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Full text of "Wiltshire archaeological and natural history magazine"

S 3y, 



THE 



WILTSHIRE 

IrrliaHilngiral ml JMnral listorq 
MAGAZINE, 

i9tj6It^i)e» xixiStt t^t mivtttian at t^e Sflttctg 

FOEMED IN THAT COUNTY, A.D. 1853. 

VOL. XXVI. 




DEVIZES : 

HuERv k Peaeson {late H. F. Bull), 4, St. John Stbeet. 

1892. 



The Editor of the Wiltshire Magazine desires that it should 
be distinctly landerstood that neither he nor the Committee of the 
Wiltshire ArchcEological and Natural History Society hold themselves 
in any way answerable for any statements or opinions expressed 
in the Magazine; for all of which the Authors of the several 
papers and communications are alone responsible. 



CONTI^NTS OF VOL. XXVI, 



No. LXXVL 

PAGJE 

Mistress Jane Lane: By C. PeneuddocKE 1 

A Find of Roman Coins near Marlboroligh : By the Kev. C. Soames 39 

Occurrence of the Blackcap in Winter 41 

itiotes on Lacock Abbey: By C. H. Talbot 42 

On a Letter of Sir William Sharington to Sir John Thynne, June 25th, 

1553: By C. H. Talbot 50 

The Will of Thomas Polton, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1432 : By the 

Rev. C. Soames 52 

Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary : By G. E. Daetndll and 

the Rev. E. H. Goddaed 84 

Note on Canon Jackson's Bequest of Fossils : By W. CtTNNiNGTON, 

F.G.S ,.. 169 

Additions to the Museum and Library ,, ,,, 172 



No. LXXVII. 

Certified Pedigree of Ludlow, of Hill Deverill, Co. Wilts 173 

Account of the Thirty-Eighth General Meeting, at Wilton 173 

Architectural Notes on Places visited by the Society in 1891 : By C. E. 

PONTING, F.S.A 186 

A Sketch of the History of the Parish of Broad Chalke, Wilts : By the 

Rev. T. N. HuTCHiKsoN, M.A., "Vicar 213 

A Proposed Bibliography of Wiltshire : By Cliffoed W. Holgate, M.A. 221 

llie Wilton Carpet Industry : By Paedoe Tates 242 

The Origin and Mode of Formation of the Vale of Wardour : By the 

Rev. W. R. Akdeews, F.G.S 258 

The Descent of the Manor of Stockton 270 

Mistress Jane Lane : By C. Peneuddocke (Continued) 278 

In Memoriam, J. E. Nightingale, F.S.A 290 

In Memoriam, H. J. F. Swayne 292 

Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary : By G. E. Daetnell and 

the Rev. E. H. Goddaed (Contimied) 293 

Additions to Museum and Library ,., 315 



iv CONTENTS OF VOL. XXVI. 

No. LXXVIII. 

A Comparisou of two remarkable Urns in the Stourhead Collection at 

Devizes: By W. Cunnington, F.G.S 317 

Entries in a Parish Eegister, Collingbourne Ducis : Translated and 

Annotated by Canon J. D. Hodgson 320 

Notes on the Church Plate of Wilts : By the Rev. E. H. Goddaep 327 

Excavations in Wansdyke, 1889-91 : By Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivees, 

D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A 335 

The Falstonu Day-Book : ByJ.WAYLEN 343 

Wiltshire Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century : By F. M. Willis 391 

Notes on Roman Remains at Box : By the Rev. E. H. Goddaed 405 

Records of Finds not mentioned elsewhere 410 

Additions to Museum and Library , , 417 



lUustrattons, 

*Photo-print of Tapestry Work by Jane Lane, 33. *Photo-print of Salver in the 
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, made from the wood of the Boscobel Oak, 38. 

Photo-print of Priest's Door and Building outside South Transept, Bishopstone, 
South Wilts, 203. Sedilia and Tomb in North Transept, Bishopstone, South 
Wilts, 205. All Saints' Church, Broad Chalke — Longitudinal and Cross 
Sections, and North and West Elevations, 209. All Saints' Church, Bi-oad 
Chalke — Ground Plan, South and East Elevations, and Font, 212. Photo- 
print of Badge and Seals of the Wilton Weavers' Fellowship, 246. Vertical 
Section through the Vale of Wardour, 264. *Photo-print of Jane Lane, from 
Portrait at Packington Hall, in possession of the Earl of Aylesford, 287. 
*Photo-print of Lady (Jane Lane) Fisher, from Portrait at Packington Hall, 
in possession of the Earl of Aylesford, 288. 

Photo-print of Urns from Kingston Deverill, Wilts, and Crendon, Bucks, 317. 
Anglo-Saxon Vessel, Wilton, 327. Chalice and Paten of the thirteenth 
century, in Salisbury Cathedral, 328. Chalice at Ebbesborne Wake, 328. 
Chalice and Paten at Highworth, 329. Chalice at Lacock, 330. Map shewing 
the position of the Sections cut in Wansdyke with reference to Devizes, 
Wilts, 335. Facsimile of Lady Arundel's signature, 370. Photo-print of 
Roman Pavement and Bath discovered at Box, 1881, 407. Roman Bath, 
Farleigh, 408. 

• The Society is indebtea to Mr. Penruddocke for the generous gift of these illustrations. 



No LXXVI. 



DECEMBER, 1891. 



Vol. XXVI. 



THE 



WILTSHIEE 

IrrjiMlngiral m^ Eatonl listoq 

MAGAZINE, 

Pultlt^eH unHer t^e Bixtttian 

OP THE 

SOCIETY FORMED IN THAT COUNTY, 
A.D. 1853. 




DEVIZES: 

FbIHIEB kVD SOLD FOB THE SOCIETY BY H. F BULI, SaUTT JOHK StBEET. 



Price 53. 6d, — Members Gratis. 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

TAKE NOTICE, that a copious Index for the preceding eig^ht 
Volumes of the Ilagazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii,, xvi., and xxiv. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society /or 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. David Owkn, 51, Long- Street, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed, and of whom most of the 
back Numbers may be had. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Aunual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 " The Financial 
Secretary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
taries : H. E. Medlicott, Esq., Sandfield, Potterne, Devizes ; 
and the Rev. E. H. Goddard, ClyfFe Vicarage, Wootton Bassett, 
Editor of the Magazine. 



The Rev. A. C. Smith (Old Park, Devizes) will be much obliged to 
observers of birds in all parts of the county, to forward to 
him notices of rare occurrences, early arrivals of migrants, or 
any remarkable facts connected with birds, which ma,y come 
under their notice. 

A resolution has been passed by the Committee of the Society, 
" that it is highly desiv ible that every encouragement should 
be given towards obtai.ing second copies of Wiltshire Parish 
Registers," 

Mem:'rial to the 

Late Canon J. E, Jackson, F.S.A. 

Proposed Enlargement of the Society's 

Museum at Devizes. 

Up to the present time about £160 has been given or promised 
towards the Memorial Fund. If, however, the work is to be 
done on a scale at once worthy of him whom it is designed to 
commemorate, and likely to be of permanent value to the 
Society and the County of Wilts, some £500 or £600 will be 
required to carry it out. The Committee appeal for further 
Subscriptions to all who have the History and Antiquities of 
Wiltshire at heart, and venture to express a hope that every 
Member of the Society will endeavour to send some contribu- 
tion to the Fund, as an acknowledgment of the great work 
done by the late Canon for Wiltshire and the Society. 

Those who have not yet paid Subscriptions promised, are requested 
to send them as soon as may be convenient to H. E. 
Medlicott, Esq., Potterne, Devizes. 



WILTSHIRE 

IrrtitDfllflgiral ml latitrol listatu 

MAGAZINE. 



No. LXXVI. DECEMBER, 1891. Vol. XXVI. 



Contrntsi. WJ^;^;^ 




VS^y 



v24LJdi.^^!>^ PAGE 

Mistress Jane Lane: By C. Penruddocke 1 

A Find of Roman Coins neae Marlboeotxgh : By the Rev. C. 

Soames 39 

OcCtTKEENCE OF THE BlACKCAP IN WiNTER 41 

Notes on Lacock Abbey: BjC. H.Talbot 42 

On a Letter of Sir William Shaeington to Sie John Thtnne, 

June 25th, 1553: By C. H. Talbot 50 

The Will of Thomas Polton, Bishop of Woecestee, A.D. 1432 : 

By the Rev. C. Soames 52 

Contributions towabds a Wiltshiee Glossaet : By G. E. Dartnell 

and the Rev. E. H. Goddard 84 

Note on Canon Jackson's Bequest of Fossils : By W. Cunnington, 

F.G.S 1^ 

Additions to the Museum and Libeaet 172 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Photo-print of Tapestry Work by Jane Lane 33 

Photo-print of Salver in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 
made from the wood of the Boscobel Oak 38 



DEVIZES : 
H. F. Bull, 4, Saint John Stbbbt. 



THE 



WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



"MTJLTOETJM MANIBTTS GEANDE lETATUE ONTTS." — Ovid. 



By C. Penettbdockb. 

\URING the Meeting of the Wiltshire Archgeological Society 
^^ — in 1890 — at Devizes we visited the little Church of 
Manningford Bruce, or Brewose as it was called in the year 1316, 
Index when Maria de Brewose was the lady of the manor. 

Yillaris. Dedicated to St. Peter, the Church presents, archi- 
tecturally, some very remarkable features, and has within the last 
few years, been carefully restored by Mr. Pearson, under the super- 
intendence of the Rector, the Rev. James Bliss. Formerly over 
the altar, and now on the north wall of the chancel, is a tablet which 
records the resting-place of the remains of a woman. While she 
lived she was the wife of Edward Nicholas, who was the son of Sir 
MSS. Oliver Nicholas, Cupbearer to King James I. The 

Nicholas. Nicholases were of a very old Wiltshire family, residing 
at Ryndway, or Roundway, and branched off, and were traceable at 
several places in Wilts— at Compton Chamberlayne, Brokenborough, 
Stert, All Cannings, and Cote in Bishops Cannings. From the last- 
Harl. MSS. named place came Nicholas of Manningford Bruce. 

1165. In i^he Heralds^ Visitation of Wilts, taken in the 

year 1623, Edward Nicholas, the eldest son of Robert Nicholas of 

Coate, who was a second son, is therein noted as of Manningford 

T, ,. and Brokenbury — this Edward Nicholas being the great 

Pedigree, •' _ . 

Nicholas. grandfather of the Edward Nicholas mentioned on the 

tablet. 

\* The Society is indebted to Mr. Peuruddocke for the generous gift of the 
illustrations accompanying his paper. 

VOL. XXVI. NO. LXXVI. B 



Mistress Jane Lane. 



Eobert Nicholas, of Coate.= 
Second son. 



Edward Nicholas, of Man- ^Elizabeth, 4th d. of James 
ningford and Broken- I Tutt, of Chilbolton, Co. 
bury. ^1 Hants. 

I 
Kobert Nicholas, of Man-= Jane, d. of Nicholas St. John, 
ningford. I of Lydiard Tregoose, Co. 
I Wilts. 

. I . 

Oliver Nicholas, son and=:Mary Wardour, d. of Sir 

heir. Cupbearer to King Edward Wardour, clerk, 
James I., 1623, Knt. of Petts. 



Edward Nicholas, of M.&n-=Mary, d. of Thomas Lane, 



ningford. 



of Bentley, Co. Stafford, 
and sister of "Jane Lane." 
Died Dec. 24, 1686, at. 67. 



^^V^^FamUy Edward Nicholas, of the 

Pedigree of Inner Temple, London, 

Jiicholas. Egq Died before his 

mother. 

Kobert Nicholas, of Roundway, Barou of Exchequer, was counsel on Penruddocke'a trial.— Wiltt 
Magazine, vol. vi,, p. 136, 

Co2)y of Momoment in Manningford Bruce Church, Wilts. 

" Underneath lyeth the body of Mary Nicholas daughter 
of Thomas Lane of Bentley in the County of Stafford 
Esq'., a family as venerable for its antiquity, as renown'd 
for its loyalty, of which y' wonderfull preservation of 
King Charles y' Second, after y° defeat at Worcester is 
an instance never to be forgotten, in which glorious 
action, she herself bore a very considerable part and 
that the memory of this extraordinary service 
might be continued to posterity, the family was 
dignified with the addition of this signall badge of 
honour ; the armes of England in a canton ; she was 
married to Edward Nicholas y<^ son of S' Oliver 
Nicholas, Cupbearer to King James y"= first & Carver 
to King Charles y' first, by whom she had one only son, 
who died before her ; near to whose body she desir'd 
her own might be interred, she died Decemb'' 24"", 
Anno 1686 ; Aged 67 years." 

Copi/ of Hegister of Burial. 

"Mary the wife of Edw: Nicholas Esqre was buryed Decemb. the 28'^ 1686." 
" Rachel Wise of Manningford Bruce made Oath before Will : Coningsby * 

• William Coninffsby— presented to the liring of Woodborough by Sir Robert Button, Hart., in 
1C67— died 170G. Oliver Nicholas, presented to the living of Manningford Bruce, 1671, and Richard 
Smith, of West Kennett, in the parish of Ayebury, in 1679. 



By C. Fenruddoche. 3 

Eecf of Woodborough in the presence of John Good and John Ellis that Mary 
the wife of Edw : Nicholas Esq of Manningford Bruce was buryed in woollen * 
only," 

I am indebted to Mr. Richmond Nicholas for the loan of the 
pedigree of his ancient family, together with some valuable family 
papers. From the latter I glean that Mary Nicholas^ the sister of 
Jane Lane, bore a conspicuous part in the preservation of King 
Charles II., and that she is the person from whom Sir Walter Scott 
took the character of " Alice Lee" in his novel of Woodstock. Old 
Sir Henry Lee is made to say she should entitle herself to have it 
written upon her tomb :— 

" Here lies she, who saved a King." 

But Mistress ^ Jane Lane, her elder sister, had, undoubtedly, the 
greater share in the transaction, and I will try in a picturesque 
manner to sketch the episode in this lady's history, which has made 
her name so famous. 

After the fatal battle of Worcester, on the issue of which Charles 
staked his chance of kingly power, and lost it, the Cavalier army 
was quite demoralized, and everyone had to shift for himself. Never 
did Cromwell and the well-disciplined army of officers and meu 
under him show themselves more cool and determined than on the 
" Cromwelliana " occasion of this Worcester fight. The General, 

P- 1^^- in writing from Worcester to Lenthal, the 

Speaker of the House of Parliament, at 10 o'clock at night ou 
September 3rd, 1651, says: — "We beat the enemy from hedge to 
hedge till we beat them into Worcester, The enemy then drew all 
his forces on the other side of the town, all but what he lost, and 
made a very considerable fight with us for three hours space, but in 
the end we beat them totally, and pursued him to his Royal Fort, 
which we took, and indeed have beaten his whole army. When we 



• By an Act of Parliament, Anno xxxii., Car. II., 1680, entitled " an additional Act for burying in 
woollen," the affida\its, ■whicli were made of any persona being interred in woollen, were permitted 
to be taken before tbe parson, vicar, or curate of the parish, 

* It was the invariable practice to give the title of " Mrs." to all unmarried 
ladies — tbe term " Miss " being at that time applied to notoriously frail members 
of the sex. 

B 2 



4 Mistress Jane Lane. 

took the foi't we turned his own guns upon him. The enemy hath 
had a great loss, and certainly is scattered, and run several ways : 
we are in pursuit of him, and have laid forces in several places that 
we hope will gather him up." Next day he further writes: — 
" There are six or seven thousand prisoners taken here, and many 
officers and noblemen of quality. We have sent very considerable 
parties after the flying enemy, and are very close in pursuit. Indeed 
I hear the country rises upon them everywhere. I heard they had 
not many more than one thousand horse in their body that fled. 
Carlyle's ^ I believe you have near four thousand forces following. 
Letter's & ^^^ interposing between them and home — what fish 
Speeches, ^jjgy ^[\\ catch, time will declare. ''■' This last siffnifi- 

VOI. 111., p. . . ° 

203, cant phrase of CromwelFs was omitted in the newspaper 

of the day. The rout was complete — the King's standard taken — 

all his personal effects — his coach and horses, with many rich goods, 

and Tiis collar of SS (order of the Holy Ghost). The 

Clarendon, q^^^^ g^^j ^^ England was lost. His " George " he 

carried with him. This decoration, called the Lesser George, and 

Hi^orv^of ^^^ ^^*'^ diamonds, was happily preserved by the friends 

the Order of the King, and eventually restored to him by Izaak 

Garter. Walton, of fishing notoriety, who resided at Stafford. 

The King in after years described his position thus to old Pepys :— 

Account published " After the battle was so absolutely lost as to be 

71 ^ff^^^i ^^ 1 beyond hope of recovery, I began to think of the 

1766. best way of saving myself, and the first thought 

that came into my head was that, if I could possibly, I would get 

to London as soon, if not sooner, than the news of our defeat could 

get thither. I did not impart my design to anyone but my Lord 

Wilmot.' We had such a number of beaten men with us of the 

horse that I strove, as soon as ever it was dark, to get from them, 

and tho' I could not get them to stand by me against the enemy 

I could not get rid of them now I had a mind to it, so we, that is 

my Lord Duke of Buckingham, Lauderdale, Derby, Wilmot, Tom 

^ The Walsall Royalists, under Colonel John Lane, marched to join Charles IL 
at Worcester, but the battle was fought and lost before they reached the army. 
Willmore's History/ of Walsall. 



By C. Penruddocke. 5 

Blague, Duke, Darcey, and several others of my servants went along 
Baker's northward to Scotland.^' Riding- desperately onward 

^d' 1674* through the increasing darkness the leaders, who were 

p. 627. ' commanded to speak French, suddenly discovered they 
had lost their way on Kinfare Heath, hut Lord Derhy put forward 
Harl. Miscellany, » ^^- Charles Gifford son of Peter Gifford, of 

vol. vi., p. 248. Chillington, and Francis Yates, his servant, who 

then acted as guides. With reduced numbers the fugitives reached 
Stourbridge, between Worcester and Wolverhampton, and fortu- 
nately did not attract the notice of some soldiers who were billetted 
Diary, there. The King had been urged to join the remains 

Boscobel. of the mutinous and inefficient Scotch cavalry under 
David Leslie,' and go into Scotland, but he thought this absolutely 
impossible, remarking " that the country would all rise upon us, and 
that men, who had deserted him when they were in good order, 
would never stand to him when they have been beaten." The 
Godwin, King^s words were prophetic; A very few of the 

Commonwealth. Scotch soldiers found their way back to Scotland. 
The country did indeed rise against the fugitives, and did summary 
execution amongst their scattered numbers. And what says the 
original commission, dated the 8th of September, 1651, signed by 
MSS. Trinity Oliver Cromwell, with regard to the prisoners 

appointment' of taken ; "Thousands of prisoners are getting ranked 

Col. John James, — penned up in the Cathedral with sad outlooks — 

Governor or . 

Worcester. we are plucking lords, knights, and gentlemea 

from their lurking-holes into the unwelcome light." Evidently the 

escape of the King seemed impossible to the General's mind. He 

would " shadow" him. Was ever majesty in such a strait before? 

Twenty weary miles had been ridden in the- darkness of the night 

without any settled purpose. Day began to break — hunger came- 

with it — a crust of bread was procured at a mean house, which the 

Parliamentary Hist. King eat in the saddle. Charles described this 

p 77 ° , • ., ^^ j^jg mother in Paris as riding with bread ia 

* " Cavalry under the command of Leslie. Prom what cause it happened is- 
unknown ; but that officer did not appear on the field till the battle was lost." 
Llngard, Hist, of England, vol. viii., p. 155. 6th Edition. 



-6 Mistress Jane Lane. 

one hand and meat in the other. There is a narrow winding lane 
Proceediucs iie^'' what is called Merton Hill, through which it is 

Tettenhall g^j^ Charles iourneyed on his way to Boscobel, and 

Antiquarian . . . , 

Society, a cottage fireplace, cut m the solid rock, is shown 

May, 1882. where local tradition says he halted and refreshed 
himself. One of the officers of the King^s army writes : " In the 
Parliamentary Hist. night we kept close together, yet some fell 

p (37 /' ' ' "' asleep on their horses ; or, if their horses staid 

behind, we might hear by their cries what the bloody country people 

were doing with them.''^ The same oSicer in his letter says : " What 

became of His Majesty after the Battle of Worcester I know not : 

God preserve him, for certainly a more gallant Prince was never 

born." We know from good authority where the King was. His 

guide, Charles Giffard, conducted him to a house belonging to him, 

called White Ladies — in the parish of Tong, three and a-half miles 

from Shifnal railway station — twenty-six miles from Worcester, and 

here for precaution^'s sake both he and his good horse were taken 

into the great hall, and the doors closed upon them. Here we first 

meet with the faithful Penderels George was a servant 

in the house, John a kind of woodman there : William, 

the eldest, and his wife, caretakers at Boscobel : Richard (Trusty 

Dick)' lived at Hobbal Grange with his old mother : and Humphrey 

at the mill at White Ladies. A certain Bartholomew Martin is 

Sack ; now called despatched by Mr. GifFord to summon William 

" Canary "; much Pgnderel, and in the meantime Mrs. Giffbrd 
improved in bot- 
tle, causes sack and biscuits to be served to each of 

her weary guests. If the sack was made into a posset here is the 

Comptou MS. receipt : " Beat the yokes and whites of ten eggs 

receipts, 1677. together, strain them into a quart of cream, season 

Household with nutmeg-, cinnamon and sugar. Put to this a 

Companion, . . 

1696. pint of canary. Stir well and pour in a basin — set 

over chafino- dish of coals; stir till it is indifferently thick, then 



1 In Daniel Wright's Country Dances, 1, 32, the tune of " When the King 
enioys his own again " is called " Trusty Dick," which was the name the King 
gasre to Richard Penderel. 



By C. Penruddocke. 7 

scrape on sugar and serve it." ^ Falstaff's favourite potation of sack 
was taken with sugar. His friend Pointz addresses him as " Sir, 
Sack — and — S ugar." 

" This is the wine, 

Which in former time 
Each wise one of the Magi 

Was wont to carouse 

In a frolic blouse, 
Hecuhans sub tegmine fagiP 

Wits Hecreations, 1663. 

It was evident to the King, and especially so to those who ac- 
companied him, that his liberty, if not his life, was in great danger, 
and a personal disguise was considered indispensable. Charles had 
put off his armour before leaving Worcester, in the Friar's Street, 
and was now in Cavalier riding costume of buff coat and grey 
breeches richly laced. Born on the 29th of May, 1630, he was 
By Nason, only twenty-one years old, and the portraits of the 
&c., '&c. ' Prince represent him at that time of a frank and 
open countenance, and rather distinguished appearance. All this 
had to be altered, so that when the brothers Penderel arrived each 
one contributed a garment, or assisted in a make-up suitable for the 
occasion. 

Item. The King blacked his own face with soot. My Lord 
Wilmot "untowardly" notched His Majesty's hair with a pocket 
knife. Richard Penderel lent him his best suit of clothes, which 
consisted of (1) a "jump" and breeches of green coarse cloth; (2) 
a doeskin leather doublet, with pewter buttons. A hat was borrowed 
of Humphrey Penderel, which in the Harleian MS. is called " An 
old grey one that turned up its brims." N.B. — Humphrey, you 
will recollect, was the miller at White Ladies, and necessarily wore 
a white hat ! 
Chambers's Book Mr. Gifford's tenant, Edward Martin, produced 

of Days, vol. ii., , , ^^ t • ,^ ,1 

p C99. £111 undergarment, called m the country language 

a " burden," or " hoggen " shirt, made of the coarsest of the hemp. 

' See also a cookery book by Robert May, who was in the service of Lady 
Dormer, who sent him to Paris. He published his book in 1G60. 



8 Mistress Jane Lane. 

George Penderel provided a " band " of the latest Puritanical cut 
and a certain William Creswell the shoes ! 

The King- unstripped himself of his own clothes, and " nimbly " 
put these on. As a finishing touch Richard advanced with a pair 
of shears, and rounded the King's hair, and the King was pleased 
to take notice of his barbering, and said he preferred it to that of 
Lord Wilmot. 

Boscobel and -^^ '^^1 ^® noted amongst other incidents that the 
Heath. Penderel brothers for security buried His Majesty's 

buff doublet and linen breeches underground, where they lay for 
five weeks before they dared to take them up again. And now, as 
the narrative has it, His Majesty with a billhook, or wood-hatchet, 
was a la mode the woodman. He was re-christened William Jones ! 

In this guise, accompanied only by " Trusty Dick,'^ the King of 
Kind's Narrative England stole away into the woods — just escaping 
Pepy's. being seen by a troop of horse, who rode along 

the edge of the covert. Soaked through by the rain, hungry, and 
generally miserable, the morning of Thursday, September 4th, found 
Charles in this state seeking shelter like a hunted animal from the 
inclemency of the weather and the fury of his pursuers. Good 
Mrs. Yates,' a sister of the Penderels, contrived to bring him a 
blanket, which he alternately threw over his shoulders or used to sit 
upon, and a mess of milk, eggs, and sugar, in a black earthen cup, 
part of which he eat with a pewter spoon, and gave the rest away. 
By way of a desert he had an apple or two, which the woman 
Heath, produced from her pocket. The King exchanged his 
ponderous wood-bill for her husband's lighter broom-hook. To 
while away the time the Penderel family " coached '^ him in the art 
of speaking in the dialect of the county, and having a good ear he 
picked it up very readily. Accommodating himself to circumstances 
he contrived to eat some supper at Richard Penderel 's house, and 
made friends with little Nan, the woodcutter's daughter — holding 
her on his knee while talking with her mother. With the design 
of crossing the Severn at the ford between Coalport and Apley, he 

* Richard Penderel certified that his sister was the first to give the King any 
food after his defeat. Calendar iState Papers, 1660. 



By C. Penruddoche. 9 

and Richard ' set out at 9 o'clock the same evening, hoping to get 
into Wales, and thence escaping to France. Passing Evelin or 
Evelitb Mill they were challenged by the miller, Roger Bushel!, 
and, thinking soldiers were after them, beat a hasty retreat up a 
dirty lane. The King declared that i£ it had not been for the 
rustling of Dick's calf-skin breeches he would have lost his guide 
in the dark ! Arrived at length at the house of a Mr. Francis 
Wolfe, at Madeley, in Shropshire — about five miles from White 
Ladies, and within a mile of the river Severn — they discovered that 
guards were stationed all along the banks of the river, the bridges 
secured, and well watched, and the passage boats seized, so that any 
attempt to cross would be both risky and dangerous. Mr. Wolfe 
being under suspicion as a Royalist, his house had been well searched 
and its hiding places discovered, so that he could offer nothing but 
the shelter o£ a hay-mow, or, as some writers say, a barn with a 
heap of straw for a bed, and press a little money upon the King's 
acceptance. Mrs. Wolfe recommended a decoction of walnut leaves 
to replace the soot, which the rain had washed off the King's face, 
and which she assured him would be more permanent. 

Frustrated in his idea of crossing into Wales, he stopped only 
long enough for rest, and on Friday night, with the conveyance of 
a maid of Mr. Wolfe's, who brought the King two miles on his 
way, returned to Richard's house at Hobbal Grange, and, without 
making any stay there, went with "Trusty Dick" to Boscobel, 
which was reached about three o'clock on Saturday morning. Bos- 
cobel was a small mansion built by Mr. John Gifford, of Madeley, 
son of Peter Gifford, of Chillington. It was very secluded, and 
surrounded by trees. The architect who built it called it Bosco 
bello, or Fair Wood.' The house came afterwards to the Fitzherberts, 
who were connected by marriage with the Giffords. The house con- 
tained two " priest holes " — one entered by a trap in the floor of a 

1 Communication, Earl of Bradford in Henry G. de Bunsen's (Rector of 
Donington) work : Boscobel, p. 41, published 1878. 

1 The Rev. G. W. Dodd says it was named Boscobel by Sir Basil Brook, of 
Madeley Court, at the house-warming feast. " Narrative of Soscohel," 2ud 
Edit., Wolverhampton, 1859, pp. 1 and 2. 



10 Mistress Jane Lane. 

small closet. "Priest chambers/' as they were called, existed all 
over England at a time when fauaticismj or perhaps rebellion, or 
ill-judged persecution, put the lives of Roman Catholic priests in 
Worth's danger. These hiding-places, as a rule, were very 

Somerset. small, and contrived in the thickness of the walls, 
beneath a floor (as at Trent), or in a recess of the huge chimney- 
stacks, and in gables, and gablets, which, apparently belonging to 
bedrooms or attics in use, were in reality detached, and so built as 
to escape the notice of anyone but an architect, or a person in 
possession of the secret. Such a recess existed in a chimney of an 
old house in my possession at Compton Chamberlayne — part of 
which parish was formerly called Compton Nicholas, and at one 
time may have been in the possession of the Nicholas family. At 
Fyfield Manor-House, near Pewsey, where King Charles I. slept 
before the first battle of Newbury, there are palpable hiding-places 
covered with panel-work. The exit from these places, in case of 
surprise, was often down a brewhouse chimney into a cellar, or out 
of an unsuspected door. The King's hiding-place at Boscobel is 
described as being near a long gallery. It is known that the King 
disliked it for its discomfort and confined space. 

Leaving His Majesty awhile in Boscobel wood, Richard Penderel, 
who has heard of Colonel Careless lurking in the neighbourhood, 
finds him and brings him with the King into Boscobel House. 
Then, as a panacea for all ills, William Penderel's wife makes them 
a posset. As the Penderels were poor people, the posset on this 
occasion was compounded of thin milk and small beer 1 The King 
had suffered horribly from his rough clothes and terrible shoes — 
slashed in all directions to give his poor feet ease — but 
he was considerably relieved by the humane attentions of 
Mrs. William Penderell to his sufferings. 

Harl, MSS., About 90yds. from Boscobel House there grew an 

251 ' ^^) which evidently, from the King's description, 

was what is called a " pollard " oak, i.e., one which had its branches 

Baker's Chronicle, topped at a certain height, causing them to 

Ed. 1674, p. 627. form a circle of shoots round the outer edge. 
It was not a hollow tree, but had a hole in the middle of its firm 



By C. Penruddoche. 11 

Bound trunk. With the help of William Penderers wood ladder (a 

critic, 1672, on "Baker" ed. of 1665, writes: "There were no 

ladders in the case : ") His Majesty crawled to the top of this 

pollard, and, the leaves heing still on, he was fairly concealed from 

view. Colonel Careless followed with a couple of pillows, and made 

the King, who was very sleepy, as comfortable a bed as he could.* 

Some bread and cheese from the Coloners capacious pockets, and a 

fairly good nap, did the King much good. From the oak the 

fugitives actually saw soldiers beating the bushes for escaped 

persons, and the fright he then experienced probably caused the 

King to permit William Penderel to cut the hair from the top of 

his royal head as close as scissors would do it — leaving only some 

love locks about his ears in true country style. The hair which was 

cut off was religiously kept by the barber ! The closely-cut crown 

Fasti, was the badge of all the lower order of Puritans, " They 

j{ 6{. mostly have short hair, which at this time was commonly 

called the Commitfee cut." Soon news was brought that a famous 

Puritan colonel from Worcester was in pursuit of the King, and 

there was a talk of a large reward to be offered for his capture. 

Fortunately nothing occurred to prevent a good meal of chicken 

being served up in the oak by Mrs. William Penderel, aforesaid, 

whom the King pleasantly called " My dame Joan." After supper, 

bed, but bed this time was in a small place between two walls, 

contrived at the building of the house, and into which the King 

was let down and found the place too short for him. He could not 

sleep, and he was very glad to exchange it next night for a mean 

Boscobel, by Henry bed upon the staircase. The hidings place was 

^- ^%, Bunsen, Eector beneath a floor, over which was a loose piece 

of Uonington, pub. 

1878. of board, and the "Hole" measured S^ft. by 

4Kt. wide, and 5ft. Sin. deep — a horrible place for a man to spend 

a long night in, in total darkness. Sunday, the 7th of September, 



' Upon minute examination of the woodcut facing page 45 of Blount's narrative 
of Boscobel two little figures are discovered representing the King and Colonel 
Careless. A winged angel appears above the King holding a crown. The King 
has a hat on his head. Boscobel, ed. 1725. 



u 



Mistress Jane Lane. 



was spent in devotion , reading, and conversation in the summer- 
house, and in cooking- and eating mutton chops obtained from a 
stolen sheep — all this being effected within immediate reach of the 
door, which led up the chimney-stack to a hiding-place. The result 
of a conference with his friends Colonel Careless and Lord Wilmot 
was the departure of the King the same evening for Mr. Thomas 
Whitgrave^s house at Mosely — a few miles from Wolverhampton. 
Mosely had hiding-holes like Boscobel and White Ladies. 
A horse was obtained for the King to ride upon, and at a 
given rendezvous he was met by a Mr. Huddleston, a secular priest, 
Forneron's Louise de the same who is said to have administered the 
sacraments according to the rites of the Church 
of Rome to the King on his deathbed, and 
conducted to Mr. Whitgrave^s house. 



Boscobel. 



Keroualle. 
Evelyn. 
Lingard. 
Nicholson and Burns 

Cumb., vol. ii., p. 369. 



Pedioeee of Huddlestok. 



Cuthbeiii Hutton,=EHzabeth, d. and coheiress with her sister of Sir 



of Hutton John, 
Co. Cumberland. 
Held lands and 
tenements in 
Pen ruddock e. 



Robert Bellingham, of Burneshead, Co. West- 
moreland. This Elizabeth was educated with 
the Lady Katharine Par, of Kendal Castle, 
and one of the Ladies of her Bedchamber when 
Queen of Henry VIII. 



I 

Thomas, ob. s.p. 



Mary, b. at Courts Andrew Huddleston, of Farrington, 



(Princess Mary 
her godmother), 
coheiress of her 
brother Thomas. 



Lancaster, Esq., second son of Sir 
John Huddleston, of Milium. 
This brought the Huddlestones to 
Hutton John. 



Joseph Huddleston, of Hutton^Eleanor, d. of Cuthbert 



John, Co.Cumberland. Eldest 



Sisson, of Dacre. 



Andrew. SufEered= Dorothy, d. of 



greatly for his 
loyalty to Kings 
Charles Laud II. 



Daniel 
Fleming. 



Andrew. First= Katharine, d. of 
Protestant of Sir William 
the family. Lawson, of 

Isell, Bart. 



John Huddleston. Brought up to the 
Church, educated at English college 
of Douay, Flanders, and ordained 
pi'iest in the Romish Church. Hap- 
pily instrumental in preservingKing 
Charles II. after the battle of Wor- 
cester. Excepted by name out of 
all the severe Acts made against 
Popish priests. Ob. 1704, jfit. 96. 
Bur. Chapel Somerset House. 



By C. Penruddocke. 13 

Here King Charles very graciously dismissed his faithful Penderels/ 
and was duly introduced to the secret hiding-place intended for his 
lodging. Next day — Monday, September the 8th, some soldiers 
eame to the house, but did not make any serious search, though on 
the same day Boscobel House was searched narrowly by two parties 
of the Republicans, one of which plundered the family of their 
stock of provisions, and threatened the life of William Penderel, 
from whom, however, they could extract no intelligence. 

On Tuesday, September 9th, the soldiers having traced the King's 
route as far as White Ladies by information forced from a captured 
Royalist, despatched a party there, and threatening the family with 
their pistols, broke down the wainscoting in search of the Royal 
fugitive, and towards the evening more soldiers under the command 
of Southall, " the Priest Catcher," very nearly discovered the lost 
traces of the King from White Ladies. Mr. Whitgrave shewed 
great presence of mind in receiving them, and so disarmed suspicion 
while Charles hastily scrambled up the brewhouse chimney and got 
to his hiding-place. The King's appearance just now as he appeared 
before good Father Huddleston was not prepossessing. On his head 
a very greasy old grey steeple-crowned hat with the brim turned up 
— without lining or a hat-band — the sweat appearing two inches 
deep through it round the band place. A green cloth "jump " 
coat, thread-bare, even to the threads being worn white, and breeches 
of the same with long knees down to the garter, with an old sweaty 
leathern doublet, a pair of white flannel stockings next his legs, 
which the King said were his boot stockings (stockings worn by 
Cavaliers with lace on them), their tops being cut off to prevent 
their being discovered, and upon these a pair of old green yarn 
stockings, all worn and darned at the knees with their feet cut off, 
which last he said he had of Mr. Wolfe, who persuaded him thereto 
to hide his other white ones for fear of being observed. His shoes 

^ The late Mr. Hodder, in Westropp's article in the eighteenth volume of The 
Antiquary, mentions a silver ring set with a yellow tapering diamond and a 
small ruby, which has been preserved in the Penderel family as that given by 
King Charles II, in token of gratitude for the fidelity wliich saved him in the 
oak at Boscobel after the battle of Worcester. It now belongs to Mr. Whiteley, 
of Beckington, Somerset, fifth in descent from Penderel. 



14 Mistress Jane Lane. 

were old — all slashed for the ease of his feet, and full of gravel, with 
little rolls of paper between his toes, which he said he was advised 
to, to keep them from galling. He had an old coarse shirt, patched 
both at the neck and hand, of that very coarse sort which in that 
county goes by the name of " Hogging " shirts. His handkerchief 
was very old and torn and coarse, and being daubed with the King's 
blood from his nose. Father Huddlestone gave it to a kins- 
' woman of his, one Mrs. Brathwayte. No gloves, but a 
long crooked thin stick. His hair cut short up to his ears, and his 
hands and face coloui'ed and stained with walnut juice. Such was 
the King of England's general appearance at this time — a wretched 
half-starved ill-clothed vagabond ! dependent for his life upon the 
Blount's Narrative, generosity of persecuted priests and poor 

1725 ' labourers. Even Royalists durst not own him. 

His chance of escape was rendered more difficult through a pro- 
clamation issued by the Parliament on September 10th, for the 
discovery and apprehending of Charles Stuart, with the promise of 
Smollett Hist. ^'^^ thousand pounds for his capture. It is said 

Eng. that Charles read this proclamation when he got to 

Col. Lane's house. Later on directions were given by the Council 
Domestic State ^^ State to customs officers of every port to look 

Papers, 1651. out for Charles Stuart, and the following police 
description of him was posted on every wall and hoarding : " For 
Domestic State better discovery of him take notice of him to be 

Papers. ^ tall man above two yards high, his hair a deep 

brown, near to black, and has been, as we hear, cut off since the 
destruction of his army at Worcester, so that it is not very long. 
Expect him under disguise, and do not let any pass without a due 
and particular search, and look particularly to the bye creeks and 
places of embarkation in or belonging to your port.'^ 

The toils were closing round this poor prince. But a short time 
would have elapsed before the Puritan soldiers — always taught to 
believe that the Stuarts were their enemies — must have come upon 
his last retreat and broken into the hiding-places at Mosely as they 
did at White Ladies. 

At this critical juncture a new departm'e is devised — neither by a 



By C. PenruddocJce. 15 

priest, a soldier, or a woodcutter, but by a woman, the noble sister 
of her whose remains lie beneath the altar of a little Wiltshire 
Monarchy Church. No wonder was it that Eglesfield, in his 
Kevived. yjovV called " Monarchy Revived," published in 1661, 
should dedicate the volume 

" To the happy preserver of His Majesty, 

the 

Lady Jane Lane.'* 

Arms of Lane : — Or : a chevron gu : between three mullets az : with the arms 
of England (thi-ee lions) on a canton. 

Thomas Lane, of Bentley=Anne, eldest d. of "Walter Bagot, 
and Hyde. Ob. 1660. I Esq.,of Blithfield, Co StafEord. 
I Sister of Sir Harvey Bagot, 
Bart. 



1 

Colonel John Lane.=Athaliah Anson. 


William. 


From 


1 
Eichard. Groom 


B. 8 April, 1609. 






whom the Ii-ish 


of the Bed- 


Ob. London, 






family 


sprang. 


chamber, 


1667. Adm. 












Will, 1668. 












1 1 
tTane =Sir Clement 'Withy= 


-Petre 


1 
, Anne= 


=Ed. 


il/a!r_y=Edward. son 


Lane. Fisher, of Lane. 


Esq. 


Lane. 


Birch, 


Lane, of SirOIiver 


Ob. Sept. Packington, 






Esq., 


Ob. 24 Nicholas, 


9, 1689. Warwickshire, 






ofLea- 


Dec, Cupbearer 


Bur. at ffit. 6, 1619. 






croft. 


1686, K. Jas. L, 


Pack- Ob. 13 April, 








aet. 67. and Carver 


ington. 1683, set 70. 








Bur. at to K. Chas, 


S.P. S.P. 






• 


Man- I. Of Win- 
ning- terbourne 
ford Earls and 
Bruce. Manning- 
ford Bruce, 












Co. Wilts. 



I cannot but think that when this lady heard from Lord Wilmot, 
or perhaps her brother, or, what is possible, from Mary, her sister, 
that the young King was in sore danger, she thought it her duty 
to transfer that plan of escape to him which was previously suggested 
for Wilmot. 

Hollingshed states that the Lanes came into England with the 
Conqueror. Their pedigree commences in the time of Edward II. 
The first mentioned is Adam de Lone, or Lane, of West Hampton, 
in the County of Stafford. Thomas Lane, Esq., of Bentley and 
Hyde, Co. Stafford, married Aune> eldest daughter of Walter Bagotj 



16 Mistress Jane Lane. 

of Blitlifieldj and o£ their nine children John, Richard, Jane, and 
Mary will always be remembered as having assisted the King in 
his sore dilemma. 

John Lane was for three years colonel for the King at Stafford, 
Rushall Hall, and Lichfield. It will show the character of this 
man that, when summoned by Basil, Earl of Denbigh, to surrender 
Domestic, Rushall, he replied he had orders to keep it for His 

vof^D^ I ' Sacred Majesty, and therefore, if the Earl desired to 

1644. prevent the shedding of blood, he must depart, for he 

would maintain His Majesty's commands to the loss of his dearest 
blood. With such sentiments it is no wonder that he was voted a 
State Papers, " malignant," and on the 31st of July, 1650, it was 

for Advances. ordered that all his estates should be seized. Kichard 

Lane had been a Groom of the King's Bedchamber. He it was 

who accompanied Charles II. in his flight from Worcester, and rode 

the King's " pad nag " — one of the fourteen horses sent 

by Mrs. Mary Graves for the use of the King before the 

Calendar battle. This lady, in a petition to the King after 

162J. ' ^^ Restoration said it was she who sent Francis 

Yates to guide the King, for which office the poor fellow was 
afterwards hung, and she maintained his widow and five children. 
Mary Lane, who married Mr. Nicholas, of Manningford, was the 
youngest daughter — the heroine in Sir Walter Scott's novel of 
Woodstock — his " Alice Lee " — at this time about thirty-two years 
of age. Jane was the eldest daughter, and I fear that I cannot 
conscientiously put her age at much less than thirty-five or thirty- 
six. I won't go so far as to describe her as " fat, fair, and forty." 
Her portrait, says Mr. Hughes, in Boscobel, is attributed to Lely, 
is in the possession of the Lane family, and greatly resembles that 
of Anne Boleyn in its thoughtful expression, as well as in the 
features and colour of the hair. 

"A pure transparent pale, yet radiant face, 
Like to a lighted alabaster vase." — Syron. 

Clarendon, ipj^g print taken of Mrs. Lane riding behind the King 
History m ^ . ° i /. 

Verse II- makes her of a pleasing countenance and good figure, 

lustrated, ^^^ ^ reprint of the original portrait in the same 



By C. Penruddocke. 17 

volume, is produced in EgleBfield's "Monarchy Revived." It is 

from a print by Vandergucht, and engraved by Richard Cooper. 

Two portraits of Jane Lane were shown in the Stuart Exhibition 

(1889). One has been engraved by Vertue in Clarendon's History. 

This was lent by W. M. Hardinge, Esq. The other by C. H. 

Cooper, Miniature Burnaby Sparrow, Esq. Mr. Scharf informs me 

Painter, ob. 1672. that the most authentic portrait of Jane Lane is 

in the possession of the Earl of Aylesford, at Packington Hall. 

Memoirs of the Mission in Father Cyprien, of Gamache, one of the 

England of the Capuchin Capuchins belonging to the household of 
Fnars of the Province of ^ o o ^ 

Paris, 1630 to 1669 ; pub. the widowed Queen Henrietta Maria, has 

LndS'e/otc^fe "^^^^ ^ ^'^y P^^^^y ''''y about Mademoi. 

1848. selle Jane Lane, and her portrait is drawn 

with true French vivacity. He speaks of her as the second daughter 
—about twenty-two years old— not remarkable for her beauty, but 
endowed with a noble mind and superior understanding. 
Earl of Perth to Thomas Lane, the father of this loyal lady, is 

cardine; * described by the Benedictine monk Huddleston, 

Dalrymple's j^ ^^ answer ariven to a question put by the King 

Coll. Letters. ° t i i i j 

Extracts from ^ ^^^> " ^^ ^ gentleman exceedmgly beloved. 

Clarendon in and the eldest justice of the peace of that county, 

Boscobel. and tho' he was a zealous protestant, yet he 

lived with so much civility and candour towards the Catholics that 

they would all trust him as much as they would one of their own 

profession." There was no doubt about his loyalty. His estates, 

like those of his kinsman, Harvey Bagot, suffered. He and others 

Historical Commission, towards the end of the year 1650, petitioned 

i"p' V.'Rl^rt,';S Cromwell tx, be freed from payments and 

penalties then demanded by new instructions. They acknowledged 

the benefit of general pardon, disclaimed the acts of some rash 

persons, and engaged to be obedient and faithful to him and to the 

then present Government. How distasteful all this must have been 

to the old Cavalier. That his professions to the Government were 

State Papers, not exactly believed to be sincere is fairly evident, 

Committee f^j. qq January 3rd, 1651, Thomas Lane, of Bently, 

1651. ' ' was assessed at £100, and on the 18th of September 



VOL. 



XXVI.— NO. LXXVI. 



18 Mistress Jane Lane. 

of the same year he was ordered to be discharged on payment of 
£60 in a month. In February of the year following he received a 
receipt for the same, and was discharged. 

It would seem as if he was absent from Bentley at the time of 
His Majesty's appearance there, or that he refrained from compro- 
mising himself by appearing to take any active part in assisting the 
King. It is very probable that Col. and Mrs. Lane lived at Bentley, 
and old Thomas Lane lived at Hyde, which was the family seat of 
the Lanes, Perhaps, like his wife, then on a visit to her son, he 
was not let into the secret. Events took place so rapidly that 
almost as soon as the escape was planned it was carried out. As we 
have seen. Squire Lane being in fairly good odour with the Govern- 
ment, there appears to have been no difficulty in his daughter ob- 
taining a pass to go on a visit to her cousin, Mrs. Norton, who lived 
near Bristol ; and as this pass included the necessary attendance of 
servants, Jane Lane, with the ready wit of a woman, saw how the 
King, if he so pleased, might personate one of these. 

And now to return to Charles, whom we left moping at Moseley, 
while Mr. Huddleston's pupils (among whom was young Sir John 
Preston) were made to keep strict watch for soldiers, under the 
pretence that their tutor was in danger. In the night of Tuesday, 
September 9th, between 12 and 1 o'clock, the fugitive steals out, 
and by previous arrangement meets and is introduced to Col. Lane 
in a corner of Mr. Whitgrave's orchard. The colonel has come to 
conduct him to Bentley. The night is dark and cold. The King 
shivers. Father Huddleston lends him his warm cloak, and kind 
old Mrs. Whitgrave insists upon filling his pockets with sweetmeats 
of a very substantial character, if we may judge of the way in which 
they were made from the old receipt books :— 

Sweetmeats. Excellent. 

Professor " Take halfe a pound of blanched almonds beaten very fine with a 

Household little rose watei', two ounces of the leaves of damask roses beaten 

Companion, £ng tijen take half a pound of suffar, and a little more, wet it with 

2nd edition, . . ^ . , 

1696. water, and boil it to a candy height, then put in your almonds and 

roses and a grain of musk, and let them boil a little while together, and then put 

it into glasses. It makes a fine sort of marmalade." * 



• S-vreetmeatB made from this receipt by Messrs. Gunter & Co., London, were giren to the audience 
at the Deyizes Meeting, accompanied by glasses of " sack." 



By C. Penruddoche. 19 

How awfully sticky the King's fingers^ and Mr. H/s cloak must 
have been, and did'nt the King make the most of his short sleep 
after being smuggled up the back stairs to an attic at Bentley. If 
the King felt any mortification at reading the proclamation 
for his capture his attention was soon taken off by the 
necessity of eflPecting a new disguise to correspond with the part he 
was to assume of an accomplished serving-man. Without any delay 
Colonel Lane supplied him with a suit of ordinary grey cloth, like 
the holiday suit of a farmer's son, which converted him from 
William Jones, the woodman of Boscobel, into William Jackson, a 
neighbouring tenant's son. He then instructed him in his new 
duties, and finally mounted the disguised groom on what was called 
in those days a good double gelding — that is, a sturdy, quiet, long- 
backedhorse, fit and broken to carry two persons. The gentleman 
or servant sat astride on a saddle in front, and the lady on a pillion 
— something like a circus rider's saddle — behind. Thomas De Grey, 
De Grey's Compleat in a work called " The Compleat Horseman/' 
e^SSTTerTBook ^"^ published in 1670, quotes Sir Henry Lee 
I., p. 35. as a famous breeder of horse?, and that he 

preferred those which possessed one white foot be-speckled with black 
motley spots ! Picture to yourselves William Jackson in the twilight 
of a September morning caracolling round from the Bentley stables 
on such an animal as described, and, hat in hand, modestly waiting 
at the front door for the coming of Mistress Jane Lane. What was 
passing in the mind of the young King as he waited thus? We 
Hume's Hist. know how tired he got of the Puritanical manners 
of England, ^^^ mock modesty of his Scotch subjects. " His 

vol. Vll., p. ... 1 1 T 

200. affability, his wit, his gaiety, his gentlemanly dis- 

engaged behaviour were treated as so many vices.'^ It must have 
been agreeable to him to think of the companionship of this fair and 
honest English lady, who was putting herself into every conceivable 
danger to secure his safety.' While thus musing Mistress Lane 

1 Cap. 14 of an Act passed 12tli August, 1651, enacted " correspondence with 
Charles Stuart or his party prohibited under pain of high treason, and to be 
proceeded against by a council of war, &c. This Act to continue in force till the 
first day of December, 1651." 

Father Cyprien says, "Mademoiselle Lane was lifted behind the King." 
Memoirs Mission Capuchin Friars. C 3 



20 Mistress Jane Lane. 

appeared — the King gives his hat a flourish, and replaces it on his 
head, and prepares, like a good servant, to assist his mistress in 
taking her seat on the horse. Colonel Lane, closely following his 
sister, cries out as he lifts her to her seat, " Will, thou 
must give my sister your hand," but His Majesty, says 
Mr. Blount in his narrative, being unacquainted with these little 
offices, offered his hand the contrary way, which old Mrs. Lane, 
who had risen early to see her beloved daughter start, took notice 
of, and laughing, said to her son " what a goodly horseman her 
daughter had got to ride before her ! " How tickled the King must 
have been at this little episode, and the palpable mystification of the 
old lady. Mistress Lane takes a firm hold on his belt, and the 
supposed William Jackson rides off on his dangerous journey. 
Presently Withy, another sister of Jane's, who had married a Mr. 
John Petre, of Horton, Buckinghamshire, joins the party with her 
husband, and a Mr. Henry Lassels, who was a cornet in Colonel 
Lane's troop, with a serving-man on horseback to carry a port- 
manteau — all, except Mr. Lassels, being in ignorance of the plot. 
At a short distance from Bentley My Lord Wilmot and his servant 
and Col. Lane casually rode up with a hawk and a spaniel or two. 
Baker's ^^ ^^ *^"^ °° ^ sporting excursion. But now a most 
Chronicle, unforeseen accident occurred ; the great double gelding 
^®Py^- cast a shoe at Bromsgrove, and while the King was 

holding the horse's foot at a village smithy the gossiping blacksmith 
said he had not heard that that rogue Charles was taken, to which 
remark the King at once replied that if that rogue Charles were 
taken he deserved to be hanged more than all the rest for bringing 
in the Scots ! Whereupon the blacksmith declared he was an honest 
Baker's man. The King opined that the King was fled to 

edit^TeeS Scotland, and lay somewhere there concealed. " I 
p. 666. rather think,^^ said the blacksmith, " that he remains 

concealed somewhere in England, and how joyful should I be if I 
knew where, since for the reward of my discovery I should be the 
gainer of the thousand pounds allotted for his apprehension." When 
approaching Wotton, within four miles of Stratford, a troop of horse 
appeared, and, to avoid them, Mr. Petre insisted upon making a 



By C. Penruddocke, 21 

ditonr, lest he should lose his horse or something; so that, although 
Will Jackson ventured to whisper softly in his mistress's ear as to 
the expediency of putting on a bold front, Mr. Petre would not 
listen to her. As ill-luck would have it, at Stratford the party came 
plump upon what looked very suspiciously like the same troop of 
horse in a narrow passage. The King^ showed a bold front and 
Memoirs spurred his horse. Father Cyprien, in his account of the 

Court King's escape,say s that the soldiers asked Demoiselle Lane 

Times where she lived, whether she had seen the King of Scots 

Charles I. — g^ ^j^gy galled him — and if she knew where they were 
likely to find him. Her answers may have satisfied them, for they 
very civilly opened right and left to let them go by. Miss Lane's 
presence of mind, and the fact that the pass now shown by her was. 
signed by Captain Stone, the influential Governor of Stafford, served 
a good purpose. Captain Stone is the same gentleman who was 
Cromwelliana, added to the Council of State by the Parliament in 

p. 44, 130. 1653. Some of the stories about the escape of the 

King which reached the Parliament were very amusing. It was 
asserted that he wore a red perriwig, and was two or three days in 
Whitelock's Cromwell's Army as servant to a gentleman, and that 

Memorial. the lady who was with him, finding she could not ship 
the King off at Bristol, went with him to London, where the King 
remained three weeks disguised as a gentlewoman ! Four miles 
beyond Stratford Mistress Lane's party slept at Mr. Tomb's, of 
Long Marston, and the supposed farmer's son being relegated to the. 
kitchen was desired by the busy cook to wind up the jack for her, 
but never having done such a thing before he was very awkward, 
about it, and provoked her anger. But Charles, with ready wit, 
Blount's answered " I am a poor tenant's son of Colonel Lane's 

Boscobel. in Staffordshire — we seldom have roast meat, but when 
we have we don't make use of a jack ! " Lord Wilmot and Colonel 
Lane found a hospitable welcome at Sir Clement Fisher's, at Great 
Packington, in Warwickshire. This Sir Clement, after the Resto- 
ration, in 1660, became the husband of Miss Jane Lane. He died 
Mr. and Mrs. ^^'^ April, 1683, aged 70— six years before his 

Petre. clever wife. Very early on Thursday, September 



22 Mistress Jane Lane. 

11th, after taking leave of her host, Mr. Tombs, and her sister 
and brother-in-law, who were going to Windsor, Miss Lane con- 
tinued her journey, and apparently without meeting any adventure 
of consequence. Arrived at Cirencester, in Gloucestershire — twenty- 
four miles from Long Marston — the King got a supper and a good 
Baker's ^^^> ^J ^^^ contrivance of Mr. Lassels, at the Crown 

Chronicle. Inn. Next day the party left Cirencester, and passing 
through Sodbury, got to Bristol, where, amongst the crowded 
streets, they lost their way, but eventually arrived at Leigh, or 
Abbot's Leigh, which was three miles from the last-named city, 
and about thirty from Cirencester, and — as the old writer says — the 
desired end of that perilous journey. 

Rev. W. Bazley, A writer in " Gloucester Notes and Queries,^' 

"Antiquary" ^^^^ ^® ^^^ ^^^^ '^^ stated that Mrs. Jane Lane 

May, 1880. and the King, after leaving Long Marston, made 

their way to Cubberley, and slept at the parsonage, which was 
vacant at the time on account of the death of the rector, Lewis 
Jones, on the 29th July, 1651 ; and one night at Tetbury, at Boxwell 
Court, the residence of Colonel Huntley, who had fought for the 
King under Prince Rupert. A wood called the King's Walk is 
said to have been the place of the Prince's concealment. 

Old Storied Ti^g^e is an old manor-house at Little Wolford (a 

Houses, by . , 

A. Fea. hamlet in the parish of Great Wolford) formerly the 

seat of the Ingrams, where it is alleged King Charles II. was con- 
cealed after the Battle of Worcester. In a rough sort of projection 
in the building, approached by a door at the back of a fireplace, was 
a sort of closet — the smoke of the fire served to conceal the outlet. 
Here, it is said, the fugitive King narrowly escaped being baked 
alive, for Cromwell's soldiers, suspecting something, lighted a 
tremendous fire to drive him out. The writer says, " This is indeed 
an addition to history, and puts all Charles's narrow escapes in the 
shade ! " 

It is quite possible that the King may have stayed a few hours at 
these houses, but his resting-place on each night seems to be clearly 
accounted for. His Majest3''s adventures after arriving at Abbot's 
Leigh, under the charge of Miss Lane, were by no means at an end. 



By C. Penniddocke. 23 

To secure him better treatment — for the Nortons had no idea whom 
Will. Jackson represented — Miss Lane advised him to counterfeit 
being sick of an ague, and feign to be weak, for which he got a 
separate chamber allotted to him, and Mrs. Norton, pitying his 
condition, ordered her own maidservant, Margaret Rider, to look 
after him. Now Margaret had probably lived long enough in a 
gentleman's house to know how to concoct simple medicines in the 
" still room,'' and therefore, seeing the poor young man looking 
pale and dejected, she took upon herself to exercise such knowledge 
Method of Physic of physic as she had acquired. Picture to yourselves 
3rd Ed., dedicated the young woman consulting such books as 
imi!^ ^Compton " The Method of Physick/' by Philip Burrough, 
Library. 3j.(j edition, 1601, or " The Physician's Practice," 

published in 1639, a copy of which may be found in the Cathedral 
Library at Salisbury ; and, after poring over these for some time, 
becoming convinced that Will. Jackson (meaning His Most Gracious 
Majesty) had several complaints, and required to be treated accor- 
dingly. Possibly she glanced over the remedies for " Phrensy," and 
understood it to mean " influenza," for which a decoction of mallows 
and endives and lettuce is recommended either as an '' averter," or 
" preparer," and read of asthma, or a wheezing, for which the dried 
lungs of a fox was highly spoken of. I think this must have been 
as a "preparer." She knew that ancient writers accounted the 
sow thistle to be very wholesome and nourishing as an article of 
diet, for was it not recorded by Pliny that Theseus, prior to his 
encounter with the bull on the plains of Marathon, partook of a dish of 
cooked sow thistles ? Again, in the Middle Ages the Car dims Benedic- 
tus, or sow thistle, was accredited with healing powers. " The milk 
which is taken from the stalks when they are broken, given in drink 
is very beneficial to those that are short winded, and have a 
wheezing." In making "Aqua Epidemica," or London Plague 
Water, the leaves of the Carduus Benedictus, or blessed thistle, were 
used, and also mixed with new milk, as a comforting drink, and 
styled by the old writers alexipharmic, i.e., resisting poison. I 
rather fancy that knowledge was a dangerous thing in the hands of 
Margaret Rider, for, finding that the thistle (plenty of it about) 



24) Mistress Jane Lane. 

possessed all kinds of good qualities, and was also sacred to the god 
Thor, and was called the blessed thistle, and expelled evil demons, 
and further that there was an Order of the Thistle — which, perhaps, 
_^ , she hoped to merit — she finally decided upon dosing the 

poor boy with a earduus, or thistle posset, and looking 
very carefully after him. History does not mention, as far as I have 
yet been able to discover, whether the King took the carduus posset 
or not. Sack posset is very well in its way — a posset made of thin 
beer and milk may serve its purpose — but as for Margaret's carduus 
posset I doubt if the King was pleased with it. Curiously enough 
I possess in an old MS. receipt book a prescription which is headed 
" a restorative from Miss Norton.'' It is not exactly like the famous 
posset administered by Mistress Norton's maid, but it may very 
possibly have been handed down from the Norton family, who, 
through the Trenchards, were connected with the Penruddockes. 

(1st) Anna, d. of Sir George=Sir Qeorgt Trenchard,={^Qi) Jane, d. of Hugh 

Speke, of White Lacking- I of Wolverton, Dorset. Bamfield, and widow 

ton, Co. Somerset. I Knighted Eliz., 1588. of Thomas Chafin, of 

I Folke. 

6race.=Col. William Arundel. =John Freke, son of 



Sydenham, 
of Winford 
Eagle, Dorset. 



Sir Thoe. Freke, 
of Shrewton. 



Arundel Freke,=:John Penruddocke, 



b. 1610; set. 
35 in 1661, 



son of Sir John 
Penruddocke, of 
Compton. 



Thomas Penruddocke. 



Here is an actual prescription in which the thistle is introduced. 

Old MS. at " Aqua Lactis alexiteria. 

Compton, «/r 1 1 

and re- Meadow sweet 

ceipts, Carduus Benedictus ^ six handfulls. 

1677. Goat's Rue 

Mint 

Common Wormwood 
Rue three handfulls. 

Angelica two handfulls. 

Bruise, and add three gallons of new milk. Mix, and distil in a 
common still." 



> sij 

> five handfulls. 



i 



By C. Penruddoche. 



25 



(Sir) Georqe Norton,— Qraxie, d, of Sir William Owen, of Condover. Co. Sabp, 
of Abbot's Leigh. at whose house King Charlee II. lay concealed, after 
Knighted by King being conducted thither by " Jane Lane. 
Charles II., at the 
Restoration, 1660. Ti-z-L^i-a u 

(BnrVe. ed. 18»2.) Mien NoHon.=W%lham Trenchard, of Cuttendge, ob. 

I 1713, set. 70. Psh. North Bradley. 



Ellen Trenchard,=Heniy Long, of 



ob. 1752, set. 
65. Youngest 
daughter. 



Melksham, 
bapt. 20th:0ct., 
1687. 



Frances.=John Hippesley, of 
Stanton. 



Ellen Long,= John Thresher, of Brad- Mary Gore,=Eobert Hippesley, b. 171& 



ob. 1753, 
set. 42 



ford, "Wilts, ob. 1741. of Salis- 

S. of Edward Thresher bury, 

and Dionysia Long. 1740. 
Ob. 1741, ffit. 52. 



Assumed surname and 
arms of Trenchard. Ob. 
1787, bur. at Abbot's 
Leigh. 



Ellen Thre8her.=Sir Bourchier 

IWrey, of 
Tawstock, 
Co. Devon. 



(1st) John A8h-=Ellen, b.=(2nd) John Long, 
fordby. 1745. I of Preshaw. 



Florentina Wrey,=Ilichard Godolphin 
ob. 1835. Long, of Rood 

Ashton. 



1745, 

ob. 

1788. 



Rev. John^-^ 
Ashford- 
by. As- 
sumed ai-ms 
&c., and name 
of Trenchard. 



Walter=The Rt. 



Long, 
of 

Pres- 
haw. 



Hon. 
Lady 
Mary 
Car- 
negie. 



Walter Long=M.A. Colquhoun. 



Walter J.=Emily d. B. 
Long. I Morant 

Gale, Esq. 



Reginald= Agnes Flora, 
Gambler, d. of Charles 
b. 1851. Penruddocke. 



Flora H. Long=Charle8 Penruddocke. 

Issue. 

Pretending to suffer from ague His Majesty kept pretty closely 
to his chamber, but Miss Lane contrived to send him some good 
food during his imprisonment. Although not discovered by members 
of the family or their guests, Mr. Norton's butler— formerly a 
soldier — whose name was John Pope, recognized him, having (when 
in the service of Colonel Bagot, at Litchfield) seen him as Prince 
of Wales. The honest butler at once informed Miss Lane of his 
suspicions, and she, fearing his indiscretion, declared he must be 
mistaken, but afterwards, with the King's consent, she acknowledged 
that he was right, and the poor fellow was permitted to kiss His 
Majesty's hand, and always remained perfectly loyal. Will. Jackson 



26 Mistress Jane Lane. 

had 0115 very near shave of being discovered in this house by his 

own chaplain, Dr. Gorges. This cleric, who for a while had given 

up theology and was studying physic, dined with Mr. and Mrs. 

Norton, and was very inquisitive about William Jackson when he 

saw Miss Lane sending up meat to him from the table. He asked 

many questions as to whether he had been properly treated for ague, 

&c., and nothing would satisfy the worthy doctor but going to visit 

the patient in his room. The King retired to the darkest side, and 

answered all the questions put to him as well as he could, but he 

was right glad to get rid of him. Poor Mrs. Norton in the meantime 

was taken unexpectedly ill, and though Jane did not like to leave 

her relative in this condition, yet she considered it advisable to get 

the King away to Trent House for better security. To show the 

Debate, House of animus which prevailed at this time, there was a 

NovemW \m7 ^^^'^^^^ ^^^ Thomas Clifford who actually employed 

Pepy's Diary, people at his own cost to watch the out ports to 

ra°r<^e"edftion ' prevent the escape of the King. The King and 

1825. Mistress Lane, therefore, boldly concocted a letter, 

purporting to come from the lady's father to say he was ill, and 

wished her to return home. The sick hostess could say nothing 

against this, and Lord Wilmot was secretly despatched by the King 

to Colonel Wyndham's to prepare him to receive the Royal fugitive. 

Thanks, no doubt, to the wonderful posset. Will Jackson's ague 

disappeared, and on Tuesday morning, September 16th, Miss Lane 

once more became his guardian angel. Whether it was from a shy 

fit, or that his pleasant-spoken Majesty had really been whispering 

soft nothings in her ear, I know not, but Jane agreed with William 

Boscobel. ^^^^ °^ ^^^^ occasion he should ride single, and take 

charge of her portmanteau instead of herself ! Nothing 

Chronicle, of consequence occurred to mar these arrangements, and 

Edit. though then- guide, Henry Rogers, took them through 

p. 666. the heart of Somersetshire, they arrived safely at Castle 

Gary, near Bruton, and slept there, at the house of a Mr. Edward 

Kirton, without having excited suspicion. On the following morning 

they continued their journey and arrived at Trent, which was some 

twenty-six miles from Leigh. Here the King was in comparative 



By C. Penruddocke. %!• 

safety. The Wyndhams of Trent were proverbial for their loyalty. 
Mrs. Wyndham had been his nurse, and — if we may trust Clarendon 
and Pepys — had governed him and everybody else. Mrs. Anne 
Wyndham, in her published account called " Claustrum Regale 
reseratum, or King Charles IFs concealment at Trent," says " the 
ladies of the family agreed to call Mrs. Lane cousin, and to entertain. 
her with the same familiarity as if she had been their near relation/' 
She dismisses our heroine in these words : " That day she stayed at 
Trent, and the nest morning early Mr. Lassels and she departed." 
But English history will preserve the memory of this loyal and 
courageous woman. Various rumours by this time had been circu- 
lated concerning the King's escape, and amongst others that he had 
assumed women's apparel, and when it was reported later on that 
he was at Charmouth the soldiers searched several gentlemen's 
houses. That of Sir Hugh Wyndham, uncle to Colonel Francis, was 
twice rifled. The whole family had a guard set upon them, and one of 
Lady Wyndham's lovely daughters was seized and rudely treated on 
suspicion that she was the King in disguise. It was with difficulty 
that the soldiers were convinced of their gross and rude mistake. 
Amongst the almost numberless songs and ballads sung to the 
tune " When the King enjoys his own again," was one made on the 
King^s escape after the Battle of Worcester. It was headed " The 
last news from France, being a true relation of the escape of the 
King of Scots from Worcester to London, and from London to 
France^ who was conveyed away by a young gentleman in gentle- 
woman's apparel ; the King of Scots attending upon this supposed 
gentlewoman in manner of a serving man. Printed by W. 
Thackeray, T. Passenger, and W. Whitwood." Roxburgh Collection, 
iii., 54. It commences thus : — 

"All you that do desire to know 

What is become of the King of Scots, 
I unto you will truly show. 

After the flight of Northern rats : 

'Twas I did convey 

His Highness away 
And from all dangers set him free 

In woman's attire 

As reason did require 
And the King himself did wait on me." 



28 Mistress Jane Lane, 

Soon it was rumoured that the Lanes had been instramental in 

favouring the escape of the King, and Colonel Lane and his sister 

became objects of suspicion, and so closely were they watched that 

they had to make their escape out of England by going on foot to 

Yarmouth in disguise, and from thence crossing to France. Charles 

in the meantime was safe in Paris, to which city Mrs. Jane Lane 

Monarchy was conducted by the King's friends. Charles himself 

Eevived. ^^^j ^j^g Queen Mother went out to meet her with the 

repnnt, 

p. 162. Dukes of York and Gloucester. Can we wonder at the 

man, whom this heroic woman had saved (possibly from an 

ignominious death) by her sagacity and thoughtfulness, coming 

forward to greet her with the memorable words " Welcome, my life'' ? 

This meeting of the King and his preserver took place early in 

December, 1651, but the lady 'and her brother appear to have 

returned in the spring of 1652 to England. 

There is extant a kind letter written by Charles to her, which I 

am able to transcribe :— 

Historical Commission, " 1652. The last of June* 

473. •• • • tt jjj^ Lane — I did not ithinke I should ever have 

MS8.T. 8. Raffles, Esq. tegun a letter to you in|chiding, but you give so just cause 
by telling me you feare you are wearing out of my memory that I cannot chuse 
but tell you I take it very unkindly that after the obligations I have to you, 'tis 
possible for you to suspect I can ever be so wanting to myselfe as not to remember 
them on all occasions to your advantage, which I assure you I shall, and hope 
before it be long I shall have it in my power to give you those testimonyes of my 
kindnesse to you which I desire. I am very sorry to hear that your father and 
brother are in prison, but I hope it 'tis upon no other score than the general 
claping up of all persons who wish me well, and I am the more sorry for it since 
it hath hindered you from coming along with my sister, that I might have assured 
you myself how truly I am 

" Your most affectionate friend, 
•' For Mrs. Lane." " Chables E." 

Meanwhile " this banished heir of the English crown takes his 

sanctuary in the Court of France, where he is caressed, and made 

Letters writ by a to believe great things they will do towards his 

^W.^ ^* ?^^n' restoration. But interest supersedes all arguments 

1649 to IfaSJ, . • • m /-I 

vol. iv., p. 224. of affection and consanguinity. They (the Court) 
are more solicitous for the success of their embassy than for the 
rights of the poor exiled prince. He narrowly escaped the trains 



By C. Peuruddocke. 29 

which were laid for his life and liberty in England." Thus writes 
" The Turkish Spy " in Paris, and he very well describes the position. 

Some eight years after, i.e., on the 14th day of September, 1659, 
and the anniversary of the King's safe arrival at Abbot's Leigh 
Domestic with Mrs. Lane, Lord Cromwell, Sir Hervey Bagot, 
Papers. «^^ Colonel John Lane were liberated from prison on 
bail— that of Lane being fixed at double that of the two others. 
The Parliament had not yet got over their mortification at the escape 
of the King, and the Lanes were considered to be notorious offenders. 

But the year of grace, 1660, saw the restoration of monarchy, 
and was an enormous relief to those who had experienced the severity 
of Cromwell when he had to bolster up his reputation in the eyes 
of Parliament. Life and good service was hardly expected to be 
given without some Royal return, and many and various were the 
petitions for assistance sent in to the now merry monarch. Mr. 
Secretary Nicholas, equal to the occasion, replied discreetly that the 
King was unable to grant anything of this kind till his own estates 
be better settled. There was one immediate exception. To quote 
Parliamentary History, from the Parliamentary History : on Dec. 
Anno 12 Car. II., 1660. ig^jj the Commons took it into their heads 
to grant rewards to several persons who had done signal services for 
the Royal Family, and after the House had granted rewards to the 
men, a lady came in question to have a reward for her courage and 
conduct in the King's escape after the Battle of Worcester. This 
was the famous Mistress Lane ! But her case took more pleading 
than any of the former. Sir Clement Throckmorton first moved, 
and Sir John Bowyer followed, that a jewel of the value of £500 
should be given her. This met with much opposition. Sir Trevor 
Williams took occasion to move for a reward for Colonel Wyndham's 
sister ; who, he said, rode six days with the King, whereas Mrs. 
Lane rode only two. This was rather undignified of Sir Trevor, 
Heath's Chronicle for it is on record that Mistress Lane rode four, 
JulLna cSngS)y. if not five days with the King, and the colonel's 
fair cousin, Juliana Coningsby hardly that number. At least Mrs. 
Anne Wyndham, who was the wife of Colonel Francis Wyndham, 
and wrote and published an account of the King's escape from Trent, 



80 Mistress Jane Lane. 

does not clearly say so. Up jumps Sir Thomas Bludworth and 
proposes that it be left to the King to reward her. Then a Mr. 
Boynton drily remarked " that they were giving away as freely as 
if they had all the Rump thought they had, which was so inconsistent 
with monarchy that he thought the House wanted an Act of In- 
demnity to absolve them.^' Sir Harry "Worsley moved that every 
Member should give her forty shillings out of their own purses, and 
grumpy Mr. Henry Huugerford, having moved in November that 
£10,000 be presented to the Princess Henrietta, the King's sister, 
declared that he thought by the many gifts they were bestowing the 
House was making its will, and moved rather to give the money 
now moved for Mistress Lane to the poor at the door. Mr. Hunger- 
ford did not carry his motion any more than when, in November, 
he moved the House to appoint a fast for the death of the young 
Duke of Gloucester, and got no seconder. The friends of Mrs, 
Lane were pretty numerous, and Sir William Lewis, with an eye to 
foreign affairs, said that it would sound very unhandsome abroad, as 
this affair had been debated so long, if it should be now thrown out- 
Sir John Masham was for putting the question first whether the 
House had power to give money to any but the King. However, 
Sir Henry North moving for £1000, that question was put and 
carried without division. So it was resolved that as a mark of 
respect to Mrs. Lane, and in testimony of the high resentment {sic) 
and value of her service, in being so signally instrumental to the 
preservation and security of the person of His Royal Majesty, there 
be conferred upon her the sum of £1000 to buy her a jewel, and 
that the same be charged on the arrears of the Grand Excise, &c. 
Hist. Com., Duke of In a gossipy news letter from Mr. Edward 

App, R. 5, p. 201. ' Gower to Sir Richard Leaveson, dated December 
20th, 1660. Commenting the day after upon the vote, he says :— 
" Major- General Massey hath £3000 given him by the Parliament, 
and Captain Titus £2000. Mistress Jane Lane, tho' deserving 
much more than both, but £1000. 'Tis observed the Presbyterians 
are best rewarded ! " 

However, on Febniary 5th, 1661, a warrant for a pension for 
£1000 a year by letters patent during life was granted to Mrs. Lane, 



By C. Penruddocke. 31 

and in the same year application was made by her for the place of 
Upper Assay Master in the Mint, or Clerk of the Deliveries in the 
Tower.^ 

It is doubtful, pressed as the loyal Lanes were for money, if the 

thousand pounds voted by the Parliament to purchase a jewel for 

Jane Lane was ever spent on one. The lady, however, through the 

generosity of the King-, was now in a better position to marry, and 

an entry is found in her husband's family bible (a revered book, 

which remained in the Fisher family from about 1580 till their 

Copy of Extract extinction), which records: " Sir Thomas Ffisher, 

from bible now gon of Sir Robert Ffisher, baronet, was married by 

in possession of _,.,, m 1 1 t i » ii- i p r^ , ^ 

Sir Charles Dilke, Gilbert Shelden, Lord Archbishop oi Canterbury, 

Bart. December 8th (1662), to Jane Lane, daughter to 

Thomas Lane, Esq., of Bentley, in the County of Stafibrd." There 
was no issue by this marriage. 

The following letter shows the deference and regard which the 
King had for this lady. A certain Mr. Boswell, probably son of 
Sir Henry Boswell, who was Resident in Holland, 1648, "chaffs^' 
Mrs. Lane upon the good counsel which she gives His Majesty in 
her letters to him, and which the King publicly proclaims in his 
bedchamber. Upon her acquainting the King with this he returns 
the following :— 

" Mistriss Lane. 

Hughes, « I }iope you do not beleeve that hearing from a person that I am 

p. 76. ' BO much beholding to can be in the least degree troublesome to me, 
that am so sensible of the obligations I have to you ; but on the contrary 'tis a 
very greate satisfaction to me to heare from you ; and for that which Mr. Boswell 
is pleased to tell you concerning your giving me good councell in a letter, and 
my making it publick in my bedchamber, is not the first lie he has made, nor will 
not be the last, for I am sartayne there was never anything spoken in the bed- 
chamber in my hearing to any such purpose, nor, I am confident, when I was not 
there, for I beleeve Mr. Boswell's end is to shew his frequent being in my bed- 
chamber, which is as true as the other. Your cousin will let you know that I 



' " Upper Assay Master," probably lineal descendant of " Miles Argentarius " 
of the Plantagenets, i.e., he presided at the trial of the Pyx for establishing 
purity of currency. " Clerk of Deliveries," i.e , out of the Kings wardrobe in 
the Tower. There was also a Clerk of Deliveries of Ordnance in the Tower. 



S2 Mistress Jane Lane. 

have given orders for my pickture for you ; and if in this, or in anything else I 
can shew the sence I have of that w"^"* I owe you, pray let me know it, and it shall 
be done by 

"Your most assured 

" And constant frind, 

"Chaeles R." 
"For Mrs. Lane." 

Mr. Hughes, the editor of the Boscobel tracts, 1830, says that 
this letter in Charles's handwriting, accompanied by the picture to 
l^w at which it alludes, was then in the possession of John 
Bromley. Newton Lane, Esq., the lineal descendant of Colonel 
Lane. The King gave his protectress a gold watch, which was, by 
express request, to descend by succession to the eldest daughter of 
the house of Lane for the time being. It came into the possession 
Eev. T. ®^ Mrs. Lucy, of Charlecote, and remained in the 

Whitehead. family until after 1830, when it was stolen by thieves, 
and never heard of again. 

At a meeting of the Chester Historic Society, in 1850, the Rev. 
Canon Slade exhibited a curious snufiF-box, which is said to have 
been presented to Mrs. Jane Lane by King Charles II. 

As Mr. Hughes says in his Boscobel Tracts, an English matron 
of Lady Fisher's character was not likely to be mentioned in the 
subsequent annals of Charles's Court, where, however, her brother 
and herself were on all occasions received with distinction by the 
King. After twenty years of married life Lady Fisher became a 
widow through the death of her husband. Sir Clement 

Coll Arms 

Fisher, who died 13th April, 1683, and was buried on 
the 15th, set. 70. There was at this time the sum of £6500 due to 
Correspondence her for her pension, which had not been paid for six 

Earls of Cl'ar- years and a-half, to Lady Day, 1683, but it was, on 

endon and application, promptly ordered to be paid. 

H.Murray Lane. '^^^- J^ne Lane (Lady Fisher) died the 9th 

Chester Herald- September, 1689, and there is an entry in the 
^gS Ski?'' P^^'^^ Register of Great Packington, but in an 

ton. entirely different handwriting : " Jane y® Lady of 

y« late Sir Clement Fisher buried September y« 12th, 1689.'' 
During the last years of her life she worked a very curious piece 



By C. PenmddocJce, SS 

of needlework in silks and silver wire. At the four comers are 
portraits of King Charles I. and II., and James II, and in 
the fourth corner is presumably that of her father or brother. With 
the exception of King Charles II., the three other portraits re- 
main unfinished. This valuable relic is now in the possession of 
Mrs. Meyer, and with her permission I am able to give a photo-print 
of it here. The legend, with the seal of the Lane arms attached, 
reads thus : " The work of Mrs. Jane Lane, who rode behind King 
Charles y® Second from Worcester to Bristol, from thence to Trent 
in Somersetshire, within two miles of Sherborne in Dorsetshire. The 
King appearing as her livery servant passing thro' the Bebel troops 
and concealed by her dexterity he assumed the name of William 
Jackson, passing for the son of one of the tenants of Colonel Lane, 
brother to Mrs. Jane Lane, who began this piece of work, but died 
before it was finished. 

" For this service the Lane Family bear in their 

_ arms the Arms of England, crest a horse upholdingf 

the crown of England in his fore feet. Motto, 

Garde le Roy." 

The Fisher family bible, in which is entered the marriage of Jano 

Information, Lane, was recently sold at the dispersal of the Pack- 

Dilke Bart, iiigton Library (Earl of Aylesford's), and bought by 

Sir Charles Dilke, whose family is connected with the Lanes. 

There remains but to gather up a few, but intensely interesting', 
notices of persons and things in connection with my story. 

Of Mary Lane two descendants of her husband's family (Nicholas) 
Infonnation, remain, or were resident a short time ago, in Wiltshire, 
Nicholas. °^® ^^ daughter of a Rector of Little Cheverell— Miss 
Fishlake, and the other the widow of Mr. Barton, late of Corsley, 
near Warminster. She was only daughter of Captain John Nicholas, 
R.N., who was uncle of the present Mr. Richmond Nicholas, of 
Wimbledon. Harriet, a daughter of this gentleman's great uncle, 
Robert Nicholas, married Admiral Henry Collier, their daughter 
married Charles Tennant, and Dorothy Tennant, the gifted artist 
and model for Sir John Millais* famous picture, " The Love Letter," 
has married Stanley, the great African explorer ! 

VOL. XXVI. — ^NO. LXXVI. D 



34 Mistress Jane Lane. 

Of the Penderels a descendant of John, of Boscobel, married the 
Rev. G. G. Fisher, a nephew of Fisher, Bishop of Salisbury. The 
pension given by Charles II. to " Trusty Dick " is still received by 
his descendant at Brighton, John Penderel. The eldest son of the 
family, at present in the police force, London, is always baptised 
" Charles Stuart.^' 
Domestic State Margaret, a sister of Henry Lassells, petitions 

Papers, 1662. fo^. the place of Laundress of the Table Linen to 
the Queen in 1663. She says she and her brothers suffered much 
in the late times. 

In May, 1662, Mr. Thomas Whitgrave petitions for the Eeceiver- 
ship of Hearth Money for StaflFord,^ &c., was an officer in late 
wars : preserved His Majesty in his own house from the woods of 
Boscobel till his removal to Colonel Lane's house. 
Domestic State June 2nd, 1662. Petition of Anne Wilkinson 

Papers, 1661-2. that her late husband fought for Charles First, &c., 
and after Worcester he entertained Mr. Lassells and Colonel Lane 
nine months. Asks release of debt to Exchequer. 
Domestic State ^^7 26th, 1663. Colonel John Lane gives in- 

Papeis, 1662-3. formation of a rumoured rebellion of Irish and 
Scotch to restore Republic : also of fifth Monarchy men, old Crom- 
wellian soldiers, &c. 
Domestic State September 11th, 1665. Petition of Juliana 

Papers, 1664-5. Coningsby (of Salisbury) for a reward promised her 
for attending the King (when Jane Lane left him at Colonel 
Wyndham's, at Trent). She got £200 pension for this. 
Domestic State July 2nd, 1666. Thomas Lane to Lord Arlington 

Papers, 1665-6. giving information about a disaffected person. 

February 22nd, 1667. Privy Seal for £2000 to Colonel John 
Lane of the King's free gift for his eminent services to the late and 
present King. 

June 13th, 1667. Commissions given to Colonel Lane to fill up. 



* Hearth Money was a form of excise by charging so much for every fireplace 
in houses. It was always odious. It was abolished by King William III., in 
1689, as " .slavish," and the "Window Tax" put in its place. 



By C. Penruddocke. 35 

Minutes of commissions in 12th Regiment of Foot :— 

"No. 12. Colonel Lane's Eegiment. 
" Captain Lane. 
" Arden Bagot, &c." 

At this time there were great military preparations against the 
Dutch. 

In 1695, that is to say some forty-four years after the memorable 
Battle of Worcester, Thomas Lane, the eldest son of Colonel John 
Lane, petitions the Lords of the Treasury for arrears of a pension 
which had been settled on him on account of his father's services : 
as follows : — 
Treasury, Board « To the Eight Honbl. the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's 

Papers/ • ol. ° •> j 

xxii.. No. 81. Treasury. 

" The humble Peticon of Thomas Lane, Esq., 
Most Humbly Sheweth. _ 

" That in consideration of Your Peticoner's Father's being so instru- 
mental in the preservation of King Charles II. after the battaile of Worcester, 
your Peticoner had a Pentiou of 500" per annum during life settled on him by 
his said Majesty, 

" That at Lady day last 1695, there was an arrear of the said Pention due to 
your Peticoner, sume of 5125" as appears by a certificate under Sir Sobert 
Howard's hand. That your Peticoner's father had contracted some debts on tha 
aforesaid account, which doe still incumber your peticonors estate, and having 
children to provide for, he is utterly unable to do it without his Majesty's assistance, 

" Wherefore your Peticoner most humbly praj's your Lordships will be pleased 
to give some speedy and effectual order that your Peticoner may receive Ma 
aiTear aforesaid. 

" And yr. Peticoner as in Duty shall ever Pray, &o." 

[Endorsed'] " Pet°. of M'. Thos. Lane." 

[Enclosing'] 

" Certificate by Sir Eobert Howard, 30 April, 1695, that the Pension aforesaid 
is in arrears since Mich: 1679, being 4875£."* 

My paper would hardly, I think, be complete without some further 
allusion to the tree which served as a temporary refuge for the King. 
Sylva, 3rd ed. Evelyn, in the somewhat fulsome style of preface 

1679. ^iged in dedicating books to people of rank, ad- 

dresses the King thus : " Since you are our 0eo9 yXi/co? Nemorensis 



• The sum £5125 is arrived at by adding a half-year's pension (£250) to £1875— from Miohaelmai, 
1694, to Lady Day, 1C95. 

D 2 



36 Mistress Jane Lane, 

Bex ; as having once your temple, and court too, under tbat sacred 
oak, which you consecrated with your presence, and we celebrate, 
with just acknowledgment to God for your preservation/' 
Sylva, 5tli ed.. Fifty years afterwards, in his fifth edition, he 

^'^^^- ^eaks of this tree as having been hacked to pieces 

and killed. 

The Rev. George Plaxton wrote in 1707 a paper on the parishes 

Philosophical of Kinnardsey and Donington, in the latter of 

pp^SsISs, which the oak stood. He says the poor remains 

Toh XXV., No. 310. of the Royal Oak are now fenced in by a handsome 

brick wall {circa 1677). 

Cider— a Poem by In a poem called CMer — edited by Mr. Charles 
dedicated 1791. Dunster — written by John Phillips, and dedicated 
to the Hon. Edward Foley, of Stoke Edith, Herefordshire, the oak 
is spoken of as having been cut down and carried off soon after the 
King had used it as a hiding-place, and the one now shown is said 
to be from an acorn of the parent oak. 

Boscohel, by Rev. The Rev. Henry G. de Bunsen, Rector of Don- 
BuSi%^l. ington, in a pamphlet published in 1878, gives 

1878. a good deal of evidence for and against the present 

oak being the original tree. The Earl of Bradford appears to me 
to cling to family tradition too much, and rejects the idea that the 
first oak was destroyed. I think a good tradition may be accepted 
as such, but I have proved many to be unreliable, and am quite 
satisfied in my own mind that the present tree is not the one into 
which His Majesty climbed. 

Of its descendants, one used to grow on the site of Marlborough 
House, near St. James's, London, and one in the Botanic Gardens, 
Chelsea. The old tree, covered with ivy, and protected by an iron 
fence, which stands, or lately stood, near the Powder Magazine in 
Hyde Park, is said to have been planted from an acorn of the original 
Boscobel Oak by King Charles II. One near Donington Church 
Letter, Rev. W. was a good specimen, and there is a notice about it 
DoninSon™' ^° *^® r^rish register. It was planted by the 
Rectory, Rector, Dean Woodhouse, but it is feared that it 

has been inadvertently cut down. Other trees from the present — or 



By C. Penruddocke. 87 

Pitzberbert*s — tree are said to exist at Lord Dungannon's place iu 

Denbighshire, and Sir Astley Cooper's in Hertfordshire. 

Through the great courtesy of the Worshipful Company of Barbers, 

London, I bare seen a very handsome and unique parcel-gilt standing 

cup and cover surmounted with the crown imperial, and having 

within the same the Royal arms, supporters and crown. This cup 

Engraved in Cripps' is known as the " Royal Oak Cup,'* its stem and 
Old EHOflish Plate, , i • xi z i i i. p i 

3id ed., p. 259. "^^ representmg the trunk and roots or an oak 

tree : the bowl, or upper part, is surrounded with oak leaves, branches, 

wreaths of flowers, escallop shells, and pendent acorns, as bells from 

shields. The company's arms are engraved on one shield, on another 

the crest ; on the third is the following inscription ^— 

" Donnm 

Mnnificentissinu 

Regis Caroli 

Secnndo anno 

1676" J 

and on the last shield ; — 

" Impeti-antilius 

Chirurgis regiis 

Johanna Knight, 

Chirurgo Regis 

Principal! et 

Jacobo Pearse 

Eodem anno 

Societatis 

Magistro." 

It is supposed that King Charles 11 . intended the cup for the 
Knights of the Royal Oak.^ 

Amidst the universal hacking to pieces o£ the oak at Boscobel 
Told to Mrs. Price some portion appears to have been reserved for 
by his descendant. ^jjg King, who caused the frame of the portrait 
which he had had painted of Richard Penderel to be made from this 
wood. The King had also a bowl carved out of part of the same 
" Royal Oak " and mounted in silver, which he gave to Richard, 

' I was enabled to show and distribute prints of this beautiful cup from a 
copper block kindly lent to me by Charles John Shoppee, Esq. 



88 Mistress Jane Lane. 

Information ob- ^^® portrait is still extant, but alas I the bowl 

tained by Mr. has disappeared. Perhaps the person wbo is said 

from Mr^. Price, ^0 have bought it of Mrs. Penderel may be in- 

Malvern. clined, on reading this, to produce it. 

A snuff-box made from the wood of the Royal Oak, and one in 

silver with an engraving of Boscobel, were shewn at the Stuart 

Exhibition in London, 1889. 

Some portion of the oak tree was obtained by the Lane family, 

for in the Ashmolean, at Oxford, is preserved a small salver of wood, 

attached to which is a plate of silver, with the following inscription : 

•' Tbis salver is part of tbat oak in wbicb His Majesty King Cbarles tbe Second 
concealed himself from the Eebells, and was given to this University by Mrs. 
Lcetitia Lane." 

Miss Lettice, or Lcetitia, was a niece of Lady Fisher's, and died 
in 1709. Through the great kindness of the Vice-Chancellor I am 
enabled to give the photo-print of the salver, which accompanies 
this paper. 

" The King enjoys his oicn again," or " Trusty Dich." 
ChappeU'8 "What Booker can prognosticate 

Music, Concerning Kings or Kingdoms' fate? 

D°847.* ^ think myself to be as wise 

As he that gazeth on the skies. 
My skill goes beyond 
The depths of a Pond ,• 
Or Eivers* in the greatest rain, 
Whereby I can tell 
All things will be well, 
When the King enjoys his own again." 
[Since writing the above I have had access to a very curious contemporary 
manuscript, written by a native of Worcester at the request of the Mayor and 
Corporation of that town. It is in the possession of Sir Charles Isham. The 
writer, a Mr. Thomas Vaulx, "arms painter and student in heraldry," gives 
an interesting account of the battle of Worcester, and how Charles 11- had his 
horse shot nnder him, and was re-mounted on another by Master William 
Ba"nall, the brewer. Vaulx writes " his enemies did breathe out nothing but 
his death, and destruction." In speaking of Jane Lane he says : — "She who 
had formerly disguised His Majesty in a serving man's habit had to disguise 
herself as a country wench, and so trot on foot to save her life." He adds : — 
" I believe no past, or future ages can, or will ever parallel so great a pattern 
of female loyalty and generosity."— C.P.] 

• Fond and RiTers, astrologers and almanac makero. 




Q ^ 



2 O 

D CO 

IjJ o 

CO CO 



89 



^ l^itiJr of ^omaii Coins urn "^nlhton^l. 

By the Rev. C. S0AMK8. 

(lit-printed, by permission, from the Numismatic Chronicle, Third Series, 
No 39, p. 282.; 

It^ VERY interesting find of Roman tliird brass coins o£ the 
Constantine period has been lately made near Granham 
Hill, Marlborough. 

It would seem that the earthen pot, in which they were originally 
contained and buried, was at some recent time fractured by a plough, 
and a few of the coins being in course of time brought to the surface 
by those indefatigable excavators, the moles, a search was made, and 
about five hundred and thirty-one were found in and close to the 
remains of the vessel, which was one of unglazed earthenware of 
the ordinary Roman manufacture. 

All the coins were completely covered with rust and verdigris, on 
the removal of which was disclosed the curious fact that they had not 
been in circulation, but were in precisely the same state as when 
issued from their respective mints ; not a single coin presented any 
signs of wear. Apparently they were lost or deposited there im- 
mediately before they were intended to be used ; whether for paying 
the soldiery in the neighbouring camp of Cunetio which lay on the 
opposite hill about a mile distant, or for any other purpose, must be 
left to conjecture. 

They range in date from Licinius I. to Constantius II. There are 
however, very few of the former and only two of the latter; but the 
mintages of Constantine, Crispus, and Constantine II. are very 
largely represented, some types of each being very abundant, 
SARMATIA DEVICTA, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, PROVI- 
DENTIAE CAESS, D. N. CONSTANTINI MAX. AVG. of 
Constantine being especially so, as well as BEATA TRANQVIL- 
LITAS and PROVID. of Crispus and of Constantine II. On the 



40 A Find of Roman Coins near Marlborough. 

other hand, the coins with CONSTANTINOPOLIS, GENIO 
POP. EOMANI , GLORIA EXERCITVS, and VRBS ROMA 

occur very rarely amongst them. 

The parcel would seem to have been made up about the years 323 
to 326 A.D., the campaign in Sarmatia having taken place in 322 
A.D., the death of Crispus in 826 A.D. 

A large proportion bear the mint marks P. LON., PLC, but 
many come from far distant mints. 

The following is a list of the coins which have come into the 
possession of Mr. J. W. Brooke, of Marlborough, who has with 
great kindness allowed me to examine them. I should add that 
some were sold before Mr. Brooke had the good fortune to acquire 
the bulk of the find and the fragments of the vessel in which they 
were deposited. 

In the whole parcel there are apparently only four types which d.o 
not appear in Cohen's Med. Imp., Ed. 2 ; viz., one of Constantine 
with VOT. XXX., as Cohen No. 129, but reading CONSTANTINI ; 
two of Crispus, one with BEAT . TRANQLITAS and the bust of 
Crispus to the right, cf. Cohen 26, the other with BEATA TRAN- 
QVILLITAS and the bust armed with shield, on which appears 
the Emperor (?) receiving kneeling captives, behind him are soldiers 
with shield, cf. Cohen 1 4 ; and two of Constantius II., one with 
legends FLA . CONSTANTIVS NOB . C. and PROVIDENTIAE 
CAESS J the other, as Cohen ] 69, but the legend on the reverse 
reading CAESS for CAES. 



Licinius I. 9 Rev.- 


-D. N. Lie. LICINI AVGVSTI. 


2 


1) 


D. N. LICINI AVGVSTI. 


2 


i> 


lOVI CONSEEVATORI AVa. 


1 


» 


VIRTVS EXEECIT. 


Licinhs 11. 5 


» 


VIETVS EXEECIT. 


Constantmns I. 4 


» 


BEAT . TEANQLITAS. 


30 


>i 


BEATA TEANQVILLITAS. 


4 


ft 


CONSTANTINOPOLIS. 


2 


n 


C^SAEVM NOSTRORUM. VOT. V. 


20 


f> 


D. :N. CONSTANTINI MAX. AVG. VOT. XX. 
and X. 


2 


'» 


D. N. CONSTANTINI MAX. AVG. VOT. XXX. 
(cf. Cohen 129). 



Bi/ ike Rev, C. Soamea. 

Conatantmus I. 2 JBet>.— GLORIA EXEECITVS. 
40 „ PROVIDENTIAE AVGG. 

3 „ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS. 
50 „ SAEMATIA DEVICTA. 

2 „ SOLI ESrVICTO COMITI. 

2 0J«.— VRBS ROMA, 
ijeu. — Wolf and twins. 

20 „ VICTORLE LAETAE PRINC. PERP. 
7 „ VIRTVS EXERCIT. 

Crispua 1 „ BEAT. TRANQLITAS (cf. Cohen 26). 

49 „ BEATA TRANQVILLITAS (cf. Cohen 14). 

31 „ CAESARVM NOSTRORVM. 

1 „ PRINCIPIA IWENTVTIS. 

27 „ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS. 

1 „ SAEMATIA DEVICTA. 

3 „ VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC. PERP. 

2 „ VIRTVS EXERCIT. 

Constantine II. 38 „ BEATA TRANQVILLITAS. 

6 „ BEATA TRANQLITAS. 

40 „ C-ffiSARVM NOSTRORVM (V and X). 
1 „ DOMINOR. NOSTROR. 

3 „ GLORIA EXEECITVS. 

41 „ PROVIDENTIA CAESS. 
1 „ VIRTVS AVGG. 

1 „ VIRTVS CAESS. 
1 „ VIRTVS EXERCIT. 

Constantius H 2 Obv. -¥LA. CONSTANTIVS NOB. C. 

i?cy.— PROVIDENTIAE CAESS. 
The other reads : — 

Olv.—FL. IVL. CONSTANTIVS NOB. C. 

.Be*.— PROVIDENTIAE CAESS (cf. Coheti 169). 
Helena 10 „ SALVS and SPES REIPVBLICAE. 

Fausta 6 „ SECVRITAS REIPVELICSl. 



41 



^arnmt of t|e §k(kcaj in MmitL 

It is perhaps worth while noting the fact that on February 3rd, 1891, 1 picked 
np a male Blackcap (Cumica Atricapilla) dead in one of the rooms of Clyffe 
Pypard Vicarage. The poor little bird had evidently taken refuge indoors, but 
too late to save its life. Mr. Smith informs me that several Blackcaps were seen 
or killed in different parts of England during last winter — e.g., one at Barnstaple, 
on December 12th ; one at Bloxham, in Oxfordshire, on December 20th ; one at 
Lyme Regis, at the end of December ; and two at Ilfracombe, on January 6th. 
He suggests that they may have been induced to fly northward two or three 
months before their proper time by the veiy unusual severity of the weather ia 
their winter haunts, the Mediterranean coasts and Algeria. — E. H. Goddabd. 



42 



on l^acod ^Irteg/ 

By C. H. Talbot. 

pHE manor of Lacock anciently belonged to the Earls o£ 
Salisbury of a family which, in later times, appears to have 
been called Devereux, in error.^ Ela, daughter and heiress of 
William, Earl of Salisbury, who died April 17th, 1196, and was 
buried at Bradenstoke Priory, was born at Amesbury, 1188, and 
married' William Longespee, natural son of Henry II. and 
Rosamond Clifford, called Fair Rosamond. Longespee was Earl of 
Salisbury in right of his wife. After his death, March 6th, 1226, 
and in his memory, she founded this abbey, April 16th, 1232, in 
the 45th year of her age, for canonesses of the order of St. 
Augustin. The Countess Ela took the habit of the order here, 
December 25th, 1238, was elected the first abbess, August 15th, 
1240, and resigned her office, on account of age and infirmity, 
December 31st, 1257, nominating Beatrice of Kent as her successor. 
Ela died August 24th, 1261, in the 74th year of her age, and was 
buried in the choir * of the Abbey Church, 

The inscribed stone slab, which once covered her mortal remains, 
is preserved in the pavement of the cloisters. It is not, however, 
the original monument, but a second memorial, substituted for the 



^ This paper is a development of some notes read by me to the members of 
the Clifton Antiquarian Club, on the occasion of their visit to the Abbey, 
September 27th, 1890, and since published by that society. Some of the facts, 
now given, were not then known to me. 

^ This appears to be the deliberate conclusion of the late John Gough Nichols, 
F.S.A. (See Annals and Antiquities of LacocJc Ahhey, Bowles and Nichols, 
chapter iii.) The mistake seems to have arisen from the accidental substitution 
of the words "de Ewrus " for "le Ewrus." 

^ In 1198 (Bowles and Nichols, pedigree iv., p. 149). 

■• This is given on the authority of Vincent's extracts from the Liber de 
Lacock (Bowles and Nichols, Appendix No. I.), as are also most of the dates in 
the life of Ela. 



Notes on Lacock Abbey. 

first in the fifteenth century, as it has evidently held a brass of 
Perpendicular character. The inscription, which is incised round 
the edge of the slab, is now partly obliterated, but it is given in 
full and probably correctly, as follows :— ^ 

INFRA SVNT DEFOSSA ELiE VBNEKABILIS OSS A 
QViE DEBIT HAS SBDES SACBAS MONIALIBVS ^DES 
ABBATISSA QVIDEM QV^ SANCTB VIXIT IBIDEM 
ET COMITISSA SABVM VIRTVTVM PLENA BONARVM. 

Translation :-^en,^i'^ are buried the bones of the venerable 
Ela, who gave this sacred spot to the nuns, for an abode; who, as 
Abbess, lived here a holy life; Countess also of Salisbury; full of 

virtues. , .. ... 

The slab was probably despoiled of its brass at the dissolution 
and I believe it to have been discovered,' on its original site, and 
removed to the cloisters for preservation as a curiosity, in the last 

century. 

The following list of fourteen Abbesses of Lacock is more com- 
plete than any that has been hitherto published :— 

1. Ela Longespee, Countess of Salisbury, the foundress, elected 

1240. 

2. Beatrice of Kent, elected 1257. 

3. Alicia. 

4. Juliana, abbess in 1288 and 1290. 

1 (Bowles and Nichols, p. 5). The reading agrees with all that remains legible 
of the original inscription. i«., . , ^^,^e% 

2 By John Ivory Talbot, who was owner of Lacock Abbey from 1714 to 1772. 
There are two volumes of drawings, by Grimm, 1790, in ^^e Bntxsh Mnseum 
(vols. X. and xi. of Additional MSS., No. 15, 546). One of these drawings, 
which I believe to be in vol. x., fol. 169, represents "beads and cross, found m 
the Foundress's tomb at Lacock" and described as being, at that time, fastened 
to a pilaster in the cloisters. What became of them afterwards, I do no know 
but I infer that, not veiy long before 1790, Ivory Talbot, who took an mtelbgent 
though not always judicious interest in antiquities, must have discovered and 
opened the tomb of Ela, identified by the inscription on the stone, and have 
taken out the beads and cross, and placed them, with the slab, in the cloisters 
I had the slab shifted, a few years ago, from the centi^ of the pavement up to 
the wall, and an iron rail put to protect what remains, and I took that opportunity 
of ascertaining that there is no inteiment on the spot. 



44 Notes on Lacock Abbey. 

5. Agnes, abbess ia 1299. 

6. Johanna de Montefort, abbess in 1303* and 1315', probably 
identical with Johanna, 1325.' 

7. Sibilla de Seyntecroiz, abbess in 1329.* 

8. Faith Selyman. 

9. Agnes de Wick, elected 1380,^ on death of Faith Selynaan. 

10. Elena de Montefort, probably identical with Elena, 1408,^ 
abbess in 1421' and 1426.8 

^ Stevens, from Cartulary of Lacock Abbey, fol. 40, b. He has supplied the 
surname from some other source. There are two cartularies, one apparently 
rather older than the other, of which it is evident that Stevens only saw the later 
one. They contain, in general, the same deeds, but there are some deeds of 
interest in the earlier which are not in the later volume. There is nothing to 
show that John Stevens was ever at Lacock. In the preface to hisF .»: Edition to 
Dugdale's Monasticon, vol 1., p. ii., in acknowledging assistant"' received, he 
says : — " Ivery Talbot of Lacock, in the County of Wilts, Esq., of l's generous 
disposition to sei"ve the Publick, freely furnished a curious Register Book of the 
Nunnery of Lacock which has been in his Family ever since the Dissolution, &c." 
And in vol. 2, p. 143, he says : — " Having been favoured with a very fair Register 
Book of this Nunnery, by that worthy and communicative gentleman Iverj 
Talbot of Laycock in Wiltshire, Esq., the present possessor of that place, I shall, 
in the Appendix, give many charters and extracts of all the less considerable 
which cannot be all inserted in a work of this nature, by reason they would swell 
it to an immoderate bulk, &c." Stevens's volumes were published in 1722 and 
1723. His abstract was simply re-printed by Bowles and Nichols, some mistakes 
that he made being re-produced, but that was no fault of Mr. Nichols, who 
desired to consult the original and had not the opportunity of doing so. 
2 WiltsJiire Arch(Bological Magazine, vol. xvi., p. 350. 

3 Court of Wards and Liveries Deeds, Bos 94, B. No. 2, in Public Record 
Office. I am indebted to A. Story Maskelyne, Esq., of the Record Office, in 
information respecting these deeds. 

* Court of Wards, &c., Deeds, Box 94, B. No. 4, in Record Office. Sibilla de 
Seyntecroiz, abbess, grants a holding in Beuelegh (Bewley, in the parish of 
Lacock) to Thomas Baaloun and Johanna his wife, for their lives. Roger 
Baalon was Vicar of Lacock, 1342, and died 1348 (Bowles and Nichols, p. 301). 

* She was previously prioress (Bowles and Nichols, p. 280). The date is fixed 
by the older cartulary of Lacock, fol. 86, b. 

* Bowles and Nichols, p. 281. 
^ Older cartulary of Lacock Abbey, fol. 79 b. 
^ Jackson's Aubrey, p. 92, note, where a deed is printed, from a cartulary of 
the Hungerford family, by which it appears that Geoffrey Rokell abducted (from 
Lacock Abbey) Elianor, daughter of John Montfort. She was probably a 
relation of the abbess, whose surname was not known when the Aubrey volume 
waa published. 



By C. E, Talhot. 46 

11. Agnes Fray, probably identical with Agnes, 1434.* 

12. Agnes Draper, elected 1445,' on death of Agnes Fray (or 
Frary) . 

13. Margery of Gloucester, elected 1483.' 

14. Johanna Temys, probably elected shortly before 1516/ last 
abbess. 

The Abbey was surrendered July 21st, 1539. After the dissolution 
the manor and site of the monastery were sold, by Henry VIII., to 
William Sharington, described as one of the gentlemen of the 
King's Privy Chamber. He was lord of the manor in 1540, and 
was knighted at a later date. He appears to have pulled down the 
Church, with the exception of the north wall, which was left to 
form the south wall of the house, and to have converted the principal 
buildings into a dwelling-house. Sharington was a great speculator 
in the Possessions of the dissolved monasteries, and has received, 
from several writers, a very bad name, much worse, I believe, than 
he really deserved. He was appointed * by Henry VIII., April 5th, 
1546, sub-treasurer of the Mint at Bristol, at a salary of 200 marks a 
year ; but in the reign of Edward VI., having been concerned in in- 
trigues in support of Lord Seymour of Sudeley, was, on the fall of 
Lord Seymour,imprisoned and attainted,and his estates were forfeited. 
He was afterwards pardoned and able to re-purchase most of his pro- 
perty, but did not regain his office ^ in connection with the Mint at 
Bristol. He was appointed, April 20th, 1550, in conjunction with Sir 
Maurice Dennys, the Treasurer of Calais, Commissioner^ for re- 
ceiving 200,000 crowns, the first portion of the purchase-money. 



' Bowles and Nichols, p. 281. 
2 Duchy of Lancaster, Chancery Eolls (see 30th Report Dep. Keeper Becoids, 
sec. 25 y. and 25 y 3). I suppose Fi-ary to be a clerical error for Fray. 
' Bowles and Nichols, p. 281. 
* Original letters patent, in my possession. 

* In the deed of restitution of Sir William Shaiington's estates, February 2nd, 
1550, the office of sub-treasurer of the Mint at Bristol is expressly excepted. 

* Original letters patent, in my possession, dated June 15th, 1550, being a 
receipt to the Commissioners for 200,000 crowns. See also England under the 
Reigns of Edward VL and Mari/, by P. Fraser Tytler, vol. i., p, 287, note. 



46 Notes on Lacock Abbey. 

400jOOO crowns, from the French King, Henry II., for the cession 
of Boulogne. He died whilst in oflBee as Sheriff of Wilts, apparently 
July 8th, 1553.^ His monument, in Lacoct Church, which by the 
date on it — 1566 — was not erected till about thirteen years after his 
death, exhibits armorial bearings referring to his marriages ; firstly 
to Ursula, natural daughter of John Bourchier, Lord Berners, the 
translator of Froissart; secondly to Elyanor, daughter of William 
Walsiugham, and sister '^ of Sir Francis Walsingham, Secretary of 
State to Queen Elizabeth ; and thirdly to Grace Farington, of 
Farington, in Devonshire, widow of Robert Paget, Alderman of 
London. Sir William Sharington left no issue,^ and his estates 
passed to his brother Henry, who married Anne, daughter of Robert 
Paget and his wife Grace. 

Henry Sharington received Queen Elizabeth at Lacock Abbey in 
1574, and was knighted in the same year. Sir Henry Sharington's 
eldest daughter, Ursula, was the first wife of Thomas, eldest son of 
Sir Ralph Sadleir, of Staudon, in Hertfordshire, the statesman of 
Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Elizabeth, and died without issue. 
His second daughter, Grace, married Sir Anthony Mild may, of 
Apthorpe, in Northamptonshire, and was ancestress of the present 
Earl of Westmoreland. His third daughter, Olive, married, firstly, 
John Talbot, of Salwarpe, in Worcestershire ; and secondly, Sir 

1 Court of Wards Deeds, 94, D. No. 2 (Extract of Great Roll of Pipe), in Record 
Office, seems to fix tte date. There are also extant, in the Record Office, orders 
signed by Lady Jane Gray, as Queen, dated July 14th, 1553, for the making of 
letters patent to constitute Edward Baynard (of Lackham) Sheriff of Wilts, in 
the place of Sir William Sharington, late sheriff, deceased, and by Queen Mary, 
in identical terms, antedated at Framlingham, July 6th, 1553, being the date of 
the death of Edward VI. These documents are, I understand, given in fac- simile 
in the great work on National Manuscripts, and also in the Leisure Sour 
for 1889, page 826, in an article on the " Handwriting of our Kings and Queens." 

2 I am informed ty C. H. Athill, Esq., Richmond Herald, that this is con- 
clusively proved by the records of the Heralds College. The arms of this 
alliance, viz., Sharington impaling Walsingham and Writle quarterly, original 
glass of the sixteenth century, are preserved in the windows of the modern hall. 

^ No male issue, at any rate ; but a note added from some " Visitation of 
1623 " to the pedigree taken " from the Visitation of Wiltshire, 1565 " (Bowles 
and Nichols, p. 298), states that he " had issue Margaret, wife of William Barnes, 
of London." 



By C. H. Talbot. 47 

Robert Stapylton, of Wighillj in Yorkshire, and had issue by both 
marriages. Between these two daughters, Grace and Olive, as co- 
heiresses,^ the estates of Sir Henry Sharington were divided. 

The Abbey was garrisoned for the King during the civil wars, 
but had to surrender to the Parliamentary forces in 1645. 

The architectural remains consist of the principal buildings of 
the monastery, with the exception of the Church ; that is to say, 
the sacristy, chapter-house, slype and day-room, with dormitory 
over; another passage and cellar, with refectory over, and other 
vaulted rooms under the modern hall and dining-room, these sub- 
structures being of the thirteenth century; the present kitchen is 
that of the nuns modernised. There are fine vaulted cloisters, of 
three sides, two bays being transitional from Decorated to Perpen- 
dicular, and the rest Perpendicular, The Church was evidently an 
Early English vaulted building, which had undergone some alteration. 
It had no transepts and no north aisle. Whether it had a south 
aisle or not is uncertain, but we know that a Lady Chapel ^ was 
being added to it in 1315, and that the said chapel contained the 
the tomb ' of Sir John Bluet, lord of the manor of Lackham, in 
the parish of Lacoek, who, having the alternate right of presentation 
to the rectory, gave that right to the abbey. 

The walls, both of the dormitory and refectory, appear to have 
been raised from their original height, and they retain roofsj re- 
i spectively, of early and later Perpendicular character. 

The tower was entirely built by Sir William Sharington, and Is a 
[perfect and valuable specimen of early Renaissance. Some of the 
[windows of his work are very remarkable for the fusion of English 
[and Italian features. All the old chimneys are of the same work, 

Henry Sharington had a son — William — baptised May 8th and buried August 
filth, 1563, at Lacoek. A most mistaken statement is made by Bowles and 
Nichols (p. 298), which maj' bo corrected by striking out the words I have here 
put in italics, viz., that " Grace, the second daughter . . . was married . . . 
but had no issue ; so that the whole inheritance of Lacoek came to her sister 
[Oliva, &c." The estates were never re-united, and the portions that fell to Grace 
^were sold in the seventeenth century. 

^ Wiltshire Archccolo<jical Magazine, vol. xvi., p. 350. 
^ Older cartulary of Lacoek, fol. 76, a. 



48 Notes on Lacock Abbey. 

and also a fine fireplace in the Stone Gallery. The buildings of the 
court, to the north, comprising stables, brew-house, bake-house, &c., 
were not part of the monastery, but were built by Sir William 
Sharington. They are of very fine workmanship, and the roofs are 
remarkable for being constructed on the modem scientific principle 
o£ a truss, being the earliest example of the kind known to me. I 
think it likely that an Italian may have been concerned, directly or 
indirectly, in these works. 

About 1756,' the present hall was built, by John Ivory Talbot, 
who also made the present dining-room. Unfortunately, we know 
that he destroyed very picturesque ^ old work, to make these 
alterations. He appears to have known that the Renaissance work 
was not Gothic, and to have deliberately removed a good deal of it, 
and, in one case, to have attempted to Gothicise it. He also removed 
the windows from the sacristy, chapter-house, and day-room, 
throwing those buildings open to the terrace. Altogether, with, 
I believe, very good intentions, he did a great deal of mischief. 

Further alterations were made, in 1828 and succeeding years, the 
most noticeable being the doorway and oriel windows of the south 
front. These have improved the general efiect, but, to a certain 
extent, have diminished the archaeological interest. 



1 This rests on the authority of Edward Popham, D.D., Vicar o£ Lacock from 
1765 to 1814, and also Eector of Cliilton Foliot. Amongst the Biitton MSS., iu 
the possession of the Wiltshire Archseological Society, at Devizes, are " Notes 
from Dr. Popham's Letter, Nov. 12th, 1802 " (to John Britton). He says :— 
" The Hall was enlarged, from its original size, and hrought forward about 6 feet, 
in front, and fitted up as it now is, by John Talbot, Esq., about 1756." Dr. 
Popham makes one most mistaken statement, which it may be well to take this 
opportunity of correcting. He says : — " The large stone Bam, close to the gate 
leading to the Abbey, has been erroneously supposed to have been part of a chapel 
belonging to it, as the form of chapel windows appears in it ; but it was built by 
Sir John Talbot, on purpose to receive his own troop of Horse, when he attended 
Charles 2nd to Bath. Sir John built it, in the form it now remains in, that it 
might correspond with the Abbey." An examination of the building shows, 
however, that it was originally a stable, built by Sir William Sharington, and it 
must have been converted into a bam and Gothicised by Ivory Talbot. By this 
alteration the building was so weakened that I have been obliged to re-build part 
of the walls and remove some of the sham Gothic features. 

2 This is known from Dingley's view, 1684. 



By C. H. Talbot. 49 

A very fine cauldron of bell metal, cast at Mechlin (Malines, in 
Belgium) in 1500, by Peter Wagheuens, stands on a pedestal in the 
grounds. It was probably in the possession of the nuns. It was 
removed, from the house to its present situation, in 1747,^ having 
probably remained, up to that date, in the kitchen ' of the abbey. 
The inscription on this cauldron, which is traditionally known as 
the " The Nuns' Boiler," is not correctly given by Bowles and 
Nichols and has frequently been inaccurately printed. In the 
Journal of the British Archaological Association, vol. xxxvii., p. 178, 
I got ' it correctly printed, as follows : — 

A PETRO VVAGHEVENS IN MECHLINIA EFFVSVS FACTVS VE FVBRAM 
ANNO DOMINI MILLESIMO QVINGENTESIMO DEO LAVS ET GLORIA 
CRISTO. 

Translation. I was cast or made by Peter Wagheuens, of 
Mechlin, in the year of our Lord 1500. Praise to God and glory 
to Christ. 

The earliest known view of Lacock Abbey was taken, from the 
south-west, by Dingley, 1684. It is in his History from Marble, 
photolithographed and published in facsimile, by the Camdea 
Society, 1868 (vol. 2, p. ccceciii.). 

The view, from the south-east, drawn and engraved by Samuel and 
Nathaniel Buck, 1732, is interesting but not accurate. 



* Dr. Popham says : — " In the year 1747, when the window tax was imposed, 
John Talbot, Esq., caused it to he placed where it is " ; and adds that he wrote 
for it the " indignant " inscription, given in Jackson's Aubrey, p. 90, note 3. 
It does not appear that the inscription was ever put up. 

^ It is described by John Aubrey and Thomas Dingley as being in the kitchen, 
where it was also seen by a friend of Hearne, in 1712 (Stevens, vol. 2, p. 143), 
I am not quite certain, however, what place is meant. 

^ I corrected and expanded matter, sent me by the Editor. 



VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXVI. 



50 



§\x u ^ettet of Sit Wixllxm ^Imx^Un ta 
Six |o§^n S^l^gmie, |mte 25t|, i553. 

By C. H. Talbot. 

|i^|^Y attention was first called, by my late friend Canon Jackson, 
^^P to the very interesting letter which is the subject of the 
~^ following remarks, in August, 1878. The original is in the 
possession of the Marquis of Bath, at Longleat, where I have seen 
it, but only hurriedly. The text is printed from a transcript of 
Canon Jackson's copy of the letter, and the spelling and punctuation 
are modernised. Canon Jackson printed a few copies of a second 
edition of his paper on Longleat (which had originally appeared in 
this Magazine) , with additions, but it was, I believe, not published, 
and, as he had no copy left, I have never seen it. He informed me 
in a letter (September 32nd, 1887) that one of the things he meant 
to do, if he could possibly find time, was to print a third edition, 
and, I believe, it was his intention to have included this letter. It 
gives the only name, yet known, of any artist employed on the 
buildings of Sir William Sharington. Chapman, who was evidently 
a skilful carver, is mentioned also in Canon Jackson's paper on John 
of Padua {Wiltshire Magazine, vol. xxiii., p. 27). There can, I 
should think, be no doubt that some of the excellent Renaissance 
work remaining at Lacock Abbey is his handiwork, though it would 
be impossible, in the absence of further evidence, to say how much, 
as we do not know what other carvers may have been employed. 
It is remarkable that a chimney, or mantelpiece, should have been 
worked at Lacock, with the intention of conveying it so great a 
distance as to Dudley, yet such appears to have been the case. It 
would be interesting to know whether any early Renaissance work 
now exists at Dudley. John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, 
was executed, August il^nd, 1653, and Sharington, at the date of 



On a Letter of Sir William Bharington to Sir Jo/m Thynne. 51 

this letter, had ahout a fortnight to live. Little did he foresee the 
future. The allusion to the forthcoming assizes is explained by the 
fact that he was sheriff at the time. The " poynen table " is evidently 
the coping, running up the gable, which was surmounted by the 
pedestal and carved stone animal, or '' beast." 

Sir W. Sharington to Sir J. Thynne. 

"My very good friend, with like commendations to yon and to [your] lady, 
my gossip, understanding how gladly you would that Chapman should work for 
you, as I am no less willing, so must I advise you of his going to Dudley, to be 
sent thither by my Lord of Northumberland his Grace's commandment, to do 
things there of like effect, and yet not herehence departed ; he hath sent all his 
working tools before, with such wains as be gone thither, with the chimney that 
so long he hath been working of. Think not, dear friend, but that he should 
work for you, at your desire, if I might continue with him still, though I had 
never so gi-eat business to do, of my own ; his time shall not be long there, but 
as he may do all yours within short space, therefore take patience for a time. 
The pedestal, whereon you will set your beast, may be made and set up, well 
enough, before the beast be made, but you must needs have a measure and a 
patron [pattern], wdth order given of the pedestal herehence, that may be both 
agreeable unto your poynen table, and to the beast, which I do send you by youf 
servant and, when it shall like both you and my lady to come and to visit my 
poor house, you shall be like welcome to myself. I trust as well to see you iu 
your house, this summer, and you in mine, more times than once, before Michael- 
mas. I do look for you at the assizes and for my Lord Edward, to show both 
yourselves in a matter for the King. Though I have good will you should take 
your pleasure, yet would I be loth to lack you. It is possible you maj sooner be 
missed than another. My ship (thanks be to God) is well come to Brigstowa 
[Bristol], well beaten with the French, but who wept * you shall know when we 
meet. Till which time, God guide you and all your family. I hope you will 
not forget me to my Lord Edward, neither to Mr. Marshall. From my house,. 
this present xxv"" of June, 1553. Y'. very friend W. Shakington. 
" To the right worshipful and my very loving 

friend, S'. John Thynne, Knight." 

{Docl-eted:—"W. from Sir William Sharington, Knight, xxv*"" Junii, 1553.") 
Seal small, a scorpion — the crest of Sharington — /land and star 
watermark. 



* I presnme this means that, after a hard fight, the French got the worst of it. 



£ 8 



5^ 



%lt Mill of C|ama$ f oltoii ^bljojf of 
[owMer. ^.1. 1432. 



By the Kev. C. Soames. 

^HE maker of tlie following will was one Thomas Polton, a 
member of a family which must have been of considerable 
standing in the county. We find Thomas de Polton in A.D. 1300 
among the persons selected to view and report on the boundaries of 
Savernake Forest. In 1333 Thomas de Polton appears in a list of 
wealthy burgesses of Marlborough. In 1340 one knight's fee in 
Polton, in the parish of Mildenhall, was held by John de Polton, 
and half a fee by Thomas de Polton, both under the barony of Castle 
Combe. In 1404 Thomas Poulton is mentioned as a tenant, and in 
1424 the testator held under the same barony. About the same 
date his uncle Thomas was in possession of a considerable estate at 
Wanborough. He died "anno virginis" 1418, leaving or having 
had a large family, one of whom — Philip, Archdeacon of Gloucester 
—succeeded to the estate. 

I have not been able to discover the name of the testator's father, 
but Thomas de Polton was most probably born at Polton, in Milden- 
hall,some time in the later half of the fourteenth century. Judging by 
his will, he was educated at Oxford, and became an Augustinian friar. 
His preferment in the Church was rapid and of a very varied charac- 
ter. He speaks of himself as holding office at Weston-super-Mare, 
and at S. Cuthbert's, Wells. In 1403 he was appointed Archdeacon 
of Taunton, and to cauonries at Ripon and York in 1408. The 
same year saw him a prebendary of Sarum. He was made Dean of 
York 1416 ; Rector of Bishops Hatfield, in Herts, 1418. In 1420 
he was made Bishop of Hereford ; in 14*21 Bishop of Chichester by 



The Will of Thomas Polton, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1433. 53 

Papal permission ; and in 1425-6 Bishop of Worcester. He had 
attended the Council of Constance 1414 — 18 as prothonotary for 
England. He was sent as amba'ssador to Rome some time about 
1430, and while there he was appointed by Henry VI. to attend the 
Council at Basle, where he died, 1432 — ^his burial-place being either 
Basle or Rome. 

Of his six brothers, William is the only one mentioned. His 
nephew, George, succeeded to his knight's fee at Polton — where it 
would seem that the testator was at one time resident. 

There was, apparently, a contemporary of his of the same name, 
for we find one Thomas Polton was Vicar of Broughton Giflford, 
1399-1400 ; Rector of Pewsey, 1401 (resigned in 1403) j Incumbent 
of Blackford, near Wedmore, Weston-super-Mare, prior to 1408, 
and incumbent of Laccombe, near Minehead, Somerset, prior to 
1412. If it was the same man he was indeed a pluralist. 

The following account of him, as Bishop of Worcester, is taken 
from the Dioo? Hist, of Worcester, by Rev. J. Gregory Smith and 
Rev. P. Onslow : — " As usual he commenced his Episcopate with a 
demand for a subsidy from the clergy o£ 1*. in the £ according to 
the true value of their livings. He settled a dispute between the 
warden of the College of Stratford-on-Avou and the Master of the 
Guild of the Holy Cross, in the same town, by ordering that Holy 
Cross should pay tithe to the Collegiate Church, and make certain 
annual offerings in token of subjection. By a somewhat complicated 
arrangement he appropriated the Church of Olveston, in Gloucester- 
shire, to the Prior and Convent of S. Peter and S. Paul, in Bath, 
on condition that they should find a priest for a chantry, founded by 
Sir Walter Hungerford, in the parochial Church of Hungerford, at 
an annual stipend of twelve marks, and should, after the death of 
Sir Walter Hungerford, celebrate his anniversary in the Church of 
Bath, and present 20^/. to every monk on the day of celebration. 

When sent in 1432 with the Prior of Norwich, as the King's 
Ambassador, to the Council of Basle, every care was taken to make 
the embassy honourable. He received from the clergy a subsidy of 
2d. in the £, and a promise from the King of a yearly allowance of 
500 marks, if the Council lasted beyond the year. He received 



54 The Will of Thomas PoUon, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1432. 

urgent letters of safeguard addressed not only to kings, princes, and 
dukes, but to all governors of forts, cities, and camps, and even to 
people of every rank and condition in every country through which 
he might pass." That he contemplated the possibility of being 
captured and forced to pay a ransom (exaccionatus) is evident from 
expressions in the will made before he started for Rome. " He was 
allowed to carry out of the kingdom his silver plate and jewels to 
the value of £1000, and received permission to visit Rome for a 
year when the Council was dissolved, or, if it were prorogued, for 
more than a year. The Bishop met with an honourable reception 
at Basle, being escorted into the town by more than five hundred 
horsemen, including representatives of the principal bishops and 
abbots." 

A copy of his will is preserved in the Library at Lambeth, in 
Archbishop Chichele's collection, and seems to have been made some 
twelve or fourteen years after the will was proved. It contains so 
much of local interest that I print it here iti extenso. There are 
evidently a few transcriber's errors, but I have not ventured to 
correct them except in the translation. In that I have received 
assistance from various friends and antiquaries — among them from 
our lamented friend, Canon Jackson, who revised those portions 
which related to the parish o£ Mildenhall. A copy of the rest of 
the will was only obtained after his death. 

Will of Thomas Polton, Bishop of Worcester. 
In Lambeth Palace Library, Chichele's Register, f. 438 b. 

In Dei nomine Amen. Ego Thomas In the name of God,Amen. I.Thomas 

Polton EccUe Wygovu minister indig- Polton,unworthy minister of the Church 

nus condo testm meu in hunc modum. of Worcester,do make my will as follows. 

In primis lego animam mcam deo ac First, I leave my soul to God and the 

beate marie eiusdem piisseme genitrici Blessed Mary, His most pious Mother; 

corpusque meu ecclesiastice sepulture and my hody to be buried according to 

vbi misericors Deus cuncta disponens et the rites of the Church wherever the 

forsan extra regnum me suhtrahi ab merciful God, who disposes of all things 

hac luce voluerit. Qd si adiutra discedam may think fit that I should depart this 

in ecclia Conventuali de Brystelesh^'m life, and perhaps that may be out of the 

ordinis sancti Augustini Sarum dioc kingdom. But if I should die within 

euius loci conf rater sum et a temporibus the same, then I choose that my burial 

eram meam eligo sepulturam ia ca ipius shall take place in the Conventual Church. 



By the Rev. C. Soames. 55 

eccITe parte vbi executoribus meis et Do- of Brystlesham,* of the order of S. 
mino Priori id congruencius fieri vide- Augustine, in the diocese of Sarum, of 
bitur tunulandus. which place I am, and have been for a 

long time a Brother— my grave to be 
made in that part of the said Church 



■Tjocrors commons, umcneiey, arciiuisuup ui uuuibiuuij, appumucu m.u x^<ra,u 
of the Arches, and obtained for him the Deanery of St. Martin's, and a prebend 
in Lincoln Cathedrah He then became a favourite of Heniy V., who made 
him successively Dean of Wells, Prebendary of Sarum, 1419, Keeper of the 
Privy Seal and Treasurer of England, 1432. By the interest of Cardmal 
Beaufort he was appointed Bishop of Bath and Wells. He filled the office of 
Chancellor till 1450— a longer period than anyone since the Conquest had 
held the Great Seal. He was made Archbishop of Canterbury 1443, and died 
at Maidstone 1452. See Diocesan Kistot^ of Bath and Wells, and CampbeU a 
Lives of the Chancellors. 



54 The Will of Thomas PoUon, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1432. 

urgent letters of safeguard addressed not only to kings, princes, and 
dukes, but to all governors of forts, cities, and camps, and even to 
people of every rank and condition in every country through which 
he might pass." That he contemplated the possibility of being 



Correction to be bound up Page 55, Vol. xxvi. 

:-o-:— — — 

I am indebted to the Rev. W. A. Merewether for the correction of an inaccuracy 
in the note on John Stafford, p. 55 of the present volume. He is there described 
as a son of the Earl of Staiford, by Lady Ann Plantagenet (on the authority of 
Lord Campbell, in the Lives of the Chancellors). This was true of one of his 
predecessors in the Chancellorship— Edmund Stafford, 1396 and 1401 to 14.03. 
Dean Hook, in his Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury, describes him, also 
incorrectly, as the son of Elizabeth, wife of Sir Humphrey Stafford, of the Silver 
Hand. John Stafford was of a Wilts family, beinuf a son of Sir Humphrey 
Stafford, of Southwick, in the parish of North Bradley, near Trowbridge. la 
a chapel attached to the Church of S. Nicholas, in that parish, is the tomb of his 
mother, Emma Stafford, who died at Canterbury, 5th September, 1446, and was 
brought there for burial. The register of Canterbury Cathedral records in its 
list of obits there celebrated, "4non. Sept. Emma Stafford, mater Dui Johannis 
Stafford Archpi." The Archbishop is said to have succeeded in 1443 to some 
lands at Blunsdon in this county, on the death of Robert Andrews and his 
widow. For a description of the tomb afc North Bradley, and a discussion 
respecting the lady's name and position see Jackson's Aubrey, p. 347-9, and 
W. A. M., xiii., p. 294-5, and Notes and Queries, 4th S., vii., June, 1871, p. 500. 
Stafford's appointment as Chancellor was in the reign of Henry VI. 
A^ril 27th, 1892. 0. Soambs. 



ill piimis legu tiuiuLitbuj uicciui ucu a\j ijioD, J. leave iii_y suui tu viuu Huu luo 

beate marie eiusdem piisseme genitrici Blessed Mary, His most pious Mother; 

corpusque men ecclesiastice sepulture aud my body to be buried according to 

vbi misericors Deus cuncta disponen.s et the rites of the Church wherever the 

forsan extra regnuni me subtrahi ab merciful God, who disposes of all things 

hacluce^voluerit. Qd si adiutra discedam may think fit that I should depart this 

in ecclia Conventuali de Brystelesh^'m life, aud perhaps that may he out of the 

ordinis sancti Augustini Sarum dioo kingdom. But if I should die within 

ouius loci couf rater sum et a temporibiis the same, then I choose that my burial 

eram meam eligo sepulturam ia ca ipius shall take place in the Conventual Church 



By the Rev. C. Soames. 55 

ecclie parte vbi cxecutoribus meis et Do- of Brystlesham,* of the order of S. 
mino Priori id congruencius fieri vide- Augustine, in the diocese of Sarum, of 
bitur tunulandus. which place I am, and have been for a 

long time a Brother— my grave to be 
made in that part of the said Church 
which may seem most convenient to my 
_ executors and the Lord Prior. 

Item lego ecclie mee Wygorn mitram Also, I leave to my Cathedral Church 
meam albam de perulis cum rosis at Worcester my white mitre of pearls, 
quatuor magnis eciam de perulis en- emhossed with four large roses also of 
bosed que mitra fuit dioc Bathon pearls, which mitre belonged to the late+ 
Episcoporum moderni et dof uncti nullos and the present J Bishop of the Diocese 
habens lapides sed totus Apparatus est of Bath, having no precious stones in it, 
de peiniKs. but the whole ornamentation is com- 

posed of pearls. 
Item lego eidem ecclie vestimentum Also, I leave to the same Church my 
meum album integrum cum vij Chyseble complete white vestment with seven 
et ij tunicles ac vna capa de ead secta Chasubles and two frunicles, and one cape 

* The conventual Church of Bisham, Berks, spelt Brusteham in one passage iu 
Dugdale. The whole of Berks was at one time in Sarum Diocese. 

t Nicholas Bubwith was "the late Bishop of Bath." He was consecrated 
Bishop of London September 26th, 1406, and in the following year became 
Bishop of Sarum, and was again removed to the see of Bath and Welk 
by Papal Bull, dated 7th October, 1407. He was successively Master of the 
Eolls, Keeper of the Privy Seal, and Treasurer of England. Jones' Fasti. 
He was one of the English envoys along with the testator at the Council 
at Constance, which condemned the writings of "VVyclifE and burnt Huss and 
Jerome. As one of the thirty -four electors joined by the Council to the Cardinals 
he took part in the election of Pope Martin V., and died October 27th, 1424, and 
was buried at Wells. 

X His successor, " the present Bishop," John Stafford, 1425 to 1443, Treasurer 
and Chancellor, was less of a bishop than a statesman. He was of illustrious 
descent, being the son of the Earl of Stafford by the Lady Anne Plantagenet^ 
daughter and heiress of Thomas of Woodstock, sixth son of Edward III. ; and' 
he was equally distinguished for his learning and industry. Having with great 
reputation taken the degree of D.C.L. at Oxford, he practised as advocate in 
Doctor's Commons. Chicheley, Archbishop of Canterbury, a^ipointed him Dean 
of the Arches, and obtained for him the Deanery of St. Martin's, and a prehend 
in Lincoln Cathedral. He then became a favourite of Henry V., who made 
him successively Dean of Wells, Prebendary of Sarum, 1419, Keeper of the 
Privy Seal and Treasurer of England, 1432. By the i»tercst of Cardinal' 
Beaufort he was appointed Bishop of Bath and Wells. He filled the office of 
Chancellor till 1450— a longer period than anyone since the Conquest had 
held the Great Seal. He was made Archbishop of Canterbury 1443, and died 
at Maidstone 1452. See Diocesan Histoiy of Bath and Wells, and Campbell's 
Lives of the Chancellors. 



56 The Will of Thomas PoUon, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1432. 



vna cum tribus capis albis alterius secte 
valde bonis que fuerant Domini Ducis 
Exon vltimo defunct. 

Item lego cuilibet commonacbo eius- 
dem ecclie xl"". 

Item cuiuslibet alterius Monasterii 
Prioratus Domus Collegii aut alterius 
loci conuentualis cxempti et non exempti 
ve dioc viro Eeligioso seu mulieri xx^. 

Volo tamen qd Prioiissa de West- 
wode habeat pro se vnum nobile et que- 
libet Monialis ibidm xl"*. ad oranH pro 
anima et aliorum vt infra patet Et xx" 
Bolidos lego eciam ad sustentacoem et 
reparacoem illius pauperimi Prioratus. 

Item lego ecclie parocbiali de Melden- 
haleSarum dioc vnum par vestimentorum 
cum vno portiferio magno quod illuc 
nuper tr'nsmisi eciam cum vno corporali 
et ij tuellis pro sumo altari ibm. 



of the same suit, together with three veiy 
good white capes of another suit, which 
belonged to the late deceased Duke of 
Exeter.* 

Also, I leave to each monk of the same 
Church 40^. 

Also, to every religious man or woman 
of every other Monastery, Priory, House, 
College, or other Conventual Place ex- 
empt and not exempt in my diocese 2Urf. 

I desire however that the Prioress of 
Westwode t shall have for herself one 
noble, and each Nun of the same 4,0d. to 
pray for my soul and the souls of others 
as explained below, and I also leave 20*. 
for the sustentation and repair of that 
very poor Priory. 

Also, 1 leave to the Parish Church of 
Mildenhall in the diocese of Sarum one 
set of vestments for the altar, together 
with one large Breviary, which I lately 
sent there, together with one corporal J 



* Thomas Beaufort, second Earl of Dorset, youngest natural son of John of 
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swinford, created in Parliament Duke 
of Exeter for life, 18th November, 1416 ; Earl of Harcourt, in Normandy, 1st 
July, 1418, by the service of rendering to the King at Rouen " unum florene 
deliciarum " annually on the Feast of S. John the Bajitist ; K.G. ; oh. 27th 
December, 1426, s.p., when that dignity became extinct. JSistoric Peerage of 
England, by Sir Harry Nicholas, revised, &c., &c., by William Courthorpe. He 
■was Chancellor of England for two years. " He could not have been very fit 
for the office, but reached the highest dignity in the peerage of any man who 
ever held the Great Seal." "He afterwards made a most distinguished figure 
in the wars of Henry V." Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors. 

t The Priory of Westwood, Co. Worcester, was a cell to Fontevrault, in Nor- 
mandy. "An Hermaphrodite order of monks and nuns in which, contrary to 
others of a similar complexion, the weaker sex was allowed the preeminence. The 
founder (Robert d'Arbrissel) erected for their accommodation cells in the woods 
of Fontevrault. After lodging the women in separate apartments, and subjecting 
them to the control of the Abbess, he placed the order under the rules of S. 
Benedict, and appointed this house to preside over the whole. Previous to the 
French Revolution there were about fifty of these monasteries in France." 
Ambresbury was another of their houses. Westwood was a favourite school for 
young ladies of rank in the diocese. 

X Corporale, or Corporas. The linen cloth on which the elements were conse- 
crated at the Eucharist. Diet, Christian Antiquities, 



By the Rev. C. Soames. 57 

_ and two towels* for the high altar there. 

Et volo qd executores mei ibm inu- And I desire my executors to find 

eniant vnum honestum presbiterum there a decent priest, who for three years 

qui per trienmu a morte mea celebret after my death shall celebrate [masses] 

in Capella virginis gliose infra dcam in the Chapel of the Glorious Virginf 

eccliam situat pro anima mea parentum situate in that Church, for my soul and 

et confrm meorum n'^non Radulphi for the souls of myparents and brethren, 

Erghum quondam Bathon Epi aliorum also for the soul of Ralph Erghum.t 

que benefcorum meorum necnon in formerly Bishop of Bath, and for the 

genere pro quibus magis specifice souls of all others my benefactors ; and 

teneor exorare omniumque fidelium also, in general, for the souls of those 

defunctorum animabus. for whom I ought more especially to 

pray, and for the souls of all the faithful 

■ departed. 

Item lego vnum par vestimentorum Also, I leave one set of vestments of 



* Tuellis. Among the enquiries to be made by the Archdeacon, probably of the 
time of Richard III. (see Jones' Fasti, p. 131) was " whether you have sufficient 
Books for your Churches, that is to say, a portuoire, a legend, an antiphonner, a 
sawter, a masse booke, a manual, and a pie . . . ." Also " whether ye have 
sufficient towels [tuellis], surplices, &c." Also "whether the churchmen cons a 
yere gyve accompts of the Churche goods to the parochians or noo." Compare 
accounts of sheep to be rendered to parishioners, as directed later on. 

t There is in the south aisle of Mildenhall Church an evident trace of an altar 
at the east end — in the two brackets or corbels for the support of a reredos, or 
of images, carved, one with the head of a Bishop, the other with the head of a 
King. This was in all probability the chapel of the Glorious Virgin, referred to 
in the will The principal altar in the Church at Wanborough, Wilts, with which 
parish the Poulton family was closely connected, vt^as dedicated to the Glorious 
Virgin. See Jackson's Aubrey — Wanborough. 

X Ralph Erghum was nominated by the Pope as Bishop of Sarum in 1375. He 
is spoken of by Harpsfield as "juris civilis professor et Lancastrias Cancellarius." 
He obtained leave from Richard II. to crenellate the episcopal manors, and 
amongst them his " mansion in Salisbury court. Fleet Street, in the suburbs of 
London." This he was allowed " muro de petra et calca firmare et crenellare." 
He was founder of the Hospital of St. Michael, near Sarum, and he caused the 
cross to be erected in the city by the Earl of Salisbury as a penance. Dui-ing 
his episcopate a fierce controversy arose between him and the Chapter, as to his 
rights of visiting the prebends, during a vacancy in the deanery. It was referred 
first to the Archbishop of Canterbury — then to the Pope— and decided against 
the Bishop of Sarum. He was translated to the see of Bath and Wells in 1388, 
and dying there in 140() was buried in the Cathedral at Wells. Jones' Fasti. 
Gent's Mag., 1804, p. 1099. Tliere was another Ralph de Erghum, who was Arch- 
deacon of Dorset in 1385 — Archdeacon of Taunton in 1391 — and Precentor of 
Wells in 1102, and died soon after 1410. Jones' Fasti. 



58 The Will of Thomas PoUon, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1342. 



de Baudekyn cum toto apparatu al- 
taris de eadem secta et vnum calicem 
cum duobus vreolis f et deosculatorio 
argenteis et vno corporal! n'^non vas 
pro aqua benedicta duo candelabra 
et tintinabliu de Laton ecclie beate 
marie de Marleburgb ibidem perpetuo 
remansura. Et xlii marc argenti ita 
quod vicarius et custodes et custodes 
ecclTe bonorum eiusdem aut parochiani 
faciant securitatem de inueniendo vnum 
capellauum ydoneum ad spaliter cele- 
brand in Capella virginis gliose eiusdem 
ecclie per quinquenniu px sequens 
mortem suam pro anima mea ac anima- 
bus supradcis Ita tamen quod vesti- 
menta et prespecificata pei'petuo re- 
maneant ad smhum altare ibm Et quod 
in precibus inibi missarum tempore 
populo exponend eis sim nominatim 
specialiter recommissus Et quod per 
pochianos ibidm aliud par vestiment- 
crum competens ac cetera necessaria 
cum quibus per dcm quinquenniu ipe 
capellanus iu Capella predca boneste 
celebrare possit realiter ordinentur. 



Item lego Rectori de Myldenbale quU 
cumque f uerit mortis mee tempore x solid 
sterliugorum pro decimis oblit^s de tem- 
pore quo apudPolton remansi Ite lego ca- 
pellano parocbiali ibidem si quis tunc f u"it 



Bawdekia*with the whole furniture for 
the altar of the same suit, and one 
chalice with two cruets and a deos- 
culatorium J of silver, aud one corporal, 
also a vessel for holy water, two candle- 
sticks, and a bell of Latten,§ to the 
Church of the Blessed Mary, at Marl- 
borough, to remain there in perpetuity ; 
also, forty-two marks of silver in 
order that the vicar and church- 
wardens and keepers of the goods 
of the same Church or the parishi- 
oners may make certain of finding a 
suitable chaplain to specially celebrate 
[mass] in the Chapel of the Glori- 
ous Virgin of the said Church, for the 
five years next following my death, for 
my soul aud the above-mentioned souls, 
so as to secure that the vestments and 
above-mentioned articles belong in per- 
petuity to the high altar there, and that 
I may be specially recommended by name 
in the prayers offered up by the people 
there at the time of mass, and that 
there be actually provided by the pa- 
rishioners there another sufficient set of 
vestments and other necessaries with 
which that Chaplain may properly cele- 
brate mass in the above-named Chapel 
for the said five years. 
Also, I leave to whoever maybe Rector|| 
of Mildenhall at the time of my death 
ten shillings sterling for tithes for- 
gotten^ during the time I lived at 
Polton. Also I leave to the Parish 



* Baudekin. Tissue or cloth of gold, with figures embroidered in silk. Bailey's 
Dictionary. 

t Apparently the transcriber's error for urceolis. 

t Called a Pax. A tablet, or board, on which is a representation of Christ, the 
Yirgin Mary, or some saint, which is kissed by the priest and people at the 
celebration of the mass. 

§ Latten— a composition of metal, very like brass. 

11 John Heele was Rector 1430—1462. 

^ In " Wells Wills, by Weaver," are numerous instances of payments to be 
made iu respect of " tythcs forgottca." See also below (p. 64). 



By the Rev. C. Soamea, 



59 



..«em vnum tricennale Et cvilibet 
alteii capollano scculari infra ecclias de 
Marleburgh et Myldenhale Okebo'ne 
et Okebo'ne persbule et Remmesbury 
.ac Alleburn diuina celebrant ii'. argenti. 



Item lego Portiforium meum antiqum 
solempne notatum et singulariter limi- 
natu similiter et vnum gradale ac vnum 
par vestimentonim ac xvj. marc argenti 
ecclie sancti Petri de Marleburgh ita 
quod parochiani ibm vnum capellanum 
ydoneum inueniant per tres annos post 
mortem meam ad celebrand ibidem pro 
anima mea ac animabus supi-adcis et 
quod magis comuniter missam dicat pro 
defunctis ita quod sim i-ecommendatus 
specialiter precibus eorumdem parocbia- 
norum diebus dominicis missarum tem- 
pore in pulpito nominatira temporibus 
affuturis quod si fortassis parochiani ipi 
ex eorum alicuius inuidia hoc f acere recu- 
saueiint tunc volo quod executores mei in 
alio loco de quo ipis magis videbitur hoc 
faciant fideliter adimpleri cum bonis 
legatis premissis. 



Chaplain there, if there be any at that 
time, one fee for a thirty day's mass • 
and to each other secular Chaplain 
celebrating Divine Worship in the 
Churches of Marlborough, Myldenhalle, 
Okebourne,* and Okebourne, Preshute, 
and Remmesbury, and Alleburn 2 shil- 
lings each. 

Also, I leave my ancientBreviary,regu- 
larly noted and curiously illuminated,'!' 
likewise also one gradual, J and one set 
of vestments.and sixteen marks of silver 
to the Church of St. Peter, at Marl- 
borough, on condition that the parish- 
ioners of the same shall find a fit chap- 
lain to celebrate [mass] there for three 
years after my death, on behalf of my 
soul and the above-mentioned souls, and 
that he may more generally .say mass 
for the dead in such manner that I may 
be speciall}' commended from the pulpit 
by name to the prayers of the same pa- 
rishioners, on Sundays, at the hour of 
massjin times to come. But if, by chance 
it should happen, that the parishioners 
themselves, by reason of the ill will of 
any of them, should refuse to do this, 
then I desire that my executors see that 
this condition be faithfully fulfilled in 
some other place which may seem fit to 
them, out of the before- mentioned 
legacies. 



* A singular method of describing Ogbourae S. Andrew and Ogbourne S. 
George. All the parishes named adjoin Mildeuhall. 

'f The rendering of the words " solempne notatum, et singulariter liminatum " 
is somewhat difficult. Liminatum I cannot find in any dictionary. Whether it 
bo a transcriber's error for " illuminatum," or a word coined by the writer of the 
will, it is impossible to say. I have taken it as the former. But it has been 
ingeniously suggested that it "may mean ' bound,' the cover being the ' limen,' 
boundary, or border, or threshold through which you enter into the contents of a 
book — ' beautifully bound ' reads well." Possibly some of the readers of the will 
inay send a belter translation. 

X Graduale— a book containing the office for sprinkling holy water, and other 
portions of the mass — an autiphonar. 



60 The Will of Thomas Polton, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 134.2. 



Item lego domvi sancte Marga- 
rete virginis iuxta Marleburgh centum 
solid et duos branches de Corall 
meis et quod habeat eorum vterque 
unum pedem de argento deauratum 
sumtibus meis et in bona altitudine ad 
ponendum super sumum altar et in 
honore beate Margarete virginis speciali- 
ter vt participem me constituant suffra- 
giorum eiusdem domus ac vt fideliter 
quolibet Anno semel pro anima mea 
fiant ibidem vigilie mortuorum de nocte 
et missa solempnis de mane in vigilia 
Sancte Margarete supradce aut die 
preuio. 

Similiter lego vnum librum qui 
vocatur sumam sumarum prec vj. 
marcarum ad vsum predictum cum ca- 
thena ferrea in choro ecclie ipus Priora- 
tus aut in alio loco magis ad hoc apto 
perpetuo ligand et inibi sub pena ana- 
thematis perpetuo remansurum et scri- 
batur in primo folio libii nomen con- 
ferentis et causa Insuper et ad premissa 
debite faciend et vt canouici in iporum 
missis specialiter orent pro auima mea 
et ceteris prespecificatis et vt cum celeri- 
tate qua comode possint celebrent inter 
se sxx^'' missas pro anima mea et ani- 
mabus supradcis Item lego cuilibet 
canonico ibidem vnum nobile et Priori 
loci vnam marcam argenti. 



Also, I leave to the House of S. Mar- 
garet the Virgin,* near Marlborough, 
100 shillings and two branches of my 
Corals, and I desire that each of them 
may have a silver gilt foot at my ex- 
pense, of good height, to be placed on 
the high altar, and in honour of tho 
Blessed Virgin S. Margaret, on purpose 
that 1 may have the benefit of the 
prayers of that house on my behalf ; and 
that once in every year on the vigil of 
the said S. Margaret, or on the previous 
day there be faithfully held there vigils 
for the dead at night, and a solemn 
mass in the morning for my soul. 

Likewise, I leave one book called 
" Summa Summarum"t of the value of 
six marks for the before-mentioned use, 
with an iron chain for keeping it always 
fastened in the choir of the Church of 
the Prior3%or in any other more suitable 
place, and I desire that it shall perpet- 
ually remain there under pain of anath- 
ema, and that there be written on the 
first leaf of the book the name of the 
donor and the cause of the gift. More- 
over, in order that the above be duly 
performed, and that the canons, at iheir 
masses, may specially pray for my soul 
and the souls of those above-mentioned, 
and that as quicklj' as they conveniently 
can they may celebrate amongst them- 
selves thirty juasses for my soul and the 
souls above-mentioned, I leave to each 
canon there a noble, and to the Prior of 
the place one mark of silver. 



* A priory of the Sempringbam order, of royal foundation, as old as the 
beginning of King John. Part of the building is still in existence. Dugdale 
mentions it among the houses of the order of S. Augustiue. 

t This is, as Mr. F. Madan, the sub-librarian of the Bodleian, informs me, " a 
large law book, the further title of which is 'Summa Summarum, sive Speculum 
Compendii, et Eepertorium Juris Canonici,' in five books. There is more than 
one MS. of it in the Bodleian Library, at Oxford. The author is quite unknown. 
The work was first printed at Bologua in 1517, folio, with the title ' Summa 
Summarum qute Tabieua dicitur,' but neither the British Museum nor the 
Bodleian seem to possess it." 



By the Rev. C. Soamea. 



61 



Item lego Priori domus Carmelitarum 
de Marleburgh vnu nobile et cuilibet 
ffratri eiusdein domus unum tricennale 
ac iporum doraui sx'. vt. cum celeritate 
quo comode possint celebrent inter se 
Centum missas pro anima mea et ani- 
mabus supradcis et vt inter ffratres 
eittsdem domus mortilegiatus existam 
iuxta melius auisamentum executorum 
meorum. 



Item lego xxiiij togas de nigvo 
panno aut plures pauperioribus et 
debilioribus personis accedentibus ad 
exequias meas mortis mee tempore aut 
anniversarii mei die vt infra sequitur si 
tot venerint et ad missam celebranda 
solempnem apud ilyldehale aut apud 
Prioratum sancte Margarete vel in 
ecclia beate marie Marleburgh prout 
executoribus meis visum fu'it plus ex- 
pedire pro anima mea et animabus 
supi-adcis et cuilibet sacerdoti cui su- 
perius pi'ius nil legauerim inibi in nocte 
tunc interessenti in exequiis et missam 
celebranti ibidem de mane xij^. ad 
orandum pro anima mea et animabus 
supradcis. 

Ita tamen quod quilibet saeerdos 
religiosus aut alius de supra nomi- 
natis parocbiis aut locis inibi ppin- 
quis quicumque fuerit cui aliquid vt 
supra scribitur prius reliqui teneatur 
ipus prioris relicti pretextu in predictis 
exequiis et missa solempni personaliter 
interesse nisi causa maior et evidens 
nec^itas ab executoribus meis appro- 
banda eum impediat et subsistat. 

Item lego C.solid distribuend die sepul- 
tre mee pauperibus accedentibus ad mis- 
sam et exequias predcas aut in die Anni- 



Also, I leave to the Prior of the House 
of the Carmelites, at Marlborough,* one 
noble, and to each brother of the same 
house one fee for thirty days' service, 
and to their house 20*., that they may 
as quickly as they conveniently can 
celebrate among themselves one hundred 
masses for mine and the above-men- 
tioned souls, and that I may be inscribed 
on the roll of the departed brothei-s who 
have been benefactors of the same house, 
according to the best advice of my ex- 
ecutors. 

Also, I leave twenty-four or more 
gowns of black cloth to poor and feeble 
persons who shall attend my funeral at 
the time of my death, or on the day of 
my anniversary hereinafter mentioned, 
if so many come, and to the celebration 
of a solemn [mass] for mine and the 
above-mentioned souls either at Myl- 
denhalle,or at the Priory of S. Margaret, 
or in the Church of the Blessed Mary, 
at Marlborough, as may seem to my 
executors most suitable ; and to every 
priest to whom I have not left anything 
as above,who is present there during the 
night at my obsequies, and who cele- 
brates mass there in the morning, 12c?., 
to pray for my soul and the above- 
mentioned souls. 

Yet so that every religious or other 
priest out of the above-named parishes 
or places near there to whom I have left 
anything as above-mentioned shall be 
bound in consideration of his previous 
legacy, to be present in person at my 
above-mentioned funeral, and at the 
solemn mass, unless a greater cause and 
evident necessity, to be approved of by 
my executors, shall exist to hinder him. 

Also, I leave one hundred shillings to 
be distributed on the day of my burial 
to the poor persons who shall come to 



* The present building on the site of the Carmelite House at Marlborough 
(founded 1316), is still called the Priory. 



62 The Will of Thomas Polton, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 134a. 



Versarii simili modo confluentibus si extra 
regDum decedam similiter at pauperibus 
aliis quibus executores mei hec viderunt 
expedire qui illue tempore predco aece- 
dere non poterint dum tamen pauperes 
et debiles illarum parcium sint et 
veraciter indigeant tali elimosinarum 
largicione. Et volo quod in Convivio 
sepultre mee aut Anniversarii solemnp- 
nitate faciend sicuti communiter moris 
est nou exponant' vltra c' aliquo modo 
prout deo respondere velint executores 
raei et supervisores si huius mee con- 
trarium egerint voluntatis. In quo 
Convivio presbiteros vt premittitur cele- 
brantes et pauperes conuolautes p'cipuos 
esse volo si de presbiteris et pauperibus 
huiusmodi sufficieu habeatur 



Item lego xx*'Iibr sterlingorumadinu- 
eniend vnum capellanum bonam et ydon- 
eam personam quam ad hoc nominauerint 
et eligerint executores mei et supervisores 
ad transeund pro me Eomam et ad stan- 
dum ibidem per duos Annos continues 
transeundo pro me stationes et visitando 
diversa loca sancta et reliquias Sanc- 
torum et ad celebrandum ib idm in locis 
deuocioribus iusta discreclonem suampro 
Animamea et animabus supradictis non 
aliis aut alieno deditus occupaconibus 
aut eis quomodolibet p'peditus. Ad 
quod executoribus meis ante sui tran- 
situm corporale prestet iuramentum. 
Similiter et qd pauperibus reclusis in 
Vrbe vtriusque sexus et aliis miserabili- 
bus personis et locis devotis fideliter min- 
istrabit et realiter tradet in moneta 
illarum parcium verum et preclsem va- 
lorem c. '. quos sibi vltra xx.li predict 



mass and to the above-mentioned ob- 
sequies—or who shall come in like 
manner on the day of my anniversary, 
if I shall die out of the kingdom— and 
likewise to other poor persons who shall 
not have been able to come there at the 
above-mentioned time, according as shall 
seem expedient to my executors, so 
however, that they be poor feeble persons 
of those parts, and really in want of 
such alms and largesse ; and I desire tbat 
not more than one hundred shillings be 
spent in any way on such feasting as is 
commonly the custom at my burial or 
at the solemn celebration of my anni- 
versary,* as my executors and super- 
visors wish to be answerable to God, if 
they act contrary to this my desire. At 
which feast I desire that the priests 
celebrating as above, and also the poor 
people who flock in, shall be the chief 
guests, if there be deemed to be a 
sufficient number of priests and poor 
persons of this description. 
Also, I leave £20 sterling to find as 
chaplain, a good and proper person, 
whom my executors and supervisors 
shall choose and appoint for that par- 
ticular purpose, to cross over on my 
behalf to Rome and to remain there con- 
tinuously for two years, for the purpose 
of attending the stations for me, and 
visiting the different holy places and 
relics of the saints, and celebrating 
mass there in the more sacred places, 
according to his discretion, for my soul 
and the above-mentioned souls ; and he 
is not to engage himself in any other 
occupation or occupations, or in any way 
mix himself up in them, to which in- 
tent he shall bind himself to my execu- 
tors by an oath on the Body of Our 
Lord before starting on his journey. 
Likewise also he shall faithfully dispense 
and actually distribute among the poor 



* For the method of keeping such an anniversary see " Memorials of the See 
of Chichester," by Stephens, p. 188. 



i 



By the Rev. C. Soames. 63 

tradi et liberari volo ad hunc finem. Et recluses in the city [of Rome] of each 

si dominus Ricardus Seyuett nuper sex, and among other persons deserving 

vicarius ecclic bte marie Marleburgh of pity, and among the sacred places, in 

istud onus in se velit assumcre volo the currency of those parts, the true and 

quod ipe solus istud pre ceteris faciat et exact sum of 100s., which sum I desire 

habeat eciam iiij marc vltra xx.li predict, may be given and handed over to him 

Q'^ si anteqam pecunie huiusmodi in for that purpose in addition to the £20 

vsu tali consumpte fuerint exposite mo- aforesaid. And if Sir Richard Syvet,* 

riatur ipe Ricardus aut capellanus illius lately Vicar of the Church of the Blessed 

huiusmodi quicumque volo quod tene- Mary at Marlborough, would like to 

atur premissa facere suppleri et fideliter take this duty on himself, I wish that 

adimpleri quo ad residuum pecuniarum he alone may discharge it in preference 

Don dum in vsu predco cousumptarum to anj'one else, and that he may also 

per personam aliam sacerdotalem hones- have four marks besides the £20 before 

tam per executores meos ad hoc speciali- mentioned. But if before the monies 

ter deputandam aut per ipm morieutem disbursed for such purpose be spent 

recepta ab eo securitate debita in hac Richard himself, or any chaplain so ap- 

parte anq^m regnum exeat pointed, should die, I desire that as re- 
gards the residue of monies not yet ex- 
pended in the above-mentioned manner, 

* Richard Syvet, or Synet, Vicar of S. Mary's, 1384 — 1414, when he exchanged 
with Andrew Gore, alias Chaloner. He must have been an old man when the 
will was made. The following was kindly communicated to me by Mr. Milburn, 
of Marlborough : — 

Translation of Patent Roll 14 Hen. IV. (1413). 

Membrane 19. 

" Whereas by letters patent the King gave licence to all his lieges, men and 
women, to give lands, tenements, and rents, to. the yearly value of ten pounds, 
to the Prior and Canons of the House of St. Margaret's without Marlebergh, 
which is of the Order of Sempyngham, and of the foundation of the King's 
progenitors, and in his patronage, the King therefore gives licence to Thomas 
Calston, Robert Grafton, parson of the Church of Mildenhale, Richard Synet, 
Chaplain, and John Grene, Chaplain, to give and assign two messuages, two 
tofts — 269 acres of land, 85 acres of meadow, 12 acres of wood, and five 
shillings of rent with appurtences in Yatesbury, Evesbury [Enesburyp] and 
Elcot, which are not held of the King in chief, and which are worth yearly 
53^. 4''., as found by Inquisition taken before John Bryd, late Escheator in 
Co. Wilts, to the said Prior and Canons ; to hold at the value of five marks 
in part satisfaction of the said £10. Nov. 17." 

The above-mentioned Richard Synet must have been the same person as the 
Vicar of S. Mary's, whom the testator wished to go to Rome on his behalf. 
Sir Thomas Phillips spells his name Syvet, the Patent Roll Synet. The 
spelling in the will is not conclusive. He held that living from 1384 to 1414. 
He was also Prior or Chaplain of S. John's Hospital in Marlborough, which was 
in the parish of S. Mary's, and resigned 1417. 

Robert Grafton was Rector of Mildenhall from 1408 till his death in 1420. 



64 The Will of Thomas PoUon, Bishop of Worcester, A.B. 1342. 



Item lego c. personis eccliarum paroch 
mee dioc Rectoribus seu vicariis aut cap- 
ellanis pauperioribus et magis indigenti- 
bus XX marc videlicet eorum cuilibet ij' 
viij'', aut si tantus numerus taliumper- 
sonarumnon reperiatur tuncvoloqd dis- 
buatur pecunia iuxta numerum person- 
arum videlicet cuilibet persone ij'. viij''. 
ad orandum proanima mea vt supra In 
quibus omnibus non fit accepcio person- 
arum prout coram deo respondere volu- 
erint executores mei. 



Item lego c.'. ad faclend ymaginem 
Sancti Michaelis honestam magnam 
et devotam ac principalem in ecclia 
parocli de Milverton Bathonien dioc 
si ad tantum ascendant expense. 

Item lego pauperibus Monialibus de 
Kanyngton videlicet ad reparacoem 
iporum Prioratus xl'. 

Item lego ad reparacoem Cancelli ecclie 
de Weston super mare Bathon dioc que 
quondam f uerit mea c.°. 

Item lego vicario sancti Cuthberti 
Well quicumque fuerit pro oblitis deci- 
mis pro tempore inibi steteram in officiis 
xx°. Ita quod pie remittat ipius ecclie 



it be held for the purpose of the above- 
mentioned duties being executed, ful- 
filled, and faithfully performed by some 
other honest person in priest's orders, 
to be appointed by my executors, or by 
the deceased himself for that particular 
ohject, a proper security having been 
received from him on that behalf before 
he leaves this kingdom. 

Also, I leave to one hundred parochial 
incumbents of the Churches in my dio- 
cese, being rectors, vicars, or chaplains, 
who are the poorest or most in want, 
twenty marks : viz., to each of them 
2s. 8d. ; or, if that number of such 
persons be not found, then I desire that 
a sum of money according to the num- 
ber of the incumbents be distributed, 
viz., to each incumbent, 2.?. 8^., to pray 
for my soul as above ; among all of 
whom no distinction of persons shall be 
made, as my executors wish to answer 
before God. 

Also, I leave 100*. to make a hand- 
some, large, and sacred and prominent 
image of S. Michael in the Parish 
Church of Milverton, in the diocese of 
Bath, if the expense comes to as much. 

Also, I leave to the poor nuns of 
Kannington* 40*. for the repair of that 
Priory. 

Also, I leave for the repair of the 
chancel of the Church of Weston-Super- 
Mare.t in the diocese of Bath, which 
was formerly mine, 100*. 

Also, I leave to the Vicar of S. 
Cuthbert's, Wells, whoever he may be, 
for tythes forgotten during the time I 
was in ofiBce there, 20*., on condition 



* There was a house of Benedictine Nuns at Cannington, near Bridgwater, 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, It was founded by Robert de Courcy, who 
was Sewer to Empress Maud. See Diocesan Hist. Bath and Wells, p. 80, 
and also as to Ilchester. 

1 1 cannot find when the testator was incumbent of Weston-Super-Mare, or 
what offices he held at S. Cuthbert's, Wells. 



By the Rev. C. Soames. 



65 



nomine si quid amplius pro decima 
huiusmodi debeatur de tempore quo 
inibi fueram in ofiiciis diuersis. 

Item Johanni Bryght cognato meo 
iuxta Marleburgh iiij marc et pu'is 
suis si plures ad minus tres heat xl°. 
si vero duos aut vnum solum ij marc. 

Item lego domui fBratrum de luelces- 
tre x'. 

Item lego Emmote, filie Willi Polton 
fratris mei defuncti x.". disponend pro 
eadm iuxta melius auisamentum exe- 
cutorum meorum post mortem mariti 
sui Tarant et non ante. 

Item lego ecclie de Myldenhale et 
ad vsum eiusdm c. et xx oves matrices 
aut alias iuxta disposicoem executorum 
meorum que stabunt sub disposicoe 
parochianorum et Custodu bonorum 
ipius ecclie qui fu'int pro tempore ad 
tenendum Anniversarum meum ibidem 
imperpetuum videlicet qd singulis annis 
certo die limitando heantur ibidem 
vigilie mortuorum in nocte et de mane 
X misse per x presbiteros quarum tres 
solempniter fiant quorum presbiterorum 
quilibet heat singulis huiusmodi tempo- 
ribus xij"'. 



that he piously remits, in the name of 
that Church, whatever more tythes of 
that nature may be owing for the time 
that I was there in different ofl&ces. 

Also, to John Bright, my relation, 
near Marlborough, 4 marks, and to his 
sons, if he has three or more, 40*. ; if, 
however he has two, or only one, 2 
marks. 

Also, I leave to the House of the 
Brothers at Ilchester, 10*.* 

Also.I leave to Emmota.the daughter 
of William Polton, my deceased brother, 
£10, to be expended for her according 
to the best advice of my executors, 
after the death of her husband Tarrant, 
and not before. 

Also, I leave to the Church of Mil- 
denhall, and for the use of the same, 
one hundred and twenty ewes t or other 
sheep as my executors shall feel disposed, 
which shall continue at the disposal of 
the parishioners and churchwardens of 
that Church for the time being, for the 
holding of my anniversary there for 
ever : viz. : — that on a certain day to 
be fixed in every year, there be held 
there at night vigils of the dead, and 
in the morning ten masses by ten priests, 
of which three shall be specially per- 
formed, each of which priests shall 
receive \2d. at each of those times. 



* Ilchester, on river Yeo or Ivel. A house of friars preachers was founded 
before 11 Ed. I. The site of the Grey Friars here was granted to William 
Hodges, 37 Heniy VIII. Tanner's Notitia. 

t A similar bequest to a chantry at Enford is mentioned, WilUhire 
Archceological Magazine, vol. ii., p. 129, whereby " one thousand sheep were 
left by John Westley (vicar, 1472 — 1494) to support one priest— of which sheep 
six hundred and eighty died, whereupon one Parson Burde gave five hundred 
and seventy-eight sheep towards the increase of the said stock, which were 
(2 Ed. YI.) priced at \&d. apiece, and so letten to divers men for the yearly rent 
of £7 I'is.Qd." Another version, gives a slightly different number, and says 
they were let to two men at 2d. a head. 

The next entry in the inventory of Church goods, Wiltshire Arehaologieal 
Magazine, vol. xii., p. 375, mentions a bequest of six hundred wether sheep to 
the chantrey at Maiden Bradley, for one chaplain, valued at £9 per hundred, the 
rent of which was £6 6s. 6d., U^ be paid during five years from 36 Henry VIIL 
VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXVI. V 



66 The Will of Thomas PoUon, Bishop of fForcester, A.D. 1342. 



Et qd. xl'^. illo tempore singulis annis 
conferantur et distribuantur pauperibus 
precipue parochianis iilius parochie illuc 
confluentibus tempore vigiliarum et 
missarum huiusmodi per parochianos 
predictos eonim sumptibus et expensis 
ad orandu pro anima mea qui eciam 
inuenient lumina et luminaria ibidem 
in ecclia illis temporibus et vicibus 
honesta et oportuna super quibus omni- 
bus volo quod fiat inter executores meos 
et parochianos predicos vnvm memoriale 
perpetuum per modum cirog'^phi vel 
indenture quod pro securitate premiss- 
orum iuxta melius Auisamentum ex- 
ecutorum meorum perpetuo stare possit 



Et qd singulis annis custodes predci 
de ouibus huiusmodi et comodo erarun- 
dem compotum faciant ipis parochianis 
ad vsum predcm et ad comodum ipius 
ecclie in omi eo qd escedit rapensas me- 
moratas Prouiso semper qd illud sic 
excedens numq^m ita convertatur ad 
vsum ecclie qd aliquo modo verisimile 
sit dem vsum anuuum missarum et 
vigiliarum aliquo modo deficere posse. 
Et si parochiani predicti refutant dcm 
onus in se suscipere tunc fiant premissa 
in ecclia sancte marie de Marleburgh si 
parochiani ibidem voluerint id perficere 
Alioquin in ecclia sancti Petri ibidem 
vel in Prioratu sancte Mavgarete aut 
alias in loco alio iuxta disposicoem ese- 
cutorum meorum si alii sujiranominati 
hoc facere refutent et semper fiat cum 
condiuione predieta. 



Also, I desire that every year at that 
time 4Dd. be provided and distributed 
by the aforesaid parishioners among the 
poor, especially among parishioners of 
that parish, who shall assemble there at 
the time of such vigils and masses, at 
their cost and expense, to pray for my 
soul ; and they shall provide handsome 
and suitable lights and lamps * there, in 
the Church, at those times and occasions ; 
concerning all which matters, 1 desire 
that there be made between my executors 
and the aforesaid parishioners a per- 
petual memorandum, by means of a 
writing or indenture, which shall stand 
for ever, for securing the fulfilment of 
the specified directions according as my 
my executors think be<t ; 

And that every year, the aforesaid 
churchwardens shall render to the 
parishioners an account of such sheep, 
and of the profits of the same, with 
regard to the above-mentioned purpose, 
and the benefit of the Church, in re- 
spect of any profit there may be over 
and above the aforesaid expenses. Pro- 
vided always, that no such excess shall 
ever be so converted to the use of the 
Church, as that there shall be any like- 
lihood that the annual performance of 
the masses and vigils shall be in danger 
of failing in any manner whatever. 
And if the aforesaid parishioners refuse 
to undertake the dutj' mentioned, then 
let that which is directed above be 
performed in the Church of Saint 
Mary, in Marlborough, if the parish- 
ioners there wish to carry it out ; if 
otherwise, then in the Church of S. 
Peter, in the same ; or in the Priory of 
Saint Margaret ; or else in any other 
place, according to the direction of my 
executors, if the other persons above 
named refuse to do so : but let it always 
be done under the conditions aforesaid. 



* Luminaria, see Antiquary, January, 1891, p. 248. 



By the Rev. C. Soames. 



67 



Item lego c*. vel magis si oporteat ad 
faciendum vnum lapidem ad superpon- 
endum ibidem in Cancello quasi super 
tunulum meum patris et matris ac sex 
ffratrum meorum quasi et si simul ibi 
quiesteremus sub lapide ipo et tunulo 
vno et sint sculpte in ipo lapide simul 
ymagines pro ipis octo personis et pro 
me in eodem lapide ponendo modicum a 
terra ad excitandum populum deuocius 
orare pro animabus nris cum lapidem 
ipm viderint et figuras. Et componant 
eseeutores mei cum Rectore vt illud fieri 
permittat. 



Item lego Centum magis pauperibus 
et indigentibus tenentlbus meis sesus 
vtriusque super quo executorum meorum 
et superuisorum onero consciencias xxv. 
marc eorum videlicet vnicuique xl"*. 
sterlingorum. Et si qui sint ex eis aut 
tenentlbus meis aliis qui ad satisfaccoem 
reddituum et aliorum michi debitorum 
ab eis non debite sufficiant id totum qd 
veracitev iporum insufiiciencie sit per- 
petuo remitto ac pro remisso impei-pet- 
uum ee volo. 



Item lego Priorisse de Cookhulle mee 
dioc vnum nobile et cuilibet moniali 
eiusdem xl"". et vnam marcam Argenti 
ad reparacionem ipius domus. 

Item lego Magistro et confrati-ibus 



Also, I leave 100*., or more, i£ 
necessary, for the making of a stone * 
to be placed in the chancel of the 
Church at Mildenhall, as if above 
my own tomb and that of my 
father and mother, and of my six 
brothers, as if we lay there together 
under that stone and in one tomb, and 
at the same time there shall be sculp- 
tured on the stone itself the likenesses 
of those eight persons, and of myself, 
and the stone shall be slightly raised 
above the floor, so as to incite the people 
to pray more devoutly for our souls, 
when they see the stone and the figures 
on it. And my executors shall com- 
pound with the Rector for his permission 
that this may be done. 

Also, I leave 25 marks to a hundred of 
the poorest and most indigent of my 
tenants of both sexes, for the due per- 
formance of which I bind the consciences 
of my executors and supervisors, viz., to 
each of them 40c?. sterling. And if 
there be any of them, or of my other 
tenants, who are not really possessed of 
sufficient means to pay their rents and 
other debts due from them to me in full, 
I remit for ever the whole of that which 
they are truly unable to pay, and I 
desire that it may be remitted in per- 
petuity. 

Also, I leave to the Prioress of 
Cokehilljf in my diocese, one noble, and 
to each nun of the same 40c?., and one 
mark of silver for the i-epair of the 
house itself. 

Also, I leave to the Master and Breth- 



* This stone cannot be seen, even if it still exists, in Mildenhall Church. 
There is in Wanborough Church, a bras^s containing effigies of Thomas Polton 
and his wife Edith, uncle and aunt of the testator, with an inscription ; and 
another respecting Philip Polton, Archdeacon of Gloucester, one of the executors 
named below. See note at end of will. 

t There was a Cistercian nunnery at Cokehill, Co. Worcester, founded 1260 A.D. 
by Isabella, Countess of Warwick, who herself became a nun there. 



P 2 



6S The Will of Thomas PoUon, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1342. 



de Bryggewater Wellen dioc xl'. distrib- 
uend inter Magistrum et confratres vt 
ipi celebrent vt supra. 

Item lego pauperibus Monialibus de 
Munthyn bare we xx^ et pauperibus 
monialibus sine sororibus de luilchestre 
xx'. 

Item lego cuilibet ordini fratrum in 
Oxen 1». videlicet cuilibet iparum domo- 
rum Priori xP. toto pecuniarum residuo 
inter ffratres eiusdm domus equaliter 
diuidendo vt in qualibet domorum ipa- 
mm faciant celebrari cum festinacoe 
qua possent cc missia pro mea et aliis 
supradcis animabus. 

Item lego Domino Syuete nuper vi- 
cario ecclie bte marie Marleburgh duas 
pecias argenteas et librum qui vocatur 
pupilla ocuH. 

Item lego Priori de Staverdale Batho- 
nien dioc cuius domus ffrater existo 
vnam marcam argenti et cuilibet ca- 
nonico ibidem vnum nobile et quinque 
marcas ad reparacoem Prioratus ad oran- 
dum pro anima mea et aliis supradcis et 
si aliqui viri Religiosi de supradcis aut 
hie inferius expresssatis renuerint per- 



ren of Bridgwater,* in Wells diocese, 
40*., to be distributed among the Master 
and Brethren that they may celebrate 
[masses] as aforesaid. 

Also, I leave to the poor Nuns of 
Minchin Barrow,t 20*., and to the poor 
Nuns or Sisters of Ilchester, 20*.J 

Also, I leave to every order of Breth- 
ren in Oxford 50*., viz., to each Prior of 
the houses themselves, 4,0d., the whole of 
the rest of the moueytobe divided equally 
among the Brethren of the same house, 
in order that in each of those houses 
they may,as quickly as possible.celebrate 
two hundred masses for mine and the 
other afore -meniioned souls. 

Also, I leave to Sir Sy vet, lately Vicar 
of the Blessed Mary at Marlborough, 
two pieces of silver [plate] and a book 
which is called " Pupilla oculi." § 

Also, I leave to the Prior of Staver- 
dale, |1 in Bath diocese, of which house 
I am a brother, one mark of silver, and 
to each canon there one noble, and five 
marks, for the repair of the priory, so 
that they may pray for my soul and the 
other aforementioned souls ; and if any 
of the above and hereinafter-mentioned 



* There was an Augustinian house at Bridgwater for " tredecem pauperes prseter 
religiosos et peregrinos. Dugdale. 

t Bearwe, or Minchin Barrow, Somerset. A Benedictine nunnery, founded 
before 1200 A.D. See Dioc. Sist. Bath and Wells, p. 82, for the behaviour 
of the nuns and their prioress. 

X Leland says "there is a free Chapelle in the towne." It seems to have beea 
at first a hospital, for one William Dacus gave the White Hall in Ivelchester, and 
other houses and lands, for founding a hospital for poor travellers, to the house of 
the Blessed Trinity between A.D. 1217 — 20, It was afterwards changed into a 
house of religious women under tlie government of a prioress, who was styled 
"Priorissa de Alba Aula in Ivelchester," 17 Ed, II. Tanner's Notitia. 

§ " Pupilla oculi." This was a book of instructions for clergymen in all their 
functions and duties, written about 1385 by John de Burgo D.D. Chancellor of 
Cambridge University. Printed, Paris, 1510, and elsewhere repeatedly. Mosheim, 
Eccl. Hist., ii , 651. 

II Staverdale, near Bath, founded by Sir R. St. Maur. John de Palton, miles, 
1351, held some of its land- Dugdale, ii., 308. 



By the Rev. C. Soames. 



69 



ficere onera sibl hie assignata pro 
sibi legatis vt premittatur adimo ab 
eis legata premissa et volo qd accre- 
scrant Prioratui de Bristlesli'm si 
onera huiusmodi voluerint adimplere 
Alioquin volo qd alii Religiosi de 
quibus executoribus meis videbitur 
heant legata ipa cum oneribus adiunctis 
vt deuocius in missis suis cum coUecta 
speciali orent pro. anima temporibus 
aSaturis. 



Item lego Prioratui de Majdenbrade- 
legh Sarum dioG xx*. 

Item lego Prioratui de Warspryng 
Wellen dioc xx'. 

Item lego Prioratui de Bristelesh'm 
Sarum dioc vbi elegi sepulturam mea 
ad opus ecclie sue xx" et cuilibet Canon- 
ico ibidem vnum aobile et cuilibet servi- 
tori in domo ipa xx*. 

Item lego Priori ipus domus xx'. et 
ipi domui lego crucem meam cum pede 
pulcberimam quam eciam eis in vita per 
indenturam assignaui. 

Item lego eis decreta mea maiora et 
Cassidouum super pslat'ium sub con- 
dicoe qd numq"m alienentura domo aut 
extra Prioratum portentur per quem- 
cumque sub anatbematis pena maioris.. 



religious persons refuse to perform the 
duties here assigned them, in return for 
their legacies as directed above, I take 
those legacies away, and desire that they 
may be given in addition to the Priory 
of Bisham, if they are willing to dis- 
charge such duties. Otherwise, I desire 
that other religious [persons] according 
as may seem good to my executors may 
have those legacies with the duties at- 
tached, in order that they may more 
devoutly pray in their masses for my 
soul, with a special collect, in times to 
come. 

Also, I leave to the Priory of Maiden 
Bradley,* in the Sarum. diocese, 20*. 

Also, I leave to the Priory of Wors- 
pring.t in Wells diocese, 20*. 

Also, I leave to the Priory of Bishatn, 
Sarum diocese, where I have chosen to 
be buried, for the work of their Church> 
£20 ; and to each canon there one noble, 
and to every servant in the house itself 
20d. 

Also, I leave to the Prior of that 
house 20*., and to the house itself I 
leave my cross, a very beautiful one with 
a foot, which I also assigned to them by 
deed during my life. 

Also, I leave to them my " Greater 
Decrees," and " Cassidonus % on the 
Psalter," on condition that they never be 
alienated from the house or carried out 
of the priory by anyone, on pain of the 
greater anathema. 



• Maiden Bradley, an Augustinian house for leprous women and brethren ; dedi- 
cated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

t Worspring, Co. Somerset. There was an Augustinian house of regular canons, 
of the order of S. Victor, at Dodelyng, in the same county— removed to Worspring 
by William de Courteuay about 1210. 

X Mis-spelt for Cassiodorus. M. Aurelius Cassiodorus, senator, born about 
A.D. 470, filled the highest offices of state under Theodoric. After the Emperor's 
death, Cassiodorus retired in 539 to a monastery in Calabria and devoted himself 
to literature. Amongst his principal works was " Expositio in Psalmos Davidis," 
in which he followed the lines of Augustine. Moshetm. 



70 The Will of Thomas Polton, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1342. 



Item lego Prioratui de Elsham iux'' 
Barton de Humbre in dioc Liucolnien 
cuius_ff ratrer existo obligacom eorum de 
vi marc michi debit ab eisdem et quinqne 
marc de pecuniis meis ad reparacoem 
ecclie _vt omes viri Eeligiosi superius 
nominat et hii de Elsham specialibus in 
eorum missis deuocius orare diguentur 
pro anima mea et domini Radulphi nuper 
Bathonien Epi parentumque meorum 
fEratrum benefactorumque et omnium 
fidelium def unctoru ac aliorum prespeci- 
ficatorum. 



Item lego tantam pecuniarum sumam 
distribui inter presbiteros secularesOxon 
et Keligiosos ibm quibus superius nil 
legatur qd statim post mortem meam ibi 
pro anima mea et omuiu defuctorum 
celebrari poterint mille misse. Item et 
talem pecuniarum summam distribui 
volo inter Religiosos et alios apud Sarum 
que sufEciant ad mille missas celebrand 
sub eadem conditione. Item apud 
Brystoll et apud Well ac in partibus 
duobus hiis propinquiis et lego tot pe- 
cunias cum quibus in hiis locis omibus 
non in singulis eciam mille misse diei 
poterint x^ro anima mea et animabus 
superius expressatis sub condicionibus 
tantumodo predcis quod scilicet bona mea 
aliunde sufficiant ad perficiend volun- 
tatem meam in p'senti testamento meo 
in aliis expressatam. 



Item tribus domibus Cartusien in 
Sellewode scilicet et Henton iusta 



Also,I leave to the Priory of Elsham,* 
near Barton-on-Humber, in Lincoln 
diocese, of which I am a brother, their 
bond for six marks, which is owing to 
me from them, and five marks of my 
money, for the repair of their Church, 
so that all the religious persons above- 
mentioned, and those of Elsham may 
think fit in their special masses to pray 
more devoutly for my soul, and for that 
of Ralph,t lately Bishop of Bath, and 
for the souls of my parents and brothers 
and benefactors, and for the souls of all 
the faithful departed and other afore- 
mentioned persons. 

Also, I leave a sufficient sum of 
money to be distributed amongst the 
secular priests of Oxford, and religious 
persons there, to whom nothing is left 
above, on condition that immediately 
after my death one thousand masses 
may be celebrated there for my soul and 
for the souls of all the departed ; and 
also, I wish that a similar sum of money 
be distributed amongst religious and 
other persons at Sarum, sufficient to 
celebrate one thousand masses on the 
same condition ; also at Bristol, and 
at Wells, and in the neighbourhood of 
those two places. And I leave so 
much money as shall be sufficient to 
cause also one thousand masses to be 
said, not in one, but in all those places, 
for my soul, and the souls above des- 
cribed, only on the conditions above- 
mentioned, provided that my property 
from all other sources be sufficient to 
carry out my wishes as expressed in 
other places in my present Will. 

Also, to three Carthusian houses, that 
is to say, to those in Sellwood % and in 



* Elsham. The testator had been Dean of York. The House of Augustiniau 
canons there was begun by Beatrix de Amundeville in A.D. 1166. 
t See note on Ealph Erghum (p. 57.) 

X This must have been the Carthusian house at Witham, once within 
Sellwood Forest, which was removed from Hethorp, Gloucestershire, 1227 — 32 



By the Rev. C. Soames. 



71 



Bathon et London vnicuiqne iporam 
domovura Ix' vt ipi specialiter orai'e 
dignentur pro aiiima mea et animabus 
supradcis. 

Item volo quod tenementum meum 
apud Marleburgh integre remaneat ad 
Georgium Polton nepotum meum et 
ipius heredes de corpore sue procreandos 
et ad proximos heredes meos si ipm 
Georgium heredes huiusmodo non 
habere contingat cum condicione 
obligatoria indentandi quod hii 
omnes pro eorum temporibus singu- 
lis anuis imperpetuum faciant exequias 
pro me in Ecclia saucti Petri Marle- 
burgh cum xxiiij missas in crastino in 
eadem. 

Q"* si istud aliquo tempore neclectum 
fuerit aut omissum quod extunc illud 
tenementum ad execut meos revertatur 
presenti legato non obstante Et ipis 
defunctis volo qd revertatur ad Recto res 
qui erunt successive ecclie sancti Petri 
predict vt eorum quilibet pro suo tem- 
pore subeat et fideliter fieri faciat onus 
superius expressatum per loci ordinarium 
si quis eorum in hoc necgligens fu'it 
compellendus. 



Volo autem quod vbi pro legatis 
relictis viris aliquibus Eeligiosis aut 
aliis personis aut locis assignan'im vt 
Bup" certum missarum numerum cele- 
brari pro anima mea etc. Si viderint 
executores mei et superuisores multo 
plures missas honeste celebrari posse seu 



Henton [Hinton*], near Bath, and in 
London, to each of those houses 60*., 
that they may tliink fit to pray especially 
for my soul, and the above-mentioned 
souls. 

Also, I desire that my tenement in- 
Marlborough shall remain entirely the' 
property of George Polton, my nephew, 
and of the heirs to be begotten of his body, 
and shall belong to my next heirs, if it 
should so happen that George himself 
have no such heirs, on the obligatory 
conditions of their all being bound, in- 
their time, to celebrate obsequies forme- 
in every year in perpetuity.in the Church 
of S. Peter, in Marlborough, with 
twenty- four masses on the morrow in- 
the same. 

But if this should at any time be 
neglected or omitted, then, from that 
time, that tenement shall revert to my 
executors, the present legacj' notwith- . 
standing, and in the event of their 
deaths, I desire that it may revert to the 
Eectors, in succession, of the aforesaid 
Church of S. Peter, so that each of them 
shall undertake in his time,and faithfully • 
discharge, the duty above-mentioned ; 
and if any one of them shall be negli- 
gent in doing so, he is to be compelled 
by the ordinary of the place. 

I desire, however, that, where, in re- 
turn for legacies left to certain religious 
or other persons or places, I have assigned 
as above.that a certain number of masses 
shall be celebrated for my soul, &c., if 
my^ executors and supervisors shall see 
that many more masses can be properly 



A.D. A house of lepers in Sellwood is mentioned, which received a legacy from 
the Bishop of Lincoln, A.D. 1212. The whole district was called Sellwoodshire 
in 709 A.D. See Jones' Fasti, p. 23 ; Wiltshire Archaological Magazine, 
xxiii., 282. 

* Henton is Charterhouse Hinton, where ruins of the buildings may be seen. 
It at one time adjoined, if it was not within, the boundaries of Selwood Forest. 
It was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, St. John Baptist, and All Saints. 
Tanner's Notitia. 



72 The Will oj Thomas PoUon, Bishop of Worcester, A.B. 131--2. 



comode debere qd augeat' per eos in ea 
parte num'us missarum huiusraodi di- 
cendarum Et e contrario consimiliter 
defalcetur si iuxf eorum auisamenlum 
comune equitas id expostat. 

Item lego Editbe vxovr Hervrici Clerk 
de Marlebnrgh vnum nobile. Et si ipa 
sit defuncta illud lego dec Henrico. 
Itm volo qd si me superstite legatarii 
qnicumque in presenti testamento nomi- 
nati infata decesserint ipis per me relicta 
qnecumque sint quo ad eos penitus pro 
non legatis et in pios vsns alioa iuxt* 
discrecionemexecutorum meorum super- 
stitum vel ad compleeom huius testa- 
menti et Tolnntatis mee vltime quo ad 
personas alias solumodo conuertenda. 

Item lego domui de Canon Ayschley 
Lincolnien dioc xP. vt ipi specialiter 
orent pro anima mea. 

Item omnes reliquias meas quas por- 
taui de Eoma in duabns paruis sacculis 
lego locis piis et Eeligiosis inxta Auisa- 
mentum executorum meorum inter que 
loca volo quodPrioratumde Britelesb"ra 
ee primu et Walsyngli'm et Stauerdale 
secuudi. 

Volo insuper distriecius inbibendo 
quod nuUus executorum meorum sub 
pena anatbematis alieni debitorum meo- 
rum quorumcumqne sue persone alteri 
cuicumque bona res jura aut negocia mea 
quecumque possideiiti vt penes quem 
ista vel iporum aliqua existunt aliquid 
de bonis ipis debitis rebus iuribus aut 
negociis solus donet concedat aut remit- 
tat absque consensu aliorum executorum 
superuisorumque infra nominatorum 



or ougbt conveniently to be celebrated, 
then the number of masses of that sort 
to be said be increased by them in that 
place, and contrariwise, in like man- 
ner be diminished, if according to their 
unanimous opinion justice requires it. 

Also, I leave to Edith, wife of Henry 
Clerk, of Marlborough, one noble, and 
if she be dead I leave it to the said 
Henry. Also, I wish that, if during- 
my life any of the legatees named in 
the present Wiil depart this life, what- 
soever has been left to them by me shall 
be, as far as they are concerned, entirely 
treated as no legacies, and only converted 
to other pious uses, according to the 
discretion of my surviving executors, or 
used for the completion of this Will and 
my last wishes as regards other persons. 

Also, I leave to the house of Canon 
Ayschley,* Lincoln diocese, 40*. that 
they may specially pray for my soul. 

Also, all my relics which I brought 
from Rome in two small bags, I leave 
to pious and religious plaees, according 
to the discretion of my executors, among- 
which places I desire that the Priory of 
Bisham shall be first, and Walsingham -f- 
and Staverdale second. 

I further express my wish, and most 
strictly enjoin, that none of my exe- 
cutors under parn of anathema give, 
grant, or remit, to any one of my debtors- 
whomsoever, or to any other person 
whomsoever, in possession of goods, 
things, rights, or property of mine of 
any kind whatsoever, or in whose power 
those things or any of them exist, any 
of those goods, debts, things, rights, or 
property, by himself, and without the 



* Meant, I think, for Canon's Ashby, in Northamptonsbii'e, formerly in 
Lincoln Diocese, where was a Priory of Augustinian canons, dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary ; founded in King John's reign, or eai-lier. Tanner. 

f There was a famous chapel at Walsingham, dedicated to the Annunciation of 
Our Lady, built 1061 A.D. What the testator's connection was with Walsingham, 
beyond its being a bouse of the Augustinians, does not appear. 



"By the Rev. C. Soames. 



73 



sen acquietanciam faciat seu iporum 
aliqnem acquietet relaxet aut acquietum 
reddat vel cum aliqno eorundiim possi- 
dencium depositariorum vel debitorum 
pactum de vlterius non petendo debita 
bona res inra seu negocia huiusmodi 
quomodolibet facere presuraat. Q"* si 
per aliquem eorundem secus factum 
gestum aut habitum fu'it quouismodo 
ilhid ex nunc irritum decerno acnuUius 
ee volo roboris vel momenti. Et quod 
exhabundanti ab eis et eorum quolibet 
talia faciendi omiodam per adimo potes- 
tatem. Similiter et quocumque ipi aut 
ipis sic facienti aut facientibus relictum 
pro me fu'it esse volo penitus pro non 
legato. 



Item lego cuilibet ex scutifei'is meis 
commensalibus vj marc Argenti et cui- 
libet valecto commensali xl'. 

Item Johanni Rammesbury Ricardo 
Hayman et Willmo Cockes clicis meis 
cuilibet eorum v. marc. 

Item lego Thome Wode x. marc et 
vxori sue vnam vestem ex meis. 

Item Georgio Polton nepoti meo lego 
illud tenementum meum situm in Marle- 
burgh quod superius sibi in present! 
testamento assignavi sub condicione vt 
suprapositum et non aliter aut aliomodo 
Ita eciam quod isti duo Georgius et 
Thomas sint hiis legatis absque pluri 
contenti. 



concurrence of my o^her executors and 
supervisors hereinafter named, or give 
an acquittance, or acquit, release, or 
render any one of them acquitted, or in 
any manner whatever presume to make 
an agreement with any one of those 
possessors, depositaries, or debtors about 
not taking further proceedings for the 
recovery of any debts, goods, things, or 
property of this kind. But if by any 
one of them [my executors] it shall be 
otherwise done, carried out, or pro- 
ceeded with in any way whatsoever.from 
this present time I declare that to be 
void, and will it to be of no validity or 
weight, and by way of extra caution 
1 completely take away from them, and 
each of them, all power of every kind 
of doing such things. In like manner 
also, whatever has been left by me to 
him or them so doing I will to be 
treated altogether as no legacy. 

Also, I leave to each of my esquires 
who live in my house six marks of silver, 
and to each valet in my house, 4Ds, 

Also, to John Ramsbury,* Richard 
Hayman,tand William Cox, J my clerks, 
five marks each. 

Also, I leave to Thomas Wood 10 
marks, and to his wife one of my vests. 

Also, I leave to my nephew, George 
Polton, that tenement of mine situate 
in Marlborough, which I allotted to him 
before in the present will, on con- 
dition as mentioned above, and in no 
other way or manner. So also, that those 
two, George and Thomas, are content 
with these legacies, without any more.§ 



* John Rammesbury. Is he the same as the Clerk of the Kitchen mentioned 
later on ? 

. t One Richard Hayman was Prebendary of Oxford, then of Bishopstone, 1449 
—Prebendary of S. Paul's, 1447-62. 

J William Cockes, possibly the same man who was Succentor of Sarum Cathe- 
dral, 1467. 

§ No specific legacy seems to have been made to Thomas, the testator's 
nephew — he may have enjoyed the reversion to the tenement in Marlborough, as 



74 The Will of Thomas Polion, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1342. 



Item lego cuilibet de las Gromes meis 
comensalibus xx'. 

Item volo lego et assign© quod omnes 
familiares mei tarn maiores q^m minores 
mecum existentes forsitan_ in partibus 
tr^nsmarinis si iuibi deceder me contin- 
get ti^'Dseant post sepulturam mei cor- 
poris ad Regnum directo passu simul 
expensis meis sub gubernacone Seues- 
calli hospicii et clerici et aliorum in 
domo maiorum. 

Item lego Marione Evesb^m de Lon- 
don xs". 

Item pauperibus Wygoru Civitatis 
vtriusque sexus iiij marc. 

Item lego_Willmo puero meo qui stat 
apud Sussetr in studio ad exbibucoem 
suam vj marc argenti si scolas «ontinuar 
velit. 

Item Johanni Gardinere puero meo qui 
stat Wygorn ad sui exbibucoem iiij 
marc. 

Item Eogero puero meo apud BristoU 
lego ij marc. 

Itm lego paruo Humfrido puero meo 
commensali iiij marc ad exbibucoem 
suam. 

Item lego domino Willmo Saunders 
commensali meo paruum Jurnale meum 
quod ipemet scripsit sub ilia condicioue 
precise sicut et lego hie inferius Domiuo 
Eadulpbo Bolt portiforium et missale 
mea parua et non aliter nee alio modo. 

Item lego Domino Jobanni Barbour 
capellano celebranti apud Myldenbale 



Also, I leave to each of my grooms 
who live in my house 20*. 

Also, 1 desire, leave, and appoint, that 
all my servants, great and small, who 
may chance to be living with me, in 
parts beyond the sea, if I happen to die 
there, may after my burial straightway 
cross over to this kingdom togeth3r at 
my expense, under the guidance of the 
Seneschal of the Hospice, and the clerk, 
and the other upper servants in my 
house. 

Also, I leave to Mariona Evesham, of 
London, 20s. 

Also, I leave to the poor of the city 
of Worcester, of both sexes, four marks. 

Also, to my page, * William, who is 
studying at Cbichester,t for bis main- 
tenance, if he wishes to continue at 
school, six marks of silver. 

Also, to John Gardiner, my page, who 
is at Worcester, for his maintenance, 
four marks. 

Also, to Roger, my page at Bristol, 
I leave two marks. 

Also, I leave to little Humphrey, my 
household page, four marks for bis 
maintenance. 

Also, I leave to Sir William Saunders 
of my household, my small " Journal," 
which he himself wrote, on the same 
condition precisely, as I hereinafter 
leave to Sir Ralph Bolt my small brevi- 
ary aud missal, and not otherwise, nor 
in any other manner. 

Also, I leave to Sir John Barbour, 
the chaplain who celebrates masses at 



it appears that his brother George died childless. As regards George, he suc- 
ceeded to the knight's fee in Polton as his uncle's heir-at-law, as proved by 
the Court Roll. of Castle Combe; and his widow Isabella was his successor in the 



* It has been suggested that these " pueri," taken in connection with Eva St. 
John (see below), " quam communiter nuncupo uxorem," were more closely con- 
nected with the testator than as pages — but I incline to the belief that the latter 
was their real position. 

t Sussetr — is it Cirencester=Cisceter=Circestre, ii. Dugdale, p. 356, or 
Chichester, elsewhere in the will spelt Cicestre P 



By the Bev. C. Soames. 



75 



pro animabus parentum et ffratrum 
ineorum ad continuand ibidem quatuor 
annis in celebracione hujusmodi post 
decessum meum xs" argenti Et si ipe 
hoc facere renuerit tunc volo qd alius 
capellanusydoneus ad hoc per esecutores 
meos deputetur Et qd iporum quicumque 
ita celebrans pro animabus vt p'mittatur 
habeat eciam animam Willmi Belle mei 
nuper scrutiferi specialiter recommissam 
in missis suis nominatim et in specie. 

Item lego Rectori de Heiiylbury et 
Domino Thome capellano Cautarie ibi- 
dem Similiter et Domino Henrico ibidem 
capellano paroch xx^ cuilibet s. eorum- 
dem vnum nobile ad orandum vt supra. 

Item lego Amye Tedersale de London 
paruam ymaginem beate virginis de 
Auro inclusam in vno taberuaculo eciam 
de Auro ad sui memoriale vt in eo cor- 
dialius sepiusquo de aie mee recordari 
dignabitur salute. 



Item lego deuotissime mulieri Eve 
Seynt John Cicestren dice q^m comuniter 
nuncupo vxorem xx marc et tabulam 
puam ligneam de beate Virgine deputa- 

tam in quam in missaram mearum 

celebracoe in altari here soleo positum 
ante me et vnum anulum bonum ad 
perpetuam rei memoriam. 

Item lego Johanne vxori Johannis 



Mildenhall for the ?ouIs of my parents 
and brothers, £20 of silver, for the 
purpose of continuing to do so for four 
years after my decease. And if he 
should decline that duty, then I desire 
that some other suitable chaplain shall 
be deputed by my executors to fulfil the 
same, and that whoever so celebrates for 
their souls as aforesaid, shall be required 
specially, and by name, to recommend 
in his masses the soul of William Bell, 
my late esquire. 

Also, I leave to the Rector of Hartle- 
bury,* and to Sir Thomas, the chantry 
chaplain there, likewise to Sir Henry, 
the parish chaplain there, 20*.. that is 
to say, to each of them one noble, that 
they may pray as aforesaid. 

Also, I leave to Amyas (or Amy) 
Tattersall, of London, a little image of 
the Blessed Virgin, of gold, enclosed in 
a tabernacle, also of gold, as a reminder 
to him (or her), that by it he (or she) 
shall be the more heartily and fre- 
quently moved to bearin mindthe safety 
of my soul. 

Also, I leave to that most devout 
woman. Eve St. John, of Chichester 
diocese, whom I commonly calif wife, 
twenty marks, and a little wooden 
picture of the Blessed Virgin, intended 

for J which I am accustomed to have 

placed on the altar before me when 
I celebrate mass, and a good ring as a 
perpetual memorial of me. 

Also, I leave to Joanna, wife of John 



* The Bishop of Worcester was feudal lord of Hartlebury Castle. Diocesan 
Ristory of Worcester, S.P.C.K. That castle is still the residence of the Bishops 
of Worcester. 

t It is not easy to say what this lady's position was. Under the word " presby- 
tera " in Migne'siej-icow Medice et Infimce Latinitatis is the following : — " Pres- 
bj'terorum uxores, eorum nempe, qui, abdicato ex consensu mutuo matrimonii usu, 
divino cultvi se mancipabant, sacerdotes efEecti, vel episcopi ; femmes de pretres 
qui vivaient dans la continence apres I'ordination de leur Mari. (Conversae 
uxores dicentur, quibus concessum erat in domibus clericorum habitare, quemad- 
modum matribus aviis et sororibus : ita tamen ut a conjugibus suis ii abstinerent, 
ut est in concilio Turonensi I.) " 

t It is difficult to translate this in the absence of the word lost or left out. 



76 



The Will of Thomas Polion, Bishop 0/ Worcester, A.D. 



1342. 



Croke de Okeborn prope Marleburgh 
unam de Robis meis et anulum aureum 
pro suo statu. 

Item lego Domino Priori ecclie Co ven- 
tren moderno si tunc superstes sit et non 
alitor ad orandum et disponendum pro 
anima mea et facere disponi xx marc 
argenti quia in eius benigna deuocione 
et affectione bona summe confide. 

Item lego Domino Thome fEelde ca- 
pellano Rectori ecclie sancti Martini 
Wygorn ij marc ad orandum etc. 

Item lego Domino Radulphi Bolt 
capella meo Portiforium et missale mea 
portitura pro tempore vite sue. Et qd 
postea tradantur et assignentur vni al- 
teri capellano bono et devoto sub ilia 
condicione tantum quod ipe ad vite sue 
tempus oret specialiter pro anima mea 
et aliis supradcis. Et qd in omni missa 
sua vnam deaotam et specialem habeat 
coUcam pro anima mea. Et conse- 
quenter post sui mortem fiat in eisdem 
libris vni tercio capellano deuoto. 



Item lego Serenissimo Principi Domi- 
no meo graciosissimo dno Duci Glou- 
cestr c. marc vt si quisq'm executoribus 
meis in libere disponend bonis meis im- 
pedimentum inferr presumpserit aut 
iniurias eis aut michi in bonis meis com- 
mitter velletipe propicius eis protector 
et defensor graciosus ee dignetur Resi- 
duum vero omniu bonorum meorum hoc 
presenti testamento fideliter adimpleto 
lego in pios vsus pro mee et aliorum 
superius nominatorum animarum salute 
executorum meorum et superuisorum 



Cook, of Ogboume, near Marlborough, 
one of my robes and a gold ring, ac- 
cording to her rank. 

Also, I leave to the present Lord Prior 
of the Church of Coventry,* if he be 
then alive, and not otherwise, twenty 
marks of silver, to pray and spend, and 
cause to be spent, for my soul, because 
I have the utmost confidence in his 
friendly devotion and kind affection- 
Also, I leave to SirThomas Field,chap- 
lain. Rector of the Church of St. Mar- 
tin, Worcester, two marks, to pray, etc- 
Also, I leave to Sir Ralph Bolt, my 
chaplain, my breviary and missal, to be 
carried, about by him for the term of his 
life, and afterwards they are to be de- 
livered and assigned to another good and 
devout chaplain, only upon the same con- 
dition, that for the term of his life he 
specially prays for mine and the other 
above-mentioned souls ; and that in 
each of his masses he has one devout 
and special collect for my soul ; and, in 
succession after his death.the same thing 
shall be done with those books in respect 
of a third devout chaplain. 

Also, I leave to the most serene 
Prince, my most gracious master, the 
Lord Duke of Gloucester ,t one hundred 
marks, in order that, if anyone shall 
presume to put any impediment in the 
way of my executors, in the free dis- 
position of my goods, and shall desire 
to do any injury to them or to me in 
respect of my property, he may con- 
descend to be a favourable protector and 
gracious defender of thera. The residue, 
indeed, of all my property after this 
present Will has been faithfully carried 



* The Benedictine priory at Coventry was founded 1043, by Leofric, Earl of 
Mercia, and his lady, Godiva, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, S. Peter, 
and S. Osburgh. 

t " Humphrey Plantagenet, called the ' Good Duke Humphrey,' youngest son 
of King Henry IV. Created in Parliament Duke of Gloucester and Earl of 
Pembroke for life, 16th May, 1414. E.G. Murdered 1446, s.p., when his 
honours became extinct." Sistoric Peerage of England. 



By iJie Eev. C. Soames. 



77 



ant maioris partis eorum artitno con- 
vertendum. Si vero fortassis in partibus 
tr'nsmarinis aut in mari tr^nseundo aut 
redeundo captus fuero per inimicos et 
exaccionatus aut in partibus ipis stando 
itm exposuero de bonis meis aut alii 
forsan casus contigerint adversi qd bona 
mea non sufBciant ad complecionem 
hnius mee ultime voluntatis tunc volo 
quod fiat defalcacio de superius legatis 
relictis in certis personis principaliter 
similiter et de relictis diuitibus et magis 
habundantibus religiosis et aliis iuxta 
executorum meorum et supervisorujn 
discrecionem. Ita tamen quod de 
legatis relictis egentibus personis aut 
servientibus meis vel cognatis nichil 
penitus detrahatur nisi maxima ne- 
cessitas id exposcat 



Huius autem testamenti mei et vltime 
voluntatis meos facio ordino et constituo 
exeoutoresMagistfumReginaldumKent- 
wode ecclie London Decanu Robtum 
Andrew et Thoma Kal'mayn cognatum 
meum scutiferos Magrm Philippum 
Polton Archidiaconu Gloucestr ac Do- 
minum Willm Heende ecclie Sarum 
Canonicu et Thomam Lauyngton con- 
sanguineum meum. 



out, I leave to be convei'ted to pious nses 
for the salvation of mine and the other 
above-mentioned souls, at the discretion 
of my executors and supervisors, or of 
the major part of them. If, however, 
it should happen that I should be taken 
captive byenemies in parts beyond the sea, 
or in crossing the sea, or in returning, 
and be forced to pay a ransom, or that by 
living in those parts I should expend so 
much of my property , or if any other ad- 
verse calamities should chance to happen, 
so that my property shall not suffice for 
the completion of this my last Will ; 
then, I desire that there be, principally, 
a diminution made of legacies left 
as above to persons not designated by 
name, and, in like manner, of those left 
to the more wealthy religious persons, 
and others, according to the discretion 
of my executors and supervisors. In 
such manner, however, that from the 
legacies left to needy persons, andto my 
servants or relations, nothing at all be 
taken away, unless the very greatest 
necessity require it. 

Of this my last Will and testament I 
make, appoint, and constitute as my 
executors Master Reginald Kentwood,* 
Dean of the Church of London, Robert 
Andrew, and Thomas Quartennain, my 
kinsman, Esquires, Master Philip Pol- 
ton ,t Archdeacon of Gloucester, and Sir 
William Heende, J Canon of the Church 
of Sarum, and Thomas Lavington, my 
relation. 



* Reginald Kentwode, Dean of S. Paul's by election. Succeeded by Thomas 
Lysens, 1441. 

t Philip Poulton, Archdeacon of Gloucester, was the testator's cousin, and son 
of Thomas and Edith Poulton, of Wanborough. There is a brass in the ante- 
chapel of All Souls College, Oxon : representing him kneeling, the inscription 
perfect, on the shield of amis three mullets of five points pierced. He died 
I'lGl. See Jackson's Atihrei/ and Kite's Wilts Brasses. See note on Poltons 
of Wanborough at end of will. 

J William Hende, Canon of Ax ford, Sarum Dioc, 1426 ; of Alton Australis, 
1417. ArchJoacou of Worcester, 1133. 



78 The Will of Thomas ToUon, Bishop of Worcester, A.JD. 1342. 



Superuisores vero eiusdem mee vol- 
untatis vltime ordino constituo et ee 
volo dilectissimos michi Focios et Amicos 
confidentissimos Willm Darell Scuti- 
ferum et Magistium Johannem Hody 
Cancellariuia meum. Et si contingat 
supradictonim executorum meorum ali- 
quem officium administracionis Imius- 
modi refutare qd absit qd ipe caritatis 
intuitu et mee huiusmodi singularis 
confidencie pretextu velit ex corde cete- 
rorum meorum executorum. adminis- 
tracioni fauorabiliter assistere et eos 
toto posse defendere et fauere. Arcuis 
quo valeam admonens et finaliter volens 
vt in admistracionibus bonorum meo- 
rum agenda queque statuenda vendenda 
disponenda et administranda ex comuni 
deliberacione executorum m.eorum oim 
aut saltem maioris saniorisque partis 
eonim consensu pariter et assensu pro- 
cedaut Et que nee aliter gesta lea aut 



Moreover, of this my last Will, I 
appoint, and constitute, and desire to be 
Supervisors, my very dear companions 
and most trusted friends, William 
Darell,* Esquire, and Master John 
Hody,t my Chancellor; and if it should 
happen that any of my above-mentioned 
executors shoiild refuse to discharge the 
duty of administering the same, which 
God forbid ! I desire that he, well-know- 
ing my love, and by reason of this my 
special confidence in him, will cordially 
favour and assist the adm.inistration of 
the rest of my executors, and that he 
will do all he possibly can to help and 
defend them. As earnestly as I possibly 
can, I warn, and finally desire, that what- 
ever has to be done, determined, sold, 
disposed of, and administered in the 
administration of my property, may 
proceed according to the joint delibera- 
tions of all my executors, or, at anyrate, 



* Probably the first Darrell, of LIttlecote, who married Elizabeth Calston, 
heiress of Thomas Calston, of that place. She was baptized 1401, and proved 
herself of age at the suit of William Darrell, 1415, and died 1464. Her son, 
George, died 1474. George was twice married — by his first wife he was great- 
grandfather of Jane Seymour, mother of Edward YI., and by his second wife 
had an heir : — 



Edward. 

Edward. Chamberlain to Katharine of 
I Arragon. Died 1549. 

John. Killed in Picardy. 

Will Darrell. Who was succeeded by 
Judge Popham. 

See Society in Elizabethan Era, by Hubert Hall, p. 186. 



t John Hody, Precentor of Wells, 1410. Prebendary of Wanninster, in Sarum 
diocese, 1424. Chancellor of Wells, 1426—39. Canon of York, 1426. Arch- 
deacon of Dorset, 1436. He was uncle to Sir John Hody, Lord Chief Justice of 
England temp. Henry YI. His brother, Thomas Hody, had an estate at Kington 
Magna, Dorset, and was the King's Escheator for that county, 6 Henry IV. 
See Jones' Fasti. 



By the Rev. C. Soames. 



79 



administrata alicuius sint roboris aut 
momenti. 



Supervisorum eciam meovum supe- 
rius noiuinatorum semper in magnis 
prehabitis consultacoe et noticia quando 

, id coinode fieri jjossit et agendoriim 

qualitas id requirit quibus duobus vt 

I huiusmodi superuisionis onus debite 

subir dignentur lego 1. marc videlicet 
Willmo Darel xs" et Magro Jobanni 
Hod J XX marc. Et executorum meorum 
cuilibet administracoem supradcam in 
se suseiper volenti lego eciam xx marc 
sterling hoc adiecto quod supradicto 
Domino Decano superaddo x marc ac 
Robto Andrew coexecutori alias x marc. 

^ Ita quod ipoi-um Decani et Robert! 

K quilibet xx'= habere debeat onera p'missa 

B< in fie benignius acceptando. 

vltra premissa sibi assignat alias xx 
marc et sic in toto xl marc vt aliquali 

Pvltiori tempore curiam continuare et 
excercer valeat ad erudiciem suam. 

Item lego Dionysia vxori eiusdem 
Thome consanguinee mee parvu par do 
precibus voeat pater nr habens solum 
vt estimo novem aut decem [globulos] 
in toto de auro. 

Item lego eidm Dionisie v marc ar- 
genti ad sue solum voluntatis ai'bitrium 



with the consent and assent alike of the 
major and wiser part of them ; and 
also, that nothing otherwise done, per- 
formed, or administered, shall be of any 
validity or efficacy. 

I desire,also,that in large transactions 
there be previously held a consultation 
with, and with the knowledge of, my 
supervisors above-named, when it can 
conveniently be done, and when the 
nature of the business requires it ; to 
which two persons, that they may be 
pleased properly to undertake the duty 
of such supervision, I leave 50 marks, 
viz., to William Darel, £20, and to 
Master John Hody 20 marks. And 
to each of my executors, who is willing 
to take upon himsel f the above-mentioned 
administration, I also leave 20 marks 
sterling, added to which, I give besides 
to the above-mentioned Sir Dean 10 
marks, and to Robert Andrew, his co- 
executor, another 10 marks. So that 
each of them, the Dean and Robert, 
ought to have £20 for kindly accepting 
the above-named duties. 

Also, I desire that Lavington shall 
have another 20 marks beyond what 
has already been left him, and so in the 
whole 40 marks —in order that for some 
longer time he may be able to carry on 
and continue his education. 

Also, I leave to Dionisia, the wife of 
the same Thomas, my relation, my small 
set of prayers,* called " Pater noster," 
having only as I reckon nine or ten 
[beads] in all of gold. 

Also, I leave to the same Dionisia 
five marks of silver at her own sole 



* A rosary, '' unum par precularum," Dugdale. I have translated throughout 
" par " by " a set," accoiding to the old west country meaning of the word pair. 
As for instance, " Up two pair of stairs." See Webster's Dictionary, &c. The 
rosary consisted of fifteen decades of beads, each containing ten Ave Marias 
marked by small beads— a large bead marking each Pater Noster — and it ended 
with a Gloria Patri. Five decades make a chaplet— a third part of a rosary. The 
larger beads were called "Gaudej'es." 



80 The Will of Thomas Polton, Bishop of Worcester, A.I). 1342. 



disponandas marito iu eis nullum in- 
t'esse quomodolibet habituro. 

Et si quisq' ex executoribus meis 
supius noniinatis recuset officiu adminis- 
tracionis huiusmodi tunc volo quodCleri- 
cusineus de coquina Johannes Eammes- 
bury succedat in locum suum et sit 
coadmiDistrator sicut alii superius ex- 
pressati habiturus plenam admin istra- 
cois potestatem sicut et aliquis ex eis 
cui Johanui tunc relinquo et here volo 
XX marc pro laboribus suis. 

In quorum omniu et singulorum 
superius inpertorum et specificatorum 
testiom atque fidem Ego Thomas testa- 
tor antedcus hoc presens testamentum 
meum vltimam continens voluutatem 

sigillemei ob appensione munirife- 

ceramacsignoti meiimpressione in eius 
dorso signavi Necnon et ipi testamento 
clauso sigillum armorum meorum sup*- 
posui eciam cum adiecto signeto. Dat 
London et claus Sexto die Mensis De- 
cemFr Anno Domini Millesimo Quadri- 
gentissimo Tricessimo secundo. 



Tenore presencium Nos Henricus per- 
missione divina Cantvarien Archiepus 
tocius Anglie Primas et Apostolice sedis 
legatus. Notum facimus vniversis qd 
xviii"" die Mensis Octobris Anno 
Domini Millimo cccc™" xxxiij"". In 
Manerio nro de Lambeth Exhibitum. 
fuit coram nobis testamentum bone 
memorie Domini Thome Polton 
vltimi Epi Wigorn defuncti pre- 
sentibus annexum quod quidem testa- 
mentum examinauimus illudque rite 
et legitime coram nobis probatumappro- 
bavimus insinuauimus et pronunciaui- 
mus pro valore eiusdem [&c., &c.] 



disposal, her husband not being allowed 
to have any interest in them whatsoever. 

And if any of my executors above- 
named refuse the office of such adminis- a 
tration, I desire that my Clerk of the 
Kitchen, John Ramsbury, do succeed 
in his place, and be a co-administrator 
like the others above-mentioned, and 
that he have full power of administration 
the same as any of them ; to which 
John, in that case, I leave 20 marks, 
and I desire him to have them for his 
trouble. 

In testimony and confirmation of all 
and singular the above commanded and 
specified [provisions] I, Thomas, the 
testator afoi-esaid, have caused this my 
present Will, containing my last wishes, 
to be protected, by appending to it my 
seal, and 1 have signed it on the back 
with the impression of my signature. 
And besides, I have placed the seal of 
my arms on the covering of the Will and 
have also added my signature. Given 
and closed at London, the sixth day of 
the month of September, A.D. one 
thousand four hundred and thirty-two. 



By the tenor of these presents we, 
Henry,*by divine permission Archbishop 
of Canterbury, Primate of all England, 
and legate of the Apostolic see, make 
known to all men,that on the eighteenth 
day of the month of October, A. D. 1433, 
in our Manor of Lambeth, the Will of the 
Lord Thomas Polton, of good memory, 
the late Bishop of Worcester, deceased, 
was exhibited before us, which is annexed 
to these presents ; which Will we have 
examined ; and it having been duly and 
lawfully proved before us, we have ap- 
proved it, published (or registered) it, 
and pronounced for its validity [&c.,&c.tj 



* Henry Chichele, Archbishop, 1414—43. 

t The lady who copied the will for me says : — "there is a long rigmarole at 
the end of the will which I did not transcribe, but only took out the dates," 



By the Rev, C. Soames. 81 

Dat die et A" sup*Jict. Et nFe Trans Given on the day and year above-men- 
A" vicesimo. tioned, and in the 20th year of our 

translation. 
Ac postmod dci executores viz. xiii]"" And the said executors, afterwards, 
die Mens Novembris Anno dni M" viz., on the fourteenth day of the month 
ccco'"°xxxv'°inmaa'iodni de Lamebith of November, A.D. 1435, rendering ia 
de et super admist^coe bonoru hmoi the court of the Lord of Lambeth a 
fideie ccTpotu" Dno~ reddentes ab officio faithful account of and concerning the 
sunt dimissi. administration of the property hereof 

to the Lord, are discharged from their 

duties. 

One would like to know what was the amount of property which 
the Bishop leftj but there seems to be no means of discovering it— 
nor are there any directions as to the sale of bis stock or personal 
effects — nor any means of learning whether the one hundred and 
twenty ewe or other sheep were to be provided out of bis own flocks. 
He is said to have given his manor at Easton to his nephew, George, 
before setting out for Rome. 

The knight's fees held by the family at Poulton would, I presume, 
descend by inheritance. Great and Little Poulton were held together 
by the Lyddiards, for several generations, in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, and also by subsequent tenants. At present, 
they both belong to the Ailesbury estate, the last purchase— that of 
Little Poulton— having been made in 1819, of Lord Bolingbroke'ti 
trustees. 

What became of the Poulton family I cannot say. The name 
seems almost to have disappeared out of the county. The name of 
the husband of his nieee— Tarrant — is very common. 

Amongst those thought fit to lend money to the King's majesty 
by way of Privy Seal in 1611 were William Poulton, of South 
Damerham, £10 ; Christopher Polden, of Imber, Gent., £20 ; and 
Edward Powton, of Kingston Deveril, £10. In the Pewsey Muster 
Kolls, 1538, we find the name of Robert Poulton, and in 1568 that 
of Thomas Poulton. In 1711 Thomas Poulton was fined 10*. for 
illegal tippling. See Facts concerning Peiosey, hi/ B. P. Bouverie, 
M.A. 

In a modern directory the only names I can find are, Joseph 
Poulton, of Haydon Wick, Swindon, and A. Polden, of Chittevne. 

VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXVI. 



8e The Will of Thomas PoUon, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 134S. 

Perhaps some of tbe readers of the Magazine may be able to tell us 
more about the family. 



Of the inscription to Thomas and Edith Poulton, in Wanborough 
Church, above-mentioned, there are three copies in print, viz., in 
Kite^s Wilts Brasses, p. 27; in Jackson's Auhrey, p. 200 (in which 
the contractions, &c., are expanded) ; and in a paper by Mr. C. E. 
Ponting, Wilts Archaological Magazine, xxiii.,p. 243. Mr. Pouting 
has shown me the MS. of his paper, and begs me to correct some 
printer's errors which occur in the inscription as given in the 
Magazine: — 

Line 2, for " vocavat " read " vocabat." 

Line 7, insert "natarum" between "natorum" and " totque." 

Line, 9 for "obieu" read "obitu." 

Line 10, for "tenedit" read ''tenebit." 

The inscription, expanded, is as follows : — 

" Marmoreo lapide Thomas jacet hie et Editha 
Quem Polton vita quisque vocabat ita 
Quos mors expulit hiuc milleno virginis anno 
Quadringenteno decimo quibus adimus octo 
Undena luce Septembris hunc, duodena 
Hanc Febvui. Gradiens fundas precamina plena 
Octoque natoium natarum totque suarum 
Collegium caium circumeundo Sai-um 
Ex Obitu quorum Wanberg curatus habebit 
Quatuor atque decem nummos quem rite tenebit 
Post ortum Matris Domini Dominica die sequente 
EUermis de et Halle plase Wanberg retinente." 

Everyone admits that the meaning is somewhat obscure. I ven- 
ture, however, with the assistance of a friend, to give the following 



' Under a marble slab Thomas lies here and Edith, 
Whom in life everyone used to call thus, ' Polton.' 
Death drove them hence in the year of the Virgin one thousand 
Four hundred and ten, to which we add eight, 
On the 11th September him, on the 12th of Febniary her. 



By the Rev. C- Soames. 83 

As thou passest by, offer many prayers for them 

And for their eight sons, and as many daugliters, 

Including in your prayers the dear College (or Chapter) of Sarum. 

Out of their obit Wansborough's Curate shall have 

Fourteen shillings (which obit he shall duly observe 

On the Lord's Day following the birth of the Mother of our Ijord) 

From the tenant of EUerms and of Hall Place, Wanborough." 

There is another inscription on a brass in Wanborough Church, 
« from which it appears that the Polton family were the chief con- 
tributors towards the erection of the tower which was begun in 
1435 " ', Philip, the Archdeacon, and Agneta^his sister, are mentioned 
by name. Kite's Brasses. 

[Note.— Since p. 53 was in print I find it stated in "^ Few 
Facts concerning the Parish of Pewsey, hy Bertrand P. Boiiverie, 
M.d., Rector," that the Thomas Polton, Rector of Pewsey, 1401-3, 
whom I had supposed to have been a contemporary, was the testator 
himself— in that case he may have held, successively, all the other 
pieces of preferment mentioned.] 

\_Note which should have been inserted on -page 62 :— 

" Master Sampson greatly assisted us at this time by his remarkable piety, 
for he not only remained fasting for five days, during all which time he peram- 
bulated the holy places and shrines of the city, commending our cause to the 
pilgrims and other devout persons there, giving alms also to all needy persons, 
whether they craved them or no, so that the fame of his good works was noised 
abroad throughout the city (of Rome)." Court Life wider the Flantagenets, 
by Hubert Hall, p. 108.] 

As to the use of the corporal (note, p. 56), see the Bishop of 
Sarura's charge, 1891, pp. 191-2-3 ; from the quotations there given 
it appears that it was used to cover the chalice, as well as to place 
under the elements, at the period when the testator lived. 



G 2 



By G. E. Daetnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddabd. 

^HE following pages make no claim to be considered as 
containing an exhaustive glossary of our Wiltshire speech. 
All that has been attempted is to record such words and phrases as 
we ourselves are acquainted with, or have chanced upon in the course 
o£ our reading, and at the same time to bring together in a concise 
form all others that may have been noted for Wilts in previously- 
printed glossaries. 

Whether this preliminary word-list will ever be carried on to 
completion must remain an open question for the present, but we 
would mention that we shall b& very glad to receive any additions 
or suggestions from those interested in the subject. Even if we do 
not use them ourselves, they may prove of value to the English 
Dialect Society, towards whose rough material for their projected 
English Dialect Dictionary most of the original portion of this list 
has been contributed by us during the past {&Vi years. The use of 
dialect would appear gradually to be dying out now in the county, 
thanks, perhaps, to the spread of education, which too often renders 
the rustic half ashamed of his native tongue, (rood old English as 
at base it is, — for many a word or phrase used daily and hourly by 
the Wiltshire labourer has come down almost unchanged, even as 
regards pronunciation, from his Anglo-Saxon forefathers, — it is not 
good enough for him now. One here, and another there, will have 
been up to town, only to come back with a stock of slang phrases 
and misplaced aspirates, and a large and liberal contempt for the 
old speech and the old ways. The natural result is that every year 
is likely to add to the difficulty of collecting, and if it is not done 
now the task may soon become a hopeless one. 

The chief existing sources of information are as follows : — (1) 
the glossary of agricultural terms in Davis's General View of the 
Agriculture of Wilts, 1811 ; reprinted in the Archceological Review, 



Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 85 

March, 1888, with many valuable notes by Prof . Skeat : (2) the 
word-list in vol. 3 of Britton's Beauties of Wilts, 1825; collated 
with Akerman, and reprinted in 1879 for the English Dialect 
Society, with additions and annotations, by Prof. Skeat : (3) Aker- 
man's North Wilts Glossary, 1842, based upon Britton's earlier 
work : and (4) H alii well's Dictionary, 1847, where may be found 
most, but not all, of the Wilts words occurring in our older 
literature, as the anonymous fifteenth century Chronicon Tilodunense; 
the works and MSS. of John Aubrey, 1626—1697 ; Bishop Kennett's 
Parochial Antiquities, 1695, and the collections by the same author, 
which form part of the Lansdowne MSS. All words occurring in 
either of these lists have the authority duly noted against them in 
brackets. 

Other authorities that must here be accorded a special mention 
are a paper on Some un-noted Wiltshire phrases, by the E.ev. W. C. 
Plenderleath, in Wilts Archceological Jfaya^jw^, vol. xxii., p. 107; 
Britten and Holland's Dictionary of English Plant Names ; the Rev. 
A. C. Smith's Birds of Wiltshire ; Akerman's Spring-tide and 
Wiltshire Tales ; a short word-list in Mr. E. Slow's Poems; and last, 
but by no means least, the works of Richard Jefferies. References 
to these are given in many cases where our lack of space precludes 
us from quoting at greater length. 

The words here gathered together will be found to fall mainly 
under three heads, (1) dialect, as Totty, (2) ordinary English with 
some local shade of use, as Unhelieving , and (3) agricultural, as Hyle, 
many of the latter being also entitled to rank as dialect. There may 
also be noted a small number of old words, as toll, that have long 
died out of standard English, but still hold their own among our 
country people. We have not, as a general rule, thought it ad- 
visable to follow the example set us by our predecessors in including 
such words as archet and deaw, which merely represent the local 
pronunciation of orchard and dew ; nor have we admitted cantan- 
Jcerous, tramp, and certain others that must now rank with ordinary 
English, whatever claim they may once have had to be considered 
as provincial. More leniency has, however, been exercised with 
regard to the agricultural terms, many that are undoubtedly of 



86 Co7itribuUons towards a WiUshire Glossary. 

somewhat general use being retained side by side with those of 
more local limitation. 

We regret that it has been found impossible to carry out Prof. 
Skeat's suggestion that the true pronunciation should in all doubtful 
cases be clearly indicated by its Glossic equivalent. To make such 
indications of any practical value they should spring from a more 
intimate knowledge of that system than either of us can be said to 
possess. 

Our best thanks are due to the Rev. W. C. Plenderleath and 
others, for their assistance in collecting and verifying words; to the 
Rev. A. Smythe Palmer, for the loan of Davis^s work ; and to Prof. 
Skeatj for his kind permission (of which, however, we have availed 
ourselves as sparingly as possible) to make use of his reprints. 
Those who are really interested in the subject cannot do better than 
obtain his Five reprinted Glossaries, 1879, published for the English 
Dialect Society by Triibner & Co., the notes and introduction to 
which contain much valuable matter. 

The chief abbreviations used are as follows : — (A) Akerman, (B) 
Britton, (D) Davis, (H) Halliwell ; whilst the asterisk (^) denotes 
that the word against which it is placed, though given by these or 
other authorities as used in Wiltshire, is unknown to ourselves. 

Aj pi. As or Ais. A harrow or drag (D) ; probably from A.S. egethe, 

M.E. ei/the, a barrow (Skeat). S.W., obsolete. 

Adder's-tongue. Listera ovata, Br., Twayblade. S.W. 

Afeard, Aveard. Afraid. (A.B.) N.W. 

*AgaIds. Hawthorn berries. (English Plant Names.) 
Agg. To hack or cut clumsily (A.B.H.) ; also Aggie and Haggle. N.W. 
AhmoO. A cow; used by mothers to children, as "Look at they pretty 
ahmoos a-coming ! " S.W. {Som. bord.) 

Aisles of wheat. See Hyle, 

All-a-hoh. All awry (A.B.) : also AU-a-lmh. N. & S.W. 

*All-amang, Allemang, All-o-mong. Mingled together (A.H.) 

All one as. Just like. "I be 'tirely blowed up all one as a drum." N.W, 

All one for that. For all that, notwithstanding, in spite of, as " It mayn't 

be true all one for that," N.W. 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. H. Qoddard. 87 

Aloud. " That there meat stinks aloud," smells veiy bad, N.W. 

•A-masked. Bewildered, lost. [MS.Lansd.) Obsolete. 

Amead. Aftermath. See note to Yeomath. N.W. (Cherhill.) 

*AnaU, 'Nan. What do you say P (A.B.) ; used by a labourer who does not 

quite comprehend his master's orders. Obsolete. 

Anchor. The chape of a buckle. (A.B.) S.W. 

AneOUSt, Aneust, AnoUSt, Neust, or Noust. Nearly, about the 

same. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Anoint, 'Nint (Hong). To beat soundly. "I'll 'nint ye when I gets 

home ! " See Nineter. N.W. 

*Anont, Anunt. Against, opposite. (A.B.H.) 
Any more than. Except, although, only. " He's sure to come any more 

than he might be a bit late." N.W. 

Apple-Owling. Knocking down the small worthless fruit, or " griggles," 

left on the trees after the apple crop has been gathered iu. N.W. 

Aps. Populus tremula, h., As^en; always so called by woodmen, {Great 

Estate, ch. 1), N.W. 

Arms. " The arms of a waggon," such parts of the axle-tree as go into the 

wheels. (Cycl. of Agric.) N.W. 

Array, 'Ray. To dress and clean corn with a sieve. (D.) N.W. 

Ashore, Ashar, Ashard. Ajar. "Put the door ashard when you 

goes out." cf. Shard, a gap in a hedge. N. & S.W, 

Ashweed. Mgopodiujn Podagraria, L., Goutweed. N. & S.W. 

*Astore. An expletive, as " she's gone into the street astore " (H.) : doubtless 

merely a misunderstood Irishism. 
*Attery. Irascible. (A.B.) 
At, (1) " At twice," at two separate times. " We'll ha' to vetch un at twice 

now." N.W. 

(2) " Up at hill." uphill. " Th' rwoad be all up at hill." N.W. 

Ax. To ask. (A.B.) N; & S.W. 

*Axen. Ashes (A.B.) ; Acksen {MS. Lansd.) Obsolete. 

Babies'-shoGS. Ajuga reptans, L., Common Bugle. S.W. 

Bachelor's Buttons, (l) wild Scabious (A.B.), Scabiosa arvensis, L., 

S. Columbaria, L., and perhaps S. succisa, L. N.W. 

(2) Corchorus Japonica. N.W. (Huish). 

Back-friends. Bits of skin fretted up at the base of the finger-nails. N.W. 

*J3ackheave. To wiuuow a second time. (D.) 



88 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Backside. The back-yard of a house. (A.B.) N. & S.W., now obsolete. 

Backsword. Single-stick. (A.H.) N.W., now obsolete. 

*Badj Bod. To strip walnuts of their husks. (A.B.) Obsolete. 

*BadgGr. A corn-dealer (A.B,) ; used frequently in old accounts in N. Wilts, 
but now obsolete, Prof. Skeat refers it to F. hladier, but Rev. A. Smythe 
Palmer suggests O.E. hager, buyer, A.S. hycgan, to buy. Obsolete. 

Bag. (1) V. To cut peas with a double-handed hook. (Aubrey's Wilts MS^ 

<f- Vag. 

(2) n. The udder. (A.B.) N.W. 

Bake-faggot. The same as FaggOt, q,.v. N.W. 

Ballarag, Bullyrag. To abuse or scold at anyone. N. & S.W, 

Balm of Gilead. Melittis Melissophyllum, L., Wild Balm. 
Bams. Rough gaiters of pieces of cloth wound about the legs, much used by 

shepherds and others exposed to cold weather, cf. Vamplcts. N. & S.W. 
Bandy. A species of Hockey, played with handy sticks and a ball or piece 

of wood. N.W. 

Bane. Sheep-rot. Baned. Of sheep, afflicted with rot (A.B.) N.W. 

Bang-tail, or Red Fiery Bang-tail. Phmnicurus ruticuia, the 

Redstart. N.W. (Wroughtqn.) 

*Bannet-hay, A rick-yard. (H.) 
Bannis. Gasterosteus trachurus, the Common Stickleback (A.B.H.) ; also 

Bannistickle (A.B.) and Bantickle (A.) S.W. 

*Bannut. Fruit of Juglans regia, L., the Walnut. (A.B.) 

*Barber's Brushes. Bipsacus syUestris, L., Wild Teasel. (Flower's 

Flora of Wilts.) BruslieS. N.W. 
Barge, (l) n. The gable of a house. N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

(2) V. Before a hedge can be " laid," all its side, as well as ttie rough 

thorns, brambles, etc., growing in the ditch, must be cut off. This is called 

" barging out " the ditch. N.W. 

Barge-liook. The iron hook used by thatchers to fasten the straw to the 

woodwork of the gable. N.W, (Clyffe Pypard). 

Barge-knife. The knife used by thatchers in trimming off the straw round 

the eaves of the gable. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Bargin. The overgrowth of a hedge, trimmed off before " laying." N. & S.W. 
Barken. The enclosed yard near a farm-house (A.B.) ; Rick-Barken, 

a rick -yard (A.), also used without prefix in this sense. {Wilts Tales, t^ 

121.) " Barken, or Berceu, now commonly used for a yard or backside in 



By G. E. Bartnell and the Rev. H. H. Goddard. 89 

•^ilts .... first signified the small croft or close where the sheep 
were brought up at night, and secured from danger of the open fields." 
Kennett's Parochial Antiquities. N. & S.W. 

•Barley-bigg. A variety of barley. (Aubrey's Wilts MS.) 

•Barley Sower. Larus canus, the Common Gull. {Birds of Wilts, 
p. 534). S-W. 

Barm. The usual Wilts term for yeast. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

•Barn-barley. Barley which has never been in rick, but has been kept 
under cover from the first, and is therefore perfectly dry and of high value 
for malting pui-poses, {Great Estate, ch. 8.) 

Basket, in some parts of S. Wilts potatoes are sold by the " basket," or three- 
peck measure, instead of by the " sack " or the " bag." 

Bat-folding net. The net used in « bird-batting," q.v. (A.) : more usually 
« clap-net." 

Bat-mouse. The usual N. Wilts term for a bat. 

Batt. A thin kind of oven-cake, about as thick as a tea-cake, but mostly 
crust. N.W. 

*Battledore-barley. A flat-eared variety of barley. (Aubrey's Wilts MS,) 

Baulk. See Corn-baulk. 

Bavin. An untrimmed brushwood faggot (A.B.) ; the long ragged faggot 
with two withes, used for fencing in the sides of sheds and yards ; sometimes 
also applied to the ordinary faggot with one withe or band. N. & S.W. 

Bay. (1) w- A dam across a stream or ditch. N.W. 

(2) V. " To bay back water," to dam it back. N.W. 

(3) n. The space between beam and beam in a bam or cows' stalls. N.W. 
•Beak, (l) v. To chop up with a mattock the rough surface of land that is 

to be reclaimed, afterwards burning the parings. {Affric of Wilts, ch. 12.) 

See Burn-beak. 

* (2) n. The curved cutting mattock used in "beaking." {Ibid, ch. 12.) 

(3) n. The ploughed land lying on the plat of the downs near Heytes- 

bury is usually known as the Beak, or Bake, probably from having 

been thus reclaimed. 

Bpat " To beat clots," to break up the hard dry lumps of old cow-dung lying 

. NW. 

about in a pasture. 

Becall. To abuse, to call names. « She do becall I shameful." N. & S.W. 
Bedwind, Bedwine. Clematis Vitalba, L., TraveUer's Joy. S.W. 

Bee-flower. Oi^A?-^* apifera, Huds., Bee Orchis. S.W. 



90 Contributions toioards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Bee-pot. A bee-hive. S.W. 

Been, Bin. Because, since ; a corruption of Jein^. (B.) " Biu as he don't 
go, I won't." N.W. 

Bees. A hive is a Bee-pot. Bee-flowers are those purposely grown 
near an apiary, as sources of honey. Of swarms, only the first is a 
Swarm, the second being a Suiart, and the third a Clllt. To fol- 
low a swarm, beating a tin pan, is Ringing or Tanging. N.W. 

*Beet. To make up a fire. (A.B.) 

Beetle, Bittle. (l) The heavy double-handed wooden mallet used in 

driving in posts, wedges, etc. N. & S.W. 

(2) The small mallet with which thatchers drive home their " spars." S.W. 

*Beggar-weed. Cuscuta TrifolU, Bab., Dodder ; from its destructiveness 
to clover, etc. {English Plant Names.) 

Bellock. To cry like a beaten or frightened child. (A.B.) N.W., rarely. 

*Belly vengeance. "Beer of the ver^/ smallest description, real ' belly 
vengeance.'" {Wills Tales, p. 40.) 

*Bennet. v. Of wood-pigeons, to feed on bennets. (A.) 

Bennets, Bents, (l) Long coarse grass or rushes. (B.) N.W. 

(2) Seed-stalks of various grasses (A.) ; used of both withered stalks of 
coarse grasses and growing heads of cat's-tail, etc. N. & S.W. 

(3) Seed-heads of Plantain, Plantago Major, L., and P. lanceolata, 
L. N. & S.W. 

Berry. The grain of wheat (D.) ; as " There's a very good berry to-year," or 
" The wheat's well-berried," or the reverse. N.W. 

Berry-moucher. (i) Atruant, Blackberry-moucher. (A.) N.&s.w. 

(2) Fruit of Ruhus fruticosus, L., Blackberry. N.W. (Huish.) 

Originally applied to children who went mouching from school in 
blackberry season, and widely used in this sense, but at Huish — and oc- 
casionally elsewhere —virtually confined to the berries themselves : often 
corrupted into Penny-niOUCher or Perry-moucher by children. 
In English Plant Names Mochars, Glouc., and Mushes, Dcv., are quoted 
as being similarly applied to the fruit, which is also known as Mooches in 
the Forest of Dean. See Hal., sub. Mich. 
Besepts. Except. N. & S.W, 

Besom, BeeSOm, BisSOm. A birch broom. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

*Betwit. To upbraid. (A.B.) 

Bide. (1) To stay, remain. (A.) "Bide still, will'ee." N.&S.W. 

(2) To dwell. (A.) N. & S.W. 



By G. E. Bartnell and the Rev. E. E. Goddard. 91 

Bill Button. Geum rioale, L., Water Avens. S.W. 

Bird-batting. Netting birds at night with a clap-net. (A.B.) N.W. 

Bird's-eye. (l) Veronica CUmcBdrys, L., Germander Speedwell. N. & S.W. 

(2) Anagallis arvensis, L., Scarlet Pimpernel. S.W. 

T5irfl's-nest The seed-head of Daucus Carota, L., Wild Carrot. {Great 

r»im&ii«ot. N. &S.W. 

Estate, ch. 7.) 

Bird-seed. Seed-heads of Plantain. N. & S.W. 

Bird-starving. Bird-keeping. {Village Millers.) N.W. 

Birds' wedding-day. St. Valentine's Day. S.W. (Bishopstone.) 

Bishop- wort. Mentha aquatica, L., Hairy Mint. S.W. {Hants bord.) 

Biver To tremble, quiver, shiver as with a cold or fright. {Wilts Tales, 

's N. &S.W. 
p. 55.) 

, N W 

Bivery . Shivery, tremulous. -^^ • " • 

Black-boys. Flower-heads of Plantain. N.W. (Huish.) 

*Blackberry-token. Buhus casius, L., Dewberry {Encflish Plant 

Names, appx.) 

*Black Couch. A form of Agrostis that has small wiry blackish roots. (D.) 

Black Sally. Salia; Caprea, L., Great Round-leaved Sallow, from its dark 

bark. [Amateur Poacher, ch. 4.) N.W. 

♦Black Woodpecker. Pic«s wa>r, Great Spotted Woodpecker. {Birds 

of Wilts, p. 253.) 
Blare Blur. To shout or roar out loudly. N. & S.W, 

Blatch. Black, sooty. (A.B.) ^■^■ 

Bleachy. Brackish. S.W. (5o«.. bord.) 

Bleat Bleak, open, unsheltered. "He's out in the bleat," i.e., out m the 
open in bad weather. N.W. (Clyfie Pypard.) 

Bleedino- Heart. Cicira«M««CAem,L., the red Wallflower. (A.B.) N.W. 
*Blink. A spark, ray, or glimmer of light (A.B.) See Flunk. 
♦Blinking. ? Used by several Wilts agricultural writers. " A short bUnking 

heath is found on many parts [of the downs]." {Agric. of Wilts.) 
♦Blissey. A blaze. (A.H.) A.S. hhjssa, a torch. 

Blobbs, Water Blobs. Blossoms of Nui>har lutea, Sm., Yellow Water 

Lily (A.B.) ; probably from the swollen look of the buds. cf. Blub up. 

Bloodv Warrior. The dark-blossomed Wallflower, Cheiranthus Cheiri, 

L.(A.B.) N--^^-^- 

Bloom. Of the sun; to shine scorchingly. "How the sun do bloom^out 

atween the clouds ! " (B.) 



92 Coniriiutions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Blooming. Very sultry, as " 'Tis a main blooming day." S.W. (Salisbury.) 

Bloomy. Sultry. Bloomy-hot. Excessively sultry. (A.B.) S.W. 

Blooth, Blowth, Bloom or blossom. S.W. 

Blossom. A snowflake. " What girt blossoms 'twer to tbe snow isterday." 

" Snow-flakes are called ' blossoms.' The word snow-flake is unknown." 

{Village Miners) N. & S.W. 

Blow. Sheep and cattle "blow" themselves, or get "blowed," from over- 
eating when turned out into very heavy grass or clover, the fermentation 
of which often kills them on the spot, their bodies becoming terribly 
inflated. N. & S.W. 

Blowing. A blossom. (A.B.H.) N.W. 

Blub up. To puff or swell up. A man out of health and puffy about the 
face is said to look " ter'ble blubbed up." N.W. 

Blue Bottle. Sdlla nutans, Sm., Wild Hyacinth. S.W, 

Blue Buttons, (l) ScaMosa arvensis, L., Field Scabious. S.W. 

(2) S. Columbaria, L., Small Scabious. S.W. 

Blue Cat. One who is suspected of being an incendiary. " He has the name 
of a blue cat." See Lewis's Cat. S.W. (Salisbury.) 

Blue Eyes. Veronica ChamcBdrys, L., Germander Speedwell. N.W. 

Blue Goggles. Sdlla nutans, Sm., Wild Hyacinth, cf. GrejgleS 

or Greggles. s.w. 

Blunt. " A cold blunt," a spell of cold weather. See SnOW-blunt. N.W. 
Boar Stag. -^ tioar which, after having been employed for breeding pur- 
poses for a time, is castrated and set aside for fattening. (D.) cf. BuU 

Stag. N.W. 

Board. To scold. " She boarded me just about." S.W. 

Boat. Children cut apples and oranges into segments, which they sometimes 

call " pigs " or " boats." 
*Bobbant. Of a girl, romping, forward. (A.B.H.) N.W. 

Bob-grass. Bromus mollis, L. S.W. 

Bobbish. In good health. (A.B.) "Howbe'ee?" " Pretty bobbish." N.W. 

*Bochant. The same as Bobbant. (A.B.H.) 

BoistinS. The first milk given by a cow after calving. (A.B.) N.W- 

Bolt. In basket-making, a bundle of osiers 40 inches round. {Amateur 

Poacher, ch. 4.) 
Boltin, Boulting. A sheaf of five or ten " elms," prepared beforehand for 

thatching. " Elms " are usually made up on the spot, but are occasionally 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Bev. E. H. Goddard. 



93 



thus prepared at threshiBg-time, and tied up and laid aside till required. 

when they need only be damped, and are then ready for use. JN . W . 

Bombarrel Tit. Parus caudatus, the Long-tailed Titmouse. {Great^ 

Estate, ch. 2.) 
Boon Days. Certain days during winter on which farmers on the Savernake 

estate were formerly bound to haul timber for their landlord. 
BoSBell. Chrysanthemum segetum, L., Corn Marigold. (D.) Bozzell. 

(Flowering Plants of Wilts.) 
Bottle. The wooden keg. holding a gaUon or two, used for beer in harvest- 
time. {Wild Life, ch. 7.) ' ' 
Bottle-tit. JParus caudatus, L., the Long-tailed Titmouse. N.W. 
Bottom. A valley or hollow in the downs. N. & S.W. 
Bounceful. Masterful, domineering. See Pounceful. N.W. 
Bourne. A valley between the chalk hills, a river in such a valley, also ri^r 

and valley jointly. {D,) 
Bourne, in gardening, when marking out a row of anything with pegs you 
" bourne " them, or glance along them to see that they are la Ime. N.W. 
Boy's-love. Artemisia Abrotanum, L., Southernwood. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 
Brain-Stone. A kind of large round stone (Aubrey's F^/^.lf.S.) perhaps 
a lump of water-worn fossil coral, such as occasionally now bears this name 
among N. Wilts cottagers. 
Brave Hearty, in good health. (A.B.) 

Bread-and-Cheese. (D Linaria vulgaris, Mill.. Yeliow^'^o^aM^; 

(2) Fruit of Malva sylvestris, L., Common Mallow. S.W. 

(31 Young leaves and shoots of Cratcegus Oxyacantha, L., Hawthorn, 

eaten by children in spring. (English Plant Names.) S.W (Salisbury.) 

Bread-board. The earth-board of a plough. (D.) Broad-board m 

N. Wilts. 
Break. To tear. "She'll break her gowndagenthuctham." Yom brea/c^ 

bit of muslin, but tear a trace or a plate. • * 

Brevet about. To beat about, as a dog for game. (A.) N. . 

Bribe. To taunt, to bring things up against anyone. "What d'ye want to 

kip a-bribing I o' that vur P " ' ' 

Brit, Brittle out. (l) To mb grain out in the hand. W-W. 

(2) To drop out of the husk, as over-ripe grain. (D) N. . 

Brize. To press heavily on, or against, to crush down. A loaded waggon 

" brizes down " the road. 



94 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Broke-bellied. Ruptured. N.w. 

Brook-Sparrow. Salicaria phragmitis, the Sedge Warbler ; from one of 

its commonest notes resembling that of a sparrow. {Great Entate, oh. 7 ; 

Wild Life, ch..%.) N.W. 

Brow. (1) a^j- Brittle. (A.B.H) VrOW at Clyffe Pypard. N.W. 

*(2) n. A fragment (Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 109.) N.W. 

(Cherhill.) 
Brown. " A brown day," a gloomy day. (H.) N.W. 

Bruckle. (Generally with off or aioay.) To crumble away, as some kinds 

of stone when exposed to the weather ( Wilts Arcli. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 

109) ; to break off easily, as the dead leaves on a dry branch of fir. N.W. 
Bruckley. Brittle, crumbly, friable, not coherent. N. & S.W, 

Brush, " The brush of a tree," its branches or head. N.W. 

Bubby-head. CoWit* ^roizo, the Bullhead. N. & S.W. 

Buck. A "buck," or "book," of clothes, a large wash. N.W. 

Bucking. A quantity of clothes to be washed. (A.) N.W, 

BuUpoll, Bullpull. Aira cajirpifosa, L., the rough tufts of tussocky grass 

which grow in damp places in the fields, and have to be cut up with a heavy 

hoe. {Great Estate, ch. 2 ; Gamekeeper at Some, ch. 8.) N.W. 

Bull Stag. A bull which , having been superannuated as regards breeding 

purposes, is castrated and put to work, being stronger than an ordinary 

bullock. N.W., now almost obsolete. 

BulrUslieSc Caltha palustris, L., Marsh Mangold; from some nursery 

legend that. Moses was hidden among its large leaves. S.W., rarely. 

Bumble -berry. Fruit of Rosa canina, L., Dog-rose. N.W. 

Bunce. (l) '/*■ A blow. " Gie un a good bunce in the ribs." N.W. 

(2) V. To punch or strike. N.W, 

Bunched. Of oats or beans, planted in bunches instead of rows. (D.) N. 

&S.W. 
Bunny. A brick arch, or wooden bridge, covered with earth, across a " drawn " 

or carriage in a water-meadow, just wide enough to allow a hay- waggon to 

pass over. N.W. 

Bunt. (1) V. To push with the head, as a calf does its dam's udder (A.) ; 

to push or shove up. N.W. 

(2) n. A push or shove. N.W. 

(3) n. A short thick needle, as a " tailor's bunt." 

(4) Hence sometimes applied to a short thickset person. 

Bur. The sweetbread of a calf or lamb. (A.) N.W. 



il 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E, U. Goddard. 95 

*I3ur'. (1) A rabbit-burrow. (A.) 

(2) Any place of shelter, as the leeward side of a hedge. (A.) 
Burry. A rabbit burrow. N.W. 

Burl. " To burl potatoes," to rub off the grown-out shoots in spring. N.W. 
Burn. "To burn a pig," to singe the hair off the dead carcase. N. & S.W. 
*Burn-beak. (l) To reclaim new land by paring and burning the surface 
before cultivation, {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 12.) See B(3fclk. 

(2) To improve old arable land by treating it in a similar way. (Ibid, 
ch. 12.) Burn-beke. {Anhrefs Wilts MS.) 
Busoful. Foul-mouthed, abusive. N.W. 

Bush- (1) n. A heavy hurdle or gate, with its bara interlaced with brush- 
wood and thorns, which is drawn over pastures in spring. {Amateur 
Poacher, ch. 4.) N.W. 

(2) V. To bush-harrow a pasture. N.W. 

Butchers' Guinea-pigs. Woodlice. S.W. 

Butter-and-EggS. (l) Narcissus incomparahilis, Curt., Primrose 

Peerless. N.-& S.W. 

(2) Linaria vulgaris, Mill., Yellow Toadflax. N. & S.W. 

Buttercup. At Huish applied only to Ranuiiculus Ficaria, L., Lesser 
Celandine, all other varieties of Crowfoot being " Crazies " there. 

Buttons. Very young mushrooms. N. & S.W. 

Buttry. A cottage pantry (A.B.) ; now almost obsolete. N.W. 

Butt-shut, (1) To join iron without welding, by pressing the heated ends 
squarely together. {Village Miners.) See Shut. 

(2) Hence a glaringly inconsistent story or excuse is said " not to butt- 
shut." ( Village Miners.) 

*Cack-haaded, Cag-handed. Extremely awkward and unhandy. 
{Village Miiiers.) 

Caddie, (l) «• Dispute, noise (A.) ; seldom or never so used now. 

(2) n. Confusion, disorder, trouble. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

(3) V. To tease, annoy. (A.B.) N.W. 

(4) V. To hurry. " To caddie a horse," to drive him over-fast. N.W. 
Caddling. adj. Of weather, stormy, uncertain. N. & S.W. 
C&IL Cause, occasion. " You've no call to be so buseful." N. & S.W. 
*Callow-Wablin. An unfledged bird. (A.) 

Callus-stone. A sort of gritty earth, spread on a board for knife-sharpening. 
{Wats Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 109.) N.W. (Cherhill.) 



96 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary, 

*CaTn. Perverse, cross. "A's as cam and as obstinate as a inule." {Wilts 
Tales, p. 138. 

Cam-handed. Awkward. N.W. 

*CaniII10ck. Ononis arvensis, L., Eestharrow. (D.) 

Cammocky. Tainted, as cheese or milk when the cows have been feeding 

on cammock. S.W. 

Canary-seed. Seed-heads of Plantain. N. & S.W. 

Candle. " To strike a candle," to slide, as school-boys do, on the heel, so as 

to leave a white mark along the ice. S.W. 

Cank. To overcome (H.) ; perhaps a perversion of conquer. The winner 

"canks" his competitors in a race, and you "cank" a child when you give 

it more than it can eat. N.W- 

Canker. Fungus, toadstool. (A.B.) N.W- 

Canker-berries. Wild Rose hips. S.W. (Salisbury.) 

*Canker-rose. The mossy gall on the Dog-rose, formed by Cynips rosa ; 

often carried in the pocket as a charm against rheumatism. {Great Estate, 

ch. 4.) 

Carpet. To blow up, to scold; perhaps from the scene of the fault-finding 

being the parlour, not the bare-floored kitchen. "Measter carpeted I 

sheamvul s'marning." " I had my man John on the carpet just now and 

gave it him finely." N.W. 

Carriage. A water-course, a meadow-drain. (A.B.H.) N. & S.W. 

Carrier. A large water-course. [Wild Life, ch.. 20.) N. & S.W. 

Carry along. To prove the death of, to bring to the grave. " I be afeard 

whe'er that 'ere spittin' o' blood won't car'n along." N.W. 

Cart, " At cart," carrying or hauling, as " We be at wheat-cart [coal-cart, 

dung-cart, etc.] to-day." N.W. 

CaSS'n. Canst not. (A.) N.W. 

Cassocks. Couch-grass. S.W. [Som. bord.) 

Casulty. adj. Of weather, unsettled, broken. Casaltv. ( Wilts Arch. 

Mag., vol. xxii., p. 109.) N.W. 

Cat-Kidney. A game somewhat resembling cricket, played with a wooden 

"cat" instead of a ball. N.W. (Brinkworth) 

Catch. (1) Of water, to film over, to begin to freeze. {Bevis, ch. 40;; 

Wild Life, ch. 20.) Keach, Keatch, Ketch. (A.B.H.) N. & s.w, i 

(2) To grow thick, as melted fat when setting again. N. & S.W. 

* (3) " To catch and rouse." P " In the catch-meadows . . 



By G. E. Barinell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 



97 



it is necessary to make the most of the water by catching and rousing it as 
often as possible." {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 11.) 

* (4) The same as Catch-meadoW. {^id, ch. 12.) 
*Catch-laad, The arable portion of a common field, divided into equal parts, 

whoever ploughed first having the right to first choice of his share. (D.) 

♦Catch-meadow, Catch-work meadow, or Catch. A meadow on 

the slope of a hill, irrigated by a stream or spring, which has been turned so 

as to fall from one level to another through the carriages. {Agric. of 

Wilts, ch. 12.) 
Catching:, Catchy. Of weather, unsettled, showery. {Agric. of Wilts, 

ch.3.) N.&S.W. 

Caterpillar. A cockchafer. N.w. 

•Cat-gut. The ribs of the Plantain leaf ; so called by children when drawn 

out so as to look like fiddle- strings. {Great Estate, ch. 2.) 
Cat's-love. Garden Valerian, on which cats like to roll. S.W. 

Cat's-tail. i-yMwetew, Horse-tail. {Great Estate, ch.. 2.) N.W. 

Cave. (1) -n. The chafE of wheat and oats (D.) : in threshing, the broken 

bits of straw, etc. Cavin, Cavings, or Keavin in N. Wilts. 

* (2) V. To separate the broken straw from the grain. 
•Caving-rake. The rake used for separating cavings and grain on the 

threshing-floor. 

Caving (or Caffing) rudder, or rudderer. * d) The winnowing 

fan and tackle. (D.) 

(2) A coarse sieve used by carters to get the straw out of the horses' 
chaff. N.W. 

Cham. To chew. (A.B.) N.W. 

Chap. Of ground, to ci-ack apart with heat. N.W. 

Charm. "AH in a charm," all talking loud together. A.S. c;yrm, clamour 
(A.) : especially used of the singing of birds. " Thousands of starlings, the 
noise of whose calling to each other is indescribable— the country folk call 
it a ' charm,' meaning a noise made up of innumerable lesser sounds, each 
interfering with the other." {Wild Life, ch. 12.) N.&S.W. 

Chatter-mag, Chatter-pie. A chattering woman. N.W. 

Chawm, Chawn. A crack in the ground. (A.) N.W. 

Cheeses. Fruit of Malva sylvestris, L., Common Mallow. N.W. 

Cherky. Having a peculiar dry taste, as beans. {Village Miners.) N.W. 
Cherry-pie. Valeriana officinalis, L., All-heal, from its smell. S.W. 

Chevil (t Chevril) Goldfinch. A large variety of Goldfinch, with a 
white throat. {Birds of Wilts, p. 203.) N. 4 S.W. 

VOL. XXVI.— NO. LXXVI. ^ 



98 Contribtitions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

ClllD. " Potato-chibs," the grown- out shoots in spring. S.W. 

*Children of Israel, (l) A small garden variety of Campanula, from 
the profusion of its blossoms. {English Plant Mames.) 
(2) Virginian Stock, occasionally. 

Chilver, Chilver-lamb. A ewe-lamb. (A.) N.W. 

Chilver-hog. A ewe under two years old. (D.) N. & S.W. 

Chimney-sweepers. Luzula campestris, Willd., Field Woodrush. N.W. 
Chimp. (1) w. The grown-out shoot of a stored potato : also Chib. S.W. 
(2) V. To strip off the " chimps " before planting. S.W. 

Chip. The foreshoot of a plough. S.W. 

Chippies. Young onions grown from seed. S.W. 

Chisley. Without coherence, as the yolk of an over-boiled eg^, or a veiy diy 

cheese. S.W. 

Chism. To germinate, to bud. (A.B.) N.W. 

Chit. (I) «. The third swarm of bees from a hive. N.W. 

* (2) V. To bud or spring. (A.B.) 
Chitchat. JPyrus aucuparia, Gsertn., Mountain Ash. S.W. 

Chitterlings. Pigs' entrails when cleaned and boiled (A.B.) ; ChiddlenS 

(H.) N.W. 

Chivy. Fringilla coelebs, the Chaffinch. S.W. [Som. bord.) 

Choor. To go out as a charwoman (A.) ; Cheure, Chewree (H.) ; also 

«., in phrase " One good choor deserves another." (A.) Still in use. N.W. 

Chop. To exchange. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Chore. A narrow passage between houses {MS. Lansd.) ; apparently a 

form of Shord, q.v. 
Chuffey. Chubby. " What chuffey cheeks he've a got, to be sure ! " S.W. 
Chump. A block of wood (A.B.) ; chiefly applied to the short lengths into 

which crooked branches and logs are sawn for firewood. N. & S.W. 

Ciderkin, 'Kin. The washings after the best cider is made. N. & S.W, 
Clangy, Clengy, or Clungy, Of bad bread, or heavy ground, clingy, 

sticky. N.W, 

Claps. «• and v., clasp (A.) N. & S.W, 

Clattersome, Cluttersome. Of weather, gusty. S.W. {Hants bord.) 
Claut. C«Z^'/^ai:)a^M*^!H*, L., Marsh Marigold. (A.H.) N.W. 

Clavy, Clavy-tack. A mantelj^iece. (A.B.) N.W.,now almost obsolete. 
Clean. "A clean rabbit," one that has been caught in the nets, and is un- 
injured by shot or ferret. N. & S.W. 



9 



By G. E. Darlnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 99 

Cleat Cleet. (l)The little wedge which secures the head of axe or hammer. N.W. 

* (2) n. A patch. (A.B.) 

* (3) V. To mend with a patch. (A.B.) 

Cleaty. sticky, clammy ; applied to imperfectly fermented bread, or earth 
that will not work well in ploughing. N.W. 

Clim. To climb. (A.) A cat over-fond of investigating the contents of the 
larder shelves is a " clim-tack," or climb-shelf. N. & S.W. 

Clinclies. The muscles of the leg, just above the knee-joint. N. & S.W. 
Clinkerbell. An icicle. S.W. (5om. bord.) occasionally. 

Clitch. The groin. ^^^ 

elite. (1) n. " All in a elite," tangled, as a child's hair. N. & S.W. 

(2) V. To tangle. " How your hair do get clited ! " N. & S.W. 

elites, ClyteS. GaUum Aparine, L., Goosegrass. (A.) Usually pi., but 
Jefferies has sing, elite. {Wild Life, ch. 9.) N. & S.W. 

Clitty. Tangled, matted together. S.W. 

Clock. A Dandelion seed-head, because children play at telling the time of 
day by the number of puffs it takes to blow away all its down. N. & S.W. 
Cloo--Weed. Eeracleum Sphondylium, L., Cow-parsnip. N.W. 

Clot. A hard lump of dry cow-dung, left on the surface of a pasture. See 
CoW-clat. "On pasture farms they beat clots or pick up stones." 
(R. Jefferies, Letter to Times, November, 1872.) N.W. 

*ClottineSS. See Cleaty. "The pecuUar churlishness (provincially, 
'clottiness') of a great part of the lands of this district, arising perhaps 
from the cold nature of the sub-soil." Ugric of Wilts, ch. 7.) Clottish- 
neSS. {Agric. Survey.) 
Clout. A box on the ear, (A.B.) N.W. 

Clue. " A clue in the head, a knock on the head." {Ttllage Miners.) A box 
on the ear. cf. clow, Winchester College. N.W. 

*Clum. To handle clumsily. (A.B.) 
CluniberSOme. Awkward, clumsy. N.W. 

S W 
Cluttery. Showery and gusty. "•"' 

*ClyderS. Galium Apavine, L., Goosegrass. 
*Clyten, Clytenish. Unhealthy-looking. (A.B.) 
♦Coath. Sheep-rot. (D.) 

•Cob-nut. A game played by children with nuts. (A.B.) 
Cobbler's- knock. "To do the cobbler's knock," to slide on one foot, 
tapping the ice meanwhile with the other. S.W. 

H i^ 



100 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Cock's Egg. The small eggs sometimes first laid by pullets. N.W. 

*Cock's-neckling. " To come down cock's-neckling," to fall head fore- 
most. (H.) Obsolete. 
Cock's-nests. The nests so often built and deserted by the wren, without 

any apparent cause. N.W. 

Cock-shot. A cock-shy : used by boys about Marlborough and elsewhere. 

" I say, there's a skug [squirrel] — let's have a cock-shot at him with your 

squailer." 
*Cock-sqwoilm. Throwing at cocks at Shrovetide. (A.) See Squail. 

Obsolete. 
Codlins-and-cream. Ejnlobmm Mrsutum, L., Great Hairy Willow-herb ; 

fi'om its smell when crushed in the hand. c/. Sugar- Codlins. S.W, 
Colley. (1) A collar. Colley-maker, a saddler. N. & S.W. 

* (2) Soot from a pot or kettle. (A.B.) 
Colley-strawker. A milker or " cow-stroker." N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 
Colt's-tail. Akindof cloud said to portend rain. {Great Estate.ch.S.) N.W. 
Comb, Coom. The lower ledge of a window. (Kenuett's ParocA. ^w^ty.) 
Comb-and-Brush. Bipsacus sylvestris, L., Wild Teasel. S.W. 

Combe, Coombe. (l) The wooded side of a hill (D.) ; used occasionally 

in this sense in both Wilts and Dorset. 

(2) A narrow valley or hollow in a hillside. N. & S.W. 

*Coombe-bottom. a valley in a hillside. {Great Estate, ch. 4.) 

* (3) A narrow valley in the woodlands. {Gamekeeper at Home, ch. 1.) 
Come to land. Of intermittent springs, to rise to surface and begin to 

flow. {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 12.) S.W- M 

Comical. (1) Queer-tempered. " Her's a comical ooman." N.W. ^| 

(2) Out of health. " I've bin uncommon comical to-year." N.W. 

(3) Cracky. " He's sort o' comical in his head, bless 'ee." N.W. 
Conks, Conkers {i.e., conquerors.) (1) A boy's game, played with 

horse-chestnuts strung on cord, the players taking it in turn to strike at 

their opponent's conk, in order to crack and disable it. N.W. (Marlborough.) 

(2) Hence, the fruit oi^scidus hippocastan iim,li., Horse-chestnut. N . W. 

Coob. A hen-coop (H.) : invariably so pronounced. N. & S.W. 

Coom hedder. See Horses. 

Coop ! Coop ! The usual call to cows, etc., to come in. N. & S.W. 

*Cooted . Cut slanting, sloped off, as the ends of the upper part of an oblong 

bay-rick. (D.) 
Cord. "A cord of plocks," a pile of cleft wood, 8ft. long and 4ft. in girth 

and width. (D.) N.W. 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 101 

Corn-baulk. When a " land " has been accidentally passed over in sowing, 
the bare space is a " baulk," and is considered as a presage of misfortune. N.W. 

Corndrake. Crex pratensis, the Land Rail: almost invariably so called 
about Warminster and in some parts of N. Wilts. 

*Corn-ffrate. The Combrash formation. {Agric. of Wilts, p. 164.) 

Couch, Cooch. Couch-grass in general. N. & S.W. 

Black Couch, AgrosUs stolonifera (D.); White Couch, 
Triticum repens (D.) ; Couchy bent, Agrosfis stolonifera (D.) 
Knot Couch. Avetia elatior ? 

Count. To expect or think, " I don't count as he'll come." N.W. 

*Coventree. FiiM/'«w»jia»<o«a,L., Mealy Guelder-rose. (Aubrey.) Obs. 

Coward- adj. Pure: used of unskimmed milk. cf. " cowed milk," Isle of 
Wight. {Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 110.) N.W. (Cherhill.) 

Cow-clat. A pat of cowdung. (A.) N.W. 

*CoW-down. A cow-common. {Agric. Survey.) 

CowS-and-Calves. (l) Arum maculatum, L., Cuckoo-pint. S.W. 

n, (2) When a saw has alternately long and short teeth, they are known as 

H^ cows and calves respectively. N.W, 

^BUoWshard. Cow-clat. N.W. 

' *CoWshorne. Cow-clats. " The poore people gather the cowshorne in the 
meadows." {Jackson's Aubrey, p. 192.) 

•Crab. To abuse. {Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 110.) N.W. (Cherhill.) 

*Crap. Assurance. (H.) There is probably some mistake here. 

Craw. The crop of a bird ; hence, the bosom. (A.) N.W. 

Crazy, Craisey, Craizey. The Buttercup. (A.B.H.) Buttercups in 
general, Ranunculus acris, H. bulbosus, H. repens, and often ij. Ficaria 
also, but at Huish never applied to the last-named. N. & S.W. 

Crazy Bets. The general name all over Wilts for CaWia palustris, L., 
Marsh Marigold ; apparently always pi. in form. Crazy BettieS 
{Great Estate, ch. 2) and Crazy BetseyS are occasionally used. cf. 
" Pretty Bets," Oxf. and Nhamf., for Eed Spur Valerian and London Pride, 
and " Sweet Betsey," Kent, for the former. In Glouc. Marsh Marigold is 
merely a Crazy. N. &, S.W. 

Creed. Lemna minor, L., Duckweed. {Great Estate, ch. 2.) N.W. 

*Creeny. Small. (A.B.H.) 

*Cresset, Cressil. Scrophularia aquatica, L., Water Figwort. {G-rfat 
Estate, ch. 4.) 



103 Contributions totvards a Willsh'ire Glossary. 

Cr6W. The tang of a scjthe-blade, fastening into the pole-ring. N.W. 

Cribble about. To creep about as old people do. N.W. 

Cribbles. Onions grown from bulbs. S.W. [Eom. bord). 

Crick crack. People who try to talk fine language, and cannot, are said to 
use "crick crack " words. N.W. 

Crock. A pot ; especially an earthen one. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

CrOUpy down. To crouch down as children do when playing hide-and- 
seek. N. & S.W. 

Crow-bells (pi. used as sing). Scilla nutans, Sm., Wild Hyacinth. S.W. 
This is probably the flower referred to in Aubrey's Wilts MS., p. 126, under 
the same name. 

Crow-flower. Scilla nutans, Sm., Wild Hyacinth. S.W. [Hants bord.) 

Crow-hearted. Young cabbage and broccoli plants that have lost their eye 
or centre are said to be "crow-hearted." N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Crowdy. A kind of apple turnover. Croud. (H.) N.W. 

*CrOWpeck. Scandix Pecten, L., Shepherd's-needle. (D.) S.W. 

Crump. To crunch or munch. N.W- 

Cubby-liole. Asnug corner, a sheltered place. (A.) Also Cooby.N. & S.W. 

Cuckoo. About Salisbury Saxifraga granulata is known as Dry (or 

Dryland) Cuckoo, and Cardamine^ratetisis&s Water Cuckoo, 

from their respective habitats. 

Cuckoo-flower, (l) Cardamine2>7'atensis,L., Lady's Smock. N. & S.W. 

(2) Anemone nemorosa, L., Wood Anemone. S.W. 

Cuckoo fool. Yunx torqitilla, the Wi7neck. N.W. (Broadtown.) 

*Cuckoo's bread-and-cheese. The young shoots of the Hawthorn 

{Great Estate, ch. 3.) N.W. 

Cuddickwaay! See Horses. 

Cue. An ox-shoe. (A.) N.W. 

Cull, or Tom Cull. Cottus gohio, the Bullhead. (A.B.) 

Curly-buttons. Woodlice. S.W. 

Curly-cob. The Bullhead, Co^^a* ^o J *o. S.W. (Bishopstone.) 

♦Curry-pig. A sucking pig. (H.) Also Cure-plg. 

Cushion-pink. Armeria marifima, Willd., Thrift ; the garden variety. N.W. 
*Cusnation. An expletive. (A.B.) 

Cutty. Troglodytes vulgaris, the Wren. S.W. 

Dab. An expert at anything ; sometimes used ironically, as " He's a perfect 






ll 



By G. E. BaHncll and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 103 

dab at gardening," he knows nothing whatever about it. Dabster, 
a proficient. (A.) S.W. 

Daddick, Daddock. Rotten wood. (A.B.) N.w. 

Daddicky. Of wood, decayed, rotten. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

DafFy. The usual name in N.W. for the wild Daffodil. 

Daglet. An icicle. (A.H.) {Village Miners.) N.W. 

Dain. Noisome effluvia. (A.B.H.) N.W. 

Dainty. Evil-smelling. " That there meat's ter'ble dainty." N.W. 

Dall. An expletive. (Wilts Tales, p. 50.) N.W. 

Dandy-goslings, (l) Ore/m wia^cK/a, L., Early Purple Orchis. N.W. 
(2) O. Morio, L., Green-winged Meadow Orchis. Dandy-gOslien 
at Salisbury. {English Plant Names.) S.W. 

*DanG's Blood. Samlucus Ebulus, L., Dwarf Elder. (Aubrey's Wilts 

MS.) 

Dap on . To pounce down on, to take unawares. N. & S.W. 

Daps. (1) " He's the daps of his father," the very image of him. S.W. 

(2) " He got the daps of his feyther," he has the same tricks as his 

father. N.W. 

Dawk J Daak. To stab and tear together,- as a cat's claw does. {Village 

Miners.) (H.) N.W. 

Dead hedge. A wattled fence. {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 10.) N.W. 

Dead year. Often used with possessive pronoun, as " his dead year," the 

year immediately following his death. {Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 

111.) A widow should not marry again " afore the dead year's up." N.W. 

Dead pen. a sheep pen is occasionally so called in S. Wilts. 

Deedy. (l) industrious, busy, as " He's a deedy man." N.W. 

(2) Intent, as "What bist looking so deedy at ? " N.W. 

*Densher. To prepare down-land for cultivation by paring and burning 

the turf. (Aubrey's Wilts MS.). See Beak. 

Desight. An unsightly object. (H.) N.W. 

Devil-daisy. Matricaria Parthenium, L., Common Feverfew, and An. 

themis cotiila, L., Stinking Camomile, from their daisy-like flowers and 

unpleasant odour. fe.W. 

Devil-sereecher. Cyi^selus apus, the Common Swift. N. & S.W. 

Devil-in-a-hedce. Nigella damasceyia. Love in a mist. N.W. 

Devil's-ring. A kind of hairy caterpillar which curls up on being touched. 

{Wild Life, ch. 17.) N.W. 



104- Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Dew-beater. A man with large feet. (A.) N.W. 

Dew-bit. A very early breakfast. (A.) N. & S.W. 

DeWSiers. The valves of a pig's heart (A..B) ; a corruption of O.^.jusier. 

Deyhus, Da'us, Day'uS. A dairy, a cheese-room. (A.B.) N.W. 

Dibs. A game played by boys with sheep's dibs or knuckle-bones. N.W. 

Dicker, (l) To bedeck. " Gels be alius a dickerin' therselves up nowa- 
days." N.W. (Huish.) 
(2) " As thick as they can dicker," very intimate. S.W. (Amesbury.) 

Dicky. (1) Of vegetables, decayed ; (2) of persons, weakly or in ill-health 
{Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 110.) cf. Daddicky. N.W. 

Diedapper. Podieeps minor, the Dabchick ; Divedapper in Shakespeare. 
In common use at Salisbury until quite recently. Before the streams 
running through the city were covered over it was an every-day occurrence 
to see a dripping urchin making for home, with an escort of friends at his 
heels yelling " Diedapper, Diedapper, Diedapper, die ! " S.W. 

Dill, Dill Duck, a young duck. Dill Dill ! is the call to ducks. N. & S.W. 

Diller. The shaft-horse. (H.) See Thiller. N.W. 

Dillcup. Banunculus Ficaria, L., Lesser Celandine, from its colour. See 

Dill. S.W. 

Dimmets. Dusk, twilight. S.W, 

Dishabille. A labourer's working-clothes. The word is :not used in Wilts 

in its ordinary sense, but a common excuse for not appearing at Church is 

that a man has nothing but his dishabille to wear. N.W. 

Dishwasher, (l) Jfo^!ac^7/a/at>a, the Yellow Wagtail. (A.B.) N.&S.W. 

(2) M. Yarrellii, the Pied Wagtail. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

DOc " To do for anyone," to manage or keep house for him. N. & S.W. 

*Dock. Malva sylvestris, L., Common Mallow. (A.) Now restricted to 

JRumex. 
Dodder, Dudder, Duther. (l) v. To bewilder, to deafen with noise. 

(A.B.) " I be vinny doddered, they children do yop so." N. & S.W. 

(2) n. " All in a dodder." quite bewildered. (H.) N. & S.W. 

(3) V. To deaden anything, as pain. " It sort o' dudders the pain." 

N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 
*Doddle-graSS. JBrisa media, L., QuakingGrass. {English Plant Names.) 
Doddler. " A bit of a doddler," a small boy. N. & S.W. 

Dog-daisy. Large daisy-like white flowers, such as Chrysanthemum leu- 
can //icmum, L., Ox-eye Daisy. N. & S.W. 
Dogged. (2 syl.j Very, excessively, as dogged cute. (A.) N.W, 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 105 

*Dog out. To drive out anything, as a sheep out of a quagmire, by setting 

the dog furiously at it. {Great Estate, ch. 8.) 
Dog's -mouth. ii«ana wM^'^ar**, Mill., Yellow Toadflax. N.W. 

*DoiIl. A door case (H.) : probably a mistake for Dorn or Doom. 
•DonningS. Clothes. (A.B.) 

*Dooke. Do ye, will ye. " Be quiet, dooke." (H.) Obsolete. 

Door Drapper. The piece of wood fastened to the bottom of cottage doors 

to shoot the water off the " Dreshol" (threshold). N.W. 

*Doorn. A door frame. (H.) 

Double-mound. A double hedge. N.W. 

Doublets. Twin lambs. {Annals of Agric.) N.W. 

Dough-fig. The same as Lem-feg. A Turkey Fig. N.W. 

Douse. To lower anything, as a sail. N.W. 

Dout. To put out, as " Dout the candle" (A.B.) : to smother or extinguish 

fire by beating. ( Village Miners.) N. & S. W. 

Dowl. The fine down of a bird. {Bevis, ch. 7.) N.W. 

Down-along. "He lives down-along," a little way down the street, as 

opposed to " up-along." S.W. 

Down-arg. To contradict in an overbearing manner. (A.B.) N.W. 

Down-hearten. To feel disheartened. "A be vurry bad, but I don't 

down-hearten about un." N.W. 

Dowse. A blow (A.B.), as " a dowse in the chops." N.W. 

DoWSt. Chaff or cave. Dust, (D.) DoWSt-COOb. The chaff cup- 
board in a stable. N. & S.W. 
Drag. A harrow. (D.) N.W. 
Drail. (1) In a plough, the iron bow from which the traces draw, and by 

which the furrow is set. (D.) N.W. 

(2) Crex pratensis, the Landrail. N.W. 

*Dramted. Of dirt, ingrained. (H.) 

Drang, Drangway, Drung. (l) A nai-row lane, Drun. (H.) S.W. 

(2) A narrow passage between walls or houses. Drun. (H.) S.W. 

Drashel, Dreshol, etc. A flail (D.) " a pair o' dreshols." N.W. 

Draughts. Hazel-rods selected for hurdle -making. (D.) A " draught " is 

not a rod, but a bundle of long wood suitable for hurdles or pea-sticks, bound 

with a single withe. • N.W. 

Draw. (1) A squirrel's dray or nest. N.W. (Mai-lborough.) 

(2) Rarely applied to a large nest, as a hawk's. N.W. (Marlborough.) 



106 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Drawn. In a water-meadow, the large open main dmin which carries the 

water back to the river, after it has passed through the various carriages 

and trenches. S.W. 

In everyday use about Salisbury, and along the Avon and Wiley from 

Downton to Codfoiil, but rarely heard elsewhere. 

Dredge, Drodge. Barley and oats grown together. S.W. 

Dribs-and- Drabs. Odds and ends. "All in dribs and drabs," all in 
tatters. N. & S.W. 

Drift. A row of felled underwood. (D.) N.W. 

Drive. Of manure, to stimulate growth. " Thur, that'll drive th' rhubub, 
Jknaws!" N. & S.W. 

DrOck. (2) A short drain under a roadway. N. & S.W. 

* (2) A flat stone laid as a bridge across a ditch. (R. JefEeries.) 

* (3) A water-course (H.), probably a mistake. 

* (4) Used in compounds such as Well-drock, windlass. 
Droppinff- "A- dropping summer," one when there is a shower every two 

or three days. {Wild Life, ch. 2.) N.W. 

Drove. A green farm-lane. N. & S.W. 

Drown. To turn the water over the meadows. S.W. 

Drowner. The man who manages the supply of water. S.W. 

*Drowninff-bridffe. A water-meadow sluice-gate. (A.B.H.) 
DrOWninff-Carriage. A large water-course for drowning a meadow. S.W. 
Drug. (1) "To drug timber," to draw it out of the woods under a pair of 

wheels. (D.) N.W. 

(2j " To drug a wheel," to put on some kind of drag or chain. N.W. 

*Druid's-hair. Long moss, (ft.) 

Drunge. A crowd or crush of people. (H.) N.W. 

Drunkards. Flowers of C«Zf7<a ^ai'MsM'*, L., Marsh Marigold ; probably 
from the way in which they suck up water when placed in a vase. The 
reason assigned by children for the name is that if you look long at them 
you will be sure to take to drink. S.W. [Som. bord.) 

Dry Cuckoo, or Dryland Cuckoo. Saxifraga granulata,li.,yih.\ie 
Meadow Saxifrage. S.W. 

Dryth. Dryness. N.W. 

Dub. To pelt with stones. "Just dub that apple down out of the tree, will 
'ee?" S.W. 

Dubbed. Blunt, pointless. (A.B.) 

■'^Dubbing. "A dubbin' o' drenk," a pint of beer. (A.B.H.) 



Bi/ G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. E. Goddard. 107 



N.W. 



Dubby. Oily. 

Duck's frost. A very slight white frost. (Gamekeeper at Rome,ch.7.) N.W. 
Dudo-e. (1) A bunclk- of anything used to stop a hole. N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 
* (2) " Peg the dudge," tap the barrel. (A.B.H.) 

Dumble. stupid, dull (A.B.H.) ; also Dorael, Dummel, etc. N.W. 
Dumbledore, or Dumble. The Humble-bee. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Dump. (1) n. "A treacle dump," a kind of coarse sweetmeat. S.W. 

(2) V. To blunt, as " I've dumped my scythe agaiust a stone." N.W. 

Dunch. (1) Deaf (A.B.) ; now rarely so used. N. & S.W. 

(2) Stupid, heavy : now the common use. " The wapses gets dunch " in 
late autumn. N. & S.W. 

(3) Of bread, heavy. (Wild Life, ch. 7.) N. & S.W. 
Dunchy is fi-equently used in S. Wilts instead of Dunch, but usually 

means deaf. 
Duncll-dmiipling. A hard-boiled flour-and-water dumpling. (A.B.) N.W. 
Dunch-nettle, Dunse-nettle. Lamirim purpureum, L., Red Dead- 
nettle. 
Dung-pot. A dung-cart (D.) ; rarely Dum-put. See Pot. N. & S.W. 
*Dup. "To dup the door," to open it. {Lansd. MS.) Obsolete. 

Ea- grass. Aftergrass (D.) ; Lammas grass as well as aftermath. S.W. 

*Edo-e-gTOWed. Of barley, both growing and ripening irregularly. (D.) 
Effet, Evet. Lissotrlton punciatus, the Newt. (A.) N. & S.W. 

EggS-and-BaCOn. Linana vulgaris, Mill., Yellow Toadflax. N.W. 

*Elet- Fuel. (H.) Olllt. (Aubrey's Wilts MS.) N.W., obsolete. 

Elm Helm, or Yelm. (l.) v. To make up "elms." {Wild Life, 
ch.6.) N.&S.W. 

(2) n. (Almost invariably pi., "elms" being the usual form.) Small 
bundles or handfuls of threshed straw, damped and laid out straight for the 
thatcher's use. See Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 111. According to 
Prof. Skeat yelm, seldom now used in Wilts, is the correct form, and it is 
not connected with haulm, but from A.S. gilm, a handful. N. & S.W. 

Eltrot. Eeracleum Sphondylium, L., Cow-parsnip. S.W. 

Emmet. An Ant. "Ant" is never used in Wilts. N.W. 

En. {\) pi. termination, za Housen, houses; Hjpsen, rose-berries ; 
Keyn, keys; etc. N.&S.W. 

(2) adj. term., as Hamen, made of horn ; Stwonen, of stone ; 
Elmin, of elm wood, etc. " Boilghten bread," baker's bread, as 



108 Contributions towards a Wiltsliire Glossary. 

opposed to home-made. " A uil'ten floor," a floor made of earth, beaten 

hard. " A tinnin pot." " A glassen cup." N. & s.w. 

*English Parrot. Ficus viridis, the Green Woodpecker. [Birds of 

Wilts, p. 251.) S.W. (Salishuiy.) 

Ether, Edder. The top-band of a fence, the wands of hazel, etc., woven 

along the top of a " dead hedge," or wattled fence, to keep it compact. 

(A.B.) A " stake and ether " fence. N.W. 

Ex, pi. Exes. An axle. N. & S.W, 

Fj at the beginning of a word, is frequently sounded as v, as fall, vail ; flick, 

vlich. 
Faggotj Fakket. (l) A woman of bad character is " a nasty stinking 

faggot." Often used in a milder sense, as " You young faggot ! [you bad 

girl] what be slapping the baby for P " N. & S.W. 

(2) A rissole of chopped pig's-liver and seasoning, covered with 

"flare" : also Bake-faggOt. N. & S.W. 

Fall down. Of ai-able land, to be allowed to relapse of itself into pasture- 

{Great Estate, ch. 1.) N.W. 

Fancy nian. A mamed woman's lover. N.W. 

*Fang. To strangle, to bind a wounded limb so tightly as to stop the flow of 

blood. (A.B.H.) 
* Fardingale. A quai-ter of an acre. {Lansd. MS.) Obsolete, 

Farewell Summer. The Michaelmas Daisy. N. & S.W. 

Fashion. The farcey. (A.) N.W. 

Featish. Fair, tolerable. (A.B.) Used of health, crops, etc. N.W. 

FesS. Of animals, bad-tempered, fierce. A cat with its back up looks " ter'ble 

fess." N. & S.W. 

Fevertory. FumaHa, Fumitory, from which a cosmetic for removing 

freckles used to be distilled. S.W. 

" If you wish to be pure and holy. 
Wash your face with fevertory." — Local Rhyme. 

Few. "A goodish few," or "a main few," a considerable quantity or num- 
ber. N. & S.W. 

*Field. The space, or bay, between beam and beam in a bam, as "a bam 
of four fields." (D.) 

Figged, Figgedy, Figgetty, Figgy, Made with a few " figs," or 
raisins, as " viggy pudden." N. & S.W. 

Fighting-cocks. Plantago media, L., and other Plantains, Children 
" fight " them, head against head. N.W. 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. H. Qoddard. 109 

Filtry • Rubbish. " There's a lot of filtry about this house." N.W. 

Fine. Of potatoes, very small. N.W. 

•Fire-deal. A good deal. (H.) 

Firk. (1) To worry mentally, to be anxious, as " Don't firk so," or " Don't 

firk yourself." N.W. (Marlborough.) 

(2) To be officiously busy or inquisitive, as " I can't abear that there 

chap a-comin' firkin' about here." N.W. 

*Fitteil. A pretence. (A.B.) 

Flag. The blade of wheat. {Great Estate, ch.. I.) N.W. 

Flake. A frame, barred with ash or willow spava, somewhat resembling a 

light gate, used as a hurdle where extra strength is needed. {Bevis, ch. 12 ; 

Wild Life, ch. 4.) N.W. 

Flare, (l) The flick, or internal fat of a pig, before it is melted down to make 

lard. 
(2) The caul, or thin skin of the intestines of animals, used for covering 

" bake-faggots," etc. N. & S. W. 

Flews. A sluice is occasionally so called. See FloWSe. S.W. 

Flewy. Of a horse, troubled with looseness. " He's what we calls a flewy 

'oss, can't kip nothing in 'im." of. North of Eng. JFlewish, morally or 

physically weak. 
Flick, Fleck. The internal fat of a pig. (A.B.) N.W. 

Flig-me-jig'. A girl of doubtful character. "She's a reg'lar flig-me-jig." 
Flirk, To flip anything about (H.), as a duster in flicking a speck of dust off 

a table. {Village Miners.) N.W. 

•Flitch. Pert, lively, officious. (A.B.H.) 

Flitters. Pieces. A cup falls, and is broken " aal to vlitters." N.W. 

•Floating or Flowing meadow. A meadow laid up in ridges with 

water-carriages on each ridge and drains between. (D.) A lowland meadow 

watered from a river, as opposed to catch-meadow. {^Annals of Agric.) 
Flop-a-dock. Digitalis purpurea, L., Foxglove. S.W. (iZa»j^5 bord.) 

Flowse. (1) V. act. You " fiowse," or splash, the water over you in a bath. 

N. & S.W. 

(2) V. neut. Water is said to be " flowsiug down " when mshing very 
strongly through amill hatch. A horse likes to " flowse about " in a pond. S.W. 

(3) n. The rush of water through a hatch. S.W. 

(4) 11. Occasionally also applied to the narrow walled channel between 
hatch gate and pool below. S.W. 

Flump. " To come down flump," to fall heavily (A.B.) ; also used alone as a 
verb, as " she vlumped down in thic chair." N. & S.W. 



110 Coninhutions towards a Will shire Glossary. 

Flunk. A spark of fire ; probably a form of Blink, q.v. S.W. 

Flush. "^ (1) n. Of grass, a strong and abundant growth. {Agric of Wilts, 
ch. 12.) 

(2) adj. Of young birds, fledged. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

(3) adj. Of grass, etc., luxuriant. N.W. 
Flustrated. (l) Taken aback, flustered. {Wilts Tales, p. 119.) N.W. 

(2) Tipsy. N.W. 

Fodder. A labourer "fodders" his boots— stufEs soft hay into them to fill 
up, when they are too large for him. ( Village Miners.) 

J^ Ogg^er. A man who attends to the cows and takes them their fodder. {My 
Old Village, etc.) A groom or man-servant (H.), the duties of groom and 
fogger being usually discharged by the same man on farms about Marl- 
borough. N. & S.W. 

Fold-shore. A stake pitched to support a hurdle. (D.H.) S.W. 

Follow or Follow on. To continue. " If you do want a good crop, you 
vansi follow on a hoeing o' the ground ; but you can't do no hoeing so long 
as it dio follow raining." {Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 111.) N.W. 

*Foot-COck. A small cock of hay. (D.) 

FootV- Paltry (A.B.), as a present not so large as was expected {Village 

M'mers.) N.W. 

For. Often affixed to the verbs say and think. " 'Teant the same as you said 

for" ; "I beant as old as you thinks for." 
Fore feed, Vorfced. To turn cattle out in spring into a pasture which is 

afterwards to be laid up for hay. N.W. 

Foreright, Vorright. (l) Headstrong, self-willed. " He be so vorright 

there's no telling he anything." N. & S.E.W. 

(2) Just opposite. " Vorright thuck shard." N.W. 

Fork. The apparatus used by thatchers for carrying the elms up to the 

roof. N.W. 

Forester, (l) A New Forest horse-fly. S.W. 

(2) Any very tall thistle growing among underwood. N.W. (Marlborough.) 

*Fossel, Fold-sail. A fold-shore. (D.) See Sails. 

Frame. A skeleton. " Her's nothing in the world but a frame." N.W. 

*Frea, Fry. To make a brushwood drain. (D.) 

Freglam. Odds and ends of cold vegetables, fried up with a little bacon to 

give a relish. N.W., obsolete. 

Fresh liquor. Unsalted hog's-fat. (A.) N.W. 

Frickle, Friggle. To potter about at little jobs, such as an old man can 



i 



By O. E. Varlnell and the Bev. E. H. Goddard. Ill 

do. " I bain't up to a day's work now ; I can't do nothing but frickle about 

in my garden." N.W. 

(2) Sometimes applied to mere fiddling little jobs. 
Fricklino" Friffflino*. (l) Tiresome, involving much minute attention 

or labour. N.W. 

Friggle. A worrying little piece of work. " I be so caddled wi' aal these j-er 

friggles, I caan't hardly vind time vor a bit o' vittles." N.W. (Hui.sh.) 

Frith. (1) n. " Quick," or young whitethorn for planting hedges. N.W. 

* (2) n. Thorns or brush underwood. (D.) 

* (3) V. To make a brushwood drain. (D.) 

Froar. Frozen (A.B.) ; usually Vroar or Vroi ii N. Wilts. 

Frog-dubbing. Boys throw a frog into a shallow pool, and then "dub " or 
pelt it, as it tries to escape. S.W. 

Frout. Of animals, to take fright. " My horse frouted and run away." S.W. 

Frura, Froom. Of vegetables, grass, etc., fresh and juicy (A.B.) ; strong- 
growing or rank. N.W. 

*Fry. (1) w. A bnashwood drain. (H.) 

(2) V. To make a brushwood drain. (D.) 

Fur up. Water-pipes, kettles, etc., when coated inside with " rock," or the 
calcareous sediment of hard water, are said to "fur up," or to be "furred 
up." N. & S.W. 

*Furze-hawker. Saxicola cenanthe, the Wheatear. N.W. 

*Furze Robin. Saxicola ruMcola, the Stonechat. {Birds of Wilts, 
p. 150.) N.W. (Sutton Benger.) 

Fuzz-ball. I/ycoperdon Bovista, L., PufEball. N.W. 

Gaa cot! See Horses. 

Gaam. To smear or bedaub with anything sticky. GraamZG {Village 

Miners). N.W. 

Gaamy. Daubed with grease, etc. In Hal. *' Gaam, adj. sticky. 

clammy," is apparently an error, gaamy being probably intended. N.W. 
Gaapsey. n. a sight to be sta,red at. See Gapps. N.W. 

Gabborn. Of rooms or houses, comfortless, bare. (B.) GabbGm (A.) 

and Gabern {Ch-eat Estate, ch. 4). N.W. 

*Gage-ring. An engagement ring, {Great Estate, ch. 10.) N.W. 

Galley -bagger. A scarecrow. S.W. 

Galley-crow. A scarecrow. N.W. 

Gallivant. To be gadding about on a spree with a companion of the opposite 

sex : to run after the girls, or "chaps," as the case may be. N. & S.W. 



112 Contributions towards a WiltsJiire Glossary. 

Gallows, (pronounced Gallus). * (I) A pair of braces. 

(2) " Gallus dear," very expensive. (G7^eai Estate, oh. 4.) N. & S.W. 
Gallows-gate, a light gate, consisting only of a hinged style, top-rail, and 

one stmt. N.W. 

*Gally, Gallow. To frighten or terrify. (A.B.H.) Gallow {Lansd. MS.). 

Gam. A sticky mass, as " all in a gam." S.W. 

In S. Wilts the a in this word and its derivations is usually short, while 

in N, Wilts it is broad in sound. 
Gambrel, The piece of wood or iron used by butchers for extending or 

hanging a carcase. (A.) N.W. 

Gammer, a woodlouse. S.W. 

Gammet, Gamut, (l) n. Fun, frolicsome tricks. "You be vull o' 

gamuts." N. W. 

(2) V. To frolic, to play the fool. N.W. 

Gammotty, Gammutty. (l) Frolicsome, larky. N.W. 

(2) Of cheese, ill-flavoured. N.W. 

Gammy, (i) sticky. s.w. 

(2) Lame, crippled. N. & S.W. 

GandigOslingS. Orchis mascula, L., Early Pui-ple Orchis. N.W. 

Gannick. To lark about, to play the fool. S.W. (Wai-minster). 

Gapps, Gaapsey. To gape or stare at anything. "Thee'st alius a 

gaapsin about." N.W. 

Gate. Excitement, "taking." " Her wur in a vine gate wi't." N.W, 

Gauge-brick. A brick which shows by its change of colour when the 

oven is hot enough for baking. {Great Estate, oh. 8.) cf. Warnmg- 

stone. N.W, 

Gawney. a simpleton. (A.H.) N.W. 

Gay. Of wheat, rank in the blade. (D.) N.W. 

Gee, Jee. To agree, to work well together. (A.B.) 

GibbleS. Onions grown from bulbs, rf. CllippleS, N. & S.W. 

G ilcup. Buttercups in general ; occasionally restricted to It, Ficaria. S.W. 
*Gill. A low four-wheeled timber carriage (Cycl. of Agric.) 

Gix, Gicksey, etc. See Kecks. 

Glory-hole. A place for rubbish or odds and ends, as a housemaid's cup- 
board, or a lumber room. N.W. 

*GloX. The peculiar sound of liquids against the side of the barrel when 
shaken. (A.B.H.) 

Glutch. To swallow. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 



By O. K Bartnell and the Eev. E. H. Goddard. 113 

GrOat-weed. Polygonum Convolvulus, L., Black Bindweed. N.W. 

*Goche. A pitcher. (H.) Probably a mistake, as Morton gives ^oicA under 

Norfolk. 
Gog, Goggmire. A swamp or quagmire, c/"- Quavin-gOg. "I be 

ail in a goggmire," in a regular fix or dilemma. N.W. 

Goggle. (1) n. A snail-shell, of. E. COCkle (Skeat.) N.W. 

(2) V. "To go goggling," to collect snail-shells. (/Sj)W«^it<^e,p.89.)IJ.W". 

(3) V. To shake or tremble, as a table with one leg shorter than the 
others. N. &S.W. 

Goggly. Unsteady, shaky. N. & S.W. 

Goggles. A disease in sheep. {Affrie. of Wilts, ch. 14.) N.W. 

Golden Chain, (l) Laburnum, the general name. N. & S.W. 

(2) Zatkyrus prafensis, L., Meaiow Yetchling. S.W. (Salisbury.) 

Goldloek. Sinapis arvensis, L., Charlock. S.W. (Zeals.) 

Good Neighbourhood. * (l) Chenopodmm BonuS'Senricus, L., 

Good King Henry. N.W. (Devizes.) 

(2) Centranthus ruber, DC, Red Spur Valerian. {English Plant 

Names.) N.W. (Devizes.) 

Jefferies {Village Miners) speaks of a weed called Good Neighbour, 

but does not identify it. 

Gooding Day. St. Thomas' Day, when children go "gooding," or asking 

for Christmas boxes. N.W. 

GoOSegOg. A green gooseberry. N. & S.W. 

Goosey-ganders. Orchis mascula, L-, Early Purple Orchis. N.W. 

*Gore. A triangular piece of ground. (D.) 

Goslings. Orchis mascula, L., Early Purple Orchis. N.W. 

Goss. Ononis arvensis,!,., Restharrow. Gorse, Ulex, is always " Fuzz." N.W. 
Gossiping. A christening. N.W., obsolete. 

*Gotfer. An old man. (H.) Perhaps Gaffer is here intended. 

Grab-hook. A kind of grapnel used for recovering lost buckets from a 
well. 

Graft. (1) A draining spade. (2) The depth of earth dug therewith. N.W. 

Grained. Dirty (A.H.) ; Grainted (B.), the latter being a mispronunci- 
ation. 

Grains. The tines of a gardening fork, as " a four-grained prong." N. & S.W. 

Gramfer. Grandfather. (A.B.) Granfer and Gramp are also used. N.W. 

Grammer. Grandmother. (A.B.) N.W. Becoming obsolete. 

TOL. XXVI. — KG. LXXVI. I 



114 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

0"ranilIiered in. Of dirt, so grained in, that it is almost impossible to wash 
itofe. Grammered. Begrimed. (H.) N.W. 

*Grrampha-Griddle-Goosey-Gander. OrcJds mascula, L., Early 

Purple Orchis. {Sarum Dioc. Gazette.) S.W. (Zeals.) 

*Granfer-gOslingS. Orchis maculata, L., Spotted Orchis. [Village 

Miners.) 
Granny (or Granny's) Nightcap. (l) Anemone nemorosa, L., 

Wood Anemone. S.W. (Salisbury.) 

(2) Aquilegia vulgaris, L., Common Columbine. N.W. (Huish.) 

(3) Convolvulus sepium, L., Great Bindweed. N.W. 

(4) O. arvensis, L., Field Bindweed. N.W. 

*Grate. E^rth. (d.) 

*Grate-board. The mould-board of a plough. (D.) 
•Gratings. The right of feed in the stubble. (D.) See Gretton. 
*Gray Woodpecker. Picus major, the Great Spotted Woodpecker. (5t>(^s 

of Wilts, p. 253.) 
Greybeard. Clematis Vitalha in seed. N.W. 

Greggles, or Grej^gles. Scilla nutans, Sm., Wild Hyacinth. S.W. 

*Gretton. stubble. (Aubrey's Wilts MS.) 
Griggles. Small worthless apples remaining on the tree after the crop has 

been gathered in. N.W. 

Griggling. Knocking down the " griggles," as boys are allowed to do. N.W. 
Grindstone Apple. The crab apple ; used to sharpen reap-hooks, its acid 

biting into the steel. {Eulogy of B. Jefferies, p. 4.) 
Grip, or Gripe, (l) To grip wheat is to divide it into bundles before 

making up the sheaves. It is laid down in gripe when laid ready in hand- 

fuls untied. (D.) N.W. 

(2) n. " A grip of wheat," the handful grasped in reaping. (A.) N.W. 

(3) V. To drain with covered turf or stone drains, as opposed io frith. 
To take up gripe is to make such drains. (D.) S.W. 

Grist Griz. To snarl and show the teeth, as an angry dog or man. (A.) N.W. 
Grizzle. To grumble, complain, whine, cry. N. & S.W. 

*Groni. A forked stick used by thatchers for carrying the bundles of straw 

up to the roof. (A.B.) 
*Gropsing. "The gropsing of the evening," dusk. (Wilts Arch. Mag., 

vol. xxii., p. 227.) 

Ground. Afield. N.W. 

*Ground-sill stone. Quarryman's term for one of the beds of the 



By G. E. Dartnell ami the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 115 

Portland oolite— useful for bridges, etc., where great strength is required. 

(Britton's Beauties, vol. 3.) 
Ground -rest. lu a plough, the wood supporting the share, (D.) Best is 

a mistake for wrest (Skeat). N.W. 

Grout (1) To root like a hog. N.W. 

(2) Hence, to rummage about. N.W. 

Grump. "To grump about," to complain of all sorts of ailments. N.W. 

*Gubbarn. A filthy place, a drain. (A.H.) Gubbom. (B.) Should 

not this be adj. instead of 7t P 
*Gule. To sneer or make mouths at. (A.) 

Guly. (1) Of sheep, giddy. N.W. 

(2) Of persons, queer, stupid, or silly looking. N.W. 

*Gurgeons. Coarse flour. (A.) 

GUSS. (1) w. A girth. (A.B.) N.W, 

(2) 0. To girth ; to tie tightly round the middle. N.W. 

Gutter. To drain land with open drains. (D.) N.W. 

Guzzle. (1) The filth of a drain. (B.) 

(2) A filthy drain. (A.B.) Goosehill or Gushill {Paroch. 

Antiq.), Gustrili (H.), the latter being probably a misprint. N.W. 

Guzzle -berry. Gooseberry. N. & S.W. 

Hack. To loosen the earth round potatoes, preparatory to earthing them up. 

This is done with a " tater-liacker," an old three-grained garden-fork, 

which by bending down the tines or "grains" at right angles to the 

handle has been converted into something resembling a rake, but used as 

a hoe. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

*Hacka. A nervous hesitation in speaking. {Village Miners.) "Bespeaks 

with so many hacks and hesitations." — Dr. H. More. N.W, 

Sacker. The instrument used in "hacking" potatoes; also known as a 

Tomahawk. N.W. 

Hackle. * (l) «. The mane of a hog. (A.H.) 

(2) n. The straw covering of a beehive or of the apex of a rick. (A.) N.W, 

(3) * To agree together. (A.) 

(4) To rattle or re-echo. N.W. 
Hagged. Haggard or exhausted-looking. " He came in quite hagged."N.& S.W. 
Haggle. To cut clumsily. See Agg. "They took out their knives and 

haggled the skin ofif." (Bevis, ch. 7.) N.W, 

Hag-rod. Bewitched, hag-ridden, afilicted with nightmare. S.W. 

Hail. The beard of barley. {Great Estate, ch. 1.) Aile (D.) seems a 

merely fanciful spelling, to connect it with lot. aile. N.W. 

I 2 



116 Coniribtitions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Hain, Hayn. To reserve a field of grass for mowing. (A.B.D.) N.W. 

JJaito. A horse ; used by mothers and nurses concurrently with Gee-gee, 
A contraction of Sait-wo, the^rder to a horse to go to the left. Mighty 
is similarly used in N. of England. N. & S.W. 

Hait-wo. See Horses. 

Hakker, Hacker. To tremble, as with passion (A.), cold, or ague ( TTjV^* 
Tales, p. 55). Hagger. To chatter with cold. (H.) N.W. 

Half-baked, or \\ alf-saved. Half-witted. Jsr. & s.w. 

*Hallantide. All Saints' Day. (B.) 

Ham. A narrow strip of ground "by a river, as Mill-ham. (D.) 
Jiames. Pieces of wood attached to a horse's collar in drawing. ^D.) N.W. 
H ancll. Of a cow or Ijun, to thrust with the boms, whether in play or 

earnest. N.W. 

Hand, (l) n. Com has "a good hand " when it is dry and slippery in the 

sack, " a bad hand " wlien damp and rough. (D.) 

(2) V. To act as a second in a fight. N.W. 

(3) V. "To have hands with anything," to have anything to do with it. 
" 1 shan't hae no hands wi't." N.W. 

Hander. The second to a pugilist. (A.) N.W. 

Handin'-post. A sign-post. N.w. 

Hand -wrist. The wrisi N.w. 

Handy. Near to, as "handy home," " handy ten o'clock." (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Hang. " To hang up a field," to take the cattle off it, and give it a long rest, 
so as to freshen up the pasture. N.W. 

Hang-fair. A public execution, as " Hang-fair at 'Vize," formerly treated 
as a great holiday. N.W. Obsolete. 

Hang-galloWS. A gallows-bird. {Wilts Tales, ^.hh) N.W. 

Hanging. The steep wooded slope of a hill. N. & S.W, 

Hangino" Geranium. Saxifraga sarmentosa, L., fi'om the way in which 
it is usually suspended in a cottage window ; also known as Strawberry 
Geranium, from its strawberry-like runners. S.W. 

♦Hants Sheep, Hants Horses. "They were called [in Wilts] bants 
sheep ; they were a sort of sheep that never shelled their teeth, but alwaj'S 
had their lambs-teeth without shedding them, and thrusting out two broader 
in their room every year. . . . There were such a sort of horses called 
hants horses, that always showed themselves to be six years old." — Lisle's 
Sushandry, Vibl . 

Happer down. To come down smartly, to rattle down, as hail, or leaves in 
autumn. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 



By G. E. Vartuell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 117 

Haps. n. and v. Hasp. (A.B.) " Haps the door," fasten it. N. & S.W. 

Hardhead. Centaurea nigra, L., Black Knapweed. N. & S.W, 

Hai'l. (1) V. To thrust a dead rabbit's hind-foot through a slit in the other 

leg, 80 as to form a loop to hang it up or carry it by. {Gamekeeper at 

Home, ch. 2.) N. & S.W. 

(2) V. To entangle. Harl, knotted (A.) , is a mistake for harled. N. & S.W. 

(3) n. An entanglement. (B.) " The thread be aal in a harl." K & S.W. 
* (4) Of oats, well-harled is well-eared. (D.) 

*Harr0WS. The longttudinal bars of a harrow. (D.) 

Harvest-trOW. The shrewmouse {Wild Life, ch. 9); Harvest-IOW 
(A.) N.W. 

*Hask. A husky cough to which cows are subject. (Lisle's Sushandry.) 
Hatch. (1> M. A " wallow," or line of raked-up hay. N.W. 

(2) V. " To hatch up," to rake hay into hatches. N.W. 

(3) n. " Barn-hatch," a low board put across the door. N.W. 
Haulm, Ham, Haam, Helm. A stalk of any vegetable (A.B.), 

especially potatoes and peas. N. & S.W. 

Haycock. A much larger heap of hay than a " foot-cock." 
Haymaking. Grass as it is mown lies in swathe (N. & S.W.) ; then it is 
turned (S.W.), preparatory to being tedded (N. & S.W.), or spread; then 
raked up into lines called hatches (N-W.), which maj he eiihtv si7iffle hatch 
or double hatch, and are known in some parts as wallows (N.W.) ; next 
spread and hatched up again, and put up in sjnaMf oof -cocks, cocks (N.W.), 
or pooks (N. & S.W.) ; finally, after being thrown about again, it is waked 
up into long wakes (N.W.), or rollers (S.W.), and if not made temporarily 
into summer-ricks (N.W.), is then carried. No wonder that John Burroughs 
{Fresh Fields, p. 55) remarks that in England hay " is usually nearly 
worn out with handling before they get it into the rick." Almost every 
part of the county has its own set of terms. Thus about Warminster 
meadow-hay is (1) turned, (2) spread or tedded, (3) put in rollers, (4) 
pooked ; while at Clyffe Pypard it is tedded, hatched, waked and cocked, 
J and at Huish waked and pooked. 

I *Ha5'es. A piece of ground enclosed with a live hedge ; used as a termination, 
as Calf Hayes. (D.) A.S. hege. (Skeat.) 
Hazon. To scold or threaten. (A.B.H.) " Don't 'ee hazon the child for't." 

N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

Headland, (l) adj. Headlong, as to "fall headland" or " neck-headland."N.W. 

, (2) The strip where the plough turns at top and bottom of a field, which 

I must either be ploughed again at right angles to the rest, or dug over with 

the spade : generally called the Headlong by labourers in S. Wilts. 



118 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Heal, Hele. Of seeds, to cover or earth over (D.) ; Heeld, Yeeld 
{Great Estate, ch. 8). When the ground is dry and hard, and the wheat 
when sown does not sink in and get covered up at once, it is said not to 
heal loell, and requires harrowing. N.W. 

Healded. Of an oven, thoroughly warmed. S.W. 

Heave, Eve. Of hearthstones, etc., to sweat or become damp on the surface 
in dry weather, a sign of coming change and wet. N. & S.W. 

Heavy (pronounced Heevy). Of weather, damp. N.W. 

Heaver. Part of the old-fashioned winnowing tackle. N.W. 

*Hecth. Height. (A.) 

Hedge-carpenter. A profe.ssional maker and repairer of rail fences, etc. 
{Gamekeeper at Some, ch. 3.) N.W. 

Hedge-hog. The prickly seed-vessel of Haminculus arvensis, L., Corn 
Buttercup. {Great Estate, ch. 7.) N.W. 

Hedge-pick, Hedge-speak. See Sloe. N.w. 

Heit. (1) n. The weight of anything as poised in the hand. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 
(2) V. To weigh or test weight in the hand (A.B.), to lift. N. & S.W. 
Hele, Hill. To pour out (A.B.H.), to serve out or dispense. S.W. 

Hen-and-Cllicken. (l) /Saarj/'rai/a w)»6ro«f, L., London Pride. N.W. 
(2) Saxifraga sarmentosa, L., from its mode of growth. N.W. 

Hen-hussey. A meddlesome woman. N.W. 

*Herence. Hence. (A.B.) 
Hererigllt. (l) On the spot, immediately (A.B.), the only use in N.W. 

*(2) Hence (A.), probably a mistake. 
Het. "A main het o' coughing," a fit of coughing. S.W. 

Hicketty. Hacking, as a cough. S.W. Hacketty. N.W. 

Hidlock. "In hidlock," in concealment. Akerman, by some mistake, treats 
this as verb instead of noun. N.W. 

Hike. To hook or catch. " I hiked my foot in a root." N.W. 

Hike off. To decamp hastily, to slink off (A.B.), usually used in a bad 
sense. N.W. 

Hill-trot. Apparently a corruption of Eltrot. 

(1) Seracleum Sphondyliicm, L., Cow-parsnip. S.W. 

* (2) QS}ianthecrocata,L., Water Hemlock. S.W. (Charlton and Barford.) 

Hilp. Fruit of the sloe. Hilp-wine. Sloe-wine. N.W. 

Hilt. A young sow kept for breeding. (A.) N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Hiuge, Henge. The heart, liver, and lungs of a sheep or pig. (A.B.) N. 

&S.W, 



By G. E. Barlnell and the Bev. E. H. Goddard. 119 

Hinted. Harvested, secured in barn. (D.) "Never zeed a better crop a' 
wheat, if so be could be hinted well." N.W,. 

Hit. To bear a good crop, to succeed : as "Th' apples hit well t'year." Treated 
by Akerman as a noun instead of a verb. N.W. 

Hitter. A cow which is ill and appears likely to die is said to be "going off a 
hitter." N.W. 

HIttery. Of cows, suffering from looseness, ill. N.W. 

Hobby. Yunx torquilla, the Wryneck. S.W. (Bishopstone.)^ 

*Hob-laiitern. Wili-o'-the-Wisp. (A.B.) 

Hock about. To treat a thing carelessly, drag it through the mud. "Now 
dwoan't 'ee gwo a hocken on your new vrock about." N.W. 

Hocks. (1) To cut in an unworkmanlike manner. (A.) 

(2) To trample earth into a muddy untidy condition. N.W. 

Hocksy, Hoxy. Dirty, muddy, miry. {Wilts Tales, t^.VIQ.) N.W. 

^Hodmandod, Hodmedod. Short and clumsy. (B.) 
Hog". (1) w. Originally a castrated animal, as a hog pig. (D.) 

(2) Now extended to any animal of a year old, as a chilver hog sheep. (D.) 

(3) To cut a mane or hedge short (D.), so that the stumps stick up like 
bristles. [Village Miners.) N. & S.W. 

Honesty. Clematis Vitalha, L., Traveller's Joy, occasionally. N.W, 

*Maiden's Honesty (Aubrey). 

Honey-bottle, (l) Heather. (2) Furze. It is not clear whick is intended 
in Great Estate, ch. 1. 

*Honey-plant. Some old-fashioned sweet-scented plant, perhaps the dark 
Sweet Scabious, which used to be known as "Honey-flower" in some 
counties. See Great Estate, ch. 2; also Reproach of Annesley, vol. i., 
p. 119, for Hants use of the name. 

Honey-suckle. Lamium album, L., White Dead Nettle, sucked by 
children for its honey. S.W. (Salisbury.) 

Hookland (or Hitchland) field. A portion of the best land in a 
common field, reserved for vetches, potatoes, etc., instead of lying fallow 
for two years. [Agric. of Wilts, ch. 7.) Parts of soma fields are still 
known as Hooklands in S. Wilts, though the system has died out. 

Hoop. Pyrrhula vulgaris, the Bullfinch (A.B.) : also Red HoOD. N.W. 

Hoops, or Waggon-hoops. The woodwork projecting from the sides of 
a waggon so as to form an arch over the hind wheels. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Hop-about. An apple dumpling, probably from its bobbing about in the pot. 

Hopper. A grig. {Amateur Foacher, ch. 1.) 



120 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Horse-daisy. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, L., Ox-eye Daisy. N. & S.W. 
*Horse-Matcher. Saxicola ruMcola, the Stonechat. {Birds of Wilts, 

p. 150 ; Wild Life, ch. 9.) 
Horse-shoe. -4cer Pseudo-platanus,'L.,Sjcz.more. S.W. (BarfordSt.Martin.) 
Horse-Snatcher. Saxicola cenanthe, the Wheatear. {Birds of Wilts, 

p. 152.) N.W. (Huish.) 

Horse-stinger, Hosstenger. The Dragon-fly. (B.) N.w. 

Horses, in N. Wilts the orders given to a plough or team are as follows : — 
to the front horse, Coom ether, go to the left, and Wowt, to the right : 
to the hinder horse, Wo-oot, to the right, and Gie aay or Gie aay oot, to 
the left. The orders to oxen are somewhat different. See Coom hedder, 

Ga oot, Hait-wo, There-right, Toward, Vrammards, 

and Wag. 
House, Houst. To grow stout. " Lor, ma'am, how you've a housted ! " N.W, 
HoUSSet. (1) n. A serenade of rough music, got up to express public 

disapproval of marriages where there is great disparity of age, flagrant 

immorality, etc. N.W. 

(2) V. To take part in a housset. N.W. 

*Ho"Wed-for. Well provided for. (A.B.H.) 

Huckmuck. (l) A strainer placed before the faucet in brewing. (A.B.H.>N.W. 
(2) Parus caudatus, the Long-tailed Titmouse. {Birds of Wilts, 

p. 173.) N. & S.W. 

•Hucks. The chaff of oats. {Village Miners.) Husks. (OlyffePypard), 
Hud. (1) «• The husk of a walnut, etc. N.W. 

(2) V. To take off the husk of certain fruits and vegetables. Beans are 
hudded and peas shelled for cooking. N.W. 

(3) A finger-stall. N. & S.W. 
*Hudgy. Clumsy, thick. (A.B.H.) 

Hudniedud. A scarecrow. (A.) See Wilts Tales, p. 79. In common use 

in N. Wilts. 
Hullocky ! " Hullo ! look here ! " exclamation denoting surprise, or calling 

attention to anything. N.W. 

Humbug. A sweet or lollipop. N.W. 

*Huni-daW. " K anyone hacks and haws in speaking, it is called ' hum- 

dawing.' " — Village Miners. 
HurDInillg-bird. Itegulus cristatus, the Golden-crested Wren ; also so 

called in parts of Devon. N.W. (Huish.) 

*HuiI11110cksing. Clumsy, awkward. {Great Estate, ch. 4.) 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 121 

*Hunder-stoneS. Thunder-bolts. (Aubrey's Wilts MS.) Probably 
either belemnites, or else the concretionary nodules of iron pyrites, called 
"thuuder-bolts" by the labourers, are here intended. 

Hurdle-shore. The same as Fold shore. S.w. 

Husk, Hesk. A disease of the throat, often fatal to calves. N.W. 

Hut. A lump of earth. N.W. 

Hutty. Lumpy, as ground that does not break up well. N.W. 

Hyle, Hlle, Aisle, etc. (l) n. A shock or cock of wheat, consistiug of 
several sheaves set up together for carrying. The number of sheaves was 
formerly ten, for the tithing man's convenience, but now varies considerably, 
according to the crop, '^I'ithing' in N.W. The forms given by Davis, 
aisle, aile, and isle, seem purely fanciful, as also does the derivation thereby 
suggested, a Jiyle being merely a single shock. S.W. 

(2) V. To malce up iato hyles. Wheat and rye are always hyled, and 
oats usually so, about Salisbury. S.W. 

'"Tis merry while the wheat's in hile." — Barnes, Poems. 

Ichlla-pea. The Missel-thrush : only heard from one person in N.W., but 

perhaps an old name. 
Imitate. To resemble. " The childern be immitatin' o' their vather about 
the nose." Participle only so used. N.W. 

Innocent. Small, neat, unobtrusive, as "a innocent little flower." N.W. 
*Isnet. " Alkanet bugloss." (D.) 

Jack, Jack Ern. Ardea cinerea, the Heron. {Birds of Wilts, p. 

395.) N.W. 

Jack-and-his-team. The Great Bear. N.W. (Huish.) 

Jack-gO-to-bed-at-nOOn. Tragopogon pratensis, L., Goat's Beard. N. 

&S.W. 

Jack-in-the-green, (l) Adonis autumnaUs, L., Pheasant's-eye. S.W. 

(2) The hose-in-hose variety of Polyanthus. N. & S.W. 

Jack-run-along- by- the-hedge. AlUaria officinalis, Andrzj., Hedge 

Mustard. 
Jacky -Dinah. Sylvia sj/^^ico^a, the Wood Warbler. S.W. (Bishopstone.) 
Jacob's-ladder. Polygonatum multiflorum. All., Solomon's Seal. S.W. 

(Farley, etc.) 

Jag. The awn and head of the oat. Oats are spoken of as " well-jagged," 

" having a good jag," " coming out in jag," etc. {Great Estate, ch. 1.) N.W. 

Jarl. To quarrel, to " have words." N.W. 

Jaw-bit. Food carried out into the fields by labourers, to be eaten about 10 

or 11 o'clock. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 



122 Contributions towards a WiltsJdre Glossary. 

Jlbbets. Small pieces. " You never did see such a slut ! her gowud a-hangiu' 

in dirty jibbets [i.e., rags] all about her heels ! " N. & S.W. 

Jiggery-poke. Hocus-pocus. N.W- 

Jimmy, Sheep's Jimmy. A sheep's head. N.W. 

Jobbet. A small load. (A.) N.W- 

*Jod. The letter J. (A.) 

Johnny Chider. The Sedge "Warbler, iS^aZ»mHa ^Ara^^rei^ts. S.W. 

Jolter-headed. Wrong-headed ; used generally of a jealous spouse. " Her 
wur alius a jolter-headed 'ooman." N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Jon nick. Honest, fair, straightforward. N. & S.W. 

Joseph-and-Mary. Pulmonaria officinalis, L., Common Lungwort, the 
flowers being of two colours, red and blue. N.W. 

Joy-bird. The Jay, Garrulus glandarius. N.W. (Savernake Forest.) 

Jumble. A kind of coarse sweetmeat. {My Old Village.) N.W. 

Junk. A hunch of bread-and-cheese, etc. ; a lump of wood or coal. N.W. 

Junket. A treat or spree ; still in use. When potatoes were not so common 
a man would comjjlain of his wife's " junketing wi' the taters," i.e., digging 
them up before they were ripe, as a treat for the children. N.W. 

Keck. To retch as if sick (A.) ; also Cack. N.W. 

Keeker. The windpipe. (A.) N.W. 

Kecks. Di'y stalks of hemlock. (A.B.) Hemlock must here be taken to 
mean several of the larger UmhelUfercB, and to include occasionally 
growing plants as well as dry stems. There are many valiants of the 

word, as Keeks (A.), Kecksey (A.B.), Gix (A.H.), Gicksies 

{Amateur Poacher, ch. 3), Gicks {Great Estate, ch. 5). N. & S.W. 
Keep. Growing food for cattle, etc. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Kerf. A layer of turf or hay. (A.B.) Kierf. A truss of hay. N.W. 

Keys, or Keyn. Fruit of ash and sycamore. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Kibble. * (l) To chip a stone roughly into shape. (A.) 

* (2) To cut up firewood. {Wilts Arch. Mag., wo\. ■x.six.jTg. 210.) 
Kid. The cod or pod of peas, beans, etc. Well-hidded, of beans or peas, 
having the stalks full of pods. (D.) N. & S.W. 

Kin. The same as Ciderkin. 

Kind. Some woods and soils " work kind,,' i.e., easily, pleasantly. N.W. 

KisS-behind-the-garden-gate. Saxifraga umhrosa, L., London 

Pride. S.W. {Sam. bord.) 

Kiss-me-quick. Centrantkus ruber, DC, Red Spur Valerian. N.W. 



By G. E. Darinell and the Rev. E. II. Ooddard. 123 

Kisslllff-ffate. -A. swing gate in a V-shaped enclosure. N.W. 

*iCite's Pan. Orchis maculaia, L., Spotted Orchis. S.W. (Farlej'.) 

Kiver. A cooler used in brewing. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Knacker. To snap the fingers. Nacker. (H.) S.W. 

Knap, Knop. To chip stone, as formerly in making a gun-flint. N.W. 

Kliee-sick. Of wheat, drooping at the joints, from weakness in the 

straw. (D.) N.W. 

Kuee-SOeked, Corn beaten down by storms is "knee-socked down." N.W. 

Knitch, Nitch, Niche, etc. Usually spelt incorrectly, without the k. 
O.E. knucche, Germ., knocke : used by Wyclift'e, also in Alton Locke 
ch. 28. (1) Nitch, a burden of wood, straw, or hay (A.B.), such a faggot 
as a hedger or woodman may carry home with him at night ; a short thick 
heavy chump of wood (Village Miners.) Hence a fine baby is spoken of 
as " a regular nitch." (Ibid.) N. & S.W. 

(2) " He has got a nitch," is intoxicated. (A.B.) N.W. 

*Ladies'-balls. Centaurea nigra, L., Black Knapweed. S.W. (Charlton.) 

*Ladies'-fingerS-arid-thlimbs. Lotus comiculatus, L., Bird's-foot 
Trefoil. " N.W. (Enford.) 

LadlGS-in-white. Saxifraga umbrosa, L., London Pride. 
LadycOW. The Ladybird. N.W. 

Lady's-CUshion. AnthylUs vulneraria,'L.,'K\diQQy Vetch. S.W.(Salisbury.)^ 
Lady's-finger. Applied generally to Lotus comiculatus and Hi^pocrepis^^ 
comosa, and occasionally also to Lathyrus pratensis. N. & S.W» 

Lady's-nig'htcap. The flower of Convolvulus sepium, L., Great Bind- 
weed. (A.B.) 
Lady's-petticoat. Anemone nemorosa, L., Wood Anemone. S.W. (Mere.^ 
Lady's-ruffles. The double white Narcissus. N.W, 

Lady's-slipper. Applied generally to the same plants as Lady's-finger, 
Lain. Of a smith, to dress the wing and point of a share. (D.) See- 
Lay (4). 
Laiter, Loiter. A full laying or clutch of eggs. N.W^ 

Lake. A small stream of running water. S.W. {Hants bord.)- 

Lamb's-tails. Catkins of willow and hazel. N. & S.W.. 

•Lamb's- cage, a crib for foddering sheep in fold. (D.) 
Lamb S-Creep. A hole in the hurdles to enable the lambs to get out of the 
fold. N.W. 

Lambkins. Catkins of hazel. S.W. (Barford St. Martin.), 



124 Contributions toivards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Land. The "rudge," or ground between two water-furrows in a ploughed 

field. {Amateur Poacher, ch. 7.) N.W. 

•Landsliard. The strip of greensward dividing two pieces of arable in a 

common field. (D.) cf. I.ynchet. 
Land-?pring. A spring which only runs in wet weather. {.Gamekeeper at 

Home, ch. 5.) N.W. 

*Lannock. a long narrow piece of land. (A.) 

*Lark's-seed. Pluntago major, L., Greater Plantain. S.W. (Charlton.) 

Lattermath. Aftermath. (A.) Lattermass at CherhilL N.W. 

Lave. (1) Of a candle, to gutter down. (H.) N.W. 

(2) To splash up water over yourself, as in a bath. " Lave it well over 

ye." N.W. 

Law. In N. Wilts, when speaking of relations-in-law, the in i-s always 

omitted, as bl'Otlier-laW, fatlier-law, etc., the only exception being 

son-in-law. 

Lay. (1) To lay a hedge, to trim it back, cutting the boughs half through, 
and then bending them down and intertwining them so as to sti-engthen the 
fence. (A.) N. & S.W. 

(2) To lay rough, to sleep about under hedges like a vagabond. N. & S.W. 

(3) To lay up afield, to reserve it for mowing. S.W. 

(4) To lay a tool, to steel its edge afresh. This appears to be the same 
as Davis's lai7i. S.W. 

(5) An idle dissipated man is said to lay about. N.W. 
Lay locks. Usually Syringa vulgaris, L., common Lilac, but rarely applied 

to Cardamine pratensis, L., Lady's Smock. 
*Lay-OVer. "Two or three horses go abreast, each drawing a harrow 

diagonally, all the harrows being fastened together with a lay-over or rider." 

{Agric. of Wilts, ch. 5.) 
Leach. A strand of a rope. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Lear, Leer, (i) Empty. (A.h.) n. & s.w. 

(2) Hence, craving for food, hungry. (A.) N. & S.W. 

Leary is the usual form on Som. bord. 

Lease, Leaze, etc. : sometimes used with a prefix, as Cow-leaze, Ox- 

leaze. (l) As much pasture as will keep a cow. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

(2) A large open pasture. Legll, LettSe (Aubrey); LeaZB 

{Amateur Poacher, ch. 3.) N. & S.W. 

Lease. To glean. (A.) N. & S.W. 

Lease-bread. Bread made from lease-corn. N.W. 



By G. E. Bartnell and the Rev. E. R. Goddard. 125 

Lease-corn. Wheat collected by gleaning. N.W. 

Leaser, a gleaner. N. & S.W. 

Lemfeg. An Elleme fig. (A.B.H.) N. & S.W. 

■" A cure- peg, a curry -peg, 
A lem-feg, a dough -f eg." — Wilts Nursery Jingle. 

•Length, Lent. A loan. (A.b.) 

Let-off. To abuse. " Macster let I off at a viae rate," {Wilts Arch. Mag., 
vol. xxii., p. 111.) N.W. (Cherhill.) 

Lew. *{1) ac// Warm. (H.) 

(2) M. Shelter. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

LeW-Warm. Lukewarm. N. & S.W. 

Lewis's Cat, a person suspected of incendiary habits. Many years ago 
fires are said to have occurred so frequently on the premises of a person of 
this name (whose cat sometimes had the blame of starting them), that the 
phrase passed into common use, and a suspected man sooa " got the name 
of a Lewis's Cat," now corrupted into " Blue Cat." S.W. 

Lewth. Warmth. (A.B.) 

Libbet. " All in a libbet," torn to rags. N.W. 

*Liberty. v. To allow anything to run loose. " It don't matter how much 
it's libertied, " the more freedom you can give it the better. N.W. (Cherhill.) 

Licket. " All to a licket," all to pieces. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

*Lide. The month of March. (A.) Obsolete. 

Lill. To pant as a dog. (A.B.H.) N.W. 

Lily, or Lilies, (l) Convolvulus sepium, L., Great Bindweed. S.W. 

(Farley and Charlton.) 
(2) Arum maculatiCm, L., Cuckoo-pint. S.W. (Barford.) 

Limb, Limm. (l) «. A ragged tear. {Village Miners.) N.W. 

(2) V. To tear irregularly, to jag out. {Ibid.) N.W. 

Lineh, Linchet, Lynch, etc. A.s. AZi«c, abank. 

(1) Certain ten-aces, a few yards wide, on the escai-pment of the downs, 
supposed by some to be the remains of ancient cultivation, are locally known 

as Lynches or Lynchets. N. & s.w. 

(2) The very narrow ledges, ranning in regular lines along the steep face 
of a down, probably made by sheep feeding there, are also frequently so 
called. S.W. 

(3) A raised turf bank dividing or bounding a field. S.W. 

(4) A strip of greensward dividing two pieces of arable land in a common 
field. (D.) N. & S.W. 



126 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

(5) An inland cliff, cf. " The Hawk's Lynch " {Tom Brown at Oxford) ; 

occasionally applied to a steep slope or escarpment, as at Bowood and 

Warminster, 
•liinchard, A precipitous strip of laud on a hillside, left unploughed. 

{Sprincf-tide, pp. 79 and 186.) 
•Lined. Of an animal, having a white back. (D.) 

Linet, Tinder, (H,) Tinder was made of linen. N,W. Obsolete. 

Li ppinff. Of weather, showery, wet, and stormy. N. & S.W. 

*Litten, Litton, a churchyard. Lieton (H.), chirche-litoun 

(Chron. Vilod.) Still used in Hants, but probably now obsolete in Wilts. 

{Wilts Tales, p. 161 ; Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxv., p. 129.) 
*Liiver-sand. " t^and-veins .... which are deep and tough, and are 

of the nature called in Wilts ' liver-sand.' " {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 12.) 
Lob. Of leaves, to droop limply, as cabbages do before i-ain. N. & t^.W, 

Lock. " A lock of hay," a small quantity of hay. (A.B.) N.W. 

Lockv. Of hay which has not been properly shaken about, stuck together as 

it was cut. N.W. 

Lodged. Of wheat, laid or beaten down by wind or rain. (D.) N. & S.W. 

Also Ledged. {Wilts At^ch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 112.) 
LojJ'S'eru.mS. (l) Centaurea nigra, L., Black Knapweed. N.W. 

*(2) "Scabious." {Village Miners.) 
Lono" purples. Lythrum Salicaria, L., Purple Loosestrife. Rarely used. 

Tennyson's "long purples of the dale " are Vicia Cracc.a, Shakespeare's are 

Orchis mascula, while Clare applies the name to Lythrum. 
Longf'ul. Tedious. (A.B.) 
Long-Winded. " a long-winded man" always means one who is very slow 

to pay his debts. N.W. 

Lope along. To run as a hare does. S.W. 

Loppet. The same as Lope. cf. Sloppet. 

Lords-and-LadieS. Ammmaculatum, li.,Cuckoo-^mt. (A.B.) N. &S.W. 
Lot. To reckon, expect, think. " I do lot her's a bad un." N.W. 

Lot-meads. Common meadows divided into equal-sized pieces, for the hay 

of which lots were cast each year. (D.) N.W. Obsolete ? 

*Loving-andreWS. Geranium pratense, L.," Meadow Cranesbill. {Village 

Miners.) 
Love-an'-idols, or Loving Idols. Viola tricolor, L., Love-in- 
idleness, usually the wild form, but occasionally applied to the garden pansy 

also. Nuffiu-idols at ClyfCe Pypard. N. & S.W. 



By G. E. Bartnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 127 

*Lowl-eared. Long-eared. (A.B.H.) 

Luff. (1) In land measure, a pole or perch. (A.B.H.) N. & S.W. 

"A lug .... is of three lengths in this county: 15, 18, and 16^ 
feet. The first of these measures is getting out of use, but is still retained 
in some places, particularly in increasing mason's work. The second is the 
ancient forest measure, and is still used in many parts of the county for 
measuring wood-land. But the last, which is the statute perch, is by much 
the more general." {Agric. of Wilis, p. 268.) 

(2) Any rod or pole (D.H.), as a perch for fowls, a clothes pole (A.B.). 

See Oven-lug. 

Lummakin. Heavy, ungainly, clumsy. (A.B.) N.W. 

Luinpus. Noise, row. " Don't 'ee make such a lumpus." " Th'oss didn't vail 

down, but a come down wi' a kind of a lumpus." N.W. 

Lurry. Of cows, suffering from looseness. N.W. 

*Mad. Of land, spoilt, damaged, as by sudden heat after much rain. (Lisle's 

Husbandry.) Obsolete. 

Madder. * (l) Asperula odorata, L., Sy/eet WooAmS. N.W. (Lyneham.) 
(2) Anthemis Cotula, L., Stinking Camomile. N. & S.W. 

Maggots. Tricks, nonsense. " Her's at her maggots again." N.W. 

Maggotty. Frisky, playful. (A.) N.W, 

Maggotty-pie. Pious caudatus, the Magpie {MS. Zansd.), still in 

use. N.W. 

Main, (l) ck^v. Very, as " main good," excellent. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

(2) adj. " A main sight o' volk," a great number. N. & S.W. 

Make. " That makes me out," puzzles me. (H.) N.W. 

*Mammered. Perplexed. (A.) 
Mandy. Frolicsome, saucy, impudent (A.B.) : now only used by very old 

people. N.W. 

Mar, More, (l) An old root or stump of a tree. N.W. 

(2) A root of any plant (Aubrey's Wilts MS.), as " a strawberry more " ; 

"fern-mars" ; "cowslip-mars," etc. {Amateur Poacher, ch. 7.) N.W. 

Marlbro'-handed. People who used their tools awkwardly were formerly 

called " Marlbro'-handed vawk." N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Marley. streaky, marbled ; applied to fat beef, or bacon from a fat pig, 

where the fat seems to streak and grain the lean. N.W. 

Martin, Free-martin. A calf of doubtful sex. N.W. 

An animal with an ox-like head and neck, which never breeds, but is ex- 
cellent for fatting purposes. It is commonly supposed that a female calf 



128 Confributio7is towards a WilisJiire Glossary. 

born twin with a male is always a free-maiiin. Recent investigations, 
however, have proved that though the external organs of a free-martin may 
te female the internal are in all cases male. The rule laid down by Geddes 
and Thomson {Evolution of Sex, ch. 3, p. 39,)is that twin calves are always 
normal when of opposite sex or both female ; but that if both are male one 
is invariably thus abnormal. Compare Scotch yero?« or ferry cow, a cow not 
in calf, and mart, an ox ; also A.S. /ear, a bullock. {Folk-Etymology.) 

Matliern, Mauthern. * (l) Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, L. 
Ox-eye Daisy. (A.B.D.H.) 

(2) Wild Camomile. {Great Estate, ch. S.) N.W. 

♦Maudlin. The Ox-eye Daisy. (D.) 

Mawk (pronounced Maah). To clean out the oven with the " maakin," 
before putting in the batcb of bread. N.W. 

Mawkin, Malkin, Maak, or Maakin, (i) An oven-swab (a.b.) ; 

malkin {Great Estate, ch. 8). K & S.W. 

(2) Also used as a term of reproach, as " Thee looks like a girt maakin." 
{Great Estate, ch. 8.) N.W. 

*May-beetle. The cockchafer. (A.B.) 

*May -blobs, May-blubs, or May-bubbles. Flowers and buds of 

Caltha palustris, L., Marsh Marigold. 
Mazzard. * (l) a small kind of cherry. (English Plant Names.) Merry 

is the usual "Wilts name, Mazzard being Dev. and Som. 

(2) The head (A.), but only in such threats as " I'll break thee mazzard 

vor thee! " (Wilts Tales, p. 31.) N.W. 

*Meadow-S0Ot. Spirea W-maria, L., Meadow-sweet. {Great Estate, 

•ch. 2.) Sote, or soo^,=sweet. N.W. 

Measle-flower. The garden Marigold, the dried flowers having some local 

reputation as a remedy. Children, however, have an idea that they may 

catch the complaint from handling the plant. N. & S.W. 

Mere-stone, a boundary stone. {Amateur Poacher, ch. 3.) N.W. 

Meggy. See Must. 

Merry. The cherry, applied to both black and red vaiieties, but especially 
the small semi-wild finiit. N. & S.W. 

Merry-flower. 1 he wild Cherry. S.W. (Barf ord.) 

*Mesll. (« long.) Moss or lichen on an old apple-tree. S.W. {Som. bord.) 
Michaelmas Crocus. Colchicum auttcmnale, L., Meadow Saffron. N.W. 
*Mice's-mouths. Linaria vulgaris, Mill., Snapdragon. S.W. (Farley.) 
Mickle. Much (A.), probably an error. 



By G. E. Barlnell and the Rev. E. II. Goddard. 129 

Middling, (l) AUiDg in health (H) ; Middlinish {Wilts Tales, p. 

137.) N. & S.W. 

(2) Tolerable, as " a middlin' good crop." Middlekin is occasionally 

used in S. Wilts in this sense. N. «S; S.W. 

"Very middling" (with a shake of the head), bad, or ill; "pretty 

middling" (with a nod), good, or well. (Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. rsxi.t 

_ p. 112.) 

Midsuiumer men. Sedum Fabaria, Koch., a variety of the red Orpine. 

N.W. occasionally ; S.W. (Parley). 
Mild. Of stone or wood, easily worked. {Great Estate, c\il.Q) N.W. 

*Milk-flower. Lychnis vesperti7ia. Sibth., Evening Campion. S.W. (Charl- 
ton All Saints.) 
*Milkmaids. Cardamine pratensis, L., Lady's Smock. S.W. (Farley.) 
Milkwort. Euphorbia Peplus,'L.,Vfiiij%^n.Y^e. N. & S.W. 

Mill. To clean clover-seed from the husk. (D.) Milled seed. N.W. 

Millard, Mallard, or Dusty Miller. A large white moth (i.); 

generally e.xtended to any large night-flying species. Miller heYe='mealer, 

from its mealy deposit. N. & S.W. 

*Mill-peck. A kind of hammer with two chisel-heads, used for deepening 

the grooves of the millstone. (Great Estate, ch. 9.) 
*Mill-staff. A flat piece of wood, rubbed with ruddle, by which the accuracy 

of the work done by the mill-peck may be tested. ( Great Estate, ch. 9.) 
Mind. (1) To remind. " That minds I o' Lunnon, it do." N. & S.W. 

(2) To remember. " I minds I war just about bad then." N. & S.W. 

(3) "To be a mind to anything," to be inclined to do it. N.W. 
Mindinff. A reminder. After a severe illness you are apt to have " the 

miodings on't " now and again. N.W. 

Minnies. Small fry of all kinds. N. & S.W. 

Mint. A cheese-mite. (A.) The older form of mite. (Skeat.) N.W. 

Minty. Of cheese, full of mites. (A.) N.W. 

Mixen, Muxen. A dungheap. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Mix-muddle. One who muddles things imbecilely. {Village Miiiers.) N.W. 

Moile, Mwoile. Dirt, mud. (A.) " Aal in a mwoile." N.W. 

MoU'ern, Molly Heron. The Heron. {Great Estate, ch. 4..) N.W. 

Money-in-both-pockets. Lunaria biennis, L., Honesty, from the seeds 
showing through both sides of the transparent part of the pod. 

Monkey-musk. The large garden varieties of Mimidus, which resemble 
the true musk, but are scentless, and therefore merely monkey {i.e., mock, 
spurious) musk. N.W. 

TOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXVI. X 



130 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Monkey Nut. Poa anmta, L., Meadow Grass ; eaten by boys for its nut- 
like flavour. S.W. (Salisbury.) 

Monkey- plant. Garden ilfmif^w*. [Wild Life, c\\.S) N.W. 

Moon-daisy. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, L., Ox-eye Daisy. {Great 
Estate, ch. 2.) A very general name, especially in N. Wilts. The flowers 
are sometimes called Moons. N. & S W. 

Moonied up. Coddled and spoilt by injudicious bringing up. " Gells as be 
moonied up so beant never no good." N. & S.W, 

Moots. Koots of trees left in the ground. (A.) See Stowls. E.W. 

Mop. (1) A Statute Fair for hiring servants (A.) ; also used in Glouc, 
{Wilts Tales, ^. 2-^.) N.W. 

(2) A rough tuft of grass. 

Moral. A child is said to be the "very moral," or exact likeness, of its 
father. N. & S.W, 

More. See Mar. 

Moreish. Appetizing, so good that you want move of it. "Viggypudden 
be oncommon moreish." N. & S.W. 

Most-in-deal. Usually, generally. (A.B.) Most-in-general is more 
commonly used. N.W. 

Mother-of'-thousands, Saxifraga sarmentosa, L. S.W. 

*Mother Shimbles' Snick-needles. Stellaria B:olostea,'L., Greater 
Stitchwort. {Sarum Dioc. Gazette.) S.W. (Zeals.) 

Mothery. Thick, muddy, as spoilt beer or vinegar. (A.B.) N, & S.W, 

Mouchj Mooch. (1) V. To prowl about the woods and lanes, picking up 
such unconsidered trifles as nuts, watercresses, blackberries, ferns, and 
flower-roots, with an occasional turn at poaching {Gamekeeper at Some, 
ch. 7) ; to pilfer out-of-doors, as an armful of clover from the fresh-cut 
swathe. {Hodge and his 3f asters, ch. 23.) N. & S.W, 

(2) V. To play the truant. N. & S.W. 

(3) V. To be sulky or out of temper. N. & S.W. 

(4) n. "In a mouch," in a bad temper. "On the mouch," gone ofE 
mouching, N. & S.W. 

Moucher,Moocher. (l) A truant. (A.) See Berry-moucher. N.&s.w. 

(2) A man who lives by mouching, {Gamekeeper, ch. 7.) N. & S.W. 
Moulter. Of birds, to moult. N.W. 

Mound. (1) n. A hedge. In general use in N. Wilts. N, & S.W. 

(2) V. To hedge in or enclose. N.W, 

Mouse. The " mouse " is a small oblong piece of muscle, under the blade-bone 

of a pig. N.W. 






By G. E. Bartnell and the Rev. E. E. Goddarcl. 131 

*MoilSetaiIs. A kind of grass, perhaps Cats'-tail, but not Myosorus. N.W. 
*Moutch. " On the moutch," shuffling. (H.) Some meaning of Mouch 

has probably here been misunderstood. 

Mow. In a barn, the unbearded space at each end of the threshing-floor, where 

the corn used to be heaped up for threshing. N.W. 

*Mowing-nnachine Bird. Salicaria ZocM*i^e??a, Grasshopper Warbler, 

from its peculiar note. {Birds of Wilts, p. 154.) S.W. (Mere.) 

Much. "It's much if he do," most likely he won't do it. " It's much if he 

don't," most likely he will. N.W. 

Muck. Dirt, mud, earth. N. & S.W. 

Muckle, (1) M. Manure, long straw from the stable. {Agric. of Wilts, 

ch. 7.) N. & S.W. 

(2) " Muckle over," to cover over tender plants with long straw in 

autumn to protect them from frost. N.W. 

Mud up. (1) To pamper and spoil a child. S.W. {Hants bord.) 

* (2) To briug up by band (H.), as "Mud the child up, dooke." {Monthly 

Mag.) 

*Mudel over. {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 7), probably a misprint for mucJcle 

over, q V. 

Muggeroon. A mushroom. N.W. 

Muggerum. Part of the internal fat of a pig. N.W. 

Muggle. Confusion, muddle. (A.) "Here we be, ael in a muggle like." 

{Wilts Tales, p. 137.) N.W. 

Mullin. The headstall of a cart-horse : sometimes extended to the headstall 

and blinkers of a carriage horse. N.W. 

Mullock. A heap of rubbish (A.B.), now applied to mine refuse in Australia. 

Muni up. To make much of , pamper, pet, and spoil. " A granny-bred child's 

alius a-mummed up." N. & S.W. 

Mummock. A shapeless confused mass. A clumsily-swaddled baby or 

badly-dressed woman would be " aal in a mummock." N.W. 

Mun. Used in addressing any person, as " Doesn't thee knaw that, mun ?" 

(A.) N.W. 

Must. A game played by chddren : a small stone—" a meggy " — is placed on 

the top of a large one, and bowled at with other " meggies," of which each 

player has one. N.W. 

Nails. Bellis lyerennis, L., Daisy. S.W. (Mere.) 

Nail-passer. A gimlet. (A.) {Wilts Tales, i^. U.) N.W. 

Naked Boys. ColcMcum autumnale, L., Meadow Saffron, the flowers and 



132 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

leaves of which do not appear together : given by Aubrey as a Wilts name ; 
NahedLady in Cornw.,Yks.,etc.,and Naked Virgins in Ches. N.W.(Huish.) 
Nanny-fodger, or Nunny-fudger. (l) A meddlesome prying 
person. i-.W. 

(2) Troglodytes vulgaris, the Wren. N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

Narration. Fuss, commotion. "He do alius make such a narration about 
anything." N.W. 

Nash, Naish, Nesh. (l) Tender, delicate, chilly. (A.B.H.) N. & S.W. 
(2) Tender and juicy : applied to lettuces. S.W. 

Nation, Nashun. Very, extremely, as nation darh. (A.B.) N.W. 

Nation-grass. Aira ceespitosa, L., perhaps an abbreviation of Carnation- 
grass. S.W. [Som. bord.) 
Natomy, Notamy, Notamize, etc. A very thin person or animal, 
an anatomy. N. & S.W. 
*Navigator. A drain-maker's spade {Amateur Poacher, cb. 11), more 

usually known as a Graft. 
Neck-headland. "Tofallneck-headIand,"i.c.,headlong. N.W.(ClyfEePypard.) 
NeOUSt of a neOUStnesS. Nearly alike. (A.) See Aneoust. N.W. 
Neust alike. Just alike. N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

Nettle- creeper. Applied generally in Wilts to the following three birds : — 
(1) Curruca cinerea, Common Whitethroat, (2) C. sylvatica, Lesser White- 
throat, and (3) C. hortensis. Garden Warbler. {Birds of Wilts, pp. 159 — 
161.) N.W. 

Next akin to nothing. Very little indeed. N.W. 

Nibs. The handles of a scythe. (A.) N.W. 

*Night Violet. Hahenaria chlorantha, Bab., Greater Butterfly Orchis. 
{Sarum Dioc. Gazette.) N.W. (Lyneham.) 

Nightcaps. (1) Convolvulus sepium, L., Great Bindweed. N. & S.W. 
(2) Aquilegia vulgaris, L.,the garden Columbine. N.W. (Devizes : Huish.) 
Nightingale. Stellaria Solostea, L., Greater Stitch wort. S.W. {Hantshori.) 
Nine-holes. A game played by children. N.W, 

Nineter. "A nineter young rascal," a regular scamp. Probably a corruption 
of anointed. See Anoint. N.W. (Seend.) 

Ninny-hammer. A fool, a silly person. N.W. 

'Ninting. A beating. See Anoint. N.W. 

Nipper. A small boy. N. & S.W, 

Nippers. The same as Grab-hook. N.W. (Huish.) 



By G. E. Bartnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 133 

I^lt. Nor yet. Wrongly defined by Akeiiuan and others as not yet. " I han't 
got no money nit no vittles." N.W. 

Nitch. See Knitch. 

Nog'. A rough block or small log of wood. N.W. 

Nog-head. A blockhead. S.W. 

Nolens volens. Used in N. Wilts in various corrupted forms, as " I be 

gwain, nolus-bolus," in any case ; " vorus-norus," rough, blustering ; and 

" snorus-vorus," vehemently. 
*Noon-naw. A stupid fellow. (Great Estate, ch. 4.) 
Nor, Nur. Than, as "better nur that." (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Not-COW. A cow without horns. (A.) N.W. 

Numinet. The noonday meal. (A.) Nammet in S. Wilts. 
Numpinole. The Pimpernel. N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

Nuncheon, Nunchin. The noon meal. (A.) N.W. 

Nunchin-bag. The little bug in which ploughmen carry their meals. (A.) N.W. 
Nunny-fudging. Nonsense. " That's all nunny-fudgen." N.W. now 

nearly obsolete. 
Nuniiy-fudgy. "A nunny-fudgy chap," a poor sort of a fellow with no 

go in him : now used only by old people. N.W. 

Nythe. A brood, as " a nythe o' pheasants " ; always used by gamekeepers. 

A variant of Nide. N.W. 

Oak-tree loam or clay. The Kimmeridge Clay. (Britton's Beauties^ 

1825, vol. 3, and Davis's Agvic. of Wilts, p. 113, etc.). 
Oat-hulls. Oat chafE and refuse. S.W. 

Oaves. (1) Oat chafE. N.W. (Huish.) 

* (2) The eaves of a house. 
Odds. (1) V. To alter, change, set right. "Til soon odds that." [Wilts 

Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 112.) N.W. 

(2) n. Difference. " That don't malje no odds to I." " What's the odds 

to thee ? " what does it matter to you ? N.W. 

Oddses. Odds and ends, N.W. 

Old man. (l) Artemisia Abrotanum, L., Southernwood. N. & S.W. 

(2) Anagallis arvensis, L., Scarlet Pimpernel. S.W. 

Old man's beard, (l) Clematis Vitalba, L., Traveller's Joy, when in 

fiuit. N. & S.W. 

(2) The mossy galls on the dog-rose. N. & S.W. 

Old Sow. Melilotus carulea, L., from its peculiar odour. {English 

Plant Names.) N. & S.W., rarely. 

*01d woman's bonnet. Geum rivale. Water Avens, S.W. (Mere.) 



134 ConfrihiUions towards a Wiltshire Glossary/. 

*01d woman's pincushion. Orchis maculata, L., Spotted Orchis. S.W. 
Qjj_ (1) =:««, prep., as "I run agen im on th' street." (A.) N. & S.W. 

(2) =MJ, prefix, as ondacent. N. & S.W. 

(3) =f»«, prefix, as onpossihle. (A.B. ) N. & S.W. 

(4) =.un, prefix, as ongainly. (B.) N. & S.W. 

(5) =o/", as " I never did thenk much on 'en." N. & S.W. 

(6) =:%, as " He come on a mistake." N. & S.W. 
Once. "Once before ten o'clock," some time ov other before ten. N. & S.W. 
Oo. Such words as hood, want, a mole, vso7ider, etc., are usually pronounced 

in N. Wilts as 'ood, 'oont, 'oonder. 
*0r2jany. (l) Mentha Putegium, L., Pennyroyal. (A.B.) 

(2) Origanum vulgare, L., Marjoram. (English Plant Names.) 
Otherguise. Otherwise. N-W. 

Out-axed. Of a couple, having had their banns fully asked, or called for the 

last time. {Wilts Tales, p. 100.) The banns are then out, and the couple 

out-axed. N.W. 

Oven-cake. Half a loaf, baked at the oven's mouth, N.W. 

Oven-luf. The pole used as a poker in an oven. N.W. 

*Overlayer. "The waggons .... seldom have any overlayers or 

out-riggers, either at the ends or sides." (Agric of Wilts, ch. 38.) 

Over-right, Vorright. Opposite to. Auver-right. (A ) N.W. 

Owling. The same as Grigglillg, q-v- N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

'*Owl-CatcherS. Gloves of stout leather. (Amateur Poacher, ch. 11.) 
Owl about. To moon about out of doors in the dark. N.W. 

Pack-rao" Day. nth October, Old Michaelmas Day, when people change 
house. Also used in Suffolk. N.W. 

*Paint-brUsheS. Eleocharis palustris,'BT. S.W. (Charlton All Saints.) 
Palm-tree. The Willow. Palms. Its catkins. S.W. 

Pamper. To mess about, to spoil. N.W. (ClyfPe Pypard.) 

Pank. To pant. N.W. 

Panshard, Ponshard, Pancherd. A potshard. (A.) N.W. 

Pantony. A pantry. {Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 112.) There are 
many slight variants, as Pantemy. N. & S.W. 

Paper Beech. Betula alba, L. N.W. 

Passover. " A bit of a passover," a mere passing shower. S.AV. {Som.. bord.) 
Payze. To raise with a lever. (B.) N. & S.W. 



By G. E. Bartnell and the Bev. E. E. Goddard. 135 
Peace-and-Plenty. A kind of small double white garden Saxifrage. S.W. 

Peakid, Peaky, Picked, Picky. Wan or sickij-lookiug. N.w. 

Peart. (I) impertinent. (A.) N.W. 

(2) In good health. " How be 'ee ? " " Oh, pretty peart, thank'ee."N.& S.W. 

(3) Clever, quick, intelligent. S.W. 

(4) Stiugicg, sharp, as a blister. S.W. 
Peck. (1) «. A pickaxe. N. & S.W. 

(2) V. To use a pickaxe. N. & S.W. 

(3) V. Of a horse, to trip or stumble : also Peck-down. N.W. 
Pecky. Inclined to stumble. " Th'old hoss goes terr'ble pecky." N.W. 
Peel. (1) A lace-making pillow. (A.B.) A little " Peel lace " is still made 

about JIalmesbury. 

* (2) The pillow over the axle of a waggon. (D.) 
(3) The pole, with a flat board at end, for putting bread into the oven. N.W. 
Pelt. Rage, passion. (A.) " A come in, in such a pelt." N.W. 

Perkins. The same as Ciderkin. N.W. 

Pork up. To get better, to brighten up. S.W, 

Pcth. The crumb of bread. N.W. 

Pethy. Crumby, as " a pethy loaf." N.W. 

Pick. (1) A haymaking fork (A.B.D.), a stable-fork (D.). PteA'=pitch, as 

in pitch-fork (Skeat.) N. & S.W. 

(2) The fruit of the sloe. 
Picked (two syll.). (1) Sharp-pointed. Piggid on Som. bord. "That 

there prong yunt picked enough." ' N. & S.W. 

(2) With features sharpened by ill-health. N.W. 

Pickpocket. Capsella Bursa-pastoris, L., Shepherd's Purse. N.W.(Enford.) 
*Pie-CUrr. J?'«^(>«ZacrJsitaYa, Tufted Duck. {Birds ofWilts, i^.lQQ.) S.W. 
Pigs. See Boats. S.W. {Hants bord.) 

Pig-all, Pig-haw. Fruit of the hawthorn. (A.) Peggles (Jefferies, 

Marlborough Forest, etc.) N.W. 

Pig-berry. Fruit of the hawthorn. N. <fe S.W. 

Pig-nut. (1) Bunium fiexuosum. With., Earth-nut. N. & S.W. 

(2) The very similar root of Carum Bulbocastanum, Koch., Tuberous 

Caraway. N.W., occasionally. 

Plg-potatoeS. Small potatoes, usually boiled up for the pigs. N. & S.W. 
Pig- weed. Symj)Jii/tum officinale, L., Comfrey. N.W. (Enford.) 

Pirn rose. A primrose. Also used in JTaM^s. N. & S.W. 



136 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossari/. 

Pin-bone. The hip bone ; sometimes the hip itself. PmS. The hips. A 
cow with hips above its back is said to be " high in the pins." N.W. 

Pincushion, (l) AntliyUisvulnerarla,'L.,'K\Ar\Q-s~^eich. S.W. (Bavford.) 
(2) Scabiosa arvensis, L., Field Scabious. S.W. (Charlton.) 

Pinner. A servant's or milker's apron, a child's pinafore being generally 

called Pinney. N. & s.w. 

Pinny -land. Arable land where the chalk comes close to the surface, as op- 
posed to the deeper clay land. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Pip. The bud of a flower. (B.) N.W. 

*Pish ! or Pishty ! A call to a dog. (A.) 

Pissabed. Leontodon Taraxacum, L., Dandelion, from its diuretic effects. 

N. & S.W. 

*Pissing-Candle. The least candle in the pound, put in to make up the 
weight. {'Kenvieti^ Paroch. Antiq.) O.F. poix, pois. Obsolete. 

Pit. (T) n. A pond. N.W. 

(2) n. The mound in which potatoes or mangolds are stored. {Agric. 

of Wilts, ch. 7.) N. & S.W. 

(8) V. " To pit potatoes," to throw them up in heaps or ridges, in field 

or garden, well covered aver with straw and beaten earth, for keeping 

through the winter. N. & S.W. 

Pitch. (1) w. A steep place. N.W. 

(2) n. " A pitch of work," as much of the water-meadows as the water 
supply will cover well at one time. {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 12.) S.W. 

(3) n. The quantity of hay, etc., taken up by the fork each time in 
pitching. {Gamekeeper at Some, ch. 4.) N. & S.W. 

(4) V. To load up wheat, etc., pitching the sheaves with a fork. N. & S.W. 

(5) V. To fix hurdles, etc.. in place. {Bevis, ch. 23.) N. & S.W. 

* (6) V. To settle down closely. "Give the meadows a thorough good 
soaking at first .... to make the land sink and jiitch closely to- 
gether." {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 12.) 

* (7) V. To lose flesli, waste away. " The lambs ' pitch and get stunted,' 
and the best summer food will not recover them." {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 12.) 

(8) V. To set out for sale in market. "There wur a main lot o' cheese 
pitched s'maruin'." N, & S.W. 

(9) V. To pave with Pitchin, q-v. N.W. 
Pitch-poll. When rooks are flying round and round, playing and tumbling 

in the air (a sign of rain), they are said to be " playing pitch-poll." N.W. 

Pitched market, A market where the corn is exposed for sale, not sold 

by sample. (D.) N.W. 



By G. E. DaHnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 137 

Pitchin. Paving is done with large flat stones, " pitching " with small uneven 
ones. (A.) N. & S.W. 

Pitch in o-bar. The iron bar used m pitching hurdles. {Amateur Poacher, 
ch. 2.)' N. & S.W. 

Pitch-up. A short rest, as when a cart Is going up a steep hill. N.W. 

Plain, straightforward, unaffected, as "a plain "ooman." N. & S.W. 

*Plash, Pleach. To cut the upper branches of a hedge half through, and 
bend and intertwine them with those left upright below. (A.) Also Splasll. 
Plat. The plateau or plain of the downs. S.W. 

Plim. To swell out (A.B.), as peas or wood when soaked in water. N. & S.W. 
Plocks. Large wood, or roots and stumps, sawn up into short lengths, and 
ck'ft for firewood. Plock-WOod. (A.) N & S.W, 

Pl0U""h. A waggon and horses, or cart and horses together, make a plough. 
(D.) See Kennett's Paroch. Antiq. N.W. 

•PloUghman's-WeatherglaSS. AnagalUs arvensis, L., Scarlet Pim- 
peinel. S.W. (Barford.) 

Poach. (1) Of cattle, to trample soft ground into slush and holes. N. & S.W. 
(2) Of ground, to become swampj- from much trampling.. {Wild Life, 
ch. 20.) N. & S.W. 

Poison-berry, (l) Fruit of Arum maculatum, L., Cuckoo-pint. N.W. 
(2) Fruit of Tamus communis, L., Black Bryony. N.W. 

Poison-root. Arum maculatum, L., Cuckoo-pint. N.W. 

Pole-rinff. The ring wliich fastens the scythe-blade to the snead. (A.) N.W. 
Polt, Powlt. A blow. (A.B.) N.W. 

Pooch out. (1) To project or stick out. N.W. 

(2) To cause to project. N.W. 

Pook. (1) n. A small cock of hay, etc. N. & S.W. 

(2) V. To put up in pooks. (D.) N. & S.W. 

Pooker. A woman employed in pooking. Pookers'-tea. The yearly 
treat given to the pookers. Pooking-fork, the large prong, with a 
cross handle, for pushing along in front of the pookers, to make up the hay 
into pooks. S.W. 

Pop-hole. A rabbit-hole running right through a bank, as opposed to 
blind-hole. {^Gamekeeper at Home, ch. 6.) Any hole through a 
hedge, wall, etc, N.W. 

Poppy, (1) Digitalis purpurea, L., Foxglove, so called because children 
inflate and " pop " the blossoms. Papaver is only known as " Eedweed " 
by children about Salisbury. S.W. 



13S Contributions toivards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

(2) Silene infiata, L., Bladder Campion, also " popijed " by children. 

S.W. (Salisbury.) 
* (3) Stellaria Kolostea, L., Greater Stitch wort. N. & S.W. (Lyneham 

and Farley.) 
Posy. The garden Peony, from its size. 
Pot, or Put. (The latter is the usual S. Wilts form.) 

*(1) A tub or barrel. (D.) Obsolete. 

(2) A two-wheeled cart, made to tilt up and shoot its load. (D.) N. & S.W. 
Manure used formerly to be carried out to the fields in a pair of ^jofs slung 
across a horse's back. When wheels came into general use the term was 
transferred to the cart used for the same purpose. (D.) 
Pot-dunff. Farmyard manure. {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 7.) N.W. 

*Pot- walloper. A " pot-waller," or person possessing a house with a " pot- 
wall," or kitchen fireplace for cooking. All such persons formerly' had votes 
for the borough of Wootton Bassett. See Witts Arch. Mag., vol. xxiii.,p. 172. 
Poult. (1) "A turkey poult," a young turkey. N.W. 

(2) " A perfect poult," an awkward girl. S.W. (Warminster.) 

Pounceful, Masterful, self-willed, cf. Bounceful. "He preached 
pouncefully," i.e., powerfully, forcibly. S.W. 

Powder-monkey, (l) Damp gunpowder, moulded iuto a cake which will 
smoulder slowly, used by boys for stupifying a wasp's nest. 

(2) See Shitsack Day. 

Power. "A power o' volk," a number of people. N. & S.W. 

Powlts. (1) Peas and beans grown together. • N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

(2) See Poult and Polt. 
*Poyn. To pen sheep. (D.) 
Preterites, A few specimens may be given, as craup, crept ; drowd, 

threw; flod, flew; fot, VOt, or vaught, fetched; hod, hid; 

hut, hit; lod, led; obloge, obliged; raugllt, reached; SCrope, 

scraped; slod, slid; WOC, awoke; seed, Seen, saw. 
Pretty-money. Coins, such as old George-and-dragon crowns, or new 

Jubilee pieces, given to a child to keep as curiosities, not to be spent. N.W. 
*Pride. The mud lamprej'. (H.) 

Primrose soldiers. Aquilegiavulgaris,'L.,gsxdienQQ\vim\Ane. N.W.(Huish.) 
*Prin it. Take it. (A.H.) 
Privet. " To privet about," pry into things. " To privet out," to ferret out 

anything, cf. Brevet. N.W. 



By G. E. Darinell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 139 

Pronouns. I, he, and she <lo duty as accusatives, as "He towld I, but 
I beant a-going to do nothing for he." 

Her and US are nominatives, as " Her be a girt vule, that her be" ; 
" us be at coal-cart s'marnin." 

Thee is used for both thou and thy, as " What's thee name? "—"What 
thee'se want to knaw vor? "— ' Never thee mind." 

Hyn, or more commonly un,=him, or it, as " I seed un a-doing oa't" ; 
" poor zowl on hyn ! " 

A=he, as " How a hackers an bivers ! " 

Thac, Thuck, or Thuck there=that. Theramin=those. 
Thic, Thlssum, Thease, Thic here, etc.=thi3. Theesura, 
or Theesura here=the8e. Occasionally Theesen in S. Wilts. 

His'n=his; Hern, or occasionally Shis'n,=hers; Ourn=ours J 
Yourn=yours; Whosen=whose, as " Whosen's hat's thuck thur ? 
Mun=them, is occasionally, but not often, used. 

Arra, Arra one, Am, etc.=any. Negatives, Narra, Narra 

one, Narn, etc. " Hev'ee got arra pipe. Bill ? " " No, I han't got narn," 
Proof. Of manure, etc., the strength or goodness. " The rain hav waished 
aal the proof out o' my hay." N. & S.W, 

Proof maggot. The larva of the gadfly, which causes warbles in cattle. N.W. 
Proper. "She's a proper beauty," is extremely handsome. N.W. 

Proud, " Winter-proud," of wheat, too rank and forward in winter. (D.) N.W. 
Pud. A hand ; a nursery word. N. & S.W, 

Puddle or Piddle about. To potter about, doing little jobs of no great 
utility. N. & S.W. 

*Pue. The udder of a cow or sheep. (A.) 
Pug. (1) w. The pulp of apples which have been pressed for cider. N.W. 

* (2) V. To eat. (H.) 
Pumray. A soft mass. "To beat all to a pummy"; from pomace, the 
apple-pulp in cider-making. N. & S.W. 

Purdle. To turn head over heels in a fall. N.W. 

Pure. In good health. " Quite purely," quite well. (A.) N. & S.W. 

Purler. A knock-down blow, a heavy fall. N.W. 

Purley. Weak-sighted. (A.H.) Pearl blind is sometimes used. 
Pussy-willow. Salix. S.W. 

Pussy-cats, Pussies, and Pussies'-tails. Catkins of willow and hazel, 
more commonly of willow only. N. & S.W. 



140 Contributions tmcards a JViltshire Glossary. 

Put about. To vex, to worry. " Now dwoan't ee go an' put yourself about 

wi't." N.W. 

Puzzivent. A flurry or taking. " He put I in such a puzzivent." Formerly 

used in both N. & S. Wilts, but now almost obsolete. Fr. pounsuivant. 

According to a note in The astonishing History of Troy Town, by '• Q.," 

ch. 17, the phrase originated from the contempt with which the west-country 

sea-captains treated the poursuivants sent down by Edward IV. to threaten 

his displeasure. Hence jjussivanting, ineffective bustle, Bev. and Cornw. 

Quakers. JBrisa media, L., Quakiug-grasS. N. & S.W. 

Quamp. still, quiet. (A.) N.W. 

*Quanked. Overpowered by fatigue. (A.B.) 

Quar. (1) ». A quarry. N.W. 

(2) V. To work as a quarryman. (A.) N.W. 

Quar-Martin. Eirvndo riparia, fand-Martin, from its breeding in sandy 

quarries. {Wild Life, ch. 9.) N.W. 

*Quavin-gOg. A quagmire. (A.B.H.) See Gog. 

Quat, Qwat, Qwatty. (l) To crouch down, remaining quite still, as a 

scared partridge. {Amateur Poacher, ch. 2). To squat. (A.) N. & S.W. 

(2) To flatten, to squash flat. N.W. 

Queed, Quid, (l) The cud. (MS. Lansd.) N.W. 

*(2) To suck. (A.) N.W. 

Quest, Quist. The Woodpigeon, Columha palumlus (A.B.) ; Quisty 

{Birds of Wilts, p. 318). N. & S.W. 

Quiff. A knack, a trick. " There's a quiff about that." N.W. 

Quill. The humour, mood, or vein for anything. " I can work as well as or 

a man, when I be in the quill for't." N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Quilt. (1) -v. To swallow. (A.B.) "The baby was that bad, it could'nt 

quilt nothing." N.W. 

(2) w. A gulp, a mouthful. " Have a quilt on't?" have a drop of it. N.W. 

Quinnet. A wedge, as the iron wedge fastening the ring of the scythe nibs 

in place, or the wooden wedge or cleat which secures the head of an axe or 

hammer. See also Scytlie. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

*Quirk. To complain (A.B.), spelt Quisk by Akerman in error. 

Quiset about. To pry about. {Wilts Arch. Mag.,\o\.^:d\..,^. 112.) N.W. 

Quob. (1) A soft wet place, a bit of marsh or bog. N.W. 

(2) Hence "all in a quob," said of a bad bruise. N.W. 

*Quop. To throb. (A.B.) 

R. In pronunciation r often has ^ or ^ afiixed or prefi.xed, as Cavaltryj 
horsemen ; Crockerty, crockery ; Millard, miller, etc, 



By G. E. Darlnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 141 

Rabbit-flower. Dielytra spectalilis, DC, the flowers of which, whea 

pulled apart, form two little pink rabbits. S.W., occasionally. 

Rabbits. Blossoms of Snapdragon when pinched off the stem. S.W, 

*Race. The heart, liver and lungs of a calf. (A.B.) 
Rack. (1) A rude narrow path, like the track of a small animal. (A.B.) See 

Gen. Pitt-Rivers' Excavations in Cranhorne Chase, vol. i., ch. 1. S.W. 

(2) Apparently also sometimes used in the sense of a boundary. S.W. 

Radical. " A young Eadical," a regular young Turk, a troublesome young 

rascal. N.W. 

Rafter. To plough so as to leave a narrow strip of ground undisturbed, turning 

up a furrow on to it on each side, thus producing a succession of narrow ridges. 

{Agric. of Wilts, ch. 7.) See Balk-plouglling. N.W, 

Rafty, Rasty, Rusty. Of bacon, rancid. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Rag-niag. A ragged beggar, or woman all in tatters. N. & S.W. 

Rail. To crawl or creep about, to walk slowly. ( Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii. 

p. 112.) " I be that weak I can't hardly rail about." N.W. 

RainiS, Reams A mere bag of bones, a very thin person. " He do look 

as thin as a raims." If. ,5; S.W. 

Raimy. Very thin. JJ. ^ s.W. 

Ramping. Tall, as " a rampin' gel." N.W. 

*Range. Two drifts or rows of felled underwood. (D.) 
Rangle. To twine round anything as a climbing plant does. S.W.(/S'o?». bord.) 
Rant. (1) V. To tear. {Field Play.) N.W. 

(2) n. A tear. N.W. 

Rantipole. Baucus Carote, L., Wild Carrot. [EnglishPlantNames] N.W: 
Rap, Wrap. A thin strip of wood. N.W. (ClyJEEe Pypard.) 

Rare, Keer. "Eaa beef," underdone, but not raw. (A.) 
Rash. To burn in cooking. (H.) Sometimes used of malt. 
*Rathe-ripes. An early sort of pea. (A.B.) Also a kind of apple. 
♦Rattle basket. BUnanthus Crwi;a-^a^//,L., Yellow Rattle. S.W.(Zeals.) 
Rattle -thrush. Turdus visdvorus, the Missel-thrush, occasionally extended 

to any very large Song-thrush. Rassel-thrush atHuish. S.W. (Salisbury.) 
*Rattle-Weed. SHene injlata, L., Bladder Campion. N.W. (Lyneham.) 
Rave. The ring of twisted hazel by which hurdles are fastened to their stakes 

""^ ^^°'"«^- N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Raves. Part of a waggon. (D.) At Clyffe Pypard applied to the flat wood- 
work projecting from the side of the forward part of a waggon. N.W. 



142 Contrihitions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

KawmOUSe, Raamouse. The reremouse or bat: used at Tormarton, 
Cljffe Pypard, etc. BatmOUSG is, however, in more general use. 

Rye-mouse. (A.B.) N.w. 

Rawney, Rowney. (l) Of cloth, thin, poor, and uneven. (A.B.) N.W. 
(2) Of persons, extremely thin. S.W. (Som. bord), occasionally. 

Ray. To dress and clean «orn. (D.) N.W, 

Ray-sieve. A sieve used to get the dust out of horses' chaff. N.W- 

Reap-hook. The "np-hook" is a short-handled hook without teeth, the 
blade bent beyond the square of the handle ; used to cut to the hand a 
handful at a time. (D.) The old reaping- sickle was toothed or serrated. 

Red Bobby's-eye. Geranium Eohert>anum,L.,Berh-EoheTt. S.W.(Red- 

lynch.) 

Red Robm Hood. Xj/e/;?^* c?»m ma, Sibth , Red Campion. S.W (Zeals.) 

Red-weed. Red Poppy. (D.) The only name for Papaver BhcBas. etc., 
used about Salisbury and Warminster, Digitalis being the " poppy " o£ 
those parts. N. & S.W. 

Remlet. A remnant. N.W. 

Reneeg. To back out of an engagement, to jilt. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard ) 

ReveL A pleasure fair (A.B.), as " Road Revel." N. & S.W. 

Eick-barken. Arickyard. (A.) N.W. 

Hick-stick. In thatching, after the " elms " are fastened down with " spicks " 
or "spars" the thatch is then lightly combed over with the "rick-stick," a 
rod with a few teeth at one end and an iron point at the other by which it 
can be stuck into the thatch when not in actual use. S.W. (Warminster.) 

Eiddle. (1) n. A coarse sieve. (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

(2) V. To sift. N. & S.W. 

^Riffle. A knife-board on which "callus-stone" is used. {Wilts Arch. 
Mag,, vol. xsii., p. 113.) N.W. (Cherhill.) 

Hiar. A horse which has not been" clean cut," i.e., is only half gelded, owing 
to one of its stones never having come down. N.W. 

Rig'D'et. A woodlouse, S.W. (Heytesbury.) 

Rino". "To ring bees," to make a noise with poker and shovel when they 
swarm. N.W. 

Rinnick. The youngest pig of a Utter. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Robin's eyes. Geranium Sobertianum, L., Herb Robert. S.W. 

Rock. The "fur" or calcareous deposit inside a kettle. N. & S.W. 

Rocket. " Don your rocket," put on your bonnet. S.W. (Downton.) 



I 



By G. K Darinell and the Rev. E. H. Goddarcl 143 

Eoke. Smoke. S.W., occasionally. 

Eollers. (l) »«• The long lines into which hay is raked before pooking. S.W. 

(Warminster, etc.) 
* (2) V. Bolly, to put grass into rollers. {Cycl. of Agric.) 

*Eommelin. Rank, overgrown. (A.) 

*Eook Hawk. Falco subhuteo, the Hobby. (.Birds of Wilts, p. 72.) 

Eopey. " Rawpey bread," a term applied to that peculiar condition of home- 
made bread, known only in dry summer weather, when the inside of the 
loaf appears full of minute threads, and has a disagreeable taste. N.W. 

Eough. (1) a>ij- Unwell, as " He bin terr'ble rough this fortnight." N.& S.W. 
. (2^ " To sleep rough," or " lay rough," to sleep about out of doors like 

, . N. & S.W. 

a vagabond. 

(3) V. To treat roughly, to ill-use. " That there hoss'll kick'ee, if so be 

.. N W 

as you do rough un. 

Eough-carpenter. The same as Hedge-carpenter. N.W. 

*EoUSe. "To catch and rouse," see Catch. 

Eowet-o-raSS. The long rough grass in hedges, etc., which cattle refuse ; 

N W 

rowan or coarse aftergrass. 

Eowetty Of grass, coarse and rough. {Gameheeper at Some, ch. 2 : Wild 

T'-P \ 9N KW. 

Life, ch. 2.) 

Eubble. (1) 111 Wilts usually applied to the hard chalk used iu making 

roadways through fields. {Wild Life,, ch. 2.) N. & S.W. 

(2) Rubbish. (A.) N.&S.W. 

Eucksey . Muddy, dirty, untidy, as applied to road, weather, or house. S.W. 

Eudder. (l) n. A sieve. N-^- 

(2) V. To sift. ^•"^• 

Eudderish. Passionate. (A.B.) S.W. (fi-om. bord.) 

Eudge. The space between two furrows in a ploughed field. N. & S.W, 

Eumple. To seduce. ^•"^' 

*Eumpled-skein. Anything in confusion ; a disagreement. (A.) 

Saat. " Saat bread," soft, sweet puddingy bread, which pulls apart in ropes or 

strings, made from " growu-ont " wheat. N.W. 

Sails. The upright rods of a hurdle. (D.) "Hurdle zailin','' «%• 

(Clyffe Pypard). ^•''^• 

Sally -withy. A willow. (A.) 

Sar. To serve or feed. {Wilts Tales, p. 112.) " Sar the pegs, wull 'ee." N.W. 

Saturday's Pepper. Eurl>orhia Relwscojna, L., Sun-spurge. {English 

Plant Names.) Saturday night's pepper. {Village Miners.) 



144 Contributions toioards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Scallot. Quari-ymen's term for one of the upper beds of the Portland series— 
a fine white stone. (Britton's Seauties of Wilts, vol. 3.) 

Scanibling. " A scambliug meal," one taken in a rough and hunied way.N.W. 

Scat. To whip, beat, smact, slap. S.W., occasionally. 

Scaut. (1) V. To strain wilh the foot in supporting or pushing (A.) ; as at 

foottall, or in drawing a heavy load up-hill ( Village Miners) ; to stretch the 

legs out violently. Scote in S. Wilts. N.W. 

(2) n. The pole attached to tte axle, and let down behind the wheel, to 

prevent the waggon from running back while ascending a hill. (A.) N.W. 

*Scbool-bell. Campanula rotundifolia, L., Harebell. N.W. (Enford.) 

Scoop. A shovel. (D.) N.W. 

*Scottle. To cut badly or raggedly. (H.) 

*Scran. A bag. (A.) 

Scratch Cradle. Cat's-cradle. (A B.) 

Screech, (l) The Missel Thrush, Turdus viscivorus. (A.) Scveech 

Thrush. {Birds of Wilts, p. 309.) N.W. 

(2) Ci/pselus opus, the Swift. {Birds of Wilts, p. 309.) 
Scroff, Scruff. The refuse of a wood-shed ; ashes and rubbish for burning. S.W. 
Scrouge. To squeeze or crowd anyone. (A.B.) 
ScrOW. (1) Angry, surly. (A.H.) N.W. 

* (2) Sorry, vexed. S.W., occasionally. 

Scrump. (1) n. A very dried up bit of anything, as toast or roast meat 

" done all to a scrump." {Cottage Ideas.) N.W. 

(2) Hence, sometimes applied to a shrivelled-up old man. N.W. 

(3) V. " Don't scrump up your mouth like that ! " i.e., squeeze it up in 
making a face. N.AV. 

Scrumpshing. Rough play : used by boys. (Bevis, ch. 9.) 

Scrupet. To creak or grate, as the ungreased wheel of a barrow. {Village 
Miners.) Also ScroOp. N.W. 

Scuff about or along. To drag one's feet awkwardly, as in too large 
slippers ; to " scuff up " the dust, as children do for amusement, by dragging 
a foot along the road. N. & S.W. 

Scuffle. An oven-swab. S.W. 

Scythe. The various parts of the scythe are as follows in N. Wilts : — 

Snead, or Snaitli, the pole; Nibs, the two handles ; Pole-ring, 

the ring which secures the blade ; QuinnetS (1) the wedges which hold 
the rings of the nibs tight, * (2) the rings themselves (A.); CreWj the 
tang of the blade, secured by the pole-ring to the snead. 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Bev. E. H. Goddard. 145 

8eed-lip. The box in which the sower carries his seed. (D.) (Village 
Miners.) N. & S.W. 

Seer ! or Sire ! " I say, loot here ! " a very usual mode of opening a con- 
versation when the parties are some distance apart. N. & S.W. 

Sewent, Shewent, Suant. Even, regular (A.B.), working smoothly. 
Formerly used all over Wilts, but now growing obsolete. 

Shakers. Briza media, L., Quaking-grass. N. & S.W. 

*Shally-^allee. Poor, flimsy. {Great Estate, ch. 4.) N.W. 

*Shame-faced Maiden. Anemone nemorosa, L., Wood Anemone. 
{Sarum Dioc. Gazette.) S. W. (Farley.) 

Shanimock. To shamble or shufile along hastily. 

Sliard, Shord. (i) A gap in a hedge. (A.B.) Sheard. (Wilts 

Tales, p. 167.) Shord is a S. Wilts form. N. & S.W, 

(2) A narrow passage between walls or houses; usually ohorcl. 
This is probably the chore of MS. Lansd. S.W. 

(3) " To put in a shard, or shord," to bay back or turn the water in a 
meadow trench by a rough dam, such as a piece of wood or a few sods of 
turf. N.W. 

(4) "A cow-shard," a cow-clat. 
*ShareS. The cross-bars of a harrow. (D.) 

Sharp. The shaft of a cart. (A.) N.W. 

Shaul. To shell nuts. Shalus, hnsks. (Chron. Vilod.) N.W. 

Sheening. Thrashing by machinery. (Wild Life, ch. Q.) N.W. 

Sheep's-cage. Same as Lamb's-cage. N.w. 

Sheer, Shai-p, cutting. " Uncommon sheer air s'marnin, yunnit ? " N.W. 
Shekel, (l) The old reaping sickle, now quite superseded by the vagging- 
hook. N.W, 

(2) The fork in which " elms " are carried up to the thatcher. N.W, 

Shepherd s'-crowns. Fossil Echini. N.W. 

*Shepherds'-pedler. Capsclla Bursa-pastoris, L., Shepherd's-purse. 
Shepherd's l^hyme. Polygala calcarca, Sch., Chalk Milkwort. S.W, 

(Salisbury.) 
Shepherd's- weatherglass, AnagaUis arverisis, L., Scarlet Pimper- 
nel. N. & S.W. 
*Shini. It seems. " He's a fine fellow, shim." (A.B.H.) 
Shirp, or Shrip. (l) "To shirp off," to shred or cut ofE a little of any- 
thing. S.W. 

VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXVI. L 



l-iB "Contributions towards a WiltuJiire Glossary. 

(2) "To shrip up," to shroud up the lower boughs of roadside trees, to 
cut off the side twigs of a hedge or bush. N.W. 

Shitabed. Leontodon Taraxacum, L., Dandelion. (H.) N.W. 

ShitsaC. An oak-apple. (A.) Sllitsack Day. 29th May. The children 
carry Shitsack, sprigs of young oak, in the morning, and Powder- 
monkey, or Even- Ash, ash leaves with an equal number of leaflets, 
in the afternoon. Shick-shack Day. {Wild Life, ch. 5.) N.W. (Cljffe 

Pypard.) 

Shivery -bivery. All in a shake with eold or fright. N.W. 

Shog off. To decamp in a hurried or cowardly manner. (A.B.) 

Shoot. (1) A young female pig of three or four months old. (D.) N. & S.W. 

(2) Fore-shoot and Backward-slioot, the pieces of wood immediately 
behind the coulter of a plough. (D.) 

(3) A precipitous descent in a road ; a steep narrow path. N. & S.W. 
Shore. The edge of a ditch on the meadow side. {Wild Life, ch. 18.) N.W. 
Shot or Shut of. Rid of. N. & S.W. 
Showl. A shovel. (A.B.D.) N. & S.W. 
Shrammed. Chilled to the bone, perished with cold. (A.B.) N.W. 
Shrill. To shudder. " I never couldn't eat fat bacon — I do alius shrill at 

it." N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Shrump up. To hunch up the shoulders. " Don't shrump up your shoulders 
like that ! " N.W. 

Shuffet. To shuffle along hurriedly. N.W. 

*Shurne. Cacare. {MS. Lansd.) Obsolete. 

Shut. (1) *• To join together ; used of welding iron, splicing a rope, joining 

woodwork, laying turf, etc. N. & S.W. 

(2) n. The point of junction. N. & S.W. 

Sick. " Turnip-sick," of land, exhausted as regards turnip-growing. {Great 
Estate, ch. \.) " Tater-sick," etc. N.W. 

Sideland ground. Sloping ground on a hill-side. N.W. 

Sidelong, Sideling, (l) With one side higher than the other. {Wild 
Life, ch. 6.) " I wur nigh upset, th' rwoad wur that sideling." N. & S.W. 
(2) Sitting sidelong, i.e., with the side towards the spectator. {Game- 
keeper at Some, ch. 2.) 

Sight. A quantity, as "a sight o' volk," " a main sight o' rain." N.& S.W. 

*Sll. Seldom. " Sowle-grove sil lew," February is seldom warm. (H.) Obsolete. 

Silgreen. Se?npervivumiectoruni,'L.,}Iouseleek. {Village Miners.) N.W. 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Bev. E. H. Goddard. 147 

*Si]low, Sullow, or Sul. A kind of plough. (D.) A.S. sulh. 

*Silver-bells. The double Guelder-rose of gardens. N.W. (Cherhill.) 

SlJver-fern or Silver-grass. Potentilla Anserina, L., which has fern- 
like silvery foliage. N. & S.W. 

bim . A smell, as of burning wool or bone. " That there meat hev got a maia 
s'm to't." N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

Simbly. To seem. (Wilts Tales, ^.m.) N.W. 

Simily. Apparently, as " Simily 'tis a bird." N.W. 

Simmin. It seems. " Simmin to I 'tis gwain thic way." N.W. 

Sinful. Excessively, as " sinful ornary," very ugly. N.W. 

Skag, Skeg. (l) r. To tear obliquely. N.W. 

(2) n. A ragged or oblique tear in clothes, such as is made by a nail. N.W. 

bkeart. To cause to glance off, as a pane of glass diverts shot striking it at 
an angle. N.W. 

Skewer-wood. Enonymus Europaeus, li., ^YiudXe-iree. N.W. 

Skewy, Skeowy. When the sky shows streaks of windy-looking cloud, 
and the weather seems doubtful, it is said to " look skeowy." N.W. (Clyffe 

Pypard.) 

*Skiel. A cooler in brewing. (A.B.) 

Skiffley. Showery. S.W. 

Skillin, Skilling. A pent-house (A.) ; an outhouse or cow-shed. N.W. 
Shillion is used in Australia for a small outhouse. 

Skimmenton, Skimmenton-riding. A serenade of rough music got 

up to express public disapproval of cases of great scandal and immorality. 
The orthodox procedure in N. Wilts is as follows : the party assembles before 
the houses of the ofEeuders, armed with tin pots and pans, and performs a 
serenade for three successive nights. Then after an interval of three nights 
the serenade is repeated for three more. Then another interval of the same 
duration and a third repetition of the rough music for three nights — nine 
nights in all. On the last night the effigies of the offenders are burnt. 
Housset is the same thing. The word and the custom have emigrated 
to America. 

bkimnier-lad. A dunch-dumpling, or piece of dough put on a skimmer and 
held in the pot while boiling. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Skipping-ropes. Sprays of Clematis Vitalba.L., Traveller's Joy. S.W. 

(Bishopstone.) 

Skit. A passing shower. [Gi-eat Estate, ch. I.) N.W. 

*Skive. To shave or slice. {Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 113.) N.W. 

(Cherhill.) 
L Si 



148 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Skug", Sqwug. A squirrel. "I say. there's a skug ! Let's have a cock-shot 
at him with your squailer." N. & S.W. 

81ammock, Slummock. A slattern. S.W. 

Slan. A sloe. (A.) 

Slang-up, or Slang-uppy. Untidy, slatternly. N.W. (ClyfEePypard.) 

Slat. (1) V. To split or crack. (A.B.) " Thuc plate's slat," N. & S.W. 

(2) n. A crack. " What a girt slat thur is in un." N. & S.W- 

(3) n. A slate. (A.) " Thur's a slat blowed off." N.W. 
Sleek. (1) ««?;■. Slippery. " The rwoad's terrible sleek." N.W. 

(2) n. Sleet. N.W. 

Sleight, Slay, (l) v. To pasture sheep on the downs. (D.) N.W. 

(2) n. Sheep-sleighty a sheep-down (D.) ; a pasture good for sheep. N.W. 

Slent. (1) V. To tear. S.W. 

(2) n. A tear. S.W. 

*Sllcklt. (1) A long thin slice (not a shaving) of wood. {Village Miners.) 
(2) " A slickit of a girl," a young undeveloped girl. {Ibid.) 

Slip. To shed. Of a horse, to shed its coat. N. & S.W. 

SHppetty-sloppetty. Draggle-tailed, slovenly. "I never zeed such a 
slippetty-sloppetty wench in aal my barn days." N.W. 

*Slize. To look sly. (A.B.H.) 

Slocks about. To go about in an untidy slatternly way. N.W.(ClyffePypard.) 

Sloe. In S. Wilts, about Salisbury, the large fruit is known as SloeS or 
Slues, and the small as SnaffS: in N. Wilts, at Huish, SloDS are 
large and Hedge-Speaks small, while at Clyffe Pypard the same terms 
are used, but the latter is not confined to the small fruit. At Cherhill Hilps 
and Picks are the names. SlueS is used in both N. and S. Wilts, and 
SlonS and Slans in N. Wilts. 

*Sloop. To change (A.H.), perhaps a perversion of Slue. 

Slop about. To shuffle about in a slipshod slovenly fashion. N. & S.W. 

Sloppet. (1) V. The same as Slop about. {Hodge and his Masters, 
ch. 23.) N.W. 

* (2) V. Applied to a rabbit's peculiar gait, and the manner in which it 
wears away and covers with sand the grass near its bury. {Amateur 
Foacher, ch. 2.) 

Slouse. To splash about, as a horse or dog does in water. N.W. 

*Sloveil's year. A wonderfully prosperous season, when even the bad 
farmer has good crops. {Great Estate, ch. 8.) 



I 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Hev. E. H. Goddard. 149 

SloX, Slocks. To waste, to pilfer from employers. (A.B.H.) N."W. 

Smaak. "Aalin a smaak," quite rotten ; used of potatoes. N.'W.(CljffePypard.) 
Smarm. To bedaub. " Don't smarm me aal awver wi' they dirty paws o' 
yourn." N. & S.W. 

Smart. A second swarm of bees. N.W. 

Smart, Smartish, adj. Considerable (H.), as " a smartish lot o' folk." N. 

&S.W. 
Smeech. Dust. S.W. (Salisbury) 

Smeechy. Dusty. KW. (Cherhill.) 

*Smicket. A smock or shift. (A.) 

Smother. A weed and rubbish fire in a garden. N. & S.W. 

Snag. (1) A badly shaped or decayed tooth ; often of a child's first teeth. N.W. 

(2) Fruit of the sloe, q.v. 
*Snag-bush. Primus s^inosa, L., the Sloe. {Miss Flues.) 

*Snake's victuals. Arum maculatum, Ji.fCvLckoo-^^mt. {Great Estate,, 
ch. 2.) 

Snake-flower, (l) Verbascum nigrum, L., Black Mullein. Children are 

cautioned not to gather it, because a snake may be hiding under tHe 

leaves. S.W. (Salisbury.) 

(2) Stellaria Bolostea, L., Greater Stitchwort. S.W. (Barford.) 

*Snake's-head. PotentUla Tor»«ewfj7^a, Sibth., Tormentil. S.W. (Zeals.) 

*Snake-skin Willow. Salix triandra, L., so called because it sheds its 
bark. {Great ^Estate, ch. 5.) 

Snaps, Snap-jacks. Stellaria Holostea, L., Greater Stitchwort. S.W. 

*Snap- willow. Salix fragiUs, L., from its brittleness {Great Estate, ch. 5.) 

Snead, Snaith. The pole of a scythe. (A.) N.W. 

Snig. A small eel. S.W. Snig-pot. An eel-trap. S.W. 

Sniggle. (1) To snigger. S.W. 

(2) " To sniggle up," to toady or endeavour to ingratiate yourself with 

anyone. S.W. 

Snippy. Mean, stingy. 

Snop. (1) V. To hit smartly, as in chipping a stone. N.W. 

(2) n. A smart blow, as " A snop on the head." N.W. 

Snotter-gall. The yew-berry, probably from its slimy pulp. N. & S.W. 

Snotty. (1) " A snotty frost," a slight crisp rime frost. N.W.(Cly£Be Pypard.) 
(2) Nasty, dirty, mean. N.W. 

Sno wbal 1- tree. The double Guelder-rose. Sno wballs, its blossoms. N.W. 



150 Contribulio7is towards a Wiltshire Glossary, 

Snow-blunt. A slight snowstorm. N. & S.W. 

SnOW-in-harvest, or SnOW-in-SUmmer. Cerastium tomentosum, 

L. SW. 

SnOW-On-the-mOUntainS. (l) Saxifraga granwlata, L., White 

Meadow Saxifrage. S.W. 

(2) White Cress. N. & S.W. 

*Sobbled. Soddened, soaked with wet. {Village Miners.) 
Sod-apple. EpHobium hirswtwm, L., Great Hairy Willow-herb, from its 

apple-like smell when crushed. {Great Estate, ^.2.) N.W. 

*Soft-tide. The three days next before Lent. {Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. 

xxii., p. 113.) N.W. (Cherhill). 

Bogging- wet. Soaked. N. & S.W. 

Soldiers. Palaver Ithmas, etc., Red Poppy. S.W. 

Soldiers-sailors-tinkers-tailors. LoUum perenne, L. S.W. 

*Sow-flower. Sonckus oleraceus, L., Sowthistle. N.W. (Lyneham.) 

*Sowle-grove. February. (A.H.) Sowle=swill, grove=ditch, the name 

thus answering to Fill-dyJce. (Skeat.) Obsolete. 

Spade. The congealed gum of the eye. (A.B.) N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

*SpanceS. " Raves or sides, spances, compose the waggon-bed." (D.) 

Spanky. Showy, dashing. (A.B.) N.W. 

Spar. In thatching, the " elms " are fastened down with "spicks " or " spars," 

split hazel rods, pointed at both ends, and bent into hairpin shape, with a 

twist just at the bend to give them a tendency when fixed to spring outwards, 

and so hold faster. S.W. 

Sparked, Sparky. Of cattle, mottled or of two colours (D.); pied, 

variegated. {Wilts Arch. Mag., \o\.^j.i\.,^. 220.) N. & S.W. 

Sparked-grasS. Fhalaris arundinacea, L., Striped Ribbon-grass. S.W. 

(Som. bord.) 
Spend. To turn out. " How do your taters spend to-year? " N.W. 

Spick. (1) In thatching, the same as Spar. S.W. 

(2) Lavender. Spick {Som. bord.), and Spike {Sants bord.) S.W. 
Spikenard, (l) Lavender. N.W., occasionally. 

(2) Anthoxanthum odoratum, L., Sweet Vernal-grass. N.W. (Bromham.) 

Spit, Spet. (1) M. •' The very spit of his father," his very image. {Wilts 

Tales, p. 31.) ef. Spit, to lay eggs. (Skeat.) N. & S.W. 

(2) V. " To spit up the ground," to work the surface lightly over. N.& S.W. 
Splash. Commoner form of Plash, ?.f. N.W. 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 151 

Sprack. (l) Lively, active (A.B.) ; also Sprag (B.) N, & S.W. 

(2) Intelligent. (A.) N. & S.W. 

*Sprawing. A sweetheart. (A.B.H.) 
Spreader. The thin pole or bar which keeps the traces apart. ( Wilts Tales, 

p. 173.) NW. 

*Spreath, Spreeth. Active, nimble. (A.B.H.) 
Spreatlied, Spreazed. Of the skin, roughened or chapped by cold. 

(A.B.) N.W. 

Spreyed. Of the skin, roughened by cold, but not chapped. Spryed 

on Som. bord. S.W.. 

Spring. Of a cow, to show signs of calving. N'.Wl 

Spring-dag. A chilblain, cf. Dag, a twinge of pain. S.W. 

Spring-flower. The garden Polyanthus. 'S.^Y. 

S]3uddle. To stir about (A.B.), to fuss about at doing trifles. " He's alius 

a-spuddling about that-like, but there yen't nothing to show for't ses I." N. W, 
Spurl. To spread dung about the fields. Spur in Som. N.W. 

*Spurling-boards. Boards set to prevent the corn from flying out of the 

threshing-floor. (D.) 
Spur-stone. A projecting stone, set in the ground as a support to a post, or 

to protect anything near the roadway. {Bevis, ch. 5.) 
*Sc[Uab. The youngest or weakest of a brood or litter. (A.) 
Squail, Sqwoil. (l) To throw (A.H), used of sticks, not stones. {Bevis, 

ch. 16.) N. & S.W. 

(2) Fiff. To do a thing awkwardly, as " she went up the street squalling 

her arms about." (H.) N.W. 

*(3) Cock-squoilin, throwing at cocks at Shrovetide. (A.) Obsolete. 

Squailer, Squale, Squoile. A stick or loaded cane, used by boys for 

throwing at apples,rabbits,squirrels,etc. (Amateur Foacher, ch. 3.) N.&S.W. 
Squailing. Clumsy, badly or irregularly shaped, as " a squalling loaf," " a 

squalling sort of a town," etc. (H.) N.W. 

Square. Thatching is paid for by the " square," which is 100 square feet. N.W. 
Squot. (1). ». A bruise. (Aubrey's Tf'iZ^s Jlf<S.) N.W. 

(2) V. To bruise or crush, as " I've bin an' squot my thumb." N.W. 
Squeaking-Thrush. The Missel Thrush. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Squelch, Squelp. (l) adv. "A veil down squelch," he fell heavily, 

(A.B.) NW. 

(2) V. To squash to pieces, as a heavy stone would an egg. N.W. 

Squeeze-belly. A V-shaped stile. N.W.. 



153 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary/. 

Squinney. (l) v. " To squinney round," to peep about. S.W. 

(2) n. " Squinney-hole," a peep-hole. S.W. 

Sqwawk. To squall out as a hen does when pulled ofp the nest. N.W. 

otabbled. Of ground, poached up by continual treading, as near a field 

gateway. {Village Miners.) Children are always " stabbling about " 

indoors, making a mess and litter. N. & S.W. 

Staddles, Staddle-Stones. The pillars on which a rick stands. (A.B.) 

N. & S.W. 
Stag, Steg. A rent in clothes. N. & S.W. 

Stake-and-ether-hedge. A wattled fence. N.w. 

btale. The long handle of any husbandry tool. (A.B.) Eahe-steal. {Wild 

Life, eh. 4.) A.S. stel. N.W. 

*otars. Campanula glomerata, L., Clustered Bellflower. N.W. (Enford.) 

Star-flower, (l) FotentilU TormenUlla, Sibth., Tormentil. S.W.(Barford.) 

(2) Lysimachia nemorum, L., Wood Loosestrife. S.W. (Barford.) 

Starky. Stiff, dry. (A.B.) N.W. 

otart. (1) An outing or pleasure-pai'ty. " Wher be th' missus, Bill?" 

" Whoy, o£E on a bit of a start." S.W. 

(2) A " go." " That's a rum start, yunnit P " N.W. 

Starving. See Bird-starving. 

*Stavel-barn. A bam on stone pillars. {Agric. Survey.) 

StGan. To cover a path or road with gravel or small stones. N.W. 

oteaner. The man who lays the second and inner rows of sheaves in building 
a wheat rick. N.W. 

Steanin. (l) A road made with small stones. (A.) N.W. 

(2) The built-up portion of a well. S.W. 

Steart. (l) The tang which fastens anything ; the ring of a button, etc. N.W. 
(2) A young ox. N.W- 

Steer. The starling. N.W. 

Stem. A period of time (A.H.), as "a stem o' dry weather." A.S. stemn. 

Stepple. A hoof-mark. {Village Miners.) (/". Stabble. N.W. 

Stew up. To tidy up. S.W. 

Stewer, Sture. Fuss, commotion. S.W. 

Stick. To decorate with evergreens, etc. " We alius sticks th' Church at 
Christmas," — the decorations formerly consisting only of sprigs of holly 
stuck into holes in the backs of the pews. N.W. 

Stickle. To stick. " They're as thick as they can stickle on it." S.W. 

Stipe. " The stipe o' the hill," the steepest part. N.W. 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. E. Goddard. 153 

Stived up. Shut up in a warm close place. N. & S.W. 

Stoach. To plant potatoes with a " stoacher." N."W. (ClyfFe Pypard.) 

StOclcher. "A tater stoacher," a thick stake, with projecting notch on which 
the foot is placed to drive the sharpened point into the ground. The potatoes 
ai-e dropped into the holes so made. N.W. 

Stodge. (1) w. Substantial food. N.W. 

(2) V. To stuff gluttonously. Stodged, quite unable to cram down 

another morsel. N.W. 

Stodgy, adj. Of food, causing a feeling of repletion. N.W. 

Stogged. Stuck in the mud, bogged. N. & S.W. 

Stomachy. Obstinate, headstrong, self-willed. N. & S.W. 

*Stone osier. Salix purpurea, li. {Gamekeeper at Mome, ch. 8.) 

»Storm-COck. Turdus viseivorus, Missel Thrush. {Birds of Wilts, p.l29.)S.W. 

Stout. The gadfly. (A.B.) " The stowuts be so terrifyin'." N.W. 

Stowl. (1). n. The root of a timber-tree, left in the ground after felling 
(A.B.) ; the stump of a bush or tree, in hedge or copse, cut off low down so 
as to form a stock from which underwood may spring. (D.) N. & S.W. 

(2) V. "To stowl out," to shoot out thickly, as a bush cut off low down, 
or wheat which has been fed off. N.W. 

Strafe. To wander about. N.W., occasionally. 

Strapper. An Irish harvester or tramping labourer. N.W. 

Strike, Strick. To slip up ; to slip and swing out as a vehicle does when 

turning a corner fast on a slippery road. " She strick np on that there 

slide, an' come down flop." N. & S.W. 

Strommelling. * (l) Awkward, ungainly. (A.B.H.) 

*(2) Unruly. (A.B.H.) 
Strong. " Strong a-dying," at the point of death. N.W. 

Stub. (1) V. In walking, to strike the foot against a stub or projecting 

root. N-W. 

*(2) 0. "To stub off," to cut off a bush or tree close to the ground. 

(Agric. of Wilts, ch. 10.) 

(3) "Stnhs," stuhhle,a.s wheat-stubs, harlei/.stubs. (D.) N.W. 

*Stuck. A spike. (A.) 

Stud. To ponder over, think about. " Don't'ee stud npon't so much." N.W. 
Studdle. To stir up water so as to make it thick and muddy. N. & S.W. 
Studdly. Thick, as beer before it settles after moving. N.W. {Berks boi-d.) 
*Stultch. A crutch, a boy's stilt. {MS. Lansd.) Obsolete. 

Succour. Shelter. A tender plant is set " in the succour of the wall." N.W, 



154 Contributions toivards a Wiltsliire Glossary. 

Suffer. To punish,to make to suffer. " I'll suffer you, you young rascal ! " N.W. 
Sugar-codlins. EpiloUum Mrsutum, L., Great Hairy Willow-herb. N.W. 
*Suity. Even, regular. (A.B.) 
*Sultedg'e. A coarse apron, worn by poor women. (A.B.) Sultredg^e- 

(H.) By which is probably intended that the apron is made of sultedge, or 

a kind of coarse sheeting. N.W. 

^OUmmer field, "in the four-field .system, where the clover is sown the 

second year, and mowed the third, the field becomes in the fourth year what 

is called, in Wiltshire, a summer field." {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 7.) 
Summer rick. A windmow, or very large cock of hay, thrown up in the 

field, to remain there some time. {Gamelceeper at Some, ch. 4.) N.W. 
Summer Snipe. Totanus hypoleucos. Common Sandpiper. N. & S.W. 
Sun green. Sempewivum tectorum, L., Houseleek. Occasionally Singreen 

in S. Wilts. N. & S.AV. 

*Swaft. Thirst. (H.) Probably a mistake. 
*Swankey. Boisterous, swaggering. (A.B.H.) 
Swash, Swosh. (l) w. A torrent or great rush of water. "The rain 

came down in swashes." {Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. vi., p. 380.) N.W. 

(2) V. To swill out. " I've bin swoshing out the back-kitchin." N.W. 

*SweepS. Hypericum calyciiium, L., Large-flowered St. John's Wort. S.W. 

(Farley.) 
^Sweeten. Some land requires siceetening, or chalking, to take out the 

acidity, before it will bear barley. {Agric. Survey.) 
Sweethearts. Galium Aparine, L., Goosegrass, because its burs have such 

an affectionate way of clinging to one. S.W. (Salisbury.) 

Swilter. To smoulder away to ashes, without breaking into flame. (A.B.) N.W. 
*Swittle. To cut or whittle. (A.B.H.) 

Sythe. To sigh. (A.B.) N.W. 

T. Th, at the beginning of a word, is usually sounded as d, as draish, dree. 
Tack. (1) A shelf, as cliimney-tacJc. (A.B.) N.W. 

(2) Pasture for horses and cattle. (A.B.) N.W. 

(3) "Out to tack,'" at agistment, applied to cattle that are put out to 
keep by the week or month. N.W. 

Tackle. Stuff, any material, as food, solid or liquid. (A.B.) "This here 
yale be oncommon good tackle" ; or dress material, " Haven't 'ee got any 
gingham tackle ?" {Great Estate, ch. 4.) N.W. 

Taffety. Dainty in eating. S.W. 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. IL Goddard. 155 

Tag. (1) When a lawn-mower or barrow is too heavy for one man to 
manage aloue, a rope is attached for a boy to draw by, who is said to "pall 
tag." N.W. (ClyfFe Pypard.) 

(2) A game played by boys. One. touches another, saying Tag I and 
the touched person has then to run after and ton&h another, who becomes 
Tag in his turn. N. & S.W. 

Tail. (1) The whole skirt of a woman's dress. N. & S.W. 

(2) "Seconds" of flour {Great Estate, ch. 6); also Tallin »"- 

flour. N.w. 

(3) Tail-ends or Tailings. Refuse wheat, not saleable in market, kept 
for consumption on the farm (A.B.) ; also Tail and Tailino"- 

wheat. isr.w. 

Take up. Of weather, to become fine. N. & S.W. 

Tallet, Tallot. a hay-loft over a stable. (A.B.) N.W, 

Tang, fl) " To tang the bell," to pull it. (A.) N.W. 

(2) "To tang bees," to follow a swarm beating a fire-shovel or tin 
pan. (A.B.) N.W. 

(.3) A small Church bell is a Ting-Tang. N.W. 

*Tankard. A sheep-bell. {Great Estate, ch. 6.) 
*Tare. (l) Convolvulus sepium, L., Great Bindweed. (D.) 
f2) C arwnw*, L., Small Bindweed. (D.) 
Tasker. A tramping harvester or casual labourer who works by the piece. 
{Agric. of Wilts, p. 24.) 
Tear, (l) A rage. " He wur in just about a tear." S.W. 

(2) In N. Wilts old folk used formerly to tear their crockery, and breaJc 
their clothes. 

Teart. (l) Painfully tender, as a wound. (A.) N.W. 

(2) Stinging, as a blister. N.W. (Rowde.) 

(3) Tart, as beer turning sour. S.W. 
Ted. To throw about hay for the first time. (D.) N. & S.W. 
Teel, Tile. To place anything leaning against a wall. (A.B.H.) N.W. 
Teft. The same as Heft. (A.B.) N.W. 
Temper. " To temper down dripping," to melt it and refine with water. N.W. 
Temtious. Tempting, inviting. N. & S.W. 
*Temzer. A riddle or sieve. {MS. Lansd.) Obsolete. 
Tentful. Attentive, careful, N.W. 
Terrible. Extremely. " This be a terr'ble bad harvest." N. & S.W. 



156 Confributiotis towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Terrify, (l) v. To worry, irritate, annoy ; used especially of very trouble- 
some children. "The vlies be terrible terrifying." N. & S.W. 
(2) n. A source of worry or trouble. A bed-ridden woman who has to 
get her neighbours to do everything for her is "a terrible terrify ' to 
them. N.W. 
* (3) V. To injure, as a hailstorm does apple-blossom. {Wilts Arch. 
Mag., vol. xxii., p. 113.) N.W. (Cherhill.) 

TewleVj Tuley. Sickly, weak, tired-looking. S.W. 

There-right. " Go straight forward," order to a horse at plough. (A). N.W. 

Thert. v. To plough land a second time, at right angles to the first ploughing, 
so as to clean it more effectually. N.W. 

Thetches. Vetches. Lent thetches are an early spring kind. N.W. 

Thill, or Dill. The shaft of a cart. N.W. 

Thiller, Diller, Thill-horse. The shaft-horse of a team. N.W. 

Th or OUffh -pin .The pin which fastens the waggon-bed to the carriage. (D.)N.W. 

*Three-pOU'nd-tenner. The name given by bird-catchers about Salisbury 
to the "Chevil" variety of Goldfinch, it being more valuable thau the 
ordinary kind. {Birds of Wilts, p. 203.) S.W. 

Thresllles. A pair of threshles, drashols, or flyals make a flail. (D.) The 
usual term for a flail. * N. & S.W. 

Throw. (1) ■**• "A throw of timber, "the quantity felled at any one time. N.W. 

(2) V. To fell timber. {Bevis, ch. 1.) N.W. 

(3) " To throw a gin or snare," to spring or set it o£E. {Amateur 
Poacher, ch. 6.) N.W. 

Thunder-bolts, (l) The concretionary nodules of iron pyrites so fre- 
quently found in the chalk. N. & S.W. 

(2) Fossil belemnites. N. & S.W. 

Thunder-flower. Palaver Rhaas, etc., Red Poppy. S.W. 

Thunder-fly. A black midge. {Great Estate, ch. 5.) N. & S.W. 

*Thurindale. A flagon holding about three pints. (H.) Obsolete. 

Thurtifer. Unruly, self-willed. (H.) S.W. 

Ticky Pig. The smallest pig of a litter. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Tid. *(1) Lively, playful. (B.) 

(2) Childish, affecting simplicity (A.), shy. N.W. 

Tiddle. To bring up a lamb by hand. (A.) {Wilts Tales, -p^. 5, Q.) N.W. 

Tiddlin' lamb. A lamb so brought up. (A.) N.W. 

Tide-times. Christmas, Easter, etc. " He do have a drop, tide-times and 

that." N. & S.W. 



By O. E. Darlnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 157 

Tie. Of wood, to pinch the saw while working. N.W. 

Tiller out To sprout out with several shoots, as wheat after being eaten off 

young. ' N. &8.W. 

Timersome. Timid. (A.) N.W. 

Tiue, Tind. *(1) «. To light a fire or candle. (A.B.) 

* (2) To finish off a laid hedge or stake-fence by weaving in the top-band 
of boughs. (A.B.) 

* (3) V. To divide a field with a hedge. (A.B.) 

(4) n. A drag or harrow tooth. (D.) N.W. 

* (5) " They drag it two, three, or four times, and harrow it four, five, or 
six times, viz. (provincially speaking), they give it ' so many tine with the 
drag, and so many with the harrow.' " {Agric. of Wilts, ch. 7.) 

•Tinino". -^ °®^ enclosure made with a dead hedge. (D.H.) 

Tippy, Tippity. Easily upset. N. & S.W. 

Tistie-tostie, Tostie. A child's name for both cowslip and cowslip- 
ball. N & S.W. 

Tithino", Tething. A shock of ten sheaves, for convenience in tithe-taking. 
(D.) The same as Hyle. N.W. 

Titty-Wren. The wren. N.W. 

*Toad's-cheese. Toadstool, fungus. (A.) 

*Toads'-heads. Fritillaria itfeZea^rrw, L., Snake's-head. [English Plant 
Names.) N.W. (Minety.) 

Todge. Any thick spoon-meat, as gruel. (A.B.) 

Token. * (l) A fool. (H.). Probably a mistake. 

(2) A '^ young token " is a young rascal. N.W. 

(3) Formerly used also as a term of endearment. N.W. 
Toll. To entice or decoy. " Hev' a bit o' cheese, to toll the bread down wi', 

will 'ee ? " Still in common use. N. & S.W. 

Toll-bird, (l) »• A trained decoy -bird ; also a stuffed bird used as a 
decoy. N. & S.W. 

(2) " To give anything just as a toll-bird," to throw a sprat to catch a 
mackerel. Tradesmen will sell some article far below cost-price, as a toll- 
bird to attract custom. S.W. 

Tom-bird. The male of any bird is generally so called in N. Wilts. 

Tom Cull. Ihe Bn\\hea.di, Cottus gobio. (A.) 

*Tom Thumbs. Zotus comiculatus, L., Bird's-foot Trefoil. S.W. (Mere.) 

*Tom Thumb's Honeysuckle. Lotus comiculatus, L., fHrd's-foot 

Trefoil. {Sarum Dioc. Gazette.) S.W. (Zeals.) 



158 Contrihui'w7is towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Tommy-bag. The bag in which labourers take food out with them. N.W. 

Tommy-hawk. A potato hacker. See Hacker. N.W. 

Toppings. Bran and mill-sweepings ground up together. N.W. 

Totty, Tutty, Tutto. a nosegay. Used all over Wilts, in slightly 
varying pronunciations, the stress sometimes falling on the first and some- 
times on the last syllable. An apple tree in full blossom is " all a totty." 
At Hungerford the tything-men are known as Tutti-men, and carry 
Tutti-poles, or wands wreathed with flowers. N. & S.W- 

Touchwood. A boy's game, in which the pursued endeavours to escape by 
touching wood, i.e., tree or post, before his pursuer can seize him. N. & S.W. 

Toward, (l) Order to a horse to come towards you. N.W. 

(2) Hence applied to anything near or leaning towards you. {Great 

Estate, oh. 8.) N.W. 

Towardly. Docile, as opposed iofroward. N.W. 

Traipse, Traipsey. (i) «• a slattern. N.W. 

(2) To walk in a slatternly manner ; used chiefly of women. N.W. 

*Trammel Hawk. Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon. (Birds of 

Wilts, p. 72.) S.W. 

Trant. To move goods. N.W. 

Tranter, a haulier. N.W. 

. Tree-mouse. Certhia familiar is, the Common Creeper. (Birds of Wilts, 

p. 259.) S.W. 

*Trendle. A circular earthwork. " Chisenbury Camp, or Trendle, as it is 

vulgarly called." (Britton's Wilts„Tp. 407.) 
Triangle. ' ' To plant cabbages triangle," to set them in quincunx order. N.W. 
Trig. To fasten, make firm. (Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxii., p. 113.) N.W. 
Trico'er. The rod let down to " trig up " the shafts of a cart. N.W. 

*Trim-tram. A gate which swings in a V-shaped enclosure of po.st and 

rail, so as to prevent cattle from passing through. N.W. (Cherhill.) 

Trip. To take off in jumping. N.W. 

Tripping. The " take-off " in jumping. (Bevis, ch. 5.) N.W. 

Trounce. To have the law of a man, to punish by legal process (A.B.) ; 

never used of physical punishment. N.W. 

Truckle-cheese, a small barrel-shaped cheese of about 6 or 81bs. N.W. 
Truckles. "Sheep's-truckles," sheep dung ; the usual term in N.Wilts. 
Trumpery. Weeds growing in cultivated ground. N.W. 

Tuck, (1) " To tuck a rick," to pull out the uneveu hay all round the sides, 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Eev. E. E. Goddard. 159 

until they look smooth and even. N.W. 

(2) To smart with pain. (H.) N.W. 

Tuffin, Tuffinhay, Tuff-mowing. Late hay made of the rough grass 

left by the cattle. Turvin. {Great Estate, ch. ^.) N.W. 

Tug"S. Pieces of chain attached to the hames of the thiller, by which he 

draws. N.W. 

Tump. A hillock. (A..) N.W. 

TuMipy. Hillocky, uneven. (A.) - N.W. 

Tun. Chimney, chimney-top. (A.B.) N.W. 

*Turf. Refuse oak-bark from the tanner's, made into cakes for firing. (A.B.H.) 
•Turnpike. A wire set across a hare's run. {Amateur Poacher, chs. 2 and 

7.) N.W. 

Twinge. A long flat cake or loaf of bread. N.W. [Clyffe Pypard.) 

•Twire. To look wistfully at anything. (A.B.) 

Twit. In cider-making, the same as Pei'kins. N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

T'year. This year. (A.) N. & S.W. 

Unbelieving. Of children, disobedient. N. & S.W. 

Unked. Lonely ( A .B.), but always with an idea of uncanniness underlying it. 

{Gamekeeper at Borne, ch. 4.) Also Unkid, Unkerd, Unket. N.W. 
Uppiug-Stock. A horse-block. (A.B.) N.W. 

V. Many words, as VorerigJit, usually pronounced with a V., will be found 

under f. 
Vag. Ihe modern mode of reaping with hook and crooked stick, chopping the 

straw ofE close to the ground, so as to leave little or no stubble. {Walks 

in the Wheat-Jields.) JJ. & S.W. 

Vagging-hook. The hook used in vagging. N. & S.W. 

Vagging-stick. The crooked stick with which the corn is drawn towards 

the reaper iu vagging. {Amateur Poacher, ch. 4.) N. & S.W. 

♦Valiant Sparrow. Yunx torquUla, the Wryneck. {Birds of Wilts, 

p. 257.) 

•Vamplets. Rude gaiters to defend the legs from wet. (A.H.) cf. Bams. 

Veer, (l) n. k furrow. N.W. {Glouc. bord.) 

(2) V. " To veer out the rudges," to mark out with the plough the "rudges " 

or " lands " before ploughing the whole field. N.W. 

Velt. The Fieldfare. Tardus pilaris {Wild Life, ch. 16), the usual name for 

the bird in N. Wilts, there being a few local variants, as Vulver at Huish 

and Veldever at Clyffe Pypard. Veldvare. {Wilts Tales, p. 

177.) N.W. 



160 Contrilutions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Vinney. Of bread, mouldy. (A.) N. & S.W. 

V inny. Nervous. " Do'ee stop telling about they ghostises, or 'tuU make I 

vinny." N. & S.W. 

Vrammards, Vrammerd. (l) Order to a horse to go from you, as 

opposed to Toward. N.W. 

(2) Hence sometimes used as adj. by ploughmen in speaking of anything 
distant or leaning away from them. {Great Estate, ch. 8.) 

(3) n. A vrammerd is a blade set at right angles on a short handle, used 
for s])litting laths or rails. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

*VuddieS. A spoilt child. (A.B.) 

W. Often not sounded at the beginning of a word. Thus want, a mole, 

becomes 'bont, and within and without are usually athin and athout. 
Waddle up. To wrap up with an excess of clumsily arranged clothing ; 

usually applied to infants. N.W. 

Wag. (1) " To wag the Church bells," to set them ringing. N.W. 

(2) To move. " I be that bad I can't wag." N.W. 

(3) In carrying, the hoy who stands at the horses' heads, to move them 
forward as required, is said to " wag 'ess, " and the order given is "wag 
on!" N.W. 

Wag-wants. Briza media, L., Quaking Grass. Also WegWantS, 

Wigwauts, WiDg-wang and Wagtails. W- & s.w- 

Waggon. The various parts of a waggon in N. Wilts bear the following 
names :— the bottom is the WaggOn-bed. The transverse pieces which 
support this over the ExeS (axles) are the Pillars, Peel (A.) The 
longitudinal pieces on each side on which the sides rest are the W^aggon- 
blades. The two similar pieces under the centre of the bed are the Bed- 
SUmmers. The cross piece at the back into which the Tailboard 
hooks is the Slietlock. The Tail Pole joins the front and hind 
wheels together underneath. The HoUnd is the fore-carriage over the 
front wheels. The Slide is the crossbar on the tail of the "Hound." 
The D ripple is the strip running along the top of the side of the waggon 
from which over the hind wheels project the Wag'gOn-hoopS, and over 
the front wheels the Paves. The shafts are the Dills oi" Thills. 
The Parters are detached pieces of wood at the side, joining the " Dripple " 
to the "Bed." The ThorOUgb-pin is the pin which fastens the 
" Waggon-bed " to the " Carriage." 

Wake. (1) «• The raked-up line (broader than a hatch or wallow) of hay 



By G, E. Bartnell and the Rev. E. E. Goddard. 161 

before it is made up into pooks. ( Wild Life, ch. 7.) N.W. 

(2) V. To rake hay into wakes. (D.) N.W. 

Wake-at-noon. OmitJiogalum umhellatum,'L., Star of Bethlehem. N.W. 

Wallow. (1) n. A thin line of hay. {Great Estate, ch. 4.) Weale in 

Dorset. N.W. 

(2) V. To rake hay into lines. 

Want. A mole (A.B.); also Woont and 'oont {Wilts Tales, p. 173; 

Gameheeper at Some, ch. 2.) N. & S.W. 

Want-heap. A molehill. N. & s.w. 

Want-catcher, 'oont-catcher. A man who traps moles. N. & s.w. 

Waps. A wasp. (A.) A.S. weeps. N. & S.W. 

Warnd, Warn. To warrant. " You'll get un, I warnd." (A.) N. & S.W. 

Warning-stone. See Gauge-brick. 

W^art-WOrt. Ckelidonium majus, L., Greater Celandine, the juice of which 
is used to hurn away warts. N. & S.W. 

Wassail. A drinking song, sung by meu who go about at Christmas was- 
sailing. (A.) N.W. 

Wassailing, Waysailing. Going about singing and asking for money 
at Christmas. (A.B.) N.W. 

*WaSSet-man. a scarecrow (A.B.H.) ; also Wusset (H.) N.W, 

Watchet, Wetched, Wetchet. Wet about the feet. {Wild Life, 

ch. 6.) Wotshed at Cherhiii. Wetched (a.) N.W. 

*Water Anemone. Sanunculus hederaceus, L., Ivy-leaved Crow- 
foot. S.W. (Zeals.) 
*Water-blobb. Water-lily. 
Water-buttercup. Ranunculus Flammula, L., Lesser Spearwort. S.W. 

(Zeals.) 

W^ater-CuckoO. Cardamine pratensis, L., Lady's Smock. S.W. 

Water-lily, (l) Ca/^Aa paZwA-^z-j*, L., Marsh Marigold. N. & S.W. 

* (2) Ranunculus aquattlis,Jj.,Wa,teT Crowfoot. S.W,(Charlton All Saints.) 

* Wayside-bread. Plantago major,li.. Plantain. {English Plant Names.) 
Weeth. (1) Tough and pliable. (A.B.) 

(2) Of bread, moist and yet not too soft. " I puts my lease bread on 
the pantony shelf, and it soon gets nice and weeth." Often pronounced 
as wee. N. & S.W, 

* Weigh -jolt. A see-saw. (A.B.H.) 

Welch-nut. Walnut. {MS. Lansd.) N. & S.W. 

VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXVI. M 



163 Contriiuiions towards a WiltsJiire Glossary. 

Well-drock. The windlass over a well. S.W. 

Wheat-reed, straw preserved unthreshed for tViatching. (D.) Reed is 
used ia Dev. and Som., but not now in Wilts, threshed straw being pre- 
ferred. See Elms. S.-W. W., obsolete. 
Whicker, Wicker, (l) To whinny as a horse, bleat as a goat, whine as 
a dog, &c. [Villac/e Miners ; Wilts Arch. Mug., vol. s.sii., p. 114.) N.W. 
(2) To giggle. N.W. 
* (3) " To find a wicker's nest," to be seized with an irrepressible fit of 
giggling. {Village Miners.) 
* Whip land. Land not divided by meres, but measured out, when ploughed, 

by the whip's length. (D.) 

Whippence. The fore-carriage of a plough or harrow, etc. (D.) N.W. 

White- flower. Stellaria Eolostea, L., Greater Stitchwort. N.W.(Huish.) 

*White-h0USe. A dairy. (H.) 

White Eobin Hood. &7ene e«/ate, L., Bladder Campion. S.W.(Zeals.) 

White-wood. Fibum-um Lantana, L., Mealy Guelder-rose. White- 

Weed. S.W. (Farley.) N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

*Whitty-tree. Viburnum Lantana, L. (Aubrey.) S.W. 

^Vhiver. (l) To quiver, hover. S.W. 

(2) To waver, hesitate. S.W. 

W^ild Asparagus. Omithogalnm pyrenaicum, L., Spiked Star of 

Bethlehem. S.W. {Som. bord.) 

*Wild Willow. Epilobium hirsutum, L., Great Hairy Willow-herb. 

{Great Estate, ch. 2.) 
T^'ill-iill. An impotent person or hermaphrodite. N.W. 

■'^Willow-wind, (l) Co«wo^««^m*, Bindweed. {Great Estate, ch. S.) 

(2) Polygonum Fagopyrum, L., Buckwheat. {Ibid.) 

Wim. To winnow. S.W. 

W^ind-naow. A cock of a waggon-load or more, into which hay is sometimes 

put temporarily in catchy weather (D.), containing about 15cwt. in N. Wilts, 

and a ton elsewhere. 

"W^inter-proud. Of wheat, too rank (D.), as is frequently the case after a 

mild winter. N.W. 

W^irral, Worral, or Wurral. Ballota nigra, L.. Black Horehound. 

S.W. {Som,. bord.) 

^^ithwind, or ^^ithwine. Convolvulus sepium, L., Great Bindweed, 

and other species (A.): W^ave-winO or Witherwine {Cycl. of 

■dgric): Withvwind on Som. border. N. & S.W. 



By G. E. Dartnell and ihe Bev. E. E. Goddanl. 163 

"W^i VgI, Wyvel. To blow as wind does round a corner or through a hole. N.W. 
Wivelly, or Wivel-minded. Undecided, wavering, fickle, and un- 
trustworthy. {Village Mhiers.) N.W. 
Wonderment, (l) n. A sight or pastime of any kind. N.W. 

(2) «. Any fanciful occupation. A boy who had a turn for inventions 
would be described as always " after his 'oonderments." N.W. 

(3) i>. To play the fool, waste time over unprofitable work. N.W. 
*Wood-SOUr. Of soil, loose, spongy (?) " The strong red land on the high 

level parts of the Downs .... once woodland, and sometimes ex- 
pressly called ' wood-sour' land." {Agric. of Wilts, oh. 12.) 

TV^Ood-waX. * (l) Genista tinctoria, L., Dyer's Greenweed. (D.) 

(2) Genista Anglica, L., Needle Whin. S.W. (Farley.) 

VV OOSter-blister. A smack in the face or box on the ear. S.W. ((So/ZLbord.). 
cf. Som. Whister-twister, and Dev. Whister-poop. 

*W^Ork.S, In a water-meadow, the system of trenches. {Agric. of Wilts, eh. 12.) 

Wosbird. A term of reproach, probably a corruption of Whore's-hird (A.B.), 
or perhaps from Old English Wurse, the devil. There are many variants, 
as Hosebird. and Oozebird. Much commoner in Devon. N.W. 

Wrastle. To spread, as cancer, fire, roots, etc. {Wild Life, ch.. 4,.) N.W.. 

*W^reaths. The long rods used in hurdle-making. (D.) 

TV^rick, Hick. To twist or wrench. "I've bin an' wricked my ankly." 
M.E. wrilken. N. & S.W. 

W rist. To twist, especially used of wiinging the neck of a rabbit or fowl. 
{Amateur Poacher, ch. 11.) N.W. 

TV^USted. Looking very ill, grown worse. N.W. 

Y. Many words beginning with H., G., or a vowel, are usually sounded with 
Y prefixed, as Yacker, acre ; ITeppern, apron ; Yat, or Yeat, gate ; Yeldin,. 
a hilding ; and Yerriwig, earwig. 

Verbs ending in y often drop that letter. Thus empty and study become 
empt and stud. 

The free infinitive in y was formerly much used, but is now dying out. It 
was used in a general question, as "Can you moici/?" Were a special 
piece of work referred to, mowy would not be correct, the question then 
being simply " Can you mow thuck there mead ? " 

Yap, Yop. (1) To yelp as a dog. N. & S.W. 

(2j To talk noisily. " What be a yopping there for P " N.W. 

* Yard-land. Land sufficient for a plough of oxen and a yard to winter 
them ; an ancient copyhold tenure. (D.) 

M 2 



164) Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

*Yard of land. A quarter of an acre, because formerly in common lands 
forty poles long, the quarter acre was a land-yard wide. (D.) 

Yea-nay. " A yea-nay chap," one who does not know his own mind. N.W. 

(Clyffe Pypard.) 

Yeemath, Yeomath, Youmath. Aftermath (A.B.), possibly from 
Yulemath (Skeat). We should prefer to connect it with Ea-math, Amead 
at Cherhill, Ea-grass in S.Wilts, and After-mead in Serts. N.W. 

Yelm, Yelms. See Elms. 

*Yellow-CUp8. Buttercups in general. S.W. (Zeals-) 

* Yellow Thatcll. ia</'.^y>'?<Ai?raife«*/>,L., Meadow Vetchling.S.W. (Zeals.) 
*Yoke. In thatching, the same as Fork. {Wild Life, ch. 6.) 
Yuckel, Yuckle. a woodpecker. (A.B.H.) N.W. 

Z, Among the old people S is still usually sounded as Z, as Zaat or Zate, 
soft; Zound, to swoon, etc. 



ADDENDA. 

All-amang. -^dd N.W., formerly. 

Apple-bout. An apple-dumpling, (cf. Bop-about.) lS[.W.(Cly£ee Pypard.) 
*Beads. Sagina procumhens, L., Procumbent Pearlwort. N.W. (Lyneham.) 
Belt. To trim away the dirty wool from a sheep's hind-quarters. N.W, 

Bird's-eye. (3) FeroMiVa q^amafc, L., Common Speedwell. S.W. (Barford.) 
*Black-boys. (2) ^Tjy^/ia ^a^//b?«a,L., Great Reedmace. N.W. (Lyneham.) 
Blatch. (2) V. To blacken. "Now dwon't 'ee gwo an' blatch your veace 

wi' thuc thur dirty zoot." N.W. 

Bob. In a timber carriage, the hind pair of wheels with the long pole or lever 

attached thereto. N.W. 

Budgy. Out of temper, sulky. N.W. 

Bunched. Omit " oats or," the term being used only of beans. 
Bunty. adj. Short and stout. N.W. 

*By-tbe-wind. Clematis Vitalla, L., Traveller's Joy. S.W. (Farley.) 
Caddie. (5) «. To loaf about, only doing odd jobs. " He be alius a caddlin' 

about, and won't never do nothin' reg'lar." N. & S.W. 

Cat's-tail. (2) The catkin of the willow., N.W. (Lyneham.) 

(3) The catkin of the hazel. N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 165 

CattlkeynS. Fruit of the ash. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

*Centry. AnagalUs tenella, L., Bog Pimpernel. S.W. (Barford.) 

Cheese-flower. Malva sylvestris, L., Common Mallow. S.W. (Barford.) 
Chimney-sweeps. Flowering-heads of some grasses. N.W. (Lyneham.) 
Corruptions. Some of these are curious, and perhaps worth recording, as 

Eainhall, rainbow (always used at Huish) ; LattipracJc, paralytic ; 

Nuffin-idols, Love-in-idleness; Polly Andrews, Polyanthus. Also see 

Nolens-mlens. Bronchitis is always Brantitus, and Jaundice always The 

Janders, plural. Persuade is always Suade. 
*Corn Pop. Silene inflate, Sm., Bladder Campion. N.W. (Enford.) 

*Corn Grit. Quarrymen's term for one of the building stone beds of the 

Portland series. (Britton's Beauties of Wilts, vol. 3.) 
*Creeping Jack. Sedum, Stoneerop. N.W. (Lyneham.) 

*CllshionS. Scabiosa arvensis, L., Field Scabious. N.W. (Enford.) 

Culls. Sheep or lambs picked out of the flock as inferior in size or in any 

other way and sold. Fairs at which they are sold are called "Cull 

Fairs." N.W. 

D, In comparatives, etc., d is frequently added to liquids, as coolder, cooler ; 

thinder, thinner; feeldins, feelings; and scholard, scholar. It is also 

used for th, as draish, thresh; droo, through. 
*Daddy's Whiskers. Clematis FiftoZSa.L., Traveller's Joy. S.W.(Farley.) 
Dead-roof. A skilHng roof made of bavins and thatched over. N.W. 

*Double-Dumb-Nettle. Ballota nigra, L., Black Horehound. S.W. 

(Charlton.) 

*Double-ladies'-fingers-and-thumbs. AnfhylUs vuineraria, L., 

Kidney Vetch. N.W. (Enford.) 

*Double Pincushion. AnthylUs vuineraria, L., Kidney Vetch, S.W. 

(Barford.) 
DoWSt. "To go to dowst," go to bed, perhaps from dowst (chafE) being used 

to fill mattresses. Heard at Huish occasionally, but not traced elsewhere. 
Dumb Nettle. Lamium album, L., White Dead Nettle. S.W. (Charlton.) 
Dump (3) ^ poUarcl tree, as "Ash-dump,"or " Willow-dump." N.W. (ClyfFe 
^' Pypard.) 

Dunch. Lamium album, L., White Dead Nettle. S.W. (Barford.) 

Dutch Elder. MgopodiumPodagraria,'L.,Go\i.i--v!eedi. S.W. (Farley ,etc.) 

Eggs-and-Bacon. Add s.w. 

*EggS-eggS. Fruit of the hawthorn. A.S. Eege, hedge. S.W. (Farley.) 



166 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

Eltrot. Add *Altrot. S.W. (Zeals.) 

*Fern Buttercup. Fotentilla Anserina, L., Silverweed. S.W, (Zeals.) 

Fluttery. Of weather, catchy, uncertain, showery. " 'Twill be a main 

fluttery hay-making to-year, I warnd." N.W. (Huish.) 

*Frencll Grass. Onolrychis sativa, L., Sainfoin. N.W. (Enford.) 

*Gentlemen's-and-ladies'-fingers. drum maculatum, L., Cuckoo- 

pint. S.W. (Farley.) 

••^Gilty-CUp. Caltha palustris, L., Marsh Marigold. S.W. (Zeals.) 

TTylft, In some parts of Wilts the shape and size of a hyle will depend largely 

upon the weather at harvest-time. Thus in a stormy season it will usually 

be built compact and round, while in a calm one it may sometimes form a 

line several yards in length. 
Hucks, Hulks. (2) Grains of wheat which have the chaff still adhering 

to them after threshing, and are only fit for feeding poultry. N.W. (Clyffe 

Pypard.) 
Nibbly. All in little lumps, as " Do 'ee pick all they nibbly bits out o' the 

dripping." N.W. 

•Oxen. The orders to oxen in a team are : — to the front ox, " Coom hether" ; 

to the hinder ox, " Mether up" \ go to the left. The order to go to the 

right is similar to that given to horses. N.W. 

Trins. Calves' trins, i.e., calves' stomachs, are used in cheese-making. N.W. 



Words given in Britton, AkermaUj etc., but not here included, as 
being merely provincial pronunciations or ordinary English. 
Abb, yarn for a weaver's warp ; adry, thirsty ; afore, avore ; after- 
math 5 agistment, the taking in cattle to keep by the term ; agOg ! 

airn, to earn ; alius ; amwoast ; anighst ; apast, after, be- 
yond ; archet, orchut ; athert, athwart ; athin, within ; athout, 

without ; atwo, in twain ; awnder, an andiron ; aWVerdrOW \ 

ballet, a ballad; baste, to beat; bibble, to tope ; bibbler; bill, 

bill-hook; bist, thou art ; bittle, a beetle; blather, bladder; 

bolder-stones ; bran new ; brinded, light brown ; burrow, 
a rabbit hole, etc. ; callus, to form a callus; Cantankerous ; cat's- 
cradle ; chap; chimley; clane, clean; compas, compost; 
cottage-housen ; crim, a crumb ; cross-grained ; crowner ; 
crusty; crousty ; cute ; deaw, dew; deaw-claw; desperd; 
doff; don; dowel, the devil; downs; dowsty; drattle; 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 167 

drawt, throat ; drouth, thirst ; drouthj ; dumpy ; dungy, 
cowardly; ear, to plough ; earing; earnest, yern est, earnest- 
money; eath, yeath, yirth, earth; eez, hiss, yes; eldern; 

empt ; eow, ewe; eth, heth, hearth ; ettle, a nettle ; faggot ; 
facks, fags, i'fagS, indeed!; fellow; fen, fend, to prevent; 
flem, a farrier's lancet ; flem-stick, the staff used to strike the flem 
into a vein ; flook, fluke, a disease in sheep ; fractioUS ; furst, 
thirst; fusty, thirsty; fuz, gorse ; gaby; gaft, an eel-catcher's gaff ; 

game, a garden; gear, harness, etc.; geat, yat, yate, yeat, 

gate; gie, to give; girt, great; gray, a badger; gumption, 

gawmtion; guzzle; halloo-baloo ; handy; harrest, 

harvest; hash, harsh; hatcll, a half-door; haul ; hire, to hear; 
holt, hold : holter, a halter ; hop-and-ray, hop-clover sown with 
ray-grass; hud, (1) to hide, (2) hidden ; huff, strong beer; huffed, 

offended ; hurdle ; hus, a house ; innerds ; inon, onion ; ire, 

iron; Izzard, the letter Z; Jack-o'-lanlern ; Jan, John; 
janders, jaundice; jiffy; king's-claver, melilot; kit, a quantity; 
lather, leather, to beat; law, the start allowed a hunted animal ; 
lief, liefer, liever, rather ; limber, pliable ; lissom, lithesome ; 

maiden-pig, a young sow that has not bred yet ; mander, maun- 
der ; may ; may -be ; measter ; miff, offence ; miffed ; 
millard, miller; mought, might; mouster, to muster; muddle ; 
muddle-headed ; muggy ; naght, nothing ; nat, not; niest, 
near ; nigher, nire ; nitums, at night ; nuncle ; ollet, compost ; 
ongainly ; onpossible ; pasmets, parsnips ; peg, a pig ; 

pewit ; pip, (l) a seed or bud, (2) a small object ; prong ; pwint ] 
ramshackel ; rathe, early ; ready, cooked ; rip, a loose woman ; 
rough, to roughen a horse's shoes in frosty weather ; rongS, the rounds 
of a ladder ; ruddle, red ochre for marking sheep ; rumple, to rufHe ; 

rusty, restive; saace, impudence; sarsens; sawl, soul; scrunch; 
Severalty, law term ; shirk off, to slink off ; sive, scythe ; sleepy 

(of fruit) ; sleezy, of cloth, thin and poor; slink, to decamp furtively; 

stinge, a sting; storm, a shower; stwonen ; stwon-dead ; 
sure, certainly ; swap, swop ; swath ; swig ; swingeing ; 
swyrd; tackle; tarblish, tolerably; Tenantry, law term; 



168 Contributions towards a WilisUre Glossary. 

times, again and again; tmej; tit; to-do ; tODglie (of a 

buckle); tramp; twit, to reproach; twoad ; vet, feet; vire 

new, quite new; voldshore, a hurdle-stake; vriz ; Vuddled, 
fuddled ; 'war, beware ; war, was ; white-mouth, a thrush (the dis- 
ease) ; wic, a week ; winnej, to neigh ; with ; withy ; wizzened ; 
Worthine, Worthies, a field name ; yacker, acre ; yelding, 

a hilding ; yeppum, apron; yerriwig, an earwig; zaat, zate, 

zoft, soft; zart, sort; zartin, certain ; zooap, Boap; zooner, 

sooner ; zound, to swoon. 



Notes on Derivation, by the Rev. A. Smythe Palmer. 

A. Davis derives this from the triangular shape of the drag, resembling the 
letter A. Compare Csprincfs, T-squares, etc. 

Badger. Compare hodger, a travelling dealer (Harrison's Description of 
England, 1577), and bogging, peddling, in Murray. 

Barge. Compare architectural Barge-hoards. 

Biver. A.8. bifian, to tremble. 

Bottle. This is the original meaning of the word, it being a diminutive of 
butt. 

Bruckle. Compare J?'iciZe=brittle {Wisdom, xv., 13), O.E. JracoZ=apt to 
break. 

Budgy. A softened form of buggy, self-important, churlish, from the Old 
English and provincial budge, grave, solemn, etc. See Folk-Etymology, 
p. 42. 

Cam. Welsh cam, crooked, wry. 

Crab. Compare North Eng. crab, to provoke, and crob, to reproach. Origi- 
nally a hawking term, hawks being said to crab when they stood too near 
and fought one with another. See Folh-Etymology , p. 81. 

Flews and FloWSO are evidently forms of flush and flux, and^ewj/ ap- 
parently from an imaginary sing.^ew. 

OlorV-hole. This has nothing to do with Lat. gloria, but is connected with 
O.E. glory, to befoul {Prompt. Parv.). Compare Prov. Eng. glorry, greasy, 
fat, O.E. glare, mire, etc. Thus glory -h.ole=.z, dirty untidy nook. See 
Folk-Etymology, p. 145. 

Gubbarn. Compare Devon gubbings, ofEal, refuse. 



Note on Canon Jaclson's Beq^iest of Fossils. 169 

HeiI. -^il is the more correct form : cf. A.S. egle, an ear of corn, O.E. eiles^ 

Dors, hoils, Snff. hauels, etc. See Folk-Etymoloqy, p. 2(33. 
Joy -bird. The name commonly used in N. Wilts for the Jay. A reversion 

to the original meaning of the word. Fr. geai, etc., denoting the blithe and 

gay bird. See Folk-El ymology, p. 197. 
Mouse. " The chief muscles of the body were named from lively animals ; 

e.g mus., mouse, the biceps muscle of the arm, and so in A.S. 

and O.H.G. cf. musculus, (1) a little mouse, (2) a muscle." [Folk- 

Etymology, p. 615, suh Calf.) 
Is ythe. Apparently a corruption of Fr. nid, a nest, from which also comes 

prov. eye, a brood of pheasants. See Folk-Etymology, p. 114, suh Eye. 
Scambling'. in the Percy Household ^o&i, 1511, " Scamlynge days" is 

of constant occui-rence iov jours maigres. 



^ote on Canon ^ulmxs §qnc$t rf ^(^mh 

By W. CUNNINGTON, F.G.S. 

^"HIS collection is contained in a large, well-constructed cabinet 
of forty-five dust-proof drawers, enclosed within folding 
doors. The drawers are aft. wide by l^ft. in breadth. 

The number of specimens is about five thousand eight hundred, 
of which nearly one half are from Wiltshire. Many of the others 
are from the British strata, but there is a large number, some of 
them exceedingly fine and interesting, from localities on the Conti- 
nent. These were collected by our late friend during his early 
travels, and appear to have been obtained at considerable cost. 

The late Pleiocene fossils from Palermo, Venice, &c., and the 



170 Note on Canon JacJcson^s Bequest of Fossils. 

Miocene specimens from Bordeaux and Val d'Arno, will be found 
to be very beautiful. The Eocene specimens of fossil fish, insects, 
spiders, and plants from Aix in Provence are all very curious, and 
many of them very rare. There are also some remarkable fish 
(some of them very minute), and well-preserved plants from Monte 
Bolca. 

There are many rare specimens amongst the London Clay fossils 
from Hampshire, the Isle of Wight, and from Bognor, with some 
very perfect fossil Crustacea. 

Wiltshiremen will be specially gratified with the fossil sponges 
from the Chalk of Bowerchalk and other localities in the county, 
some of them new to science. The Upper Green Sand from the 
neighbourhood of Warminster is well represented, and there are two 
drawers of magnificent Blackdown fossils — amongst these a slab of 
minute characteristic shells of great beauty. 

Amongst the Kimmeridge Clay fossils are good examples of the 
teeth of the genus Gyrodas. 

The Coral Rag series will be very acceptable to our collection, 
supplying several species till now wanting. The two Bradford Clay 
drawers contain fossils from a locality — Yatton Keynell — not 
generally known to geologists. They are from a quarry formerly 
belonging to our first President, Mr. Poulett Scrope. 

The Great Oolite fossils are chiefly remarkable for numerous 
specimens of the minute forms from this stratum, worked out and 
arranged with most particular care. We would direct attention to 
some fine fossils from the Coal beds and Carboniferous Limestone, 
also to the Silurian fossils, with many excellent specimens of 
Trilobites. 

It is very desirable that the finer specimens from the Wiltshire 
portion of the Jacksonian Collection should, without delay, be in- 
corporated in the County Collection, as now shown in the Museum, 
but tJie rooms, as well as the cabinets of the premises at Devizes, are 
absolutely congested, and it is thus impossible to carry out an ar- 
rangement which would greatly add to the value, as well as to the 
educational power, of this part of the Museum. An attempt was 
made to add some of the finer specimens from Canon Jackson^s 



\ 



By W. Cunnington, F.6.S. 171 

drawers to the Blackdown portion of our " Devizian " series, so ably 
arranged by Mr, Jukes-Browne a year or two ago. A few (in- 
cluding a good Ammonites rostralus, the characteristic fossil, which 
was wanting in this part of the series) were selected, and have added 
much to tl>e appearance of our cretaceous ease. The specimens 
removed from the Jackson Collection have all been labelled with the 
name " Jackson'^ on scai'kt paper, so that they can readily be dis- 
tinguished. 

On the inside of one of the folding doors of the cabinet there is 
pasted a cutting from an old newspaper. It is here copied — another 
example of the Canon's sense of the humourous : — 

" On a certain eminent Connoisseur's method of adding to his owq rich 
Museum, out of a very poor one which he lately honoured with a visit. 

" Squire Curious invited to see my collection. 
Showed what pleased him the best by a masterly action. 
For, seeing a beautiful fossil, he took it. 
And, without asking leave, put it into his pocket. 

" My amazement at this, which I could not conceal. 
Was increased by his saying, " Observe, I don't steal" l 
Such a speech and exploit made me blush, I must say. 
But he carried his prize without blushing away. 

" Different people see things in a different view. 
What seems thieving to me, with the Squire is Yertu. 

" C y, Aug. ^rd, 1759." 



172 



^bbitions to tlje ^us^mit anb |^iljratg. 

The Museum. 

Seventeentli century tokens of Bristol, Newbury, Cirencester, Bath, Weymouth, 
Andover, Taunton, Yeovil, Tetbury, and Gloucester. Presented by the late 
Canon Jackson. (1890.) 

Seventeenth century tokens of Salisbury and Swindon. By exchange. (1890.) 

Ammomt-es tvsiraius from middle " Devizian " beds, Caen Hill ; Iron ore, 
Eowde ; Chloritic Sand, railway cutting, Stert ; Clay from sandy beds of 
" Devisian," Devizes. Presented by Mr. W. Cunnikgton, F.G.S. 

New Zealand Blanket. Presented by Mrs. G. Simpson. 

Quern from Barbury Castle, and Roman coins. Presented by Rev. H. Harris. 

Slab from the Market Cross, Devizes, with inscriptioa re Ruth Pearce. Deposited 
by Mr. F. Reynolds. 

Cannon-ball found near Devizes Station. Presented by Mr. C. H. Evans. 

Fragments of stained glass found at Marten. Presented by Mr. H. Selfe. 

The Libeaet. 

Records of Chippenham : F. H. Goldney. Presented by The Atjthoe. (1890.) 
Sir Richard the King and his territory : Thomas Kerslake. Presented by The 

Author. (1890.) 
Our British Ancestors : S. Lysons. Pi-esented by Mr. W. Cunnikgton, F.G.S. 
Illustrated Sale Catalogue of Farley Castle Estate, 1891. Presented by Mr. W. 

Hewaed Bell, F.G.S. 
A Wiltshire Village Revel, with the origin of Moonraking : by " a Wiltshire 

Moonraker." Presented by Rev. E. C. Awdet. 
Salisbury Charters and documents. Purchased. 



H, F. BULL, Printer and Publisher, 4, Saint John Street, Devizes, 

16 DEO 95 






GEOLOGY. MemLers interested in Geology, who wish to receive 
notice of any Geological Excursions which may be arranged, 
are desired to send in their names to 

W. H. Bell, Esq., 
Seend, 

Melksham. 

The Church Plate of the County of 

Wilts. 

FROM RETURNS BY 

J. E. NIGHTINGALE, F.S.A., AND THE REV. 
E. H. GODDARD, M.A. 

To he Published by Subscription, immediately . 

Large 8vo, 270 pp., with Illustrations of 1S5 separate pieces, 

of which 83 are full-page. 

Price 15*. net. 

Subscribers' names may be sent to Mr. Nightingale, Wilton, or to 

Mr. Brown, Bookseller, Salisbury, who will forward the 

volume post-free on the receipt of 15«. Qd. 

Mr. C. W. HoLGATE, Palace, Salisbury, who is editing the Long 
Rolls of Winchester College, will be greatly obliged to anyone 
who will lend him the Long Rolls for the following years, viz , 
1654 to 1667, inclusive, 1669, 1671, 16S4, 1686, 1687, 1708, 
1705, 1711, 171o, 1715, 1718, 1719, 1722, 1728, 1726, 1728, 
1729, and 1733. 

LIST OF NEW MEMBERS— Elected 1891. 

Life. 
CHfford W. Holgate, Esq. 

Annual. 
G. E. Anstie, Esq. 

F. W. Burger. Esq. 
Lieut. -General Bylhesea. 
Joseph Carpenter, Esq. 
Eev. J. D. Dunlap. 

G. E. Dai-tnell, Esq. 
H. P. Dixon, Esq. 

Henry N. B. Good, Esq., J.P. 

Rev. W. Wynne Lloyd. 

Dr. Mackay. 

E. Mallinson, Esq 

Eev. M. J. T. Milling. 

Eev. E. N. Milford. 

Andrew Oliver, Esq. 

H. D. Piper, Esq. 

Col. Eudge. 

G. Simpson, Jun., Esq. 

Edward D. Webb, Esq. 

A. Bullock Webster, Esq. 

D. J. Yeo, Esq. 

Pardee Yates, Esq. 



The Anmial Meeting for i8g2 

"Will probably be beld at Cirencester, about July 12tb to 14th— 
in conjunction, it is hoped, with that of the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Archseologieal Society. In addition to the 
many Architectural and Archaeological attractions of 
Cirencester itself, it is intended to visit Fairford, Cricklade, 
Soraerford Keynes, Ashton Keynes, Minety, Oaksey, 
K enable, &c., &c. 



SECOND EDITION OP 

The British and Roman Antiquities of 
the North Wiltshire Downs, 

BY THE REV. A. C. SMITH, M.A. 

One Volume, Atlas 4to, ^48 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, 

Extra Cloth. Price £2 2*. 

One copy offered to each Member of the Society, at £1 11«. M., 

until December, 1892. 



Lately Published, by the Wiltshire ArchsBological & Natural History 
Society, One Volume, 8vo, 504 pp., with map. Extra Cloth. 

The Flowering Plants of Wiltshire, 
BY THE REV. T. A. PRESTON, M.A. 

Price to the Public, 16«. ; but one copy offered to every Member 
of the Society at half-price. 



Lately Published, One Volume, 8vo., 613 pp., Extra Cloth. 

The Birds of Wiltshire, 
BY THE REV. A. C. SMITH, M.A. 

Price reduced to lOs. ^d. 



B. F, BULL, VaiHIBB, DETIZIS, 



No LXXVII. 



JUNE, 1892. 



Vol. XXVI. 



THE 



WILTSHIEE 

IrrjitEDlngiral m^ Bnturnl listnrq 

MAGAZINE, 

^ulilis'ijelr under f^t Bivtttian 

OF XHE 

SOCIETY FORMED IN THAT COUNTY, 
A.D. 1853. 



EDITED BY 

EEV. K H. GODDARD, ClyfEe Vicarage, Wootton Bassett 




DEVIZES: 
Pbihtkd asd sold fob the Societt bt H. F. BuLi, Saint Johv Stbbet. 

Price 5s. Qd. — Members Gratis. 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

TAKE NOTICE, that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
Volumes of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., svi., and xxiv. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. David Owkn, 31, Long Street, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will be delivered grain, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. S " The Financial 
Secretary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be fryrwarded to Members whose 
subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

AH other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
taries : H. E. Medlicott, Esq., Sandfield, Potterne, Devizes ; 
and the Rev. E. H. Goddard, ClyfFe Vicarage, Wootton Bassett. 



The Rev. A. C. Smith (Old Park, Devizes) will be much obliged to 
observers of birds in all parts of the county, to forward to 
him notices of rare occurrences, early arrivals of migrants, or 
any remarkable facts connected with birds, which may come 
under their notice. 

A resolution has been passed by the Committee of the Society, 
" that it is highly desirable that every encouragement should 
be given towards obtaining second copies of Wiltshire Parish 
Registers." 

Back Numbers of the Magazine, price 5*. ^d. (except in the case of 
a few Numbers, the price of which is raised), may be obtained 
on application to Mr. D. Owen, 3i, Long Street, Devizes. 



Memorial to the late Canon Jackson. 
Enlargement of the Society's Museum, 

Up to the present about £^50 has been given or promised for 
this ol>ject. Further subscriptions are much needed in order 
to carry out the original plan. Those who have not yet paid 
in subscriptions promised are requested to send them as soon 
as convenient to H. E. Medlicott, Esq., Potterne, Devizes. 



WILTSHIRE 

Irrlelaginil oiiit Jtntiinil listntti 

MAGAZINE. 



No. LXXVII. JUNE, 189^.-<aT^^:^»^>>vVoL. XXVI. 




Contctttsf.v^ 

_^'' '' PAGB 

Certified Pedigree of Ludlow, of Hill Deverill, Co. Wilts 173 

Account of the Thirtt-Eighth Genekal Meeting, at Wilton 173 
Architectural Notes on Places visited by the Society in 1891 : 

By C. E. Pouting, F.S.A 188 

A Sketch of the History of the Parish of Broad Chalke, 

Wilts: by the Rev. T. N. Hutchiuson, M.A., Vicar 213 

A Proposed Bibliography of Wiltshire : By Clifford W. Holgate, 

M.A 221 

The Wilton Carpet Industry : By Pardee Yates 242 

The Origin and Mqde of Formation of the Vale of Wardoue : 

By the Rev. W. R. Andrews, F.G.S 258 

The Descent of the Manor of Stockton 270 

Mistress Jane Lane : By C. Penruddocke ^Coa^mi^ed!^ 278 

In Memoriam, J. E. Nightingale, F.S.A 290 

In Memoriam, H. J. F. Swayne 292 

Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary : By G. E. Dartaell 

and the Rev. E. H. Goddard (Continued) 293 

Additions to Museum and Library 315 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Photo-print of Priest's Door and Building outside South 

Transept Bishopstone, South Wilts 203 

SediliaandTombin North Transept, Bishopstone, South 

Wilts 205 

All Saints' Church Broad Chalke — Longitudinal and 

Cross Sections, and North and West Elevations 209 

All Saints' Church. Broad Chalke— Ground Plan, South 

and East Elevations and Font 212 

Photo-print of Badge and Seals of the Wilton Weavers' 

Fellowship 246 

Vertical Spction throuijh the Vale of Wardour 264 

*Photo-print of .Jane J/ane from Portrait at Packington 

Hall, in possrssion of the Earl of Aylesford 287 

*Photo-print of Lady (.lant- Lane) Fisher, from Portrait 

at Packington Hall in possession of the Earl of 

Aylesford 288 

* The Socie'y is indebted to Mr. Pc nruddocke for the 
generous gift of these two illustrations. 

DEVIZES : 
H. F. Bull, 4, Saint John Sthbbt. 



W, OF WILTS. 




iIj j^.zoisr. 

marten's heads eras* 

I greyhound statant s 

between the attires 

second, the nostril 

15, 4-, 3, and 3, gules, 
emi marten couoed 



IDON. 



CERTIFIED PEDIGREE OF LUDLOW, OF HILL DEVERILL, CO. WILTS. 




QUARTERLY COAT AND CREST, FROM THE VISITATION OF WILTS 1565. AS CERTIFIED AT THE COLLEGE OF ARMS, LONDON. 









) 



























1 
























B.iBeata. TrowbiiJite. V 









i^„„u,^,.nL,^'- «,.....,. II..'... i.,.,...,. II.... II.-""™ "£;-i,"t;.,';""»i,"';,3 'fcS'MW Tt.'S." "KSi". "cz" 



THE 



WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



"multoeum manibus geandb letatue onus." — Ovid. 



THE THIRTY-EIGHTH GENERAL MEETING 

OF THE 

liltsl^ire ^rc|)Eologtcal anti Natural l^istorg ^octets, 

HELD AT WILTON, 
Jultf Z9i/i, SOtk, and Slst, 1891. 

THE PBE8IDENT OF THE SOCIETY, 

Lt.-Gex. Pitt-Rivees, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., &c., 

IN THE CHAIB. 

I^JLTON, where the Society had met twenty-one years ago— 
Im in 1870 — was decided on as the place of the Annual Meeting 
in lh91 as being the nearest town in Wiltshire to Rushmore, which 
the Society had been invited to visit and inspect by their President, 
Gen. Pitt- Rivers. The weather had been " turble casalty " for some 
time, and it did not clear up for the Meeting — so that doubtless 
many who would otherwise have att€nded were deterred from doing 
so. Indeed nothing conld have been more cheerless than the after- 
noon of the opening day, July 29th, when the Annual Meeting was 
held at the Town Hall. Steady rain and a very small attendance 
seemed to be the fate of the Meeting. 

The Pbesident, having taken the chair, called on Mr. Medlicott 
to read 

THE REPORT, 
which was as follows : — 

" The Committee desires to report to the Members of the Society 
that it continues to prosper. 

" Though year by year we lose old and valued Members, yet we 
continue to add new names to our list to take their places, and, it 

VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXYII. N 



174 The Thirty -eighth General Meeting. 

may be hoped, worthily to maintain the reputation of our Society. 

" We have experienced since our last Annual Meeting the loss by 
death of several valued Members, amongst them Mr. W. Proctor, 
Mr. Job Edwards, Mr. H. M. Clarke — who took much interest in 
our work so long as he resided in the county — and. our most revered 
Vice-President, Canon Jackson, who were all original Members ; 
Lord Heytesbury — who joined us in 1866, and was a valued supporter 
— the Rev. de Courcy Meade — who, with Mrs, Meade, often joined 
us on the annual excursion — and Mr. W. Morris, of Swindon— who, 
though he only became a Member in 18H6, has for some years been 
an ardent archaeologist. We are sorry to find that, from one cause 
or another, some eight or nine gentlemen have resigned their mem- 
bership. Several new members, however, have been elected, and 
our numbers on the 1st instant amounted to three hundred and 
seventy-eight, as against three hundred and sixty-nine as recorded 
in our last report. We still hope to see our membership increase to 
four hundred, and we think that, by a little exertion on the part of 
the Officers, Local Secretaries, and others who will take an active 
interest in the Society, this may yet be accomplished. 

" Conspicuous amongst the names of those whose loss we deplore 
is, of course, that of our most venerable friend. Canon Jackson, one 
of the chief founders of the Society, first Editor of the Magazine, 
and one of the first two Honorary Secretaries. The Committee 
has recorded on its minutes that Canon Jackson has provided more 
material for a history of the county than any other Member of the 
Society, and that the topographical and historical papers delivered 
by him with inimitable address at almost every Annual Meeting will 
ever be remembered, with pleasure by those privileged to hear them. 
A copy of a resolution of condolence passed in Committee was for- 
warded to Mr. J. Houltou Jackson. An interesting memorial 
notice of our dear old friend appeared in the last number of the 
Magazine. The Committee hopes that a fund may be raised to 
memorialise in some suitable way the long connection of the Canon 
with our Society. 

"Nos. 74 and 75 of the Magazine have been issued since our last 
Meeting, completing vol. xxv. The Committee feels that the Editor 



The Report. 175 

may be congratulated upon the success of his endeavour to maintain 
the character of their periodical publication, which contains some 
valuable and interesting contributions both to the archaeology and 
natural history of the county. 

" As to finance, a comparison of the account of the receipts and 
disbursements of the year 1889 with that for the year 1890, pub- 
lished in the last number of the Magazine, shows a large increase on 
both sides of the last account. The receipts are swelled by nearly 
£40 of arrears of subscriptions which have been recovered during the 
year ; by an increase in the amounts received by the sale of the 
Society^s publications, and for admission to the Museum, both 
showing, it may be hoped, an increased interest in the Society's 
work ; and by the satisfactory balance handed over by the Local Com- 
mittee last year after the Devizes Meeting, upon the management of 
which the Committee must not fail to congratulate the Local 
Secretary, Mr. B. H. Cunnington. On the other hand, the dis- 
bursements have considerably increased, principally, however, owing 
to the fact that the printing and issuing of three numbers of the 
Magazine were paid for during 1890, as against only one in 1889. 
The balance carried forward is £281 75., a slight decrease upon the 
balance at the beginning of the year. The Committee regret again 
to have to state that some £70 of annual subscriptions due on the 
1st o£ January last is still unpaid. It is believed that very nearly 
all of this will come to hand, but it would be a great advantage to 
the Society if Members would direct their bankers to pay their 
subscriptions for them on the 1st of January in each year. 

" Amongst the additions to the Museum and Library of the 
Society, which are recorded in the Magazine, may be specially 
mentioned a large collection of fossils, and the cabinet containing 
them, which were left to the Society by Cnnon Jackson; the first 
part of a History of the Hundred of Ramsbury, presented by E. 
Doran-Webb, Esq., the author; and a portrait of Henry, Marquis 
of Lansdowne, our first President, presented by James Waylen, Esq. 

" The Committee thinks it desirable to record in this report that 
the very large and interesting topographical collections made by 
Canon Jackson, arranged in portfolios, each relating to a Wiltshire 

N 2 



176 The Tldriy-eigUJi General Wleeihig. 

manor or parish, have been acquired by the Society of Antiquaries, 
and are deposited at their rooms in Burlington House. If the 
Society of Antiquaries undertakes to catalogue the collection it is 
hoped we may be favoured with a copy of it for our Library. No 
doubt the papers are in safe custody, but the Committee feels that 
they are not very accessible to Wiltshiremen. During the past 
year the attention of the Committee has been drawn to the fact 
that a series of very careful and accurate drawings and plans of 
Stonehenge and Avebury, made several years ago by the Rev. W. 
C. Luliis, F.S.A., are deposited at the same place. It is proposed 
to publish them at the price of about 155., if two hundred sub- 
scriptions can be obtained. The subject of parish registers has been 
under the consideration of the Committee, and it has been resolved 
that it is highly desirable that every encouragement should be given 
towards obtaining second copies of Wiltshire parish registers. 

" The Committee has deputed Mr. W. Cunnington, F.G.S., one 
of our Vice-Presidents, and the Rev. E. H. Goddard, to attend as 
delegates at an archaeological Congress convened at Burlington 
House this month by the Society of Antiquaries. 

*' During the spring our President carried on some further work 
of excavation at Wansdyke, the results of which he has undertaken 
to communicate to this Meeting. 

" The Committee must again appeal to its members to renew 
their efforts to maintain the Society, to keep up and increase its 
numbers by sending in the names of their friends and neighbours 
as new members, and by keeping a watchful eye upon everything 
bearing upon the history, in all its branches and departments, of 
this interesting county." 

Me. Penrtjddocke, in moving the adoption of the report, con- 
gratulated the Society on being in such a flourishing condition, and 
said that if every Member of it would exert himself to bring in one 
more Member, the prosperity and funds of the Society would soon 
be still more increased. 

Mr. W. Heward Bell, in seconding, referred to the collection 
of notes and papers on Wiltshire left by the late Canon Jackson, 
which he had hoped might have been deposited in the Society's 



The Opening Meeting. 177 

Library at Devizes. The Pkesident acknowledged that he agreed 
with Mr. Bell that the papers would have been better left in 
Wiltshire, but, on behalf of the Society of Antiquaries — to whom 
they now belonged — he thought he might say that every facility 
would be given to Wiltshiremen who wished to see or use those 
papers. 

The Secretaries and Officers of the Society having been re-elected. 
The Peesident stated that the idea of raising some memorial to 
the late Canon Jackson, who had been so long and so closely con- 
nected with the Society, had been engaging the attention of the 
Committee, and it was proposed that it should take the form of an 
extension of the Society's Museum at Devizes. They had valuable 
collections there which were much crowded together*, and could not 
be exhibited properly for want of room. He thought there was no 
better means of promoting the study of and interest in archaeology 
and natural history than by the establishment of good local museums. 
He moved the following resolution, " That a fund shall be raised 
with a view to a permanent memorial of Canon Jackson, and that 
it shall take the form of an extension or addition to the Society's 
Museum and Library." 

The Rev. E. H. Goddard, in seconding the motion, explained 
that a resolution to this effect was come to at a Committee meetino- 
shortly after Canon Jackson's death, but that subsequently it was 
suggested that the publication of the History of the Huugerford 
Family, the compilation of which had occupied so many years of the 
late Canon's life, would be likely to be more acceptable to antiquaries 
generally, outside as well as inside the county. The late Canon's 
nephew, however, into whose possession the MSS. had passed, did 
not favour the suggestion, which, therefore, fell to the ground, and 
no other suggestion which had been made seemed so desirable as the 
one now proposed. 

This resolution having been unanimously adopted, and a sub- 
scription list opened, the proceedings terminated, and the party — 
which had by this time grown to larger dimensions— set forth to 
view the objects of interest in the town, as well as the rain would 
let them. 



178 The Thirty -eighth General Meeting. 

They first visited the ancient Hospital of St. John the Baptist, 
of which the Chapel and a portion of the hospital buildings of the 
fourteenth century still remain ; Mr. Ponting here, as elsewhere 
throughout the three days' Meeting, excellently discharging his 
ofBce of architectural mentor and guide to the Society. 

The famous and costly modern Lombai-d Church, erected 1841-5 
was next visited, the Rector, the Rev. Canon Olivier, conducting 
the party round, and pointing out the various objects of interest that 
it contains. The mosaic of thirteenth century " opus Alexandrinuvi " 
in the porch, and the various portions in the pulpit and elsewhere 
of what was once a rich thirteenth century shrine in S. Maria 
Maggiore at Rome, with twisted white marble columns inlaid with 
" Cosmaii " ribbon mosaic so characteristic of Italian work of that 
period, are specimens of a kind of work rarely seen in England — 
the best known example being that of Edward the Confessor's tomb 
in Westminster Abbey. The rich thirteenth and fourteenth century 
glass, probably French, in the windows of the apse, and the later 
glass of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in some of the 
windows of the nave — especially that which came from Wilton 
House and bears the portraits of the first Earl of Pembroke and 
his wife and son — were examined with much interest, as well as 
the fine columns of black Porto Venere marble, which carry the 
chancel arch. 

From here the party proceeded to the ruins of the old Parish 
Church, where Mr, Ponting pointed out the remains of good Per- 
pendicular work, and expressed a hope that somebody would be able 
to solve the conundi'um in stone which the top of the Renaissance 
cross just outside the churchyard is apparently intended to present. 
Query, was it ever a sundial ? 

The carpet factory of Messrs. Yates & Co. was next visited, and 
great interest was shown in the manufacture of the Axminster, 
Turkey, Wilton and Brussels carpets for which the establishment is 
so famous. The President pointed out that the finest and most 
expensive Axminster carpets were being made by hand under the 
eyes of the visitors in precisely the same manner and with the same 
primitive instruments as those employed in the earliest days — and 



The Conversazione at the Town Hall, 179 

he carried off one of the combs used for heating down the threads, 
which he dechired from its shape, had it not been of iron, he should 
have at once pronounced to be pre- Roman and Celtic. 

The party then proceeded to a reception at the residence of The 
Mayor, Mr. Pardoe Yates, where they were most hospitably enter- 
tained by their host and hostess, a programme of instrumental music 
and glees being performed by the Wilton Band, whilst the members 
were enjoying the refreshments provided for them. In another 
room the singularly interesting series of Wilton Charters were laid 
out, ranging in date from 1100 to 1885 — that bearing the autograph 
of King John in l:i07 being in wonderful preservation. Here, too, 
were the very handsome silver-gilt maces of 1639 and 1681, with 
the seal and other insignia belonging to the Corporation. 

The Anniversary Dinner was held at the Pembroke Arms, at 6 
o'clock, some twentj'-six guests sitting down to it, with the President 
of the Society in the Chair, supported by the Mayor of Wilton and 
the Bishop of Salisbury. 

The toasts after dinner were cut short, and the party adjourned to 
the Conversazione to be held in the Town Hall at 8 o'clock. Here 
The President commenced by reading a very interesting paper on 
his excavations in Wansdyke and the conclusions to which they led. 
He regarded it as conclusively-established that the work was notearlier 
than Roman times — very possibly it was later, but there was nothing 
to fix the exact period. The few relics found during the diggings 
— including the small bits of Samian ware and the iron sandal cleat 
and nails which General Pitt-Rivers relies on as proving it not to 
be pre- Roman were exhibited, and, as usual, when General Pitt- 
Rivers has to explain anything, the walls were covered with plans and 
diagrams in which the position of each object found was accurately 
marked in the cutting. The General explained that he was only 
giving the general results of his work that evening, as the whole 
matter would be dealt with in great detail in the thiid volume of 
his accounts of excavations. 

After the interval, during which tea and ices were discussed at 
the invitation of the Mayor and Mayoress, an excellent address on 
the formation of the Vale of Wardour was given by the Rev. 



180 The TUrty-eighih General Meeting, 

W. R. Andrews, F.G.S., whose knowledge of the geology of that 
neighbourhood is very extensive. He traced with the help of a map 
the geological phenomena of alternate upheaval, depression, and 
denudation which have resulted in the formation of the present 
vallies and the hills which surround them. 

Gen. Pitt- Rivers said that the great difficulty was to account for 
the formation of the deep combes on one side of the chalk hills, the 
ends of which often stretch back to within a very short distance 
of the edge of the escarpment of the other side. Where did the 
water come from to excavate these combes ? Mr. Bell also con- 
fessed that none of the explanations he had heard of quite 
satisfactorily accounted for the existence of these combes. 

THURSDAY, JULY 30th. 

On Thursday morning forty-two members assembled at the 
Town Hall and started at 9.20 for the excursion in breaks. The 
weather looked threatening, and a heavy shower fell just as the 
Racecourse hill was surmounted ; but a little while after this the 
weather improved, and the sun came out, so that the party had 
after all a charming drive through a country apparently without 
inhabitants as far as Bokerly Dyke. Here they halted at the point 
where the road intersects the dyke, and Gen. Pitt-Rivers showed 
the spots where his excavations had been made — of which no trace 
remained — and pointed out the fact that the dyke was apparently 
constructed to defend the stretch of open country lying between two 
forest regions in which its ends are lost, in the reign of Honorius, 
or later, after the departure of the Romans, as proved by the multi- 
tude of coins found, {cf. vol. xxv., p. 297.) 

The next stoppage was at Farnham Museum, a unique collection 
formed by General Pitt- Rivers of agricultural implements and articles 
of peasant manufacture and dress from all parts of the world. Here, 
too, are deposited the models, accurately made to exact scale, of all 
the more important of his excavations, together with the objects 
which were found in them. These he explained to the party, who 
would willingly have spent a very much longer time in examining 
this wonderfully interesting museum — which by the General's 



Thursdays Excursion. 181 

liberality is maintained and thrown open for the benefit of the 
public. 

Thence the party proceeded to the grounds of the Larraer Tree^ 
a few years ago a copse, wood, and quarry — now a beautiful pleasure 
ground with smooth-shaven lawns, open to the public. From this 
point a few mthutes' drive brought the party to King John's House, 
close to the Church at ToUard Royal. Formerly the house, which 
was a farm, exhibited traces of nothing earlier than Jacobean work ; 
but on peeling off the plaster with which the walls were covered it 
was discovered that a great part of it was of the thirteenth century, 
several windows even of that date remaining. Upon discovering 
this. General Pitt-Rivers had it restored — only as far as was 
absolutely necessary — laid open the foundations of the small tower 
at the corner, and fitted up the interior as a museum of art, with a 
reading-room, for the villagers, retaining its old oak panelling, in 
the more modern part of the building. The collection of pictures 
formed here by the General is intended to illustrate the history of 
painting from the earliest times — beginning with a beautiful ex- 
ample of the mummy portraits of the second century A.D., from 
the Fayoum — through the Byzantines and Margaritone d'Arezzo — of 
whom he has a signed example — to the great schools of Italy, and 
so to modern times. There are also specimens of pottery, of old oak 
carving, and other objects of interest ; and, as in the case of the 
Farnham Museum and the Larmer Grounds, this, too, is freely open 
to the public — as was indeed sufficiently evident from the number 
of people present whilst the party were there. 

By this time, however, it was nearly 3 o'clock, an hour later than 
the time appointed for lunch on the programme, so the Church could 
not be visited, but all speed was made to Rushmore, where the 
party sat down, nothing loth, in the dining-room, under the 
magnificent Gainsborough portraits of the first Lord Rivers and 
Lady Ligonier, to a very excellent luncheon, to which they did 
ample justice. Thus refreshed, during the too short time that re- 
mained they endeavoured under the General's guidance to see as 
much as possible of the archseological treasures of which the house 
is full, in spite of the fact that the owner has two other museums of 



182 The Thirtij-eigldli General Meeting. 

his own, and that he has given his magnificent collection of arms of 
all ages, occupying a large building by itself, to the museum of the 
University of Oxford. As it was, there was only time to glance at 
what many would have been glad to spend hours in examining. 
Implements and weapons of bronze and iron, and ornaments of gold, 
Greek, Roman, Celtic, Hungarian are there in profu'Sion ; but 4.30 
arrived, and the train at Tisbury would not wait, so the breaks were 
filled again, and with many thanks for the great kindness of their 
host and hostess, the party set forth to find the sky rapidly clouding 
over again and a thunderstorm coming up, which burst in great 
fury over their devoted heads before they attained the shelter of the 
station. However, with the help of macintoshes and rugs, with 
which most of the party were prudently provided, they escaped without 
serious wetting, though the difficulty so strongly felt the previous 
night as to where the necessary water came from for the excavation 
of the combes in the chalk no longer seemed so great. 

Returning by train to Wilton, they were entertained by the 
Mayor and Mayoress at high tea, following on which came the 
Conversazione at the Town Hall. In the absence of the President 
the Bishop of Salisbury took the chair, and called on Mr. C. W. 
HoLUATE to read his paper on " Wilts Bibliography." This was an 
able resume of what has already been done and of what remains to 
be done towards the compilation of an account of all printed books 
and pamphlets relating to the history of Wiltshire — a work which 
Canon Jackson had paid great attention to, and in connection with 
which at his death he left a large mass of material — which it is 
hoped may yet be placed at the disposal of those who are working 
at this important subject. 

The Bishop, remarking on the great interest and importance of 
the work of compiling such a guide to the literature of Wiltshire, 
proposed that a committee should be formed to consider the matter, 
and cooperate with Mr. Holgate in the task he had undertaken. 

Mr. Pardoe Yates then read an interesting paper on the history 
of the carpet industry at Wilton, tracing it from its commencement 
with the settlement of French carpet weavers at Wilton, driven 
from their own country by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 



Friday's Excursion. 183 

1685, down to the present time. In connection with his paper Mr. 
Yates exhibited the charter granted to the incorporated Guild of 
Carpet Weavers by William III., the silver seals of the Weavers' 
Fellowship, the stewards badge, and the weavers' banner. 

Mr. Mkducott, in proposing a vote o£ thanks to Mr. Yates, 
took the opportunity of thanking him, on behalf of the Society, for 
the great hospitality he had shown to the Members, and for the very 
great pains he had taken to make the Meeting a success in every 
way. He also cordially acknowledged the ungrudging labour so 
cheerfully given by the Local Secretary to the Meeting, Mr. H. J. 
King, upon whom the brunt of the arrangements had fallen, and 
expressed the great sense of obligation which all those Members 
who came from a distance were under to the inhabitants of Wilton 
generally — as many as thirty beds having been placed at their 
disposal. The Society had often met with great hospitality before, 
but at no place had it met with greater than at Wilton. 

Mr. Medlicott mentioned, by request of Mr. James Rawlence, 
that he would be happy to show any Members interested in orni- 
thology his fine collection of birds, including one of the very few 
specimens — it for some time claimed to be the only one — of the 
Hawk Owl (Stirnia funerea) known to have been killed in England. 
This bird is a Wiltshire specimen, and was killed at Amesbury about 
thirty-five years ago. 

A vote of thanks to The Bishop for presiding, who, in reply, 
expressed a hope that a good round sum would be raised for the 
Jackson Memorial, brought the proceedings to a close. 

FRIDAY, JULY SIst. 

A somewhat smaller party than that of the preceding day left the 
Town Hall at 9.30, to visit the Churches of the Chalke Valley. 

The first Church visited was that of Combe Bisset, where Mr. 
PoNTiNG called attention to the remaining Norman column with its 
rich capital, and a pier of the original Church, and the bold and well 
designed later work of the fifteenth century, of which the bulk o£ 
the present nave is composed. 

At Stratford Tony the party were met by The Vicar, who was 



184< The Tlilrty-elgliili General Meeting. 

able to give much interesting infornaation as to the condition of 
the Church before its restoration. Altogether, now with its wide 
central aisle and seats formed of Jacobean oak work with slender 
balustrades, and its new and beautiful east window by Mr. Kempe, 
the interior (in spite of the blue-washed ceiling) is as pleasing as it 
is unusual. The little Church, too, stands singularly picturesquely 
on an eminence as you approach it from the river — and though the 
exterior of the nave is unpromising enough, yet it contains in its 
font, piscina, woodwork, stone altar-slab, and curious low window, 
more objects of interest than many more pretentious buildings can 
boast of. 

The next halt was at Bishopstone, where the party assembled on 
the rectory lawn to enjoy the singular beauty of the garden and of 
the view of the east end of the Church, Auchdeacon Lear, the 
Rector, very kindly pointed out the chief objects of interest in the 
Church, and gave a sketch of its history — Mr. Ponting following 
with a few remarks on the remarkable architecture, in which he found 
great resemblance to Bishop Edington's work at Edington and 
Winchester, whilst Mr. Swayne gave details of the history of 
Falston and Flamston Chapels, formerly existing in the parish. 

The stay here was somewhat prolonged, for it is seldom indeed 
that such a Church as Bishopstone falls to the lot of the Society to 
linger over. The nave is bald and comparatively poor, but the 
chancel and transepts of late Decorated work with the beautiful 
tracery of the windows, the rich founder's tomb and sedilia inside, 
and the very curious external annexe to the south transept, together 
with the fine specimens of Spanish and French carved woodwork in 
stalls, pulpit, and reading-desk, make up a whole which delights 
the architectural student by its interest as much as it charms all 
who see it by its beauty. 

The last Church on the programme — for the tiny little Chapel of 
Fyfield would hardly repay a visit, even if time had allowed — was 
Broad Chalke — which, even after Bishopstone, presents a beautiful 
picture as you approach it from the road, the grey Chilmark stone 
of its walls contrasting admirably with the green ivy with which 
they are partly draped. 



I 



Friday's Excursion. 185 

Here The Vicar, the Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, received the party 
and gave a short but most interesting account of the history of the 
parisli, leaving the architectural features of the Church to be des- 
cribed by Mr. Ponting, who pointed out that it was a very re- 
markable instance of a thirteenth century Church being enlarged 
late in the fourteenth century by doing away with the original 
aisles and forming a nave of immense width without any aisles at 
all, the walls being built of extraordinary thickness to resist the 
weight of the roof. 

The drive back to Wilton over the Hare Warren Hill was very 

enjoyable, the weather throughout being more propitious than on 

the preceding day ; and in the afternoon, when the party re-assembled 

at Wilton House, the beautiful grounds looked singularly charming. 

The visitors were most kindly received by Lord and Lady Pembroke, 

the exterior of the house being first inspected, whilst Mr. Ponting 

gave a sketch of its history and pointed out the several portions of 

which it is composed — the east side ascribed to Holbein, the south 

built by Inigo Jones, and the west and north re-modelled and spoiled 

by Wyatt. Then the beautiful bridge, built by Sir W. Chambers, 

and Holbein's Porch, now forming a summer-house in the grounds, 

were visited, after which the interior of the house was shown. Here 

LoED Pembroke himself acted as cicerone, taking the more notable 

pictures one by one with a spice of humour thrown into his des- 

Icriptions which will probably cause them to stick in the memory far 

llonger than more laboured and learned dissertations. The magnifi- 

Bent family group by Vandyke, was described in a catalogue of 

Ihe last century as " a landscape with dogs " — there is a dog 

in one corner — " probably the ■ most eccentric description of a 

picture ever given.'' The visitors were duly introduced to this 

I and many other Vandykes, the Honthorst portrait of Prince 

^Itupert, the More ascribed to Holbein, the very interesting diptych 

[containing the portrait of Richard II., the later Reynolds portraits, 

land many other objects of interest, such as the fine collection of 

^ancient armour, some of it the spoils of French nobles taken at the 

Jattle of St. Quintin in 1557, and the very curious gilt bronze 
Ibowl dug up in the grounds and supposed to be a gabbatha, or lamp 



]86 Architectural Notes on Places visited hy the Society in 1891. 

of Saxon times, belonging to the Abbey. Having thus seen 
everything well, tea was very kindly provided for the party in the 
hall, after which a move was made to visit the one remaining 
portion of the ancient Abbey, a detached building perhaps 
originally a storehouse, near the present stables, retaining its old 
fourteenth century windows and doors. After seeing this, Mr. 
Medijcott expressed the thanks of the Society to their noble host 
and hostess for their kindness and hospitality, and the thirty-eighth 
Annual Meeting of the Society came to an end, to remain in the 
minds of those who took part in it as marked by more than usual 
kindness and hospitality on the part of the Society^s entertainers, 
and by perhaps more than usual interest in the places and objects 
visited during the two days' excursions. 



a^itectiival |totc0 on "flace^ diriteb \i tlje 
<§omtg in I89I. 

By C. E. PoNTiNG, F.S.A. 

Wilton House. 
^HE site of this house has been a place of residence from 
Anglo-Saxon times, wherx the famous Benedictine monastery 
was planted here.^ At the Dissolution the abbey and its extensive 
estates were granted by Henry VIII. to Sir William Herbert (the 
dates of the grants being 1542 aud 1544). A perusal of Mr. 
Nightingale's pajier [Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xviii., p. 81) on the 
life of this remarkable man who played so important a part in the 

' In the Wiltshire Archceological Magazine, vol. sxs.., p. 229, is an extract 
from Dugdale's Monasticon of a deed of gift of North Newnton to the Monastery 
of Wilton, by King Athelstan, in A.D. 933. 



By C. E. Ponting, F.S.A. 187 

reigns of Henry VIII., Eclwcird VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, and of 
the manner in which, by making good use of his opportunities 
during this eventful period, he managed to secure continued ac- 
cession of power and wealth, throws much light on the early days 
of this house, and adds much to the interest of a study of its history. 

Upon acquiring possession of the abbey, Herbert appears to have 
pulled down the whole of its buildings with the exception of a 
detached two-storied block, probably used as a storehouse, which 
stood at the north-west angle. This building stands nearly north 
and south. On the east side there is a doorway to the upper floor 
through which it was approached by an outside staircase ; a corbel 
which may have supported the platform of this still remains. This 
doorway is of the " shouldered ■'•' arch type used during the thirteenth 
and early part of the fourteenth centuries. A two-light window 
near, with ogee cusped head, and without tracery, lights this part 
of the upper storey. Beneath this is a two-light traceried window 
lighting the ground floor : both of these windows were once glazed 
and provided with iron saddle and stanchion bars, which remain 
intact in one light of the lower window ; inside they have flat heads 
and splayed jambs. Under the position of the staircase platform is 
a small pointed doorway giving access to the lower storey ; there is 
a second segmental one southward of it, and the jambs of another 
one exist beyond it. The two original buttress quoins remain at the 
south end, the doorway and arms are later insertions — the latter 
probably by the second Earl Pembroke. 

On the west side are no original features, only two windows of later 
date inserted ; but the north end is a very striking composition. A 
noble buttress of bold flat form is carried up the centre to a point well 
into the gable, and on the west side of it is a two light pointed window, 
lighting the upper floor at this end. At this level is a broad splayed 
set-off in the thickness of the wall. The original copings and long 
springers remain. A later window has been inserted under the 
original one. The design of this building is bold and good, of about 
the middle o£ the fourteenth century : the walls are constructed of 
the green stone quarried some three miles away in blocks of large 
size. The building has never been added to or reduced in size, and. 



188 Architectural "Notes on Places visited hy the Society in 1891. 

with the exception of the insertions named, it is now in pretty much 
the same condition as when it was relinquished by the nuns. 

Sir William Herbert doubtless largely constructed his new house 
with the stones from the abbey buildings, and these had (as Mr. 
Nightingale says) probably been brought from that convenient 
quarry — Old Sarum. There is, however, no work visible which 
would help us to identify them. The house was probably built 
pretty much on its present lines, and the quadrangle was entered 
through the archway on the east side. The central block containing 
this archway is the only part of it which remains, and this has been 
much altered. This work, and the porch which bears his name, 
have been ascribed to Hans Holbein, the Flemish painter and 
architect who was introduced into England by Sir Thomas More 
and largely patronized by the King. Although Holbein died in 
the year following the first grant of the abbey property, this of 
itself does not seem to preclude the possibility of the design having 
been prepai'ed by him. The whole composition is a curious mixture 
of Gothic and Italian features. 

Fergusson ^ says that " Classical details or Classical feelings " had 
not begun to prevail even during the early years of Elizabeth, and 
he terms the period from Henry VIII. to Charles I. the " Transition " 
and considers the "Renaissance" to begin at about 1625. But I 
am sure that no one who has studied the work here can deny the 
latter term to much of the ornamentation j which was undoubtedly 
imported from the South. 

The central part of the east front consists of an archway leading 
to the quadrangle, flanked by canopied niches which were erected 
by Henry, the second Earl, and are surmounted by shields of ar- 
morial bearings : that on the dexter side bears the quarterings of the 
first Earl, the supporters of which rest on his initials, W. P. ; whilst 
that on the sinister bears the arms of the second Earl, the supporters 
resting on his own initials, H. P. 

The archway itself is very distinctly Gothic and English both in 
its form and detail — the pointed form of the arch, the section of the 

^ Sistory of Modern Architecture, 2nd Ed., p. 273. 



By C. E. Ponting, F.H.A. 189 

moulding, the stops on the jambs are typical of the work of fifty 
years earlier, and I think it even doubtful whether this was not part 
of the monastic buildings. There are indications in the jointing of 
the jambs and label that this feature was not worked for the wall in 
which it is built. Over the archway is a fine three-storied oriel 
which is quite Renaissance, although the Gothic feeling lingers in 
the section of the strings. The oriel windows only at present have 
labels, but they once existed and have been cut away, over the side 
windows. The Royal arms on the oriel are doubtless part of Sir 
"William Herbert's work. 

An old print dated 1563 shows this central part with a cornice 
over the second floor windows, and a pediment over the third floor 
windows spanning the whole ; this was surmounted by a wooden 
turret in the centre of the roof: the same print shows the old lead 
rain-water pipes and heads on each side of the oriel, and again 
outside the central part ; these still exist on the quadrangle side ; and, 
as this print shows the house as it was before the second Earl 
Henry Herbert's alterations, the niches and arms above described 
do not appear. 

The second Earl added the part above the upper windows, and the 
exact point at which he commenced can be seen in the flattening of 
the arch of one of these windows. The present parapet and the 
turret were added by Wyatt. 

On the quadrangle side the old part shows the same general 
treatment, but there are a few distinct features— e.^., the string- 

I course between the upper two stages is carved with a kind of tongue 
ornament, and is carried right through, and the old lead water-pipes 
remain. The print dated 1563 shows a walled-in courtyard on the 
east side of the house with a lodge in the east wall, consisting of an 
archway with a room over, flanked by turrets with a gable between. 
Some time prior to 1 633 the south front of the original house was 
destroyed by fire, and in that year it was re-built; the design was 
prepared by Inigo Jones, but it is supposed that the work was carried 
out under his pupil and son-in-law, J. Webb. This work was con- 
fined to re-building the south part and the west returns of the same 
and the re-modelling of the parts of the east front on each side of 

TOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXVII. O 



190 Architectural Notes on Places visited hy the Society in 1891. 

the centre to bring them into harmony with the rest. The walls of 
the east wing were not, however, entirely re-built : the lower parts 
are the original masonry of Sir W. Herbert's house, into which 
Inigo Jones inserted new windows — and the relieving arches over the 
older windows are still visible in some places. These walls were raised 
with masonry of a different description, so that the alteration is 
easily traceable. Fergusson, with his usual admiration of almost 
everything which is not Gothic, refers to this work in terms which 
all of us will hardly be prepared to endorse. He says " In the 
fapade which Jones designed for Wilton he omitted the 'Order' 
altogether, and sought merely to attain the effect he desired by a 
pleasing proportion of the parts amongst themselves and a sufficient 
scale to give dignity to the mass, and so successful was he that this 
design has been repeated over and over again in the country seats 
of English noblemen. There is little fault to be found with the 
elevation, which is both elegant and appropriate, unless it is being 
too plain for the purpose. This is a defect which might easily have 
been removed by richer dressing round the windows or by panelling.'' ' 
The next great re-modelling of the house was made from the 
designs of the elder Wyatt, at about the beginning of the present 
century. From an old plan made before this,^ it appears that each 
of the four sides of the quadrangle was a single line of rooms opening 
out of one another, and having windows on both sides. The great 
hall, of two stories in height, with a gallery round at the first-floor 
level, was in 'the centre of the north side — the grand staircase, 
walled off from the hall, was at its west end, and at the east end of 
the hall was a vestibule with apsidal end (and with apparently a 
series of pilasters and niches carried round), which was the main 
entrance to the house from the quadrangle, through the porch known 
as " Holbein's Porch." This arrangement of the rooms without any 
passage of communication — a very general one in houses of the 



1 History of Modern Architecture, p. 291. 
2 Dedicated to Henry, Earl of Pembroke, by J. Rocque, " Published ac- 
cording to Act of Parliament, 1746." 



By C. E. Ponthig, P.S.A. 191 

Renaissance period — although imposing, was doubtless found un- 
suited to modern requirements. This was effectually remedied by 
Wyatt, although his plan involved great destruction of old parts. 
He built a corridor of two stories round the quadrangle, reducing 
it in size but adding greatly to the convenience of the house. The 
entrance archway on the east was closed^ and a new entrance formed 
on the north side of the hall. 

This, of course, involved the removal of Holbein's Porch, which 
for some reason (probably because it did not commend itself to 
Wyatt's Gothic sympathies) , was not re-erected at the north en- 
trance, but removed to the gardens, and a new porch built. The 
whole of the north front and the greater part of the west were 
remodelled at the same time, the floor of the hall was raised, reducing 
it to one storey in height. The chapel shows later alterations still. 
In the centre of the quadrangle is a good specimen of Venetian 
well-curb in white marble, with the grooves worn by the rope still 
on its sides. The ornamentation is of the usual Byzantine type. 

The bridge over the river and the entrance gateway are the work 
of Sir William Chambers. Mr. Thomas Hendrick, one of his 
pupils, in a memoir of his master, says ^ : — " The Earl of Pembroke 
justly appreciating his abilities, employed him at his celebrated seat 
at Wilton, near Salisbury, where his triumphal arch, Palladian bridge 
and other works ever command the admiration of all persons of taste 
who visit that delightful spot." 

The " triumphal arch " of Chambers is surmounted by an eques- 
trian ' statue, a copy of the Marcus Aurelius from the Capitol at 
Eome. The wings of the gateway are later additions. 

The bridge over the river is a beautiful structure, the motif of the 
design being two temples of the Ionic order with a connecting 
colonnade : the pedestals have an open balustrade between. The 
base is rusticated and has a segmental centre arch and two semi- 
circular side ones. The flight of steps on each side is carried on a 
segmental arch and flanked by a. continuation of the balustrade. 



1 " Chambers' Treatise on Civil Architecture," by Joseph Gwilt, F.S.A., 
1824, p. 44. 

O 2 



192 ArcJiitedural Notes on Places visited ly the Society in 1893. 

As seen from the lawn the brirlge has a delightful setting of water 
and foliage. 

Holbein's Porch, after its removal from the quadrangle by Wyatt, 
was re-erected in the garden as the entrance to a kind of summer- 
house apparently built for the purpose ; and now forms a charming 
termination to the vista of the west walk. It is a two-storied 
building, each of the three disengaged sides has in its lower stage a 
square opening flanked by double Ionic columns with pedestal and 
cornice. The upper stage is an unpiereed wall with a panel charged 
with arms forming the central feature of each face, and medallions 
with busts at the sides. These are flanked by double composite 
columns with low pedestal base and moulded cornice. The parapet 
consists of semicircular battlements containing the escallop ornament, 
with griffins holding shields between. 

The ceiling is a barrel vault of very Gothic character, with 
central pendants and moulded ribs springing from a cornice, each 
rib having a console corbel under it. Here is the same combination 
of styles which we observed in the centre of the east front, but the 
details are of a more refined type, and the Italian feeling predomi- 
nates. The mouldings of the square openings have a band of 
interlaced ornament carried round, and the pedestals supporting the 
lower order are enriched by graceful Italian carving. The inside 
was formerly decorated in colours, traces of which still remain. 

luside the summer-house are two coffin-slabs, both of late 
thirteenth or early fourteenth century date, found a few years ago 
in excavating on the south side of the house, one covering a drain, 
and the other partially under the foundation. One is of Purbeck 
marble with moulded edges and a raised foliated cross. The other 
is of Portland stone, the edges are moulded, on the upper side there 
is an incised cross, also what looks like an are (probably the symbol 
of the woodman's craft) or a butcher's cleaver. The spot where 
these were found might have been the site ot the chapel or the 
cemetery of the abbey. 

The Old Church of S. Mary the Virgin. Wilton. 
This Church, having been superseded by the magnificent new 



By C. E. Pontmg, F.S.d. 193 

building erected in 1841-5, has assumed the dignity of a venerable 
ruin, and is roofless with the exception of the eastern bay of the 
nave and the chancel, which serve as a mortuary chapel. So far as 
its history can be gathered from portions still standing and other 
fragments lying about, the Church appears to have had a nave and 
aisles of four bays of a good type of Perpendicular, with a Georgian 
chancel ; the details of the jamb and label moulds of the arcades 
are refined and the foliage carving of the caps is vigorous and well 
cut. The nave had a good west window, which was opened out 
down to the floor to form an archway when a debased western tower, 
now gone, was built. There is nothing to indicate what the previous 
chancel was like, and I have not been able to obtain any information 
about it. 

The Hospital op S, John the Baptist. Wilton. 

This hospital was founded in 1190 for a prior, two poor men, and 
two poor women. Sir Richard Colt Hoare says : — " Such at least was 
the state at the Eeformation, and being considered to be rather of 
a charitable than a superstitious nature it was not dissolved, and is 
consequently yet in being. ^' ^ 

The residential part runs north and south, at right angles to the 
road on which the north end abuts : this end is the work of early in 
the fourteenth century. There is a central buttress and on each 
side was a square-head two-light window, one of which remains 
almost intact, and the jamb of the other with the ends of the sill 
splays is visible, so that its dimensions can be traced ; but this 
window has been cut into for the insertion of modern work. There 
is a two-light window in the gable and a coeval buttress exists at the 
north-west angle. The north-east angle has the original large 
quoin stones nearly 4ft. long, and no buttress ever existed here. 
On the west side are the old wall and string but no other features. 
On the east side of this block the wall is weathered in at some 2^ft. 
below the eaves, excepting where the doorway occurs; this was 
doubtless always the entrance, and had a porch over it. The wall 

1 Modem Wilts, vol. II., p. 126. 



194 ArcJiitectural I^otes on Places visited by the Society in 1891. 

and gable against which the chapel is built are older than the chapel 
itself — there were two buttresses (one of which is seen near the 
doorway, the walls are three feet thick — this is probably part of 
the Norman house built at the foundation of the hospital. On the 
inside a passage is carried along by the east wall and the corbel- 
heads carrying the floor are old work (as are parts of the doorway 
at the south end) the entrance to the chapel opens out from this 
passage ; the arch in the chapel side is a segmental one of fourteenth 
century type. 

The chapel stands at right angles to the dwelling (east and west), 
and it appears to have been erected when the latter was re-modelled 
in the fourteenth century — the three-light east window with label 
returned into the wall, and the two-light window and piscina in the 
south wall are of this date and doubtless in their original positions. 
The similar two-light window on the north side was formerly also 
on the south, where the doorway now is, but a few years ago the 
positions of the two were reversed. This doorway and the other 
window still in the north wall are fifteenth century insertions. The 
jambs of the east and south windows are carried down on the inside 
— the former probably to receive the stone altar, and the latter as 
sedilia. The two flat buttresses on the south side have been cut 
away — near the east end there are two corbels, the use of which is 
not quite apparent, unless they were for supporting a bell-turret. 

It is interesting to hear that the prior still retains his ancient 
title. 

S. Michael's. Combe Bisset. 

The oldest parts of the present structure are the two western bays 
of the south arcade of the nave and the responds of the eastern bay, 
and of the archway between the south aisle and tower. These are 
the work of the twelfth century and indicate the usual cruciform 
plan of that period. There is no part of the older Church left, but 
where, as in this case, one finds the chancel of the Church only a 
century later than the nave, the thought which naturally suggests 
itself is that there must have been a Church on the spot older than 
either. For the nave, aisles, and transepts would hardly have been 



By C. E. Fonting, F.S.A. 195. 

erected without a chancel, and it is difficult to believe that the 
chance], if erected together with the rest, would have needed re- 
building within so short a space of time; does it not rather seem 
likely that the body of an older Church stood on the spot, and that 
the re-building of the chancel was left until the last? If this were 
the case here, the old Church was a Saxon one, and probably 
built of wood. This is of course mere speculation, but I think the 
material evidence here is sufficient to raise the question. The Norman 
nave was of three bays in length, the aisles a lean-to against the two 
westernmost of them, and the transepts (probably span roofed) 
against the east end bay. That transepts existed is indicated by the 
arch across the east end of the south aisle, and it is improbable 
that a tower then stood in the position of the present one. The 
columns of the arcade and the western respond are circular, and 
have square abaci, the capital of the former is carved in unusually 
refined work for the time ; the volutes are foliated and there are 
three fleur-de-lys on each face. The arches, of two orders of chamfers, 
indicate transitional feeling. 

Soon after the middle of the fifteenth century the part about the 
east bay underwent a re-modelling and the rest of the body of the 
Church was re-built. The alteration for the erection of the tower 
is clearly defined by the remains, which present an interesting bit 
of history. The Perpendicular builders appear to have considered the 
oblong pier dividing the aisle arches from the transept arch of the 
nave arcade, and the responds ot the arches opening into the nave 
. and aisle sufficiently strong to bear their tower, but they apparently 
distrusted the arches themselves — they therefore re-built the latter. 
The one oblong pier was re-modelled after the prevailing fashion by 
chamfering off the angles, and a patera was carved at the top to 
balance the cap of the Norman detached column, and the re-building 
started with the new abacus. The east and south responds remain 
unaltered ; the arches then erected on them are of two orders of 
chamfers. The lower stage of the tower was intended as a chapel, 
and a corbel for the figure remains in the east wall, as well as two 
others higher up which might have been for the rood beam. 

A string-course marks the line at which the clerestory, added to 



196 Architectural Notes on Places visited hy the Society in 1891. 

the nave at this time, was commenced, and the old stone corbel-heads 
of the roof remain. 

The Perpendicular work here is of a good solid type, the weather- 
ings and mouldings are bold, the parapets of the aisles are embattled 
and once had diagonal pinnacles over the buttresses ; and one on the 
north side, where no buttress occurs, is terminated by a shield. The 
staircase of the tower is carried up above the parapet and covered 
with a pointed roof of stone ; the parapet of the tower is poor com- 
pared with the rest, and the pinnacles are missing. There are 
buttresses in the centre of the west, south, and east walls of the 
tower, the former starting from the aisle wall and the latter stopping 
under the window ; a similar feature (which is more usual in early 
than in late work) occurs under the west window of the nave. 
Much of the work at this point has been re-built and modern 
diagonal buttresses have been added. There is a coeval doorway in 
the north aisle, but the porch on the south is new. The north 
window in the aisle and the east window of the north transept have 
been much modernised. 

The chancel was built in the latter part of the thirteenth century, 
and the north side with its two lancet windows (the westernmost 
one of which is lower than the other) remain unaltered. On the 
south side the Perpendicular re-modelling involved much re-building, 
for although the thirteenth century priest's door remains, the use of 
oyster shells in the joints leads me to think that it was re-built, and 
this view is strengthened by the crippled appearance of the arch, 
the obvious alteration of the label, and the absence of any appearance 
of alteration round the two square- headed windows, as would 
have been the case if they had been merely inserted. Such alteration 
is clearly seen round the three-light east window. The thirteenth 
century wall on the north side has thin (? Roman) tiles built into it, 
but these do not appear in the south wall. The thirteenth century 
buttresses of the chancel remain — one under the east window with 
a string carried across above it. (I have never before found oyster 
shells in thirteenth century masonry, and I shall keep a keen look- 
out for them in the future.) 

The chancel arch is of two orders of chamfers, the inner one 



By C. E. PonVmg, F.S.A. 197 

dying out on to the jambs and the outer chamfers are stopped at a 
high level ; this was constructed with the chancel. There is also a 
coeval double-arched recess in the south wall of the sanctuary, for 
piscina and credence. 

The font is an interesting one of the same thirteenth century 
date ; it is of a somewhat unusual type — the bowl being moulded 
like an Early English capital, with a double bell, and supported an 
a central shaft with four small ones round it. 

The pitch of the early nave is shown on the outside at the east 
end. 

S. Makt's or S. Lawrence's.' Stratford Tony. 

The charming situation of this Church is of itself a remarkable 
feature, and the building, although much of it has been reconstructed 
in the poorest manner, has several points of interest. 

The chancel is a beautiful instance of the adaptation of the purest 
work of the fourteenth century to the purposes of a simple village 
Church, and it is apparently erected on thirteenth century founda- 
tions. This re-building seems at first sight to negative the con- 
clusion at which I arrived at Combe Bisset, but it is easily accounted 
for in the present instance by the evident signs of the risk which has 
been incurred in placing the building too near to the edge of the 
knoll on which it stands and with insufficient care in preparing the 
foundations. The angles of the present chancel have subsided to 
such an extent as to cause the plinth course to form a much-curved 
line on its upper face, and large fissures are apparent in the east wall. 
The re-building of the walls of the nave (probably late in the last 
Jcentury) was doubtless necessitated by their settlement or collapse, 
and I think that the same thing may have happened to the chancel 
four hundred years earlier, owing to its more insecure position. It is 
to be hoped that the foundations will be secured before this operation 
has to be repeated. 

It is evident that an earlier Church stood here, for the font and 



' Canon Jackson gives tliis dedication {Wilts Mag., vol. xv., p. 105), but 
Ecton states it as S. Marj. 



198 Architectural Notes on Places visited hy the Society in 1891. 

piscina are good specimens of Early English work, and I assign the 
moulding of the plinth course to the same period. 

The east window is a three-light one with reticulated tracery — it 
was prepared to receive a label, but this has probably been lost in some 
subsequent re-building of the east gable. There are two two-light 
square-headed windows of the same type in each side wall and a 
priest's door on the south. Diagonal buttresses are placed at the 
outer angles and there is a central buttress on the north. The 
chancel arch spans the entire width of the building and the chamfers 
die out on the face of the wall. To resist the thrust of this arch 
lai-ge buttresses 4ft. Sin. wide on the face and 5ft. 9in. in projection, 
having three set ofFs, have been erected outside the north and south 
walls — (one of these has been re-built), but even this precaution has 
not compensated for the yielding foundation, and the walls are still 
spreading. 

Under the westernmost window on the south side is the smallest 
specimen of the low-side-window I have ever met with. It is an 
opening about 4ia. wide and I3in. high, with a narrow splay on the 
outside face and a deep splay inside, apparently intended to give 
room for ringing the hand-bell against it — the low position of this 
window telling distinctly in favour of this theory of the use of such 
windows. This little window is constructed quite independently of 
the one above, and it could not have been intended for light; as it is 
blocked up we cannot see whether, as is probable, there is a rebate 
for a shutter. 

Inside the easternmost window on this side of the chancel the sill 
is carried down to form sedilia, and near it is a fine thirteenth century 
piscina of Purbeck marble. The corbel of the bowl is of unique 
design, consisting of two skates, or similar fish, one overlapping the 
other, and each with its tail turned over the back — the spines down 
the centre of the back being carefully cut. Around the top of this 
runs the moulded edge, part of which is continued on each side on 
the corbel of the arch-moulding. The arch is a trefoiled one. The 
shelf is a later insertion. 

There are two original corbels in the east wall of the chancel. 

The tower appears to have been erected soon after the re-building 



By a E. Ponting, F.S.A. 199 

of the chancel — and early in the fifteenth century — the archway 
opening into the nave is of a similar type but narrow, and the 
chamfers on the west face of the jamb are interrupted by square 
blocks some ICin. high, about 4ft. up from the floor — it is difficult to 
assign a reason for these. . The west window is a three-light square 
one with flat inner four-centred arch. The tower is of two stages 
and of low proportions, with tiled roof within a plain parapet. It 
has diagonal buttresses at the outer angles and square ones on the 
north and south sides and under the west window — the one on the 
south sets back near the top and is so brought to the angle. There 
are two-light belfry windows with square heads on three sides, each 
has a transom, and the lights are cusped and wider above this than 
below it. 

The nave has been entirely re-built, though apparently not at one 
time — the north wall is of brick and has two blind windows, the 
south is apparently constructed of the old materials, but has modern 
windows : even these modern walls are still settling outwards. In 
re-building the nave and porch the old doorways were used, though 
placed farther westward than they probably were before — the outer 
door is a thirteenth century one, with semicircular moulded arch and 
plain jambs; the inner door is a four-centred one of the date of the 
tower and has good base stops. 

The font is a rude stone bowl of thirteenth century date with 
fragments of an inscription round the top, of which only the words 
" Hie sistat " can be discerned ; it has a Purbeck shaft and the old 
step, but the base moulding is new. 

The interior is fitted with interesting seating composed of late 
Renaissance oak pewing with turned spindles in the upper part, all 
nicely made up, and a portion of the high pew on each side of the 
entrance to the chancel remains as a screen. The present arrange- 
ment of short seats and wide central passage is due to the previous 
plan having been adhered to. In the tower is preserved a piece of 
oak — probably the rail of a bier, with a mutilated inscription which 
is stated to have read as follows : — " Prepare yourselves whilst in 
your bloom, with cheerful hearts to meet the tomb.'" This was 
found to have been used to repair the roof. 



200 Architectural Notes on Places visited hij the Society in 1891. 

The roofs of nave and chancel are apparently modern : the east 
window is filled with good modern glass by Kempe. 

The old altar slab is retained in use here — it is of Portland stone, 
7ft. O^in. long by 2ft. 5^in. wide, and is inscribed with the usual 
five crosses, each consisting of two simple lines with holes at their 
ends and intersection. 

S. John Baptist^s. Bishopstone. 

This remarkable Church has had, as it deserved, a separate book 
written in its honour, in " Some Account of Bishopstone Chirch, in 
the County of Wilts," by Owen B. Carter, Architect, of Winchester 
(1845), very fully illustrated by general drawings and details by 
Woodman. It has been twice visited by this Society, in 1865 and 
1876, on both of which, as on the present occasion, it was described 
by Archdeacon Lear, whose paper, read on the former visit, is 
printed in Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. x., p. 236. On the same occasion 
the eminent antiquary, Mr, J. H. Parker, offered some remarks 
upon it. 

After all that has been said about the Church I feel it to be 
somewhat presumptuous for me to give any description or opinion 
of my own, and I only reluctantly consented to do so at the urgent 
request of one of our Secretaries. 

The plan of the Church is cruciform, a form which is perhaps 
more general in this county than elsewhere. The nave and chancel 
are of almost equal length, giving a peculiarly uniform plan, which 
is only broken by the coeval sacristy on the north of the chancel, 
the singular tomb against the south of the south transept, and 
the porch, which has been re-built. 

The nave and the lower stage of the tower are portions of the 
Church which stood here before the great alteration was made which 
gives the building its present special characteristics. This older 
Church was also cruciform in plan, but apparently a comparatively 
simple and plain building : the parts which remain may be assigned 
to the latter half of the thirteenth century. The archways on the 
north, east, and west sides of the tower are alike, and have two 
orders of plain chamfers carried down to the floor. That on the 



By C. E. Pouting, F.S.d. 201 

south is narrower and retains its original Purbeck marble step, the 
inner order of the chamfers of this arch stops against the jamb, and 
there is a single-light window over it which formerly evidently 
opened into a narrower chapel or transept, as the pilaster-like pro- 
jection in the north-east angle of the south transept indicates : (it is 
worthy of note that the south wall of the tower is thicker than any 
other in the Church : ) and the fact of the tower not being central 
with the transepts points to their different dates. The nave walls 
are constructed of rubble and flint and have no plinth, but they are 
clearly older than the windows and doors, and form part of an earlier 
nave, the height of which, with the pitch of its roof is indicated on 
the west face of the tower. 

At about the middle of the fourteenth century a great re-modelling 
of the entire Church was commenced, and unlike Mr. Owen Carter 
(who speaks of the nave windows and west door as being much 
later), I am of opinion that the whole was carried out at one 
operation, although it probably extended over thirty years or so ; 
and as this covered a period when a radical change was taking place 
in architectural tastes and fashions, the comparatively debased details 
of the nave and tower, which were the last to be dealt with, are 
easily accounted for. A close examination of the work of the nave 
will establish the accuracy of this view : it will be seen that the 
plain parapet of the north transept is carried round the nave; the 
buttresses of both have the same weatherings and gables, and the 
nave doorways (of which the north is now blocked up) as well as 
the west window show the Decorated feeling. The period of 
transition is distinctly seen in the variation of detail of the north 
and south windows. The easternmost window on each side shows 
distinctly later features than the other two, i.e., the square pointed 
cusps and the more stilted type of reticulation in the tracery which 
is also observable at Edington. The west door (now blocked up) 
has a depressed arch and looks much later than the window above, but 
I think they are coeval, and the arch indicates the greater freedom 
which was then being felt in adapting any feature to its particular 
position. The whole work is poorer in the nave than elsewhere, the 
windows are without labels, and the roof (the original of which 



£02 Architectural Notes on, Places visited hy the Society in 1891. 

remains) is debased^ but^ as I have before obsei'ved, this is only 
partially due to the change of style, and probably the real reason 
for it was the inferior use of the nave as compared with the rest of 
the Church. This greater richness of the chancel and transepts, 
where, of course, altars were erected, is very pronounced here : it is 
also conspicuous at Edington, but there it may be explained by the 
eastern parts having been the Church of the monastery. 

I would call attention to the strong resemblance between the work 
here and that of the chancel at Downton ; in both, the mouldings 
are rich and fulsome and the tracery of the windows is of the same 
flowing type ; they were evidently the work of the same hand ; 
this is not an unreasonable supposition considering that the Bishops 
of Winchester were patrons of both livings and lords of the manors; 
Bishopstone is, moreover, in the hundred of Downton. The Church at 
Edington exhibits the same feeling as this work,but further developed, 
and I shall have something to say later on as to their connexion. 
The windows of chancel and transepts are of the purest type of 
the phase of Decorated work known as " Flowing " from the graceful 
lines of its tracery ; the north and south windows of the transepts 
exhibit a tendency to change, and have the " reticulated " form o£ 
tracery, whilst in the north and south windows of the nave and tower 
the vertical lines in the tracery which are so characteristic of the Per- 
pendicular style have become very far developed. The chancel and 
south transept are treated in a richer manner than the north transept, 
the two former having stone vaulted ceilings, and the roof parapets 
are ornamented with a raised traceried pattern, whilst the latter has 
the original waggon-head ceiling with oak ribs and plaster panels, 
and the parapet is plain. The same plain parapet is carried round 
the nave. There is a quaint little passage for communication be- 
tween the spaces over the vaulting of the chancel and transept, 
formed across the inner angle on the south-east side, and lighted by 
a quatrefoil light now blocked up. These spaces are lighted by the 
trefoil lights which are made to form curious finials to the south 
window of the transept and the east window of the chancel, the 
labels being carried round them. 

Internally the chancel is very rich — the vaulting is in two bays 



i 







PRrESTS DOOR, BISHOPSTONE, S. WILTS. 




^mLDm^ius&m^^^aiMMMi^mmmmm 



By C. E. Ponting, F.S.A. 203 

of the type known as " lierue," the ribs springing from corbels in 
the angles and a central one on each side. The carving on the boss 
over the sanctuary depicts the coronation of the Virgin with symbols 
of the Evangelists around it ; on the next is a head (? S. Veronica, 
or S. John Baptist, the patron saint of the Church ') and on another 
foliage. A string-course of pure " Decorated " section is carried 
along under the window sills (rising to the level of that at the east end) 
and over the doors as labels. A second string occurs at the springing 
of the vaulting and is carried round over all the windows. The east 
window is of four lights, with a niche in each jamb, the carvings of 
of which have been restored in wood. On each side of the altar is 
a recess with corbel and groined canopy, that on the south forming 
a piscina. On the south of the sacrarium are sedilia in three bays on 
different levels, stepped up towards the east. These have projecting 
pierced and traceried arms, and groined canopies with a double row of 
pinnacles, all with richly carved crockets and finials. This feature has 
the effect of being overloaded with carving, and in purity of taste it 
hardly seems to come up to the rest of the work in the chancel. 
There are two two-light windows in eacb side wall, a priests' 
doorway on the south, and a doorway with moulded jambs leading 
into the sacristy on the north. 

The priests' door is sheltered on the outside by a stone porch o£ 
quite unique construction. The outer arch is moulded and cusped, 
and springs from shafts with moulded capitals — on the east side the 
jamb is supported by a buttress and the shaft is carried down to a 
splayed base, but on the west side it was apparently thought un- 
necessary to carry up a jamb, owing to the contiguity of the chancel 
buttress ; a corbel was, therefore, carried out from this buttress and 
the shaft follows the contour of it and dies on to the face of the 
latter ; a second corbel at right angles to it projects from the chancel 
wall and the shaft is carried round it and down to its own base. 
The ceiling of the porch is groined and the roof of ogee form is in 
stone with a verge moulding having carved crockets and finial. 



^ From a description of this boss supplied to me bj' Archdeacon Lear since the 
a\)ove was written, I have no doubt that this head is that of the patron saint. 



204' Architectural Notes on Places visited hj the Society in 1891. 

This is a charming feature which with its mellowed colour and lichen 
and the roses and sycamore growing near combine to make a 
delightful picture. 

The double moulded plinth of the south transept is continued 
along the south wall of the chancel^ but the upper plinth and parapet 
are at about 15in. higher level in the latter. (In this, as in other 
respectsj the drawings in Carter's book are inaccurate.) The upper 
plinth is stepped up on the east end to the window sill, and beyond 
this it again rises to form the set-off of the lower stage of the turret 
stairs at the north-east angle and is continued along over the door 
inside the sacristy; this, and the fact that the north plinth is not 
carried over, seems to indicate some change of plan in erecting the 
sacristy. There is a curious freak of the workman in this upper 
plinth on the north side by the sacristy, where a break of about lin. 
only occurs, apparently to correct an error in not carrying the under 
moulding vertical — it is worked out of a solid stone, and is not 
produced by displacement as might at first appear to be the case* 
The lower plinth of the chancel is carried round the sacristy — the 
west parapet of the latter is pierced, whilst that on the east is plain. 
The chancel, south transept, and sacristy are faced with wrought 
stone-work on the outside, the nave and north transept with 
flint. The sacristy has a cusped single-light window in each o£ three 
faces with labels inside and outside. In the east wall there is a 
doorway to the staircase outside which leads on to the roof of the 
chancel and by this means to the tower. 

The north transept has two two-light windows in the east wall, 
two in west and a three-light in the north. It is worthy of note that 
whilst the latter has mouldings continued throughout its various 
parts, the east windows only have them on the tracery, and plain 
splays on the jambs and mullions, and the west windows have only 
splays throughout. There is a good niche between the windows in 
the east wall ; also a piscina with ball-flower ornament, and divided 
by a shelf, on the south side of the position of the altar and a 
corbel on the north. Under the north window is a magnificent 
recessed tomb, coeval with the structure, and it is doubtless that 
of the founder. It has a segmental arch spanning the full width 



bi5hop5tone Churr^i 




ELEVATtOIN OF SEDlLIA IPi SOUTM WAUl. OF 
SANCTUARY 




ALTAK TOMB.MORTh TKAN5EPT 



By C. E. Ponting, F.S.J. 205 

of the transept (about 14ft.) and flanked by pinnacles with embattled 
terminals. This arch is elaborately moulded and treated with seven 
principal cusps, each having cinquefoiled sub-cusping; the label has 
the ball-flower ornament closely spaced ; the central finial is modern, 
but is probably a fair copy of the original. The great width of this 
arch suggests its use as a double tomb, and it is occupied by two 
stone cofl[ins of earlier date than the tomb itself {circa 1340), both, 
having incised crosses, and one a shield with the letters | A aod a 
star upon it. Another slab with incised cross on it lies on the floor 
in front of the tomb. There is an Elizabethan recessed tomb in 
the west wall. 

The south transept has similar windows to those in the north, but 
the arches of those in the east and west walls are less acutely pointed, 
and they retain the original iron-work consisting of one crossbar ia 
each light with a stanchion bar having well-forged trident-shaped 
head. There is a niche in the centre of the east wall with projecting 
canopy which has been largely restored, and a foliated corbel 
modelled in Roman cement — presumably a copy of the original. 
On the south of the position for the altar is a piscina, the canopy of 
which has been entirely renewed, and if it was originally anything 
like this it is difficult to see how the piscina could have been used. 
A stone bench-table runs along the south and west walls. There is a 
rich modern canopied tomb against the south wall, designed by the 
elder Pugin, and erected to the memory of a former rector — the Rev. 
G. A. Montgomery, who was killed by the fall of an arch in the 
new Church at East Grafton in 1842. An inscription on the wall 
records his munificent bequest for the further improvement of the 
Church. The vaulted ceiling of this transept is in two bays and of 
similar description to that in the chancel : a string-course is carried 
round the walls and over the windows as in the chancel, but the one 
under the sills does not occur. 

The remarkable erection outside the south wall of this transept 
is worthy of special attention. It may be described as a low vaulted 
chamber of two bays in one undivided length, each bay having an 
arched opening about 3ft. wide and 5|ft. high in its disengaged 
side and end, the arches are well moulded and have good labels over ; 

VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXVII. P 



206 Architectural Notes on Places visited hy the Society in 1891. 

there is a buttress dividing the bays of the south wall, and diagonal 
buttresses are placed at the angles — all the buttresses being gabled 
and having a moulded plinth. That the structure is coeval with 
the transept is shown by the upper plinth-mould of the latter being 
carried up over it and forming a drip-course to its lean-to roof. .The 
vaulting ribs are carried on shafts in the centre and corbels at the 
angles. This structure is so unlike anything else I have seen that 
I can only conjecture it was erected for a tomb, probably for the 
founder of this chapel-transept. A Purbeck slab ornamented with 
a cross now lies under it, but it has not necessarily any connexion 
with it. 

The part of the tower above the four arches is certainly part of 
the great re-building of the Church ; the corbels carrying the 
beams of the floor of the second stage are of good fourteenth 
century design. Mr. J. E. Nightingale, F.S.A., has lent me a 
.copy of an old terrier of the Pembroke estates bearing a perspective 
sketch of the south-west view of this Church which he considers may 
be taken as a rough outline of the general features of Bishopstone 
Church at about 1580. This shows the tower surmounted by a spire, 
apparently of wood covered with lead, of which no traces remain. 

The porch has been re-built, but the old stone staircase indicates 
that there was originally, as now, a room over, and the old corbel 
for the niche has been re-used, as well as some old arch stones and 
the gable cross. A stoup has been cut in the moulded jambs of the 
inner doorway. Some curious incised stones o£ early work are built 
into the east wall of the porch. The old oak door taken from the 
south entrance some years ago is hung on the north side of the 
nave, and there are two corbels for the rood-beam in the east wall, 
one on each side of the tower arch. 

The font is a fifteenth century one, much spoilt by scraping. 
There is much beautiful wood-work in the internal fittings, ap- 
parently French and Spanish ; the walls of the sanctuary are cased 
and the sacristy door enriched with it, and the choir stalls, prayer- 
desk and pulpit constructed of it — on the latter is a fragment of 
English work, a bit of cresting, probably of a screen. The panels 
of the pulpit have fine carvings, one representing Our Lord in the 



By C. E. Ponting, F.S.A. 207 

garden has a bronzed surface ; others have figures of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, S. Mary Magdalene, and a Bishop. There are 
fragments of old glass in the sacristy window, in one of which the 
figure of a Bishop can be traced. 

The period over which the work o£ re-modelling extended may be 
stated at circa 1340 to 1370. I have referred to several particulars 
in which this w^ork resembles that at Edington and the chancel at 
Downton. This resemblance is so strong that I am led to the 
conclusion that, not only the Church which bears his name (and 
which was built between 1352 and 1361), but also the beautiful 
work at Bishopstoue and Downton are the work of Bishop Edington, 
the great architect who originated the phase of Gothic known as 
the " Perpendicular," and not only initiated William of Wykeham 
in it, but set the pattern for him in the great re-modelling of 
Winchester Cathedral. He was Master of S. Cross, Winchester, 
in 1334, and his talents were no doubt largely employed by his 
predecessors in the see of Winchester, the patrons of this Church 
at the time of its erection. Many of the remarks on this point in 
ray paper on Edington Church, read before the Archaeological 
Institute at Salisbury, would apply here [PFilts Arch. Mag., vol. 
xxiv,, p. 31), and I am glad to find that my view is shared to some 
extent by so careful an observer as Mr. C. H. Talbot {Wilts Arch. 
Mag., vol. xvii., p. 243.) 

S. Martin's. Fipield Bavant. 

This is, perhaps, the smallest Parish Church in the county : it is 
a simple rectangular building, of thirteenth century date, without 
the usual sub-division into nave and chancel — there being no arch 
or screen to indicate where the one ends and the other begins. 

The walls appear to be almost wholly of the original work, a 
splayed plinth is carried round and returned down by the jambs of 
the main entrance doorway at the west end, which has a segmental 
arch with flat cavetto moulding. The only other Early English 
features are the east gable cross, and the small lancet window on the 
north side, the opening of which is only Bin. wide and 2ft. high. 
The other openings in the walls are insertions of fifteenth century 

P 2 



208 Architectural Notes on Places visited hy the Society in 1891. 

date and consist of a two-light pointed east window — very small, 
each light being only lOin, wide and 3ft. high to the springing; a 
two-light window with square head over the west door ; a three-light 
square-headed window, without cusping, in the south wall; and on 
the same side, but further east, a priest's door. 

There is no buttress, nor does a bell-turret remain, although two 
bells appear to have existed, and been allowed to remain to the 
Church, when the Commissioners of Edward VI. made their inventory 
of Church goods in 1553 {Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xii., p. 369). 
All Saints\ Broad Chalke.* 

This Church was erected during the latter half of the thirteenth 
century [circa 1^80) , and although it underwent great alteration about 
a century later its original plan can be easily traced to have been the 
cruciform one so usual in the locality — nave with north and south 
aisles, north and south transepts, chancel and central tower. Of 
this the parts which remain are : — the chancel and north transept 
almost intact, and the centre of the west end, including the west 
doorway and buttresses and a portion of the wall for some 61 1. on 
each side of the latter, at which point the plinth-course of the 
later work begins. The whole of the remainder has been re-built. 

To speak first of this early work — the chancel has three lancets 
in each side wall with the Transitional work of the trefoiled and 
moulded cusping in the heads. The windows have good labels and 
terminals outside and on the inside curtain arches of flat segmental 
form with labels over. There is a priest's door in the usual position 
in the south wall. On the south of the sanctuary is a good specimen 
of the double sedilia of that date, the eastern bay having its seat 
some 5in. higher than the other although the two arches are level : 
the mouldings of this feature are very rich, and there is a good 
label with carved boss- form terminals. A moulded string-course 
runs round the inside under the window sills forming a label to the 
doorway, and is carried over the sedilia and horizontally into the 
east wall. (The east window and the roof are modern ) On the 
outside there is a plain splayed plinth but no parapet. The 

^ The Society is indebted to the Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, for the kind gift of 
one of the plates accompanying these notes. 



4. 






^. 






"^fc. 


■^ ■ 


^ 


f" .J. !_ 


Y-< 



All Saints Ciocirch Broad-chalke 





LouiJlIluUuaL g.-.iiuii ..n Lme C |) 








— North EbevA'i'toN 



-WesT Gluvation 



O^v^^J-S ...!-,« 



By a E. Ponlhig, F.S.d. 209 

diagonal buttresses were evidently added in the fifteenth century. 

The north transept has undergone but little alteration, and 
retains even its original early trussed-rafter roof. In the east 
wall are two single-light lancet windows, and in the north wall 
is a coeval window of three lights with early tracery formed of three 
circles with quatrefoil cusping. The coeval aumbry in the east wall 
is of large size, with shelf, and indicates the original intention of a 
chantry. On the outside this transept has no plinth or parapet ; 
the square buttresses have had their weatherings renewed and lost 
their original characteristics. 

Near the end of the fourteenth or early in the fifteenth century aa 
extraordinary re-modelling of the Church was taken in hand,^ and 
the operation appears to have commenced with the nave and aisles. 
The arcades dividing these were removed, and the side walls rebuilt 
to form a nave equal in width internalli/ to the previous nave and 
aisles. A glance at the west front shows exactly how far the re- 
building there was carried — the lines of the early aisle roofs are 
indicated by a change in the masonry (the earlier work being faced 
with finer rubble) and the quoins of the coeval nave (which was 
probably clerestoried) are left above these. The external width of 
the whole only appears to have been increased sufficiently to gain 
the greater thickness of wall which was apparently deemed necessary 
to carry the wide-span roof : the south wall is about 4ft. thick, and 
the north wall, which has no porch to buttress it, is 6in. thicker; 
both walls have far-projectiug buttresses, evidently constructed with 
the wide span in view, and there are diagonal buttresses at the two 
angles carried up to the cornice. The west front is most cleverly 
treated to obviate the unwieldly effect of a wide and broad gable : 
the cornice and embattled parapet which crown the side walls are 
carried round almost horizontally — a slight camber only being given, 
as was usual at this period in the case of a tie-beam — and the gable 
kept back to admit of a passage between. Exactly the same treat- 
ment had only recently been carried out at Edington by the man 
for whom I claim the credit of having designed the neighbouring 

* This work might, I think, be put as late as 1417 — the date suggested in Mr., 
lutchinson's paper. 



210 Archilectural Noies on Places visited by the Society in 1891. 

Church of Bishopstone only a few years earlier still. The five-light 
west window was inserted as part of the re-modelling", and has the 
same type of Perpendicirlarized " reticulated " tracery as the side 
windows, and a little more fully developed than those in the eastern, 
parts of Edington. The retention of the old walls here as far as 
seems to have been practicable, illustrates the respect which the 
re-modeller entertained for the work of his predecessors ; and we 
have just seen a parallel instance in the nave of Bishopstone. 

The porch, erected at the same time, is a large one of two stages ; 
the upper room was formerly approached by a staircase westward of 
the inner door, but the entrance to it is now blocked up, and the 
floor has been removed. There is a stoup by the door, having its 
bowl intact ; the canopy and jambs are made up of odd bits worked 
for another purpose ; inside the porch are two stone benches. Over 
the outer doorway is a niche, and a two-light window. The old 
oak door, with an elaborate escutcheon, remains. A coeval doorway 
in the north wall is now blocked up. The porch and nave have 
the same plinth, parapet and cornice, and the latter is enriched with 
carved paterae on the porch and the west front of the nave only. 

The internal span of the nave thus formed is 30ft. 6in., and the 
original I'oof (of which the present one is said to be a copy) remained 
until 1847, when the old lead covering was sold, and slates substi- 
tuted. 

This obliteration of the orthodox arrangement of nave and aisles 
seems an extraordinary thing to have taken place at that time — 
it was long before I eoald realize it : not content with a minute 
examination of the various indications of the change I wrote asking 
the Vicar what evidence there was of a previous roof to the present 
modern one, and his reply settles the point.^ The old stone roof 
corbels remain, and are carved, some with angels playing instruments, 
others with masks, &c. 

The re-building stopped at the end of the aisle on the north side, 
but on the south it embraced the entire transept, which, with the 



• As the purport of this letter is given in the interesting paper by the Rev. 
T. N. Hutchinson, which follows, I need not repeat it here. 



By C. E. Touting, F.S.A. 311 

tower, were probably not completed until after the first quarter of the 
fifteenth century. The plinth-mould of the nave is continued round 
it, and it has the same far-projecting diagonal buttresses, but the 
latter have a peculiarity in the narrowing of the upper stage. The 
gable is similarly set back behind the parapet, but the latter is not 
embattled like that of the nave, and the cornice is poorer. The 
south window, of five lights, is of a distinctly later type and indi- 
cates in a marked manner the Perpendicular characteristics of mullion 
carried up vertically, and of transom in the tracery. The mullions 
and tracery are unusually light and elegant. In the east wall is a 
three-light square-headed window which is an insertion of some fifty 
years later.^ 

The tower is carried on four moulded arches, the arch mouldings 
being carried down the jambs without intervening caps and stopping 
on a splay ; there are moulded octagonal bases below this. The 
lower stage is vaulted in stone, the angle ribs springing from corbels 
carved with curious devices — one being a dog with three rabbits. 
The spaces between the tower and the nave walls on each side are 
spanned by half, or "flying" arches, opening into the transepts — 
each arch springs from the side wall and abuts against the tower at 
its apex : the one on the south has a double inner arch, and a thicker 
wall above, the object of which is to gain the passage over, leadiug 
from the turret stairs, which are approached from the nave, to the 
tower. In order to gain the same west wall face on the north side 
the wall is corbelled out, one corbel being carved with two leaves. 
The abutment of the tower arches is strengthened on the west face 
by buttresses of three stages with slight weatherings, the outer edges, 
canted off to form a serai-oetagon on plan : these probably occupy 
the position of the responds of the earlier arcades. 

All this part of the tower was probably carried up with the work 



' The south transept which the present one displaced was converted into a chantry 
chapel in 1322 by John Alan, and the transept is still called the " Knightoa 
aisle," after the locality of the lands with which it was endowed. As this chantry 
continued in existence until the Reformation it is probable that the transept 
was re-built by the successors of the founder, which accounts for its slightly later 
date than the general alterations of the body of the Church. 



212 Architectural Notes on Places visited by the Society in 1891. 

of the nave and transept, but the upper stage was the last part of 
the Church to be completed, and the square heads of the windows 
are poor as compared with the restj although the label-moulds and 
the cornice of the parapet prevent their being assigned to a later 
date than 1530. The parapet is embattled and has the coping 
carried round the embrasures. 

The font is a good octagonal one of fifteenth century work with 
traceried sides and heraldic shields, bearing arms.^ 

The colouring of the weathered stone-work of the Church and 
the ivy creeping over it give a charming effect. In the churchyard 
is a good modern oak lych-gate and pendant lantern designed by 
Mr. Bethell. 

The plates which accompany the foregoing notes on Broad Chalke 
Church are reproductions of drawings lent to me by The Rev. T. N. 
Hutchinson, who courteously offered to alter the west elevation 
to show the evidence of two periods of work in the west wall 
of the nave, so that the change in the masonry is now clearly 
indicated. 

I would direct attention to some peculiarities in the ground-plan. 
Neither the west wall nor the transepts are square with the sides of 
the nave, so that, although the chancel inclines slightly to the north 
from the axis of the nave, this divergence appears to be much greater 
if taken at a right angle from the east walls of the transepts. 



* The following extract from Sir R. C. Hoare's " Hundred of Chalke " (p. 148) 
gives his view of what he saw in 1847 : — "It may be difficult to ascertain who 
built the nave, the same person probably who gave the font, on which are his 
arms, as well as on the facia from whence the roof springs — they seem to be. 
Quarterly Fretty. and a blank esciitckean. I am inclined to think they are of 
the family of Touchet, Lord Audley — living temp. Henry VII. — possibly those 
of James, Lord Audley, who married Margaret, daughter of Sir Richard Darrell, 
and by her might have possessed the property at Kniton (near Chalke) or part 
of it." It will be seen that the period named by Sir R. C. Hoare is too late for 
the nave, although it might apply to the font. 










-1 




All Saints Cfotmcn Buoad-chalkk 




-GrouuA Plan 





— SoaTH Elevation — 



■ScAt cf Teet . 



EAST Elevation - ^ ^^,„.^-^^-~. 



213 



^ ^kdclj of t|e pistorg of % f arWj of 
§roab C|alk. Milts. 

By the Eev. T. N. Hutchinson, M.A., Vicar. 

^I^HE parish of Broad Chalke is situate in the hundred of 
jfP^i Chalke, in the southern division of the county of Wilts. 
It is rather more than seven miles from Salisbury, over five from 
Wilton, and over four from Dinton, the nearest railway and telegraph 
station. A " bench mark " on the Church porch is 278*9 feet above 
mean sea level. The name is obviously derived from the situation 
of the village in the broad open valley of the chalk. The Chalke 
stream, or Ebele, which rises near Berwick St. John, flows through 
the village ; a tributary of this stream has its source at Knowle 
Green, Bower Chalke ; the Ebele falls into the Avon near Nunton. 

The parish is in shape a narrow parallelogram, about four miles 
long by two and a half broad, and contains six thousand seven 
hundred ar,d sixty-five acres, being one of the largest parishes' in 
extent in South Wilts. The population at the last census (189(^1) 
was six hundred and sixty-one. 

The far greater part of the lands forming the hundred of Chalke 
was granted in the year 955 by the Saxon King Eadwic to the 
Abbess of the Benedictine Monastery at Wilton, under the name of 
Ceolcum. The lands so granted comprised the parishes of Broad 
Chalke, Bower Chalke, Alvediston, Berwick St. John, and Semley. 
The remaining part of the hundred was made up of the parishes of 
Ebbesborne Wake, Fifield Bavant, and Tollard Royal. The ten 
"tithings^' when first formed by King Alfred, were Semley, Berwick 
St. John, Alvediston, Ebbesborne, Fifield, Gerardstone, Knighton, 
Stoke Verdon, Chalke, and Tollard Royal. 

In Domesday Book the two parishes of Broad Chalke and Bower 
Chalke are surveyed under the name of Chelche. 

In addition to Broad Chalke proper the parish comprises four 



214 A Sketch of the lUstory of the 

sub-divisions, the names of which frequently occur in the parish 
registers. These are: — 1, Knighton; '■I, Stoke; 3, Gerardstone, 
corrupted into Gurston, or Guston ; and, 4, Mount Sorrell, corrupted 
into Mousehill or Moulsell. We will take them in order. 

1. The hamlet or manor of Knighton was included in the lands 
given by King Eadwic to the Abbess of Wilton. According to the 
" Testa de Nevill " (c. 1260), Joan de Nevill held half a knight's fee 
here, under the Abbess of Wilton, in the reign of Henry III. In 
131 6 Knighton was in the possession of Laurence deSt.Martin. Later 
on we find it, successively, in the hands of the families of Lovell, 
Popham, and Darell, finally passing to the Earl of Pembroke in the 
reign of Henry VIII. In 1322 some of the lands of Knighton 
belonged to one John Alan, or Alwyn, who, in that year founded a 
chantry chapel in the south transept of Broad Chalke Church (still 
calltd the Knighton-Aisle), for the good of his own soul and the 
souls of his ancestors. The chantry was dedicated, as was also the 
Churchy to All Saints. The chantry priest was appointed by the 
vicar. The return made in the year 1553, of the " Church goods '' 
of this chapel, is as follows : — " The chapel of Knighton. Delivered 
to Thomas Smythe, gent.^ wonne cup or challis, by indenture of 5 
ounce, and 2 meane bells. In plate to the King's use one ounce 
dim." 

This chantry was continued till the time of the dissolution of 
chantries, in the early part of the reign of Edward VI. The 
property assigned for the maintenance of the chantry priest went 
probably to the St. Loe family, now extinct, several of whose names 
occur in the parish registers between 1578 and 1682. The old 
house at Knighton is still standing, though much altered ; in one 
of the rooms there_ is a very fine carved oak Jacobean chimney-piece. 

2. Stoke, properly Stoke Verdon, corrupted in the Ordnance Map 
into Stoke Farthing. This manor formerly belonged to the Lords 
de Verdon. In the middle of the thirteenth century it was held by 
Rois (or Rohese) de Verdon, " in socagio de Abbatissa de Wilton," 
according to the " Testa de Nevil." This lady in 1240 founded the 
Monastery of Grace Dieu, in Leicestershire, " to the honour of S. 
Mary and the Holy Trinity " ; she afterwards married Theobald de 



Parish of Broad Chalice, Wilis. 215 

Botiller, but she retained the name of Verdonj and he was called 
Theobald de Verdon. The last Lord de Verdon died in 1316, 
without male issue, and since then the barony has been in abeyance. 
His widow was Elizabeth de Burgh, Lady of Clare, daughter of 
Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, and previous widow of John de 
Burgh, son of the Earl of Ulster. This Elizabeth was the foundress 
of Clare Hall, Cambridge. Then again, a daughter of one of the 
Lords de Verdon mairied Thomas, second Lord Furnival, and a 
descendant of the Furnivals married John Talbot, created first Earl 
of Shrewsbury in 1442. He was buried at Rouen, and one of the 
titles on his tomb is that of " Lord Verdon of Acton. ^' In the 
reign of Henry VIII. the manor of Stoke Verdon was held by the 
Earl of Shrewsbury under the Abbess of Wiltou at a yearly rent of 
£11. Later on it came into the hands of Sir William Herbert, 
altevwards Earl of Pembroke, to whose successors it has since be- 
longed. I have tried to discover any trace, or even tradition, of 
the site of the mansion of the Lords de Verdon, but hitherto without 
success. 

3. Gerardstone, corrupted into Gurston or Guston. The name 
is evidently derived from the fact that lands here were held by one 
Girard at the time when Domesday Book was compiled. A 
descendant of bis, in the reign of Henry II., took the name of 
de Chelcha, of Chalk Parva, aud his daughter married a Maskarel, 
who, according to the " Testa de Nevill," held a knight's fee in 
Gerardstone under the Abbess of Wilton. The Knap Farm, in 
East Gerardstone, belongs to the Hospital of St. Nicholas, near 
Harnham Bridge, Salisbury, an institution that was at least in ex- 
istence in the time of Ela, Countess of Salisbury, in 1227. The 
old farm-house at Gurston still presents a picturesque appearance. 

4. Mount Sorrell, Mousehill, or Moulsell. Here formerly resided 
the family of the Gawens, who, according to Aubrey, had owned 
this property for upwards of four hundred and fifty years. Tradition 
connects them with the Sir Gawain of King Arthur. There are no 
remains of ancient buildings, the farm residence having been 
destroyed by fire some years ago. 

In the thirty-third year of the reign of Henry VIII. that monarch 



216 A Sketch of the History of the 

granted the manor of Broad Cbalke, formerly in the possession of 
the Abbess of Wilton, to Sir William Herbert, and Anne, his wife; 
and two years later he included in his grant the manor and abbey 
of Wilton, together with the hundred of Chalke, and other lands. 

The principal farm of Broad Chalke, called the Manor Farm, was 
granted on lease, in the reign of Edward VI., to George 
Penruddocke, Esq., and the Penruddockes continued lessees for a 
considerable time. The farm afterwards came to the family of 
Aubrey, in the person of Richard Aubrey Esq., the father of John 
Aubrey, the celebrated antiquary and historian of Wilts. John 
Aubrey lived for some years at the Manor Farm, and during part 
of that time he acted as churchwarden, his fellow-warden being Sir 
George Penruddocke. In his Natural History of Wilts Aubrey 
says " At Broad Chalke is one of the tunablest rings of bells in 
Wiltshire, which hang advantageously ; the river running near the 
churchyard, which meliorates the sound. Here were but four bells 
till Anno 1616 was added a fifth; and in Anno 1659 Sir George 
Penruddocke and I made ourselves churchwardens, or else the fair 
Church had fallen, from the niggardliness of the churchwardens of 
mean condition, and then we added the sixth bell." John Aubrey 
died a bachelor in the year 1700, aged 75, and was buried at Oxford. 

We see then, that this secluded counti'y parish has had more to 
do with the outer world than one might have supposed : it claims 
amongst its worthies the foundress of a celebrated monastery in 
Leicesterhire, the foundress of Clare Hall, Cambridge, and the 
father of Wilts Archaeology, John Aubrey; it is connected with the 
first Earl of Shrewsbury, with the Furuivals, from one of whom 
Furnival's Inn took its name ; and at least traditionally, with King 
Arthur's Sir Gawain. 

Broad Chalke, Bower Chalke, and Alvediston were originally 
included in the rectory of Chalke. The rector, or pi'ebeudary — 
since he held one of four prebendal stalls attached to the Abbey 
of Wilton — was appointed by the abbess. The prebend ceased at 
the dissolution of the abbey. 

The list of prebendaries and vicars from the year 1298, as recorded 
in the Registry at Salisbury, is given below on page 219. 



ParisJi of Broad Chalke, Wilts. 217 

The Church is dedicated to All Saints, or All Hallows. In the 
" Taxatio Ecclesiastica " of Pope Nicholas IV., 1291, the rectory of 
Chalke is stated to be of the annual value of £42, and the vicarage 
of £4 6*. 'Ad. In the " Valor Ecclesiasticus," time of Henry VI., 
the rectory is not noticed, but the Vicarage is put down at the clear 
annual value of £18. In the time of Queen Anne it was discbarged 
of first fruits and tenths. 

In the year 1447 the Abbess of Wilton granted the prebendaryship 
of Chalke, together with the patronage and advowsons of the three 
vicarages, to King Henry VI. In return for this gift the King 
released the abbess and her successors for ever from a pension o£ 
£4 bs. per annum, part of a fee-farm rent of £14 5«. payable to the 
Crown by that monastery for the hundred of Chalke. He also 
granted to the abbess the custody and possessions of the abbey 
during a vacancy occasioned by the death, resignation, or cession, of 
any abbess, upon a payment of £10 on every such vacancy. In the 
following year, 1448, the King made over the prebendaryship to his 
Dewly-founded King's College, Cambridge. This grant of the King 
was revoked by Edward IV. in the beginning of his reign. In the 
year 1466, however, a re-arrangement was made between the King, 
the abbess, and the college, and Edward IV. confirmed the grant of 
his predecessor. One of the terms of this composition was the 
reservation of the old rent of £14 5*. to the Crown for the hundred 
of Chalke, and another was that the abbess and convent should 
receive a pension of twenty marks per annum for ever. The new 
arrangement was confirmed the same year by the Bishop of Salisbury, 
with the consent of the Dean and Chapter, and from that time till 
1575 the College appointed to the three vicarages as separate livings. 
In 1575 they were consolidated, but in 1861 Alvediston was sepa- 
rated, the Vicar of Broad Chalke being made the patron. Bower 
Chalke was constituted a separate vicarage in 1880, the patronage 
remaining in the hands of King's College. 

Aubrey, in his Natural History of Wilts, says that in his time 
there was " a tradition that the Church was built by a lawyer, whose 
picture is in severall of the windowes yet remaining, kneeling in a 
purple gowne or robe, and at the bottome of the windowes this 



218 A Sketch of the History of the 

subscription : ' orate pro felici statu Mag'istri Ricardi Lenot/ " 
This may have been a mistake for Leyot, for the last prebendary 
appointed by the Abbess of Wilton was Richard Leyot, 1417; and 
the first presentation to the vicarage by the college was to a Robert 
Leyot, in 1453. The date of Richard Leyot would fairly correspond 
with the style of the nave and tower. 

The Church was restored, and indeed partly re-built, in 1847, by 
Messrs. Wyatt and Brandon, at a cost of £1720. In a circular 
drawn up by Mr. Wyatt, he says : — " The once magnificent carved 
oak roof, covering with one noble span the whole area of the nave 
(30ft. in width), is fast perishing, almost every tie-beam being rotten 
at its junction with the side walls." Some of ray oldest parishioners 
tell me they can well remember fragments of paint — red, green, and 
chocolate — that were visible on the old roof, the bosses and corbels 
of which, I am thankful to say, have been still preserved ; indeed, 
the present roof, I am informed, is a fair copy of the old one. 

There was, also, a large " St. Christopher " on the north wall of 
the nave, and a painting of Our Lord bearing His cross, together 
with the " Taking Down from the Cross " over the western tower 
arch. Water-colour drawings of these were made before the originals 
were ruthlessly destroyed. 

The Bells. 

The tower contains a fine peal of six bells. Of these the first 
and sixth have been left untouched ; the other four were re-cast by 
Messrs. Mears & Stainbank in 1874. 

The date on the first bell is 1704, with the inscription : — 
" I am the first and though but small 
It will be haide above you all." 
It bears the initials C. T., for Clement Tosier. Clement and 
William Tosier were Salisbury bell-founders from 1680 to 1723. 

The bells that were re-cast retain their original inscriptions ; that 
on the second bell was : — 

" I in this pleace am second bell 
lie shurly doe my parte as well." 

Its original date was 1659. 

The third and fourth bells were dated 1660. On the third was 
the legend " Holiness to the Lord." On the fourth " Gather my 



Parish of Broad (JliaLke, Wilts. 219 

saints together/^ The fifth had neither inscription nor year. 

The sixth or tenor is of pre-Reformation date, and is a very 
fine bell. It is not dated but bears the initials P. W., recognised 
as those of Peter de Weston, a London bell-founder, who died in 
1347. It bears the legend, "Andreae campana fugiant pulsante 
prophana." Its diameter is 44in., and it weight 14cwt. 

On a beam in the belfry is this inscription : — " This Church 
repaired and the five bells made six, anno 1659. G. Penruddocke 
and John Aubrey, Esquires, Churchwardens. Edward Sharpe, his 
bandy work.^' 

Registers. 

The parish registers commence with the year 1538, in which year 
injunctions were issued by authority of Henry VIII. for the keeping 
of such records. 

The " Registers of Broad Chalice, Co. Wilis, from 1638 to 17.S0, 
Edited by the Rev. Cecil Gurden Moore, M.A., Vicar,'' were printed 
for private circulation in 1881. 

The " Old Rectory," which stands within a stone's throw of the 
vicarage, is an interesting house with remains of fifteenth or early 
sixteenth century work. For generations past, at all events, it has 
been occupied by the lessee of the rectorial glebe. 

The Church has been carefully measured, and plans, elevations, 
and sections made by my son, Mr. C. Bernard Hutchinson, and 
some of his drawings have been reduced to accompany the description 
of the building which Mr. Pouting has been good enough to write, 
and for which I, at least, am very grateful. 

I am indebted to the account of the hundred of Chalke by Mr. 
•Charles Bowles, in " Hoare's Modern Wiltshire," £ov much oi the 
information contained in this paper. 

The following list of prebendaries and vicars, from 1298, is taken 
from " Boare's Wiltshire": — 

-^•-D. Patrons. Vicars of Broad Chalke. 

1298 Robert de Strode, Prebendary or Rector. Robert Muston, de Merston. 
1310 Jobn de Berwick, ditto William de Walford. 

1312 John de Oakham, ditto John Coye. 

1332 John de Woodford, ditto William de Raundes. 

1336 William de Raundes, ditto Robert le Wyte, vice Raundes, 

appointed Prebendary. 



220 



A Sketch of the History of Broad t'halke. 



1338 John Lambrook, Prebendai-y or Rector 

1343 John Lambrook, ditto 

1361 Roger de Chesterfield, ditto 

13— Ditto 

1390 Richard Holland ditto 

1393 William Waltham, ditto 

1398 Ditto 

1404 Ditto 

1417 Richard Leyot, ditto 

1436 Ditto ditto 

1453 Provost of King's College, Cambridge. 

1460 Ditto 

1462* Leysaun Geffrey, Prebendary. 

1504 Provost of King's College, Cambridge. 

1522 Ditto 



1575 
1621 
1622 
1629 
1710 

1724 
1752 
1776 

1785 
1786 

1788 

1813 

1858 

1870 

1878 



Roger Goode, ditto 

Samuel Collins, ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

King's College, Cambridge. 

Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
The Bishop, by lapse. 



. Thomas de Rothomago, or 
Rouen. 
William de Moleshull. 
William de Lorrimer, p. m. 

Moleshull. 
John Daubeny. 
John Taylor. 
John Bonn, vice Taylor. 
John Pykerell. 
Robert Gye, vice Pykerell. 
William Eversham. 
Ralph Thorpe, p. m. Eversham. 
Robert Leyot, on resign, of 

Thorpe. 
J. Lucas, on resign, of Leyot. 
J. Franklin, on resign, o/" Lewis. 
Thomas Hansby, on resign, of 

John Carvanell. 
A. Boston, on resign, of T. 

Hansby. 
John Archer, p. m. William Gye. 
fJohn Smith, f. m. Archer. 
Walter Waller, p. r. Smith. 
Robert Peyton,^, m. Waller. 
Henry Wood, p. m. Joseph 

Kelsey 
Aaron Thomson, p. m. W. Wray. 
John Chafy, p. m. Thomson. 
James Chartres, p. m. Chafy. 
J. Bainbridge, p. c. Chartres. 
Francis Randolph, D.D., p.m. 
Bainbridge. 



William Cole, p. m. Randolph, 
Stephen Hurnard Hawtrey. 



William Cooke, Provost of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 
King's College, Cambridge. 

(Later appointments, since pubtication of " Moare.") 
King's College, Cambridge. Rowland Williams, D.D., p. m. 

Hawtrey. 
Ditto William Henry Whitting, M.A., 

p. m. Williams. 
Ditto Cecil Gurden Moore, M.A., on 

appointment ofW. H. Whit- 
ting to Rectory of Stouoer 
Provost. 
1882 Ditto Thomas Neville Hutchinson, 

M.A., ^. m. Moore. 

• In 1460 it appears that the Abbess of Wilton appointed Leysaun Geffrey, rector or prebendary. 
+ The presentation is to the vicarage of " Broadchalke with its chapels of Burchalkeand Alvpston." 




2ai 



By Clikfoed W. Holoate, M.A. 
[_Sead at the Wilton Meeting, July ZOth, 1891.] 

Reasons for Readino the Paper. 

[)EMBERS of the Wilts Archaeological Society who attended 
the Annual Meeting held in connexion with the Royal 
Archaeological Institute, at Salisbury, in August, 1887, will 
probably remember that at the evening conversazione, held on August 
8rd, in the Council Chamber, Salisbury, a paper was read by the 
Rev. Charles Herbert Mayo, on " Dorset Bibliography," which gave 
rise to an interesting discussion. 

Mr. Mayo had brought out in the year 1885 his work entitled 
" Bibllotheca Dorsetiensis" which is fitly described in the sub-title, 
as " a carefully compiled account of printed books and pamphlets 
relating to the history and topography of the County of Dorset.'" 

I was present at the meeting, and heard Mr. Mayors paper and 
the discussion which followed, and conceived the idea of compiling, 
if possible, a work of a somewhat similar character, with regard to 
our county of Wiltshire, or, at all events, to collect materials towards 
such a work, to be fitly accomplished when the time and the man 
were ready. 

Accordingly, when I was spending a few days recently with one of 
the Secretaries of the Society — the Rev. E, H. Goddard — I was glad 
to promise to endeavour to draw the attention of Members of the 
Society, and Wiltshire men in general, to the desirability of such a 
work being undertaken, even though I could not definitely promise 
to undertake it myself. 

During the time which has elapsed since August, 1887, I have 
endeavoured to make myself acquainted with books relating to the 
topography of Wilts, and have collected a considerable number of 

VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXyil. (| 



222 A Proposed Bihliography of Willslihe. 

titles of books for further reference and arrangement. But I have 
not been able to devote any appreciable time to the systematic 
arrangement of my collection of titles, nor to the inspection of books, 
having been engaged upon editing a " Begisier of Commoners of 
Wrnchester College^ 1836 — QO/'' This is now published, but as I 
am pledged to carry my records of Winchester Commoners as far 
back as possible, the earliest date at present seeming likely to be 
1653, I shall be fully occupied for some years to come. 

Canon Jackson's Collections towards the Work. 

It was Mr. Goddard who first told me that the late Canon 
Jackson, whose great services to the history and archaeology of the 
county of Wilts, this Society, and the county, will ever hold in the 
highest esteem, had himself for many years been collecting materials 
for a Bibliography of Wiltshire. Mr. Goddard saw Canon Jackson's 
collections in November, 1890, when on a visit to Leigh Delamere, 
and describes them as contained in a thick folio book, and consisting 
of cuttings from booksellers' catalogues, manuscript notes of Wilt- 
shire books, &c., which Canon Jackson told him were the result of 
many (forty or fifty) years' collecting. 

Mr. Goddard suggested to Canon Jackson that the collections 
should be published, but the Canon said it might take up too much 
space in the Wiltshire Archaeological Society's Magazine, and, as 
Mr. Goddard did not then know of any one willing to undertake the 
labour and responsibility of completing and editing the work, the 
matter dropped. I shall quote later on in this paper a few words 
written by Canon Jackson to Mr. William Cunnington in February, 
1888, upon the subject of his collections, and his views at that time 
with regard to them. 

Canon Jackson's death on March 6th, 1891, naturally called 
special attention to his works, both those accomplished and those in 
progress, and one object of my paper will be to show what a real 
interest Canon Jackson's collections have to this county, and how 
important it is that they should be edited and published by this 
Society, or in some other way. 



By Clifford W, Eolgate. 223 

Of one thing we are assured, Canon Jackson's papers are in 
existence, and in safe keeping ; so that the Society has no occasion 
to re-echo the sigh which Aubrey utters in the preface to his 
Wiltshire Topographical Collections, speaking of the disappearance 
of valuable material collected by Mr. William Yorke, of Bassett 
Down, and Judge Robert Nicholas, of Rouudway : — " 'Tis pitie that 
those papers shoulde fall into the mercilesse hands of woemen, and 
be put under pies." 

The Value of the Work to the Salisbuby Free Public Library. 

There is another reason why I specially wish to call attention to 
the undertaking of this work at this time. It is just a j^ear ago 
since the ratepayers of Salisbury adopted the Public Libraries' Acts, 
this being the second occasion on which the subject had been brought 
to the test in the city, and the Library, opened in December, 1890, 
is, I believe, the first of the kind, under the Acts, founded in 
Wiltshire, and, though its funds are very small, I feel sure that the 
institution now once started will never be given up. 

One of the chief departments, I consider, in a public library 
should be the collection of local literature, whether locally printed, 
or illustrative of the locality, and more especially ought pains to be 
spent on making such a collection complete in the public library of 
the capital of the county, and, in this case, in so interesting a city 
as New Sarum. 

I hope, then, that the Public Library in Salisbury will acquire in 
process of time the finest and most complete collections illustrative 
of the history and topography of the county of Wilts anywhere in 
existence, and thus do for the southern part of the county what the 
Library of the Society at Devizes is doing already for the north. 

It seems to me that the publication of a bibliography of Wiltshire 
may help the way to a more speedy fulfilment of the wants of the 
Salisbury Public Library, and of the Library of the Society at 
Devizes, and give people a knowledge of the books which such 
libraries should contain, and take care of, for the benefit of the 
county ; for, though no doubt it would be much easier from the 
bibliographer's point of view to have all the works relating to the 

Ci2 



224 A Proposed BilUograpki/ of WiUsJdre. 

county already oil the shelves for him to catalogue and describe, still 
we must take things as we find them, and at present it seems likely 
that the Bibliography o£ Wiltshire will lead to the formation of 
libraries of Wiltshire works, rather than that the libraries will lead 
to the compilation of the proposed Bibliography. 

I have now, I think, shown how it comes about that I am deputed 
to call attention to the subject matter of this paper, and have 
adduced two reasons, of some weight, why the work should be 
undertaken. I would, however, add one more, and that is, that 
Wiltshire should not be behind other counties in cataloguing the 
materials for its history. 

Other County Bibliographies. 

As a matter of fact it is behind many counties in this respect, 
and it may not be amiss to note the special county bibliographies 
which have already been accomplished. They are, so far as I have 
ascertained : — 

1. Bibliotheca Herefordiensis, by John Allen. 1821. 

2. Biblioi/ieca Cantiana, by John Russell Smith. 1887. 

3. A Collection of Topographical Works relating to the County of 

Him-ey. 1838. 

4. The Norfolk Topographer^ s Manual, by Samuel Woodward and 

W. E. Ewing. 1842. 

5. Bibliotheca Devoniensis, by James Davidson. 1852. 

6. Topographia Sussexiana, by G. S. Butler. 1866. 

7. Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, by T. Q. Couch and C. Chorley. 1866. 

8. The Yorkshire Library, by William Boyne. 1869. 

9. Bibliotheca Hantoniensis, by H. M. Gilbert. 1872. 

10. Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, by W. P. Courtney and G. C. Boase, 

three vols. 1874-82. 

11. The Lancashire Library, by Henry Fishwick. 1875. 

12. An Introduction to the Sources of Salopian Topography, by the 

Rev. Mackenzie E. C. Walcott. 1879. 

13. Bibliotheca Dorsetiensis, by Rev. C. H. Mayo. 1885. 

No doubt there are others. I know that a largely-augmented 



By Clifford W. Holgate. 225 

edition of Bibliotheca Hantoniensis is in the press, and nearly ready,' 
and that a bibliographical coramittee has been formed in the county 
of Essex to compile a bibliography of works relating to that county. 

The Meaning of a Bibliography of Wiltshire. 

To come, then, to the title of this paper, " A proposed Bibliography 
of Wiltshire.'' By this I mean the compilation of a book containing 
a systematic description of books, pamphlets, and other printed 
material relating to the history and topography of the county. The 
ideal " systematic description ■'•' should in all cases, I think, contain 
the full title of the work and notes as to its authorship, edition, 
number of pages and plates, size, the places of printing and pub- 
lishing, the names of printer and publisher (if within the county), 
and the date of publication : and, if possible, a brief but accurate 
indication of the purport and value of the book, and, if by a Wiltshire 
author, a brief account of hina. 

Printed Sources for such a Work. 

The above, roughly speaking, being the kind of particulars to be 
recorded, I must first indicate what sources of information are 
already in print — however incompletely fulfilling the standard of 
excellence we should like to see attained — specially relating to 
Wiltshire. 

(1) First — and there are only three special sources — comes John 
Britton's " Topograp/iical Sketches of North Wiltshire," 1825, intended 
nominally to form the third volume of his " Heauties of Wiltshire " 
— the first two volumes of which were published in 1801 — but 
virtually a separate and complete work. It contains in the ap- 
pendix two valuable contributions to the bibliography of the county. 
The first is an " Alphabetical List of Local Acts of Parliament, for 
Enclosing of Common Fields, Transferring Property, 8fc., with the 
Names of Lords of Manors, Resident Clergy, Sfc." The Acts are 



^ This was published in August, 1891, edited by Messrs. H. M. Gilbert and 
G. N. Godwin, with a list of Hampshire newspapers by F. E. Edwards. 



226 A Proposed Bibliography of Wiltshire. 

arranged under the names of parishes, and the list occupies pages 40i 
to 410 inclusive. The total number of Acts catalogued is seventy- 
four. 

Britton^s second contribution towards a bibliography of the county 
is to be found on pages 422 to 436, inclusive, and is entitled " A List 
of Boohs, Maps, and Prints, that have been published illustrative of 
the Topography of Wiltshire P There is a brief general list of 
" county works/^ and then the items are arranged under the names 
of places to which they refer in alphabetical order. The earliest 
items are " Saxton^s quarto Map of Wiltshire'' engraved by R. 
Hogenbergius, 1575; " Wiltshire's Resolutions, presented ttrith the 
contributions of divers gentlemen to Kis Majesty's Commissioners at 
Oxford," 1643; and the "Arraignment a?id Conviction of Mervin, 
Lord Audley, Earl of Castlehaven, who was by twenty-six peers of the 
realm found guilty on Monday, 25th of April, 1611; with his portrait '* 
London, 1642. It should be mentioned that this list is an enlarge- 
ment of one published at the end of the account of Wiltshire in 
Britton and Brayley's '■'Beauties of England and Wales," 1814, vol. 
XV., part 2, preceding the index, but unpaged. 

Also it should be mentioned that in Britton's Essay on Topo- 
graphical Literature, published in 1843 in conjunction with Canon 
Jackson's History of the Parish of Grittleton, there is a list of works 
published on Wilts. 

With regard to Britton's own works, they are all fully described 
in his Autobiography, vol. ii., 1849, by his secretary, Mr. T. E. Jones. 

(2) The second printed source of information is a paper by William 
Whitaker, B A. (London University), a member of the Geological 
Survey of England. It is printed in the Wiltshii-e Archceological 
Magazine, vol. xiv., pp. 107 — 120 inclusive, and is entitled a "List 
of Books, Papers, Maps, Sfc, on the Geology, Mineralogy, and 
Palaeontology of Wiltshire." The list, which is prefaced by an 
alphabetical index of authors, eighty-nine in number, contains the 
titles of one hundred and sixty-nine papers, &e., arranged according 
to their dates of publication, the period covered being from 1700 to 
1873. It is a most valuable handy list of reference to the articles on 
the subjects mentioned, iu the leading scientific journals and other 



By Clifford W. Holgate. Ul 

magazines, and may fairly be used as an argument in favour <if 
certain portions of the bibliography of Wiltshire being brought out 
by instalments, if the work cannot be undertaken as a whole. 

(3) The third printed source is contained in " The Book of British 
Topography , a classified Catalogue of the Topographical Works in the 
Library of the Biiiish Museum relating to Great Britain and Ireland,'* 
by John P. Anderson, of the British Museum Library, published iu 
1881, pages SJ97 to ii08 inclusive. The works catalogued are, first, 
those treating of the county generally, of which there are fifty-eight 
entries, and then those treating of separate places in the county 
arranged in alphabetical order, of which there are upwards of one 
hundred and twenty-four entries. The book is not official, and the 
entries do not give the full particulars which would be necessary 
in a complete bibliography, but each work is entered under the 
precise heading given to it in the Catalogue of the British Museum* 
which insures its value to the person who wishes to consult there the 
books which are to be more fully described. It is to be noted that 
poll books and sermons are not catalogued, nor Civil War tracts, 
except in a few instances. 

One more printed source ought to be mentioned from whence 
particulars of a certain number of fugitive articles, and sketches in 
the magazines, relating to the county, can be gleaned, I mean Dr. 
William Frederick Poole's Index of Periodical Literature, 1882. 
Of course there are many English magazines not included in this 
famous index, in which articles relating to Wiltshire may still be 
lying hid, and I hope these may be brought to light by someone 

- interested in the subject of this paper. 

H I ought also to mention the fact that Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., 

K printed at his Middle Hill Press about sixteen separate works relating 

■ to this county. 



Material already in hand for such a Work. 
What I have been able to do myself, and what remains to be done 



now must be briefly mentioned. 

I have accumulated a considerable number of cuttings from 
catalogues, relating to the county, and these form a handy index 



228 A Proposed Bibliography of Wiltshire. 

and guide, until one can refer to the books themselves, for the 
particulars requisite for a bibliography. 

Also I have a book containing a number of titles of books, &c., 
relating to Wiltshire which was put together by Mr. Benjamin 
Broadbere, the bookseller at Mitre House, in the High Street, 
Salisbury, who must be known to many Members of this Society. 
Mr. Broadbere catalogued these as they passed throngh his hands 
from time to time in the course of his business, and when in January 
last he heard I was interested in the subject he very kindly gave 
me the book to make what use of it I could. 

Naturally these materials over-lap considerably, and therefore the 
sum total of the sources of information I have named is not so great 
as at first sight might appear, and hardly any of the items in the 
sources indicated are sufficiently fully described to be ready for 
insertion in the bibliography; that is to say, although there is the 
material indicated as ready to he dealt with, it has yet to be dealt 
with, the books and pamphlets must all be seen and described by 
persons who will agree on a uniform method of description. 

Mr. Henry Brown, bookseller in the Canal, Salisbury, whose large 
stores of second-hand books are well known, has kindly promised to 
allow me to inspect and describe any Wiltshire works which are in 
his stock or shall pass through his hands ; and so, altogether, I 
think the position of affairs is hopeful for the work to be taken in 
hand with fair prospect of accomplishment. 

FuETHEE Steps to be taken. 

Several points occur to me now as worthy of mention; we ouo-ht 
to obtain a positive assurance from Canon Jackson's executor that 
the Canon's collections shall be placed, if possible, at the disposal of 
the Wilts Archaeological Society, to which he did such good service 
in life, and which desires to show its appreciation of his labours by 
making more wide use of his collections. 

Then we should approach those gentlemen in the county who are 
known to have private libraries, for permission to catalogue any 
Wiltshire books or tracts they may possess, not otherwise accessible. 



By Clifford W. Eolgate. 229 

Mr. Alexander Mackay, of Holt Manor, has already allowed me to 
take note of the "Wiltshire books in his Library.^ 

Much work has yet to be done in the British Museum Library, 
and probably the University Libraries at Oxford and Cambridge 
will furnish much material of interest. 

Then we must hope that people will come forward and volunteer 
to do special parts of the bibliography, or to compile bibliographies 
of different places, &c. For instance, Salisbury, Stonehenge, the 
Civil War in Wiltshire, local Acts of Parliament, Poll Books, 
Sermons, the history of the Newspaper Press in the county, might 
all in the first instance form special and separate parts of the larger 
work, and might fitly be published in the Wilts Archaological 
Magazine from time to time. 

As TO Publishing such a Work by instalments. 

A precedent in favour of publishing by instalments has been set 
by the publication of Mr. Whitaker^s list, already referred to; a 
most valuable precedent I think personally, though I am aware that 
it may not necessarily commend itself to the Editor of the Magazine. 

It seems to me that one of the chief objects of the Society was 
the publication, by instalments, of materials for a thoroughly 
satisfactory history of the county ; and what can be more helpful to 
the future historian, than to be completely informed as to the literature 
in existence upon the topography and history of the county? 

I find I have supporters in the idea of publishing by instalments 
both in the late Canon Jackson, and in Mr. William Cunnington. 
The latter gentleman, writing to the Rev. E. H. Goddard, under 
date 3rd April, 1891, quotes a letter from Canon Jackson to himself, 
dated February, 1888, in which the Canon says: — " We are thinking 
of printing in the Magazine a ' Bibliolheca Wiltonensis' or complete 
list of all works connected with the history of the county, towards 
which I have a very large collection formed during many years, 
extracts from booksellers'* catalogues, Sec.'" 

* Since writing this the Earl of Radnor has kindly given me permission to look 
through his library at Longford Castle, and note any Wiltshire books which are 
there, and the Marquess of Bath has expressed his approval of the work being 
undertaken. 



230 A Proposed, Bibliography of Wilhliire. 

Mr. Cunnington goes on to say for himself : — " Canon Jackson^s 
collections might be advantageously published in the Magazine by 
instalments (as proposed for the catalogue of the Museum) and the 
valuable information would be secured, without interfering too much 
with the readable part of the book." 

I confess I am not myself in favour of publishing the whole work 
by instalments, but I am in favour of publishing in the Magazine 
certain special bibliographies of places, &c., such as I have indicated, 
in this form, as soon as ever they can be compiled. 

However, I hope if discussion follows, advice will be given as to 

the best method of proceeding, for, if the Society is inclined to favour 

the proposed work, before it is taken in hand it will be necessary to 

'have some rules carefully drawn up, for the guidance of those engaged 

in the compilation. 

The Essex Bibliographical Committee's Rules. 
Through the kindness of Mr. Edward A. Fitch, F.L.S.,of Maldon, 
Essex, President of the Essex Field Club, I have received a copy of 
the rules of the Essex Bibliographical Committee, before referred to, 
of which he is one of the honorary secretaries. Most of these rules 
seem to me to be of an extremely helpful and practical nature, and 
will merit the consideration of the Members of our Society if the 
question is brought before them. Without going into the details 
contained in the special rules drawn up by the Essex Committee 
for the guidance of those who assist in the work of compiling the 
Bibliography of Essex, I think the general rules are of such im- 
portance that I give them here in full : — 

" That the followiug shall be the general rules to be observed by those engaged 
in the work of compilation of the bibliography : — 

" (a) It shall include all such books, pamphlets, articles, maps, prints, &c., as 
are usually included in the best existing county bibliographies ; 

" (t) The decision as to the desirability of admitting or excluding any par- 
ticular work shall rest solely with the executive committee ; 

" (c) The works catalogued shall be arranged alphabetically under the names 
of their authors, magazine articles being distinguished from works 
which are complete in themselves, and all necessary cross-references 
being inserted ; 

" {d) The various items composing the entry of any title shall appear in the 



By Clifford W. Eolgate. 231 

following order :— Surname of author ; Christian name or names of 
author (with his or her distinctive titles or degrees, where desirahle) ; 
as much of the title as is necessary for identification (ahbreviations, 
if any, being made after the usual rules) ; the title, series, volume and 
pages of the magazine or other periodical publication in which the 
work or article appeared (if not separately published) ; the number of 
the edition (if not the first) ; the number of pages (of both pre- 
liminary matter and body) ; the number of maps and plates ; the size 
and shape of the work (maps and prints being described in inches) ; 
the place or places of publication ; the name or names of the pub- 
lishers, whenever desirable ; and, lastly, the date of publication ; 
" (e) No further information than the foregoing relating to any work cata- 
logued shall appear in the main entry in the catalogue, unless this 
information appears on the title-page of the book or pamphlet, in the 
title of the article, or on the front of the map or print catalogued, or 
unless it shall be in some way explanatory of, or supplementary to, 
the information rightly entered under [d) (as, for instance, the 
author's name in the case of an anonymous or pseudonymous book), 
when it shall be entered between brackets [ ] ; 
" (/) Any further information than the above about any work catalogued 
(for instance as to its rarity or value ; its special points of interest ; 
its typographical or other peculiarities ; its press-mark at the British 
Museum ; the occurrence of rare works in public or private libraries ; 
&c., &c.) shall be entered in and form part of a secondary raragvaph, 
intended to be printed in smaller type) ; but no literary or other 
criticism upon the points and peculiarities of any work catalogued 
shall appear in this secondary paragraph, unless the same shall be of 
the briefest description. 
" {g) All who assist in the work of compilation shall (subject to the above 
general regulations) enter all details relating to works catalogued in 
accordance, as far as possible, with the rules for cataloguing books 
given in Mr. Henry B. Wheatley's How to Catalogue a Library, 
2Dd edition, London, 1889." 

Best Form tor the completed Work. 

Perhaps here* it would be well to indicate what would be the best 
form for such a work to take. 

I confess though I have hitherto been strongly in favour of such 
a work being divided into parts, as in Mr. Mayors Bibliotheca 
Dorsetiensis, I am more disposed now to favour one in which all the 
items, i.e., authorSj subjects, &c., should appear in dictionary form, 
under one alphabet, with plenty of cross-references, to all sources of 
information, in the case of periodicals, &c. There should be special 
indexes of printers and publishers. 



232 A Proposed Blhllography of WilisMre. 

If, however, the work is to be divided into parts, J think, roughly 
speaking, it should consist of the following : — 

1. Works relating to the county generally, histories, directories, 
maps, arranged in chronological order. 

2. Works relating to the diflPerent localities, arranged alphabeti- 
cally, in chronological order. 

3. Alphabetical indexes of (a) authors, (d) printers and publishers. 
Great store, I think, should be set by chronological arrangement 

where possible. 

I am not at all sure, that it might not be advisable, as a step 
towards the larger work being taken in hand thoroughly, to publish 
a brief list of all the works at present known of, from the printed 
and other sources, which I have indicated. This, I think, might 
possibly be my contribution towards the work ; at present I cannot 
see my way towards offering to undertake anything more. 

Should all Works by Wiltshire Authors be Included? 

I must now refer to a question which is likely to be raised, viz., 
are all works by Wiltshire authors, whether natives or residents, to 
be included in the bibliography of the county ? 

I am very doubtful whether they ought to be, for it would be 
difficult to know where to begin, and to leave off: e.g., should all 
the publications of all the Bishops of Salisbury be included in works 
by Wiltshire authors ? 

No doubt there would be cases where one would feel no difficulty, 
and we should, I believe, rightly include the works of such a man 
as Richard Jefferies, nearly every work from whose pen is stamped 
with the love for, and knowledge of that part of Wilts, which under 
a thin veil he has so admirably described. 

I am aware that Messrs. Boase and Courtney's Bibliotheca 
Cornubiensis comprises a catalogue of the writings of Cornish men, 
and that one of the objects of the Essex Bibliographical Committee 
is to form a bibliography of works " that have been written by, or 
about, prominent natives of, or residents in, the county together 
with all works that have been published within its borders.''' ^ 

* I hear from Mr. Fitch, January, 1S92, that, for the Essex Bibliography, the 



By Clifford W. Eolgaie. 233 

This seems to me almost too large an undertaking, and I am 
decidedly' of opinion that the bibliography o£ works upon the county, 
or connected with events in its history, should be kept distinct from 
one relating to works by Wiltshire men. It would be almost im- 
possible and undesirable, for instance, to include all the sermons and 
theological tracts by Wiltshire clergy published in the nineteenth 
century, though one would probably include visitation sermons and 
others on events of importance connected definitely with the county. 

I think, however, that biographies of prominent Wiltshire men, 
whose connection with the county has left its mark upon its history, 
should fitly be incorporated — and also, all books printed in the 
county, for they illustrate one of the most interesting phases in the 
history of the printing press by the means of which our county 
records have largely been and are being still further preserved and 
rendered accessible. 

The Printing Press in the County of Wilts. 

The history of the printing press in the county as evidenced by 
the books, pamphlets and newspapers which have emanated from it, 
will fitly form a part, and one of the most interesting parts of a 
bibliography such as I have in mind. 

I should have liked, had I had the time, to have appended to this 
paper the titles of the earliest works which have issued from the 
local presses of Salisbury, Devizes, Marlborough, Trowbridge, &c. ; 
as it is I shall have to content myself with mentioning a few 
specimens of works printed locally which happen to have come to 
my notice. 

There was a press in Salisbury as early as 1715, in which year 
was published, on Saturday, September 27th, the first number of 
" Tfie Salisbury Postman or Packet of Intelligence from France, Spain, 
Portugal, 8fc.," the publisher's imprint being, "Printed by Sam. 
Farley, at his office adjoyning to Mr. Robert Silcocks, on the Ditch in 
Sarum, anno 1715." 

Editors have ah-eady about tea thousand separate titles, and that it is a serious 
question whether they will not have to neglect all irrelevant works say since 1750, 
i.e., all sermons by Essex men, or preached in Esses, that have no relevance to 
the county, and no historic interest. 



234- A Proposed Billiographi/ of WillsJdre. 

Next came the Salisburij Journal, the earliest copy of which I 
have seen is No. 58, for Monday, July 6th, 1730 ; Sarnm : printed 
for Charles Kooion, at the Friniing Office in Mil/ord Street. In 
1746 the title of the paper was the Halishury Journal or Weekli/ 
Advertiser, and the printers Benjamin Collins and Comp., opposite 
the Poultry Cross. In 1751 the printing office was located in the 
New Canal, where it has remained ever since, through various changes 
of proprietorship, and the Salisbury and Winchester Journal — to 
which the title of the paper was changed — is one of the oldest, as 
well as one of the best specimens of provincial printing and journalism. 

It was Benjamin Collins who first made the press at Salisbury 
famous for its books and its weekly paper. An account of him and 
his connection with the publishing house of the Newberys, in 
London, will be found in Mr. Charles Welch's " A Bookseller of the 
last Century, being some account of the life of John JSewbery," bvo, 
London, 1885. 

The connection between Benjamin Collins and the Newberys 
began about the year 1743, and it was at Collins' press in Salisbury, 
in the year 1766, that the first edition of Oliver Goldsmith's Vicar 
c; Wakefield, two vols., 12mo, was printed for Fmucis Newbery, in 
Paternoster Row. 

Some original account books of Collins' are still in existence, in 
the possession — through many changes — of his successor in business, 
Mr. Henry Brown, to whom I have before referred, and to whom I 
am indebted, as also to Mr. Edmund Grove Bennett, the present 
proprietor of the Salisbury Journal, for kindly allowing me access 
to the materials incorporated in these notes. 

I have not yet been able to find anything in the nature of a book 
or pamphlet published in Salisbury earlier than the year 1 745, but 
I possess a small brochure of twelve pages, printed at Salisbury in 
that year by Benjamin Collins : — A Protestant King and the Bible, 
or no Pretender or Popish Legends : a Poem, by John Price, B.D., 
which must, I think be one of Collins' earliest publications.^ 



' Since writing this I have had the pleasure of becoming acquainted with Mr. 
W. H. AUnutt, assistant librarian at the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Mr. AUnutt 



I 



By Clifford W. Uolgate. 235 

Devizes had a booksellei'j by name Thomas Burrough, about the 
year J 751, but I do uot know if he was the publisher of what I 
believe to be the earliest Devizes printed book, viz., " A Treatise on 
the Ananas, or Pine Apples, with directions for raising this friiit, 
melons, See, by Adam Taylor, Gardiner, of Devizes" ; coloured plates, 
8vo, Devizes, 1709. I have only a note of this book, which I have 
never seen, and believe to be scarce. 

At Trowbridge T. Long had a press in 1799, in which year he 
printed " Hymns on various Subjects and Occasions, by John Clark." ^ 

The Wiltshire Times newspaper has been published at Trowbridge 
since 1836, I believe. 

Marlborough had a press in 1771, The Marlborough Journal, a file 
of which, 1771 — 4, is preserved in the Adderley Library at Marl- 
borough College, has the imprint on No, 2, Saturday, April Lth, 
1771 of J. Smith, and E. Harold; in 1773 E. Harold alone was 
the printer. 

I know of Marlborough printed pamphlets in 1786 and 1795. 

is the author of a valuable paper, "Notes on JPrinters and Printing in the 
Frovincial Presses of Eriglandand Wales," read on 3rd October, 1878, before 
the Library Association of the United Kingdom at their first annual meeting, 
and printed in the transactions of the association, and he has made the early out- 
puts from the provincial presses his special study. He has kindly allowed me to 
see his notes relating to Salisbury, and from them I gather that there was a 
bookseller in Salisbury 1635 — 7, Henry Hammond by name, and one John 
Courtney in 16G2. An earlier printer than Collins was Charles Hooton ; in Dr. 
K. Eawlinson's M.S. (D., 735, Bodleian) is a note of the following : — " Works of 
Charity recommended from the common relation we hear to Christ : a sermon 
preaclied at All Saints Chnrch iti Bristol before the Wiltshire Society, at 
their annual Feast held at the Merchants Hall of the said city on Thursday, 
August the 2\st. 1729, by Josejih Sorter, Master of the Free School and 
Curate of Wilton. Sarum: printed by Charles Sootonfor the Author"; the text 
is S. Matthew, chap. 25, verse 40. Mr. Allnutt has also note of the following : 
"A Dissertation in vindication of the Antiquity of Stonehenge, in answer to 
the treatises of Mr. Inigo Jones, Dr. Charleton, and all that have written 
uj)on that subject. By a clergyman living in the neighbourhood of thai 
famous monument of antiquity." Sarum: printed hy Charles Hooton and 
sold hy E. Maston and W. Collins, Boolcsellers in Silver Street. 1730. Price 
Sixpence. Svo, pp. 31 ; the authorship of this tract is attributed by Thomas 
Hearne to Mr. Stamford Wallis. 

' Mr. Allnutt has note of "History of the Pharisees," by T. Twinings, printed 
by A. Small, at Trowbridge, in 1790. 



236 A Proposed Billiograjphy of Wiltshire. 

Of other local presses I have note of The Melksham Guide, con- 
tahitng an account of the Spa, 12mo, printed at Melksham, probably 
about the year 1814; and of a poem by J. Frearson, on Earl Stoke, 
12mo, published in the same place in 1819. 

I have note of The Ristory of Lacoch Abbey, small 4to, privately 
printed at Lacock, by the author Rev. G. Witham in 1806 ; of 
a visitation sermon on II. Cor., v. 19, by Kev. Thomas Hyde 
Ripley, printed by J. M. Combes, at Chippenham,^ in 1819; a 
visitation sermon, by Rev. William Dalby, 8vo, printed at War- 
minster in 1826; a funeral sermon on William IV., by W. Gear, 
8vo, printed at Bradford-on-Avon in 1837 ; and an assize sermon, 
at Devizes, by C. J. P. Eyre, 8vo, printed at Calne in 1839. 

No doubt these notes on local presses might have been made more 
full and accurate ; but they will serve to draw attention to the 
special interest which, I think, attaches to locally-printed works 
relating to the county. 

Works relating to Wilton. 

As a proof that the completed work, if done on a minute scale, will 
be of some magnitude, I may mention that I have already made the 
following rough list of separate publications relating to the town of 
Wilton, where we are now assembled : — 

The Plates of the Sculptures at Wilton House, by Gary Creed, 
1731; 

A description of the Sculjdures, by Richard Cowdry, editions of 
1751 and 1752; 

A description of the Antiquities, by James Kennedy, editions of 
1758, 1768, 1769, 1769 (4to), 1771, 1774 (6th), 1776 (7th); this 
appears to have been merged into 

^des Pembrochiance, by Mr. Richardson, editions of 1778 (8th), 
1779 (9th), 1784 (10th), 178S (Uth), 1795 (12th), and 1798 (13th); 

Eeffistrum IViltimense, hy Sir Richard Colt Hoare, 1827 ; 

Chronicon Filodunense, by the same, 1830; 

' Mr. Allnutt has note of a tract, " The self-commissioned Apostle," printed 
at Chippenham in 1765. 



By Clifford W. Eolgate. 237 

Notes on the Sculptures at Wilton House, by Charles Newton, 1849 ; 

A Monograph on Wilton Church, by Digby Wyatt, IS^Q ; 

Wilton and its Associations, by James Smith, 1851 ; 

Description of the Wilton Bouse Diptych, ^d-^ George Scharf, 1882; 

Doems in the Wiltshire Dialect, by Edward Slow, three editions 
during the years 1881 — 86; and 

Fourth Series of Wiltshire Rhymes, by the same author, published 
this year, 1891. 

Conclusion. — General Interest or the Work. 

I could, without very much trouble, except to the patience of my 
hearers, give further reasons for the undertaking of the work, and 
fuller particulars as to details of compilation and arrangement, but I 
think perhaps it is hardly necessary at this early stage. 

No doubt a Bibliography of Wiltshire would neither be so large, 
nor of such general interest, as that of many other counties with 
larger populations and larger towns, which have played a greater 
part in English history — but it cannot fail to be of some interest to 
the general public, as an index to the sources of our history, at a 
time when every step towards making these records complete and 
accessible is welcomed and taken advantage of. 

Special Interest to Wiltshire Men. 

To Wiltshire men themselves, however, I would fain believe such 
a work will be of great interest. Not only is the county possessed 
of strongly-marked features — ancient monuments, wide-rolling 
downs, with sweet short turf, and swift chalk streams distinguishing 
it clearly and decisively from all other counties in England, and 
giving it a charm all its own — but, also, its people are " county- 
proud," if I may use such a word, attached to their county for many 
reasons which it would be difficult exactly to describe, but which 
have found expression in a remarkable series of literature dealing 
with the county as a whole. Such, for instance, as the voluminous 
writings of John Britton relating to the county ; The Wiltshire 
Distitutions, I'Z^l — 1810, edited by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., in 
1825 ; The Monumental Brasses of Wilts, by EH ward Kite, in 1860; 
vol. xxvi. — NO. lxxvii. e 



238 A Trojposecl Bihliography cf Wiltshire, 

The Birch of Wiltshire, by the Rev. A. C. Smith, in 1887 j The 
Flowering Plants of Wiltshire, by the Rev. T. A. Preston, in 1888; 
and The Chjirch Plate of Wiltshire, by Mr. J. E. Nightingale and 
the Rev. E. H. Goddard, now nearly ready for publication.^ So, 
too, the writings of John Aubrey, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart., 
Henry Hatcher, Richard Jefferies, and Canon John Edward Jackson, 
to mention the most distinguished writers on the county, are marked 
with a peculiar stamp of pride and interest in and attachment to the 
county. 

Wiltshire County Feeling. 
To keep alive and foster this county feeling, which seems to me 
specially a characteristic of Wiltshire, and a very valuable character- 
istic, and to add still one more work to the series of books of reference 
relating to the county, are further reasons, beyond those mentioned 
at the beginning of this paper, which induce me to hope that the 
Wiltshire Arehseological and Natural History Society will favour 
and support the proposal for a bibliography of Wiltshire, in the 
compilation of which I shall hope to be able to share. 



EXAMPLES OF ENTRIES IN BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The following entries are intended to illustrate how the work 
might be accomplished according to the rules mentioned in the 
paper, on a dictionary plan, i.e., one in which authors and subjects, 
with full cross references, should be arranged under one alphabet. 

This plan, which of' course admits of infinite expansion, has much 



' This book was published at Salisbury, in Mai-ch, 1892, a few weeks after the 
deatli of Mr. James Edward Nightingale, F.S.A., of whose able and patient work, 
for the county and diocese, it becomes an enduring memorial. 



By Clifford W. Rolgate. 239 

to recommend it on account of its comprehensiveness and for the 
facilities of reference which it affords to every class of inquirer. 

ADDERLEY LIBRARY, see MARLBOROUGH COLLEGE. 

ANTBExMS, see CORFE, A. T. 

ARCHAEOLOGIA OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, 

see NICHOLS, J. G. 
ASSIZE SERMONS, see HOADLY, J., &c. 

BRODHICK, Rev. Alan, M.A.— A short History of Broughton Gifford, 
Wilts, on the occasion of the restoration of the Parish Church, November 
20th, 1878. Pp. 23. Small 8vo. Melksham: printed for Alexander 
Cochrane, Bank Street, 1878. 

The profits from the sale of the pamphlet, which was published at fourpence, were 
intended to be given to the Uestoration Fund, a list of subscribers to which is given. 
The author, a graduate of Exeter College, Oxford, was appointed Rector in 1877. 

BROUGHTON GIFFORD, see BRODRICK, A. 

CATHEDRAL LIBRARY, see LAKIN, S. M. 

CATALOGUES, see LAKIN, S. M., MARLBOROUGH COL- 
LEGE, &c. 

CHIPPENHAM PRINTED, see RIPLEY, T. H. 

CLARK, John— Hymns on various subjects and occasions. Pp.186. 4to. 
Trowbridge : printed and sold by T. Long, 1799. 

There is an unpaged index of first lines at the beginning. The preface to the 
"Christian Reader" is dated Trowbridge, October 31st, 1799. 

CORFE, Arthur Thomas— A Collection of Anthems with a list of the 
services used in the Cathedral Church of Salisbury. To which is prefixed 
a succinct account of the Masters whose compositions are inserted in this 
collection. New and enlarged edition. Pp. xxxii., 194. 12mo. Salisbury : 
George Brown, New Canal, 1852. (Printer, James Bennett, Journal 

Office.) 

The full title sufficiently sets out the contents, but there is also an alphnbetieal index 
of first lines, and an index of the texts from which the anthems are taken. The 
compiler was organist of Salisbury Cathedral for filty-eight years; he died 28tli 
January, 1863, in his 90th year. 

[COULTHARD, Clara]— One Witness more. "Let him know, that he 
which converteth the sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul 
from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins." Pp. 51. 12mo. War- 
minster : R. E. Vardy, Market Place, 1845. 

The dedication, dated March 25th, 1845, is signed " Clara Conlthard." 

DENISON, Edward, D.D., Bishop of Salisbury-Obedience to the 
Law of God the end of Education. A sermon [on Pt^alm cxis, 100] 
preached at the opening of the School at Marlborough for the Sons of 
Clergy and others, August 28th, 1843. 2ad Edition. Pp. 15, 8vo. 

London: 1843. 

E 2 



240 A Proposed Bibliography of Wiltshire. 

DENISON W[illiam] T[orrens] Capt., R.E.-Health o£ Towns 
Commission. Report on the state of Woolwich and Salisbury. Pp. 32. 
8vo. London : 1845. 

The Report upon the Sanatory Condition of the City of Salisbury, and the replies to 

the questions of the Commissioners, occupy pages 19 to 32. 
HASTINGS, Rev. John David, M.A.— The Oath of Allegiance to the 
Sovereign : God's Oath to iVIan. A Sermon preached in the Parish Church 
of Trowbridge, Wilts, on Sunday morning, January 22nd, 1860, before 
the officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the 2nd Wiltshire Eifles. 
Price sixpence. Pp. 16. 16mo. Trowbridge : W. Collins, Market Place, 
1860. 

The author— a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin— was Rector'of Trowbridge, 1841 

-1869. 

HEALTH COMMISSION, see DENISON, W. T. 

HOADLY, John, M.A.— The nature and excellency of moderation. A 
Sermon preach'd in the Cathedral Church of Sarum, at the Assizes held 
for the County of Wilts, March 9th, 170?. Published at the request 
of the Grand Jury. The Second Edition. Pp. i6mo. London : printed 
for Timothy Childe, at the White Hart, at the West End of St. Paul's 
Churchyard. 1707. 

The text is Philip, iv. 5. At the back of the title is printed a letter, dated March 
10th, 1706, signed "Man. Boeland," on behalf of the Grand Jurymen, nineteen of 
whose names are subscribed, requesting that the sermon might be printed. A copy 
of this sermon is in the Cathedral Library. The author, who was a brother oi ticnjaraia 
Doadley, Bishop of Salisbury, was successively Prebendary of Woodford, 1706 ; Arch- 
deacon of Sarum, 1710; Chancellor of the Cathedral, 1713 ; tiishop of Ferns, 1727 ; 
Archbishop of Dublin, 1729; and Archbishop of Armagh, 1742. 

• The Abasement of Pride : a Sermon preach'd in the Cathedral of 

Salisbury, at the Assizes held for the County of Wilts, July 18th, 1708, 
Upon occasion of the late Victory. Published at the request of the Grand 
Jury. Pp. 16. 16mo. London : printed for Tim. Childe, at the West 
End of St. Paul's Churchyard. 1708. 

The text is Daniel, iv., 37. At the back of the title is printed a letter, signed "J. 
Montague," returning the thanks of the gentlemen of the Grand Jury for the sermon, 
and exprtssiBg their unanimous request that it maybe printed. The names of the 
eighteen jurymen are given, A copy ol this sermon is in the possession of the present 
Bishop of Salisbury. 

HYMNS, see CLARK, J. 

LAKIN, Rev. Storer Marshall, M.A.— A Catalogue of the Library of 
the Cathedral Church of Salisbury. Pp. viii., 334. 8vo. London: 1880. 
This is the first printed catalogue of the MSS. and books in the Cathedral Library. The 
MSS., which are bound up in one hundred and eighty-seven volumes, are catalogued 
and described by Mr. E. Maunde Thompson, now Chief Librarim of the Uritish Museum. 
The total number of volumes in the library is about five thousand, and of these about 
one hundred and twenty-five are printed in black letter. The books bequeathed by 
Dean Hamilton in 1880 are separately catalogued in the appendix. The bjoks are 



By Clifford W, Eolgate. 241 

catalogued under author's names, there is also a subject index. The library contains 
a small collection of works relating to the County of Wilts. The compiler, a graduate 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, was appointed Vicar Choral of Salisbury in 1858, 
and Librarian in 1875. 

LIBRARIES, *eeL AKIN, S.M., MARLBOROUGH COLLEGE. 
LONGFORD CASTLE, Pictures at, see NICHOLS, J. G, 
MARLBOROUGH COLLEGE, see DENISON, E., &c. 

— Catalogue of the Adderlej Library, Marlborough College. Pp. 288. 

Demy 4to. Marlborough : W. Gale. Printer, High Street. 1889. 
Dedication, " In grateful memory of F. Alleyne M'Geachy, the Founder 
of the Adderley Library." 

A catalogue of authors and subjects under one alphabet — authors' names being printed 
in leaded type, and the entries being very brief. The following are specimen entries : — 
" Marlborough Journal, The. 1771 — 4. fol." 
"WATLEN (J.): History of the Townof Marlborough. 1854. 8to." 

-MARLBOROUGH UPPER SCHOOL SONGS.— Third 



I 



Edition. Pp. vi., 92. 12nio. Marlborough: printed by Lucy & Co., 

High Street. 1871. 
MELKSHAM PRINTED, see BRODRICK, A. 
NICHOLS, John Goug-h, F.S. A.— Remarks on some pictures of Quintiu 

Matsys and Holbein, in the collection of the Earl of Radnor, at Longford 

Castle. Archaeologia, Sac. Antiq. Vol. 44, part 2, no. xxviii. Pp. 

435—458. 1876. 

The paper was read on May 15th, 1873. 
PRICE, John, B.D. — A Protestant King and the Bible, or no Pretender nor 
Popish Legends : a Poem. Pp. 16. 4to. Printed and Sold by Benjamin 
Collins. Salisbury : 1745. 

This is one of the earliest works printed in Salisbury by the publishing house of Collins, 

A copy of it is in the possession o( Mr. C. W. Holgate. 
RIPLEY, Rev. T[homas] H[ydeJ— A Sermon preached in the Parish 
Church of Chippenham, on the 23rd day of July, 1819, at the Visitation 
of the Rev. William Marsh, A.M., Chancellor of the Diocese of Sarum. 
Pp. 44. 8vo. Printed and sold by J. M. Coombs, Chippenham : 1819. 

The text is II. Cor , t. 19. The author, who was a graduate and fellow of King's 

College, Cambridge, was appointed Vicar of Wootton Bassett, Wilts, 1813. 

SALISBURY DRAINAGE, see DENISON, W. T. 

SALISBURY PRINTED, see PRICE, J. 

TROWBRIDGE PRINTED, see CLARK, J. ; HASTINGS, J. 

D., &c. 
VISITATION SERMONS, see RIPLEY, T. H. 
VOLUNTEERS, see HASTINGS, J. D. 
WARMINSTER PRINTED, see [COULTHARD, C] 

28M March, 189^. C. W. H. 



u-z 



%lt Milton Carjet lubiistrg/ 

By Pabdoe Yat£8. 

[^Sead at the Wilton Meeting, 1891.] 

^HE ancient character of tbe Wilton carpet industry doubtless 
prompted the selection by Mr. Medlicott of the present 
subject as one suitable for an Archaeological Meeting ; otherwise it 
would be difficult to reconcile a paper on modern industrial enterprise 
with those subjects connected with the remote past which are nor- 
mally within the province o£ archseology. It may be of interest 
first to give a brief sketch o£ the history of textile weaving forming 
the elementary stage to the heavier fabrics now the products of 
carpet looms. The use of the spindle and shuttle was evidently 
known to mankind in ages of which no records remain, for we find 
that in the time of Joseph, 1700 B.C., the Egyptians knew the art 
of weaving fine linen, while the cerements in which mummies were 
encased in the time of the early Pharaohs show that the industry had 
been brought to a wonderful state of perfection perhaps two thousand 
years before Jacob made the coat of many colours that was the cause 
at once of his youngest son^s misfortunes and prosperity. Paintings 
representing the flax plant have been found on the walls of the 
sepulchres at Beni-Hassan and elsewhere in Upper Egypt, as well 
as illustrations of a rude kind of loom. The transition from the use 
of linen for clothing (and there is reason to believe it was the only 
clothing known to the Egyptians until a date scarcely anterior to 
the Christian era) to that of decoration was simple, and with the 
demand for increased luxury the making of tapestries, rugs, and, 
finally carpets, followed as a matter of course. It is stated that the 

^ The Society is indebted to Mr. Pardoe Yates for the gift of the plate accom- 
panying his paper. 



The Wilton Carpet Industry. 243' 

priests of Heliopolis, " the City of the Sun/' used carpets in their 
relig'ious ceremonies, and in the palaces of the Pbaroahs recent 
discoveries have shown they were employed for the purposes of 
decoration. The carpets of the Homeric age (about 900 B.C.) are 
described as being generally plain white or coloured cloths, but having 
sometimes handsome designs embroidered in colours on them. But 
their use as floor-coverings in the modern sense of the word dates 
from a much later period, for to the Oriental and early Greek a 
carpet was a work of art handed down from one generation to 
another, and used for sitting or reclining upon, for decoration,, 
covering, or even for gorgeous funeral palls. Thus Arrian tells us 
that purple Babylonish carpets were spread over the body and tomb 
of Cyrus at Pasargadae, and it may be safely concluded that the 
carpets of these early times were really nothing more than beauti- 
fully-woven tapestries. Both the Egyptian and Babylonian carpets 
were probably woven in large pieces, composed chiefly of linen, the 
ornamentation being produced by sewing on bright pieces of cloth 
cut into various shapes and figures. One writer tells us that it was 
the custom of the ancient Egyptians to compel each daughter before 
marriage to furnish at least one carpet for her future home, and it 
was considered that the production of an inferior tapestry by the 
bride was derogatory to her reputation as a good housewife. Truly,, 
customs have changed since then. The manufacture of carpets has 
happily been transferred from domestic establishments to commercial 
undertakings, and the husband-elect enjoys the privilege of bearing- 
the cost. This appears to be not an isolated instance at such seasons- 
of transfers of ancient bridal duties to masculine responsibilities* 

Introduction of Carpets into Europe. 

The introduction of carpets into Europe is probably due to the- 
Moors when they held possession of Spain,and to the great merchants 
of the Venetian Republic who for centuries retained a monopoly of 
the trade with Turkey. By this time, however, the carpet had become 
a floor-covering, for we read of a Bishop of Toledo in 1255 having^ 
tapestry laid down on the floors of his palace ; but, for a long while 



244 



The Wilton Carpet Industry. 



after their introduction into the West, carpets continued to be chiefly 
employed as table cloths, covering's for couches, chairs, and other 
articles of furniture, and as costly ofFering-s to be laid before Church 
altars. As late as 1596 we read of Richard Bellasio, of Morton, 
Durham, bequeathing to his nephew " his best Turkey carpet for 
his long table"; and the use of carpets in this century is known 
only in rare instances. Checked mattings were in use during the 
fifteenth century, for in Lydgate's Life of St. Edmund we find a 
sketch of the room in which the saint is supposed to have been born, 
the floor o£ which is shown to have been covered with checked 
matting, while a fringed hearthrug is laid before the fireplace. 
About that time, too, carpets of interlaced strips of leather, made 
in the fashion of our present list hearthrugs, seem to have been 'in 
vogue, and examples of these are preserved in some of our museums. 
The use of these carpets, however, was the exception rather than 
the rule with the wealthy. Thomas k Beckett was chidden for his 
luxury in having his presence chambers strewn with clean straw or 
hay; the daily re-covering of the floors of Hampton Court Palace 
with rushes in the time of Wolsey was considered gross extravagance, 
and it was not until the reign of Elizabeth that we hear of even 
queens using a carpet for a floor-covering. 

It is not to the East, however, that we owe the introduction of the 
manufacture into England. France, which took the lead of all the 
northern nations of Europe in art and science, possessed tapestry 
factories as early as the year 400 A.D. The fabric woven appears 
to have been a kind of rude embroidery done in gold and silver, 
chiefly used for hangings and altar-cloths. The work was entirely 
made with the needle, and in spite of the introduction of a loom in 
the year 900, this mode of working continued for some four hundred 
years later. In the twelfth century, under the reign of Philip 
Augustus, the most ancient tapestry makers in France, called 
Sarazinois, formed themselves info an important corporation in Paris 
for producing embroidery, the fabric being a bluish velvet lined with 
Vermillion, on which was worked the ^eur-de-lis. The rapid spread 
of the fashion for using tapestry for house decoration led to the 
establishment of manufactories in the chief cities in the West of 



By Pardoe Yates. - 245 

Europe, and the Flemings soon out-distanced all competitors in 
producing the finest and most artistic work. The art regained 
something of its former position in France under Francis I., who 
established tapestry works at Fontainebleau, which contiuued to be 
supported and encouraged by Henry II. and Catherine de Medecis. 
But it was to Colbert that the great revival of the industry in 
France was due. In 1664 the celebrated minister of Louis XIV. 
founded at Beauvais both carpet and tapestry works, the production 
of whose looms for a long time remained unrivalled for artistic 
design and delicacy of texture; and to Colbert also we owe the 
famous Gobelins in Paris, which reached the zenith of their prosperity 
in the prosperous days of the First Napoleon. 

A Factory established at Wilton. 

From France the art of weaving was first introduced into England 
in the time of Henry VIII., and in the reign of James I. a small 
factory was established at Mortlake, which, though patronised by 
the King, did not prove a success. The use of carpets gradually 
became more common, but up to the middle of the eighteenth 
century they were costly luxuries, only used in the most magnificently 
furnished rooms of the wealthy. The floors of ordinary houses were 
covered with white sand, in which ladies were skilful in making scrolls 
and figures with the aid of a broom and brush. The demand created 
by our cold and damp climate for a warm covering for floors was first 
met through a number of French carpet weavers leaving their homes 
owing to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Some of these 
skilled workmen settled at Wilton, where a manufactory was es- 
tablished, which proved so profitable that rival factories were speedily 
set up by persons who had served no apprenticeship to the trade. 
This led to the presenting of a petition to the King setting forth 
this grievance and the diflSculty of the weavers in obtaining a 
livelihood by their "art and mistery," and in 1701 William III. 
granted a charter, which was confirmed or renewed in 1706 and 
again in 1725, by which these skilled artisans were formed into a 
corporate body with power to grant stamped certificates to those 



246 



The Wlllon Carpet Industry. 



who had served at least seven yeaiV apprenticeship in the factory 
and had been elected members, and prohibiting all persons not 
licensed by the corporate body from carrying on a similar business 
within four miles of Wilton. 

The steward's badge of the Wilton Weavers' Fellowship, of 
which a photo-print accompanies this paper, is an oval plate of thin 
silver, measuring 5^ inches by 4 inches, to be worn on the arm, 
bearing the arms of the Weavers' Fellowship within a wreath, 
without crest or motto. It has the Britannia hall mark and the 
date letter of 1700 with the maker's mark Wa with stag's head over, 
for Benjamin Watts. 

The larger seal has a silver head with a massive ivory handle 
standing k>\ inches high. On the neck is inscribed " Donum : Tho : 
Dennett Clici'hujus: societatis : 1700." The arms — on a chevron 
between three leopard's Jaces, in their mouths a shuttle, as many roses. 
Crest — a leopard's face as in the arms, ducally crowned. Motto — 
" Weave trvst with trvth." The arms ai-e well engraved and sur- 
rounded by elaborate mantling. 

The smaller seal is of silver with a flat head and plain open handle 
14 inches high, inscribed on the back, " W" Parker 1770." The 
arms, without motto, are coarsely engraved. 

[The arms of the London Weavers, as given b^' Burke, are azure, on a chevron 
argent between three leopard's faces, in their mouths a shuttle or, as many 
roses gules, seeded of the last, harhed vert. Crest — a leopard' s face as in the 
arms, ducally crowned gules. Motto — weave truth with trust. 

Those of the Edinburgh weavers, gules, on a chevron argent hetween three 
leopard' s faces, shuttles in their tnouths or, as many roses of the field.'] 

There is also a banner belonging to the Weavers' Fellowship. 

The Charteu. 

" William the Third, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, 
France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c. To all to whouae these psents 
shall come greeting. Whereas our wel-beloved subjects, the Mayor & Bur- 
gesses of Our Burrough of Wilton, in Our County of Wilts, & severall of the 
luhabitduts of the said Burrough and places adjacent, useing, & exerciseing the Art 
or mistery of Cloathing & Wea veing have by their humble Peticon represented unto 



Clerici. 




BADGE AND SEALS OF THE WILTON WEAVERS' FELLOWSHIP. 



By Pardoe Fafes. 2i7 

Us that divers inconvenicncies have happened & occurred to the said Cloathiers & 
Weavers by psons who have taken upon them to use the said Trade, & still 
exercise the same tho' never haveing served any lawfull Appienticeship to the 
said Trade, by reason whereof severall hundreds of psons whose honest livelihood 
it is to exercise the said Trade or mistery, cannot keep & maintain their families 
without some speedy redress therein, and haveing therefore humbly besought us 
that for the better government of the said Trade & mistery. Wee would be 
graciously pleased to give & grant to the peticoners exerciseing the s** Art & 
mistery within our s'' Burrough and places adjacent, Our Charter of Incorporation 
for the purposes aforesaid Wee being pleased to condescend to their request : 
Know yee therefore that Wee of our especiall grace, certain knowledge, & meer 
mocon, & for divers good causes & considerations us hereunto especially moveing; 
Have Willed, Constituted, declared & granted, and by these psents for us, our 
heires, & Successors, do will constitute declare & grant that all & every pson. 
& psons that now pfess the Trades or misteries of a Cloathier & Weaver 
within the Burrough of Wilton, in our s"* countj' of Wilts, and within four miles 
of the same, and all others that shall hereafter exercise the same Trades or 
misteries, & shall have served as Apprentices thereto within the said Burrough 
& within four miles of the same by the space of seaven yeares at the leaet, shall 
be from henceforth one Body Corporate, & politique in Deed & in Name, by the 
Name of the Wardens, Stewards, Assistants & Fellowshipp of Cloathiers & 
Weavers within the Burrough of Wilton, & within four miles of the same, And 
them by the name of the Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, & Fellowshipp of 
Cloathiers & Weavers within the Burrough of Wilton in our s'* County of 
Wilts, & within four miles of the same, one body corporate & politique in deed, 
& in fact wee do for us our heires & Successors fully & really erect, create, 
constitute, declare, make, & establish by these presents, and that by the same 
name they shall have ppetual succession. And that they the said Wardens, 
Stewards, Assistants, & Fellowshipp & their Successors shall and may for ever 
hereafter have a comon Seal, to serve for all causes & businesses of them, & their 
Successors, and that it shall, & may be lawfull for them & their Successors to 
alter & make new the same Seale from time to time, when, & as often as they 
shall think fitt, and that they & their Successors may plead, & be impleaded, 
answer, & be answered unto, defend & be defended in whatsoever Courts & 
Places and before any Judge, Justice, & Officers of us our heires & Successors 
in all & singular Accons, Pleas, Suits, plaints, matters & demands of what kind 
or quality soever they shall be, in the same manner, forme, & as fully & amply 
as any our Subjects of this our Realme of England may, or can doe, plead, or 
be impleaded, answer, or be answered unto, defend & be defended. And further 
wee will & ordaine & by these psents for us our heires & Successors do give 
& grant unto the said Wardens, Stewards, Assistants & Fellowshipp & their 
Successors, that there shall and may be two of the said Fellowshipp who shall & 
may be, & shall be called Wardens of the said Fellowshipp, and also two others 
of the said Fellowshipp. who shall be, & shall be called Stewards of the s"* 
Fellowshipp, and likewise thirteene others, who shall be & shall be called Assist- 
ants of the said Fellowshipp, and also one fitt person to be Clerk to the s"* 
Fellowshipp with one other of the s** Fellowshipp to be Yeoman. And for the 
better executeing of this our Grant in that behalf e Wee have Assigned, Constituted 



248 The Wilton Carpet Industry. 

& made, and by these presents doe assigne constitute & make onr welbeloved 
Subjects Roger Tarrant & Andrew Haj'ter, of the s'' Burrough, Broad weavers, to 
be the present Wardens of the said Fellowsbipp, to continue in the said Office from 
the day of the date of these presents untill the second Munday in the Month of 
October which shall be in the Yeare of our Lord one thousand and seaven hundred, 
if they shall so long live, unless they, or either of them, in the mean time shall 
be removed for reasonable cause, and from thenceforth untill other fitt persons 
shall be elected & sworne Wardens of the s'' Fellowsbipp. And also Wee do hereby 
assigne, constitute, & make our beloved Subjects, Joliu Hibbert & James Smith, 
of the s'^ Burrough, Weavers, the present Stewards of the said Fellowsbipp, to 
continue in the said Office from the day of the date of these presents untill the s* 
second Munday in the Month of October which shall be in the yeare of our Lord, 
one thousand uo seaven hundred, if they shall so long live, & shall well behave 
themselves, and from thenceforth untill other fitt persons shall be elected & 
sworne Stewards of the s"* Fellowsbipp, And likewise we do hereby assigne, 
constitute, & appoint our welbeloved Subject, Thomas Dennett, of the same 
Burrough, Gentl., the present Clerk of the said Fellowsbipp, to act by himselfe, 
or his sufficient Deputy, and to continue in the s"' Office from the day of the 
date of these presents untill the said second Munday in the Month of October 
which shall be in the yeare of our Lord One Thousand & seaven hundred, if 
he shall so long live, & well behave himselfe, & from thenceforth untill 
some fitt other person shall be elected & sworue Clerk of the said Fellowsbipp. 
And wee have assigned, named & appointed, and by these presents for us, our 
heires, & Successors, do assigne, name and appoint our wel-beloved Subjects* 
Elias Chalk, & Alexander Tutt, of the said Burrough Clothiers, William 
Turvey, John als George Lauham, Nicholas Lanham, John Browne, Plenry 
Davidge, George Hayter, sen., John Lanham, sen., John Carpenter, George 
Whitmarsh, George Young, and Christopher Young, to be the present Assistants 
of the s"* Fellowsbipp, to continue in their said Office of Assistants dureing their 
natural! lives, unless they, or any of them, for just & reasonable cause, shall 
be removed from their said Office. And wee do hereby assigne, constitute, & 
appoint our beloved Subject Thomas Goodfellow, the present Yeoman of the 
said Fellowsbipp, to continue in the said office, from the day of the date of these 
presents, untill the said second Munday in the Month of October which shall be 
in the yeare of Our Lord one thousand and seaven hundred, if he shall so long 
live, & well behave himselfe, and from thenceforth, untill some other fitt 
person shall be elected, & sworne Yeoman of the said Fellowsbipp. And Wee, with 
and by these presents, for us, our heires, & Successors, doe grant unto the 
gd "Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, & Fellowsbipp, & their Successors that the 
s^ Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, & Fellowsbipp for the time being, shall, from 
time to time, for ever hereafter, have full power & authority to assemble & meet 
together at the Guildhall of the said Burrough or some other convenient place 
to be appointed by the said Fellowsbipp, and then and there yearly, & every 
yeare upon the second Munday in the Month of October, to nominate & choose 
out of the si Fellowsbipp two persons who shall be & shall be called Wardens of 
the said Fellowsbipp, and two other persons who shall be, and shall be called 
Stewards of the said Fellowsbipp, and one other fitt and able person, who shall be 
& shall be called Clerk of the said Fellowsbipp, and one other person who shall be 



By Pardoe Tales. 249 

& shall be called Yeoman of the s"" Fellowshipp, to continue in the said respective 
Offices & Places of Wardens, Stewards, Clerk, & Yeoman for one whole yeare, 
thence next ensueing, and from thence, until! two other Wardens, two other 
Stewards, one other Clerk, and one other Yeoman shall be in due manner elected 
and sworne in case they shall so long live & well behave themselves. And further 
by these presents for us, our heires & Successors, wee will & grant unto the 
said Wardens, Stewards, Assistants & Fellowshipp, & their Successors, that if 
it shall happen, the Wardens, Stewards, Clerk and Yeoman of the said Company 
or any of them at any time, within one yeare after they or any of them be chosen 
into his or their Office or Offices, to dye or be removed from his or their said Office 
or Offices, which said Wardens, Stewards, Clerk, & Yeoman, for just & 
reasonable cause, Wee will shall be from time to time removeable by the Wardens, 
Stewards & Assistants for the time being, or the greater number of them that 
then and so often it shall and may be lawful! to & for all the s^ Fellowshipp, at any 
time within four days after such death or removeal! at their wills & pleasures 
to meet at the Guildhall aforesaid, or such other convenient place, as shall for 
that purpose be appointed, then & there to choose & make one or more, other 
or others of the said Fellowshipp for the time heing to be Wardens, Stewards, 
Clerk, or Yeoman of the s"* Fellowshipp for the remaining part of the yeare, and 
from thence until! a new election be made in manner herein declared of other fitt 
persons into the said Offices. And wee do for us, our heires, & Successors grant 
unto the said Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, & Fellowshipp & their Successors 
that if it shall happen any of the Assistants of the said Fellowshipp to dye, or be 
removed for just & reasonable cause, which s"* Assistant or Assistants, Wee will 
shall be, from time to time, removeable for just and reasonable cause by the 
Wardens, Stewards, & Assistants for the time being or the greater number of 
them, that then & in every such case, the said Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, 
& Fellowshipp for the time being, or the greater number of them, shall and may 
elect & choose in the stead of him or them so dyeing or removed, some other 
fitt person or persons of the said Fellowshipp. And Wee do hei'eby also for us, 
our heires, and Successors Grant and Ordaine that every person who, after his 
being duely chosen or elected into the Office of Warden, Steward, or Assistant of 
the said Fellowshipp shall, within tenn days after his Eleccou, refuse to take upon 
him the Office into which he shall be duely elected, or shall refuse to qualify 
himselfe according to law for the service of the same; shall forfeit & pay to 
the Wardens, Stewards, Assistants & Fellowshipp aforesaid, & their Successors, 
such fines & amerciaments, not exceeding five pounds for each offence, as by 
the By-laws of the s^ Fellowshipp or Corporation shall be directed, liraitted, & 
appointed, and other pson & psons shall be elected & chosen into his or 
their place or places. Which said fines & amerciaments our will & pleasure is 
& wee do hereby direct & ordain shall be levyed upon & paid by the pson or 
psuns so offending upon warrant on that behalfe issued under the hands of the 
Wardens & Stewards, or the majority of them, and Seale of the said Corporacon, 
to be directed to and executed by the Yeoman of the s"* Fellowship for the time 
I being for the issueing of which Warrant & executcing thereof these our Letters 
Patents and Charter or the Enrollment thereof shall be to the s'' Wardens <fc 
Stewards, and also to the said Yeoman for the time being a sufficient authority 
in that behalfe. And wee will and by these presents for us, our heires, and 



250 The Wil/on Carpet Lulustry, 

Successors, doe grant to the said Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, and Fellowshipp 
& their Successors that the said Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, and six other 
of the said Fellowshipp, or the majority of them, for the time being shall and may 
have full power, authority, and liberty, by virtue of these presents, to meet so 
often as the Wardens & Stewards shall think fitt and convenient, at the places 
aforesaid, to make, ordaine, constitute, appoint, & sett down from time to time 
such good & wholsome By-laws, Acts, orders & ordinances in writeing as to 
them or the majority of them for the time being as aforesaid shall seem meet 
necessary and convenient according to the best of their discrecons for & con- 
cerning the due exercise & benefitt of the said Trades or Misteries and for the 
discovery, correction, punishment, & reformacon of such abuses & deceits, as 
are or shall be practised in the said Trades or JMisteries or either of them, and 
also for the good order & government of the said Wardens, Stewards, Assistants 
& Fellowshipp aforesaid, and their Successors, and for declareing after what 
manner, order, & forme the said Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, & Fellowshipp 
and their Successors & every member of the same shall behave and demeane 
him and themselves in the exercise of their said Trades or Misteries, or either of 
them, for the generall good of our Subjects. And whensoever the said Wardens* 
Stewards, Assistants, and six others of the said Fellowshipp, or the majority of 
them, shall make, ordain, and establish such By-laws, Acts, orders, aud ordinances 
to provide and limitt reasonable paines and penalties, either by fines, amerciaments 
or otherwise upon any Offender or Offenders which shall transgress, breake, or 
violate the said Laws, orders, or ordinances soe made, or to be made as aforesaid. 
Which said Fines and Amerciaments shall and may be sued for, taken, levied, 
recovered, and retained by the s"* Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, and Fellowshipp 
and their Successors, either by Warrant of Distressunderthehandsof the Wardens 
and Stewards or the majority of them, and seale of the said Corporacon to be 
directed to, and executed by the Yeoman of the said Fellowshipp as aforesaid, or 
by Accon of Debt, or any other Lawfull wayes or meanes to and for the use and 
benefitt of the said Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, and fellowshipp and their 
Successors without the lett of us, our heires or Successors, and without rendring 
any account or thing therefore to us, our heires or Successors. All which By- 
laws, Acts, orders, and ordinances so as aforesaid to be made. Wee will and comand 
shall be observed aud kept under the paines and penalties therein to be contained 
soe as the same By laws. Acts, orders, ordinances, fines, and penalties he reasonable 
and not repugnant to the Laws, Statutes, Customes, and Eights of Our Realme of 
England. And our express will & pleasure is, and wee doe hereby possitively 
direct and comand that noe person or persons whatsoever shall be admitted into 
the Offices or Trusts of Wardens, Stewards, Assistants, Clerk, or Yeoman of the 
said Fellowshipp, neither shall anj' of the Fellowshipp whatsoever Act, or be 
assisting in the makeing any of the By-laws, Acts, orders, and ordinances to be 
made for the benefitt and advantage of the said Corporacon before they and each 
and every of them shall have first taken aswell the Oaths appointed b^' Act of 
Parliament Entituled " An Act for Abrogating the Oaths of Supremacy and 
and Allegiance & appointing other Oaths," as also the Oath for the due execucon 
of their severall Offices and Trusts ; which said Oaths, our will & pleasure is shall 
be Administred by the Clerk of the said Fellowshipp in the presence of the 
Wardens who served the yeare before, or before any two or more of the Assistants 



By Pardoe Yates. 251 

of the said Fellowshipp for the time being, to whome wee do give full power and 
authority by these presents to Administer the same from time to time upon every 
such Election. And that the severall persons herein before nominated and ap- 
pointed to be the present Wardens, Stewards, Assisjauts, Clerk, and Yeomen of 
the said Fellowshipp before they enter upon the esecucon of their said Offices and 
Trusts do take the said Oaths before the Mayor of our said Burrough now or for 
the time being. To whome wee do hereby for us, our heires and Successors give 
full power and authority to Administer the said Oaths accordingly. And wee do 
hereby for us, our heires and Successors give and grant unto the said Wardens, 
Stewards, and Assistants of the said Fellowshipp and their Successors full power 
and authority that they or the majority of them shall and may from time to time, 
admitt such person or persons as they shall think fitt and convenient to be 
freemen of the said Fellowshipp. And wee do further give and grant to the said 
Wardens, Stewards, Assistants and Fellowshipp and their Successors full power 
and authority to call and require any of their Officers or Members entrusted with 
any sume or sumes of money for the use and benefitt of the said Fellowshipp, to 
account for all such sume and sumes of money as they or any of them have 
received, or shall at any time receive for the use aforesaid. And in case the said 
Officers or any of them shall at any time, or times whatsoever refuse to render au 
Account of the same every j-eare, and pay over the same or such part thereof as 
on ballance of any their accounts shall appeare to be remaining due to the said 
Fellowshipp and unpaid to such person or persons as the said Wardens, Stewards, 
Assistants aud Fellowshipp, or their Successors for the time being shall appoint 
to receive the same, that then it shall, and may be lawfuU to and for the said 
Wardens, Stewards, and Assistants of the said Fellowshipp and their Successors, 
to inflict such fines, forfeitures, & penalties on the offender & ofEenders therein 
as they, or the majority of them shall think fitt and reasonable, soe as the same 
fines, forfeitures, and penalties be reasonable, and not repugnant to the laws. 
Statutes, Customes, and Eights of this our Realme. Which said fines and forfeit- 
ui-es shall be also sued for, taken, levyed, recovered, & retained in manner herein 
before menconed & expressed, to the use & for the benefitt of the said Wardens 
Stewards, Assistants & Fellowshipp & their Successors without account : Fbovided 
alwayes that these presents or anything herein contained shall not extend, or be 
construed to extend to interfere with the present Corporacon of Weavers within 
our City of new Sarum in our said County of Wilts, or any ways to abridge, 
lessen, or diminish the liberties, priviledges & imunities granted to the said 
Corporacon. It being being our will and pleasure, and the true intent & meaneing 
of these our Letters Patents that each of the said Corporacons, shall have the 
rule, ordering, mannagemeut, correction, and government of its Own Members, and 
that they in no wise, on any •account, or pretence of authority whatsoever interfere 
with, or pretend to any Jurisdiction or government the one over the other. And 
Lastly, wee do hereby for us, our heires & Successors streightly charge, require, 
and comand all and singular Judges, Justices of the Peace, Mayors, Sheriffs, 
BaylifFs, Constables, & all other the Officers & Ministers whatsoever of us, our 
heirs & Successors for the time being to be favouring, aiding, helping, and 
assisting to the said Wardens, Stewards, Assistants & Fellowshipp & their 
Successors in the due execucon of the premisses according to law and these 
presents shall be unto them and every of them a sufficient Warrant and authority 



252 The Wilton Carpet Industry. 

in this behalfe. In Witness whereof. Wee have caused these our Letters to be 
made Patents. Witnesse Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury, and the rest of the 
Keepers, and Justices of the Kingdome at Westminster the Tenth day of July in 
the Eleaventh yeare of Our Reigne. 

" By Writt of Privy Scale Cocks 

" Solvantur pro fine in Hanaperio 
"Decem Marca 
{Signed) " Somebst." 

The seal is lost. On the back is endorsed : — 
" Clothiers of Wilton 
Incorporacon, ppetuity 
Cocks." 

Bylaws. 
" Burgus Wilton Orders & Bylaws. 

" Made and agreed on by the Two Wardens two Stewards thirteen Assistants, 
together with six others of the Fellowship of Clothiers and Weavers within 
the Burrough of Wilton and within four Miles of the same at a meeting held 
at the Guildhall within the said Burrough the Twelfth day of July in the 
Eleventh year of the Reigne of our Sovereign Lord George by the grace of 
God of great Britain France and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith &c. 
Annoq. Dni One Thousand Seven Hundred Twenty and five for the better 
ordering and Governing the Incorporation of Clothiers and Weavers and the 
discovering punishing and preventing such deceits and Abuses as are practiced 
in the said Trades and misterys of Clothing and weaving within the said 
Burrough and four Miles of the same. 

"Whereas Many and great Inconvenieucys have and daily doe happen 
& occur to severall poor persons and Familys within ye said Burrough of 
Wilton and four Miles of the same, by reason of persons useing and Exercise- 
ing the Trades and Misterys of Clothing and Weaveing within the said Bur- 
rough and four miles of the same, and instructing others so to doe, Contrary 
to the Charter of Incorporation granted to the Said Clothiers and Weavers 
within the said Burrough of Wilton and four miles of the same, by his late 
Majesty King William the third of Glorious Memory Dated at Westminster 
the Tenth Day of July in the Eleventh year of his said Majesty's Reign, not 
only to the great Detriment of the said poor familys but to the hazard of 
Dissolveing the whole Body of the said Incorporation ; To the intent therefore 
that the like and many more Inconveniencies may be prevented for the future, 
It is hereby ordered as followeth (That is to say) 

" Imprimis It is hereby ordered and established that every person who 
now doth Exersise the said Trades of Clothing and Weaveing or either of them 
within the said Burrough of Wilton and four miles of the same, and is not 
already admitted and Entred a member of the said Fellowship or Incorporation, 
shall on or before the Twenty Ninth day of September now next ensueiug 
admitt and enter him and themselves Member and Members of the said 
Fellowship according to the usuall and accustomed manner and forme of 
admitting and Entering Members ; And that every person and persons who 
hereafter shall have served a Legall aprenticeshipp to the said Trades of 



By Pardoe Yates, 253 

ClothiDg and Weaving or either of them within the said Burrough or four 
Miles of the same shall also within three months next after he or they 
shall become qualifj'ed or entitled to sett up and exercise the said Trades o£ 
Clothing and Weaving or either of them and doth sett up and exercise the 
same, Admitt and Enter him and themselves member and members of the said 
Fellowshipp under the penalty of forfeiting and paying for not entering and 
admitting him or themselves member or members of the said Fellowshipp in 
manner aforesaid, to the Clerk of the said Fellowship for the use of the 
Said Fellowshipp the sume of Four pounds Tenn Shillings to be sued for and 
recovered by Distress or action of Debt in the name of the Wardens Stewards 
Assistantes and fellowshipp of Clothiers and Weavers within the Burrough of 
Wilton and four Miles of the same, or otherwise as the said Charter directs, 

" Item it is ordered and Establised that all and every person and persons 
who at any time or times hereafter set up and begin to Use and Exercise 
the said Trades of Clothing and Weaving within the said Burrough of Wilton 
and four miles of the Same, shall within three months from their first be- 
gining to use and Exercise the said Trades or either of them admitt and 
enter him and themselves member and members of the said Fellowshipp on 
the forfeiture of Tenn Shillings to be paid to the Clerk of the Said Fellowshipp 
for the use of the said Fellowshipp And also to forfeit and pay to the Said Clarke 
of the said Fellowshipp for the use of the said Fellowshipp Twenty Shillings per 
Month monthly for every Month he or they shall continue to use and Exercise 
the said trades of Clothing and Weaving or either of them from and after the 
Expiration of the Said three Months within which time he or they ought to be 
admitted membe \_sic\ or members of the said Fellowshipp as aforesaid and were 
not admitted haveing first had notice or Summons given him or them by the 
Yeoman of the said Company to come in and be admitted, to be recovered and 
levyed either by distress or by action of Debt, in the name of the said Wardens, 
Stewards &c., &c. 

" Item it is hereby ordered and Established that every Clotheir admitted of 
the said Fellowshipp shall at the time of his admittance pay to the Wardens for 
the Use of the said Fellowshipp the sume of Three Shillings and four pence. And 
to the Clerke for his admittance one shilling besides the stamp and to the Yeoman 
Sixpence, and that every Weaver admitted shall pay at the time of his admittance 
to the Wardens for the Use of the said Fellowship the sume of Three Shillings 
and Four pence ; to the Clerke Sixpence besides the stamp ; and to the Yeoman 
three pence ; and that every person refuseing to pay the above Fees shall forfeit 
and pay to the Clerke for the Use of the said Fellowshipp the sume of Six 
Shillings and eight pence to be recovered and levyed &c., &c. 

" Item that every Clothier and Weaver within the said Burrough and four 
Miles of the same, doe, on or before the Twenty Ninth Day of September next 
ensueing bring in their Apprentices Indentures to be entered and Jnrolled by the 
Clerke of the said Fellowshipp ; who shall take for so doeing for each apprentice 
four pence for the use of the said Fellowshipp and that every person neglecting 
or refuseing to bring their Apprentices Indentures and have the same Inrolled in 
manner aforesaid to forfeit and pay to the said Clerke of the Fellowshipp Five 
shillings for the use thereof, to be recovered and levyed by distress or Action of 
Debt in the name of the Wardens Stewards &c., &c. 

" Item that every Clothier and Weaver within the said Burrough of Wiltoa 

VOL XXVI. — NO. IJCXVII. S 



354 The Wilton Carpet Industry. 

and four Miles of the same who doth or shall from and after the Twenty Ninth 
day of September next take or entertaine any Apprentice or Apprentices to become 
bound unto him Except apprentices bound by the parish, shall first pay into the 
hands of the Gierke of the Said Fellowshipp for the benefit thereof the sume of 
Three Shillings and four pence And also shall have the said Jndenture made by 
the said Gierke of the said Fellowshipp which shall be signed and Inrolled in the 
Book belonging to the Incorporation for which he shall pay the said Gierke 
besides the stamp Two Shillings and Sixpence. And that every Master Acting 
contrary hereto Shall for each Apprentice (except parish Apprentices) forfeit and 
pay to the Gierke of the Said Fellowshipp for the Use thereof Twenty shillings 
to be recovered and levyed by distress or by Action of Debt in the name &c., &c. 

" Item that from henceforth no Freeman of the said Fellowshipp shall have 
or take more than two Apprentices at one time (Except his own Children and 
unless one of the Said apprentices be in the last Year of his time and then he 
may take a third, under the penalty of four pounds of Lawful! British Money 
to be forfeited and paid to the Glerk for the use of the said Fellowshipp and on 
non payment to be recovered and levyed &c., &c. 

" Item that no Glothier or Weaver within the said Burrough of Wilton and 
four Miles of the same shall from and after the Twenty Ninth day of September 
next ensueing Entertaine and Imploy anj' Journeyman to work with or for him 
unless he first enter his name with the Gierke of the said Gorporation or Fellow- 
sliipp and pay into his hands for the use of the said Fellowshipp the sume of one 
shilling as and for the said Journyman's Incomb or free workeing money ; any 
Master acting contrary to this order to forfeit and pay for each Journyman to 
the said Gierke for use of the said Fellowshipp the sume of Tenn Shillings to be 
sued for, recovered and levyed &c., &c. 

" Item that every Assistant of the Said Fellowship who shall neglect or 
refuse to attend the buisness of the said Incorporation at any meeting or meetings 
of the Wardens Stewards Assistants and Six of the Fellowshipp, after notice or 
Sumons given him or left at his House of the time and place of such Meeting by 
the Space of Forty-Eight houres before the said time of Meeting (without reasonable 
Excuse to be allowed by the Majority of the persons who shall be present at the 
next meeting) shall forfeit and pay to the Gierke for the Qse of the Said Fellow- 
shipp the sume of Two Shillings and Six pence and every member of the Said 
Fellowshipp neglecting or refuseing to attend after notice or Sumons as aforesaid 
to forfeit the sume of one Shillings to be recovered &o., &c. 

" Item it is hereby ordered and Established that every member of the said 
Fellowshipp shall pay Yearly to the Yeoman of the said Fellowshipp Four pence 
at two equall payments, that is to say, at the Feasts of the Annuntiation of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Michaell the Archangell ; the first payment to 
begin and be made at the feast of St. Michaell the Archangell now next ensueing 
and on refusall to forfeit and pay to the said Gierke for the Use of the said 
Fellowshipp the sume of one Shillings to be recpvered &c., &c. 

" Item when anything is proposed, the Senior Warden or Steward or in 
their Absence the Junior Warden or Steward shall put the Question to be De- 
termined and such Question accordingly shall be determined by the Majority of 
Votes of the Wardens stewards Assistants and Fellowshipp then present, and 
shall be binding to every member of the said Fellowshipp. 

" Item it is hereby ordered and Established that neither the Wardens Stewards 



By Pardoe Yates. 255 

nor any of the Fellowshipp shall disburse or lay out any sume or sumes of money 
belonging to the said Fellowshipp on any account or pretence whatever without the 
consent and approbation of the Wardens Stewards and Seaven of the Assistants 
(or the Majority of Seaven of the Assistants present, if no more present) for the 
time being on the penalty of forfeiting to the said Fellowshipp double the sume 
he hath so laid out and expended, to be Sued for Recovered &c., &c. 

" Item it is hereby ordered and Established that the Wardens and Stewards 
shall twice in every Year give up a fair and just account of all sume and sumes 
of Money and other things by them received and Expended and on refuseing or 
Neglecting so to do upon reasonable request and notice given them by orders of 
the Majority of the Members of the Fellowshipp present at any meeting or 
meetings for that purpose to be held for the time being, shall forfeit and pay to 
the Gierke of the said Fellowshipp for the use thereof the sume of Five pounds 
to be recovered <fec., &c. 

" In Witness whereof the said Wardens Stewards Assistants and Fellowshipp 
of Clothiers and Weavers within the Said Burrough of Wilton and four miles of 
the same have caused their Common Seal to be hereunto put the Day and [sic^ 
abovesaid. 

" We have examined the By Laws above written 
and do Approve of the same Dated this 
Fourteenth day of July Anno Dni 1725. 

" (Signed) P 

"Alex. Denton." 

(Seal of 1700 appended.) 

Development of Wilton Factory. 
The Wilton Factory, which has continued down to the present 
time under Royal patronage, found a warm supporter in Henry, the 
ninth Earl of Pemhroke, and sixth Earl of Montgomery, to whom 
we are indebted for the introduction into this country of the manu- 
facture of the finest kinds of carpet, and for the development of one 
of the most important of our local industries. This nobleman, like 
many of his ancestors, was a man of refined taste, and spent large 
sums of money in adorning Wilton House. Lord Oxford says of 
him : — " The soul of Inigo Jones, who had been patronised by his 
ancestors, seems still to hover over its favourite Wilton, and to have 
assisted the muses of Art in the education of this noble person. 
The towers, the chambers, the scenes which Holbein, Jones, and 
Vandyke decorated, and which Earl Thomas had enriched with the 
spoils of the best ages, received the last touches of beauty from Earl 
Henry's hand.'' During his travels in Flanders and France, the 
Earl is said to have taken great interest in the carpet works of those 
countries, and noticing the superior quality of their fabrics over the 

S 2 



256 TAe Wilton Carpet Industry. 

coarse and inferior products of the "Wilton Factory, and the more 
general use of carpets on the Continent, he entered into an arrange- 
ment with a body of artists, superintendents, and workmen, to 
accompany him to Wiltshire, thus laying the foundation of a branch 
of manufacture in which we now excel all other nations. The 
artisans brought over were placed under the direction of two 
Frenchmen, Anthony Duffosy and Peter Jemaule, who were said to 
have been conveyed to this country concealed in a barrel, though it 
is by no means obvious why that extraordinary precaution should 
have been adopted in their case more than in that of the other artists 
and workmen. Be that as it may, the experiment proved highly 
successful, and though in 1751 the Wilton weavers lost their noble 
patron by death, the factory continued to flourish, and, while in 1768 
it employed only eighty hands, that number had considerably in- 
creased before the close of the century, and by gradual degrees has 
grown to its present proportions, with branches at Salisbury, London, 
and Manchester. Mr. S. C, Hall, who has long been recognised as 
one of the greatest authorities upon all matters respecting industrial 
art, writing of the products of the Wiltou Factory, refers in terms 
of appreciation to the fabrics supplied from the Wilton looms. In 
1835, on the proprietor of the manufactory of" Axminster carpets,'^ 
which was established at the little Devonshire town on the river Axe 
in 1755, relinquishing business, the looms and working drawings 
were transferred to Wilton, where for the last sixty years these costly 
carpets have been produced, in addition to the " velvet pile " with 
which the name of the factory was first associated. Of the fabrics 
now produced at Wilton the " Axminster " carpets are made almost 
entirely of fine wool, knotted in tufts upon a warp of threads by the 
hand of the weaver, and held together by an invisible ground work 
of flaxen thread, a shadowy outline of the pattern being traceable 
at the back. Owing to the fineness of the stitch the process, as can 
easily be imagined, is very slow, and an idea of the time required to 
weave a large carpet can be formed from the fact that one made a 
few years ago for the Sultan of Turkey was over nine months in the 
loom. The carpets called " Wilton " have a soft pile, lower and closer 
in texture than the Axminster, and are woven in a Jacquard loom 



By Par doe Yates. 257 

like the Brussels. The loop pile, or " Brussels," carpet has also beea 
made at Wilton for nearly a century and a half. Mr. Acton Taylor, 
in his " History of the Carpet Trade," states that they were originally 
woven upon the " the principle of one frame or creel, so arranged 
that five sets of colors consisting of one hundred and thirty bobbins, 
could be worked. Upon each bobbin were wound four threads of 
worsted and the bobbins hung down from a frame ioto a pit similar 
to a hand saw-pit, the threads being divided at the top by an ingenious 
mechanism, so as to keep the threads from twisting or becoming 
too tight; upon each bobbin was attached a small anchor, and this 
with the bobbin had to be lowered down for every five feet of 
carpet that the weaver made. Three assistants wei'e also required 
by the weavers during the primitive state of the Brussels loom, one 
to draw out the wire from the thread surface ; another one to draw 
up the design or figure which was put into the cordage in connection 
with the harness ; and a third was constantly employed in taking off 
the worsted from the bobbin and lowering it with the anchor into 
the pit." This principle was largely improved upon during the last 
century, and the introduction of the Jacquard machine in the first 
part of the century created a revolution in the process of manufacture. 
Of other industries established in Wilton, one for the manufacture of 
cloth, which acquired a fashionable publicity and was known by the 
name of "marble cloth," was promoted by the same Earl of Pembroke 
who brought Anthony Dufibsy to improve the then make of carpets. 
There is also in Wilton an important industry, owned by Mrs. Naish, 
which has achieved an unique prestige for the finest products of 
woollen felt. 

In conclusion I wish to state that for the historical description of 
carpets I have culled somewhat extensively from the able article on 
" Carpets and the Wilton Carpet Industry," written some years ago 
for the Salisbury and Winchester Journal by the then editor, to whom 
it was my pleasure to lend the Weavers' Charter and various historical 
and descriptive books on the subject. For the reference to the marble 
cloth industry, founded by Henry, ninth Earl of Pembroke, I am in- 
debted to Mr. Nightingale, whose loan of John Britton's book, " The 
Beauties of Wiltshire," has added much interest to my researches. 



25S 



C^e §npx anir Ipok of J^ovmation of t^e 
®aU of Mai'irom\ 

By the Eev. W. R. Andeews, F.G.S. 

ISead at the Wilton Meeting, 1891.] 

^ GREAT deal o£ the pleasure we obtain from visiting any new 
^ country arises from our having some previous knowledge 
about it. To pass through without being able to appreciate its 
history is to lose most of the opportunities of travel, whether that 
history be of the people who have in former days lived there, and 
left traces of their occupation; or whether it be the history of the 
origin of the scenery we admire. 

It is to put before you some particulars about the geology of the 
Vale of Wardour that is the object of my paper. 

If we admire the beautiful scenery of this valley without any 
enquiry into its geological history we shall surely admire it still 
more when we understand somewhat of its geological structure and 
origin, for it has been remarked that while " there is a poetic glow 
of wonder and emotion before science begins its work, there is a 
larger, deeper, more instructed wonder when it ends,'' 

It has been said by Sir Andrew Ramsay that " England is the 
very Paradise of Geologists, for it is an epitome of the geology of 
almost the whole of Europe, and much of Asia and America, since 
it contains so many formations, and in consequence its features are 
varied in the extreme.''' 

The same remark may in a minor degree be applied to the Vale 
of Wardour, for it would be difficult to find a district which presents 
such a variety of geological interests in so comparatively small an 
area. 

In consequence of this variety of formations, and of their fossil 
contents, the Vale of Wardour has attracted the attention of 
geologists. Fitton sixty years ago wrote his valuable paper, Miss 



The Origin and Mode of Formation of the Vale of Wardour. 259 

E. Bennett even earlier collected the fossils and published a list in 
Sir Richard Colt Hoare's History of Wiltshire. Since that time 
the vale has been surveyed by Mr. Bristow, and Mr. A. J. Jukes- 
Browne, and several amateur geologists have ably written on its 
various strata, amongst whom I may name Messrs. Brodie, Blake, 
Huddleston, and Cunnington. 

A few words as to the geography of the vale are necessary iu 
order that we may clearly understand its geology. 

The Vale of Wardour is one of several valleys penetrating the 
Chalk escarpment which stands out boldly overlooking the Jurassic 
strata on the west. It has the general form of a triangle, the base 
of which extends from Kingsettle Hill, between Shaftesbury and 
Semley railway station, to the opposite hill at East Knoyle, a distance 
of about three miles across an expanse of Kimeridge Clay. A line 
drawn between these two points would correspond with a low water- 
shed, about 400ft. high, which limits the basin of the Nadder on 
the west. 

On the north and south the vale is bounded by the Chalk downs, 
sending down their tributary streams to the river, which, running 
eastward, joins the Wylye at Wilton, 1 80ft. above the sea-level. 

We have a double range of hills on either side. There is, on the 
south side, that fine range of smooth Chalk downs, beginning at 
White Sheet Hill, and continuing by Buxbury and Chiselbury, while 
on the north the Chalk hills are continued through Grovely and 
Great Ridge Woods. 

But the most richly sculptured range of hills lies inside these, for 
the Greeusand hills are not smooth and continuous like the Chalk 
downs, but have been cut up into blocks by transverse valleys, and 
are clothed with fir and pine. 

Commencing at Kingsettle we have the fine hills as far as Donhead 
Valley ; then the picturesque heights near the old Castle of Wardour; 
then the prominent spur of Castle Ditches ; and so continuing by 
Sutton, Fovant, and Compton, we see at length the Greensand 
plunge beneath the chalk in the railway cutting between Diuton 
and Wilton. 

The Greensand hills are even more striking as we follow them on 



260 The Origin and Mode of Formation of the Yale of Wardour. 

the northern side, from the fine hill at Dinton, by the peaked-up 
elevation at Ridge, till we come to that wider expanse at Fon thill, 
the beauty of which no doubt caused it to be the scene of the 
fabulous extravagances of a Beckford. 

Within this inner range of hills there is a considerable breadth of 
Clayey ground, running continuously round the vale, the subdivisions 
of which I will allude to further on. 

So far we have been noticing strata which belong to the Creta- 
ceous Series, viz., the Chalk, the Upper Green Sand, the Gault, the 
Lower Green Sand, and the Wealden. 

Let us next look at the strata which are exposed within, viz., the 
Jurassic series, the Purbeck, the Portland, and the Kimeridge Clay. 

How did the present arrangement of these various formations 
come about? 

All these beds were sedimentary deposits, and consequently were 
laid down horizontally, but now we do not find them preserving 
that flat position any longer. They have been tilted, some one way 
and some another. 

How and when was this caused ? 

The strata of the vale have been subjected on several occasions to 
earth movements from below. 

Towards the end of the Jurassic Period its sea became shallower 
and shallower, till in Purbeck times there was even dry land in the 
midst of freshwater lagoons. 

Then these Jurassic beds were gradually tilted towards the east, 
and for a long time remained subject to the wasting influence of 
atmospheric agencies, which, in connection with an easterly dip 
which had been already given to these beds, exposed on the surface 
the Purbeck^ the Portland, and the Kimeridge Clay. 

Afterwards on these exposed eastward-sloping outcrops of the 
Jurassic beds the deposits of the wide-spreading Cretaceous sea were 
laid down, and gradually extended over them, covering in turn each 
lower formation, as the limits of the sea increased westwards. 

This overlap of the Cretaceous Series on to the Jurassic Series in 
the West of England is a point of the greatest interest, since it 
reveals to us the way in which that old sea gradually increased. 



By lie Rev. W. R. Andrews, F.G.S. 261 

and its shore-line went westwards, not merely over the Jurassic 
Series, but even over the New Red Sandstone. 

These two series, viz., the Cretaceous and the Jurassic, are not 
conformable to each other — the latter were tilted before the former 
were placed on their upturned edges ; and, still further, the various 
members of the upper series ovei'lap the various members o£ the 
lower series, e.ff., the base of the Wealden rests at Dinton on the 
Upper Purbeck — further west on the Middle Purbeck ; the Lower 
Green Sand extends over the Wealden, the Purbeck and the 
Portland, while the members of the Upper Cretaceous Series, viz., 
the Gault, the Upper Green Sand, and the Chalk steal successively 
over the various beds below. 

When we attempt to explain the origin of the vale it is necessary 
that we should go back to the time when the Chalk and Eocene 
strata were being raised into land. This took place — like all these 
earth movements — very gradually. 

After this elevation had taken place the land was ridged up along 
a line running west and east, and the result of the formation of this 
anticlinal was that the various beds dipped away from the central 
ridge north and south, just as the tiles on the roof of a house slope 
away on both sides. 

The dip was much greater on the north side than on the south 
side, for we find on the north side now strata sometimes dipping as 
much as 45° to the north, while on the south side we have a more 
uniform and much lower dip of not more than 4° or 5°. 

Moreover, the ridge or " anticlinal " is, in the Vale of Wardour, 
as in all these valleys resulting from elevation, much nearer to the 
north side of the present vale than the south side, which is an in- 
teresting fact to notice, as it would seem to point out that the push or 
thrust which caused this ridging up of the strata came from the south. 

How much this ancient wrinkling of the Earth^s surface has had 
to do with Man's prosperity ! ! Without these old earth movements 
our coal-fields would have been buried too deep for us to reach ! And 
still further, may not Wiltshire men reflect, that the line of the 
great elevation commencing with the Mendip Hills runs east- 
ward through the north of the county, and that on the southern 



262 The Origin and Mode of Formation of the Tale of War dour. 

flank of that uprising some day a coal-field may be discovered ! 

But again the land was to be covered by the sea. No doubt that 
long dome-like ridge had, during the time it was above water, been 
carved by rain action, and to some extent wasted, but the waves 
once more covered it, as it sank beneath the shallow Pliocene Sea, 
which planed across the flexures of the anticlinal, and produced what 
is called a " plain of marine denudation," a result which, when a 
country is sinking, and its hills are gradually eaten away, the waves 
of the sea produce. 

This marine action here swept away the whole of the Chalk from 
the centre of the vale, exposing the Upper Green Sand, and possibly 
the Gault, with the Kimeridge Clay outside them to the west. 

After the erosive planing action of the Pliocene Sea, an easterly 
dip was given to the whole country, causing all the beds to slope 
gently towards the east, so that there was a great undulating plain 
formed, with an eastward inclination. 

On this newly-emerged country fresh influences immediately began 
to work — rain to fall, and frost to break up the rocks. 

In what direction would the streamlets begin to flow? They 
would, from the very first, run down the eastward sloping plain; 
they would choose the direction that offered least resistance. 

It may appear strange to us, when we look at the valley now, 
with its wide mouth open to the west, and a double range of hills 
bounding it north, south, and east, that the drainage did not escape 
westward, where there are no hills, or hard rocks, but only a low 
expanse of Kimeridge Clay, rather than flow, as it does, in the 
other direction, out of the narrow end of the vale, and breach a range 
of hills 600ft. high. 

But, we must recollect that then no hills barred the way, for there 
was no valley as yet, only an open undulating plain, sloping gently 
to the east, consisting of Clay on the west, and of the Gault, Green 
Sand, and Chalk over the site of the present valley of the Nadder. 

As a rule, in the same direction as streamlets begin to run, so 
they continue when they become brooks and rivers — their initial 
direction is carried on. When a line of drainage is once graven on 
the surface of the country hardly anything can alter it. The line 



By the Bev. W. U. Andrews, F.G.S. 263 

sinks further and further into the soh'd framework of the land, and 
so it becomes less and less able to change its course. 

Soon side streams bring in their drainage into the main stream, 
and in time there is formed a river with its branches and its tribu- 
taries and streamlets, just as a tree from its trunk divides into main 
branches, and they divide again into smaller ones, and these again 
into twigs. 

In this way a valley originates, and it gradually grows, through 
the action of the running water, that great graving-tool of Nature 
which sculptures the face of the land and produces the harmonious 
diversity of hill and dale. 

The remnants of the plain along which the river first ran still 
exist, for on both sides of the vale we have a range of Chalk downs, 
sloping from west to east. 

Although these two ranges of Downs have suffered considerable 
waste, and are now in parts lower than when they were first elevated 
into dry land, still the central ridges, or lines of highest ground, on 
each side, present us with a slope which we may fairly consider to 
be part of the original slope along which the Nadder first ran. 

On the north side of the district we get continuous relics of the 
original plain, for the central ridge of the Chalk Downs is there 
covered with Clay and Flints for a distance of many miles — showing 
it to be a surface of some age, and unlike that of the bare Chalk 
hills lying below on either side of it. 

That slope we may see by noticing the gradual fall in the height 
of the downs, when passing from west to east. Looking at the 
heights we find an elevation of 720ft. at the west end of Great 
Ridge Wood, while there is only an elevation of 520ft. at the east 
end of Grovely Wood, showing a fall of 200ft. in ten miles, or 20ft. 
per mile. 

On the south side there are relics of old Gravel with pieces of 
Upper Green Sand Chert along the top of the Downs, and the same 
general fall may be observed as on the northern side of the vale, 
viz., 790ft. at White Sheet Hill, while there is only an elevation of 
530ft. at the point opposite to the east end of Grovely Wood, thus 
showing a similar slope, 



264) The Oriffiu and Mode of Formation of the Yale of 




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By the Rev. W. R. Andrews, F.G.S. 265 

Over this plain the original stream found its way, taking probably 
a more serpentine course than it does now. Cutting its channel in 
the less-consolidated part of the Upper Green Sand, and easily 
washing away its loose material, there soon would be left standing 
a small bank on either side, and gradually there would be formed 
steep escarpments which bounded the main stream on either 
side. 

In the course of time the erosive action of the river cut its way 
entirely through the Upper Green Sand and deep into the soft Gault 
Clay beneath, and then it was able to produce a much greater effect 
than before, for as it washed away the clay at the base of the sand, 
masses of the sand above must have slipped down the sloping side 
of the escarpment. 

In this way the river has cut back the Upper Green Sand, it has 
undermined its support, and mach material has in consequence 
slipped down upon the top of the Gault, part of which was carried 
away by the force of the stream, while some now remains strewn 
over the surface of the Gault, and obscuring that formation. 

The cutting back of the Green Sand has progressed until the 
extremely hard beds of Chert, near the top, were reached, which 
now form the top edge of the escarpment. This we may see if we 
view the vale from some high position on the Chalk hills, looking 
westwards, for we shall observe on either side these Green Sand 
hills terminating somewhat abruptly. Thus we get these steep-sided 
bills, too steep for cultivation, and which now, covered with wood, 
add so much to the beauty of the vale. 

The Chalk escarpments of the vale were started by the erosion 
of the Nadder as banks, when it serpentined over the intervening 
Green Sand ; but, when the main sti'eam no longer touched their 
base, as it was kept within the channel it had cut in the Gault, 
longitudinal streams flowing into the side streams continued the 
erosion. The water-level at that time stood higher in the Chalk 
hills than it does now, and issuing as springs flowed right and left, 
still further cutting away the base of the Chalk. Before the Broad 
Chalke valley was cut down so deeply springs would be thrown out 
along the south Chalk downs, as they are now on the northern side. 



266 The Origin and Mode of Formation 0/ the Vale of Wardour. 

and at a much higher level. These lines of drainage are clear along 
the north side, though they are less clear on the south side, being 
obliterated by subsequent rain action. W bile this river action at 
the base of the escarpment was going on, landslips no doubt often 
took place, and thus the hills retreated to their present position. 

But the actual recession was not great. The summit ridge is 
nearly where it was originally, it is only the lower parts that have 
been scarped back to the outcrop of the Chalk rock. 

There is another agent which has had a powerful effect in wearing 
away the calcareous rocks, and that is chemical action. We have 
DOW in the Vale of Wardour about 36in. of rain annually, and it is 
possible that there may have been formerly much more. This rain, 
charged with carbonic acid which it has absorbed from the air, and 
taking up a much larger portion, as well as humic and crenic acids, 
from the decaying vegetation on the ground on which it falls, 
immediately attacks all calcareous rocks with which it comes into 
contact. 

The Portland and the Purbeck beds, when they in their turn were 
exposed by the denuding power of the stream, were in some degree 
worn away by this chemical action, which removed some of their 
calcareous matter and left as a residuum Sand and Clay on the 
surface. 

But, if the Portland and Purbeck beds have suffered some waste, 
the Chalk has been very largely removed by chemical action. 

Although the central ridge of the Downs, as we have seen, was 
never much higher than the plain marked out by the Chert Gravels, 
or by the " Clay-with-Flints," still, the parts now lower than the 
ridge have been much eroded, and a large portion of the material 
that has been removed has been taken away in solution by the acids 
taken up by the rain-water. 

When the rain falls upon the Chalk some small portion of it 
evaporates again, whilst another small portion flows over the surface, 
especially when the rainfall is heavy, washing away the fragments 
loosened by the frosts — for frost disintegrates the surface, as the 
water contained between the particles freezes — and carrying away 
the earth raised in the worm casts. But by far the largest part of 



By the Rev. W. R. Andrews, F.G.S. 267 

the rainfall sinks in, and acts chemically on the chalk. It soon takes 
up from near the surface its complement of lime, and so reduces the 
hills by removing a thin film from immediately under the vegetation. 
If we followed the downward course of the rainfall, now containing 
in solution a portion of the Chalk, and traced it gradually sinking 
deeper below the surface till it joined the underground reservoir of 
water, lying within and deep down below the hills, we should finally 
see it issuing hundreds of feet below where it fell in the bright clear 
springs which flow from the foot of the downs. And we must 
recollect that the quantity of material thus removed year after year 
and century after century is very great, for each gallon of spring 
water contains about seventeen grains of carbonate of lime in 
solution ; and by calculation it has been found that from each square 
mile of surface upwards of one hundred and forty tons of Chalk are 
in this way dissolved and carried away annually. 

Thus the Vale of Wardour has been eroded, simply by the long- 
continued process of atmospheric agencies. There is no evidence of 
any other agent. It may be a tempting theory to attribute this 
valley with its steep-sided hills to the action of the sea waves — 
and for a long time geologists held that view. Standing somewhere 
with the range of a Chalk escarpment in view, as, for instance, 
within sight of our southern Downs, it is an easy flight of the 
imagination to see in such bold headlands — as Buxbury, for example 
— an ancient promontory, and in the curving bays on either side an 
old coast line ; and to fancy how the waves beat furiously against the 
projecting points, or rippled up the sheltered hollows, but this 
pleasing picture must fade away when put to the test of scientific 
investigation, for at the base of our imaginary sea-clifi" there is no 
ancient sea-beach, and the ground at the foot, instead of preserving 
the uniform level of a sea-shore, gently rises and falls. 

Again, there is no evidence of ordinary glacial action, although 
it has been thought that the wearing power of ice has scooped out 
such valleys as the Vale of Wardour. Yet Aere we have none of 
the relics of that mighty tool, which has been so largely used by 
Nature in fashioning the Earth's surface in more northern parts. 
We have no scratched stones^ no moraine mounds, no rocks perched 



268 The Origin and Mode of Formation of the Vale of Wardour. 

on hills, where ice has dropped them, such as we see in Scotland or 
the Lake District, or in Wales. 

But, although we have no relics of ice action, our valley may have 
had, at the time when glacial conditions were vigorous further 
north, a more rapid erosion than ordinarily from the melting of the 
deep beds of snow which must then have fallen here, on the margin of 
an ice-covered country. For consider what the condition of the vale 
was in the Glacial Period. Our river, with its tributaries, had 
already worn down considerably into the plain formed by the marine 
denudation,and small escarpments of Green Sand and Chalk had begun 
to stand out, and hill and dale had begun to be formed ; in short, 
the outline, in miniature, of our present scenery. Then there came 
that very cold period during which time, if we were not covered 
with ice, we certainly had heavy falls of snow, and frost-bound 
ground. Each spring that deep snow probably melted, and perhaps 
very suddenly, when a large volume of water — none of which could 
sink into the ground, because it was frozen hard — soon overfilled 
the water-courses, and carried away more material, and produced 
more erosion in a few hours than could be effected in quieter times 
in a century ! 

Indeed, we have evidence for such floods in the thick beds of brick 
earth at Fisherton and Bemerton, which contain the relics of an 
Arctic fauna. These brick earths were tranquilly deposited there, 
where the stream slackened, after being swept down by the sudden 
melting of the deep snows on Salisbury Plain and the country 
to the west. 

We see that great effects can arise from comparatively small yet 
ever active agents ! The material which once filled this whole 
valley carried away to the sea ! And this not by some one over- 
whelming flood, not by powerful glacial action, but by the gentle 
ever-continuous influence of small agents — chemical force, rain, and 
rivers ! 

The length of time which these atmospheric agencies have taken 
to erode this Vale of Wardour I would not be presumptuous enough 
to fix, or even to guess at ; geological periods are not to be measured 
by the petty scale of human chronology. But, long ago as it may 



By the Rev. W. R. Andrews, F.G.S. 269 

seem to us to have commenced, yet it is, after all, but a thing of 
yesterday when contrasted with the ages that preceded. 

How many ages have passed, and what progress has been made 
in civilization, and how many kingdoms have risen and fallen since 
those high-level Gravels, containing Flint implements, were 
deposited at Bemerton and Milford Hill geologists can only vaguely 
surmise ; and how long it has taken to erode the river valley 80£t. is 
a question I would rather leave to be answered by the archseologists 
than attempt to measure the centuries by any assumed scale of the 
rate of erosion. 

All that the geologist can say is, that such erosion began after 
the last time the sea flowed over our area, and that since then the 
various strata have been continuously sculptured and carved into 
our present scenery. 

The results of the earth movements, and the rain, and the frosts, 
and the chemical action, and the rivers, we now have in the 
picturesque scenery of our vale, and it appeals to us as worthy of 
admiration — it not only gratifies our sense of beauty in the harmony 
it displays, but, when we come to look into its cause, raises up in us 
some nobler thoughts, as we recognise the orderly quiet working of 
Nature. 



VOL XXVI. — NO. LXXVII. 



270 




^tmwt of t|e ^iiiiot of cStodtoit. 

^HE following notes may be worth preserving-, by way of 
appendix to Mr. Miles' and Mr. Nightingale's papers under 
the above heading, in the twelfth and twenty-fourth volumes 
respectively of the Magazine. 

Thomas Toppe (1,), of Stockton, left issue :— 

John Toppe (I.), John Toppe (II.) ^ and Thomas Toppe (II.). 

John Toppe (I.), of Stockton, left issue : — 

John Toppe (III.), John Toppe (IV,), and Alexander Toppe. 

John Toppe (III.); of Stockton, left issue : — 
John Toppe (V.), John Toppe (VI.), and Edward Toppe. 

Edward Toppe left issue: — 

John Toppe (VII.) of Stockton. 

Thomas Toppe (I.) made his will February 15tb, 1559-60. He 
desires to be buried in the Church of St. John, in Stockton, and 
appoints John Toppe, " my youngest son of that name," residuary 
legatee and executor. The will was proved by the executor, March 
12th, 1559-60; registered C.P.C. " Mellersh," fo. 20. 

John Toppe (I.) made his will, as " of Stockton yeoman," August 
11th, 1573. He gives the custody o£ his sons, John and John, to 
John Toppe, his brother, and appoints his son, Alexander Toppe, 
residuary legatee and executor, whose governance till 21 he commits 
to " my brother Thomas Toppe." Administration, with will annexed, 
was granted, October 15th, 1573, to Thomas Toppe, testator's 
brother, during the minority of the executor. Will registered 
C.P.C. " Petre," fo. 30. 

Thomas Toppe (II.) made his will, as "of Fisherton Dalamore 
yeoman," January 13th, 1586-7. He makes bequests to Margaret, 
his only child, then wife of John Nicholas, widow of Selbie, and 
her children ; to his wife's sous, Richard and Christopher Hill, and 
to Alexander Toppe, his nephew, whose governance he commits to 



The Descent of the Manon of StocMon. 271 

his brother, John Toppc. He appoints his wife, Margaret, residuary 
legatee and executrix. The will was proved by the executrix March 
2^ud, 158G-7; registered C. P.O. " Spencer," fo. 13. Further ad- 
minstratioQ of his goods, left unadministered by Margaret, his relict, 
then deceased, was granted, January 26th, 1607-8, to Richard Hill 
and Margaret Nicholas, alias Selbie, alias Toppe, his daughter. 
Administration of the estate of Margaret Topp, late of Compton 
Chamberlayne, Co. Wilts, widow, deceased, was granted, February 
9th, 1596-7, to Richard Hill and Margaret, wife of John Nicholas, 
laer natural and lawful children; CP.C. Admon : fo. 194. 

John Toppe (II.) j Citizen and Merchant Taylor of London, died 
April 4th, 1596. A few months earlier, namely on July 7th, 1595, 
he had conveyed the Manor of Stockton, together with view of 
frankpledge of all tenants and residents within the manor, and six 
virgates of land in Stockton, to John Davyes, gent., William Maye, 
Thomas Bolton, and William Colmer, in trust for himself for life, 
without impeachment of waste, with remainder to John Toppe, 
senior, John Toppe, junior, and Alexander Toppe, sons of his bi'other, 
John Toppe, of Stockton, deceased, and their issue in tail male. He 
made this entail for their " Better advancement preferment livelihood 
and mayntenance," and in order that the said manor and premises 
might be, remain, and continue in his kindred, name, and blood. 
John Toppe, senior, his eldest nephew, succeeded him accordingly 
at Stockton. The will of John Toppe, citizen and merchant taylor, 
wherein he describes himself as " of Shallingforde co. Berks.gent : ," 
is dated March 17th, 1595-6. He appears from it to have been 
twice married : he mentions his grandchildren, Toppe, Nicholas, 
John, and Margaret Heathe, children of his daughter, Anne Heathe, 
deceased, whose husband, Nicholas Heathe, was still living. He 
appoints his nephews, John Tojjpe the elder and John Toppe the 
younger, his residuary legatees and executors, and desires " Edward 
Cooke, Esq. Attorney General of our Soveraign Lady the Queen's 
Majestic, and my cosine Mr. John Davyes of the Middle Temple to 
be my supervisors." The will was proved by the executors, June 
23rd, 1596 : registered CP.C. " Drake," fo. 45. Toppe Heathe 
was aged twelve years and more at the time of his grandfather's 

T 2 



27^ The Descent of the Manor of Stockton. 

death. [Chancery I.P.M., 38 Eliz : prima pars 132 Wilts.] 

Alexander Toppe married into a Shropshire family, of which 
county Lingen Toppe, his son, was sheriff. The will of Lingen 
Topp is registered C.P.C. "Exton,^' fo. 127 (1688). 

John Toppe (III.) was seated at Stockton. He was sheriff of 
Wilts, &c. He married Mary, daughter of Edward Hooper, of 
Boveridge, Co. Dorset. The connection between the two families 
was of old standing. Thomas Toppe, his grandfather, appointed as 
overseer of his will her grandfather, " my lovinge frende mastar 
John Hooper of Sarum." The will of " Edward Hooper, of 
Boveridge in the parish of Cramborne Co. Dorset gent : ," was 
proved May 7th, 1619 (C P.C. "Parker,'^ fo. 42). One of the 
overseers named in it is " my son-in-law John Toppe.^' His own 
will, as "of Stockton the elder Co. Wilts Esq.," is dated July 20th, 
with codicil August 11th, 1632, and was proved January 18th, 
1632-3 (C.P.C. " Russell," fo. 2). Besides three sons he left issue 
several daughters, of whom Anne, the eldest, married John Mervyn, 
of Pertwood, eventually heir male of the Pertwood branch of that 
ancient family. Mary Mervyn, their daughter, and granddaughter 
of John Toppe, the sheriff, became the wife of Dr. William Creed, 
who was thus closely connected with Stockton (see vol. xii.). He 
was elected scholar from Reading School to St. John's College, 
Oxford, June 7th, 1631 (MSS. Corporation of Reading, Hist. MSS. 
Com., xi., 7, 184). His subsequent career is conveniently summed 
up in a grant of arms made to him June 4th, 1663, shortly before 
his death, as " y^ Reverend W"" Creed, doct. in di. sci., his Ma'ties 
professor in divinity in y^ famous University in Oxford, Chanon of 
Christ Church, Archdeacon of Wilts, and Channon resident of 
y* Cathedrall Church of Sarum." The grant follows, " viz^ Ermin 
iipon a chevron higrayld sable three Leoimrdes heads OK. Crest, A 
derni serpent the Tayle tvound a lout y^ neck or" (Harley M.S. 1172, 
fo. 65). He died at Oxford, July 19th, and was buried in tlie south- 
east angle of the north transept of the Cathedral, July 27th, 1663 
(Burials at Christ Church, in Misc. Gen. & Herald., N.S., and plan 
of Cathedral by A. Wood, 1671, in vol. 17 Oxfd. Hist. Soc). His 
will, dated June 30th, 1663, was proved February 11th, 1663-4, by 



The Descent of the Manor of Stockton. 273 

the executors, John Priaulx, D.D., Richard Hill, Clerk, Rector of 
East Knoyle, Benjamin Gifford, of Borehara, Co. Wilts, and John 
Johnson, of the Close, Sarura : registered C.P.C. " Bruce," fo. 12. 
" Mrs. Frances Mervin/' his wife's sister, was likewise buried in the 
Cathedral Church, December 9th, 1662, in the body of the Church, on 
the north side. By her will, dated at Christ Church, Oxford, December 
1st, 1662, she gave the residue of her estate to her loving brother, 
Edward Mervin, and appointed her beloved brother. Dr. William 
Creed, and her good friend, Mr. John Johnson, Register of the 
Close, in Sarum, executors, desiring them to call in the money in 
the hands of her honored uncle, Edward Topp, of Stockton, Co. 
Wilts, Esq. Administration granted January 18th, 1666-7 to 
Edward Mervin, the brother, both the executors being deceased : 
will registered C.P.C. " Carr,'' fo. 8. 

John Toppe (V.) succeeded his father at Stockton. He had 
matriculated, December 11th, 1612, at Hart Hall, Oxford, as "Wilts 
gen^ fiF £et. 16,-" and was admitted B.A., June 22nd, 1615, from 
" Hart Hall, arm^ fil' n. m." On July 1st the same year he ob- 
tained licence from congregation to read in the Bodleian (Regist. 
Univ. Oxon, Oxfd. Hist. Soc). He was " of Lincoln's Inn, set. 
26" in 1623. He married Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of Sir 
Thomas Hamon, of Brasted, Co. Kent, Knight, with a portion, as it 
would appear, of £5500, besides lands. Her sistei*, the other co-. 
heiress, married Thomas, son of Hugh Browker (Visitations, Surrey 
and Middlesex) . John Toppe's will, dated December 10th, 1638, was 
proved by Edward Toppe, his brother and executor, March 13th, 
1639-40. He desires to be buried in the churchyard of Stockton, 
and not in the Church : he gives £20 for communion plate : £1000 
for some charitable use in Co. Wilts, or at Oxford University, at 
the discretion of his dear friends. Sir Henry Ludlowe, Kt., Dr. 
Alex. Hide, Thomas Hooper, of Bovington, Esq., his uncle, William 
Lavington, Esq., counsellor-at-law, and Alexander Toppe, his uncle : 
it was to be " to the honor of God and contynuance of the work 
against bribery and corruption fatall mothers and cankers of pious 
devotes in Church and Commonwealth " : disputes were to be 
regulated by the Bishop of Sarum and Thomas, Lord Coventry, 



274 Tlie Descent of the Manor of Stockton. 

Keeper of the Great Seal, " whom I have long and carefully ob- 
served to be an Oracle of Light and goodness, and by that mediation 
onely (having noe way merited) doe humbly enti-eat his Lordship's 
favor." Testator's poor kindred were to be first regarded, then men 
of Wiltshire, particularly of Stockton and Codford St. Mary. How 
the design was carried into effect will be seen in Wilts Arch. Mag., 
vol. xii. There are very numerous bequests to friends and relatives : 
certain lands were to go with the entailed property to his brother, 
John, and the residue to his brother, Edward. Richard Smith 
records his death in his "obituary'^ (Camden Soc), March 13th, 
1639-40. " M"^ Topp, who married M'^ Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Hamond, died. He gave a legacie to my brother Walter." 
The inquisition on his death was taken 18th August, 16 Charles, at 
Salisbury, whereby it was found that he had died March 13th last 
past before the date of the inquisition, that Elizabeth, his wife, 
survived him, and that John Toppe was his brother and next heir, 
aged, at the time of the death of the deceased, thirty -eight years 
and more. His real estate consisted of the following particulars : — 
I. Lands of which he was seized for life with remainder to the 
heirs male of his body, with remainder to the heirs male of his 
father, with remainder to his own right heirs; (1) the Manor of 
Stockton, in Stockton and East Codford, with view of frankpledge 
and free warren, a capital messuage and eleven virgates of meadow 
and pasture in Stockton, called Giffords Farlowes and Ludlovves. 
[%) Two and a half perches of land in Stockton, on the road from 
Stockton to East Codford, lately bought of John Hooper. (3) 
Cottage garden and orchard in Stockton. (4) Messuage, cottage 
garden, orchard, and half acre of land in Stockton, called Kellawayes 
Tenement, lately bought of Henry Kellawayes, Esq., Robert Kella- 
wayes, and Sir Edward Warder. (5) Four acres in west fields of 
Stockton, called Irish Mens Landes, bought of Thomas Mompesson, 
gent. (6) Six shillings quit rent issuing from capital messuage and 
seven virgates of land, meadow and pasture, of Christopher Potticary, 
gent., in Stockton, called Eyres Landes. (7) Four shillings and 
five pence half-penny quit rent from messuage and land of the said 
Christopher Potticary, in Stockton, called Pipers. (8) Two 



The Descent of the Manor of StocJcton. ii75 

messuag-esj three and a half virgates of land, meadow and pasture, 
in East Codford. (9) Four messuages, twenty-six acres of land, 
meadow and pasture, in East Codford. (10) Three roods of laud in 
East Codford. (1 ] ) Twelve acres of meadow in East Codford, called 
Ked Meade and Rushes. (12) Two acres of land, covered with 
water, called Comptwell Streame, in East Codford. (13) Piece of 
land covered with water, part of the running stream, between 
Stockton and East Codford, on which stood " Kidellos anglice a 
weare,-"^ lately erected by John Toppe, his father. 

II. Lands of which he was seized for life with remainder to 
Elizabeth, his wife, in lieu of dower, with remainder to his own 
right heirs : — (14) Several pieces of land, meadow and pasture, in 
East Codford, amounting to eight virgates, called Smithes Landes 
and Eyres Landes. (15) The farm of Codford, alias Codford Mary, 
in East Codford, containing two hundred acres of land, twenty acres 
of meadow, twenty acres of pasture, and two hundred acres of 
heather and gorse. 

III. Lands of which he was seized in fee simple: — (16) The 
manor of Grandon, in Cos, Somerset and Wilts, with common of 
pasture for ten cows and a heifer in Roddeu Downe and Thickthorne, 
and common of pasture for all beasts in the forest of Froome Selwood 
and East Woodlaudes, lately purchased of James Sparke, gent. 
[Chancery, I.P.M., Miscellaneous, Elizabeth to Charles II,, 29th 
Part. No. 23.] 

John Toppe (VI.) made his will January 21st, i654-5, with 
several codicils, of which the last is dated December 19th, 1659. 
He desires to be buried near his dear wife in the churchyard of 
Stockton, The list of his legacies is a long one. He gives £200 
to his niece, Anne Mervyn, and £100 apiece to her sisters, Honour, 
Margaret, Jane, and Frances Mervyu, and to his nephews, Edward 
and John Mervyn, all "his land in Hiudon equally between them. 
His sister, Elizabeth, wife of William Kent, of Boscombe, Co. 
Wilts, is to have a freehold in Stert, with remainder to John Kent, 
her son. The testator, as appears from his brother's will, had him- 
self lived at Stert, where he enjoyed a copyhold of £50 per annum, 
before his succession to Stockton. His cousin, Mr. William Creed, 



276 The Descent of the Manor of StocUon. 

is to have his Parkinson's Herball. He gives £1 to his kinsman, Mr. 
Archdeacon Ryves, The residue generally is to go to John Toppe, 
his nephew, son of his brother, Edward. The executors and trustees 
for payment of his debts were John Norden, of Badbury, Co. Wilts ; 
Francis Swanton, of the City of New Sarum ; Matthew Davis, of 
Shaston, Co. Dorset ; Henry Whittaker, of Motcombe, Co. Dorset ; 
and Edward Hooper, of Bovington, Co. Dorset, Esquires. The will 
was proved by Davis and Whittaker, February 15thj 1660-1. 
CP.C, " May,'' fo. 33. 

The will of William Kent, the elder, of Boscombe, Co. Wilts, 
Esq., bears date September 24th, and was proved November 6th, 
1666. He mentions Elizabeth, his loving wife, makes provision for 
John Kent, his younger son, and gives the residue to William Kent, 
his eldest son, sole executor. 

John Norden, mentioned above, was second son but eventually 
heir of William Norden (will proved at Devizes, 1638, Inventory, 
£779 12*.) of Rowde, by Mary, eldest daughter of Eichard Lybbe, 
of Hardwick, Co. Oxford. He was an active Member of Parliament, 
&c. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Skinner, of Crad- 
ley, Co. Hereford, and died in 1670 (will C.P.C, "Duke,'' fo. 24), 
leaving his estate apparently hopelessly involved. 



Two families of the name of Toppe were entered in the Visitation 
of Wilts, 1623. [See the original MS., edited by Dr. Marshall 
(G. Bell & Son, 1882), and the editor's remarks on the value of this 
MS., " Harley," 1165.] They were doubtless closely connected, 
both being interested, for instance, in property at Bridmore. The 
Court Rolls of Stockton, from A.D. 1300 to A.D. 1540, or there- 
abouts, which are among the " Additional " Charters in the British 
Museum, would perhaps show the exact relationship : see also 
" Additional " Charters for the Court Rolls of Wishford Magna, 
with mention of Toppe Heath, described, in a deed, as of Greenwich, 
Kent, &c. 

Thomas Toppe, of Bridmore, the first of that line mentioned in 
the " Visitation " Pedigree, made his will in 1598, as " of Bredmer, 



The Descent of the Manor of Stochton. 277 

Co. Wiltsj yeoman." The will of his widow, " Joane Top of Bar- 
wick Saint Johns co. Wilteshyre," is dated October 4th, 1601. 
Bobert, their son, improved his estate by marriage with Alice, 
daughter and co-heiress of " William Kirleye of Combe Bissett, co. 
Wilts, yeoman,'" whose will bears date July 18th, 1583: he gives 
to " Alice my daughter now wife to Robert Toppe," all his lands 
and tenements in Combe Bissett : Margaret Kirleye, his second 
daughter, married Edmund Bower, of Donhead. Francis, eldest 
son of Robert and Alice Toppe, signed the Visitation Pedigree : he 
was then " of Combe Bissett." He married at Sturminster Marshall, 
Co. Dorset, May 15th, 1606, Margery, daughter of John Bower, of 
Great Wishford, of which marriage Francis, the second son^ was 
aged two years in 1623. This Francis Toppe, the younger, appears 
to be identical with Francis Toppe, of Tormerton, Co. Gloucester, 
who was created a baronet July 25th, 1668. Margaret, Duchess of 
Newcastle, in her famous " Life " of William (Cavendish) , her 
husband, mentions one Mr. Top as lending money to the Duke, 
without assurance, to enable his lordship to pay off his more pressing 
scores : she also quotes a survey of her lord's estate made in 1641, 
in which occur the manors of Tormerton with Litleton, and Actou 
Turville, Co. Gloucester, the rental amounting to £1581 19*. 2^?. 
The two notices taken together may explain how this property 
passed to the Toppe Family. The will of Sir Francis Toppe, dated 
November 5th, 1668, was proved by Dame Elizabeth, his relict, 
August 7th, 1676. He mentions his manor of Tormerton, and 
lands at Acton Turville, Co. Gloucester, purchased of Thomas 
Tyther and others ; his manor of Brostow, Co. Notts, purchased of 
the Marquess of Dorset and others ; and his lands in Combe and 
Wishford Magna, Co. Wilts. Sir John Toppe, son and heir of Sir 
Francis, married by license dated March 29th, 1684, Barbara St. 
John, sister to the first Viscount Bolingbroke, she aged 17, he 21 
with him the title expired. 

A. S. M. 



278 



Wibtxm lane Wmt 



By C. Peneuddocke. 
{Continued from vol. xxvi., p. 38.) 

JEARLY ten years had passed since the memorable ride from 
Bentley to Bristol, when a King was flying for his life 
under the guidance of a woman.^ The scene is changed. The King 
is in London, " enjoying his own again/' and his preserver inditing 
a letter to the Queen-Mother, Henrietta Maria, whose friendship 
she retains, and with whom she appears to be on terms of unusual 

intimacy. 

* " fEeath 
" For her Majestie. 

Original in w. "I was infinitly glad to have the honour to reseave a letter from 

Staffordl'"^^' your Ma"' for it was reported here that you ware not well, and 

indeed I was in much pane till I heard from my cosen Broughton. 

God be praysed the King is well, but the Duke is in phisick still 

^^Waitmg!" ^°^ s° ^^ ^^^ Duches. She is very gratious to me, but I doe not 

goe oft up to wait on her. the King has now given order for the 

settling of a thousand pounds a yeare upon me. I am very much bound to his 

Ma'" for his gratious favour to me. I hope in time he will doe what is fit for 

your Ma*'' to expect from, it tys the opinion of many heare that your Ma''° 

should com into England without an invitation but I confes I canot tell how to 

advise your Ma'" in this point. I think your Ma"' the best judg on it your 

selfe what is most proper for you to do. If I may be so happie as to know when 

your ma"' will com I will not faile to paye my duty in waiting of your Ma''' for 

noe soule a live is more 

" Your Ma'"" most 

" Obedient and most humble 

" Servant 

" J. Lane." 

During the recess of the fii'st Parliament called by King Charles II. 

in 1660 the Queen-Mother arrived in England, after nineteen years' 

absence, with her daughter, the Princess Henrietta (betrothed to 

^ It is worthy of a thought that the first thing the exiled King talked about 
as he paced the quarter deck of the ship sent to bring him. back to England was 
his perilous escape from Worcester, which made good old Pepys "ready to weep." 
• Featherstone, cliaiielry in parish of Wol-verhaan)ton, Co. Stafford, near Brewood. 



Mistress Jane Lane. 279 

the Duke of Orleans) . The Parliament had not been idle, and had 

debated, amouofst other things of more immediate consequence, as to 

whether the King should not be invited to marry someone — but a 

Protestant by preference. Sir Heneage Finch threw cold water 

upon the subject by saying it would seem strange if they confined 

His Majesty to Protestants. It was, however, understood at the 

French Court that the Queen Mother, instigated by the Lord 

Germain and the Abbe Montague, was prepared to propose Hortense 

Mancini as the future Queen of England, with a 
Memoirs, « i i «r • j 

Anne of Austria, large sum of money from her uncle Mazarm s 

by Madame de money bags ! The King's " laisser aller " manner 

Motteville. ? ... 

vol. v., p. 95. caused this matrimonial project to be laid aside. 

Compton Librai7. "^^^ ^^^^^^ marriage of the King's brother, the 

Duke of York, with Anne Hyde, the Chancellor's 

daughter, though recognized, and supported by the King, proved 

very galling to the dignity of the Queen-Mother. 

Sent 13th and ^^° deaths in the Royal Family — that of the 

Dec. 21st, 1660, Duke of Gloucester and his sister, the widowed 
Princess of Orange — added gloom to her short visit, 
which was terminated on the 2nd of January, 1660-1. 

Before she left England for France it is more than probable that 

she confided some of her anxieties and sorrows to the sympathizing 

ears of discreet Mistress Lane, together with the particulars of her 

return to France. It took her more than a month 
Memoirs, . , , 

Anne of Austria, to reach Paris (February 20th), via Havre de Grace, 

vol. v., p. jy, I00.jj^f|.gj^. ^ -^veary journey, which nearly included ship- 
wreck on the " Horse Sands " — the interim on board the " London " 
being filled up by a necessary attendance on the young princess, who 
had a bad attack of the measles ! Disquieting reports had evidently 
reached Mistress Lane about the Queen-Mother, and no wonder after 
such a journey with a bad sea passage and a sick child. The cousin, 
Broughton, mentioned in her letter was probably the son of the 
loyal Thomas Broughton, who married her cousin, 
xsvi. p. 31. Francis Bagot. He was created a baronet by the 
King, 1660-1, and is mentioned by the King in his 
letter to Jane Lane. 



280 



Mistress Jane Lane. 



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By C. PenruddocJce. 281 

" God be praised," writes this loyal lady, " the King is well." 
The " Danciug She thought of him as the King. She had (as a 

Henry ^Arthur P^^^ ^^^^^^' ^^ *^^^ present day says), when his life 

Jones. was in danger, " pulled him from under the horse's 

feet." How gratefully she acknowledges her pension ^ of one 
thousand pounds. " The Duke of York is in physic " she tells the 
Queen — perhaps he was suffering from measles. His sister, Henrietta, 
bred them while in London. The Duchess is " in physic " too. 
Her confinement of an heir presumptive to the crown had lately- 
taken place. 

Even the Duchess, nee Anne Hyde, is " gratious " to Jane Lane, 
though her own mother — Lady Clarendon — was forced to stand in 
her presence. 

" I hope he [the King] will do what your Majesty expects of 
him." I think this must mean " marry. '•' The King evidently did 
not hurry himself. Mistress Lane discreetly avoids an opinion as 
to whether the Queen-Mother should come to England without an 
invitation. She did not in fact re-visit England till 1663, when 
Mistress Lane had become Lady Eisher. 

We can but admire the honest ring in the sentence which closes 
this nice letter : — " Noe soule alive is more your Majesty's obedient 
and most humble Servant." 

I trust I may be forgiven for writing at length on what I have 
been able to collect, in which Jane Lane figures, or which is in some 
way connected with her history. 

With regard to the arms of Lane, which appeared in my last 

paper, they represent the original coat borne by several generations 

of de Lonas, Lonas, and Lones, and also for a few 
Information, . 

H. Murra}' Lane, years after the name became Lane, but in the 

Chester Herald, gf^gg^^]^ century the per fesse coat was introduced, 
and with the grant of the three lions of England by King Charles 
II. is blazoned thus : — I'arti/ per /esse, or : and an: over all a chevron 
gu : between three martlets counter changed, and on a canton the arms 
of England. The crest is a strawberry roan horse saliant j couped at 

* The warrant for her pension was made out February 5th, 1660-1. 



282 Mistress Jane Lane. 

the flanks, bricUecl sa : hittecl and garnished, or: supporting between 
the feet a regal crown." Some interest attaches itself to the colour 
of the horse in the crest, which is mentioned as a strawberry roan 
in the words of the grant, and so blazoned. The family of Lane 
always regard this as representing the exact colour of the horse on 
which the King and Mistress Jane Lane rode. Col. Cecil Lane, of 
Whiston Hall, possesses a seal on which is the first cut of the crest 
after it was granted. He has very kindly sent me an impression. 
It is said that John Lane, of King's Bromley, who died in 1824, 
claimed — and established his claim — to be exempt from the tax on 
armorial bearings because his family bore the royal arms. 

At page 15 of this volume the pedigree apparently makes the 
descent of Lady Fisher and her sisters from Col. John Lane. By 
erasing the descending line they will appear, as intended, from 
Thomas Lane and Anne Bagot. Of Col. Lane, the brother of Jane 
Lane, it is said that he refused a peerage — adding, in his manly way, 
" he had riot means enough to support it," but his 

papers. name was one of those included in a proposed new 

■HT., ,, TT- L order called the " Knights of the Royal Oak." 
Wilmot s Hist. _ ° "^ _ 

of Walsall. The Lane family very modestly declined the 

Compton Library. ^^^^^^^^ ^.^.^h was offered them, of interment in 
Westminster Abbey. It is doubtful, therefore, if Parliament voted 
any sum of money for a monument to Col. Lane's memory. His 
monument is in the Lane Chapel of St. Peter's, "Wolverhampton, 
which a reverend and most courteous descendant describes to me as 
very ugly. 

The family dignity, which prevented the acceptance of a peerage 

and a national monument, seems to have existed in Jane Lane — if 

we may judge from the following entries. The first occurs in an 

an account kept by a Mr. Guy for King Charles IL 

" C^wlflL?nk " To Dame Jane Fisher, bounty, £250 - - " ; 

James II. i^ut there is also another another entry, under 

" Moneys received " : — " From the Lady Jane 
Fisher in rejmyment of so much lent her by King Charles the second 
£250 - - 0." 

The Penderels are known to have been treated with the greatest 



By C. PenmddocTce, Esq. 283 

liberality by the King. Sons, daughters, grandchildren, and their 
relations were abundantly supplied with money either to discharge 
their debts, or to set them up in the world.' 

Even the Rector of a living was put under contribution for them. 

. . According to some old agreement the sum of two 

June lsfc° 1832'. pounds fifteen shillings and two pence has been 

Compton prjj^j yearly to the Penderels of Boscobel by the 

Library. r j j j 

Rector of Hodnet. 

Perhaps the patron of the living in those days, as well as the 

Rector, Dr. Arnway, was devotedly attached to the royal fugitive, 

and consented to pay off part of the King's debt of gratitude by 

allowing such a tax to be laid on the income of the living of Hodnet. 

The present Rector, who is a son of the Rev. 

Eev. Richard Charles Cholmondeley and Mary, the daughter of 

Ji^"o^^ , , the Rev. Regino.ld Heber, has most kindly supplied 

Cholroondeley. "^ . . • » n 

me with a copy of a receipt given to his father for 

this payment. 



" Salop. Marchamley Rectory. 

" Eeceived the fifth day of April 1831 of Rev. C.^ £3. 0. 4 
Cholmondeley the sum of three pounds and 4 pence 
being for one years fee farm rent due to the Family of 
the Pendrills at Mid' last past for whose use the same 
is received by me. 

" No. 41. Acquit 1' 

" Matthew Ellison." 



6. 0. Tax. 



14. 



10. 



£2. 15. 2. 



There is a tradition on good family authority that at one of the 
places where Jane Lane and " Will Jackson " stopped to refresh 
they were suddenly surrounded by soldiers, which so confused the 
young Charles that Jane Lane, to sustain her servant's character, 
had to give him a good cuff on the head and say something to the 
purpose of her being sorry that she did not leave him at home if he 
was going to be so stupid a waiting servant! This delightful 
anecdote of Mistress Lane, who never seems to have lost her 



^ The King, it is said, was so mortified by the personal importunities 
of persons who had been of least service to him, on his landing at 



Dover, that he became prejudiced against them. 



284 Mistress Jane Lane. 

presence of mind all through that perilous journey, can only be 

equalled by a romantic story, entitled " A Missing 

and Coo-ans of Chapter in Boscobel Tracts/^ edited by a Fellow o£ 

Coaxden Manor. theSociety of Antiquaries, which relates how Charles 

Elliot Stock, . 

1891. was saved from his pursuers by a certain Mrs. Cogan, 

wbo " threw her dress over him " ! 

Gent's. Mao-azine ^^ ^^ Gentleman's Magazine I find a reference 

June, 1794, to the celebrated "jack" which the King was 

unable to wind up at Long Marston, as well as a 

drawing of that wonderful machine itself. It is 

now in the possession of a descendant of Mr. Tomes 

Stuart Catalogue, at Long Marston, who married Captain Carrow, 

and was shown by him at the Stuart Exhibition in 

Information, jggg^ The " iack " stands in a glass case in the 

Captain Carrow, i i • i 

Long Marston. dining-room (once the kitchen) of Long Marston. 

The encounter between Mr. Tomes' cook and His Majesty has 

been related before. 

The sheltering of the King by Mr. John Tomes at Long Marston 

is duly chronicled in the family pedigree. 

Information ' Here is a nice little bit gleaned from a " Histoire 

Eobert Fisher Je Cromwell," published at Paris, 169L Ac- 
Tomes, Esq. ,. , . . ,,. T ^ 

cording to the writer it was Mistress Jane Lane 

herself who changed the pallid hue of the King's face into that of 

a gipsy by the application of a dye, made and applied by her own 

fair hands. 

Histoire de Cromwell, " Jja fiHe de ce chevalier [Lane] fit bouiller des ecorces de 

Compton Library. noix avec de I'huile de Terebinthe ; et on luy frotta si bien 

le visage avec cette drogue, qu'il luy on demeuva toujours depuis une couleur 

brune que beaucoup de personnes ont cru etre la couleur naturelle de son teint." 

Another French writer says : — 

History Iron Age, " He [the King] retired to a certain gentlewoman's house, 

Compton Library. who changed his clothes, conducted him to Bristol, and after- 
wards to London in VaQ hahit of a gentlewoman, where he stayed above three 
weeks, and then he passed into France ! " 

I have not been able to satisfy myself as to the degree of relation- 
ship between Jane Lane and Mrs. Norton, of Abbot's Leigh. The 



By C. Penruddocke. 285 

King speaks of her as a cousin. Lord Clarendon calls her a niece, 

a cousin, or very near kinswonaan. Sir Richard Bulstrode, in his 

memoirs, says cousin; and Blount, a special friend, or friend. But, 

in the scarce work, called ''Monarchy Bevived," published in 1661, 

and dedicated to Jane Lane, the writer uses these words : " She 

having by accident procured a pass from a Parliamentarian officer 

for herself and a man to go thither [Bristol] to see her sister, who 

was then near her time of lying in.^' In another somewhat scarce 

o 3 -nj-i.- iHHr. book called " Histori<^ pueriles," written by Robert 
ova Jiidition, 1775. . _ "^ 

Comptoa Wharton, she is styled sister. This is rather 

^^' curious. Egglesfield, in the former work, leaves 

Jane Lane and the King at Bristol, and declares that secrecy was 

necessary, and that many untrue stories were promulgated. Can it 

be that Mary (Lane) Nicholas, Jane's sister, was at or in the 

neighbourhood of Bristol, and practically aiding, in some way, the 

escape of the King? Mistress Lane (says Egglesfield) was very 

modest and reticent, and for ten years after the escape was planned 

and carried out had not spoken of the details. If she had, perhaps 

she might have endangered the life or liberty of her Wiltshire 

. „. . sister. Pere Cyprien of Gamache (from whose 
Memoirs Mission 
Capuchin Friars, memoirs Miss Strickland has gathered much in- 

to lbb9. teresting material), in writing of Charles's escape, 

is evidently under the impression that Mistress Lane had a married 

sister at Bristol. He describes Jane as twenty-four years old. Is 

it not possible that during his long mission in England he had seen 

and known the part Mary took in the service of the King, and had 

got mixed as to the age and appearance of the two sisters. I have 

seen a miniature purporting to be that of Jane Lane (on copper.) 

It is the property of Major Dilke, of Maxstoke Castle, who most 

kindly sent it to me to examine. It represents a full sweet sad face 

of a young woman, and the features have a resemblance to those of 

Mistress Lane in her portrait at King's Bromley. She wears a 

kind of wimple, or travelling head-dress, with a kerchief over her 

neck and shoulders, fastened closely under her chin. It is interesting 

to conjecture that this may be Mary Lane, who married Edward 

Nicholas, of Manningford Bruce, in Wiltshire, and whose epitaph 

VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXYII. U 



286 Mistress Jane Lane. 

distinctly records her participation in the King-'s 
W. A. M., vol. 
xxvi.,p.2. esC'-'P^- 

It seems to me that the two sisters might very 

well have met at Bristol, and Jane taken the disguised King on to 

Mrs. Norton's. Mrs. Norton could lay claim to be connected with our 

county, for her aunt, Elizabeth Owen, married 

of Con'dover. Henry Smyth, of Corsham, Wilts, a gentleman 

.„ . ,, , . who was present at the dinner party when Henry 
W. A. M., vol. 1., ^ . 

p. 309. Long was murdered by Sir Henry Danvers. 

I have little to relate of Lady Fisher's married life. She lived 

twenty years at Packington with her husband, whom she survived 

six years. Both lie buried in the " Catacombs " of the new Church 

at Great Packington, built in 1789, to which the 

Builder's Account , ,. , p ,, m • ^^ ^■^ 

Book, in pos- bodies were removed irom the vaults in the old 

session Earl of Church. I have to thank Mr. Waller, the courteous 
Aylesford. , • n • • • 

Rector, for much information, and permission to 

examine the parish registers, whose entries commence with the year 

1538, and are in excellent condition. The entry of Jane Lane's 

burial appears, on inspection, to be in the hand- 

A. M., vol. writing of the officiating' minister, and made at the 
xsvi., p. 32. *= . . 

time. The surrounding entries of lesser degree 

seem to have been "written up." Through the kindness of Lord 

and Lady Aylesford, while on a visit to Packington Hall, I was able 

to realize the picturesque beauty of " Mistress Lane's " married 

home in the Forest of Arden, where wander the black deer, 

descendants of those killed by the " foresters " in 
" As You Like It," oi i • > j.- 

Act IV., Scene 2. Shakespeare s time :— 

" What shall he have that killed the deer P " 

The old house o£ the Fishers is Elizabethan, and stands not very 
far from the great " pool " mentioned by Dugdale. It is gabled, 
and has casement windows. A broad staircase of black oak leads to 
the upper rooms. In the large hall is an oak table of the period 
with cupboards, and there is a stand of arms against the wall, some 
of which may have been used by Sir Clement Fisher in defence of 
the King. 




JANE LANE. 

FROM PORTRAIT AT PACKINGTON HALL. IN POSSESSION OF THE 
EARL OF AYLESFORD. 



. 'i LLDGATE HILL. £,0. 



By C. Penrudducke. 287 

But, for the purpose of my story, one of tbe most interesting 
features of the place is Mr. Francis Bent, the park keeper, now 
resident at the old hall. He is a handsome man of eighty-eight years, 
blind and somewhat deaf, but in possession of an excellent memory. 
His father was eighty-six when he died, and his grandfather 
ninety ; and a long list of Bents in the parish registers point to 
their continuous residence. 

]Mr. Francis Bent is quite as proud of " Mistress Jane Lane" and 
her loyal husband as any noble descendant of the Fishers, and he 
speaks of them with much enthusiasm. It is quite possible, in a 
long-lived family like his, and marrying early in life, that remarkable 
incidents were handed down from father to son with unusual exact- 
ness. He described to me the leading features of the King's escape 
with Jane Lane as if he himself had been present, and more par- 
ticularly said that the King and Jane Lane, by invitation of her 
betrothed, Sir Clement Fisher, came to Packington to dine 
before they went to Long Marston. The King walked in the 
garden, and as a precautionary measure retired to a small secret 
chamber (shown to me) on an alarm. In the mean while Jane and 
Sir Clement went hawking (perhaps love-making) in the great 
park, and along the banks of the Blythe, and captured two 
partridges, which were cooked and served up to the King on the 
table aforesaid. From the cupboards of this table Mr. Bent 
alleges that Sir Clement took bottles of wine for His Majesty's 
refreshment. In relating to me the incidents at Mr. Tomes', at 
Long Marston, he said there was good reason for the cook's auger 
as Charles had let the meat burn without winding up the jack, and 
in consequence she beat him with the ladle, and called him a 
Roundhead ! ! 

The oak trees grow like weeds at Packington, and some I saw 
must have been flourishing at tbe time of the King's visit. 

I regret to hear that " King Charles the Second's 
W. A. M., vol. Q^j^ ,, .^ ^ ,g p^j.j^ ^^g \Aov}\x down and carted 

XXVl., p. .lO. I J 

Information, away some twenty-six years ago. 

Superintrndent And now I come to the portraits of Jane Lane. 
Parks, Loudon, j ^^^q \^^^ tl^e satisfaction of seeing tbe two at 

u a 



288 Mistress Jane Lane. 

Packington Hall, and by the very kind permission of Lord Aylesford 
am able to re-produce them in photo-print for this paper. The one 
holding a crown in the right hand I will venture to call No. 1. It 
appears to have been painted before her marriage with Sir Clement 
Fisher, and, like the other — No. 2 — is allegorical. The lady is 
represented holding the crown in her right hand, having drawn her 
lace veil over it as partly concealing it for a time from (view ?) 
danger. At her left is depicted a " Hydra ^' (the Commonwealth). 
On her right a landscape — probably representing some well-known 
scene in her perilous journey. She is in a crimson dress, without 
any ornament or necklace. Her pose is singularly graceful and 
unlike the stereotyped position usually assigned to Lely. The 
inscription on this portrait is : — " Mrs. Jane Lane, wife to Sir 
Clement Fisher, who was great uncle to Mary, 2nd Countess of 
Aylesford." This portrait at present hangs on the wall of the great 
staircase at Packington Hall. 

The portrait, holding a crown in the left hand, which I call No. 2, 
appears to be that of Lady Fisher, painted at a later date, when the 
King was restored to his throne. The " Hydra " is still there, but 
relegated to the background behind her — right. The crown is here 
represented as being held in her left hand, but unveiled and steadied by 
her right. She is dressed in a crimson dress, but made up differently, 
and wears a necklace of large pearls. I think this portrait is painted 
by Lely. It is now in the billiard-room. The inscription is : — 
Mrs. Jane Lane, wife to Sir Clement Ffyssher." 

In the same room is a full-length portrait of King Charles II. in 

robes — His Majest3''s gift to Lady Fisher. It is not a work of art, 

but is without doubt the " pickture " promised to 

Kino- Charles ^^^" ^7 ^^^ King in his letter, of which the original 

II., W. A. M., is now at King's Bromley. Mrs. Lane has been 
vol. XXVI., p. 31. 

good enough to send me a photograph of another 

portrait of our heroine, in her possession. It is said to be by Sir 

Peter Lely, and is a nice painting and possesses the features of both 

the portraits at Packington Hall. 

There is also a portrait at Packington Hall which is believed to 

be that of Sir Clement Fisher. 




LADY (JANE LANE) FISHER- 

FROM PORTRAIT AT PACRINCTON HALL. IN POSSESSION OF THE 
EARL OF AVLESFORD. 



PRINTED BY «40Pe. 19 LUOMTE HILL, E. C 



By C. Penruddocke. 289 

^ , . At Narford Hall, Swaffhara, the residence of 

Information, . i u i. f 

Mr. Algernon Mr. Fountaine, is a fine portrait, said to be that or 
Fountaine. j^^.^ ^^^^^ ^jf^ ^,f Colonel John Lane, of Bentley, 

painted on canvas by Mary Beale, and in the muniment room is the 
Royal grant by King- Charles II. of £1000 to each of Colonel John's 
six unmarried daughters as a marriage portion. The grant is signed 
the 28th of June, 1669, and the names given of the six ladies are 
Grace, Lettice, Elizabeth, Jane, Dorothy, and Francis. I am in- 
debted to Mr. W. Amhurst, T. Amherst, for an excellent photo- 
graphic copy of this deed, taken by his daughter. 

Sir E. Landseer has painted a romantic picture of the start from 
Bentley. The grouping of the "dramatis personse" from the 
elegant figure, in her riding habit, of Jane Lane, down to the 
kennel-boy coupling up his hounds, is poetically treated. Lady 
Warde— herself a Jane Lane — has been kind enough to present me 
with an admirable tinted photograph of this in an oak frame. 

A picture o£ Bentley Hall as it stood at this time is preserved in 

both Plot and Shaw, writers on county history, and 

Wulmore s Hist. ^ small portion of the original remains encased by 

the present building, which was erected, it is said, 

out of the royal grants allowed to the Lane family. So late as 

1735 Bentley Park was stocked with deer. 

The family bible, in which is the entry of the marriage between 

T r ,• Mistress Jane Lane and Sir Clement Fisher, came 

Information, ' 

Countess of into the Fisher family from the library of Robert 
^ ' Dudley, Earl of Leicester. It is bound in calf, 

with his arms on the sides, and the ragged staff introduced as an 
ornament on the sides and the back, with brass clasps and corners. 
My paper may seem to be discursive, but I trust this word may 
be used in the sense of working up to a point. I have endeavoured 
to depict both Jafie Lane and the King in the light in which they 
appeared at the time, and from all the information (obtained by 
considerable research) which I have been able to collect, I am sure 
that King Charles II., with all his faults, had the highest respect 
for Mistress Jane Lane. 



290 



J. E. Nightingale, F.S.A. 

^INCE the issue of the last number of the Magazine the 
Society has suffered a severe loss in the death, on February 
22nd, 1892, of James Edward Nightingale, F.S.A.,at the age of 75. 
A frequent and most valued contributor to the Magazine, and, with 
his sister, a most regular attendant at the Annual Meetings of the 
Society, he was recognised as an authority to be safely appealed to 
on all matters of architecture or art. But still, he was so retiring- 
by nature, and had such a horror of putting himself forward in any 
way, that — except with those who knew him well, or who were 
themselves interested in the subjects he had made his own — his 
wide and varied knowledge scarcely received the recoguition which 
it certainly deserved. In Wiltshire, perhaps, he will be chiefly 
remembered as the historian of the Church plate of the couuties of 
Wilts and Dorset, a work which he undertook at the instance of the 
present , Bishop of Salisbury, and on which he was continuously 
engaged for some five years before his death. The volume on the 
Dorset plate was issued in 1889 ; the larger and fuller account of 
the Wiltshire plate was not yet published at the time of his death — 
an early specimen copy which had been sent him during the last 
week of his life lying amongst the wreaths of flowers on his coffin 
in the room at Wilton in which he had worked for so many years. 
Perhaps with a feeling that his days were numbered — ■though his 
actual illness only lasted a week — he had been intensely anxious of 
late to complete this work without delay, and he did finish it, only 
a few weeks before his death. 

He had, however, none of the narrowness of the specialist about 
him, and before he devoted himself to the subject of Church plate 
he bad made deep researches into the history of the various manu- 
factures of English china, and had made himself a name as one of 



Jn Memoriam — J. R Nightingale, F,S.A, 291 

the greatest authorities on the subject by his " Contributions towards 
the History of Early English Porcelain from Contemporary Sources," 
and by the gradual accumulation of a collection of both Oriental 
and English china, which for the value and beauty of many of its 
specimens can scarcely pei'haps be matched out of the great national 
collections. His collecting zeal, however, suffered a blow from which 
perhaps it never quite recovered, in the destruction of a large number 
of his choicest specimens of English china at the burning of the 
Alexandra Palace, to which he had lent them for exhibition. 

He had also a wide knowledge of the topography and family 
history of the County of Wilts, as many papers of his in the 
Magazine testify. 

He was never an archcBologist strictly speaking — prehistoric 
antiquities did not appeal to him ; and even the works of classical 
civilization did not hold his interest as they do that of many. His 
strength lay in the fascinating field of Medieval and Renaissance 
art. Probably few men in England had a wider knowledge 
of that extensive field of art, which stretches from Byzantine 
and Romanesque times to the present, and which includes the 
architecture, the mosaics, the enamels, the art work in glass, metal, 
ivory, and wood, the ceramics, and the textile fabrics of Europe for 
more than a thousand years. He had, indeed, seen and studied all 
that is best worth seeing in the way of Mediaeval and Renaissance art 
in Europe,and his knowledge was proportionally compai'ative and wide. 

It was not, however, his knowledge, but his personal character, 
which endeared him to those who knew him best. Quiet, un- 
assuming, modest and reticent almost to a fault, singularly unselfish 
and generous, always ready to help others or to give to any good 
cause, he was one of those who win the respect of all who know 
them, and the love of those who know them well. Born at Wilton 
— settled for a lime in business with his brother at Devizes — living 
all his later life at Wilton with his sister (for he never married) — 
lying now in the little churchyard of Fugglestone, he is one whose 
memory Wiltshire may well keep green, as not the least notable 
amongst her worthies. 

E. H. G. 



292 



"^^'umouam* 



H. J. F. SWAYNE. 



t^Y the death of Henry James Fowle Swayne the Society has 
sustained another great loss. Born in 1818 of a family settled 
in M^ilton for many generations as lawyers, educated at Harrow and 
Balliol, his subsequent training as a barrister stood him in good 
stead as a county magistrate and Vice- Chairman of Quarter 
Sessions, in which capacities he did much useful public work. As 
a Member of our Society he was well known as one of the most 
regular attendants at its Annoaal Meetings, where his quaint humour 
and extensive knowledge of topographical and family history were 
always welcome. During his later j'^ears he worked hard at de- 
cyphering and arranging mediaeval documents. The municipal 
records of Salisbury, the early churchwardens' accounts of St. 
Edmund's, Salisbury, and many other things passed through his 
hands. Some portion of the churchwardens' accounts, indeed, he 
printed, but it is to be feared that, with the exception of these, and 
a few articles in this Magazine, and in the Journal of the British 
Archaological Association, and a number of communications printed 
in the Salisbury Journal from time to time, most of the great mass 
of information which he possessed has died with him, or was noted 
in such a form as to be of little value to anyone except himself. It 
is, indeed, greatly to be regretted that he did not print more ot the 
results of his work. His knowledge of architecture was considerable, 
and his memory for genealogical and historical details was singularly 
accurate and far-reaching. 

E. H. G. 



293 



Contributions Mnxh n Miltsljirc 6lo$sarg. 

By G. E. Daetnell and the Kev. E. H. Goddaed. 

{Continued from vol. xxvi., jp. 169.) 

9glflpN our preface to the Word-list which appeared in the last 
^1^ number of this Magazine, pp. 8i — 169, we mentioned that 
we should be very glad to receive any additions or suggestions from 
those interested in the subject. The result of this appeal has been 
very gratifying, not only with regard to the actual amount of new 
material obtained, but also as showing the wide-spread interest felt 
in a hitherto neglected branch of Wiltshire archaeology; and we 
gladly avail ourselves of the opportunity afforded us by the publi- 
cation of this further instalment of the Word-list to express our 
best thanks to all those who have so kindly responded. Of a few 
of these we must here make special mention. To Dr. Jennings we 
owe an extremely lengthy list of Malmesbury words, from which 
we have made numerous extracts. It is very noticeable, as showing 
the large proportion of Somersetshire words which appear to occur 
in that district, and will, moreover, be of special value, should we 
at any future time endeavour to deal with the vexed question of 
pronunciation. To Sir C. Hobhouse we are indebted for some 
interesting words, amongst which the survival of the Anglo-Saxon 
attercop, a spider, is well worth noting. Mr. Ponting's contribution 
must also be acknowledged, as having been of much use to us. But 
perhaps the roost interesting portion of the new material is the MS. 
North Wilts Vocabulary, believed to have been compiled about the 
middle of last century, which was kindly lent us by its present 
owner, Mr. W. Cunnington, and is here frequently referred to as 
Cunnington MS. This valuable relic was at one time in the pos- 
session of Mr. Britton, as is proved by the notes in his early 
handwriting on the outer leaves, and was evidently the source from 



294 Contributions towards a WiltsMre Glossary. 

which he drew some portion of his 1825 glossary, the very peculiar 
wording and spelling of some of the paragraphs having been trans- 
ferred direct to his pages. It must, however, have been in his 
hands at a much earlier date than 1825, and one or two of the notes 
appear to have been made at the time he was collecting materials 
for the 1814 volume on Wilts. Not only has it afforded us sevei'al 
hitherto uu-uoted words, which Mr. Britton himself had passed 
over, possibly because even in his own time they were already grown 
obsolete, but it has also enabled us to clear up several doubtful 
points, and especially to show how, by a very simple misreading of 
the MS., from the forgotten sprawny (sprimny) was evolved that 
mysterious "ghost-word" spr awing, which has so long misled our 
glossary- makers. The Vocabulary consists of ten quarto pages, two 
of which are covered with notes in pencil and ink, partly archaeo- 
logical or topographical, and partly relating to dialect words in 
Wilts and elsewhere. It is written in an extremely legible old 
hand, with a few additions and interlineations in a different hand, 
and contains about ninety words, a list of which is appended. 

A few Wiltshire books which we omitted to refer to in the 
last number may here be mentioned. Taking them in chronological 
order, the first of them is Wright's Dictionary of Obsolete and Pro- 
vincial English, 1859, which is mainly a condensation of HalliwelPs 
work, but has here afforded us a few additional Wiltshire words. 
Next in order comes the rarely-seen Song of Solomon in North Wilts 
Dialect, by Edward Kite, published for Prince Lucien Bonaparte 
about 1860, a work of the highest value as regards the preservation 
of local pronunciation and modes of expression, but containing very 
few words that are not ordinary English. In the same year appeared 
Content; or the Day Labourer's Tale of his Life, by Mrs. Penruddocke, 
about which we know nothing more than that it is said to contain 
some dialect. The notes to Canon Jackson's valuable reprint of 
Aubrey in 1862 will repay search, as here and there a curious local 
word or phrase may be found amongst them. The scene of Glory, 
a novel by Mrs. G. L. Banks, is laid in and about Marlborough, 
but from a dialect point of view it is of little real value. In Old 
Country and Farming Words, by Mr. James Britten^ 1880, a good 



By G. E. Bartnell and the liev. E. II. Goddard. 295 

deal of information as to our agricultural terms may be found, 
gathered together from the surveys and similar sources. Lastly, 
the Glossary of Hampshire IFords and Phrases, by the Rev. Sir W. 
H. Cope, is well worth collating with our Wiltshire glossaries, as 
it often throws light on doubtful points. 

From the very considerable amount of material thus brought to- 
gether, supplemented by our own more recent gleanings, we have 
selected as much as the limited space now at our disposal will permit 
us to use. In making this selection the preference has been given to 
whatever would serve to illustrate or amplify that portion of the list 
which has already been published, but it will be found that the present 
instalment contains in addition a large proportion of absolutely new 
matter. Words with which we are not personally acquainted are 
distinguished by an asterisk (*), as before, and the chief abbrevia- 
tions used are: — (A.) Akerman, (B.) Britton, (D.) Davis, (H.) 
Halliwell, (Wr.) Wright, and (N. & S.W.) North and South Wilts. 

We take this opportunity of acknowledging gratefully the assist- 
ance which we have throughout the compilation of this (Ford-list 
received from H. N. Goddard, Esq., of Clyffe Pypard, to whose 
wide knowledge and long experience of Wiltshire words and ways 
we owe many valuable suggestions. Our thanks are also due to 
Mr. W. Gale, gardener at Clyffe Pypard Vicarage, for the interest 
he has taken in verifying and reporting words. 

In conclusion, we would only repeat that any additions and 
corrections will at all times be very welcome, however brief they 
may be. The longest contributions are not necessarily those of most 
value, and it has more than once happened that words and phrases 
of the greatest interest have been contained in a list whose brevity 
was its only fault. 

A. Add : — This term for a harrow was still occasionally to be heard some 

thirty years ago. 
About. (1) adv. Extremely. Used to emphasize a statement, as " 'T'wer 

just about cold s'marnin." N. & S.W. 

(2) At one's ordinary work again, after an illness. " My missus were 

bad aal last wick wi' rheumatiz, but she be about agen now." N". & S.W. 
Adderwort. Polygonum Bistorta, L., Bistort. S.W. (Salisbury &c.) 



296 Coniriluiions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

*A-Drao'. A large heavy kind of drag, which soon went out of use. {Agric. 

of Wilts.) Obsolete. 

*Affal(ls. Add : — Perhaps from 0. E. aglets, catkins, etc. Aggies in Devon. 
All-a-lioh. Add: — Unevenly balanced, lop-sided. A.S. atooh. "That load 

o' earn be aal-a-hoh." 
*A-lXiask.ed. Add-. — "Leaving him more masked than he was before." 

—Fuller's Soly War, iii., 2. 
Anbye. adv. Some time hence, presently, at some future time. "I be 

main busy now, but I'll do't anbye." N.W. 

Aniffhst. Near. (A.) " Nobody's bin anighst us since you come." N. & S.W. 
Anneal. A thoroughly heated oven, just fit for the batch of bread to be put 

in, is said to be nealcled, i-e., annealed. S.W. 

Any more than. Add-.—v sua.]] j contracted into moor'n in N. Wilts. 

ApS. Add :— This is the oldest form of the word, being from A. S. ceps, and 
is in use throughout the South and West of England. In Sound About a 
Great Estate it is misprinted asp. 
ArS". To argue, with a very strong sense of contradiction implied. " Dwoan't 
'ee arg at I like that ! I tell 'ee I zeed 'un ! " See Down-arg. N.W. 
Astore. Add -. — if not an Irishism, this may perhaps be connected with 
astoor, very soon, Berks, or astore, Hants : — 

" The duck's [dusk] coming on ; I'll be off in astore." 

A Dream of the Isle of Wight. 

It might then mean either " this moment " or " for a moment." 
Athin. Within (A.B.) N. & S.W. 

Athout. Without ; outside (A.B.) N. & S.W, 

*AtterCOp. A spider, k.^.atter-coppa, N.W.(Monkton Farleigh), still in use. 
Bacon. To " strick bacon" to cut a mark on the ice in sliding, cf. to strike 

a candle. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard). 

*J5adffer. Add-. — "1620. Itm for stayeinge Badgers & keepinge a note of 

there names viijd." — F. H. Goldney, Records of Chippenham, p. 202. 
Bannis. -^dd -. — " Asperagus (qucedam piscis) a banstykyll." — Ortus Vocab. 

A. S. ban, bone, and stickel, prickle. 
Bargain. A small landed property or holding. "They have always been 

connected with that little bargain of land." N.W., still in use. 

Sir W. H. Cope, in his Hants Glossary, gives " Bargan, a small 

property ; a house and garden ; a small piece of land," as used in N. Hants. 
Bird's-nest. Add:—"'^)ie whole tuft is drawn together when the seed is 

ripe, resembling a bird's nest." — Gerarde. 



* 



By G. K Bartnell and' the Rev. E. E. Goddard. 297 

Bittish. adj. Somewhat. " 'Twer a bittish cold isterday." N. & S.W. 

Blind-house. A lock-up. " 1629. Item paied for makeing cleane the blind- 
house vijd." — Records of Chippenham, p. 204. 
Blind-man. Papaver Uhaas, L., etc., the Red Poppy, which is locally 
supposed to cause blindness, if looked at too long. S.W. (Hamptworth.) 

Blood-alley. A superior kind of alley or taw, veined with deep red, and 
much prized by boys. JN.W. 

Bloom. Add :— To throw out heat as a fire. 
*Bluen. pi. Blossoms. Also used in Devon. 

Blue-vinnied. Covered with blue mould. See Vinnej. Commoner in 

Dorset as applied to cheese, etc. ^- * »•>'. 

Blunt. Add :— Probably a form of Blunh, a fit of stormy weather, which is 

used in the East of England. 

Borky. (Baulky ?) Slightly intoxicated. S.W. 

Bossy, Bossy-calf. A young calf, whether male er female. N.W. 

Boys. The long-pistilled or "pin-eyed" flowers of the Primrose, Frimula 

"vulgaris, Huds. See Girls. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Break. Add :— Similarly used in Hants, as " I have a-torn my best decanter, 

have a-hrohe my fine cambrick aporn."— Cope's Hants Glossary. 

Brushes. Dipsacus sylvestris, L., Wild Teasel. N.W. 

*Buddle. To suffocate in mud. " There ! if he haven't a bin an' amwoaat 

buddled hisel' in thuck there ditch ! " Also used in Som. N.W. (Malmesb.) 

Budo-y. Add :— Compare YLsiUts, fudgy , irritable. 

Bur'. (2) ^c^<^ :— Also Burrow and Bury. "Why doesn't thee coom 

and zet doon here in the burrow ? " N.W. 

Burl. Add :— The original meaning was to finish off cloth by removing knots, 

loose threads, and other irregularities of surface. 
*Cack-handed. Add :— Compare Dev., cat-handed, Yorks., gawh-handed, 

and Nhamp., Jceck-handed, all from Fr. gauche. 

Caddlesome. Of weather, stormy, uncertain. " It be a main caddlesome 

time for the barley." S.W. 

Caddling. Add-—* (2) "A cadling fellow, a wrangler, a shifting, and 

sometimes an unmeaning character." {Cunnington MS.) 

Calves'-trins. Calves' stomachs, used in cheese-making. A.S. trendel. 

See TriuS. Halliwell and Wright give " Calf-trundle, the small entrails 

of a calf." N.W. 



298 Contributions towards a Wilts/tire Glossary. 

Casalty. J.dd: — (2) Of crops, uncertain, not to be depended on. Plums, 
for instance, are a "casalty crop," some years bearing nothing. 

Cawket. To squawk out, to make a noise like a hen when disturbed on her 
nest, etc. "Ther's our John, s'naw [dost know?] — alius a messin' a'terthe 
■wenchin, s'naw, — cawin' an' cawkettin' like a young rook, s'naw, — 'vore a 
can vly, s'naw,— boun' to coom down vlop he war ! " N.W. (Clyffe Pypard ; 

Seagry, etc.) 

Champ. To scold in a savage snarling fashion. "Now dwoan't 'ee gwo 
an' champ zo at I ! " Used formerly at Clyffe Pypard. N.W. 

Chan-cbider. See Johnny Chider. S.W. 

Charm. Add-. — (2) v. "To charm the bees," to follow a swarm of bees, 

beating a tea-tray, etc. N.W. (Marlborough.) 

Chink. li'rinffilla ccBlebs, the Cha&nch ; from its note. S.W. 

Chit. Omit the asterisk and add: — Used in N. Wilts, also in Devon, as in 

Herrick : — 

" Give for bread a little bit 
Of a pease that 'gins to chit." — The Beggar to Mah. 

Clavy. Add : — Strictly speaking, clavy is merely the beam which stretches 
across an old-fashioned fireplace, supporting the wall. Where there is a 
mantelpiece, or davy-tack, it comes just above the clavy. 

Cleat. * (2) and * (3) Add :— N. Wilts {Cunnington M.S.). 

* (4) Occasionally, to strengthen by bracing {Ibid). N.W. 

*Cloddy. Thick, plump (H. Wr.) 

Clot. Add :—" 1661. Itm p^ Eichard Sheppard & Old Taverner for beating 
clatts in Inglands, 00. 04. 08."— Eecords of Chi2]penham, p 226. N.W. 

*Clum. Add :— To handle roughly, boisterously, or indecently {Cunnington 
MS.). N.W. 

ClumS. pi- Hands. "I'll keep out o' thee clums, I warnd I will! " N.W. 
Clumps is used in a similar way, but usually of the feet, and always 
implies great awkwardness, as " W'hat be a treadin' on my gownd vor wi' 
they girt ugly clumps o' yourn ? " 

Cluttered, (l) " Caddled," over-burdened with work and worry. "'Clut- 
tered up ' means in a litter, surrounded with too many things to do at 
once." — Jefferies, Field and Medgeroto, p. 189. N.W. 

* (2) Brow-beaten. Said to have been used at Warminster formerly. 
*Clyten. As dytenish is an adj., the definition should read as follows : — 

* (1) n. An unhealthy appearance, particularly in children. {Cunnington 
MS. A.B.) N.W., obsolete. 



By G. E. Dmtnell anil the Rev. E. H. Goddarcl. 299 

*(2) w. An unhealthy child. {Cunnington MS.) N.W., obsolete. 

*Clytenish. adj. Unhealthy-looking, pale, sickly. {Ctmnington MS. 
A.B.H.Wr.) N.W., obsolete. 

*Cocking-poles. Poles used for carrying hay from the cock into the sum- 
mer-rick. N.W. 

Cocky-Warny. The game of leap-frog. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

*Cock-sqwoilin. Add-.— "1755. Paid expenses at the Angel at a meeting 
■when the By Law was made to prevent Throwing at Cocks. . 10 . 6. — 
Hecords of Chi-ppenham, p. 244. 

Combe. * (3) A narrow valley in the woodlands. This paragraph was 
misplaced in the December list. It should precede, not follow, Combe- 

bottom. 

Coniger, Conigre. This old word, originally meaning a rabbit-warren, 
occurs frequently in Wilts (as at Trowbridge and Frome) as the name of a 
meadow, piece of ground, etc. See Great Estate, note to ch. 9. 

Corruptions. Add-.— The crab-apple is usually Grab in N.Wilts. At 
Etchilhampton we find Flump for pump, and Moth for moss, while at 
Huish and elsewhere proud flesh is always Ploughed flesh. Pasmet, 
parsnip, and the universal Turmut, turnip, may be noted as illustrating a 
curious letter-change. Varley-grassey, gone green, is evidently from 
verdigris. In Great Estate, ch. 4, Jefferies traces Meejich (" a sort of a 
Jlfee;'«c/fc"= any thing very strange or unusual) back to menagerie. 

Cow-clap. A form of CoW-clat, q.v. N.W. 

Crazy Bets. Add:—*[2) Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, L., the Ox- 
eye Daisy. S.W. (Hamptworth.) 

Creeping Jenny. Linaria Cymhalaria, Mill., Ivy-leaved Toadflax. 

S.W. (Salisbury.) 

Crick crack. Add-. — " Crink-crank words are long words — verba se/iqui- 
pedalia— not properly understood. See Proceedings of Phil. Soc., v., 
143-8."— Cope's Hants Gloss. 

*Crippender. Crupper harness. S.W. (Bratton.) 

*Crow's-legS. Sdlla nutans, Sm., Wild Hyacinth. N.W. 

Cuckoo-gate. A swing-gate in a V-shaped enclosure. N. & S.W. 

Cuckoos. Anemone nemorosa, L., Wood Anemone. S.W. (Hamptworth.) 

D, D. not sounded after a liquid; examples: — Veel, field, Vine, to find, 
Dreshol, threshold. 

Dain. Add :— Generally applied to infectious effluvia, as "Now dwoan't 'ee 



300 Contributions towards a Wiltshire ■ Glossary. 

gwo too nigh thuck there chap ; heVe a had the smallpox, and the dain be 
in his clothes still." {Cunnington MS.) 
Daps. Add: — "Dap, a hop, a turn. The c?a/i« of any one would therefore 

be his habits, peculiarities, etc." — Jennings, Somerset Gloss. 

*Dar. n. " To be struck in a dar," to be astonished or confounded." — 

{Cunnington MS.) N.W., obsolete. 

Apparently from O.E. dare, to frighten birds. " Never hobby so dared 

a lark." — Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy. 

*Daver. To fade, fall down, droop, as flowers or leaves on a hot day. N.W. 

(Malmesbury.) 
Devil's-rinff. Add -. — " Devyls-gold-rynge, the colewort worme." — Hulvet. 
" Oak-egger and fox moths, which children call ' Devil's Gold Rings.' " 
— Kingsley, Chalk-stream. Studies. 
Digffled, Daggled. Covered over orhung thickly with anything. Compare 
Daglet. " Thick may-bush be aal diggled wi' berries." S.W.(Salisbury.) 
Also * Diggle as a verb. " They weeds be a coming up agen as 
fast as ever they can diggle." N.W. (Potterne.) 

Dog Cocks. Arum maculatum, L., Cuckoo-pint. Compare Dogs-dibble 
in N. Devon. N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

Doner. A man, animal, etc., "done for" and past hope. " Thuck old sow 
be a doner ; her'll be dead afore night." (N.W.) 

*Dooke. Add : — " Obsolete, having been superseded by do'ee. It was pro- 
nounced as a dissyllable." — Skeat. 
Douse. This word should be omitted, being mainly nautical. 
Down. To tire out, to exhaust. " That there 'oss's downed." N.W.(Wroughton.) 
Drieth. Add-. — "1633. The cryer .... to give warninge to the 
inhabitants to sett payles of water at their doores in the late tyme of drieth 
and heate." — Records of Chippenham, p. 206. 
Drock. (1) Add : — This is often made with a hpllow tree. 

* (2) Add: — " 1674. Item Paid Richard Serrell for a Stone to make a 

Drocke." — Records of Chippenham, p. 230. 

Dudman. A scarecrow. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Dumb-Ague. A kind of ague which is not accompanied by the usual shaking 

fits. " 'Tis what 'ee do caal the dumb-agey." N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

Dunch. (1) Add : — In Cunnington MS. said to be at that time the usual 

N. Wilts term for deaf. 
*EggS-eggS. Add: — Perhaps more directly derived from a perversion of 

Hedge-pegs, q.v. 



By G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. E. Goddard. 301 

Emmet, ^dd :— Also used lu S. Wilts. 

En. (1) Add as examples:— Wenchen, girls; Bluen, blossoms; 
Naas'n, nests (rarely heard, Nestises being the usual form) ; PlgS - 
SOUSen, pigs'-ears. "In North Wilts .... the formation of the 
Plural by affixing en to the Noun is almost universal, as house housen, etc." 
— Cunnington MS. 

(2) Add :— " Almost as universal too is the transformation of the Sub- 
stantive into an adjective by the same termination as .... a Leatheren 
Shoe, an elmeu Board, etc."— Cun7iinffton MS. 

j^cld :— (3) " The pronoun Possessive too is formed in the same way, as 
hisn hern Ourn theirn."— Cunnington MS. See PronOUnS. 

Even-ash. Ash-leaves with an equal number of leaflets, carried by children 
in the afternoon of 29th May. See ShitsaC. N.W. 

F. F for th. Examples -.—Fust, thirst ; afurst, athirst. An old characteristic 
of the Western and South Western groups of dialect. 

Fall about v. Of a woman, to be confined. " His wife bin an' fell about 
laas' night." N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

*Fardino-ale. Add-.— The old form is Farding-deal (Wr.). Compare 
Thurindale, etc. " 1620. Itm, to the same Thomas &' Nicholas Lea for 
theire helpe to laye the Acres into ffarendells."— i2ecorrfs of Chippenham, 
p. 202. " 1649. Twoe ffaithendels of grasse."— J6ic?, p. 217. 

FeSS. .4(?ci:— (2) Cocky, impudent, confident. Also used in Hants. S.W., oc- 
casionally. 

Fiddle-strings. The ribs of the Plantain leaf, when pulled out. See 

Oat-gut. N-^- 

Figged [tu'O syll). Spotted all over, as a pudding is with plums. S.W. 

A true-born Moomaker, describing his first night in " Lunnon," where he 

made the acquaintance of numerous members of the "Norfolk-Howard" 

family (Cimex lectularius), described his face as being " vigged aal auver 

wi' spots an' bumps afore marning." 
*Fitten. Add :—" He doth feed you with fittons, figments, and leasings."— 

Cynthia's Revels. 
Flake. Add :— (2) V. To make " flakes." Flaking is hurdle-work. N.W. 
Flewy. Add :— In Hants a horse of weakly constitution is said to hejlue or 

fluey. (Cope.) 
Flirk. Add :— Flirt is a S. Wilts form of the word. 

*Flitch. (1) Add :—" Eight flygge and mex^T—Faston Letters, iv., 412, 
_±dd :— * (2) " To be fiich or flitcli with anyone," to be familiar or 
VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXVII. ^ 



302 Contriiuiions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

intimate." — Cunnington MS. N.W., obsolete. 

*Forel. The actual cover of a book, not the material in which it is bound. 

This is the usual term in Som. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Foreright. Add ■. — (3) adj. Blunt, rude, candid. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 
Freglam. Add :— Compare Lane. Braughwham, cheese, eggs, clap-bread, 

and butter, all boiled together. 
Frith. (2) Add : — " 1605. Itm to James Smalwood for an Acre & halfe 

of hedginge frith out of Heywood .... Item for felling the same 

frith." — Records of Chippenham, p. 194. 
Froar. ^c/c^:— The usual form at "Wroughton,N.W., is Froren. A.S. 

gefroren. 
Frouten, To frighten. N.W. (Marlborough.) 

Fur. i>. The calcareous sediment in a kettle, etc. N. & S.W. 

Furlong (pronounced Vurlin). The strip of newly-ploughed land lying 

between two main furrows. N.W. (Lockeridge.) 

Fry. (2) Add:—"\7m. For 234 Lugg Hollow frying in Englands 

2.18. 6." — Records of Chippenham, p. 248. 
*Gabborn, Add •. — This term always denotes largeness without convenience 

or comfort. (Cunnington MS.) 
Galley-crow. Add references to (A.H.Wr.) 
*Gally. Add : — From O.E. gallow ;. A.S. agcelwan, to stupefy. 

" The wrathful skies 
Gallow the very wanderers of the dark." — Lear, iii., 2. 

"Gallered," astonished, frightened." (Cunnington MS.) "He gallered 
I amwost into vits." Still in use about Marlborough. N.W. 

Gam. For " derivations " read " derivatives." 

Gandi-goslings. Add-.— AUo see Dandy-goslings, Dandy- 
goshen, Goosey-ganders, Goslings, Grampba-Griddle- 

Goosey-Gander, and Granfer-goslings. Compare Gander- 
gosses in Gerarde, Appendix. 

Ghastly. "Agashlyditch" is one that is cut too wide. N.W.(Etcbilhampton.) 

Glgletting. adj. Fond of rough romping ; wanton. Used only of females. 

" Dwoan't ha' no truck wi' thuck there giglettin' wench o' his'n." N.W. 

(Malmesbury.) 
Gipsy. Carnation grass, Carex panicea, L., "because it turns so brown." 

N.W. (ClyfPe Pypard.) 



By G. E. Darinell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 803 

(jfirls. The short-pistilled or " thrum-eyed " blossoms of the Primrose, 

Primula vulgaris, L. See BoVS. N.W. (ClyfFe Pjpard.) 

CtIoX. This should be defined as a verb. It refers to the motion and 

gurgling of liquids in a barrel or vessel that is not quite full. " Fill the 

Barrel full John or else it will glox in Carriage." {Cunnington MS.) 

N.W., obsolete. 

In Hants gloxing is the noise made by falling, gurgling water. (Cope.) 

Grold-CUp (pronounced Gawl-cup). The various forms of Buttercup. N.W. 

(Malmesbury.) 

*Goosen-cliick. A gosling. (Wr.) *Goosen-chick's vather. 

A gander. (Wr.) Both these words would appear to belong to Som. and 
Dev. rather than Wilts. 

*Gotfer. Add :— Gatfbr is still in use about Malmesbury, 

Gravel-Path, The. The Milky Way. N.W. (Huish.) 

Grindstone Apple. Omit the reference to the Eulogy, as the apple there 
mentioned is probably the " Grindstone Pippin " of Wood Magic, not the 
crab. 

*Grupper. To give up (Wr.) There would appear to be some mistake here. 

Hack. (1) Add: — In Dorset hoeing is called AafH«5'. 

Add : — * (2) n. The shed in which newly-made bricks are set out to 
dry. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Halt- WO. This should have been defined as an order to a horse to go to the left. 

H allege, Harrige. The latter seems to be the original form of the word, 
and is still occasionally heard ; but for at least seventy years it has been 
more commonly pronounced as hallege, I and r having been interchanged. 
We have met with it at Clyffe Pypard, Bromham, Huish, and elsewhere in 
N. Wilts ; but, so far as we know, it is not used in S. Wilts. Havage=z 
disturbance, which the Rev. S. Baring-Gould heard once in Cornwall, and 
made use of in his fine West-Country romance, John Herring, ch. 39, is 
doubtless a variant of the same word. 

(1) Of persons, a crowd ; also, contemptuously, a rabble. " Be you a 
going down to zee what they be a doing at the Yeast ? " " No, / bean't a 
gwain amang such a hallege as that ! " N.W. 

(2) Of things, confusion, disorder. Were a load of top and lop, intended 
to be cut up for firewood, shot down clumsily in a yard gateway, it would 
be said, " What a hallege you've got there, blocking up the way ! " N.W. 

(3) Hence, it sometimes appears to mean rubbish, as when it is applied 
to the mess and litter of small broken twigs and chips left on the ground 
after a tree has been cut and carried. N.W. 

X 2 



804 Contriiutions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

(4) It is also occasionally used of a disturbance of some sort, as " What 

B hallege ! " what a row ! N.W. 

Healded. This must be struck out, being a mistake for Nealded. 

See Anneal. 

Hedge-peg. The fruit of the Sloe. N.W. (Marlborough.) 

Hldlock. dd as example : — "She kep' it in hidlock all this time." 
Hint, Add : — From A.S. hentan, to seize on, to secure. 
Hock-about. Add :— The usual form in S. Wilts is Hack-about. 
Ho for. * (1) To provide for. See Howed for. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 
(2) To desire, to long for. "I did hanker an' ho a'ter 'ee zo." N.W. 

(Malmesbury.) 
*Hollardy-day. The 3rd of May. Apparently a perversion of "Holy 

Eood Day." N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Honeysuckle. Add :— Applied to both Eed and White Clover, TrifoUum 

pratense and T. repens. N.W. (ClyfBe Pypard.) 

*Howe. n. "To be in a howe," to be in a state of anxiety about anything. 

{Cunnington MS.) See Ho for. N.W., obsolete. 

Hud. Add: — {4) A lump or clod of earth. N.W. 

Huddy, Oddy. Of soil, full of lumps and clods. N.W. 

■'^'Hudgy. Add :— Given in Cunnington MS. as N. Wilts. 
HullockA^. Add : — This is usually pronounced Hellucky, and is a contraction 

of " Here look ye ! " 
*Jitch, Jitchy. Such. This appears to be a Somerset word. N.W. (Mal- 
mesbury.) 
Johnny Cllider. .4 ^^c? :—So called "because it scolds so." Also Chan- 

cliider. 

K. K sometimes becomes t, as Meat, bleak; blunt, blunk. Conversely,^ 

becomes k, as sleek, sleet, 
Kid. Add:—{^) V. To form pods ; used of peas and beans. N. & S.W. 

King's-cushion. See Queeu's-cushion. 

Kissing-gate. A " Cuckoo-gate." N. & S.W. 

Lady's Finger. Add-.— (2) Arummaculattcm,L.,Cnckoo--pmt. N.W. 

(Clyffe Pypard.) 
Lewth. Add: — Usually restricted to the suu's warmth, but in Cu7i7iington 

MS. applied to a thin coat, which " has no lewth in it." 
Lide. Add-.^O.E. hlyda, A.S. klydmonath, the stormy month, from hlyd, 



By O. E. Dartnell and the Bev. E. H. Gaddard. 305 

noise, or Mud, boisterous, noisy. This has nothing to do with lide or lithe, 
mild, whence come the A.S. names for June and July. See N. ^ Q., 6th 
Feb., 1892. 

*Lipe. A pleat or fold in cloth. S.W. (Salisbury.) 

Locks-and-KeyS. Dielytra spectalilis,'DQ. The usual cottagers'-name 

for it throughout Somerset. S.W. {Som. bord.) 

Loggers. Lumps of dirt on a ploughboy's feet. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Loggered. A boy who is at plough all day often gets so logger ed, or weighed 

down with loggers, all the time, that he comes home at night quite ex- 

bausted. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Lollup. (1) To loll out. "Look at lie, wi' he's tongue a lolluping out o' 

he's mouth, vor aal the world like a dog !" N.W. 

(2) To loll about, to idle about. " What be a-lollupin' about like that 

vor?" N.W. 

Loppet. Add: — {2) To idle about, to slouch about. " A girt veller, alius 

a loppettin' about." N.W. 

Lug. Add : — Wright gives Log as a Wilts form. 

*Lumper. To move heavily, to stumble along. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Lumpy, Stout and strong. To say to anyone, " Why, ye be growed main 

lumpy ! " is to pay him a high compliment. N.W. 

■^Mander. To order about in a worrying dictatorial fashion. " Measter do 

m,ander I about so." S.W. 

Mandy (long a). Add:—*{2) Showy. {Cunnington MS.) N.W., obsolete. 
*Mealy. Mild and damp. " 'Twar an oncommon mealy marnin'." N.W. 

(Bratton.) 
Mid, Med. v. Might or may. N.W. 

*Midstay. The barn-floor between the mows. N.W. (Aldbourne.) 

Compare Middlestead, a threshing-floor : East of England ; also 

"The old and one-eyed cart-horse dun 
The middenstead went hobbling round. 
Blowing the light straw from the ground." 

— W. Morris, The Land East of the Sun. 

Milkmaids, Add :— S.W. (Hamptworth.) 

Mommick, Moinmet. A scarecrow, cf. Mumraock. N.W.(Malmesb.) 
*Mote, Maute, A morsel of anything, a very minute quantity. 
Mother-of-thousands. Add :— (2) Linaria Cymhalaria, Mill., Ivy- 
leaved Toadflax. S.W. (Salisbury.) 



306 Contributions iotoards a Ifiltshire Glossary. 

Mouch. Add :— Probably connected with O.F. mticer, muekier, Fr. musser, 

to hide, to lurk about. It always implies something done more or less by 

stealth. 
Much. V. To make much of, to pet. "Her do like mucking "=being 

petted. 
*Nevei'-the-near. To no purpose, uselessly. " 1 cwourted she ten year, 

but there, 'twer aal niver-tha-near." N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Nineter. A.dd :— Not perverted from anoint (as if it meant set apart to evil 

courses and an evil end), but from Fr. anoiente, anSanti, brought " to 

nothing, worthless. {Folk-JEti/mology, p. 9.) 
^Nurk. The worst pig of a litter. See Riunick. N.W. 

Nurly. Of soil, lying in lumps. N.W. (Bratton.) 

On. Add :— (7) Onlight, to alight. N.W. 

Once. Add:— {2) "I don't once (=:for one moment) think as you'll catch 

uu*" N. & S.W. 

*Over-get. To overtake, to catch up. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Overlook. To bewitch. Eare in Wilts, common in Bev. and Som. N.W. 

(Malmesbury.) 

Peart. Add :— (5) Lively. " She he as peart as a bird, that her be ! " N.W. 
Peck. (3) Add as example: — "Captain Middleton's boi-se ' pecked ' — it is 
presumed through putting its foot in a hole— and threw the rider." — Daily 
Telegraph, 11th April, 1892. 
Pinner. Add -. — " Next morn I missed three hens and an old cock, 
And off the hedge two pinners and a smock." 

— Gay, The Shejiherd's Week. 

*Pisll. Add : — In Co. Clare, Ireland, this is the order to a horse to stop. 
Pitch. Add :— (10)«. Of ground, to have an uneven surface. S^f .{Rants bord.) 
*Pit-hole. The grave. Used by children. A Som. word. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 
*Pixy. A kind of fairy. This is a Dev. and Som. word, but is said to be in 

use about Malmesbury. 
*Pog. (1) To thrust with the foot. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

(2) To set beans. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Prawch. To stalk, to swagger. "I see un come a prawchiu' along up the 

coort" N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 
*Prid.e. Add: — " PetromyzonhranchiaUs,!^ in the southern 

part of England is locally known as the Pride." — Seeley, Fresh-water 

Fishes of Europe, p. 427. 



By G. K Dartnell and the Rev. E. E. Goddard. 307 

Plough. Add :—" 1690. Paid William Winck worth for Worke downe with 
his Plough to the causway." — Records of Chipp&nham, p. 237. " 17*19. 
Paid for 41 days worke with a ploughe carrj'iug stones to the Causey." — 
Ibid, p. 239. 

*PlouoIiman. A waggoner or carter. "1690. Paid for beere for the 
plowmen and pitchers." — Records of Chippenham, p. 237. N.W., obsolete. 

Jrronouns. Add :— in the Pewsey Vale Ma is occasionally used for I, la 
such phrases as " I'll go we 'ee, shall ma ? " or " I don't stand so high as 
he, do ma? " 

About Malme.'^bury (and elsewhere in K. Wilts) the following forms may 

be noted :— Wither, other; Theasamy, these; Themmy, 

those ; Totherm or Tothermy, the other. 

1 hick and ThuCK require some explanation. Thuck always:= 
that, but is mainly a N. Wilts form, its place in S. Wilts being usually 
taken by Tllick. Thic or Thick ohen=this in N. Wilts, but 
far more frequently=^/ia^,— in fact, the latter may probably now be taken 
as its normal meaning, although it would appear to have been otherwise 
formerly. In Cunnington MS., for instance, it is stated that "The old 
terms thic and thoc almost constantly exclude the expressions This aud 
That," and similar statements are found in other authorities. In Thick 
here and Thick there the use of the adverb defines the meaning 
more precisely. As regards the neighbouring counties, it may be said that 
in Som. and Doi's. th\c\=. that ; while in N. Hants it never does so (see 
Cope's Glossary), always there meaning this. It should be noted that the 
th is usually sounded dth, much as in Anglo-Saxon. 

Pucker. Perplexity, dilemma. " I be in a main pucker 'bout what to do wi' 
they taters." If. & S.W. 

Pucksey. (l) A quagmire. "The roads wer aal in a pucksey," ».e., very 

muddy. " Out of the mucksey (=mixen) into the pucksey," from bad to 

worse. S.W. 

(2) Hence, a mess or muddle. " What a pucksey the house be in ! " 

i.e., a dirty untidy state. S.W. 

*Pug. To ear, plough, till. (Wr.) 

*PvVine-end. The whole gable-end of a house, which runs up to a sharp 
T^o'mt ov pwine. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

*Quamped, Quomped. Subdued, disappointed. See Quainp. N.W. 

(Malmesbury.) 

*Quanked. ^c?<f:— Probably from Cank, q.v. 

Queeu's-CUshioa. A seat for a little girl, made by two persons crossing 



308 Contributions toivards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

hands, and so carrying her hetween them. When a boy is so carried the 

term used is King's-CUsllion. N. & S.W. 

*Quile. A heap of hay ready for carrying. Pr. ciieiller. N.W. (Cherhill.) 
Quill. Add: — Probably connected with Hants quill-up, to gush up as a 

sfiring. It would therefore appear to mean current or tide. 
R. Add: — Transpositions frequently occur, as cruds, curds; cruddle, to 

curdle ; girn, to grin ; girt, great ; gird'l, a great deal ; him, to run. 
xvEck. (1) Add : — On Exmoor the wild deer always cross a wall or hedge at 

the same spot. The gap thus formed is called a " rack." See Red Deer, 

ch. iv. 
Rafty. Add :— Eusty is not from rust, but is probably connected with reezed, 

spoilt by over-keeping. (Rev. A. Smythe-Palmer.) 
*Randin. Riotous living. N.W. (Malmesbury). 

^Randy. (l) A noisy merry-making. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

(2) "On the randy," living in a riotous or immoral manner. N.W, 

Rank, Ronk. Audacious, "Hands off! Thee hist a bit too ronk ! " N.W. 
Ray-sieve. Add :— Also Rayen-sieve on Dors. bord. 
Reeve. To draw into wrinkles. N.W. (Malmesbury, ClyfEe, etc.) 

Reneeg. Add :— in Ireland a horse refusing a fence would be said to renage. 

See Whyte-Melville's Satanella, ch. i., p. 7. 
*Rllilie (pronounced Seen). A water-course. This is a Som. word. N.W. 

(Malmesbury.) 
*Rig. To climb up upon, or bestride anything, either in sport or wantonness. 

Also a Som. use of the word. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Rinnick. This should have been defined as "The smallest and worst pig of 

a litter." Sometimes abbreviated into Nurk. cf. North of England 

Mannach, a worthless fellow. 
Ropey. Add : — This is caused by a kind of second fermentation. 
RoUSrh Music. The same as Housset and SMmmenton. N. & S.W. 

Rowey. Rough. See Rowetty. 

*RowleSS-thIng. In the Dlarij of the Parliamentary' Committee at Pal- 
stone House, S. Wilts, 1616-7, this curious phrase frequently occurs, ap- 
parently meaning waste and unprofitable land. It is once applied to a 
living. Several forms of it are used, as Roivlass-tliing, Rowlist-thing, 
and Rowless-thing. We have been unable to trace the word elsewhere, so 
that it may possibly be of local origin. 

"George Hascall is become tenant for a Rowlass thing called Dawes- 
Frowd, laud of Lord Arundell aud estated out to Mrs Morley a recusant . 



By G. E. Barinell and the Rev, E. H. Goddard. 309 

. . . John Selwood and Richard Hickes tenants unto Sir Giles Mompesson 

for his farm at Deptford and his Rowless-thiug called Hurdles at Wiley." 

— Diary, etc. 

Rocket. Add :— No doubt originally this meant a woman's dress or cloak 

(^rochet), as in O.E., but it has long been transferred to the bonnet. In 

Devon rochet is still sometimes applied to female dress. 

Sauf. As if. " Looks sauf 'twur gwain to rain." N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

Scotch. A chink, a narrow opening. The spaces between the boards in a 

floor are scotches. N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 

Scraamb. " To scraamb a thing down " is to reach up to it and pull it down, 

in the manner described by Jefferies :— "Suppose a bunch of ripe nuts high 

up and almost out of reach ; by dint of pressing into the bushes, pulling at 

the bough, and straining on tiptoe, you may succeed in ' scraambing ' it 

down. ' Scraambing,' or " soraambed,' with a long accent on the aa. indicates 

the action of stretching and pulling downwards. Though somewhat similar 

in sound, it has no affinity with scramble : people scramble for things which 

have been thrown on the ground." {Village Miners.) It would not be 

used of such an action as scrambling about on rocks. N W. 

*Scrara, Skram. Awkward, stiff as if benumbed. N.W. (Malmeshury.) 

*Scricele. To creak or squeak. See Scruple. N.W. (Wroughton.) 

Scrump. Add:-{^) V. To crunch. A sibilated form of Crump. N.W- 

Scruple. To squeak or creak. " When the leather gets old-like, he sort o' 

dries up, an' then he do scruple — he do scricele. Sir ! " i.e., the saddle 

squeaks, cf. ScrOOp. N.W. (Wroughton.) 

Sewent. (l) Add -. — "A Piece of Cloth is said to be — shewent — when it is 

evenly wove and not Rowey — it is also applied in other cases to denote a 

thing Level and even." {Cunninffton MS.) 

j_Jd: — (2) "To Look Shewent, is to Look demure." (Cunnington 

MS.) N.W., obsolete. 

*Shackle. A twisted band of straw, hay, etc. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

*Shally-gallee. Add :^Counpa.re Spurgally, wretched, poor, Dor* ; and 

Shally-wully, a term of contempt in N. of Eng. 
Sliekel, Add : — The first e is long. An old labourer, on being asked how he 
used to sharpen his ancient reaping- sickle, said, "I did alius use to car' a 
grab [crab-apple] wi' me, an' draa my shekel droo un," the acid biting like 
aquafortis into the curiously sei-rated edge of the steel, and renewing it 
without injury. Farm-lads still sharpen their knives thus. See Great 
Estate, ch. 5. 
*SllilIl. Add : — " This word is rather of Glocestershire, but it is nevertheless 



310 Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary. 

in use on the North Border of Wilts." {Cunningfon MS.) 
Shog" off. Add : — This is given as N. Wilts in Cunnington MS. 

Slirub. To rub along somehow, to manage to live after some sort of a 
fashion. "I do shrub along middlin' well, when I bain't bad wi' the 
rheumatiz." N. & S.W., occasionally. 

*SilloW. Add :— " Syllaj a plouofh, was used at Bratton within the 
memory of persons still living. Svlla-foot, or Zilla-fut, was a 
guiding piece of wood alongside of the sliare." (Miss Waylen.) 

Skeer. (l) To skim lightly and quickly over a surface, barely touching it, 
as a ball does along ice. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

* (2) To mow summer-fed pastures lightly. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Skeei'-devil, Skir-devil. Cypselus afus, the Common Swift. N.W. 

(Malmesbury, etc.) 

Skiffley. Add -. — Perhaps from O.E. sTcyfte, to change. 
Slammock. Add :— N. Wilts. 

*Slickit. Add :— N.W. {Berks bord.) to both meanings. 
Slommakin. adj. Of females, untidy, slatternly. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 
Snap. A trap, as Mouse-snajp, Wont-snap. N. & S.W., occasionally. 

Snop. (1) Add -.—^.WiMs. 

*SnOwl. The head. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Snuff-rag. A pocket-handkerchief. N.W. (Lockeridge. etc.) 

*'Soce. Friends; addressed to the company generally, as " Well, soce, an' 
how be ye all to-day? " N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Very rarely heard in Wilts, but common in Dev. and Som. It is a con- 
traction of " Souls/' not oi Socii. In the old ghost-story in Jefferies' 
Goddard Memoir, the use of the word soas (there spelt source) by one 
of the characters is alluded to in such a way as to show that it was 
looked ou as a curious peculiarity of his. 
Sog. Soft boggy ground. N*W. (Malmesbury.) 

Soldiers'-buttons. Arctium Lappa, L., Burdock. S.W. (Hamptworth) 
*S0USe. " Pigs'-.sousen," pigs'-ears. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

*SpaVvl. A chip or splinter from a stone. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Spill. (1) The long straight stalk of a plant. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

* (2) " To run to spill," to run to seed. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

* (3) Hence, figuratively, to be unproductive. N.W. (Malmesbury, oc- 

casionally. 

*Sprawing. Add :— This word is given for Wilts by Britton, Akerman, 



By O. E. Dartnell and ihe Rev. E. H. Qoddard. 311 

Halliwell, Wright, and others, but should be treated as a " ghost- word," 
and struck out of our glossaries. In Cunnington MS. it is written as 
Sprawny, q.v., but Britton when transcribing from that source would 
appear to have misread it as Sprawing, probably not being himself acquainted 
with the word, while Akerman and others must simply have taken it 
blindly on his authority. 

*SpraWIiy. A sweetheart. {Cunnington MS.) Kioxvaoi Sjjrunny. See 
note on Sprawlllg. N.W., obsolete. 

" Whipped to some purpose will thy sprunny be." — Collins, Miscellanies y 
1762. 

*Squab. The " darling" of a litter. N.W. (Lockeridge.) 

Stack. "A stack of elms "=either one score or two score of " elms." N.W. 

(ClyfEe Pypard.) 

^Standing, Stannin. A stall or small booth at a fair. 

Starky. Add :— Shrivelled up. 

Starve. *' starved with cold," perished with cold. A.S. stearfan. 

Stean. Add-. — (2) " To stean a well," to line its sides with stone. S.W. 

*Stipe, Stelp. A dozen and a half of " elms." (H.Wr.) 

otoacn. Add : — In some counties .siJoac/i^poach, to trample into holes. 

Stobball-play. An old game, played with a withy-staff and a small ball, 
stuffed full of quills, said by Aubrey to be peculiar to North Wilts, 
North Gloucester, and the neighbourhood of Bath ; but probably a form 
of stool-ball. N.W., obsolete. 

*Stone-bruise. A kind of corn on the foot. 

(btop. A hole in the ground — not in a hedge-row, but a few yards away, or 
ou cultivated ground — where the doe rabbit has her young ; said to be from 
her "stopping" or covering it over when she leaves it. Also used in 
Hants. N.W., common. 

Stntch, Strickle. A piece of wood used for striking off the surplus gram 
from a corn measure. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

Succour. Add:— {2) v. To shelter. An old-fashioned bonnet is said to 
"succour" the ears. A cold wind cuts up cabbages, except where they 
are " succoured " by bushes or walls. 
Suiiy. To draw a deep and quick breath. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

^^oSy- Wood that is soaked with wet is said to be " suggy." See Sog. 

N.W. (Clyffe Pypard.) 
1 . Add : — After liquids d or t will often be added, as varmint, vermin ; 
sarment, sermon; steart, a steer; dillard, thiller. 



312 Contrilutions towards a Wilfs/iire Glossary. 

J?' and V sometimes become th, as thetches for fitches or vetches. 
Th will also occasionally become Ss, as lattermass, latter-math. Con- 
versely, ss becomes th, as moth, moss. 

*Tag. To tease, to torment. {Cwnnington MS.) N.W., obsolete. 

* Tawney, Ta'aney. The Bullfinch, Pyrrhula vulgaris. N.W. 

*Tliauf. Although. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

rhimbles. Campanula rotundifolia, L., the Harebell. S.W. (Hamptworth.) 

*TllUrindale. ^^o?:— From O.E. thriddendele, a third part. 

line. • (3) Add: — "To tine in a piece of waste ground is to enclose it 
with a fence of wood or q-uickset." {Cunnington MS.) N.W. 

* (5) Add : — lu Hants to give the ground two or three t'mings is to draw 
the harrow two or three times over the same place. (Cope's Glossary.) 

*Tining. Add -. — (2) A fence of wood, either brushwood, pale, or quickset. 
{Cunnington 31S.) N.W., obsolete. 

Ung-Tang. A small Church-bell. See Tang. N.W. 

Todge. Add :— N. Wilts. (Cunnington MS.) See StodgG. 

Toll. Add ■. — A. cow given to wandering, when she breaks out of bounds, 
generally " tolls " the rest of the herd after her. 

Tommy. Food in general. N.W. 

Touch, Coarse brown paper soaked in saltpetre and dried, used instead of 
matches for lighting a pipe in the open air, the spark to kindle it being 
struck with a knife and a flint. Commonly used up to a very recent 
date. N.W. (ClyfEe Pypard.) 

TrucklGS. Add : — Sheep's dung is "trottles" in Line, and " trestles " in 
Suss. 

*Twire. -Add ■. — Compare Prov. Germ, zwiren, to take a stolen glance at 
anything. " How he did twire an' twire at she, an' her wouldn't so much 
as gie 'un a look ! " In Cunnington MS. the word is said to have been in 
common use at that time in N. Wilts. 

" The wench .... twired and twinkled at him." — Fletcher, 

Women Pleased, 41. 

*Twi-ripe. Ripening unevenly. (D.) 

U. U is often sounded ow, as fowsty, fusty, dowst, dust, or cbafE. 

Uck, This very characteristic N. Wilts verb is used in many ways. Stable- 
litter is ucked about with a fork in cleaning out; weeds are ucked out 
of a gravel path with an old knife ; a cow ucks another with a thrust of 
her horn ; or a bit of cinder is ucked out of the eye with a bennet. See 
Great Estate, ch. \, where it is said that anything stirred with a pointed 



By G. E. Darinell and the Rev. E. B. Goddard. 313 

instrument is "ucked"; also Gamelceeper at Home, ch. 2. It is ap- 
parently not a perversion of hooh, and should be compared with htick, 
to push, lift, gore, Hants ; htick, a hard blow, Suss., and huck, to 
spread about manure (see Parish, Sussex Gloss.). It is perhaps a by-form 
of Prov. hike, to toss, throw, or strike. (Rev. A. Smythe-Palmer.) 

Unempt. Unent. To empty. N.W., invariably used. 

Unthaw. To thaw. (Wr.) N.&S.W. 

Upsides. " I'll be upsides wi' uu, dang 'un !" I'll be even with him, 
or a match for him. N.W. 

Veer weather. Chopping changeable weather. 

*Vell. The salted stomach of a young calf, used for making rennet. N.W. 

(Malmesbury.) 

Vinney. Add :— Also applied to cheese. The Cunnington MS. points 
out that it is only used of white or blue mould, never of black or rotten 
mould. A.S. fynig. 

Vrammards. (2) Add-. — Used of a load of hay or corn with a list to 
the off. 

*VuddleS. Add : — " Vuddels," N. Wilts {Cunnington MS.), now obsolete. 
In Hants to vuddle a child is to spoil it by injudicious petting. 

Waggon. Add :— Also see Aims, HoopSj Overlayer, Sharps, 
Spances, and Thill. 

Wart-wort. Add :— (2) Euplwrhia Peplus, L., Petty Spurge. N.W. 
* Wayside-bread. Add-. — A misunderstanding of A.S. weg-iroede, spread 

by the waj-. (Smythe-Palmer.) 
AVeffetj Wevet. A spider. S.W., occasionally. 

Weeth. (1) Add :-Used in N. Wilts. (Cunnington MS.) 
*Well-at-ease. in good health, hearty. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

*Wheeling. " It rains wheeling," i.e., hard or pouring. N.W. (Lockeridge.) 
*Who'say, HoOSay. An idle report. N.W, (Malmesbury.) 

Wosbird. Add : — Wright defines this as "a wasp," a mistake too amusing 

to be passed over ! 
1. Add -.—The following example of the "free infinitive" is given ia 
Cunnington MS. :— " There is also here a Peculiar mode of forming 
active verbs from Nouns, which are generally in use as apellations for 
professions— take an Example. Well Mary, how do you get on in Life? 
what do you and your family do now to get a Living in these times— Wy 
Zui- we do aal vind Zummut to do— Jan, ye know, he do Smithey [work as 
a smith] Jin the beggist wench do spinney the Little one do Lace makey— 



314 Contributions ioioards a fVillsIilre Glossary. 

I do Cliorey [go out as a Chore Woman] and the two Boj's do Bird keepey — 
that is One works as a smith — one spins one makes Lace one goes out as 
a Chore woman & two are Bird keepers which Latter term were more to the 
purpose if expressed Bird frightener or driver." — Cunnington MS. 

Yuckel. Add:— So called from its cry, Yuc, yuc. 

*Zaad.-paul (? Zaat-poll, soft-head). This term used to be commonly applied 
about Aldbourne to an utterly good-for-nothing fellow, but is gradually 
dying out now. 

*Zai'n. To heat for some time over the fire, without letting it come to the 
boil. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 

*Zammy. "Zammy tea," half-cold, insipid tea. N.W. (Hullavington.) 

Zam-Zodden. Long-heated over a slow fire, and so half spoilt. This and 
the last two words belong to Som. rather than Wilts. N.W. (Malmesbury.) 



The North Wilts Vocabulary here quoted as " Cunnington MS." contains the 
following words, those marked with a dagger (f) not being in the original 
compiler's hand: — f Arran, all a hoh, beet, brow, burrow, caddie, fclavey, 
cham, tclap to the door, chism, cleet, clum, clyten, clytenish, dain, fdesperd, 
t douse, dunch, dunch-dumplin, dar, flick or flitch, fgallered, gabborn, glox, 
glutch, fliiti to strike, hazon, harl, n. and v., hatch, heft, hike, twitch, 
howe, howed-for, hop a bouts, hudgey, kitch, kerfs, lear, lew, lewth, limp, 
limber, mandy, miff, mothery or muthery, most-in-deal, newst, nitch, tpb'G> 
to bend, f'Nan, quilt, rowney, rumple, to wrinkle, f ra,the, ruhhle, shewent, 
shim, fskillin, shog, sleazey, slox, sprack, sultedge, swingeing, fsprawny, 
tack, teft, fthick and thuck, tine, to kindle, tine, to fence, tining, f tun, 
t tag, todge, t twit, twire, f vuddels, vinny, unkerd or unkert, weeth, yat. 

A few other words, as acrass, chit, clout, hire, to hear, muxen, stowl, stole, 
won't, villi not, and numerals dree to zix, are added in pencil at a later date 

At the end of the MS. there is a long note on plurals, adjectives, and 
pronouns in ew, thic and thoc, and the free infinitive. 



315 



^blrition^ to ^u^am milr §^ikarg. 

The Museum. 

Presented bj- Mr. J. W. Bkooke : — Twenty-seven Wiltshire Tokens, Marl- 
borough, Ramsbury, &c. [This valuable gift should have been acknowledged 
before.] 

Presented by Mr. F. M. Willis : — Bradford-on-Avon Token. 

Presented by the Eev. E. H. Goddaed : — Two specimens of Sarsen showing 
Palm roots. 

Presented by the Rev. C. V. Goddaed :— Horn Cup engraved with scene of 
the attack by a lioness on the horses of the Exeter Mail at Winterslow Hut 
in 1816. 

Presented by Mrs. H. Cunnington : — Tinder Box. 

Presented by Mr. Boyce : — Ancient Padlock. 

Presented by Mr. J. H. Penruddocke: — Fossils from Seend. 

Presented by Mrs. Chalmebs : — Fossil from the Upper Green Sand. 

The Libeaet. 

Presented by Mr. W. W. Ravenhill -.—Photo Portrait of the late Rt. Hon. 

E. P. Bouverie. 
Presented by Miss Nightingale : — Original Document — Conveyance of the 

Manor of Stockton to Jno Topp, of London, by Lord Pembroke, dated 11th 

November, 27th Eliz. 
Presented by Miss Nightingale : — The Church Plate of the County of 

Wilts, by the late J. E Nightingale, F.S.A. 
Presented by The kvi^on-.— Corsham Court, 1891, wtYA Catalogue of the 

Pictures, Statues, Bronzes, ^'c, by Lord Methuen. 
Presented by The Authoe : — The Pedigree of the Family of Powell ; with 

Pedigrees of the Families of Baden and Thistlethwayte of Wilts, by 

Edgar Powell. 
Presented by the Maequis of Bath : — Biographical Catalogue of the 

Portraits at Longleat, 1881, by Lady Louisa Boyle. 
Presented by The Authoe : — Particulars relating to the Church, and 

Church Property and Furniture of Calstone, Wilts, tvith List of Insti- 
tutions, by the Rev. G. R. Hadow, 1888. 
Presented by The Authoe : — A Sketch Sistory of Marlborough in Neolithic 

Times, by F. J. Bennett, F.G.S., H.M. Geological Survey. 
Presented by Mr. W. H. Bell and the Rev. E. H. Goddaed :— Original 

Drawings of Church Plate of North Wilts, Vol. I., comprising the Deaneries 

of Cricklade and Malmesbury. 
Presented by The Authoe: — The Histoi'y of Ancient Malmeshury — a 

Lecture, by J. C. S. Jennings, F.R.C.S. 



316 Additions to Museum and Library. 

Pui'chased : — 

PalcBontographical Society Publications, Vols. xliv. and xlv. 
Itentalia et Cttstumalia of the Abbots of Glastonbury, 1235 — 1261 ; 
printed by the Somerset Record Society. 

Acquired by Exchange : — 

Proceedings Clifton Antiquarian Club, Vol. ii. 

Journal of Proceedings of Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol. 

i., No. 8.; Vol. ii. No. 1. 
Essex Naturalists' Journal, Vol. v., Nos. 7, 8, 9. 
United States Geological Survey, Parts i. and ii., 1888 ; Parts i. and ii., 

1889. 
Pulletin of the United States National Mttseum. 
Report of tlie Smithsonian Institute for 1889. 
Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains, published 

by the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology. 
Pulletin of the Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Journal of the British Archaological Association, Vol. xlvii., Parts 3 

and 4. 
Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of london, Part 4. 
Report of the Marlborough College Natural History Society. 
Hertfordshire Natural History Society Transactions, Vol. vi., Parts 4, 

5, 6, 7 ; Vol. vii., Part 1. 
Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Parts 16 and 17. 



16 DEC. 9 3 




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Purchased : — 
Palceontograph 
JRentalia et C 
printed by th 

Acquired by Excli 
Proceedings Ci 
Journal of Pn 
i., No. 8.; "^ 
JEssex Natural 
United States 

1889. 
Bulletin of th 
Report of tlie 
Catalogue of i 

by the U.S. 
Bulletin of tin 
Jotirnal of th 

and 4. 
Proceedings oj 
Peport of the 
SertfordsJiire 
^, Q, 7; Vol 
Proceedings oj 



The Annual Meeting for i8g2. 

In consequence of the Election, this will be unavoidably postponed 
to (probably) August 5i3rd, 24th, and 25th. The Meeting will 
be held, in conjunction with that of the Bristol and Gloucester- 
shire Archaeological Society, at Cirencester. The 23rd will 
be devoted to Cirencester itfeelf; the 24th to Fairford (with 
its fanaous windows), Cricklade, &c. ; the 25th to a series of 
interesting Churches in North Wilts — Somerford Keynes, 
Ashton Keynes, Minety, Oaksey, Kemble, &c., &c. 



Just Published. 

The Church Plate of the Cotinty of Wilts. 

By J. E. NIGHTINGALE, F.S.A. 

From Returns by J. E. Nightingale and the Rev. E. H. Goddaed, 
with Illustrations of 135 separate pieces. 
Royal 8vo. Cloth. 15«. 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 

The Church Plate of the County of Dorset. 

Cloth. 6*. 
Salisbury: Brown & Co. 



Jmt Published. 

Pedigrees of the Families of Powell of 

Suffolk, Thistlethwayte of Middle 
Winter slow, Wilts, Baden of Enford 
and New Sarum, Wilts, 

With extracts from Wills, Chancery Proceedings, Parish 
Registers, &c. 

Edited by EDGAR POWELL, 

To be had of the Editor, c\o Messrs. W. Clowes & Sojts, 
Duke Street, Stamford Street, London, S.E. 

Price £1 1*. 



Wiltshire— The Topographical Collections 
of John Aubrey, F.RS., 
^M. lb5q—70. 

CORRECTED AND ENLARGED 

BY THE REV. CANON J. E. JACKSON, M.A., F.S.A. 

In 4.to, Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 Plates. 
Price £2 1U«. 



SECOND EDITION OP 



The British a7id Roman Antiquities of 
the North Wiltshire Downs, 
BY THE REV. A. C. SMITH, M.A. 

One Volume, Atlas 4to, 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, 

Extra Cloth. Price £2 'Is. 

One copy offered to each Member of the Society, at £1 11». 6</., 

until December, 1892. 



Lately Published, by the Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History 
Society, One "Volume, 8vo, 504 pp., with map, Extra Cloth. 

The Flowering Plants of Wiltshire, 
BY THE REV. T. A. PRESTON, M.A. 

Price to the Public, 16*. ; but one copy offered to every Member 
of the Society at half-price. 



Lately Published, One Volume, 8vo., 613 pp.. Extra Cloth. 

The Birds of Wiltshire, 

BY THE REV. A. C. SMITH, M.A. 

Price reduced to 10«. ^d. 



H. r. BVI,!., I'AIKnX, OBTIIU. 



No. LXXVIII. NOVEMBER, 189^. 



Vol. XXVI. 



THE 



WILTSHIEE 

arrljOTliigifal ml Intarnl liGtiin] 
MAGAZINE, 

iSublisljrt unOcr t^ i0irctti0a 

OF THE 

SOCIETY FORMED IN THAT COUNTY, 
A.D. 1853. 



EDITED BY 

EEV. E. H. GODDAKD, Clj'ffe Vicarage, Wootton Bassctt. 




DEVIZES: 

Pkisted and sold fob the Society by Hubby & Peabson, 

(late H. F. Bull,) St. John Stkeet. 



Price 5s. 6d. — Members Gratis. 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

TA KE NOTICE, that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
Volumes of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., and xxiv. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. David Owen, 31, Long Street, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 " The Financial 
Secretary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

Back Numbers of the Magazine, price 5*. 6J. (except in the case of 
a few Numbers, the price of which is raised), may be obtained 
on application to Mr. D. Owen, 31, Long Street, Devizes. 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
taries : H. E. Medlicott, Esq., Sandfield, Potterne, Devizes ; 
and the Rev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Wootton Bassett. 

The Rev. A. C. Smith (Old Park, Devizes) will be much obliged to 
observers of birds in all parts of the county, to forward to 
him notices of rare occurrences, early arrivals of migrants, or 
any remarkable facts connected with birds, which may come 
under their notice. 

A resolution has been passed by the Committee of the Society, 
" that it is highly desirable that every encouragement should 
be given towards obtaining second copies of Wiltshire Parish 
Registers." 

A certain number of Wiltshire Prints, Engravings, &c. (duplicates 
from the Society's Library), for sale or exchange. For par- 
ticulars apply to the Librarian, W. H. Bell, Esq., Heend, 
Melksham. 

The Rev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Wootton Bassett, and 
Mr. G. E. Dartnell, 1 %, Castle Street, Salisburi/, will be much 
obliged by notices o£ any Wiltshire words or expressions not 
already noted in "Contributions towards a Wiltshire Glossary." 

Mr. E. J. Tatum, Salisbury, would be obliged if botanists in all 
parts of the county would kindly forward to him notes of any 
unusual or interesting botanical finds, accompanied by specimens 
for verification, in order that the flora of the county may be 
fully illustrated. 



WILTSHIRE 

IrrlitPDlngirul ml Intiiral listarn 
MAGAZINE. 



No. LXXVIII. NOVEMBER, Isg^^^^^r^oL. XXVI 



ContctttiS* 




PAGE 



A COMPAEISON OF TWO REMAUKABLE UeNS IN ^tor-»fBUEHEAD 

CoLLECTiOK AT Devizes : By W. Cunnington, F.G.S. •. — •••••-• ^^^ 
Entries in a Parish Register, Collingbourne Ducis: Translated 

and Annotated by Canon J. D. Hodgson •/••"•••••■-"••A";;'""; 097 

Notes on the Church Plate of Wilts : By the Rev. E. H. Goddard 327 
Excavations in Wansdtke, 1889-91 : By Lieut-General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A ^^ 

The Falstone Dat-Book : By J. Waylen •••• 

Wiltshire Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century : By ^^^ 

No^TEf orRoMlN RemIVns'at' BoxTBy'ihe Rev. E. H. Goddard ... 405 

Records of Finds not mentioned elsewhere 

Additions to Museum and Library 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 
Photo-print of Urns from Kingston Deveiill. Wilts, and 

Crendon, Bucks ^^^^ 

Anglo-Saxon Vessel, Wilton 317 

Chalice and Paten of the thirteenth centuiy, in Salisbury 

Cathedral 'i 

Chalice at Ebbesborae Wake ^'^° 

Chalice and Paten at Highworth f-f 

ChaUce at Lacock ••■•-• 

Map shewing the position of the Sections cut lu Wans- 

dyke with reference to Devizes, Wilts 'f^J> 

Facsimile of Lady Arundel's signature -^ 37U 

Photo-print of Roman Pavement and Bath discovered 

at Bos, 18S1 ^^l 

Roman Bath, Farleigh 

DEVIZES : 
Hurry & Pearson (late H. F. Bull), 4, St. John Street. 




(0 

:£ 
u 

3 

a 

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o 
o 

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Ul 

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u 

s 
o 
oc 
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THE 



WIL TSHIRE MAGA ZINE. 

"multoetjm manibus geande letatue onus," — Ovid. 



^ Campmon of ttoo tmaAaHe %ns m t^e 
^tour^ealr Callectiati at §rti^es» 

By W. CtTHNINOTON, F.G.S. 

I^HE most notable vessel in this fine collection is the urn from 
Long Crendon, o£ which an illustration is herewith given. 
The only record of it is a label, in Sir Richard Colt Hoare's own 
handwriting, " Found at Crendon, Co. Bucks," which, when the 
collection came into the possession of the Trustees of the Wilts 
Society, was rolled up and carefully passed through one of the loops. 
The Rev. F. E. Ogden, Yicar of Long Crendon, has kindly made 
enquiries in that neighbourhood respecting' it, but without obtaining 
any further information, and he doubts whether any reliableaccount 
of it will be forthcoming. The urn is unusually well made. It is 
symmetrical in form, and its general appearance is altogether so 
unlike any other British specimen, that some able antiquaries have 
hesitated to accept it as belonging to this country ; one of the highest 
authorities considering that it rather suggested the idea of an 
American-Indian type of vessel.' The difficulty has, however, we 
venture to think, been removed by a comparison lately made between 
it and an undoubted Ancient British vessel found by Sir Richard 
Colt Hoare in one of his earliest excavations at Kingston Deverill, 
in South Wilts. By the aid of the photo-print illustrations we may 
give a description which will show the peculiar relations of the two 
vessels, and we may safely conclude that the Crendon urn is, or at 
least may be, of Ancient British manufacture. The Crendon urn 
would at first sight appear to consist of two bulb-shaped vessels, one 

' In the recently-published report of the Canadian Institute, printed by order 
of the Legislative Assembly, Toronto, there is an engraving of a portion of a 
round-bottomed urn, which in general form is remarkably similar to our urn from 
Kingston Deverill. 
VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXVIII. Y 



318 A Comparison of two remarkable Urns in the 

fixed on the top of the other ; on closer examination^ however, it is 
seen that the upper portion was formed as a continuation of, and at 
the same time as, the lower part. This is proved by the fact that the 
vertical tool-marks which are a prominent feature on the exterior 
were wrought in parallel lines and carried continuously from top to 
bottom before the ornamental cord-like moulding was made ; this 
moulding was evidently formed by pushing out the clay from within, 
while the fingers, held on the outside, produced the smooth surface, 
as seen in the illustration. The ornamentation of the corded pattern was 
then wrought by impressing on the yet soft clay a twisted thong, 
apparently of skin or similar tissue, in a regular diagonal direction. 

The appendages attached to the edge of the vessel and to the 
upper part of the lower section are a striking peculiarity. They 
consist, in each case, of two loops and two triangular hooks — the 
hooks are placed at right angles to the loops, and the loops and hooks 
in the lower set are at right angles to those on the top edge. 

A very simple but very eff'ective ornament, consisting of a row of 
impressed aaarks, passes round each of the bulbous parts of the urn. 
They were apparently made by pressing a stick, cut at the end to an ob- 
kng square,on the surface of the clay whilst still moist. There are forty- 
one of these marks in the upper and forty-eight in the lower row. 

The urn does not appear to have been very perfectly burnt, some 
parts of it being of a light grey tint, but it is generally much 
blackened by smoke. 

We proceed further to note the unique vessel which was amongst 
Sir R. C. Hoare's earliest discoveries. It is from a barrow on a 
large tract of wild and uncultivated ground called Blackheath 
[Ancient Wilts, I., 45), in the parish of Kingston Deverill, in South 
Wilts, of which he says :— " We found an interment of burnt bones 
within a rude urn." To this he adds the following note : — " Some 
singularity occurred in the formation of this cist, and in the shape 
of the sepulchral urn, tchich was like a bowl. In the usual for- 
mation of cists a cavity was made in the chalk, in which the burnt 
bones were deposited, and over them the urn inverted ; but in this 
instance the cist was not excavated, but a projection or knob of solid 
chalk was left to receive the inverted urn, and the bones were placed 



Stourhead Collection at Devizes. 319 

round it." From this statement we see at once that this was not a 
sepulchral urn, properly so called. 

The general form is given by the illustration, and requires no 
further remark. 

On the overlapping edges of the vessel are two loops, pierced 
horizontally, one on each side, and at right angles to these are two 
angular hooks projecting a third of an inch. The use of the latter 
was, we may suggest, to facilitate the process of pouring out the 
contents of the vessel whilst hanging from the loops. 

It has no ornamentation on the surface, but is very smooth and 
unusually dense and heavy. The colour is reddish grey in patches 
but generally very dark, and much of the surface is black and shining 
as if saturated with grease and smoke. 

The dimensions are as follows : — The height is 4j inches. The 
greatest width, 5^ inch'es. The depth, 8f inches. The thickness 
at bottom, f inch. The average thickness of rim, \ inch. 

There can be little doubt that vessels of this kind were used for 
cooking or other domestic purposes. 

The general similarity between this and the Crendon urn is at 
once apparent — see illustration. No such round-bottomed vessel is 
to be found in the collection of the British Museum, and no such 
form is known to the Curators of the Ashmolean, York, Exeter, or 
Dorchester Museums. 

Since the above was written I have received a letter from Mr. 
David Boyle, Curator of the Canadian Museum, Toronto, in which 
he says : — " You remark that ancient round-bottomed vessels are 
rare in the old country; here they are almost the only type; that 
is in this latitude. We find them occasionally provided with loops 
' for suspension,' but as a rule there is nothing of the kind. Further 
south, in the 'Mound' country, vessels are found not only flat- 
bottomed, but sometimes having feet." 

[In Du Chaillu's Viking Age there are (vol. I., pp. 141 — 147) illustrations of 
several urns from Norway, Bornholm, &c., which bear some resemblance to those 
of the Stourhead collection. Fig. 217 has a double row of suspension loops like 
the Crendon urn, though its bottom is not round ; on the other hand, Fi"'. 243 
with four suspension loops, and apparently a round bottom, as well as Fio-s. 239 
and 231, seem somewhat of the type of that from Kingston Deverill. — Ed.] 

Y 2 



8£0 



€ntxm x\x u Ifiavislj ^ejistet, Collingfeourne 



\m^. 



Translated and Annotated by Canon J. D. Hodgson. 



Guil : Sherwin adscriptus f uit in Col- 
legium Etonense A° D°' 1680 annum 
agens undecimum sub Patrocinio Jo- 
hannis Rosewell Ludimagistri celeberri- 
mijfactus semicomminarius Magdalensis 
adjuvanteHenrico Fairfax S.T.P.Decano 
postea Norvicensi A° 1683. ex illo 
Collegio per vim ejectus, rebus in Papis- 
mum vergentibus, 16° die Jan : A° 
168^. Inter soeios Mertonenses unanimi 
consensu cooptatus 14°die Junij A° 1688. 
Atque hujus Ecclesi.-e institutus Rector 
die 2°Augusti A° 1700. Prebendarius 
de Seaforth in Ecclesia Cicestrensi A° 
1703. Matrimonium contraxit cum 
Katharina Hand Filia Thomse Hand 
Armigeri e civitate Cestrensi 16° Aprilis 
A° 1704. 



William Sherwin,' admitted as a Col- 
leger of Eton, A.D. 1680, in his eleventh 
year, under that famous Master, John 
Rosewell,'- became a Demy of Magdalen 
by the aid of Henry Fairfax, D.D., 
(afterwards Dean of Norwich,) in 1683 ; 
forcibly expelled from that College when 
Popery was in the ascendant, 16th Jan., 
168| ;' elected unanimously a Fellow of 
Merton, 14th June, 1688 ; instituted 
Rector of this Church, 2nd August, 
1700 ; Prebendary of Seaforth, in the 
Cathedral of Chichester, 1703 : — mar- 
ried Katharine, daughter of Thomas 
Hand, of the City of Chester, Esquire, 
16th April, 1704. 



* W. Sherwin, who made these entries in the register book of baptisms, 
marriages, and burials, Collingbourne Ducis, was Rector of that parish from 
1700 to 1735, having been Fellow and Tutor of Merton College, Oxford, after 
being ejected from Magdalen. He held a Residentiary Canonry of Chichester 
Cathedral from 1717, and resided there for the last fifteen years of his life. The 
entries are in unusually good scholarlj' Latin. 

2 J. Rosewell, Head Master of Eton, 1672 to 1680. He left the college a 
legacy of £300, and gave books which were the origin of the school library. 

' King James II. sent a mandate to the Fellows of Magdalen to elect one 
Farmer, a new convert, as their Prssident. The Fellows applied for recall of the 
mandate, and proceeded to elect Dr. Hough. A commission was sent down, and 
the President and Fellows cited before it. Farmer was found to be disqualified 
by the college statutes, and of bad character ; but a new mandate was issued in 
favour of Dr. Parker, lately made Bishop of Oxford. The College remonstrating, 
and refusing to deprive the President they had elected, he and all the Fellows, 
except two who complied, were summarily ejected, and Parker put in possession 
of the office. 



Entries in a Parish Register, CoUinghonrne Ducts. 321 



Robertus Woodward L.L. Professor, 
Reef, de Pewsey, Decanus Sarisburi- 
ensis, et cleri Prolocutor, contagiosa 
febre occupatus obijt Londini circa in- 
itium veris A° 1702. De quo notaudum 
est quod nullis literis aut modica dun- 
taxat juris civilis scientia non minima 
dignitatis sedem adeptus est. Sed dum 
iugratus erga Patronos suos irrequieta 
ambitione ad altiora tendebat medio in 
cursu concidit ac defecit, contra omnium 
opinionem pauper et obsratus. 



Henricus Jacob Vicarius de CoUing- 
born Kingston grass»nte per has villas 
febre correptus e vita escessit Die Martis 
16° A° I7O3. In sacra muneris sui 
functione diligerttissimus, ad omnes 
animorum motus in populo excitandos 
concionator egregius, gravis sine arro- 
gantia, et vita non minus quam lingua 
pudoris & sanctimonise suasor & hortator 
fuit. Quo amico amisso, ciim consue- 
tudine jucunda tum multorum offici- 
orum conjunctione & me privatum video, 
& intei'itu talis Theologi dignitatem 
nostri ordinis diminutam doleo. 

(Henrici Scudder e filia nepos). 
Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit 
Nulli flebilior quam mihi.'' 



Robert Woodward, LL.D.,' Rector of 
Pewsey, Dean of Salisbury, and Pro- 
locutor of Convocation, died in London 
of a contagious fever about the beginning 
of Spring, 1702. It is worthy of remark 
that with no literary attainment, and 
not even a slight acquaintance with civil 
law, he obtained a position of consider- 
able dignity. In a spirit of ingratitude 
towards his patrons, and of restless am- 
bition, he was aspiring to higher ad- 
vancement, when he was cut short in the 
midst of his career, to the surprise of all 
poor and involved in debt, 

Henry Jacob," Vicar of Collingboume 
Kingston, died of a fever that was pre- 
valent in these villages on the 16th of 
March, 170|. He was most assiduous 
in the discharge of his sacred office, 
skilled as a preacher in awakening all 
good emotions,dignified without assump- 
tion, and one who by his life as well as 
by his voice allured to meekness and 
holiness. Ey the loss of such a friend 
I find myself bereft of pleasant inter- 
course and association in many duties, 
and mourn the injury which our Order 
has sustained by the deatb of so good a 
Divine. 

(Maternal grandson of Henry Scud- 
der.)3 

Bewept by many a good man, and by 
me. 



Johannes Torbuck A.M. Socius olim John Torbuck Itf.A. formerly Fellow 

Joannensis Oson : jam Rector de Lud- of S. John's College Oxford, then Rector 

gershall animam .suam profudit 14° die of Ludgershall, threw away his life on 

AprilisA° 1707. Hominem ingeniosum, the 14th of April 1707. A man of 

animum facetum & dulcem, et Poetam talent, pleasant wit, and no mean poet , 



' Dr. Woodward became Archdeacon of Wilts in 1681, and Chancellor of the 

I Diocese in 1686. He held the Rectory of Pewsey, 1685 to 1702. 
* H. Jacob, Vicar of Collingboume Kingston 1676 to 1703. 
* Henry Scudder, Rector of Collingboume Ducis 1633 to 1660, was a- membei 
pf one of the Committees under the Commonwealth. 
* Horace, Odes, I. 24, 10 seq. 
I 



S22 Entries in a Parish Register, CoUinghourne Bucis. 



non contemnendum calamitates domes- 
ticiB afflixerunt. 

Hand facilee mergit, cujus virtutibus 
obstant 

Ees angusta domi & turpes cum coa- 
juge natffi.i 

Magister Edmundus Sparke Canta- 
brigiensis, Eector Tedworthise Australia 
mortem cum vita commutavit podagras 
doloribus cruciatus, Maij: die5° A° 1703. 

Ille bonus sane vicinus, amabilis 
hospes, 

Comis in uxorem, servis qui ignoscere 
possit.^ 

Atque ob eruditionem et mores com- 
modes majore fuisset laude digaus si 
Socinianorum dogmata miuus acriter 
tenuisset. 

Johannes Hersent, Novi Collegii 
Socius, Academise Procurator, & D°° 
Lockhart ad Galium legato olim a sacris 
Vir probus & doctus, rectoratu Pewsi- 
ensi vix tres annos antea fungebatur 
quam podagra gravissime afflictus desi- 
derari csepit 21 Decembris A° 1705. 

Henricus Russell, Henrici Scudder e 
filia nepoB, patri suo in rectoratu de Pen- 
ton in agro Hantoniensi successit : ubi 
postquam aliquot annos Verbum divi- 
iium praedicasset Pastor fidus & labori- 
osus extremum diem morte confecit, 
animo magis quam morbo fractus, 
atque ipsius rogatu apud AdytumTempli 
nostri sepultus est 14° die Novembris 
A° 1706. 



but broken down by his family troubles. 

Who can excel, of scanty means pos- 
sest, 

By worthless wife and daughters vile 
opprest P 

Mr. Edmund Spark, of Cambridge, 
Rector of South Tedworth, died racked 
with gout, on the 5th of May, 1703. 

To wife and neighbours courteous,kind ; 
To faults of those who served him blind. 



For his learning and agreeable man- 
ners he would have been deserving of 
more regard if his Socinian tenets had 
been maintained with less acrimony. 

John- Hersent, Fellow of New College, 
Proctor of the University, and formerly 
Chaplain to Lord Lockhai-t, Ambassador 
to the King of France,' an upright and 
learned man, had held the rectory of 
Pewsey scarcely three years befcre he 
fell a victim to gout, and his loss was- 
regretted, 21 December, 1705. 

Henry Russell, maternal grandson of 
Henry Scudder, succeeded his father as- 
Rector of Penton, in Hants. Having 
for some years ministered the Word of 
God as a faithful and energetic Pastor 
he died broken in mind more than in 
body, and by his own request was buried 
in the chancel of our Church on the 14th 
of November, 1706. 



* Juvenal, Satires III., 164 seq. : — 

Hand facile emergunt quorum virtutibus obstat 

Res angusta domi. 
' Horace, Epistles II., 132 seq : — 

Bonus sane vicinus, amabilis hospes, 

Comis in uxorem, posset qui ignoscere servis. 
' Lockhart was Ambassador in France under the Commonwealth, Governor of 
Dunkirk at the Restoration, and again Ambassador in the reign of Charles II. 



Translated und Annotated hy Canun J. D. Hodgson. 323 



lf07. Die Sextilis 19° Sepelitur 
Guilielmus Batt eo ipso die quo probria 
omnibus maledictisque palam insectatus 
est Eectorem hujusce ecclesiaj funus 
Thoma; Webb facientem anno superiori. 

Magister West Eect'. de Boscomb, 
propter prajdes suos & ses alienum ita 
difSsus est & desperavit rebus suis ut 
miserarum remedium morte ac sua- 
peudio inhonestissimo quaereret 23° die 
Decembris, A° 1707. 

MartinusHinton, A.M., pupillus olim 
meus in collegio Mertonensi, cum al- 
terius vice animorum curam Tedworthise 
Borealis tres quatuorve annos lauda- 
biliter egisset, ingravescente tandem 
variolarum morbo diem suum obijt la- 
borans ex ajre alieno Feb xi° ITOg. 

Eobertns Peirce, LL.B. Rector Ted- 
wortbite Septentrionalis in agris nostris 
equo suo delapsus mortem immaturam 
obijt Kal : Decembres 1707. Vir erat 
omni laude cumulatus, politioris hu- 
manitatis speciatim rei medicae & lin- 
guarum scientissimus ; et cum tequales 
Suos moribus suavissimis pauperesque 
sibi Hberalitate baud vulgari devinxerit, 
omnibus per totam banc viciniam tris- 
tissimum sui desiderium non immerito 
reliquit. 
Eppei TO. Ka\d- Ueipcnos 8' airiaa-vTai.^ 



1707. On the 19th of August was 
buried William Batt, being the very 
day on which he had publicly attacked 
the Rector with all manner of abuse 
and cur-ses when engaged in the burial 
of Thomas Webb the year before. 

Mr. West, Rector of Boscomb, over- 
come with despair on account of his 
debts and difficulties, sought refuge 
from his woes in a disgraceful death, 
and hung himself on the 23rd of De- 
cember, 1707. 

Martin Hinton, M.A., formerly my 
pupil at Merton College, for three or 
four years an estimable Curate-in-charge 
of North Tedworth, fell sick of small 
pox and died in debt 11th February, 
1701. 



Robert Peirce,^ LLJB., Rector of 
North Tedworth, met with a premature 
death by falling from his horse in our 
parish on the 1st of December, 1707. 
A man universally esteemed, of much 
erudition especially in medical science 
and languages, and one whose sweetness 
of disposition attached to him his equals 
and his rare liberality the poor. Through- 
out this neighbourhood he has deservedly 
left the saddest regret for his loss. 

■ Woe worth the day 

When the good Peirce was called away.^ 



• R. Peirce was son of Thomas Peirce, Dean of Salisbury 1675 to 1691, whose- 
epitaph in North Tedworth Church is given in Canon Jones' " Fasti Ecclesije 
Sarisberiensis," page 323. 

- Taken from the despatch of Hippocrates, the Peloponnesian general, after 
the battle of Cyzicus, which was intercepted by the Athenians and copied by 
Xenophon, eppti ra koXo- MivSapos aTTfcrcrova- Trfiva>VTt roivSpes- aiiopiibpes a 
Ti xp^ dpav. (All is lost : Mindarus has fallen : the men are famished : — we- 
are in a strait.) It has been remarked how neai-ly this runs in Hipponacteart 
iambics ; and Sherwin has tried to construct from it an ordinary iambic vei-se. 
See Thirlwall's Greece, vol. IV., page 88; and Xen. Ilell. I., i. 23. 



324 Entries in a Parish Register, Collingbourne Duels. 



Garolus Gifford A.M. ex Aula Magd : 
Oxon Kect'. de Russhall in his regioni- 
bus, postquam corpus per aliquot annos 
macie extabuerat, animam Deo reddidit 
15° die Sept"'. An° 1708. 

Susanam Gifford per mortem dicti 
Caroli jam viduam & panperem nomi- 
natione mea Maij 19° 1709 cooptavi in 
collegium Matronarum quod ex muni- 
ficentia praenobilis Ducissse Somerset- 
ensis fundatum fuit apud Froxfiield in 
agro Wiltonensi. 

EobertusReekes, Rector 'de Manning- 
ford Abbatis, febre correptus de vita 
decessit 12° die Octobris A° Dni 1708. 
Vir acerrirao ingenio, sale conditus & 
facetiis, qui tamen in Verbo divino 
enucleando multum operis & laboiis 
feliciter consumpsit. 

Magister Crofts, Rector de Clatford 
Australi, juxta Andover, in agro Han- 
toniensi, obijt Feb. 22° 170^ ; de ecclesia 
bene meritus utpote qui Decimas quas 
priorum temporum iniquitas alienaverat 
legum ope at sumptu non exiguo sibi & 
successoribus suis vindicavit. 

Magister Smith, Vicarius de Clatford 
Boreali &c., annum agens octogessimum 
animam placide expiravit Maij die nono 
1709. 

Magister Haskins, Rector de Chelter- 
ton, qui, quoad viridis iBtas, felicem 
pueris instituendis navasset operam, 
in summa tranquillitate annum nonum 
et septuagessimum excessit, animique 
maturus mortem occubuit die neno 
Auausti A° 1709. 



Charles GifEord, M.A., of Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, Rector of Russhall in 
these parts, after a wasting sickness of 
several years, gave up his life on the 
15th September, 1708. 

His Widow, Susan Gifford, being in 
poverty, was admitted on my nomina- 
tion 19th May, 1709, into the College 
of Matrons founded by the munificence 
of the Most Noble the Duchess of 
Somerset at Froxfield, in the County of 

wnts. 

Robert Reekes, Rector of Manning- 
ford Abbots, died of a fever 12th Octo- 
ber, 1708. A man of keenest intellect, 
.seasoned with wit and humour, who 
nevertheless devoted much pains and 
labour to the successful interpretation 
of the Word of God. 

Mr. Crofts, Rector of South Clatford, 
near Andover, in the countj' of Hants, 
died on tho 22nd of February, 170^. He 
deserved well of the Church since the 
Tithes which had been alienated by the 
guilt of a former generation were by 
him recovered for himself and his suc- 
cessors by legal aid at no small cost. 

Mr. Smith, Vicar of North Clatfoi-d, 
expired calmly in his eightieth year 9th 
May, 1709. 



Mr. Haskins, Rector of Cholderton, 
during the prime of his life a successful 
educator of boys, outlived his 79th year 
in the enjoyment of complete tran- 
quillity and in full possession of his 
faculties. He died 9 August, 1709. 



1709. Johannes Richmondus Webb 1709. John Richmond Webb,* of 



* General Webb, in the action of Wynendale, 1708, commanding six thousand 
of the allied troops, defeated the French General. Count Le la Motte, with twenty- 
two thousand men, who bad marched from Ghent to intercept a convoy from 



Translated and Annotated hy Canon J. B. Hodgson. 325 



de Bigsden in pugna apud Hannoniam 
Kal : Septembres grave aocessit vulnus, 
quo si exanimatus esset tanf.i non f uerat 
magnas hostium copias fudisse. Idem 
anno superiori pulchram ac spectabilem 
de Gallis victoriam reportavit justa cas- 
tellum de Winendale. Peritus belli, 
fortis manu, facie eximia, animoque 
maximo. Dews incolumem servet opti- 
mum Imperatorem firmamentum Rei- 
pub : nostrte, suorumque omnium orna- 
mentum atque arcem. 

Circa finem anni 1709 Mag. Stone 
Kect^ de Abbots- Ann decessit Septua- 
genarius ; cui snccessit Jo : Lambert 
A.M. oi^tus ex generosa stirpe apud 
Boyton in Comitatu Wiltonensi, pupil- 
lus olim meus in collegio Mertonensi. 
Die ultimo Januarij 171^dictus Johan- 
nes Lambert obijt podagra correptus. 

Eheu ! quam tristes nuncij ! Vir Ule 
magnus, fautor studiorum meorum 
[three following lines erased^. 

1714. Martha uxor Johannis Smith 
de Oxen wood Arm'' Abijt non obijt 
Marti] die 19°, Matrona commemorabili 
pietate ac virtute praedita. 

1717. January 23°. Ego Guil : Sh : 
SufEragantibus pro me Decano &Capitulo 
rite electus & admissus fui reclamante 
Aula Canonicus Cicestrensis. Deus 
faxit ut felix faustumque siet Ecclesiae 



Bigsden, was severely wounded in a 
battle in Hainault on the Ist of Septem- 
ber. Had he died of his wound the rout 
of large forces would not have been 
worth the sacrifice. In the previous 
year he won a signal victory over the 
French near the fortress of Winendale. 
Well skilled in warfai-e, brave in action, 
of noble countenance and highest 
courage. May God preserve so ex- 
cellent a General, a mainstay of our 
Realm, an ornament and tower of 
strength to all his friends. 

About the end of the year 1709 Mr. 
Stone, Rector of Abbots-Ann died aged 
seventy, and was succeeded by John 
Lambert, M.A., of good family, from 
Boyton, in the County of Wilts, a pupil 
of mine formerly at Mertou College. 
J. Lambert died of gout on the last day 
of January, 17 1|. 

Alas ! what sad news ! That great 
man who gave encouragement to my 
studies . . . [ Under year 1709 : 
may. refer to Dean Fairfax^ 

1714. Martha, wife of John Smith, 
of Oxenwood, Esq., departed rather than 
died on the 19th day of March ; a lady 
endued with admirable piety and virtue. 

1717, January 23rd. I William 
Sherwin, was duly elected by the votes 
of the Dean and Chapter, and admitted 
CauoQ of Chichester, under protest of 
the Court.' God grant it may be for 



Ostend. It is described by Smollett as " the most honourable exploit during the 
■whole war, for if the convoy had been taken the siege of Lille must have been 
raised." He received the thanks of the House of Commons, and from the King 
of Prussia the noble order of " Generosity." He was wounded at the battle of 
Malplaquet in 1709. In 1713 he was appointed Governor of the Isle of Wight. 
* When Edmund Gibson, Canon of Chichester (afterwaixls Bishop of London), 
was made Bishop of Lincoln in the year 1717, the Crown claimed to present Dr. 
Gray not only to the Precentorship and Prebendal Stall of Oving, held by Gibson, 
but also to the offices of Canon Residentiary and Guardian of S. Mary's Hospital. 
The Dean and Chapter resisted the two latter nominations, and filled up each 



826 Entries in a Parish Register, CoUinglourne Bucia. 

miM meisque. the good of the Church, and a blessing 

to me and mine. 

From Lady-Day to the Midsummer following I kept my residence at Chichester, 
and y"^ Cure was supplyed by the Rev. Mr. Gwinu, who resided here. 

In y* beginning of Nov'., 1719, having resided constantly here for almost 
twenty years, I remov'd with my family to my residence at Chichester with the 
Bishop of Sarum's approbation, who appointed Mr. Joseph Gilbert to be my 
Curate. W.S.' 

In 1703, under Burials : — Memdum y* y* five last register'd died of a feavour 
which was very fatall in y° & y' upper parish, & more especially to such who 
were lett blood in y'' time of y'' sicknesse. Fifteen dyed in CoUingbourn Kingston 
within ten weekes ; y' distemper probably caus'd by y' late mild winter. Eob* 
Marshman of y° same distemper June y° 6th, being y* same day y° Bp preach'd 
& confirm 'd. By experience it was found y* a common medicine called Decoctum 
Sacrum was of excellent use, few dying of y° feavour who made use of y' remedy. 

1703. Memdum y* on Saturday y* 27"" day of Nov^ about 2 o'clock in y" 
morning there arose a terrible Hurricane w"^*" did unspeakable damage all over 
England, but few places suffer'd more y° y* Parsonage here. For there was one 
long barn blown down, all y" rest of y° barns, outhouses, stables, & ricks of corn 
were unthatch'd, y" whole dwelling-house uncover'd, y' lead upon y' chancell 
shrivell'd up like a scrowl, & y* Tower & body of y° Church much damnifyed. At 
y' same time the Et. Eev*. Eichard Kidder, Bishop of Bath & Wells, together 
with his lady were destroy'd in y' Palace at Wells. But by y'' Providence of 
God both man & beast escaped all manner of hurt in these parts.- 

The register book containing the above entries has the following entries on the 
first page : — 

September 19"', 1653. Mr. Bartholomew Tookey was chosen the Parish 
Eegister for Coilingbourne Ducis in the County of Wilts by the major part of 
the Inhabitants of the said Parish meet for that purpose according to the Act of 
Parliament of the 24th of Aug'. 1653 touching Marriages and the Eegistring 
thereof. this I testify 

Adonieam Btfield. 



office by election as usual. Their claim to do so was not res'isted by the Crown, 
and Mr. Wright was made Custos of S. Mary's, and William Sherwin Canon 
Eesidentiary. — Sussex Archceological Journal, vol. xxiv., page 62. 

* W. Sherwin died in 1735, and was succeeded as Eector of Coilingbourne Ducis 
by the Hon. Thomas Bruce, who appears never to have resided, and resigned in 
1738. 

^ For an account of this great storm see Smollett, History of England, vol. 
II., chapter 8 ; Macaulay, Essay on life and writings of Addison ; and the Eev. 
A. C. Smith, iu this Magazine, vol. vi., page 386. 






'^''^/I'msj^^ 






ANGLO-SAXON VESSEL, WILTON. 

(AEOUr i SIZK.) 



Notes on the Church Plate of Wilts. 327 

OctoV. IS"- Anno 1653. It appearing to me by the Certificate abovewryten 
that M'. Bartholomew Tookey is chosen the Parrish Register for Collingbourne 
Ducis in the Countye of Wilts, these are therefore to sattisfie the said Parrish & 
all other that may be concerned in it that the said M^ Tookey came the day above 
wrytea before me one of the Justices of the Peace for the Countye aforesaid & 
did take his oathe in the forme as by the late Acte of Parlym' is required, & this 
I testifye under my hand the day & yeare first abovewryten. 

Will" Blissett. 

This Register book for the Parrish of Collingbourne Ducis was bought of John 
Hamond of Marleborough by Edmond Batt and John Browne Churchwardens of 
the said Parrish in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand six hundred fifty 
three 1653 : the price of the Booke was xiiij'. 

Baetholomew Tookie 
Parish Eeg^ 

The earliest marriage entry is as follows : — 

The purpose of Marriage between William Bevis of the parrish of ColKngborne 
Kingston in y'' County aforesaid on y^ one part and Elizabeth Earle daughter tO' 
Eowland Earle of this parrish was published in this parrish Church on y' 25th of 
June 2"'' July and on the 9'" of July 1654. 

William Bevis and Elizabeth Earle married by Will" Blissett, Esq,''", one of 
the Justices of this County on y" xvij"" of July 1654. 




I^ote m % Cljm| f late of Milk 

By the Eev. E. H. Goddaed. 

<^Y the kindness of Miss Nightingale I am enabled to give 
illustrations here of several of the more important pieces of 
plate vphich came to light during the gathering of the materials for 
the " Church Plate of Wilts," lately published. Mr. Nightingale 
himself has given in a previous number of the Magazine — vol. xsi., 
p. 355 — some account of the more remarkable pieces then known to 
him in South "Wilts, and I have endeavoured to do the same for the 
north of the eounty in a short paper in vol. xxv., p. 336. So that 
a few words as to each of the pieces now illustrated will suflBce. 

The oldest is of course the curious bowl preserved at Wilton 
House. It is of bright yellow metal, which Mr. Nightingale says 
has been tested and found to be an alloy with a certain percentage 



328 Notes on the Church Plate of Wilts. 

of gold in it. It has no foot^ but there is a central boss hammered 
up within, which seems to show marks as of having had something 
soldered to it. It has four rings, apparently for suspension, attached 
to dragon's-head hooks, with a distinctly " early " look about them^ 
the details of which are given on a larger scale in the illustration. 
Its diameter is llin., its height 4|in. Dr. Rock, writing in the 
Arehaological Journal (vol. xiv., p. 174), says of this vessel : — " The 
beautiful example found at Wilton might with considerable proba- 
bility be a specimen of the Anglo-Saxon Gahata, or vessels sus- 
pended in Churches, often mentioned amongst rare and precious 
gifts to the Churches of Rome and elsewhere in early times." These 
Gabatse seem to have been for the support of lamps or other lights. 
This interesting relic — in all probability of the great monastery of 
Wilton — was dug up some thirty years ago midway between the 
Abbey and Kingsbury Square. 

The earliest chalice found in Wiltshire, that of Berwick S. James, 
of the thirteenth century, now in the British Museum, has been 
already described and illustrated in this Magazine (vol. xxi., p. 367), 
as also has the fine sixteenth century one at Wylye (Jhid, p. 883) ; 
but the chalice and paten now in the Sacristy of Salisbury Cathedral 
have not before been illustrated. They are of thirteenth century 
work, parcel-gilt, the foot of the chalice and the edge of the paten 
being much injured. They are supposed to have been taken from 
the tomb of Bishop Longespee, who died in 1297, together with an 
episcopal ring and the fragments of a wooden pastoral staff, still 
preserved with them. The shallow bowl and round foot are charac- 
teristic of their early date. 

The next illustration is that of the chalice belonging to the pai'ish 
of Ebbesborne Wake. Mr. Nightingale's account of it is as follows : 
''It falls easily into type G. of Messrs. St. John Hope and Pallow's 
classification. It is an elegant vessel and agrees in size and some of 
its details with the Jurby chalice. The bowl is wide, conical, and 
shallow; it has a plain hexagonal stem with the usual six-lobed 
knot, with untraceried Gothic perforations and either lions or angels' 
heads on the facets. The spread of the foot is hexagonal, and the 
junction of the stem, then slanting outwards it loses itself in the 




SALISBURY CATHKDRAL, 13TH Ckntury. 

(about 2 SIZE.) 




EHBESBORNE WAKE. 

(AbOUT g SIZE.) 




H IG HWORTH, 

(ABOUT J SIZE.) 



By the Rev. E. E. Goddard. 329 

round. The base is sex-foil edged with delicate mouldings enclosing 
vertical reedings. The monogram Wk§i is engraved within a circle 
on the front compartment. This is in place of the usual crucifix, 
and is not found on many other examples. The dimensions are : — 
height, 5|in. ; diameter of bowl, 3|in. ; diameter of base, 3|in. and 
3iin. On March 3rd, 1553, the Commissioners of Edward VI. 
delivered to Robert Wright and John Hunter for this parish ' one 
cuppe or chalice by indenture of six ounces and a half.^ The 
present weight of the chalice is 6oz. 17dwts., the difference being 
accounted for as nearly as possible by the estimated weight of solder 
used in repairs. There are no hall-marks ; the dates of the known 
examples of this type are 1507, 1517, and 1521. With the ex- 
ception of some slight and unimportant repairs this chalice is pretty 
much in its original condition." 

The High worth chalice is described in vol. xxv., p. 341, of the 
Magazine, but it seems worth while to give the accompanying illus- 
tration, taken, like the others, from Mr. Nightingale's " Wilts Church 
Plate" of a piece which is one of the finest known specimens of its 
type in England. It is hall-marked 1534, and is described by the 
Commissioners of Edward VI. as "j challis or cuppe hole gilt, 
xvj oz." Its present weight is somewhat over this — a difference 
due doubtless, as before, to solder used in repairs. It stands 6| in. 
high, the diameter of the bowl is 4^in., and that of the base, h\i\i. 
The paten, which is also given in the accompanying plate, is — 
though not hall-marked — pretty certainly of the same date, and, 
like the two pre-Reformation patens of Knook and West Grimstead, 
in the south of the county, is almost perfectly plain and unorna- 
mented, in this respect differing from the large majority of pre- 
Reformation patens hitherto noticed, which almost always have 
some subject, such as the sacred monogram, the Manus Dei, the 
Agnus, or the Vernicle engraved in the centre. 

Of the other pre-Reformation patens not described in the Magazine 
before, that of Corsley is silver-gilt, with two depressions, the second 
sex-foil, and S|^ Jb surrounded by a double circle in the centre. Its 
diameter is 4iin., and its date probably circa 1510. Teffout Magna 
retains a paten of about the same date, with only one circular de- 



330 Notes on the Church Plate of Wilts. 

pression and the 3i|I^Jb with a double circle in the centre. That of 
Orcheston St. Mary is a rather larger and more ornate vessel Sin. 
in diameter, with two sets of beaded mouldings on the rim, a double 
depression^ the inner one sex-foil, and the Vernicle, or Head of the 
Saviour, engraved in the centre. This paten is parcel-gilt, and bears 
the date-letter either of 1506 or 1514. 

The remarkable covered cup now used as a chalice at Lacock 
measures l\m. in height, or, including the cover, 13^in., and weighs 
29oz. Sdwts. The ball on the cover, the base, the three bands of 
cresting, and the rim of the bowl are gilt. It bears no hall-marks, 
but was probably made in the latter half of the fifteenth century. 
In shape it resembles the beautiful Founders^ Cup at Christ's 
College, Cambridge, though it is not so highly ornamented. It 
could hardly have been the " cuppe or challis " left for parish use 
by the Commissioners of 1553, as that is stated to have weighed 
20oz. only. Whether it was designed originally for Church use 
or not it is certainly one of the most notable pieces of the kind 
now remaining — for domestic plate of that date is even rarer than 
ecclesiastical — the necessities of the Civil War period and the changes 
of fashion having done their work even more thoroughly than the 
Commissioners of Edward VI. and the Injunctions of Elizabeth. 

Since the "Church Plate of Wilts" was published an Elizabethan 
chalice with paten cover has come to light at Stratton St. Margaret's 
under somewhat singular circumstances. The plate in use there has 
been for many years of the poorest description — modern pewter — 
and the Vicar only heard lately, by accident, that there used to be 
a silver cup and cover, but that it was sold and the price it brought 
invested in the pewter chalice. On making further enquiries, how- 
ever, it turned out that a former Vicar had proposed, inasmuch as 
it had got thin and was much battered and damaged, and had 
already been mended more than once, to sell it for the very moderate 
sum of Is. Qcl. which had been offered for it. One of the church- 
wardens however said that, if it was all the same to the Vicar, he 
would prefer as a matter of sentiment that the cup out of which his 
parents and grand-parents had received the sacrament should not 
be sold. And as the matter was of such slight importance the Vicar 




LACOCK. (about i size.) 




, 



By the Bev. E. E. GoiUard. 331 

handed over the seven-and-sixpenny cup to the churchwarden to 
take care of it, and it was put away until a couple o£ months ago, 
when the enquii'ies of the present Vicar, the Rev. S. J, Crawhall, 
brought it to light — and it has now been carefully repaired 
and restored to its sacred use. It is an interesting Elizabethan 
chalice 6f in. in height, with paten cover of the usual type. There 
are two bands of ornament round the bowl — the upper of strap-work 
enclosing foliage of the usual kind, the lower a narrower band of 
the intermittent line ornament. The stem is somewhat thick, and 
the knot is little more than a band. There is a band of strap-work 
and foliage round the base, and round the cover, and the latter has 
also round its rim a narrow band of etched zigzag ornament. Neither 
chalice nor cover bear any hall-marks or date. Under both pieces 
has now been inscribed " St. Margaret's Church, Stratton.^' 

An Elizabethan paten cover bearing the hall-mark of 1576 and a 
band of strap-work decoration, which belonged to the late Rt. Hon. 
E. P. Bouverie, was lately (June 1892) sold at Christie^s j as to 
which Mr. Medlicott tells me there is a tradition that " it was found 
in a wall at Potterne," but it seems doubtful whether the tradition 
rests on any sound foundation. 

I am glad to have this opportunity of giving the following cor- 
rections and additions to the Chronological List of Church Plate in 
North Wilts, given in vol. sxv., p. 351 ; and in order to complete 
the list of the Church Plate o£ the county the vessels belonging to 
the southern half of the county are given in chronological order to 
the end of the eighteenth century from the lists printed in the 
" Church Plate of Wilts." 

North Wilts:— 
Lacock. Small silver bowl. For 1583 read 1603. 
Little Hinton. ^c^c/:— Flagon, 1634 (given 1719). 
Poulshot. Chalice. For 1635 read 1634. 
Alton Priors. Add :— Paten, 1638. 
Aldbourne. Chalice and paten cover. For 1681 read 1684. 

„ Paten. For 1683 read 1663. 

Steeple Ashton. Add : — Alms dish, 1699. 
Compton Basset. For Almsdish read Flagon. 
Somerford Keynes. Paten. For 1702 read 1708. 
Seend. Add Chalice, 1712. 



332 



Notes on ihe Church Plate of Wilts. 



Eamsbury. Add : — Chalice, paten cover, and paten, 1718. 

Bremhill. Add :— Paten, 1726. 

Imber. Add : — Paten, 1739. 

Everlej'. Omit : — Flagon, 1754. 

Great Bedwyn. Add -. — Two chalices, 1785. 

Edington. Add :— Flagon, 1775 (given 1S91). 



Cfjronologtcal Hist of Cturcfj ^late in Soutf) Milts 
to t\}t enti of tfje Etgi)t«ntlj centurg. 



McdicEval 
12th or 13th century. Berwick St. 

James. Chalice. 
13th century. Salisbury Cathedral. 

Coffin chalice and paten. 
1490-1500. Codford St. Mary. 

Chalice. 
c. 1500. Corsley. Paten. 

„ Knock. Plain paten. 



Plate, 
c. 1500. West Grimstead. Plain paten. 
„ TefEont Magna. Paten. 
„ Berwick St. James. Paten. 
1506. Orcheston St. Mary. Paten. 
c. 1510. Ebbesborne Wake. Chalice. 
1525. Wylye. Chalice. 
1533. Salisbury, St. Edmunds. 
Paten. 



Church Plate, sixteenth century, after the Reformation. 

1569. Netherhampton. Chalice 

1570. Bulford. Chalice. 1578. 

1571. Teffont Magna. Chalice 1581. 

(given 1843). 

1572. Teffont Ewyas. Tankard 

flagon. 1589. 

1576. South Newton. Chalice. 1595. 

West Grimstead. Chalice. 
Winterbourne Gunner. 

Chalice. 
Allington. Chalice. ^-a 

Milston. Chalice. '5 ' 

North Tidworth. Chalice. 
Woodford. Chalice. 
Damerham. Chalice and cover. 
Dinton. Chalice and cover. 
Teilont Ewyas. Chalice. 
Chilmark. Chalice. 

Sutton Mandeville. Chalice. N^ 

Eollestone. Chalice and cover. 
Wishford. Tazza cup. 

Seventeenth century. 
1603. 



Knook. Chalice. 
Kingston Deverill. Chalice. 
Fugglestone. Chalice. 
West Dean. Chalice and 

cover. 
Fugglestone. Tankard flagon. 
Salisbury, St. Martin's. 
Chalice and paten. 

Alderbury. Chalice. 

Durrington. Chalice. 

Alvediston. Chalice. 

Martin. Chalice. 

Odstock. Chalice. 

Orcheston St. Mary. Chalice. 

Orcheston St. George. 
Chalice. 

Maiden Bradley. Pat«n 
cover. 

Corsley. Chalice. 

Monkton Deverill. Chalice. 



t>, ^ ^> ( Salisbury Cathedral. 

'f? .-^^ 3 ,' nVifllifpa and pnveri 



Two 






chalices and covers. 
Shrewton. Chalice. 



1606. 
1610. 



Whiteparish. Chalice. 
Salisbury Cathedral. Flagon. 
Salisbury Cathedral. Two 
Flagons. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 



333 



1611. Barford. Standing cup and 

cover. 
1620. Salisbury, St.Martins. Paten. 

„ Downton. Chalice. 
1624. Downton. Flagon. 

1628. Downton. Paten. 

1629. Burcombe. Chalice and 

Paten. 

1630. Mere. Chalice. 

1631. Fisherton Delamere. Paten 

and flagon. 

1632. Tisbury. Chalice. 

1633. Donhead St. Mary. Chalice 

and paten. 

1634. Stockton. Flagon. 

1635. Tisbury. Chalice. 

1636. Winterslow. Chalice. 
„ Bulford, Flagon. 

„ Maiden Bradley. Paten. 

1637. East Knoyle. Paten. 
„ Wishford. Flagon. 

1640. Stockton. Flagon. 

1646. Sutton Mandeville. Paten. 

1652. Laverstock. Flagon. 

„ Upton Scudamore. Chalice. 
1654. Durnford. Flagon. 

1659. Newton Toney. Chalice and 

cover. 

1660. Boyton. Chalice. 

,, Little Langford. Chalice. 

1661. Salisbury Cathedral. Two 

Patens. 
„ Wylye. Almsdish. 

1662. Salisbury, St. Martins. Alms- 

dish. 

1663. Salisbury Cathedral. Pair 

altar candlesticks. 
c. 1664. Maddington. Chalice, 

paten cover, paten, and 

flagon 
c. 1665. Bishopstone. S.W. Two 

chalices, two patens, and 

almsdish (foreign). 

1668. Winterbourn Earls. Chalice. 

1669. Salisbury, St. Martin's. 

Flagon. 
„ Bramshaw. Chalice, 
c. 1670. Alvediston. Paten. 
TOL XXVI. — NO. LXXVIII. 



1672. Salisbury Cathedral. Alms- 
dish. 
„ Whiteparish. Paten and 
flagon. 
1674. Durnford. Chalice and paten. 
„ Berwick St.Leonard. Service. 
„ Wylye. Flagon. 
„ Maiden Bradley. Paten. 

1676. Pertwood. Chalice. 

1677. Nunton. Chalice and cover. 
„ East Knoyle. Chalice and 

paten. [paten. 

1678. Stapleford. Chalice and 

1679. Wishford. Chalice. 

1681. East Knoyle. Flagon. 

„ Stockton. Chalice and paten. 
., Monkton Deverill. Paten. 

1682. Warminster. Chalice. 

1683. Wilton. Paten. 

„ Barford. Almsdish. 

1684. Compton Chamberlayne. 

Paten. 
„ Upton Lovell. Chalice and 
paten. 

1685. Tisbury. Flagon. 

1686. Newton Toney. Chalice and 

cover. 
c. 1688. Sherrington. Paten. 
1689. Farley. Chalice, paten cover, 

paten, and flagon. 
„ Durnford. Almsdish. 

1691. Durrington. Paten. 

1692. Winterslow. Chalice and 

paten. 
„ Newton Toney. Flagon. 

1693. Winterslow. Flagon. 
1699. Mere. Flagon. 

„ TefEont Ewyas. Paten. 

1694. Milston. Paten. 

„ Boyton. Paten and flagon. 
„ Steeple Langford. Almsdish, 
„ Rollestone. Paten. 
„ Sherrington. Flagon. 

1695. Tisbury. Flagon. 

„ Steeple Langford. Paten. 

1696. Norton Bavant. Bowl with 

handle. 

1697. Laverstock. Chalice. 



334 



Notes on the Church Plate of Wilts. 





Eighteenth century 


1700. 


Corsley. Flagon. 

Hill Deverill. Paten and 


1733. 




Flagon. 


1734. 


» 


Mere. Chalice, flagon, and 
two patens. 




1704. 


Tisbury. Almsdish. 


jj 


„ 


Kingston Deverill. Paten. 


1735. 


c. 1705. Barford. Flagon. 


1739. 


1706. 


Warminster. Paten. 


1742. 


1707. 


Ludgershall. Paten. 


1743. 


1708. 


Boscombe. Chalice, paten, 
and flagon. 


" 


1709. 


Steeple Langford. Chalice. 


1744. 


1710. 


Barford. Paten. 
Norton Bavant. Flagon. 


1749. 


J, 


Warminster. Flagon. 


1750. 


1711. 


Wishford. Paten. 
Kingston Deverill. Paten. 


1752. 


„ 


Monkton Deverill. Paten. 


1754. 


1712. 


Stratford sub Castle. Chalice, 


,, 




paten, flagon, and almsdish. 


1755. 


1713. 


Mere. Two patens (given 
1892). 


1768. 


1715. 


Wishford. Paten. 


1759. 


1717. 


Steeple Langford. Paten. 


1761. 


1719. 


Damerham. Paten. 




1720. 


West Dean. Two patens. 




1721. 


Netherhampton. Paten. 
Orcheston St. George. Flagon. 


1768. 


1723. 


Stourton. Chalice and cover, 


1771. 




Paten, flagon, and almsdish. 


1777. 


1727. 


West Knoyle. Chalice and 
flagou. 


1778. 


1728. 


Martin. Paten. 
Boyton. Paten. 


1780. 


1729. 


Orcheston St. Mary. Flagon. 
Orcheston St. George. Chalice 
and cover. 


1786. 


1730. 


Dinton. Paten and flagon. 


1790. 


1731. 


Stratford Tony. Chalice and 






paten. 


1795. 


1732. 


Upton Scudamore. Paten. 





Sutton Mandeville. Flagon. 
Wilaford. Chalice. 
Salisbury, St. Edmund's. 

Almsdish. 
Donhead St. Mary. Paten. 
Chitterne. Almsdish. 
Fifield Bavant. Chalice. 
Berwick St. James. Flagon. 
Corsley. Almsdish. 
Martin. Paten. 
Chilmark. Chalice, paten, 

and flagon 
Norton Bavant. Paten. 
Britford. Chalice,two flagons, 

and dish. 
Warminster. Chalice. 
Compton Chamberlayne. 

Flagon. 
Berwick St. John. Flagon. 
Wilsford. Almsdish. 
Damerham. Flagon. 
Landford. Chalice, two 

patens, and flagon. 
Heytesbury. Chalice. 
Codford St. Peter. Chalice 

and paten cover, flagon, and 

almsdish. 
Semley. Salver. 
Steeple Langford. Flagon. 
Hill Deverill. Cup. 
Winterbourne Earls. Flagon. 
Downton. Two salvers. 
Nunton. Paten. 
Compton Chamberlayne. 

Chalice. 
Tollard Royal. Chalice and 

paten. 
Tilshead. Cup and cover. 
Sutton Veney. Chalice and 

paten. 
Odstock. Small chalice and 

paten. 




MAP SHEWING THE POSITION OFTHE SECTIONS CUT IN WANSDYKE WITH REFERENCE TO DEVIZES . WILTS. 



335 



^^aftations m Maiisbgk 1889-91. 

By Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivebs, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
[Eead at the Wilton Meeting, 1891.] 

^^pHERE are several reasons why this communication should be 
y-yK rl a short one. Although the excavations in Wansdyke are 
in continuation of the subject of my address of last year, and there 
is no record of them in the Journal of our Society, the results are 
pretty well known to archaeologists, and have been communicated to 
other societies. Some of the Members of this Society saw one of 
the sections at Devizes last year, and the details, upon which the 
chief interest of the subject depends, are given in the third 4to 
volume of my excavations, which will appear shortly. I hope also 
to-morrow to be able to show most of the Members the models of 
the excavations in my Museum at Farnham, which will explain the 
subject better than can be done by means of diagrams.^ A third 
reason is, that my friend, Mr. Andrews, has a paper to read, which, 
in common with the other Members present, I desire to hear. 

It may be remembered by some, that, in my address last year, I 
explained the way in which evidence of the date of Bokerly Dyke 
had been brought to light. We shall see the site of these exca- 
vations to-morrow, although the cuttings have been entirely filled 
in, and cannot be seen upon the ground. Upwards of six hundred 
Roman coins were found in the rampart of the dyke, in positions 
which showed that they must have been thrown up into the dyke 
at the time it was made. These coins dated up to the time of 
Honorius and Arcadius, and proved that the dyke was not made 
earlier than the time of the evacuation of Britain by the Romans. 
The way in which the coins got into the rampart was thus : — the 

' The Farnham Museum now contains forty models of earthworks in which 
excavations have been made, and the relics are arranged in wall-cases adjoining 
them. 

*^js* The Society is indebted to Gen. Pitt-Rivers for the gift of the map accom- 
panying this paper. 

Z 2 



336 Excavations in Wansdyke, 1889 — 91. 

remains of a Romano-British. Settlement existed on the ground at 
the time the dyke was made : copper coins and other relics had been 
scattered about in the Settlement, and when the ^itch was dug, and 
the earth from it thrown up to form a rampart, these coins and other 
things were thrown up with the soil by the Roman or Romano- 
British workmen, without taking any notice of them. In this way 
they were preserved as a record of the date of the work. The 
Settlement itself was discovered and dug out, and the same kinds of 
coins and relics were found scattered about in it. I need not enter 
into details, which have already been given in our Maf/azine, and 
which can be examined again in the models by those who desire to 
do so. 

The method of examining the Wansdyke was similar to that 
employed for Bokerly. 

The well-known Wiltshire and Somersetshire entrenchment runs, 
or did probably run at one time, from the fenny country in the 
neighbourhood of the Severn at Portishead, by Bath, passing to the 
north of Devizes to Savernake Forest, and on to Chisbury, where it 
turns and runs southward in the direction of Andover. It has been 
frequently described, and by none better than by the Rev. A. C. 
Smith, in his "Antiquities of Wiltshire." It is of very different 
relief in different places. In parts it is little more than a road, and 
in others — especially on Morgan^s Hill and Shepherd's Shore, near 
Devizes, which was the locality selected for my excavation — it is 
equal in size to the highest part of Bokerly. The ditch is always 
to the north, showing that it was thrown up against a northern 
enemy. It is about sixty miles in length. This is exactly the 
length of the Wall of Hadrian between Newcastle and Carlisle, 
which work Wansdyke greatly resembles in the general principles 
of its construction. It is strengthened by four camps along its line, 
viz., Maesknowl, Stantonbury, Bathampton, and Chisbury, which 
correspond in position and use to those on the Northumberland wall, 
though, unlike them, built only of earth, and irregular in their 
outline. My first section, 30ft. wide, was cut to the west of 
Shepherd's Shore in 1889, which resulted in the discovery of an iron 
knife and an iron nail, 6'36ft. beneath the surface of the rampart. 



By Lt.-Gen. Piii-Bivers, JD.C.Z., -F.E.S., F.S.A. 337 

This was the section seen by the members last year. The knife is 
of a form that might well be Roman, although it would be difficult 
to identify it as such with any degree of certainty. The nail has a 
round flat head, and is 2' Sin. in length. The question of the origin 
of iron nails has never received the attention it deserves, but I 
believe that such nails as the one found here were not in use for 
fastening timber before the Roman conquest. No Samian pottery 
was discovered here in the main rampart, but in the small outer 
rampart, or bank, which runs all along the Wansdyke in this part, 
several small fragments were discovered on the old surface line, 
proving that this part of the dyke, at any rate, was of Roman or 
post-Roman origin. Other kinds of pottery were found in this and 
the sections subsequently cut, which, though carefully recorded, need 
not be described here. The evidence derived from this excavation 
could hardly be regarded as conclusive, and I therefore, in July of 
last year, cut another section to the eastward of Shepherd's Shore, 
which had a more satisfactory result. 

The part selected for this second section was at a spot called by 
me. Brown's Barn. At this spot there is an ancient entrenchment, 
perhaps of earlier Roman date, which to all appearance had been cut 
through in the formation of the Wansdyke. It therefore bears the 
same relation to the Wansdyke that the Settlement at Woodyates 
does to Bokerly Dyke, and, as a consequence, promised to give up 
similar evidence in regard to date. I first cut a section parallel to 
the ditch of the dyke in the outer bank. This proved the relative 
ages of the two works by disclosing a section of the rampart 
and ditch of the entrenchment beneath the bank, which had been 
thrown up over them in the formation of the dyke. I next cut a 
section through the dyke itself, similar to Section 1, which resulted 
in my finding fragments of red Samian pottery on the old surface 
line, and in the body of the main rampart, 6*2ft., 3"2ft., and 6"3ft. 
respectively beneath the upper surface of the rampart. But perhaps 
the most interesting discovery in this section was that of an iron 
cleat, found on the old surface line, 7 'Oft. beneath the crest. Pre- 
cisely similar cleats were found in Sections 1 and 2 of Bokerly Dyke. 
Their use had been previously ascertained by finding them at 



338 Excavations in Wansdyhe, 18H9 — 91. 

Kotherley at the feet of an extended skeleton, accompanied by iron 
hob-nails, showing that they formed part of the leather fastenings 
or sole protectors of sandals. We have therefore clear evidence 
that sandals, having these fastenings or sole protectors attached to 
them, were in common use previously to the construction of both 
Bokerly and Wansdyke, and it is only reasonable to suppose that 
these two periods could not be very remote from one another. With 
regard to the origin and evidence afforded by fragments of Samian 
pottery, that important subject might very well suffice for a lecture 
of itself. There can be no doubt that red pottery of a somewhat, 
though not entirely, similar character to that usually known in this 
country by the name of " Samian " was constructed at Samos in 
very early times, and Pliny says that it was widely exported both 
by sea and land. The possibility, therefore, of a fragment of it 
being found in this country amongst pre-Roman remains cannot be 
denied, but, practically, I believe it has never been discovered in 
association with late Celtic sites.^ At Mount Caburn, near Lewes, 
a late Celtic camp which I explored some time ago, an account of 
which is given in the " Archceologia" not a fragment of it was 
found, though it turned up frequently amongst Roman remains 
close by. In the late Celtic cemetery at Aylesford, recently explored, 
no fragment of this pottery appears to have been found, and the 
same applies to the late Celtic camp at Hunsbury, near Northampton. 
The British Museum does not possess a single specimen of this ware 
from Samos. The subject has been discussed lately on the Conti- 
nent by Messrs. Fillon, Schuermans, and Gabriel de Mortillet, all 
of whom appear to agree that the red ware, with the maker's names 
to it, was not introduced and fabricated in France until the time of 
the Empire. The " Samian,'' with ornamentation in relief, ac- 
cording to Schuermans, was not made until the time of Trajan, A.D. 

^ After careful examination, and consultation with the best authorities on the 
subject of this pottery, I have come to the conclusion that pottery from Samos 
could not be mistaken for the Roman red glazed ware, usually known by the 
name of " Samian " in this country, and that the presence of such fragments in 
an earthwork affords conclusive evidence of Roman or post-Roman origin. The 
fragments found here have been seen by many antiquaries, and no doubt exists 
as to their being of the quality known as " Samian " in this country. 



By Lt.-Gen. Pitt-Rivers, D.C.L., F.R.8., F.8.A. 33^ 

98-117. Up to the end of the third century A.D. this pottery was 
made of a bright red colour, and was covered with a fine glaze, but 
in the fourth century it degenerated and was constructed of a duller 
red colour. Mr. de Mortillet terms the superior ware of the earlier 
period " Lugdunienne " from its connection with the town of Lyons, 
and the later " Champdolienne " from its being frequently found 
in the French cemeteries with interments by inhumation, called 
" Champs-Dolants." Pottery of both periods have been found in 
the villages and entrenchments of Wilts and Dorset. The fragments 
in Wansdyke were of a quality superior to the imitation Samian, if 
not of the best quality. 

These sections have proved that the Wansdyke was Roman or 
post-Roman, and that the entrenchment was on the ground before 
it. I decided to trench over the surface of the interior of the 
entrenchment, and see if any relics could be discovered which would 
prove the date of the entrenchment. I was prevented by illness 
from carrying on the excavations last year, but I renewed them in 
May this year. Another section was cut across the rampart and 
ditch of the entrenchment. Scarcely anything was found in the 
rampart, which showed that that spot could not have been much 
occupied before the entrenchment was thrown up. The ground was 
also trenched over in several places in the interior. Fragments of 
Samian pottery, similar to that found in the sections of Wansdyke, 
were found in all of them. The Roman associations of the entrench- 
ment are abundantly proved, but no coins were found, and the 
excavations were then abandoned. For some unexplained reason, 
the people who occupied this entrenchment did not scatter their 
coins about like those of the Settlement of Vindogladia. 

For this reason, we are unable to fix the date of Wansdyke with 
the same certainty as that of Bokerly, although its Roman or post- 
Roman origin has been satisfactorily determined. 

It only remains, in conclusion, to say a few words about the 
historical periods to which these works may, with any degree of 
likelihood, be attributed. The supposition that they were Belgic 
may now, I think, be dismissed, as contrary to the evidence derived 
from the excavations. Dr. Guest was so deservedly esteemed as a 



340 Excavations in WansdyJce, 1889 — 91. 

classical scbolar, and he has done so much by his researches into the 
ancient authors, that his topography has been accepted with too 
much readiness. The Bokerly entrenchment, dating beyond doubt 
as late as the departure of the Romans from Britain, cannot have 
been erected much earlier than the year A.D. 520, when the West 
Saxons, under Cerdic and Cynric, after having taken Sorbiodunum, 
advanced westwards to the capture of Mons Badonicus, supposed, 
but not proved, by Dr. Guest to be Badbury. Speaking of this 
district and period, Mr. Green, in his " Making of England," says : — 
" How roughly the march of the West Saxons was checked at this 
point by the dense forests, we see by the fact that these woodlands 
remained in British hands for more than a hundred years, and the 
significant name of " Mere " preserves for us the memory of the 
border-bound which the Gewissas were forced to draw along the 
western steep of their new conquest." There are many spots in the 
neighbourhood which originally terminated in " mere." My own 
house — Rushmore — was originally spelt Rushmere, and Bridmore, 
close by, formerly written Bridmere or Britmere, was no doubt the 
boundary of the Britons, in the same way that Britford, near 
Salisbury, is recognised as the ford of the Britons. If anyone will 
read all that part of Mr. Green's history, keeping in view the ex- 
istence of this defensive work of Bokerly, I think he will see how 
important a part it might have played in influencing the i^ourse 
taken by the Saxons at this time. In the 3rd 4to volume of my 
" Excavations in Cranborne Chase," in which the plans, sections, 
and drawings of the objects are given in great detail, I have 
suggested another possible use for Bokerly Dyke, and I have given 
some I'easons for the supposition that the Bokerly Dyke and the 
Grimes Dyke might have been thrown up for the purpose of driving 
deer and other animals into the Cranborne Chase forest ; but this is 
only an alternative suggestion, and not one to which I adhere in 
the present state of our evidence in the matter. 

As regards Wansdyke, the evidence leaves open a wider field for 
conjecture. The first period to which it can reasonably be assigned 
is that which followed the expedition of Aulus Plautius in A.D. 43. 
Tacitus (Annals, xii., 31), in describing the action of his successor. 



By U.-Gen. PiU-Hivers, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 341 

Ostorius Scapula, says : — " detrahere arma suspectis cunctaque 
castris Antonam et Sabrinam fluvios cohibere parat," the latter 
portion of which my predecessor in this chair, the Bishop of Salisbury, 
whose valuable address on the Roman conquest of Southern Britain 
the Society will remember, translates thus : " he makes preparations 
to keep in check the whole of the country an this side of the 
rivers Anton and Severn by the construction of camps/^ The 
direction given to this line of camps has been much discussed by 
classical scholars, but the existence of the river Anton or Teste, 
running- from Andover into the Solent, appears to have been over- 
looked, and the word Anton has by some been arbitrarily converted 
into Avon. Although now quite a small river, it is probable that 
the estuary of the Solent may have extended for some distance up 
it at the time of the Roman conquest, even perhaps as far as 
Andover itself, and it may thus have served as a formidable barrier 
for the flank of the line of camps to rest upon. It is possible also 
that the camps on the Wansdyke, viz., Maesknowl, Stantonbury, 
Bathampton, and Chisbury, may have been erected at that time in- 
dependently, and may have been joined by the continuous entrench- 
ment of the Wansdyke subsequently. The only objection that I can 
see to the supposition, that the line of camps referred to in this 
passage lay in the direction of Wansdyke, is that the Roman frontier, 
at that time, was far in advance of this position. Camulodunum 
had been taken by the Emperor Claudius himself, and Gloucester 
was in the hands of the Romans. We must also not altogether 
overlook the possibility of such an entrenchment having been thrown 
up during the troubles of the year 208, when the Caledonians pene- 
trated far into South Britain, necessitating the presence of the 
Emperor Severus himself to put a stop to their inroads. We must 
consider also the possibility of the Wansdyke having been constructed 
by the Romanised Britons, after the departure of the Romans, as a 
defence against the Picts and Scots, when the former were driven 
into the south-west corner of the country ; whilst Bokerly, at a 
somewhat different time, may have served to protect them against 
the Saxons. The two works are not continuous, the Wansdyke 
overlapping the left flank of the Bokerly entrenchment by many 



342 Excavations in Wansdyke, 1889 — 91. 

miles, but they may nevertheless represent successive efforts of the 
Britons during the same troubled period. The Britons must doubtless 
have learnt the Roman methods of castrametation and defence, and 
the resemblance o£ the Wansdyke in the general principle of its 
construction, to the walls of Hadrian and Antoninus, should not be 
overlooked. Lastly, we must bear in mind that there is nothing in 
our evidence to disprove the supposition that both these works may 
have been thrown up by the Saxons. During the seventh and 
eighth centuries the wars between the West Saxons and the Mercians 
were continued up to the time of Offa. The great work drawn 
along the frontier of Wales, to keep the people of that country in 
check, is attributed to Offa, and it is not impossible that the Wans- 
dyke may, in like manner, have been thrown up by the West Saxons 
as a defence against him. The frontier between Wessex and Mercia 
appears constantly to have been shifting, but the line of the 
Wansdyke represents more or less, the ordinary boundary that 
existed between the two tribes. It is true that nothing Saxon has 
as yet been discovered to support this hypothesis. But our evidence, 
from the nature of it, fixes only the earliest, and not the latest, 
period at which these works may have been constructed. I have no 
doubt that further excavations will serve to throw more light upon 
the subject. Meanwhile, I hope I have been able to show how 
much really valuable information may be brought to light by the 
examination of these and similar entrenchments. This kind of 
investigation has hitherto been much neglected in England, whilst 
money has been lavished in the search for antiquities abroad. Anti- 
quaries no doubt generally expect to be repaid for their expenditure 
by enriching their collections with objects of greater value than are 
to be found in dykes and ditches. But, in my judgment, a fragment 
of pottery, if it throws light on the history of our own country and 
people, is of more interest to the scientific collector of evidence in 
England, than even a work of art and merit that is associated only 
with races that we are remotely connected with. 



343 



By J. Watlen. 

I^HE object of this paper is to exhibit some of the various 
h methods for raising money put in practice in Wiltshire 
during the Civil War by such of the resident gentry as were 
favourable to the Parliament's cause.' The first standing Committee 
for the county was organised at the close of the year 1642, ia 
pursuance of a Parliamentary Ordinance applicable to the whole of 
England, and levying a weekly assessment of so much in the pound; 
though this by no means represents the various forms of appeal 
made from time to time as the struggle went on. On the other 
hand, the King also had his Committee. At least he occasionally 
nominated local groups of his friends for a variety of objects in his 
own behalf; but their action was spasmodic and their existence very 
brief. The poor people, meanwhile, whenever this double action 
was put in force, found themselves ground between two millstones. 
If the Royalist visitations were sweeping and desolating, those of 
the Committees were systematic and perennial. 

The first Wilts Committee acting for the Parliament comprised 
only the fifteen following names : — Sir Edward Hungerford, of 
Farley ; Sir Edward Baynton, of Bromham ; Sir Nevill Poole, of 
Oaksey; Sir John Evelyn, of West Dean; Edward Baynton, of 
Bromham ; Edward Tooker, of Maddington ; Edward Goddard, of 
Marlborough ; Thomas Moore, of Heytesbury ; Denzil Hollis, of 
Haughton ; Alexander Thistlethwayte, jun., of Winterslowe ; 
Edward Poole [of Wootton Bassett?] ; John Ashe, of Heytesbury; 



* The source from which the matter printed here is derived is the original MS. 
contained in two small vellum-covered folios which were copied by myself sonj& 
foi-ty years ago, when they were in the possession of a professional gentleman at 
Salisbury whose name I do not accurately remember — nor do I know what sub- 
sequently became of them. 



844 The Falstone Bay- Booh. 

Robert Jennour, of Meysey ; William Wheeler, of Westbury; and 
John White [of Grittleton ?] . 

The town of Malmesbury, as the spot in the county the most 
susceptible of fortification, became at first the most attractive place 
of meeting ; but in the course of a few months the Committee was 
greatly reinforced, in order to secure the combined object of main- 
taining a garrison at Malmesbury and securing the county generally- 
The names constituting this enlarged Committee are all set forth at 
page 637 of the sixth vol. of the Lords' Journals, and are as follows : — 
Philip, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery; William, Earl of 
Salisbury ; Philip, Lord Herbert ; Charles, Lord Cranbourne ; 
Denzil Hollis, Esq. ; Sir Edward Hungerford ; Sir Francis Popham ; 
Sir Neville Poole ; Sir Edward Baynton ; Edward Baynton, Alex- 
ander Popham, Walter Long, Edward Poole, Robert Jennour, 
Thomas Hodges, Richard Whitehead, Thomas Moore, John Ashe, 
Robert Nicholas, William Wheeler, Philip Smith, and Edward Ashe, 
Esquires; Sir John Danvers ; Edmund Ludlow, sen.; Edmund 
Ludlow, jun.; Alexander Thistlethwayte, William Sadler, Edward 
Goddard, Thomas Bennet of Norton, Robert Hippisley, and Edmund 
Warneford, Esquires ; John Goddard, Edward Martin, Gabriel 
Martin, Robert Long of Whaddon, Thomas Goddard, Edward 
Stokes, Richard Talboys, Richard Gilford, William Jesse, Humphrey 
Ditton, Thomas Bailey, Robert Good, and Robert Brown, (/entlemen. 

Of this body three or more might at any time constitute a 
quorum, thus enabling them to act in sections in different parts of 
the county, as the exigencies of the war might require. Eventually 
they seem to have thought they would be more out of harm's way 
in a fortified house than in a town ; and accordingly made choice of 
Falstone House, a little south of Wilton (the property of Sir George 
Vaughan). In this they were undoubtedly right; for in fact 
Malmesbury, as well as Marlborough and Devizes, was taken and 
re-taken half-a-dozen times in the course of the war. This es- 
tablishment was made in the spring of 1645. In the autumn of 
the same year Longford Castle, having been reduced by Cromwell, 
was occupied in a similar manner. 

While this Falstone conclave dealt principally with the southern 



By J. Waylen. 345 

half of the county, other portions of the Committee were occasionally 
sitting- and acting in Marlborough, Malmesbury, Devizes, and 
Salisbury; but I am inclined to think that this was the central 
place of business; for the Falstone treasurers' accounts deal also 
with financial matters in the north of the county, though to a less 
extent ; and further, because the county troops received their pay at 
Falstone; and, after the occupation of Longford Castle, William 
Ludlow, who commanded the horse, took up his station in and 
around that fortalice. 

The names of some of the Falstone treasurers in succession were : — 
Thomas Cox, Thomas Poulton, Humphrey Dltton, Robert Good, 
and Richard Hill — Salisbury men apparently ; nominated to office 
by the month. The Committee's clerk was Mr. John Strange, at 
a salary of £8 a month. In 1649 Mr. Strange was succeeded by 
Jonathan Hill. 

When gathering for private use the memoranda here bearing the 
general name of The Falstone Day-Book, I had no expectation of 
their ever coming under the notice of your archaeological experts. 
A few miscellaneous entries have in consequence found place, which 
could not now be detached ; but, as all the matters are homogeneous, 
it is hoped no objection will be taken. The verbiage is of course in 
numberless cases abbreviated ; but no names are omitted ; and the 
whole may form a sort of prelude to the narrative of the final 
settlements eflPected at Goldsmiths' Hall, already set forth in our 
Magazine, under the title of Wiltshire Compounders, [See vol. 
xxiii., 314; xxiv., 58, 308). To include a transcript of the various 
treasurers' accounts would have made the affair far too bulky. 
Neither have the charges been recited which were brought against 
some of the resident clergy, by which so many of them were displaced 
from their livings — those charges being creditable to neither party. 

These County Committees had no authority to compound with 
Royalists by levies on real property; but they could deal with 
personals in the form of stock or rent, and re-let sequestered estates. 
A few more explanatory notes must close this introductory chapter. 

" Delinquency " meant adherence to the King's party. A " Re- 
cusant " was a Romanist. The word " parsonage " must be taken 



846 The Falstone Lay-Booh. 

in the modern sense of rectory. A rowless thing/' an expression 
often occurring in the terriers, otherwise spelt a " rowlist thing " 
and a " rowlass thing," seems to indicate wasted or unregistered 
land [?] Money advanced " upon the propositions ■" was understood 
to rely on the public faith for re-payment — to what extent ever 
realized it were hard to say. " The twenty-fifth part," so called, 
was a direct levy on a man's personal property, if not under £200. 
" Illegal Assizes," another term of frequent occurrence, refers to an 
action on the King's part, which the Parliament never forgave, 
namely, that of opening a commission at Salisbury to arraign for 
high treason the Earls of Salisbury, Pembroke, and Northumberland, 
and divers other friends of the Parliament. The " Negative Oath " 
was a promise not to take up arms against the Parliament. The 
" Covenant " embraced polemical issues of a far wider sweep. 

1645. loth May. John Howe, of Wishford, Esq., hath made his composition 
with this Committee, and promised to pay presently £50, and on the 27th £70 
more, which we accept in full for his delinquency. He hath also taken the 
Covenant. [Mr. Howe had acted as Commissioner for raising contributions for 
the Royal army.] 

10th May. Morris Green, of Salisbury, brewer, hath subscribed upon the 
Propositions £20, to be paid 4th June, when he is to appear to make his further 
composition. 

10th May. Thomas Lawes, of New Sarum, gent., hath paid £20 in part of 
composition for delinquency. He had previously paid £15 to Colonel Edmund 
Ludlow,£7 to Sir William Waller.and £8 to Sir Edward Hungerford, as appeareth 
by several tickets from them. He promiseth to pay £20 more, the half in money, 
the rest in plate at five shillings the ounce, to be sent to Falstone by 23rd May. 
All which, amounting to £70, we accept in full for his delinquency. (Subsequent 
entry.) Nothing of delinquency being published against Mr. Lawes, the above 
is accepted as his five and twentieth part. 

Thomas Brent, of Wishford, gent., a receiver for the King's sequestrations, 
hath made his composition for £40 in ready money. 

Thomas Hancock, of Castle Street, Salisbury, gent., has delivered for the use 
of the garrison fifty quarters of malt, and promises to send in £10 worth more by 
the 30th May ; which the Committee accept as a full discharge of his delinquency. 

Thomas Hickman, minister of Upton Lovell, hath for delinquency paid £10 to 
Major Long, at Hampton. Then follow the tvords : — Took cloth. Received the 
same from Major Long. 



By J. Waylen. 347 

16th May. William Combes, of Tisbury, compounds by giving bond to pay 
£50 on Thursday next, and security for £100 more at Midsummer and Michael- 
mas. [He was an informer against divers members of the Parliament's army ; 
also a grand juryman at the Illegal Assizes held at Salisbury in 1643.] 

16th May. Richard Chandler, of Wilton, Clk., hath subscribed upon the 
Propositions, £10, to be paid Thursday next. 

Francis Toope, of Coombe, gent., gives five pounds upon the Propositions, 
presently paid. Ho hath lent Captain D'Oyley five pounds, which the captain is 
to account for. 

Thomas Bennet, of Pyt-House, Esq., hath compounded with this Committee, 
and given bond to pay on 22nd May £20 in plate and £40 in money. Seven 
pounds of this was paid presently in three horses which Captain Ward received 
to horse his dragoons. Mr. Bennet hath formerly paid £44 to Colonel Ludlow, 
which he promiseth to make appear by his ticket in some short time. He held 
correspondence and gave intelligence to the enemy. [Then follow receipts for 
the plate at 4*. ^d. per oz., and part of the money — the rest to be paid at 
Margaret's day next.] 

Whereas we have, according to the Ordinance of Parliament, seized the sum 
of £50 of Major Francis Ranger which is in the hands of Mr. Robert Jele [or 
Chowles] of Sarum, brewer, the said Mr. Jole undertakes to pay the same to us 
within fourteen days. And it being afterwards found that £28 more of the 
Major's money was in Mr. Joles' hands, this also was surrendered to the use of 
the State. [Somewhat later, Christopher Brathwayte, of The Dolphin, makes a 
further delivery of £11 7s. Qd., moneys of Major Ranger in his hands.] 

16th May. Edward Shoard, of Maiden Bradley, gent., hath promised to lend 
upon the Parliament Propositions £30, to be paid at the farthest on 20th of this 
instant May. [He had sat as grand juryman at the Illegal Assizes.] 

26th May. Stephen Bowman, of West Harnham, gent., hafh made his com- 
position with us, and paid presently in two horses, the one delivered to Captain 
William Ludlow, the other to Captain D'Oyley, valued at £10, and promises £10 
more at Michaelmas. He formerly paid £50 to Colonel [Edmund] Ludlow, as 
appeareth by ticket. All which we accept as a full composition. — 29th Sept. 
Received £10 for his twenty-fifth part. He was an active man at Lord Hertford's 
rendezvous at Dogdean, encouraging the people to join the Marquis and Prince 
Maurice. 

28th May. Thomas Hancock, jun., of Salisbury, subscribes £16 upon the 
Propositions ; five to be paid by Thursday next ; the rest he hath laid out for 
contribution for others, as appeareth by the return of a rate made for £336 upon 
the City of Sarum for three months' contribution, out of which return we are to 
receive £11 for Mr. Hancock. 

Thomas Hancock, medius, of Salisbury, gent., resided in the King's garrison 
of Bristol, and forsook the City of Salisbury, although he was the mayor thereof. 



348 The Falstone Bay-Bool. 

He also greatly furthered the proceedings of the Eoyalists while they were at 
Salisbury. For these offences he compounded at Falstone by the payment of 
[a blank]. But the Committee did not at that time know that he had any land 
or living ; and as he subsequently became a leader forth of the people in the 
Club-business, they thought fit he should be again sequestered. {Subsequent 
entry.) Seized of Thomas Hancock one pound for the winter-lease of a ground 
which he rented of Dr. Nicholas at the hospital at Harnham. 

John Bowles, of Burcombe, Esq., subscribes upon the Propositions £30 in plate 
or money to be paid by the feast of John Baptist next, the plate at five shillings 
the ounce ; and more in wheat for the use of the garrison here, twenty quarters, 
to be brought in weekly between this and a fortnight after Midsummer. I say, 
subscribed by me, John Bowles. [His offence was, holding correspondence with 
the King, and refusing to take the Covenant. A subsequent entry in 1646 
describes him as quietly living at home, paying a final quietus of £40, and 
consenting to take the Negative Oath. There was another member of this 
family in the Royal army, Lieut. -Col. Richard Bowles. See 27th Nov., 1645.] 

29th May. William Kent, of Boscombe, Esq., having been formerly taken 
prisoner by Colonel Ludlow, and paid to him for his delinquency and for his 
enlargement a horse worth £25 and £75 in money, hath now subscribed upon 
the Propositions £60, to be paid within a month. 

John Johnson, of the Close, gent., hath promised to pay to Mr. Gauntlet £30, 
which money is to be returned to Southampton with £20 more of the said 
Gauntlet's, there to be deposited in the hands of Mr. Thomas Mason or Mr. 
Carter for the use of the State. The £30 was the money of Mr. Spencer, a 
delinquent at Oxford, and being in Mr. Johnson's hands was seized by us and 
sequestered. {Subsequent entries.) This £30 is to be returned by Saturday, 
7th June. 

Which was done accordingly. [But] 

Captain [William] Ludlow intercepting the latter, was, by promise, to have 
£15 [of it], it being, as he conceived, all prize to the soldier. 

Subscribed by the said Mr. Johnson £10 on the Propositions, received in part 
for his delinquency. 2nd June. 

29th May. James White, minister of Boscombe, subscribes upon the propo- 
sitions five pounds in a horse which Captain Ludlow took, and £12 more in 
money. His offence was repeated refusal to sign the Covenant or follow the 
Directory. He declared he would rather give up his living than the use of the 
Common Prayer. 

30th May. Christopher Riley, minister of Newton, £10 upon the Propositions, 
to be paid 10th June. 

2nd June. John Green, goldsmith, five pounds in money or plate at 4*. 8d. 
the ounce. Received the same in plate. 

Mr. George Stanhope hath taken the Covenant and signed his name. 



By J. Waylen. 849 

Gabriel Lapp, Esq., subscribes £25 upon the Propositions. He hath formerly 
paid to Sir Edward Hungerford and his officers £32. 

John Weeks, of Salisbury, gent., £20 upon the Propositions. His brother 
hath, for his estate which he now holdeth, formerly paid before his death £60, as 
appeareth by several tickets fi-om Sir William Waller, Sir Edward Hungerford, 
Colonel Ludlow, and Major Dowett. And £15 more was paid to Colonel 
Ludlow without ticket, as appeareth by testimony. All which sums are to ba 
allowed towards his five and twentieth part. Received the said £20 by Captain 
Ward and carried away. 

2nd June. William Jay, minister, of Fiddleton, hath subscribed upon the 
Propositions £30, ten to be sent in to-morrow, the rest in a fortnight. [A sub- 
sequent entry in December records his second appearance, to compound for his 
personal estate at £30 and also for his temporal means for this year until next 
Michaelmas ; for which, by reason of his great debts, we accept £20.] 

3rd June. Thomas Aylesbury, minister, of Kingston Deverill, subscribes upon 
the Propositions £20, to be paid presently ; and engages to go home and live 
thci'e quietly without prejudice to the Parliament, and to appear before U3 
■whenever we shall send for him to make his further composition. • [Mr. Aylesbury 
must have been a prominent partisan in the Royal cause, for he is elsewhere 
styled " a great delinquent."] 

Mr. Stourton Sadleir, of Little Langford, gent , being taken riding with pistols, 
and confessing that he had been in the King's quarters, was detained here in 
arms ; but afterwards it appearing that he was not a listed soldier but rode in 
arms for his own defence, and he engaging himself by promise never to take up 
arms against the Parliament, we compounded with him and took five pounds for 
his enlargement, to the use of the State. 

10th June. John Whetcombe, Richard Oldis, and George Conington, all of 
Sherbourn, in Dorset, being taken in arms and saying they were for the King, 
were first pillaged by our men and brought as prisoners in arms against the 
Parliament. But afterwards it appearing unto us that they were tradesmen and 
no listed soldiers, we compounded with them for £20 to be paid to-morrow, 
whereunto they have set their hands, William Cooper, of Sarum, engaging 
himself for the payment thereof. — Received the same ; whereof was paid to the 
Marshal for his fees, thirty shillings. 

13th June. John Duke, of Lake House, Esq., having been detained and 
secured at Falstone for delinquency, hath subscribed upon the Propositions £50 — 
twenty to be paid in hand, the rest by the last day of June ; and he is to give 
bond for and then to have his enlargement and protection. [Six months later 
Mr. Duke has to pay a much larger sum, namely, £150 in money, besides a 
hundred sheep, valued at £50, for the use of the garrison — his kinsman, Mr. 
George Duke, standing for security. John Duke at the same time takes the 
Covenant. It was charged ag,iinst him that in 1643 he had ridden with the 
Sheriff, Sir George Vaughan, to raise the posse comitatus to attack the town of 
Marlborough.] 

vor,. XXVI. — NO. Lxxviii. 2 a 



850 The Falsione Day-Booh, 

lltli July. A set of new regulations arrives from London for the better 
management of Devereux's troop at Malmesbnry ; and dismissing from the 
service Lieut. Walwyn and Captain Scarborough, for misdemeanors. 

28th July. Brought to Falstone garrison this day a prisoner named Cotsall, 
formerly in arms with Prince Maurice. He paid to Captain William Ludlow 
for his enlargement £20. 

9th August. Seized by our soldiers about three hundred and sixty sheep be- 
longing to Sir Lewes Dives, whereof one hundred and thirty were sold by Mr. 
Clarke, a trooper, for £18, which money is received by Captain Ludlow and 
allowed him for pay. The rest are for the use of the Falstone garrison. 

11th August. Subscribed by Mr. John Mompesson in his father's behalf, 
upon the Propositions £20, to be paid within ten days. 

15th August. Seized of Sir James Thynne's wool, 117 ton weight and 171b., 
amounting to £125 13*. 10c?., which was sold by Commissioner Stone, and all, 
save forty shillings, disbursed by him for provisions for the garrison. [In the 
previous month of July about a hundred of Sir James's sheep had been brought 
in and sequestered.] 

16th August. Edward Lucas, of Fovent, and his son, both papists, have 
compounded for one whole year for theij.' estates, and are to pay £10 — half on 
Monday next, the rest at Michaelmas. 

18th August. Subscribed by John Young, Esq., upon the Propositions, £100, 
fifty to be paid next Saturday, the rest on 29th October. 

19th August. Lawrence Bracher, of Tisbury, farrier, hath taken the Covenant, 
and subscribed his name. 

20th August. John Toop, of Coombe, gent., being brought before us, pays 
for his present enlargement £10. 

21st August. Christopher C. Vratt [Pratt?] of Somerford Ashton, Co. 
Gloucester, a soldier of the King's army, being taken prisoner, is released on his 
taking the Covenant and subscribing his name. 

Thomas Fry, of Ashgrove, at Donhead St. Mary, gent., subscribes £20 for his 
enlargement, to be paid 2nd September, and hath taken the Covenant. [He had 
acted as grand juryman at the Illegal Assizes.] 

22nd August. Humphrey Norborne, of Choldrhigton, gent, [another of the 
grand jury aforesaid], hath appeared before us and* made composition by paying 
presently £20, and engaging himself to pay £70 more, in manner following, &c. 
[He also acted at the assizes aforesaid.] 

27th August. John Lowe, of Dinton, gent., hath subscribed upon the 
Propositions six pounds, to be paid in fourteen days, besides a horse taken from 
him by some of Captain Ludlow's troopers, acknowledged by the Captain. 



By J. Waylen-. 351 

Whereas Robert Freind hath taken the Covenant, and further to testify his 
affection to the Parliament, hath given £20 — We, conceiving his estate to be 
under £200, think fit, according to the Ordinance annexed to the Propositions, to 
free him. He claims to be allowed three pounds which he paid to Colonel 
Ludlow; notwithstanding, he hath since paid it. [He had been an agent and 
officer for the King's party, but apparently not in arms.] 

28th August. William Gould, of Alvediston, gent., a prisoner here for de- 
linquency, hath for his present enlargement, subscribed £50, and given a £500 
bond for his appearance when summoned. 

29th August. Christopher Wren,* of Knoyle, D.D., being brought before us, 
hath for his present enlargement subscribed £40. 

30th August. Edward Wood, of Tollard Boyal, gent., being brought before 
us, gives for present enlargement £10, and bond as above for £500. [He was a> 
grand juryman at the Illegal Assizes.] 

There was seized of Mr. Skiliing, of Draycot, a recusant but not in arms, two 
hundred sheep, which were sold to Mr. Towgood for £50 ; besides eight oxen 
and six milch cows — the oxen sold for £28, the cows for £15, Robert Sainsbury 
bought of us about nine score sheep of Sir Lewes Dives', seized by our soldiers, 
for £36. 

1st September. John Windover, of Salisbury, gent., being brought before 
us, hath for his present enlargement subscribed £80, and bond for re-appearance 
£1000. [He was a captain in arms for the King.] 

4th September. Ordered by the Committee of the West — That the Committee 
sitting at Falstone and the horse of that garrison do still remain there nor depart 
till further order. — Ordered by the Commons in Parliament — ThatColonel Jephson 
passing with his horse to embark for Munster, they are to receive quarter at the 
rate of twelve pence for twenty-four hours for each hoi-se and man. Note. 
There was quartered at Baverstock fifty horse for three days and nights, coming 
in on Friday, 2nd January, and departing on Monday, 5th. 

8th September. James Whitney, of Donhead St. Andrew's, clerk, hath sub- 
scribed £30 to the State. 

11th September. Henry Beach, of Coombe, clerk, being brought before us, 
hath subscribed £10 to be paid on Saturday next, with sufficient sureties for re- 
appearance. [He had not refused the Covenant ; but, combining with the Clubmen, 
had been heard to say that as the Parliament had abused their power, it was now 
time to take the staff out of their hands and to walk by it.] 

16th September. Seized all the stock and personal estate upon Sir George 
Vaughan's farm of Falstone, and an inventory thereof delivered into the hands 
of Walter Buckler and Robert Judd, as bailiffs to be accountable for it. Out of 
the barley there is to be allowed to the said Walter Buckler £87 due unto him 



* Cf, Wilts Itagasin; vol. iii., p, 115. 

2 A 3 



85* The Falstone Bay-Booh 

for building the barn, bringing in the harvest, and servants' wages. Of three 
hundred sheep seized, two hundred were sold on 2nd November for £64. The 
other hundred, being the refuse of the whole and poor weak tegs, were sold for 
£10.— Eeceived for a furnace, part of the inventory, £4 10*. — Eeceived of the 
said Eobert Judd for hay left in the barn and for straw and dust, £4 — for a pig, 
£1 — for some lumber sold, £1. 

17th September. Sir George Penruddocke's fine for his parsonage and other 
land at Broad-Chalk, Bur-Chalk, and Alston, to be discharged by £50 in money 
and twenty quarters of wheat to be sent in to Falstone Castle, is subscribed in 
his behalf by Mr. Thomas Bigg. 

17th September. Lawrence St. Loe, of Chalk, gent., hath made composition 
for this year for and in behalf of Robert Hyde, Esq., Sergeant-at-Law, for his 
parsonage at Dinton ; and is to pay £13 6*. &d., on the lirst of October next. 

24th September. Ambrose White, of Downton, gent., hath subscribed upon 
the Propositions, £20 to be paid next Saturday. — {Subsequent mitry.) Being 
calle.d a second time on suspicion of delinquency, but nothing being alledged 
against him on oath, and he having taken the Covenant to clear himself, and in 
further testimony of his affection to the Parliament given £80 — forty of this is 
to be paid Srd Januaiy — the rest by 1st May. 

Austin Goldsbury, of Knoyle, gent., detained a prisoner for delinquency, gives 
£10 for his present enlargement, half to be paid presently ; and given security. 

25th September. Eeceived of Mr. Gabriel Huttofte upon the Parliament's 
Propositions £20. — {Subsequent receipts) 80 shillings and 20 shillings. 

27th September. Mr. George Sadler, of Wilton, brought before us for de- 
linquency, pays £20 for his present enlargement ; five of it in hand. 

30th September. Thomas Grange, of Shrewton, being brought before us, 
subscribes for his present enlargement £30 — ten within six days, the rest on 
29th November, and gives bond for re-appearance. 

Thomas Clfdfin, of Mere, D.D. Similar terms, except that the fine is £50. 

2nd October. Edward Codrington, of Sutton Mandeville, a recusant, but not 
in arms, compounds for his estate at Sutton for this year by subscribing £20, 
ten in hand, the rest at Midsummer. 

3rd October. William CoUis, of Sarum, subscribes upon the Propositions £10. 
— Received 4th October an ingot of silver weighing 44^ oz., and allowed him 
16 shillings as ovei-plus. — We sold the ingot for £10 8s. 2d., at 4*. %d. the oz. — 
The ingot fell short eight shillings, which Collis is to allow. [William Collis 
had distinguished himself by acting as receiver of delinquents' rents, in order to 
forestall the Parliament's collectors.] {Subsequent entry.) Mr. Collis hath 
aj^eared a second time before us, and given bond to pay £87, which was the 
Lord Cromwell's rents, taken up by him from Anthony Tropenell, of Amesbury. 



By J. Waylen. 353 

The condition of the bond is that if Collis bring not a warrant from under Sir 
Thomas Fairfax's hand to enable the Lord Cromwell to receive his said rents, 
then Collis is to pay the said money. He is to bring the warrant by 2nd Feb. 

4th October. Henry Good, minister, of Woodford, for delinquency, subscribes 
to pay £10 within fourteen days. 

John Call brought in his account for half-year's rent belonging to Sir Henry 
Compton ; and there remained due to the State, besides allowances for taxes and 
quarterings for soldiers, i>29 lbs. 

9th October. Mr. Eawlins Hillman subscribes to pay £5 within a fortnight. 

Henry Ghost, of Newcourt, £10 to be paid in six days. A horse of his having 
been pressed for the Parliament's service by Thomas Eastmond, tithing-man of 
Weeke, when Sir Edward H ungerford was in that part, Ghost caused Eastmond 
and the rest of the tithing to be fined by the Royalists. 

13th October. Mistress Rebecca Lawrence, in the. behalf of her husband, Dr. 
Lawrence, hath compounded with us for his parsonage of Bemerton ; and having 
already paid £10, is to pay £30 more by Christ-tide. 

17th October. Richard Green, of Winterboume Stoke, being called before us, 
subscribes £10. He formerly lent a horse worth £10 to Captain Ludlow for the 
Parliament's service. 

23rd October. John Wayland , Christopher Gale, and Henry Turner, renting 
the sheep-slaight upon Mr. Tattershall's farm at Stapleford, and entering last 
Michaelmas, paid then to him £15, and were to pay £13 6*. Sd. more for the 
whole year. This has been seized by us, besides £6 13*. 4(f. frcan Gale, as 
tenant of the arable. — Received John Hill, collector. 

24th October. Mr. Thomas Hickman, parson of Upton Lovell, compounds for 
his corn, stock, and goods there for £50 to be paid on 1st Nov. and 1st Dec. Out 
of which, and . the rest of the tithes detained by the parishioners, the minister 
that serveth the cure is to have a liberal maintenance. 

George Brown, of Ludgershall, Esq., a recusant. Mrs. Eleanor Brown, his 
wife, hath been before us and made composition for his stock there for £150 — 
fifty within a week, another fifty at St. Andrew's tide, and the remaining fifty 
by 1st February. Also for the year's rent ending at Michaelmas for his demesne 
at Ludgershall £40. 

25th October. Hugh Grove, of Chisenbury, gent., gives security to pay £100 
in part of his composition, half in two days after Leonardstide, the rest on St. 
Thomas's day ; by which time he is to repair to the Committee of Sequestrations 
above [i.e., in London] to make composition for his estate, and we are to 
give him a certificate of the value of his goods and lands and an acquittance 
for the £100. [But before reaching that final tribunal, Mr. Grove is overtaken 
by a further demand from the local Committee, namely, £60 in respect of the 



354 The Falsiotie Dai/- Book. 

rents becoming due from his two estates of Chisenbury and Sedghill, and £10 
more for his personals — with this provision, that he is to have his horses 
restored to him. He had been a captain in the King's army. See further 
under date 4th March, 1648.] 

2rid November. The case of the widow Eleanor Trimbey attested by Col. 
Edmund Ludlow, and his Sergeant, Sam. Adams. The Committee sitting at 
Salisbury are urged to allow her 2*. &d. a week. 

4th November. Stephen Hurst, of Whiteparish, gent., acted as a grand 
juryman at the Illegal Assizes. He has paid £20 as composition for his stock, 
and now adds £8 on his rents till Michaelmas, being greatly indebted. 

Sir Francis Dowse, of Wallop — we having seized eleven hundred and odd 
sheep upon his farm at Lower Collingbourn, Mr. Edmonds, of Britford, and 
Mr. Holmes, of Houghton, have been before us and agreed as follows. They 
have delivered in to the use of this garrison two hundred sheep, valued at 
JBIOO, also £50 in money. They are to drive the residue of the sheep to the 
said farm at Collingbourn there to remain with the rest of the stock and 
goods without embezzlement, until Sir Francis shall have made his composition 
in London, for performance of which they have given bond of £500. Signed, 
Eobert Edmonds, William Holmes. 

6th November. William White, in the behalf of his father, a recusant, hath 
compounded for one year for his living at Plaitford and his stock and corn 
on the land, for the sum of £15. 

10th November. Francis Swanton, of Sarum, gent. His estate and stock 
being sequestered and inventoried, the yearly value is £30. The stock is worth 
JEIOO. [Ha had been formerly Clerk of the Assize, and he acted in the affair 
of the Illegal Assizes.] 

Seized of last Michaelmas rent of Dr. Nicholas' parsonage at Dean £32, 
which his tenant, Thomas Collins, hath given bond to pay us on 18th November. 
— Received of Eichai-d Woodford for timber of the Dean's, £4 10«. — paid to 
William Stone, the commissioner. 

19th November. Robert Chandler, son of the minister at Wilton, hath been 
before us for his delinquency to subscribe £40, to be paid in ten days ; and 
also to take the Negative Oath. [This young man had quitted his studies at 
Oxford to join the Royal army.l 

Mrs. Toope gives £5 on account of her husband's means at Knoyle, Mr. 
Augustine Goldsborough acting as security. 

21st November, William Lamb, in behalf of Andrew Bowerman, of Stratford, 
clerk, compounds for the stock and personal estate for fourscore pounds. The 
wheat sown upon forty -foiir acres is included in this composition — Lamb further 
paid £40 for one year's rent of Mr. Bowerman's farm, parsonage, and mill 
there. 



By J. Waylen. 855 

22nd November. William Alexander, of Fosbury, compounds for Mr. 
Skilling's stock and year's rent for £160, besides the thirds — to end at 
Michaelmas. Allow four marks for a fat cow killed in the garrison. 

24th November. Mr. Eobert Tutt, of Barford, clerk, offered to subscribe 
£20 upon the Propositions. He differed, before the note was ended, about 
the sum, and eventually paid only £10. 

27th November. Edmund White, of West Wellow, who fought in the King's 
army, compounded in the name of his father, Thomas White, a recusant, in £6 
for his personals on St. Thomas's day, and for the living for this year till 
Michaelmas, £6 more. 

2Gth November. Mistress Bridget Bowles [or, as she signs her name, 
"Bowell,"] of Idmiston, pays £40 for her son's stock. [Richard Bowie, of 
Idmiston, in Wilts, and of Kerry Priory, in Suffolk, was a colonel of horse in 
King Charles's army. He paid first and last as a delinquent, £144, and died 
at Idmiston, in 1678. He was great-great-grandfather to John Bowie, the 
Yicar of that parish, who edited Don Quixote in six quartos.] 

27th November. Mr. Hugh Grove and Mr. Green have compounded in 
behalf of Dr. Davenant for the stock and rent of his farm at Langford for 
this year, at £50. 

William Wheeler, of Whiteparish, a Eoyalist prisoner, hath taken the 
Covenant and paid £5 for his enlargement. 

28th Nosember. Thomas Star, of Whitsbury, elerk, for his delinquency in 
taking the King's Oath of Association, hath been before us and compounded 
for £10. 

29th November. William Wastfield, of Sarum, gent., for his personal estate 
in Wiltshire, pays £50, aud is to have a certificate to London. [He was in 
arms fcr the King, besides serving on the Illegal Assizes.] 

29th November. To the Wilts Committees, or either of them. Whereas 
Eobert Gall, of London, merchant, did, about August, 1644, deliver arms to 
the value of £559, for which he is yet unpaid — We do hereby desire and 
authorize you to pay unto the said Eobert Gall, or his lawful attorney, out 
of the first moneys which shall be raised, the sum of £559 ; and this with 
his attorney's receipt shall be your sufficient warrant. Witness our hands this 
29lh November, 1645. 

PEilBEOKE AND MoNTGOMEET. NeVILL PoOLE. 

Edwaed Hungeefobd. John Danvebs. 

Edwaed Batnton. John Dove. 

Edmund Benson, of Sarum, detained here four months as a delinquent in 
arms, now pays for his enlargement in person and estate, £40, and takes the 
Negative Oath. [He signs his mark.] £7 more seized in one of his trunks 
at Sarum. with several bonds and writings, now delivered to him. 



856 Tie Falstone Bay-Book. 

Christopher Brathwayte, of Sarum, subscribes upon the Propositions six 
muskets at 30 shillings apiece, and £4 10*. in money ; and in testimony of 
his affection to the Parliament hath taken the Covenant. The money was 
paid through Mr. Commissioner Stone. 

1st December. Dr. Hyde's parsonage at Wiley being sequestered, his brother 
Frederick Hyde, hath been here and paid £20 ; but no composition is yet made. 

3rd December. John Call came before us in behalf of Sir Henry Compton, 
end is become tenant to the State for this year until Michaelmas for the old 
rents of Sir Henry in Grimstead and Plaitford, amounting to £20 4s., the third 
part whereof is allowed to Sir Henry, and the other two parts John Call is to 
pay for the use of the State at Lady-Day and Michaelmas. Mr. Call is also 
tenant for the manor and demesnes at Plaitford, for coppices at Moore farm, at 
Grimstead, and at Bramshaw, now to be cut, — at 40 shillings an acre, being on 
the whole £82. Same terms as above. [Sir Henry Compton, of Brambletye, ia 
Sussex, was described as a recusant, but not in arms.] 

3rd December. John Oakford, of Heytesbury, bailiff, acted at the Illegal 
Assizes, by summoning grand jurymen ; but as he did it through fear and 
ignorance and hath now taken the Covenant, we accept £10 for his delinquency, 
and also as his five and twentieth part. 

Mr. George I^owe [of Wishford ?] hath subscribed upon the Propositions £100, 
half to be paid in ten days, the rest within a month. He formerly paid £100 
to Col. Ludlow and £35 10s. to Sir Edward Hungerford, besides two horses 
armed, as appears by several tickets under their hands. 

4th December. Christopher Bowman engageth to pay for the use of the State 
the " old rent " belonging to the prebend of Coombe and Harnham, viz., £30 for 
the year ending next Lady-Day. Mr. Chappel is the prebendary. 

8th December. William Clarke, of Bishopstone, hath appeared before us, and 
been fined 40 shillings for speaking threatening words. 

Captain Bockland's farm at Standlynch being sequestered, is now let for this 
year until Michaelmas unto Eobert Lincoln for threescore and ten pounds. He 
is to have the sown corn and that in the barns, and all the benefit and profit of 
the farm, excepting the woods and underwoods, which he is not to meddle with 
but for necessarv uses about the farm, excepting also the waters and benefit of 
fishing ; and to leave all in husbandlike manner and sort. Thomas Brown, of 
Bodenham, rents the fishery for six pounds a year. [A subsequent inquisition 
reports as follows, in respect of Walter Bockland, aged 28, and Helen, his wife : — 
We cannot find he was ever convicted of recusancy. He made his composition 
at Goldsmith's Hall, and hath since done nothing to bring him within the 
Ordinance for Sequestration. Dated in 1652 by the principal sequestrators then 
acting in South Wilts, viz., William Ludlow, Nicholas Green, and Bennet 
Swayne.] 

9th December. Timothy Pictover, of Winterboum Guuner, clerk, compounds 



By J. Wai/lett. 357 

in £30 for his personal estate. He took the King's Oath of Association, ob- 
served Friday's fast, and was no preaching minister. 

10th December. Edmund Willis, of Sarum, a soldier in the King's army, is 
fined £5, and gives security to appear at three days' warning. Samuel Bell, of 
Sarum, tanner, kept the enemy's guard at Sarum, being a soldier in the Com- 
mission of Array. He now pays £10 upon the Propositions. 

11th December. Rowland Plott, of Tollard Royal, subscribes £10 upon the 
Propositions. [This gentleman figures largely in the pages of John Aubrey, 
who claims him as a cousin. Happening to be on board the same ship in which 
Lord Cottington, of Fonthill, was sailing to Spain to negociate the Spanish 
match, Plott by his personal accomplishments so attracted the ambassador's 
notice that he was forthwith nominated his Gentleman of the Horse. In the 
Civil War, so soon after following in England, we find Plott first siding with 
his patron for the King, then subscribing for the Parliament, and finally pub- 
lishing his marriage banns in the Market Place of Salisbury. At the date of 
which we are now treating the report is as follows : — " Mr. Plott sat in the 
Salisbury Commission at the Illegal Assizes in 1643, but as it appears that he 
did it not out of malice, but carried himself very moderately, and did many good 
oflices for the Parliament's friends during the time he sat ; and hath since 
suffered much by plunder and the loss of one of his arms, being wounded, and 
hath of late shewn himself very friendly to the Parliament's forces by giving 
intelligence; and hath, moreover, taken the Covenant, and now gives £20 and 
three cases of pistols ; which, considering his good services afterwards and his 

former sufferings, we think a considerable sum, we accept it in full discharge not 

only of his delinquency but of his twenty-fifth part."] 

11th December. Mark Hancock subscribes upon the Propositions £10. 

15th December. Henry Colepepper, of Enford, clerk, hath taken the Cove- 
nant, and subscribed upon the Propositions five pounds. 

15th December. Concerning Sir Henry Clark, whose stock was seized on 
suspicion, it appearing by certificate from the Hampshire Committee that he is 
not a delinquent, but hath given them £300, and now my Lady Clark freely 
giving to the use of the Parliament the sum of £100, we waive the supposed 
delinquency and give a protection accordingly. 

16th December. John Selwood and Richard Hickes, tenants unto Sir Giles 
Mompesson for his farm at Deptford and his " rowless thing " called Hurdles at 
Wiley, have agreed to pay for the use of the State their last Michaelmas half- 
year's rent, viz., £18 for the farm and £3 for Hurdles ; but in future 40 marks 
for the farm, without waste or spoil ; John Selwood taking Hurdles at £8. 
[Rowlis, rowless, and rowlas, an epithet of frequent occurrence, probably means 
worn out or profitless.] 

16th December. The Lord Baltimore hath been before this Committee and 
icom pounded for the year until Michaelmas for the manor and demesne of Semley 
Eilled Hook Farm and certain lands in Tisbury called Faruell's and five other 



358 The Falsione Bay -Booh. 

closes there, now let to William St. Lowe and Henry Ffezard ; and is become 
tenant to the state for the same at the rent of £100, and hath liberty granted 
for the sale of coppice or underwood to the extent of nine acres. Amberleaze, a 
tenement late in the possession of one Bodenham, is included in this grant. 
{Subsequent entry.) That Amberleaze being demised for three lives, for which 
the Committee have received £150 as fine, £20 of the rent be abated. 

17th December. Henry Mitchell, of Witchbury, tenant to Sir Edward Alford ; 
his last half-year's rent, £40, he is to pay speedily, besides his charges for 
quarteiings. 

James Parham, of Stratford, gent. In regard of the weakness of his estate 
and his having taken the Covenant, we accept £20 in discharge of his delinquency 
— abating thirty shillings for hay for the [county] troop when they lay at Sarum. 
He was a grand juryman at the Illegal Assizes. 

18th December. William Gauntlet in behalf of Mr. Nicholas, clerk, undertakes 
to pay £18 15*. for last Michaelmas half-year's rent of the parsonage of Winter- 
bourn, besides taxes and quarterings of soldiers. 

19th December. Mr. Richard Green, of Meere, hath taken the Covenant, and 
for his delinquency compounds for £130. He hath already subscribed £20. He 
held correspondence with the King's party, as appears by his own confession. 

23rd December. Thomas Grove, of Salisbury, hath taken the Covenant abd 
subscribed one good horse of the value of £10, to be sent in by Candlemas. 

26th December. Chri.stopher Brathwayte is become tenant to the State for a 
garden of Mr. John Penruddocke, of Hale, at 40 shillings. And William Smith 
holds the Dolphin inn, belonging to Mrs. Jane Penruddocke, at £8. 

[Upon complaints made in London as to the management of delinquents' estates, 
two of the Wilts Committee, together with Mr. Coles, the Salisbury sequestrator, 
are ordered to attend the Committee for advance of moneys, and explain.] 

John Hancock, of Coombe, Esq., being questioned for his delinquency, he 
having taken the King's Oath of Association, now takes the Covenant, and sends 
in two fat oxen worth £16, and twenty bushels of wheat at four shillings the 
bushel, making altogether £20. 

27th December. Mr. Thomas Newland, a captain in the King's army, now 
desiring the protection of the Parliament, hath taken the Negative Oath, and 
sent in a horse, for which we received £4. 

29th December. William Clark, as tenant to the State, takes Mr. Poulton's 
farm at Stratford at £40, besides Mrs. Poulton's allowance and other payments 
according to the Ordinance. 

Mr. Robert Jole, of Sarum, tenant to Mr. John Young, gives bond for the 
payment of the last half-year's rent. It was £120, but we accepted £50, 
allowing the rest for losses, free quarterings, &c. 



By J. Waylen. 359 

Seized by Mr. William Good, collector, of Sir John Webb's rents at Hampt- 
■worth, two pounds. Lawrence Shackle hath bought of Sir John Webb's timber 
at OJstock sixteen eluis and twenty-one ashes for £30 . [Then follow several 
other bargains for trees, all indicating a high relative value for that form of 
stock.] 

Thomas Tutt, of Gumbleton, sends in a horse worth £5. John Topp, on 
suspicion of delinquency, promises a horse worth £5, and £30 in money. Francis 
Topp, being called the second time before us, subscribes £10 for his twenty -fifth 
part. Mr. William Joyce, of Salisbury, testifies that he formerly gave £10 to 
Sir Edward Hungerford, £7 to Sir William Waller, £5 to Major Dowett besides 
■what was already due to Dowett ; and now further to testify his affection to the 
Parliament hath lent the sum of £20, in all amounting to £50, which we accept 
for his five and twentieth part. 

Mr. Ring, of Netheravon, hath compounded in behalf of Mr. Benjamin Jay, 
of Hackleston, in £20 for his personal estate ; and subsequently £5 more for 
his friend's means at Hackleston and Fiddleton. He craves abatement for two 
horses which our soldiers took from him. 

Robert Brown [or Bower?], of Wishford, clerk, compounds for £100 to be 
paid presently. He took the Oath of Association, observed the Friday's fast, 
and read the Prayer Book. 

Thomas Hancock, sen., hath sent his son, Thomas, and his kinsman, Thomas 
Hancock, to subscribe £40 for his twenty-fifth part, having already paid £20 to 
Sir William Waller and Sir Edward Hungerford. 

1646. 1st January. John Baugh, of Idmiston, hath taken the Covenant, and 
is to pay £10 for delinquency, which we accept in full, as he is much indebted, 
and his estate as we conceive not worth £200 sterling. John Sharp, minister, of 
Idmiston, takes the Covenant and subscribes £15. Edward St. Barbe, of White- 
parish, £20 upon the Propositions. Joseph Stockman, £20 for his five and 
twentieth part. Edward Topp, of Stockton, Esq., £150 as composition in fuU 
for his personal estate ; and he hath given bond for his appearance at London by 
2nd February, to compound for his real estate. 

3rd January. William Woodford, noted to be disafFected, appears through his 
brother George, who pays £5 and engages that William shall come and take the 
Covenant as speedily as may be. William Hayter, through his deputy, John 
Rowden, promises £4. John Rowden, of Hanging Langford, subscribes £5. 
John Reynolds, of Everley, for his tithes there received, pays £17. John 
Everlie, of Meere, £5 upon the Propositions. 

5th January. We have sequestered the " old-rents " of Benedick Hall, Esq, 
at Lavorstock, who is seised of the manor there. [Then follow receipts of about 
£45.] William Nash, of Salisbury, subscribe upon the Propositions £10. 
Thomas Cutler, of Salisbury, £20. Arthur Saunders, of Salisbury, £20. George 
Marshal, of Milford, gent., for his delinquency, in serving as a grand juryman 



360 The Falstone Day -Book. 

at the Illegal Assizes, compounds for £100, and takes the Covenant. [Subsequent 
entries of receipts up to £55 ; then the words : — ] " He is acquitted the remainder 
for that he is found to be in debt." • 

6th January. Mr. Samuel Barwick, of Sarum, was formerly in arms for the 
King, but hath sat still for twelvemonths and more. He now takes the Negative 
Oath and subscribes £5 — promising to do more for his five and twentieth part 
if he shall be enabled ; which we accept, conceiving him to be under the value of 
£200. 

Mr. George Duke, of Psalterton, subscribes upon the Propositions £20 in 
money and £10 in two horses. Mr. Maurice Green, jun., £20 upon the Propo- 
sitions, besides £3 arrears of the three months' contribution assessed on him for 
Sarum. William Stockman, Esq., engages to take the Covenant when tendered, 
and further to lend the sum of £150. He formerly gave to Col. Edmund Ludlow 
£30 and a horse. This frees him from his supposed delinquency. 

John Kingman, of Britford, is become tenant to the State for the grounds 
belonging to Longford Farm, viz., forty acres arable at 6 shillings the acre, 
twenty-two acres meadow at 30 shillings, and the summer fields and down land 
for £20. {Subsequent 6ntry.) This was taken off by order from above, sent 
on the behalf of the Lord Coleraine. 

7th January. Stephen Batten hath compounded for Fisherton mills for £20 
for this year. 

8th January. Francis Roberts, of Sarum, gent., gives £10 payable on 2nd 
February, when he will give us his answer whether he will take the Covenant. 
Mr. Lawrence St. Lowe £30 upon the Propositions. Christopher Vine, of 
Salisbury, £5. 

Richard Aubrey, of Broadchalk, gent., has already paid £7 in North Wilts 
towards his five and twentieth part there. Now he pays to us at Falstone £33 
in sixty fat sheep and £60 in money, accepted for his fine here and in Hereford- 
shire. 

Thomas Gray, of Amesbury, is tenant to the State for the Abbey ground and 
park there belonging to the Marquis of Hertford, to hold the same till March, 
1647, paying £5 at Lady Day and £20 for the whole year after. [This agree- 
ment is dated at Longford, and concludes thus : — ] " This, I take it, is included in 
Mr. Booth's bargain." 

9th January. Mr. William Clements, of Sarum, subscribes for his five and 
twentieth part £10. Isaac A'Court £5. Mr. John Mervin, in behalf of his 
father, Mr. George Mervin, £50. William Slann, of Sarum, £10. Henry 
Seaward, of Sarum, £5. Thomas Botley, of Sarum, £7. Mr. Richard Banks, 
of Sarum, £15, having formerly lent £5 to Sir Edward Hungerford, £5 to Sir 
William Waller, and £5 over and above his share of the Salisbury three months' 
contribution. 



By J. Waylen. 861 

During- this winter of 1645-6, while the people of Wiltshire were 
nursing the fond belief that the war was at an end, they were 
suddenly undeceived by the irruption of a body of about eight 
hundred horse from Oxford, under the comnaand of Sir John 
Cansfield, and Sir James Long. This was about the 20th of 
January ; and it so happened that a portion of the Wilts Committee 
was just then sitting in conclave at Marlborough, protected by 
Colonel Eyre, the Governor of Devizes, with three troops of horse 
and a hundred foot soldiers. These were all captured ; and by the 
aid of the newspapers we can then track the further advance of the 
invaders through the south of the county, gathering as they went 
along horses, money, and prisoners. Skippon, then at Bristol, 
strove hard but in vain to come in contact with them ; till at last 
they were intercepted and scattered by Mr. Sheriff Thistlethwayte 
at the head of the posse comitatus, probably near Salisbury. — " The 
mischievous horse from Oxford," writes one of the newspaper cor- 
respondents, " that took the Committee and gentlemen at Marl- 
borough, of whom I told you last week, have since been beaten by 
the High Sheriff of the County, gallant Master Thistlethwayte. 
Would that we had more such sheriffs and fewer committees, for 
they make divisions in most counties," — Scottish Dove, ^th Feb. 

The " gallant " sheriff here memorialised, namely Alexander 
Thistlethwayte, jun., of Winterslow, was not, it need hardly be said, 
the nominee of the King, though, like many other of the great 
families at that crisis, the Thistlethwaytes were a divided house. 
Besides the two Alexanders, father and son, Peregrine and Henry 
are conspicuous on the Parliament's side as early as November, 164<2. 
In February, 1646, Mrs. Thomasine petitions the House for arrears 
due to her deceased husband. See also under 1st May, 1647, for 
the case of Bridget, the widow of Captain Francis Thistlethwayte. 
On the other hand, John Thistlethwayte, Esq., belonging, like the 
Alexanders, to Winterslow, was witnessed against before the Falstone 
House Committee by Henry Thistlethwayte and Timothy King. 
The charges, it is true, were of a very slight nature, just sufficient 
to indicate his Royalist tendencies ; for though he donned a buff 
coat and pistols, he does not appear to have gone into action. The 



362 Tlie Falsione Bay-Book. 

witnesses told how he had been seen associating with King's 
officers at the White Bear^ in Salisbury^ and that his man carried a 
" snaphance-piece." And they add a graphic touch to their narra- 
tive which may as well be recited for its singularity. Lord 
Clarendon tells us that when Sir Ralph Hopton's musket-match 
was running short during his occupancy of DevizeSj he replenished 
that article by collecting all the bed-cords and bedding throughout 
the town and converting the material into regulation-fusees. So 
it came to be said that Sir Ralph had " held out Devizes with bed- 
cords " ; and a piece of hempen cord worn as a hat-band continued 
for some brief period among the Royalists to be an emblem of 
triumph. Mr. Thistlethwayte, it was shown^ had been guilty of 
indulging in this species of decoration, and his delinquency was 
therefore unchallenged. This examination at Falstone House took 
place on 13th October, 1646; but no fine is recorded. 

Alexander's successor in the shrievalty was his friend Sir Anthony 
Ashley Cooper, afterwards Lord Shaftesbury. Leave was given 
him by the Parliament to reside out of Wiltshire during his shriev- 
alty ; he nevertheless spent much time here, and accordingly rented 
Mr. Hyde's house in the Close next to the Deanery. When he 
revolted from the King, the Goldsmith's Hall Committee proposed 
the moderate composition of £500, which the House confirmed; 
but it does not appear to have been ever levied. There is a note 
among the Shaftesbury papers, says Mr. Christie, his biographer, 
stating that this fine was discharged by Cromwell in 1657. On 
16th December, 1646, soon after his nomination as sherifi", he was, 
by ordinance, added to our Wilts and Dorset Committee for contri- 
butions to Sir Thomas Fairfax's army. See Sir Anthony's private 
journal, an interesting record of events in Wiltshire during the 
period now under review. 

10th January. Several horses were brought in this day ; one bright bay, by 
Thomas Whiteheart, value £7 — allowed in the rent of Mr. Thomas Mompesson's 
farm at Little Bathampton — with others contributed by Bridget Ballard, of 
Wiley, Francis Collyer, of Steeple Langford, John Lawes, of Newton, Jane 
Buudy, oi Great Amesbury, and Anthony Trotman. 

Vaughan Friend, accused of detaining in his custody certaio arms belonging 



By J. Waijlen. 363 

to the Parliament, disbursed for his enlargement£5.— John Sweetapple, of Chalk, 
£10 upon the Propositions. — John Gilbert, of Sarum, £10. — Ellis Hascall, of 
Semley, £10. — Seized by Mr. Sanger, the collector of Richard Rawkins, tenant 
of Sir John Webb, at Odstoek, £80. [Among other particulars of the Odstock 
seizure occurs this : — ] Received for two books of the seized goods of Mr. Smith, 
the minister, 15 shillings. 

12th January. Mr. Robert Edmunds hath fully compounded for £30. He 
served at the Illegal Assizes ; but as he deserted the party before the assizes were 
ended, and carried himself as a friend ever since, we have thought fit to clear 
him of that delinquency. 

Henry Michell, jun., is become tenant to this Committee for Sir Edward 
Alford's farm at Wichbury at £60. 

13th January. Edward Poore, of Bemerton, in the capacity of Oxford carrier, 
often conveyed during the war letters and provisions to the enemy. He com- 
pounds for £10, his estate being under £200. — John Ponchardon, of Whitepai-ish, 
and John Lee, of Hammington, each subscribe £20. 

14th January. Matthew Bee, of Salisbury, Esq., and alderman there, sends 
his son-in-law, Isaack A'Court, who proves Mr. Bee's previous payments to 
Parliamentary Generals, and now adds £30 for his twenty-fifths. 

Mr. William Bowles, of Sarum, compounds for delinquency in £20, his estate 
being under £200, [His crime was, going to Oxford, proving wills and suing 
forth pardons under the Great Seal, contrary to the Ordinance of Parliament, 
and practising there as an attorney. He confessed that he sued out a pardon 
from the King for one Mr. Franklin, of Warminster, which cost Mr. Franklin 
forty or fifty pounds. He knows also that the same thing was done for Francis 
Dove through the influence of his wife and of his brother, Robert Dove ; the 
injurious character of such pardons being that they recognized the adherents of 
the Parliament as in a state of rebellion. Two days later Mr. Bowles comes 
again before the Committee in behalf of Mistress Henchman, to compound for 
that part of the annuity due unto Dr. Henchman out of her estate, being £100 
per annum, half of which the Dorset Committee had seized. The other half 
Mr. Bowles undertakes to farm at £40 de claro, besides the lady's fifths.] 

16th January. Sundry subscriptions, either upon the Propositions or for the 
twenty-fifths : — William Barfot, of Sarum, £5. — Henry Gilbert, of Sarum, £5. 
George Page, of Sarum, £10. — Mr. John Mompesson, jun., a grey mare, worth 
£7. — Mr. Francis Dove, of Sarum, a bay nag, worth £5. — Robert White, of 
Sarum, £5. — Leonard Cockey, £5. — Edmund Chandler, £10. — Rawlence Allen, 
£20. — John Rowden, formerly in arms for the King, now takes the Covenant 
and sends in a horse. — John Batt, of Sarum, who formerly served under Capt. 
Windover, takes the Negative Oath and promises £5. — Mr. Morris Green, two 
horses worth £8. 

17th January. John Butler, of Bodenham, hath agreed to water the meadows 



S64, The Falstone Day-Bool. 

attached to Longford, mend the hatches, scour the trenches, with all such work 
as is necessaiy to the well drowning the said meadows for this year, at £10. 

19th January. Edward Tooker, Esq., exhibits tickets proving various contri- 
butions to the Parliamentary Generals, and adding further for his twenty-fifths 
— altogether £123. Dated at Longford Castle. [Edward Tooker, of Maddington» 
so often referred to in Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper's diary as " my uncle at 
Madenton."] 

19th January. John London, of Sarum, vintner, and William Viner, of 
Sarum, both charged with holding correspondence with the enemy by trading to 
Oxford ; their estates being under £2U0, we accept £5 from London and £10 
from Yiner. — Richard Noate, of Idmiston, £40. — Richard James, of Sarum, £5. 
William Snow, of Winterbourn Stoke, £30. — Henry Miles, sen., a bay nag, 
worth £4, and £26 in money. — Mr. Thomas Harris, of Orcheston St. George, 
£20. — Alexander Percy, for himself and his mother, a horse worth £12. — Abel 
Rosewell, £20.— Mr. Richard Miles, £15. — John Fishlake, £14 and a horse, 
given to the Governor of Longford Castle [William Ludlow], for his trumpeter. 

20th January. Mr. Nicholas Green, of Winterbourn Stoke, who for his 
affection to the Parliament hath suffered much from the enemy, now gives a 
horse worth £10, and £10 in money. Accepted for his five and twentieth part 
as well in Dorset as in Wilts. 

Mr. John Gilbert, of Maddington, having already given many horses to the 
army, now adds a hay gelding, worth £7, and £10 in money. Accepted for his 
own estate and his grandson's living at Shrewton. 

John Randoll, of Tilshead, not only served in the militia under Sir Edward 
Hungerford, but maintained three other men therein for a month ; he also 
delivered up £57, sequestered from his landlord, a papist, which said landlord 
made him pay it over again. He now gives £3. 

Nicholas Johnson, of the Close, Sarum, gent., by his own confession served as 
an ensign under Capt. Windover in the Commission of Array, and acted as 
receiver of moneys levied by the King's Commissioners. His estate being weak, 
we accept £5. — Roger Bedbury, of Sarum, a delinquent; in taking the King's 
Oath of Association ; his estate being under £200 we accept £10. 

23rd January to 31st. John Strugnel, of Bemerton, for his twenty-fifth, £5. 
— Thomas Harwood, of Sarum, £50. — John Bushell, of Compton Chamberlain, 
£20. — Mistress Ellen Mompesson, of Cheesegrove, £50, she having formerly lost 
£7 in two horses taken from her tenant at Gorton Farm for the use of the State. 

2nd February. Received from Mr. Giles Sadler a white mare, a case of pistols, 
a sword and a carabine, value £6. — Jervoise Hillman, of Quidhampton, and Moses 
White, of Sarum, each subscribe £10. — John Brooks, of Wilton, £5. — Thomas 
Coward, of Wyford, £5.— Mr. Thomas Belly, of Sarum, £50. 



By J. Wai/len. 865 

February 6th to lOth. Mr. Wilkinsoa delivered in upon the Propositions two 
muskets, two pair of bandaliers, a case of pistols, and a carabine, worth £3, and 
40 sliillings in money. — Francis Matthews, of Burton Bali, £5. — Francis CoUyer 
and John Merret, of Hanging Langford, £5 each. — Thomas Miles, of Wroughton, 
a black mare worth £6. — Kobert Blake, of Wishford, £10, besides a horse lent 
to Sir William Waller. — John Newman, of Charlton, and Rowland Newman, each 
£20. — John Chubb, in behalf of the widow Audras, of Bulford, £10. — Richard 
Ratway, in behalf of Henry Poyuter, of Bulford, £5. — Francis Weeks, of 
Amesbury, £20. — Mr. John Lynch, of Downton, £7 10s. in a bay horse.— 
William Lawes, of Broadchalk, £20. — Thomas Wheeler, £5. 

10th February. John Lawes, of Broadchalk, tithingman, is accused by 
Ambrose Newe and John Randell as follows. When the Lord Hopton was at 
Winchester, just before Cheriton fight, Lawes came to the house of Edmund 
White in order to impress him for the King's service, though sixty years of age, 
and lying sick in bed. Mr. Hudson, another witness, testified that when Lawes 
was offered the press-money as a substitute, he refused it, saying that the 
substitute he required was the old man's son, then in the Parliament's service. 
He compelled the old man to arise, though he ti-embled too much to put on or 
off his clothes ; and in fact died within six weeks, declaring that Lawes had beea 
the death of him." Lawes being now brought prisoner to Falstone, pays £10 for 
his enlai-gement. 

[Francis Barber, of Burbage, yeoman, had two sons (though against the will 
of on» of them) in the Royal army, and had himself served there for three weeks. 
But his especial enemy was Giles Davis, who, as constable of the parish, had 
impressed two of his carts for the service of Sir William Waller, while that 
general was besieging Devizes in July, 1643. The battle of Roundway following 
immediately after, gave the upper hand to the aggrieved farmer, who forthwith 
made his way, accompanied by his wife, into the victorious ranks of the Royalists 
in Devizes, where his two sons were serving under the command of Colonel 
Pierce, and induced that officer to march with force and arms into the territory 
of his neighbour, Giles Davis, and make reprisals in the form of two horses, 
assuring him withal that it was his full intention not to leave him while he was 
worth a groat. W^ith the addition of two more captured waggons which he was 
permitted to carry off from the field of Roundway fight, Mr. Barber was 
suflficiently repaid. Testified by Giles Davis and Edmund Pearson. No fine 
recorded.] 

February 12th to 17th. On the Propositions or for their twenty-fifths. 
George Minety, of Hummington, £5. — Mr. Nicholas Grove, £5. — Robert Munday, 
of Great Durnford, and John Blandford, of Marten, £5. — Mr. Jolm Lynch, 
second appearance. He formerly paid to Capt. Francis Thistlethwayte £20 
by Sir Edward Huugerford's order. He now gives more £6 10*. — Mr, 
John Penny, of Bulford, £5. — Robert Wansborough, of Shrewton, £5. — Mr. 
Jerome Topp, £10. — Robert Wadman, alias Typper, of Sarum, a King's soldier, 
imprisoned here three weeks, is discharged, on his taking the Covenant, paying 
£1, and promising another £1 in a month. — Mistress Susan Hobbes, of Downton, 
widow, £4. She formerly sent in to the garrison stationed in West Dean House 
VOL. XXVX. — NO. Lxxvni. 'Z B 



366 The Falstone Bay-Booh. 

six quarters of malt, worth £6. — {Suhsequent entry.) Eeceived of Mrs. Hobbes 
a double salt, three pieces, a^ad three spoons. Note. Eemember to sequester £5 
per annum which Mrs. Hoboes doth pay to her son dwelling in the King's 
garrison. — William Carter, of Gurston, £5. — John Bailey, of Sarum, £3 \5s. in 
a horse and £4 in four fat hogs. — Jonn Frowde, of Sedghill, £5. — Mr. Goddard, 
of Sedghill, £10.— William Grey, of East Hatch, £10. He had a horse worth 
£8 pressed for the service by Captain Francis Thistlethwayte.— William Grey 
further appears, together with Thomas Blandford, in the behalf of Thomas Grey, 
of Semley, and subscribes to £7. — Elias Francis, £7. 

16th February. Richard Toope, of Knoyle, gent., a captain in the King's 
army, brought in here and committed to the Marshal. But by reason his estate 
lies in Dorsetshire he pays £5 for bis present enlargement, and Henry Randoll, 
of Broadchalk, gives bond for his appearance within a month before Colonel 
John Bingham, at Poole, there to make further satisfaction. 

19th February. [Giles Eyre, of Brickworth, Esq., whose aifcction to the 
Parliament had long been manifest, had appeared in the previous jear before the 
Falstone Committee and subscribed upon the Propositions £50 towards the 
twenty -fifth part of his own and his son Giles' personals. On the ItiHh February 
is this second notice.] Giles Eyre, Esq., hath appeared the secon.d time, and 
hath produced several bills and tickets, whereb}' it appeared he had bei^n at great 
charge in setting forth his sons and advancing moneys otherwise, ai id that he 
paid £15 in two oxen and other provisions furnished to Major Dowett when he 
occupied West Dean House. In consideration whereof and for his good a'lffection 
to the Parliament, we have thought fit to abate £20 of the subscription abcyvesaid 
and to accept of £30, which is to be divided as followeth, viz., £20 for l;>is son 
Giles's annuity, which he is to abate in his rent ; and £10 for his own es tate ; 
the money to be paid by the 6th of May.— Eeceived, 8th May, £23, and a hi«rse 
for the troop, delivered to Captain Hassell. '. 

1 

William Caldecott, Esq., convented before us on suspicion, engageth to take 
the Covenant in the County of Somerset, and subscribes £30 for his five and 
twentieth part. 

February 21st to 26th. Mrs. Elizabeth Snow, of Berwick St. James, widow, 
£5. — A horse worth £5 from John Newman, of Pensworth. — John Soyers, £5. 
Henry Castle, of Sarura, William Lucas, of Fovent, Mr. Eobert Eyre, of Box, £10 
each. — William Cautelow, of Tisbury, John Scammel, of Tisbury, and Thomas 
Burden, of Donhead. £5 each. — Henry Hewitt, tenant for the King's Arms, in 
Sarum, to Sir Giles Mompesson, hath brought in his bill, and is to discharge the 
old-rent £8, and pay us £4 more on 2oth March — the future rent to be £16. 

26th February. Mr. George Pope, minister of Donhead St. Mary, hath sent ' 
his tenant John Lush to compound for his five-and twentieth part. He formerly 
paid £40 to Captain Bean when assisting Edmund Ludlow in defending Wardour 
Castle. He now subscribes £40 more. [This aged minister was a great sufferer. 
Supposed to be wealthy, he had shortly before the war been victimised by 
Charles the First's compulsory loan system, to the amount of £100, by writ of 



By J. Waylen. 367 

Privy Seal ; besides being harrassed by a political adversary, William Bnrleton, 
of Heath Farm, who refused his tithes. Mr. Pope's liberality to the Pailiamcnt's 
cause ought to have secured him more respectful treatment, for he had held the 
living forty-nine years; but he was turned out in 1616, we must suppose on the 
ground of " Insufficiency " by reason of age ; for nothing else was brought 
against him. His death occurred about two years later. See 12th March, ltil6, 
for Burleton.] 

27th February. Sold out of Langley Wood for the use of the State to William 
Bowles, of Sarum, six oaks for LI , and to William Whittyer, of Sarum, four 
hollow oaks for firewood, for £3. 

[William Booth, gent., and George Thomas, gent., are become tenants to the 
State for several parts of the Marquis of Hertford's estate in the Collingbourns, 
Stapleford, Amesbury, West Dean, &c., for £450, with stipulations too long to 
recite. After sundry receipts dated here and at Devizes, occur the words : — ] " This 
bargain is taken off above." [''Above " means in London.] 

28th February to 2nd March. James Oviatt, £10.— Jerome Webb, of 
Winterbonrn, £10. — Thomas Batter, £5.— Eichard Pile, of Great Amesbury, £5, 
and at the same time Mr. William Pyle, of Baverstock, through his servant, 
William Barrett, shewed that he had paid £12 in Dorset, and now adds £28 for 
Wiltshire. — Mr. Jasper AVestley, of Whitley, having previously paid £10 to 
Major Wansey, now subscribes £20 more. Mr. Skilling, of Dray cot, a recusant, 
for his warren at Fosbury, and coppice of twelve acres, to pay £40, besides £i:0 
to Mrs. Skilling for her thirds.— Edward Poore, of Durrington, gent., being 
convented before us on suspicion ; but he having taken the Negative Oath and 
subscribed £8 now frees him from the supposed delinquency. 

Mr. William Tooker, of Britford, is charged as follows— that he being Bailiff 
of Salisbury, read all the King's proclamations, but refused to publish those that 
were set forth by the Parliament. He now compounds for £50, ten pounds 
being allowed for two horses which Captain Ewen had. For the payment of his 
debts, which are considerable, his real and most of his personal estate was 
conveyed to his brother, Edward Tooker, Esq., long before these times. We 
therefore accept the above in full discharge. [Dated at Longford Castle ; both 
brothers signing. See 19th January, 1645.J 

3rd March. William Grove, of Guston, in the parish of Chalk. Thomas 
Hayward, of Normanton, and William Hay ward, of Duruford, £5 each. — From 
Warminster Mr. John Fisher and Mr. Edward Middlecot, each £10. Mr. 
Middlecot had at various times shown his affection to the Parliament by setting 
forth horse and arms under Sir Edward Hungerford. 

Mr. Walter Biss, minister of Bishopstrowe, being convented before us for 
delinquency, hath taken the Negative Oath, and for his personal and tem2)oi-al 
estate in Cheesegrove subscribed £20, which we accept in full discharge, con- 
ceiving his estate to be under £200. 

2 B 2 



368 The Falstone Bay-Boolc. 

4th March. Towards their twenty-fifths, John White, jun., for his living at 
Charlcot, £5.— Mr. Francis Sadler, £20 in behalf of his father-in-law, Mr. 
Hercules Stourton. — Mr. Nicholas Bucher, of Warminster, £5 in addition to £5 
already paid to Sir Edward Hun»erford.— Mr. William Harris, of Imber, £10. 
— And Mr. Thomas Ludlow, of Warminster, £5. 

Mr. Robert Hunt, a delinquent and prisoner on suspicion, takes the Negative 
Oath, and is discharged on engaging to pay £5 towards his five and twentieth 
part. 

6th March. Jasper ShergoU hath taken the parsonage of Bishopstone at 
£150 per annum. This is all paid over ; partly to the minister who now serves 
the cure ; the rest to Mrs. Earle, for her fifths. 

For or towards their twenty-fifth parts, Mistress Agnes Ritson, of Falstone, 
in the parish of Bishopstone. £12. — Mr. Thomas Pyle, of Baverstock, £45, by 
his wife, Mrs. Lucy Pyle, who showed that he had formerly paid £50 to Sir 
Edward Hungerford and £5 upon the Propositions. — Mrs. Anne Hyde, of Hatch, 
£5, paid through her kinswoman, Mrs. Luttrell. — Robert Jole, of Sarum, 
brewer, £20. 

9th March. George Allen, of Warminster, baker. His offence was taking 
the King's Oath of Association. His estate not being worth £100, we accept 
40 shillings. 

For or towards their twenty-fifth parts, Thomas Ring, £15, for his father, 
Richard Ring, of Sedghill, and £5 for himself.— Mrs. Mary Parker, £5.— Edward 
Carpenter, of Warminster, £10 upon the Propositions, and Thomas Bannister, of 
Meere, £20. He with his son Jasper, rents Meere Park, belonging to Lord 
Arundel, besides paying thirds to Lady Arundel. 

10th March. Edward Ring, of Semley, pays £5 upon the Propositions. — Mr. 
Richard Good, of Sarum, £40, besides £10 in a horse sent to Sir Edward 
Hungerford. 

11th March. Mr. John Stauntor, of Knoyle, having subscribed to £5, it is 
respited for the service he has done the State, and being a poor man with many 
children. — Robert Morgan, of Warminster, delinquent, respited for poverty- 
[Other Warminster delinquents fined this day in various amounts were William 
Seeley, William Bailey, Thomas Slade, Bartholomew Penny, Thomas Butcher, 
and John Adlam, jun. With them were two Parliamentarians, Thomas Andrews, 
a schoolmaster, and Edward Adlam, who each advanced £5. Probably, as they 
all belonged to Warminster, they made a day of it, and went in a company to 
Falstone House, where it is to be hoped a good dinner at the expense of " the 
State " sent them home in better humour than they arrived. Nest day two 
other Warminster names appear — John Webb, whose " timorousness and in- 
firmity " was purged with 40 shillings, and Thomas Aldridge, gent., who paid £5.] 

Stephen Bates, of East Haruham, fought as a soldier in the King's army. 
His estate being under £200, we accept £10 in full discharge. 



By J. Waylen. 869 

Mrs. Marian Leicester takes a tenement and garden attached to "the King's 
Arms," in Sarum at £2, belonging to Sir Giles Mompesson. 

12th March. William Buvleton, of Heath Farm, at Donhead St. Mary, was 
charged with suing out under the Great Seal a .subpojna from Oxford, whilst 
that city was a King's garrison, against Stephen Blandford, charging: him with 
high treason against His Majesty. This form of delinquency being construed 
into ignorance on his part, and he promising to take the Covenant, the Committee 
aceepted of £20 in full discharge thereof. 

Henry Cooper, of Downton, subscribes upon the propositions £10, which Mr. 
Roger Fursby eugageth to pay. Mr. Fursby at the same time subscribes to pay 
£60 for the parsonage of Downton, being assessed for the five and twentieth 
part. 

Mr. John Ring hath come before this Committee in the behalf of Mr. Robert 
Grove formerly called up for delinquency. Mi'. Grove was in arms for the King, 
but he deserted that service two years since. His estate being mean, under 
£200, and he having only £30 per annum by lease and no personal estate, Mr. 
Ring has compounded by £20. Dated at Longford Castle. 

March 13th to 24th. William Chandler, of Warminster, took the King's Oath 
through " timorousness." We accept £5 as for his twenty- fifth part. — John 
Walters, of Great Durnford, £5.— Mr. William Maton, £10 for the estate of his 
father, Mr. Francis Maton, at Tidworth, and £20 for his father's and his own 
estate at Lavington. — John Hascall, of Chalkton, near Donhead, in the name of 
his mother, Grace Hascall, widow, £5. — Thomas Dunham, of Sarum, Thomas 
Ray, of Salisbury, William Gauntlet, in behalf of his aunt, Mrs. Susanna 
Nicholas, of Winterbourn, £10 each. 

William Jones, of Norton Bavant, takes, at £10, a tenement in Ashton 
Gifford belonging to the Earl of Shrewsbury. Note. — This is paid to the other 
Committee. 

John Benger, of Sarum, though formerly assessed for his twenty-fifth part, 
brings £10 more. Matthew Gombleton, of Britford, subscribes to send in 
eight bushels of wheat, accepted to the value of 35 shillings. — John Roffe 
of Enford, £5 ; but he being a constable and forward in the Parliament's 
service, this is respited. — William Goldsney, of Sarum, 40 shillings.— Thomas 
Warr, of Sarum, gent., £50 for his twenty-fifth part, abate £10 for five tons of 
hay delivered here. — Mr. Thomas Chafin, of Sarum, £25.— John Hopkins, £5. 
Mr. Francis Parry, of Whiteparish, and Roger Laugley, of Harnham Hill, £10 
each for their twenty-fifths. — Mr. William Bennett, of Berwick St. John, £20 
on the same account.— Matthew Poore, of Britford, subscribes upon the Propo- 
sitions £15 ; accepted in full for his twenty-fifth ; and because it is disbursed 
within ten days it is to be repaid upon the public faith according to the Ordinance 
in that behalf. 

The Lady Blanch Arundel, widow, hath agreed with this Committee and \s 
become tenant to the State for these parcels of land and rents hereafter expressed, 



370 The Falstone Day-BooTc. 

being all the demesnes of the late Lord Arundel, her husband, which he had in 
Wilts, namely the rents of assize in Donhead, Tisbury, Brldford, and Haselton, 
Anstey, and Tollard Royal ; the farms of Bridzor, Tisbury, and Anstey, with 
Wardour Park.— To hold to the said Lady and her assigns for one year from the 
date hereof, for the sum of £200,— threescore payable on 23rd April, fourscore 
more on 29th September, the other threescore on 2nd February.— The said Lady 
to pay arrears of taxes and quarterings of soldiers until Lady-Day, 1647 ; and 
expect nothing for her thirds, past or to come ;— saving out of this grant all 
woods and underwoods which are hereby excepted ; as also reserving all the rents 
of assize whidi will be due to the State at Lady-Day, 1647. [Signed by Lady 
Arundel in a large free band.] 




26th March. Mistress Katharine Hyde, widow, hath compounded for the 
five and twentieth part of her estate and that of Robert Hyde, orphan, and for 
all the estate that was of Lawrence Hyde, Esq., her husband, lately deceased, 
which now is in her possession and belongeth to the said Robert, the heir, or to 
some other of the children of the said Lawrence Hyde — viz., Heale and Durnford, 
and Cowsfield and Dinton, the North Leases in North Wilts, and Stratford, all 
in Wilts ; the farms of Holliugbourn, Bramshutt, Hartlewiutry, and Houghton, 
in Hants and Surrey. Mrs. Hyde hath paid in hand £30 and engaged to pay 
£50 more. All which, amounting to fourscore pounds, is accepted for the five 
and twentieth part of all the lands aforesaid and for all the estate of the said 
Lawrence Hyde, deceased, — upon this condition, that the sum be freely given 
and not lent. Neither is Mrs. Hyde or her assignees to expect any re-payment 
upon the public faith. (After receipts for £70 the following occurs.) — " The other 
£10 is respited till it be decided whether Sergeant Hyde shall pay it, or the 
State's tenant at Dinton." 

26th March. Dr. Stephens compounds in £5 for arrears of rent due for a 
house in Brown Street, Sarum, which he holds of Sir Gabriel Dowse, a delinquent; 
besides £3 6s. 8rf. for goods left by Sir Gabriel in the house. 



*:^* The Society is indebted to Mr. Wayleu's kindness for the gift of the 
block of Lady Arundel's signature. 



By J. Waylen. 371 

For their twenty-fifths— Thomas Clarke, of Westbury, £3.— William Wilkins, 
of Westbury, Thomas Hancock, of Westbury, and John Bucher, of Sarum, £5 
each.— John Seymour, of Compton Chamberlain, compounds for delinquency by 
paying £8 in money, sending in a horse £2, and takes the Covenant.— Thomas 
Burden, in the name of his father, Roger Burden, £2 for his twenty-fifth part. 

March 27th to 31st. Sequestered and seized £2, the half-year's rent of Mr. 
Hackman's land at Sarum.— William Antrim, of Sarum, his assessment is 
thought fit to be taken off.— Mr. George Vennard, of Goveley, in Hants, takes 
the Covenant and pays £10.— George Turner, of Corsley, £5.— William Wilson, 
of Sarum, £10.— Thomas Hancock is to pay £5 a year for a meadow of three 
acres next to West Harnham parsonage, as it belongs to Dean Nicholas, a 
delinquent, and not to the hospital, as we are informed.— William Walwyn takes 
the Negative Oath.— George Hascall is become tenant for " a rowlass thing " 
called Dawes-Frowd, land of Lord Arundel and estated out to Mrs. Morley, a 
recusant. He is to pay £18 and allow Mrs. Morley £8 for her thirds-and to 
take for hedge-bote and fire-bote only the lopps of such trees as have been usually 
lopped and may be conveniently spared.— John Lush, jun., of Donhead, subscribes 
50 shillings ; his father, John Lush, sen., two quarters of oats and £3 in money. 
— John King, of Dinton, is assessed £50. This is paid to the other Committee, 
Quffire.— Walter Bennett, of Chalk, subscribes £10.— Mr. George Dyer, of 
Heytesbury, a steady friend of the Parliament, maintaining his son in the service 
with horse and arms to this day— and suffering much by plunder from the 
Cavaliers. We therefore accept of 40 sliillings in lieu of his five and twentieth 
part, and do acquit him upon the Ordinance made in that behalf. 

1st April. Lord Cromwell, of Ockham, in Surrey. We have seized of the 
Lord Cromwell's rents at Amesbury, due Lady-Day last, and his meaus there ; 
being sequestered long since —in the hands of Mr. Trotman in part, £20, of the 
widow Bundy, £14, and of Stephen Child, £4.— Subsequently Mr. Anthony 
Trotman gave in his full account respecting Countess-Farm, at Amesbury. The 
full rent was £120, but for quarterings of soldiers he claimed £28 8s., which 
was allowed ; leaving £11 lis. lie?, still due for last Lady- Day's rent, besides 
what will fall due at Michaelmas, which he is then to pay hither. For the 
ensuing year he is to pay £90, and be free of all charges and payments 
whatsoever except the dues unto the Church and poor. And he is bound to farm 
it according to the course of the country thereabout. 

Edward Seymour, of Maiden Bradley, Esq., was a delinquent in arms. For 
his estate there, viz., the manor, two small farms called Dangins and Rate Bens, 
lauds called Backdiff, the old-rents of the manor, and a coppice of ten acres 
called Ball's Coppice ; for all these John Moulton and Robert Moulton, both of 
Maiden Bradley, have become tenants to the State, at £140, for the year ending 
next Lady- Day. [If this Edward Seymour be the same as the Edward Seymour 
of Berry Pomeroy, who paid £1200. it may account for the absence of his name 
from the list of the Wiltshire Compounders.] 

Mr. Walter Barnes is now tenant for the Lord Stonrton's manor and demesnes 
called Stourton, with the old-rents there, and also the old-rents of Penley manor> 



872 The Falsione Bay-Booh 

at £100 for the term ending next Michaelmas. He also takes " The Lamb," in 
Sarum, and the old-rents in Wilton, Newton, and Wiley, at £5. — (SuLieqitent 
entry in August, 1647.) William Coles undertakes Barnes's bargain. 

2nd April. Jonathan Hill and William Stone are tenants for Sir George 
Penruddocke's parsonage of Chalke at £100, besides quarterings and the rent 
due to King's College, Cambridge. 

Eoger Thorpe, of Sarum. acted as chirurgeon in the King's army. He has 
now signed the Negative Oath, and his estate being mean we accept of £5. 
— Raynaldo Thorpe, of Sarum, holds £100 of his brother John Thorpe's money, 
and is to pay for the twentieth part £5— altered to £10. 

Mr. John Falconer subscribes £5 for his twenty-fifth, and engages to take the 
Covenant when tendered publickly in Sarum. — Roger Upton, of Sarum, a soldier 
in Capt. Windover's band, has taken the Negative Oath ; and his estate being 
under £100 we accept of £5. 

Benjamin Lewes, of Wincaunton, is become tenant to the State for one year 
commencing last Lady-Day, for the manor, demesne, and old-rents of Horning- 
sham, belonging to William Arundel, a recusant, at three score pounds paid 
quarterly ; besides all payments, quarterings of soldiers, and the thirds payable 
to Mr. Arundel — Provided that if it appear that Mr. Arundel is also a delinquent 
and within the compass of the Ordinance for sequestration, then the tenant is to 
pay those thirds to this Committee ; reserving and excepting out of this grant 
all woods and underwoods, which the tenant is not to meddle with ; neither are 
this Committee to dispose of during the term hereby granted. 

3rd April. Mr. Eichard South, of Dinton, well affected to the Parliament's 
cause, as shown by several previous donations, offers £5 for his twenty-fifth part. 
— Respited till further order. [It never appears to have been paid.] 

7th April. Mr. Walker, the minister of Chilmark. It was charged against 
him that he held correspondence with the enemy, misled many to bear arms 
against the Parliament, and brought contempt upon the Directory. His 
parsonage had consequently been sequestered. On the other hand he had paid 
£60 to Colonel Ludlow, and he now pays £20, and promises another £20 by the 
24th June ; all which, amounting to £100, we accept for his personal estate and 
for his living at Tisbury, being a chattel. Mr. Fice will take bond for the other 
£20. 

The Earl of Marlborough. William Ley, Esq., and Richard Fitz have become 
tenants to the State for the manor of Teffont Ewyas and the demesnes there, 
the estate of the Earl of Marlborough, a delinquent in arms, for one year ending 
Lady-Daj' next, at £100. Arthur Harris and Ambrose Edwards, two other 
tenants, receive warning. {Subsequent entry.) Mr. John Shirley is now tenant 
for the old-rents of North Tidworth belonging to the Countess of Marlborough, 
to pay £10 till Michaelmas besides the Countess's fifths. Afterwards for the 
said rents and fifteen acres of Ash-rudge Coppice in Chute £20 in clear rent. 



Bij J. Waylen. 373 

Mr. Ta3ior, of Sarum, formerly paid divers sums to Waller and Hungerford. 
He now adds £10 for his twenty-fifth part. 

8th April. Mr. Philip Poore, of Durrington, suspected of delinquency, pays 
£15 for his twenty-fifth part, and engages to take the Covenant, and do nothing 
in word or deed prejudicial to the Parliament. 

13th April. William Cook is tenant of Dr. Lawrence's parsonage at Bemerton, 
at £100 per annum. Among his outgoings he enumerates £1 16s. for mending 
the chancel— £50 paid to Mr. Carpenter, the present minister — and £37 10*. to 
Mr. Pinckney, the most part being laid out in repairing the houses. 

20th April. William Stone, of Salisbury, Esq., is become tenant for the 
Falstone Farm, at £210 till Michaelmas, including the stock of corn, ploughs, 
carts, and oxen. Next year the contract was renewed at fourscore pounds. 

21st April. John Chappel, of Earnham, in Lincolnshire, clerk. Not only had 
a son a captain in the King's army, but he served personally. His estate in 
Wilts, consisting of the parsonage of West Harnham and Coombe, is let to 
Edward and John HiU, who are to pay £80 per annum besides the prebend's 
rent of £30. 

[A group of delinquents here find place. Denzil Hollis, a Salisbury physician, 
very forward in the Club business. — George Tattershall, of Stapleford ; his 
parsonage and means sequestered, his widow petitioned in London, and obtained 
an order for relief into Wilts. — Lawrence Tattershall, of Odstock, was a recusant, 
but not in arms. — Thomas Gardiner, of Sarum, was a receiver of plate and money 
for the King. — William Hayter, of Little Langford, Edward Fowle, of Stanton. — 
Edmund Brimsden, a bailiff, Roger Bedbury, of Sarum, George Barber, of 
Ashgrove, Nicholas Barry, of East Harnham, John Bath, of Idmiston, William 
Gould, of Alvediston, and Henry Blackman, of Salisbury, were other adherents 
of the King. — No fines recorded.] 

30th April. Mr. Richard Crouch, of Tytherington, in the parish of Heytesbury, 
came before us ; and for that he hath been a man well affected to the Parliament, 
and sent a horse and a man fully armed, with three months' pay, we were con- 
tented to accept £10 in full of his five and twentieth part. 

1st May. — Ordered. — That out of the fines and compositions of or for the 
estates of Robert Long, Edward Ernie, and Edward Yerbury, of the County of 
Wilts, Esquires, the sum of £500 be paid to Mr. Robert Jennour, one of the 
members of this House, towards his losses sustained by the enemy in the said 
county. Commons' Journals. 

8th May. By the Committee for the safety of the Western Associated Counties. 
Ordered— IhaX all the goods of the Lord Henry Pawlet, seized at or near 
Salisbury by the Wilts Committee, be re-delivered to him forthwith. Signed by 
Pembroke and Montgomery, Sir John Danvers, Sir Edward Hungerford, Thomas 
Earle, Sir John Evelyn, John Bingham, and Richard Rose. 



374 The t'alstone Day-Boole. 

13th May. Eobert Rede and Thomas Bennet engage to rent Newton Toney, 
the parsonage of Christopher Reely, for £80, and Mr. Jay's, at Fittleton, for £60. 
Christopher Cook hath taken Ludgershall parsonage for £60, the whole of which 
is disbursed to the present minister. 

14th May. William Wimbleton, sen., is become tenant to the State for the 
parsonage of Wyley and Little Langford, lately belonging to Dr. Hyde, at £80, 
besides £20 to Mrs. Hyde for her fifths, if thought fit to be paid ; if not, then 
the said £20 to be paid to us. 

26th May. Received of Thomas Collins £16. He is to pay more to Mistress 
Nicholas, for her fifths out of the parsonage of Dean, £4; which said £20 the 
Committee did accept from him on account, which account remains at the Devizes. 
The said £20 and account is in full discharge of all his rent due till Lady-Day 
last. 

[In the early part of this month of May the local Committee sitting at 
Salisbury, consisting of Alexander Thistlethwayte, John Dove, John Rede, 
Humphrey Ditton, and Robert Good — Ordered, That in accordance with 
directions from the House of Commons the garrisons of Longford Castle and 
the Devizes be slighted (levelled) with all convenient speed. — That the soldiers 
remaining at Longford march to the Devizes and there be disposed of to the 
best advantage of the State. — That the goods remaining at Longford, belonging 
to the State, be removed to the Dean's house in Sarum. — That the ammunition 
and arms be conveyed to Malmesbury. — That the several hundreds adjacent to 
this garrison be warned to come in to slight the works belonging to it, taking 
special care to preserve the house, and the sheds set up as stables be taken down ; 
Mr. Stone to have the oversight thereof.] 

June [P]. Received of Thomas Clarke, of Chalke, twenty shillings, being a 
fine set on him for disturbing the proceedings of this Committee. 

3rd June. By the Committee for plundered ministers to the Wilts Committee. 
Agreed, upon consideration had of the reasons certified by the Longford House 
Committee why the fifths of Bishopstoue rectory should not be paid to Mrs. 
Earle, for that it doth not appear that she hath been heard, — this Committee 
doth refer the same back again to the AVilts Committee, to hear what she hath 
to say, and to examine witnesses ; and upon hearing the whole cause to certify 
the same to this Committee. Signed, Eobert Pye. 

5th June. Giles Ingram and William Good are tenants for two meadows, one 
called Animead, belonging to Sir Edward Nicholas, and the other called Bugmore, 
belono'ing to the Bishop. Por Animead they are to pay £I0, and for Bugmore 
only £16, having been much eaten out by Sir Thomas Fairfax's horse since May 
last. 

5th June. Mr. Benjamin Drew and William Brown are to pay £100 next 
Michaelmas and Lady- Day for the parsonage of Donhead St. Mary. John Bennet 
is become tenant for Grimstead parsonage at £45. But if a minister be appointed 



By J. Waylen. 375 

thereto before the year's end, he is to surrender the house and garden to him. 
His brother, Thomas Bennet, engageth to see this bargain performed. (j1 
subsequent entry says : — )"This is assigned to the minister of the place." 

10th June. John Ralph, of Stapleford, clerk. His delinquency was shown by 
his advising his neighbours to pay no taxes to Sir Edward Hungerford or other 
of the Parliament's commanders, they being all rebels by the King's proclamation. 
He also gave information against Mr. Wall, the minister there, and divers others, 
thereby occasioning them great trouble and fines. His estate being weak we 
accept of £10, for which William Biggs is security. 

12th June. William Smith is become tenant to the State for the parsonage 
of Kingston DeverlU for this year ending Lady-Day next, at £80. He is to 
discharge all duties and payments. The parsonage formerly belonged to Mr. 
Aylesbuiy, a great delinquent. 

16th June. The Committee of the West to the Wilts Committee. — Gentlemen, 
Sir John Evelyn [of West Dean], in regard of the great spoil of his houses in 
Wiltshire, will be destitute of fit accommodation for himself, wife and family, 
■when he shall come down upon the service of the Parliament. We desire that 
whomsoever he may appoint may be put into possession of the houses, gardens, 
orchards, and option thereunto belonging, late in the occupation of Dr. Nicholas, 
in the Close of Sarum, there to remain till further order from this Committee or 
the two Houses of Parliament. So we rest. Your loving friends, 

Edmund Peideaux. William Sydenham. 

Edwabd Hungeefoed. Edmund Hughes. 

Richard Aldwoeth. Thomas Mooee. 

John Dote. John Noethcote. 

Thomas Hodges. 

22nd June. Edward Lucas, of Fovant, a Papist, but not in arms, compounds 
for his tenement at Fovant by subscribing to pay £5 in forty days, and £5 more 
at Lady-Day following. He is to pay all contributions ; and his thirds are also 
included. 

25th June. Heniy Whitmarsh, of Sarum, a delinquent. His house, near St. 
Thomas's Church, is now rented by Anthony Maj'nard for £3, and allowed him 
for arrears, he being a soldier in the Parliament's service. 

Idem. Mr. Richard Miles is tenant for Steeple Langford parsonage, formerly 
belonging to Henry Collyer, at £180 ; to be employed to no other use than for 
the minister who shall be set there ; reserving the fifths to the wife and children 
of Mr. Collyer. 

1st July. Mr. William Helmes, of Chilmarke, hath taken the Negative Oath. 
Mr. Thomas Coombes, of Teft'ont-Ewias, hath appeared before this Committee, 
and by reason of the weakness of his estate compounded for £10, to be paid 
12th October next. He hath also taken the National Covenant, and is thereby 
discharged of the sequestration of his estate. {Subsequent entry.) Half respited 
for poverty. 



376 Tlie Falstone Dai/- Book. 

4th July, deceived of Thomas Lawrence in the behalf of Mistress Conham, 
in part of her agreement made at the Devizes, £10. 

8th July. Dr. Newlacds, President of Coi-p. Chr. College, at Oxford, a 
delinquent. His parsonage of Ham is now let to Thomas Smith, of Ham, at £40. 

18th July. Mr. George Masters is become tenant to the State for Mr. Gawen's 
farm at Norrington, from Michaelmas, 1647, at £140 ; and to pay Mr. Gawen 
£70 for his thirds, he being a recusant, but not in arms. 

23rd July. By the Committee for the West. Ordered, that Major Wansey's 
petition this day read and debated be recommended to the consideration of the 
Wilts Committee for the speedy payment of £50 promised him by this Committee 
for his many and good services. Also to take into consideration the other parts 
of his petition, and make him satisfaction for his hindrance in waiting on this 
Committee, as they shall think fit. 

24th July. Mr. William Temple is become tenant to the State for all the 
tithes of Bishops Canuings called Cannings Portion, foj one year ending 25th 
March next, at £35. He is to discharge all payments and the usual old-rent 
formerly paid to the Dean and Chapter. (^Subsequent entry.) Mr. Aldworth, 
a Parliament man, took up this rent. 

24th July. Mrs. Mary Sadler compounds for her husband's estate at Fisherton 
Anger for £20, for one year ending 29th September. 

26th July. Nicholas EandoU and Richard Penny are become tenants to the 
State for Whichbury Farm, formerly belonging to Sir Edward Alford, for £70 
a year, besides the annuity of £21 issuing out of it, and all charges and quar- 
teriugs. They are not to sell any coppice or timber, but may take thereof in 
husbandly manner for hedge-bote, plough-bote, and fire-bot& To be paid Lady- 
Day and Michaelmas next. \_Part being received, this entry follows : — ] 
" £40 is assigned by order for arrears to Captain John Thistlethwayte and 
Captain Ludlow." 

27th July. Mr. William Ernie, of Chalbury, in Dorset, takes the " Portion " 
of Hoiion tithes mentioned under date 24th July. 

28th July. Gawen Flower is become tenant to the State for the year ending 
Lady-Day next, for the parsonage of Coulston, sequestered for the delinquency 
of Mr. Kuevett, at £30, besides Mrs. Knevett's thirds. (Subsequent entry.) 
" This rent is assigned to Mr. Abraham Richards, now minister of the place ; and 
the tenant is ordered to pay it unto him. 

12th August. Richard Parfett is become tenant for the farm at Odstock, to 
begin at Michaelmas next, at £150, besides the lady's thirds ; his bond being 
Farmer Soper and Mr. Tattershall, both of Britford. [Sir Joha Webb's 
property ?] 



By J. JFaj/len. 377 

14th August. An order passed the House that the garrisons of Malmesbury 
and Highworth be slighted and dismantled, and the forces be disbanded or 
disposed for the service of Ireland. In either case the County of Wilts is to pay 
unto the said forces one month's pay. 

18th August. Edmund White hath again compounded with this Committee 
for the freehold [at West Wellow ?] belonging to his brother, John White, a 
papist in arms, for one year, to begin 29th September next, at £15. He is to 
discharge all payments and keep the house and living in repair and in good 
husbandly manner. — Note. This bargain is taken off, as appears by the next 
ensuing agreement of his brother, John White, 10th September. — John White, 
the owner of the freehold aforesaid, hath brought testimony to show that he is 
not a Papist, and hath taken the Oath of Abjuration and the Xational Covenant. 
He hath also compounded for his estate for the sum of £25, and hath further 
conditioned to pay £6 13*. id. yearly to this Committee, being two-thirds of an 
annuity issuing and payable to Magdalen Pinten, aunt to the said John "White, 
and a recusant. The Committee conceiving the said freehold to be under the 
value of £200, have thought fit to accept the composition of £25, and to take off 
the sequestration. 

September. Certain books being found by John Balsome in a barn at Odstock, 
being mostlj' Popish books and left in the custody of Mr. John Eede unvalued, 
two of the said books were presently given to the said Balsome for his discovery 
at the price of fifteen shillings. Two others were delivered b\' this Committee to 
Mr. John Smith, minister, at the price of fifteen shillings, which money is 
received. One book more is delivered to Balsome for discovery. [No date, but 
apparently in September. Robert Balsom was the name of the chaplain serving 
with Edmund Ludlow in Wardour Castle when that fortress was re-taken by the 
Eoyalists in the autumn of 1644. At the surrender he hardly escaped hanging, 
owing to a belief entertained by the besiegers that he had prolonged the defence 
by conjuring arts, He was carried prisoner to Oxford, and died in 1647. The 
name is so uncommon that John Balsome, of Odstock, may safely be credited 
with kimship.] 

12th September. Mr. William Wilson is become tenant for the year com- 
mencing next Michaelmas for Dr. Davenant's farm at Lanford, for £32, besides 
Mrs. Davenant's fifths. 

12th September. Mr. John Bowles, of Burcombe, formerly in arms for the 
King, though now at home for these last two years, and having no visible estate 
or possession, and having taken the Negative Oath, we have compounded with 
him for £40. 

15th September, Miles Phillipson, a recusant in arms. His copyhold tenement 
at Tisbury, called Wall-mead, is now let to Henry Eose, of Haseldean, at £45, 
beginning next Michaelmas. 

16th September. William Kent, of Boscombe, Esq., hath compounded for his 
estate in land at Boscombe, Durrington, Manningford, and Charlton, at £40 in 



878 The Fahtone Bay-BooTc. 

hand for the time past. Foi* the year beginning next Michaelmas he agrees to 
pay £100. This agreement is dated at Longford Castle. \^After the receipt 
of £40 occurs ihe following : — ] "The rest is taken off above [i.e., in London] 
by his composition." 

18th September. John Beacher and William Cantloe, both of Tisbury, yeomen, 
are become tenants to the State in tbe behalf of the young Lady Arundel, for 
one year beginning Lady-Day next, for these lauds and rents, the estate of her 
husband in Wilts, as, namely, the rents of assize of the manors of Donhead, 
Tisbury, Bridzor, and Hazeldou-Anstey, and Tol lard- Royal, with Wardour Park ; 
also the rent-corn of Berry-Court Farm and East Grove Farm, in Donhead, — 
for £325, to be paid at the usual feasts ; besides the Lady Blanch Arundel's 
thirds and the young lady's fifths They are to commit no waste, and to take 
only fire-bote and other necessary botes to be employed on the premises. [Among 
the receipts which then follow £60 is assigned to Colonel Ludlow and Cornet 
Heely.] 

20th September. John Brown, of Semley, was charged by Savage with 

saying, That if the Common Prayer were taken away, we were as good go to 
plough again upon the Sundays. He also caused his daughter's child to be 
carried into another parish to be baptised with the sign of the Cross. Sworn at 
Falstone, 20th September. 

The 22nd September being a thanksgiving day appointed by the Parliament, 
a party of young men viz., John Gomelton, John Banister, Anthony Maynard, 
Thomas West, and John Peaslyn, confederated to buy faggots for a bonfire in 
Katharine Street, Salisbury ; whereupon John Beckham, a Royalist, coming into 
Bauister's house, upbraided them for making such a demonstration against the 
King, saying that for his part he was a Cavalier, and so would live and die. 
When the fire was lit, Beckham, being joined by youug Smith, the tailor, Mark 
Hancock, Richard Lovell, Hasey, Curtis, and others, armed with heavy staves , 
and swords, scattered the bonfire into the water ; and this being followed by a 
personal conflict Thomas West received a cut in the hand. [Examined at Falstone 
House — result not stated. Abridged.] 

24th September. An order arrives from the Committee of Lords and Commons 
for Sequestrations directing that the Vicars-choral of Salisbury should still 
receive all their former rents and profits. Signed by John Wylde. 

25th September. Edward Codrington, gent., a recusant, is become tenant to 
the State for two parts of his estate in Sutton Mandeville for one year ending 
29th September, 1647, at £25, besides the annuity due thence to the widow 
Codrington, his mother. [The next year he paid £40. Perhaps Mrs. Codrington 
was dead.] 

26th September. Mr. William Westfield sat in the grand jury at the Illegal 
Assizes ; but, as it appears to have been through timorousness, we have accepted 
£50 for his delinquency and also for his twenty-fifth part. Note. — Ten pounds 
are to be assigned to his wife towards her former husband's arrears. 



By J. Waylen. 379 

George Collins, of Stapleford, a delinquent in arms, hath taken the Covenant 
before us. For his teuement and copyhold in Berwick St. James, half a yardland, 
he is to pay £5 on 1st November and £5 more 25th March, which, in regard of 
his poverty, is accepted and the sequestration taken o£E. John Gilbert, his 
tenant, engages to pay the money. [No date.] 

28th September. Mr. Gabriel Luttofte is further assessed by this Committee 
towards his five and twentieth part the sum of £100; for which sum, in respect 
of the great occasion the Committee hath to pay oS the soldiers of Malmesbury 
a month's pay according to an Order of Parliament, they have accordingly sent 
to him. [All paid by degrees, except £20. Then follows :— ] " Quasre, whether 
Captain Eyres hath not the other £20." [See under date 14th August.] 

30th September. Richard Carter takes Patney parsonage at £30 per annum. 

1st October. William Good and Jonathan Hill are become tenants for 
Standlynch Farm for the year ending nest Michaelmas, to be used in husbandly 
manner, for £80, besides the two annuities issuing thereout unto old Mrs. 
Bockland and to Captain Bockland's uncle. — x^ote. — An order has been received 
from the Lords and Commons for extending this land for a debt. 

3rd October. Mr. Robert Mead and Richard Berry are tenants to the State 
for Sir John Peuruddocke's manor of Compton, his means at Wilton, Barford, 
and thereabouts, for the year ending Michaelmas next, at £130, my lady's fifth 
part being therein included ; the rent to be paid quarterly. — Taken off by order 
from Goldsmith's Hall after £32 10*. had been acknowledged. 

3rd October. [A long list of charges was heard this day against Thomas 
Croome, of Teffont Ewias, and his brother, both being sons of William Croome, 
of Fisherton Delamere, to the effect that Thomas Croome, acting in the capacity 
of Quarter- Master to Lord Goring, together with his said brother, broke open 
the barn of Mr. Phipps [the incumbent placed at Fisherton by the Parliament], 
and having caused Mr. Phipps's servants to thresh out five and a half quarters 
of his wheat, carried it off under the direction of Captain Thynne ; — with sundry 
other counts too long for recital; the witnesses being William Burroughs, 
Elizabeth Hayter, William Marshman, William Rowden, and Dorothy Fryar.] 

6th October. George Stanhope, gent., is tenant for the year ending next 
Michaelmas, for the temporal estate of Mr. William Jay, of Fittleton, which he 
is to manage and keep in repair in husbandly manner, at £20. [This bargain 
he renewed next year.] — Mr. James Harwood, of Sarum, who formerly showed 
his affection to the Parliament by setting forth a horse and arms, and furnishing 
the rider with money, now gives £10 more for his twenty-fifth part. 

15th October. Mistress Susan Hyde, of Pirton, spinster, hath subscribed in 
full for the twenty -fifth part of her estate, £6. Paid this day. 

29th October. Richard Parfett is become tenant to the State for this year 
until next Michaelmas for the laud of Sir John Webb, knight, lying in Odstock, 
Hampt worth, Milkhills, Vapors, and Burford, all in Wilts, with the underwood, 



380 The Falstone Bay-Book. 

but not the high wood ; nor to cut above five acres of underwood, at £130, 
of which he hath ah-eady paid £30 to the Committee at the Devizes, and is 
to pay the other £100 to us. 

30th October. Richard Young, of the Close of Sarum, is this day become 
tenant to the State until Michaelmas, for a house and garden in the Close, 
called the Common Hall, formerly belonging to the Vicars of the Cathedral, 
but now standing sequestered according to the Ordinance of Parliament in 
that behalf. He is to pay £4 by equal proportions, and also ten shillings in 
hand for the time past in the house. — Isote. — This bargain was let before by 
the Vicars. 

17th November. Order concerning William Coles, Esq., Clerk of the Peace 
for the County of Wilts, made by the Committee for the safety of the associated 
Western Counties. Upon consideration had of the great care and pains of JMr. 
William Coles, Clerk of the Peace for the County of Wilts, and the charges 
he hath been at in soliciting and procuring the Commissioners of the Peace 
for that County, the Committee of the County is hereby required and desirtd 
to make speedy payment to him of £40 ; — the said moBey not to be put upon 
his account for any moneys disbursed by him for procuring the said Com- 
missioners for which he hath not yet received any satisfaction. {Signed by) 

Salisbuet. Edwabd Hungebfobd. 

l^EviLL Poole. Edwabd Popham. 

Edmund Ludlow. Alexander Thistlethwayte. 

John Dote. Heney Hungebfobd. 

I7th November. Order concerning the Governor of Devizes by the same 
Committee.— Upon the petition of Captain Thomas Eyre, this day read, praying 
for some part of his arrears, the Wilts Committee are hereby desired to make 
up the pay of his officers and soldiers to the proportion of one month's pay 
on account. And further to give to Captain Eyre a debenture for the pay due 
unto him as captain of horse till the time of our order to pay no officers 
without commission. And for his whole service till the time of reducing [the 
western troops] as captain of foot and Governor of the Devizes. And in the 
interim, in regard of his sufferings and imprisonments by the enemy, the said 
Committee do pay unto him tlOO in part of his said arrears besides the £50 
he hath already received from them. {Signed hy) 

Edmund Ludlow. Pembroke. 

John Dove. John Danvees. 

Edwabd Masset. Edwabd Popham. 

Heney Hungebfobd. Edwabd Hungebfobd. 

[Refer to entry under 20th January.] 

21st November. Robert Holloway, of South Damerham, subscribed upon 
the Propositions £5, presently paid. 

23rd November. Touching Mr. William Stockman. Thomas Body, servant 
to the said Mr. Stockman, testified before the Wilts Committee that, while left 
at home, he received by letter a commission from his master to deliver up to 



By J. Waylen. 381 

Captain Pawlet's man three muskets that were concealed in the house. Captain 
Pawlet was at that time commander of the King's garrison at Christchurch. 
Mr. Stockman also sent a horse and man armed with back and breast, headpiece, 
and carabine, to Colonel Villiars, at Chippenham. This was in March, 1645. 

5th December. Major Francis Toope, who was in arms against the Parliament, 
had two livings in the parish of East Knojle, being '• rowlist things " [«ic]. 
The Committee has let them to Nicholas Kowe, of Sarum, for £15, reserving tha 
fifths for the Major's wife and children. 

8th December. Mr. John Hunt, sen., and Mr. John Hunt, jun., of Ham 
parish, have subscribed upon the Propositions £15, which we are informed is the 
full of the fifth part of their estate in Wilts and Berks, their debts amounting 
to the value of their personal estate. 

8th December. Mr. John Bampton being warned to appear, hath paid £20 to 
the use of the State. His ticket, bearing date 18th April, 1645, shows that he 
formerly sent in to Sir William Waller's commissary five small loads of hay, for 
which we allow £10. All his payments, amounting to £40, we accept in full for 
his twenty-fifth part. — {Subsequent entry.) "£5 were afterwards remitted for 
quarterings and other disbursements." 

29th December. Daniel Hale, of Sarum, physician, made his submission 
before this Committee for delinquency in having abetted the Club-rising, and 
secreting arms in his house. Having now taken the Covenant and the Negative 
Oath, and his estate being small and indebted, £40 is accepted. 

31st December. Upon the petition of Lieutenant Eobert Ring and his eight 
brothers, John, Samuel, James, Joseph, William, Nathaniel, Josiah, and Daniel 
Eing, praying to have their accounts adjusted for services done in the Parlia- 
ment's behalf in Wiltshire and Dorsetshire, the Wilts Committee receive an 
order " from above " to audit forthwith the said charges and enable the petitioners 
to resume their several callings. [Signed by) Lord Pembroke, Ludlow, Massey, 
Bingham, Hungerford, Earle, and others. 

[The nine brothers Eing. Qucere. Is any thing further on record respecting 
this fraternity ? Did they all ride in Edmund Ludlow's troop ? What was 
their habitat ; and what were the specific services they claimed to have wrought 
for the Parliament's cause? I think it can hardly be assumed that they all 
belonged to Ludlow's regiment ; because, with that love for detail which 
characterises the Major-General's narratives of his Wiltshire campaigns, so 
interesting a circumstance would surely have found place. In the absence of 
positive information the family may be conjecturally located in the district 
Bonth of Warminster ; perhaps in and about Sedghill and Semley ?] 

31st December. [Informations were this day laid against Anthony Cleeter, 
of Clyffe Pjpard, Christopher Cleeter, his father, Christopher Cleeter, jun., Giles 
Perkins, of Lediard-Tregose, Thomas Spackman, of Clyffe Pypard, Thomas 
Buckeridge, of Stanton, and others, for delinquency, and specifically for their 
VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXXYIU. 2 C 



383 The Falstone Bay-Boole. 

persecution of Mr. Humber, the incumbent placed in ClyfPe Pypard by the Par- 
liament. Mr. H umber's known attachment to the Parliament's cause induced 
divers of his neighbours to procure a decree from Oxford empowering Sir John 
Pcnruddocke, the Sheriff, to eject Mr. Humber from his parsonage and install 
Mr. Buckeridge aforesaid. From this authority Mr. Humber appealed to that 
of the Wilts Committee ; but before further action could be taken he found 
himself a prisoner in the hands of his enemies, who carried him off to Winchester 
and shut him up in the Castle, where he remained for six months, till released 
by the good offices of another of his neighbours named Thomas Morse, of 
Bushton ; who in his turn experienced the like penalty of imprisonment and 
pillage. The parish registers of Clyffe Pypard, it is true, make no mention of any 
Humber ministering there at this time ; but the narrative is too circumstantial 
to be disturbed by an omission of that nature, easily to be accounted for by the 
disorder of the times. Moreover there are no entries in the registers for the 
years 1646 and 1647.] 

In the case of Thomas Spackman it was averred inter alia that he was tlje 
inventor of a gun which would shoot off three times with only one charge ; which 
instrument he presented to the King, and shot it off three several times in his 
presence, exclaiming at each discharge, " Now, have at the Roundheads." 

[About a dozen years later a weapon of far more miraculous capacity is 
recorded in a French ballad as having been exhibited before Charles II. when an 
exile in Holland, shortly before his restoration. {Reference mislaid.) 

" Jeudi, sa dite Majesty 
Vit I'incroyable nouveaut^ 
D'un certain canon ou machine, 
D'invention subtile et fine, 
Qui, sans le charger qu'une fois, 
Et non quatre, ni deux, ni trois. 
Tire cinquante coups de suite, 
Tant elle est rarement construite ; 
Et memement dix d'un seul coup. 
Chose qu'il admira beaucoup, 
Et par un obligeaut langage 
Loua I'ouvrier et I'ouvrage. 
Et cet ouvrier est, ma foi, 
Le Couvreux, armurier du Roi."] 

1647. 2nd January. William Legg, of Bulford, is tenant to the State for a 
tenement at Bulford, of Mr. George Duke's, a delinquent, at forty shillings a 
quarter, the first payment to be made at Lady-Day next, exclusive of all payments, 
ordinary or extraordinary. — (Snhsequent entry.) Upon payment whereof the 
sequestration is to be taken off, the said George Duke offering to make oath that 
he is well known not to be worth £200, having also made it appear to this 
Committee that he hath taken the Covenant and the Negative Oath ; and there- 
upon is discharged of this sequestration. 



By J, Waylen. 883 

5th January. Christopher Plott holds land at Stanton belonging to Edward 
Fowle, a delinquent, at £13.— (-4 subsequent entry of 20<A March, 1648, is as 
follows : — ) " Distrained a horse for the rent due at Midsummer and sold the 
same after a fortnight's keeping for £5 ; of which ten shillings was paid for 
his meat, the rest, £4 10s., to the State. The overplus being tendered to Plott, 
he refused it.T-This bargain Plott hath never renewed but continues in his wrong 
way." 

12th January. Certificate under the hand of Captain "William Ludlow touching 
the delinquency of Frederick Vaughan, parson of Gissage, a blind man. — These 
are to certify that before Cheriton fight, I, being at Wardour Castle with my 
cousin, Colonel Edmund Ludlow, went forth with a party of horse and dragoons, 
he being then Governor of the said Castle and commander of the said party, unto 
Falstone House, belonging unto Sir George Vaughan, there to search for horse 
and arms for the service of the State. But the aforesaid Mr. Vaughan, the 
blind man, Mr. Shirley, and other malignants, as I conceive, being then in the 
house, shut up the doors and resisted those that were first sent, and withal took 
their horses and brought them into the dwelling-house, and kept them until my 
cousin Ludlow came with his whole party, and was forced to fire some part of 
the out-houses. So then, apprehending themselves to be in great danger, they 
yielded, but upon such conditions as we might have expected from enemies and 
not from friends. It was reported that they had sent for others in the neigh- 
bourhood to keep the house against us. And we found after our entrance that 
they were clearly all against us, and thought us to be rebels against the King 
and Kingdom. {Signed) 

William Ludlow. 

11th January. Mr. James Bennet, one of the younger sons of Thomas Bennet, 
of Pyt-house, Esq., having been called before us for delinquency, he having been 
formerly in arms against the Parliament, hath taken the Covenant and engaged 
to pay £10, which we accept as a composition, he having no visible estate, and 
being far under the value of £200. 

13th January. John Smith, of Stourton, yeoman, sat as a grand juryman at 
the " Illegal Assizes ; " but it appears he was drawn into it on a sudden, before 
his judgment was rightly informed. Since that time he has done the State good 
service by advancing arms and harbouring Parliamentary officers, for which the 
Cavaliers greatly plundered him. In consideration of his losses, and his small 
real estate being mortgaged, the Committee accept of £20 in full discharge. 

19th January. Of John Moody the elder, of Upton-Lovell it was testified 
that he showed his attachment to the King's service by presenting a bay gelding 
to Prince Maurice and a twenty shilling piece to buy saddle and furniture, &c., &c. 
In respect of his son who went over to the Parliament's side, he declared that if 
the rebel-rogue did not come home forthwith he would put him out of all the 
means he had provided for him. Testified by John Dann, Philip Nenton, and 
Stephen Sly. 

26th January. Ordered by the Committee of Lords and Commons for Hi» 

2 C 2 



384 The B'alstone Bay -Booh. 

Majesty's revenue, that the Rt. Hon. Lord Delaware is a fit person to bo Kanger 
or chief keeper of Fiukley Walk, in Chute Forest in the County of Wilts, in the 
place of Sir John Philpot, a Papist. 

30th January. Cornet John Lynn receives an order from London addressed 
to the Wilts Committee desiring them to pay him what they think fit for his 
losses, engagements, and sufferings. 

25th February. Concerning Lieut.-Col. Harry Henne, ex-Governor of High- 
worth garrison, where he held the Church till taken by Fairfax in 1645 : — On 
his petition to the Committee for the Safety of the Western Counties, praying 
an order for the enlargement of himself, being committed to prison by the Wilts 
Committee, then sitting at Salisbury ; and also for the release of his horses, 
which are likewise detained by their order, it was this day — Ordered, That he 
be dismissed this Committee and referred back again to the said Committee of 
Wilts, to whom it is wholly left to do therein as they shall see cause. 

6th March. Received of Mr. Jacob, of the excise money towards the payment 
of twenty of the Marlborough party of horse, with their two officers, a trumpet, 
and a corporal, £30.-T-More from him per John Westbere, for the two parties of 
horse, £100. — 18th March, from the Commissioners of Excise for the service of 
this garrison of Longford, £40. [Many similar payments and receipts follow. 
Some of the Parliamentary officers then serving in Wilts were as follows : — 
Lt.-Col. William Eyre at Malmesbury, Capt. CoUyer at Salisbury, Capt. William 
Ludlow at Longford, Col. Thomas Eyre, at Devizes, Captains Green, Salmon, 
Stokes, and Gabriel Martyn, and Cornets Yardley and Wren.] 

I7th March. Richard Elliott is become tenant for Sadler's estate at Fisherton ; 
the mills, gardens, back-side, and meadows being let to him at £13 6*. 

23rd March. From the Committee of the West sitting at the Star Chamber 
to the Wilts Committee touchiug the disorders practised by Captain William 
Ludlow's troopers. — Gentlemen. We are informed that notwithstanding their 
due and constant pay, the county troop of horse under Captain Ludlow's command 
doth still oppress the county by taking free quarter, formerly prohibited them, 
to the great grievance of those that groan under the burden thereof. Herewith 
we desii-e you to acquaint Captain Ludlow, and by your joint endeavours to 
prevent the like for the future ; and to inflict such punishment on the offenders 
herein as by the Ordinance in that case provided ; and that you continue the pay 
of the said troop as formerly until the sixth of April next, and no longer, without 
order and direction of this Committee ; the due performance whereof commending 
to your care, we rest, your very loving friends, 

Denzil Hollis. John Danvees. 

Edward Batnton, Knt. John Evelyn. 

Edward Baynton. John Dove. 

[Petition from the inhabitants of Westbury, in Wilts, on the same subject, 
though dated somewhat later : — ] To his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, — 



By J. Waylen. 385 

Showing — That your poor petitioners are willing to undergo their proportional 
tax of the general burden of this kingdom, provided they be tied to no other 
inconveniences than your Excellency's Declaration and the Ordinances of Parlia- 
ment divulge,— To the effect, That if the country pay the £60,000 per mensem, 
there shall be no free-quartering. Now, we have had here for the last thirty 
days a troop of a hundred dragoons, besides their officers, under Captaia 
Barrington ; and those of us who refuse to quarter them are compelled to pay 
three shillings a day. Ours is the least and poorest hundred in the county. We 
therefore desire you to give us a positive order under your hand and seal as to 
what we shall allow soldiers, whether upon a march or upon settled quarters. 
Having suffered far beyond other places, we ask to be free of settled quartering, 
except it be upon a march for a night or two. And your petitioners as in duty 
bound shall ever pray for your Excellency. {Signed hy) Thomas Hancocke, 
Mayor, and twelve others. 28th February, 1648, 

6th April, 1647. Richard Hunt is become tenant in the behalf of Jane 
Blackmore, widow, for a copyhold in Collingbourn Kingston, belonging to Captaia 
Eobert Ford, a delinquent in arms, for the year ending Michaelmas next, at £14 
payable half-yearly. 

6th April. Having received an order from Goldsmiths' Hall'signifying that 
Sir John Penruddocke's sequestration being taken off, £32 10*. is to be repaid 
him, Mr. Berry is become tenant to the State for Mr. John Penruddocke's annuity 
out of his father's estate till next Michaelmas, and is to pay presently £7 10*., 
which, with the other sum of £32 10*., is accepted for the rent of Mr. John 
Penruddocke's annuity, whereof £40 was due last Lady-Day. And Mr. Berry 
IS to pay £40 more next Michaelmas, when his term ends ; as also young Mrs. 
Penruddocke's Mi\\&.—{Suhseqitcnt entry.) 26th June, 1648. Being a different 
agreement, showing that Mr. John Penruddocke had just come into possession 
of further means accruing to him by his father's death. 

6th April. Thomas Walker, late Quarter-Master to the troop of horse under 
the command of Lieut.-Col. Pudsey, whilst he was Governor of Clialfield garrison, 
having in London exhibited his debentures for ari;ears of pay, the Committee of 
Safety request the Wilts Committee to give him £30 on account, or what more 
they conveniently can. [The above garrison was stationed in 1G45 for a short 
period in the old mansion, still standing, called Great Chalfield, near Molksham.] 

Another officer, named Lieut. Henry Prescot, exhibits debentures for no less 
a sum than £460, for services performed in conjunction with Col. Edmund 
Ludlow. The Wilts Committee are urged to advauce him £60 on account. 

1st May. An order from the Committee of Safety directs the Wilts Com- 
mittee to pay unto Mrs. Bridget Thistlcthwayte, relict of Captain Francis 
Thistlethwayte, the sum of £142 10*. as arrears for his services in Wilts as 
Captain of foot under Sir Edward Hungerford, as by his debenture shown. And 
the Committee of Hants are likewise to take his case into consideration for his 
sel'vices in that county under Col. Kichard Norton. 



386 The Falstone Bay-BooJc. 

4th May. [An order arrives from Goldsmiths' Hall, directing the sequestration 
of Edward Yerbury, Esq., to be renewed by the Wilts Committee unless within 
ten days he produce certificate from London explanatory of his conduct — his 
offence being that, after the settlement of his fine, he neglected to sue forth his 
pardon under the Great Seal.] 

5th May. Mr. George Barber, of Ashgrove, hath taten Mr. Gawen's estate 
at Norrington and elsewhere in Wilts at £200 a year, from 29th September 
next. 

12th May. Robert Butler, sen., of Fittleton, hath subscribed to the use of the 
State five pounds, which is accepted for the twenty-fifth part of his estate. 

28th May. In the House of Lords, the humble petition of Mary Rawlings, of 
Warminster, widow, was this day read ; whose husband having been employed 
as a scout by the Scout-Master-General, was taken prisoner by the enemy at 
Lampworth and hanged ; and hath left the poor petitioner a distressed widow 
with three small children to be maintained by her labour alone. Sesolved. That 
£50 be bestowed upon the said Mary Rawlings, and paid unto her by the Com- 
mittee of Haberdashers' Hall. 

1st June. John Greenaway, of Broad Hinton, hath this day appeared before 
the Wilts Committee sitting at Longford Castle and made composition for such 
of the personal estate and stock of Sergeant Glanville as are brought in and 
computed, by engaging to pay £500 in manner following : — £200 within a 
week— £100 at Midsummer— £100 at Michaelmas, and £100 on the first of 
November ; for which the said John Greenaway and Mr. Edmund Edgecombe 
have given bond to this Committee. — Note. The fifths are allowed to Lady 
Glanville, as also £100 formerly lent by Sergeant Glanville to the State, and 
paid at Marlborough to that Committee — which, with this £500, is in full of the 
said composition. 

Letter from sundry inhabitants of the parish of Covent Garden to the Wilts 
Committee. — Gentlemen, whereas we are informed that John Fenn, late of the 
Cathedral Church of Salisbury was constrained about two years since to leave his 
abode and family there, by reason he had manifested his faithfulness to the cause 
of God and his good affections to the proceedings of the Parliament, the clergy of 
the Cathedral Church being his chief persecutors; — he then, by the advice and 
assistance of some friends who are Members of the House of Commons, came to 
have his abode in Covent Garden parish ; where, after living six months without 
employment and being brought into great necessities, he was by their assistance 
made clerk of that parish so soon as it was made parochial. The premises 
considered, and finding him a person of merit by his good comportment in this 
place, we have thought fit upon his request to recommend him to the pious 
consideration of the Committee of that county ; that so the house wherein he 
formerly dwelt in Sarum, with a convenient stipend during his life, may be 
settled upon him for his more comfortable subsistence with his family, as in their 
judgments and wisdoms they shall think fit. Signed by the following inhabitants 



By J. Waijlen. 387 

of the said parish of Covent Garden, the first six being also Members of the 
House : — 

Denzil Hollis. John Eteltn, 

Tanfield Vachell. John Tbenchard. 

Petbe Nicholls. Richabd Binqham. 

Robeet Wahop. Anthony Wither. 

Edwaed Caeteb. Obadiah Sedgwick. 

John Anstie. Benj. Cunningham. 

Samuel Smtth. 
[No date, but apparently in 16.17. Nor is there anything to show what office 
Mr. Fenn filled in the Cathedral.] 

13th June. An order arrives from the Committee of Lords and Commons, 
directing the WOts Committee to give £50 to Elizabeth Blagden, widow of 
Gawen Blagden, who long distinguished himself in the service of Sir Edward 
Hungerford, and Edmund Ludlow, in which service he lost his life ;-such £50 
being for arrears owing to her husband, besides £17 due to her for quartering 
divers officers and commanders in the garrison of Malmesbury ; as testified by 
Colonel Ludlow and other gentlemen of quality and credit. 

24th June. In the matter of Arthur Bassett, Esq.— Whereas there is in the 
Hands of Elias Francis and William Snow, of Berwick St. James, £300 belonging 
to Arthur Bassett, Esq,, a delinquent formerly in arms against the Parliament" 
-It IS ordered by this Committee that the said sum be delivered to this Com- 
mittee; and aU Mr. Bassett's tenants at Asserton are to bring in their accounts 
since 25th March, 1644, being three years and a quarter ; when all just 
abatements will be made, and the overjjlus paid in to this Committee for the use 
of the State according to Ordinance of Parliament. [Another entry on the same 
day, laying claim to a further sum of £501 lying in the hands of Francis and 
bnow and owing to Mr. Bassett.] 

13th July. Mrs. Barbara Skilling having become the State's tenant in behalf 
of her husband, Mr. Edward Skilling. a recusant, for his two farms of Draycot 
and Fosbury, at £120 a year, Eoger Hitchcock, of West Stowell, engages to find 
the money. 

7th August. Captain William Bretheis having shown by his debentures that 
there was owing to him £623 for services in Wilts, the Committee here are 
directed to pay £70 towards it. [He was credited with having raised a troop 
and armed them at his own cost— in whose regiment is not stated.] 

1st October. In the matter of Thomas Gorges, clerk, prebendary of Wivelsford 
and Woodford, the Committee are requested to declare whether he be a delinquent 
or no ; and if not, to let him enjoy the profits and rents of the said prebend. 

15th October. Eoger Gurd, of Compton Abbas, in Dorset, and Robert Best 
are again become tenants for the impropriate rcctoiy of Tisbury for the year 
beginning nest Lady-Day, at £95, besides Mrs. Ever's thirds, to whom the 
rectory belongs. They are to see the Church windows repaired which were in 



388 The FaUtone Day-BooTc. 

decay before their time, and to be allowed for it out of their rent ; but afterwards 
to keep it in repair at their own charges, and so to leave it at the end of their term_ 

30th October. Falstone farm is let to Thomas Harry, of the Close, for £170. 

1648. 12th January. Mr. Richard Green hath agreed with this Committee 
for Mrs. Nicholas's tithes at Winterbourn Earls, and is to pay to the use of Mr. 
Walter Norman, the present minister, £38 per annum. 

12th January. Mr. William Noble is assessed by this Committee £10 for his 
twenty-fifth part of his farm at Tinhead, he having already, as he saith, paid 
five pounds to Sir Edward Hungerford. He is also content to take the Covenant. 

4th March. Mr. Richard Goddard. of the Close, Sarum, hath been assessed 
for his twenty-fifth part, and compounded for £25, payable in ten days, for his 
estate as well in Hants as in Wilts. 

Henry Pike, of Pewsey, states in petition that he was in arms against the 
Parliament for the space of three months, but upon better information acquitted 
himself thereof. He submitted in February, 1645, and took the oaths. Being 
informed that the County Committees are to be dissolved, he prayeth that his 
discharge may be registered and a copy given him. [Form of his discharge by 
the Committee sitting at Marlborough annexed — signed by John Goddard, 
Edward Martyn, and Robert Brown.] Petition granted. 

4th March. Mr. Hugh Grove, of Chisenbury, hath this day appeared before 
this Committee and made it appear that he hath no land or real estate in this 
county or elsewhere ; what means he hath being only a personal estate ; for which 
this Committee have thereupon compounded with him for £120, besides what h& 
hath formerly paid ; — to be used as follows, viz. : — £50 to pay Mr. Watson, the 
gunsmith, of London, for arms on the 1st of May, and £30 on 25th June, and 
the residue, £40, on 29th September. On payment of which, this Committee do, 
so far as in them lies, discharge Mr. Grove of his former delinquency, as also of 
his five and twentieth part. — Note. He hath already paid, as appears by this 
book at several times £188, besides two horses worth £15 — which, together with 
the six score pounds above-mentioned, amounting to £323, is accepted in full of 
his said composition. 

Order issued by the Committee sitting at Marlborough, 3rd March, 1648. — 
Whereas by the order of John Goddard, Robert Long, Robert Brown, Edward 
Stokes, John Rede, Edward Martin, William Jesse, Tliomas Goddard, Thomas 
Eennet, Humphrey Ditton, and Robert Good, the Standing Committee at Marl- 
borough, it was, on 20th December. 1644, ordered that the said Mr. Good, Mr. 
Ditton, and Mr. Rede should go towards Salisbury, there to sit and put in 
execution the Ordinances of Parliament, giving an account of their proceedings 
as often as they might; — It is now ordered that they give in their accounts from 
that date, and forbear to act in any part of the county without further order. 
Signed by 

Edward Martin. John Goddard. 

Alexander Popham. William Jesse. 

Thomas Goddard. Robert Brown. 



By J. Waylen. 389 

[This order Mr. John Strange, the Committee's secretary, then forwards to 
Longford Castle, accompanied with the following letter, written on his own 
account, with a view to disarm any hostility as against himself personally for 
the performance of so unpleasant an office.] 

" Marlborough, 8th March, 1648. 
" Gentlemen. I am directed by the Committee here to send you this 
enclosed Order, which, if distasted by you, I shall crave your favour in not 
excepting against the sender, who is, 

" Your humble servant, 

"John Stbange." 

28th April. Upon the petition of Major Henry Wansey, who exhibited bis 
certificates for services performed in Wiltshire, entitling him to £206, the Wilts 
Committee are earnestly recommended by the Committee of Lords and Commons 
to advance him £100 on account. 

8th May. Letters arrive from Mr. Lenthall, Speaker of the Commons' House, 
warning the Committees sitting at Marlborough and at Longford Castle that 
tumultuous risings may be expected, and directing them to level all places o£ 
strength, or see them properly guarded. 

During the month of June orders arrive from London directing the imprison- 
ment of Sir George Penruddocke, William Fisher, Sir Walter Smith, Michael 
Tidcombe, Richard Goddard of Sarum, Sir William Button, Richard Davy, 
William Kent, and Sir Thomas Windebank, unless they avert it by promptly 
paying the remainder of their several fines. 

William Yorke, of West Lavington, gent. His goods and estate were for a 
shoii time under restraint on suspicion of delinquency, but enfranchised in 
April, 1649. 

16th June. Mr. Gilmore, of Ramsbury, suspected of delinquency but desiring 
to sell his estate there, is to give security for answering its value if the evidence 
as to delinquency go against him. He has a month allowed to examine witnesses 
for his defence ; and the Wilts Committee, who have already sequestered his 
lands, are to send the evidence to London. 

1649. 26th March. To the contractors for Bishops' lands, the Council of 
State send this message. — Thei'e is at Downton a large common called " The 
Franchise," parcel of the lands of the late Bishop of Winchester, five hundred 
acres of which are covered with trees fit for the navy. They have been over- 
valued ; but you are to keep them till a navy-surveyor shall inspect them ; and 
certify how far the preserving of the timber will prejudice the sale of the land. 

[The Raleighs, of Downton House, were severe sufferers for their allegiance to 
the Royalist cause. See their case in Walker's Suffering Clergy. On the 
other hand their cousin, Carew Raleigh, as representing his father, the renowned 
Sir Walter, could hardly be other than anti-Stuart. Consequently, when the 



890 The Falstone Bay-Boole. 

Digby family, who were now in possession of Sir Walter's estates at Sherbonrn, 
came up for composition as Eoyalists, their prayer was met by the following 
proviso appended to the Act which adjusted their sequestration : — " That out of 
the landed estates of John, Earl of Bristol, and of George, Lord Digby, so much 
as shall amount to the clear yearly value of five hundred pounds shall be settled 
on Carew Ealeigh, Esq., son of Sir Walter Ealeigh, over and above all reprises, 
in discharge of a pension of four hundred pounds, now greatly in arrear, payable 
for great and valuable considerations unto the said Carew Raleigh out of the 
Exchequer of the Commonwealth." Mr. Matcham, our local historian, could 
hardly have been aware of this fact when he stated in his account of Downton 
that " during the interregnum the Ealeighs in all their branches appear to have 
suffered the depression and suspicion common to the Eoyalists."] 

23rd November. [Resolved. That this House doth approve of what hath 
been done by Mr. Francis Dove, the Mayor of Sarum, in pursuing and re-taking 
the prisoners who escaped out of the gaol there ; and that Sir John Danvers, 
Colonel Ludlow, and Mr. William Stevens, the Eecorder of Sarum, do return the 
thanks of this House to the Mayor for his good service therein ; and that the 
Sheriff of Wilts be required to take care to satisfy the charges of the persons 
employed in that service ; and that the same be allowed to him upon his accounts 
in the Exchequer. Commons' Journals.'] 

[1650. 15th January. At a General Sessions for the peace of the county, 
held at New Sarum. — Whereas this Court is informed by the humble petition of 
Daniel Drake, keeper of the gaol at Fisherton Anger, that by reason of the 
several desperate insurrections and mutinies of the fellows committed to his 
charo-e, in securing them for the good of the Commonwealth, and his own trust 
in bringing them to lawful trial, hath been at great loss and expence, amounting 
in the whole to threescore pounds, four shillings, and sixpence, he prayeth this 
Coui-t to take the same into serious consideration, there having never been the 
like attempts of prisoners to escape which enforced the said Daniel Drake to be 
at that charge. The Court, knowing the faithful service which the petitioner 
hath performed, think fit that he be allowed fifty pounds towards his said 
charges, to be paid him by the Sheriff of Wilts. And they humbly desire the 
Hon. Committee of Eevenue to give allowance thereof to the said Sheriff. 

{Signed by) William Coles, Clerk of the Peace to the said county. — {Endorsed 

by) Thomas Bond, Esq., Sheriff in 1650.] 

1653. The Council of State request the Committee of Indemnity to stay 
proceedings for six months in the suit against Sir NeviJl Poole and Margaret, 
widow of Sir Edward Hungerford. These two persons had in 1644 borrowed 
£500 of Mr. Aldsworth, of Wilts, for the service of the Parliament under 
Colonel Ludlow on bond of Sir John Danvers and Mr. Audley, with Sir Edward 
Hungerford and Sir Nevill Poole as contra-security. Being sued to outlawry on 
the above account, they had appealed to Parliament, who remitted them to the 
Wilts Sequestrators ; but the Wilts Sequestrators claimed exemption on the 
ground of having received orders to send all monies to Goldsmiths' Hall. 

11th July, 1649. Letter from Thomas French, of Bradford, in Wilts, styling 



Wiltshire Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century. 391 

himself Solicitor to the State, to Mr. John Leech, Secretary to the Committee 
sitting in Goldsmiths' Hall.— "Worthy Sir. It is now above four months since I 
left a paper with you, being recommended thereto by Mr. John Ashe and Mr. 
Daniel Cox. But fearing the multiplication of business hath driven them and 
me out of your mind, I presume once more to mind j-ou of it ; and have here 
enclosed a copy of the said paper, beseeching you to take a timely opportunity to 
present it to the Committee. By it you will, I know, discern my desires. I 
hope there is no man hath yet interposed to deprive me of my employment ; for 
it was then your opinion that they could not displace such as had been faithful ; 
and it is manifest enough to divers Parliament-men that my defects have been 
nothing but the want of sufficient authority to act without, or else with, a better 
committee than we have had in this county. I had purposed to see you long 
since in London, but was unexpectedly prevented. 

[Mr. French's manifest design in the paper above referred to is to cut out a 
little more work for himself, by showing in how many cases sequestrated parties 
and Romanists had been allowed to elude their lawful fines.] 



iailts|ivt %x^)n %vkm of i\t ^tfituttcntl 



By F. M. Willis. 

[For Boyne's original list of Wilts Tradesmen's Tokens, see Wilts Arch. Mag. 
vol. vi., p. 75.] 

J^JTH the publication of a new and revised edition of Boyne's 
work ^ Dr. "Williamson has supplied a want long felt by 
t'hoseT who, in spite of the contempt of Evelyn and the sneers of 
Addison, do not consider the trade tokens of the seventeenth 
century to be altogether devoid of interest or unworthy of notice. 

The illegal coins, of which this book treats, were first struck 
immediately after the execution of Charles I., and were put into 
circulation principally by private tradesmen for professed purposes 

1 " Trade Tokens issued in the Seventeenth Century," two vols., by George C. 
Williamson, D.Lit., F.R.S.L., etc., published by Elliot Stock, limited edit., two 
hundred and fifty only. 



893 WiltsJdre Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century. 

of charity and change ; though, as the supply eventually exceeded 
the demand for them, it is difficult to believe that very many of the 
later issuers were not influenced in their enterprise by feelings of 
avarice and motives of selfish greed. 

That these tokens were more popular with all classes than were 
the " Harringtons " or patent regal farthings, which preceded them, 
there is no reason to doubt, insomuch as there was at any rate always 
the chance of changing them for coin of the realm at the offices of 
the issuers ; while to the poor they must have proved an inestimable 
boon at a time when frugality and thrift had to be strictly studied 
and economy rigidly observed. It is a curious fact that the Govern- 
ment o£ the Commonwealth, though fully recognising the want of 
a proper copper coinage, yet failed to take any active steps towards 
supplying the need, and this apparent indifference on their part 
can only be explained by the unsettled state of the times and the 
supposition that, as this sj'stem of private mintage was as yet fairly 
free from abuse, the tokens were looked upon as a satisfactory and 
tolerable temporary substitute for something more substantial to 
come. After the Restoration of Charles II., however, the circulation 
of this unauthorised money soon grew to be a perfect pest to the 
country, for several thousands of petty tradesmen, seeing how their 
neighbours were putting forth with impunity their illegal tender, 
and observing that a considerable profit was to be derived from such 
a course, themselves set up presses for coining farthings and half- 
pence on their own account, with the result that many issuers, by 
absconding or becoming insolvent, failed to meet their liabilities, 
and that holders were in consequence left with a quantity of tokens 
on their hands absolutely impassable and almost worthless. 

Such a condition of things naturally soon told, not only on the 
poor themselves, but also on those responsible for their maintenance, 
so that a remedy was anxiously sought for by the authorities of 
most of the principal towns and boroughs, who consequently resorted 
in 1666 and the few following years to the plan of issuing their own 
corporation pieces. These were readily bought up by the inhabitants, 
as affording better security against loss than did those of private 
tradesmen, and the latter were in those particular places driver 



By F. M. Willis: 393 

quickly and almost entirely from the market^ though in the outlying 
districts the number of ordinary issuers continued to be as great as ever. 

Some few corporations had, it is true, adopted the above course 
several years before — four or five even during the time of the Com- 
monwealth — but had, with the exception of Bristol, discontinued 
the practice as soon as the demand for small change was met by 
individual enterprise. Such, however, were for the most part now 
compelled to resume the issue of their town farthings, and the fact 
that Oxford, Newbury, and Salisbury failed to do so gives colour to 
the supposition that the majority of those, who formed the Councils 
then in office, had tokens of their own either in circulation or con- 
templation and selfishly allowed their private interests to stand in the 
way of those of their fellow-citizens. But whatever may have been 
the reason, the governing bodies of these three places had occasion 
to congratulate themselves on their past inertness, when in 1670 au 
order was issued for the suppression of all illegal money, and several 
cities obtained pardon for their unlawful practices only after much 
trouble and considerable expense. In 1672 this order was confirmed 
by Royal proclamation, a recognised copper coinage was introduced, 
and England saw the last of her tokens for many years to come.' 

How burthensome to the country the latter had been during the 
last few years of their circulation will be the better understood by 
turning to the pages of the revised " Boyne," where will be found 
a description of nearly thirteen thousand pieces — a long and imposing 
catalogue indeed, but probably far from a complete one ! Of this num- 
ber Mr. W. Cunnington, F.G.S., as sub-editor, has credited this 
county with two hundred and seventy-four, and the congratulations 
and thanks of all collectors are due to him for having thus supple- 
mented the original list with no less than eighty-two fresh varieties. 

By the courtesy and kind permission of Dr. Williamson particulars 
of this valuable addition to the Wilts series are here extracted from 
his work. 
wu^faJon. ALDBOURNE. 

2. lOHN . ADEE . OP . ALBORN = I . A \ 

■WILTSHER = The Mercers' arms. 

^ In Ireland the issue was continued until 1679. 



394 WiltsJiire Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century. 

3. lOHN . ADEE . OP . ALBOEN = I . A . 5 

I . CLAEK . BISHOPSTON ^ I. C 

(This token, which is in the Society's Museum, may have heen issued by 
partners, or may be merely the result of an error on the part of the maker, as 
its reverse side corresponds exactly with the obverse of the Bishopstone piece 
[Boyne No. 4], while the obverse sides both of this and of the farthing last 
described are precisely similar to one another.) 

6. FBANCIS . STROKE = HIS . HALPE • PENT. | 

OF . AWBORNE . 1660 = A tree and F . S . 
(Claimed also by Lincolnshire.) 

6. EDWARD . WITTS = A shuttle. i 
IN . AWBORNE . 1666 = E . W . 

(This is claimed by Lincolnshire also, but belongs almost certainly to Wilts ; 
as the name Witts is still to be found in Aldbonrne, but does not appear in the 
Aubourn registers.) 

AMESBURY. 

7. ROBERT . HARRISON = A garb. \ 
OF . AMSBVRT . 1653 = R . M . H . 

ASHTON KEYNES. 

9. RICHARD . MARSH . OF = A nag's head. \ 

ASHTON . KEYNES = R . A . M . 

BARFORD, 

10. The halfpenny token issued by Mary Brine and described by Boyne and 
Williamson is generally allowed to belong to Warwickshire. 

BRADFORD. 

13. WILLIAM . BAILT . MERC = The Mercers' arms. ;J- 

IN . BRADFORD . 1667 = A nag's head couped. 

(The monument erected by William Baily in the Parish Church, Bradford-on- 
Avon, bears not only the Mercers' arms, but also the Bailey crest, a nag's head, 
which proves conclusively that this token does not belong to Torkshire. For 
information about the Bailey family see Wilts Archaological Magazine, vols. 
v., p. 51 ; xxiii., p. 312 ; xxiv., pp. 54 and 287.) 



By F. M. Willis. 395 

14*. WILLIAM . CHANDLER = The Grocers' arms. i 

IN . BRADFORD . 1663 = W . C . 

(Possibly the William Chandler, salter, of Bradford, mentioned in the Wilts 
ArchcEological Magazine, vol. siii., p. 234, as owner of the Iford estate and 
lord of the manor of Rowley in 1700.) 

IC. SAMVELL . DAVISSON = A stag. \ 

OF . BRADFORD . 1669 = S . D . 

19. lACOB . SELBEB . OF = Two pipes crossed. | 

BRADFORD . 1665 = I . S . 

Jacob Selby was buried at Bradford, Wilts, on the 1st of June, 1700. 

(Mr. A. Schomberg has kindly supplied the following : — From the register of 
Bradford-on-Avon, "Marriage. 1681. Oct. 5. Thomas Duggdall to Anne 
Silby." 

From an inscription on a flat stone on the floor of an aisle of Seend Church. 
" Ann the first wife of Thomas Dugdale of the City of London, sole Daughter 
of Mr. Jacob Selby of Bradford was underneath interred Dec. 5, 1682, set. 23.") 

BRATTON. 

21. lOHN . ALLDREDG = Arms of the Merchant-Tailors, but with a 

ball on the top of the pavilion and no flag. i 

IN . BRATTON . 1664 = I . E . A . 

(The above bas been lately presented to the Society's Museum by Mr. W. 
Cunnington, and is supposed to be the only specimen at present known. It was 
formerly in the collection of the late Mr. E. Saxty, of Bath.) 

In Bi-atton churchyard is a tombstone, bearing the following inscription : — 
"And also here lyeth the Eemains of Deborah Daughter of John and Mary 
Aldridg who Departed this Life February the 18 in the yeare of our Lord God 
1686." 

In the matrix of a marginal brass, lost from an altar tomb in the south transept 
of Edington Church, is the inscription ealph . aldbeg, but it is improbable 
that the tomb was at first erected to him, as it bears the monogram I. B. oft 
repeated. 

CALNE. 

24. STEPHEN . BAYLIE = Mercers' arms.' ^ 

OF . CAVLNE = S . S . B . 



396 Wiltshire Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century. 

26. EGBERT . DIEE, = A talbot. 5 

IN . CALKE = R . I . D . 

28. ARTHVR . FORMAN . 1669 = HIL | MAR | TEN i 

CHANDLER . OF . CALNE = A . I . P . 

CHIPPENHAM. 

42. SAMVELL . ELLlOTE = Two swoids crossed and a carbine. \ 

OF . CHIPPENHAM = S . A . E . 1666. 

47. BRISTOW . PLACE = . I . A . S \ 
CHIPPENHAM . 1665 = I . A . S . 

(No clue exists as to where Bristow Place was situated, nor is tlie issuer's 
name known, but the similarity of the initials on this and the token next 
described shows it to be possible that both pieces emanated from John Shorte'a 
office.) 

48. lOHN . SHOKTE = The Tallow Chandlers' arms. \ 
IN . CHIPPENHAM = I . A . S . 

COLLINGBOURNE. 

56. BARNABAS . RVMSEY = A tree between 16 and 64. \ 
IN . COLLINGBOVRNE = A tree between B and R 

COBSLEY. 

57. GEORGE . CAREY = The Clothworkers' arms. i 
IN . CORSLEY . 1666 = G . M . C . 

58. Also a variety dated 1667. 

CORSHAM. 

59. WILLIAM . GIBBONS = w . G . and a true lovers' knot. 
IN . CORSHAM = 1669 

DEVIZES. 

70. John Hammond's token is now properly described as being without date. 
This issuer was possibly responsible also for the Marlborough token, for there is 
a letter of the Marlborough man, speaking of his having been at Devizes during 
the great fire of 1653, on which occasion he says :— " I have but little saved, not 
above £8 worth of all my goods and books. The children are crying to go home, 
and 1 tell them we have none to go to. What shall I do? " 



By P. M. Willis. 397 

Dr. Williamson, referring to " Waylen's History," tells us further that the 
Royalists, when they took Marlborough in 1642, fed a fire for three hours with 
Hammond's stock-in-trade. 

This issuer was possibly a son of Henry Hammond, bookseller in Salisbury, 
1635—7. (See Wilts ArchcBological Magazine, vol. xxvi., p. 235.) 

69. EDWARD . HOPE . OF = A ship within a dotted ring. \ 

THE . DEVIZES . 1652 = An anchor within a ring. 

The issue of a second token in the same y««r shows that Hope's business was 
a thriving one. 

75. KICIIARD . SLADE = The Grocer's arms. \ 

IN . THE . DEVIZES . 1663 = Two pipes crossed. 

78. WILLIAM . STEVENS = The Grosers' arms. % 

IN . THE . DEVIZES = W . A . S . 

H BYTES BURY. 

84. lOSEPH . BELL = The Mercers' arms. i 

IN . HETESBVRY = 1659 . I . H . B . 
The figure of the Virgin on the shield is placed upside down. (The specimen, 
from which the above description was taken, is in the Society's Museum, and is 
the only one hitherto reported.) 

HIGHWORTH. 

88. JOHN . ELTON . AT . y" . LAMBE = A paschal lamb. 5 

IN . HIGHWOORH . 1669 = HIS | HALF | PENY. 

94. lOIlN . PEACHEY = (detrited.) i 

IN . HIWOETH = 1656. 

LACOCK. 

101. RICHARD . GRYST = A lion rampant. « 

IN . LECOCK . 1669 = R , G . 

MAIDEN BRADLEY. 

(Dr. Williamson has removed the token of James Isher from the Wiltshire 
list, and it is now unappropriated by any county. It is, however, very doubtful 
whether Wilts has any claim to it, nor, indeed, docs it appear in Boync's original 
MSS.) 
VOL. XXVI. — NO. LXKVIII. ^ D 



398 Wiltshire Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century. 
MALMESBURY. 

106. lOHN . BLONCE == (detrited.) \ 

IN . MALMSBVRY . 1661 = I . M . B . 

113. EDMVND . HAKDT . AT . Y^ = A dragon. \ 

IN . MALMESBVRY . 1651 = E . E . H . 

118. THO . TANNER . CARTER = A woolpack. \ 

IN . MALMESBVRY = T . T . 

MARLBOROUGH. 

124. A . MARLBROVGH . FARTHING = A large castle with three \ 
IN . Y^ . COVNTY . OF . WILTS . 1668 = A bull, [turrets 

125. A variety with a small castle and four turrets on the obverse. 

127. ROBERT . BRIANT = ^ ' ' * \ 
OF . MALLBROWGH = E . S . 

128. ROBERT . BVTCHER = Grocers' arms. i 
IN . MALBROVGH . 1663 = R . M . B 

129. ROBERT . BVTCHER = Grocers' arms. 5 
IN . MALBROW . 66 =R . M . B 

132. WILL . CRABB . GROCER = Grocer's arms, i 
IN . MALBOROVGH . 1664) = W , M . C 

133. A variety reads WILLIAM in full. 

138. lOHN . MORGAN . 1657 = Grocers' arms. i 

AT MALBVRROW = I . M . 

140. SIMON . PIKE . OF = Grocers' arms. i 

MARLEB0R0V6H . 1677 = S . A . P . 
(There must be some mistake about this date, as the tokens were finally 
suppressed in England in 1672.) 

MARSHFIELD. 

147. WILLIAM . HOSEE . IN = W . H . M i 

MARSH . FEILD . 1651 = W . H . M 



By F. M. Willis. 399 

(The above is described also in the Gloucestershire list, together with other 
MaishfieJd tokens. The reason for its being included in the Wilts catalogue is 
that the name of William Hosee has been found in an old local deed of Corsham, 
in which he is described as of "Marshfield, County Wilts.") 



MARSTON. 

148. KICHARD . WALKER = The Grocers' arms. -J 
OF . MAESTON . GROCER = R . W . 1658 

(This is a Kent token [see Dr. Williamson's list for that county, No. 389], 
which has been wrongly placed here owing to an inaccurate reading of the word 

MAIDSTON.) 

MELKSHAM. 

149. AMBROSE .' AWDREY . OF . MELKESHAM = Mercers' arms. - 
IOHjST . AWDREY . OF . STEEPLE . ASHTON = 1668 

(There is probably some mistake about the description of the above, as no 
mention of a John Awdry can be found in Steeple Ashton records. There was, 
however, a Joseph Awdry buried at Steeple Ashton on December 15th, 1668, 
brother to Ambrose Awdry, of Melksham, and to George Awdry, who issued a 
token at Maiden Bradley.) 

151. A . A . OF . MELKESHAM = The Mercers' arms. \ 

I . A . OF . STEEPLE . ASHTON = 1668. 

(An example is to be seen at the Society's Museum. Boyne noted the 1665 
variety only, and added in inverted commas, by way of explanation, what he 
supposed to be the names of the issuers. Hence may possibly have arisen the 
error — if it be an error ! — in the description of the token immediately preceding 
this.) 

The farthing of eichaed lvzby, described by Akerman and Boyne, has been 
removed to its proper place, viz.. Milk Street, Cheapside, Loudon. 

PURTON. 

157*. EDWARD . SAVNDERS = The Grocers' arms. J 

IN . PVRTON = E . S . 

2 D 2 



400 Wiltshire Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century. 

(This and John Fanner's tokens are placed hy Dr. "Williamson hoth in the 
Wiltshire and the Hertfordshire lists, as the same place appears in both counties, 
but the issuers' names cannot at present be found in the parish registers of either.) 



RAMS BURY. 

159. lOHN . STON . OP = I , E , i 

RAMSBVJIY . 1655 = I . M . S . 

(Such is the description given of a coin in the Society's Museum, but it is in 
reality no other than that noted by Boyne [No. 113] ; for, beneath the letters 
I.E., which have been neatly stamped on the field of the obverse, the " candle- 
maker" of the usual issue is q^v.te discernible, though very indistinct.). 

P.S. — Dr. Williamson suggesf th<>t either the issuer married again or that 
the initials i.e. are those of his su co.^or in business. 

ROAD. 

161. DAVID . lEFEES = A barrel. \ 
IN . ROAD . 1664 = D . I 

162. WILLIAM . WHICHVRCH = A woolpack. 5 
IN . ROAD . 1668 = W . S . W 

(These two tokens, together with that of one " Richard Tucker," are found 
also in the Somersetshire list.) 

ROLLSTONE. 

163. (James Swan's farthing finds place also in the series of ROYSTON, 

Hertfordshire.) 

SALISBURY. 

165. ROGER . BEDBVRY = St. George and the Dragon. \ 
IN . SARVM . 1664 = R . A . B . 

166. AT . THE . BVSH . IN = A bush. 
SALSBVRY . 1657 = T . R . 

170. lOHN . CRAGGE = A dog. i 

GROCER . IN . SARVM = I . P . C 



By F. M. Willis. 401 

177. EDWARD . FAVLCONER = Skinners' arms. 5 
IN . NEW . SARVM . 1656 = E . M . F . 

178. A variety dated 1657. 

181. EDWARD . FRIPP = Skinners' arms. 5 

IN . SARVM . 1669 = HIS . HALF . PENT. 

183. lOHN . GILBERT . AT . THE = A bell. | 

BELL . IN . NEW . SARID = I . H . G . 

(This differs from No. 127 of Boyne in having "Sanim" incorrectly spelt, an 
error no doubt on the part of the die-sinker. Examples of both varieties are to 
be seen in the collection at the Society's Museum.) 

185. WILLIAM . GAPEN = The Grocers' arms. i 

IN . SARVM . 1652 = W . G. 

187. WILLIAM . GASSEN = The Grocers' arms. i 
IN . SARVM . 1662 = W . G . 

188. lOHN . GRACCE = A dog. ^ 
GROCER . IN . SARVM = I . G . P . 

(From the similarity in description one is inclined to think that this token and 
that of "John Cragge " [see above] are identical.) 

191. ROGER . GODFREY . IN = Knife and cleaver. \ 

NEW . SARVM . 1664 = R . E . G . 

193. lOHN . HALE =: A lion rampant. \ 

GROCER . IN . SARVM = I . H . 

198. GEORGE . HVGHES = A fox with a goose. | 

OF . SARVM . 1658 = r . :i , 

202. E . D . M . IN . SARVIM . 51 z= A skull. \ 

IF . THOV . BELEIVEST — ^ ueart. 

(This belonged possibly to Edmond Mack, an apotheoaiy, who issued No. 139 
of Boyne's list. For information about him see Wilts Arehaologioal Magazine, 
vol. xiii., pp. 150 and 168.) 



402 WiUsMre Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century. 

205. FRANCIS . MANINGE . IN = A goat. \ 

KATHREM . STREET . SARVM = K . I . M . 
For "Maniuge" and "Kathrem" should be read maningS and kathreN. 

(Described in Williamson as a halfpenny, but is certainly a farthing, as is also 
No. 204 by the same issuer.) 

209. lOHN . NEALE = A fleur-de-lys. i 

OF . SOLSBERY = I . E . N . 

212. GEORGE . PAGE . GROCER = Dove with olive branch, i 
IN . SARVM . 1657 = G . K . P . 

213. A variety dated 1658. 

214. A variety dated 1667. 

216. EDWARD . PENNY . IN = Butchers' arms. I 

SARVMB . 1667 = HIS . ^ . TOKEN . 

220. WILL . SACKLER . 1 666 = Ui)holsterers' arms. | 
TPHOLSTER . IN . SARVM = W . M . S 

221. ROGER . REDBVRY = St. George and the Dragon. ^ 
IN . SARVM . 1664 = R . A . R . 

(One is inclined to think that this is identical with " Koger Bedbury's " token, 
described above.) 

225. HENRY . SEWARD . OF = Arms : a chevron ermine between ; 

SARVM . GROCER = H . M . S . [three escalop shells. 

227. WILLIAM . VINER = A bunch of grapes. i 

IN . SARVM . 1657 = W . E . V 

SHERSTON MAGNA. 

231, THOMAS . DAVIES . IN = Mercers' arms. 

SHVSTON . MAGNAE = T . D . 1651 

STRATTON (St. Margaret). 

23.3. (John Cann's token [No. 157 Boyne] finds place in the Wilts list 

and also in the lists of Norfolk and Cornwall, but it is impossible to determine, 
at present, to which it belongs.) 



By F. M. Willis. 403 

234 THOMAS . BANT = p Arms. ^ 

IN . STRATTON = T . B 

SWINDON. 

235. THOMAS . FARMER . BAKER — A pair of scales and beneath them | 

IN . SWINDON . 1669 = HIS . HALF . PENY . T . A . F [a gaib. 

239. HENERY . RESTALL = Two pipes crossed. J 
IN . SWINDON . 1668 = Three sugar loaves. 

240. Another dated 1664. 

241. HENERY . RESTALL = Two pipes crossed. i 
IN . SWINDON . 1664 = Two pipes crossed. 

TINHEAD. 

247. JOHN . BERRY . OF =: The Mercers' arms. I 
TINHEAD . 1661 = X . A . B 

(For 1661 read 1651.) 

TROWBRIDGE. 

248. lOHN . CLARKE . 1667 = The Drapers' arms. i 
IN . TROWBRIDG = Latin cross between i and c. 

(The design on the reverse is not a Latin cross, but a merchant's mark.) 

WESTBURY. 

265. lOHN . WATTS = The Grocers' arms. ^ 
IN . WESTBVRY = I . W . 

WESTPORT (Malmeshury). 

266. WILLIAM . FRY . IN =: The Weavers' arms. f 
WESTPORTE . 1666 = W . A . P 

WILTON. 

Dr. "Williamson has transferred all of the Wilton tokens, except Stephen 
Brassier's, to Norfolk ; but No. 185 of Boyue's list, at any rate, has been found 
more than once in the immediate neighbourhood of the Wiltshire Wilton. 



404! Wiltshire Trade Tokens of the Serentcenth Century. 

WOOTTON BASSETT. 

270, GABRELL . ARMAN = The Mercers' arms. 

IN . WHETEN . BASETT = G . E . A 



The following tokens have not been noticed in any list hitherto 
published : — 

KEEVIL. 

CHARLES . WlLLCOKS = A fleur-de-lys. i 

IN . KEEVEL . MERCER = C . W . 

MALMESBURY. 

WALTER . WOODMAN = W , M . W in monogram. I 

CARIER . MALMESBVRY = the Grocers' arms. 
(This is a smaller and thinner piece than that described by Boyne (No. 9U), 
and it will be noticed that the centre types of the obverse and reverse are 
transposed !) 

MARLBOROUGH. 

A farthing of Thomas Keene (Boyne No. 97) from a different die. The s on 
the obverse does not stand below the legs of the doves, but touches the tail of the 
lower bird to the right. 

TROWBRIDGE. 

The place of issue on Robert Darcke's token is spelt by Boyne tvebkidge, 
and by Williamson tevbeidob. Both varieties are to be met with. 



i 



405 



|[otc$ on ^omau ^enuiius at §o-t\ 

By the Rev. E. H. Goddaed. 

N the Gentleman's Magazine, 1831, part I., p. 595-6, in a 
% topographical account of Box, occurs this passage : — 

" I ventured (in your number for September last) to call the attention of your 
readers, and particularly that of the learned author of Serines Britannicus, to 
a remarkably shaped hill overlooking the village of Box, called Taut-ney Sill, 
and suggested whether it had not been anciently dedicated to the Celtic Mercury, 
Tot, as a presiding deity to a British settlement in the valley beneath. I men- 
tioned the probability of the site of the parish Church being formerly the seat 
of Druidical rites, and alluded to the fine spring of water which bursts out beside 
the Church, as being probably 'the sacred Druidical spring, so intimately con- 
nected with the Celtic worship of the God Taut ' ; and that the tradition of the 
place was, that there had been formerly found baths supplied from this ' sacred 
spring ' which had been considered to have been Eoman. I mentioned reasons 
why the Eomans would probably be induced to venerate this spot, and stated 
that remains had very lately been discovered which verified the tradition. I am 
not aware that this village had previously been pointed out as having any remains 
demonstrating that the Eomans once were resident here, which appears, however, 
undoubtedly to have been the case ; for it is said, besides the baths above-men- 
tioned, that several beautiful tessellated pavements had formerly been found in 
the churchyard and gardens adjoining, but no spot could be pointed out where 
the same might with certainty be found, and the tradition was considered 
therefore as vague and unworthy attention. It is reasonable to suppose that 
lamentable ignorance occasioned, or at least did not prevent, their destruction as 
soon as discovered ; for a year or two ago, in a garden belonging to Mr Mullins, 
adjoining the churchyard, in making some additions to a very old building, the 
workmen in sinking for a foundation struck upon the mutilated remains of a 
tessellated pavement about two or three feet below the surface of the ground. 
It appeared to have been part of a large square, and the part now discovered was 
evidently one of its comers. It had a wide ornamental border of no remarkable 
beauty, but what I particularly recollect (the few moments I had opportunity of 
seeing it) was that there were evident effects of repeated fires having been made 
apparently about the middle of the square ; for the tesserte toward the centre 
were burnt from their original colours to a brick red, and the redness diminished 
in intensity as it approached the border, near which the colours were again all 
perfect. This pavement must have been discovered when the old building was 
erected, for it appeared to run under its foundation, and if so. the remainder 
must have been then destroyed. The portion of it lately found, however, was 
considered worthy of preservation, and has been, it is hoped, safely secured from 
injury by means of large flagstones carefully placed over it. In the adjoining 
garden, belonging to the same individual, is an ornamental fishpond, in the 
middle of which many years ago was a small island, and communication with it 



406 Notes on Roman Remains at Box. 

was efEected by planks supported on long stones, set upright in the water. Though 
the island has long since been removed (by the grandfather of the present owner), 
one of the stones was left standing upright in the water, and so remained till a 
late summer, when the water being let out of the pond,, the stone was pushed 
down, and immediately under it (embedded in the soil on which it had for so 
many years stood) were" found very many Roman tesseraj of different coloui-s and 
sizes, some of which I have now by me. This pond had been for some centuries 
back a mill-head or dam to an overshot wheel ; and ' Boxe Mill mentioned m 
the 'Monasticon- as belonging to Farley Monastery, I have no doubt was 
situated near this spot, and driven by water from this pond. Little remains of 
a mill are now visible here, excepting the place of the overshot wheel, and the 
circumstance that very many old-fashioned millstones are to be seen in the 
pavements about the premises. To the protection of this stone from the effect 
of the continual washing of the water must be ascribed the preservation for so 
Ion- a pei-iod of these Roman tesseiiB in so singular a situation, and which 
contribute not a little to the support of the traditions above-mentioned. 

This was succeeded in 1833, part I., pp. 357-8, by a fuller 

notice : — 

'• We have been favoured by the Rev. George MuUins, the' Vicar of Box, with 
the following description of some Roman antiquities recently discovered at that 
place • ' In the supplement to the first part of your vol. ci., p. 596 a correspondent 
in sneaklno- of the antiquities of the village of Bos, mentions the existence ot 
some Roman remains in my garden. The discovery which he alludes to was 
that of a tessellated pavement found there a few years ago I believe that until 
that discovery no site of Roman remains could be pomted out m the village, 
although tradition spoke of their existence. I have now to announce a further 
and more important discovery, which has taken place withm the present year. 
Tn excavatin- some earth at the distance of forty-three yards north from the 
pavement before alluded to, evident traces of another, but in a state of destruction, 
prese" ed themselves ; and in a line leading from this immediately to the former 
rfound seven stone pillars, of rough workmanship, and near them is an altai-hke 
erection, consisting of several stones, and a piece of stone of a semi-circula 
hape. about a foot across and eight inches thick, partially excavated on each sid 
as ff for the purpose of holding something. This stone bears evident traces of 
fire Distant twenty-eight yards to the west were the mutdated remains of a 
tessellated pavement of blue stones, ornamented with two red borders, he 
e rnearly an inch square, and the blue stones entirely decomposed. This 
pav meBt in fts original state must have been at least 10 or 12 feet square. The 
remarnr a wall on the south side were covered with several flues, made of 
whTbr^ks^ supported by iron cramps ; and underneath the bed on which the 
paveme>^t wa laid" m.de of coarse gravel and mortal were large flags, suppoi ed 
Cniars of stone forming a regular hypocaust. The discovery of this pavem n 
induced me to make an opening at a point where I might conjecture from h 
direction of the hypocaust where remains would be found ; and at a depth of four 
fee below the surface of the earth I discovered a third tessellated pavement veij 
netly ^fect, apparentiy forming a passage from some other part of the buildmg. 
; s n ue feet wide, twenty-eight feet long, and turns at a right angle, six feet. 



By ike Rev. E. H. Goddard. 407 

where it is broken up ; but it evidently extended much further in both directions. 
In one comer is a curious stone cut in a form as though intended for a seat, but 
now only eight inches high. The pattern of this passage is particularly elegant. 
The ground colour is white ; the exterior tessera coarse ; the blue lines of smaller 
cubes form the borders, six feet about, and the intermediate space is filled with 
semicircles, forming waving lines, blue, crossing each other at right angles ; 
these are again intersected by others of half the diameter, with their extremities 
united in the centre, and terminating in small crosses shaded with red and yellow, 
white and blue, and producing the most beautiful effect. I have preserved 
several specimens of the plaster from the walls, the colours of which were very 
bright when first exposed to the air. The patterns were principally imitations 
of Egyptian marble, with elegant coloured borderings, but I have not been able 
to discover a decided figure on aiiy of the pieces. One small vase, holding about 
a pint, apparently of British workmanship, was taken up near the pillars, but 
unfortunately damaged by the spade. Numberless fragments of earthen vessels, 
small pieces of pavements, tesserae, and Roman bricks, are now in my possession. 
One room was evidently paved with square red bricks, quite plain. One small 
coin only has been found, and this was so far corroded as to be wholly illegible. 
There is another piece of pavement (which, however, I have never yet seen), in 
a distant part of my garden ; and the whole of the original buildings, if square, 
must have covered a considerable poi-tion of ground, the most distant of the 
pavements being at least 50 yards apart." 

The plioto-print which accompanies these notes is reproduced from 
photographs taken when the pavement and bath were discovered at 
Box, and whilst they were still in situ. For permission to reproduce 
these I am indebted to the kindness of Messrs. Stier & Son, 19, 
New Bond Street, Bath, to whom the pavement belongs. 

For some time past the pavement and the small semicircular bath 
itself have been on view and for sale at Mr. Stier^s house, 14, 
Sydenham Terrace, Bath, near the Midland Station, having been 
taken up in sections and secured in strong wooden cases, so that 
they could be moved from place to place. In this process it has 
evidently been much restored, and apparently the tesserae have been 
re-polished. 

It was discovered in 1881, during some building operations, on a 
bit of land just opposite the Church, and after being photographed 
was removed bodily. It seems difficult to decide whether this is or 
is not one of the pavements spoken of in the letters to the Gentle - 
man's Magazine given above. The present Vicar of Box, the llev. 
W. E. Gardiner, tells me that Mr. MuUins was never Vicar of Box, 
but that he lived just opposite the Church, at a house kuowu as 



408 Notes on Homan Remains at Box, 

"the Wilderness," and rented also the piece of ground adjoining — 
which was the spot on which the remains in question were found in 
1881. His son, the Rev. George Mullins, was Rector of Ditteridge. 

No accurate measurements or plan seem to have been preserved 
of the remains as they were found. At present the pavement is 
about 24ft. long by 5ft. broad, but this probably does not quite 
represent its original dimensions. As will be seen from the illus- 
tration, it seems to have been the floor of either a corridor, or two 
small rooms. It is said that considerable remains of hypocausts and 
hot-air flues were found connected with it. 

The most remarkable portion still existing is a semicircular sunk 
space 2ft. 9in. deep and 3£t. 4in. across the chord, which is said 
when discovered to have shown the channel by which the water 
entered — on the south-west side of the bow — and still retaining the 
thick lead pipe, Sin. in diameter, from which the water escaped in 
the north corner. Both the floor and the sides of this well are 
covered with tesserse. As to its purpose, Mr. Haverfield, to whom 
I submitted the photo, writes : — 

" I think the thing may well be a bath. There is something in Vitruvius 
about a similar shaped bath : at the moment I cannot find the passage. There 
is also a similar room, probably a bath, at Chesters, close to the N. Tyne. The 
arrangement of pipes in your Box instance is also greatly in favour of a bath." 

The plate of a bath at Farley is copied from one in the Gentleman's 

Magazine, February, 1823, p. 113, and is accompanied by a letter 

from Sir R. C. Hoare, in which he says : — 

* " The site of the once celebrated Castle at Farley, the residence of the ancient 
family of Hungerford, is too well known to require any local description. Gibson, 
in his edition of Camden, mentions the discovery of a Roman pavement at this 
place, part of which was taken up and deposited in the Ashmoleau Museum at 
Oxford, but from the recent discovery of a Roman bath in the most perfect 
preservation (see Plate 2) it is evident that this villa has not been explored. We 
are at this time engaged in tracing its limits, an account of which, with the 
ground plan, shall be sent to you when our researches are terminated. The 
dimensions of this little bath are given accurately in tlie annexed ground plan. 
The pipe to let off the water is denoted by a small circular mark." 

As will be seen, the Farley bath is very similar in shape to the 
Box example. 

• Canon Jackson, in his FarUigh Hungerford, \). 2, says the Eoman bath was found in. " Temple 
Field," north of Farley on the ruad to Ilord. 



i 



^^§WM$^.'.. 




Roman Bath, Farleigh, 



WINDOVV 




It r^ET 
_i I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 L_ 



From ' Gentle/aans /Magazine' ffb. 1625. PJ-ATf 11 . p . I5 • 



By the Rev. E. E. Goddard. 409 

Another semicircular bath occurs in the Roman villa at North 
Leigh, Oxon. 8ee Morgan's Romano- British Mosaic Pavements, 
p. IIS; and in 1881, at Wiugham, in Kent, a bath with walls and 
floor of mosaic was discovered. Ibid, p. 151. 

More than one fountain of semicircular shape, with coved head, 
and lined with mosaic, have been found in a perfect state at Pompeii. 

The tesserae at Box are of three colours — the outside groundwork 
cream-coloured, the borders of the central panels and the Laby-" 
rinthine fret which forms the pattern, a dark slaty blue, and the 
groundwork of the pattern itself an ivory-white, a good deal lighter 
than the cream of the outside margins. 

All three of these seem to be formed of very hard close-grained 
limestones, capable of taking a high polish. Some of the cream- 
coloured tesserae, for which I am indebted to Mr. Stier's kindness, 
have been submitted to Mr. F. W. Rudler, of the Jermyn Street 
Geological Museum, who writes as follows : — 

" The two tesserse which you have sent are similar to others which I have seen 
from Roman pavements at Cirencester and at Silchester. — They are a fine-grained 
limestone such as might well be derived from some of our secondary strata. I 
have submitted your specimens to my colleague, Mr. H. B. Woodward, who has 
made a special study of all the Jurassic and Triassic rocks of Great Britain, and 
he is satisfied that the rock of your tesserse might be obtained either fi"om the 
White Lias (Rhsetic) or more probably from the White Limestone of the Great 
Oolite, which is well developed near Cirencester and was used according to the 
late Professor Buckman for Roman mosaic pavements in that neighbourhood." 

[In Buckman and 'iHevirazxch'sRemains of Roman Art iti Cirencester 
it is stated that the hard white or cream-coloured stone used for 
tesserse at Cirencester, which was formerly supposed to be " Palom- 
bino " marble from Italy, is really from a compact bed of fine-grained 
stone in the freestone quarries round Cirencester itself from the 
middle of the Great Oolite.] 

This Box pavement is not mentioned amongst the Wilts examples 
in Morgan's Roma^to- British Mosaic Pavements, nor has it, so far as 
I can discover, been noted elsewhere. Its date, from coins said to 
have been found with it, is probably the fourth century. It has, as 
will be seen from the facts mentioned above, evidently formed part 
of a considerable villa. 



410 



§lecorb$ of J[iuk not meiitioneb tl$c&r|nt. 

^I^HE EDITOR would be greatly obliged if Members and 
Ifll^ l others in all parts of the county would kindly send him 
shorlj concise^ and accurate notes of any finds, archaeological or 
geologicalj that may come under their notice, in order that they 
may be printed from time to time in the Magazine. 

Finds Reported by Mr. J. W. Brooke, Local Secretary, 
Marlborough. 

British-midden on the banks of the Kennet, Marlborough. 

While a gang of men were digging foundations for a new gasometer at the 
Mailboiougli Gas Works, in May, 1892, they brought to light a quantity of 
bones, &c. I was casually infoi-med of the find, and, with the assistance of the 
manager, made the following discovery. 

The excavations were situated about 45ft. from the present river, on ground 
about 6ft. above its bed ; during these excavations the bed of a small extinct 
circuitous stream was disclosed, which was formed when the river was about 
4ft. Gin. above its present level. 

Tho line of the stream was clearly marked as follows : — 2ft. Sin. of ordinary 
vegetable soil, 9in. of bluish clay, 6in. of peat, and, lastly, a bed of washed gravel 
and alluvial deposit. In digging through this bed, it was found to be intermixed 
with bones, &c. I collected pieces of sun-baked British ware, shells of the edible 
mussel {M. edulis), horns of sheep and Celtic short-horned oxen (extinct), bones 
of the common hog {Sus scrofa domesticus), the turf hog {Bus jialustris) 
(extinct), the horse, goat, small hunting dog, and hare ; most of which, being 
gregarious, probably roamed over and were obtained fi-om the neighbouring 
forest. All the bones are very dark in Qolour, fi-om close contact with the peat ; 
some showed signs of having been notched by a blunt instrument, for the purpose 
of obtaining the marrow. I could not find any trace of fire, nor could I find 
any human bones. 

It seems probable that this was a kitchen midden of early Neolithic date, 
contemporaneous with the occupation at Pantawick ; the pottery showing a 
marked resemblance. 

Find of a British Skeleton on Windmill Sill, Avebury. 

On October 9th, 1891, while in Avebury I was informed that one of Mr. 
Henry Brown's teams had ploughed up some bones, which my informant and 
his mates thought, from their size, to be those of a cow. I made further 



Records of Finds not mentioned elsewhere. 411 

enquiries, and found that the bones had all been carefully collected, broken up, 
and bagged for sale. Having obtained a glance at them I was surprised to find 
that they were the relics of a gigantic human being. I visited and dug up the 
cist and obtained more bones, a few well-formed flints, and some pieces of British 
ware. I found no part of the skull, owing probably to its being reduced to 
atoms during some previous ploughing. 

On examination the skeleton was found to be that of an adult male, showing 
signs of very great muscular development, the femur measuring 20|in., the tibia 
16iin. 

The flints show late workmanship ; the pottery shows signs of the wheel, 
proving the interment to be of the late Neolithic or early Bronze Period. 

Probably these remains were once entombed within a tumulus which has 
become obliterated by frequent ploughings.* 

Sritisk Urns at Temple, near MarlhorovgJi. 

As the neighbourhood of Temple has been the principal stone quarry for the 
adjacent roads of the Marlborough Highway Distiict for many years past, there 
remains hardly a sod which has not been turned over. I might mention that 
this valley is strewn with sarsen stones — the hills are studded with tumuli — and 
an important flint manufactory was situated on both hills overlooking the valley 
(Glory Ann). The neighbourhood has been most prolific in British and Eoman 
remains. In 1886 I heard of many " earthen pots " having been dug up.f In 
1887 I dug lip a British culinary vessel with a coin. J In 1S88 I obtained five 
urns.§ I have also obtained many Eoman coins, tAvo pairs of Eoman shears, a 
bronze celt, horseshoes, &c. In May, 1890, a skeleton was found under a sarsen, 
but was not retained, and on May 19th, 1892, two small British cinerary uras 
were found, of which the following is an account : — These urns were discovered 
close to a large sarsen stone about 2ft. Sin. beneath the surface, suiTounded by 
ashes. They both contained crematory ashes and charred bones, are lathe-tumed 
and composed of a coarse local brownish clay. In shape they resemble a water 
jug, i.e., they bulge in the centre and contract at the rim to the size of the base. 
They stand 1ft. 6in., and 9in. inches high respectively. Unfortunately they were 
too brittle to be dug out whole, but I have easily restored them. 

* It is sad to reflect that many earthworks are gradually being lost for ever, 
but not from natural causes. Many a tumulus has sunk beneath the plough, 
and I regret to say many of the most attractive have been most abominably 
mutilated by antiquaiies, eager to lay their hands on whatever the spade turned 
up, and never even thinking of returning the excavated soil to its former position. 
It is not uncommon to see an elegant bell-tumulus, which took the builders 
weeks to form, with a deep gaping trench through its centre, giving it the ap- 
pearance of being a soil bank, or rubbish heap, instead of being a silent and 
beautiful record of an ancient sepulture. Surely the same steps should be taken 
to suppress this open vandalism as are taken to protect the sarsen structures. 
t See Marlborough College N. H. Report, No. 37, p. 150. 
X Ibid, p. 151. 
§ Ibid, No. 38, pp. 108 and 109. 



412 Records of Finds not mentioned elsewhere. 

Graves at Crofton, Burhage. 

In the chalk-pit, north of the pumping station, at Crofton, human skeletons 
are frequently found. On many visits, I have noticed dark patches in the clean 
face of the chalk, and on May 16th, 1892, I succeeded in obtaining the greater 
portion of a skeleton. I cannot assign any period to these interments, but the 
field over them is paved with flint weapons. On oi;ie visit I observed children 
building miniature castles with human femur and tibise. 

Find of Bones and two Coins of Carausius. 

On June 6th, 1892, a labourer brought me two coins of Carausius ("Pax" 
types) which he had found with a number of bones whilst stone digging, at the 
Park, Ogbourne St. Andrew. On the following day I visited his diggings, and 
collected bones of a small dog, goat, sheep, and a few horse's teeth besides the 
usual oyster shells. I observed that the stones were stained by fire, and I 
obtained three flint strike-a-lights, with some pieces of pottery. 

I imagine this to be the remains of a Komano-British feast, about the time of 
Carausius' assuming the purple (A.D. 287 — 293). 

Discovery of a Homan Skeleton on Wanton Downs. 

On March 6th, 1891, while Mr. A. Taylor's men were levelling some ground 
about a quarter of a mile west of the fallen kistvjEn on Manton Downs, they dug 
into a cist cut in the solid chalk containing a skeleton. They only made the 
discovery when their picks suddenly worked easily, while penetrating the non- 
resisting skull. Through the kindness of Mr. A. Taylor, Jun., I was apprised of 
the find, and I visited the spot and gathered what information I could relating to it. 

The skeleton was interred at full length north and south, about 3ft. 6in. 
beneath the surface, with the skull between the feet, and an ampulla taking 
the proper position of the skull. The ampulla had been gnawed by rodents, 
and loeing of an undoubted Koman pattern I anxiously turned over the excavated 
soil to find a personal ornament, a single coin, a few nails, or any object to 
help in determining the period, but my search was fruitless. The skeleton 
was in a good state of preservation, owing to the chalk which arrests, rather 
than assists, the process of decay. It has proved to be that of a female about 
25 years of age, about 5ft. 6in. in height, well proportioned, though somewhat 
sli^'ht. The head appears to have been severed from the body at the sixth 
cervical vertebra, by a sharp instrument. The first cut was delivered slantingly 
and splintered the process, but did not sever the column. The vertebral 
column shows a slight abnormality, there being six lumbar vertebra instead 
of the usual five, and to compensate for this there are only eleven dorsal. 
The skull has a high cephalic index and no supercilliary ridges. 

The decapitation I cannot account for, but it is interesting to reflect that 
the severity of the Roman laws extended to Britain. I imagine the sepulture 
to belonc to the period of Constantine, A.D. 312—337. The evidence of coins 
proves that the Roman station " Cunetio " was occupied principally at this time.* 

* In the Marlborough College JV. M. Report, No. 39, pp. 112, 113, I 
have proved that " Cunetio " was situated at Kennet until the time of Gallienus, 
A.D. 268, after which it was moved to Mildenhall. 



Records 0/ Finds not mentioned elsewhere. 



413 



Roman Coins. 

Since January 1st, 1891, one thousand one hundred and thirty-seven Roman 
coins have been brought to me by local labourers. The following we a few 
of the most interesting types : — 



Augustus. 

Tiberius. 

Nero (illegible). 

Nero. 

Vitellius. 

Vespasiau. 



Denarius. Avebury. 

Bev. Figure seated to r. 
PONTXF MAXIM. 

Second bronze. Kennet. 

Rev. Equity with attributes. 

AEQVITAS PVBLICA— 8.C. 

First bronze. Kennet. 

Rev. A male and female joining hands, s.c. 

Second bronze. Barbury. 

Rev. A winged Victory, s.c. 

Denarius. Kennet. 

Rev. Goddess seated to 1. 

CONCORDIA. P.B. 

Denarius. Kennet. 

Rev. A female seated to 1. 

ANNONA AVG. 

Denarius. Temple. 

Bev. Sacerdotal insignia. 

TBI. POT. 



Vespasian 


(illegible). 


Denarius. 


Cunetio. 






Rev. 


A Capricorn. 




Titus (rare). 




Second bronze. 


Cunetio. 






Rev. 


A winged Victory. 

VICTOBIA. HAVALI8. 




Domitian. 




Rev. 


Denarius. 
An altar. 

PBINCEPS. ITVENTVTIS. 


Beckhampton. 


Nerva. 




Rev. 


Denarius. 
Equity with attributes. 

AEQVITA8 AVGV8T. 


Avebury. 



Trajan. 



Denarius. 
Rev. The Emperor seated to 1. 

cos, V. P.P. 8PQB. OPTIMO PEINC. 



Ovei-ton. 



VOL. XX.VI. — KO. LXXVni. 



•I E 



414 Records a/ Finds not mentioned elsewhere. 

Trajan. Second bronze. Liddington^ 

Rev. A winged Victory. 8pqe 

TB. POT. cos, III. p.p. s.o. 

Hadrian. Denarius. Kennet. 

Rev. The Emperor carrying an arms trophy. 

P. M. TB.P COSIII. 

Hadrian. First bronze. Overton, 

Rev. A winged Victory to r. s.c. 

Hadrian (rare). Second bronze. Kennet. 

Rev. A female representing Britain seated to 1. 

PONT. MAX. TB. POT. COS, III S.C. 

In exergue beitannia. 

Antoninus Pius. Denarius. Upavon. 

Rev. Two hands. 

AVG. PIV8. P.M. TB. P. COS, II. 

Antoninus Pius. Denarius. Cunetio. 

Rev. Italia seated to 1. 

ITALIA. 



Antoninus Pius (illegible). First bronze. 
Rev. A biga. s.c. 



Kennet. 



Faustina I. Denarius. 

Rev. Health seated to 1. 

SALVS. 



Cunetio. 



Marcus Aurelius. Denarius. 

Rev. Fortune seated to 1. 

P.M. XXVII. IMP. X cos. III. p.p. 



Commodus. 



Commodus. 



Julia Domna. 



Caracalla. 



Denarius. 
Rev. A female standing by altar. 

— IMP. iiii. cos, III. p. p. 



Liddington. 



Cunetio. 



Liddington. 



Second bronze. 
Rev. A female figure. 

LII. AVG. TB. p. V. IMP IIII. COS, II. P. P. 

Denarius. Kennet. 

Rev. Cybele seated to 1. 
maTee devm. 

Denarius. Cunetio. 

Rev. Jupiter standing to 1, holding fulmen. 

lOVI CONSEBVATOEI. 




Becords of Finds not mentioned elseioJiere. 
Geta (illegible). 



Bev. 



First bvouze. 
Sacerdotal insisruia s.c. 



415 
Cunetio. 



Probus. 



Carausius (rare). 



Carausius. 



CoDstautine I. 



Third bronze. Cunetio. 

Ohv. The Emperor radiate to 1, bust in armour. 

M. PEOBUS. P. F. AVG. 

Bcv. The sua in quadriga. 

SOLI INVICTO. 

Third bronze. Cunetio. 

Ohv. The Emperor helmeted to 1, with shield on 1 shoulder. 

Mev. PAX AVG. 



Third bronze. 
B.ev. Health standing by an altar. 

PAX. AVG. (Probablj a blundered type). 



Cunetio. 



Follis. Cunetio. 

Ohv. The Emperor to 1, laureate, holding a spear and shield. 

CONSTANTINVS P. F. AVG. 

Sitv. The sun radiate to 1. 

OOMITI. — — AVGO 

In exergue p. l n. 



Crispus. 



1891. 
March 23rd. 
April 18th. 
June 25th. 
Aug. loth. 
Oct. 12th. 
Oct. 26th. 

1892. 
March 26th. 
April 19th. 
May 2nd. 
May 5th. 
May 19th. 



Third bronze. 
Ohv. The Emperor to r laureate, carrying a 
spear over his r shoulder, from be- 
hind his head is shown a horse's head 
and neck. 
DN. ivL cmspvs — — 
Hev. The ordinary votive altar. 

Small Finds of Various Periods. 
(D., doubtful; B., British; K., Roman; S., Saxon,) 



A clasp knife. 
A large bronze buckle. 
A stand of a glass vessel. 
An uninscribed silver coin. 
Two finger rings. 

A perfect fibula. 

A perfect fibula. 
A perfect fibula. 
A bone pin box. 
A large bronze stylus. 
Horseshoe and Samian pottery. 



Cunetio. 



D. 


Found at Shaw. 


R. 


„ Cunetio. 


R. 


„ Cunetio. 


B. 


„ Aldbourne 


D. and R. 


„ Cunetio. 


R. 


„ Cunetio. 


E. 


„ Cunetio. 


E. 


„ Kennet. 


B. 


„ Manton. 


E. 


„ Kennet. 


ry. K. 


„ Kennet. 




2 E 2 



416 Records of Finds not mentioned elsetcliere. 



June 2iid. 


A silver finger ring. 


D. 


Found at Liddington. 


June 28th. 


A silver penny, Harold II. 


S. 


„ Axford. 


July 13th. 


A fibula. 


R. 


„ Cunetio. 


Sept. 7th. 


A small steelyard. 


B. 


„ Hungerford 


Oct. nth. 


A bronze finger ring. 


B. 


„ Chilton. 


Oct. 15th. 


A Saxon sceatta. 


S. 


„ Axford. 



Reported by Me. T. W. Leslie. 

Opening of Tumuli near Wootton Bassett, 

At the eastern extremity of a field known as " Woolleys," near the Swindon 
Road, the property of Sir Henry Meux, Bart., there is a circular mound, 70ft. 
in diameter and rising 25ft. above the natural level, which local tradition 
asserts to be the site of an old windmill, but which has proved, on being 
opened, to be a barrow — probably a cremated interment of the Saxon period. 
The mound is almost — and doubtless was formerly altogether — surrounded by 
a shallow ditch. 

In 1891 a trench 3ft. wide was dug, commencing at the ground level on 
the eastern side, and was continued to the centre, where a circular pit was 
excavated to a depth of nearly 8ft., when the undisturbed clay (Kimmeridge) 
was reached. 

No sooner had the surface soil been removed than it became apparent that 
the tumulus was very similar to that opened on Brynard's Hill six years ago. 

A layer of flints about lift, iu thickness had to be encountered, and then 
a quantity of stiif clay containing numerous fragments of pottery. Below 
this, at a depth of 3|ft., the clay became even more tenacious, and was mixed 
with charcoal and iron — one of the most interesting pieces of which is a crook 
with a hollow handle. Resting on the clay at the bottom of the pit a quantity 
of ashes and numerous pieces of charred wood were discovered. 

Another trench was made from the south side, into the centre of the barrow, 
but only revealed the same order of flints, pottery, &e. 

The Brynard's Hill barrow is situated on the summit of a field — also on Sir 
Henry Meux's estate— near the Great Western Railway Station, and was opened 
in 1886. 

The mound is 66ft. in diameter, rises 2pt. above the ground level, and is 
surrounded by a slight ditch. 

The trench was commenced from the western Kide and carried into the centre, 
where it was excavated to a depth of about 7ft. In this case there was a greater 
quantity of pottery — all, however, in fragments — and the presence of iron was 
more marked. Pieces of querns were also found, and at the bottom of the centre 
pit there was a very distinct layer of ashes about 6in. in thickness. Running 
through this layer and into the clay beneath, was an oak stake, charred at the 
upper end hut beautifully preserved at the lower, where it is finely pointed. 

The specimens of pottery from both barrows consist of rims, handles, &c., of 
which there is a considerable variety. It is mostly of the Romano-British type, 
but a few jjieces bear ev idence of having been formed by hand, and not by the 



Additions to Museu7n and Library. 417 

wheel. These are somewhat coarse and made of a dark coloured clay — almost 
black. 

On comparing the pottery with that found in various places in this neighbour- 
hood the resemblance is very striking, and perhaps the reason may not be difficult 
to find. It appears that some years ago Mr. F. Parsons discovered, on his farm 
at Hunt's Mill, a mile on the other side of Wootton Bassett, the remains of an 
early kiln, and unearthed, at the time, several pieces of ware of the same general 
character. Doubtless, therefore, it is, for the most part, of native manufacture. 

Excavations for road material have lately been made near the spot where the 
kiln was discovered, and it is interesting to note that in the eastern side of the 
quarry there is a broad seam of burnt limestone running almost perpendicularly 
through the coral rag. 



Reported by Rev. G. R. Hadow. 

Human Remains at Calstone. 

In the spring of 1892 some human remains were found on the property of Lord 
Lansdowne in a field in the village of Calstone, known as "The Close," on the 
left hand side descending Barrow Hill. The ground was being levelled for the 
foundations of new cottages, when, 3ft. below the surface, and at a distance of 
about a yard from each other, the workmen came upon the skull and bones of, 
apparently, an adult female — and