a pound of maple sugar into a | 

porcelain lined pan. Add half a cup of milk and 
cook until it spins a thread. Remove from the 
fire and pour slowly into the well-beaten whites 
of two eggs, beating until it thickens. Spread 
quickly between the layers of cake. 



Chapter XVI 

PUDDINGS 

Suet Pudding 

One and one-half cupfuls of suet chopped fine, 
one cup of molasses, one cup of sweet milk, one 
large cup of raisins, seeded, half a cup of cur- 
rants, a little citron cut into thin pieces, a little 
salt, two and a half cups of flour, half a teaspoon- 
ful of soda stirred into the molasses, cinnamon, 
mace and cloves to taste. Steam three hours. 
A cup of coffee infusion may be used in place of 
the milk, if desired. The coffee will make the 
pudding darker. Serve with butter and sugar 
sauce. 

Baked Indian Pudding 

One quart of milk, three tablespoon fuls oi 
white corn-meal. One cup of molasses, two eggs, 
one teaspoonf ul of salt, butter the size of an tgg, 

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WILLY LOtrS HOUSE BOOK 

one teaspoonful of cinnamon and one teaspoonful 
of cloves. Scald the milk, keeping out one-half 
of a cupful, add the corn-meal slowly, stirring 
constantly. Boil three minutes and remove from 
the fire and add the other ingredients. Bake one- 
half hour, then add the half-cup of milk reserved, 
but do not stir the pudding. Bake two hours in a 
slow oven. To be eaten with butter. The pud- 
ding should be stirred occasionally the first half- 
hour of its baking. 

Steamed Cherry Pudding 

Stone one quart of cherries. Make a batter of 
one pint of flour, one pint of sweet milk, four 
beaten eggs, a little salt, one teaspoonful of but- 
ter and one large teaspoonful of baking powder. 
Steam two hours. Serve with a butter and sugar 
sauce. 

Blackberries or blueberries may be substituted. 

Apple Tapioca Pudding 

Soak one cup of old-fashioned tapioca in six 
cups of water over night. Pare and chop fine^ 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

six large tart apples, more if the apples are small, 
add one large cup of granulated sugar and cook 
in a slow oven about four hours, stirring occasion- 
ally at first. The apples and tapioca will become 
almost a jelly. To be eaten cold with cream and 
sugar. 

Caramel Custard Pudding 

Put three- fourths cup of white sugar in a fry- 
ing pan, set it over the fire and stir constantly 
until the sugar is melted, and the sirup a light 
brown. Be careful not to let the sirup bum. 
Pour the sirup into a baking dish and turn around 
until the caramel has coated the sides thickly. It 
will harden on the sides and bottom of the dish. 
Make a custard of one pint of milk, four eggs 
beaten very light, add two tablespoonfuls of 
sugar, one and one-half teaspoonfuls of vanilla, 
mix together and pour into the caramel-covered 
dish. Set in a pan of water about half-way up 
the sides of the dish. Bake in a medium oven 
between thirty and thirty-five minutes, or until 
the custard sets. You can test it by putting the 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

blade of a knife in the center and if it conies out 
clean the custard is done. Be careful not to bake 
too long or the custard will become watery. Care 
must be taken when the pudding is turned from 
the baking to the servmg dish or it will break. Do 
not turn out until ready to serve. It should 
be eaten cold. The pudding may be made in indi- 
vidual dishes. 

Rice Pudding 

Wash thoroughly one cup of rice. Pour over 
it one quart of boiling water, boil about thirty 
minutes. Add two cups of the cooked rice, three- 
quarters of a cup of sugar, two cups of milk, one 
tablespoonful of butter, a pinch of salt, two well- 
beaten eggs and a cup of seeded raisins. Bake in 
a baking pan set in a vessel of water until set, or 
like a custard. 

Jelly Bread Pudding 

One scant half-pint of fresh bread crumbs 
picked lightly apart. One pint of sweet milk, two 
beaten eggs, one- fourth of a cup of sugar, a small 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

piece of butter. Bake about a half-hour, stirring 
occasionally. If the pudding looks too thick add 
more milk. When cool spread the top with a 
currant jelly, or any tart jelly. Cover this with 
the stiffly beaten white of an egg to which has 
been added a teaspoon ful of powdered sugar. Is 
good eaten cold or warm. 

Hard Sauce for Pudding 

Stir to a cream one cup of butter, add three 
cups of powdered sugar and rub smooth. When 
light add one small teaspoonful of nutmeg. Va- 
nilla or a half wine-glass of sherry may be added. 

Strawberry Sauce 

One tablespoon ful of butter and three of pow- 
dered sugar stirred together until very light. Add 
one teacup of mashed and sweetened strawberries. 
Cherries pitted and sweetened may be used in- 
stead of the strawberries, if desired. 

Foamy Sauce 

Cream one cup of butter and add one cup of 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

powdered sugar, mixing thoroughly. Add one 
teaspoonful of vanilla. Just before serving add 
one-quarter cup of boiling water, then add the 
stiffly beaten white of one tgg and beat until 
foaming. 

Cream Sauce 

One-half pint of cream, one-half cup of white 
sugar and one-half cup of butter. Stand the 
cream in hot water until it froths. Beat the but- 
ter and sugar together and add the cream. Flavor 
with lemon extract or the juice from one-half 
lemon. 

Cream Sauce 

One teacup of powdered sugar, one-half cup of 
butter creamed thoroughly. Add one-half teacup 
of rich cream, stir in one-half teacup of boiling 
water. Set on the stove for a few minutes, stir- 
ring constantly, remove from stove and add any 
desired flavoring. 



Chapter XVII 

DESSERTS, ICES AND FRUITS 

Ice-Cream 

One pint of cream, one large cup of milk, one 
large cup of sugar, one and one-half teaspoonfuls 
of vanilla. Put in freezer and pack in salt and 
broken ice. This is a simple and good ice-cream. 
Fruits may be added. Preserved cherries, pre- 
served pineapple cut in small pieces are good. 

Charlotte Russe 

One pint of whipping cream, two tablespoon- 
fuls of powdered sugar, one and one-half tea- 
spoonfuls of vanilla. Whip thoroughly. Put 
into sherbet cups lined with lady fingers. Serve 
at once and cold. ^ 



«i 



Lemon Ice 

One generous pint of water, juice of five lem- 
ons, two large cups of sugar. Put in the freezer 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

and pack in ice and salt. When slightly frozen 
add the whites of four stifHy beaten eggs. Freeze 
a little longer, turning the freezer rapidly. The 
eggs may be omitted if desired. This is also good 
if a tablespoon ful of pineapple preserve is poured 
over the top of each glass when served. The 
pineapple should be fine, of course. 

Maple Cream 

Beat the yolks of four eggs until quite stiff. 
Heat one-half pint of pure maple sirup until it 
comes to the boil, add the hot sirup to the eggs 
slowly, beating all the time as the mixture is cool- 
ing. Let it stand until cold and add one-half pint 
of thick cream. Pour in freezer, pack in salt and 
ice, and freeze. Do not freeze too hard. 

Orange Shortcake 

Three large, sweet oranges, peel and remove 
the membrane and cut into small pieces. Mix with 
a large cup of sugar and let them stand some time. 
Make a crust of one large cup of flour, one 
large tablespoonful of butter and lard together, 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

one generous teaspoonful of baking powder, 
add milk enough to make a soft dough. Make 
into a round about one inch thick. When done 
split in two and butter generously, placing the 
oranges between the two crusts and on top. More 
sugar may be added if desired. Individual short- 
cakes are always attractive. 

Crust for Strawberry Shortcake 

One pint of flour, one large teaspoonful of bak- 
ing powder, a little salt, two tablespoonfuls of 
sugar, one tablespoonful of lard and one of but- 
ter, one teacup of milk. This should make a soft 
dough. Bake twenty to thirty minutes. Split 
and spread generously with butter, cover with 
crushed strawberries plentifully sweetened with 
sugar. 

Tapioca with Fresh Cherries 

Soak a scant half-cup of tapioca in a pint of 
water over night. Stone one quart of cherries, 
using the juice. Add one large cup of granulated 
sugar. Cook until the tapioca becomes a jelly and 

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lWILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

add water from time to time as it is needed. A 
pint or more may be required. Freshly shredded 
pineapple may be used instead of the cherries. 
Serve cold with whipped or plain cream. 

Tutti-Frutti Jelly 

Soak one-half box of gelatine in one-half pint 
of cold water for one hour, add one pint of boil- 
ing water and the juice of three lemons and one 
and one half cupfuls of sugar, and strain. When 
the mixture is becoming stiff add one banana 
sliced thin, two oranges picked into small pieces, 
about ten dates chopped fine and a few chopped 
nut meats, mix thoroughly and place in a mold 
that has been wet in cold water. Served with 
whipped cream. 

Prune Souffle 

Stew and remove the pits from one-half pound 
of prunes. Pick the prunes into small pieces and 
add whites of six well-beaten eggs, twelve table- 
spoonfuls of powdered sugar, flavor with vanilla 
and lemon. Beat lightly. Bake in a quick oven 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

about ten minutes. Serve at once with whipped 
cream. Do not allow the souffle to stand before 
serving, as it is apt to fall and become leathery. 

Pineapple with Wine 

Pare and slice a fine ripe pineapple. Put in a 
glass dish, a layer at a time and cover with pow- 
dered sugar until all the pineapple has been used. 
Pour over all a pint of wine; sherry is a good 
wine. Let stand for two hours. Stir well before 
serving. 

Wine Jelly 

Two tablespoon fuls and a half of granulated 
gelatine, let stand one hour in one-half cup of 
cold water, add two cups of boiling water and one 
cup of granulated sugar. The juice of two lemons 
and grated rind of one. Strain and add one-half 
pint of port wine. Add the wine when the liquid 
has cooled. Pour into a mold wet with cold 
water. 

Marshmallow Cream 
One quart of cream, one-quarter teaspoonful 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

each of lemon and vanilla extract, one-third 
pound of candied cherries, one-half pound of 
marshmallows, cut fine. One-half teacup blanched 
almonds chopped fine. Flavor the cream before 
whipping, add three tablespoon fuls of powdered 
sugar as the cream begins to stiffen. Add the nuts 
and fruit and marshmallows when the cream is 
thoroughly whipped. Serye cold. 

Baked Apples and Figs 

Peel, core and sweeten tart apples. Fill the 
cavity with finely chopped figs to which has been 
added the juice of two lemons. Bake and serve 
with cream and sugar. Chopped preserved ginger 
is also good, with a little of the sirup added. 

Oranges and Cocoanut 

Peel large, sweet navel oranges, slice thin and 
cut in half. Grate a fresh cocoanut. Put a layer 
of oranges in a glass dish and cover with pow- 
dered sugar and cover with the grated cocoanut ; 
repeat until the dish is filled. The upper layer is 
of cocoanut. Serve cold with whipped cream. 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Soft Custards 

One pint of milk, two well-beaten eggs, a little 
salt, and one- fourth of a cup of sugar. Place 
in a double boiler and cook until a little thick. 
Flavor to taste. When cool pour into sherbet 
glasses. When ready to serve place on top of each 
glass a teaspoonful of the stiffly beaten white of 
egg in which a teaspoonful of powdered sugar has 
been stirred. The white of one or two eggs will 
be sufficient Serve cold. 

Baked Apples with Marshmallows 

Peel, core, sweeten and bake medium-sized tart 
apples. When almost ready to come from the 
oven fill the cavity where core was removed with 
one or two marshmallows. Do not leave in the 
oven too long as the marshmallows dissolve read- 
ily. The marshmallows may be added after the 
apples come from the oven. Serve with whipped 
cream or plain cream and sugar. To be eaten 
cold. 

Orange marmalade may be used instead of 
marshmallows. 



Chapter XVIII 
PIES 

Good Pie Crust 

One large cup of lard, three of sifted flour, a 
little salt, mix with cold water quickly into a 
fairly stiff dough, handling as little as possible. 
Use the same cup for measuring lard and flour. 

Another Pie Crust 

Two large cups of sifted flour, one scant cup 
of lard, a little salt, one-half cup of cold water, 
ice-water is best. Put the salt in the flour and 
mix the lard with it, using a knife imtil it is thor- 
oughly mixed ; stir in the water. Let the dough 
stand on the ice for an hour before using. Roll 
out thin. 

Apple Pie 
Line a pie plate with a rich crust and bake. 

140 



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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

When done fill with a thick apple sauce, cover 
with whipped cream, sweetened and flavored with 
vanilla. Serve cold. A jam may be used instead 
of the apple sauce. 

Mincemeat 

Two pints of finely chopped meat, four pints 
of finely chopped and peeled apples, two pounds 
of seeded raisins, two pounds of currants, one- 
half pound of citron cut thin, one-half pint of suet 
chopped fine, two pints of sugar, one cup of New 
Orleans molasses, two teaspoonfuls of mace, two 
teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, two teaspoonfuls of 
cloves, one nutmeg, one-half pint of boiled cider, 
a small amount of salt. Sirups from preserved 
fruits may be added instead of the cider. One- 
half pint of good brandy. I usually add a few 
raisins and citron to each pie when making. This 
meat should cook or simmer slowly for a long 
time. Put it away in glass jars with tightly cov- 
ered top. Always heat the meat you intend to 
use at each baking. More sugar, spices and fruit 
may be added to suit taste. 

141 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

Beef is the meat used for this mincemeat and 
is boiled tender before chopping. Do not put 
through the meat grinder. 



Cream Pie 

One pint of milk, one-half cup of sugar, yolks 
of two eggs, one-quarter cupful of flour. Mix the 
eggs and sugar well together. Add the flour dry 
to the eggs and sugar, and mix until smooth. Add 
to this milk enough to make a thick paste. Put 
the milk in a double boiler and when it is hot add 
the mixture ; cook until thick, stirring constantly. 
Line a pie plate with a rich crust and bake, adding 
the mixture afterward. Set in the oven until a 
thin crust seems to come over the top, cover with 
meringue made from the two eggs, add a tea- 
spoonful of powdered sugar and lightly brown. 

Squash Pie 

Rub enough cooked Hubbard squash through a 
sieve to make one cupful. Add three-fourths 
cupful of sugar, one tablespoonful of molasses, 
one tablespoonful of melted butter, one well- 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

beaten egg, one teaspoonful of ginger, small tea- 
spoonful of cinnamon, one and one-half cupfuls 
of sweet milk and a little salt. Bake until like 
custard. 



Orange Custard 

Use the juice and grated rind of one large 
orange, one cupful of sugar, yolks of three eggs, 
one tablespoonful of cornstarch rubbed smooth 
in milk. Add one cup of boiling milk, and one 
tablespoonful of butter. Bake with one crust. 
When cold cover with a meringue made from the 
whites of the eggs beaten stiff to which has been 
added two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar. Set 
in the oven and lightly brown. 

Lemon Cream Pie 

The yolks of three eggs, one large cup of sugar, 
one cup of cold water, one tablespoonful of 
melted butter, one large tablespoonful of flour. 
Grate the rind and squeeze the juice from one 
lemon. Put in the double boiler and cook until 
thick as custard. Pour into the pie tin and bake 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

thirty-five or forty minutes. Beat the whites of 
the eggs to a stiff froth and stir in three table- 
spoonfuls of powdered sugar ; put this over the pie 
when nearly cool, set in the oven and bake until 
a light brown. 



Chapter XIX 
PRESERVES AND PICKLES 

Orange Marmalade 

Select six fine navel oranges, wash and cut very 
thin. Two large juicy lemons cut very thin. 
Pour over the fruit nine pints of cold water and 
let stand twenty- four hours, then set on the stove 
and boil forty-five minutes ; remove from the fire 
and let stand another twenty- four hours. Add 
the juice of another lemon. Weigh and to every 
pound of fruit add a pound of granulated sugar, 
set on the stove and simmer gently for two hours, 
or until it is jellied. The peel of the oranges and 
lemons should be almost to a pulp before it is 
done. If the water seems to boil out too quickly 
before the fruit is tender, add a little more and 
repeat this until the fruit is done. Put into glasses 
and cover with paraffin and cover with tin or 
paper tops. This marmalade must be stirred very 

145 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

often or it will burn. Do not let it cook so long 
that it will be hard when cold It takes time and 
care to make good marmalade. 

Peach Butter 

Pare a peck of fine ripe peaches, set them on 
the stove in a granite kettle with enough water to 
boil them soft Remove from the fire and put 
through a coarse colander to remove the stones. 
To each quart of the fruit add one and one-half 
pounds of granulated sugar. Boil slowly one 
hour, or until it is thick, but not hard. Stir often 
to prevent burning. Put in pint glass jars or 
jelly glasses and keep cool. Constant watching 
is required in making fruit butters as they burn 
quickly. * 

Spiced Gooseberries 

Pick the stem and flower ends f ran the berries 
and wash. Let them drain through the colander. 
To five pounds of fruit add four pounds of light 
brown sugar, one pint of vinegar, two teaspoon- 
f uls of cinnamon, cloves and mace. Boil three 

146 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

hours or until the mixture is the consistency of 
jam. I usually add a gill of brandy. Put in pint 
jars. 

Currant Conserve 

Wash and stem the fruit. Five pounds of cur- 
rants, five pounds of sugar, one pound of seedless 
raisins whole, two navel oranges chopped fine, 
using the peel. Let boil for forty-five minutes or 
until it becomes thick when tested by cooling on 
the ice. Put in jelly glasses and cover with par- 
affin. Over this there should be a tin cover or a 
closely tied paper. 

Pickled Peaches 

One pint of cider vinegar, three and one-half 
pounds of granulated sugar, two ounces of mixed 
spices to which add a few cardamom seeds. Tie 
the spices in little bags and boil with the vinegar. 
Have pared and ready seven pounds of peaches, 
in which put a few whole cloves, put in the vine- 
gar and boil until tender. Remove the peaches 
and boil the liquid until sirupy. Put the peaches 

H7 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

in glass jars, pour over the vinegar and seal. Put 
a bag of spices in each jar. 

Pears may be pickled in much the same way, 
although the pears must be cut in half, with cores 
removed. 

Grape Conserve 

To one basket of grapes weighing seven or 
eight pounds, add five pounds of granulated 
sugar, six oranges (navel)'. Chop fine, using the 
rind. One pound of seedless raisins, whole, the 
juice and rind of two lemons. Pulp the grapes 
and let them gently simmer until the seeds will 
loosen. Put through the colander, add the skins 
and cook all together for forty or forty-five min- 
utes or until it becomes thick. Put in jelly glasses. 

Chili Sauce 

To a half -peck of fine ripe tomatoes, peel and 
add a dozen medium-sized onions cut thin, four 
large green peppers, seeded and membrane re- 
moved. Chop the peppers rather fine and add 
three small red peppers seeded and chopped. 

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WILLY LOU*S HOUSE BOOK 

Three cups of cider vinegar, one and one-half 
cups of light brown sugar, one tablespoonful of 
salt, one tablespoonful of cloves, the same of all- 
spice and ginger. Simmer gently until thick and 
dark. It may take two or three hours. Stir often 
to prevent burning. Put in glass jars. 

Yellow Tomato Preserves 

Six pounds of yellow tomatoes peeled, six 
pounds of granulated sugar, juice of three lem- 
ons, add a few pieces of ginger root, boil ten min- 
utes and let stand over night. In the morning 
drain off the sirup and boil ten minutes, skim and 
put in the tomatoes and boil twenty minutes. 
Take out the fruit and lay on a platter. Boil 
sirup until thick. Put the fruit into jars and 
fill with the hot sirup and seal. 

Green Tomato Pickles 

One peck of green tomatoes sliced thin, twelve 
small onions sliced thin. One teacup of salt 
sprinkled through the tomatoes and let them stand 
over night. In the morning drain off the liquid 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

and boil in one quart of cider vinegar and two 
quarts of water twenty minutes and drain 
through the colander. Add three small red pep- 
pers cut fine, two pounds of light brown sugar. 
Add in little bags two tablespoonfuls of whole 
mustard seed, and one tablespoonful each cloves, 
cinnamon, allspice, mace and ginger. I add also 
a few cardamom seeds. To this add two quarts 
of cider vinegar and boil thirty minutes. Ten 
cents' worth of mixed spices may be used if de- 
sired instead of those given above. These pickles 
are very nice. 



Chapter XX 

THE CHAFING-DISH 

For Sunday night suppers the chafing-dish may 
be found a pleasure as well as a convenience. 
There are a good many dishes that can easily be 
prepared in this way, making a change from the 
regular routine. 

The chafing-dish should always be placed on a 
tray to prevent any accident in case the lamp 
should overflow with alcohol. The lamp should 
not be lighted until you are ready to take your 
seat, as there is always danger from an unwatched 
flame. Have within easy reach matches, spoons 
and other materials to be used, so that you may 
not be obliged to leave the table on errands of 
this sort. If these precautions are followed there 
is very little danger of accident. 

Creamed Sweetbreads with Mushrooms 
Wash and clean two pairs of sweetbreads and let 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

them stand in salt and water for an hour. Put them 
into hot water and cook until tender, about thirty 
minutes. When cool pick the sweetbreads into 
small pieces, rejecting all the skin. Put into the 
blazer two tablespoonfuls of butter and two of 
flour, rubbed to a smooth paste before putting 
into the dish, add one pint of milk ; stir until the 
cream is boiling. Add the sweetbreads, salt, pep- 
per and mushrooms. The mushrooms should 
have been cooked before so that all that is re- 
quired is the heating. When ready to serve add 
about two tablespoonfuls of sherry. Do not add 
the wine until the light is out as it might cause the 
cream to curdle. Serve with small pieces of toast. 
The sweetbreads may be cooked and picked apart 
earlier in the day. 

Welsh Rarebit 

Cut into small cubes one pound of good cream 
cheese. Put into the chafing-dish, add one table- 
spoonful and a half of Worcestershire sauce, salt- 
spoonful of salt, a little paprika and one table- 
spoonful of butter. Stir until it begins to melt, 

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WILLY LOU*S HOUSE BOOK 

adding a little at a time four tablespoonfuls of 
beer. As soon as the mixture is soft and creamy 
pour it over small pieces of crisp toast and serve 
at once. If the plates are warm it is better, as the 
rarebit becomes cold very quickly. 

Mushrooms 

Carefully wash, peel and drain the mushrooms. 
These may be left whole or cut into pieces as de- 
sired. Put into chafing-dish a tablespoonful of 
butter to each pint of mushrooms. When the but- 
ter is melted and hot add the mushrooms. Cook 
about ten minutes or until tender. Add a little 
salt and serve on toast. 

Little Pigs in Blankets 

Select fine large oysters. Drain dry as possi- 
ble, season with pepper and wrap each oyster in a 
thin slice of bacon, fastening the bacon with a 
toothpick, and fry until brown and crisp. 

Creamed Boiled Mutton 
Cut the cold mutton into small dice. Put into 

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WILLY LOU*S HOUSE BOOK 

the blazer two tablespoon fuls of butter, two table- 
spoonfuls of flour rubbed to a paste in a little 
cold water. Add a pint of milk and a half sweet 
green pepper chopped fine. Stir until the sauce is 
boiling, put in the mutton, season with a little salt 
and paprika. Cook until the sauce becomes 
creamy. Pimentoes cut into pieces may be added. 

Cheese Sandwiches 

Cut the bread very thin and remove the crust. 
Place a thin slice of good cream cheese between 
two slices of bread. Have the chafing-dish very 
hot and covered with melted butter. About two 
tablespoonftds of butter is required. Put in the 
sandwiches and fry a delicate brown. Serve quite 
hot. 

Scrambled Eggs with Green Peppers 

Six eggs beaten with one-half cupful of sweet 
cream. Place in the chafing-dish two tablespoon- 
fuls of butter, three tablespoon fuls of grated 
cream cheese, one tablespoonful of Worcester- 
shire sauce and three finely chopped sweet green 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

peppers. Cook all together for about five minutes, 
then add the eggs and cream and cook until thick. 
Serve on toast. 

Grilled Oysters 

Drain and dry large fresh oysters. Put two 
tablespoon fuls of butter in the blazer and when 
hot cover the dish with the oysters, seasoned with 
salt and pepper. When brown turn and let brown 
on the other side. Serve on toast. 

Creamed Chicken 

Have a chicken weighing about three pounds 
boiled until almost ready to drop from the bone. 
When cold pick all the meat from the bones, re- 
jecting the skin. Cut the chicken into small 
pieces. Put into the blazer two tablespoonfuls of 
butter and two of flour rubbed smooth, add a pint 
of sweet milk, season with salt and pepper. Add 
a tablespoonful of finely chopped parsley, or a 
half sweet green pepper minced, or a few pieces 
of pimentoes. Two tablespoonfuls of sherry may 
be added if desired. 



Chapter XXI 



COLD DISHES 



JeUied 

Boil until tender, or until the meat falls from 
the bone, one large chicken. When cold pick 
from the bones, rejecting all skin and gristle. 
Let the water be reduced to one pint in boiling. 
When cold remove the fat from the liquor. Dis- 
solve one-quarter of an ounce of gelatine in a 
little water, strain and add to the chicken stock. 
Pick the chicken into small pieces, season with salt 
and pepper. Boil six eggs hard. When cold 
place a layer of the eggs, cut thin, in the bottom of 
the mold, put in a layer of the chicken, then a 
layer of the eggs and repeat until the dish is 
filled. Pour over this the stock and set away to 
chill. This should be firm when cold and can be 
sliced easily when turned from the mold. Gar- 

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WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

nish with sprigs of parsley and thin slices of 
lemon. 

Veal Loaf 

One and one-half pounds of veal, one-quarter 
pound of salt pork chopped together fine, add 
one-half cup of crackers rolled fine, one well- 
beaten tgg. Season well with salt and pepper. 
Press into a baking dish and bake one hour. A 
little cream may be poured over the meat before 
setting in the oven, if desired. Serve cold cut in 
thin slices. Garnish with parsley. 

Cold Pigs' Feet 

Buy from your market man a half-dozen of the 
fresh pigs' hock, the second joint, and do not have 
it cut too far up as it will be too fat. Clean care- 
fully and put on to cook in plenty of water salted. 
Boil until the meat will drop from the bones. Pick 
over carefully to remove all the little pieces of 
bone. Put into a dish and cover with enough of 
the water to form a jelly around the meat. Cut 
in thin slices. It may be warmed, if desired. 



Chapter XXII 

SUMMER DRINKS 

Iced Coffee 

Make a good strong coffee, and be sure to have 
it clear; sweeten to taste and set on the ice to 
chill. Serve ice cold in tall glasses. Put a large 
spoonful of whipped and sweetened cream on 
each glass. 

Iced Teas 

Use a good black tea, but do not make it too 
strong. Pour from the leaves and set aside to 
cool. Serve iced with slices of thinly cut lemon 
or orange, and sugar for those who like their tea 
a little sweet. 

Sangaree 

To one quart of claret add one-fourth cupful 
of heavy sugar sirup and one pint of cold water, 
a teaspoonful of grated nutmeg. Just before serv- 

IS8 



/ 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

ing fill the glasses with crushed ice, and pour over 
it the prepared claret. 

A quart of unsweetened grape juice may be 
used in place of claret, if desired. 

Raspberry Shrub 

Six quarts of black raspberries, cover with 
three pints of good vinegar ; let this stand one day 
then scald and strain out the seeds and pulp. Use 
one pound of granulated sugar to one pint of 
liquid. Let it boil fifteen or twenty minutes. Put 
in bottles and cork and seal. This is a good 
warm weather drink, served in glasses filled with 
chipped ice. 

Grape Juice Punch 

One pint of grape juice, juice of two lemons 
and two oranges, the grated rind of one of the 
lemons and one cup of sugar. Mix and strain. 
Ice and serve in glasses. 

Claret Lemonade 
One pint of claret, the juice of four lemons, 

159 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

three-fourths of a cup of powdered sugar, stir 
until the sugar is dissolved. Pour into a pitcher 
in which there is broken ice and fill with sparkling 
water if liked, about a pint and a half for the 
amount of claret given above. 

CSieny Cup 

Use one pint of cherries that have been pitteil 
and crushed, the juice of three lemons, the juice 
of one orange, one cup of white sugar. Let stand 
until the juice of the cherries has been drawn out, 
cover with one quart of sparkling water and one 
pint of claret. Strain through a very fine sieve 
before adding the water and claret. Serve in 
glasses in which there is a little chopped ice. 

Grape Juice 

Put the grapes in a kettle over the fire with a 
little water, cook about twenty minutes. Extract 
the juice and add one pint of sugar to three pints 
of juice and boil twenty-five minutes. Use as lit- 
tle sugar as possible. Put in bottles while hot, 
cork, and cover with paraffin. 



Chapter XXIII 

HOME MADE CANDIES 

Divinity Fudge 

Three cupfuls of granulated sugar, two-thirds 
of a cupful of water, one-third cupful of com 
sirup. Let this cook until it will form a soft ball 
in cold water. Pour this sirup gradually on to 
the whites of two stiffly beaten eggs. Before it 
becomes too stiff add a cupful of broken walnut 
meats or preserved cherries and pineapple. Pour 
in buttered tins and when cool cut into squares. 
This is a delicious candy. 

Chocolate Caramels 

Two cups of brown sugar, one cup of molasses, 
one cup of grated unsweetened chocolate, one cup 
of milk, butter the size of a walnut. Let it cook 
slowly and when it will form a soft ball in cold 
water take from the fire, flavor with a teaspoonf ul 

i6i 



WILLY LOU'S HOUSE BOOK 

of vanilla and pour into buttered tins. When cool 
mark into squares. 

Chocolate Fudge 

One cup of milk, two cups of sugar, one-eighth 
cake of Baker's unsweetened chocolate. Stir 
while boiling until it thickens, remove from fire 
and beat until creamy. Pour into buttered tins 
and when cool cut into squares. Broken nut meats 
may be added if desired. 

Candied Orange Peel 

One cup of granulated sugar and one-h^lf cup 
of water. Boil until a thick sirup. Have the 
orange peel cut in thin strips, boil tender and dip 
in the sirup and while still moist roll in granu- 
lated sugar. 

Maple Pralines 

Two level cups of powdered sugar, one cupful 
of maple sirup; boil until the sirup will form a 
soft ball when tried in cold water, remove from 
the fire and beat until creamy, then add two cups 
of pecan nuts. Drop on buttered paper. 



BOOK 



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INDEX 



INDEX 

Ants 34 

Apples 

Baked, With Marmalade 139 

Baked, Paper Bag 87 

Baked, With Figs 138 

Baked, With Marshmallows 139 

To Fry 68 

Ashes 5 

Asparagus 

Soup 55 

To Cook, Fireless 11 

Bacon « • . 66 

Bandages, to Keep ••••.... 17 

Bath, Toilet Water . 16 

Batter, Easy Use 17 

Bedbugs 30-32 

Beef . 65 

Beefsteaks 69 

Blankets, to Wash 22 

Blues, Fading . 15 

Bottles, to Gean 11 

Brass Beds, to Gean 14 

Breads 

To Make 45-54 

Hot 45-54 

Bread 

Temperature Cooking ....... 44 

To Cook Fireless 79 

Broom 2 

Cabbage, to Cook Fireless 79 

16S 



166 INDEK—CenthntiJ 

Cakes 106-122 

Cooked Fireless 80 

How to Handle 10 

Temperatures 44 

Angel 106 

Apple Jelly 107 

Black Fruit Ill 

Chocolate 113 

Chocolate Layer 118 

Cocoanut Ill 

Date 110 

Devil's Food 114 

Ginger 118 

Hickory-Nut 117 

Loaf 112 

Neapolitan 115 

Orange 109 

Pound 116 

Silver 117 

Snowball 107 

Snowdrift 112 

Soft Ginger 119 

Spanish Bun 116 

Spanish Sweet 115 

Spice 113 

Sponge 111-114 

Sunshine .' 106 

Surprise 108 

Wakut Mocha 109 

White Fruit 117 

White Mountain 118 

Candied Orange Peel 162 



ISDEK—Coniinuid 167 

Candies, Home-Made 

Chocolate Caramel 161 

Chocolate Fudge 162 

Divinity Fudge 161 

Maple Pralines 162 

Carpets, How to Qean S 

Cauliflower 

Au Gratin .94 

To Cook Fireless .77 

To Cook Paper Bag 89 

Celery, to Fringe 15 

Chafing-Dish, The 151-155 

Charlotte Russe 133 

Cherry Cup 160 

Chicken 

Fricasseed, Fireless . ' 74 

Creamed, Chafing-Dish 155 

Chigres 35 

Chili Sauce .......... 148 

Chocolate, to Reduce 8 

Chops, Lamh 70 

Clams, Fritters 63 

Claret Lemonade 159 

Clean, to Keep 17 

Clothing 

How to Hang 14 

How to Iron 15 

Cold Dishes 

Jellied Chicken 156 

Pigs' Feet 157 

Veal Loaf .-...< -. . 157 



I6t INDEX— C«if/^»W 

CoflFcc 

Iced 158 

Stains, to Remove 15 

Combinations, What Goes Well In ... . 65-71 

Cookies 

Cocoanut . 121 

Fruit and Nut . . 121 

Maple 119 

Oatmeal 121 

Raisin 120 

Sour Cream 120 

Vanilla Snaps 120 

Crab Meat Balls ^ 62 

Currant Conserve 147 

Custard, Soft 139 

Cut Glass, to Qean ........ 8-9 

Desserts, Ices and Fruits 133-139 

Don'ts, General 26-27 

Drinks, Summer . . 158-160 

Ducks 

Canvasback . . .92 

Wild 90 

Dust Cloth 3 

Dust, to Prevent 6 

Eggs 

Scrambled, Chafing-Dish 154 

To Beat Quickly 18 

Fillings 

Caramel 123 

Chocolate 125 

Figs 122 

For Tarts 122 

Maple Sugar 126 



INDEX— ContinuiJ 169 

Orange 124 

Sour Cream 124 

Fircless Cooking 72-81 

Fish Sa^ 

To Plank . . . • 58 

What to Serve With 68 

Fish-Bone, to Remove 10 

Flat-Irons, to Smooth 12-14 

Fleas 34 

Flies . . . :. 32 

Floors, Concrete • 8 

Flour, Sifted 15 

Fly Paper 4 

Fowl, Roast, What to Serve With ..... 69 

Frosting 

Butter 124 

Caramel 125 

Chocolate Cream 123 

Fruits, to Keep • 7 

Furnace 4 

Furniture, to Polish 21 

Game Birds 90-92 

Glass Jars 2 

Glass, Temperature of 8 

Gooseberries, Spiced . 146 

Grape 

Conserve 148 

Juice 160 

Juice Punch 159 

Grease, to Remove 6-9 

Halibut, in Paper Bag 85 

Ham, to Boil, Fireless .••••.•• 74 



170 INDEX— ConiinuiJ 

Ice-Cream 

Maple 134 

Vanilla 133 

Idng, Boiled 125 

Idngs, Frostings and Fillings 123-126 

Ink, to Remove 9 

Insects, Pests 28-36 

Jams 43 

Jars, to Protect 12 

Jellies 43 

Jelly 

Tutti-Frutti 136 

Wine .137 

Kerosene, Qeaning With 5 

Knives, Care of . . •: 16 

Lamb, Roast 

Fireless • • • . . 75 

Paper Bag 85 

To Serve With 70 

Lemon Ice 133 

Linens >: 2-18 

Luncheons, Suggestions for 67 

Mahogany, to Restore 10 

Marble, to Clean 16 

Marmalades 43 

Marmalade, Orange 145 

Marshmallow Cream 137 

Matting, to Qean 14 

Measures 38-39-40-41 

Meat Balls & 

Meat 

To Boil 70 



ISDEX—CUnHnusJ m 

To Make Tender 13 

To Roast 43 

Medicine, Marking 18 

Mildew, to Remove 7 

Mosquitoes 33 

Moths 28-30 

Mushrooms 

Chafing-Dish 153 

Fried 96 

Mutton 65 

Creamed, Chafing-Dish 153 

Odors, to Kill 11 

Oil, to Extinguish ......... 13 

Onions 

To Cook, Fireless 76 

To Cook, Paper Bag 88 

Orange and Cocoanut Dessert •< 138 

Oysters • . . . . 63-64 

Grilled 155 

Pigs in Blankets 153 

Package, Handy 13 

Paint, to Remove 7-21 

Paint, to Restore 12 

Pans, Sticking 10 

Paper Bags, Cooking In 82-89 

Parasol, to Launder 21 

Parsley, to Preserve Fresh 7 

Peach 

Butter 146 

Pickles 147 

Peppers, Green, Stuffed 95 



172 INDEX— Continuid 

Pies 

Apple 140 

Cooked, Fireless 80 

Cooked, Paper Bag 88 

Cream 142 

Crust for 140 

Crust, to Aid 13 

Lemon Cream . 143 

Mincemeat 140 

Orange Custard 143 

Squash 142 

Pillows, to Qean 19 

Pineapple, With Wine 137 

Poik Roast 

Paper Bag 86 

What to Serve With ...... 69-71 

Potatoes 

Au Gratin 94 

Mashed 93 

To Bake, Paper Bag 88 

To Boil . 6 

To Cook, Fireless 78 

Pot Roast 

Fireless . • . . ' 76 

Paper Bag 80 

Preserves and Pickles 145-150 

Puddings and Sauces 127-132 

Pudding 

Apple Tapioca 128 

Baked Indian 127 

Caramel Custard , 129 



ISDEX—ContinuiJ 173 

Jelly Bread 130 

Prune Souffle 136 

Rice 130 

Steamed Cherry 128 

Suet 127 

Quail 

Roast, Paper Bag 87 

To Broil 90 

To Roast 91 

Raspberry Shrub 159 

Refrigerator, The 1-2 

Remedies, Simple 22-24 

Roaches 32-33 

Rubber Bands, to Freshen ....... ^ 

Salads and Dressings ....•: . • • 97-105 

Salad 

Alligator Pear 99 

Apple and Banana .97 

Asparagus Tips 100 

Aspic 103 

Banana 102 

Cherry 98 

Dressing, Boiled 102 

Dressing, for Fruit 104 

Fruit .97 

Grapefruit and Orange 98 

Lettuce 101 

Marshmallow and Orange 100 

Mayonnaise 101-103 

Shrimp 101 

Summer 99 

Tomato Aspic 99 



174 JUDEX— Cmtinuid 

With Cheese Balls 104-105 

Salmon, to Bake 61 

Salt Fish, to Freshen 14 

Sandwiches, Cheese, Chafing-Dish 154 

Sangaret 158 

Sardines 62 

Sauces 131-133 

Sauce 

Cream 132 

Foamy 131 

Hard 131 

Strawberry 131 

Shad Roe 

To Cook 60 

To Plank 61 

Short Cake, Orange 134 

Short Cake, Strawberry 135 

Sickness, Foods In 24-26 

Sirups, to Aid 12 

Skirts, to Protect 13 

Soap, to Keep 18 

Soups, Recipes for 55-57 

Spinach, to Cook, Fireless 78 

Sponge 

Qeaning With 5 

How to Clean 7 

Spots, to Remove 13 

Sweetbreads, Chafing-Dish 151 

Sweet Potatoes, Candied 93 

Tapioca, With Cherries 135 

Tarts, Fillings for 122 

Tea, Iced 158 



ISDEX— continued 175 

Teapot, to Gean m • 11 

Thermometer, Use in Cooking ...... 42 

Ticks, to Remove 36 

Times for Cooking >; . 37 

Tomatoes 

To Bake 94 

To Broil 95 

Green, Pickles 149 

Yellow, Preserves 149 

Trout, to Cook 59 

Turkey, Roast 69 

Vegetables 

Cooked Fireless 79 

General Cooking of 93-96 

Washing, to Make Easy 17 

Water-Pipes 4 

Weights and Measures 37 

Welsh Rarebit, Chafing-Dish 152 

White Fish, in Paper Bag ....... 86 



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