Regional Oral History Office University of California The Bancroft Library Berkeley, California The Wine Spectator California Winemen Oral History Series Maynard A. Amerine WINE BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND TASTE PERCEPTION STUDIES With an Introduction by Doris Muscatine An Interview Conducted by Ruth Teiser in 1985 Copyright 1988 by The Regents of the University of California San Francisco Chronicle March 13, 1998 Moynard Amerine Maynard Amerine, a retired- University of California enologist who was one of the pioneers of Cal-~ if ornia's wine industry, died Wed nesday at his home in St. Helena. Mr. Amerine, who had been hi failing health because of Alzheim er's disease, was 86. He was the sec ond major figure in the wine in dustry to die this week. On Tues day, Jack Davies, the owner of "Schramsberg Vineyards, died in . CaUstoga at the age of 74 Td feel a lot better if some of our industry would just keep on living," Robert Mondavi, the chair man of Robert Mondavi Winery, said yesterday, saddened by the deaths of two men he had known a long time. "I knew Maynard from the beginning , and he was an inspi ration to all of us. He stimulated all of us.". Where Mr. Davies was known as an innovator in the nascent world of California champagne, Mr. Amerine's fame stemmed from his work over nearly 40 years in the scientific world of winemak- ing. In 1936, Mr. Amerine joined the faculty at the Department of Viti culture (now the department of Vi ticulture and Enology) at UC Da vis, at a time when the nation was trying to recover from the austere effects of Prohibition. The wine industry was practi cally moribund, equipment was sparsely available and there was only a handful of good grapes in California. " "People had forgotten all they knew before about California wine," Mr. Amerine said years lat er. But the blank slate inspired Mr. Amerine to experiment and seek new ways to breathe lif e back into the industry. What made Mr. Amerine stand out in the field of wine men, as they were called 60 years ago, was his ability to see California and its regional climates and micro-cli mates as ideal for growing wine grapes. In 1938, Mr. Amerine and an other UC Davis professor, Albert Winkler, used climate conditions to classify California's wine-grow ing regions into five districts, from Region I, the coolest districts, which are near the coast, to Region V, in the San Joaquin Valley, with its intense heat "Those five growing regions are still used (as benchmarks) hi the industry," Ted Edwards, the winemaker at Freemark Abbey Winery, in St Helena, said yester day. "It's still a tool. He was a pio neer, a true patriarch of the mod ern-day industry, hi terms of giv ing us tools from an academic point of view on how to go about making wine." Mondavi said "I built my whole business" on Mr. Amerine's books on wine-making. "If you followed that, you could not help but do an outstanding job. I used (them) as my Bible." Mr. Amerine wrote "Table Wines: The Technology of their Production," (with MA Joslyn), and several books on sensory eval uation of wine. Perhaps his best known book is the "University of California/Sotheby Book of Cali fornia Wine," co-edited with Bob Thompson and Doris Muscatine and published hi 1984 During World War U, Mr. Amerine served in the Army, where he was a major in the Chem ical Warfare Service, stationed in Algeria and India. Mr. Amerine was a member of numerous wine and food organiza tions and frequently traveled to Europe and South America to con sult for wineries, judge interna tional wine contests and give speeches on wine history. Like Mr. Davies, he was also a member of the Bohemian Club. Services for Mr. Amerine will be at 11 a.m., Wednesday, at Grace Episcopal Church, 1314 Spring Street, St. Helena. Mr. Amerine, who was not mar ried, is survived by three cousins Richard Amerine, Mervyn Amerine and Bill Amerine, all of the Modesto area. Michael Taylor MAYNARD A. AMERINE ca. 1978 Photograph by Wines & Vines Since 1954 the Regional Oral History Office has been interviewing leading participants in or well -placed witnesses to major events in the development of Northern California, the West, and the Nation. Oral history is a modern research technique involving an interviewee and an informed interviewer in spontaneous conversation. The taped record is transcribed, lightly edited for continuity and clarity, and reviewed by the interviewee. The resulting manuscript is typed in final form, indexed, bound with photographs and illustrative materials, and placed in The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley and other research collections for scholarly use. Because it is primary material, oral history is not intended to present the final, verified, or complete narrative of events. It is a spoken account, offered by the interviewee in response to questioning, and as such it is reflective, partisan, deeply involved, and irreplaceable. All uses of this manuscript are covered by a legal agreement between the University of California and Maynard A. Amerine dated 26 September 1988. The manuscript is thereby made available for research purposes. All literary rights in the manuscript, including the right to publish, are reserved to The Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley. No part of the manuscript may be quoted for publication without the written permission of the Director of The Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley. Request for permission to quote for publication should be addressed to the Regional Oral History Office, 486 Library, University of California, Berkeley 94720, and should include identification of the specific passages to be quoted, anticipated use of the passages, and identification of the user. The legal agreement with Maynard A. Amerine requires that he be notified of the request and allowed thirty days in which to respond. It is recommended that this oral history be cited as follows: Maynard A. Amerine, "Wine Bibliographies and Taste Perception Studies." an oral history conducted 1985 by Ruth Teiser, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 1988. Copy no . TABLE OF CONTENTS Maynard A. Amerine PREFACE i INTRODUCTION by Doris Muscatine v INTERVIEW HISTORY viii BRIEF BIOGRAPHY ix INTERVIEW WITH MAYNARD A. AMERINE Enology and Viticulture at Davis, 1971-1974 1 Wines, Their Sensory Evaluation 4 Biographies 5 Analytical Publications 9 Changes at Davis 11 Medical Research on Wine 14 Wine Advertising 16 Countering the Anti-Alcohol Movement 17 The Sulfur Dioxide Problem 19 Organizations 20 International Influences 21 Improvements in Grapes and Wines 24 Field Work with Winkler 25 Prices, Judgings, and Auctions 27 Brandy 28 Work in Progress 29 Wine Books in Libraries 30 Mechanized Harvesting Collaborators 34 Frank Schoonmaker 39 John De Luca 41 The Grape-Growing Region System 46 Soils and Vines 47 Viticultural Areas 48 Retirement Work 49 TAPE GUIDE 51 APPENDIX Bibliography 52 INDEX 86 PREFACE The California wine industry oral history series, a project of the Regional Oral History Office, was initiated in 1969 through the action and with the financing of the Wine Advisory Board, a state marketing order organization which ceased operation in 1975. In 1983 it was reinstituted as The Wine Spectator California Winemen Oral History Series with donations from The Wine Spectator Scholarship Foundation. The selection of those to be interviewed is made by a committee consisting of James D. Hart, director of The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley; John A. De Luca, president of the Wine Institute, the statewide winery organization; Maynard A. Amerine, Emeritus Professor of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis; Jack L. Davies, the 1985 chairman of the board of directors of the Wine Institute; Ruth Teiser, series project director; and Marvin R. Shanken, trustee of The Wine Spectator Scholarship Foundation. The purpose of the series is to record and preserve information on California grape growing and wine making that has existed only in the memories of wine men. In some cases their recollections go back to the early years of this century, before Prohibition. These recollections are of particular value because the Prohibition period saw the disruption of not only the industry itself but also the orderly recording and preservation of records of its activities. Little has been written about the industry from late in the last century until Repeal. There is a real paucity of information on the Prohibition years (1920-1933) , although some commercial wine making did continue under supervision of the Prohibition Department. The material in this series on that period, as well as the discussion of the remarkable development of the wine industry in subsequent years (as yet treated analytically in few writings) will be of aid to historians. Of particular value is the fact that frequently several individuals have discussed the same subjects and events or expressed opinions on the same ideas, each from his own point of view. Research underlying the interviews has been conducted principally in the University libraries at Berkeley and Davis, the California State Library, and in the library of the Wine Institute, which has made its collection of in many cases unique materials readily available for the purpose. Three master indices for the entire series are being prepared, one of general subjects, one of wines, one of grapes by variety. These will be available to researchers at the conclusion of the series in the Regional Oral History Office and at the library of the Wine Institute. ii The Regional Oral History Office was established to tape record autobiographical interviews with persons who have contributed significantly to recent California history. The office is headed by Willa K. Baum and is under the administrative supervision of James D. Hart, the director of The Bancroft Library. Ruth Teiser Project Director The Wine Spectator California Winemen Oral History Series 10 September 1984 Regional Oral History Office 486 The Bancroft Library University of California, Berkeley ill CALIFORNIA WINE INDUSTRY INTERVIEWS Interviews Completed by 1988 Leon D. Adams. Revitalizing the California Wine Industry 1974 Maynard A. Amerine. The University of California and the State's Wine Industry 1971 Maynard A. Amerine. Wine Bibliographies and Taste Perception Studies 1988 " Philo Biane, Wine Making in Southern California and Recollections of Fruit Industries. Inc. 1972 John B. Cella, The Cella Family in the California Wine Industry 1986 Burke H. Critchfield. Carl F. Wente, and Andrew G. Frericks. The California Wine Industry During the Depression 1972 William V. Cruess, A Half Century of Food and Wine Technology 1967 William A. Dieppe, Almaden is My Life 1985 Alfred Fromm. Marketing California Wine and Brandy 1984 Joseph E. Heitz. Creating a Winery in the Napa Valley 1986 Maynard A. Joslyn. A Technologist Views the California Wine Industry 197 4~~ Amandus N. Kasimatis, A Career in California Viticulture 1988 Horace 0. Lanza and Harry Baccigaluppi, California Grape Products and Other Wine Enterprises 1971 Louis M. Martini and Louis P. Martini. Wine Making in the Napa Valley 1973 Louis P. Martini, A Family Winery and the California Wine Industry ~ Otto E. Meyer. California Premium Wines and Brandy 1973 Norbert C. Mirassou and Edmund A. Mirassou, The Evolution of a Santa Clara Valley Winery 1986 Robert Mondavi, Creativity in the Wine Indsutry 1985 Myron S. Nightingale, Making Wine in California. 1944-1987 1988 Harold P. Olmo, Plant Genetics and New Grape Varieties 1976 iv Antonio Perelli-Minetti. A Life in Wine Making 1975 Louis A. Petri, The Petri Family in the Wine Industry 1971 Jefferson E. Peyser. The Lav and the California Wine Industry 197A Lucius Powers. The Fresno Area and the California Wine Industry 1974 Victor Repetto and Sydney J. Block. Perspectives on California Wines 1976 Edmund A. Rossi. Italian Swiss Colony and the Wine Industry 1971 Arpaxat Setrakian, A. Setrakian. A Leader of the San Joaquin Valley Grape Industry 1977 Elie C. Skofis, California Wine and Brandy Maker 1988 Andre Teh el ist chef f . Grapes. Wine, and Ecology 1983 Brother Timothy. The Christian Brothers as Wine Makers 197 A Ernest A. Wente. Wine Making in the Livermore Valley 1971 Albert J. Winkler. Viticultural Research at UC Davis (1921-1971) 1973 INTRODUCTION by Doris Muscatine Anyone who has ever known, worked with, read the writings of, or been the student of Maynard A. Amerine and that includes almost everybody who has had anything to do with California wine since Prohibition will take pleasure in this interview, a sequel to an earlier oral biography in the Bancroft collection. For those readers for whom this is an introduction, it provides an account of the evolution of the California wine industry during a period of enormous growth, and highlights the role that the University of California and Maynard Amerine played in that development. Amerine's discussion starts with the changes in enology and viticulture at Davis in the early Seventies, but his consummate knowledge of wine history, its development in California, legal shenanigans, politics, principal personalities, the influence of technological developments and the emerging predominance of the University, give a much broader picture of the state's burgeoning industry. The scope of Amerine's work, recounted in straightforward reminis cences and equally uninhibited commentary, ranges through his research on carbonic maceration (he has never found a wine made by this method with which he was thoroughly pleased) to his debunking of such myths as the invention of varietal labeling by Frank Schoonmaker ("mainly malarky"; there was active varietal labeling in California in the 1890s). He does, however, give Schoonmaker his due for applying the idea in a big way. Amerine's view that all soil is fundamentally the same as far as grapes are concerned drainage and temperature retention being other factors entirely may surprise some. His work with A. J. Winkler on defining grape growing regions by the differences in their average heat summations, a major viticultural contribution, is only a beginning, in Amerine's view. He envisions many refinements, because "good research always reveals more problems than you can solve." As Amerine talks about his research, his teaching, his students and colleagues, the books he has written on everything from wine must analysis and sensory evaluation to varietal labeling and wine making at home he gives generous credits to all of his collaborators, from graduate student to professor. As he details his international travels, his lectures, speeches, testimony and consultations on behalf of wine, he emerges as its tireless and passionate advocate, meanwhile providing us a rich historical context. Although his current activities belie the fact that he is now "retired," he reports that there is a bit more time to enjoy some of his other passions: opera, the Bohemian Club, his work on bibliography. He also likes living vi-vii in Napa, where he moved on his retirement from Davis because he had observed too many emeriti who stayed around sometimes saying things that were not helpful. As this history makes abundantly clear, Amerine's career has spanned every aspect of the wine industry, and his contributions to it are incalculable. The energy and enthusiasm that this report conveys are summed up best is his own words: "Obviously, I will never be completely retired." What a good thing for us all. Doris Muscatine 27 September 1988 Berkeley, California viii INTERVIEW HISTORY Maynard A. Amerine This interview is in effect a continuation of that completed in 1971 titled The University of California and the State's Wine Industry. Because he had been active in the wine industry following his retirement from the Department of Viticulture and Enology at Davis to emeritus status in 1974, it was considered important to record an account of his further work. He had continued writing and editing, producing a number of important books and articles dealing with various aspects of wine, most notably establishing a scientific basis for wine tasting (Wines; Their Sensory Evaluation, in collaboration with Edward B. Roessler.) With Doris Muscatine and Bob Thompson he had edited the landmark University of Calif ornia/Sotheby Book of California Wine which was published in 1984. In 1974-75 he was consultant to the Wine Advisory Board. After its discontinuation he became consultant to the Wine Institute, dealing mainly with health issues. This interview was held in two sessions, the first on February 11, 1985, in his office at the Wine Institute, the second on September 11 of the same year, following his retirement from the Wine Institute position. It was held also at the Wine Institute but in the employees' coffee room which, as the tape recording progressed, went from silence to noisy with the clanking of cups and the rumble of ambient conversation. Nevertheless, Professor Amerine continued, characteristically, to express well thought out discussions of the list of subjects presented to him in writing prior to the interview. And he made meticulous corrections and additions to the transcript. Ruth Teiser Interviewer-Editor 15 September 1988 Regional Oral History Office 486 The Bancroft Library University of California at Berkeley Regional Oral History Office University of California Room 486 The Bancroft Library lx Berkeley, California 94720 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION (Please write clearly. Use black ink.) Your full name Maynard A. Amerine Date of birth Oct. 30, 1911 Birthplace San Jose, Calif. Father's full name Roy R. Amerine Occupation farmer Birthplace Maryville. Tenn. Mother's full name Tennie D. Amerine Occupation housewife Birthplace " " Your spouse none Your children none Where did you grow up? Madera and Modesto, Calif. Present community St. Helena, Calif. 94574 Education B.S. and Ph.D., Univ. Calif. Berkeley , . retired Occupation(s) Areas of expertise enology, sensory evaluation of foods Other interests or activities Organizations in which you are active Bohemian Club, S.F. Etiology and Viticulture at Davis, 1971-1974 [Interview 1: 11 February 1985]## Teiser Today we are picking up on your activities since January 1971, when we finished recording your earlier oral history. Amerine: The title of the first oral biography was "The University of California and the State's Wine Industry." I will keep that theme for this interview. In the University I have done a lot of things that didn't have anything to do with the wine industry and therefore they don't properly belong in this biography. There are, however, here, which deserve to be of Mayacamas, made a tape wine industry and Amerine has been transcribed and Wine Library. Also, for tape on John Daniel [Jr.] University. That tape is two other tapes that I will refer to in the record. Mr. [Robert] Travers, several years ago on the Napa Valley 's recollections thereof. That tape is (or is to be) in the Napa Valley a Miss Simonson, at Inglenook, I made a , the Inglenook Winery, and the kept at the Inglenook winery. The history of 1971-1974 can be summarized as far as my duties vis a vis the wine industry. There was an enormous increase among students at the University majoring in enology and viticulture. This started around 1971. Enology classes which normally had five to ten suddenly had fifty to seventy. This increased the teaching load in the two upper division classes that I was teaching at that time, one on analysis of wines and the other on sensory evaluation of wines. This involved considerable time because, particularly in the sensory evaluation section, we had to split the laboratories, and it ##This symbol indicates that a tape or a segment of a tape has begun or ended. For a guide to the tapes see page 51. Amerine: ended up that in 1974 I was teaching five sections of laboratories, two evenings per week and three afternoons per week, just in the laboratories for that one course--plus the laboratory for the analysis course. (The laboratory for my Food Science course was largely handled by Professor Rose M. Pangborn. ) In addition to that I was teaching two freshman courses, one in viticulture and one in food science. Obviously research suffered, and I was using my technician for preparing solutions and doing a lot of things that had to be done for classes. Fortunately, I had given notice of my retirement in '72, two years ahead of time, and the University brought on my successor a year early, Dr. [Ann C. ] Noble. So she did get to help in the class in the spring of '74, which gave her an introduction to the sensory analysis of wine, and also relieved me of reading lots of papers and examinations. I had in the sensory course laboratory reports with a lot of the statistical analysis of the data and so forth, and Doug Fong, who was my technician, also helped in this. Otherwise I couldn't possibly have taken care of the courses. In addition to that, the University in its delayed largesse decided that with this big increase in enrollment we would be able to have teaching assistants in Agriculture. There had been very few teaching assistants in Agriculture before that. These had been reserved for the big courses in the College of Letters and Science, and Agriculture people were supposed to only have one course. .Well, I was teaching five courses a year and obviously I could make a strong case for having a teaching assistant. So I had a teaching assistant in Food Science two of them in Food Science--and I had two teaching assistants in enology during the period when we had big classes. There was a considerable amount of field work still going on. The Napa Valley Technical group, I remember going to during this period several times, and also the San Joaquin Valley Technical group, which I believe is almost gone by now. I took a sabbatical in residence in 1973 for six months, and used that to visit wineries throughout the state. That report was never written, although it does exist in manuscript. It has to do with what people in the industry considered to be the major problems of growing grapes and making wine as of 1973. I did keep some research going. We were working on "maceration carbonique" (or "carbonic maceration" if you wish) and published some papers in the American Journal of Enology. The results were not favorable to the process, and I still have to find a wine so produced that fully pleases me. There were Amerine: also several papers on addition of acid to musts. Some wines were improved, some not. As part of the field work during this period in 1973, I made a trip to Osaka to participate in the dedicatory speeches for the Central Research Institute of Suntory. There were four of us that gave speeches at that one. Mine was on current wine-making practices in California. Also that year we published the book Wine and Must Analysis, Amerine and [Cornelius S.] Ough, which was really the lecture notes for the course in wine analysis which I mentioned just before. There was also a trip to Ohio to participate in the "Ohio Grape and Wine Short Course" in 1973. The proceedings of that were published in 1974. There were two speeches there. One was on "American Wines for Americans," which was a plea for them to make better wines out of the hybrids and the eastern grapes, and the other was "New Methods of Wine-making," which I spoke about maceration carbonique. Then, on the basis of the Japanese trip, I gave a talk on the Japanese fermentation industry. It was published by the WITS [Wine Industry Technical Symposium] conference of November 1974. That speech, in fact, was a plea for the wine industry to do more research. I pointed out that the Japanese fermentation industry was going to rule the fermentation world eventually, because they were doing so much fundamental research in fermentation that they would control the production of amino acids and all kinds of antibiotics. That certainly came true. I used Chem[ical] Abstracts as a proof that that was what was going to happen. It's still true that the Japanese fermentation industry produces more patents on fermentation processes than all the rest of the world put together! Also in 1974 I participated in the symposium for the American Chemical Society in Dallas, Texas. It was chaired by Professor A. D. Webb of our department. In the speech I made some prognoses of the future of wine analysis. That was published in the American Chemical Society's Advances in Chemistry series. We also did work on analyses for citric acid in wines during that period. There were also a couple of articles in encyclopedias. There was even an article on American wines in a Yugoslavian book in Serbo-Croatian! The wine analysis book was published in Spanish in 1976, in Spain. Wines, Their Sensory Evaluation Amerine: In 1976 the textbook for the sensory evaluation course in Enology at Davis was published by Freeman. It was Amerine and [Edward B.] Roessler's book, Wines, Their Sensory Evaluation. This gave us a textbook to give to the students in that course and, in addition, was intended to be of use to the whole industry. That book went into a second edition in 1983. That's had a pretty good sale and is, I think, useful to the industry. The statistical part of the book frightened many people, but as I read the tastings of the various groups that are being published in various journals nowadays, I realize that, in many cases, the results don't have any statistically valid meaning. As an example of this, the San Francisco Chronicle a few years ago published the results of a tasting of eighteen bottled waters available in San Francisco. Fortunately, they gave the rankings of each of the ten judges. Roessler analyzed the data and showed that there was no difference between any of the waters except one. There was only one water that was better than the others statistically. We never did write the Chronicle about that, but-- Teiser: They didn't use the data properly, is that right? Amerine: They didn't analyze it. They just added the ranks, but there was no difference between the results, except for one, the variability in ranks between judges was so great. Also, as still a part of the field work, after the Ohio conference which I went to in 1973 or 1974, I then went to Pennsylvania for a wine conference in 1977. I spoke about quality standards and quality control for the small winery. That was published in the proceedings of that conference. I also had to give a dinner speech on wine appreciation, which was not published. In 1977 the most important paper that I gave was in French, "Wine and Human Nutrition," for the international symposium at Avignon, sponsored by the Office International du Vin [OIV]. That was published in the bulletin of the OIV in 1977, and was an attempt to bring up to date as far as nutrition was concerned the Silverman/Leake book on wine and health,* and also the seventh edition of Lucia's Uses of Wine in Medical Practice. This was reprinted in Spanish in Buenos Aires in 1979. *Chauncey D. Leake and Milton Silverman, Alcoholic Beverages in Clinical Medicine. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc. 1966. Amerine: I'll talk about the wine industry in a few minutes, and I'll come back to this particular subject then. I went to the American Wine Society to get a "Man of the Year" award in 1977, and talked about [the future of] American wines in 1995. That's published in the American Wine Society Journal , Volume 8, 1977. I don't know that I really contributed very much; prophecy is a difficult art. Bibliographies Amerine: Prior to 1974, when I left the University, I had published three bibliographies. The first one was right after the War, and was published by the University of California Press, with Louise Wheeler, who was the reference librarian at Davis. That was intended to be all the books and bulletins on grapes and wines that we could find from 1938 to 1948, from around the world. The reason for that was that World War II cut the United States off from getting books from behind the Iron Curtain, or getting books from any place in Europe. So there was a whole new generation of enologists and viticul turalis ts that had grown up without any contact with the European research and books that had been published during that period. That book didn't sell very well. It got a prize from the American Library Association, which didn't pay anything, I might say, but it looked good on Louise's University records. Really, there should have been an addendum published to that. I have two or three hundred cards that we didn't find at that time, which have since come to light based on trips that I've made to libraries in Europe and so forth, particularly since quite a lot of the Russian literature wasn't available to us in 1948. Somewhat earlier I had given a talk to the American Society of Enologists called "The Educated Enologist."* I use the old dictum that "the educated enologist is not one who knows everything, but who knows where to find it when he needs it." I appended a list of the hundred books and articles on grape growing and winemaking that I thought every educated enologist should be familiar with. that was really my first bibliography intended for California enologists. I hoped that they would become aware of the fact that there was more to the wine and *Proceedings of the American Society of Enologists, 1951: 1-30. 195T7 Amerine: grape growing business than just what was published in English in California. I don't think that it had the expected value, except that the list was reprinted and used as a handout for students for several years. I always told students they should learn at least one foreign language, either French or German, because that was where the most significant literature was. That's probably still true, but modern abstract services in English have helpd the student follow the foreign literature. Then Dick [Richard] Blanchard, the University librarian at Davis, persuaded me to produce a handout for the California Library Association who were going to meet in Sacramento. There was a lot of interest in grapes and wines, and they were going to visit the campus. I then produced the first checklist of books and pamphlets on grapes and wines, just in English, for the period 1949-1959. The second was for 1960-1968 and included additions to the 1949-1959 list. These were quite significant publications; I see there are 61 pages in the first list and 84 pages in the 1960-1968 list. There is a manuscript that's not yet published for 1968-1975. It's a nice list, ready to go when I'm ready to do it, and includes further additions to the earlier lists. Further on bibliography, in 1971 Amerine and [Vernon L.] Singleton published with the University Agricultural publications a bibliography of bibliographies on grapes and wines and related subjects. That ran to 39 pages, and was intended for enologists to be able to look up the literature if they wished.* At a later date the University received funds from Jack Tribune to work on vermouth. I published in 1973, in Italy in English but in an Italian journal, a multilingual dictionary of vermouth ingredients. At that time it wasn't possible--if you could read an Italian list of ingredients for vermouthto find the equivalent English words for many of them. This list was in six languages, the proper word for each one of these ingredients. That was, I think, of some help. While I was doing that I got interested in the vermouth literature, and we then published two bibliographies in 1973 and 1974. One was an annotated bibliography on vermouth with biochemical references that is, the composition of the vermouth ingredients . That ran to 312 leaves. At the same time we had done just an annotated bibliography on vermouth, which ran 213 leaves. That had to do primarily with the vermouth business and how big it got, and so forth . *This has been updated and revised up to 1988. M.A.A. Amerine: In 1980, when we held the one hundredth anniversary of the University work on grapes and wine, the Library Associates, which is a support group for the library at Davis, asked Herman Phaff and I if we would do a checklist of all the publications published on all the campuses of the University from 1880 to 1980 that had to do with grapes and wines. That was a great big "white elephant," and I should have been smarter than to get into it. It took a lot of my time and a lot of Herman's time, also. Fortunately, we work together very well. There have been publications from practically every campus of the University, and certainly from Berkeley and Davis, from many departments. It runs through over three thousand items now, and is in the computer and will be published [in 1986]. There were some people that went to the conference, which would be five years ago last April, who paid ten dollars for the bibliography. We thought we'd do it in six months; instead it's taken five years. Teiser: They sent the money back. Amerine: They sent the money back already? Oh, really, I didn't know they did that. Anyway, it's going to be published by the University Press, under a new series called "Bibliographic Studies." They finally got the money for the bibliography, and this will be, I think, the first one in the series. Two reasons for the time it took: one, we canvassed all the departments and asked them to send us lists. Surprisingly enough, none of the lists was complete. People forget that they wrote articles, and so forth and so on. Second, there were some that didn't send anything in. ## Amerine: Anyway, that was one reason. At first we typed it. Then the Library Associates felt that wasn't pretty enough to publish, and besides, it would involve a lot of indexing and so forth. If they put it on a computer, that all comes off automatically. You don't have to alphabetize all the authors and junior authors. Every article had to have a subject index. There were two or three subjects for some papers. That all had to be done by hand and then entered in the computer. But that is in the works at the present time, and should be out shortly.* Teiser: I keep reaching for it. I hope it will be. Amerine: We've seen the tape, so we know what it looks like. *It was published in Spring 1987 under the title Bibliography of Publications by the Faculty, Staff and Students of the University of California, 1876-1980, on Grapes, Wines, and Related Subjects. Amerine i Teiser: Amerine ; Teiser: Araerine: In bibliography I also wrote an article about [Andre L.] Simon in the Journal of the International Wine and Food Society in 1978, trying to show what his bibliographical contributions were. Continuing on the publication list: the second edition of Wine , An Introduction, was published in 1977. I noticed from the last printout that there've been nearly fifty thousand copies of the second edition printed. Let me ask you to clarify the title change. It used to be Wine, An Introduction for Americans; that was the first edition. The second edition was just Wine, An Introduction. The reason for it was that the Press felt, why would anybody in other parts of the world want it if it said, "for Americans"? So they dropped the "for Americans." The last of my graduate students, [Meridith] Edwards and [Thomas B.] Selfridge, were working in 1974. One of them was working on lead in wine, and the other was working on odor threshhold. Those studies were both published in the American Journal of Enology in 1977 and 1978. Were you co-author? Yes. Meredith Edwards is a winemaker and co-owner of a winery now, and Tom Selfridge is the president of Beaulieu . In other publications, such as the article that was published in the Scientific American in 1964 and reprinted in Spanish in 1977, there were references to the literature. (See also CRC critical Reviews in Food Technology 2:407-515, 1972). Over the years I wrote several introductions to books. The first was for M.F.K. Fisher and Max Yavno 1 s The Story of Wine in California in 1962. Another was a foreword to Irving Marcus" Lines about Wines in 1971. Another was for Bob [Robert L.] Balzer's This Uncommon Heritage in 1970, and his Wines in California in 1978. There was one for Harry Serlis' Wine in America , 1972. There were, of course, a number of introductions to The Bancroft Library [Regional Oral History Office] oral biographies. There are a lot of review articles that have been published. For the Mayo Clinic symposium on fermented food beverages and nutrition in 1979, I wrote an article on the biochemical processes in wine fermentation and aging that was published in Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition. That was hard work because it involved a lot of biochemistry. Amerine: Over the years the American Society of Heating and Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (that's ASHRAE) published a handbook with a section on winemaking. For the last ten or fifteen years I edited and updated that section. I've turned that over to a staff member at Davis. Herman Phaff and I wrote a journal article on wine in Microbial Technology in 1979. Of the three vermouth bibliographies that I mentioned before, two were typescripts, and they're in the department library and in the main library at Davis. In 1974 the Division of Agricultural Sciences published Vermouth, An Annotated Bibliography, which was printed and sold. Teiser: That you yourself prepared? Amerine: That I had taken out of those other publications and annotated. Here's another preface to a book--a preface to Max Lake's book on Cabernet, published in 1977. Max Lake wrote a book called Cabernet, Notes of an Australian Wineman. I don't think he was too happy about my introduction. I also wrote another introduction to another book of his, The Flavour of Wine (1969). That one I think he did like" Here's an article on American wines, in the World Encyclopedia of Wine, in Italian. I think I got one hundred dollars for that one. Analytical Publications Amerine: In 1980 the Analysis of Must in Wines book was redone into a second edition with a slightly different title; therefore it doesn't say "second edition." It's Amerine and Ough, Methods for Analysis of Musts and Wine, published by John Wiley and Sons. That is still in print. It's a big book, 341 pages. It needs to be redone, and I hope that some day it will be redone.* Also in 1980, long after I was retired, we did the fourth edition of The Technology of Winemaking by Avi Publishing Co. Professor [Harold W.] Berg and I did not want to rewrite it, and we both knew that we would never do it again. We brought four *A second edition was published in 1988. 10 Amerine: members of the staff in to write different chapters. [Ralph E. ] Kunkee, Ough, Singleton, and [A. Dinsmoor] Vebb were the other four authors. It was originally to include [James F.] Guymon, but Guyraon died before he had written anything. So it's Amerine, Berg, Kunkee, Ough, Singleton, and Webb. That was 794 pages, and most of the chapters were pretty thoroughly revised. It was fairly well up to date as of 1980. Teiser: That's an example of a book that has had an interesting life. You described it in the earlier interview, but it started off as kind of a pioneering effort, and has changed and changed, has it not? Amerine: Yes. Well, if I didn't put it in the early interview, Professor [William V.] Cruess had written before the war Principles and Practices of Winemaking. This had two editions. He then retired and didn't want to do a third edition himself, so he asked me if I would help him do it. there was some concern as to whether I should do it or not because I was the department chairman and had a lot of other things to do at that time. On the other hand, Avi was very anxious to have a new edition. The old edition was out of date. It was called "Amerine and Cruess," and was called the first edition. The second edition was "Amerine, Berg, and Cruess," because again I didn't want to do it. The third edition was also "Amerine, Berg, and Cruess." Then by the fourth edition, Cruess had passed away and it was Amerine, Berg, and these four other authors I had just mentioned. I can tell you the denoument of that. The other four people have been asked by Avi either to produce a fifth edition or to produce four books under the same general title. My experience has been that getting four people to produce four books is going to be a lot harder than getting four people to produce one book. Whether they're going to do it or not, I don 1 t know. In 1980 I also went to Australia to give an endowed lectureship at Roseworthy College, and lectured there for one month. The title of that endowed lectureship was "The Senses and Sensory Evaluation of Wines." The lectures were published in the Australian Wine, Brewing, and Spirit Review in 1980. The only problem was that the references were left off, which was regretful . Continuing with sensory evaluation: the Academic Press has had a series of books on chemical analyses of foods, edited by Dr. G. Charlambous. This particular one was called "The Analysis and Control of Less Desirable Flavors in Foods and Beverages." I wrote a fairly extensive article on the words used to describe abnormal appearance, odor, taste, and tactile sensations in wine. Unfortunately, that didn't get the 11 Amerine: attention it should have because most enologists don't read food technology books. However, I eventually had my reward because I put some of that material into the second edition of The Sensory Evaluation of Wines. Teiser: Does that book, do you think, have a kind of ripple effect out to the public? Amerine: I'm sure it does, because there've been a couple of people who claim that I robbed the language of beautiful words: that they ought to be allowed to say that wines are "lovely," or "feminine," or "masculine," and things like that. So at least two columnists read the book! Also I wrote an article which was published in the proceedings of the seventh wine training conference at Davis in 1981, "Describing Wines in Meaningful Words." That was rather a fun article, and I think I got more response from the audience than almost any other one that I remember. Changes at Davis Amerine: So much, then, for what I did as a University professor after 1971 up to date. Now, you asked the question, "What happened to the University when they lost Guymon, Berg, Webb, Olrao, and Amerine, all within a short period of time?"* I think that the University did very wellas a matter of fact, possibly better than they did before! Teiser: Let me just interrupt you here if I may. When all of you were leaving, industry people were saying, "The University is never going to get people as good as they were. There's no interest, there are no funds." There was an awful lot of grumbling. Amerine: Obviously I heard that, too. Some of my friends would say, "The University just couldn't duplicate that," and so forth. That's simply not true. If we did our job right, and hired the right kind of people, they ought to do at least as well, and possibly better than we did. After all, we were starting when the field was very new. There was practically no American literature or anything like that. We, the staff, certainly created a literature, a very big literature. Teiser: You did, indeed. *The question was asked in writing prior to the interview. 12 Amerine: Which is noted all around the world. The books, the journals, the viticulture and enology research, and so forth. All those constituted a notice that American research in enology and viticulture was first-rate. In addition to that, we published in Vitis, the German journal which publishes in English and German and French. Olmo is one of the editors of that journal. A number of us have published in Vitis at various times. In fact, the first editor of Vitis was a friend of mine. The new staff was bound to have to build on that. You can't go backward in science, you have to go forward. I think that they have done very well. [Ann C.] Noble, for example, in my field carried on an enormous teaching load. There were so many students in one class, and she also taught in a class in food science. She's had a lot of graduate students and has tried many new things, which she should do. The new staff don't carry on the same kind of research as we did. Their interests are different, their background is different, and so their research is justifiably different. Teiser: She also does what you did, speaks to groups beyond her classroom. Amerine: Yes, she comes across clearly in her speaking. [W.] Mark Kliewer, in Viticulture, also does. Winkler retired you can't replace Winkler--but Mark Kiewer, with the new biochemical methods and so forth, has made an enormous contribution to viticultural research. He's probably the most famous, worldwide, of the present staff in Viticulture. He's done sabbaticals in Australia, is well known in the German literature, and so forth. I'm not sure of the research of others on the staff. I don't want to name names. I just name those two because they come to mind quickly. They have carried on an enormous teaching load, a far bigger teaching load than we had before--not me, but more than the other members of the staff. Teiser: Have they continued to have teaching assistants? Amerine: Oh, yes, the teaching assistants are now well established in Agriculture. Teiser: Has enrollment continued high? Araerine: Enrollment has continued high. Teiser: You mentioned in your earlier interview that you hadn't always attracted the quality of students that you had wished. 13 Araerine: That's right. That was because they could get a job with Standard Oil at three times the price that the wineries were paying. That, of course, is one of the reasons we started the American Society of Enologists. It was to raise the professional standards of the enologists so they would be able to command higher salaries. It's been a slow and hard job, but in the sixties the industry realized, when the price of grapes started going up, that every gallon of wine they lost was a significant loss. Now, when you're paying one or two thousand dollars a ton for Chardonnay, you can't lose a gallon; therefore you can afford to pay thirty-five, forty-five thousand dollars for a good enologist. When you start paying forty-five thousand dollars for an enologist, you're going to attract ambitious students who have brains. That was, I think, the direct result of increases in grape and wine prices. And also the industry is much more highly competitive now. On the quality level, there are several hundred wineries in California (of over five hundred producing wineries) competing for a market for quality wines. At the larger wineries, several have Ph.D.'s in their laboratories now. Teiser: Your figure just now, several hundred out of five hundredwere you breaking down the industry? Were you implying the others are making only standard wines? Amerine: I didn't want to imply that. I'm just saying there are several hundred I know that are trying to make quality wines. I'm not saying that the others may not be. They're all really highly competitive in this field, and they have to get good people to achieve their goals. Even small wineries are hiring good people, or they're hiring consultants. There are quite a number of consultants now who are making their job telling wineries, "Do this, don't do that," and so forth. Teiser: I see there are consultants who work for several wineries, and some of them have their own wineries as well. * Amerine: Yes, that's quite true. Teiser: This is rather new, is it? Amerine: Well, it's an attempt by them to earn some money to live on--to spend on their own winery and at the same time use their knowledge to help somebody else, [laughs] My personal philosophy about the emeriti is that they should be seen but not heard. I moved away from Davis purposely very soon after I became an emeritus because of my observation of other depar tments--that the emeriti sometimes say things that don't help the deparment. When I have been asked, I have spoken to the department chairman, if he asked me questions I know 14 Amerine: something about. But I don't go around bad-mouthing anybody, or talking about things I don't know about. I haven't talked to anybody about my own opinions about departmental matters, mistakes, and so forth. Medical Research on Wine Amerine: In 1974 Salvatore P. Lucia had stopped consulting for the Wine Advisory Board, WAB, Harry Serlis was at Wine Institute, and [Werner] Almendinger at WAB. At that time the Wine Advisory Board was physically separated from the Wine Institute. They were on different floors of the building on Market Street. They asked if I would watch the medical research program. I had been a consulting member of the committee on medical research since 1937 and had gone to a lot of meetings. I said, "Well, I wouldn't mind coming one or two days a week." So they made it two days a week. Teiser: This was for the Wine Institute? Amerine: This was for the Wine Advisory Board when I came on in 1974. They had a couple of projects they were carrying on, and I began to write and distribute a monthly checksheet of research activities that I thought would be of interest to people that were interested in medical research on wine. This was supposed to stimulate interest in new research projects. Then, of course, [Edmund G.] Brown [Jr.] was governor, and Rose Bird got her finger in the Wine Advisory board. As a result, the Wine Advisory Board was disbanded, I suppose, rather than let Brown and Bird run it, and the industry was not going to have any public members on the Wine Advisory Board since they were paying for it; it was their money. That was the basic reason why the Wine Advisory Board was voted out of existence. Teiser: Bird was then Director of Agriculture? Amerine: She was the Director of Agricultural Services, or something like that. She controlled Agriculture, however; she had several departments under her control. Anyway, the industry members simply then raised their dues to Wine Institute, proportional to what they had been paying to Wine Advisory Board more or less. Teiser: But some people didn't come in. Amerine: That's right. East-Side Winery didn't come in, and California Growers [Winery] didn't come in for a year or two, but they then 15 Amerine : Teiser : Amerine: Teiser: Amerine : did come in later. Heublein never did come in. In fact they didn't even go to the Napa Valley Vintners meetings, or any industry meetings. Anyway, there was money, and starting around 1976 we began to have some medical projects again. These were somewhat different from the projects we'd supported before. This is what is under the Wine Institute, then? That came under the Wine Institute, yes. ## We lost something when I turned the tape, problem that you had-- You said the first Our first problem was to get medical advice that was qualified. We were very fortunate in this. Bob [Robert A.] O'Reilly had been a friend, and he agreed to come to meetings. Arthur Klatsky of the Permanente Foundation came to many meetings. Paul Scholten also came regularly. There were altogether about seven or eight doctors that we could count on to come to meetings and discuss where we should spend money on projects they thought would be useful. One of the early projects that we took part in and which paid off quite handsomely was "Can You Drink When You've Had Anti-coagulants?" There are many people who are on anti-coagulants, after operations or before operations and so forth. We got the Santa Clara Medical Group to work on that, with Bob O'Reilly running the program. They showed that alcohol, especially wine, didn't have any effect on the effect of the anti-coagulants. It neither reduced nor enhanced the effects of the anti-coagulants. So that was, I think, a positive step. We very soon got interested in the whole question of why people who have small amounts of alcohol don't have as many miocardial problems or heart attacks. This turns out to be a function of the high density lipoproteins , called HDL for short, which tend to reduce the cholesterol values. Therefore, you don't have deposits of cholesterol in the blood stream, and therefore you don't get the heart attacks from lack of circulation of the blood. That work was done at Harvard and also at UC. The project at UC is still ongoing as of August 1985. That project has been going on about five years. The results have been verified in Sweden and in Honolulu, and in a number of other places. People who drink too much will die for various reasons, and people who don't drink anything will have more heart attacks than people who drink small amounts. 16 Wine Advertising Ethically, we are in a bind on that. First of all, legally we cannot advertise wines as having health values. No alcoholic beverage can be advertised as having health values, so you have to be careful. There are people in this industry that feel that we should do more advertising on this, that we could figure out a legal method of doing it. On the other hand, there are other people that feel just as strongly that since wine is subject to abuse, like any alcoholic beverage, that people can drink too much, that people are not going to distinguish between drinking two glasses and drinking eight glasses. Therefore you may be doing some things that ethically aren't correct. Anyway, it's in the literature and has now, I think, generally been accepted by the medical profession. As in all kinds of research projects, we've tried projects that didn't really pay off as well as we had hoped for. The fetal alcohol syndrome, that is one that we spent money on. You can't do research on human beings; it's not ethical. You'd never get permission from a research committee at a hospital to give half your women wine and the other half not wine when they're pregnant. So it has to be done on some other animal. We've had it done on rabbits at the Wistar Institute in Pennsylvania. We've had it done on guinea pigs at New York, Cornell's medical research laboratories. They generally show that it takes an awful lot of alcohol to cause the fetal alcohol syndrome. As a matter of fact, Dr. Thomas Turner (he's the retired dean of the School of Medicine at Johns Hopkins) has some funds from the beer industry for medical research. He doesn't do any research himself, but he has made a review on the fetal alcohol syndrome. He notes that there is no case of full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome unless the patient is drinking the equivalent of a bottle of whiskey a day. By saying it that way, he's pretty well settled a lot of things, and we are not hearing as much about fetal alcohol syndrome now as we did several years ago. As to the current year, last summer they voted in the new winegrowers' foundation [Winegrowers of California], Medical projects which had been approved for financing by the Wine Institute were turned over to them. I don't know what they're going to do with them. They have one half million dollars for research. I'm on the viticulture and enology research group, but I don't know what's happening to the medical research. I will know tomorrow, I think, because I'm going to a meeting. Teiser: Have you suggested certain projects? 17 Araerine: They took three projects that we at Wine Institute had already approved last year. Last July, when they voted in the new Winegrowers of California, the executive committee of Wine Institute decided not to spend their funds, since there were going to be funds for research in the Winegrowers of California budget. So the projects have just been in limbo during this period of time. I assume that they will do something about them. They had already been peer-reviewed and so forth.* Countering the Anti-Alcohol Movement Amerine: About two or three years after I came here [to the Wine Institute] one or two days a week, the staff began to feel, about the time that John De Luca came, that there was an increasing number of anti-alcohol, or temperance groups, talking about alcoholic beverages. And that maybe we ought to know what they were doing and become familiar with the social aspects of drinking alcoholic beverages. So David Keyes was brought on to the staff. He stayed for two or three years. Then Patty [Patricia] Schneider came on the staff to do that social field. She works full time on that. She knows more about anti-alcohol groups than anyone. She goes to meetings all over the country; she's gone on television several times; she's acquainted with many people in Washington, New York, Sacramento, MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving), SADD (Students Against Drunk Driving), et cetera. She has held meetings with them, goes to their meetings, and has even held fund-raisers for them. I think John De Luca and I agree that it's unlikely that the industry will have the kind of funds to do a great deal of medical research of the caliber that we need to do. Therefore, we ought to concentrate our efforts in the social aspects. Effective advertising, that's a big issue right now, and there needs to be research done on this. We have sponsored now, for the last three years, social researchchildren' s and adolescents' attitudes toward alcoholic beverages. We did that at Georgetown, the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of California at Los Angeles. We have a special project right now: a man from Iowa has published a paper which we figure is full of loopholes. [It alleges] that wine advertising creates over-consumption, and we don't believe that this is true. There are so many loopholes in his research that we think that we ought to redo the research *They were later approved, 18 Amerine: with somebody who knows what he's doing. We've already identified it, and that project has been turned over to the Winegrowers of California. That's a fairly expensive project--f orty thousand dollars, I think, or something like that. Anyway, what has happened to that, I don't know; it doesn't come up to my group, so I'm not familiar with it. I'm sure that the Institute, as a defensive mechanism if nothing else, is going to have to keep somebody familiar with this whole field of anti -alcohol , or the "neo-prohibitionis ts," as John De Luca prefers to call them. As a matter of fact, as one step in that direction, six years ago I became a member of the state advisory board on alcohol and alcoholic abuse, which is under the Director of Health in Sacramento. It's an advisory board of fifteen members. Five are appointed by the senate, five by the assembly, and five by the governor. At least five members of the fifteen have to be recovered alcoholics by law! They're usually very proud when they get appointed to it, to stand up and say, "I'm a recovered alcoholic." I went to all the meetings, eight meetings a year for three years. I figured I had done my duty on that. They were held all over California. I think I was not obnoxious. When they proposed unconsitutional things, I would say so. They at one time proposed to rewrite the basic article on California alcoholic beverage control, and they wrote it that "The use of alcoholic beverages is dangerous." It happened that I had gone to that meeting (I went to all the meetings; I don't think I missed a meeting during the three years I was on). On the way home I began to think, "What was it before? It was 'abuse' before." We had to get our lobbyists to amend the bill that had already been introduced and had gone through the committee. Paul Lunardi had it amended forty-eight times. The term that was chosen (I don't really know who was the genius that changed it) was "inappropriate use." He missed one, and on the day that it was to be taken up it was amended on the floor the forty-ninth time, to take "the use" out and put "inappropriate" in. That probably saved us an enormous headache, though, because if that had become law then we would have had all kinds of undesirable secondary effects coming out of thatphilosophical and practical. I'd seen enough to know that you do need somebody there. We persuaded Paul Scholten and Emil Mrak to allow themselves to be appointed. They've both been in the last three or four years. I think that Paul, as a doctor, has had a moderating influence on them. When I was on it, when I would see things that were of interest to Patty I would ask her to go to the meetings as my guest. We could have guests. 19 Amerine: I think you just have to know your enemy and become familiar with his tactics. Forewarned is forearmed in these particular cases. Looking back at the history of Prohibition, I don't think that the wine and beer and spirits industry ever thought that they would prohibit alcoholic beverages, but they should have. If they had been reading the record, if they had been going to the meetings the Good Templars and the Temperance Societyand reading the literature and so forth, they certainly would have seen that it's very necessary to keep an expertise in the field of people who are working against you. Patty certainly does that and does it very well. And, as I say, because of the expense of medical research, I doubt if the grape and wine industry will support any large amount of research. First of all, we were becoming respectable during the Lucia/ Si Iverman period, and so we could write nice things about it. Russell Lee's introduction to Uses of Wine in Medical Practice promotes wine as a good and safe tranquilizer . I don't think that is a very easy thing to put across at the present time. There are too many other kinds of tranqulizers, and there are specific tranquilizers now. The whole problem of keeping people quiet has changed. It may be that wine is the one beverage of choice, but it's pretty hard to sell that to the medical profession now, I think. I don't know how you'd do the research. The Sulfur Dioxide Problem Amerine: We have done some research on the sulfur dioxide SC>2 problem, and it's a good thing we did it because the SC>2 problem is going to get worse before it gets better. The restaurant people are in much hotter water than we are on that, because they're the ones who have caused all the problems so far. There's no case that we know of that anybody's gotten ill on SC>2 in wine.* Almaden is being sued by some man in Hawaii, but that's part of American law; now they sue for anything, however remotely possible it is, and sometimes they collect! What the restaurant people got us into was that they were sprinkling crystals, pure crystals of metabisulf ite , on the salad bars to keep them looking green. Of course, the crystals didn't all dissolve, and a person with asthma would sniff this high SC>2 and even eat it, and then have an anaphy lactic shock. That's where the trouble arose. As far as we know, there's been *September 1985: no longer true; one case now. M.A.A. 20 Araerine: no case of anybody going into shock or anything like that from wine, although the industry has voluntarily reduced the SO? limits in wine. That, I think, was long since overdue, because nobody needs to use 350 milligrams per liter of sulfur dioxide. Anyway, that research will have to continue. We have a good man at Davis in the medical school who's interested in that subject. I suspect that there will be some support for that coming up from some place. As a public service, I agreed to look at the research projects on enology and viticulture for the Winegrowers of California. Tomorrow we'll get through that, hopefully. Let me see now, what else did I have here? [looking at notes] Organiza tions Amerine: I did think that the American Vineyard Foundation was a good idea. I still think it's a good idea. But obviously, if the wineries are contributing to the California Winegrowers and to the Wine Institute, they're not likely to be also supporting the American Vineyard Foundation. But at least the American Vineyard Foundation is set up to do research. You ask about the end of the TAG [Wine Institute Technical Advisory Committee] . The end of the TAG was primarily because the American Society of Enologists [ASE] provided a forum for that at the annual meeting, and so forth. At one time the TAG met four times a year; then it met three times a year; and then, when they were sending their winemakers to ASE, the Wine Institute aborted the TAG as a discussion group. Julius Jacobs then started the WITS as a sort of a TAG with emphasis not on basic research but on industrial problems. TAG had always had filter manufacturers, chemical engineers, chemical manufactureers , people selling products, talking to them. The ASE rarely did that. Their speeches all had to be publishable in the American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. They were supposed to have a literature review, a scientific review, and so forth. Well, WITS, then, has generally done the TAG sort of thing. It's usually been industry people, or people from the related industries, talking on subjects like that. Since we did it four times a year with TAG there probably is a place for it one time a year. And some of the WITS papers do have literature reviews. 21 Amerine: The ASE, of course, has gotten bigger and has become an institution all its own. It doesn't require hand-feeding by the University any more. We provided them secretarial help at the beginning, and then we did a lot of other things for them; but finally they grew bigger and self-sufficient. They have their own ideas and they do very good work. The University supports the concept of a professional society for enologists and viticultur ists wholeheartedly. Teiser: Now the new name? Amerine: It's the American Society for Enology and Viticulture now. They're doing a professional job as a professional organization, which is what they are. International Influences Amerine: On the other question that you asked, that I suggested you talk to the people at Davis, on one article you were going to write-- Teiser: Oh, yes, about exporting American enological and viticultural knowledge. Amerine: I think one of the things you might emphasize right at the beginning, the influence of Davis, by simply asking them to show v you the enrollment in the courses, both of California people and non-California people and foreigners. There are Davis graduates now all over the world. It's pretty hard to name a place where they are not. Surprisingly, in India I think there have been at least two Ph.D.'s, and India is a country which is officially dry. Prohibition is a part of their constitution, yet they have trained at least two Ph.D.'s in grapes and wine at Davis. I think Olmo is one that you should talk to about that because he has been on the FAO [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations] board for a long time. He's been in Cyprus, Tunisia, Malta, and India for the FAO. He has also done consulting in Brazil, Venezuela, Iran, and other countries. In all those countries he's had a big effect on their viticultural problems. I would say that my travelsBulgaria, Rumania, the Soviet Union, China, Japan, New Zealand, and Australia --have all had some direct but probably more indirect influnces on their wine " industries. Teiser: Have you worked as a consultant? 22 Araerine: As a lecturer, yes. Teiser: Have you done some consulting work? Amerine: Not very much. I did one little job in Chile in 1968; I went down there on a consulting position. The others were some American company who wanted me to taste wines. In tasting wines I told them what was wrong with it, so it was an educational venture for them. This wasn't American money; it's not their money. I suppose with the Japanese, however, that when I went to open that laboratory in Osaka they paid my way over. The Mann Wine Company in Japan also paid my way over to lecture for them at one time. There were really three different Japanese tours. We've had Ph.D. 's from Japan at Davis. Teiser: Do you speak in French at conferences in France? Amerine: Let me make this quite clear. I have given two long lectures in French in France, and I presided at a meeting in French once in Bordeaux. But the speech I had written in English, and it was translated. Then I went over the translation, practiced it, and I simply read it; it's pretty easy to read a paper in French. I wouldn't do that anymore, I assure you. I did do an extemporaneous lecture in Rumania in French one time. It was the only common language we had! That was hard, but I was talking about the wines in front of us, and you can think of things to say. I don't really consider myself a linguist. I read French fluently, and to a lesser extent German and Italian. At one time I could speak Spanish pretty well. I gave a lecture in Spanish once, in Spain. I've given lectures where they had multi-lingual translation in Spain, on another trip. I was on a Guggenheim when I went to Spain. There was quite a bit of influence from that, directly and indirectly. One of the University of California's powerful influences on farm industries has been that research is like a savings account. If you don't do research, you don't have any money in the bank when you need it. The farm countries, in many cases, had had research for purely utilitarian kinds of research. . I, and Olmo, and Kliewer, and any of the senior members at Davis, when talking abroad, whether in South Africa or the Soviet Union, always started in with the basis that wineraaking is a branch of biochemistry, and grape growing is a branch of genetics and plant physiology. And if you don't know anything about plant physiology, you don't know anything about grapes. If you don't know biochemistry, you don't know anything about wine. Therefore, you have to study wines from the biochemical point of view, and you have to study grapes from the genetic and 23 Amerine: plant physiological point of view in order to develop new techniques of doing things. The applied research comes out or is based on the basic research. I think certainly the College of Agriculture has sold that to California agriculture. We support an enormous amount of basic research in the College of Agriculture. That, the gospel according to the Univerity of California, has been preached in many countries, not only by myself but by other members of the staff. Vernon Singleton, I'm sure, has done that, too. Also Ough. I think that point of view has resulted in more research in foreign countries. I feel that they are much more likely, after we have preached this, and they see the success of the American indus try--f rom nothing to a big industry and so forth-- to think, "Maybe that's a good thing for us to do some of that research as well." I will say that the Bordeaux people have done that same sort of thing on their own. They preach the gospel that way. It's only recently that the Italians have learned the lesson. The Germans have always done it; the Germans always like to do fundamental research. They did practical research, too, but they did lots of fundamental research. They have more journals of fundamental research in viticulture and enology than any other country-- jus t fundamental research in wines and grape growing. So that's spread everyplace now, both sides of the Iron Curtain and so forth. It's surprising to see the kinds of wine and food research that are being done in Japan now. They're working on very fancy things. And also on sensory evaluation. fi Amerine: They have applied sophisticated sensory and statistical analysis to everything from sake to various kinds of soy sauces, and to all kinds of food products. They regularly use very high- powered statistics. They have a great big eight-hundred-page book on sensory evaluation. It owes something to our book [Amerine, Pangborn, and Roessler, Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food, 1965]. Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, as you know. I think that sensory evaluation now is an awful lot the idea of "research for research's sake." It's not altogether an American idea, but it's the way to progess in utilitarian things. The other thing on sensory evaluation, I remember in 1954 at that congress where I was giving a paper, in Spanish-- By the way, that was interesting. I gave a paper in Spanish in a room that was dark, and that's very hard. I could have a lectern, but the room itself was dark because I was showing slides. You couldn't see the audience. Anybody that lectures 24 Amerine: depends on the response of the audience--one can see that they're not Listening, or they can't understand it--and you repeat it until they do understand it. Anyway, I was talking to some people from France. I'd been talking about some work I was doing in Madrid. I was on sabbatical there for six months, and I was talking on some of the research I'd been doing, and the relationship to sensory evaluation to this. I had just begun to use what we called the "duo-trio" system of sensory evaluation, which is a very powerful tool and a very easy tool in sensory evaluation to find differences. One of the French men, a very high-powered one, came up to me afterwards and said in French, "You're all wrong. Of course, nobody will ever use that kind of technique in France, never." I've lived now thirty-one years since the 1954 congress. They have a whole institute up in Alsace, supported by the tobacco and perfume industries, that does nothing but sensory evaluation. They have published some very fancy things. They have a man by the name of Le Magnen, who happens to be blind, who has worked diligently on sensory evaluation in Paris. And, wonder of wonders, when they built a new addition to the Bordeaux enology department, they got each of the big chateaux to give them ten thousand dollars (guess) apiece to build tasting booths exactly the same as we have at Davis, with special lights to observe the wines, spitoons, and so forth. One of them was Chateau Margaux, and the other one Chateau Lafite. I think they have ten booths. So don't tell me that they don't learn. Of course they learn. They learn when they find out it's important for them. [Emile] Peynaud ' s book on tasting [Le Gout du Vin] is published in English. I haven't actually seen a copy of it because I've read the French edition. It's quite good. It's different from what we write, but he has some tables right out of Amerine and Roessler on triangular testing and duo-trio testing. At one time there was nobody in Bordeaux that would ever have published a table for statistical analysis of sensory data; it was all what you did with your thoughts and feelings at that time. Improvements in Grapes and Wines Amerine: I made the point earlier, that this large number of students has certainly had a big influence on quality improvement in California, not only in the vineyards, but in the wineries. This improvement is because both the grape and wine industries 25 Amerine: are capital-intensive industries now. You don't just plant ten acres of grapes in your spare time. I can remember when I was in high school my father and I planted six acres of Thompson [Seedless] just by ourselves, as a weekend job, and it cost him very little, on their own roots and that sort of thing. Now they're going to cost much more. The land is twenty thousand dollars* an acre in Ma pa Valley, and it will cost you another ten thousand dollars to level, plant, et cetera; so you've invested thirty thousand dollars an acre! You plant ten acres, you've got at least 300,000 dollars invested. That's capital intensive. You can't afford to lose one vine under those circumstances. You have to have a vineyardist who knows all about viticulture, and you have to have a wine maker who knows all about winemaking. Because of their training and their exposure to the concept of quality at Davis, both in grapes and wine, that has definitely had an effect. The other impact, of course, has been the tenfold increase in demand for table wines in the last twenty years. We've gone from a dessert-wine-drinking country to a table-wine-drinking country. Right after repeal it was 81 percent dessert wines and only 19 percent table wines. Now it's 9 percent dessert wines and 91 percent table wines, or something like that. That increase in the demand for table wines, which spoil easier and so forth, has made the demand for students very great. They seem to be doing very well. Field Work with Winkler Amerine: The other thing I think goes way back to Winkler, who deserves the credit for it. When he hired me in '35, as I mentioned in the earlier interview, we were testing grape varieties in different parts of California. Those results were published in 1944 in Hilgardia, and there was a circular that went with that. The recommended varieties were also published in his book on viticulture. The recommended varieties were also given in The Technology of Winemaking, and also in the table wine book.* There were also articles in Wines and Vines. There were several articles in Wines and Vines, that I wrote, on varieties of grapes. *Now, 1988, much higher. M.A. A. **M. A. Amerine and M. A. Joslyn, Table Wines, University of California Press, 1951. A second edition was published in 1970. 26 Amerine: We did an enormous amount of field work, telling the growers what we had done. Winkler and I went from Escondido in the south to Ukiah in the north. At least two trips were given to talking to grower groups on which variety should be planted in those regions. That, of course, was after the conferences started at Davis in 1950. At the Wine Technology Conferences, three of those, and then later in The American Journal of Enology, there were always talks or articles about grape varieties. Of course it was a great part of our teaching thing, and there's a whole course on varieties at Davis that was taught by [Lloyd A.] Lider and [Klayton E. ] Nelson. Anyway, as late as 1965 I couldn't see very much influence of that work. If I had found the right biochemical job, I would have left the University at that time because I felt that I'd wasted all those years as far as application of our results was concerned. I'd been there since "35, and here it was '65. That's thirty years of your life gone. Of course, I was gone five years during the war, but twenty-five years of my life was gone and I didn't see any planting [of the recommended varieties]. There were still few Chardonnays being planted. But some time in the sixties, around 1965, they began to plant the better varieties. And before they had finished, they had planted 400,000 acres. An enormous change in the variety picture. That, plus the students, I would guess, plus the available information in publications, constitute the University's three main contributions to the industry. They changed the varieties planted in California, they made enologists and viticulturis ts payable personnel, and they made them professionals, not just hirelings at one hundred dollars a month. I guess the whole influence of the students on the quality of grape growing and winemaking was tremendously important to the industry. It had a peripheral effect everyplace. I think for your article [on international influence], what you really ought to do is just find out. [Amand N.] Kasimatis has been to Chile, I think twice. Lider has been to New Zealand twice. I've been to Australia five times and to South Africa twice. Ough's been to South Africa twice or more. Nelson's been to South Africa once. The whole shipping table-grape industry of South Africa owes a good deal to Nelson's work on better methods of shipping grapes, because they have to ship their grapes to England and Europe. It's a big industry for them. It's pretty hard to find someplace in the world where somebody from Davis hasn't had some impact at the present time. We ought to document that. 27 Prices, Judgings, and Auctions Amerine: Now, we have a few more things. I've already mentioned the trends in wine consumption, more and more to table wines, and more and more to high quality table wines. In my opinion, somewhat excessive prices are charged at the restaurant level for some wines. I was surprised last night to find a restaurant where I could buy a half bottle of good wine for five dollars in San Francisco, instead of ten. I would just as soon not say anything about wine Judgings. I would say there are too many of them and they are too variable in their results. Bob Thompson's table in the new University of Calif ornia-So theby book* reveals how variable the results are. I think that people ought to take a look at that and just wonder what meaning Judgings have, when a wine gets a prize at one judging and didn't get one at four others! Teiser: Do you think that reflects upon the whole judging system? Amerine: It sure does. If it doesn't, it should. It wasn't really presented with analysis, just the facts. Teiser: What about auctions? Amerine: They're a new feature, and the one in Napa has been quite successful. The one in Sonoma has also been successful. I assume that there will be more of these. I don't go to them, so I can't really make any-- Teiser: You must have heard that at the Napa auction last year Mr. Broadbent gave a little speech about you. Amerine: Yes, well, Michael's a good friend of mine, and he'd had dinner at my house the night before, I think, and so he was prejudiced in my favor. I don't wish them any harm. I don't think that I would go to an auction to buy furniture or anything like that. That's for rich people. It's a rich man's hobby. But it's all right. Teiser: Does it reflect to the credit or discredit of the industry? Amerine: Oh, I think it has big advertising value. It's a p.r. [public relations] thing, there's no question about that. The minute *Doris Muscatine, Maynard A. Amerine, and Bob Thompson, editors. The University of Calif ornia-Sotheby Book of California Wine. University of California Press, 1984. 28 Araerine: that Opus One sold (it was sold to restaurants all over the country) for fifty dollars a bottle, they charged whatever price they wished! Brandy Teiser: We haven't mentioned brandy. Amerine: Yes. The Technology of Wine Making book-- Jim Guymon intended to rewrite the chapter on brandy, but he passed away and I did the best I could. There needs to be a book written about brandy. There's a lot of new research on the composition of brandy that needs to be put into the literature, and tied in with sensory evaluation of brandies and so forth. There is one book in French; it's now more than ten years old. There really isn't in English a really good book on brandy production, taking out all the romance and all the nonsense that needs to be taken out of it, and the changes and the practices that are going on in France as well as in this country. Particularly now since we have coming onto the market very soon the Remy Martin-Schramsberg brandy from that beautiful new plant that they have. That's coming out in April, I think. Teiser: They've put it off until September. Amerine: Have they put it off again? Well, that's probably for other reasons I don't know about. Anyway, there's no doubt that brandy represents a product which is going to have a place in the industry for a long while, and we ought to be making some of higher quality. For that reason, I think that the Schramsberg effort represents a step in the right direction. Now they're going to have to sell it. I don't know what price it's going to come on the market at, but I keep hearing eighteen to twenty dollars or more. How many people are going to spend eighteen to twenty dollars? On the other hand, if you figure that there are five thousand bars in America, and each one of them has one bottle of Schramsberg, that's five thousand bottles, twenty-six hundred cases; so that's a fair amount of brandy. Many bars will buy a case, so that there will be more sold than just one bottle to the barpar ticularly hotels and places like that. There may be more than five thousand bars in America. There are probably that many in San Francisco! 29 Work in Progress Amerine: Anyway, I've probably put a finish on work from my point of view. I watch with interest the Davis goings-on, and I read their articles and so forth. When I shortly terminate here [at the Wine Institute], I will watch, obviously, the wine industry with some interest because I've spent a lot of time in it. You can't separate yourself from the industry. I'm having no difficulty living in the Napa Valley, and I'm there six days a week now. I'll probably live there for quite a long while, as long as I can. San Francisco's a nice place to come about once a week. That's about all. Not coming here [to the Wine Institute], I would probably do it on Thursdays and go to the Bohemian Club dinners on Thursday nights. That would be my excuse for coming to San Francisco. Or the opera season, I would come. Usually the opera seasons I have put on Sunday afternoon so I can drive home after the opera's over. I don't have any plans for any books or anything like that. Some ten years ago, as an off-branch of the bibliographical study, I decided to print, probably privately, a book on American books and pamphlets on grapes and wine and related subjects published before 1901. Mr. [James M.] Gabler has published a bibliography in all countries, in English. But he was not interested in bulletins. It will be out in April. I read the transcript of it, and I've given him some advice.* I told him what I'm doing, and what I'm doing is different from what he's doing. There will be some overlap, obviously, but I'm giving all the different editions and including some of the temperance literature, like wine in communion and things like that which did affect the wine industry remarkably. So it will be a different sort of thing. I've given the size of the books because for bibliographical purposes size may be important--some times the same book with two different sizes, bound or printed by two different people, same year, that sort of thing. When I'm in New York I will spend half a day at the New York Public Library. If I'm in Washington, I go out to Beltsville for the whole day to the National Agricultural Library. I need to spend a day or two at The Bancroft, although I've already spent some time there. I would say that's about three-fourths through now, so in another couple of years perhaps I'll put it through a word processor and that will be the end of that. *Also contributed an introduction by Amerine to James M. Gabler, Wine Into Words. Baltimore: Bacchus Press, Ltd., 1985. 30 Amerine: I will get out that 1968 to 1975 checklist some day. It's just sitting in files there, and needs to be typed. It's just because I go t more interested in that one, and little things come up to do that have more immediate priority--like going to the Pasteur meeting in Philadelphia three weeks ago, celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the rabies injection. But they had, the first day, people talk on other aspects of Pasteur. I talked on pasteurization. Unfortunately, I'd done that in French before, in France, but I didn't have an English copy. So I had the job of translating Amerine in French back to English. It was a slightly different approach to the subject, so it wasn't a direct translation; but I had to read the other one and put the parts I wanted to use into English. I don't know where the English copy is. Wine Books in Libraries Teiser: Let me ask you before you stopam I correct in thinking that when you moved from the campus you gave a certain amount of material to the Davis library? Amerine: Oh, yes, I gave all my personal professional library. I had it evaluated by Eleanor Lorenstein's husband's Corner Bookshop in New York. He's a specialist in that. I had it typed by languages, and it cost me $500 for the evaluation. But I got a $45,000 income tax deduction over a period of years. I very much regret having given it to them then, because now it would be worth $140,000. Teiser: Also, you have allowed your name to be used, or you have allowed the honor of a special library fund in your name through which they're acquiring some important books. Amerine: Yes, twice. Once when I took that first trip six years ago for the Library Associates there was $6,000 left over from that. That went into the Amerine fund for the books. Then I go t my friend Arnold Bayard of Philadelphia interested in it, and over the years he gave several thousand dollars. Then when John McConnell ran out of the Library Associates money and Bayard money and he wanted to buy (every librarian likes to have some old things, and old things cost money) he sent that letter out, and they got about $18,000 on that. So he's sitting pretty on that. Teiser: He sent out certificates to the contributors. Amerine: Yes, I saw the printout of that ahead of time. I had him put in the letter that I appreciated it, so that I didn't have to write a letter to everybody on the list. 31 Teiser: [laughs] It seems very valuable to me, to have a special fund for acquisitions of that kind. Amerine: Yes. He has also been very clever. Obviously there were some things in the Amerine collection that were duplicates. A few of the duplicates I recognized and gave to the Napa Valley Wine Library. Others I didn't go through in detail, so some of those he has either sold or exchanged with Fresno, or sold on the marketplace to get some money. John is a book dealer at heart, who happens to be located in acquisitions in this field. He's really an expert on Scottish literature. I don't know whether you knew that or not. Teiser: No. Amerine: He deals in books on Scotland, hence the McConnell. Yes, the collection has grown. Unfortunately, wine book collecting has become very fashionable, and some valuable and rare books take legs and walk. I was just in the department the other day when I went up to the retirement dinner for [James A.] Cook and Lider and Nelson and Kasimatis, and there was a notice in the department that they had lost the department copy of Sensory Evaluation, and the fourth edition of The Technology of Winemaking. Even though they have a person watching everybody going in and out of the department library, she sometimes goes out to get a drink or something, and somebody walks out with a book. Even in the main library there are something like one hundred wine-grape books missing. I recommended that they put everything before 1900 in the Special Collections department where they can't walk out. This somewhat limits their circulation, but it's better to have them where they don't get lost than where they do get lost. Teiser: Amerine : It's an easy library to use anyway. Yes, Davis is an easy one to use. Although I think--! don't want to say anything against my friends whom I work withthey will have to tighten up their regulations, too, like leaving briefcases outside the door and things like that. I was at the University of Pennsylvania Library when I went to the Pasteur celebration three weeks ago. There was a book I wanted to see in the rare book collection, and not only did they make me check everything outdoors, but when they brought the book they brought a V-shaped thing of velvet to put the book on so there was no breaking of binding or anything like that in using the book. The New York Public Library does that, too, in their rare book collection. On the other hand, at the National Agricultural Library at Beltsville they just give me a key to the rare book room! 32 Teiser: [laughs] They know you. Araerine: Yes, they do know me; otherwise I wouldn't be able to get the key. On the other hand, that's sort of tempting fate, when you see a book that you know is worth $10,000 as you're walking by. I haven't been tempted. The National Agricultural Library has not been well supported with personnel to guard their collections. Teiser: Amerine I told Dick Blanchard not too long ago--he was in that library before he came to Davis--that he ought to get a job as a consultant, teaching them how to run that library. They had an antiquated cataloguing system all their own up until 1975; then they went to the Library of Congress system. It's difficult to use. They have a very slow paging system. I can go in the stacks, but the stacks are very complicated with their system. To find "95.2" is not always the easiest thing in the world. If it was Dewey Decimal system, I'd know how to use it, you see, but they've got a different system. Anyway, it's a pleasant library. It has a restaurant on the top floor so you can eat there and you don't have to leave the building. One day I hope to visit it. They have a large bus from the South Agriculture building in Washington so you don't have to go out on the subway and then the bus. That would take you an hour and a half, but the bus takes only thirty minutes. #1 33 [Interview 2: 11 September 1985]' Mechanized Harvesting Teiser: A question arises about criticism of the University for giving too much help and encouragement to big agribusiness. It has come up with mechanical harvesting of grapes. Amerine: I could give a long discourse on that. I don't think it's- true at all. I think it's absolutely untrue. Not only untrue, but it is a movement back into the nineteenth century, which is exactly what the labor people want. They want to move back into the nineteenth century, but there's no way that we're going to move back into the nineteenth century. The whole automobile industry, for example, with the robotized manufacture of automobiles there ' s no way that the automobile workers are going to move back to hand labor for manufacturing automobiles. And there's no way that they're going to move back in grape harvesting. It's too expensive to pick them. There's just no way you can do it. Or we're going to give up cars and we're going to give up agriculture. The same problem was true in England in the nineteenth century, when they first got cotton cloth machines and so forth. All the ladies' aid societies were up in arms because their daughters didn't have anyplace to work when they were twelve years of age, because the machines were taking over. No, I think there are a lots of people in the University that have thought about it more philosophically than I have, more historically than I have, and could write some wonderful things about it. But they're in a lawsuit right now, and they're not likely to say out loud what they feel about it until they win. It looks like they're going to win the lawsuit, as far as I can tell. I don't understand the suit to start with. Teiser: Well, like the Scopes trial. 34 Amerine: Well, that didn't solve anything. And this will not solve anything, think. The Scopes people are back. They'll be back. It's sad, I Collaborators Teiser: I wanted to ask you to characterize your major collaborators. I know they have often been people from other fields. Could you do that? Amerine: Yes. Very early, when we got into sensory evaluation after the war, we realized that you had to do a statistical analysis of the results because of the variability of the results. Now, we knew this in agriculture much earlier. But these were new techniques. They weren't the old standard field experiments that we used to have and which we all learned how to analyze. So I became friends of George Baker and Edward Roessler in the mathematics department at Davis. They collaborated on a whole series of publications, Baker on the theory of sampling. We found some non-normal distributions of sampling grapes in vineyards; Baker and I wrote a paper on that--the whole issue of the solera system and how it operates. Baker and Roessler and I worked out the mathematics of that. They worked out the mathematics; I posed the problem and worked with them. That resulted in several papers, for the first time showing why and how a solera works and what the end result of a solera system issomething that you would not intuitively have guessed. Then Roessler and I, for a number of years, published papers on the human factors in sensory evaluation. People are not all the same. They differ because of their backgrounds and all kinds of things. We published papers on acids and sugars, and a number of subjects, and found out that some people have a completely different picture of the acid taste. It's not acid to them until it's very, very high in concentration. Other people are very, very sensitive and they can detect acid at very low concentrations. With a bitter taste it may be a bi-modal distribution. You may have a group of people that are very sensitive, and then another group of people that are very insensitive to it. Sensitivity evaluations involved mathematics, which found their way into the philosophy of the book by Amerine, Pangborn, and Roessler on principles of sensory evaluation of food. This was a new contribution in that field: that people did not all have to respond the same, because some are more sensitive, some are less sensitive, just to the basic tastes. This has all been expanded quite a bit in recent years. 35 Amerine: I think that, in general, sensory evaluation probably had a good effect in food science. You don't expect everybody to like the same sort of thing. Well, those were the collaborators outside the department. Teiser: Pangborn, too, was in the math department? Amerine: Pangborn* was in Food Science. She was a student of mine there. You see, it's not really right for me to say she was out of the department, because I was on the Food Science faculty also, where I taught two courses. I taught the introductory course there with Professor [George] Stewart. We wrote the book for the course, and I was the senior member of the faculty who taught the course on the sensory evaluation of food. Mrs. Pangborn was in the first class. Later on she joined in teaching and published many papers on her research. Until I retired I did most of the lecturing and she did most of the laboratory work. After I retired she did the lecture work (although she had some other people help her do the lectures), and she did all the laboratory work. She was a very splendid collaborator. We wrote just a few papers together, not very many--except the big book, which was a major achievement. A six-hundred-odd page book, still in print after twenty years. It is rather rare in food science for a book to stay in print that long without being revised. Teiser: Baker and Roessler--did they just work on the mathematical aspects? Amerine: Well, both of them were participating in sensory analysis work. At that time we had a lot of consumer panels on the Davis campus. There were two reasons for that: we needed a large number of people for panels, and it was a good way of getting the support of the faculty for a department that was sort of a maverick department, working on wines which had gone through the Prohibition period, and so forth. So from the day I arrived, as soon as we started tasting in 1935, Winkler and I made certain that members of the faculty participated in the tastings. So they were all on our side. As a matter of fact, it didn't turn out to be any problem. We never had any jealousy in the University or any complaints in the University. We never had any in the newspapers, either. Either we played our cards very well, or we were so right that nobody was going to complain. *Rose Marie Pangborn. 36 Amerine : Teiser: Amerine : Teiser: Amerine : Inside the department, I collaborated with all of my technicians: [William C.] Dietrich, [A. Dinsmoor] Webb, Ough, [Thomas C.] Sparks, and [Douglas C.] Fong--you go through the list of my technicans. Outside the department I would say the collaboration with [Maynard A.] Joslyn was important, and I think I explain in the first interview how that collaboration came to be. It was instituted by the administration of the College of Agriculture. We were doing research on two campuses, and it was felt desirable that they have a unified point of view vis-a-vis the wine industry. Joslyn and I were the fall guys that were asked to write the bulletins. That accounts for bulletins 639, 651, and 652 in 1939 and '40. Then Joslyn and I collaborated on two books thereafter: the dessert wine book and the table wine book. The table wine book went through two different editions. So that was from another department. At that time I was not connected with the Berkeley campus in any below-the-line* way. It was not until the Food Science and Technology department moved to Davis that I began to teach in that depar tment. How about Dr. Singleton? I'm not going to talk about fellow staff members in the department, because I published with them all; I was just talking about technicians in the department. Another technician who worked with me was [A. A.] Kishaba. That's number 82 in my Publication List. He was a technician with Dr. Cook, but he did some work with me. You and others used the word definition? 'technician." What is the They were called laboratory technicians at that time. They have other names now. They do actual analysis of samples and help collect samples. If they contribute to the research with ideas or methods of their own, they usually are (and should be) listed as an author. Going back to your question about collaborators, when I was talking to these people, Roessler and, I think, Baker not only participated in those panels (that's where they got the idea of the statistical analysis and result), but when we were doing the field sampling studies, Roessler actually went to the *In the catalogue by departments, people teaching but not paid by the department are put "below the line." M.A. A. 37 Amerine: field and helped collect the samples. It was not just me collecting the samples and giving the data to him, and he analyzing the data. Vice-versa about the solera system, the blending system--! got the detailed information about how they operate on one of my sabbatical leaves. Then I posed the problem of what happens to the average age when the solera has been used for a period of time. That's where that problem came from. I worked on a lot of papers with Baker and Roessler. Ough was the most important technician, if for no other reason than that he lasted the longest. Webb had published one paper with me earlier as a technician just before the war. Then Ough came after the war, and we published a gob of papers. Some thirty, forty papers have Ough's name. George Root was a technician of mine. He went to the State Department of Agriculture later. That's one of the problems with the technicians. They get good, and you can only promote them as technicians to a certain point. There's a cut-off point, and it wasn't a very big cut-off point, salary-wise. Whereas they could go over to the Department of Agriculture in Sacramento and get a next-step-up appointment outside the University and make twice as much. That's why I lost two of them. Teiser: Some of them then went on to finish their degrees. Amerine: Both Ough and Webb went on and got their degrees, yes. There's quite a number of Baker papers also. After Ough, Root worked during that same period. We were so anxious to keep Ough that we used a special category called specialist, which had a very broad salary schedule. So we could promote him to get a higher salary. That's how we kept Ough. Staff people that we used? I guess I published with all of them except Kleiwer. But I published with [Curtis J.] Alley, Berg, [Edmund H.] Twight, Guymon, [Robert J.] Weaver, Nelson, Olmo, Kunkee, Singleton, and Winkler. I guess Castor, Kliewer, and Lider are the only ones I didn't publish with. Talking about collaborators, Paul Esau came to me as a research associate. That's a non-paid job. We published three papers together. He discovered a new sugar in wines. He'd been a chemist with the California Canning Ccorporation. He was living in Davis, retired, and wanted something to do. So I asked him to come and work in the laboratory. He did, and he did very good work. That didn't cost me anything except for some equipment. 38 Amerine Teiser: Amerine : The Ough-Amerine publications lasted much longer than the time he was ray research assistant, because he had gone up on the staff then. Sparks was my technician. He went on to get an MBA. In other departments there were not only Joslyn and Pangborn, but also [George] Marsh and Stewart in Food Technology. There were four of them in Food Technology that I published with. George Marsh and I wrote one of our most popular things, Wine Making at Home. Yes, that's one that needs to be published again. I have a great big box full of stuff on it, and even some drawings, but I haven't gotten around to doing it. Douglas Fong was my last technician. He's still in the department. They've managed to move him upa very fine person. Outside people--! published that little paper with Paul Scholten. He had nothing to do with the University at Davis at all. It was on use of varietal labeling in California. People should read that and not neglect it. The idea that varietal labeling was invented by Frank Schoonmaker is mainly malarky. That's why Paul and I wrote it, just to show that it had been very actively used in California in the 1890s. This is not a reason to take any credit away from Schoonmaker. He certainly applied it in a big way, but he did not invent it. Phaff he's the fifth one in Food Technology that wrote articles with me. All my graduate students published with me, or published by themselves when I thought they had done all the work. But if I had conceived of the project and had participated in it, then they usually published with me as the junior author, since they did the work and carried it through. Whenever I did work with people on the staff, they always, I hope, got credit for it even though I may have done much of the writing. They participated, contributed, and in many cases they polished the paper after I had made a draft at twelve o'clock at night. So I hope everybody got credit whose work is published with me. I think they did, one way or the other, usually with their name on it. 39 Frank Schoonmaker Teiser: You mention Schoonmaker: I wanted to ask about his influence on the post-repeal California wine market. Amerine: He came to California on business in about 1939 or 1940. He was already in the importing wine business. About this time, when the European war had broken out, he couldn't get wine from France and Germany across the Atlantic. He wasn't very keen about getting Portuguese wine for the American market. Although he did bring in some, I believe. So he came to California, and among the people he saw were those at the University, Winkler and me. He came several times. In fact, he stayed at my house once. I got to know him fairly well. His company had an office on Maiden Lane in San Francisco, with a resident manager in the office. They hired Carl Bundschu from Inglenook to be a consultant to the office. Tom Marvel, I think, had nothing to do with the California chapters in the 1935 Complete Wine Book,* although he'd earlier been a member of the San Francisco Chronicle staff and knew something about the California wine industry. I can't evaluate what Tom Marvel's contribution was to the second book, American Wines. But certainly, Schoonmaker knew exactly where to go when he came here. He may have gotten that from Tom Marvel, and as to how he came to the University, I haven't the least idea. He had been to Bordeaux before and knew the people in Bordeaux, and he may have gotten the idea from them. Or he may have gotten it from Bundschu. We'd worked with Bundschu since '35 at Inglenook. In fact, we'd gotten grapes from the Bundschu vineyards at that time. Bundschu grapes were being delivered to Inglenook during that period. So I knew Carl fairly well, perhaps at the beginning as well as John Daniel [Jr.]. Anyway, I don't know how Schoonmaker came to Davis. But he came to Davis and became a friend of Winkler and mine, and was very much interested in the varietal research that had been going on since '35. We were six years into our research and had already begun to publish on it. Bulletins 639, 651, and 652 were already in print before he came. So he could see we were serious about the wine business. His first contribution to the California wine industry was that he showed it was possible to go into a winery and pick out the good and bad wine. That was a very important contribution, because a lot of the winemakers in California just assumed that *Published in the United States in 1934, Great Britain in 1935. 40 Amerine: their wines were good automatically at that period. They were directly out of the bootleg period, and anything that was red or white and had alcohol in it was wine and you could sell it. Schoonmaker knew that you couldn't do that on a national market or on the New York market. He was not interested in dessert wines. That was his second contribution. He did not get into the dessert wine business at all. So that almost automatically moved him into the Napa, Santa Clara, and Livermore area. There were no small wineries in Sonoma at that time that were dedicated wholeheartedly to making a better wine, with the exception of Fountain Grove at Santa Rosa. Frank sold himself. That was, I think, the third thing. First he proved that he could pick out the good wines, that he could do it time after time and that they couldn't fool him. If he liked bin 34 and they brought it to him as bin 74, he'd say,, "This is bin 34, and this is the wine I want." He had great confidence in his ability. And they didn't have that many samples; they didn't have 150 samples, or anything like that. So he was dealing with a finite number of samples, and once he decided which ones he wanted, he didn't change his mind. He picked originally Martini, Wente, Korbel, and Larkmead, and he designed the labels. I think Martini used part of the labels until recently, but now they have new labels. Anyway, he was a very good conversationalist and a very good person to be around, unless he got in an argumentative mood. Then he was not very much fun any more. I never got in an argument with him, so I didn't see that side of him; but other people told me that he could be argumentative, and I think maybe in his later years he was. After the war I saw him less and less. He was a consultant with Almaden after the war. I occasionally would see him with Louis and Kay Benoist, but really I didn't see much of Frank after the war. He went back into the importing business, and the Wente, Martini, Korbel arrangement was aborted at that time. He did not sell Almaden wines. He was a consultant for Almaden; he was not an agent for Almaden. His selling of California wines ended with the war. Then he went back to the Frank Schoonmaker Selections abroad. His main contact in California after the war was with Alma den. Teiser: Mr. William Dieppe has spoken of him in his interview.* *William A. Dieppe, Almaden is My Life, an oral history interview conducted 1984, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 1985. 41 Amerine: Oh, yes. Mrs. Benoist was very fond of him, and he was very good about suggesting wines and menus and food, and things like that. I think he had a good deal of influence with wine and food preferences of the Louis Benoists, but it was primarily as a consultant and friend. Teiser: Did the Benoists themselves have a large influence, do you feel? Amerine: I don't know. Almaden, when they got the money to establish Madrone, went national. They had an arrangement with somebody from Seattle. I don't know what his name was. They established that big winery at Madrone, and Almaden wines went over there and were sold as Madrone wines. I think the Seattle people acquired a lot of new vineyards at that time. That was when the San Martin vineyards were acquired, and they planted a lot of vineyards at that time, during the Madrone period. Then suddenly that disappeared. Frank was very active during that period in consulting. The development of the Green Veltliner as a variety, because they happened to have it in Gilroy, was never duplicated. It was a light, fresh wine and it was a new name. Schoonmaker said that they would find it easier to sell because they would not be competing with anybody. So Green Veltliner was sold for several years. Now, I don't know the reasons why Benoist and the man in Seattle decided to abort Madrone. The Benoists moved back to Almaden and the comnpany got bigger, and then, of course, it was eventually sold to National Distillers. By that time Frank didn't have any input. Teiser: Are there influential people that you can think of in this more recent period that you haven't discussed in your earlier interiew? Amerine: When I first came to the Institute, as I mentioned in the interview, I saw Harry Serlis from time to time, and Harvey Poser t. Then they went through the time when the Advisory Board was disbanded. I saw Bob [Robert] Ivie. He was always very nice to me. So were Harry Serlis and Harvey Posert. I got along with both of them very well. Teiser: What was Harry Serlis 1 contribution? Araerine: I wrote a little introduction to his book. Harry was a p.r. person, and I think he did a lot of good things, but I would not be in a position to evaluate his career in the industry. John De Luc a Amerine: But I would be in the position to evaluate John De Luca, which is the last ten years. I probably knew him as well as anybody 42 Amerine: inside or outside the industry, as far as that's concerned, during that period. I have nothing but praise for his career [as president] in the Institute. He came at a very difficult time to the Institute, a time when we had Lost some very important support that had nothing to do with him at all. East Side and Heublein had pulled out, and John's first job was to get on his horse and go and visit a couple hundred wineries. No president of the Wine Institute had ever done that before. No chairman of the board* had ever done it, either. John visited fifty wineries just in the Napa Valley. He took Harry Posert or Brian St. Pierre or me on various trips north and south of San Franc isco. f# Teiser: You said that gave him a feel for the industry. Amerine: He had more of a feel for the industry than any of his predecessors, because he actually had been to all the wineries, or a great many of the wineries, had gotten to know their proprietors by their first names and their wives' names, had had meals with them. Teiser: Did he go to non-members as well as members? Amerine: Well, I do not want to get into non-members, because there were only two of them that were important and it is a long story. I do not want to get into it, but I can tell you for a fact that everything was done, from the President of the United States on down, to make these people see the light of day, and they were determined not to see the light of day. There can be no blame on the Institute as an organization, nor on its president, nor on its chairman of the board, nor its executive committee, that these people pulled out of the Wine Institute. Various kinds of compromise were offered. I was present at some meetings. I want to be sure that it comes through loud and clear that John De Luca knew that non-participation was the problem. It was not forced by him. It was here before he came, i.e. , already in place before he arrived. He did everything that he could in that time, and I'm sure he is still working on this problem. Teiser: In those visits to the wineries, did he go out to the small wineries, ones that didn't happen to have become members, or to new wineries? *The staff head of the Wine Institute had the title chairman of the board until 1955. Since then an elected industry member has held that title, usually on a one-year term. 43 Amerine: There was at least one non-member winery in the Napa Valley that I took him to because I knew the people there myself, but whether they came into the Institute because of that or not, I don't know. Then, of course, Setrakian* came in by himself. He stayed until he was almost out of business. Teiser: That was Robert Setrakian of California Growers Winery. Amerine: Right. Let me finish a little bit more about John De Luca. First of all, because of his wide acquaintances in the industry he had a feeling for what was disturbing people, and he tried to defuse arguments. I'm sure he was a master at that. It's no secret in the Wine Institute that after John De Luca became president, the chairman of the board was kept informed on a daily and sometimes on an hourly basis of the problems that the Institute was having. The telephone bills of the chairman of the board of the Wine Institute must be astronomical, and a good part of the time during the year, when they were chairman of the board, was spent talking to John De Luca. In that respect, I think he showed himself as a great organizer. Without the support of the chairman of the board, the president would become a functionary and would not have any input. He understood that from the start, I suppose from his experience in San Francisco as assistant mayor. He had to keep the mayor informed at every stage of the game. I have been told that John did a lot of work and that he also kept [Mayor Joseph] Alioto up to date on a daily basis on what was happening. He certainly did that here, and I think that was important. He was a tireless political worker. He had a political background and therefore he had more influence on Washington in his years as president than we ever had before. We never had the California delegation behind us like it is now, never. Republicans and Democrats always vote the same on wine issues now. That's due to John De Luca, not to anybody else. That's a great contribution of his to the industry. We can get instant recognition of our problems in Washington at the legislative level. We don't get everything we want, but at least we get recognition for the problems, and sympathetic recognition. He's been very cognizant of the public relations aspect. Soon after he arrived there was going to be a newspaper release that there was enough arsenic in wine to kill you. The newspaper release was for release on a certain day, during an American Chemical Society meeting. John went to work with everybody on the staff. We located for him a great arsenic expert at the University of California at Davis, the greatest expert in the country. After I located that person, John got the information out that he needed, and the press release was aborted. The article was never published. It was not a good *0f California Growers Winery. Amerine: article to start with, but he used every possible mechanism to find out what the truth of the matter was, and when they found out it was not truthful, the American Chemical Society on its own aborted the whole thing. That showed what John could do in the p.r. field. There are many other episodes. You'd have to talk to Harvey Posert and Brian St. Pierre and other people in the p.r. department about John's sensitivity to press criticism. He has a great personal friendship with the Los Angeles Times, but he's also had the San Francisco Examiner and Chronicle people in to meet on a social basis, just to talk about industry problems and so forth. So at least the press in California, and certainly the Sacramento Bee, has been cooperative in many respects on that. The Sacramento, Modesto, and Fresno papers had better be cooperative, because that's where some of the clientele are in the grape and wine industry. But nevertheless, John has utilized his political friendships and his public relations skills to keep the newspapers on the side of the wine industry and, by and large, he's succeeded in that. Teiser: He said recently that he had learned a great deal about the wine industry from you and from Ernest Gallo. Amerine: Well, I suppose I got to know John almost at the beginning socially, and saw I could talk to him just as a friend, not only about the wine industry. I think he did get some feel for some people just by being at my dinner table or meeting them at my club, and so forth. I'd been around a long time, and you do acquire some prejudices. I think John was smart enough not to acquire my prejudices but to pick up the things that were useful as far as he was concerned. I didn't let him know all my prejudices, either. I think he found I was a good listener. That's what John probably needed at that time. Some people really weren't in a position at that time in the Institute to just listen. The other people were working for him. I was not working for him. I was just a consultant to the Wine Institute. Therefore I could tell the Institute things: "You ought to do that. You ought not to do that." So I think that John thought when he had a dilemma--he had hundreds of them-- that he had to think about, in some cases just my sitting there and listening to him was a comfort to him. I can't claim that I gave him any great wisdom. That certainly wouldn't be true. But maybe just being a listener when he had problems was important to him, because the other people couldn't be listeners in the same sense that I could be a listenera disinterested listener. I think you need - a disinterested listener sometimes when you have real critical problems. I think that's the reason he said that. Then, I had some background. 45 Amerine: But he's acquired an enormous background. I think he probably knows the people in the industry now better than anybody. If you do an interview with him, if he's in a position, you may have to bury it in The Bancroft for fifteen years. I have no real objection to that, rather than lose it. I would like to know what he thought about all these people during this period of time. He's not likely to say that when he's still working at the Wine Institute, and he's not likely to say it when he's still around politically in Calif ornia--if , for some reason, he went into politics or went into some other political position. I can't conceive of it. I think he's the right man at the right place at the right time for Wine Institute. What I said at the annual meeting, that I wish the wine industry would stop trying to kill him with too much work, is still true. Just now I spoke to him, and I said, "Are you busy?" He said, "Oh, I've been busy since five o'clock this morning." The days start out at his home and they end up at night at his home. Teiser: How could that be helped? Amerine: That would involve some rather serious rearrangements of the chain of command. I'm not sure that John is a person that doesn't want to be at the center of the decision-making process. Maybe that's his style. You should read that article in that magazine called Executive. There was a whole profile in the magazine years ago.* B~rian St. Pierre will get you a copy of it. It's a series of interviews with John. They came to the conclusion that he's over-qualified to be president of the Wine Institute, that his skills are greater than the challenge of the Wine Institute. I'm inclined to believe that's correct. So we're very lucky to have him. To have a person over-qualified to do the job is always on your side. You are getting more for your money than you deserve to get. That was their conclusion on the basis of their analysis of his career as of two years ago. He is a terribly hard worker. Teiser: Has he learned from Ernest Gallo similarly? Amerine: I don't know, because those were all conversations, and he's been to Modesto a number of times. Ernest has seen him in several places. There have been telephone calls with Ernest and the rest of the people down there. He knows all the hierarchy of the Gallo wine company; Charlie Crawford and he speak frequently. What their direct import is, I don't know, any more *In the December 1980 issue. 46 Amerine: than I know the Impact that Robert Mondavi might have on him, or Louis [P.] Martini or Joe Heitz. The chairman of the board--and in his time that's included [Massud S.] Nuri and [Morris] Katz--he has been very close to all of them, on an hourly basis. The Grape-Growing Region System Teiser: I want to ask you once more about your current view of the region system and its future. I've asked you about this before in relation to articles and other interviews. You said earlier that it wasn't intended to be the final word. Amerine: What I think I talked about, and I think it's still true (Winkler and I were just talking about it last weekend), was an attempt to make sense out of an enormous amount of data that we had collected, starting in 1935. We had made six, seven hundred lots a year from all parts of California. We had all kinds of analyses on the grapes and on the wine, much more analysis than [Eugene W.] Hilgard had had in his earlier work. So Winkler had already been interested in the effect of climate on ripening because of the Tokay problem, on Flame tokay. He had published in the twenties on Flame Tokay and heat units. The whole concept of heat units goes back into the 1870s. If you look at the University of Calif ornia-Sotheby Book of California Wine, in the chapter Phil [Philip M.] Wagner and I wrote, you will see a footnote there about how old the heat summation concept is. It goes back to the last century. And it applies to many crops, not just to grapes and horticultural crops. But Winkler deserves the credit for having done the work of getting all the temperature data from all the stations all over the state of California. Then we took the data, and we saw that in Region I the acids were higher, the sugars were lower, the pHs were lower, and the colors were higher. And the ripening dates were, of course, much later. In Region V the acids were much, much lower, the sugar was higher, the pHs were much higher, and there was no color, so we simply said, ,"We'll break it into five divisions, arbitrarily." It could have been made into ten divisions, or it could have been made into two divisions. As a matter of fact, I've already told you that Hilgard got so far as to break it into two regions, one the coast counties and the other the interior valley. He recognized there was a difference in ripening between those two regions, but he did not have any heat summation data as to how warm it was. 47 Amerine: So that was Winkler's (and my) contribution, to apply that and divide it up into five regions. I've said many times before, there are undoubtedly more regions and more factors than the ones we used to classify the regions. I've said many times that we'll have ten to fifteen regions before they get through. They'll be classifed not just by a heat summation, but possibly by the amount of cloudiness they have, the exposure--the ones that face west against the ones that face east. That makes a difference in temperature. Teiser: Is wind a factor? Amerine: The wind effect in the Salinas Valley is important, although they've learned to grow grapes with heavier wire so it's not as disastrous an effect on them any more. That's for future research to reveal, not for me to guess about. I think Kliewer is the one that's doing it now. He has heat chambers and he's worked out effective night temperature and day temperature as another factor. A whole series of things could be added to influence the ripening and the composition of the grapes when they are ripe. He's even worked on the malic acid and tar tar ic acid content under controlled conditions. There is a lot of work still to be done, and Kliewer is the right man to be doing it. It proves that we had a good problem to work on if there's still some work to be done. The only bad problems are problems where you solve all the problems. That's no fun at all. It's hard for industry people to realize that. Good research always reveals more problems than you can solve. Therefore you open up new kinds of research- -maybe not to yourself, but somebody sees where you were stymied, and where your data did not lead to. Then they pick it up, as Kliewer did using the controlled temperature data, where he could control the temperature, the sunlight, the hours of sunlight, and so forth. Soils and Vines Teiser: Has anyone since Hilgard gone as far as he did into soil studies in relation to growing? Amerine: I've said what I'm going to say on soil studies in the University of Calif ornia-So theby book. There is a little section there. Winkler and I were discussing it the other day. Outside of soil conditions which influence water permeability and temperature (which are not really soil effects but simply the structure of the soil), we will believe it when we see it, but nobody has proven to us that it's calcium or potassium or nitrogen. These are the three things that a plant needs. We know we have soils with too much and too little boron. I'm 48 Amerine: willing to believe that, and that the vine reacts to that. It doesn't grow. I can understand other conditions where vines will respond to a poisonous or toxic thing. There's a new book out called the Terroir de France. It says in there, in French, that the terroir thing has been greatly over-emphasized by people who want to protect their difference. They've had some soil people working down there for the last fifteen years G. Seguin. He still hasn't found any difference between Chateaux- -Chateau Margaux and Chateau Mouton-Ro thschild and so forth, and he's not going to find any difference because the soil is all the same as far as we now know. In Burgundy there are various soil conditions, but they are mainly due to drainage. The high calcium soils are much better- draining soils. That's true in this country, too, but practically all of our soils are calciforous in California. That's Hilgard's classification, and it's still true. He was the first one to point out that California had high calcium soil. People would say that only high calcium soil would grow Pinot noir. We have plenty of it here. That is no problem at all. I am not adamant about it. I just say, "Show it to me." I'd like to see ten years of data with a lot of analysis, and not just somebody's opinion--somebody who doesn't have an actual interest in it. Of course Margaux is going to say that their soil is different than anybody else's; that is what they are selling, Chateau Margaux. You are not going to get a man to give you an unbiased opinion. The University of Bordeaux, after all these years, still has not been able to do it. That sounds worse to me, from their point of view. It would be to the experiment station's advantage to find some differences. They haven't found them yet. They are scientists, not public relations people. Viticultural Areas ## Teiser: I wonder if you would comment upon the establishment of viticultural areas here, the idea of them. Amerine: I think that's an industry thing. It's partially a sales maneuver. It has nothing to do with the areas. It's a sales maneuver, pure and simple. It was developed for p.r. purposes. It doesn't have any relationship to quality of the wine, the types of wine, or anything. It's completely different from the European system. They're going to establish as many of them as - they can in order to make money on the concept. It protects them from their competition down the road. Now we have subdivisions within subdivisions, and later there will be further subdivision. 49 Teiser: Nobody's been wild about establishing named areas in the San Joaquin Valley, have they? Like Fresno? Amerine: Well, first of all there has to be some quality-composition effect. And, after all, we already know that there are at least three composition-quality regions in the coast counties. There are only two in the San Joaquin Valley, and they're both on the hot side. So you're not going to find much difference at that level in the composition-quality of table wines. Teiser: So far as p.r. is concerend, there's not much prestige attached to the name s . Amerine: It's all a matter of p.r. That's the name of the game. Industry's calling that card. Retirement Work Teiser: I should ask you, finally, to summarize what it is like to be retired. But I have to put "retired" in quotes. Amerine: Obviously, I will never be completely retired. One way of staying young is to keep something to occupy your mind. I just visited an old friend yesterday who has had an accident and his eyesight is somewhat impaired. He can't read and he can't watch television. He lives alone, and what can he do with his life? He can't even play the stock market. He can't read the newspaper. So I find that nobody should completely retire. With time, you change the kinds of things you do. I will probably do more bibliography in the years to come. That's kind of mechanical. It occupies your time and it's never finished. There's no such thing as a complete bibliography. So I will keep doing that sort of thing. I do have a folder about trips and another folder about some University things which you and I have not discussed at all--my career in the University hierarchy, in academic senate, and that sort of thingwhich is an entirely different aspect of my life. It doesn't have anything to do with the wine business at all. I knew four University presidents personally, on a first-name basis. One is dead already. [Clark] Kerr, I guess, is the youngest one of them. He will last as long as I will. Maybe I will write about that some day, from the University point of view. I think that Clark Kerr and Charles Hitch and David Saxon, whom I am going to see in a couple of weeks in Boston, are all quite different personalities. I do not think they have had their due share of credit from the University. I am sure that Clark hasn't. I am going to write about that some day when I ge t the time and energy to do it. Maynard A. Amerine 1988 50 Amerine: I will probably live in the country for quite a while yet. There does come a time when you can't move around so much. Then you think about where you live as where you want to be. Napa Valley is pretty self-sufficient now. We have a symphony orchestra and opera season, play season, and good restaurants, and plenty of places to shop. I could conceive that I might not move nearer the Bay Area. On the other hand, the big opera season is here; the big symphony season is here; the big libraries are in the Bay Region and not in the Napa Valley. And so forth. Teiser: It depends on how much you want to drive, I guess. Amerine: I do use the bus occasionally when I don't want to drive. There is a bus a half a mile from my door that goes right to Seventh Street in San Francisco. If they would just not stop in Oakland, it would save quite a bit of time. They also stop in Vallejo. They still talk about having a Napa Valley train. Then you could come to Vallejo on it. Transcibers: Lisa Grossman and Kyle Fiore Final typist: Judy Smith 51 TAPE GUIDE -- Maynard A. Amerine Interview 1: 11 February 1985 tape 1, side A 1 tape 1, side B tape 2, side A 15 tape 2, side B 23 Interview 2: 11 September 1985 tape 3, side A 42 tape 3, side B 49 APPENDIX 52 PUBLICATION LIST M. A. Amerine 1937 Winkler, A. J. , and M. A. Amerine. What climate 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1937 1937 1937 1937 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 does. The Wine Review _5(6J:9-11; (7):9-ll, Ib. Winkler. A. J. , and M. A. Amerine. Color in Cali fornia wines. I. Methods for measurement of color. Food Research 3_(4) :429-438. Winkler, A. J. , and M. A. Amerine. Color in Cali fornia wines. II. Preliminary comparisons of certain factors influencing color. Food Research 3^(4) :439-447. Amerine, M. A. How the French market wines at whole sale and retail. Wines and Vines Amerine, M. A. Wines at the 1937 Paris International Exposition. Wines and vines J_a_(.yj : lo-l / . Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Viile si vinurile Californiei. Romania Viticoia m.bj : 1 /i-l/b ; (o) : 212-215; (7):254-257. Amerine, M. A. Aging of California wines. The Wine Review 6_(5):1U-12. Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Claret. Wines and Vines 1_9_(1J :5. Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Port wine. Wines and Vines 1^(2 J :b. Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Chianti wine. Wines and Vines .19^4] :4. Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Sherry. Wines and Vines 19_(5):4. Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Sauternes. Wines and Vines 1^(6) :3-4. Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. The wines made from muscat grapes. Wines and Vines 19(7j : j-4. Olmo-. H. P., and M. A. Amerine. Zinfandel. Wines and Vines 1(9) :3-4. Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Angelica. Wines and Vines T9(9) :5. 53 16. 1938 Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Brandy. Wines and Vines 1.9(10) :3-4. 17. 18. 1938 1938 Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Burgundy. Wines Champagne. and Vines 19(11) : 5. Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Wines and Vines 19(12) :4-5. 19. 1939 Amerine, Maynard A. Der Weinbau in Kalifornien. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Internationaler Weinbaukongress Bad Kreuznach, Programmhef t , page 48. August. 20. 21. 22. 1939 1939 1940 Amerine, Maynard A., and George L. Marsh. Wine judging methods. The Wine Review 7(10) :6, 20. Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Wa'^er! Bring the wine. California Monthly 4_Z_(2) :14-15, 38-39. Amerine, Maynard A., and William DeMattei. Color in California wines. III. Methods of removing color from the skins. Food Research 5^(5) : 509- 519. (Wines and Vines 22(4):19-20. 1941) 1940 Amerine , M. A. and A. J. Winkler. Maturity studies with California grapes. I. The Balling-acid ratio of wine grapes. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 58 :379-387. 1940 Amerine, M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Commercial pro- duction of table wines. University of California, Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 639: 1-143. 1941 Amerine, Maynard A., and A. J. Winkler. Color in California wines. IV. The production of pink wines. Food Research 6_(1):1-14. 1941 Joslyn, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Commercial pro duction of dessert wines. University of California, Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 651 : 1-186. 1941 Joslyn, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Commercial pro duction of brandies. University of California, Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 652:1-80. 1942 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Maturity studies with California grapes. II. The titratable acidity, pH, and organic acid content. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 40 : 313-324 54 29. 1942 Amerine, Maynard A., Louis P. Martini, and William DeMattei. Foaming properties of wine. Method and preliminary results. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 34_:152-157. 30. 1942 Amerine, Maynard A. Some comments on wine in America Wine and Food NoT 3_6_: 192-199 . 31. 1942 Amerine, Maynard A. The cup and the sword. Wine and Food No. 36:212, 214. 31a. 1942 Amerine, M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Champagne. The Wine Review ]_0_(10) : 8-11 , 22. October. 32. 1943 Guymon, J. F. , N. E. Tolbert, and M. A. Amerine. Studies with brandy. I. pH. Food Research 8_(3) : 224-230. 33. 1943 Tolbert, N. E., M. A. Amerine, and J. F. Guymon. Studies with brandy. TT~. Tlfnnin. Food Research 8_(3) :231-236. 34. 1943 Amerine , M. A. , and A. D. Webb. Alcohol-glycerol ratio of California wines. Food Research 8_(4) : 280-285. 35. 1943 Amerine, Maynard A., and William C. Dietrich. Glycerol in wines. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 26(3) :408-415. 36. 1943 Tolbert, N. E., and M. A. Amerine. Charcoal treat ment of brandy. Industrial and Engineering Chem istry 3_5_:1078-1082. 37. 1943 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Grape varieties for wine production. University of California, Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 356 : 1- 15 . 38. 1943 Amerine. Maynard A. American Books. Wine and Food No. !57_:64, 66. 39. 1944 Amerine, Maynard A. Determination of esters in wine- -Liquid-liquid extraction. Food Research 9_(5) :392-395. 40. 1944 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Composition and quality of must and wines of California grapes. Hilgardia 1_5 (6) : 493-673. 41. 1946 Amerine, Maynard A. 1946 Vintage Tour of the Los Angeles and San Francisco Branches of the Wine and Food Society to Napa and Sonoma Counties. The Grab- horn Press, San Francisco. Cl: - C7: p. 55 42 43, 44 45 46, 47. 48, 49, 50 51 52 53 1947 1947 1947 1947 1948 1948 1948 1948 1948 1949 1949 Amerine, Maynard A. No. 53_:43-44. Amerine, Maynard A. No. 55:158-159. Books reviewed. Wine and Food Book notices. Wine and Food Amerine, Maynard A. New wine and old bottles. Five page mimeograph of an address delivered before the Society of Medical Friends of Wine. Dist. by Wine Institute, February 13, 1947. Amerine, Maynard A. The composition of wines at exhibitions. Wines and Vines 42-43; (2):24-26; (3):23-25, 42-46. California 28(l):21-23, 1947 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. The relative color stability of the wines of certain grape varieties Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 4_9_: 183-185. Amerine, Maynard A. An application of "triangular" taste testing to wines. The Wine Review 16(5):10-12 Amerine, Maynard A. Hydroxymethyl furfural in Cali fornia wines. Food Research 1_3(3) : 264-269 . Amerine, M. A. Madeira 1947. Wine and Food No. _59_:171-173. Amerine, Maynard A. Organoleptic examination of wine. Wine Technology Conference, University of California, August 11-13, 1948, Davis, California. (Mimeo) 15-26. Amerine, Maynard A. The grapes and wines of Alameda, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz Counties. 1948 Vintage Tour of the Los Angeles and San Francisco Branches of the Wine and Food Society. The Grabhorn Press, San Francisco. p. 5-14. Amerine, Maynard A. Wine production problems of California grapes. The Wine Review 17(1) :18-22 (Introduction; I. Pinot noir) ; (2):10-11, 12 (II. White Riesling) ; (3):10-12 (III. Zinfandel) ; (5):10-12 (IV. Semillon) ; (6):11-12, 14-15 (V. Cabernet Sauvignon) ; (7):6-7, 19-20 (VI. Folle Blanche, Summary). Amerine, Maynard A. 10(4) :206-208, 210. California wine. The Vortex 56 54. 1949 Amerine. Maynard A. What is handicapping Califor nia ' s~i7Ine~alTHu?tr'y . California Monthly 59:32, 85-89. 55. 1949 Amerine. Maynard A. The influence of the constit- uents of wines on taste and application to the judging of commercial wines. Proceedings Wine Tech nology Conference, University of California, August 10-12, 1949, Davis, California. (Mimeo.) 21-24. 56. 1949 Amerine , M. A. Que e que esta a embaracar a industria vinicola da Calif6rnia? Institute do Vinho do Porto Cadernos No. 118 :416-420. (Reprint in Portuguese of #52.) 57. 1949 Amerine, Maynard A. exame organoleptico dos vinhos . Institute do Vinho d Porto, Suplemento ao Caderno No. 120:1-50. 58. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. On cooking. Wine and Food No. 6_S_:46-49. 59. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. The response of wine to aging. Wines and Vines 31 (3) : 19-22 (I. Physical factors influencing agingJT (4):71-74 (II. Biological and chemical factors influencing aging); (5):28-31 (III. Bottle aging, IV. The influence of variety). 60. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. Down-to-earth talk about wine of the land. San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco Bay Area Gourmet Guide, p. 4, May 15, 1950. 61. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. The acids of California grapes and wines. I . Llfctic acid. Food Technology 4_(5) :177-181. 62. 1950 Amerine , M. A. , and M. W. Monaghan. California sparkling wines, bulk versus bottle fermented. Wines and Vines 3^(8) : 25-27 ; (9):52-54. 63. 1950 Guymon, J. F. , and M. A. Amerine. Organoleptic determination of quality in neutral brandy. Wines and Vines 3JJ12) :27-28. 64. 1950 Amerine , M. A. A matter of taste. Wines and Vines 31. (9) :35-36. 65. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. Bordeaux $ Burgundy. Wine and Food No. 6^:166-168. 66. 1951 Amerine, Maynard A. Laboratory procedures for enology (revised) . Divisions of Viticulture, University of California, Davis. 96 pages. (Mimeo .) Several later edition: 57 67 68, 1951 Amerine, Maynard A. The acids of Calfiornia grapes II. Malic acid. Food Technology _5(1) 69 70, 71 1951 1951 1951 72 73, 74 75 76 and wines 13-16. 1951 Amerine, Maynard A., and Louise B. Wheeler. A books and pamphlets on grapes and University of Cali- 240 p. checK list of wine and related subjects. Berkeley. fornia Press Amerine , Maynard A. Some early books about the California wine industry. The Book Club of Cali fornia, Quarterly News Letter XVI_(3) : 51-56. Amerine, Maynard A. The wines of France. "World" section of the San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday, May 27. p. 11. Heitz, Joseph E., Edward B. Roessler, Maynard A. Amerine, and George A. Baker. A study of certain influencing the composition of California- during baking. Food Research 16(3): factors type sherry 193-200. 1951 Amerine, M. A. Unification des methodes d'analyse et d' appreciation des vins. Etats-Unis d'Amerique Bulletin Office International du Vin 2_4_(241) : 105-110. 1951 Baker, G. A. , M. A. Amerine. Fractional blending systems beverages. Food Technology and E. G. Roessler. for aging alcoholic 5(7) :304-305. 1951 Amerine , M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Table wines: The technology of their production in California. University of California Press, Berkeley. 397 p. 1951 Amerine, Maynard A. IV e Congress International de la Vigne et du Vin. Athenes, 24 Aout - 2 Septembre 1950. IV e section: Economic viti- vinicole. Bull etin Office International du Vin 24 (246) :52-38. October. (See also, Rapports et Actes du Congres II, 61-67.) 1951 Amerine, Maynard A. California^ Wines of the world pocket library. Edited by Andre L. Simon. The Wine and Food Society, London. 15 pages. 58 77. 1951 Amerine, Maynard A. Dessert wine production pro- blems of California grapes. Wines and Vines 33(1): 15-16 (Introduction; I. Palomino); (2):29-30 (II. Tinta Madeira) ; (3):25-26 (III. Alvarelhao, Sousao, Touriga and other red dessert varieties); (4):59-61 (IV. Muscat of Alexandria) ; (5):20-23 (V. Malvasia Bianca, Muscat Canelli, and Orange Muscat; VI. Con clusions . ) . 1951 Amerine, Maynard A. The educated enologist. Pro- ceedings of the American Society of Enologists 1951 : 1-30. 1952 Amerine, Maynard A. The search for good wine. Idea and Experiment T("4 ) : 1 3 - 1 5 . 1952 Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and E. B. Roessler. Theory and application of fractional blending systems Hilgardia 2_1 (14) : 383-409. 1952 Guymon, J. F. , and M. A. Amerine. Tasting of exper imental dessert wines produced with brandies of dif ferent qualities. Wines and Vines 33(9) :19. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 1952 Amerine, M. A. , and T. T. Kishaba. Use of the flame photometer for determining the sodium, potassium, and calcium content of wine. Proceedings of the American Society of Enologists 1952:77-86. 1952 Amerine , M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Techniques and problems in the organoleptic examination of wines. Proceedings of the American Society of Enologists 84. 85. 86. 87. 1953 1953 1953 1953, 88. 1952:97-115. Amerine, Maynard A. equipment at Davis. New controlled fermentation Wines and Vines 34(9):27-30. Baker, G. A., and M. A. Amerine. Organoleptic rat ings of wines estimated from analytical data. Food Research jj_(4) : 381-389 . Amerine, Maynard A. The composition of wines. Scientific Monthly LXXVII (5) : 250-254 . Amerine, Maynard A. Influence of variety, maturity and processing on the clarity and stability of wine Proceedings of the American Society of Enologist 1955:15-28. wines s 1953 Amerine Barraquer of wines. Enologists Maynard A. . George Thoukis, and Ramon Vidal- Marfa. Further data on the sodium content Proceedings of the American Society of 1953:157-166. 59 89. 1953 Amerine, Maynard A. New books on wine. Wines and Vines 34_(12):34. 90. 1953 Roessler, E. B. , G. A. Baker, and M. A. Amerine. Corrected normal and chi-square approximations to the binomial distribution in organoleptic tests. Food Research 1_8 (6) : 625-627 . 91. 1953 Amerine, Maynard A. Some recent advances in enology, Wines and Vines 14 (12) :25-28 . 1953; 3_5_(1) :29-30 ; (2) :27-30. 92. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Nouvel equipement pour la fer mentation controTee Davis. Le ProgrSs Agricole et Viticole 141(5) :56-64. 93. 1954 Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and E. B. Roessler.. Errors of the second kind in organoleptic difference testing. Food Research 1^(2) : 206-210. 94. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Italian treatise on enology. Wines and Vines T5_(7) :29. 95. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Composition of wines. I. Organic constituents. Advances in Food Research V:353-510. 96. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Ampelografski atlas. Wine and Food No. 84_:268-269. 97. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine congress -- German style. Wines and Vines I5_(12) :20-22. 98. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Tecnicas y problemas en el examen organoleptico de los vinos. Agricultura 2_3(272) :702-707. (Summarized from: Techniques arfd problems in the organoleptic examination of wines. M. A. Amerine and E. G. Roessler, Proceed ings of the American Society of Enologists 1952 : 97-115.) 99. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A., and Enrique Feduchy. Los resultados de la cata del vino y del analisis quimico. (Primeros^estudios para conocer su^ relacion en vinos tipicos espanoles.) Boletin del Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agron- omicas 14_(31) : 353-375 . (Also published as Cuaderno No. 212) 60 100. 1954 101. 1955 102. 103. 104. 105. 111. 112. 1955 1955 1955 1955 106. 1955 107. 1956 108. 1956 109. 1956 110. 1956 1956 1956 Amerine, Maynard A. Fermentation of musts under controlled conditions. X Congreso International de Industrial Agricolas (Madrid) . Relacion de Comunicaciones Presentadas II : 1945-1965. Amerine, Maynard A. Further studies with controlled fermentations . American Journal of Enology 6^ 1-16. Amerine, M. A. Five ampelographies . Journal of Enology 6_(2):50-51. American Amerine, Maynard A. The well -tempered wine bibber, 1955 Vintage Tour of the Los Angeles and San Fran cisco Branches of the Wine and Food Society. The Grabhorn Press, San Francisco. p. 5-19. Amerine, Maynard A. Wine in the home and market. Wine and Food NoT 87_:166-168, 170. Amerine, Maynard A. Laboratory procedures for enology. Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis. 108 pages, plus 6 tables. (Mimeo.) Amerine, Maynard A. not widely planted. 61, 62. Some recommended grape varieties Wines and Vines 36(11) :59, Roessler, E. B., G. A. Baker, and M. A. Amerine. One-tailed and two-tailed tests in organoleptic comparisons. Food Research 21 (1) : 117-121 . Thoukis, G., and M. A. Amerine. The fate of copper and iron during fermentation of grape musts. Amer ican Journal of Enology 7_(2):62-68. Hall, Alice P., Lisa Brinner, Maynard A. Amerine. and Agnes Fay Morgan. The B vitamin content of grapes, musts, and wines. Food Research 21(5) : 362-371. Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Jjn Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, The Interscience Encyclopedia, Inc., New York. Vol. 15. pp. 48-72. Amerine. Maynard A. Tudor family portrait. Wine and Food No. 91:191-192. Papakyriakopoulos , V. G. , and M_. A. Sensory tests on two wine types, of Enology 7_(3) :98-104. Amerine . American Journal 61 113. 1956 Amerine, Maynard A. The maturation of wine grapes. A review^ Wines and Vines 37_(10) : 27 - 30 , 32, 34-36, 38; (ll):53-55. 114. 1956 Nelson, K. E., and M. A. Amerine. Use of Botrytis cinerea for the production of sweet table wines. American Journal of Enology 7_(4) : 131-136. 115. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine and food in the diary of Joseph Farington. Wine and Food No. 93:10-21. (Also separately printed.) 116. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A. Refrigerated fermentation; pro cessing and storage of wines. Commodity Storage Manual. The Refrigeration Research Foundation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. 6 p. 117. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A., and Cornelius S. Ough. Studies on controlled fermentation. III. American Journal of Enology 8_(1) :18-30. 118. 1957 Weaver, R. J., M. A. Amerine, and A. J. Winkler. Preliminary report on effect of level of crop on development of color in certain red wine grapes. American Journal of Enology 8_(4) : 157- 166 . 119. 1957 Nelson, Klayton E., and Maynard A. Amerine. The use of Botrytis cinerea Pers . in the production of sweet table wines. Hilgardia 26 (12) : 521-563. 120. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A. Viticulture and enology in Russia. (Translation) Wines and Vines 38 (3) :26-27 . 121. 1957 Amerine , Maynard A. Edmund Henri Twight- - 1874 - 1957. Wines and Vines 38(5) :29-30. 122. 1957 Amerine, M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Plastic or cork? - - -A French experiment. Wines and Vines 38(5) :21. 123. 1958 Amerine, M. A. What the public likes -- Talk by M. A. Amerine, mimeographed and distributed by Wine Institute. February. 7 p. 124. 1958 Amerine, Maynard A. Tasting as a means for im- proving wines. Wines and Vines 59 (2) : 19-20. 125. 1958 Baker, G. A., Vera Mrak , and M. A. Amerine. Errors of the second kind in an acid threshold test. Food Research 23 (2) : 150- 154 . 62 126. 1958 Amerine , M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. determining field maturity of grapes Journal of Enology 9(1):37-40. Methods of American 127 128 1958 1958 129. 1958 130 131 1958 1955- 1959 132. 133. 134, 135, 1958 1958 1958 1958 Amerine , M. A. , and G. Thoukis. The glucose- fructose ratio of California grapes. Vitis 1_(4) :224-229. Amerine, M. A. Acetaldehyde formation in submerged cultures of Saccharomyces beticus . Applied Micro biology 6_(3) :160-168. Amerine , M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Maturity studies with California grapes. III. The acid content of grapes, leaves, and stems. Proceedings of the Amer ican Society for Horticultural Science 71 : 199-206. Amerine, Maynard A. Comments on the nature of sparkling wines. Wines and Vines 39(8) ;31-32. Amerine, Maynard A. One and two page popular dis- cussions for each of the following Wine and Food Society of San Francisco tastings: California ports and dessert wines, October 27, 1955; French Cham pagnes, December 7, 1955; California white and- rose wines, March 21, 1956; French still wines, June 21, 1956; Italian wines, September 6, 1956; California white, rose, and sparkling wines, December 6, 1956; French still wines, March 20, 1957; California red wines, October 24, 1957; French Champagnes and sparkling wines, December 3, 1957; California^white and rose wines, June 26, 1958; California rose, white, red sparkling wines, November 25, 1958; A tasting of wines of the British Commonwealth, March 3, 1959; Wines of Portugal, October 6, 1959, The Physicians Wine and Food Society of Santa Clara Valley -- a tasting of California Champagnes, March 3, 1957. Wine and Food Society brochures. Amerine, Maynard A. Wines at the French Court in 1820. Wine and Food No. 99:163-165. Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. production under pressure. Enology 9_:111-122. Studies on aldehyde American Journal of Roessler, sampling. E. G. , and M. A. Amerine. Studies on grape American Journal of Enology 9_:139-145. Amerine, Maynard A. Research for the industry, by the industry, in the industry. Wines and Vines 39(10) :25-26. 63 136. 1958 Amerine, Maynard A. Composition of wines. II. Inorganic constituents. Advances in Food Research VIII:133-224. 137. 1958 Amerine, M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Field testing of grape maturity. Hilgardia 28(4) ;95-114. 138. 1958 Amerine, Maynard A. Harold H. Price. In Memoriam. Wine and Food No. 100:226. 139. 1959 Amerine, M. A. , C. S. Ough, and C. B. Bailey. Color values of California wines. Food Technol ogy 13(3) :171-175. 140. 1959 Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Odor profiles of wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 141. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Continuous flow production of still and sparkling wine. Wines and Vines 40(6) : 41-42. 142. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. The romance of Pan American wines. Pan American Medical Association, San Francisco Chapter, Annual Bulletin 1958 : 21-27 . 143. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Report on the determination of pH of wines. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 2(2) : 337-338 . 144. 1959 Amerine, M. A. , E. B. Roessler, and F. Filipello. Modern sensory methods of evaluating wine. Hil gardia _2_8_(18) :477-567. 145. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. The professional status of enologists. Wines and Vines 40(8) :51-32. 146. 1959 Amerine, M. A. The 1959 Vintage Tour, I_n, Vintage Tour 1959 to selected vineyards in the Napa and Santa Clara Valleys, San Francisco Wine and Food Society c4: - :6: p. 147. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. A short check list of books and pamphlets in English on grapes, wines, and related subjects 1949-1959. [Davis: 61 p. (Mimeo.) 148. 1959 Pato, C. M. , and M. A. Amerine. Analyses of some typical Madeira wines . American Journal of Enol ogy and Viticulture 1_0 (3) : 110- 113 . 149. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Chemists and the California wine industry. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 10 (3) : 124- 129. 64 150. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Vineyard and winery operations by Jean-F. Levy. A transaltion by Maynard from Vignes et Vins 40 (11) : 45-46 ,48 ; 151 152 1959 1959 153. 1959 154 155 156, 1960 157 1960 158. 1960 159. 1960 160. 1960 in Russia, A. Amerine (12) :27-28. Amerine, Maynard A. Hilaire Belloc on wine and food. Wine and Food No. 104:219-225. Mrak, V. _ Baker. Odor M. A. Amerine C. S. Ough, and G. A. difference test with applications to consumer preferences. Food Research 24 (5) : 574- 578 Ough, C. S. , and determination in 748. M. A. Amerine. Dissolved oxygen wine. Food Research 24(6) :744- 1959 Amerine , M. A. , and C. B. Bailey. Carbohydrate content of various parts of the grape cluster. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 10 (4) :196-198. 1959 Amerine, M. A. Hungarian vineyards and wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 10 (3):142-146. 1959. Amerine, M. A. California white and rose table wines. Wine and Food Society brochure. 2 p. February 23, 1960. A tasting of French still wines, Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. June 14, 1960, A tasting of Austrian wines. Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. November 7, 1960. and M. A. Ough, C. S.. duction by submerged culture 14(3) :155-159. Amerine. Flor sherry pro- Food Technology Ough, C. S, controlled of Enology and M. A. Amerine fermentations. IV, and Viticulture 11(1) Experiments with American Journal 5-14. , Roessler, and M. A. Amerine. dioxide, temperature, time, and Ough, C. S. , E. B Effects of sulfur closures on the quality of bottled dry white table wines. Food Technology 1_4_(7) : 352-356. Amerine^ Study of wines in specially designed California Agriculture U_(9):10. Ough, C. S., and M. A. by controlled fermentations equipment . 161. 1960 Amerine, Maynard A., and of California wines . II 26-27. George Root Wines and Composition Vines 41(10) 65 162. 1960 Amerine , M. A. , and G. A. Root. Carbohydrate con- tent of various parts of the grape cluster. II. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 11 (3):137-139. Amerine, M. A. , and W. V. Cruess. The technology of wine making. The Avi Publishing Co., Westport, Connecticut. 709 p. 163. 1960 164. 1960 Amerine, M. ducing sweet (12) :23,25,26 A. , and C. S. table wines. 29. Ough. Methods of pro- Wines and Vines 41 165. 1960 Amerine, Maynard A. enology. University tables. (Mimeo) Laboratory procedures for Department of Viticulture and Enology, of California, Davis. 124 p. plus 6 166. 1960 Baker, G. A. . F. Filipello. The in taste testing for 25(6) :810-816. M. A. Amerine, E B. Roessler, and nonspecificity of differences preference. Food Research 167, I960- 1961 Amerine, M. A. A tasting of California wines available in large containers. Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. December 5, 1960. A tasting of wines of Eastern United States. Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. February 28, 1961. A tasting of French Champagnes and spark ling wines. Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. November 20, 1961. 168, 1961 Amerine, Maynard A. Modern nology of 90:52-53. wine production. advances Brewers ' in the tech- Guardian 169. 1961 S. , and M. A. Amerine. Studies on con- V. Effects on color, corn- quality of red wines. American Ough, C. trolled fermentation. position, and Journal of Enology and Viticulture 12 (1) :9- 19 . 170. 1961 Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine , and D. E. Kester. Dependency of almond preference on consumer cate gory and type of experiment. Journal of Food Science 26 (4) : 377-385 . 171. 172. 1961 1961 Amerine, Maynard A. The dangers of translations. Wine and Food No. 111:193-194. Amerine, Maynard A. What makes wine wine? Bulle tin of the Society of Medical Friends of Wine 3(2) :3-4,6. 66 174. 1961 173. 1961 Amerine, M. A. Legal and practical aspects of the sensory examination of wines. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 44_(3) :380-383. Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Polyethylene and cork closures and the fermentation temperature for sparkling wines. Wines and Vines 42 (10) : 27,28. (See also : Tapones de polietileno y de corcho y la temparatura de fermentacion en los vinos espumosos. El Embotellador , Enero-Febrero : 51-52. 1962.) Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Studies with con trolled fermentation. VT~. ETfects of temperature and handling on rates, composition, and quality of wines. American Journal of Enology and Viti culture 12(3) :117-128. 175. 1961 176. 1961 177. 1961 178. 1962 179. 1962 180. 1962 Baker, G. A. , M. A. Amerine, and Factor analysis applied to four grape juices. Journal _2_6(6) :644-647. R. M. Pangborn. 'paired preferences among of Food Science , and Maynard on vine be Weaver, Robert J., Stanley B. McCune A. Amerine. Effect of level of crop havior and wine composition in Carignane and Gre- nache grapes. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture .L2(4) : 175-184 . Amerine, Maynard A. , and George L. making at home. Wine Publications, California. 31 p. Marsh. Wine San Francisco Amerine, Maynard A. Hilgard and California viti culture"! Hilgardia 33_(l):l-23. Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and D. E. Kester. Consumer preference on a rating basis for almond selections with allowance for environmental and subject-induced correlations. Food Technology 181. 1962 Amerine, M. A. , G. A. Baker, and C. S. Ough. Con fusion in sensory scoring induced by experimental design. Journal of Food Science 2!7_(5) : 489-494 . 182. 1962 Amerine, Ocean Co. , Tokyo Maynard A. How 28 p. to make wine. (In Japanese) Sanruku- 67 183. 1962 S., and M. A. Amerine. 191. 192. 1963 1963 Ough, C. trolled fermentation. vru mentation blending in color, of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Enology and Viticulture 13(4) Studies on con- Fffect of ante-fer- tannins, and quality American Journal of 181-188. 184. 1962 Amerine, Maynard A. Forword, In The story of wine 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 1962 1963 1963 1963 1963 in California, text by M. F. K. Fisher, photo graphs by Max Yavno. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 125 p. Amerine, Maynard. Climate control could lead to better wine. Vintage 2:411:38-40. Amerine, M. A. White table wines. Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. Feb. 27, 1963. Nelson, K. E. , G. A. Baker, A. J. Winkler, M. A. Amerine, H. B. Richardson, and Frances R. Jones. Chemical and sensory variability in table grapes. Hilgardia 3(l):l-42. Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Production: United States. The Encyclopedia Americana Z_y :41-44 ,40 ,4 / Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. California wine grapes. Composition and quality ot tneir musts and wines. University of California, California Agricultural Experiment Station Bull etin 794. 83 p. 190. 1963 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Grape varieties for wine production. California Agricultural Ex periment Station Extension Service Leaflet 154. 193. 1963 2 I. fold. Amerine, Maynard A. Russian wines Rancher L8(40) : 18 , 19 , 28 , 29 . Redwood Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. The production of table wines in regions IV and V. Wines and Vines 44_(6) :56-58, 60-62. Ough, C. and type S. , and M. influences on the relationship of grape musts 585-600. A. Amerine. Regional, varietal, degree Brix and alcohol and wines. Hilgardia 194. 1963 Amerine, M. A. Continuous fermentation of wines Wines and Vines 44(8):27-29. 68 195. 1963 196, 198, 200. 201. 202. 203, 204. 205. 206. 207. 1963 197. 1963 1963 199. 1963 1963 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 Amerine, Maynard A. The prejudiced palate. San Francisco 6(1) : 22 ,48. October. Reprinted in News from th~e Vineyards, p. 1,4. Spring 1964. Reprinted by Pastene Wine Spirits Co., Inc., Boston, Mass. Cn.d.D Roessler, E. B. , and M. A. Amerine. Further studies on field sampling of wine grapes. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 14 (3) : 144-147. Amerine, Maynard A. Do you know the uniquely American wine- - Zinfandel? House Beautiful 105 (11) :237,277. November. Amerine, Maynard A. Viticulture and enology in the Soviet Union. Wines and Vines 44 (10) :29-34, 36; (11) :57-62,64; (12) : 25-26 , 28-30 . Amerine , M. A. Physical and chemical changes in grapes during maturation and after full maturity. Proceedings of XVIth International Horticultural Congress _3:479-483. Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Use of grape con centrate to produce sweet table wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 14 (4) : 194-204. Amerine, M. A. California sparkling wines. Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. February 26. Amerine, Maynard A. Recent Russian research in grapes and wine. Wines and Vines 45:59,60,61. Amerine , M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Studies with con- trolled fermentation. VIII. Factors affecting aldehyde accumulation. American Journal of Enol ogy and Viticulture 1_5(1) : 23-33 . Amerine, Maynard A. Der Weinbau in Japan. Die Wein-Wissenschaft 1(5) : 225-231 . Amerine, M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Sensory evaluation of wines. Wine Institute, San Fran cisco, April. 26 p. (Processed) Amerine, Maynard A. Enology, oenology, or oenology. Wine and Food No. 122:74-76. Joselyn, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Dessert, appetizer and related flavored wines: the tech nology of their production. Univeristy of Cali fornia, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Berkeley. 433 p. 69 208. 1964 Amerine, Maynard A. 210. 1964 212. 213. 216. 217. 1964 1964 214. 1964 215. 1964 people, culture search Lecture Acids, grapes, wines and American Journal of Enology and Viti- 15(2) :106-115. (The 1964 Faculty Re- of the Davis campus.) 209. 1964 Amerine, Maynard A. 1965 1965 218. 1965 Wine. Scientific American 211(2) : 4 6 - 5 6\ Partjally reprinted in Panorama, Chicago Daily News, August 29, 1964, p. 4. Scientific American off print 190. Reprinted from August , 1964. WT Reprinted H. in Freeman Plant Scientific American, and Company, San Francisco Agriculture. Readings from Scientific American. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, August, 1970. VII, p. 178-188 (see publication #277). Ough, C. S. , V. L. Singleton, M. A. Amerine, and G. A. Baker. A comparison of normal and stressed- time conditions on scoring of quality and quantity attributes. Journal of Food Science 29(4) :506- 519. 211. 1964 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. The sensory eval uation of California wines. Laboratory Practice 13^8) :712-716, 738. Amerine, Maynard A. San Francisco 6 (13) The anatomy of 28-29. a superb wine Singleton, V. L. , C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine. Chemical and sensory effects of heating wines under different gases. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 1J5(3) : 134- 145. Kunkee, Ralph E., C. S. Ough, and Maynard A. Amerine, Induction of malo-lactic fermentation by inocula tion of must and wine with bacteria. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 15 (4) : 178-183. Esau, P. , and M. A. Amerine. Residual sugars in wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture :187-189. Amerine , M. A. The 1964 wine judging in Ljubljana. Wines and Vines 4_6 (1) : 21-22 . Amerine, Maynard A. Research on viticulture and enology in the Soviet Union. Food Technology :77-80. Amerine, Maynard A. The wines of Germany. Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. January 27. 70 219. 1965 220. 1965 221. 1965 222. 1965 223. 1965 224. 1964 225. 1965 226. 1965 227. 1965 228. 1966 229. 1966 230. 231. 1966 1966 Amerine, M. A. . E. B. Roessler, and C. S. Ough. Acids and the acid taste. I. The effect of pH and titratable acidity. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16(1) :29-57. Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and E. B. Roessler. Characteristics of sequential measurements on grape juice and must. American Journal of Enol ogy and Viticulture 16 (1) :21-28. Amerine, Maynard A. The fermentation industries after Pasteur. Food Technology 19(5) :79-80,82. Amerine , M. A. , and V. L. Singleton. Wine: an introduction for Americans. University of Cali fornia Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 357 p. Amerine, Maynard. American wine. San Francisco 7_(10) :30,54,56. Amerine, Maynard A. Acetaldehyde and related compounds In foods . Journal of Food Science and Technology I_:87-98. Amerine , M. A. , R. M. Pangborn, and E. B. Roessler, Principles 5T sensory evaluation of food. Acad emic Press, New York. x, 602 p. Amerine, M. A. , and R. E. Kunkee. Yeast stability tests on dessert wines. Vitis _5_:187-194. Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Studies with con trolled fermentations. IX. Bentonite treatment of grape juice prior to wine fermentation. Amer ican Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16 (4) : 185- 194. Amerine, Maynard A. Wine from the customer's point of view. Mo~tel Management- -Review and Innkeeping 181(1) :31-53. Baker, G. A. , C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine . Scoring vs. comparative rating of sensory quality of wines. Journal of Food Science 30 (6) : 1055- 1062. Amerine, Maynard A. The 1965 Ljubljana Wine Judging. Wines and Vines 47(4) : 58-60. Amerine, Maynard A. California varietal wines. Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. March 9. 71 232. 1966 Amerine, M. A. Review, of A guide to the selection, combination, and cooking oT foods. Vol. 2. Formu lation and cooking of foods, by Carl A. Rietz and J. J. Wanderstock. Food Technology 20(8) :64. 233, 234, 235, 1966 1966 1966 Amerine, Maynard A. American wines 1933-1966. Wine and Food T3T:24-28. Amerine, Maynard A. Relax and enjoy your wines San Francisco Magazine 8 (10) : 34- 35 ,62 . Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine erature on wine making. Experiment Station Effects of temp' California Agricultural Bulletin 827. 36 p. 236. 1966 Amerine, Maynard A. Apport de Pasteur a 1'oenol- ogie moderne: la pasteurisation. pp. 22-23 of Plaquette published by the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin, in honor of the 100th Anniversay of the publication of Etude sur le Vin of Louis Pasteur. 237. 1966 Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Fermentation rates of grape juice. IV. Compositional changes affecting prediction equations. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture r7_(3) : 163- 173. 238. 1966 Amerine, Maynard A. Flavor as a value. I_n Food and Civilization. S. M. Farber, N. L. Wilson, and R. H. L. Wilson, eds. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois. pp. 22-58. 239 240 1966 1966 Amerine, Maynard A. The search for good wine. Science 154: 1621-1628. Baker, G. A., C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine. Sensory scores and analytical data for dry white and dry red wines as bases for predictions and groupings. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture r/_(4) : 255-264 . Esau, P. , and M. A. Amerine. Synthetic ion- exchange resins in wine research. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture _17_(4) : 268- 276. 242. 1966 Esau, P. and M. A. Amerine. Quantitative esti- 241. 1966 mation of residual sugars in wine. Journal of Enology and Viticulture 267. American 17(4) :265- 72 243. 1962 Amerine, M. A. Psychological problems in eval- uating food quality. Proceedings of First Inter national Congress of Food Science and Technology. Vol. 111:241-252. (i.e., 1966). 244. 1967 Amerine, M. A. United States. 1 p. March 7. 246. 1967 251. 252. 1967 1967 Sparkling wines of Canada and the Wine and Food Society brochure. 245. 1967 Amerine, M. technology of Avi Publishing ix, 799 p. A., H. W. Berg, and W. V. Cruess. The wine making. Second Edition. The Company, Inc., Westport, Connecticut Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Controlled fermen tation. A review of controlled fermentation exper iments conducted at Davis: 1953-1966. Wines and Vines 48(5):23-27. 247. 1967 Amerine, M. A. Even wines don't always age grace fully. San Francisco Magazine 9(10):29-31. 248. 249. 1967 1967 Amerine, Maynard A. An introduction to some San Francisco foods. Ough, C. S. , and Wine and Food 134:48-51. M. A. Amerine. Studies with con trolled fermentation, temperature on some American Journal (3) :157-164. X. volatile of Enology and Effect of fermentation compounds in wine. Viticulture 18 250. 1967 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Sweetness pre- f erence in rose wines. American Journal of Enol ogy and Viticulture 18 (3) : 121- 125 . Amerine, Maynard A. The wines of Germany. Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. November 27. Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Rose wine color preference and preference stability by an exper ienced and an inexperienced panel. Journal of 3_2_(6) :706-711. (Copyrighted 1968) ienced and an Food Science 253. 1967 Amerine, M. A. , and V. L. Singleton. Wine. An introduction for Americans. Third printing; re vised paperback edition. University of California Press, Berkeley. 357 p. 254. 1968 Amerine, Maynard A. California red varietal table Wine and Food Society brochure. 2 p. wines February 6. 73 255, 1968 256, 257, 258, 259, 1968 1968 1968 1967 260. 1968 262 1968 Amerine , M. A. Beverage process: Breweries, wine making, and carbonated beverages. Chapter 34 of ASHRAE Guide and Data Book, Applications 1968. American Society of Heating, Refrigerat ing and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., New York. p. 423-436. Amerine, Maynard A. The future of enological research. Wines and Vines 49(8) :17-18. Kunkee, Ralph E., and Maynard A,, Amerine. Sugar and alcohol stabilization of yeast in sweet wine. Applied Microbiology 16(7) : 1067-1075 . Amerine, Maynard A. Hurrah for California wines. San Francisco Magazine 10 (10) : 27-29 . Amerine, M. A. Recherches sur les facteurs de la vinification en rouge en Californie. 2 e Symposium International d'Oenologie, Bordeaux-Cognac, 13-17 June 1967. 1^:345-361. Amerine, Maynard A., and Ralph E. Kunkee. Micro- biology of wine making. Annual Review of Micro biology 2_2_:323-358. 261. 1968 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Fermentation of grapes held under anaerobic conditions. I. Red grapes. American Journal of Enology and Viticul ture 19(3) :139-146. 263, 264 265 1968 1969 1969 Amerine, Maynard A. Precedes d 1 elaboration , tech- nologie et caracteristiques des vins mosseux aux Etats-Unis. Bulletin de 1 '0. I .V. 4^(453) : 1218- 1229. See also XII e Congres International de la Vigne et du Vin, Bucarest, Travaux Scientif iques , Bucarest. Oenologie :U:255-267. 1968. Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Die kontinuier- liche Vergarung von Traubensaft. Mitt. Rebe u. Wein, Obstbau u. Fruchtverwertung 18 :428-459. Amerine , Maynard A. An introduction to the pre- repeal history of grapes and wines in California. Agricultural History 4J5_(2) : 259-268. :259-268, Amerine, Maynard A. California white varietal wines. San Francisco Wine and Food Society May 6. Society of Medical Friends of Wine. table 2 p. 2 p. October 27, 1970. 74 266. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A. A check list on grapes and wines. 1960-1968 with a supplement for 1949- 1959. Davis, California 84 p. 267. 1969 Ough, C. S. , H. W. Berg, and M. A. Amerine. Sub stances extracted during skin contact with white musts. II. Effect of bentonite additions during and after fermentation on wine composition and sensory quality. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 20_(2) : 101-107. 268. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A. There really is quality in A play in three acts. San Francisco Maga- wines zine 11(10) :38-39. 269. 1969 Ough, C. S. , M. A. Amerine, and T. C. Sparks. Studies with controlled fermentations. XI. Per-, mentation temperature effects on acidity and pH. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 20(3) :127-139. 270. 271, 272, 273 1969- 1970 Amerine, M. A acidity of wi: No. 146:120. and E. B. Roessler. The ; aged in the wood. Wine age and and Food 1969 1968 1966 Amerine, M. A. and C. S. Ough. Acidification of grapes from Region IV. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 20 (4) : 254-256 . Amerine, M. A. The appreciation and judging of wines. Wine, Spirit, Malt 3_7_(10) : 22- 23. Amerine, M. A. Kellerwirstchaf t in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Deutsche Wein Zeitung 102(2) 1158. (see also publication #278). 274 1969 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Fermentation of grapes under anaerobic conditions II. White grapes with some further tests on red grapes. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture ^0 (4) : 251-253 . 275 1970 -ugh, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Effect of subjects' sex, experience, and training on their red wine color-preference patterns. Perceptual and Motor Skills 3_0:395-398. 276. 1970 Amerine, M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Table wines: the technology of their production. 2nd ed. Uni versity of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. xxi, 997 p. 75 277. 1970 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Reprinted in Plant Agriculture. Readings from Scientific American. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. VIII, 246 p. (see p. 178-188). (Also see publication #209 - this article originally published in Scientific American 211(2) :46-56, August 1964). 278. 279. 280. 1968 1969 1970 1970 281 282 1969 1969 283, 284 1970 1970 285. 1970 Amerine, M. A. Kellerwirtschaft in den Vereinig- ten Staaten von Amerika. Osterreichische Wein- zeitung 2J_:97-98. (See also publication #273). Amerine, M. A. Convorbire Cu Profesorul M. A. Amerine. Industria Alimentara 21 (2) :66-68. Kunkee, Ralph E., and Maynard A. Amerine. Yeasts in wine-making. In, The Yeasts, edited by Anthony H. Rose and J. S. Harrison. Academic Press, London and New York. 3 v. Volume 3, Yeast Tech nology, xiv, 590 p. (see p. 5-71) Amerine, M. A. Lecture. Israel Wine Institute, Tel-Aviv. 33 p. November 12. Amerine, Maynard A. The importance of Agoston Haraszthy's activities for the development of viticulture in California. In, The 100th Anni versary of Death of Agoston Haraszthy, Congress ional Record, Proceedings and Debates of the 91st Congress, First Session. 8 p. June 19. (see p. 3-5). Amerine, Maynard A. What kind of wines in 1980? Wines and Vines 51(9) :30. Amerine, Maynard A. Introduction. In, This Un- the Paul Masson Story by Robert The Ward Ritchie Press, Los (see p. vii) . common Heritage, Lawrence Balzer. Angeles. 118 p. Amerine and Maynard hottest A. San the hottest one Francisco Magazine 12(10) Sparkling wines are a gas on the market is Cold Duck 34-35. 286. 1970 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Effect of and post-fermentation addition of acids on pre the composition and quality of the wines produced. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 287. 1970 Amerine, M. A. Effect of pre- and post- fermenta tion addition of acids on the composition and quality of the wines produced. Wines and Vines 51(7):20. 76 288 289, 290, 1970 Amerine, M. A. The golden ages of wines. Address given The Institute of Masters of Wines, July 30, 1969, London, England, published and circulated under their auspices. 25 p. 1971 Alley, C. J. , C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine. Grapes for table wines in California's regions IV and V. Wines and Vines 52^(3) : 20-22 . 1970 Amerine, M. A. Wine. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 22, 2nd Edition. p. 307- 334. 291. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A., and 295 1971 296. 1971 297, 1971 298, 299 1971 1971 making at home Francisco. 32 revised. George L. Marsh. Wine Wine Publication, San 292. 1970 Amerine, Maynard A. Review. Landscapes of Bacchus The vine in Portugal by Dan. Stanislawski , Univer sity of Texas Press, Austin and London, 210 p. Agricultural History 44(4) :427. 293. 294. 1969 1971 Amerine, Maynard A. Haraszthy de Mokcsa, Agos (1812-1869). Encyclopedia Americana. Amerine, Maynard A. Preface. In, Lines about wines by Irving H. Marcus. Wine Publication, Berkeley. Wagener, W. D. , C. S. Ough, and The fate of some organic acids added to prior to fermentation. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 22 (3) : 167- 171 . M. A. Amerine. grape juice Amerine, Maynard A. , and Vernon L. Singleton. A list of bibliographies and a selected list of pub lications that contain bibliographies on grapes, wines, and related subjects. Agricultural Publi cations, University of California, Berkeley. 39 p. Amerine, Maynard A., and E. B. Roessler. Pleasant and unpleasantness of odors added to white wine. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2_2_(4) : 199-202. Amerine, Maynard A. A scholar writes on U.C. -Davis wine library. Wines and Vines 52 (12) : 20-25 . Amerine, Maynard A. Some recent reports on wine analysis" Report to Wine Institute Technical Advisory Committee Meeting. 13 p. 77 300. 1971 Amerine, Maynard A. Wines of the future. San Francisco Magazine 13(10) :80-82. 301. 1971 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine food - London, 1934- 1970 (Tribute to Andre L. Simon). The International Wine 5 Food Society "Gastronomies", Chicago. p. 1. June 28. 302. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. , and Cornelius S. Ough. Recent advances in enology. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Technology 2:407-515. 303. 1972 Amerine, M. A. Wine -- California's liquid gold. Narrator and background information for Channel 13 (KOVR) Sacramento, 5-part feature; May 8-12; and May 22-26, 1972. (Film, property of KOVR - Special Collections will negotiate for it at end of one year. ) 304. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. Quality control in the Calif- ornia wine industry. Journal of Milk and Food Technology 3_5 (6) : 373-377 . 305. 1972 Amerine, Maynard. Bottled gold. San Francisco Magazine 14_(10) :36, 56-58. 306. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. Amerine on Iron Curtain judg- Wines and Vines 5_3 (11) : 22-23. 307. 1972 Ough, C. S., D. Fong , and M. A. Amerine. Glycerol in wine: determination and some factors affecting. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2J(1): 1-5. 308. 1972 Amerine, M. A. . H. W. Berg, and W. V. Cruess. Tech- nology of wine making. Avi Publishing Company, Westport, Conn. 802 p. 3rd ed. 309. 1973 Stewart, George, F. , and Maynard A. Amerine. Intro duction to food science and technology. ATademic Press, Inc., New York. 310. 1972 Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Further studies with submerged flor sherry. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 25(3) :128-151. 311. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. Other vinelands of the world, THE UNITED STATES. I_n, Gazetteer of Wines by Andre L. Simon. The International Wine and Food Publishing Company, David Charles, London. p. 49-53. 78 312. 1972 Amerine, M. A. Our wonderful world of wine. Add- dress to Upper Napa Valley Associates. Copy de posited Napa Valley Wine Library, December 12. 8 p. 313. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. The historical importance of the Medical Friends of Wine. Address to One Hund redth Quarterly Dinner and Annual Meeting of the Society of Medical Friends of Wine, Wednesday, January 10, 1973, at The Family Club , San Francisco, CA. Bulletin of The Society of Medical Friends of Wine 1_5(1) . 2 p. 314. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. In, Wine in America, TTTe Newcomen Society University Press. 319 320 1973 Introduction of Mr. Serlis, and address by Harry G. Serlis in North America, Princeton 315. 1973 Amerine Maynard A. Wine. Reprinted from August Readings from Scientific American, Food. Sources and Resources. W. H. San Francisco. pp. 169-179. 1964 in II. Conventional Freeman and Company, (see also #209) . 316. 1971 Amerine, Maynard A. paedia Britannica. for publication 1973 Wine making Vol. 23. p. In, Wine 57T-583. , EncyclO' Revised 317. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. The wine industry- today and tomorrow. San Francisco Magazine 1_5_(10) : 41-42 , 53-54. 318. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. A multi-language dictionary of vermouth ingredients. Revista Ital. Essenze, Profumi, Piante Officinali, Aromi , Saponi, Cos- metici, Aerosol 55 (8) : 504-516 . 1973 Amerine tomorrow 99-100. Maynard Palm (see #317) A. The wine Springs Life, industry- -today and October, p. 81-82, Roessler, E. of Madeiras. Viticulture B. and M. A. American Journal of 24(4) :176-177. Amerine . The Enology "age" and 321. 1973 Amerine, M. A. L'industrie vinicole- -hier et aujourd'hui. La Journee Vinicole, December 19, p. 1,4. (See #317). 322. 1974 Amerine, M. ~ lysis~ Toronto. viii , 121 A. , and C. S. Ough. Wine and must ana- John Wiley $ Sons, New York, London, Sydney, (A Wiley- Interscience Publication) 79 323. 1974 Amerine, M. A. , and Douglas Fong. Fermentation of grapes under anaerobic conditions. III. Hold ing grapes under carbon dioxide before crushing. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2S_(1) :l-6. 324. 1974 Amerine, M. A. , and Douglas Fong. Research note: Further studies on making wine of varieties grown in region IV. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2_5 (1) :44-47 . 325. 1974 Amerine. M. A. Les levains en oenologie. I_n Vignes et Vins (Numero Special Consacre au Collo- que International D'Oenologie D'Arc et Senans - May 1973). p. 46-52. 326. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. American wines for Americans. Ohio Grape--Wine Short Course, Proceedings, 1973. Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio. pp. 50-53. 327. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. New methods of winemaking. Ohio Grape Wine Short Course, Proceedings, 1973. Agricultural Research and Development Center. Wooster, Ohio. pp. 63-67. 328. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A., and Cornelius S. Ough. Wine and must. I_n Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemical Analysis, Vol. 19. John Wiley Sons, New York, London, Sydney, Toronto. pp. 397-514. 329. 1974 Amerine, M. A. Current wine making practices in California. Commemorative Lectures, Central Re search Institute, Suntory Ltd., Osaka, Japan. 23, 26,18,59 p. (see p. 1-23.) 330. 1975 Amerine, Maynard A. The Napa Valley grape and wine industry. Agricultural History 9(1) : 289-291 331. 1974 Amerine, M. A. Wine. In, Encyclopedia of Food Technology, Arnold H. JoTfnson and Martin S. Peter son, eds. Avi Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Connecticut. pp. 961-968. 332. 1975 Amerine, Maynard A. The Japanese fermentation in- dustries. In, Transcript of Wine Industry Tech nical Seminar, Rodeway Inn, Townehouse, Fresno, California, November 15, 1974. San Francisco. 20 p. 80 333. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. The present status of method for wine analysis and possible future trends. In, Chemistry of Winemaking, Advances in Chemistry Series, Number 137. pp. 134-150. 334. 1974 Fong, D. C., M. A. Amerine. and C. S. Ough. Re search note: Citric acid in some California wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 25f4): 222-224. 335. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine making. In, Encyclopae dia Britannica, 15th ed. pp. 875-884. 336. 1974 Amerine, Maynard. L'industrie vinicole hier et aujourd'hui. Bulletin de 1 'Office International du Vin 7:276-281. (See #317 and #321). 337. 1976 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Analisis de vinos y mostos. Editorial Acribia, Zaragoza, Spain. 158 p. (Spanish edition of Wine and Must Analysis, translated by J. M. Gavilan, C. Romero, and J. L. Suso.) (See #328). 338. 1976 Amerine , Maynard A. The evaluation of wines you can't make a silk purse form a sow's ear. Les Amis du Vin 13_(6) :15-17. 339. 1976 Amerine, M. A. North American wines. In, "Zlatna knjiga o vinu Rijeka". Oktokar Kersovani, Rijeka. pp. 207-211. 340. 1976 Amerine, Maynard A., and Edward B. Roessler. Wines, their sensory evaluation. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. xiv, 230 p. 341. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Quality standards and quality control for the small winery. Proceedings of Ninth Pennsylvania Wine Conference, December 2,3, 1976. The Pennsylvania State University, College of Agriculture, University Park, Pennsylvania, pp. 5-8. 342. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Le vin dans 1 ' alimentation humaine. Symposium International sur la Consom- mation du Vin dans le Monde, Avignon, 15-18 Juin 1976. Numero Special du Bulletin de 1'O.I.V. pp. 137-151. 343. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. American wines, 1995. Amer ican Wine Society Journal 8:53-54. 81 344. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Quality standards and quality control for the small winery. Redwood Rancher (Vintage Issue) p. 33-35. (See #341). 345. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. Annotated bibliography on ver- mouth with biochemical references. University of California, Davis. 312 I. 346. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. Annotated bibliography on ver- mouth. University of California, Davis. 213 I. 347. 1977 Amerine, M. A. , and V. L. Singleton. Wine: An introduction. Second edition. University of Cali fornia Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. xiv, 373 p. 348. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A., and Paul Scholten. Varietal labeling in California. Wines and Vines 58^11) : 40-41. 349. 1977 Edwards, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Research note: Lead content of wines determined by atomic absorp tion spectrophotometry using flameless atomization. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2_8_(4) : 239-240. 350. 1977 Amerine, M. A. Wine. In, Encyclopedia of Food Technology, Johnson and~P~eterson, eds. AVI Pub lishing Company, Westport, Conn. p. This was reprinted in, Elements of Food Technology, Norman W. Desrosier, ed. AVI Publishing Company, Westport, Conn. pp. 617-631. 1977. 351. 1978 Selfridge, T. B., and M. A. Amerine. Odor thres holds and interactions of ethyl acetate and diacetyl in an artificial wine medium. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 29(1) : 1-6. 352. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Andre L. Simon. Journal of The International Wine and Food Society 4_(4) : 42-44. (Also in Gastronomies.) 353. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. El vino. Reprinted from Sci- entific American, August, 1964, in a Spanish edi tion. Los Alimentos cuestiones de bromatologia , selecciones de Scientific American. Introducciones de Johan E. Hoff y Jules Janick. Hermann Blume Ediciones, Madrid. pp. 213-223. 354. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Amerine speaks out on labeling. The Pennsylvania Grape Letter and Wine News 5 (6): 7. (Also released by Wine Institute and commented" upon by several news papers and magazines.) 82 355. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Foreword to Wines of California, by R.L. Balzer. Abrams , New York. 356. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Neo-Prohibitionists. The Friends of Wine 15 (3) : 10-11. 357. 1971- Amerine, Maynard A. Introductions to oral history of California 1974 wine industry leaders. Bancroft Library, Wines of California, Berkeley. 358. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. Future research on the values of wine. Bulletin of the Society of Medical 'Friends of Wine. 21 : 5-6. 359. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. El vino en la alimentacion humana. Vinos y Vinas, ISSN 0325-4712, #876. pp. 12, 16. #877, 1979. (See #342). 360. 1973 Amerine, M.A. Laboratory procedures for enologists. Associated Students Store, University of California, Davis. 100, 9 p. Also 1965, 1967, and 1971. (See #66, 105, 165). 361. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. The biochemical processes involved in wine fer mentation and aging. In: Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition. Academic Press, New York. pp. 121-132. 362. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. Part II. Wine making. In: ASHRAE Handbook and Product Directory. 1978 Applications. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., New York. p. 39 16. 363. 1979 Phaff, Herman J. , and Maynard A. Amerine. Wine. In: Microbial Tech nology, 2nd ed. Vol. II. Academic Press, New York. p. 131-153. 364. 1979 Amerine, Maynard. The red and the white: the history of wine in France and Italy in the nineteenth century, by Leo A. Loubere, State University of New York Press, Albany. Book review. Agricultural History 53: 655-656. 365. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. Vermouth: an annotated bibliography. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Berkeley. 69 p. 366. 1955 Amerine, Maynard A. Some facts and fancies about winemaking and wines. Wine Institute Technical Advisory Committee, May 13, 1955. 4 p. 367. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Preface. In: Cabernet; notes of an Australian wineman, by Max Lake. Rigby, Melbourne, p. 6-7. 368. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A. Foreword. In: The flavor of wine, by Max Lake. The Jacaranda Press, Melbourne, p. ix-x. 369. 1957 Nelson, K.E. , and M.A. Amerine. Further studies on the production of natural sweet table wines from botrytised grapes. American Journal of Enology 8 (3):127-134. 83 370. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. Stati Uniti d'America. In: Enciclopedia dei Vini del Hondo, Lamberto Paronetto, ed. ArnoT3b Mondadori Editore, Verona, Italy, p. 517-523. 371. 1980 Amerine, M.A. , and C.S. Ough. Methods for analysis of musts and wines. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 341 p. 372. 1980 Amerine, M.A., H.W. Berg, R.E. Kunkee, C.S. Ough, V.L. Singleton, and A.D. Webb. Technology of wine making. Avi Publishing Company, Westport, Conn. 4th ed. 794 p. 373. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. Winery operations and sensory evaluation. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Wine Industry Technical Seminar, 1979-1980. 6:45-49. 374. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. The senses and sensory evaluation of wines. Australian Wine, Brewing and Spirit Review 99(4): 14-16. 375. 1980 Amerine. Maynard A. The senses and sensory evaluation of wines. Part 2. Australian Wine, Brewing and Spirit Review 99(5): 9-15. 376. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A., and Brian St. Pierre. Grapes and wine in the United States, 1600-1979. JJK Agriculture in the West, E.L. Schaps- meier and F.H. Schapsmeier, eds. Sunflower University Press, Manhattan, Kansas, p. 108-113. 377. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. The words used to describe abnormal appearance, odor, taste, and tactile sensations of wines. In: The analysis and control of less desirable flavors in foods and beverages, G. Charalam- bous, ed. Academic Press, New York, p.31'9-351. 378. 1981 Amerine. Maynard A. Development of the American wine industry to 1960. In: Wine Production Technology in the United States, M.A. Amerine, ed. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 145, Washington, D.C. p. 1-27. 379. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. It's my opinion how the consumer is deceived. The Friends of Wine 18(2): 81. Reprinted XX(5): 12, Fall, 1983. 380. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. Describing wines in meaningful words. In: Fundamentals of Table Wine Processing, Proceedings of 7th Training Conference, University of California, Davis, p. 58-62. 381. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. California wine comes of age. Nob Hill Gazette 3(6):8-9. 382. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. Tunisia is trying to up-grade its grapes. The North African nation is shipping half its wine in bulk to Europe. Wines and Vines 62 (7): 63-64. 383. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. Rare lantern slides. Napa Valley Wine Library Report Autumn 1981. 4 p. 384. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A. The changing preferences for wines. Food Technology 36(1) -.106-108, 110. 84 385. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A. Zinfandel or Zinfandel. Wines and Vines 63(3): 64. 386. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A.. Cornelius S. Ough, and Michael P. W. Stone. Prices high at Nederburg auction. Wines and Vines 63(7): 54-55. 387. 1982 Amerine. Maynard A. Scupemong: North Carolina's Grape and Its Wines, by Clarence Gohdes. Book review in Agricultural History. 388. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A. Three-day symposium was rich in research. Wines & Vines 63(3): 44-45. 389. 1982 Amerine, Maynard Interview. Wine & Spirits Buying Guide 1(2): 62-76. 390. 1983 Amerine, Maynard Interview. We don't do research because we want to do it. We do it because we have to do it. Napa Valley Wine Library Report. Spring. 1983: 8-12. 391. 1984 Muscatine, Doris, M. A. Amerine. B. Thompson, editors. The University of California/Sotheby Book of California Wine. U.C. Press/Sotheby Publications. Berkeley. Los Angeles. London, zzzviii, 615pp. 392. 1984 Amerine. Maynard. The vine and its environment. Vinifera Wine Growers Journal 11(4): 232-240. (Partially reprinted from the preceding entry) 1984. 393. 1984 Amerine. M^ &._ and Philip M. Wagner. The vine and its environment. (See pp. 86-121 of 391). 394. 1983 Amerine, Maynard A. The California wine industry and how it got that way. In Betrachtung zum Wein, Ausfluge in die Zeit-Raume des Weines- von Humanismus bis die Gegenwert. Luzern. Graf ischen Betrieb Raeber AG. (p. 110-135). 395. 1985 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine-making. In World's Debt to Pasteur. Hilary Koprowski and Stanley A. Plotkin, eds. New York, Alan A. Liss. Inc. Vol. 2. p. 67-81. 3%. 1981 Amerine. Maynard A. Connaissance et travail du vin [book review] Wines & Vines. Nov. 1981, p. 106. 397. 1984 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Third edition, 24; 549-578. 398. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. Foreword. Symposium Proceedings, Grape and Wine Centennial, University of California, 85 Davis, p. III-IX. 399. 1983 Amerine. Maynard A. and Edward B. Roessler. Wines: Their Sensory Evaluation. Revised and enlarged edition. New York and San Francisco. W. H. Freeman, xv. 432pp. 400. 1982 Stewart. George F. and Maynard A^ Amerine. Introduction to Food Science and Technology. Second edition. New York, Academic Press, xiii. 289pp. 401. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A., Thomas C. Sparks and Lura S. Middleton. Syllabus for wine appreciation. Davis. University of California Extension. 30pp. 402. 1978 Amerine. Maynard A. Appreciation of Calif orni a wines. Gastronomies XXIII (3): 1-4. Repeated from the New York Wine and Food Society Newsletter of December 1977. Read "good" for "bad" in the last sentence! 403. 1979 Amerine. Maynard A. Interview. Dr. Maynard A. Amerine questions wine judging results. Vintage 8_(11) : 20-21. Also in news release from Wine Institute. San Francisco. 404. 1979 Berg. H. W. . Min Akiqoshi and M. A. Amerine. Potassium and sodium content of California wines. Amer. J. Enol. Vitic. 40: 55-57. 405. 1985 Honoring a pioneer [Report of speech by M^ A._ Amerine] The Wine Spectator 10(16): 21. 406. 1981 Boyd. G. D. Amerine: wine judging like dog judging. The Wine Spectator ri(6) : 2. 407. 1985 Gordon, A. J. A nose for knowledge. This Davis scientist has written the book on California wine and its technology. The Wine Spectator 10_(5) : 29. 31. 408. 1985 Amerine. Maynard A. Foreword. In; Wine into words; a history and bibliography of wine books in the English language. Baltimore, Bacchus Press, p. vii. (See also p. 11- 14). 409. 1986 Amerine, Maynard A. and Herman Phaf f. Bibliography of Publications by the Faculty. Staff, and Students of the University of California, 1876-1980, on Grapes, Wines, and Related Subjects. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, University of California Press, xxiii, 244pp. 410. 1988 Ough, C. S. and M. A. Amerine. Methods for Analysis of Musts and Wines. Second edition. New York, John WileySi Sons, x, 377 pp. 86 INDEX Maynard A. Amerine acid, addition to musts, 3 alcohol and alcohol abuse, state advisory board, 18 Alioto, Joseph, 43 Alley, Curtis J., 37 Almaden Vineyards, 19, 40-41 Almendinger, Werner, 14 American Chemical Society, 3, 43 American Journal of Enoloav. 2, 8 American Journal of Enoloav and Viticulture. 20, 26 American Society for Enology and Viticulture (ASEV) , 21 American Society of Enologists (ASE) , 5, 13, 20, 21 American Society of Heating and Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, 9 American Vineyard Foundation, 20 American Wine Society Journal, 5 American Wine Society, 5 American Wines, 39 "Analysis and Control of Less Desirable Flavors," 10-11 Analysis of Musts and Wines. 9 anti-alcohol movement, 17-19 anti-coagulants and wine, 15 Baker, George, 34, 35, 36-37 Balzer, Robert L. , 8 Baynard, Arnold, 30 Beaulieu Vineyard, 8 Benoist, Louis, 40, 41 Benoist, Kay, 40, 41 Berg, Harold W. , 9, 10, 11, 37 bibliographies, 5-8, 9, 29-30, 49 Bird, Rose, 14 Blanchard, Richard, 6, 32 Bohemian Club, 29 books on wine, 30-32 brandy, 28 Brown, Edmund G. , Jr. , 14 Bundschu, Carl, 39 87 Cabernet. Notes of an Australian Wineman. 9 California Growers Winery, 14-15 carbonic maceration. See maceration carbonioue Central Research Institute of Suntory, 3 Chateau Lafite, 24 Chateau Margaux, 24, 48 Chateau Mouton-Rothschild, 48 Chemical Abstracts, 3 citric acid in wines, 3 Complete Wine Book. 39 Cook, James A., 30, 36 Crawford, Charles, 45 Cruess, William V., 10 Daniel, John, Jr., 1, 39 De Luca, John, 17, 18, 41-46 "Describing Wine in Meaningful Words," 11 Dieppe, William A., 40 Dietrich, William C. 36 East-Side Winery, 14, 42 Edwards, Meridith, 8 Esau, Paul, 37 Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition. 8 fetal alcohol syndrome, 16 Fisher, Mary Frances Kennedy, 8 Flavor of Wine. The. 9 Fong, Douglas C. , 2, 36, 38 Food and Agriculture Orgnaization (FAO) , 21 Fountain Grove winery, 40 Gabler, James M. , 29 Gallo, Ernest, 44, 45 Gout du Vin. Le. 24 grape varieties, 25-26, 39 Guymon, James F., 10, 11, 28, 37 Heitz, Joseph, 46 Heublein, Inc., 15, 42 high density liptoproteins, 15 Hilgard, Eugene W. , 46, 48 88 Hilqardia. 25 Hitch, Charles, 49 Inglenook winery, 1, 39 Ivie, Robert, 41 Jacobs, Julius, 20 Japanese fermentation industry, 3 Joslyn, Maynard A., 25, 36, 38 Journal of the International Wine and Food Society. 8 Kasimatis, Amand N. , 26, 30 Katz, Morris, 46 Kerr, Clark, 49 Keyes, David, 17 Kishaba, A. A., 36 Klatsky, Arthur, 15 Kliewer, W. Mark, 12, 37, 47 Korbel winery, 40 Kunkee, Ralph E., 10, 37 Lake, Max, 9 Larkmead winery, 40 Le Magnen, Leake, Chauncey D. , 4 Lee, Russell, 19 Library Associates, UC Davis, 7, 30 Lider, Lloyd A. , 26, 30, 37 Lines About Wines. 8 Lucia, Salvatore P., 4, 14, 19 Lunardi, Paul, 18 maceration carbonique. 2, 3 Madrone winery, 41 Marcus, Irving, 8 Marsh, George, 38 Martini, Louis M. , winery, 40 Martini, Louis P., 46 Marvel, Tom, 39 Mayacamas Vineyards, 1 Mayo Clinic symposium, 8 McConnell, John, 30-31 mechanized harvesting, 33-34 89 medical research, 14-17, 19 Methods for Analysis of Musts and Wine. Microbial Technology. 9 Mondavi, Robert, 46 Mothers Against Drunk Driving, 17 Mrak, Emil, 18 Muscatine, Doris, 27 Napa Valley, 50 Napa Valley Technical group, 2 Napa Valley Vintners, 15 Napa Valley Wine Library, 1, 30 National Agriculture Library, 31-32 National Distillers Corporation, 41 Nelson, Klayton E., 26, 30, 37 Noble, Anne C. , 2, 12 Nuri, Massud S., 46 O'Reilly, Robert A., 15 Office International du Vin, 4 Ohio Grape and Wine Short Course, 3 Olmo, Harold P., 11, 21, 37 Ough, Cornelius S., 3, 9, 10, 23, 26, 36, 37, 38 Pangborn, Rose M. , 2, 23, 34, 35, 38 Pasteur meeting, 30, 31 Permanente Foundation, 15 Peynaud, Emile, 24 Phaff, Herman, 7, 9, 38 Posert, Harvey, 41, 42, 43 Principles and Practices of Winemakinq. 10 Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food. 23 Prohibition, 19 region system, 46-47 Remy Martin-Schramsberg brandy, 28 Roessler, Edward B. , 4, 23, 24, 34, 35, 36-37 Root, George, 37 Roseworthy College, 10 90 St. Pierre, Brian, 42, 43, 45 San Francisco Chronicle. 4 San Joaquin Valley Technical group, 2 San Martin winey, 41 Saxon, David, 49 Schneider, Patricia (Patty), 17, 18, 19 Scholten, Paul, 18, 38 Schoonmaker, Frank, 38, 39-41 Schramsberg Vineyards. See Remy Martin-Schramsberg brandy Seguin, G. , 48 Self ridge, Thomas C. , 8 "Senses and Sensory Evaluation of Wine, The," 10 sensory evaluation, 4, 10, 11, 23-24, 34-35, 36-37 Sensory Evaluation of Wine. The. 11 Serlis, Harry, 8, 14, 41 Setrakian, Robert, 43 Silverman, Milton, 4, Simon, Andre L. , 8 Simonson, Miss , 1 Singleton, Vernon L. , soil studies, 47-48 solera system, 34, 37 Sparks, Thomas C. , 36, 38 Stewart, George, 35, 38 Story of Wine in California. The. 8 Students Against Drunk Driving, 17 sulphur dioxide, 19-20 19 6, 10, 23, 36, 37 Table Wines. 25 Technical Advisory Committee, Technology of Winemakina. The, Terroir de France. 48 This Uncommon Heritage. 8 Thompson, Bob, 27 Travers , Robert , 1 Tribune, Jack, 6 Turner, Thomas, 16 Twight, Edmund H. , 37 20 9, 25, 28 United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 21 University of California, Davis, passim Universitrv of California-Sotheby Book of California Wine. 27, 46, 47 Uses of Wine in Medical Practice. 4 91 varietal labeling, 38 vermouth , 6,9 Vermouth. An Annotated Bibliography. vineyard costs, 25 viticultural areas, 48 Vitis. 12 Wagner, Philip M. , 46 Weaver, Robert J. , 37 Webb, A. Dinsmoor, 3, 10, 11, 36, 37 Wente Bros, winery, 40 Wheeler, Louise, 5 Wine Advisory Board, 14 Wine. An Introduction. 8 "Wine and Human Nutrition," 4 Wine and Must Analysis. 3 wine auctions, 27-28 Wine in America. 8 Wine Industry Technical Symposium (WITS) 3, 20 Wine Institute, 14, 16, 17-18, 20, 29, 41-46 Wine Into Words. 29 wine judgings, 27 Wine Making at Home. 38 Wine Technology Conferences, 26 Winegrowers of California, 16-17, 18, 20 Wines and Vines. 25 Wines. Their Sensory Evaluation. 4 Winkler, Albert J., 12, 25-26, 35, 37, 39, 46-47 World Encyclopedia of Wine. 9 Yavno , Max 8 Grapes mentioned in the interview Chardonnay, 13, 26 Green Velt liner, 41 Pinot noir, 48 Ruth Teiser Born in Portland, Oregon; came to the Bay Area in 1932 and has lived here ever since. Stanford University, B.A., M.A. in English; further graduate work in Western history. Newspaper and magazine writer in San Francisco since 1943, writing on local history and business and social life of the Bay Area. Book reviewer for the San Francisco Chronicle, 1943-1974. Co-author of Winemaking in California, a history, 1982. An interviewer-editor in the Regional Oral History Office since 1965.