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Irrjuftrtngtrfll mdt Natural listflnj 


13uiltdljctf unaer if)e JStrccttau of tlje ^adcty 



Henry Bull, Saint John Street. 

G. Bell, 186, Fleet Street; J. R. Smith, 36, Sono Square. 


devizes : 

teinted by henry brll, 

saint john street. 






H. HiS" 



Ho. $U. 


Account of the Second Geneeal Meeting at Salisbury, viz. — 

Report 7 

The Annual Dinner 16 

Articles exhibited at the temporary Museum 26 

On Church Bells, with some Notices of Wiltshire Bells: By Rey. 
W. C. Lukis 40-82 

On the Hungerford Chapels in Salisbury Cathedral : By Rev. 
J. E. Jackson 83-99 

Brief Notices of the Family of Giffard: By Rev. Arthur Fane 100-108 

Pedigree of Giffard of Boyton, Ichull, Weston-sub-Edge, and Sherston 

Pinkney : By Sir Thos. Phillipps, Baet. 108 

On the Architecture and Mosaics of "Wilton Church: By James E. 
Nightingale, Esq 109-118 

Some Notices of the Library at Stourhead: By J. B. Nichols, 
Esq., F.S.A 119-125 

Intreuchments at Aldbourne: By F. A. Carrington, Esq 126-129 

Curious Endowment of Enford Chantry: By ditto 129-130 

"Wiltshire Notes and Queries: — 

The Sheriff of Wilts Imprisoned at Devizes 131-132 

Lamps on Beckhampton Down 132 

Tisbury a Market Town 132 

Longevity 132 

00. F. 

Abridgement of the History of the Manor and Ancient Barony of 

Castle Combe: (No. 1.) By G. Poulett Scrope, Esq., M.P 133-158 

On some Coal Operations at Malmesbury: By Professor J. Buckman. . 159-161 

Ornithology. (No. 4.) The Beaks of Birds: By Rev. A. C. Smith . . 162-172 

The Hertford Correspondence. (Concluded) 173-190 

Ancient Ales in Co. Wilts and Diocese of Sarum : By F. A. Carring- 
ton, Eaq 191-204 

Bells of Co. Wilts, and their Inscriptions: By Rev. W. C Lukis 205-211 

The Bustard : By J, Sw \ vm:, Esq 212 

The Churches of Devizes. (No. 1.) By Mr. Edward Kite 213-256 

Wiltshire Notes and Queries: By J. Waylen, Esq.: — 

Henry, Earl of Danby 257 

Chalheld House 258 

County Gaol at Fisherton 259 

Singular Tenure. Manor of Hakeneston 260 

Notice— The Botany of Wiltshire 260 


History of the Wiltshire Manors subordinate to the Manor of Castle 

Combe : (No. 2.) By G. Poulett Sceope, Esq., M. P 261-289 

On the Ornithology of Wilts. (No. 5.) On the Feet of Birds : By Rev. 

A. C. Smith 290-301 

On the Churches of Devizes. (No. 2. J By Mr. Edward Kite 302-332 

Documents relating to St. Mary s, 302. Extracts from Church- 
wardens' Accounts of ditto, 308. Thos. Hall's Letter, 325. 
Rectors of Devizes, 326. Chantry Chaplains, 331. 
Pedigree of Garth, of Devizes and Haines Hill : By Rev. John "Ward 332 

Bells of Co. "Wilts, with their Inscriptions. (No. 2.) By Rev. W. C. 

Lukis 333-355 

Deanery of Chalke, 333. Of Wilton and Wylie, 334. OfAvebury, 
338. Of Marlborough, 343. Of Potterne, 349. 
The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire, and Pedigrees of Wilts' Families: 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq 356-386 

Wiltshire Seals: By Rev. J. E. Jackson 387-392 

Contributions to the Museum and Library 392 

Ditto by Richard Mullings, Esq 394 

Wiltshire Notes and Queries : — 
Wiltshire Civil Wars : Notice of Proposed History : By J. Waylen, 

Esq 397 

Clarendon Park 398 

Upper Upham 399 

The Word Ale 399 


Church Bells : 1. Bell from " Mercennus," p. 40. 2. Full-wheel, 56. 3. Ele- 
vation of Bell and Stock, 56. 4. Ogbourne St. Andrew's Treble Bell, 58. 
5. Ditto, Fourth Bell, 58. 6. Ditto, Tenor Bell, 58. 7. Old Half-wheel, 58. 
8. Action of Clapper, 70. 

Aldbourne Intrexchmexts, p. 127. Old House at Upper Upham, 128. 
Arrow-head, 129. 

Castle Combe: Market Cross, p. 133. Plan of Castle Hill, 135. Roman 
Sepulchral Bas-relief, 136. Dunstanville Monumental Slab, 139. Monument, 
140. Seal of Lady Margaret de Clare, 141. Ditto of Lord Robert Tibctot, 
and Sir R. Scrope, 143. Banner of Scrope, 146. Seal of Sir William Scrope, 
147. Arms of Sir John Fastolf, 149. Seal of Stephen Scrope, 150. East 
Window of Church, 157. 

Devizes Churches: St. John's and St. Mary's, 213. Ground Plan of St. John's, 
218. Arcade in ditto, 220. Window in 'North Chancel, ditto, 223. Ground 
Plan of St. Mary's, 236. Nave Roof, ditto, 239. Aisle Window, ditto, 240. 

Wiltshire Seals: 1. Esturmy of Figheldean, p. 387. 2. Monkton Farley, 
387. 3. Prebend of Yetminster, 387. 4. Bradenstoke, 387. 5. Thomas 
Giffard, 387. 

Murder of Mr. Henry Penruddocke, p. 397. 



Irtjjteiilnginil unit Hutitral listnn| 


No. IV. APRIL, 1855. Vol. II. 



Account of the Second Gexeral Meeting at Salisbury, viz. — 

Report 7 

The Annual Dinner 16 

Articles exhibited at the Temporary Museum 26 

On Church Bells, with some Notices of Wiltshire Bells : By Rev. 
W. C. Lukis 40-82 

On the Hungerford Chapels in Salisbury Cathedral: By Rev. 
J. E. Jackson 83-99 

Brief Notices of the Family of Giffard: By Rev. Arthur Fane . . . 100-108 

On the Architecture and Mosaics of "Wilton Church : By James E. 

Nightingale, Esq 109-118 

Some Notices of the Library at Stourhead : By J. B. Nichols, 

Esq., F.S.A 119-125 

Intrenchments at Aldbourne : By F. A. Carrington, Esq 126-129 

Curious Endowment of Enford Chantry : By ditto 129-130 

Wiltshire Notes and Queries :— 

The Sheriff of Wilts Imprisoned at Devizes 131-132 

Lamps on Beckhampton Down 132 

Tisbury a Market Town 132 

Longevity 132 


Church Bklls: 1. Bell from "Mercennus," p. 40. 2. Full-wheel, 56. 3. Ele- 
vation of Bell and Stock, 56. 4. Ogbourne St. Andrew's Treble Bell, 58. 
■>. Ditto, Fourth Bell, 58. 6. Ditto, Tenor Bell, 58. 7. Old Half-wheel, 58. 
8. Action of Clapper, 70. 

Ai.iuiouitxi; Intrkxciimknts, p. 127. Old House at Upper Upham, 128. 
Arrow-head, 129. 

iIi.nuy Bull, Sauti John Stkket. 

<i. Hi i.;., 186, FLEET Stkkktj J. it. Smith, 36, Souo Square. 

devizes : 
printed by henry bull, 

saint john steet. 






Wiltshire £rdja*ologtcal ant! Natural ^istorg Sonets, 

Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, September 13th, \Mh, and 15th, 



The Right Honourable Sidney Herbert, M.P. 

After the transaction of some formal business in committee, the 
Society met on Wednesday, the 13th, at half-past twelve o'clock, 
in the Council Chamber, the use of which had been kindly granted 
by the worshipful the Mayor, J. Lambert, Esq. 

The room had been fitted up as a temporary Museum, and con- 
tained a large number of relics and curiosities, illustrative of the 
history of the county ; of which a detailed description will be given 
in another page. 

Before resigning his chair of office to the President of the 
Meeting, G. P. Scrope, Esq., M.P., the President of the Society, 
rose and said — Ladies and gentlemen: I think you must be all 
aware of the object of our assembling here to day — namely, for 
the purpose of holding the second annual meeting of an association 
that was instituted last year at Devizes, under the title of the Wilts 
Archaeological and Natural History Society. I dare say that there 
are many here who have not yet enrolled themselves as members, 
but still it can hardly be necessary for me to explain at any length 
the objects and purposes of the Society. In a very few words, 

\oi,. II. — NO. IV. h 

2 Second General Meeting. 

however, I may say that it has been formed for the purpose of 
encouraging and promoting, to the utmost possible degree, the study 
of the civil and ecclesiastical history of the antiquities of our county, 
together with its numerous objects of natural history; and for 
disseminating as far as possible, through all ranks of society, a 
knowledge of every fact tending to illustrate these interesting 
subjects. It has likewise in view the formation of some central 
museum, in which objects of interest connected with these subjects 
should be deposited, as a place of security, instead of being lost 
and dispersed, as it not unfrequently happens, when they remain in 
the hands of private individuals. We hope, also, that something 
will be done towards preserving and maintaining — and in some 
cases restoring — the monuments of antiquity of which this county 
is so justly proud. These being the objects of the Society, it 
became necessary to institute some central place in which the 
museum should be established ; and Devizes being, geographically 
speaking, the centre of the county, that town was nominated as 
the place where it should be deposited; and it was proposed that 
the meetings of the working members, the committee for example, 
should from time to time, be held there. But at the same time it 
was remembered that unless we could secure the sanction and 
cordial co-operation of the inhabitants of South Wilts, and especially 
of the metropolitan city of Salisbury, it would be impossible for 
the Society to flourish, (hear hear);, and we have, therefore, availed 
ourselves of the earliest possible opportunity of holding a meeting 
in this town. On the occasion of the inaugural meeting last year 
I had the undeserved honour of being elected President ; and my 
only object in now rising is to vacate my post, and to ask you to 
confer it upon a gentleman much more deserving of the office, and 
far more competent to discharge its duties. After my saying this, 
I am sure you must be anticipating the name of the Right Hon. 
Sidney Herbert. (Cheers). That gentleman is so well known that 
it would be superfluous and absurd for me to speak of his merits. 
As an archaeologist he has ample claims upon the association, pos- 
sessing as he does one of the finest galleries of antiquities in the 
country. (Hear, hear). I noticed in passing through Wilton 

The Right Hon. Sidney Herbert's Address. 3 

yesterday that lie must be a most accomplished archaeologist to have 
selected such an admirable style of architecture as that observable 
in the splendid new church which he has erected in that town. 
(Cheers). I will not attempt to notice his personal claims upon the 
Society, or to allude for one moment to the high position he occupies 
with respect to the south of the county, inasmuch as his character 
is so well known, and in such high repute amongst all the inhab- 
itants of the district. Apologising for trespassing upon you at this 
length, I will now conclude by asking you to approve of the proposal 
I have made, — namely that the Eight Hon. Sidney Herbert, be 
requested to occujiy this chair as President of the meeting. (Loud 

The Rev. J. E. Jackson seconded the proposition, which was 
agreed to unanimously. 

The Eight Hon. Sidney Herbert, M.P., having taken the chair, 
addressed the assembly to the following effect : — Ladies and 
gentlemen — In taking the chair of this meeting I have to tha»k 
my friends Mr. Poulett Scrope and Mr. Jackson, for their kindness 
in introducing me to your notice ; and I must also ask you to excuse 
my deficiences as an antiquary, in undertaking the task of presiding 
over an antiquarian meeting. But although I cannot myself claim 
any learned acquaintance with the subjects which we have met to 
discuss, yet I have naturally, in common with every one in this room, 
a great interest in those objects of antiquity with which we are 
surrounded, and in which the Southern part of the county of Wilts 
is especially rich. (Hear, hear). I am extremely glad that the 
Society has migrated upon this occasion from the north to the south, 
thereby giving us an opportunity of showing to our northern 
brethren how rich are the records of some of the darkest as well as 
some of the most enlightened and stirring periods of our history 
which we possess in this neighbourhood. (Applause). Now I have 
heard it stated thai these Societies are of but very little use; and 
ridicule has old n pointed at the somewhat trivial subjects upon 
which a minute and microscopic attention is occasionally fixed by 
BTl 'Ideologists; but 1 must recall to the minds of those who are 
disposed to cavil at our proceedings, that these things, however 

B 2 

4 Second General Meeting. 

trivial in themselves, subsequently become of the greatest importance 
as furnishing materials for future history. (Cheers). It was an 
observation of Dugdale's when he was referring to the marginal 
notes of the ancient editions of those great authors, Suetonius, 
Livy, and Tacitus — that he was surprised to see into what musty 
parchments of old Rome these historians must have dived. And I 
think in our own time — when history is at last beginning to be written 
— when we have not merely the skeletons, the dry bones of past events 
— but when the spirit of history is evoked — that we have the most 
graphic pictures placed before us, of the manners and customs of 
the times gone by. I believe no one who has read any chapter of 
Macauley's celebrated book can fail to observe that, from materials 
mean and meagre in themselves — from the ballads and trash and 
trifles of the day — the historian has contrived to group together 
such a picture as was never placed before us by any other writer, 
of the manners and customs of our forefathers, at a very interesting 
period of English history. (Applause). It is likewise true that 
the contemplation of anything tending to divert our minds from 
the present to something more distant is calculated, as Dr. Johnson 
remarks, "to advance us in dignity as thinking beings." There is 
a sort of national pride to be taken in that which has gone before 
us — it is like the pride which nations take in their descent (for 
nations have descents and ancestors as well as individuals) — 
but whether they use that pride for a good or bad purpose must 
depend upon the spirit in which they feel its advantages. It was 
an observation, which I have always thought a very wise one, of 
Sir Thomas Overbury, who, — when speaking of persons who laid 
all their claims of merit upon their ancestors — said "they very much 
resembled the potato, because the best part was underground." 
(Laughter). And so it is with regard to nations. If they merely 
occupy themselves with thoughts of their past grandeur, of their 
past successes, and of the eminent men they have produced, as a 
means of puffing off their own vanity, and not as imposing fresh 
duties and fresh calls to exertion, to maintain the name which they 
have acquired from the efforts of those who preceded them, they 
>me under the same denomination as that valuable esculent to 

The Right Hon. Sidney Herbert's Address. 5 

which I have alluded — the better part of them is underground. 
(Hear and a laugh) . However I must say that we in South Wiltshire 
should be perfectly callous to all good and wise impressions, if we 
were not to set some value upon the antiquities we possess. (Hear, 
hear). Without wishing to draw any invidious comparisons 
between this county and other parts of England, I may say that I 
know scarcely any district so rich as ours — it is a perfect epitome 
of history. (Applause). Here you have the monuments of the 
Druids (one of them the finest in the world); you have close by the 
camp of Vespasian: and down the river the great camp of Old 
Sarum ; you have upon every headland which juts into the valley 
the marks of earth- works thrown up in the struggle between the 
various races, who one after another, took possession of, and main- 
tained these strongholds for a time, and then yielded their rough 
conquests to their successors. Then, again, at Clarendon you have 
a noble monument of the great struggle between the church and 
the secular power ; and if you go three miles in a contrary direction 
you will find evidences of that struggle which was conducted against 
Beckett by Henry the II., and which was terminated with 
Henry the VIII. Of that monarch I will say nothiug. I believe 
we are not disposed in these times to look upon him as a monarch, 
but rather to dwell upon certain domestic failings which he 
possessed ; but I must recall to the minds of those who are disposed 
to visit with indiscriminate censure one of the most energetic 
sovereigns that ever ruled over this country, that up to a certain 
period of his life — whether for statesmanship, for grace, for learning, 
or for wit, he was one of the most admired monarchs this country 
ever possessed. (Hear, hear). He had the misfortune to live too 
long — he had the misfortune to display great vices; but setting 
aside that portion of his life, I take this opportunity of speaking 
on behalf of one who has no friends (laughter), and I must say that 
King Henry the VIII has received at the hands of posterity very 
hard measure indeed. (Hear, hear). Pardon me for Hi is digression, 
and permit me now to stale — as my friend Mr. Scrope has spoken 
of the advantage of fcbia institution to the county generally — that 
there IB one advantage winch ought nut to be overlooked. It is 

6 Second General Meeting. 

that an association of this kind teaches us to take a living and 
practical interest in those monuments which are, as it were, en- 
trusted to our custody. We have, indeed, some reason to complain 
of the manner in which they have been mutilated in their trans- 
mission to us from our forefathers, but at the present time there is 
a different spirit abroad. (Hear, hear). We may see it in the 
restoration of our churches, which are now restored with a feeling 
of veneration, and in a learned and truly architectural spirit. They 
are now restored — not mutilated. (Hear, hear). We in Salisbury 
have seen the manner in which our Cathedral has been treated, and 
have, I hope, learnt a lesson to avoid a repetition of those errors in 
our own time. (Applause). I see in the restoration of the Poultry 
Cross here, another instance how carefully we are retracing the steps 
of those architects who preceded us; and I see throughout the 
whole length of the country, that the greatest care is being taken 
of monuments of this kind. I believe that some years ago, a 
portion of Stonehenge was consumed in the reparation of roads. 
I recollect the last time the Central Archajological Society met here, 
that we had a discussion upon the subject of the two large stones 
which fell from their position about sixty or seventy years ago. It 
was proposed that these stones should be restored to their original 
position, but as in all questions of this kind, a great difference of 
opinion existed. Some said that it would be nothing short of desecration 
to touch a monument of such antiquity; but, it should be re- 
membered, that it was not proposed to substitute fresh stones,, but 
to replace those lying on the ground in the position in the circle 
which they were formerly known to occupy. These two stones 
are of great importance, and there can be no doubt that, ultimately, 
all the circle will fall and perish in the same manner, unless some 
means are taken to obviate such a result. My object in referring 
to the siibject is to give expression to the feelings of those who are 
interested in the matter, that it should again be taken into con- 
sideration. I do not understand that any difficidty exists in an 
engineering point of view, and if the stones were replaced it would 
certainly be with the best effect to the structure. (Hear, hear). I 
will now conclude the few observations which I have taken the 

Society's Report. 7 

liberty of making. Those who come after me will be able to do 
much more than I can to teach and instruct you upon the subjects 
into which we are met to enquire. I will not detain you any longer, 
except to observe that before proceeding to discuss any points which 
may be brought under our notice, there is some business of the Society 
to be transacted ; and first of all I will call upon the Rev. Mr. Lukis, 
one of the Secretaries, to read the annual report of the Society. 
(The right hon. gentleman then resumed his seat amidst loud 
applause) . 

The Rev. Mr. Lukis then read the following 


The Committee of the Wilts Archaeological and Natural History 
Society has great pleasure in laying before the members an account 
of its progress during the past year, and in congratidating them on 
its present position. 

It is a subject of great satisfaction that we have received a steady 
increase in the number of our members. At our inaugural meeting 
last year they amounted to 137; at the present moment they have 
by gradual additions reached the number of 281. 

It is hardly to be expected, in a county more remarkable for the 
interest attaching to its antiquarian remains than for the number 
or wealth of its population, that such additions to our members 
should be otherwise than gradual. And comparing our own pro- 
gress with the efforts which had previously been made, almost in vain, 
to promote the same object, we have certainly good reason to be 
well satisfied with the position in which we stand. 

This progress may be in a measure attributed to the circulation 
of our magazine among those classes who were unacquainted with 
the Society, or indifferent to its success. The cheap form in which 
it is put forth, renders it accessible to many who would be unable 
to purchase a larger or more expensive volume. 

We trust that our members will not be unwilling to contribute 
to fa pages nicrely because they have not the leisure or the ability 
to furnish lenythnird papers; for almost every one may make use 

8 Second Genera/ fleeting. 

of it as a kind of Wiltshire Notes and Queries, as a place for 
recording local customs or peculiarities, or any little discoveries 
which may have come in their way. 

We have not lost sight of the possibility of publishing those 
interesting collections of John Aubrey, to which attention was 
directed at our last meeting. This would be a valuable addition 
to Wiltshire Topography. And we may venture to urge on our 
most excellent Secretary Mr. Jackson, to do us the favour of car- 
rying out our wishes in this respect; and to thank him for the 
services he has rendered us in editing the magazine. 

There will be found on the table some detailed drawings of 
Wootton Rivers Church, and other antiquities in the neighbourhood 
of Marlborough, the use of which has been offered to the Society, 
and the publication of which it is hoped we may be able to 
undertake. The same gentleman who made them is preparing 
drawings of the Porch of Bishop's Cannings, and of a tomb and 
other interesting details of Winterbourne Basset Church, which he 
will also place at the service of the Society. Their pubKcation 
will furnish the commencement of a Wiltshire portfolio: and the 
example thus given in one neighbourhood will, we may hope, in 
course of time, be followed in others. It is also much to be wished 
that some drawings in our collection should be selected for pub- 
lication, by way of beginning the illustration of the Churches of 
Wiltshire. It would also much facilitate this object, if any of 
our members who are photographists could favour us with views 
of Churches and other objects of interest in their respective neigh- 

In speaking of our progress during the past year, we are bound 
to acknowledge, with many thanks, the receipt of several valuable 

We are happy in being able to add that the finances of the 
Society are in a prosperous condition. The receipts up to Sep- 
tember, 1854, including the amount of subscriptions towards the 
purchase of Mr. Britton's collection have amounted to £367 4s. ; 
and the expenditure to £311 19s. 3d.; leaving a balance of 
£55 4s. 9d. In consequence of a liberal donation of £10 by the 

Society's Report. 9 

Marquis of Lansdowne, and the large accession of new members, 
we may venture to estimate our receipts for the ensuing year at 
about £250. As the property of the Society has been thus increased, 
it becomes necessary to appoint trustees in accordance with Rule 
VI. of the Society, and a resolution to that effect will be laid before 
the meeting. 

While thus referring in terms of congratulation to our past pro- 
ceedings, we cannot but deeply regret the loss which the Society 
has sustained by the death of several of its members. "We may be 
permitted to specify Mr. Bucknall Estcourt, whose family has been 
for so many generations connected with this county, and who was 
ever most forward in encouraging every object of local and county 
interest. But while assembled in this city, and under the shade of 
its venerable Cathedral, we cannot but refer in terms of the deepest 
sorrow to the great loss which both the Society and Diocese 
have sustained in the death of our late venerated Diocesan. It is 
not for us in this place to speak of his many virtues as a Bishop of 
the Church, but we cannot but regard with affectionate remembrance 
not merely the interest which he expressed in the first establish- 
ment of this Society, but also the many and various ways in which 
he promoted practically one of its great objects. Our Parish 
Churches, considered merely as architectural ornaments of our 
county, are objects of interest to all of us ; and these our late 
Bishop took under his especial care in instituting the Church 
Building Society, and earnestly promoting its interests year by 
year. To this may be added his munificent contribution to the 
adornment of the Cathedral, by his restoration of a large part of 
the cloisters, which were in a lamentable state of neglect and 
decay; and the very anxious desire which he always expressed to 
restore to its original beauty that singular specimen of the skill 
and taste of our forefathers, our graceful Chapter House. He has 
gone from us; but the work on which he set his heart will be ac- 
complished, and every one who has contributed to that, will feel 
that he is not merely helping to restore a most exquisite work of 
ancient art, but also to tear a memorial to one of singular piety, 
simplicity, and disinterestedness; and one moreover who endeared 


10 Second General Meeting. 

to himself, especially in this city, the hearts of all classes, whether 
rich or poor. He who is gone will thus have his memorial written 
in our hearts or engraven in stones, still among us; and he on 
whom his mantle has fallen will doubtless carry out, both in his 
patronage of our Society, and every other design of usefulness, the 
intentions of his predecessor. 

It is for this, as for other reasons, that we are glad at meeting 
together for the first time in this city, which in itself and in its 
immediate neighbourhood presents so many objects of interest: — 
British, Roman, and Anglo-Saxon remains, one of the purest 
specimens of Gothic architecture, several ancient domestic buildings, 
collections of paintings and sculpture, and places like Boscombe and 
Bemerton, recalling the memory of Richard Hooker and of George 

We must now venture to congratulate ourselves, though in his 
own presence, on the favour which has been conferred upon us by 
the Right Hon. gentleman who has kindly undertaken to be the 
President of the meeting. He has given ample evidence of his 
munificent taste and generous love of art in the erection of that 
noble Church, unrivalled in its own style in this country, which 
needs only to be alluded to. But we must remember for how many 
generations his distinguished ancestors were the patrons of taste 
and art in this country. The descendant of 'Sidney's sister, 
Pembroke's mother,' and of her son, who has been described as 
"the most universally beloved and esteemed of any man of that age," 
"of excellent parts and a graceful speaker," "and of disposition 
affable, generous, and munificent," a poet and a patron of poets, 
architects, and painters ; the descendant again of the noble 
founder of the unequalled private collection of ancient marbles 
(which we are permitted the pleasure of inspecting), and of his 
next successor, the designer of Wilton, as it now stands, and whose 
skill as an architect is expressly spoken of by Lord Orford, could 
hardly fail, in inheriting the name, to inherit also the taste and 
munificence of his ancestors. 

Under his presidency we are confident that the proceedings of 
this meeting will be crowned with eminent success. And this we 

Second General Meeting. 11 

sincerely hope may be an earnest of the increased activity of a 
Society which, though so recently founded, has already furnished 
sufficient evidence of healthy and vigorous life. 

The Chairman then moved the adoption of the report, which 
was agreed to. 

The Lord Bishop of Salisbury : Ladies and Gentlemen, — With- 
out a moment's notice a paper has been put into my hands, conveying 
"the cordial thanks of this meeting to the secretaries, the Rev. 
Mr. Jackson, and the Rev. Mr. Lukis, for their zeal and per- 
severance in editing the Society's Magazine, and for preparing 
the present report." If I had been aware that it was intended 
to introduce such a motion to the meeting, and that it was to have 
been placed in my hands, I should have prepared myself to express 
the deep interest I take in the progress of this Society. As it is, I 
fear I shall have to content myself with merely assuring you that 
whatever course was pursued by my late beloved and revered pre- 
decessor, I shall endeavour steadily to follow. I am aware that one 
of the objects dear to his heart was to promote the well-being of 
this Society, and I will endeavour, as far as it is in my power, to 
give effect to his good purposes. I think that a Society of this kind 
must commend itself to the sympathy and patronage of all persons, 
and that on the most indisputable ground — whether we look upon 
its effects as a means of education and of training the intellect, or 
as a means of improving the moral well-being of our population. 
I am not, indeed, one of those who are content to be laudator 
temporis acti, nor do I forget the Word of God which enjoins me 
to "say not what is the cause that the former days were better than 
these, for thou dost not enquire wisely concerning these things;" 
but at the same time I am sure that it is one of the only ways of 
avoiding the evil tendencies of the present generation by binding 
up, as closely as possible, our sympathies and interests with the 
great and good works and endeavours of our able and most excellent 
forefathers. There can be no doubt that one of the perils in which 
we stand, intellectually, in the present generation, is that we find 
every thing made so ready to hand that we often-tinies lack the 
motive for that accurate and exact investigation, that patient and 

c 2 

12 Second General Meeting. 

unceasing: dilio;ence which so marked the labours of our ancestors. 
Perhaps we are not aware what hours the archaeologists of old spent 
in every monastery in this country in writing those valuable books 
which now contain, it may be, the records of all our past history. 
"We are often tempted, in these days, to think only lightly of the 
labour which our forefathers devoted to such subjects ; but we have 
only to read the works of the great archaeologists — such for example 
as Dr. Maitland — to see how the presumptuous ignorance of 
these times must wither under the scorn of a great man like 
him. We shall find that the former times and seasons of which 
people are apt to speak so contemptuously were marked by the 
greatest intellects — the most persevering labours — and the greatest 
discoveries. But surely we must also look upon the operations of 
societies like this in reference to their moral residts. It is a most 
admirable thing to bind ourselves more and more closely with the 
labours of past generations, in order that we may think less of our 
own endeavours, and feel more indebted to the labours of others. 
Perhaps it is a striking fault of the present generation that we are 
led to value ourselves too highly; and nothing will tend more, I 
believe, to bring us into due order upon this point than to study 
with care and exactness what was accomplished by our forefathers. 
At any rate the thoughts which moved and actuated the people of 
the 16th century, should be an inducement, in an age when these 
things are nearly forgotten, to restore a taste for them by establishing 
a Society of Antiquaries on a permanent footing. An endeavour 
to accomplish this end was made by Archbishop Parker, about 1572, 
when he — fearing lest history itself should perish under the careless 
disregard of former generations — was led to inaugurate a society 
for the express purpose of preserving the sacred records. That 
endeavour was for a considerable time marked with great success — 
and on looking at the list of those who were members of that society 
you will find two names, one of which is well known in this city, 
and the other in the northern part of the county — I mean the names 
of Mr. Lambert, and Mr. Heneage. The labours of Archbishop 
Parker were soon foiled, for he was suspected of having secret objects 
and designs quite distinct from archaeological pursuits; but never- 

Second General Meeting. 13 

theless you cannot fail to perceive how valuable, how precious, and 
how dear were the objects in which he and others were engaged, 
for during the whole of the civil wars the labours of archaeologists 
seemed to flourish when everything else was in abeyance. Those 
great men — Anthony Wood, Selden, and a host of others, whose 
names I do not now remember, but the fruits of whose labours we 
are now enjoying, devoted themselves, during the turmoils of that 
time to the revival of a knowledge of the labours of our ancestors. 
As a Bishop of the Church I feel of course, on independent grounds, 
the very deepest interest in the well being of such a society as this, 
for I am one who, from my own personal convictions and individual 
tastes, feel that if we are building houses to God it is of the utmost 
importance for the progress of divine knowledge — for the cultivation 
of good and holy tastes and aspirations — that those houses should 
express the ideas which must be at the bottom of our souls, if we 
would fain have our religion prosper and take hold of the hearts 
and affections of man. And it is to the labours of such societies 
as this that we owe the revival of a good, and pure, and holy taste 
upon these subjects. As religion lays hold more deeply of the 
sympathies of our fellow Christians, they will yearn more and more 
earnestly to express those ideas in every work which they raise to 
the honour and glory of God. But unless our tastes had been 
formed — unless we had been assisted by going back to purer ages 
of architectural skill, we might, perhaps, have remained in that 
tasteless and impure architectural condition which existed through- 
out the whole nation during the past century. We have now 
emerged from that state, and I would only ask persons, in going 
through the length and breadth even of this county, to see not only 
in our churches, but also in our schools, how much has been done 
for the revival of a pure architectural taste. These are, I believe, 
real and great blessings, and it is my office to try and promote 
such blessed results. I cannot but feel the very deepest interest in 
the progress of this Society, and I am therefore, able to move, with 
the greatest sincerity, that we should thank those to whose exertions 
the present state of the association owes so much. (The right rev. 
Prelate was much applauded at the conclusion of his address). 

14 Second General Meeting. 

The Rev. A. Fane, (Warminster) : — Mr. Chairman, Ladies and 
Gentlemen. — I am sure I owe you a great many more apologies 
than the Lord Bishop of the Diocese, inasmuch as the resolution 
which his Lordship has been pleased to move, has also been de- 
posited in my hands without the slightest previous intimation ; and 
at an archaeological meeting I consider it to be an utter breach of 
theory to place a perfectly new thing into the hands of a new mover 
and a new seconder, without any prior warning whatever. But as 
we are in an infantine state, I apprehend that I must make full 
allowance for such an irregularity. In attempting to second the 
resolution which has been prefaced by the admirable remarks of 
the Lord Bishop, it is unnecessary for me to say that I take a deep 
and cordial interest in this association, and that I believe the 
principles enunciated by his Lordship to be really vital and essential 
to the well being of society ; for I think that there ought to exist 
centres from which a knowledge of architecture, and every other subject 
connected with archaeology, may, as it were, be continually flowing. 
In seconding this resolution I feel that if I have one single claim 
for the office, it is, that if anybody is conversant with the intolerable 
difficulties which beset the secretary of any undertaking, it is my- 
self, for as the clergyman of a large parish one is requested to act 
in the capacity of secretary to such a number of objects that it is 
absolutely difficult to remember their names. With regard to the 
secretaries of this association I will venture to assert that if they 
were to make a clean confession before this meeting of the number 
of letters they had written, and the intolerable and strange nuisances 
they have had to encounter — how they have been thought intrusive 
upon one man and neglectful of another for not answering a letter 
by return of post acknowledging the receipt of an old bone, or 
something of that kind — and how it was thought they were about 
to steal the article because they did not forward an immediate reply ; 
— I say if they were to make a confession on all these matters you 
would at once be firmly convinced that there are no persons in this 
room so much deserving of your thanks. They have not only to 
set the matter a-going, and to endure the difficulties of which I 
have spoken, but they have also to collect intellects for contributions 

Second General Meeting. 15 

to the Society's magazine — they have to search for knowledge in 
the different mines of information ; and when they have done that, 
they have to collect everything into a given point, and to make 
what are technically termed "selections," without invidiousness to 
any person: in short they have to do all the dirty work of the 
association. I believe that none are acquainted with the onerous 
duties of a secretary, except those upon whom they have devolved. 
To my mind the Right Hon. Chairman himself would have been 
the best person to have proposed and seconded this resolution, for I 
think if there be one man more than another who feels the odious- 
ness of a secretary's post, it must be the Right Honourable the 
Secretary at War. I will now beg most humbly, but yet most 
cordially, to second this resolution — "That the grateful thanks of 
this meeting be given to the Rev. Mr. Jackson, and the Rev. Mr. 
Lukis, for their zeal and perseverance in editing the magazine of 
, the Society, and also for preparing the present report." (Applause). 

The resolution on being put to the meeting, was unanimously 

John Britton, Esq., F. S. A., rose to propose on behalf of the 
committee, the names of the following gentlemen as honorary 
members of the Society:" viz. — The Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A. 
J. Y. Akerman, Esq., Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries; 
John Britton, Esq., F.S.A. ; E. R. Brayley, Esq., F.S.A. ; Albert 
Way, Esq., F.S.A.; C. R. Smith, Esq., F.S.A.; George Godwin, 
Esq., F.R.S. ; Wm. Yarrell, Esq., F.R.Z.S. ; Professor Owen, F.R.S. ; 
Thomas Bell, Esq., F.R.S., &c. ; and Thos. Wright, Esq., M.A. 
F.S.A.; &c. 

Mr. Biackmore seconded the resolution, which was agreed to. 

The Rev. Sub-Dean Eyre said, that at the former meeting of 
the Society the members omitted to elect a Committee of Trustees, 
to whom the care of their property might be entrusted. He had 
now to propose the election of Sir Edmund Antrobus, Bart; Sir 
John Wither Aw dry, Knt.; Sir F. Bathurst, Bart. ; the Rev. Arthur 
Fane; Capt. Gladstone; the Right Hon. Sidney Herbert; Sir H. 
R. Hoare, Bart. ; Walter Long, Esq.; H. Merewether, Esq.; Joseph 
Neeld, Ksij.; Earl Nelson; Chas. Penruddocke, Esq. ; G. P. Scrope, 

16 Second General Meeting. 

Esq. ; and T. H. S- Sotheron, Esq. The property of the Society- 
had very largely increased, and he trusted that when the gentlemen 
he had named were elected, their responsibilities would be annually 

The Rev. J. Bliss seconded the resolution, which was at once 

Mr. Cuxnington then proposed the re-appointment of Col. 
Olivier, as Treasurer of the Society, which was agreed to. 

The Rev. Mr. Lukis said, he had much pleasure in proposing 
Mr. Henry Swayne, and Mr. James Nightingale, as local Secretaries. 

The Rev. W. R. Cozens seconded the proposition, which was 

The Rev. Mr. Lukis then read an article on "Church Bells," 
which will be found in the present Number. 

The meeting then dispersed. 


of the Society took place at the Three Swans Hotel, at five o'clock, 
and was attended by between 60 and 70 ladies and gentlemen. 
The chair was taken by the Worshipful the Mayor of Salisbury, 
who was supported on the right by the Lord Bishop of the Diocese ; 
G. P. Scrope, Esq., M.P. ; J. H. Jacob, Esq., &c. ; and on the left 
by Major-General Buckley, M.P. The Ma) r or discharged his duties 
in a most lively and agreeable manner, increasing very considerably 
by the dexterity of his archaeological allusions, the excellent spirit 
of social humour in which the evening was spent. After the 
customary honours to her Majesty, the Royal Family, and the Army 
and Navy, in giving which he observed that the barrow- digger felt 
the deepest sense of gratitude to the military, for had it not been 
for that class of men, many barrows would not have existed, and 
the excavator would not have had his desponding countenance so 

The Annual Dinner. 17 

often lightened up by the discovery of relics of a by-gone age. 

The Chairman said he had next to propose "the health of the 
Bishop and Clergy of the Diocese," and he did not think that he 
could present to them a more appropriate toast for a meeting like 
that. If they were to look throughout England it would be im- 
possible to find a Bishop more anxious for the sustentation of the 
religious edifices that they saw around them, and when he made 
that remark about the Bishop he was bound to add that throughout 
the whole of his diocese he was supported in that great work by 
the feeling of the Clergy. There was no country probably in the 
whole world where there were so many objects of interest as they 
had in England associated with their village Parish Churches, and 
they all, as Englishmen, felt the greatest interest in the main- 
tenance and preservation of those buildings. Archaeologists, in 
particular, entertained that feeling, and sympathised with the 
object most deeply; and hence it would be impossible to find a 
more appropriate toast on an occasion like the present than that of 
the Bishop and Clergy of the Diocese, who were so zealous in the 
maintenance of the edifices which were entrusted to their care. 
After the remarks of the Bishop in the morning, there could be 
no doubt of his zealous support of the cause of Archaeology, and 
that so long as he was spared in the See of Salisbury the Society 
might count upon his most cordial aid. 

The Lord Bishop of Salisbury returned thanks. The Mayor 
had done him no more than justice in assuring the meeting that 
nothing was more deep in his heart than the maintaining, and 
keeping, and repairing any ravages of time that might have been 
effected on those beautiful structures, not only in this city, but 
throughout the diocese. Not only would he pledge himself, but 
he would do so for every one of the ministry, to pursue the objects, 
under God, not only of maintaining those fabrics and repairing 
them when needed, in doing so they hoped to enlist the sympathies 
(rf all good a 10 1 r.eologists; but whenever there might be a necessity for 
erecting new edifices, they would endeavour to rival their forefathers 
in the beauty of their structures, and thereby hand down to 
posterity sonic memorials of the taste and piety of the present 


18 Second General Meeting. 

generation. Most of the gentlemen whom he addressed had heen 
archaeologists almost from their birth, for they had nearly all been 
educated in public schools where they had become conversant with 
the memorials of genius which had been transmitted to us by the 
ancients; and there was no advice that Eton men should more 
closely abide by than that of Juvenal — to avoid all pedantry, such 
as a mere knowledge of the materials and history of antiquity, 
unaccompanied by a desire to turn that knowledge to high practical 
purposes. He hoped to enlist on his side the sympathies of all his 
brethren by inducing them to throw themselves heartily into that 
system of progress — that well known word by which the application 
of science and of the arts, to all the useful employments of life 
was known — a system which was calculated to benefit our fellow- 
men, and at the same time to correct any evil tendency that might 
arise from the knowledge obtained in their education. His lordship 
then went on to observe, that he felt indebted to the Mayor for the 
reception accorded him at his enthronization, and remarked that, 
as long as he lived, he should never forget the kindness of his 
language on that occasion. He therefore felt sure that they would 
forgive him, if he ventured to propose, without having obtained 
permission, the health of the most excellent Mayor of the city of 

The Mayor regretted that it had not been his good fortune to 
contribute more extensively on this occasion to the advancement of 
the Wiltshire Archaeological Society. He had hoped to have been 
enabled to have directed their attention to a subject which had, to 
a great extent, escaped the observation of the archaeologists of 
England — he meant the subject of the music of the middle ages. He 
was particularly anxious to have laid before the meeting the result 
of some of the researches in which he had been engaged for a 
number of years, but a pressure of engagements had prevented 
him doing so. Were time and health granted to him, however, 
he hoped, at the next meeting of the Society, to lay before its 
members a clear and distinct account of the music of the middle 
ages in this country, and at the same time to show them — what 
had not been shown for the last 300 years — the principles which 

The Annual Dinner. 19 

guided the musicians of that period in its execution. He then 
proposed the health of the President of the meeting, the Right 
Hon. Sidney Herbert; the health of Mr. Poulett Scrope, M.P. 
That of the Secretaries, the Rev. J. E. Jackson, and the Rev. 
W. C. Lukis, was then given, and acknowledged by those gentlemen. 
Mr. Jackson expressed himself highly gratified by the encourage- 
ment afforded to the Society in the city of Salisbury, and mentioned 
that the association had that day received an accession of no fewer 
than 77 names, chiefly from the south of Wilts. 

The Rev. A. Fane, in a humourous and effective speech, in the 
course of which he referred to the general and deserved respect in 
which John Britton, Esq. was held by all archaeologists, proposed 
the health of "Mrs. Britton and the Ladies." 

Mr. Britton said, were he fifty years younger, and possessed the 
knowledge and experience he had now, he might probably tell them 
a story of his adventures in the world of archseology, art, and 
science, that would amuse them, excite their curiosity, and tend to 
promote their progress in the subject before them. Were he pos- 
sessed of the quick and ready wit of the Mayor of this ancient and 
interesting city, and were he possessed of the eloquence of his 
friend who had proposed the toast, he might reward their attention 
by comparing the state of archseology at the time when he com- 
menced his labours, with its condition at the present moment. It 
was then in the lowest possible grade, in the literary world, and 
the books which were published, as well as the illustrations contained 
in them, were but of little value. To assist him in the study of 
archaeology, the only books were " Camden's Britannia," " Grose's 
Antiquities," and one or two others, which abounded in as many 
fictions as you could meet with in one of the romances of the age. 
As they might imagine, he was often retarded by a consideration 
of the physical impossibility of the illustrations in these precious 
volumes being correct, and the profound incomprehensibility of 
the letterpress. In a word, there was everything calculated to 
impede and harass the youthful student. By means of perse- 
\c ranee, however — more perseverance than knowledge or science — 
he began to obtain a few glimpses of what was meant by lines in 

n 2 

20 Second General Meeting. 

drawing, and complex sentences in words, and these so excited his 
curiosity, that he was determined to master the greatest antiquities 
in the country; and a periodical publication that came out in 
Paternoster Row, under the superintendance of Mr. Hogg, and 
was circulated in sixpenny folio numbers, was the only running 
fountain to which he could resort for refreshment. He alluded to 
these things to show the difficulties that the student at that time 
had to meet, as compared with his opportunities now. At the 
present day, wherever he went — and he sometimes travelled as far 
as Plymouth or the Land's End, — he met with an abundance of 
old and young clergymen, of young men and maidens, with their 
sketch-books, and archaeological vade mecums, full of information 
and curiosities, which afforded him great delight. He was much 
gratified to find that the young as well as the old could reap infor- 
mation, amusement, and excitement, from the abbeys, the churches, 
the mansions, and the monuments of the land. They had now, 
not only in the metropolis, but almost all over the country, arch- 
aeological and natural history societies; and he was glad to find 
that the latter subject was blended with the former, inasmuch as 
it went to the very foundation of archaeology. He was glad to 
find Salisbury honoured by such a society as the one whose objects 
they were now endeavouring to promote, and he was also glad to 
see such assemblies as those he had witnessed on this occasion. 
After passing some high eulogiums upon the Mayor and the Bishop 
Mr. Britton concluded by saying — Allow me to make one more 
remark, and that is to exhort you all zealously to promote the 
popularity of the "Wiltshire Archaeological Society. I am myself 
a native of the county; I was born in it in the year 1771, and 
therefore you may tell pretty nearly what my age is. But although 
I am an ancient Brit (t) on, I am not yet disinterred from a tumulus. 

The Chairman then proposed the health of the local Secretary, 
Mr. Swayne, who returned thanks, and expressed himself much 
indebted for the assistance which he had received from Mr. James 

This terminated the proceedings of the dinner; and it being now 
eight o'clock the company adjourned to the council chamber, where 

The Evening Meeting. 21 


was appointed to be held. In the unavoidable absence of the 
Right Hon. Sidney Herbert, the chair was taken by G. P. Scrope, 
Esq., who, in a few introductory observations, called upon the 
Rev. J. E. Jackson to read a paper which he had prepared on "the 
two chantries founded by the Hungerford Family in Salisbury 
Cathedral." This (which is printed in the present number) was 
followed by a paper on " Boyton Church," by the Rev. A. Fane, 
and another on the " Family of the Giffards," by the same gentle- 
man. Of these the former is printed in No. 3 of the magazine; 
the latter will appear in its place amongst the proceedings of this 

The various articles in the museum were kindly explained by 
J. Y. Akerman, Esq., and the company dispersed between ten and 
eleven o'clock. 


The early part of this day had been set apart by the members 
for excursions to Old Sarum, Stonehenge, Clarendon, Lake, &c, 
but the state of the weather was so unpromising that only a limited 
number ventured forth, defying the elements in their determination 
to gratify their archaoological curiosity. "Wilton was to be the 
rendezvous for the re-assembling of the scattered visitors in the 
afternoon. An enterprising party took the route to Wilton by Old 
Sarum, Lake House, and Stonehenge. At Lake House, they were 
highly gratified by the inspection of a museum of Wiltshire anti- 
quities, founded by the late ingenious and Rev. Edward Duke ; 
and a most hospitable table was spread for their refreshment. 
Smaller parties, notwithstanding the splashing showers, found their 
way to Clarendon, Longford Castle, the Moot, Downton, &c. 

About half- past two o'clock a very large number had assembled 
at Wilton House, where they were cordially received by the Right 
Hon. Sidney and Mis. Herbert, and where a most sumptuous cold 

22 Second General Meeting. 

collation was provided. In addition to those assembled on the 
previous day, were the Most Noble the Marquis of Lansdowne, 
Lord Carnarvon, Lord Heytesbury, Lord Rivers, and the Hon. 
Misses Pitt, the Hon. Mr. and Mrs. Daly, and others. After the 
repast some of the guests amused themselves by inspecting the 
treasures of art to be found in the galleries of sculpture and painting ; 
while Mr. Herbert conducted others to the magnificent new Church 
in the town of Wilton, which has been reared by his liberality. 
After some time spent in admiring the interior of the sacred edifice 
the party adjourned to the Town-hall, where a paper on the arch- 
itecture of the Church (which will be found in the present volume) 
was read by J. E. Nightingale, Esq. 

The members left Wilton House about six o'clock. 

In the evening, in compliance with the kind invitation of the 
Lord Bishop of Salisbury, the Society re-assembled at a conversazione 
in the Palace, the whole suite of rooms in which were thrown open 
for the occasion. Among the large party by which the Palace was 
thronged, were the Right Hon. Sidney and Mrs. Herbert, with 
their guests from Wilton House above mentioned; Earl Nelson; the 
Countess of Morley; the Mayor and Mrs. Lambert; Gr. P. Scrope, 
Esq., M.P. ; the Hon. R. Daly; Major- General Buckley; Lady 
Catherine Buckley and Miss Buckley; M. Higgins, Esq. and Mrs. 
Higgins; Admiral and Mrs. Montagu; Colonel and Mrs. Luard; 
A. Seymour, Esq. and Miss Seymour; Alfred Morrison, Esq., 
Fonthill; &c. &c. 

In the drawing-room, Mr. Clutton the architect who has been 
selected by the committee for restoring the Chapter-House of 
Salisbury Cathedral, as a tribute to the memory of the late Bishop, 
having been introduced to the assembly by Mr. S. Herbert in a few 
apposite remarks, read a paper on "The Origin and Uses of Chapter- 
Houses," which was illustrated by various paintings and ground 
plans. At the conclusion of its delivery, 

The Marquis of Lansdowne said he had listened with much 
pleasure to the address, and would venture to express, on behalf of 
every one present, ladies and gentlemen — for the ladies, he was 
happy to say, shared in the desire for the preservation and resto- 

Second Day — Thursday. 23 

ration of the different features of our beautiful cathedrals — their 
thanks to Mr. Clutton for his clear and satisfactory description of a 
style of architecture, which derived a particular interest from, its 
connection with the peculiarities of church history in this and other 
countries. There was another source of interest of a more local and 
personal kind, in this subject, from its bearing upon the effort that 
was being made for the restoration of the Salisbury Chapter-House. 
Mr. Clutton had revealed to them the remarkable features of the 
past; and it remained for themselves, by their liberality, to enable 
that gentleman to procure for them a glimpse of the future, and by 
their efforts to accomplish the renovation — for although time could 
destroy it could also renovate — of the Chapter-House, and then they 
would have the beauty and purposes of the structure, not only 
illustrated by drawings and lectures, but by the restoration to them, 
in palpable reality, of a fabric, which he would almost say, stood 
highest among buildings of this description. He would be glad to 
see the future restoration effected by the same gentleman to whom 
they were that evening so much indebted for a history of the past. 

Earl Nelson begged to urge upon every one present the necessity 
of assisting the object. They had already collected £4,400, and if 
a spirited effort were made before the spring, he hoped that they 
would have the whole sum of £5,000, which, he was convinced, 
would be sufficient to do all the essential part of the restoration. 

Mr. G. P. Scrope, M.P., desired to express the universal feeling 
of gratitude entertained by the members of the Wilts Archaeological 
Society, for the kindness and hospitality shown to them during their 
assembly in Salisbury. Their thanks were especially due to the 
Lord Bishop and the Right Hon. Mr. Herbert, for their hospitality; 
and he should not omit mentioning the Mayor, who had been very 
attentive to them by giving them the use of the council chamber, 
and presiding at the dinner. The time for the holding of the meeting 
next year had not yet been fixed upon ; but he could not express a 
higher hope than that the members would be as well treated as they 
had been in the ancient and renowned city of Salisbury. 

The company broke up about eleven o'clock. 

24 Second General Meeting. 


In the morning, several of the members attended the museum 
in the council chamber, when G. P. Scrope, Esq., M.P. took the 
chair, and told the company that they had a duty to perform before 
they left Salisbury. Among the multiplicity of objects which de- 
manded the attention of the committee and the officers, it was not 
surprising that there were two or three omissions, which he now 
wished to call their attention to, and solicit the hearty concurrence 
of the meeting in filling up. He alluded to the kind and zealous 
co-operation of the Mayor and principal inhabitants of Salisbury, 
in welcoming them to this historical and truly archaeological city ; 
and for the important aid they had rendered in making up the 
splendid, varied, and extraordinary collection of ancient relics, 
manuscripts, drawings, and books that constituted the museum, 
which nearly filled the spacious room where they were assembled — 
some of these had been sent by the estimable Prelate, who had so 
hospitably and cordially received them at his Palace, and who had 
been so politely seconded by Mrs. Hamilton ; Mr. Sidney Herbert 
and his accomplished lady likewise contributed some articles of 
importance ; while the Mayor and Corporation of the more ancient 
city of Winchester sent several remarkable objects, which had 
excited very general attention. The Dean and Chapter, the Mayor 
and Corporation, and several citizens of Salisbury seemed to vie 
with each other in their offerings to this Archaeological shrine. 
Mr. W. Cunnington, of Devizes, contributed a large cargo of 
geological specimens from his comprehensive but choice Wiltshire 
museum. He would now advert to another subject and person 
omitted yesterday — he meant Mr. W. Cunnington, to whom this 
Society was indebted for its birth and early nurture. He tempted 
some of his friends to assemble, and to purchase Mr. Britton's 
Wiltshire collection, and to found the Society. To him, therefore, 
every lover of topographic research was deeply indebted. The 
Chairman concluded by moving the following resolution: — 

"That the thanks of the Society be given to Mr. William 

Society's Report. 25 

Cunnington for his able exertions and labours as local secretary at 
Devizes, in the formation of the Society, and its proceedings during 
the past year. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

Several papers were ready for perusal, but in consequence of the 
day being fine, and many members having made engagements for 
excursions, one only was read by the Rev. J. E. Jackson; viz., 
"Some Notices of the Library at Stourhead, by J. B. Nichols, 
Esq., F.S.A." 

Mr. Scrope, after thanking Mr. Nichols for his valuable paper, 
moved the following proposition, which was carried nem con: — 
"That the thanks of this Society be given to the Worshipful the 
Mayor of Salisbury for his liberal permission to this Society to use 
the Council Chamber, and for his other assistance in their support ; 
and also to the numerous exhibitors of objects of interest in the 
temporary museum." 

The proceedings then terminated. 


26 The Museum. 

a list of %xMts &H&M 



September lZth, 1854. 

Those marked with an Asterisk have been presented to the Society. 

By the Earl Bruce: — 

*A Gold King found in a Roman Villa at Great Bedwyn. 
By the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury: — 

One of the original transcripts of Magna Charta, (seal lost). 

Charter of King Stephen, dated Oxford, a.d. 1136, con- 
firming the liberties of the Church. 

Fine Saxon and Latin MS. of a.d. 969-1006, marked 
"Liturgia Gregoriana," containing Rules for the Calendar, 
Psalter, Lord's Prayer, &c, beautifully illuminated with initial 

A magnificent folio Breviary, later than a.d. 1456, given 
by Walter Long of Erlingham to some Abbey. Bequeathed 
by the late Bishop Denison to the Dean and Chapter of Salis- 
Case containing Relics from the Cathedral, viz.: — 

An Episcopal Ring of Gold set with a Sapphire, found in 
removing the Tomb of Bishop Beauchamp, who died 1481, 
from the middle of his Chapel in 1789. 

Fragments of Pastoral Staff in wood, Chalice and Paten of 
Silver-gilt, and Episcopal Ring of Gold set with an Agate, 

The Museum. 27 

found with a Skeleton, (supposed to be that of Bishop Longe3pee, 
who died 1297), on removing the pavement of the Lady Chapel, 
in 1789. 

Two Chalices of Pewter, Episcopal Ring, and six Trays of 
Fragments found in Tombs, &c. 

Large Coloured Drawing showing the interior of the Chapter- 
House, as intended to be restored. 

Chasuble 1 of Green Velvet, embroidered with the Crucifixion 
and figures of Saints, with this inscription: — "Orate: p: aia: 
Johann: Baldwini." 

Portion of a twisted Wire with a noose, which until about 
the year 1775 hung over the tomb of Charles, Lord Stourton, in 
Salisbury Cathedral. (He was executed at Salisbury, March 
6th, 1557, for the murder of Mr. Hartgill and his son, at 
Kilmington, near Stourhead. His remains were interred under 
a plain altar tomb with pierced sides, at the east end of the 
Cathedral. In 1790 it was removed to its present situation 
between two of the piers on the south side of the Nave). 
By the Right Hon. Sidney Herbert: — 

A plain Gold hoop Ring in excellent preservation, found in 
the gardens near Wilton Abbey. It is set with a small sharply 
pointed black diamond, and is inscribed Benedicta sit Sta Trinitas. 
It has besides, a monogram consisting of a capital letter P 
entwined with a smaller e. It is described as an Abbot's ring, 
but it seems more probable that it belonged to one of the later 
Abbesses, or possibly to some member of the Pembroke family, 
who became possessed of the Abbey after the dissolution of the 

1 The Chasuble (casuhi) is the outermost of the Eucharistic vestments used at 
tin ii |. Iiration of Mass. It was in use as early as the sixth century. In its 
primitive form it was perfectly round ; but in the middle ages of an oval shape. 
It is without sleeves and has an opening in the centre for the head. Being put 
OH it fell in two peaks, one before the other behind. The oldest form of orphray 

or ■ mbroidi ry is in the ihspe of a fall, in the present instance it forms a straight 
line from one point to the other. 

E 2 

28 The Museum. 

A Case containing a lock of Queen Elizabeth's hair, together 
with the verses and memorandum annexed. They are under- 
stood to have been discovered a few years since, between the 
leaves of an old book in the library. 

" This lock of Queen Elizabeth's owne Hair was presented to Sir Philip 
Sidney by Her Majestey's owne faire hands, on which he made these verses 
and gave them to the Queen on his bended knee. Anno Domini 1573. 

Her inward worth all outward show transcends, 

Envy her merit with regret commends ; 

Like sparkling gems her virtues draw the light, 

And in her conduct she is alwaies bright ; 

When she imparts her thoughts, her words have force, 

And sense, and "Wisdom, flow in sweet discourse." 

By John Swayne, Esq., Town Clerk of Wilton: — 

MS. "Will of John Fromond, Burgess of Wilton, proved 
before the Mayor, a.d. 1348. [In this document the Churches 
of St. Nicholas, St. Mary the Virgin, and St. Cecilia in "Wilton 
are mentioned. The Mayor's seal is attached ; it is of a slightly 
oval form, in good preservation, and differs in some respects 
from the Mayor's seal now in use. Two figures are seated 
under a double canopied niche ; the principal figure, apparently 
a female with drapery hanging from her head, places her right 
hand on the head of the figure in the adjoining niche, who is 
in the attitude of prayer. In the present seal of the Mayor 
of "Wilton these two effigies are represented as crowned, and 
of different sexes, the male holding an orb and giving bene- 
diction] . 

MS. Freedom of Wilton to John Mundy, 4 Henry V., 1416. 
[An impression of another and later seal of the Mayor of 
"Wilton is attached to this document ; it is slightly larger and 
more oval than the preceding ; the workmanship is by no means 
so good. The attitude of the figures varies slightly, but they 
still differ materially in subject from the two royal effigies on 
the seal now in use]. 

MS. 19 Richard II. Grant from the Prior of St. John, at 
"Wilton, to John Budell, Chaplain of the Church of St. John, 
and of the Bolebrigge Chantry, Langford. 

The Museum. 29 

MS. 19 Henry VII. Pass for "William Johnson and Richard 
Scorfield, servants of Sir John "Wyndham, Knt., dwelling in 
the County of Norfolk, taken as a rebel against the King, and 
put to death at Tower Hill, on Corpus Christi even, then last 
was a year. 

A curiously made Puzzle Cup in china. 
By Mr. George Sanger, Fisherton : — 

A collection of Eight Bronze Celts, Two Spear Heads, Lock 
and Key, and other small Bronze articles. [All found in the 
neighbourhood of Salisbury, principally at Harnham Hill and 
at Old Castle]. 

Case containing Coins found in the vicinity of Salisbury. 

Twelve Encaustic Tiles of the 13th century. 

Two Seals and two Rings bearing merchant's marks. 

Small Carving in Ivory. 

Ditto in Alabaster. 

Small Bronze Figure found at Old Sarum. 

Metal Triptich of the Greek Church. 

Small Leathern Black Jack. 

Fragments of Stained Glass of the 16th century. 

Four-handled Urn. 
By R. Hetley, Esq., Salisbury: — 

Stone ware Jug of remarkable design, found at Bulbridge 
House, near Wilton, date 1560. 

Impression of tbe Seal of Trinity Hospital, Salisbury. 
By Mr. Mc.Ewen, Denizes : — 

Cabinet of Coins. 

Fragment of Chinese Carving. 
By the Rev. Thomas Miles, Stockton: — 

MS. Volume containing an elaborate account of the Parish 
of Stockton, illustrated by a great number of Drawings of the 
Church, Monuments, &c. 
By Major Grove, of Zeals : — 

An interesting collection of personal objects connected with 
the Royalist family of Grove. [Col. Hugh Grove and Col. 
John Penruddock were beheaded at Exeter, 16th May, 1655]. 

30 The Museum. 

Bands worn by Hugh Grove at his execution (spotted with 
blood), also a portion of his Hair. 

A richly carved Wooden Comb and Pincushion, given by 
King Charles II. to the wife of John, son of Hugh Grove. 

Cap, Stocking, and Handkerchief, left by Charles II. at 
Mere when he escaped. 

Blue Silk Cloak of Charles II., embroidered in silver. 

A pair of Gloves, of the same period. 

Copperplate Portrait of Hugh Grove, also his Speech and 
last Prayer before execution. [Believed to be in his own 
hand- writing]. 

Two Deeds with great Seals attached of Henry VIII. and 
James I. 

Six MSS. with Autographs. 

Household Book of the Duke of Buckingham, dated 1634. 

Vellum MS., 1573. 

An interesting specimen of goldsmith's work, consisting of 
a Salt, richly chased, and ornamented with astronomical de- 
vices; it is formed in divisions like the stages of a tower, and 
is meant to contain some other condiment besides salt. [This 
curious object is of silver-gilt; it stands about fourteen inches 
in height, and is probably of a date about 1600]. 

Proclamation at the death of King Charles II. addressed to 
W. Chaffin, of Zeals, Esq., Sheriff of Wilts, Feb. 16th, 1684. 
By C. Penruddocke, Esq., Compton House : — 

The original Warrant for the Execution of John Penrud- 
dock and others, signed " Oliver P.," dated at Whitehall, 3rd 
May, 1655, and addressed to John Coppleston, Esq., High- 
Sheriff of Devonshire. 

Case containing the Cap of French Cambric bordered with 
lace, in which Colonel John Penruddock was beheaded. [At the 
back a portion is severed off, indicating the blow of the axe]. 

Mrs. Penruddock's last Letter to her husband before his 

Portraits of Col. John Penruddock and of Arundel (Freke) 
his wife. 

Four Cavalier Swords, one of which was worn by the Colonel. 

The Museum. 31 

By Mr. Hayter, Salisbury : — 

Four-handled Cup of Glazed Ware, with cover and inscrip- 
tions, dated 1692. 
By the Rev. Alex. Grant, Manningford Bruce: — 

Ancient Tinder Box of very complicated design. 
A curious instrument for lighting a pipe, consisting of a 
whistle for calling the waiter, tongs for applying a live coal, 
and tobacco stopper. Found at Pewsey. 
By the Rev. G. L. Benson, Salisbury : — 
Fragments of Etruscan Pottery. 
A Bronze Celt, and a Corsican Gourd. 
By the Rev. A. Mc.Ewen, Dumfries : — 

* Impression of the Chapter Seal of Melrose Abbey. 
By H. J. F. Swayne, Esq., Stratford:— 

Silver- gilt Locket containing Portrait, date 1617. 
Cavalier's Badge, Silver-gilt. 

An interesting collection of Coins, consisting of Silver 
Pennies, struck at Wilton, Sarum, Winchester, Wallingford, 
&c, temp. Will. I.; also a Penny, struck at Wilton, temp. 
Henry II. ; Gold Noble, Edw. III. ; Newark Siege Piece, 
Charles I. 
By Mr. E. W. Brodie, Salisbury: — 

Three Cases containing various Antiquities, chiefly of Metal, 
found during the recent draining excavations at Salisbury. 
These objects consist of an extensive collection of keys, of various 
dates, ranging from the 12th to the 17th centuries. Also some 
latch keys, similar to those in use at the present day, but which 
are probably as early as the 15th century. Several examples of 
missile weapons were particularly interesting : a triangular 
headed dart, probably intended to be projected from a balista; 
barbed darts of a form in use as late as the end of the 15th 
century; the heads of the English cross-bow bolt, the arrow, 
and the bird-bolt ; the latter being of a curved form resembling 
the tail of a fish. Knives in use in the middle ages, the handles 
of someof them being tastefully ornamented. Also knives used 
in handicrafts, probably by leather cutters and cordwainers ; 

32 The Museum. 

and shears of a diminutive size, not unlike those sometimes 
discovered in Anglo-Saxon graves : spoons bearing the makers' 
stamps, the hilts and blades of swords and daggers, the trap- 
pings of horses, a fragment of chain mail, the wheel-locks of 
carbines and muskets, probably memorials of the struggle 
between the Parliament troops and the royalists, when Ludlow 
was driven out of Salisbury by the army of Sir Marmaduke 
Langdale; and, lastly, several rings and badges of copper 
enamelled with armorial devices, some of these probably as 
early as the 14th century. [Great praise is due to Mr. Brodie 
for the pains he has taken in arranging and preserving these 
local reliques. He has lately most liberally offered to present 
them to the city as a nucleus for a local museum, in case an 
institution of that kind should be formed]. 

A Winged Mercury, in Bronze, found at Old Sarum. 

A Coin of "Offa," in excellent preservation, foimd at Win- 
terslow, Wilts. 

Ancient Watch and Chinese Silver Box. 

Stone Ware Jug. 
By Mr. W. Stevens, Salisbury: — 

Five Fragments of Stained Heraldic Glass, from the old 
Guildhall and other ancient buildings in Salisbury. 

A curious white enamelled Earthenware Drinking Cup, 
about 7| inches high, bearing several scriptural subjects and 
coats of arms, with the initials L.W. 
By Messrs. Brown, Canal, Salisbury : — 

A large collection of Topographical and other Books re- 
lating to Wiltshire. 
By Mr. J. E. Nightingale, Wilton: — 

Byzantine Carving in Ivory, representing our Saviour in 

Specimens of Tiles, called "Azulejo," from the prevalent 
blue colour; from the Alhambra. 

Piece of Terra Cotta of classic design from Tangiers. 

Bulla of Pope Urban V., found near Wilton. 

Four Illuminations from Service Books. 

The Museum. 33 

Iron Locker, 15th century. 

Four Plates of Limoges Enamel. 

Watch, with case of elaborate Metal work; from Padua, 
date 1520. 

German Triptych, 17th century. 

Fibula and Nail, forming the head of Medusa, remains of 
Roman occupation; from the island of Elephantina, in Upper 

Two portions of a Glass vase-shaped Lamp, richly coloured 
and gilt, with an Arabic inscription; from the Mosque of 
Sultan Hassan, at Cairo, date about 1360. [These curious 
lamps are said to be of Syrian manufacture; Mr. Curzon 
thinks it more probable "that these beautiful specimens of 
ancient glass were made in the island of Murano, in the lagunes 
of Venice, as the manufactories of the Venetians supplied the 
Mahomedans with many luxuries in the middle ages"]. 

A series of impressions of Wilton Seals, consisting of the 
Common seal of the Borough of Wilton; personal seal of the 
Mayor; the hospital of St. Giles; the guild of weavers; and 
a personal seal of the 12th century, belonging to Joane, 
daughter of Joannes Westone, found near the abbey of Wilton. 
[The seal of the priory of St. John now in use is not the 
original, it is circular and bears the Agnus Dei. The original 
seal of the abbey of Wilton is engraved in the 8th vol. of the 
Archaxtlogia, to which is added a learned essay on the subject 
by the late F. Douce. This remarkable seal, of which two 
imperfect impressions are known to exist, belongs to a period 
not much later than the reign of King Edgar, and is probably 
the oldest monastic seal in existence]. 
]Jv Miss Wickens, Salisbury: — 

Volume containing a large number of drawings of antiquities 
in Salisbury and the neighbourhood. 

' opy of an ancient Fresco Painting in St. Thomas' Church, 
Salisbury, representing the last judgment. 

Model of the Old Pell Tower of Salisbury Cathedral. [This 
formerly stood on the north side of the cathedral, and was 

34 The Museum. 

taken down when other extensive alterations were made at 
the end of the last century]. 

"Wooden-barrel Cup, formerly in the possession of Sir Isaac 
By Mr. W. Osmond, Jun., Salisbury: — 

Two Water-colour Drawings of the Poultry Cross, Salisbury. 

A large and interesting collection of Sulphur Casts of Seals, 
chiefly relating to Co. "Wilts. 
By the Rev. A. Fane, Warminster: — 

Seven Roman Coins, found in an earthen vessel at Long- 
bridge Deverill. 

Gold Ring, found at Sherrington. 
By Mr. J. Bennett, Salisbury; & Rev.W. C. Bennett, Corsham: — 

Stone-ware Jug, elaborately mounted in Silver-gilt, of the 
time of Queen Elizabeth. 

Large folio Family Bible, richly bound, with massive silver 
mounting, and iUuminated, containing the Pedigree of the 
Bennetts and about 140 illustrations, date 1679. 

Mortuary Ring. 

Ancient Silver ditto. 

One Gold and one Silver Coin. 
By the Lord Arundell, of Warclour, (through John Lambert, 
Esq., Mayor of Salisbury) : — 

A "Wooden Peg Tankard, traditionally said to have belonged 
to an Abbot of Glastonbury. It is richly carved, with figures of 
the Twelve Apostles under an arcade of round-headed arches, 
and has a representation of the Crucifixion on the lid. [A 
very early date has been assigned to this cup, but there seems 
no reason for supposing it to be much, if any, older than 1600]. 

"Annales Archseologiques" : by Didrow, 5 vols. 
By the Churchwardens of St. Thomas, Sarum: — 

Ancient Antependium of green Yelvet, ornamented with 
orfrais and embroideries, representing the Annunciation. 
By Walter Hodgkinson, Esq.: — 

Detailed Drawings of Wootton Rivers Church, and other 
Antiquities in the neighbourhood of Marlborough. 

The Museum. 35 

By F. C. Lukis, Esq., F.S.A., Guernsey: — 

A series of 24 Stone Celts, and other Celtic Antiquities, 
with a large and valuable collection of Drawings illustrative 
of Celtic remains. 

*A Cast of a Guernsey Stone Celt, and some Hand Bricks. 
By F. C. Lukis, Esq., M.D., F.S.A.:— 

A copy of his " Observations on Celtic Megaliths, &c." 
By John Brown White, Esq.: — 

* Nine Roman Coins, found in the parish of Little Bedwyn. 
By the Rev. Sub-Dean Eyre, Salisbury: — 

Engraving of Salisbury Cathedral, (N.E. view). 
By the Rev. W. C. Lukis, Great Bedwyn: — 

Models of Bells and Mould for casting them. 
Drawings (full size) of the 1st, 4th, and Tenor Bells at 
Ogbourne St. Andrew. 
A large and interesting collection of Antiquities was kindly con- 
By the Directors of the Winchester Museum: — 

Amongst other objects of local interest was the Original 
Winchester Bushel, presented to the city by King Henry VII. 
in 1487. 

A series of Standard Gallons, Quarts, and Yard Measures, 
of the period of Henry VII. and Queen Elizabeth ; these are 
formed of a mixed yellow metal. 

The Bronze Horn of the Warder of Winchester Castle. 
Three Taper Stands, of the 15th century, found on the site 
of an ancient chapel on St. Giles' Hill. 

A collection of Roman Urns, found at Winchester. 
Fragments of Pottery, from Egypt, Pompeii, and Constan- 

British Bead of Glass, found in a peat moor at King's 

A series of Leaden Papal Bulla). 

A curiously carved Cup, in Ivory, of early date; found 
amongst the ruins of Basing House. 
Anglo-Saxon Fibula, enamelled, from the ruins of 1 [ydeAbbey. 

v 2 

36 The Museum. 

A Pair of Roundels; these articles were used as fruit 
trenchers about the period of Elizabeth; they are curiously 
painted, and inscribed with quaint devices. 

Celt, found in a barrow near Maupas, Normandy. 
Ancient Bone Pins, discovered in Winchester. 
By Earl Nelson, Trafalgar: — 

Two ancient Silver Salvers and Cup. 
By John Britton, Esq., F.S.A.: — 

Large Portfolio of Coloured Drawings : by J. H. Le Keux. 
By John B. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., London: — 

Portfolio of Drawings, Prints, &c, relating to the County 
of Wilts. 
By Mr. Biddlecombe, Salisbury: — 

Ancient View of the City of Salisbury from the N.E., (Oil 

Drawing of the Cathedral, taken from N.E., showing the 
Hunger ford Chapel, &c. 

Engraving of the Interior, from the West end, 1754. 
By the Rev. J. P. Bartlett, Exbury, Hants: — 

A collection of 28 pieces of Roman Pottery, lately discovered 
in the Western parts of the New Forest. [Innumerable 
fragments, and a great many entire vessels were found scattered 
over a tract of some extent; they are all more or less im- 
perfect, and seem evidently to have formed the refuse of a 
potter's kiln. Some of these vases have been figured, and a 
description given, in a late vol. of the Archseologia]. 
By Mr. Humphrey Blackmore, Salisbury: — 
Ancient Key. 

A Box in Brass, curiously chased. 
By Miss Mayne, Teffont: — 

A Coin of Aurelius, and a Half-Noble of Edward III., 
found at Teffont. 
By Mr. Prangley, Heytcsbury: — 

Ring, found at Monkton Deverell. 

Ditto, found at the Manor House of Corsley, once the seat 
of the Raleigh family. 

The Museum. 37 

By Mrs. Hussey, Salisbury: — 

Large four- sheet Print of Salisbury Cathedral, from the 
South- West: by Thacker. 
By Mr. W. Dowding, Fisherton: — 

A collection of Flints, of the Chalk formation, with Crystals 
and Calcedony. 
By Mr. Brown, Aldbourne: — 

Small Bell, of German manufacture, date 1560 ; found in 
the foundation of an old wall at Aldbourne, 1854. 
By Mrs. Colston, Roundway Park : — 

Five Gold Filagree Beads. 

Two Gold Pins, with Garnets set in the heads, attached by 
chains to a central ornament, also mounted in gold and having 
a cross engraved on it. 

Five Precious Stones of various shapes, mounted in gold; 
some supposed to be carbuncle. 

Piece of Jet, of a triangular form, set in gold. 

Remains of an Incense Pail, consisting of fragments of wood, 
19 triangular ornaments, and 2 hoops of brass. [The above 
articles were discovered a few years since, with a skeleton, on 
opening a tumulus on Roundway down. A description and 
coloured engraving of them will be found in No. I. of "Re- 
mains of Pagan Saxondom" : by J. Y. Akerman, Esq.] 

Portions of Two Urns, (Roman and ancient British) found 
near the same spot. 

Two Crania, from the same locality; one of these exhibits 
several sword cuts, and is conjectured to have been that of a 
soldier who fell in the battle fought on Roundway down, 
a.i). 1643. 
By Mr. Cunnington, Devizes: — 

A collection of Fossil Sponges, from the Chalk Flints of 
Wiltshire, 47 specimens. 

Humerus of large Saurian, (probably Pliosaurus) 27 inches 
in length, from the Kimmeridgc Clay, near Devizes. 

Coracoid of Saurian, 4 large Teeth, and 8 Vertebra), one 
7 inches in diameter, from the same. 

38 The Museum. 

Left Ramus of the Lower Jaw of Ichthyosaurus Campylodon, 
2 feet 11 inches in length, from the Upper Green Sand of 

A very perfect specimen of Ammonites Rostratus, found in 
the Upper Green Sand of Devizes. 

A selection of Fossil Univalve Shells, from the Upper Green 
Sand of Wiltshire, 35 specimens; also Fossil Bivalve Shells, 
from the same stratum, 168 specimens. 
By Mr. Falkner, Devizes: — 

Minute Shells and Seeds, from the centre of Silbury Hill. 

Globular Flints, hollow and solid. 

Sponges from the interior of hollow flints. 

Dust from ditto, washed and unwashed. 

Humerus of large Saurian, from the Kimmeridge Clay, near 
By Mr. E. Kite, Devizes: — 

Model (in plaster) of the Font in Preshute Church. 

Ancient Deed, alienation of property at Chiseldon, Wilts, 
from William Malyn, gent., to Thomas King, with impression 
in white wax of Great Seal of James I. 
By Mr. W. D. Wilkes:— 

Stroup, Anvil, and Hammer Bones of the internal Ear, 
from an Anglo-Saxon Skull. 
By Mr. R. Waylen, Salisbury: — 

Drawing of the Market-place, Devizes, as it appeared about 
the year 1800. 

Another Drawing, of the Town-hall, showing several old 
houses in St. John's Street, now removed. 

Tartar Sword. 

Drawing of a Head and Coats of Arms, in an old house at 
By Mr. Chapman, Salisbury: — 

Ancient Box of carved Oak. 
By Mr. Howitt, Wilton: — 

Ware Vessel, probably a rude funeral lamp or cresset, found 
in the churchyard of the new church at Wilton. 

The Museum. 39 

Rude Lump of Baked Clay, with a hole in the centre, 
possibly used to support large candles ranged on the floor of 
a church around a corpse in funeral obsequies, found at ditto. 
By Mr. Foot, Salisbury: — 

Ancient "Wooden Dish, found in St. Anne's Street. 
By Mr. Baker, Warminster: — 

Large quantity of Upper Green Sand and other Fossils, 
from the neighbourhood of Warminster. 
By Dr. Thurnam, F.S.A., Devizes: — 

Stone Axes, Arrow Heads, and small "Whetstone, from 

Bronze Spear Head, from a tumulus at West Everley. 

40 On Church Belk. 

<Dn (Bjjnrri} Mb, 

By The Rev. W. C. Ltjkis. 

I do not propose to enter into the antiquity and history of bells 
in general. This has been done already by several most able 
writers of our day, I refer particularly to the Reverends Alfred 
Gatty, and H. T. Ellacombe. My object is to speak of church bells 
exclusively, as we find them, making some passing allusions to 
some of the uses to which they were applied in former times, as 
well as to those to which they are applied now. 

Accordingly into the origin of church bells, whether they were 
adopted into the christian church from heathen temples, or whether 
they are the legitimate offspring of the church herself, I will not 
now enquire. 

And in the pursuit of this very interesting and fruitful subject 
I propose to consider the following divisions : — 

1. Belfries; their condition, and the causes of their frequent 


2. Bell-founders and foundries. 

3. The composition of bell-metal. 

4. Method of casting and tuning bells. 

5. Bell hanging. 

6. Expenses of bells in early and present times. 

7. Ancient bells. 

8. Epigraphs or legends. 

9. Bell ringing. 

10. Spoliation of bells, temp. Reformation and subsequently. 

11. Comparative scale of tenor bells. 

I have adopted this order, because in investigating the subject of. 
campanology, the belfry first presents itself to your eyes. You 


Cerebrum vel Caput 








[See Marennus de Harmonicis, lib. iv.] 
N.B The Sound-bow is the line of the thickest part, where the clapper must strike. 


By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 41 

ascend it, and the bells themselves then come under your con- 
sideration. But you will know very little about them, unless you 
have first become acquainted with their founders, and the several 
changes which were introduced by them in the form of the bells. 

1. Belfries. Some persons apply this term to signify the whole 
tower; others limit its application to the part in which the bells are 
suspended; and others again to the room or space in which. the 
ringers stand, which is either on the floor of the church, or in one 
of the stages of the tower. This is a matter of very little con- 
sequence; and I do not intend to speak of this part of the church 
further than just to remark by the way, that as it was clearly erected 
for the purpose of carrying bells, it is a matter for our grave con- 
sideration how it comes to pass that so many of our village churches 
should have their towers in so dilapidated a condition. I have seen 
several in the course of my Wiltshire rambles which are in so 
dangerous a state that the bells are forbidden to be rung. There 
can be no doubt that this arises from two causes. In the first place, 
bells for which the towers were originally constructed were not 
subject to the same revolutions and tossings as now. They were 
swung to and fro, it is true, as I shall explain presently, but very 
gently compared with the present wild summersets of change 
ringing, an art of comparatively recent date. Consequently in 
constructing the towers, the architects of those days had not to take 
into their calculation the great vibration of the walls produced by 
the violent motion of the bells. In 1810 the spire of St. Nicholas's 
church, Liverpool, fell, as the people were assembling for service, and 
killed twenty-three persons. This catastrophe was partly caused 
by the vibration of the bells. Any one who has stood in the belfry 
of the lofty and beautiful tower of Magdalen College, Oxford, when 
a peal is ringing on its ten sweet-toned bells, knows the way in 
which a tower is made to sway. To a person of weak nerves it is 
perfectly alarming, and it is easy to understand how this kind of 
vibration must loosen the masonry and eventually endanger the 

The following is an extract from the ancient churchwarden's 
accounts of St. Thomas's, Salisbury. "At a vestry held April, 

42 On Church Be/Is. 

1640. Item, by reason of the danger w ch - the tower is in by 
ringing of the bells, since they were high hung, and in other re- 
spects, it is agreed that the bells shall bee hung lower at the same 
pitch they formerly were hung att, and the churchwardens are 
desired to do itt accordingly." 

In the second place, and this I take to be the principal cause of 
the evil, churchwardens have been sadly negligent. With a little 
grease and new ropes allowed now and then, they have imagined 
that their duty to the bells and to the parish has been faithfully 
done, whereas mischief of a three-fold nature has been growing and 
increasing, — mischief to the building, to the bells, and to the 
parishioners; — the one ending in its dilapidation and ruin; the 
second, in their utter destruction; and the third, to the prejudice 
of their pockets. In a tower in this county, I found three out of 
six bells broken, as I firmly believe, from this cause, and several 
peals of bells rendered nearly useless in consequence of the shaky 
state of the towers. As an instance of the way in which some, I 
may say many, churchwardens speak and act, I will mention, that 
I was warned by a parish clerk to be very careful where I stept in 
the bell-loft, for, said he, "the tower be main crazy." On asking 
the churchwarden for the key of the church, and mentioning the 
clerk's humane warning, he said "Sir, I have known the tower these 
forty years, and he never was no better than he is now. He's quite 
safe. I'll tell'ee what, sir; one day the bishop come, and he said, 
muster churchwarden, you've a very pretty church, and he's in 
very good order. Another day, another gentleman come, I think 
they call'un a rural dean, and he said, muster churchwarden, you've 
a pretty church, and he's sadly out of repair." When I returned 
the key I did not see the churchwarden, or I should have told him 
that in my humble opinion both the rural dean and the parish clerk 
were right; for I had seen very many churches and many belfries, 
but few in a worse condition. 

And to illustrate the way in which these good easy parish officers 
will sometimes suffer the house of God to fall into decay, while I 
fear they expend what they rob Him of upon their own bodily 
comforts, I will tell you, that in ascending a Wiltshire tower with 

By the Rev. W. C. Lutes. 43 

careful step, I sank through the rotten floor of one of its stages, 
and was preserved from a broken limb, if not an untimely end, by 
the joists which happened to be less decayed. 

Bells require very constant attention to keep them in proper 
ringing order. When you consider their enormous weight, the 
different parts of their gear, the iron and the wood of which it is 
composed bolted and screwed together; the frame work on which 
they hang, and in revolving which they violently shake and vibrate ; 
and then reflect that the iron and the wood are both exposed to 
continual changes of atmosphere; and that, under one condition 
of atmosphere, when one of those materials expands, the other 
contracts, and that then the bells cannot oscillate so easily, you 
will form some idea of the care and attention they require to keep 
them in ringing order. Well, suppose screws to get loose, and to 
remain so during many successive generations of churchwardens, 
the iron straps to become corroded, thin, weak, and then to snap; 
the gudgeons to wear away unequally by the friction, and thereby 
to throw the bells out of the horizontal, you can imagine what the 
consequences must be. The bells revolve heavily, the frame work 
shakes and creaks, and the ringers, who have no voice in the vestry, 
and no power over parish moneys, do what they can to remedy 
some of the evil, and the very thing they do only increases the 
mischief. They put wedges between the frame work and the walls 
of the tower to stop the creaking ; but the result of this is to set 
the walls shaking, and finally to destroy them. Or, if this does 
not immediately happen, the clappers of the bells get out of order, 
and striking the sound-bow suddenly in a fresh place, cause them 
to crack instantly. 

While upon the subject of Wiltshire bell-lofts, I cannot refrain 
from expressing another regret. I have been frequently much 
pained by observing the shameful state of filth and neglect of many 
of them. Generally speaking the dark winding stone staircases 
(when they have any) leading to them, are dirty, worn, and diffi- 
cult to tread, and you have to cork-screw your way up with very 
card ul slip, and when you have secured your footing, and are 
beginning to congratulate yourself on having passed every obstacle, 

v, 2 

44 On Church Bclh. 

you suddenly come upon a huge heap of sticks, straw, feathers, 
bits of cloth, and other rubbish, the patient and laborious work 
of indefatigable jackdaws. When the towers have no stone stair- 
case, the bells have to be reached by a succession of crazy ladders, 
planted on equally crazy floors. 

How very shameful that any part of God's house should be so 
neglected ! Why should towers be so desecrated ? Are they not 
as much a portion of the church as any other part ? Why should 
they be left to the sole occupation of unclean birds, and profane 
and irreverent ringers ? Why, the very jackdaws, starlings, and 
owls used to stare at me, and linger among the bells before they 
took flight, wondering perhaps what kind of evil bird I was, and 
with what possible object I had intruded unbidden into the territory 
to which generations of parishioners had given them a prescriptive 

We may, I think, attribute this state of things to two causes, 
first, to a want of interest in the art of bell-ringing ; and secondly, 
to the difficulty which is experienced by the clergy in managing 
the generally most unruly set of men in a parish — the ringers. 
If gentlemen in a parish really loved bell-ringing for itself, they 
would not long endure the abominations that so frequently exist. 
However, there has been a salutary reform effected of late years 
among another branch of church musicians, and we may hope to 
witness a reform in this respect also before long. 

2. We come now to the second division of the subject — Bell- 
founders and foundries. 

When you examine a church bell, you will generally observe 
that, besides a legend or some quaint epigraph upon them, there 
are also the initials or the name of the founder, and sometimes the 
town is added where the foundry was situated. The number of 
bell-founders, whose bells exist in Wiltshire, amounts to between 
twenty and thirty. This appears a large number, but you must 
recollect that they range over a period of three hundred years at 
least. I have a list of upwards of sixty founders, which I have 
collected chiefly from inscriptions on bells, but they are not found 
in Wiltshire only. I do not say that these twenty or thirty 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 45 

founders had their foundries in this county, but you will neverthe- 
less be gratified to hear that Wiltshire has produced some of the 
most eminent men of this craft : I allude to Wallis, Danton, and 
the Purdues of Salisbury, in the 16th and 17th centuries; to the 
Corrs and Wellses of Aldbourne, in the 17th, 18th, and 19th cen- 
turies; and in the 18th century to Richard Phelps, of Whitechapel, 
London, a native of Avebury, who cast the great clock bell of 
St. Paul's cathedral, weighing nearly four tons. It will be, I 
believe, a new thing to the people of Salisbury to hear that a very 
large bell-foundry existed here for a considerable period. I have 
ascertained that it continued to supply Wiltshire and other counties 
with bells for a period ranging from 1581 to 1731, and yet it is a 
very remarkable circumstance that no tradition of its existence has 
been perpetuated in the city. I have searched, in vain, through 
published histories of Salisbury, and have been equally unsuccessful 
in my enquiries here among those gentlemen who have made its 
antiquities and history their study. Not one vestige remains of 
the foundry, nor a single record of its site has yet come under my 
notice. I have, however, been informed that the street called 
Culver Street, was also called Bell-founder's Street; 1 and it is just 
possible that it stood there. 

That the foundry must have been large and its business extensive, 
is evident from the very large proportion of bells in Wiltshire 
that came from it ; and also from the fact that the heaviest bells in 
the county were cast there. It could not have been an insignificant 
foundry that produced such bells as the tenor of St. Edmund's 
church in this city, and the tenor of Great Bedwyn. The earliest 
founder in Wilts with whom I am acquainted, was J. Wallis, of 
Salisbury, and his first bells are to be found at Little Bedwyn, Bishop- 
stone, Figheldean, Netheravon, Chute, St. Martin's Salisbury, &c. 

1 In the Report of the Commissioners of Charities we find: 'Salisbury — 
Thomaa Bee's charity; By Deed Poll, dated 29 Nov. 1624, Bartholomew Tooke 
and Wm. .Marshall, in pursuance of the Will of Thomas Bee, conveyed one 
Ifi mage or Tenement, three Gardens, and two Orchards with the appurts. in 
Colvei St nit ;il Bell-founder's Street in New Sarum, upon the Trusts of his 
Will, &c.' 

46 On Church Belk. 

There appears to have been an extraordinary demand for his 
bells; and he seems to have been a man of few words, but 
of great deeds. A man is known by his works, and a man's 
character and tone of mind may be known in some measure by his 
words. If we estimate him by his works he was a great man ; and 
if we take his laconic epigraphs as an index of his heart, his was 
a trustful, thankful, religious character. "In the Lord do I trust"; 
"Give thanks to God"; "God be our guide"; "Give alms"; "In 
God is all my hope and trust"; "Praise God"; "Hope well"; 
"Serve God"; these are some of his short expressive epigraphs. 
Associates and assistants are greatly influenced by a master mind. 
Men's thoughts and characters are moulded on the pattern conti- 
nually presented to them. Danton, who appears to have been 
originally associated with Wallis, but in what capacity does not 
appear, in carrying on the foundry, after the retirement or death 
of AVallis, seems to have imbibed his joyful thankful spirit. "O 
be joyful in the Lord"; "Praise God"; "Love God"; "O praise 
the Lord"; &c. 

The bells which came from the hands of the Purdues may be 
classed among the finest and most beautiful that were founded at 
Salisbury. Your city once possessed a magnificent peal, surpassed 
by few in the kingdom. Not to mention the unpardonable de- 
struction of the belfry, an irreparable loss to the county and the 
lover of Christian art, you have lost one of the finest peals that 
ever existed in England ; and the fine-toned cathedral clock bell, 
which formed the sixth of that monster peal of eight, hourly, by 
day and by night, tolls the knell of the departed members of that 
once united and harmonious family. This peal must have equalled 
that of St. Saviour's, Southwark, the tenor of which weighs 52 cwt. 
The cathedral bell, cast in 1661 ; the tenor of St. Edmund's church, 
which is a larger bell, cast in 1656; the fifth of Great Bedwyn, 
which for liveliness and clearness of tone is not to be surpassed by 
any, cast in the same year, were all the handiwork of William 

With the deaths of the Purdues end the really great works of 
this foundry. They had successors, but the giants of the art were 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 47 

no more, and with Clement and William Tosier closes the history 
of the Salisbury foundry, about the year 1731. Their bells are to 
be found in the immediate neighbourhood, at Nunton, Homington, 
Winterborne Dauntsey, Shrewton, Orcheston St. Mary, &c., but they 
are all of small dimensions. Clement Tosier, however, made one or 
two great efforts, for I have just discovered that in the year 1680 x 

1 Copy of a Document in the Muniment Room, Salisbury Cathedral. "Articles 
of Agreement had made and concluded by and betweene the Reverend Deane 
and Chapter of the Cathedral Church of Sarum, and Clement Tosier, of the 
Citty of New Sarum, in the County of Wilts, Bell-founder, and Elizabeth 
Fflowry, of the said Citty of New Sarum, Widdow. 

" It is Articled and agreed by and betweene the partyes abovesaid as followeth, 
viz.: — 

1. That the said Clement Tosier and Elizabeth Fflo wry shall, at their owne 
proper cost and charges, new cast the seaventh and eighth Bells belonging to the 
said Cathedral Church, and fit and tune them to their places; And shall finde 
and provide such a quantity of mettle as shall be necessary for that purpose ; 
Which mettle (to be made) shall bee composed of eight parts of the best Copper 
and two parts of the choysest Tinn; All which the said Clement Tosier and 
Elizabeth Fflowry doe promise to performe within the space of eight weekes 
after the date of these psents. 

2. That the said Clement Tosier and Elizabeth Fflowry shall warrant and 
make good the said Bells being soe cast as aforesaid, for the space of one yeare 
and a day next after they are hung up in theire places, And if it shall happen 
either of the said Bells shall prove defective w th in the space of one yeare and 
a day aforesaid, that then the said Clement Tosier and Elizabeth Fflowry shall 
make good and recast the sd. Bells at his owne cost and charges untill they 
shall continue sound and pfect. for the space of one whole yeare and a day next 
after their hanging up. 

3. That in consideration of the sd. worke to be performed the said Deane and 
Chapter doe covenant and agree to pay the said Clement Tosier and Elizabeth 
Fflowry after the rate of Twenty Shillings by the Hundred for the soe casting 
ami perfecting the said Bells, and to allow and pay them after the rate of ffive 
pounds, tli ric shillings, and six pence for every hundred weight that the sayd 
Bills shall weigh more than they did before the said Tosier cast them. 

4. That tin said l)eanc and Chapter shall pay for the aforesaid mettle soe 
none as tin- said Clement Tosier and Elizabeth Fflowry shall bring it in place, 
and for their labour and charge \V * tiny shall be at in casting the said Bells 

Done as tin said Bells are finished and hung up." 
Iuwitm ssi wliiriul tin partyes aforemencioned to these p r sents interchangeably 
have sett their hands, tin- Iflth day of August, 1G80. 

Signed in the p r senee. of j The niaike of Clement /K Tosier. 

Tho. Naish, Geo. From*, Jun. j The marko of Elizabeth 3 Fflowry. 

48 On Church Bells. 

he, in conjunction with Elizabeth Fflowry 1 (or Flory), widow 
of R. Fflowry, cast the seventh and eighth bells of the great Sabs- 
bury peal; and that he also cast the fine tenor at Downton. 

The Corrs of Aldbourne were founders of church bells as early 
as 1696, and although this foundry must have supplied a vast 
number of bells in their days as well as in the days of their suc- 
cessors, the Wellses, I cannot discover that any very great work 
issued from their hands, compared with that of their brethren of 
the craft at Salisbury. The seventh and eighth bells at Calne, 
seven out of the fine peal of eight at St. Thomas's, Salisbury, are 
some of the largest works of the Wellses. 2 Their epigraphs are of 
a totally different character from those of the Salisbury founders, 
and appear to be rather the composition of the clergy or of the 
donors, e.g. at Aldbourne we find on the treble bell, 

" The gift of Joseph Pizzie and Wm. Gwynn. 
Music and ringing we like so well, 
And for that reason we gave this bell." 

"Me resonare jubent pietas mors atque voluptas." 

" On earth bells do ring, 
In heaven angels sing- — Halleluiah." 

" My cheerful note aloft shall raise 
To sound my Benefactor's praise." 

"The heart resolves, the hand obeys 
To sound our mighty Maker's praise." 

1 It is just possible that this was Elizabeth Orchard, who married Richard 
Fflorrey, the younger, at Great Bedwyn, on June 11th, 1660. Richard Fflorrey 
was buried at Great Bedwyn, Sept. 14th, 1679, and Elizabeth Fflorrey was 
buried at the same place, Oct. 16th, 1680. These dates will agree with the 
Salisbury document. 

2 Extract from "The Marlborough Journal" newspaper, of "Saturday, 
June 6th, 1772; vol. 2. No. 63." Among the advertisements is: — 

"At the BELL-FOUNDERY at Aldbourne, Wilts, CHURCH-BELLS are cast 
in a most elegant and as musical a manner as in any Part of the Kingdom, the 
Founder having made the Theory of Sounds as well as the Nature of Metal his 
Chief Study ; also hangs the same finding all materials in the most complete 
and concise manner ; And also Hand-Bells prepared and strictly in Tune in any 
key. Horse-Bells, Clock and Room Bells, the neatest of their several kinds. 

Likewise Mill Brasses cast and sold at the lowest Prices. 

All orders will be punctually observed by Rob. Wells, Founder. 

(j^ He gives Ready Money and the best Prices for Bell Metal. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lit k is. 49 

There was a bell-foundry also at Devizes, belonging to James 
Burrough, in the 18th century, but little business appears to have 
been done by it. The fourth bell at Collingbourne Ducis, and the 
fourth at Calne, with the first and second at St. John's, Devizes, 
came from this foundry. 

And here, I think, ends the list of Wiltshire founders and 

A great many Gloucester bells are to be met with in Wiltshire, 
and they abound also in the western counties. That foundry is of 
great antiquity, and it was there that the art was brought to great 
perfection. In the time of King Edward II., circa 1310, it is known 
that bells were founded there by John of Gloucester. From his 
days to the present time, i.e. for more than five hundred years, the 
foundry has been in active operation, and especially so from the 
close of the 17th century, when we are introduced to the well- 
known name of Rudhall. The family of the Rudhalls must have 
been of that class of Englishmen who were once more common 
than now, called good "church and state people." Nearly all their 
bells bear such epigraphs as the following: "Prosperity to the 
Church and Queen"; "May the Church of England ever flourish"; 
"God prosper the Church of England"; "Free from rebellion God 
save the King"; "Peace and good neighbourhood"; "God send 
peace." Some of their bells are of considerable size, but the largest 
I have met with are the tenor of Westbury, in this county, which 
is 58 inches diameter, and is the largest bell in Wiltshire, weighing 
about 35 cwt.; and the tenor at Bath abbey, which is 59| inches 
diameter, weighs about 2 tons, and bears this inscription : 

"All you of Bath that hear me sound, 
Thank Lady Hopton's hundred pound." 

It would take up too much space, and too much of your time, if 
I were to say a few words only upon all the founders of Wiltshire 
bells and their foundries. I will merely add that Henry Knight, 
Ellis and Samuel Knight, of Heading, were bell-founders of some 
eminence in the 17th century; and (hat four of the Great Bedwyn 
peal, and the fifth of Oollingbourne Kingston, besides several to 
be met with in Oxford, are their work. 


50 On Church Bells. 

I also give here a chronological list of bell-founders, to which 
many others might be added: — 


John of Gloucester circa 1310 

William Henshawe 1 c. 1480 

Abraham Rudhall, Sen. 2 .... 1684 

Abraham RudhaU, Jun 1718 

Abel Rudhall 1738—1754 

Thomas Rudhall 1780 

Charles ) Rud n aU 1785—1828 

John ; 


JohnWallis 1581—1633 

JohnDanton 1624—1640 

William Purdue ) 1 fil Q 
Roger Purdue j 

Thomas Purdue 1663 

Nicholas Bolter ) 1656 
Jonathan Bolter j 

John Lett 1627—1685 

R. Flowry 1675 

Clement Tosier 1680—1715 

William Tosier 1723 


William Corr] 1696-1713 

Robert Corr j 

JohnCorr 1750 

Robert Wells 1764—1792 

James Wells 1813—1825 


James Burrough 1738 — 1754 

1 There is a Brass to the memory of W. Henshawe and his two wives in 
St. Michael's church, Gloucester. The figures of the wives alone remain, and 
the following legend: — "Pray for the Soull of Willm. Henshawe Belfounder 
and late Maire of this Towne and Alys and Agnes his wyfes the whiche "Willm. 
decessed the . . . day of . . .in the yer of our Lord God a thousand ccccc . . . 
and the seid Alys decessed the Seconde day of ffebruary the yere of o r Lord 
M x. yc- xix. for whose soules of yo r charite say a pater nost r and a Ave." 
He died January, 1736, aged 78. 

By the Rev, W. C. Lukis. 51 


Henry Knight 1587—1623 

Ellis Knight 1623 

Samuel Knight 1693 


Robert Newcombe 1598—1612 

Mr. Eayres 

Mr. Clay , . . 1700 


James Keene 

e J 1626-1681 


John Hodson 1653 

Christopher Hodson 1680 

Richard Phelps (Whitechapel) . . 1716 

Thomas Lester 1742 

Lester and Pack 1758 

Pack and Chapman 1775 

Robert Patrick (Whitechapel) . . 1784 

Mr. Janeway (Chelsea) .... 1750 — 1800 

Messrs. Mears (and at Gloucester) . 1854 

Messrs. Warner and Sons . . . 1854 

Mr. Bowen 1854 

Barrett and Osborne 1854 


Henry Bagley 1664—1679 

Matthew Bagley 1679 

Henry Bagley 1722 


William Cuerdon ob. 1678 


Daniel Heddersley 1720 


Mr. Russell 1719—1743 


John Bryant 1790 

a 2 

52 On Church Bells, 


John Harrison 1749 


Mr. Hilton j~ni 


Mr. Arnold 


Edward Hemins 1729 1737 


Nicholas Blondell 1759 


William Evans 2732 


T - 0sborn 1794—1802 


Thomas Eyre I755 


Mr. Watts 

M r. Taylor 1835—1854 


Robert Borthwick 1528 


Mr - Taylor 1854 


Mr - Cai 7 1854 


T. Kingston 1826 


■ • • ' Kirlin g 1521 

Richard Corrington 1606 


John Martin 1675—1700 


Anthony Bond 2g20 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 53 


Henry Mitchell 1313 


Thomas Norris 1634 


George Lees 

Edmund Wright 1600 


Thomas Hodges 1854 

James Sheridan 1854 

T. Murphy 


Thomas Bilbie (and at Chewstoke) . 1740—1764 
.... Pannell 


Charles Pannell and Co 1854 


Thomas Bilbie (and at Collumpton) . 1740—1764 


Thomas Bertlett 1 1630 

In the 15th century there were celebrated bell-founders in Bristol ; 
and foundries once existed at East Dereham, Norfolk, Chesterfield, 
and Nottingham. 

(founders whose localities are unknown). 

Michael Darbie 1654 

.... Bellingham 1579 

Richard de Wambis 

John Cole 1574 

Valentyne Trevor 2 1592 

1 In Sir C'uthbert Shupe'e Extracts from Parish Registers, 1841, p. 54, there 
il the following extract from the Burial Register of St. Mary-le-Bow, Durham: 
" Thomas Bertlett (a hell-founder). This man did cast the Abbey bells the 
8ummer before he dyed: buried Feb. 3, 1632." 

I Ee cast the bells of St. Margaret's, Westminster, but not to the satisfaction 
of the vestry, who record in their accounts that they were "very falsely and 
deeeytfully made by Valentyne Trevor." 


On Church Bells. 

Robert Motte . . 
Richard Bowler . 
Joseph Hatch 
Bartholomew Atton 
Robert Atton 
Francis Foster 
.... Oldfield 
Miles Graye . . 
Thomas Nobbes . 
Henry Pleasant . 
Henry Penn . . 
Wm. Cockey . . 
Robert Catlin 
Thomas Hedderley 
William Dobson 






17th century 








In the Liberate Roll, 26 

3. The composition of bell metal. 
Henry III., sec. 12, is an entry of 10501b. of copper and 5001b. of 
tin, and the metal- of an old bell, to be melted up with it to make 
three new bells for the church of the castle of Dover. In the 
Circle of Mechanical Arts, published by Mr. Martin, a civil engineer, 
in 1813 (p. 354), it is stated that in bell metal there is about one- 
fifth of tin. And in the Penny Cyclopaedia, tit. Bronze, it is stated 
that Dr. Thompson found English bell metal to consist of 

Copper 80 . 

Tin 10 . 1 

Zinc 5.6 

Lead 4.3 


Bell metal, therefore, consists principally of copper and tin, in 
certain proportions, but each bell-founder has his secret mode of 
amalgamating his metals. I believe that the best bell metal is 
compounded of four parts of copper to one of tin. It is quite an 
error to suppose that silver enters largely into the composition of 
some bells. When the bells of my own church were taken down 
the other day for the purpose of re-stocking them, it was observed 
that the canons had become white in parts where there had been 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 55 

some friction, and I could not convince the workmen that it was 
tin and not silver which they saw. They knew hetter ; and only 
wished they could have the bells to extract the precious metal 
which they contained. It has been stated by those who know much 
more about this matter than I do, that "silver, if introduced in 
any large quantity, would injure the sound, being in its nature 
more like lead, as compared with copper, and therefore incapable 
of producing the hard, brittle, dense, and vibratory amalgam 
called bell metal." 1 

It is very certain that ancient bells have a better and more mellow 
tone than the generality of modern ones. The tenor bell of Ogbourne 
St. Andrew, which was cast in the 15th century, and weighs about 
15 cwt., cannot be surpassed for richness and dignity of tone. 
This superiority is owing no doubt to several causes; — first, to a 
larger weight of metal than is commonly given now to a bell of 
the same note ; secondly, to a better admixture of the metals ; and 
thirdly, probably to the method then adopted of fusing the metals, 
viz., by a wood fire, which not being so hot as that of coal, does 
not reduce the inferior parts to a state of fusion, but they are thrown 
away as scoria or dross. 2 In bell casting, the art is to know when 
to put in the tin, and to tap or pour the boiling metal into the 

4. Method of casting and of tuning bells. The art of bell-founding 
and tuning was brought to great perfection by Abraham Rudhall, 
of Gloucester, whose foundry has passed into the hands of the 
Messrs. Mears. When the size and proportions of the bell to be 
cast have been determined, four things have to be prepared — first, 
the crook ; second, the inner mould or core ; third, the outer mould 
or cope; and fourth, the crown. 

The crook is a kind of compass formed of wood, and is used for 
making the moulds. One leg of this instrument is curved to the 
shape of the inner side of the intended bell, and the other takes 
the shape of the outer side ; and they are made to revolve round a 

i Bee the excellent little work "The Bell, &c.": by A. Gatty, p. 30. 
2 See the Koclesiologist, vol. xiv. pp. G3, 297. 

56 On Church Bells. 

pivot fixed to a beam above, and tbe lower end driven firmly into 
tbe ground. The inner mould or core is built up of brickwork 
round this pivot, having a hollow space in the centre for a fire; 
and the face of the brickwork is then covered with a composition 
of clay and other materials, and moulded by one of the legs of the 
crook into the shape of the inside of the bell. It is then baked 
by means of a fire in the hollow, and when hard is greased and 
coated with another composition which is made to take the exact 
shape of the outside of the bell, by a few revolutions of the other 
leg of the crook. This is also hardened by the fire, and upon it 
are placed the inscriptions and ornaments in relief. 1 Over this, 
when it has been washed with a composition of grease and tan, the 
outer mould or cope is formed; and finally, the crown or head of 
the bell, for the formation of the canons, is then fitted to the top 
of it. The whole having been burnt, the cope is removed, and the 
inner composition between it and the core, representing the bell, is 
destroyed ; so that when the cope is again put over the core, there 
is a space between the two of the shape and thickness of the bell, 
and into this space the metal is allowed to run. 

When a bell is to be cast, the core is placed in a pit close to the 
furnace, the cope and crown are carefully fixed over the core, and 
the whole is rammed round tightly with dry sand, leaving nothing 
exposed but the holes in the cap or crown, one for an air hole, and 
the other for the fused metal to run into. As soon as the metal is 
cool, the bell is dug out, and, if one of a peal, carried into the 
finishing department for the purpose of being tuned. Formerly 
this was done by chipping the inside of the bell, or by cutting away 
the edge of the lip. But Mr. Rudhall, of Gloucester, invented a 
simple machine for accomplishing this object. It is nothing more 
than a vertical lathe, driven by steam power. The bell to be tuned 
is fixed very firmly in an inverted position, and a powerful cutter, 
working on a pivot placed within it diminishes its thickness, if too 

1 Mistakes in spelling frequently occur in bell epigraphs, owing to careless- 
ness (sometimes to ignorance) in making the impressions of the letters on the 
moulds. Letters, in some instances, are inverted, and in others put in their 
wrong places. 


1. Upright Spokes. 

2. Transom, or Long Hail. 
:i. Anns, or Spokes. 

4. Shrouding, 

6. Sole of Wheel.— See Elevation of Bell 
and Stock. 

6. Fillet.— See Elevation of Bell and Stock. 

7. Head-stock. 

8. Ground-track. 

9. Stay. 

10. Catch. 

11. Timbers of Cage. 






o £ 

x; o .s 

*H ©* CO 




By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 57 

sharp, or, by cutting away the edge of the lip, reduces its diameter, 
if too flat. 1 It must have been a very difficult operation for Mr. 
Lawson Huddlestone, by the process of chipping, to modulate the 
sound of every bell in a peal till they answered exactly the intervals 
of the monochord, and more particularly in those cases where the 
bells had been cast at different periods, by different founders, and 
with different metal. But it appears that this gentleman, who had 
a passion for bells, used to pass days and weeks in belfries in this 
laborious work; and thus tuned the peals of Colerne, Shaftesbury, 
Knoyle, and St. Cuthbert's, Wells. 

5. Bell hanging. When a bell is ready, the next operation is 
to hang it in the church tower ; and here, in England, one or two 
great changes have been introduced in the mode of doing this. 
It is perhaps one of the most difficult of all the operations con- 
nected with bell fixing, and requires the greatest care and skill of 
the person employed. I must here begin by saying that a great 
deal of the mischief to which I have alluded in speaking of belfries, 
arises from the unscientific manner in which bells are too often hung 
now. It is too frequently the practice for parishioners or church- 
wardens, when the bells require repair, to send for the village 
carpenter, who knows about as much of bell hanging as he does of 
geology, in the comfortable but vain notion of saving parish money. 
Bell hanging is an art of itself, quite distinct from that of bell 
founding, and, like it, has secrets of the trade. It is of the utmost 
consequence that the stock, or piece of wood to which the crown 
of the bell is fixed, should bear a due proportion to the size of the 
bell, and the length of the staple from which the clapper hangs. 
If this is not attended to, the clapper will not strike the bell 
properly. This is determined on sound principles of dynamics. 
But what can a village carpenter, who never fixed church bells 
before, know of that science ? And what must be the result of his 
unskilful efforts ? 

Before the introduction of change ringing it was not of so much 

1 Tin- key note of a bell depends in a great measure <>n its diameter at the 
mouth, and on the thickuess of the sound-bow. It depends also of course on 
the quality of the metal. 

58 On Church Bells. 

consequence how the stock was made, because bells were then only- 
chimed. But as soon as tbey begun to be swung rapidly to and 
fro on their gudgeons, and rung in time, it became necessary to 
reduce the proportions of the various parts of their gear to fixed 
rules and principles, which can only be known by those whose 
business it is to make them their study. Among others who can 
be recommended for their intelligence and skill in tbis department, 
may be mentioned Mr. H. Boswell, of Pembroke Street, Oxford; 
and Mr. James Ansell, of London. 

A change also took place in the form of the bells, in order that 
they might be rung more easily. The early bells, with which we 
are acquainted, have their crowns not so well adapted for the pur- 
pose of modern ringing as more recent ones ; but there can be no 
question as to their superior elegance of form. Bells of the 17th 
and subsequent centuries have their crowns, particularly of heavy 
bells, flattened, and the canons brought closer together, in order to 
fit the stock better, and increase the leverage, but at the expense 
of their beauty. 

A great variety of crowns may be observed, each founder having 
a design peculiar to himself. Some are of a pleasing form, and 
others are the reverse. There is a striking contrast between the 
first and fourth bell at Ogbourne St. Andrew; and again between 
each of these and the beautiful mediaeval tenor of the same church. 

One important part of bell-gear remains to be noticed, viz., the 
wheel. This is, in fact, the powerful lever, by means of which the 
bell is moved; and it has undergone some changes. It is not 
probable that the full wheel was employed much before the year 
1677. Before that period bells were moved by means of a short 
piece of wood fixed at right angles to the stock, or by a half- wheel, 
which was in use in 1527, and is still to be met with in Dorsetshire, 
at Dunchideock, Devon, and in Guernsey. The half-wheel was all 
that was required for chiming, but it could not answer the purposes 
of change ringing, in which it is necessary that the bell should be set, 
i.e., turned up, and rested against the slider or catch, each way. 1 

1 For an explanation of this operation see " The Builder." 



Scale- Ik inch. 

W. C Zukis dtf* 

■'■ iff- rf- N 

[■?■& < • \ - 

© II <0© 

Sccd/e li inch 

W. C Lu.kis old 1 

Bl&ch Lrltrr ittjfriptiorv, "Tr('/tita>bun- a*l(?r<*nM-s", /S„C&tZu*y. 

' — ' T 

Beautifully moulded, at Dunchideock, Devon. Date, 15th century. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 59 

Several changes also have taken place in the mode of attaching the 
clapper, which I will only allude to now. There are models upon 
the table, explanatory of three of these modes, one being the 
ancient, and another the modern method. 1 

6. Expenses of bells, &c. There are many entries to be found 
in parish account books which throw considerable Hght upon the 
history of bells and bell-founders; and among other things, the 
value of bell metal, old and new, with the cost of casting bells, 
per cwt., is accurately given. In 1457 bell metal was charged 
£5 Os. 8d. ; and the price of casting was 20s. Id. From the 
churchwardens' accounts of St. Margaret's, Westminster, we find 
that in the year 1592, bell metal was worth £2 16s. the cwt. 
From that of Steeple Ashton, in this county, we learn, that in 1616, 
it was worth £5 12s. In the year 1630, the accounts of St. Thomas's 
church, in this city, tell us that it maintained the same value, and 
that the cost of casting was 14s. the cwt. In 1663, we find from 
the same accounts that the value had risen to £6 6s. ; and that old 
bell metal fetched £4 5s. In 1680, the Dean and Chapter of 
Salisbury agreed to pay Clement Tosier after the rate of 20s. per 
cwt. for casting two bells, and to allow and pay him after the rate 
of £5 3s. 6d. per cwt. of extra metal. In 1716, the vestry of 
St. Thomas's church agreed with Mr. Abraham Rudhall, of Glou- 
cester, that he should have £7 for casting the second bell, and Is. 
per lb. for any additional metal. In 1769, the parish of St. Mary, 
Marlborough, agreed to give Mr. Robert Wells, of Aldbourne, 
£6 10s. per cwt. for a new third bell, and were to receive £4 13s. 
per cwt. for the old metal. And now the price varies from £6 10s. 
to £6 15s.; but if frames, carriage, hanging, journey, &c, are 
included, the cost is about £7 per cwt. ; and old metal realizes 
about £4 4s. 

7. Ancient bells. In the Archdeaconry of Wilts there are one 
hundred and seven churches, of which I have examined the bells 
of sixty-two, with an aggregate of two hundred and ninety-three 

1 An excellent article upon tin- subject, by the Rev. II. T. Ellaeombe, has 
recently appeared in Willia's Current Notes. 

i 2 

60 On Church Bells. 

bells, and of tins number only ten are clearly of a date prior to 1500, 
thirteen are of the 16th century, and one hundred and twenty-six 
belong to the 17th century. Out of five hundred and nineteen 
bells in this county, twenty-nine belong to a period prior to 1500, 
twenty-three to the 16th, two hundred and fifteen to the 17th, one 
hundred and seventy- two to the 18th, and fifty-nine to the 19th 
century; and twenty-one have no date or inscription. And this 
rarity of bells of the 15th century is not confined to "Wiltshire 
only ; although the proportion of bells of that date in other counties 
may be greater. E.g. ; in the Framland Hundred, county of 
Leicester, which contains thirty-eight churches, and one hundred 
and twenty-seven bells, there are as many as twenty-three of a 
pre-Peformation period. 1 The cause of this rarity throughout Eng- 
land I will explain presently. ^ 

In the earliest bells, only the name of the Saint is given, without 
any further inscription; and we find simply, "San eta Anna" at 
Cholderton, " Sancte George" at Pewsey, and "Gabriel" at Had- 
dington. I think there can be no doubt that the second bell at 
Winterbourne Gunner and the fourth bell at Pewsey were cast by 
the same hand. 

There is a bell (the second) at Potterne, which appears to be very 
ancient, the letters upon it being of early character and forming 
no words that I could decypher. Of alphabet bells (i.e. where, 
instead of a legend, they bear some of the letters of the alphabet), 
which are said to be of considerable antiquity, I know only one in 
Wiltshire ; and curiously enough it derives a still greater interest 
from being in Bemerton church, and called by Isaac Walton "Mr. 
Herbert's Saint's bell." 

The following is a list of Wiltshire bells of pre-Peformation date : 

Sixth and eighth at Aldbourne. 

Fifth Ogbourne St. Andrew. 

Second Cherhill. 

Fifth Collingbourne Ducis. 

Fourth Pewsey. 

1 Ecclesiologist, Vol. IV. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 61 

Fourth at Durnford Magna. 

First Poulshot. 

Calne (Saint's bell). 

Third Hilmarton. 

Fourth Compton Basset. 

Second Potterne. 

Third Allington. 

Fourth Newton Toney. 

Salisbury Cathedral (Bishop's bell). 

Third Odstock. 

Third Winterbourne Earls. 

Second Winterbourne Gunner. 

Sixth Broadchalk. 

First Rushall. 

First Charlton. 

First Maddington. 

First and second Orcheston St. Mary. 

Second Orcheston St. George. 

Third and fifth Grittleton. 


Second Downton. 

Fourth Stockton. 

Sixth Dinton. 


It is very seldom that bells of the 15th century have dates upon 
them ; and I have not met with one in Wiltshire ; but bells of the 
16th century are very frequently dated, e.g. 

The Tenor at Aldbourne .... 

Second Wappenham, Northants 

One Bruton, Somerset 

One Lapley, near Brewood, Staf- 
fordshire .... 

One Penton Mewsey, Hants 

One Thornham, Norfolk 

First Saint John's, Winchester 

First and third Figheldean .... 
First and second Winterbourne Basset 
First and fourth Little Bedwyn 
Fifth St. Martin's, Salisbury . 



62 On Church Belk. 

First at Chute 1582 

First Bishopstone 1583 

Second Winterboume Dantsey . . 1583 

Glasgow (Great bell, broken 

in 1790) 1583 

Third Netberavon 1585 

Second Combe Bisset .... 1586 

One St. Alkmond's, Derby . . 1586 

Second Bishopstone 1587 

Second Maddington 1587 

First and Second St. Nicholas', Great Kimble, 

Bucks 1587 

First St. Mary's, Watlington, Oxon 1587 

Fifth Netheravon 1588 

Third Combe Bisset .... 1589 

Tenor Cathedral, Oxford ... 1589 

Second Manningford Bruce . . . 1592 

Fourth Winterslow 1593 

One Gayton, Northants . . . 1594 

Tenor Burton Agnes, Yorks, now 

sold 1595. 

Fourth Fotheringay, Northants . 1595 

One Limpley Stoke .... 1596 

First Cathedral, Gloucester . . 1598 

Third Wappenham, Northants . 1599 

I may mention here that bells were frequently the gifts of private 
individuals, — clergy and others — in former days, as they are now ; 
and the record of the donation is generally inscribed upon them. 
Bell-founders also generously presented them. At Watlington, 
Oxon, on the first bell is " Jerem. Ewstes gave this bell in 1587." 
And this gift seems to have been thought worthy of a second record. 
For on his brass in the same church is : "Here lyeth buried the 
body of Jerem. Ewstes, eldest sonne of Robert Ewstes, late of this 
Town of Watlyngton, who gave the trebble bell that hangs in this 
steppill. He deceased the fyrst day of May." We find a similar 
record on a brass in Wyke church, Hants : " Here lieth Willm. 
Complyn and Agnes his wife, y c wiche Willm. decessid y e xxj day 
of May in y e yere of oure Lord M x ccccLXXXXviij. Also this be 

By the Rev. W. C. LuMs. 63 

j* dedis y 1 - y e said Willm. hath down to this Church of Wyke y t 
is to say frest dedycacion of y e Church xl s -> and to make newe bellis 
to y e sain Church x 11 - also gave to y e hallowyng of y e grettest bell 
vj s - viij d -" On the tenor of Hey ford, Northants, is: 

" Thomas Morgan Esquier gave me 
To the Church of Heford frank and free 1601." 

On a disused bell in Tonge church, Salop, is: "Henricus Vernon 
miles banc campanam fieri fecit 1518 ad laudem Dei Omnipotentis 
Beatae Mariae et Bartholomei Sancti. Quam per duellionum rabiem 
fractam sumptibus parochiae refudit Abr. Budhall Gloucest. anno 
1720." At Dewsbury, Yorks, one bell is known by the name of 
"Black Tom of Sothill," and it is said that it was given as an 
expiatory gift for a murder. At St. Mary's, Marlborough, on the 
treble bell, is : " Wallington Clark gave mee, J. Bliset B. Ednee 
c. w. — B. C. 1654." At Hornby, Yorks, the third bell was given 
by Lord Conyers, temp. Henry VII., but being broken was recast 
by William Lord D'Arcy and Conyers, in 1656. William Freman, 
Esq., of Magdalen College, Oxford, presented two bells to the 
college, in 1740, besides defraying the expenses of recasting the 
fifth bell, in 1748. In 1743, the Bight Hon. Thomas Lord Vis- 
count "Weymouth gave the treble bell to Horningsham church. On 
the fifth at Wolstanton, Staffordshire, " Bichard Ashburie of this 
town Blacksmith gave me in 1623." In 1803, two bells were 
added to the peal of six in St. Ebbe's, Oxford, the gift of Mr. 
Baker, Blumber ; and Mr. Scarsbrook, Collar-maker. On the second 
bell at Aldbourne, is: "The gift of Bobert Wells Bellfounder 1787." 

A bell is a not inappropriate memorial to a departed relation or 
friend ; and in Broadhinton church, we find on the treble : " Glory 
to God x In memory of Uliana Margaret Tufnell C. & G. Mcars 
fecerunt 1849." 

8. Epigraphs or legends. When speaking of bell-founders I 
mentioned some of their characteristic epigraphs. There are some 
other curious ones which I shall here introduce. On the fourth 
bell at Aldbourne we read : — 

" Humphry Symsin gave XX pound to buy this bell, 
And the Parish gave xx more to make this ring go well." 

64 On Church Bells. 

On a bell at Binstead is : — 

" Doctor Nicholas gave five pound 
To help cast this peal tuneable and sound." 

At Chilton Foliott, on the tenor is : — 

" Into the Church the living I call, 
And to the grave I siunmon all ; 
Attend the instruction which I give, 
That so you may for ever live." 

At Devizes, St. Mary, on the treble is : — 

"lam the first, altho' but small 
I will be heard above you all." 

On the second is : — 

' ' I am the second in this ring, 
Therefore next to thee I will sing." 

Which at Broadchalk is thus varied : — 

" I in this place am second bell, 
I'll surely do my part as well." 

On the third bell at Calne is : — 

" Robert Forman collected the money for casting this bell 
Of well-disposed persons as I do you tell." 

On a bell at Alderton is : — 

" I'm given here to make a peal 
And sound the praise of Mary Neale." 

On the fifth bell at Amesbury is : — 

" Be strong in faith, praise God well, 
Frances Countess Hertford's bell." 

And on the tenor : — 

" Altho' it be unto my loss 
I hope you will consider my cost." 

At Stowe, Northants; and at St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford, we 

"Be it known to all that doth me see 
That Newcombe of Leicester made me." 

A fire-bell (cast in 1652) in the church of Sherborne has : — 

" Lord ! quench this furious flame; 
Arise, run, help, put out the same." 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 65 

At St. Michael's, Coventry, on the fourth bell is : — 

"I ring at Six to let men know 
AVhen to and from their work to go." 

On the seventh bell is: — 

"I ring to sermon with a lusty borne, 
That all may come and none may stay at home." 

On the eighth bell is: — 

"lam and have been called the common bell, 
To ring, when fire breaks out to tell." 

At St. Peter's-le-Bailey, Oxford, four bells were sold towards 
finishing the tower, and in 1792 a large bell was put up, with this 
inscription : — 

"With seven more I hope soon to be, 
For ages joined in harmony." 

But this very reasonable wish has not yet been realized; whereas 
at St. Lawrence, Reading, when two bells were added to form a 
peal of ten, on the second we find : — 

"By adding two our notes we'll raise, 
And sound the good Subscriber's praise." 

Besides curious epigraphs, church bells often bear the names of 
clergy, churchwardens, city authorities, historical personages, &c, 
and by these inscriptions points of pedigree may in some cases be 
established; but it must be remarked that these interesting facts 
are only derivable from bells of a post-Reformation period. The 
epigraphs prior to that date are all of a religious character, and 
are generally in the bad Latin verse of that period; e.g. on the 
sixth at Aldbourne, and on the eighth in the cathedral, Oxford, we 

" Stella Maria maris succurre piissima nobis." 

A common epigraph of the same period is : — 

"Sum rosa pulsata mundi Maria vocata," 

as at Frowlesworth, Leicestershire, on the second bell ; on the sixth 
in Gloucester cathedral ; and on the treble at Thorp, near Milton, 


66 On Church Bella. 

Northants; which is varied to " Katerina vocata" on the third (old 
peal) St. Giles's, Oxford, and on the seventh of Magdalen college 
in the same city ; whilst on the tenor of Dinton, Wilts, the last 
word is omitted. Another rather common inscription is: — 

"Ave Maria gratia plena Dominus tecum"; 

which appears in full on the seventh bell at King Sutton, Northants, 
and on the fifth at Collingbourne Ducis ; and in a variety of abbre- 
viated forms in other places. Sometimes it is found as "Ave 
Maria gratia plena," as at St. Nicholas, Great Kimble, Bucks, and 
on the third bell at Grittleton; at other times we find only "Ave 
Maria gratia," as at Winterbourne Earls; then "Ave gratia plena 
Dominus Decum," as at Newton Toney; then "Ave gratia plena," 
as at Great Durnford, Allington, and Stockton; then "Ave gratia," 
as at Orcheston St. George, and Winchester college chapel ; and 
finally "Gratia" only, as at Charlton. 
A not uncommon epigraph is: — 

"Est michi collatum IHC istud nomen amatum"; 

as at Clyst St. George, Devon; on the two bells at Teignmouth; 
on the fourth at Sidmouth ; and on the second at the Yale church, 

Other epigraphs of the same period are such as these : — 

"In multis annis resonet campana Johannis." 
"Trinitate sacra fiat haec campana beata." 
"Serva campanam sancta Maria sanam." 
"Protege pura via quos convoco Virgo Maria." 
"Andree campana fugiant pulsante prophana." 
"Johannes Christi care dignare pro nobis orare." 
"Sancte Laurenti ora pro nobis." 

But to return to epigraphs of a later period, and of a totally 
different nature. 

On the tenor of St. Thomas's, Salisbury, is "Wm. Naish Esq 
Mayor." On the tenor of St. Edmund's in the 6ame city, which 
was cast in 1656, we find the name of "William Stone Maior"; 

By the Rev. W. C. Lutes. 67 

while on the fifth is "John Strickland Minester 1656." 1 On two 
of the bells at Broadchalk there appears a name with which Wilt- 
shire Archaeologists are very familiar. The epigraphs on both are 
alike, viz., "George Penruddock Knight John Aubrey Esquier 
c. w. 1660. W. A P-" The history of these two bells is given by 
Aubrey himself in his ' Natural History of Wiltshire,' (Britton's 
Edit. p. 102) although he there speaks of but one bell. "At Broad- 
chalke is one of the tuneablest ring of bells in Wiltshire, which 
hang advantageously; the river running near the churchyard, 
which meliorates the sound. Here were but four bells till anno 
1616 was added a fifth; and in anno 1659 Sir George Penruddock 
and I made ourselves churchwardens, or else the fair church had 
fallen, from the niggardliness of the churchwardens of mean 
condition, and then we added the sixth bell." One of these two 
bells I regret to add is broken in many pieces, and appears to have 
been so for a long period. The church has been put into a tidy 
state of late years, but why should three out of the peal of six be 
suffered to continue broken, and " the tuneablest ring of bells in 
Wiltshire" be rendered silent ? Not, I should hope, " from the 
niggardliness of the churchwardens," nor from any dislike to the 
music of bells. For John Aubrey's sake (if for no other reason), 
the three broken bells should be recast; and whenever that good 
work may be contemplated by the parish, I would suggest that 
the inscription on the Aubrey bell should be perpetuated on the 
new one. The tenor at Aldbourne bears this epigraph : "Intonat 
de celis vox campane Michaelis. Deus propicius esto aiabus Bacardi 
Goddard quondam de Upham Elizabeth et Elizabeth uxorum ejus 
ac aiabus oim liberorum et parentum suorum qui hanc campanam 
fieri fecerunt anno dni mcccccxvj." 

I have been told that the present family, who are descended from 

1 "This Mr. Strickland was a zealous Puritan, who was elected to the Assembly 
of Divines, and was one of the mos* regular attendants. On the appearance of 
the Act of Uniformity in 1662, he relinquished the rectory of St. Edmund's 
from purely conscientious motives, and died suddenly alter preaching and ad- 
ministering the Sacrament, probably to a dissenting congregation, in Oct. 1670." 
Hatcher's History of Salisbury. 

K 2 

68 On Chunk Bells. 

Richard Goddard, wore not aware until recently that he had given 
this bell, and that he had been twice married. 

There is a remarkable bell in the church of St. Mary the Virgin, 
Oxford, viz., the fourth, which bears this inscription: — 

"Be it knowne to all that doth me see 
That Newcombe of Leicester made me. 1612." 

Then below this, and in two bands encircling the sides of the bell, 
is a tune in the same relief as the letters of the legend. At the 
commencement of the music in the upper line is a half-figure of a 
man in the dress of the period with this inscription on a surrounding 
label: " x Keepe tyme in anye case"; and at the beginning of the 
lower line of music is a similar figure with " x Then let us singe 
it againe." 

9. Bell ringing. Peal ringing is peculiar to England; it is not 
known abroad. It was formerly considered, not only a healthy 
but a gentlemanly recreation. Sir Matthew Hale, and Anthony 
Wood who says that " he often plucked at them (Merton bells) 
with his fellow colleagues for recreation," may be numbered among 
the amateurs of this art. Anthony Wood 1 learnt to ring on a peal 
of six bells, which had then been newly put up at Cassington. 

In our day, bell ringers have been ranked among the disre- 
putable characters of almost every parish; but if we are to give 
credit to Paid Neutzner, a traveller in this country between 1550 
and 1560, they had become notorious even at that period. " The 
people of England," he says, " are vastly fond of great noises that 
fill the ear, such as firing of cannon, beating of drums, and the 

i " He and his mother and two brothers Robert and Christopher, gave £5 to 
Merton College in 1656, towards casting their five bells into eight. These five 
were ancient bells and were put in the Tower Avhen it was built in 1421. The 
Tenor was supposed to be the best bell in England, and every one, Anthony 
Wood says, 'was against the altering it, and were for a treble being put to make 
six, and old Sergeant Charles Holloway, who was a covetous man, offered money 
to save it, but by the knavery of Thorn. Jones the Subwarden, (the Warden 
being absent) and Michael Darby the Bellfounder, they were made eight. John 
Wilson, Doc. Mus., had a fee from the College to take order about their tuning. 
All the eight bells began to ring May 14, 1657, but they did not at all please 
the critical hearer. They were recast in 1680 by Christopher Hodgson.'" (See 
Life, in Athena;., Oxon. Vol. I., p. 21). 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 69 

ringing of bells; so that it is common for a number of them that 
have got a glass in their heads to get up into the belfry and ring 
the bells for hours together for the sake of exercise." A very 
curious Latin book, published about the year 1600, contains a 
lawyer's decision whether the number of bells might be increased 
in a church, and whether their ringing could be stopped. It speaks 
of idle boys being very fond of running to the towers to do the 
work. (Ellacombe). When bell ringing was more appreciated than, 
unfortunately, it is now, there were societies of ringers in Cam- 
bridge, Oxford, London, — such as the college youths (from their 
practising at St. Michael's, on College Hill, London) founded in 
1637, — Birmingham, and in other places There are some societies 
of ringers now in various parts of England, and there is, among 
others in London, a society of college youths, but it is said not to 
be descended from the ancient society above mentioned, which 
became extinct in 1788. There is, I believe, an excellent society 
of Norwich scholars. I do not know where to find a society of 
ringers in Wiltshire. There are sets of men who ring for what 
they can get, which they consume in drink ; but there is very Little 
love for the science or its music. There is no "plucking at the 
bells" for recreation and exercise. Church ringers with us have 
degenerated into mercenary performers. In more than one parish 
where there are beautiful bells, I was told that the village youths 
took no interest whatever in bell ringing, and had no desire to 
enter upon change ringing. The whole number of changes that 
can be rung on any given number of bells is called "a peal"; and 
various series of changes or permutations have been invented, 
which are known by the names of their composers. One such 
series, called Grandsire Triples, was invented by M. Benjamin 
Anable, who died in 1755; and was subsequently improved by 
Mr. Holt. Another composer was Mr. Patrick, a maker of baro- 
meters, in the beginning of the last century. But one of the 
earliest composers was Mr. Fabian Stedman, of Cambridge, who, 
about the year 1657, invented a complex method of ringing, which 
has ever since been called " Stedman's principle." It is not my 
intention to enter here into the intricacies of change ringing, nor 

70 On Church Bells. 

to explain the mysterious terms in use to express the method of 
effecting changes. " The Art of Change ringing, hy Benjamin 
Thackrah," and the " Elements of Campanologia, by Henry Hub- 
bard," which to the uninitiated look like books of logarithmic tables, 
will be found very useful by those who desire to know more of this 
delightful subject. It may be sufficient to describe to you the 
manner in which a bell moves, and its clapper acts during a peal. 
Suppose the bell to be raised, with its mouth upwards, and its 
clapper resting against the side of the bell at A ; and that the bell 
is then set in motion in the direction acbe. The clapper accom- 
panies the bell until it is sent by the impetus away from it, and it 
only strikes the opposite side when it arrives at the point f; and 
reversing the revolution, it strikes at B. The velocity of the clapper 
must depend of course upon the strength of the pull which sets 
the bell in motion, and consequently in peal ringing, the time in 
striking is regulated by the good ear of the ringer, who should have 
perfect command over his bell. If he do not pull evenly, the 
intervals will be uneven, and the music bad; and an even pull can 
only be attained by frequent steady practice. 

I need hardly state that bell ringing requires extreme care to 
prevent accidents. Any one who has handled the ropes knows this, 
and accidents have frequently occurred. In June, 1778, a man of 
the name of Lilley was drawn up by the rope at Doncaster, and 
killed by the fall. In 1812, a boy sitting near a ringer was caught 
by the rope, and so seriously injured that he died, and was buried 
in the same grave with a brother who was drowned. On the grave 
stone there is this quaint couplet : — 

" These 2 youths, were by, misfortun serounded, 
One died of his wounds, and the other was Drownded." 

It is a very curious circumstance, and yet, I beHeve, purely 
accidental, that the key notes of the several peals in Oxford, form 
nearly all the notes of the chromatic scale. E. g., 

Christchurch D (vocal D). 

St. Mary's D (concert pitch). 

Merton E flat (rather flat). 

New College E flat. 


W r. luku J'/' 

By the Rev. W. C. LuMs. 71 

Magdalen E natural. 

Carfax F. 

St. Mary Magdalen . . F. 

St. Michael's F sharp (rather flatter than St.Giles'). 

St. Giles's F sharp. 

All Saints G (rather flat). 

St. Aldate's A flat. 

St. Peter's in the East A natural. 

Holywell B flat. 

Oxford possesses three fine peals of ten bells, viz., at Christchurch, 
New College, and Magdalen ; and in the last century, and up to 
1827, had a corps of gallant youths who took intense delight in the 
science of ringing. I have the record of a series of musical exploits, 
ranging over a space of one hundred and twenty years, with the 
name of every man who took part in each performance, and the 
time in which it was accomplished. Such deeds deserve to be im- 
mortalized. There are few arduous works in the present day to be 
compared with that of ten stout-hearted men undertaking to ring 
six thousand or seven thousand, or even ten thousand changes 
without a mistake. On May 20th, 1734, six thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-six changes were rung at New College in four 
and-a-quarter hours. On April 19th, 1742, at Magdalen, ten 
thousand changes were started for, but after ringing seven thousand 
in fine style, the bob-caller by mistake brought the bells round in a 
little more than four hours. On Easter Monday, March 27th, 1815, 
at New College, ten thousand and eight Grandsire Caters were 
rung in six hours and forty-two minutes. Highworth, in Wiltshire, 
produced some good ringers at that time, and in 1787, Dec. 29th, 
they rung the whole peal of five thousand and forty changes, 
'irandsire Triples, (Holt's method) in three hours and fourteen 
minutes, which was the very first time they ever attempted to ring 
this peaL It is recorded that forty thousand three hundred and 
twenty changes were performed at Leeds, by thirteen men, in 
twenty-seven hours; one man ringing eleven, and another nine 
hours; and eight Birmingham youths rang fourteen thousand two 
hundred and twenty-four changes, in eight hours and forty-five 
minutes. Records of remarkable performances are no doubt 

72 On Church Bells. 

preserved in many Wiltshire belfries ; but why should there be no 
memorials there of recent exploits ? 

Rules for ringers have always been considered necessary, and 
sometimes ancient ones in rhyme are preserved in belfries; e.g., in 
the church of North Parret, Somersetshire, are the following 
curious lines: — 

" He that in ringing- takes delight, 
And to this place draws near, 
These articles set in his sight, 
Must keep, if he rings here. 

The first he must observe with care ; 

"Who comes within the door, 
Must, if he chance to curse or swear, 

Pay Sixpence to the poor. 

And whosoe'er a noise does make, 

Or idle story tells, 
Must Sixpence to the ringers take, 

For mending of the bells. 

Young men that come to see and try, 

And do not ringing use, 
Must Sixpence give the company, 

And that shall them excuse. 

He that his hat on's head does keep, 

"Within this sacred place, 
Must pay his Sixpence ere he sleep, 

Or turn out with disgrace. 

If any one with spurs to's heels, 

Rings here at any time, 
He must for breaking articles, 

Pay Sixpence for his crime. 

If any overthrow a bell 

As that by chance he may ; 
Because he minds not ringing well, 

He must his Sixpence pay. 

Or if a noble-minded man 

Comes here to ring a bell, 
A tester 1 is the sexton's fee 

Who keeps the church so well. 

"Whoever breaks an Article, 

Or duty does neglect, 
Must never meddle with a bell, 

The rope will him correct." 2 

1 Tester, teston, testoon — equals twelve pence of time of Henry VIII. 
2 Collinson's History of Somersetshire, Vol. ii., p. 336. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 73 

By the way, I may mention some curious qualifications for a 
Royal Chaplaincy. Mr. Aubrey, in his 'Natural History of Wilts,' 
tells us that " Mr. Ferraby, the minister of Bishop's Cannings, was 
an ingenious man and an excellent musician, and made severall of 
his parishioners good musicians both for vocall and instrumentall 
music. They sung the Psalms in consort to the organ which Mr. 
Ferraby procured to be erected. When King James I. was in 
these parts, he lay at Sir Edw. Baynton's at Bromham. Mr. Ferraby 
then entertained his Majesty at the Bush in Cotefield, with bucoliques 
of his own making and composing, of four parts, which were sung 
by his parishioners, who wore frocks and whippes like carters. 
"Whilst his Majesty was thus diverted the eight bells (of which he 
was the cause) did ring, and the organ was played on for state; 
and after this musicall entertainment, he entertained his Majesty 
with a foot-ball match of his own parishioners. This Parish in 
those dayes would have challenged all England for musique, foot- 
ball, and ringing. For this entertainment his Majesty made him 
one of his Chaplains in ordinary." 

It is calculated that seven hundred and twenty changes can be 
rung on twelve bells in one hour, and that it would require, at this 
rate, seventy-five years, ten months, and ten days, to ring all pos- 
sible changes (viz. 479,001,600) on the same number of bells. I 
desire to add one or two remarks by way of caution and advice to 
ringers in parishes where there exists a good ring of bells, properly 
clappered, which are often rung. You cannot bestow too much 
care upon them. Very frequently examine the condition of the 
stocks, iron-work, gudgeons, frame, wheels, and clappers. Do so 
every month, if not every week, and particularly in those cases 
where there has been any new work done to them. New gear 
requires much more constant watching than old. A month's neglect 
may cost the parish many pounds. And as regards chiming for 
service, which is sometimes practised in the country on Sundays, 
unless you have a proper apparatus for it, let me beg of you to 
discontinue tying the flappers. Incalculable mischief is done to 
them by this method of chiming. You know that a clapper is 
suspended from the staple in such a manner as to move backwards 


74 On Church Bells. 

and forwards, and strike the bell each way, in the same place. If 
you tie the clapper, and pull it directly towards the striking place, 
all well and good; but if you pull it sideways from the ground- 
truck, you strain it and injure it greatly. Yet this is the common 
mode of chiming in the country, and parishioners wonder why the 
bells are so soon out of order, and ringers cannot account for the 
clappers not striking as they used to do. If you must have chiming, 
the only way to have it without injury to the clappers, is to have 
a small block fixed in the floor in the direct line of their motion, 
with a second rope to be used for this purpose only. 

10. Spoliation of church bells. We come now to a sad period 
in the history of church bells, viz., their spoliation. I mentioned 
above the rarity of ancient bells in this country. This is to be 
accounted for by the spoliation of churches in the 16th and 17th 
centuries. Weever tells us that in St. Paul's churchyard " there 
was a bell-house with four bells, the greatest in London ; they were 
called 'Jesus bells,' and belonged to Jesus Chapel: the same had a 
great spire of timber covered with lead, with the image of St. Paul 
on the top, which was pulled down by Sir Miles Partridge, Knt. 
He won it at a cast of dice from King Henry VIII., and then caused 
the bells to be broken as they hung, and the rest pulled down." 
Sir Miles was hanged on Tower Hill. 

In the little Sanctuary at Westminster, " King Edward III. 
erected a clochier and placed therein three bells for the use of St. 
Stephen's Chapel. About the biggest of them were these words : 

' King Edward made me thirtie thousand weight and three, 
Take mee down and wey niee and more yu shall fynd me.' 

But these bells being to be taken down in the reign of King 
Henry VIII. one writes underneath with a coale: 

' But Henry the eight 
Will bait me of my weight.' " 

Bells were removed from churches to be cast into cannon, and it is 
said that they "were exported in such quantities that their farther 
exportation was prohibited in 1547, lest metal for the same use 
should be wanting at home." The Duke of Somerset "pretended 
that one bell was sufficient for summoning the people to prayers, 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 75 

and the country was thus in danger of losing its best music — a 
music hallowed by all circumstances — which accorded equally with 
social exultation and with solitary pensivenesss." 1 

Some counties, Devon and Cornwall especially, suffered more 
than others. "When the rebellion in these counties was allayed," 
says Strype, 2 "it was remembered how the bells in the churches 
served by ringing to summon and call in the disaffected unto their 
arms. Therefore in Sept., 1549, an order was sent down from the 
Council to Lord Russell to execute a work that proved no doubt 
highly disgustful unto the people: — viz. to take away all the bells 
in Devonshire and Cornwall, leaving only one in each steeple, the 
least of the ring, which was to call the people to church." 

Eut a cloven foot appeared in this order. It was to be not so 
much a measure to prevent the like insurrection for the future, as 
to bring the King out of debt; for to effect this, amongst other 
things, this course was devised in 1552 : — 

1. To gather and coin the church plate. 

2. To sell chantry, college, and other lands. 

3. To sell the bell metal. 

"Two gentlemen of those parts, Champion and Chichester, assistant 
perhaps against the rebels, took this opportunity to get themselves 
rewarded, by begging not the bells, but the clappers only, which 
was granted them, with the iron-work and furniture thereunto 
belonging: and no question they made good benefit thereof." 3 

We read in Weever that " in the time of Elizabeth, bells were 
removed by private individuals out of covetousness, and a procla- 
mation was issued forbidding any bells or lead to be taken away." 
Hut it appears that in the reign of Edward VI., the robbery had 
commenced, for in 1552, one Thomas Hall, of Devizes, complained 
that the churchwardens of the parish of St. Mary, had two great 
bells in their private possession which Ihey would not give up. 

Every one knows the curses that were pronounced on sacrilege 
at the consecration of churches and abbeys. On one of the ancient 

Southey's Hist, of Churches. 2 Ecclos. Mem., vol. ii. ;i Ibid. 

L 2 

76 On Church Bells. 

bells of Malmsbury Abbey, which have long since disappeared, was 

ibe following epigraph : 

" Elysiam caeli mmquam conscendit ad aulam 
Qui furat hanc nolam Aldekni sede beati." 


1 In heaven's blest mansion be ne'er sets bis feet 
Who steals this bell from Aidelm's sacred seat." 

11. But I must hasten to a conclusion, and now come to the last 
division of the subject, viz., a comparison of the respective sizes 
and weights of tenor bells, of Wiltshire and other peals; from 
twenty-six inches to sixty inches diameter. 

N.B. The figure after the locality denotes the number of bells 
in the peal. 

Wootton Rivers, 5. 

Stratford Sub-Castle, 2. 

Ebbesborne "Wake, 3. 

Charlton, 3. 

Winterbourne Dantsey, 3. 

Week, Hants, 3. 

Allington, 3; Orcheston St. George, 2. 

St. Ebbe's, Oxford, 8. 

Ham, 4. 

Easton Royal, 3. 

Nunton, 3; Toney Stratford, 3; Winterbourne 
Earls, 3 ; Idmiston, 4 ; Chute, 2. 

Tilshead, 3 ; Orcheston St. Mary, 3, 

Tidcombe, 3; Odstock, 3. 

Rushall, 3. 

Bishopstone, 3; Newton Toney, 4; Ludgershall, 5; 
Laugharne, Carmarthen, 6. 

St. Thomas', Oxford, 6. 

Preshute, 5. 

Chilton Foliott, 5 ; Devizes, St. James, 4 ; Stock- 
ton, 4 ; Winterslow, 4. 

Maddington, 3. 

Poulshot, 3; St. Lawrence, Winchester, 5. 

Britford, 5. 

St. Peter's in the East, Oxford, 6. 


in inches. 

c. 4 





c. 5 



c. 6 




c. 7 





c. 8 



c. 9 





By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 77 

Weight. Diameter 
Cwt. in inches. 

c. 9 37 J Shipton, Hants, 3. 

38 Collingbourne Ducis, 5 ; North Tidworth, 5 
Combe Bisset, 4; Alvediston, 3; Harden, 5 
Shrewton, 5 ; St. Mary Magdalen, Oxford, 5 
Burbage, 5. 
38 j Yatesbury, 4; Liddington, 5. 
c. 10 39 Milton Lilborne, 6; Cbirton, 5; Holywell, Ox- 
ford, 5. 
39j Pangbourne, Berks, 6 ; College, Winchester, 5. 
c. 11 39^ "West Lavington, 6; Wivelsford, 5; All Saints, 
Oxford, 5. 

40 Pewsey, 6 ; St. Martin's, Guernsey, 3 ; Kemerton, 

Gloucester, 6. 

40| Durrington, 5. 

40J Shalbourne, Berks, 5 ; the Vale Church, Guern- 
sey, 3. 

41 Figheldean, 3; St. Aldate's, Oxford, 5. 

41 ± Holy Cross, Winchester, 2. 
c. 12 41± St. Magnus, Orkney, 3. 

41 1 Laycock, 6. 

42 St. Michael's, Oxford, 6. 
42f Upavon, 5. 

c. 13 42| Marlborough, St. Peter, 8; St. Giles, Oxford, 6; 
Swindon, 6. 

43 Chiseldon, 5; Durnford Magna, 5; St. Martin's, 

Sarum, 6. 
c. 14 43| 

43| Ogbourne St. Andrew, 5 ; Hungerford, Berks, 6. 

44 Marlborough, St. Mary, 6; Broadchalk, 6; Holy- 

rood, Southampton, 8 ; St. John, Winchester, 5. 
c. 15 44| Market Lavington, 6 ; St. Pierre du Bois, Guern- 
sey, 3; St. Sauveur, Guernsey, 3. 

45 St. Martin's, Oxford, 8. 

c. 16 45 3 St. Peter's, Carmarthen, 6. 

46 Kiimsbury, 6; Netheravon, 5; Wanborough, 5. 

46 j Bitton, Gloucester, 6. 
c. 17 46 3 Potterne, 6. 

46^ Bishop's Cannings, 8. 

47 Chepstow, Monmouthshire, 8. 



On Church Bell*. 




in inches. 

c. 17 


Magdalen College, Oxford, 10; St. Pierre Port, 

Guernsey, 8. 

c. 18 


Avebury, 5; Aldbourne, 8. 


Devizes, St. Mary, 6; Urchfont, 8. 


Cathedral, Bristol, 4. 

c. 19 


Ogbourne St. George, 5. 


Steeple Ashton, 6; Amesbury, 6. 


New College, Oxford, 10. 

c. 20 



Downton, 5. 

c. 21 



Olveston, Gloucester, 6; Thornbury, 8. 


Devizes, St. John, 8. 


St. Lawrence, Reading, Berks, 10. 

c. 23 



c. 25 



Great Bedwyn, 6. 



St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford, 6. 


St. Edmund's, Sarum, 6; St. Mary, Reading, 8. 


St. Thomas', Sarum, 8. 


Merton College, Oxford, 8. 

c. 27 



Cathedral, Winchester, 8. 

c. 29 


c. 33 


Westbury, Wilts. 

c. 38 


Bath Abbey, 10. 

Compared with foreign bells, English ones are of no very great 
size; but from the custom of round and change ringing amongst 
us, we have come to think more of our own. There is a magnificent 
clock bell over the Mairie, at Rennes in Brittany, 86j inches in 
diameter and 6 inches thick at the sound-bow (a larger bell by 
11 inch than Great Tom of Oxford), which nobody takes notice 
of, although its fine deep tones are heard every hour; whereas we 
make a sort of peep-show of Great Tom. The epigraph upon it is 
"Jay ete fondue a Rennes Capitale de la Province daus l'enclos de 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 79 

l'abbaye de St. Melaine au mois de 9. bre 1731 sous le regne de 
Louis XV. Roy de France et de Navarre. Toussaint Francois 
Rallier Maire Coronel des Milices Bourgeois. (Round tbe rim), 
A. Brocard et M. Piosson Fondeurs Lorrains mont faitte avec les 
douze appieu (sic). Gr. P. Les Chaucbards pere fondeurs Lorrains 
mont faite." At St. Brieuc tbere are two very great bells, wbicb I 
bad no time to examine. Tbe Brocards were eminent bell-founders 
in tbe 18tb century, and I was informed in August last, by tbe 
Cure of tbe town of Baud in Brittany, tbat tbe foundry retains 
its celebrity to tbe present day. I happened to reach Baud at the 
very moment when a new bell, weighing about 13 cwt., arrived for 
one of its churches. It was quite a model of good casting, and 
the epigraph stated it to have been cast at Napoleonville (Pontivy), 
and sold by "Alphonse Danjou Marchand fondeur." The eight 
bells of the church of St. Pierre Port, Guernsey, composed how- 
ever of very indifferent metal, and cast in 1736, and the three bells 
of St. Martin's church, in the same island, cast in the same year, 
were the handiwork of tbe Brocards. 

I have to apologize for the great length of this paper; but if I 
have succeeded in drawing your attention to the too often neglected 
state of belfries, and in inducing some to take up the subject of 
bell ringing for its own sake as well as a means of reforming village 
ringers, I shall be well contented to submit to your unfavourable 
judgment upon niy efforts to ring a series of changes on your own 
bells, and my very indifferent performance. 

I have feebly attempted to draw your notice to this subject with 
the same feelings of pleasure and exultation with which the vener- 
able shepherd of Marlborough Downs is said to have addressed 
Queen Anne, when, on a progress to Bath, she was met at Shep- 
herd's Shore, in these words: 

" Btaund here greatc Queen amongst your loving people, 
And listen to the bells of Bishop's Cannings Steple." 

W. C. Lukis. 

\./t. The epigraphs or inscriptions will appear in our next number of the 


80 On Church Bell*. 


The following list of "Works on Bells, which may be found useful 
by those who desire to study the subject, has been kindly supplied 
by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe. 

Ano> t . Recueil curieux et editiant sur les cloches de l'Eglise. avec les Cere- 
monies de leur Benediction. Cologne, 1757. 
Barratjd (Abb.) Notice sur les cloches, 8vo. Caen, 1844. 
Boemeri (G. L.) Progranrma de Feudo Campanario. Gottingae, 1755. 
Buonmattei (Ben.) Declamazione delle Campane, dopo le sue Cicalate delle 

tre Sirocchie. Pisa, 1635. 
Campan'I (Gio. Ant.) Opera. The frontispiece a large bell. Roma, 1495. 
Caxceilieri (F.) Descrizione della nuova Campana Magiore della Basilica 

Vaticana. Roma, 1786. 
Cancellieri (F.) Descrizione delle due nuove Campane di Campidoglio 

beneditte del Pio VII. Roma, 1806, 4to. 
Cate (G. G.) An Turrium et Campanarum Usus in Repub. Christ. Deo dis- 

pliceat? Leipsias, 1709, 4to. 
Conrad (Dietericus). De Campanis. Germanice. 
Eggers (Nic.) Dissertatio de Campanarum Materia et forma. 
Eggers (Nic.) Dissertatio de Origine et Nomine Campanarum. Ienaj, 1684. 
Eschestwecker. De eo quod justum est circa Campanas. 
Fesc (Laberanus du). Des cloches, 12mo. Paris, 1607-19. 
Goezii. Diatriba de Baptismo Campanarum. Lubecse, 1612. 
Grimatjd (Gilb.) Liturgie Sacree, avec un Traite des cloches. Lyons, 1666, 4 to., 

Pavia, 1678, 12mo. 
Hilschen (Gio.) Dissertatio de Campanis Templorum, Leipsia?, 1690. 
Homberg (Gas.) De Superstitiosis Campanarum pulsibus, ad eliciendas preces, 

quibus placentur fulmina, excogitatis, 4to. Frankfortiae, 1577. 
Lazzarixi (Alex.) De vario Tintinnabuloruni Usu apud veteres Hebraeos et 

Ethnicos. 2 vols. 8vo Roma?, 1822. 
Ledotici (G.F.) De eo quod justum est circa Campanas. Halre, 1708 et 1739. 
Magii (Hier.) De Tintinnabulis, cum notis F. Swertii et Jungermanni, 12mo. 

Amstelodamaa et Hanovia?, 1608, 1664, 1689. " A learned work."— Parr. 
Martene. De Ritibus Ecclesiae. 
Medelii (Geo.) An Campanarum Sonitus Fulmina, Tonitrua, et Fulgura 

impedire possit, 4 to., 1703. 
Mitzler (B.A.) De Campanis. 

Nerttjrgii (Mar.) Campanula Penitential, 4to. Dresden, 1644. 
Paciaudi. Dissertazione su due Campane di Capua. Neapoli, 1750. 
Pacichelli (Ab. J. B.) De Tintinnabulo Nolano Lucubratio Autumnalis. 

Neapoli, 1693. Dr. Parr calls this " a great curiosity." 
Pagh. De Campanis dissertatio. 

Rocca (Ang.) De Campanis Commentarius, 4to. Romae, 1612. 
Reimanxi (Geo. Chris.) De Campanis earunique Origine, vario Usu, Abusu, et 

Juribus, 4to. Isenaci, 1769. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lutes. 81 

Sapoxti (G. M.) Notificazione per la solenne Benedizione della nuova Campana 

da Collocarsi nella Metropolitana di S. Lorenzo. Geneva, 1750. 
Seligmann (Got. Fr.) De Campana Urinatoria. Leipsiaj, 1677. 4to. 
Stockflet (At.) Dissertatio de Campanarum Usu, 4to. Altdorni, 1665, 1666. 
Stoeixjs (G. M.) De Campanis Templorum, 4to. Leipsiae, 1692* 
Swebtitjs (Fran.) 

Thiebs (G. B.) Des Cloches, 12mo. Paris, 1602, 1619. 
Thiers (J. B.) Traite des Cloches. Paris, 1721. 

Wallebi (Ar.) De Campanis et prrccipuis earum Usibus, 8vo. Holmia;, 1694. 
Willietti (Car.) Ragguaglio delle Campane di Viliglia, 4to. Roma, 1601. 
Zech (F. S.) De Campanis et Lnstrumentis Musicis. 

Without enumerating any Encyclopaedias, in most of which may 
be found very able and interesting articles upon the subject, the 
best treatises for all practical purposes will be found in the following : 

Pibotechnia, del Vannuccio Biringuccio, nobile Senese 1540, 1550, 1559, 1678. 

There is a French translation of it by Jasper Vincent 1556, 1572, 1627. 

The tenth chapter is about bells, which Hagius refers to in his work. 
Ducange in Glossario, in vocibus iEs, Campana, Codon, Cloca, Crotalum, Glogga, 

Lebes, Nola, Petasus, Signuni, Squilla, Thitinnabulum. 
Meesenni (F. M.) Harmonicorum Libri XII. Paris, 1629, 1643. (Liber 

quartus de Campanis). This and Biringuccio contain all the mystery of 

bell casting, &c. 
Puffendorff. De Campanarum usu in obitu Parochiani publice signifieando, 

in ejus observationibus. Jur. Univers., p. iv., No. 104. 

The works of English authors, seem to be chiefly confined to the 
Art of Ringing, as the following list will show : 

Tintinnalogia, or the Art of Ringing improved, by T. "W(hite), 18mo., 1668. 
This is the book alluded to by Dr. Burney, in his History of Music, Vol. 
iv., p. 413. 

ClKPAKOLOOlA., or the Art of Ringing improved, 18mo. 1677. This was by 
Fabian Stedman. 

C oii'Wolooia, improved by I. D. and C. M., London Scholars, 18mo. 1702. 

Ditto, second edition, 12mo. 1705. 

Ditto, third ditto, ,, 1733. 

Ditto, fourth ditto, ,, 1753. 

Ditto, fifth ditto, by J. Monk, 18mo. 1766. 

Tin. Si in, mi. 01 Recreation, or Gentleman's Tutor in various exercises, one 
(it whirli is Hinging, 1684. 

<i \vi- <\\ii\\\oi,o<;[ a, by Jones, Reeves, and Blackmorc, 12mo. 1788. Re- 
printed in 1796 and L800? 

Tin I.'im.i ft'a 'I'im i < : ii in . by S. Beanfby, 12mo. 1804. 

Tin. <\.Mi\Mii.oiiiA, or Universal Instructor in the Art of Ringing, by Wm. 
Bbipway, 12mo. 1816. ok Cami'anoi.ouia, by 11. Hubbard, 12mo. 1845, 1854. 


82 On Church Bells. 

The Bell: its origin, history, and uses, by Rev. A. Gatty, 12mo. 1847. 

Ditto, enlarged. 1848. 

Blunt's Use and Abuse of Church Bells, 8vo. 1846. 

Ellacombe's Practical Remarks on Belfries and Ringers, 8vo. 1850. 

,, Paper on Bells, with Illustrations, in the Report of Bristol 

Architectural Society. 1850. 
Croome's Few Words on Bells and Bell Ringing, 8vo. 1851. 
Woolf's Address on the Science of Campanology. Tract. 1851. 
Plain Hints to Bell Ringers. No. 47, of Parochial Tracts. 1852. 
The Art of Change Ringing, by B. Thackrah, 12mo. 1852. 
Quarterly Review : Art. Church Bells. Sept., 1854. 

To these may be added, as single poetical productions, 

The Legend of the Limerick Bell Founder, published in the Dublin 

University Magazine. Sept., 1847. 
The Bell, by Schiller. 

There is a curious collection of MSS. on the subject, by the late 
Mr. Osborn, among the Additional MSS., Nos. 19, 368, and 19, 373. 

Hungerford Chapels in Salisbury Cathedral. 83 

<dto tjje Stttrgrrfflrt Cjjaprls in lalialranj 


By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 

It is proposed in this paper to give some account of two Chantry- 
Chapels, founded by the Hungerford family in Salisbury Cathedral. 
One of these, the earliest, still remains; but the second has been 
long since entirely removed. Therefore in referring to the first, 
you will have your own acquaintance with the Cathedral to assist 
you. The description of the second you will be so good as to take 
upon trust. 

A few words, by way of preface, upon Chantries in general. 
A Chantry was an endowment or perpetual stipend settled upon 
one or more priests to say daily mass for the souls of a deceased 
Founder and his friends. The name is also applied to a particular 
altar, or more frequently to a little chapel, annexed to a Church. 
The main use and intent of them was for prayers for souls departed, 
on a supposition of Purgatory, and of being released therefrom by 
masses satisfactory. The anniversary day of the Founder's death 
was called his Obit. 

Fuller, the Church Historian (a Prebendary of Sarum), has some 
quaint remarks upon Chantries, and their suppression at the end 
of the reign of Henry VIII. He says that 

"A Chantry was what we call in grammar an adjective, unable 
to stand of itself, and was therefore united for better support to 
some Parochial, Collegiate, or Cathedral Church. 

"Henry VIII. made three meals, or if you will, one meal of 
three courses, on Abbey lands : besides what Cardinal Wolsey, the 
King's taster herein, had eaten beforehand, when assuming smaller 

M 2 

84 Hunger ford Chapels in Salisbury Cathedral. 

Monasteries to endow his Colleges." Henry's three courses were — 

1. The smaller Monasteries under £200 a year, seized a.d. 1535. 

2. The greater Monasteries, a.d. 1538. 3. Colleges, Chantries, and 
Free Chapels, which were granted to him by Parliament, a.d. 1545. 
"The first of these (the smaller houses) were most in number: the 
second, richest in revenue : the third, Chantries, &c, in one respect 
better than both the former, viz., that the former being spent and 
consumed, these alone were left to supply his appetite. 

" The stipends of the Chantry priests varied in proportion to the 
piety and property of the Founder, from 40 marks for 2000 masses, 
to fourpence for one mass. They were not allowed to receive more 
than seven marks per annum, or three marks with their board. 

" Founders of Chantries generally preferred priests not beneficed, 
as best at leisure constantly to attend the same. But their dead 
founders did not so engross the devotion of those priests but that, 
by general and special obits for other men, procession-pence and 
other perquisites, they much bettered their maintenance. 

" Some deductions were made by the will of the Founders, to 
uses merely charitable and no whit superstitious, out of the surplus 
of the Chantry lands, as to the relief of poor people, and main- 
taining of scholars at the Universities. But this did not save them 
from confiscation: for as the stork in the fable that was found 
amongst the cranes destroying the husbandman's corn, in vain 
pleaded his own piety to his parents, and was killed, for company- 
sake, with those birds amongst whom he was caught : so it is more 
than suspicious that these pious uses were utterly extinguished at 
the suppression of Abbeys; to teach men's charities hereafter to 
beware of too familiar a converse with superstition. Yast was the 
wealth accruing to the Crown by the dissolution of Chantries. 
"Many a little," saith the proverb, "make a mickle." The founda- 
tions, though small in revenue, yet being many in number, amounted 
up to a great bank. There was not a Cathedral or Collegiate 
Church in England, but some Chantries were founded therein, as 
in many parochial Churches. These may easily be recognized in 
country Churches, as often projecting from the old building, from 
which they differ in style, being neater and newer. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 85 

" How much the yearly revenue of all these Chantries and other 
Chapels amounted to the King knew as little as we do; indeed, 
some of his officers did, but would not know, as wilfully concealing 
their knowledge herein. Yea, some of these Chantries may be 
said in a double sense to have been suppressed, as being not only 
put down, but also concealed, never coming into the Exchequer, 
being silently pocketed by private (but potent) persons. True it 
is the courtiers were more rapacious to catch, and voracious to 
swallow these Chantries than Abbey lands ; for, at the first, many 
were scrupulous in mind, or modest in manners, doubting the ac- 
ceptance of Abbey lands, though offered unto them, till profit and 
custom, two very able confessors, had, by degrees, satisfied their 
consciences, and absolved them from any fault therein. Now, all 
scruple removed, Chantry land went down without any regret. 
Yea, such as mannerly expected till the King carved for them out 
of Abbey lands, scrambled for themselves out of Chantry revenues, 
as knowing this was the last dish of the last course, and, after 
Chantries, as after cheese, nothing to be expected. The Act of 
Parliament, for dissolving Chantries was passed in the first year 
Edward VI." 

So far Fuller. 1 

Most of these Chapels were parted off from the Church by open 
screens of wood or stone. Some were mere spaces within the 
Church enclosed within rails, and enclosing monumental tombs, 
with effigies of the founders and other scubptured decorations, with 
an altar at the east end, raised on a step, and having a piscina and 
an ambry or closet on the south side. Henry VII. 's Chapel in 
Westminster Abbey is the grandest specimen existing of a Chantry 
Cbapfl, for such it may be regarded, having been built expressly 
to contain his sepulchral tomb, with an altar, and endowed for 
priests to offer up prayers. Directions for this are given in his 
will. Noblemen and lords of manors often founded and endowed 
Chantries al the end of the aisles of Parish Churches, and appro- 
priated them for the reception of family tombs, heraldic insignia, 

1 ChuHth History. B. vi., Sec. v. ii. 

86 Hungerford Chapels in Salisbury Cathedral. 

and a portion of their armour. Some of these Chapels in our 
Cathedrals are amongst the most splendid works of art, belonging 
to their respective times, as may be seen at Winchester, Gloucester, 
Windsor, and elsewhere. In old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 
there were no less than forty-seven Chantries. 

In Salisbury Cathedral there appear to have been, at the Refor- 
mation, several of these endowed Chantries or Chantry Chapels — 
viz., those of John Waltham, Bishop of Sarum, who died 1395; 
Edmund Audley, Bishop, who died 1524; Richard Beauchamp, 
Bishop, 1482 ; Giles Bridport, Bishop, 1262 ; Gilbert Keymer, or 
Kynier, Dean, 1463 ; Henry Blundesdon, 1335 ; Roger Cloun, about 
1390; Andrew Hulse; Walter, Lord Hungerford, 1449; and 
Robert, Lord Hungerford, his son, 1459. 

Before proceeding to describe the two Hungerford Chapels I 
must first say a few words about that celebrated Wiltshire family, 
of which there is almost as little left amongst us as there is of one 
of their Chapels; especially (as most suitable on this occasion) 
about their connexion with the City of Salisbury. 

They appeared in this county for the first time as an acknowleged 
family of importance about 1300. I find a priest of Sarum of the 
name a little earlier. They probably derived their family name 
from the town of Hungerford, in which neighbourhood their earliest 
property appears to have been situated. The first of any eminence 
was a Sir Robert, who died in 1352. He was representative for 
the county in Parliament, and a Justice in Eyre. He was owner 
of property in " Novel- street, in New Sarum." He had a brother, 
Walter, Bailiff of Salisbury, 1333. 

Sir Thomas, son of Walter, who died in the reign of Richard II., 
was steward to John of Gaunt, and sometime, but for a very short 
time, Speaker of the Commons in Parliament. He purchased the 
estates at Heytesbury and Farley Castle. He is described first as 
a "citizen and merchant of New Sarum" in 1357, though in what 
sort of wares he dealt I cannot say — probably in wheat and wool — 
for in the possession of broad acres on and under the Wiltshire 
downs, where those commodities are apt to grow, the Hungerfords 
were certainly no wise deficient. It is a common 'saying, not yet, 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 87 

I believe, quite extinct, that they could ride on their own land 
all the way from Farley Castle to Salisbury, a good thirty miles. 
That this saying is literally correct I cannot exactly admit, because 
in that line of country they certainly would have encountered in 
their ride some large properties with which they never had any- 
thing to do, as, for example, the territory of the Lady Abbesses of 
"Wilton. Still, in one sense, the saying is so far true, that during 
the period of their existence in the county, (about three hundred 
years), there really are very few parishes between those two points 
with which they had not, at some period or other, some connexion ; 
and it is also the case, that in their best days, they actually were 
owners of a very considerable portion of that tract of country. 
Indeed the same may be said of many other parts of Wiltshire. 
The number of places with which their name is associated, either 
by ownership to a greater or less extent, or by some memorial or 
other, is very extraordinary, and almost sufficient to fill a map of 
of itself. 

In the city of Salisbury they do not appear to have remained 
long or to have possessed much, and, with the exception of the 
" Xovel-street" tenements already mentioned, I have not met with 
much notice of them here. Their coat of arms on the ceiling of 
an aisle in St. Thomas's Church implies a benefaction to that part 
of the building. The shield of some younger member of the 
family is (or lately was) on a window in the Cathedral library. 
Sir Thomas, just spoken of above, was in a.d. 1370, Special Attorney 
for the See of Sarum when its property was held for a little while 
by the Crown. 

The great man of the family was son of Sir Thomas the Speaker, 
viz., Walter, Lord Hungerford and Heytesbury, Lord High Treasurer 
of England in the reign of Henry VI. He had been a supporter 
of Henry IV. upon his seizure of the throne, and under that pa- 
tronage passed through many public situations, civil and military, 
and made a vast addition to the property of his family. He served 
at Agincourt under Henry V., and got a good share of prize-money : 
amongst other things a grant of the Barony of Hornet, in Nor- 
mandy, which he held under the Crown, by the somewhat singular 

88 Hungerford Chapels in Salisbury Cathedral. 

service of rendering every year at the Castle of Rouen, one lance 
with a fox's hrush hanging to it. " Which pleasant tenure," says 
Camden, " I have thought not amiss to insert here amongst more 
serious matters." The history of it is, that this was one of the 
badges of the house of Lancaster ; an emblem in which certain his- 
torical critics have recognized some allusion to the wiliness of King 
Henry IV. 's character, who is said to have acted now and then 
upon the advice of a much more ancient public man, Lysander, the 
Spartan General — " When the lion's skin is too short, piece it out 
with the fox's tail" — or as the adage has been versified by Prior; 

" The Lion's skin too short, you know 
(As Plutarch's morals finely show) 
Was lengthened by the Fox's tail, 
And Art supplies where strength may fail." 

Lord Hungerford married a wealthy heiress, and became owner 
of great property of the Peverells of Devonshire. He was also a 
Knight of the Garter, Constable of Windsor Castle, Captain of 
Cherbourg in France, Lord Steward of the Household, and one of 
the Executors of King Henry V.'s will. He rebuilt churches in 
Wiltshire and Somerset, contributed liberally to various religious 
houses, and founded Chantries, as at Chippenham, Farley Castle, and 
Salisbury Cathedral, where, by directions left in his last will, he 
was buried in a Chantry Chapel built by himself, which then stood 
under the second arch of the nave on the north side, but now 
stands in the choir near the bishop's throne : known as 


By a deed, dated 1st June, a.d. 1429, twenty years before his 
death, it appears that Lord Hungerford had license from Simon 
Sydenham, Dean, and the Chapter of Salisbury, to enclose, at his 
own expense, " between the First Arch (i.e. of the nave) " to the 
Arch where the Altar of Early Mass is celebrated, all that space 
lying between the two columns, in length 20^ feet, and in breadth 
8 feet and one inch. Of which enclosure the outside of the stone 
and grating is not to exceed the aforesaid admeasurement." And 
to erect there an Altar in honour of the B. V. Mary, as well as to 
make a place for his own burial. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 89 

The Chaplains were to dress like the Yicars, and to say mass 
every day before seven o'clock in the morning, and again at nine 
in the evening. A regular service was also appointed for each 
day in the week. An Obit every 3rd December, in honour of the 
Founder's Father. A house was assigned them in the Close. 
Lord Hungerford gave to the Dean and Chapter an acre of land, 
and the Advowson of St. Sampson's at Cricklade, with the Re- 
version of a Manor called Abyndon's Court, at that place, out of 
which they were to pay the Chaplain's stipends, and other charges, 
and 40s. a year for the repair of the spire of the Cathedral, the 
safety of which was at one time considered doubtful. 

There is still upon the floor of the Cathedral, under the arch in 
the Nave, where the Iron Chapel originally stood, a low broad 
monument of Purbeck marble, on which are the brassless effigies of the 
Founder and his first wife, Katharine Peverell; with many sockets 
of their favourite device, the sickle, and of other arms, all now 
destroyed. Their remains were removed with the Chapel, (as 
appears from an inscription on a brass plate sunk into the floor on 
the original site) by Jacob, Earl Radnor, in 1779 ; with permission 
of the authorities. 

The Ironwork of the Chapel is now in fact the only original portion 
left, for at the time of the removal the stone basement was renewed : 
and the old armorial embellishments (or what remained of them), 
relating to family connexions before and about the period of the 
Founder, were obliterated. 

The peculiarity of the material, and the general appearance of 
this Chapel have obtained for it the popular name of " The Cage." 
Ite dimensions correspond exactly with those described in the deed 
of a.d. 1429, mentioned above. Each side is constructed of fifty- 
eight, and each end of fifteen, upright bars of iron an inch and 
a half square. The whole is strengthened by two horizontal rails, 
and was formerly painted in blue, gold, and green. The ironwork 
rises upon a stone basement (a modern restoration) divided into 
three panels or compartments. In each of these, on the north 
side, is a coat of arms within Garters: viz., 1. In the centre panel, 


90 Hungerford Chapels in Salisbury Cathedral. 

the arms of Lord Hungerford, the Founder, quartering Heytesbury 
and Hussey: with knots of sickles in the spandrils. 2. in the 
panel nearer east, Hungerford impaling Peverell (the first wife) : 
and 3. in the panel nearer west, Hungerford impaling Berkeley 
(the second wife). In the spandrils of 2 and 3, single sickles. 

The Iron Chapel is in very good preservation, owing to the 
interference of the late Lord Radnor, who considered himself 
sufficiently descended from the Hungerfords to be at much pains 
and expense to restore it. In a private journal of the year 1784, 
written by a Wiltshire gentleman, it is said that his Lordship was 
two years in settling the heraldic ornaments now painted upon it. 
On the ceiling in its original state were painted Latin sentences, 
and angels bearing scrolls inscribed with texts of scripture. The 
present design explains by thirty-two shields elegantly disposed 
on twisted cords, the line of descent of both Jacob Lord Radnor 
and his Countess from the Founder. An engraving of this is 
given, with several other large illustrations of both these Chapels, 
in Gough's " Sepulchral Monuments," vol. ii., plate lvi. On the 
ornament above the cornice outside are thirty-six shields, denoting 
the alliances made by the Hungerford family. The shields 
within the choir represent matches made by the Hungerfords with 
females of other families. Those without the choir, matches made 
by other families with females of the Hungerford family. These 
embellishments were arranged and executed by Joseph Edmondson, 
Mowbray Herald, and they form a very beautiful and valuable 
illustration of the genealogy of the Hungerfords. But the shields 
are not placed in chronological order, and they also refer, for the 
most part, to the family history from the Founder downwards ; 
those which were originally painted having been almost entirely 
omitted in the restoration. 

There is another brassless effigy near the second arch of the 
Nave, which is believed to be either that of the Founder's eldest 
son, Walter, who was taken prisoner in the French wars, and died 
at Provence, but who, Leland says, was buried at Salisbury ; or the 
Founder's grandson, Lord Mobiles. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 91 



The other Chapel belonging to this Family, was outside the 
Cathedral, and was founded by the order, and in memory of Robert, 
second Baron Hungerford, son of the High Treasurer. This noble- 
man also served in the French wars, and was taken prisoner at the 
battle of Pataye, when the English under Talbot and Sir John 
Fastolf were panic struck by the superstition belonging to the name 
of Joan of Arc. (This was in 1429, and, by an odd coincidence, 
on the 18th of June). He lived, however, to return home, and to 
marry one of the wealthiest heiresses of the day, Margaret Lady 
Botreaux, by whom he obtained a vast quantity of manors in 
Cornwall, Somerset, and elsewhere. He died in 1459. 

His son (also Robert) married another great heiress, Eleanor 
Lady Molines, and was called, jure uxoris, Lord Molines. He took a 
very active part on the Lancastrian side in the wars of the Roses, 
and was beheaded at Hexham, in Northumberland, in 1463. Lord 
Molines' only son, Sir Thomas Hungerford, Knight, was tried at 
Salisbury for High Treason, on a charge of attempting to restore 
Henry VI. to the throne, for which he was condemned and beheaded 
at Bemerton gallows in 1469. The estates were forfeited, but by 
the arrangement and prudence of Lady Hungerford and Botreaux, 
who survived the temporary wreck of the family, all was afterwards 

There are several documents preserved, which contain a rather 
curious account of this lady's efforts to preserve the fortune of her 
house. In one of them, which she calls "a writing annexed" to her 
will, dated 1476, she details all the expense she had incurred and 
the \arious personal hardships and losses she had undergone. 
Amongst these, she mentions the circumstance of her having been 
herself in arrest during the late troublous times. Her son and 
grandson haying laid down their heads on the block, in their efforts 
to deprive Edward IV. of the throne, it is not improbable that she 
became an object of suspicion as an abettor, and that at any rate 

N 2 

92 Hungerford Ghapeh in Salisbury Cathedral. 

it was thought right to place her under observation. Lady Mar- 
garet does not state the period of her life at which this happened; 
but it was most likely after her grandson's execution. She was 
placed in custody of the Sheriff of Wilts : all her lands, goods, 
and chattels taken into the king's hands, and she herself reduced 
to live upon the charity of her friends. It cost her £400 to acquit 
herself of this difficulty. Another and a much heavier one also 
befel her, but owing to what cause she does not specify. She was, 
by the king's commandment, placed by the Chancellor in Amesbury 
Abbey, as a safe place of durance for an elderly lady, to whom the 
gallant king would wish to be as gentle and courteous as " political 
circumstances" would admit. Here, however, a disaster of a novel 
sort awaited the poor dame. A fire broke out in her apartments 
and destroyed all her moveable goods — beds of cloth of gold, beds 
of arras of silk, hangings of arras for halls and chambers, plate, 
money, and other " stuff." There were no insurance companies in 
those days ; or, if there were, Lady Margaret's arras and cloth of 
gold were not insured : and her losses by this " fortune," as she 
calls it, or rather mis-fortune, " of fyre," stood her in the round 
sum of "£1000, and more." Nor did the "fortune" end here. 
Her lodgings, newly covered with lead, were burnt and pulled 
down ; and, behold, a bill from the Amesbury plumber and glazier 
to the amount of £200. 

At another time (prior probably to her son's execution), 6he 
had been commanded by the king to take charge of an important 
heiress, the young Duchess of Norfolk. 

Edward, flattered with the expectation of uniting his eldest 
daughter to the Dauphin of France, amused himself with making 
contracts for the rest of his children. He entered into a treaty 
with Scotland for the marriage of Cecily, his second daughter, 
with the son and heir of James ; negotiated with Bretagne for the 
hand of Anne, (afterwards the Queen of Charles VIII.,) for the 
Prince of Wales, and caused the nuptials or the betrothment to be 
celebrated between the young Duke of York and the Lady Anne, 
heiress of the Duke of Norfolk. The parties were both very young, 
and neither ever reached maturity. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 93 

Lady Margaret being aged and the Duchess a mere child, the 
charge was one that rilled her with " grete drede and hevynesse," 
and she purchased exemption from it by paying £200 for permission 
to remain at Sion Monastery. 

There is no doubt that this poor lady was thoroughly aweary of 
the troubles and losses sustained by her house ; and that she sought 
every opportunity and spared no expense to conciliate King Ed- 
ward IV. To please him, or, as she expresses it, to " eschew his 
high displeasure," she allowed to one Sir Thomas Burgh for his life 
700 marks per annum out of her property, and for the life of his 
wife 100 more ; also to Lord Dynham, £100 a year. 

During the latter part of her life she lived at Heytesbury, 
Farley Castle having been for the time granted by the Crown to 
the Duke of Gloucester. 


The Chapel which Lady Hungerford and Botreaux caused to be 
built, in memory of her husband, and as a burial place for both of 
them, was not finished before her death in 1477; as by her will 
she leaves sufficient funds for the completion of the work. She 
had endowed it with the manor of Imber and other lands, and had 
given a very large collection of ornaments and furniture to the 
value of £250, of which a curious inventory is preserved. These 
consisted of altar-cloths of white damask, white velvet, red velvet, 
blue damask, crimson sarcenet, purple, blue, and black sarcenet, 
black damask, red and green baudekin, all embroidered with texts, 
coats of arms, letters of green and gold, images, and devices. Also 
mass-books, antiphoners, ordinals secundum usum Sarum, and 
many other rich and curious presents. 

The Chapel adjoined the north side of the Lady Chapel of the 
Cathedral, and the eastern end of it was, in workmen's language, 
flush with the east end of the Lady Chapel. It had one large east 
window of five lights, and on the north side three, each of three 
lights, all of perpendicular architecture, and therefore of style 
quite different from the body of the Cathedral. The outside was 
adorned with shields and devices relating to the family. In some 

94 Hungerford Chapels in Salisbury Cathedral. 

of the old views of the Cathedral, as Collins's and Hollar's, it is 
introduced. There is a large view of the interior in Gough's 
"Sepulchral Monuments," and a small one, reduced from Gough's, 
in Hall's " Picturesque Memorials of Salisbury." This Chapel was so 
strictly adjective to the substantive Cathedral that the north wall 
of the present Lady Chapel was in fact common to the two buildings. 
In this wall there was a door for communication with the Cathe- 
dral; and, near the door, a large opening in form of an arch, 
under which lay the monument of Lord Hungerford covered by 
an ornamental canopy ; so that any person standing in the Lady 
Chapel, at the monument, could see into the Hungerford Chapel. 
In the Chapel, between the monument and the door-way, was 
painted against the wall, a large picture commonly known by the 
name of " Death and the Galant," of which an engraving (by 
Langley) was first published by Lyons, of Salisbury, 1748 : and 
there is a very good fac-simile of it in Mr. Duke's book called 
"The Halle of John Halle." The picture represents Death in a 
shroud, holding a colloquy with a young dandy dressed in the high 
fashion of the reign of Henry IV. — a short doublet, cord and bow 
round his waist, cap and feather, shoes with long pointed toes, a 
dagger or anelace, hosen or tight pantaloons, a display of rings on 
the left hand, and in the right a cane or stick: on his breast a 
cross, or Christopher. Mr. Duke, in the illustration of the dress 
of John Halle, has enlarged at great length upon all these articles 
of costume. 

The conversation between the figure of Death and this young 
Beau was carried on in verse over a coffin on the ground between 
them; and it is of course intended to convey a caution against 
allowing the vanities of life to lead us to forget the end of it. 
Some of the words are obsolete; but with slight alteration the 
general tenor of the lines is this. The Beau says — 
"Alas, Death, alas! a blissful thing you were 
If you would spare us in our lustiness, 
And come to wretches that be of heavy cheer 
When they thee ask to lighten their distress. 
But out, alas! thine own self-willedness 
Harshly refuses them that weep and wail 
To close their eyes that after thee do call." 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 95 

To which Death replies — 

"Graceless Gallant! in all thy ease and pride 
Kemeniber this : that thou shalt one day die ; 
Death shall from thy body thy soul divide — 
Thou mayest him escape not, certainly. 
To the dead bodies [here] cast down thine eye; 
Behold them well : consider too, and see, 
For such as they are, such shalt thou too be." 

In the year 1644, this Chapel was visited by a Capt. Symonds, 
an officer in the Royalist army, who was an Archaeologist as well 
as a soldier ; and used to amuse himself after his day's march, by 
going into the Churches of the town where he happened to be 
quartered, and noting down memoranda of monuments, heraldry, &c. 
The little pocket book in which he did this, happens to be preserved 
in the British Museum, and in it he entered, roughly indeed, but 
still with the roughness of a practised hand, all the arms that were 
at that time to be seen in this Chapel, with copies of the inscriptions. 
In the middle of the Chapel at the time of his visit there was an 
altar tomb, with the coats of Hungerford on it ; the inscription and 
and brass shield had been stolen. This was the tomb of Lady 
Margaret the Founder's widow. It had eight shields in quarterfoil, 
and the slab was a good imitation of a pall, with a cross upon it. Over 
the door was the picture of a man in Parliament robes (Gough 
says a doctor's gown), without any name; under him, this writing: 
"Ye that purport in this Chapel to pray, call to mind the soule of 
the Noble Knight Robert Lord Hungerford, who lived righteously ; 
and was friend to the blessed Lady Mother and Christ Jesu, and 
to this noble Church; which ordered this Chapel to be founded per- 
petually, on whose soul Jesu have mercy." Another inscription 
recorded that "the Chapel was consecrated in honour of our Lord 
Jesus < Jurist, and the Blessed Virgin Mary, by the Bishop of Sarum." 
This from the date (about 1480), would be Bishop Richard Beau- 
chain]), whose arms were painted at the east end. There was also 
on the weel wall a painting of St. Christopher, carrying our Saviour 

B child on hi* shoulder: and one of the Annunciation, "both," 
Capt. Symonds, "very well done"; also a second, of Death 
and a Qallant, somewhat like the one above described. 

96 Hungerford Chapels in Salisbury Cathedral. 

When this Chapel was originally built, in order to make the 
interior uniform, one of the buttresses against the outside of the 
north wall of the Lady Chapel was removed. This operation, and 
the opening of a large space in that wall to admit Lord Hunger- 
ford's monument, was reported by Mr. Price to be dangerous to the 
Lady Chapel. However, things remained as they were for thirty- 
six years after Mr. Price's report. By the year 1789 the Hungerford 
Chapel, which in its original state must have been very beautiful, 
had fallen into neglect and dilapidation. The Cathedral authorities 
repaired it from time to time, but it had survived the family whose 
name it bore. The wreck of the eldest line of the Hungerford 
family took place in Charles II. 's reign, and the very name had 
almost become extinct in England by the year 1750, or thereabouts. 
No one seemed to take further interest in maintaining it, and it had 
actually been turned by one of the vergers to the base uses of a 
cellar or lumber room. In 1789, when great alterations were made 
in the Cathedral, and the Lady Chapel was thrown open to the 
choir, in order to make that improvement complete, sentence of 
entire demolition was passed both upon the Hungerford Chapel, 
on the north side, and on a corresponding one, which, from the 
engravings of it, seems to have been exquisitely beautiful, the 
Beauchamp Chapel on the south side. Mr. Wyatt urged as an 
argument for removing them, the want of uniformity between these 
Chapels and the rest of the Cathedral, and the danger which 
threatened the walls of the Church, by the removal of buttresses 
and columns. The two Chapels were accordingly taken bodily 
away, and the monuments, or what little remained of them, ordered 
to be removed into the Cathedral. 

Some portions of the ornamented sculpture of the Chapel have 
been, I believe, introduced into the stone work at the east end of 
the Lady Chapel. The monument of Lady Hungerford, which 
stood in the centre, seems to have disappeared altogether ; Death 
and the Gallant, and the Doctor in his Parliament Robes, were of 
course scraped off the wall : and the only sepulchral memorial 
now to be seen of the perpetual foundation of poor Lady Hunger- 
ford and Botreaux, is part of the monument of her husband. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 97 

This monument (as already mentioned) originally stood under 
a stone canopy, richly ornamented, within an arch that had been 
made in the Lady Chapel north wall. On the ceiling of the canopy 
were the arms of Hungerford, Peverell, and Botreaux, with the 
device of three sickles intertwined, and the letters I. H. S., and 
two latin lines over it. The whole monument appears to have been 
for some time hidden from view, by high wooden seats in the 
Lady Chapel, and came to light upon removing them. Of the 
stone canopy itself nothing is now preserved, except such portions 
as may have been worked up in the stone wainscoting round the 
Lady Chapel. The altar- tomb itself is made of Sussex marble, on 
which Lies the full length effigy of Lord Hungerford, in alabaster. 
It has been engraved in Stothard's work on Monumental Effigies. 
The figure has been roughly handled and the colour is nearly all 
gone. The armour is of peculiar pattern, approaching the splendid 
style which was carried to perfection in the reign of Richard III. 
The elbow and shoulder pieces very large, the girdle jewelled. 
Captain Symonds's description of the figure is that "it was of a 
fashion different from more ancient — like a lobster." It is described 
in Meyrick's book, on 'Armoury,' in rather more scientific terms. 

The deeds relating to the foundation of this outside Chapel, its 
endowment, and the regulations for the services, are all preserved 
in a collection of documents of this family, to which I have had 
access. Amongst the statutes to be observed by the chaplains were 
these; that they were not to frequent taverns at unseasonable hours; 
not to keep hawks nor hounds ; nor to be addicted to gambling, 
card playing, or ball playing; nor to be of insufferably quarrelsome 
temper ! They had a house within the Close, known by the name 
of " The House of Lord Hungerford's Chantry Priests." In the 
time of Henry VIII. the Chapel was found to possess 26oz. of 
plate. Each of the Chaplains had £8 a-year paid by the Dean 
and Chapter. 

The Lady Hungerford who built the Chapel was a donor to the 
Cathedral Plate Oheal of four pair of censers, with leopard's heads, 
" windows, pinnacles, and chains." She was also the Foundress of 
tin- Almshouse at Hey tesbury. 

98 Hungerford Chapels in Salisbury Cathedral. 

This, then, is a summary of what I have been able to collect 
relating to this Chapel. The removal of it, as indeed, many other 
alterations then also made in the Cathedral, gave rise at the time 
to a very lively controversy, conducted in the journals and peri- 
odicals of the day by Mr. Carter, the architect, and others. Into 
this dispute it is now needless to enter. The Chapel is gone; and 
though it were on some account to be wished (hat it had not gone, 
but rather that it coidd have been maintained in decency, as a relic 
of a distinguished and now extinct Wiltshire family, still it is of 
no use to cry over spilled milk, and therefore instead of indulging 
in fruitless lamentation, I content myself with this endeavour 
to gather up the scattered notices of its appearance and history, 
for the benefit of the Wilts Archaeological Society. 

The following appear to have been the interments of the 
Hungerford Family at Salisbury, so far as is known : — 


1 — 1449. Walter Lord Hungerford and Heytesbury. Lord High 

Treasurer of England. 
2 — (1429?) Katherine Peverell, his first wife. 
3 — 1459. Robert, second Lord Hungerford and Botreaux. 

When the (outside) Chapel was taken away in 1789, the body of this noble- 
man was discovered about eighteen inches above the level of the floor, in a 
wooden coffin much decayed. It measured five feet five inches from head to 
heel, and had been wrapped in a cloth, a very small part of which was to be 
seen with the cords with which it was tied. The head was reclined to the left 
shoulder, the hands laid across the middle of the body, and the legs straight. 
The coffin was very dry, and had not the least smell, and the skeleton very 
entire, except the right foot, and some of the flesh remained under the upper 
ribs. The Bishop and Dean were present (Aug. 24), and ordered it to be placed 
in a box with care, that it might be removed with all possible decency, as soon 
as a proper place was found, and to be kept in the meantime near the stone 
figure. (Gough's Sep. Mon.) 

4 — 1477. Margaret Lady Hungerford and Botreaux, his widow. 

In opening the grave of this lady, under her tomb in the middle of the (out- 
side) Chapel, there was discovered a casing of stone filled in with black mould 
in which part of her skull and a rib were seen. (Gough.) 

5 — 1463. Robert, third Lord Hungerford and Molines (?) 

He was beheaded at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, after the battle of Hexham. It 
is said by Dugdale that his body was conveyed to Salisbury for burial, and 
Gough assigns to him one of the brassless effigies on the floor. But this may 
have referred to the next member of the family. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 99 


6 — (Before 1429 ?) Walter Hungerford, Knt., eldest son of the 
Lord High Treasurer. 
Buried, according to Leland, in the North aisle. 
7 — 1468-9. Thomas Hungerford, Knt., of Rowdon, near Chip- 
penham ; eldest son of Lord Molines. 
Beheaded at Salisbury. 

At a later period, some of a younger branch : — 
8 — 1684-5. Sir Giles Hungerford, of Coulston, near West Laving- 
Buried in North aisk-. 
9 — 1711. Margaret his second wife, daughter of Sir Thomas 

10 — 1611. Patience, daughter of Henry Hungerford, Gent. 

There were also a few burials of the family at St. Martin's 

The curious inventory of plate and furniture provided by Lady 
Hungerford for her chapel (alluded to above, p. 93), is printed in 
Dugdale'8 Baronage, vol. ii., p. 207. 

The following names of Cantarists of the Iron Chapel have 
been met with : — 


1429— Peter Fadir , 

rpi , oi , Presented by the Founder. 

1432— Wm.Otley, p.m. Fadir „ Ditto. 

l"/}4— Richard Golde. 

Thomas Dawkins. 

Guitarists of the outside chapel: — 

1 17J — Jolm < loscombe \ 

mi p i Presented by the Foundress. 

1535 — John Trew „ by the Dean and Chapter. 

1637 — John Aprice, p.m. Trew ,, by the Bishop. 
1554 Thomas Boxe. 

Laurence Mann. 

Oapt. Symonds's description of the Anns, as painted on both 
chapels in lull, is in a small volume, Harl. MS. 989. 

" 2 

100 Family of Giffard of Boyton. 


tf jjt jFnmih) of iiffurt nf Jtaqton. 

By the Rev. Abthtjr Fane. 

In the preliminary address, which admirably introduced our 
Archaeological Society into this county, one head of useful inquiry 
and interesting information which the President specially alluded 
to was the biography of individuals and the history of the events 
in which they were engaged, or took an active part ; and Mr. Scrope 
took occasion to show how many parishes there were in this county 
in which Archaeology of things might be enlivened by Archaeology 
of persons, and that from stones and tombs, we might turn to the 
history of those who first founded or embellished our parish churches, 
and who now slumber the sleep of death, as to those bodies which 
once were valiant in war or wise in council. Having made a 
humble endeavour at the request of the committee to illustrate the 
Archaeology of a church by no means devoid of interest or origi- 
nality, I shall endeavour to draw together some information which 
may illustrate the history of a family once remarkable in the annals 
of ancient chivalry, and which has left traces of its wealth and 
power in this county, which seem to endure long after all genea- 
logical traces of the family have passed away and become extinct. 
I allude to the family of Giffard, which once held ample possessions 
in land and money, which was graced with earldoms and baronies, 
which no less in ecclesiastical than in civil dignitaries was eminent, 
but which has left behind the shadow only of a name in the title 
affixed to their former possessions — as Ashton Giffard, Fonthill 
Giffard, Broughton Giffard, and the like. 

Edward of Salisbury, by the Domesday Record, seems to have 
been the owner of vast estates in this county. One parish included 

By the Rev. Arthur Fane. 101 

in the property of the Earldom of Salisbury was Boyton, and we 
find at a very early period after the Conquest that this estate was 
8ubinfeuded to the Giffards, who were already tenants, in capite, 
of the adjoining parish of Sherrington. Elias Giffard, circa 1149, 
seems to have obtained a more complete possession of the parish, 
for we find that he granted for the soul's health of Bertha his wife, 
and his ancestors in general, to the Monastery of St. Peter, Glou- 
cester, the Church of St. Mary at Boyton, the Church of St. George 
at Orcheston, together with the tythes of the said parishes. This 
grant, which was made whilst Hamelin was Abbot of Gloucester, 
was confirmed by Walter Giffard, Earl of Buckingham, son of the 
above Elias; and the grant was amplified, as conveying the tythes 
of all things that good christians ought to pay. Helias Giffard, 
son of Walter, appears to have endeavoured to recover his ancestor's 
gifts as far as concerns Boyton ; for we find Abbot Thomas Carbonel, 
the successor of Hamelin, yielding possession of Boyton to Elias 
Giffard for peace sake. 

In the reign of Henry III., we find the Giffard family in great 
eminence and repute. 

Hugh Giffard was appointed Constable of the Tower of London, 
and in the warrant of appointment, 1235, he is described as " one 
of our household." The sons of this Hugh Giffard, by Sybilla de 
Cormeilles, were specially remarkable in this reign. One brother, 
Walter, was elevated to the See of Bath, 1264; and subsequently 
was advanced to the Archiepiscopal Throne of York, which he held 
until his death in 1279. Another brother, Godfrey, was advanced 
to the dignity of Bishop of Worcester, which See he held for no 
less than 33 years. His will alludes so fully to the chapel and 
altar furniture at Boyton, that we cannot doubt that this prelate's 
piety and munificence led to the more elaborate architecture, as 
well as the separate endowment of the Mortuary Chapel in the 
Chunh of Bojton, wherein reclines the martial form of another 
brother, Sir Alexander Giffard, who fought the battles of the Cross 
on the patched plains of Egypt, whilst his more peaceful brethren, 
in their glorious cathedrals, and in their distant dioceses, were 
carrying on the war of faith against the powers of darkness. 

102 Family of Qiffard of Boy ton. 

To this warrior we shall presently return, as his history is emi- 
nently striking, and will give us a full excuse to depart from the 
more prosaic depths of Archaeology. 

It would seem that Hugh Giffard, the father of the two Bishops 
and the brave Crusader, had an elder son, who must have died 
leaving a son, a minor, who afterwards became John Lord Giffard 
of Brimsfield, whose history is remarkable. He seems to have car- 
ried off, a willing prize, from her castle at Canford, in 1271, 
Matilda, the widow of the third Longespee. John Giffard, for this 
feudal rape of Helen, was summoned before the King, and met the 
charge of marrying the wealthy widow by the rejoinder that she 
was a willing spoil, and by paying the King 300 marks ; the charge 
was dropped on condition she made no further complaint. It would 
appear that the family of Giffard divided into two branches — that 
of Boyton and Brimsfield were re-united in the person of the son of 
this John Giffard, for we find that the whole estates of both branches 
were centred in John Giffard, surnamed Le Rych, who, joining in 
the rebellion of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, was taken prisoner at 
the battle of Boroughbridge, and was executed at Gloucester, his 
vast estates being all forfeited to the Crown, with the exception of 
a life interest in the Manor of Boyton, which was reserved to his 
mother, the Lady Margaret, at whose death the whole estates 
passed to the Crown. 

In the memoir of Bovton Church we have mentioned that there 
exists a peculiarly beautiful Mortuary Chapel of the transition 
period between Early English and Decorated. This Chapel we can 
hardly doubt from its peculiar style, as well as from collateral evi- 
dence, was founded by Bishop Godfrey, for the resting place of his 
brother, Sir Alexander the Crusader, and for the good of the souls 
of his ancestors. The Crusader's tomb was probably placed in its 
present situation by the Bishop ; the architectural decoration of the 
tomb would seem to mark the execution as rather earlier than some 
parts of the Chapel, as the tomb had been made and placed perhaps 
in the Church, before the side Chapel was finished possibly, in a 
wall niche, or even against the south wall. This view is confirmed 
by the singular fact that the tracery on the inner side of the tomb 

By the Rev. Arthur Fane. 103 

towards the Church, is of earlier date than the side now exposed to 
the Mortuary Chapel. But the person indicated by the effigy on 
the tomb cannot be doubtful. The form is that of a Crusader, in 
the chain armour and flat hehnet of the reign of Henry III. The 
triangular shield, the long sword, fitted for double-handed use, the 
rude spurs, the crossed legs, all show the soldier of the Cross, 
exactly clad as the knightly warriors of that particular reign were 
clad, whilst the armorial bearings on the shield mark him as 
once being a younger scion of the noble house of Giffard. 

Who he was and what he was, whose silent form in stone covers 
the ashes that are below, two contemporaneous histories declare. 
It is the effigy of Sir Alexander Giffard, who went to that Crusade 
which was headed by St. Louis of France, and which numbered 
amongst its most valiant champions and illustrious names, William 
Longespee, the second of that name, the grandson of King Henry II. 
and Fair Rosamond, the nephew of Richard Cceur de Lion, the 
cousin of King Henr}^ III. 

According to the strict laws of feudal tenancy, Sir Alexander 
Giffard left his native home at Boyton, and followed his Liege 
Lord, the gallant Longespee, to the war. The result of that Cru- 
sade was much like all the rest. The fiery valour of the Christian 
Chivalry at first carried all before it, then jealousies and divisions 
ensued. The final catastrophe to the English knights and their 
contingent, is fully described by Matthew Paris, and in a Minstrel's 
Poem, which exists to this day, in the Cottonian Collection of 
manuscripts, Julius A. v. fol. 76-6. This very curious rhythmical 
history has been translated in the Excerpta Historica, 1831. It 
can hardly be exceeded in quaint particularity and touching fide- 
lily, whilst the narrative gives a most brilliant picture of the calm 
courage, and yet chivalrous heroism of the English Knight of that 
day. No Napiers <n- Wellingtons can exceed the valourous Knight 
who, in the BCOrching plains of Egypt, in the year 1249, showed 
precisely tin- same martial rigour and determination which, under 
happier auspices, and with the appliances of modern skill in war, 
crumbled the walls of Acre, or overthrew the legions of France. 

In the earlj pari of February, 1250, St. Louis of France, invited 

104 Family of G-iffard of Boyton. 

by the treacherous Soldan of Egypt, determined to march upon 
Cairo. The town of Mansoura was in the way of the march of the 
Crusaders, and, without waiting for the main body of the army to 
come up, the fiery Compte d'Artois determined to attack the town. 
In vain did Longespee, and the Master of the Temple, and the 
other Chiefs dissuade the rash d'Artois from his mad undertaking. 
Accusing the other Generals of cowardice, he insisted upon an im- 
mediate advance — the town seemed deserted, they bad but to occupy 
rather than to attack. So far Matt. Paris. The lay of the minstrel 
tben takes up the tale : — 

"With pity and grief let the tale now he told 
Of Longspee the hardy, the warrior bold, 
"Who at Babylon shed his life's blood so free, 
As along with King Louis he led his armye. 
At a castle of Egypt, Mansoura by name, 
Which in Paynim renown shall be well known to fame, 
For there was King Louis and there was his train 
Bound fast in the Infidel's soul-goading chain." 

The accounts of both Matthew Paris and the Minstrel agree in 
what follows : — Stung by the reproaches of d'Artois, the gallant 
Longespee exclaimed, "Now proceed when you please, I will be 
before you as eager as you will, I will still be the foremost !" The 
Christian Knights rush forward — the gates of Mansoura are open — 
nothing hinders, they dash through the gates ; but no sooner were 
they thoroughly enclosed than the fearful stratagem of the Infidel 
Host comes to view — the enemy rise up on every side — the city is 
swarming with the Light Infantry of the Saracens. Arrows fly on 
every side — ponderous stones are rolled down from the battlements ; 
the Chroniclers declare that even poisoned arrows were amongst 
the deadly artillery let loose upon them — the gates are closed — 
they are hemmed into this fearful charnel house — the river prevents 
escape on the only open side of the fortress — d'Artois seems to have 
been early seized with a panic — he charges the opposing enemy — 
cuts his way through the ranks and, plunging into the river, is 

The English band of heroes remain — Sir Alexander Giffard is 
mentioned with Sir Robert de Vere, and other Knights as standing 

By the Rev. Arthur Fane. 105 

by Longespee — the Saracens again and again try to cut them 
down — Sir Robert de Yere is mentioned as setting his back to a 
wall and slaying 17 Saracens "before his soul went rejoicing to 
God" — Longespee fights on — Giffard is described as the trusty 
knight who was ever distinguished for his activity in arms — the 
good knights kept firmly together, each as close to the rest as he 
well could be. Around these five knights now gathered a great 
host of the infidels well provided with horses and arms, and the 
knights when they saw them were much dismayed — "Quant veint 
les chivalers mulct sunt esmaez." Sir Alexander Giffard then says 
to his Lord, "Sir, for the love of God, what is your counsel regard- 
ing this host of Saracens which now comes against us? shall we 
remain here, or fly for fear of them ?" The Earl then answered 
with a steadfast heart, "Here ought each of us to show his prowess; 
let us ride on to encounter these dogs ; for the love of Jesus Christ 
we will die here — for the love of Jesus Christ came we here to 
win by prowess our inheritance, the Bliss of Heaven." In the 
midst of the din and confusion and horror of this fearful butchery, 
the valiant Longespee addressed his faithful follower, Sir Alexander 
Giffard, and thus lays his commands as liege Lord upon him : — 

"If you can escape, you, who have the care of my goods, and are 
my knight, distribute my goods among my people in this manner : 
— First, give to the poor brethren of holy houses to sing for my 
soul, that it may forthwith be received into bliss ; and to the poor 
Knglish who have fought in the army, to the poor sick who are in 
greatest need, to the lepers and orphans, that they may all pray for 
my soul ; give for my soul my gold and my silver ; my stores and 
my anna give to my good followers, and bestow all my other goods 
so wisely, that with me you may attain to bliss with God." 

Tliere is something wonderfully striking and magnificent in this 
pari) J , as it were, in the midst of the din of war — the noble war- 
rior'-. thought of home — his deep piety — his valorous resolve there 
to die — and, on the other hand, Giffard's feudal dependence on his 
lord, thai marl*- him as it were extempore executor to Longespee, 
and, caused aim to obey even when the high spirit and calm resolve 
of the Crusader would have made him wish to die with his Lord, 


106 Family of Giffard of Boyton. 

amidst the Paynini victims their sharp swords were sending, as 
they in their wild piety deemed, an acceptable offering to God. 

Giffard instantly obeyed his lord's command, and dashing with 
his unwounded war-horse against the host of Saracens, he passed 
through, as Paris asserts, gra liter vulneratus — he swam the river, 
reached the coast, and returning to England, probably died at 
Boyton in early manhood. The effigy represents a warrior in full 
vigour of age and form — his sword grasped by the right hand, and 
the point resting in the mouth of an heraldic beast, which has 
given rise to a strange local tradition, to which we may hereafter 

It is remarkable also, that the effigy at Boyton exactly resembles 
in form, attitude, armour, and general appearance the effigy of the 
gallant Longespee the second, 1 which rests between two columns of 
that magnificent Cathedral which his father's pious munificence so 
much enriched, and wherein his noble father's bones already re- 

Time and space will not allow more than a glance at the closing 
scene of the fatal assault of Mansoura. After Giffard's escape, the 
gallant band of English Knights stood firmly together, disdaining 
to fly, and resolved to sell their lives dearly. The brave De Vere 
— Sir Richard Guise — were slain. Still Longespee fought on. The 
Saracen Emir offered him his life — his answer was fresh sweeps of 
his deadly sword. At last, a Saracen cut off his left foot ; he still 
fought on, propped up by the Templar, Richard of Ascalon — his 
horse was killed, his right hand was maimed — grasping his sword 
for a last effort in his left hand, he inflicted a deadly wound on the 
face of a Saracen leader, who, in falling, crippled his remaining 
hand. The gallant hero then fell forward, and the Saracens rush- 
ing on, literally hewed the body to pieces. The metrical chronicler 
concludes this touching narrative with the solemn words, which 
surely are not ill-placed — "Jesus hath their souls in Paradise." 

I trust my brother members will excuse the digression from the 
immediate family of Giffard ; the exceeding gallantry of the leader, 

i See Britton's Salisb. Cath. Hon., PI. 3, F. 4. 

By the Rev. Arthur Fane. 107 

who was wholly a Wiltshireman — the fidelity of the Giffard who 
proved himself true liegeman to his Lord — the fervent piety of 
the little band of heroes — all these strong points seem to invite the 
more peculiar notice I have taken of the Alexander Giffard, of 
whose effigy and tomb I am happy to present to our Association a 
very striking drawing by a most ingenious Archaeologist as well as 
excellent draftsman, the Rev. G. Stallard. 1 

The history of the last scions of the Giffard family was clouded 
with the dark storms of the turbulent age in which they lived. 
The John Lord Giffard of Brimsfield, who carried off in 1271 
Matilda Longespee, widow of the son of the Hero of Mansoura, 
appears to have had a son, Sir John Giffard of Brimsfield, whose 
widow, Margaret, resided at Boyton until her death. The eldest 
son of this marriage was John Giffard, surnamed le Rych, from his 
vast estates. 

This last of a most illustrious house joined in the rebellion of 
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and being taken prisoner with Lan- 
caster at the battle of Boroughbridge, he was conveyed to Gloucester 
and was there beheaded. His vast estates were forfeited to the 
crown — a life-interest, however, being retained by his widowed 
mother, the Lady Margaret, upon whose death this family became 
extinct, at least in direct and positive genealogy. 

J scarcely doubt that the last male Giffard was interred in 
the Church of Boyton, in the North Chapel. A very large slab of 
Purbeck marble was placed in the centre of this Chapel, which was 
evidently built for mortuary purposes : a very magnificent brass 
had once adorned the stone, and described do doubt who slept 
below. I had occasion to move this stone from its being 
wholly concealed by pews, and also from a sinking of the 
floor. Beneath the marble slab was a stone grave (not coffin), and 
in this lay a skeleton with the skull placed on the left side of the 
tkeleton, aa if on the interment this position had been originally 
ibliflhed. The remains had apparently never been moved. The 
■keleton lay in perfect order, except the strange position of the 

i See Vol. I, i>. 287. 


108 Family of Giffard of Boyton. 

head. Now, seeing that the widowed Margaret Giffard retained the 
Manor and Church of Boyton — that all Giffard' s other estates were 
confiscated — seeing that this Chapel was built in the middle period 
of decorated architecture — i.e., tempore Edward II. — seeing the 
magnificent slab — the signs of a fine brass — and no other family- 
having been of distinction sufficient to justify such marks of pre- 
eminence except the Giffards — can I doubt that the headless 
skeleton was the form of John Giffard le Rych ? whose body had 
probably been conveyed from Gloucester after execution, and 
interred in the church where his gallant ancestor Sir Alexander 
already slept, and where his widowed and bereaved mother the 
Lady Margaret slept at last. A curious memorial of John Giffard 
is in my possession, and is now in the Museum — it is the Baron's 
golden signet ring, which was found at Sherrington, where the 
castle of the Giffards once stood, and was found under a hearth- 
stone with several coins of the reign of Edward the Second. 

I must conclude. I trust my brother Archaeologists will accept 
this my hastily compiled memoir. Your Secretary will tell you 
how unwillingly I undertook a task that others would so much 
better have performed. I will hope another year there will be no 
possible crevice of our Archaeology to be filled by the overtasked 
and very humble Vicar of a large parish. 

Architecture and Mosaics of Wilton Church. 109 


irrtjitotott itttfr JEosra nf Wifan CJmrrf}. 

By James E. Nightingale, Esq. 

In an ordinary way there would be little to connect a body of 
Archaeologists with a newly-erected church, but in the present 
instance we have the type of a style of architecture seldom seen in 
the North of Europe, and scarcely at all in England, except in that 
modified form known as the Norman style, and which preceded the 
introduction of the pointed arch. 

Accustomed as we are to the different phases of Gothic archi- 
tecture — the offspring of the North — comparatively little is known 
of the Byzantine and Romanesque styles which are found in 
Southern EurojDe. Now as we have in Wilton Church a well- 
developed example of the latter style, differing so materially from 
our Northern Gothic — although both came originally from the same 
source — I think it will be no loss of time if we take advantage of 
this building in the way of illustration of early Christian archi- 
tecture, especially as it contains, besides ancient stained glass, some 
of the old Italian mosaics, specimens of which it would be difficult, 
if not impossible, to find elsewhere in this country. 

During the first three centuries of the Christian sera, churches 
can scarcely be said to have existed. The ordinary places of 
worship of the early Christians were confined to catacombs and 
other secret places. During this same period the architecture of 
the heathen Romans had gradually deteriorated; and this followed 
so regular a course that when the Emperor Constantine, in the 
year 328, embraced the Christian faith, Roman architecture was at 
its worst. 

An entirely m u order of Baored architecture now arose. The 
Christian ceremonies required large spaces for the assemblage of the 

110 Architecture and Mosaics of Wilton Church. 

congregation at certain periods. The heathen temple was simply 
the shrine of the image of the deity; the mass of worshippers 
assembled in front of the temples where sacrifices were offered upon 
the altars in the open air. 

But there was in use at Rome at that time another species of 
building whose design seemed better calculated for the exigencies 
of Christian worship, besides avoiding the form of the pagan 
temple. This was the Hall of Justice — the Basilica. If the 
buildings themselves were not actually used for Christian worship, 
their forms and general arrangement were so well adapted to the 
purpose that they were imitated with little change. 

These buildings were oblong, and divided by a double range of 
columns into a central avenue and two lateral aisles. At the ex- 
tremity was a transverse aisle or transept, containing the semi- 
circular recess, called the tribune or apsis, with a ceiling rounded 
off like the head of a niche. 

This part was raised a few steps above the rest of the interior ; 
in front stood an altar, and behind it sat the judge with his coun- 

If we divest Wilton Church of the campanile or bell- tower, we 
have, so to speak, an ancient basilica adapted to the purpose of 
Christian worship. The form of the central avenue allowed it to 
be easily converted into the nave or ship of St. Peter, the great 
characteristic of a Christian church ; one of the lateral aisles, as in 
the courts of justice, was set apart for the males, the other for the 

The raised apsis or tribune, which was peculiarly the seat of 
justice, became the presbytery or receptacle of the superior clergy. 
In its centre stood the throne of the Bishop, who might thence, 
like a true Episcopus, look down upon the congregation. Between 
the tribune and the body of the nave was the choir, surrounded by 
its cancelli or inclosures ; on either side of the choir arose the am- 
bones, the pulpits, from whence the Epistle and Gospel were respec- 
tively read. The elaborate pulpit in "Wilton Church may fairly 
represent one of these. In later times, when altars, no longer 
insulated, did not permit the bishops and clergy to be seen behind 

By James E. Nightingale, Esq. Ill 

them, the presbytery was removed from the apsis at its back to the 
choir in front. All the examples and fragments of these early 
ritual arrangements, which still exist in the venerable church of 
San Clemente at Rome and elsewhere, are of richly worked marble, 
very generally adorned with mosaics, partly of glass and partly of 
precious marbles. The basilica, thus modified and adapted to 
Christian worship, contained the germ of the Ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture of all Christendom. 

Another style of Christian architecture, however, arose almost 
simultaneously with the adoption of the Basilica at Rome. The 
Emperor Constantine having transferred the seat of empire to By- 
zantium, there immediately sprung into existence a new form, 
which to this day is prevalent in the East. 

The Eastern Christians seemed to have taken the models of their 
churches from the great domed halls of the public baths. Instead 
of the long nave and transverse presbytery of the Roman basilica, 
four naves or pillared avenues of equal length and breadth were 
disposed at right angles to each other, so as to form the figure of a 
cross ; a dome or cupola was raised in the centre, resting on four 
pier masses ; and in the more sumptuous Byzantine churches, 
smaller cupolas were reared at the extremities of the four limbs of 
the cross. 

Another peculiarity consisted in the squareness of their build- 
ings ; they did not delight in vistas ; the exteriors were imposing 
only from the numerous domes which formed the roofs, and the 
multitude of curves and semi-circular arches in every direction. 
The capitals and columns of earlier buildings were used oftentimes 
with incongruous effect ; and, where new capitals had to be re- 
red, no attempt was made to copy the classic examples. They 
became little more than square blocks, tapered down to the shaft, 
and decorated with foliage in low relief, or with a sort of basket- 
\\Mik, peculiar to t he style. 

The Mosque of Santa Sophia, at Constantinople, as rebuilt by 
Justinian, in the ( >th century, may be considered the model of By- 
zantine architecture. The church of San Vitale, at Ravenna, 
also lmilt by that Emperor, is interesting, as marking the first 

112 Architecture and Mosaics of Wilton Church. 

appearance of the Byzantine cupola in Italy ; to which may be added 
St. Mark's, at Venice, which was mostly built by Greek architects, 
during the 11th and 12th centuries. 

This style, under various names and modifications, has flourished 
to the present day wherever the Oriental church or Mohamed- 
anism exist. The Arabs adopted it from the first. The 
Kremlin of Moscow, the Alhambra of Granada, the Saracenic 
remains in Sicily, and the tombs of the Memlook kings near 
Cairo, all claim the same unmistakeable origin. These two 
new Christian styles, then, which had risen at Rome and Constan- 
tinople, were each destined to a long and uncontested supremacy, 
respectively in the East and West, and, in their combination, to 
become the parents of the architecture of Lombardy, and ultimately 
of the Pointed or Gothic. 

The influence of the Lombards in Italy, and the iconoclastic 
rupture of the 8th century (by which a multitude of Greek artists 
were scattered over the continent), gave a new impulse to Western 
Europe. Italy became politically independent of the Byzantine 
Empire, and the Church of Rome thenceforward independent of 
that of Constantinople. A more advanced style of architecture, 
with a complete and connected system of forms, soon prevailed 
wherever the Latin Church spread its influence, and the associated 
body of freemasons powerfully contributed to its diffusion over 
Europe. It has been called Lombardic, or perhaps, more conve- 
niently Romanesque, connecting the Basilica of the Western Em- 
pire with the buildings destined for the same purpose in the East ; 
it forms a connecting link between the Classic and Gothic styles of 

It retained the cupola as well as the the cruciform plan of the 
Byzantine style, not, however, in the form of a Greek cross of four 
equal limbs, but by an elongation of the nave opposite the sanc- 
tuary, now distinctively called the Latin Cross. The apsis or 
tribune is retained, but generally pierced with windows, narrow in 
proportion to their height, as at Wilton. The columns of the nave 
round and plain ; at a later date, no longer isolated, but clustered 
so as to form compound piers. The smaller and more ornamental 

By James E. Nightingale, Esq. 113 

are frequently polygonic, or fluted, or twisted together spirally or 
in zig-zags, as in the beautiful example of the cloister at "Wilton, 
connecting the campanile with the main building. Another cha- 
racteristic of the Romanesque is the use of the arched window, sub- 
divided by a small central column into two smaller arched openings, 
as in the clerestory at Wilton. The capitals in general become com- 
positions of scrolls and foliage, or combinations of animals and 
human beings, sometimes simply imitated from nature, in other in- 
stances monstrous and grotesque. A series of these elaborate capitals 
is found decorating the columns of the nave in Wilton Church. 

The narthex or portico of entrance becomes a highly decorated 
canopied porch supported by slender pillars resting on sculptured 
monsters ; of which we have a fine example at Wilton, as well as 
of the usual Katherine-wheel window above, inclosed in a richly- 
circled rosette. The oldest Latin churches subsequent to the 
basilica generally represent in their front the figure of our Saviour, 
or the Virgin, or patron Saint, in a niche or projecting canopy ; at 
Wilton this is seen in the form of an angel giving benediction. 
The four figures emblematic of the Evangelists, usually disposed 
round this figure, are found in the frontispiece of Wilton church 
surrounding the wheel window below. I need scarcely add that 
the round arch is exclusively employed in pure Romanesque archi- 

The campanile or bell-tower is an important adjunct to the 
Lombard churches, and forms a fine feature in the church at 

Tli is Romanesque style was never entirely superseded in Italy till 
tin- revival of Classical architecture, and, generally speaking, so 
many schools and styles had a concurrent existence, that the data 
by which we judge of a building in England lose much of their 

tainty when here applied. 

< )n this side of the Alps the Romanesque is seen in most per- 
fection at Cologne and along the banks of the Rhine; it gradually 
spread over tin- North of Europe, undergoing serious modifications 
or curtailments; it reached England about the time of the Con- 
quest, when il became what we usually term the Norman style. 


114 Architecture and Mosaics of Wilton Church. 

We have fine examples in the cathedral and church of St. Cross at 
"Winchester, Ronisey Abbey, and at Christchurch Priory, as well as 
in St. John's and St. Mary's at Devizes. 

The commencement of the 13th century brought with it a violent 
and remarkable change in the Ecclesiastical architecture of Northern 
Europe ; the heavy ponderous forms and details of the Northern 
Romanesque suddenly sprung up into the light and elegant lancet, 
the pointed arch succeeded the round, and then took place a com- 
plete deviation from, and contrast to, the whole spirit of Christian 
architecture. The most remarkable point of distinction was the 
substitution of the vertical for the horizontal principle. 

Instead of heavy massive members, square-edged projections, and 
the pilasters, cornices, and entablatures of the Roman style, we 
have elongated pillars variously clustered and combined, prolonged 
by corresponding mouldings along the arches, and running con- 
tinuously into the vaulting; also the use of strongly projecting 
buttresses, which shoot upwards and terminate in pinnacles, with a 
constant tendency to the predominance and prolongation of vertical 

The question of the causes of the transition from one of these 
styles to the other has been much canvassed. The origin of the 
pointed arch has generally been put forward as the most important 
branch of the inquiry ; this, however, by no means embraces the 
whole question, for it is possible for a building to be decidedly 
Gothic in character, while it has scarcely a single detail which can 
be pronounced purely Gothic. The church of St. Eustache in Paris 
is an illustration of this. Besides, the pointed arch existed several 
centuries before Gothic architecture was known. I saw not long 
since in Egypt a fully developed series of pointed arches in a 
curious building at Old Cairo, called the Nilometer, probably of the 
ninth century ; and again, the mosque of Tailoom at Cairo has 
completely formed pointed arches in abundance ; this was built 
a.d. 879. 

The predominance of the vertical line, then, is the great dis- 
tinguishing feature of Gothic architecture ; it would be impossible 
to have a more apt or beautiful illustration of this principle than 

By James E. Nightingale, Esq. 115 

in the glorious exterior of the cathedral under whose shadow we 
are now assembled. 1 

Gothic architecture seems to have required, as a condition of its 
existence and vitality, the principle of perpetual change. It will 
not be necessary to follow the different beautiful phases of this 
style which succeeded each other so rapidly, till, after the brief but 
brilliant period of the cinque-cento, it ceased altogether in the 16th 

Gothic architecture never took root in Italy. Several varieties 
and distinct schools may be found, and capable of certain rules 
and arrangements, as Professor Willis has shown ; but they never 
seem to have succeeded wholly in throwing off the influence of clas- 
sical examples. The great cathedral at Milan, magnificent as it is, 
will scarcely bear the test of the principles of genuine Gothic ; 
whilst the really fine Gothic church at Assisi — that storehouse of 
Christian art — is known to have been built by a German, Jacopo 

As the architecture of the early Christian churches was an adapt- 
ation of a style previously existing in ancient Rome, so too was 
the origin of their peculiar decoration — namely Mosaic. The tes- 
sellated pavement was popular throughout Rome and its colonies ; 
many fine examples have been found and still exist in this country : 
at Thruxton and at Cirencester, both on the borders of this county, 
magnificent specimens have been brought to light. 

From the time of Constantine down to the 14th century this art 
seems to have been practised almost entirely by the Greeks. A 
distinguishing feature in the churches of the Byzantine school is 
the profusion and splendid display they present of mosaic work : 

1 The ground-plan of the Cathedral at Salisbury, like several of the large 
church is in England, is that of a Greek Cross with double transverse arms. 
This is more decidedly Oriental and Byzantine than the ordinary Greek Cross of 
four eqnal limbs ; it is found at Athens and in Mount Athos in buildings of a 
very remote period. Nothing analogous exists in France. M. Didron cites 
this fact as another proof of the existence of a certain Byzantine influence to be 
found in monuments in England. See "Manual d'Iconographie Chretienne," 
pp. 371, 382; and "Christian Iconography," p. 380. (Bohn'sEd.) Similar Byzan- 
tine traditions have been traced in monuments of an earlier period in Ireland. 


Jlfi Architecture and Mosaics of Wilton Church. 

the most gorgeous is the glass tessellation usually applied to walls 
and vaults ; the groundwork is almost invariably of gold ; figures, 
architectural forms, and conventional foliage are formed of irregular 
pieces of glass of all tones of colour. There are many churches 
in Rome, and in other parts of Italy, where these mosaics still 
exist in great perfection ; but it is in Sicily where they are seen in 
still greater splendour, in the Capella Palatina at Palermo ; and at 
3Ionreale every part of the interior is coated with this magnificent 

The parts, however, usually covered with this sumptuous incrust- 
ation consist of the semi-dome of the apse and the adjacent walls 
of the sanctuary within the triumphal arch. In the middle ages, 
when every part of a church had a symbolic meaning, this was 
figurative of the transition through death from the Church militant 
on earth to the Church triumphant in Heaven. Here, then, was 
usually represented our Saviour in Glory, a colossal seated figure, 
giving the benediction, and surrounded by his Prophets, Apostles, 
and Saints. 

At the commencement of the 14th century the rapid improve- 
ment of painting under Giotto, and the superior resources of fresco, 
superseded what may be called the high art of the mosaicist. 

It is true we have none of this elaborate kind of mosaic at 
Wilton, but there are some good specimens of the same material 
as applied to the decoration of ambones, columns, &c, and usually 
called Opus Grecanicum. It will be found in and about the 
chancel in the form of twisted marble pillars, ornamented 
with a spiral branch of mosaic, also some panels of the usual 
geometrical pattern ; some smaller pillars are also used in the 
pulpit. It is formed of small cubes of variously-coloured and 
gilded " Smalto," inserted to the depth of about half-an-inch into 
grooves cut in white marble ; these simple forms are arranged in 
such geometrical combination as to compose the most elaborate 
patterns. The modern additions will easily be distinguished from 
the old work ; they are interesting, however, as showing some- 
thing like a revival of the art. 

Nothing can exceed the beauty of this kind of decoration as seen 

By James E. Nightingale, Esq. 117 

in the rich profusion of some of the Italian churches, the most 
charming of all perhaps being the pillars of the cloister of St. John 
Lateran at Rome. 

The "Wilton mosaics, however, have a considerable interest from 
their date and history being known. They originally formed part 
of a shrine set up in 1256, in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore 
at Rome. In the course of some alterations made there during the 
last century, they were purchased and sent to this country by 
Sir W. Hamilton, and remained at Strawberry Hill till Walpole's 
collection was dispersed a few years since. 

There exist also in Westminster Abbey some mutilated remains 
of a similar date and character, in the shrine of Edward the Con- 
fessor, finished in 1270, and in the tomb of Henry III., who died 
in 1272. Walpole supposes that these latter works in Westminster 
Abbey, and possibly the mosaics now at Wilton, were made by 
Pietro Cavallini, the well-known mosaicist and painter, and pupil 
of Giotto ; this, however, could not have been the case, as Cavallini 
was not born till 1259. The very interesting but dilapidated relics 
still in Westminster Abbey, were in all probability made by Italian 

There is still another kind of mosaic of great antiquity — the 
Opus Alexandrinum, ordinarily used for the pavement of churches, 
and composed solely of the three materials — porphyry, serpentine, 
and white or slightly coloured marble ; these are embedded in 
grooves cut in marble slabs, allowing a white line to develope the 
geometrical base of the pattern. 

A small but perfect example will be found in Wilton Church of 
the Opus Alexandrinum ; it has been laid down in the pavement of 
the entrance porch, and was brought from Italy. 

A larger piece of this kind of mosaic, but of modern Italian 
manufacture, will be found in the pavement at the foot of the steps 
of the chancel, between the pulpit and the reading desk. 

The use of mosaic is unquestionably one of the most beautiful as 
well as the most enduring modes of church decoration. The variety 
of composition is endless, from the simple square and circle to the 
mohi intricate labyrinth of interlaced work; they display almost 

118 Architecture and Mosaics of Wilton Church. 

every variety and combination of colour, from the most retiring drab 
or grey to the gorgeous splendour of gold and purple. 

Some very interesting Glass of several different periods will be 
found in Wilton Church. The windows of the central apse are 
mostly fitted with glass of the 13th century ; in the smaller apses 
are some curious pieces of the decorated and later periods ; several 
whole-length figures are remarkable for their good drawing and 
brilliancy of colour. In the side aisle window nearest the cam- 
panile, are arranged two portions of earlier windows of good cinque- 
cento work. 

I must now offer an apology for this imperfect treatment of a 
subject which I dare say many of the members are more fully 
acquainted with than myself, and add one word in honour of the 
founder, who has so nobly dedicated the gifts he has received, 

Ad majorem Dei gloriam. 


Some Notices of the Library at Stourhead. 119 

§>mt MnWm nf tyt ICibrartj at ^timrttfat 

By J. B. Nichols, F.S.A. 

It is with great diffidence, but with, feelings of high gratification, 
that I venture to address a few observations to the notice of this 
respectable company, composed chiefly of the Wiltshire Archae- 
ological and Natural History Society. 

I came here at the invitation of my old friend Mr. Britton ; and 
I am sure it must be gratifying to the members of this Society, as 
well as to himself, that his topographical collections for Wiltshire 
should remain entire, and be deposited in one of the principal 
towns of his native county. 

Had it pleased Providence to have spared the life of my late 
patron and friend, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, I can hardly conceive 
the delight he would have felt in the establishment of this Associa- 
tion. But he lived not in vain. For more than 30 years he devoted 
the best energies of his active and generous mind to the elucidation 
of the Ancient and Modern History of Wiltshire. 

Not content with his own personal exertions, he gathered around 
him a body of able and judicious assistants. And herein he acted 
wisely and with forethought, for how many of our best topographers 
have left their histories incomplete, from the life of one man being 
found insufficient for such laborious undertakings. Witness, the 
History of Staffordshire, by the Rev. Stebbing Shaw; the History 
of Durham, by Mr. Surtees ; and the History of Northamptonshire, 
by Mr. <ieorge Baker. And it maybe noticed that Sir Richard 
Hoare himself died, leaving his History of Modern Wiltshire to be 
completed by his coadjutors. Wisely, however, had he prepared for 
such an interruption to lus labours by the munificent directions he 
had hf't in his will, which were ably seconded by Ids brother and 
executor, Mr. Merrick Hoare. 

120 Some Notices of the Library at Stourhead. 

Of the zealous coadjutors to Sir Richard Hoare's History of 
Wilts, the greater part are now no more. Among them may be 
noticed James Everard Baron Arundell, Mr. William Cunnington, 
the Rev. John Offer, Charles Bowles, Esq., the Rev. William Lisle 
Bowles, Mr. Richard Harris, Henry Wansey, Esq., John Caley, Esq., 
Robert Benson, Esq., and Henry Hatcher, Esq. 

A few of Sir Richard Hoare's assistants are still living ; and the 
manuscript collections of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. ; of George 
Matcham, Esq., L.L.D. ; of the Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A. ; of 
J. Britton, Esq. ; of William Henry Black, Esq. ; and J. G. Nichols, 
Esq., F.S.A., will, I trust, still be added to the illustration of other 
objects in the county. 

It is gratifying also to refer to what has already been published 
relative to Wiltshire since Sir Richard Hoare's death. The follow- 
ing may be noticed : — The History of Grittleton, by the Rev. J. E. 
Jackson ; the History of the Manor and Ancient Barony of Castle 
Combe, by George Poulett Scrope, Esq., M.P. ; the Memoir of 
John Aubrey, F.R.S., and an edition of Aubrey's Natural History 
of Wiltshire, by John Britton, Esq. ; an Account of the Manor 
House at South Wraxhall, by Mr. Walker ; the History of Marl- 
borough, by Mr. Waylen, &c. 

The meeting of the Archaeological Institute in this city in 1849 
was delighted by an' Essay on the Results of Archaeological Investi- 
gation in Wiltshire, by George Matcham, Esq., L.L.D. , and with 
the interesting Topographical Gleanings of Stourhead, from 1825 
to 1833, by the Rev. Joseph Hunter, in which he has so ably 
sketched the character of Sir Richard Hoare and his literary 

And the proceedings of the first meeting of this Society at Devizes 
are doubtless fresh in the recollection of the members, when Mr. 
Poulett Scrope favoured the meeting with so eloquent an Inaugural 
Address in which he took an able review of the antiquities of Wilt- 
shire, and of what had been done for their elucidation. 

The magnificent collection of Manuscripts, Books, and Drawings 
collected by Sir Richard Hoare for the illustration of the History of 
AVilts, and now tranquilly reposing in the Library of Stourhead, 

By J. B. Nichols, F.S.A. 121 

were brought under my notice many years ago whilst forming a 
catalogue of them, at the request of his executors, Merrick Hoare 
and Henry Charles Hoare, Esqrs. I therefore venture to congra- 
tulate this Society on the accumulation of such a valuable treasure 
existing in the county, which has been made an heir-loom in the 
family by the will of Sir Richard Hoare, and no doubt will, by the 
liberality of the present Sir Hugh Hoare and the possessors for the 
time being, become accessible in future to all who know how to 
value the privilege. 

I hope I shall not be thought tedious if I glance at a few objects 
of interest, more particularly relative to Wiltshire, in the Library 
of Stourhead. 

The MS. collections from which Sir Richard Hoare and his 

coadjutors compiled the Antient History of Wilts, and his more 

voluminous History of Modern Wiltshire. The objects sought to 

be accomplished were thus concisely stated by Sir Richard Hoare, 

in his preface to the " Hundred of Mere" : — 

" To rescue from total oblivion the relics of Antient Britain ; to illustrate the 
remaining vestiges of its conquerors, the Romans ; to investigate the monastic 
and ecclesiastical history of our county ; to trace the genealogy of distingiushed 
families, and the descent of property; to record the monumental inscriptions, 
and the biography of celebrated characters ; and above all, to endeavour by this 
example to excite the zeal of my fellow countrymen in the same desirable cause, 
is the sole purport of this my humble undertaking." 

It is gratifying to know that this example has been followed by 

several eminent individuals, some of whom I have the pleasure of 

seeing in this room. 

The History of Modern Wiltshire may be considered as one of the 

scarcest, as well as most valuable books of its kind. A very small 

impression of the work was printed; and many single volumes 

having been presented by Sir R. C. Hoare to friends resident in the 

particular Hundred described, perfect sets are comparatively few 

in number. It consists of eleven parts, forming six volumes. 

Vol. I. Contains the Hundreds of Mere and Heytesbury, by Sir 

Richard <''>lt Hoare. 

\'<>1. II. The Hundreds of Branch and Dole, by the Rev. John 

Offer and Sir R. C. Hoare. The Hundreds of Evcrley, Am- 

bresbury, and Underditoh, by Sir R. C. Hoare. 

122 Some Notices of the Library at Stourhead. 

Vol. III. The Hundred of Westbury, by Mr. Richard Harris 
and Sir R. C. Hoare. The Hundred of Warminster, by 
Henry Wansey, Esq. and Sir R. C. Hoare. The Hundred of 
Downton, by George Matcham, Esq., L.L.D. The Hundred 
of South Darnerham, by William Henry Black, Esq. and 
Sir R. C. Hoare. The Hundred of Cawden, by Sir R. C. 
Vol. IV. The Hundred of Dunworth and Vale of Noddre, by 
James Everard Baron Arundell and Sir R. C. Hoare. The 
Hundred of Chalk, by Charles Bowles, Esq., of Shaftesbury. 
Vol. V. The Hundred of Alderbury, by Sir R. C. Hoare and 
John Gough Nichols, Esq., F.S.A. The Hundred of Frust- 
field, by George Matcham, Esq., L.L.D. and Sir R. C. Hoare. 
General Index to the preceding five volumes. 
Vol. VI. The City of Salisbury, by Henry Hatcher, Esq., assisted 
by the Collections of Sir R. C. Hoare and Robert Benson, Esq., 
Recorder of Salisbury. 
Among the drawings at Stourhead relating to Wiltshire, may be 
noticed : — 

A magnificent collection of drawings of churches, monuments, 
fonts, and antient mansions in Wilts, drawn under the direction of 
Sir Richard Hoare, at an unlimited expense, by Mr. John Buckler, 
F.S.A., which were thus noticed by Sir Richard Hoare, in his own 
catalogue : — 


" The love of topography has induced me to collect as many books as could be 
procured relating to the General History of Britain ; but niy attention has been 
paid in a higher degree to that of the Province in which I reside, on which 
account I employed Mr. John Buckler, an artist every way competent to perform 
the task, in making drawings of every church, every curious font, brass or 
tomb, and every remarkable mansion, which laborious undertaking he has now 
happily completed, and much to my satisfaction, in ten folio volumes." 

Architectural Views of Malmesbury Abbey, in 47 drawings ; and 
of Lacock Abbey, in 14 drawings, both by Mr. John Carter, F.S.A. 
They are also thus noticed by Sir R. C. Hoare : — 

"The fine abbey at Malmesbury, most powerfully excited both my admi- 
ration and attention from the very moment I first viewed it. I therefore 
prevailed upon Mr. John Carter to devote a summer to the minute investigation 

By J. B. Nichols, F.S.A. 123 

of this fine relic. He completed his work to my satisfaction, and availed himself 
of the same opportunity in making plans and views of the celebrated Nunnery 
of Lacock. These Malmesbury and Lacock drawings cost £189 3s. 6d. Thus 
have I endeavoured by rescuing from oblivion the many curious specimens of 
antient architecture with which this county abounds, not only to hand down 
their merits to posterity, but to make myself acquainted with buildings and 
antiquities of which I was before in a good measure ignorant." 

A series of eight exterior and interior views of Salisbury Cathe- 
dral, by J. M. W. Turner, R. A., thus noticed by Sir R. 0. Hoare : — 

" They are executed in a style of excellence, which referring to Mr. Turner's 
first love of study in architecture and water-colours, will not disgrace him as a 
Royal Academician and a very distinguished painter in oils." 

It may be considered superfluous to remark bow valuable these 
drawings have become since the death of this wonderfully gifted 

An interleaved copy of Sir Richard Hoare's Hungerfordiana, 
mounted on folio paper, and illustrated by numerous drawings by 
Mr. John Buckler, F.S.A., portraits, &c. 

A splendid volume of drawings of monuments at SaHsbury, 
Wilton, and Farley Castle, by Mr. Charles Trotter. 

An interesting collection of 33 beautiful drawings by that 
eminent artist in water-colours, Mr. Francis Nicholson, of the 
Rural Scenery at Stourhead. 

A magnificent volume of 52 drawings of vases, celts, and other 
antiquities found in Wiltshire, mostly engraved in "Antient 

The Museum of British Antiquities at Stourhead cannot be 
visited without the greatest interest. Sir Richard thus speaks of 


" In our endeavours to trace the manners and customs of antient nations, we 
can only judge by those relics still remaining ; and fortunately, there have been 
sufficient of these left in my own county to illustrate in a great measure the 
)ii-lory of our Antient Uritons. 

" Twenty years of my younger days were pleasantly employed in the inves- 
tigation of the early inhabitants of our island; and I hope most satisfactorily; 
for they have led me from the places of their first settlements to the sites of 
tin br final interment! ; the former having been ascertained by the remains dug 
up by our ipadea ; the latter by the tumuli and their contents. 

" These relics have been arranged, and carefully preserved in glass cases, for 
the inspection of those persons whose curiosity may induce them to investigate 
the history of other times." 


124 So/tic Notices of the Library at Stourhead. 

Next to his adopted county of Wilts, no part of the United King- 
dom interested Sir Richard Hoare so much as Wales. His Library 
is particularly rich in Drawings, Manuscripts, and Books, illus- 
trative of its history ; among which the following may be noticed : — 
Three folio volumes of Drawings in South Wales, by Mr. John 

Carter, F.S.A. 
A collection of Ecclesiastical, Monumental, and Cathedral Anti- 
quities in North Wales, by Mr. John Buckler, F.S.A. 
Twenty-one fine drawings of St. Donat's, St. Albans, &c, in 
Glamorganshire, by Mr. John Buckler and Mr. J. C. Buckler. 
Four volumes of Drawings in Wales, by Sir R. C. Hoare. 
Eleven volumes of Tours in Wales, by Sir R. C. Hoare. 
Of the first two collections Sir R. Hoare thus speaks : — 

"The History, Antiquities, and Scenery of North and South "Wales, having 
for a long while become so familiar to me, and so frequently handled by my own 
pencil, I was desirous of adding those subjects to my collection that were not 
within the reach of my own abilities. On which account I commissioned in 
1801, Mr. John Carter, a most able artist in the line of architecture and monu- 
mental antiquities, to undertake a journey through South Wales, and to draw 
every subject that might appear interesting to him. This he happily completed 
and presented me with his valuable collection in three volumes folio. 

"Actuated by the same feeling towards North Wales, I engaged Mr. John 
Buckler to pursue the same plan, which he also completed in one folio volume 
much to my satisfaction. 

" Thus I have been enabled to rescue many valuable records of British Anti- 
quities, some of which have already suffered since our visitation, and others 
threaten a speedy decay." 

The Library at Stourhead is also rich in foreign books. But his 
collection of Books on the History and Topography of Italy had 
already become public property before the death of Sir Richard 
Hoare, having been presented by bim to the British Museum in 
1825. Of this collection he printed a catalogue in 1812. 

During his long residence on the Continent, Sir R. C. Hoare 
employed his pencil very assiduously, and has left about 1,100 
drawings by himself and friends, bound in 18 volumes folio. Also 
a beautiful volume of Drawings in Saxony, Italy, France, Elba, and 
Sicily, by Mr. John Smith, from Sir R. C. Hoare's Sketches. 

In the Library are ten original Drawings, by Canaletti, of Scenes 
at Venice. 

By J. B. Nichols, F.S.A. 125 

In the Cabinet Room are many beautiful paintings of landscapes, 
among which are — 

The Lake of Avernus, with the story of iEneas and the Sybil, 
by Joseph M. W. Turner, R.A. 

The Lake of Nemi, by "Wilson. 

Diana and her Nymphs, by Zucharelli. 

Two small Views at Venice, by Canaletti. 

But I must abstain from noticing the numerous valuable paint- 
ings at Stourhead, and conclude by referring to the Drawings in 
Water-colours, in which their late possessor took so decided an 

Sir Richard Hoare observes : — 

" Designs in Water-Colours have made, within these few years past, a most 
astonishing progress, and in many instances, may be said to have attained the 
acme of perfection ; for I question if the series of Architectural Drawings of 
Salisbury, executed by J. M. W. Turner, Esq., E.A., will ever be surpassed. 

" This rapid improvement in Water-Colour Drawing has taken place within 
my own memory ; for, during my younger days, Paul Sandby was the monarch 
of the plain, and esteemed the best artist in this line. The most marked im- 
provement in colouring was recognized in the drawings of Mr. John Smith, now 
living, and to whom, as an instructor, I owe the little I know of Drawing, but 
the advancement from drawing to painting in Water-Colours did not take place 
till after the introduction into England of the Drawings of Louis du Cros, a 
Swiss artist, who settled at Rome ; his works proved the force as well as conse- 
quence that could be given to the unsubstantial body of Water-Colours, and to 
him I attribute the first knowledge and power of Water-Colours. Thence have 
sprung a numerous succession of artists in this line, a Turner, a Glover, a 
Nicholson, Reinagle, De Wint, Nash, cum multis aliis." 

I have purposely confined myself to a few of the articles at 
Stourhead, but the collection is so valuable relative to every part of 
the United Kingdon and Ireland, that I must content myself with 
referring to the catalogue formed by me in 1840, of which the exe- 
cutors of the late Sir Richard Hoare did me the honour to print a 
small private impression for the use of the family and their friends, 
and of which a few copies were presented to public libraries. A 
oopy is in Mr. Britton's collection now at Devizes and belonging to 
the Wilts Archaeological Society, and another in the Library of the 
Salisbury Literary Institution, now the property of the Institution. 

126 Intrenchment* at Aldbourne. 

StifmujjmnttH at SllMonrne. 

By F. A. Cakrtngtoit, Esq. 

HESE intrenchments are four in number, and 
have not I believe been at all noticed by 
Sir It. C. Hoare or any other antiquary. 

They are in size very much less than the 
fine and perfect specimens of intrenched camps 
*=S@jg«g^aS^ in tne neighbourhood. 

The camp called Liddington Castle which is seven and a half 
acres in extent is about four miles North West of Aldbourne 
Church, and the camp called Barbury Castle which is twelve and 
a half acres in extent is about seven miles "West of Aldbourne 

The four small intrenchments at Aldbourne I shall distinguish by 
the names of — 

1. "Woods-end Intrenchment. 

2. Glebe Intrenchment. 

3. Chase Woods Intrenchment. 

4. Lewisham Castle Intrenchment. 

The first three are I believe not known in the place by any 
names ; the fourth is called Lewisham Castle in the Tithe apportion- 
ment of Aldbourne, and is shown in the Tithe-map of that Parish 
and numbered 210. The relative position of these intrenchments 
is shown by the annexed sketch. 

1. Woods-end Intrenchment. 

This is situated about a quarter of a mile East of Woods-end 
between that and Dudmore Lodge, and can be easily found as it is 
within 10 yards of the gateway leading through the quickset hedge 
which separates the field in which it is from the road which leads 







s 1 


^ 1 





1 1 1 

^ P3 O 




By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 127 

from Woods- end to Aldbourne. It is circular, and has a fosse, five 
yards wide, all round it ; and the ground within the fosse is 40 
yards in diameter. To the South West there is a steep descent, a 
narrow valley, and then a steep ascent to the intrenchment next 

2. Glebe Intrenchment. 

This is much larger than the one just described, and from 
repeated ploughings is not so distinctly marked. In both indeed 
the fosse though traceable is of very inconsiderable depth. It is 
about a quarter of a mile South West of that at Woods-end ; and 
from their being on the brows of opposite steep ascents they are 
visible from each other. It has a fosse (indistinct now) of five 
yards wide, and is circular, the space within the fosse being not 
quite 120 yards in diameter. Both this and the Woods-end in- 
trenchment are on what is now arable land, a part of the Yicar's 
allotment under the Aldbourne Enclosure Act of 1805 ; but in the 
reign of King Charles II. all this land was in a wood called Prior's 
Wood which adjoined Aldbourne Chase, as appeared by a map of 
that date which belonged to the late Rev. J. Seagram, who was for 
many years Vicar of Aldbourne. 

3. Chase Woods Intrenchment. 

These woods which adjoined Aldbourne Chase were grubbed up 
within the last few years when this intrenchment was first observed. 
From having been in a wood it is in much better preservation than 
either No. 1 or No. 2. The size is the same as the Woods-end in- 
trenchment ; but the fosse is five feet deep, measuring the depth 
from the top of a vallum about two feet high which is on the out- 
side of the fosse. It is on perfectly level ground, but it is easily 
found by entering the Chase Woods by the gateway which is 
nearest to and about 150 yards from the direction-post on the 
Ogbourne St. George down, called the Round-hill down. It is 
within sight and about 100 yards from the gateway right-a-head. 

4. Lkuish am Castle Intrenchment. 

This is on the brow of a hill in a field at the back of Stock-lane 


Intrench meats at Aldbonrne. 

farm buildings. It is stated in the Tithe Apportionment to contain 
Oa. 2r. 24p. It is circular and has a fosse six or seven feet deep, 
and five yards wide. It commands a view of the church and a 
small part of the town of Aldhourne ; but it would hardly have 
been constructed for besieging the town as it is a mile and a half 
from it, a distance too great for the artillery of the reign of King 
Charles L, and, moreover, there was I believe no fighting anywhere 
near Aldbourne, except the attack on the rear of General Fairfax's 
army by Prince Rupert's cavalry, on the 18th of September, 1643, 
and this occurred near the end of Hun gerford- street, in the town 
of Aldbourne, where many human skeletons have been found. 

With respect to all these intrenchments it is worthy of conside- 
ration, whether they were constructed for deer hunting and not for 
any warlike purpose. 

I was informed by the late Eev. J. Seagram that Aldbourne 
Chase was a favourite hunting ground of John of Gaunt, who 
lived at the very curious old mansion at Upper Uphani (now the 
residence of Mr. Frampton), and also occupied a house which stood 
on the site of the Court-house, situate near Aldbourne Church- 
yard (now the residence of the Rev. G. P. Cleather), because there is 
no well at Upper Upham, and no water except rain water. Mr. 
Seagram also said that the Chase consisted of about 5,000 acres, 

Curious Endowment of a Chantry at Enford. 129 

and that there was a warren of nearly 1,000 acres more. And I 
was told by the late Mr. Church of Hillwood, who died in the year 
1852, at a very advanced age, that he recollected Aldboume Chase 
before the enclosure in 1805, when a great part of it was covered 
with brambles, gorse, and thorn bushes, which grew up as high as 
a man's shoulders ; so that persons with waggons, on horseback 
and on foot, could only go along the drives that were cut through 
this "Wiltshire specimen of a jungle. 

Near the Lewisham Castle intrenchment some arrow-heads have 

been found which are now in the possession of the Rev. E. Meyrick, 

Vicar of Chisledon. 

F. A. Carringtox. 

Cnrimw Cnaatamrat nf a Cjtantnj at (Enfara, 


This chantry is remarkable from the singularity of its endow- 
ment. Chantries were generally endowed with lands, houses, fixed 
rents charged on lands or pensions ; though some of the priests of 
the chantries were what were called " stipendaries," which seems 
to import that the person who was bound to provide the chantry 
priest was not bound to pay him any fixed sum, but had to pay 
him whatever was agreed on between them. 1 The endowment of 

1 In the Parliamentary Survey of Livings in 1650 (a MS. in Lambeth Palace), 
vol. Asi. there IB the following entry ;is to the living of Kbheshornc, Wilts: — 

"The Mini 1. 1 there i ■■■■ Stipendiarie and to be pvided and paid his wages by 
the I' -■ ■ (of the great Tithes) a> appear) th l>y his Covenant." 


130 Curious Endowment of a Chantry at Enford. 

the chantry at Enford differed from all these, and yet from the 
value of the endowment and the amount of the plate belonging to 
this chantry it was quite as good as most of the chantries in this 
diocese, which were generally worth about £6 or £7 a-year. 

In the "Certificate of Colleges and Chantries for Wilts, No. 58," which is 
" The Report of the Surveye ofi' all Collegs, Chaun tries, ffree Chappells, Frater- 
nytees, Brotherhoddis, Stypendaryees, Obbitts, Lyglits, Lampes, and Anni- 
usaryes," taken by John Thynne and Willni. Wroughton, Knyghtes ; Charles 
Bulkeley, John Barwicke, and Thomas Chafynne, Esquyers ; Willm. Thornhyll 
and Lawrence Hyde, Gentylmen ;" acting under the King's Commission, bearing 
date the 14th day of February, 2 Edward VI. 1 there is the following entry : — 
" 26 Westeleys Chuntre \ John Westeley, decessid, gave one thousand shepe to 

at Enforde Richard f fynde a preste to synge at Endfordefor ever. Ofwhiche 

Morres of the age of I m 1 - shepe dyed Dciiij xx - xij wherupon one pson Burde 

lij yeres Incumbent. J gave nlxxviij shepe toward the increase of the sayd 
stocke whiche be nowe Dccciiij xx -vj p*sed at xvj d - the pes, and so letten to diuse 
(divers) men for the yerely rent of vip- xiiij s - vj d - 

" The plate belongynge unto the sayd Chuntre — xxx onz. j quarters. 

' ' The goodis and ornamentis belongynge unto the sayd Chuntre pised at — 
xxij d - 

"And the sayd Incumbent is a vereye honeste poore man and hathe none 
other lyvinge but only this Chuntre and a man ryght able to Ssue (serve) a 
cure, and hath alwayes occupyed hymselfe in teachynge of children there." 

The rent of the flock seems to be strange in amount as it does 
not come to any even sum per score. 

There is no notice of this chantry in Sir R. C. Hoare's account 
of the Parish of Enford. [See History of the Hundred of Elstub 
and Everley, page 19 — 23]. A John Westley was Vicar of Enford 
from a.d. 1472 to 1494. 

F. A. Cakrington. 

1 This certificate 16 in the Public Record Office, in the Carlton Ride, London. 

Wilts Notes and Queries. 131 

The Sheriff of "Wilts Imprisoned at Devizes. — This outrage 
was actually committed in 1741, by the partizans of Sir Edmund 
Thomas and Edward Bayntun Rolt, Esq., at a contested election 
for the borough of Chippenham ; the object being to neutralize the 
hostile influence of Anthony Guy, Esq., not, of course, in his capa- 
city of High Sheriff of the County, but as being the principal man 
in Chippenham and the oldest of the twelve burgesses who claimed 
the management of the affairs of that town. The offence however 
was equally great, and it is surprising that no reprisals were made 
by the injured party. 

Mr. Guy having declared himself favourable to two other candi- 
dates, Alexander Hume and John Frederick, Esquires, it was 
resolved to get him out of the way, under pretence of an attach- 
ment for his Under-sheriff's omitting to make return of a writ 
against one Thomas Brown, for the small sum of £27 (an omission 
owing to the Under-sheriff's illness) : and Richard Smith, a coroner 
of the county, actually proceeded to take Mr. Guy into custody, 
though that gentleman offered him £10,000 bail for his appear- 
ance. At the instigation of John Norris, Adam Tuck, and William 
Johnson the then bailiff or mayor, the coroner kept Mr. Guy all 
night in one of the Chippenham inns under a guard of armed men, 
and the next morning conveyed him with the same convoy to the 
town of Devizes, where he remained in custody till the election was 
over ; after which they had the courtesy to carry him back to his 
own house and set him at liberty. 

It is hardly necessary to add, that a petition from the un- 
successful candidates appealed against a return effected by such 
means ; but though the Sheriff's party were finally defeated by a 
small majority in the House ; it does not appear that any attempt 

132 Wilts Notes and Queries. 

was made by their adversaries to disprove the above facts. They 
simply constitute an additional illustration of the numerous irregu- 
larities, which, at the period in question, characterised the manage- 
ment of the boroughs and society generally in the provinces, 
arising out of the balance of the Hanoverian and Jacobite factions. 
Mr. Guy was probably grandfather to the late eminent solicitor of 
Chippenham. J. Waylen. 

Lamps on Beckhampton Down. — In 1743, the people of Marl- 
borough obtained a clause to one of their road-bills, empowering 
them to erect lamps between their town and Shepherds' Shore. 
Surely their pubHc spirit must have been on the decline since 
that memorable offer. J. TV. 

Tisbxjry a Market Town. — In a document relating to the 
adjustment of the rectorial tythes, and dated 19th December, 1649, 
"the parish of Tisbury," it is said, "containeth a great market 
town." The expression " town," it is well-known, was often 
applied to what we now designate as a village, as Ludlow — for 
instance, calls Sutton Mandeville a town ; but the term " a great 
market town" is so emphatic as to crave the courteous elucidations 
of some person or persons whose observations on the spot may pos- 
sibly have detected the vestiges of former opulence. J. W. 

Longevity. — It is requested that cases above a hundred years 
(not included in Easton's list) which may occur to the memory of 
our readers, will be sent to J. "Waylen, of Etchilhampton, Devizes, 
to complete a list for Wiltshire, to appear in an early number. 

J. W. 

n. Kuix, Printer, St. John Street, Deyize*. 



Irrjjtrnlagirnl itnfr Hotel listen} 

No. V. AUGUST, 1855. Vol. II. 



Abridgement of the History of the Manor and Ancient Barony of 

Castle Combe : By G. Poueett Sceope, Esq., M.P. (No. 1.) 133-158 

On some Coal Operations at Malmesbuiy : By Professor J. Buckman . . 159-161 
Ornithology. (No. 4.) The Beaks of Birds: By Rev. A. C. Smith. . . 162-172 

The Hertford Correspondence. (Concluded) 173-190 

Ancient Ales in Co. Wilts and Diocese of Sarum : By F. A. Caeeing- 

ton, Esq 191-204 

Rolls of Co. Wilts, and their Descriptions : By Eev. W. C. Ltjeis. . . 205-211 

The Bastard : By J. Swayne, Esq 212 

The Church s of Devizes. (No. 1.) By Mr. Edwaed Kite 213-256 

Wiltshire Notes and Queeies: By J. Wayeen, Esq.: — 

Henry, Earl of Danby 257 

Chalheld House 258 

County Gaol at Fisherton 259 

Singular Tenure. Manor of Hakeneston 260 

Notice— The Botany of Wiltshire 260 


Castle Combe: Market Cross, p. 133. Plan of Castle-hill, 135. Roman 
Sepulchral Bas-relief, 136. Dunstanville Monumental Slab, 139. Monument, 
1 in. S. rd of Lady Margaret de Clare, 141. Ditto of Lord Eohert Tibetot, 
and Sir It. Scrope, 143. Banner of Scrope 146. Seal of Sir William Scrope, 
1 17. Anus of Sir John Fastolf, 149. Seal of Stephen Scrope, 150. East 
Window of Church, 157. 

I»i.\ izi.sCiii nouns: St. John's and St. Mary's, 213. Ground Plan of St. John's, 
218. Arcade in ditto, 220. Window in North Chancel, ditto, 223. Ground 
Plan of St. Mary's, 230. Nave Roof, ditto, 239. Aisle Window, ditto, 210. 

Hknuy Bull, Saint Johh Stbebt. 


i«. Hi. 1. 1., 180, I'i.i.i.i Street; J. B. Smith, 36, Sono Squam 









€\)i JMnnor nttfo Sltirmtt Sarnmj nf Caitlt Combe. 

By 0. Pouxbtt Sobofe, Esq., M.P. 
C Printed for Private Circulation, 4to., 1852 J 

In thai period of our history which immediately succeeded the 

Norman conquest if is well known thai eaoh'of the greater feudal 

vol.. ii. — NO. V. T 

134 Abridgement of the History of the 

lords or barons as they were styled, possessed a Castle — that is to 
say, a stronghold to which he and his dependents could retire for 
their defence in case of civil war, or from which they might, if so 
minded, as not unfrequently happened, wage a predatory warfare 
against their neighbours. Such a castle was called the Caput 
JBaroiiicp, or head lordship of the barony, which comprehended 
several subordinate lordships, manors, or feudal estates, held either 
directly by the baron himself, or under him through what was 
called knight's service, by subfeudatories ; proprietors — that is, of 
knightly rank. These were bound to do suit and service to the 
baron for their estates ; to attend him in war with a certain auxi- 
liary force ; and in peace to pay in lieu of such actual service an 
annual fine called a " knight's fee." The baron had also the ward- 
ship in minority, and marxiage of these subordinate tenants, as well 
as other privileges. Castle Combe was the head lordship of a 
barony of this kind, to which were held subject (ut de Baronid) as 
many at least as twenty-six other Wiltshire manors. And it is 
this circumstance chiefly, as well as its inheritance by a succession 
of persons of some historical note, and the preservation of a very 
complete series of documents relating to it, which induced the 
present owner and Lord of the Manor to believe that the annals of 
what at present is a comparatively unknown and insignificant rural 
demesne might prove not uninteresting to the student of general 
history. The volume printed by Mr. Poulett Scrope for private 
distribution, met indeed with a more favourable reception than had 
been anticipated by its author, who now greatly regrets that the 
impression having been limited to 150 copies, he has been prevented 
from putting it into the hands of many who have expressed them- 
selves desirous to obtain it. A favourable review of it which 
appeared in the Quarterly probably led to the demand exceeding 
what had been calculated upon. Under these circumstances, it 
has been thought that an abridgement of the work might not be 
unacceptable to the readers of our Magazine. 

The population of the Village of Castle Combe (for though once 
a market-town of some little importance, it is but a village now) is 
600. It is situated in the extreme north-east angle of the county 

Manor and Ancient Barony of Castle Combo. 


adjoining to Gloucestershire, and chiefly built in the bottom of one 
of those narrow, crack-like vallies which drain the western ridge 
of the Cotswold. A rapid stream runs through it, which joins the 
Avon just below Box, a mile above Bath. Formerly two or 
three clothing-mills were worked in the parish by help of this 
brook, but they have now disappeared, or been replaced by corn- 
mills ; and the clothing trade, once its staple business and the 
source of great prosperity to its inhabitants, has, at last after a 
lengthened and painful process of decay, wholly ceased. The place 
is at present chiefly noted only for its romantic natural scenery, 
the steep sides of the winding valley being clothed with a pleasing 
intermixture of grass and wood ; the hill on which stood the castle, 
now reduced to mere mounds of rubbish, forming a conspicuous 
object, and with the very handsome church-tower and picturesque 
manor-house, composing an agreeable scene, to which the old 
market-cross adds another interesting feature. 

The indications of Pre-Norman inhabitancy are here, as usual, 
scanty, though sufficiently conclusive. The earthworks of the castle, 
surrounding a space of near nine acres with strong ditches and 
mounds, on the summit of a hill to the north-west of the village, 
seem to prove that a British camp existed on this spot before the 
erection of the Norman fortress in the twelfth century. 


Tin- great Roman road called the Foss-way, leading from Bath 
to Cirencester and Lincoln, skirts the north-western limit of the 



Abridgement of the History of the 

manor, and many proofs of Roman occupation, such as coins, 
figuline fragments, &c. are occasionally turned up by the plough 
or spade on the hill-tops. One among other relics, a small imperfect 

sepulchral bas-relief carved in the 
rough stone of the country, is 
given in the adjoining wood-cut. 
It represents a hunter spearing a 
stag, of which animals probably 
the surrounding woods afforded 
in those days an abundant stock. 
"Within a short distance of the 
Foss-road, where it borders on 
the Manor of Combe, but within 
the adjoining parish of Nettleton, 
stands a remarkable oblong bar- 
row, with a cromlech or trilithic 
eoman sepulchral BAs-RELiEr. kistvaen on the top, composed of 
three large stones, two upright ; the third, which no doubt once 
rested upon — now leans against them. The barrow was partly 
opened by Sir R. Colt Hoare ; and the present proprietor, Mr. 
Poulett Scrope, has recently made further researches in it, which 
brought to light several interments, but without any of the weapons, 
ornaments, or instruments usually found in places of sepulture. 

In the Domesday Survey of Wiltshire, two vills are mentioned 
by the names of " Cumbe" and " Come," respectively ; one of 
which must refer to Combe Biset, in the south of the county, the 
other to Castle Combe. And it is a singular circumstance that 
several letters patent obtained in the reigns of Henry VI., 
Edward IV., and Henry VIII. by the Lords of Castle Combe, for 
the purpose of securing certain privileges to the tenants of this 
manor, as having been a royal demesne at the time of the conquest 
(which deeds are still extant), uniformly recite as applying to this 
manor the survey of Domesday which from indubitable evidence 
must have related not to it, but to Combe Biset. This mistake is 
perhaps to be explained by the little interest which the officers of 
Exchequer who searched " the Book of Domesday" for the survey, 

Manor and Ancient Barony of Castle Combe. 137 

had in distinguishing between the two " Combes ;" or rather 
perhaps to their wish to favour the promoters of the search (who 
no doubt paid the appropriate fees) by finding the record of ancient 
demesne which was required. The proofs of the identity of the 
" Come" of Domesday which was not " Royal Demesne," with the 
Manor of Castle " Combe," consist partly in the accordance of the 
physical features of the latter with the description there given, but 
chiefly in the fact of its having at that time formed one of the 
twenty-seven manors then possessed by Hunfridus de Insula, or 
Humphrey de l'lsle, and which for the greater part of two cen- 
turies afterwards were held together, as composing the Barony of 
Castle Combe, by his direct heirs. 

Several early documents show that a certain Adeliza de Insula, 
without doubt the daughter and heiress of Hunfridus, conveyed 
this string of manors by marriage to her husband Reginald de 
Dunstanville, in the reign of Henry I., and by him or by his son of 
the same name it is probable that the Castle of Combe was built 
about the same time, that lordship in consequence becoming, as 
usual, the " Caput" or chief seat of the barony. The subordinate 
manors were Broughton (B. Giffard), Stert, Wyly, two "Winter- 
bornes (Winterborne Basset, and Ash ton Giffard), Colerne and 
Polton, all held (with Combe) directly of the king in Capite ; 
Compton (C. Basset), Burbeche, Cumberwell, Rushall, Wroughton, 
Salthorp, Clive (Cliff Pipard), Somerford (S. Mautravers), Smithcot 
(in Dauntsey Parish), Blunsdon (St. Andrew's), Groundwell (near 
Blunsdon), Chadington (near Wootton Basset), Henton (Broad 
Hinton), Biddestone, nartham, Sherston (S. Pinkney), and Milford 
(near Salisbury), held of the chief lord by various subinfeudatories 
on condition of knight service. Some obscurity, however, envelops 
tlic descent of this barony in the first century after the Conquest. 
It certainly belonged in chief to Reginald, Earl of Cornwall, one of 
the natural sons of King Henry I. and half-brother to the gallant 
Robert, Earl of Gloucester, by whose side he fought throughout 
tlic struggle against the usurper Stephen in support of the claim to 
tin throne of their sister, tlic Kmprcss Matilda. But as this Earl 

ginald is mentioned under the name of "De Dunstanville," 

138 Abridgement of the History of the 

by Ordericus Vitalis, a contemporary writer, that was probably tbe 
name of his mother, who may have been the above-mentioned 
Adeliza herself, the widow of Reginald de Dunstanville. The 
second baron of this name Reginald (or Robert), had an elder son, 
Walter, who married Ursula, daughter and coheiress of Earl 
Reginald, his cousin probably on the mother's side, and received 
from the latter by way of dower, among other estates, release of a 
head-rent of £10 a-year, due to him from the Manor of Combe, 
and also one-half of the Manor of Colerne. To this Walter 
Camden ascribes the erection of the castle, but on what authority 
is not known. It was more probably built by an earlier gene- 
ration, and before the accession of Stephen. Walter de Dunstanville 
died in 1194, leaving an infant heir of the same name, whose ward- 
ship was granted in the second year of King John, for a fine of 
500 marks to his cousins Thomas, Alan, and Gilbert Basset, sons 
of Lord Basset of Hedendon, by Adeliza, sister to the first Walter. 
The second baron of that name attended King John in his expe- 
dition into Poictou, and received from him the charter of a market 
and fair to his Manor of Heytesbury, which had been granted to 
his grandfather Robert, by King Henry II. He married Matilda, 
daughter and coheiress of William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, 
and widow of William Warren, Earl of Warren and Surrey, by 
whom she had a son, Walter, third and last baron of that name, 
who had livery of his lands on the death of his father, in 1240. 
He figured among the rebel barons who defeated and took prisoner 
King Henry III. at the battle of Lewes ; after which he was 
appointed by his brethren in arms governor of the Castle of Sarum. 
This nobleman had for his first wife, Isabel, daughter and heiress 
of Thomas de Clare, brother of Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester. Dying 
in 1270, he left only a daughter and heiress, Petronilla, then 22 
years of age and wedded to Sir Robert de Montfort, by whom 
she had a son, William de Montfort, heir of course to her 
estates. She, however, on the death of Sir Robert, remarried 
to Sir John Delamare of Bradwell, who by " the courtesy of 
England" enjoyed his wife's estates for the term of his life. 
And as this was a long one, too long at least for the patience of 

Manor and Ancient Barony of Caatle Combe. 


the heir, William de Montfort sold his reversionary right to them 
in the year 1309, to Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, for £1,000 
sterling, by a deed executed before Henry Le Scrope, one of the 

king's justices. And thus the Barony 
of Castle Combe passed out of the line 
of the De Dunstanvilles, who had held 
it from the time of Henry I. or for 
about a century and a half. 

During that entire period the Lords 
De Dunstanville appear to have re- 
sided for the most part in the Castle 
of Combe. One of them, the first 
Walter, was, however, buried in the 
Church of the Priory of Wombridge, 
near Ideshale or Shiffnall, in War- 
wickshire, which manor he obtained 
as part of his wife's dower. A sculp- 
tured slab dug up in the ruins of 
Monkton Farleigh, and still preserved 
in Mr. Wade Brown's tower, attests 
the burial there of another, the arms 
of De Dunstanville being on the shield 
of the cross-legged knight represented 
in relief; and the third was in all 
probability buried in the Church at 
Castle Combe, in the altar-tomb bearing 
a stone- sculptured figure, likewise cross- 
legged and in chain armour, which is 
•till to be seen there. On this shield, however, the arms are at 
preeenl iindecypherable. 

Sir John de la Mare survived but a few years the sale of the barony, 
which on his death in 1313, became the property of Lord de Badles- 
mere, who in the year L316, exercised the right of presentation to 
the Rectory of Castle Combe, and certified as Lord of Combe, 
Colerne, Stert, Eerdecote, and the Town and Hundred of Heytes- 
bury, and joint Lord of Polton and Bluntesdon St. Andrew, in the 


Abridgement of the History of the 


county of Wilts. This nobleman, the son of Guncelin de Badles- 
mere, a notorious rebel against King Henry III., but afterwards 
Justice of Chester, and a faithful follower of Edward I. attained 
through the favour of Edward II. of Carnarvon to such great 
honour and wealth as to have been styled by his contemporaries 
" the rich Lord Badlesmere of Leedes," the castle of that name in 
Kent having been granted to him by the King in fee. In 1321, 
however, being jealous of the new royal favourites the Despensers, 
he joined the league of the barons, headed by the Earl of Lancaster, 
in their endeavours to restrain the extravagances of the king. 
Thereupon the Queen Isabella, under pretence of a pilgrimage to 
Canterbury, seems to have attempted a surprise on the Castle of 
Leedes, but was refused admittance by the Lady Margaret de Clare, 
wife of Lord Badlesmere. Incensed at this, and probably only 
wishing for some such excuse, the king laid siege to the castle, 
which though gallantly defended by its Lady Castellan, was 

Manor and Ancient Barony of Castle Combe. 


speedily taken, and twelve knights found therein hanged on the 
spot. Badlesmere himself was taken prisoner at tlie subsequent 
battle of Boroughbridge, so fatal to the flower of English chivalry, 
and executed at Canterbury. His estates being confiscated were 
immediately granted to the elder Despenser, who thus in the year 
1322, became owner of the Barony of Castle Combe with its depen- 
dencies. The desertion of the queen, however, disgusted with the 
excessive favour shown to the Despensers, soon turned the tables 
upon them, and the deposition of their wretched master in 1326 
was followed by the reversal of the attainder of the families of 
those barons who had suffered at Boroughbridge. The Lady 
Margaret, widow of Badlesmere, was consequently reinstated in 
the possession of his estates pending the minority of her children. 
This gallant and noble lady, who thus for a 
time held the Barony of Castle Combe, was 
one of the coheiresses of the great earldoms 
of Clare and Gloucester, and as such inhe- 
rited the capital Manor of Thaxsted in Essex, 
which had belonged to the Clares at the time 
of the Conquest. On her death in 1333, 
Castle Combe which had been assigned to her 
by way of jointure, reverted to Giles Lord 
Badlesmere, only son and heir of herself and 
her husband Bartholemew. He, however, 
died in the year 1338, married but childless, 
upon which event his large possessions were divided between his 
four sisters and coheiresses. These comprised no less than eighty- 
five manors and seventy-six knights' fees in England, and large 
estates in Ireland inherited through his mother from the marriage 
of Strongbow to Eva, daughter of Mac Morough, King of Leinster. 
nis four sisters had been all married at a very early age by their 
father, no doubt with the view of strengthening himself by alliance 
with the most powerful persons of the time; the eldest, Margery, 
to Lord Roos of Ihunlake; the second, Maud, to Vere, Earl of 
Oxford ; the third, Elizabeth, to Edmund .Mortimer, Earl of March ; 
the fourth, Margaret, to John Lord dc Tibetot. One of the 


DE CLARE — 1328. 

142 Abridgement of the History of the 

originals of the Deed of Assignment by which the great inheritance 
of Giles Lord Badlesincre was partitioned among these coheiresses 
(of which a counterpart exists in the British Museum under the 
name of the Mortimer Ledger), is still preserved at Castle Combe, 
which barony fell to the share of the last mentioned lady, and was 
inherited with other estates by her eldest son, Robert Lord Tibetot, 
or Tiptoft, on the death of his father, in 13G8. The dependencies 
of the barony were separated on the partition of the Badlesmere 
estates. But they still were held by their several owners as 
" parcel of that barony," and most of them continued to pay annual 
compositions for suit and service due at the knight's court of the 
manor down to the seventeenth century, at which time the sums 
compounded for — viz., 2s. for each knight's fee, having been fixed at 
an early date, were become too insignificant to be worth collection, 
or at least disputing, in case their payment was neglected. The 
claim of wardship, and of "premier seisin" or livery, was of greater 
value, but, on the other hand, not so easily submitted to, or en- 
forced when resisted. The latest claim on record among the 
Castle Combe documents is of the date of 1620, made for the ward- 
ship and marriage of an infant of six years old, son and heir of 
Edmund James of Broadfield, in the parish of Hullavington, a 
manor held, as was averred, of the Barony of Castle Combe as a 
knight's fee. This, however, was disputed by Sir Walter Pye, 
attorney of the Court of Wards and Liveries, who claimed the 
same for the Crown. A few years later, all these vicious feudal 
powers, whether of the Crown or other superiorities, were wholly 
extinguished by Act of Parliament. While on this subject we 
may remark that the several successive lists of the subordinate 
tenants of the Barony and Manor of Castle Combe, owing and 
mostly paying composition for suit and service, as recorded in the 
Rolls of the Knight's Court still preserved at Castle Combe, afford 
valuable aid towards ascertaining the successive owners of the 
twenty or thirty manors in Wiltshire which were held on these con- 
ditions. Several such lists of different dates from the twelfth to 
the seventeenth century are printed in the volume before us of 
which an abstract will be given in a subsequent article. 

Manor and Ancient Baron;/ of Castle Comb/ 


TIBETOT — 1366. 

On the death of Sir Robert de Tibetot, who as well as his father 
John, had been repeatedly summoned to parliament as a baron, and 
who died in Gascony (46 
Edward III., 1372), the In- 
quisitions attest that he left 
no son, and that his three 
daughters, Margaret, Mili- 
cent, and Elizabeth, then 
respectively of the ages of 
six, four, and two years, 
were his heirs. The extent 
of the landed property of 
which he died possessed, SEAL 0F SIR E - SCE0I>E > 


consisting of manors in the ton — 1371. 

counties of York, Gloucester, Notts, Suffolk, Kent, Bedford, 
Bucks, Middlesex, Essex, Rutland, Lincoln, Leicester, and Wilts, 
was very great, a full half of these being inherited from his 
mother the Lady Margaret Badlesmere. In the next year but 
one (48 Edward III.), the wardship of these infant coheiresses was 
granted by the king for the sum of 1,000 marks to Sir Richard 
Scrope, Lord of Bolton, then Lord Treasurer, and from that year, 
1375, the Courts of the Manor of Castle Combe, as appears from 
the Rolls still extant and well-preserved, were held in his name. 
This nobleman, according to the custom of the age, lost no time in 
securing the large estates above-mentioned in his own family, by 
betrothing the three infant heiresses to his own three sons ; 
Margaret to his second son, Roger (afterwards Lord Scrope of 
Bolton) ; Milicent to his third son, Stephen, who took for his share 
amongst other estates, the Lordship of Castle Combe ; and Eliza- 
beth to Lis fourth son, Nicholas, who, however, seems to have died 
before the marriage could be completed, and Elizabeth was conse- 
quently betrothed in marriage by Lord Scrope to Philip le 
Despenser. The tripartite indenture by which the " final division 
and purparty" of the Tibetot estates was made between the three 
heiresses and their husbands, of the date 1385, is still preserved al 
Castle Combe. It is in Norman French, and of great Length, 

ii 2 

144 Abridgement of the History of the 

containing many interesting particulars relating to the seA T eral 
manors and estates so conveyed. Another deed of the date of 1390, 
settles the Manor of Castle Combe and other estates in Yorkshire, 
Gloucestershire, and Middlesex, the portion of the Lady Milicent, 
upon her and her husband, Sir Stephen Scrope, Knight, for life, 
with remainder to their heirs, &c. 

Castle Combe, during its possession by the Lords Badlesmere, 
Tiptoft, and Scrope, throughout the fourteenth century, was ne- 
glected as a residence, the first of these occupying his proud Castle 
of Leedes, the second his capital Manor of Langar, in Nottingham- 
shire, and the third the stately castle which he built for himself at 
Bolton in Yorkshire. The Castle of Combe thus was allowed to fall 
into decay, and indeed seems at no time to have been suited for the 
residence of a wealthy household. As the country became more 
peaceable, it was no longer needed as a place of defence or pro- 
tection against hostile attack, and was probably used only as the 
baronial court of the lord, and the prison of his offending tenants, 
and the residence perhaps of his bailiff, or propositus, who exercised 
in his name " Jura Regalia," the right of " pit and gallows," and 
of the trial and punishment of offences against person and pro- 
perty. A field at the back of the Castle-hill still goes by the 
name of " the Gallows Ground," which was probably the place of 
execution, or at all events of the exhibition of this apparatus of 
punishment in terror of evil-doers; and the "pit," or lower dun- 
geon of the castle is still to be seen there, the only portion of the 
ruin now remaining, its contents having been cleared out recently. 
The family of Scrope who thus became possessed of the Barony 
and Lordship of Castle Combe towards the close of the thirteenth 
century, and in whose line it still remains, having been transmitted 
by direct male descent from Sir Stephen Scrope to the present 
owner, was an ancient and honourable race whose history has been 
amply illustrated in the splendid work of Sir Harris Nicolas on 
" The Scrope and Grosvenor Controversy," a contest for the right 
to bear a particular shield of arms — viz., a bend azure, on a field or, 
which occurred in the reign of Richard II. and was decided in 
favour of the Scropes and against the Grosvenors. " Though some 

Manor and Ancient Barony of Castle Combe. 145 

of the titles anciently possessed by this family" says Sir Harris, 
"are dormant and the rest extinct, few persons were more dis- 
tinguished in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, 
and Shakespeare has given immortality to no less than three indi- 
viduals of the name. The House of Scrope was ennobled in two 
branches — Scrope of Bolton, and Scrope of Masham and Upsal, and 
its members shared the glory of all the great victories of the middle 
ages. An unbroken male descent from the Conquest, if not from the 
time of Edward the Confessor, and the emphatic declaration of the 
Earl of Arundel, corroborated by the statement of many others made 
in 1386, that the then representative of this family was descended of 
noble and generous blood of gentry and ancient ancestry, who had 
always preserved their name and estate in dignity and honour, 
sufficiently attest their antiquity and importance, whilst the mere 
enumeration of the dignities which they attained between the 
reigns of Edward II. and Charles I. proves the high rank they 
enjoyed. In the period of 300 years, during more than a century 
of which the barony of one branch was in abeyance, the House of 
Scrope produced two earls and twenty barons, one chancellor, four 
treasurers, and two chief justices of England, one archbishop and 
two bishops, five knights of the garter, and numerous bannerets — 
the highest military order in the days of chivalry." 

Nor was the acquisition of the Tibetot estates in 1387 the first 
introduction of the family of Scrope to the County of Wilts. A 
charter-grant of King Athelstan, in the year 939, of a farm in 
Wiltshire mentions as one of the boundary marks " Scrope's Pyt," 
from which it would appear that some of the name resided there 
127 years before the Norman Conquest. The locality here intended 
was probably the same as the " Terra de Scrop" in the manor of 
Purton, mentioned in the Hundred Rolls of Edward I. 

Sir Richard Scrope, Lord of Bolton, the Chancellor of Richard II., 
whose refusal to affix the Seal of State to that monarch's profuse 
grants to his favourites, or to deliver it to any other person than 
tin- king liiins* If, is a well known historical incident highly hon- 
ourable to his integrity and firmness, was the plaintiff in the 
celebrated trial before the Court of Chivalry, presided over by the 

146 Abridgement of the History of the 

Duke of Gloucester, in 1385-90, for the right to 
hear a particular escutcheon, which has heen already 
adverted to. The depositions taken in this suit 
from companions at arms of the two parties, Lords 
Scrope and Grosvenor, and their ancestors, as 
printed in the work of Sir Harris Nicolas, are full of 
interest, reciting as they do in graphic language, 
out of the mouths of the heroic warriors themselves, 
the incidents of the campaigns of Crecy and Agin- 
bankek of sceope. court) p oictierSj N a j ara , Halidon Hill, and other 

o-lorious fields. Among the witnesses examined on the part of Lord 
Scrope, and whose testimony is recorded from their own lips, are the 
illustrious John of Gaunt, his son Henry Plantagenet, afterwards 
King Henry IV., Sir Walter Blunt, Sir Thomas Erpingham, who 
commanded the archers of England at the battle of Agincourt, Sir 
John Sully, "then 105 years of age, and armed 80 years," Sir John 
Thirlwall, "who speaks to what he heard his father relate, who 
died at the age of 145 !" the Earl of Northumberland, his son Sir 
Henry Percy, and Geoffrey Chaucer, Esquire, at that time knight 
of the shire for Kent, together with dozens of nobles, knights, and 
squires of lesser note. Backed by such testimony it is not surprising 
that the claim of Scrope prevailed, after a protracted litigation, 
however, of five years, and that, the disputed coat (azure a bend or) 
was adjudged to his family, by whom it is still borne; while the 
House of Grosvenor was prohibited to wear it, but consoled by the 
substitution of another, azure a garb (wheatsheaf ) or, which the 
Marquis of Westminster still bears. Strange instance this of the 
weight attached in the age of Chivalry to heraldic blazonries ! 

The favour of King Richard II. to the Scropes was amply repaid 
by the devotion of the entire family to his cause and person, even 
in its worst extremity. Sir William Scrope, K. G., eldest son of 
the Chancellor, who had been created Earl of Wiltshire in 1397, 
and entrusted with the government of Marlborough Castle, was 
one of the first sufferers on the landing of the Duke of Hereford 
(Henry IV.), being beheaded at Bristol in 1399. He was Sovereign 
of the Isle of Man, and in that capacity signed his assent in 1394 

Manor and Ancient Barony of Castle Combe. 



to the truce with France, as " one of the allies" of the King of 
England. It is he of whom Shake- 
speare, in his play of "Richard II." 
makes the Lord Roos say — 
' ' The Earl of "Wiltshire has the realm to farm," 

And again, in the first part of " Henry 
IV.," he is mentioned in company with 
another noble scion of the same family, 

"That same noble Prelate, well-beloved, 
The Archbishop of York, — who bears hard 
His brother's death at Bristol, the Lord 

He likewise (the Archbishop) met the 
same fate, being executed in 1408 for 
his attempt to restore the deposed line 
— a bold and what in those days was 
considered a sacrilegious act on the part of the new Sovereign, and 
perhaps prefiguring the independence of ecclesiastical domination, 
which his dynasty was destined in after years to vindicate for the 
state. It is reported that on the indignant remonstrance of the 
Pope against this outrage committed on a son of the church, he 
was silenced by King Henry's sending him the armour in which 
the Archbishop had been taken at the head of his forces, asking 
"if that was his son's coat?" Indeed the members of this family 
were individually as brave in the field of battle as distinguished in 
tin; church and the law courts, and wore the surcoat and the 
gown or cassock alternately, and with equal honour. 

The Earl of Wiltshire left no children, so that on the decease of 
liis illustrious father in 1403, his second son, Roger, succeeded to 
the Barony of Bolton, and the large family estates in Yorkshire 
and elsewhere, which his descendants for several generations con- 
tinued to enjoy until this branch became extinct in 1630, in the 
person of Emmanuel, eleventh Baron Serope of Bolton, created 
I. nl of Sunderland by Charles I. This noblenum divided his vast 
itee between his three illegitimate daughters, which thus became 
the chief foundation of the fortunes .still enjoyed by the three noble 

148 Abridgement of the History of the 

families of Paulet, Marquess of Winchester, and Duke of Bolton ; 
Savage, Earl of Rivers ; and Grubham Howe, Earl Howe of 
Langar ; which these ladies respectively intermarried. 

The third son of the Chancellor Scrope, Sir Stephen, was, as we 
have seen, the Lord of Castle Combe, in right of his wife, Milicent 
Tiptoft. He also was faithful to the last to King Richard, and 
accompanied him in his disastrous and fatal retreat to Conway and 
Flint Castles, and his fidelity is immortalized in those pathetic 
scenes in which Shakespeare has embalmed the memory of the un- 
happy prince. He was for many years Governor of Ireland, as 
deputy of Thomas of Lancaster, the king's son, by whom he was 
entirely trusted. And there he died in 1408, leaving an only son, 
Stephen, a minor. 

His widow, the Lady Milicent, had, however, a life estate in 
the Lordship of Castle Combe, and the bulk of the property of her 
husband, which came to him as her inheritance. She was re-married 
very shortly afterwards to the celebrated Sir John Fastolf, then 
serving as an esquire in the Irish army, under Lord John of Lan- 
caster, and lived herself to a considerable age ; while her second 
husband claimed and retained possession of her estates, under plea 
of the custom of England, to a still more advanced period. It thus 
happened that the unlucky Stephen Scrope was kept for more than 
fifty years after his father's death out of the enjoyment of his inhe- 
ritance, and during this long minority was reduced to great straights ; 
as appears from an amusing correspondence, or controversy rather, 
printed in this volume from documents extant at Castle Combe, 
between himself and his father-in-law, Sir John — who, we need 
hardly say, is generally considered the prototype of Shakespeare's 
fat knight, Sir John FalstafF. Indeed the behaviour of the real 
knight to his son-in-law, if we are to believe the relation of the 
latter, is very much what we might expect from the dramatic Sir 
John. One of the schedules of grievances which Stephen Scrope 
pitifully recounts, commences thus — " In the first yere that my 
fader Fastolf was maried to my moder he sokle me" (in wardship and 
marriage this of course means) " for 500 marks, without any titill 
or right ; through which sale my person in this world was dis- 

Manor and Ancient Barony of Castle Combe. 


figured for ever, I having took sykeness" (through ill-treatment it 
would appear) " a xiii. or xiv. yere's swyng, whereby I am dis- 
figured in person, and shall be whilst I live." 

" Item, he bought me agene : so he bought me and sold me, as a 
beste, agenst all right and lawe." 

"Item, he kept from me by deceit thirty yeres together and 
more worthe of lyveloode, in a towne called Wighton of the 
TVolde, in Yorkshire." 

" Item, he kept from me, agens all lawe and right two manors — 
that is to say, Oxendon and Hamthwayte, &c." 

" Item, plate and stuffe of mine, the which is specified in mine 
owne fadris testament to me^ bequeathed, which my seide father 
Fastolf had ever to his use, &c." 

" Item, further strop and waste of mine inheritance, which is v. 
hundred marks worth by the yere, the which has been in the hands 
of my seid father (-in-law) 53 yeres." 


The unlucky Stephen seems to have obtained no redress from 
bifl griping father-in-law while alive, nor from the executors of 
the latter after his decease in 1459; when at length he entered 
into the long-delayed possession of his maternal estates, being 
above the age of sixty himself. 


Abridgement of the History of the 

During this interval of more than half a century (the first half 
of the fifteenth), the estate of Castle Combe had been administered 
for Fastolf by the resident bailiff, and a seneschal or steward, super- 
intended by occasional visits of the auditor or supervisor, which 
character for the most part was enacted by the gossiping antiquary 
and annalist, William Worcester, who was Fastolf's secretary 
through the greater part of a long life. Many manuscripts are 
preserved at Castle Combe in the handwriting of this worthy, 
especially three or four chartularies, or volumes containing copies 
of deeds relating to the Scrope estates. The Fastolf letters, pub- 
lished by Fenn, have already made the public acquainted with 
this quaint character, as well as with several of his fellows in the 
household of Sir John Fastolf at Caistor Castle, in Norfolk ; 
amongst the rest his confessor and executor, Sir Thomas Howes, 
who was parson of Castle Combe by presentation of his patron. 
Stephen Scrope in 1458, married the daughter of Sir Richard 
Bingham, one of the judges of the Court of 
Common Pleas, by whom he had one son, 
John, upon whom he had (by a deed executed 
on the occasion of his second marriage) 
entailed the Manor of Castle Combe ; and a 
few years later — viz., in 1466, he sold to 
the Earl of Warwick the wardship and 
marriage of this only son, then about six 
years of age, making over to the Earl at 
the same time the Manor of Oxendon, in 
Gloucestershire, until John Scrope should 
attain his majority, when it was to be 
settled upon him and his wife, and their 
heirs. In consideration of this agreement 
Stephen Scrope was to receive from the 
Earl immediate payment of £200, and a reserved rent of £10 
yearly from the manor. The Earl of Warwick was at the time 
lord paramount of the manor, as held, of the Manor of Gloucester. 
This agreement, lunyever, was subsequently voided, and in lieu of 
it, a marriage was arranged on terms similar, with Isabel, daughter 

ESQUIEE — 1443. 

Manor and Ancient Barony of Castle Combe. 151 

of John Newburgh, of East Lulworth, Esquire, which marriage 
was solemnized in due time ; and Stephen Scrope dying in 1472, 
his son John, on his coming of age in 1482, had livery of his 
estates. These, however, had been reduced, through the diffi- 
culties occasioned by the long minority of his father to little 
besides the manors of Castle Combe and Oxendon. The more valu- 
able manors of Wighton, Bentley, and Hanithwayte, in Yorkshire, 
which Stephen Scrope inherited from his mother had been alienated 
by him, as a consideration probably for loans obtained at that 
period of distress, to his cousin, Richard Scrope, younger son of 
Henry Lord Scrope of Bolton, and were thenceforward dissevered 
from the estates of the Wiltshire branch. 

John Scrope resided at Castle Combe, and served the office of 
Sheriff of Wiltshire in the seventh year of Henry VIII. His mar- 
riage with Isabel Newburgh does not appear to have been a happy 
one, as perhaps might have been anticipated from its premature 
arrangement when he was but seven years old. By will Sir John 
Newborough his father-in-law bequeathed to her £20 a-year, for her 
life, so long as she lived separate from her husband, but, it con- 
tinues, " if John Scrope take his wyff my daughter and governe 
her, and keep her lyke a gentylwoman, then he shall have to 
their welfare and household, and they to live yn love and chary te." 
It does not appear whether this well-intended device was suc- 
cessful. But the lady did not long survive her father ; and Sir 
John Scrope married secondly, Margaret, daughter of Sir John 
Wrottesley of Wrottesley, Staffordshire, by whom he had a nume- 
rous family. He was made a Knight of the Bath at the marriage of 
Prince Arthur, 17th Henry VII. and served the office of Sheriff of 
Wilts in the 7th Henry VIII. He seems to have resided at 
Castle Combe nearly to the time of his death in 1517. His latter 
days were unhappily embittered by quarrels with the rector of the 
parish, Sir Ingelram Bedyll (whom he had himself presented to the 
church in 1508) and his curate, a Sir Thomas Kelly. Such differ- 
ences between squire and parson have been not unfrequent at all 
times. But some of the matters mentioned in the complaints of 
Sir John to the bishop of the diocese against his clerical tormentors, 


152 Abridgement of the History of the 

a copy of which is preserved at Castle Combe, are characteristic 
of the times. After sundry accusations of keeping back monies 
entrusted to him on Sir John's account, and taking exorbitant 
tythes from him and his tenants, he charges Sir Thomas, whom 
he had out of kindness, he says, boarded in his own house, 
with "offering felony" to his, Sir John's, daughter, and also to 
his wife's gentlewoman, and on their resistance " out of poor malice 
uttering (i.e. publishing) their confession ;" " wherefore, ever 
since," says Sir John very reasonably, " I and my tenants have 
Little mind to be confessed of him." On another occasion he says, 
this precious curate " drew a knife, on a certain William Powell, 
within the Parish Church of Castle Combe, and at another, 
"robbed the poor Monastery of Kyngton, and carried away the 
prioress of the same ; with many other wrongs and misde- 
meanours," which he says this priest ventured to perpetrate relying 
on the protection of the lord bishop, over whom he boasted that he 
possessed unlimited influence, owing to his having taken upon 
himself the blame of some carnal offence of his Grace, who there- 
upon punished him with a few days imprisonment, and " three 
stripes with a fox taylle !" And in these and other misdeeds he 
was supported, complains Sir John, by his rector, Sir IngeLram, 
who was the bishop's chaplain. The vexation thus caused seems 
to have driven Sir John from his home during the last years of his 
life. He certainly died in London and was buried in the Chapel 
of St. Catharine's, near the Tower, to which charitable foundation, 
he as well as his father, had been a liberal benefactor. Margaret, 
the widow of Sir John Scrope, survived her husband several years, 
and resided at Castle Combe, occupied in the education of her 
young family ; which consisted of two sons and three daughters. 
In the year after her husband's death a temporary assignment of 
dower was made to her ; and seven years later — viz., in 1525, on 
her eldest son, Richard, attaining his majority, he entered into an 
agreement to pay to her " yearly during her Life in the name of 
her dower £31 6s. 8d. quarterly, at Castle Combe, and 40 couple 
of conies, two kines lease, and going for one horse within the park 
of Castle Combe aforesaid, one buck and doe in season to be taken 

Mentor and Ancient Barony of Castle Combe. 153 

within the said park, yearly during her life, &c." Apartments 
were also assigned to her separate use in the manor-house. 

Richard Scrope, Esquire, in 1525, obtained livery of the estates 
of Castle Combe, Oxendon in Gloucestershire, and others. He 
served the office of Sheriff of Wilts in 1546-7, and twice paid the 
fine for his discharge from being made a knight of the Bath — one 
of the base inventions for obtaining money to which the sovereigns 
of that time had frequent recourse. Richard Scrope was thrice 
married : first, to a daughter of Robert Amydas, goldsmith of 
London, by whom he had one daughter, Elizabeth, who married 
Martin Bowes, son of Sir Martin Bowes alderman of London ; 
secondly, in 1532, to Mary, daughter of William Ludlow of Hill 
Deverell, Wilts, by whom he had three sons, two of whom died 
young, and five daughters, who all married in the neighbourhood. 
Upon his death in 1572, his only son, George, at that time twenty- 
six years of age, obtained special livery of his estates, dated 3rd of 
June, 1573, on payment of £63 to the use of the Queen (Eliza- 
beth) . He married Susannah, daughter of John Eyre, of Wood- 
hampton, Wilts, by whom he had two sons and two daughters. 
His eldest son, John, appears from the Court Rolls to have entered 
into possession of the manors of Castle Combe and Oxendon a few 
years before his father's death — namely, in 1601, in pursuance of 
articles of agreement whereby his father released the same to him, on 
conditions ; among others, of the payment of certain annuities to his 
father, and sisters, and also finding the former " meete, drinke, and 
logynge, and one man for his necessarye attendance, and keepynge 
a brace of geldings to his use." "Also to pay all charges and ser- 
vices due on the estates," amongst which is enumerated those " of a 
light-horseman and of coat armoure." 

John Scrope, who on the death of his father, in 1604, was 
twenty-eight years of age, married Jane, daughter of Henry 
Brone, Esquire, of Athelhampton, Dorset, by whom he had a 
numerous family of daughters, but only one son, John, who died 
about m'x weeks before his father, in the year 1645, so fatal to 
Other loyalist families. John Scrope the younger, bore a captain's 

commission in Lord Pembroke's regimenl of militia, and as his 

death occurred but seven days after the battle of Islip-bridge, in 

154 Abridgement of the History of the 

which that regiment was engaged, it seems probable that it was occa- 
sioned by wounds received in that fight. His old father survived 
but a few weeks. And John Aubrey, at that time a boy living in 
the immediate neighbourhood, records in his loose memoranda, 
other contemporary losses sustained by the estate — namely, the 
destruction of its timber, "In 1645," he says, "there were felled 
on the hills in the park of Castle Combe many a gallant oak!" 
These were perhaps cut down for the payment of fines imposed by 
the Commonwealth Parliament. Their loss is felt still, for though 
the sides of the hills are well wooded, the summit levels which 
were included in the old Deer Park are wanting in the old timber 
which usually characterises an estate held for many generations by 
an ancient family. 

John Scrope, the younger, was twice married : first, to Mary, 
daughter of John Hungerford, Esquire, of Cadnam, who died in 
giving birth to her first child, a daughter, in 1626. His second 
wife was Helena, eldest daughter and coheiress of Sir Theobald 
Gorges of Ashley, by Anne, daughter and heiress of Sir Henry 
Poole of Ashley and Sapperton. Sir Theobald, however, bequeathed 
his chief estate of Ashley, to his nephew, Richard Lord Gorges, 
and it does not appear that his daughter Helena inherited more 
than a chancery-suit for some dues of the Manor of Cirencester, 
and the small estate of Clapcote, in the parish of Grittleton. This 
lady bore her husband two sons, John and Gorges, the eldest of 
whom was but two years old on the death of his father in 1645. 
Shortly after which the widow remarried Thomas Jefferys, Esquire, 
of Earl's Croome, aud subsequently William Forster of Sheldon, 
Esquire, in whose name, jointly with his wife Helena's, the Courts 
of Castle Combe were held during the long minority of the infant 
heir. In 1664, this John Scrope (third of the name in succession) 
sued out his livery and entered into possession of the estates of 
Castle Combe and Oxendon. He had previously married Anna, 
fourth daughter of his neighbour Charles Gore, Esquire, of Alder- 
ton, sister to Thomas Gore of the same place, well-known as an 
antiquary and writer on heraldry, of whom frequent mention is 
made by his friend and brother antiquary John Aubrey. By this 
marriage Mr. Scrope had a family of four sons and as many 

Manor and Ancient Barony of Castle Combe. 155 

daughters ; most of whom, however, died young, and all unmarried, 
except Charles, the second son, who indeed predeceased his father, 
but left a son, Gorges, by his wife Agnes, daughter of Robert 
Codrington, Esquire, which Gorges on the death of his grandfather 
John, 1714, inherited the Manor of Castle Combe. Gorges Scrope 
married in 1734, Mary, daughter of Emanuel Hobbs of Bath, and 
dying ten years later, without issue, bequeathed the estate for life, 
to his widow, who held it till her death in 1774, when it reverted 
by force of the entail created in the will of her husband, to the 
eldest surviving male heir of his grandfather, the Rev. John 
Scrope, D.D., then Rector of Castle Combe, and Vicar of Kington 
St. Michael's, a scholar and author of some works on divinity. 
This gentleman, dying in 1777 unmarried, was succeeded in both 
the living and the estate by his brother, the Rev. Richard 
Scrope, D.D., who was likewise favourably known for his literary 
attainments, having been entrusted by the University of Oxford, 
in which he held a fellowship of Magdalen and served the office of 
Proctor, with the task of editing the Clarendon State Papers in 
the Bodleian Library — a delicate business requiring firmness and 
freedom from party bias no less than judgment and discrimination. 
Dr. Scrope married in 1767, Anne, daughter of Edmund Lambert, 
Esquire, of Boyton, by whom he had two sons, John, who died 
young, and William, the late owner of Castle Combe (1851) ; and 
one daughter, Harriett, married to Walsh Porter, Esquire, by 
whom she had a family of several children. 

William Scrope, who succeeded to the estate of Castle Combe on 
the death of his father in 1787, inherited likewise a year or two 
later considerable estates in Lincolnshire, which had been entailed 
on him by the last male descendant of a distant collateral branch 
of the line of the Scropes of Bolton. This gentleman, who died in 
1851, was well known in the world as an accomplished artist and 
sportsman, and as the writer of two popular volumes on deer- 
stalking and salmon-fishing. In earlier days, before the close of 
the last century, he was also known upon the turf, and kept for 
some years a pack of harriers at Castle Combe, hunting the county 
north of that place in conjunction with Mr. Parry Hodges of 
I ist on ('• rey. Mr. Scrope married in 1 794, Emma, daughter and 

156 Abridgement of the History of the 

heiress of Colonel Charles Long of Grittleton, only brother of Sir 
James Long, Bart, of Draycote, by whom he had an only daughter, 
Emma-Phipps, married in 1821, to George Poulett Thomson, 
Esquire (who thereupon took the name and arms of Scrope in lieu 
of Thomson by royal license) the present proprietor of Castle 
Combe. It may be mentioned that Mr. Poulett Scrope was already 
of Wiltshire blood, through his mother, who was daughter of 
Dr. Jacob of the Close, Salisbury, father to the present John 
Henry Jacob, Esquire, of that place. Moreover, by his grand- 
mother, coheiress of the Pouletts of Gotehurst, co. Somerset, he 
claims direct descent from Sir Amias Poulett, of Hinton St. George, 
in that county, a privy councillor of Queen Elizabeth, and the 
proprietor of large estates in Wiltshire ; as also from Poulett Duke 
of Bolton, Lord of Edington and Erlestoke, in this county. It is 
perhaps, worthy of remark, that this Bolton family, having (as 
already mentioned) derived their principal estates from the Scropes 
of Bolton, bore the name of Scrope in conjunction with that of 
Poulett for several generations. And it may be noted as a further 
coincidence that the first Earl of Wiltshire was a Scrope, Sir 
William (created a.d. 1397), the last a Poulett, the present 
Marquis of Winchester (created a.d. 1550). 

Having thus traced the descent of the manor and estate of Castle 
Combe down to its present owner, it may be remarked upon as a 
rare instance of the long-continued possession of an estate by a 
single family, the successive owners having inherited it by direct 
descent in the male line from the year 1372 to the present day 
(a period of nearly five centuries) through only eleven genera- 
tions, being an average of nearly 44 years to each. 

The Church of Castle Combe was dedicated to St. Andrew. It 
is situated near the centre of the lower town, between the old 
market-place and the manor-house, and its handsome tower crowned 
by four pinnacles and an elegant spire over the staircase turret, 
appears to great advantage from every side, backed by the wooded 
hills among which the village lies embosomed. The tower was 
built in the first half of the fifteenth century, as appears from con- 
temporary records, chiefly at the cost of the then wealthy clothiers 
of the place, but partly from funds bequeathed by Sir John Fastolf 

Manny and Ancient Barony of Castle Combe. 


for such •works in parishes of which he was the patron. It opens 
internally towards the nave by a very lofty arch, exibiting a stone- 
vaulted roof of handsome carved fan-tracery. The body of the 
Church was in such a precarious state a few years back as to neces- 
sitate its rebuilding in 1851. This was, however, done (chiefly at 
the expense of Mr. Poulett Scropo) in such a manner as to preserve 
the chief features of the old building, the design and details of which 
were exceedingly good, while considerable decoration has been added 
in the walls, roof, pavement, open sittings, and stained-glass win- 
dows. The result is a very satisfactory example of Church resto- 
ration. The Chancel east window, a portion of probably the very 

earliest church built upon 
the spot, has been pre- 
served with care. It was 
found blocked up and en- 
tirely concealed by masonry 
on the inside, a vestry having 
been built against it in 
the fifteenth century on the 
outside. It consists of a 
deeply recessed pointed arch, 
- pierced with four narrow 
lancet-lights, with a quatre- 
foil opening above them, 
and belongs evidently to a 
period previous to the use of 
tracery, probably the twelfth 
century. It is believed to 
be almost of unique design, 
since the lancet-lights of that age are usually grouped in twos, 
threes, fives, or sevens, and no other example of four lights 
is known to the writer. The effect, however, of this arrange- 
ment is so good that it appears strange it should not have 
been oftener employed. The arch which separates the nave 
from the chancel is richly carved, containing three figures on 
each side, iii canopied niches. This likewise is a well-preserved 



158 Abridgement of the History of the 

remnant of the old building in the decorated style of the fourteenth 

Adjoining the Church, and in the centre of the village, at the 
convergence of its three streets, stands the ancient Market-cross. 1 
It consists of a square stone pedestal raised on two steps, and 
placed on an elevated stone platform having piers of the same 
material at the angles, supporting a wooden-framed roof, pierced 
by a stone shaft rising from the central pedestal, and capped by 
an ornamental finial. The sides of the pedestal are elegantly 
carved in sunk pannels, containing quatrefoil tracery with roses 
and shields at the intersections. An old market-house (now pulled 
down) formerly stood near the cross, resting on stout timber posts 
and open below. The upper story served the purpose of a town- 
hall, or church-house, and was used for the meetings and feasts of 
the principal inhabitants, from which church-ale was in early times 
occasionally distributed to the poor. 

The Manor-house, an ancient gabled building, retains something 
of its early character, varied however, by recent additions and 
alterations. It does not appear to have been at any time of much 
size or pretension. 

An old Rectory-house in a most dilapidated condition, and which 
had probably received no repairs since the Reformation, was pulled 
down a few years since, and a new building erected on a better 
site, for the purpose, by the Lord of the Manor. 

The Court Rolls of the Manor of Castle Combe are preserved in 
a very perfect state, from a very early period, and as they afford 
some curious examples of ancient customs, and of the self-govern- 
ment of a small rural community through several centuries, it is 
proposed to make them the subject of another paper in a future 
number of this Magazine. Extracts will also then be given from 
the Rolls of the Knights' Court (Curia Militum) of the Barony. 
These will serve to throw some light upon the early history of 
those numerous other Wiltshire manors which were held under it 
by knight-service. 

1 See the Vignette at head of this article. 

Coal Mining Operations at Malmesbury. 159 


Coal ftlrahtg (Dpratto at JfialtMlmnj. 

By Professor J. Buckman, F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. 

The little Town of Malmesbury is well-known to the antiquary 
for the remains of its once glorious abbey, its interesting market- 
cross, and, if I recollect rightly, a cozy hostel, formed out of the 
ruins of an old conventual building, besides other mediaeval re- 
liques of great interest. Its inhabitants are a primitive race who 
derive great satisfaction from a charter, and still better, from a large 
piece of rich land bequeathed to them by King Athelstan. Now, 
whether the king with his bequest gave the assurance that, by dig- 
ging deep, those into whose hands the said land might fall would 
realize great treasure, or whether some person in digging a well 
suddenly came upon a black coaly-looking substance in the stratum 
of clay, does not appear ; but we incline to the latter opinion. 
However this may be, certain it is, that about a century ago, 
operations for coal-mining were commenced on Malmesbury Com- 
mon ; the timber of the estate was felled to pay the expenses of a 
shaft that was sunk and, as report said, coal found. Indeed this 
latter assertion had been verified over and over again, as young 
natural philosophers (and they were very young in it) had from 
time to time collected lumps of carbonaceous matter, black as coal, 
and which on being brought to the unerring test of experiment — 
tlit; trial by fire — burnt like like coal; in short, were the true 
" black diamond." 

Still with this evidence the mining had been abandoned after 
tlic sinking of a shaft — and of some money. This latter article, 
by tin- way, wan supposed to have been raised again by the wary 


160 Coal Milling Operations at Malmesbury. 

ones whom rumour asserted to have been bought over not to pro- 
secute the work any farther by the coal-masters of another district, 
in order to prevent the competition which tbis new mine from its 
contemplated riches must inevitably produce. Now as this opinion 
still prevailed, it was not long since deemed advisable to re- 
investigate the matter, but this time it was determined that such 
investigation should be intrusted to a geologist, and as such I was 
requested to undertake the inquiry. 

Having therefore gone to this most interesting district to pro- 
secute my mission, I was soon in communication with some intel- 
ligent gentlemen who represented the estate, when the evidence 
connected with the opening of the shaft was laid before me. About 
two pounds weight of the previously-mentioned black substance 
brought from the shaft, was submitted for inspection. This black 
matter of course proved to be lignite or carbonized wood, thin de- 
posits of which will be found in most thick clay deposits, and very 
frequent in this which is the Oxford clay. Such appearances, 
however, have frequently led to fruitless mining experiments, the 
usual argument for which is, " here is a good burning coal got a 
few feet from the surface ; it is true it is but a thin seam, but how 
much thicker will it become the deeper we descend." 

In addition to this evidence a bill of sale of some land in the 
district, on which was a statement that the mil ling rights were to 
be reserved, was put into my hands ; but it came out that the 
property in question was crown-land in which such reservation is 
always made. 

Evidence of this character was perfectly valueless, and as it re- 
solved itself entirely into a geological investigation, I shall now 
describe the geological facts of the case. 

On going to the site of the old shaft, I soon found that it had 
been commenced in the Oxford clay formation, and from examining 
the exposed debris of the shaft, I became convinced that the open- 
ing of nearly one hundred yards in depth as stated by my guide, 
had not pierced through the Oxford clay bed. 

Here, then, the question of obtaining coal on this spot was at 
once set at rest, inasmuch as we should have many thick form- 

By Professor J. Buckman, F.L.S., F.G.S. 161 

ations to penetrate before arriving at the usual position of coal- 
bearing beds. There would be in descending order, as follows : — 

1st. The Oxford clay with its basement of Kelloway rock. 

2nd. Cornbrash. 

3rd. Forest marble. 

4th. The Great Oolite beds. 

5th. The Fullers' earth. 

6th. The Inferior Oolite beds. 

7th. The Lias formation. 

8th. New Red Sandstone group. 

The aggregate thickness of which would not fall far short of 
3,000 yards. Here, then, it became evident that it would be rash 
in the extreme to recommend any operations in search of coal, as 
even if it were proved to exist below the formations cited it would 
be far beyond a mining depth, and besides we are quite without 
evidence of its quantity or value. In this case it will be seen that 
although geological evidence was not sought until after much 
money had been expended in what is called a practical way, yet 
that a first inquiry by the geologist would have settled the matter; 
and that, without the slightest recourse to mining operations and 
their concomitant heavy expenses. 

162 On the Ornithology of Wilts. 

d&n tjje (toittjolagij nf S3ilk 


There is nothing in the whole structure of a bird which appears 
to me to be so perfect, so suitable for the end for which it was 
formed, so interesting and worthy of close examination, as " the 
beak ;" I have cursorily alluded to it in a former paper ; I propose 
now to let it form the subject of the present, that we may devote 
some time to a thorough examination of this very useful organ. 

Every bird is furnished with a beak, composed of two parts, the 
upper and lower mandible, formed of horny substances ensheathing 
the jaws ; it is analogous to the lips and teeth of quadrupeds ; it is 
(as I before stated) seldom employed in mastication ; and its chief 
employment is in taking the food on which the bird subsists ; but 
as the nature of that food varies so much, according to the habits 
of the different species, so does this organ vary extremely in form 
as well as in size, and so presents one of the most distinguishing 
features for ascertaining the proper position in classification which 
the bird is entitled to hold : indeed if we examine the beak alone, 
this is quite sufficient to indicate at a glance the order and tribe at 
least, if not the family and even genus, to which the specimen 
belongs. But now, however varied in form, in size, in consistency, 
and in capabilities they may be ; however diverse in appearance, 
however perfect or imperfect, proportionate or disproportionate, 
graceful or ugly, they may seem ; if we examine with attention the 
uses for which they were respectively formed, and to which they 
are daily applied, we shall see that they all unite in partaking of 
this one common attribute, that they are all (each in its separate 
capacity) the very best instruments that could be devised for accom- 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 163 

plishing their several ends, and that nothing can be conceived 
more appropriate for attaining their peculiar objects. Differ 
indeed they do in appearance from one another, various indeed are 
their powers, but varied too is the work for which they were 
formed. Should we provide ourselves with the same instrument if 
we went forth to procure game, as to reap corn ? Should we arm 
ourselves in the same manner if we wanted to catch fish and to 
gather fruits ? The absurdity of such a thing is apparent : and 
just so it is with the beaks of birds ; they are the tools or instru- 
ments provided for them by the All- wise and Bountiful Creator, 
the very best tools for their respective wants, and which have 
often guided the mechanic to the precise form of the implement 
best suited to his purpose. 

We shall do well first to examine the beak as peculiar to the 
several orders and tribes. 

Now the Birds of Prey live entirely on animal food ; when they 
have pounced on their victim on the ground, or struck down some 
hapless bird on the wing (with the foot though, be it remembered, 
and not at all with the beak, as it is so often erroneously supposed) 
the beak is wanted for tearing apart and seizing piecemeal the 
prey. To this end what can be more adapted than the strong, 
short, hooked beak, which is one of the characteristics of this whole 
order ; it is of nearly equal breadth and height at the base, mode- 
rately compressed, or flattened sideways, towards the end ; and is 
furnished with a remarkable tooth-like projection in the upper 
mandible, the tip being curved downwards, three-cornered and 
very sharp. With this powerful instrument the vulture can unrip 
the carcase of the fallen and putrid animal ; the eagle and falcon 
can tear in pieces the hare or fawn ; the osprey, the fish ; the hawk, 
the small birds ; the owl, the mouse ; and nothing can be conceived 
more applicable for such work. 

The Perching Bird* come next, and their habits being more 
peaceful and quiet, and their food being of a different nature, we 
•hall find here no oeed of the powerful hook which we have seen 
to be so useful to the Raptorial order. And yet as the perchers 
include an immense number of families whose habits are exceed- 

164 On the Ornithology of Wilts. 

ingly various, and whose food is very diverse, it is clear that the 
beak which would be most suitable for one would be wholly in- 
appropriate to the other ; on that account we shall find the beaks 
of this order varying from one another very much. 

I have already observed in a former paper, that the first tribe 
takes its name " Dentirostres," from the tooth or notch near the 
extremity of the mandibles ; now the members of this tribe live 
almost entirely, or at any rate chiefly on insects, worms, and such- 
like food ; we may see them hawking in the air, searching in the 
grass, looking keenly under leaves and seizing them the instant 
they appear : for this purpose no strong beak is necessary, but as 
the living prey which they seize struggles violently to escape, 
what can be more suited for a firm hold than the soft beak fur- 
nished with a tooth such as I have described above, and which 
belongs to this tribe ? Moreover, the accurate Selby has observed 
that " the bill too is generally lengthened, so as to defend the face 
from the struggles of their prey, which is always taken by the aid 
of this member, or where it is short and broad, the base is furnished 
with stiff, projecting bristles, or having feathers that answer the 
same purpose of defence" {Selby, vol. i. 138). With this notched 
beak the shrikes find no difficulty in seizing their prey ; the fly- 
catchers can hold the insects they have caught ; the thrushes can 
retain the worm which they have drawn out of the turf ; the war- 
blers, the titmice, the wagtails, and the pipits can take their insect 
food without chance of its escape. 

The second tribe of this order also derives its name " Conirostres" 
(conical-beaked), from the formation of the beak of all those fami- 
lies which compose it. Instead of the tooth which characterized 
the last tribe, here we have no tooth, but a short, straight, conical 
beak, about as broad as high at the base, compressed towards the 
end, and acute. Birds of this division live chiefly on grain and 
seeds of different kinds ; the nature of which food is generally hard, 
and requires a strong bill to take it ; the soft beak of the former 
tribe could never endure the work that has to be done by these 
powerful little fellows ; sometimes they break down the hardest 
seeds, sometimes they even crack the stones of different kinds of 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 165 

fruits, in order to procure the kernels inside : for such work, and 
for pulling seeds from husks, and grain from pods, can we conceive 
anything more appropriate than the conical form of these strong yet 
short pointed beaks ? With these the larks and buntings can 
thrive in the stubble ; the finches can gain a supply of the seeds of 
a thousand plants ; the starlings and the whole family of crows 
can support themselves with grain, when other food cannot be 
found for these insatiable and omnivorous birds. 

We come now to the third order of perchers, the "Scansores" 
(climbers). These do not derive their title from the form of their 
beak, but we shall find it not the less remarkable, or peculiarly 
adapted to their habits. The nature of these birds is to climb 
about trees, buildings, and other places, grasping firmly with their 
peculiar feet, supporting themselves with their bristly tails, thrust- 
ing their beaks under and into the bark, into the fissures and rotten 
wood of decayed timber, and such places, in search of their insect 
food. Now to this end, what can be more adapted than the form 
of their beak, long, conical, angular, and wedge-shaped at the 
point ; and in addition to this some families are furnished with 
very long tongues, capable of great extension, armed with a horny 
point, and copiously supplied with a tenacious mucus, wherewith 
they transfix and convey to their mouths such insects and larvae as 
they have discovered. Sometimes in their ascent they tap the 
trees with their beaks to induce the insects to come out, and to test 
the soundness or hollowness of the wood ; their instinct always 
telling them where their food is likely to be found. At other 
times we may hear them from a considerable distance hammering 
and digging at the tough bark, or see them scattering the chips on 
all sides by their repeated strokes, as they are busy in dislodging 
their concealed prey ; others again may be seen peering and prying 
into every cavity, probing every fissure with their sharp, curved 
bill, leaving no crevice or fissure untried. For all these pur- 
poses with how admirable an instrument are they provided ! how 

ictly suited to their wants ! with this the woodpeckers can 
remove the bark till they can reach their victims, the nuthatches 
can split open the nuts which they have previously fixed in 

166 0)i the Ornithology of Wilts. 

some crevice ; the little creeper can pick out his insect prey from 
the hark. 

The fourth and last tribe of perchers again derives its name 
" Fissirostres" (wide billed) from the formation of the beak. The 
members of this division like the last are almost wholly insecti- 
vorous ; but unlike them, they feed more or less on the wing ; 
many of this tribe are remarkable for their wonderful power of 
flight, soaring high in the air, skimming over the water, and 
darting here and there the livelong day with the most rapid evolu- 
tions imaginable. As they feed so much on the wing, we find 
them provided with a very short beak, much depressed, as if flat- 
tened downwards, and of a triangular form ; the tip sharp and 
furnished with a slender notch ; but their width of gape is very 
great, enabling them more readily to seize their prey, as they shoot 
through the air, and the edges of the upper mandible are armed 
with a row of bristles of immense assistance to them when feeding 
on the wing, by increasing the means of capture with the mouth. 
The swallows, the nightjars, and the bee-eaters, are examples of 
this peculiarity, and of the absence of much beak, where so little is 

We have now reached the third order, "Rasores," -which live upon 
grain and various kinds of seeds and berries. This forms their 
principal food, though occasionally they will devour insects and 
sometimes buds and green leaves ; and therefore we shall be pre- 
pared to see, though not so strongly exemplified, the short, strong 
bill adapted to the hard nature of their customary diet ; the upper 
mandible is often considerably arched, the edges overhanging and 
the tip blunt. Birds of this order, however, do not always possess 
a bill capable of very great exertion: in some cases, as in the 
pigeons, it is rather slender and weak ; in all the other families it 
is stronger ; but yet perhaps taken alone it seems scarcely so well 
adapted as the preceding ones to the grain-eating habits of the 
bird ; but if we push our inquiries farther, we shall find these 
ground birds furnished with a peculiar repository for their food, 
whither it is conveyed whole by the beak ; this repository is called 
the crop, it is globular, and is nothing more than an enlargement 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 167 

of the "oesophagus," or gullet, lying when distended equally on 
both sides of the neck. As then the ground birds are furnished with 
this peculiar crop, to which the food is conveyed, it is clear that 
the beak belonging to this division, is amply sufficient for the 
purpose to which it is applied, and greater strength and solidity 
would be superfluous. 

The next order, " Grallatores," the waders, commencing the 
water birds, procures its food chiefly from the water, and this food 
is partly animal, but also in a great measure vegetable ; the cus- 
tomary haunts of the members of this order are marshes and 
swamps, the banks of rivers and lakes, or the seashore ; they are 
usually provided with long legs, enabling them to wade into the 
mud and water in search of food ; they are at the same time 
furnished with long necks, by which they are able to reach 
such food as they have found. Suited to this habit is their 
bill, whose general characteristic is long and slender, but as 
the different families of this order obtain their food by various 
means, so their beaks differ to a certain degree ; some are 
straight and sharp-pointed, acting as a spear to transfix their 
prey, as in the family of herons ; some are curiously arched, 
rounded throughout the whole length, as in the curlews ; others are 
rounded at the point, and provided with most sensitive nerves, 
enabling them to discover and seize their prey, when thrust 
into the soft mud, as in the snipes — all have the same admi- 
rable facility and adaptation for searching and procuring food 
in wet and swampy spots, which is the especial habitat of the 
whole order of waders. 

"We come now to the last order, " Natatores," the swimmers, 
whose name bespeaks them as denizens of the ocean and lake. 
Remarkable for their facilities of swimming and diving, and for 
their powers of submergence often for a considerable time, many 
families of this order procure their food entirely in the water: for 
this purpose the beaks of some are armed with sharp hooks or 
th, as in the mergansers; some are straight, sharp, and com- 
p re ss e d, as in the divers, auks, and gulls; others again which 
rarely dive, and in diet are graminivorous as well as granivorous, 


108 Oh the Ornithology of Wilts. 

are furnished with very broad and much depressed mandibles ; all 
are peculiarly formed for holding securely their food, which is 
frequently of a slimy and slippery nature. 

We have now run rapidly through the several orders and tribes, 
paying attention to the general formation of the beak in each, and 
have seen how strong a resemblance usually pervades all the fami- 
lies contained in them : we cannot fail to have observed at the 
same time how admirable in every case was the construction for 
attaining the desired end. There are still some particular species, 
which exhibit so remarkable a peculiarity in this organ that I am 
unwilling to pass them by. 

One of the most curious is the Crossbill, a bird familiar to most 
persons, as it occasionally though not periodically visits us in con- 
siderable numbers ; its name at once points out what some persons 
(and those naturalists of eminence, including the zealous but often 
inaccurate Buffon) have been pleased to call its natural defect, but 
which is now pretty generally considered a most admirable pro- 
vision of nature : these birds inhabit extensive forests of pines and 
firs, the seeds of which form their chief food, but to arrive at these 
a peculiar instrument is necessary. To this end the mandibles 
(which in young birds in the nest are of the ordinary form) become 
elongated and cross one another at the tip to a considerable degree : 
in some specimens the upper mandible is curved to the right, the 
lower to the left ; in others this order is reversed ; in either case, 
by means of these beaks, and by the lateral motion of the mandibles 
(which is peculiar to the crossbills alone of all birds), they are 
enabled by insinuating the points between the scales of the pine 
cones, and by the powerful lever they possess in their singular bill, 
to wrench open the scales without difficulty, and so obtain the fruit. 
With this strange instrument they are no less adept at splitting 
apples and pears for the sake of the enclosed pips. It may readily 
be conceived that to work so strong a bill, the muscles attached 
to it must also be of proportionate power and size, and these are 
the cause of the large, heavy, and somewhat awkward appearance 
which the head presents. 

Another bird remarkable for its peculiar beak is the Avocet; this 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 1G9 

is a water bird, one of the waders and belonging to tbe family of 
snipes ; its haunts are the sea-shore, and its food consists of worms 
and aquatic insects which it procures from the soft mud and sand, 
for which it often wades to a considerable depth ; for obtaining 
these it is furnished with a beak most appropriate though very 
singular in form ; it is very long, very slender, thin, considerably 
curved upwards, and especially towards the tip, very flexible and 
pointed, and looks exactly like a thin piece of whalebone ; and its 
mode of feeding is by scooping the soft oozy mud with the flat and 
upturned beak : from this singular construction the avocet which 
was once common on our shores, received the provincial names of 
" Scooper !" and " Cobler's Awl Duck !" though now alas ! it is very 
seldom met with at all. Bewick says that the places where it has 
been feeding may be recognized by the semicircular marks left in 
the mud or sand by their bills in scooping out the food. 

The Turnstone is another singular bird, of the same order as the 
last, but very different in habits ; instead of the soft muddy sands 
frequented by the Scolopacidse, these birds delight in the rocky and 
gravelly shores of the ocean ; here they procure their food consist- 
ing of marine insects, molluscae and crustaca), by turning over the 
stones with their beak, to get at the food lurking beneath them ; 
from which practice they derive their name : perhaps it would be 
impossible to conceive an instrument more beautifully adapted for 
this purpose, being strong, very hard, quite straight, and drawn to 
a fine point, and forming altogether a very powerful lever. 

Again, the Spoonbill as its name implies, presents a remark- 
able formation of beak ; this is also a wader, and a member of the 
family of herons; its haunts are chiefly pools of water on the sea- 
shore, and its food consists of small fishes, aquatic insects, sand 
hoppers, &c. To obtain these, and when caught, to hold them fast, 
the adult spoonbill is armed with a beak, very long, broad, and 
thick a) the base; thin and very much flattened towards the extre- 
mity, where it is rounded and shaped like a spoon or spatula. 
Ab a farther means of enabling it to hold its slippery prey, the 
inside of tins weapon is studded with small, hard tubercles, and is 
rough like a file. Bewick adds that the beak Haps together not 

170 On the Ornithology of Wilts. 

unlike two pieces of leather. It is curious that in the young hirds 
(which do not come to maturity and assume the adult plumage till 
the third year) the beak is soft and flexible, not so large as, and 
without the roughness so conspicuous in, the adults. 

Another and very remarkable peculiarity in the same organ is 
presented by the Shoveller, or as it is provincially styled, the 
" Broad-bill." This duck feeds chiefly in shallow water, or marshes, 
lakes, rivers, and muddy shores ; its food consists of grasses, and 
decayed vegetable matter as well as worms and insects, to detect 
and separate which from the mud and the water in which they are 
contained, the beak is singularly adapted ; in shape this instrument 
is long, broad, depressed, the tip rounded like a spoon, and termi- 
nated by a small hooked nail ; internally the mandibles are 
furnished with rows of thin, comb-like bristles; these seem to be 
very susceptible of feeling, and enable the bird to select the nutri- 
tious and reject the useless food, whilst this beautiful instrument, 
forming with the tongue a perfect sieve or strainer, retains only 
what is fit for sustenance. It was commonly supposed by natu- 
ralists that the beak of the young of this species when first hatched 
was dilated like that of the adult bird, and was therefore as broad 
as the body, and quite out of proportion to the size of the duck- 
ling: farther investigation has, however, proved this to be erro- 
neous ; and as the young of the crossbill and the spoonbill described 
above, so the young of the shoveller when first hatched, presents 
no peculiarity in the beak. 

There are several other birds presenting very singular beaks, and 
each exactly suited to the habits of its owner, but to describe which 
at length would extend this paper too much. That of the wood- 
cock and snipe, to which I have slightly alluded above deserves 
close attention, as being most delicate and beautifid ; it is extremely 
long, the point of it dimpled, soft, spongy, and cellular ; and 
exhibits great sensibility ; it is repeatedly thrust up to the base in 
the soft mud by the sides of springs or in water-meadows, and so 
susceptible is it of the finest feeling that this sensitive organ can 
detect the prey of which it is in search the instant it comes in 
contact with it, though it is necessarily out of sight. 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 171 

The " Hawfinch" on the other hand, which lives upon the seeds 
of the hornbeam and the kernels of haws and stone-fruits, is armed 
with a massive and horny beak, capable of cracking the strongest 
shells, and of inflicting a severe bite, as I once experienced, by 
offering my boot to a specimen which I had wounded ; and it was 
astonishing with what pertinacity the powerful little fellow held 
on, and again and again returned to the charge. 

The handsome but rarely seen Hoopoe stalks about in moist 
places, with his head erect and his long, curved beak, searching for 
worms and insects — just as Ovid described him so many centuries 

" Prominet im modicum pro longa cuspide rostrum." 

The Puffin with his singular and gaudy-coloured, but powerful 
and sharp -edged bill, burrows out deep holes in which it breeds. 

The Oyster-catcher with his straight, long, wedge-shaped bill, is 
enabled to wrench open the oysters, muscles, and shell-fish, which 
form his food ; to detach them from the rocks to which they adhere, 
and to scoop them out of their shells. 

The Cormorant with his long straight powerfully hooked bill can 
kill its finny prey by the squeeze it is enabled to give. 

The Petrels with their compact and hooked bills can break the 
skin of the floating whale, and gorge themselves with blubber to 

Such are some of the many forms of beak displayed by the 
British birds. From this we can judge (as Yarrell remarks) what 
"singular modifications of this organ nature sometimes exhibits, as 
if f<> show the many diversities of form which can be rendered 
applicable to one purpose." Man, with all his boasted mechanical 
skill, would fail to contrive implements so perfectly adapted to the 
end for which they were devised; some fitted to tear in pieces the 
yet warm and quivering bodies of the recently killed prey; others 
to rip up and consume the putrid carcase, some fitted for devouring 
insects and worms, some for breaking up hard seeds and grain; 
these massive hard and tough, formed for strong and laborious 
irork; these slender, light, and pliant, suited to the gentle uses to 
which they are applied : some adapted for securing and holding a 

172 On the Ornithology of Wilts. 

slipper y prey, others supplied with organs for discovering that prey 
when out of sight. There are many other instances of this varied 
form and varied appliance, but we need no more to prove their 
diversity, their excellence, their perfection. 

Before I conclude this paper, I will just call attention to the ex- 
traordinary superstition entertained in this country, and especially 
in Scotland, not many years since in regard to long beaks. One 
cannot very clearly see the connection between a long beak and a 
goblin, nor is it easy to say whence such an idea could have arisen ; 
yet such was the common belief, and without attempting to give 
any reason, every body knew well enough that a long beak por- 
tended no good. Sir Walter Scott alludes to this; and Yarrell 
tells us that the Highlander will pray to be preserved from "witches, 
warlocks (or wizzards), and aw lang-nebbed things"; but this super- 
stition is not peculiar to Great Britain, for to this day, many of 
the birds exposed for sale in the markets at St. Petersburg and 
elsewhere are first deprived of their beaks, and thus some of the 
rarest specimens are irremediably mutilated. 

These and many other equally absurd fictions relating to birds 
it is the part of the ornithologist to overthrow; to do which we 
have but to bid men look into the page of nature, and the more we 
read it, the more truly shall we learn to appreciate the wonderful 
works of God. 

Alfred Charles Smith. 

Yatesbury Rectory, April, 1855. 

The Hertford Correspondence. 173 

Cjje Ifortfarit tmmftixbmt. 

(Concluded from Vol. I., page 232. J 

Among the following documents will be found two lists, both 
possessing some interest for the Wiltshire genealogist, the first 
being a schedule drawn up by four gentlemen resident in the 
county, of the amounts which they considered their neighbours 
were capable of lending to the king ; the second being a list of 
the sums actually advanced. An examination of this latter list 
suggests sundry remarks. Some of the most opulent names in the 
county do not appear in it. We look in vain for the contribution 
of a Baskerville, or an Arundel ; for Cottington, Gorges, Grove, 
Sadler, Seymour, Webb, Audley, Estcourt, Englefield, Stump, 
Herbert, Chafyn, Penruddock, Ley, Weld, Stourton, Thynne, 
Norborne, or Smythe, with many others. But the simple mention 
of these names suggests a partial solution. Though not all Roman 
Catholics, yet they include the most powerful of that class in the 
county, and King James was perhaps afraid of irritating them. 
The Romanist profession was, for the time, in the eyes of the nation, 
a declining and unpopular cause, and while the king so far yielded 
to the general prejudice as to enforce with rigour the laws against 
" recusants," he probably felt that, beyond this outward demon- 
st ration, it was unnecessary, perhaps unsafe to go. It may also be 
remarked that in this list we are not to look for the names of dis- 
tinguished burgesses or citizens, for such communities were charged 
separately ; and as the gentry of those days (such as Seymour of 
Marlborough, Smyth of Bedwin, and several of Salisbury) did not 
disdain to live in towns, this circumstance may explain the absence 
of some names of eminence who would otherwise have figured as 
dwellers in country-seats. The principal feature distinguishing 


174 The Hertford Correspondence. 

these levies from ordinary taxes seems to have been that, bearing 
the name of "Loans," they could not be enforced by distress. 
Mr. Matcham in his interesting account of the Eyre family (Hist, 
of Fr ust field Hund.) recites the form of an application of this 
nature, made in 1625, to Giles Eyre of Brickworth, Esq., for the 
sum of £10 ; and from the absence of any endorsement by way of 
receipt, Mr. Matcham thinks it probable that payment was actually 
refused by that resolute Anti-Stuart ; though such a mode of defy- 
ing the tax-gatherer, even when that functionary approached in 
the attitude of a borrower, must at all times have been fraught 
with peril. That it was so in Mr. Eyre's case, his subsequent 
history abundantly showed. 

Returning to the subject of the present letters ; they seem to 
contain evidence that Lord Hertford's principal confidence was 
placed in Sir William Eyre. This distinguished individual who 
represented an older branch of the family than the Eyres of South 
Wilts, lived at Great Chalfield, near Bradford, where his mansion, 
though in a mutilated condition, may still be seen and admired. 
He was Sheriff of Wilts, in 1591, and Knight of the Shire in 1597. 
He was father of Robert Eyre, a Commissioner for King Charles, 
and grandfather of Colonel William Eyre, an officer serving the 


The Earl of Hertford to Sir James Mervm concerning Sir Thomas 
Thynne's refusal to be Colonel. 

I received this day fortnight by my cousin Sir Thomas Gorges, a strange 
message which he told me was from you, in the behalf of your son-in-law, Sir 
Thomas Thynne — namely, that he neither intended nor would perform the 
service as colonel now at the musters, which (at your desire first, and for his 
better countenance, and better enabling to serve his Majesty hereafter) I laid 
upon him. I marvel that your years and gravity could not divert him from so 
peremptory and undutiful a resolution, which, before myself, Sir Thomas Gorges, 
yourself, and Sir William Eyres, deputy lieutenants, with other justices of the 
peace, he feared not to aver, with many idle words used at the same time: 

The Hertford Correspondence. 175 

which I was the better pleased to bear with, because I hoped that he would 
long before this have come, and, before me and the rest of you, have confessed 
his fault. But since he hath not so done, let him understand that for the 
King's service I bid him not fail to send his lieutenant with his company to the 
musters, which shortly do begin as you know. And albeit he be sheriff, which 
was one of his pretended excuses, besides his poverty which he alleged, let him 
not fail to send, unless he mean to provoke me to lay open his said wilful peremp- 
tory refusal. I would be sorry so to do, knowing he is not able to answer so 
high a contempt. I discharged Alexander Stanter [of Mere ?] last year from 
being a captain, whom I understand you have now sent unto, without my 
privity. I have sent my letter to Mr. John Hartgill [of Warminster ?] to take 
the place. And thus with my loving commendations to yourself, I leave you 
From my house at Easlon, 18 Sep., 1608. Your loving friend, 


Sent from Easton, 
Sunday, the 18th. 


Lord Hertford to the Deputy Lieutenants concerning the Planting of 
Mulberry Trees and increase of Silkworms. 

I have received his Majesty's letters of privy signet, the true copy whereof I 
have herewith sent, whereby it seemeth that his Majesty hath, for the benefit of 
the commonwealth, an earnest desire to establish a course for the breeding and 
maintaining of silkworms, which is expressed to be by setting and planting of 
mulberry trees. I need not use any exhortation or persuasion unto you to be 
careful for the putting in execution of these his Majesty's directions, but do 
only refer you to the contents of the said letter of privy signet, not doubting but 
you will be ready and diligent, as well to advise others, as to give such example 
touching the service as is wished in the said letter. From Hertford House, in 
Cannon Row, in Westminster, this 20 November, 1608. Your loving friend, 



The Deputy Lieutenants to Lord Hertford desiring the Muster to 

be delayed. 

May it phase your lordship: your Lordship's letter of the 28th of May, 
bmohing the martial business, came to the hands of Sir Thomas Gorges, being 
at Bath and not well, on the 0th of June last. And since then W6 assembled at 

2 a 2 

176 The Hertford Correspondence. 

Amesbury, on the 26th of June, and having well-considered amongst most of 
us, according to our best discretion, touching the fitness of the time for the 
most ease of the country (the which we presume your lordship most of all 
desires :) and we find in many respects — as first, the horse will he at soil, being 
part of the service ; the corn harvest is thought to be ready before hay harvest 
will be ended ; the King's Majesty is certain to come hither ; the assizes and 
sessions will be about that time ; and many other causes which we think worthy 
your acceptance for reference, which we could declare unto your lordship but 
for being too tedious ; that the fittest time for performance of this business is, 
in our opinions, to be between Bartholomewtide and Michaelmas. And under- 
standing that your lordship will be at Amesbury very shortly, we purpose to 
attend your lordship for your further pleasure about this service. In the mean- 
time we humbly desire your lordship to accept of this our allegiance and excuse. 
And so we humbly take our leave. Amesbury, this 26th of June, 1609. Your 
lordship's ever to be commanded, 



Brought to Eltham, by Sir Thomas "WILLIAM EYRE. 

Gorges' lackey, Harry Cramp. 


John Hungerford of Cadenham to the Earl of Hertford, desiring to 
be released of the Colonelship charged upon him. 

Right honourable and my very good lord : — Having taken knowledge by your 
lordship's letter, of your intention to promote me to the office of a colonel within 
this county, in the place and stead of Sir Henry Baynton, Knight, I hope it 
shall not be unpleasant unto your lordship to understand from me such unfit- 
nesses as I can allege for myself: — as first, that the office of a colonel was never 
placed upon any man, during my remembrance, under the degree of a Knight, 
which I am not, nor, in mine own opinion, worthy to be : — secondly, that the 
greatest men of livings within the county have always possessed the colonelships, 
a limb of which men I can scarce reckon myself, for living : — and thirdly, my 
different course of life and bringing up, having never given or bent myself to 
any study or knowledge in military matters: — and lastly, some accidental 
infirmity and unfitness of body, being lame of a leg broken and shivered not 
many years since with a horse, which upon change of weather troubleth me 
much and makcth me very unfit for travail. I could further allege a great 
charge of nine children lying upon me ; and my small living, which doth and* 
will require my best and utmost means in employing my time and my ability 
both, in providing for them, and force me to avoid as much as I can all extra- 

The Hertford Correspondence. 177 

ordinary expense and charge. All which being well weighed and considered 
by your lordship, I hope you will be pleased, (upon my humble desire) to bethink 
yourself upon some other man to bestow the same place upon. I would have 
waited upon your lordship myself to have informed you thus much, but my wife 
hath newly been delivered of a child, and been very ill since ; so that I dare 
not depart from her too soon. In respect whereof I hope your lordship will 
interpret the better of my writing. And so leaving myself and my excuses to 
your honourable consideration, I humbly take my leave. Cadenham, this 4th 
of September, 1610. Tour honour's in all observance, 


Received at Amesbury, by Charles Gorslett, servant to 
Mr. Hungerford. His lordship's answer was by word 
of mouth to his said servant, " That he was not to 
fail to attend this service presently, because the king 
was to be s;?rved. But if he could hereafter find a 
more sufficient man than himself to supply his place, 
his lordship might then perhaps be moved to harken 
to his desire." 

[Then follows an order issued during the 6ame month by the 
Earl of Hertford, directing the deputy-lieutenants to inspect the 
various regiments throughout the county and see them trained by 
their colonels and muster-masters, taking them in the following 
rotation. The regiment of Sir Edward Penruddocke, to be viewed 
at Sarum, on the 10th, 11th, and 12th of September. That of 
Sir Thomas Thynne, at Warminster, on the 13th, 14th, and 15th. 
That of John Hungerford, at Chippenham, on the 17th, 18th, and 
19th. That of Sir John St. John, at Marlborough, on the three 
following days. The light horse under Henry Mervin, Esq., at 
Sarum, on the 11th. The light horse under the charge of Sir 
George Ivie, at Chippenham, on the 18th and 19th. Sir Thomas 
Snell's Demi-lances, at Marlborough, on the 21st and 22nd]. 


Lord Hertford to the Deputy Lieutenants, for viewing the defaults. 

After my vi ry hearty commendations: — Whereas you received my letters for 
tlie mustering and training all the forces within the County of Wilts both hone 
and foot, in which service I understand and perceive that you have used much 
diligence and endeavoured the best courses for perfecting thereof (it always 
hitherto being uncertain); only there was forgotten to be precepted, for that 

178 The Hertford Correspondence. 

time, the troop of horse lately under the conduct of Sir Walter Vaughan, Knight ; 
and the store of powder and shot which ought to be in divers places of this 
county laid up for a necessary provision, unviewed. Notwithstanding this your 
great care (for the which I give you many thanks) and although it was much 
better than in former times, yet many were absent both of horse and foot : and 
of those that did appear, the greater part have not paid the muster-master his 
small entertainment, a rate being allowed by yourselves with the accordance of 
the most part of the justices within the county. Therefore, both for the refor- 
mation of these neglects and for the advancement and future furtherance of this 
martial service, and also to avoid the suspect [suspicion] of the vulgar of any 
remissness of those that neglected their appearance, which they are apt to 
conceive, I pray and require you to precept [warn] those horses which were now 
omitted, that they may appear at some convenient time as you may think most 
fit; and also those absent and deficient be at the same time called, you not 
forgetting to take especial care of those which are to be newly raised to arms, 
to make the regiment of Sir Edward Penruddoeke complete 600, a copy of whose 
names I have here enclosed sent you, as they were presented unto me, that they 
be sufficiently provided ; so as you make certificate of this your proceeding unto 
me before Christmas next, that in the term following I may make, according to 
my former use in these cases, acknowledgement to the lords of his majesty's 
most honourable council. For any contempt or slackness in these services I 
hope you will order and see due punishment inflicted upon them, according to 
their natures and deserts, or return their names unto me, that the lords of the 
council may be informed thereof. And so referring the premises to your own 
care and consideration, craving your diligence and willing performance therein, 
I bid you very heartily farewell. Amesbury, this 2nd day of October, 1610. 

Your very loving friend. 


Postscript. — I pray you to be careful of the premises, and the rather because 

I am now going to attend upon the service of the parliament. 

Sir William Eyre and Sir Henry Baynton to his Lordship, in answer. 

Right Honourable : — Our duties remembered : — According to your lordship's 
letters of the 14th February last 1 we have sent our precepts for the warning of all 
the absents and deficients in the regiment of John Hungerford, Esq., to appear 
before us at Chippenham, the 14th of this month; and the absents and deficients 

1 Although, in the original packet, the letter here numbered XVII. follows letter XVI. and seems 
in answer to it, yet the dates of the two indicate a large interval of time. Perhaps letter XVI. waB 
not sent till February. 

The Hertford Correspondence. 179 

in the regiment of Sir John St. John to appear before us at Marlborough, on the 
18th of the same month. But we are in some doubt that the constables cannot 
take notice of every particular man's absence, nor of the insufficiencies of their 
arms without some note of them out of the muster-books, which, in our opinions, 
to have been sent with the precepts would have furthered this service much more 
than the books will do, at the days that we have appointed to view them; 
especially for the muster-master's entertainment, which, on our part, hath not 
been forgotten. And concerning the negligence and carelessness mentioned in 
your lordship's said letter, we are very willing to excuse ourselves and as unwil- 
ling to accuse any, but must leave the same to your honourable consideration 
when your lordship shall understand the true cause thereof. Of the Lances under 
the charge of Sir Thomas Snell, many were absent, and some of the horse under 
the charge of Sir George Ivie ; and if it shall please your lordship to have those 
viewed also, before the next muster, then we humbly desire that your lordship 
will be pleased that we may appoint one day in the Easter week for the horse. 
And so resting ready to our uttermost to perform what it shall please your 
lordship to command, we humbly take our leave. From Chippenham, this 4th 
of March, 1611. Your honour's at commandment; 




Sir Giles Wroughton and Sir Walter Vaughan to the Earl of 
Hertford, concerning the Defaults of the preceding Tear. 

Right Honourable and our very good lord: — We have, according to yoxir 
lordship's letter, caused the light horse under Mr. Henry Mervin's conduct to 
be precepted ; as also the new improved arms ; the absents and deficients of the 
Karl of Pembroke's division and the view thereof, to be taken at Sarum the 
20th of this instant March. We did also endeavour the like for Sir James 
Mervin's division, but Sir James's clerk being absent at the last muster, and 
the notes of the absents and deficients remaining with the muster-master, we 
could not by reason thereof proceed in that service. We received your lord- 
ship's letter by Sir Henry Baynton's man, by whom we have given Sir William 
Ejie and Sir Henry Baynton to understand what we intended for the expediting 
this service in the division of the Earl of Pembroke and Sir John Mervin, 
hoping tlir-y would have regard tn see the service effected in the other divisions. 

Thai oommending your lordship to the We rest ever, your lord- 

ihip'a to be commanded. From Sarum, the 4th of March, 1611. 


180 The Hertford Correspondence. 


The Deputy Lieutenants to the Earl of Hertford offering divers 
Reasons for deferring the Muster. 

Right Honourable : — Our duty remembered. Having received your lordship's 
letters of the 18th of April, with directions enclosed, for a general muster to be 
taken before the next term, of all the trained bands both horse and foot within 
the county of Wilts, we came this day to the Devizes to meet the rest of the deputy- 
lieutenants to agree upon some speed}' course for the putting in execution of the 
service, where we find by reason of the sickness of Sir James Mervin and Sir 
William Eyre, who are not able to travel in the service, and the absence of Sir 
Giles Wroughton, being at London ; also we understand that Sir John St. John 
lieth out of the county ; Mr. Hungerford being not settled in his regiment ; 
two of the captains also being absent, and Mr. Duckett, another captain of that 
regiment having lately broken his leg ; we cannot perform by the time prefixed 
the service in such good and convenient sort as might answer your lordship's 
honourable care and respect for the advancement of his Majesty's service, the 
discharge of our duties, and the earnest desire we have for the better accom- 
plishment thereof. Therefore we have presumed to offer these accidents to your 
honourable consideration ; and if it stand with your lordship's pleasiu'e and 
good liking, we desire that your lordship will be pleased at this time for these 
causes to put over the musters until after harvest ; at which time there may be 
general warning and notice given ; that thenceforward they expect to form the 
service yearly at Whitsuntide. And remaining ready with our best and utter- 
most endeavours to perform what your lordship shall be pleased to command us, 
we humbly take our leave. From the Devizes, this 29th of April, 1611. Your 

lordship's at command. 



Received at Letley, on Wednesday, 1st May, 
by the hands of Sir Walter Vaughan, him- 
self. His lordship yielded to their suit. 


Lord Hertford to the Deputy Lieutenants and Justices of Peace 
of the County, sitting at MaJborough, desiring them to consider 
of a course for settling the Muster-master's Entertainment or 

After my hearty commendations: — These are to remember you that about 
four years since, I recommended to your consideration, by my letters, the neces- 
sary employment of this bearer, Nicholas Stanter, for muster-master, desiring 

The Hertford Correspondence. 181 

you then to settle a reasonable entertainment fit for such an officer. Where- 
upon it was agreed by as many of the deputies and justices as were then present 
at the sessions, being held at Malborough, that at every yearly muster or view, 
there shall be collected of every armour [person wearing arniour] within the 
trained bands, four-pence ; which course hath been essayed to be effected, but 
much of it was then not only neglected and not at all paid, but it is also found 
to be, by reason of such slow collection, a stop and hindrance to the execution 
and advancement of the said service. Therefore I earnestly entreat you that 
some such course may be presently considered of as may make the said bearer 
more assured of his means henceforth. For which you shall not only bind him 

but make me very thankful to you for the same From Amesbury, 

this Monday, the last of September, 1611. Your very loving friend ; 



Divers of the Justices of Peace of Wilts to the Earl of Hertford, 

in answer to the above. 

May it please your good lordship : — We are very inclinable [with a view] to 
satisfy your lordship's desire mentioned in your lordship's letter, for the pay- 
ment of £40 yearly unto the muster-master according to an order conceived in 
that behalf. But forasmuch as your lordship desireth a certainty for the pay- 
ment thereof, we must entreat your lordship that we may have time to treat 
with the country on that behalf, with whom we have no doubt but that we 
shall so far prevail by our persuasions as that they will willingly condescend 
thereunto. Wherein we will use our best endeavours with all convenient speed. 
And so with remembrance of our humble duties, we take our leave. From our 
sessions at Marlborough, the 2nd of October, 1611. Your lordship's humbly to 
be commanded : 







: red ;.t Amesbury, Friday, i Oct 
by i: niton, muter-m 

ni the county eforeeeid. 

2 it 

182 The Hertford Correspondence. 


Lord Hertford to Sir William Eyre, about the Service of Loan. 

Good Knight : — I perceive by your letters received this day, the 9th of this 
November, 1611, I cannot have conference wi th you before my going towards 
London two days hence touching the service of loan, wherein I desire to have 
the greatest care and diligence that may be used, for his Majesty's contentment 
and the expectation of my lords of his Highness's most honourable Privy 
Council ; wherein, by reason of my said absence, your continual readiness in 
other services, besides the experience of the country, maketh me much rely on 
you. And therefore I have sent by your servant all the directions that concern 
the same, desiring you forthwith to appoint such times and places for expediting 
this most neoessary service, for the meeting of you my deputy-lieutenants. The 
letter I last sent you was commanded to have been with you on Friday morning 
very early, but it happened otherwise, through the negligence of him that I put 
in trust to deliver you my said letter ; for instead of receiving it yesterday by 
six o'clock in the morning, I perceive you received it not till twelve o'clock 
after. Thus, with my hearty commendations, &c. From Tottenham 1 this 9th 
of November, 1611. Your very loving friend, 



The Deputy Lieutenants in answer to the above. 

Right Honourable, our very good Lord : — According to your lordship's letters 
sent unto us, dated the 9th of this November, we have done our best endeavours 
for the accomplishing what is required in the letters from the King's most 
excellent Majesty to your lordship, concerning the collecting of the names of all 
such persons within this county that are thought most lit to lend money upon 
privy seals ; and with as much speed as the unseasonableness of the weather 
and high waters in these parts would permit us to meet together ; and have 
herewith sent unto your lordship a book containing the names and dwelling- 
places of every particular person and the several sums that they may be thought 
able to lend, with as much indifferency [impartiality] as we can. And as con- 
cerning the late Lord Chief Justice's division, we have proceeded so far as we 
could only by the note of the names sent unto us, but could not receive any 
instructions from any of the commissioners of the subsidy of that division, they 
being now all at London. So that if your lordship shall think fit to confer with 

1 The fact of his lordship dating from Tottenham proves that the present mansion of the Marquis 
of Ailesbury is at least the third, and not as is commonly supposed the second, structure on that 

The Hertford Correspondence. 183 

Sir Giles Wroughton, or any other of the commissioners of that division, to be 
more particularly informed by them, we think it may -well further the service. 
And so with remembrance of our duties to your good lordship, we humbly take 
our leaves. From Marlborough, the 28th of November, 1611. Your lordship's 
ever ready to be commanded : 


Sent with certificate, to Cannon How, 
by Robert Brabant, a foot-post, 
ult. Nor. 

" A note of the names of such persons as are thought fit to lend money to the 
King's Majesty by way of privy seals ; together with their dwelling-places 
and their several sums." 



Sir William Bamfield, of Foulston [Falston ?] Kt 20 

Barbara Bockland, of Slandlynch, Widow 20 

John Butler, of Figheldean 10 

Sir William Button, of Alton, Kt 20 

Richard Bruning, of Chisenbury, Gent 20 

George Cooper, of Amesbury, Esquire 20 

William Davis, of Avon 10 

Giles Eyre, of Church-ty thing, Gent 10 

Thomas Eyre, of Sarum, Gent 20 

David Feltham, of Fovant 10 

Edward Fowler, of Enford, Gent 10 

Katharine Gawen, of Alredston, Widow 20 

Thomas Gawen, of Hurdcot, Esquire 20 

Thomas Goddard, of Bramshaw, Esquire 20 

Richard Goldston, of Alderbury, Gent 10 

Sir Richard Grobham, of Wishford, Kt 100 

Sir John Horton, of Elston, Kt 30 

Tobias Horton, of Iford, Esquire 20 

J I ugh llorswell, of Stratford, Esquire 10 

Edward Hooper, of Broughton 20 

Thomas Hunt, of Long-street, Gent 10 

Henry Lamborne, of Buckhurst, Esquire 20 

The Lady Constance Lucy, of Overton :jo 

<i:iliricl Luttofte, of Sarum, Gent 10 

William Maton, of North Tidworth 10 

2 b2 

184 The Hertford Correspondence. 


Sir Richard Mompesson, of West Harnham, Kt 30 

Thomas Pctre, of Enford, Esquire 30 

John Penny, of Stoke-Verdon, Gent 10 

Edward Powton, of Kingston Deverill, Gent 10 

Edward Rhodes, of Sarum, Gent 20 

Martha South, of Sarum, Widow 20 

William Sharp, of Wilton, Gent 10 

Richard Sherville, of Winterbourn Dauntsey, Gent 10 

John Shuter, of Winterbourn Gunner, Esquire 20 

Adam Snow, of Winterbourn Stoke, Gent 10 

George Tattersoll, of Stapleford, Gent 10 

John Topp, of Stockton, Esquire 20 

Joan Tuck, of Sarum, Widow 20 

Sir John Webb, of Odstock, Kt 30 

Francis Windebank, of Broad Hinton, Esquire 20 

Sir George Wriothesley, of Britford, Kt 20 


Thomas Bakerville, of Stanton, Esquire 25 

John Bartlett, of Chirton 10 

William Corderoy, of Chute, Esquire 20 

Honora Harding, of Pewsey, Widow. . . .« 15 

William Harrold, of Bupton 15 

Thomas Hinton, of Chilcott, Esquire 25 

Ferdinando Hughes, of Bromham 15 

Sir Anthony Hungerford, of Stock, Kt 20 

Edward Hungerford, of Charnham-street, Gent 15 

Richard Hunton, of Wilcot, Gent 15 

Sir William Jordan, of Wilcot, Bart 20 

William Lavington, of Wilsford 15 

Christopher Merewether, of Worton 10 

William Northren [Northie ?] of Rowde 10 

Edward Nicholas, of Allcanniugs, Gent 15 

William Noyes, of Urehfont, Gent 15 

Christopher Poulden, of Imber, Gent 20 

Oliver St. John, of Pewsey, Gent 20 

Simon Sloper, of Newton, Gent 20 

William Sloper, of Highway 10 

Vincent Smythe, of Charnham-strcete, Gent 15 

Richard Sotwell, of Chute, Gent 10 

John Weston, of Bishop's Cannings 15 

The Hertford Correspondence. 185 



Sir Anthony Ashley, of South Damerham, Kt 40 

William Blake, of Warminster 20 

John Compton, of Donhead 20 

Ralph Daniell, of Dinton 10 

Sir George Farewell, of Berwick St. Leonard, Et 30 

Edward Triekcr, of Tisbury 10 

William Guyse, of Hatchbury, Esquire 30 

Thomas Hooper, of South Damerham, Gent 20 

John Hunt, of South Damerham 20 

Leonard Jesse, of Dinton 20 

George Ludlow, of Monkton Deverill, Gent 20 

John Mayhew, of Dinton 20 

Thomas Moore, of Hatchbury, Esquire 30 

Francis Perkins, of Bath Hampton, Esquire 40 

William Poulton, of South Damerham 10 

John Temple, of Hatchbury 20 

Sir Thomas Thynne, of Deverill Longbridge, Kt 100 

Richard Thomas, of Sedghill 20 


John Bayley, of Winkheld 20 

Margaret Bennett, of Westbury, Widow 20 

Richard Blake, of Trowbridge 10 

Robert Dark, of Trowbridge 20 

James Davies, of Trowbridge 20 

Richard Dick, of Winsley 20 

John Earle, of Holt 20 

Thomas Earnley, of Westbury, Gent 15 

Richard Home, of Bradford 10 

Richard Hulbert, of Westbury 10 

John Kcyton, of Westbury 10 

Robert Keyton, of Westbury 10 

William King, of Monkton Farley 20 

William Pawlett, of Cottells, Esquire 25 

Nicholas Phipp, of Westbury 10 

Edward Elogen, of Trowll 10 

Anthony Self, of Westbury 10 

Thomaa Shepherd, of Seend 10 

William Somncr, of Seend Kt 

186 The Hertford Correspondence. 


William Stokes, Sen., of Seend 10 

Anne Wallis, of Trowbridge, Widow 20 


Hugh Barrett, of Titherton, Gent 15 

Robert Baynard, of Lackbam, Esquire 15 

Jobn Blagdeane, of Kingswood 20 

Richard Cullimore, of Great Sherstone 10 

Thomas Cullimore, of Slaughtered 10 

John Danvers, of Corsham, Gent 25 

John Duckett, of Corsham, Esquire 30 

Richard Estcourt, of Newtown, Esquire 20 

Robert Forman, of Calne 20 

John Goddard, of Berwick Bassett 10 

Edward Gore, of Surrendell, Esquire 15 

George Hungerford, of Blacklands, Esquire 15 

Sir Francis Manners, of Rowden, 1 Kt 40 

Richard Moody, of Garsden, Esquire 40 

John Norbome, of Studley, Gent 20 

Sir Henry Poole, of Kemble, Kt 20 

John Scrope, of Castle Combe, Esquire 20 

Sir Thomas Snell, of Kyngton, Kt 20 

Hugh Speke, of Haselbury, Esqiiire 30 

John Stratton, of Seagry, Gent '20 

Thomas Thynne, of Bidston, Esquire 20 

John Warnford, of Hankerton, Esquire 20 

Benedict Webb, of Kingswood 10 

William Yew [Hughes] of Somerford Magna 10 


Henry Barnard, of Cricklade 10 

Mistress Jenever Baskerville, of Wanborough, Widow . . 15 

William Daniell, of St. Margaretts 10 

Henry Fisher, of Wick, Gent 10 

John Fisher, of Liddington, Gent 10 

John Goddard, of Ogbourn, Esquire 15 

Thomas Harding, of Hampton Turville 10 

Mistress Martha Hinton, of Eastcott, Widow 10 

John Kemble, of Midhill, Gent ; . . . . 10 

1 Only os tenant for life ; having married the widow of Sir Edward Hungerford. 

The Hertford Correspondence. 187 


Charles Pleydell, of Mughill, Gent 20 

Tobias Pleydell, of MughiU-mill, Gent 15 

William Sadler, of Salthropp 10 

Richard Smith, of Kennet, Gent 15 

Richard Spencer, of Wedhampton 15 

Nicholas Vyolet, of Swindon, Gent 20 

Edmund Webb, of Radbourne, Gent 15 

Daniel White, of Ramsbury, Gent 20 

Richard Young, of Ogbourn St. George 10 

Signed by : — Sir William Eyre, Sir Henry Baynton, 
Sir Walter Yaughan, and Sir Edward Penruddocke. 

" The names of all such persons in the county aforesaid as lent to the King's 
Majesty the several sums hereafter specified (a third part being deducted in 
the second year of his Highness' reign), and now charged at — " 

£ s. d. 

Aubrey, Thomas 16 13 4 

Ayliff, John, Esquire 20 

Bayly, William, Esquire 16 13 4 

Baynton, Sir Henry, Kt 33 6 8 

Bennett, Thomas, of Westbury 16 13 4 

Bremidge, Seston 16 13 4 

Brounker, Lady Martha 20 

Chadwell, Edward 13 6 8 

Combe, Edward 13 6 8 

Corderoy, William 16 13 4 

Cornwall, John, Gent 26 13 4 

Cush, Widow, of Swindon 16 13 4 

Dauntsey, Sir John, Bart 33 6 8 

Dowse, Sir Francis, Kt 26 13 4 

Drew, John, Gent 16 13 4 

Duke, George, Gent 16 13 4 

Ernl.-y, Sir John, Kt 16 13 4 

Eyre, Sir William, Kt 20 

Falconer, William, Gent 13 6 8 

Flower, Nicholas 16 13 4 

Gearing, Thomas, Gent 16 13 4 

Qoddard, Richard, Esquire 33 6 8 

Qrnbb, Thomas 33 6 8 

188 The Hertford Correspondence. 

£ s. d. 

Haddock, Thomas, Esquire 26 13 4 

Hall, John, of Bradford 13 6 8 

Hungerford, John, Esquiro 20 

Hutchcns, Thomas, Gent 66 13 4 

Jones, William, Gent 16 13 4 

Jones, William, of Mildenhall, Gent 16 13 4 

Lamhe, John, Esquire 16 13 4 

Long, Edward, of Monkton, Esquire 33 6 8 

Long, Henry, Gent 16 13 4 

Long, Thomas 16 13 4 

Long, Sir Walter, Kt 20 

Lowe, Richard, Esquire 16 13 4 

Ludlow, Sir Edmund, Kt 66 13 4 

Martin, Roger, Gent 16 13 4 

Maundrell, Robert, Gent 16 13 4 

Mervin, Sir James, Kt 33 6 8 

Parker, John 16 13 4 

Pawlett, Sir William, Bart 26 13 4 

Pile, Gabriel 66 13 4 

Pleydell, Charles 16 13 4 

Popham, Sir Francis, Kt 26 13 4 

Read, Edward, Esquire 26 13 4 

South, Thomas, Armiger 26 13 4 

Stephens, Nicholas 26 13 4 

Stockman, John, Gent 26 13 4 

Strange, Michael, Esquire 16 13 4 

Topp, Robert, Gent 16 13 4 

Vaughan, Sir Walter, Baronet 66 13 4 

Viner, Sir Henry, Kt 66 13 4 

Waldron, Edward, Gent 26 13 4 

Whitaker, Jefferey 16 13 4 

Yerbury, Edward 16 13 4 

[The modern equivalents of the above sums would be at least six 
times nominally greater ; though, owing to the rate at which 
money values have increased varying so much on different articles, 
all such general calculations must of necessity be hypothetical. 
— N.B. The name of Hutchens as among the five most wealthy 
suggests the query — was this the Amesbury family ; and what was 
their fate ?] 

The Hertford Correspondence. 189 

Many other letters of the Earl of Hertford are extant, but for 
the present it may suffice to take one more view of him towards 
the close of his career. For this we are indebted to the auto- 
biography of Sir Simonds D'Ewes, who saw the venerable earl in 
the procession which attended James I. when he went to open the 
parliament that met on the 30th of January, 1621 (the parliament 
which impeached Lord Chancellor Bacon). "Amongst the nobi- 
lity," writes D'Ewes ; " I especially viewed the Lord Seymour, 
Earl of Hertford, now some eighty-three years old, and even 
decrepit with age !" This was within three months of Hertford's 
death. Mr. Gk L. Craik, from whom the above notice is derived, 
then recites the following letter (still in the Duke of Sutherland's 
possession) written by the Earl about two years previously. It is 
a sort of news-letter addressed to a friend in Scotland, and is inte- 
resting in many respects, especially as showing how his sentiments 
in respect of the Spanish match were the same as those uttered in 
the House of Commons by his grandson, Sir Francis Seymour, the 
member for Marlborough. This document "which fills a folio page 
and a half, is finished off with seven elaborate flourishes of penman- 
ship (one of them attached to the very careful and distinct signa- 
ture), which spread over the remaining half-page, but cannot be 
imitated here. It is addressed on the back — 'To my very loving 
friend Sir Robert Gordon, Knight, these be delivered.' Sir Robert 
Gordon's father-in-law, who is mentioned in the letter, was Dean 
of Salisbury." — Romance of the Peerage, 3. xii. 

The Earl of Hertford to Sir Robert Gordon (son-in-law to the 

Dean of Salisbury.) 

Sir : — I have at several times received two letters from you, the one of the 
21st November, 1618, and the other bearing no date, by which it seemeth you 
have sent others which are not as yet come to my hands. These which I have 
ived are so full of courtesy and kind offers of your love and affection that I 
cannot return too many thanks for the same, with assurance of my love again 
to you and yours upon all occasions. The news of mine and my wife's health, 
you so* much desire to hear, I thank Ood stand well. As for other oceunvnts, 
some are comfortable and good, and others not altogether so pleasing, by reason 
of tin- loss of our late noble queen, Anno [wife of James 1.] which hath spread 

2 C 

190 The Hertford Correspondence. 

itself into a general grief among us all. The king no longer than since the last 
term, took upon him his own proper place of a most prudent judge in the Star- 
chamber to hear a cause between Sir Thomas Lake and my cousin, the Countess 
of Exeter ; where, by the great wisdom of his Majesty, not unlike (without 
flattery I speak it) to the sentence of Solomon in judging between the two 
women in strife for the child, the truth appeared of a foul impious slander laid 
upon the said Lady of Exeter by Sir Thomas Lake, his wife, and daughter 
Rosse, all three now punished by a large fine and perpetual imprisonment in 
the Tower without his Majesty's especial grace in remitting. We are, by the 
King's warrant, rigging up our ships and mustering our men in all parts of 
England, upon the eommom bruit of a great Armado preparing in Spain for 
some invasion ; and although no great grounds can be gathered for the building 
of an opinion of their coming hither, yet so little is that nation beloved or 
trusted, that every man is ready to arm himself for the better assurance of his 
Majesty's realms. The match of Prince Charles with the daughter of Spain is 
little spoken of, and (I think as well by you in Scotland as by us in England), 
as little desired. Eor my own part I hope to see him blessedly married into 
some Protestant house of Germany, to the glory of God, to the joy of his royal 
father and to the comfort of us all. These passages, which suddenly came to 
my memory, I have made you a partaker of; yet I doubt not but that my 
worthy friend your good father-in-law doth in a much larger manner impart 
the state of our English affairs unto you, having ever found him well-furnished 
of intelligence both foreign and domestic. You shall herewith find [receive] 
four books, the virtuous fruits of his Majesty's own study, for yourself, your 
lady, and friends to peruse. Thus, with mine own and my wife's hearty com- 
mendations and like wishes to yourself and your lady, I commit you to the 
Almighty. From Letley, this last of March, 1619, preparing myself and my 
wife shortly to attend the funeral of her Majesty, which is appointed to be the 
29th of this next month of April, 1619. Your very loving friend, 


Ancient Ales in the County of Wilts. 191 

Slttmttt Site in tjje Cmtntij nf WWIb, ant in tjje 

Dintm nf Inrnm. 

By F. A. Caheington, Esq. 

In ancient times it seems that our ancestors whenever they wanted 
to raise a sum of money for any good purpose parochial or personal, 
brewed a quantity of ale, and provided certain viands which they 
sold, and from the proceeds of the sale and from the donations thus 
induced the money was raised. Of these ales I know of only one 
remaining in the County of "Wilts — the Clerk's ale at Chiseldon ; 
there was also another the memory of which still lingers in a gene- 
ration now fast passing away — the Herds' ale at Ogbourne 
St. George. 

I have, however, found traces (not quite all of them in the 
county of Wilts, or diocese of Sarum) of the following ales — 

viz. : — 

1. The Whitsun ale. 

2. The Church ale. 

3. The Scot ale. 

4. The Clerks' ale. 

5. The Herds' ale. 

6. The Bidale, or Helpale. 

7. The Give ale. 

8. The Bride ale. 

9. The Lamb ale. 

10. The Leet ale. 

11. The Midsummer ale. 

12. The ale for some special purpose. 

1. The Whitsun Ale. 

In the " Introduction to the Survey and Natural History of the 


192 By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 

North Division of the County of Wilts, by John Aubrey, Esq." l 
is the following curious account of Whitsun ales : — 

" There were no rates for the poor in my grandfather's days, hut for Kington 
St. Michael (no small parish), the church ale of Whitsuntide did the 
business. In every parish is (or was) a church-house to which belonged spits, 
crocks, &c. — utensils for dressing provisions. Here the housekeepers met and 
were merry and gave their charity. The young people were there too, and had 
dancing, bowling, shooting at butts, &c, the ancients sitting gravely by and 
looking on. All things were civil and without scandal.* The church ale is 
doubtless derived from the Agapre or love-feasts mentioned in the New Testa- 

This introduction is dated " Eston Pierse, April 28, 1670." 
Mr. Douce in a description of sculptures on the outside of 

St. John's Church, at Cirencester, contained in Carter's Ancient 

Sculpture, 8 says : — 

"With respect to Whitsun ales, no account of the manner of their celebration 
in more ancient times has been handed down to us. At present f the Whitsun 
ales are conducted in the following manner. Two persons are chosen previously 
to the meeting to be lord and lady of the ale, who dress as suitably as they can 
to the characters they assume. A large empty barn or some such building is 
provided for the lord's hall and fitted up with seats to accomodate the company. 
Here they assemble to dance and regale in the best manner their circumstances 
and their place will afford, and each young fellow treats his girl with a ribband 
or favour. The lord and lady honour the hall with their presence, attended 
by the steward, sword-bearer, purse-bearer, and mace-bearer, with their several 
badges or ensigns of office. They have likewise a train-bearer, or page, and a fool 
or jester, drest in a party-coloured jacket, whose ribaldry and gesticulation con- 
tribute not a little to the entertainment of some part of the company. The 
lord's music consisting of a pipe and tabor is employed to conduct the dance. 
Some people think this custom is a commemoration of the ancient Drink-lean, 
a day of festivity formerly observed by the tenants and vassals of the lord of 
the fee, within Iris manor, the memory of which on account of the jollity of 
these meetings the people have preserved ever since. The glossaries inform us 
that this Drink-lean was a contribution of tenants towards a potation, or ale 
provided to entertain the lord or his steward. % 

1 At p. 32 of "Miscellanies on several curious subjects," 8vo., Lond., printed 
byE. Curll, 1714 — a book in the library of the British Museum. 

2 Vol. ii., p. 10. 

• At Cummor, Berks, there is a very old house not far from the church which belongs to the 
parish, and is still called " the church-house." 

+ 1788. 

t This would seem to he more like the Leet ale. « 

Mr. Douce's account of Che Whitsun ale is taken verbatim from an article in the Antiquarian 
Repository, vol. ii. p. 388 ; but it is there added that " the mace is made of silk finely plaited with 

Ancient Ales in the County of Wilts. 193 

2. The Church Ale. 
Mr. "Warton in his History of English Poetry, 1 says : — 

" Church ale was a feast established for the repair of the church, or in honour 
of the church saint, &c. In Dodsworth's MSS. there is an old indenture made 
before the Reformation which not only shows the design of the church ale, but 
explains this particular use and application of the word ale." 

" In S T - Edward Plumpton booke, 
Marked with B. 

"Church Ale. 

" Dodsw. c. xlviii. f. 97. 

"Memd. y l this is the agreement betwixt the inhabitants of the townes and 
parish of Eluaston, Thurlaston, and Ambaston, of the one pt., and the inhabitants 
of the towne of Okebroke within the parish of the said Eluaston, on the other 
parte by John Abbott of the Dale.* Rado Samichevrell, Esquier, John Brads- 
thon and Hurre Tythell, Gentylmen, witnesseth y* y e s'd inhabitants as well 
of the said parish of Elwaston as of the said towne of Okebrooke, beeinge of the 
said parish byn accorded and agreed in mann r and forme as followeth. That is 
to say y l y e s'd inhabitants of the said towne of Okebrooke shall brew fowre 
ales, and eu'y ale of one quarter malt, and at theire owne costs and charges 
betwixt this and the feast of St. John Baptist next cominge. And y l eu'y inha- 
bitant of the s'd towne of Okebrooke shall be at the s'd ales, and eu'y husband 
and his wife shall pay 2d., and eu'y cottyer Id. and all the inhabitants of 
Eluaston, Thurlaston, and Ambaston, shall come to the said ales, and that euery 
husband and his wife, and cottyer shall pay as is afore-rehearsed, and that the 
said inhabitants of Eluaston, Thurlaston, and Ambaston, shall have and r'teine 
all the p'hts and vantages comeinge of the said ales to the use and behoofe of 
the said Church of Eluaston, and y* the said inhabitants of the said towns of 
Eluaston, Thurlaston, and Ambaston, shall brew viij. ales betwixt this and the 
s'd feast of St. John Baptist. At the w ch ales and eu'y each one of them the 
said inhabitants of the towne of Okebrooke, shall come to and pay eu'y husband 
and his wife, and eu'y cottyer, as it is above-rehearsed. And if hee bee away 
at one ale to pay at y c toder ale for both, or els to send his money. And the 
inhabitants of the said said towne of Okebrooke shall carry all maimer of timber 
beinge in the Dale wood, new felled, y l y e said prshers of the said townes of 
Eluaston, Thurlaston, and Ambaston, shall occupy to the vse and p'fit of the 
said church. 

" Written in the ffeast of St. Andrewc.f 

ribbonx at the t/jp and f i 1 1 •-« 1 with ijdoM and perfume for Huch of the company to nmell to as desire 
it." Thin ule bt there ntated to be Htill kept up in the Cotswold hill* in the adjoinuiK county of 

(i\(iU< • 

» Vol. iii. p. 119, n (f) of the Ed. of 1840. 

• ThU tu probably John Stanton, lln but Abbot of the Abbey of Dale, in Derbyshire. 

I 1 "r thin accurate copy of Uii« agreement in 1 1 1 r- llodleiau Lib. 1 am indebted to the kindnesn of 
the Kev. Ifr. Kandinc I. It ha- BO <l ate except aH ulxivu, but the name of an abbot nhowK that it WU 
written before the Information.— F. A. C. 

194 By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 

Mr. Warton then adds that — 

"The nature of the merriment of the church ale was often licentious may 
he seen in the language of the Witches' Song in Ben Johnson's Masque of 
Queens, at "Whitehall, in 1609, where one of the witches boasts to have killed 
and stole the fat of an infant which derived its pedigree from the drunken piper 
of a church ale.'' 

Sir Richard Worsley, in his History of the Isle of "Wight, 1 in 

speaking of the parish of "Whitewell, tells us — 

"There is a lease in the parish- chest, dated 1574, of a house called the 
church-house, held by the inhabitants of TAliitwell, parishioners of Gatcombe, 
of the Lord of the Manor, and demised by them to John Brode, in which is the 
following proviso— " Pro vided always that if the Quarter shall need at any time 
to make a Quarter ale or church ale, for the maintenance of the chapel that 
it shall be lawful for them to have the use of the said house with all the rooms 
both above and beneath during their ale." 

"The Manor of Church Ales in England," is given by Stubs in 

his " Anatomie of Abuses," 2 as follows : — 

"In certaine townes where drunken Bacchus beares swaie against Christmas 
and Easter, Whitsondaie or some other tyme, the churchwardens of every parishe 
with the consent of the whole parishe provide halfe a score or twenty quarters 
of maulte, wherof some they buy of the church stocke,* and some is given them 
of the parishioners themselves, every one conferring somewhat according to his 
abilitie, whiche maulte being made into very strong ale or beere, is sette to sale 
either in the church or some other place assigned to that purpose. Then when 
this is set abroche, well is he that can gette the soonest to it and spend the most 
at it. In this kinde of practice they continue six weekes, or a quarter of a yearo, 
yea haKe a yeare together." " That money they say is to rcpaire their churches 
and chappels with — to buy bookes for the service — cuppes for the celebration of 
the Sacrament — surplesses for Sir John, f and such other necessaries. And they 
maintaine other extraordinarie charges in their parish besides." 

Richard Carew, of Antonie, Esq., in his " Survey of Cornwall," 
printed in 1602, gives 3 the following account of this ale : — 

" Church Ale. — For the church ale, two young men of the parish are yerely 
chosen by their last pregoers to be wardens, who deuiding the task make coBec- 
tions among the parishioners of whatsoeuer prouision it pleaseth them voluntarily 

i p. 210. 

2 8vo. Ed. of 1585, p. 95. 

3 Folio 68. A copy of this work is in Lincoln's Inn Library. 

• The Church Stock was money left to the churchwardens for the repair of the church or other 
ecclesiastical purposes in the parish. The Poors' Stock was money left to the churchwardens for the 
benefit of the poor, which was usually placed at interest, and the interest given in bread, or otherwise 
bestowed on the poor. — F. A. C. 

t The clergyman, see vol. L, p. 329. 

Ancient Ales in the Count// of Wilts. 195 

to bestow. This they imploy in brewing, baking, and other achates * against 
Whitsuntide, upon which hol}'dayes the neighbours meet at the church-house, 
and there meetly feed on their owne victuals, contributing some petty portion to 
the stock which by many smalls groweth to a meetly greatness, for there is en- 
tertayned a kinde of emulation betweene these wardens, who by his graciousnes 
in gathering and good husbandry in expending can best aduance the churches 
profit. Besides the neighbour parishes at those times louingly visit one another 
and this way frankely spend their money together. The aftcrnoones are con- 
sumed in such exercises as olde and yonge folke (hauing leysure) doe accusto- 
mally weare out the time withall. 

" When the feast is ended the wardens yeeld in their account to the parish- 
ioners and such money as exceedeth the disbursments is layd up in store to 
defray any extraordinary charges arising in the parish, or imposed on them for 
the good of the countrcy, or the Princes seruicc, neither of which commonly 
gripe so much but that somewhat stil remayneth to couer the purses bottome." 

Mr. Doran, in his History of Reading, 1 gives the following item 
from the churchwardens' book of the parish of St. Lawrence, in 
this town : — 

" 1449. Paid for making the church clean against the 

day of drinking in the said church iiij' 1 " 

On the Western Summer Circuit of 1633 [9 Char. I.], an order 
was made by the Judges of Assize, Lord Chief Justice Richardson 
and Baron Denham, at the Somersetshire assizes, for "suppressing 
revels, Church ales, Clerk (tics, and all other public ales." 2 Arch- 
bishop Laud complained of this order to the Privy Council, who 
summoned the Lord Chief Justice before them, and commanded 
him to revoke the order. 

On the next circuit Lord Chief Justice Richardson revoked the 
order accordingly, but " the justices of the peace (of the county of 
Somerset) being troubled at the revocation of these orders, drew up 
a petition to the king, showing the great inconveniences which 
would befall the county if these meetings and assemblies of Church 
airs, Bid ales, and Clerk ales condemned by their laws, should now 
bo set up again, which petition was subscribed by John Lord 
I'aulet, Sir William Portman, Sir John Stowell, Sir Ralph llopton, 
Sii- Francis Popham, Sir Edward Rodney, Sir Francis Doddington, 

i p. 45. 

-' Eliuhworth'i lit torioal Collections, vol. i., part rj, p. 191. 

• I'lOW-i'Jlls. 

196 By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 

Sir Jo. Horner, Edward Paulet, William Basset, George Spoke, 
John Windham, Thomas Lutterell, Williain Walrone, and divers 
others," l but before it was presented, King Charles I. on the 18th 
of October, 1633, published a declaration in which he republished 
what is commonly known as King James I.'s Book of Sports, in 
which it is declared that the " King's pleasure is that after the end 
of Divine Service, his good people be not disturbed, letted, or 
discouraged from any lawful recreation — such as dauncing, either 
men or women ; archery for men, leaping, vaulting, or any such 
harmless recreation, nor from having of May games, Whitsun ales, 
and Morice dances, and the setting up of Maypoles, and other 
sports therewith used, so as the same be had in due and convenient 
time, without impediment or neglect of Divine Service, and that 
women shall have leave to carry rushes to the church for the de- 
coring of it according to their old custom ; but withall his Majesty 
doth here account still as prohibited all unlawful games to be used 
upon Sundays only, as bear and bull-baitings, interludes, and at all 
times in the meanner sort of people by law prohibited bowling." 

Mr. Rushworth, the secretary of the Lord General Fairfax, who 
gives a very full account of these proceedings in his Historical 
Collections, says — a that this declaration " proved a snare to many 
ministers very conformable to the Church of England because they 
refused to read the same publicly in the church as was required, for 
upon this many were suspended and others silenced from preach- 

3. The Scot Ale. 

We are told by the Rev. S. Denne, F.A.S., in a very interesting 
paper on ales, 3 that Scot ales were maintained by a joint contribution 
of the resorters to them. In the diocese of Sarum, they were by 
Bishop Poore forbidden to be published in the church by the laity, 
and either in or out of the church by the clergy. 

1 Rushworth' s Historical Collections, vol. i., part n., p. 191. 

2 Vol., part II., p. 191, where also will be found copies of the judge's order, the 
king's declaration, and a letter from Archbishop Laud to William Pierce, Bishop 
of Bath and Wells, on this subject. 

3 Archceol. vol. xii., p. 10. 

By F. A. Carrinyton, Esq. 197 

Anno 1223. Constitut. Ricardi Poorc, Epi Sanun.* " Prohibemus quoque 
ne denunciationes Scotallorum iiant in ecclesia per laicos nee in ecclesiis nee 
extra ecclesias per sacerdotes vel per clericos." 


Anno 1223. Constitutions of Richard Poore, Bishop of Sarum. We order 
also that no announcements of Scot ales be made by laymen in the church, and 
neither in the churches nor out of the churches by priests or by clergymen. 

In the same diocese, a meeting of more than ten persons of the 
same parish or vicinage was a Scot ale that was prohibited by 
Bishop Bridport. 

Anno 1266. Constit: Aegid : de Bridport Epi Sarum. f " De prohibitione 
Scotallarum. — Prohibitionem Seotallarum et aliarum communium potationum 
pro salute animarum et corporum introductam synodali approbatione prose- 
quentes rectoribus vicariis et aliis presbyteris parochialibus precipimus sub 
obedientie debito firmiter injungendo quod parochianos suos crebra exhortatione 
diligenter inducant ne prohibitionis hujus temerarii violatores existant." 
"Communes autem potationes declaramus quoties virorum multitudo que 
numerum denarium excesseruut ejusdem parochie in qua cervisia venalis exti- 
terit vel etiam vicinaruni in tabernis hujus modi vel infra septa ejusdem domi- 
cilii potandi gratia commorantur. Viatores vero peregrinos et in mmdinis et 
mercatis convenientes quamvis in tabernis convenerint sub prohibitione ista nolu- 
mus comprehendi." 


a.d. 1266. Constitutions of Giles de Bridport, Bishop of Surum. 
" Of the prohibition of Scot ales." 

"We being desirous, for the good of men's souls and bodies, to put down 
Scut ales and other public drinkings, do, with the consent of our Synod, enjoin 
all rectors, vicars, and other parish priests, in virtue of the obedience which 
they owe to us, to urge upon their parishioners by frequent exhortations, not to 
be rash violators of this prohibition. 

" By public drinkings we mean, wherever a multitude of men exceeding the 
number of ten in the same parish in which the ale shall be sold, or in neighbour- 
ing parishes, or within the bounds of the same domicile shall be assembled for 
the purpose of drinking. But travellers, strangers, and persons attending fairs, 
or markets, although they meet in taverns, we are unwilling to include in this 

Scot ales were generally kept in houses of public resort. 

4. The Clerk's Ale. 

I was told in the year 1838, by the late Mr. Thomas Neale, of 
Draycote Foliot, that on Easter Tuesday in every year, the clerk of 

• WilkuVx Concil Muirn. Ilritan. Vol. i., |>. Odd. From a MS. in Corp. Ch. Coll., Oxon. 
t Id. p. 719, from a MS. in Corp. Our. Coll., Oxon. 


198 Ancient Aks in the County of Wilts. 

the adjoining parish of Chiseldon, had an ale ; which was effected 
by the clerk providing a good plain dinner and plenty of strong 
beer, at his house, for the principal parishioners to partake of; 
this was called the Clerk's ale, for which each guest made the clerk 
a present. Mr. Calley, of Burderop Park, who was member of 
Parliament for Cricklade, Mr. John Brown, of Chiseldon House, 
his brother, Mr. Rudhall Brown, who was one of the provincial 
secretaries of the "Wilts Topographical Society, the Rev. Thomas 
Bullock, Vicar of Chiseldon, and other principal inhabitants used 
to attend the clerk's ales, and give their sovereigns and half- 
sovereigns in return for his good cheer; and I have been since 
informed that the Clerk's ale at Chiseldon is still kept up, and that 
it came off as usual on Easter Tuesday, 1854. 

The Rev. S. Denne says, 1 " The clerk's ale was in the Easter 
holidays and was the method taken to enable clerks of parishes to 
collect more readily their dues," or as it is expressed in Aubrey's 
MS. Introduction to the Survey of Wilts, as cited by Mr. Warton 
in his History of English Poetry, 2 " It was for the clerk's private 
benefit and the solace of the neighbourhood." 

5. The Herd's Ale. 

Of this ale I am aware of two Wiltshire instances — the Herd's 
ale at Newnton, and the Herd's ale at Ogbourne St. George. 


Mr. Aubrey, in his MS. collections, for Wilts (part i.), Tit. 
Newnton, gives the following account of this ale : — 

" The Custome here Trinity Sunday : — 

" King Athelstan having obtained a victory over the Danes by the assistance 
of the inhabitants of this place, riding to recreate himself, found a woman bait- 
ing her cowe upon the way called the Fosse (which runs through this parish 
and is a famous Roman way that goes from Cornwall to Scotland). The woman 
sate on a stool, with the cow fastened by a rope to the legge of the stoole ; the 
manner of it occasioned the king to aske why she did so ; she answered the 
king that they had no common belonging to the town ; the queen being then in 

" l Archoeologia, vol. xii., p. 10. 

"2 Vol. in., p. 119, n. (f.) of the Ed. of 1840. This MS. was printed in 
1714, with some letters written to Mr. Aubrey, under the title " Miscellanies on 
several curious subjects." It is in the Lib. of the Brit. Mus. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 199 

his company, by their consents it was granted that the town should have so 
much ground in common next adjoining to this way as the woman would ride 
round upon a bare ridged horse. She undertakes it, and for the ascertaining 
of the ground the king appointed Sir Walter, a knight that wayted on him, to 
follow the woman or goe with her, which being done, and made known to the 
monks at Malniesbury (they to show their liberality upon the extent of the 
king's charity), gave a piece of ground, parcell of their inheritance and adjoyn- 
ing to the churchyard, to build a house upon for the Hayward to live in, to look 
after the beasts that fed upon this common ; and for to perpetuate the memory 
of it appointed the following prayers to be said upon every Trinity Sunday in 
that house with the ceremonie ensuing. And because a monk of that time, 
out of his devotion, gave a bell to be rung here at this house before prayers 
began, his name was inserted in the petitions for that gift. 


"The parishioners being come to the door of the Hay wards' house, the door 
was struck thrice in honour of the Holy Trinity, then they entered ; the bell was 
rung, after which silence being imposed, they read their prayers aforesaid. 
Then was a ghirland of flowers, made upon a hoop, brought forth by a mayd of 
the town upon her neck, and a young man (a bachelor) of another parish first 
saluted her three times,* in honour of the Trinity, in respect of God the Father. 
Then she putts the ghirland upon his neck and kisses him three times, in honour 
of the Trinity, particularly God the Sonne ; then he puts the ghirland on her 
neck again and kisses her three times, in respect of the Holy Trinity and parti- 
cularly the Holy Ghost. Then he takes the ghirland from her neck and by the 
custome must give her a penny at least, which as fancy leads is now exceeded, 
as 2s. 6d., or &c. 

" The method of giving this ghirland is from house to house annually till it 
comes round. 

" In this evening every commoner sends his supper up to this house which is 
called Ealehowse (ale-house), and having before layed in there equally a stock 
of mault which was brewed in the house, they supp together and what was left 
was given to the poore. — N. of the Ealahus see Somner's Glossary at the end of 
the English Historians, printed at London, 1652. 


" ' Peace, good men, peace, this is the house of charitie, and house of peace, 
Christ Jesus be with us this day and evermore. Amen. 

"'You shall pray for the good prosperitie of our Soveraigne Lord King 
EL my VIII. and the royal issue (of later dayes King Charles II., Queen Katha- 
rine, Duke of York, and the rest of the royal progenie), with all the nobilitie of 
this land, that Almighty God would give them such gnoe, wisdome, and dis- 
Oi t i«>n, that tin y may doc all things to the glory of God, the king's honour, 
and the good of the kingdome.' 

" N.B. This form was made by Mr. Richard Estcourt in favour of tho present 

" ' You shall pray to God that moved the heart of King Athelstan -f- and Dame 

• Tin' ki-^ of pgaoa [cnlgL, no 

t MhabtU w.n kin* from *.i>. Ml to a.ii. 940. Z U 2 

200 Ancient Ales in the County of Wilts. 

Mawd his good queen to give this ground to our forefathers, and to us, and for 
all thern that shall come after us, in fee for ever. 

" ' You shall pray to God for the sowle of Sir "Walter, the good Mack knight, 
that moved his heart to our forefathers and lis this ground both to tread and 
tite, and to them that shall come after us, in fee for ever. 

" ' You shall pray to God for the sowle of Abbot Loringe,* that moved his 
heart to give this ground both to build this house f upon, to our forefathers and 
to us, and to them that shall come after us, in fee for ever. 

" 'You shall pray to God for the sowle of Don Alured, J the black monke, 
that moved his heart to give the bell § to this house. 

" ' For the sowles of these benefactors whom the Lord hath moved their 
heartes to bestowe these benefitts upon us, let us now and ever pray.' Pater 
noster, &o. 

"In the late warres this house was burnt downe by the soldiers, and the 
custome of supping is yet (1670) discontinued, together with brewing that 
quantity of drinke. The rest of the ceremonies are yet continued in the 
Toft, || and on the old door of the house which yet remains, which they then carry 
thither, and a small quantity of drinke of six or eight gallons is yet dranke 
after the ghirland is given. 

" Mem. About 1660, one was killed striving to take away the ghirland. 

" The towne anciently belonged to the Abbey of Malmesbury, and was given 
to them by .... V. Leiger Book. 

" The church here was anciently a chapel of ease to Malmesbury from whence 
it is distant above two miles." 

In the prayer at Newnton there is a very extraordinary mixture 
of dates. King Athelstan reigned from the year 925 to the year 
940. Abbot Loring was Abbot of Malmesbury from the year 1205 
to the year 1223, and King Henry VIII. began to reign in the 
year 1509, but our clerical readers will readily recognize with 
regard to time the Bidding prayer of that reign which is cited by 
the Rev. Edward Burton, in his preface to the Three Primers of 
King Henry VIII. 1 and which was composed about the year 1534. 


The Herd's ale at Ogbourne St. George was described to me two 
years ago by Mrs. Charlotte Mills of that place, who is between 

i P. lxvii. 

* Walter Loringe was Abbot of Malmesbury, from 1205 to 1223 [Dug. Mon., vol. ii., p. 255]. 
+ The Haywards house, called the Eale house [orgl. note]. 
t This probably means Duminus Alured : see toI. i. 332. 

} This bell is now at Mr. Richard Escourt's house. — Vide what inscripn. it hath [orignl. note]. 
il Toft, a place where a Messuage hath stood, Cowell's Interp. Tit. Toft, citing West's .Symboleo- 
graphy, part n., Tit. tines, sect. 26. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 201 

eighty and ninety years old. As she never heard of the Herd's ale 
at Newnton, I will give her statement in her own words : — 

" Before the enclosure here, in 1795, all the people who kept cows at Ogbourne 
St. George, used to send them to Roundhill-bottom, which is a place a little 
further from the village than the two [twin] barrows on Swinghill. Hum- 
phreys, a cripple, used to keep the cows, and he had a herds' ale every year. 
He used to have a barrel of beer and victuals, and people used to drink and 
give him what they chose. I don't know on what day it was, but I know it 
was when flowers were about, because they made a garland which was put on 
some one's head, and they danced round it, and they went to gentlemens' 
houses who used to give them beer. This was when I was about ten years old, 
and long before the enclosure. There was a large cow common then." 

It is worthy of remark, that the garland was a part of the 

ceremony at the Herd's ales hoth at Newnton and Ogbourne 

St. George, and therefore could have had no reference either to 

King Athelstan's grant or to any liberality of the Abbots of 


6. The Bidale, or Helpale. 

Mr. Brande, in his Popular Antiquities, 1 says : — 

" There was an ancient custom called Bidale, or Bidder ale, from the Saxon 
word ' biddan,' to pray or supplicate when any man decayed in his estate was 
set up again by the liberal benevolence and contributions of friends, at a feast, 
to which those friends were bid or invited. It was most used in the "West of 
England, and in some counties called a Helpale" 

7. The Give Ale. 

"We are told by the Rev. S. Denne, in his paper before cited, that 
Give ales were the legacies of individuals and from that circum- 
stance entirely gratuitous, though some of them might be in addi- 
tion to a common Give ale before established in the parish. 

Scot ales as already stated were generally kept in houses of 
public resort, but the ale at Give ales was first dispensed, if not in 
the church (which, however, sometimes happened) yet in the 

Give ales on obsequies as well as on the anniversaries of the 
dedication of churches, wore in other respects merrymakes, at 
which there was a free, perhaps a licentious indulgence in the games 
and sports of the times, though playing with the ball, singing 

I Vol. ii. p. 15, (u.) 

202 Ancient Ales in the County of Wilts. 

of ballads, dissolute dances, and ludicrous spectacles in churches 
and churchyards, subjected the frequency of them to pecuniary 
penalties and ecclesiastical censures, excommunication not ex- 

Bishop Poore's Constitutions before cited, 1 contain the following 
passage: — 

" Ad hue prohibemus ne choreoe vel turpes et inhonesti ludi <pu ad lasciviarn 
invitant fiant coemeteriis." 

translation: — 

Also we prohibit that no dances, or disgraceful or improper sports, which 
invite to sin shall take place in churchyards. 

Mr. Warton, in his History of English Poetry, 2 says that 

"Among Bishop Tanner's manuscript additions to Cowell's Law 

Glossary in the Bodleian Library is the following note from his 

own collections : — 

"a.d. 1468. Prior Cant, et commissarii visitationem fecerunt (diocesi Cant, 
vacante per mortem archiepiscopi) et ibi publicatum erat quod potationes factoe 
in ecclesiis vulgariter dictce yevealys [Give ales] vel Bredealys [Bride ales] 
non essent ulterius in usu sub poena excommunicationis majoris." 


a.d. 1468. The Prior of Canterbury and the commissaries made a visitation 
(the See of Canterbury being vacant by the death of the archbishop) and it was 
there promulgated that potations made in the churches vulgarly called yeve 
alys [Give ales], or Bredealys [Bride ales], should not be further in use under 
the penalty of the greater excommunication. 

8. The Bride Ale. 
Mr. Brande, in his Popular Antiquities, 3 says that — 

" Bride ale, Bride bush, Bride stake, are nearly synonymous terms, and all 
derived from the circumstance of the bride's selling ale on the wedding-day, 
for which she received by way of contribution whatever handsome price the 
friends assembled on the occasion chose to pay her for it. A bush at the end of a 
stake or pile was the ancient badge of a country ale-house. Around this stake 
the guests were wont to dance as about a May-pole. The Bride ale appears to 
have been called in some places a Bidding, from the circumstance of the bride 
and bridegroom bidding or inviting the guests. In Cumberland it had the 
appellation of a Bride's wain." 

i Id p. 600. 

2 Vol. iii., p. 119, n. (f.) 

3 Vol. fi., p. 70. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 203 

Mr. Warton, in the note in his History of English Poetry before 
cited, says that "Mr. Astle has a curious record, about 1575, 
which proves the Bride ale synonymous with the " Weddyng ale." 

As to Bride ales not being in churches see above Tit. Give ale. 
The Court Rolls of Hales Owen Borough, in Co. Salop, contain 
the following entry under the date of 15 Eliz. [1573. [J 1 

"Item, a payne is made that no person or persons that shall brewe any 
weddyn ale to sell, shall not brewe above twelve strike * of mault at the most, 
and that the said persons so married shall not keep nor have above eight messe f 
of persons at his dinner, within the Burrowe, and before his brydall daye he 
shall keep no unlawful games in hys house on pain of twenty shillings." 

9. The Lamb Ale. 
Mr. Warton, in the note before cited, says : — 

"Lamb ale is still used at the village of Kirklington, in Oxfordshire, for an 
annual feast or celebration at lamb shearing." 

10. The Leet Ale. 

The Rev. S. Denne, 2 says : — 

" To a Leet ale it is likely all the resiants in a manerial district were contri- 

11. The Midsummer Ale. 

An ale under this name is mentioned by Mr. Douce, 3 and also 
by Mr. Brande, 4 but I have not met with any account of it or any 
explanation beyond that which the name imports. 

1 Cited in the Antiq. Rep., vol. i., p. 69. 

2 Arch. vol. xii., p. 10. 

3 Carter's Anc. Sculp, vol. ii., p. 9. 

* Pop. Ant. vol. i., p. 227-229. 

• A strike means a bushel. 

t At tin- present time, at Lincoln's Inn Hall, a mess is a dinner for four persons, who dine together ; 
the persons dining in that hall being divided into messes, each mess having the same viands repeated, 

mi if two hundred members of the Inn dine and the viand be a turbot, they would dine 
in fifty mesws, and there would be fifty turbots on the table. This I have often seen, and 
the practice there is exactly the same as to all other viands with the exception of venison ; 
and with respect to that, although the rule as to messes is in Rome de^Tce observed, a haunch of 
10 i* Mired to every three messes. Thus at the dinner at Lincoln's Inn Hall, on the 12th of June, 
IMS, when Prince Allien became a l'.< nchcr of that Society, his Royal Highness and suite, and the 
memberi of the Society, to the number of MM, dined in the hall, and there were forty-two haunches of 

reniaon on the table the largest supply of verdaon that i oversow on the table at the same time. 

I mention these circumstances us they mav explain obscure items in uncient household uccounts. 

V. A.C. 

204 Ancient Ales in the County of With. 

12. Ales for Special Purposes. 

Of these an instance is given in the Saturday Magazine, for 

Dec. 8, 1832. (Vol. I., No. 28, p. 221). 

"In the church of Thorpe le Soken, in the county of Essex, is an ancient 
wooden screen, formerly situated towards the east end of the north aisle, hut 
now removed to the west end of the south aisle, in the centre of the upper part 
of which on a scroll borne by angels is the following inscription : — 

fljis rnst is tjrr Sarljtlrrs, ntanc hq 5Urs: 
§jljsn Iie tljrr nun. 

"Which is thus explained : — This cost (the expense of this screen) is defrayed 
by the single men of the parish, by collections made for that purpose : Jesus be 
their mede (reward)." 

"With respect to some of the species of ales before-mentioned, I 

have not yet met with any instance in the county of "Wilts, or in 

in the diocese of Sarum, but I here notice them in the hope that 

our clerical members may find entries respecting them in old 

churchwardens' accounts, and communicate those entries to the 

Society, and it may be that some of the information contained in 

such entries, otherwise obscure, may be explained by some of the 

facta here stated. 

F. A. Carrington. 


[continuation of paper on church bells.] 

Silk of ijrr Cmrabj of Wills, 


By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 

N.B.— The parishes, whose bell-inscriptions are here given, are arranged in their several Deaneries ; 
and the quaint spelling is retained. The figure 1. signifies the Treble bell in every case. 

Archdeaconry of Salisbury: — 
Salisbury Cathedral, 2 bells. 

Bishop's bell.— £| IESVS : NAZARENVS : REX : IVDEORVM : 
Clock Bell.— A William A Purdue A fusa anno regis Caroli 2 di - XIII°- 
A°q- Dni 1661, impensis ecclesiae. 

ART:* HH: 

Subdeanery of Salisbury : — 
St. TJiomas's,* Salisbury, 8. 

1. Thos. Ogden, William Bailey, Churchwardens. Rt. Wells, Aldbourne 
fecit, 1771. 

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 7, ditto. 

8. Wm. Naish, Esq., Mayor, Nathl. Sturidg, Thos. Hales, Churchwardens. 
A A R. 1716. 

• Probably one of the family of Tosicr (see lint of bell-founders, at page 50). 

♦ The bells of this church appear to have been recast more than once, as appears from the very 
interesting and carefully preserved churchwardens' accounts— e. g., " At a vestry held Novr. 10, i. It is agreed with John Danton, bell-founder, that he is to cast the bell called the 4th bell, and 
ha ll to km xiiij s. a hundred for casting of him and x s. over and above ; but if the- said Danton 
add anythingc to the bell he is to have xijd. a pownd for it ; but if he leave any of the mettle of the 
bill In' is to allow their place but xd. a pownd." 

At the same vestry, " It is also ordered that all the inhabitants of this pariah are to be rated to 
ung of the said bell, onely all that are under viijd. in the Easter boxes are to pay nothing." 

Again, at a vestry held May 11, Uili'i, " Mr. Kobt. Jones, gave his accounts for the bells. 

" The waiglit of the old bells, 89 hundred 12 po. 

" The waight of the new bells, 70 bundled, 2!) <|rs., I' p. Left of the mettle, 13 hundred Mqrs. 
LBfp. Sold the above 111 hundred ;)'Ji|rs. I!), 1 p. to l'urdy (Willm. Purdue), at I li. v s. a hundred, 
which comes to lix li. iv s. ix d. 

" Mcinoraml : that Purdy demands for lasting iron-work, lynno, and tyme, &c. which comes to 
Ix li. x s. x d. Soo that if this aceoinpt prove to be allowed of, their will be due to Purdy the hcll- 
loMII'IlT, xx li. j s. j d." 

2 K 

200 Bells of the County of Wilts. 

St. Edmund's Salisbury, 6. 

1. Richard Grafton, a frcnd to the worke, August W. A P.* NiE.f 

2. Mr. Wilkins, Churchwarden. Rt. Wells, Aldbourne, fecit 1774. 

3. John Percevall, Churchwarden. August, 1656. W. A P., N. A B. 

4. C. & G. Moars, Founders, London, 1846. 

5. John Strickland, Minester, August, 1656. A W. A P. A A N. A 
B. A A. T. 

6. W. A P. N. A B. cast mee. William Stone, maior, August, 1656. 
St. Martin's, Salisbury, 6. 

2 I Thomas Mears, Founder, London, 1842. 


4 j William Smith, Walter Pope, Churchwardens, 1675. A B. F.t A 

5. Be mec and loly to heare the* Word of God. 1582. I. W. § 

6. Call a soleme assemblie, gather the people. I. W. 1628. I. B.|| 
(between the Canons.) G ■ I. : I • P. 

Stratford Sub- Castle, 2. 

1. Prayse God. I. W. 1604. 

2. J. Blake & W. Randall, Churchwardens. R. Well, Aldbourne, fecit 
anno 1767. 

Deanery of Amesbury : — 

Allington, 3. 

1. C. & G. Mears, Londini fecerunt 1849. 

In the accounts for the year 1G64-5, there is :— 

" Pd. Purdue for the bells viij 11. 

Pd. for a discharge from Purdue vj d." 

Again, " July 14, 1716, At a meeting of the gentlemen of the vestry of the parish of St. Thomas, 
It is agreed that Mr. Abraham Rndhall, of Glosester, be sent to about casting the great bell, which is 
now ordered to be new cast : and that he be desired to forthwith come hither to enter into articles 
for his performance of the same. Signed, Wm. Naish, mayor, &c, &c." 

" July 25, 1716. At a meeting of the gentlemen of the parish in vestry, At this meeting the articles 
of agreement made the 15th inst., with Mr. Abraham lludhall, of Gloucester, for casting the great 
bell of this parish, is confirmed ; and also at this meeting it is agreed that the second bell of the 
eight be new cast, and that Mr. Abraham Rudhall, be allowed seven pounds for casting the same, 
(exclusive of carriage of the old bell to Gloucester and the new one from thence), and also to allow 
him one shilling per pound for what the new bell shall weigh more than the old one (if anything), or 
receive one shilling per pound for so much as the new bell shall want of the weight of the old one. 

"Wm. Naish, Mayor." 
" Novr. 12, 1716. At a meeting of the gentlemen of the vestry, &c. It is ordered that a rate of 
twenty-four weeks upon land is granted for defraying the expenses for new casting two bells and 
other expenses. Signed, Win. Naish." li. s . d. 

"1717. Pd. in expences with the bell-founder at several meetings ij. viij. 

Pd. to Mr. Osgood, for fetching the bells vij. ij. 

Pd. the bell-founder, for casting the bells lxxiv. iiij. 

Pd. for watching the bells j. v j." 

• William Purdue. t Nicholas Bolter. i Richard Flory. 

} John Wallis. || John Danton. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 207 

2. Serve God. I. W. 1619. 


Amesbury, 6. 

1. Come at God's call. I. W. 1619. 

2. (No inscription.) 

3. I. Corr. 1728. 

4. Chrisr. Ingram and John Waters, Ch. -wardens. James Wells, Aldbourn, 
Wilts, fecit 1801. 

5. Be stronge in faythe prayes God well, 

Francis Countess Hertford's bell, I. W. 1619. 

6. Richard Hays, Thomas Francis, Churchwardens. 
All thoo it be onto my lost 

I hoop you will consider my cost. C. T.* 1713. 

Cholderton, 1. 

Oreat Durnford, 5. 

1. EH : WM : TW : IF : 1657. A W. A P. A N. A B. A 

2. George Davis, WM: TW: EH. 1657- A W. A P. A N. A B. A 

3. William Munde, Thomas Waters, Churchwardens, 1656. 


5. Honor the king. I. W. 1614. 

Durrington, 5. 

1. Goy in God. I. W. 1617. 

2. Glorifi the Lord. I. W. 1617. 

3. Anno Domini 1654. I. A L. f 

4. Hopewell. I. W. 1602. 

5. Anno Domini 1600. I. A L. 

Figheldean, 3. 

1. Prais ey the Lord. 1581. I. W. 

2. Prise God. A Robert Rofe, Thomas Pollein A Churchwardens A 
William Spencer 1 II, L. 1 William Tosier A cast mo in 1721. Sarum. 

3. In God is my hope. 1581. I. W. 
Idmiston, 4. 

1. tf« Anno Domini 1661. I. A L. 

2. •£ Anno Domini 1654. I. A L. 

3. 1636. (Date twice given but no other inscription — figures very rude.) 

4. John Wristbridgo A John Barnes, Churchwardens. A William Tosier 
cast me, February the 8, in 1731. 

• Clement Todcr. t John Lett. 

2 e 2 

208 Bells of the County of Witts. 

Porton, 2 6mall bells, the first broken, without inscriptions. 
Laverstock, 1. 

James "Wells, Aldbourn, Wilts, 1817. 
Ludgershall, 5. 

1. James "Wells, Aldbourn, "Wilts, fecit 1818. Jacob Crook & Daniel 
Dobbs, Churchwardens. 

2. Mr. E. Daniell & Mr. R. Hutehins, Churchwardens. J. Burrough, in 
Devizes Founder, 1749. 

3. prayse the Lord. I. D. 1631. 

4. *}t Anno Domini 1638. 

5. Edward Reinton & Ambrose Downam, Churchwardens. Clement 
Tosear cast mee 1686. 

Newton Toney, 4. 

1. Robt. "Wells, Aldbourn, Wilts, fecit. 

2. ^C. & G. Mears, Founders, London, 1851. 

3. ) Laus Deo. 


North Tidworth, 5. 

1. "William Parsons & John Edwardes, Churchwardens. A Clemant Tosier 
cast mee in 1700 A 

2. be joyful in God. I. W. 1619. 

3. praies the Lord. I. "W. 1619. 

4. Sing praies to God. I. "W. 1619. 

5. Thomas Northeast & Robert Dowling, Churchwardens. James Wells, 
Aldbourn, Wilts, fecit 1809. 

Winterhoume Dantsey, 3 

1. John Andrewes, William Rowden, Churchwardens. A Willm. Tosear 
cast me in 1723. 

2. God be our guyd. I. W. 1583. 

3. 1652. (Inscription illegible.) 

Winterbourne Cherborouyh, 2. 

1. Love the Lord. I. W. 1602. 

2. Mediaeval bell. 

Winterbourne Earls, 3. 

1. Remember me O God. I. W. 1623. 

2. Reioyse in God. 1635. I. D. 


By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 209 

Winterslmc, 4. 

1. Messrs. Mears, Founders, 1841. 

2. Love the Lord. I. W. 1601. 

3. praies the Lord. I. W. 1623. 

4. Serve the Lord. I. W. 1593. 

Notice. — The inscriptions on the bells of the following churches 
in the Deanery of Amesbury have not been obtained. Mr. Lukis 
will feel obliged for them, in order to make the list of Wiltshire 
bells as complete as possible. 

Boscombe, Plaitford, 

Bulford, Landford, 

Bramshaw, Milston, 

West Dean, Whiteparish, 

East Grimstead, Wilsford. 

West Grimstead, 
Gentlemen undertaking to supply the information are requested 
to attend to the following particulars : — 

1. The quaint spelling of the inscription to be retained. 

2. All letters on the bells to be noticed. They are sometimes on 
the sides, or on the crown, of the bell, and more commonly precede 
or follow the date. 

3. The diameter of the mouth, and the thickness of the lip of 
the heaviest bell. 

Deanery of Chalke : — 

Bishopstone, 3. 

1. In God my hope. 1583. I. W. 

2. God be our guyd. I. W. 1587. 

3. Edward Hayerd, Edward King, C. W. D. 1652. I. A L.* 

Britford or Burford, 5. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. llobt. Wells, Aldbourne, fecit 1765. 
Broadchalk, 6. 

1. I am the first and though but small, 
It will bo harde above you all. 

Thomas lieade, Thomas Lawea. C. T.f 1704. 

• John Lett, Bell-founder, SuliHuury. 
t ('lenient Toiler, ditto. 


Bells of the County of Wilts. 

W. 4 P. 4 * 

C. W. 1660. 

John Aubery, Esquier. C. W. A W. 

2. I in this pleace am second bell, 
lie shurly doe my parte as well. 

John Randel, John Smithe, C. W. 1659. A 

3. George Penruddock, Knight. John Aubery, Esquier. 
4W.4F.4 E. c.t 

4. George Penruddock, Knight. 
A P. A 1660. 

5. (No inscription.)! 

P. W. 

Alvediston, 3. 

1. James Wells, Aldbourn, Wilts, fecit 1811. 

2. I. D. 1640. 

3. Prayse God. 1630. I. D. 

Combe Bissett, 4. 

1. John Barber & John Harwood, Churchwardens. 1758. Lester & Pack 
of London, fecit. A 

2. Geve God the Glory. I. W. 1586. 

3. Geve God the Glory. I. W. 1589. 

4. O give thanks to God. I. W. 1617. 

Dinton, 6. 

1 . Though I am the least 

I will bee heard as wel as the reast. 
SS Rianges Fauster FF 

2. William Coles, Thomas Coles, C. H. 

W. A P. A 

3. Nicholas Daniell. W. E : R. W : § A. H : D. K : W. C : || T. C. H 
1660. W. A P. A 

4. I with my fellowes doo agree, 
Then harken to our harmonie. 

John King, John Gees, Churchwardens. F. F.* # 1666. 

5. William Coles, Thomas Coles, C. W. John Kinge, 1661. 4W.4 

P. A 


Ebbesborne Wake, 3. 

1. I. D. 1633. 

2. Thomas Kigman, William Jay, C. W. 1660. A 

3. Sing to the Lord. I. D. 1637. 

II . SS 1666. 
Robert White P. T : 

I. A : 1660. 

W. A P. A 

• + t Broken. 
H Thomas Coles. 

i Robert Wliite. 
* * Francis Foster. 

William Coles. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 211 

Fifield Bavent, 1. (No inscription.) 
Homington, 1. 

James Minty, John Hares, Churchwardens. Clement Toesyer cast mee in 
1683. David Hamfries. • 

East Knoiole, 6. 

1. Wm. Cockey, Bell-founder, 1726. 

2. God preserve the Church. "Wm. Cockey, Bell-founder, 1726. 

3. Robert and James Wells, Aldbourne, fecit 1794. 

4. Anty Burbige & M*- Nich*. "Williams, Ch-W^- 1748. W. A C. 

5. Thomas Mears, Founder, London. "W. "Wigmore, "W. B. Compton, 

6. H. C. & "W. S. C^. W<Js- 1726. W. £ C. 
Odstock, 3. 

1. Love God. 1636. I. D. 

2. praies the Lord. I. D. R. T. 1624. 

3. $ IN : HO : NO : RE : MA : RI : A. 

Toney Stratford, 3. 

1. Richard Miles, Thomas Hill, C. "W. I. A L. 1672. 

2. Serve God. I. W. 1612. 

3. John Prist, Edward Boddenham, Churchwardens. Clement Toscar cast 
mee in the yeare of 1696. 

Churches of this Deanery whose bell inscriptions are desired to 
complete the list : — 

An sty, Charlton, 

Baverstock, Fonthill Bishop, 

Berwick St. John, Fonthill Gifford, 

Berwick St. Leonard, Fovant, 

Bower Chalk, LTendon, 

Burcombc, West Knoylc, 

Chicklade, Semley, 

Cliilmark, Sutton Mandoville, 

West. Iliirnliani, Swallowclift, 

Compton Chamberlaine, Tefl'ont Ewyas, 

Damerham, Tisbury, 

Donhead St. Andrew, Tollard Royal. 
I kmhead St. Mary, 

(To be continued. ) 

212 The Bustard. 

THE BUSTARD (Vol. L, p. 54). 

Manx years ago, I should say in or about the year 1785 or 6, I often heard 

conversations amongst the farmers who visited my relations at L , about the 

scarcity of bustards on the Downs, which they attributed to the heath, &c, 
being broken up and converted to tillage, and to the corn being weeded in the 
spring, whereby the birds were disturbed and prevented making their nests. 
About that time I was riding in company with my uncle, from his residence to 
Devizes, and after passing a place called Chitterne Barn, he drew my attention 
to some large birds nearly a half mile off, standing on a hill on the Down about 
the same distance from Tilshead Lodge (then called Tilshead Buildings), he 
told me they were bustards, and he proposed that we should get as near them as 
we could in order to ascertain the fact whether they ran so fast as had been 
reported because they could not easily take wing. We accordingly proceeded 
by the valleys in the Down, concealing ourselves as much as possible by leaning 
over the necks of our horses until we got within about 200 yards of them, when 
we suddenly ascended the hill on which they were standing and riding pretty 
fast got within 100 yards of them, but to our disappointment they made but a 
few springs and were on the wing, flew away and we saw no more of them. 

At another time within a year afterwards, I was again accompanying him 
and a relation of ours in a one-horse-chaise to Devizes, and whilst we were 
witliin the banks of the road, about a quarter of a mile from Chitterne Barn, 
two bustards flew over our heads within gun shot, and I could distinctly see the 
colour of their plumage. 

About the year 1792, a traveller passing over the Downs between Devizes and 
Salisbury, came upon a bustard which started up and tumbled about as if 
wounded and unable to rise, he rode after it a little way, but the bird gained 
upon him and he returned to the road ; in so doing, he found a young bustard 
in a wheel-track, which he caught and took to Salisbury, and gave it to 
Mrs. Steedman of the Red Lion Inn there. This bird I frequently saw and handled. 
It was very tame, and within three months after it was there it could eat off 
the table in the bar. Mrs. Steedman told me she was offered, but refused, ten 
guineas for the bird. The party wishing to get it for Lord Temple, then living 
near Winchester, who it was said had another bustard. Mrs. Steedman soon 
afterwards lost the bird, by a pointer getting into her parlour and killing it. 

In 1802, a female bustard was shot by a shepherd, in the neighbourhood of 
Durrington. He gave it to Mr. Moore of Durrington, who had a painting made 
of it by Mr. Dudman, an artist staying at the place. The painting is in the 
possession of his son, George Pearce Moore, Esq. 

J. S. 






■<FJje €l)\m\)tB of Mtmp. 

Bv Mr. Edward Kite. 

1. General Notice. 

2. The Church of St. John Baptist. 

3. Chantries en St. John's Church. 

4. Church of St. Mary the Virgin. 

5. Chantries in St. Mary's Church. 

6. Coventry Family. 

7. Abstract of Deeds relating to St. Mary's. 

8. Churchwardens' Accounts, with Notes. 

9. Hall's Letter about Church Plate. 
10. Rectors of Devizes. 

General Notice. 

The town of Devizes contains two parish churches, 1 dedicated 
respectively in honour of St. John the Baptist, and the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. These are united, and form one Rectory in the 
Diocese of Sarum, and patronage of the Lord Chancellor. 

Before describing them, it may be desirable to say a few words 
respecting the early history of the town itself. 

Of this, little or nothing is with certainty known previously to 
the commencement of the twelfth century, when the Episcopal See 
which had been removed from Wilton to Old Sarum, by Bishop 
Eerman (o. \.i>. K)7(ij was filled by Roger Poore, or as he is called 
in Latin documents, Roger Pauper. 

1 Thai of Southbroom, or Devizes Green, dedicated to St. James, is a Chapel 
of Base under the parochial jurisdiction of Bishop's Cannings. 

2 K 

214 The Churchd* of Devizes. 

This prelate, whose parentage seems to have been obscure, first 
occurs to notice as the priest of a small church near Caen, in Nor- 
mandy, into which Prince Henry (brother to William Rufus, and 
afterwards King Henry I.) happening to enter, whilst on a military 
expedition, was so much pleased at the celerity with which Mass 
was performed, that his soldiers persuaded him to allow the rapid 
officiator to attend the camp as a proper chaplain for the army. 

Being endowed with great natural talents, Roger so far ingratiated 
himself with his patron that he was intrusted with the sole manage- 
ment of his household, and upon Henry's ascending the throne 
(a.d. 1100), was immediately appointed chancellor, loaded with 
lands, churches, prebends, and abbeys, nominated in 1102 to the 
vacant See of Sarum, and finally raised to the high office of Justi- 
ciary of England. 1 

He appears to have been the best architect of his day, and is 
distinguished by some of our chroniclers as "the great builder of 
Churches and Castles." In addition to the Castle of Sarum which 
he repaired and strengthened, he also erected others at Devizes 
and Sherborne, and commenced one at Malmesbury. 

His principal work, however, would seem to have been the 
Castle of Devizes, which is described as " one of the most sump- 
tuous and stately edifices in England." 

From the contiguity and probable connection of the Church 

1 An account of the life of this prelate will be found in Dodsworth's History 
of Salisbury Cathedral, p. 20. It will here be sufficient to remark that as his 
early life was an example of singular prosperity, so was the remainder marked 
by a series of reverses. Stripped of his castles, and of the treasures which he had 
during a series of years accumulated in them, by the succeeding monarch (King 
Stephen, of whose claim to the crown Roger had been a powerful opponent), he 
at last sunk under his disappointment, and dying A.D. 1139, was interred in his 
Cathedral of Old Sarum ; but his body was removed to that of New Sarum, shortly 
alter its erection, A.D. 1226. 

Underneath an arch, on the north side of the nave, are two ancient monu- 
mental slabs, each bearing the effigy of a bishop. These have been ascribed to 
this prelate, and his successor Joceline, whose body was at the same time trans- 
ferred to the Cathedral of New Sarum. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 215 

of St. John with this fortress, as well as from the similarity of 
their architectural style, the original parts of the church are 
conjectured 1 to have been also the work of Bishop Poore ; 2 and it is 
not unlikely that in its original state, it may have been intended 
as a free chapel for the use of the garrison in the castle. 

Erected thus probably by one Justiciary of England, 3 St. John's 
Church in the succeeding century afforded sanctuary to a second 
in the person of Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, who having been 
for some time confined in the castle, escaped from it with the assist- 
ance of his knights, who conveyed him for safety to the church, 
and deposited him, loaded with irons, on the steps of the High 
Altar. As soon as the event was made known to the governor, a 
force was dispatched in pursuit of him, and he was dragged from 
his place of refuge and conveyed back to the castle. This breach 
of the privilege of sanctuary was warmly resented by the clergy, 
who, on the refusal of the governor to acknowledge the authority 
of the Church by restoring the earl, carried their cause before the 
king, and, compelling him to yield to their request, Hubert was a 
second time transferred to his place of refuge, strict orders being 
given to the Sheriff of Wilts to guard the church and cemetery with 
a body of armed men, by day and night, in order to prevent the 
possibility of his escape from it by any means. The step thus 
taken, however, proved ineffectual. His friends in the meanwhile 
mustered a troop of horse, and on the following day suddenly made 

1 See Britton's " Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain." 

2 William of Malmesbury, Bishop Roger's biographer, informs us that the 
structures erected by this prelate were "so skilfully built as to resemble an 
entire rock." This description seems certainly applicable to the original walls 
of St. John's Church. Constructed of small squared stones, well jointed, and 
laid in even courses, they appear, after a lapse of seven centuries, as hrm aud 
upright as at the period of their erection. 

a It was an ancient custom of the kings of England to administer justice in 
!K.rson. In proet - of time, however, this office was confided to a deputy, who, 
undrr the Norman sovereigns bore the title of Justiciary of England. The 
justiciaries continued till the erection of the courts of King's Benoh and Common 
Plea*. The last who held the office was Philip de Basset, in 1261. Dodsworth's 
Salisbury Cathedral, p. 22. Note. 

2 i-2 

216 The Churches of l)i vizes. 

their appearance in the churchyard, and having overcome the sheriff's 
party bore him away in triumph into Wales. 

This happened a.d. 1233, from which time no historical event of 
importance is recorded in connection with St. John's church until 
the period of the Civil Wars, when it appears to have undergone 
its full share of calamity. An entry in the Chamberlain's Books, 
16-12, " for making a place for a magazine for the powder and for 
carrying of it up into the church," seems to show that a portion 
(at least) of it was, at that time, sacrilegiously converted into a 
powder magazine. The lead was also (we are told) torn from the 
roofs of the churches, in order to be molten into bullets, on the 
occasion of the storming of the town in 1645, by Sir William 

In the " Commons Journals" is the following : — 

" 1646. 28 May. Ordered — That all such materials as are now remaining 
in the Castle of The Devizes, and which were part of, or belonging to St. John's 
Church in the Town of The Devizes, or to the Parsonage House belonging to the 
said Church, shall be forthwith restored to the Churchwardens there, for the 
re-edifying of the said Church and Parsonage House." 

At what period the Church of St. John was made Parochial, or 
that of St. Mary annexed to it, does not appear; the latter, however, 
is mentioned for the first time in an institution to the Rectory, 
a.d. 1398. 

The original parts of the present Church of St. Mary, although 
much inferior in point of workmanship to those of St. John, appear 
to be of nearly the same date, and from some of the Norman 
foundations which still remain, it would seem that the fabric was 
originally of much the same size as at present. Whether, or not, a 
church existed on this site prior to the twelfth century is unknown. 
It is not improbable that this may have been, at an early period, 
the Parish Church; whilst the other, as conjectured above, may 
have been reserved for the special use of the garrison. 

At the commencement of the fourteenth century the town con- 
sisted of two portions, known as the Old and New Port. This 
distinction will be frequently alluded to in the following memoir. 
They appear to have corresponded nearly with the present parishes — 
the Old Port, with that of St. Mary; the New, with that of St. John. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 217 

The latter parish includes the Old Park, which formerly belonged 
to the Castle. 

"When we consider the antiquity of these Churches it seems 
remarkable that so little should be met with relating to their early 
history. Leland, who visited Devizes in the reign of Henry VIII., 
gives (in his Itinerary) a particular description of the Castle, but 
omits to make the slightest mention of either of the Churches. 1 
His example has been followed by Camden and others ; even by our 
AViltshire Antiquary, John Aubrey. 

Dr. Stukeley in his " Itinerarium Curiosum," published in 1724, 

thus briefly describes them : — 

" Here are two Churches ; the quire of St. Mary's, of a very old model, the 
steeple, quire, and both wings of St. John's, the same, to which parcels have 
since been tackt all round, and new wide windows put in with pointed arches, 
instead of the antient narrow semicircular ones." 

In the present century their history has been more minutely 
investigated by Mr. Britton, who in a description of them, published 
in his " Topographical and Historical Description of the County," 
and "Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain," has fortunately 
preserved a record of one or two features, since destroyed. In 
addition to this, the latter work, vol. 2, contains several fine engrav- 
ings of the Church of St. John — viz., exterior and interior views, 
together with some of its details. These, and a later volume by 
Mr. James Waylen, entitled " Chronicles of The Devizes," contain 
the greater part of the information hitherto published respecting 
the Churches of Devizes. 

Since the appearance of Mr. Waylen's book, in 1839, both 
Churches have undergone considerable alterations, in the course 
of which several interesting points have been disclosed. 

It is the object, therefore, of the following paper to bring together 
from these, and some other sources, whatever information has been 
already met with, in order to present a more complete account 
(rf these ancient edifices; and it is at the same time hoped that, 
attention having been called, through the medium of this pub- 
lication, to the deficiency in theil history, access may be gained 

1 Bee " Wilt-, Magazine, v,.i. i., v . 181. 

218 The Churches of Devize*. 

to any hitherto neglected documents, which may tend to their 
further illustration. 

The property belonging to the Churches was reported (circa 1833) 
by the Charity Commissioners, as follows : — 

St. John's [held in trust for the reparations of the Church, and 
the maintenance of the poor] consisted of sixteen Leases, of Houses 
and portions of ground built on ; of which the annual value, of 
buildings if in hand, was calculated at £278 ; this was let on long 
terms, at quit-rents amounting to £8 12s. 7d., including about four 
acres of garden ground at Marlborough. 

St. Mary's consisted of forty-two Dwelling Houses, and two other 
buildings, all let for long terms, in thirty-one Leases, at quit-rents 
amounting to £26 10s. 6d. Computed value of Houses £750 per 
annum. Also — 

A. E. P. 

Isabel's Mead 11 

Spital Croft 11 

FiHis's Laud 8 2 

Inner and Outer Raymead 6 3 3 

36 5 3 

producing an annual rent of £186: total £212 10s. 6d. The value 
of fines, and timber cut, being added, makes the average rental 
about £307 per annum. 

The Church of St. John Baptist. 

This has been justly pronounced to be "one of the most interesting 
Parochial Churches in Great Britain, to the Architectural Anti- 
quary." x 

Its Ground Plan (which is shown in the annexed drawing) 
consists of Chancel, A., with Chapels, B. C, on its North and South 
sides; Central Tower, D. ; North and South Transepts, E. F.; 
Nave, G. ; North and South Nave Aisles, H. I. ; and North and 
South Porches, K. L. 

From the different styles of architecture which these several 

1 Britton's "Architectural Antiquities," ii., 3. 


Scate of Feet. 

Edw+JCiU del? 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 219 

portions display, it is evident that they are the work of no less 
than four distinct periods. 

The Church, in its original state, was cruciform, and consisted 
simply of Chancel, Transepts, and Nave, projecting from the four 
sides of a central Tower. 

The whole of these older portions still remain, and constitute the 
greater part of the present structure. Although they have, from 
time to time, undergone considerable alterations, still enough is 
left untouched to show what the building must have been in its 
original state. 

The Tower, which is the most important feature, is, with the 
exception of the parapet and pinnacles, almost unchanged externally. 
As there were no Aisles until three centuries after its erection, the 
Turret at the N.~W. angle containing the staircase (now engaged 
within the mass of the church) must have arisen from the ground 
at the junction of the Nave and Transept walls. The Chancel and 
Transepts also retain many of their original features in windows, 
pilaster-buttresses, corbel-table, and mouldings. Among the latter 
may be noticed the Chevron, or Zigzag, the Saw Tooth or Hatched, 
the Embattled, the Nail Head, the Double Billet, the Beaded, the 
Cable, the Scolloped, the Indented, &c. The Nave suffered con- 
siderably by the addition of the Aisles, and therefore retains few 
of its original ornaments. 

The style of architecture to which the older portions of the 
building belong is the Late Romanesque, or Norman, and, with the 
exception of Malmesbury Abbey, they are the finest example of it 
in the county. Their date from the concurrence of the pointed 
and the semicircular arch, may be fixed at about the middle of the 
twelfth century. 

The Aisles wero added about the middle of the fifteenth century, 
and together with the Chapels on the North and South sides of the 
Chancel, which are of fcwo subsequent dates, exhibit specimens of 
the Third Pointed, or Perpendiottlar style of architecture, which 
u;i- in use for nearly two centuries previous to the Reformation. 

Tin- extreme Length of the building from East to West is ono 
hundred and fourteen feet, and its greatest width sixty-eight feet. 


Tin Churches of Devize*. 


The peculiarity of the tower consists in its being, not square, but 
of an oblong form, measuring twenty-three-and-a-half feet from 
north to south, by fourteen feet from east to west, and seventy-three 
feet in height. It rests on four arches. Two of these, the east 
and west, owing to the greater width of those sides, are semicircular. 
The arches on the north and south are pointed, but of the same 
height and age as the former. Each of the four arches springs, 
on either side, from a cluster of three shafts, and is worked into 
three rolls corresponding with them; two of these forming a re- 
ceding or sub-arch. The capitals of the shafts are of the cushion 
form, and the abacus square and heavy, with the lower edge cham- 
fered off, and ornamented with rows of the " triangular indented" 

On the face of each of the arches is a variety of the "chevron" 

moulding, and on that of the western arch there was (until removed 

c. 1820) a curious ornament introduced in the hollow between the 

present " chevron" and " beaded" mouldings. It is thus described 

by Mr. Britton 1 : — 

" On the great arch connecting the tower with the nave is an ornament which 
I have never seen elsewhere, that is, a series of about forty-eight basso-relievo- 
figures, representing a peculiar sort of bottle running round the arch ; and in 
the centre is a key stone with an angel's head and thistles sculptured on it." 

Above these arches, at the height of a few feet, is the remaining 

portion of an intersecting 
arcade, which formerlv ran 
round the whole of the four 
inner walls, but is now un- 
fortunately much mutilated 
on two of its sides. On the 
north, south, and west walls 
each arch in this arcade con- 
tained, in the centre, one 
additional shaft only, from 

S - ' 

"■* ^S 3 'C 





i la 


i — 










1 Architectural Antiquities, ii., 5. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 221 

which sprung two other arches ; whilst on the east wall the semi- 
circular arches are of greater span, and consequently higher, each 
containing two additional shafts; the subordinate arches, therefore, 
formed by this double intersection are more acutely pointed, and 
the arcade itself, a portion of which is represented in the annexed 
engraving, much richer in appearance. The whole of the arches 
are ornamented with the "chevron" moulding, and the shafts from 
which they spring are of a circular form, with the capitals variously 
ornamented. The bases of the shafts are hidden by the floor of the 
present "ringing loft." 1 

The exterior of the Tower, above the ridge of the Nave, Chancel, 
and Transept roofs, is divided by "cable" and "billet" mouldings 
into two stages. At three of the angles is a land of three-quarter 
column ; and at the top is an embattled parapet with massive and 
rudely executed pinnacles, set crosswise, whilst at the fourth angle 
is the turret, which is also embattled, and was formerly surmounted 
by a small spire. The walls of the upper stage exhibit an arcade 
of sixteen semicircular arches, six of which — viz., one on the north 
and south sides, and two on the east and west (an irregularity 
which arises from the shape of the tower) inclose the belfry win- 
dows. Each of these windows consists of two narrow semicircular- 
headed apertures, formed by the introduction of a midwall shaft, 
evidently a modification of the "baluster" shaft and window of the 
preceding or Saxon style. 

In the lower stage, and immediately underneath these windows, 
are six others, ornamented externally and internally, with jamb- 
shafts and a semicircular archway enriched with Norman mouldings. 
These are now filled with masonry of Perpendicular date, but were, 
probably, in their original state, glazed in order to admit light to 
the intersecting arcade below them, which was then visible from 
the interior of the church. 

1 This Hour was constructed, at a comparatively recent date, for the purpose of 
Canning a separate apartment for the ringers. It is, however, an innovation 
much to lie condemned, completely destroying as it does the effect intended by 
the original architect to be produced hy leaving the greater portion of the tower 
open to tin body of the church. 

2 G 

222 The Churches of Devises. 

Bells. — These arc eight in number. The inscriptions upon them 
are as follows : — 

1 and 2. " The gift of Wm. Willy, Esq., Mr. Tris. Godwin, and Mr. Wm. 
Adlam, Ch.-Wardens. Is. Burrough, Founder, 1747." 

3. " Vivat Rex et Floreat Grex, An" Domini 1677. R.P. W.C. T.C." 

4. "J. W., 1610. Hopewell." 

5. " 1610. J. W. Feare the Lorde." 

6. " Mr. James Sutton, M. Jcr. Williams, Ric. Smith, Churchwardens, 


7. " John Jordan and Mathew Figgins, Churchwardens, 1677. R.F. 

W.C. T.C." 
Tenor. "Richard Hillier, Major, Gnt., Charles Danvers, sqr., Recorder, 
Anno 1677. R.P. W.C." 
"Henry Johnson, Rector; John Jordan, and Mathew Figgins, 

Previously to the year 1747, the peal consisted only of six bells. 
The two which now form the first and second were added (as appears 
from the inscriptions upon them) in that year. They were presented 
by William Willy, Esq., of London, at that time one of the repre- 
sentatives of the Borough in Parliament, and cast at the foundry 
of James Burrough in Devizes. 1 

The fourth and fifth were cast by John Wallis of Sarum, in 1610. 

On the sixth, cast in 1697, the initials of the founder do not 
appear; it was, however, probably cast at Aldbourne. 

The third, seventh, and tenor were cast in 1677, and came from 
the foundry of Roger Purdue in Salisbury. 


is twenty-eight feet in length, and twenty in width. The walls 
which remain on the north and east sides arc of Norman date, and 
exhibit, externally, specimens of the original pilasters and corbel- 
table. The latter consists of a narrow fringe of plain masonry 
with a chamfer, worked with the "saw-tooth or hatched" moulding 
on the lower edge, and supported by a row of grotesque heads. 
The former are of little projection, and on the north wall, under 
the eaves, die at a level into the latter, dividing the wall, as it 

i This foundry appears to have been situated on the south side of St. John's 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 


were, into gigantic panels. At the gable end of the building they 
terminate with a set- off. The small window in the north wall 1 
(see engraving) retains both its 
moulded archway ornamented with 
the "chevron," and jamb-shafts, 
but is not, externally, of the 
original depth, having been at 
some time considerably lowered, 
as will be seen by a comparison 
of it with those (now blocked up) 
at the ends of the transepts. In 
the east wall there was previously 
to the year 1844 (when this 
portion of the fabric, as well as 
the chapels attached to it, under- 
went a complete restoration) a 
window of three lights in the 
Perpendicular style. This had 
been substituted for the original one, in order to correspond with 
the greater portion of the other windows in the building. At the 
period above-mentioned it was removed ; the pilasters, which had 
been cut away in order to admit of its insertion, restored, and the 
present window, copied from that in the north wall, introduced : it 
is however defective, owing to the variation from the original depth 
above described. 

The roof is of the original pitch, and covered with stone tile. 

This portion of the building is divided internally into two com- 
partments by a plain semicircular arch springing on either side 
from two shafts with richly carved capitals. 2 The roof is composed 


1 In the wall taneath this window is a doorway with a small square aperture 
on its eastern side. Both are now blocked up. The former seems to have con- 
nected the chancel with a small apartment once attached to the exterior, perhaps 
oosopied by tin- Saeristaa; the latter may have bseB used for the purpose of 
watching fn»ia this apartment tlie lights kept burning at certain times within 
tin afcoroh. 

5 These are engraved in iJritton's "Architectural Antiquiti. 


224 The Churches of Devizes. 

of stone groining, formed by bold ribs springing from single shafts 
in the angles of these compartments, and intersecting each other 
in the centre, nearly at right angles. The walls were originally 
ornamented by an intersecting arcade, similar to that on the north 
wall of the tower, but the opening of arches through them (in 
order to connect the chancel with the chapels, which were after- 
wards added on its north and south sides) and the insertion of the 
Perpendicular window in the east wall, destroyed the greater 
portion of it, A sufficient quantity, however, remained on the 
north wall to serve as a copy in restoring the rest which was, as 
far as the existence of the chapels would permit, carefully done at 
the period (1844) above-mentioned. Before that time, the lower part 
of the east wall, in accordance with the taste of the eighteenth 
century, was "adorned" with wooden panelling in the Grecian 
style, the space above was filled with a large oil painting of the 
Resurrection, and the window behind it blocked up with brickwork. 

The stained glass in the present east window, executed by Mr. 
Willement, was presented by the Rev. W. Maskell, then of Broad - 
leaze. On three medallions are represented: — 1. A cross, in the Hmbs 
of which are the initials I. N. R. I. 2. The " Agnus Dei." 3. The 
head of St. John Baptist 1 in a "charger" with a sword above it. 

The Parclose or screen, of carved oak, (in the arches dividing 
the chancel from the chapels on either side) as well as the stalls 
connected with it, were presented by T. H. S. Sotheron, Esq. In 
the cornice of the screen on the north side are six shields, bearing 
the following arms : — 

Willy. Ermine, on two bars vert three martlets or : two and one. 

Sutton. Argent, a canton sable. 

Estootjet. Ermine, on a chief indented gules, three estoiles or. 

Addington. Per pale ermine and ermines on a chevron between three fleurs- 
de-lis, five lozenges, all counterchanged. 

And the initials '$. %). §, $, in monogram. Between them, on 
a label, is the following inscription : — 

"•!• Sai tjj? pinna ftlrinunj nf (Blraiurar, miff nf '3murs &uitan, isaj, nf Ura $ark. 1844." 

i This was an exact copy of a seal appended to one of the church leases about 
the date of Richard TI., and evidently the ancient seal of the church. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 225 

In the cornice of the screen on the south side are the following- 
arms : — 

Bucknall. Argent, a chevron sable between three buck's heads cabossed 

Sotheeon. Gules, on a bend between six crosses argent, three eagles dis- 
played sable. 

Estcotjkt and Sutton. As above. 

with the initials in monogram as on the opposite side, and the 

following inscription : — 

" «f &n thr cinns ftlrnrarn, nf (Btoaranr, raifr nf fthnmas (Gmmstim Surlmall ifotrnnri, f sij., 
nf Gitrmrt anil Urn ^ark. 1844." 

The altar rails are of carved oak, and the steps and table of 
polished Purbeck marble, the latter consisting of a single slab, sup- 
ported by four massive uprights carved with ornaments of Norman 


is sixty-one feet in length and twenty-three-and-a-half in width. 
It is divided from the aisles, on either side, by a series of five 
pointed arches, springing from four piers, with clustered shafts, 
and two responds. The ceiling, which is of plaster, forms the 
segment of a circle ; it is divided into thirty-two compartments of a 
square form, by means of moulded ribs, 1 which are ornamented with 
a boss at each intersection, and terminate with bracket heads on the 
wall line. The west wall itself is of Norman date, and retains the 
pilaster buttresses at the angles, but the windows 8 in it are modern 
insertions. In the centre of this wall was no doubt the original 
entrance, but all traces of it have disappeared. A doorway, how- 
ever, was retained until a comparatively recent date. Its place is 
now occupied by a window. The roof is rather higher than that 
of the chancel, and is covered with stone tile. 

The piers and arches, more especially those on the north side, 
together with the wall of the aisle, have been, from some cause, 
forced very considerably out of the perpendicular. This is said to 

• A great part of the nioiddings are hidden by the plaster ceiling ; they wire 
originally painted in bright, colours. 

2 Under the Lvj ue imall portions of Norman mouldings, belonging to the 
ancient windows. 

226 The Churches of Devizes. 

have been caused, many years since, by the removal of the tie-beams 
in the nave, the places of which are now supplied by strong bars 
of iron. 


arc each seventeen feet by fourteen feet. The north and south 
elevations exhibit two of the original windows, which have been 
blocked up in order to insert one of Perpendicular date between 
them, and in the gable above is a 6mall unglazed aperture, also of 
the older date. The string-course on which these older windows 
rested is ornamented with the "double billet" moulding. The 
jamb-shafts and arches are also visible; the latter afford specimens 
of the "beaded" and "embattled" mouldings. 

The Perpendicular window between them is of three lights with 
a transom in the tracery. The roofs are both of good pitch and 
are covered with stone tile. 

Internally the roofs are flat, ceiled and whitewashed. In the 
west wall of the north transept are to be seen the traces of a doorway 
(now blocked up) communicating with the turret on the exterior ; 
this was the entrance from the interior of the church to the rood- 
loft. It may also have served as a private entrance for a Chantry 
Priest to an altar probably in this part of the church. On the wall 
directly opposite are indications of either a bracket for a taper or 
a benatura. 

In the east wall of each transept on the side of the arch con- 
necting it with the chapel is a hagioscope. 1 


This is of precisely the same length as the nave, and twelve feet 
in width. It is lighted by four windows in the north wall, each of 
three lights, with tracery of a very plain character. Between these 
windows, and at the north west angle of the wall, are plain buttresses, 
each with two sets-ofF. The parapet is plain, and the roof a lean-to, 

i This was an aperture to enable the congregation to obtain a view of the 
elevation of the host. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 227 

covered with lead. Several gurgoyles project from the wall at the 
base of the former. 

Internally the roof consists of rude rafters and purlins without 
mouldings or ornament, the former resting on corbel-heads, amongst 
which may be noticed those of a king, queen, and bishop, (the latter 
with his right hand upraised, as in the act of giving the benediction) 
a knight with bascinet and shield, &c. 

The arch at the east end of this aisle opening into the transept 
is of considerable thickness; the staircase connecting the turret at 
the north-west angle of the tower with the doorway in the exterior 
wall, being carried over it in order to prevent the lower portion of 
the turret from completely blocking up the end of the aisle, which 
it would have done had it been allowed to have remained in its 
original state. 

This aisle corresponds in every respect, excepting the latter, with 
that just described. 1 They appear to have been both added to the 
building shortly before 1450. 



This is of a square form, measuring internally about fourteen 
feet from cast to west, and nearly the same from north to soutb. 
It is lighted by two windows, each of four lights, one on the north 
the other on the east side ; the latter, however, is only half the 
depth of the former, and without tracery. At the angle of the 
building and the junction of it with the transept wall arc thrco 
1 nit tresses, which terminate with crocketed pinnacles, the latter 
being set diamond- wise on each set-off. The parapet was formerly 
<-ii i battled on each side, and the roof flat, and covered with lead, 
but is now gabled and covered with stone tile. 

Internally this chapel is connected with the chancel and transept, 
by means of two arches opened in the walls ; these are without 

1 In the anli connecting it With the transept is a transom beam; this was 
inserted, possibly, with a view of strengthening the south-west angle of the 

228 The Churches of Demises. 

shafts or capitals. The face of that opening into the transept is 
ornamented with panelling and patera) ; among the latter, on the 
point of the arch, will be found apparently two rudders, and in the 
hollow moulding on the north side of the east window 1 was disclosed, 
some years since, a scroll with the following inscription painted, in 
black letter, on it : — 

"Orate . p . bono . gtata . rfrar&f . lamfc." 

[Pray for the good estate of Richard Lamb], 

The lettering appeared to have been continued in the corresponding 
moulding on the opposite side of the window, but its purport could 
not be deciphered. 

Whether the person thus commemorated was the founder of the 
chapel, or merely a benefactor to an altar which no doubt from the 
arrangement of the window stood immediately below it, is not 
known. The rudders above alluded to may have some reference to 
this subject, but the writer has hitherto been unable in any way to 
connect this device with the name of Lamb. 2 

The roof of this chapel demands particular attention from its 
extreme simplicity and beauty. It is nearly flat, and consists of 
two large moulded beams, intersecting each other in the centre, and 
forming four square compartments, each of which is divided, in a 
similar manner, by the same number of smaller beams, forming in 
all sixteen squares. Each of these is again subdivided into nine 
others, making in the whole no less than one hundred and forty- 
four square panels, each filled with pierced woodwork. The wall- 
pieces spring from brackets, some of which are carved. 

In the centre of this chapel stands the font, the whole of which 
with the exception of the bowl, is modern. It is hexagonal, raised 
on steps, which form a cross ; is lined with lead, and has a drain. 

1 In the space beneath this window are recorded (in illuminated letters on a 
rich blue ground) the charitable bequests made at various times to the church 
and parish. This was substituted, some years since, for the unsightly boards 
which previously disfigured the walls of the church. 

2 For some account of the rudder found in "Wiltshire churches and monuments 
see Wilts Magazine, I. p. 183. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 229 



This is fifteen feet from north to south, and twenty-eight from 
east to west. It is much more highly ornamented than the one 
just described. At the east end is a window of five lights, and on 
the south side two others, of five and four lights; underneath the 
one nearest east is a canopied doorway, ornamented with crockets 
and a finial. Between the windows, and at the angle of the walls, 
are buttresses corresponding in form with those of the other chapel, 
but more highly decorated. The parapet is embattled, the lower 
portion ornamented with a row of Tudor flowers, and the upper 
with square panels, enclosing quatrefoils. In the centre of the 
east wall, above the roof, is a canopied niche, now unoccupied, which 
no doubt contained the image of the saint to whom the chapel was 
dedicated. At the points of the window-arches, and at the drip- 
stone terminations, are carved demi-angels, one of which bears a 
shield charged with a crucifix, others a chalice and wafer, &c. The 
roof is flat and covered with lead. 

It is connected with the chancel and transept by three arches 1 
in the walls. The roof, which is of oak, corresponds nearly with 
that of the chapel on the opposite side of the chancel; 2 the wall- 
pieces spring from carved figures of demi-angels, similar to those 
on the outside walls, above described. Between the windows and 
arches are four canopied niches, and on the south side, between the 
doorway and the east wall, is a stone seat which may have formed 
the sedilia. 

A modern screen, of carved oak, divides the chapel in the centre, 
and the eastern portion is now used as a vestry. 

From the similarity of this chapel to one on the south side of 
the chancel of Bromham church, founded by Richard Beauchamp, 

' Betwa M (he two on the north ride is a hagioscope. 

'These roofs were, previously to the year 1844, totally obscured by plaster 
and whitewash. 

2 ii 

230 Tlie Churches of Dwizcs. 

Lord St. Amand, 1 temp. Henry VII. ; and the occurrence of the 
shackle-bolt- amongst its architectural ornaments, its foundation 
may be ascribed with tolerable certainty to the same individual. 
This statement seems further confirmed by the fact of several 
members of the Beauchamp family having held, at various times, 
the Castle and Manor of Devizes. 


This is eleven feet in length, by eleven in width; both the 
doorways are without shafts or capitals, and are ornamented with 
mouldings. The roof is gabled and covered with tile. Over the 
outer doorway is a small trefoil-headed niche, and above it an 
unglazed window divided by a single monial into two lights. On 
either side of the doorway is a low massive buttress. The roof of 
the interior corresponds with that of the nave, and on either side 
is a stone seat. 


This is modern, and unworthy of a description. 

Church Terriers (Canon 87). — Two of these (taken in 1704 
and 1783) and possibly others, are preserved in the Registry at 

Church Plate. — The plate belonging to this parish, in 1783, 
is described in the terrier above alluded to as follows: — 

ozs. dwts. 

Flagon, the gift of Sir Edw. Ernly weight 63 15 

Cup „ 9 7 

Ditto, the gift of Elizabeth Imber „ 9 

Salver, marked Jno. Sawer Sen. andJno. Powell ,, 10 7 

Ditto „ 8 13 

1 Richard Beauchamp, of Bromham, was the son and heir of William Beau- 
champ, Lord St. Amand. He inherited the family estates at Bromham, Market- 
Lavington, "Whaddon, Steeple- Ashton, &e., on the death of his father in 1475. 
These he held until 1508, when, dying without issue, the Manor of Bromham 
devolved to his cousin, John Baynton, Esq., son of Sir Robert Baynton of 
Falston, near Bishopstone, from whom descended the well known "Wiltshire 
family of that name. 

2 A device used by the Beauchamps. It is to be found in the chapel at Brom- 
ham, and is also figured in (rough's Sepulchral Monuments from the tomb of 
Bishop Beauchamp (14M) in Salisbury Cathedral. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 231 

The whole of this, with the exception of the flagon, was a few 
years since re-cast. 

The flagon was repaired in 1804, and appears to have received, 

at that time, a considerable addition of metal (possibly the rim on 

which it now stands) as its present weight is seventy-and-a-half 

ounces. On it beneath the crest and arms of Ernie, impaling Erie, 

is the following inscription : — 

" Ex dono Sr- Edward Ernly, Baryta 
to ye Church of St. John ye Baptist 

in the Devizes 1704." 


llobert Townsend, Rector. 

Jeremiah Williams, j Churchwarden8 . 
Itiehard omith, J 

Repaired 1804. 

Church Chest. — Neither this, nor its contents, are of much 
value. It contains little of interest with the exception of an 
Overseer's book, commencing in 1613; and a Churchwardens' in 

Royal Arms. — These are at the east end of the nave, over the 
western arch of the tower; their date is temp. James II. 

Two other coats of arms, painted in frames, are fastened to the 
wall above the north and south arches underneath the tower. One 
of these contains the arms of the town, the other those of the three 
guilds — viz., the mercers, drapers, and leather-sellers, with sup- 
porters, and the motto " Justitia veritate et unitate." They were 
probably placed in their present position in the early part of the 
seventeenth century. 

Ancient Paintings. — Some traces of paintings were discovered, 
many years since, in the nave of this church, but no record of them 
seems to have been preserved. 

1 Sir Edward Ernie, of Ktchelhampton, was descended from Edward Ernie, Esq., of Etchelhanipton, 

wm of Mlnhael Emit of Bourton, (lineally demanded from Biohard de Ernie, of Emlc, living temp. 
Henry in. i Sheriff of wilts 22 Elizabeth, by his leoond wife, Bnaan, eldest daughter of sir Waiter 
Iluniferford of Parley. He a u one of (he representatives In parliament (or the Borough of Devizes 
in 16W, and died la ivih-'j, leaving, by his wife, Frances, only daughter and heir of General the 
Bight Hon. Thomae Brie of Charborongh, two daughters, Franoee and Elizabeth, the latter married 
'.., Henry Drax, Esq., of BUerten Abbey, Yorkshire. 


232 The Churches of Dctizcs. 

Registers. — These commence in October, 1559 ; but the whole 
series arc not the originals, some of them, prior to the year 1605, 
being copies made at that date by the then rector, John Davis. 

Monumental Brasses. — There are two in the south-east chapel ; 
on one of them are engraved figures, each about twenty inches in 
length, representing John Kent, Esq. (who died in 1630) and his 
wife; 1 the former in a robe, the latter in the female costume of 
the period. The figures are slightly turned towards each other. 
Above them on a shield are the arms of Kent — a lion passant — ; 
a chief ermine. Crest, a lion's head erased erm : collared, lined, 
and ringed. Beneath is the following inscription : — 

' ' Hie, svb eodem tristi Harmoris spectacvlo sepvltvm jacet corpvs Johanis Kent 
Senioris Doctissimi viri, Generosi, nvper defvneti, cvivs absentiam satis deplorent, 
qvemq cassvm lvmine non immerito lvgeant Oppidani; Dvni vixerit, illi tam 
fervens in Devm existebat Pietas vt inde placida ipsivs conscientiaj, tranqvil- 
litate acqvisita terra ipso se frvitvrvm esse crelo diceretvr, Tanta in singvlos a 
svmmis ad imos amicitia vt inter adhve ignotos in hoc oppidvm admiranda 
beneficia, immortalitatis aeterna erexisse trophaea videantvr. Vivet in aeternum 
ivstorum memoria. Obijt A - aetatis 72 primo die Octobris A - Dni. 1630. 

Vita probum, pietas Sanctum, finisq beatum 

Te censent, vitce fania perennis erit. 
Nee tantum pietatis honos neq finis Olimpo 

Fulgeat bic laudis non moritura dies 
Solo deo mibi sola salus." 

John Kent was in 1628 town-clerk and mayor of Devizes, he 
also represented the Borough in several parliaments during the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James I. In the register of his burial, he 
is described as "Justice of the Borough." 

The other brass has been executed (since the modern "revival") 
by the Messrs. "Waller, and commemorates Mary, wife of the Rev. 
William Maskell, of Broadleaze, who died in 1847. It consists of 
a cross fleury, raised on five steps, with the Sacred monogram on 
a medallion at the intersection ; at the four corners of the slab, 
which is of Purbeck marble, are the Evangelistic symbols, and 

i This brass, although a very late example, is somewhat interesting, as clearly 
showing the temporary revival of church art, which took place just before the 
Great Rebellion. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 233 

on a narrow strip of latten round the margin is engraved a portion 

of St. John, xi. c. 25-6 v. 

"+ I am tjji rtsnrrtrtinn anil iijt lift, saitl; tjjr fnrii, jjt tljat htlitnttjj in 3Hr, 
ilinngh lit mm iitaii ijrt sjjall Ijr lint ; anil mijnsntntr Until) anil htlitutth in Mi, sijall 
ntntr iiit. Slmtn." 

Monuments. — The walls of the church exhibit a considerable 
number of memorials, some of which afford fair specimens of 
modern sculpture. The names of some of the principal individuals 
and families commemorated are as follows : — 

Robert Byng, D.D., sometime Rector of Devizes, died Feb. 8, 1658. [This 
is an incised inscription in the wall of the north-east chapel]. 

James Dyer, Rector, died Aug. 15, 1690. [Flat stone with Latin inscription, 
in the north-east chapel]. 

Edward Innes, Rector, died Nov. 17, 1788; Elizabeth, his wife, May 29, 1809. 
[Small marble tablet in the north transept]. 

Elizabeth, wife of John Shergold, Rector, and John, their son, both died in 1 726. 

Charles Innes, of London, second son of the Rev. Edward Innes, died in 
1824. Ann, his first wife, daughter of Thomas and Ann Neate of Devizes, 
died 1796. 

John Drewe, Esq., died 1660. aged 26. 

Rt. Hon. George Heathcote, Lord Mayor of London, and thrice representa- 
tive of this Borough in Parliament, died 1768, aged 68. [This monument 
exhibits a figure, in white marble, of Britannia weeping over a medallion 
bust of the deceased which she supports with one hand, whilst in the other 
is held, on a rod, the cap of liberty]. 

Arms. Ermine, three pomeis each charged with a cross or, Heathcote ; 
impaling, Argent, a fess engrailed sable, in chief three fleurs-de-lis of 
the last, Eyles. 

Maria, widow of the above Rt. Hon. George Heathcote, and daughter of 
John Eyles, Esq. of Southbroom. Died 1792, aged 85. 

Arms. Heathcote impaling Eyles, as above, on a Lozenge. 

JosiAii Eyles Heathcote, Esq., only son of George Heathcote, Esq., of 
London, by Maria, (Eyles) his wife, died 1811, aged 63. 
Arms. Quarterly 1 and 4. Heathcote. 2 and 3. Eyles. 
Crest of Heathcote. In a mural crown azure a pomeis as in tho arms, 
between two wings displayed ermine. 

■John, Esq. of Southbroom (son of Sir John Eyles), died 1752, aged 75. 

.Mary, his wife (daughter of John Eyles, of Chalford, Co. Gloucester), died 

1744, aged 62. And three of their children, Francis, Joseph, and Elizabeth. 

•l"-'-|ih Turner, died 1761, aged 50. Eleanor, his widow, daughter of 

John Byles, died 17'i'j, aged 45. 

Thomas, brother of the above John Eyles, died 1735, aged 56. Maria, 
daughter of George Heathcote, died 1747, aged 2. 
Arms. Eyles, as above. 

234 The Churches of D&r-izos. 

Edward, fourth son of John Eyles,Esq., died 1792, aged 79. He married Mary, 
widow of the Hon. Governor Gumley, and daughter of Sir John Wittowrong, 

Katharine, wife of George Flower, and daughter of John Eyles of Chalford. 
John, their infant son, died 1 725. 

George Willy, Esq., of New Park, died 1770, aged 75. "William Willy, 
Esq., of t London, one of the representatives of this Borough, died 1763, 
aged 61. 
Arms. Willy, as before, p. 224. 

Prince Sutton, Justioe of the Borough, died 1779, aged 78. Mary (Willy) 
his wife, and four of their children, Willy, Mary, Sarah, and Anne. 
Arms. Sutton, impaling Willy, as before. 

James Sutton, Esq., of New Park, died 1801, aged 68. He married Eleanor, 
second daughter of Anthony Addington, Esq., M.D. of Reading. 
Arms. Sutton impaling Addlngton. 

James, son and heir of James Sutton, Esq., died 1784. Also three other 
children, George, William, and Mary. [This monument exhibits a female 
figure, in white marble, leaning on a broken column — the symbol of Forti- 

John Merewetheb, M.B., died 1724, aged 69. Jane, his wife, 1725, aged 69. 

Francis, their youngest son, 1716, aged 22. Anna Merewether, died 1690. 

Arms. Or, three martlets sable on a chief azure, a sun in splendor 

proper, Merewether; impaling, Or, a saltier engrailed between twelve 

billets sable, Aldworth. 

The same arms of Aldworth are also carried on an escutcheon of pretence 
over the coat of Merewether. 1 

Eleanor, wife of Winch Holdsworth, D.D. of Chalfont, Co. Bucks, and 
daughter of John Merewether, M.B., died 1758, aged 62. 

Thomas Thurman, died 1777, aged 86, and two wives, Susannah, and Anne. 
John Thurman, his son, died 1764, aged 43. 

Arms. Argent on a pale azure between two lions rampant gules, a tilting 
spear of the first, 

William Salmon, Esq., of Southbroom, died 1826, aged 78. [Monument of 
white marble, sculptured by Baily]. 

Mary, wife of Joseph Needham, died 1732, aged 19. Penelope, his second 
wife, died 1736, aged 22. Joseph Needham, died 1778, aged 75. 

Samuel Taylor, five times Mayor of the Borough, and Captain of the 
Devizes Volunteers, died 1818, aged 82. Sally his wife, two of their sons, 
Thomas and Samuel, (both of whom died in foreign service) and two daugh- 
ters, Penelope and Elizabeth. Also Sally, a third daughter, wife of Joseph 

1 According to the present rule of blazon, this would indicate two matches with Aldworth, one an 
heiress, the other not ; hut at the date of this monument (1724) such an arrangement of the female 
coat was usual, where a man had married but once, that wife being an heiress, and having issue. 
A similar case may be seen in Steeple Ashton Church, on the Hatchment of Robert Smith, who 
married Mary, heiress of Thomas liennet, Esq. of Steeple Ashton. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 235 

Arms. Argent, a bend engrailed between two stag's heads cabosscd 
sable, Need ham; impaling, Sable, an unicorn passant or, on a chief of 
the last three gilly-flowers stalked and leaved vert, Floweb. 
James Sutton, died 1778, aged 63. Anne, his widow. 

[Marble monument in the north aisle]. 

The remaining monuments, which are without arms, bear the 
following names : — 
Bruges, Dick, Headly, Hughes, Long, Payne, Powell, Pierce, Trollope, and Wilde. 

Among the more ancient memorials in the churchyard are the 

names of 

Adlam, Bell, Butcher, Brittan, Carrington, Clare, Clark, Coward, Cox, Eades, 
Figgins, Flay, Forman, Gent, Green, Gillard, Hill, Hulbert, Jordan, Lawrence, 
Leach, Mattock, Mayo, Milns, Mortimer, Sapper, Noyes, Oram, Paradice, Phil- 
lips, Pierce, Randell, Ping, Simpkms, Slade, Sloper, Waylen, "Williams, White, 

Chantries in St. John's Church. 

In the report of a commission, dated 4th Feb., 37 Henry VIII. 
(1546), directed to John (Capon), Lord Bishop of Sarum; Thomas 
Seymour, Knight; Robert Chydley, Esq.; Thomas Leygh, and 
William Greene, Gentlemen ; mention is made of one chantry only 
being at that time maintained within this church. It is described 
as founded by Richard Cardmaker, and for its maintenance was 
endowed with four houses, (one a common inn, called the Hart) 
situate in the New Port, and producing together an annual rent 
of £6 3s. Ad. 

At what period this was founded is not mentioned ; the name 
of Richard Cardmaker occurs, however, as witness to a deed, 
11 Richard II. (1388). 

In the report of anothor survey, dated 14th Feb., 2 Edward VI. 
(1548), taken by John Thynne, and William Wroughton, Knights; 
Charles Bulkley, John Barwicke, and Thomas Chafynne, Esqrs. ; 
and William Thornhill, and Lawrence Hyde, Gentlemen, is the 
following notice of a second chantry founded in the same church 
by a John Cardmaker. 

21 Chauntre founded by John Cardmaker w th in the p'shc Churche of sainte 
John in the Devizes. Thomas 1 1 ancocke of the age of xxxv yores Incumbent, &c. 

£fir said John Cardmaker gays oerten landes and ten ts w"> in the Burrowe 
nt thi Devi i i onto the Hayre and brethren of the same Burrowe and to their 

236 The C hurclies of Devizes. 

successours for ever to the Intent that the said Mayre and brethren should 
fynde one honest prcestc to singe at the Aulter of saint Leonard w ,h in the said 
Churche for the soulc of the said John Cardmaker for ever and the same to have 
for his salarye or stipend yerelye — vj u - iij s - iiij' 1 - 

fW* the said Incumbent is a right honest man well learned and right able 
to serve a Cure. Albeit a verye pore man and hath non other lyvinge but this 
salarye also he hath occupied him selfe in and about the prcachinge of goddis 
worde ever sith he had the same Chauntree. 

Thomas Hancock, however, notwithstanding his "honesty, learn- 
ing," and "ability to serve a Cure," met with the same fate as 
chantry priests in general. He was shortly afterwards ejected, 
and the property which had formed the endowment of the chantry 
was, it is presumed, confiscated to the crown. In the corporation 
books are entries for a sum, corresponding nearly with the above 
stipend, paid annually to the king, called " rent for Cardmaker's 
Chauntry." These items continue as late as the eighteenth century. 

The Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

This Church (as will be seen by the accompanying plan) consists 
of a Chancel, A.; Nave, B. ; North and South Aisles, C. D. ; 
Western Tower, E. ; and South Porch, F. 

Of these, the Chancel is the most ancient. The style of its 
architecture Like that of St. John's (with which, though inferior in 
workmanship, it nearly corresponds) is Norman. The South Porch 
is somewhat later in date, and is of the Transition style from 
Norman to Early English. The Nave, Aisles, and Tower, afford 
a good example of the Perpendicular style. The name of the 
founder as well as the date of his death, is fortunately preserved 
by an inscription on the roof, which is valuable as giving also the 
age of these parts of the building. 

The extreme length of the church is one hundred and thirty- two 
feet ; the greatest width sixty-five feet. 


is thirty-three feet from east to west, and twenty-one from north 
to south. The walls are about four-and-a-half feet in thickness, 
and faced both inside and out with small squared stones, the 


Scale of Feet. 

Edu/fjCUedel ' 

VVT.,, v 'J 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 237 

intervening space being filled with chalk rubble. It was originally 
lighted by five small semicircular-headed windows, resting exter- 
nally on a plain string-course which ran round the walls between 
the pilasters. The latter are of considerable breadth, and, owing 
to the thickness of the walls, of little projection. The corbel- table 
remains on the north and south walls in a perfect state. In the 
sixteenth century (or perhaps later) the small windows above de- 
scribed, appear to have been replaced by the present Perpendicular 
ones of three lights. The insertion of these had, no doubt, the 
effect of weakening the walls; that on the south side being, from 
the pressure of the stone vaulting, thrust out of the perpendicular. 
A semicircular-headed doorway may be traced in the north wall, 
but another of much later date, on the south side, is now in use. 
The roof is of a good pitch, and is covered with stone tile. 

This part of the church inside resembles that of St. John, the 
central arch, however, which divides the vaulting, is worked into 
two rolls corresponding with the shafts, on either side, from which 
it springs. The arcade also differs in two respects — viz., the shafts 
being clustered, or triple, instead of single, and an additional 
chevron moulding, set with the points jutting out from the wall, 
being introduced in the arches. These variations seem to show 
that this church was erected at rather a later date than St. John's. 
The arcade on the east wall was carefully restored, and the present 
window, in the Norman style, inserted above it, in the year 1852. 

The chancel-arch is of the Perpendicular style, without shafts 
or capitals, and being cut through the Norman wall, is of consider- 
able thickness ; the western face is chamfered and ornamented with 


is sixty-eight feet in length, and twenty-three-and-a-half in width. 
It is divided from the aisles on either side by a series of five pointed 
arches springing from four octagonal piers, and two responds. The 
clerestory above is lighted by the same number of windows, each 
of three cinquefoil-headed lights, the monials of which continue 
to the arch of the window in perpendicular lines, and above the 


238 The Churches of Devizes. St, Mary's. 

central light enclose a quatrefoil. Between these windows, on 
the outside, are buttresses of slight projection, terminating above 
the parapet (which is embattled) with crocheted pinnacles. In the 
centre of the east wall, above the ridge of the chancel roof, is a 
canopied niche, containing a bold and well executed statue of the 
Blessed Virgin Mar) 7 bearing in her arms the Infant Saviour. On 
the plinth are two shields sculptured with the initials "W. S." 
evidently those of the rebuilder of this part. At the north-east 
angle is the rood turret, of an hexagonal form, embattled at the 
top, and rising to the height of two or three feet above the nave 
roof. The entrance to it from the chnrch is by a small doorway 
in the wall at the east end of the north aisle, and from it to the 
roodloft by another door above the chancel-arch, on the north side 
(this, however, is now blocked up). There are also doors opening 
on the roofs of the nave and aisles, as well as into the space under- 
neath the roof of the chancel. The upper part of this turret may 
have perhaps contained the Sancte bell, as, on account of the niche 
and statue above described, there was no room for it in the usual 
place, on the point of the eastern gable. 

On either side of the chancel-arch, towards the naA T e, is a canopied 
niche, and below the bracket underneath it, which formerly sup- 
ported a statue, is a hagioscope. 

The roof is of oak, divided by tie-beams into five compartments, 
or bays, one of which, towards the west, is represented in the 
annexed engraving. The wall-pieces spring from boldly carved 
corbel-heads, representing a king, queen, and bishop, 1 each four 
times repeated. The tie-beams, and cornice (of which a section is 
given, Fig. a) are ornamented with mouldings and patera), and the 
space above the former filled with pierced tracery. In each com- 
partment, between the ridge and cornice, a single purlin, b, is 
introduced, and in the two at the extremities an additional rafter, 
at the termination of which a demi-angel, bearing a shield, projects 
from the cornice on either side. The space between the rafters 

1 No doubt the reigning- Sovereign (Henry V. or VI.) and bis queen, and the 
bishop of the diocese (Chandler, or Neville). 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 



was, no doubt, originally filled with boarding as shown in the 
engraving, but is now plastered over and whitewashed. The wood- 
work appears to have been painted in bright colours. In the 
second compartment from the east, the following inscription painted 
in black letter, is still distinctly to be read : it commences on the 
cornice of the north wall, continues across the tie-beam, and ter- 
minates on the opposite side : — 

"©rate • pro • aia • CEJtllt • s'mgrf) • qui • iitu • ertltam • fieri • ferit • 
qui • obitt • prima • Die • mrns'iS • iumi • anno • oni • millo ttctrrrfaf." 

[Pray for the so ill of William Smyth* who caused this church to be built: 
and who died oil the first day of the month of June, Anno Domini 1436]. 



This is of nearly the same length as the nave, and eleven feet in 

1 It U to be regretted that little has been preserved relating either to this individual or the 
family to which he belonged. The name of Roger lc Smyth occurs in a deed of 1317. This may 
IKi-~i!i]y have been an ancestor, and Robert Smyth, who was Mayor of Devizes in 1420, a brother of 
William Smyth. William's sun, Thomas, was a chantry priest, and together with bis lather, be- 
(pu-atlicd thi' annual lent arising from two houses in I )rvizcs, towards the maintenance of an obit, 
three Si pulchrc tapers, and the Font taper, in this church. At a later date (1171) John Smyth was 
instituted l/i the Kict'iry of Devices, and in laid another individual of the satin name occupied two 

ti'in iin-iit- and gwdeni Belonging to a chantry founded by William Ooventre In theohuroh. of St, Mary. 
In the Begiaten of botb p»rithW| which oommenoe abort the middle of the sixteenth century the 

name Of Smyth is of such frequent occurrence that there is considerable difficulty ill tracing the 
family of this particular individual. 

2 i 2 


The Churches of Devizes. St. Mary's. 

width. 1 It is lighted by a series of seven windows, one of which 

is shown in the annexed en- 

graving, each containing three 
cinquefoil-headed lights. Of 
these, five are in the north wall, 
the others at the east and west 
ends. Between them, and at 
the angles of the walls, are 
plain buttresses of two sets-off. 
The parapet is embattled, and 
the roof, which is a lean-to, is 
covered with lead. 

The roof, inside, is divided 
by moulded beams into twenty 
compartments, with a boldly 
carved boss at each intersection. 
On the eastern respond, at the 
right hand of the rood door, 
is a fragment of carving, pro- 
bably the remains either of a small piscina, or a projecting bracket 
for the support of a taper. 

This is twelve-and-a-half feet wide, and is of the same length as 
the north aisle; but, on account of the porch, has two windows 
less in number. That at the west end differs from the rest, a 
transom being introduced in the tracery, corresponding with those 
at the north and south ends of the transepts of St. John's church. 
In other respects this aisle very nearly resembles the other. The 
roofs of the two aisles form different angles against the body of the 
church, that of the north aisle being more acute ; a basement 
moulding to the south aisle, none to the north. 



1 The east wall is of great thickness, and apparently of Norman date. The 
north wall is also built on the original foundations, which, together with the 
pilasters, may still be clearly traced above the ground, along the whole wall, 
which is consequently no less than three feet in thickness. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 241 


is fourteen feet square inside, and ninety-one feet in height. It is 
divided into three stages, and ascended by means of a turret, which 
is partly engaged in the south wall and rises above the roof. At 
the angles are bold buttresses, terminating with crocketed pinnacles, 
above an embattled parapet ; there is also a crocketed pinnacle at 
each set off. In the west wall of the lower stage is a doorway, with 
a large perpendicular window consisting of two tiers, each of four 
lights, immediately above the door. In the wall, on each side of 
this window, is a canopied niche. 

On the north, south, and west sides of the middle stage, are 
narrow windows, divided in the centre by a monial, and filled with 
pierced masonry. 

In the upper stage are windows nearly corresponding with the 
above, in couplets, excepting on the south side, where, on account 
of the turret, there is space for one only. 

The tower opens to the nave by means of an arch forty feet in 
height, and nine feet eight inches in span, the jambs of which are 
ornamented with a shaft, and several orders of mouldings. The 
groining, which is of stone, springs from a bracket-head in each 
angle. In the centre is a circular space, floored with wood, con- 
structed in order to admit of the raising or lowering of a bell. 

Bells. — There are six. The first, second, fifth, and tenor were 
cast in 1663, at the foundry of William and Roger Purdue in 
Salisbury. The fourth cast in 1696, and the third in 1701, are 
from the foundry of William and Robert Corr at Aldbourne. The 
inscriptions upon them are as follows: — 

1. "I am the first although but small I will be heard above you all." 
"Katarcn Strong, Jane Drew, 1663. W.P. R.P. D.P. S.W. CLP. M.D." 

2. "1603. T.P. Henry Johnson's Rector of this Towne." 

" I am the second in this King tharefore next to the will sing. K.M." 

3. " C.W. W.C., 1701. Richard Bundy and John Hill." 

4. " On Earth Bells do Ring ; in Heaven Angels Sing, Haluluiah. Rob. Cor." 
"Oliuer Edwards, Jacob Larrance, C.W. Wil. Cor., 1696." 

5. " Gie\ ••■ onto ( Yasar the things that arc (Yasar and unto God the things. . ." 
"John Drew and Phillip Strong, Church Wardens, 1663. W.P. R.P." 

242 The Churches of Devizes. St. Mary's. 

Tenor. " Fcarc God and Honour the King, Anno Domini 1663." 
" Come when I eall to sarve God all to sing Halliviah." 
"John Drew and Phillip Strong, Churchwardens. W.P. P.P. I.M."! 


which is on the south side, measures ten feet by six-and-a-half feet 
inside. The outer doorway is a good specimen of the Transition 
style, from Norman to Early English; of probably c. A.D. 1200. 
The arch is nearly equilateral, and ornamented with the chevron 
moulding in various forms: the capitals from which it springs are 
Early English, and the shafts end about a foot below them. Above 
the doorway is a small window of two lights. The parapet is em- 
battled. On the west side, at the junction of the aisle wall, is a 
square turret approached from the interior, and leading to the roof, 
which is covered with lead. Within the porch is a stone seat, on 
either side, and above the inner doorway is a niche for a figure. 

The porch underwent repair in 1612, when the upper part of it 
seems to have been rebuilt. The agreement made between the 
churchwardens and mason on this occasion is still preserved. It is 
as follows : — 

Articles of agreement had and made betweene John Erwood and Robert Hope, 
Churchwardens of the p'ish of St. Maries in the Devises in the Countie of Wilts, 
and Henrie Sweate of ffrome in the Countie of Som'sett, fl'ree mason, 2 the 
xxvij th of October, Anno Domini 1612, as followeth: — 

1 The following entries relative to the bells are taken from the churchwardens' accounts : — 

£ s. d. 

"1606. Itm. pd. Mr. Wallis for the casting our bells 21 

(A subscription amounting to £11 Ids. Id. was also made in 
this year for the same purpose). 

1616. Itm. to the bellfounder for the casting of the bell 5 10 

1640. Itm. pd. for takeing down the fowerth bell and for hanging of 

him upp 8 

Itm. pd. for articles and bond thereuppon for the bellfounders 

casting of the fowerth bell 2 

Itm. given the bellfounder for earnest money uppon the bargayne 

for casting the bell 10 

Itm. pd. for Tynne putt into the bell 3 110 

1664. It. pd. the bellfounder for adding near 3 cwt. of metal to the 

third and fourth bell and for waste of metal 18 17 

1696. Pd. for new casting the bell 18 10 

1701. Paid Mr. Corr in full for casting the bell 16 9 5 

2 For some account of the Freemasons of the Middle Ages, and their connection with the rise, 
progress, and decline of Pointed Architecture, the reader is referred to " Dallaway's Historical 
Account of Master and Freemasons," and " Hope's Historical Essay on Architectnre." A notice of 
them will also be found in the Rev. F". A. Paley's " Manual of Gothic Architecture"— Van Fovrst, 
1846— Chap. vi. And "A Hand Book for the Mediaeval Courts of the Crystal Palace."— Jiradbury and 
Evan*, 1854, p. 12. 

By Mr. Etkcard Kite. 243 

Inpri: It is agreed on the p'te and behalfe of the aforesaid Henrie Sweate that 
whereas the sayd Henry Sweate hath pformed a certaine peece of worke about 
the amendinge and repayringe of the Church Porch of St. Maries aforesayd 
that if there fall out to be any decay in his worke already pformed or in the 
upper parte of y e stone wale of y e same porch by reason of y e stone woorke 
onely before y e third day of May next followinge the day of y e date of these 
p'sent that then the sayd Henry Sweate is to repaire his woorke already donne 
and to pull downe y e stone wall vnto the battlement thereof and to sett itt 
upp att his owne cost and charge w th in one moneth after. 

(A Bond is also appended to this document, and conditions requiring the 
churchwardens to "bringe vnto and finde all siiche mannor of stuft'e as the 
said Henrie Sweate shall have occasion to use aboivte the said porche att theire 
owne coste and charge"). 

Signed sealed and delivered in the p'sence of : 

Robert Drewo. 
John Drewe. 

In 1638 an entry occurs in the churchwardens' accounts for "tymber and 
sawing to builde tlio roofe of the Porch." 

GurgoyIxES. — The series of sculptured figures which project from 
the parapets of the aisles and clerestory of this church are worthy 
of notice. The following are a few of the most remarkable : — 

Poncn, S.E. angle. Bust of a female attired in the square head dress (com- 
monly worn at the end of the fourteenth and commencement of the fifteenth 
centuries), which a demon at her side apparently exposes to ridicule. 

S.W. angle. A mutilated double figure, the remaining portion of which 
represents a cowled Monk. 

NoETn Aisle. A female head attired in the lunar head dress (wornc. 1420-30). 
On the left side is represented, apparently, a demon in the form of a toad. 

Clerestory, S. side. Two Bears ? rampant, collared — perhaps the supporters 
of a coat of arms. A tilting helm. A heart crowned, &c. 

N. side. Two figures beneath a tree ; one a dragon, the other somewhat 
mutilated and difficult to recognize. (This may perhaps be symbolical of 
the temptation). A man's head in the act of blowing a horn. 

The remainder consists chiefly of winged monsters, as lions, dragons, 
&c, which are of very frequent occurrence, especially in churches 
of Perpendicular date, and have been supposed to represent evil 
spirits, demons, &c, chased forth from the holy walls by the power 
of the church. 

Church Tekkikhs. — Two of these (taken in 1704 and 1783) and 
possibly others, are preserved is the Itegistry at Salisbury. 

244 The Churches of Dmzcs. St. j/ary's. 

Church Plate. — This is described in the terrier of 1783, aa 
follows : — 

Silver CUP. Inscription. — "Mr. Henry Johnson, Minister. This Cupp and 
Plate belongeth to St. Mary's Church in the Devizes. Bought by Philip Strong 
and Ambrose Zeley, June, 1654." 

Salter. Inscription. — "Robert Townsend, Rector of St. Mary's, Devizes. 
John Hill, Richd. Paradice, Church Wardens. Anno 1716." 

Flagon. Inscription. — as on salver; date 1718. 

Weight of the whole 86 ozs. 12 dwts. 

It has since this date been re-cast. 

Church Chest. — The chest itself appears to be of no great 
antiquity, but it contains many early accounts of receipt and ex- 
penditure by the churchwardens and overseers of this parish. The 
accounts of the churchwardens begin in 1499 ; and, although im- 
perfect, are interesting, as they give some idea of the ornaments, 
furniture, and vestments of the church prior to the Reformation, 
of their destruction at that period, of their temporary restoration 
in the reign of Queen Mary (the accounts of which reign are pre- 
served entire), of the second and more effectual removal by sale of 
the whole contents of the church, at the visit of the commissioner, 
1561 (4 Elizabeth), as well as of the wretched appearance which 
the interior, bare, rifled, and dilapidated, must have presented 
during the Great Rebellion. 

Some extracts, bearing particularly on these points, are appended ; 
the rest refer chiefly to repairs, &c, of the property belonging to 
the church. 

The overseers accounts commence in 1613. 

A second chest, belonging to the feoffees of the church lands, 
contains many ancient deeds, some of which are of the fourteenth 

Royal Arms. — These occupy a portion of the wall above the 
chancel arch ; date 1797. 

Ancient Paintings. — The walls of this church, like those of most 
others during the middle ages, were covered on the inside with an 
entire series of paintings in fresco, many remains of which have 
been disclosed at various times on removing the whitewash accu- 
mulated over them. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 245 

The earliest example of this kind of decoration was a fragment 
found on the face of a squared stone taken during some alterations 
in 1852 from the east wall of the chancel (into which it had 
evidently been built when the large window in the Perpendicular 
style was inserted; probably in the sixteenth century). It con- 
sisted simply of a flowered pattern, painted red, on a light ground ; 
and was probably a specimen of the original decoration of the 

Another variety of painting, of much later date, was also found 
on the same wall underneath the whitewash : consisting of a red 
ground covered with veins of black colour, in imitation of marble. 

The removal of the whitewash from the walls of the nave in 
July, 1854, brought to light the remains of a series of figures, in 
bold black outline ; the positions of which were as follows : — 

In the space immediately above the third pier from the east, on 
the north wall, was represented the Assumption of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, who appeared in a flowing robe, her entire body 
surrounded by the glory or aureola, and ascending through the air 
attended by angels. 

This was immediately opposite the doorway of the south porch, 
so as to meet the eye on entering the church. 1 

On the same wall, and in the corresponding space above the next 
pier, towards the east, was represented the legend of St. Christopher. 2 
A great portion of the figure of the saint was removed with the 
whitewash. He was, according to the usual custom, represented 

1 In the " Calendar of the Anglican Church" (Parker, 1851) is an engraving 
of this subject, from sculpture, in Sandford Church, Oxfordshire, treated in a 
precisely similar manner. 

2 The legend of St. Christopher will be found at length in the "Legenda 
Aurea" or "Golden Legend," written in the thirteenth century, by James de 
Voragine, a celebrated Dominican friar, and afterwards Archbishop of Genoa. 
It is, like many of the acts and representations of saints, in a great part alle- 
gorical, and from its obvious meaning was the most popular of all subjects in 
medieval decoration*. There was perhaps scarcely a church without a repre- 
sentation of this saint, either on the walls or in stained glass. At Bath, Eton, 
&<■. tin ro are inns still called "the Christopher," lingering vestiges of the great 
popularity of tin's legend in former times. 

2 B 

246 The Churches of Devizes. St. Mary's. 

as fording a river, bearing on his shoulder the Infant Saviour, and 
steadying his steps with a huge staff. On his head (which was 
turned as in the attitude of addressing the Holy Child) was a cover- 
ing of ermine resembling a turban. The Saviour was represented 
in a dress of orange colour, the folds shaded with red and black, 
with long flowing hair, and a mild placid countenance; the head 
was encircled by a nimbus of a circular form, the right hand 
upraised, and in the left an orb surmounted by a cross. 

Near the above, on the wall between the first and second windows 
of the clerestory, was a third painting, the subject of which was 
not easy to be recognized. It had evidently been the background 
to a figure that was removed with the whitewash, and consisted of 
a turreted castle, drawn in outline ; and above the battlements two 
crowned heads, apparently of a king and queen, gazing upon some 
scene that had occupied the foreground. 

On the south wall of the nave above the arcade were some faint 
traces of inscriptions, in black letter, on scrolls, but unfortunately 
so little was visible that none of the words could be distinguished. 
On the north and south walls, immediately under the cornice of the 
roof, was an ornament somewhat resembling a series of Tudor 
flowers inverted. Traces of colour were also found on some of the 
corbel-heads supporting the roof, on the mouldings of the pier- 
arches, and on the shafts, &c. of the canopies on either side of the 
chancel arch. On the wall above the latter (the place usually 
selected for the representation of the Great Doom) sufficient rem- 
nants of colour were left to show that a large painting had once 
been there also. 

Under these paintings (which were probably of Queen Mary's 
time) were found traces of older frescoes of superior execution, and 
richer colouring. These may have been of about a.d. 1436, soon 
after the nave was rebuilt ; and destroyed at the Reformation. 

For the "whitewashings" under which old church frescoes have 
disappeared, we are indebted partly to the destructive spirit of the 
enemies of ornament, and partly to a conservative spirit in its 
friends, who in many instances concealed them in order to prevent 
their destruction. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 247 

An old writer 1 gives the following sensible reason for their intro- 
duction into churches in days it should be remembered, when few 
persons could either write or read : — 

" Pictures and ornaments in churches are the lessons and the scriptures of the 
laity. Whence Gregory : ' It is one thing to adore a picture, and another by 
means of a picture historically to learn what should be adored. For what 
writing supplieth to him which can read, that doth a picture supply to him 
which is unlearned, and can only look. Because they who are uniustructed 
thus see what they ought to follow; and things are read, though letters be 

Generally the effigies of the Holy Fathers are pourtrayed on the walls of the 
church, or on the back panels of the altar, or on vestments, or in other various 
places, so that we may meditate perpetually, not indiscreetly or uselessly on 
their holiness 

Again, sometimes Paradise is painted in churches, that it may attract the 
beholders to a following after its rewards : sometimes Hell, that it may terrify 
them by the fear of punishment. Sometimes powers are pourtrayed, and trees, 
to represent the fruits of good works springing from the roots of virtues." 

Registers. — These commence ten years later than those of St. 
John's parish. The date of the earliest entry is Nov. 6th, 1569. 

Monumental Brasses. — All that now remain are two small 
oblong plates of brass (at present unfixed), bearing inscriptions to 
some members of the family of Horton, who died in the seventeenth 

Several slabs, however, from which the brasses have long disap- 
peared, are still to be seen in the pavement of the church. One of 
them seems to have contained the small figure of a priest, with a 
label issuing from the mouth ; another, two figures male and female 
(the former like that of a merchant) with an inscription beneath 
them ; and below, four children. The date probably c. 1530-40. 
It resembles two brasses remaining in the churches of Charlton 
(near Pewsey), and Bradford (Co. Wilts), the former to William 
Chaucey and wife, 1524; the latter to Thomas Horton and wife, 
c. 1540. 

Monuments. — These are few in number, and of very modern 
date; with the exception of one in memory of the Rev. Henry 

1 Durandus, Bishop of Mnule, a.i>. 1286, in his "Rationale Diviu. Offlc.," 
book i., chap. '\. 

2 K 2 

248 The Churches of Devizes. St. Mary's. 

Johnson, Rector of Devizes, who died in 1681. It consists of a 

slab of black marble, with the following inscription : — 

M. S. 

Post tantos Labores 

Totidemq Serinones 

Hie demum Quietc Silet 

Dignissime Rcverendus 

Henricus Johnson A.M. 

Hujxis Eeclesia' Hector, 

Pidpitiq dominator, 

Concionator strenuus frequensq 

Prcepotens ac desiderabilis, 

Dictis factisq primarvus, 

Yere et omnimode Theologus; 

Sacris Paginis, 

Literis Insuetis, 

Versatissimus : 

Rara tamen niodestia 


Vir Sobrietate Vita? gravis 

Suavitate morum placidus 

Nulliq molestus 

Quern in Sylvis virorum 

Solitudini vacantem 

Dolorosa (Heu) tandem fistula 

Sibi fceliciter 

Graviterq alias 

In Sanctorum turbam 

Fideliumq Salutem 


Oct, 31, 


The others commemorate — 

John Garth, Esq. (son of Colonel Thomas Garth of Harold, Co. Bedford, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Colleton, Esq.), for some time Recorder of 
Devizes, and afterwards one of the representatives of the Borough in Par- 
liament. He died 1764, aged 63. 

Arms. Or, two lions passant in pale between three cross crosslets fitchee 
sable, Garth; impaling, Or, two lions passant in pale gules, Brojitton. 
Crest of Garth. A goat passant argent, collared or. 
Mrs. Rebecca Gaeth, widow of John Garth, Esq., and daughter and co- 
heiress of John Brompton, Esq., died in 1785. 

Arms. On a lozenge Gaeth as above, with a crescent for difference, 
impaling Brompton. 
Frances, daughter of John Garth, Esq., died 1768. 
Abel Filkes, died 1815, aged 65. James, his son, 1796, aged 8. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 249 

Major General "\Villiaii Hull, C.B., Colonel of the first Bombay Grenadiers, 
third son of Samuel and Elizabeth Hull of Devizes, died 1840, aged 62. 
[Monument erected by his widow, Mildred, fifth daughter of the Ven. 
Archdeacon Corbett of Longnor, Co. Salop]. 

Arms. Sable, a chevron ermine, between three talbot's heads erased or, 
Hull ; impaling, Or, two ravens in pale proper within a bordure gules 
bezantee, Corbett. 

Crest. A talbot's head erased argent between two laurel branches proper, 
united at the top. 

Motto. " Faithful and trusty," pendant from the Shield the Cross of 

On a slab of marble in the pavement of the church : — 

" Heere lyeth ye Body of Simon Aston, Cittizen and Grocer of London ye Sonne 
of "Walter Aston of Longdon in y e County of Staff rd Gent, wch Simon had by 
Elizabeth Daughter of John "Wheler Esq. 5 children : w ho departed this life 
ye 4 of August 1638 being aged forty yeares." 

Arms. A fess and in chief three lozenges, on the fess a crescent charged with 
a crescent for difference, Aston. 

Crest. A bull's head couped — charged with a crescent for difference. 

The remainder of the fiat stones within the church bear the 

following names : — 

Bowman, Filkes, Forman, Fuller, Gurnell, Hardyman, Hope, Hulbert, Lowe, 
Macfarlane, Norris, Overton, Paradice, Phillips, Poore, Townsend, "Wilcocks, 

In the churchyard, near the south door of the chancel, is an 
erection of stone which looks at first sight like an altar-tomb, its 
sides being ornamented with panels, some trefoil-headed, others 
containing a quatrefoil which encloses a shield charged with a cross. 
This has been hitherto described as a tomb, but from being close to 
a door, and from its resemblance to many others of the same kind, 
as in the churchyards of Potterne, Bishops Cannings, Poulshot, 
Edyngton, &c, it is suggested that it may have been used for some 
purpose in connection with the church itself, perhaps for the dis- 
tribution of alms, or doles. 

Among the more ancient memorials in the churchyard are the 
names of 

liurgess, Eden, Ferris, Gamble, Halcomb, Harman, Hill, Holloway, Hull, Lewis, 
Lookey, Mills, Newton, Norris, Noyts, Oak, Paradice, Phillips, Itutt, Scager, 
St n-et. 

< )n the north side of the chancel is a flat stone to the Rev. Henry 
Jsqoes, Rector of Leigh-Delamere, who died in 1780. 

250 Tho Churches of Dmae*. St. Mary's. 

The interior of the church has, within the last few months, 
undergone considerable alteration. The galleries have been re- 
moved, open benches substituted for pues, (by which means the 
architecture is seen to much greater advantage) an organ erected 
in the space under the tower, and a vestry added on the north side 
of the chancel. 

Chantries in St. Mary's Church. 

In the report of a commission, 1 dated 4th Feb., 37 Henry VIII. 
(1546) three chantries are mentioned. 

The first was founded by John Coventre. Its endowment con- 
sisted of eleven tenements and gardens, situated chiefly in the 
New Port, an orchard, and three-and-a-half acres of arable land, 
"lying in Wekefeld," producing together, at that date, an annual 
rental of £6 17s. 2d. from which deducting a rent of 7s. paid 
annually to the Queen as lady of the manor of Devizes, leaves 
£6 10s. 2d. as the clear value of the chantry. 

The second, founded also by the said John Coventre, was endowed 
with no less than thirty-two houses and tenements, and thirty- 
one-and-a-half acres of land, besides several other parcels, the 
measurements of which are not given. Many of the houses are 
described as being in the Old and New Port, and the land in the 
West Field, Wekefeld, Little Surbathe, and the Parke lands. This 
property produced an annual rental of £16 12s. 6d. from which 
deducting a rent to the Queen, as above, of £1 3s. 8d., also a like 
rent of 5s. lid. paid at the Castle Ward for the Park lands, and a 
third of lis. to the Bishop of Sarum, amounting in the whole to 
£2 0s. Id., leaves £14 lis. lid. as the clear annual value of the 
chantry. 2 

The third and last chantry was founded by William Coventre. 
Its endowment consisted of sixteen houses and cottages with gardens, 
besides barns, &c. This property like the above was situated both in 

i Before referred to at page 235. 

2 From the amount it would appear that this chantry was an endowment for 
two priests. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 251 

the Old and New Port, and produced an annual rent of £8 7s. 10t/., 
with the following deductions: — 

£ s. d. 

An annual rent to the Queen of 8 8 

A charity to the almshouse for four poor women, as 

follows : — 

In alms 13 4 

For four cartloads of wood 9 4 

For six quarters of coals 3 4 

For the sustentation of four beds, together with 

the necessary furniture of the same 6 8 

2 1 4 

leaving £6 6$. Qd. for the annual value. 

No documents relating to any of these foundations are known to 

be in existence, except a few grants of some of the houses and lands 

belonging to them, made by the trustees to various parties. The 

earliest of these is in 1475 (13 Edward IV.), when the feoffees — 

Roger Tocotcs, Knt. ; Nicholas Hall, Esq. ; John Huet, Chaplain; Thomas Noreys ; 
William Hendelove ; John Raynold, Sen. ; and John Dekyn, of Devizes, grant 
to Thomas Bayly six tenements in the Old Port, and four acres of arable land, 
described as "lands and tenements which we, the aforesaid feoffees, lately hold 
of the gift of John Coventre, jun., now deceased." 

Another deed, dated 1552, (6 Edward VI.) is worthy of notice; 

it is — 

An indenture between Richard Batt, "Meyer of Devizes," and John Ffelpes or 
Symes, in which the former, "with the consent of his Brethren, and John Baker 
and Edward Haynes, stewards or procters of and over the lands and tenements 
pcrteyning or belonging unto the service of Our Lady, some tyme the gyft of 
John Coventre, in the south side of the Church of Seynt Mary in the Devizes," 
grants to the latter "one tenement of the landes belonging to the service forseyed 
in the Old Port, &c." 

The first of these deeds is valuable as giving the date of John 
Coventre's death ; the second as clearly showing that one, or both, 
of his chantries were founded at an altar dedicated to the Virgin 
.Mary in the south side of the church of St. Mary; this (as there 
arc no traces of an exterior chapel) probably refers to the east end 
of the south aisle, which, as was often the case, may have been 
screened off from the rest of the church for this purpose. 

The names of Robert, Henry, and John Wornbridge occur in 
1542, as stewurda of the lands and tenements of the Mayor and 

252 The Churches of Devizes. St. Mavi/s. 

his Brethren of the Devizes, belonging to the other chantry founded 
in this church by William Coventre. 

In 1554 (2 Phil, and Mary) the king and queen granted the 
lands and messuages belonging to the Coventre chantries to William 
and Roger Allen to hold in fee. 

A list of the property belonging to these chantries, with the 
names of the tenants in occupation, and the annual rent of each, 
is preserved in the survey of 1546 before alluded to. 

Obits, Lights, &c. — The following lands and tenements have 
been given to the church at various times for these purposes: — 

c. 1388. Richard Gobett of Devizes, purchased from Thomas Snappe of 
Rowde, certain lands in the latter parish, known as Isabel's Mead and Croft, l 
described as being in extent twenty acres, more or less. These he subsequently 
enfeoffed to John Paynter of Devizes, to the intent that "a perpetual memory 
and Obit should be celebrated annually in the parish church of St. Mary, on the 
Friday next after the Epiphany for the Souls of himself, Agnes his wife, William 
Estmonde, John Coventre, and Joan his wife ; and the predecessors, heirs, and 
kinsfolk of them." A dole was also to be distributed at the said Obit to priests, 
clerks, and poor people. 

c. 1436-60. "William Smyth and Thomas Smyth, his son, gave two tenements 
(one of which was situate in Southbroom) with their appurtenances "for the 
maintenance of three Sepulchre Tapers and the Font Taper, and also that an 
Obit should be celebrated annually in the above church to pray for the Souls of 
the Father and Mother of the said Thomas, as also for the Soul of himself." 

1467. John Vylde 2 of Devizes, gave to Thomas Davy and Robert Helyar, 
procurators of the altar of St. Katherine the Virgin in the above church, a tene- 
ment and garden in the Old Port, " for the maintenance of a light at the said 
Altar, and to help a Priest to say Mass for the Souls of Edward Danyel and 
Joan his wife, the Soul of John Vylde his father, and for the Souls of all the 
faithful departed." 

The following tenants were in occupation of this property in 

1574 (16 EHzabeth). 

Isabel's Breach and Croft. — George Raynoldes, annual rent 21s. 
Tenements of "William and Thomas Smyth. — Thomas Hull, Clothman, and 
John Knapp, annual rent 10s. 

Tenement and Garden of John Vylde. — Richard Come, anmial rent 4s. 

At this period an inquisition certified to the crown the uses for 

which the property was held, when it is presumed that these being 

1 This property, after a lapse of four hundred years, is still held of the church. It is at the present 
da)' better known as " Waite's Mead," which name it received from having been rented about 1600-20 
by one Robert Waite. It is a pasture ground in the parish of Kowde. 

2 Written in a document of 1446 " John Ffielde." 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 253 

deemed superstitious, it was confiscated to the crown and re-granted 
for fresh uses, as in an indenture, dated 3rd May, 24 Elizabeth, 
(1582) it is recited that John Hubert of London, gentleman, and 
Andrew Palmer procured from the queen a grant of the tenements 
occupied by Knapp and Come, and Isabel's Breach and Croft. 
Since this they have been enfeoffed to various parties in trust for 
the use of the poor, and the reparations of the parish church. 

The dole in memory of Richard Gobett, amounting to about twenty 
shillings, was however distributed annually to the poor on All Saints' 
Day until about the middle of the last century, but since that time 
it has been wholly discontinued. 

Other bequests for similar purposes, although not mentioned in 
the inquisition above alluded to, appear to have been made to this 
church ; e. g. — 

An annual dole of about 8s. 4d., bequeathed by Sir Thomas Newman 1 and 
Robert Paynter, distributed on Good Friday. 

Thomas Cardmaker's Light j mentioned 1499 . 

The Light in Our Lady's Porch ) 

The Lamp before the High Altar ,, 1525. 

Coventry Family. 

The family of Coventre, or Covyntre, appears to have been one 
of importance in Devizes during the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. As they were more or less connected with, and some 
of them were benefactors to, its churches, the following notices 
collected from a few documents of that period relating to them are 
added : — 
William Coventre. Mayor of Devizes, 11 Richard II. (1388); 

one of the procurators of the goods, &c. in the church of St. Mary, 

12 Henry IV. (1411), living 1415-16. 
John Covextre, (son of William Coventre, Sen.) One of the 

procurators of the church of St. Mary, and mayor of Devizes, 

22 Richard II. (1398). John Coventre, Sen., (probably the 

same) was mayor in 1415. 

I ioth he and his wife, Joan, were annually commemorated in 

i sir Thomai Newman tppaaji to bare been ;> ehantry piii t ni* name occurs tn 1404. 


254 The Churches of Devizes. St. Mary's. 

an obit, celebrated in the above church, on tbe Friday after the 
Epiphany, of the foundation of Richard Gobett of Devizes, see 
page 252. 

Nicholas Coventre, Chaplain, was 1 Henry IV. (1399) presented 
by the king to the government of the hospital of St. John the 
Baptist, Devizes. 

John Coventre, Jun. One of the procurators of the church of 
St. Mary, 2 Henry V. (1415), and mayor of Devizes 1436. He 
founded and endowed a chantry or chantries in the south side of 
the church of St. Mary, (see above p. 251) and died before 1475, 
leaving two sons, Thomas and John. 

Thomas Covyntre. This name occurs in 1420. He founded an 

almshouse in Devizes (probably that on the north side of St. 

John's church now known as the new almshouse, 1 which name 

it has doubtless borne for no less than four centuries). His Will, 

of which the following is a copy, is preserved in the Prerogative 

Will Office, London. 

"In S3tc nomine &mcn. XV. die niensis Iunii 1451. Ego Thomas 

Covyntre de Devyses corpore testainentum meum in hunc 

modum. Imprimis lego et beate Marie corpusque meum 

ad sepcliendum in ccemeterio Sti Johis Bapt: de Devyses. Item lego see 
eccles. Sar. xij d - It. lego dee eccle Sti Johis Bapt : vj s - viij cl - It. lego bte 

Marie de eadem villa xijd- Item lego It. do et lego 

Alieie uxori mee ununi tenementum inter ten: eccl. Sti Johi pred. exparte 

1 This building having become dilapidated, was a few years since taken down 
and rebuilt. On some of the stones from the foundation were discovered 
mouldings of the Norman style, corresponding with those remaining in the 
original parts of the adjacent church of St. John, thus clearly showing that the 
almshouse was erected, or partly so, with the stone from the Norman walls of the 
nave of the church, which were removed at the time when its aisles were added. 

The aisles of the church are of the Perpendicular style, and appear, from their 
plain character, to have been erected about the middle of the fifteenth century, 
which, being in the lifetime of this Thomas Covyntre, tends to confirm the 
supposition that the "domus elemosynar" alluded to by him in his Will, made 
a.d. 1451, was none other than the building above mentioned, and now known 
as the new almshouse. 

It is also, from these circumstances, very probable that Thomas Covyntre was 
a considerable contributor to, if not (like his friend and contemporary William 
Smyth, by whom the greater part of the sister church of St. Mary had been 
shortly before rebuilt, and whose son he appoints as one of his executors) the 
very person at whose cost the aisles were added to the church. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 255 

australi et ten : Joh : Devyses exparte boriali Item lego 

p'de Alicie onines alias terras et tenem. mea cum gardinibus ubicunque exis- 
tentibus prefat Alicie ad termimim vita? sua? de capital dom. feod .... 
et de jure consueta sub bac forma et conditione q. dicta Alicia tenement in 
quadam domo elcmosynar. quam ego Thomas tempore vite mee competente 
pauperibus in eisdem suppetandis sustinend durante vita dee Alicie s . . . 
. . . suis et expensis. Et volo quod post decessum dee Alicie omnia pda 

terr. et tenement integre remaneant maiori et comitat 

Burgi de Devyses pde sub modo et forma pdca. Et volo q d - quilibet Maior 
recipiat pro suo labore et tempore xx s - Et totum quod superest de reddit 
pdict ten. volo q d - remaneat ad sustentationem reficiend. pauperum existen- 
tium in pdca domo elemosynar. secundum dispositionem maioris et comitat 
de Devyses pde. Residuum vero bonorum et catallorum meorum do et lego 
Alicie uxori mea ut ca disponat pro salute anime mee et ut videbit melius 
expediat. Et dct Aliciam ordino executricem et dominum Tbomam Smyth 
capbn supervisor :" 

William Coventre, 1 Jtjn., is mentioned in 1416-20-36. He was 
doubtless the founder of the third chantry in St. Mary's church, 
out of the annual produce of which the sum of £1 12s. Sd. was 
given in alms, &c, to four poor women occupying the almshouse 
founded by his brother Thomas mentioned above. 

Henry Coventre was presented in 1439 to the chapel of Atteward 
Parva, (Atworth?) void by the death of William Smyth. 2 Patron, 
Thomas Beauchamp, Esq. See "Wilts Institutions." 
At a much later date the parish registers of SS. John and Mary 

contain the names of two individuals, possibly descended from the 

same family — viz., Mary Coventry, m. in 1690 to Henry Parker; 

and Joseph Coventry, m. in 1708 to Mary Patry. 

A charity called "Coventry's Dole" was, no doubt, bequeathed 

by a member of this family. 

Nothing is known as to the period at which the bequest was 

made, or of the property from which the sum annually expended 

was derived. 

1 The following rebus was used by William Covyntre on his Seal, in allusion 
to his name: ro^bn. ' d contraction for the letter n, and in the centre a Tree. 

2 It is to be regretted that there is at present nothing U> identify this William 
Smyth a^ the individual mentioned at page 2'M, the date of whose death (1436) 
and the Institution of Coventre in 14.J9 is worthy of notice. It is also evident 
that the William Smyth who rebuilt St. Man's church was in some way con- 

tad with tin Devizei family of Ooventic, which may account in a measure 
for the interest of the I two individuals with the patron of the shape] at Atworth. 


256 The Churches of Devises. St. Mary's. 

There is, however, a tradition 1 still preserved in connection with 
it, which is as follows : — 

A boy or man of the name of Coventry, passing through Devizes in a state of 
great destitution, received from a baker of the town a small loaf of bread in 
alms; having subsequently reached London, and having there, by some means, 
acquired a considerable fortune, he directed a small loaf of bread to be given 
annually, on a particular day, to every man, woman, or child who should be 
found in the town, whether inhabitants or strangers. 

The charity appears to have been dispensed by the mayor and 
burgesses of the Borough, to whom the property, from which its 
annual income was derived, was no doubt bequeathed. 

From the corporation books 2 it appears that £4 17s. 10(/. was 
the sum expended on behalf of the charity in 1620, and £9 Is. in 
1663. At a general assembly, held December 22nd, 1663-4, it was 
resolved that it should for the future be reduced to the certain sum 
of £4 yearly, and that all persons charged with taxes should not 
receive any part of the same. In 1668, however, the sum again 
rose to £7 16s., and in 1669 to £9 Is. 6d. 

No entries appear from 1670 to 1687. In 1688 is the following: 
"Item,paidforthedolebread,£6 9s." In 1691 the sum paid was £8 7s. 

The corporation cash accounts are missing from 1691 to 1725. 
In 1726 the sum paid was £14 9s. 5d. No other entry occurs till 
1730. From 1726 to 1786 the entries are extremely irregular, 
both with respect to years and sums. 

In 1786, as far as can be ascertained, a penny loaf was given to 

every townsman, and a two-penny loaf to every traveller. After 

this year the " Dole Bread" (then probably the only one remaining, 

with the exception of the almshouse, of all the charities bequeathed 

at various times to the town and churches of Devizes by this family) 

ceased to be distributed, and the endowment itself has long been 

considered as lost. 

(To be concluded in our next). 

i As traditions, although often sadly distorted, are seldom without some found- 
ation, it is not improbable that the one in question (as it is the only one relating 
to the family which has been preserved) may have some reference (especially if 
the charity was bequeathed by either of its early members) to their origin, as 
well as the manner in which some of their wealth was acquired ; but how far 
this is to be relied on the writer cannot, in the absence of anything which would 
tend to confirm this suggestion, undertake to say. 

2 See the report of the charity commissioners. 


SJuitejjirt Jjota unit torn 

Henry, Earl of Danby. — In Vol. I., No. 3, Mr. Jackson made 
us acquainted with the first public act, on the theatre of life, of 
Henry Danvers, afterwards Earl of Danby. The object of the 
following " Note" is to supply a glimpse of the closing career of 
the same nobleman. This was in 1642, shortly before his decease; 
and just as the Civil War was about to break out. He was then 
living at Cornbury House in Oxfordshire, where he appears to have 
made himself unpopular. 1 At this period he appears to have been 
greatly annoyed by a French gentleman, Sir William St. Ravie, 
who, in his capacity of Ranger of the neighbouring forest of 
Wichwood, became an unpleasant rival in the infliction of feudal 
grievances on the country. Lord Danby had red deer as well as 
the king, but the exercise of an obsolete royal prerogative, which 
had recently been put in force, brought matters to a crisis, and 
induced the earl to prosecute a cause against St. Ravie, before the 
peers. This was no other than king Charles's extension of Wich- 
wood forest so far beyond its accustomed limits as to embrace more 
than thirty additional towns. [By towns we must understand 
villages or townships]. The country people, thus suddenly brought 
under the sway of forest-law, of course felt it to be a great grievance. 

1 Amongst the Star-Chamber Reports is the following case : — 
"Tije Attok.nkv General v. Ewer, Esquire, Easter, 7 Charles (a.d. 1631). 
The Defendent at several times, and at several places, and to several persons, 
did in scorn, disgrace, and contempt of the Earl of Danby use these words — 

viz., ' my Lord of Danby he is a base cheating Lord, and a 

niiig Lord, and a Base Fellow I am a better man than 

hi : In' hath cozened the country people in taking away their Common; so as he 
hath the daily curses of thousands. 1 And for this he was committed to the Fleet 
during his Majesty's pleasure, hound to his Good Behaviour during life, lined 
£looo, to pay £1000 damage, and at the Bar of this Court and the Assizes at 
Oxon t'/ acknowledge hi offenoe and ask the Earl forgiveness." — BiuahaortKs 

('nil., VOl. 3, 'Ij'Ji. •iH. 

258 Wilts Notes and Queries. 

They found themselves forbidden to chase the deer out of their own 
cornfields, so that "they reaped not what they had sown"; and 
were moreover deprived of their dogs and guns. St. Ravie, who, 
as was generally conceived, had himself been the chief agent in 
procuring the patent of enlargement, finding himself in consequence 
in very bad odour with all the farmers around, was in the habit of 
giving out that the real author of the evil was the Earl of Danbj r , 
whose game was far more numerous than the king's. Pointing to 
Cornbury House, the earl's residence, he woidd say — " that the 
nobleman who lived in yonder white house was the man that would 
undo them all ; — that the said earl was no good man ; and did not 
love the king nor the country, [neighbourhood] : and that if war 
should break out, he, St. Ravie, would be too hard for his lordship, 
for through all that country-side he should have three to one 
against him"; with other like passages. For these slanders the 
Earl of Danby petitioned to lay his action. Sir William St. Ravie 
sent in a written answer, generally denying the charges, but when 
the cause came on for trial, he made no further appearance ; and 
the House of Peers thereupon adjudged him to pay £100 to the 
King, £500 to the Earl of Danby, to make submission to their 
house, and to lie in the Fleet during their pleasure: and declared 
the earl fully vindicated and cleared of all aspersions and misre- 
presentations. — Lord's Journals. 

[Note. — It was in the year, 1853, that the Act for disafforesting "Wichwood 
passed the legislature ; and hy an advertisement in The Times, December 
20th, 1854, occupiers and borderers were directed to send in their various claims]. 

J. Waylen. 

Chalfield House. — Robert Eyre of West (or Little) Chalfield, 
in a petition, dated 1648, states that he had greatly suffered by the 
proximity of his house to the garrison which held Great Chalfield, 
especially when the latter was besieged, " his own house being next 
unto it," (that is, nearest, the real distance asunder being half a 
mile). Before I met with this passage, the fact that Chalfield 
House had been converted into a military post had entirely escaped 
me. I would therefore beg to invite an affirmation of the circum- 
stance from Mr. Matcham, whose connection with the Eyre family 

Wilts Notes and Queries. 259 

renders him so well qualified to illustrate their history. At a recent 
visit to the old house, Mrs. Spackman assured me that the parish 
register in her keeping made no reference to any such an event. 
Possibly the registers of Melksham, Broughton Gifford, or Holt, 
under date 1642 to 1645, may contain items of contribution for 
supporting the said garrison. The mutilated condition of the house, 
and three large apertures resembling casemates in the ruined gable 
wall standing near the church, certainly point to something more 
than the quiet decay of time. As an architectural study Chalfield 
has been copiously illustrated by Walker; and as a picturesque 
memorial it has been sketched by Mr. Matcham; but no sufficient 
explanation has yet been given of the apertures in question. A 
better knowledge of the family history would probably decide their 
character. One thing is certain : they are no parts of the original 
design ; they are very irregular in form, piercing and mutilating 
two arcades. 

In the " Lords' Journals" the following minutes relating to this 
subject have been met with : — 

A letter, written by the committee sitting at Chalfield House, to 
Sir William Waller at Salisbury, 1645, announcing that Rupert 
and Maurice were at Marshfield. Also a statement by Sir Richard 
Gurney, the loyal Lord Mayor of London, that he had lost at least 
£2000 by injury done to Chalfield House, in Wilts, and cutting 
down the woods there; showing that the estate had already passed 
from the Eyre family. The fact of Great Chalfield having been 
a garrison, therefore, seems decided ; the only point requiring 
elucidation being the affair of the siege. J. W. 

County Gaol at Fisherton. — In the year 1730, the gentry of 
Wilts, anxious to increase the efficiency of this establishment by 
annexing to it the adjoining residence of Mr. Thorpe (the then 
gaol governor, who was about to quit the office), there being at 
that time no residence for a governor within the limits of the prison, 
Bade application to Parliament for powers to raise a sum sufficient 
to purchase the said house of Mr. Thorpe, at £1750 more or less. 
And to bring about lliis very simple affair, a committee of members 
is formed, the testimony of surveyors heard, and a bill framed. 

260 Wilts Notes and Queries. 

Is it not rather surprising that the county could not manage its 
own domestic matters without this parade ? Mr. Hatcher makes 
no reference to the affair, Fisher ton lying bej r ond the limits of 
Salisbury. It is perhaps worth adding, that even before the annex- 
ation of Mr. Thorp's premises, the prison was reported by the 
Parliamentary Committee as " one of the most commodious in 
England." J. W. 

Singular Tenure. — It is well known that estates were often 
held of the crown by a small annual gift such as a hawk, or a pair 
of spurs, or some other personal service. But the following contract, 
as between private individuals, certainly bears an unusual appear- 
ance : — 

15 and 16 Edward II., 1322. George of Brigmerston (clerk) 
petitions the King, that whereas he had leased his manor of 
Hakeneston 1 in Wilts, to Sir Philip de la Beeche for the term of 
his life, on the condition that Sir Philip should, every year, deliver 
to him a robe fit for an esquire and of the value of 120 shillings, and 
also find for him and a boy and a horse, sustenance in all manner 
of necessary meat and drink: — But now the said manor is seized 
into the king's hands by the forfeiture of the said Sir Philip, he 
being one of the king's enemies. Wherefore the said George prays 
relief. Response: Whereas Sir Philip is at present in prison, let 
the petitioner await the gaol delivery. — Petitiones in Parliamento. 

J. W. 

1 Now called Hackleston, or Haxton, in the parish of Fittleton, near Ainesbury. 


It is intended to commence the publication of the Flowering Plants and Ferns 
in the next number of the Magazine. Communications relative to any Station or 
Stations for Plants, that have been observed in the County, may be addressed to 
T. Bruges Flower, Esq.., Rivers Street, Bath; or to Mr. Cunnington, 
Devizes. The loan of authentic specime?is ivill give additional value to such 
communications ; but, where that is impracticable, accurate descriptions to the 
localities will be scarcely less serviceable. 

II. Hull, Printer, St. John Street, Devizes. 



IrrJKPnlngiral irafr luteal Hkhmj 


No. VI. DECEMBER, 1855. Vol. II. 



History of the "Wiltshire Manors subordinate to the Manor of Castle 

Combe : (No. 2.) By G. Poulett Sceope, Esq., M. P 261-289 

On the Ornithology of Wilts. (No. 5.) On the Feet of Birds : By Rev. 

A. C. Smith 290-301 

On the Churches of Devizes. (No. 2.| By Mr. Edward Kite 302-332 

Documents relating to St. Mary's, 302. Extracts from Church- 
wardens' Accounts of ditto, 308. Thos. Hall's Letter, 325. 
Rectors of Devizes, 326. Chantry Chaplains, 331. 
Pedigree of Garth, of Devizes and Haines Hill : By Rev. John Waed 332 

Bells of Co. Wilts, with their Inscriptions. (No. 2.) By Rev. W. C. 

Lums 333-355 

Deanery of Chalke, 333. Of Wilton and Wylie, 334. OfAvebury, 
338. Of Marlborough, 343. Of Potterne, 349. 
The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire, and Pedigrees of Wilts' Families : 

By F. A. Caeelngton, Esq 356-386 

Wiltshire Seals: By Rev. J. E. Jackson 387-392 

Contributions to the Museum and Library 392 

Ditto by Richaed Mullings, Esq 394 

Wiltshire Notes and Queries : — 

Wiltshire Civil Wars : Notice of Proposed History : By J. Watlen, 

Esq - 397 

Clarendon Park 398 

Upper Upham 399 

The Word Ale 399 

Pedigree of Giffard of Boyton, Ichull, Weston-sub-Edge, and Sherston 
Pinkney : By Sir Thos. Phillipps, Baet 401 


Wiltshire Seals: 1. Esturmy of Figheldean, p. 387. 2. Monkton Farley, 
887. 3. Prebend of Yetminster, 387. 4. Bradenstoke, 387. 5. Thomas 
(Jiflard, 387. 

Murder of Me. Heney Peneuddocke, p. 397. 

Heney Bull, Saint John Steeet. 

O. Bell, 186, Fleet Steeet; J. R. Smith, 36, Sono Square. 




Instnrtj nf tjje IBiltejito JHattra mtliflrMtwte tn 
tjjj Starrnn} nf Castle Cnmke. 

By G. Poxjlett Scbope, Esq., M.P. 

In the Domesday Survey a certain Hunfridus de Insula, or 
Humphrey de l'lsle, is represented as holding of the king in Capite 
or honour, a Seignory consisting of twenty-seven vills or manors in 
Wiltshire. He was, no doubt, one of the Norman followers of the 
Conqueror, probably the Liele of the Battle Abbey Roll, and re- 
warded for his aid in subduing the Saxon, by this portion of the 
booty. Of these twenty-seven manors, Hunfridus himself held of the 
king, in Capite or in his own hand, ten — viz., Broctone, Sterte, 
Will, Wilrenone, Colerne, Wintreburne, Polton, Hardicote, 
Fistesberie, and Come; while the remaining seventeen were held of 
him, as their feudal lord, by various mesne lords or sub-tenants. 
These were Contone, Burbetc, Cumbrewelle, Rusteselle, Wer- 
■ji \e, Salteharpe, Cltve, Sum'reford, Smitecote, Bluntesdon, 
Grendewelle, Schetone, Hantone, Bedestone, Heortham, Sore- 
si one, and Meleford. The entire seignory descended, by marriage 
of Adeliza, heiress of De Insula, to the Dunstanvilles, powerful 
barons for several generations throughout the twelfth and thirteenth 
<< iituries; one of whom, in or about the reign of Henry I., having 
built a Castle at Come, or Combe, this became, as was the custom 
of the time, 1 "Caput Honoris, sive Baronia," the head scat of the 

1 Miulox Baronia An^lia. 

VOL. II. — NO. VI. 2 \l 

262 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

barony, and the De Dunstanvilles were thence styled Barons of 
Combe Castel or Castle Combe. 

In the year 1313 (as has been shown in a previous paper) Bar- 
tholomew Lord Badlesmere — known as "the rich Lord Badlesmere 
of Leedes," his Chief Castle in Kent — became possessed of the barony 
by purchase from the last heir of the De Dunstanvilles, William 
de Montfort ; and on the partition of his great estates among his 
four daughters and coheiresses, a.d. 1340, the several manors and 
knight's fees composing the Barony of Combe were distributed in 
separate portions among some of the greatest families of the time 
— those of De Vere, Arundel, Boos, Mortimer, Bohun, and Tibetot. 1 
The disjointed fragments were still, however, held as " parcels of 
the Barony of Combe." And even to a late date in the sixteenth 
centiny, homage and service, wardship and marriage, with the 
other incidents of feudal superiorities, continued to be claimed and 
rendered for them, by pecuniary compositions paid by the mesne 
Lords at the Knight's Court (Curia Milituni) of the Lords of Castle 
Combe. The Rolls of these Courts are still preserved, giving the 
names of the persons from whom this service was due, and thus 
afford evidence of the successive owners of these several manors, 
which is not, in many cases, otherwise obtainable. It is with the view 
therefore of offering some data towards the history of these manors, 
that I proceed to give what I have been able to gather relating to 
them from these documents, and others in my possession, adding 
also the testimony afforded by the list of knight's fees belonging to 
the great barons of the time of Henry III. (1250-1272), known as 
the Liber Feodorum, or Testa de Nevill. 

The twenty-seven vills or manors named in the great Norman 
survey as composing the seignory of De Insula are perhaps not in 
every instance to be identified with complete certainty. There 
may be a question as to two or three, from the imperfect spelling 
of the original record. But the subsequent evidence of the Castle 
Combe Court Rolls scarcely leaves any of them doubtful. It will 
be seen that they were scattered over the entire county. But 

1 The original deed of partition is preserved at Castle Combe. 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 263 

the bulk of them formed a group nearly contiguous, in its north- 
eastern division, extending from Mildenhall, near Marlborough, 
through Blunsdon, Wroughton, Broad Hinton, Clive, the Bassetts, 
Somerford, Sherston Pinkney, Combe, and Biddeston. 

I propose to take these manors in the order in which they appear 
in the Conqueror's Survey, and begin therefore with the ten which 
were held in hand by Hunfridus de Insula himself. 

1. Broctone, now Broughton Giffard. — In the 3rd of John (1201) 
Broctone was taxed as late the land of Walter de Dunstanville 
(Rot. lane. 3rd John). In the Liber Feodorum (1250-70), Walter 
de Dunstanville is said to hold two knight's fees and two hides of 
the king in Brocton. In what manner or when Broughton was 
transferred to the Giffards does not appear, but as Elias Giffard of 
Brimsfield held the Manor of Ayston (Ash ton Giffard), another of 
the subordinate knight's fees of the Barony of Castle Combe, under 
Walter de Dunstanville, in the time of Henry III., (he died 33 
Henry III.) it is probable that Broughton likewise was enfeoffed 
to him or to his son John, about the same period, by one of the 
Walters de Dunstanville, their companion in arms. Broughton 
manor was held in dower for her life (together with Eleston, 
Orcheston, and Ashton, all subordinate to the Barony of Castle 
Combe) by Margaret Giffard, widow of John Giffard, the elder, 
who was slain at Boroughbridge. On her death it reverted (with 
them) to the heirs of her husband, by his first marriage with 
Matilda Longespee, namely, James Lord Audeley, and John le 
Strange — the intermediate forfeiture of this reversion, which had 
been bestowed on Sir John Mautravers, being rescinded by King 
Edward III. in the first year of his reign (a.d. 1327-8). l 

On the partition of the great Badlesmere estates in 1340, the 
superiority of these knight's fees in Broughton was assigned to 
John de Vere, Earl of Oxford, in right of his wife, Maud de Badles- 
mere, and these were held at that time "under the Barony of Castle 
Combe," by the above-named James Audeley and John le Strange, 

' For the Pedigree <>r GHflard lee "Hoaie'e Heyteebnry," j>. 225; and the 
. .Mi. Fane's paper in No. 4 of this Magazine, j>. 101 

2 m 2 

264 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

as appears from the Partition Roll, in which they are valued at 
13/. 6s. 8cl. yearly. 

The subsequent Rolls of the Knight's Court of Castle Combe, 
show that in 1365 Broughton was still held by Sir John Strange 
and Sir James Audeley, " together with John Spigurnall." In 1386, 
it was in custody of the king during the minority of the heir. In 
1389, Nicholas Audeley and John le Strange were summoned as 
tenants under the barony. In 1396, the Lady Audeley, widow of 
Nicholas. In 1417, both knight's fees are said to be held by Lord 
Roos of Hamlake (as intermediate superior), and Lord Talbot and 
John Hulse, probably as feoffees. In 1523, the tenants of James 
Audeley, and in 1547 the names of James Audeley, (probably re- 
tained there as representing their respective heirs, the Tuchets, Lords 
Audeley, and Talbots, Earls of Shrewsbury), and John le Strange 
are still on the Roll, as owing suit and service for Broughton. 

2. Sterte. — The Liber Feodorum makes mention of Sterte as a 
knight's fee, held of the king by "Walter de Dunstanville, and 
belonging to his Barony of Combe (et pertinet ad Baroniam suam 
de Combe). The service for Sterte due to the king was forty days 
at the Castle of Devizes in time of war, and twenty shillings in 
time of peace. 

Sir John De la Mare and Petronilla, his wife, heiress of the De 
Dunstanvilles, obtained grant of free warren for the Manor of Sterte, 
11 Edward I. It appears from the Patent Bolls (3 Edward III., 
1331) that Bartholomew Lord Badlesmere, who had purchased the 
Barony of Combe, exchanged the fee of the Manor of Sterte, and 
those of Heytesbury and Colerne, with King Edward II. for the 
Castle and Manor of Chilham and others in Kent, where his 
baronial residence, Leedes Castle, was situated. 1 And these estates 
were bestowed by the young King Edward III., shortly after his 
accession, on his chancellor and treasurer, Henry de Burghersh, 
Bishop of Lincoln, who was also cousin and guardian of the minor, 
Giles Lord Badlesmere, the heir of Bartholomew. 

The bishop, in the year 1335, paid a fine of one hundred shillings 

i Rot. Pat., 3 Edward III. Renewed 7 Edward III. 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 265 

for license to release these three Manors of Sterte, Heytesbury, 
and Colerne, to Robert de Stanford and Richard de Broke. 1 And 
from this period Sterte, of course, disappears from the Rolls of the 
Courts of Castle Combe. 

3. Wili. — The present Parish of Wily, on the river of that 
name above Wilton, comprised anciently as many at least as three 
manors. One of them was no doubt, as Sir R. Hoare believed, the 
Wilgi of Domesday, which at the period of that survey was held 
by the Abbey Church of Wilton, and has descended, with other of 
her ecclesiastical domains, to the Earls of Pembroke. The two 
other manors of the name of Wili, formed a part of the fee of 
Hunfridus de Insula, and were possessed, as part of the Barony of 
Castle Combe, by Earl Reginald de Dunstanville, temp. Henry I., 
as appears from an early copy of two grants, preserved at Castle 
Combe, conceding in fee-farm to John de Wili, and Agatha, 
his wife, the town of Wili (Totam villain Wili) for a rent of 
eight pounds of silver yearly, and five marks of silver in hand, 
and also a hide of land in Wili, which Aylward, father of John, 
held of Earl Reginald, with a messuage upon it, for service of the 
fifth part of a knight's fee. 2 Another deed witnesses that on the 
decease of John de Wili, his son, Thomas de Wili, received a further 
grant and confirmation of the same manor and lands from Walter 
de Dunstanville, then Baron of Castle Combe, for the sum of 
"twelve silver marks and one palfrey, by way of relief." 3 By a 
fourth charter, Walter de Dunstanville, son of the first Walter, 
quitclaimed the same estate to Nicholas de Wili, for payment of 

i Abbrev. Rot. orig. 8 Edward III. 

2 The witnesses to these early deeds are worth recording — viz., Hugh de 
Dunstanville (probably brother of the Earl, who is believed to have been a son 
of A.deliza de Insula, widow of Reginald de Dunstanville, by King Henry I.), 
William de Cargit, Joel Malus Nepos, William Despenser, Pagan Capellanus, 
Simon Pincerna, Gervase of Wilton, Roger Clericus de Wilton, William Cocus 
Comitis, William St. Clare, Radulphus his son, and many others. 

3 The witnesses to this somewhat later deed are Engcram de Pratellis, Alanus 
Be lett, K< ramus de Tracy, Robertas de Sertana, Willielmus lilius Comitis, 
k:. m-dus de Wili, Oervasiua de Wilton, Willieknus Clericus, Robert de Lanicot, 
Alarms filius Ricardi. 

266 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

forty pence in a purse, "in gersumiam." 1 These charters are also 
recited in a grant of Inspeximus of Henry III., in the Castle Combe 
chartulary, dated at Westminster, the 27th day of May, in the 
54th year of that king (a.d. 1270), who at the same time confirmed 
these estates "to John de Wili, heir of the above-named John, 
Thomas, and Nicholas," at the instance of Walter de Merton, (ad 
instanciam dilecti etfamiliaris nostri Walteri de Merton). 

In the Liber Feodorum (1250-72) we find that Philip de Depeford 
held of the Barony of Combe the fifth part of a knight's fee, 
mentioned in the above charters, and here described as in "Batham 
Wili," by which it is identified with one of the manors of Bath- 
hampton on Wily. Philip held it under Nicholas de Wili, and he 
of Alfred de Lincoln, (who is then heard of for the first time) and 
he of Walter de Dunstanville, as Lord Paramount. Gilbert de 
Muleford held likewise of Walter de Dunstanville half a knight's 
fee in the town of Wili, no doubt the other estate mentioned in the 
grants of Earl Reginald. 

In the Nomina Villarum (1306) Bathampton is stated to be 
owned by Matilda de Wily, and Margaret de Wodefold. 

The fifth of a knight's fee in Bathainpton on Wily was assigned, 
on the partition of 1340, to the Earl of Oxford. It was then in 
the hands of Nicholas Lambert, and valued at 5/. yearly. 

In 1366, it was held by John Bocland; in 1374, by Hugh Cheyne 
and his wife, (probably the heiress of Bocland); in 1394-1404, by 
Thomas Blount, after marriage with the widow of Hugh Cheyne. 
John Depeford held "the half knight's fee in fee-farm," in the year 
1365; John Bathampton in 1374; and John Knottingley in 1392. 
This last entry describes it as "formerly belonging to Nicholas 
Wily." These two manors were, no doubt, those now known as 
Great and Little Bathampton, the one consisting of seven hundred 
and twenty acres, the other about five hundred. 

In 1454, both estates had become the property of John Mont- 
pesson, Esquire ; the smaller or fifth part of a knight's fee " on 

i The witnesses to this deed are Domimis Walterus, Son of "Walter de Dun- 
stanville, John his brother, Herbert de la Leye, Ranulphus de Mere, Williekuus 
Struge, Walter Luddoc, and others. 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 267 

which his capital manor house stands," and the other, described in 
an extent of that date as "the whole town of Wily, otherwise 
called Batyngton Wily, held in fee-farm at a rent of 8/. per annum," 
being the same quit-rent which had been fixed in the reign of 
Henry I., by Earl Reginald, then the superior Lord. 

The daughter and heiress of John Knottingley married Thomas 
Bonham, who paid this quit-rent at the Court Baron of Castle 
Combe, between the years 1415-20. In this last year munture, 1 
(the fine payable on decease of a tenant) was claimed on his death, 
and Robert Montpesson, husband of his grand-daughter and sole 
heir, was admitted as tenant, and performed his homage as such. 

In 1434, Robert Montpesson having died, the manor was "seized 

as munture" for the lands and tenements in Bathampton Wily, 

"whose custody was in the hands of the lord (at that time Sir John 

Fastolf, K.G.), by reason of the minority of John Mounpesson, son 

and heir of the wife of Robert, heiress of Thomas Bonham." And 

the manor after its seizure was leased by Fastolf to one John Gautes, 

It seems, however, that Gautes got into arrear to the amount of 36 A, 

and Thomas Piers or Perys, the priest of Steeple Langford (the 

adjoining parish) was employed by Fastolf to collect the rents of 

the tenants of the manor for him during the seizure. There is a 

curious letter preserved at Castle Combe from this person to his 

employer, Fastolf, •written from Langeford, and attesting his 

diligence in the collection of these rents. Still the result was not 

favourable, for William of Worcester, the auditor of Sir John's 

estates, records in one of his MS. volumes preserved at Castle 

Combe, a memorandum on the subject to this effect. 

" Item, that hit is more expedient to take vrii.'i- of rent of Assise, whiche 
has been paid withoute tyme of mynde to my Lord for his manor of Bathampton 
Wyly, than fur to take the rent of certeyn tenants in the said Lordship of Wily, 
with the profits and farm of the millne, which mounteth unto the sum vm. 
Drakes only, so that hit is a yore ly hurt unto my Lord of iin. or - marks." 

By another entry of Worcester's it appears that a preceding 

bailiff of the Manor of Wily, named Tudworth, had likewise got 

into arrear to the amount of no less than 52/. 8s. 8d., and in 

1 Mortuary fee, or Ilcriot. I do not find this term in Ducange. 

268 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

auditing his accounts two items were struck out — viz., a gowne-cloth 
of the value of ten shillings, and a "liveree" for the above Thomas 
Piers, reeve (bailiff) of the manor, (and rector of Steeple Langford !) 
"because they profited not the said Fastolf in their offices." 

In 1476, John Monpesson, Esquire, did homage at the Knight's 
Court of Castle Combe for "the estate late of Roger Mulford," 
and also for " all the town of Wily, and two hydes of land by fee- 
farm," and paid 8/. yearly. 

An imperfect pedigree of the ancient family of Montpesson is 
given by Sir R. Hoare, 1 whose account of the different estates in 
South Wilts possessed by them is not very clear. The notices here 
afforded may assist those who will undertake the task of further 
inquiry on the subject. I find no mention made subsequent to the 
date last given (1476) of the payment of the yearly quit-rent to 
the superior Lord of Castle Combe. Probably it was bought out. 

4. Wilrenone. — This word, as it appears in the Domesday 
Surrey, is a puzzle. I suppose it to be a clerical error for Winter- 
bourne, which would be probably written in the original record with 
the usual contractions, " Wi'trebo'ne," and thus might be easily 
mistaken by the transcriber for "Wilrenone." In this case we 
must presume it to be intended for one of several villages lying 
along the course of the river Wily and its tributaries, to which, 
from their liability to sudden floods, this name of Winterbourne 
was frequently applied, and which certainly formed a part of the 
baronial fee of Castle Combe. 

Elias Giffard is mentioned in the Liber Feodorum as holding a 
knight's fee in Ayston of John Mautravers, and he of Walter de 
Dunstanville. At a later date (1340) the Court Rolls of Castle 
Combe show that Margaret Giffard, widow of John Giffard of 
Brimsfield, held two knight's fees, by inheritance from John Mau- 
travers, in Ayston and Eleston, of the Barony of Castle Combe. 2 
In 1355, the Manors of Ayston and Eleston alias Crouch ton, 3 were 

1 Heytesbury, p. 219. 

2 For the pedigree of Mautravers see Hoare's Heytesbury, p. 181. 

3 Crouchton is probably misspelt for "Orcheston," in which parish the Manor 
of Elston is situated, adjoining Ashton. 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 269 

held of the Barony of Combe by John Mautravers. In 1366, 
Ashton, called repeatedly in the Rolls of the Court "Ashton Dun- 
stanville," was held by John Croucheton; in 1396, by Nicholas 
Temyse; in 1404, by Nicholas Grervase. Between 1417 and 1434, 
two fees in "Ashton and Croucheston" were held by Robert Salmon. 
From 1523 to 1547, John " Crockington" paid suit and service as 
tenant of the Manor of Ashton Dunstanville. In some of the Rolls 
of the sixteenth century, however, e. g. of 1525 and 1547, Eleston 
and Ayston are both mentioned as held by the Earl of Arundel, 
and mortuary, "muntura," and relief were paid in the former of 
these years by Earl Thomas on his admission to these manors. 
From this it would seem that there were two Manors of Ashton 
held under Castle Combe, Ashton Giffard and Ashton Dunstanville, 
which last was perhaps Orcheston, the adjoining manor to Eleston, 
and included in the same parish. 

5. Colerne. — In the 23rd of Henry II. (1176) an Aid being 
assessed on the towns of Wiltshire, "Colerne" contributed as one 
of those belonging with "Combe" to the Earl of Cornwall, Reginald 
Fitzrov alias De Dunstanville. 1 And on the marriage of Ursula, 
daughter of this earl, with Walter de Dunstanville, his nephew as 
I believe, he conveyed to him one half of the lordship of Colerne, 
by a charter recited in the chartulary of Castle Combe, where the 
seal to this document is described as bearing "the Earl of Corn- 
wall mounted on a horse and armed, with a shield on his breast 
emblazoned with the arms of Cornwall." Walter de Dunstanville 
had livery of his Manors of Colerne, Combe, and Wily in the 2nd 
year of Richard I. (1190), on which occasion he paid one hundred 
marks, the sum afterwards fixed in the great charter as the proper 
relief of a barony. His grandson, the 3rd Walter de Dunstanville, 
obtained from King Henry III. the grant of a market on Thursdays 
for his Manor of Colerne. 2 Walter had two brothers, John and 
Robert. The son of the first, Robert by name, married (<race de 
liohun, sister to the Earl of Northampton, on which occasion her 
ancle settled a yearly rent of 50/. upon this lady, in name of dower, 
from hia Manors of Colerne and Heyteabury. 8 

1 liadox'a Exchequer. 2 Castle Combe Chartulary, p. 14. 3 Idem, p. 40. 

2 N 

270 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

The reversion of the Manor of Colerne was, as has been said, 
sold in 1300, together with those of Heytesbury, Stert, Hurdicot, 
and the other fees of the Honor of Castle Combe, to Bartholomew 
Lord Badlesmere, by William de Montfort, son and heir of Petro- 
nilla de Dunstanville, but was still held for life by the second 
husband of Petronilla, Sir John De la Mare of Bradwell, by the 
customary law styled "the Courtesy of England." During the 
minority of Giles Lord Badlesmere, son and heir to Bartholomew, 
it passed by exchange with and subsequent grant from the King 
(Edward III.) to Henry de Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln, then 
Lord Treasurer, together with Stert, and Heytesbury, as has been 
already mentioned, and was thus with them dissevered finally from 
the Barony of Castle Combe. 

6. Wintreburne. — This, no doubt, represents the Manor of 
Winterbourne Basset, which certainly belonged very early in the 
twelfth century to Reginald de Dunstanville, since its church was, 
in the reign of Henry I., granted by him to the Monks of Lewes. 1 
And the manor first came to the Bassets by grant from Walter de 
Dunstanville, temp. Richard I., to his nephew Alan Basset. This 
grant was confirmed by King Richard, a.d. 1197, in a charter, 
dated Chinon. A postscript states that the first grant being lost 
while King Richard was a prisoner in Germany, it was renewed 
from " Rupes Auroe Vallis," 2 22nd August, 9 Richard I. 3 It appears 
from the Hundred Rolls (1 Edward I.) that in 1274 Earl Marshall 
held this Manor of "Winterborne Basset in right of his wife." 
It is stated in the Rolls of the Court of Castle Combe to have 
been held by Simon Basset in 1344, under the Barony of Combe, 
and repeatedly distrained upon about the year 1335 by the bailiff 
of the court, for non-payment of the usual fines. Queen Isabella 
is named as tenant in 1355. In 1367, William Byde held it, pro- 
bably as feoffee; in 1389, Simon Best; in 1404, John Lypiate owed 
suit and service for it to the Knight's Court of Castle Combe; in 
1454, the widow of Robert Best then the wife of John Wallop. 

1 Dugdale Monast., Lewes. 2 Probably Goldcliffe in Monmouthshire. 

3 Fcedera. p. G7. 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 271 

In 1429, John Best held the fee of "Winterborne, late John 
Lypiate's." In 1442, "precept was issued to distrain upon John 
Ernie and Joan his wife, John Combe and his wife, as heirs of 
John Best, for their relief, due for their Manor of Winterborn, 
held of the Barony of Combe." In 1523, the tenants of John 
Wallop were similarly distrained; and in 1547, Hugh Spencer. In 
1573, Stevens "the Grange" of "Winterborne. And in a list of "those 
who hold lands of the Honner and Manner of Castle Combe, and 
ought to appear to do sute for them at the Court thereof," of the 
date of 1600, is mentioned — "The heire or heires of Steephen 
Chafyn for lands in Winterburne." This is the last notice I find 
of the place. 

7. Poltone. — This manor comprises the Great and Little Polton 
farms in the parish of Mildenhall, near Marlborough. In the 
reign of Henry I. "the Manor of Polton (probably Great Polton) 
was granted to the Abbey of St. Mary of Tewksbury, by Adeliza 
de Insula, for the good of the soul of Reginald de Dunstanville, 
her husband." 1 In the Liber Feodorum "William de Kardevill is 
stated to hold a knight's fee of Walter de Dunstanville, in Milden- 
halle." In the 3rd year of John, Adam de Kardunvill held it of 
the same. 2 This was probably Little Polton farm. In the Nomina 
Villarum Polton is mentioned as divided between Bartholomew 
Lord Badlesmere and the Abbot of Tewksbury. At the partition 
of the estates of Lord Badlesmere in 1340, one knight's fee in 
Polton, held by John de Polton, was valued at 6£. yearly ; and half 
a fee, held by Thomas de Polton, at 10/. the year. Both were 
assigned to the Lord de Boos of Hamlake, as part of the inheritance 
of his wife, Margery de Badlesmere. 

Polton was held subordinate to the Honor of Castle Combe in 
1365, by Alfred Botteraux; in 1404, by Thomas Polton; in 1424, 
by Thomas Polton, Bishop of Worcester. In 1436, on the death of 
George Polton, the bailiff was enjoined to seize for "munture," 
due to the superior Lord. In 1454, it was held by Isabella, widow 
of George Polton. In 1525, by John Bushe, and William Bushe 

1 Dugdale Mouast. 2 Rot. obi. 3 John. 

2 n 2 

272 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

on decease of the former was admitted. In 1547, Sir Henry Long, 
Knight, and John Monpesson, heir. In 1573, William Franklene. 
In 1600, "the heire of Mr. Brown of Powlton," stands on the Roll 
as tenant under the barony. The Abbots of Tewksbury continued 
to hold their estate in Polton, and to acknowledge service for it at 
Castle Combe up to the period of the dissolution of the abbeys. 

8. Hardicote. — Hurdcott in the Vale of Noddre. A knight's 
fee and a half was held, when the Liber Feodoram was drawn up, 
by Walter de Dunstanville of the king, in Hurdecote, " belonging 
to his Barony of Combe." And for this manor, among many others, 
the Lord Badlesmere obtained a grant of free warren in 1310. 
On the partition of his estates, 1340, among his four daughters, 
coheiresses of his son Giles, who died without issue, Hurdcott was 
held, one part by Richard Chesdene, as the eighth of a knight's fee, 
valued at 6/. 13s. 4d. ; and another, being one-fourth of a fee, by 
the Prior of St. John of Wilton, worth 61. 8s. 4d. In 1523-1537, 
these two portions of the manor (probably of West Hurdcott) were 
still severally held by the Abbess or Prior of Wilton, and Richard 
Chesdene. Another moiety of this manor (East Hurdcott) had 
been assigned in the partition of the Badlesmere property to De 
Vere, Earl of Oxford, in right of his wife, who sold it for forty 
marks to Henry de Haversham, by whom it was conveyed to John 
Gowayn or Gawen, whose descendants possessed it for many gene- 
rations. 1 

9. Fistesberie. — I believe this to be a clerical error, and intended 
for Heytesberie. The Feoda represents Walter de Dunstanville as 
possessing a knight's fee in "Heytredburie." It is true that this 
may appear the subject of the grant to his father, Robert de Dun- 
stanville, by Henry II., 1155. 2 But as that is mentioned in the 
Pipe Rolls as the lordship of the Hundred of Heytesbury, it is 
not unreasonable to suppose that the Manor, or one at least of 
the Manors of Heytesbury — for there were three, East Court, 
West Court, and South Court — belonged previously to Robert de 

1 See Lord Arundel's Hundred of Dunworth, and Vale of Noddre, p. 99. 

2 Rot. Pip. 2 Henry II. Heytesbury, p. 84. 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 273 

Dunstanville, b} r inheritance with the rest of the Honor of Combe, 
from De Insula. This would account for the fact which Sir Richard 
Hoare found so difficult to explain, that in the 9th Edward III., on 
a plea brought to issue between the Attorney of the King and Sir 
John De la Mare and Petronilla his wife, for this manor, the jury 
found that "the ancestors of the said Petronilla had enjoyed the 
said manor without interruption from the Conquest, and have 
therefore a greater right than the king." This finding could hardly 
have been given had the manor been originally derived by the De 
Dunstanvilles from the grant of Henry II., but is perfectly con- 
sistent with its inheritance as part of the Barony of De Insula. 
The Manor of Heytesbury West Court, which comprises the ancient 
borough, is one of those already mentioned as exchanged by Lord 
Badlesmere with King Edward III. for the Castle of Chilham and 
other estates in Kent ; and then granted by that monarch to Henry 
de Burghersh, his Treasurer, Bishop of Lincoln, which exchange 
dissevered it from the Honor of Castle Combe. Another portion 
of the manor, East Heytesbury, remained to the son of Lord 
Badlesmere, Giles, on whose death, without issue, it was assigned 
by the partition so often referred to, to Lord de Boos and Margery, 
his wife, by whom it was first granted on lease and afterwards sold 
to Thomas de Hungerford. This knight purchased also West 
Heytesbury of Elizabeth, widow of Edward le Despenser, and 
grand-daughter and heir of Bartholomew Lord Burghersh, brother 
and heir of Henry, Bishop of Lincoln, the first grantee. Heytes- 
bury, South Court, another division of the original manor, was 
released by Robert de Montfort and Petronilla de Dunstanville, his 
wife, in 56 Henry III., to Philip Strug and his heirs, by whom it 
was likewise conveyed to the Hungerford family, in whom ulti- 
mately the entire fee of Heytesbury became vested. 1 

10. Come. — Erom the time of the erection of the Castle of 
Combe (probably in the reign of Henry I.) this became the head 
lordship and capital seat of the honor or barony, and as such con- 
tinued not only during its possession by the De Dunstanvilles, but 

1 See Sir K. Hoare's Heytesbury, p. 73. 

274 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

subsequently to the sale of the entire fee to Lord Badlesmere by 
William de Montfort, their last heir. Madox asserts that in no 
instance within his knowledge was " Seisin of an Honor obtained 
by purchase or contract made with a subject." And hence perhaps 
it is that after this sale in 1300, we see no further mention of any 
titular Baron of Castle Combe. But the rents and services due to 
the superior lord, or the compositions fixed in lieu of them, were 
certainly in this instance exacted from the various mesne lords, who 
held their manors under him by knight service, down to a much 
later period, in several cases, as has been shown already, to the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. The holding of the Knight's 
Court of the barony was, however, at length gradually disused. 
The fees or fines payable in keu of suit and service having been 
fixed at an early period, were so small (2s. for each fee) as not to 
pay for the cost and trouble of recovering them, and before long 
these and many other useless or vicious feudal superiorities and 
privileges were abolished, through the stringent process of the 
great Rebellion. 

As the history of the descent of the Manor and Lordship of 
Castle Combe has been fully given already, nothing more need be 
said upon it in this place. 

I now come to the manors which were held at the time of the 
great survey by various mesne lords under Humphrey de ITsle, the 
possessor of the entire baronial fee. These were — 

11. Contone, [Compton Basset. — It was held temp. Domesday 
by Pagen. In the Fcoda (1230-72) Reginald de Mohun is said to 
hold one knight's fee in Cum'ton of Walter de Dunstanville, Fulk 
Basset another, and Philip de Cumb'well a third, of the same lord 
paramount. These three fees are distinguished throughout the 
period over which the Castle Combe Court Rolls extend; and, no 
doubt, correspond with three separate manors in the parish of 
Compton. The last of the three still goes by the name of Compton 

In the Partition Roll of 1340, mention is made of two knight's 
fees in "Comb'vill and Compton," as held together, by Reginald 
Darell, of the value of 11/. 13a. id. The third knight's fee, that 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 275 

of Compton Basset, was then held by "Philippa, Queen of England, 
of the inheritance of Hugh le Despenser." Philip Basset, who 
owned this fee, had died in 1271. His sole daughter and heir, 
Aliva, married Hugh le Despenser, who died 1265. Their son, 
Hugh le Despenser, the elder, created Earl of "Winchester, was 
beheaded in 1326, and his estates confiscated by Queen Isabella. 
They appear to have continued in the hands of King Edward III., 
and probably were constituted an appanage of his queen. I find 
her name still upon the Castle Combe Rolls as mesne tenant of 
Compton Manor up to 1355. And writs of distringas were fre- 
quently issued against her sub-tenants during this period for default 
of suit and service at the Knight's Court. Sir Guy de Brian held 
this fee in 1365; Sir Reginald de Mohun in 1377; and Roger 
Mohun in 1476. In 1454, the widow of Robert Best, Esquire, wife 
of John Wallop, held one of these knight's fees in Compton Basset, 
together with that in Winterborne Basset. In 1523, the tenants 
of John Wallop ; 1547, Hugh Spenser. The two Manors of Compton 
and Compton Cumberwell were, according to the evidence of the 
rolls, owned by Roger Berlegh in 1370; by Thomas Beeseley in 
1382 (his father, Roger, having enfeoffed Thomas Husee, John 
Towprest, and Thomas Chembre in the same) ; by Thomas Earl in 
1392; by John Baset, Chaplain, 1396-1404; Sir Gilbert Talbot, 
1419, by inheritance from John Lord Strange; in 1429, John 
Blount of Belton, acknowledged suit and service for it at the Court 
of Castle Combe, and also up to 1441 ; in 1475, Simon Blount up 
to 1476, when he died, leaving a daughter and sole heir, one year 
old, who became a royal ward; in 1523-31, Sir John Hussye owned 
it; in 1547, John Hussy is enrolled as doing service for two fees, 
Hugh de Spenser for one. On the partition of the Badlesmere 
ates, Ihc knight's fees in Compton had been assigned to the Earl 
of Northampton, and Elizabeth de Badlesmere, his wife. But in 
this, as in all the other cases, suit and service were still considered 
to be due to the original head lordship, and were not merely claimed 
as such, but the claim was acknowledged by froquent appearances 
and payments; arrears, however, were not unusual. When they 
became excessive, distringas issued; and I have met with no instance 
in which these writs were disputed in other courts. 

276 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

12. Burbetc, Burbage. — Held of Hunfridus by Blacheman. 
The Fcoda speaks of one knight's fee in Burbeche, as held by Walter 
de Dunstanville "of the Honor of Wallingford." From this state- 
ment, and also because I find no mention of Burbage in the Court 
Rolls of Castle Combe, I infer that the superiority of this manor 
was transferred at an early period from the Barony of Combe to 
that of Wallingford, to the chief seat of which it lies more con- 
venient. Such an exchange was very likely to occur during the 
civil wars, in the reign of Stephen, when Brian Fitz Count, Lord 
of Wallingford, and the De Dunstanvilles, Barons of Castle Combe, 
were holding their several castles, garrisoned with all the muster 
of their retainers, in the same cause — naniety, for the rights of the 
Empress Maud to the throne of England. It is possible that a 
near relationship existed between Brien, who is sometimes called 
Brientius de Insula and "FiliusComitis," and the heirs of Humphrey 
de l'lsle, from which the transfer in question may have in part 

13. Cumbrewele. — Held temp. Domesday by Pagen. This is 
the small Manor of Cumberwell to the north of Bradford. It was 
held as a knight's fee, by Philip de Comb'well, of Walter de Dun- 
stanville, (Lib. Fcod.) A portion of it was probably granted by one 
of the De Dunstanvilles to the adjoining priory of Monkton Farley, 
as the prior of that house frequently appears on the Court Rolls as 
owing suit and service for it ; and that these barons were benefactors 
of this priory would appear from the handsome monumental slab 
recently dug up there, bearing the effigy of a knight in chain 
armour upon it in low relief, his shield having the Dunstanville coat 
of arms. 1 But as one of the knight's fees in Compton belonged, 
in the thirteenth century, to the same Philip of Comberwell (thence 
obtaining its additional name), there may be some confusion in the 
entries of the Court Rolls between these two distinct manors, which 
for some time descended together. I suspect Cumberwell to have 
been one of the fees owned by Reginald Darell, circa 1340, and by 
Roger Berlegh in 1370, as I find Cumberwell, near Bradford, 

1 See engraving, p. 139. 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 277 

co nomine entered as the fee of Nicholas and Reginald, sons of Roger 
de Warley, (suspiciously like Berlegh) in 1350. In 1404, it be- 
longed to John Wache. In 1417, the same John Wache is enrolled 
as owing suit and service for one-fifth of a knight's fee in Cumber- 
well, and Philip Videlew for another, called Gyrs, held of the 
Barony of Castle Combe. Thomas Atforde was admitted to a 
tenement there, formerly John Asheley's, in 1396-1404. The 
Bio mats seem to have possessed it 1429-41. Afterwards it was 
owned and occupied by the Bayntun family. 

14. Rx'steselle. — Held at the time of the great survey by Gunter. 
This is another instance of misspelling. There can be no doubt 
that Lushill, near Swindon, is the manor intended. Rushall has 
another and better representative in Domesday, a large manor then 
in the king's hand, and held temp. Henry III. by Geoffry de 
Alneto. L\istehulle was then held as two parts of a knight's fee 
bj* Nicholas, the son of Ada, of Walter de Dunstanville, as of his 
Barony of Combe, (Lib. Feod.) In the Partition Roll of 1340 it 
is said to be held by John de Lusteshull, and valued at 21. In 
1377, the rolls state it to have been seized into custody of the lord, 
during the minority of John de Lusteshull. Nicholas Castle Combe 
de Lushill held it in 1404. He was the descendant and represen- 
tative of John Dunstanvill abas Castle Combe, third son of Walter 
the second baron of that name, whose son Robert, as we have seen 
already, married Grace de Bohun, and was the progenitor of the 
Dunstanvills alias Castle Combes of Cricklade, from whom descended 
Sir Thomas Wriothesley, Garter, and the Earls of Southampton, 
temp. Henry VIII. — Edward VI., through the marriage of John 
Writhe, or Wriothesley, Garter, 1470, to Barbara, daughter and 
heiress of John Castle Combe of Cricklade. Agnes de Castel Combe, 
widow of Nicholas, held this fee in 1414. On her death, in 1442, 
her heir, John Temys, paid one hundred shillings at the Knight's 
Court of Castle Combe for his relief. He held it still in 1454. l 

1 Was this John Temys tin- John Castle Combe whose heiress John Writhe 
married? And did he, Garter, and bis son sir Thomas Wriothesley inherit 
Lushill? The Herald's ''"II' ge may solve ilii* question. 

2 o 

278 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

In 1525, it had passed to J. Parker, on the decease of John Clerke. 
In 1573, Walter of Lushill owed service for the same. 

15. Wertune, Wroughton. — Held by B,obertus,tenip. Domesday, 
under Humphrey de Insula. 

A narrative entered in the chartulary of Castle Combe at a very 
early date, records that Reginald de Dunstanville with his wife, 
Atheliza, and Reginald their son and heir, quitclaimed to the 
monks of Tewksbury a knight's fee in " Wars ton," and after her 
husband's death confirmed this grant in the Chapter before the 
monks and " her knights." This last expression shows that the 
lady in question must have held the barony in her own right, 
being no doubt Adeliza de Insula, heiress of Humphrey. 

In the Liber Feodorum mention is made of one knight's fee, held 
of Walter de Dunstanville, in " Wer'weston," (Over Wroughton), 
by the Abbot of Tewksbury. The Abbot of Stanley also held four 
parts of a knight's fee, in "Costowe," (in the parish of Wroughton), 
of Walter de Dunstanville. This latter estate was bestowed on the 
Abbey of St. Mary, of Stanley, near Chippenham, by the third Walter 
de Dunstanville, by a charter of which an early copy is in the 
Castle Combe chartulary. 1 

The Partition Roll values these two fees — the first at 10/., the 
latter at 6/. 13s. 4d. The chartulary of Castle Combe has an 
indenture, in Norman French, whereby John, Abbot of Tewksbury, 
in the year 1342, acknowledged and attorned his homage and fealty 
which he owed for the town of Werston, to Sir John Tibetot, and 
Margaret, his wife, one of the heirs of Giles Lord Badlesmere. 
The two Abbots owed and paid yearly service to the Court of Castle 
Combe for these fees, up to the dissolution. The Manor of Over 
Wroughton is, in the year 1537, entered in the rolls as still held 
by the Abbot of Tewksbury, but another entry charges it to " the 
tenants of Philip de Combwell, now Prior of St. Switbin, at Win- 
chester," from the year 1523 to 1547. The Abbot of Stanley held 

1 The \vitnesses to this grant are ' ' John and Robert Dunstanville, my brothers ; 
A. De la Mare ; Henry de Hertham ; Henry Croke ; Walter de Kembryngton ; 
Herbert de Grnundwell, ray Steward ; Nicholas Wass ; William de Legh ; and 


Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 279 

Cotstowe up to this last date. James d'Audeley and John Strange 
appear subsequently as tenants of one of the Wroughton manors. 

16. Salteharpe. — Held temp. Domesday by Robertus of Hun- 
fridus. This Manor of Salthrop in Wroughton Parish was held 
when the Feoda were compiled as one knight's fee by Geoffry Bluet 
of Walter de Dunstanville. He also held another knight's fee in 
"Elyndon" in the same parish of the same: (Elyndon is an alias 
employed for Wroughton in the Institutions of the Diocese of 
Sarum). In the Hundred Rolls of 1 Edward I. the Abbot of 
Stanley is also said to hold a moiety of this knight's fee of Petronilla 
de Dunstanville, and Robert Bluet the other, (1274). John Bluet 
held it in 1319, (Nomina Villaram). William Everard held Sal- 
throp of the Barony of Combe in 1338, and it was valued at 
6/. 13s. 4d. ; his son William in 1344; Sir Edmund Everard in 
1365. In 1382, Robert Loundres was admitted to relief; and on 
his death, in 1392, his widow, Elizabeth. In 1404, Sir John Lovel 
held a fee in Saltharp "formerly of Giles Pipard." In 1414, 
munture was claimed of this fee on account of the death of John, 
Lord Lovel ; and William, Lord Lovel, was admitted, and held it 
to 1454; it was still Lord Lovel's in 1531. In 1573, John Sadeler 
was entered as tenant of this fee; and in 1600, Robert Sadler, Gent. 

Another manor in the parish of Wroughton, called Elcomb, was 
held by Radulphus Lovel, of Walter de Dunstanville, temp. 
Henry III. (Lib. Feod.) In 1476, the tenants of late Radulphus 
Lovell are sued for service due from this fee of Elecomb. Johanna 
Lovel was Lord of Elecombe in 1316 (Nom. Vill.) These were 
probably the Lovels of Upton, in the south of the county, one of 
whom, John, living 22 Henry III., married a daughter of Alan 
Basset, and assumed the coat of Basset. 1 

17. Clive. — Likewise held by Robertus of Hunfridus. — Clifi'e 
Pipard. Temp. Henry III. Radulphus Lovell held a knight's fee, 
in Clive, of Walter de Dunstanville, (Lib. Feod.) The heirs of 
Agnes d<; < 'nhham are entered in the Castle Combe Court Rolls for 
1454, as holding a knight's fee in Pippardescly ve of the lordship of 

' Hoan- Heyt., lStt. 

2 2 

280 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

Combe. In 1523-47, the Lord Cobham appears in the rolls as 
tenant of this fee. As the superiority of Cleve Ancey appears from 
the Mortimer Leiger (Hurl. Coll.) to have formed part of the 
inheritance of Elizabeth M. Countess of March, sister and coheiress 
of Giles de Badlesmere, it is probable that both Cliffes, C. Ancey 
and C. Pipard, were included in the original fee of Clive, subor- 
dinate to the Barony of Combe. 

18. Sum'reford. — Likewise held by Robertus of Humphrey de 
l'lsle, temp. Domesday. — Somerford Mautravers. John Mautravers, 
held a knight's fee and one-tenth, of Walter de Dunstanville, in 
Sum'reford, (Lib. Feod.) On the partition this fee was assigned 
to the Earl and Countess of Northampton. It was then held (1340) 
by John Mautravers, and valued at 6/. In 1344, Maurice de 
Berkeley had been enfeoffed for life, of this manor, by John Lord 
Mautravers, in exchange for Eleston. In 1382, Reginald Lord 
Cobham held it. On his death, William Lord Arundel, as heir of 
Mautravers, in 1404. In 1414, 3/. was paid at the Court of knight's 
fees as the relief of John, Earl of Arundel, for his fee in Broad 
Somerford, held of the Honor of Castle Combe. In 1422, at a 
similar Court his death is recorded, and a claim of munture made. 
It is further stated that the wardship and marriage of his son, a 
minor, was in the king's hand, owing to his holding other estates 
of the king directly. His suit and service was consequently respited. 
In 1455, on the death of Lady Arundel and Mautravers, her son, 
William Earl of Arundel, then of full age, was admitted on pay- 
ment of a relief of 51. This example, with many others, proves 
that the compositions for knight's service, wardship, and relief, 
were still considered due from the mesne lords to the owner 
of the capital seat of the ancient barony, and still exacted even 
from the most powerful parties, notwithstanding its sale, and the 
subsequent partition of the estates comprised in it among different 

In 1525, on the death of the Earl of Arundel, Earl Thomas, his 
son, is admitted tenant; in 1573, I find John Yeowe in possession; 
in 1588, his death is recorded in the rolls; and in 1600, the heir 
or heirs of John Ewe are on the list as defaulters. 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 281 

19. Smitecote. — Held by Elbertus temp. Domesday. This is the 
Manor of Smithcot in Dauntesey Parish, adjoining Broad Sonierford. 
Roger de Dauntesey held a knight's fee in Smithcot of Walter de 
Dunstanville, (Lib. Feod.) In 1340, the roll gives Richard Daun- 
tesey as the mesne lord, and it is valued at 10/. Sir John Dauntesey 
held it up to 1392, when his heir of the same name did homage 
for his relief. In 1413, on the death of this Sir John Dauntesey, 
his son and heir, Walter, being of fidl age, paid 5/. as relief due 
for this fee. In 1420, on death of Walter, his sister and heiress, 
wife of Sir John Stradlyng, was sued for the relief due thereon, 
which was not paid. But at a Court held in 1429, Sir John 
Stradlyng and his wife paid for release of suit and service, and all 
arrears, 10/. 2s. ; and from the account of John Heynes, bailiff of 
the knight's court for the year 1428, it appears that a distress had 
actually been put in and levied on the Manor of Smithcot for tho 
recovery of this sum. In 1440, John Dewall, the second husband 
of Lady Stradlyng, held this fee. In 1454, Lady Stradlyng is 
styled in the rolls late the wife of John de Wale, Esquire. Early 
in the sixteenth century Smithcote had become the property of the 
Dan vers family, by marriage of Anne, sole heiress of the Stradlyngs, 
to Sir John Dan vers, Knight; who, by Aubrey's account, "hastily 
clapped up a match with her before she heard the newes" of the 
murder of her brother and all his family at Dauntesey manor- 
house: 1 he died in 1514. In 1547, Thomas Danvers is on the rolls 
as tenant of the fee. In 1573, John Danvers. In 1600, Sir John 
Danvers, Knight, and Henry Earl of Danbye ; he was the second 
son of Sir John Danvers and of Lady Elizabeth Neville, daughter 
and co-heiross of Neville Lord Latimer. He was created Baron of 
Dauntesey by James I.; and by Charles I., Earl of Danby, and 
Knight of the Garter. His elder brother, Charles, having been 
executed for treason, as accomplice of the Earl of Essex, Lord 
Danby succeeded to the family estate of Dauntesey. Some further 
memorials of the Danverses, and a description of their monuments 
in Dauntsey church, will be found in Aubrey's collections. Tho 

' Aubrey's Collections, L, p. 47. 

282 History qf the Wiltshire Manors 

painted glass of the windows was very fine and in good condition 
in his time. A gravestone is still there to John Dewale and his 
wife Joan, the widow of Sir Maurice Russell, Knight. 1 

20. Bluntesdon. — Held hy Robertus temp. Domesday. This is 
Andrews' Blunsdon, or Blunsdon St. Andrew. John Wasce held 
a knight's fee in Bluntesdon of Walter de Dunstanville in the third 
year of King John, 1201, (Rot. Obi) Hawys de Bluntesdon held 
half a knight's fee of Walter de Dunstanville in Ofur Bluntesdon, 
and Ada Bluett held half a fee of Walter de Dunstanville in the 
same vill, (Lib. Feod.) In the year 1299, "Johannes dictus Aze" 
(probably same name as both the Hawys and John Wasce above 
mentioned) presented to the church of Blunsdon St. Andrew. 
The Badlesmere Partition Roll of 1340 records John As (a 
near approach to an awkward appellation) as mesne tenant of 
two knights' fees in Blunsdon, worth 13/. 8s. 4</. yearly. They 
were assigned to the portion of John, Lord Tibetot, and Margaret 
Badlesmere his wife. In 1374, Bluntesdon fees, "formerly of 
John Aas," were held by John Lustehill; in 1392, by Ivo Fitz 
Wareyn; in 1404, by John Fitz Wareyn. About the year 1411, 
Robert Andrews paid yearly 13s. 4rf. for release of suit and service at 
the Knight's Court of Combe for these two fees in Blunsdon, "formerly 
Fitz Wareyn's." In 1442, his widow paid the same. In 1443, 
" Magister Johannes Stafford Archi. Episcopus Cantuariae" is first 
noted as tenant of these fees. In 1454, the roll states that "James 
Audley, Esquire, holds the Manor of Bluntesdon called Andrews' 
Blunsdon, with two carucates of land of the Barony of Combe, 
John Stafford, late Archbishop of Canterbury, having previously 
held the same for a rent of 13s. 4c?., to be paid at twice in the year." 2 

i As on this stone the arms of Dauntesey are placed over her head, and that 
in the Wiltshire Institutions, A.B. 1439, John Dewale and Joan Dauntesey 
present jointly to Breinhilham, it would seem that the Lady Stradlyng, heiress 
of the Daunteseys, had married Sir Maurice Berkeley first ; secondly, Sir John 
Danvers; thirdly, John Dewale. 

2 This John Stafford, made Bishop of Wells 1425, and translated to Canter- 
bury 1443, was Keeper of the Privy Seal 1421, Lord Treasurer 1422, and 
Lord Chancellor from 1432 to 1450; he was also Apostolic Legate. His father 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 283 

From 1462 to 1516, the Castle Combe Rolls record John Ferers as 
mesne lord of Blunsdon. In 1523, " the tenants late of Ferers" 
are sued. In 1525, it had passed to Giles Briggs, and on his death, 
in that year, to Sir John Briggs, who held it in 1547, with two 
carucates of land in fee-farm at a quit-rent. 

21 . Grendewelle. — Held temp. Domesday by Hugo and Giraldus. 
This is the Manor and Farm of Groundwell, near Blunsdon. Temp. 
Henry III., James de Groundwell held half a knight's fee of 
Walter de Dunstanville in Groundwell, and Richard de Dantesey 
held half a fee of the same, (Lib. Feod.) In 1340, the Partition 
Roll mentions it as held by Walter Groundwell, and worth 21. 6.s. 8d. 
yearly. This fee was assigned to the Earl and Countess of North- 
ampton. The manor was in the hands of Richard Gosye in 1367, 
of Thomas Whyteman, 1392-1404. In 1437, on the death of John 
Groundwell, munture was claimed. In 1442, one hundred shillings 
were demanded as relief for admission of " Thomas Wyke, son and 
heir of John Groundwell," and fifty shillings were paid. In 1475, 
this Thomas Wyke still held it. In 1523, it had passed to John 
Giffurd, Esquire, and William Kembyll. In 1547, to James 
Kembill. In 1573, William Kembyll was sued "for the lands late 

22. Schetone. — Held temp. Domesday by Robertus. I believe this 
to be the Manor-farm of Chadington, adjoining Salthrop. Temp. 
Henry III., William de Burdenhill held half a knight's fee of 

was Sir Humphrey Stafford, of Hooke, in Dorsetshire. His mother, it is said, 
was the daughter and heiress of Sir John Mautravers of Hooke. The Arch- 
biahop erected what must have been a very handsome chantry chapel, still 
existing, but much dilapidated, on the north side of the nave of North Bradley 
church, as a monument to his mother "Emma." Aubrey mentions the Stafford 
and Hungerford coats as visible upon the tomb in his time. The inscription 
still remains. 

1 have not ascertained how the Archbishop became possessed of the Manor 
of Blunsdon upon the decease of the widow of Kobert Andrews in 1442. But 
as in the Nomina Villarum (1316), the Manor of Blunsdon is said to belong 
in chief to Lord liadhsmere and John Mautravers, jointly, it is probable 
that he derived his interest through his mother, as heiress of a branch of the 
latter family. 

284 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

Walter cle Dunstanville in Chetyndon ; and Nicholas, son of Ada, 
held two parts of a fee of the same in " Cidrington." I presume 
this to mean Qnidhampton, (pronounced Quidington) another ad- 
joining estate. The Partition Roll gives Quidhampton among the 
knights' fees of Giles Lord Badlesmere in 1340. It was held by 
Robert Russell at a rent of 6/. yearly, and was assigned to Lord de 
Roos. The Prior of Bradenstoke held a tenement in Chadinjrton 
of the Barony of Combe at the same time, worth 6/. 13s. 4<7., and 
continued on the rolls as owing service for it up to the dissolution. 
The estate of Quidhampton stands in the names of Oliver Russel 
in 13G5, Robert Russell succeeded his father of the same name in 
1392, Thomas Russel held it in 1404; on his death, in 1417, the 
wardship and marriage of his son, a minor, was claimed on account 
of the paramount lord, and the bailiff of the barony ordered to 
seize the fee into the lord's hand. In 1424, and several subsequent 
years, it was held by Richard Dicton, probably as feoffee; since, in 
1454, it had reverted to the Russell family; John Russel, Esquire, 
doing service for it in that year. In 1476, "the tenants late of 
William Burdcnhill," are named on the rolls as owing service for 
Chetington, which is a singular revival of a name, not found in 
connection with the estate since the time of Henry III., probably 
it was only used to identify the estate, the clerk of the court not 
knowing the actual holder, for in 1473 John Russell, the last owner, 
had died, and precept was issued to the bailiff of the knight's fees 
"to distrain John Colingbourne, who claims to be heir to John 
Russell, Lord of Quidhampton, &c." In 1475, John Colingborne, 
in 1481, William Colingborne, were the mesne tenants. In 1547, 
the Lady Elizabeth Reede; in 1600, the heir or heirs of John 

23. Hantone. — Held temp. Domesday by Ranulphus. This is 
another manor in the same contiguous group, namely, Broad Hinton. 
The heirs of Reginald Wace held one knight's fee and a half in 
Henton of Walter de Dunstanville, (Lib. Fcod.) In the Nomina 
Villarum (1316), Roger Waz, probably his father, appears as Lord 
of Henton. In 1340, Fidena Was is said to hold Brode Hinton 
under the barony, valued at 6/. 13s. 4c/. In 1350, John Fitz Payne 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 285 

held it; in 1382, William Wroughton; and from 1394 to 1404, 
Isabella Wroughton. In 1407, one hundred shillings was paid at 
the Knights' Court as the relief of Isabella Werston. In 1420, on 
the death of " Isabella Blaket, late the wife of William Wroughton," 
leaving her son William, a minor, his wardship and marriage was 
claimed, and the lands ordered to be seized into the lord's hands. 
In 1424, this fee, described as " Waas's," was held by John 
Wroughton. In 1442, by Thomas Ramsey, and Elizabeth his wife; 
in 1454, by John Wroughton, Esquire. In 1600, John Glanvill, 
Esquire, serjeant at law, is stated to hold the lands in Broad ITinton, 
sometime the lands of Sir Giles Wroughton. In Aubrey's collec- 
tions is a description of several monuments in Broad Hinton church 
of the Wroughton family : one of John Wroughton, Esquire, who 
died 1429, leaving his effigy; another of " Sir William Wroughton, 
Knight, who builded the house of Broadhenton, a.d. 1540, and 
died 1559, leaving four sons and three daughters, by dame Elinor, 
his wife, daughter of Edward Lewknor, Esquire": and the tombs of 
" Sir John Glanville, Knight, serjeant at lawe," and of Francis 
Glanville, his son, who died at the siege of Bridge water, 1645, set. 
twenty-eight in the service of Charles I., as lieutenant-colonel. "The 
latter," says Aubrey, " has a tedious Latin inscription." I presume 
these monuments are still in existence. (?) 

24. Bedestone. — Held by Turchitil temp. Domesday under Hun- 
fridus. Biddeston St. Peter's. Henry of Budeston held the fourth of 
a knight's fee in Budeston of Walter de Dunstanville, (Lib. Feod.) 
Nicholas de Buddeston held it in 1240, and on the Partition Poll it 
is valued at 51. In 1350, it appears on the rolls as held by William 
de Budeston; in 1390-1404, by Nicholas Samborn. In 1424, this 
fee, " lately Samborn's," was held by Pobert Pussell ; in 1442-1454, 
by Elizabeth Pussell, relict of Pobert Pussell. In 1474, William 
Bagot; 1476, John Bagot; 1520, Elizabeth Bagot; 1547, Elizabeth 
liussell (?) ; 1573, Mr. Monpeason. Subsequently, John Glanvile, 
Esquire; and in 1600, William Mounljoye, Esquire, owed service 
for the Manor of Bidstone. 

25. ELeortham. — Held temp. Domesday by Hugo under Ilunfri- 
dus. This must be Hartluun in the parish of Biddestone St. Nicholas. 

2 v 

286 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

It does not occur among the fees of Walter do Dunstanville in the 
Liber Fcodorum. Neither is there any mention of it in the Court 
Rolls of Castle Combe. I am inclined to think it was granted by 
one of the earlier De Dunstanvilles to the Priory of Monkton 
Farleigh, which held it up to the dissolution. As already stated 
Cumberwell had been bestowed on the same monastery by them. 

26. Sorestone. — Held by Robertus temp. Domesday. Shcrston 
Pinknej'. Radulphus de Pinkeney held a knight's fee in Parva 
Scorston, of Walter de Dunstanville, {Lib. Food.) Thomas Giffard 
held it in 1340, and it was valued at 61. 13s. 4tf. In 1365, John 
Giffard; in 1396-1404, Isabella, his widow, who was probably 
heiress of Pinkeney. John Giffard, Esquire, held it 1454; and in 
1531, it still stood on the rolls in the same name. In 1547, John 
Wylkokes owed service for it; and in 1573, the same. 

27. Meleford. — Held temp. Domesday by Gozelinus. Milford, 
adjoining Salisbury. Gilbert de Muleford held the twentieth part 
of a knight's fee in Muleford of Walter de Dunstanville, (Lib. Food.) 
In 1340, Thomas de Buton held it at the value of 1/. In 1350, 
John Talbot ; and from 1394 to 1404 John Ashley are in the rolls 
as tenants of Milford. In 1414, Robert Ashley; in 1436, his 
death occurring, the tenants of the estate were distrained for 
munture. In 1443, Lord Lovel held it; in 1454, Thomas Tame; 
in 1537, Thomas Tame and John Talbot. 

I have now come to the end of the list of manors, which are 
mentioned in Domesday, as composing the seignory of Hunfridus 
de Insula. He held likewise two messuages, occupied by burgesses, 
in the borough of Malmesburj^. And these tenements remained 
attached to the Manor of Castle Combe down to the fifteenth 
century, soon after which all clue to them is lost. 

Two Wiltshire manors not contained in the Domesday list appear 
regularly in the Court Rolls from the thirteenth century ; these are 
Whelpeley, near Downton; and Shawe, near Melksham. The 
first of these, Whelpeley, on the authority of the Liber Fcodorum, 
was held in the reign of Henry III. as three parts of a knight's 
fee of Walter de Dunstanville, by Gilbert de Engleys, together 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 287 

with the advowson of the chapel of St. Leonard's. On the partition 
of the Badlesmere estates it was held by John d'Engles, valued 
at 51., and assigned to the Earl and Countess of Oxford as lords 
paramount. In 1350, John Bocland and John Engleys held it 
together; Robert Gilbert in 1366. In 1369, "Philip Dauntesey 
proffered his homage and fealty for it," which was respited until 
the return of the lord (Robert Lord Tiptoft, then owning the 
Barony of Castle Combe) to England. Philip Dauntesey had 
acquired it by marriage with Margaret Engleys, who survived him, 
and held it in her own right in 1404. In 1442, Thomas, son and 
heir of Thomas Ringwood, Esquire, paid seventy-five shillings for 
relief of his fee in Whelpeley. In 1454, he still held it. In 1476, 
his son Thomas; and in 1547, Thomas Ringwood's name still 
appears as tenant under the barony of this estate. 

Mr. Matcham in his Hundred of Frustfeld, 1 (in which Whelpeley 
lies) satisfactorily, as I think, accounts for the subinfeudation of 
Whelpeley to the Barony of Combe in this manner. Brickworth 
is parcel of the Manor of Whelpeley, and formerly synonymous 
with it. In old deeds it is occasionally epelt "Brecore," and in 
Wyndham's Domesday it is supposed to be intended by Brecheorde. 
But it haa been shown by good evidence that the description of 
this vill in Domesday applies to Brinkworth in North Wilts. It 
is presumable, therefore, that the "Brenchwrde" of Domesday, 
applied by Wyndham to Brinkworth, really was intended for Brick- 
worth, that is, for Whelpeley. But the " Brenchwrde" of Domesday 
was held by BZunfridus, not of the king but of Milo Crispin, under 
the king; it would therefore be inherited with his other Wiltshire 
estates by the De Dunstanvilles. And we may account very 
reasonably for the superiority of Milo Crispin being lost, by 
supposing it to have been exchanged with him by one of the Dun- 
stanvilles for that of Burbeche, dissevered in the thirteenth century 
from the Castle of Combe and attached to that of Wallingford, 
which belonged to Milo Crispin, as husband of Maud de Walling- 
ford. This conjecture appears so well supported on all sides that it 
is difficult not to believe it to be warranted. 

i p. 32. 

2 p 2 

288 History of the Wiltshire Manors 

The remaining manor, of which I find frequent mention in the 
rolls as held of the Barony of Combe, is Shawe, near Mclksham. 
In 1274, Petronilla de Dunstanville held the fourth part of a 
knight's fee in "Sase" of the king, belonging to the Barony of 
Combe, and Richard Hywey held it of her. 1 In 1340, on the par- 
tition of the barony, it was held by William at More, as half of a 
knight's fee, valued at 61. 13s. 4^., and assigned to the Earl and 
Countess of Northampton. It is mentioned in the rolls as held by 
Simon Basset in 1365; by Matilda Basset, his widow, daughter and 
heir of at More, in 1367. On her death, in 1389, a heriot and 
relief of fifty shillings was paid, and Cecilia Berkeley her daughter, 
then of full age, was admitted as next heir. She died in 1393; 
and in 1404, it was held by Willielma (probably her daughter) 
"formerly wife of John Rich." In 1472, William Carent, in right 
of his wife, Margaret, widow of John Beynton; in 1481, John 
Cheyny, "by gift of the king," probably during the minority of 
the heir. In 1525, Sir Edward Beynton, as heir to John Beynton; 
in 1547, John Beynton; in 1573-1600, John Grerysh, or Gerrish, 
held the Manor of Shawe as mesne tenant under Castle Combe. 

Moreover frequent mention is made in the rolls of an obligation 
of the Dean and Canons of the Cathedral of Salisbury "to find a 
fit chaplain to celebrate masses in the chapel of Shawe, near Melk- 
sham, for the souls of the ancestors of the Lords of the Barony of 
Castle Combe," and reference made to the evidence of the Knights' 
Court Rolls of the 29th year of Edward III., and others following. 
What benefaction had been bestowed on the mother church of 
Sarum by the early possessors of the barony to earn this perpetual 
service at the chapel of Shawe does not appear. The Dean and 
Chapter hold still the Rectory of the Parish of Melksham in which 
Shawe is situated. 

In the Court Roll of the year 1519, Sir Henry Long, and in 
that of 1547, Elizabeth Russell are mentioned as owing suit and 
service at the Lord's Court of Castle Combe, for the Manor of Tud- 
rington (Tytherton) Kellaways. But this is the only mention I 
find of such a claim on that estate. 

i Hundred Rolls, 1 Edw. I. 

Subordinate to the Barony of Castle Combe. 289 

At the late date of 1620, on the decease of Edward James, Esquire, 
of Broadfield, in the parish of Hullavington, leaving an only son 
and heir, Richmond James, an infant of six years of age, the widow, 
Margaret James, and her agent, George Bullock of Alderton, con- 
tracted with John Scrope, Esquire, for the wardship and marriage 
of the minor, on the ground that the Manor of Broadfield and 
certain lands in Hullavington were held of the lordship of Castle 
Combe, and agreed to pay Mr. Scrope the sum of 90/. in consider- 
ation thereof. Walter Long, of South Wraxall, was joined with 
Bullock in the bond. On this, in 1622, Sir "Walter Pye, Attorney 
of the Court of Wards and Liveries, filed an information against 
John Scrope, disputing his right to dispose of the minor, and 
claiming it for the king. In answer to this information it was 
stated, on the part of Mr. Scrope, that on the death of Edward 
Chatterton, Esquire, in the first year of Edward VI., an office 
found that he was seised of the Manor of Broadfield, held of 
Richard Scrope, Esquire, as of the Manor of Castle Combe; and 
also another office on the death of Synion James, in the fourteenth 
year of Henry VIII. , found that the same was held of John Scrope, 
as a knight's fee of the Barony of Combe. I have, however, found 
no other trace of this dependency. 1 

[In a future paper I propose to give an account of the internal 
or municipal government of the Manor of Castle Combe through 
its Courts Baron and the Leet, the Rolls of which are in good 
preservation from an early date.] 

1 Addendum, — In p. 270 it is mentioned that the Church of Winterbome was 
granted temp. Henry 1. to the Monks of Lewes in Sussex, by Reginald de 
Dunstanville. The lands granted with it probably comprised the estate of 
Wiiitorborne Moukton adjoining to Winterborne Basset. 


(Dtt fjje (Drmtjralngi) of UMto. 


In my last paper on the Ornithology of "Wilts, following up 
the general subject of the structure of birds, I entered at some 
length into the variety of formation in their beaks, showing how 
exactly suited they were, each to its appointed use, and what 
admirable marks they presented for correct classification: but no 
less adapted to their requirements, no less various, and therefore 
no less characteristic of the family to which they belong than the 
beaks, are their feet : these are so perfectly framed for the various 
uses to which their respective possessors must apply them, and 
differ so very widely in construction one from another, that a glance 
at the foot will at once point out to the observer what the habits 
and what the general nature of the bird must be. 

All birds resemble one another in this particular up to a certain 
point — viz., in that all are bipeds, and the legs which support their 
feet are invariably composed of three parts: these are, the thigh, 
which is very high up, very short, and quite out of sight ; the 
leg or "tibia," which inexperienced observers are apt erroneously 
to call the thigh; and the instep or "tarsus," which is as often 
falsely called the leg. It is this last part (the "tarsus") which 
alone is much seen, the remaining parts being usually concealed 
by the body and the feathers of the bird. Beyond this point of 
general structure, in which the legs of all birds participate, and in 
which they also resemble the human leg (though the extreme 
length of the instep, and the shortness and concealment of the 
thigh have caused very general errors on the subject), they differ 
from one another in many ways; thus, some are extremely long, 
others are exceedingly short ; some are quite bare of feathers, others 

On the Ornithology of Wilts. 291 

are entirely clothed with them; some are plated as it were with 
scales, others are smooth; some are thick and strong, others are 
light and delicate; but all harmonize exactly with the feet with 
which they terminate, and these present still greater points of 
variety than the legs. The foot of a bird, unlike that of a quadruped, 
is never composed of more than four toes ; this is the most general 
number, and of these the first is usually directed backwards, though 
in some cases the fourth is also associated with it: there are other 
families, which have but three toes, and in that case all of them are 
directed forwards, the first or hind toe being the one deficient : again 
there are birds, which have but two toes, but as none of these last 
occur in this country, we need not stop to consider their peculiarity ; 
and again, the toe may be united by a membrane, and that either 
entirely, or in part; or they may be wholly unconnected; but they 
are always terminated with claws, which present the varieties of 
long and short, straight and curved, sharp and blunt; but these, 
together with many other points of difference, and the reasons of 
them, and the suitability of the exact form of foot with which every 
bird is provided, we shall more clearly see, as we go on to consider 
the orders and families in rotation. 

The " Birds of Prey" present a great general similarity in the 
formation of the foot; it is always strong and muscular, furnished 
with four powerful toes, and armed with claws more or less hooked, 
and often of very formidable size, strength, and sharpness. In the 
family of vultures, the talons are not so much displayed, as the 
habits of these ignoble birds require no weapon for striking a blow 
to obtain their food, and no powers of grasping for bearing it away 
in their feet to their young: content with the putrid carcase of 
some fallen animal these unclean birds stuff themselves with carrion, 
and carrying it to their nests in their craw, there disgorge the 
unsavoury moss. But the falcons have by their own prowess to 
secure their living prey, and so in addition to very powerful limbs, 
and great muscular strength, arc provided with sharp and generally 
much curved claws, enabling them to strike down and hold securely 
the victims they have seized. Like the carnivorous quadrupeds, 
these rapacious birds can pounce so fiercely and with such exceeding 

202 On the Ornithology of Wilts. 

violence with their formidable talons, as generally at one blow to 
disable their prey. It is invariably the claw of the hind toe, by 
which this severe stroke is effected, and for this purpose the beak is 
never used at all, though many people have erroneous impressions 
to the contrary. Rushing down with the velocity of Lightning, 
and with closed pinions, the falcon makes its deadly swoop from 
above on the selected prey, and striking with the hind toe, in 
darting past, inflicts the deadly wound, in a most masterly manner* 
seldom missing its aim, or failing in the stroke; sometimes, too, 
the back of the unfortunate victim is seen to be deeply scored 
throughout its whole length, while not ^infrequently the skull is 
completely riven, and the brains dashed out by the amazing impetus 
of the blow: but should the aim be by some mischance incorrect, 
then rising again and sailing round in circles, and so getting higher 
and higher at every turn, the falcon again prepares for a charge; 
while the unhappy bird whose life is so endangered seems instinct- 
ively to know wherein its best chance of escape lay, and perceiving 
that an attack can only be made from above, soars as high as its 
strength enables it; seldom, however, does the manoeuvre succeed, 
and the second swoop of the aggressor rarely fails to send the quarry 
headlong and lifeless to the ground. For inflicting such a wound, 
no more perfect instrument can be conceived than the falcon's foot, 
so strong, hard, and muscular; with claws so sharp, powerful, and 
curved: with these weapons they can not only provide themselves 
food, but with the same instruments can grasp and carry it off to 
their eyries, though it be of considerable weight ; the nature of the 
prey too so obtained and borne away varies not a little, according 
to the genera comprising this extensive family; fish, flesh, and 
fowl are all attacked by these rapacious birds : the eagles can master 
a full-sized hare or a lamb; the osprey will plunge into the river, 
and emerge again with a quivering salmon firmly clutched in its 
talons ; the true falcons, the hawks, the buzzards, and the harriers, 
content themselves with the smaller birds and quadrupeds, and some 
species vary their diet with reptiles; but they all seize and bear 
off their prey with their feet. The third and last family of the 
"Raptores" — viz., the owls, hunting in the dusk of evening, and the 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 293 

grey twilight of morning, adopt a different course from their diurnal 
brethren of prey ; stealing on noiseless wing, round the enclosures 
and over the meadows, they drop suddenly and without warning 
of their approach on the mouse or other victim, which they bear 
away in their feet: their legs and toes are usually covered with 
downy feathers up to the claws, assisting them in their silent 
movements, and strong enough to carry off any victim which they 
may seize. In all these carnivorous birds, can anything more 
perfect be conceived than the feet with which they are provided, 
more fitted to their respective requirements, more thoroughly 
adapted to their wants ? 

The second order of birds, the "Perchers," brings before us quite 
a different form of foot, but one no less applicable to the habits of 
the species which compose it ; nay, by many the form of foot herein 
displayed is considered the most perfect, and perhaps if any degrees 
of excellence can exist, where all are exactly fitted to their respective 
uses, the mechanism of the foot of the "Insessores" may strike us 
with the greatest admiration. The tarsus of all these birds is 
usually bare of feathers, and the general character of the leg and 
foot is slight and slender; the number of toes is invariably four, 
the hind toe being always present: in some species the claws are 
very long, but in general they as well as the toes arc short and 
thus best formed for perching. Now when we look at these light 
and delicate legs and feet, "the shin reduced," as Buffon well 
describes it, "till it is nothing more than a bony needle," and then 
observe the size and weight of the body they have to support, is it 
not astonishing with what ease and steadiness a bird can perch 
upon a bough, and balance and uphold itself in that position, even 
in a high wind P is il not marvellous how with the head reposing 
under the wing, and one leg drawn up under the body, it is entirely 
supported on the other; and resting on so slight a fulcrum falls 
asleep, without the least danger of losing its balance P It is the 
admirable formation of these delicate members that enables the 
feathered race to rest with ease in a position in which other animals 
could nut support themselves for a minute; and of which formation 
1 1n- true perchers afford so excellent an example. The natural 


294 On the Ornithology of Wilts. 

position of a bird's toes is not, as with men's fingers, stretched 
out and open, but the very reverse; it requires an efibrt in the 
bird to spread open its toes, just as it does in a man to close his 
fingers: hence, when it rises on the wing and flies through the 
air, the foot is doubled up under the body, and the toes immediately 
contract, and only unbend again when about to seize the bough of 
a tree : hence again, when it perches on a spray, the toes previously 
opened for the pxirpose, grasp it by their natural flexion, and 
firmly clasp the support on which they have alighted. This is a 
very excellent adaptation of peculiar structure to the required end, 
but in addition to this there is a most admirable piece of internal 
mechanism, which I cannot better describe than in the words of 
Bishop Stanley : — "Connected with the thigh bones and leg, a set 
of muscles run down to the very extremity of the toes, so contrived 
and placed, that when, by pressure downwards, the limb bends, 
these fine muscles are pulled in, and therefore contract the toes, 
thus making them grasp more firmly whatever the bird is resting 
upon; just as if a set of fine strings ran over pulleys to certain 
hooks, and were acted upon at the other end by a weight or pressure, 
and thereby made to draw in the hooks." Such, then, is the won- 
derful power given to perching birds, whereby they can hold 
themselves securely even in sleep on so slender a support; this 
faculty is shared in by the whole order; but as the families and 
genera which compose this extensive division are so numerous, and 
obtain their food in such a variety of ways, it is clear that there 
must be considerable varieties in the development of their feet ; the 
tribes which dwell among the boughs of trees, now hanging with 
their heads downwards, now hurrying along the under side of the 
branch, will require a foot somewhat differently formed from 
those which run on the ground, and perch on the topmost spray; 
still in so vast a number, it will be impossible in the present paper 
even to touch upon the points in which they vary ; but as through- 
out the entire order there is so considerable a similarity of structure 
in this particular, it will not be necessary for the due exposition 
of my subject, to enter into further details upon it : we have said 
enough to show how worthy is the construction of their feet to 
give a name to the whole order, as "Insessores," or Perchers. 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 295 

In the " Rasores" or Ground birds we shall see a formation of 
foot widely differing from both the above orders : these are a harm- 
less and quiet race, never preying upon other creatures, but eating 
berries and grain, and such food as they can find upon the ground ; 
and they are subject to frequent attacks from carnivorous birds as 
well as quadrupeds ; their flesh, too, being very palatable, man is 
not the least of their destroyers; but with so many enemies, from 
which to escape, their flight is laboured and heavy, and they are 
unable to protract it to any great distance ; providence, however, 
which leaves no creature without some means of defence, has pro- 
vided for the ground birds a suitable remedy in their remarkable 
powers of running; for this end such feet as those which I have 
shown to belong to the above-named divisions would be little 
adapted ; in lieu of which they have frequently but three toes, the 
hind one being altogether omitted, or if present, it is always very 
small and considerably elevated; all the toes are very short, and 
excellently adapted for running, not only for swiftness (though 
that is often very great) but also for long continuance, and pro- 
tracted exertion; moreover, they are provided with limbs of great 
muscular development, as well as with short and blunt claws : thus 
the members of this order when alarmed, run from the supposed 
danger at their utmost speed, and endeavour to conceal themselves 
under the thickest cover at hand ; and it is only when hard pressed, 
and other means of escape fail, that they rise on the wing with 
considerable exertion, and fly heavily away. 

We come now to the two orders of Water birds, and in each of 
these we shall see the feet and legs adapted precisely to the habits 
of their possessors. The " Grallatores" or Waders, first claim our 
notice: they seem to be a connecting link between the true land 
and water birds, partaking somewhat of the nature of each; 
generally incapable of swimming, and therefore unable to go into 
deep water, they are formed for passing a great portion of their 
time on land ; but yet as all their food must be procured from the 
water, or from wet and marshy spots, they haunt the vicinity of 
lakes or streams, or the seashore; and, as a combination of both 
elements, delight in fens and swamps, where they can wade about, 

2 q 2 

296 On the Ornithology of Wilts. 

or stand motionless, fishing for prey. For such an amphibious 
nature, and such dabbling- habits, how well fitted are their legs and 
feet; the tarsus of extreme length; the tibia frequently bare of 
feathers to a considerable distance above the tarsal joint; the toes 
always divided, but very long, and usually slender, and of which 
the third and fourth are frequently united by a membrane; all 
present admirable facilities to these birds for indulging their wading 
and fishing propensities ; for as the great length of leg suffers them 
to walk in water of some depth, without wetting their plumage ; 
so the wide spreading form of their foot enables them to stand and 
run on soft and doubtful ground, without sinking in ; thus like the 
stilts and flat boards on which the fenmen of Lincolnshire have 
for ages been accustomed to traverse their swamps, so the long legs 
and spreading feet of the waders are the instruments with which 
nature has provided them for the same purpose. 

Widely different from the last described, but no less perfect, and 
no less adapted to their peculiar requirements are the feet of the 
"Natatores" or swimmers; these dwell in and on the water; at one 
time on the surface, floating over the waves, at another far below, 
diving for food or for safety; many species belonging to this order 
are quite incapable of walking on land, and are no less unprovided 
with wings of any avail in enabling them to fly; their only means 
then of moving about are by swimming and diving, which they do to 
perfection. All the divers and auks present a grotesque and clumsy 
appearance on shore: even the ducks cut but a sorry figure as they 
waddle over the grass ; but place them in their own element, let 
them once reach the water, and their awkwardness becomes elegance, 
their clumsiness is transformed into the greatest activity. To enable 
them to move about on the water with such ease and such celerity, 
they are supplied with legs and feet very much resembling the 
paddles used in Indian canoes; their thighs are placed very far 
back, in some instances almost at their tails; their legs are very 
flat and extremely thin, like the blade of an oar ; their feet are broad 
and large and completely webbed, the toes connected together with 
membranes up to the nails; with these they strike the water with 
considerable force, and thus their bodies are impelled forwards with 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 297 

speed, and as the boatman, in rowing, feathers his oar after each 
successive .stroke, and in order to offer as small a surface as possible 
to the resistance of the air and water, presents the thin knife-like 
edge of the blade, while he draws it back for the next stroke; but 
while pulling it through the water, presents the broad blade as a 
means of obtaining a good purchase for his pull; just so is it with 
the feet and legs of the swimming birds; at every stroke, the broad 
flat leg, and the expanded webbed foot give a hearty thrust ; but 
in withdrawing them again, preparatory to repeating the thrust, 
the thin edge of the leg is presented to the water, and the toes are 
drawn together, and closely folded up, presenting as little resistance 
as possible, till they are spread out again for the next stroke. 
With these admirable provisions for moving at will on the waves 
all the swimmers are supplied, but as some families are more expert 
in the water, and less able to leave it for the shore or the air than 
others, there are considerable variations in the exact formations of 
their feet; thus, some have only three toes; others have four, but 
frequently three only are webbed, the fourth remaining free, and 
articulated high up on the tarsus; others again, have a pendant 
lobe or membrane, depending from the hind toe, while some have all 
four toes completely webbed together; according to these different 
formations, so their powers of swimming and diving are increased 
or lessened; but all enjoy those faculties to a considerable extent. 

Such then are the general characters of the feet, as applicable to 
the live orders: though those of certain individual species will in 
some cases be found to vary from this description, it will on the 
whole be found to be typical of the division to which it refers. 
Thus we see the birds of prey armed with feet and claws, which form 
the most powerful weapons for striking down and carrying oft' their 
victims. The perchers provided with so exquisite a piece of 
mechanism, as to enable lliem to seize, balance, and support them- 
selves on a branch with ease. The ground birds furnished Avith 
limbs bo strong, muscles so powerful, and feel so adapted for (lie 
purpose as to make them seek safety in running when beset by 
The waders though unable to swim, raised high out of the 
water in which they .-.eek their food, by the length of their legs, 

298 On the Ornithology of Wilts. 

and enabled by tbeir spreading toes to run lightly over water-plant s 
and the softest mud without danger of sinking in. The swimmers 
supplied with feet and legs, serving them for oars and rudders, 
whereby to impel forwards their bodies on the waves, or to seek 
their food far below the surface of the water. These are all instru- 
ments so exactly and so perfectly adapted to their respective uses, 
that we can conceive nothing more applicable; and they are plain 
and easy marks to us for ascertaining the general habits and class- 
ified position of any bird we observe. Our examination of the 
subject might well stop here, but before concluding this paper, I 
would call attention to a few remarkable instances of structure in 
regard to the feet, as displaj-ed by some particular species. 

The " Osprci/" alone of all the family Falconidae lives entirely 
upon fish, and the nature of its prey being therefore different from 
that of its congeners, it requires and is furnished with feet pecu- 
liarly fitted for seizing and holding securely the slippery denizens 
of the deep: in the first place, in lieu of the long feathers which 
commonly clothe the thighs of the falcon race, short ones are 
substituted, which leave more freedom for action in the water; 
then the outer toe is reversible, and can at pleasure be turned 
backwards, so that, as Yarrell tells us, it is the custom of the bird 
to "seize the prey across the body, placing the inner and outer 
toes at right angles, with the middle and hind toes; and digging 
in the claws, to hold the fish most firmly by four opposite points." 
Moreover, the soles of its feet are remarkably rough, and covered 
with protuberances; while the talons are very much curved, sharp 
and strong, that of the outer toe being the largest, which is contrary 
to the usual custom; and all these peculiarities tend to the holding 
with greater security the slimy victims on which it lives. 

The "Nightjar," which feeds at twilight, presents another very 
peculiar formation of foot; this is small and weak in proportion to 
the size of the bird, but is remarkable for the claw of the middle 
toe, which is particularly long and serrated or pectinated on its 
inner edge, and resembles a comb with seven or eight teeth. Now 
the food of the nightjar consists of moths, but especially of fern- 
chaffers, beetles, and such late flying insects, the legs of which are 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 299 

often terminated with hooked claws; to detach which from the 
wide gaping mouth, and from the bristles with which the upper 
mandible of the beak is fringed, this comb-like claw is probably- 
appended to the foot; I say probably, for much difference of opinion 
has existed with reference to its use. Gilbert White and others 
after him thought they could perceive the bird put out its short leg 
while on the wing, and deliver something into its mouth, and thus 
accounted for its use, that it enabled the bird to hold more securely 
in its foot the insect it had caught; but for such a purpose it 
certainly seems but very ill calculated. 

The "Swift" furnishes another instance of remarkable structure 
of foot. As it passes the livelong day in unceasing and rapid flight, 
it requires no great development of leg and foot; thus the tarsus 
is exceedingly short and thick, so short as to render the bird in- 
capable of rising from a flat surface, and therefore it never alights 
on the ground ; for rest and for incubation it retires to the eaves of 
steeples and towers, to the perpendicular walls of which, and to the 
face of cliffs, its foot is well adapted to cling; thus it consists of 
four toes, all of which are directed forwards, and are armed with 
very hooked claws, and quite divided, and which give it the appear- 
ance of belonging to a quadruped rather than a bird. 

The " Woodpeckers" are also furnished with feet most suitable 
to their climbing habits; each foot is provided with four toes, 
arranged in pairs, two directed forwards and two backwards ; these 
afford an immense support, and as they are very strong and termi- 
nate with hooked claws, it may be conceived what useful instruments 
they must be to birds whose lives are passed in climbing about the 
trunks and branches of trees; indeed very similar in form are they 
to the iii in crampions which the Swiss chamois hunter affixes to 
the soles of his feet, when about to scale the precipices of the Alps, 
and climb among the dangerous chasms of the glacier. 

Again, the "Avocet" is provided with feet of singular construction ; 
this bird is a wader in every sense, deriving its food from the softest 
mud at the estuaries of rivers; to support it on which no ordinary 
Peel would suffice; we see the toes therefore united for a considerable 
pari ul their length by a concave membrane, not wholly webbed, 

300 On the Ornithology of Wilts. 

for the bird is incapable of swimming to any distance; but scmi- 
palmated and connected far more than those of any other species 
in the order; the tarsus, too, is long and slender; the tibia naked 
for two thirds of its entire length; so that it can wade into water 
of considerable depth, in search of food. 

No less singular in the appearance of its legs and feet is the 
"Black-winged Stilt," or " Long-legged P/orer"; either name at once 
points to the remarkable and apparently disproportionate length of 
its legs, on which its body seems raised up above the water, as if 
on stilts; it is almost needless to add that this bird too obtains its 
food by wading in muddy creeks and shallows on the shore. 

The "Coots" and "Phalaropes" which compose the small family 
Mie- footed, claim our attention last; I have before alluded to them 
as the connecting link between the true waders and swimmers, and 
their feet certainly present a peculiarity, partaking of the form, 
which is characteristic of both those orders; thus though the toes 
arc not wholly united by a connecting membrane, yet they are 
furnished laterally with it to such a degree, as almost to answer 
the same purpose; this membrane so extended forms what are 
technically called "rounded lobes," hence their family name; and 
with such curious feet these birds seem as active on land as they 
are in the water, running, walking, even climbing trees, wading, 
swimming, and diving with the greatest ease. 

Thus the feet of birds, though with a certain general similarity 
of structure, differ one from another in a variety of ways. As their 
habits and manner of life vary exceedingly, and as they are consti- 
tuted to occupy no less than three elements, earth, air, and water, 
we see every individual furnished with such means of locomotion 
as best suit its own particular sphere. Had the lordly eagle, 
pouncing on its quarry, but the foot of a partridge wherewith to 
inflict his wound, starvation must be his lot ; or had the pheasant 
to run from danger with the feet of the diver, slight indeed would 
be its chance of escape. The heron, if supported on the legs of a 
hawk, would certainly be drowned in fishing for food. The rook 
would roost but insecurely on the bough of the elm, if it clasped 
its support only with the feet of the plover. But now, suppbed 
with such instruments as their respective pursuits require, all are 

By the Rev, A. C. Smith. 301 

enabled with ease to obey their own peculiar instincts, and fill tbe 
place allotted to tbem in nature. . 

I have now brought to a conclusion my preliminary remarks on 
the general structure and classification of birds, and perhaps I ought 
to apologize to the readers of our Magazine for the length to which 
these papers have run; it was necessary to the explanation of a 
somewhat wide subject that the points above treated of should be 
clearly understood ; but I trust that they have not been uninterest- 
ing, and that while they will render more intelligible the description 
of the different species which occur in our county, (upon which I 
shall now enter) they may have induced some, who have hitherto 
thought little of these matters, to admire the perfection of the works 
of the Creator, and the wondrous means by which His ends are 
reached. I cannot better close this part of my subject, than in the 
words of the poet, who was so accurate and so admiring an observer 
of the various works of God. 

' ' Let no presuming impious railer tax 
Creative Wisdom, as if aught was form'd 
In vain, or not for admirable ends. 
Shall little haughty ignorance pronounce 
His works unwise, of which the smallest part 
Exceeds the narrow vision of her mind ? 
As if upon a full proportioned dome 
Of swelling columns heav'd, the pride of art! 
A critic-fry, whose feeble ray scarce spreads 
An inch around, with blind presumption bold, 
Should dare to tax the structure of the whole. 
And lives the man, whose universal eye 
Has swept at once th' unbounded scheme of tilings ; 
Mark'd their dependance so, and firm accord, 
As with unfaultering accent to conclude 
That this availeth nought ? Has any seen 
The mighty chain of beings, lessening down 
From Iwliiiite Perfection to the brink 
Of dreary nothing, desolate abyss ! 
From which astonished thought, recoiling, turns? 
Till then alone let zealous praise ascend 
And hymns of holy wonder, to that Power 
Whose wisdom shines aa lovely on our minds 
As on our smiling eyes his servant sun." 

Alfkkd Charles Smith. 

Yatesbuiy Ilectory, August, 1866. 

2 K 


€\)t CjjnrrjjfB nf Htmp. 

( Continued from page 256. ) 

Abstract of Latin and English Deeds 1 relating chiefly to 
the Church and Parish of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

1. (1302). Grant of a Messuage with a curtilage from Galfridus 
Agge to Walter, son of Thomas le Glover of Devizes for homage 
and service : paying yearly a pound of cummin on the Feast 
of St. Michael. Wit., Henry le Hert, John le Ronge, Edmund 
le Glover, John Fulchere, Thomas Nichole, John Gile and 
others. Dat. at la Rewe on the Feast of the Annunciation, 30 
Edw. I. (Seal of green wax. " S. Galfridi Agge"). 

2. Grant of a Croft at Renstrete near Southbroom [apud la Renstrete 
juxta Suthbrom] from Matilda, daughter and heir of Walter le 
Glover of Devizes, to Thomas Wichlok and Sibille his wife, for 
the sum of 40 shillings and one Messuage in the New Port. 
Wit., John de Sandone, John Bri. .n, John Bouclerk, Edmund 
le Glover, John Fulcher, William Rope, Richard Agge and 

3. Grant of a House in the Brittox [in la Britasche] from William 
Potage to John le Chousmange and Matilda his wife. Wit., 
John Cray, Mayor ; John Bouclerk, Walter Bochard, William 
Cody, William Burch and others. 

4. Grant of a Messuage with a curtilage from Richard Agge, to 
Walter, son of Thomas le Tanner for homage and service : 
paying yearly, the sum of VZd. by equal portions, at the Feasts 
of St. Michael, the Nativity of our Lord, Easter, and St. John 

i A portion of these Deeds (copies of which have been kindly furnished to the 
writer) are in the custody of the Trustees of the Church and Charity Property; 
the remainder have been presented to the W.A. & N.H. Society. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 303 

the Baptist. Wit., Richard, Bailiff of Cannings ; Galfridus 
Hanielin, Bailiff of (Can* ?) Robert de Ringelburne, William 
Nichol of Nustede, Roger Agge, Roger Gile, Philip de Ringel- 
burne, and many others. (Circular Seal of green wax — " S. 
Ricardi Agge"). 

5. (1306) ? Grant of a Tenement in the Old Port from John le 

Corveser, Burgess of Devizes, to John of Devizes, for the sum 
of 100 shillings. Witnesses, William Codiho, Mayor; William 
Estmonde, John Crey, Walter Bochard, Nicholas Payn, John 
Bouclerk, Peter de Wynclefford, and others. Dat., Devizes, 
Feast of St. Michael, 34 Edw. (I. ?) (Small seal of white wax 
" Vesica" form with Virgin and Child under Canopy. Legend 
"Mater Dei miserere mei"). 

6. (1327). Covenant between John of Devizes, and Edward of 
Pottern, on the one part, and Thomas Recke, Chaplain, on 
the other part, whereby the former [John of Devizes] grants 
to the latter, a Burgage in the Old Port for the term of 100 
years, on payment of 20 marks. Wit., Gilbert de Berewyk, 
Constable, [of the Castle] John Cosham, Mayor ; John Monserel, 
Henry le Hert, Walter Bochard, 1 Hugh Estmund and John 
Bouclerk. Dat., Devizes, 1 Edw. III. 

7. (1328). Grant of a Tenement in the Old Port, from Thomas 
Relke, Chaplain, to Henry le Hert. Wit., Gilbert de Berwik, 
Constable ; John de Cosham, Mayor ; John Mountsorel, Walter 
Bochard, John Aitwynche, Hugh le Tanner, Hugh Estmund, 
and others. Dat., Devizes, Feast of St. Gregory, 2 Edw. III. 

8. (1347). Grant of a Curtilage in the Old Port from Agnes, 
Relict of Peter Wyllyng, to John Agge of Devizes, and Alice 
his wife. Wit., Radulphus Roed, Mayor ; Henry de Stannton, 
John of Malmesbury, John Cosham, Roger le Smyth, William 
le Spycer, Thomas Dandele and others. Dat., Devizes, on the 
morrow after the Purification of the Blessed Mary, 20 Edw. 

1 Walter IJochard and Hugh Estmund represented the Borough of Devizes 
in a Parliament held at Westminster in 1323. 

2 r 2 

304 The Churches of Devizes. 

9. (1382). Grant of 4 acres of arable and 4 acres of meadow Land 
with a Grove adjoining, from John Gylbert of Devizes to the 
Procurators of the Church of St. Mary, in the same town. 
"Wit., William Spyce, Mayor ; John Welford, John Delegh, 
John Reyne, Walter Hound, and others. Dat., Devizes, 
5 Rich. II. 

10. (1388). Grant of a certain Meadow called "Isabel's Mead" 
with a Croft adjoining called "Isabel's Breach," from Thomas 
Snappe of Rowde to Richard Gobett, 1 of Devizes. Wit., 
William Coveyntre, Mayor ; William Spyce, Richard Card- 
maker, Henry Foxhanger, Thomas Fowle, and others. Dat., 
Devizes, 11 Rich. II. 

11. (1398). Grant of a Messuage, with a curtilage in St. Mary's 
Parish from John Coventre (son of William Coventre, sen.,) 
and John Hulket, Procurators and keepers of the Goods of the 
Parish Church of the Blessed Mary of Devizes, to Henry 
Olcombe [dco Thresche(r)] Agnes his wife, and Richard their 
Son. To hold for the term of their lives, paying to the above 
Procurators the sum of 2s. yearly. Wit., John Coventre, 
Mayor; Richard Catyler, John Philippes, Constable of Devizes; 
John Hulket, John Sadeler, Bailiff of Devizes ; John Byl, John 
(Ffintor ?) and others. Dat., Devizes, Monday after the feast 
of St. Michael, 22 Rich. II. (endorsed "old Indenture of the 
lands next to the Bishop's") seal of red wax with initial "t." 

One of the Boundaries is described as a Tenement of Richard Corp, of 
the tenure of the Lord Bishop of Saruni. [de tenura dni Epi. Sar.] 

12. (1411). Grant of a Stall in the New Port, "in the Market 
Place, where the Fish 3 is sold" from Thomas Bocher, Chandler, 
of Devizes, to William Coventre, sen., and John Gylbard, 
"Procurators of the Church of the Blessed Mary in the same 

1 For a description of the purpose to which Richard Gobett applied the Pro- 
perty thus purchased see a former Paper p. 252. 

2 The Town seems to have been somewhat noted for its Fish Market even as 
late as the 17th century. Aubrey, in his "Collections for Wilts" has the 
following: — "Devises — On Thursday a very plentiful market of everything: 
but the best for Jish in the county. They bring fish from Poole hither, Avhieh 
is sent from hence to Oxford, 

By Mr. Edtcard Kite. 305 

town." Wit., Symon Skynnere, Mayor; John Coventre, John 
Paynt, William Hendelove, William Parcknien, and many 
others. Dat., Devizes, 12 Hen. IV. 

13. (1414). Indenture between John Coventre, jun. and William 
Breniysgrove, " Procurators of the Church of the Blessed 
Mary the Virgin," and William Atteforde, and Isabella his 
wife, granting to the latter a Stall situate in the Market Place, 
in the New Port, for the term of their lives, paying to the said 
Procurators the sum of 20d. yearly. Wit., John Coventre, 
sen., Mayor ; William Coventre, sen., John Peynt, John 
Gylbard, William Parchmen and others. Dat., Devizes, 
Feast of St. Edmund, 2 Hen. V. (Seal of red wax, with 
initials " w.o.") 

14. (1416.) Release and Grant of five Cottages and a Curtilage 
in the Old Port, of the gift and feoffeement of John Basier, 
from Walter Dene, Perpetual Vicar of the Cathedral Church 
of Sarum, to John Coventre and William Brengresgrove 
" Procurators of the Church of the Blessed Mary of Devizes." 
Wit., John Coventre, Mayor; William Coventre, sen., William 
Coventre, jun., Simon Skynnere, Richard Lyttlecote, Roger 
Barbour, Robert Smyth, and others. Dat., Devizes, the 
Sabbath next after the Feast of the Annunciation, 3 Hen. 

15. (1420). Indenture between William Coventre of Devizes and 
Roger and Helene Birbur of the same town, granting to the 
latter " schopam, solarium, and selarium," in " la Brutax," 
in the New Port, (the latter under a tenement in the occupation 
of Walter Tayler) for the term of their lives, paying yearly 
the sum of 13*. 4d. Wit., Robert Smyth, Mayor; John 
Coventre, Thomas Coventre, Ricbard Letylcote, Walter Mede, 
and many others. Dat., Devizes, on the Monday after the 
Feast of St. Gregory, 7 Hen. V. 

16. (1436). In a document of this date (partly illegible) the follow- 
ing names occur : — John Covyntre, Mayor of Devizes ; Edward 
Danyel, William Salt, Thomas Reginal, Robert Bulkington, 
Henry Bowye(r), AVilliam Smyth, William Covyntre. 

306 The, Churches of Devizes. 

17. (1446). Grant of a Burgage with a curtilage and garden in 
the Old Port, from Edward Daivyel of Devizes to John Ffielde 
of the same town. Wit., John Spycer, Mayor of Devizes, on 
the morrow after the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel, 
24 Hen. VI. 

18. (1457). Enfeoffeement of a Tenement with its appurtenances, 
in Southbrome near Devizes, of the gift of Thomas Smyth, 1 
from John Reynolds, sen., and William Botteley, to Thomas 
Reynolds and William Nayshe of Devizes. Wit., Henry Pole, 
Mayor ; John Helyar, Thomas Spycer, Thomas Hawkyn, and 
many others. Dat., Devizes, April 1, 37 Hen. VI. 

19. (1461). Indented Deed relating to " Isabel's Mead and Breach" 
by which Thomas Browyn, Chaplain, enfeoffees the same to 
John Reynolds, sen., John Dekyn, William Hendelove, William 
Cotley, John Reynolds, jun., William Ceto, William Eyle, 
Richard Alyn, John Fyld, Stephen Mercer, John Chandeler, 
and William Bakere, reciting that it is always to be held in 
future, as it has been heretofore, to celebrate an Obit for the 
Souls of Richard Grobett and others, and to distribute a Dole 
to the Poor. Dat., January 16, 39 Hen. VI. 

20. (1467). Release of a Burgage, curtilage, and garden in the 
Old Port, from John Vyld to Thomas Davy and Robert 
Helyar, Procurators of the Altar of St. Katharine, in the 
Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Devizes, " to help a 
Priest to say Mass for the Souls of Edward Danyel and Joan 
his wife, John Vyld, his parents, and all the faithful departed." 
Wit., William Botley, William Hendelove, John Dekyn, 
John Reynolds, William Nash, William Herretyke, William 
Eyle, and others. Dat., Devizes, on the morrow of the Feast 
of St. Nicholas, 6 Edw. IV. 

21. (1475). Indented Charter of Roger Tocotes, Kit., 2 Nicholas 
Halle, Esq., Sir John Huet, Chaplain; Thomas Noreys, William 

1 See a former Paper, p. 25'2. 
2 Sir Eoger Tocotes, Knt., was Sheriff of Wilts, 4 and 11 Edw. IV., and 1 
Henry VII. At the latter date he appears to have held the manors and lord- 
ships of Marlborough, Devizes, and Rowde, together with the Constableship of 
Devizes Castle. See Waylen's " History of Marlborough," p. 60. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 307 

Hendelove, John Raynold, sen., and John Dekyn, feoffees of 
the lands and tenements of John Coventre, jun., granting to 
Thomas Bayly, Joan his wife, and their heirs, six tenements 
in the Old Port, and four acres of arable land in the Park 
Lands. Wit., Nicholas Mere, Mayor ; John Sterlyng, William 
Letcumbe, and many others. Dat., Devizes, Feast of St. 
Jerome, 13 Edw. IV. 

22. (1493). Deed of Attorney, Nicholas Mere and John Sterlyng 
appoint Walter Sessylle to put John Burley, 1 Gent., William 
Raynolde, Richard Cuffe, John Dekyn, Robert Helyar, William 
Botteley, William Eyle, Henry Raynolde, Richard Bayly, 
Radulphus Helyar, and Nicholas Mere, jun., in possession of 
" Isabel's Mead and Breach." Dat., Devizes, August 18, 8 
Hen. VII. 

23. (1517). Grant of a Burgage with a certain parcel of waste 

land annexed, and a cottage in the New Port, from the Mayor 

and Burgesses of Devizes to Henry Shepard and Agnes his 

wife, for the term of 50 years from the Feast of St. Michael, 

8 Hen. VIII., paying j r early the sum of 33s. 4f/. Wit., 

William Russell, Mayor; John Cley, John Raynold, and others. 

Dat., Devizes, Sep. 24, 8 Hen. VIII. 

One of the boundaries is described as the Chapel of St. Thomas, [capel- 
lam sti Thome]. 

24. (1567). Indenture (English) between Thomas Bayly and 
Richard Joanes, Churchwardens of St. Mary, Devizes, and 
John Adlyngeton of the same town, granting to the latter a 
Tenement and a " littill garden plote therunto adjoynynge" 
in the Old Port, for the term of fourscore years, paying yearly 
the sum of 5s. Wit., John Burd, Mayor ; John Blanford, 
Thomas Hull, Edward Heyns, and others. Dated, 12 Feb., 9 
Eliz. (Seal in red wax of Church of St. Mary in a Vesica, 
legend "Sic. Comune Ecxsie Beate Marie Dvi(sar)." 

25. (1588). Indenture (English) between William Brunker [of 
Stoke,] John Drew [of Southbrome,] and others, Feoffees of 

' John Hurley held 1 Hen. VII. [1485] the portcrship of Devizes Castle and 
the office of keeper of the Park. See " History of Marlborough," p. 60. A 
Pedigree of Hurley will be found in the Wilts Visitation of 1623. 

308 The Churches of Deiizes. 

St. Mary's Church Lands, and John Fuller of Devizes, fisher- 
man, granting to the latter a Tenement and garden in the Old 
Port, for a term of 60 years, paying annually the sum of 6s. Sd. 
Wit., Thomas Colls, Thomas Fidfall, Thomas Lewod, Thomas 
Hull, Robert Wait, Thomas Bayly, William Brouncker, John 
Drewe, John Cannon, John Blanford, Richard Adlyngton, 
and Thomas Upgrover. Dated, April 17, 30 Eliz. 

26. (1589). Indenture (English) between the above Feoffees and 
John Havard of Devizes, Mason, granting to the latter a 
Tenement and garden in the Old Port, for a like term of 
threescore years, paying yearly the sum of 4s. Dated 12 
March, 31 Eliz., and witnessed as above. 

27. (1591). Indenture (English) between the above Feoffees and 
John Batte of Devizes, Clothman, granting to the latter a 
Tenement and garden as above. Dated, 1 March, 33 Eliz. 

28. (1617). Release (English) of certain Lands, Tenements, and 
Hereditaments in Devizes and Marlborough, " aunciently re- 
puted to belonge to and for the mayntenaunce and reparacons 
of the Parishe Churche of St. John the Baptist, 1 in the Devizes, 
and to and for the reliefe of the poore people of the same Parish ;" 
from Walter Stephens, alias Morgan of Devizes, Cardmaker, 
the last surviving Feoffee, to the Mayor and Burgesses of the 
same Town. Dated, Feb. 20, 15 Jas. 1. 

Extracts from Churchwarden's Accounts. — St. Mary's. 
A.D. 1499, 15 Hen. VII. 

Item pd. to John Andrewes for tyning 2 the lights 

for a year and a half iiij s - 

It. for two white cloths bought of William Botley 

to lay atop the High Altar v s - 

pd. for Thomas Cardmaker's light iiij d - 

1 This is the only ancient Deed known to be in existence relating to St. John's 
Church Lands. It clearly shows that they were formerly under the management 
of special Feoffees. 

2 " Tyning" or " tining" — lighting — a word still used in Somersetshire. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 309 

It. for the Paschall taper xxjd. 

for ij pounds waxe to the light in. . . .Lady 

Porch xxjd* 

This seems to refer to a light burnt before the image of the Virgin Mary, 
which no doubt occupied the now vacant niche over the inner doorway of the 
Porch. Sums of money, or land, were often bequeathed to Churches for the 
maintenance of such lights. 

1500? 16 Hen. VII. 

Itm. for mending the Organs viij d ' 

to iiij men for keeping of the Sepulchre 

ij nights xiiij d - 

forthe making of the Sepulchre and taking down ij d - 

The Easter or Holy Sepulchre, to which these items refer, was an erection, 
either of wood or stone, set up for the performance of certain ceremonies 
commemorative of the entombment and resurrection of our Lord. Its position 
was usually on the north side of the chancel, but in some instances it appears 
to have been on the south; this arrangement however is confined chiefly to the 
counties of Kent, Sussex, and Hampshire. 

The Elements consecrated on Maunday Thursday, were after Mass removed 
from the Tabernacle over the High Altar, carried in solemn procession to the 
Sepulchre, and deposited in it. 1 Here they remained until High Mass on Easter 
Day, when they were re-conveyed to the Altar with the same ceremony. 
During the intervening nights tapers of wax were kept burning in the church, 
and persons employed for the purpose of watching the Sepulchre, a practice 
founded upon an ancient tradition that the second coming. of Christ would be on 
Easter Eve. 

The Easter Sepulchre was in some instances a permanent structure of stone 
ornamented with elaborate carving as in the Churches of Heckington and Navenby, 
Lincolnshire ; Hawton, Nottinghamshire ; and Northwold, Norfolk. These are 
some of the finest examples remaining in England. Several sleeping soldiers 
(intended for the Roman Guard) are sculptured in the lower compartments, 
whilst the upper contain representations of the Resurrection. 

Much more frequently, however, it was, as in the present instance, a temporary 
erection of wood, put up and taken down as occasion served, either beneath a 
recess formed by an arch of about three feet in height, constructed purposely 
for its reception in the wall of the church, as at Great Cheverel, and Chitterne 
St. Mary, Wilts ; or on a High Tomb which in some cases served the double 
purpose of a memorial to its erector, and the Easter Sepulchre. This latter 
arrangement was common in the Perpendicular and Tudor styles. 

" I will that there be made a pluyne totnbe of marble of a competent height, to 
the intent that yt may ber the Blessed Body of our Lord, and the Sepultur at 
the time of Kstre, to stand upon the same, with niyne arms, and a convenient 
scriptur to be sett about the same tombe." Will of T/ios. Windsor, Esq., of 
Stanwell, Middlesex, 117'.*. See "Foabroke's Ency. of Autiq.," Vol. II. p, 703. 

1 In addition t«> tin- iloit, u cruciit\ appeari i" hove been MmetbnM depoaitcd la the Bepulohre, 

2 s 

310 The Churches of Devizes. 

Examples of tins kind occur at Exton, Rutland; Clevedon, Somerset; Woodleigh 
and Southpool, Devon ; and Hamsey, Sussex. 

The custom of making and watching the Sepulchre, was discontinued at the 
Reformation, but revived again during the reign of Queen Mary. 

It. pd. for making of the tabullment of the High 
Altar and making up of the canopy on Cor- 
pus Christi day v j d ' 

The "tabula" or "retablement" was a picture painted on panel, and placed 
above the altar, after the manner of a modem altar piece. 

It. for ij pounds waxe to the Paschal taper, and to 

the Font Taper xxj d - 

The Paschal, or Sepulchre taper, as its name implies, was a large squared taper 
of wax used to give light dining the watching in the Chinch at Easter. 

A small annual sum, arising from the rent of two tenements, was bequeathed 
to the chinch, in the 15th century, for the maintenance of the Sepulchre taper, 
and the Font Taper. (See page 252). 

It. for a board to the Sepulchre ij d - 

1525, 17 Hex. VIII. 
Itm. paid for mending of the Parish Priest his 

Surplice collar ij d - 

pd. for mending of a Key for the Parish Priest's 

house ij* - 

pd. for mending of the green Cope and of the 
red Cope iij d - 

The Cope [cappa] was originally a mere protection from the weather ; a cloak 
with a real hood behind. Gradually, however, it came into use at Vespers, for 
assistant Priests at Mass, at Consecrations, &c. Still its ancient use was not 
forgotten. Hence the distinction of Cappa choralis, and Cappa proeessionalis, 
the former being of course much richer than the other. 

The ornament of a Cope was thrown into the hood, and the orphray or border 
down the sides ; the latter is often most beautifully worked. Sometimes it has 
small effigies of Saints. It was fastened at the neck with a morse or clasp, often 
exquisitely engraved. " Handbook of English Ecclesiology," Musters, 1847, p. 235. 

At Durham ' ' The Prior had an exceedingly rich cope of cloth of gold, which 
was so massy that he could not go upright with it, unless his gentlemen, who at 
other times bore up his train, supported it on every side whenever he had it on." 
"Antiquities of Durham Abbey." 

There were in Salisbury Cathedral 28 Hen. VIII. [1536], no less than forty- 
three Copes of cloth of gold, satin, and velvet, in various colours, and ornamented 
with embroidery, gold, silver, and pearls. "Dodsworth's Salisbury Cathedral." 
Appendix No. I. The large chest of a semicircular form in which they were 
kept, is still preserved there, but its contents have long since perished. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 311 

The use of the Cope is still ordered by the Anglican Church. 

In allusion to the colours of Church Vestments and Hangings, it may he 
mentioned that green was commonly used throughout the year; red or scarlet, 
chiefly on the festivals of Apostles, Evangelists, and Martyrs ; white, on 
those of Confessors, and Virgins, who were not Martyrs ; and black, or violet, 
on days of abstinence. See "Durandus," III. 18. 

Md. That the xxv day of November, the xvijth year of the 
reign of King Henry viijth, William Annetts of Edyngton is 
become in debt of xxijs. viijd. due to the lamp before the High 
Altar, and the said William Annetts promises to pay the said 
xxijs. viijd. under this manner — that is to say — At the An- 
nunciation of our Lady Day next coming vjs. viijd — at Saint 
Michael the Archangel ixs. iiijd — and at the Annunciation 
then next ensuing vjs. viijd. these being witnesses, Edward 
Hayne, &c. 

This debt was, in all probability, a rent due from some property bequeathed 
to the Church for the maintenance of the Lamp in question. The report of a 
Commission (before referred to at p. 252), dated, 16th Eliz., [1574] furnishes 
the following item which may have reference to the same property, although no 
mention is made of the purpose for which it was bequeathed : — " 5 Item. "We 
presente twelve Acres of Earable Land and sixe acres of severall Land by esti- 
mation, more or less, belonging to one Tenement in Hedyngton now in the use 
and occupation of Thomas Meyse, sometime parcel of the House of Farlye, and 
renteth by the year xij s " 

1529. 21 Hen. VIII. 

Itm. pd. for buckram [bocaram] for the canopie 

over the Sacrament vj d. 

pd. for mendyng of the Organ [Orgheyn] bel- 
lows jd. 

for a book of the Visitation of Our Ladye. . . . viijd. 

This was perhaps a Processional to be used on the day of the Visitation of the 
Virgin Mary. 

It. pd. for taking down of the Church house .... iijd. 

The Church House was the place at which parish meetings were held and 
Church Ales provided for the purpose of raising funds for the repair's of the 
Church, maintenance of the poor, &c. See "Wilts Magazine," Vol. ii., p. 191. 

15.'5:3. 25 Hen. VIII. 

Itm. paid to the Clark xijd. 

pd. for the Organs xiiijs. 

2 s 2 

312 The Churches of Devizes. 

The name "Organ" appears to have originally signified any instrument of 
music, but at an early period was confined to the sense which it now hears. 
The first organs were, however, very different from those now in use, and very 
much smaller. In old parish accounts we find frequent mention of a pair of 
organs ; and wherever such arc found there are also frequent charges for repair- 
ing the bellows. The large modern instruments were not put up in their present 
conspicuous situation, in the place of the ancient roodloft, until after the Refor- 
mation. On the continent they were also introduced in the course of the 17th 
and 18th centuries ; but are usually placed at the west end of the church. In 
tliis country previously to the Reformation, the organ was frequently placed on 
the north side of the choir, or in the north transept. 

"Oxford Glossary of Architecture." 

The remains of a pair of ancient organs are, or were until lately, preserved in 
the church of Wingfield, Suffolk ; the largest pipe is about 5 feet long, of wood. 

The foregoing items are intended to illustrate, in some measure, 
the appearance of the Church, together with its furniture, vest- 
ments, &c, prior to the Reformation ; the following, which occur 
during the reign of Edward the Sixth, will be found of a totally 

different character: — 

1550. 4 Edw. VI. 

It. pd. for their labor at the plucking down of the 

Alters, and for meat and drink xiiijd. 

pd. for their labor at the taking down of the 

side Altar xijd. 

1552. 6 Edw. VI. 

Itm. pd. for our charges at Marlbro' when the 

Inventorie was called and the custodie 

of the goods committed to John Blanford 

and James Travers for v of us and horse 

hire, and of Robert K. . . .s horse. . . . vjs- ijd- 

It. pd. for other charges when the commissarie 

was here ij s - iij<i- 

It. pd. for the new Books of Common Prayer. . iiijs. viijd. 

On the accession of Queen Mar}'' the entries again resume an 

ante-reformation character, and indicate a temporary revival of 

the ancient furniture, ornaments, and vestments of the church 

during that reign. 

1553. 1 Maey. 

It. pd. to Bertlett for setting up the great [High] 

Altar viijd. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 313 

pd. to James Benett the Mason for his work 
about the Altar vjd. 

pd. when Mr. Harding the Commissarie was 
here ijs. iiijd. 

pd. for making the Clerk's surples vjd. 

pd. to the Ryngers at the proclamation of 
Queen Mary vjs. iiijd. 

pd. for the making of the best surples ijs. 

for an ell of Holland ijs. 

The Surplice was a linen robe frequently plaited, with very large sleeves ; 
and similar to the modern dress of the same name, but not open in front. Rev. 
F. A. Paley's " Manual of Gothic Architecture," p. 275. 

pd. for washynge of the churche geare iiijd. 

1554. 2 Maet. 

Itm. pd. for holye oyle iiijd.- 

It. to Wm. Jefferies for ij tapers of a pound and 

a half and more xviijd. 

for the new making of the same tapers against 

Easter, and for wagys xjd. 

It. there is old to be accounted for the charges at 
the suppressing of Chauntries for the charges 
of v of the Parish, and their horse meat for 
ij days xviijs. iiijd. 

The Chantries founded in this Church have been already mentioned at page 
250. They were, as is well known, granted to the King by Parliament, 36 
Hen. VIII, [1545], and an act was passed for finally dissolving them, 1 Edw. 
VI., [1547]. Commissioners were accordingly appointed to enquire into the 
amount of their revenues, and it was most probably at an enquiry of this kind, 
held in some neighbouring place, that these five individuals of St. Mary's Parish 
attended to give their evidence, and incurred the rather serious charge of 18s. 
4<Z. here recorded. 

It. there is to be accounted for of old ix days 
work for George Tylar and his man atvijd. 
the day, for putting and making up of the 
organ loft vs. iijd. 

1555. 3 Mabt. 

Itm. pd. for defacing the Scriptures on the walls. . ijs- iiijd. 


311 The Churches of Devizes. 

pd. for making of the altar and for defacing 

the x commandments, and putting 

in the Roodloft vjs 

pd. for making Mary and Joseph [John ?] . . \b. ihjd. 

1556. 4 Maht. 

Itm. pd. to Syr Gylham prieste iiij s - iiijd- 

This Sir William was, no doubt, the Parish Priest. 

pd. for a holye water pot ij s - ihjd. 

The Holy water pot was a basin carried in processions. 

"There was borne before the cross every principal day, a holy water font of 
silver, very finely engraved, and parcel gilt." "Ancient Rites of Durham." 

It. pd. master Heynes towards his charge to 

London to answer to the privy seale XX s - 

The name of Heynes, or Haynes, variously spelt, is of frequent occurrence in 
Devizes at about this date. The names of Agnes, William, and Richard Haynes, 
occur in 1404. Edward Heyns 37 Hen. VIII., [1546] was in possession of a 
tenement and garden in the Old Port, belonging to a Chantry founded in St. 
Mary's Church by John Coventre. This he held for the term of 80 years, 
commencing 22 Edw. IV., [1483], at an annual rent of 13s. 4rf. The same name 
occurs 6 Edw. 6., [1552] as one of the stewards, or proctors, of and over the 
lands and tenements which formed the endowment of the above Chantry. 

In the of Elizth., [1563] Edward Heynes procures from the Mayor &c, 
a lease of "Tolsey House, or shop, under the gildhall," also a tenement abutting 
on a tenement of John Erncly, Esq. The same name also occurs as one of the 
Representatives of the Borough in 1554-58, and 63, and Mayor c. 1570. A 
George Heynes was also Mayor at about the same date. 

The individual alluded to in this entry was evidently an attorney, and from 
a subsequent item it may perhaps be inferred that the parishioners were at this 
time engaged in a law suit respecting some of the Church property. 

1557. 5 Maet. 

Itm. pyd for makyn of ij alters iij s - viij d - 

payed for stones for the same allters ij s - viij d - 

for a drynkyne at the church reknyng iiij s - viij d - 

payed for a drynkyne when we dyd peruse 

the church Wrytynge at Mr. Haynes yj d - 

Itm. for tymber to make the pyctors that standeth 

by the Rode named Mary and John ij 8 - 

"The "Rood," or "Rode," was an image of Christ upon the Cross, made 
generally of wood, and placed in a loft made for that purpose just over the 

passage out of the church into the chancel This Rood was not compleat 

without the images of the Virgin Mary and Saint John, one of them standing 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 31") 

on the one side, and the other on the other side of the image of Christ ; in 
allusion to the passage in St. John's Gospel, Xixc. 26v." "Staveley'sHist."p. 199. 

In 1548, [2 Edw. VI.], these images were ordered to betaken down through- 
out England; in 1553, [1 Mary], they were set up again, and in 1560, [3 Eliz.], 
they were again removed and sold. 

In the Visitation Articles of Cardinal Pole, 1557, [5 Mary], he demands : — 
" X. Item. "Whether they have a Rood in their church of a decent stature 
with Mary and John, and an image of the patron of the same Church f" 

Itm. for oyle for the bells and the larnpe jd. 

payed for a bell rope ijs. viijd. 

for mendyng of a crewet jd. 

for mendyng of ij Albes ijd. 

The Albe [alba] was a linen garment, with tight sleeves, reaching to the 
heels. It was fastened round the waist with a girdle, and always ornamented 
with apparells at the wrists and feet. It has many significations, but is gene- 
rally taken as a symbol of purity. It is a vestment of great antiquity, and the 
origin of the surplice and rochet. "Rev. F. A. Paley's Manual of Gothic 
Architecture," p. 273. 

for wyer about the clock jd. 

for frannkinscens jd. 

for mendyng of a surples jd. 

for the sexton's wagys xxd. 

Itm. to Syr Gyllum for his Wadgys vjs. viijd. 

for waxe for the pascall and the fonnte taper . iiijs. 

for the Sextone watching at the Sepulchre. . . iiijd. 
Itm. for mendyng of the best cope and the grene 

banner vjd. 

for navies for the frame of the bells ijd. 

for a staple to hold the crosse in the chanselle . ijd. 

for a rope for the sannce bell xijd. 

The Sanctu, Saints, or Sannce Bell was used to give notice of the commence- 
ment of the more solemn parts of the Mass ; especially the Tersanctus, and the 
Elevation of the Host. It was usually placed on the gable at the east end of 
the nave, under a small turret built expressly for it ; sometimes, however, it 
occurs in a different situation. These turrets, or cots, are commonly found, as 
at Beend, Kington St. Michael, See., but it is rare to find the bell itself in its 
original position. An instance, however, occurs at Keevil 1 where it is still to 
be wen under a turret on the eastern gable of the nave. 

In the pariah aooonnta of Steeple Ashton, Wilts, is the following : — "1609. 
[tern, in y lower Ire greater Bella and a little sanoe Bel." 

i Tin- Conn "i tiii< bell i •omewhal maniac; it li 15 inchea in diameter, and without Uuoriptbm. 

316 The Churches of Devises. 

The entries which follow will be found to have reference to a 
second and more effectual removal, by sale, of the whole contents 
of the Church in the early part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

1561. 4 Elizabeth. 

Itm. for taking down of the Roodloft vjs. 

The Roodloft was a gallery erected at the east end of the nave, over the 
Chancel Arch, for the reception of the Great Rood, and the images of SS. Mary 
and John before described. Here the Epistle and Gospel were read by the Sub- 
deacon, and Deacon, the procession being conducted with no small pomp. In 
it lights were kept burning, especially at Festivals, when the whole loft blazed 
with light, and was decorated with green boughs and flowers. 

Roodlofts were almost universally demolished when an order was published 
in 1548 for the destruction of Roods; the one in question, however, seems to 
have escaped until 1561 (the date of this entiy). On clearing an accumulation 
of whitewash and ochre from the walls in 1854, traces of the Rood-beam were 
discovered ; the floor of it appears to have been almost on a level with the point 
of the Chancel Arch. 

Among the few examples of Roodlofts still remaining in this county may be 
mentioned Mere, Hullavington, Edyngton, Berwick Basset, and Compton Basset; 
the latter is of stone. A portion of one is also preserved at Avebury, being 
affixed to the wall above the Chancel Arch. 

Itm. laid out at the Commissioners coming down. . vjs. vjd. 
for whiteliming and mending the church and 
chancel xs. ijd. 

1562. 5 Elizabeth. 

It. reed, for xxxx pound of the organ pypes and 

the copper at vjd. the pound xxs. 

for xxv pound of the candlesticks and the . . . 

brasse viijs. 

reed, of the bellows of the organist ijs- 

pd. for the Clark's surplice " viijd. 

1563. 6 Elizabeth. 

Itm. pd. at Saruni when the Lord Bishop did seale 

the Indentures for the Priest's wages vjs. 

pd. for the charges to Sarum to confer with 
my Lord Bishop about the Priest's wages. . . viij s - iiijd. 

Itm. paid to the Curate xvijs. 

These entries apparently record a difference which had arisen between the 
Rector and his Parish Priest, touching the salary, or stipend of the latter, and 
which was referred to the Bishop for the purpose of adjustment. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 317 

1564. 7 Elizabeth. 

Itm. paid for the second tome 1 of the Homilies . . iij s - iiij d ' 

paid to Sir Thomas Carwarden at Xmas at 

his coming xxxj s - iiijd. 

It. paid to Sir Walter Hewes xxxij". iiijd. 

paid to Carwarden for his service at the death 

of Sir Philip before Mr. Hewes came X s - 

It. paid of Sir Philip's wages vj s - iiij d - 

paid to Carwarden xxv s iiij d - 

Sir Thomas Carwarden, Sir Walter Hewes, and Sir Philip, were evidently 

1568. 11 Elizabeth. 

It. pd. for iij hundred nayles for the loft xviijd. 

pd. for great nayles for the stops of the loft 

■windows iiij d - 

for taking down the chest out of the tower . . iiijd. 

1569. 12 Elizabeth. 

Itm. paid to Mr. Powell for Smoke Farthing .... xjd. 

" Smoke Farthing," sometimes called " Smoke money," " Whitsun Farthings," 
or "Pentecostals," a composition in money for offerings in Whitsun week, by 
every man who occupied a house with a chimney, to the Cathedral of the 
Diocese in which he lived. "Smoke Pennies" are still levied by that name, 
upon the inhabitants of the New Forest, but are understood by them to be an 
acknowledgement for certain rights — as cutting fuel, &c. See " Notes and 
Queries," Vol. 2., Index. 

pd. for a board and the dressing of the same 
for the degrees of Marriage ij d - 

The three following items will show the unimportant cost in the 
16th century, of a lease for the Short Street, — a property which 
belonged to the Church : — 

Itm. pd. for a skin of Parchment for making the 

writing for the Short Street vj d - 

for the charge for wax for the ensealing of the 

lease at Short Street vj d - 

for making the said Lease xx d - 

It. reed, of John Griffin, Cardmaker xij (1 - 

i Tome — translation of the Latin temua — a volume. 

2 i 

318 The Churches of Derizes. 

for the studs off the Coats xiij s - iiij d - 

It. received of Robert Jackson for the brandering 

(embroidery?) about our Ladies coats ij s - iiij d - 

1576. 19 Elizabeth. 

Itm. payed for the booke of Articles xiiij d - 

to the painters [poullars] for writing the x 

commandments on the church wall xv s - 

The Commandments are ordered by the Canon to he placed at the east end of 
the church, which is no doubt intended to signify the east end of the nave ; in 
this position ancient examples generally occur, either above the chancel-arch, or 
on the rood-beam. In some instances (as in the present) they appear to have 
been painted on the church wall; in others, they were printed on paper and 
simply suspended in a frame — according to the orders of Archbishop Grindall. 

The following memorandum, written at this date, will show the 
amount of Chief Rent, &c, charged on the Church property: — 

We do alwaiespayeyerelieto the Chamberlaines 
the cheaf Rent for the said St. Mary Church 

Land, viz., — in the Towne viij s j^* 

And to the Maior for the Shambles yj d - 

And the ChefeRent thereof to the Chamberlaines iiij d 

And also we doe pay to the Steward of the 
Castle for the land that we do holde without 
the Towne ix s - x d - 

1594. 37 Elizabeth. 
Itm. pd. to Sir Thomas [Carwarden ?] our Minister 

for making the Register Book x d - 

1599. 42 Elizabeth. 
It. pd. for a Silver Plate for the Communion Table, 
being thereunto compelled, to Argold Smyth 

of Sarum the sum of xviij s - 

the plate weighing xviij ounces, and for the 
making \s. 
for fetching the same for myself and my horse iij s - 

1600. 43 Elizabeth. 

Item pd. for white leather for the baldrick vjd. 

for the sexton's wages a quarter ijs. viijd. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 319 

Item pd. for white leather for the badrick ijs. 

for tanned leather for do. and make of the 
same ijs. 

1602. 45 Elizabeth. 
It. paid for books appointed to be bought by my 

Lord of Canterbury's appointment vjs. 

1606. 4 James I. 

It. to Sir Thomas for writing our Register xij^* 

In a note of " Suche moneyes as be payable out of the Churche 
Stock yearely" about 1615 there follows : — 

Imprimis, for Castle Rent payable yearely to Mr. 

Kent xvs. iijd. 

Item Cheefe Rent payable yearely to the Chamber- 

laynes ixs. jd. 

Item for Isabell's Breache and Meade payable 

yearly at Michaelmas iiijs. viijd. 

Item for an acquittance for a discharge yjd. 

Item for the dole called Gobbett's dole payable at 

the feast of All Saints xxs. 

Item for Painters' and Newman's dole given on Grood 

Friday xs. 

Item for a Rent payable at Michaelmas to Canning's 

Court iijd. 

Item for Penticost money js. 

1616. 14 James I. 
Itm. to Saml- Clark for a new Bible of the new 

translation ijli. yjs. 

1618. 16 James I. 

It. for bread and beer for the people going in per- 
ambulation xij s - xd. 

to vij Ringers at the King's Majesty's passing 
thro' the Town vij». 

1619. 17 James I. 

Paid to John Bennett, Cutler, for a branch to 

carry the hour-glass in the church ijs. v jJ. 

2 t 2 

320 The Churches of Devizes. 

The " Hour-glass" appears to have been generally introduced, as in the present 
instance, in Puritanic times. From the good work, however, found in some 
of the stands which remain, it seems that they were occasionally employed (for 
whatever purpose) before the Reformation. Their usual position was on the 
left hand of the preacher, close to the pulpit. A curious and perfect specimen 
still remains in Compton Basset Church. The stand is of iron, and is affixed to 
a rod of the same metal, which projects horizontally from the wall near the 
pidpit. [This rod is about eighteen inches in length, and evidently corresponds 
with the " branch" here alluded to]. The stand is made to revolve, and is kept 
in an upright position by means of a spring attached to the lower side of the 
rod. In it is the hour-glass itself protected from injur y by a frame of wood. 

Their use was to regulate the extempore discotirscs of the 17th century, which 
might otherwise have been endless. Though a Puritanic innovation it appears 
to have long'kept its place : Gay, in one of his pastorals, writes 

"lie said that Heaven would take her soul, no doubt, 
And spoke the hour-glass in her praise quite out." 

And it is represented by the side of the pulpit, in one of Hogarth's paintings. 

It. reed, of those that do sit in the seats that are 

new built and new planked ijh. viijs. 

(These new seats had been shortly before erected at a cost of 

1624. 22 Jajies I. 
Itm. pd. for Ringing the xxxj July when the King 

came thro' the Town iiijs. 

to Ambrose Zealy for mending of the Ringing 

loft and many seats in the Church v s - 

for a horse hire to see the pinacles of the 

Church viijd. 

for working the pinacles in part of payment. . ijn. ijs. 
The following Inventory taken in 1634, [10 Charles I.], will 
serve to show the value of the contents of the church at that date : — 

"An Inventory of the Ornaments, Goods, and Implements in the Parish 
Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Devizes, at the feast of Easter, 1634, deli- 
vered by the old Churchwardens John Erwood and Henry Maye into the hands 
of the succeeding ones, John Batt and James Ffilkes. 

viz : — 

One Comunion Table w th Three Carpetts for the same, A silver Comunion Cup 
of Silver w th a silver plate to the same, A new Pulpit Cushion and Two other 
Velvet Cushions, A Linnen table Cloth for the Comunion Table, a new fringed 
linnen Napkin, a Surplis, and a bagge to carry the plate. Sixe Churchbookes, 
viz : — One Church Bible, the Paraphrase of Erasmus on the New Testam 1 , Two 
Comunion prayerbookes, a parchment llegist 1 " and a paper booke for the entring 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 321 

of the Church Wardens Accompts, one pewter fflagon serving for the Comunion 
ffyve Church Chests, One Boxe w* Two lockes and keyes to the same One 
Church Coffer w* Two lockes to the same, One Bench fforme for the Comunion 
Table, One brasse Poolly, Two long ladders, Eight comon fformes, Sixe Matts 
or Butts, One Standing Deske, Two Bieres, ffoure old Seate doores, one Rouler 
one Tumbrell, one Brasse Candlesticke, one houre glasse, ffoure bookes of 
Thanksgiving, An old Seate wth a Bench in him, One peece of an old Seate A 
long Rayle and a Post, A Broad Stone by the Ffont, Tenne peeces of old Bell 
ropes, One peece of Planke and Two peeces of Tymber lying in the Tower An 
old Locke and a new key for a chest." 

1635. 11 Chables I. 
It. given to the Eingers for ringing at Mr. Griffin 

Nicholas his funeral ij s . 

Griffin Nicholas of Roundway, gent., was buried in St. James's Church Bv 
his Will dated Oct. 18, 1634, he bequeathed the sum of £50, the interest to be 
distributed in clothing to the Poor of the Parishes of SS. John and Mary. 

Itm. we have sent to London for to buy the 

Bookes of Martyrs iijli. xS . 

The words " we have sent to London for to buy" have been carefully erased 
and " pay d for" substituted in the original. 

1636. 12 Charles I. 
Itm. paid for the Chaynes wherewth the Bookes 

of Martyrs are tyed j s . vii j d . 

pd. to Ambrose Zealy for making the Deskes 

for the Bookes of Martyrs and for certayne 

other work about the Church iiijs. 

pd. to John Hannam for binding of the booke 

called the Paraphrase of Erasmus vjs. 

pd. for a Chayne and Staple to tye the booke 

of the Paraphrase of Erasmus viijd. 

" Foxe's Book of Martyrs," in three volumes, and the " Paraphrase of 
Erasmus on the Gospels," were provided by the Parish authorities, and laid on 
Desks, in the Church, for the convenience of those parishioners who were 
inclined to adjourn thither and consult them. Each volume was fastened to 
the desk by means of a strong iron chain and staple, in order to prevent the 
potability of its being taken away. 

The " Books of Martyrs" were, in some instances, presented to Churches by 
private individual*. A oopv which remained, some years since, on a tabic in 
the Dadghhouring Church of Haddington was inscribed "1628. Book of 
Martyrs, given by John and Joan Hutchins." See " Britton's Wiltshire" p 435 

322 The Churches of Devizes. 

The following extract from the Injunctions of King Edward VI. 1547, will be 
found to contain the authority for the latter work — The Paraphrase of 
Erasmus : — 

Also — "That they shall provide within three months next after this Visitation, 
oae Book of the whole Bible, of the largest volume in English. And within 
one twelve months next after the said Visitation, the Paraphrase of Erasmus 
also in English upon the Gospels, and the same set up in some convenient place 
within the said Church that they have Cure of, whereas their Parishioners niay 
most commodionsly resort unto the same, and read the same." "Sparrow's 
Collection" 4to. 1684. p. 4. 

1637. 13 Charles I. 

Itm. reed, of Walter Eedes for iron bars well came 

from the west window ix s - ix<l- 

It. reed, more for iron bars of the Churchwarden 

of Stert vjs. ixd- 

It. pd. for charges for setting up the pinacle next 

the Tower on the south side of the church. . vjs. ijd. 
pd. for viij hundred of brick to amend the 
west window at ijs. iiijd. the hundred xviijs. viijd. 

It. pd. Ambrose Zealy for the tymber and work- 
men about making the rails for the Commu- 
nion Table j 11 - xvs. 

The Visitation articles of this date require that the Communion Table should 
be " enclosed and ranged about with a rail of joiners' and turners' work, close 
enough to keep out dogs from going in."i 

Before the Reformation, when the Rood-screen was in existence, altar-rails 
were not needed ; a long linen cloth (as is the case at present abroad) was 
simply held up before the communicants. 

1638. 14 Charles I. 

Itm. payd to Hugh Cooke for tymber and sawing 

to build the Roofe of the Porch xiiijs. iiijd. 

payd Richard West for mending of two pin- 
nacles on the north side of the Church .... xs. 

payd Edward Mallard for making of cramps 
for the pinnacles ijs- ijd. 

1 That the canine race had hecome excessively numerous, and were in the constant habit of in- 
truding themselves into the church, on occasions of public worship, is evident from the fact of an 
official, known as a " Dog-whipper," having been appointed in many parishes, during the 16th and 
17th centuries, for the purpose of excluding them. See " Wilts. Magazine." Vol. i., p. 89. 

By 3Ir. Edward lute. 323 

1639. 15 Chaeles I. 

The following items record the cost of a new frame for the 
BeUs :— 

Itm. payd William Bush in Earnest for making 

the bell frame j s - 

layd out towards payment for the bell frame viijh.js.viijd. 
payd for drawing the articles betweene Wil- 
liam Bush and the Churchwardens js. vjd. 

1644. 20 Charles I. 

Itm. payd to the Widow Coles for helping in the 

clnirch for making the church clean after 

the soldiers were gone vs. 

This entry refers to an occupation of the Town hy soldiers, during the Civil 
Wars ; but the party to which they belonged can only be determined by a 
more precise date as to the month. Possibly it was a Parliamentary force 
under Colonel Massey, who was here in May, 1644. Lord Hopton was also 
here in July, 1643 — from which time, till Sir Charles Lloyd came, in December, 
1644, the town was open to both parties. 

1045. 21 Charles I. 

Itm. payd for Ringers when the Prince came in . . vijs. ijd. 

This was the Prince of Wales who passed through the town on his way from 
Oxford to Bristol. He was escorted by Sir James Long (the Sheriff) with his. 
regiment of Wiltshire gentry ; who on their return were defeated and captured, 
near Devizes, by Cromwell and Waller. 

Itm. we payd for Ringing at the Governor's ap- 
pointment js. 

This was Sir Charles Lloyd by whom, together with Lord Hopton, the town 
and castle (the latter of which had been previously demolished by Massey on 
the side of the Parliament) were re-fortified on behalf of the King. The 
Churches, as well as private individuals, were alike plundered of their property 
on this occasion, in order to furnish the necessary materials for the purpose. 

Itm. pd. to Flower when the Army was here for 

making clean the church js. vjd. 

Soon after the date of this entry order was again restored during Fairfax's 
residence in (In- town. In the following year (1640) the castle was dismantled, 
and an order issued, by the Commons, 1 to restore to the Church, and to pri- 
vate individuals, goods taken by Sir Charles Lloyd. 

l Tiii» order ou been already printed at p. 2ic. 

324 The Churches of Devizes. 

1678. 29 Charles II. 

An Inventory of the Ornaments, Goods, and Implements, in 
the Parish Church of St. Mary, taken in 1678. 

"One silver Challice, one silver plate, Two table boards, one pewter flagon, 
one pulpit Cloath, one pulpit Cushion, Two Cushions for the Mayor, Two Carpctts, 
Nyneteene formes, Two Trunkes, the Booke of Hartyres in three vollums, the 
Parraphrase of Erasmus, one great Church Bible, Three common prayer bookes, 
one old psalme booke, two Joyned stooles, one Timbrell in the Tower, one Biere, 
Two Bookes of Accompt, two long ladders, three pieces of Timber lying in the 
Tower, and one hearse Cloath." 

1685. 1 James II. £ s. d. 

Itm. pd. the painter 25s. for mending and painting 

the frame in the chancel, and 5s. for repairing 

the old 10 Commandments on the upper Roof 110 

The "upper roof" means, probably, the wall above the Chancel-arch. The 
C ommandments would scarcely have been painted either on the stone vaulting 
of the Chancel, or on the timber roof of the Nave. 

1686. 2 James II. 

Pd. Richard Powell for mending the chim- 
ney at the Church House 3 

1690. 22 William & Mary. 

Pd. for binding the Martyr Bookes 1 

for ringing and expenses when Mr. Town- 
son took possession of the Church 10 

1697. 9 AVilliam & Mary. 
Paid for lime and workmanship for cutting the 
two doors in the Tower 16 

These doors were opened in the south wall of the tower for the purpose of 
gaining access to a new gallery, which had just been erected, by means of ihe 
staircase turret 

Paid for beer when the new gallery was made 12 6 

1701. 13 William & Mary. 

Paid for straw for thatching, and elming, the 
Church House next to the Widow Edwards . 114 

1703. 2 Anne. 
Pd. to Ambrose Zealy, jun., in part towards 
the Communion Table Rails and Balisters . . 5 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 325 

1704. 3 Anne. 

Pd. for a Terrier of the Church Lands and 
sending it to Salisbury 3 

1706. 5 Anne. 

Pd. Ambrose Zealy for the new Gallery 25 

Daniel Cutting for ceiling the new Gallery, 

45 yards at 10tf. the yard 1 17 6 

No entries of interest occur after this date. 

Thomas Hall's Letter. 

The following letter, written by Thomas Hall of Devizes, to the 
Bishop of Salisbury, apparently temp. Phil. & Mary, will give some 
idea of the value of the Plate and Ornaments in St. Mary's Church 
at the Reformation. 

" Yn most humbell wyse I comend me unto your good lordshepe whose pros- 
perus estate God preserve, most humblye besechyng your honore to stand good 
lord unto these my neighbors the brynggers hereof, for that they ar myche mys- 
used by serten mene of these paryche wyche have byne the churche wardens, 
that ys to say, John Smythe, Edward Heaynes, James Travys, John Adlyngton, 
John Blanford, 1 and Edward Heleare, these forsayd parsons havynge the cus- 
todye and berynge of the paryche church stocke, plate, Jewelse, and other 
ornaments, have sowld and other wyse consumed frome the church and paryche 
by (unlawful ?) meanes, wythe yn tene yeares or thereabowt, all these parsels 
folowyng, that ys, one fayr gret crosse wythe Mary and John, by estemasyon 
wel worthe thyrte pownds ; one peare of candlestyke, by estemasyon worthe 
fyfteene pownds ; fyve chalyse, worthe twente pownd ; two sensers, worthe 
twente pownd ; one gret pyxe, worthe fyve pownd ; to cruats, worthe fortey 
shelyngs ; one (oylvate ?) worthe four pownd ; one shep wythe a spoone, worthe 
fyve pownd ; to paxe, worthe fyve pownd ; two gret belse owt of the towr, worthe 
xxiiij 1 '; and as myche brasse and yron as ys thowght to be worthe x 11 , and the 
rent of the sayd church wyche ys by the yeare viij 11 ; all wyche goods and money 
ys not at thys present tyme yn the church stocke above v u but dothe remayne 
yn there hands abovesayd, and thus hath lead the paryche forthe wythe fayr 
words promesyng to paye yt at serten days but nothyng ys browght forth, and 
nowe of late they hav a crafftelye used syche days of metyng or reconynge when 
they ar sure that the welthest and cheffest of the paryche be from home, as they 
dyde nowe upon Monday, beyng twelfe market at Salysbury, and dyde knowe 
all the chefe of the cheffest of the paryche to be there, made a reconynge among 

1 The custody of the Church goods wan committed to John Blanford und James Travers in 1552, 
[6 Edw. VI.], Stt C/niri Iui arrlni's Am, mils. The writer of this letter, Thomas Hull, was one of 
tin- Representatives of the Borough during the whole of the reign of Phil. & Mary, and Edward 
Huynes in 1554, [2 of the same reign]. The name of John Smyth occurs in 1516, and John Adlyngton 
in 1567. 

2 U 

326 The Churches of Devizes. 

themselves and so hathe shortened the dctt as they thowght mett for there pur- 
pose : these thyngs consydered, I humblye beseehe your honore to have regard 
unto these paresones, for that they be most credabell mene, and these men as 
barythe more charges yn the towne to the quene and other nesesarye charges, 
one of them, more then all the Companye, before wrvUn thys mater ys beffore 
Master chanselar yn yowr Cowrt, wherefore I humblye desyr you to move Master 
chanselar yn yt : the cawse whye I wryte so ernestlye ys that the paryche hath 
a good openyon yn me thynkyng that by your good lordshep's faver towards me 
that I may do them some pleshur there yn : thus, beyng over myche bowld 
wythe your good lordshep, I comyt yovi and all yours to the everlastyng God. 
Amen. From the Devyse thys present Moiidaye, beying the xv tn of January, 
by the hand of your poore humbell Sarvant, 


Endorsed, "unto the Slight honorabell and mye Spechyall 
good lord of Snlysbury drlyrer thys," and in a different 
hand " The Church Flate of the Devises." 

Rectors of Devizes. 

The following Notices of the Rectors of Devizes have been 
carefully collected from various sources. 

A. D. 

1310. October 22. John cle Aune, clerk, was presented by the 
Lady Margaret [the Queen Dowager, daughter of Philip 
~K. of France, and 2nd wife of Edward I.] to the Church 
of Devises. 

1312. August 8. Master Thomas de Yeongeflete was presented 
by the same Queen on the resignation of John de Aune. 

Among the Tower Records are several notices of this Rector. In 1316 [8 
Edw. II.] he petitions the King concerning the Tithe of Hay in the Meadow of 
the Park of Devizes, which he and his predecessors have been accustomed to 
receive — and which Meadow is now turned into Pasture, and sold to divers 
men of the adjacent country for feeding their Beasts — and which Tithe is 
newly subtracted — whereupon he prays a remedy. On receipt of this, the 
King issues a Commission (dated March 5,) to John de Foxle, John Bleuit, and 
William de Harden, or two of them, to make an enquiry as to whether the late 
King [Edward I.], at the time when the Park was in his hands, was accus- 
tomed to give Tithes of the Hay, &c. And let the Inquisition be made in the 
presence of the Parson, if, being warned, he will to be present — and the Inqui- 
sition be returned before the King. 

The Inquisition was accordingly made at Devizes on Thursday the morrow 
of St. Barnabas the Apostle, before John de Foxle, John Bleuit, and William 
de Harden, on the oath of John Grey, John Bowclark, Henry le Hert, Walter 
Bochard, John Goscelyn, William Burel, William Codyshe, John Kylle, 
Richard le Foghel, John le Pret, Richard Walesale, Richard Sage, Roger le 
Foghel, Walter Atte Wyk, AVilliam Flore, John Atte Wyk, Nicholas le Luyght, 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 327 

and John le Reveson, who stated that the late King used to give Tithe of the 
Hay of the Meadows, and also the Kings of England from time whereof memory 
is not — also that the late King in the tenth year of his reign caused the said 
Meadows to be turned into Pasture, by Ralph de Sandwich then Constable of 
the Castle of Devizes for the sustentation of the Wild Beasts and Cattle of the 
Lord the King, and froni that time hitherto no Tithe thereof hath been given 
or delivered — also that the Tithe formerly issuing from the Meadows was 
worth yearly 22 shillings. 

In the Registry at Salisbury is preserved a document relating also to this 
Rector. It is entitled " Ordinacio dni p. Rectore & Priore de Devyses," and 
was drawn up by Roger de Mortival, Bishop of Salisbury in 1325, for the ad- 
justment of a dispute which appears to have arisen between the Rector of the 
Church of Devizes, and William le Trapp, Prior of the Hospital of St. John, as 
to the Tithes, oblations at Masses, &c. It is dated at Potterne, on the Kalends 
of February, and witnessed by R. de Worth, W. de Lolenham, J. de Longhir, 
and Win. de Ayscheton. 

1349. 29 May. Stephen West, Deacon; presented by Philippa, 

Queen of Edward III. 
1361. 3 Sept. John le Botiler, Priest ; presented by the same 

Queen, on the death of West. 

Certain Lands near the New Park [Novus Parcus.] belonging to John 
Botiller, Parson of the Church of Devizes, are mentioned in a Deed of 1388. 

1391. 22 May. William Stoke, Clerk ; presented by Anne, 
Queen of Richard II., on the death of Botiler. 

1392. 17 May. Master Thomas Kynewyk, chaplain; by the 
same Queen. 

1398. 25 Nov. Master John Wyther, chaplain; instituted by 
the Bishop of Sarum to the " Church of St. John in 
Devises, with the Church of St. Mary in the same town, 
to the same Church of St. John annexed," on the presen- 
tation of the King [Richard II.] 

1400. 16 Oct. Master Andrew Swyneford, chaplain; presented 
by the King [Henry IV.] on the resignation of Wyther. 

1402. 30 July. Swyneford exchanged with Master Henry 
Netherhavene, Vicar of Bedmynster. 

1412. 7 March. Thomas de Tibbay, clerk; presented by Joan, 
Queen of Henry IV. 

1414. 26 March. Robert de Tibbay, clerk ; presented by the 
same Queen on the resignation of Thomas de Tibbay. 

1420 John Almote ; presented by Humphrey, 

Duke of Gloucester. 

2 u 2 

328 The Churches of Devizes. 

1426 Almote exchanged with William Goldsmyth, 

Rector of Esthenreth, in the Diocese of Sarum. 
1429. 28 Dec. Goldsmyth exchanged with Gilbert Crede, 

Rector of Snierdon, in the Diocese of Canterbury. 
1433. 11 April. Master John "Wygtym, chaplain ; presented 

by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, on the death of 

1468. 17 April. Henry Boost, M.A. ; presented by Elizabeth, 

Queen of Edward IV. on the death of Wygtyni. 

1474. 16 July. John Smyth ; presented by the same Queen on 
the resignation of Boost. 

1475. 8 July. John, Bishop of Rochester ; instituted by the 
Bishop of Sarum to the " Parish Church of Devise," on 
the presentation of the above Queen. 

[John Alcock was Bishop of Rochester from 1472 to 1476, and John Russel 
from 1476 to 1480.] 

1479. 10 Nov. John, Bishop of Tyne, 1 is admitted, in com- 
mendam, in the person of John Giles his Proctor, to the 
" Parish Church of St. John the Baptist of Devyses," at 
the request of the above Queen, on the resignation of 
John, Bishop of Rochester. 

1480. 28 Jan. Henry Boost, B.D., Provost of the Royal 
College of Eton ; 2 presented by the above Queen on the 
death of John, Bishop of Tyne. 

1502. 1 May. Edmund Chollerton ; on the resignation of 

An annual pension often pounds was agreed upon, to he paid to the' resigning 
Rector, for the term of his life, out of the fruits of the Church. 

1526. 31 August. John Crapford, Priest ; B.D. ; presented by 
Catherine [of Arragon] Queen of Henry VIII. on the 
death of Chollerton. 

1 "Johannes Tinensis JEjriscopus" — probahly one of the suffragan bishops. 
These were introduced into England about the year 1325, and were commis- 
sioned by such bishops as were infirm, or otherwise engaged, to assist them in 
their episcopal offices. "Gent. Mag.," 1785, p. 372-3. 

2 Fuller, in his " Church History," Vol. L, p. 510, relates that he gave 100 
marks, and £20 per annum to the College, and died 7 Feb., 1503. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 329 

1533. 14 June. William Dawson, 1 Priest; presented by Queen 

Catherine, on the resignation of Crapford. 

At the petition of the resigning Rector an annual pension of 26s. 8d. was 
assigned by the Vicar-General to be paid him, at the Baptismal Font in the 
Cathedral Church of St. Paid, London, on the feast of St. Mark the Evangelist, 
for the term of his life. 

1547. Oliver Boswicke ; presented by Queen Mary on the death 
of Dawson. 

1566. John Beare ; presented by Queen Elizabeth on the resig- 
nation of Boswicke. 

1570. Patric Blare; presented by the same Queen, on the depri- 
vation of Beare. 

[Nicholas Stranguidge appears to have been the following 

1602. John Davis ; presented by the same Queen, on the resig- 
nation of Stranguidge. 

He was buried in St. John's Church, July 22, 1644. 

1644. 9 Nov. John Prestwick, M.A. is instituted by the Bishop 
of Sarum to the "Vicarage of St. Mary the Virgin." 

1648. 3 July. John Shepherd, clerk, was instituted to the 
"Rectory of St. John, with the Chapel of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary thereunto annexed," void by the death of 
the last incumbent. 

The signature of "John Sheppard," styling himself "Minister'''' occurs, how- 
ever, in 1647, and the following letter written by some of the inhabitants of 
Devizes, to a Member of the House of Commons, will serve to show that he was 
(although not instituted) acting in that capacity as early as 1646. It is taken 
from " Edwards' Gangraena," part 3, p. 30. 

" Right Worshipful. — May it please you to be certified by us of certain pas- 
sages this day at the Church in the time of divine service, that is : — our minister 
Master Shepherd being in the pidpit, was commanded by one Captain Pretty, 
who is under the command of Colonel Ireton, and who, with his soldiers, are, 
to our great burden, quartered with us, to be silent and to come forth of the pulpit; 
saying, in threatening terms, that he was unfit to preach, and that he was 
yesterday (being Saturday) drunken ; which evidently can be proved to the 
contrary, the gentleman being to our knowledge a very temperate and religious 
divine. This Captain was assisted by one Master Ives, and Master Lambe, who 
are, as they say, preachers, and divers soldiers armed, in a most irreverent 
manner, to the abominable disturbance of the whole congregation, and, as we 

i In the " Wiltshire Institutions" — John Skott, — the Proctor, in whose 
person Dawson was inducted. 

330 The Churches of Devizes. 

conceive, to the great abuse and disgrace of the honourable Parliament. By 
means whereof our preacher fearing, as was too much cause, what dangerous 
effects such indecent and impious demeanours might produce, was enforced to 
depart and dares not to come in sight ; so that we wire destitute of preaching 
this day. Whereof we thought good, being thereto, as we believe, bound in 
duty and good conscience, to acquaint your worship withall, hoping by jour 
industrious means, these, our most intolerable giievances, may be taken into 
religious consideration, and we thereof eased ; which we earnestly beg of you 
our approved good friend and countryman may be effected. 

These aforesaid abuses can be (if occasion) witnessed by the whole congrega- 
tion. From the Devizes, this present Sunday, 6th of September, 1646." 

1652. 29 April. Henry Johnson, 1 A.M. ; presented on the death 

of John Shepherd. 

In Trinity Term, 14 Chas. II., [1674], an action of Debt was commenced in 
the Court of King's Bench by this Rector, [through John Horton his Attorney], 
against William Powell, an owner and occupier of 30 acres of Land and 29 acres of 
Meadow, in the Old Park, to recover the sum of £180, being the treble value of 
the Tithes subtracted according to the Statute. On Trial, however, by a Special 
Jury at the Assizes in Wilts, a Verdict appears to have been returned in 
favour of the Defendant. 

He died in 1681, and was buried in the Church of St. Mary, where a Monu- 
ment of black marble was erected to his memory. This remained affixed to the 
wall of the Chancel until 1854, when, notwithstanding its inscription " Post 
tantos labores, fyc." it was, during some alterations, removed from thence, and 
substituted for a paving stone in the floor of the nave. As the inscription 
threatens, at no distant period, to be wholly obliterated, it has been carefully 
copied, and will be found printed at length in a former Paper, p. 248. 

1655. In " Dring's Catalogue of the Lords, Knights, and Gen- 
tlemen that have compounded for their estates" published 
at this date, occurs the name of " Robert Bing, D.D., of 
AUcannings, sometime Rector of Devizes." 

The date of his death 1658, is recorded by a rude inscription on one of the 
walls of St. John's Church, where he was buried. 

1681. 24 Nov. James Dyer, clerk ; presented by the king 
[Charles II.], on the death of Johnson. 

1 In an inquisition taken 1655 — it is reported that there is one Vicarage 
with cure of Souls — number of families in both Parishes, 485 — Vicarage worth 
£9 10s. id. per annum ; the rest dependeth on good will of Inhabitants. Mr. 
Henry Johnson, Incumbent, a diligent preacher once a Lordsday at each Church, 
invested 29 April, 1652. Two augmentations were granted in 1646 of £50 per 
annum to each Church — £30 of which presently fell away, and was never paid, 
— £70 per annum paid for some time, but soon after £30 (sic) more fell away, 
but £50 (sic) was still paid till about 18 months back by Richd. Phelps of New 
Sarum, but now detained for what reason we know not. 

By Mr. Edward Kite. 331 

He died August 15, 1690, and was buried in the Church of St. John, where 
a flat stone with an inscription [in Latin] to his memory is still to be seen. 

1690. Robert Townsend, A.M. was the next Rector, although 

his institution does not occur. 
He was buried in St. Mary's Church, October 4, 1721. 
1721. 14 Oct. John Shergold, clerk, M.A. ; presented by the 

King, [George I.], on the death of Townsend. 
1738. 8 Nov. William Wells, clerk, M.A. ; presented by the 

King, [George II.], on the resignation of Shergold. 
1774. 3 March. Edward Innes, clerk, M.A. ; presented by the 

King, [George III.], on the death of Wells. 

He was also Rector of Stockton co. Wilts, and Prebendary of Netheravon. 
He died Nov. 17, 1788, and was buried in St. John's Church, where is a small 
marble Tablet to his memory. 

1789. 8 January. James Lediard ; presented by the same King 

on the death of Edward Innes. 
He died in 1833 and was buried in St. John's Church, without any memorial. 

1833. 5 May. Edward James Phipps, M.A. ; presented by the 
Lord Chancellor, on the death of James Lediard. 

In 1853 he was presented, by the same Patron, to the Pi,ectory of Stansfield, 
co. Suffolk. 

1853. 19 August. Peter Almeric Leheup Wood, M.A. ; pre- 
sented by the Lord Chancellor, on the resignation of 
Edward James Phipps. 

Chantry Chaplains, &c. 

1327. Thomas Recke. 

1404. Master John, Chaplain of the Parish Church of St. Mary. 

Thomas Newman. 

Richard Zely. 

Thomas Michell. 

Richard Friend, afterwards Prior of the Hospital of St. 
John the Ikiptist, Devizes. He died c. 1468. 
1 \~>\ . Thomas Smyth. 
1461. Thomas Browyn. 
1468. Roger Stephenes. 

Thomas Saunders. 

332 The Churches of Devizes. 

1479. JohnHuet. 
1526. Philip Tyler. 

John Typper. 
1548. Thomas Hancock, incumbent of John Cardmaker's 

Chantry, in St. John's Church. 


Garth Family, p. 248. — The Garths were of Co. Pal. Durham, and settled 
chiefly at Headlam and Gainford. The annexed Pedigree, showing the con- 
nexion of one branch of the family with Devizes, has been kindly furnished by 
the Rev. J. Ward, Rector of Wath, Yorkshire. 

Anns. — William Garth of Headlam was in the List of " Disclaimers" at the 
Heralds' Visitation of Durham in 1615 ; but his grandson of the same name and 
place, had the arms at the head of the Pedigree allowed in 1666. It is probable 
that they had been used by the family at least two centuries before the latter 
period, for the Garths who were settled at Morden in Surrey in the year 1500, 
but whose exact connexion with the family at Headlam is not ascertained, have 
always borne the same arms. Their Crest is an Indian Goat argent, attired, 
eared, collared, and lined, or. 

Haynes, or Haines Hill, the seat of the present representative of the Garth 
family, is in the parish of Hurst, Berks, in which is the liberty of Broad Hinton, 
a curiously insulated part of Wiltshire. It was, according to Lysons, the seat 
of Sir Thomas Windebank, Clerk of the Signet, and the birth place of his son, 
Sir Francis, Secretary of State to Charles the First. At a later date it was the 
property of the Colleton family, from whom it appears to have descended to 
Charles Garth, Esq., who took the surname of Colleton, and was uncle to the 
present owner. 

Coventet Family, p. 253. — The following additional notices, relating appa- 
rently to this family, have been kindly furnished by Mr. James Waylen : — 

" John Coventry of Wilts receives [8 Hen. VI.] letters patent for the repay- 
ment to him, and others associated with him, of a loan of £10 winch they had 
advanced to the late King, Henry V." — Parliamentary Rolls. 

"3 Hen. V. John Coventry receives value for old coin sent, by him and 
others, to be re-minted at the Tower, to the amount of £585 18s. 4rf." — Ibid. 

[Supposed to be the same person, because associated with other apparently 
Wiltshire names, such as John Alleyn, Alleyn Forman, Thomas Burbage, &c] 

Gobett's Dole. — This bequest, together with a similar one of Sir Thomas 
Newman and Robert Paynter, has been already noticed at p. 252-3. The fol- 
lowing items, selected from the Churchwardens' accounts, will serve to show 
the manner in which they were formerly complied with : — 

1499. It. pd. for Gobbett dole xvijs- find. 

pd. for y e - dole of Sir Thos. Newman & Robt Painter vj s - iiij d - 

1550. pd. for bread for Gobett's dole and carrying xx s - iiijd. 

1573. pd. for xx dozen of bread xxs. 

Entries similar to these occur annually during the 15th, 16th, 17th, and part 
of the 18th centuries. 

Toiirt Roll at Gaiuford. 

Mjfir. at Denton, 2nd Dec, 1584. 
. . . Spencer. 
m. George Wickliffe, 28th Aug., 1583. 

West Auckland, Co. Dur. Esq., 
l, of Hunwick, Esq., bur. 28th 

John, of Headlam ^jjiford, 
bp. 27th Jan., 1593, f her 
bur. 30th Sep. 1664, 

Their descendanta- 
Headlam for sever< 

William, m. Margaret Hall, 1038. 
Jane, m. William Bankes, 1607. 

[>t. at John Garth, bapt. 28th Dec, 1684, 
032. bur. at Gainford, 27th Nov., 1702. 

Sir Samuel Garth, Kir . 
B.A., 1679 ; M.A , 1084! 
brated author of " The i 
ordinary to Geo. I. Kui 
ob. 18th Jan. 1718—, 

Elizabeth, dau. of 
Thomas Colleton, 
of Barbadoes, Esq. 

Anne Garth, m. 
Robert Cowling, 
of Richmond, Co. 
Ebor., 1703. 

James Garth, 
living 1720, 
ob. coel. 

John Ga 
Bond Stn 
17th Ap 
Dec, 170 

Chaui.ks Garth, of Devi/es TII) m< KJth 
and of Queen Sq , HolbornE gey, John 
Esq., Becorder of Devizes ttor f All- 
■ad M.P. lor tbiit Borough*)- i ie ,u e d 
1765—80. Com. of Excising i n mn. 
1780; ob. at WalthanutowJ 
Btb Mar., 1784. 

Garth died 
ccel. after 

Jamba Oabth, 




Frances Garth 
died in London 
0th Mar., 170S, 
aged 24, bur. at 

artu walked as maid to the King's Ileib 
the Coronation of George IV., died un- 
Bflfcei Struct, Portman Square, London, 



Garth of Co. Pal. Durham, bore Or, two lions passant in pale between three cross okk.1.., n-w , , 
Cemt—Ah antelope, argent, collar and chain relieved over the Tack or. **" S " WC - 


Garth, and Robebt Garth, were Freeholders at Headlam, in 1507, 23, Henry VH., „ appears by tllc firs , ^ ^ ^ ^ . _ ^ 

. Garthe, of Headlam=ELiEABETHE . . . made her 
will 3rd Nov., 1502, as widow. 

Margaret, bur. 10th April, 1587; Richard Garth, of Headlam, bur.=AQNES, dau. of Mr. Richard Buck, of Astiiony bur »t 1>,,„ „, ..„,,, •■ , 
,„. Cuthbert Buml, of Gainford. loth April, 1087. Sadberge, bur. at Gaiuford, 1580. v, , ' . "'. Eta^m 

K«raAniM:,ui.i; f „ [ ;,», f U»,M! 1 \„ 

William Garth, of Headlam, m. at Gainford,=MAROARET, 2nd dan. of Bofaert Eden, of W, ,i inoUmid Co Dm Bin 
10th June, 1568, bur. 13th Feb., 1027. by Jane. dau. and Boh. of John M„„„„ ,.f ,i '. , . I 1 ?. '.'* V.' 

..... «....., , uu U uii. u, UUUW, I'. hi 'i[, mi WWI AUiMUHlUl, t'o. l»m 1 ,. 

by Jane, dau. and cuh. of John Hulton, ol Hunwiok, Esq., bur. ,i 

May, 1020. 

I,,iis, .if Headlam -Elizabeth, dau. 

],]i. 2;tli .in"-. 1888, 
bur.SOth Sep. 1004. 

of William Bate, 
of Easby. 

Their descendants continued at 
Headlam fir several generations. 


Roger Garth, of Bolam, bap. 12th Oct., 1000. = Ann, daughter of . . . Ovington, m. at Gainford, Win km, m. Margaret Hull, 1096, 

11th November, 1I12S, had administration of htl Jam:, in. William BankM, 1007, 
husband's effects 20ih August, 1036, 

William Garth, bap. at Heighington, 18th Oct-,=MAHY, dau. of RiciiAitn Garth, bant, at John Gabth, bopt 98th Deo., 11 i 

1629, bur. at Gainford, 2flih Feb. 1703—4. I bur. at Gainford, 29th Dec., 1005. Gainford, I8tb Nov., 1083. bur. at Gainford, STUi Nov., 1709, 

^ii: BamuS! Gabth, Iuit., of Peter House, Camb.,- 
B.A., 1679 i M.A.,1684; M.D., 1001. The cele- 
brated author of "Tin' Dispensary." Physician in 
iinliniirv to Geo. 1. Knighted 10th October, 1714 ; 
ob, ImIi Jan. 17 1s— ly, bur. at Harrow, Co. 

iMartha, dan. of Sir Henry 
Beaufoy, of Einscote. Co. 
War., by Charlotte Lane, 
dau. of George Viscouut 
Laiii'sborough, bur. at Har- 
row, in May 1717. 

William Garth, =Mabt, dau. of 
of Bolam, bur. at 
Gainford, 5th Dec. 

Bowes' Garth, 
only son. 

Thomas Garth, of Harold, Co.. 
Bedford, bapt. at Gainford, 20th 
Sept, 1001. A Colonel in the 
Army 1703. Will proved 1780. 

i'ii/ m:i i ii. dau. "I 

Thomas Collet 

of Barbadoi . I 

Anni; QAHTH, hi. 

Robert Cowling, 
of Rio] I. ' '" 

liluir, 1708, 

inn, John Garth, of Devizes, Co. Wilts, and of New=REBEccA, dau. aud coh. 

[1720, Bond Street, London. Chosen Recorder of Devizes | of John Bronipton, of 

"'' "I 17th April, 17:12, and M.P. for that Borough WTiitton. Co. Sussex, 

1740—1 to 1757; again 1701 to 1704. Ob. 26th Esq., died 9th Feb., 

Dec, 1704, a;t 03, bur. at Devizes. j 1785, bur. at Devizes. 

Elizabeth Garth, m. 
1st. . . . Evelyn, 
2nd. . . . Boone. 

Samuel Garth, M.I'., 
for Devizes, from 1757 
to 1701. 

i'iiauu:, Qjlbth, "f Devizes, 

"ml of Queen Sq, Holborn, 

Recorder of Devizes, 

and M.P. t„r that Borough, 

I Jifl— <n, Cnin. ,,t" Excise 

1780 ; uli. 4t WaltharoBtow, 

Jtli Mm.. 1784. 

Fanny, dim. of John 
Cooper, of Cumber- 
well, near Bradford, 
Co. Wilts, m. 24th 
Nov., 1704, ob. 1792. 


Charles Garth, of Haines 
Hill, Co. Wilts, b. 17th Aug., 
177s, took the surname of 
Colleton after Garth, 13th 
April, 1805. 

George Gabth, a General 
in the Army, appointed 
Major-General of 1st Foot 
Guards, 20th Oct., 1782 ; 
Colonel of 17th Foot, and 
Lieut.Gov. of Placentia ; 
ob. 1819. 

Thomas Garth, of 32, Grosvenor Place, Co. Middle- 
sex, aud of Piddletowu, Co. Dorset, a General in the 
Army; Lieut.-Colonel of 2nd Dragoon Guards, 
8th Oct., 1790; Colonel of 1st Royal Dragoons; 
Equerry to George III.; ob. 18th Nov. 1820, aged 
S5. See " Gentleman's Magazine" for Jan. 1 30, 
p. 85. 

Thomas Gabth, of Hoiues Hill, 
Co. Wilts, Captain R.N. 1808, ob. 
at Leamington, 10th Nov. 1841. 
See " Gentleman's Magazine," 
Vol. 17 N.S., p. 99. 

^Charlotte, eldest dau. of Liellt.- 
Geu. Frederick Maitland 9th son 
of Charles, 0th Earl of Lauder- 
dale, mar. 18th April, 1820. 

ob. young. 

Bbbhooa Gabth, m, 16th Elizabeth 

F.Ii., 1771, the Bev. John GABiHdled 

Fullerton, Beotor of All ool. after 

riiiiniio,'H, 17711; In- died I "' 
in 1800, and sin- in 1814. 

I'mnu OAflTU 

■lied iii London 
nil, Mar., 1768, 
aged 24, bur. at 

Frances Oabtb wal ,v : ,, 

woman at the Coronation "l a«orgJ IV, H-l , 
„ m ,ri,,l in Baker Street, Portman Square, London, 
17th Jan., 1830. 

Thomas Colleton Gabth, of 
Haines Hill. 


[continuation of paper on church bells.] 

Bella of tjrt Cmmttj nf «JiIto, 


By the Rev. W. C. Ltjkis. 

Deanery of Chalke (Continued) : — 

[Parishes omitted in the List given in No. 5, pp. 209-211. 

Berwick St. Leonard, 2. 

1. No inscription. 

2. Wm, Cockey, Bellfounder, 1725. 
Chicklade, 1. 

One small bell out of reach. 
Chihnark, 4. 

1. b|« AVE GRA : AI. (Sic for GRACIA.) 


3. Anno Doni 1613. R A P : IF : IG : W. 

4. Ring out the bells in God rejoyce. I. W. 1616. 
Fonthill Bishop, 2. 

1st broken. [There being no ladder at hand I could not see them.] 
Hindon, 6. 

1. Peace and good neighbourhood. A A R. 1754. 

2. When you us ring 

we sweetly sing. A A R. 1754. 

3. Prosperity to this Town. A A R. 1754. 

4. Abel Rudhall oast us all. 1754. 

5. Thomas Feild, Gent"- Bailiff. A A R. 1754. 

6. Five bells cast into six with additional metal at the expense of 
William Beckford and Bisso Richard, Esq. A A R. I7fi4. 

2 x 

334 Bells of the County of Wilts. 

Deanery of Wilton. 

Dotvnton, 5. 

1. Samuel Knight of Reading made me, 1693. 


3. Praise ye the Lord. I. W. 1604. 

4. Sound out the Bells, in God rejoice. IW. 1604. 

5. Jonathan Coles, John Bampton, Gent., Churchwardens for this yere. 
WT. & WS. Clement Tosier cast me in the 12 yer of Queen Annes 

Nunton, 3. 

1 . No inscription. 

2. Clemant Tosiear cast mee in the yeare 1701. Francklyn Newham, 
Georg "Welsteed, Clmrchwardens. 

3. tft Be meek and loly to heare the word of God. 1641. WAP. 
A. P : W. H. 

Fugglestone, 3. 

1. No inscription. 

2. Praise God. 1628. ID. 

3. Love God. 1628. ID. 
Bemerton, 1. 


Deanery of Wylie. 

BisJiojistroto, 1. (Out of reach.) 

Brixton Deverill, 1. 

Chittern All Saints, 3. 

1. Win. Cockey, Bellfounder, 1739. 

2. Mr. Chrs. Slade & Jos. Hayward. WiC. 1739.* 


Chittern St. Mary, 3. 

1. ȣ. IHON : BAR : BVR : ME : MADE. 

2. Mr. ¥m, Tinker & Mr. Jno. Compton, C h - Wardens. Jas. Burrough, 
Bellfounder, fecit 1754. 

• Broken. + Broken. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 335 

3. Mr. Wm. Tinker & Mr. Jno. Compton, C n - Wardens. Jas. Burrough, 
BeUfounder in Devizes, fecit 1754. 
Longbridge Deverill, 5. 

1. Richard Rickwood & Andrew Pearce, Churchwardens. James Wells, 
Aldbourne, Wilts, fecit 1814. 

2. *f* Anno Domini 1614. R. P. : ET. 

3. Daniel Hinton & Stephen Sturgis, Ch. -wardens, 1763. A * 

4. William Dunford, John Laurence. E : BC : W. I A L : 1675. 

5. Peace and prosperity to this Parish. Wm. Cockey, 1739.f 
Monckton Deverill, 2. 

1. No inscription. 

2. Benjamen Betch, John Batt. RAP. 1703. 
Heytesbury, 6. 

1. Wm. Cockey, Bellfounder, 1739. 

2. Richard Markes, Edward Brice, C. W : IL : 1668. 

3. Mr. Wm. Childs and Mr. Richd Young, Ch. wardens. Jas. Burrough 
in Devizes, Bellfounder, fecit 1753. 

4. |fg Anno Domini, 1616. RAP. 

5. Thomas Mears, Founder, London, 1843. 


Knook, 1. (Out of reach). 

Hill Deverill, 1. (No inscription.) 

Horningsham, 6. 

1. The gift of the R»- HonMe. Thomas, Lord Viscount Weymouth, 1743. 

2. Mr. Edmd. Moody & Mr. Job Guy, Ch-wds. 1743. W A C. 

3. Wm. Cockey, Bellfounder, 1743. 

4. C. & G. Mears, founders, London, 1848. 

5. Wm. Cockey cast mee, 1743. God preserve the Church. 

6. Wm. Cockey, Bellfounder, 1743. Mr. Edmd. Moody & Mr. Job Guy, 
C wds. 

£ i d 

• Cast in Bristol 1763. The bell-foundcr'8 bill 12 13 6 

Carrying ye old bell to Bristol, and bringing the new bell back 2 2 

+ 1739. Hpcnt when at Froome to see ye new bell 10 

pd. Mr. Wm. Cockey as will appear by his bill 21 4 2 

Ch. Wardens' Accounts. 

t This fine bell bears two Coats of Arms— one of the family of Kuollys, the other from imperfect 
sting is di/ncult to decypher— perhaps it is that of Fowells. 


336 Bella of the County of Wilts. 

Kingston Deverill, 6. 
1. 3. Wm. Cockey, Bellfounder. 1731. 

2. God preserve the Church, 1731. W A C. 

4. Mr. Robert Hurle, Mr. Robert Ryall, C. W. 1731. W A C. 

5. Peace & good neighbourhood to this Parish. 1731. W A C. 

6. The Reverend Mr. Benjamin Coker, A.M. Rector. Mr. Robert Hurle & 
Mr. Robert Ryall, O W. 1731. W A C 

Maddington, 3. 

1. *$« GABRIEL. 

2. I live in hope. I W. 1587. 

3. Henry Miles, Gilbert Hopkins, Churchwardens. 1699. W. C. 

Maiden Bradley, 5. 

1. Give Almes. 1614. IW. 

2. A.D. 1656. I A L. 

3. 1619. RAP. (Prince of Wales coat of arms C.P on shield). 

4. AD. 1619. R A P. 

5. Fear God, love thy nabor. 1613. I W. 
Norton Bavant, 4. 

1. George Knight, Walter Cheambers, 1656. W A P A N A B.« 


3. Thomas Woodward, George Knight. 1711. E A L. 

4. George Knight, Walter Cheambers. W A P A N A B. 1656. 
Orcheston St. George, 2. 

1. Praise the Lord. IW. 1615. 

2. (ft AVE : GRACIA. 
Orcheston St. Mary, 3. 


2. * MARIA. 

3. William Bartlett, Churchwarden. C. T. cast me. 1715. 
Pertwood, 1. 

(Small, with no inscription). 
Rowleston, 1. 

(Small bell out of reach). 
Shrewton, 5. 

1 . Robaid Gennings, Nathaniel Coster, Churchwardens. Clement Tosier 
cast me, 1717. 

• Broken. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 337 

2. Save me Lord. IW. 1619. 

3. Call uppon God. IW. 1619. 

4. Prosperity to this Parish. A i R, 1757. 

5. Ring the belle. IW. 1619. 

Stockton, 4. 
1. 2. Anno Domini. 1660. I A L. 

3. M. Marten Tannir, Cristover Ellmes, CW. I A L. 1685.* 


Sutton Veney, 6. 
I, 2. W 4 C 1696> 

3. Noah Wilkins & John Best, Ch. W. W. A C. 1741. 

4. Mr. R. Baily, Rect. IEF LONG REXTENG. C. W. 1695. 

5. Saml. & Stephn. Long, Churchwardens. Robert & Jas. Wells, Aid- 
bourne, fecit 1793. 

6. Mr. Stephen Long & Mr. John Rendall, C»- W" s - Wni. Cockey cast 
me, 1723. 

Tihhead, 3. 

1, 2. T. Bilbie, fecit 1764. 

3. Mr. Samuel Atwood & Mr. William Alsop Laws, Chiu'chwardens. T. 

Bilbie. 1764. 
Upton Lovell, 3.f 

1. •{• Halalugeva Anno Domini. 1619. It A P. 

2. John Crowch, Rector. John Dyer & Charles Gamblin, C n - Wardens, 
1780. William Bilbie of Chewstoko, Somerset, fecit. 

3. Lester & Pack of London, fecit 1759. 
Warminster, 6. 

1. Messrs. Armstrong & Townsend, C h - Wardens. James Wells, Aid- 
bourne, fecit 1805. 

2. Mr. Wm. Wilton & Mr. Thomas Ludlow, C>»- Wardens, 1739. W A C. 

4. Mr. Henry Ferris, Churchwarden, 1765. T. Rudhall, Founder. 


• 1084. For taking down the bell and loading it vj,/. 

Tor outing the hell weighing fi cut. M lbs. at £1 2s. 6d. the Cwt. vijfr. vs. 

Pd. to John Lett in full (abated tor II lb. of metal Mm.) vj/i. xj.». 

Ch. Wardens' Accounts (now loBt). 
+ Fourth bell sold to defray cxpcnscM of repaira. 

338 Bells of the County of Wilts. 

6. I to the Church the living call, 
And to the grave do summon all, 
Cast at Gloster by Abel Rudhall. 1737. 
Chapel of St. Lawrence, Warminster, 1, & 2 chimes. 
iff Anno Domini. 1657. I i L. 
Chimes. T. Rudhall, founder, 1764. 
Westbury, 6. 

1. John Wates, John Blatch, C.W. 1671. 

2. George Turner, Esq. & Mr. Philip "Withers, Churchwardens. W A C. 

3. Anno Dom. 1650. RAP. 

4. Thomas Mears of London, Founder. 1836. 

5. Drawe neare to God. Anno Dom : 1616. Royal Anns on side. 

6. Mr. George Turner. Mr. Samuel Gibbs, Churchwardens, 1714. Abr. 
Rudhall, Bellfounder. Hsee fit sanctorum campana laude bonorum. 

The Inscriptions on the bells of the following churches are 

required to complete the list of this deanery. 
Berwick St. James, Mere. 

Boyton. Sherrington. 

Bratton. Stapleford. 

Codford St. Mary. Stourton. 

Codford St. Peter. Upton Scudamore. 

Corsley. Winterbourne Stoke. 

Fisherton Delamere. "Wishford, Great. 

Langford, Great. Wyly. 

Langford, Little. 

Archdeaconry of "Wilts. 
Deanery of Avebury. 

Echilhampton, 2. (Out of reach.) 
Avebury, 5. 
1&2. Anno Domini, 1619. 

3. John Burchell, John Trusler, Churchwardens. William Purdue cast 
mee 1650. 

4. Anno Domini, 1620. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 339 

5. John Rose, James Pope, Churchwardens. Richard Phelps,* London. 
Nat : Par : Hujus fecit 1719. The Reverend Mr. John Mayo, Vicar. 
Winterbourne MonMon, 3. 

1. Seke the Lord. I.W. 1617. I.H : S. P. 

2. Anno Domini, 1641. I A L. 

3. Thomas Purnell and Ambrose Spenser, Churchwardens, 1663. 
Berwick Basset, 3. 

1. This bell was cast in the year 1694. R.G. 

2. Hope well. I. W. 1605. 

3. John Blakeman and William Etall, Churchwardens. W. R : R. T. 1663. 
Blackland, 1. 

I. A L. 1671. 
Bremhill, 6. 

1. 1685. 

2. Wm. Butler & Jas. Bewley, C h - wardens. Jas Wells, Aldbourne, 
Wilts, fecit 1826. 

3. 1687. 

4. Joseph Thrush & Robert Horton, Clmrchwardens. R. Wells, Aldbourn, 
fecit 1770. 

5. May the Church of England ever nourish. AiB. 1786. 

6. I to the Church the living call, 

And to the grave do summon all. A. A R. 1736. 
Highway, 2. 

Small bells without inscriptions. 
Bromham y 6. 
1. 3. John Scott, Churchwarden, 1658. A W. A P. A 
2. God bless Queen Anne. Willm. & Rob. : Cor. 1706. 
4. Benjamin Pcarce & Mr. John Sinikins, Churchwardens. 1761. T. B.F. 
5 Fardinando Hughes. John Scott. T.S. Anno Domini 1658. A W. 

A P. A 

6. Richard Tucker & Mr. John Gaby, Churchwardens. Jas. Burrough, 
Founder, 1748. 

I sound to bid the sick repent, 

In hope of life when breath is spent. Memento Mori. 

• Kichard I'lulps, a native of Avebury, cast the great bell of St. Paul's Cathedral. He it was 
who melt< d down the 3 bells of Kind's Coll: Cambr : the heaviest of which weighed 57 cwt. 
Tradition says that they were taken from a Church in France by Henry V., after the battle of 
Afrincourt ; also that they had been presented to the College by I'opc Oalix III. 

340 Beih of the County of Wilts. 

Calne, 8. 

1. The gift of Henry drivers, Esq. 1707. 

2. J. Rudhall, feet. C. Alsup, Churchwarden, 1 7!M. 

3. Robart Forman collected the monye for castinge this bell, 
Of well disposed people as I doe you tell. 

Stephen Bayly and Thos. Rogers, C. W. 1658. 

4. Mr. Wm, Oriel & Mr. Robert Baily, C h - wardens. James Burrough, 
in Devizes, Founder, 1751. 

5. Peace & good neighbourhood. Abra. Rudhall, Bellfounder, 1707. 

6. Recast at the charge of the Rev. John Guthrie, A.M., Vicar 1848. 
John Nelson Ladd & John Spackman, Churchwardens.* 

I call the living, mourn the dead, 
I tell when days and years are fled ; 
For grief and joy, for prayer and praise. 
To heaven my tuneful voice I raise. I. G. 
J. & T. Mears, Founders, London. 

7. Ralph Heale & Ralph Heath, Churchwardens. Robert Wells, Aid- 
bourn, "Wilts, fecit 1786. 

8. The heart resolves, the hand obeys, 
To sound our mighty maker's praise. f 

The Rev. Thos. Greenwood, Vicar. Chrisr. Allsup & Thos. Vincent, 
Churchwardens. Robert Wells, Aldbourn, fecit 1783. 
Priests Bell.— 1 ' : SANCTE : ANDREA." 

Cherhill, 3. 

1. *}< Anno Domini 1619. 


3. HE* Anno Domini 1641. I. A L. 
Calstone, l.| 

Give God the glory. 1603. 
Cannings Bishojjs, 8. 

1. Prayse God. I. W. 1602. 

2. Hope Well. I. W. 1607. 

* On former bell :— " William Jeffereys & Edward Raynolds, Churchwardens, 1707. A A R-" 

■t Chalked on the bell :— 

" God made Wells and Wells made me 
In Seventeen hundred and eighty three." 
t There is a tradition that once a good ring of bells existed here, and that the Cannings' people 
came and stole them. No frame work exists in the Tower for many bells. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 341 

3. Feare God. I. W. 1602. 

4. Thomas Mears, Founder, London, 1840. 

5. George Ferebe, Vicar. I.W. 1602. 

6. Thomas Sloper, Church W. I.W. 1602. 

7. Thomas Mears, Founder, London, 1840. 

Gaudemus gaudentibus 
Dolemus dolentibus. 

8. 4f Feare God ; honour the Kinge. Thomas Ferebe, 1626. 

Priest's bell. " James Burrough, Devizes fecit, 1738. a'jt {Church- 
Cliffe Pypard, 6. 

1. This bell was paid for by a Subscription in the year 1825. The 
Reverend Edward Goddard, Rector. James Wells, Aldbourn, fecit. 

2. Hy. Hitchcock & Jacob Smith, Churchwardens. Jas. Wells, Aid- 
bourne, fecit 1823. 

3. Harry Hitchcock & Jacob Smith, Churchwardens. James Wells, Ald- 
bourn, Wilts, fecit 1825. 

4. John Hopkins & Roger Spackman, Churchwardens. A A R. 1735. 

5. Anno Domini 1623. RAP. 

6. Prayse the Lord. I.W. 1604. 
Small Bell on Tower roof. 

" R. Wells, Aldbourn, fecit, 1789." 
Compton Basset, 5. 

1. 2. 3. Anno Domini. 1621. 


On side, 2 shields, each bearing "Chevron between 3 Cross Crosslets fitchee."* 

5. Prayse the Lord. I.W. 1603. 
Heddington, 5. 

1. Feare God. I.W. 1618. 

2. Prosperity to the Church of England. A A R. 1 741 . 

3. Peace and good neighbourhood. A A R. 1741. 

4. Love God. I.W. 1605. 

5. I to the Church the living call, 

And to the grave do summon all. 1741. 
Jlilmarton, 5. 

1 . I am the first although but small, 
Yet will be heard above you all. 

• Thin shield occurs on the 7tli and Htli BcIIh of Oxford Cathedral. 

2 Y 

342 Bells of the County of Wilts. 

"William Purdue. T.P. Edward Hopkins . ...a...n.» C.TV. 1652. 

2. Anno Domini 1631. 

3. *h IN : THE : NAME : OF : THE : HOLY : TRINITY. 


4. John Hopkins & Robt. Seager, Churchwardens. A A R. 1735. 

5. Abel Rudhall, April, 1738, cast all. 
Broad Sin ton, 6. 

1. Glory to God. ij« In memory of Uliana Margaret Tufnell. A. Th. C. 
Mears, fecerunt 1849. 

2. 3. A. Th. C. Mears, Londini, fecerunt 1849. Thomas Rodbourn, 
Thomas Gale, Churchwardens. J 

4. Mister Richard Midwinter, Mister Robert Alcocke, William Purdew, 

5. William Glanville, Esquire, and Mistress Frances his wife. "William 
Purdew and Roger Purdew cast mee, 1664. 

6. Come when I call, 
To sarve God all. William Purdew. R. P. 1664. Mister Thomas 

Alcocke, Minister, and Sarah his wife. 
East Kennet, 1. 

Mrs. Ann Tucker,§ 1704. W. & R. Cor. 
Overton. 3. 

1. *f SANCTA : MARGA|| : ORA. hi. 

2. Thomas Hall, George Browne, Churchwardens. 1683. 1^^ i 

3. Prayse God. LTV. 1606. 
Fyfield, 2. 

1. * SAHCTE : GORGI : ORA : PRO : NOBIS, tl. 

2. $ Anno Domini. 1629. RD : ND.^f 
Roicde, 5. 

1. Wm. & Rob. Cor. 1706. 

2. £• Anno Domini. 1639. 

3. Nathaniel Bolter made mee, 1654. RE : HR.** 

• Worn and illegible letters. 
+ Said to have been given by Cardinal Wolsey. 
t The former 2d bell had "R. Wells, fecit, 1772." 

and 3d „ " Jon. Hughes and Thomas Ody, Churchwardens. A^K. 1737. 
{ Tucker or Tooker. 
11 The Dymore family lived in the Parish formerly. 
•• On side of bell is a large shield bearing coat of Sir Edwd. Hungcrford, who died in 1618. 
This bell was probably the gift of his widow, Margaret, Lady Hungcrford, who died 1672. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 343 

4. >I< Anno Domini. 1639. 

5. I to the Church the living call. 

And to the grave do summon all. AiE, 1754. 
Winterbourne Basset, 3. 

1. I.W. 1581. 

2. T. H : R.W. 1581.* 

3. Feare the Lorde. I.W. 1609. 
Woodborough, l.-j- 

T. & G. Mears, Londini, fecerunt 1849. 
Wootton Basset, 5. 

1. 3. 4. Anno Domini, 1633. 

2. John Hollister, William Pinnocke, Churchwardens. 1662. W. A P. 
5. Com when I call. 

To serve God all. 1633. I. H : I. S. 
Yatesbury, 4. 

1. Ano Dni. 1636. W. F. 

2. (No inscription.) 

3. Ano. dni. 1636. 

4. I. Washbourne, T. Ranger, R. Walter, Churchwardens. R. Wells, 
Aldbourne, fecit 17 73. J 

Inscriptions required to complete the list from: — 
All Cannings. Newington North. 

Alton Barnes. Alton Priors. 

Bechingstoke. Stanton Bernard. 

Foxham. Tockenham. 


Deanery of Marlborough. 
Aldbourne, 8. 

1 . The gift of Jos. Pizzie & Wm. Gwynn. 
Music & ringing we like so well, 
And for that reason we gave this bell. 

Robt. Wells of Aldbourn, fecit 1787. 

• Broken. 
+ Formerly 2 bells— one was re-cast in 1849 : the other was lost at the Aldbourne foundry. 

£ s. (I. 

t " 1773. Feb. 23, Pd. for caring the ould Bell & brinifiiiK Back the new & expenses 1 10 

Mar: 7, I'd. Mr. Wells for a new Bell 34 8 

Ch. Wardens' Accounts." 

2 y 2 

344 Bells of the County of Wilts. 

2. The gift of Robt. "Wells, Bellfounder, 1787. 

3 Ex generosorum donis a Gulielino Jackson Vicaiio collectis et arte 
Gulielmi et Eoberti Corr hie sono. 1709. 

4. Humphry Synisin gave xx pound to bi this bell. 

And y e Parish gave xx more to make this ring gooe well. 
H. K. 1617. T.C : GA. 

5. Richard Scory and Edward Frances. C. W. 

• William Jackson, Vicar. W. R. Cor. 1703. 

On a shield, a bell between the letters V or T B.* 

7. Anno Domini. 1636. 


Bedwyn Magna, 6. 

1. 2. 3. Henry Knight of Reading made mee, 1671. 

4. William Burd, Robert WeUs, C. W. 1671. H. E. 

5. Edward Brunsden, John Shadwell, Churchwardens, 1656. WiPi 

6. In the Lord doo I trust. I. W : D. 1623. 
Priest's Bell.— " John Corr. B. F. 1741." 

Bedwyn Parva, 4. 

1. Geve thanks to God. 1581. I.W. 

2. John Hages, Gabriell Plaugsteed, C. W. 1663. A W. A P. 

3. God be our geyd. 1605. C. W. 

4. Be meeke and loly to heare the worde of God. 1581. 
Burbaye, 5. 

1. Hopewell. I.W. 1607. 

2. Love God. I.W. 1607. 

3. FeareGod. I.W. 1607. 

4. Prayse God. I.W. 1607. 

5. Hope well. 1606. I.W.f 

* Probably a Barbur, one of whom cast tbe let bell at Cbittern St. Mary, 
■t Re-cast by Messrs. Warner in 1854. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 345 

Chilton Foliot, 5. 

1. 2. T. Mears, founder, London, 1844. 

Win. Spearing, ) c w 
James Hopkins, ) 

3. R. Wells, Aldboume, fecit 1771. 

4. John Woodey, Thomas Chunne, C.W. 1663. WAP. 

5. Henry Bagley made mee. 1742. Roger Spanswick, Thomas Kimber, 

Into the Church the living I call, 
And to the grave I summon all ; 
Attend the instruction which I give, 
That so you may for ever live. 
Chiseldon, 5. 

1. William Combe, William Collatt. 1652. Cimreh wardens. 

2. Hope well. 1610. I. W. 

3. Be mercyfull. 1617. 

4. No inscription. 

5. Thomas Crooke, Robert Harding, Churchwardens, 1667. W A P. 
Chute, 2. 

1. God be praysed. 1582. I.W. 

2. Nicholas Martin, Vicar. Cast by me Clement Tosier, Belf'- 1681. 
William Norborn, Esq., John Hall, Churchwardens. 

Collingbourne Duels, 5. 

1. Robert Wells, Aldbourn, 1786. Edward Andrews, William Blatch, 

2. Hope well. I.W. 1608. 

3. be joyfull in the Lord. I. D. 1631 . 

4. James Burrough in Devizes, Bellfounder, fecit 1752. 

Collingbourne Kingston, 5. 

1. Give Almes. I.W. 1614. 

2. 3. Feare God. I.W. 1614. 

4. Prayes the Lord. I.W. 1614. 

5. Samuell Knight meade mee, 1695.* 

_ Robert White, Marmaduke Andrews, C. W. 
Unto the Church I do you call, 
Death to the grave will summon all. 

• Broken. 

346 Bells of the County of Wilts. 

Easton Royal, 3. 

1. Robert Wells, Alborn, fecit 1764. 

2. Praise God. 1633. I.W. 

3. Hope well. I.W. 1607. 
Froxfeld, 2. 

1. No inscription. 

2. H. K.* 1672. 
Ham, 4. 

1. William Hunt, Michel Benet, C.W. W.R. Cor. 1712. 

2. 3. 4. John Hunt, William Hore, C. W. 1663. A w A P. 
Huish, 1. 

LL. 1663. 
Manninyford Bruce, 2. 

1. No inscription. 

2. An°- Do- 1592. I.W. 
3farlborouyh St. Peter, 8.f 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. T. Mears of London, fecit 1831. 
8. T. Mears of London, fecit 1831. Recast 1831. J Thos. Vaisey Stiles, 
John Westall, Churchwardens. 
Priests Sell.— Sa.m\. Turton & Ch. Hunt, O wardens. A|R. 1741. 
Marlborouyh St. Mary, 6.§ 

1. Wallington Clark gave mee. J. Bliset, R. Ednee, C. W. R.C. 1654. 
2. 4. Robert Carpender, Robert Pears. W.P : T.P : 1653. 

• Henry Knight of Reading. 
+ " 1612. Itm. received by vertue of a taxacon made towards ye new casting 

of the great bell, and repayring the Church Walls viij/i. iijs. vjd. 

It. pd. for carriadge of ye bell xxs. 

It. pd. Mr. Wallys for casting ye bell BjK. xs. viijrf. 

1698. Oliver Low (Corr!) the Bellfounder's bill £39." 

Ch. Wardens' Accounts. 
t Six bells converted into eight. 
i In the Churchwardens' Account Book is the following entry :— 

"A Coppy of an estimate delivd the 17th July, 1769, By Mr. Kobt. Wells of Aldbourn, Wilts. 
First— to cast a new third Bell in place of that Broke, at £6 10*. 
Second— to give for the old third Bell, £4 13*. 
Third— to make all new Stocks, new Wheels, with all new Irons & Brasses ; & hang the 6 Bells 

properly into the frames, inclusive of the old materials, at £24 
Fourthly— If new Clappers are wanted, to be at 8d. per lb. ; new Baldricks with Screws, 15s. Total 
£24 15s. 
At this adjournment the 18th Day of July, 1769, It is agreed by the Parishoners then present, that 
the above Gentleman doe undertake the above job, on the above-mentioned terms. ( 

Jos. Gillmore, 
John Coleman, 
Stephen Gillmore, 
Nsthl. Merriman, 
&c, &C 

By the Rev. W. G. Lukis. 347 

3. Thomas Brown & Joanathan May, Churchwardens, R. "VVells, of Aid- 
bourne, fecit 1769. 

5. LB. & W.S. : R. Cor. 1724. 

6. Thomas Hunt, Thomas Harding, Churchwardens, 1669. W i P 1 E 

A P A A 

Mildenhall, 5. 

1. 3. 4. James Wells, Aldbourn, Wilts, fecit 1801. 

2. The Rev. Car : Francis, Rector, gave £10 towards these hells. J. 
Wells, fecit 1801. 

5. Nos. v renov : de rv quae ol : an : do : 1596. Tinn : inter sacra eccles : 
de Mildenhall incola? sump : su : P.V. an : do : 1801 Ed : Vaisey et Gul : 
Young sacro cust : J : Wells, fecit. 

Milton Lisleborne, 6. 

1. My chearfull note aloft shall raise, 
To sound my benefactor's praise. 

R. Wells. 

2. 3. 4. 5. Robt. Wells, Aldbourn, fecit 1789. 

6. Robert Wells, Aldborn, fecit 1789. 

James Warwick, Churchwarden. 
Ogbourne St. Andrew, 5. 

1. William Hawkins, & William Browne, 1661. A W A P A 

2. 4. Anno Domini. 1630. 

3. Will : Rob : Cor : 1719. Jobn Pears, Roger Osmond, C. W. 

Ogbourne St. George, 5. 

1. To bee the leadinge bell, 
To prayse and ringe well. 

I was given by Master Thomas Baude.* R.T. July fifteenthe, 1625. 

2. God be our guyd. R.B. 1603. 

3. Geve thanks to God. R.B. 1603. 

4. William Goddard, William Dixhon, Churchwardens, 1652. William 
Purdue and Thomas Purdue, 1652. 

Oct. 26, 1709. Sold to Richard Cook of Aldbournc, the old Chime Barrel that laid in the Bclferey, 
at one Shilling and Sixpence. 

Oct. 25. Mr. Rt. Well*, Dr., for the old third Bell, weight 7cwt, 3qrs. 131b. at £A 13s. 
Received of Mr. Root. Wells a new Bell, weight 8cwt. lqr. 21bs. at £0 10*. 

• Thomas Bondc, Esq., of Ogbourne St. George, was High Sheriff of Wilts in 1650. I'robably he 
was the donor of thin Bell. 

348 Belh of the County of Wilts. 

5. William Goddard, "William Dixon, Churchwardens, 1652. William 
Purdue and Thomas Purdue cast mee, 1652. 
Pewsey, 6. 

1. Robert Wells, Aldbourn, fecit 1792. 

2. Tho : Glass & Wm. Sumersett, O- Wardens. AiB. 1735. 

3. Prosperity to this place. AiB. 1709. Tho: Neate, Gent. 

4. $ SANC : TE : GE : OR : GE. e.r. 

5. it Anno Domini. 1620. RAP. 

6. Mr. Robert Pye, Mr. William Munday, Churchwardens, 1709. 
Abra : Rudhall of Gloucester, Bellfounder. 

God send peace. 

Priest's Sell. — James Burrough in Devizes, Bellfounder, fecit 1754. 
Preshute, 5. 

1. 2. 3. R & W. Corr. 1710. 

4. Robert Vaisey & Willm. Somersett, Chiu-chwardens. James Wells, 
Aldbourne, fecit 1809. 

5. Me resonare jubent pietas mors atque voluptas. 

Will : Mortimer, C.W. R & W. Corr cast us all in 1710. 
Panisbury, 6. 
1. 2. A. R A- 1708. 

3. Peace & good neighbourhood. A. R A- 1708. 

4. Abra : Rudhall of Gloucester, Bellfounder, 1708. 

5. Mr. Hawes, Vicar. A. R A- 1708. 

6. Prosperity to the Church & Queen. 

Matthew Giles, Thomas Bew, Edward Appleford, Churchwardens. A. 
R. A 1708. 
Tidconibe, 3. 

1. Hopewell. I.W. 1608. 

2. O God heare us. I.W. 1622. 

3. Praise God. 1636. I.D. 
Wootton Rivers, 5. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Robert Wells, Aldbourn, fecit 1793. 
Ecerley, 6. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. James Wells, Aldbourne, Wilts, fecit. 1814. 

Inscriptions required to make this list complete from : — 
Baydon, Manningford Abbas, 

Buttermere, Wilcot. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 349 

Deanery of Potterne : — 
Bradford, 8. 

1. Fear God ; honoiu - the King. lAR, 1754. 

2. Love the brotherhood. A|E. 1754. 

3. Thomas Yerbury & John Goldisbury, Churchwardens. 80 (sic for 1680). 

4. Thomas Yerbury & John Goldisbury, Churchwardens, 1680. RAF 

A A 

5. Honour the King. I.W. 1614. 

6. Frosperity to the Town of Bradford. Ab : Rudhall, Founder, 1754. 

7. Love thy neighbour as thyself. I.W.* 

8. Recast by Thos. Mears, Nov. a.d. 1842. 

The Rev. Henry Harvey, Canon of Bristol, & Chaplain to H.R.H. the 
Duke of Cambridge, Vicar. Charles Timbrell, Esq., Churchwarden. 
Sacred to God on high, and in this Temple rais'd, 
May holy sounds from me be heard, and He be prais'd. 
Westwood, 4. 

1. John Wallis, Gent., Richard Huntly, Gent., C.W. I.L. 1677. 

2. Illegible. (black letter). 

3. Ditto. (ditto). 

Holt, 5. 

1. William Earle, William Bissie, benefactors, 1665. I.E : L.C. A W. C. 
A P A R A F. 

2. Thomas Sartam Curate, Roger Goor, Churchwardens of Holt. Cast by 
me Clement Tosier, Belfounder, in Sarum, 1682. 

3. James Baily, C.W. 1716. W A C 


5. Tho : Carrington, C.W. 1699. LAC. 
Charlton, 3. 

1. tfl GRACIA. 
2. 3. F. Giffard & H. Fowle, C. Wardens. Robert Wells, of Aldbourn, fecit 
Chirton, 5. 

1. 2. 3. 4. No inscription. 

5. Nathan Cooper, Vicar. Michael Manning & Robert Amor, Church- 

On Earth bells do ring, 

In Heaven Angels sing. Ilalaliiiah. 1709. 
• Date MM i« chalked on the hell. 

2 z 

350 Bella of the County of Wilts. 

Isaac Warriner, Esq., promoted y e casting y peal, 1709. R. W. Cor. 
Walter Ernie, Esq., High Sheriff. 
Great Cheverell, 5. 

1. Prosperity to this Parish. A A P. 1716. 

2. Abr: Rudhall, Bellfounder, 1727. 

3. Prosperity to all our benefactors. 


5. James Townsend, Jun., Esq. ; & Hen : Soniner, G* benefactors, 1727. 
Little Cheverell, 2. 

1. No inscription. 


Coulston, 1 . 

Out of reach. 
Devizes, St. John, 8. 

1. 2. The gift of Wm. Willy, Esq. Mr. Tris : Godwin and Mr.Wm. Adlam, 

C h - Wardens. James Burrough, Founder, 1747. 

3. Vivat Rex et floreat grex. 

Anno Domini. 1677. R A P : W. C : T. C. 

4. Hope Well. I.W. 1610. 

5. Feare the Lorde. I.W. 1610. 

6. Mr. James Sutton. M. Jer : Williams, Ric : Smith, Churchwardens, 

7. John Jordan and Mathew Figgins, Churchwardens, 1677. R.P : W.C: 

8. Richard Hillier, Mayor, Gnt. ; Charles Danvers, Sqr., Recorder, Anno 
1677. R.P : W.C. 

Henry Johnson, Rector, John Jordan and Mathew Figgins, Churchwar- 
Devizes, St. Mary, 6,* 

1 . I am the first although but small, 
I will be heard above you all. 

Kataren Stronge, Jane Drew, 1663. W.P A R.P A I.D : P.S : W.C : 
T.P : M.D. 

* The history of these bells is curious. In 1552 one Thomas Hall complained that the Devizes 
Churchwardens had two great bells in their private possession, which they would not give up, (see 
Thomas Hall's letter, page 325.) Whether these rapacious gentlemen were compelled to disgorge 
does not appear, for some, if not all, of the bells, were recast by J.AVallis of Sarum, in 1606 ; and again 
one of them was recast in 1C16. In 1640 the 4th bell was recast ; and again in 1663, all, excepting the 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 351 

2. Henry Johnson, Rector of this Towne, 1663. T.P. 

I am the second in this ring, 
Tharefore next to the I wile sing. R.M. 

3. Richard Bundy & John Hill, C.W. W.C. 1701. 

4. On Earth bells do ring, 

In Heaven Angels sing. Halaluiah. 
Rob. Cor. (Founder's coat, chevron between 3 bells.) Oliver Edwards, 
Jacob Larrance, (the same coat repeated), C.W. Wil. Cor., 1696. 

5. Gieve unto Ceasar the things that are Ceasar ; and unto God the things. 
John Drew and Phillip Strong, Churchwardens, 1663. W A P A R 

A P A. 

6. Feare God and honour the King. 
Anno Domini. 1663. 

Come when I call, 
To sarve God all, to sing Halliuiah. 
John Drew and Phillip Strong, Churchwardens. W. P A R. P A I.M. 
Devizes, St. James, 4. 

1. Robert Krothe and Thomas Adlem, Churchwardens, 1663. 

2. Peace and good neighbourhood. A.R. 1742. 

3. Searve God. I.W. 1612. 

4. Prayese the Lord. I.W. 1612. 
Edington, 6. 

1. 4* Anno Domini 1640. I A L. 

2. tft Anno Domini. I A L. 1654. 

3. Richard Price, Churchwarden, 1781. Willm. Bilbie, Chewstoke, Somer- 
setshire, Founder. 

4. James Wells, Aldbourn, Wilts, fecit 1802. Jas. Newman & E.M. Ellis, 

5. iff Anno Domini 1647. C.G : W.P : C.W. I A L. 

6. I to the Church the living call, 

And to the grave do summon all. AlR, 1723. 
Priest's bell, 1671. 
Erchfont, 8. 

1. No Inscription. 

2. Robert Dorchester, Edward Line, Churchwardens, 1664. 

4th, were recast by Willm. & Hotter Purdue of Surum. In 1896 the 4th WM recast by Win. & Robl. 
Corr of AMbournc, and finally the 3rd wuh recast (for the third time in 95 years,) by Wm. Corr in 
1701. (occ page 242.) 

2 z 2 

352 Belh of the County of Wilts. 

3. Win. Pierce & Robert Giddings, Churchwardens. A. R 1743. 
4. 7. "William Springe, William Barnes, Churchwardens, 1658. WA PA 

5. Prosperity to the Church of Eugland. A.R. 1727. 

6. C. & R. Mears, Founders, London, 1848. 
8. Geve thankes to God. I.W. 1610. 

Stert, 1. 

Out of reach. 
Hilperton, 4. 

1. John Selfe, Richard Slade, C.W. 1664. NAB. 

2. Richard Slade, Churchwarden, 1664. N A B. 

3. Nathaniel Boidter made mee, 1663. 

4. Recast, April, 1853. Rev. E. F. Boyle, M.A., Rector. James Baven, 
Benjamin Spender, Churchwardens. 

Keevil, 6. 

1. Thomas Mears, Foimder, London, 1842. 

William Beach, Esq., Roger Bartlett, Samuel Ferris, Churchwardens. 

2. Hope well. I.W. 1609. 

3. Feare the Lorde. I.W 1609. 

4. James Wells, Aldbourn, Wilts, fecit 1810. James Watts & Andrew 
Burbidge, Churchwardens. 

5. S. Atwood & T. Bell. J. Marierand& J. Taylor, C h - wardens, 1761. 
T. Bilbie. 

6. Samuel Atwood & Thomas Bell. John Marierand & John Taylor,C h - 
wardens, 1761. T. Bilbie cast me. 

Sanctns bell. No inscription. 
Lavington East, 6. 

1. William Sainsbery, 1656. W.P : N.B : I.S. 
2. 5. The xxx of Julye, 1611. I.W. 

3. Peace and good neighbourhood. 1726. 

4. A Cleament Tozer cast me in 1680. A.N. Frances Herewethe. I.T : 
I.C. John Tucker, Roger Laesse, Edward Filkes, Churchwardens of Market 

6. Hen : Jackson, Richd. Townsend. Wm. Sloper, Churchwardens, 1715. 
Abr : Rudhall of Gloucester, Bellfounder, cast me. 
Lavington West, 6. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. James Wells, Aldbourn, fecit. 

6. John Sainsbury, Benjn. Hayward, Churchwardens. John Williams, 
Minister. James Wells, Aldbourn, fecit 1810. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 353 

Mar den, 5. 

1. Benjamin Hayward & Isaac Hamlen, Churchwardens. Robt. Wells, 
fecit 1788. 

2. 5. Mr. Richard Hayward & Mr. Webb, O- wardens. James Burrongh in 
Devizes, Founder, 1751. 

3. Anno Domini 1627. I. A L. (Royal arms on side). 

4. Mr. John Hayward & Mr. Saml. Webb, C n - wardens. Wm. Cockey 
cast mee 1740. 

Melksham, 6. 

1. A. R. cast us all 1703. Henry Long. 

2. Prosperity to this place. A. R. 1703. 

3. God save Queen Anne. Peace and good neighbourhood. A. R. 1703. 

4. George Moor, John Bull, Churchwardens. T.R. 1768. 

5. Josh. Smith, Vicar. Thomas Bruges, Esq., James Bull, Gent., Church- 
wardens. James Wells, Aldbourn, fecit 1808. 

6. Bohun Fox, Vicar. Isaac Selfe, Esq., Jacob Selfe, Gent., Church- 
wardens. A.R. 1703. Jeremiah Audry, Clothier, Thomas Flower, Gent., 
C&- Wardens 1702. 

Seend, 5. 

1. 2. 3. £ Anno Domini 1636. W. 

4. Robert & James Wells, Aldbourn, fecit 1793. Danl. Jones & Jno. 
Little, Churchwardens. 

5. Cam when I call, 

To serve God all. W.S : I.S. 1636. 
Netheravon, 5. 

1. Hope Well. I.W. 1609. 

2. Samuell Knight, 1695. 

3. O man be mecke and lyve in rest. I.W. 1585. 

4. Jonathan I 4* L Bolter made mee 1656. W.S : I.S : K.W : I.H : I.C : 

5. In God is all my hope and trust. I.W. 1588. 
Putney, 2. 

No inscriptions. 

Potterne, 6. 

1. The gift of the Rev. George Edmonstone, Vicar, 1820. Rt. Watts & 
Jos. Glass, C h - wardens. James Wells, fecit. 

2. Very ancient, with an illegible inscription. 

• The whole imscription is nearly illegible, and there are other lettcru which could not be deciphered. 

354 Bells of the County of Wilts. 

3. •£• Anno Domini 1624. 

4. Mr. John Gaisford and John Moore, C.W., 1713. WAC. 

5. R. "Wells of Aldbourne, fecit 1771. 

6. >fr Drawe neare to God. Anno Domini 1624. I.M. : R.B. 

Poulshot, 3. 


2. Serve God. 1606. I.W. 

3. Prayse God. 1606. I.W. 
Jtushall, 3. 

1. 4f AVE : MARIA : MA. 

2. Win. Cockey, Bellfounder, 1740. 

3. Hope Well. I.W. 1606. 
Steeple Ashton, 6.* 

1. Richard Long, Esq., C n - warden, 1744. George Ball, Treble linger. T. 

2. William Tipper, William Silverthorne, C.W. I A L. M. T.B. (on 

3. George White, John Tooker 1607. I.W. I. (crowned rose) R.f 

4. R. Wells of Aldbourn, fecit 1772. G. Ball, C-warden. 

5. Richard Long, Esq., Churchwarden, 1744. T. Bilbie, fecit. 

6. Richard Long, Esq., & Mr. Henry Brown, Churchwardens, 1742. T. 

Priest's bell. James Wells, Aldbourn, Wilts, fecit 1809. Samuel Hey, 
M.A., Vicar. 
Upavon, 5. 
1. 4. *j< Anno Domini 1658. T AL, 

2. God . help : ips : F. S : ips : G. I. N : ips. 

* 1606. This yeare also the first & third Bels were cast by Mr. Wallis of Salis- 

burie, who had for the same viijfi. 

1607. This yeare the first and third bels were new founded by Mr. Wallies of 

Salisburie ; soe likewise was the great bell for the performance whereof 

hee had 

1609. Itm. in the Tower five greater Bells & a little Sance Bell 

1616. It. pd. to Mr. Walles for casting the great Bell vjft. xiijs. iiijd. 

It. pd. to Mr. Walles for fortie nine pounds of mettle ij/i, ix*. 

It. for carrying the Bel toSaram jft. 

1666. Sixth Bell set up. " Which Bell Henry Longe hath undertaken with 

the consent of ye sayd Vestree, to sett upp tuneable & valewable, in its 

pportion to the other Belles then beinge. 

Ch. Wardens' Accounts. 

t Royal Initials. 

By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 


3. Francis Giffard & Thomas Alexander, O- wardens. James "Wells, 
Aldbourne, Wilts, fecit 1811. 

5. Andrew Biffen, Thomas Newman, Churchwardens. Cornell JohnWyn- 
dum, Sqr., Lord of this maner. William Tosier cast mee, in the year of our 
Lord 1723. 
Wilsford, 5. 

1. Abr. Rudhall of Gloucester, Bellfounder, 1718. 

2. Will : Longcraft & Ed : Alexander, C^- wardens. A|E. 1718. 

3. Thomas Twining', M.A., Vicar. A|R. 1718. 

4. Cary & Carolina Stewkeley, Ladies of the manour. AiE. 1718. 

5. Sabbata pango, 

Funera plango. A|E, 1718. 
Worton, 1. 

Out of reach. 

Bell inscriptions from the following Parishes are required to 
make the list of this Deanery complete : — 

Limpley Stoke, 
South Wraxall, 
North Bradley, 
Broughton Gilford, 




Monkton Farley, 





(To be continued.) 


Clje $m\W WwMim of HJiltsfiw, 


^rtiigms nf 8?ilt#t fwilm. 

By F. A. Cabeington, Esq. 

In the following paper I purpose to give lists of the names and 
residences of all those Wiltshire families which are to be found 
in the Heraldic Visitations of this county from 1533 to 1677, and 
references to all such Pedigrees of Wiltshire families as are extant 
as well unpublished as published, so far as I am cognizant of them ; 
and to show with what care and solemnity all the Visitations, ex- 
cept the last, were made, and how much importance was attached 
to them. I shall treat of 
I. The Heralds. 
II. Heraldic Visitations and the procedure thereon. 
III. The Visitation Books relating to Wiltshire : — 

1. General List of Wilts Visitation Books. 

2. The Visitation of 1533. 

3. The Visitation of 1565, and the additions to it. 

4. The Visitation of 1623. 

5. The Withie MS., comprising the Visitations of 1565 

and 1623 conjoined. 

6. The Visitation of 1677. 

IV. Miscellaneous Wiltshire Pedigrees. 

I. The Heralds. 
There is no doubt that the Heralds existed in very ancient 
times, but it is stated by M. Planche, in his " Pursuivant of Arms" 1 
that the word Heraldus as applied to an officer of Arms, has not 
yet been discovered in an earlier document than the " Imperial 
Constitutions of Frederick Barbarossa" a. d. 1132, it being also 

i p. 16. 

The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 357 

stated in the " Penny Cyclopaedia," 1 a very accurate work, (Tit. 
Herald) that the earliest mention of a Herald in England is in a 
Pell-roll of 12 Edw. III., and I am further informed by the Rev. 
Mark Noble, in his "History of the College of Arms 2 " that "Dukes, 
Marquises, and Earls were allowed an Herald and Pursuivant; 
Viscounts and Barons, and others not ennobled, even Knights 
Bannerets might retain one of the latter," but that the practice 
gradually ceased, there being none so late as the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth ; and he also informs us that noblemen's funerals were 
attended by their own Herald in a Tabard of his arms reversed. 
The Lord Mayor seems also to have had a Herald who, till very 
recently, rode in the city procession on Lord Mayors' Day, as well 
as the "men in armour," who probably were persons who had to 
do military service for the Knight's fees held of the Crown by the 
Corporation of London. 

The present Heralds in England consist of Garter King-of-Arms, 
(the head of the College) ; Clarenceux King-of-Arms, whose juris- 
diction is South of the Trent ; Norroy King-of-Arms, whose juris- 
diction is north of the Trent ; six Heralds, and four Pursuivants. 

The Heralds were incorporated by King Richard the Third in 
the first year of his reign, by a charter dated the 2nd of March, 
1483, by which he also granted them a house called Cold Arbor in 
the Parish of All Hallows the Less, in the city of London. They 
were re-incorporated in 1554, by King Philip and Queen Mary, 
who also granted them Derby House, which was destroyed by the 
great fire of London, but stood on the site of the present Herald's 
College. At the time of the fire the books and MSS. were pre- 
served, and are now in the present College. 

This most valuable collection is described by Sir Charles Young, 
Garter King-of-Arms, the present head of the College, 3 who states 
that they have the Visitations from that of Thomas Benolt Claren- 
ceux, taken under a Commission dated 20 Henry VIII., to that of 
Sir Henry St. George Clarenceux, taken under a Commission 

1 The articles on Heraldry in this work were written by Mr. Planob.6. 

2 p. 46. 
» ltecord Hep. of 1K:J7, app. (c. 8.), p. 106. 

8 i 

358 The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 

32 Charles II. ; Compilations deduced from Visitations ; Registers 
of P.edigrees ; and Arms of Peers and Baronets ; and nearly 1200 
MS. vols, containing " Copies of Visitations, collections of Pedigrees 
and Arms, transcripts and abstracts of Charters, Deeds, Inquisitions, 
and other records applicable to Genealogical, Antiquarian, and 
Topographical researches, comprehending the labours of Camden, 
Glover, Vincent, (whose collection alone present upwards of 200 
vols.) Philipot, Walker, Dugdale, Le Neve, Dale, Brooke, and 
Townsend, with those of some other distinguished and able mem- 
bers of the College." 

II. Of Heraldic Visitations, and the Procedure thereon. 

The Rev. Mark Noble in his work before cited 1 says that "Some 
suppose Heralds held Visitations as early as the reign of Henry IV. 
In the Harleian collection is a MS. intituled "Visitatio facta 
per Marischallum de Norroy, ult. ann. R. Henrici. 4ti, 1412." 
[Visitation made by the Marshal of Norroy in the last year of King 
Henry IV. 1412.] Perhaps this was not done by virtue of a 
Royal Commission, but the power which Norroy enjoyed he dele- 
gated to his marshal, who might have occasion to go into the North 
relative to the Scotch wars, then so frequent. In after times, when 
the power of the Heralds was more limited, and the Monarchs more 
careful of their authority, the provincial Kings-at-Arms sued for 
and obtained such Commissions to sanction their visitations, per- 
haps to enforce them. They originated, it is probable, from some 
skilful and industrious Herald taking minutes of what he coidd 
obtain respecting Arms and Genealogies, whilst attending Royal 
progresses on some public Commission in different counties in his 
Province. The earliest Commission known is that given to Benolt, 
(Clarenceux King-of-Arms), in 1528-9, empowering him to visit the 
counties of Gloucester, "Worcester, Oxford, Wilts, Berks, and 
Stafford. The latest is dated May 13, 1686, but under it some 
Pedigrees are registered so late as 1700, 1703, and 1704." 

A good account of the mode in which the Heralds' Visitations 
were made is given in "A Collection of Tracts relating to the 

i Appendix (K), p. 20. 

By F. A. Car ring ton, Esq. 359 

office of Arms," at the end of the last edition of "Gwillim's 
Heraldry" [1722]. This is, however, not written by Gwillim who 
was a Herald in the reign of James I., and died in the year 1621 ; 
indeed it is stated by the Rev. Mark Noble 1 that the real author 
of the celebrated work " The Display of Heraldry by John Gwil- 
lim," was the Rev. John Barcham, Chaplain to Archbishop Ban- 
croft, and Dean of Booking. 

In this work, 2 styled by Sir "Walter Scott "the Bible of 
Heraldry," it is stated that — 

" Visitations which are performed by the Provincial Kings-of-Anns, &c, are 
in the nature of the circuits of our Judges. For as these take the Kingdom 
round for the Administration of Justice, at such and such particular times, so 
do those ; and there inquire into all matters concerning Nobility and Gentility, 
such as Arms, Crests, Pedigrees, Titles, or Designations, &c, taking still as 
they go cognizance of all, and degrading interlopers and upstarts. The time 
allotted for these Visitations was once in about 30 years, because then it is sup- 
posed every one might readily bring proof without too much trouble either to 
the King-of-Arms or himself, it being a time within memory ; whereas much 
longer time would exceed memory, and might endanger other evidences being 
lost." "But though these Provincial Kings have power specially in their 
patents not only to grant Arms, &c, but to enjoy all the Power, Prerogative, 
Fees, and Privileges of their predecessors, whereby they should seem authorized 
to make Visitations to demolish unwarrantable Monuments at their pleasure, yet 
have they always a special Commission for visiting their Province." 

The Commission for a Heraldic Visitation, granted to William 
Camden, Esq., Clarenceux King-of-Arms, by King James the First, 
was given in evidence before the House of Lords in the Tracy 
Peerage case, 3 in the year 1839. 

This commission is as follows : — 

Com. jgptal SKtllo. 1 . . ., ea , . 

CamUeit ar. ) James > b y the s race of &od > &c - 

"To oure trustie and welbeloved servaunte William Camden, esquier, surnamcd 
Clareneieulx kinge of armcs of the east, west, and southe partes of oure realme 
of Englande from the ryver of Trente southwardes, and to all other oure 
lovyngc subjects greetinge. Forasmuohe as God of his greatc elemeneye and 
goodncs bathe subjected to oure empyre and governance the nobillitie, peopli , 
and comons of this realme of Englande : "Wee, myndynge of oure royal! and 

i " History of Heralds" Coll. 216. 2 p . 49. 

3 The evidence in the " Tracy Peerage" case will be found in the " Minutes 
of Evidi nee" of that case printed by on In- of the House of Lords, a work in 
Linoolns' Inn Library. The points of law decided in it are oontained in Messrs. 
dark ft Finelly's "Beporto," 7ol r, \>. 164. 

:{ \ ;; 

360 The Herald* Visitations of Wiltshire. 

absolute power to us coniytted to visitte, survey, and viewc throughout all oure 
realme of Englande and other domynyons, as well for a due order to be kepte 
and observed in all things touchinge the office and ductics appteyningc to armes, 
as also for refonnacon of dyvers and sundrie abuses and disorders daylye arys- 
ynge and groweinge for wante of ordynarie vysytacons, surveys, and viewes in 
tymes conveniente aecordinge to the aunciente forme and laudable custonie of 
the lawes of armes : And that the nobillitie of thys realnie niaye be preserved 
in everie degree as apperteyneth as well in honor as in worshippe : And that 
every person and persons, bodies politique, corporate, and others mayc be the 
better knowne in hys and theire estate, degree, and mysterye without confusion 
or disorder : Have therefore constituted, deputed, ordayned, and appoynted for 
us and in oure name, oiue saide welbeloved s'vante, William Camden, esquire, 
alias Clarencieulx, kinge of armes in the saide easte, west, and southe partes of 
oure realme of Englande from the saide river of Trente southwarde, to visitte 
all the saide province, and the partes and members thereof apperteynynge to the 
offyce and charge of the saide Clarencieulx kinge of armes, from tyme to tyme, 
as often and when as he shall thinke moste nccessarye and conveniente for the 
same : And not onelye to enter into all churches, castles, howses, and other 
places at hys discrecion, to peruse and take knowledge, survey, and viewe of 
all manner of armes, cognisances, crests, and other devises of armes of all and 
singuler oure subjects, as well bodies pollitique as others within the saide pro- 
vince, of what dignitie or degree, estate or mysterie soever they be lawfully 
aucthorised to have, use, or beare any suche armes, cognizances, crests, and 
other like devises with the notes of theire discentes, pedegries, and marriages. 
And the same to enter of recorde in a regyster booke of armes accordynge to 
suche order as ys prescrybed and sett forthe in the office charge and oathe taken 
by oure saide servante at his creacon and coronacon, but also to correcte, con- 
trolle, and reforme all manner of armes, crestes, cognysaunces, and devices, 
unlawful! or unlawfully usurped, borne, taken by any manner, person, or per- 
sons within the same province contarye to the due order of the lawe of armes. 
And the same to reverse, pull downe, or otherwise deface at his discrecion, 
as well in cote armes, helms, standerds, pennons, and hatchmentes of tcntes and 
pavilions, as alsoe in plate, Jewells, paper, parchmente, wyndowes, gravestones, 
and monumentes, or elleswhere wheresoever they be sett or placed, whether 
they be in shielde, scutcheon, lozenge, square, roundell, or otherwise howso- 
ever contrary to the antiquitie and aunciente lawes, customes, rules, priviledge, 
and orders of armes : And further, wee by theise presentes doe give and 
grante to the saide Clarencieulx full power and aucthoritie to reprove, controlle, 
and make infamous by Proclamacon, to be made at the assizes or generall sessions 
within the same hys province to be had and kepte, or at suche other place or 
places as he or they shall thinke moste meete and conveniente, all, and all man- 
ner of person or persons that unlawfullye and withoute juste aucthoritie, 
vocacon, or due callinge, do, or have donne, or shall usurpe to take uppon 
hyni or them anye manner of tytle of honor, or dignitie, as esquier, gentleman, 
or other : And likewyse to reforme and comptrolle all suche as at any funeralles 
or intcrmentes shall use or weare anye mourninge apparell as gownes, hoodes, 
tippetts, or suche like contrarie to the order lymited and prescrybed in the tyme 
of the moste noble prince Kinge Henrie, of famous memorie the seaventh oure 
grandfather, otherwise or in anye other sorte then to theire estates and degrees 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 361 

dotlic or shall appertayne : And furthermore by theise presents wee prohibitte 
and forbidde that no paynter, glasier, gouldsmythe, graver, or any other arty- 
fycer, whatsoever he or they be, within the saide province of the said Claren- 
cieulx, shall take nppon them to painte, grave, glase, devise, or sett forthe by 
anye wayes or nieanes any manner of amies, crestes, cognyzaunces, pedegrees, or 
other devises appertaynynge to the offyce of armes, otherwise or in anye other 
forme or manner then they maye lawfullie doe, and shalbe allowed by the saide 
Clarencieulx hys deputie or deputies, accordinge to the auncyente lawes and 
statutes of armes. And wee forbidde and straightlie comaunde all oure 
sheriffes, comyssyoners, archdeacons, officialle scryvenors, clerks, wryters, or 
other whatsoever the} 7 be, to calle, name, or write in anye assyse, sessyons courte, 
or other open place or places, or ells to use in any writinge the addicion of esquire 
or gentleman, unlesse they be able to stande unto and justyfye the same by the 
lawe of armes of oure rcalme, or ells be ascertened thereof by advertysemente in 
wrytinge from the saide Clarencieulx kinge-of-amies, or his deputye or depu- 
ties, attorney or attorneys : And further, we straightlie charge and comaunde 
that noe other person or persons shall intromytte or meddle with anye thinge or 
thinges touchinge and concerninge the office of armes within the saide province, 
without speciall lycence and aucthoritie of the saide Clarencieulx in writinge, 
under the seale of the said office, firste had and obteyned from the saide Clareu- 
cieulx : All the which said power, prehemynence, jurisdiccon, aucthoritie 
above specified for us, oure heires and successors, wee doe geve and graiinte by 
theise presentes, to the saide Willm. Camden alias Clarencieulx, dueringe his 
naturall lief, in as large and ample manner and forme in everye thinge and 
thinge as anye his predecessors or anye other bearinge the name or tytle of 
Clarencieulx have or had, did or mighte doe by force of anye letters patentes 
graunted by anye of oure p'decessors, or as of righte he or they oughte or 
mighte have used to doe and exereysed by force of his saide office, with all 
manner of proffitte, advantages, and emolumentes thereunto belonginge. 
Wherefore wee will and straightlie charge and comaunde all, and singuler oure 
justices, sherift'es, mayors, bailiffs, and all other oure officers, mynysters, and 
constables, and all and everie oure lovinge subjecte that in the execucion of the 
premyssea they effectuallye imploye theire best ayde, assistaunce, furtheraunce, 
and eounsaile to oure saide servante, hys deputie or deputies so often and when 
as he or anye of them shall require the same, in all that they convenientlie 
maye, as theye tender oure favoure and will answeare the contrarie at theire 
pcrrill. And further, by theise presentes, we doe aucthorise oure saide servauto 
to nomynate and appoynte under the seale of his saide office, soc manye deputies 
or attorney* as shalbe thooghte to hym expedients tor the better execucon of all 
and singuler the premysses. And yf there fortune to falle oute in this visitacon 
anye manner of scruple, doubte, questyon, or anye mysdemeanor, of anye person 
persons whatsoever, that oannot be conveniently e decided or ended by oure saide 
servant*, or by suohe deputie or deputyes or attorneys as he under the seale of 
hyi saide oflyce Bhall name and uppoyntr : 'linn mile mynde and pleasure ys 
that oure -aide Bervante, liys deputye, deputies, or attorneis named as ya afore- 
said shall comaunde suohe person or persons whome the saide question, scruple, 

or misdi meanor shall ot sine, under a oertayne payne and at a oerten daie, to 

appeare before the carle marshal] of Bnglande for the tyme, before whome the 
saide soruple, question, ox misdemeanor, shalbe heardo and ordered accordinge 

362 The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 

to the lawes and custome of amies in that case provided and of auncyente tymc 
used, anye statute, lawe, P'clamacon, custome, or usage to the contrarie in any 
viae notwithstandynge. In wytnes whereof, &c. Wytnes oure selfe at Har- 
feilde, the fyfte daye of Auguste. 

Per hreve de privato sigillo, &c. 

A similar Commission to William Dugdale, Esq., Norroy King- 
of-Arms, dated July 7th, 14 Char. II. [1662], is given by the 
Editor of "Gwillim's Heraldry" [ed. of 1772] from a MS. of Mr. 
Elias Ashmole, and he proceeds : — 

"This Commission being acquired, the King-of-Arms or his Marshal i. e. 
deputy, sets out upon his survey, accompanied with such other officers of the 
College as he shall suppose necessary, together with a Painter to make draughts 
of such Monuments, Arms, &c, as he shall have occasion to take notice of, 
sending his circular warrants to the Bailiffs of the several Hundreds or Wards of 
the county he intends to visit." " The form of which Warrant, 1 together with 
a Recommendation from the Bishop and Chancellor of the Diocese 2 I have 
thought meet to insert. 

'"To Robert Mastby, Bailiff of the Ward of Chester. 

" ' These are to require you, and in the King's Majesty's name to charge and 
command you forthwith upon sight hereof to warn those Knights, Esquires, and 
Gentlemen whose names are underwritten, and all the rest within your ward, 
as well those that assume the Titles as others, personally to appear before me 
Richard St. George, Norroy Kinge-of-Armes, on Thursday, being the 24th day 
of August next, at Widow Hudspithes in Clapitt- street, within the city of 
Duresme, (when I intend to sit for the Registering of the Knights, Esquires, and 
Gentlemen within your ward) and that they bring with them such Arms and 
Crests as they now use and bear, with their Pedigrees and Descents, and such of 
their evidences and ancient writings as if need require may justify the same ; 
that I, knowing how they use and challenge those Titles, and bear their Arms, 
may make entrance of the same accordingly. But if I shall not hear from them 
upon this notice by you given them, these contempts will enforce me to proceed 
as my Commission appointeth in such cases, not only to adjourn those that be 
gentlemen to answer the same before the Lords and Commissioners for the office 
of Earl Marshal of England on a day prefixed, but also to disclaim and make 
infamous by Proclamation, all such as shall refuse to make proof of their Gentry 
having usurped the Title thereof without just authority and just calling. 
Of all these things charge them not to fail as they will avoid the further Peril 
and Trouble that may ensue. Dated at Duresme, this 14th day of August, 

" ' My honourable good friends and neighbours, — 

" ' This a service which concerns your Honours and Arms, and the good of 
your Posterity, and for the continuance and recording of your Gentry and 

1 From the Visitation of Durham taken in 1615, fol. I. 2 Id., fol. 2.. 

3 The Rev. Mark Noble (before cited) at p. 19 gives a similar summons for the gentry to appear at 
the Swan Inn at Cirencester, on the 16th of August, 1682, containing an offer to go to the Houses of 
those who could not conveniently attend the Visitation. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 363 

Pedigrees, a thing usual and accustomed heretofore, fit to be preserved from 
decay which is incident to things of this nature. We, therefore, wish you to 
attend according to the effect of this Warrant, and there you see his Majesty's 
Letter's Patents, authorizing this his survey. 

' William Dueesme, 1 


Chancellor of Durham and Serjeant-at-Law. 
' Richaed St. Geoege Nobboy 
-King-at-Arms.' " 

The Rev. Mark Noble 3 gives a copy of the following letter from 
Robert, Earl of Ailesbury, (Deputy Earl Marshal to Henry How- 
ard, Duke of Norfolk,) to Henry, Marquis of Worcester. 

" Circular letter from the Earl Marshal : — 
"My Loed, 

" Whereas the King's most excellent Majestie, minding and intending 
that the Nobility and Gentry of this his Realme should be preserved in every 
degree, as well in hononr as worship, and that all persons and bodies politique 
may be the better known in their estate, degree, and ministry, without confu- 
sion, or disorder, hath authorized Thomas May, Esq., Chester Herald, and 
Gregory King, Rouge Dragon, officers of Armes, as Marshal and Deputies to 
Clarenceux King-of-Arms, not onely to visitt the county of Gloucester and to 
register the arms, pedigrees, marriages, and issue of the nobility and gentry 
therein, but also to reprove, controule, and make infamous by proclamation all 
such as unlawfully and without just authority doe usurp or take upon them any 
name or title of honour or dignity, as Esquire or Gentleman, or other, as by his 
Majestie' s letters patent more plainly doth appear. 

" These arc to pray your Lordship to recommend the same to such of the 
gentry for the county as are your deputie-lieutenants, for their assistance and 
furtherance herein, as a matter of great interest and eoncerne to the publick, 
but more especially to them and their posterity, and thus not doubting of your 
lordship's readiuess to promote so good and honourable a work, 
"I remain, 

" Your Lordship's most affectionate Servant, 
"Whitehall, 29 Jan., 1G52. ' Ailesbuey' D. E. M. 

' ' To the Right Noble, my very good Lord, 
Henry, Marquess of Worcester, Lord- 
Lieutenant of the County of Gloucester." 

The Rev. Mark Noble 4 gives a summons issued to a gentleman 
to appear before a Deputy to a King-of-Arms, in the following 
form : — 

1 William JameH, Bishop of Durham from IGOH to 1617. 
2 Sir Richard llutton, Knt., a Judge of the Court of Common Picas from 1G17 to 1638. 

3 " History of Coll. of Arms App." p. 18. 4 Id., p. 20. 

364 The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 

" Wokingham Parish, Co. Berks. 
" To Mr. Henry Staverton. 
"Sir, — You are personally to appear before Elias Ashmole, Esq., Windsor 
Herald of Arms, on Saturday, being the 11th of March next, by eight of the 
clock in the morning, at the signe of the Beare at Redding, there to enter your 
descent and armes, and to bring with you such arms and crest as you bear, 
whereof you are not to fail as you will answer the same before the Lords Com- 
missioners for the office of Earl Marshal of England, i 

The editor of Gwillini's " Heraldry" continues : — 2 

" And should it so happen that any receivers of such summons or notice by the 
Bailiff (regardless of the King's special Patent or Commission under the Broad 
Seal of England), should show such contempt as to refuse their attendance, then 
is the King-of-Arms to summon such refusers to attend personally the Earl 
Marshal in his proper court, at a particular time, then and there to answer for 
the said contempt. The form of this summons you may see in the copy of a 
real one. 

" ' To John Lister, Bailiff of Easington Ward, 

" Forasmuch as you whose names are under written have shown yourselves 
obstinate and contemptuous against the King's Commission and authority, in 
refusing to make your appearance before me at Durham, where I lately sat for 
the registering of such gentlemen as are resident within your Ward, according 
to such warning as was given you by the Bailiff thereof : I must therefore 
proceed as my Commission enjoineth me in such eases of contempt, these are, 
therefore, in his Majesty's name, strictly to charge and command you and every 
of you that you make your personal appearance before the Lords Commissioners 
for the office of Earl Marshal of England, on the first day of November next, 
then to answer and show just cause of this your disobedience and contempt ; 
thereof fail you not as you will avoid the forfeiture of £50 a-piece to his 
Majesty, and the further peril and trouble that by any of your contempt may 

"Richard St. George, 

" ' Dated at Duresme, " ' Norroy King-of-Arms. 

" ' This 22nd of August, 1615.' " 

The paper in Gwillim continnes : — 

" The King-of Arms, upon a Visitation, is allowed to take with him out of 
the office such Books and prior Visitations as concern or relate to the Counties 
he intends to visit, which always lie open before him when he sits to do business, 
and as every gentleman may enter as many of his posterity as he can prove, or 
may join him to a Pedigree in some prior visitation ; so also doth every man 
sign his descent with his own hand, which serves as a firm testimony to his 

1 This must have been in 1664, as Mr. Elias Ashmole then visited Berkshire for Sir Edward Byshc. 

2 p. 52. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 365 

" But for such usurpers of dignities as have vaunted in the Ensigns and Titles 
of gentility, &c, without any ground or reason for their so doing, these are 
obliged under their own hands to disclaim all title, pretence, &c, for ever, 
unless called unto by the King, the original Fountain of all Honours and Digni- 
ties; and for their presumption in publickly using such Titles and Ensigns 
before they have a right, they are degraded by the publick Cryer in the Market- 
place nearest to them. 

" The form of their Disclaim runs thus : — 

'"Cheshire: 3 Sept., 1663. 

" ' We whose names are hereunder written being duly summoned by "William 
Dugdale, Esq., Norroy King-of-Arms, in his Visitations of the County Palatine 
of Chester, as well for the approving and justifying our bearing of Arms, as the 
taking upon us the Names and Titles of Esquires or Gentlemen ; not being able 
to show any good Right to either of those Titles, nor knowing at present of any 
Arms belonging to us, do hereby disclaim all such Attributes and Arms, and do 
promise henceforth to forbear to make use of either, until such time as we can 
by lawful authority do the same. 

" ' Robert Moeeey, v 

" ' Jonathan Ceosse, ) „ _ 

<" James Knoll, of Chester." 

" ' Richabd Heath. / 

The entries of a " Disclaimer," " Disgrading," and a " Respite," 
, the 

in the Visitation Books of the Heralds' College are in the following 

" Disclaimers : — 

" The hunderthe of . of in the countie of "Wiltes hath made 

his aparance before me, Clarencieulx Kinge-of-Armes, and hath dysclaymed the 
name of a gentilman." 1 

of hath made his apparance before me, Clarencieulx Kinge-of- 

Armes, and ys disgraded."2 

" Memorandum, that I have respited and untill Mighelmas tearme 

to make theire Declaracon, or els to be Dysgraded of the saide name." 3 

The Heralds appear to have carried matters with a very high 
hand during the reigns of the Tudors and the Stuarts, but after 
the Revolution their authority was successfully questioned, and in 
a series of decisions in the reigns of King "William the Third and 
Queen Anne, it was established that the great powers claimed bv 
the Heralds could only be exercised under the joint authority of 
the Lord High Constable of England and Earl Marshal ; the former 
of these offices, with the exception of temporary appointments at 

1 Visitation of Wiltshire, 15C5, " Ilai-lcian MS.," No. 1111. 2 Ibid. s Iliid. 

3 B 

366 The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 

Coronations, having been vacant since the attainder of Heniy, 
Duke of Buckingham, in the reign of King Henry VIII. 1 

A very eminent judge, Mr. Justice Blackstone, in the third Vol. 
of his "Commentaries," in treating of the Court of the Lord Con- 
stable and Earl Marshal, and of the Heralds, says : — 2 

"Their original Visitation Books, compiled when progresses were solemnly 
and regularly made into every part of the Kingdom, to inquire into the state of 
families, and to register such marriages and descents as were verified to them 
upon oath, are allowed to be good evidence of pedigrees, and it is much to be 
wished that this practice of visitation at certain periods were revived, for the 
failure of inquisitions post-mortem by the abolition of Military Tenures, com- 
bined with the negligence of the Heralds in omitting their usual progresses, has 
rendered the proof of a modern descent, for the recovery of an estate, or succes- 
sion to a title of honor, more difficult than that of an ancient ;" and, after remark- 
ing on the additional facilities afforded with respect to the proof of Peers' 
descents under an order of the House of Lords, made on the 11th of May, 
1767, 3 this eminent judge concludes with a statement that "the general incon- 
venience affecting more private successions still continues without a remedy." 

III. The Visitation Books relating to Wiltshire. 
1. General List of Wiltshire Visitation Books. 

A. D. 

1533. 25 Hen. VIII. Thomas Benolte, Clarencieux. The 
original is in the Heralds' College, London. A copy is 
in the Library of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. 

1565. 8 Eliz. William Harvey, Clarencieux. Original in 
Heralds' College. A copy in the Bodleian Library, by 
Jekyll. A modern copy, by Hensley, in Sir Thomas 
PhilHpps's Library, MS. No. 54. Also MSS. No. 172, 
7428, 10487, 10646, 11182-3-4- [part]-6-7. An ancient 
copy with Arms tricked, in the Library of Joseph Neeld, 
Esq., M.P., at Grittleton. 

1 On this subject the reader is referred to the following decisions in the court : 
Parker's case, 1 " Siderfin's Reports," 352; EusselVs case (1692), 4 "Modern 
Reports," 128; s. c. nom. JRussell v. Oldish, 1 "Shower's Reports," 353, (the 
pleadings probably of this case being in "Lilly's Entries," p. 316); Oldis v. 
Domville, Cases in Parliament 58; Chambers v. Jennings, " Farresley Reports," 
125, and 2 "Salkald's Reports," 553. 

2 Chap. 7, p. 105. 
3 This order was rescinded by the House of Lords on the 18th of June, 1802. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 367 

Five Copies of this Visitation are also in the Library of the 
British Museum, in the following Harleian manuscripts, viz. : — 
No. 888, with additions by Ralph Brook, York. 
No. 1111, with additions by John Saunders. 
No. 1181, with additions by Henry Parker. 
No. 1565, with additions by Richard Munday, William 

Latton, and Robert Dale. 
No. 5184, (a very ill-written manuscript). 
No. 5781, another ill- written MS. in the same collection, also 
appears to be foimded on this Visitation. 

No. 1057, Alphabet of the Arms of Wiltshire gentry, in 
blazon, from this Visitation. 

A. D. 

1569. A Visitation by Robert Treswell, Blue Mantle : No. 79 
in Queen's College, Oxford. ( ? Is this a distinct 
Visitation, or only a copy of that of 1565)? 

1623. 21 James I. William Camden, Clarencieux, by his 
deputies, Henry St. George, Richmond Herald, and 
Sampson Lennard, Bluemantle Pursuivant. This vol- 
ume, in which the several Pedigrees are attested by the 
original signatures of the principal members of each 
family, is now in the British Museum, " Harleian MS." 
No. 1165. It presents an interesting collection of the 
Autographs of Wiltshire gentlemen of the reign of 
Charles I. One only, being from some cause unable 
to write, signs with a mark, thus : (p. 75) " The marke 
of A John Weston." 
A copy is in Sir Thomas Phillipps's Library, Nos. 10487 
and 11842. It has also been privately printed by that 
gentleman, without the Plates of Arms, but with the 
Arms described in words. 
A eopy is also in the Heralds' College : and another with 
additions, in the British Museum, "Harleian MS.," No. 
2230. Also in "Harleian MS.," No. 1054, p. 2, is 
"Arms (hastily tricked) of the Wiltshire Gentlemen, 
taken from the Visitation of 1623." 

.'{ b 2 


The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 

A. D. 

1677. 29 Charles II. Sir Edward Bysshe, Clarencieux. Ori- 
ginal in the Heralds' College. A copy in the Library 
of All Souls CoUege, Oxford. "Jekyll MS., 45." 
Another in Sir Thomas Phillipps's Library, MS. No. 

2. The Visitation of 1533. 

This was made when Heraldic Visitations were in their infancy. 
The pedigrees, with the arms very neatly tricked, 1 of this Visitation, 
are contained in a thin folio volume, written on hand paper, which 
comprises the pedigrees and arms of families in the counties of : — 





This Visitation contains the Pedigrees and Arms of the following 
"Wiltshire families only : — 








and in "Wales. 





Borley. 2 

3. The Visitation of 1565. 
This Visitation contains the Pedigrees and Arms of the Wilt- 
shire Families undermentioned : — 

Alleyn of Calne, 
Ashman of Calne, 
Bacon of White parish, 
Barret of Tytherton, 
Barret of White parish, 
Barwick of Wilcot, 
Bayley of Stowford, 

Baynard of Lackham, 
Beckett of Littleton, 
Bellingham of Orton, 
Bennett of Norton Savant, 
Bennett of Pitt house, 
Bewshin of Cottles, 
Blake of Pennells, 

1 Arms are said to be " tricked" when they are drawn in pen and ink, and 
the initial letter of each colour inserted, to denote the colour. — Arms are said to 
be " blazoned" when they are described in words. 

2 For this information respecting the Visitation of 1533, I am indehted to Sir Thomas Phillipps, 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 


Bower of Donhead St. Andrews, 
Bretton of Monkton Farley, 
Brounker of Melksham, 
Bruning of Segre, 
Bulkley of White parish, 
Burley of Whistley, 
Bush of Stoford, 
Butler of Langley, 
Calley of Highway, 
Carrant of Winterborne, 
Chaffin of Seales Clevedon, 
Cheyney of Uphaven, 
Cordray of Chute, 
Darnell of St. Margarets, 
Darrell of Littlecot, 
Dauntesey of Lavington, 
Doddington of Woodland, 
Erington of Heele, 
Ernely of Whetham, 
Eyre of Wedhampton, 
Eerrys of Ashton Keynes, 
Flower of Pottern, 
Gawen of Northington, 
Gethin of Fisherton, 
Gilford of Rodenhurst, 
Girdler of Clack, 
Goddard of Cleeve, 
Green of Standlinch, 
Grove of Donhead, 
Hall of Bradford, 
Hooper of New Sarum, 
Horsey of Martin, 
Horton of Iford, 
Hungerford of Cadenham, 
Hunton of East Knoyle, 
Jenkins of Vasteme, 
Keleway of White parish, 
Lawrence of Downton, 
Long of Ashley, 
Long of Kelways, 
Long of Wraxall, 
Ludlow of Hill Deverill, 
Mayow of Dinton, 
Mewea of Bishopston, 
Michell of Calne, 
.Mi' 1m.11 of Calston, 
Moinpesson of Corton, 
M "in (»< Hon (if Salisbury, 

Nicholas of Roundway, 

Page of Westhatch, 

Penruddock of Compton Chamber- 

Parker of Lushill, 

Percy of Chaliield, 

Perry of Warminster, 

Pleydell of Cricklade, 

Pople of New Sarum, 

Prater of Latton, 

Provender of Arlington, 

Quinten of Bubton, 

Redish of Maiden Bradley, 

Roche of Bromham, 

Rogers of Bradford, 


Rowsell of Vasteme, 

Ryley of Sarum, 

Shelley of All Cannings, 

Sherington of Medburne, 

Skilling of Dracott, 

Sneith of Lushill, 

Snell of Kington St. Michael's, 

Sotwell of Chute, 

South of Swallow Cliffe, 

Stanter of Horningsham, 

Stephens of Burderop, 

Stillman of Steeple Ashton, 

Stourton of Horningsham, 

Temmes of Rood Ashton, 

Thatcham of Idmiston, 

Thornhill of Charlton, 

Tropnell of Sopworth, 

Tutt of Oxenwood, 

Uffenham of Downton, 

Walrond of Aldbourne, 

Walton of Kemble, 

Warder of Platford, 

Warre of Tytherton, 

Wearc alias Browne of Marl- 

Willoughby of Knoyle, 

Wintersell of Radborne, 

Wroughton of Broadhinton, 

Yate of Buckland and Upham, 

Yi rworth of Collingboume, 

Zouchc (Lord) of Pit ton. 


The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 

This Visitation also contains the Arms of the undermentioned 
Towns : — x 

And the Merchant Adventurers, 
Clothiers, Weavers, Drapers, and 
Tailors of Devizes. 


Marlborough, ancient and modern, 

The ancient Arms of Marlborough were a Castle triple-towered ; the modern 
Arms being the same as are given in Mr. Waylen's " History of Marlborough," 
the ancient Arms being now the Crest. 

The Arms of Salisbury are exactly the same as they are printed every week 
in the Salisbury and Winchester Journal, but in this Visitation there is the 
following memorandum : — 2 

" These Armes with the Supporters, are aunciently belonging to the Mayor 
and his Brethren, as alsoe to the Communaltie of the Citty of New Sarum, 
w« n I have registered and recorded att the time of my Visitation of "Wiltshire ; 
which time was Thomas Jacobe, Mayor ; Robert Griffith, Richard Bryan, and 
William Webb, Justices of ye Peace : And alsoe George Snellgar, Robert Eyre, 
John Webb, Thomas Cature, & John Eyre, have beene Ma rs of that Citty, and 
Robert Tucke, Towne Clarke, Anno Dni 1565. 
" Per Hervie Clar." 

From this memorandum of Hervie Clarenceux, it would seem that it is an 
error to have the arms of the Mayor, his brethren, and the "communaltie of the 
citty of New Sarum," on the outside of the Shire Hall at Devizes, as well as in 
several places in it. I know that the answer to this will be, that these are the 
arms of the County of Wilts, to which I can only answer that I have never in 
any of these Heraldic Visitations, or elsewhere, met with any but very recent 
information, as to any arms belonging to the County of Wilts ; and Mr. Hervie 
tells us that in 1565, these were the arms which anciently belonged to the Cor- 
poration of New Sarum, and as such were then registered and recorded by him. 
Sir Bernard Burke, now Ulster King-of-Arms, in his " General Armoury" 
gives the following account of these arms : — 

" Salisbury, City of, or New Sarum, Az. four Bars or. Supporters, on 
either side an Eagle displayed with two heads or, ducally gorged, beaked, and 
legged az. ; as entered in the Visitation of Wilts, 1565, and depicted on an 
ancient painting still in the possession of the Corporation." 

It is worthy of remark, that among the coats of arms there given by Sir Bernard 
Burke, amounting to more than fifty thousand, he does not give the arms of 
any County. 


At the Visitation of 1565 there were the following disclaimers : — 
The hunderthe of Selkleigh. 3 

Thomas Browne 
Bassett, 4 

of Winterbourne 

John Suter of Aveburye, 
Rychard Francklyn of Ouverton, 

i Harleian MS. No. 1111, No. 1181, 1441, and No. 1565. 
2 Harleian MS., No. 1181. 
3 Harleian MS. No. 1111., p. 16. 
4 The pedigree and arms of this family will be found in the Visitation of 1623. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 


Thomas Brinde of Wanboroughe, 
John Truslowe of Aveburye, 

Anthonye Brynde of Wanbroughe, 
John Wyllicott of Bramber. 

The hunderthe of Kyngesbridge. 

John Andrews of Collingborne, 
Anthonye Stychall of Swindon, 
Walter Parker, als suete Lysell, (i.e. 
Sneith of Lushill,) 

Edmond Mylles of Radborne Cheyney, 
Symonde Hunte of Chisenboroughe, 
Thomas Huchins of Winterborne, 
Thomas Stephens of Baydon. 

The hondrethe of Estubbe and Everley. 

Thomas Maten of Entforde, 
Edward Gylbert of Everley, 

Edward Faley, als Faten. 

The hundreth of Potterne and Canyngs. 

Edward Perrye of Potterne, 
"William Flower of Lavington, 
John Lake of Bysshoppes Cannyngs, 
Richarde Woodrofl'e of Bysshoppes 

The hondrithe of Swanboroughe 

Willm. Sloper of Bisshopp Cannings, 
"YVillin. Rooke of Potterne. 

"William Lavington of Cherington, 
William Noyse of Manningforde 

William Pynckney of Rushall, 
Robert Noyse of Archefounde, 
John Hammes of Archefounde, 
John Bartlett of Alcannyngs, 
Geffrey Godman of Alcannyngs, 
Geffrey Pravender, 1 

The hunderth of Chippenham. 

William Long of Potterne, 
Thomas Long of the boroughe of 

Thomas Page of Cawston, 
Thomas Mylles of Barwyk Bassett, 
Henry Chever of Comberford, 
Thomas Cordraye of Chute, 
Willm. Sotewell of Chute. 

John Webbe of Slautinforde, 
Henry Bull2 of Chippenham, 
John Vinarde of Chippenham, 
Phellipp Smythe of Chippenham, 

Willm. Norborne of Bremmynge, 

John Scott of Chippenham, 
Henrye Goldney als Farnell, 
Edwarde Gerrarde. 


Edmonde Wykes of Dunyckemare. 

Walter Rowland of Littel Sutton, 
William Cockes of Dunyckemare, 

Xtofer Hen ton of Gorton in pchia Boyton. 

Est Knoyle. 

William Hunton of Est Knoyle, 
Andrewc Blackman of Knoyle, 

Thomas Bcechcr of Knoyle, 
Stephen Whitaker of Westburye, 

1 ThU entry ha« been struck out. 
2 From a flourish to the second "1" this may be Suiter. 

372 The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 

Xtofer Standshawe of Westburye, "William Byrte of Westburye. 

Robert Cogswell of Westburye, 

Robert Maye of Broughton. 


Thomas Ashlock of Haytesburye, 
Robert Stephens of Upton Lovell, 
Robert White, 

"William White, 
Anthonye Martin, 
Thomas Baylye. 


John Gale of Langley Burrell, 
John Wastefelde of Langley Burrell, 
John Bennett, 

John Jones of Cevell, (Keevil) 
John Williams als Clarke, 
John Beche of Warminster. 

At the Visitation of 1565 the following were disgraded : — l 

Clement Bathe of Bysshoppes-sora 
(strow) in the honderythe of War- 

William White of Steple Ashton, 
John White of Steple Ashton, 
John "William of North Bradley. 

The following were respited till the ensuing Michaelmas Term :- 

"William Alleyne, 
William Alleyne, 
Thomas Goddard, 
"Willm. Goddard, 

Thomas Aubrey of Chadenwicke, in 

the pyshe of Mere, 
William Bennett of Westbury, 
Thomas Bower of Dunhed Andrewe. 

This MS. also contains the two following Memoranda. 

"Memorandum, that Mr. Rycharde Scroope hath sent one to appeare for hym 
in his absence, for that he ys sicke." 

"Memorandum, that Robert Vicar & Portereve of the towne and boroughe of 
"Westburye, have made theire apparance and deelaracon that they have no 
Towne Seale." 

The Pedigrees and Arms of the undermentioned families, are 
contained in the additions to the Heralds' Visitation of 1565 ; by 
John Saunders, 2 by Henry Parker, 3 and by Richard Munday, Wil- 
liam Latton, and Robert Dale. 4 

Aubrey of Chadenwick, Aylward, 

Auncell, \ Baintoti, 5 

i "Harleian MS." No. 1111., p. 16. 2 Ibid. No. 1111. 

3 Ibid. No. 1181. 4 Ibid. No. 1565. 

5 Where the name is in italic the arms only are given. 

By F. A. Carrmgton, Esq. 



Baynton of Saruni, 

Beauchamp of Bromham, 

Bedford of Newbury, 

Bedford of Sarum, 

Benett of Pythouse, 

Blake of Pinnells, 



Bower of Layington, 

Bower of Sarum, 

Bowie of Sarum, 




Brothers of Knoell, 

Browne of Wilton, 

Browne of Donbead, 

Bullen, Earl of Wiltshire, 

Burton of Wilton, 

Button of Alton, 

Carpenter of Tinhead's Court, 


Chaffin of Sarum, 

Chivers of Quemberforde, 


Clifford of Boscombe, 





Cooke of Sarum, 

Cottle of Cricklade, 


Darrell of Littlecott, 

Dauntesey of Lavington, 

Dighton of Lee, 

Duckett of Caulston, 




Eyre of Chalfield, 

Fitchett of Barford St. Martin, 



On ham, 

Grobham of Wishford, 

1 1 itchcock, 

Ivy of Keinton (West Kington), 


Lavington, Hulcot, 


Leigh of Crosley, 


Long of Trowbridge, 




May of Broughton Gifford, 

Mayow of Chilmark, 

Mayow of Fonthill, 


Moody of Garsden, 

Mortimer of Stockley, 

Mussell of Steeple Langford, 

Nicholas of Calne, 

Nicholas of Coate, 

Nicholas of Stert, 







Poore of Dorington, 

Prynne of Allington, 


Richmond of Rodbourne, 



Sadler of Everley, 


Servington of Langford, 

South of Swakeley, 

Stump of Malmesbury, 

Stephens of Chisledon, 





Tomer of Tomer, 








The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 

Walwyn or Malwyn of Echilhanrpton 
"Webb of Rodbourne, 
"Whithart of Milton, 

Wiltshire, vide Bullen, 
Wiltshire, vide Stafford, 
Yorke of Rainsbury, 

4. The Visitation of 1623. 
This Visitation contains the Pedigrees and Arms of the Wiltshire 
families undermentioned : — 

Ashley of Nash hill, 

Ayliff of Brinkworth, 

Bailiff of Tytherton, 

Bartlett of All Cannings, 

Baitlett of Chirton, 

Bayley of Wingiield, 

Baynard of Lackham, 

Baynton of Broniham, 

Blacker of Salisbuiy, 

Blake of Pinnells, 


Bower of Donhead St. Andrew, 

Brind of Wanborougk, 


Brounker of Melksham, 

Browne of Wilton, 


Calley of Highway, 

Carpenter of Tinhead's Court, 

Chaffm of Sarum, 

Chaffin of Seales Clevedon, 

Chivers of Quemberford, 

Clifford of Boscombe, 

Cordray of Chute, 

Cottle of Crieklade, 
Cuss of Fifield, 

Daniell of St. Margaret's, 

Davy of Harnharn, 

Dauntesy of Lavington, 

Day of AVilford, 

Diggs of Marlborough, 

Drew of Soutb Broome, 

Duckett of Caulston, 

Duke of Lake, 

Earth of Mildenhall, 

English of Eingswood, 

Erington of Heale, 

Ernley of Whetham, 

Eyre of Broniham, 

Eyre of Sarum, 
Eyre of Wedhampton, 
Fauxton of Dowuton, 
Fawkenor of Laverstock, 
Fisher of Liddington "Wick, 
Franklyn of Woodberry, 
Goddard of Ashington, 
Goddard of Berwick, 
Goddard of Clatford, 
Goddard of Hartham, 
Goddard of Ogbourne, 
Goddard of Stanton Hussey, 
Goddard of TJpham, 
Goldstone of Alderbury, 
Gore of Aldrington, 
Gough of Allcannings, 
Gould of Alvedeston, 
Grub of Pottern, 
Gunter of Milton, 
Hall of Bradford, 
Harding of Pewsey, 
Harold of Cherrill, 
Hawker of Hatchbury, 
Hitchcock of Preshute, 
Hooper of Sarum, 

Horton of Iford, 
Hungerford of Cadenham, 
Hunton of East Knoyle, 
Hutoft of Sarum, 
Hyde of Marlborough, 
Ireton of Britford, 
Jones of Kevell, 
Jones of Woodlands, 
Jordan of Chittcrne, 
Kent of Devizes, 
Lambe of Coulston, 
Lambert of Boyton, 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 


Lapp of Durnford, 
Lavington of Hulcott, 
Light of Easton Piercy, 
Long of Ashley, 
Long of Ashton, 
Long of Wraxall, 
Lowe of Calne, 
Malyn of Marlinborow, 
Mogradge of Salisbury, 
Markes of Steeple Ashton, 
Marvin of Pertwood, 
Maskelyn of Purton, 
Maton of North Tidworth, 
Mayow of Dinton, 
Mompesson of Salisbury, 

Moore of Berwick St. John, 
Moore of Heytesbury 
Mortimer of Stockley, 
Mussell of Steeple Langford, 
Nicholas of All Cannings, 
Nicholas of Winterborne, 
Norborne of Bremhill, 
Norden of Rowde, 
Organ of Burderop, 
Pahner of Wilcott, 
Penruddock of Compton Chamber- 

Pickhaver of Salisbury, 
Pike of Martin, 
Pile of Bubton, 
Pinckney of Rushall, 
Pleydell of Cricklade, 
Poore of Dorington, 
Provender of Allington, 
Prynne of Allington, 
Raleigh of Downton, 
Eeade of Cossam, 
Reade of Wilton, 
Sadleir of Salthorpe, 
Sadler of Sarum, 
St. Barbe of Whiteparish, 
St. John of Lydiard, 
St. Loe of Knighton, 
Savage of Knowle, 

Scrope of Castle-Combe, 

Skutt of "Warminster, 

Smith of Bay don, 

Smith of Cossam, 

Sneith of Lushill, 

Snell of Kington St. Michael's, 

Sotwell of Chute, 

Souch of East Grinstead, 

South of Swallowcliffe, 

Spatchhurst of Humington, 

Staples of Boreham, 

Stephens of Burderop, 

Stevens of Devizes, 

Still of Christian Malford, 

Stokes of Tytherton, 

Stratton of Seagry, 

Thistlethwayte of Winterslow, 

Thynne of Longleat, 

Ticheborne of Sanun, 


Tooker of East Grinstead, 

Tooker of Maddington, 

Topp of Combe Bissett, 

Topp of Stockton, 

Truslow of Avebury, 

Tutt of Idmifiter, 


Vaughan of Falstone, 

Vaux of Marston, 

Vynour of Staverton-Wick, 

Walker of New Sarum, 

Wallis of Trowbridge, 

Walrond of Aldebourne, 

Warneford of Sevenhampton, 

Webb of Manningforde, 

Weston of Cannings, 

White of Charlton, 

White of Langley, 

Wignall of Sarum, 

Willoughby of Knowle, 

Willoughby of Littleton, 

Worth of Buckington, 

Yerbury of Trowbridge, 

Yorke of Elcombe, 

Young of Haruham, 

Zouche (Lord) of Pitton, 

In this Visitation are the Arms of the Borough of Wilton. 

3 c 2 


The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 


In the Visitation of 1623 there is the following account of the 
Disclaimers. 1 

"A note of such as have usurpt the Names and Titles of Gentle- 
men, without Authoritie, and now Disclaimed at Salsburie in the 
Countrcy of Wiltsheire, in Sept. ao 1623." 

John Heitor of Langford, 

James Linch of Whitparish, 

Samuell Lincli of the same, 

Richard Saunders of Hampwork, 

Thomas Lambert of Biskopston, 

Barnabie Coles of Dtvncton, 

William Oborne 

Thomas Newman of Charleton, 

Edmund Shore of Haydon Capell, 

"Wolston Forster of Meere, 

Robert Bisliopp of the same, 

James Eldridge of Linte, 

Richard Smith of West Kennett, 

Spencer of Beckington, 

Thomas Andrews of Collingborne, 

Giles FrankTyn of Wroughton, 

John Sadler of Queiton, 

Richard Maundrill of Compton Bas- 

Henry White of Langley Burrell, 
Thomas Hays of Sherston, 
George Bullock of Alderton, 
Fardinando Parry of Eston Gray, 
Johnson of Bowden, 
Isaak Geringe of Sherston, 
John Taylor of the Priorie, (Kington) 
Thomas Trumplin of Christen-Mel- 


5. The Withie MS. 

The Pedigrees and Arms of the undermentioned families are 
contained in a very fine MS. volume by John Withie 3 which has 
the Visitation of 1623 engrafted on that of 1565, with some ad- 

Thomas Shuringe of Nettleton, 
Walter White of Grittleton, 
Francis White of Langley, 2 
John Erberie of Atford, 
Robertt Flower of Littleton, 
Robert Summer of Passion's Mill, 
Henrey Grenehill of Steple Ashton, 
Richard Franklyn of Woodborough, 
Richard Hulbert of Ember, 
William Bayley of Merden, 
John Girle of Longstrate, 
William Turner of Highway, 
Edward Cooke of Cammings, 
William Keate of Heldrop, 
William Peirse of Stichcombe, 
SamueU White of Polshott, 
John Franklyn of Marlborow, 
Sadler of East Euerly, 
Thomas Jay of Fittleton, 
John Pike of Estrop, 
Robert Waters of Highworth, 
Thomas Roch of the same, 
John Turner of Norton Bavent, 
William Seamond of Skedmers Upton, 
Edmond Medlecott of Warminster, 
John Norborne of Studley, 
Thomas Hancocke of Fifeilde. 

i " Harleian MS.," No. 1165, p. 105. 

2 This name is struck out in the MS. 

3 "Harleian MS.," No. 1443. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 


Alleyn of Calne, 

Ashley of Nash hill, 

Ashman of Calne, 

Aubrey of Chaddenwick, 


AylifF of Brinkworth, 

Bacon of White parish, 

Bailiff of Tytherton, 

Barrett of Tytherton, 

Bartlett of Allcannings, 

Bartlett of Cherton, 

Barwick of Wilcott, 

Bayley of Echilhampton, 

Bayley of Stowford, 

Bayley of Wingfield, 

Baynard of Lackham, 

Baynton of Bromkam, 

Beauchamp of Broinham, 

Beckett of Littleton, 

Bedford of Newbury, 

Bellingham of Orton St. George, 

Bennett of Norton Bavant, 

Bennett of Pitt house, 

Bewshin of C'ottles, 

Blacker of Salisbury, 

Blake of Pinnells, 

Bower of Donhead St. Andrews, 

Brind of Wanborough, 


Brothers of Knoell, 

Brounker of Melksham, 

Browne of "Wilton, 

Browning of Segre, 

Bulkley of White parish, 

Burley of Whistley, 


Bush of Stowford, 

Butler of Langley, 

Button of Alton, 


Calky of Highway, 

Carpenter of Tynhead's Court, 

Carrant of Winterborne, 

(')iatlin of S;trum, 

Chaffln of Settles Clevedon, 
dot \ in ij of Uphaven, 

'hi vers of Quemberford, 
Clifford of BoBCombc, 

Cor dray of Chute, 
Cottle of Cricklade, 
Cuss of Fifield, 
Daniell of St. Margaret's, 
Darrell of Littlecot, 
Davenport of Lavington, 
Davy of Harnham, 
Dauntesey of Lavington, 
Day of Wilford, 
Diggs of Marlborough, 
Doddington of Woodland, 
Drew of South Broome, 
Duckett of Coulston, 
Duke of Lake, 
Earth of Mildenhall, 
English of Kingswood, 
Erington of Heele, 
Erneley of Whetham, 

Eyre of Bromham, 
Eyre of Wedhampton, 

Fauxton of Downton, 
Fawconer of Lawstock, 
Ferrys of Ashton Keynes, 
Fisher of Liddington Wick, 
Flower of Potterne, 
Franklyn of Woodberry, 
Gawen of Northington, 
Getbin of Fisherton, 
Gifford of llodenhurst, 

Girdler of Clack, 
Goddard of Ashington, 
Goddard of Berwick, 
Goddard of Clatford, 
Goddard of Cliffe, 
Goddard of Hartham, 
Goddard of Ogbourne, 
Goddard of Stanton Hussey, 
Goddard of Uphani, 
Goldstone of Aldcrbury, 
Gore of Aldrington, 
Gorges of Longford, 
Gough of Allcannings, 
Gould of Awlston, 
(Inint of Alton, 
Green of Standlinch, 


The Heralds' Visitations of Wilts/tire. 

Grobhani of Wishford, 

Grove of Donhead, 

Grubb of Pottern, 

Guntcr of Milton, 

HaU of Bradford, 

Harding of Pewsey, 

Harold of Cherill, 

Hawker of Heytesbury, 

Hewes of Bromham, 

Hitchcock of Preshute, 

Hooper of New Sarum, 


Horsey of Martin, 

Horton of Iford, 

Hungerford of Cadenbam, 

Hunton of East Knoyle, 
Hutoft of Sarum, 

Hyde of Marlborough, 

Irton of Britford, 

Jacob of Norton, 
Jenkins of Vasterne, 
Jones of Kevell, 
Jones of Woodlands, 
Jordan of Chitterne, 
Keleway of Whiteparish, 
Kent of Devizes, 
Knevett of Charlton, 
Lambe of Coulston, 
Lambert of Boyton, 
Lambert of Maiden Bradley, 
Lapp of Durnford, 
Lavington of Hulcott, 
Lavington of Wilford, 
Lawrence of Downton, 
Light of Easton Pearcey, 
Long of Ashton, 
Long of Wraxall, 
Lovell of Bulford, 
Lowe of Cabae, 
Ludlow of Hill Deverill, 
Malin of Maulenborow, 
Malwyn of Echelhampton, 
Margradge of Salisbury, 
Markes of Steeple Ashton, 
Marvyn of Pertwood, 
Maskelyn of Purton, 
Maton of North Tidworth, 

May of Brougton Gifford, 
Mayow of Cliilmark, 
Mayow of Dinton, 
Mayow of Fonthill, 
Mewes of Bishopston, 
Michell of Cabae, 
Michell of Calstone, 
Molyns, Lord 
Monipesson of Corton, 
Mompesson of Salisb\iry, 
Moody of Garsden, 
Moore of Berwick, 
Moore of Heytesbury, 
Mortimer of Stockley, 
Mussell of Steeple Langford, 
Nicholas of Coate, 

Nicholas of Roundway, 

Nicholas of Stert, 

Nicholas of Winterbourne, 

Norborne of Bremhill, 

Norden of Rowde, 

Organ of Burderop, 

Page of Westhatch, 

Pahner of Wilcott, 

Parker of LushiU, 

Penruddoek of Compton Cham- 

Perry of "Warminster, 


Pickhaver of Salisbury, 

Pike of Martin, 

Pile of Bubton, 

Pinekney of Rushall, 

Pitt or Benett of Pythouse, 

Playdell of Cricklade, 


Poore of Dorrington, 

Pople of New Sarum, 

Prater of Latton, 

Provender of Allington, 

Prynne of Allington, 
Quinten of Bubton, 
Raleigh of Downton, 
Reade of Cossam, 
Reade of Wilton, 
Redish of Maiden Bradley, 
Richmond of Rodbourne, 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 


Rogers of Bradford, 

Rolfe of Enford, 

Rowswell of Vasterne, 

Ryley of Sarum, 

Sadleir of Salthorpe, 

Sadler of Sarum, 

St. Barbe of White Parish, 

St. John of Lydiard, 

St. Loe of Knighton, 

Savage of Knowle, 

Scrope of Castlecombe, 

Scrope, Lord 


Shelley of All Cannings, 

Sharington of Medburne, 

Skilling of Dracott, 

Skutt of Warminster, 

Smith of Aberton, 

Smith of Bayden, 

Smith of Cossam, 

Sneith of Lushill, 

Snell of Foxham, 

Snell of Kington, 

Snell of Loxwell, 

Sotwcll of Chute, 

Souch of East Grinstead, 

South of Swallow Cliffe, 

Spatchurst of Humington, 

Stump of Malmesbury, 

Stanter of Horningsham, 

Staples of Boreham, 

Stephens of Burderop, 

Still of Chi'istian Malford, 

Stillman of Steeple Ashton, 

Stokes of Tytherton, 

Stratton of Seagiy, 

Stourton of Horningham, 

Temmes of Rood Ashton, 

Thatcham of Idmiston, 

Thistlethwayte of Winterslow, 

Thomhill of Charlton, 

Thynne of Longleat, 

Tichborne of Sarum, 


Tomer of Tomer, 

Tooker of East Grinstead, 

Tooker of Haddington, 

Topp of Combe Bisset, 

Topp of Stockton, 

Truslow of Avebury, 

Tutt of Idmiston, 

Uffenham of Downton, 

Vaughan of Falstone, 

Vaux of Marston, 

Vynour of Staflerton, 

Walker of New Sarum, 

Wallis of Trowbridge, 

Walrond of Aldbourne, 

Walton of Kemble, 

Warder of Platford, 

Warneford of Sevenhampton, 

Warre of Tytherton, 

Weare alias Browne of Marlbro', 

Webb of Manningford, 

Webb of Rodbourne, 

Weston of Cannings, 

White of Charlton, 

Whithart of Milton, 

Wignall of Sarum, 

Willoughby of Knowle, 

Willoughby of Littleton, 

Wintersell of Rodbourne, 

Worth of Buckington, 

Wroughton of Broadhinton, 

Tate of Upham, 

Yerbury of Trowbridge, 

Torke of Elcombe, 

Young of Harnham, 

Zouchc (Lord) of Pitton. 

In this MS. p. 210, is a list of " the names of those that were 
disclaimed at Salisbury, September, a 1623." This is evidently 
the same list as is before given — except that the name of Francis 
White does not occur in it, and that the name of " Willm. 


The Heralds' Visitation of Wiltshire. 

Westfeild of Fouant" occurs within those of Mr. Newman and 
Mr. Shore, and that 

Mr. Heitor is here Heytor, 
Mr. Oborue is here Osborne, 
Mr. Eldridge is here Eldring, 
Mr. Smith is here of West Kneuet, 
Mr. Maundrill is here Maundrell, 
Mr. Geringe is here Gereing of 

Mr. Trumplin is here Framplyn, 

Mr. Erberie is here Elberie, 

Mr. Summer is here of Passion Mills, 

Mr. Girle is here of Long-streete, 

Mr. Cooke is here of Cannings, 

Mr. Peirse is here Pearse, 

Mr. Jay is here J aye, 

Mr. Roch is here Rache, 

Mr. Medlecott is here Medlicott, 

6. The Visitation of 1677. 

This Visitation was very carelessly taken by Sir Edward Byshe, 
who between the years 1662 and 1668, visited the counties of 
Surrey, Sussex, Kent, Norfolk, and Suffolk, where it appears from 
a MS. of Sir Edward Walker, Garter King-of-Arms, dated May 
27, 1673, 1 that he gave great dissatisfaction to that dignitary, who 
complains that in those five counties he entered with the title of 
Esquires 146 persons, " to whom it doth not belonge, for any thing 
yt. appeares," and that it doos not appear that the persons who 
disclaimed a right to Arms and the title of Esquire, were " Dis- 
claimed by Proclamation, which ought to have been done." 

This Visitation contains the Pedigrees and Arms of the under- 
mentioned Wiltshire families : — 

Abbott of "Winter home, 
Ashley of Sarum, 
Batt of Sarum, 
Boles of Burcomb, 
Bowie of Idmiston, 
Coles of Warminster, 
Chafin of Sarum, 
Dove of Sarum, 
Duke of Lake, 
Elliott of Winterburn, 
Frome of Sarum, 
Garrard of Sarum, 
Hancock of Combe, 
Harris of Sarum, 
Hearst of Sarum, 

Hearst of Marlborough, 
Marshal of Milford, 
Mervyn of Sarum, 
Norborne of Chute, 
Priaulx of Sarum, 
Rede of Sutton Mandeville, 
Rede of Idmiston, 
Rede of Stratford, 
Smedmore of Sarum, 
Swanton of Sarum, 
Swayne of Sarum, 
Turberville of Sarum, 
Turner of Harnham, 
Wyndham of Sarum, 

i " Lansd. MS." No. 255, p. 58. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 381 

IV. Miscellaneous Wiltshire Pedigrees. 

There are many Pedigrees of Wiltshire families in the Muni- 
ment rooms of the Nobility and Gentry of this County ; in some 
instances probably but little known, even to their owners. 

I have mentioned some of them, including several very fine ones ; 
and hope that other members of the Society will refer to more, as 
they will be of the greatest utility to our future Coimty Historian. 

The arms of Wiltshire gentry were collected by Thos. Gore, Esq., 
of Alder ton, author of " Catalogus Scriptorum de Re Heraldica." 
The original MS. was, (in 1822), probably in the possession of 
George Montagu, Esq., of Lackham, Wilts. A Copy very beauti- 
fully coloured is now in the library of Sir Thos. Phillipps, (1854) 
No. 9734. 

Genealogical collections for Wiltshire are in the library of Sir 
Thos. Phillipps, Bart., at Middle Hill, including nearly the whole 
of the monumental inscriptions in the county. There are also cop- 
ies of Visitations, and other genealogical documents, in the library 
at Wardour Castle, the seat of Lord Arundell. 

At Tottenham Park is a splendid Pedigree of the Seymours, in- 
cluding Sturmy, Delamere, &c, which came into the Marquis of 
Ailesbury's hands through the heir of Beauchamp of Hache. It is 
beautifully finished with portraits, fac similes of deeds, seals, arms, 
&c. ; and is 23 feet 6 inches long. Also a MS. Pedigree of the 
Marquis of Ailesbury's descent from Bruce of Scotland. 

An ancient Pedigree of his family on Vellum [by R. Cooke, 
Clarencieux,] is in the possession of Thos. Grove, Esq., of Feme ; 
and genealogical collections of the family of Long of Wiltshire, in 
that of Walter Long of Preshaw, Hants, Esq. 

Emblazoned Pedigrees on vellum of Scrope of Castle Combe, and 
of Rev. W. L. Bowles, late of Bremhill, are in the possession of 
their respective families : and at Longford Castle, are genealogical 
collections of the family of Ilungerford. 

The Pedigree of the Morse family at Badbury, one of whom was 
fined for not taking the order of Knighthood in the reign of 
Charles the first, is now in the possession of Mr. Morse Crowdy of 

3 i» 

382 The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 

The Pedigree of the family of Goddard was privately printed by 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., in the year 1826. 

The Pedigree and Arms of White and Houlton of Grittleton, and 
of Greene of Fosscote and Brook-house, constructed from original 
documents by the Rev. J. E. Jackson, are printed in his " History 
of the Parish of Grittleton ;" and in his " Guide to Farleigh Hun- 
gerford," there is a corrected pedigree of the elder branch of the 
Hungerford family. In this Magazine, vol. I, pp. 271, 275, he has 
also published a table of descent of the Halls of Bradford, as mater- 
nal ancestors to the Dukes of Kingston. The same gentleman has 
also prepared, in manuscript yet unpublished, large genealogical 
collections of the Hungerfords, and of Thomas Gore of Alderton. 
He has also some account of the family of Thomas Hobbes, the 
Philosopher, of Malmsbury, which does not appear to be hitherto 

In Mr. Thomas Larkins Walker's " History of the Manor House 
at South Wraxhall," are elaborate Pedigrees of the Longs of South 
Wraxhall and Draycote, showing the Paternal and Maternal de- 
scents of Walter Long of Pood Ashton, Esq., M. P. These were 
arranged from the MS. collections of G. F. Beltz, Esq., and Charles 
Edward Long, Esq., nephew of Lord Farnborough. The latter gen- 
tleman has also privately printed the Pedigree of Long of Seming- 
ton, Whaddon, and Trowbridge. 

The Pedigree of John Aubrey the antiquary, is given in Mr. 
Britton's memoir of him published by the Wilts Topographical 
Society in 1845. 

The history of Castle Combe, privately printed by our President, 
Mr. Poulett Scrope, contains the Pedigrees and Arms of Dunstan- 
ville, (p. 19) ; Mortimer, Earl of March, (p. 69) ; Scrope of Castle 
Combe, (pp. 86 and 351) ; Scrope of Cockerington, (p. 354) ; and 
Poulett Scrope, (p. 358). 

Aubrey, in his Collections for North Wilts gives Pedigrees of 
Power of Stanton St. Quintin, (part I, p. 59) ; Long of Wraxhall, 
(I, 66) ; Snell of Kington St. Michael, (I, 113) ; Anstie of Brom- 
ham, (II., 6) ; and Rogers of Bradford, (II., 46). 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 


The Pedigrees and Arms of the undermentioned Wiltshire fami- 
lies are contained in the MSS. in the Library of the British 
Museum, and are referred to by Mr. Sims in his valuable Index to 
the Pedigrees in that Library : Title " Wiltshire" : — 

Bailiff of Tytherton, 









Gorges of Langford, 






Knevett of Charlton, 


Long of Dracott, 

Lytthcotes, 1 

Montague, Earl of Salisbury, 





Russell of Langford 




Stafford, Earl of Wiltshire, 







In Sir R. 0. Hoare's History of Modern Wilts are numerous 
Pedigrees of Wiltshire Families : viz, 

Vol. I. Hundred of Mere. — Esturmy, Hoare, Mervyn, St. 
Maur, Seymour, Stourton. 
Hundred of Heytesbury. — A' Court, Ash, Audley, 
Badlesmere, Botevile, Burghersh, Churchill, Coker, 
Delamere, Deverel, Gawen, Giffard of Brimsfield, 
Giifard of Boyton, Gore, Hungerford, Lambert, 
Lovel, Ludlow, Mautravers, Michell, Moels, Molines, 
Mompesson, Moore, Peverell, Stanter, Thynne, 
Topp, Wadman. 

Vol. II. Hundred of Branch and Dole. — Aucher, Burdet & 
Stafford, Camville, De Cadurcis, Freville, Grobham 
& Howe, Herbert Earl of Pembroke, Ingham, Le 
Moigne, Tooker, Waleran. 
Hundreds of Everley. — Astley, Beach. 

I Where the nam* la printed in italic the arras only are given in the MS. 

3 n 2 

384 The Heralds' Visitations of Wiltshire. 

Hundred of Ambresbury. — Clifford, Eyre, Hoese 
or Hussey, Kent, Malet, Wodhull & Hinxman, 

Hundred of Underditch. — Duke, Errington, Framp- 
tou & Bowles, Hyde. 

Vol. III. Hundred of Westbury — Ash, Chedyok, Cheyne, 
Gaisford, Gibbs & Ludlow, Pbipps, St. Maur, 
Paveley, Willougbby. 

Hundred of Warminster. — Bavent, Benett, Ewyas, 
Gifford & Buckler, Temple. 

Hundred of Downton. — Baynton, Beauchamp, Boke- 
laud, Duncombe, Le Dune, Nelson & Bockland, 
Ralegh, Shuckburgh, Tibetot & Lovell, Truslowe, 
TJffenham, Yaughan, White, Wroth. 

Hundred of South Damerham. — Horssey. 

Hundred of Cawden. — Biset, Bouverie Earl of Rad- 
nor, Gerberd, Gorges, Plessj r , Roniesey, St. Omer, 
Servington or Cervington, Toeni or Tony, Warre, 

Yol. IV. Hundred of Dunworth. — Arundell of Wardour, 
Beckford, Cottington, Davies, Dunstanville, Feme, 
Gawen, Grobham & Howe, Grove, Hungerford, 
Hussey, Hyde & Parker, Kneller, Ley, Mayne, 
Mervyn, Penruddocke, Powell, Pytt alias Bennett 
& Benett, Tregoz, Worsley, Wyndham. 
Hundred of Chalk. — Bowles & Davies, Bull & 
Polhill, Chaldecot, Croke & Phillipps, Dalton, 
Frampton, Gawen, Gold, Hyde & Parker, Lisle, 
Martell & Fitzherbert, Payne, Scudamore & Bavent, 
Tourney, Uvedale & Okeden, Webb, West Lord 
Delawarr, Wyndham & Wadham. 

Vol. V. Hundred of Alderbury. — Ashley, Bathurst of Cla- 
rendon, Bowie, Le Despencer, Elliott, Evelyn, 
Fitz-Piers, Fox-Strangways, Goldston, Gomeldon, 
Nicholas of Winterbourn Earls, Strangways, Zouche. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 385 

Hundred of Frustfield. — Bacon, Barrett, Berenger, 
Le Boteler, Brereton, Bristowe, Bulkeley, Comp- 
ton, Davenant, English, Eyre of Beverley, Eyre of 
the Close of Salisbury, Eyre of Newhouse, Eyre of 
Eyre Court, Eyre of Brickworth, Eyre of Warrens, 
Heyraz, Hitchcock, Keilway or Keleway, Lawrence 
of Cowesfield, Lye, Ringwood, St. Barbe, Spelman, 
John Tichbourne, Tregagle, Tropenell, Warder, 
Warren, Waryne, Wyche. 
Vol. VI. History of Salisbury, by Henry Hatcher, Esq. — 
The first and second Houses of the Earls of Salis- 
Before leaving this subject, I ought to mention that there is in 
the Library of the British Museum, a Copy of the subsidy roll of 
29 Eliz. 1 for the County of Wilts, containing 582 names and resi- 
dences of the gentry of Wilts, the nobility being in a separate 
list in the same MS. There is also in one of the copies of the 
Wilts Visitation book of 1565, a subsidy roll without date. 2 

Note. — That there was a Heralds' Visitation in 1412 (as mentioned above 
p. 358) is much questioned by Mr. Stacey Grimaldi in his " Origines Genealogicce" 
(p. 252). The MS. supposed to contain it (which I have examined), is a volume 
of detached Pedigrees bound together, several of them having dates in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and the only evidence of such a Visitation would be 
equal evidence of Heralds' Visitations in 1334 and at several other periods. 
The volume in question is the " Harleian MS." No. 1196, art. 80, which is 
between folios 75 and 76 in the Pedigree of the family of Alsopp of Alsopp in 
the Dale, in the county of Derby, at the sides of which are the two following 
notes. The one is — 

"Visitatio facta p. me Bewe James, principalem regem Armor: in an dni 
1334, ano regni Regis Ed. III." 

[Visitation made by me Bewe James, principal King-of-Arms, A.D. 1334 
and in the year of King Edward III.]; no year being mentioned. 

The other is — 

"Visitatio facta p. Marischallum de Norray, ultimo anno Henrici IV., 1412." 

[Visitation made by the Marshal of Norroy, in the last year of Henry IV 

Ana at the bottom of the pago in the same handwriting as the Pedigree and 
the other notes is as follows : — 

"Yldend. ]>ml>at. et recordat. p. me Ricdm Lee als Clareucix principalem 
Regem Armor in an" Regni Regime nunc Elizab. xxxix. annoq. 1596." 

i " Harleuo MS." No. 336, art. 22. * " Ilarkiun MS." No. 1111. 

386 The Heralds' Visitation of Wiltshire. 

[Seen, approved, and recorded by me Richard Lee, alias Clarenceux, Prin- 
cipal King-of-Arms, in the 39th year of the reign of the now Queen Elizabeth, 

and in the year 1596]. 

It is however, also worthy of remark that in the Pedigree of the family of Robin- 
son of Dunington in the Isle of Ely, on the back of the same page of the MS., 
various descents have written against them the following side notes, as if to 
verify them by Visitations of these different dates : — 

" The Visitation made in ye 13 yeare of K. Ed. II. 1316." 
"The Visitation made by Bew James, principall King of Heraultes, 2 Ed. 
III. 1327." 

" The Visitation made by Bew James, principall King of Heraults, ye last of 
K. Ed. III. 1376." 

" The Visitation made in ano I. H. 6. 1422." 

" The Visitation of Tho' Holtby, principall King-of-Armes, 4 Ed. 4. 1464." 
" The Visitation made by Tho Wresley, principall K. of Armes, 8 H. 7. 1492." 
" The Visitation made by Warcopp, principal K. of Armes, 4 H. 8. 1514." 
From this it would seem that Mr. Lee must have seen the Visitations of Bewe 
James, of Holtby, of "Wresley, and of Warcopp, as he refers to them not only 
by the names but by the dates also, and yet it is strange that if such Visitations 
ever existed, no copies or extracts should be found. 

I ought also to have mentioned with respect to all the Pedigrees in the Heral- 
dic Visitations in the Library of the British Museum, that the pages of the 
different MSS. in which they are to be found can be readily ascertained by refer- 
ence to Mr. Sims's most useful " Index to the Heraldic Collections" there. 

F. A. C. 


Wilts jifehceol.Mxff 185$. 


Henry de JZslicrrrit/ 32Etiui.HI. Prior 


Prebend of YeZminster & Grunstcn-. 
in- Sourixm- CcCthedLrouV . 

Foivn-bt a.1 ■ Bra-d-en-etoke- Jibbeij 

Th-om-cK-s GiffaroV. 

FdiofKite cUl'. 


B3iltejjire $u\b. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 

The annexed Plate exhibits Five Seals relating to the County, 
which have never been published before. 

No. 1. An exquisite Seal of Henry Estunny, "Lord of Fighel- 
dean," (in the Hundred of Ambresbury), attached to a re- 
ceipt for money, dated Michaelmas, 1358, (32 Edw. III.) 
In the centre the shield of Esturmy ; Argent, 3 demi-lions 
rampant gules: within roundels at the sides, the shield of 
Hussey, Barry of six gules and ermine. In a roundel at 
the top, a bugle horn. 
The early history of Figheldean, as given by Sir It. C. Hoare, 1 
is confined to the single fact of its having belonged (together with 
lands at Ablington, Durrington, Standen Hussey, and North Tid- 
worth, &c.) to a family of Hussey, from John to 7 Rich. II. 
(1383) . 2 

The document therefore to which this Seal is appended supplies 
the next link in its manorial history ; showing that the Husseys 
were succeeded by the family of Esturmy. From other sources it 
appears that Henry, second son of Henry Esturmy of Wolf- Hall, 
married Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of Hubert Hussey; her 
sister Isabella being the wife of John de Torney. 3 

1 Hundred of Ambresbury, p. 34. 

2 Aubrey speaks of two fair freestone monuments of Knights cross-legged, 
with shields, and at the foot of each a lion, as then (1674) in the South Aisle of 
Figheldean Church, near the Belfry. Whose they were he could not learn : and 
they were " tumbled one on the top of the other." They are now (1855) placed 
in the Chancel in a standing position : but there is no device by which they can 
be identified. They are probably effigies of Hussey, the charges on whose 
shield were of a kind easily effaced. 

3 Inq. p. Mort., 10 Edw. III. and History of Mere, 117. 

388 Wiltshire Seal*. 

The Esturmys were chief Rangers of Savernake Forest, to which 
office the bugle horn at the top of the Seal probably alludes; but 
that some of them had a propensity for ranging in their neighbours' 
forests as well as in their own, appears from a curious story, alleg- 
ed to be preserved in Bishop Mortival's Register at Sarum, 1 relating 
to Henry Esturmy the elder above-mentioned. In 9 Edw. II. (1315- 
16) with a party of sporting retainers from Milton, Burbage, &c, 
nine in number, he broke into the Bishop of Salisbury's Park, then 
at Ramsbury, and ventured to make a foray amongst the Episcopal 
deer. Having thereby incurred the sentence of greater excommu- 
nication, they submitted ; had to make restitution and do penance. 
The restitution was to replace twelve head of deer, and pay twelve 
barrels of wine. The penance (which it is difficult to believe could 
have been literally enforced) was, that they should go round the 
Market-place of Marlborough on two different market days 
stripped to their shirts and nether garments : the Vicar of Marl- 
borough, or some other clerk, to whip them according to custom in 
such cases : and that afterwards, in solemn procession at Salisbury, 
they should present a wax taper each at the tomb of Simon of 
Ghent the late Bishop of Sarum : on which condition the sentence 
was taken off. 

The privileges of Forester of Savernake, as claimed by this 
Henry Esturmy the elder, are detailed in a curious document 
printed in Mr. Waylen's "History of Marlborough," p. 70. 

Henrv Esturmy, junior (to whom the seal belonged), was 
Knight of the Shire for Wilts 36, 37, and 42, Edw. III. 

By the marriage of Maud Esturmy, heiress of the eldest branch 
of the family at Wolf- Hall, that property passed to the Seymours, 
about the reign of Henry IV. 

The Charter Horn still preserved at Tottenham, and sometimes 
called Esturmy's horn, is described in the " Archaoologia" (Vol. III. 
p. 28), by Dean Milles ; who says there is no evidence on record 
relating to Savernake that shows how the horn came to the present 
owners. A green worsted belt is attached to it, with silver bosses, 
on which are the arms of a Scotch family, Fitz Duncan — Argent, 

* " Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of Salisbury." p. 89. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 389 

within a double tressure flory and counterflory gules, three lozen- 
ges of the second. If the belt originally belonged to the horn, it 
could not have been Esturmy's, their paternal coat being as repre- 
sented in the Seal. It is now more commonly called the Bruce 

Into what family Figheldean passed from the second house of 
Esturmy, does not at present appear. 

No. 2. A silver Seal found in 1841 on the site of the Monastery 
of St. Mary Magdalene, at Monkton Farley, Wilts., during 
an excavation made there by the late Wade Browne, Esq. 
of that place. It is very well cut, and bears the legend 
CAPUT MARIE MAGDALENE. The Editors of the 
" New Monasticon" say that no Seal of this Priory had 
been yet discovered. The present one is not likely to have 
been that of the Priory, but more probably the private Seal 
of some Prior. 
No. 3. The following account of this Seal has been kindly sent by 
its present possessor, Albert Way, Esq. : — 

" It is an impression from the ancient Seal of the Official of the Prebend of 
Yetminster and Grimston, in the Cathedral of Salisbury, -which may be regarded 
with interest as an example of 14th century workmanship, and is scarcely less 
curious on account of the singular circumstances under which it was found. 

' ' It may be scarcely requisite to recall to the Society the history of Yetminster, 
a place which gives a name to a hundred in the County of Dorset, and of which 
and the details of its manorial history, and curious local customs, a full account 
has been given by Hutchins in his " History of Dorset," vol iv, p. 264. It 
will suffice to advert briefly to the leading facts, that at the time of the Domes- 
day Survey, Eteminster was held by the Bishop of Sarum : that amongst the 
various gifts of Bishop Osmund when he built the New Church at Sarum, at the 
close of the Eleventh century, the town of Eteminster, knights' fees, &c, were 
comprised. The principal manor seems to have belonged to the Bishop and 
Chapter of Salisbury, and having been granted by James I. with the hundred of 
Yetminster to Sir John Digby, this manor is actually in the possession of Lord 
Digby. There are in this parish three manors, which give name to three Pre- 
bends in die Cathedra] of Salisbury, namely: — 1. Yetminster and Grimston; 
2. Yetminster prima or Upbury ; 3. Yetminster secunda or Inferior, or Nother- 

" With the first of these Prebends the Seal which I have the pleasure to com- 
municate to the Wiltshire Archaeologists, is comim ei< <l. Tin rhurrli . > C Y<t mins- 
ter, it must be observed, is within the peculiars of the De.ui of -\irum ; Imi the 
juri diction of the Dean, as we are informed byHutohins, is of a limited nature. 
Every third year i<. is solely within his jurisdiction, when he visits, grants 

3 K 

390 Wiltshire Seals. 

letters of administration, &c. At other times it is subject to the Prebendary of 
Yetminster and Grimston, whose jurisdiction is almost as extensive as the 
Dean's. He visits, grants administrations, and has a regular Court at Salis- 
bury, iu which Wills are proved. 1 

" I have only to add the singular circumstances under which, I have been in- 
formed, that this ancient Seal was found. About ten years since an iron- 
monger at Bridgewater, who occasionally purchased old metal, purchased a 
quantity brought to him as having been collected in the neighbourhood of 
Glastonbury and the adjacent -soilages. Amongst the metal was a lump 
of clay, possibly put there to increase the weight if overlooked ; it was, 
however, noticed and thrown aside. After the vendor, however, had left the 
shop, it happened that this rejected lump of clay was struck with a hammer, 
and the brass matrix of the Seal proved to be enclosed within it. No further 
account could be obtained, in regard to the precise place where it may have 
been found, or whether its concealment in the clay was merely recent, and the 
lump added to the old metal with some such intention of deceiving the pur- 
chaser, as has been conjectured. It seems possible that the finder may have 
remarked some small appearance of the existence of metal in the piece of clay, 
without percehing that it was an object of any interest or elaborate workman- 
ship. He would, accordingly, not have taken the tronble to clear the clay from 
the matrix, more especially as the addition to the weight would be to a trifling 
degree in his favor." 

Mr. Way adds : — 

" I am in possession of the brass matrix of a Shrieval Seal, having been that 
of one of the Giffard family, who was Sheriff of Hampshire in the reign of 
Henry VI. It was found in splitting up an aged oak tree near Crondale, in 
that county, and fell out of the decayed old trunk of the tree in the course of 
that operation. Tliis preservation and discovery of a seal is sufficiently singu- 
lar, but I think the particulars which I have mentioned regarding the Yet- 
minster Seal are scarcely less remarkable, and may serve to remind the archae- 
ologist that a vigilant watch must be maintained, even under circumstances ap- 
parently least favourable to his enquiries." 

Grimston is a hamlet in the Parish of Stratton in the Hundred 

of St. George, county Dorset. It anciently belonged to the Church 

of Sarum, forming a Prebend in conjunction with Yateminster. 

On the Seal is the figure of St. Andrew in crucifixion, the Saint to 

whom Yateminster Church is dedicated ; and round tbe margin 



1 The Prebend of Yetminster being now shorn of all substantial provision, the proceeds of the stall 
being taken care of by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, the Prebendary enjoys the honorary title 
only, with the privilege of paying very heavy fees for taking possession of it. The jurisdiction used 
to be nearly as Hatching has stated it : or rather it was this : that the Dean had Episcopal jurisdic- 
tion, and the Prebendary the Arehidiaconal. This arrangement has, however, been altered : the 
jurisdiction of the Dean and Prebendary having been, as in the case of all Peculiars, transferred to 
the Bishop and Archdeacon of Dorset, so far as the Clergy and Chnrclncardens are concerned : but 
the Court of the Prebendary remains, for the present, as to Wills, &c. [Ed.] 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 391 

No. 4. A brass Seal found in 1858 in a garden on the site, and 
behind the present fragment of Bradenstoke Abbey, near 
Chippenham. It is not the Seal of the House, but most 
likely belonged to some member of it. The meaning of the 
device requires explanation. It represents a monk stooping 
or kneeling over a sheep which lies at the foot of a shrub, 
and the words appear to be, " WILLE BE STILLE AND 
This Seal is now in the possession of H. Nelson Goddard, 
Esq. of Cliff Pypard. 

No. 5. — A beautiful Seal bearing the name and arms of Thomas 
Giffard (probably of Boy ton, temp. Henry VI). Three 
lions passant in pale. The matrix is in the possession of 
Mr. John Ellen of Devizes, but whence he obtained it is not 
remembered. Mr. Albert Way considers the Seal to belong 
to the earlier quarter of the 15th century ; certainly not 
prior to A. d. 1400 ; and very suitable to a person who lived 
in the reign of Henry VI. 

A word in conclusion upon Wiltshire Seals in general. Seals, 
like coins, besides being very often most interesting as works of 
art, afford so much information on points of provincial or local 
history, that no apology is needed for venturing to suggest to the 
guardians of strong closets and venerable trunks, that it is, per- 
haps, within their power to furnish out of those sacred repositories, 
specimens of rare and beautiful workmanship in this kind, to 
which admission would be gladly given in the pages of this Maga- 
zine. The writer is informed by Mr. Way, that Mr. Ready, a 
gentleman well known for his skill in moulding from impressions, 
lias lately been permitted to work amongst the records of Win- 
chester college, and has succeeded in recovering nearly 500 capital 
Seals, amongst which is an impression of the Esturmy Seal above 
doscribed. Such an example deserves first to be mentioned and 
then to be imitated : for the same fate that befell the poetical 
treasures of Juvenal's friend Codrus is only too surely at all times 
awaiting records and memorials of other kinds, when so carefully 

3 e 2 

392 Contributions to the Museum and Library. 

put out of sight that the owners at last do not really.know what 
they have got : — 

" Yetus Grcecos servabat cista libellos, 
Et divina opiei rodebant canniiia mures." 1 

"He possest, 
A few Greek books, shrined in an ancient chest : 
Where barbarous mice through many an inlet crept 
And fed on heavenly numbers, while he slept !" 
Our forefathers were much more inventive and tasteful than 
ourselves in the article of Seals. And though it may be now in 
some respect too late to attempt the revival of elegance in these 
instruments, seeing that stamped envelopes and the application of 
the tongue have well nigh driven wax and sigil wholly out of the 
field, still it is never too late to know to what extent any branch of 
the fine arts has been carried in England. It is exactly when 
things are passing out of present use, that they fall within the 
province of Archaeology, and on that ground our Publication is 
consistent with itself in requesting a favourable attention to this 
subject. J. E. J. 

Cnntrihutinnfi to tjj* fthtsnmt atii lihrartj. 

The Committee feel great pleasure in acknowledging the receipt 
of the following articles, which have lately been presented to the 
Societj' : — 

By J. Yonge Akerman, Esq., F.S.A. — Description of the Anglo- 
Saxon Antiquities found at Harnham, near Salisbury. Original 
document — A Fine between Robert de Hakeney, Rector of Alding- 
ton, and Reginald Atte Hulle, concerning tenements at Ramsbury, 
c. 1312. Catalogue of the Kerrich Collection of Roman Coins. 

By John Britton, Esq. — Short Memoirs of Brayley, Bartlett, 
and Wilson. 

By Dr. Thurnam, F.S.A. , Wilts Co. Asylum. — Description of a 
Chambered Tumulus near Uley, co. Gloucester, from the " Archaeo- 
logical Journal." 

1 "Jut. Sat," iii. v. 20fi. 

Contributions to the Museum unci Library. 393 

By James Waylen, Esq., Etchelhampton. — " History of Marl- 
borough," (1854), 8vo., by the Donor. 

By T. Bruges Flower, Esq., Bath. — " Flora Thanetnesis," 1 vol., 
by the Donor. 

By Mr. Gilbert J. French, Bolton, Lancashire. — " Notes on the 
Nimbus," (1854), a pamphlet privately printed by the Donor. 

By Rev. E. Meyrick, Chisledon. — Portion of a Fossil Fish, in 
flint, from Aldbourne. 

By Mrs. Fowle, Market Lavington. — Two Pamphlets — " A Dis- 
course on the Emigration of British Birds/' and a "Treatise on 
Grafting and Inoculation," published in 1780, by Mr. John Legge 
of Market Lavington. 

By Coard Square y, Esq., Salisbury. — A Quern from Liskeard, 

By P. Coward, Esq., Roundway. — Ancient British Urn, Flint 
Arrow Head, Bronze Dagger, Chlorite Slate Brooch, Bronze Pin, 
and Cranium of a Skeleton, from a Barrow on Roundway Hill, 
opened April 18th, 1855. 

By Mr. Cunnington, Devizes. — Antler of Deer, from another 
Barrow on Roundway Hill, opened on the same day. 

By Mr. E. Cunnington, Devizes. — Nests of two species of Vespa. 

By Mr. Falkner, Devizes. — Drawing of an ancient Urn found 
at Heddington, Wilts, 1855. 

By Mr. H. Blackmore, Salisbury. — British TJrn, from a Barrow 
near Salisbury. 

By Mr. Clark, Heddington. — Leaden Coffin (supposed to be 
Roman), found at Heddington, 1855. 

By Mr. John Godwin, Oxford. — Figured tile and portion of 
glass, from Malmesbury Abbey. A Holt Spa Token, 1688. 

By Miss Hughes, Brock-street, Bath. — Seventy curious ancient 
documents, chiefly relating to the property and family of Westley 
of Whitcliffe (commonly called Whitley), in Brixton Deverell. 
Some are without date : the rest of different reigns from Edward I. 
to Charles II. (Of these deeds some notes and extracts will be 
given in a future number.) 

The following original Documents, Manuscripts, and Drawings, 

394 Contributions to the Museum and Library. 

have been presented to the Society by Richard Millings, Esq., of 
Stratton near Cirencester. 


c. 1228. Agreement between the Abbot of Stanley and the Rector 
of Lydiard Ewyas (now Tregoz), about the payment of 
6s. 8d. a year in lieu of Tythe out of Midge hall. 2 deeds 

1301. Perambulation of the Forests in Wilts, viz. Clarendon, 
Wcstwode, Milchet, Gravelee, Bradene, Savernake, Chute, 
Chippenham, Melksham, and Selewood. (Latin.) 

1317. Aug. 11. Release of rights in Quedhampton to John God- 
wyne of Marlborough, by William de Hyweye. ("With 

1446. Conveyance to Thomas Clerk, of premises at Steeple 
Lavington, by John Wyne. (With seal.) 

1457. Feoffment by John Latton, of premises at Cliff Pypard, 
to Sir Edmund Hungerford, Kt., Henry Longe, and others. 

1476. 4 Nov. Quitclaim of premises at Cleve Pypard, to Isabella 
Latton, widow, and John Home, by Sir Edmund Hunger- 
ford, Kt., Henry Longe, snd others. 

1481. A Lease of the Vicarage of Chute, by John Warfyld, 

1565. Deed by the Dean and Chapter of Sarum, relating to the 
Vicarage of Wot ton Basset ; reciting an ancient composi- 
tion between the Abbot and Convent of Stanley, and the 
Vicar, dated 1467. (Latin.) 

1582. The Will of Christian Sainsburie, widow, of Esterton, in 
Market Lavington. 

1586. The Will of Robert Saynsburie of ditto. 

1588. The Will of Joan Wadlande of East Lavington, widow. 

1602. Perambulation of part of the Manor of Wotton Basset. 

1613. 24 Sept. Customs of the Manor of Kemble, on a parch- 
ment roll. 

1614. Sir Francis Englefield's composition with Mr. Pinner, 
Vicar of Wotton Basset. 

1639. Subsidies granted to King Charles I. in the Hundreds 
of Selkley, Ramsbury, Kinwardstone. 

Contributions to the Museum and Library. 395 

1658. Case of Mr. Stubbs of "Wroughton, before the Commis- 
sioners " for ejecting scandalous Ministers." 

1661. Translation of the Grant from the Crown to Henry Hide, 
Lord Cornbury and others, of the Manors in Wilts and 
elsewhere, which belonged to Sir John Danvers, " the 

1665. Win. Levett's Accounts of the King's Tax, in Wilts. 

1679. (30 Charles II.) Copy of the Royal Charter to Wotton 

1688. The accounts of Mr. Robert Lawrence, Treasurer of the 
northern part of co. Wilts, for maimed soldiers and 

1697. 24 Nov. Articles of agreement for the Sale of the 
Manor of Kington St. Michael, by John Stokes, Esq., to 
the Trustees of John Lawford, Esq. of Stapleton near 

1698. Two letters from Wm. Hearst, Sarum, relating to the 
Monthly Tax of £1966, 17s. %cL laid on the county of Wilts. 
" Mr. Sheriff's present to the Grand Jury, was a sheepe, a 
lambe, and a calfe, and a ribe of beefe, (he would have had 
a chine, but it could not be got) a dowzen and a halfe of 
Claret, and 6 qnartes of Canarie." 

1698. Terrier of the Vicarage lands of Wotton Basset, alias 
Wootton Vetus. 

1699. Grant to Mrs. Jane Weldon of a space for a pew in 
Mere Church. 

1727. Copy of the Poll book of Wotton Basset at the Election 
of Sir Robert Long, Bart., and Nicholas Robinson, Esq. 

1736. Presentments at the Court of the Manor of Wotton 
Basset, held for Lord Cornbury, Lord of the Manor. 

1741. Copy of the Poll Book of Wotton Basset at the Election 
of Robert Neale and John Harvey Thursby, Esqrs. 


1565-1682. Six Deeds relating to the Rectory of Horsley, co. 
Gloucester, granted by the Crown to Sir Walter Hunger- 
ford, temp. Eliz. 

396 Contributions to the Museum and Library. 

1716-172-L Two Deeds relating to a House at Cricklade, con- 
veyed by Walter Ilungerford, Esq. of Studley, to Edward 

Seven Pedigrees of different branches of the Hungerfords. 
"List of Hungerfords, High Sheriffs for Wilts," "List of 
Hungerford Members of Parliament," " List of Sheriffs of 
Gloucestershire." Various Memoranda of the Hungerford 


MS. Description of 15 Churches in North Wilts, viz., Ashton 
Keynes, Somerford Keynes, Poole Keynes, Shorncote, Oaksey, 
Eisey, Leigh Chapel, Lydiard Millicent, Minety, Castle Eaton, 
Purton, Blunsdon St. Andrew, Latton, Cricklade St. Mary, 
and Cricklade St. Sampson. 


Ashton Keynes. — Piscina and Ambry. Norman Chancel and 
Font. Base of Cross. 

Castle Eaton. — Norman Doorway. Bell Turret. Font. 

Chitterne. Ground-plan of Church. 

Cricklade St. Sampson's. — Monument in Widhill Aisle. Effigy 
on stone in Churchyard. Font. Dragon and body against 
tower. Various heraldic devices. Cross in Churchyard. 

Down Amprey. — Gatehouse. 

Leigh Chapel. — Piscina. 

Lydiard Millicent. — Font. 

Minety. — Oak Screen. Font. 

Oaksey. — Piscina. Locker and Monumental recess. 

Purton. — Plan of Ringsbury Camp. 

Somerford Keynes. — Font. Saxon Door-way. Copy of In- 
scription to Robert Straung, Esq. 

Shorncott. — Bell Turret. Church. 

Copy of a head on stained glass in Farley Hungerford Church : 
commonly called Sir Thos. Hungerford. 



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Wiltshire during the Civil Wars : Proposed History. — 
J. Waylen proposes to re-publish a Political, Military, and Domestic 
History of this county, during the contests of the 17th century; 
to be illustrated with Engravings designed by himself. In 
furtherance of such a work, the loan of, or privilege of access 
to, original documents, such as warrants, inquisitions, parish entries, 
and private letters, connected with that period, will be esteemed a 
favour, and will be duly acknowledged. To be published by sub- 
scription, in the form of a thick imperial octavo ; price not to exceed 
a guinea. 

[N.B. The work will contain an account of the estates of all 
the royalists in the county.] 

The accompanying woodcut represents the killing of Captain 
Henry Penruddocke, which was perpetrated at West Lavington, 
in the house (still standing) of Mr. Beckett, by a party of Ludlow's 
troopers, in December, 1G44. A contemporary newspaper describes 
the circumstances as follows : — 

" Finding young Mr. Penruddocke, (second son of Sir John 
Penruddocke, late sheriff of the county), in one of the rooms where 
he was fallen asleep in a chair, after two nights of hard service, 
they pulled him by the hair, knocked him down, and broke two 
pistols over his head, without so much as tendering him quarter. 
The gentlewoman of the house and her two daughters then fell 
upon their knees before the soldiers, begging for the life of their 
guest, declaring that he was a gentleman, and whose son he was; 
upon which one of the troopers, who was a collier, swore that he 
should die for his father's sake, and putting a pistol to bis belly 
shot him dead." 

i Be was brother to Col. John Penruddocke, who was beheaded 
by Cromwell at Exeter, May, 1665. Ed. ] 

3 i 

398 Wilts Notes and Queries. 

Clarendon Park. — One of the rewards to George Monk, Duke 
of Albemarle, for bringing about the Restoration of Charles II., 
was the royal grant of Clarendon Park. The grant is recited in 
full in " Sir It. C. Hoare's South Wilts," and dated 1665. The Duke 
bequeathed it to his son and heir Christopher, who in 1688 
bequeathed it to his cousin John Granville, Earl of Bath; from 
whose heirs it was purchased in 1713, by Benjamin Bathurst, Esq., 
in whose descendants the property remains : — All proving that the 
first Duke of Albemarle never sold Clarendon park. 

Nevertheless, Pepys in his Diary in February 1663-4, the year 
previous, relates a conversation with Allsop the King's brewer, who 
told him that whereas Charles the first had mortgaged Clarendon 
park for £20,000, and Charles the second had now given it to 
George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, and Albemarle had subse- 
quently sold it to Chancellor Hyde, Lord Clarendon, "whose title 
of earldom" he adds, "is fetched from thence;" — therefore the 
King did this day send his order to the privy seal for the payment 
to Lord Clarendon of £20,000, to enable him to clear off the 
mortgage aforesaid. 

And several months after, viz., in July 1664, Pepys represents 
Clarendon as in a tempest of rage against the Navy-board, (and 
against Pepys as one of them), for sending into Wiltshire, one 
Dean, whom Clarendon calls "a fanatic rogue," to mark a quantity 
of timber at Clarendon, preparatory to its being felled for the royal 
navy. He narrates in full a long conversation with the Chancellor 
while walking in St. James' Park, and endeavours to represent him 
as a cunning grasping man ; one who, while seeking Pepys' services 
in the affair, was extremely anxious that the King should not suspect 
his own anxiety to keep the timber: — Which last passage affords 
decisive evidence that Lord Clarendon was in possession after the 
mortgage was paid off. And that the estate had not come primarily 
to him in the form of a gift, is proved in his " Vindication," where 
it is asserted that he acquired none of the crown lands, "but what 
he purchased for as much as any body would pay for them." 

The question that arises is: — Where should Pepys, writing at a 
period when he supposes Chancellor Hyde in undoubted possession, 

Wilts Notes and Queries. 399 

have derived his impression that Albemarle had ever held it pre- 
viously? Or putting the opposite case, and supposing that 
Albemarle had nothing to do with it till the date of his grant, how 
could a Diary written in 1664, come to contain the notice of an 
event, long subsequent ? Or lastly ; did Albemarle sell Clarendon 
park to Chancellor Hyde, and yet recover it by royal bounty ? 

J. W. 

Upper Upham. — To the statement (p. 128 above) that John of 
Gaunt lived in the ancient house at Upper Upham, it ought to be 
added that it is very doubtful whether any part of the present house 
existed in the time of John of Gaunt. If it did, the house was 
evidently modernized to a great extent by the Goddard family, in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, or rather earlier. 

On the front of the house in raised letters there are the initials 

T : G : A : G : 

and below there is engraved in gilt letters surrounded by a border line 

I was informed by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., that the initials 
T. G. and A. G., are those of Thomas Goddard, of Upham, who 
bought the Swindon property in 1562; and of Anne, sister of Sir 
George Giffard, his wife : the initials R. G. and E. G. being those 
of Richard Goddard, (the son of Thomas), and Elizabeth, daughter 
of Thomas Waldron, of Aldbourne, his wife : the will of this 
Richard Goddard being dated in 1614. F. A. Carrington. 

The "Word Ale." — In the paper on "Ancient Ales," 1 the Word 
Ale at Midgehall, a moated house about midway between Wootton 
Basset and Lydiard Tregoze, is not mentioned. It is noticed by 
Aubrey in his Collections for North Wilts, 2 in the following terms. 


"Mem. — The custome of Worth Ale." 

"Tliis was tin- Grange of the Abbey of Stanley, the Demesnes thereto belonging 
with some other smaller tenements of the same tenure, aro in value above a 

' p, 191. 2 Part 2., p. 89. 

3 F 2 

400 Wilts Notes and Queries. 

thousand pounds per annum, and pay tnit eight shillings in lieu of their tithes. 
For Pope Innocent, the first of that name, decreed in the Lateran Councell, that 
no Cistertian (he beiug of that order himself), should pay any Tithes. The 
tenants in memorie of this Decree doe yearly every one in his order about the 
Feaste of All Saints, keep a Feaste for their fellow tenants, which they call a 
Word Ale. It was celebrated heretofore with great solemnitie, many prayers 
heing made for the Abbot of Stanley and the Monks of the Cistertian order, now 
forgotten, all that they yet retaine is, viz. — 

' You are to pray for the Abbot of Stanley and all the Monks of the Cistertian 
Order, by whom we are all Tithe free, Tithe free ; by whom we are all Tithe 
free, Tithe free, &c.' 

These words are sung by the Chorus, while one drinkes a Gar-ouse,* holding 
a white wand in his hand, and so all round. When the feast is ended, he that 
then kept it, delivers his Wand to him that by course is to keep it the yeare follow- 

I understand that this meeting is still kept up, but that those 
who attend it assemble with locked doors, and perform the ceremonies 
of the " Word Ale " in secret. 

The Ale is a private Court, and the members are said to be sworn 
to secrecy; as by the payment of eight shillings a year, payable to 
the Rector of Lydiard Tregoz, and by keeping up certain cere- 
monies, the whole of the Midghall Tything, including about two 
thousand acres, is free from the payment of Tythe. This mysterious 
feast is held on the first Sunday after New Michaelmas. 

I am unable to suggest any derivation of "Word Ale," beyond 
that which is obvious to every one, and I am equally unable to 
suggest any reason why the "Word Ale" of Midgehall is no longer 
celebrated with a chorus, as Aubrey states it to have been when he 
wrote, in the reign of King Charles the second. 

I could easily imagine that it would not have been quite safe to 
have praised Abbots and Monks just at the time of the Reformation, 
or to have had Choruses and Garouses in the time of the Puritans, 
but as both were no doubt restored with the Merry Monarch, it is 
rather difficult to account for the introduction of secrecy since 
that period. F. A. C. 

•Dr. Johnson in his Dictionary, defines a " Carouse " to be " a hearty dose of liquor," and he cites 
for this the following passage from Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, Act 1., Scene 2. "Please 
you we may contrive this afternoon, and quaff Carouses to our mistress' health." 


H. Bull, Printer, St. John Street, Devizes. 








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