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Regional Oral History Office University of California 

The Bancroft Library Berkeley, California 

The Wine Spectator California Winemen Oral History Series 

Maynard A. Amerine 

With an Introduction by 
Doris Muscatine 

An Interview Conducted by 

Ruth Teiser 

in 1985 

Copyright 1988 by The Regents of the University of California 

San Francisco Chronicle 
March 13, 1998 

Moynard Amerine 

Maynard Amerine, a retired- 
University of California enologist 
who was one of the pioneers of Cal-~ 
if ornia's wine industry, died Wed 
nesday at his home in St. Helena. 
Mr. Amerine, who had been hi 
failing health because of Alzheim 
er's disease, was 86. He was the sec 
ond major figure in the wine in 
dustry to die this week. On Tues 
day, Jack Davies, the owner of 
"Schramsberg Vineyards, died in . 
CaUstoga at the age of 74 

Td feel a lot better if some of 
our industry would just keep on 
living," Robert Mondavi, the chair 
man of Robert Mondavi Winery, 
said yesterday, saddened by the 
deaths of two men he had known a 
long time. "I knew Maynard from 
the beginning , and he was an inspi 
ration to all of us. He stimulated all 
of us.". 

Where Mr. Davies was known 
as an innovator in the nascent 
world of California champagne, 
Mr. Amerine's fame stemmed 
from his work over nearly 40 years 
in the scientific world of winemak- 

In 1936, Mr. Amerine joined the 
faculty at the Department of Viti 
culture (now the department of Vi 
ticulture and Enology) at UC Da 
vis, at a time when the nation was 
trying to recover from the austere 
effects of Prohibition. 

The wine industry was practi 
cally moribund, equipment was 
sparsely available and there was 
only a handful of good grapes in 

" "People had forgotten all they 
knew before about California 
wine," Mr. Amerine said years lat 
er. But the blank slate inspired Mr. 

Amerine to experiment and seek 
new ways to breathe lif e back into 
the industry. 

What made Mr. Amerine stand 
out in the field of wine men, as 
they were called 60 years ago, was 
his ability to see California and its 
regional climates and micro-cli 
mates as ideal for growing wine 

In 1938, Mr. Amerine and an 
other UC Davis professor, Albert 
Winkler, used climate conditions 
to classify California's wine-grow 
ing regions into five districts, from 
Region I, the coolest districts, 
which are near the coast, to Region 
V, in the San Joaquin Valley, with 
its intense heat 

"Those five growing regions 
are still used (as benchmarks) hi 
the industry," Ted Edwards, the 
winemaker at Freemark Abbey 
Winery, in St Helena, said yester 
day. "It's still a tool. He was a pio 
neer, a true patriarch of the mod 
ern-day industry, hi terms of giv 
ing us tools from an academic 
point of view on how to go about 
making wine." 

Mondavi said "I built my whole 
business" on Mr. Amerine's books 
on wine-making. "If you followed 
that, you could not help but do an 
outstanding job. I used (them) as 
my Bible." 

Mr. Amerine wrote "Table 
Wines: The Technology of their 
Production," (with MA Joslyn), 
and several books on sensory eval 
uation of wine. Perhaps his best 
known book is the "University of 
California/Sotheby Book of Cali 
fornia Wine," co-edited with Bob 
Thompson and Doris Muscatine 
and published hi 1984 

During World War U, Mr. 
Amerine served in the Army, 

where he was a major in the Chem 
ical Warfare Service, stationed in 
Algeria and India. 

Mr. Amerine was a member of 
numerous wine and food organiza 
tions and frequently traveled to 
Europe and South America to con 
sult for wineries, judge interna 
tional wine contests and give 
speeches on wine history. Like Mr. 
Davies, he was also a member of 
the Bohemian Club. 

Services for Mr. Amerine will 
be at 11 a.m., Wednesday, at Grace 
Episcopal Church, 1314 Spring 
Street, St. Helena. 

Mr. Amerine, who was not mar 
ried, is survived by three cousins 
Richard Amerine, Mervyn 
Amerine and Bill Amerine, all of 
the Modesto area. 

Michael Taylor 

ca. 1978 

Photograph by Wines & Vines 

Since 1954 the Regional Oral History Office has been interviewing 
leading participants in or well -placed witnesses to major events in the 
development of Northern California, the West, and the Nation. Oral 
history is a modern research technique involving an interviewee and an 
informed interviewer in spontaneous conversation. The taped record is 
transcribed, lightly edited for continuity and clarity, and reviewed by 
the interviewee. The resulting manuscript is typed in final form, 
indexed, bound with photographs and illustrative materials, and placed in 
The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley and other 
research collections for scholarly use. Because it is primary material, 
oral history is not intended to present the final, verified, or complete 
narrative of events. It is a spoken account, offered by the interviewee 
in response to questioning, and as such it is reflective, partisan, 
deeply involved, and irreplaceable. 

All uses of this manuscript are covered by a legal 
agreement between the University of California and 
Maynard A. Amerine dated 26 September 1988. The manuscript 
is thereby made available for research purposes. All 
literary rights in the manuscript, including the right to 
publish, are reserved to The Bancroft Library of the 
University of California, Berkeley. No part of the 
manuscript may be quoted for publication without the written 
permission of the Director of The Bancroft Library of the 
University of California, Berkeley. 

Request for permission to quote for publication should 
be addressed to the Regional Oral History Office, 486 
Library, University of California, Berkeley 94720, and 
should include identification of the specific passages to be 
quoted, anticipated use of the passages, and identification 
of the user. The legal agreement with Maynard A. Amerine 
requires that he be notified of the request and allowed 
thirty days in which to respond. 

It is recommended that this oral history be cited as 

Maynard A. Amerine, "Wine Bibliographies 
and Taste Perception Studies." an oral 
history conducted 1985 by Ruth Teiser, 
Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft 
Library, University of California, 
Berkeley, 1988. 

Copy no . 

TABLE OF CONTENTS Maynard A. Amerine 


INTRODUCTION by Doris Muscatine v 




Enology and Viticulture at Davis, 1971-1974 1 

Wines, Their Sensory Evaluation 4 

Biographies 5 

Analytical Publications 9 

Changes at Davis 11 

Medical Research on Wine 14 

Wine Advertising 16 

Countering the Anti-Alcohol Movement 17 

The Sulfur Dioxide Problem 19 

Organizations 20 

International Influences 21 

Improvements in Grapes and Wines 24 

Field Work with Winkler 25 

Prices, Judgings, and Auctions 27 

Brandy 28 

Work in Progress 29 

Wine Books in Libraries 30 
Mechanized Harvesting 

Collaborators 34 

Frank Schoonmaker 39 

John De Luca 41 

The Grape-Growing Region System 46 

Soils and Vines 47 

Viticultural Areas 48 

Retirement Work 49 


APPENDIX Bibliography 52 



The California wine industry oral history series, a project of the 
Regional Oral History Office, was initiated in 1969 through the action and 
with the financing of the Wine Advisory Board, a state marketing order 
organization which ceased operation in 1975. In 1983 it was reinstituted as 
The Wine Spectator California Winemen Oral History Series with donations from 
The Wine Spectator Scholarship Foundation. The selection of those to be 
interviewed is made by a committee consisting of James D. Hart, director of 
The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley; John A. De Luca, 
president of the Wine Institute, the statewide winery organization; Maynard 
A. Amerine, Emeritus Professor of Viticulture and Enology, University of 
California, Davis; Jack L. Davies, the 1985 chairman of the board of directors 
of the Wine Institute; Ruth Teiser, series project director; and Marvin R. 
Shanken, trustee of The Wine Spectator Scholarship Foundation. 

The purpose of the series is to record and preserve information on 
California grape growing and wine making that has existed only in the memories 
of wine men. In some cases their recollections go back to the early years of 
this century, before Prohibition. These recollections are of particular value 
because the Prohibition period saw the disruption of not only the industry 
itself but also the orderly recording and preservation of records of its 
activities. Little has been written about the industry from late in the last 
century until Repeal. There is a real paucity of information on the 
Prohibition years (1920-1933) , although some commercial wine making did 
continue under supervision of the Prohibition Department. The material in 
this series on that period, as well as the discussion of the remarkable 
development of the wine industry in subsequent years (as yet treated 
analytically in few writings) will be of aid to historians. Of particular 
value is the fact that frequently several individuals have discussed the same 
subjects and events or expressed opinions on the same ideas, each from his 
own point of view. 

Research underlying the interviews has been conducted principally in 
the University libraries at Berkeley and Davis, the California State Library, 
and in the library of the Wine Institute, which has made its collection of in 
many cases unique materials readily available for the purpose. 

Three master indices for the entire series are being prepared, one of 
general subjects, one of wines, one of grapes by variety. These will be 
available to researchers at the conclusion of the series in the Regional Oral 
History Office and at the library of the Wine Institute. 


The Regional Oral History Office was established to tape record 
autobiographical interviews with persons who have contributed significantly 
to recent California history. The office is headed by Willa K. Baum and is 
under the administrative supervision of James D. Hart, the director of 
The Bancroft Library. 

Ruth Teiser 
Project Director 
The Wine Spectator California 
Winemen Oral History Series 

10 September 1984 
Regional Oral History Office 
486 The Bancroft Library 
University of California, Berkeley 


Interviews Completed by 1988 

Leon D. Adams. Revitalizing the California Wine Industry 1974 

Maynard A. Amerine. The University of California and the State's Wine 
Industry 1971 

Maynard A. Amerine. Wine Bibliographies and Taste Perception Studies 
1988 " 

Philo Biane, Wine Making in Southern California and Recollections of 
Fruit Industries. Inc. 1972 

John B. Cella, The Cella Family in the California Wine Industry 1986 

Burke H. Critchfield. Carl F. Wente, and Andrew G. Frericks. The 

California Wine Industry During the Depression 1972 

William V. Cruess, A Half Century of Food and Wine Technology 1967 

William A. Dieppe, Almaden is My Life 1985 

Alfred Fromm. Marketing California Wine and Brandy 1984 

Joseph E. Heitz. Creating a Winery in the Napa Valley 1986 

Maynard A. Joslyn. A Technologist Views the California Wine Industry 
197 4~~ 

Amandus N. Kasimatis, A Career in California Viticulture 1988 

Horace 0. Lanza and Harry Baccigaluppi, California Grape Products and 
Other Wine Enterprises 1971 

Louis M. Martini and Louis P. Martini. Wine Making in the Napa Valley 

Louis P. Martini, A Family Winery and the California Wine Industry 


Otto E. Meyer. California Premium Wines and Brandy 1973 

Norbert C. Mirassou and Edmund A. Mirassou, The Evolution of a Santa Clara 
Valley Winery 1986 

Robert Mondavi, Creativity in the Wine Indsutry 1985 

Myron S. Nightingale, Making Wine in California. 1944-1987 1988 

Harold P. Olmo, Plant Genetics and New Grape Varieties 1976 


Antonio Perelli-Minetti. A Life in Wine Making 1975 

Louis A. Petri, The Petri Family in the Wine Industry 1971 

Jefferson E. Peyser. The Lav and the California Wine Industry 197A 

Lucius Powers. The Fresno Area and the California Wine Industry 1974 

Victor Repetto and Sydney J. Block. Perspectives on California Wines 

Edmund A. Rossi. Italian Swiss Colony and the Wine Industry 1971 

Arpaxat Setrakian, A. Setrakian. A Leader of the San Joaquin Valley Grape 
Industry 1977 

Elie C. Skofis, California Wine and Brandy Maker 1988 

Andre Teh el ist chef f . Grapes. Wine, and Ecology 1983 

Brother Timothy. The Christian Brothers as Wine Makers 197 A 

Ernest A. Wente. Wine Making in the Livermore Valley 1971 

Albert J. Winkler. Viticultural Research at UC Davis (1921-1971) 1973 

INTRODUCTION by Doris Muscatine 

Anyone who has ever known, worked with, read the writings of, or been 
the student of Maynard A. Amerine and that includes almost everybody 
who has had anything to do with California wine since Prohibition will 
take pleasure in this interview, a sequel to an earlier oral biography in 
the Bancroft collection. For those readers for whom this is an introduction, 
it provides an account of the evolution of the California wine industry 
during a period of enormous growth, and highlights the role that the 
University of California and Maynard Amerine played in that development. 

Amerine's discussion starts with the changes in enology and viticulture 
at Davis in the early Seventies, but his consummate knowledge of wine 
history, its development in California, legal shenanigans, politics, 
principal personalities, the influence of technological developments and 
the emerging predominance of the University, give a much broader picture 
of the state's burgeoning industry. 

The scope of Amerine's work, recounted in straightforward reminis 
cences and equally uninhibited commentary, ranges through his research on 
carbonic maceration (he has never found a wine made by this method with 
which he was thoroughly pleased) to his debunking of such myths as the 
invention of varietal labeling by Frank Schoonmaker ("mainly malarky"; 
there was active varietal labeling in California in the 1890s). He does, 
however, give Schoonmaker his due for applying the idea in a big way. 

Amerine's view that all soil is fundamentally the same as far as 
grapes are concerned drainage and temperature retention being other 
factors entirely may surprise some. His work with A. J. Winkler on 
defining grape growing regions by the differences in their average heat 
summations, a major viticultural contribution, is only a beginning, in 
Amerine's view. He envisions many refinements, because "good research 
always reveals more problems than you can solve." 

As Amerine talks about his research, his teaching, his students and 
colleagues, the books he has written on everything from wine must 
analysis and sensory evaluation to varietal labeling and wine making at 
home he gives generous credits to all of his collaborators, from 
graduate student to professor. As he details his international travels, 
his lectures, speeches, testimony and consultations on behalf of wine, he 
emerges as its tireless and passionate advocate, meanwhile providing us a 
rich historical context. 

Although his current activities belie the fact that he is now "retired," 
he reports that there is a bit more time to enjoy some of his other passions: 
opera, the Bohemian Club, his work on bibliography. He also likes living 


in Napa, where he moved on his retirement from Davis because he had 
observed too many emeriti who stayed around sometimes saying things that 
were not helpful. 

As this history makes abundantly clear, Amerine's career has spanned 
every aspect of the wine industry, and his contributions to it are 
incalculable. The energy and enthusiasm that this report conveys are 
summed up best is his own words: "Obviously, I will never be completely 
retired." What a good thing for us all. 

Doris Muscatine 

27 September 1988 
Berkeley, California 



This interview is in effect a continuation of that completed in 1971 
titled The University of California and the State's Wine Industry. Because 
he had been active in the wine industry following his retirement from the 
Department of Viticulture and Enology at Davis to emeritus status in 1974, 
it was considered important to record an account of his further work. He 
had continued writing and editing, producing a number of important books 
and articles dealing with various aspects of wine, most notably establishing 
a scientific basis for wine tasting (Wines; Their Sensory Evaluation, in 
collaboration with Edward B. Roessler.) With Doris Muscatine and 
Bob Thompson he had edited the landmark University of Calif ornia/Sotheby 
Book of California Wine which was published in 1984. In 1974-75 he was 
consultant to the Wine Advisory Board. After its discontinuation he 
became consultant to the Wine Institute, dealing mainly with health issues. 

This interview was held in two sessions, the first on February 11, 1985, 
in his office at the Wine Institute, the second on September 11 of the same 
year, following his retirement from the Wine Institute position. It was 
held also at the Wine Institute but in the employees' coffee room which, as 
the tape recording progressed, went from silence to noisy with the clanking 
of cups and the rumble of ambient conversation. Nevertheless, Professor 
Amerine continued, characteristically, to express well thought out discussions 
of the list of subjects presented to him in writing prior to the interview. 
And he made meticulous corrections and additions to the transcript. 

Ruth Teiser 

15 September 1988 

Regional Oral History Office 

486 The Bancroft Library 

University of California at Berkeley 

Regional Oral History Office University of California 

Room 486 The Bancroft Library lx Berkeley, California 94720 

(Please write clearly. Use black ink.) 

Your full name Maynard A. Amerine 

Date of birth Oct. 30, 1911 Birthplace San Jose, Calif. 

Father's full name Roy R. Amerine 

Occupation farmer Birthplace Maryville. Tenn. 

Mother's full name Tennie D. Amerine 

Occupation housewife Birthplace " " 

Your spouse none 

Your children none 

Where did you grow up? Madera and Modesto, Calif. 

Present community St. Helena, Calif. 94574 

Education B.S. and Ph.D., Univ. Calif. Berkeley 

, . retired 

Areas of expertise enology, sensory evaluation of foods 

Other interests or activities 

Organizations in which you are active Bohemian Club, S.F. 

Etiology and Viticulture at Davis, 1971-1974 
[Interview 1: 11 February 1985]## 

Teiser Today we are picking up on your activities since January 1971, 
when we finished recording your earlier oral history. 

Amerine: The title of the first oral biography was "The University of 
California and the State's Wine Industry." I will keep that 
theme for this interview. In the University I have done a lot 
of things that didn't have anything to do with the wine industry 
and therefore they don't properly belong in this biography. 

There are, however, 
here, which deserve to be 
of Mayacamas, made a tape 
wine industry and Amerine 
has been transcribed and 
Wine Library. Also, for 
tape on John Daniel [Jr.] 
University. That tape is 

two other tapes that I will refer to 
in the record. Mr. [Robert] Travers, 
several years ago on the Napa Valley 
's recollections thereof. That tape 
is (or is to be) in the Napa Valley 
a Miss Simonson, at Inglenook, I made a 
, the Inglenook Winery, and the 
kept at the Inglenook winery. 

The history of 1971-1974 can be summarized as far as my 
duties vis a vis the wine industry. There was an enormous 
increase among students at the University majoring in enology 
and viticulture. This started around 1971. Enology classes 
which normally had five to ten suddenly had fifty to seventy. 
This increased the teaching load in the two upper division 
classes that I was teaching at that time, one on analysis of 
wines and the other on sensory evaluation of wines. This 
involved considerable time because, particularly in the sensory 
evaluation section, we had to split the laboratories, and it 

##This symbol indicates that a tape or a segment of a tape has 
begun or ended. For a guide to the tapes see page 51. 

Amerine: ended up that in 1974 I was teaching five sections of 

laboratories, two evenings per week and three afternoons per 
week, just in the laboratories for that one course--plus the 
laboratory for the analysis course. (The laboratory for my Food 
Science course was largely handled by Professor Rose M. 
Pangborn. ) In addition to that I was teaching two freshman 
courses, one in viticulture and one in food science. 

Obviously research suffered, and I was using my technician 
for preparing solutions and doing a lot of things that had to be 
done for classes. Fortunately, I had given notice of my 
retirement in '72, two years ahead of time, and the University 
brought on my successor a year early, Dr. [Ann C. ] Noble. So 
she did get to help in the class in the spring of '74, which 
gave her an introduction to the sensory analysis of wine, and 
also relieved me of reading lots of papers and examinations. I 
had in the sensory course laboratory reports with a lot of the 
statistical analysis of the data and so forth, and Doug Fong, 
who was my technician, also helped in this. Otherwise I 
couldn't possibly have taken care of the courses. 

In addition to that, the University in its delayed largesse 
decided that with this big increase in enrollment we would be 
able to have teaching assistants in Agriculture. There had been 
very few teaching assistants in Agriculture before that. These 
had been reserved for the big courses in the College of Letters 
and Science, and Agriculture people were supposed to only have 
one course. .Well, I was teaching five courses a year and 
obviously I could make a strong case for having a teaching 
assistant. So I had a teaching assistant in Food Science two 
of them in Food Science--and I had two teaching assistants in 
enology during the period when we had big classes. 

There was a considerable amount of field work still going 
on. The Napa Valley Technical group, I remember going to during 
this period several times, and also the San Joaquin Valley 
Technical group, which I believe is almost gone by now. 

I took a sabbatical in residence in 1973 for six months, 
and used that to visit wineries throughout the state. That 
report was never written, although it does exist in manuscript. 
It has to do with what people in the industry considered to be 
the major problems of growing grapes and making wine as of 1973. 

I did keep some research going. We were working on 
"maceration carbonique" (or "carbonic maceration" if you wish) 
and published some papers in the American Journal of Enology. 
The results were not favorable to the process, and I still have 
to find a wine so produced that fully pleases me. There were 

Amerine: also several papers on addition of acid to musts. Some wines 
were improved, some not. 

As part of the field work during this period in 1973, I 
made a trip to Osaka to participate in the dedicatory speeches 
for the Central Research Institute of Suntory. There were four 
of us that gave speeches at that one. Mine was on current 
wine-making practices in California. Also that year we 
published the book Wine and Must Analysis, Amerine and 
[Cornelius S.] Ough, which was really the lecture notes for the 
course in wine analysis which I mentioned just before. 

There was also a trip to Ohio to participate in the "Ohio 
Grape and Wine Short Course" in 1973. The proceedings of that 
were published in 1974. There were two speeches there. One was 
on "American Wines for Americans," which was a plea for them to 
make better wines out of the hybrids and the eastern grapes, and 
the other was "New Methods of Wine-making," which I spoke about 
maceration carbonique. 

Then, on the basis of the Japanese trip, I gave a talk on 
the Japanese fermentation industry. It was published by the 
WITS [Wine Industry Technical Symposium] conference of November 
1974. That speech, in fact, was a plea for the wine industry to 
do more research. I pointed out that the Japanese fermentation 
industry was going to rule the fermentation world eventually, 
because they were doing so much fundamental research in 
fermentation that they would control the production of amino 
acids and all kinds of antibiotics. That certainly came true. 
I used Chem[ical] Abstracts as a proof that that was what was 
going to happen. It's still true that the Japanese fermentation 
industry produces more patents on fermentation processes than 
all the rest of the world put together! 

Also in 1974 I participated in the symposium for the 
American Chemical Society in Dallas, Texas. It was chaired by 
Professor A. D. Webb of our department. In the speech I made 
some prognoses of the future of wine analysis. That was 
published in the American Chemical Society's Advances in 
Chemistry series. 

We also did work on analyses for citric acid in wines 
during that period. There were also a couple of articles in 
encyclopedias. There was even an article on American wines in a 
Yugoslavian book in Serbo-Croatian! The wine analysis book was 
published in Spanish in 1976, in Spain. 

Wines, Their Sensory Evaluation 

Amerine: In 1976 the textbook for the sensory evaluation course in 

Enology at Davis was published by Freeman. It was Amerine and 
[Edward B.] Roessler's book, Wines, Their Sensory Evaluation. 
This gave us a textbook to give to the students in that course 
and, in addition, was intended to be of use to the whole 
industry. That book went into a second edition in 1983. That's 
had a pretty good sale and is, I think, useful to the industry. 
The statistical part of the book frightened many people, but as 
I read the tastings of the various groups that are being 
published in various journals nowadays, I realize that, in many 
cases, the results don't have any statistically valid meaning. 
As an example of this, the San Francisco Chronicle a few years 
ago published the results of a tasting of eighteen bottled 
waters available in San Francisco. Fortunately, they gave the 
rankings of each of the ten judges. Roessler analyzed the data 
and showed that there was no difference between any of the 
waters except one. There was only one water that was better 
than the others statistically. We never did write the Chronicle 
about that, but-- 

Teiser: They didn't use the data properly, is that right? 

Amerine: They didn't analyze it. They just added the ranks, but there 
was no difference between the results, except for one, the 
variability in ranks between judges was so great. 

Also, as still a part of the field work, after the Ohio 
conference which I went to in 1973 or 1974, I then went to 
Pennsylvania for a wine conference in 1977. I spoke about 
quality standards and quality control for the small winery. 
That was published in the proceedings of that conference. I 
also had to give a dinner speech on wine appreciation, which was 
not published. 

In 1977 the most important paper that I gave was in French, 
"Wine and Human Nutrition," for the international symposium at 
Avignon, sponsored by the Office International du Vin [OIV]. 
That was published in the bulletin of the OIV in 1977, and was 
an attempt to bring up to date as far as nutrition was concerned 
the Silverman/Leake book on wine and health,* and also the 
seventh edition of Lucia's Uses of Wine in Medical Practice. 
This was reprinted in Spanish in Buenos Aires in 1979. 

*Chauncey D. Leake and Milton Silverman, Alcoholic Beverages in 
Clinical Medicine. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 
Inc. 1966. 

Amerine: I'll talk about the wine industry in a few minutes, and I'll 
come back to this particular subject then. 

I went to the American Wine Society to get a "Man of the 
Year" award in 1977, and talked about [the future of] American 
wines in 1995. That's published in the American Wine Society 
Journal , Volume 8, 1977. I don't know that I really contributed 
very much; prophecy is a difficult art. 


Amerine: Prior to 1974, when I left the University, I had published three 
bibliographies. The first one was right after the War, and was 
published by the University of California Press, with Louise 
Wheeler, who was the reference librarian at Davis. That was 
intended to be all the books and bulletins on grapes and wines 
that we could find from 1938 to 1948, from around the world. 
The reason for that was that World War II cut the United States 
off from getting books from behind the Iron Curtain, or getting 
books from any place in Europe. So there was a whole new 
generation of enologists and viticul turalis ts that had grown up 
without any contact with the European research and books that 
had been published during that period. 

That book didn't sell very well. It got a prize from the 
American Library Association, which didn't pay anything, I 
might say, but it looked good on Louise's University records. 
Really, there should have been an addendum published to that. I 
have two or three hundred cards that we didn't find at that 
time, which have since come to light based on trips that I've 
made to libraries in Europe and so forth, particularly since 
quite a lot of the Russian literature wasn't available to us in 

Somewhat earlier I had given a talk to the American Society 
of Enologists called "The Educated Enologist."* I use the old 
dictum that "the educated enologist is not one who knows 
everything, but who knows where to find it when he needs it." 
I appended a list of the hundred books and articles on grape 
growing and winemaking that I thought every educated enologist 
should be familiar with. that was really my first bibliography 
intended for California enologists. I hoped that they would 
become aware of the fact that there was more to the wine and 

*Proceedings of the American Society of Enologists, 1951: 1-30. 

Amerine: grape growing business than just what was published in English 
in California. I don't think that it had the expected value, 
except that the list was reprinted and used as a handout for 
students for several years. I always told students they should 
learn at least one foreign language, either French or German, 
because that was where the most significant literature was. 
That's probably still true, but modern abstract services in 
English have helpd the student follow the foreign literature. 

Then Dick [Richard] Blanchard, the University librarian at 
Davis, persuaded me to produce a handout for the California 
Library Association who were going to meet in Sacramento. There 
was a lot of interest in grapes and wines, and they were going 
to visit the campus. I then produced the first checklist of 
books and pamphlets on grapes and wines, just in English, for 
the period 1949-1959. The second was for 1960-1968 and included 
additions to the 1949-1959 list. These were quite significant 
publications; I see there are 61 pages in the first list and 84 
pages in the 1960-1968 list. There is a manuscript that's not 
yet published for 1968-1975. It's a nice list, ready to go when 
I'm ready to do it, and includes further additions to the 
earlier lists. 

Further on bibliography, in 1971 Amerine and [Vernon L.] 
Singleton published with the University Agricultural 
publications a bibliography of bibliographies on grapes and 
wines and related subjects. That ran to 39 pages, and was 
intended for enologists to be able to look up the literature if 
they wished.* 

At a later date the University received funds from Jack 
Tribune to work on vermouth. I published in 1973, in Italy in 
English but in an Italian journal, a multilingual dictionary of 
vermouth ingredients. At that time it wasn't possible--if you 
could read an Italian list of ingredients for vermouthto find 
the equivalent English words for many of them. This list was in 
six languages, the proper word for each one of these 
ingredients. That was, I think, of some help. 

While I was doing that I got interested in the vermouth 
literature, and we then published two bibliographies in 1973 and 
1974. One was an annotated bibliography on vermouth with 
biochemical references that is, the composition of the vermouth 
ingredients [1973]. That ran to 312 leaves. At the same time 
we had done just an annotated bibliography on vermouth, which 
ran 213 leaves. That had to do primarily with the vermouth 
business and how big it got, and so forth [1974]. 

*This has been updated and revised up to 1988. M.A.A. 

Amerine: In 1980, when we held the one hundredth anniversary of the 
University work on grapes and wine, the Library Associates, 
which is a support group for the library at Davis, asked Herman 
Phaff and I if we would do a checklist of all the publications 
published on all the campuses of the University from 1880 to 
1980 that had to do with grapes and wines. That was a great big 
"white elephant," and I should have been smarter than to get 
into it. It took a lot of my time and a lot of Herman's time, 
also. Fortunately, we work together very well. There have been 
publications from practically every campus of the University, 
and certainly from Berkeley and Davis, from many departments. 
It runs through over three thousand items now, and is in the 
computer and will be published [in 1986]. There were some 
people that went to the conference, which would be five years 
ago last April, who paid ten dollars for the bibliography. We 
thought we'd do it in six months; instead it's taken five years. 

Teiser: They sent the money back. 

Amerine: They sent the money back already? Oh, really, I didn't know 
they did that. Anyway, it's going to be published by the 
University Press, under a new series called "Bibliographic 
Studies." They finally got the money for the bibliography, and 
this will be, I think, the first one in the series. 

Two reasons for the time it took: one, we canvassed all 
the departments and asked them to send us lists. Surprisingly 
enough, none of the lists was complete. People forget that they 
wrote articles, and so forth and so on. Second, there were some 
that didn't send anything in. ## 

Amerine: Anyway, that was one reason. At first we typed it. Then the 
Library Associates felt that wasn't pretty enough to publish, 
and besides, it would involve a lot of indexing and so forth. 
If they put it on a computer, that all comes off automatically. 
You don't have to alphabetize all the authors and junior 
authors. Every article had to have a subject index. There were 
two or three subjects for some papers. That all had to be done 
by hand and then entered in the computer. But that is in the 
works at the present time, and should be out shortly.* 

Teiser: I keep reaching for it. I hope it will be. 
Amerine: We've seen the tape, so we know what it looks like. 

*It was published in Spring 1987 under the title Bibliography of 
Publications by the Faculty, Staff and Students of the 
University of California, 1876-1980, on Grapes, Wines, and 
Related Subjects. 

Amerine i 

Amerine ; 


In bibliography I also wrote an article about [Andre L.] Simon 
in the Journal of the International Wine and Food Society in 
1978, trying to show what his bibliographical contributions 

Continuing on the publication list: the second edition of 
Wine , An Introduction, was published in 1977. I noticed from 
the last printout that there've been nearly fifty thousand 
copies of the second edition printed. 

Let me ask you to clarify the title change. 

It used to be Wine, An Introduction for Americans; that was the 
first edition. The second edition was just Wine, An 
Introduction. The reason for it was that the Press felt, why 
would anybody in other parts of the world want it if it said, 
"for Americans"? So they dropped the "for Americans." 

The last of my graduate students, [Meridith] Edwards and 
[Thomas B.] Selfridge, were working in 1974. One of them was 
working on lead in wine, and the other was working on odor 
threshhold. Those studies were both published in the American 
Journal of Enology in 1977 and 1978. 

Were you co-author? 

Yes. Meredith Edwards is a winemaker and co-owner of a winery 
now, and Tom Selfridge is the president of Beaulieu [1986]. 

In other publications, such as the article that was 
published in the Scientific American in 1964 and reprinted in 
Spanish in 1977, there were references to the literature. (See 
also CRC critical Reviews in Food Technology 2:407-515, 1972). 

Over the years I wrote several introductions to books. The 
first was for M.F.K. Fisher and Max Yavno 1 s The Story of Wine in 
California in 1962. Another was a foreword to Irving Marcus" 
Lines about Wines in 1971. Another was for Bob [Robert L.] 
Balzer's This Uncommon Heritage in 1970, and his Wines in 
California in 1978. There was one for Harry Serlis' Wine in 
America , 1972. There were, of course, a number of introductions 
to The Bancroft Library [Regional Oral History Office] oral 

There are a lot of review articles that have been 
published. For the Mayo Clinic symposium on fermented food 
beverages and nutrition in 1979, I wrote an article on the 
biochemical processes in wine fermentation and aging that was 
published in Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition. That was 
hard work because it involved a lot of biochemistry. 

Amerine: Over the years the American Society of Heating and Refrigeration 
and Air Conditioning Engineers (that's ASHRAE) published a 
handbook with a section on winemaking. For the last ten or 
fifteen years I edited and updated that section. I've turned 
that over to a staff member at Davis. 

Herman Phaff and I wrote a journal article on wine in 
Microbial Technology in 1979. 

Of the three vermouth bibliographies that I mentioned 
before, two were typescripts, and they're in the department 
library and in the main library at Davis. In 1974 the Division 
of Agricultural Sciences published Vermouth, An Annotated 
Bibliography, which was printed and sold. 

Teiser: That you yourself prepared? 

Amerine: That I had taken out of those other publications and annotated. 

Here's another preface to a book--a preface to Max Lake's 
book on Cabernet, published in 1977. Max Lake wrote a book 
called Cabernet, Notes of an Australian Wineman. I don't think 
he was too happy about my introduction. I also wrote another 
introduction to another book of his, The Flavour of Wine 
(1969). That one I think he did like" 

Here's an article on American wines, in the World 
Encyclopedia of Wine, in Italian. I think I got one hundred 
dollars for that one. 

Analytical Publications 

Amerine: In 1980 the Analysis of Must in Wines book was redone into a 
second edition with a slightly different title; therefore it 
doesn't say "second edition." It's Amerine and Ough, Methods 
for Analysis of Musts and Wine, published by John Wiley and 
Sons. That is still in print. It's a big book, 341 pages. It 
needs to be redone, and I hope that some day it will be redone.* 

Also in 1980, long after I was retired, we did the fourth 
edition of The Technology of Winemaking by Avi Publishing Co. 
Professor [Harold W.] Berg and I did not want to rewrite it, and 
we both knew that we would never do it again. We brought four 

*A second edition was published in 1988. 


Amerine: members of the staff in to write different chapters. [Ralph E. ] 
Kunkee, Ough, Singleton, and [A. Dinsmoor] Vebb were the other 
four authors. It was originally to include [James F.] Guymon, 
but Guyraon died before he had written anything. So it's 
Amerine, Berg, Kunkee, Ough, Singleton, and Webb. That was 794 
pages, and most of the chapters were pretty thoroughly revised. 
It was fairly well up to date as of 1980. 

Teiser: That's an example of a book that has had an interesting life. 

You described it in the earlier interview, but it started off as 
kind of a pioneering effort, and has changed and changed, has it 

Amerine: Yes. Well, if I didn't put it in the early interview, Professor 
[William V.] Cruess had written before the war Principles and 
Practices of Winemaking. This had two editions. He then 
retired and didn't want to do a third edition himself, so he 
asked me if I would help him do it. there was some concern as 
to whether I should do it or not because I was the department 
chairman and had a lot of other things to do at that time. On 
the other hand, Avi was very anxious to have a new edition. The 
old edition was out of date. It was called "Amerine and 
Cruess," and was called the first edition. The second edition 
was "Amerine, Berg, and Cruess," because again I didn't want to 
do it. The third edition was also "Amerine, Berg, and Cruess." 
Then by the fourth edition, Cruess had passed away and it was 
Amerine, Berg, and these four other authors I had just 

I can tell you the denoument of that. The other four 
people have been asked by Avi either to produce a fifth edition 
or to produce four books under the same general title. My 
experience has been that getting four people to produce four 
books is going to be a lot harder than getting four people to 
produce one book. Whether they're going to do it or not, I 
don 1 t know. 

In 1980 I also went to Australia to give an endowed 
lectureship at Roseworthy College, and lectured there for one 
month. The title of that endowed lectureship was "The Senses 
and Sensory Evaluation of Wines." The lectures were published 
in the Australian Wine, Brewing, and Spirit Review in 1980. The 
only problem was that the references were left off, which was 
regretful . 

Continuing with sensory evaluation: the Academic Press has 
had a series of books on chemical analyses of foods, edited by 
Dr. G. Charlambous. This particular one was called "The 
Analysis and Control of Less Desirable Flavors in Foods and 
Beverages." I wrote a fairly extensive article on the words 
used to describe abnormal appearance, odor, taste, and tactile 
sensations in wine. Unfortunately, that didn't get the 


Amerine: attention it should have because most enologists don't read food 
technology books. However, I eventually had my reward because I 
put some of that material into the second edition of The Sensory 
Evaluation of Wines. 

Teiser: Does that book, do you think, have a kind of ripple effect out 
to the public? 

Amerine: I'm sure it does, because there've been a couple of people who 
claim that I robbed the language of beautiful words: that they 
ought to be allowed to say that wines are "lovely," or 
"feminine," or "masculine," and things like that. So at least 
two columnists read the book! Also I wrote an article which was 
published in the proceedings of the seventh wine training 
conference at Davis in 1981, "Describing Wines in Meaningful 
Words." That was rather a fun article, and I think I got more 
response from the audience than almost any other one that I 

Changes at Davis 

Amerine: So much, then, for what I did as a University professor after 

1971 up to date. Now, you asked the question, "What happened to 
the University when they lost Guymon, Berg, Webb, Olrao, and 
Amerine, all within a short period of time?"* I think that the 
University did very wellas a matter of fact, possibly better 
than they did before! 

Teiser: Let me just interrupt you here if I may. When all of you were 
leaving, industry people were saying, "The University is never 
going to get people as good as they were. There's no interest, 
there are no funds." There was an awful lot of grumbling. 

Amerine: Obviously I heard that, too. Some of my friends would say, "The 
University just couldn't duplicate that," and so forth. That's 
simply not true. If we did our job right, and hired the right 
kind of people, they ought to do at least as well, and possibly 
better than we did. After all, we were starting when the field 
was very new. There was practically no American literature or 
anything like that. We, the staff, certainly created a 
literature, a very big literature. 

Teiser: You did, indeed. 

*The question was asked in writing prior to the interview. 


Amerine: Which is noted all around the world. The books, the journals, 
the viticulture and enology research, and so forth. All those 
constituted a notice that American research in enology and 
viticulture was first-rate. In addition to that, we published 
in Vitis, the German journal which publishes in English and 
German and French. Olmo is one of the editors of that journal. 
A number of us have published in Vitis at various times. In 
fact, the first editor of Vitis was a friend of mine. 

The new staff was bound to have to build on that. You 
can't go backward in science, you have to go forward. I think 
that they have done very well. [Ann C.] Noble, for example, in 
my field carried on an enormous teaching load. There were so 
many students in one class, and she also taught in a class in 
food science. She's had a lot of graduate students and has 
tried many new things, which she should do. The new staff don't 
carry on the same kind of research as we did. Their interests 
are different, their background is different, and so their 
research is justifiably different. 

Teiser: She also does what you did, speaks to groups beyond her 

Amerine: Yes, she comes across clearly in her speaking. 

[W.] Mark Kliewer, in Viticulture, also does. Winkler 

retired you can't replace Winkler--but Mark Kiewer, with the 

new biochemical methods and so forth, has made an enormous 
contribution to viticultural research. He's probably the most 
famous, worldwide, of the present staff in Viticulture. He's 
done sabbaticals in Australia, is well known in the German 
literature, and so forth. 

I'm not sure of the research of others on the staff. I 
don't want to name names. I just name those two because they 
come to mind quickly. They have carried on an enormous teaching 
load, a far bigger teaching load than we had before--not me, but 
more than the other members of the staff. 

Teiser: Have they continued to have teaching assistants? 

Amerine: Oh, yes, the teaching assistants are now well established in 

Teiser: Has enrollment continued high? 
Araerine: Enrollment has continued high. 

Teiser: You mentioned in your earlier interview that you hadn't always 
attracted the quality of students that you had wished. 


Araerine: That's right. That was because they could get a job with 

Standard Oil at three times the price that the wineries were 
paying. That, of course, is one of the reasons we started the 
American Society of Enologists. It was to raise the 
professional standards of the enologists so they would be able 
to command higher salaries. It's been a slow and hard job, but 
in the sixties the industry realized, when the price of grapes 
started going up, that every gallon of wine they lost was a 
significant loss. Now, when you're paying one or two thousand 
dollars a ton for Chardonnay, you can't lose a gallon; therefore 
you can afford to pay thirty-five, forty-five thousand dollars 
for a good enologist. When you start paying forty-five thousand 
dollars for an enologist, you're going to attract ambitious 
students who have brains. That was, I think, the direct result 
of increases in grape and wine prices. And also the industry is 
much more highly competitive now. On the quality level, there 
are several hundred wineries in California (of over five hundred 
producing wineries) competing for a market for quality wines. 
At the larger wineries, several have Ph.D.'s in their 
laboratories now. 

Teiser: Your figure just now, several hundred out of five hundredwere 
you breaking down the industry? Were you implying the others 
are making only standard wines? 

Amerine: I didn't want to imply that. I'm just saying there are several 
hundred I know that are trying to make quality wines. I'm not 
saying that the others may not be. They're all really highly 
competitive in this field, and they have to get good people to 
achieve their goals. Even small wineries are hiring good 
people, or they're hiring consultants. There are quite a number 
of consultants now who are making their job telling wineries, 
"Do this, don't do that," and so forth. 

Teiser: I see there are consultants who work for several wineries, and 
some of them have their own wineries as well. 


Amerine: Yes, that's quite true. 
Teiser: This is rather new, is it? 

Amerine: Well, it's an attempt by them to earn some money to live on--to 
spend on their own winery and at the same time use their 
knowledge to help somebody else, [laughs] 

My personal philosophy about the emeriti is that they 
should be seen but not heard. I moved away from Davis purposely 
very soon after I became an emeritus because of my observation 
of other depar tments--that the emeriti sometimes say things that 
don't help the deparment. When I have been asked, I have spoken 
to the department chairman, if he asked me questions I know 


Amerine: something about. But I don't go around bad-mouthing anybody, or 
talking about things I don't know about. I haven't talked to 
anybody about my own opinions about departmental matters, 
mistakes, and so forth. 

Medical Research on Wine 

Amerine: In 1974 Salvatore P. Lucia had stopped consulting for the Wine 
Advisory Board, WAB, Harry Serlis was at Wine Institute, and 
[Werner] Almendinger at WAB. At that time the Wine Advisory 
Board was physically separated from the Wine Institute. They 
were on different floors of the building on Market Street. They 
asked if I would watch the medical research program. I had been 
a consulting member of the committee on medical research since 
1937 and had gone to a lot of meetings. I said, "Well, I 
wouldn't mind coming one or two days a week." So they made it 
two days a week. 

Teiser: This was for the Wine Institute? 

Amerine: This was for the Wine Advisory Board when I came on in 1974. 

They had a couple of projects they were carrying on, and I began 
to write and distribute a monthly checksheet of research 
activities that I thought would be of interest to people that 
were interested in medical research on wine. This was supposed 
to stimulate interest in new research projects. Then, of 
course, [Edmund G.] Brown [Jr.] was governor, and Rose Bird got 
her finger in the Wine Advisory board. As a result, the Wine 
Advisory Board was disbanded, I suppose, rather than let Brown 
and Bird run it, and the industry was not going to have any 
public members on the Wine Advisory Board since they were paying 
for it; it was their money. That was the basic reason why the 
Wine Advisory Board was voted out of existence. 

Teiser: Bird was then Director of Agriculture? 

Amerine: She was the Director of Agricultural Services, or something like 
that. She controlled Agriculture, however; she had several 
departments under her control. 

Anyway, the industry members simply then raised their dues 
to Wine Institute, proportional to what they had been paying to 
Wine Advisory Board more or less. 

Teiser: But some people didn't come in. 

Amerine: That's right. East-Side Winery didn't come in, and California 

Growers [Winery] didn't come in for a year or two, but they then 


Amerine : 

Teiser : 



Amerine : 

did come in later. Heublein never did come in. In fact they 
didn't even go to the Napa Valley Vintners meetings, or any 
industry meetings. 

Anyway, there was money, and starting around 1976 we began 
to have some medical projects again. These were somewhat 
different from the projects we'd supported before. 

This is what is under the Wine Institute, then? 

That came under the Wine Institute, yes. ## 

We lost something when I turned the tape, 
problem that you had-- 

You said the first 

Our first problem was to get medical advice that was qualified. 
We were very fortunate in this. Bob [Robert A.] O'Reilly had 
been a friend, and he agreed to come to meetings. Arthur 
Klatsky of the Permanente Foundation came to many meetings. 
Paul Scholten also came regularly. There were altogether about 
seven or eight doctors that we could count on to come to 
meetings and discuss where we should spend money on projects 
they thought would be useful. 

One of the early projects that we took part in and which 
paid off quite handsomely was "Can You Drink When You've Had 
Anti-coagulants?" There are many people who are on 
anti-coagulants, after operations or before operations and so 
forth. We got the Santa Clara Medical Group to work on that, 
with Bob O'Reilly running the program. They showed that 
alcohol, especially wine, didn't have any effect on the effect 
of the anti-coagulants. It neither reduced nor enhanced the 
effects of the anti-coagulants. So that was, I think, a 
positive step. 

We very soon got interested in the whole question of why 
people who have small amounts of alcohol don't have as many 
miocardial problems or heart attacks. This turns out to be a 
function of the high density lipoproteins , called HDL for short, 
which tend to reduce the cholesterol values. Therefore, you 
don't have deposits of cholesterol in the blood stream, and 
therefore you don't get the heart attacks from lack of 
circulation of the blood. That work was done at Harvard and 
also at UC. The project at UC is still ongoing as of August 
1985. That project has been going on about five years. The 
results have been verified in Sweden and in Honolulu, and in a 
number of other places. People who drink too much will die for 
various reasons, and people who don't drink anything will have 
more heart attacks than people who drink small amounts. 


Wine Advertising 

Ethically, we are in a bind on that. First of all, legally 
we cannot advertise wines as having health values. No alcoholic 
beverage can be advertised as having health values, so you have 
to be careful. There are people in this industry that feel that 
we should do more advertising on this, that we could figure out 
a legal method of doing it. On the other hand, there are other 
people that feel just as strongly that since wine is subject to 
abuse, like any alcoholic beverage, that people can drink too 
much, that people are not going to distinguish between drinking 
two glasses and drinking eight glasses. Therefore you may be 
doing some things that ethically aren't correct. Anyway, it's 
in the literature and has now, I think, generally been accepted 
by the medical profession. 

As in all kinds of research projects, we've tried projects 
that didn't really pay off as well as we had hoped for. The 
fetal alcohol syndrome, that is one that we spent money on. You 
can't do research on human beings; it's not ethical. You'd 
never get permission from a research committee at a hospital to 
give half your women wine and the other half not wine when 
they're pregnant. So it has to be done on some other animal. 
We've had it done on rabbits at the Wistar Institute in 
Pennsylvania. We've had it done on guinea pigs at New York, 
Cornell's medical research laboratories. They generally show 
that it takes an awful lot of alcohol to cause the fetal alcohol 

As a matter of fact, Dr. Thomas Turner (he's the retired 
dean of the School of Medicine at Johns Hopkins) has some funds 
from the beer industry for medical research. He doesn't do any 
research himself, but he has made a review on the fetal alcohol 
syndrome. He notes that there is no case of full-blown fetal 
alcohol syndrome unless the patient is drinking the equivalent 
of a bottle of whiskey a day. By saying it that way, he's 
pretty well settled a lot of things, and we are not hearing as 
much about fetal alcohol syndrome now as we did several years 

As to the current year, last summer they voted in the new 
winegrowers' foundation [Winegrowers of California], Medical 
projects which had been approved for financing by the Wine 
Institute were turned over to them. I don't know what they're 
going to do with them. They have one half million dollars for 
research. I'm on the viticulture and enology research group, 
but I don't know what's happening to the medical research. I 
will know tomorrow, I think, because I'm going to a meeting. 

Teiser: Have you suggested certain projects? 


Araerine: They took three projects that we at Wine Institute had already 
approved last year. Last July, when they voted in the new 
Winegrowers of California, the executive committee of Wine 
Institute decided not to spend their funds, since there were 
going to be funds for research in the Winegrowers of California 
budget. So the projects have just been in limbo during this 
period of time. I assume that they will do something about 
them. They had already been peer-reviewed and so forth.* 

Countering the Anti-Alcohol Movement 

Amerine: About two or three years after I came here [to the Wine 

Institute] one or two days a week, the staff began to feel, 
about the time that John De Luca came, that there was an 
increasing number of anti-alcohol, or temperance groups, talking 
about alcoholic beverages. And that maybe we ought to know what 
they were doing and become familiar with the social aspects of 
drinking alcoholic beverages. So David Keyes was brought on to 
the staff. He stayed for two or three years. Then Patty 
[Patricia] Schneider came on the staff to do that social field. 
She works full time on that. She knows more about anti-alcohol 
groups than anyone. She goes to meetings all over the country; 
she's gone on television several times; she's acquainted with 
many people in Washington, New York, Sacramento, MADD (Mothers 
Against Drunk Driving), SADD (Students Against Drunk Driving), 
et cetera. She has held meetings with them, goes to their 
meetings, and has even held fund-raisers for them. 

I think John De Luca and I agree that it's unlikely that 
the industry will have the kind of funds to do a great deal of 
medical research of the caliber that we need to do. Therefore, 
we ought to concentrate our efforts in the social aspects. 
Effective advertising, that's a big issue right now, and there 
needs to be research done on this. We have sponsored now, for 
the last three years, social researchchildren' s and 
adolescents' attitudes toward alcoholic beverages. We did that 
at Georgetown, the University of Pittsburgh, and the University 
of California at Los Angeles. 

We have a special project right now: a man from Iowa has 
published a paper which we figure is full of loopholes. [It 
alleges] that wine advertising creates over-consumption, and we 
don't believe that this is true. There are so many loopholes in 
his research that we think that we ought to redo the research 

*They were later approved, 


Amerine: with somebody who knows what he's doing. We've already 

identified it, and that project has been turned over to the 
Winegrowers of California. That's a fairly expensive 
project--f orty thousand dollars, I think, or something like 
that. Anyway, what has happened to that, I don't know; it 
doesn't come up to my group, so I'm not familiar with it. 

I'm sure that the Institute, as a defensive mechanism if 
nothing else, is going to have to keep somebody familiar with 
this whole field of anti -alcohol , or the "neo-prohibitionis ts," 
as John De Luca prefers to call them. As a matter of fact, as 
one step in that direction, six years ago I became a member of 
the state advisory board on alcohol and alcoholic abuse, which 
is under the Director of Health in Sacramento. It's an advisory 
board of fifteen members. Five are appointed by the senate, 
five by the assembly, and five by the governor. At least five 
members of the fifteen have to be recovered alcoholics by law! 
They're usually very proud when they get appointed to it, to 
stand up and say, "I'm a recovered alcoholic." I went to all 
the meetings, eight meetings a year for three years. I figured 
I had done my duty on that. They were held all over 
California. I think I was not obnoxious. When they proposed 
unconsitutional things, I would say so. 

They at one time proposed to rewrite the basic article on 
California alcoholic beverage control, and they wrote it that 
"The use of alcoholic beverages is dangerous." It happened that 
I had gone to that meeting (I went to all the meetings; I don't 
think I missed a meeting during the three years I was on). On 
the way home I began to think, "What was it before? It was 
'abuse' before." We had to get our lobbyists to amend the bill 
that had already been introduced and had gone through the 
committee. Paul Lunardi had it amended forty-eight times. The 
term that was chosen (I don't really know who was the genius 
that changed it) was "inappropriate use." He missed one, and on 
the day that it was to be taken up it was amended on the floor 
the forty-ninth time, to take "the use" out and put 
"inappropriate" in. That probably saved us an enormous 
headache, though, because if that had become law then we would 
have had all kinds of undesirable secondary effects coming out 
of thatphilosophical and practical. 

I'd seen enough to know that you do need somebody there. 
We persuaded Paul Scholten and Emil Mrak to allow themselves to 
be appointed. They've both been in the last three or four 
years. I think that Paul, as a doctor, has had a moderating 
influence on them. When I was on it, when I would see things 
that were of interest to Patty I would ask her to go to the 
meetings as my guest. We could have guests. 


Amerine: I think you just have to know your enemy and become familiar 

with his tactics. Forewarned is forearmed in these particular 
cases. Looking back at the history of Prohibition, I don't 
think that the wine and beer and spirits industry ever thought 
that they would prohibit alcoholic beverages, but they should 
have. If they had been reading the record, if they had been 
going to the meetings the Good Templars and the Temperance 
Societyand reading the literature and so forth, they certainly 
would have seen that it's very necessary to keep an expertise in 
the field of people who are working against you. Patty 
certainly does that and does it very well. 

And, as I say, because of the expense of medical research, 
I doubt if the grape and wine industry will support any large 
amount of research. First of all, we were becoming respectable 
during the Lucia/ Si Iverman period, and so we could write nice 
things about it. Russell Lee's introduction to Uses of Wine in 
Medical Practice promotes wine as a good and safe tranquilizer . 
I don't think that is a very easy thing to put across at the 
present time. There are too many other kinds of tranqulizers, 
and there are specific tranquilizers now. The whole problem of 
keeping people quiet has changed. It may be that wine is the 
one beverage of choice, but it's pretty hard to sell that to the 
medical profession now, I think. I don't know how you'd do the 

The Sulfur Dioxide Problem 

Amerine: We have done some research on the sulfur dioxide SC>2 problem, 

and it's a good thing we did it because the SC>2 problem is going 
to get worse before it gets better. The restaurant people are 
in much hotter water than we are on that, because they're the 
ones who have caused all the problems so far. There's no case 
that we know of that anybody's gotten ill on SC>2 in wine.* 
Almaden is being sued by some man in Hawaii, but that's part of 
American law; now they sue for anything, however remotely 
possible it is, and sometimes they collect! 

What the restaurant people got us into was that they were 
sprinkling crystals, pure crystals of metabisulf ite , on the 
salad bars to keep them looking green. Of course, the crystals 
didn't all dissolve, and a person with asthma would sniff this 
high SC>2 and even eat it, and then have an anaphy lactic shock. 
That's where the trouble arose. As far as we know, there's been 

*September 1985: no longer true; one case now. M.A.A. 


Araerine: no case of anybody going into shock or anything like that from 
wine, although the industry has voluntarily reduced the SO? 
limits in wine. That, I think, was long since overdue, because 
nobody needs to use 350 milligrams per liter of sulfur dioxide. 

Anyway, that research will have to continue. We have a 
good man at Davis in the medical school who's interested in that 
subject. I suspect that there will be some support for that 
coming up from some place. 

As a public service, I agreed to look at the research 
projects on enology and viticulture for the Winegrowers of 
California. Tomorrow we'll get through that, hopefully. 

Let me see now, what else did I have here? [looking at 

Organiza tions 

Amerine: I did think that the American Vineyard Foundation was a good 
idea. I still think it's a good idea. But obviously, if the 
wineries are contributing to the California Winegrowers and to 
the Wine Institute, they're not likely to be also supporting the 
American Vineyard Foundation. But at least the American 
Vineyard Foundation is set up to do research. 

You ask about the end of the TAG [Wine Institute Technical 
Advisory Committee] . The end of the TAG was primarily because 
the American Society of Enologists [ASE] provided a forum for 
that at the annual meeting, and so forth. At one time the TAG 
met four times a year; then it met three times a year; and then, 
when they were sending their winemakers to ASE, the Wine 
Institute aborted the TAG as a discussion group. Julius Jacobs 
then started the WITS as a sort of a TAG with emphasis not on 
basic research but on industrial problems. TAG had always had 
filter manufacturers, chemical engineers, chemical 
manufactureers , people selling products, talking to them. The 
ASE rarely did that. 

Their speeches all had to be publishable in the American Journal 
of Enology and Viticulture. They were supposed to have a 
literature review, a scientific review, and so forth. Well, 
WITS, then, has generally done the TAG sort of thing. It's 
usually been industry people, or people from the related 
industries, talking on subjects like that. Since we did it four 
times a year with TAG there probably is a place for it one time 
a year. And some of the WITS papers do have literature reviews. 


Amerine: The ASE, of course, has gotten bigger and has become an 

institution all its own. It doesn't require hand-feeding by the 
University any more. We provided them secretarial help at the 
beginning, and then we did a lot of other things for them; but 
finally they grew bigger and self-sufficient. They have their 
own ideas and they do very good work. The University supports 
the concept of a professional society for enologists and 
viticultur ists wholeheartedly. 

Teiser: Now the new name? 

Amerine: It's the American Society for Enology and Viticulture now. 

They're doing a professional job as a professional organization, 
which is what they are. 

International Influences 

Amerine: On the other question that you asked, that I suggested you talk 
to the people at Davis, on one article you were going to write-- 

Teiser: Oh, yes, about exporting American enological and viticultural 

Amerine: I think one of the things you might emphasize right at the 

beginning, the influence of Davis, by simply asking them to show 
v you the enrollment in the courses, both of California people and 
non-California people and foreigners. There are Davis graduates 
now all over the world. It's pretty hard to name a place where 
they are not. Surprisingly, in India I think there have been at 
least two Ph.D.'s, and India is a country which is officially 
dry. Prohibition is a part of their constitution, yet they have 
trained at least two Ph.D.'s in grapes and wine at Davis. 

I think Olmo is one that you should talk to about that 
because he has been on the FAO [Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations] board for a long time. He's 
been in Cyprus, Tunisia, Malta, and India for the FAO. He has 
also done consulting in Brazil, Venezuela, Iran, and other 
countries. In all those countries he's had a big effect on 
their viticultural problems. 

I would say that my travelsBulgaria, Rumania, the Soviet 
Union, China, Japan, New Zealand, and Australia --have all had 
some direct but probably more indirect influnces on their wine 
" industries. 

Teiser: Have you worked as a consultant? 


Araerine: As a lecturer, yes. 

Teiser: Have you done some consulting work? 

Amerine: Not very much. I did one little job in Chile in 1968; I went 
down there on a consulting position. The others were some 
American company who wanted me to taste wines. In tasting wines 
I told them what was wrong with it, so it was an educational 
venture for them. This wasn't American money; it's not their 
money. I suppose with the Japanese, however, that when I went 
to open that laboratory in Osaka they paid my way over. The 
Mann Wine Company in Japan also paid my way over to lecture for 
them at one time. There were really three different Japanese 
tours. We've had Ph.D. 's from Japan at Davis. 

Teiser: Do you speak in French at conferences in France? 

Amerine: Let me make this quite clear. I have given two long lectures in 
French in France, and I presided at a meeting in French once in 
Bordeaux. But the speech I had written in English, and it was 
translated. Then I went over the translation, practiced it, and 
I simply read it; it's pretty easy to read a paper in French. I 
wouldn't do that anymore, I assure you. I did do an 
extemporaneous lecture in Rumania in French one time. It was 
the only common language we had! That was hard, but I was 
talking about the wines in front of us, and you can think of 
things to say. 

I don't really consider myself a linguist. I read French 
fluently, and to a lesser extent German and Italian. At one 
time I could speak Spanish pretty well. I gave a lecture in 
Spanish once, in Spain. I've given lectures where they had 
multi-lingual translation in Spain, on another trip. 

I was on a Guggenheim when I went to Spain. There was 
quite a bit of influence from that, directly and indirectly. 
One of the University of California's powerful influences on 
farm industries has been that research is like a savings 
account. If you don't do research, you don't have any money in 
the bank when you need it. The farm countries, in many cases, 
had had research for purely utilitarian kinds of research. . 

I, and Olmo, and Kliewer, and any of the senior members at 
Davis, when talking abroad, whether in South Africa or the 
Soviet Union, always started in with the basis that wineraaking 
is a branch of biochemistry, and grape growing is a branch of 
genetics and plant physiology. And if you don't know anything 
about plant physiology, you don't know anything about grapes. 
If you don't know biochemistry, you don't know anything about 
wine. Therefore, you have to study wines from the biochemical 
point of view, and you have to study grapes from the genetic and 


Amerine: plant physiological point of view in order to develop new 

techniques of doing things. The applied research comes out or 
is based on the basic research. 

I think certainly the College of Agriculture has sold that 
to California agriculture. We support an enormous amount of 
basic research in the College of Agriculture. That, the gospel 
according to the Univerity of California, has been preached in 
many countries, not only by myself but by other members of the 
staff. Vernon Singleton, I'm sure, has done that, too. Also 

I think that point of view has resulted in more research in 
foreign countries. I feel that they are much more likely, after 
we have preached this, and they see the success of the American 
indus try--f rom nothing to a big industry and so forth-- to think, 
"Maybe that's a good thing for us to do some of that research as 
well." I will say that the Bordeaux people have done that same 
sort of thing on their own. They preach the gospel that way. 
It's only recently that the Italians have learned the lesson. 
The Germans have always done it; the Germans always like to do 
fundamental research. They did practical research, too, but 
they did lots of fundamental research. They have more journals 
of fundamental research in viticulture and enology than any 
other country-- jus t fundamental research in wines and grape 
growing. So that's spread everyplace now, both sides of the 
Iron Curtain and so forth. It's surprising to see the kinds of 
wine and food research that are being done in Japan now. 
They're working on very fancy things. And also on sensory 


Amerine: They have applied sophisticated sensory and statistical analysis 
to everything from sake to various kinds of soy sauces, and to 
all kinds of food products. They regularly use very high- 
powered statistics. They have a great big eight-hundred-page 
book on sensory evaluation. It owes something to our book 
[Amerine, Pangborn, and Roessler, Principles of Sensory 
Evaluation of Food, 1965]. Imitation is the sincerest form of 
flattery, as you know. 

I think that sensory evaluation now is an awful lot the 
idea of "research for research's sake." It's not altogether an 
American idea, but it's the way to progess in utilitarian 
things. The other thing on sensory evaluation, I remember in 
1954 at that congress where I was giving a paper, in Spanish-- 
By the way, that was interesting. I gave a paper in Spanish in 
a room that was dark, and that's very hard. I could have a 
lectern, but the room itself was dark because I was showing 
slides. You couldn't see the audience. Anybody that lectures 


Amerine: depends on the response of the audience--one can see that 

they're not Listening, or they can't understand it--and you 
repeat it until they do understand it. 

Anyway, I was talking to some people from France. I'd been 
talking about some work I was doing in Madrid. I was on 
sabbatical there for six months, and I was talking on some of 
the research I'd been doing, and the relationship to sensory 
evaluation to this. I had just begun to use what we called the 
"duo-trio" system of sensory evaluation, which is a very 
powerful tool and a very easy tool in sensory evaluation to find 
differences. One of the French men, a very high-powered one, 
came up to me afterwards and said in French, "You're all wrong. 
Of course, nobody will ever use that kind of technique in 
France, never." 

I've lived now thirty-one years since the 1954 congress. 
They have a whole institute up in Alsace, supported by the 
tobacco and perfume industries, that does nothing but sensory 
evaluation. They have published some very fancy things. They 
have a man by the name of Le Magnen, who happens to be blind, 
who has worked diligently on sensory evaluation in Paris. And, 
wonder of wonders, when they built a new addition to the 
Bordeaux enology department, they got each of the big chateaux 
to give them ten thousand dollars (guess) apiece to build 
tasting booths exactly the same as we have at Davis, with 
special lights to observe the wines, spitoons, and so forth. 
One of them was Chateau Margaux, and the other one Chateau 
Lafite. I think they have ten booths. So don't tell me that 
they don't learn. Of course they learn. They learn when they 
find out it's important for them. 

[Emile] Peynaud ' s book on tasting [Le Gout du Vin] is 
published in English. I haven't actually seen a copy of it 
because I've read the French edition. It's quite good. It's 
different from what we write, but he has some tables right out 
of Amerine and Roessler on triangular testing and duo-trio 
testing. At one time there was nobody in Bordeaux that would 
ever have published a table for statistical analysis of sensory 
data; it was all what you did with your thoughts and feelings at 
that time. 

Improvements in Grapes and Wines 

Amerine: I made the point earlier, that this large number of students has 
certainly had a big influence on quality improvement in 
California, not only in the vineyards, but in the wineries. 
This improvement is because both the grape and wine industries 


Amerine: are capital-intensive industries now. You don't just plant ten 
acres of grapes in your spare time. I can remember when I was 
in high school my father and I planted six acres of Thompson 
[Seedless] just by ourselves, as a weekend job, and it cost him 
very little, on their own roots and that sort of thing. Now 
they're going to cost much more. The land is twenty thousand 
dollars* an acre in Ma pa Valley, and it will cost you another 
ten thousand dollars to level, plant, et cetera; so you've 
invested thirty thousand dollars an acre! You plant ten acres, 
you've got at least 300,000 dollars invested. That's capital 
intensive. You can't afford to lose one vine under those 
circumstances. You have to have a vineyardist who knows all 
about viticulture, and you have to have a wine maker who knows 
all about winemaking. Because of their training and their 
exposure to the concept of quality at Davis, both in grapes and 
wine, that has definitely had an effect. 

The other impact, of course, has been the tenfold increase 
in demand for table wines in the last twenty years. We've gone 
from a dessert-wine-drinking country to a table-wine-drinking 
country. Right after repeal it was 81 percent dessert wines and 
only 19 percent table wines. Now it's 9 percent dessert wines 
and 91 percent table wines, or something like that. That 
increase in the demand for table wines, which spoil easier and 
so forth, has made the demand for students very great. They 
seem to be doing very well. 

Field Work with Winkler 

Amerine: The other thing I think goes way back to Winkler, who deserves 
the credit for it. When he hired me in '35, as I mentioned in 
the earlier interview, we were testing grape varieties in 
different parts of California. Those results were published in 
1944 in Hilgardia, and there was a circular that went with 
that. The recommended varieties were also published in his book 
on viticulture. The recommended varieties were also given in 
The Technology of Winemaking, and also in the table wine book.* 
There were also articles in Wines and Vines. There were several 
articles in Wines and Vines, that I wrote, on varieties of 

*Now, 1988, much higher. M.A. A. 

**M. A. Amerine and M. A. Joslyn, Table Wines, University of 
California Press, 1951. A second edition was published in 1970. 


Amerine: We did an enormous amount of field work, telling the growers 
what we had done. Winkler and I went from Escondido in the 
south to Ukiah in the north. At least two trips were given to 
talking to grower groups on which variety should be planted in 
those regions. That, of course, was after the conferences 
started at Davis in 1950. At the Wine Technology Conferences, 
three of those, and then later in The American Journal of 
Enology, there were always talks or articles about grape 
varieties. Of course it was a great part of our teaching thing, 
and there's a whole course on varieties at Davis that was taught 
by [Lloyd A.] Lider and [Klayton E. ] Nelson. 

Anyway, as late as 1965 I couldn't see very much influence 
of that work. If I had found the right biochemical job, I would 
have left the University at that time because I felt that I'd 
wasted all those years as far as application of our results was 
concerned. I'd been there since "35, and here it was '65. 
That's thirty years of your life gone. Of course, I was gone 
five years during the war, but twenty-five years of my life was 
gone and I didn't see any planting [of the recommended 
varieties]. There were still few Chardonnays being planted. 
But some time in the sixties, around 1965, they began to plant 
the better varieties. And before they had finished, they had 
planted 400,000 acres. An enormous change in the variety 

That, plus the students, I would guess, plus the available 
information in publications, constitute the University's three 
main contributions to the industry. They changed the varieties 
planted in California, they made enologists and viticulturis ts 
payable personnel, and they made them professionals, not just 
hirelings at one hundred dollars a month. I guess the whole 
influence of the students on the quality of grape growing and 
winemaking was tremendously important to the industry. It had a 
peripheral effect everyplace. I think for your article [on 
international influence], what you really ought to do is just 
find out. [Amand N.] Kasimatis has been to Chile, I think 
twice. Lider has been to New Zealand twice. I've been to 
Australia five times and to South Africa twice. Ough's been to 
South Africa twice or more. Nelson's been to South Africa 
once. The whole shipping table-grape industry of South Africa 
owes a good deal to Nelson's work on better methods of shipping 
grapes, because they have to ship their grapes to England and 
Europe. It's a big industry for them. 

It's pretty hard to find someplace in the world where 
somebody from Davis hasn't had some impact at the present time. 
We ought to document that. 


Prices, Judgings, and Auctions 

Amerine: Now, we have a few more things. I've already mentioned the 

trends in wine consumption, more and more to table wines, and 
more and more to high quality table wines. In my opinion, 
somewhat excessive prices are charged at the restaurant level 
for some wines. I was surprised last night to find a restaurant 
where I could buy a half bottle of good wine for five dollars in 
San Francisco, instead of ten. 

I would just as soon not say anything about wine Judgings. 
I would say there are too many of them and they are too variable 
in their results. Bob Thompson's table in the new University of 
Calif ornia-So theby book* reveals how variable the results are. 
I think that people ought to take a look at that and just wonder 
what meaning Judgings have, when a wine gets a prize at one 
judging and didn't get one at four others! 

Teiser: Do you think that reflects upon the whole judging system? 

Amerine: It sure does. If it doesn't, it should. It wasn't really 
presented with analysis, just the facts. 

Teiser: What about auctions? 

Amerine: They're a new feature, and the one in Napa has been quite 

successful. The one in Sonoma has also been successful. I 

assume that there will be more of these. I don't go to them, so 
I can't really make any-- 

Teiser: You must have heard that at the Napa auction last year 
Mr. Broadbent gave a little speech about you. 

Amerine: Yes, well, Michael's a good friend of mine, and he'd had dinner 
at my house the night before, I think, and so he was prejudiced 
in my favor. 

I don't wish them any harm. I don't think that I would go 
to an auction to buy furniture or anything like that. That's 
for rich people. It's a rich man's hobby. But it's all right. 

Teiser: Does it reflect to the credit or discredit of the industry? 

Amerine: Oh, I think it has big advertising value. It's a p.r. [public 
relations] thing, there's no question about that. The minute 

*Doris Muscatine, Maynard A. Amerine, and Bob Thompson, 
editors. The University of Calif ornia-Sotheby Book of 
California Wine. University of California Press, 1984. 


Araerine: that Opus One sold (it was sold to restaurants all over the 

country) for fifty dollars a bottle, they charged whatever price 
they wished! 


Teiser: We haven't mentioned brandy. 

Amerine: Yes. The Technology of Wine Making book-- Jim Guymon intended to 
rewrite the chapter on brandy, but he passed away and I did the 
best I could. There needs to be a book written about brandy. 
There's a lot of new research on the composition of brandy that 
needs to be put into the literature, and tied in with sensory 
evaluation of brandies and so forth. There is one book in 
French; it's now more than ten years old. 

There really isn't in English a really good book on brandy 
production, taking out all the romance and all the nonsense that 
needs to be taken out of it, and the changes and the practices 
that are going on in France as well as in this country. 
Particularly now since we have coming onto the market very soon 
the Remy Martin-Schramsberg brandy from that beautiful new plant 
that they have. That's coming out in April, I think. 

Teiser: They've put it off until September. 

Amerine: Have they put it off again? Well, that's probably for other 
reasons I don't know about. Anyway, there's no doubt that 
brandy represents a product which is going to have a place in 
the industry for a long while, and we ought to be making some of 
higher quality. For that reason, I think that the Schramsberg 
effort represents a step in the right direction. 

Now they're going to have to sell it. I don't know what 
price it's going to come on the market at, but I keep hearing 
eighteen to twenty dollars or more. How many people are going 
to spend eighteen to twenty dollars? On the other hand, if you 
figure that there are five thousand bars in America, and each 
one of them has one bottle of Schramsberg, that's five thousand 
bottles, twenty-six hundred cases; so that's a fair amount of 
brandy. Many bars will buy a case, so that there will be more 
sold than just one bottle to the barpar ticularly hotels and 
places like that. There may be more than five thousand bars in 
America. There are probably that many in San Francisco! 


Work in Progress 

Amerine: Anyway, I've probably put a finish on work from my point of 
view. I watch with interest the Davis goings-on, and I read 
their articles and so forth. When I shortly terminate here [at 
the Wine Institute], I will watch, obviously, the wine industry 
with some interest because I've spent a lot of time in it. You 
can't separate yourself from the industry. I'm having no 
difficulty living in the Napa Valley, and I'm there six days a 
week now. I'll probably live there for quite a long while, as 
long as I can. San Francisco's a nice place to come about once 
a week. That's about all. Not coming here [to the Wine 
Institute], I would probably do it on Thursdays and go to the 
Bohemian Club dinners on Thursday nights. That would be my 
excuse for coming to San Francisco. Or the opera season, I 
would come. Usually the opera seasons I have put on Sunday 
afternoon so I can drive home after the opera's over. 

I don't have any plans for any books or anything like 
that. Some ten years ago, as an off-branch of the 
bibliographical study, I decided to print, probably privately, a 
book on American books and pamphlets on grapes and wine and 
related subjects published before 1901. 

Mr. [James M.] Gabler has published a bibliography in all 
countries, in English. But he was not interested in bulletins. 
It will be out in April. I read the transcript of it, and I've 
given him some advice.* I told him what I'm doing, and what I'm 
doing is different from what he's doing. There will be some 
overlap, obviously, but I'm giving all the different editions 
and including some of the temperance literature, like wine in 
communion and things like that which did affect the wine 
industry remarkably. So it will be a different sort of thing. 
I've given the size of the books because for bibliographical 
purposes size may be important--some times the same book with two 
different sizes, bound or printed by two different people, same 
year, that sort of thing. 

When I'm in New York I will spend half a day at the New 
York Public Library. If I'm in Washington, I go out to 
Beltsville for the whole day to the National Agricultural 
Library. I need to spend a day or two at The Bancroft, although 
I've already spent some time there. I would say that's about 
three-fourths through now, so in another couple of years perhaps 
I'll put it through a word processor and that will be the end of 

*Also contributed an introduction by Amerine to James M. Gabler, 
Wine Into Words. Baltimore: Bacchus Press, Ltd., 1985. 


Amerine: I will get out that 1968 to 1975 checklist some day. It's just 
sitting in files there, and needs to be typed. It's just 
because I go t more interested in that one, and little things 
come up to do that have more immediate priority--like going to 
the Pasteur meeting in Philadelphia three weeks ago, celebrating 
the one hundredth anniversary of the rabies injection. But they 
had, the first day, people talk on other aspects of Pasteur. I 
talked on pasteurization. Unfortunately, I'd done that in 
French before, in France, but I didn't have an English copy. So 
I had the job of translating Amerine in French back to English. 
It was a slightly different approach to the subject, so it 
wasn't a direct translation; but I had to read the other one and 
put the parts I wanted to use into English. I don't know where 
the English copy is. 

Wine Books in Libraries 

Teiser: Let me ask you before you stopam I correct in thinking that 
when you moved from the campus you gave a certain amount of 
material to the Davis library? 

Amerine: Oh, yes, I gave all my personal professional library. I had it 
evaluated by Eleanor Lorenstein's husband's Corner Bookshop in 
New York. He's a specialist in that. I had it typed by 
languages, and it cost me $500 for the evaluation. But I got a 
$45,000 income tax deduction over a period of years. I very 
much regret having given it to them then, because now it would 
be worth $140,000. 

Teiser: Also, you have allowed your name to be used, or you have allowed 
the honor of a special library fund in your name through which 
they're acquiring some important books. 

Amerine: Yes, twice. Once when I took that first trip six years ago for 
the Library Associates there was $6,000 left over from that. 
That went into the Amerine fund for the books. Then I go t my 
friend Arnold Bayard of Philadelphia interested in it, and over 
the years he gave several thousand dollars. Then when John 
McConnell ran out of the Library Associates money and Bayard 
money and he wanted to buy (every librarian likes to have some 
old things, and old things cost money) he sent that letter out, 
and they got about $18,000 on that. So he's sitting pretty on 

Teiser: He sent out certificates to the contributors. 

Amerine: Yes, I saw the printout of that ahead of time. I had him put in 
the letter that I appreciated it, so that I didn't have to write 
a letter to everybody on the list. 


Teiser: [laughs] It seems very valuable to me, to have a special fund 
for acquisitions of that kind. 

Amerine: Yes. He has also been very clever. Obviously there were some 

things in the Amerine collection that were duplicates. A few of 
the duplicates I recognized and gave to the Napa Valley Wine 
Library. Others I didn't go through in detail, so some of those 
he has either sold or exchanged with Fresno, or sold on the 
marketplace to get some money. John is a book dealer at heart, 
who happens to be located in acquisitions in this field. He's 
really an expert on Scottish literature. I don't know whether 
you knew that or not. 

Teiser: No. 

Amerine: He deals in books on Scotland, hence the McConnell. 

Yes, the collection has grown. Unfortunately, wine book 
collecting has become very fashionable, and some valuable and 
rare books take legs and walk. I was just in the department the 
other day when I went up to the retirement dinner for [James A.] 
Cook and Lider and Nelson and Kasimatis, and there was a notice 
in the department that they had lost the department copy of 
Sensory Evaluation, and the fourth edition of The Technology of 
Winemaking. Even though they have a person watching everybody 
going in and out of the department library, she sometimes goes 
out to get a drink or something, and somebody walks out with a 
book. Even in the main library there are something like one 
hundred wine-grape books missing. I recommended that they put 
everything before 1900 in the Special Collections department 
where they can't walk out. This somewhat limits their 
circulation, but it's better to have them where they don't get 
lost than where they do get lost. 

Amerine : 

It's an easy library to use anyway. 

Yes, Davis is an easy one to use. Although I think--! don't 
want to say anything against my friends whom I work withthey 
will have to tighten up their regulations, too, like leaving 
briefcases outside the door and things like that. 

I was at the University of Pennsylvania Library when I went 
to the Pasteur celebration three weeks ago. There was a book I 
wanted to see in the rare book collection, and not only did they 
make me check everything outdoors, but when they brought the 
book they brought a V-shaped thing of velvet to put the book on 
so there was no breaking of binding or anything like that in 
using the book. The New York Public Library does that, too, in 
their rare book collection. On the other hand, at the National 
Agricultural Library at Beltsville they just give me a key to 
the rare book room! 


Teiser: [laughs] They know you. 

Araerine: Yes, they do know me; otherwise I wouldn't be able to get the 

key. On the other hand, that's sort of tempting fate, when you 
see a book that you know is worth $10,000 as you're walking by. 
I haven't been tempted. The National Agricultural Library has 
not been well supported with personnel to guard their 


I told Dick Blanchard not too long ago--he was in that 
library before he came to Davis--that he ought to get a job as a 
consultant, teaching them how to run that library. They had an 
antiquated cataloguing system all their own up until 1975; then 
they went to the Library of Congress system. It's difficult to 
use. They have a very slow paging system. I can go in the 
stacks, but the stacks are very complicated with their system. 
To find "95.2" is not always the easiest thing in the world. If 
it was Dewey Decimal system, I'd know how to use it, you see, 
but they've got a different system. Anyway, it's a pleasant 
library. It has a restaurant on the top floor so you can eat 
there and you don't have to leave the building. 

One day I hope to visit it. 

They have a large bus from the South Agriculture building in 
Washington so you don't have to go out on the subway and then 
the bus. That would take you an hour and a half, but the bus 
takes only thirty minutes. 



[Interview 2: 11 September 1985]' 

Mechanized Harvesting 

Teiser: A question arises about criticism of the University for giving 
too much help and encouragement to big agribusiness. It has 
come up with mechanical harvesting of grapes. 

Amerine: I could give a long discourse on that. I don't think it's- true 
at all. I think it's absolutely untrue. Not only untrue, but 
it is a movement back into the nineteenth century, which is 
exactly what the labor people want. They want to move back into 
the nineteenth century, but there's no way that we're going to 
move back into the nineteenth century. The whole automobile 
industry, for example, with the robotized manufacture of 
automobiles there ' s no way that the automobile workers are 
going to move back to hand labor for manufacturing automobiles. 
And there's no way that they're going to move back in grape 
harvesting. It's too expensive to pick them. There's just no 
way you can do it. Or we're going to give up cars and we're 
going to give up agriculture. The same problem was true in 
England in the nineteenth century, when they first got cotton 
cloth machines and so forth. All the ladies' aid societies were 
up in arms because their daughters didn't have anyplace to work 
when they were twelve years of age, because the machines were 
taking over. 

No, I think there are a lots of people in the University 
that have thought about it more philosophically than I have, 
more historically than I have, and could write some wonderful 
things about it. But they're in a lawsuit right now, and 
they're not likely to say out loud what they feel about it until 
they win. It looks like they're going to win the lawsuit, as 
far as I can tell. I don't understand the suit to start with. 

Teiser: Well, like the Scopes trial. 


Amerine: Well, that didn't solve anything. 
And this will not solve anything, 

The Scopes people are back. 
They'll be back. It's sad, I 


Teiser: I wanted to ask you to characterize your major collaborators. I 
know they have often been people from other fields. Could you 
do that? 

Amerine: Yes. Very early, when we got into sensory evaluation after the 
war, we realized that you had to do a statistical analysis of 
the results because of the variability of the results. Now, we 
knew this in agriculture much earlier. But these were new 
techniques. They weren't the old standard field experiments 
that we used to have and which we all learned how to analyze. 
So I became friends of George Baker and Edward Roessler in the 
mathematics department at Davis. They collaborated on a whole 
series of publications, Baker on the theory of sampling. We 
found some non-normal distributions of sampling grapes in 
vineyards; Baker and I wrote a paper on that--the whole issue of 
the solera system and how it operates. Baker and Roessler and I 
worked out the mathematics of that. They worked out the 
mathematics; I posed the problem and worked with them. That 
resulted in several papers, for the first time showing why and 
how a solera works and what the end result of a solera system 
issomething that you would not intuitively have guessed. Then 
Roessler and I, for a number of years, published papers on the 
human factors in sensory evaluation. People are not all the 
same. They differ because of their backgrounds and all kinds of 

We published papers on acids and sugars, and a number of 
subjects, and found out that some people have a completely 
different picture of the acid taste. It's not acid to them 
until it's very, very high in concentration. Other people are 
very, very sensitive and they can detect acid at very low 
concentrations. With a bitter taste it may be a bi-modal 
distribution. You may have a group of people that are very 
sensitive, and then another group of people that are very 
insensitive to it. Sensitivity evaluations involved 
mathematics, which found their way into the philosophy of the 
book by Amerine, Pangborn, and Roessler on principles of sensory 
evaluation of food. This was a new contribution in that field: 
that people did not all have to respond the same, because some 
are more sensitive, some are less sensitive, just to the basic 
tastes. This has all been expanded quite a bit in recent years. 


Amerine: I think that, in general, sensory evaluation probably had a good 
effect in food science. You don't expect everybody to like the 
same sort of thing. 

Well, those were the collaborators outside the department. 
Teiser: Pangborn, too, was in the math department? 

Amerine: Pangborn* was in Food Science. She was a student of mine 

there. You see, it's not really right for me to say she was out 
of the department, because I was on the Food Science faculty 
also, where I taught two courses. I taught the introductory 
course there with Professor [George] Stewart. We wrote the book 
for the course, and I was the senior member of the faculty who 
taught the course on the sensory evaluation of food. 
Mrs. Pangborn was in the first class. Later on she joined in 
teaching and published many papers on her research. 

Until I retired I did most of the lecturing and she did 
most of the laboratory work. After I retired she did the 
lecture work (although she had some other people help her do the 
lectures), and she did all the laboratory work. She was a very 
splendid collaborator. We wrote just a few papers together, not 
very many--except the big book, which was a major achievement. 
A six-hundred-odd page book, still in print after twenty years. 
It is rather rare in food science for a book to stay in print 
that long without being revised. 

Teiser: Baker and Roessler--did they just work on the mathematical 

Amerine: Well, both of them were participating in sensory analysis work. 
At that time we had a lot of consumer panels on the Davis 
campus. There were two reasons for that: we needed a large 
number of people for panels, and it was a good way of getting 
the support of the faculty for a department that was sort of a 
maverick department, working on wines which had gone through the 
Prohibition period, and so forth. So from the day I arrived, as 
soon as we started tasting in 1935, Winkler and I made certain 
that members of the faculty participated in the tastings. So 
they were all on our side. As a matter of fact, it didn't turn 
out to be any problem. We never had any jealousy in the 
University or any complaints in the University. We never had 
any in the newspapers, either. Either we played our cards very 
well, or we were so right that nobody was going to complain. 

*Rose Marie Pangborn. 


Amerine : 

Amerine : 


Amerine : 

Inside the department, I collaborated with all of my 
technicians: [William C.] Dietrich, [A. Dinsmoor] Webb, Ough, 
[Thomas C.] Sparks, and [Douglas C.] Fong--you go through the 
list of my technicans. Outside the department I would say the 
collaboration with [Maynard A.] Joslyn was important, and I 
think I explain in the first interview how that collaboration 
came to be. It was instituted by the administration of the 
College of Agriculture. We were doing research on two campuses, 
and it was felt desirable that they have a unified point of view 
vis-a-vis the wine industry. Joslyn and I were the fall guys 
that were asked to write the bulletins. That accounts for 
bulletins 639, 651, and 652 in 1939 and '40. Then Joslyn and I 
collaborated on two books thereafter: the dessert wine book and 
the table wine book. The table wine book went through two 
different editions. 

So that was from another department. At that time I was 
not connected with the Berkeley campus in any below-the-line* 
way. It was not until the Food Science and Technology 
department moved to Davis that I began to teach in that 
depar tment. 

How about Dr. Singleton? 

I'm not going to talk about fellow staff members in the 
department, because I published with them all; I was just 
talking about technicians in the department. Another technician 
who worked with me was [A. A.] Kishaba. That's number 82 in my 
Publication List. He was a technician with Dr. Cook, but he did 
some work with me. 

You and others used the word 

'technician." What is the 

They were called laboratory technicians at that time. They have 
other names now. They do actual analysis of samples and help 
collect samples. If they contribute to the research with ideas 
or methods of their own, they usually are (and should be) listed 
as an author. 

Going back to your question about collaborators, when I 
was talking to these people, Roessler and, I think, Baker not 
only participated in those panels (that's where they got the 
idea of the statistical analysis and result), but when we were 
doing the field sampling studies, Roessler actually went to the 

*In the catalogue by departments, people teaching but not paid 
by the department are put "below the line." M.A. A. 


Amerine: field and helped collect the samples. It was not just me 
collecting the samples and giving the data to him, and he 
analyzing the data. Vice-versa about the solera system, the 
blending system--! got the detailed information about how they 
operate on one of my sabbatical leaves. Then I posed the 
problem of what happens to the average age when the solera has 
been used for a period of time. That's where that problem came 
from. I worked on a lot of papers with Baker and Roessler. 

Ough was the most important technician, if for no other 
reason than that he lasted the longest. Webb had published one 
paper with me earlier as a technician just before the war. Then 
Ough came after the war, and we published a gob of papers. Some 
thirty, forty papers have Ough's name. 

George Root was a technician of mine. He went to the State 
Department of Agriculture later. That's one of the problems 
with the technicians. They get good, and you can only promote 
them as technicians to a certain point. There's a cut-off 
point, and it wasn't a very big cut-off point, salary-wise. 
Whereas they could go over to the Department of Agriculture in 
Sacramento and get a next-step-up appointment outside the 
University and make twice as much. That's why I lost two of 

Teiser: Some of them then went on to finish their degrees. 
Amerine: Both Ough and Webb went on and got their degrees, yes. 
There's quite a number of Baker papers also. 

After Ough, Root worked during that same period. We were 
so anxious to keep Ough that we used a special category called 
specialist, which had a very broad salary schedule. So we could 
promote him to get a higher salary. That's how we kept Ough. 

Staff people that we used? I guess I published with all of 
them except Kleiwer. But I published with [Curtis J.] Alley, 
Berg, [Edmund H.] Twight, Guymon, [Robert J.] Weaver, Nelson, 
Olmo, Kunkee, Singleton, and Winkler. I guess Castor, Kliewer, 
and Lider are the only ones I didn't publish with. 

Talking about collaborators, Paul Esau came to me as a 
research associate. That's a non-paid job. We published three 
papers together. He discovered a new sugar in wines. He'd been 
a chemist with the California Canning Ccorporation. He was 
living in Davis, retired, and wanted something to do. So I 
asked him to come and work in the laboratory. He did, and he 
did very good work. That didn't cost me anything except for 
some equipment. 



Amerine : 

The Ough-Amerine publications lasted much longer than the time 
he was ray research assistant, because he had gone up on the 

staff then. 

Sparks was my technician. He went on to get an MBA. In 
other departments there were not only Joslyn and Pangborn, but 
also [George] Marsh and Stewart in Food Technology. There were 
four of them in Food Technology that I published with. George 
Marsh and I wrote one of our most popular things, Wine Making at 

Yes, that's one that needs to be published again. 

I have a great big box full of stuff on it, and even some 
drawings, but I haven't gotten around to doing it. 

Douglas Fong was my last technician. He's still in the 
department. They've managed to move him upa very fine person. 

Outside people--! published that little paper with Paul 
Scholten. He had nothing to do with the University at Davis at 
all. It was on use of varietal labeling in California. People 
should read that and not neglect it. The idea that varietal 
labeling was invented by Frank Schoonmaker is mainly malarky. 
That's why Paul and I wrote it, just to show that it had been 
very actively used in California in the 1890s. This is not a 
reason to take any credit away from Schoonmaker. He certainly 
applied it in a big way, but he did not invent it. 

Phaff he's the fifth one in Food Technology that wrote 
articles with me. 

All my graduate students published with me, or published by 
themselves when I thought they had done all the work. But if I 
had conceived of the project and had participated in it, then 
they usually published with me as the junior author, since they 
did the work and carried it through. Whenever I did work with 

people on the staff, they always, I hope, got credit for it 

even though I may have done much of the writing. They 
participated, contributed, and in many cases they polished the 
paper after I had made a draft at twelve o'clock at night. So I 
hope everybody got credit whose work is published with me. I 
think they did, one way or the other, usually with their name on 


Frank Schoonmaker 

Teiser: You mention Schoonmaker: I wanted to ask about his influence on 
the post-repeal California wine market. 

Amerine: He came to California on business in about 1939 or 1940. He was 
already in the importing wine business. About this time, when 
the European war had broken out, he couldn't get wine from 
France and Germany across the Atlantic. He wasn't very keen 
about getting Portuguese wine for the American market. Although 
he did bring in some, I believe. So he came to California, and 
among the people he saw were those at the University, Winkler 
and me. He came several times. In fact, he stayed at my house 
once. I got to know him fairly well. His company had an office 
on Maiden Lane in San Francisco, with a resident manager in the 
office. They hired Carl Bundschu from Inglenook to be a 
consultant to the office. Tom Marvel, I think, had nothing to 
do with the California chapters in the 1935 Complete Wine Book,* 
although he'd earlier been a member of the San Francisco 
Chronicle staff and knew something about the California wine 
industry. I can't evaluate what Tom Marvel's contribution was 
to the second book, American Wines. 

But certainly, Schoonmaker knew exactly where to go when he 
came here. He may have gotten that from Tom Marvel, and as to 
how he came to the University, I haven't the least idea. He had 
been to Bordeaux before and knew the people in Bordeaux, and he 
may have gotten the idea from them. Or he may have gotten it 
from Bundschu. We'd worked with Bundschu since '35 at 
Inglenook. In fact, we'd gotten grapes from the Bundschu 
vineyards at that time. Bundschu grapes were being delivered to 
Inglenook during that period. So I knew Carl fairly well, 
perhaps at the beginning as well as John Daniel [Jr.]. 

Anyway, I don't know how Schoonmaker came to Davis. But he 
came to Davis and became a friend of Winkler and mine, and was 
very much interested in the varietal research that had been 
going on since '35. We were six years into our research and had 
already begun to publish on it. Bulletins 639, 651, and 652 
were already in print before he came. So he could see we were 
serious about the wine business. 

His first contribution to the California wine industry was 
that he showed it was possible to go into a winery and pick out 
the good and bad wine. That was a very important contribution, 
because a lot of the winemakers in California just assumed that 

*Published in the United States in 1934, Great Britain in 1935. 


Amerine: their wines were good automatically at that period. They were 

directly out of the bootleg period, and anything that was red or 
white and had alcohol in it was wine and you could sell it. 
Schoonmaker knew that you couldn't do that on a national market 
or on the New York market. 

He was not interested in dessert wines. That was his 
second contribution. He did not get into the dessert wine 
business at all. So that almost automatically moved him into 
the Napa, Santa Clara, and Livermore area. There were no small 
wineries in Sonoma at that time that were dedicated 
wholeheartedly to making a better wine, with the exception of 
Fountain Grove at Santa Rosa. Frank sold himself. That was, I 
think, the third thing. First he proved that he could pick out 
the good wines, that he could do it time after time and that 
they couldn't fool him. If he liked bin 34 and they brought it 
to him as bin 74, he'd say,, "This is bin 34, and this is the 
wine I want." He had great confidence in his ability. And they 
didn't have that many samples; they didn't have 150 samples, or 
anything like that. So he was dealing with a finite number of 
samples, and once he decided which ones he wanted, he didn't 
change his mind. He picked originally Martini, Wente, Korbel, 
and Larkmead, and he designed the labels. I think Martini used 
part of the labels until recently, but now they have new labels. 

Anyway, he was a very good conversationalist and a very 
good person to be around, unless he got in an argumentative 
mood. Then he was not very much fun any more. I never got in 
an argument with him, so I didn't see that side of him; but 
other people told me that he could be argumentative, and I think 
maybe in his later years he was. 

After the war I saw him less and less. He was a consultant 
with Almaden after the war. I occasionally would see him with 
Louis and Kay Benoist, but really I didn't see much of Frank 
after the war. He went back into the importing business, and 
the Wente, Martini, Korbel arrangement was aborted at that 
time. He did not sell Almaden wines. He was a consultant for 
Almaden; he was not an agent for Almaden. His selling of 
California wines ended with the war. Then he went back to the 
Frank Schoonmaker Selections abroad. His main contact in 
California after the war was with Alma den. 

Teiser: Mr. William Dieppe has spoken of him in his interview.* 

*William A. Dieppe, Almaden is My Life, an oral history 
interview conducted 1984, Regional Oral History Office, The 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 1985. 


Amerine: Oh, yes. Mrs. Benoist was very fond of him, and he was very 

good about suggesting wines and menus and food, and things like 
that. I think he had a good deal of influence with wine and 
food preferences of the Louis Benoists, but it was primarily as 
a consultant and friend. 

Teiser: Did the Benoists themselves have a large influence, do you feel? 

Amerine: I don't know. Almaden, when they got the money to establish 

Madrone, went national. They had an arrangement with somebody 
from Seattle. I don't know what his name was. They established 
that big winery at Madrone, and Almaden wines went over there 
and were sold as Madrone wines. I think the Seattle people 
acquired a lot of new vineyards at that time. That was when the 
San Martin vineyards were acquired, and they planted a lot of 
vineyards at that time, during the Madrone period. Then 
suddenly that disappeared. Frank was very active during that 
period in consulting. The development of the Green Veltliner as 
a variety, because they happened to have it in Gilroy, was never 
duplicated. It was a light, fresh wine and it was a new name. 
Schoonmaker said that they would find it easier to sell because 
they would not be competing with anybody. So Green Veltliner 
was sold for several years. Now, I don't know the reasons why 
Benoist and the man in Seattle decided to abort Madrone. The 
Benoists moved back to Almaden and the comnpany got bigger, and 
then, of course, it was eventually sold to National Distillers. 
By that time Frank didn't have any input. 

Teiser: Are there influential people that you can think of in this more 
recent period that you haven't discussed in your earlier 

Amerine: When I first came to the Institute, as I mentioned in the 

interview, I saw Harry Serlis from time to time, and Harvey 
Poser t. Then they went through the time when the Advisory Board 
was disbanded. I saw Bob [Robert] Ivie. He was always very 
nice to me. So were Harry Serlis and Harvey Posert. I got 
along with both of them very well. 

Teiser: What was Harry Serlis 1 contribution? 

Araerine: I wrote a little introduction to his book. Harry was a p.r. 

person, and I think he did a lot of good things, but I would not 
be in a position to evaluate his career in the industry. 

John De Luc a 

Amerine: But I would be in the position to evaluate John De Luca, which 
is the last ten years. I probably knew him as well as anybody 


Amerine: inside or outside the industry, as far as that's concerned, 

during that period. I have nothing but praise for his career 
[as president] in the Institute. He came at a very difficult 
time to the Institute, a time when we had Lost some very 
important support that had nothing to do with him at all. East 
Side and Heublein had pulled out, and John's first job was to 
get on his horse and go and visit a couple hundred wineries. No 
president of the Wine Institute had ever done that before. No 
chairman of the board* had ever done it, either. John visited 
fifty wineries just in the Napa Valley. He took Harry Posert or 
Brian St. Pierre or me on various trips north and south of San 
Franc isco. 


Teiser: You said that gave him a feel for the industry. 

Amerine: He had more of a feel for the industry than any of his 

predecessors, because he actually had been to all the wineries, 
or a great many of the wineries, had gotten to know their 
proprietors by their first names and their wives' names, had had 
meals with them. 

Teiser: Did he go to non-members as well as members? 

Amerine: Well, I do not want to get into non-members, because there were 
only two of them that were important and it is a long story. I 
do not want to get into it, but I can tell you for a fact that 
everything was done, from the President of the United States on 
down, to make these people see the light of day, and they were 
determined not to see the light of day. There can be no blame 
on the Institute as an organization, nor on its president, nor 
on its chairman of the board, nor its executive committee, that 
these people pulled out of the Wine Institute. Various kinds of 
compromise were offered. I was present at some meetings. I 
want to be sure that it comes through loud and clear that John 
De Luca knew that non-participation was the problem. It was not 
forced by him. It was here before he came, i.e. , already in 
place before he arrived. He did everything that he could in 
that time, and I'm sure he is still working on this problem. 

Teiser: In those visits to the wineries, did he go out to the small 

wineries, ones that didn't happen to have become members, or to 
new wineries? 

*The staff head of the Wine Institute had the title chairman of 
the board until 1955. Since then an elected industry member has 
held that title, usually on a one-year term. 


Amerine: There was at least one non-member winery in the Napa Valley that 
I took him to because I knew the people there myself, but 
whether they came into the Institute because of that or not, I 
don't know. Then, of course, Setrakian* came in by himself. He 
stayed until he was almost out of business. 

Teiser: That was Robert Setrakian of California Growers Winery. 

Amerine: Right. Let me finish a little bit more about John De Luca. 

First of all, because of his wide acquaintances in the industry 
he had a feeling for what was disturbing people, and he tried to 
defuse arguments. I'm sure he was a master at that. It's no 
secret in the Wine Institute that after John De Luca became 
president, the chairman of the board was kept informed on a 
daily and sometimes on an hourly basis of the problems that the 
Institute was having. The telephone bills of the chairman of 
the board of the Wine Institute must be astronomical, and a good 
part of the time during the year, when they were chairman of the 
board, was spent talking to John De Luca. In that respect, I 
think he showed himself as a great organizer. Without the 
support of the chairman of the board, the president would become 
a functionary and would not have any input. He understood that 
from the start, I suppose from his experience in San Francisco 
as assistant mayor. He had to keep the mayor informed at every 
stage of the game. I have been told that John did a lot of work 
and that he also kept [Mayor Joseph] Alioto up to date on a 
daily basis on what was happening. 

He certainly did that here, and I think that was 
important. He was a tireless political worker. He had a 
political background and therefore he had more influence on 
Washington in his years as president than we ever had before. 
We never had the California delegation behind us like it is now, 
never. Republicans and Democrats always vote the same on wine 
issues now. That's due to John De Luca, not to anybody else. 
That's a great contribution of his to the industry. We can get 
instant recognition of our problems in Washington at the 
legislative level. We don't get everything we want, but at 
least we get recognition for the problems, and sympathetic 

He's been very cognizant of the public relations aspect. 
Soon after he arrived there was going to be a newspaper release 
that there was enough arsenic in wine to kill you. The 
newspaper release was for release on a certain day, during an 
American Chemical Society meeting. John went to work with 
everybody on the staff. We located for him a great arsenic 
expert at the University of California at Davis, the greatest 
expert in the country. After I located that person, John got 
the information out that he needed, and the press release was 
aborted. The article was never published. It was not a good 

*0f California Growers Winery. 

Amerine: article to start with, but he used every possible mechanism to 
find out what the truth of the matter was, and when they found 
out it was not truthful, the American Chemical Society on its 
own aborted the whole thing. That showed what John could do in 
the p.r. field. There are many other episodes. You'd have to 
talk to Harvey Posert and Brian St. Pierre and other people in 
the p.r. department about John's sensitivity to press criticism. 

He has a great personal friendship with the Los Angeles 
Times, but he's also had the San Francisco Examiner and 
Chronicle people in to meet on a social basis, just to talk 
about industry problems and so forth. So at least the press in 
California, and certainly the Sacramento Bee, has been 
cooperative in many respects on that. The Sacramento, Modesto, 
and Fresno papers had better be cooperative, because that's 
where some of the clientele are in the grape and wine industry. 
But nevertheless, John has utilized his political friendships and 
his public relations skills to keep the newspapers on the side 
of the wine industry and, by and large, he's succeeded in that. 

Teiser: He said recently that he had learned a great deal about the wine 
industry from you and from Ernest Gallo. 

Amerine: Well, I suppose I got to know John almost at the beginning 

socially, and saw I could talk to him just as a friend, not only 
about the wine industry. I think he did get some feel for some 
people just by being at my dinner table or meeting them at my 
club, and so forth. I'd been around a long time, and you do 
acquire some prejudices. I think John was smart enough not to 
acquire my prejudices but to pick up the things that were useful 
as far as he was concerned. I didn't let him know all my 
prejudices, either. 

I think he found I was a good listener. That's what John 
probably needed at that time. Some people really weren't in a 
position at that time in the Institute to just listen. The 
other people were working for him. I was not working for him. 
I was just a consultant to the Wine Institute. Therefore I 
could tell the Institute things: "You ought to do that. You 
ought not to do that." So I think that John thought when he had 
a dilemma--he had hundreds of them-- that he had to think about, 
in some cases just my sitting there and listening to him was a 
comfort to him. I can't claim that I gave him any great wisdom. 
That certainly wouldn't be true. But maybe just being a 
listener when he had problems was important to him, because the 
other people couldn't be listeners in the same sense that I 
could be a listenera disinterested listener. I think you need 
- a disinterested listener sometimes when you have real critical 
problems. I think that's the reason he said that. Then, I had 
some background. 


Amerine: But he's acquired an enormous background. I think he probably 
knows the people in the industry now better than anybody. If 
you do an interview with him, if he's in a position, you may 
have to bury it in The Bancroft for fifteen years. I have no 
real objection to that, rather than lose it. I would like to 
know what he thought about all these people during this period 
of time. He's not likely to say that when he's still working at 
the Wine Institute, and he's not likely to say it when he's 
still around politically in Calif ornia--if , for some reason, he 
went into politics or went into some other political position. 
I can't conceive of it. I think he's the right man at the right 
place at the right time for Wine Institute. What I said at the 
annual meeting, that I wish the wine industry would stop trying 
to kill him with too much work, is still true. Just now I spoke 
to him, and I said, "Are you busy?" He said, "Oh, I've been 
busy since five o'clock this morning." The days start out at 
his home and they end up at night at his home. 

Teiser: How could that be helped? 

Amerine: That would involve some rather serious rearrangements of the 
chain of command. I'm not sure that John is a person that 
doesn't want to be at the center of the decision-making 
process. Maybe that's his style. 

You should read that article in that magazine called 
Executive. There was a whole profile in the magazine years 
ago.* B~rian St. Pierre will get you a copy of it. It's a 
series of interviews with John. They came to the conclusion 
that he's over-qualified to be president of the Wine Institute, 
that his skills are greater than the challenge of the Wine 
Institute. I'm inclined to believe that's correct. So we're 
very lucky to have him. To have a person over-qualified to do 
the job is always on your side. You are getting more for your 
money than you deserve to get. That was their conclusion on the 
basis of their analysis of his career as of two years ago. He 
is a terribly hard worker. 

Teiser: Has he learned from Ernest Gallo similarly? 

Amerine: I don't know, because those were all conversations, and he's 
been to Modesto a number of times. Ernest has seen him in 
several places. There have been telephone calls with Ernest and 
the rest of the people down there. He knows all the hierarchy 
of the Gallo wine company; Charlie Crawford and he speak 
frequently. What their direct import is, I don't know, any more 

*In the December 1980 issue. 


Amerine: than I know the Impact that Robert Mondavi might have on him, or 
Louis [P.] Martini or Joe Heitz. The chairman of the board--and 
in his time that's included [Massud S.] Nuri and [Morris] 
Katz--he has been very close to all of them, on an hourly basis. 

The Grape-Growing Region System 

Teiser: I want to ask you once more about your current view of the 

region system and its future. I've asked you about this before 
in relation to articles and other interviews. You said earlier 
that it wasn't intended to be the final word. 

Amerine: What I think I talked about, and I think it's still true 

(Winkler and I were just talking about it last weekend), was an 
attempt to make sense out of an enormous amount of data that we 
had collected, starting in 1935. We had made six, seven 
hundred lots a year from all parts of California. We had all 
kinds of analyses on the grapes and on the wine, much more 
analysis than [Eugene W.] Hilgard had had in his earlier work. 
So Winkler had already been interested in the effect of climate 
on ripening because of the Tokay problem, on Flame tokay. He had 
published in the twenties on Flame Tokay and heat units. 

The whole concept of heat units goes back into the 1870s. 
If you look at the University of Calif ornia-Sotheby Book of 
California Wine, in the chapter Phil [Philip M.] Wagner and I 
wrote, you will see a footnote there about how old the heat 
summation concept is. It goes back to the last century. And it 
applies to many crops, not just to grapes and horticultural 
crops. But Winkler deserves the credit for having done the work 
of getting all the temperature data from all the stations all 
over the state of California. 

Then we took the data, and we saw that in Region I the 
acids were higher, the sugars were lower, the pHs were lower, 
and the colors were higher. And the ripening dates were, of 
course, much later. In Region V the acids were much, much 
lower, the sugar was higher, the pHs were much higher, and there 
was no color, so we simply said, ,"We'll break it into five 
divisions, arbitrarily." It could have been made into ten 
divisions, or it could have been made into two divisions. As a 
matter of fact, I've already told you that Hilgard got so far as 
to break it into two regions, one the coast counties and the 
other the interior valley. He recognized there was a difference 
in ripening between those two regions, but he did not have any 
heat summation data as to how warm it was. 


Amerine: So that was Winkler's (and my) contribution, to apply that and 
divide it up into five regions. I've said many times before, 
there are undoubtedly more regions and more factors than the 
ones we used to classify the regions. I've said many times that 
we'll have ten to fifteen regions before they get through. 
They'll be classifed not just by a heat summation, but possibly 
by the amount of cloudiness they have, the exposure--the ones 
that face west against the ones that face east. That makes a 
difference in temperature. 

Teiser: Is wind a factor? 

Amerine: The wind effect in the Salinas Valley is important, although 

they've learned to grow grapes with heavier wire so it's not as 
disastrous an effect on them any more. That's for future 
research to reveal, not for me to guess about. I think Kliewer 
is the one that's doing it now. He has heat chambers and he's 
worked out effective night temperature and day temperature as 
another factor. A whole series of things could be added to 
influence the ripening and the composition of the grapes when 
they are ripe. He's even worked on the malic acid and tar tar ic 
acid content under controlled conditions. There is a lot of 
work still to be done, and Kliewer is the right man to be doing 
it. It proves that we had a good problem to work on if there's 
still some work to be done. The only bad problems are problems 
where you solve all the problems. That's no fun at all. It's 
hard for industry people to realize that. Good research always 
reveals more problems than you can solve. Therefore you open up 
new kinds of research- -maybe not to yourself, but somebody sees 
where you were stymied, and where your data did not lead to. 
Then they pick it up, as Kliewer did using the controlled 
temperature data, where he could control the temperature, the 
sunlight, the hours of sunlight, and so forth. 

Soils and Vines 

Teiser: Has anyone since Hilgard gone as far as he did into soil studies 
in relation to growing? 

Amerine: I've said what I'm going to say on soil studies in the 

University of Calif ornia-So theby book. There is a little 
section there. Winkler and I were discussing it the other day. 
Outside of soil conditions which influence water permeability 
and temperature (which are not really soil effects but simply 
the structure of the soil), we will believe it when we see it, 
but nobody has proven to us that it's calcium or potassium or 
nitrogen. These are the three things that a plant needs. We 
know we have soils with too much and too little boron. I'm 


Amerine: willing to believe that, and that the vine reacts to that. It 
doesn't grow. I can understand other conditions where vines 
will respond to a poisonous or toxic thing. There's a new book 
out called the Terroir de France. It says in there, in French, 
that the terroir thing has been greatly over-emphasized by 
people who want to protect their difference. They've had some 
soil people working down there for the last fifteen years 
G. Seguin. He still hasn't found any difference between 
Chateaux- -Chateau Margaux and Chateau Mouton-Ro thschild and so 
forth, and he's not going to find any difference because the 
soil is all the same as far as we now know. 

In Burgundy there are various soil conditions, but they are 
mainly due to drainage. The high calcium soils are much better- 
draining soils. That's true in this country, too, but 
practically all of our soils are calciforous in California. 
That's Hilgard's classification, and it's still true. He was 
the first one to point out that California had high calcium 
soil. People would say that only high calcium soil would grow 
Pinot noir. We have plenty of it here. That is no problem at 
all. I am not adamant about it. I just say, "Show it to me." 
I'd like to see ten years of data with a lot of analysis, and 
not just somebody's opinion--somebody who doesn't have an actual 
interest in it. Of course Margaux is going to say that their 
soil is different than anybody else's; that is what they are 
selling, Chateau Margaux. You are not going to get a man to 
give you an unbiased opinion. The University of Bordeaux, after 
all these years, still has not been able to do it. That sounds 
worse to me, from their point of view. It would be to the 
experiment station's advantage to find some differences. They 
haven't found them yet. They are scientists, not public 
relations people. 

Viticultural Areas ## 

Teiser: I wonder if you would comment upon the establishment of 
viticultural areas here, the idea of them. 

Amerine: I think that's an industry thing. It's partially a sales 

maneuver. It has nothing to do with the areas. It's a sales 
maneuver, pure and simple. It was developed for p.r. purposes. 
It doesn't have any relationship to quality of the wine, the 
types of wine, or anything. It's completely different from the 
European system. They're going to establish as many of them as 
- they can in order to make money on the concept. It protects 
them from their competition down the road. Now we have 
subdivisions within subdivisions, and later there will be 
further subdivision. 


Teiser: Nobody's been wild about establishing named areas in the San 
Joaquin Valley, have they? Like Fresno? 

Amerine: Well, first of all there has to be some quality-composition 

effect. And, after all, we already know that there are at least 
three composition-quality regions in the coast counties. There 
are only two in the San Joaquin Valley, and they're both on the 
hot side. So you're not going to find much difference at that 
level in the composition-quality of table wines. 

Teiser: So far as p.r. is concerend, there's not much prestige attached 
to the name s . 

Amerine: It's all a matter of p.r. That's the name of the game. 
Industry's calling that card. 

Retirement Work 

Teiser: I should ask you, finally, to summarize what it is like to be 
retired. But I have to put "retired" in quotes. 

Amerine: Obviously, I will never be completely retired. One way of 

staying young is to keep something to occupy your mind. I just 
visited an old friend yesterday who has had an accident and his 
eyesight is somewhat impaired. He can't read and he can't watch 
television. He lives alone, and what can he do with his life? 
He can't even play the stock market. He can't read the 
newspaper. So I find that nobody should completely retire. 
With time, you change the kinds of things you do. I will 
probably do more bibliography in the years to come. That's kind 
of mechanical. It occupies your time and it's never finished. 
There's no such thing as a complete bibliography. 

So I will keep doing that sort of thing. I do have a 
folder about trips and another folder about some University 
things which you and I have not discussed at all--my career in 
the University hierarchy, in academic senate, and that sort of 
thingwhich is an entirely different aspect of my life. It 
doesn't have anything to do with the wine business at all. I 
knew four University presidents personally, on a first-name 
basis. One is dead already. [Clark] Kerr, I guess, is the 
youngest one of them. He will last as long as I will. Maybe I 
will write about that some day, from the University point of 
view. I think that Clark Kerr and Charles Hitch and David 
Saxon, whom I am going to see in a couple of weeks in Boston, 
are all quite different personalities. I do not think they have 
had their due share of credit from the University. I am sure 
that Clark hasn't. I am going to write about that some day when 
I ge t the time and energy to do it. 

Maynard A. Amerine 


Amerine: I will probably live in the country for quite a while yet. 

There does come a time when you can't move around so much. Then 
you think about where you live as where you want to be. Napa 
Valley is pretty self-sufficient now. We have a symphony 
orchestra and opera season, play season, and good restaurants, 
and plenty of places to shop. I could conceive that I might not 
move nearer the Bay Area. On the other hand, the big opera 
season is here; the big symphony season is here; the big 
libraries are in the Bay Region and not in the Napa Valley. And 
so forth. 

Teiser: It depends on how much you want to drive, I guess. 

Amerine: I do use the bus occasionally when I don't want to drive. There 
is a bus a half a mile from my door that goes right to Seventh 
Street in San Francisco. If they would just not stop in 
Oakland, it would save quite a bit of time. They also stop in 
Vallejo. They still talk about having a Napa Valley train. 
Then you could come to Vallejo on it. 

Transcibers: Lisa Grossman and Kyle Fiore 
Final typist: Judy Smith 


TAPE GUIDE -- Maynard A. Amerine 

Interview 1: 11 February 1985 

tape 1, side A 1 

tape 1, side B 

tape 2, side A 15 

tape 2, side B 23 

Interview 2: 11 September 1985 

tape 3, side A 42 

tape 3, side B 49 


M. A. Amerine 

1937 Winkler, A. J. , and M. A. Amerine. What climate 







does. The Wine Review _5(6J:9-11; (7):9-ll, Ib. 
Winkler. A. J. , and M. A. Amerine. Color in Cali 

fornia wines. I. Methods for measurement of color. 
Food Research 3_(4) :429-438. 

Winkler, A. J. , and M. A. Amerine. Color in Cali 

fornia wines. II. Preliminary comparisons of 
certain factors influencing color. Food Research 
3^(4) :439-447. 

Amerine, M. A. How the French market wines at whole 

sale and retail. Wines and Vines 
Amerine, M. A. Wines at the 1937 Paris International 

Exposition. Wines and vines J_a_(.yj : lo-l / . 
Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Viile si vinurile 

Californiei. Romania Viticoia : 1 /i-l/b ; (o) : 
212-215; (7):254-257. 

Amerine, M. A. Aging of California wines. The Wine 

Review 6_(5):1U-12. 
Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Claret. Wines 

and Vines 1_9_(1J :5. 
Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Port wine. Wines 

and Vines 1^(2 J :b. 
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Chianti wine. 

Wines and Vines .19^4] :4. 
Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Sherry. Wines and 

Vines 19_(5):4. 
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Sauternes. Wines 

and Vines 1^(6) :3-4. 
Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. The wines made 

from muscat grapes. Wines and Vines 19(7j : j-4. 
Olmo-. H. P., and M. A. Amerine. Zinfandel. Wines 

and Vines 1(9) :3-4. 
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Angelica. Wines 

and Vines T9(9) :5. 




Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. 

Brandy. Wines 

and Vines 1.9(10) :3-4. 



Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. 

Burgundy. Wines 

and Vines 19(11) : 5. 
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. 

Wines and Vines 19(12) :4-5. 



Amerine, Maynard A. Der Weinbau in 








Internationaler Weinbaukongress Bad Kreuznach, 
Programmhef t , page 48. August. 



Amerine, Maynard A., and George L. Marsh. Wine 

judging methods. The Wine Review 7(10) :6, 20. 
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Wa'^er! Bring 

the wine. California Monthly 4_Z_(2) :14-15, 38-39. 
Amerine, Maynard A., and William DeMattei. Color 

in California wines. III. Methods of removing 
color from the skins. Food Research 5^(5) : 509- 519. 
(Wines and Vines 22(4):19-20. 1941) 

1940 Amerine , M. A. 

and A. J. Winkler. Maturity studies 
with California grapes. I. The Balling-acid ratio 
of wine grapes. Proceedings of the American Society 
for Horticultural Science 58 :379-387. 

1940 Amerine, M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Commercial pro- 
duction of table wines. University of California, 
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 639: 

1941 Amerine, Maynard A., and A. J. Winkler. Color in 
California wines. IV. The production of pink wines. 
Food Research 6_(1):1-14. 

1941 Joslyn, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Commercial pro 
duction of dessert wines. University of California, 
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 651 : 

1941 Joslyn, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Commercial pro 
duction of brandies. University of California, 
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 652:1-80. 

1942 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Maturity studies 
with California grapes. II. The titratable acidity, 
pH, and organic acid content. Proceedings of the 
American Society for Horticultural Science 40 : 


29. 1942 Amerine, Maynard A., Louis P. Martini, and William 

DeMattei. Foaming properties of wine. Method and 
preliminary results. Industrial and Engineering 
Chemistry 34_:152-157. 

30. 1942 Amerine, Maynard A. Some comments on wine in America 

Wine and Food NoT 3_6_: 192-199 . 

31. 1942 Amerine, Maynard A. The cup and the sword. Wine 

and Food No. 36:212, 214. 

31a. 1942 Amerine, M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Champagne. The 
Wine Review ]_0_(10) : 8-11 , 22. October. 

32. 1943 Guymon, J. F. , N. E. Tolbert, and M. A. Amerine. 

Studies with brandy. I. pH. Food Research 8_(3) : 

33. 1943 Tolbert, N. E., M. A. Amerine, and J. F. Guymon. 

Studies with brandy. TT~. Tlfnnin. Food Research 
8_(3) :231-236. 

34. 1943 Amerine , M. A. , and A. D. Webb. Alcohol-glycerol 

ratio of California wines. Food Research 8_(4) : 

35. 1943 Amerine, Maynard A., and William C. Dietrich. 

Glycerol in wines. Journal of the Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists 26(3) :408-415. 

36. 1943 Tolbert, N. E., and M. A. Amerine. Charcoal treat 

ment of brandy. Industrial and Engineering Chem 
istry 3_5_:1078-1082. 

37. 1943 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Grape varieties 

for wine production. University of California, 
Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 356 : 1- 15 . 

38. 1943 Amerine. Maynard A. American Books. Wine and Food 

No. !57_:64, 66. 

39. 1944 Amerine, Maynard A. Determination of esters in 

wine- -Liquid-liquid extraction. Food Research 
9_(5) :392-395. 

40. 1944 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Composition and 

quality of must and wines of California grapes. 
Hilgardia 1_5 (6) : 493-673. 

41. 1946 Amerine, Maynard A. 1946 Vintage Tour of the Los 

Angeles and San Francisco Branches of the Wine and 
Food Society to Napa and Sonoma Counties. The Grab- 
horn Press, San Francisco. Cl: - C7: p. 
















Amerine, Maynard A. 
No. 53_:43-44. 

Amerine, Maynard A. 
No. 55:158-159. 

Books reviewed. Wine and Food 

Book notices. Wine and Food 

Amerine, Maynard A. New wine and old bottles. Five 
page mimeograph of an address delivered before the 
Society of Medical Friends of Wine. Dist. by Wine 
Institute, February 13, 1947. 

Amerine, Maynard A. The composition of 
wines at exhibitions. Wines and Vines 
42-43; (2):24-26; (3):23-25, 42-46. 


1947 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. The relative 

color stability of the wines of certain grape varieties 
Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural 

Science 4_9_: 183-185. 

Amerine, Maynard A. An application of "triangular" 
taste testing to wines. The Wine Review 16(5):10-12 

Amerine, Maynard A. Hydroxymethyl furfural in Cali 
fornia wines. Food Research 1_3(3) : 264-269 . 

Amerine, M. A. Madeira 1947. Wine and Food No. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Organoleptic examination of 
wine. Wine Technology Conference, University of 
California, August 11-13, 1948, Davis, California. 
(Mimeo) 15-26. 

Amerine, Maynard A. The grapes and wines of Alameda, 
Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz Counties. 1948 Vintage 
Tour of the Los Angeles and San Francisco Branches 
of the Wine and Food Society. The Grabhorn Press, 
San Francisco. p. 5-14. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Wine production problems of 
California grapes. The Wine Review 17(1) :18-22 
(Introduction; I. Pinot noir) ; (2):10-11, 12 
(II. White Riesling) ; (3):10-12 (III. Zinfandel) ; 
(5):10-12 (IV. Semillon) ; (6):11-12, 14-15 (V. 
Cabernet Sauvignon) ; (7):6-7, 19-20 (VI. Folle 
Blanche, Summary). 

Amerine, Maynard A. 
10(4) :206-208, 210. 

California wine. The Vortex 


54. 1949 Amerine. Maynard A. What is handicapping Califor 

nia ' s~i7Ine~alTHu?tr'y . California Monthly 59:32, 

55. 1949 Amerine. Maynard A. The influence of the constit- 

uents of wines on taste and application to the 
judging of commercial wines. Proceedings Wine Tech 
nology Conference, University of California, August 
10-12, 1949, Davis, California. (Mimeo.) 21-24. 

56. 1949 Amerine , M. A. Que e que esta a embaracar a 

industria vinicola da Calif6rnia? Institute do 
Vinho do Porto Cadernos No. 118 :416-420. (Reprint 
in Portuguese of #52.) 

57. 1949 Amerine, Maynard A. exame organoleptico dos 

vinhos . Institute do Vinho d Porto, Suplemento 
ao Caderno No. 120:1-50. 

58. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. On cooking. Wine and Food 

No. 6_S_:46-49. 

59. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. The response of wine to aging. 

Wines and Vines 31 (3) : 19-22 (I. Physical factors 
influencing agingJT (4):71-74 (II. Biological and 
chemical factors influencing aging); (5):28-31 (III. 
Bottle aging, IV. The influence of variety). 

60. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. Down-to-earth talk about wine 

of the land. San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco 
Bay Area Gourmet Guide, p. 4, May 15, 1950. 

61. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. The acids of California grapes 

and wines. I . Llfctic acid. Food Technology 
4_(5) :177-181. 

62. 1950 Amerine , M. A. , and M. W. Monaghan. California 

sparkling wines, bulk versus bottle fermented. 
Wines and Vines 3^(8) : 25-27 ; (9):52-54. 

63. 1950 Guymon, J. F. , and M. A. Amerine. Organoleptic 

determination of quality in neutral brandy. Wines 
and Vines 3JJ12) :27-28. 

64. 1950 Amerine , M. A. A matter of taste. Wines and Vines 

31. (9) :35-36. 

65. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. Bordeaux $ Burgundy. Wine and 

Food No. 6^:166-168. 

66. 1951 Amerine, Maynard A. Laboratory procedures for enology 

(revised) . Divisions of Viticulture, University of 
California, Davis. 96 pages. (Mimeo .) Several later edition: 




1951 Amerine, Maynard A. The acids of Calfiornia grapes 

II. Malic acid. Food Technology _5(1) 












and wines 

1951 Amerine, Maynard A., and Louise B. Wheeler. A 

books and pamphlets on grapes and 
University of Cali- 
240 p. 

checK list of 
wine and related subjects. 

fornia Press 

Amerine , Maynard A. Some early books about the 
California wine industry. The Book Club of Cali 
fornia, Quarterly News Letter XVI_(3) : 51-56. 

Amerine, Maynard A. The wines of France. "World" 
section of the San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday, 
May 27. p. 11. 

Heitz, Joseph E., Edward B. Roessler, Maynard A. 
Amerine, and George A. Baker. A study of certain 
influencing the composition of California- 
during baking. Food Research 16(3): 

type sherry 

1951 Amerine, M. A. Unification des methodes d'analyse 
et d' appreciation des vins. Etats-Unis d'Amerique 
Bulletin Office International du Vin 2_4_(241) : 

1951 Baker, G. A. , M. A. Amerine. 
Fractional blending systems 
beverages. Food Technology 

and E. G. Roessler. 
for aging alcoholic 
5(7) :304-305. 

1951 Amerine , M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Table wines: 

The technology of their production in California. 
University of California Press, Berkeley. 397 p. 

1951 Amerine, Maynard A. IV e Congress International de 
la Vigne et du Vin. Athenes, 24 Aout - 2 Septembre 
1950. IV e section: Economic viti- vinicole. Bull 
etin Office International du Vin 24 (246) :52-38. 
October. (See also, Rapports et Actes du Congres 
II, 61-67.) 

1951 Amerine, Maynard A. California^ Wines of the world 
pocket library. Edited by Andre L. Simon. The Wine 
and Food Society, London. 15 pages. 


77. 1951 Amerine, Maynard A. Dessert wine production pro- 

blems of California grapes. Wines and Vines 33(1): 
15-16 (Introduction; I. Palomino); (2):29-30 (II. 
Tinta Madeira) ; (3):25-26 (III. Alvarelhao, Sousao, 
Touriga and other red dessert varieties); (4):59-61 
(IV. Muscat of Alexandria) ; (5):20-23 (V. Malvasia 
Bianca, Muscat Canelli, and Orange Muscat; VI. Con 
clusions . ) . 

1951 Amerine, Maynard A. The educated enologist. Pro- 
ceedings of the American Society of Enologists 1951 : 

1952 Amerine, Maynard A. The search for good wine. Idea 
and Experiment T("4 ) : 1 3 - 1 5 . 

1952 Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and E. B. Roessler. 

Theory and application of fractional blending systems 
Hilgardia 2_1 (14) : 383-409. 

1952 Guymon, J. F. , and M. A. Amerine. Tasting of exper 
imental dessert wines produced with brandies of dif 
ferent qualities. Wines and Vines 33(9) :19. 





1952 Amerine, M. A. , and T. T. Kishaba. Use of the flame 
photometer for determining the sodium, potassium, 
and calcium content of wine. Proceedings of the 
American Society of Enologists 1952:77-86. 

1952 Amerine , M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Techniques and 
problems in the organoleptic examination of wines. 
Proceedings of the American Society of Enologists 







Amerine, Maynard A. 
equipment at Davis. 

New controlled fermentation 
Wines and Vines 34(9):27-30. 

Baker, G. A., and M. A. Amerine. Organoleptic rat 
ings of wines estimated from analytical data. Food 
Research jj_(4) : 381-389 . 

Amerine, Maynard A. The composition of wines. 
Scientific Monthly LXXVII (5) : 250-254 . 

Amerine, Maynard A. Influence of variety, maturity 
and processing on the clarity and stability of wine 
Proceedings of the American Society of Enologist 


1953 Amerine 

of wines. 

Maynard A. . George Thoukis, and Ramon Vidal- 
Marfa. Further data on the sodium content 
Proceedings of the American Society of 



89. 1953 Amerine, Maynard A. New books on wine. Wines and 

Vines 34_(12):34. 

90. 1953 Roessler, E. B. , G. A. Baker, and M. A. Amerine. 

Corrected normal and chi-square approximations to 
the binomial distribution in organoleptic tests. 
Food Research 1_8 (6) : 625-627 . 

91. 1953 Amerine, Maynard A. Some recent advances in enology, 

Wines and Vines 14 (12) :25-28 . 1953; 3_5_(1) :29-30 ; 
(2) :27-30. 

92. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Nouvel equipement pour la fer 

mentation controTee Davis. Le ProgrSs Agricole 
et Viticole 141(5) :56-64. 

93. 1954 Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and E. B. Roessler.. 

Errors of the second kind in organoleptic difference 
testing. Food Research 1^(2) : 206-210. 

94. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Italian treatise on enology. 

Wines and Vines T5_(7) :29. 

95. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Composition of wines. I. 

Organic constituents. Advances in Food Research 

96. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Ampelografski atlas. Wine and 

Food No. 84_:268-269. 

97. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine congress -- German style. 

Wines and Vines I5_(12) :20-22. 

98. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Tecnicas y problemas en el 

examen organoleptico de los vinos. Agricultura 
2_3(272) :702-707. (Summarized from: Techniques 
arfd problems in the organoleptic examination of 
wines. M. A. Amerine and E. G. Roessler, Proceed 
ings of the American Society of Enologists 1952 : 

99. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A., and Enrique Feduchy. Los 

resultados de la cata del vino y del analisis 
quimico. (Primeros^estudios para conocer su^ 
relacion en vinos tipicos espanoles.) Boletin 
del Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agron- 
omicas 14_(31) : 353-375 . (Also published as 
Cuaderno No. 212) 


100. 1954 

101. 1955 






106. 1955 

107. 1956 

108. 1956 

109. 1956 

110. 1956 


Amerine, Maynard A. Fermentation of musts under 
controlled conditions. X Congreso International 
de Industrial Agricolas (Madrid) . Relacion de 
Comunicaciones Presentadas II : 1945-1965. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Further studies with controlled 
fermentations . American Journal of Enology 6^ 

Amerine, M. A. Five ampelographies . 
Journal of Enology 6_(2):50-51. 


Amerine, Maynard A. The well -tempered wine bibber, 
1955 Vintage Tour of the Los Angeles and San Fran 
cisco Branches of the Wine and Food Society. The 
Grabhorn Press, San Francisco. p. 5-19. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Wine in the home and market. 
Wine and Food NoT 87_:166-168, 170. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Laboratory procedures for 
enology. Department of Viticulture and Enology, 
University of California, Davis. 108 pages, plus 
6 tables. (Mimeo.) 

Amerine, Maynard A. 
not widely planted. 
61, 62. 

Some recommended grape varieties 
Wines and Vines 36(11) :59, 

Roessler, E. B., G. A. Baker, and M. A. Amerine. 
One-tailed and two-tailed tests in organoleptic 
comparisons. Food Research 21 (1) : 117-121 . 

Thoukis, G., and M. A. Amerine. The fate of copper 
and iron during fermentation of grape musts. Amer 
ican Journal of Enology 7_(2):62-68. 

Hall, Alice P., Lisa Brinner, Maynard A. Amerine. 
and Agnes Fay Morgan. The B vitamin content of 
grapes, musts, and wines. Food Research 21(5) : 

Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Jjn Encyclopedia of 
Chemical Technology, The Interscience Encyclopedia, 
Inc., New York. Vol. 15. pp. 48-72. 

Amerine. Maynard A. Tudor family portrait. Wine 
and Food No. 91:191-192. 

Papakyriakopoulos , V. G. , and M_. A. 
Sensory tests on two wine types, 
of Enology 7_(3) :98-104. 

Amerine . 
American Journal 


113. 1956 Amerine, Maynard A. The maturation of wine grapes. 

A review^ Wines and Vines 37_(10) : 27 - 30 , 32, 34-36, 
38; (ll):53-55. 

114. 1956 Nelson, K. E., and M. A. Amerine. Use of Botrytis 

cinerea for the production of sweet table wines. 
American Journal of Enology 7_(4) : 131-136. 

115. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine and food in the diary of 

Joseph Farington. Wine and Food No. 93:10-21. 
(Also separately printed.) 

116. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A. Refrigerated fermentation; pro 

cessing and storage of wines. Commodity Storage 
Manual. The Refrigeration Research Foundation, 
Colorado Springs, Colorado. 6 p. 

117. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A., and Cornelius S. Ough. Studies 

on controlled fermentation. III. American Journal 
of Enology 8_(1) :18-30. 

118. 1957 Weaver, R. J., M. A. Amerine, and A. J. Winkler. 

Preliminary report on effect of level of crop on 
development of color in certain red wine grapes. 
American Journal of Enology 8_(4) : 157- 166 . 

119. 1957 Nelson, Klayton E., and Maynard A. Amerine. The 

use of Botrytis cinerea Pers . in the production of 
sweet table wines. Hilgardia 26 (12) : 521-563. 

120. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A. Viticulture and enology in 

Russia. (Translation) Wines and Vines 38 (3) :26-27 . 

121. 1957 Amerine , Maynard A. Edmund Henri Twight- - 1874 - 

1957. Wines and Vines 38(5) :29-30. 

122. 1957 Amerine, M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Plastic or 

cork? - - -A French experiment. Wines and Vines 
38(5) :21. 

123. 1958 Amerine, M. A. What the public likes -- Talk by 

M. A. Amerine, mimeographed and distributed by 
Wine Institute. February. 7 p. 

124. 1958 Amerine, Maynard A. Tasting as a means for im- 

proving wines. Wines and Vines 59 (2) : 19-20. 

125. 1958 Baker, G. A., Vera Mrak , and M. A. Amerine. 

Errors of the second kind in an acid threshold test. 
Food Research 23 (2) : 150- 154 . 


126. 1958 Amerine , M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. 
determining field maturity of grapes 
Journal of Enology 9(1):37-40. 

Methods of 



129. 1958 








Amerine , M. A. , and G. Thoukis. The glucose- fructose 
ratio of California grapes. Vitis 1_(4) :224-229. 

Amerine, M. A. Acetaldehyde formation in submerged 
cultures of Saccharomyces beticus . Applied Micro 
biology 6_(3) :160-168. 

Amerine , M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Maturity studies 
with California grapes. III. The acid content of 
grapes, leaves, and stems. Proceedings of the Amer 
ican Society for Horticultural Science 71 : 199-206. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Comments on the nature of 
sparkling wines. Wines and Vines 39(8) ;31-32. 

Amerine, Maynard A. One and two page popular dis- 
cussions for each of the following Wine and Food 
Society of San Francisco tastings: California ports 
and dessert wines, October 27, 1955; French Cham 
pagnes, December 7, 1955; California white and- rose 
wines, March 21, 1956; French still wines, June 21, 
1956; Italian wines, September 6, 1956; California 
white, rose, and sparkling wines, December 6, 1956; 
French still wines, March 20, 1957; California red 
wines, October 24, 1957; French Champagnes and 
sparkling wines, December 3, 1957; California^white 
and rose wines, June 26, 1958; California rose, white, 
red sparkling wines, November 25, 1958; A tasting 
of wines of the British Commonwealth, March 3, 1959; 
Wines of Portugal, October 6, 1959, The Physicians 
Wine and Food Society of Santa Clara Valley -- a 
tasting of California Champagnes, March 3, 1957. 
Wine and Food Society brochures. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Wines at the French Court in 
1820. Wine and Food No. 99:163-165. 

Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. 
production under pressure. 
Enology 9_:111-122. 

Studies on aldehyde 
American Journal of 


E. G. , and M. A. Amerine. Studies on grape 
American Journal of Enology 9_:139-145. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Research for the industry, by 
the industry, in the industry. Wines and Vines 
39(10) :25-26. 


136. 1958 Amerine, Maynard A. Composition of wines. II. 

Inorganic constituents. Advances in Food Research 

137. 1958 Amerine, M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Field testing 

of grape maturity. Hilgardia 28(4) ;95-114. 

138. 1958 Amerine, Maynard A. Harold H. Price. In Memoriam. 

Wine and Food No. 100:226. 

139. 1959 Amerine, M. A. , C. S. Ough, and C. B. Bailey. 

Color values of California wines. Food Technol 
ogy 13(3) :171-175. 

140. 1959 Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Odor profiles of 

wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 

141. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Continuous flow production of 

still and sparkling wine. Wines and Vines 40(6) : 

142. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. The romance of Pan American 

wines. Pan American Medical Association, San 
Francisco Chapter, Annual Bulletin 1958 : 21-27 . 

143. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Report on the determination 

of pH of wines. Journal of the Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists 2(2) : 337-338 . 

144. 1959 Amerine, M. A. , E. B. Roessler, and F. Filipello. 

Modern sensory methods of evaluating wine. Hil 
gardia _2_8_(18) :477-567. 

145. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. The professional status of 

enologists. Wines and Vines 40(8) :51-32. 

146. 1959 Amerine, M. A. The 1959 Vintage Tour, I_n, Vintage 

Tour 1959 to selected vineyards in the Napa and 
Santa Clara Valleys, San Francisco Wine and Food 
Society c4: - :6: p. 

147. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. A short check list of books 

and pamphlets in English on grapes, wines, and 
related subjects 1949-1959. [Davis: 61 p. (Mimeo.) 

148. 1959 Pato, C. M. , and M. A. Amerine. Analyses of some 

typical Madeira wines . American Journal of Enol 
ogy and Viticulture 1_0 (3) : 110- 113 . 

149. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Chemists and the California 

wine industry. American Journal of Enology and 
Viticulture 10 (3) : 124- 129. 


150. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Vineyard and winery operations 

by Jean-F. Levy. A transaltion by Maynard 
from Vignes et Vins 40 (11) : 45-46 ,48 ; 



153. 1959 







158. 1960 

159. 1960 

160. 1960 

in Russia, 
A. Amerine 
(12) :27-28. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Hilaire Belloc on wine and food. 
Wine and Food No. 104:219-225. 

Mrak, V. _ 
Baker. Odor 

M. A. Amerine 

C. S. Ough, and G. A. 

difference test with applications to 
consumer preferences. Food Research 24 (5) : 574- 578 

Ough, C. S. , and 
determination in 

M. A. Amerine. Dissolved oxygen 
wine. Food Research 24(6) :744- 

1959 Amerine , M. A. , and C. B. Bailey. Carbohydrate 
content of various parts of the grape cluster. 
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 10 
(4) :196-198. 

1959 Amerine, M. A. Hungarian vineyards and wines. 
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 10 
(3):142-146. 1959. 

Amerine, M. A. California white and rose table 
wines. Wine and Food Society brochure. 2 p. 
February 23, 1960. A tasting of French still wines, 
Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. June 14, 1960, 
A tasting of Austrian wines. Wine and Food Society 
brochure. 1 p. November 7, 1960. 

and M. A. 

Ough, C. S.. 

duction by submerged culture 

14(3) :155-159. 

Amerine. Flor sherry pro- 
Food Technology 

Ough, C. S, 
of Enology 

and M. A. Amerine 

fermentations. IV, 
and Viticulture 11(1) 

Experiments with 
American Journal 

, Roessler, and M. A. Amerine. 
dioxide, temperature, time, and 

Ough, C. S. , E. B 

Effects of sulfur 

closures on the quality of bottled dry white table 

wines. Food Technology 1_4_(7) : 352-356. 

Amerine^ Study of wines 

in specially designed 
California Agriculture U_(9):10. 

Ough, C. S., and M. A. 

by controlled fermentations 

equipment . 

161. 1960 Amerine, Maynard A., and 
of California wines . II 

George Root 
Wines and 

Vines 41(10) 


162. 1960 Amerine , M. A. , and G. A. Root. Carbohydrate con- 
tent of various parts of the grape cluster. II. 
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 11 

Amerine, M. A. , and W. V. Cruess. The technology 
of wine making. The Avi Publishing Co., Westport, 
Connecticut. 709 p. 

163. 1960 

164. 1960 Amerine, M. 

ducing sweet 
(12) :23,25,26 

A. , and C. S. 
table wines. 

Ough. Methods of pro- 
Wines and Vines 41 

165. 1960 Amerine, Maynard A. 

tables. (Mimeo) 

Laboratory procedures for 

Department of Viticulture and Enology, 
of California, Davis. 124 p. plus 6 

166. 1960 

Baker, G. A. . 
F. Filipello. The 
in taste testing for 
25(6) :810-816. 

M. A. Amerine, E 

B. Roessler, and 

nonspecificity of differences 
preference. Food Research 



Amerine, M. A. A tasting of California wines 
available in large containers. Wine and Food 
Society brochure. 1 p. December 5, 1960. A 
tasting of wines of Eastern United States. Wine 
and Food Society brochure. 1 p. February 28, 
1961. A tasting of French Champagnes and spark 
ling wines. Wine and Food Society brochure. 
1 p. November 20, 1961. 


1961 Amerine, Maynard A. Modern 

nology of 

wine production. 

Brewers ' 

in the tech- 

169. 1961 

S. , and M. A. Amerine. 

Studies on con- 

V. Effects on color, corn- 
quality of red wines. American 

Ough, C. 

trolled fermentation. 

position, and 

Journal of Enology and Viticulture 12 (1) :9- 19 . 

170. 1961 

Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine , and D. E. Kester. 
Dependency of almond preference on consumer cate 
gory and type of experiment. Journal of Food 
Science 26 (4) : 377-385 . 



Amerine, Maynard A. The dangers of translations. 

Wine and Food No. 111:193-194. 

Amerine, Maynard A. What makes wine wine? Bulle 

tin of the Society of Medical Friends of Wine 

3(2) :3-4,6. 


174. 1961 

173. 1961 Amerine, M. A. Legal and practical aspects of 

the sensory examination of wines. Journal of the 
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 
44_(3) :380-383. 

Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Polyethylene and 
cork closures and the fermentation temperature 
for sparkling wines. Wines and Vines 42 (10) : 
27,28. (See also : Tapones de polietileno y de 
corcho y la temparatura de fermentacion en los 
vinos espumosos. El Embotellador , Enero-Febrero : 
51-52. 1962.) 

Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Studies with con 
trolled fermentation. VT~. ETfects of temperature 
and handling on rates, composition, and quality 
of wines. American Journal of Enology and Viti 
culture 12(3) :117-128. 

175. 1961 

176. 1961 

177. 1961 

178. 1962 

179. 1962 

180. 1962 

Baker, G. A. , M. A. Amerine, and 
Factor analysis applied to 
four grape juices. Journal 
_2_6(6) :644-647. 

R. M. Pangborn. 
'paired preferences among 
of Food Science 

, and Maynard 
on vine be 

Weaver, Robert J., Stanley B. McCune 
A. Amerine. Effect of level of crop 

havior and wine composition in Carignane and Gre- 
nache grapes. American Journal of Enology and 
Viticulture .L2(4) : 175-184 . 

Amerine, Maynard A. , and George L. 
making at home. Wine Publications, 
California. 31 p. 

Marsh. Wine 
San Francisco 

Amerine, Maynard A. Hilgard and California viti 
culture"! Hilgardia 33_(l):l-23. 

Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and D. E. Kester. 
Consumer preference on a rating basis for almond 
selections with allowance for environmental and 
subject-induced correlations. Food Technology 

181. 1962 Amerine, M. A. , G. A. Baker, and C. S. Ough. Con 
fusion in sensory scoring induced by experimental 
design. Journal of Food Science 2!7_(5) : 489-494 . 

182. 1962 Amerine, 

Ocean Co. , Tokyo 

Maynard A. How 
28 p. 

to make wine. 
(In Japanese) 



183. 1962 

S., and M. A. Amerine. 



Ough, C. 

trolled fermentation. 


mentation blending in color, 
of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. 
Enology and Viticulture 13(4) 

Studies on con- 
Fffect of ante-fer- 
tannins, and quality 
American Journal of 

184. 1962 Amerine, Maynard A. 

Forword, In The story of wine 





in California, text by M. F. K. Fisher, photo 
graphs by Max Yavno. University of California 
Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 125 p. 

Amerine, Maynard. Climate control could lead to 

better wine. Vintage 2:411:38-40. 
Amerine, M. A. White table wines. Wine and Food 

Society brochure. 1 p. Feb. 27, 1963. 
Nelson, K. E. , G. A. Baker, A. J. Winkler, M. A. 

Amerine, H. B. Richardson, and Frances R. Jones. 

Chemical and sensory variability in table grapes. 
Hilgardia 3(l):l-42. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Production: United 

States. The Encyclopedia Americana Z_y :41-44 ,40 ,4 / 
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. California 

wine grapes. Composition and quality ot tneir 
musts and wines. University of California, 
California Agricultural Experiment Station Bull 
etin 794. 83 p. 

190. 1963 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Grape varieties 
for wine production. California Agricultural Ex 
periment Station Extension Service Leaflet 154. 

193. 1963 

2 I. fold. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Russian wines 
Rancher L8(40) : 18 , 19 , 28 , 29 . 


Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. The production of 
table wines in regions IV and V. Wines and Vines 
44_(6) :56-58, 60-62. 

Ough, C. 
and type 

S. , and M. 


on the 

relationship of grape musts 

A. Amerine. Regional, varietal, 
degree Brix and alcohol 
and wines. Hilgardia 

194. 1963 Amerine, M. A. Continuous fermentation of wines 
Wines and Vines 44(8):27-29. 


195. 1963 










197. 1963 


199. 1963 





Amerine, Maynard A. The prejudiced palate. San 
Francisco 6(1) : 22 ,48. October. Reprinted in 
News from th~e Vineyards, p. 1,4. Spring 1964. 
Reprinted by Pastene Wine Spirits Co., Inc., 
Boston, Mass. Cn.d.D 

Roessler, E. B. , and M. A. Amerine. Further studies 
on field sampling of wine grapes. American Journal 
of Enology and Viticulture 14 (3) : 144-147. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Do you know the uniquely 
American wine- - Zinfandel? House Beautiful 105 
(11) :237,277. November. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Viticulture and enology in 
the Soviet Union. Wines and Vines 44 (10) :29-34, 
36; (11) :57-62,64; (12) : 25-26 , 28-30 . 

Amerine , M. A. Physical and chemical changes in 
grapes during maturation and after full maturity. 
Proceedings of XVIth International Horticultural 
Congress _3:479-483. 

Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Use of grape con 
centrate to produce sweet table wines. American 
Journal of Enology and Viticulture 14 (4) : 194-204. 

Amerine, M. A. California sparkling wines. Wine 
and Food Society brochure. 1 p. February 26. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Recent Russian research in 
grapes and wine. Wines and Vines 45:59,60,61. 

Amerine , M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Studies with con- 
trolled fermentation. VIII. Factors affecting 
aldehyde accumulation. American Journal of Enol 
ogy and Viticulture 1_5(1) : 23-33 . 

Amerine, Maynard A. Der Weinbau in Japan. Die 
Wein-Wissenschaft 1(5) : 225-231 . 

Amerine, M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Sensory 
evaluation of wines. Wine Institute, San Fran 
cisco, April. 26 p. (Processed) 

Amerine, Maynard A. Enology, oenology, or 
oenology. Wine and Food No. 122:74-76. 

Joselyn, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Dessert, 
appetizer and related flavored wines: the tech 
nology of their production. Univeristy of Cali 
fornia, Division of Agricultural Sciences, 
Berkeley. 433 p. 


208. 1964 Amerine, Maynard A. 

210. 1964 





214. 1964 

215. 1964 

search Lecture 

Acids, grapes, wines and 

American Journal of Enology and Viti- 
15(2) :106-115. (The 1964 Faculty Re- 
of the Davis campus.) 

209. 1964 Amerine, Maynard A. 


218. 1965 

Wine. Scientific American 

211(2) : 4 6 - 5 6\ Partjally reprinted in Panorama, 
Chicago Daily News, August 29, 1964, p. 4. 
Scientific American off print 190. Reprinted from 

August , 

1964. WT 



Scientific American, 

and Company, San Francisco 

Agriculture. Readings from Scientific American. 
W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, August, 
1970. VII, p. 178-188 (see publication #277). 

Ough, C. S. , V. L. Singleton, M. A. Amerine, and 
G. A. Baker. A comparison of normal and stressed- 
time conditions on scoring of quality and quantity 
attributes. Journal of Food Science 29(4) :506- 

211. 1964 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. The sensory eval 
uation of California wines. Laboratory Practice 

13^8) :712-716, 738. 

Amerine, Maynard A. 
San Francisco 6 (13) 

The anatomy of 

a superb wine 

Singleton, V. L. , C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine. 
Chemical and sensory effects of heating wines under 
different gases. American Journal of Enology and 
Viticulture 1J5(3) : 134- 145. 

Kunkee, Ralph E., C. S. Ough, and Maynard A. Amerine, 
Induction of malo-lactic fermentation by inocula 
tion of must and wine with bacteria. American 
Journal of Enology and Viticulture 15 (4) : 178-183. 

Esau, P. , and M. A. Amerine. Residual sugars in 
wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 

Amerine , M. A. The 1964 wine judging in Ljubljana. 
Wines and Vines 4_6 (1) : 21-22 . 

Amerine, Maynard A. Research on viticulture and 
enology in the Soviet Union. Food Technology 

Amerine, Maynard A. The wines of Germany. Wine 
and Food Society brochure. 1 p. January 27. 


219. 1965 

220. 1965 

221. 1965 

222. 1965 

223. 1965 

224. 1964 

225. 1965 

226. 1965 

227. 1965 

228. 1966 

229. 1966 



Amerine, M. A. . E. B. Roessler, and C. S. Ough. 
Acids and the acid taste. I. The effect of pH 
and titratable acidity. American Journal of 
Enology and Viticulture 16(1) :29-57. 

Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and E. B. Roessler. 
Characteristics of sequential measurements on 
grape juice and must. American Journal of Enol 
ogy and Viticulture 16 (1) :21-28. 

Amerine, Maynard A. The fermentation industries 
after Pasteur. Food Technology 19(5) :79-80,82. 

Amerine , M. A. , and V. L. Singleton. Wine: an 
introduction for Americans. University of Cali 
fornia Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 357 p. 

Amerine, Maynard. American wine. San Francisco 
7_(10) :30,54,56. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Acetaldehyde and related 
compounds In foods . Journal of Food Science and 
Technology I_:87-98. 

Amerine , M. A. , R. M. Pangborn, and E. B. Roessler, 
Principles 5T sensory evaluation of food. Acad 
emic Press, New York. x, 602 p. 

Amerine, M. A. , and R. E. Kunkee. Yeast stability 
tests on dessert wines. Vitis _5_:187-194. 

Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Studies with con 
trolled fermentations. IX. Bentonite treatment 
of grape juice prior to wine fermentation. Amer 
ican Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16 (4) : 185- 

Amerine, Maynard A. Wine from the customer's 
point of view. Mo~tel Management- -Review and 
Innkeeping 181(1) :31-53. 

Baker, G. A. , C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine . 
Scoring vs. comparative rating of sensory quality 
of wines. Journal of Food Science 30 (6) : 1055- 

Amerine, Maynard A. The 1965 Ljubljana Wine 
Judging. Wines and Vines 47(4) : 58-60. 

Amerine, Maynard A. California varietal wines. 
Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. March 9. 


232. 1966 Amerine, M. A. Review, of A guide to the selection, 
combination, and cooking oT foods. Vol. 2. Formu 
lation and cooking of foods, by Carl A. Rietz and 
J. J. Wanderstock. Food Technology 20(8) :64. 



Amerine, Maynard A. American wines 1933-1966. 
Wine and Food T3T:24-28. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Relax and enjoy your wines 
San Francisco Magazine 8 (10) : 34- 35 ,62 . 

Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine 
erature on wine making. 
Experiment Station 

Effects of temp' 
California Agricultural 
Bulletin 827. 36 p. 

236. 1966 Amerine, Maynard A. Apport de Pasteur a 1'oenol- 

ogie moderne: la pasteurisation. pp. 22-23 of 
Plaquette published by the Office International 
de la Vigne et du Vin, in honor of the 100th 
Anniversay of the publication of Etude sur le 
Vin of Louis Pasteur. 

237. 1966 Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Fermentation 

rates of grape juice. IV. Compositional changes 
affecting prediction equations. American Journal 
of Enology and Viticulture r7_(3) : 163- 173. 

238. 1966 Amerine, Maynard A. Flavor as a value. I_n Food 

and Civilization. S. M. Farber, N. L. Wilson, 
and R. H. L. Wilson, eds. Charles C. Thomas, 
Springfield, Illinois. pp. 22-58. 



Amerine, Maynard A. The search for good wine. 
Science 154: 1621-1628. 

Baker, G. A., C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine. 
Sensory scores and analytical data for dry white 
and dry red wines as bases for predictions and 
groupings. American Journal of Enology and 
Viticulture r/_(4) : 255-264 . 

Esau, P. , and M. A. Amerine. Synthetic ion- 
exchange resins in wine research. American 
Journal of Enology and Viticulture _17_(4) : 268- 

242. 1966 Esau, P. and M. A. Amerine. Quantitative esti- 

241. 1966 

mation of residual sugars in wine. 
Journal of Enology and Viticulture 

17(4) :265- 


243. 1962 

Amerine, M. A. Psychological problems in eval- 
uating food quality. Proceedings of First Inter 
national Congress of Food Science and Technology. 
Vol. 111:241-252. (i.e., 1966). 

244. 1967 Amerine, M. A. 
United States. 
1 p. March 7. 

246. 1967 



Sparkling wines of Canada and the 
Wine and Food Society brochure. 

245. 1967 Amerine, M. 

technology of 
Avi Publishing 
ix, 799 p. 

A., H. W. Berg, and W. V. Cruess. The 
wine making. Second Edition. The 
Company, Inc., Westport, Connecticut 

Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Controlled fermen 
tation. A review of controlled fermentation exper 
iments conducted at Davis: 1953-1966. Wines and 
Vines 48(5):23-27. 



Amerine, M. A. Even wines don't always age grace 

fully. San Francisco Magazine 9(10):29-31. 



Amerine, Maynard 

A. An introduction to some San 

Francisco foods. 
Ough, C. S. , and 

Wine and Food 134:48-51. 

M. A. Amerine. Studies with con 

trolled fermentation, 
temperature on some 
American Journal 
(3) :157-164. 


of Enology and 

Effect of fermentation 
compounds in wine. 
Viticulture 18 

250. 1967 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Sweetness pre- 
f erence in rose wines. American Journal of Enol 
ogy and Viticulture 18 (3) : 121- 125 . 

Amerine, Maynard A. The wines of Germany. Wine 
and Food Society brochure. 1 p. November 27. 

Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Rose wine color 
preference and preference stability by an exper 
ienced and an inexperienced panel. Journal of 

3_2_(6) :706-711. (Copyrighted 1968) 

ienced and an 
Food Science 

253. 1967 Amerine, M. A. , and V. L. Singleton. Wine. An 

introduction for Americans. Third printing; re 
vised paperback edition. University of California 
Press, Berkeley. 357 p. 

254. 1968 Amerine, Maynard A. California red varietal table 

Wine and Food Society brochure. 2 p. 










260. 1968 



Amerine , M. A. Beverage process: Breweries, 
wine making, and carbonated beverages. Chapter 
34 of ASHRAE Guide and Data Book, Applications 
1968. American Society of Heating, Refrigerat 
ing and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., New 
York. p. 423-436. 

Amerine, Maynard A. The future of enological 
research. Wines and Vines 49(8) :17-18. 

Kunkee, Ralph E., and Maynard A,, Amerine. 

Sugar and alcohol stabilization of yeast in sweet 

wine. Applied Microbiology 16(7) : 1067-1075 . 

Amerine, Maynard A. Hurrah for California wines. 
San Francisco Magazine 10 (10) : 27-29 . 

Amerine, M. A. Recherches sur les facteurs de la 
vinification en rouge en Californie. 2 e Symposium 
International d'Oenologie, Bordeaux-Cognac, 13-17 
June 1967. 1^:345-361. 

Amerine, Maynard A., and Ralph E. Kunkee. Micro- 
biology of wine making. Annual Review of Micro 
biology 2_2_:323-358. 

261. 1968 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Fermentation of 
grapes held under anaerobic conditions. I. Red 
grapes. American Journal of Enology and Viticul 
ture 19(3) :139-146. 







Amerine, Maynard A. Precedes d 1 elaboration , tech- 
nologie et caracteristiques des vins mosseux aux 
Etats-Unis. Bulletin de 1 '0. I .V. 4^(453) : 1218- 
1229. See also XII e Congres International de la 
Vigne et du Vin, Bucarest, Travaux Scientif iques , 
Bucarest. Oenologie :U:255-267. 1968. 

Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Die kontinuier- 
liche Vergarung von Traubensaft. Mitt. Rebe u. 
Wein, Obstbau u. Fruchtverwertung 18 :428-459. 

Amerine , Maynard A. An introduction to the pre- 
repeal history of grapes and wines in California. 
Agricultural History 4J5_(2) : 259-268. 


Amerine, Maynard A. California white varietal 

wines. San Francisco Wine and Food Society 
May 6. Society of Medical Friends of Wine. 

2 p. 
2 p. 

October 27, 1970. 


266. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A. A check list on grapes and 
wines. 1960-1968 with a supplement for 1949- 
1959. Davis, California 84 p. 

267. 1969 

Ough, C. S. , H. W. Berg, and M. A. Amerine. Sub 
stances extracted during skin contact with white 
musts. II. Effect of bentonite additions during 
and after fermentation on wine composition and 
sensory quality. American Journal of Enology and 
Viticulture 20_(2) : 101-107. 

268. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A. There really is quality in 

A play in three acts. San Francisco Maga- 


11(10) :38-39. 

269. 1969 

Ough, C. S. , M. A. Amerine, and T. C. Sparks. 
Studies with controlled fermentations. XI. Per-, 
mentation temperature effects on acidity and pH. 
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 
20(3) :127-139. 




Amerine, M. A 

acidity of wi: 
No. 146:120. 

and E. B. Roessler. The 
; aged in the wood. Wine 





Amerine, M. A. 

and C. S. Ough. Acidification of 

grapes from Region IV. American Journal of Enology 
and Viticulture 20 (4) : 254-256 . 

Amerine, M. A. The appreciation and judging of 
wines. Wine, Spirit, Malt 3_7_(10) : 22- 23. 

Amerine, M. A. Kellerwirstchaf t in den Vereinigten 
Staaten von Amerika. Deutsche Wein Zeitung 102(2) 
1158. (see also publication #278). 

274 1969 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Fermentation of 

grapes under anaerobic conditions II. White grapes 
with some further tests on red grapes. American 
Journal of Enology and Viticulture ^0 (4) : 251-253 . 



-ugh, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Effect of subjects' 
sex, experience, and training on their red wine 
color-preference patterns. Perceptual and Motor 
Skills 3_0:395-398. 

276. 1970 Amerine, M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Table wines: 

the technology of their production. 2nd ed. Uni 
versity of California Press, Berkeley and Los 
Angeles. xxi, 997 p. 


277. 1970 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Reprinted in Plant 

Agriculture. Readings from Scientific American. 
W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. VIII, 
246 p. (see p. 178-188). (Also see publication 
#209 - this article originally published in 
Scientific American 211(2) :46-56, August 1964). 









285. 1970 

Amerine, M. A. Kellerwirtschaft in den Vereinig- 
ten Staaten von Amerika. Osterreichische Wein- 
zeitung 2J_:97-98. (See also publication #273). 

Amerine, M. A. Convorbire Cu Profesorul M. A. 
Amerine. Industria Alimentara 21 (2) :66-68. 

Kunkee, Ralph E., and Maynard A. Amerine. Yeasts 
in wine-making. In, The Yeasts, edited by Anthony 
H. Rose and J. S. Harrison. Academic Press, 
London and New York. 3 v. Volume 3, Yeast Tech 
nology, xiv, 590 p. (see p. 5-71) 

Amerine, M. A. Lecture. Israel Wine Institute, 
Tel-Aviv. 33 p. November 12. 

Amerine, Maynard A. The importance of Agoston 
Haraszthy's activities for the development of 
viticulture in California. In, The 100th Anni 
versary of Death of Agoston Haraszthy, Congress 
ional Record, Proceedings and Debates of the 91st 
Congress, First Session. 8 p. June 19. (see 
p. 3-5). 

Amerine, Maynard A. What kind of wines in 1980? 
Wines and Vines 51(9) :30. 

Amerine, Maynard A. Introduction. In, This Un- 

the Paul Masson Story by Robert 
The Ward Ritchie Press, Los 
(see p. vii) . 

common Heritage, 
Lawrence Balzer. 
Angeles. 118 p. 





the hottest one 

Francisco Magazine 12(10) 

Sparkling wines are a gas 
on the market is Cold Duck 

286. 1970 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Effect of 
and post-fermentation addition of acids on 


composition and quality of the wines produced. 
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 

287. 1970 Amerine, M. A. Effect of pre- and post- fermenta 
tion addition of acids on the composition and 
quality of the wines produced. Wines and Vines 





1970 Amerine, M. A. The golden ages of wines. Address 
given The Institute of Masters of Wines, July 30, 
1969, London, England, published and circulated 
under their auspices. 25 p. 

1971 Alley, C. J. , C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine. Grapes 
for table wines in California's regions IV and V. 
Wines and Vines 52^(3) : 20-22 . 

1970 Amerine, M. A. Wine. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of 
Chemical Technology, Vol. 22, 2nd Edition. p. 307- 

291. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A., and 



296. 1971 





making at home 
Francisco. 32 


George L. Marsh. Wine 
Wine Publication, San 

292. 1970 Amerine, Maynard A. Review. Landscapes of Bacchus 
The vine in Portugal by Dan. Stanislawski , Univer 
sity of Texas Press, Austin and London, 210 p. 
Agricultural History 44(4) :427. 



Amerine, Maynard A. Haraszthy de Mokcsa, Agos 

(1812-1869). Encyclopedia Americana. 
Amerine, Maynard A. Preface. In, Lines about 

wines by Irving H. Marcus. Wine Publication, 

Wagener, W. D. , C. S. Ough, and 

The fate of some organic acids added to 

prior to fermentation. American Journal of Enology 

and Viticulture 22 (3) : 167- 171 . 

M. A. Amerine. 

grape juice 

Amerine, Maynard A. , and Vernon L. Singleton. A 
list of bibliographies and a selected list of pub 
lications that contain bibliographies on grapes, 
wines, and related subjects. Agricultural Publi 
cations, University of California, Berkeley. 39 p. 

Amerine, Maynard A., and E. B. Roessler. Pleasant 
and unpleasantness of odors added to white wine. 
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2_2_(4) : 

Amerine, Maynard A. A scholar writes on U.C. -Davis 
wine library. Wines and Vines 52 (12) : 20-25 . 

Amerine, Maynard A. Some recent reports on wine 
analysis" Report to Wine Institute Technical 
Advisory Committee Meeting. 13 p. 


300. 1971 Amerine, Maynard A. Wines of the future. San 

Francisco Magazine 13(10) :80-82. 

301. 1971 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine food - London, 1934- 

1970 (Tribute to Andre L. Simon). The International 
Wine 5 Food Society "Gastronomies", Chicago. p. 1. 
June 28. 

302. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. , and Cornelius S. Ough. Recent 

advances in enology. CRC Critical Reviews in Food 
Technology 2:407-515. 

303. 1972 Amerine, M. A. Wine -- California's liquid gold. 

Narrator and background information for Channel 13 
(KOVR) Sacramento, 5-part feature; May 8-12; and 
May 22-26, 1972. (Film, property of KOVR - Special 
Collections will negotiate for it at end of one 
year. ) 

304. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. Quality control in the Calif- 

ornia wine industry. Journal of Milk and Food 
Technology 3_5 (6) : 373-377 . 

305. 1972 Amerine, Maynard. Bottled gold. San Francisco 

Magazine 14_(10) :36, 56-58. 

306. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. Amerine on Iron Curtain judg- 

Wines and Vines 5_3 (11) : 22-23. 

307. 1972 Ough, C. S., D. Fong , and M. A. Amerine. Glycerol 

in wine: determination and some factors affecting. 
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2J(1): 

308. 1972 Amerine, M. A. . H. W. Berg, and W. V. Cruess. Tech- 

nology of wine making. Avi Publishing Company, 
Westport, Conn. 802 p. 3rd ed. 

309. 1973 Stewart, George, F. , and Maynard A. Amerine. Intro 

duction to food science and technology. ATademic 
Press, Inc., New York. 

310. 1972 Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Further studies 

with submerged flor sherry. American Journal of 
Enology and Viticulture 25(3) :128-151. 

311. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. Other vinelands of the world, 

THE UNITED STATES. I_n, Gazetteer of Wines by 
Andre L. Simon. The International Wine and Food 
Publishing Company, David Charles, London. 
p. 49-53. 


312. 1972 Amerine, M. A. Our wonderful world of wine. Add- 

dress to Upper Napa Valley Associates. Copy de 
posited Napa Valley Wine Library, December 12. 
8 p. 

313. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. The historical importance of 

the Medical Friends of Wine. Address to One Hund 
redth Quarterly Dinner and Annual Meeting of the 
Society of Medical Friends of Wine, Wednesday, 
January 10, 1973, at The Family Club , San Francisco, 
CA. Bulletin of The Society of Medical Friends of 
Wine 1_5(1) . 2 p. 

314. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. 

In, Wine in America, 
TTTe Newcomen Society 
University Press. 




Introduction of Mr. Serlis, 
and address by Harry G. Serlis 
in North America, Princeton 

315. 1973 Amerine 

Maynard A. Wine. Reprinted from August 
Readings from Scientific American, Food. 
Sources and Resources. W. H. 
San Francisco. pp. 169-179. 

1964 in 

II. Conventional 
Freeman and Company, 
(see also #209) . 

316. 1971 Amerine, Maynard A. 

paedia Britannica. 
for publication 1973 

Wine making 
Vol. 23. p. 

In, Wine 

, EncyclO' 

317. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. The wine industry- today and 

tomorrow. San Francisco Magazine 1_5_(10) : 41-42 , 

318. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. A multi-language dictionary 

of vermouth ingredients. Revista Ital. Essenze, 
Profumi, Piante Officinali, Aromi , Saponi, Cos- 
metici, Aerosol 55 (8) : 504-516 . 

1973 Amerine 



(see #317) 

A. The wine 
Springs Life, 

industry- -today and 
October, p. 81-82, 

Roessler, E. 
of Madeiras. 

B. and M. A. 

American Journal of 
24(4) :176-177. 

Amerine . The 


321. 1973 Amerine, M. A. L'industrie vinicole- -hier et 

aujourd'hui. La Journee Vinicole, December 19, 
p. 1,4. (See #317). 

322. 1974 Amerine, M. 


viii , 121 

A. , and C. S. Ough. Wine and must ana- 
John Wiley $ Sons, New York, London, Sydney, 
(A Wiley- Interscience Publication) 


323. 1974 Amerine, M. A. , and Douglas Fong. Fermentation 

of grapes under anaerobic conditions. III. Hold 
ing grapes under carbon dioxide before crushing. 
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 
2S_(1) :l-6. 

324. 1974 Amerine, M. A. , and Douglas Fong. Research note: 

Further studies on making wine of varieties grown 
in region IV. American Journal of Enology and 
Viticulture 2_5 (1) :44-47 . 

325. 1974 Amerine. M. A. Les levains en oenologie. I_n 

Vignes et Vins (Numero Special Consacre au Collo- 
que International D'Oenologie D'Arc et Senans - 
May 1973). p. 46-52. 

326. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. American wines for Americans. 

Ohio Grape--Wine Short Course, Proceedings, 1973. 
Agricultural Research and Development Center, 
Wooster, Ohio. pp. 50-53. 

327. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. New methods of winemaking. 

Ohio Grape Wine Short Course, Proceedings, 1973. 
Agricultural Research and Development Center. 
Wooster, Ohio. pp. 63-67. 

328. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A., and Cornelius S. Ough. Wine 

and must. I_n Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemical 
Analysis, Vol. 19. John Wiley Sons, New York, 
London, Sydney, Toronto. pp. 397-514. 

329. 1974 Amerine, M. A. Current wine making practices in 

California. Commemorative Lectures, Central Re 
search Institute, Suntory Ltd., Osaka, Japan. 23, 
26,18,59 p. (see p. 1-23.) 

330. 1975 Amerine, Maynard A. The Napa Valley grape and 

wine industry. Agricultural History 9(1) : 289-291 

331. 1974 Amerine, M. A. Wine. In, Encyclopedia of Food 

Technology, Arnold H. JoTfnson and Martin S. Peter 
son, eds. Avi Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, 
Connecticut. pp. 961-968. 

332. 1975 Amerine, Maynard A. The Japanese fermentation in- 

dustries. In, Transcript of Wine Industry Tech 
nical Seminar, Rodeway Inn, Townehouse, Fresno, 
California, November 15, 1974. San Francisco. 
20 p. 


333. 1974 

Amerine, Maynard A. The present status of method 
for wine analysis and possible future trends. In, 
Chemistry of Winemaking, Advances in Chemistry 
Series, Number 137. pp. 134-150. 

334. 1974 Fong, D. C., M. A. Amerine. and C. S. Ough. Re 

search note: Citric acid in some California wines. 
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 25f4): 

335. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine making. In, Encyclopae 

dia Britannica, 15th ed. pp. 875-884. 

336. 1974 Amerine, Maynard. L'industrie vinicole hier et 

aujourd'hui. Bulletin de 1 'Office International 
du Vin 7:276-281. (See #317 and #321). 

337. 1976 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Analisis de vinos 

y mostos. Editorial Acribia, Zaragoza, Spain. 
158 p. (Spanish edition of Wine and Must Analysis, 
translated by J. M. Gavilan, C. Romero, and J. L. 
Suso.) (See #328). 

338. 1976 Amerine , Maynard A. The evaluation of wines you 

can't make a silk purse form a sow's ear. Les 
Amis du Vin 13_(6) :15-17. 

339. 1976 Amerine, M. A. North American wines. In, "Zlatna 

knjiga o vinu Rijeka". Oktokar Kersovani, Rijeka. 
pp. 207-211. 

340. 1976 Amerine, Maynard A., and Edward B. Roessler. Wines, 

their sensory evaluation. W. H. Freeman and Company, 
San Francisco. xiv, 230 p. 

341. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Quality standards and quality 

control for the small winery. Proceedings of 
Ninth Pennsylvania Wine Conference, December 2,3, 
1976. The Pennsylvania State University, College 
of Agriculture, University Park, Pennsylvania, 
pp. 5-8. 

342. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Le vin dans 1 ' alimentation 

humaine. Symposium International sur la Consom- 
mation du Vin dans le Monde, Avignon, 15-18 Juin 
1976. Numero Special du Bulletin de 1'O.I.V. 
pp. 137-151. 

343. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. American wines, 1995. Amer 

ican Wine Society Journal 8:53-54. 


344. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Quality standards and quality 

control for the small winery. Redwood Rancher 
(Vintage Issue) p. 33-35. (See #341). 

345. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. Annotated bibliography on ver- 

mouth with biochemical references. University of 
California, Davis. 312 I. 

346. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. Annotated bibliography on ver- 

mouth. University of California, Davis. 213 I. 

347. 1977 Amerine, M. A. , and V. L. Singleton. Wine: An 

introduction. Second edition. University of Cali 
fornia Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. xiv, 373 p. 

348. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A., and Paul Scholten. Varietal 

labeling in California. Wines and Vines 58^11) : 

349. 1977 Edwards, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Research note: 

Lead content of wines determined by atomic absorp 
tion spectrophotometry using flameless atomization. 
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2_8_(4) : 

350. 1977 Amerine, M. A. Wine. In, Encyclopedia of Food 

Technology, Johnson and~P~eterson, eds. AVI Pub 
lishing Company, Westport, Conn. p. 
This was reprinted in, Elements of Food Technology, 
Norman W. Desrosier, ed. AVI Publishing Company, 
Westport, Conn. pp. 617-631. 1977. 

351. 1978 Selfridge, T. B., and M. A. Amerine. Odor thres 

holds and interactions of ethyl acetate and diacetyl 
in an artificial wine medium. American Journal of 
Enology and Viticulture 29(1) : 1-6. 

352. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Andre L. Simon. Journal of 

The International Wine and Food Society 4_(4) : 
42-44. (Also in Gastronomies.) 

353. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. El vino. Reprinted from Sci- 

entific American, August, 1964, in a Spanish edi 
tion. Los Alimentos cuestiones de bromatologia , 
selecciones de Scientific American. Introducciones 
de Johan E. Hoff y Jules Janick. Hermann Blume 
Ediciones, Madrid. pp. 213-223. 

354. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Amerine speaks out on labeling. 

The Pennsylvania Grape Letter and Wine News 5 (6): 7. 
(Also released by Wine Institute and commented" upon 
by several news papers and magazines.) 


355. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Foreword to Wines of California, by R.L. Balzer. 

Abrams , New York. 

356. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Neo-Prohibitionists. The Friends of Wine 15 

(3) : 10-11. 

357. 1971- Amerine, Maynard A. Introductions to oral history of California 
1974 wine industry leaders. Bancroft Library, Wines of California, 


358. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. Future research on the values of wine. Bulletin 

of the Society of Medical 'Friends of Wine. 21 : 5-6. 

359. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. El vino en la alimentacion humana. Vinos y 

Vinas, ISSN 0325-4712, #876. pp. 12, 16. #877, 1979. (See #342). 

360. 1973 Amerine, M.A. Laboratory procedures for enologists. Associated 

Students Store, University of California, Davis. 100, 9 p. Also 
1965, 1967, and 1971. (See #66, 105, 165). 

361. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. The biochemical processes involved in wine fer 

mentation and aging. In: Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition. 
Academic Press, New York. pp. 121-132. 

362. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. Part II. Wine making. In: ASHRAE Handbook 

and Product Directory. 1978 Applications. American Society of 
Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., New 
York. p. 39 16. 

363. 1979 Phaff, Herman J. , and Maynard A. Amerine. Wine. In: Microbial Tech 

nology, 2nd ed. Vol. II. Academic Press, New York. p. 131-153. 

364. 1979 Amerine, Maynard. The red and the white: the history of wine in 

France and Italy in the nineteenth century, by Leo A. Loubere, State 
University of New York Press, Albany. Book review. Agricultural 
History 53: 655-656. 

365. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. Vermouth: an annotated bibliography. University 

of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Berkeley. 69 p. 

366. 1955 Amerine, Maynard A. Some facts and fancies about winemaking and wines. 

Wine Institute Technical Advisory Committee, May 13, 1955. 4 p. 

367. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Preface. In: Cabernet; notes of an Australian 

wineman, by Max Lake. Rigby, Melbourne, p. 6-7. 

368. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A. Foreword. In: The flavor of wine, by Max Lake. 

The Jacaranda Press, Melbourne, p. ix-x. 

369. 1957 Nelson, K.E. , and M.A. Amerine. Further studies on the production 

of natural sweet table wines from botrytised grapes. American Journal 
of Enology 8 (3):127-134. 


370. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. Stati Uniti d'America. In: Enciclopedia dei 

Vini del Hondo, Lamberto Paronetto, ed. ArnoT3b Mondadori Editore, 
Verona, Italy, p. 517-523. 

371. 1980 Amerine, M.A. , and C.S. Ough. Methods for analysis of musts and 

wines. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 341 p. 

372. 1980 Amerine, M.A., H.W. Berg, R.E. Kunkee, C.S. Ough, V.L. Singleton, 

and A.D. Webb. Technology of wine making. Avi Publishing Company, 
Westport, Conn. 4th ed. 794 p. 

373. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. Winery operations and sensory evaluation. In: 

Proceedings of the Sixth Wine Industry Technical Seminar, 1979-1980. 

374. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. The senses and sensory evaluation of wines. 

Australian Wine, Brewing and Spirit Review 99(4): 14-16. 

375. 1980 Amerine. Maynard A. The senses and sensory evaluation of wines. 

Part 2. Australian Wine, Brewing and Spirit Review 99(5): 9-15. 

376. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A., and Brian St. Pierre. Grapes and wine in the 

United States, 1600-1979. JJK Agriculture in the West, E.L. Schaps- 
meier and F.H. Schapsmeier, eds. Sunflower University Press, 
Manhattan, Kansas, p. 108-113. 

377. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. The words used to describe abnormal appearance, 

odor, taste, and tactile sensations of wines. In: The analysis and 
control of less desirable flavors in foods and beverages, G. Charalam- 
bous, ed. Academic Press, New York, p.31'9-351. 

378. 1981 Amerine. Maynard A. Development of the American wine industry to 

1960. In: Wine Production Technology in the United States, M.A. 
Amerine, ed. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 145, 
Washington, D.C. p. 1-27. 

379. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. It's my opinion how the consumer is deceived. 

The Friends of Wine 18(2): 81. Reprinted XX(5): 12, Fall, 1983. 

380. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. Describing wines in meaningful words. In: 

Fundamentals of Table Wine Processing, Proceedings of 7th Training 
Conference, University of California, Davis, p. 58-62. 

381. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. California wine comes of age. Nob Hill Gazette 


382. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. Tunisia is trying to up-grade its grapes. The 

North African nation is shipping half its wine in bulk to Europe. 
Wines and Vines 62 (7): 63-64. 

383. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. Rare lantern slides. Napa Valley Wine Library 

Report Autumn 1981. 4 p. 

384. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A. The changing preferences for wines. Food 

Technology 36(1) -.106-108, 110. 


385. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A. Zinfandel or Zinfandel. 

Wines and Vines 63(3): 64. 

386. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A.. Cornelius S. Ough, and 

Michael P. W. Stone. Prices high at Nederburg 
auction. Wines and Vines 63(7): 54-55. 

387. 1982 Amerine. Maynard A. Scupemong: North Carolina's 

Grape and Its Wines, by Clarence Gohdes. Book review 
in Agricultural History. 

388. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A. Three-day symposium was rich 

in research. Wines & Vines 63(3): 44-45. 

389. 1982 Amerine, Maynard Interview. Wine & Spirits Buying 

Guide 1(2): 62-76. 

390. 1983 Amerine, Maynard Interview. We don't do research 

because we want to do it. We do it because we have to do 
it. Napa Valley Wine Library Report. Spring. 1983: 8-12. 

391. 1984 Muscatine, Doris, M. A. Amerine. B. Thompson, editors. 

The University of California/Sotheby Book of California 
Wine. U.C. Press/Sotheby Publications. Berkeley. 
Los Angeles. London, zzzviii, 615pp. 

392. 1984 Amerine. Maynard. The vine and its environment. 

Vinifera Wine Growers Journal 11(4): 232-240. (Partially 
reprinted from the preceding entry) 1984. 

393. 1984 Amerine. M^ &._ and Philip M. Wagner. The vine and its 

environment. (See pp. 86-121 of 391). 

394. 1983 Amerine, Maynard A. The California wine industry and 

how it got that way. In Betrachtung zum Wein, Ausfluge 
in die Zeit-Raume des Weines- von Humanismus bis die 
Gegenwert. Luzern. Graf ischen Betrieb Raeber AG. 
(p. 110-135). 

395. 1985 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine-making. In World's Debt 

to Pasteur. Hilary Koprowski and Stanley A. Plotkin, eds. 
New York, Alan A. Liss. Inc. Vol. 2. p. 67-81. 

3%. 1981 Amerine. Maynard A. Connaissance et travail du vin 
[book review] Wines & Vines. Nov. 1981, p. 106. 

397. 1984 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of 

Chemical Technology. Third edition, 24; 549-578. 

398. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. Foreword. Symposium Proceedings, 

Grape and Wine Centennial, University of California, 


Davis, p. III-IX. 

399. 1983 Amerine. Maynard A. and Edward B. Roessler. Wines: 

Their Sensory Evaluation. Revised and enlarged edition. 
New York and San Francisco. W. H. Freeman, xv. 432pp. 

400. 1982 Stewart. George F. and Maynard A^ Amerine. Introduction 

to Food Science and Technology. Second edition. New York, 
Academic Press, xiii. 289pp. 

401. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A., Thomas C. Sparks and 

Lura S. Middleton. Syllabus for wine appreciation. Davis. 
University of California Extension. 30pp. 

402. 1978 Amerine. Maynard A. Appreciation of Calif orni a wines. 

Gastronomies XXIII (3): 1-4. Repeated from the New York 
Wine and Food Society Newsletter of December 1977. Read 
"good" for "bad" in the last sentence! 

403. 1979 Amerine. Maynard A. Interview. Dr. Maynard A. Amerine 

questions wine judging results. Vintage 8_(11) : 20-21. 
Also in news release from Wine Institute. San Francisco. 

404. 1979 Berg. H. W. . Min Akiqoshi and M. A. Amerine. Potassium 

and sodium content of California wines. Amer. J. Enol. 
Vitic. 40: 55-57. 

405. 1985 Honoring a pioneer [Report of speech by M^ A._ Amerine] 

The Wine Spectator 10(16): 21. 

406. 1981 Boyd. G. D. Amerine: wine judging like dog judging. The Wine 

Spectator ri(6) : 2. 

407. 1985 Gordon, A. J. A nose for knowledge. This Davis scientist has 

written the book on California wine and its technology. 
The Wine Spectator 10_(5) : 29. 31. 

408. 1985 Amerine. Maynard A. Foreword. In; Wine into words; a 

history and bibliography of wine books in the English 
language. Baltimore, Bacchus Press, p. vii. (See also p. 11- 

409. 1986 Amerine, Maynard A. and Herman Phaf f. Bibliography of 

Publications by the Faculty. Staff, and Students of the 
University of California, 1876-1980, on Grapes, Wines, and 
Related Subjects. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, University 
of California Press, xxiii, 244pp. 

410. 1988 Ough, C. S. and M. A. Amerine. Methods for Analysis of 

Musts and Wines. Second edition. New York, 
John WileySi Sons, x, 377 pp. 


INDEX Maynard A. Amerine 

acid, addition to musts, 3 

alcohol and alcohol abuse, state advisory board, 18 

Alioto, Joseph, 43 

Alley, Curtis J., 37 

Almaden Vineyards, 19, 40-41 

Almendinger, Werner, 14 

American Chemical Society, 3, 43 

American Journal of Enoloav. 2, 8 

American Journal of Enoloav and Viticulture. 20, 26 

American Society for Enology and Viticulture 

(ASEV) , 21 

American Society of Enologists (ASE) , 5, 13, 20, 21 
American Society of Heating and Refrigeration 

and Air Conditioning Engineers, 9 
American Vineyard Foundation, 20 
American Wine Society Journal, 5 
American Wine Society, 5 
American Wines, 39 

"Analysis and Control of Less Desirable Flavors," 

Analysis of Musts and Wines. 9 
anti-alcohol movement, 17-19 
anti-coagulants and wine, 15 

Baker, George, 34, 35, 36-37 

Balzer, Robert L. , 8 

Baynard, Arnold, 30 

Beaulieu Vineyard, 8 

Benoist, Louis, 40, 41 

Benoist, Kay, 40, 41 

Berg, Harold W. , 9, 10, 11, 37 

bibliographies, 5-8, 9, 29-30, 49 

Bird, Rose, 14 

Blanchard, Richard, 6, 32 

Bohemian Club, 29 

books on wine, 30-32 

brandy, 28 

Brown, Edmund G. , Jr. , 14 

Bundschu, Carl, 39 


Cabernet. Notes of an Australian Wineman. 9 

California Growers Winery, 14-15 

carbonic maceration. See maceration carbonioue 

Central Research Institute of Suntory, 3 

Chateau Lafite, 24 

Chateau Margaux, 24, 48 

Chateau Mouton-Rothschild, 48 

Chemical Abstracts, 3 

citric acid in wines, 3 

Complete Wine Book. 39 

Cook, James A., 30, 36 

Crawford, Charles, 45 

Cruess, William V., 10 

Daniel, John, Jr., 1, 39 

De Luca, John, 17, 18, 41-46 

"Describing Wine in Meaningful Words," 11 

Dieppe, William A., 40 

Dietrich, William C. 36 

East-Side Winery, 14, 42 
Edwards, Meridith, 8 
Esau, Paul, 37 

Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition. 8 

fetal alcohol syndrome, 16 

Fisher, Mary Frances Kennedy, 8 

Flavor of Wine. The. 9 

Fong, Douglas C. , 2, 36, 38 

Food and Agriculture Orgnaization (FAO) , 21 

Fountain Grove winery, 40 

Gabler, James M. , 29 

Gallo, Ernest, 44, 45 

Gout du Vin. Le. 24 

grape varieties, 25-26, 39 

Guymon, James F., 10, 11, 28, 37 

Heitz, Joseph, 46 

Heublein, Inc., 15, 42 

high density liptoproteins, 15 

Hilgard, Eugene W. , 46, 48 


Hilqardia. 25 
Hitch, Charles, 49 

Inglenook winery, 1, 39 
Ivie, Robert, 41 
Jacobs, Julius, 20 
Japanese fermentation industry, 3 
Joslyn, Maynard A., 25, 36, 38 
Journal of the International Wine and Food 
Society. 8 

Kasimatis, Amand N. , 26, 30 
Katz, Morris, 46 
Kerr, Clark, 49 
Keyes, David, 17 
Kishaba, A. A., 36 
Klatsky, Arthur, 15 
Kliewer, W. Mark, 12, 37, 47 
Korbel winery, 40 
Kunkee, Ralph E., 10, 37 

Lake, Max, 9 
Larkmead winery, 40 
Le Magnen, 

Leake, Chauncey D. , 4 

Lee, Russell, 19 

Library Associates, UC Davis, 7, 30 

Lider, Lloyd A. , 26, 30, 37 

Lines About Wines. 8 

Lucia, Salvatore P., 4, 14, 19 

Lunardi, Paul, 18 

maceration carbonique. 2, 3 

Madrone winery, 41 

Marcus, Irving, 8 

Marsh, George, 38 

Martini, Louis M. , winery, 40 

Martini, Louis P., 46 

Marvel, Tom, 39 

Mayacamas Vineyards, 1 

Mayo Clinic symposium, 8 

McConnell, John, 30-31 

mechanized harvesting, 33-34 


medical research, 14-17, 19 

Methods for Analysis of Musts and Wine. 

Microbial Technology. 9 

Mondavi, Robert, 46 

Mothers Against Drunk Driving, 17 

Mrak, Emil, 18 

Muscatine, Doris, 27 

Napa Valley, 50 

Napa Valley Technical group, 2 

Napa Valley Vintners, 15 

Napa Valley Wine Library, 1, 30 

National Agriculture Library, 31-32 

National Distillers Corporation, 41 

Nelson, Klayton E., 26, 30, 37 

Noble, Anne C. , 2, 12 

Nuri, Massud S., 46 

O'Reilly, Robert A., 15 

Office International du Vin, 4 

Ohio Grape and Wine Short Course, 3 

Olmo, Harold P., 11, 21, 37 

Ough, Cornelius S., 3, 9, 10, 23, 26, 36, 37, 38 

Pangborn, Rose M. , 2, 23, 34, 35, 38 

Pasteur meeting, 30, 31 

Permanente Foundation, 15 

Peynaud, Emile, 24 

Phaff, Herman, 7, 9, 38 

Posert, Harvey, 41, 42, 43 

Principles and Practices of Winemakinq. 10 

Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food. 23 

Prohibition, 19 

region system, 46-47 

Remy Martin-Schramsberg brandy, 28 

Roessler, Edward B. , 4, 23, 24, 34, 35, 36-37 

Root, George, 37 

Roseworthy College, 10 


St. Pierre, Brian, 42, 43, 45 

San Francisco Chronicle. 4 

San Joaquin Valley Technical group, 2 

San Martin winey, 41 

Saxon, David, 49 

Schneider, Patricia (Patty), 17, 18, 19 

Scholten, Paul, 18, 38 

Schoonmaker, Frank, 38, 39-41 

Schramsberg Vineyards. See Remy Martin-Schramsberg 


Seguin, G. , 48 
Self ridge, Thomas C. , 8 

"Senses and Sensory Evaluation of Wine, The," 10 
sensory evaluation, 4, 10, 11, 23-24, 34-35, 36-37 
Sensory Evaluation of Wine. The. 11 
Serlis, Harry, 8, 14, 41 
Setrakian, Robert, 43 
Silverman, Milton, 4, 
Simon, Andre L. , 8 

Simonson, Miss , 1 

Singleton, Vernon L. , 

soil studies, 47-48 

solera system, 34, 37 

Sparks, Thomas C. , 36, 38 

Stewart, George, 35, 38 

Story of Wine in California. The. 8 

Students Against Drunk Driving, 17 

sulphur dioxide, 19-20 


6, 10, 23, 36, 37 

Table Wines. 25 

Technical Advisory Committee, 

Technology of Winemakina. The, 

Terroir de France. 48 

This Uncommon Heritage. 8 

Thompson, Bob, 27 

Travers , Robert , 1 

Tribune, Jack, 6 

Turner, Thomas, 16 

Twight, Edmund H. , 37 

9, 25, 


United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 


University of California, Davis, passim 

Universitrv of California-Sotheby Book of California 

Wine. 27, 46, 47 
Uses of Wine in Medical Practice. 4 


varietal labeling, 38 

vermouth , 6,9 

Vermouth. An Annotated Bibliography. 

vineyard costs, 25 

viticultural areas, 48 

Vitis. 12 

Wagner, Philip M. , 46 

Weaver, Robert J. , 37 

Webb, A. Dinsmoor, 3, 10, 11, 36, 37 

Wente Bros, winery, 40 

Wheeler, Louise, 5 

Wine Advisory Board, 14 

Wine. An Introduction. 8 

"Wine and Human Nutrition," 4 

Wine and Must Analysis. 3 

wine auctions, 27-28 

Wine in America. 8 

Wine Industry Technical Symposium (WITS) 3, 20 

Wine Institute, 14, 16, 17-18, 20, 29, 41-46 

Wine Into Words. 29 

wine judgings, 27 

Wine Making at Home. 38 

Wine Technology Conferences, 26 

Winegrowers of California, 16-17, 18, 20 

Wines and Vines. 25 

Wines. Their Sensory Evaluation. 4 

Winkler, Albert J., 12, 25-26, 35, 37, 39, 46-47 

World Encyclopedia of Wine. 9 

Yavno , Max 8 

Grapes mentioned in the interview 

Chardonnay, 13, 26 
Green Velt liner, 41 
Pinot noir, 48 

Ruth Teiser 

Born in Portland, Oregon; came to the Bay 

Area in 1932 and has lived here ever since. 
Stanford University, B.A., M.A. in English; 

further graduate work in Western history. 
Newspaper and magazine writer in San Francisco 

since 1943, writing on local history and 

business and social life of the Bay Area. 
Book reviewer for the San Francisco Chronicle, 

Co-author of Winemaking in California, a 

history, 1982. 
An interviewer-editor in the Regional Oral 

History Office since 1965.