Skip to main content

Full text of "Window gardening : devoted specially to the culture of flowers and ornamental plants for in door use and parlor decoration"

See other formats

®Ijp i. 1. Mill IGtbrarg 

Nortlj (Earoltna ^tat? Hmoerattg 

^B4 1 9 



S01141739 Q 





tiKV0Ti:D SPE(nAi.LY TO 



In Poop. Use and 'Rarloh Decoi^tion 






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and seventy-one, by 


in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. , 



The taste for Window Gardoning and tho plant decoration of apartmonta 
is becoming universal : scarcely a cottage or villa but has its attempts, 
whether simple or elaborate, to decorate the windows, the porch, or the 
balcony with some lew flower-pots or climbing vines; it is a sign of healthy 
sentiment, for the presence of flo\^ ers always aids in the development of re- 
finement and an elevated taste. 

This volume has been written specially as a help and an encouragement to 
ladies and all flower-lovers, to assist them with judicious hints and sugges- 
tions in their eflbrts to make homo more beautiful by the use of plants 
, around their windows or balconies. 

With the exception of a very lew pages, pi'operly credited to English 
writers (Mr. Robinson and Shirley Hibberd, upon subjects as yet unfamiliar 
to American readers), the literary matter of this volume is entirely original, 
being contributed by the Editor, and assisted by several American writers, 
enthusiastic flower lovers, who have cheerfully written articles on special 

The aim has been to jiroduce a volume suited to American uses, which 
would be simple, reliable, adapted to the needs of amateurs and beginners 
in home plant culture, yet abundant in suggestions of the many ways to 
render honje attractive. 

Previous editions of this volume have been called for rapidly, and received 
with marked pleasure, and it is hoped that, in this new edition, where the 
errors of former editions have been corrected, the reader will still continue 
to show favor toward a work issued rather for the public good than the per- 
sonal emolument of the author. 

Should the interested reader feel pleased with this little testimonial to one 
of the most beautiful of all departments of flower culture, and the desire of 
the author to foster tho fancy for window ornament, he will not regret his 
effort to add some definite encouragement to the more extensive development 
of rural taste. 

The Editor. 



Fl(?. I.— Decorative Bird Cage and 



Its Pleasures — Increase in Popular Taste — Refinlnq 

No home of taste is now considered complete without its Window Garden. 
Indeed it may be said that Window Gardening is one of the most elegant, satis- 
factory, 3'et least expensive of all departments of Rural Taste. As a useful means 
for developing a taste for plant-life and a love for flowers, I count nothing so 
effective as this simple style of gardening; for wlio has not noticed that where 
flowers reign, grace of mind and manner soon follow. One of the advantages of 
Window Gardening is its sj/«jj?icj7^, open to every one and impossible to none. 
Thousands of persons confined to their homes for the greater part of their life have 
no greater rural estate than that which the Window Garden affords. To watch 
the unfolding leaves and budding flowers, the development of branch after branch, 
is a study of the reality of plant-life, exquisitel}' interesting to the soul who And* 
in it its only world of pleasure and sentiment. 

It is a form of gardening too, o( permanent use and value. The Window Gar- 
den is independent to a large degree of the varying seasons, for it can be made 
attractive every month in the year. The advent of Spring, Summer and Autumn, 
only render the plants of the Window Garden more luxuriant and make the flow- 
ers more brilliant, but they do not die with the tirst frost or cold wind in winter 
When the prospect without is dreary, we can still look to our fern-cases or 
window-boxes or harigVng-baskets and behold in them objects of increased admi- 
rfition, because they are so charming in their contrast with the desolateness with 
out, and are genial remembrances of greener days gone by. 

The universal popularity of Window Gardens, whether large or small, simple 
or elaborate, is the evidence of a growing taste for flowers and ornamental planta 
m all circles of society. We have only to notice in all our large cities, towns and 
-iUages, how frequent window decorations have become, sometimes seeming as if 
not a single house was without them in many of our most fashionable avenues. Ip 
European cities the citizens indulge even more extensively and passionately in theii 
plant pleasures than we do ; every home is decorated from the wo- Kingman's 
svindow, and its few flower-pots of balsams, to the fernery and tilejard'aieresof tho 
iristocratic mansioa 

Li)irary ^ 
N". C. State ColltgO' 


In Brussels, says M Victor Paquet, " the balconies are turned into greenhouses 
and miniature stoves, gay with the brightest and greenest foliage. And in Paris 
chere are many contrivances in use by means of which the rarest and most 
ocautiful plants are produced. Passifloras cling to columns in the upper tloors; 
water plants start into blossom in tiny basins curiously contrived in solid brick- 
work, and limpid water flows down a miniature rockery from whose crevice.s 
start up ferns and lycopodiums." 

The rooms of the Parisian are gay with flowers replaced freshly every day, 
and in the denser parts of London, black with its smoky atmosphere, may be 
found some of the choicest of plant-cases. An English writer visiting such a 
locality once was ushered into a room where the darkness was almost felt, but 
every window was occupied with a plant-case in which plants were growing in 
an astonishing manner. Ferns of the greenest and fresliest hue, orchids never 
surpassed, were there in redolent health and vigor. He was told to his great 
surprise that the cases were hermetically sealed, and that no water had been ad- 
ministered for months 

There is a never-faiiing charm, too, in the outside decorations of the house or 
"Window Gaiden. The trelli.s-work of the balcony may be made ornamental with 
green foli.age and its homeliness tastefully hidden The ivy will cover the un- 
painted wall and make it still more anistic. The verandah can be soon covered 
with the most luxuriant of profuse blooming creepers. Unsightly objects, bare 
gardens, and plain fences can all be relieved. In fact no home is devoid of the 
means of tasteful decoration. And so many and easy are the forms of window 
embellishments at the present day, that we know of no better device for increas- 
ing the elegancies and attractions of indoor life. 

Window Gardens, too, ar^ educators of taste. In our large cities it is noticeable 
that the fair occupants of the wealthier homes are themselves practicalh"- inter- 
ested in window ornament. It is quite the fashion for their own hands to flU 
with pretty plants, of their own arrangement, jardinieres of costly tile, or else 
place them in baskets of rustic yet most artistic make After a little time wher 
they have grown to appropriate height, or the drooping plants have attained suffi- 
cient length, the full beauty of the Window Garden is apparent. Visitors are 
entranced with their wondrous beauty and are free with their exclamations of 
delight. The passer-by on the sidewalk stops for a moment to look lovingly 
upon the cozy bower of bloom just inside the glazed window pane. When pass- 
ing away, he still keeps it in mind, and long afterwards cherishes the me.r.ory of 
this artistic beauty spot. Flowers and plants, by their beauty and fragrance, are 
always in harmony with rich and costly furniture, pictures or statuary. 

A simple flower stand near the window, a hanging basket over head, all 
shedding their perfume, add day by day brightness to the other genialities of the 
home; and all through the wintry months, furnish food for pleasant thoughts; 
a single [)!ant of the Ivy trained on the wall, or festooned over the window, ia 
a joy to all beholders 


Flowers, plants too, often supply the place of children in bereaved homes ; 
for their soul-refreshing, heart-inspiring, and eye-brightening influences, are 
joys to wean the thoughts from pain or soriow. 

Some mother perhaps cherishes fondlv in her home a few beautiful Fuchsias 
placed on a stand upon the window sill She never tires of looicing upon their 
graceful shapes, or the briglitly colored jewel blossoms drooping downwards, 
for they remind her of the delight they once gave her little child before it went to its 
angel home The value to her of these treasures, with their brilliant colors and 
snowy waxen petals, rose-colored or purple corollas, cannot be measured with 
the ordmary expression of language 

Among the most gratifying signs of florai taste, is the evidence of their intro- 
duction into school rooms. The teacher is perhaps fond of them and knows 
their influence. Their very delicacy, forbidding rougn handling, serves to impose 
a wholesome restraint upon the children ; if ever they are tired with their study, 
a few glances at the windowsill, and us pots of bloom, wreathe their faces with 
genial smiles, and they go to work again with willing hearts and refreshed 
thoughts. The curiosity of children, too, is proverbial, and many a girl learns more 
of nature froui the living .specimens before her, than from the dry details of her 
book of botany 

Not less important can we consider flowers and plants, as the best and most 
prncUcal edncatom oniealthij sentiment. They are al vra^'S suggestive of purity 
and refinement. Nothing is so conducive to, or creates efforts to 
make home attractive, like their presence in the household. Constant associa- 
tions with such objects of floral beauty, fits people to rank high as useful mem- 
bers of society. A floral writer has already expressed these sentiments in a 
most charming manner . 

" They are a spring of sunshine, a constant pleasure. We would have flowers 
in every home, for their sunny light, for their cheerful teachings, for their insen- 
sibly ennobling influence." 

As an amusement for the invalid, Window Gardening through the form of plant 
cases, is very appropriate. We call to mind an instance of one compelled in 
consequence of a bodily infirmity, to take up a residence in the city. 

lie had enjoyed for a long time in the country the pleasures of the green-house, 
and endeavored whilst in the city to replace it once more. A small but inexpen- 
sive three light green-house was erected in the back yard, open, airy. There 
he gratified his taste for floricultural subjects by gathering together an interesting 
collection of valuable ferns and orchids. In an upper room was arranged a capa- 
cious feni case, and there the invalid would spend many days during the win- 
ter recumbent upon the sofa dilating upon the pleasures of being able to watch 
the growth of a vigorous intertwining mass of curious forms of foreign ferns, many 
of them j)roductions from distant portions of the globe, New Zealand, India, 
Mexico, Japan 

In our country homes, how common to see the plant stand before the window 
witli its dozen or so oots of Geraniums, Primroses, Azaleas, &c., while an inva 


lid sister or mother reclines in the easy chair, watching it for hours with 
delight, unmindful of the snow driving past the window pane. 

The refining influence of the flowers is no where more apparent than in our 
Jixmble cottage homes ; for there it is the young maiden cherishes her few pet 
flowers, with a deeper affection and truer love than even the skilled gardener. 
Tnere is something so attractive in their very looks that none can resist their 
street and winning influence. Perhaps it may be because so few are disappointed 
in ihem, or expect them to yield a measured commercial profit. So no one's 
enthusiasm is gauged by dollars and cents. 

Tn some of the strangest of conditions, there is often the most delightful dis 
play of floral bloom ; the prairie log cabin may often contain a flourishing win 
dow garden, with as choice specimens as that of the rich amateur. 

Few are so poor but they can find room for a few boxes and pots to grow plants 
and beguile the long winter hours. They should be in the window of every sit- 
ting room, in every school-house, that children, as well as parents, may be educa- 
ted to the appreciation of their beauties, and their taste more readily cultivated 
and encouraged. 

The effects of window gardening become more clearly seen each succeeding 
year. Many who have not the slightest idea of how a plant grows will obtain 
from the florist a simple basket of Ivy. Once living, it needs little further atten- 
tion ; yet the eye of the proprietor often wanders upward to it, and as the tendrils 
reach out, twining around the basket, upward or downward, his senses 
are gradually interested, and in time other plants follow, who in turn are studied. 
These tempt others, mere visitors, to try the same experiment, and so the con- 
tagious enthusiasm for flowers steadily spreads. In every state the love for 
flowers and plants is on the increase. The* business of our florists is three times 
larger than five years ago. Our cottagers are devoting more time to the ornamen- 
tation of door yards with these floral gems, and the window sill of many a cot has 
its sugar bowl or cracked tea pot, doing duty for a flower pot, while we have 
often seen the discarded fruit can, in some wayside ranchman's cabin in the inte- 
rior of the Rocky Mountains, blooming with balsams or portulacca. All classes 
respond to but one sentiment, " Flowers, Give us Flowers." 

Beside the delights of window gardening in opening new resources of amuse- 
ment, recreation and instruction, which nothing else can give to the home circle, 
is the added advantage that it is easy; but very little time is required for their 
culture. Some window gardens are elaborate, expensive, and are suited only 
for those of scientific taste, but by far the most successful are those in our every 
lay homes, with the simplest of flowering plants. There are many more easy plana 
for house gardening than difficult ones. The little physical exercise needed, is a 
relief to mental pursuits, and a variety to domestic duties, while the daily growth 
of each plant and flower, which constitutes the chief delight of the young flo- 
rist, and the beauty and elegance of his little garden, form a crowning gratifica- 
tion for his well spent hours, and stimulate an honest and desirable pride. 

In some of tne poorest quarters of London there may be found at any time hand- 



somer Balsams than any professional ever raised, while some of the finest new 
Chrysanthemums ever produced it is said have originated in the window garden 
of some of these humble citizens. 

A quaint old English writer calls this form of home pleasure, " Fenestral Gar. 
dening," (^Hortus Fenesti-alis) expressive of the decoration of rooms with green 
drapery from the garden. Many are deterred from the commencement of a 
window garden, or the care for cases of plants, on account of the supposed trouble. 

There are really but few requisites to success. If any are ignorant of the 
plants or their proper arrangement, read these pages and learn how many simple 
forms may be adopted to make every house garden alive with plant beauty, and 
yet require only a half hour per day. A hanging basket or two, a window box or 
row of bulb glasses, a wardian case or fernery, all are easy. Once set, they need 
little care. In the other departments of propagation and culture, a little time, 
patience, and, best of all, trials of experience, will soon render the knowledge easily 

To have some few choice, fragrant, beautiful flowers in mid winter when there is 
no green thing in sight, save the dense evergreen of the forest, or the garden 
hedge of spruce, prompts many to an assiduous care, and a hearty devotion to 
Buch plant treasures. Yet the recompense is worth the labor. 

The matchless beauty which nature once bestowed on the gardens without, is 
now restored and perpetuated within ; and to many a fair finger deftly handling 
the tender plant, the exquisite embroidery of the leaf, or coloring of the flower, 
will form objects for the eye to rest upon with unwearied delight. 


Pig i.- Ltc«i({u toi Window Uarden- 


Construction, Location and Designs foi: Window Gardens. 

The Window Gardener has choice of a great number of designs for the gratifica- 
tion of his taste. Tl)e Window Box of Evergreens, Ferns, or Ornamental Plants; 
(he Jardiniere, the Hanging Basket, the row of Bnlbglasses, the Plant Cabinet, 
the Fernery, Wardian Case or Conservatory, may all be his : while Flower 
Stands, Etagere and Mantel Piece Gardens, and other floral elegancies, are of 
great variety and tasteful constructien. Notiiing, however, has so decided an 
effect as broad leaved plants in the window sill. 

Our engraving opposite (Fig. 2) is a sketch of a library window, about 3 feet 
wide, and 6 high, with book shelves on either side, and a closet below for pani- 
plilets. The window sill is made of extra width, say 14 inches. Here is placed 
a simple tray of about 3 inclies in depth, made to lit the sill exactly: the in- 
terior is coated entirel}"^ with tin and rendered proof against leakage. Tlie tray 
is filled with fresh mould from the woods, and then the plants are put in. At 
eacli end is an English Ivj'^, and the spaces between are filled with native hardy 
ferns, which usually are found out doors near our woods, remaining green 
down to the coldest winds and frosts of Autumn. 

If the front of the box is too plain it may be decorated with a few acorns, 
and strips of chestnut. 

About midway up the window is thrown across a miniature rustic bridge, upon 
whicli is still another but narrower tray, with ligliter and more delicate ferns, 
such as the maiden's hair. This rustic bridge may be decorated with a lat- 
tice of the bright red dogwood, mingled with the white shoots of the linden. On 
the top of the window, as a cornice, some rustic branch from one of our wild 
forest trees, may be selected, twisted and crooked ] yet affording numerous brack- 
ets for climbing plants to rest upon. Upon this moss-covered bark the Ivy of 
the lower box is expected soon to grow up to and crawl over, throwing its ten- 
drils righ* - .'left, and filling it full with green foli.age. A little hanging bas- 
ket from the rustic archway, fills out the uniqueness of the picture, and the 
landscape view beyond is in a measure enhanced by the agrecableness of the 
standpoint from which we view it. 

In some of the finer parts of London, where Window Gardens are dressed in 
highest elegance, there is a very popular form of Window Garden, consisting of 
a glass case, projecting beyond the window sashes, somewhat like a little glasg 
bow-window. (Fig 3, 4.) These are made in every style, with rustic work in 
front, or of an architectural character to harmonize with the style of the building 



The sills, too, are made broad, and thus afford peculiar conveniences for their safe 
position. Wealthy citizens who return from the country at close of the summer 
find these glass gardens ready filled, and charmingly arrayed with ferns, ever- 
greens and flowering plants, which will last throughout the entire winter. In the 
Bpring time these give place to Roses, Fuchsias, Pelargoniums, and a variety of 
other plants suitable for each season. They are exceedingly simple, and besides 
, affording a world of gratification to the inmates of the house they are a great 
addition to the exterior ornaments of the building. They are not common in this 

country, and it would be quite an object for some dealer in horticultural elegancies 
here to make a specialty of them, for as soon as known they will be greatly in de- 
mand. The construction is as follows • The lower window sash, is omitted entirely, 
and the glass case inserted in its place, is of sufficient height to reach to the upper 
sash. The base should be of one stout slab of slate, resting upon the lower win- 
dow sill, and extending outward from 1 foot to 2 feet, and the same distance m- 
ward. If the window is large, 2 feet each side of the sash will not be too large. 
An iron frame is then cast of just sufficient length and width to set upon the slab, 



which may be fastened firmly to it. The glass sides are fitted into the frame be- 
forehand, which is curved at the top, and a tray inside filled with soil holds the 
plants. In many cases the plant case is double, (i. e.,) the lower window sash is 
not removed at all, but shuts down upon the slab of slate, and the plant case is 
divided into two parts, each rising and curving upward to the window. Such 
cases can be made by any manufacturer of glassware and metal casting, but should 
be well and tightly fitted ; as, also, very thick glass should be used as a protection 
against the weather. For the purposes of examination and cleaning or handling 


the plants, a glass slide or door can be provided in the side within the room. These 
designs will be found most suitable in our changeable climate for mild weather 
only, as we fear they would not afford sufficient protection against cold. To some 
the objection might occur that they hide the view of the street from the interior, 
but this, with others, might be just the desideratum wished for; yet it will bo 
found in time that it excludes light and air to a considerable degree. Another 
item must be provided for. Water must necessarily be used for the plants, and 
there should be a place of escape. The box for holding the soil should be from 
4 to 6 inches deep, and the bottom must be covered with broken pieces of charcoal 



or bricks about tbe size of walnuts, then a sprinkling of sand and other pieces of 
brick bioken still smaller to about the size of a pea sliould be mixed with peat, 
and with this compost the box may be filled up. Cases of this kind are usually 
found in London, already prepared with plants, only needing the proper dimen- 
sions to be soon fitted to any window. 

The best plants for these cases are ferns, which require but ordinary attention. 
and tlie cultivator will also observe not to phi.ce them in a southern window ; a 

Fig. 5, 
northern or western one will be much better for they need little or no heat. As 
these cases cannot be heated, so no plants should be placed in there which require 
artificial warmth. 

A very pretty design has been originated by a German gardener of a combined 
window case aquarium and fernery. (Fig. 5.) This occupies the window from tne 
sill to top of the upper sash The tank within contains slate slabs of consider- 
able height, say one-third of the whole window on the outside of the case, the 
inner side nearest the room benig of glass to afford a view of the interior. This 
slab is necessary to avoid the effect of the sun's rays which, when passing through 


a globe or aquarium of water, concentrate upon the floor and burn the carpet 
Specimens of rock work are introduced at the sides or in the rear of the casej on 
their top are placed some pots coutauiing ferns drooping over and covering the 
vacancies all up. If conveniences are at hand a little fountain maj"- be introduced, 
and be constantly throwing up its tiny streams of water. All this requires great 
pains of preparation. Tlie window completely shuts out the street view and is 
lighted only from the top, yet is a great curiosity and with some will be worth 
the trouble 

For planting in such cases as the two just described, the best plants will be the 
common English Ivy, (^Hedcra helix,) which thrives in confined places of thia 
description and rapidly throws up its green foliage. The L>/godium scandens and 
Lyoodium flaponicum a.'-*''\o\-f\y cliinV)iii<r ferns, nrrl np^il n^^nper wires to be trained 

to. Tricliomanes radtcans, HifmeriiotihiiJliim 1 inihndfjense, Af^jdenhim Jon- 
tanum are moisture lovers and generally used in furnishing tanks for the aqua- 
rium. A suggestion worth heeding is to be remembered : do not commit the error 
of procuring too large ( for the aquarium; small varieties such as the gold carp 
are most suitable, and for ever}' two gallon capacity of the water tank, put in 
one carp. Of water plants the best is VaUisnena spiralis, which will grow among 
pebbles if left undisturbed. Conferva: ma}' be introduced and allowed to run 
over the rock or sides of the aquarium. 

A very pretty home design, hardly called a Window Garden, yet affording room 
for some decoration, is that of a bee hive in the window. Such a hive was actually 
placed in front of one of the library windows of the late J. C. Loudon, the famous 
landscape gardener. This window was protected by a verandah, and the front of 



the hive was placed on a line with its pillars, and was consequently protected 
from perpendicular rain, but as the excessive heat of summer is equally injurious 
as rain, he had the hive protected from that and from the sudden influence of 
either heat or cold, by a casing of broom and heather intertwined. For examin 
ing the bees at work, the back of the hi7e nsxt the window had a sliding door of 
wood covering a square of plate glass, so that when the door was lifted the bees 
could be seen at work. The engraving (Fig. 6) also affords to anj;^ one an idea 
of decorating the outside of the window with climbing vines; the Wistaria being 
f dcli tlie most peimanent and lapid gi owing Thib will be found a most mt^»* 

esting feature to children and visitors, and it will add much to the conTenience 
of position if the window is low and near the ground. 

One of the problems every window gardener has to solve is, to allow his plants 
all needful light, air and warmth, and yet protect them on the one hand from 
either the dry heat of the living room warmed by a furnace or stove, and on the 
other side from penetrating draughts of cold air 

This has been solved m many cases already, by the building of plant cabinets, 
whicli occupy not only the whole recess of the window, but are built out 

WliXn OW GA RDENiya . 


whal into the room, and the entire interior inclosed with glass sides or doors as a 
partition from the room. In every case that has come to our notice, where plants 
have been separated alike from the dry injurious air of the living room and the 
outside atmosphere, there has been the liighest success. It is easy to attain a 
good uniform temperature, and the noxious fumes of the gas from stove, grate or 
gas burners, are fully protected against. The design introduced here, (Fig. 7,) 
is a glass case constructed in front of a window and projecting into the room with 
a door opening into it so that it can be easily entered. It would be well to build 
the floor of this house of wood, and a Uttle higher than that of the room so that 
if necessary it can be removed without injury to the house. The lower portions 
of tlie case to the heiirlit of about two feet should be of wainscot. Inside tha 

Fig. 8 Fig. 9. 

cabinet this paneling is lined with .leaden troughs communicating with each 
other, and having a slight slope towards another trough lower than all the rest; 
it should be so contrived, that any water drainingfrora the pots or boxes containing 
the plants, may run offinto the lower trough which should have no flower pots in it. 
In these troughs should be placed wooden or slate boxes filled with earth in 
which climbing plants are placed alternately with Orange Trees, Camellias or 
flowering shrubs, so that they can be seen from the room. It is supposed, also, 
that the outside window is a bow-window or at any rate projects beyond the sides 
of the It should also have a sliding window at the top or bottom in case 
Tentilation is desired, but cold air must not be admitted without imperative neces- 
sity. This design may be on too large a scale for ordinary purposes, but it serves 
to illustrate the idea that plants always thrive best when placed in rooms entirely 
by themselves. In such a cabinet a most glorious opportunity is afforded for 
decorating the sides of the interior with climbing vines, the ivy, convolvulus, or any 
other with shuvvy colored flowers. 



Fig. 11. 
Fig. 14 is still another design actually in use in one of our central New York 
homes. Here is a bow window filled with two boxes supported by legs, each box ten 
inches deep and filled inside either with earth or separate pots, the interspaces 
being filled in with moss or earth. The aim is to give a chance to plants with fine 
contrasts of foliage ; Pelargoniums, Petunias, Heliotropes, Fuchsias, Amaranth, 
Coleus, Begonia, Geraniums, &c. In one end is a Maurandia climbing vine ; in 
the other is a Mexican Coboea, both twining and drooping over the wires which 
rise from the centre of the box, and curve towards the sides affording a delicate dra- 
pery of green. A hanging basket of moss hangs over each box, the one filled 
with Oxalis and Tradescantia, the other with Ice Plant. In the vase hanging just 
over the middle is placed a Kenilworth or Coliseum Ivy. On various brackets 
below are placed dishes of Ivy, Ferns and Moneywort. A few tall plants may 
be introduced to advantage, say one large pot full in the centre of each box. In 
one pot Caladiums, in the other Calla Lilies 



Belgian Window Gardens. 

These are built outside the win- _^^ 
dow altogether. A slab runs out ^^ 
directly from the window sill sup- •■(• 
ported by brackets, and upon this ^ 
is put a miniature green-house, con- ^ - 
structed of glass roof and wooden 
sides Uke designs Nos. 8 & 9. These 
brackets below are generally very 
ornamental. Two or three shelves 
are placed inside on a row next to 
the window well supported and 
covered with pots. Care is taken 
not to let the case go too high to ob- 
struct the light from entering the 
room, and ventilation is secured in 
Fig. 8, by lifting up slightly the | 
lower portion of the glass roof. | 
The plants are watered and arranged | 
from the rooms within, as the win- 111 
dows do not slide up and down, but 
open inwardly on hinges. 

Fig. 9 is ventilated by a door at 
the side or in front. An awning 
may be provided in case of unusual T-'is- 12. 

heat from the sun, which will aid in keeping the atmosphere cool, and prolong 
the flowering considerabl}'^ during the winter time. A thick covernig is needed 
in cool days, or a vessel of hot water may be placed inside, whose vapor will 
warm the little room greatly. 

Figs. 10 & 11 represent a good continental style of a bow-window, where 
olants are out of the way of ordinary passing about in the room. Shelves are 
arranged around the entire window, and upon them are placed the pots of plants. 
In this case they should be of highly ornamental foliage, and free growth. A 
curved settee is placed just inside the row, and in front, just at the entrance of 
the recess, is a table for books. 

Fig. 12 is a design for a rustic window box, permanently fastened to the outer 
Bide of the window case, decorated with Fuchsias, Ivy, Achyranthus, and droop- 
ing vines. An awning with brightly colored stripes' J^ds greatly to the beauty. 

Among the more wealthy residents of German cities, a plant cabinet is often 
found like Fig. 13. This is so made that its back is entirely open, and it can be 
pushed up close to the window, fitting it snugly. It is elaborately decorated, and 
quite costly. The door opens into the room, and the tops are ornamented with 
pots of Cacti and Agaves. This is much the handsomest design for a plant cabi- 


net ever illustrated. The in- 
terior is filled principally with 
plants of stateljf giowtli, Coleus, 
Calla Lily, Canna, ^laranta, 
Di'acDena, Dieflenbacliia, &c. 

There are other designs of still 
more simple nature, which may 
be found in succeeding pages of 
this book. Whidow boxes are 
by far the simplest and most 
popular, but are adapted mostly 
to the indoor culture of bulbs 
We have noticed frequently the 
late introduction of tile boxes, 
filling the entire width of the 
window, and placed just inside 
the panes of glass, filled with 
nothing but young plants of the 
Arbor Vitae. Their delicate, 
feathery green foliage contrasts 
well with the white curtains 
just behind, and the whole form 
one of the easiest, yet most 
unique styles of window garden- 

Fig. 13. 

The Location of the Windoio Garden 
A good location or exposure is desirable. There are plants which love the shade. 
Pansies, Sweet Violets, and some of the variegated plants, will grow and bloom if 
not placed directly in the sun's ray ; but Roses, Geraniums, Heliotropes, Verbe- 
nas, Daphnes, Azaleas, &c., must be near the glass, and under the direct influence 
of the light, if we would have them flourish. An exposure where the sun can 
strike unobstructed from its first appearance above the horizon in the morning, 
until one or two o'clock, p. m., is much the most desirable. A southern or south- 
eastern window is the best, next is an eastern exposure, then a western one, 
and the north worst of all. At a northern one, little but Pansies and Sweet 
Violets will grow, though Camellias delight in a cool, moist atmosphere, and 
will often flourish at such a window with but little sunshine. The plants must 
have all the sunshine you can bestow upon them, but at night they should be 
kept in the dar':; and as all plants in summer are cooler at night than in the 
day time, those that are grown in windows should also be cooler. This point is 
perhaps not as well understood as it should be, for there are persons so fearful 



Fig. 14.— A Sitting Room Window. 


that their plants will become chilled, that they turn all the heat of their fur- 
naces upon them at night, and the gas-light joined with it, increases the irrita- 
tion ; so that the plants are kept in an unnatural state when they ought to be 
at rest, for plants need sleep and do sleep ; so the efli'ect of unreasonable light 
and heat is very exhausting. Drop the curtains over the plants to exclude them 
from the light of the room, or pin newspapers around them during the evening. 
Nothing is so handy and useful in protecting them from frost as newspapers. 
They will frequently preserve a plant when the mercury falls nearly to free 
zing point. Neither should plants be chilled. Avoid the extreme of rendering 
them too cool, but maintain a good medium temperature. Rooms whose ther 
mometer reaches 80 to 85° during the day, and then falls to 30 or 35° at night, 
will never keep plants in good health. 

Size of Windows. 

The larger the better if you want to grow many plants. Bow windows are 
always liked, and generally considered the best, as they afford exposure to the 
sun at all hours of the day, if they face the south. The larger the panes, also 
the better. The best style of window, not bow, is to have a good sill, say not 
^ess than six inches wide on each side of the sash ; if eight or ten inches, so much 
the better ; this affords room for a fine sill or rustic window box, which may be 
changed at intervals from the inner sill to the outer one jutting beyond the 
edge of the sash. Boxes for this style of window should be six inches deep. 
Sometimes double boxes may be desired, one on each side of the window, in 
which case the outer box should contain low growing evergreens, and the 
interior one bulbs. It is usual, also, to cover the sills with paper before setting 
the boxes down. Still this is not necessary where there is no danger from leak- 
ing. If the window is low, and near the ground, climbing vines may be trained 
upward over the window ; this is more fully described under head of balcony 

Our windows differ so much in size that every one must shape their prepara- 
tions entirely according to their conveniences ; but if a sill, either permanent 
or temporary, can be constructed on the outside of the window, it will be found of 
convenient and constant use 


General Management of Window Gardens. 

In-door plants natuially require more care than those grown in the open air, 
fornature supplies all the needs of the latter; but the secrets of successful growth 
and profuse blooming in the house are enumerated in the following few essential 
rules of management : 

1st. Give them plenty of light during the day, and darkness with a cooler 
temperature at night. 

2d. A good supply of fresh air, when the sun shines brightest and warmest; 
in mild days the upper sashes may be lowered a little, and the cool air will blow 
over the plants instead of directly upon them. 

3d. Perfect cleanliness, which is very important, for if the plants are covered 
with dust, they cannot grow, and will frequently die; their leaves are their 
lungs; frequent syringing will keep the leaves moist and clean. 

4th. A proper amount of moisture ; a dry atmosphere is fatal 

5th. A good compost or soil, in which their roots can luxuriate and send forth 
vigorous branches, leaves and flowers. 

6th. Get good healthy plants to start out with ; plants that have been bloom 
ing all through the summer, or for several months previous will not do well , 
new ones are best, or plants that were used the previous winter, and have rested 
during the summer, will also answer, but in general it is best to get new plants 

7th. Keep only a few plants ; too many in the window will make close crowd- 
ing; pots should never be set two or three deep on top of each other. 

8th. A uniform temperature of 60° to 70° in the day time and 40° to 45° in the 
night, should be steadily mantained. 

9th. Different places should be provided for different plants. A sunny win- 
dow with a temperature of 45° to 50,° will suit roses, geraniums, &c., best ; Bego- 
nias, Coleus, Cissus discolor, want a still warmer place of 60° to 70°, and yet but 
little or no sun light directly upon them. On the other hand. Heliotropes, and 
Bouvardias want all the sun possible, with a temperature in the daytime 
of 60° to 75°. 


Plenty of sunlight is the gardener's first requisite. If the location for this pur- 
pose is not right, the plants will not be healthy. If the plants are well placed in 
ft good light, then the pots must be turned occasionally so that all sides may 
receive it equally. It will be well also to put flower stands or racks of pots on 


•wheels, so that the whole maybe changed at once, or whesled away, if the room 
Deeds cleaning. Care must be taken to avoid rapid transition from darkness to 
the light, for sudden and violent changes are as trying to plant life as human life 
Too much warmth will destroy tender leaves nearly as soon as too much cold. 
Then again, plants should be placed as near the light as possible; in rooms far 
away from the glass window, the plants will be weak, pale and of spindling 
growth. If they could receive light directly from overhead, they would be bet- 
ter than from the side. The ordinary variations of day and night have their 
corresponding effects on plants, since it is said that they inhale under the influ- 
ences of light, and respire in the dark. The glass of the window should also 
be rubbed or washed clean. The most gaily colored flowers will be produced at 
a south window, but a north window has its advantage, in that it may be used 
for plants already in bloom, and will keep them much longer in perfection. For 
north windows, Camelias, Cytisuses, Primulas and Alpine Auriculas, will find the 
cool moisture they need, and will bloom in great beauty if properly attended to 
and kept from frost. Bulbs, if placed in the sunlight, will have their brilliancy 
of color greatly enhanced, yet if not changed occasionally in position, their 
flower stems will bend over and have an unsightly appearance. 


The greatest success will be found to come from a uniform temperature of 45 
or 50° at night, and 60 to 75° in the day time ; 80° is too hot except for only some 
plants of semi-tropical character. Under no circumstances should the tempera- 
ture go below 35°. If your living rooms, where your plants are placed must be 
considerably warmer than this in the former part of the night, then set the plants 
on the floor, shade from the light until the time of retiring, and then return them 
to tHe window sill or flower stand. Perhaps from no other cause than this, too 
great heat, during the day and long continued at night, our city grown plants 
grow so sickly and lanky in appaarance. Once or twice a week will be suffi- 
cient for turning pots around. If this little item is not attended to, you cannot 
grow finely formed plants, and more than half their beauty depends upon their 
shape. If a closet or small room opening out of the sitting room can be devoted 
to plants and yet be well lighted, they will flourish far better than in the com- 
mon room, for they can have a cooler atmosphere and less dust. 

The same object could however be accomplished in a far more tasteful manner 
by enclosing the window recess with another glass window or partition. The 
outside glass protects the plants from the cold, the inside ones from undue heat 
and gas, while between the two there is a happy mean in which plant culture can- 
not fail to be successful. If however this is not done, and the window panes are 
made of double glass there will be little danger of their freezing on a cold night. 
It would be well to have one pane fitted with a hinge, which can be opened to air 
the plants. But to avoid this a heavy curtain can be placed at the window, and 
pulled down at night, to protect from cold air, while newspapers may be pinned 
around the plants to protect them from the bright light of the evening. The 

wixDow GARDE my a 25 

amateur must also study the characteristics of his plants, for one temperature 
■will not answer for all. The Rose needs a cool atmosphere, yet moderately moist. 
The Fuschia is fond of both warmth and moisture, but needs occasional shading 
when the sun is too hot. The Coleus prefers plenty of heat and moisture, and 
would be satisfied never to have the thermometer go below 70° by night or day. 
The Geranium seems to accommodate itself to all circumstances, being the most 
easily grown of all window plants, and apparently needs only plenty of light and 
air, and average warmth 

* Plants at night. 

Plants need rest. Uniform darkness at night with lower temperature, is one 
of the conditions of treatment, but sometimes there may be a sudden change 
of temperature in the outer air, and in consequence thereof some one or more 
plants of the window garden may be frozen. Di> not throw them away, but 
cut the branches back as far as frozen, or near to the soil, then water slightly 
and do not let the plant get quite as warm as before ; if it has any life it will soon 
show buds and branches. Plants should bo treated very much like human 
beings; a frosted finger should be warmed gradually, so should a frozen plant. 
Some plants if frosted, like Fuschias, will sprout from the roots and make a 
strong growth ; others will send out strong, healthy flowering branches from the 
stem near the roots. A very simple plan to restore frosted plants is to transfer 
them at once to a dark cellar and shower them plentifully with water; keep 
them here two or three weeks and they will gradually recover their health again. 

Another point is often discussed, whether plants are injurious in rooms at night. 
We think it unwise to have too many in a room ; a few here and there are of little 
influence. Strong scented plants are injurious to have in the room at night. The 
Tuberose, Hyacinth and Jessamine, &c., are too sweet to be allowed to remain in 
a bedroom at night, and should not be patronized for this purpose by invalids. 
The sensations of the individual are often a good guide. After sleeping in a room 
with plants, the morning finds the sleeper inactive, feeling as if his night's rest 
had been heavy, the air of the room also does not seem pure, and the perfume 
peculiar. All the indications are sufficient to show the air is vitiated, and fresh 
air is needed as much by the individual as the plant. 

Fresh Air. 
Ventilation is absolutely necessarj' ; therefore give it. "Whenever the weather is 
mild open the window. Too little fresh air and too much warmth are formidable 
obstacles to success in house gardening. Plants that are kept shut up in warm 
rooms become very sensitive and are far more liable to suffer from a sudden fall 
in the temperature ; but if they are frequently exposed to the fresh air they ar^ 
better able to bear these changes ot climate which often occur so unexpectedly. 
Those who live in close heated rooms can never make their flowers bloom in 
winter with any vigor. Some think that any atmosphere not inconvenient to 
men and women is good enough for the plant. It will live just as the human 
being lives, but it does so in sufferance rather, for it will not grow and bloom 


in perfect beauty. A very few handsome flowering vines are rauch to be prefer- 
red to spindling plants , pictures of misery, like their owners, overheated and 
crowded into close unhealthy un ventilated quarters. In our fever to provide sufli- 
cient warmth in our rooms against the cold, we stop up every crack in our win- 
dows, every crevice of our doors ; then with furnaces, grates or stoves at almost 
fever heat we get warmth enough to bid defiance to the chilling atmosphere. 
Rarely are we satisfied with a temperature in the room of less than 75°, and this 
must be constantly maintained from early morning till late at night. A draught i 
of fresh air would quicken your blood and put a little more Spirit into your coun- \ 
tenances; still you aim to avoid it. Yet for the sake of your plants do it at least 
once a day. Throw open the doors and air the room thoroughly. This can be 
done at time for meals when it is usually vacant. The windows should not bo 
opened directly upon the plants. Some other window or door away from the 
plants may be opened. It should be done also at the middle of the day when 
the outer air is mildest. 


Here close attention is again required. Plants require regular care. They 
cannot be watered and cared for once a week and the rest of the time left to them- 
selves, but they demand a daily amount of time to be spent upon them. Every 
morning when house cleaning is in order, the plants must be watered and cleaned. 
You will see how necessary this is, if you look at the nature of the plants, how 
they live. Like our skins, the leaves of plants are perforated with hundreds of 
minute pores through which they breathe, exhaling oxygen and inhaling carbon, 
and also giving out and inhaling moisture. If these pores are filled up with dust 
the plant cannot perform these functions and its life either ceases or stands still ; 
it is not possible for it to grow or bloom. The dust of our living rooms is very 
injurious to the health of every plant. Unless it is removed, you may as well give 
up all hope of making your window favorites succeed. Frequent washing and 
watering are absolutely essential. For close handling of leaves, a soft sponge is of 
great service, for it can be used in the parlor without danger of dripping from the 
watering-pot. Wash each leaf separately and see that both sides of it are clean. 
To shower a plant turn it sideways over a tub of water or a sink ; sprinkle it 
thoroughly with the watering-pot. If the plants are too large to handle in this 
manner set the pots or tubs into a larger one and either sprinkle or syringe every 
branch and leaf. You must improvise summer showers if you would induce summer 
growth. It is not enough to water the earth in the pot. The whole plant requires it. 
Frequent waterings are the most beneficial culture that you can bestow upon your 
plants. To be sure they are not easily given and will entail upon you some work. 

When sweeping and dusting your rooms, throw newspapers or a light cloth 
over them ; this will prevent the dust from settling upon the leaves, and help 
materially toward keeping them clean. 

Whenever a warm ram falls, and the temperature stands at 50° or 55,"* set 
all the plants out of doors, and they will be greatly refreshed and strengthened. 
It does not follow, however, that the whole plant is watered by being thus placed 



out doors ; the leaves of the plant may be broad and shield the pot and roots ; 
so do not forget to give these a chance also. If the leaves of plants are very 
dirty, warm water with a little soap and the use of the sponge or syringe, will 
remove all dirt. Exposure to the fresh air is not as dangerous as many would sup- 
pose, provided the temperature is mild. They are, in fact, benefited by such 
exposure and become far more hardy and able to resist sudden changes of tem- 
perature, much better than if kept constantly confined to the room. 

Very few have any idea of how fast the dust accumulates in a room ; it is in 
fact one of the greatest enemies the housewife has to contend with. A short 
time only, suffices to see the leaves of a plant covered with dust; if it is not re- 
moved, they soon get brown and wither ; and it is really delightful, after giv- 
ing them a good washing, to see how bright and shining are the leaves and how 
greatly they have been invigorated. 

Watering Plants. 

When shall I tcater my plants f is a vexed question, asked perhaps more 
frequently than any other by the beginner. This depends entirely upon the 
nature of the plant, for some need more water than others, and yet a soil thor- 
oughly wet is totally unfit for plant-growing. The real idea each cultivator 
should aim for is to supply the plants with water, which may drain rapidly 
through the pots, yet sufficient be retained to give a good moist soil for 
the plant to live in. If the water passes away rapidly it will need replacing 
frequently. It is generally a sign of health when the soil is well drained and the 
plant uses up the supply of water quickly. 

Watering should be supplied with a careful hand, for many parlor gardeners 
have an unrestrainable belief in the hydropathic process. To them there is 
only one orthodox rule : if the plants will wither up or are troubled with insects 
and do not grow as healthy and freely as they might, they drench it with a flood 
of cold water; so it is a fact, that more plants perish in the hands of the inex- 
perienced, from having too copious a supply than too little. There are others 
again more cautions in their applications of water, who are, on the other hand, 
totally heedless of drainage, and let the water stand in the saucers under the pots, 
or in boxes without drainage, causmg mould and sogginess of soil, rendering the 
roots weak and unhealthy. 

The purposes of watering should be better understood. 1st. Water supplies 
to the roots fertilizing matter, contained in itself, and 2d. It converts the nour- 
ishment of the soil into a liquid form more readily fit for absorption by the 
roots. The roots can obtain it only when the soil is dampened. 

Never give water when the soi' S moist to the touch, but wait until it is dry. 

Few plants thrive if water is around them constantly ; yet Lobelias, Callas, 
Ivies, etc., are very thirsty and like to drink at their own will. Indeed they 
will not bloom or grow well unless you allow them so to do. 

The healthiest plants require water the most frequently; and yet it may 
appear a contradiction to say that the plants which contain the most watery 



tissues, grow in the dryest places. The Cacti often supply moisture to the wila 
cattle of the plains of Mexico ; the animals break through their thorny exteriors 
with their hoofs, and then eat the moist morsels contained within, which quench 
their thirst 

"Water, cold from the well or pump, is not suitable for plants, unless of a tern 
nerature of 00°. Rain water is best, for this is supposed to contain some little 
ammonia from the sky. 

The best rule in all cases is to use water warm to the hands. Some florists 
advise water no colder than the atmosphere. We believe it generally best to use 
it warmer. In cool mornings it should be lukewarm, say not under 55°. Some 
cultivators say they have used hot water for sickly plants heated to a tempera- 
ture from 200° to 250°, •and have believed this to be the cause of their subse- 
quent luxuriant growth and production of flowers of the greatest beauty ; but 
trials like this are not to be encouraged, and warm water of 75° to 150°, will do 
just as well and have far less danger from scalding. Over 150° is neither neces- 
sary nor safe. A lady is said to have once watered her plants with the tea that re- 
mained in her pot after the breakfast was finished. Iler plants grew in wonder- 
ful beauty and luxuriance, and she attributes it to the magic effects of the tea; 
yet she has forgotten it was better due to the warmth of the water than any fan- 
cied virtue. Some plants demand more water than others. Fuchsias, for instance, 
while in bloom often require water both morning and evening, and nearly all plants 
desire more when in flower than at any other time. The supply of water must be 
regulated according to the demand of the plants. Calla Lilies will absorb water 
two or three times as quickly as any other plant of the "Window Garden. If 
rainwater cannot be easily obtained and hard water is the only source at hand, 
add a little soda to it and let it stand for a while ; use a small piece, say a small 
nugget of the size of a pea, to every gallon ; on that pour about a pint of boiling 
water and then fill it up with cold water. It will be quite warm, and a thorough 
drenching overhead and in the pots will vastly improve their color and health. A 
drop or two of hartshorn will also correct hard water somewhat. In watering, never 
wet merely the surface, but moisten the whole ball of earth in the pot. If the 
ball should yet be very dry set the whole pot in a pail of warm water till it is 
soaked through. The morning is the best time of the day for watering. A com- 
mon hand-brush made of broomcorn dipped into warm water and shaken over the 
plants will imitate a summer shower, but its tiny drops may spatter against 

the window glass. A toy watering-pot, 
such as is used for children, is very use- 
ful for "Window Gardening. If oil cloth 
IS laid under the stand it can be used 
without much if any injury to the car- 
pet or furniture. Care should be taken 
that the pots have good drainage, for 
then all surplus water will run iuto the 


saucer, which may be emptied as fast as filled. In warm mild weather when plants 
absorb a great deal of moisture it will do no harm to leave a little in the saucer. 
Among other details to be observed in watering, the following items of caution 
are to be observed : Some plants should never be wetted on the leaves. Take the 
Begonia Rex, whose foliage, so large and grand, has an exquisite coloring; if its 
leaves were to be sponged with cold water, and the plant left out on the balcony 
or open air, it would probabl}' die very soon ; but a Camelia can be treated the 
same way and not be injured in the slightest. The reasons for it are good. The 
last plant has a hard shiny leaf, which can resist rough treatment ; but the other has 
a succulent tender leaf easily affected. The novice then may generally find it 
true that plants with soft porous and hairy icaves should be very cautiously wet- 
ted overhead, but plants with hard varnished leaves may be watered frequently. 
Tepid water should be invariably used even down to the height of summer. If 
plants get infested with vermin, a sponging with soap and water made into a lather, 
will clear them. Then follow with clear water to remove the soap. It is also a 
good rule to observe that the colder the weather the less water must be given ; 
and when plants are at rest, done growing, they need very little indeed 

Plants in cases may be watered once a week, for evaporation there is confined, 
but in open rooms once a day is suflicient. Some plants, who delight in very 
moist situations, need it twice a day. Never water when the sun is hot. 

If the soil of the pot gets too hard, loosen it a little with a fork, or plunge it 
into a tub of water. Take pains to have good drainage, and beyond this little 
trouble will be experienced. 

The Pliilosophy of Watering 
is worth studying. Plants are constantly throwing off or evaporating moisture 
from their leaves, and at the same time the roots must be taking up an equal sup- 
ply. If then on examining the soil in a flower-pot, you discover that it is moist 
for an unusually long time, you may be sure that something is wrong, either the 
roots do not take it up readily, or drainage is imperfect. Healthy plant action 
needs, .ir as well as moisture. A soggy soil excludes air, and, as a result, our 
plants soon show drooping leaves and unhealthy branches. Drainage is to plants 
what digestion is to the human system, keeping everj'thing in perfect action. 
Water and air enjoy a healthy circulation unimpeded, and plants which are 
growing freely and vigorously, with strong roots, will take up the moisture of 
the pots regularly. Mr. Meehan, who has studied plant physiology more thor- 
oughly than any other American, sums up this subject in the following concise 
paragraph : 

" A wet soil IS totally unfit for plant growing. A plant standing 24 hours in 
water is irreparably injured. A Hyacinth, to be sure, will live one season in 
water; but all the matter of the flower which goes to water is prepared the year 
before, and after flowering, the bulb is exhausted and almost worthless. 

"A good soil for plant growing, therefore, is not one which will hold water, 
but one in which water will pass away. 


" The soil itself is composed of minute particles, through which air spaces 
abound. The water must be just enough to keep these particles moist, and the 
air in the spaces is thus kept in the condition of moist air. The roots traverse 
these air spaces, and it is, therefore, moist air which roots want, and not water. 

" If it were water simply which plants wanted, we should cork up the bottom 
of the hole in the flower pot, and prevent the water getting away. Instead of 
this, we try to hasten the passing of the water through as much as possible, by 
not only keeping the hole clear, but often by putting broken pieces in the bottom 
to hasten the drainage. A plant will generally be the healthiest, therefore, which 
wants water the oftenest. If it does not want water, it is in a bad way. And 
more water will make the matter worse. 

" How often to water them, will be according to how easy the water passes 
away. If, when you pour water on earth it disappears almost instantly, it would 
be safe to water such plants every day. 

" The constant aim of the cultivator should be to keep the soil of such a con- 
sistence that a moist atmosphere shall always be present in the air spaces exist- 
ing through it. 

Moisture of the Atmosphere. 

The atmosphere of our houses, as we have intimated before, is not only too 
dry for successful plant culture, but it breeds insects of various kinds which 
will injure their growth. 

We have noticed that plants kept in kitchen windows where the air is 
charged with moist vapors from the boiling of water over the stove or range, and 
where the outside doors are frequently opened, and fresh air supplied, will 
often develop into surprising luxuriance and beauty. We can call to mind 
even now a farm kitchen in the coldest portion of our most northern states, 
where Roses, Carnations and Verbenas, grow finely, and are covered with a sum- 
mery profusion of buds and flowers. These are usually the most difiBcuU plants 
<o bring into bloom in parlor windows, because they are apt to be so infested 
with minute red spiders, and the green aphis, scale or mealy bug. 

It is the moisture in the air which tends to restrain and drive away such dis- 
agreeable intruders. The heated air of the house can be kept moist by placing an 
evaporatmg pan upon or in our furnaces, and over our stoves we can place a 
large fire-proof dish that must be daily filled with water. 

If the surfaces of the soil in pots is covered with moss, it retards the evapo- 
ration of water; this practice is generally advisable only for those plants which 
require much water, such as Calla Lilies, Fuchsias, Camellias, &c. Pots that are 
imbedded in moss are always kept moist, and if a table is constructed just the 
height of the window, with a rim fastened around each side three inches in 
depth, and the whole lined with zinc, the pots can be set in it, and the moss 
stuffed in on all sides. When watering is needed, set it back from the window 
/and sprinkle with a fine watering pot. 

The Soil. 

The oiost easily available material for a compost by the ordinary gardener, will 


be rich loam, sand, and thoroughly decayed cow manure. This should be mixed 
in the proportion of one half of the loara to one quarter each of the sand and ma- 
nure. Leaf naould is also another grand material which every plant loves to grow 
in, and it will pay to secure a good quantity of it. The older and more decom 
posed the manure and leaf mould, the better they are, and every plant grower 
should keep a well prepared compost heap for his plants. A good compost, 
when all the material is handy, is composed of one fourth of the above elements 
of leaf mould, sand, loam and manure. To those who live in cities and can not 
get this conveniently, it is best either to buy your plants already potted, or go 
to a good florist and buy a good quantity of right compost; he can usually supply 
it at cheaper rate than it can be purchased anywhere else. 

Keep this heap well filled, and no one must fail to bear in mind that the soil of 
every one of his pots needs changing and replenishing, or else it becomes ex- 
hausted, and the plants dwindle and languish for needed food. 

Garden loam is often used by those in the country and found to answer, 
but if it should contain any cla}'', a little sand must be added. The sand itself 
is oi no fertilizing efifect, but is valuable in assisting the aeration of the soil 
and helping the drainage. Well rotten turf is another handy and valuable mate 
rial, containing considerable quantity of vegetable mould. If used, put the 
coarser pieces at the bottom along with some pebbles or broken pieces of crockery, 
then fill in the finer mould to about half an inch from the surface. The soil must 
not be allowed to cake up, but be occasionally stirred up deep, so that air may 
have accesji to the roots 

Leaf mould is more highly prized by gardeners than anything else that can 
be procured. Every autumn the leaves are gathered in heaps, wheeled by the 
barrow load to a good location, and there left exposed to the rain and the action 
of the weather for sometimes two or three years. Here it decomposes and 
becomes rotten. Then it is mixed with good turf mould, also left to rot for a 
year or two, and finally chopped up; then add the sand, decomposed manure and 
some peat well minced to small pieces. This is considered the very best mate- 
rial for pots, or borders in green-houses or conservatories. A good pile of it is 
always maintained. It is rather an advantage than otherwise to have a few 
lumps in each pot ; they prevent the soil from becoming too solid. 

A compost for Camellias, Roses, Geraniums, &c., should be one part rivej 
sand, one part leaf mould, two parts turf or garden mould. For Cacti, us( 
two parts coarse sand, three parts leaf and turf mould, one part peat, and a lit 
tie broken plaster. 

For Azaleas, Ericas, and most New Holland plants, take four parts peat 
two parts sand, one part garden or turf mould, one part leaf mould. 

Soil for bulbous roots should be light ; place them in the centre of the pots 
about half imbedded in the light earth, then cover them with leaf or fine turf 

For drainage purposes, put in the bottom of each pot either a layer of pow 
dered charcoal, or small broken pieces of biick or old mortar t^ the depth of a 


least an inch ; over this there may be a slight sprinkling of sand ; still it may be 
omitted if it has previously been well incorporated in the compost. In general 
it should never be less than one fifth the whole material of the compost, and one 
fourth will be best in most cases 

Forest mould scraped up under the branch^js of pine or other forest trees, 
or the soil taken from under the soda of droppings in cow pastures, will be found 
useful in imparting a vigorous growth to plants 

Amateurs sometimes choose earth from the back yards of their city residen- 
ces ; this is rarely ever suitable, and often its efFects can be seen in the half dead 
and weak look of the plants, who seem to be languishing for nourishment. 
Tills soil is rarely ever fertilized, and usually is either the filling in from tho 
street or cellar It may be fit to grow grass upon, but not to put in the pots of 
house plants 

There are some plants which require an imperative admixture of peat and 
loam, such as Ericas, Azaleas and Daphne. There is no substance which 
can be substituted for it, and produce success. Earth for pots should 
rarely ever be sifted, put it in just as it is; lumpy and crude, so much the 

In potting your plants and planting them out, be very careful to press the 
earth very tightly and closely around the roots and stalks of the plants ; half the 
secret of successful pot culture lies m potting plants. 

Hard wooded plants should be potted rather firmly, and soft wooded ones 
should be Igft rather free and loose. 

In repotting plants, take the plant tliat is to be repotted, turn it upside down, 
with 3'our left hand across the mouth of the pot, and the stem of the plant be 
tween the fingers, give the pot a few raps on a pan on the table, lift up the 
pot and you have the plant and the ball of earth in your hand. 

Examine it carefully, and if any worms appear, pick thera out, or if the 
earth is full of healthy roots, and they are matted around the sides of it, the 
plant requires a pot one size larger than that in which it has grown. 

Place the ball of earth and the plant directly in the centre of the new pot, 
and fill it up all around with fresh soil, pressing it firmly down either with 
the fingers or a flat stick ; cover the "ball" with fresh earth half an inch in 
depth ; strike the bottom of the pot several times against a flat substance, and 
again press the soil tightly around the roots. Loose planting is a fruitful source 
of the non-success attending the gardening of amateur florists. Place your 
plants in the shade for t^\o or three days to allow their roots to become accus- 
tomed to the charge of quarters. A healthy, abundantly rooted plant, requires 
a pot one size larger, but, if the plant you turn out should not show its roots 
on the outside, it needs no change of quarters, still it may need fresh soil, and if 
the earth seems poor and gritty it is best to give it.. 

If in examination of your pots you should find some plant injured by in- 
judicious waterings, its roots rotten, and soil soddened, then^ut or tear away 
the decayed parts, turn out the wet soil, take a pot of the smaller size, and 


with a ligiSici soil give it another chance for life, watering it sparingly until the 
foliage shows Its return to health and strength. 

Never pot a plant that has its ball of earth quite dry, for you cannot givo it 
water afterward. All the water you pour upon it will run down the fresh soij 
at the sides of the pot, leaving the plant to perish with drought. Sometimes 
in potting plants, you will find a large brown root coiled up in the pot like a 
snake. Cut it off close to the mam root and put this plant in a ])ot of smaller 
size, and very soon fresh and more nourishing roots will take its place. Such 
roots are often found in pots of Geraniums. This piece of root can be made to 
grow by cutting it into 3 inch lengths, and planting them in pots of sandy loam, 
leaving a quarter of an inch of the root uncovered, and keeping them warm and 

In placing plants m pots in the open air, either sink thorn in the borders or on 
tiie grass. Be sure to scatter coal or wood ashes underneath them, to prevent 
worms from entering the pots and the soil from becoming clogged. 

FertiUzers for Stimulating House P.lants. 

Ail plants will grow much riner if stimulants are given, say at least once a week. 

A very fine liquid fertilizer can be made out of horse and cow manure. Take 
an old bucket for the purpose, put into it several shovels full of manure, to 
which add one pint of charcoal dust, this neutralizes its odor, add to it plenty of 
boiling water, let it cool, and applj' to the plant. Tt should not l>e given too 
strong, but about the color of weak tea. The bucket can stay filled up with 
water for six weeks or two months as it is needed, then throw away its contents 
and begin again. 

Guano water, a decoction of Peruvian guano, makes a good stimulant. Tt 
should be applied once a week to tlie roots, taking care not to touch the leaves 
with it. To one gallon of hot water, add one large tablespoonful of guano ; 
stir until it is dissolved. Hen manure may be substituted and used in about 
the same quantity. 

When used carefully, either are excellent, and give the plants a bright, 
vigorous green. 

Ammonia water Ri\m\i\a.le!i growth very satisfactorily. Dissolve 4 ounce of 
pulverized ammonia in a gallon of water, and it will prove more grateful to the 
plants even than rain water which also con tains ammonia. A teaspoonful of aqua 
ammonia added to a gallon of warm water will be of same efficacy. Flour of 
hone, when it can he obtained in the form of powder, easily soluble in water, is 
still more suitable, for it contains other elements of plant nutrition. Used in 
moderate quantities, not over a tablespoonful to a gallon of warm water, it will 
give the plants a healthy impetus ; give a sufficient quantity to wet the whole ball 
of earth and pour off the surplus water that runs into the saucer. A special 
fertilizer used to advantage by some, is composed as follows : take of sulphate 
of ammonia four ounces, nitrate of potash two ounces, white sugar one ounce, 
add one pint of hot water; when dissolved, cork tightly and add a teaspoonful 

34 n/.XIWn- GARDtCiXI^O. 

to every gallon of water used for watering; six or eight drops of this liquid cah 
be poured into the water of a hyacinth glass, and the flowers will be much finer 
All these special stimulants must be used with caution, be well diluted, applied 
not oftener than once a week and once in three weeks will be sufficient for the 


Plants should be kept in good shape by pinching off their shoots from time to 

time, so as to avoid an outward spindling appearance, straggling branches can 

never be handsome; but if their shoots are nipped or pmched in every month 

or so, they will grow bushy and have many more blossoms and leaves. Fig 16 

Fig. 16. 

shows a good pruning scissors Fuchsias and Pelargoniums are generally 
stopped once or twice before they flower. When the shoots have grown about 
three leaves their ends are pinched out; this gives tliree or four shoots instead of 
one, and increases the proportion of blossoms, but keeps the plant dwarf The 
training of piants is aiso a matter of taste, usually the form of a half circle is 
most preferred. Fuchsias trained to single stakes and allowed to droop down 
are natural objects of beauty Every gardener has his fancy. Nothing is so pleas- 
ing as to see a rose trained to stakes in pots bent completely back to the pot, in the 
shape of a semi-circle — every branch covered with buds just ready to bloom. 

General Suggestion/t. 
1. AH plants have a season of rest ; therefore discover what season is peculiar 
to each, and transplant at that time. 2. The best time for taking cuttings is 
when the plants are in their most active state of growth, and this is be- 
fore flowering. 3. Profuse bloomings exhaust the strength of plants, there- 
fore cut off all flower buds as soon as their petals fall, and do not let the 
.seed pods mature unless you desire to raise seeds. 4. All bulbs and tubers 
should be planted before they begin to shoot; if suffered to form leaves and roots 
in the air, they waste their strength. 5. Never remove the leaves from bulbs 
after flowering until they are quite dead. As long as the leaves retain life they are 
emplo)'ed in preparing nourishment and transmitting it to the roots. 6. Window 


plants are more liable to be injured by fi-ost than plants in the ground, because 
the fibres of the roots cling to the sides of the pots and are more quickly afiected 
by the chilling air. 7. The faster a plant grows, the farther apart are the 
leaves, the more distant the side branches, and the more bare appears the stem. 
Richness of foliage can never be attained when leaves become thus scattered. 
By keeping a lower temperature, especially at night, there will be a slower and 
more desirable growth, and conducive to compactness of habit in plants. 8. No 
plants can bear sudden contrasts of temperature without injury, therefore bring 
nothing directly from a heated room to the cool open air 9. By checking the 
growth of leaves and branches you throw more strength into the flowers; this 
is why the terminal shoots of many plants should be pinched oflFto increase their 
vigor. 10 Avoid excessive heat. Plants often languish in a hot temperature 
while their owners cannot imagine why they do not grow, forgetting that the at- 
mosphere is already too warm for even human beings. Suggestions like these 
will show that although Window Gardens require some skill and experience in 
good management, yet there is nothing abstruse or difficult to pi-event any one 
from undertaking the care of one which needs only a reasonable degree of thought 
ftud attention t*^ make it a constant delight. 


3i?ii;ciAL Care of Window Gardens. 
In Winter 

The beauties of the flower garden are gone, and we are now left to solasa 
ourselves with any green thing we can coax by artificial help to grow and bloom 
during the long winter months, till spring returns again. Naturally enough we 
hate to lose the sight of the flowers, and graceful flutter of the green leaves, so 
we strive to prolong our joy, as far as possible, under many difficulties through 
unsuitable seasons. 

During the winter seasons Che chief requisites of success, are plenty of sun- 
shine, an atmosphere not too dry or close, a mild uniform temperature, and 
especial attention to cleanliness, watering and daily care. 

Plants which receive only a few moments of attention a day and then forgot- 
ten, soon become a disgrace, and the window garden becomes a nuisance. 

In the open ground plants will flourish if left to themselves, but when grown 
in a pot, they are under artificial restraints and conditions, and must become 
an object of constant attention. This very necessity of the case renders window 
gardening of so much greater interest than out door gardening. 

Plants at night should be in the dark, as that is their natural condition so 
that they may rest, and yet it is equally important that they should be freely ex- 
posed to the sun as long as light lasts. 

So, especially in the winter months, when there is comparatively so little 
sunlight, place them as closely to the windows as they can be well managed, if 
not, they will become unsightly, drawn and weak. The more light that a plant 
receives the more freely can it absorb carbon and breathe out oxygen; so if you 
wish your plants to be purifiers of the air, be sure that they have plenty of light, 
and keep both blinds and curtains from obstructing it. 

The necessity for air in the winter is no less imperative than the demand for 
light. In order to cultivate Geraniums successfully, a constant supply of fresh 
air is very needful. Roses, Verbenas, and indeed all plants demand it. 

When plants are first brought into the house they should not be stimulated, but 
allowed a little time to become accustomed to their new quarters ; and they will 
often wither a little from the want of fresh air, so let the windows be open all 
day, if it is sunny, and accustom them by degrees to the change of temperature. 

It is not desirable to allow them to remain out too late in the season, but they 
should be housed before any danger of frost arises ; a slight chill will frequently 


injure them gieaily, especially the Coleus, and all sub tropical plants unused 
to our cold autumn winds. 

They can be placed on a protected piazza, and covered at night with some mats 
or sheets, but the true lover of house plants does not feel at ease until all her pels 
are standing in their winter quarters ; then the cold chilly winds may blow, and 
Jack Frost's icy fingers pinch with blackening touches all that they can reacli; 
the household flowers arc safe beyond his dreaded touch. 

Do not crowd your plant stands or windows, give to each plant room to stretcli 
forth its branches and leaves, if you would have it bloom in vigor and beauty; 
untidy straggling plants are always detestable. 

Every dead leaf must be removed and every fading flower, and the leaf must 
not remain in the pots, but be taken away; cleanliness is so important that no 
damp leaves or decaying flowers should be left. Window plants suffer chiefly in 
the winter months from indiscriminate waterings, allowing them to go dry for 
two or three days and then soaking them for a week. 

Many a lady cannot imagine why her plants do not grow and bloom as luxuriantly 
as at her opposite neighbor's. But it is the lack of daily atttention that makes the 
difference. One lady buys her plants because it is the fashion to have tliem in the 
windows; the other loves lier plants as a part of herself, sees in them an individu- 
ality ; a glimpse perhaps of something beautiful beyond this world's plain reali- 
ties, and it is not a care for her to attend to their necessities, but rather a privi 

In the winter time the familiar question is asked over and over again: " How am 
I to know when my plants need watering.'" Watch them carefully, and they 
will tell you; wilted leaves, drooping branches, and yellow shades show that 
they are water-clogged ; they must be allowed a respite. 

Turn up the soil as heretofore directed, with a stout hairpin, and if it is dry 
give more water ; if not, abstain from it. 

Success in window gardening depends greatly in never permitting the plants 
to suffer from an)' neglect. 

When you water, give it copiously, and if the next day the plants have 
enough pass them by ; but there are always some in a window or a stand of 
plants that desire it, so carry round the watering pot every day, take the time 
either before or after breakfast, have a special hour, and never forget it. There 
is more danger of giving too much water during the winter, than in the spring 
and summer, because the evaporation is much less. 

In winter there should be no water left in the saucers ; with the exception of . 
aquatics, who require it 

A small toy watenng pot such as are sold for children's use, is of the greatest 
assistance ; it will sprinkle the surface of tiny pots without wetting either stands 
01 window glass. 

A piece of oilcloth is an excellent protection to carpets, and should always be 
placed under every window and plant stand 

It is best to select a cloudy day for giving your plants a thorough cleaning, 


thereby imitating nature, as she seldom washes her vegetation with the sud 
shining upon it. 

A pail of warm water can be brought into the parlor, and each plant thoroughly 
wetted in it, the surface of each leaf well moistened, without making any dis- 
turbance with the arrangement of the room. 

Plants perspire like human beings, only the amount is seventeen times as great, 
according to Mr. Hale's computation 

In the Hydrangea, the minute orifices in the space of an mch, are found to be 
one hundred thousand. 

Protection from Frost. 

During the winter our tender plants are liable to become frost-bitten in spite of 
every precaution we may take in their behalf. When the mercury out of doors 
settles to 25° and 30°, some little branches and leaves will droop, and the soil in 
some pots may become solid in doors. 

If this happens, all is not lost. Take the blighted plants tenderly, and dip 
them into cold water, not icy cold, but drawn from hydrant or cistern; then place 
them in complete darkness where not a ray of light can penetrate, and in three 
days at the utmost, you will find them fresh as ever, every leaf upright and 
green, while if they had been left in the light, every leaf would have fallen. Sev- 
eral times we have had this experience with our plants and have always revived 

If the pots are set back at night from the windows on a piano or table, they 
will often escape freezing. 

If a window opens on to a piazza, the plants can be protected by pinning a 
thick comforter outside of the window, or tucking it into the blinds. 

Double windows are highly essential in a cold climate to keep off the intense 
cold, but they should always have an opening, a pane of glass with a hinge, or some 
means by which the room can be aired daily ; the weekly cleaning is not often 
enough to open the windows. 

Do not forget to shade them from too much light and heat in the early part of 
the evening. 

The great secret of success in wmdow gardening, consists in overcoming as 
much as possible the disadvantages under which the plants labor, and rendering 
their position and treatment as much as possible like those growing in the open 

Spring Culture of Window Gardens 

Maich is the first month that treads upon the flowery border of spring ; it 
is the beginning of the sunny season which shall awake the sleeping bulbs, 
plants, shrubs, and indeed all vegetation 

March, April, May and June, are very busy months, for in them we make 
large additions to our collections of/jlants by propagating new varieties, both by 
seeds and cuttings. 

Window gardening. 


Of course with all your fancy for new things, you will not forget to secure 
some few pots of good old fashioned flowers. They may be dear to many from 
only childish associations, liaving proved their value by the many years in which 
they have been cherished. No true lover despises them 

The culture in the spring months differs but little from ihat of the winter ; 
more air can be given, and often the windows can be let down from the top for 
the whole day. Remember that if the thermometer stands at 55'' and 65° out 
of doors, and the sun shines brightly, too much fresh air is impossible; but have 
the windows closed by three o'clock, for by that time a chilly wind often springs 
up in April, which would prove injurious to many tender plants, in a rapidly 
growing condition. Later in the season there is no danger. Great attention 
must be paid to general cleanliness ; now is the season to promote rapid growth, 
but if the plants cannot breathe freely, they are in a decidedly consumptive 
state, and must pine away To prolong the blooming of plants, every fading 
flower, even if it is but -one in a cluster, should be cut away. 

To keep the tiowers of Azaleas from falling, it is an excellent plan to drop a 
single drop of gum water underneath the flower^ where it sinks into the calyx; 
now is the time for their most profuse bloom, and they can be made more orna- 
mental by this process. 

No flowers should be left with water standing in their saucers, but if the 
plants are sunk in boxes or moss, there is no need of using saucers, which are 
hard to keep clean. 

Be sure and attend to the weekly washing, it is quite as essential to your plants 
as to your household cleanliness 

A small sized brush such as painters use, will be found of great service as it 
will wash off the tiniest leaf and stem. 

Water must be given plentifully during the spring months, and it is well to 
supply it till a few drops ooze out from the bottom of the pot; but don't water 
while the sun shines full upon the plants. 

Rain water is always the best for all vegetation. We especially recommend 
warm water in cold latitudes, as it cannot help but prove more invigorating to the 
roots. The sun does not shine every day ; often it is withdrawn for a week, but 
if the soil is warmed with the water, it will not check the growth of the plants 
as much. This rule does not apply so closely to conservatories ; there the plant 
can be sprinkled as though they were growing in the open ground, and warm 
water is not so much of a necessity in a greenhouse, where the whole tempera- 
ture is adapted to the needs of plant-life. But this is not the case in window 
gardens, and we think its use the greatest benefit to them. Early in April, or in 
the later days of March, the plants that were stored in the cellar for safe keeping 
should be brought to the light ; the decayed leaves and dust must be carefully 
brushed away and picked off, and the plant repotted, ready to start forth afresh. 

The more hardy plants, like Roses, Geraniums, Pansies, etc., etc., can be put 
out of doors on warm days to enjoy an hour or so of fresh air and sunshine, at 
Qoontirae; or if a warm rain falls, all the plants can go out and drink in fresh 


life with every drop. But don't let them remain out too long ; a :hill in April 
is often fatal to Heliotropes, variegated leaved plants, Fuchsias, etc. One must 
be governed by the climate 

In March or April, according to your latitude, it is well to look into the subject 
of repotting the plants that have stood in the window. If the plants have had 
the requisite care and attention during the winter, they have made many new roots 
and must now have larger pots if you would have them grow to the best advantage. 

Water the pots freely so that the ball of earth will slip out easily, and have 
your fresh potting soil moist to the touch. Never pot a plant with its ball of 
earth quite dry, for you cannot give it a good watering in that state. All the 
water you may supply will run down the fresh soil at the sides, and the plant 
will experience the fate of Tantalus of old, and literally starve to death, although 
its nourishment is in sight. Ifyouusenew pots, let them be soaked in water 
over night if possible, and at least three or four hours before using them. If 
your pots are old, let them be thoroughly washed, and cleansed from all green 
mould and soil. 

It is not needful to provide larger pots wlien the first roots show themselves; 
out when they have twined and interlaced their tiny fibres, then they require 
more room. Often a light rap upon the edge of the pot, will be sufficient 
to turn out the ball of earth ; but if not, a thin bladed knife can be run 
around close to the pot for- an inch or two from the top, and this will bring it out 
easily. Turn it out with your hand and examine the roots ; if they are closely 
curled about it, the plant requires a pot one size larger. Fill the pot with rich 
compost and put in the ball and plant directly in the centre, for a plant growing 
sideways in a pot looks very badly ; iill up all around the sides of the pot, 
packing the .soil down firmly witli the fingers, cover the ball to the depth of a 
quarter or half an inch, leaving a vacant space of half an inch more to the edge 
of the pot for the purpose of sratering to advantage. 

When you turn out the plant, the roots will sometimes appear decayed, and 
the soil poor, dried, and gritty ; then wash it all away, removing the dried roots, 
and give fresh, rich soil, pressing it firmly about the roots, but keep the same 
sized pot. 

Perhaps you will find your plants injured by injudicious watering, the roots 
rotted, and the soil sodden. Cut off the roots as much as possible without remov- 
ing the whole of them, and plant them in much smaller pots with a sandy soil, 
and they will regain their health. 

As the weather grows warmer in May, many plants can be placed in balconies 
or on piazzas, and shielded from chilly winds and cold nights by mats or blan- 
kets, or they may be removed to cooler rooms where the sunshine will be suffi- 
ciently warm to keep them healthy. This is far better than roasting them in 
the hot rooms that many will live in, spite of all remonstrances to the contrary. 

Sweet Verbenas should be brought from their winter quarters early in March, 
and they will soon put forth their light green, deliciously perfumed leaves. 


The plants tliat will flower most profusely in these months are : 

Azaleas. Heliotropes. 

Ahutilons. Lantanas 

Acacias. Libonia Jioribunda. 

Anemones. Lobelias. 

Auriculas. Mahernia odorata. 

Achimenes. Maurandias. 

Bouvardias. Myrtles. 

Begonias Oratiges. 

Calla Aethiopica. Oleanders. 

Cinerarias. Pelargoniums. 

Cyclamens. Primroses. 

BapJines. Petunias. 

Dielytra. Punsies. 

Epiphyllum Truncatum, etc. Boses. Tea. Hybrids. Bourhons 

luchsias. Bengal Eases. 

Gardenias. Verbenas. 

Geraniums, in all varieties. Violets. 
The Mush plant (^Mimulus tnoschatus') is an universal favorite. 

For culture in outside window boxes, the best are Violets, early flowering 
Snou; Drops, early flowering Anemones, Forget-me-Nots and Primroses. 

Summer Culture of Window Gardens. 

June, July and August, do not require as much labor as the busy months of 
springtime. To be sure the cultivator needs to give daily attention lest the 
plants should become dried up from want of water; and must also tie, stake, 
prune, air, and weed with great care. 

Water will now be required in greater quantities, and it need not be any 
warmer than standing in the sun will make it. The evening is the best time to 
apply it, because the plants will drink it up during the night to their great ad- 
vantage, while if given in the morning, the sun's rays will claim their share, and 
by quick evaporation much will be lost in the atmosphere. There are some 
plants that will desire, and must have water twice in the twent}'^- four hours. 
Fuchsias, Callas, Lobelias, etc., should have water both night and morning. 

After the first of June, the plants will enjoy all the fresh air that can be given 
both night and day, in nearly all latitudes. Calceolarias and Cinerarias will be 
benefited by being kept cool, which can be done by placing them on damp moss, 
or refuse tan bark, and covering the surface of the pot with it. By the middle 
of June thev can be placed in a cool, shady window, and all the stems that have 
flowered should be cut off, or if planted in a cool border, they will furnish more 
roots which can be divided in September or October. 

By the end of May, in many localities, many plants will flourish better out- 
side the window than inside; Geraniums, Pelargoniums, Fuchsias, Roses, Ilelio- 


tropes, etc., etc., can be placed in boxes and vases on piazzas or balconies, or a 
garden can be made on the roof. 

Large strong boxes can be attached to the outside of the windows, and all 
the plants set into them. In this way much care is avoided, for the plants can 
be watered with a syringe or watering pot, and the debris of withered leaves and 
stems IS more easily cleared away. The plants can also be kept much freer from 
insects, and will grow more luxuriantly. Manure waterings can be given weekly. 
A tablespoonful of guano in a gallon of water, which should stand in the sun two 
or three days before being applied, is the easiest to procure, but all or any of the 
manures alluded to before, can be employed. When the flower buds appear, 
stimulants are much needed ; and if no other can be procured, try this. Put a 
teaspoonful of aqua ammonia into a gallon of water, and sprinkle it all over the 
leaves and surface of the soil. Cut off all faded flowers; this greatly helps to keep 
the plants free from mildew, and increases their healthy condition ; every yel- 
low leaf should be taken off as soon as perceived. 

If ever a plant becomes thoroughly dry from oversight or neglect, place it in a 
deep pan of rain water (if possible,) and let it remain for an hour or longer, until 
it is thoroughly soaked, but do not let the pot be entirely covered with the water. 
H it water will frequently revive faded cut flowers ; cut off a small bit of the 
ste n, and then immerse the end into very hot water; you can see the petals 
smooth out from their crumpled folds, the leaves uncurl, and tlie whole branch 
an 1 flower resume its beauty. Colored flowers revive the most completely. 
White flowers turn yellow, and the thickest textured petals come out the best 
from this hot foot bath 

For preserving flowers in water, there is nothing so good as finely powdered 
charcoal. It keeps the water from all obnoxious odors. As a general rule too much 
air and too much light can not be given ; yet when m full bloom the direct rays 
of the sun will cause delicate flowers to fade rapidly, wliile if they are shaded 
from the noon-tide heat, their beauty will be much prolonged ; but during the 
night the more fresh air they breathe is the better. 

If house-plants are plunged in pots into the borders, care must be taken to 
either close up the outlet at the botom of the pot, or else to put bits of plank or 
shingles under them, or set them upon small stones. This is needful on account 
of the tendency of their tiny rootlets to force their way out of the pot, and when 
the plant is removed, they must necessarily be cut off, thereby causing it to 
droop or wither, and greatly injuring its growth. 

It is not advisable to let your plants run to seed. You desire to secure flowers, 
and to do this you must not let the plant fulfil its mission of leaves, buds, flow- 
ers and seeds in natural order, but by cutting off all the faded blooms, stimulate 
it to shoot forth fresh branches and buds, and strive to do its duty. 

In order to secure seeds that are worth planting, it is needful to pick off al' 
the later buds, and throw the whole strength of the plant into forming seed th;»> 
will prove worth the raising. 


Ho not omit the practice of washing 3'our pot plants in the summer, thinking 
that the rain will do it for you. It will help you doubtless, but if the loaves are 
bushy, many of them will not have their full share, andsliould still be syringed 
and washed with all the help of thutnband finger, sponge, brush, or garden synnge 

Keep the soil well stirred up in these months, for if you desire healthy plants 
the air must have access to the roots, and the surface of the pot must not be 
allowed to cake. There are many annuals that make fine pot plants both in 
summer and winter, but in June, July and August, they will give you most 
bi-illiant flowers at a very small cost. Boxes of Portulacca, Asters, Phlox, Stocks, 
Balsams, Pinks, Schizanthus, Zinnias, etc., are highly ornamental and within the 
reach of all flower lovers, while each of the above named flowers make handsome 
single plants in pots. 

We can hardly give a list of flowers that bloom in these months, for their name 
is legion, and embraces many of those mentioned heietofore. 

The Lilies are in their glory, and there can be no finer pot plants raised than 
the various varieties of Japan Lilies, Tigridias, Amaryllis and Vallotta 2^-irpurea 
mcperba, all of which are mentioned in the chapter upon bulbs. 

Late in August, cuttings can be struck from all bedding-out plants that are 
desired to be kept during the winter. At this season they strike root very freely, 
and will frequently become fine plants by December. 

Gloxinias and Achimenes are most desirable additions to summer blooming 
flowers. The Gloxinias are particularly beautiful and brilliant. Tlieir exquisite 
coloring and freshness is unequaled. 

Achimenes are, also, a genus of splendid plants, which will be described in 
Part II. They are unrivaled in beauty of coloring and form. They produce 
the most beautiful masses of blossoms in vases and baskets, over which they fes- 
toon their glorious flowers and trailing branches. 

Autumn Culture of Winclno Gardens 

For this season there is little to be added to the directions already given for the 
culture of house plants in previous months The plants that are intended for 
winter flowering should all be repotted and prepared for their permanent quarters 
early in September, so as to become fully estal)lished in the pots before the season 
is cold and gloomy. The roots must be attended to as heretofore directed, and 
if they cling to the surface of the pot, one of a larger size should be substituted, 
and fresh earth given. Be sure to procure good soil, and to press it tightly about 
the roots, and crown of the bulb, or stem of the plant 

Do not attempt to cultivate too many plants, remembering that one strong, 
handsome shaped healthy plant is worth more than ten or twelve sickly things, 
that are lanky, scraggy and never blossom 

Give your plants the morning sunshine. It is far better than the afternoon, 
and if the windows open, both to tlie east and southwest, so much the better for 


the plants at both windows; yet, if no other. location can be procured, the after 
noon sun is far better than none at all. 

Never use glazed pots or crockery and painted ware, unless the common pots 
are set into them for ornamental purposes 

Stimulate once a week with some one of the various liquid manures alluded to 

Avoid extremes of cold and heat, and give all the air that is allowable, accord 
ing to the temperature out of doors 

Of course, each gardener must regulate her plants, according to the latitude in 
which she lives. If, on the Pacific slope, the dust that is so tenacious during 
summer and autumn must be the greatest enemy to contend with, while on the 
Atlantic coast the chilly, bleak east winds are the greatest drawbacks to success- 
ful plant culture. In the west, the cold winds blow from the Rocky Mountains. 

No set code of rules can be given, and common, sense must govern window 
gardening, as well as in all the branches of domestic economy. 

A large sponge will do duty for a watering pot, or a hand brush broom dipped 
into water and shaken over the plants ; but sprinkling must be given in some 
shape, at least, once a day. 

If the pots are thoroughly washed with hot soap suds, all tendency to green 
mould will be prevented 

Make the water that is given, warmer now than in the summer. Put your 
finger into the saucer, and sfee how cold it is, when it drains through the outlet. 
And if quite cold, give water of a greater warmth. 

Plants that are in a state of rest, should have but very little water during the 

Bulbs must be started for early flowering in September and for Easter, bloom- 
ing late, in November. 

Roses should all be repotted with rich soil : full two-thirds of entirely decom- 
posed cow manure and leaf mould, so decayed as to crumble in the fingers, 
should be added, to one-third of good sandy loam. 

As most of the desirable flowering plants will be treated of in their respective 
chapters, it will only be a repetition to notice them here, or to give a list of them. 

Insects, and How to Kill Them. 

The previous anxieties of the gardener are but light compared to the deadly 
warfare he is now forced to wage against the tiny insects which not only infest iiis 
house-plants, but the soil in which they grow and bloom. 

The red spider is the most minute, yet the most dangerous foe wherewith we have 
to deal. Hot and close parlors and sitting-rooms, are its delight, and it weaves 
its tiny webs about the casements waiting until the plants are ready to feed it. 

He is a treacherous invidious enemy seeming to lie in the window frames quiet 
and warm, but ready to seize upon our rarest Roses, most valiial)le Fuchsias and 
Carnations, as soon as they are placed in their winter quarters. 

It is the tiniest of red mites ; tlie merest grain as it lies in repose under tlie 
leaves of the plant it has chosen for its dwelling, but when the leaf is closely e.v- 
amined, it rushes wildly about, apparently knowing that it is doomed, and its 
minutes are numbered 

Though pests are so minute, one can easily discover their presence ; for 
the upper sides of the leaves grow brown and sire, and the plant loses its healthy 

A thorough sprinkling and washing may drive away the intruders, but if the 
heated and close atmosphere is still continued, plenty more will be generated. 

Red pepperhas been found decidedly obnoxious to it. It should be dusted upon 
with a pepper castor, holding the plant bottom side upwards, while another per- 
son dusts on the pepper. you must take care not to let it fall in any 
quantity upon the soil of the pot, lest it .should injure the roots. 

A decoction of quassia will also act fatally upon insect life, if used in the 
following proportions : 

Boil one ounce of quassia wood in three pints of water until but a quart re- 
mains ; when luke warm, either dip in the infested plants, or sponge offeach leaf 
with a sponge or brush. Let them stnnd fifteen minutes or so, then dip the 
plants or wash them off with clear water, as the decoction of quassia, if allowed 
to remain on the leaves, will injure them. 

Tobacco smoke is also a good preventive to some insects, but tliis red spider 
does not seem to heed it. 

The aphis or green fly, does not affect a Hking for tobacco, for it intoxicates 
it, and causes it to fall from the leaves and branches of all plants. Hold a 
lighted cigar under the leaves of your Roses, etc., not so near as to curl them 


with the lieat however, and see how they will fall down completely stupefied; but, 
if left to themselves, they will revive, and slowly return to their leafy homes. 
Place a paper under the leaves when you apply the smoke, and tlien you can 
easily destroy them. 

If a plant is very much infested with these noxious pests, take the pot m your 
hand and spread a paper under it, then with a feather or small wing, brush oif 
the insects and burn them all up. Then dip the plant into warm water, to kill 
the eggs, and with a weekly washing, smoking or sprinkling, not an insect will 
be seen. 

A conservatory plant-stand, or window garden with plants covered with these 
insects, plainly announces the neglect they have received. The old maxim seems 
to come here again in play, i. e. " An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of 

If plants were as carefully washed and tended as many pet animals were, 
there would be no need of any remedies against in.sects. 

Conservatories can be kept free of all insects by being smoked once a week 
with tobacco. Close all the windows carefully that lead into the house, take 
the largest size flower pot-saucer, put a shovel full of blazing coals into it, and 
pour over them an ounce of tobacco, letting it smoke well ; if it is slightly damp- 
ened tbe smoke will be more dense. Let it smoke for half an hour, then open 
the window out of doors, and let the .smoke go out. Choose a bright fair day 
when half an hour's outside air will not injure the plants, and you will keep all of 
them fresh and vigorous. 

The mealy bug, is a white mealy looking insect, but very destructive to plant 
life. It does not dislike tobacco, but has a hatred to whale oil soap. A quarter 
of a pound dissolved in five quarts of water, and syringed on to the plants, or 
sprinkled with a watering pot, will force it to disappear. 

Like the aphis, it can be brushed off with a chicken's wing. 

Brown scale will sometimes attack Roses, Daphnes, Oranges and Pittosporums, 
but it is not nearly as common as the above mentioned insect. Bad ventilation 
and dark places are its chief cause and habitat ; frequent washings and picking 
off with the hand, are its only means of destruction, as it thrives on tobacco 
smoke, and makes no objection to the disgusting odor of whale j'l soap suds. 

Thrips is a dark brown or whitish yellow fly, very active on the wing, and 
greatly injurious to many plants. It will not thrive where tobacco smoke is 
given tc plants, and is most likely to be found where plants are placed thickly 
together, in a shaded window. 

The Verbena mite is a most tiny insect, smaller than the red spider, and quite 
as disastrous in its ravages. It «innot be seen with the naked eye, but viewed 
through a microscope, it appears as large as a house fly 

If it attacks your plants, it appears like a black rust so thickly does it congre- 
gate together. It delights in Heliotropes, Petunias, Verbenas, etc., and is closely 
allied to the insect which infests the Plum, Peach and Cherry trees 

Neither sulphur, tobacco, or wh«ile oil soap are obnoxious to it, but it will run 


away from the " Grafton Miaeral Fertilizer," and a thorough sprinkling of the 
dry powder on the leaves or steins well moistened, will make the msects dis 
lodge their hold, not to return. 

There is another mite whose color varies from green to black, and is as par- 
ticular in its attentions to Carnations and Pinks, and to rapid in its movements, 
that it has been named the " Carnation Twitter." It is very destructive to all 
the varieties of plants above mentioned, and it affects the leaves like the spider, 
making them very unhealthy in appearance and as yet no means have been found 
to destroy it. 

If plants grow vigoroasly, are healthy and well cared for, the ravages of 
insects are not to be much dreaded ; and if they do appear they can be quickly 
routed. Undoubtedly we must fight if we would become the owners of hand 
some, finely formed, profuse blo-soming plants ; and she who devotes the most 
time to them, will be the proudest of the flowers she rears. 

Sulphur and tobacco are powerful remedies in the hands of an amateur, and 
will often not only kill all the insects, but destroy all the plants. As almost every 
amateur usually undertakes to try some experiment for himself, so we record 
the experience of a lady who writes us : 

" Years ago, when we had the charge of a small conservatory, we tried the 
eftcct of sulphur thrown upon liot coals to kill infested plants. Every insect 
succumbed before its direful fumes ; so aisodid the plants; hardly a leaf remained 
on the stems the following day, and the poor leafless branches spake to me in 
terms of sad reproach through their mute lips. I was then a tyro in the busi- 
ness, and greatly desired to have every thing done thoroughly . 

"Thus I learned, that there is no teacher like expeiience, his school is a hard 
one, he is a stern disciplinarian, but when his lessons are once learned they are 
not forgotten, but are indellibly printed upon the pages of memory 

"Luckily for my conservatory, it was denuded of its leaves in May, and soon 
the poor forlorn plants -ware set out into the borders where they could recuperate 
and regain the foliage denuded by so strong a sulphur bath. 

"Again: I tried tobacco tea, and i'^ it steeped 'ach treasured Rose, each loved 
Fuchsia, and they looked so worn and weary after it that I was heart sick with 
my efforts in their behalf. Since then, I have been very shy of tr3nng such ex- 
periments, and content myself with hand brushing ami washing, but still more 
with the daily care, the constant loving attention which is much the surest and 
the safest for flowers." 

White mites may frequently be seen infesting the soil in pots. They seem to 
be the larvae of a small black or brown fly, and are very injurious to the well-being 
of the plants. Lime water, salt and water, and hot water, have all been tried. 
The first two were inefficient to injure them, and the last killed the plants. Now 
we turn in a goodly supply of warm water, and when we see wriggling specks of 
white, take up the pot and turn off the water. Give another supi)ly, and tuin 
that away, and continue to do so until not one remains. The third or fourth day 
the process is repeated, and by this means the troublesome mites are destroyed 


Wood ashes will sometimes drive them away. They appear to be on or near 
the surface of the pot. Red pepper carefully dusted over the outside of the earth 
will kill them, and then the earth containing it can be removed, lest the pepper 
might prove too heating to the roots. Salt is said to drive them away. We tried 
it as recommended, and killed half a dozen of our finest Carnations, so concluded 
not to try such rash experiments on choice plants. Again, in using the red 
pepper, of course you must not put on a full spoonful, but only a slight sprinkling 
over the surface, where the worms lie the thickest. 

If angle worms are in the soil, they can be removed by turning out the ball of 
earth and picking them out, and if a fine hair pin or knitting needle is thrust 
into the soil, they will all come to the surface and can easily be dislodged. 

Lime water will also drive them out and help the growth of the plant, keeping 
the foliage fresh and bright. Tt can be applied once a week without damage to 
the plant, and can be made by slacking a small piece of fresh lime in hot water, 
then adding cold, and stirnng it well. The water will only dissolve just so much 
lime, and the residue will remain in the pail or firkin used to dissolve it. Mora 
water can be turned on to it, and so continue until it is all taken up. Then bottle 
the water and cork up for use. Keep the bottles where they will not freeze. A 
little of the undissolved lime can be put into every bottle, and when the water 
turns out discolored, more can be added to it. 

A tablespoonful of spirits of camphor, added to a pint and a half of water, will 
make a good wash to keep off insects. But with proper care and good manage- 
ment antidotes need not be employed. 

Fresh water well applied, fresh air at proper times, and cleanliness at all times, 
are thj best preventives one can employ against insects. 


Propagation from Seeds, Cuttings, etc. 

At present most of our Wimlow Gardens in cities are filled with plants bought 
from the florist. Of course one half do not know how they are grown, and hence 
do not well know how to take care of them. 

Every window gardener, it seems to us, should understand the first principles 
of i)lant life, and learn for himself liow they are propagated. 

Nearly all plants that are desirable for window gardening can be raised either 
from seeds, cuttings or by grafting. Bulbous roots are propagated cliiefly from 
offsets, and the new varieties are produced from the seeds. Other plants are also 
increased by ofisets or separating the roots, but their number is comi)aratively 

Ararmth, moisture, proper temperature and a soil suitable to promote the 
sprouting of the germ, and a sliady situation until the seeds have swelled, are 
essential to the vegetation of seeds. 

For window plants a greater degree of warmth is needful. Unless the air is from 
60" to 70°, and some bottom heat is supplied, your success will not satisfy you. 
Seeds of tender plants require hot house treatment. Moisture must not be with 
held at any time; yet, if it is in excess, the seeds are apt to decay before they 
sprout. A thick piece of flannel wet with hot water, and laid over the soil and 
pressed lightly down upon it, will ensure the needfal moisture, warmth and 
darkness. Warm water should be given over it, letting it permeate slowly 
through it. Tt must be lifted daily to see if the tender seeds are starting ; the 
flannel must be removed before the leaves appear, and a pane of glass which will 
exactly cover the seed box or pot placed closely over them. 

Too deep planting is a fruitful cause of failure with amateur seed raisers. The 
depth of the soil must be proportioned to the size of the seed. Petunias, Primu- 
las, etc., require the least spiinkhng of sandy loam. 

A good general rule is to cover the seed only to the thickness of their own 
diameter, yet this would not hold good with Sweet Peas, for they grow better 
when planted three inches in depth. 

With very fine seeds it is best to press thera lightly into the surface of the soil 
with the fingers, then shade from the sun three or four days either with cloth or 
newspapers, ai"4 sprinkle over the coverings, not letting them become dry at all, 
r-jt not tjlUnrj ',he germ of the seeds by too much water. 

'^.f',s^ f/'^. '/ plant culture fail by sowing their seeds in soil that is too wet or 



too dry. All seeds sown in pots are more difficult to manage than those raised 
in a hot bed or in the border on account of the danger of drj'ing up. The ancient 
maxim again comes up, " that if a thing is worth doing at all, it is worth doing 
well." So in plant culture it is just as easy to do it right as wrong. The soil 
sliould be light and sandy; clear sand, such as the masons use for making plaster, 
is just the thing with which to cover the seeds, and to mix with the loam. The 
soil should not be all of sand, because it will dry too quickly. Nor must it be 
of clayey loam, because it will keep too wet, and will not let the air circulate 
fi-eely enough to make the seeds vegetate. But a good loam mixed with sand 
will answer our purpose exactly. 

Fill the pots with it and leave quarter of an inch of clear, sand at the top, for 
the minute seeds, and half an hich for those of larger size. Abutilons, Pelargo- 
niums, Coboea, etc. Set the pots in water up to the rims to ler. the soil become 
thoroughly wetted, then place them to drain for half an hour or more. Plant the 
seeds on the surface, sprinkling over them and pressing lightly upon them &and 
proportionate to their needs. * 

The sand must not be allowed to dry at all, and we find that nearly all kinds 
of seeds will germinate more quickly in it than in loam, though a mixture of 
both may be desirable in some cases when the care is not constant. Shallow 
cigar boxes are preferable to pots; they will hold much more, can be handled as 
easily, and make the best seed pans that we know of. 

The soil for planting seeds should be as fine as possible. It is a good plan to 
bake it in an old pan in the oven, then sift it through a good sized sieve, which 
can be made out of an old milk pan, by boring holes through the bottom of it. 
Soil thus prepared is far better than if taken directly from the garden, yet in all 
cases it is better to buy it of the florists, then you know it is just right. 

When the second tier of leaves show themselves, it is time to transplant the 
seedlings, into the pots or boxes in which you intend them to grow and bloom. 

There is some art in watering seedlings as well as plants, as there is great dan- 
ger of the tiny sprouts becoming water clogged or " damped off." 

It is often better to water little pots by placing them in shallow pans of wa- 
ter, and letting them suck up moisture for a few minutes. Boxes can be mois- 
tened by pouring the water against the sides of them, holding the spout close to 
them, and letting only a small stream fall from the nozzle, thus gently wetting 
the whole surface. 

The pane of glass that is to be kept over the young plants, can be edged upon 
one side to give more air, and prevent their growmg spindling, and wire 

Bell glasses are much better however, and are largely used in England and in 
France where they are called cloches. They are conical, rising to a sharp point 
in the middle, and are of cheap construction. Seedlings raised under them flour- 
ish finely, and there is little need for watering tiny plants ; for when the edge of 
the glass is within the rim of the pot, the moisture becomes condensed upon 
the sides of the glass, and moistens the soil by trickling down upon it. 


Another desirablo way is to pack the pot in which the seeds are phmted, into 
another pot of larger size, and fill up the space with moss, refuse hops or tan 
bark, which can be kept both warm and moist with liot water. A little of it can 
stand in the saucer which holds the largest pot, and thus a uniform state of 
moisture can be preserved. 

Ilard shelled seeds, like Canna, Acacias, Cypress Vines, etc., will germinate 
much quicker if they are soaked in boiling water for an hour or so. Turn it 
upon them boiling hot, and let it stand until cool, then plant the seeds. Some 
gardeners prefer to pour boiling water upon the surface of the soil prepared for 
them, rather than upon the seeds. Either way will succeed, but it is essential 
to soften the horny substance which envelops the seeds, if you desire them to 

Verbena seeds require soaking in warm water over night ; turn the water upon 
them, and let the cup stand in a warm place. 

Many beautiful plants can be rais«d from seeds as easily as from cuttings, and 
l>e more highly appreciated because they are all your own, developed by your 
patient care and attention. 

Begonias, Callas, Oleanders, Cyclamens, Calceolarias, Gloxinias, Primulas, 
Carnations, Lantanas, Coleus, Heliotropes, Geraniums, Cinerarias, Pelargo- 
niums, Camelliiis, Abutilons and Cacti, etc., can all be made to grow into fine 
plants, but it requires constant care anj patience to cultivate them. 

Some of them are very long in germinating, others in blooming, and they re- 
quire much time, for the least neglect will often prove fatal to them. 


There is little trouble raising plants from cuttings ; a few rules are es.sentia), 
and a little care and time are requisite, but any one can make them strike root. 

They can be struck either from woody pieces without leaves, but all ready to 
send them forth, or from young green shoots. 

The first mentioned will rarely fail to grow, but they grow slowly, taking 
sometimes a long time to start the first leaf, while the nice green shoots will 
quickly become respectable plants. But it is well to know that if the branches 
of an old plant are broken down, the hard woody stems will produce iu time, tine 

Take a hard old stem of Geranium, Fuchsias, Myrtle, Heliotrope. Sweet Ver- 
bena, or any desirable plant, and cut it so as to leave one or two joints or ey>s5 
on a piece, (a joint is the slight thickening of the branch whence the leaves and 
side branches will come out), set them into a damp sponge or moss, keeping it 
moistened, for four or five days, a week may not be too long, but keep them in a 
dark caol place. A slight callous will then be formed, and the cutting will be 
all ready to put forth fi-esh roots as soon as it is potted. 

In carrying 'cuttings from place to place, it is best to wrap them in a damp 
sponge, leaving out the upper leaves, and covering the sponge with oil silk ct 


enamel cl'/uH. Ali CiiU'rigs strike root more quickly in sand than in loam, and i 
the bottom o{ ilie joint couches tlie side of the pot or box, it hastens its growth. 

Bottom neat is quite as needful to propagate cuttings as seeds, and the heated 
cases referred to in another cnapter would give every amateur a desirable hot 
bed at a shgnt outlay. To raiso cuttings from a fi-esh or succulent branch, it is 
needful to take one in a proper conoition to secure success. 

Mr. Henderson says, that if a cutting bends, it will not grow easily, but if it 
snaps oiTii is ready to make root, and become a vigorous plant. This test does 
not always apply to woody stemmed plants like Myrtles, Sweet Verbenas, Daph- 
nes, Roses and Azaleas, but their growth is usually tiuer if the wood is easily 

"Whether the cuttings ve of hard or St*in.^ultnt growth, they are similarly 
planted, and tho} can be jiihcrted ah afOiUid tut Uje of a pot net over an inch 
apart, and nearly h^ ^'eop as the seooud eye. 

Propagating Boxes, Heating Cases and Cold Frames. 

There are alwaj's some plants that are very difKcult to start without some 
bottom lieat, and all amateur gardeners cannot possess a hot bed. But the heaied 
case affords to them the greatest facilities for striking cuttings, raising seeds, and 
bringing well established plants into rapid growth. 

A lionie made case may be made in the form of a double cube, say twelve 
inches wide and high, and eighteen inches long. A concealed tank of zinc tilled 
with hot water, will give out and retain the heat from twelve to twenty -four 
hours without clianging the water. No lamp or extra heat need be used, and 
tlie cases are perfectly clean and unobjectionable, while they can be with a little 
mechanical skill, rendered very ornamental and agreeable objects for any parlor 
or sitting room. 

It is best, that the entire frame work be made of wood, and the sides and top 
consist each of a pane of glass fitted into the frame ; or in other words, it is a smaM 
glass sltow case with open bottoms. One of the sides may be arranged so as 
to slide out to give greater ease in arranging the plant within and for cleaning 
the glass. The top may be movable, fastened by hinges, and lifted up one or two 
inches occasionally for ventilation. When the plants are in bloom, the entire side 
or top can be left open all day. 

The wood work may be either painted or be constructed simply of black wal- 
nut, oak, and oiled; either will look well. 

In some of our horticultural stores there are cases already constructed for prop- 
ligating purposes which till the exact need. 

Figs. 17 and IS are manufactured of galvanized iron, one being about three feet 

Fig. 17. 

iOngand '.wo wide, thri other one foot by eighteen inches 

A shallow boiler about 



the size of tlie bottom is fitted in each case, filled with water, and heated by the 
flame of either a lamp or gas jet beneath. The top is of glass and can be lifted 
at any time fresh air is needed. A thermometer completes the equipment. It 
is very simple and successful. The heat can be run up to any desired point and 
the lady who uses it can soon initiate heiself into the mysteries and practice 
of rooting, cutting and propagating fine bedding plants. 

Fig. 19 is a propagating box made of earthen ware, with grooves in the top 
for a pane of glass to slide up and down with a cover. The heat thus generated 
can be retained for a considerable length of time by closing the glass top. They 
are very suitable for starting soft wooded cuttings in sand. 

r\'A. iH 
A forcing stand may be erected like this in Fig.20. It consists of a wrought 
iron frame of ornamental design with two stories. In each story there is a row of 
double pans, the bottom one containing water which is heated by a patent kero.sene 
lamp, keeping the temperature of the inner pan about 100°. In this inner pan 
are placed mould, sand or loam, wherein the pots are plunged. The heat of the 
water is communicated directly through the sand to the cutting or seeds which 
will germinate in a few days. 

All cultivators need to know that for propagating 
purposes, there is needed heat and moisture, and to 
be succes,sful you need a greater bottom heat than sur- 
face heat, and also, still, quiet atmosphere. 

If this case is used in a room where the tempera, 
ture is usually quite inild, no glass covering will bi.> 
needed; still if it isneeded, a case like that described 
in the former pari of this chapter may be constructed 
for each shelf. If pots are used in these little casosi 
they should be very small, not over two inches in di 

Such little contrivances as these render it compara- 
tively easy for any lady to raise her own Verbenas, 
Pelaigoniums, or other simple plants, and would undoubtedly do more lo 
p.eascan<l instruct children and visitors, by way of amusement, than the whole 
apparatus originally cost. 

Ki-. 2U. 

T\7.\D0\V GAiiDKyiya 55 

In ppring, wliioli is tlie (iinc that artificial beat -will be most ipqnirod, the zinc 
rr-.^orvoirs of your propagating boxes will need to be filled with water, both nijrht 
snd morninn;. Tn cases like our first mentioned one, not heated witli the lamp, 
boiling water should bo used, and tlie temperature in the closed case will vary 
from GO'' to 75° ; the silver sand as soon as it becomes a little moist, heats the 
soil in the pots, and the heat is retained for a long time, often 2-4 hours after the 
tank was first filled. 

Another home made case is constructed out of an old tea chest ; cut it down 
about one third, then fit into it a zinc pan 4 to 5 inches in depth to hold the wa- 
ter, over the toj) put a large pane of glass, and in such a box, large; numbers of 
c utlings may be raised with much less trouble than a hot bed causes. It can be kept 
in a back room or in the attic, and filled with small pots of cuttings and seeds. 
The glass top may be hinged on. But the best designs are, however, thus illustra- 
ted in Figs. 17, 18.. and 19. 

Cold Frames 

Many plants that have grown out of doors all summer, and may be needed for 
blooming in the window during the winter and spring, may be safely hou.sed in 
cold frames. This is a verj' desirable method for keeping a large quantity of 

A frame may be made verj' easily and cheap as follows: Take a sheltered loca- 
tion, protected fi-om the north wind, and well diained, dig down four feet by 
eight — or four bj- twelve is a convenient size. 

Insert at each corner scantling posts, rising six inches above the surface in 
front, and eighteen inches above at the rear; nail boards to the inside of these posts, 
leaving about six inches space between them and theearth,to be filled with manure 
or tan. 

Outside the posts nail boards above the ground, leaving a space to be filled up 
with tan, etc. 

Cover the top with double sashes. Fill in the bottom of (he pit with small 
stones, or bits of charcoal, and throw in a foot or more of tan in which to sink 
the pots. Coal ashes will do as well as tan; they are requiied to secure dryness, 
warmth and ventilation. 

When the cold weather comes on, cover the sashes with straw mats or 
carpeting — and bank up the pit with tan or manure — put a good embankment 
about the whole pit. 

Place the plants in the pit, in the autumn, and let them have as much air as 
possible in mild days, covering closely, in cold nights. 

The chief care is to give fresh air in sufficient quantities, and to protect in se- 
vere weather from frosts. / 

Rose,?, Geranilims, Salvias, Fuchsias, Heliotropes, etc. can be kept quite safely in 
such a pit, an^be ready to force in the windows or conservatory by March 


When warm days occur the saslies can be uncovered, and the sun allowed tc 
shine through the glass on to the plants, but until February it is better to keep 
them in darkness, and not admit fresh air oftener than once in two or three 
weeks. Do it when the air is most genial, and raise the sashes only long enough 
to inspect the plants, and if very dry give a little water. 


Window Pots, Boxes, Jakdixiekes, asu Pr^Axr Stands. 

Glazed poUs are not as good to grow 
jilaiils ill as the real i)ottery,on accomiL 
of tlieir want of j)orosity, which is a 
great help in watering, evaporation and 
aeration; likewise their saucers are 
soiiietinies fas :ened to them, and are 
liable to fill with earth, clog up the 
outlets, and are not easil}-^ cleaned. 

The earthen pots are casilj' cleaned 
and plants thrive much better in them, 
tlian in fancy china or glass ones. Stil! 
tliese last are often desirable for room 
decoration, and many very handsome 
ones are made, which can be used by 
simply setting the other common jjot in- 
side, and if there is an}' vacant space betw cen, U »n i} bo fllKil up wuli mo-s 

The size of the i)Ot should be in unison with tliL ■-i/e of the j.l mt , ihi mn-i <cin- 
venient ones to handle, may measure 
from five to seven or eight inches 
top. Yet if any have extensive window 
garden.s, they will need all sizes, frmn 
3, 4, 5, and G inches diameter, up to 
eii,dit inclies — some for propagating pur- 
poses, others for shifting into, fiom 
smaller sizes. Saucers of course, of the 
proper sizes, should fit each pot. 

A new pot should be placed in a ])ail 
of water to soak, and expel the dry air 
from the pores, and an old pot .should 
be carefully washed both inside and 
out before use. Pieces of charcoal 
broken up fine should be put into the 
bottom of each pot to the depth of 
about two or three inches; less of course in l?ie smaller sized p 


As the pots become filled with roots, the plants must be shifted into a size 
laigcr, and when these are filled, again repotted into others. 

Tt is eas}-- to find when to repot the plants, by running a broad bladed table 
knife around the inner edge of the pot, and turning it bottom side upwards over 
the hand ; the ball of earth readily slips out, and the roots are disclosed to view. 
If yon suspect there are worms in the soil, their presence can be detected, 
by the fact that they soon come to the surface to know the cause of the disturb- 
ance, and then they can be destroyed. 

The soil should be frequently stirred about the surface of the pots, and for this 
purpose a good sized hair pin or two-tined foik are good instruments. The for- 



^4' W V V ^^^ vl 

Fig. 25. Fij. 21-,. 

iriOr is best as its prongs are so small, raking up the earth without distuibinj; 
greatly the tiny rootlets. 

In potting or repotting it is needful sometimes to cut back the plants, and when 
it is done, due deference must be paid to their shape, thinning out the branches 
so that they will be in good form, for the beauty of the plant is greatly depend- 
ent upon this. 



^f I f-X\ 

Fi.cjs. 21 it 22 arc very neat pots 
. .adc of pottci y w;i re nearly wliite, 
glazed on tlie outside, and intended 
to holrl inside the common pots of 
earthen ware. Most of the llorists 
Iiave them as tiiey arc quite orna- 
mental and arc becoming popular. 
Their price is from SI. 50 to §2.50. 

An objection has been raised to the 
common pots, that they soon become 
dirty and covered with mould ai.d 
rust, and need considerable care to 
keep clean. The onl}' remed}' is con- 
stant scrubbing. And it is impos- 
sible to have a thoroughly porous 
well drained pot, without its siiles 
becoming in time old and sour ; at- 
tempts have been made to paint them 
with ochre, or red whitewash, but 
it soon rubs off and is disagreeable. 
To combine ornament with, the 
one must be placed inside the other. 

There is a st3ia of mountable ilower 
pot, now used somewhat by 
llorists, made of separate slabs ol 
wood joined together with llexible 
hinges. (See Fig. 23.) Tlie advan- 
tages claimed for it, are that it cm 
be talcen to pieces and adjusted, that 
])lants can be easily transplanted 
without disturbing the soil or injur- 
ing the roots. With small window 
gardens it would not be needed ; but 
in the case of very large conservatory 
plants, where a diameter of two feet i-iy. ia 

is required it might be found useful, as the plant might need examination to per- 
fect the drainage, or remove the soil and replace with fresh compost. The wires, 
as shown in the engraving, are moved down or up for tightening or loosening, so 
that any one can make them. Tliere are several styles of pots, square, and made 
of prettily ornamented pieces of wood, (Figs. 25 & 20,) so simple that they need 
no explanation. The same designs have been copied in glazed ware with variou.s 
colors and arc accessible to any one who will visit the horticultural stoi-es, or 
those places where the most tasteful pottery and household ware is kejit for sale. 






An cxceedingl)' ornamental design for a ilower pot for a drawing room is shown 
in (Fig. 27,) made of Minton tile, the ground work of which is dark blue and the 
flowers white. All such decorative pots impart a pleasant tasteful look to any 
room. We would be glad to have them multiplied and constantly improved 
Fig. 28, is of the same material, but of various sliades of white, red and green. 

These are fanciful, single or double bo.^es, of more artistic construction than 
the common pot, and intended to bo used for decoration purposes entirely. Many 
are constructed and filled with entirely artificial moss, and imitation plants with 
highly colored leaves, are set therein. Of course little or no interest is felt in them 
after they have been placed in their position, while if they had been natural living 
plants, the very care they daily required would have developed far more love and 
ajjpreciation than the former; still we would not omit either, all do well in their 
proper place. 

h „ Ki^'. 3-*. 

Figs 28 to 34, arc lare ornaments of beauty, e<|K'oialiy 29, 30, 32, which art 
exquisite in their nch coloring and material. They arc construcled of glass 
mosaics, and intended to contain pots of choice plants, hidden with moss, and thuf 
prepared to adorn the window of the drawing room or library. The glass mosaic 
is arranged in designs of richest colors, set into cement of pure white color, and 
the whole hardened and polished to one glistening surface. Some of the designs 
are imitations of snow crystals, and of course are tlie perfection of art. The in- 
terior of tliese pots is lined with zinc, and they may at will hold either plants 
with earth, or be filled with moss and hold cut flowers. The illustrations are 
taken from originals exhibited at one of the Crystal Palace exhibitions m 

Figs. 31, 33, & 34, are sketches of other designs of rustic stands and boxes. 
with the Dracaena, which is a favorite with all fond of the plant decorations v( 





rooms. No. 34, is a ru.stic Tile Jardinet, hexagon shaped 
and 11 to IG inches in diameter. No. 31, is the sanu: 
mounted upon a rustic cedar wood stand. No. 33, is a 
chuia flower with fence patter': made entirely 
round, and from 6 to 14 inches in diama.,er. No. 35, is 
a pretty little idea of a sea shell, fitted to a rustic frame; 
the interior of the shell is filled with compost or moss, 
and fioni it grows a feathery fern. No. 3G, is a rustic 
wood basket, made by an}' one with a taste for mechani- 
cal construction and very simply put together. It is 
suitable for any house, and adapted to any position 
out doois or in doors. Will look best if filled with 
ferns, but when bulbs are in season, till it with 
[V good selection of Hyacinths, Tulips or CroCi.scs, uc- 
Ki^r. 35. cording to the fancy of the fair gardener. No. 37, is 

a rustic vase of ciiciUar outline, intended especially for indoor decoration 
They are \cry cheap; both should be lined with zinc, or else the presence of 
tlie damp earth will cause them to rot. AVhen bulbs are past their spiing bloom- 
ing, then take Ferns or Dracaena, or any plant provided it is not of too great 
height, and must have an agreeable shadnig of color, with ajjpropriate form 
and contour. 


Ki-. .if.. Fig. 37. 

A large number of vari-colorcd floral pots and jardinieres, made of lava, and 
now imported from Europe, can be found of various prices from §1.50 to 
85.00, in any of our fancy china ware and porcelain stores. They are of beauti- 
ful finish, and usually very cheap. 
Some American manufacturers ar^, now producing designs in terra cotta -which are 

wj.yuuw GAL'jjKA/.ya- 


pleasing. Fig. 40, is used both as a hyaciiitli or bulb 
pot, or as a bouquet holder, the interior being pi'c- 
viously filled with sand. The sizes vary from twelve 
to eighteen inches high, and consist of from thiee to 
five apertures for placing the bulb. They aie usually 
well drained beneath. 

Fig. 39, is a rustic pot of about nine inches high, 
resting upon a dolphin base six inches high. Tiie sides 
of the pot are ornamented with a grape vine running 
around, and clusters of leaves and fruit. 

Fig. 38, is a wall ivy basket about eight inches high, 
and proportionate height, intended to hold earth and 
a plant of Iv}', which will grow and clamber up either 
the sides of tlie room, or over the door if the pot is 
hung near. Two pots of the same design, might be 
very appropriately hung, one on each side of a win 
dow out doors, and the Ivy as it grew, be trained grace- 
fully over the sides and top or the front of the house 

M''indoic Boxes. 

If the window sliould happen to be in a recess, the sills may be occupied with 
boxes. Almost anything will do if clean. A wooden trough lined with lead or 
zinc, may be constructed to hold a considerable quantity of earth, and here 
climbing plants ma}'- grow and root, and be trained in profusion over the 
entire window The Coboea is often used for this purpose, and after it has 




grown enough to fill the whole window, it may be allowed to hang down in fes- 
toons, forming a natural and graceful screen in any sunny window. Climbing 
vines need considerable care and examination, for they are apt to harbor spiders 
and insects of various descriptions. Likewise, they drop their dead leaves and 
tlovrers, necessitating constant cleanliness. Nothing is so clean and satisfactory 
as the Ivy. Everything in these pots must be regularly watered, and like all 
other pots, precaution must be had as to drainage; all troughs or boxes withoul 
exception should be lined with zinc 

Fig. 4 

Fig. 41 is a design of a window box, constructed by an ordinary carpenter. 
Two boards of common timber eight inches wide, half an inch thick, and three 
and a half feet long, form the side of the box ; the ends are twelve inches wide 
eight inches high, six and a half inches broad. The bottom board is tw^elve 
inches wide, one inch thick, three and a half feet long, and projects about an 
inch beyond the side all around. A tray or lining of zinc was made by the tin- 
man and fitted in. A piece of oil cloth with a pretty pattern, and some mosaic tile 
work was obtained at the carpet score, and tacked carefully to the sides. Monld- 
higs of wood were nailed all round the top, bottom and end, then all tlie wood 
work was stained by rubbing it over with burnt umber and water, and after it 
was dry, a coating of varnish was put on to finish it. 

For filling such a box there is a great variety to choose from ; at one time you 
m.ay use Begonias, at another, Geraniums, with variegated foliage, such as the 
L'elegante. Then at your pleasure you may, in cool weather, change to young 
evergreens, of which Arbor Vitaos, twelve inches high, make the most cheerful 
appearance. During the winter time if you have it in a reasonably warm room, 
you can place seve-al Di'acaenas, the D. tcrininnlis and D. Australia being 
tlie best 

Fig. 42. 

Fig. 42 is of plain tile or glazed earthenware. 

Fig. 43, is of Minton tile more highly decorated, and costing about $15.00. 
The third or Fig. 44, is still more elegant, and represents it as it would appear 
filled with Bulbs, Hyacinths, Crocuses and Tulips. 

The use of these costly window tile boxes is becoming more general i;v(m\ 



year, and tradesmen inform us that the past year alone the demand iu this coun- 
try for these objects of taste has completely trebled. 

Boxes made of plain wood may be ornamented with acorns, as shown in Fig 
45, a design often used for green-houses or staircase windows. Take a mixture 
of acorn and powdered shells, cut all the acorns in half, lengthways, cover the 
box with glue, then lay the acorns flat side down along the edge and bottom 
of the sides, one after the other, and in the open space between, affix them in any 
fantastic plan you like ; then sift the powdered shell thickly all over the box 
between the acorns, and it will soon dry. If you choose, you can vary the 

Fig. 43. 

acorns with cone seeds, and led berries cut m half. Another style. Fig. 46, 
is made in a similar way, excepting oiuy that pine cones are used in place of 
acoTTis, and the edges of the box and its ends, and supports at bottom, are con- 
structed of rustic cedar wood. This pot is filled with a fine collection of Bulbs, 
Hyacinths, Narcissus, Jonquils, Tulips, Crocuses, Snow Drop and Scillas, length 
about three feet, and width about eight inclies. 

There are other very pretty rustic modes of construction. The outside of 
home made boxes, may also be ornamented with white and gray lichens, wet in 
water to make them pliable, then glued on, or fastened securely with thread wire, 
attaching the wire to small brad nails on the inside and outer edge of the box. 

When dry it will have a pleasing appearance. Sections of bark may also be used 
to cover the sides, or wood mosaic introduced ; take the split half of small sticks 
of spruce, maple, oak and birch, arrange them in alternate diamonds, oval and 
square, varying the colors with an artistic eye, and fastening the cleft sticks 
with small brads, which will not be perceptible. "When finished, cover with a 
coat of 

Gum shellac, dissolved in turpentine, or common furniture polish may be used 
foi varnishing. Pine cones are favorites in these box decorations, and sometimes 


are used either whole or are pulled to bits and nailed in regular rows along the 
aboard s 

The preparation of these boxes for plants must be good ; place, first a layer of 
finely powdered charcoal an inch in thickness over the bottom. It acts not only 
as a preventive against mould, but also as a fertilizer, enriching the soil Then 
select your compost, which has been previously described, composed of rich loam, 
sand and forest leaf mould, and decayed barn-yard manure, and fill up to the 

If you are growing bulbs leave out all manures, and use more leaf mould ; see 
that the bottom of the box has means of drainage by a hole, into a saucer or 
dish to receive surplus water. 

Fig. 45. 

In arranging your plants give due heed to height and coloring. The flowers 
which grow the tallest must have the central position, and the dwarfs occupy the 
edges and corners. For drooping vines select the Money-wort, it grows freely, 
and its bright yellow flowers are very attractive. The Partridge Vine, which 
grows so plentifully in all the woodlands, is also desirable, its coral red berries 
adding greatly to its beauty. The variegated and green "Coliseum Ivy," is 

Fig. 46. 

good for this purpose. German and English Ivies are very valuable, growing 
with great rapidity, the former often two or three inches a day. The Convol- 
vulus possesses bright green foliage and exquisite flowers j it is always a favorite 
in window gardening. 

The Cranberry Vine has been overlooked, and deserves especial recommenda- 
tion, both for window boxes and hanging baskets Its prettily cut foliage, pure 


white flowers, and rich scarlet berries, make it very ornamental ; it is easily ob- 
tainable by any one. 

For a good selection to fill' one box for winter blooming, we would proceed as 
follows : 

Place in the centre a winter blooming Fuchsia, either Speciosa with its pink 
waxen petals, and brilliant crimson corolla, which will bloom ten months in the 
year, or Serratifolia, with its corolla and petals of two shades of crimson. 

Next plac9 on each side the Lady Culluin, a variegated Geranium, and the 
United Italy, with its leaves edged with silver. Both of these plants give .- ir- 
let flowers, but as they are grown principally for their leaves, you will nip off 
all buds. Bouvardia Elegans, with its coral, trumpet-shaped flowers, should 
come next ; on the other side, a pink Monthly Carnation, with its rich spicy 

If the proportions of the box will admit, we would also plant Tom Tliumh 
Geraniums, white and scarlet. Then at the four corners, add in the corners 
some of the different varieties of the Chinese Primroses, which bloom almost 
ceaselessly, sometimes eleven months in the twelve; then bring in an Alternan- 
thera, with its brightly veined lance-shaped leaves, and a variegated Sweet A lyssum 
with its white cluster of minute flowers. Bulbs of the Due Van Thol Tulips, or 
Crocuses or Hyacinths, may be added, taking care to sprinkle the holes made 
for their reception with sand, and to cover them with it. Shroud them in fresh 
green moss, so that the leaf buds may not start before they liave taken deep 
root, which will enable them to support and nourish the gorgeous flowers which 
lie embedded in their bosoms. Thus shaded, all will grow, and soon dehght you 
with their fragrance. 

One great advantage of these window boxes consists in the ease with which they 
are watered and cared for; there is no shifting of pots, or other manipulations. 
With a good moist temperature, and protection from frost at night, these box 
gardens will be a constant succession of bloom from early winter to leafy spring 

If proper fastenings are provided, these boxes may be placed out doors, just on 
the window sill, or may have temporary staging erected for the purpose, and 
there be tended and sprinkled without fear of damage to either window or furni- 
ture. Here, in the open air and balmy days of spring and summer, can be grown 
Verbenas, Heliotropes, Fever Fews, Geraniums and trailing vines, like Trades- 
cantia. Moneywort, &c., and there will always be flowers for a bouquet or a but- 

In an eastern or north-eastern window, Fuchsias, Mignonette and Pansies, 
which shun the heat, can be grown to advantage. 

Plant Stands. 

Here again we meet with an endless variety of designs and forms of construc- 
tion. Every conceivable form of taste, has been devised and executed, and we 
are at no lack of convenience, but rather in a quandary, what to chose from so 
many things that are so good. 


Kig. 47.— Design for Plant Staud. 



Fig. 49 is a very pretty little flower basket, made of wire work, painted green. 
It is supported underneath by a frame work of wood, either oak or pine, neatly 
decorated, and having castors attached by the legs, for read}' removal. 

A zinc tray of perhaps four inches depth, is fitted inside the wire, which holds 
all the earth and water, (which all other baskets of this construction should have.) 
A small aperture for the withdrawal of the water, is fitted with a small stop 
cock, which should be hidden from sight. The plants kept in here, are to be 
packed in moss and will, with occasional watering, keep fresh and green upon 
the surface. 

Fig. 48. 

Figs. 50 and 51 are simple stands to be used for the same purpose, or can be 
adapted to the keeping of cut flowers. The top of No. 51, is covered with a 
small movable brass wire grating, the meshes being half an inch square, to sup- 
port the flowers, and keep them in an upright position. 

Fig. 50 is more convenient for preserving small plants, just in bloom, packed 
in with moss. This is, also, covered with wire work of brass. 

Fig. 52 is a plant table, made of any style of wood, the heavier the better. 
It is of considerable depth, and will hold a large quantity of earth, is also lined 



with zinc or copper, and provided with a -waste pipe. Around the top is a has 
iiet work of brass, usually four to six inches in depth. The pots placed inside 
are supposed to be deep enough to reach only to the lower edge of the brass work, 
and covered with moss. Cut flowers, Dahlias, Pinks and Carnations, may be 
placed in here, half of the box having previously been filled with moss, and 

Kig. 49. Fig. 50. 

the rest with sand, into which their stems are pressed. If tlie flowers are taste 
fully arranged according to harmony of colors, thoy will give a pretty effect, and 
the flowers will last several days. 

If it is possible, it will be well to provide all stands used for cut flowers, with 
glass shades which can be removed during the day time, but at nightfall be placed 
over them, both to secure from too cool temperature, and to protect against dust 
which comes from the morning's sweepings. Flowers will also keep fresh longer 
if preserved in moistened sand, than if kept in water alone. 

Fig. 51. Fig. 52. 

Fig. 48 is a plant stand for household use and ornament of more than cus- 
tomary spaciousness. It is constructed either in a full circular form or semi-circle 
to suit the fancy, and will usually fit into the recess of any bow-window. It is 
built of a wire frame, principally with wooden legs and supports. Has the usual 
zinc tray inside, well filled with growing plants. Its size is about four and a 





half feet in diameter, and stands two and a half feet from the floor. The illim- 
tration represents a j t variety of plants within, fully 50 varieties, from Roses 

Rg- 60. Fig. 61. 

and Fuchsias, to Ferns, Coleus, Bulbs and Primulas It is a happy gathering 
of floral treasures. 



Figs. 60 and 61 are two exquisite flower stands, very suitable for setting 

in the parlor window, just under the drooping lace curtains. 

Fig. 61 is constructed of iron, but 
has a basin above filled with sand, in 
which may be grown either bulb or 
cut flowers, placed in moist sand. 

Fig. 60 is a lovely basket of rustic 
work, principally of the same ma- 
terial as that from which our cane 
chairs are constructed. It is filled 
with ferns, drooping plant.s, Smilax, 
and lias a great variety of other 
plants too numerous to mention in 
detail. Such a basket can be easily 
obtained or constructed at any furni- 
ture store, and filled bj' any florist. 

Fig. 02 is of Terra Cotta, delicately 
moulded in the form of a vase rather 
than a plant stand, and filled with a 
profusion of chaiming plants from 
Tulip to Achyranthus, and Snow 
Drop to Fuchsia. 

Every one who wishes to learn the 
best plants for such purposes will find 
full descriptions in Part Two. 

Figs. 53 to 59 need little explana- 
tion. Every one has necessity for 
some plant stands for the pots before 
the window. All these designs are 

constructed of iron or made of wire and in countless patterns and devices. The 

cost is but very moderate, ranging from S5.00 to §25.00. All are easily movable 

and light. 

Pig. 63. 



Pig. 64. 



Ornameutal Parlor Stand 



Tliese are costlj' and mainly afforded onl}'- by the wealthy. As an ornament of 
architectural value, no villa is complete without them, and even the owner of 
the city mansion does not seem well salistied till he has added one of these 
elegancies to assist the look and feeling of taste. 

Usually they are quite costly, and both interior and exterior are highlj'^ decora- 
ted, and as objects of effect on the lawn, or among the shrubbery, they are worth 
all their value in their embellishment of rural art. 

Still, even the person of moderate purse, may have one not very showy, yet 
very convenient, and well adapted to this pui-pose, viz: The keeping of plants in 
larger quantities than the ordinar}'^ space of the window, or parlor garden, and 
also in a better and more successful atmosphere than that of the living room. 

It would take a volume alone to point out all technical details necessary to 
anyone about to build one. For an extensive design, the advice of a horticul- 
tural architect is indispensable, but for home purposes, a design such as any car- 
penter can erect is seen in one of our succeeding plans. 

Conservatories and green-houses are also somewbat distinct in their uses. 
The one is mainly devoted to ornamental purposes, and the exhibition of 
plants in full beauty of growth and bloom, while in the humbler green-house, 
projjagating boxes are the chief furniture used by the gardener, for the produc- 
tion and forcing of his young plants. Still either term is appropriate, and the 
term greenhouse includes both. 

Costly consei vatories are built of iron and glass, more moderate ones of wood 
and glass. In building them, due heed must be given to ventilation. If in small 
home conservatories, they are not well heated, it would be well to have heavy out 
side shutters, so as to be rolled down at night, or double window panes of glass* 
usually a flue from the furnace which warms the house will, in ir.ost lati 
tudes, give sufficient warmth, provided the furnace will keep up a uniform degree 
all night. This, after all, is not regular in large conservatories ; and then the 
only satisfactory mode of heating is by pipes of hot water from a furnace speci 
ally constructed for the purpose. 



If there is danger of frost, and it is feared that the heating arrangements are 
not sufficient, turn all the heat of the furnace into the conservatory. Yet there 
is oti the other hand considerable trouble from having too much heat or light in 
the evening, especially if the conservatory is entered immediately from the draw- 
ing room. 

Houses that are warmed by water pipes, branches of which are allowed to run 
through the conservatory, not only keep up a more steady heat, but affoi-d con- 
siderable moisture to the atmosphere, and are of decided advantage. 

Every Autumn, apply a coat of paint, not only to render it fresh and clear, but 
to fill up all hiding places for insects, and clear them out if perchance they have 
obtained possession, and in September early, put the pots and plants in their 
proper places. It is not desirable that they should remain out later than that. 


Fig. 66. Fig. 67. Fig. 68. Fig. 69. 

For hanging pots up against the side of the house or wall, the floreteen is a con- 
venient little utensil, constructedof adouble iron hoop, bent in the middle at an 
angle of 90° and reversible. Cost is very trifling and made by any blacksmith. 

"When filling your house with plants, clean the pots well, and turn out the balls 
of earth to see that the roots have sufficient room, and are in a healthy state. 

It is well, also, to scrape away the surface soil, and supply fresh compost. 

Give your plants plenty of room, not crowding too thickly, allowing free circu- 
lation of the air, for then it is easier to keep them perfectly clean and healthy 

Heliotropes, Verbenas, Geraniums, and indeed all herbaceous plants should be 
placed as near the glass as possible, as they require much sunlight, while varie- 
gated leaved plants Mignionette, Camellias, Primulas, &c., will not flourish luxuri- 
antly, if the hot sun shines on them at noon day. 

Fig. 70 is a design of a small home conservator}'- attached to the side of a vil- 
lage residence and entered from the parlor. Its length is about eighteen feet and 
width twelve to fifteen, affording all necessary room for a good home plant con- 

Such a house is heated either by a flue from the furnace, supposed to be placed 
in the basement of the house, or there may be a stove placed in depression of 
the floor at one end of the conservatory, and with pipes running from a drum 
length way each side to the other end, and returning to it again, may heat the room 
sufficiently; but there would be nothing to prevent a low temperature at night, 
unless someone could see' that the fire was kept steadily burning. The most 


steady heat would come from the flue of the same furnace which heats the house. 
There aie stands running around each side of the conservatory and a laige 
square one in the middle. 

Tlie cost made by any carpenter, if constructed of wood, will be from ^250 to 
$400, and if he has taste may be richly decorated and painted for that sum. A 
good conservatory could not well be built for a less price. 

For a more elegant design still, we commend Fig. No. 65 of a beautiful form 
of architecture, lofty enough to admit of pa'ms or tall ferns; large enough for 
abundance of fresh air, not close or stifling, and of a character highly ornamental 
for any situation. It is constructed of iron, yet nothing prevents it from being 
made of wood. The glass is in long lengths corresponding to the general style 
of construction. Ventilators in the top are easily opened or closed by pulleys. 

Fis. TO.— A Village House with Small Conservatory. 

There is a door for entering to the drawing room,, one opening upon the 
lawn, with ornamental flower beds laid out along its side; it forms a design of 
rare and pleasing taste. 

For out dooj plant houses separated from the dwelling we show designs of two 

Fig. 73 is still more artistic than the other, elevated upon a parterre embank 
ment and surrounded with evidences of garden embellishments. This, also, is of 


iron, still it may be constructed of wood ; is about twenty feet wide aud 
from forty to fifty feet long; cost not less than $5,000. Most of the green 
houses in this country are now built upon the plan of low curved roofs, which 
afford great economy of space and heat, yet we believe variety and taste will 
admit the use of other styles. Such a one as this is a novelty in this country 

Fig. 71.— Interior of tbeGovernmeut Conservatory at Wasliington, D. C. 

Rarely have we seen any thing like it, presenting as it does a decided look oi 
richness and elegance in the rural grounds of any wealthy villa proprietor. It is 
worth adoption. 



Fig. 72 is intended purely for ornamental purposes suitable for the grounds of 
those of humbler means than they who can afford such rich designs as our last. 

It is a straight roofed span conservatory with cast iron fronts ; sides about four 
feet six inches high with top and bottom ventilation, glazed with twenty-six ounce 
sheet glass, enamel painted throughout with ornamental finish, crestinirs, &c. 
This style of conservatory is set upon a foundation of white stone or granite, 
which gives a fine contrast with the green and shrubbery 

In general the handsomest, lightest, strongest and most serviceable conservato- 
ries are constructed of iron frames, yet few or none are made in this country and no 
one offers them as a specialty. We find nearly all the best styles and designs 
of this character offered only by English horticultural manufacturers. 

In England, nearly every one has either its Window Garden or its green house, 
and scarcely any family of intelligence but knows something of culture and prop- 
agation of indoor plants. 

1 i„' 'I —\ Sm ill Giecnliouse. 

Here we love these delicate treasures dearly and our taste is rapidly developing 
in this branch of rural pleasures, yet the green house is still to many a mystery, 
and seems an enormous expense. If good and suitable designs could be built 
for $100 to S500, their number would be quadrupled every year, and their 
general use be considered a desirable fashion. 

An important consideration in the management of greenhouses is an abundance 
of light. It is quite essential that the conservatory should be placed on the 
sunny side of the house, and that its windows or door should open into the parlor 
or dining-room, and, if possible, avoid planting trees too near to cover it with 
their shade. If the location is southwestern or northerly, much more heat 
will be required ; and both for economy and enjoyment, only one position is 
desirable, and that is southerly. 



" ■ I'll ,1 


Ventilation snould be arranged so that the air will circulate over the tops of 
plants, and not upon the surface of the pots. 

The slope of the roof should be at an angle of 45°, as this has been proved to af- 
ford the greatest amount of heat from the sun's rays. 

A low staging upon which the pots are to be placed, should run all around the 
conservatory, and if it joins the wall, climbing vines may be planted which will 
clamber over it, or brackets may be put up, which will hold pots of drooping 
plants. If tastefully constructed, the floor should be made of tiles with pretty 
patterns, and even various plant boxes may be made of them. 

The plants would flourish better if they were sunk in beds of sand, mould or 
moss, instead of separate pots upon a staging. 

A thermometer is needed in every green-house, in order to regulate the tem- 
perature, and it should hang where it cannot be affected by the ra^'s of the sun- 
The temperature should not exceed 66° by day, nor fall below 45° at night. 

Watering. — Water the plants as soon as the ball of roots begins to dry. This 
will be visible on the surface, or by knocking against the pot. If a full, deep 
sound is heard, there is sufficient water; if a clear, hollow sound, water is 
needed. All plants of a rapid growth, luxuriant leaves, and masses of flow- 
ers, require more watering than others of a delicate habit. Ferns and tropical 
plants must have plenty of water; succulent plants require less water. 

Watering may be done by a sprinkler or syringe, and care must be taken to 
give water to the soil and roots, as well as to the leaves, which, if watered from 
overhead, may often shed it and prevent any from reaching the pots. 

Apply the water either at night, or so early in the morning that the heat of the 
sun will not injure the plants. Let the water stand or drip awhile before wip- 
ing up, permitting the moisture to permeate the atmosphere ; after two or three 
hours the remaining water can be cleared away. 

Steps or a ladder are necessary also, to use in removing plants from the stag- 
ing, and also to assist in watering. Standing upon them a person with a water- 
ing pot can produce a miniature rain, which will tend to keep away all insects, 
and also wash the leaves effectually. 

Once a week give in your waterings a stimulant such as has been mentioned in 
previous chapters 

The plants should also be frequently turned around so as to keep them in good 
shape, and by frequent changing of position all have a chance at the best places. 

All the directions minutely given in former chapters as to culture, propagation, 
potting, repotting, will apply as well to conservatories* as to ordinary window 


For the greater convenience and accommodation of private citizens, lovers of 

plants, or, perhaps, not well instructed gardeners, we give a list of decorative 

plants for greenhouses and conservatories, which are distinguished by masses of 

flowers, fine leaves, interesting habits, and easy cultivation. We do not use foi 


this list any catalogues of nurserymen, nor do we make a collection from books 
or advertisements. We have carefully selected only such plants as are recom- 
mended by long experience in cultivating plants, and thorough botanical knowl- 
edge. Every plant which this list contains is for sale in this country. 

Avoid an unfit composition of every possible or heterogeneous plants ; the 
effect will be very poor. For instance, tropical plants do not mix well with 
plants taken from colder climates. Plants with expanded branches or like hab- 
its, are suitable mainly for standards, for vases, stands, etc. 

Plants of a fine and graceful habit should have a free and light position. Put 
Camellias, Azaleas, Rododendrons, Magnolia grandiflora. Viburnum tinus, Eu- 
genia australis, etc., as soon as they leave ofi" blooming in the background, and 
move in the front row the following : Acacias, Polygala, Metrosideros, Leptos- 
permum, Franciscea, Melaleuca, Edwardsia microphylla, Diosma, and Erica. 

For groups of plants which have a tropical character, place so that they 
may show well: Begonia, Ferns, Lycopodia, Amaryllis, Eucharis, Pepero- 
mias, besides all plants with variegated leaves or thick foliage. For the 
background may be mentioned: Ficus elastica, Cooperi australis. Gardenia; 
Fortuni, Musa, Heliconia, Bambusa, Eugenia lambos, Justicia carnea, cris- 
tata, Porteana, speciosa, etc. He who prefers succulent plants, and intends to 
keep his greenhouse filled with them, will not have much difficulty in arranging 
them, as they can be easily put in little groups, according to size and habit. 

I. List op Plants for a small Conseuvatory, Greenhouse, or Flower- 
Parlor, which is frequently visited by the family or visitors. The temperature ot 
the house is to be temperate at night ; in the day time thermometer may go up a 
little higher, as this will be the case when the sun is out. The situation of the 
greenhouse may be in a southern, eastern, or western direction. 

a. Plants for Standards, Centre op Groups, Stands, Columns, etc. : 
Araucaria excelsa, imbricata, Brasiliensis ; Aralia leptophylla, Sieboldii 
papyrifera ; Chamcerops excelsa, humilis, tomentosa, and stauracantha. 

Bhapis flabelliformis ; Sabal minor, Seaforthia elegans, Chamcedorea lunata, 
Schiedeana, gracilis, desmoncoides : Latania borbonica ; Corypha australis : 
Dracoena draco, Brasiliensis, terminalis,ferrea, Cooperi,. stricta, rubra, congesta, 
australis, indivisa, and Veitchii ; Yucca gloriosa, aloifolia fol. var, flaccida, and 
quadricolor; Uhdea p>innatijida, Senecio Giesbrechtii, Melianthus major; Sola- 
rium Warsceivitzii; Alocasia cucullata, odorata, (arbor ea,) macrorrhiza fol. vat 
Caladium cupreum, (^porphyroneurum,') pictum. 

b. Plants for Decoration in General : 
Azalea indica, best new varieties ; Camelias, best imbricate varieties ; Bhodo- 
dendra, arborea, and hybrida ; Acalypha tricolor; Andromeda floribunda : 
Trimalium fragrans ; Leueopogon Cunninghami; Allamanda neriifolia ; Aph 
elandra aurantiaca, pulcherrima carnea^ superba, Porteana cristata, Leopoldii ; 
Justicia speciosa ; Rtiellia varians ; Eranthemum pulchellum, Cooperi, tubercu 



latum ; Ardisia crenulata, Brexia Madagascariensis , chrysophylla, serrata ; 
Brugmansia sanguinea, florihundn; Comaclinium iantlxinum; Croton pictum, 
variegatum; Cyperus alternifoUusf Panicum pUcatum, fol. var.; CurcuUgo 
recurvata; Aspidistra lurida, fol. var. (Plectogynce) ; Eucharis Candida; Var- 
lota purpurea; Amaryllis vittata varietas; Ficus elastica, Cooper i and aitstra- 
lis; Franciscea latifolia, eximta, hydratigcpformis; Maranta sanguinea, ze- 
brina, vittata; Gardenia citriodora, radicans, Fortuni and florida grandi- 
flora; Mahernia odorata; Hibiscus rasa Sinensis var., double kinds, Cooperi, 
splendens; Inga pulcherrima; Edwardsia viicrophylla; Jasminum Sambac, 
Duchesse d' Orleans, gracile; Lasiandra, splendens, macrantha; Psiditcm Catt- 
leyanum; Magnolia fuscata; Olea fragrans, ilicifolia; Myoporum parvifoUum, 
crystallinum; Eriostemon buocifolius, scabrum, neriifolium, intermedium; 
Medinilla magnifica; Meyenia erecta; Plumbago ccerulea; Calla JEthiopica 
minor ; Tecoma Capensis ; Solanum capsicum, fol. var. ; Vinca rosea and 
rosea alba; Abutilon Thompsonii, venosum floribundum, vexillarum, fol. var.; 
Acacia armata, paradoxa, dealbata, lophanta, pulchella magna, floribunda, mela- 
noxylon, glaucescens, mollisssima, lineata verticillata, vestita; Agapanthus umr 
bellatus; Bambusa Fortunei var ; Bouvardia le>antha, splendens, jasminoides; 
Cassia floribunda; Centaurea candidissima, plumosa, gymnocarpa; Cestrum 
aurantiacum; lochroma tubulosa, Warcsewitzii; Linum trigynum; Chorozema 
ilicifolia, varia; Citrus sinensis, myrtifolius, aurantium, iKibilix (Mandarin;/ 
Clethra arborea; Sparmannia Africana; Clivia nobilis; Cyclamen persicum, 
Coum , repandum ; Cytisus Atleyamus,racemosus; Genista canariensis; Daphne 
indica rubra; Diosma alba, ambigua, eiliata; Echeveria secunda glauca, metal- 
lica grandiflora, sanguinea, racemosa^ gibbiflora; Cotyledon cristatum, orbicu 
lare, rhomboideum: Crassula coccinea, var. kinds ; Rochea falcata; Sempervi- 
vum arboreum fol. var., tabulceforme, canariense, orbicum; Sedum fabaria, tele- 
phiumfol.var, Sieboldii variegata, dasyphyllum; Mesembryanthemum spectabile, 
coccineum, aureum, deltoideum, echinatum; Kleinia repens, ficoidea; Eugenia 
australis; Habrothamnus elegans, fascicularis ; Indigofera australis, decora; 
Laurus Camphora: Melaleuca alba, hypericifolia, decussata, ericcefolia, foliosa, 
lucidida, squarrosa, thymifolia, ovata, linearifolia, speciosa; Phormium tenaxf 
Pittosporum Tobira; Polygala Dalmaysiana, grandis, speciosa; Ehododendron 
Gibsonii, jasminiflorum, Princess Royale, Veitclnanum; Rhopala corcovadensis, 
Schizostylis coccinea; Statice arborea, Halfordii, macrophylla; Veronica An- 
dersoni, imperialis, salicifolia, speciosa floribunda; Libonia floribunda, Centra- 
denia floribunda, grandifolia ; Clerodendron infortunatum, fallax, Balfouri, 
Kaempferi; Coleus, var. kinds ; Heliotropium, var kinds ; Poinsettia pulcher- 
rima; Nandina domesiica; Eogiera cordata; Rondeletia speciosa; Russeliajun- 
cea; Sanchezia nobilis; Scutellaria mociniana; Solandra grandiflora; Aloe 
fimhriata, Tabcrncemontana coronaria fl. pi., Crowea saligna; Diplacus puni- 
ecus floribundus ; Farfugixtm grande; Ligularia Kaempferi fol. var. ; Callis- 
temon semper florens; Begonia ricinifolia, ricinifolia maculata, heracleifolia, ma- 
crophylla, Huegelii, Hernan dicefolia, grandis, Bregei, peltata, Pearcei, manicata. 


hydrocotyledes, Warszewitzii, coccinea, sanguinea, incarnata, odorata, argtjr 
tigma, stigmosa, smaragdina, Bex var. hybrides, Sedenii, Weltoniensis,Bolivi- 

c. Plants for Hanging Baskets, Flower Stands, Lamps and Can- 
soles, ETC.: 

Leucophyta Brownii, Vinca major fol. var. ; Mesembryanthemum cordifolium 
fol. var. ; Crassula spathulata; Sedum carneum variegatum ; Cerastium tomen- 
tosum, Biebersteinii ; Tropeeolum majus fl. pi. ; C lematis azurea grandiflora, 
lanuginosa, Jackmanni ; Ficus stipularis (repens) ; Gelsemium nitidum ; JEs- 
chinanthus zebrinus, grandiflorus ; Tradescantia zebrina, Warscewitzii ; Saxir 
fraga sarmentosa, Sieboldii fol. var.; Clorophyton Sternbergianum ; Lonicera 
hrachipoda aureo-reticulata ; Solanum jasminoides ; Isolepis elegans ; Jbra- 
garia indica ; Euonymus radicans ; Ajuga reptans fol. var. ; Glechoma hede- 
racea fol. var. ; and var. species of Selaginella. 

d. Plants for Festoons, Columns, and for Decorating Walls, etc. 

Passiflora actinea, ceerulea, racemosa, eduUs, insignis, quadrangular is, kerme- 
sina, Loudoni, trifasciata, princeps ; Tacsonia splendens, Van Volxemii ; Rhyn- 
chospermum jasminoides, obtusifolium variegatum ; Cobaea scandens fol. var; 
ATcebia quinata ; Stephanotis floribunda ; Pilogyne suavis ; Bignonia venusta, 
speciosa, australis, Latrobea ; Tecoma jasminoides rosea ; Mandevillea suaveo- 
lens ; Phaseolus Caracalla ; Physianthus albeun; Thunbergia laurifolia, gran, 
diflora ; Mikania scandens (^Senecio micanoides) ; Tropeeolum pentaphyllum, 
tricolorum, speciosutn ; Pharbitis Learii, ficifolia, insignis, palmata ; Mauran- 
dia ; Lophospermum ; Bhodochyton volubile. 

e. Ferns for General Decoration which require a moderate Tem- 
perature : 
Acrostichum alcicorne (Platycerum) ; Adiantum tenerum, condnnum, cunea- 
turn, formosum, pubescens, trapeziforme ; Anemia villosa ; Aspidium molle, 
violascens, Kaulfussia ; Asplenium flabellifolium, palmatum ; Blechnum aus- 
trale, Brasiliense ; Cyafhea medullaris, australis ; Cyrtomium falcatum ; Da- 
vallia Canariensis ; pixidata ; Dioiksonia australis, antarctica, umbrosa ; Doo- 
dia caudata ; Doryopteris palmata ; Polypodium aureum ; Gymnogramma 
chrysophylla, Peruviana ; Lastreea elegans ; Lomaria gibba,latifoUa ; Nepliro- 
lepis exaltata, tuberosa ; Oleandra neriifolia; Pteris, longifolia, serrulata 

II. — Plants for Greenhouses, Conservatories and Flower Saloons, 


northern exposure : 

a. Plants for the general decoration . 
Rhododendron hybridum, var. kinds; Azalea Indica, var. kinds; Azalea 
amoena ; Kalmia latifolia ; Phoiinia serrulata; Aucuba Japonica, new var.; 


Tlcx aquifolittm, fol. var. ; Mespilus pyracantha ; EticaJyptus, var. kinds; An- 
dromeda floribunda ; Kassandra canaliadata, speciosa, pulverulenta, etc.; 
Erica arhorea, Mediterranea, hibernica, strigosa, herbacea, muUiflora ; Crypto 
meria Japonica, elegans^ araiicaroides ; Cedrus argentea (Afiicana) ; Cupres- 
sus semper virens, fimebris ; {Thuja') Biota fiUformis ; Ketinospora, var. kinds ,- 
Fagus antarctica, Cunninghami ; Laurus regalis, nobilis ; Neriuyn oleander ; 
OleaEurop(Ba ; Viburnum tinus, macrocephalum, suspensus ; Magnolia grandi- 
flora ; Bambusa 3feta7ce, falcata ; Polygala rhamcebuxis ; Bhuscus andro- 
gynus, racemosus, hypoglossum, hypophyllum, aculeatus ; Abelia floribunda ; 
Arbutus nnedo, andrachne ; Vodocarpus elongatus, neriifolius, laiifolius, 
elegans; Berberis Baricinii, dealbata, Fortunei, ilicifolia, macrophylla, Japonica : 
Buddlea globosa ; Ceanothus azureus : Melia Azedarach, Pistacia Untiscus ; Vi- 
tex agnus-castus ; Cerasus lauro cerasus ; Ceratonia siliqua ; Cistus roseus; 
formosus, ladaniferus, iMsitanicus, grandiflorus ; Leicesteria formosa ; Coro- 
nilla glauca, fol. var ; Daphne Fortunei, laiireola, alpina, collina, cneorum ; 
ElcBagnus reflexa ; Escallonia floribunda, grandiflora ; Eurya Japonica, fol 
var.; Sl'imviia Japonica ; OphiopogonJaponicus, spicatum, Jaburan; Euony- 
tnusJaponicus, fol. var. ; Juniperus Be^-miidiana ; Bhamnns alatemus, fol. var. ; 
Phormium tenax ; Genista tinctoria, fl. pi. ; Helianthemum, var. kinds; Hype- 
ricum calydnum ; Jasminum revolutum, lucidum, WaUichianum ; Ligustrum 
lucidum, fol. var.^ Japonicum, fol. var.; Mahonia Japonica ; Myrica Califor- 
nica; Osmanthus fimbriatus ; UlexEuropcea ; Y?<cca and J^^/atJe, var. kinds ; 
Pinus lanceolatus ; Pernettya floribunda ; Stuartia peniagyna ; Libocedrus Chi- 
lensse, nuciferus, Calif ornicus ; Magnolia conspicxia. 

b. The following Plants mat serve for nsiGHTENmo the effect of 
Flowers in the Winter-time and Spring : 

Polygonatum stellatum, verticillatum, multiflorum ; Doronicum Caucasicum , 
Adonis vemalis, Dicentra spectabilis, Corydalis aurea, nobilis ; Lindelophia 
spectabilis ; , Omphalodes verna ; Cyclamen Europceum ; Anthericum Liliago ; 
Dodecatheon Meadia, Jeffreyi; Dianthus, var. kinds; Nardosmia fragrans, 
{Tussilago) ; Funkia, fol. var.; Gentiana acaulis ; Primula cortusoides ; Hel- 
leborus niger , Hepatica triloba, angulosa ; Iberis sempervirens ; Jns, var. kinds; 
Hyacinths ; Na7-cissus ; Crocus ; Tulips ; Muscari ; Galanthus ; Colchicum ; 
Leucojum vernum ; Trillium grandiflorum ; Orobus vernus ; Paonia tenuifolia ; 
PulmonariaVirginica, saccharata ; BamondmPyrenaica ; Erinus alpinus ; Solda- 
nella alpina, minima ; Bhexia Virginica ; Sanguinaria Canadensis ; Saxifraga 
ligulata, Sibirica, crassifolia, cordifolia ; Spigelia Marylandica ; Primula acau- 
lis, fl. pi. ; Viola, var. kinds ; Lychnis Haageana, Sieboldii. 

e. Climbing and Hanging Plants for a house with a low tempkba 


Adlumia cirrhosa ; Tropceolum pentaphyllum ; Akebia quinata ; Various kinds 
of Clematis; Ampelopsis Veitchii , Bignonia capreolata ; Hedera (Ivy) var 



kinds ; Lonicera Japonica, grata, semperfllorens , Irachypoda aureo-reticulota, 
Cissus antarctica ; JRubus roscpflorus, fl. pi. ; liosa sempervivens, Banksia, 
Thea, Noisette, vmltiflora, Fortunei ; Gaiiltheria procumbens ; Vinca minor, 
var. kinds ; Phlox verna, repens, setacea, Lysimachia nummularia ; Lmnea bo- 

d. Ferns which can have a low temperature : 
Adiantum capillus Veneris, pedatum ; Asplenium fontanum, marinum, ruta- 
muraria, viride ; Athyrium filix-foemina, flexuosum, ladniatum, plumosum ; 
Blechnum boreale (oeeidentale), spicant (JLomaria) ; Cystopteris bulbifera ; Ono- 
clea sensibilis ; LastrtBa filix-mas, rigida, dilatata, Goldiana ; Lomana Magel' 
lanica, alpina ; Osmunda regalis, cinnamomea ; Polypodium vidgare, alpestre ' 
Polysticlmim aculeatum, angulare, acrostichoides ; Scolopendrium officinarum 
(vulgare') ; StruthiopferisGermanica _; Cyrtomium falcatum. 

e. Finally, we add a small list of Orchids, or air-plants, for amateurs, who 
may cultivate them in a green house or flower saloon of a moderate temperature. 
The following species are free bloomers, not very tender, and easily cultivated : 

Dendrobium nobile ; Cattleya Mossioe, labiata, Skinneri, guttata, Perrinii , 
Laelia majalis, autumnalis, superbiens ; Calanthe veratrifolia, vestita rosea; 
Cypripedium barbatum, insigne, venustum ,- Epidendrum ciliare, fragrans ,■ 
Gongora maculata ; Maxillaria tenuifolia, Harrissonice, picta ; Oncidium pu- 
pilio, roseum, piduratum, aynpliatum, flexuosum, luridum ; Odontoglossum 
grande, pulchellum, Uro- Skinneri, Inslenyi ; Lycaste aromatica, Deppii, Skin- 
neri ; Stanhopea tigrina, saccata, oculata,gtittulata, insignis ; Schomburgkia 
crispa ; Adneta HumJwldtii, longiscarpa ; Zygopetalum Mackayi, crinitum , 
Phaius grandifolius (Bletia Tanker villicE, LimodorunC) ; Peristeria alata ; Mil- 
tonia Candida; Ccelogyne cristata, Trichopilia tortilis ; Cymbidium aloifolium, 
ensifolium; Bletia hyacinthina 



Pig. I.— Oesisa for Ornamental Hangtng BasKet. 

CI£^r>TlLJEl X. 

Hanging Baskets. 

Hanging Baskets form our simplest and also cheapest style of window orna- 
ment. They need very little care, their demands are not very exacting, and 
the chances of failure are very much less than plants of more sensitive nature, 
fit only for careful pot culture. The Hanging Basket is supposed to be a modern 
invention, or, at any rate, not very popularly used until late times ; hence, it 
strikes us with feelings of curiosity to learn that, in the observance of the 
Jewish rural festivals hundreds of years ago, plants and cut flowers were taste 
fully arranged, placed in vases, and suspended from the branches forming the 
roof of the leaf-covered tabernacle. This was made of the branches of the 
oak, cedar, palm, and willow, so cut as to prevent them from withering for 
seven days, while the Passover was celebrated. 

The directions for culture are very simple : Choose as pots or baskets clay 
bowls of porous ware, which may be set inside either a wire or wooden frame, 
or a glazed vessel. In non-porous pots or vessels, plants will not grow to per- 
fection ; there is usually no outlet or drainage for the surplus moisture to 
escape, and all side ventilation or aeration is cut off. Hence, the soil becomes 
sodden, and the roots are liable to decay. After you have provided your bas 
kets, then fill the bottom to the depth of an inch or two with small bits of 
charcoal, for the triple purpose of drainage, purification, and as a fertilizer. 
Charcoal dust is also desirable to mix with the soil. A coarse sponge might be 
put in, if the vessel is deep, to drink up the surpl as moisture, and yet keep the 
soil moist by giving it out again when dry. You do not need a very rich soil; 
good garden soil is well enough ; because, if too rich, your plants will grow too 
rapidly for grace and beauty, and run too much to stem. Climbing or drooping 
vines may run as much as they please ; the more freely the better, as it is the 
very thing desired; but standard plants in baskets must not be stimulated 
much; they would outgrow their space. 

Sand is a needed ingredient ; at least one third the soil should be composed 
of " scouring sand." Mix it well with dark loam and leaf mould. The soil 
from around pine trees is most excellent for your baskets ; in fact, there is none 

If the baskets become very dry from the excessive heat of the sun, it is best 
to place them in a dish of water for half an hour. Thus treated, the roots suck 
up a copious supply, and need not receive any more for two or three days. 


Plants do not thrive luxuriantly in baskets, year after year, with soil or 
position unchanged ; hence, it is well to renew them every autumn, for healthier 
plants will be the result. 

In the summer time, when the rooms are closed against sun and flies, there 
is not light enough to keep the plants healthy, and then they should be hung 
in the shade of the porch or piazza, or under the trees. 

Hanging Baskets, provided with the charcoal and the sponge in the bottom, 
need not have a hole for drainage, for these will supply their place. 

Plants of very watery tissues, usually grown in the neighborhood of ponds or 
woodland streams, will do best in soil transplanted from such location; but ordi- 
nary leaf mould will answer for almost everything. 

It is a good plan to keep a good reserve supply of soil at hand in a heap, ready 
at any time you may desire to make a new basket, fill a new pot, or change the 
plants in either. 

When you are potting the plants into any vessel, press the soil well down 
around the plants, and never use wet soil ; let it be well dried and friable 

Watering should be carefully administered, for few know what to give their 
plants, how to give, or when. An hour's neglect or forgetfulness may blight 
the entire beauty of your basket ; or, again, an overflooding in a hot, dry room 
may cause them to mould. 

Whenever they are watesred the whole of the soil in the pot should be weL 
wetted, and the frequency of watering depends upon the temperature of the air ; 
the warmer the room the more frequently will they need it. Usually once a 
day, in the early morning or previous evening, is suflScient, if the thermometer 
measures 45° to 65°; if over that, and averaging 60° to 80°, twice a day, watei- 
ing moderately, will be suflBcient. In winter time do not apply cold water ; 
either use it of same degree as that of the room, or bring your dish of water in 
the room and let it stand an hour or two before applying. More damage than 
a little is done by applying too cool water, giving the tender plant a severe chill. 
If the surface soil cakes any, break it up frequently, and keep a good watch 
for insects. 


The devices for making hanging baskets are nearly endless. Our florists offer 
a great variety of patterns ; our wire manufacturers offer some pretty designs, 
and our pottery and tile merchants have equally attractive models of elegance 
and beauty. Choose anything you like, only we recommend to you not to get 
them too small. We would select nothing less than eleven or twelve inches in 
diameter, and six inches deep. Let the soil be filled in even with the edge of 
the rim, and then rise toward the centre like a small mound. If there are but 
one or two large plants in the basket, cover the surface of the soil with moss, 
which will retain the moisture in the soil, needing watering only at occasional 
intervals ; the moss from trees is not as desirable as that usually found growing 



IHg. I.— Trailing Morning Glory— CoutoIvuIub Maurltanlcun. 



on the grouiul in some low, moist place, near a swamp. Pots of lava, or non 
porous material, without a hole at the bottom for drainage, must be used onl)' 
for holding other and more porous pots inside, the insterstices being filled with 
moist moss Very pretty wire baskets are found at some of our stores; and 
these, being open, must be filled with moss first, and then a little soil in the cen- 
tre, and the plants added afterwards 

Fig. 3. 

Large sea shells, (nautilus or conch,) will hold soil enough to support trailers, 

and are usually very tasteful window ornaments. One of the prettiest baskets 

ever seen was made from a singe sea shell, quite large. Holes were bored 

through the edge to fasten cords to hang it by ; the interior of the shell was 



filled with light, rich soil, 
and Lycopodiums and Lo- 
helias were planted in it. 
The rind of the gourd, and 
of the scallop squash, niako 
elegant baskecs for drooping 
plants. Cocoanut shells, 
whether in their natural 
state or embellished, with 
rustic work around, are ac- 

Home-made baskets of 
wooden bowls, (such as we 
use in our kitchens,) are 
very common and desirable. 
Four or five holes should 
be bored with a gimblet in the 
bottom or the sides of the 
bowl. The best sizes are 
12 to 16 inches in diameter, 
and if there are no rustic 
arm supports, there must 
be several holes bored 
around the ed e, in which 
to fasten the cords it is supported by — three are enough. To ornament the 
outside of the bowl, choose the gray and white lichens of the woods, fasten 
them on with glue, or nail on with small brads. If the stiff mosses fiom 
the pine woods are used, they can be wet with water, which renders them 
pliable, and fastened on with thread copper wire, nailing nails on the inner 
edge of the bowl and at the bottom, around which to twist the wires. The 
contrast between the gray and white moss, and the rich emerald or brightly 
variegated vines, is very beautiful. Such a basket, if planted with nothing more 
than the Tradescantia zebrina, and the green leaved variety of the same plant, 
•ningled with soft hanging grasses, or the bright green of the Moneyicort, would 
be very pleasing. City residents, of course, will not desire to make their own 
baskets, but prefer to get them filled from the most convenient florist. "We intro- 
duce several very pretty designs, which deserve to be copied. 

Fig. 1, is a design for a hanging basket of more than usual elegance, and is a 
specimen out of many favorite styles prevalent among the well-to-do classes o. 
Berlin, Germany. The box is made of handsomely carved wood, the inside lined 
with zinc or clay; the basin is filled with earth, and in it are planted Begonias, 
Caladiums, Coleus, Geraniums, Ivy, Ornamental Grasses, Calla Lily, and quite 
% variety of other flowers. The size is about two feet wide by three and a half 



feet long. WoisluJ cords and tassels help out the richness of the frames, and 
the biilliant hues of the foliage of the plants within. Few or no hanging baskets 
we have seen can equal this for artistic taste. 

Fig. 2, is an illustration of a large, deep basket, filled with a dense growth 
of the Convolvulus Mauritanicus. This is a highly ornamental plant, of droop- 
ing, half shrubby character, slender habit, with a profusion of elegant light blue 
blossoms, upward of an inch in width, forming an admirable plant for suspended 
vases or baskets. It continues long in bloom, and its porcelain blue blossoms 
are conspicuously beautiful. 

Fig. 5.— Group of Ferns. 

Fig. 3, is a picture of the Convolvulus drooping over the sides of a rustic 
carved hanging basket. The outside framework is wood, but contains a clay 
bowl sitting neatly within. The Convolvulus family afford many very desirable 
plants for baskets of this description. One lady cultivator goes so far as to say 
that the common Morning Glory is one of the most satisfactory plants .she ever 
cultivated. "The vine, by house culture, becomes delicate in form, and is very 
thrifty. The flowers, a little smaller than the Convolvulus tri-color, appear every 
moiTiing, and remain until nearly nignt. Seeds planted in early spring, say 
March, will flourish and bloom in less than six weeks." This family generally 



are free bloomers, very showy, 
and have exceedingly handsome 
flowers, with rich colors. 

Fig. 4, is a sketch of a pretty 
wire basket, filled with Ivy and 
Ferns ; branches of the partridge 
vme hang over the sides of the 
basket ; the interior is filled with 
moss, and over tliem all peep out 
clusters of exquisite ferns. The 
stems of the Ivy and the part- 
ridge vine ate all stuck into bot- 
tles tilled with water, and liid 
away here and there in the moss. 
Tlie ferns had all been gathered 
from the woods, and then pressed 
out smooth and clean, and ar- 
ranged gracefully, their stems 
standing in the water of the bot- 
tles ; the bottles are filled with 
water every two or three days. 
The Ivy has also grown from 
only two or three little slips stuck! 
into the water, and has twined 
its arms around and above the 
cords of the basket, clear to the 
very top. 

Fig. 5, is a group of Ferns of 
great variety, gathered into a 
wire basket of neat and simple 
design. In the centre of the 
group is one of the Draccenas, 

having leaves of a brilliantly Fig. e.-Fiowtr Basket, 

shaded dark crimson — a class of plants always very handsome. 

Springing out of this is the Goniophlebium mbauriculatum, with its long 
primate pendulous fronds; the Cheilanthes upectabilis, which delights iu moist- 
ure, warmth, and shade; other Ferns, such as the Maiden's Hair, (Adiantum,) 
usually of large growth. The Athyrium, and many of the Spleenicorts, (Asple- 
nium,) arc introduced here to form one of the finest st)'les of natural Hanging 
Baskets we can suggest for imitation by our readers. 

Fig. 6, introduces a style of basket very suitable for bulbs. It is made of 
wire, and the interior is lined with zinc. There is a small vessel beneath to 
hold drippings frcm the ho'? for drainage. Zinc vessels are not always perraa- 




nent ; in time they corrode, and must be renewed Clay or wood are preferable. 
The plants herein are several Hyacinths, Tulips, Crocuses, Lily of the Valley, 
&c. The directions for the starting of these bulbs and their culture has already 
been explained in the chapter on bulbs. 

Fig. 7.— Ornamental Hanging Baskets. 

Fig. 8, is a Conservatory Basket, of lava ware, made unusually deep. The 
plants herein placed are Dracaenas, Crotons, Indian Ferns, Niphobolus pertu- 
sus, and N. rupestris ; also the Variegated Panicum. Ivy droops over the 



Fig. 9, is an ornamental hanging pot of 
lava or Majolica ware, covered with droop- 
ing vines. The most popular favorites for 
drooping vines are the Nasturtium, Tro- 
paeolum, Convolvulus minor, Honeysuckle, 
Trailing Mesembryanthemum. The cen- 
tre may also be occupied with low grow- 
ing plants, like the Verbena, Heliotrope, 
Petunias, Neniophilas, Lobelias, Mimu- 
lus, &c. 

Fig. 10 is a sketch of the Sedum Sie- 
boldii, a plant of very easy growth, and 
does best when kept in the greenhouse 
or conservatory. The soil most suitable 
is light, yet rich. Say turfy loam, 1 
part ; rotten dung, 1 part ; sand, 1 part ; 
brick broken small, 1 part. It should be always under glass exposed to the full 
daylight, and have abundance of water. It is naturally a trailer, and will 
droop gracefully over the outsides of the pot, and will bloom most profusely. 
It should be watered carefully, so that no water will get on the leaves. Give it 
fresh air frequently. The habit of growth of the Sedum Sieboldii is very 
peculiar. From one central 
crown or stool appear a num- 
ber of slender branches; at 
regular intervals come the 
leaves in groups of three, and 
these continue to lengthen un- 
til in the month of August, 
when flower buds appear at 
the terminals of each branch. 

The average growth of good 
specimens is about one and a 
half feet long, and the flowers 
have a spread of nearly six 
inches. As described by Shir- 
ley Hibberd : " In every stage 
of growth the plant is a beau- 
tiful object, the leaves being Fig. 9. 

slightly concave on the upper surface, and covered with a delicate glaucous 
bloom. The flower-buds appear a long time in advance of the flowers, but 
when at last these open in September, their lively, rosy, pink hue and symmet- 
rical disposition are remarkably beautiful, and contra.-st chastely and cheerfully 
with the peculiar tint of the leafaee. After the blooms have faded the stems 


die down, and are immediately succeeded by a new growth from the root, and 
thus, if encouraged by good culture, a specimen will become larger and larger 
every year, and may ultimately be grown to colossal dimensions. It is one of 
the easiest plants to grow, and its habit is remarkably distinct and elegant." 

Fig. 11 is a plant of the Variegated Ivy. This is both cheap, clean, needs 
little attention, grows rapidly, and is the most permanently attractive of all 
plants for the window. Were there no other plant than this in the window it 
might still be considered well furnished. 

Kig. 10.— Sedum Sieboldii. 

Fig. 12 is a sketch of tlie Saxifraga Forhmei Iricolor. 

Fig. 13 is a sketch of a bracket, with a wooden bowl, holding a plant of the 
Sedum Sieboldii trailing from it. This can be easily attached to the sides of the 
room, fastened to the centre of the window frame. It is very suitable for the Ivy 
either to trail from, or it may be placed at the bottom of the window, and the 
vine trained upward along the window casing. 

Home-Made Hanging Baskets. 
Nearly every one appreciates best some basket made by their own handrf 



ig. n. 
those for sale by any 

Usually only ordinary taste is re- 
quisite to contrive some very agree- 
able designs, and only a few hours' 
labor are needed. So wo will give 
suggestions of how to make some 
Horae-Made Hanging Baskets of 
handy and inexpensive materials. 

For trimming the outside of some 
wooden bowl the roots of the laurel 
are very suitable, also those of the 
briar rose, which grows so plenti- 
fully near the woodlands and in fence /vi^ 
corners. They are very crooked ^^ 
and gnarled, but when thoroughly 
cleansed from soil they can be nailed 
upon these bowls in grotesque and 
picturesque forms. A coat of copal 
varnish laid over the whole will often 
make the basket possess as handsome an appearance aj 

The boughs and roots of the wild grape vine supply materials for this style of 
rustic ornamentation. Do not remove the bark unless it is very ragged, and 
then tear it away carefully, not taking more than is needful. By peeling in 
this way the stem will be vari-colored. If a darker hue than the natural wood 
IS preferred, take two ounces of gum asphaltum and dissolve it in half a pint 
of turpentine or coal oil. Apply the stain with a common j)aint, putting 
on two coats if it is not dark enough at first. 

A simple rustic basket may be made of three forked branches of any old 
tree, the more thickly bestudded with little branchlets, and the more gnarled 
and mossy, the better. Get those with drooping gray beard moss, if possible. 
The .sticks should be less than an inch in diameter, and .six or eight inches in 
length. Unite the three forks by their heads, winding them with very strong 
twine or pliable wire, and then, with the same material, fasten the branchlets 
here and there, to form a sort of lattice-work, and wind the gray moss over all 
fastenings. Then, in the same way, attach stout cord for handles. Set in this 
a common clay pot with its saucer, crowding around it plenty of moss, and you 
have a pretty thing complete. 

Some persons take the common wire baskets, and make an improvement by 
surrounding them with strips of pasteboard. This is completely covered by 
pasting or glueing upon it gray or green lichens, with a few bits of the creep- 
ing moss, and a little of the coral or red cup moss. If none of this last can be 
procured, heat red sealing-wax, and with it touch the rough edges of some of 
the lichens. 

Wire baskets are in general better suited for the conservatory than the par 



Fig. 12. 

lor, because they need 
a good watering two or 
three times a week, and 
will drip more or less 

A very queer Hang- 
ing Basket was made 
by a flower-lover after 
this fashion : A piece of 
board one foot long and 
eight inches wide was 
first selected, then 
around the edges was 
nailed a lath projecting 
about an inch above; 
in each of the cornei'S 
was driven a nail, and 
by means of strings 
tied thereto the basket 
was hung up. In the 
bottom were scattered 
a row of stones of 
moderate size ; then 
they were covered with 

layer of earth ; above this was another row of smaller stones, then a layer 

earth, then sand pebbles, and a final coating of earth over all, forming a 
mound in the centre. Here were planted very small rooted cuttings of trail- 
ng plants, such as the Morning Glory, which soon filled the basket to over- 
flowing. Two plants only will be suflBcient. The Cypress vine will be liked 
for the purpose. Choose five or six plants. The ^ladeira vine is unexcelled 
for such a position. Erect plants should not be chosen, although Verbenas, 
Abronias, and Thunbergias are not objectionable. 

Where shells are used, they may be ornamented with different shades of 
moss, mixing the white mosses with the green as you glue them on. 

The sections of large pine cones will also ornament prettily. Tack them on 
with brads, boring each scale with a brad-awl, so as not to split them. Alter- 
nate the scales, and varnish the whole, and you will be quite satisfied with the 
effect. It can be suspended with red or green curtain cord, fastened through 
holes, as before directed, with bows or rosettes at the top and sides. The cones 
of ths dried burs of the Sweet Gum Tree, if strung together on wire or strong 
twine, as beads are arranged in fancy baskets, make a handsome basket, whose 
rustic appearance is very pleasing. 

The simplest and prettiest of all these constructions is that made from small 
sticks of oak, maple, beach, or other wood, cut in lengths of eight, ten, twelve, 


or more inches, according to the size you desire. They must be about an inch 
in diameter, and a hole should be bored with a gimblet an inch from the end of 
each stick. They are put together in log-house fashion, one stick lopping over 
the other, and a wire with a loop on the upper end is passed through the holes 
at each corner, and bent up on the under side. A piece of board an inch thick 
is then fastened to the sides for a bottom, and the spaces between the stick.T 
should be filled up with moss. Small iron chains suspend such baskets, and 
rich soil from the woods is the best to grow the plants that will twine round 
the chains and wreath them. Ribbons can be used if desired. We have seen 
more than fifty of these baskets suspended from the roof of an orchid-house, 
and the effect was exquisitely beautiful. 

A cocoanut affords a very pietty miniature basket. Leave the husk on, and 

Pig. 13. 

saw off about one-quarter of the nut; dig out the meat, and bore holes through 
ihree sides of it. The stem end is the part to be sawed off. Tie cords into the 
holes. There are many articles lying about every hovise that could do duty for 
hanging baskets. Worn out fly-covers can be lined with moss or cartridge paper, 
and when filled with soil and beautiful plants they produce as fine an effect as 
many a more picturesque affair. We saw one but recently covered with 
the golden flowers of the ]\Ioneywort, mingled with the bright blue of the 
Lobelia, and the Zebra-striped leaves of the Tradescantia, all growing luxuri- 
antly, and making a humble cottage window a picture of grace and beauty. 

Ox muzzles are within the reach of every country girl, and when painted 
green and lined with moss they form most desirable baskets to suspend from 
piazzas or trees. They will hang from the trees all winter, and in the spring th 



hardy vines, Moneywort and Partridge vine, (3IitcheUa repens,') come forth in 
fresh beauty and gracefulness. 

Miniature baskets can be made of a goose or turkey's egg, that are exceed- 
ingly pretty and attractive. Select the largest size, make a hole "with a needle 
at each end, and blow out the yolk and white. Then dip the egg into boiling 
water, and while it is hot cut it in the middle, a little at a time, for fear it will 
crack down too far. Use a pair of small, sharp sissorS. For a covering and 
c rds to suspend it, take scarlet, green, or blue split zephyr worsted, and either 
net or crochet a cover. Use a fine mesh or needle, and make an ornamental 
scolloped edge around the top. Crochet cords, or twist them, of the zephyr, and 
hang the tiny baskets with them. Three baskets can be made and sewed together, 
with a cord attached to the edge of each shell. A dilFerent vine can be planted 
in each egg shell. Use a rich, but rather sandy soil, and the vines will grow 

The same device can be suspended from the chandelier to hold cut flowers, 
or the chains can be omitted and the baskets be used as vases 

Boys or girls who possess any ingenuity can construct these pretty floral 
adornments in their leisure hours. Money is not always required for their man- 
ufacture, nor need those who live in the country apply to the florists for plants 
to fill them; for the fields and woods contain many twining vines that are very 
suitable for them. Almost anything will do for a basket — shells, horns, or any- 
thing that will hold earth, have been used for the purpose. Even turnips and 
carrots can be hollowed out and made to hold pretty little plants — so no one need 
be without these simple floral adornments for parlor or dining-room. 

Plants for Hanging Baskets. 

Our theme is now a more pleasing one, for how infinite, and yet indescribably 
beautiful, are some of the combinations of plants in baskets which we occasion- 
ally see. 

Take, however, from us one general word of advice : Do not crowd in too 
many plants of upright growth. Usually one erect plant of showy, striking 
character, should be used — say a Begonia or a bright flowering Geranium; then 
around this gather your plants, of great variety, but lower and more compact 
growth, and around the edge plant both your climbers and your trailers. If 
your basket is to hang in a northern or eastern window, where the temperature 
is lower than any other exposure, you will have to choose such plants as the 
Lycopodiums, Periwinkle, and Moneywort. They will do well here, for they 
require less sunlight. An Ivy will do well anywhere, so you may consider this 
your safest plant. As we have mentioned before, it is not best to bring your 
plants immediately from the outdoors to the warm air of the living room. Do 
it gradually, by first bringing the basket, after it is filled, into a cool room with 
plenty of light, but not directly from the sun. Here let the plants get well 
started, and after two or three weeks you may bring the basket into the parlor 
or living room. 


In making your choice of plants avoid the costliest favorites of the green- 
house ; i. e., it is better to take something which will thrive with ordinary cul- 
ture. Greenhouse plants need more care than the window-gardener can usually 
give. A healthy floweiing Geranium is more popular with nine out of ten than 
a Camellia, and is in proportion as much easier to grow. 

A great trouble among amateurs is too great a fancy for seed-grown plants; 
i. e., they purchase floiists seeds, and aim to grow their own plants by sowing 
the seed in the basket. It is hardly necessary to say failure is the general rule, 
except in the case of a few climbing plants, which will grow well anywhere. If 
the amateur does not know enough about propagation to grow his own plants, it 
is much better to buy them already started from a good florist. 

The list of plants may be arranged in several very distinct C?, as follows : 

1. Climbing Vines — 

The Tropceolum Lobhianum, flowers plentifully in winter, and its brilliant red 
flowers are very attractive. 

The Morning Glory will grow readily in a sunny window, and its flowers are 
indeed a glory. A small vase can be used to plant the seeds, and it can be sus- 
pended with libbons. 

The vine of the Sweet Potato is very graceful. Quite a good many who have 
admired a basket covered witli its leaves have felt a little chagrined to find it was 
nothing after all but a Sweet Potato vine. The tubers can be set into a glass 
small eriough to keep the root three or four inches fiom the bottom. Fill the 
glass witli water, and place it in a warm room ; give it two or three hours of 
sunshine each day, and in two or three weeks it will begin to grow. All through 
the winter it will continue to develop its glossy green leaves in profusion. The 
Biscorea Batatas is the best species for home culture. 

Among other climbing plants are Senecio scandens, (German Iv\%) a very free 
grower; Loniccra mirea ?'e/?Ci<?rtto, with fine yellow variegated foliage. 

There are no finer plants in general to be used than the Coboeas, Maurandias, 
Lophospermums, and Tropa3olum. The Variegated Leaved Cobaea is a great 
favorite, either to dangle from a basket or clothe a trellis. 

For Brooping or Trailing Plants the list is quite extensive. Lysimachia. or 
Moneyicort — old, and hardly yet superseded. 

Saxifragas, Sedum s, 

Linari'ts, Lobelia, 

Yellow Flowering Gasanias, Tradescantia, 

Miimdus nwscJiatiis, Nierembergia, 

Mimulus tigrinoides, Verbenas, 

Ice Plant, Mesemhrynnthemnms, 

The Partridge Vine, Bew Plant. 

The Strawberry Vine is a rapid runner, with leaves shaped like the strawberry 
but much smaller. Its flowers are white, and its seed-pods are formed of 
bright, cherry-red berries, which render the plant very ornamental. 

The Cranberry Vine has been used for basket purposes with great success ; its 


glossy, bright leaves, pure white flovrers, and bright, coral-hued berries making 
it quite an acquisition to the list of trailing vines. 

The Coliseum Ivy and Smilax are used perhaps more universally than any 
thing else. Q'hey are grown from seed readily. 

The Gazania ^plendens makes a hanging basket exquisite in beauty ; reaching 
down one to two feet from the basket, and blooming ten times better than it does 
in the open ground. 

Among other good trailers are the Ivy-Leaved Geranium, Linaria cymbalaria, 
or common toadflax, Lysimachia, Nummularia Folea, the common Moneywort, 
single Petunias of free habit, Tradescantia bicolor, or zebrina, the purple and 
bronze leaves of which are admirable to mix with the trailing stems of Vinca 
Elegantissima and the variegated Ivies. 

Of the Ivies, Hedera latifoUa maculata is really superb if grown in a poor 
soil, in moderate shade, and abundantly supplied with water all the summer. 

Mesembryanthemums do far better in hanging baskets than in pots, but are 
truly splendid plants when planted in a rich, sandy soil, with plenty of drain- 
age, and fully exposed to the blaze of summer sunshine. A hot, sunny conser- 
vatory is a good place for them. 

Mikania scandens will clothe a basket in a few weeks with its most elegant 
foliage of light green hue, and rich glistening surface. It should be moderately 
shaded, and kept in a cool atmosphere. 

The Polygonum suaves, somewhat like the Dioscorea, is a free growing trailer 
of very neat habit, producing hundreds of little flowers, which emit a powerful 

The Sedum Sieboldii is unsuitable in the open air. When placed in baskets 
and grown under glass, or in the conservatory, it will spread rapidly, bearing an 
abundance of its chocolate-colored flowers, while the glauceous hue of its succu- 
lent leaves presents a most striking appearance 

Plants of Upright Growth. ' 

Here you have a large list to choose from. Usually only one plant should be 
chosen if the basket is of moderate size. If the basket is very capacious, and 
you are bound to have a magnificent collection, you may combine all three 
classes, climbing or trailing plants, or those of upright standard growth. 

You may select any of the numerous varieties of the Fuchsia, with their grace- 
ful, bending drops of bloom. Petunias, single or double. Heliotrope, always 
agreeable for their fragrance. Carnations, sweetly scented, blooming freely 
every month. The Neapolitan Violet, or the modest yet lovely little Chinese 
Primrose. The Cyclamen Persicum, with its curious flowers and valuable 
foliage, the popular Geranium. The Daphne odorata, which will fill your 
room with its sweet odor ; or you may arrange around the edges of the vessel 
some Hyacinths, Crocuses or other bulbs. If you want plants of ornamental 
foliage, you will naturally turn to some of the numerous varieties of graceful 
Ferns or Lycopodiums. The Dragon plant Dracaena terminaliSf has blood 


red foliage, and seems to be used more often than any other as a single plant. 
The Begonias and Gesnerias have rich velvet}- leaves. For curiosity you may 
want a Cactus, or a horseshoe Geranium ; for scent, the Lemon or Rose Gera- 
nium, or the well known scented Verbena, or the jMusk plant. The Httle Cigar 
plant (Cuphea), is not very showy, but is esteemed for its constant blooming 

Many use the Coleus and Achyranthes, when young, and possessing rich, deli- 
cate shades, they contrast well with their crimson or purple against the green of 
other plants, producing a good effect ; but they soon grow too tall and look out of 
place. They can, however, be kept pinched back. This combination of color, 
either by contrast or harmony, is an excellent idea, and will not only give 
each plant an opportunity to display its peculiar habit of growth, but a novelty 
of color, likely to be appreciated by everyone. 

Cissus discolor, leaves silvery white, shaded with purple. 
Ficus repens. 

Isolepis junciodes, ornamental grass. 

Panicum mriegatum, variegated grass, leaves green, striped with white and 
rose color. 
Poa trivialis orgenta, a new dwarf grass, variegated. 
Tradescantia zebrina and tirides. 
Vinca elegantissima, variegata. 
Selaginella variegata. 

The Ivy Leaved Geraniums are very desirable, and L'Elegante with its light 
green leaves margined with white and pink, and its snowy white flowers, would 
be a gem for any window. This class of Geraniums are all of a low spreading 
or trailing habit, hanging down and flowering freely. 

Myoforum jjarvifolium, a very neat trailer, bearing small white flowers in 
autumn, winter, or spring. 

Monochaetum, is a beautiful winter flowering plant, but will require tyii;g 
down at first, and then will trail nicely over the basket. 

Ferns. — These form plants of permanent growth and habit, very suitable for 
hanging baskets. The soil needed for them to grow in, is equal parts of peat, 
loam, and sand, with some broken crockery mixed with it. Ouc of the finest 
ferns for the basket is the Pohjpodium oulgare, or common Polypody. This 
may be grown, if desired, in nearly a:ll moss, with the addition of only a very 
slight portion of soil. 

The Asplenium flaccidum, is esteemed one of the handsomest, having a beau- 
tiful drooping habit, and yet producing little young ferns all over the old fronds. 
Place this in the centre of the basket, and display it so that its branches will 
show over the sides, with their bright lively green, and they will look extremely 
beautiful, fully justifying this as one of the best in cultivation. 

Pteris serrulata, and P. rotandifoJia, are easily grown, have a good babit, 
and pro^e to be very good Ferns for the basket. 


The truG Maiden'' s Hair Fern, (Adiantum capillus Veneris}, by spreading at 
the roots will soon cover the surface of a basket. 

The AspJenium lanccolatun and A. marinum, are also spreaders. 

Ferns will alwaj-s be beautiful plants for window culture on account of their 
delicate outline and tasteful droop of their branches. Every amateur, however, 
will do well to begin with two or three at first, and then study the rest gradu- 
ally until he becomes familiar with their general characteristics. In watering 
Ferns, use warm water only, they will require it frequently also, for Ferns are 
natives of moist situations and latitudes ; to most ol ihem the dry air of a warm 
room is often injurious; loosed >"ases are best. 

The following trailing i:<3rns are suited for hanging baskets: NotJiodaena 
tenera, Davallia pentaphylla, Fadyema j;>rolifera, Adianhim cordatum. 

The list of plants for baskets is endless; you ar-e never at lack what to choose. 
You may begin with one plant, but as you become more acquainted with the 
nature of each plant, and learn their habits, you will love them so dearlj^ as lo 
sigh because you have not room for more. 

How to arrange Plants in the BasJcets. 
We offer several plans of how to fill a number of baskets easily : 
No. 1. — A fine low standard for a small hangingbasketis the Primula Sinensis 
(Chinese Primrose), bearing white or crimson flowers. Soil — two parts garden 
mould and one part sand Water often, but slightly. Raise from seed or 
division of the root, in sandy soil. Take offsets from old roots in May, re-set 
them in fresh soil and keep the pots in the shade until September. Gloxinias — 
flowers of rose color or crimson — make a fine display in similar pots. They 
need the same soil as the Primula. Water scantily, except when in bloom. 
Propagate bj^ division of the roots, or a single leaf set in damp sand. Just 
within the edge of the pot set Lysimachia nummularia (Moneywort), Nepeta 
gbcoma (Ground Ivy or Gill run over the ground), or Coliseun vinos. These have 
yellow, blue, white flowers. They will throw out trailers three or four feet 
long. Twine some of these around the chains or cords that sustain the 

No. 2. — In the same sort of pots and soil, with the same drooping plant, Cyc- 
lamen punctatum, or C Persicum — flowe7-s white, pink or purplish — are very 
pretty. Or a root or offshoot of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Ice-plant), 
whose stems and leaves, when the sun shines upon them, glitter as if covered 
with pearls and diamonds. One of these plants will soon spread over the sur- 
face and hang prettily around the basket. The flowers are small — pale crim- 
son or white. Or two or three Verbenas — white, scarlet and maroon, or white, 
pink, and purple — spreading and drooping, and creeping and climbing as they 
choose ; they flourish much better thus than when trained and trimmed. Start 
new plants from seed, or small branches, every June. Keep them rather dry 
and shaded, till September, then give them plenty of sunshine and increase 
the water but never water them very freely 

WIAB ]V a A RDEMya . 


No 3. — In baskets of the same size — six inches ; bvxt in good gaiden soil 
only — set a Nicrembergia gracilis, with its slender stems and fine foliage and 
pretty white or lilac flowers, together with a Mahernia odorata, of similar habits 
and foliage, with blossoms of pale yellow, very fragrant; and a Lobelia cceles- 
tina, or L. gracilis, with ils tiny leaves ami delicate white or blue flowers, that 
will droop over the basket's rim. Start tliese plants and treat them like Ver- 
benas, or Petunias oi yanous shades, giving them the same treatment and 
allowing them to grow as they choose, like Verbenas. Or three or four bulbs 
of Oxalis, which, if started in August, after three months of complete rest in a 
dry state, will fill and cover the whole basket with their foliage and floweis 
from November till April or May. The varieties bearing white, scarlet and 
yellow, make a pretty group, or pink and white, and purple. 

No. 4. — Baskets a foot in diameter, filled with the same soil, may hold a 
Zonale geranium — Tom Tliumb, Fire King, or Mrs. Pollock ; or Mountain of 
Snow, with its white-bordered leaves — and an Ivy-leaved geranium to climb up 
the handles; with a Maurandia, a Solanum, or two or three Vincas to trail 
around the brim and about the basket. Raise these all from branches rooted 
in .sand under glass in ]May. "Water frequently, but sj)aringly, till in bud, then 
give the fertilizer mentioned in a previous chapter, and plenty of water. 

No. 5. — "A happy family," to fill a very large basket of good garden soil, 
should have one of the geraniums above mentioned for its centre ; a Euphorbia, 
with silvery foliage; Coleus, maroon or bronze ; a Bouvardia, scarlet flowers ; a 
Sanguinaria, white flowers, and mignonette and alyssuin, with moneywort, ground 
ivy, Irish iv}-, Madeira vine, Solanum and Maurandia for climbers and trailers. 
Raise the standard jjlants from slips or branches rooted in wet sand, under glass, 
in May or June. Transfer them to the basket in September, and at the same 
time set with them cuttings of the vines. Keep the basket in the shade, and 
water it scantily f 'r a month ; then give it the full sunshine and water enough 
to keep the soil from crumbling. When buds appear on any of the plants, give 
it the fertilizer once a week for two months. Be sure that the air of the room 
in which it hangs is moist by the evaporation of water upon the stove or fur- 
nace, and open the window near by twice a week for a quarter of an hour, 
shielding the plants from the draught by newspapers pinned into cone shape 
around the basket. With this management the "happy family" will be youi 
pride and delight. 



Frame for an Ivied Garden or Conservatory Se»^ 


The Ivy for Decorative Purposes. 

The Ivy might be called the poor man's vine, for, like the Wilson Strawberry, 
it will grow for almost every one. It is the easiest of all the vines for indoor 
use, both in growmg and for training, and not a little of its merits as a favorite 
window plant arc its permanency, for it will live long in one pot without change 
of soil or position. It accommodates itself to all temperatures save that below 
freezing, and when in full growth it adds more grace to the window than any 
plant yet used. 

The English Ivy (Iledera helix) is what is styled a rooted climber, as from 
every little joint roots will spring out and take hold of any support. This is 
one great advantage of value over other climbing vines which must be trained. 

It is hardly adapted to our severe wintry climate, and will not live out of 
doors unless covered with straw. This renders its use for windows a necessity, 
and who that has ever gazed upon its glossy green leaves, drooping with long 
garlands of graceful verdure, but has felt it well deserved to be named the most 
beautiful of all drawing-room plant decorations. A writer speaks of the affec- 
tion with which it is esteemed in German houses: "It becomes as one of the 
family. Sometimes the whole side of a parlor is covered with it, and twining 
around over picture frames, or looped about brackets, drooped over statuettes, 
the portraits of father, mother, and cherished friend, look forth smiling from 
the leafy environment. Small articles of vertu gleam here and there, touched 
with it, framed about mirrors or doors, eacli heart-shaped dark evergreen leaf, 
instinct with loveliness, adds to them all increased beauty. "Wherever it goes it 
makes a green, perpetual summer of indoor life." 

Another writer, viewing it in a poetic view, says : " A single root has been 
known to wreathe a bow window with thick garlands, and then strike off into 
lovely, independent paths along picture cords and above cornices, till the room 
seemed all a-bud, like Aaron's rod. It will cover a screen of wire, curtain h 
curtainless window, festoon a pillar, frame a favorite picture, (and what more 
graceful or delicate frame could be desired ?) arch a door, climb and twist about 
8, window-sill, and swing in long-looped tendrils from a bracket. There is no 
end to its beautiful uses. 

" Tickle it with a little guano, and how it frolics. Nip off the terminal shoots, 
and lo, two bright, persistent tendrils shoot forth, and curl and twine about your 
very fingers. Wash its dusty leaves, and no child could look more gratefully in 
vour face. It harbors no vermin, encourages no blight, but steadily and sweetlj 



keeps its daily course. It is a decorative aitist of high ability; a compaiiiou 
a friend." 

Notwithstanding this poetic imagery, it must be admitted its pre &l nee, with 

Fig. 14.— An Ivied Staircase. 

its entwining, lu.xuriant foliage, gives a refreshing and pleasant looK to every 
apartment ; of uncounted worth is it in homes where garden facilities are few or 
none, and a sprig of preen is considered enual to the nobleman's wide, lural 



The Ivy requires rich soil in -which to grow, and must have strong food. 
"Of right choice food are its moals, I ween." 
You must therefore select for it the best soil which your garden can afiFord ; add 
to it one-half each of well-decayed manure and leaf mould rubbed together ; 
then set the pan of compost in the oven and bake it, if you wish to kill all larvae 
of worms and white ants. 

Plant the roots in large, well-drained pots, with an inch or two of bits of char- 
coal at the bottom, and as the roots inciease transfer them to larger-sized pots or 
buckets. The Ivy will grow in wood vessels as well as pottery, and pails or 
buckets painted green can be made to do duty for the pots. 

Should the roots appear to be too thickly crowded in too small a pot, run a 
knife around the edge of the soil and turn over the ball of earth. If this is so. 
cut oflf a few of the outer ones, and then repot in rich soil in a little larger 

The Ivy seems to be the least sensitive to changes of light of any plant we 
have; neither docs it require much heat, thus being exceedingly well adapted to 
situations in halls or balconies, or rooms not very well heated. Figure 14 shows 
how it may be of great service in decorating a hall, the brackets holding the pota 
being fastened to the side of the wall, and the ivy permitted to climb up both 
wall and porch. 

If planted in pots and trained to stakes, they can be readily moved from one 
window to another, or from one room to another ; it is much the most con 
venient method to have the Ivy in some portable form. 

Like all other plants, however, it must have a uniform temperature, and though 
it will bear a little chilling without much injury, yet it should be kept where 
there is some degree of warmth. 

It dehghts in considerable moisture, and if neglected or p2imitted to dry up, 
its luxuriance soon suffers ; hence, a saucer or pan should be kept full of water, 
ready at any time for its use. 

During the spring and summer months the pots of Ivy are often carried to the 
outer air, and placed on the balcony or under a tree in the lawn or garden. Ileie 
they might be neglected ; so we again repeat our caution : do not forget the 

When brought into the house the leaves should be carefully washed with soap- 
suds and water; all unsightly branches and torn leaves removed. 

Ivies for the house should be brought in before November, or even before it is 
time to build the fire. Place first in a cool room, and then bring gradually into 
the warmer room. 

When placed where they are to stand, the vines should be gracefully arranged, 
and secured by small strings to the wood-work, or to the curtain by bits of green 
worsted braid. The green creeping foliage is a fine contrast to the whiteness of 
the delicate lace curtain. 

Vines can be grown by immersing the stems in small vials of water, and fast- 
ening them to the backs of picture frames they are desired to ornament. With 




a number of vials quite a luxuriant growth can be imitated, but care must be 
had to keep the vials tilled with water. At intervals, two or three bits of char- 
coal aiay be added to sweeten and purify. 

A good illustration of how a pic- 
ture frame may thus be decorated 
is afforded in figure 15, showing a 
looking-glass with rustic frame, and 
the Ivy twining around it. In this 
case no vials are used, but a very 
unique and convenient receptacle, 
sliown in figure 16. Usually all our 
frames hang forward a little at the 
top from the wall, and leave an 
open space. This receptacle fits into 
this open space at the back of the 
top of the frame, and is very neatly 
concealed. To make this successful 
the fiame should be of good size. 
The receptacle is wedge-shaped, 
and made of zinc by any tinsmith, 
and of the right length and diame- 
ter to fit in behind. After filling 
with earth plant the Ivy, and let 
its leaves ramble over and down the 

Such a frame should not be hung 
near a fireplace, for the heat and 
dust would hinder the growth of 
the plant very materially. If it can 

be given daily at the same time the other plants usually recei', 
this attention — by night or early morning. Note one thing, in 
filling this pan, to remember to place a few bits of crockery at 
the bottom, to secure efficient drainage. Avoid giving a surfeit 
of water, 

A very novel style of ornament is afforded in Fig. 17, designed 
for a portable screen of Ivy. This is a box made very similar 
to those for the window, of a length varying from three to six 
feet, and one to two feet wide, mounted on castors. A number 
of laths of wood, neatly and smoothly planed, are nailed cross- 
ways, and fastened upright at the back of the box. Usually the 
height is about four to four and a half feet. The entire box and 
lattice-work should be painted green; then when dried fill the— Receptac.'- 

for Ivy 

Fig. 15. — An Ivied Picture Frame 

face a north or east window it is best situated. Water should mf 



with mould, and set in the Ivy plants, which, when well started, will soon cover 
the trellis completely 

If desired, the front of the box may be ornamented by planting thickly Lily 
of the Valley or Primulas, or Mignionette, sown in the summer. Other 
climbing vines may be introduced either with the Ivy, or in place of it, 
such as the Morning Glory, Woodbine, Clematis. The box is an ornament in 
any position where placed, either before the window, or across the corner of the 
room, and the capacity of the box also affords opportunity for growing many 
choice standard parlor plants. Fuchsias, Geraniums, &c. Mr. Robinson states 
that such screens are used to a great extent in Parisian saloons and drawing- 
rooms, and in one instance saw them in quite a row, beautifully used to embel- 
lish crystal partitions between large apartments. 

Fig. 17. — OrHamental Soreen of Ivy. 
One day in his rambles he came upon a wine shop in an obscure part of Pans, 
where the window was decorated with the Ivy; on going in, he found it planted 
in a rough box against the wall, up which it had crept, and was growing above as 
carelessly as if in a wood. At another time, at the Court of Versailleo, in the 
porter's lodge, he witnessed the deep interest which the fat porter and his wife 
took in Cacti, &c., and their nice collection of other things, but more particu- 
larly at the sumptuous display of Ivy, which hung from over the mantelpiece. 
It was planted in a deep recess, and tumbled out its abundant tresses almost as 
if depending from a Kerry rock in its native home. 


But its most successful use is in the hanging basket. Here at home il climbs, 
and swings, and droops at will, thriving and twining until the arms of the basket 
are hidden in the dense vei-dure. Probably no cheaper style of hanging baskets 
can be obtained than this, and surely none will last as long. 

Another charming use to wliich the Ivy can be put is to twine it around an 
Easel in the parlor. Take a small rustic jardinet, such as are figured in one of 
the chapters of Part I, fill with earth, plant in it a good strong root of the Ivy, 
and then twine its long tendrils around the edges of the Easel, and let it droop 
from the top over the picture placed on the rest beneath. It forms one of the 
finest of draperies and borders for any art engraving, portrait or painting. Little 
brackets of it may be filled like Fig. 13, in cliapter 10, and fastened in the 
centre of the side of any room, and while the Ivy itself may droop, tliere may be 
placed ferns or pressed autumn leaves above to help the effect with their gay 

Those cuttings which have rooted in water during the winter will need more 
plant food than this will supply. So in the spring, either plant them in the 
open border, or place them in pots, with soil, aD.d they will soon become large 

Eight to ten large pots of Ivy trained over stakes and trellises, are at times 
used by some to ornament a single room. 

Hanging baskets are sometimes constructed entirely without soil — holding only 
moss. A quantity of vials are filled with water and placed therein so as to be 
well concealed ; slips of Ivy are inserted in some of these vials; Ferns are inter 
spersed in other bottles, and cut flowers added to others ; brilliant autumn leaves 
pressed and varnished are added here and there. All combined make a very 
choice parlor ornament. The only care needed is to keep the water replenished 
as long as it will last. 

In the previous chapter on hanging baskets may be seen a design of a very 
handsome combination of Ferns and climbing Ivy, in Fig. 4, and in Fig. 11, is a 
sketch of the Ivy as we see it in its most familiar habits of growth. The bowl 
is an earthen one, such as now are imported and found on s»le at most floral 
stores. A single cutting has been placed in here, and now it is branching out 
ward vigorously. 

The directions for propagating Ivy from slips or cuttings, are very simple. 
Take a young, tender branchlet, cut about three inches in length, and insert half 
an inch of its stem in wet sand, or soil, under a bell glass or tumbler. Keep 
the soil well moistened, and yet warm, by placing it in the sunshine for fully a 
week. Then loosen the sand, withdraw the stem, and if rootlets have started, 
put immediately in a pot of good garden earth, mixed with one-third its q\ian- 
tity of sand Press the soil firmly about this young plant, to the same height 
as the sand reached before, cover with the bell glass again, and set in the shade 
for a week, then set the glass aside and bring to the sunshine. It should bo 
watered frequently, but only just enough to keep it from wilting Earlj- in 
June, if it has grown too long, trim off the large branches, set it out doors in 


the garden, then in September, again put it in a large pot with newer soil, bring 
to a cool and shady room at first, then gradually bring it to the heat. 

There are several varieties of the Ivy, commonly grown by all gardeners. 
The Hedera helix is the English Ivy, the common outdoor climbing variety, 
found in all parts of Europe. It is of slow growth, two feet a year out doors 
being considered good progress. It needs water more freely than any of the 
other sorts, for drouth is death to it. It may be propagated by first cutting 
slips, then rooting them in bottles of water, and afterward transferring with 
sand . 

The Hedera Canariensis, is the Irish Ivy, slightly larger than the others; 
leaves live lobed. Will thrive in a cool, shady, and close room. Too great 
exposure to the heat of the sun will cause the leaves to turn purple, or ripen 
too quickly ; yet it will seldom blossom without sunshine. The flower is very 
ordinary, and it is more to be prized for its elegant light green foliage, which are 
thrown out from its luxuriant shoots. 

The German Ivy is not properl}-^ of this family, but its botanical name i3 
Senecio Scandens. This grows much more rapidly than either of the above, has 
lighter green leaves, and is entirely free from troublesome insects. Its branches 
trail in long festoons. Whether grown in the hanging basket, or over the win- 
dow, it will soon wreath it with its leafy canopy. It may be trained as a pyra- 
mid by inserting stakes in the pots, and then letting the vine curve around 
toward the top, or it may be trained as an umbrella, or bushes, or on a semi- 
circle, or any form that the frame is made to take. Its easy propagation — for 
every slip will take root — • quick growth, have made it a favorite with every 

Another variety called the Coliseum Ivy, (Lmaria cymbalaria,') is also popu- 
lar. It grows in slender purplish stems, having small green leaves with purple 
linii gs, and its flowers are like those of the Antirrhinum, but are very minute, 
being of lilac, white and yellow tints, mingled together. It grows in cracks or 
crevices of old buildings, and the roof of the grand Cathedral at Milan, is thickly 
overgrown with it in patches. It seeds plentifully, sows itself, and is also most 
easily propagated by cuttings. The soil most suitable for it is light sandy loam, 
yet it does not endure much moisture or dampness. 

There are still a dozen or fifteen other varieties to be obtained in this country, 
each peculiar in itself, yet, the variegated varieties, marginata, argetitea, &c., are 
the most desirable. They exist in many different forms, all variously margined 
with creamy, silver, or yellow colors — on the leaves. They are used either for 
climbers on the walls, or in beds, as margins. They do best when fully ex- 
posed to the sunshine, and in a comparatively poor soil. Under the name of 
Silver Edge Ivy, the argentea has been used for edging flower beds and for ter- 
race gardens, having a broad margin of silvery white, — other varieties have three 
colors, white, green, and rose, or yellow. 

The list of varieties exceeds fifty in number, some producing gigantic leaves 
of thick texture, others white or golden berries, some richly variegated, otheri 


with small leaves of deepest purple. They forma study of deepest interest, 
and many should be better known; yet strange to say, in the majority of the 
florists Catalogues, a few only are mentioned for popular cultivation, the German 
the Coliseum, and the variegated Velegante. 


Climbing Vines — Balcony Gardening. 

What delicate taste ami suggestive beauty seem gathered up in the associatioiiF 
of climbing vines. 

Helps to Home Adornment we have often called them, and the fairy fingers 
who twine them around their parlor windows, or along the piazza, or on tlie rus- 
tic trellis before the cottage door, will tell you how well they appreciate their 
value in making home .so pleasant. Climbing vines afford us an opportunity of 
clothing not the outside of the window alone, but its inside also, with verdure 
and decorations of greenery, for our imagination must now include, as part of 
the domain of house-gardening, the ornature of the outside of the window,, 
piazza, or balcony, as well as the interior. Ideas of refinement, taste and beauty, 
are invariably suggested by the presence of climbing vines. Let the corneis of 
our houses, or the edges of our windows, be hid under the delicate foliage or 
brilliant flowers, and their natural festoons of mingled verdure and bloom will 
soften the most gloomy surroundings 

Our new built houses, with all their architectural finish and imposing design, 
still lack tlie last softening polish which comes only from the mellowing and 
genial touch of the vine. The first thing to be considered in growing vines 
indoors is the soil. Bulbous plants require light and very loose soil. Short, 
fibrous roots need a firm, fine soil. Long and spreading roots need a heavier and 
coarser soil than others. For most plants good garden loam, loosened, when 
necessary, by mixing with it street sand or gravel, and enriched by the application 
of a liquid stimulant answers very well. To make this stimulant, mix half a 
peck of stable manure or street sweepings, with a quart of pulverized charcoal, 
in a thiee-gallon vessel, and fill up tlie vessel with soft water. After it has 
stood a week the vessel will be read}' for use. It should be clear. Water j'our 
plants with this three days consecutively, once in three weeks, during their ear- 
liest growth and blooming. It should be perfectly odorless ; if not, then add 
more charcoal. As the liquid becomes more exhausted add more water. This 
quantity of fertilizing material will supply stimulant enough for two dozen large 
plants during six months 

If you can obtain leaf mould — the fine, dark soil from the woods — take this 
for a third ingredient of your soil. It will prove, also, quite as nutritive as this 
fertilizer. If fertilizing liquids are used, they must be applied directly to the 
soil; but when water only is used, the whole plant should be showered with it, 
if possible 


In selecting our list we have regard naturally to those which are most rapid 

First on the list is Coboea scandens. It is an old favorite, and it is worthy of 
remark, that but few of the novelties introduced of late years can equal some 
of the "old favorites" which we have long been accustomed to grow. 

The vine is named from Cobo, a Spanish priest, who first cultivated it in Mex- 
ico, where he found it growing wild, and rambling in full luxuriance and beauty. 
A new variety of this vine, (Coboea scandens folius variegata) is much the most 
suitable for in-door culture. 

The growth of the vine is very rapid, and it is equally easy of cultivation ; the 
only essentials to success being warmth, a rich, though light soil, and sufficient 
water. If allowed to become very dry it will wither away. It requires sun and 
a warm room for it to grow in perfection ; yet it is not a tender plant ; i. e., it 
will live anywhere, provided the frost does not touch it, and is one of the few 
plants which will flourish luxuriantly in parlors lighted with gas and kept at 
almost fever heat. 

If grown in a hanging basket or pot, it must be large, and the roots allowed 
plenty of room to spread out in. In the summer the pots can be removed from 
the interior room to a balcony or piazza, or plunged into the ground until they are 
again wanted. Then clip off the growth of branches and leaves ; place the pot 
back again in a sunny window, where it will soon start forth afresh, with new 
leaves and arms to cover the window 

Its flowers are two inches long, and bell-shaped. At first their coloring is of 
a greenish hue, but it changes to a rich bluish-purple, and will continue in bloom 
for a week or more. Its calyx is large, and the long stamens seemingly grow at 
one side of it, giving to the flower much grace. It is easily raised from cuttings 
and seeds. The latter require some special care. If planted in the open ground 
they will generally decay; hence, pot or hot-bed culture is necessary. Usually 
the seeds are sown in March or April in light, rich soil, in pots, warmed with 
a gentle heat. After they have started, the young plants, when two inches high, 
are potted separately into small pots, and when they have grown about a foot 
high are carried to the place where they are to remain Usually there is no dif- 
ficulty in the greenhouse or conservatory, where they are produced abundantly. 
Amateurs who cannot propagate them will do well to buy them from the florist 
already started. 

It is one of the best of vines for parlor decoration, as it will drape and festoon 
the window, and stretch forth its tendrils, running up even to the ceiling. The 
tendrils are so clinging in their nature that they will attach themselves to any- 
thing which comes within their reach — curtain cords, branches of other plants, 
brackets, &c., throwing out new branches everywhere. 

The Smilax (Medeola asparagoides) is now seen in almost every window 
basket, cultivated extensively for its rich, wavy, glossy foliage. For table deo- 


orations, wreaths, festoons, &c., it is very popular, and in all festive occasions 
where green drapery is used the Sinilax occupies a prominent part — always con- 
sidered indispensable. It is a bulb, a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and 
requires a rich but rather sandy soil to grow in perfection, also a liberal use of 
liquid manure, and vrhen in a growing state must have plenty of water. Its 
leaves are in reality its branches ; its flowers are of a whitish green, and its ber- 
ries, or seed-pods, black ; but it is cultivated entirely for its graceful sprays. 
These are often injured by their deadly enemies, the red spiders. By giving the 
plants a good shower of water once a week they will soon be free from the insects, 
or if this is not convenient, dust them with red pepper. 

The Sniilax does not require a very sunny location, but will thrive in a partly 
shaded window or on a bracket. It propagates itself by offsets from the parent 
bulb ; yet it can also be raised from seeds. It requires some support to cling to, 
and will run more rapidly if a wire is fastened around the outside edge of the 
pot, and to this let there be attached small cords an inch or two apart. Fasten 
the ends of the cords together at the top of the ceiling, and on these slight sup- 
ports the vines will closely twine. 

In the summer give it but little water, and keep it in the shade where it will 
remain dormant. In September repot in fresh soil, and give occasional stimu- 

It is one of our most delicate vines for the parlor; a great favorite with every 
one, for its graceful leaves form a very pleasant effect when trained either around 
the basket, or pictures or statuary. 


The varieties of this class arc very numerous — all beautiful and handsome 
objects for either indoor or garden use. They are all rapid growers during the 
winter months, and are usuall}^ propagated from seeds, which produce a great 
variety of colors ; one especial advantage being the fact of their flowering the 
first season so soon after planting. For ornamenting the window, or the green- 
house, or for covering the trellis, arbor, or balcony, they are admirably suited on 
account of their dense foliage and fine bloom. 

Tropaolum Lobbianum, is better suited for window use, than the open ground. 
Flowers are of very bright orange and scarlet colors, and vine a very vigorous 
grower ; propagated best from cuttings. 

The Tropoeolum tricolorum, is a bulbous-rooted climber, and best suited for 
the green-house or conservatory. It should be planted in September to enable 
it to obtain a good start before the winter starts in. Plant the tubers, which are 
not unlike a potato, eye upwards, and about an inch and a half beneath the sur- 
face of the pot, which should be eight to nine inches in diameter, and filled up 
with a light but rich soil. Give a little water when you plant it, and set the pot 
in a warm but rather shady spot, not letting the soil become dry ; until you sea 
the .shoots starting freely give but little water, then give water daily. When the 
blanches appear, train them to a trellis, or archway, according to your taste. A 


plant of the tricolorum can be placed on one side of the archway or trellis, with 
its crimson, orange and black blossoms to contrast with some of the other varie- 
ties, either Lobbiunum oi peregyinum 

Tropaeolum pentuphylhim,& beautiful kind of Tiopaeolum ; like the tri-color, 
but not robust in liabit. This kind will come to a great pt/fection if planted in 
a large pot and placed on a balcony 

Tropaeolum trimaculatum, an annual species of more tender growth than 
Trop-major. It can be raised from seeds, and will give in their treatment dur- 
ing the summer season, a good series. Many flowers and a graceful growth is 
the character of this plant. 

Sandy loam, with a third of decomposed manure well mixed with it, will 
grow the .slower growing varieties to best advantage; for those more rapid, we 
would not admit more than one fourth manure When the \eaves and flowers 
begin to fade away, and turn yellow and sere, give but very little water, and when 
dying down give none at all, but remove the bulbs from the pots, and keep them 
in sand in a cool place until another September comes around. They propagate 
themselves by tubers, which can be divided, and also will root easily from cut- 
tings, which will form roots in vases of water ; if the branches are full of buds 
when placed in the vases, they will bloom finely, and form a very pretty orna- 
ment for the parlor or sitting-room. Put bits of charcoal into the glasses, and 
the water will keep sweet and pure. 


The Maurandia Bardayana is an exceedingly pretty climber for mdoors. It 
grows readily from seed or cuttings. If from the latter, they should be started 
in June, so as to make a strong plant by autumn. 

If grown from seed, plant m light, rich soil, in June ; water it freely, and give 
plenty of sun. It blossoms profusely, hanging out full of elegant white, purple, 
or pink bell-shaped flowers, which much resemble those of the Foxglove. It 
needs a fertilizer once a week, from the time the buds first appear till blooming 
is past. 

It is a vine of the easiest growth and culture, winding about slender strings 
or supports in the window, and in two or three months' time it will cover a small 
trellis anywhere with its graceful branches and pretty flowers. Seeds can be 
obtained of most florists, which will furnish all colors of violet, white, scarlet, 
rose, and purple. 

Thunbergia. — This is another ornamental climber, easily raised from seed. It 
grows in any good garden soil, and will soon cover a window frame. It is really 
a greenhouse perennial, and is propagated by cuttings for greenhouse use. In 
the open ground its seed is usually sown about the last of May; grows freely, 
about six feet high; has many side branches, and needs a trellis to cling to; 
flowers are usually a buff" or white color, with a rich maroon colored throat 
Other varieties have shades of orange and yellow. 



71ie Passion Flower. 
The Passion Fluiccr, is one of our old standard varieties, much cultivated and 
admired, and very desirable for parlor ornament. It thrives best in light, rich 
soil, and needs much sunlight to bloom in profusion. It cannot bear great water- 

,^/^ / 

Mr. \8.—PiiMifU>ra cmrulea. Blue Passion Flower. 


mg : only be sure that the leaves will not droop from dryness, and it will 
flourish. Plant the seed, or start cuttings in moist sand, in the greenhouse. 
After a plant has got a vigorous growth, it may be brought into the parlor, and 
remain as long as it is warm. 

Passiflora ccerulea, has flowers of a sky blue color and remarkable character; 
grows finely, and is quite ornamental. It should be pruned close back to within 
a bud or two of the main stem every summer or autumn, as it blooms on the 
shoots from these buds during the next season. It can usually be had of the 
florist, and may be kept as a plant for the Conservatory. If planted out to orna- 
ment a veranda or trellis, it must be protected during the winter, by covering: 
over, as it will not stand the frost. It climbs twenty feet or more, and is quite 
handsome. For house culture take pot plants already started; keep in a tem- 
perature of 60° to 75°. Several other varieties are suitable also : — 

Passiflora racemosa. Passiflora quadrangularis. 

" permessina. " princeps. 

A fine variegated variety has been produced — trifasciata ; its dark green, tri- 
colored leaves having a broad band of deep rose color through the various centres. 
Its foliage is very handsome, and its flowers being of the usual color, makes it 
very desiiable 

For training in conservatories, they are among the most effective of all orna- 
mental climbers, producing a great profusion of blooms. 

Ipomosa. TJie Morning Glory. 

These have proved with many ladies the easiest and simplest of all vines to 
raise indoors. They are raised chiefly from the seeds, and will usually grow 
suflSciently well to bloom in four to six weeks after planting. They are very 
rapid climbers, and much more delicate than the Convolvulus to which they are 
closely allied. The principal varieties suitable for indoors are: 

I. coccinea, (Star Ipomoea,) with small scarlet flowers. 

/- limhata, white margin, bluish centre, in the form of a star. 

The Ivy. 
This has been mentioned in a chapter by itself. For basket purposes the GeV' 
man Ivy, or Coliseum Ivy, will naturally be chosen first ; but for climbing pur- 
poses, around the windows or doors of the room, choose the Hedera helix, 
English Ivy, or the Canariensis Irish Ivy, which will be sure to grow in any 
room. Both should be frequently watered. 

Cissus discolor 
Is a greenhouse climber, with finel)'- variegated leaves, which are in great demand 
in the cities for the margins of baskets of flowers. It will hardly grow well in 
a window garden, as it needs the highest temperature of a forcing house to 
develope its beauties; but in a proper location it will be for a short time a great 
addition to a collection of plants. It will grow during the summer in the win- 


do-v^ if shaded ; but will not in the winter, unless it has a great deal of heat and 

Clerodendron Balfouri 

Needs a warm temperature. Its flowers are of a bright scarlet, with a calyx 
of pure white, and the clusters are six inches in diameter. It blooms for 
many months during the winter, and is invaluable for bouquets and roses. It 
requires a rich soil and much sunshine, but it will grow well in a southeastern 

The list of climbing vines is very extensive For parlor culture it seems 
hardly necessary to make any addition to a list in which there are so successful 
and popular favorites as the Ivy, Coboea, and Morning Glory. 

Most of the climbing vines suitable for indoor gi-owth are generally grown in 
the greenhouse. Often they are started in large pots or boxes, and when trained 
to a trellis ai'e transferred to a waim sitting-room to stand there as objects of 
ornament; but few undertake to grow greenhouse climbers there for permanent 

List of Climbing Plants most useful for the Parlor, Window, or Balcony 

a. Annual, bi-annual, or such species and varieties with tender and soft vines 
Maurandya Barclayana, Lareyana, and other varieties. 
Cardiospermum Halicacaha, baloon vine. 
Tropaeohcm majus, and majus fl. plena, 

Lohhiamom, and its hybrids. 
Cyclanthera pedato, and ]>. explodens. 
Adlumia cirrhosa, (^Fumaria fungosa.) 
Thunhergia alata, and T. aurnntiaca. 
Lophospermum scandens, and varieties. 
Pilogyne suavis. 
Ipomcea quamoclit, and (luamocUt alba. 

coccinea, and coccinea lutea. 
Obobra viridiflora. 
Scyphantlms elegans. 
Loasa lateritia. 

Callistega pnbescens flore plena. 
Manettia bicolor. 

cordifolia, (coccinea.) 
Micania scandens, (Senecio micanoides.') 

b. Running plants with a more ligneous habit: 
Clematis azurea grandiflora, and new hybrids. 
flamrmtla. and C. lanuginosa. 
• Passiflora incarnata, (hardy perennial.) 
edulis fol. var. 

126 wmnow GAiinRNiNO. 

Passiflora caerulea, and caeruleu varieties, 
Cobcea scandens, and seandens fol. var. 
Thunhergia laurifolia, and T. grandiflora 
Medeola asparagoides, (_MijrsophyUum.) 
Mikania speciosa Verschaffeltii and Warcsewitzii. 
Akebia quinata. 
Phaseolus Caracalla. 
Physianthus albens. 
Ipomoea digitata, (^palmata) 

ficifolia and insignis. 


Stigmaphyllom ciliatum. 
Solanum jasminoides. 
Tecoma jasminoides. 
Mimosa prostrata. 
Bignonia venusta, and speciosa. 

argyraea — violacea and ornata. 
Tacsonia mollissima, and T. Van Volxemii. 
Rhyncospermmn jasminoides, and var. 
TropoBolum tri-colorum, and T. pentaphyllum. 
Cissus discolor. 

Rubus Moluccanns. 
Stephanotus floribundus. 
Ampelopsis Veitcliii, and quinquefol, fol. var. 
Lotiicerabrachypoda aureo reticulata. 

Balcony Gardening. 

"When the warm suns of spring and summer make the air more genial, oui 
taste for outdoor gardening returns, and the first step after leaving the window 
garden is to emhellish our balcony or veranda. To this spot we bring our hang- 
ing baskets and suspend them between the overhanging arches, or fasten upon 
one of the piazza supports a hollow bracketed vessel. Throw therein some soil, 
and try a trailing plant or two. In the grassy border just beneath we sow the 
seeds of some of our most rapid and cleanly growing hardy vines, which will 
cover the balcony soon with their dense shade. 

To those disposed to try a little amateur gardening, and willing to undergo 
considerable pains and care, we recommend a series of boxes wherein may be 


grown plants of ornamental foliage, such as Coleus, Achyranthes, Ferns, or into 
which you may transfer your pot plants from inside the window. These boxes 
may be usually made of pine wood, painted green, and vary from six to eight 
inches deep, and ten to fifteen inches wide. Fill up all the interspace not occu- 
pied by the pots with sand ; also fit castors to the boxes, so that they may be 
easily moved from one part to the other. Into these boxes may be set trellises, 
and upon them may be trained the Fuchsia, Ivy, Clematis, or Morning Glory. 
Different boxes may be used for different classes of plants: one for Geraniums, 
anotiier for Ferns, a third for Ivy, a fourth for Roses, a fifth for Evergreens, (the 
Arbor Vitae being best,) another for Bulbs, (Tuberoses. Lilies, &c., being best.) 
The length of these boxes should not exceed four feet. 

Mignionette boxes are generally made 7 inches deep, 7 inches wide, and froi»» 
U to 3 feet long. Mignionette looks best when the plants are grown en masse, 
and for this there must be depth of soil. It is not a bad plan to plant a few 
climbers in the boxes, so that when the Mignionette fades away the vines will 
fill up the blank space. 

Tom Thumb Tropaeolums, Canary Bird Floicer, Asters, Stocks, Balsams, are 
all very suitable for this style of box and balcony gardening. 

Zonale Geraniunis, Pelargoniums, of all kinds will do well. Plants of varie- 
gated foliage, like the Abutilon, need a slightly shaded locality 

Heliotropes, Salvias, Verbenas, <&c., require a strong exposure to sun and air, 
and will bloom well in a southeastern exposure. 

In a western balcony the variegated leaved Ivy Geranium, scarlet, white, and 
pink; Tom Thumb Geraniums, and Mignionette, will bloom most perfectly. 
Ivies will twine about the frame-work, no matter what may be the exposure, but 
the Madeira vine likes a warm place, and the Smilax anywhere. 

Fuchsias desire the shade ; hence, a northerly exposure, except when too cool, 
will suit them ; also the Pansies, Myrtles, and Funkia variegata do best there. 

Brackets may be fitted to the sides of the window frame, and in them placed 
pots filled with drooping flowers, like the Colisseum Ivy and Tradescantia 

At a slight expense you might construct a small hanging garden, similar to 
one of the designs illustrated in the chapter for hanging baskets, and suspend it 
at the end of the piazza. You may also introduce vases upon your veranda with 
good effect; but for this you do not need tall plants. The most effective flowers 
are those of Pansies, Verbenas, and Petunias. 

Balcony gardening in winter is of course an impossibility, unless we make 
exceptions in favor of a few Evergreens. These are suitable at all seasons of the 
year, and nothing is more neat and tasteful, requiring less care than a box of 
Arbor Vitaes, for these are much easier to grow than Pines or Spruces. 

If the balcony is limited in space, do not attempt bushy plants, and shrubs 
will be out of place. Here climbing vines are the most appropriate. 

But if you do have plenty of room you may introduce in the spring such 
shrubby plants as the Azalea, the Weigela rosea, and the Spirea prunifolia. A 

\^ V- :jigf ^ Y ^ 



gay display can be made by arranging two boxes, one with the Lobelia in front, 
and behind it a row of scarlet Geraniums, such as the Gen. Grant, Warrior, oi 
Marie Lemoine. For a dwarf Geranium the Tom TJmmh is best. The Delphinium 
formosum is good also for the balcony. Cut away the blooms as fast as they get 
done. In order to keep the plants in good health and growth, it would be well to 
see that the soil of the boxes or pots is covered with moss, and once a day, in the 
evening or early morning, give the plants a thorough syringing of water, for upon 
the dry floor of the balcony evaporation will be quite rapid in warm days. Seeds of 
the Mignionette, Sweet Alysum, Phlox Drummondii, and Nemophila will all do 

Nothing is so effective as the Scarlet Sage, Salvia Splendens, gorgeous with its 
dazzling beauty. 

A good plant or two of the Dielytra will make a showy box, and then you 
can make room for a few Verbenas, Petunias, Larkspurs, and Heliotropes. We 
would not recommend any bulbs, such as the Gladiolus; except the Lilium Aur- 
tum, which will often do well; also the Lilium Longiflorum. 

If you wish to grow bulbs and make a fine display, you must remove your 
boxes from the balcony just before winter ; fill them with appropriate soil, (such 
as is named in chapter on Bulbs,) sink them in the garden border, plant in it your 
bulbs of Hyacinths, Tulips, Crocuses, Snow Drops, &c., to remain during the 
winter, well covered with some mulch. In early spring take them up, replace 
again upon the balcony, and allow them to grow and bloom. This is a very good 
plan where a box of flowering bulbs is desired for the jam just outside of the 
window-sill. After flowering the box may be filled up again with beiiing 
plants. Every evening give a good sprinkling of water, and once a week you 
may add a dose of liquid fertilizer to all your plants on the balcony. In very 
hot weather watering may be given twice a day, remembering the only safe rule, 
never to give it between the hours of 9 a. m. and 4 p. M., while the sun's rays 
are warmest; hence, affording the most danger. Where balconies are enclosed 
by glass screens upon all sides they become house conservatories, and admit of 
the same management which is given to plants for window or greenhouse culture. 
Plants of greater variety may be admitted here during all seasons of the year, 
but usually nearly everything is removed from them during the summer months, 
and placed outdoors to enjoy the fresh air and invigorating rains. 

The Aucuba Japonica is a handsome evergreen shrub ; flowers are of no value, 
being small, but the leaves are large, of a glossy green, blotched with a pale yel- 
low color, tapering off to white. It must be grown in a partially shaded loca- 
tion, as it cannot bear the hot rays of the sun. It is hardy, and will withstand 
ordinary winters. 

Vines for the Balcony. 
In these you will find your most effective means of decoration. Most of the 
hardy garden favorites will grow from 30 to 50 feet in a season, and a great 




merit is their earliness and frequency of bloom. The list suitable for this purpose 
is quite large, so we name only the best six or eight. 

FtR. 20.— A Cottage Poich. witli Cliiulnug Vines at tbe Side. 


The HoneysucMe miglit almost be called a vine of romance. It has been so 
celebrated in woids of sentiment" or gems of poetry. Tho Japan variety (Lo- 
nicera brachypoda) is much the best; leaves are large, of a bright green color; 
flovfers of a delicate sweet fragrance. As a vine for covering arbors, pillars, trel- 
lises, balconies, &c., it is unsurpassed. 

The Trumpet Honey suclde {Loniccra semjjcrviiois,) is one of the species of the 
Woodbine, so well known for its beauty of flower, and high fragrance. This 
species is referred to by The Agriculturist as one of the native varieties; not as 
showy as some of the later varieties, has fine dark green leaves, flowers tubular, 
about two inches long, of a fine scarlet outside, yellow within and very brilliant. 
Tt multiplies from either layers or cuttings ; will not do well north of New 
York, but is very suitable for the Southern States. 

The Wistaria has the merit of permanency. Its stems, once grown and 
trained, do not die down yearly, but remain, and grow even more luxuriant and 
profuse in bloom year after year. It is quite hardy ; will stand our winters with- 
out much protection. The flowers are of a light blue color, and bloom almost 
constantly during the summer months, although the principal period is in May; 
is grown from cuttings or layers. Cultivators will do best to buy a good plant 
already well started. 

The Scarlet Trumpet Creeper (Bignonia grandiflora') has much the showiest 
flowers of all the hardy climbing vines ; flowers are of rich scarlet, produced in 
the greatest profusion, blooming only in July and August. It will attach itself 
firmly to anything it can reach, and throw out innumerable little rootlets, which 
do not let go their hold. It is a very rapid grower, and its appearance is very 
much heightened by the contrast of the flowers with the bright, glossy, deep 
green of the leaves. 

The Aristolochia sipho, or Dutchman^ s Pipe, is a very curious vine, with 
leaves possessing an almost tropical appearance, being of an extraordinarj' size, 
S to 10 inches broad. The flowers grow in the form of a small pipe, and pos- 
sess little beauty. The plant is hardy, a rapid climber, and is particularly valua- 
ble for positions where a dense shade is quickly desired. Grown principally 
from cuttings. 

The Virginia Creeper, or American Ivy, requires to be planted in rich, cool, 
moist soil. "When well started it will grow with a rapidity unparalleled in 
native vines. Its foliage is its most valuable and interesting characteristic ; dur- 
ing the summer time it is of a beautiful green, heightened in eff'ect very materi- 
ally by the festoons which swing off from the main stem, and add grace of habit 
to beauty of color. In the autumn the foliage, at the first advent of frost, is 
changed into the most brilliant of crimson colors, as if the vine were in a blaze 
of glory. It is best admired when seen in contrast with some other green vine 
close at hand, and hence, it is often twined with the Wisteria. The Morning 
Glory, (^Convolvulus major,") with its brilliant, purple, crimson, or white flowers, 
is the easiest of all to raise from the seed, and always makes a fine display. 

The Tropceolum percgrinum, (Canary Bird Flower,) is used for veranda pur- 


poses as well as for the garden or for bedding; flowers yellow ; very ornamental 
growth about 10 feet. 

It would be best to twine a different vine around each pillar or column *nrt • 

Pig. 21.— Trumpet Honeysuckle— Zionicera sempervircnt. 

some cases, where there will be a contrast of foliage and flowers, two different 
vines may be twined around the same column ; but it is best to keep the ann-uals 


by themselves and the permanent varieties by themselves The Clematis, Jas- 
mine, or Climbing Roses may be added by those who have the taste. Indeed, 
we would recommend for a surety at least one Prairie Rose, either the Gem of 
the Prairies or the Queen of the Prairies, both of which are crimson in color, 
the former more durable and flagrant than the latter, but not as rapid a climber 

House-top Gardening. 

What a novelty! yet how reasonable the suggestion. In the German tale of 
the " Old Mam'selle," we read of its pleasures, and it is stated that in Sweden 
house-top gardens are not an uncommon sight, both in the country and in the 
villages. The roofs of some of the poorest cottages are covered with herbs, 
which, afford a pasture for goats. In Norway they even plant trees in the turf 
which covers the roofs, and to such an extent is this carried that some of their 
hamlets or villages, seen at a distance, have quite the air of a little wood. Noth- 
ing is more common than to see rude kitchen gardens on these roofs of houses. 

An English gentlema,n, writing to a London horticultural journal, mentions 
the pleasant recollections when he visited while a boy, over 50 years ago, the 
home of a French citizen, a Mr. Marquis, in Coleman street, London : 

" This gentleman's hobby was a ' house-top garden ' of the most complete and 
perfect character. At the lower part of the upper staircase was the root of a 
fine Sycamore, the foliage of which luxuriated in a ' glass house ' above on the 
roof, amidst orange and lemon trees, with fairest flowers, tea, tobacco, and many 
other highly interesting specimens of vegetable life. I forget, at this distance of 
time, how many sorts of fruit were to be seen growing and flourishing in this 
'house-top garden,' but the vine and its magnificent clusters of delicious grapes 
are ineffaceably engraved on memory's young tablets. Think of that, ye apa- 
thetic cockneys ! hothouse grapes from Coleman street, and that not once in a 
day, but year after year, until the talented and spirited proprietor went to that 
bourne from whence no traveler returns, and then the master mind being gone 
the garden pined away. 

" In a convenient corner of his elevated greenhouse Mr. Marquis had a lifting 
force-pump, with air vessel, to which a length of leather hose being attached, 
afforded a convenient means of watering and syringing the numerous plants col- 
lected in this unique garden." 

This style of ornamental gardening is unusual here, and we remember but one 
instance of ever noticing an attempt to imitate it in this country. This was so 
successfully planned and executed that it will bear honorary mention. 

In one of the principal streets of Louisville, Kentucky, may be seen a doctor's 
oflBce, the roof of which is covered with a perfect mass of green plants in floral 
boxes. Directly in front, on the eaves just overhanging the front of the build- 
ing, is a long box, about two feet wide, the eame in height, and extending across 
the entire width of the top of the house. Here were planted a perfect mass of 
Verbenas and Portulaccas; at the corners were set drooping vines, which, as 
they grew, hung their long garlands of flowers away down before the lower win- 




^lows. Just back of this was placed a wooden staging, with successive steps 
rising upward, covered with pots or boxes filled with plants of other character. 
Here were Fuchsias trained to a neat little trellis ; Coleus in one pot ; Achyran- 
thes in another, and in one big tub had been planted a pumpkin seed, the vines 
from which sprawled all over the top of the staging and rustic arbor improvised 
overhead. Here and there, over the roof beyond, were put pots, each with a 
huge plant of the Ricinus fully eight feet high, and correspondingly broad. At 
each corner of the roof, also in the centre, and on an elevated stand near the 
front, were set big barrels or hogsheads full of water pumped up from below, 
and from holes at the bottom the water flowed through hose with sprinklers 
attached, and which sprinkled the plants at any time with a ready rain. 

The Ricinus added vastly more than anything else to the decoration of the 
roof, by their stateliness and almost tropical beauty ; but the trailing vines, with 
their garlands of bloom, helped out the symmetry and completed the grace of 
the whole. Scarcely a passer-by in the street but stopped long to look upon this 
novel scene; and the fame of the doctor's garden doubtless has been carried 
by strangers far beyond the borders of this lovely " City of Flowers." 

Not long since a lady detailed to a delighted audience, of how she, with her 
sister, put to good practical use the roof of a one story L building, which was 
used for a kitchen. The roof was nearly flat, and afforded ready means for 
converting into a garden. Surrounding it with a wire trellis, they placed inside 
as many boxes, barrels, &c., as they could find. These they filled with rich 
dirt, manure, and street sweepings. Here they sowed seeds of Tomatoes, 
Cucumbers, Squash, Melons, String Beans, and anything of quick, easy growth. 
They actually did cultivate this curious garden for two years, and gathered, 
while each growing season lasted, excellent crops of vegetables, rich flavored, 
large and delicious ; perhaps doubly appreciated in consequence of their being 
the fruit of their own labor. As long as it lasted the little series of box garden 
was well tilled, kept well watered with liquid manure, and was eminently suc- 
cessful. It ran down at last, owing to a change of occupants of the building. 

A very pretty plan for a Rose Garden upon the top of a house has been sug- 
gested hy a landscape gardener. Let the pillars and frame-work of the house be 
made very strong, capable of supporting a good weight of earth, &c. Then fill 
into earthern cribs all the rich earth that can be obtained to the depth of li feet, 
and cover the entire roof, except a path surrounding an oval bed in the centre. 
This path should be three feet wide. Here you may plant your Roses, Fuchsias, 
&c., in the open air, and they will, if kept well watered, bloom all the summer. 
The accompanying design and description, by Robert Morris Copeland, in an 
early number of " Hearth and Home," will explain itself: 

"This little plan shows a roof 20 by 30 feet; provision must be made for a 
weight of 20 tons, for a cubic foot of soil weighs 100 pounds, and there are 900 
cubic feet in the garden, or 600 square feet superficial area. This would crush 
an ordinary roof, so the weight must be lightened by taking out room for th« 
path, and having only light weight in the centre figure 



" Surround the roof with an iron frame 6 feet high, made of iron rods, set up 
at intervals of 6 feet, and connected with smaller rods running entirely around 
the roof. Train on this fence Wistaria, Woodbine, Honeysuckle, or Running 

On the fence on the north side, where the Roses would get full sun, plant 
Baltimore Belle, Mrs. Ilovey, or Rosa Ruga, if content with single blooming 
Roses; or select from the Noisettes La Marque or Aimee Vibert or Madame 
Henrietta, and from the Teas, Safrano. 

On the east fence plant the Lonicera Halliana, Hall's Honeysuckle, and the 
Golden Berried Honeysuckle — all hardy; on the south, Golden and common 
Ivy; on the west, Dutch Monthly Honeysuckle and one running Rose 

During the summer grow Tropjeolum, Maurandia, Nierembergia, and Ipomcea 
among the hardy vines. In the northwest corner (J.) set six Hybrid Perpetual 

Roses, then a bed of Heliotropes ; in the 
northeast corner six more Hybrid or 
other Perpetuals ; D and H, occupied 
by roots of vines ; cover the surface with 
Periwinkle, Nummularia, or Lycopo- 
dium; E, June Roses: F, Tricolor 
Pelargoniums, which do best out of the 
direct rays of the sun ; Cr, Moss Roses, 
single, blooming, and perpetual. In the 
centre bed J is a group of Coleus sur- 
unded by Centauria candidissima ; J, 
K, L, M, are filled with China, Bengal, 
and Tea Roses, the surface unoccupied 
to be covered with Blue Lobelia; X. is 
the trap door which leads out of the 

A roof garden for Roses could be 
planted every autumn with Bulb«, Snow 
drops, Crocuses, Hyacinths, and Tulips, 
all of which would blossom and die be- 
fore the foliage of the Roses would be 
large enough to do any harm. 
Fig. 23.-pian of a Rose Garden on the Roof of a ^et, there be planted for instance, fouf 
Houae. colors of Hyacinths in the beds J, 

K, L, M ; Crown Imperials and Tulips in I ; border all the beds with Snow- 
drops ; set Crocus in four colors inside of the Snowdrops ; fill B, F, D, H with 
mixed Tulips, and put Daffodils, Jonquils, and Polyanthus in ^, C, C, G. 

" The bed for roof gardens should be raised a few inches above the surface of 
the roof, the wood forming the bottom of the garden-box or crib, being perfo- 
rated ; the sides of the box should be two feet high. First lay over the floor a 
few inches of leaves, broken bones, or coarse manure." 


This idea of roof gardens may be still farther carried out, and made more 
permanently useful for winter as well as summer, by covering it all over with 
glass ; then at any season of the year the flower-lover may repair here, and 
always be sure of finding some green things to enliven the looks, while in sum 
mer the glass may be opened to the admission of fresh air and rain. 

If the amateur does not wish to go to so elaborate and expensive a construc- 
tion, he may gratify his taste by the selection of large pots or boxes, fill them 
with soil, and then place them upon the roof, filled with appropriate plants. 

Shrubs may be introduced here, such as the Deutzias, Spiraeas, or Weigelas 
but usually annual plants — i. e., those grown from seed — will do the best, like 
Verbenas, Salvias, and climbing plants. Fuchsias, Heliotropes, and GeraniurM 
will always be appropriate. 

No prettier ornament to a house-top can be devised than to erect at each cor- 
ner of the roof a pretty trellis. Let there be a rod or pole running across the 
vacant space from one trellis to the other ; then at the bottom place a large tub 
of earth, and in it start a few plants of Ivy, or the Scarlet Trumpet Creeper, or 
the Wistaria. Keep them well watered, and their clambering tendrils, with 
their rich leaves, will soon festoon the arbor, and render the roof an inviting 
resort for all members of the family. The Ivy is much the simplest and safes 
ornament of this description to use, and the amateur had better not try any 
thing else until he becomes more familiar with plant-culture and can make 
good selection for himself. 



Buibous-rooled flowering plants are so numerous, conspicuous, and exquisitely 
oeautiful, and witha! so well adapted for tlie conservatory, tliat were all other 
plants annihilated or forgotten, this class alone would at all times fill the draw- 
ing-room with the most gorgeous as well 
as tlie most chaste and beautiful flowers, 
attractive not onl}- for their delicacy, bril- 
liancy, and variety of color, but as well 
for their most delightful fragiance. It is 
not our intention in this place to write a 
history of Bulbs, but merely to offer a 
few remarks on the adaptation and culture 
of the most desirable sorts, in connection 
with other classes of plants noticed in 
this work. 

The Hyacinth. 

Pre-eminent in this class stands the 
Hyacinth, which has been deservedly 
popular for more than three hundred 
years, and is to-day more sought after 
than any other species, simply because 
greater variety of color and quantity of 
bloom can be bad with less trouble and ex- 
pense than from any other. Hyacinths 
have a most generous nature ; they will 
adapt themselves to almost any situation, 
and flower as freely and smile as sweetly 
Pig. 24.— "Kustic Robin" Jardinet. i" the poor man's window as in the more 

costly conservatory of the wealthy. While their generosity is so marked, their 
gratitude for, and appreciation of, attention shown them is equally marked. No 
plant pays so well for good culture as this; the diflference between common 
planting and proper growing is so great that one would scarcely think or believe 
the flower could come from the same bulb. Hyacinths can be grown in a variety 
of ways. The best, simplest, and most common, is in pots. "We shall, however 



describe the various wa^'s we have grown them, and leave the reader to make his 
or iier choice, as fanc}' may dictate. 

First, a few words upon the selection of Bulbs are highl}' necessary. It may 
not be generally known that Hyacinths M'ill not bloom icell but once. In IIol 
land, wiiere they are only grown for market, they are not allowed to flower 
except in specimen beds, from the time the setts are planted until they are larg» 
enough to sell, which is usually when they are four years old. The llower-stall 
is cut away as soon as it can be without damage to the foliage. This throws thi 
whole strength of the plant into the bulb, wliich is kept growing until there ii 
danger of its breaking, which the 
practiced eye of the grower readi- 
ly sees. Then it is sent to mar- 
ket, and the next season will give 
the finest possible bloom, after 
which the old bulb will " break" 
and several small ones form, noen 
of which will ever do well enougii 
to pay for growing the second sea- 
son. We do not wish to mislead ; 
this instruction is only for those 
who wish none but first ra<e flow- 
ers. Bulbs planted in the open 
border, after having bloomed in 
pots, will continue to bloom a 
number of years, but will give 
small, puny spikes, with but a few 
bells on each. 

To flower bulbs successfully 
they should be procured as soon 
as possible after their arrival from 
Holland, which is generally about 
the first of September, and imme- 
diately potted in a soil composed 
of equal parts of good loam, leaf 
mould and well rotted cow man- 
ure, which should be well mixed. Fig. 25.— Prlucess Alexandra Jardlnet. 
after which add about one-fiflh of good clean sand. No soil can be better than this for 
noble growth and bloom. The pots should be made on purpose ; not larger than five 
inches across, nor less than eight inches deep ; fill the pot nearly full of the com- 
post, and press the bulb firmly in, so that the top of the bulb is about level with 
the top of the pot. After filling, they should be plunged in a frame or open 
border, and covered four inches with soil or some compost, where they should 
remain until the first of December. This operation is highly necessary to 
encourage the root growth, which must be made before the leaves shoot forth, for 



Tierfection of bloom. After the roots have reached the bottom of the pot, they 
may be brought into the conservatory to tlower as wanted. Those brought in 
December 1st, will bloom by New Years. Water should be freely given them as 
soon as they begin to grow, but do not soak them, neither allow them to dry up. 
Even temperature, even watering, with plenty of fresh air, are the essentials for 
their well growing. As soon as the flower-stem is fully developed, one or two 
waterings with liquid manure is highly beneficial. The style of growth, and the 

size of the flowers and trusses of 
plants cultivated in this manner, 
will very much excel those grown 
in the ordinary way, and will 
amply repay the care bestowed. 
The same soil and treatment 
should be given them if planted 
in boxes, Jardinieres, tubs, or any 
device the grower may select. 

Hyacinths can be and are com- 
monly grown in glasses. One or 
two seasons generally satisfy the 
enthusiast, however, that it is not 
the better way. lilany will 
every year trj- this method, and 
for such the following instructions 
will be most likely the ones to 
insure success. The ordinary 
Hyacinth glass will answer, but 
Tye's pattern is decidedly prefer- 
able. Alwaysuserainwater ; put 
them in the glasses about the first 
of October ; do not fill above the 
bottom of the bulb. It is better 
not to let the water quite reach 
the bulb. After filling, place in 
a dark closet until the roots 
reach the bottom of the glass, 
which will generally be in about 
three weeks ; be careful to keep 
Fig. 26.— -'Prince of Wales"" Jardinet. away from frost ; change the 

water as often as it becomes discolored, and fill up to the bottom of the bulb 
any time there is a vacancy between the periods of change. When they begin 
to grow, give them all the light possible without setting them where they will 
get the noonday sun. A friend once called us to see and tell him why his Hya- 
cinths did not " do well." Upon examination we found the water hot from the sun ; 
not merely warm, but hot enough to cook the bulb, which is not the way they 



should be served up. To set the glasses on the window ledge is nearly as fatal 
to them; the cold air coming up between the sash chills them. Plants of all 
kinds are as sensitive to a draft as human beings are. In order to have them 
near the light, put up light brackets or a narrow shelf across the window, say 
six inches from the glass, which 
will protect them both from the 
sun and the draft. 

A very good plan for growing 
them in glasses is first to put the 
bulb in clean sand until the roots 
have become well grown, say six 
inches long; then take them out 
of the sand, put them in glasses, 
and treat as above. It is really 
curious to see them growing in 
water, and when, as you some- 
times will do, )'ou get a good 
spike, the satisfaction is very 

Hyacinths will grow and bloom 
in moss alone, if it be kept con- 
tinually wetted ; but a far better 
way is to fill half way whatever 
vessel you may choose — a bowl, 
dish, or vase — with clean sand, 
place the bulb upon it, and fill the 
rest with good green moss. Use 
sufiicient water to keep the sand 
full, but with none lying on the 
top. Once in three or four water- 
ings you may use liquid manure, 
which may be made of half a peck 
of well rotted cow manure put in 
ten gallons of water, well stirred 
up, and allowed to settle, the clear 
liquid alone being used. Thiswill 
strengthen the growth; still with- 
out such stimulant the plants will 

Fig. 27.— Jardinet, with Hyacinth. 

come short, strong, and well colored, if kept fully exposed to the light, and well 
supplied with air. 

Those who grow Hyacinths in part to gratify curiosity, will be amused by 
taking a deep saucer or glass dish, fill it to the rim with clean, white gravel, 
ipon which place a good, firm bulb; then treat the same as with glasses. The 



roots will soon fill the dish, running over and through the gravel, forming a 
solid mass 

Selection of Varieties. 
As a rule, we prefer the single varieties for forcing. But few of the double 
ones produce a tine truss, the bells being uneavenly and thinly scattered along 
the stem. For glasses, moss, or saucers, the single ones must be selected. With 
the following sorts we have generally been successful : 

Double Red. — Bouquet Boyal, large, rosy bells; a good bloomer. 

Bouquet Tender, fine, deep red ; one of the best reds 
Comptesse de La Costa, very fine dark rose, with good spike 

Pig. 28.— Ornamental Hyacinth Glasses. Fig. 29.— Tye's Triple Hyacintli Glags. 

Dul-e of Wellington, very fine pale rose ; the bells large and 

beautifully arranged, often giving two spikes. 
Groofforst, pale rose; good spike, with nicely shaped bells. 
Begina Vic'oria, bright pink; large bells, and fine spike. 
Double White — Anna Maria, fine, waxy white, with pink eye ; good formed 
bells and spike. 
Jenny Lind, blush white, with purple eye ; good bells ; com- 
pact truss. 



La Deese, pure white, finely-shaped bells, but ch:n spike. 
La Vestale, lily wliite ; small bells and spike. 
Prince of Waterloo, fine, pure white; large bells; moderate 
DouBLR BLVB—BlocJcsberg, fine bright and marbled blue; very large bells 
and spike. 
Grande Vtdette, fine porcelain bine; large bells and spike. 
Laurens Kostcr, beautiful bright indigo, large bells, and 

first rate form, with an immense spike. 
Lord Wellington, clear blue; dark centre; good form. 
Prince Frederick, fine porcelain blue ; large bells and spike 
Double Yellow — Bouquet d' Orange, 
fine citron yellow; 
small bells; mod- 
erate spike. 
Ja^inne Supreme, fine, 
clear yellow ; good 
SixGLE Rev— Diehifz Sabalsl-ansi/, 
bright red, moderate 
bells, and good spike. 
Duke of Wellington, fine 
rose; large bells and 
L'Ami du Cceur, deep 
pink; small bells ; mod- 
crate spike. 
Madame Hodgaon, pale 
pink, good bells, and 
finel3'-formed spike. 
Norma, a magnificent 
waxy pink ; immense 
bells and spike. 
Bohert Sieigcr, (ine, deep 
crimson, large bells,_ 
and immense spike. 
Single "White — Elfrida, creamy blush; very large 
bells; immense spike. 
_, „ _ ^ , „ Grand Vainquer, pure white: fine 

rig 31.— Ornamental Vase in, 

for Bulbs. bells and spike ; extra. 

Grand Vidette, pure white, large bells, and long spike; very 

Grand Blanche LnperiaJe, fine blush ; moderate bells ; laref 



Grandeur a Merville, very fine, pale blush, good bells, and 

immense spike. 
Mont Blanc, beautiful, clear white ; large bells ; immense 

Victoria Begina, very fine, pure vrhite, large, waxy bells, and 

fine spike. 
Voltaire, very beautiful blush • large bells ; compact spike ; 
of immense size. 
Single Blue — Baron Van Tuyll, fine, dark porcelain ; large bells ; extra fine 
Charles DicJcens, fine, pale blue; large bells; very fine spike. 
Grand Lilas, beautiful, delicate azure blue; large, perfect 

bells; immense spike ; one of the best. 
Grand Vidette, fine, pale blue, immense bells, and moderate 

Nimrod, beautiful, pale blue ; large bells and spike. 
Orandates, very fine porcelain blue, large bells, and very fine 

Porcelain Sceptre, very fine, pale blue ; moderate bells ; very 
fine spike. 
Single Yellow — An7ia Carolina, beautiful, clear yellow; handsome bella 
and spike. 
Heroine, pale yellow, with green tips; large truss. 

Eoman White Hyacinth, 
A new variety lately introduced ; a most valuable acquisition for early blooming, 
suitable only for pots. The bells of this variety are very small, not more than 
half the size of the Dutch bulbs. They can be grown in three-inch pots ; same 
soil as recommended for the other sorts. If planted in September, they can be 
made to bloom by the 1st of December. Flowers pure white, very fragrant, 
small bells, and spike ; each bulb will give from three to five spikes. For early 
flowering it is indispensable. 

We cannot leave this interesting class of plants without a word of caution to 
those about selecting bulbs. Do not buy cheap bulbs, neither those that are 
very high priced, because of their scarcity. Good bulbs cannot be had at less 
than three dollars per dozen ; that is, such bulbs as ought to be grown in the 
"window." Avoid "mixed" bulbs, which are simply culls. In Holland, when 
the crop is harvested, the very best are selected and sent to England and France, 
where the prices are twice as much as here; the next choice is for this and other 
markets, sold under Named sorts; the next grade are put up and sold in 
separate colors; the balance of stock is sold at auction, to be put up in "cases" 
for auction in this country, or hawked about our streets by German pedlars. 
Go to a reliable seedsman, and if you do not know what you want, take hit) 



Few flowers have received the marked attention, and been so universally grown 
and admirted, as the Tulips. But few plants are so varied in their characters, 
and scarcely a family so large but what has more poor relations. No class of 
plants has so many superb varieties. The late flowering or show varieties are 
among ths brightest ornaments of the garden. We regret so few of the many 
sorts are suitable for forcing, or for early flowering in the " window." The fol- 
lowing varieties can be successfully grown in pots, giving them the same soil and 
treatment as recommended for the Hyacinth. They should be planted in five- 
inch pots, putting five bulbs in each, one in the centre, the four equally distant 
about one inch from the rim. Plant as early as they can be procured in the fall. 
Plunge out of doors, and let them remain until the first of December, when they 
may be brought in. As soon as they show signs of growth, water moderately ; 
give them plenty of light, sun, and air; a cool situation suits them best. 
Due Van TVioU Red and Yellow — single ; the 
earliest va- 
do do double; showy 

and early. 
S c a r 1 e t — very bright and 

White — very fine, large, and 

perfect flower. 
Yellow — one of the best yellow 

sorts grown. 
Crimson — large flower, but not 

so early. 
Gold striped — early, and very 
Potterhakher, White and Yellow — Both are 
good for forcing; flowers 
larger tlian the Due Van 
Tholl's, but not as early; 
very fine for a succession. 
Tournesol, (double), Red and Yellow — a very large flower, opens wide, is a 

free bloomer, and very showy. 
Tlorentine (sweet scented) — exquisite on account of its delicious fragrance. 
With these varieties we advise the amateur to stop, as we think the room can 
be filled with plants that are better adapted to indoor culture. 

Fig, 33.— Pot of 

Tlie Narcissus 
\% admirablr adapted for window gardening; soil and general treatment same as 

for the Hyacinth. 

They should be planted in Septen.uer, one .q a pot, which 



should be not less than five inches across. Place out of doors, where they should 
remain until near Christmas, by which time they will be well rooted, and ready 
for rapid growth. After flowering, they should be left in the pots, and kept 
growmg until they can be plunged in the garden, where they should be left (in 
pots) for the next season. After they have become well established they flower 
profusely. But few kinds of bulbs are so impatient of changes as these ; they 
should not be taken out of the pots until the bulbs and roots have completely 
filled them ; then take out, remove the outside bulbs, leaving the centre in a solid 
mass, and repot for the next season. The shifting should be done when the 
bulbs are at rest. The following are the most desirable for indoor culture : 
Polyanthus Narcissus, (Roman,) double ; white and yellow; when planted 
early will bloom at Christmas. 
Paper white; pure white, and early; very 

Grand Soliel d' Or, &r\e yellow orange; cup 
very handsome; comes in after the pre- 
States General, lemon yellow; orange cup; 

an excellent variety. 
Bezelman major, white ; yellow cup ; a later 

variety, but one of the very best. 
Double Narcissus, Albo pleno oderato, very 
double; pure white; 
later than the Polyan- 
thus Narcissus, and 
should be left out of 
doors until it has been 

Fig. 34.— Basket of Mixed Bulbs. n i i i ^ 

frozen hard before 
bringing in ; it will bloom about the first of March. 
Single Narcissus, Porteus, a popular and well-known variety, pure white, 
lemon-colored cup in the centre, which is bordered with 
bright crimson. 
Single Narcissus, Albo simplex oderato, pure white; very fragrant. 
Jonquilles, large double and single ; sweet scented ; both veiy desirable for 

In large collections, all the above varieties of Narcissus are desirable. The 
number of bulbs required will, of course, depend upon (he space that can be 
spared for them. Like other kinds of bulbs, it is well to have a good supply in 
reserve, as they need not be in the conservatory or drawing-room more than three 
or four weeks; consequently, a large number will be required for from Decem- 
ber until May, the season that the amateur's time is wholly taken up with the 
scores of Aivorites that now claim care and attention, out of doors.- 



The Crocus, which has for many ages been cultivated as an ornament to our 
flower gardens, can, if properly managed, be made an eflective plant for the con- 
servatory or ordinary house culture. The first thing of importance attending 
their culture is early planting, which should be attended to early in September. 
Few bulbs suffer more from being kept too long out of ground than these. The 
soil best adapted to them is a rich, light, sandy loam. Plant, for a good display, 
six to ten bulbs in a pot, colors to be arranged according to taste. A few small 

Fig. 35.— Box of Bulljs growiug in Sand. 

pots, with but one color in each, contrasts better with other plants in the window 
than larger pots of mixed sorts. When planted, plunge the pots out of doors, 
same as Hyacinth, and let them remain until Christmas, when they may be 
brought in and given plenty of light and air, keeping cool until they begin to 
show bloom, when they may be placed in the window as wanted. With these 
precautions, a fine display can be had. A succession of bloom may be kept up 
by bringing in as wanted. Disappointment generally arises from keeping them 

tijj. 36.— Tile Box fiUed with Bulba. 

too warm in the early stages of their growth. The following varieties are the 
best for pot culture, giving very large flowers of great substance, with rich and 
veiy beautiful colors: 

Albion, very large white. 

Albertine, white, striped violet 

Charles Dickens, large purple. 


David Rizsio, deep purple. 

Florence Nightingale, large, fine white purple throat. 

La Majesteiise, violet-striped, on a delicately tinted ground. 

La Neige, snow white. 

Mont Blanc, large, pure white ; purple base. 

Mammoth, very large, pure white. 

Netv Golden Yellow — The bulbs of this variety are very large, each bulb pro 
ducing from ten to fifteen flowers. 

Queen Victoria, fine, pure white. 

Sir Walter Scott, beautifully pencilled lilac, very large, and of great substance. 

Lord Palmerston, sky blue ; very pretty. 

Cloth of Gold, golden yellow, striped brown ; one of the earliest varieties. 

Princess af Wales, very large, and fine, pure white. 

After flowering, throw away, as they do not do well after, and the low price 
they are sold at enables a replenishment at less cost than the trouble of saving. 

Bulbocodium, or Red Crocus, 
Commonly known as Spring Colchicum, is a charming plant for pot culture, 
requiring the same treatment as the Crocus ; flowers of purple red, which are 
produced in great numbers from a single bulb. They may be brought in about 
the middle of December, and will flower at Christmas. They require plenty of 
water during flowering, after which they should be slowly dried oflF until the 
leaves dry up ; then lay away for next season's flowering. 

The Snowdrop. 
This ever popular and charming little flower, the first to welcome spring when 
planted in some snug corner where the sun loves to linger, is quite at home in 
the window-corner. It thrives finely in a light, sandy loam ; does not require 
to be particularly rich. If planted in pots alone, six can be put in a three-inch 
pot, which should have the same treatment as the Crocus, a little freezing being 
very beneficial to them. They make a lovely border to the pots or boxes of 
Hyacinths, the same treatment answering equally well for both. The double is 
larger and better for pot culture than the single ; the latter is the earlier of the 
two. It is of no use to plant these bulbs unless it is done in September, for 
they soon spoil from dry rot if left long out of ground. For house culture the 
better plan is to take from the open border where the bulbs have remained undis- 
turbed a number of years. With these success is almost certain, while with 
newly imported bulbs failure is not uncommon. 

The Winter Aconite, 
Is a charming little plant, with golden blossoms, which expand simultaneously 
with the Snowdrop, and with which it contrasts finely. After flowering, the 
foliage makes a beautiful edging for pots or jardinets. 


The Iris 

But few plants present such rare beauty, and rich combination of color as the 
Iris. The name was given it by Pliny and Theophrastus, from the variety of its col- 
ors. Of the many hundred varieties, the bulbous rooted sorts are the only ones 
that succeed well in pots. The method of culture is simple, requiring a rich 
loamy soil. Only three or four bulbs should be planted in a six-inch pot, which 
should be filled about one quarter full with broken pots for drainage, then fill 
with soil, and press the bulb in so that the top of the bulb will be even with the 
rim of the pot. Give but very little water until they show growth ; after which it 
ma)'^ be given more freely. 

The English Iris, for brilliancy of color and vigorous foliage, takes rank among- 
the handsomest of flowering bulbs, they grow nearly two feet high, and produce 
during June and July, a succession of large and beautiful flowers. This variety is 
too large to become popular as a window plant. 

The Spanish Iris, differ materially from the English, though no less beautiful; 
they are "not as large as the former, and bloom somewhat earlier, which makes 
them more desirable for pot culture. 

Iris Pavonia, or Peacock Iris, is a charming little plant well adapted for pots. 
The bulbs are quite small — not much larger than peas. They should be planted 
in September or October, in a light turfy loam. Plant three or four bulbs in a 
four-inch pot, which should be kept in a cold frame until toward Spring when 
they may be brought in and watered moderately ; they will soon begin to make 
growth, and will flower early in April. 

Iris Persiea, is the best for forcing. Plant the same as I. Pavonia ; they will 
flower almost as soon as brought in ; the colors are white, blue, purple, and violet. 
They are highly prized for their delicious fiagrance, which is fully equal to the 
violet. This sort will bloom in water like Hyacinth. 

Iris Susiana, is one of those beauties that baffle description. It is one of the 
best for the "window," flowering freely in pots, jardinets or vases. It is the 
earliest sort, consequently the most desirable for winter decoration. 

The Ixias, and sister cape bulbs the Sparaxis, Babianas and Tritonias, are 
amongst the most graceful, attractive and beautiful of cape flowering bulbs. 
Though diSering considerably in style and habit of growth, they require the same 
cultural treatment. They succeed best in good turfy peat. Plant about the first 
of October, three or four in a four-inch pot, which should be placed in a cold 
frame, protected from severe frosts and heavy rains. They should be brought in 
about the first of March ; they will at once commence growth and flower early in 

The color of the Ixias are of every conceivable shade, forming some of the most 
nmarkable contrasts. The habit of the plant is most graceful, and when a quan- 
tity are in bloom, the effect of it is most pleasing. In selecting these bulbs, 
choose named sorts, for the same reason you would many other bulbs, viz : bulbs 
in mixture are apt to be bulbs of the more common sorts. 


Sparaxis, are more dwarf and compact in habit than the Ixia, while their col- 
ors are as varied and beautiful. For pot culture and window decoration they 
cannot be too strongly recommended. 

The Tritonia, in habit and form, is very similar to the Sparaxis. They are 
plants of rare beauty, colors principally selfs. For good eflfect about twice as many 
bulbs should be put in a pot as of the Ixia. 

Tlie Babiana, in habit and growth, is nearly the same as the two former, but 
as unlike in color as is possible for such near relatives. While the others are 
mostly crimson and white, with their various shades, these are nearly all purple 
and blue. Together, the}*^ are most desirable, and are annually becoming more 
extensively used for window decoration. 


This family is almost endless in variety, embracing some of the most common 
forage plants. While the Persian and Turban varieties produce the most elegant 
and diversified colored flowers, that for symmetry and compactness are unequaled. 
When properly grown they are completely covered with flowers nearly as large 
and quite as desirable as roses. But little attention has been given them as pot 
plants; our experience with them, as such, has been most pleasing, having had 
more truly handsome flowers than from almost any other plant, with the same 
amount of trouble and expense. 

For winter flowering, if possible, select roots that have been kept out of ground 
the previous season as they come into flower much earlier than those taken up 
the previous summer. The roots keep well in a dry place for two years, so that 
B succession of bloom can be obtained by planting at proper intervals, the whole 

The Ranunculus, requires a strong, fresh, loamy soil, made very rich by well 
rotted cow manure ; with such components use equal parts. For early bloom- 
ing, commence potting the first of August. Use four-inch pots, into which put 
three roots of separate colors, selection of which to suit the taste ; place the roots 
firmly in the mould, and cover half an inch; plunge the pot or put in a shaded 
frame; bring in as wanted, commencing the first of October, give them a light 
warm situation, and shade from the sun which completely destroys their bright 

For flowering the whole season, pot from August to April, and forward as 
wanted. The Persian varieties are the earliest, consequently should be planted 
first, to be followed by the Turban varieties. These two are the only varieties 
desirable for pot culture ; but there are hundreds of named sorts, to be selected 
from seedsmen's catalogues that generally list the most desirable kinds. After 
blooming they can be dried off gradually, put in a dry place and kept for next 
year's flowering. The low price they are sold at does not make it an object to 
keep them for flowering the second year, as roots grown in the open border are 
generally more satisfactory. 



Of this plant there are nearly a hundred species, each with its score of varie 
ties, many of them present some of the finest forms of floral beauty. The double 
varieties are the best suited for the conservatory, and for whicli they are admira- 
bly adapted; the foliage is extremely beautiful, the bright green contrasting well 
with the dazzling brightness of the bright scarlet and purple flowers that grow 
in profusion. They require the same general treatment as the Ranunculus, only 
that a little sea sand or salt should be mixed with the .soil. For a succession of 
bloom, plant from September until March. Those planted in September will 
flower in latter part of Maich or the first of April, while those planted in March 
will flower by the middle of June. 

We list the following from many we have bloomed, and should recommend 
them for pot culture. 

Feu Surperhe, bright scarlet. 

Bose Surpassnnte, rose. 

Queen of the Netherlands, white and rose, fine. 

L^ Ornament de la Nature, rich dark blue. 

Lord Nelson, violet. 

Queen Victoria, bright scarlet, a free bloomer. 

Bemhrandt, carmine. 

Sliakspenre, beautiful blue. 

Von Schiller, dark brilliant blue. 

The above collection mcludes the most .striking and positive colors, and are 
such as bloom well. Many others might be added to the list without materially 
increasing the value of the collection. 

Tlie Cyclamen. 

About this flower but one opinion can be entertained, — that it is the most 
beautiful bulbous rooted plant ever introduced for the parlor or conservatory, and 
its beauty is fully equaled by its adaptation for the same purpose. We are 
fully justified in making this assertion, by the greatly increased interest taken 
in it by florists, amateurs, and the lovers of flowers in general. Ease of culture 
is an additional feature in their character and much in their favor. The diffi- 
culty in propagation alone has prevented their becoming a florists flower. The 
roots or bulbs of the Cyclamen being a solid corm, they will not divide success- 
fully ; consequently the only means of propagation is from seed, which must be 
gathered soon as ripe, slowly dried, and planted in a green house in heat ; they 
must be kept constantly growing until they are in full flower. This part we 
should advise the amateur to leave to the professional florist and depend upon 
such for plants for the first season. 

They should be procured soon as they show flower, place in a sunny exposure 
and not be allowed to get chilled in winter. They are generally ofl*ered for sale 
about Jan. 1st. If in a warm room, even temperature, and kept well watered 
they will remain in flower until the first of May ; after flowering they should hv' 


plunged into a shady border, and left to care for themselves until there is danger 
of frost when they should be taken in, repotted in a compost of leaf mold, turfy 
loam and well rotted cow manure in equal parts; use pots in proportion to the 
size of the bulb. A pot twice the diameter of the bulb is plenty large ; a pot six 
inches in diameter is sufficiently large for the largest bulbs. After repotting, 
water moderately until they commence growth, then apply as needed. We saw 
several bulbs last season that had not been shifted for several years; several of 
them gave over two hundred flowers each ; more exquisite pot plants could not 
be had 

Of various kinds, have long been popular as early spring flowers; S. Siberica is 
of the most intense blue, and is a perfect gem, whether in the open border, in pots 
or any device that is used for Hyacinths, Tulip or Crocus — it can be mixed with 
either of them with most excellent effect, requiring the same treatment. The 
habit of it is exceedmgly dwarf, growing but little larger than the Crocus. The 
flowers are borne on a slender stalk, of bell-shape, similar to a minature Hy- 
acinth. S. Amoena, is also very beautiful as a pot plant, being a little taller 
and later than the Siberica — it is very useful as a succession. There are sev- 
eral other varieties, very beautiful for out-door cultivation but not suitable for 


M. botryoides, the Grape Hyacinth, is remarkable for its dwarf growth and 
neat compact heads of bloom. The three varieties, dai-k blue, light blue and 
white, make charming clumps, when planted in pots two or three of a color in 
each. They require but little room, a six inch pot being sufficiently large for a 
dozen biilbs; the same soil and treatment recommended for the Hyacinths is best 
suited to them. After flowering they may be allowed to ripen off" slowly and 
they will bloom equally well for a number of years. Muscari Plumosum or 
Feathered Hyacinth, does not thrive well in pots generally, but should be grown 
in small quantities. Their remarkable plume-like appearance, so unlike any 
other flower, is of sufficient importance to entitle them to a place in the conserva- 
tory. Treat same as the other varieties. 

This splendid and beautiful family has not as yet received the care and atten- 
tion, or become as generally cultivated as their rarity and excellence deserves, 
containing as it does so many varieties of surpassing loveliness, beauty and gran- 
deur. These qualifications alone should insure them a place in every " Win- 
dow" Garden. Yet they have other recommendations for extensive culture, 
namely, that they can be made to produce their gorgeous and magnificent flow- 
ers nearly every month in the year. They are on this account invaluable for 
the conservatory and drawing rooms, which can be kept gay by the many truly 
elegant varieties as we now possess nearly the whole wmter. The length of time 


they keep in flower, and the very pleasing variety the}"^ make, is another just 
claim iliey have for a high place among decorative plants. 

Ttie Amaryllis delight in good, light turfy loam, with the addition of a little 
well rotted cow manure, when planted in large pots, and all the conditions of 
growth are favorable, they throw up magnificent spikes of bloom. A. Johnsoni 
has been known to flower twice a year, a single bulb throwing up at one time 
four spikes, each giving four flowers. A more splendid flower than this is, it is 
scarcely possible to conceive. We scarcely know how to advise the amateur in 
the manner of treatment, but will commence with the dry bulb, which should be 
potted in the above compost, say in a six inch pot, fill nearly to the rim and 
press the bulb firmly in; one-half its diameter should be above the surface ; give 
it a thorough watering, and place on a shelf in moderate heat; it will not requiie 
further attention until it shows signs of growth, the time of which will depend 
wholly upon circumstances, i. e., how long it has been dry, the time of year, and 
whether it has been properly cared for duiing its rest. As a general thing the 
first indication of growth will be the flower stalk, which makes almost a per- 
ceptible growth, at this period. Give water freely once a week ; a sprinkling of 
liquid manure is very beneficial; give plenty of light and moderate heat and the 
first flowers will be perfected in two or three weeks ; large well developed bulbs 
will commence to throw up the second flower stalks about the time the first 
flowers are opened, which will make the flowering of a single bulb last from five 
to six weeks. 

After flowering they should be immediately repotted, no matter what time of 
year, and given plenty of heat and water. Fully exposed to the light, they will 
grow most luxuriantly and the bulbs will grow in a proportionate degree, laying 
up strength and nutritive matter that will produce in due season another crop of 
magnificent flowers. When the leaves naturally show symptoms of ripeness or 
decay, water should be gradually withheld, and when fairly decayed the pots 
should be placed in a dry, airy situation away from the frost or rain; here they 
may remain for two months, when they should be placed in a tub of water and 
left an hour, then placed in a warm room for flowering again. The method of 
culture, as recommended here, is only to be applied to those known as Heppeas- 
trom, which, unlike the Vallota, Belladona and other varieties, are under the 
florist's control and can be made to flower the whole season. An enthusiast, 
whose ten by fifteen green house we delight to visit, grows large quantities of 
Amaryllis, Johnsoni and its varieties, and gets from each bulb two crops of flowers 
annually. He gives each two months for flowering, two for growth, and two for 
rest, which he considers the best treatment, and no one that has seen the spikes 
of bloom that he produces can question his theory. 

Vallota Purpurea, 
Is one of the finest Amaryllis, and is the most easily managed. They are not 
at all particular as to soil, will grow in any, but prefer the same as recommended 
for other Amaryllis But few plants answer as well or make as fine display for 


the wiudow. Unlike most other plants, they do not require shifting but will grow 
from year to year in the same pot, tub or box without a change of soil, or other 
care than to give them plenty of water while flowering or in their growing stato, 
and moderate watering the balance of the season. The foliage being persistent 
they require attention the whole year, but they can be kept under benches, in a 
light cellar or in any light room away from the frost during the winter, and in 
summer anywhere out of doors upon the piazza, tlie lawn, or If in pots, plunge 
in the border. They require but little pot room, in fact do better when root 
bound. The writer had a clump in a small tub last season that gave forty-one 
spikes of bloom ; the plant was but five years from a single bulb. It is truly one 
of the finest, cheapest and most desirable cape bulbs. 

Its season of fiowering is August and September, and we have neither been 
able to coax or drive it into flower at any other season. 

The Lihj. 
One of the finest flowers in every sense of the word, too well known to need 
description. Every one knows what a Lily is. Most every one knows how to 
grow it. Our only regret is that it is not better adapted for the window. All 
or nearly all the varieties can be grown in pots, as well as in the border. The 
only objection for the "Window" being the season of flowering, that is from 
July to September in the open border. Many kinds will not vary but a few 
days with any treatment we have tried. The following varities are an exception 
to the rule, and can be made to bloom eaily in April. 

Lilium Candidum. 

L. Candidum, or common garden Lily, more generally known than any other, 
and we think one of the finest. In fact, as much as we admire and love the whole 
family, could we have but one, it would be this one ; can be forced for the con- 
servatory better perhaps than any other. It must be potted in August, soon 
after flowering, while at rest. Here let us remark that while many other kinds 
can be moved at almost any season of the year, this one cannot, only when at 
rest, a period of not more than four weeks duration. There has been more dis- 
appointment in buying this than all others together, as orders given for it in 
spring will most likely be filled by seedsmen generally; and not one that has 
been kept out of ground during the winter will bloom the following summer. It 
generally lakes two years, frequently three, before they can be made to flower, 
when, if taken up at the proper time and planted at once, they are certain to 
flower. The reason is simple enough ; they make the bulb in fall that is to bloom 
in spring, and if they are not allowed that privilege they simply bide their time 
at the expense of the grower's good nature. 

The bulbs should be placed in six inch pots, top of the bulb even with the r?m 
of the pot. Soon as potted plunge in the border to save trouble. Bring in be- 
fore heavy frosts and place on slight bottom heat ; water freely; give plenty of 
light and air and they will come into flower by Easter. They will bloom with 


out bottom heat in the window by giving them a warm sunny situation, but do 
far better with it. The best soil for them is a light turfy loam, one-third well 
rotted cow manure. Fresh manure must not be used in any case without a 
crop of disappoinments is preferable to a crop of Lilies. 

Liliun Longiflorum. 
Another beautiful pure white Lily, succeeds well in pots, requiring the same 
soil and general treatment as the Candidum. The bulbs of this variety can be 
obtained from November until spring. For the window they should be potted 
early in November, and kept moderately wet and warm until they show sign of 
growth, when they can be put in position for blooming. As a house plant the 
habit of this makes it more desirable than most any other. It is very dwarf 
rarely growing more than fifteen inches high. 

Liliun Auratum, > 

The praise of which would fill a volume as its fragrance would fill a house, is 
another sort that succeeds well in a pot, box or any other way in which it may 
be planted, if we except a highly enriched soil which would be fatal to it. It 
will come into flower about the first of May, with the same treatment as the fore- 

We know of no other Lilies that are well adapted for the "Window Garden, not 
having been successful in growing others in this way. For out of door culture 
we most heartily beg leave to introduce the whole family Irom the least to the 
greatest to all lovers of flowers. 

The Tuberose. 
It is nearly three hundred years since the Tuberose first flowered in Europe, 
having been sent from the West Indies, by Father Minuti, to one of the celebrated 
gardens near Toulon, about the year 1594. It is to day the same pure, modest, 
unassuming and deliciously fragrant flower it was then. It is one of those gems 
that no one would change if they could, or could if they would. It may be con- 
sidered perfectly beautiful from the fact of its being the first sought after on 
all occasions, whether of joy or mourning. It is, too, one of the few flowers that 
can be had at all seasons of the year. The only difficulty being the selection of 
bulbs, which should in all cases be left to the experienced grower or responsible 
dealer, as not one-half the bulbs sold will produce flowers under any circum- 
stances ; not that it is difficult to grow good bulbs, but it is to properly cure and 
keep them ready for planting. Dry bulbs can be obtained at all times which 
are the ones for forcing or planting out. It is of but little use to take up bulbs 
that have grown in the garden during the summer for flowering in pots in the 
" Window." To be successful use five inch pots, fill with a mixture of loam and 
well rotted manure in equal parts, press the bulb in about one-half its length and 
place it in a hot bed, or plunge the pot on a bench of the green house where they 
can have a gentle bottom heat, which is a nece.ssity for flowering. They very 



soon begin to grow and should be kept warm and watered freely. Soon as they 
throw up the flower staJk remove to the conservatory, when they will soon flower 
and remain in bloom for several weeks. Good bulbs should average twenty 
flowers to a spike. After flowering throw away, as the bulb only flowers once 
Stock is kept up by ofF-sets. Those who do not have the convenience of a green 
house or hot beds for starting the bulbs must do the next best. We have fre- 
quently started them on the mantel in the kitchen, by taking a box narrow and 
long enough to hold three or four pots, which are put in the box filled with 
ashes or tan which should be kept wet to better retain the heat. They will 
start very well in this way using wood ashes for mulch. A Bulb which we once 
had flowered in the pot and gave us forty-five large and perfect flowers. For an 
ordinary Window Garden, one or two pots at a time is quite suflficient. The 

Fig. 37.— Glasses used as Bouquet Holders. 

most convenient waj' and about as cheap a one as any, is to buy bulbu with flow 
er stalks started from a florist. This is meant to apply to the large number that 
love flowers but do not like to woik for them. 

AcMmenes . 
These tuberous rooted plants, generally classed with bulbs, are charming for 
growing in pots, pans and hanging baskets, either in assorted or individual col- 
ors. The flowers combine great individual beauty with richness and brilliancy 
Much importance should be attached to the Achimenes from the ease in which 
they can be induced to flower in the winter. The best soil for growing them is 
a light rich loam. The tubers should be put singly in three inch pots and placed 
in as warm a situation as the conservatory afibrds. Where bottom heat can 


be given them they will do much better. A moist atmosphere, with the ther 
mometer from 70 to 80 degrees at mid-day, are requisites for specimen plants 
After flowering, gradually withhold water, turn the pots on their sides, in a dry 
place where they can remain until wanted the following season. When at rest 
they should remain in the pots. If long exposed to the air the roots become 
worthless. By starting at intervals of three to four weeks a succession of bloom 
may be kept up the whole season. 

lAly of the Vallerj. 
Who does not know and admire this, the loveliest child of the floral family i 
Why it is not found in every garden, conservator^^ "window," or greenhouse, 
it is diflicult to imagine, for there is scarcely a plant more easily cultivated than 
this. It is easily forced into bloom, and may be kept in succession from Christ- 
mas until May. For winter or spring flowering, take from tho border, clumps 
as large as will fill pot, box, or any device in which they are wanted to bloom, 
using a rich strong loam. After potting, plunge out of doors, where they will 
be sure to freeze hard. Any time after, they may be brought into the greenhouse 
or conservatory, where they should be given bottom heat, and kept at the high- 
est possible temperature; 100° with a moist atmosphere, will very soon bring 
them into flower ; a less heat will answer, but they will not come into flower 
as quickly. Light is by no means necessary, as they do quite as well on the 
floor, under the bench, or the pipes, as anywhere else. When once in flower 
place in any desirable situation. To maintain a succession a reserve should be 
kept in a cold frame or pot, and brought in as required. For small pots it is 
best to select only the strong crowns; place four to six in a pot three inches in 
diameter, and treat as above stated. After flowering, separate and plant in a 
strong rich soil, where they should remain undisturbed for two years, when they 
will be strong enough for forcing again. 

The Jardmets illustrated in Figs. 24 to 27 — are constructed of pottery ware, 
filled with sand in the interior, with here and there an opening for the spike of 
flowers to grow from the bulb. Figs. 28, 30 and 31 — are costly porcelain, in- 
tended as elegant mantel piece ornaments. The remaining illustrations are very 
siMPT.B, and need no special explanation. 

FeRxVeries, Wardian Cases, and Fern Decorations. 

The fern case offers to us the very simplest of all means of household plant 
pleasures. Many who cannot afford a green house, or conservatory, or go to the 
expense of fitting up a plant cabinet, will find an abundant solace in this simple 
and inexpensive method of growing indoor plants. 

The use of these small glass cases for plants, are numerous. They occupy very 

Fig. 38.— Fern, (Platylonia cordata. 

little room, are usually ornamental enough to be placed on any table or parlor 
stand. When once filled, they need little or no attention for many weeks ; require 
no unusual care as to watering; can be readily removed from one room to another; 
are not as quickly affected by changes of temperature as plants in the open air 
of our sitting rooms. 

But a more favorable feature in their use is «een when we say that they afford 



the only successful means for obviating the effect of the dry healed air oi our 
dwellings. They are reached by no dust, are free from the noxious exhalations 

of coal fires or gas lights ; and when a breath of cold air accidentally enters the 
room they are not chilled nor frosted if the thermon>eter in the room should chance 



to go below 35". Their styles are so various and prices &o reasonable, that any 
one can be suited at prices of from $3 to $25. 

To any one living amid the anxieties of a troublesome parlor garden, which 
they cannot manage, there are but one or two satisfactory ways left for enjoy- 
ment. Either get a fern case, or be satisfied with a simple hanging basket. 

Tlie Wardian Case. 
The history of the Wardian or fern case, dates back to 1829, when a gentleman 
by the name of Ward, of London, first noticed, accidentally, the growth of veget\ 

Fig 40 —A Parlor Fernery 

tion under a close glass. He had laid down the chrysalis of an insect with some 
mould within a glass bottle, and covered it over. A short time afterward, as he 
describes it, " a speck or two of vegetation appeared on the surface of the mould 
and, to his surprise, turned out to be a fern and a grass. His interest was 
awakened; he placed the bottle in a favorable situation, and found that the 
plants continued to grow and maintain a healthy appearance." 

Thiewasthe first idea of the Wardian case. In 1842, Mr. Ward published 
his discovery relating to the "growth of plants in closely glazed cases," in a vol- 
ume which contained the result of his experiments in raising plants, and also the 
way he made his discovery. In 1851, the Wardian case made its first success- 
ful appearance in public, at the " Worlds Fair," and from that time to this it 
has become more gradually known and better appreciated. Very few have yet 



ai.y knowledge of it, but it is one of the few things which in time will be as pop- 
ular as flowers themselves are, and every window will be decorated with their 

It has been an invaluable means of introducing to the floral world, and suc- 
cessfully growing many most delicate plants from the tropics which otherwise 
would scarcely ever have been seen out of their native haunts. By its use the 
Botanist has been enabled to transport plants to and from great distances through 
extremes of climate; and j-et so unfailing has been the working of it that rapes 
judiciously planted have been knovn 
to maintain their freshness and vigor 
for nine years, and no air or water 
was ever supplied in that time. 

It is quite curious, to watch its 
operation, and to many it is evidently 
as much of an enigma as a plea- 

Apparently, moisture is constantly 
being condensed and deposited on 
the glass sides of the case. This 
supplies the plants within, who givo 
it out again, and yet none escapes ; 
thus affording the spectacle of a little 
world by itself. 

This moisture is very desirable for 
the growth of ferns, and in no other 
form can they be so successfully and 
evenly maintained as here ; nor can 
any other variety of plants furnish 
so interesting a study. 

The Lycopodiums are very suitable 
and grow very satisfactorily. They 
drop their pendant roots, and, under 
the influence of the moisture, spread 
rapidly along the surface of the earth 
in the case, and filling up the bare 
spots, make a velvety covering of light 
feathery green, thus inducing shade 
and moisture. ^ v\^.l\.-&. Fem vaser" " 

Countless seedlings of ferns and lycopodiums will spring up, of the different 
varieties, and their unfolding fronds and subsequent development will be exceed- 
ingly interesting to you. You will be agreeably astonished and surprised when 
some fern, supposed by you to be dead, suddenly raises its head above the sur- 
face and shoots rapidly upward to let you see its vitality is not to be questioned. 

As a pleasure, ihen, the "Wardian case deserves a cordial reception : but it wili 



be far more welcome to that class of our plant lovers who have often felt the dis- 
appointment in their pot plants, many of the best of which, notwithstanding the 
closest care, will show the yellow leaves and drop off, or the buds develop 
but an imperfect blossom ; the fern case will prove to be their refuge in distress, 
a never failing source of interest and amusement. 

Principles of the Fern Case. 
Let us understand the principles of fern cases and the operation and life of 
plants witbm. Those of you who have observed plants under bell glasses 3r 

bhades, have noticed that the moisture often collects so quickly inside as to actu- 
ally obstruct or prevent the plant from being seen, and have wondered where this 
moisture came from. 

The answer to this question is simple : " From the earth, the plants, "by exha- 
lation, i. e. vegetahle "perspiratinn." But you ask again: " Wliy does it colled 
80 largely f " and we rei)ly : "Simply because we confine it, and prevent its escape 
and evaporation by making our case airtight. If the case were ventilated, its tem- 
perature would be moderated to correspond with the atmosphere of the sitting 



room. And this is the very thing we do not want. Our case then should be 
made air tight, for the purpose of not onl}' confining this moisture, but of keep 

5ng a constant and abundant supply of it, for the plants must have a congenitJ 
atmosphere of their own and cannot live without the proper moisture. 

You cannot expect your ferns or plants to grow nicely in this moist atmosphere 



if )'ou open tlie case every few days: It has the same efiecl as change of climate, 
or open air exposiiie to a sick person accustomed only to the air of the lioiise. 
The confinement of ferns in these close cases has the tendency to make theni 
delicate, and the sudden opening of llie case, with the introducuou of the hot, 
dry, dusty air from the rooms, is against all reason. 

It is sufficient to say, there- 
fore, that when once planted 
and closed, the fern case needs 
no ventilation. Let it live by 

This point comes up for dis- 
cussion, and the onl}-- answer 
we give is to ask another ques- 
tion : " Do plants need drain- 
age when the water is being 
constantly evaporated and 
thrown off in the open space 
above the plants ?" In other 
words, the phants are draining 
themselves constantly. Here 
is one great advantage of the 
fern case over the pot plant, 
the latter requires constant 
watering, the former none at 
all, for no water escapes. Then 
a fern case may be handled 
with impunity bj' one in whose 
hands we would not trust a 
row of pot plants, and so is 
beyond the reach of the care- 
less or forgetful. 

Whether your case is of 
wood, glass, or metal, you will 
require a pan in which to hold 

Fl„. 44.-A Ffm Window and Aqnarimn. the plants. ZinC pans aUSWCT 

every purpose, combining economy and duraoility. Tin should not be jsed as 
It will soon rust and wear out. 

No pan should bo less than four inches deep, unless the plants are very dwarf 
specimens, and then an inch less in depth will do, though there might be some 
risk of crowding the roots too much. Tlicn, again, too great a dbpth is objec- 



tionable. The best rule to observe is as follows : Ferns, whose fronds are not over 
eight inches in length, should be planted in a pan four inches in depth. Larger 
ferns may require a pan five to six inches in depth, but four inches will generally 
be found sufficient for all purposes. 

Those who try the shallow and deep pans will soon find how much more freely 
their plants grow when plenty of space is allowed for their roots. A side open- 
ing to the glass case is to be preferred in all cases, whether bj' hinged doors or 
sliding panes. This avoids reaching in at the top of the fern case, which, besides 
being extremely awkward, often results in the breaking of the fronds or the 

The height of the case is an impor- 
tant point. Under glass, a plant or i 
develop a greater 

fern, will often develop a 
length of frond, than under any dif- 
ferent circumstances. Make your cases 
high, so that all fronds may have room 
to develop and expand to full size ; and 
the height should not be less than 
twice the diameter. In cramped 
quarters, and cases chosen perhaps too 
small, filled witii too robust plants, 
their growth is often summarily • — i — \W^ 
checked by reaching the top of the . I . ^ ^^^^^ ^:\^\„^-_-^.^-., 

glass ; there the fronds with no chance / ^■^'M " "" ' 

to get higher, lie flattened out against '^^^^^ 
the surface of the glass collecting an' 
undue amount of moisture, which 
soon causes it to mould or damp off. 
It becomes unsightly, and the beauty 
of many rare and fine looking speci- 
mens is endangered. 

The forms and construction of fern ■ 
cases will differ with the tastes of each ■ 
individual. AVe do not recommend at- 
tempts at " home made " cases, on the pig. 45.-Fern8 in a window Garden. 

side of mere econom}'', for there are now cases already prepared for use, at so cheap 
prices, and obtainable at proper places, that it is a waste of time to make one 
yourself. Very desirable cases are now imported, constructed of bases of pottery, 
with dishes all complete, and the glass shade ready to fit upon tho top — only 
wanting the soil and the plants from the florist. Very good cases are also made 
of wood bases, and the cost for either will not exceed ^3 for circular cases 12 
«iches in diameter, to $6 or $10 for 18 inches to 2 ft. in diameter. 
The larger your case, the better, provided it is not too bulky. It should be in 
form easily handled, light in weight; and if square, or in any other foiin than 



round, should have a small door to roach the plants without lifting the glass top. 
The soil for fern cases, should be carefully attended to; no common garden 
earth will answer; get it from the most reliable florist if possible, — and even 
some of these may not know exactly the needs of tlie plant. For ferns, chjose 
loaf mould one part, silver sand one part, dry friable peat two parts. Avoid that 
peat which comes from wet unhealthy situations. Wherever you see ferns grow- 
ino' near the edge of woods or running streams, you can be safe in taking P'^me 
of the same soil, if you cannot get a good compost anywhere else. English flor sts, 
who have access to special materials, make up a particular compost of the *bl 

Fig. 46.— Heatod Fern Case. 

lowing materials which is described as perfect. INIix equal parts of silver sand 
good loam, powdered charcoal, refuse of cocoanut fibre. If you wish, you maj 
cover the bottom of the pan with a layer of powdered charcoal, or bricks or grave 
broken to the size of hazel nuts, to a depth of one inch, if pan is four inches 
deep ; or one and one-half inches if 6 inches deep. Do not take the advice of those 
wlio recommend filling the pan half full with small charcoal; such a proportion 
is unnecessary. When the soil has been placed in the pan press firmly that 
all the plants may be set solidly. 
Location for fern cases. They will do well anywhere, and that is just what the 



KiK. 47— Verii ( 



amateur wants. They may be shifted from one window to another at pleasure, with 
little fear of dangerous consequences. If placed in the south window keep them 
back a little from the heat of the midday sun. A half shady position is much 
better than a sunny one. A northern out look will suit them admirably if not 
too cold, — and an eastern or western one is at all times suitable. 

It would be best to have tables provided especially for the fern case to rest 
upon. This should be strong and yet easily moved by castors, (use the brass 
ones, not the rubber or wooden ones.) 

If the cases are quite small, say 
within 9 inches diameter, they 
may be suspended, and some of 
these hanging ferneries are quite 

The secret of good management 
is told in a few words, viz., tvater 
icell after planting, then shut up 
your case, and leave it to itself. 

A successful fern case grower, 
writes us that " the most success 
ful winter I ever had with ferns, 
was one in which I only watered 
the case once after planting, and 
only opened it a few times in the 
seven months from November 1st 
to June Ist^and then to remove 
dead fronds." 

If you water sufficiently at time 
of planting, (and you need not 
water any more than ordinarily 
for pot plants,) you will have no 
occasion to water again. The 
closed case prevents all evapora- 

Some fronds of course will die 
or turn brown. These must of 
course be removed. Insects may 
invade 3'our little plant home, and 
Fig. 48.— Feru Pillar. thesc must be removcd, but there 

will not be many and they are easily disposed of. 

Some of our florists recommend ventilation for the case, feeling that the plants 
will be much the better for the pure air and the sunlight. This may be done 
only when the temperature of the outer and inner air is about the samo, and only 
for a short time. It should not be done frequently, but may be tri-id at long 
intervals of one or two months. 


Avoid too much moisture. If tlicre should be too much inside the case, open 
it daily until a little has evaporated into the outer air, and then close agam. It 
will not need watering or opening again for a month or more. 

Plants for The Fern Case. 

In arranging your plants place the strongest growers m the centre, and the 
smaller at the sides. 

Besides standard plants in the fernery, there are often introduced little hang- 
ing plants suspended from the top of the glass frame. Plants for this purpose 
are simply taken out of their pots, their balls of earth are surrounded with 
moss, tied with copper wire, a loop running from which is fastened into a hook 
in the top, and then it becomes a 
miniature hanging basket. In Eng- 
land small potsof gutta percha are 
manufactured for this express pur- 

You will perhaps be advised by 
some florists not to choose for your 
fern case any of our native plants, 
because it is difficult to transplant 
them from their native soil, just at 
close of summer when they have 
done growing, and compel them to 
continue life continuously there- 
after, in opposition to their nature, 
which demands rest during the, 
winter season. Nevertheless it is 
done, and many a pretty fern case 
is indebted to some plant treasure 
of this character stolen from Syl- 
va's bowery retreats, to grace the 
setting room ; they still thrive, de- 
spite the prognostications of wise Fij?. 49.— Parlor Fern stand covered with Glass, 
heads as to failure. The Lygodium puhnatiim, or Climbing Fern, is very suit- 
able, and can be usually found in shad}' or moist spots in xx\y of our Eastern 
States. It has a slender running root and stalk, from which proceed twining 
flexible stems, with very smooth palmate leaves or frondlets; these running 
stems or stalks are often three feet long, and the whole plant resembles in growth 
a delicate little Ivy. Besides its suitableness for the Fern Case, it is especially 
desirable for Rock Work in a conservatory. 

The Pai fridfje Vine, (Mitchella,) is also invaluable, for its brilliant scarlet 
berries enliven the sober green of the ferns or form an excellent contrast with 
the mosses. Take up large vines of it, with as many berries as you can procure ; 



if they are green \rhen found, they will turn red very shortly; for covering soil 
and otherwise, naked or exposed, it is excellent. 

The Trailing Arbutus (Epigoea repens) usually forms its buds in October or 
November, and blooms with full flower by January. These flowers are highly 
prized for their delicious fragrance, and it may be considered one of the choicest 
for our selection. 

^y^-^fW^/^^^Mm^//... The Maidens' Hair Fern 

(Asplenium) is the first fa- 
vorite for the Fern Case, the 
loveliest of our native ferns. 
Tt may be found on some 
sheltered hill side, or away in 
nine deep, moist woods, 
own by its black, hair like 
- . n.s, and curiously shaped 
I '1 (is. Gather some of the 
y smallest specimens, and 
ihem grow ; take them up 
is and all. When you 
icr up the roots take up 
) soil enough to fill your 

/uic tray or box. It will 

S^ ~ _~ stand transplanting better if 

z ^ — -^- -- - -_ = -^, — -- _ --~ its i)ropcr soil is carried with 

^^'^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^—^ ^^^ It. It will not be amiss to 

i-iK. !>i(. take home an abundance for 

other purposes, to fill in the pots for Fuchsias. Roses and Carnations, which 

grow in your windows. Among other plants which you can transplant from the 

woods, are 

The GaulfJieria procumhens, or Wintergreen. 
Chimaphilla, or Pipsinima, various species. 
Pryola, or False Wintergreen, various species. 

iS'mTacenm^Mrjottrm, or Side Saddle flower; their cups must be kept full of 

CypripecJium, or Lady Slipper, or ITaccaron Flower. 
Speranthes, or Lady Tresses, various species. 
Dionaea mnscipula, or Venus' Fly Trap. 

The American Lycopodiums, or Club Mosses, are all very desirable. Many 
of them are used freely for decorations at Christmas. The best varieties are 
denticulntum, Wildenovii, umhrosa, dendroideum, lucidxilum. 

The daintily cut foliage of the Captis trifoliata or Gold Thread, will form a 
pretty feature, and the Linewood, or Hepatica, with its blue eyes, will be no less 
lovely. The Wild Lily of the Valley (Convallaria) will open its tiny white 
bells long before they open in the meadow or at the brookside. 



Tf you look for other mosses, larger tlian the Lycopodium, yoii can take the 
Pohjstichum, or Hair Cup moss; Patraphis, or four toothed moss; Splachnum, 
or Umbrella moss. You will need plenty of these green mosses or white lichens 
or the Sealing "Wax moss, to pack about the roots of your plants, and help keep 
up a cool, wild, woody home-like retreat. The following are the most generally 
preferred Ferns : 

Poli/poclium, various species. 

Styuthiojjtens, Ostrich Fcm. 

■■■ :W 

^**^irti*^^i ■' ., 

^ 'Dr^.. 

Fip. 51.— Group of Fern Sheila, 

Pteris, or Brock en. 

Adiantum, or jNlaiden Ilair. 

Cheilanthes, or Lip Fern. 


Camptosaurum, or Walking Fern. 

Asplenium, or Spleenwood. 


CydopterU, or Bladder Fern 




Polystichum, or Shield Fern. 
Onoclea, or Sensitive. 

Dacallia Canariensis, or Hairs Foot Fern. 

If j-our fern case is large enough you may add one or two large plants, such as 
the Dracaena terminalis, or Woiilis; the DieffenbacJiia variegata, is very showy. 
The Pand((nus or Ananassa may be admitted, and if you have plenty of room, 
• here is noobjection to tlie Crotons with their handsomely variegated foliage, tlie 

Cissus discolor, with blood red 
leaves and half trailing habit, 
the vaiiegated leaved Begonias, 
also the Gesnerias, Caladium, 
Colocnsias, Ilarantas, Cacti, 
Saxifragas, Sedum. 

Avoid complication or crowd- 
If your case is of but mode- 
rate size, sa}' two feet in diam- 
eter, use only one or two large 
upright plants; but if smaller 
than this stick only to the fei-ns 
and mosses. 

Among other additional plants 
are : 

The (^Goodgera piibescens) Rat- 
tlesnake Plaintain ; leaves varie- 
gated, dark green, with white 

The (^Erytlironiuni) Dogs' 
Tooth Violet, wliose leaves are 
giecn mottled with brown. 
For trailing j)urposes perhaps 
^f nothing is better than the Lysim- 
achia, or Moneywort, and the 
Coliseum Ivy. OrcJiids may be 
Fig. 52.-oiuameutai Feiu Case ami staud. added, if there is plenty of room, 

and nothing will give more satisfaction. 

Do not expose those ferns with variegated foliage to severe sunlight, as they 
will suffer injury. Neither should delicate ferns be watered on the leaves. Some 
whose leaves appear but mere powder or dust, such as the Golden or Silver Fern, 
will lose their beauty if thus treated, and perhaps may be killed outright. 

Exotic, or Green House Ferns. 
Should you have ill success with your native plants and be undecided what 
to do we think it best for you to fall back upon something more suitable, and 



begin in a more simple manner, by going to the nearest green bouse, where ferns 
are grown, and procure some small seedlings. These come up in great quantities 
in the pots, also on the earth of ihe pan on wliich ihe pots rest, and in fact 
everywhere that the spores chance to sow themselves. You can in this way 
frequently get a lialf dozen varieties of ferns. Among them probably one or two 
AdiantamSy a Doodia, and several varieties of Ptcris. Tlieseare the ferns inoj't 
likely to produce seedlings, when the spores are scattered over a moist surface. 

After these have been transferred to the fern case, their daily growth will 
afford you a very pleasant and interesting study ; 
the gradual change and growth of the frond from 
the first appearance to the full development will 
amply repay you for your patience in waiting. 

This is the true way to enjo)' plant cases ; begin 
•with the rudiments and learn step by step the 
nature of the plants. 

For moderate sized cases we must select ferns 
of size and habit suitable for them. 

The best of those found in green houses are : 

Adiantum capillus Veneris, A nasi mile, A 
acristatum, Doodia aspera, D. caudntn, Pteris 
geraniefoUa, P. Cretica, nlbo lineata, P. hetero- 
phi/lla, P. serrulata, BUchnum gracde, Asplen- 
inm auritum, and A. hulhifertim. There are 
many others, but a simple list like tliis is suf- 

For tall ferns choose Pohjpodium Aurcrim, P 
appendiculaUim, Pteris arfji/rea, Asplciiium 
Brasiliense, Adiantum macrophyUum, Anemia 

In pia.iting your ferns do not crowd them 
together, but gi •'<;• room for the full development 
of the fronds; their growth is rapid and many 
soon double their original size when first pur- 
chased. Alternate the different varieties if pos- 
sible, and do not get two or three plants of the 
same kind together. A fine delicate fern always fi^. s;!.— I'arior Feru stand, 

looks more graceful and pretty beside a variety with a full broad frond. So 
a light green or variegated plant will show to better advantage beside one 
with a dark green frond. Tn choosing your soil, make say of three parts 
rich, black peaty mould, one part coarse sand and gravel siftings mixed, and one 
part broken charcoal, see that the pieces of charcoal are broken to the size of 
cranberries, and well mixed with the earth ; the whole should only be broken 
up, not sifted. 



After you have put the plants in the case, water with a small watering pot 
with a fine nose. Saturate the earth prett}-- thoroughly, but not to make it 
muddy. There are many other varieties of the Lygodiums not mentioned above 
Lyrjodium, apoduni, densum, caesium, arboretim, lipidophyllum, their roots will 
extend over tlie earth, covering all the bare spots with, a fiesli greeu carpet of 
delicate growth. 

Sliould we be able to procure a plant of the greenhouse species of climbing 
fern, Lygodiumjlsxuosum, or L. japonicum, another beautiful object will be 

Among the climbing ferns, are some of the most graceful ferns in the whole 
family of FiUces. There is one plant, however, not a fern, which does exceed- 
ingly well in a fern case, and is remarkably interesting. We refer to Ficus stip- 
ulata. This plant, a vine, is a free grower, and chmbs up the sides of our case 
by its roots, which, aided by the moisture on the glass, spread and adhere to it 


Fig. 54.— Plaut Case. 

It is a hard wooded plant, roots quickly from cuttings, and grows so freely as to 
fill a moderate sized case very rapidly. 

After you have become accustomed to growing ferns in the case, you will per- 
haps crave a little variety. This can be easily had. Suppose you look a little 
into the curiosities of growth and reproduction. 

If you look on the under side of the fern fronds, you will find something re- 
sembling a brown powder, adhering to them thickly in regularly distributed 
masses of varied shapes, depending upon the species. 

Examining with the magnifier or microscope, you find them to be seeds or 

Shake these spores, which appear like the veriest dust, over the surface of the 
earth in an ordinary fern case, after it has been well smoothened. The earth 
should be watered very thoroughly previous to scattering the spores 

Tr/iYi)oir GAiiDEyiyo. 


55.— Aiborctte. 

In about a month or six weeks, looking carefully across the surface of the 
earth, you see the slightest specks of green; again examining with the microscope 
you find tliem living organisms of vegetation ; and when at a later dale they be- 
come of good size, it is with no little satisfaction to be able to say, that they were 
the seedlings sown by your own hand. If in your 
travels in the woods, j'ou carry an herbarium with 
you, 3'ou can gather the fronds of every vaiiety you 
meet, which contains fertile spores. 

Spores from such an herbaiium should be planted 
as soon as convenient to insure germination. Spores 
have been known to germinate as long as eighteen 
months after being gathered, while under favorable 
circumstances germination in spores has taken place, 
when sown eight or ten years after they were col- 
lected. From your spores you will get a quantit}^ of 
seedlings, many of them of strange forms, and some to 
differ from the parent plant. 

We may find frequently several fronds on the same 
plant diilering very materially. Thus your love and knowledge of plant life in- 
creases, and you willl cherish your fern case with more than customary pleasure, 
for it opens up a new world to you. 

One thing only remember i. e., keep out of your fern case all the common bed- 
ding plants, such as Geraniums, Petunias, Verbenas, Roses, Fuschias, &c., for they 
cannot well stand the confined moist air. 

Designs for Fern Decorations. 

A home made plant case can be constructed as fol- 
lows: Get your carpenter or cabinet maker to con- 
struct a shallow box, of fine wood, say black walnut, 
about two feet wide, and three or three and one-half ' 
feet long. The bottom board should be about an inch 
and a half thick, and project about an inch beyond 
the sides. The sides should be of inch stuff, and the 
depth six or seven inches. See that the corners are 
well dovetailed together, and on the inside of the tops 
cut a groove, into which to set the glass. 

The size of your ■l.iss should be about two feet 
square for the en i>. and two feet by thirty-six 
inches for the sides ai.d top; but if this is too large and expensive a case, 
you can construct one of but half these dimensions, viz., twelve inches square 
for the ends and twelve by eighteen inches for the sides and top. Many 
like to have their cases made for them with pitched roof, like design No 

Fig. 56.— Feiiis in Arborette. 


wnxnow gardening. 

40 and with wooden frames same as for "windows. AH that it needs is to fit tne 
ghisses into the frames and seal the sides up tightly with putty. 

The frame, as it sets into the lower wooden box, should also be fastened well 
with putty, to make it tight ; and on the outside you may fasten a very pretty 
little moulding, which will cover the top of the wood, 
and set snugly up to the glass. You will of course 
take care to have a little door cut in the back glass, 
say about six inches by eight or ten, opening or 
sliding, whenever necessary to introduce water, or 
remove insects and dead leaves. 

In Fig. 42, the upper pane maybe made movable 
Next you will need a tray to go inside the wooden 
frame work. This should be of nearly the same size 
as the box, but smaller so as to fit inside. This 
tray should be constructed of zinc, and may be made 
with a double bottom of an inch in height, a small 
hole being cut in the upper one, for the purpose of 
carrying off any surplus water. The filhng and 
planting have already been described. Place some broken charcoal, or fine 
brick or gravel, in tlie bottom of the upper pan, and then 3'our compost over 
this. If your wood is well moiMded, and sides ornamented, the case will be a 
very handsome ornament. Cases such as we describe, are now made and sold 
at prices of from S-0 to $30, by all our large floral warehouses. 

Should you wish to construct a little rockery in the 
fei'nery, select pieces of stone, sharp pointed, or with 
rough jagged sides. You will often find them in some 
moist spot in the woods, already half covered with 
moss; then build them up one above the other until 
you have made the form of an arch. Start the stones 
from the very bottom of the tray, mix the soil well 
with them wherever possible, into all the interstices, 
and if it is necessary to get cement to make them 
firm, do so. Then set set your ferns in all the rugged 
interstices of the stones, wherever you have placed 
the earth, and they will soon cover it with their leaves, 
and their roots will reach into all the crevices. 

Design No. 40, is about the size we have described, 
constructed in a more than usually ornamental style. It is very suitable for 
all kinds of ferns, and Lycopocliums, Small Orchids, small species of the Draca 
ena, Croton pidiim, Cr variegaUim, Aphelandra Leopoldi, Gymmostacltys, Vcr 
shaffeltii, ErantJiemum, ijineum, Passijlora trifasciata, Alocassia, Caladitim, and 
Fltfonia argentea. 

Fig. 41 shows one of the simplest of all fern decorations in the form of a neat 

:.— Arbovette. 



▼ass ; the bowl is filled with the proper soil, and its surface is covered with 
moss. In the centre is a nicely shaped plant of ihQ Maiden Ilair Fern, whose 
appearance gives a delightfully cool and refreshing feeling in the room. A very- 
pretty effect couM be produced by inserting little tubes of glass or tin (such as 
are used for holding cut flowers,) in the soil here and there among the mogs, 
then filling with water and inserting at intervals clipped blossoms of some of 
your winter blooming flowers, Geraniums, Roses, Fuchsias, &c., or perhaps a 
clipped blossom from your climbing vines. Arranged any way it is in fact a 
beautiful object for the drawing room or conservatory. 

In Fig. 39, is shown a most charming fernery, the 
property of Mrs. Shirley Ilibberd, at Stoke Newington, 
London, England. This conservator}-^ was located where 
sunslune was excluded on account of neighboring build- 
ings and large trees, and a fern house was constructed. 
Rockeries were built up on two sides of the house, and 
in the crevices were planted ferns and lycopodiums. The 
floor was covered with neat tiles, and with the naturally 
graceful character of the plant the conservatory was pe- 
culiarly ornamented The rookeries were made almost ^i 
enfirelj' of big blocks of peat, and on the top near the 
glass were planted a few Sedums, Sempervivums, and fi-. op. 

other succulent plants. Mr. Ilibberd, in his description of the fernery, in his 
volume " Rustic Adornments for Homes of Taste," states that for tlie past 
twelve years about a hundred and fifty species and varieties have thriven here 
making summer all the year round in their perennial greenness. 

The finest selections of ferns, as recommended by him 
for such a house, are iheAdiantums, Asplenmm, Adian- 
tum nigrum, Athyrium, f.f., A. f. f crispa, Gymno- 
gramma lepfophylln, Boodias, Scolopendriums, V/ood- 
wardia radicans, Eqtiisetum, Sylvnticum, and Selaginellas. 

Water was given daily during the warm weather; 
in spring and autumn, twice a week was sufficient, and in 
winter once in two or three weeks The plants must, 
however, never be left to get dry. 

Miss INIaling, an English lady writer on indoor plants, 
has invented a case (Fig. 42) which contains room for 
a hot water apparatus in the zinc pan. Her princi- 
ple is to supply a cool or a heated end in the fern case, according to the necessities 
of the plants. " Hardy or greenhouse plants last long in flower at one end in 
the cool temperature ; stove plants and forced flowers come on beautifully m 
the heated part. If all your plants in the case are hardy, then use no heat. If 
our ferns or flowers, though not wanting heat speciallj', should damp off; we 
give heat just for a time to change the air entirely. At ten minutes notice tha 




heat can be raised to any degree up to 90". The cases are of two sizeg, the larger 
ones being about four feet long, bj' tw^o wide, and two high, while the boxes on 
which the glassed frames rest are eight inches deep. The boxes are lined with 
ainc, and fitted with hot water apparatus. No lamp or any heater is required, 
hot water only being used, which is poured in through a concealed opening from 
■without, and when cold is let off by another opening. 

This water maintains the temperature at a height 
sufficient for most plants for twenty-four hours without 
refilling; but when greater heat is required it can be 
raised to any degree from 65° to 90°, by adding more 
hot water after the first twelve hours. The upper 
glass sash is movable, and by a button or hook is 
lifted at any time ventilation is needed or you wish to 
examine the plants. This principle of heating the case 
is principallj'- for the sake of bringing into flower and 
keeping in good health many tender stove plants, as well 
as other delicate plants which cannot stand either a cool 
or a dry atmosphere." 

The general outline and construction of Miss Maling's 
plant case is ver}' similar to the " home hiade case" we have previously des- 
cribed. Heating will be unnecessary if amateurs will only choose but the 
ordinary native or greenhouse ferns, and keep the case well closed awaj' from 
cold air. 

But it seems to us if the case is to be heated at all, 
it should be divided into two apartments, one end for 
plants needing the warm temperature, the other for 
the cool temperature, or else put no plants in the case 
unless thej' are all to be treated alike. 

Whenever, in the mind of a begiimer, there appears 
to be a doubt as to what to choose, take the Lycojjodium 
denticulatum, and other varieties of L. caesium, apodum, 
heloctica, or variabilis will always appear to advantage ; 
alho the Pteris cretica alho lineata, oi- Cyrtomitan fal- 
catum, do remarkably well, being very strong growers." 
^ - These Fern Pillars are also made of Terra Cotta, in 

=£"^- England, with openings in appropriate places for set- 

Kig. 62. ting in the bricks. The columns are also constructed 80 

as to jiermit a glass screen to shut completely over them and rest upon the base, 
thus giving the same effect as a Wardian Case. Fig. 49 shows another design on 
a table, with a glass top also. Fig. 50 shows one of the largest styles of fere 
bricks, as it rests fitted into a fire screen. 

Fig. 51 is much more elaborate, and shows what maybe done either in the sidfe 
of a wall or a conservator}', or to occupy a large fire place. These are madt 



iv the form of square pieces of pottery, which may be nailed flat against the 
wall. In the lower portion of the front appears a projection of a shell, and with- 
in it is a small cavity for holding the plants. Being of various sizes, any style 
of arrangement can be ingeniously formed, and at slight expense. 

These designs are as yet unknown in the United States, but can be quickly 
imported to order by anyone; or our pottery manufacturers could soon supply 
any demand by making any pattern and casting therefrom. 

They are elegant in appearance and effect, and the general testimony is to the 
effect that the ferns thrive very well in them. 

Fig. 6:1.— Feru Stand. Fig. 64.— Fern Stand. 

Figs. 52 and 53 introduce several pretty Parlor Ferneries,, of easy manufacture, 
the former in the shape of a rectangle, about 2 feet long by one and a quarter foot 
wide, and two feet in height. The other with six sides, curving to the top, 
from which suspends a little wire hanging basket. These designs are so»n 
constructed by any cabinet maker. 

A pleasant story is told of a gardener near London, England, who, instead of 
following the invariable fashion of devoting the high stone walls surrounding his 
enclosed garden, to wall fruit, determined to cover it with ferns. 

" The wall was 14 feet in height and 400 feet in length. It was then very old, 
and having been originally built of a dark red brick, much in use in that day 
m the district, it had a venerable and picturesque appearance. From the 
ground line to the summit it was all the summer long dotted over with ferny 
tufts of herbage, some sparklina; with the hue of emerald, others shading off to 



rich shades of brown and orange; and the delicate tracery of those with finely 
divided fronds, wonderfully set off like vegetable lace against the dark back 
ground of the weather-worn brick. 

Nail holes had been made here and there, where in former 
times were fastened the branches of peach, apricot, cherrj^, 
and plum trees to ripen their crops ; but they had long ago 
been given up. The idea occurred to him to convert it into 
a perpendicular fernery. He first of all thrust into some of 
the large holes in the wall, tufts of common Polypody, 
making their creeping roots comfortable with turfy peat, 
and securing them from falling out by means of a copper 
wire passed across the hole and held to the bricks by 
small staples. As these were found to flourish and give 
the wall somewhat the aspect of a ruin, he began to make 
holes to plant others ; and by degrees the wall was covered 
with Hearts Tongue, Asplenium adiantum, the Wall rue 
fern, the Mountain Polypody, the Alpine cijstopteris, and 
dozens of others that bear drought patiently, and naturally 
inhabit rocks and waysides. In the shady chinks next the butteries, he man- 
aged to coax the Maiden hair to make luxuriant fillets of herbage, and at th» 
foot of the wall there were tufts of lastrea, osmunda royal, 
and other ferns which the wall itself refused to nourish 
Themajority of these held their verdure far into the winter, 
the Hearts Tongue and common Polypodium were usually 
quite green the whole year round; and during the winter 
their rich dottings of golden spores sparkled Ir the most 
cheerful manner against the dark back ground of sheets 
of ivy and red brick. Of course the wall itself was crown- 
ed with Snapdragons, Wallflotvers, and other gay tenants 
of ruined towers, or pines, that make riot of man's work, 
and glorify the decay of art with the triumph of nature." 
Figs. 55, 56, 57, 58, introduce several " Eristic Terra 
Cotta Arborettes." These are made of Terra Cotta, or pot- 
tery ware, cast in a rugged form resembling the projecting 
limbs of an oak tree just clipped, and with cavities opening 
downward for the reception of earth and holding plants. 
Some of them have a solid interior, and each basin is by 
itself. These are undesirable, having no opportunity for 
drainage ; but where the interior is entirely hollow and can 
be entirely filled with earth, no rustic ornament is more 
suitable for fans or other plants to live in. They may decorate the hall, parlor, 
conservatory, or out door lawn. Their size is from one to three feet high 

Fig. 6C. 



The strongest growing ferns may be placed in here, taking care to put a few 
crocks of broken brick or charcoal in the bottom of each basin for diainage. 

They may be used also for spring flowering Bulbs, and filled with hyacinths, 
crocuses, scillas, snowdrops, narcissus; and then when these are over, the con- 
tents may be emptied and refilled again with summer floweiing plants; but it <s 
usually best to devote them to such classes of 
plants as will flower the year round without 
any change. 

Figs. 59 to 66 show the different styles of 
mounting Fern cases with the customary cyhn- 
drical glass shades. 

In Fig. 43, we see one of the larger styles of 
Miss Maling's designs, intended to set upon a 
table. This is most charmingly filled ; and 
perhaps we cannot do better than let Shirley 
Hibberd himself, who filled it, tell us what is 
in it: 

" It fell to my lot to construct the mimic arch- 
way (a rockery,) and till it with pockets for the 
reception of small ferns. For that purpose I 

took two square seed pans, and placed them hot- pi„ gT.-Feru or Flower Case, 
torn upwards, on the zinc bottom of the case, as abutments, which, 
when the case was filled with soil, were hidden from view. From the flat foun- 
dation of clay thus provided, I began to build, using small pieces of coke dipped in 
a batter of cement, and spending a few hours every day for four days in succession 
upon the work ere it was completed. In the 
pockets were inserted specimens of Cystopteris 
reqia, Camptosaurus rliizophyllus, Asplenium 
fluhelUfolium, Scolopendrium, viilgare var 
ramosum, pohfschides, and vulgare ramo mar 
ginatum, Adiantum hisjndulum, and a few Se- 
lagineUas. The latter soon grew so as to 
smother the whole fabric, forming a rich bell of 
various tmts of blue and green, with the fern 
pushing through them. On the right liand side 
of the arch was planted Nephrolepis exnltata, 
one of the most suherb of Waidian Case ferns, 
and remarkably distinct, with its graceful arch- 
ing polypodium-like fronds. 

On the left hand Nephrolepis pedinata, which is of the same habit of growth, 
and a very beautiful and interesting fern; nevertlieless, less beautiful than 
the other, as it is also less vigorous. A small plant of Platijcerium ^r«»(fe was then 
planted in the shell of a cocoanut, and suspended by copper wire to the crown 
of the arch, and this spring its new growth was so vigorous that it had to b« 


Fig. 68.- 

J 82 


removed to the greenhouse, where it is now nourishing. Two more notahle ferns 
were introduced, namely : Pteris flabellata, var. crispa, a very erect and char- 
acteristic fern of large growth, quite cheap and common, and one of the best for 
glass cases, of at least two feet in height within. The other was our fine old 
hardy friend, Cyrtomium falcatum, which is worth a place anywhere among 
ferns, and fortunately it will grow anywhere, and is always noble. 

The rest of the plants consisted of various small, yet choice subjects. Pteris 
sca&erM?a, very beautiful in the lace-like divisions, and light green hue of its 
fronds. Tt is really a gem, and always grows well in peat, cocoanut, or any 
soil of a light spongy texture 

Doodia lunulata and caudata, are of small growth, and serve well with Loma- 
ria lanceolata and L.spicant, to fill up green tufts between ferns — of very dis- 
tinct and striking appearance. In the centre of the case, but on the side oppo- 
site to the view here given, and hence hidden 
by the Platycerium — a plant of Phlebodium 
sporodocarpum — made a fine effect. It is one 
of the most distinct and beautiful and easily 
managed of all Wardian Case ferns, but must 
have always a nice peaty mixture. 

The remaining ferns are Polypodium pJiego- 
A/^C\ r^~M(^ \ pteris and ritgulosum, Campyloneurum phyl- 
,-r=f Ft- ^ — -^ ^■rf _ L Utidis, Adicmtum formosum, pedatum and tenel- 

An important point in all fern cases is to have 

them so constructed as to be easily turned 

about and moved around, so that the plants 

may all share equally in the sunlight. If the 

case is too large, many plants will receive an 

undue proportion of the sunlight, while others 

Fig. 69.-Ladies' Plant Case. wiU be totally deprived. 

The Germans, who have a greater fondness and taste for Window Gardening 

than any other nation, have some very tasteful fancies in the way of Ferneries 

and Rockeries in the windows. 

Fig. 44 will illustrate one of them projecting outward from the side of the house. 
The arch frame above is also on the outside. Looking at the rockery within rising 
up out of the aquarium, we find the following plants which do well in the 
constant evaporation of the water : 

Adiantum tenerum, cuneatum, formosum ; Davallia, pixidata ; Gymno- 
gramma Peruviana ; Lomaria spicant ; onychicum japonicum ; Pteris serridata ; 
Selaginella calsia ; Selaginella, umbrosa, Africana serpens, and Wildenovii, with 
Acorus gramineus folius fol var; Sihtliorpia Europcea ; Panicum variegatum ; 
Torrenia Asiatiea ; Ficus stipularis ; Tradescantia sebrina ; Hoya bella, Sind 
JEsclajnanthus zebrinus 



We mention the plants particularly, 
as perhaps some one may be disposed to 
copy the designs literally. We know of 
no form of AVindow Gardening so ex- 
quisite as this. A climbing vine may be 
twined around the outside of the win- 
dow casement. The water in the aqua- 
rium must be contained in a vessel with 
glass sides, so that all portions may be 
discernible to the eye. 

Fig. 45 is another of the designs for 
Window Gardens, similar to those des- 
cribed in our second chapter. Now it 
is peculiarly suitable to hardy ferns, 
and such native plants as the Partridge 
vine. Mosses, Lycopodiums, etc. 

Fig. 46 is known as the Pickard Plant 
Case; but we do not discover any special 
feature diffeient from those constructed 
by Miss Maling. It contains the same 
metal box for the soil ; but instead of 
having the glass sides and top stationary, 

all are movable, and easily put up or Fig. 7o.-\vardiau case. 

taken down. The glass sides all come in sheets, which fit each into a light frame 
of their own ; yet any one of these may be removed fiom the other without dis- 
turbing iiie rest. The front can be taken out in an instant by lifting, or fixed 
back again in its place by a couple of hooks and eyes ; in short each side has a 
frame of its own, and when all are shut 
up together they are held firmly by 
hooks and eyes at top and ends. The 
interior of this case is filled with Cala- 
diums, Begonias, and other plants of 
colored foliage, as well as ferns. It is 
intended specially for a case of soft 
wooded plants, such as are usually 
grown in the pots of the greenhouse. 

A very pretty fern case is that of 
Fig. 47, also in the possession of Shirley 
Hibberd. The base is a stone vase, with 
hollow interior; the fi.ot is a frame of 
wood ; inside the vase is a zinc pan, 
wherein the ferns are placed, and the 
frame of glass fits over the pan ; a couple 
of doors furnish access to the interior Fig. 7i.-Wardiau Case. 

134 WINDOW GARDLirm . 

and open or are closed by a little button fastener. The size is as follows : Heighl 
of vase and glass, 5 feet 9 inches ; width of vase, 2 feet ; height of glass frame, 3 
feet. In the top of the glass frame Mr. Hibberd suspended four half cocoanut 
shells, in which he planted some ferns ; holes are cut in the bottom for drainage; 
and copper wire only used for hanging them. The contents are thus described 
by Mr. Hibberd in his i^'loral World : " This case contains at the present time 
two pretty climbing plants ; one is the common Ivy of the British woods, Hedera 
helix ; the other is Lygodium scandens, an elegant climbing fern. The palm- 
like fern in the centre is Nephrolepis exaltata — the finest fern in the world for a 
centre piece; both because of its character and also that it may be cut without 
spoiling it, if it happens to grow too tall. With it are examples o? Pteris cre~ 
tica albo-liiieata, an elegant variegated fern ; Niphoholus lingua — a hardy tongue- 
like fern ; Onychium Japomcum, most delicately divided ; Pteris crenata, Las- 
trea glabella, Doodiacaudata, Aspleiiiuinviride, and some bits of Selaginellas, 
Anemone neinorosa, and a few Mosses. 

The Ivy gained a footing quite by accident. This, with other of our cases, is 
frequently exhibited. On one occasion, in preparing some cases for a festive 
meeting, we introduced into this a number of little twigs of common Ivy among 
the ferns. The case was left undisturbed afterwards, and then on removing the 
Ivy one of them was found to have rooted. It was allowed to remain and it 
soon formed a rich shell on one side of the glass, without lobbing a single fern of 
a ray of light. There it lemains to this day ; it is now some nine years old as an in- 
habitant of this case, and is as vigorous as ever. A few lengths of fine copper 
wire serve to train the Ivy and the lygodium, which add ver}-- much indeed to 
the beauty of this little garden. This case stands in the window, and has only 
the warmth of an ordinary room in winter. 

For a fern case to stand in the sunshine all the time, and with a room of high 
temperature, choose the following tender ferns : In the centre place a fine plant 
of the Cheilanthes farinosa ; then add here and there Anemidictyon, phyllitidis, 
Olfersia cervina, Diplazium radicans, Asplenium fragrans, Lomaria attenu- 
ata, Pteris calomelanos, Fadyema prolifera, and a few tufts of the Selaginella 
caesium and S laevigata." 

Among fern decorations nothing is so striking, and yet so novel, as the fire 
brick. For filling a vacant fire place and making the screen appear ornamental, 
nothing is of better fitness. They are the invention of a physician, Dr. G. 
Churchill Watson, of Chester, England, and so constructed as to fit into the sides 
of walls of conservatories, ferneries and greenhouses, afifording a convenient 
method of rendering a blank wall useful as well as ornamental. They are made 
of porous material, usually pottery, and round or oval shaped, with a concave 
centre, in which may be placed wet ferns, mosses or Lycopodiums. They are of 
different sizes, from 31 inches in diameter to 14 inches, and adapted to the place 
where they are most needed. The largest can be used to fit into the niche of an 
unused fire place, and the smaller ones can be used to fit the niches of a fern col- 
umn or pillar. A fern pillar is one of the curiosities our parlor gardeners do not 



often behold; and yet a glance at illustration No. 48, will show how pleasing such 
a decoration might be, and how simply it could be made. This design is con- 
structed of wood, in the form of a hexagonal pillu-, wiih vase at the top. 

At various places in each side are little niches or oi)enings, into which are in- 
troduced the fern shells; these are filled with earth, usually holding a pint to a 
quart, and the fern grows gracefully outward. This pillar holds 19 vessels, and 
affords a rare opportunity of cultivating quite a variety. If the centre of the 
pillar is hollow it must be filled up by hand with some eartliy material, and 
either moss or cocoanut fibre or dust may ife pi-essed firmly. The soil for the 
bricks should be peat two parts; loam or woods mould one part, silver sand one 
part, • 

An English lady, filling such a case, once adopted this selection of plants. As 
mentioned in the Gardener's Magazine, " In the vase at the top were some plants 
of the Asplciiium flabelli folium, one of the most elegant of all the small trailing 
ferns. To help out the effect of this, a tuft of the pretty rush laolepis gracilis 
is introduced. This falls over in most graceful outlines, and as it loves 
moisture it is quite at home under a bell glass. In the shells at the sides of the 
column are specimens of AcUantum eapillus veneris, A. hispidulums, and A. 
cuneatum, the last of which may grow too large; if so, it sliould be removed. 
One of the most suitable of all ferns is Woodsia Ilcensis, which grows marvel- 
ously, and seems to be at home in the porous ware of the vessel. Other good 
ferns are Aspleniumfontanum,A.rutamuraria,Doodlalunulata,Doodia cau- 
data, Woodsia ohtiisa, Ci/stojHerisfracjileDiclcana, Cami)tozaurus,rhizopliyllus, 
(one of the rarest of the exoiic Hearts Tongue ferns,) Scolopendrium vulgare, 
V. proliferum vamo marginatum, and v. polyschides, Lastrea filix-mas v. Schofiel- 
dii, Adiantum setulosum, Ilymenophyllum Wilsoni, Athyrium f.f. diffissum. 

These are the cheapest of all designs for the window. Fig. 59 and CO being 
obtainable at almost any glass store, at prices of 8:2.00 to !$5.00 complete. Figs. 
61 and C2, are in a basket vase. Figs. 03 and 04 aie with potteiy ware or lava 
boxes, resting upon stands. Fig. 65, is made of rustic wood and has a wooden 
bowl, upon which the glass cylinder rests. Fig. GO is an iron stand, with a plain 
earthen bowl beneath the fernery, the outside of which is decorated with a net- 
work of wire. 

Among the various designs of Wardian, for the drawing-room or saloon 
there are often met a few of much simpler material, which can be used for other 
purposes. Figs. G7 and G8 are so constructed that they can be used at one time 
for growing ferns within, or they can be used merely for holding cut flowers in 
moist sand or water. In Fig. 08, the top is movable, fitting into a brass groove, 
and must be lifted entirely off the table when the plants are to be placed inside 
or need any attention. AH the ornamental work around the edges of the stand, 
and the frame work for holding the glass plates, is made of brass ; the stand 
itself is of wood. The size of the interior is about 18 inches in diameter,by 12 
inches hijih. 


Fig. 67 is much more symmetrical in shape, and easily made. The frame of this, 
too, is made mostly of polished brass, and the glass sets down upon a groove 
made in the top of the stand, which is of wood. The interior is hollow, with a 
zinc basin for holding plants. 

Fig. 69 is aLady's Plant Case, a kind of Wardian case in miniature; and though 
not affording very spacious accommodations inside, still there is a good deal of 
novelty in its construction, sufficient to render it a very interesting object for 
either the drawing room or library. 

A bell glass, or shade, fits closely alf its base into a groove running all around 
the edge of a stand constructed usually of wood. 

Theiplants inside are in small pots not over four inches in diameter, although 
the proportions of the case may be enlarged from 18 inches in diameter up to 3 
feet, and afiord greater room. Any manufacturer of glass shades could make 
Buch a shade in a special mould, and any cabinet maker could fashion a tasteful 
table or stand beneath. 

Fie:s. 71, 72 are sketches of two very pretty Wardian Cases, exhibited at 
one of the Horticultural Society Exhibitions, and was much admired. They ad- 
mit of considerably greater outline than the previous designs of Ferneries, and 
are more ornamental. Fig. 70 is 7 feet high, 4 feet 2 inches wide, and 2 feet 6 
inches in breadth. 

Fig. 71 is 4 feet high, 3 feet broad, and 1 foot 11 inches wide. These are con- 
structed mostly with bright metallic frame work; the best quality of sheet glass 
is used; castors are fitted to the base, and at the back there is a little door to 
allow the entrance of the hand for watering the plants or removing dead leaves. 

Such designs as these, made to cover an entire collection of plants, should be 
generally adopted, aid tlieir manufacture encouraged. They do away altogether 
with the daily task of watering, they are absolutely free from dust, and the 
plants have a perpetual moisture inside, which affords not only the most desirable 
and uniform temperature, but conduces to health of habit, and freedom from in- 
sects. Our Window Gardeners must learn by practical experience that thei'C is 
but one practical solution to the difficulties of Window Gardening, " The plants 
must live in an atmosphere to themselves, shut out alike from the air of the 
room, and from the outer air.'"" 

In apartments lighted with gas, the use of these glass covers or shades is again 
made obvious, for no gas fumes will ever touch them. 

An opinion is general among amateurs, that these Wardian Cases must be 
perfectly air tight. This is not quite true; although they are fitted pretty close, 
yet they are not absolutely air tight. Indeed it is sometimes quite desirable that 
the case should be lifted a little to permit a free circulation of the air betwixt 
the interior and the exterior, especially if there is a surplus of moisture inside, 
and condenses so constantly upon the glass that the plant cannot be seen. 

A fact may often have been observed by flower lovers, that when two flowers are 
plucked, the one stuck with its stem into a bottle or vase of water, and the other 
thrown down into a wide basin of water, sc the petals as well as stem are in the 


water, it will be found that the latter will keep fresh and sweet the longest. The 
explanation is only in the greater humidity. In the former case, the air of the 
room being too dry, evaporates the water from the surHice of the petals Hister 
than the stem can supply, while in the latter the flower is completely surrounded 
with all it needs. 

Observing this principle then in your cut flowers or bouquets, if you will take 
care to place them in pans of water, or sand and water, and then cover with bell 
glasses, they will have a humid atmosphere entiicly to themselves, retain their 
freshness for double the length of time, as they would if exposed to the dry air 
of the sitting-room. 

The Wardian Case then, in principle, is not only the most practical in opera- 
tion, but beneficial in results. 

List of Ferns. 

For a Wardian Case kept in a room with a high temperature, use : 
Adiantum *cuneatum, tenerum, *for- Ilemionites *palmata. 

mosum, trapeziforme, Veitchii, ru- Microlepia Davellia, hirsuta-angusta. 

bellum, concinnum, Farleyense. Nephrolepis *cxaltata, *pectinata. 

Anemia *hirta, flexuosa, villosa. Nothoclaenachrysophylla, *nivea, leu- 

*Asplenium viviparum. era. 

Blechnum *brasiliense, Corcovadense. Pol3'podium aureum, omyxifolium. 
Cheilanthes Alabamensis, Borsigiana, Pteris * falcata, tricolor. 

hirta, microphyila, puiveracca, spec- 

tabilis. Seiagmeua. 

Davallia' *decora, *Mooreana, *polyan- 

tha. Selaginella caesia arborea, *Africana, 

Didymochlaena lunulata. atrovirens, caulescens. *conferta, Ly- 

Doryopteris nobilis, *pedata. allii, *umbrosa (erythropus), Kas- 

Gymnngramma *tartarea, *chryso- leniaiia, *serpens, *imbricaulis, Wal- 

phylla, Laurheana, Peruviana. lichii, Warcswewitzii. 

The above Ferns and Selagincllas are also suitable for general decorations in 
a well heated room. Such marked * are useful for the window without glass 

2. For a Wardian Case in a moderately heated room : 
Acrostichum ^alcicorne (Platicerium.) Lygodium scandens, palmatum. 
Adiantum aflSne, *capillus Veneris, Asplenium nidus, avis. 

assimile, *colpodes, *formosum, *ru- Aspidium *molle, *vioIascens, •Kaul- 

bellnm, reniforme. fussie. 

Asplenium *palmatnm, Fabianum Nephrolepis *exaltata, *tuberosa. 

Blechnum *australe, Cyathea medul- Nothochieuatrichomanoidcs. 

laris, australis. 01eandra*neriifolia. 

Cyrtoniium *fi\lcatum. Onychium *japonicum. 

Davallia *canariensis, *pixidata. Pteris *arguta, argyraea, *cretica alba, 

Dicksonia *antarctica. *serrulata * falcata, longifolia. 



Doodia aspera, caudata, *rupestns. 
Doryopteris *palmata. 
Drynaria coronans. 
Lastraea glabella. 
Lomaria *gibba. 

Woodwardia radicans 

Selaginella apoda, *caesia, *denticula- 
ta, stolonifera, formosa, involvens, 
Sohottii, *Martensii albo var, *Wil- 

The above named Ferns and Lycopodias are also suitable for general decora- 
tions in a moderately heated room. Those marked * are useful for the window. 

3. For a cold room, open hall, veranda, rockwork, or for cool shaded places 
near the buildino; ; 

Ad'iantum pedatum. 
AUosorus crispus. 
Aspidium goldianum. 
Aspleniura septontrionale, fontanum, 
(richomanes, ruta-muraria, viride. 
Aathyrium felix foemina, gracile, mul- 

Blechnum boreale, occidentale. 
Ceterach officinarum. 
Cystopteris montana. 
Lastraea oreopteris, dilatata, filix-mas, 


The above named Ferns and Lycopodia are also suitable for window decora- 
tion during the summer season, but require some shade. 

Onoclea sensibilis. 
Osmunda regalis, cinnamomea. 
Polypodium vulgare. 
Polystichium angulare, lonchitis, 
Scolopendrium officinarum and varie- 
Struthiopteris germanica. 
Pteris aquilina. 
Woodsia hyperborea, ilvensis. 
Lycopodium clavatum, alpinum, selago, 

The Camellia. 

The Camellia, when cultivated in window gardens, requires great care on 
account of the tendency of its flower-buds to drop off. 

Too much or too little water, and great variations of temperature when the 
buds are swelling, cause this trouble ; yet with care it can be flowered in profu- 
sion without any artificial heat. A northern or northeastern exposure is the 
most desirable, and a temperature from 40° to 50'', better humid than without, 
the most advisable. 

When the plant has flowered, if it is a young, small sized plant, it should be 
shifted into a pot one size larger; but if an old, large plant, it need not be repot- 
ted oftener than once in two years. The soil should be composed of equal parts 
of black peat and rich loam, but if the peat is not within reach, sand}' loam, 
enriched with one-third leaf mould, will make the plant flower well. 

After potting, the plant can be placed in the window of a room where a fire is 
kept, but it does not require much sunshine. (In its native woods it grows in 
moist, shady places.) While new leaves and buds are forming, water should be 
given every day, and the leaves and branches frequently sponged or showered, as 
the dust will adhere to the leaves. The plant requires light, but does not need 
the direct rays of the sun. 

In the spring, when it has ceased growing, it can be placed out of doors in a 
shady situation, yet not under the dripping of trees or shrubs, and where it will 
be exposed only to the morning's sun. Early in September it must be brought 
in doors, for it would lose all its flower-buds should the frost touch it. If the 
plant is in good health, it will now be filled with buds. One hour's drought, or 
a soaking wet soil, will bring down the buds and destroy all hopes of flowers. 
The air should be too cold for a person to sit comfortably in the room, until the 
flower-buds open ; then the plant can be brought into the parlor. When the 
mercury marks 40° or 45°, a couple of hours of fresh air will be useful to the 
Camellia, but do not place it in the fullest sunshine. 

When the buds swell for flowering, a little more water is needed ; give it in 
plentiful doses, turning away all that runs out into the saucers. Apply the water 
directly to the soil, for the flowers are injured by sprinkling; never shower the 
foliage when the sun shines upon it, lest the leaves should be blistered or 
spotted. After the plants have flowered, and fully repaid you for all your atten- 
tion, observe the same routine of culture ajrain. 


In the Southern States and in California Camellias grow into large shrubs or 
tree?, and need no protection in the winter They are propagated from seeds, 
cuttings, grafting, and in arching. 

The seeds are a long time in vegetating; sometimes two years will elapse before 
the first leaf is developed, and then the blossom may not repay the care it has 
demanded ; but a graft from a handsome variety will make a fine plant. 

The cutting should be taken from the base of a leaf, or at a joint, as soon aa 
the wood is ripened, and placed in damp sand under glass. When it shows signs 
of growth, transplant it to a small pot filled with rich, dark soil. If you desire 
large flowers, allow only one bud to remain on each terminal shoot. The best 
time to graft the Camellia is from the middle of August to the middle of Sep- 
tember. The chief care is in making a perfect junction of the parts, and care- 
fully tying the graft in place. The graft having nothing to support it, must not 
only be firmly secured to the branch, but moisture and shade must be given it so 
as to promote its growth, and the roots must not be soddencd with water. 

Inarching, or grafting by approach, is generally done in July. A thin portion 
of the stock is sliced off, and a corresponding portion of the variety to be 
inarched. The slice should be made so deep that it will take ofl a slit of the 
stock, with bark attached, for about two inches; the graft is cut to fit exactly, 
and the parts fastened closelj'^ together and wound about with zephyr wool; 
moss can then be tied over it to keep it damp, and this must be moistened as it 
dries until they have grown together. 

CameUias are most extensively grown in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, 
by the florists, and are highly prized for house and table decorations, wedding 
ornaments, and funeral wreaths, crosses, and anchors. 

The Double White, Fimbriata, candidissima, Mont Blanc, and alba plena 
are all very desirable for window culture, and if their pure, spotless white flow- 
ers are protected from the sun they will retain their exquisite beauty for a fort- 
night. Among the colored varieties are : 

Imbricata, crimson and white. 

Landrethii, the richest rose color. 

Dutchess of Orleans, striped pink and white. 

Juliana, a rosy blush color. 

Benneyii, crimson, striped with white. 

Conspersa, striped carmine. 

Prince Albert, pink, striped with rosy carmine. 

Heine des Fleurs, of the crimson. 

Sacco Nora, exquisite pink, blotched with rose. 

Jubilee, rosy pink, striped with cherrj' color. 

Storyi, a waxen rose color. 

History, dtc. — A sketch of the history of this flower calls up some very mte- 
resting facts. The Camellia Japonica was introduced into Europe by Father 
Kamel, a Moravian missionary who traveled in Asia, and saw the beautiful tree 
growing in China; and the plant was Latinized into Camelhis in honor of him 


Although brought from China, it is a native of Japan, whence its name Ja- 
ponica, and belongs to the genus of the Tea Plant, the Bohea and viridis, 
■which supply the well-known black and green teas of commerce. 

The first plants were brought to England in 1739, but they died from being 
treated as stove plants ; yet the idea of them was given, and it only required 
time and perseverance to make them what they now are — the ornament of every 
greenhouse, conservatory, and window garden. 

The commencement of the general culture of the Camellia begnn in 1792, 
when the single red variety was again imported from China. The double white 
and the variegated red were the next kinds introduced, and they were followed 
by the "Waratah, or Anemone flowered, and the fringed white, the pale black, 
and the striped and variegated. The single white was not introduced until 
1818. !Mr. Fortune, who has traveled extensively in both China and Japan, 
and added many valuable plants to our collections, met with specimens of 
Camellias growing wild in the woods of Poo-to-san, some of which were tall 
trees, being from 25 to 30 feet high. Their glossy, evcrgieen foliage, and mag- 
nificent blossoms — red, white, buff, yellow, crimson, variegated, and blotched — 
render them one of the most beautiful features in an Oriental landscape. The 
trees are so plentiful in Japan and China that the seeds are used in cookery and 
medicine, and from one species an oil for anointing the liair is extracted. 

Camellia maliflora,or the ap])le-tlowcred Camellia, has beautiful little flowers 
resembling the apple blossoms in color and form, but are double. This species is 
more tender than the common kind. It was not introduced into Eugland until 

Camellia Sasanqua is still more tender, and has a small, single flower, like that 
of the green tea plant. It is more densely allied to that species, and its leaves 
are used for tea. The hybrids which have been produced from the Camellia 
Jni)Ouira arp very numerous, and every year some new vane*i2s are added to the 

The Rose. 

The romance of the Rose, and its exquisite loveliness, will never permit it to oe 
*ft out of the window garden, notwithstanding the occasional trouble and diffi- 
culties of its culture. 

The Rose in Romance. 

Sappho says of it in one of her poetic strains: "If Zeus had willed to set a 
King over flowers, the Rose would have claimed that distinction. It is the orna- 
ment of the earth, the glory of the plants, the eye of the flowers, and the blush 
of the meadow. 

Luther, in his admiration of it, says: "If a man could make a single Rose 
we should give hira an Empire" — and he chose the Rose for the emblem on his 

In Germany there are various superstitions concerning the Rose, many of 
which are very singular, and the relation of the flower to blood is widely 

Thus one he.ars in France and Italy as well as Germany the saying that a 
drop of one's blood buried under a rosebush will bring rosy cheeks. There is a 
legend that the thorn crown of Christ was made from rose briar, and that the 
drops of blood which is.sued from His head fell to the ground and blossomed in 

Mrs. Howe alludes to it in these lines : 

"Men saw the thorns on Jesus' brow, 
But augels saw the Roses." 

In Ancient Greece there was an Academy whose statutes were couched in 
these words : " The Academicians think much, write little, and talk less." 

A famous Professor desired to become a member, and when a vacancy occurred 
hastened to obtain it, but arrived too late — a candidate had been chosen. The 
Academy desired to number Dr. Zeb upon its rolls, but it had just granted to 
power what belonged to merit. 

The President, not desiring to give a refusal in words, desired a cup of water 
to be brought, which he filled with water so that even one drop more would 
cause it to overflow. The doctor understood the emblem, but he saw at his feet 
a rose-leaf, which he placed upon the top of the water without displacing a drop. 

His ingenuity procured him the desired admission, and he was received by 
acclamation as a member of the Silent Academy. 


The phrase " sub-rosa," implying secresy, is said to liave originated during 
the wars of York and Lancaster, when the red and white Roses played 
so prominent a part; but in ancient days it was the custom to suspend a Rose 
over the heads of the guests at banquets and feasts, to signify that the conserva- 
tive was not to be repeated. 

In mythology the Rose was dedicated to Ilarpocrates, the God of Silence. 

"When the Roman pontiff desired to confer a particular distinction upon a 
crowned iiead, he presented a consecrated Golden Rose. Both Henry VI and 
Henry VIII, of England, were honored in this manner. 


The list of varieties of Roses is very extended, reaching over 600 or 1,000. 
As many as 600 have been known to bloom in a single garden in this country, 
and in some nurseries 100,000 liave been under propagation at one time. 

The various sub-fomilies of the Rose are numerous, yet for window gardening 
we need only to use the ever-blooming or monthly species. Tea, China, and 
Bourbon. Of these the Tea and China are the best adapted to winter flowering. 
They delight in a very rich .^oil, composed of decomposed sods and man.: re ; 
cow manure is the best of all others for Roses, but it must be so decayed that it 
will crumble easily in the hand. They will grow in almost any soil, yet no 
plant requires a richer compost or better repa3-s the cultivator for preparing it. 

If the compost is heavy add enough sand to make it a little friable, but it pre- 
fers a rather stiff soil. When it is in rapid growth it requires a good supply of 
..ater, but not enough to make the soil too damp. When in a dormant state it 
needs but very little. 

Roses that are transplanted from the garden require a time of rest, and it is 
much better after potting them to put them iu a dark cellar where they can 
remain until February; then bring them up, prune away the old wood, and give 
them all the sunshine you can, for the}^ require plenty of it to bloom in perfec- 
tion. Amateurs fail in not pruning sufficiently; all the finest flowers are pro- 
duced upon new shoots ; so be sure to cut back the long, scraggy branches 
within three or four eyes of the main stem. There is no plant which requires 
such close pruning. Very few flowers are found upon the old wood, but are 
produced on the new, fiesh .shoots, and the branches sent up from the roots. 

Roses are propagated by seeds, cuttings, layers, budding, and grafting. The 
process of growing them from seed is too slow for amateurs to care to attempt 
it, as the plants will not bloom for six or seven years. 

Cuttings are the easiest means of cultivation, and fine bushes can be raised 
from them. The manner of growing them is described in Part I, the chapter 
on Propagation, and little can be added to it. They will strike much more cer- 
tainly under glass and with bottom heat, but in May and June they cai. be grown 
in sand with but little attention. 

Layers are made by " tongueing " a 'branch, and bending it caref ."ly Jown to 



the soil, pressing the cut firmly into the ground, and twisting it a little, so that 
the end of the tongue may have a downsvard tendenc}'^ in the ground. May, 
June, and July are the best months for layering, and by November they can be 
cut off from the parent plants within two inches of the tongue, and potted in 
small pots for the winter. 

The Chinese mode of layering differs a little from ours. They select in July 
a strong shoot of the same year's growth, tongue it as described, cutting it just 
below a bud or joint, and put in a little pebble to keep the slit open. Then 
bind a ball of green moss around the tongue ; keep the moss constantly moist, 
and roots will speedily" shoot into it, and by six or seven weeks the layer will bo 
read}' to cut off; it should then be planted in rich soil, without disturbing the 
moss, and it can be sent, as a present to a friend, to any part of the country. 

There is a diversity of opinion regarding the best time for pruning Roses, but 
M. Paul, the celebrated English Rose-grower, says : 

"A Rose in vigorous condition, healthy and full of sap, requires less pruning 
than when it is of moderate or weak growth. The same degree of pruning, 
applied to each condition would produce opposite results. Close pruning would 
be the means of improving the health and flowering of a weak plant, while it 
would induce a strong one to form wood shoots rather than buds." 

But it is a good rule to thin out the weak, unhealthy shoots, and even some 
of the stronger ones, as soon as the plant has done flowering. This allows it to 
make fresh roots, and theo will follow new shoots and fresh buds. 

When the plants are out of flower remove the soil to the depth of an inch, if 
you can do so without injuring the roots, and fill up with the richest soil you 
can procure. This treatment will cause a fresh, vigorous growth, and insure 
many buds to come. The decayed flowers should be at once removed, and the 
stems cut back. 

Nothing but patient hand-picking and weekly showerings will keep away the 
green fly. In the Chapter of Part I, which treats upon " Insects," antidotes are 
given for all insects. 

No plant thrives better under applications of liquid manure, but care must be 
taken not to give it so strong as to make all the leaves fall. A decoction of soot 
is also good for it. Dissolve a tablespoonful of it in two quarts of warm water, 
and apply to the roots once a week, and the growth of your plants will surprise 

The Tea and China Roses are large shrubs in their native climes, and bloom 
profusely; but our northern seasons do not allow them to grow so lapidly, yd 
they fill our hearts with much pleasure. The buds of these varieties are much 
handsomer than the expanded flowers, which are open in the centre, and fre- 
|uently show the stamens, while the Hybrid Perpetuals are very double. 

For winter flowering the following list embraces some of the best varieties : 

Aurora, rich yellow, shaded to Tr><=es 


Adam, deep rose, very sweet, shaded to salmon color; very large and full. 
Bon Silene, a blending of purple and carmine. 
Devoniensis, blush white ; magnolia fiagrance. 
Clara Si/lvain, snowy white ; very extra. 
Isabelli Sprunt, a bright canary yellow. 

La Pnctole, light buff; the most abundant bloomer of any known. 
Madame Maurin, purest white. 
Pauline Lobante, light cream color. 

Mare-hal Niel, the best yellow Tea Rose in cultivation ; its perfume is une^ 
qualcd, and its buds are peifection. 

Bengal, or China. 
Agrippina, the deepest crimson, with an occasional stripe of white in thfi 

Bourbon Queen, rich blush ; very fine. 
Count de Pohan, purplish red. 
Louis Philippe, rich, rosy crimson. 
Madame Morel, cream color; centre pink. 
J^apoleon, blush ; very large. 
Virginale, rose and crimson 
Vexuiius, deepest crimson. 
Madame Rohan, pure white. 

Bouquet de Flore, deepest carmine ; very fragrant. 
Crimson Globe, purplish crimson. 
Edward Desfosses, brightest rose. 
Glory of Algiers, bright crimson, 
Henri Plantier, deep pink; perfect form. 

Hermosa, rosy pink flowers ; a profuse bloomer, and general favorite. 
Leveson Gower, salmon rose ; very double and fine. 
Phoenix, deepest rose, with the fragrance of the old fashioned Damask 
Psyche, light rose; very double. 
Splendens, richest of crim.son. 
Souvenir de la Malmaison, flesh color; splendid. 
Sombrienil, blush white ; strong grower ; very fine. 
Vicomte de Cassy, cherry red; extra 
Vulcan, dark shade of carmine. 

Aimee Vibert, one of the best white under cultivation 
Chrnmatella, deepe.<^t yellow ; very dehcate. 
Gloire de Dijon, blush white; buff centre. 
Lamarque, white; yellowish centre; very fine. 
Minette, light crimson; very double, and large clusters of flo'vera. 


Opliirie, salmon, shaded to orange color. 
Susanna, yellowish white; very fine. 
Souvenir d' Anselem, deep carmine. 
Sir Walter Scott, dark purple. 
Solfaterre, deep straw color ; extra fine. 
Washington, pure white ; semi-double ; full clusters. 
Triumphant, double rose ; very large. 
WelW Pink, carmine rose ; full clusters. 
Zoheide, crimson, and purple shaded. 

For City Gardens, 

Choose those varieties that are strongest growers and freest bloomers. 

Of crimson varieties, the best recommended are Agrippina, Gen. Washington, 
and Giant of Battles. 

Of Pink — Formosa and Eugenie. 
Yellow — Safrano, Mme. Falcot. 
White — Mme. Maurin, Sombriel. 
Carmine — La Phenix, C. Bobeistshj. 
Straw color — La Pactola, Isabella Sprunt. 
Blush — Pauline, Fleur de Cymes. 

Climbing Roses are our favorite plant for adorning piazzas, balconies, pillars, 
and the outer decorations of the window. The usual varieties are Baltimore 
Belle, Prairie Queen, Fulgens, and Gem of the Prairies. 

A fact worth noticing in the window culture of plants, is that the delicate 
varieties of China and Tea need a light soil. Mr. Parkman recommends a mix- 
ture of loam, manure, leaf mould, and sand, in the proportion of two bushels of 
•oam to one bushel of manure, one of leaf mould, and one-half a bushel of sand ; 
hut for the more robust growers the proportions of loam and manure should be 

One of the favorite methods for producing flowers in early winter, is to take 
the autumnal flowering varieties, clip off their blossoms as soon as they appear 
until they are ready to transfer to the window, and then permit them to bloom 
at freedom. 

Of the different classes of Roses, the China are the most easily managed, yet 
are less fragrant than the Tea, and not equal in beauty, still fully as abundant in 
bloom, which constitutes their chief merit. 

Of Tea Scented Roses, none are more delicate than the Devoniensis, with its 
large double form and light yellow, its only fault being shyness of bloom. 

The Gloire dc Dijon, however, is most suitable for training over the supports, 
columns, or rafters of greenhouses and conservatories ; a very robust grower. 

The Bourbon varieties are of great value for window use or forcing purposes, 
being both free bloomers, and having fine forms and brilliant colors. The 
Strongest of them need to be well pruned back, esDOcially the ends of the largest 


shoots, which, when cut off, will develop fine side branches. They have rich, 
luxuriant foliage, and flowers are produced in large clusters, yery fragrant and 
lasting. The finest variety of this class, and unsurpassed among all Roses, is 
the Souvenir de La Malmaison, a very large flower, of ?ull and beautiful form, 
light flesh or fawn color; needs to be well drained. 

The Noisette Roses are distinctive specially for their blooming in clusters, par- 
taking the nature of true climbers, and usually quite vigorous. The Aimio 
Vibert is the prettiest of the group; flowers purest white, borne in large clus- 
ters. The Lamarque is a universal favorite among greenhouse owners; flowers 
rale leiMon vellow, very large, double, and beautiful ; growth very vigorous. 

The Fuchsia. The 3Iyrtle. 

These graceful flowers have a curious history. They are natives of South 
America, and were first brought to England nearly a hundred 3'ears ago. Mr 
Lee, a well-known English florist, introduced them to the public in 1774. A 
customer purchasing plants of him said: "I saw, in a window at Wapping, a 
prettier flower than all your greenhouses can produce. The flowers hung like 
tassels from the drooping branches; their color was of the richest crimson, and 
in the centre were folded leaves of the brightest Tyrian purple dye." 

Mr. Lee enquired the exact locality where this rare novelty was to be seen, 
and hastened to behold it. At a glance he knew its worth. Entering the house 
ho told its mistress that he would pay any price that she chose to ask for her 
plant. No, she could not sell it; it had been brought by her sailor boy from 
over the sea, and for his sake she cherished it. 

Mr. Lee must have it; so he emptied his pockets of their contents of gold, sil- 
ver, and copper, amounting in all to over eight guineas. Placing them on her 
table, he said : 

"All this money is yours, and the plant mine. I'll give you one of the first 
cuttings I raise ; and when your boy returns the plant will be quite as handsome 
as this one." 

Money always has a potent force, and the woman reluctantly consented, and 
Mr. Lee hastened away with his treasure. He cut it into joints, these he forced 
in hot beds, and the smallest branch took root. Every effort was employed to 
increase his stock, and in two months he had three hundred plants growing 

As soon as the first plant bloomed the pot was exhibited in his show window. 
A lady of rank was the first visitor; she was delighted with the loveliness and 
grace of the flower, and must have the plant, for which she gladly paid one 
guinea. That night the Duchess entertained friends, and her rare plant was 
much admired. The following day Mr. Lee had many visitors, but only two 
plants were in bloom. 

Others were engaged, however, and before the summer closed he had made three 
hundred guineas from the Fuchsia. Since that time one cannot estimate the 
amount of money that has been expended upon these plants, nor the time and 
patience that has been given to their culture ; but the results are seen in the 
hundreds of varieties now oflered for sale, and they increase yearly in size and 
beauty of coloring, and popular favor. The variety from wh'ch they originated 

wixn o w a A rdening. 


IS now rarely seen; its flowers are small and its foliage very different from those 
we now cultivate. Although so iiisigniHcant, when compared to its gorgeous 
listers, yet its fragile flowers press beautifully, and they are great acquisitions 
in a bouquet or wreath of pressed flowers. 


Fuchsias do not require a high temperature ; a very warm, dry atmosphere ia 
not Hivorable to their growth, but they need light and air — not so much the direct 
rays of the sun as roses and geraniums — but if kept in too dark a situation they 
will loose their leaves and drop their buds. 

Good rich soil is needed for luxuriant growth, and well rotted turf mixed with 
peat, is quite to their taste ; the dark soil from the forests, composed in a great 
degree of leaf mould, with a little sand added to it, will make them grow luxu 
riously. A Serratifolia and a Speciosa\\^Y& grown three feet high in one winter 
in such a soil, and they were covered with a wealth of buds and flowers. Their 
growth was magnificent ! The above named are winter flowering varieties, and 
will bloom in window gardens from nine to ten months in the year. 

Tlie Fuchsia is a gross feeder, and requires a good deal of room for its roots 
when it is growing rapidly. It can be planted in small pots, and as the branches 
increase, watch the roots and do not let the plants become root bound. 

Two years old plants will bloom profusely — often having hundreds of flowers 
upon them — but they must have liquid manure once a week to be grown in per- 

"When raised from cuttings, they strike quickly in damp sand, and should be 
transplanted into rich soil, in three inch pots. In two weeks tie the main branch 
to a small stick and train the plant into asymmetrical shape. When thebranchea 
are two or three inches long pinch out iheir tips, and two or three branches will 
start from each one. 

A really beautiful plant of handsome shape is obtained only by care. The 
accompanying illustration. Fig. 72, is a specisien out of thirty others grown from 
a small cutting in twelve months. The cutting selected should be strong, healthy 
and woody, with no less than three or four joints; each leaf should be pulled off, 
and then set the cutting two or tliree inches in the soil, and about one inch out. 
The proper temperature is 55° to 05°; atmosphere moderately moist; use rain- 
water of same temperature as the atmosphere. 

Many persons prefer to have young plants every year or two, and let the old 
ones die away. But the old plants can be judiciously managed, and make very 
pretty plants for years to come. Set them in the cellar until late in January; 
let them lose every leaf; then take up, and cut back severely. If you want a 
pyramidal shape cut back all the branches, and some of the top also. 

If you like an umbrella shaped plant, choose the drooping kinds, and cut off 
the lower branches close to the main stem, within two or three feet of the pot ; 
then cut the branches next higher up, to within a few inches of the stem, and 



cut the top off entirely. Turn out of the pots and trim some of the straggling 

roots, and put it in a twelve to fourteen inch pot ; prepare soil of rotted turf and 

hotbed manure, or well decomposed cow manure, with a small handful of sand 

When potted, water with warm water, and thoroughly sprinkle once a week 

Klg. 72.— A well gro i Specimen Plaut of tlio Fuchsia. CFroni a Pliofosrapli.) 

Always encourage the main stem to grow st^-aight, and tie it to a stake ; then 
form your plant as you ^.lease. Often j^ou will have to cut back so as to makes 
skeleton from which the branches can start as you choose to have them. 



Fuclisias arc greatl}' troubled wSh. the red spider, and for antidotes consult 
chapter on Insects, Part I. 

When the plants are in the cellar they will not need any water, but when 
growing rapidly and flowering, thev desire a good supply, yet not too much ; 
don't keep them soaking or let tbtm become dry ; either condition will make 
them drop their buds. 

In training plants due heed sho"' ' be paid to their natural habits. A plant 
like the Pride of England — 
which always grows like a 
shrub — cannot be forced into 
the umbrella or spreading form ; 
while those like the Souvenir do 
Chiswick, naturall}' inclined to 
the tree-shape, cannot be forced 
into a ^hrub. They must fol- 
low out their own peculiar hab- 
its to thrive well. In Califor- 
nia they bloom every month in 
the year, and grow as tall as tha 
honeysuckles of the Atlantic 
coast. The Double Fuchsias are 
most beautiful, and when stud- 
ded all over with their gorgeous 
wealth of pendant floral gems, 
are unsurpassed by any other 
flower. They ai-e not inclined to 
bloom in the winter, but if all 
their buds are pinched oft, and 
they are kept in the shade, and 
little water given until October 
or November, the)' will bloom 
in January and February. 

The varieties are very numer- 
ous, and yearly the florists pro- 
duce new ones. They are raised 
from seeds b)' most careful hy- Fig. 73.— A Fuclisia traiued in Vmbvella form. 

Dridization, and they will bloom in two years. The seeds require careful trf", 
ment, bottom heat, and a gardener's care to germinate well ; but a j'oung chi^^ 
can raise a cutting, so easy is its culture. There are no plants which more fullj 
repay the attention you may give them ; and they are so graceful and attractivf 
that they strike even the dullest eye with admiration. 

The Fuchsia was named in honor of Leonard Fuchs, a German botanist o 

The most desirable varieties besides those already named, are : 


Single Fuchsias. 

Arabella, white sepals, with rich rose corolla ; the best early variety. 

Brilliant, purple globular-shaped corolla, scarlet sepals. 

Charming, large violet, saucer shaped corolla, with scarlet sepals. 

Co)iqHest, bright scarlet sepals, corolla, rich dark purple ; very free blo-ivroer 

Conspieua, snowy white corolla, with bright-scarlet sepals ; very beautiful. 

Empress, long, white corolla, with rich crimson sepals ; extra fine. 

First of the Day, scarlet sepals, with well expanded lavender corolla. 

Father Ignatius, brilliant carmine sepals, with rich indigo blue corolla. 

Evening Star, blush sepals, with pinkish scarlet corolla. 

Lustre, vivid crimson corolla, sepals waxy white ; free bloomer. 

Minstrel, pink sepals, with rosy lavender corolla. 

Marginata, white sepals with pink corolla, edged with deep rose-color. 

Freund J. JDiirr, richest scarlet sepals, with purple corolla, the stamens,chang 
ing to petals. 

Prince Imperial, corolla dark purple, sepals bright scarlet ; the earliest of thy 
dark varieties. 

Bose of Gastile, sepals blush white, purplish corolla, changing to crimson. 

Rhoderic Dhu, very large lavender blue corolla, sepals salmon-tinted scarlet. 

Starlight, pure waxy white sepals, clear bright lake pink corolla. 

War Eagle, sepals rich crimson, corrolla very largely expanded, of a dark pur 
pie striped with rose. 

Double Fuchsias — Select List. 

Elm City, rich crimson sepals, with dark purple corolla, fully double, 

Eiiqoeror of the Fuchsias, white corolla large and fine, sepals crimson. 

Giant, immense double purple corolla, with bright rose sepals. 

Gloire des Blanc, snowy white corolla, crimson sepals. 

Madame Crouse, white corolla, very long, scarlet sepals. 

Marlcsman, sepals bright carmine, corolla very large, of a rich dark violet ; 
extra fine. 

Norfolk Giant, deep purple corolla, with scarlet sepals. 

Queen of Whites, pure white corolla, very double, with crimson sepals. 

Surpasse V. de Puebla, scarlet sepals, with white corolla veined with scarlet ; 
extra fine. 

Symbol, crimson sepals much reflexed, creamy white double corolla, - ,' 

For a select list choose Lustre, Rhoderic Dim, Elm City, Marksman. These 
x)ur are the best of the entire collection. 

The Myrtle. 

The use of the Myrtle for decorations reminds us of the esteem with which it 

i as held by the ancient Greeks, who dedicated it to Veni«-i, the goddess of 


beauty. Itsleaves were used to improve the flavor of wine, and to increase its 
invigorating properties, while its berries were taken as a medicine. Garlands 
of it were woven to adorn the brows of their chief magistrates, and it was 
always used to crown the dead. The early Christians continued this custom, 
but it was prohibited on account of its use by the idolaters ; yet the Myrtle has 
always been retained as a religious decoration, and, in Germany, composes the 
bridal wreath. The Italians have a great passion for this plant, preferring its 
odors to that of the most precious essences, and their baths arc often perfumed 
with water distilled from its leaves, as it is considered a promoter of beauty. 

In Australia the Myrtle grows to a great size, having a large stem or trunk, 
and sometimes it is one hundred feet in height. 

The IMyrtle we cultivate is that spoken of in the Bible, and the Jews still re- 
gard it with veneration, and always use it to adorn the Feast of the Tabernacles 
— literally obeying the command of Nehemiah to " Fetch olive, pine and myrtle." 


There is a broad leaved variety, a narrow leaved, the box myrtle, and the 
Chinese. The last named produces purple flowers, the others bear pure double 
white flowers, and are always most lovely shrubs for window gardens. 

It does not flourish in a close hot temperature, but will bear a cool, .shady 
window, with a northerly exposure. It needs fresh air and frequent washings, 
to grow luxuriantly. It does not form roots rapidly, iike the Rose and Fuchsia, 
so will not require repotting often; and yet do not let it become root-bound, 
for that will check its blooming. It is propagated by cuttings, which will soon 
strike under glass, and with a little bottom heat, but not so quickly without 
them. This plant was formerly to be seen ia all window gardens. Why it is 
not more common now we do not understand, unless it be that the Ivy is more 

The cuttings should be made with four or five buds or joints, and covered an 
mch under the sand. When it begins to show fi-esh leaves, pot it in good, rich 
«andy loam, in a three or four inch pot, and keep it shaded for nearly a week. 
The best soil is two parts loam, and one part rotten dung. It blooms early in June. 

The Periwinkle or Vinca, is sometimes called Running Myrtle, because of its 
evergreen leaves, which resemble those of the broad leaved myrtle. 

It grows luxuriously in the open garden ; is perfectly hardy, and can be trans- 
planted into a large sea-shell or any hanging vase filled with good loam ; water 
it weekly with some stimulant, and it will flourish beautifully; and early in 
February place every one with its lovely lavender chalices opening to the sun. It 
delights in moisture, so must never be allowed to become dry. 

The M. communis is the usual sort chosen for window use, having many varie- 
ties with leaves both large and small, variegated flowers, single or double. But 
the Chinese species, 31. tomentosa, has also claims for popularity, on account of 
its vari-colored blooms from purple to white, and other shades between ; often 
many colored flowers on the same plant. 

The Heliotrope. 

The celebrated Jussieu, while botanizing in the Cordilleras, suddenly inhaled 
the most delicious odors. He looked eagerly about to discover their origin, ex- 
pecting to find some brilliantly colored flower, but only perceived some large 
bushes bearing clusters of flowers of a pale lavender hue. On coming nearer he 
observed that the flowers turned towards the sun. Struck with this peculiarity, 
he gave the plant the name of Heliotrope, which is derived from the Greek words 
signifying "sun," and " I turn." Delighted with the charming acquisition, the 
learned botanist collected a quantity of seeds and sent them to the Jardin du 
Roi, at Paris, where it was first cultivated in Europe, in 1757. 

It soon became a treasured household flower, and is found in every window 
garden and bouquet. Three species have since been introduced from the south of 
Europe and Asia. 

The Heliotrope has been called emblematical of flattery. The Orientals say, 
that its perfumes elevate their souls toward heaven. 

It is prized more for its fragrance than the beauty of its flowers; though Vol- 
taireanum has deep purple flowers that are very handsome, and many of the later 
varieties are rich in coloring as well as in perfume. 

The cottagers of England used to call it " cherry pie," from a fancied resemb- 
lance of the fragrance of the flower to the odor of nicely cooked cheriies. The 
variety introduced by Jussieu was called Fleliotropium Pcruoiamim, and is still 
cultivated ; and it was many years before much change of color was effected in 
the flower, and now its shades are either lighter or of a rich purple. It will 
bloom the whole season; is never without flowers in California, where it grows 
in immense bushes, and blooms most luxuriantly. 

It is a favorite with every one, as its odors are not so strong as those of many 
other flowers, and pervade the atmosphere to a small extent. The older the 
plant, the more profuse are its flowers, but it must be kept in a healthy condition 
to bloom in perfection. 

Cuttings grown in open borders become very rank and succulent, but if kept 
over the next season, this disappears and a woody stem succeeds it. 

They can be grown as standards and make fine showy plants. Prune off all 
the lower branches, and let a single leading stem remain, with a head of several 
feet in diameter. Peruviannm is well adapted to train in this manner, for 
when the plant is three or four years old its branches assume a drooping habit. 

These plants require close pruning to flower profusely. If you desire to keep 


the plant for winter flowering, do not turn it out of the pot, but keep it in a 
sunny location, and in August trim off a great many of its branches, then the 
young growth will push forth, and by January it will be covered with blossoms. 

Ic will flower in a warm atmosphere, from 68'' to 70"^, but it can bear a heat of 
50" and do well. The green fly never touches it, but the red spider will some- 
times ruin it; yet frequent spongings will keep it away. It likes a good, rich 
soil, with a moderate admixture of sand. 

Cuttings root very easily, either in sand or vials of water, and if struck in 
March will make fine plants by another winter. 

They must have the sun; they cannot grow in a shady location. The varieties 
vary considerably in habit, some being of rampant, robust growth, while others 
are dwarf and compact. 

The freest bloomers are : 

Boule de Niege, blush white. 

Alexina, deep bluish purple. 

Corymbosa, dwarf, light lavender. 

Gem, dark bluish purple. 

Jane Mesmer, rich dark purple. 

Triumphe de Guascoi, robust growth, pale lilac. 

Madame Parker, very dark purple. 

Madame Eendatler, very bushy, light lavender. 

Jersey Belle, dwarf and compact, lavender. 

Voltaireanum, bluish purple. 

The Lantana. 

This plant was given the ancient name of the Viburnum, because its foliage re- 
sembled it. It was brought from the West Indies in 1092. The flowers are a 
little like those of the verbena, but change in color from yellow to a deep orange 
and red, or from yellow to a rich rose-color. The florists have experimented 
with it, and produced many new varieties, among them a pure white flower, 
which is much admired. It grows very robust in a rich but sandy loam, and 
needs plenty of sun and water when in flower. It is propagated either by .seeds 
or cuttings. The latter can be started in April or May, either in water or 
sand, and will make large plants by another spring. 

This plant can bear the knife well, and can be trained into a graceful shape. It 
needs repotting every spring, and then is the time to prune it, and shorten in the 
branches. Towards autumn give water to harden the wood. If large plants 
are desired tc be kept through the winter for bedding out another summer, place 
them in a cool cellar, frost proof, however, and let them remain until March 
without any water, unless the soil become dust dry; but in a damp and perfectly 
dark cellar this rarely occurs. 

The handsomest varieties for window gardens are : 

Lantana alba grandiflora, large flowered white. 

Crocea superba, brilliant orange turning to scarlet. 


Comtesse Mory, blush turning to rose. 

Fillonii, yellow, changing to purple. 

Fulgens mutalnlis, scarlet and yellow. 

Garibaldi, lilac. 

Imperatrice Eugenie, blush and white 

Snowball, purest of white. 

Surpasse, lilac, with yellow. 

Zanthena, scarlet buff and lemon-color. 

The Hoya, or Wax Plant. 

This plant will thrive splendidly in a close, hot room. It does not require 
much moisture, but loves heat. It is a fine plant to droop over pictures or train 
about windows. The pot can be placed on a high shelf near a window, and the 
branches trained so that they will have the warm air at the top of the room. 

The IIo3'a requires a soil of peat, loam and a little sand, and if liquid manure 
is given every fortnight it will not need repotting oftener than four or five years, 
as it does not root vigorously. 

The flower stalks bloom anew year after year, so the}'^ should not be cut oflf 
when the petals drop. 

The best way of propagating tliis plant is by layers, though cuttings can some- 
times be started with much bottom heat. 

The leaves are of a deep, waxy green, and the flowers are cream-colored, with 
dark chocolate stamens, and possess a peculiar fragrance, often likened to the 
odor of fresh baked bread. They bloom in full clusters, and secrete a honey 
like juice. 

The Ilcya i.-; not commonly cuUivated, yet it merits attention 


Tlie Gerani 

The iinpiovement in the Geranium by English and American florists, both in 
the size of the individual flower, or their clusters, or their foliage, are really 
wonderful when compared with the flowers of fifteen years ago. 

Frequently the single flower is now as large as a silver quarter of a dollar, 
and the trusses will often measure over six inches in diameter, while colors are 
seen from the purest white to most delicate rose, brilliant scarlet, richest crim- 
son, loveliest salmon-color, and striped pink and white. 

The foliage is also much imjjroved ; it is margined with gold or silver, zoned 
with chocolate, white, black, crimson, and gold, and in a few choice varieties, 
like Lady Ciillum and Madame Pollock} nearly all these colors may be seen i 
one .separate leaf 

Their habits are also changed from the straggling growth of former times, to 
dwarf, compact shrubs, which are in perfect shape. 

The florist's skill has taken still another step, and produced the Double Flow- 
ered Geranium, whose individual flowers are double as a Chrysanthemum, and 
do not drop their petals as the single vai'ieties, but each flower withers on its 
stem ; and by cutting it off the other flowers fill its place, and the beauty of the 
cluster is preserved for a long season. These varieties run through the same 
series of colors as single species, although a pure snowy white has not yet been 
produced, but a peach blossom variety shows that the white will soon appear. 

The flower clusters are often enormous — sixty flowers having been produced 
on one truss — and they are exceedingly beautiful for bouquets, baskets, and 

AV"ith the other improvements have come a Lilliputian variety with smaller 
foliage, and a compact, dwarf growth, very vigorous in habit, while the flowers 
equal in beauty those of the taller varieties. 

The Ivy-leaved species have yielded to the effects of hybridizing with the 
Zonale class, and the results are great improvements in the foliage, variegating 
the leaves with yellow, pink and white, while the flowers have increased in size 
and color, and approach nearer to those of the Zonales. 

The sweet-scented Geraniums have also increased in number, and a variegated 
leaved Rose Geranium has been introduced whose foliage is very attractive. 

These different varieties are propagated by seeds and cuttings chiefly. The 
seeds require sandy soil and warmth to vegetate, but will sometimes spring up 
of themselves in the open ground. 


Cuttings are easily struck, as recommended in Part I. 

The plants require plenty of sun, air, water ; a rich loamy soil, with weekly 
waterings of liquid manure, and a season of rest. A good compost is made of 
one-half two years old manure, and one-half good fresh loam. 

For winter, ^he plants should be repotted early in September; shake 
all the earth away from the roots, prune back the tops closel}^ and cut in the 
branches with due regard to the shape of the plants. Piess the fresh earth 
closely around the soil, and keep the plants shaded for a week or so, then give 
more sun and water, and by December they will be stocky, thrifty plants, with 
buds well set, which will keep in bloom foi" many moiuhs. 

They do not require a warm temperature, and should be kept cool at night, 
and ought not to be crowded as they want a free circulation of air through the 
branches and leaves; but draughts of air will injure them. When the buds 
begin to show they need to be stimulated with liquid manure. 

In summer, when the weather is close and hot, it is well to keep saucers 
under the pots, and give water twice a day, as the foliage will wilt and become 
injured if the roots get dry, and they do not need the noonday sun ; are better 
if shaded from it. 

It is difficult to give lists of the very best when all are so good, but a few 
choice varieties are herewith appended : 


Azucena, salmon-color shaded to white, large flower. 

Cheerful, bright cherry-color. 

Christine, richest rosy pink, nosegay variety. 

Distinction, brilliant carmine, bordered with white. 

Gloire de Corbenay, bright salmon pink, tipped with white. 

Knight of the Garter, deepest orange scarlet, marked with pink, nosegay 

Cybister, the most dazzling scarlet nosegay, 

Madame Chandon, bright rose- color, extra large flower. 

Madame Paul Hibon, white ground, bordered and veined with blood-red ; 

Madame Chate, salmon-color, marked with white, and bordered with rose- 

Ne plus Ultra, pure rose, spotted with white. 

Snowball, purest white, dwarf habit. 

Vicomtesse de Flavigny, bright rose, marked with white ; extra flower 

Madame Dupanloup, blush white, nosegay. 

Tricolor Geraniums. 

Lady Cullum, margined with gold, mingled with crimson, and bronze ; scarlet 


Mrs. Pollock, zone of red, belted with crimson and gold-color; scarlet 

Sir Rohcrt Napier, broad, black zone indented with brilliant scarlet, and mar 
gincd with gold flowers, pcacli-color, with rose centre 

Sophie Dumaresqiic, chocolate zone, margined wiih golden yellow ; scarlet 

Beauty of Oulton, hroadj bronze zone, on a yellow green leaf; flowers cerise 

Bcanbj of Caldcrdale, broad zone of a reddish bronze, margined with yellow 
Bcailet flowers. 

Italia Unita, broad, white margin ; flowers scarlet. 

Sunset, ground color, golden yellow, veined with crimson, black and green. 

Mouutaiii of Snow, ijure white margined leaves, scarlet flowers. 

Lilliputian Zoxale. 
Bahij Boij, scarlet, white eye. 
Beaut}; of Surecncs, rich shade of pink. 
Bridesmaid, rosy sahnon-color. 
Cybester, orange crimson. 
Little Bear, delicate rose, with white spots. 
Little 0cm, brilliant vermilion, white centre. 
Pretty Jemima, brilliant scarlet, white eye. 

Double Flowering. 
Conseiller Barjon, rich orange red, very fine. 
CaptLa Uermile, rich scarlet. 
Andrew Henderson, brightest cherry scarlet. 
Jeanne dc St. Maiir, bright dazzling vermilion. 
Le Vesicve, very double scarlet flowers, habit dwarf and compact. 
Ferrc Promise, a bright satiny red, dwarf, bushy growth. 
Emile Lcmoine, crimson scarlet flowers, very double. 
Marie Lcmoine, rosy pink, very line dwarf. 
William Pfitzer, orange scarlet-color. 
Victor Lemoinc, brightest scarlet, dwarf and bushy. 
Triomphe de Lorraine, rosy carmine, striped with white. 

Sweet Scented. 
Under this head are comprised the several varieties of Rosc-sccnted 
Bosc Capitatnm, 

Capiiaium Major, large leaf, rose. 
Dcnticulatum, cut leaf, rose. 
Odoratissimum, apple-scented. 
Odorati»simum crectum, nutmeg-scented. 
Shrubland Pet, variegated foliapre. 



Lady PlymouiJt, variegated foliage, rose scented. 
Dr. Livingston, lemon-scented. 
Quercifolium, eximium, oak-leaved. 

Ivy-Leaved Geraniums 

Aurm variegata, golden margined. 

Lateripes, the common variety, -vrhite flowers. 

L' Elegante, brilliant green foliage, with broad bands of creamy white, puie 
white flowers; extra handsome. 

Duke of Edinburgh, (^Holli/wreath,^ variegated with gold and silver margins ; 
pink flowers. 

The Pelargonium. 

Pelargoniums are also among the most beautiful plants we have for house 
culture. Fifteen years ago, or more, great attention was paid to their cultiva- 
tion, and veined, spotted and white flowers, which rivaled the Pansy in size and 
beauty of coloring, were yearly the pride and boast of the florist. Of late years 
the Zonale and Double Flowered Geraniums have been more attended to, but 
they can never equal the flowers of the Pelargonium. 

They are natives of the Cape of Good Hope, and trace their name to the re- 
semblance of the Capsules to the Stork's bill ; hence from peZar^ros, the Latin for 
Stork, comes the title. Nothing can surpass the richness of coloring of these 

Mr. Henderson places it as his first choice. " If I were confined to grow but 
a single genus of plants for conservatoiy decoration, the Pelargonium would be 
chosen." Their hues are in every shade of scarlet, crimson, cherry, pink, pur- 
ple to lilac and white, while they are blotched, marbled and spotted with velvety 
black, maroon, and all its shades. 

Their growth is very vigorous, and they require repotting both spring and 
fall to bloom in full perfection. 

They are most charming flowers for all kinds of grouping, and their colors 
blend and mingle in great beauty. 

They are easy of culture, but require a rich soil to flourish well.* Cuttings 
rooted in the spring make large plants by autumn. The old roots can be wintered 
in pots or boxes in the cellar, and brought forward to light and heat in March, 
und should not be allowed to wilt for want of water. 

New varieties are raised from seeds sown as soon as ripe, or in March or 
April. When the fourth or fifth leaves are well developed transplant into three 
inch pots 

Some of the newest varieties are : 

Belle of the Ball, rose-color, veined, and blotched with crimson. 

Butterfly, deepest crimson with black spots and veins. 

Captivation, purest white, blotched with deep crimson. 

Emperor, lower petals nearly white, upper ones dark maroon. 


Eugene Duval, light purple with dark blotches. 

General Taijlor, carmine with crimson spots. 

Grand Duchess Stephayiie, brilliant carmine with very da blotches. 

Invincible, crimson, veined with white. 

L'Avenir, rosy scarlet, striped with white. 

Monarch, maroon, crimson and rose. 

Madame Leroy, violet purple, with bluish lilac centre. 

Sunrise, delicate scarlet and crimson, with dark blotcik'' 

Unique Miellez cherrvsro'-'o* 


The Oleander ; Bouvardia ; Maiiernia Odorata. 

The Oleander is a native of the Holy Land, and Keblc alludes to it as fol 
lows : 

"In the flowery land of Palestine it is always found wherever rivers or water 
courses invite its Ihiisty roots. 

The banks of the Jordan are clothed with this beautiful plant, aptly styled "a 
gem among flowers; audit blooms at the overflow of that river, its roots being 
then partly mersed in water; yet it will endure the extreme heat and baked 
soil of an h. -ciLcrn summer when the brooks and rivers are shrunk into the nar- 
rowest streams." 

A rich turfy loam must be provided for it to grow in, and from the end of 
September until jNIarch or April, it should receive no more water than will pre- 
vent the soil from being crumbly ; and during the rest of the year it should 
have a most bountiful supply, and the tub or pot should be immersed in a saucer 
or a half tub fliled with water. 

It is very easily propagated by cuttings during the spring or summer months. 
They should be taken from the young shoots and cut off close under the fourth 
joint, cutting ofl" the three lower leaves, but without injuring the bark of the 

The most simple way of rooting them is in vials of rainwater, hung in the 
windows of a warm room. The cuttings should not be deeper in the water than 
half way up to the second joint. In a short time tiny white roots wilt make their 
appearance, and when these are about half an inch long, take it carefully out 
and pot in light sandy soil ; keep moist and shaded from the sun until the 
bright color of the leaves show that the roots are giowing. 

Water and warmth will produce roots rapidly, but cannot sustain growth. 
So when cuttings are rooted in water, they should be transplanted as soon as 
the rootlets are from half an inch to an inch in length. 

Dwarf Oleanders that will flower the succeeding spring, when not over a foo 
high, can be produced as follows : 

Early in September or October, according to your climate, cut three to four 
joints from a topmost branch, leaving a joint at the end, strip off the leaves, 
take a six inch pot filled with turfy loam, and a little moss at the bottom of the 
pot, press it firmly in, and make holes around the edge of the pot about an inch 
and a half apart, pour into each hole half an inch of sand, and plant the cut- 
tings firmly in it. Cover the top of the pot an inch deep with sand, saturate 


the whole with water, and see that each cutting is fixed and immovable with 
out a strong pull. Upon the close contact of cutting and soil depends half of 
youi success. Keep in a temperature not over 50° during the winter, and 
among the cuttings Avill be found several which have the heads of future bloom 
in the upper leaves, and the perfect flowers will expand by April or ^lay. 

Of course the cuttings must not be allowed to become dr}'. Most plants col- 
lect during the summer a greater store of nutiiment than is required for their 
support during the winter; so if cuttings of Oleander, Il3'drangeas, Cacti, etc., 
are taken late in the season, they possess quite a store of nutiiment, and will 
grow better, and flower more profusely. 

The only trftuble is that these late cuttings require more care to keep Iheni 
alive during the winter than if they had been made in the spring, but where 
there is no difliculty, there is no honor. 


These winter blooming plants are invaluable in every conservatory or indoor 
garden. They arc of a shrubby character, of the easiest culture and becom- 
ing exceedingly popular. They have the merit of being free bloomers, flowering 
in clusters of varied colors from pink to crimson, scarlet and white, and their 
flowers are considered excellent for bouquets. As plants for the decoration of 
the lawn, also, it is doubtful if they have any superior. In outdoor culture they 
■will bloom from August down until cold wcatlier, and if lifted within doors be- 
fore frost, they will continue blooming down until March. 

They arc popular with every florist on account of their profusion of bloom, 
and the number and excellence of varieties seems to increase yearly. Still they 
are little known in any of our coimtry homes or family flower gardens. They 
are essentially lovers of the hot house during the winter, needing a temperature 
at night of 55° to flower well. 

They are propagated chiefly from pieces of the roots, as cuttings do not grow 
easil)'; yet it is best for all amateurs at first to 'procure their plants already 
started, and then by degrees learn the art of reproduction. 

The plants require training, and the tops should be nipped ofl" frequently in 
the summer to give them a bushy shape. They are also tender, and a slight 
chill only will prove injurious. Give them a good suppl}-- of water when in full 
flower, less in sunimcT. 

The usual method of culture is to let them grow during the summer in the 
common garden border ; then in the fall lift them, pack very closely in 
sand filled boxes, and store in the cellar to keep through the winter. If desired 
to bloom during the winter, cut back one-half the wood, water sparingly, 
place in the cellar for six weeks, then bring to the heat and light, give a copious 
watering, and in a few days you will have a fine bloom. 

The soil for potting should bo loam, leaf mould, peat, and a little sprinkling 
of silver sand ; pot firmly. If you wish immediate bloom, let the plants stand out 
doors in the fall, two weeks before you bring them to the conservatory, and 


then you will soon be repaid by numerous clusters of bright, sweet-scented 


Our list of varieties, by constant improvement, has become quite excellent, 

but originally there were only two principal varieties, B. leiantha and Hogarth 

Angiistifolie has flowers of a very rich orange scarlet, a dwarf growth and neat 
foliage. It blooms constantly during the summer. 

Hogarth, bright scarlet, long tube, and splendid raceme, a very vigorous grower, 
and fine habit. 

Elejans, a spoi-t from the Hogarth, light scarlet carmine, with the novelty and 
merit of flower trusses, of immense size, sometimes measuring 4 to 5 inches 
in diameter. Comes true from root cuttings. 

Leianthe, bright dazzling scarlet; an old, well known, and desirable variety. 

Jasminoides, a most valuable acquisition, discovered in a private collection of 
plants in London, England, origin unknown, but supposed to have been 
produced from seeds sent from South America. Its merits consist chiefly 
in its ease of propagation. B}'- cutting, its growth is rapid, yielding an abun- 
dance of flowers of waxy whiteness, said to resemble the jasmine in appear- 
ance and fragrance. 

For bouquets and baskets of cut flowers florists esteem it invaluable. 

Vreelandii, a sport from Hogarth, pure white, a compact and vigorous grower, 
profuse bloomer, bearing tresses of largest size, readily propagated from root 
or top cuttings ; considered by many to rank at the head of the white 

fasminoides compaeta, dwarf habit, white flower, yields a very agreeable fra- 
grance, and quite a profuse bloomer. Both this and the Jasminoides are 
very valuable for vases and drawing room boquets. 


A delicate little plant, always pleasing with its freedom of bloom. It is more 
properly called Ilermannia, named in honor of Hermann, a Dutch Botanist, yet 
among florists its popular name of Mahernia is still retained. Nothing can be 
more lovely than a pot of it in full bloom, thickly hung with its lemon-colored 
bell-shaped flowers, which possess the most delicious odor, resembling that of 
the Lily of the Valley. 

It is easily raised by cutting started in damp sand, and when they have 
struck, transplanted to pots filled with a peaty loam. 

It likes moisture, but not too much of it, and an application of liquid manure 
should be made once a week or so. The odorata is the variety usually grown, 
although there are other kinds. Hector and Diana, orange and pink. If too 
luxuriant, pinch in unsparingly. 


The Verbena, Petunia, Pyrethhum. 

Bedding plants like these are not to bo recommended generally for window 
culture, still window gardeners will have them, and we can only give directions 
for their culture. 

Very great improvements have been made m the last few years in the Ver 
bena, both in the size of the individual flowers and the form of its clusters; also 
in the great variety of its brilliant colors of crimson, scarlet, hlac, bluish pur- 
ple, and all their intermediate shades, with eyes of white, deep crimson, 
rose, purple, and yellow, and still others are striped and spotted. 

They are great lovers of the sun, will not thrive without it, yet will not grow 
in the hot, dry atmosphere of many sitting rooms, but require a cool room dur- 
ing the winter months, and a goodly share of fresh air when the frost is not 
in it. 

When grown as a house plant they must be placed close to the glass, and the 
mercury should not be over 50° during the day and less than 45° at night, until 
March. They do not like moisture in the winter, but should be kept a little 
dry; when you do water, give a good supply, and pour away all that falls into 
the saucer. 

Shower the foliage weekly, to keep it clear of the green fly which injures it 
greatly. The Verbena Mite, which produces the "black rust" upon these 
plants, is also very destructive to them, but plentiful showerings and washings 
will keep it way. 

These plants are particular as to soil, blooming plentifully in sandy or clayey 
loam, if it is enriched with well decayed manure, or liquid stimulants. 

The 3'oung shoots root ver}^ rapidly, and they are to be selected to make plants 
for window gardens. The reason why many fail to keep them through the win- 
ter is, that they attempt to keep the old plants, or layers from them, instead of 
striking cuttings in September or October from entire neAV growth. 

The sulphate of ammonia is an excellent fertilizer for Verbenas, giving the 
foliage a dark grten, healthy appearance, and it is easily prepared and applied. 

Dissolve one ounce of the ammonia in four gallons of warm water; it can be 
given once a week. Keep the soil well stirred up in the pots; this is very essen- 
tial to the healthy growth of all pot plants, for their roots must have air to 
dourish well. 

Tlie cuttings should be pinched back to keep the plants stocky and robust. 

In raising them from seeds, the soil should be very sandy, and kept uniformly 


moist; the seeds should also be soaked before sowing. When the second row of 
leaves is well developed transplant the seedlings into shallow boxes. 

As a plant for a vase, either outdoors or indoors, the Verbena nas few equals 
its bright cheerful colors and steady bloom being well calculated to please the 
fancy of any one. 

Jlany Verbenas arc grown in the house during the summer season, although 
more pretty in the open garden border. Yet we suppose every one has their 
fancy and like to keep something pretty constantly on their window sill. Thej 
need only plenty of light and air; not too much watering, and careful pinching 

A good soil for potting Verbenas is sand 1 part, loam 2 parts, and leaf mould 
or decayed manure 2 parts. Keep it well drained. Tfj^ou have a conservatory 
place them upon a top slielf until ready to bring to the window for show. Damp 
ness causes mildew, and then comes the green fly, the desiruction of which is 
secured only by fumigation with tobacco. 

If they grow too straggling, train them, and a convenient trellis or framework 
may be made for them by using some of the wire or wooden frames used in 
floral stores, set sloping outward from the edge of the pots. 

The list of varieties is indeed formidable, and every florist has not only his 
fancies, but seedlings of his own year after year, so that new varieties are 
abundant enough not to attract any remarkable attention. Our bright summer 
sunshiny days are very suitable for the development of seeds; hence our 
American florists arc able in many cases to produce hand '^ome varieties surpass 
mg those of Europe. 

Special List. 
Annie, one of the very best, white, striped with crimsor blooms constantly 

and vigorous grower, truss large. 
Black Bcddcr, very dark maroon, rich. 
Compicna, ruby scarlet, with white eye. 
Colossus, crimson, violet eye, very large. 
Ceres, light blush, crimson eye. 
Decorator, light cherry scarlet, yellow eye. 
Diadem, large white, violet bordered. 
Knocli Ardcn, blush, crimson and maroon. 
*Formosa, large pink, white eye. 
* Gazelle, deep blue, clear Avhitc eye. 

Harlcqiiin, pure white, striped and splashed with rosy carmine 
Ivanhoe, rich bluish purple, white eye. 
King of Blades, docp maroon. 
Lafayetle, scarlet crimson, with white centre. 
Fire Gleam, light scarlet, dwarf habit. 
Pinli Beauty, biight pink, with white eye. 
Purple Standard, rich dark purple, white centre. 
Silver Star, dark maroon, with large white centre. 


* Ultramarine, the best blue raised, very fragrant. 

White Beauty, purest white. 

Warrior, crimson maroon, violet eye. 

*Beacon, fine dark scarlet. 

Those marked with a star are considered best novelties for this year. Lists 
change so frequently, and new ones are formed so quickl}', that many a variety 
becomes old and forgotten in a few seasons. The public iu this respect are de- 
pendent solely upon the annual announcements of the florists. We could wish 
good varieties might be a little more permanent and less shifting. 

The Verbena derives its name from the Celtic for Vervain, a common wild 
flower. It bears its flowers in long spikes, while the Verbena is a cluster flow- 
ered variety. The Vervain was called holy herb ; it grew plentifully on the 
Capitolino Hill at Rome, and was much used in religious festivals, and also em- 
ployed as a symbol in making treaties of peace. 

The Druids, of Great Britain, held it in high esteem, and used it in foretelling 
future events, and in casting lots ; but for these purposes the plant must be 
gathered " when the daystar rose at such a time as neither the sun nor the 
moon should be above the earth to see it," and also that before they take up the 
herb they bestow upon the ground where it greweth honey, with the coinb, in 
token of satisfaction and amends for the violence done in depriving her of so 
holy an herb." 

The Vervain is said to grow in the vicinity of villages and towns, and never 
in the wilds, which has gained for it the name of " Simpler's Joy." 

The Veibcnais found growing wild in Kansas, and there is a species called 
Verbena montane, which grows in our western territories, but its flowers are 
small compared to those we cultivate. 

Jlie Petunia. 

Here we meet some very charming favorites. The common single Petunias 
will grow in any soil, being usually quite hardy. The large double varieties are 
very fragrant and frail, and though easily raised for cuttings produce few if 
any seeds. 

Start cuttings in April or May, and plant them in damp sand, keeping it moist 
all the time. When rooted pot in rich garden loam and press the soil carefully 
around the roots ; keep in the shade until the roots begin to grow, then give it 
all the sunshine you can. Pinch off the flower buds during the summer, to 
allow the plant to become bushy, and do not give too much water to make the 
sprouts spindle out. There are no handsomer honse plants than the improved 
Double and Single Petunias, and their culture is very simple. Some varieties 
will train easily, and require a frame for support. The Double varieties are 
blotched and striped like Pelargoniums, or Picotee Pinks, and arc exceedingly 
beautiful and attractive Among the finest are : 


John Lyons, very large size, violet. 
Vtck's New Fringed, a new strain with fringed or frilled edges, various colois, 

long tube. 
Queen of White, pure white, too good for bedding out. 
B. K. Bliss, white blotched with violets. 
Dame Blanche, pure white. 
Dexter, crimson and white, marbled. 
Edward Beck, very large blush pink. 
Gov. Geary, white blotched with crimson. 
Mrs. Colt, pure white, striped and spotted with violet. 
Magnet, habit compact, growth very vigorous, flower white blotched, with 

purplish crimson. Measures often five inches in diameter. The best of all 

the doubles. 

The Single Varieties. 
Admiration, white, blotched with lilac. 
Ceres, pure white, purple throat. 
Enchantress, white carmine edges. 
Gen. Grant, white, marked with fine crimson bars. 
Louisa, crimson, beautifully striped with white. 
Maculata, white blotched with lilac. 
Triumph, white edged with rose, purple centre. 

The Pyrethrum. 

This is a species of Chamomile which also bears the name of Fever Few, and 
is of the same order as the Daisy and Chrysanthemum. Its delicate green foli^ 
age and pure white double flowers, make it a very beautiful plant for house 
culture, and it is desirable for dressing the hair, and many other puiposes of 
ornament. It is very hardy, will bear a severe frost without injury, and will 
live out in the coldest climates if protected by sods. 

It is propagated by cuttings and divisions of the roots. The cuttings strike 
with great ease if the piece is kept in water a week; the roots will form very 
quickly. They will grow in any soil, and prefer a shady location, where they 
will bloom in great perfection. Do this in March or April. 

The Pyrethrum is also called Mountain Daisy, because it is a native of hiqh 
places like the Caucasus and the Ural ]Mountains. 

An enthusiastic gardener describes the best of the named varieties as extreme- 
ly beautiful; "many of them are like Pompone Chrysanthemums; others like 
Anemone Chrysanthemums; others like Marigolds. Their colors range from 
purest white to the deepest crimson and purple, the shades of crimson being 
particularly brilliant." ^ 


The Mignonette. How to Form a Tree. Cineraria. Wall 
Flower. Stockqilly. 

The Mignonette, or Eeseda odorata, is very desirable for winter bloom because 
its perfume is so delicious. Linnaeus compares its odors to those of Ambrosia, 
and it is sweeter and more penetrating at the rising and setting of the sun than 
at noonday. 

Its floral language is, " Tour qualities surpass your charms," for its flowers are 
very insignificant when compared to the brilliant colorings of many others. 

For blooming in the house, the seeds should be sown in August, in the pots 
where they will bloom; and when started, pull up all but three or four good 
strong roots, keep in a shady place, and pinch oflf the top shoots to keep the 
plants from straggling; give liquid manure once a week, and by November you 
will have a pot full of branches; then let the buds form at their pleasure, and bo- 
fore December is out, the flowers will be in great profusion. 

For soil in the pots, use 3 parts loam, 1 part dung, and 1 part leaf mould. 
When water is applied, do so in the morning, so that the foliage may be dry 
before night. 

To have Mignonettes the year round, begin sowing as early as February, then 
again in April, in September and October. Thin out the plants as fast as they 
grow up, to but five in the pot ; shade from the sun, in the heat of the day, as 
otherwise the foliage might have a yellow and unsightly appearance. 

For training, five small stakes may be stuck into the pot at equal distances 
from each other, and tie the plant thereto. 

In thinning, keep the largest in one pot and the smallest in others so as to 
give a succession of bloom. If it is desired to cause any to bloom late, pinch off 
the tops of a few as soon as they begin to flower ; they will break out again and 
bloom three weeks or a month later than others of the same sowing. 

In boxes they are very pretty. It is best to grow them in pots first until just 
ready to bloom, and then transfer them to the box, where they can branch out 
and flower for a long time. 

The Mignonette is a native of Egypt and Barbary. In France and England it 
is much cultivated in boxes made to fit into windows and balconies. 

To Form a Tree. 
This is an interesting operation, and one particularly agreeable to window gar- 
deners, from the careful superintendence it requires, as well as the singularity, 




beauty and fragrance of the plant, and it shows so conclusively what results can 
be obtained from close pruning and attention. 

Some persons think that the Tree Mignonette is a distinct variety from the 
common kind grown in gardens; but it is not so ; upon tlie process of formation 
alone does the difference rest. Sow the seeds as directed above. The soil should 
be rather rich, but fiiable, not heavy. When the plants come up, thin out the 
•weakest, so as to leave only one strong growing plant directly in the centre of 
the pot. 

Push a stiff" piece of wire down by the side of the plant, and when it is two 
inches high commence tying it loosely with a worsted thread to the wire, and 

keep it well supported,. 
Uj i./i// Every side branch that ap- 

pears from the main stem 
must be pinched off"; but the 
leaves must be allowed to 
remain on the stem as their 
functions are needed for the 
health and support of the 
plant. In four or five 
months turn out the ball of 
earth to see if it requires a 
larger size ; but do not give 
it unless the roots are curled 
around the edges of the ball. 
When the plant is a foot 
or more in height, according 
to the fancy of the cultivator, 
the side shoots can be per 
mitted to grow, but they 
must have their heads 
ig. 74.-Tree MiKnionetto. pinched ofF Occasionally, to 

force them to form a bushy top of ten or twelve inches in diameter. This 
will be accomplished in from nine to twelve months, and then one plant wil' be 
sufficient to perfume a large room. Every year it should be repotted, and it 
will bear an abundance of fragrant flowers for many seasons. 

The Eesecla odorata, or Sweet Mignonette, is our most popular variety, unles.s 
we except 

The Parsons Keio WJiite Mignonette, which is white also, but much mor* 
vigorous. The flowers are larger, but some do not consider the color any differ 
ent or superior. In other respects it is, however, an improvement. 

Tlie Cineraria. 
This plant is usually grown in pots or boxes, and it flowers abundantly during 
the greater part of the winter and early spring. The variety of its colors, the 




beauty of the leaves of some of the plants, and the spicy fragrance of others, 
makes it suitable for the smallest collection of plants. 

It requires a fiiable loam, and does not need the sun during the warmest part 
of the day in the summer. 

There are three metliods of increasing this pretty plant: hy seed, which ripen 
abundantly in this country, and from which the various beautiful hybrid varie- 
ties recently introduced have been obtained; by cuttings, and by divisions of tho 
roots. Seed sown in sandy soil in Jlay, will make fine blossoming plants in 

Cuttings strike readily in damp sand or water. The dwarf varieties are quite 
an improvement upon the older sorts. 

TJie Wall Floicer. 
The "Wall Flower is an old fashioned flower, not much cultivated in these days 
of novelties. Yet many flowers, much less worthy of admiration, are seen, and 
the double varieties are particularly attractive, on account of their sweetness and 
peculiar colorings. We read in old literature of '* The yellow "Wall Flower 
stained with iron brown," and again 

" The rude stone fence with fragrant "Wall flowers gay. 
To nic more pleasure yield 
Than all the pomp imperial domes survey." 

Tradition associates with this plant one of her wildest fantasies: 
In ancient days a noble castle stood amid woods and wilds near the Trent, 
and a fair damsel had long been detained a prisoner within its walls, because she 
had given her j'oung love to the heir of a hostile clan ; and although the youth 
was of equal birth, and renowned for feats of arms and strength, the deadly 
hatred of those fierce days forbade all thoughts, of their marriage. 

Many stratagems did the youth devise to obta'n possession of his love, but they 
had all failed. At length a serving woman came to his aid, and it was arranged 
that with a silken ladder she should descend tho fearful height and meet her 
lover, and the poetry thus describes her fate : 

"Dp then she got upon a wall, 
Attempted dovm to elide withal; 
But the silken twist untied, 
So she fell, and bruised, she died. 
Lovo in pity to the deed, 
And her loving luckless speed, 
Tum'd her to tins plant, we call 
Kow, the Flower of the WalL" 

Hence, the "Wall Flower lias become an emblem of fidelity. 

The ancient English dames took much pleasure in cultivating this plant, and 
in wearing its bli)s>oms, so that the title of " Dames' Violet " was applied to it. 

The blossom is cruciform, having in its natural state only four petals ; but cul- 
tivation has changed the stamens into petals, as is often the case. It will not 
bloom until the second year from the seed, but if potted in Septcmb.r will bloom 


by March or April. Unless the soil is very rich the double flo-rers "will become 

Cuttings must be raised in sandy loam, and then transplanted into rich soil, or 
they will degenerate from the parent plant. With but little care Wall Flowers 
■will live for many years and blossom profusely. 

I- These are biennials, and blossom m the early spring of the second year from 
seeds sown in April. 

The later varieties are very beautiful, and make most showy and fragrant plants 
for house culture. 
^ The varieties most suitable for winter flowering are the German Brompton, oi 
Cocardeau ; the flowers are very bushy ; the latter have a single stem and flowei 
and formed in the shape of a pyramid. 

These stocks are in the richest of colors, varying from scarlet, crimson, pink, 
purple, lilac, to white and cream-color. 

The roots can be lifted from garden borders into pots or boxes, and kept in the 
cellar until March, when they can be brought forward to the sunlight, and will 
soon be covered with their brilliant, fragrant flowers. 

If the seed has been sown in spring in the garden, the plants can grow until 
autumn, and then be transferred to pots for indoor culture, and flowering during 
the winter. 

If sown in July and August, and grown in pots, they will bloom the follow- 
ing spring and summer. 

The culture of Stocks for the window garden is destined to make them one of 
the most popular fancies of the amateur. Their bloom makes a most desirable 



The Monthly Carnations are the species most in request for window gardens, 
as they bloom several times a year, though scarcely every month, excepting in 
California. There the soil and climate is peculiarly adapted to their needs, is 
exactly formed for their culture, and the tlowars bloom in the greatest profu- 
sion, of the largest size, and in the most perfect colorings. 

Many of the best species are brought from Italy and Germany, and the im- 
ported seeds come from Erfurt, and some parts of Thuringia, where the cul- 
ture of the Carnation is a specialite. 

Theie are three kinds of Carnations — Flalces, Bizarres and Picotees. 

The Flakes have only one color disposed in broad stripes on a pure white or 
yellow ground, and it extends through each petal from its margin to the base. 

The Picotees, from the French picoti, was formerly spotted with purple, scar- 
let or crimson spots on a yellow or white ground, but the florists have changed 
its character, and it is no longer a spotted Carnation, but one with all the color 
confined to a border around each petal. 

The Bizarres have two or more colors running from the margin to the base 
of the petal, in irregular stripes of purple, scarlet, cherry, pink or lilac, on a 
white or yellow ground. 

Each of these classes have passed through transformations, and there seems 
hardly any limit to the rare shadings, veinings and marblings which the fiower 
has assumed. A good, rich compost is indispensable to the production of fine 
flowers; there is scarcely any plant to which a congenial soil is of so much im- 
portance. It does not like a wet soil, but one that is rich in leaf mould and 
perfectly decomposed cow or horse manure. Many years ago the weavers in 
various counties of England and Scotland were celebrated for their Carnations, 
and there were various receipts for composts which were jealously kept from 
the public. One of these receipts ran thus : " One half one year old horse 
manure, one-sixth good garden soil, one-sixth leaf mould, and one-sixth coarse 
sand. ^lix together, and let it be exposed to the frosts all winter, turning it 
as often as possible." 

Carnations are propagated by seeds, layers and cuttings. 

The seeds should be sown in April or May, in sandy soil, under glass, and 
transplanted when two inches high. 

Layering is best done in July or August. Take a fresh, young shoot, strong 
and vigorous, which should be four or five joints in length ; strip off all the 



leaves nearest the root, leaving only those on the two or three upper joints, 
Stir up the soil about an inch, and fill up the pot with light, rich soil 
then take the shoot in the finger and thumb of the left hand, and bend it up- 
wards, inserting a sharp knife below the third joint from the top; cut upwards 
through the centre of that joint to about half or three-quarters an inch above 
it; then cut off the tongue directly under the joint, taking care not to cut it, as 
it will not make roots so well ; the future roots will spring from this joint; 
any injury will prevent their formation. The incised shoot must then be gently 
pressed into the soil, taking great care not to break or crack it at the joint. 

As there is considerable danger of breaking the shoots on account of their 
brittleness, it is well to place the plants in the hot sun, and withhold water; 
this will cause them to wilt, and become more limber; and as soon as the layer 
is well fastened into the ground by a thick hairpin, leave the point of the 
shoot well exposed. The plant must be well watered and set in the shade. 

Not more than a quarter of an inch of soil should be covered over the joint; 
and none of the leaves should be covered, because Ihcj' will decay and commu- 
nicate it to the shoot, which will " damp off," as the gardeners term it. 

If the plants are kept moist and shaded from the noonday sun, they will be 
rooted in three or four weeks. Then they can be cut off from the parent plant, 
with about half an inch of the stem which connects them to it, and planted in 
rich soil. 

Carnations are more hardy than many greenhouse plants, and require much 
air, and a cool atmosphere until the flower buds begin to form. The flower-pod 
or calyx, when nearly its full size, is apt to burst, letting out the petals at one 
side, which presents a loose, ragged appearance, and spoils the circular symme- 
try of the flower. 

This must be prevented by tying the calyx around with a bit of green wool or 
thread. Some make a ring from a piece of cardboard, and slip it over the bud, 
so it will keep the petals in regular form when the calyx bursts. Propagation 
by cuttings is more diflicult than by layer, as they do not strike well without 
artificial heat. If soaked in water for twenty-four hours, they will root more 
quickly. A celebrated Carnation grower states that the chance of obtaining a 
hand.some Carnation from seed is as one to a hundred. 

Manure water will often force flowers upon barren plants. 


Remontant or Montlily Carnations. 
Astoria, white ground, with yellow, red and scarlet colors. 
Bozzaris, blush mottled purple, clove scented. 
Brightness, large bright scarlet, very double, clove fragrance. 
Canary, yellow ground, slightly tinged rose. 
Darkness, very dark crimson. 
Defiance, deep crimson, largo and fine. 


T'ortunii, crimson. 

Flatbtish, snowy white, deeply fringed, very strong in habit, and profusB 

Little Beauty, carmine edge, yellow ground. 

Solferino, dark violet purple, fragrant. 

Unique, pure white, fine form. 

Peerlesss, pure white, shaded with blush, large size flower, compact, brushy 
habit, and immense bloomer. 

Gen. Grant, pure white, blooming in clusters. 

De Fontana, Orange, shaded purple. 

Ma Glorie, red and yellow, very showy and attractive. 

Best Winter Flowering Carnations. 

President Be Graw, pure white, shaded with blush, very large, deeply 

La Purite, rosy pink, profuse bloomer, one of the best for winter flowering. 

Variegated La Purite, carmine, striped with black. 

Vaillayite, richest scarlet, deeply fringed, very fragrant, dwarf in habit, and 
blooms profusely. 

Eutcardsii, pure white, large and perfect flower 

Donaldi'a Pride, white, tipped with deep rose. 


Alpine Plants. 

Among the great number of plants, which are acceptable for Window Ganlen- 
mg, we nnd the Alpine plant is one of the least cultivated for this purpose. 
On account of the interesting shape of most of these plants and the tiny space 
required for them by their pygmy appearance, they ought to take the main 
part of the so said Lilliput Gardening. How is it, that even our nurserymen 
lack a good deal of the true Alpine plants in their collection of plants, and 
are in some ways to blame for the want of them amongst our decorated win- 
dows? The answer is easily found. It is the fault of the present fashion. 
Gardeners supply their customers rather with Coleus, Verbenas, Pelargoniums, 
Heliotropes and other bedding plants, than with the exquisite fine Alpine plants, 
which, of course, cannot be propagated in so short a time as common bedding 
plants. The public is mostly satisfied with the latter plants, believing that the 
culture of Alpine plants is one of great difficulty. 

Most of all who have seen these beautiful, modest plants, with their vividness 
of color, displayed in endless variety in perfect loveliness on the fiinges 
of the glaciers, near steep crevices or ghastly slopes, or in elevated plains 
and pastures, in Switzerland, Tyrol and Savoy, have learned to love and 
cherish the sweet flowers, and would like to grow them in their own home. For- 
merly, when cultivation of Alpine plants was accomplished only in botanical 
gardens, many difficulties arose; but now, after much patience, experience and 
experiments, made with all kinds of these plants, the general error, that the 
true Alpine plants only grow on high mountains in a cool temperature, has thus 
been dispelled. It la a fact, that many Alpine plants which are found plenti- 
fully on elevated plains or near glaciers, do often grow and flower in valleys or 
lowland regions. Such are, for instance : Gentiana bavarica and verna, Dnjas 
octopetala, Mcehringia muscosa, Silene acmilis, Soldanella alpina, and several 
various kinds of Saxifraga, Some again, found near slopes or crevices, grow 
well in pots. Such are : Gnaphaliiimleontojiodium, (^Leoiitopoclium Aljnnum'), 
various kinds of Primulas, Primula Cortusoides and Acaulis, Aster Alpinus, 
Eamondia Pyrenaica, all Alpine. SedumSinA. Sempervivum, Saxifraga umbrosa, 
Pyramidalis. Others, which are met within sight of or among fields of snow, 
or in places beyond our reach, are very difficult to cultivate, and therefore not 
fit for window decoration. We mention especially several kinds of Saxifragen; 
some Androsacen, Draba frigida Silene glacialis, Dianthus glacialis, Man- 
nunculus glacialis, and others. Of Alpine plants, can be used those for Win- , 



dow Gardening, which bear well a hot summer. Of course, we need shady 
places for most of them. On the high mountains of the Alps, where in summer 
the temperature is much lowered at night, the plants like full light to spread 
forth the brilliancy of their colors. To protect now, by cultivating Alpine 
plants of durability, the same against high temperature during our long and 
hot summer, we recommend the folI(>\\ ins; in •xn^cmoiit and tTcitniont 

Have a flat box m ide about tight ihcIilsj hij^li, and w idc LiiuUj^h at. to be easily 
(ilaced into the window casing. CoNer the box, \\hioh is best inaJo of z.i.c, at 
the bottom with sand about an inch in depth, then arrange the pots in it accord- 
ing to their size. Give to plants of a tall growth the centre, and surround them 
by the smaller ones. Then fill up the spaces between each pot with a compost 



of coarse sand, small stones or broken bricks, and some charcoal ; water this 
mixture well and cover it lightly with moss. By such management the plants 
in pots will have a cool moist stand, which is just required for Alpine plants. 
The sell for planting Alpine plants has to consist of a compost of loaf mould, 
rich loams, some peat, sharp sand and a few pieces of broken bricks ; for in- 

stance, tor Saxifragen, Sedum and Seiiipervium. Another compost has one- 
half of good rich loams, mixed up with one-half of leaf mould, a little sharp 
sand and charcoal. He, who has much peat on hand, mix it up with coarse 
sand and good old manure. Be careful in watering the plants ; do not give too 
much or too little water, but a sufficient moisture, protect the plants pgainst the 


hot midday snn, keep the leaves clean, do not allow any worms to hurt the 
plants, keep off the dust from the leaves with a sponge or syringe, and in accept- 
ing these prescriptions you will enjoy an excellent growth aud good health of 
your Alpine plants. 

The following list contains only such Alpine plants which are adapted for 
Window Gardening and will stand a hot summer. These plants can be brought 
through the winter season in an unheated room or cellar, leaving them in the 
same boxes and keeping them moderately moist. These fine boxes may stand 
also in the yard or garden, but must be lightly covered, when frosts begin, with 
dry leaves or a little mat, made of straw, which is placed six inches above the 
box. The plants will have, by following this rule, protection and cleanliness, 
and will pass the winter season well enough to show when brought out again in 
March, the first lovely spring blossoms. 

Of Alpine Plants for Window Gardening. Only such species, which arc easily 
cultivated and to be had in American nurseries, or raised by seeds as other 
herbaceous i)lants : 

1. Achillea tomcntosa, with yellow flowers in spring, and downy leaves, of a 
dwarfish growth. 

2. Adonis vervialifi, with large yellow flowers in spring, on the stalks, about 
ten inches high, useful for the centie of a group. 

3. AhjuRum saxatile compactum, with fine yellow flowers in spring, of a dwarf 
habit and nice appearance. 

4. Anemone nemorosa, with pair rosy flowers. 

5. Anemone angelosa (^Hepatica) , with beautiful blue flowers, which appear 
very early in spring. 

G. Anemone hepntica (^Hepatica triloba^, with red, blue and white flowers, 
and varieties with double flowers, and of a dwarf habit. 

7. Anemone ranunculoides, the golden yellow wood Anemone, height, five or 
six inches. 

8. Antennaria tomentosa, a very dwarfish silvery leaved plant ; a native of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

9. Arnbis alhida fol. variegata, a native of the mountains of Greece, and of a 
dwarf habit; flowers are white and blue, leaves beautifully variegated. 

10. Avmeria vulgaris, a very pretty litlle plant, with soft hlac or white flo\»- 
ers springing from dense cushions of grasslike leaves. 

11. Aster aljnnn, the blue daisy of the Alps, of dwarf habit and large pale 
blue flowers with a deep yellow eye. 

12. Bdlis perennis, fl. x>l-, ^ith white and red flowers. 

13. CalandriniaumlieUata, a native of Chili, of a dwarf habit, with crimson 
fi 'wers like the Porfulaccn. 

14. Cnrnpanuln Garrjnriirn,^ fine dwarf Harebell, with kidney shaj)cd downj 
leaves and bluisli purple flowers. 


15. Campanula pidla (^pusilln'), with dark blue or white flowers; plants of a 
diminutive habit, a very fine little plant. 

IC). Campanula Rainera,n very dwarf species with large dark blue flowers; 
a native of tlie Italian jMnuntains. 

17. Cerastium fomcvtosum, a very fine little creeping plant with silver white 
leaves and star like white flowers, and of easy propagation and cultivation. 

18. DiantlmsChinensis nana fl. pl.,i]\Q Aw2kr^ Ch'xxxdi-pm'k in various colors. 

19. Dnjas octopetala, a native of European and American mountains, with 
creeping stems and large creamy white flowers. 

20. Erimis alpinus, a very neat and distinct little plant of the Alpine, 
Tyrolean and Pyronaen mountains, with violet purple flowers, in short pubescent 
racemes ; of a very dwarfish habit. 

21. Gentinna acaiilis {Gentiana renza), species of a dwarf habit and very 
large beautiful blue flowers. 

22. Gyi^sophila saxifraga, plant of dwarf, mosslike habit, with fine white 

23. Helianfhemum vvlgare, the little sunrose with single and double flowers 
of white, j^ellow and red colors ; it is easj' to propagate by seed. 

24. Jioleiajaponica, fol. var., n, fine Y\\a,nt, with beautiful variegated leaves^ 
and with spikes of verj' fine white flowers. 

25. Iberis semper virens, a very fine little plant, with dark green leaves and 
fine large white flowers. 

26. Leontopndium alpinum (GnaphaUum Leontnpodinm), the " Edleweiss," 
translated "Nobly white," of the Tyrolian or Switzer Alps; a very pretty 
plant with downj'- leaves and beautiful white leaflets around the pale yellowish 

27. Lot>i<i cornicuJatus, an interesting plant with yellow flowers, and of a 
creeping habit. 

28. Lychnis Haageana, has large flowers of a splendid scarlet or crimson, and 
stems from eight to ten inches high. 

29. Myosofis alpestris, the Alpine Forget-Me-Not, with beautiful blue flowers; 
propagated from seed. 

30. Myosofis Azorica, a native of the Azorean Islands, of dwarf habit, with 
beautiful dark flowers. 

31. Myosofis palusfris, the common Forget-Me-Not with pale blue flowers. 

32. Niremhergia rivularis, a very beautiful little plant with the habit of a and with large cuplike flowers of a creamy white tint. 

33. Oenothera pumila, a very dwarf species fi'om the Rocky Mountains, with 
small yellow flowers. 

34. JEvothcra taraxacifolia, a native of Chili, and profuse flowering; flowers 
are verj' large white with a rosy tint. 

35. 0)Hi3/tfflZo<?cs t;erna, the large creeping Forget-Me-Not with beautiful blue 

36 PJilo-r setacea (Phlox suhvlata), the moss pink with beautiful pmk, oi 


seWom with white flowers; plant of a creeping habit, but of profusion of 
spring flowers. 

37. Phlox reptans {Phlox repens rerna), another creeping American species, 
with very fine flo\Vers of a pink or mauve color. 

38. Plumbago Larpentce, a very dwarf, shrubby-like plant, with slender wiry 
branches, covered with light green leaves, and in September with close trusses 
of fine blue flowers at the ends of the stems. 

39. Primula cortusoides. This species is most fit for Window Gardening in 
regard of its culture; it is a native of Siberia, and bears early in spring 
fine pink flowers. 

40. Primula acaulis fl. pi., of very dwarfish habit, and double flowers of 
white pale hlac, red, j'ellow and purple double colors; shape like small roses. 

41. Pi/siclansthcra harhulata, a very interesting American plant, growing in 
the pine barrens of New Jersey and Carolina, of a moss-like habit, with beauti. 
ful white flowers, which are in not opened buds of a fine rosy tint; a yery 
pretty species; requires sandy peat soil. 

42. Bamonclia pi/renaica, also a very distinct and interesting form; very 
dwarf in habit; leaves stand in rosettes and close on the ground; the large 
flowers on stems of five or six inches in length, are of a purj^le violet, with 
orange yellow centre ; native of the Pyrenees. 

43. Sanguinaria canadensis, the Blood Root, an interesting American plant 
of dwarf habit, and with white flowers early in spring. 

44. Saxifraga aizoon, a native of high European and American mountains, 
with leaves standing like silvery rosettes; a very showy little plant. 

45. Saxifraga cotyledon, habit like silvery rosettes, with elegant pyramids 
of white flowers. 

46. Saxifraga hypnoides, the mossy sasifraga forms, mossy tufts of the deep- 
est green, with small white flowers. 

47. Saxifraga umhrosa, a very interesting species, with broad dark green 
leaves and red spotted white flowers. 

48. Saxifraga sarmentosa and Saxifraga Sieboldii fol. variegata, both specie3 
very well known, are suitable for Alpine groups. 

49. Sedum acre and hexangulare, the common stonecrop with yellow flowers. 

50. Sedum dasyphi/llum., one of the most interesting Alpine plants of a 
glaucous color, with creamy white flowers. 

51. Sedum Sieboldii fol. var., an elegant well known plant, with light pink 
flowers in summer and fall. 

52. Sedum carneum variegatum ; species with fine variegated leaves. 

53. Sempervivum arachnoideum, the cobweb houseleek from the Alps and 
Pyrenees, with fleshy leaves in tiny rosettes, covered at the top with a white 
down-like spider web. 

54. Sempervivum montanum; the leaves are very regularly arranged in fine 
lig,nt green rosettes. 


55. Semper vivum Calif ornicum, a larger species; leaves are of a dark green 
color, with reddish margin and dark points. 

56. SHene alpestris, a very fine plant of dwarf habit and pure white flowers. 

57. Silene maritima fl. pi. The leaves of this species are of a glancous color, 
and the flowers are like small snowballs. 

58. Soldanella alpina, a lovely little plant of an interesting appearance, with 
leathery, shining, roundish leaves and beautiful blue bell-shaped, fringed 

59. J^'liymm zerpillifolium fol. var., the variegated Thyme. 

CO. Viola cornusa, the Pyrenean Violets with very large blue and white flow- 
ers which appear numerously during the summer season. 

Finally, we observe, that in a collection like the preceding one, many plants 
could be added, which would match well with the Habitus of Alpine plants but 
which would anyhow require another treatment ; for instance, a warmer place 
for the winter season, while others are in a resting state during the summer. 

Such are : Cyclamen Coum, Persicum, repandum, vernum, Europaeum, hede- 
raefolium ; Echeveria secunda, glaucovirens, gihhiflora; Linaria cymhalaria; 
Spigelia Marylandiea ; Scilla Sybirica, amoena, praecox; Leiicojum vernum ; 
various kinds of Crocus and Snoicdrops; Iris pumila; Sibthorpia Europcea; 
Portulacca flore pleno ; dwarf kinds of 3Iesembrianthemum, Saponaria ocymoides; 
Sanvitalia procumbens flore pleno; Nycta vine capensis; Sedum caeruleum; 
Grammanthes Gentianoides, lonopsidium acaulc, and various kinds oi Nemophila 

Miscellaneous Plants. 

Tlie Azalea. 

This has of late years become a popular window plant, and most justly, too, 
for with their profuse masses of flowers they make every window or balcony a 
bower of bloom. 

The plants should have a light dry soil, of leaf mould and loam. The best 
for this purpose is a mixture two parts loam, rich vegetable matter; two parts 
rotten peat from the swamp, and one part sand, and be sparingly watered — yet 
the roots must never become dry. They need a temperature of G5° by day, and 
at night coolness of 40° to 45°, for rest. 

While dormant they need shade and but little water, but when the flower 
bids are swelling, they desire more. It is a shrub that needs little pruning, 
only enough to keep in good form. 

The usual months for blooming are April and May, but a succession of bloom 
can be kept up from February to May, by storing in the cellar the previous 
winter, in a cool place, doimant plants of the chosen varieties, then bringing 
them one by one to the window, where they are hastened into tbom. When 
done blooming, take them away, and fill their places with new ones. 

Ordinarily, after Azaleas have done blooming, it is best to set the plants in the 
shade out of doors until September. If desired to propagate new plants, take 
cuttings in May, in moist sand under glass ; but since so good plants are pur- 
chased at so cheap prices at the florists, propagation for window purpose only is 
not worth the trouble. 

Most of the varieties brought to the window will bloom for three weeks ; yet 
some will last six weeks ; by bringing up new plants successively, the blooming sea- 
son, may be extended several months. The following is a select list of those 
most suitable for window purposes. Those with a star are the most desirable 
of the collection : 

Amoena, very early. 

Amarantina, rosy purple. 

Belle Gantoire, rose and striped with white. 

*Charles Quint, rose. 

Criterion, light salmon, edged with white, upper petals spotted with cnmson 

Delicata, rose. 

Exquisita, violet pink, edged with white. 


Indica alba, white. 

* Fielden, white ; very early. 

* Minerva, scarlet ; profuse. 

Models de Marque, splendid form ; rose. 
Grande Dutchesse de Bode. 
Iceryana, white, striped with rose. 
Perfection, rose; good form. 
Vittata crispiflora. 
Vittata, variegated. 

* Punctata, splendid, variegated. 

* Punctata omnicolor, early bloomer. 

* Narcissiflora plena, six weeks in bloom. 
President, scarlet. 

Tlie Daphne. 

Of all woody plants that are suitable for parlor culture, the Daphne, especially 
Daphne odorata, deserves the first mention, for it flourishes under the most 
adverse circumstances ; patientlj'' putting forth group after group of its dark 
glossy evergreen leaves, each group through the winter months wearing right 
ro3^ally its cluster of pearly blossoms, whose delicate throats constantly distil a 
most delicious fragrance. 

In foliage this shrub greatly resembles the laurel, and hence bears the name 
of that beautiful maiden who being beloved by Apollo, but not favoring his suit, 
besought the gods for aid in escaping him, and in answer to her prayers was 
changed into a laurel-tree. 

Though the Daphne is capable of enduring heat and dryness, it grows most 
luxuriantly in a cool, moist atmosphere ; and it should be frequently syringed 
with tepid water, its leaves kept clean with water by washing them often with a soft 
sponge. Give it a soil of garden earth mixed loosely with a little vegetable mould or 
stable refuse and a small quantity of sand. In May prune it closely to make it grow 
tall and symmetrical; at the same time repot it, and then keep the plant in the 
shade with slight watering till September; then give it sunshine and water 
freely. In early October take it to the parlor. Of the prunings make new 
plants by immersing the stems in a bottle of water and keeping the bottle in the 
sunlight till it is filled with white fibrous roots; these roots are very tender, and 
wlien they are placed in soil care must be taken not to injure them. The young 
plant must be kept under a bell-glass or an inverted tumbler for a fortnight, 
with a scanty sprinkling of tepid water every morning. It should have the sun 
three hours, at least, each day; but make the air of the room moist and lot it 
not rise above 58° by day or 45° by night, if you would promote its rapid and 
healthy growth. It blooms almost constantly from December to the last of 

The Abutilon. 

A beautiful parlor tree is the Abutilon, with its maple-like foliage, and its bell 
flowers of gold and crimson. It needs a light sandy loam, for if the soil is too 


rich it will grow too tall to form a handsome shaped tree. Ordinary garden 
soil loosened with sand will answer. If the air of the room it occupies is too 
close and hot, it will not bloom, so give it air frequently, shielding it from 
draughts as you would a geranium, and water it well. 

It grows easily from cuttings ; prune in spring, and root the best of these 
prunings in wet sand to get new plants. 

Abuiilon striatum is hardly ever out of flower; its bells are of a golden 
3'ellow, veined with brown, and they are very graceful and lovely. 

Abutilon venosa has larger flowers, with deep red veins, and is very hand- 

A Marmaratum is a charming hybrid, blossoming all the year, and producing 
white flowers, marbled and veined with rose. 

A MesopotanicumSs a species which differs in the shape of both flowers and 
leaves. The calyx being scarlet, with golden yellow petals, the flowers beauti- 
fully nnrked ; they hang in regular rows down the flexible branches, and are 
very valuable for cut flowers. 

A Thompsonii is another distinct variety with variegated leaves, its leaves 
being mosaiced with yellow. 

A Santana is a new plant with flower bells of a much larger size, and of dark 
brownish crimsom, veined with orange color; it is the darkest sort cultivated. 

A album is pure white, and very much admired. 

The Orange. 

Small orange trees are very desirable window plants, on account of their ex- 
quisitely fragrant flowers, and beautiful evergreen foliage which contrasts finely 
with other plants. The prettiest for house culture are the dwarf varieties, and 
the dwarf Mandarin or China orange bears excellent fruit. The dwarf Otaheite 
is a more common kind, but not as suitable ; for neither its flowers nor fruit equal 
those of the Mandarin. 

Early in the eighteenth century, orange trees were quite the fashion for house 
culture, and although the A\shion has passed away, there are few plants that still 
combine so much perfection in foliage, fruit and flower. 

Oranges are usually raised from seed, and in a year or two, grafted from a fine 
i'ariet}-. Seeds sprout readily in any light loam, but the orange blooms the 
finest in good rich soil, and requires liquid manure once in a fortnight or even 
oftener. The foliage is handsomer, if the pot stands a little away from the full 
noonday sun. 

TJie Lemon. 

The Lemon belongs to the same genus as the Orange viz.: the Citrus, to which 
also belong limes, shaddocks and citrons; all the species are characterized by 
fragrant flowers, gloss}' evergreen leaves, and delicious fruits. 

Tlie golden apples of the Ilesperides are supposed to belong to this family. 

Fine trees are raised from seeds, and when the shoots are two years old they 


can be budded from fruitful trees. The blossoms of the Lemon aresmallci 
than those of the Oi-angc, and they are not as purely white, the under side ot 
the petals being tinged with purple. 

Oranges are over a year in ripening, and often remain for two years on the tree. 
Lemons ripen irregularly, and fall off when ripe. Every six or seven years 
both orange and lemon trees should be pruned closel3^ Shorten in the shoots 
several inches, and they will throw out an abundance of fresh green leaves. 

If they flouiish well, they will not need repotting oftener than once in five or 
six 3'ears. Then the mouldy roots, and smallest fibres should be cut back, and 
the ball of earth well shaken off. Pot in soil of light loam, leaf manure, and 
two years' old cow manure, equal parts, with a good sprinkling of charcoal dust. 
Keep in the shade for two or tliree weeks, and water less frequently than when 
in flower. It loves the light, but not the hot sun until the fruit is ripening. 

The Sweet Verbena. 

The Sweet Verbena or Aloysa citriodora, is much cultivated for its lemon 
scented foliage. Any soil will suit it, but in rich loam it makes a more vigorous 

It is of a deciduous habit, will lose its leaves, and its admirers grieve when 
they fall, but like the elm and the maple, it buds out afresh in March or April, 
and from the old wood, cuttings will strike as easily as currant cuttings. 

When its leaves have fallen, it can stand in any dark, cool place wliere the 
frost will not touch it, and where the roots can be kept rather dry 

It makes an ornamental standard plant, if trained to a single stem to a height 
of three feet, and then allowed to branch out in a graceful form. 

The young shoots will strike root in May or June, if planted under glass, and 
well shaded for awhile. The flowers are borne in large spikes and are very 
minute, white, but not much esteemed, as the foliage is the most desired part 
of the plant. Its generally neat appearance always gains much admiration. 
Trim old plants and repot them in the spring. Root the trimmings in wet 
sand, under a glass; then give those young plants a soil of garden earth, vegeta- 
ble mould and gravel in equal proportions. Set the pots in a garden-bed, plunged 
10 their rims, till September^ then stir the soil often with an old table-fork, 
water sparingly, giving liquid manure once a week ; take them to the parlor in 
October, let them have the sun six hours every day, keep the atmosphere 
oioist, and not above 65° by day or 45^ by night, and they will flourish wonder- 

Eupatoriums and Stevias. 
By reason of the contrast of their delicate blossoms and graceful foliage, with 
those of the Geranium, the Eupatorium and Stedas deserves high rank, as 
popular favorites. The eupatorium gets its name from Eupater, king of Pont us, 
who first used the plant in medicine. We have many species growing in their 
native beauty in the lovely mountain passes and vallej's of the North, as well as 


in the sunny meadows farther South; and the florist has transplanted ihera and 
carefully watched and tended their growth till the foliage has attained unwonted 
smoothness and beautj', and the hues of the tassel-shaped flowers have become 
clearer and brighter. Their large clusters of snow-white, or lilac blossoms, have 
a fine effect among geraniums, and they have always been much sought after as 
a winter blooming flower. The white varieties are most cultivated, being used for 
funeral crosses, and crowns, also for wedding bouquets. 

They prefer a sand}"-, peaty loam, with a good supply of water. In the spring, 
after blooming, shake out the old soil and repot in good loam and sand mixed 
in equal proportions. Make new plants of the cuttings. Start them in damp 
sand under glass. Water them much and frequently. Set them in the garden 
till September, then accustom them gradually to the indoor atmosphere. Tliey 
will bloom from November till February. "When in flower they do not need 
much sunshine, as it dims the whiteness of the flowers. 

Eupatorium ageratoides, E. Mexicmium and E. elcgans are the varieties 
most usually cultivated in conservatories and window gardens. They are of a 
beautiful feathery whiteness, and most desirable for purposes of decoration. In 
saving the seeds, cut the flowers while in full bloom, as they ripen quickly, and 
fly away, but they germinate easily. 

The Stevias, of similar foliage, but a yet more delicate and feathery flower, 
of a creamy white, cultivate in the same way. Pinch out all buds that appear 
on plants during the summer. No plants can be so effectively grouped as 
geraniums with heliotropes, eupatoriums, and stevias, if proper attention is paid 
to an agreeable contrast of their blossoms, — the purple or lilac being always 
flanked with white— never with red or crimson or rose, — and the white muigled 
among scailets, crimsons, reds, and salmons — the white predominating. 

The Chinese Primrose. 

The Primula Chinensis is the gem of the collection of window plants. None 
surpass it in beauty ; and for continuous bloom, certainly none can be found more 
desirable. It is one of the best of all plants for the decoration of the drawing 
room or dining table, and always at home in the conservatory or greenhouse. 
For nine months out of the twelve they may be jnade to yield flowers, though 
most profusely from November to May, and with their colors of red, white, 
crimson, purple, and pink, they form objects of curious ornament. 

They are objects of easy care, requiring attention only in watering; the soil 
should not be allowed to get dry, and yet the roots are so tenacious of life, they 
will cling closely till the last moment around any particle of moisture in the earth. 
Keep the soil moderately moist, but not over saturated ; if evaporation or drain- 
age is slow, and ihe circulation througii the pot impeded, the plants will turn 
sickly and die off. We do not advise manure water; plain warm water is the 
best. The best varieties for window gardens are the Double White Primroses 
and rubra 2}ietia, a double red variety, indescribably charming. The single 
fringed varieties are very fine, but the above are now the most popular. One 


great advantage which the Primrose possesses over most winlcr flowering plants 
is that it is rarely ever infested with green fly or other troublesome pests. 
Primroses are propagated mainly by cuttings and seeds. Cuttings taken from the 
side shoots in April will make vigorous plants by autumn. From June to Octo- 
ber they should be kept from the hot sun, in a shady location, with but little 
water. The soil should be largely composed of leaf mould. 

The single varieties are largely grown from seed which should be sown in April 
or May, under a square of glass ; when four or five leaves are developed, plant 
in small thumb pots, and shade for two or three days. During the summer 
keep the pots in a shady location, but in the winter the nearer they are to the 
glass the better and bri^ihter will they flower. 

If any unusually tine flowers reward your care, they can be increased by cut- 
tings. The Primrose is a perennial ; tlio seed is usually sold in mixed colors, 
but they can be recognized nearly as soon as the leaves appear, by the color of 
the stems. No plant flowers more profusely, and sometimes five hundred florets 
are gathered from one plant. 

The Pansy. 

The Pansy never blooms so well as when the plant is small and well rooted, 
for as it increases in size the blossoms become smaller, and, although abundant, 
inferior. They can be cut back after spring flowering, and all the buds kept off" 
until December, then they will bloom for the whole winter. If planted in boxes 
in a conservatory or window, they make a fine show; indeed, there are few 
plants more desirable for window gardening. 

They are most easily raised from seed, and it is well to purchase the most ex- 
pensive varieties, so as to be certain of the finest flowers. 

Cuttings strike quickly, and are more sure of fine flowers, as they always re- 
produce the parent plant. They should be cut about three inches long, and taken 
from the points of the shoot.s, and cut off" directly under the joint. Strip off" the 
lower leaves, and insert them in saucers of wet sand, pressing it closely around 
the joint. Keep tumblers over them, and in six weeks they will be well rooted 
and ready to transplant into small pots filled with the richest compost. 

Pansies are gross feeders, delighting in the richest soil you can prepare ; in 
rotten tanbark, leaf manure, and cow manure, equal parts, they will bloom mag- 

No plant is better adapted to house culture, as they can bear changes of atmos- 
phere, and a good deal of water, while their bright faces are very attractive in 
the gloomy wintry days. 

They can be increased by dividing the roots, and keeping them in the shade 
for a week or ten days. If the amateur desires to save seed from her plants, 
she should select the largest, brightest flowers, and cut off all other buds and 
blossoms. As the seed pod matures it can be tied up in gauze to prevent the 
seed from scattering, and when fully ripe, can be planted directly in sandy loam. 
When the seedlings flower those should be rejected that are not very handsome 


The best location for Pansies is a northwest window, for they delight in shade, 
and desire to shun " the gairish eye of day," and hide their lovely blossoms 
from his scorching rays. 

The Sweet Violet. 

These require a rich compost to enable them to bloom luxuriantly, and a cool 
temperature, say 40° to 45°; all the fading leaves must be cut olf, and if the 
plant is desired to bloom profusely, the runners should also be cut off as soon as 
they appear. "Water must not settle at the roots. 

They are propagated by divisions of the roots, or usually by cuttings taken in 
June, and raised in wet sand under glass. 

The dark blue English variety, or the double blue Neapolitan, are most gen- 
erally cultivated as parlor plants. 

The Czar or Russian Violet has been much admired ; leaves are large and the 
flowers are borne on very long footstalks, five to six inches in length. The flower 
is single, but large, and fine j color of a light blue ; blooms all winter from Sep 
tember to May, and fills the air with its delicious fragrance. 

King of the Violets. Flowers very double, like a miniature rosette, very fra 
grant, color of a deep indigo blue, with occasional stripes of white ; flowers 
borne in profusion. 

Double Blue Neapolitan, the best standard sort we have. A bouquet com- 
posed of a statuesque camellia, embedded in blue violets, with a fringe of cliver 
or gypsophila, is the pej'fection of floral arrangement, combining beauty, fra- 
grance and giace. 

Tlie Daisy. 

Its botanical name, Bellis, signifies beautiful, pretty. Cultivation has given 
to it many petals, and also brighter hues. 

It is frequently used in this country as an edging for beds and boidcrs, but it 
is a pretty plant for house culture, with its tufts of lovely green leaves crowned 
with numerous bright pink blossoms. 

It flourishes best in a rich soil, and is propagated by offsets, or division of the 
roots. For winter flowering, the pot should be kept in the shade, wilh little 
water during the hot weather — only enough to keep it from drying up — till the 
first of October. Then it will need all the sunshine to make it bloom well, and 
liquid manure will greatly increase its blossoms. 

The Daisy will bear transplanting, even when in flower, if the s«il is kept 
about the roots. Every spiiiig fresh earth should be given, and the roots should 
be divided. The Belgian^ Daisy is best adapted to house culture. 

TTie Calla. (Richardia.) 
The Calla 2Ethiopica is a very attractive plant, its large, broad, glo.ssy, green 
(eaves, and its white, thickly textured, scroll-like blossom making it peciliarly 
graceful. There is no better plant for the centre of a group of flowers. 


Tt blooms equally well in greenhouse, conservatory or window garden ; may be 
allowed to be rather dry in the summer after flowering, but care should be taken 
not to injure or break off the leaves. When budding it requires much water, 
and its saucers should be supplied niglit and morning. It is piopagated by 
suckers and divisions of its roots. It desires a clayey loam with a third of leaf 
mould. It is very tender, feeling a slight chill. 

Its flowers are in great request at Easter to adorn the churches, when white 
lilies are sought as emblems of the risen Kedeemer, and the florists grow them 
in large quantities for this purpose. 

Tiie best method of growing Callas is in a hollow stand lined with zinc ; ei^ht 
or ten flowering bulbs can be planted in a stand three or four feet long, and 
eighteen inches wide. It should be eight inches deep, and the surface of the pots 
should be covered with moss, and moss filled in between the pots. Its appear- 
ance is exceedingly ornamental in a bay window, and it is very easily taken care 
of, the chief essential being plenty of water, and a weekly sponging of the large 
leaves ; and the stand should be occasionally turned, as the large leaves turn 
towards the light. 

Such a stand of Callas can be set out of doors in a shady place during the 
summer and brought in before fear of frosts. Soon they will make vigorous 
growth, and will flower abundantly from December to May. No flower better 
endurPi furnace heat and gas, and so it is particularly adapted to window cul- 

Dielytra Spectabilis. 

For window flowering and conservatory, this plant is very valuable. Take up 
the tuberous roots in October, in a six or seven inch pot, and set in a sheltered 
place for a month or so, giving a little water daily, and keeping it warm. When 
the shoots appear, bring to the light, and give it as sunny a situation as possible, 
but the atmosphere need not be warm. It will do well in a chamber window 
where the temperature is about 60°. As it grows and produces more flowers, 
increase the supply of water. 

It will grow best in light sandy loam, but enjoys a weekly measure of liquid 
manure. When done flowering, set in a shady place, but give water in small 
quantities as long as the leaves are green ; when they fade, give only enough to 
prevent its dying from thirst, and in the foUowmg autumn proceed as above, giv- 
ing a fresh supply of soil to make its blossoms more plentiful. 

Tt multiplies from the root, and must be given enough pot room, or its roots 
divided yearly. 

TJie Calceolaria. 

The Calceolaria, — its name comes from the Latin for shoe — the blossom resem- 
bles an ancient Roman slipper, — is singularly beautiful with its heavy clusters of 
golden, crimson, maroon, or rose-colored flowers — sometimes plainly tinted, at 
others curiously mottled and flecked. It needs a sandy soil — garden earth and 
common sand in equal proportions ; should be kept rather warm, in an atmos- 


phere of 60" to 65° by day, and 50° at night ; and be sparingly watered. Give 
liquid manure once a week after the flower-buds stait. Pot old plants in May, 
in the same manner as eupatoriums, and keep them in a warm but shady place, 
out of doors, till September, with only water enough to prevent them from droop- 
ing. Before potting cut them in closely, and make new plants of those cuttings 
by rooting them in moist sand under a glass, in the sunshine ; or plant the see 
in a sunny and sheltered spot. In August pot them and tie carefully to a light 
trellis till they are two feet high, then trim off the most slender branches — in 
fact cut them in pretty close and let them stand alone. This is a delicate plant, 
but may be strengthened and hardened by this close trimming and a careful 
management of its supplies of heat and moisture. It needs a good deal of air — 
does best when wide breathing space is allowed. 

The Lantana. 

The Lantana requires similar soil and treatment to the Calceolaria — except 
that it is of a stouter, a more woody nature, and needs no support. Its compact 
head of flowers of different and changing hues — white, crimson, scarlet, orange, 
and yellow, sometimes all in the same spike, is always an object of great in- 
terest, though its peculiar perfume is not universally agreeable. 

Tlie Pi/rethrum. 
A very desirable window plant is the Pyrethrum, sometimes called Mountain 
Daisy ; it is found in great profusion in the mountainous regions of Asia. This 
will grow in ordinary soil with very little care, and its delicate light green foliage, 
crowned with dense clusters of snow-white blossoms, contrasts finely with the 
deeper colorings of Calceolarias and Lan tanas. Old plants should be cut to their 
roots, and both roots and cuttings be set in a garden-bed in May or June, and 
treated as common out-of-door plants. Pinch out all flower-buds till they are 
taken to the house. In September pot them with the same soil in which they 
have been growing. Keep them in the shade, with occasional watering, for a 
fortnight, then bring them within doors. The Pyrethrum does best in a mod 
erate temperature with scanty watering. 

Tlie Chrysanthemums . 
The Chrysanthemum (it gets its name from the Greek words for gold and 
flower — many species bear yellow flowers), though commoml)' classed with out- 
of-door plants, should be made to lend its beauty to every parlor through the 
months of October, November and December. After flowering, Chrysanthemums 
must be set in a dark, cool place — a cellar, or any damp dark place where they 
will not freeze— till May. Then give them the same treatment as Pyrethruma, 
with which they are often classed ; but they require free watering. Soapsuds 
will make them grow stont and strong through the summer. After thej' arc 
potted give liquid manure twice a week till the buds begin to unfold, then with- 
hold it entirely 




A very desirable feature of the Chrysanthemum as a winter blooming plant, 
is that the blossoms are finely formed, of brilliant colors, keep well, and are pro- 
duced in great abundance. The dwarf or Pompone varieties are nosr the most 
used in consequence of their beauty of form, with diminutive habit of growth 
Any florists' catalogue will give a good list of varieties. 

The Ch. laciniatum has a novel and elegant appearance. The flowers are 
double, nearly three inches in diameter, delicately fringed, and of the purest 
white. It is especially a plant for winter flowers. By pinching off the flower 
buds as they show, it can be had in flower from December to March. 

The Salvia. 
Another splendid flowering plant, which has been supposed, until recently, to 
expend all its energies during the autumnal months, and to require the open air 
for the perfection of its beauty, is the Salvia. Salvia angustifolia, with its ele- 
gant foliage and long spikes of clear blue flowers, is particularly fine ; so is S. 
patens, bearing blossoms of a still more " heavenly hue ;" yet none are so 
attractive, nor so hardy, as S. siilendens, with its plumes of dazzling scarlet. 
Any of the Salvias are easily raised from cuttings ; trim all the foliage from 
these slips and set them in damp sand to root. Start them in May. When 
rooted set them in the garden, but keep them shaded from the sun with a paper 
screen till the new leaves are well developed. Water freely. In September pot 
those you wish for the house, and pinch out the buds. If then left to themselves 
they will store up strength for the winter. But before the frosts come, be sure 
to take them within doors, and give the fertilizer once a week till in bloom. Cut 
them to the root in May, and set the root in the garden. It is best to start new 
plants every year for the house. Salvias need a light loamy soil, and a tempera- 
ture of 60° by day, and 45° by night. 

The Mimulus. 
The Mimulus — its seeds resemble the face of a monkey, and hence its name, 
which comes from the Latin — is a very thirsty plant, does best in a mixture of 
leaf mould and garden earth, with just enough sand lo keep the soil from being 
heavy, and frequently needs watering twice a day ; but it thrives in the atmos- 
phere of any family room, and with its gorgeous blossoms of gold spotted with 
maroon and crimson, is a great addition to any collection. Propagate it from 
cuttings rooted in water. The young plants should be kept in the shade all sum- 
mer out of doors 

Pinks — Dianthus Chinensis, the China Pink, and Dianthus caryophillus, the 
Carnation — are well known parlor plants. The China Pink, though not fra- 
grant, is so beautiful and so easy to manage, no collection should be considered 
complete without it. Plant seed in June in good garden soil ; pinch out all 
flower buds till September ; then take them, with a ball of earth about their 


roots, to pots of the same soil. Keep them in the shade a fortnight. "Water 
sparingly till more flower buds appear, then give moisture generously — weak 
liquid manure twice a week, also It will bear great heat, 65' to 70°; but 60° 
suits it best. In that temperature in an open, any situation, it will put forth its 
deep crimson, velvet, very double, flowers in great profusion all winter 


The best varieties of Achyranthes are now freely used for window decoration, 
and have become quite common as standard plants for the centre of hanging Or 
standing floral baskets. They need only a moderate temperature of 50° to 75," 
and are easily taken care ofi". Their rich crimson tints have made the people 
crazy to use them wherever it is conceivable to do so. 

Achyranthes Lindeni has foliage of the deepest red, each leaf having a con- 
spicuous mid-rib of a lighter shade ; when the sun shines fully upon it it is of a 
perfect claret color, habit dwaif, leaves narrow, lanceolae, and considered the 
most ornamental of the class of -fine foliaged plants. 

A. aureus reticulatus, is of the same habit of growth as the A. Verschaffeltii, 
but its leaves are of a rich apple green, marked with a net workofj-ellow, while 
the stems are a ruby crimson, affording a fine contrast with the leaves. 

A. Verschaffeltii, Var Gilsonii. This variety has leaves of a still brighter 
tint, a full carmine, with the stems of a deep shade of pink, rendering the plant 
decidedly ornamental, and giving a very rich appearance. This variety is now 
generally used in place of the old Verschaffeltii 

"We do not recommend too free a use of this for the window or room culture. 
It needs moist and warm temperature, and uniform, with no change for the 
cooler. This, of course, is in direct opposition to the actual facts they have to 
meet in rooms which invariably grow colder at night. Another objection is that 
they grow so large qnd tall, and become so ungainly, that they are not fit for 
any length of time for any good position They are too tall for hanging baskets, 
although would look very appropriate in the centre of a group of plants in a 
large flower stand. Tliey are much more tender than the Achyranthes, will not 
bear the touch of frost, and a slight chill is death to them. Wherever they can 
have a warm position, with plenty of sunlight, (although not directly upon their 
leaves), and a moderately moist atmosphere, they will do well. The beat varie- 
ties are : 

Princess Royal, centre, reddish brown, light yellow margin. 

Queen Victoria, rich bronzy crimson, bright yellow, edged with crimson veiu- 

Setting Sun, crimson centre, with bright yellow edge 

Albert Victor, centre purplish red, broad yellow margin. 



These are dwarf plants with narrow lanceolate leaves, which make very 
effective edging ; their leaves are variegated with crimson, pink, green, brown, 
orange and carmine, in some respects resembling our brilliant autumn leaves; 
are well suited for hanging baskets. 

A. latifolia, has broad leaves of olive, green, crimson and orange. 

A. amdbilis, rich tints of orange, rose and green. 

A, amoena, is crimson, pink, brown and amber red. 

Are purchased principally already started and potted, ready to be placed in the 
window for decoration. Keep the leaves away from the window pane, or they 
will turn black. The temperature of room should be 60° to 75° constantly, and 
warmth must be steady, not changing. 

Begonia Rex, is the best variety yet grown in this country, and, as a showy 
plant, for picturesque ornament in the room or conservatory, it is unequalled. 
Leaves have an immense size, tinged with crimson, with here and there broad, 
silvery zones, and snowy spots, with euierald hues on the surface It is perhaps 
the most popular plant now sold for house or parlor decoration. 



Fig. ».— Parlor Flower Staud for Tropical Plants. 

The Decohaiion of Parlors and Living Rooms -svith Orn^- 
MENTAL Plants and Flowers. 

A subject like this is one of intense interest to the American flower loving 
public. Formerly little was done in the encouragement of it, because we all, 
like amateurs, and beginners, knew little of the best planTs and metiiods, and 
waited to learn from those more experienced; but of late, amateurs, in their 
eager zeal for window and room decorations, have taken in hand their own im- 
patient fancies, and led the way with experiments and trials of their own, 
while the florists everywhere look with admiration and respect upon the wide 
spreading taste for window and parlor gardening. Tiie amateurs have out- 
stripped the pi-ofessionals in the rapidity of their progress, and the prettiest rooms 
to-day are embellished by the fingers of a fair plant lover, who a year before did 
not know one flower from another. 

To speak with truth, nothing is prettier, more elegant, and in many respects 
easier, than the decoration of our parlors, reception rooms, halls, etc., with ap- 
propriate plants and flowers. 

The verj^ pictures, statues, vases, chandeliers, and other permanent ornaments, 
allow room for the exhibition of many kinds and varieties of beautiful plants. 

In such rooms, however elegantly furnished, is the proper })lace for fine 
Aquaria, Wardiajt Cases, Flower Stands, Wire Arbors for climbing plants, 
flower baskets, or hanging baskets iiung up between the curtains 

Flowers used for decoration will liarmonize completely with any architecture 
or furniture of the parlor. Indeed, was there ever any flower out of place in a 
beautiful room ? 

A tasteful and carefully arranged composition of plants will captivate for a 
)ng time the love, attention and admiration of all classes of society. 

Few American writers have devoted much attention to this subject, and we 
cannot now recall a single article in our horticultural literature which treats in 
detail of the use of plants for room decoration; but in English and Continental 
journals the topic is a common one, doubtless from the more extensive use of 
costly plants at parties, receptions, and large social gatherings. It is one of tho 
higher branches of the florist's occupation, and really an art for the display of 
the most refined taste. 

William Robinson, the author of "Parks, Promenades and Gardens of Paris," 
has perhaps described the Continental system of the plant decoration of apart- 
ments more completely than any other, and refers to it in these words : — 



"The graceful custom of growing plants in living rooms is very much more 
prevalent on the Continent than vt^ith us. It is true that we often see a display 
of flowering plants in rooms, though we rarely rise to the use of subjects distin- 
guished by beauty of form, or select those that are peculiarly adapted for in- 
doors. But the day is approaching when the value of graceful plants as home 
ornaments will be very fully appreciated. Apart altogether from their effect as 
ornaments, what can more agreeably introduce us to the study of natural his- 
tory ? The influence of the graceful form of a young Palm in the hall, the 
fascinating verdure of Ferns, and fine leaved plants from many countries, in the 
drawing room, and flowers from the orchards of the uplands of Mexico, to the 

tiny bulbs of Europe, in 
your Lilliputian room-con- 
servatory, is surely more 
eloquent in that direction 
than any book teaching. 
You cannot deny, as Kings- 
ley says, that "your daugh- 
ters find an enjoyment in 
it, and are more active, 
more cheerful, more self 
forgetful over it, than they 
would have been over novels 
and gossip, crochet and 
Berlin wool. At least you 
will confess that theabomi 
nation of " fancy work "— 
that standing cloak for 
dreamy idleness — has all 
but vanished from your 
drawing rooms since the 
" Lady Ferns " and Venus 
Hair Ferns appeared.* 

Ferns, to be sure, have 
been a great help and a 
great attraction, but they are not altogether superior as to verdure and elegance ; 
there are other plants much more readily grown in rooms. 

"By a combination of all the plants suitable for this purpose, we may not 
only find very agreeable indoor imployment, but create the highest kind of orna- 
ment and interest in the house at all seasons. 

"Merely displaying a few popular or showy subjects is not plant decoration 
in any high sense ! Rooms are often over-crowded with artificial ornaments, 
many of them exact representations of natural objects; but in the case of plants 
we may, without inconvenience, enjoy and preserve the living objects themselves. 

Marauta fasciata. 


"Those we employ for this purpose, now are mostly of a fleeting character, 
and such as cannot be preserved in health for any length of time in living rooms. 
But if in addition to the best of these we select handsome leaved plants of a 
leatiiery texture, accustomed to withstand tiie fierce heats of hot countries, we 
shall find that the dry and dusty air of the living room is not at all injurious to 
them, and that it is quite easy to keep them in health for months, and even for 
years, in the same apartments. 

"Many plants that in England are considered as Exotics, are sold in Paris ia 
abundance for the deco- 
ration of apartments 
The demand for use in 
private houses gives rise 
to a large and special 
blanch of trade in many 
of the nurseries, and I 
know one Versailles cul- 
tivator who annually 
raises and sells 5,000 or 
6,000 plants of the 
bright-leaved Dracaena 
terminalis alone, and by 
far the greater part for 
room docoralion. " 

Although English 
plants are much better 
grown than the Paris- 
ian, yet those of the 
^atter appear the best ; 
the difference being 
caused by exceedingly 
tasteful and frequently 
peculiar arrangement, 
as well as by employing 
effective and graceful 
kinds What the Paris- 
ians do as regards ar- F,g. S.-Gymnostachyum VerBchafleltli 

rangement may be best gleaned if we describe the decorations for one of the 
balls of the Hotel de Ville: 

*' Entering the Salle St. Jean, the eye was immediately attracted by a luxuri- 
ant mass of vegetation at one end, while on the right and immediately round a 
mirrored recess was a very tasteful and telling display, made as follows : In 
front of the large and high mirror stretched a bank of, common moss 
underneath, and ihu surface nicely formed of fresh green Lycopodium lenticula 



turn, the whole being dotted over with the variously tinted Chinese Primulas,— 
a bank of these plants, in fact, high enough in its back parts to be reflected in 
the mirror, with the taller plants which surrounded it, gradually falling to the 

floor, and merging into tha 
groups of larger plants on 
cither side of the bank, the 
whole being enclosed by a low, 
gilt, wooden trellis work mar- 

" The groups at each side 
contrasted most beautifully 
with this. Green predomin- 
ated, but there was a suf- 
ficiency of flower, while beauty 
of foi-m was full}' developed 
In the centre and back parts 
of these groups were tall speci- 
mens of the common sugar 
cane, (Sacharinum officiar 
tim,) which held their long 
and boldly arching leaves well 
over the group. These were 
supported by Palms, which 
threw their graceful lines over 
'the specimen Camellias, which 
were in their turn graced here 
and there by the presence of a 
JJraccena or dwarf Palm ; and 
so down to the front edge, 
where Cinerarias, forced 
bulbs, Primulas and Ferns, 
finished off the groups, all 
very closely placed, so that 
neither the lower part of the 
stems, nor a particle of any of 
the pots could be seen 

" Any interstices that hap- 
pened to remain between 
Kiy. 4.-As!ive Americaua. the bases of the plants were 

compactly filled with fresh green moss, which was also pressed against the little 
gilt trellis work, which enclosed the whole, so that from the uppermost point of 
the cane leaves to the floor, nothing was seen but fresh green foliage and grace- 
ful forms enshrouding the ordinary flowers of our greenhouses — that are infi- 



nuely more attractive when thus set in the verdure of wliich nature is so profuse, 
and which is always so abundant where her charms of vegetation are at their 

" A scene such as this explains the prevalence of these graceful and noble-leaved 
plants in Paris gardens, and in Parisian flower shops and windows, for you may 
frequently see elegant little Dracccnas ornamenting windows there, and as Ihcy 

Fig. 5.— DietlViibacliia. 

took as well at Christmas as at midsummer, I need hardly suggest how highly 
suited they are for purposes of this kind. 

" The number of Drnccenas cultivated in and around Paris is something enor- 
mous, and among the newer species of these — not alluding to the colored-leaved 
kinds — are some that combine grace with dignity as no other plants do combine 
them. They are useful for the centres of noble groups of plants in their larger 
forins, while the smaller species may be advantageously associated with the 
Maiden Ilair Fern, and the Cineraria.^ of the conser^'tory bench. 



" They are of the greatest utility in these decorations, and are largely uswl in <t(l 
parts. So are most all kinds of fine-leaved plants, from Phormium to Ficus. 
Young Palms are also cultivated to an enormous extent about Paris ; and so is 
every green and graceful-leaved plant, from the Cycads to the common trailing 
Ivy, — used to make living screens of. 

" The wide staircase at the Hotel de Ville, ascending from the entrance hall, had 
also a charming array of plants so placed that the visitors seemed to pass through 
a sort of floral grove ; fine-leaved plants arching over, but not rising very high, 
and having a profusion of flowering things among and beneath them. 

"As the bank of Primu- 
las and the groups of tall 
plants were placed opposite 
this staircase, and reflected 
in the great mirror behind, 
the effect when descend- 
ing the staircase was fasci- 
nating indeed. A still finer 
effect Mas produced in a 
room near the great danchig 
saloon, and through which 
the guests passed to the 
magnificent ball room. 
Against each pillar in this 
saloon was placed a palm 
with high and arching leaves 
like those of the SiefortJiia 
eleganSy and others with 
larger leaves and pendulous 
leaflets. These meeting, 
or almost meeting across, 
produced a very graceful 
and imposing effect, while 
round them were arranged 
other plants, distinguished 
either by beauty of leaf or 
Fig. 6.— Begonia. flower, and the groups at 

each pillar connected by single rows of dwarf plants, closely placed however, and 
well mossed in, as in the case of the more important groups. 

" The very close placing of the plants is a peculiar part of the arrangement. 
You can not notice any dividing marks or gaps. Yet there is no awkward crowding. 
'' These arrangements were infinitely varied at the great balls, both public and 
private; rocks, water grottpes, and similar decorations, were occasionally intro- 
duced, both indoors and in the open air, and in the gardens behind private houses. 



** The Tuilleries gardens at the time of the great fetes, were largely decorated in 
this way — each of the numerous lamp-posts having a bed of flowers around it, 
and the whole scene being turned into a kind of conservatory in a few days. 
The number of flowers required to do this was something enormous. 

♦* The extent to which the floral embellishments of the Hotel de Ville were 
carried, may be judged from the great number of plants grown at Passy for that 
purpose, — the New Zealand Flax, which is so very useful for indoor or outdoor 
decoration, being grown to the extent of upwards of 10,000 plants and Palms, 
and all plants with fine leaves in great quantity. 

"One plant, cultivated in 
great abundance around 
Paris for winter blooming, is 
well worthy of increased at- 
tention, Epiphyllum trun- 

" There are several varie- 
ties, and they certainly form 
most beautiful objects on 
dull December days. 

" The variegated form of 
the common Roast-beef plant 
— 7m foetidissima — may be 
seen occasionally used with 
good effect. This is a true 
hardy native which will 
deserve culture. It forms a 
very pretty plant for room 
decoration, requires none 
but the most ordinary at- 
tention, and is easily ob- 

" The Acanthuses, too, 
and particularly J., lusitani' 
cus used so effectively out of 
doors, are also grown abun- 
dantly in rooms, where they 

do very well. Everything ng. r— Yucca aioefoiia. 

proved to do well without the protection of a case is a gain to the very large 
class, who, from choice or necessity, like to grow plants in rooms." 

A few years since a valuable communication on this subject of room decora- 
tion was given by a French gardener, Antonine Chantin, of Rue de Chatillon, 
Paris, to the Floral "World of London. Mentioning the most popular plants 
used in the window embellishments of the French Capital, as their calture 



seems to be better understood in that city than any other, we take the liberty of 
quoting a few of his statements : 


" These play an important part in the embellishment of apartments in Paris. 

Coryplia australis. This plant, although but little known, is destined in a 

short time to occupy a foremost place in the decoration of apartments, where 

it makes itself conspicuous by its peculiar beauty, and the number of its leaves ; 

it is, I believe, the most rustic in appearance of all the palms. 

Cocos coronata and flexuosa are very elegant, and produce a charming effect. 
Chamoerops Immilis and excelsa, are two very fine hardy palms; Latania 
borbonica is certainly the most recherche plant of the family, and is valued as 
much for the beautiful green of its leaves as for its elegant appearance. 

Phoenix dactylifera, leonensis 
and reclinata are also very 
much sought after and are 
highly esteemed. Areca alba, 
lutescens and rubra are distinct 
and handsome." 

Besides what we have said 
of Ferns in a previous chapter, 
there is need of little to repeat 

Ferns cannot be dispensed 
with in elaborate decorations for 
the parlor or conservator}^. A 
Fig. 8.— Aiteiuaiitiiova. single plant of the common 

Lady Fern, '' Athyrium fiUxfcemina," is as useful in producing a graceful ef- 
fect as anything we know 

Mr. Chantin in his remai'ks of Parisian decorations, saj^s: 
" The family of Ferns, although classed among plants with delicate tissues, and 
having a great dislike to dry, hot atmosphere, nevertheless furnish numerous 
examples which, with careful management, add very much to the beauty of 
apartments. Thus, I have very frequently remarked, several species of Adian- 
tum, which, wherever they can be preserved in good health, produces, without 
doubt, a most ravishing effect. 

Pteris argyrea, P. cretica albo lineata, and P. serrulata varieyata also pro- 
duce a very fine effect, with their prettily marked foliage. 

Alsophila australis, and Balantium antarcticiim are also sometimes employed 
for decoration purposes in rooms of large dimensions, where their magnificent 
appearance never fails to produce a very imposing effect." 

wixDow GAUDEyiya 


Select list of Ferns for Room or Table Decorations. 

Adiantum cuneatura, 

" formosum, 

" hispidulum, 

Asplenium flaccidum, 

" marinum, 

Blcchmim Brasilicnse, 

" corcovadense, 
Athyriuni Filix fcemina, 

f. f. Fieldii, 
Scolopendiiiim vulgare crispense, 
Loinaria gibba, 

" Until very recently I had believed that Orchids would never flourish if 
taken from the greenhouses, but a gardener of my acquaintance has introduced 
them wliile in bloom into a drawing-room witli perfect success, the plants not 
iiaving suffored in the least by the change of atmosphere." 
The following List of Orchids is very suitable for rooms : 

Lomaria ciliata, 
Nephrolcpis exaltata, 
Pteris cretica albo lineata, 

" serrulata, 
Lastrea ci-istata, 
*' dilatata, 
" filix mas cristata, 
Polystichum angulare, 
" cristatum, 

" proliferum. 

Barkeria Skinneri, 
Aerides Warneri, 
Brussavola Digbiana, 
Calanthe vestita, 
Chysis Limminghi, 
Cypripedium barbatum, 
" venustum, 

" insignis, 

Dendrobium nobile, 

" pulchellum, 

Epidendrum vitellinum, 

Leptotes bicolor, 
Ly caste Skinneri, 

" aromatica, 
Mormodes aromaticum, 
Oncidium ampliatum, 
" flexuosura, 
" divaiicatum, 
" cupreum, 
Pleione maculata, 
Scphronites cernua, 
" viftlacea. 

"All kinds of plants bearing flowers have paid their tribute to the ornamen- 
tation of rooms, from the humble mignionette, upon whicli the patient seamstress 
loves to turn her weary eyes, to the magnificent Oicliid, that with its brilliant 
colors and fantastic forms fills with grace and beauty the apartments of the 

Miscellaneous Plants. 
"The following plants are very elegant in appearance, but require considerable 
care and attention, being somewhat difficult for ordinary window culture. They 
are more suitable for frames and cases, and are frequently cultivated in that 
manner : 

Aralia, several species, especially Aralia Sieboldii. 
Bambusa japonica variegata, and B. Fortunei varicgata. 
Bromehacooe, most varieties. 
Carludovica, palmata and plicata. 



Croton pictum, C. pictum variegatum, C. discolor. 
Curculigo recurvata. 

Ficus elasticus. This is a very elegant plant for a window ornament, but now 
t newer and much prettier variety, Ficus Chanvieri, is substituted for it gener- 

Isolepis gracilis, a pretty 
rush, is most elegant, requires 
plenty of water. 

Musa. Several species are 
favorites, but principally M. 
discolor and M. rosea. Musa 
ensete is particularly suitable 
for window culture, but it is 
still so scarce and of such a 
price as seldom to be met with. 
Pandanus amaryllifoUus, and 
Philodendron pertusum, have 
been much sought after, and in 
most places thrive so well as to 
give general satisfaction. 

Several varieties of Dasyli- 
rium and Beaucarnea are very 
suitable for rooms, and produce 
a very beautiful and graceful 
effect when grown in suspended 
vases or baskets. 

Ehopala corcovadensis. This 
plant exhales a somewhat dis- 
agreeable odor, but is neverthe- 
Flg. 9.— Centanreft gymnocarpa. IcsS mUCh sought after on ac- 

count of its very elegant and graceful appearance during the development of its 
young leaves." 

In addition to Mr. Chantin's list, we give the following, which will live in a 
room throughout the year, provided the frost is kept out and the plants are kept 
free from dust. All are handsome : 

" Lomatia elegantissiina, Aralia leptophylla. 

" ferruginea, " trifoliat*.. 

" silaifolia, Rhopala ausirahs, 

" polyantha, Arundo donax variegata. 

Nerium splendens, 

Pandanus graminifolius is peculiarly elegant, being well adapted for use in 

Cannas, are all very proper subjects for the house. Take them up before frost. 



keep in a dry cellar through the winter, then bring to the light in the Spring 
and they -vrill start and grovr well. 

Mr. B. S. Williams, an eminent English florist, in some remarks upon the sub 
ject of ornamental plants, adds by way of caution, "a fact which should nevei 
be loot sight of, is this : That all plants with soft woolly leaves are ill-adapted foi 
this purpose, but those with thick coriaceous leaves are always preferable — such 
as Draccenas, Palms, Crotons, Anthiirium, Aloes, Agaves and Ficiises, amongst 
ornamental-leaved plants, and AmarylUds, Begonias, Epiplujllums, Acacias 
Azaleas, Coronillas, Cyclamens, Salvias, and Statices among flowering plants. 

" The ornamental-leaved kinds should be taken into an outer room occasionally, 
and have their leaves carefull}' sponged with warm water and soap, and stand 
until dry before removing them again into position. This operation removes all 
dust and dirt which may have accumulated, gives them a fresh and bright appear- 
ance, and is of vital importance to their well being." 

He furnishes the following select list of plants eminently adapted for the 
decoration of apartments: 

Agave Americana. 

" variegata. 
Anthurium leucojieurum. 

" magnificum. 

Aralia leptophylla. 
" Sieboldii. 
" reticulata. 
Araucaria excelsa. 
Aucuba japonica (vars). 
Bambusa arundinacea. 
Begonias (variegated). 
Calamus aspenimus. 
Carj'Ota sobolifera. 
Chamaedorea Arenbergii. 

" desmoncioides. 

" Ernesti Augusti 

" graminifolia. 

'• Ilartwegii. 

" Wendlandii. 

Chamaerops Fortunei. 

" humilis. 

Cocos austral is. 
Coleus (many varieties). 
Croton angusti folium. 
** variegatum. 

namental-Leaved Plants. 

Cyperus alternifoliusvariegatug. 
Dracaena australis. 
" Cooperi. 
" ferrea. 
" gracilis. 
" indivisa lineata. 
" terminalis. 
Ficus elastica. 
" religiosa. 
Kentia sepida. 
" Bauerii. 
Latania borbonica 
Lomatia silaifolia. 
Morenia coiallina. 
Oreopanax dactylifoliura. 
Pandanus utilis. 
Phoenix dactylifera. 
Khapis flabelliformis. 
Sieforthea elegans. 
Solanums (Weatherill's hybrids). 
Yucca aloifolia variegata. 
'* filamentosa variegata 
" quadricolor. 
" Stokesii. 


Ornamental Flotccring Plants. 

Amaryllis (all varieties). Dielytra spectabilis. 

Acacia armata. Epiphylluin truncatum (varietiea) 

" Drummondii. Eucharis Amazonica. 

*' grandis. Erica, many soft-wooded kinds. 

" Riceana. Epacris (all varieties). 

Azaleas (any varieties). Erythrina Marie Belanger. 

Begonia Digswellensis. Genista Everestiana. 

'* fuchsioides. " racemosa. 

" hybrida floribunda. Gardenia radicans major. 

" manicata. Ilebeclinium ianthiraura. 

" odorata. Lachenalia (many vars.) 

" Weltoniensis. Leucopogon Richei. 

Camellias (many varieties). Linum flavum, 

Callicarpa purpurea. " trigynum. 

Chrysanthemums. Nerium Oleander. 

Coronilla glauca. Poinsettia pulcherrima. 

Cyclamen Pcrsicum (var.) Statice profusa. 

Daphne Indica alba. Yallota purpurea. 

" " rubra. 

CnoicK OF Plants and their Arrangements. 

The most popular and suitable plants for gay decoration seem now to be thf 

After they have been once placed in the window box or jardinet, the attention 
they require is but ordinary, and they will live in the atmosphere of any mod 
eratelj heated room the year round. 

The variety most used is D. terminalis, very easily managed, and always orna- 
mental ; the choice among florists often preponderates in favor of the D. ferrea 
stricta, which is still more beautifully variegated ; the D. gilfilla, with its stripOi 
of white and green, still rare, is a great novelty. The colored leaved D. Coopers 
and the green leaved D. australis, D. indidsa, D. Veiiclvii, have all an elegam 
habit, and will do well in the temperature of any sitting room rangin;^ from 60' 
to 75^ 

Othei- varieties will do well, such as the B. cannaefolia, eongesitr, rubra, strieto 
and umhraculifera. but the most preferable of these woulf". be the rubra and 


Next in turn would be the Marantas, of which the besi varieties would be M 
pnlchella, zebrina, and also a dwarf variety of the latter. 

The zebrina is much the most popular of all this class, and according to tba 
experience of French gardeners, is the only one suitable for steady cultivation in 
apartments, as all the others succumb to the }iot and dry atmosphere insepara- 



bly found in the living room. Another great difficulty in the use of the Maranta 
is the too great eagerness to display in the window ; the leaves being large, reach 
out and touch the window pane. AVhen cooled with the touch they become at 
once of sickly look, turn yellow, and are greatly disfigured. They must be 
kept away Irom all 
cool winter air, and 
thrive best in a hot, 
moist location. Do 
not let the leaves rest 
or lie upon anything. 
The Maranta rosea 
picta IS one of the 
most exquisite of this 
class, and to those 
who have conserva- 
tories, where it can 
temporarily be re- 
moved to and from 
the parlor, it will be 
Hrell worth keeping. 

The Poinscttia piil- 

No plant f th e 
present day has so 
striking a Hower or is 
better capable for 
Parlor Ornament than 
this. It is not a plant 
for continuous room 
culture, but only for 
temporary purj)Oses, 
being quite tender, 
needing a tempera- 
ture of 75°, and even 
at night not below 60°. For vases, for dinner tables, for floral decorations of 
Bome Etagere, or to be placed in front of a handsome looking glass, it will al- 
ways be of more than ordinary merit. 

The Gymnostaclujum Verschnffeltii, is very suitable for vases, and in our illus- 
tration. Fig. 3, is used in a handsome silver stand and glass bowl as a decoration 
for the table. 


The variegated Caladiums are very desirable for decoration, for, besides their 
gracefulness, they will well endure the transition from the green house to a warm 

Pig. 10.— Dracaeua tenuiii.ilis. 



drawing room or boudoir, without any marked injury. The variegations of their 
foliage, spotted or shaded with tints of green, white, red and pink, are very 
unique and beautiful. The best sorts are as follows ; 
Argyrites, small foliage, prettily spotted and blotched with white. 
Bicolor splendens, a strong grower, green ground with dark red centre. 

Chantini, foliage red, 
centre spotted with 

Wigldii, foliage 
green, beautifully spot- 
ted with red and white. 
piduratum, long, 
narrow foliage, band of 
rosy red down the cen 

Verschnffeltii, green 
ground with crimson 

The best soil for the 
C a 1 a d i u m is fibrous 
loam, and plenty of leaf 
mould and silver sand. 

In some respects the 
most gorgeous of all 
plants with variegated 
leaves. Tliey should be 
mostly as single plants, 
i. e. only one plant in 
the centre of each box 
or basket. A large 
leaved Begonia in the 
Kig. 11.— Cahuiium. window imparts an in- 

dcr.cribably rich appearance. The following are best varieties : 

Begonia Hex, vciy showy, and a picturesque plant for exhibition purposes, 
leaves very broad, under side deep crimson, upper surface colored witli various 
spots of silvery or snowy white. 

Fiichsiodies, Saundersonii and parviflora are three very pretty varieties ; 
when in flower, the contrast of their scarlet rose and white (lowers is very fine. 
B. erecta midtiflorn, is mentioned by some florists, as especially desirable, for it 
combines the two qualities of flowers and foliage. 

B. carnea pink;i?. viarmorata, ?esh color, may be added; the first are white, 



and produce abundantly, and the latter is a dark bronze of medium size, com- 
bined with an erect habit. If grown well it is very fine for the table. 

Cultivation and Care of Palms for the House and Conservatory. 
A few years ago the opinion was general, that palms were not only difficult in 
CuUivation, but on account of their size, requiring a large space, only suitable for 
a big greenhouse and not at all for parlor decoration. Palms in the mind of peo- 
ple were imagined to be of im- 
mense size. For instance ; the In- 
dian Palmyra and Talipot palms, 
the slender high growing Cocos of 
the islands in the Indian Ocean 
and the Pacific Ocean, the grace- 
ful Sugar and Areca palms, or 
the Palma Real, in Cuba. So it 
happened that after some descrip- 
tions of our celebiated travelers, 
the cultivation of palms was 
nearly left untiied. "Kings 
among the gra.sses," as Alex, 
von Humboldt relates in his 
"Views about Nature" how in 
South America the slender tops 
of several species reach above the 
highest trees of the forest. Ad 
miration for glorious growth of 
the greater number of palms for- 
bade the introduction into our 
small gardens and parlors, while 
the form of palms of pinnatisect 
fronds with fan or umbrella- 
shaped fronds, like Corypha and 
Chamaerops, Trinax, Main-itia 
and Sabal species called to great 
interest and induced to a study Fig. 12. segouia, grown on bracket. 

of the physiognomy of them. Consequently numerous kinds of species came 
into trade and were civilized in our greenhouses. If we take in consideration 
how very few kinds of palms (in Linnaeas time) were known (about 
40 species), and how the lively period of culture of palms begins about 25 years 
ago, and how during this time nearly 400 species M'ere cultivated in European 
Gardens, we comprehend cleaily that palms are not diflScult to cultivate, many 
of them even fit for small arrangement. Induced by Alexander von Humboldt, 
it was tried first to stud}* their finding places and distribution in the primitive 
forests, in the Littorals and on the plateaus of the Andes, and according to thia 



their culture commenced. Plenty of seed of a great many species of palms was 
acquired, and as soon as young plants were raised they showed the interesting 
habit of the old big plants. Dwarf kinds of palms were discovered and it was 
soon understood how well they were suited for parlor decoi'ation. These species 
of palms, which grow often on the elevated points of the mountains by a sinking 
temperature, were also recognized to be fit for cultivation in the open air during 
the summer season. China, Japan, Ilindoostan, Australia, Mexico, South 
America, provi'ied us with the best species. 

Fig. 13. Palm for Table Decoration. 

We presume that now, as palms have been proved to be the most useful and 
durable parlor plants, and as they can be purchased at a low price, they will soon 
be favorites of our parlors and small house gardens. To cultivate palms well it 
is necessary to plant them into flowerpots, which are one-third longer tlian the 
ordinary kind of pots, of about the same proportion as Hyacinth pots. Nearly 
all genuine palms root deeply in the bottom. 



20 4 r/iYz?ojr gardening. 

We mention: The growth of the Cocos in loose sand on the sea coast, and 
several species which grow in dense moist woods, in the lichest humus, or others 
in deep alluvial bottoms, near great rivers. The care of roots, letting them 
freely go deeply into pots, will be recompensed by the better and quicker growth 
of the plants. The mould for palms is to be a rich and well drained one; a 
compost of one part of good old manure, and the other partof rich loam, which 
could be mixed with some sharp sand and peat. The pots need a good drainage, 
and palms planted in this manner can be plentifully watered during the summer 
months. lie, who will put his palms, which served for decoration for a parlor 
in the winter season, into the open air during the summer months, in some shady 
sheltered places, will keep them for many years, strong and healthy. 

Several species endure to be planted in gardens and to be treated like bedding 
plants. But in replanting them into pots in the autumn, it is absolutely neces- 
sary to take great care of the roots. No defect must be done to the end points and 
very caiefuUy they have to be digged out. The leaves of the palms are to be kept 
clean, free from all dust and insects, and we recommend to wet them sometimes 
with a sponge. Should big pots be used for palms, small ferns and plants 
may be grown with them at the same time, as this will not the least disturb 
the growing of palms, but will produce a splendid group, palms and ferns 

We give an instance : with a Latania borbonica (Livistonia), the Pteris serrulata, 
Adiantum Capillus Veneris, cuneatum, tenerum, pubescens, formosum, Pteris 
hastata; Davallia, canariensis, pydata, and several kinds of Selagmella, Trades- 
cantia, Isolepis and Ficus stipularis. Other plants, with palm-like habitus, 
which are nevertheless no true palms, may be treated and used exactly like real 
palms, as: Cycas revoluta. Lamia, Encephalartos, Pandamis, Charludovica 
palmata, Lamatophyllum, borbonicum and Strelitzia, etc. We give in the follow 
ing list only such plants, which are well suited, as we know b}'' long experience 
for window gardening, and besides, are not expensive to purchase. 

Our American ladies will surely not neglect this species of palms, as they 
deserve to take the first place among plants, on account of their beauty and 

Several kinds of palms grow slowly and serve thus for many years as decora- 
tions in rooms before they grow too big. 

List of Palms for a iccll-heated room or parlor. 

1. Palms with primatisect fronds : Areca rubra, pumila, lutescens, aurea, *Ba- 
ueri ; Astrocaryum Ayri,ElaisGuine-ensis ; Caryota urens, sobolifera; *Ceroxy- 
lon andicola; Chamnodorca gracilis, graminifolia, desmoncoides, elegans; Ernesti 
Augusti, *lunata, *Schiedeana, pygmsea, *elatior, *;Mexicana ; Cocos plumosa, 
oleracca, Euterpe edulis ; *Jub}ea spectabilis, (Cocos chilcnsLs) ; Oreodoxa regia, 
Sancona; Oenocarysus frigida; *Phoenix dactilifera, *reclinata, *silvestris, farini- 
fera, *Sieforthia elegans. 

2. Palms with fan-shaped, or umbrella-shaped fronds : *Chama3rops humilis. 



♦excelsa, *Fortunei, stauracantha, *histnx ;*Coryplia minor (Sabal,) *ralinetto 
(Sabal and Cliamaerops,) maritima, niiraguama ; Trinax barbailensis, argentea, 
♦Livistonia australis (Coiypha), sinensis; *(Latania borbonica), Kliapis flubelli- 

3. Plants witli a babit like palms, belonging to the Cyclantheae, Pandanese 
and Cj'cadea) ; Cliarludovica atrovirens, palmata; Pandanus graminifolius, java- 
nicus, fol. var., utilis, odoratissimus, amaryllidifolius, pumilus, *Cycas revoluta, 
Ceratczamia .Mexicana, (Zamia) ; Macrozamia spiralis (Zamia), Zamia muricata. 

Those species marked (*) can be kept in a moderate temperature. 

Floral Decorations — Suggestions and Plans for Arrangement. 

Graceful Grasses, Lilies, Gladiolus, and olhcr flowers with long flower stalks, 
stand best in vases or high urns ; but Magnolias, Passion Flowers, Water Lilies, 
Paeonies, &c., look -well in flat basins. 

Plants for large flower stands, windows, or the back ground of a room, must 
be caiefuUy chosen. Every plant which extends its leaves equall}' all around the 
central stem, may be advantageously used, either singly or as the centre of 
flower stands — such as Palms, Dracaenas, Yuccas, Aralias, &c., &c 

Plants for windows must have a showy form to look well, not only from 
outside, but also in the room. Place the biggest plant just in the centre of the 
window to interrupt the monotony of the whole line. Choose, amongst other 
plants for this purpose, the following : Ficus elastica, Dracaenas, Ardisia crenu 
lata, with red or white berries, or an Epiphjium truncatum grafted on stock 
ofPereskia. Besides the season allows a proper selection of plants for decora- 
tion. Decorate your windows in early spring time with the following plants as: 
Lilies of the Valley, Crocus, Hyacinths, Narcissus, Jonquilles, Scilla Sibirica, 
early Tulips, some kinds of Iris, Primula Chinensis, Primula veris, Cycla- 
men Persicum, Neapolitan Violets, Ilepatica, Triloba, Cinerarias ; Dielytra 
Spectabilis, Roses, Amaryllis foimosissima. Or later in the month of 
April and May try to procure the following choice flowering plants as: 
Deutzia gracilis. Call a (Richardia) Aethiopica minor. Azaleas in full bloom, 
Citrus Sinensis, Camellias, with their si)lendid foliage and rich blo.ssonis, some 
Ericas, Daphne cneorum, Blue Lobelias, Nirembergia filicaulis, double Petu- 
nias, etc. Ladies or lovers of plants cannot well suppose that there is any 
Bcarceness in plants at this time in the year, for you will find enough in the flower 
market to satisfy every desire. And how easy is the cultivation and the treat- 
ment of the beautiful children of the Flora ! Only a regular watering and the 
moisture of air by saucers placed under the pots; full hght and fresh air by re- 
peated opening of the windows on clear, sunny spring days is all which is re- 
quired for keeping them in good condition. Their rich colors, their sweet per- 
fume and delicate or interesting shape of flower will recompense fully each litt'.a 
trouble, which will be bestowed on them. In summer, when the parlor needs 
only an occasional decoration, as by festivities, parties, and so on, choose for 



decoration fine Fuchsias in flower, Gardenias, Ilybiscus rosa sinensis t1, pi., dou- 
ble and single flowering Petunias, Heliotropes, different kinds of Coleus and 
Iresine Lindeni, or some small kinds of Ferns; or for a larger decoration only 
plants with large lucent leaves, as : Ficus clastica, Palms, Musa, Strelitzia, Ara- 
lias. Yuccas, Pandanus, Marantas, Cyperus alternifolius, and some larger 
kinds of Ferns. 

Autumn offers a good variety of flowers and plants, ivhich do not require 
much care. The longing for flowers awakens, when the rough winds of 

autumn tells us that winter is 
coming, and that the eye will 
in vain look out for joyful col- 
ors and shining leaves ; when 
nature is dead, then comes the 
desire to have some laughing 
children of the Flora round our 
warm hearth, that we may en- 
joy their sweet odor and their 
graceful shape. It is a fact that 
a great many plants are culti 
vated by florists for decoration 
in the winter season. He who 
has a greenhouse of his own 
may have the pleasure to cul- 
tivate for himself: Hyacinth, 
Tulips, Crocus, Narcissus and 
other bulbous plants, which can 
be planted in fancy flower pots 
or Hyacinth glasses. 

There is some poetical charm, 
having early in February or 
March, those messengers of 
spring at your home. We men- 
tion some other forced plants of 
incomparable beauty. For in- 
stance : Scilla Sibirica, Hepatica 
triloba and H. angulosa, Rus- 
_ sian and Neapolitan Violets, 

Fig. 15. Parlor Fountain and Flower Stand. Cyclamen Persicum, Hostcj'a ja- 

ponica. Primula chinensis. Primula acaulis flore pleno, Delphinium formosum, Ora- 
phalodes verna, Phlox verna, Adonis vernalis. Iris Susiana and Persica, Fritillaria 
meleagris, Anemone nemorosa fl. pi., PulmonariaVirginicia, Sanguinaiia Cana- 
densis and forced Thea, and Rosa Bengalensis. For autumn decoration 
choose from the great number of blooming plants ; the latest in the season and 
well suited for these decorations, by their compact low growth, is the Daiscy-like 



or Pompone Chrysanthemums. Later in the winter season, when flo\Ters bocomn 
rare, 3-011 can have plants with large and beautiful foliage, whose form and lively 
green is very agreeable to the eye. Are you an admirer of Cactus,^ You find 
in November a certain species of Cactus flowering; the Epiphylliim truncatum. 
It is a matter of importance to arrange plants that every shape and part maybe 
seen ; to make the composition light and graceful by putting ferns and grass-liko 
plants between others 
with large leaves, for 
instance : Ficns elas- 
tica, F. Cooperi, F. 
australis, Abutilon 
Thomsonii, A r a 1 i a 
Sieboldii, A. lepto- 
phylla, A. papyrifera, 
Camellias and Azaleas 
with Cyperus alterni- 
folius, Panicum plica- 
tum, Phomium te- 
nax, Polypodium au- 
reum, Dicksonia um- 
b r s i a, Nephrol epis 
exaltata, Ophiopogon 
saburan, Japonic ura 
and spicatum, Isole- 
pis pygmpca, Pteris 
arguta, hastata and 
serriilata, for one 
large group. Put fol- 
lowing plants in the 
window : Ardisia cre- 
nulata, with red ber- 
ries in the centre and 
for each side ; Citrus 
Sinensis, with small 
gold yellow oranges, 
Daphne odorata, Olea 
fragrans, Nardosmia 
fragrans (TussilagO,) Hg. Ifi. Ornamental Flower Stnnd. 

Convallaria majalis, Gardenia citriodora, blue Cinneraria, Rosa Lawrencean^ 
Bouwardia jasminiflora and splendida, Selaginella urabrosia, Eranthemuin 
tuberculatum, Sanchezia nobilis, Eucharis Amazonica, Vallota purpurea, 
Sprekelia lutea, Ornilhogalum aurcum and Adiantum capiliua Veneris. 

It will be nice to group in a flower stand some smaller plants round a big 
.>ne. Take for instance for the centre : Curculigo recvrY«.t«» ^-vspna cc 




gesta, Dr. fcrrea, Dr. terminalis, Dr. australis, D. Brnsiliensis, Dr. rubra, 
Latania borbonica, Cryptomeria Japonica, Araucaria imbricata, Yucca 
llaccida, Aralia papyrifera, longifolia; or a little orange tree, rouiul which are 
grouped by size: Ferns with long fronds, as Blechnum australe, spicatum and 
B. frasineum, Pteris arguta, Pteris longifolium, Aspidium violascens, A. molle, 
Asplenium decursive, pinnatum, Cyrtomium falcatum, Osmunda cinnamomea 
and regalis, Struthiopteris Germanica ; and for the outline of this group, small 
plants of Camelia,Azalia, Gardenia radicans, Myrtus, Aucuba, jMagnolia fusca 

Eugenia australis, Plecto 
gyne variegata, Rluicus acii 
leatus, R. raccmosus, Che 
nopodium lanalum, Alj's- 
sum maritimum, fol. var., 
and Carex japonica, fol. var. 

Now to decorate a small 
parlor, which is daily used 
and has a higher tempera- 
ture, take : Several Dra- 
casnas, small Palms, Pan- 
daTius utilis, Philodendrum 
pertusum, Alocasia niacror- 
rhiza, fol .var., A. Jenningii, 
A. metallica, A. arborea, 
Cioton pictum, and 0. va- 
riegatum, and different 
'jpecies of Maranta, Ama- 
r} His Tessani, A. solandrse 
flora, A. vittata and A, 
regina, Vallota purpurea, 
Pitcairnea punicea, Aech- 
mnca fulgens, Tillandsia 
farinosa, pyramidalis and 

A composition of plants 
with thick and fleshy leaves 
Fig. 17. Flower Box and tree trellis. and branches is attractive 

and interesting. For instance, for the centre of the group : Echeveria gran- 
diflora, metallica, or E. sanguinea, or Sempervivum arboreum, fol. var., grafted 
Epiphyllum, or OpuntiaBrasiliensis, surrounded by Mammillaria, Echinocactus, 
Echeveria, secunda glauca, Aloe retusa, Sempervivum Californicum, Aloe mar- 
garitifora, Sedum Sieboldii, fol. var. 

It is some years since very successful and lasting efforts have been made to 
^iltivate air plants (Orchids) in the room, (they have lately become cheaper.) 



Nothing indeed can be more charming as flower stands in rustic style, covered 
with these interesting plants, mixed with Ferns, Selaginella, New Orleans moss, 
xillandsiausneoides, Nidularia, Aechmgea and Pitcairna. Of Orchids, are re- 
commended the following : Cattleya, Lielia, Lycaste, Maxillaria, Oncidion, Odon- 
toglossum, Schomburgkia, Acropera, Acineta, Epidendron, Gongora, Lygopeta- 
lum and Brassia species. 
For wardian cases the 
smallest species of Or- 
c h i d s and especially 
vai'ious kinds of Anec- 
tochylus, with their sil- 
ver and golden veins in 
the leaves are very de- 
sirable; also the very 
interesting D i o n a e a 
muscipula which is one 
of our native orchids as 
well as Goodyera pu- 
bescens; place them to- 
gether with several kinds 
of ferns. A glass case 
filled M'ith these plants 
IS an elegant ornament 
for the parlor. Other 
Orchids only cultivated 
in pots will do Avell for 
window decoration. 
Take for this purpose : 
Bletia hyacinthina, Li- 
modorum, Tankervillae, 
(Phajus grandifulius), 
Cymbidinm oloefoliura 
and C. ensifolium, Ua- 
lantlie vestita and vera- 
trifolia, and various 
species of Cypripediura. 

It shows a refined I'i-. is. Flower box with .irbor and climWng Tines, 

taste to decorate with air plants, ferns and tine climbing plants as : Cissus di.scolor, 
Ectrites, Melaleuca, Miconia speciosa, Pothos argyraea, Echites argyraea violacea, 
Passiflora trifasciata, kermesina, and P. princeps, Dioscorea discolor, ^lanettia bi- 
color, Thunbergia chrysops, Th. grandiflora and Th. laurifolia. Avoid plants 
with soft and downy leaves and emploj' more Ferns, Grasses or even Caladias 
and plants with smooth leaves as they are more la.sting for this purpose than 
the so-called Bedding plants which are more suitable for out of door cultivation 



For amples and hanging lamps, we recommend a plant of great value ; it is Cor- 
deline vicipara, now called Cloro phyton Sternbergianum; known a long nine 
in Gardens. It produces on long hanging stalks a great many young plants 
with air roots ; is therefore useful by this habit for Orchid stands and baskets. 
In larger parlors which are only moderately heated, plants from greenhouses 
and conservatories can be selected for a required decoration. The best selection 

Fig. 19. Flower Stand for Parlor Window. 

would be: Azaleas, Camellias, Citrus Sinensis and grafted Citrus aurantiura, 
Daphne laureola, odorata, Cneorum ; Olea fragrans; Eugenia australis ; Crypto 
meria Juponica, Cephalotaxus Fortunei,Rliododendrums, Kalmia, Ilex aquefolium 
fol. var., Aucuba Juponica and its varieties, Viburnum Tinus with fine white 
flowers in winter, Laurus nobilis, regalis and L. Camphora, Tristania lauriua, 



Euc&Iyptus globulus, Melianthus major, Melia Azedarach, Sida Japonica, Cestrum 
fturantiacum, Melaleuca alba, decussata, ovalifolia and hypericilulia ; and Eryo- 
bolria japonica. He who is fond of more tropical plants should use in such mod©- 
r»ie temperature : Aralia Sieboldii, leptophylla, quinquefolia; Solanum Warsce- 

rit'/ii, robustum ; Caladium violaceum, cupreum (porphyronenrum), Caladium 
Jiivauicum ; Hedycliium Gardnerianum, Bambusa Metake, Clianiacrops For- 
tanei ; Plionnium tenax, Dianella caerulea, Ruellia varians, Solandragr.indiflora, 



Brugmansia arhorea fl. pi., Sabal minor (Corypha"), Chamaerops Palmetto 
(corypha) of Ferns especially : Balantium antarcticum, Blechnum australe ; 
Cyrtomium falcatum, Cyathea australis and Cyathea meduUaris. All these 
plants are very durable and easy in cultivation for a low temperature and do 
not require much light. They keep during the winter the full foliage and many 
of them will bloom at this season. Plants, like Acacia lophanta, drop the leaves 
often in winter and require much liglit and a careful treatment. It is, as we liave 
said, most important to put saucers under the pots ; it prevents the draiunig 

Fig. 21. Aquarium, with arbor. 

water from flowing over. The complaints of ladies that plants spoil the furni- 
ture will, if this caution is employed, be left away. 

The following illustrations will explain the method how to treat, arrange 
and plant the different objects suitable for putting plants for decoration: 
This can be a guide for graceful arrangements to every one who has a passion 
f'">r these sweet beings, leaving enough room to develop a refined good taste, and 
gaining with it the admiration of all. In some respects plants are like animals. 



looking out for their own particular society. You are not to mix Dra- 
caenas with Pelargoniums, or Ferns with high Calceolarias, Ageratum, Petu- 
nias, Matricarias, etc.; these combinations would be against the habit of such 
plants. But you may combine weli lerns and Grasses with plants, having beauti- 
ful lucent leaves like Caladias, Liiias, etc.; every Fern possesses the quality for 
softening the greatest contrast. Of piants with variegated and silver leaves, choose 

or!y such, which go well with other plants, and arrange like this: Ceniaurea 
i\m.ioca-pa, candidissima and C. plumosa, Cinneraria maritima and Artemissia 
argontca, as a single plant; or in the centre of a group, surrounded by low 
[)lants, in rich flowering state, as: Rosa Lawrenciana, Lobelia raniosa and 
erinoidcs, Iberis sempervivens, Dianthus Chinensis and impcrialis flore pleno, 




Cuphea ylatycentra, Anemone coronaria, Sanvitalia procumbens fl. pi Priinnla 
sortusoides, Gazania splendens, Geum coccineum, Ajuga reptans fol. var., Arabis 
ilbida fol. var., Cyclamen Persicum and Coura, Saxifraga sannentoaa, Cerastium 
tomentosum, Myosotis Azorica, Ornithogalum aureum, Erinus alpinus Calan- 
drina umbellata, Viola cornuta, lutea and Viola odorata tbe Czar, Campanula 
puUa (pussilla), C. soldanellifolia, Vidali, Garganica, coclilearifolia and Solda- 
nella alpina. Collect of all these plants as the season allows. 

Fig. 20 is a low flower 
stand, best placed in front 
of a high looking glass, 
or in summer in front of 
a fireplace. Such flower 
stand requires mostly 
plants with ornamental 
and variegated foliage, to 
be seen from above. For 
instance, all the varieties 
of Begonia Rex, hydro- 
cotyledes, manic at a, 
Warcsewitzii, D r e g e i, 
smaragdina, stigmosa, 
Pearcei and ricinifolia ; 
different Caladias, San- 
chezia nobilis, Maranta 
zebrina, pardina, vittata, 
regalis, and Lindeni, sur- 
rounded by Torenia Asi- 
atica, Hoya carnosa, Tra- 
descantia discolor, Gym- 
nostachys Pearci, Pepe- 
romia argyraea, P i 1 e a 
m u s c s a and various 
kinds of Gesneria and 
Gloxinia . 

Fig. 21, an Aquarium 
covered by a little arbor, 
to be used for window 
decoration or flower 
tables. Plants, as the 

Fig. 23. Flower Basket -vritli Gold-fish basin. CUt showS US, are : Cype- 

rus alternifolius, Calla sethiopica minor, [ris fgetidissima, Acones graminifolius 
and Tsolepis parlatoris. For climbing plants, which will well cover the arbor, 
lake : Pilogyne suavis, Tropaeolum tri-colorum or Smilax microphylla (MedeoU 


..ig.22 represents a Glass rotunda or Bell Glass, surrounded by different dwarf 
plants exposed to dry air, as : Lychnis Haageana, Spigelia Marilandica, Mime 
lus quinqufcvulncris, Convolvulus Mauritanicus and Calcaenlaria rugosa flon- 
bunda. Tiie inside plants are like those which are proposed for Wardian case? 
requiring the same treatment. Such well filled and well arranged Bell glasses ar. 
beautiful ornaments for the table at festivities. 

Fig. 23 The flower basket, with goldfish basin, is very cheerful to look a 
when standing in a bay window or on a table. It is charming to sec the livel) 
and graceful little animals swimming about between the carefully arrangec 
plants. Plant in this basket the neat: Rosa Bengalensis, Agrippina, Crocus 
Snowdrops, Lily of the Valley, Lephyranthus candidus; Verbena var., kinds 
Neseinbrj'antheraum cordifolium, Carex Japonicus, fol. var.. Sweet Alyssum and 
blue Lobelias. 

Fig. 1 is a low flower stand for Tropical plants, covered with a falling veil to 
protect plants against the dust. Place it in front of a large looking glass, which 
will heighten the effect. Only large Tropical plants can be used here for decora- 
tion. Such are : Dracaenas, Bambusa, Hedycliium, Alpinia nutans, Curculigo 
recurvata, Pothos, macrophylla, Anthurium, Philodendron pertusum and Palms 
as : Chamaedorea lunata, elatior, gracilis ; — Cycais revoUita, Rhapis flabclliformis, 
and large ferns as : Blechnun australe andBrasiliense, Pteris, argyroneura and 
tricolor, Pteris arguta and hastata, Pol3'podium aureum, Nephrolepis exaltata, 
Cyathca meduUaris and australis; Pteris cretica alba and Cyrtomium falcatum. 

Fig. 24. This flower stand consists of wire or fine willow, work prettily 
adorned at the bottom with Berlin-wool, or bead work done up by the fingers of 
a lady. It serves especially for keeping cut flowers which have to be put, to 
give them more durability, in wet sand. Toy or Passion flowers climb round at 
the sides, and Pelargonium pedatum, Fragaria Indica, Saxifraga, Vinca major 
fol. var. Sweet Alyssum mixed with Lobelias decorate the upper part of the 

Fig. 25 is one of the handsomest of parlor decorations ; a sofa shaded by 
big plants with imposing foliage as on Fig 7. 

Place for the warm season plants like this : Melianthus major, Canna, various 
kinds, Uhdea pinnalifida, Solanum robustum, laciniatum, "Warcsewitzii; Amar- 
anthus bicolor coccineus; Iresine and Alternanthera, Coleus, Fuchsia, Il^-biscus, 
Plumbago, (iardenia florida, and Fortunci; Abutilon Thomsonii and Mcsopota- 
micum, fol. var., Chrysanthemum Sensation, Osmunda cinnamomea, Struthio- 
pterisGermanica,Adiantum pedatum, Onoclea sensibilis. Heliotrope, Jasminum 
grarile, Rosa Bourbon, Souvenir de Malmaison, Rosa Thea, Souvenir d'un. 
ami, Hydrangea hortensis, Lilium lancifolium and auratum. 

Fig. 26 is much like Cut 9 ; but of greater importance is here the choice of 
Bingle plants, as the whole arrangement shows small flower stands, tastefully 
grouped round the arbor. Fill the stands in the back ground with the following 
plants : Dracaena terminalis and D. ferrea, D. Brasiliensis, rubra, congesta, 
austnlis, indivisa, Veitchii; also Ficus elastica, australis and Cooperi. For 



Fig. 24. Parlor Flower Stand. 


27 r 

climbing plants decorating the arbor are well fit : Hedera Algeriensis and Roegneriana, 
Cis-sus antarcticus, Rhuscus androgyus, Pdogyne suavis, Rubus raollucaHus, Adlumia 
cirrhosa, Clematis azurea giandiflora, lanuginosa, and Fortunei. 


Fig. 27. The Flower fountain is, when small, determined for ornamental tab'.p de<» 
ration. In larger style it may be well suited for hall decoration or ornaments for a leni 



out cI uoors. The light and graceful wire-work can be covered with : Maurandia, 
Rhoaocnvton volubile. Eccreraorcarpus punicus, Lophospermum, Tropaeolum tricoloj 

or T. pentaphyllum, Thunbergia, Solanura jasminoides, Bignoniajasminoidcs, Mede<i» 
asparagoides and Cardiospermum Flalicacaoa. For the large shape lake also 



tariofls kind of Passiflora, Senecio-mikanoides, Ipomoea, and fine ornamental gourds 
The lower basin in the centre contains decorative plants with large leaves as : Begonia 
Maranta, Caladia, Pothos Sanchezia nobilis, Tradescantia discolor and Warcsewitzii 

Pig. 27. Floral decoration m the form of a fountain, 

the basin above has only light delicate plants as : Ferns, Selaginella, various kinds, 
laolepis gracilis, Torrenia Asiatica, Eranthemum Cooperi, Ilybiscus Cooperi, Fittonia ar 
gentea, Allernanthera, Bainbusa Japonica,fol. var., and Cerastium tomentosurr 



The decorative bird cage, on page 4, frontispiece to cliapter 1, in a small shape, 
looks well on a table or in front of a looking glass ; if bigger, it may be placed 
in the centre of a room. Here is a good opportunity for showing a fine cul- 
tivated taste in the arrangement of all kinds of plants. Below, in the stand at 
the bottom, you will perceive dwarf plants of the following species : Stachys 
lanata, Coleus Beauty of Vidamore, Nemophila insignis, Verbena tencrioides and 
Sanvitalia procumbens mixed with Sweet Alyssum and Lobelia ; or, in a different 
style : Sempervivums, Sedums, Mesembryanthemums, Cactus, Echeveria, Cras- 
sula, Aloe mixed with Phlox setacea and Cerastium tomentosum. Then higher 

up on the stand you have in flat vases : 
Sedum fabaria, Plumbago Larpentae, 
Epiphyllum truncatum. Daphne cneo- 
rum. The four vases contain : Agave 
Americana fol. var.: Corypha australis, 
Latania Borbonica, Cycas revoluta, or 
Bromelia sativa fol. var.; Nidularium fuJ- 
gens, Asplenium, Nidus avis, Echeveria 
metallica, Alocasia metallica, Statice 
Ilalfordii, or St. macrophylla. Yucca 
flaccida will produce the best effect in 
the vase on the top of the cage. Some 
small climbing plants decorate well the 
four corners of the cage. The lively 
songsters inside, thus surrounded by 
beautiful flowers, seem to forget that 
they are prisoners, and warble their 
lovely songs with perfect freedom and 


The plants recommended in this article 
are, throughout, handsome and con- 
venient. They are to be had in any 
good nursery which makes a specialty 
of cultivating plants for decoration. 
Some florists take the delivering of plants 
Fig. 21. Portable self-operating parlor fountain, by Contract, renewing them from time 
to time. We give you also a good hint how to clean plants. Take off the dust 
first with a small velvet scrap, then wet the leaves either with a sponge or syringe. 
Plants, of a lasting habit, as: Palms, some kinds of Orehids, Yuccas, Dracaenas, 
Ficus elastica, will keep well some years by attendance and regular iiarsing, 
repaying the small trouble by their growth and fresh color. 

Ho7ne Ornaments. 
This department would not be complete without a word for the little ones of 
the house, some hint to them of what they can do to bring forth some glowing 

wnvnow gardenino. 


spot or sprig of living greenery. So we tell them how to make some pretty little 
contrivances in grasses, &c. 

Plants with light, graceful foliage are every year becoming more popular; and 
to complete a picture of the highest order one requires a great variety of colors, 
and graceful pencilings; so in window gardening the culture or the grasses adds 
greatly to the whole eflect. Their feathery plumes may not possess brilliancy of 
coloring, but their silvery and emerald tints are an offset to their more gorgeous 

Far prettier than many a pretentious and costly ornament is a simple bowl of 
grasses planted in pine cones, set in sand, in moss, or common soil. 

If grown in cones — procure them from the woods, and sprinkle in as much 
soil as their scales will retain ; then scatter the grass seeds over it, and sprinkle 
with water ; place the cones in sand or moss — and be sure that they do not 
become dry — but water them sparingly at first, once a day, and set in a mode- 
rately warm place. Soon the seeds will 
sprout, and the tiny spears protrude in 
every direction. 

Grass will sprout and grow in pine 
cones without any soil, but it serves to 
prevent the cone from closing too tightly 
when sprinkled, and also makes a more 
vigorous growth. The cones can be sus- 
pended in a window, either singly or in 
groups of three fastened together with 
thread wire ; or a rustic basket or stand 
can be procured, and filled with cones with 
different kinds of grass, growing in each 
cone. There are three thousand different 
species of grasses in the world, and their 

study is a pleasing pursuit. Fig. 29, a .Sa.icer Garden. 

A very charming effect can be produced by placing a wet sponge in a glass 
bowl, and sprinkling over it canary seed, grasses and flax seeds ; soon it will be 
covered with a thick growth of fresh bright green ; it must be judiciously 
watered; if kept too dry it will wither away; if too wet it may damp off. 
Mustard seed may also be used, and its tiny yellow blossoms, will be to many, 
a novelty as well as a delight. 

Children and invalids can derive much pleasure from raising a grass garden ; it 
is better to select the dwarf varieties, as the taller kinds require more nourish- 

A Tumbler Garden maybe constructed as follows: Fill a common tumbler or 
goblet with water, cut out a round of cotton batting, or of soft thick flannel of 
just the size to cover the surface, and lay it gently upon the water, upon this 
scatter the seeds of grass, or flax or mustard, or all mixed, and gently set the 
tumbler away in a dark place. In a few days the seed will start; soon th«j roots 


Fig. 30. Grass growing in Pine Cones, 



will begin to penetrate the cotton or flannel, slowl}'^ sending down their delicate 
white fibres to the bottom of the vessel, while the top will be covered with a 
little thicket of green ; after the second day the vessel must be 
kept in a warm tight place, and two or three times a week care- 
fully replenished with water by means of a teaspoon, or syrinse 
inserted beneath the edge of the flannel. 

A great advantage of such a miniature garden as this is that the 
roots moy be plainly seen growing through the cloth. Water cress 
has been grown this way, and a little story is related of a little 
girl who kept her invalid mother supplied all winter long with 
water cresses grown in this way upon wet flannel. 

Vcas. — Common garden peas will make a lovely vine, although 
sweet peas are much prettier, but either can be grown in water ; 
till a common tumbler with water; tie over it a bit of coarse 
lace, such asmilliners use, and cover it with peas, pressing it down 
into the water. Keep in a dark place for two or three days, 
then give light and warmth. In a few days the roots will beFi 
plainly seen piercing through the lace, and the vines can twine der gus jets, 
around the casements, or a bit of a hoop skirt spring can be fastened about 
the tumbler, with springs attached to it in form of a globe, and the vines twined 
about them. Keep the tumbler full of water, and 
add bits of charcoal to keep it fresh ; every week turn 
in two or three drops of aqua ammonia, less if the 
tumbler is very small, but the deeper it is the bet- 
ter for your vines. 

A Saucer Garden can be made with fresh moss, 
well wetted ; in the centre place a pine cone filled 
with earth and common grass or canary bird seeds, 
and in a few days the tiny grass spears will aj)- 
pcar, and soon you will have a verdurous cone of i 
great beauty. Keep it secure from the frost, and 
give water enough, and you will have a lovely orna- 

The devices for growing grasses can be extended 
ad libitum, and none are so poor that they cannot 
secure a tumbler or a saucer garden, which will 
prove a delight and a joy to all beholders, while its 
care will be of the slightest. 

If an acorn be suspended by a tit of thread tied 
around it within half an inch of the surface of water Fig.32. cimudeiier Decorations, 
contained in a small vase or tumbler, and allowed to remain undisturbed 
for one or two weeks in a warm place, it will burst its shell and throw a root 
into the water and shoot upwards, its straight and tapering stem covered with 



glossy green leaves. A young oak tree growing in this way is an elegant object 
The water should be kept clean with bits of charcoal, and if the leaves turn yel- 
low add a little ammonia to it. Chestnut trees can be grown in this way, but 
their leaves are not as beautiful and delicate as those of the oak. 

BasJcets of Green Cress, or Pepper Grass. 
The common garden cress grows very rapidly, and can be used in various ways 

in making grassy ornaments for 
parlor or taj)le decoration. A com- 
mon basket of oziers can be trans- 
formed into a lovely greenery by 
planting it thus : Select a pretty 
shape of either ozier or wire, and 
line the basket with folds of cotton 
batting sewed on both outside and 
inside, covering the handle with 
the same, or thick white flannel 
can be substituted for the cotton 
wool and strips of it rolled around 
the handle. 

Procure four or five ounces of 
cress seeds and steep them in 
warmish water for four or five 
hours , set into the basket a china 
saucer, (or the saucer of a flower 
pot will answer,) fill it with water, 
and when the soaked seed has be- 
come a little sticky spread them 
all over the flannel, to which they 
will adhere. Leave no spot un- 
covered, for it must be thickly 
strewn with plants. Set the bas- 
ket in a warm, dark place for two 
or three days — longer if the leaves 
do not commence to sprout — then 
bring it out to air and light, and 
soon it will become a mass of 
Fig. 33 Floral Vase. feathery green foliage. You must 

sprinkle it every day with warmish water, holding it over a wash bowl ; and the 
water must always fill the saucer. 

A small feru can be grown in the saucer, or a Primula, or a cluster of Cro- 

Another pretty device is that of the Turnip basket, which is made by simply 
taking a large Turnip, scraping out the inside so as to leave a thick wall of an 



inch all around, then plant in it some climbing or drooping vine, say a Morning 
Glory. Suspend the turnip with cords, and in a little time the vines will grow 
upward over the cords, while the turnip will sprout below and send forth leaves 
gracefully turning and curving upward. 

The Sweet Potato would hardly be recognized by many who know it only to 
cat it, if they could see how pretty a parlor ornament it might be easily made. 
Fig. 34 is a good illustration of one 
in a vase placed upon a bracket 
fastened to the side of a room. 

Take a large sized Svli'ect Potato 
and drop it to the bottom of a vase 
or the bowl of a hanging basket. 
Cover the Potato with water nearly 
to its top, leaving perhaps a half inch 
uncovered, and always keeping it 
about at this point. It will soon put 
forth roots, and the top will shoot 
out a vine which will grow after a 
while with great rapidity. A sunny 
position suits it best, — and the ten- 
drils will soon clasp the arms of the 
basket, or droop in long curls over 
the edge of the vase. Many visitors 
who have seen such a vine in the 
window of their friend, have inquired 
with admiration its name, thinking 
it must be some foreign plant. Had 
it possessed only some curious bo- 
tanical or fanciful name, its praisea 
would never cease being repeated, 
but the visitors are a little chagrined 
to find that their enthusiasm has been 
vented upon nothing but a Sweet 
Potato Vine. 

Arrangement and Choice of Flowers 
for Wreaths, Bouquets and Vases. 

The art of arranging flowers grace- i-ig 34 s«toi 

full}' and well, is not so easily taught as their culture, for it requires an artistic 
eye to group them tastefully, yet fortunatel}'^ they are so intrinsically beautiful 
that they can hardly be spoiled, though the best effect is not always attained. 

The Germans, French, and even the Russian women are said to surpass the 
English and Americans in their various methods of weaving flowers into house 
decorations, and they seem born with a love of plants and flowers. 



In our country flowers are chiefly regarded as accessories, while in France aud 
Germany there is no family fete without its graceful door wreaths, its garlanded 
picture frames, and its coronals of flowers ; and not a toilette without its appro- 
priate flower. 

In arranging flowers it is well to bear in mind the laws of worsted work, and 
when we desire to adorn our rooms with flowers we should consider the " ground- 
ing" to be prepared for them, as if it were a cushion. 

White is often the chief ground work of a wreath, bouquet, or vase, yet it 

greatly impoverishes the other 
colors, and renders a brilliant 
assortment of flowers trivial, if 
little dabs of white are scattered 
all over them — yet if used as an 
outer edging it will heighten their 
colors, and in a bouquet, vase, cr 
wreath of delicate, pale shades, it 
tends to make their colors more 

Passion flowers are peculiarly 
lovely when arranged with pale 
pink roses, etc., but if white 
flowers are mingled with them, 
the efiect is not pleasing. 

Rose color and pale blue are 
exquisite when mingled ; white 
lilac or mauve with primrose ; 
dark blue and brilliant scarlet; 
cerise or cherry and white ; daik 
purple and primrose, blue, white 
and rose color. 

The shade of green should, as a 
geneial rule, harmonize with the 
natural foliage of the flowers ; if 
this is disregarded it will tend 
Fig. 35. Vase of Cut Fioweri. to overpowcr instead of increase 

the brightness of the flowers. Very dark green looks well with only 
large, pure-tinted heavy flowers, like Roses, Camellias, Dahlias, etc., although 
it will look well with white flowers of finer structure, if their texture is thick 
and waxen and especially with wild flowers of the spring. Thin, yellowish green 
foliage would ruin the Camellia, which needs the intense dark color of its own 
leaves to show forth its statuesque beauty and elegance. 

Indeed, the use of thin, quickly fading green sprays will injure all floral ar- 
rangements ; and young leaves of all kinds droop soon ; while older, thicker ibli- 
Bge will last a long time. The leaves of the scarlet geranium preserve many 



flowers by their velvety texture, which retains so much moisture, while their 
flowers will last well if a drop of gum arabic is dropped into each flower; and 
there are few that are more effectiye either in dress or table decoration. 

Heath retains its beauty for a long time, as do nearly all flowers which pos- 
sess a hard woody stem ; while Fuchsias, Heliotropes, etc., with soft, succulent 
stems eitlier drop their flowers, or turn black so quickly that their beauty is soon 

Carnations and Pinks are beautiful for floral decorations, and they keep their 
freshness for a long time. Verbenas and Chrysanthemums are also very desira- 
ble. Hyacinths will make 
exquisite vases, wreaths, 
etc., and double and single 
Tulips .are ornamental in 
decorating mantel ? pieces 
and tables. 

Anemones are uncqualed 
for a dinner table, as the 
full blaze of light exhibits 
their striking colors to 
great advantage, and the 
gorgeous scarlet, pink, pale 
blue and blue shading into 
white are per feet, but they 
require a soft mossy foli- 
age of Lycopodiums or 

Azaleas are charming 
for every kind of adorn- 
ment. There are no 
flowers more perfect for 
ornamenting the hair and 
dress, but they fade 
quickly unless damp blot- fir. 36. Basket of cut Fioucia. 

ting paper or cotton or wool is rolled around their stems. 

Deutzia gracilis is very beautiful for any decoration ; and it is in much request 
so that the florists force large quantities of it every winter. Roses of every shade 
are always admirable; too many of them were never seen. 

Stephanotisfloribundais ever welcome ; its snowy, waxen, fragrant flowers be- 
ing adapted to every floral ornament, and the same remark applies to the sweet 
Cape Jessamines, the Myrtle and the Orange blossom. 

Bouvardias, Tuberoses, Mignonette, and all the sweet blossoms, are also to be 
desired for arranging in the various devices at present employed in decorating 
apartments, etc., for festive occasions. 

Mounting and weaving flowers is a mechanical operation that is often useful. 



The Parisian fieuristes can take a flower with less than half an inch of footstalk 
and make it very effective. The smallest piece of well soaked cotton wool is 
pressed around the stem, and a small piece of wire is wound about it to keep the 
wool close, and it is twisted closely together for a stem ; a fresh green leaf can 
be rolled over the wool to prevent its being ob- 
served. Every one knows how often a lovely 
flower will snap from the stem and be seemingly 
useless, but with a bit of fine wire pierced through 
the calyx a stem is provided which will answer 
all the purpose ; then cotton wool thoroughly 
wetted can be wound tightly over it. White 
Camellias are ruined if the slightest moisture 
touches the petals, and the best way to mount the 
flower is to moisten a piece of white cotton wool 
about the size of half a dollar, then lay it on a 
piece the size of the flower itself, which should 
Fig. 37. Bouquet then be lifted up ; two ends of a loop of wire having 

been passed through the centre of the wool before laying it under the flower, lift 
up the loop of wire, and slip it between the leaflets or points of the thickest 
calyx and the flower, drawing it gently around it ; then reverse the flower, and 
pass the wire through the wool twisting it around a cluster of leaves of the 
Camellia, and concealing the wool with them. "With pink flowers use pink wool. 
Melted isinglass is often used to make the flower adhere closely to the wool ; this 
helps to keep the flower from falling, and also moistens it. Isinglass is better in 
preparing flowers than gum or mucilage of any kind, because it is not so sticky, 
and is of a pure white tint. A crown or wreath of Camellias can be prepared in 
this manner, that will last for four or five days in great perfection ; even if the 
flowers drop their petals the wool retains enough of them to keep up the appear- 
ance of flowers. 

Pl(?. 38. A Cornucopia of Flowers. 

To mount Geraniums, Azaleaj, etc., the stems should be cut off within an inch 
of the cluster or single flower, and a drop of isinglass be given inside of the petals, 
wetted wool and the wire should be arranged as described for Camellias 



Water Lilies can be treated in this way and thej can be kept several days. 
In making wreaths, a dehcate eye for combining color and light for arrang- 
ing flowers are required, or clumsy garlands will be the result. 

It is a mistake to suppose that a great variety of flowers is required ; simple, 
small wreaths of Ivy leaves and Myrtle blossoms, or drooping racemes of Deut- 
zia; of Geranium leaves mingled with Avhite rose buds, and its own brilliant 
blossoms; of Pansies, and some thick textured leaves; of Azaleas and Prim- 
roses; or of any combination of two or three flowers are much more lovely for the 
decoration of the hair, dress and table. 

The wreath can be tied with green zephyr wool 
upon a bit of thread wire, mingling the green 
leaves in a graceful form. 

For the head or for a picture frame, the wreath is 
made moie easily by commencing at each end, and 
arranging the flowers and leaves toward the cen- 
tre — beginning with a few drooping branches, and 
filling the centre with a high coronal of knots of 

In making up bouquets, frames of very fine green 
wire are much used, so that a single stem stripped 
of all its leaves, passes through each hole, and 
all of them are bound together underneath the 

The holes are arranged in circles, and the eifect of 
the grouping is very good and lasting, but as soon 
as the flowers shrivel, or the petals fall it is nu 
longer ornamental ; but for decorating a dinner table, 
or carrying in the hand, it is a most desirable frame, 
as it is exceedingly light to hold, and takes very 
few flowers to produce a fine appearance. 

The frame should be slightly conical, and a large 
flower is best adapted for the centre piece, and a 
fringe of some delicate fern, leaves or flower, should 
droop over the edges. 

The frames can be made at home with a little ingenuity ; silver wire is the 
best, but copper can be used. The piece of wire for the outside circle of a large 
bouquet, should be cut half a yard in length, and the succeeding lengths should 
be three inches shorter, each one diminishing regularly until the last circle will 
be the size of a ten cent piece. Each of these wires, making six in all, should be 
neatly fastened together ; and three wires must then be attached to the centre, 
one at equal distances, and passing in and out of each circle must be firmly 
hooked into the outer circle and arranged in a conical shape. Thread wire can 
aow be twisted or netted in and out of the circles as close as the maker 


Wreath of Flowerg. 



chooses. From the centre circle, three more wires can now be fastened aadbcal 
down straight to form a handle. 

Fine wire can be used to form frames for covering vases, dishes, etc., and they 
can be made in the same manner. If very small flowers are to be used in form- 
ing the bouquet, place coarse netting lace, such as is used in millinery all over 
the frame, and it can be also employed in making the whole frame, using only 
one circle of rattan at the outer edge; but it will not last for only one occasion. 
Bouquets made on these frames affect a great saving of flowers. With but a small 
handful a large sized bouquet can be ar- 
ranged. Various are the devices which 
can be appropriated in making up such bou- 
quets. The centre can be of one flower, 
and a wreath of Rosebuds or Hyacinths or 
Blue Violets, or Pansies arranged all around 
it with a graceful giound work of green 

In fastening on the handle, it is well to 
recall the shape of a parasol, and arrange 
the wires so that they will have a similar 
efTcct. In making such a frame for an oval 
dish no handle is required, and the dish can 
be filled with wet sand to keep the flowers 
fresh. If water is used in vases a few 
large pieces of charcoal are very needful to 
prevent it from being offensive. 

It is a subject of dispute in arranging vases 
whether one should commence in the centre 
or at the outside, but in dishes of all kinds 
it is certainly the best plan to commence at 
the outer edge with a bordering of leaves ; 
but for bouquets it is better to begin at th., 
centre. Drooping flowers are always grace- 
ful, and are decidedly the best for bordering 
or edging both vases and bouquets. 

Many a vase and bouquet of flowers 
is ruined by mingling too great a variety 
of colors and flowers. One sees that there are a great number of very pretty 
flowers, yet the effect is not exactly the thing, for they are decidedly crowded, 
and do not mix well together. 

Two or three purple flowers in a vase of scarlet and white will ruin the whole. 
One must consult the colors of the flowers that are to be grouped together, 
ather than the great assortment of rich and rare blossoms. 
Variegated foliage is exceedingly pretty for bordering bouquets, baskets and 

■ stand for Out Flowers. 



flat dishes. Begonia leaves and those of Cksus discolor, are much in request for 
this purpose 

A bouquet with a rich rose-colored flower as its central piece, and the next row 
of blue and white Hyacinths or violets tied to wires or broom corn splinters, and 
the outside mixed with rose color, blue 
and white, with a pretty, misty border- 
ing of Gypsophila, or Clive, falling over 
deep crimson leaves, will be a most 
effective design. A pure white Camellia 
for the centre, with a wreath of white 
Heath mingled with Blue Violets, or For- 
get-me-nots, is very lovely. 

The central flower white, and the outer 
wreath of scarlet Geraniums, is ali<o 

Carnations and Lilies of the Valley 
will mingle finel}'. 

Among garden flowers how infinite 
the choice, ribbon grass, pear blossoms 
tea violets, lily of the valley, with its 
leaves, white lilacs; dielytra, roses, in 
tlieir season ; the fragrant lilies of July, 

and the bright geranium or verbenas. >»*jr'~- 
Saucers of pansies, edged with musk, are ^•^^3' 
lovely ; so aie balsams, with plenty of 
their own leaves. 

A pretty design may be made as fol- 
lows : Fill a glass dish with curled parsley 
leaves, put a white jonquil in the centre, 
from which let five sprays of the lily of 
the valley radiate ; or a star may be made 
of daisies and myrtle, or of blue and 
white larkspur. 

A very novel bouquet may be mad( 
by taking an unripe melon, cut off one 
end, stand it up on the cut part, then 
surround with the stiff leaves of the 
Paeonia, and stick the melon full of 
dahlias and asters. 

In one of our illustrations (43) may ' 
be seen a beautiful design arranged Fig. 4i. Oiuamentai stana tor vaseof tiowers. 
with ferns. A few long fronds are arranged to fall over the vessel at the bottom, 
and a few sprigs of flowers are introduced to fill up the vase ; around the 
small staff which rises upwards, twines the Lygodium scandens, and from the 



top, which is in the shape of a cup, droop more plants, same description &s at 
the base. 
Bridal bouquets must be chiefly composed of the purest white flowers, with a 

little minglinr of yellow, blue and blush white tints, but the snow white must 
predominate to produce the richest effect. 

n^/A'7) o ir GA /.' n K.yfjXG. 


Green is essential in all bouquets, and tlie foliage of the respective flowers is 
I /Fays best fittod to show off their peculiar chaiins. yet a feathery and plumy 
^j-een adds grace to all arrangements of flowers. 

Nothing can produce a more lovel\' appearance than a vase of Lilies of the 
Valley, mingled with the emerald green folds of their own foliage. 

Camellias, Azaleas, Orange flowers, white Jessamine, Myrtle, white Ileathi 
and white Violets, mingle together in odorous beauty to adorn a bridal s'»«ne. 

Rose-buds should not 
be forgotten, also the 
lovely waxen-petalled 
Stephanotis, and half- 
blown Gardenias. 

As a general rule, all 
flowers of thin texture 
and pale delicate colors, 
fade so quickly that they 
are not suitable fo" 
decorative purposes. 

They look exceeding- 
ly pretty while growing, 
but they will not im- 
prove any floral ar- 
rangement. Nemophila, 
Convolvulus, etc., etc., 
are lovely in their li\ 
ing beauty, but gath- 
ered they add nothing 
to the beauty of others ; 
while Carnations, Ge- 
raniums, Rose, Asters, 
etc., etc., are always 
most brilliant and last- 
mg. Fern leaves are 
also beautiful in vases, 
and so effective that 

but few flowers are le- pig. 43. T.ibl<> Decoration with stand of Fenia. 

quired to make a brilliant display. 

Branches of Ivy are lovely and mingle well with scarlet and white Geraniums. 
When many vases are desired to be arranged, it is well to fill each vase with 
shades of one color, scarlet, crimson, pink, white, blue, purple, etc 

Hanging Baskets of cut flowers, much used for decorative purposes, and the 
style of flowers should correspond with that of the basket. In little lattice 
work baskets, the graceful fronds of Ferns, light wreaths of Ivy-drooping Fuchsiaa 
and sprays of Begonia, with Lobelias and Rose-buds, Cyclamens and Snow- 



drops woven in, present a most attractive appearance. The flowers are often 
arranged in tiny bottles, which keep them fresh a great while if a little salt and 
saltpetre are added to the water. These baskets are often suspended by wires, 
and long ivy wreaths can be twined about them 

Other baskecs are arranged with a cross-bar of green, dividing them into four 
quarters, with a double row of white edging the green. Scarlet Geraniums 
and Blue Hyacinths fill up the interstices, but usually if one color is kept 
as a ground work, and another as a filling, the better will be the effect. Baskets 
can be arranged with branches of Ivy growing in bottles of water, mingled with 

pressed fern and autumn leaves 
that have all the effect of growing 
plants, and can be suspended in a 
cool bay window where plants 
would never grow. The Ivy can 
be trained to creep up the cords 
and the ferns arranged in clusters 
by themselves. Pressed mosses 
can fill up all crevices, and the 
water with charcoal to keep it 
fresh, will not require any changci 
but only to be filled up once in three 
weeks. There will be no danger 
of its dripping upon the carpet, nor 
being chilled unless the tempera- 
ture falls below freezing. 

Long pieces of Ivy can be pur- 
chased at the florists, and they will 
soon strike root and grow finely. 

In arranging vases that will stand 
far from close inspection, very 
arge, bright flowers are the most 
desirable. Dahlias for the centre 
piece, surrounded with full blown 
Fig. 44. Stand oforuameutai liiasses. Toses, Chrysanthemums, etc.; little 

delicate flowers are thrown away in such decorations. 

For wreathing picture frames and looking glasses, nothing is more beautiful 
than evergreen, box, or myrtle boughs, thickly intermixed with Holly, Snow- 
berries or Bitter-sweet, and the whole crowned by a bouquet of feathery Ferns 
with evergreens and berries. 

For large green wreaths tied on the springs of hoop skirts firmly fastened 

together, the low growing evergreens of the pine woods are decidedly the best, 

and branches of spreading boughs of fir or hemlock can surmount each crown. 

The gray woollj' wreaths of the Clematis, when it has gone to seed, mingle 

well with the bright berries and the dark hued evergreens. There is no dec«,r- 



ation which equals that of flowers on festive occasions, ar rl those of our readers 
who live m the country can always avail themselves of the berries and evergreens 
of the forests and fields. 

The mountain Asii berries are also extremely effective in trimming vases and 

To Eevive Faded Flowers 

Hot water will frequently restore flowers to freshness, even when every petal 
is drooping. Place the stems into a cup of boiling hot water, leave them in it 
until each petal has become smoothed out, then cut off the coddled ends and put 
into milk warm water. 

Colored flowers revive sooner than those that are of snowy whiteness, as the 
latter turn yellow. A cool room is 
best adapted to keeping flowers 
fresh; they will wilt quickly in 
badly ventilated rooms, especially" 
if filled with tobacco smoke. Take 
away each flower as it fades, else it 
will decay the others. 

It is far better to gather your 
flowers for yourself and friends, 
than to let them fade upon the 

Cui Flowers, hoio to keep them 

When gathering flowers, use a pair 
of sharp shears ; a knife is bettei , es- 
pecially for woody plants — lose^ 
camellias, spireas, deutzias, fuchsias, 
and the hke. -=- _^ 

If you wish to sever a sprav of ^-^=^ 

blossoms or leaves, hold the st^,m to i t ( i i i i i u i 

be removed in the left hand, and at the back of the stem set the knife (held m the 
right hand) and cut in a slanting direction downward. If the spray springs from 
the head of the stalk, cut it as close as possible to the shoot ne.xt below it ; if it 
be a side branch, cut it cleanly to the main stalk. Then there will be no outflow 
of the sap, no rough and withering sticks protruding their unsightly presence 
above sickly foliage and meagre blossoms ; but, on the contrary, a symmetrical 
growth of verdure and florescence. Use the same method in removing a solitary 
flower or bud. 

One great drawback to our enjoyment of cut flowers is the quickness with 
which they decay. 

The moisture furnished cut flowers should be raxn wafer, always of a mode- 
»»te temperature, about blood warmth. The water should not be changed, but 




every morning its evaporation supplied with more of the same temperature ; to 
which, after a few days, a little aqua ammonia — five drops to half a pint of 
water — may be added. It is well to place at the bottom of the dish or vase a 
layer of broken charcoal, about half an inch in depth — pieces about the size of 
small beans. In placing the flowers, let them have as much room as they need 
to show themselves naturally. At the expiration of a week, the stems should 
be examined, all decayed matter rubbed from them with a piece of flannel ; and 
the tip of each end cleanly cut ; and if any leaves or blossoms begin to louk with 
81 ed, those also should be cut away. 

Fig. 46. Flower Stand for the Table. 

Flowers decay much sooner when tied in bunches or bouquets than when 
arranged loosely. Too little air and too much water are the bane of most 
species. There ought to be a free current of the former around each spray or 
separate large flower, while the latter should not come above the calyx of any 
bloom ; better be an inch or more below it. With most hardy plants, even if 
very long stemmed, two inches immersion will give water enough if they have 
plenty of air 

Branchlets of flowering shrubs and stalks of the lily tribe can be advanta- 
geously arranged in water held in deep vases in the manner just mentioned ; but 



for a collection of the various ortlers, we prefer a perforated cover, (have used even 
the flat steamer of a diniier-boilfr, but wisli the " workeis in'cla}' " would provide 
for the necks of vases and llower-dishes plates similar to those prepared for drainers 
to soap dishes.) This rests upon the top of the vessel, and through its holes the 
stems can be passed to the water beneath without fear of too deep immersion, m 

either by its leaves, or bnd-stems, or stalks of surrounding greenery, each flowei 
is lightly supported above the cover, which is hidden by the foliage hanging 
gracefully around. When water is to be supplied, the cover is raised withou* 
disturbing the sti-nis 


WjyD 0\r G ARDEXIXG . 

For short stemmed flowers, a mixture of damp sand and powdered charcoal 
in equal proportion^, answers very well ; but care must be taken that the dish 
does not get too dry ; so also do baskets of creeping moss, in which they may be 
placed with fine elFect ; still the moss gets dry so soon that the flowers fare bet- 
ter if a saucer is hidden below, partly filled with water, which they can reach 
with the tips of their stems 

Fi-;. V6. Uisli of Flowers aud Ferus for the Table. 

The prettiest and best arrangement for keeping cut flowers in beauty is a dish 
of velvet moss saturated with rain water. When this moss is brought from the 
woods, if a few fronds of fern, especially those of the delicate Maiden Hair, are 

Fig. 49. Oniairiental Silver ami G.ild Stand for Fruit or Flower*. 

taken with it, and suflered to form a part of the foliage of the group, you wil. 
find them a charming addition. Place the flower stems sparsely among the moss, 
and here and there a branchlet of green or a leaf. Just inside the edge of the 
dish pour a very little water twice a week ; and when any of the collection show 
signs of decay, remove them, and fill their places with fresh specimens; thus the 
dish may be kept filled with bloom and beauty for months 



Small bouqiiets for the hand soon fade if no effort is riL.t.e to give them mois- 
ture ; but a wrapping of a bit of wet cotton batting or a few wet threads of can- 
dle wicking, fastened lightly about the ends of the stems, will suffice to keep 
them in good condition several hours hi a close, hot atmosphere. Those who do 
not hke the formalit}- of a bouquet holder, which this plan necessitates, can take 
a small vial — such as are used to hold medicine of homoeopachists — partly till it 
with water, and place the tlowcr stems therein ; and then cover the vial by tyiu" 
a ribbon around it, just as they would the bare stems of a nosoguy. FIowois 
used in decorating the hair and the 


dress can be kept bright and 
in the Siime way. 

If flowers are to be transported 
any distance after they are cut, they 
should be placed carefully in a tiglit 
box or case. If the box is not per- 
fectly air tight, furnish it with a layer 
of damp moss or cotton batting. 

When going for wild flowers, carry 
a tightly closing tin box, in which 
is a piece of wet, coarse sponge, and 
a basket. The smaller flowers arc 
to be shut in the box The sponge 
is laid in the bottom of the basket, 
and the stems of the larger flowers 
inserted in its pores. By so doing, 
even the most delicate can be brought 
home without withering. 

Handsome wall decorations may 
be made by cutting long branches of 
ivy, clematis, woodbine, honeysuckle, 
or climbing roses, inscrtmg a few 
inches of their stem in a bottle of 
rain water, and hanging the bottle 
behind a picture or a mirror, over 
and about which the flowers will Fig. ft". n,Toraiiv,. ca-,- i... tii.- house. 

bloom and the foliage flourish for many weeks, to the admiration of all be- 

The beauty of so many flowers — hot house flowers especially — is tarnished by 
sprinkling. \Vhen they are drooping, it is best to try first a change to a cooler 
or a more airy department, and a double portion of ammonia added to their 
water ; this frequently revives them very quickly 



And now, regretfully taking leave of the interested readers who have fullovred 
us to the Gnd, we cannot close without some slight but liearty expression of the 
genuine love and pure ennobling influence which comes from constant associa- 
tions with flowers. Though Window Gardening has its difficulties, still its 
pleasures are as yet but partially told, and its capabilities only half revealed. 
IIow dreary our homes would be without some sweet presence of floral blos- 
soms .? Where they are, they seem to give a "benediction of x>eace," {or they 
beguile many a weary hour, and soothe many a feverish or anxious life. Would 
that all might be led ere long to study the beauties and acknowledge the sweet 
influence of the flowers, " Nature's Jewels" vhose life seems to be examples of 
humility, purity, and patience. 

Ruskm says : " Flowers seem intended for the solace of ordmary humanity 
Children love them ; quiet, tender, contented, ordinary people love them as they 
grow ; luxurious and disorderly people rejoice in them gathered. They are the 
cottagers' treasure, and in the crowded town, mark, as with a little broken frag- 
■•nent of rainbow, the windows of the worker, in w'hose hearts rests the " cove- 
nant of peace." To the child and the girl, to the peasant and manufacturing 
operative, to the grisette and the nun, the lover and the monk, they are precious 
always — 

" Bright RPina of Eartli in which, perchance we Mm 
What Kden was — what Paradise may be. 



CaAPTBB L window Gardening: Its Pleasures— Increase In Popular Taste— Refining In- PAdli. 

flueuces. 5 to 1« 

IL Location and Designs for Window Gaideus 11 to 2* 

in. General Management of Wiudow Gaideiis 2;) to .15 

IV. Special Care of Window Gardens in Winter, Simug, Suniiiier, Aiitiiiiiu 36 to 44 

V. Insects, and how to kill tbem 45 to 48 

VI. Propagation from Seeds. Cuttings, &.C 49 to 52 

VIL Propagating Boxes, Heating Cases and Cold I''ninie3 53 to 5u 

VIIL Window Pots, Boxes, Jardinieres and Plant St amis 57 to 76 

IX Conservatories and Greenhouses 77 to 90 

p A n T II. 

Plants kok AVindow Gardens. 

TIAPTBR X. Hanging Baskets 91 to 110 

XL The Ivy for Decorative piiiiioses Ill to 118 

XIL Cnimbing Vines— Balcony (JaidiMiing lig to 137 

XIIL Bulbs 138 to 157 

XIV. Ferneries. Wardiau Cases, and Fern Decorations 158 to 188 

XV. The Camellia 189 to 191 

XVL TheRose 192 to 197 

XVIL TheFuchsia— The Myrtle 198 to 203 

XVIII. The Heliotrope 2u4 to 206 

XIX. The Geranium 2(17 to 211 

XX. Tlie Oleander, Bonvardia, Mahernia Odarata 212 to 214 

XXL Verbenas, Petunias, Pyretlirunis 215 to 218 

XXIL The Miguionette, Cinerarias, Wall Flowers, .Slocks 219 to 222 

XXIII. Carnations 223 to 225 

XXIV. Alpine Plants 226 to 232 

XXV Miscellaneous Plauts 233 to 24« 


Parlor Decorations. 

Cbaptkk XXVI. Ttp n<-coraflon of Parlors and Living Rooms with Oiuanicntal Plants 

and 1- U. « f I » M7 to SW 


Tlie Editor would acknowlpdgp witlj pleasure proper credit to the following Bonks or JoumkJl 
tiich haTe been consulted for necessary information : 

The Floral World London, England. 

The Gardeners' Magazine 

The Parks, Gardens and Promenades of Paris By Williaui Rdhiusoa. 

Frauengarten, lUustriste (iarteiil»ucli By H. Jager, Li-ip-ig. 

Rustic Adornments for Homes of Taste By Miirley HiUI>eiiL 

Flowers for the Parlor and Garden Edward S. Hand. jr. 

Practical Floriculture He nderson. 

Window Gardening, English Pamphlet Rohert T. FislL 

Indoor Plants Miss E. A. Maliug. 

Hearth and Home, and American Agiiculturist. 

The Horticulturist. N. E. Farmer. 

The Fern Garden Shirley Hibberd. 


AckTiowledgmentg of kindly asfisiance are due to the follewinR perions for contriDHtioin 
to the page? of this bdok : 

C. L., 'Daisy Eteubight, 


N Y. Central I'ai k Gardens. Anne G. Haub. 


f^j^ .. 


A Charmins NeAv Book, witli ahore 
title. A Oonipauiou Vulumu tu 


Being issued in same size anrl stvle, 
profusely illustrated with engravings of 
superior execution, and devoted to 
many topics of Household Tasie, Fancy 
Work for the ladies, and containing 
hundreds of suggestions of Home Deco- 


Williams' Household Series. 


Among the topics which "Ladies' 
Fancy Woik" will treat of, are,- 

Feather Work, Paper Flowers, Fire 
Screens, Shrines, Rustic Pictures, a 
charming series of designs for Easter 
Crosses, Straw Ornaments, .Shell Flowers 
and Shell work. Bead Mtisaic, and Fish 
Scale Embroidery, Hair Work, Card- 
board Ornaments, Fancy Rubber 
Work, Cottage Foot Rests, Window 
Garden Decorations. Illuminating, 
Grecian and Oriental Painting, Crochet 
Work, Modeling in Clav and Plaster, 
Fret-Work, Wood Carving, designs in 
F:mbroidery,and an immense number of 
designs of other Kancy W'ork to deliglit 
all lovers of Household Art and Recre- 

The volume will be fully equal in 
elegance to the volumes of the House- 
hold Sertes, already is.sued, and in 
variety of topics, and abundance of 
engravings, will probably be in many 
respects superior in interest. 

Any individual, a member of the 
trade, desiring advance copies of 
"Ladies' Faxcv Work," when 
ready, may forwarif to me their names 
for record, and 1 will forward to thetn 
a Circular of Announcement, with full 
description of Contents, price and 
exact date for delivery, by mail or to 
the book trade. 

Price $1.50. 


=-■ 46 Beekman Street, N. Y. 

itousehold iileqaneies, 



By Henry T. Williams and Mrs. C. S. Jones. 

A splendul new book on Hotisehold Art, devoted to a multitude of topics, interesting to ladies 
everywhere. Among tlie most popular suhjeets are, Transparencies on Glass, Leaf Work, 
Autumn Leaves. Wax Work, Painting, Leather Work, Fret Work, Picture Frames. Brackets, 
Wall Pockets, Work Boxes and Baskets, Straw Work, Skeleton Leaves, Hair Work, Shell Work, 
Mosaic, Crosses, Cardboard Work, Worsted Work, Spatter Work, Mosses. Cone Work, etc. 
Hundreds of exquisite illustrations decorate the pages, which are full to overflowing with hints 
and devices to every lady, how to ornament her home cheaply, tastefully and delightfully, with 
fancy articles of her own construction. By far the most popular and elegant gift-book of the 
year.— 300 pages, Price, $1.50. Sent post-paid by mail. 

Address, ADAMS & BISHOP. Publishers, 46 Beekman Street, New York.