Regional Oral History Office University of California
The Bancroft Library Berkeley, California
The Wine Spectator California Winemen Oral History Series
Maynard A. Amerine
WINE BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND TASTE PERCEPTION STUDIES
With an Introduction by
An Interview Conducted by
Copyright 1988 by The Regents of the University of California
San Francisco Chronicle
March 13, 1998
Maynard Amerine, a retired-
University of California enologist
who was one of the pioneers of Cal-~
if ornia's wine industry, died Wed
nesday at his home in St. Helena.
Mr. Amerine, who had been hi
failing health because of Alzheim
er's disease, was 86. He was the sec
ond major figure in the wine in
dustry to die this week. On Tues
day, Jack Davies, the owner of
"Schramsberg Vineyards, died in .
CaUstoga at the age of 74
Td feel a lot better if some of
our industry would just keep on
living," Robert Mondavi, the chair
man of Robert Mondavi Winery,
said yesterday, saddened by the
deaths of two men he had known a
long time. "I knew Maynard from
the beginning , and he was an inspi
ration to all of us. He stimulated all
Where Mr. Davies was known
as an innovator in the nascent
world of California champagne,
Mr. Amerine's fame stemmed
from his work over nearly 40 years
in the scientific world of winemak-
In 1936, Mr. Amerine joined the
faculty at the Department of Viti
culture (now the department of Vi
ticulture and Enology) at UC Da
vis, at a time when the nation was
trying to recover from the austere
effects of Prohibition.
The wine industry was practi
cally moribund, equipment was
sparsely available and there was
only a handful of good grapes in
" "People had forgotten all they
knew before about California
wine," Mr. Amerine said years lat
er. But the blank slate inspired Mr.
Amerine to experiment and seek
new ways to breathe lif e back into
What made Mr. Amerine stand
out in the field of wine men, as
they were called 60 years ago, was
his ability to see California and its
regional climates and micro-cli
mates as ideal for growing wine
In 1938, Mr. Amerine and an
other UC Davis professor, Albert
Winkler, used climate conditions
to classify California's wine-grow
ing regions into five districts, from
Region I, the coolest districts,
which are near the coast, to Region
V, in the San Joaquin Valley, with
its intense heat
"Those five growing regions
are still used (as benchmarks) hi
the industry," Ted Edwards, the
winemaker at Freemark Abbey
Winery, in St Helena, said yester
day. "It's still a tool. He was a pio
neer, a true patriarch of the mod
ern-day industry, hi terms of giv
ing us tools from an academic
point of view on how to go about
Mondavi said "I built my whole
business" on Mr. Amerine's books
on wine-making. "If you followed
that, you could not help but do an
outstanding job. I used (them) as
Mr. Amerine wrote "Table
Wines: The Technology of their
Production," (with MA Joslyn),
and several books on sensory eval
uation of wine. Perhaps his best
known book is the "University of
California/Sotheby Book of Cali
fornia Wine," co-edited with Bob
Thompson and Doris Muscatine
and published hi 1984
During World War U, Mr.
Amerine served in the Army,
where he was a major in the Chem
ical Warfare Service, stationed in
Algeria and India.
Mr. Amerine was a member of
numerous wine and food organiza
tions and frequently traveled to
Europe and South America to con
sult for wineries, judge interna
tional wine contests and give
speeches on wine history. Like Mr.
Davies, he was also a member of
the Bohemian Club.
Services for Mr. Amerine will
be at 11 a.m., Wednesday, at Grace
Episcopal Church, 1314 Spring
Street, St. Helena.
Mr. Amerine, who was not mar
ried, is survived by three cousins
Richard Amerine, Mervyn
Amerine and Bill Amerine, all of
the Modesto area.
MAYNARD A. AMERINE
Photograph by Wines & Vines
Since 1954 the Regional Oral History Office has been interviewing
leading participants in or well -placed witnesses to major events in the
development of Northern California, the West, and the Nation. Oral
history is a modern research technique involving an interviewee and an
informed interviewer in spontaneous conversation. The taped record is
transcribed, lightly edited for continuity and clarity, and reviewed by
the interviewee. The resulting manuscript is typed in final form,
indexed, bound with photographs and illustrative materials, and placed in
The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley and other
research collections for scholarly use. Because it is primary material,
oral history is not intended to present the final, verified, or complete
narrative of events. It is a spoken account, offered by the interviewee
in response to questioning, and as such it is reflective, partisan,
deeply involved, and irreplaceable.
All uses of this manuscript are covered by a legal
agreement between the University of California and
Maynard A. Amerine dated 26 September 1988. The manuscript
is thereby made available for research purposes. All
literary rights in the manuscript, including the right to
publish, are reserved to The Bancroft Library of the
University of California, Berkeley. No part of the
manuscript may be quoted for publication without the written
permission of the Director of The Bancroft Library of the
University of California, Berkeley.
Request for permission to quote for publication should
be addressed to the Regional Oral History Office, 486
Library, University of California, Berkeley 94720, and
should include identification of the specific passages to be
quoted, anticipated use of the passages, and identification
of the user. The legal agreement with Maynard A. Amerine
requires that he be notified of the request and allowed
thirty days in which to respond.
It is recommended that this oral history be cited as
Maynard A. Amerine, "Wine Bibliographies
and Taste Perception Studies." an oral
history conducted 1985 by Ruth Teiser,
Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft
Library, University of California,
Copy no .
TABLE OF CONTENTS Maynard A. Amerine
INTRODUCTION by Doris Muscatine v
INTERVIEW HISTORY viii
BRIEF BIOGRAPHY ix
INTERVIEW WITH MAYNARD A. AMERINE
Enology and Viticulture at Davis, 1971-1974 1
Wines, Their Sensory Evaluation 4
Analytical Publications 9
Changes at Davis 11
Medical Research on Wine 14
Wine Advertising 16
Countering the Anti-Alcohol Movement 17
The Sulfur Dioxide Problem 19
International Influences 21
Improvements in Grapes and Wines 24
Field Work with Winkler 25
Prices, Judgings, and Auctions 27
Work in Progress 29
Wine Books in Libraries 30
Frank Schoonmaker 39
John De Luca 41
The Grape-Growing Region System 46
Soils and Vines 47
Viticultural Areas 48
Retirement Work 49
TAPE GUIDE 51
APPENDIX Bibliography 52
The California wine industry oral history series, a project of the
Regional Oral History Office, was initiated in 1969 through the action and
with the financing of the Wine Advisory Board, a state marketing order
organization which ceased operation in 1975. In 1983 it was reinstituted as
The Wine Spectator California Winemen Oral History Series with donations from
The Wine Spectator Scholarship Foundation. The selection of those to be
interviewed is made by a committee consisting of James D. Hart, director of
The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley; John A. De Luca,
president of the Wine Institute, the statewide winery organization; Maynard
A. Amerine, Emeritus Professor of Viticulture and Enology, University of
California, Davis; Jack L. Davies, the 1985 chairman of the board of directors
of the Wine Institute; Ruth Teiser, series project director; and Marvin R.
Shanken, trustee of The Wine Spectator Scholarship Foundation.
The purpose of the series is to record and preserve information on
California grape growing and wine making that has existed only in the memories
of wine men. In some cases their recollections go back to the early years of
this century, before Prohibition. These recollections are of particular value
because the Prohibition period saw the disruption of not only the industry
itself but also the orderly recording and preservation of records of its
activities. Little has been written about the industry from late in the last
century until Repeal. There is a real paucity of information on the
Prohibition years (1920-1933) , although some commercial wine making did
continue under supervision of the Prohibition Department. The material in
this series on that period, as well as the discussion of the remarkable
development of the wine industry in subsequent years (as yet treated
analytically in few writings) will be of aid to historians. Of particular
value is the fact that frequently several individuals have discussed the same
subjects and events or expressed opinions on the same ideas, each from his
own point of view.
Research underlying the interviews has been conducted principally in
the University libraries at Berkeley and Davis, the California State Library,
and in the library of the Wine Institute, which has made its collection of in
many cases unique materials readily available for the purpose.
Three master indices for the entire series are being prepared, one of
general subjects, one of wines, one of grapes by variety. These will be
available to researchers at the conclusion of the series in the Regional Oral
History Office and at the library of the Wine Institute.
The Regional Oral History Office was established to tape record
autobiographical interviews with persons who have contributed significantly
to recent California history. The office is headed by Willa K. Baum and is
under the administrative supervision of James D. Hart, the director of
The Bancroft Library.
The Wine Spectator California
Winemen Oral History Series
10 September 1984
Regional Oral History Office
486 The Bancroft Library
University of California, Berkeley
CALIFORNIA WINE INDUSTRY INTERVIEWS
Interviews Completed by 1988
Leon D. Adams. Revitalizing the California Wine Industry 1974
Maynard A. Amerine. The University of California and the State's Wine
Maynard A. Amerine. Wine Bibliographies and Taste Perception Studies
Philo Biane, Wine Making in Southern California and Recollections of
Fruit Industries. Inc. 1972
John B. Cella, The Cella Family in the California Wine Industry 1986
Burke H. Critchfield. Carl F. Wente, and Andrew G. Frericks. The
California Wine Industry During the Depression 1972
William V. Cruess, A Half Century of Food and Wine Technology 1967
William A. Dieppe, Almaden is My Life 1985
Alfred Fromm. Marketing California Wine and Brandy 1984
Joseph E. Heitz. Creating a Winery in the Napa Valley 1986
Maynard A. Joslyn. A Technologist Views the California Wine Industry
Amandus N. Kasimatis, A Career in California Viticulture 1988
Horace 0. Lanza and Harry Baccigaluppi, California Grape Products and
Other Wine Enterprises 1971
Louis M. Martini and Louis P. Martini. Wine Making in the Napa Valley
Louis P. Martini, A Family Winery and the California Wine Industry
Otto E. Meyer. California Premium Wines and Brandy 1973
Norbert C. Mirassou and Edmund A. Mirassou, The Evolution of a Santa Clara
Valley Winery 1986
Robert Mondavi, Creativity in the Wine Indsutry 1985
Myron S. Nightingale, Making Wine in California. 1944-1987 1988
Harold P. Olmo, Plant Genetics and New Grape Varieties 1976
Antonio Perelli-Minetti. A Life in Wine Making 1975
Louis A. Petri, The Petri Family in the Wine Industry 1971
Jefferson E. Peyser. The Lav and the California Wine Industry 197A
Lucius Powers. The Fresno Area and the California Wine Industry 1974
Victor Repetto and Sydney J. Block. Perspectives on California Wines
Edmund A. Rossi. Italian Swiss Colony and the Wine Industry 1971
Arpaxat Setrakian, A. Setrakian. A Leader of the San Joaquin Valley Grape
Elie C. Skofis, California Wine and Brandy Maker 1988
Andre Teh el ist chef f . Grapes. Wine, and Ecology 1983
Brother Timothy. The Christian Brothers as Wine Makers 197 A
Ernest A. Wente. Wine Making in the Livermore Valley 1971
Albert J. Winkler. Viticultural Research at UC Davis (1921-1971) 1973
INTRODUCTION by Doris Muscatine
Anyone who has ever known, worked with, read the writings of, or been
the student of Maynard A. Amerine and that includes almost everybody
who has had anything to do with California wine since Prohibition will
take pleasure in this interview, a sequel to an earlier oral biography in
the Bancroft collection. For those readers for whom this is an introduction,
it provides an account of the evolution of the California wine industry
during a period of enormous growth, and highlights the role that the
University of California and Maynard Amerine played in that development.
Amerine's discussion starts with the changes in enology and viticulture
at Davis in the early Seventies, but his consummate knowledge of wine
history, its development in California, legal shenanigans, politics,
principal personalities, the influence of technological developments and
the emerging predominance of the University, give a much broader picture
of the state's burgeoning industry.
The scope of Amerine's work, recounted in straightforward reminis
cences and equally uninhibited commentary, ranges through his research on
carbonic maceration (he has never found a wine made by this method with
which he was thoroughly pleased) to his debunking of such myths as the
invention of varietal labeling by Frank Schoonmaker ("mainly malarky";
there was active varietal labeling in California in the 1890s). He does,
however, give Schoonmaker his due for applying the idea in a big way.
Amerine's view that all soil is fundamentally the same as far as
grapes are concerned drainage and temperature retention being other
factors entirely may surprise some. His work with A. J. Winkler on
defining grape growing regions by the differences in their average heat
summations, a major viticultural contribution, is only a beginning, in
Amerine's view. He envisions many refinements, because "good research
always reveals more problems than you can solve."
As Amerine talks about his research, his teaching, his students and
colleagues, the books he has written on everything from wine must
analysis and sensory evaluation to varietal labeling and wine making at
home he gives generous credits to all of his collaborators, from
graduate student to professor. As he details his international travels,
his lectures, speeches, testimony and consultations on behalf of wine, he
emerges as its tireless and passionate advocate, meanwhile providing us a
rich historical context.
Although his current activities belie the fact that he is now "retired,"
he reports that there is a bit more time to enjoy some of his other passions:
opera, the Bohemian Club, his work on bibliography. He also likes living
in Napa, where he moved on his retirement from Davis because he had
observed too many emeriti who stayed around sometimes saying things that
were not helpful.
As this history makes abundantly clear, Amerine's career has spanned
every aspect of the wine industry, and his contributions to it are
incalculable. The energy and enthusiasm that this report conveys are
summed up best is his own words: "Obviously, I will never be completely
retired." What a good thing for us all.
27 September 1988
INTERVIEW HISTORY Maynard A. Amerine
This interview is in effect a continuation of that completed in 1971
titled The University of California and the State's Wine Industry. Because
he had been active in the wine industry following his retirement from the
Department of Viticulture and Enology at Davis to emeritus status in 1974,
it was considered important to record an account of his further work. He
had continued writing and editing, producing a number of important books
and articles dealing with various aspects of wine, most notably establishing
a scientific basis for wine tasting (Wines; Their Sensory Evaluation, in
collaboration with Edward B. Roessler.) With Doris Muscatine and
Bob Thompson he had edited the landmark University of Calif ornia/Sotheby
Book of California Wine which was published in 1984. In 1974-75 he was
consultant to the Wine Advisory Board. After its discontinuation he
became consultant to the Wine Institute, dealing mainly with health issues.
This interview was held in two sessions, the first on February 11, 1985,
in his office at the Wine Institute, the second on September 11 of the same
year, following his retirement from the Wine Institute position. It was
held also at the Wine Institute but in the employees' coffee room which, as
the tape recording progressed, went from silence to noisy with the clanking
of cups and the rumble of ambient conversation. Nevertheless, Professor
Amerine continued, characteristically, to express well thought out discussions
of the list of subjects presented to him in writing prior to the interview.
And he made meticulous corrections and additions to the transcript.
15 September 1988
Regional Oral History Office
486 The Bancroft Library
University of California at Berkeley
Regional Oral History Office University of California
Room 486 The Bancroft Library lx Berkeley, California 94720
(Please write clearly. Use black ink.)
Your full name Maynard A. Amerine
Date of birth Oct. 30, 1911 Birthplace San Jose, Calif.
Father's full name Roy R. Amerine
Occupation farmer Birthplace Maryville. Tenn.
Mother's full name Tennie D. Amerine
Occupation housewife Birthplace " "
Your spouse none
Your children none
Where did you grow up? Madera and Modesto, Calif.
Present community St. Helena, Calif. 94574
Education B.S. and Ph.D., Univ. Calif. Berkeley
, . retired
Areas of expertise enology, sensory evaluation of foods
Other interests or activities
Organizations in which you are active Bohemian Club, S.F.
Etiology and Viticulture at Davis, 1971-1974
[Interview 1: 11 February 1985]##
Teiser Today we are picking up on your activities since January 1971,
when we finished recording your earlier oral history.
Amerine: The title of the first oral biography was "The University of
California and the State's Wine Industry." I will keep that
theme for this interview. In the University I have done a lot
of things that didn't have anything to do with the wine industry
and therefore they don't properly belong in this biography.
There are, however,
here, which deserve to be
of Mayacamas, made a tape
wine industry and Amerine
has been transcribed and
Wine Library. Also, for
tape on John Daniel [Jr.]
University. That tape is
two other tapes that I will refer to
in the record. Mr. [Robert] Travers,
several years ago on the Napa Valley
's recollections thereof. That tape
is (or is to be) in the Napa Valley
a Miss Simonson, at Inglenook, I made a
, the Inglenook Winery, and the
kept at the Inglenook winery.
The history of 1971-1974 can be summarized as far as my
duties vis a vis the wine industry. There was an enormous
increase among students at the University majoring in enology
and viticulture. This started around 1971. Enology classes
which normally had five to ten suddenly had fifty to seventy.
This increased the teaching load in the two upper division
classes that I was teaching at that time, one on analysis of
wines and the other on sensory evaluation of wines. This
involved considerable time because, particularly in the sensory
evaluation section, we had to split the laboratories, and it
##This symbol indicates that a tape or a segment of a tape has
begun or ended. For a guide to the tapes see page 51.
Amerine: ended up that in 1974 I was teaching five sections of
laboratories, two evenings per week and three afternoons per
week, just in the laboratories for that one course--plus the
laboratory for the analysis course. (The laboratory for my Food
Science course was largely handled by Professor Rose M.
Pangborn. ) In addition to that I was teaching two freshman
courses, one in viticulture and one in food science.
Obviously research suffered, and I was using my technician
for preparing solutions and doing a lot of things that had to be
done for classes. Fortunately, I had given notice of my
retirement in '72, two years ahead of time, and the University
brought on my successor a year early, Dr. [Ann C. ] Noble. So
she did get to help in the class in the spring of '74, which
gave her an introduction to the sensory analysis of wine, and
also relieved me of reading lots of papers and examinations. I
had in the sensory course laboratory reports with a lot of the
statistical analysis of the data and so forth, and Doug Fong,
who was my technician, also helped in this. Otherwise I
couldn't possibly have taken care of the courses.
In addition to that, the University in its delayed largesse
decided that with this big increase in enrollment we would be
able to have teaching assistants in Agriculture. There had been
very few teaching assistants in Agriculture before that. These
had been reserved for the big courses in the College of Letters
and Science, and Agriculture people were supposed to only have
one course. .Well, I was teaching five courses a year and
obviously I could make a strong case for having a teaching
assistant. So I had a teaching assistant in Food Science two
of them in Food Science--and I had two teaching assistants in
enology during the period when we had big classes.
There was a considerable amount of field work still going
on. The Napa Valley Technical group, I remember going to during
this period several times, and also the San Joaquin Valley
Technical group, which I believe is almost gone by now.
I took a sabbatical in residence in 1973 for six months,
and used that to visit wineries throughout the state. That
report was never written, although it does exist in manuscript.
It has to do with what people in the industry considered to be
the major problems of growing grapes and making wine as of 1973.
I did keep some research going. We were working on
"maceration carbonique" (or "carbonic maceration" if you wish)
and published some papers in the American Journal of Enology.
The results were not favorable to the process, and I still have
to find a wine so produced that fully pleases me. There were
Amerine: also several papers on addition of acid to musts. Some wines
were improved, some not.
As part of the field work during this period in 1973, I
made a trip to Osaka to participate in the dedicatory speeches
for the Central Research Institute of Suntory. There were four
of us that gave speeches at that one. Mine was on current
wine-making practices in California. Also that year we
published the book Wine and Must Analysis, Amerine and
[Cornelius S.] Ough, which was really the lecture notes for the
course in wine analysis which I mentioned just before.
There was also a trip to Ohio to participate in the "Ohio
Grape and Wine Short Course" in 1973. The proceedings of that
were published in 1974. There were two speeches there. One was
on "American Wines for Americans," which was a plea for them to
make better wines out of the hybrids and the eastern grapes, and
the other was "New Methods of Wine-making," which I spoke about
Then, on the basis of the Japanese trip, I gave a talk on
the Japanese fermentation industry. It was published by the
WITS [Wine Industry Technical Symposium] conference of November
1974. That speech, in fact, was a plea for the wine industry to
do more research. I pointed out that the Japanese fermentation
industry was going to rule the fermentation world eventually,
because they were doing so much fundamental research in
fermentation that they would control the production of amino
acids and all kinds of antibiotics. That certainly came true.
I used Chem[ical] Abstracts as a proof that that was what was
going to happen. It's still true that the Japanese fermentation
industry produces more patents on fermentation processes than
all the rest of the world put together!
Also in 1974 I participated in the symposium for the
American Chemical Society in Dallas, Texas. It was chaired by
Professor A. D. Webb of our department. In the speech I made
some prognoses of the future of wine analysis. That was
published in the American Chemical Society's Advances in
We also did work on analyses for citric acid in wines
during that period. There were also a couple of articles in
encyclopedias. There was even an article on American wines in a
Yugoslavian book in Serbo-Croatian! The wine analysis book was
published in Spanish in 1976, in Spain.
Wines, Their Sensory Evaluation
Amerine: In 1976 the textbook for the sensory evaluation course in
Enology at Davis was published by Freeman. It was Amerine and
[Edward B.] Roessler's book, Wines, Their Sensory Evaluation.
This gave us a textbook to give to the students in that course
and, in addition, was intended to be of use to the whole
industry. That book went into a second edition in 1983. That's
had a pretty good sale and is, I think, useful to the industry.
The statistical part of the book frightened many people, but as
I read the tastings of the various groups that are being
published in various journals nowadays, I realize that, in many
cases, the results don't have any statistically valid meaning.
As an example of this, the San Francisco Chronicle a few years
ago published the results of a tasting of eighteen bottled
waters available in San Francisco. Fortunately, they gave the
rankings of each of the ten judges. Roessler analyzed the data
and showed that there was no difference between any of the
waters except one. There was only one water that was better
than the others statistically. We never did write the Chronicle
about that, but--
Teiser: They didn't use the data properly, is that right?
Amerine: They didn't analyze it. They just added the ranks, but there
was no difference between the results, except for one, the
variability in ranks between judges was so great.
Also, as still a part of the field work, after the Ohio
conference which I went to in 1973 or 1974, I then went to
Pennsylvania for a wine conference in 1977. I spoke about
quality standards and quality control for the small winery.
That was published in the proceedings of that conference. I
also had to give a dinner speech on wine appreciation, which was
In 1977 the most important paper that I gave was in French,
"Wine and Human Nutrition," for the international symposium at
Avignon, sponsored by the Office International du Vin [OIV].
That was published in the bulletin of the OIV in 1977, and was
an attempt to bring up to date as far as nutrition was concerned
the Silverman/Leake book on wine and health,* and also the
seventh edition of Lucia's Uses of Wine in Medical Practice.
This was reprinted in Spanish in Buenos Aires in 1979.
*Chauncey D. Leake and Milton Silverman, Alcoholic Beverages in
Clinical Medicine. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers,
Amerine: I'll talk about the wine industry in a few minutes, and I'll
come back to this particular subject then.
I went to the American Wine Society to get a "Man of the
Year" award in 1977, and talked about [the future of] American
wines in 1995. That's published in the American Wine Society
Journal , Volume 8, 1977. I don't know that I really contributed
very much; prophecy is a difficult art.
Amerine: Prior to 1974, when I left the University, I had published three
bibliographies. The first one was right after the War, and was
published by the University of California Press, with Louise
Wheeler, who was the reference librarian at Davis. That was
intended to be all the books and bulletins on grapes and wines
that we could find from 1938 to 1948, from around the world.
The reason for that was that World War II cut the United States
off from getting books from behind the Iron Curtain, or getting
books from any place in Europe. So there was a whole new
generation of enologists and viticul turalis ts that had grown up
without any contact with the European research and books that
had been published during that period.
That book didn't sell very well. It got a prize from the
American Library Association, which didn't pay anything, I
might say, but it looked good on Louise's University records.
Really, there should have been an addendum published to that. I
have two or three hundred cards that we didn't find at that
time, which have since come to light based on trips that I've
made to libraries in Europe and so forth, particularly since
quite a lot of the Russian literature wasn't available to us in
Somewhat earlier I had given a talk to the American Society
of Enologists called "The Educated Enologist."* I use the old
dictum that "the educated enologist is not one who knows
everything, but who knows where to find it when he needs it."
I appended a list of the hundred books and articles on grape
growing and winemaking that I thought every educated enologist
should be familiar with. that was really my first bibliography
intended for California enologists. I hoped that they would
become aware of the fact that there was more to the wine and
*Proceedings of the American Society of Enologists, 1951: 1-30.
Amerine: grape growing business than just what was published in English
in California. I don't think that it had the expected value,
except that the list was reprinted and used as a handout for
students for several years. I always told students they should
learn at least one foreign language, either French or German,
because that was where the most significant literature was.
That's probably still true, but modern abstract services in
English have helpd the student follow the foreign literature.
Then Dick [Richard] Blanchard, the University librarian at
Davis, persuaded me to produce a handout for the California
Library Association who were going to meet in Sacramento. There
was a lot of interest in grapes and wines, and they were going
to visit the campus. I then produced the first checklist of
books and pamphlets on grapes and wines, just in English, for
the period 1949-1959. The second was for 1960-1968 and included
additions to the 1949-1959 list. These were quite significant
publications; I see there are 61 pages in the first list and 84
pages in the 1960-1968 list. There is a manuscript that's not
yet published for 1968-1975. It's a nice list, ready to go when
I'm ready to do it, and includes further additions to the
Further on bibliography, in 1971 Amerine and [Vernon L.]
Singleton published with the University Agricultural
publications a bibliography of bibliographies on grapes and
wines and related subjects. That ran to 39 pages, and was
intended for enologists to be able to look up the literature if
At a later date the University received funds from Jack
Tribune to work on vermouth. I published in 1973, in Italy in
English but in an Italian journal, a multilingual dictionary of
vermouth ingredients. At that time it wasn't possible--if you
could read an Italian list of ingredients for vermouthto find
the equivalent English words for many of them. This list was in
six languages, the proper word for each one of these
ingredients. That was, I think, of some help.
While I was doing that I got interested in the vermouth
literature, and we then published two bibliographies in 1973 and
1974. One was an annotated bibliography on vermouth with
biochemical references that is, the composition of the vermouth
ingredients . That ran to 312 leaves. At the same time
we had done just an annotated bibliography on vermouth, which
ran 213 leaves. That had to do primarily with the vermouth
business and how big it got, and so forth .
*This has been updated and revised up to 1988. M.A.A.
Amerine: In 1980, when we held the one hundredth anniversary of the
University work on grapes and wine, the Library Associates,
which is a support group for the library at Davis, asked Herman
Phaff and I if we would do a checklist of all the publications
published on all the campuses of the University from 1880 to
1980 that had to do with grapes and wines. That was a great big
"white elephant," and I should have been smarter than to get
into it. It took a lot of my time and a lot of Herman's time,
also. Fortunately, we work together very well. There have been
publications from practically every campus of the University,
and certainly from Berkeley and Davis, from many departments.
It runs through over three thousand items now, and is in the
computer and will be published [in 1986]. There were some
people that went to the conference, which would be five years
ago last April, who paid ten dollars for the bibliography. We
thought we'd do it in six months; instead it's taken five years.
Teiser: They sent the money back.
Amerine: They sent the money back already? Oh, really, I didn't know
they did that. Anyway, it's going to be published by the
University Press, under a new series called "Bibliographic
Studies." They finally got the money for the bibliography, and
this will be, I think, the first one in the series.
Two reasons for the time it took: one, we canvassed all
the departments and asked them to send us lists. Surprisingly
enough, none of the lists was complete. People forget that they
wrote articles, and so forth and so on. Second, there were some
that didn't send anything in. ##
Amerine: Anyway, that was one reason. At first we typed it. Then the
Library Associates felt that wasn't pretty enough to publish,
and besides, it would involve a lot of indexing and so forth.
If they put it on a computer, that all comes off automatically.
You don't have to alphabetize all the authors and junior
authors. Every article had to have a subject index. There were
two or three subjects for some papers. That all had to be done
by hand and then entered in the computer. But that is in the
works at the present time, and should be out shortly.*
Teiser: I keep reaching for it. I hope it will be.
Amerine: We've seen the tape, so we know what it looks like.
*It was published in Spring 1987 under the title Bibliography of
Publications by the Faculty, Staff and Students of the
University of California, 1876-1980, on Grapes, Wines, and
In bibliography I also wrote an article about [Andre L.] Simon
in the Journal of the International Wine and Food Society in
1978, trying to show what his bibliographical contributions
Continuing on the publication list: the second edition of
Wine , An Introduction, was published in 1977. I noticed from
the last printout that there've been nearly fifty thousand
copies of the second edition printed.
Let me ask you to clarify the title change.
It used to be Wine, An Introduction for Americans; that was the
first edition. The second edition was just Wine, An
Introduction. The reason for it was that the Press felt, why
would anybody in other parts of the world want it if it said,
"for Americans"? So they dropped the "for Americans."
The last of my graduate students, [Meridith] Edwards and
[Thomas B.] Selfridge, were working in 1974. One of them was
working on lead in wine, and the other was working on odor
threshhold. Those studies were both published in the American
Journal of Enology in 1977 and 1978.
Were you co-author?
Yes. Meredith Edwards is a winemaker and co-owner of a winery
now, and Tom Selfridge is the president of Beaulieu .
In other publications, such as the article that was
published in the Scientific American in 1964 and reprinted in
Spanish in 1977, there were references to the literature. (See
also CRC critical Reviews in Food Technology 2:407-515, 1972).
Over the years I wrote several introductions to books. The
first was for M.F.K. Fisher and Max Yavno 1 s The Story of Wine in
California in 1962. Another was a foreword to Irving Marcus"
Lines about Wines in 1971. Another was for Bob [Robert L.]
Balzer's This Uncommon Heritage in 1970, and his Wines in
California in 1978. There was one for Harry Serlis' Wine in
America , 1972. There were, of course, a number of introductions
to The Bancroft Library [Regional Oral History Office] oral
There are a lot of review articles that have been
published. For the Mayo Clinic symposium on fermented food
beverages and nutrition in 1979, I wrote an article on the
biochemical processes in wine fermentation and aging that was
published in Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition. That was
hard work because it involved a lot of biochemistry.
Amerine: Over the years the American Society of Heating and Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning Engineers (that's ASHRAE) published a
handbook with a section on winemaking. For the last ten or
fifteen years I edited and updated that section. I've turned
that over to a staff member at Davis.
Herman Phaff and I wrote a journal article on wine in
Microbial Technology in 1979.
Of the three vermouth bibliographies that I mentioned
before, two were typescripts, and they're in the department
library and in the main library at Davis. In 1974 the Division
of Agricultural Sciences published Vermouth, An Annotated
Bibliography, which was printed and sold.
Teiser: That you yourself prepared?
Amerine: That I had taken out of those other publications and annotated.
Here's another preface to a book--a preface to Max Lake's
book on Cabernet, published in 1977. Max Lake wrote a book
called Cabernet, Notes of an Australian Wineman. I don't think
he was too happy about my introduction. I also wrote another
introduction to another book of his, The Flavour of Wine
(1969). That one I think he did like"
Here's an article on American wines, in the World
Encyclopedia of Wine, in Italian. I think I got one hundred
dollars for that one.
Amerine: In 1980 the Analysis of Must in Wines book was redone into a
second edition with a slightly different title; therefore it
doesn't say "second edition." It's Amerine and Ough, Methods
for Analysis of Musts and Wine, published by John Wiley and
Sons. That is still in print. It's a big book, 341 pages. It
needs to be redone, and I hope that some day it will be redone.*
Also in 1980, long after I was retired, we did the fourth
edition of The Technology of Winemaking by Avi Publishing Co.
Professor [Harold W.] Berg and I did not want to rewrite it, and
we both knew that we would never do it again. We brought four
*A second edition was published in 1988.
Amerine: members of the staff in to write different chapters. [Ralph E. ]
Kunkee, Ough, Singleton, and [A. Dinsmoor] Vebb were the other
four authors. It was originally to include [James F.] Guymon,
but Guyraon died before he had written anything. So it's
Amerine, Berg, Kunkee, Ough, Singleton, and Webb. That was 794
pages, and most of the chapters were pretty thoroughly revised.
It was fairly well up to date as of 1980.
Teiser: That's an example of a book that has had an interesting life.
You described it in the earlier interview, but it started off as
kind of a pioneering effort, and has changed and changed, has it
Amerine: Yes. Well, if I didn't put it in the early interview, Professor
[William V.] Cruess had written before the war Principles and
Practices of Winemaking. This had two editions. He then
retired and didn't want to do a third edition himself, so he
asked me if I would help him do it. there was some concern as
to whether I should do it or not because I was the department
chairman and had a lot of other things to do at that time. On
the other hand, Avi was very anxious to have a new edition. The
old edition was out of date. It was called "Amerine and
Cruess," and was called the first edition. The second edition
was "Amerine, Berg, and Cruess," because again I didn't want to
do it. The third edition was also "Amerine, Berg, and Cruess."
Then by the fourth edition, Cruess had passed away and it was
Amerine, Berg, and these four other authors I had just
I can tell you the denoument of that. The other four
people have been asked by Avi either to produce a fifth edition
or to produce four books under the same general title. My
experience has been that getting four people to produce four
books is going to be a lot harder than getting four people to
produce one book. Whether they're going to do it or not, I
don 1 t know.
In 1980 I also went to Australia to give an endowed
lectureship at Roseworthy College, and lectured there for one
month. The title of that endowed lectureship was "The Senses
and Sensory Evaluation of Wines." The lectures were published
in the Australian Wine, Brewing, and Spirit Review in 1980. The
only problem was that the references were left off, which was
Continuing with sensory evaluation: the Academic Press has
had a series of books on chemical analyses of foods, edited by
Dr. G. Charlambous. This particular one was called "The
Analysis and Control of Less Desirable Flavors in Foods and
Beverages." I wrote a fairly extensive article on the words
used to describe abnormal appearance, odor, taste, and tactile
sensations in wine. Unfortunately, that didn't get the
Amerine: attention it should have because most enologists don't read food
technology books. However, I eventually had my reward because I
put some of that material into the second edition of The Sensory
Evaluation of Wines.
Teiser: Does that book, do you think, have a kind of ripple effect out
to the public?
Amerine: I'm sure it does, because there've been a couple of people who
claim that I robbed the language of beautiful words: that they
ought to be allowed to say that wines are "lovely," or
"feminine," or "masculine," and things like that. So at least
two columnists read the book! Also I wrote an article which was
published in the proceedings of the seventh wine training
conference at Davis in 1981, "Describing Wines in Meaningful
Words." That was rather a fun article, and I think I got more
response from the audience than almost any other one that I
Changes at Davis
Amerine: So much, then, for what I did as a University professor after
1971 up to date. Now, you asked the question, "What happened to
the University when they lost Guymon, Berg, Webb, Olrao, and
Amerine, all within a short period of time?"* I think that the
University did very wellas a matter of fact, possibly better
than they did before!
Teiser: Let me just interrupt you here if I may. When all of you were
leaving, industry people were saying, "The University is never
going to get people as good as they were. There's no interest,
there are no funds." There was an awful lot of grumbling.
Amerine: Obviously I heard that, too. Some of my friends would say, "The
University just couldn't duplicate that," and so forth. That's
simply not true. If we did our job right, and hired the right
kind of people, they ought to do at least as well, and possibly
better than we did. After all, we were starting when the field
was very new. There was practically no American literature or
anything like that. We, the staff, certainly created a
literature, a very big literature.
Teiser: You did, indeed.
*The question was asked in writing prior to the interview.
Amerine: Which is noted all around the world. The books, the journals,
the viticulture and enology research, and so forth. All those
constituted a notice that American research in enology and
viticulture was first-rate. In addition to that, we published
in Vitis, the German journal which publishes in English and
German and French. Olmo is one of the editors of that journal.
A number of us have published in Vitis at various times. In
fact, the first editor of Vitis was a friend of mine.
The new staff was bound to have to build on that. You
can't go backward in science, you have to go forward. I think
that they have done very well. [Ann C.] Noble, for example, in
my field carried on an enormous teaching load. There were so
many students in one class, and she also taught in a class in
food science. She's had a lot of graduate students and has
tried many new things, which she should do. The new staff don't
carry on the same kind of research as we did. Their interests
are different, their background is different, and so their
research is justifiably different.
Teiser: She also does what you did, speaks to groups beyond her
Amerine: Yes, she comes across clearly in her speaking.
[W.] Mark Kliewer, in Viticulture, also does. Winkler
retired you can't replace Winkler--but Mark Kiewer, with the
new biochemical methods and so forth, has made an enormous
contribution to viticultural research. He's probably the most
famous, worldwide, of the present staff in Viticulture. He's
done sabbaticals in Australia, is well known in the German
literature, and so forth.
I'm not sure of the research of others on the staff. I
don't want to name names. I just name those two because they
come to mind quickly. They have carried on an enormous teaching
load, a far bigger teaching load than we had before--not me, but
more than the other members of the staff.
Teiser: Have they continued to have teaching assistants?
Amerine: Oh, yes, the teaching assistants are now well established in
Teiser: Has enrollment continued high?
Araerine: Enrollment has continued high.
Teiser: You mentioned in your earlier interview that you hadn't always
attracted the quality of students that you had wished.
Araerine: That's right. That was because they could get a job with
Standard Oil at three times the price that the wineries were
paying. That, of course, is one of the reasons we started the
American Society of Enologists. It was to raise the
professional standards of the enologists so they would be able
to command higher salaries. It's been a slow and hard job, but
in the sixties the industry realized, when the price of grapes
started going up, that every gallon of wine they lost was a
significant loss. Now, when you're paying one or two thousand
dollars a ton for Chardonnay, you can't lose a gallon; therefore
you can afford to pay thirty-five, forty-five thousand dollars
for a good enologist. When you start paying forty-five thousand
dollars for an enologist, you're going to attract ambitious
students who have brains. That was, I think, the direct result
of increases in grape and wine prices. And also the industry is
much more highly competitive now. On the quality level, there
are several hundred wineries in California (of over five hundred
producing wineries) competing for a market for quality wines.
At the larger wineries, several have Ph.D.'s in their
Teiser: Your figure just now, several hundred out of five hundredwere
you breaking down the industry? Were you implying the others
are making only standard wines?
Amerine: I didn't want to imply that. I'm just saying there are several
hundred I know that are trying to make quality wines. I'm not
saying that the others may not be. They're all really highly
competitive in this field, and they have to get good people to
achieve their goals. Even small wineries are hiring good
people, or they're hiring consultants. There are quite a number
of consultants now who are making their job telling wineries,
"Do this, don't do that," and so forth.
Teiser: I see there are consultants who work for several wineries, and
some of them have their own wineries as well.
Amerine: Yes, that's quite true.
Teiser: This is rather new, is it?
Amerine: Well, it's an attempt by them to earn some money to live on--to
spend on their own winery and at the same time use their
knowledge to help somebody else, [laughs]
My personal philosophy about the emeriti is that they
should be seen but not heard. I moved away from Davis purposely
very soon after I became an emeritus because of my observation
of other depar tments--that the emeriti sometimes say things that
don't help the deparment. When I have been asked, I have spoken
to the department chairman, if he asked me questions I know
Amerine: something about. But I don't go around bad-mouthing anybody, or
talking about things I don't know about. I haven't talked to
anybody about my own opinions about departmental matters,
mistakes, and so forth.
Medical Research on Wine
Amerine: In 1974 Salvatore P. Lucia had stopped consulting for the Wine
Advisory Board, WAB, Harry Serlis was at Wine Institute, and
[Werner] Almendinger at WAB. At that time the Wine Advisory
Board was physically separated from the Wine Institute. They
were on different floors of the building on Market Street. They
asked if I would watch the medical research program. I had been
a consulting member of the committee on medical research since
1937 and had gone to a lot of meetings. I said, "Well, I
wouldn't mind coming one or two days a week." So they made it
two days a week.
Teiser: This was for the Wine Institute?
Amerine: This was for the Wine Advisory Board when I came on in 1974.
They had a couple of projects they were carrying on, and I began
to write and distribute a monthly checksheet of research
activities that I thought would be of interest to people that
were interested in medical research on wine. This was supposed
to stimulate interest in new research projects. Then, of
course, [Edmund G.] Brown [Jr.] was governor, and Rose Bird got
her finger in the Wine Advisory board. As a result, the Wine
Advisory Board was disbanded, I suppose, rather than let Brown
and Bird run it, and the industry was not going to have any
public members on the Wine Advisory Board since they were paying
for it; it was their money. That was the basic reason why the
Wine Advisory Board was voted out of existence.
Teiser: Bird was then Director of Agriculture?
Amerine: She was the Director of Agricultural Services, or something like
that. She controlled Agriculture, however; she had several
departments under her control.
Anyway, the industry members simply then raised their dues
to Wine Institute, proportional to what they had been paying to
Wine Advisory Board more or less.
Teiser: But some people didn't come in.
Amerine: That's right. East-Side Winery didn't come in, and California
Growers [Winery] didn't come in for a year or two, but they then
did come in later. Heublein never did come in. In fact they
didn't even go to the Napa Valley Vintners meetings, or any
Anyway, there was money, and starting around 1976 we began
to have some medical projects again. These were somewhat
different from the projects we'd supported before.
This is what is under the Wine Institute, then?
That came under the Wine Institute, yes. ##
We lost something when I turned the tape,
problem that you had--
You said the first
Our first problem was to get medical advice that was qualified.
We were very fortunate in this. Bob [Robert A.] O'Reilly had
been a friend, and he agreed to come to meetings. Arthur
Klatsky of the Permanente Foundation came to many meetings.
Paul Scholten also came regularly. There were altogether about
seven or eight doctors that we could count on to come to
meetings and discuss where we should spend money on projects
they thought would be useful.
One of the early projects that we took part in and which
paid off quite handsomely was "Can You Drink When You've Had
Anti-coagulants?" There are many people who are on
anti-coagulants, after operations or before operations and so
forth. We got the Santa Clara Medical Group to work on that,
with Bob O'Reilly running the program. They showed that
alcohol, especially wine, didn't have any effect on the effect
of the anti-coagulants. It neither reduced nor enhanced the
effects of the anti-coagulants. So that was, I think, a
We very soon got interested in the whole question of why
people who have small amounts of alcohol don't have as many
miocardial problems or heart attacks. This turns out to be a
function of the high density lipoproteins , called HDL for short,
which tend to reduce the cholesterol values. Therefore, you
don't have deposits of cholesterol in the blood stream, and
therefore you don't get the heart attacks from lack of
circulation of the blood. That work was done at Harvard and
also at UC. The project at UC is still ongoing as of August
1985. That project has been going on about five years. The
results have been verified in Sweden and in Honolulu, and in a
number of other places. People who drink too much will die for
various reasons, and people who don't drink anything will have
more heart attacks than people who drink small amounts.
Ethically, we are in a bind on that. First of all, legally
we cannot advertise wines as having health values. No alcoholic
beverage can be advertised as having health values, so you have
to be careful. There are people in this industry that feel that
we should do more advertising on this, that we could figure out
a legal method of doing it. On the other hand, there are other
people that feel just as strongly that since wine is subject to
abuse, like any alcoholic beverage, that people can drink too
much, that people are not going to distinguish between drinking
two glasses and drinking eight glasses. Therefore you may be
doing some things that ethically aren't correct. Anyway, it's
in the literature and has now, I think, generally been accepted
by the medical profession.
As in all kinds of research projects, we've tried projects
that didn't really pay off as well as we had hoped for. The
fetal alcohol syndrome, that is one that we spent money on. You
can't do research on human beings; it's not ethical. You'd
never get permission from a research committee at a hospital to
give half your women wine and the other half not wine when
they're pregnant. So it has to be done on some other animal.
We've had it done on rabbits at the Wistar Institute in
Pennsylvania. We've had it done on guinea pigs at New York,
Cornell's medical research laboratories. They generally show
that it takes an awful lot of alcohol to cause the fetal alcohol
As a matter of fact, Dr. Thomas Turner (he's the retired
dean of the School of Medicine at Johns Hopkins) has some funds
from the beer industry for medical research. He doesn't do any
research himself, but he has made a review on the fetal alcohol
syndrome. He notes that there is no case of full-blown fetal
alcohol syndrome unless the patient is drinking the equivalent
of a bottle of whiskey a day. By saying it that way, he's
pretty well settled a lot of things, and we are not hearing as
much about fetal alcohol syndrome now as we did several years
As to the current year, last summer they voted in the new
winegrowers' foundation [Winegrowers of California], Medical
projects which had been approved for financing by the Wine
Institute were turned over to them. I don't know what they're
going to do with them. They have one half million dollars for
research. I'm on the viticulture and enology research group,
but I don't know what's happening to the medical research. I
will know tomorrow, I think, because I'm going to a meeting.
Teiser: Have you suggested certain projects?
Araerine: They took three projects that we at Wine Institute had already
approved last year. Last July, when they voted in the new
Winegrowers of California, the executive committee of Wine
Institute decided not to spend their funds, since there were
going to be funds for research in the Winegrowers of California
budget. So the projects have just been in limbo during this
period of time. I assume that they will do something about
them. They had already been peer-reviewed and so forth.*
Countering the Anti-Alcohol Movement
Amerine: About two or three years after I came here [to the Wine
Institute] one or two days a week, the staff began to feel,
about the time that John De Luca came, that there was an
increasing number of anti-alcohol, or temperance groups, talking
about alcoholic beverages. And that maybe we ought to know what
they were doing and become familiar with the social aspects of
drinking alcoholic beverages. So David Keyes was brought on to
the staff. He stayed for two or three years. Then Patty
[Patricia] Schneider came on the staff to do that social field.
She works full time on that. She knows more about anti-alcohol
groups than anyone. She goes to meetings all over the country;
she's gone on television several times; she's acquainted with
many people in Washington, New York, Sacramento, MADD (Mothers
Against Drunk Driving), SADD (Students Against Drunk Driving),
et cetera. She has held meetings with them, goes to their
meetings, and has even held fund-raisers for them.
I think John De Luca and I agree that it's unlikely that
the industry will have the kind of funds to do a great deal of
medical research of the caliber that we need to do. Therefore,
we ought to concentrate our efforts in the social aspects.
Effective advertising, that's a big issue right now, and there
needs to be research done on this. We have sponsored now, for
the last three years, social researchchildren' s and
adolescents' attitudes toward alcoholic beverages. We did that
at Georgetown, the University of Pittsburgh, and the University
of California at Los Angeles.
We have a special project right now: a man from Iowa has
published a paper which we figure is full of loopholes. [It
alleges] that wine advertising creates over-consumption, and we
don't believe that this is true. There are so many loopholes in
his research that we think that we ought to redo the research
*They were later approved,
Amerine: with somebody who knows what he's doing. We've already
identified it, and that project has been turned over to the
Winegrowers of California. That's a fairly expensive
project--f orty thousand dollars, I think, or something like
that. Anyway, what has happened to that, I don't know; it
doesn't come up to my group, so I'm not familiar with it.
I'm sure that the Institute, as a defensive mechanism if
nothing else, is going to have to keep somebody familiar with
this whole field of anti -alcohol , or the "neo-prohibitionis ts,"
as John De Luca prefers to call them. As a matter of fact, as
one step in that direction, six years ago I became a member of
the state advisory board on alcohol and alcoholic abuse, which
is under the Director of Health in Sacramento. It's an advisory
board of fifteen members. Five are appointed by the senate,
five by the assembly, and five by the governor. At least five
members of the fifteen have to be recovered alcoholics by law!
They're usually very proud when they get appointed to it, to
stand up and say, "I'm a recovered alcoholic." I went to all
the meetings, eight meetings a year for three years. I figured
I had done my duty on that. They were held all over
California. I think I was not obnoxious. When they proposed
unconsitutional things, I would say so.
They at one time proposed to rewrite the basic article on
California alcoholic beverage control, and they wrote it that
"The use of alcoholic beverages is dangerous." It happened that
I had gone to that meeting (I went to all the meetings; I don't
think I missed a meeting during the three years I was on). On
the way home I began to think, "What was it before? It was
'abuse' before." We had to get our lobbyists to amend the bill
that had already been introduced and had gone through the
committee. Paul Lunardi had it amended forty-eight times. The
term that was chosen (I don't really know who was the genius
that changed it) was "inappropriate use." He missed one, and on
the day that it was to be taken up it was amended on the floor
the forty-ninth time, to take "the use" out and put
"inappropriate" in. That probably saved us an enormous
headache, though, because if that had become law then we would
have had all kinds of undesirable secondary effects coming out
of thatphilosophical and practical.
I'd seen enough to know that you do need somebody there.
We persuaded Paul Scholten and Emil Mrak to allow themselves to
be appointed. They've both been in the last three or four
years. I think that Paul, as a doctor, has had a moderating
influence on them. When I was on it, when I would see things
that were of interest to Patty I would ask her to go to the
meetings as my guest. We could have guests.
Amerine: I think you just have to know your enemy and become familiar
with his tactics. Forewarned is forearmed in these particular
cases. Looking back at the history of Prohibition, I don't
think that the wine and beer and spirits industry ever thought
that they would prohibit alcoholic beverages, but they should
have. If they had been reading the record, if they had been
going to the meetings the Good Templars and the Temperance
Societyand reading the literature and so forth, they certainly
would have seen that it's very necessary to keep an expertise in
the field of people who are working against you. Patty
certainly does that and does it very well.
And, as I say, because of the expense of medical research,
I doubt if the grape and wine industry will support any large
amount of research. First of all, we were becoming respectable
during the Lucia/ Si Iverman period, and so we could write nice
things about it. Russell Lee's introduction to Uses of Wine in
Medical Practice promotes wine as a good and safe tranquilizer .
I don't think that is a very easy thing to put across at the
present time. There are too many other kinds of tranqulizers,
and there are specific tranquilizers now. The whole problem of
keeping people quiet has changed. It may be that wine is the
one beverage of choice, but it's pretty hard to sell that to the
medical profession now, I think. I don't know how you'd do the
The Sulfur Dioxide Problem
Amerine: We have done some research on the sulfur dioxide SC>2 problem,
and it's a good thing we did it because the SC>2 problem is going
to get worse before it gets better. The restaurant people are
in much hotter water than we are on that, because they're the
ones who have caused all the problems so far. There's no case
that we know of that anybody's gotten ill on SC>2 in wine.*
Almaden is being sued by some man in Hawaii, but that's part of
American law; now they sue for anything, however remotely
possible it is, and sometimes they collect!
What the restaurant people got us into was that they were
sprinkling crystals, pure crystals of metabisulf ite , on the
salad bars to keep them looking green. Of course, the crystals
didn't all dissolve, and a person with asthma would sniff this
high SC>2 and even eat it, and then have an anaphy lactic shock.
That's where the trouble arose. As far as we know, there's been
*September 1985: no longer true; one case now. M.A.A.
Araerine: no case of anybody going into shock or anything like that from
wine, although the industry has voluntarily reduced the SO?
limits in wine. That, I think, was long since overdue, because
nobody needs to use 350 milligrams per liter of sulfur dioxide.
Anyway, that research will have to continue. We have a
good man at Davis in the medical school who's interested in that
subject. I suspect that there will be some support for that
coming up from some place.
As a public service, I agreed to look at the research
projects on enology and viticulture for the Winegrowers of
California. Tomorrow we'll get through that, hopefully.
Let me see now, what else did I have here? [looking at
Amerine: I did think that the American Vineyard Foundation was a good
idea. I still think it's a good idea. But obviously, if the
wineries are contributing to the California Winegrowers and to
the Wine Institute, they're not likely to be also supporting the
American Vineyard Foundation. But at least the American
Vineyard Foundation is set up to do research.
You ask about the end of the TAG [Wine Institute Technical
Advisory Committee] . The end of the TAG was primarily because
the American Society of Enologists [ASE] provided a forum for
that at the annual meeting, and so forth. At one time the TAG
met four times a year; then it met three times a year; and then,
when they were sending their winemakers to ASE, the Wine
Institute aborted the TAG as a discussion group. Julius Jacobs
then started the WITS as a sort of a TAG with emphasis not on
basic research but on industrial problems. TAG had always had
filter manufacturers, chemical engineers, chemical
manufactureers , people selling products, talking to them. The
ASE rarely did that.
Their speeches all had to be publishable in the American Journal
of Enology and Viticulture. They were supposed to have a
literature review, a scientific review, and so forth. Well,
WITS, then, has generally done the TAG sort of thing. It's
usually been industry people, or people from the related
industries, talking on subjects like that. Since we did it four
times a year with TAG there probably is a place for it one time
a year. And some of the WITS papers do have literature reviews.
Amerine: The ASE, of course, has gotten bigger and has become an
institution all its own. It doesn't require hand-feeding by the
University any more. We provided them secretarial help at the
beginning, and then we did a lot of other things for them; but
finally they grew bigger and self-sufficient. They have their
own ideas and they do very good work. The University supports
the concept of a professional society for enologists and
viticultur ists wholeheartedly.
Teiser: Now the new name?
Amerine: It's the American Society for Enology and Viticulture now.
They're doing a professional job as a professional organization,
which is what they are.
Amerine: On the other question that you asked, that I suggested you talk
to the people at Davis, on one article you were going to write--
Teiser: Oh, yes, about exporting American enological and viticultural
Amerine: I think one of the things you might emphasize right at the
beginning, the influence of Davis, by simply asking them to show
v you the enrollment in the courses, both of California people and
non-California people and foreigners. There are Davis graduates
now all over the world. It's pretty hard to name a place where
they are not. Surprisingly, in India I think there have been at
least two Ph.D.'s, and India is a country which is officially
dry. Prohibition is a part of their constitution, yet they have
trained at least two Ph.D.'s in grapes and wine at Davis.
I think Olmo is one that you should talk to about that
because he has been on the FAO [Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations] board for a long time. He's
been in Cyprus, Tunisia, Malta, and India for the FAO. He has
also done consulting in Brazil, Venezuela, Iran, and other
countries. In all those countries he's had a big effect on
their viticultural problems.
I would say that my travelsBulgaria, Rumania, the Soviet
Union, China, Japan, New Zealand, and Australia --have all had
some direct but probably more indirect influnces on their wine
Teiser: Have you worked as a consultant?
Araerine: As a lecturer, yes.
Teiser: Have you done some consulting work?
Amerine: Not very much. I did one little job in Chile in 1968; I went
down there on a consulting position. The others were some
American company who wanted me to taste wines. In tasting wines
I told them what was wrong with it, so it was an educational
venture for them. This wasn't American money; it's not their
money. I suppose with the Japanese, however, that when I went
to open that laboratory in Osaka they paid my way over. The
Mann Wine Company in Japan also paid my way over to lecture for
them at one time. There were really three different Japanese
tours. We've had Ph.D. 's from Japan at Davis.
Teiser: Do you speak in French at conferences in France?
Amerine: Let me make this quite clear. I have given two long lectures in
French in France, and I presided at a meeting in French once in
Bordeaux. But the speech I had written in English, and it was
translated. Then I went over the translation, practiced it, and
I simply read it; it's pretty easy to read a paper in French. I
wouldn't do that anymore, I assure you. I did do an
extemporaneous lecture in Rumania in French one time. It was
the only common language we had! That was hard, but I was
talking about the wines in front of us, and you can think of
things to say.
I don't really consider myself a linguist. I read French
fluently, and to a lesser extent German and Italian. At one
time I could speak Spanish pretty well. I gave a lecture in
Spanish once, in Spain. I've given lectures where they had
multi-lingual translation in Spain, on another trip.
I was on a Guggenheim when I went to Spain. There was
quite a bit of influence from that, directly and indirectly.
One of the University of California's powerful influences on
farm industries has been that research is like a savings
account. If you don't do research, you don't have any money in
the bank when you need it. The farm countries, in many cases,
had had research for purely utilitarian kinds of research. .
I, and Olmo, and Kliewer, and any of the senior members at
Davis, when talking abroad, whether in South Africa or the
Soviet Union, always started in with the basis that wineraaking
is a branch of biochemistry, and grape growing is a branch of
genetics and plant physiology. And if you don't know anything
about plant physiology, you don't know anything about grapes.
If you don't know biochemistry, you don't know anything about
wine. Therefore, you have to study wines from the biochemical
point of view, and you have to study grapes from the genetic and
Amerine: plant physiological point of view in order to develop new
techniques of doing things. The applied research comes out or
is based on the basic research.
I think certainly the College of Agriculture has sold that
to California agriculture. We support an enormous amount of
basic research in the College of Agriculture. That, the gospel
according to the Univerity of California, has been preached in
many countries, not only by myself but by other members of the
staff. Vernon Singleton, I'm sure, has done that, too. Also
I think that point of view has resulted in more research in
foreign countries. I feel that they are much more likely, after
we have preached this, and they see the success of the American
indus try--f rom nothing to a big industry and so forth-- to think,
"Maybe that's a good thing for us to do some of that research as
well." I will say that the Bordeaux people have done that same
sort of thing on their own. They preach the gospel that way.
It's only recently that the Italians have learned the lesson.
The Germans have always done it; the Germans always like to do
fundamental research. They did practical research, too, but
they did lots of fundamental research. They have more journals
of fundamental research in viticulture and enology than any
other country-- jus t fundamental research in wines and grape
growing. So that's spread everyplace now, both sides of the
Iron Curtain and so forth. It's surprising to see the kinds of
wine and food research that are being done in Japan now.
They're working on very fancy things. And also on sensory
Amerine: They have applied sophisticated sensory and statistical analysis
to everything from sake to various kinds of soy sauces, and to
all kinds of food products. They regularly use very high-
powered statistics. They have a great big eight-hundred-page
book on sensory evaluation. It owes something to our book
[Amerine, Pangborn, and Roessler, Principles of Sensory
Evaluation of Food, 1965]. Imitation is the sincerest form of
flattery, as you know.
I think that sensory evaluation now is an awful lot the
idea of "research for research's sake." It's not altogether an
American idea, but it's the way to progess in utilitarian
things. The other thing on sensory evaluation, I remember in
1954 at that congress where I was giving a paper, in Spanish--
By the way, that was interesting. I gave a paper in Spanish in
a room that was dark, and that's very hard. I could have a
lectern, but the room itself was dark because I was showing
slides. You couldn't see the audience. Anybody that lectures
Amerine: depends on the response of the audience--one can see that
they're not Listening, or they can't understand it--and you
repeat it until they do understand it.
Anyway, I was talking to some people from France. I'd been
talking about some work I was doing in Madrid. I was on
sabbatical there for six months, and I was talking on some of
the research I'd been doing, and the relationship to sensory
evaluation to this. I had just begun to use what we called the
"duo-trio" system of sensory evaluation, which is a very
powerful tool and a very easy tool in sensory evaluation to find
differences. One of the French men, a very high-powered one,
came up to me afterwards and said in French, "You're all wrong.
Of course, nobody will ever use that kind of technique in
I've lived now thirty-one years since the 1954 congress.
They have a whole institute up in Alsace, supported by the
tobacco and perfume industries, that does nothing but sensory
evaluation. They have published some very fancy things. They
have a man by the name of Le Magnen, who happens to be blind,
who has worked diligently on sensory evaluation in Paris. And,
wonder of wonders, when they built a new addition to the
Bordeaux enology department, they got each of the big chateaux
to give them ten thousand dollars (guess) apiece to build
tasting booths exactly the same as we have at Davis, with
special lights to observe the wines, spitoons, and so forth.
One of them was Chateau Margaux, and the other one Chateau
Lafite. I think they have ten booths. So don't tell me that
they don't learn. Of course they learn. They learn when they
find out it's important for them.
[Emile] Peynaud ' s book on tasting [Le Gout du Vin] is
published in English. I haven't actually seen a copy of it
because I've read the French edition. It's quite good. It's
different from what we write, but he has some tables right out
of Amerine and Roessler on triangular testing and duo-trio
testing. At one time there was nobody in Bordeaux that would
ever have published a table for statistical analysis of sensory
data; it was all what you did with your thoughts and feelings at
Improvements in Grapes and Wines
Amerine: I made the point earlier, that this large number of students has
certainly had a big influence on quality improvement in
California, not only in the vineyards, but in the wineries.
This improvement is because both the grape and wine industries
Amerine: are capital-intensive industries now. You don't just plant ten
acres of grapes in your spare time. I can remember when I was
in high school my father and I planted six acres of Thompson
[Seedless] just by ourselves, as a weekend job, and it cost him
very little, on their own roots and that sort of thing. Now
they're going to cost much more. The land is twenty thousand
dollars* an acre in Ma pa Valley, and it will cost you another
ten thousand dollars to level, plant, et cetera; so you've
invested thirty thousand dollars an acre! You plant ten acres,
you've got at least 300,000 dollars invested. That's capital
intensive. You can't afford to lose one vine under those
circumstances. You have to have a vineyardist who knows all
about viticulture, and you have to have a wine maker who knows
all about winemaking. Because of their training and their
exposure to the concept of quality at Davis, both in grapes and
wine, that has definitely had an effect.
The other impact, of course, has been the tenfold increase
in demand for table wines in the last twenty years. We've gone
from a dessert-wine-drinking country to a table-wine-drinking
country. Right after repeal it was 81 percent dessert wines and
only 19 percent table wines. Now it's 9 percent dessert wines
and 91 percent table wines, or something like that. That
increase in the demand for table wines, which spoil easier and
so forth, has made the demand for students very great. They
seem to be doing very well.
Field Work with Winkler
Amerine: The other thing I think goes way back to Winkler, who deserves
the credit for it. When he hired me in '35, as I mentioned in
the earlier interview, we were testing grape varieties in
different parts of California. Those results were published in
1944 in Hilgardia, and there was a circular that went with
that. The recommended varieties were also published in his book
on viticulture. The recommended varieties were also given in
The Technology of Winemaking, and also in the table wine book.*
There were also articles in Wines and Vines. There were several
articles in Wines and Vines, that I wrote, on varieties of
*Now, 1988, much higher. M.A. A.
**M. A. Amerine and M. A. Joslyn, Table Wines, University of
California Press, 1951. A second edition was published in 1970.
Amerine: We did an enormous amount of field work, telling the growers
what we had done. Winkler and I went from Escondido in the
south to Ukiah in the north. At least two trips were given to
talking to grower groups on which variety should be planted in
those regions. That, of course, was after the conferences
started at Davis in 1950. At the Wine Technology Conferences,
three of those, and then later in The American Journal of
Enology, there were always talks or articles about grape
varieties. Of course it was a great part of our teaching thing,
and there's a whole course on varieties at Davis that was taught
by [Lloyd A.] Lider and [Klayton E. ] Nelson.
Anyway, as late as 1965 I couldn't see very much influence
of that work. If I had found the right biochemical job, I would
have left the University at that time because I felt that I'd
wasted all those years as far as application of our results was
concerned. I'd been there since "35, and here it was '65.
That's thirty years of your life gone. Of course, I was gone
five years during the war, but twenty-five years of my life was
gone and I didn't see any planting [of the recommended
varieties]. There were still few Chardonnays being planted.
But some time in the sixties, around 1965, they began to plant
the better varieties. And before they had finished, they had
planted 400,000 acres. An enormous change in the variety
That, plus the students, I would guess, plus the available
information in publications, constitute the University's three
main contributions to the industry. They changed the varieties
planted in California, they made enologists and viticulturis ts
payable personnel, and they made them professionals, not just
hirelings at one hundred dollars a month. I guess the whole
influence of the students on the quality of grape growing and
winemaking was tremendously important to the industry. It had a
peripheral effect everyplace. I think for your article [on
international influence], what you really ought to do is just
find out. [Amand N.] Kasimatis has been to Chile, I think
twice. Lider has been to New Zealand twice. I've been to
Australia five times and to South Africa twice. Ough's been to
South Africa twice or more. Nelson's been to South Africa
once. The whole shipping table-grape industry of South Africa
owes a good deal to Nelson's work on better methods of shipping
grapes, because they have to ship their grapes to England and
Europe. It's a big industry for them.
It's pretty hard to find someplace in the world where
somebody from Davis hasn't had some impact at the present time.
We ought to document that.
Prices, Judgings, and Auctions
Amerine: Now, we have a few more things. I've already mentioned the
trends in wine consumption, more and more to table wines, and
more and more to high quality table wines. In my opinion,
somewhat excessive prices are charged at the restaurant level
for some wines. I was surprised last night to find a restaurant
where I could buy a half bottle of good wine for five dollars in
San Francisco, instead of ten.
I would just as soon not say anything about wine Judgings.
I would say there are too many of them and they are too variable
in their results. Bob Thompson's table in the new University of
Calif ornia-So theby book* reveals how variable the results are.
I think that people ought to take a look at that and just wonder
what meaning Judgings have, when a wine gets a prize at one
judging and didn't get one at four others!
Teiser: Do you think that reflects upon the whole judging system?
Amerine: It sure does. If it doesn't, it should. It wasn't really
presented with analysis, just the facts.
Teiser: What about auctions?
Amerine: They're a new feature, and the one in Napa has been quite
successful. The one in Sonoma has also been successful. I
assume that there will be more of these. I don't go to them, so
I can't really make any--
Teiser: You must have heard that at the Napa auction last year
Mr. Broadbent gave a little speech about you.
Amerine: Yes, well, Michael's a good friend of mine, and he'd had dinner
at my house the night before, I think, and so he was prejudiced
in my favor.
I don't wish them any harm. I don't think that I would go
to an auction to buy furniture or anything like that. That's
for rich people. It's a rich man's hobby. But it's all right.
Teiser: Does it reflect to the credit or discredit of the industry?
Amerine: Oh, I think it has big advertising value. It's a p.r. [public
relations] thing, there's no question about that. The minute
*Doris Muscatine, Maynard A. Amerine, and Bob Thompson,
editors. The University of Calif ornia-Sotheby Book of
California Wine. University of California Press, 1984.
Araerine: that Opus One sold (it was sold to restaurants all over the
country) for fifty dollars a bottle, they charged whatever price
Teiser: We haven't mentioned brandy.
Amerine: Yes. The Technology of Wine Making book-- Jim Guymon intended to
rewrite the chapter on brandy, but he passed away and I did the
best I could. There needs to be a book written about brandy.
There's a lot of new research on the composition of brandy that
needs to be put into the literature, and tied in with sensory
evaluation of brandies and so forth. There is one book in
French; it's now more than ten years old.
There really isn't in English a really good book on brandy
production, taking out all the romance and all the nonsense that
needs to be taken out of it, and the changes and the practices
that are going on in France as well as in this country.
Particularly now since we have coming onto the market very soon
the Remy Martin-Schramsberg brandy from that beautiful new plant
that they have. That's coming out in April, I think.
Teiser: They've put it off until September.
Amerine: Have they put it off again? Well, that's probably for other
reasons I don't know about. Anyway, there's no doubt that
brandy represents a product which is going to have a place in
the industry for a long while, and we ought to be making some of
higher quality. For that reason, I think that the Schramsberg
effort represents a step in the right direction.
Now they're going to have to sell it. I don't know what
price it's going to come on the market at, but I keep hearing
eighteen to twenty dollars or more. How many people are going
to spend eighteen to twenty dollars? On the other hand, if you
figure that there are five thousand bars in America, and each
one of them has one bottle of Schramsberg, that's five thousand
bottles, twenty-six hundred cases; so that's a fair amount of
brandy. Many bars will buy a case, so that there will be more
sold than just one bottle to the barpar ticularly hotels and
places like that. There may be more than five thousand bars in
America. There are probably that many in San Francisco!
Work in Progress
Amerine: Anyway, I've probably put a finish on work from my point of
view. I watch with interest the Davis goings-on, and I read
their articles and so forth. When I shortly terminate here [at
the Wine Institute], I will watch, obviously, the wine industry
with some interest because I've spent a lot of time in it. You
can't separate yourself from the industry. I'm having no
difficulty living in the Napa Valley, and I'm there six days a
week now. I'll probably live there for quite a long while, as
long as I can. San Francisco's a nice place to come about once
a week. That's about all. Not coming here [to the Wine
Institute], I would probably do it on Thursdays and go to the
Bohemian Club dinners on Thursday nights. That would be my
excuse for coming to San Francisco. Or the opera season, I
would come. Usually the opera seasons I have put on Sunday
afternoon so I can drive home after the opera's over.
I don't have any plans for any books or anything like
that. Some ten years ago, as an off-branch of the
bibliographical study, I decided to print, probably privately, a
book on American books and pamphlets on grapes and wine and
related subjects published before 1901.
Mr. [James M.] Gabler has published a bibliography in all
countries, in English. But he was not interested in bulletins.
It will be out in April. I read the transcript of it, and I've
given him some advice.* I told him what I'm doing, and what I'm
doing is different from what he's doing. There will be some
overlap, obviously, but I'm giving all the different editions
and including some of the temperance literature, like wine in
communion and things like that which did affect the wine
industry remarkably. So it will be a different sort of thing.
I've given the size of the books because for bibliographical
purposes size may be important--some times the same book with two
different sizes, bound or printed by two different people, same
year, that sort of thing.
When I'm in New York I will spend half a day at the New
York Public Library. If I'm in Washington, I go out to
Beltsville for the whole day to the National Agricultural
Library. I need to spend a day or two at The Bancroft, although
I've already spent some time there. I would say that's about
three-fourths through now, so in another couple of years perhaps
I'll put it through a word processor and that will be the end of
*Also contributed an introduction by Amerine to James M. Gabler,
Wine Into Words. Baltimore: Bacchus Press, Ltd., 1985.
Amerine: I will get out that 1968 to 1975 checklist some day. It's just
sitting in files there, and needs to be typed. It's just
because I go t more interested in that one, and little things
come up to do that have more immediate priority--like going to
the Pasteur meeting in Philadelphia three weeks ago, celebrating
the one hundredth anniversary of the rabies injection. But they
had, the first day, people talk on other aspects of Pasteur. I
talked on pasteurization. Unfortunately, I'd done that in
French before, in France, but I didn't have an English copy. So
I had the job of translating Amerine in French back to English.
It was a slightly different approach to the subject, so it
wasn't a direct translation; but I had to read the other one and
put the parts I wanted to use into English. I don't know where
the English copy is.
Wine Books in Libraries
Teiser: Let me ask you before you stopam I correct in thinking that
when you moved from the campus you gave a certain amount of
material to the Davis library?
Amerine: Oh, yes, I gave all my personal professional library. I had it
evaluated by Eleanor Lorenstein's husband's Corner Bookshop in
New York. He's a specialist in that. I had it typed by
languages, and it cost me $500 for the evaluation. But I got a
$45,000 income tax deduction over a period of years. I very
much regret having given it to them then, because now it would
be worth $140,000.
Teiser: Also, you have allowed your name to be used, or you have allowed
the honor of a special library fund in your name through which
they're acquiring some important books.
Amerine: Yes, twice. Once when I took that first trip six years ago for
the Library Associates there was $6,000 left over from that.
That went into the Amerine fund for the books. Then I go t my
friend Arnold Bayard of Philadelphia interested in it, and over
the years he gave several thousand dollars. Then when John
McConnell ran out of the Library Associates money and Bayard
money and he wanted to buy (every librarian likes to have some
old things, and old things cost money) he sent that letter out,
and they got about $18,000 on that. So he's sitting pretty on
Teiser: He sent out certificates to the contributors.
Amerine: Yes, I saw the printout of that ahead of time. I had him put in
the letter that I appreciated it, so that I didn't have to write
a letter to everybody on the list.
Teiser: [laughs] It seems very valuable to me, to have a special fund
for acquisitions of that kind.
Amerine: Yes. He has also been very clever. Obviously there were some
things in the Amerine collection that were duplicates. A few of
the duplicates I recognized and gave to the Napa Valley Wine
Library. Others I didn't go through in detail, so some of those
he has either sold or exchanged with Fresno, or sold on the
marketplace to get some money. John is a book dealer at heart,
who happens to be located in acquisitions in this field. He's
really an expert on Scottish literature. I don't know whether
you knew that or not.
Amerine: He deals in books on Scotland, hence the McConnell.
Yes, the collection has grown. Unfortunately, wine book
collecting has become very fashionable, and some valuable and
rare books take legs and walk. I was just in the department the
other day when I went up to the retirement dinner for [James A.]
Cook and Lider and Nelson and Kasimatis, and there was a notice
in the department that they had lost the department copy of
Sensory Evaluation, and the fourth edition of The Technology of
Winemaking. Even though they have a person watching everybody
going in and out of the department library, she sometimes goes
out to get a drink or something, and somebody walks out with a
book. Even in the main library there are something like one
hundred wine-grape books missing. I recommended that they put
everything before 1900 in the Special Collections department
where they can't walk out. This somewhat limits their
circulation, but it's better to have them where they don't get
lost than where they do get lost.
It's an easy library to use anyway.
Yes, Davis is an easy one to use. Although I think--! don't
want to say anything against my friends whom I work withthey
will have to tighten up their regulations, too, like leaving
briefcases outside the door and things like that.
I was at the University of Pennsylvania Library when I went
to the Pasteur celebration three weeks ago. There was a book I
wanted to see in the rare book collection, and not only did they
make me check everything outdoors, but when they brought the
book they brought a V-shaped thing of velvet to put the book on
so there was no breaking of binding or anything like that in
using the book. The New York Public Library does that, too, in
their rare book collection. On the other hand, at the National
Agricultural Library at Beltsville they just give me a key to
the rare book room!
Teiser: [laughs] They know you.
Araerine: Yes, they do know me; otherwise I wouldn't be able to get the
key. On the other hand, that's sort of tempting fate, when you
see a book that you know is worth $10,000 as you're walking by.
I haven't been tempted. The National Agricultural Library has
not been well supported with personnel to guard their
I told Dick Blanchard not too long ago--he was in that
library before he came to Davis--that he ought to get a job as a
consultant, teaching them how to run that library. They had an
antiquated cataloguing system all their own up until 1975; then
they went to the Library of Congress system. It's difficult to
use. They have a very slow paging system. I can go in the
stacks, but the stacks are very complicated with their system.
To find "95.2" is not always the easiest thing in the world. If
it was Dewey Decimal system, I'd know how to use it, you see,
but they've got a different system. Anyway, it's a pleasant
library. It has a restaurant on the top floor so you can eat
there and you don't have to leave the building.
One day I hope to visit it.
They have a large bus from the South Agriculture building in
Washington so you don't have to go out on the subway and then
the bus. That would take you an hour and a half, but the bus
takes only thirty minutes.
[Interview 2: 11 September 1985]'
Teiser: A question arises about criticism of the University for giving
too much help and encouragement to big agribusiness. It has
come up with mechanical harvesting of grapes.
Amerine: I could give a long discourse on that. I don't think it's- true
at all. I think it's absolutely untrue. Not only untrue, but
it is a movement back into the nineteenth century, which is
exactly what the labor people want. They want to move back into
the nineteenth century, but there's no way that we're going to
move back into the nineteenth century. The whole automobile
industry, for example, with the robotized manufacture of
automobiles there ' s no way that the automobile workers are
going to move back to hand labor for manufacturing automobiles.
And there's no way that they're going to move back in grape
harvesting. It's too expensive to pick them. There's just no
way you can do it. Or we're going to give up cars and we're
going to give up agriculture. The same problem was true in
England in the nineteenth century, when they first got cotton
cloth machines and so forth. All the ladies' aid societies were
up in arms because their daughters didn't have anyplace to work
when they were twelve years of age, because the machines were
No, I think there are a lots of people in the University
that have thought about it more philosophically than I have,
more historically than I have, and could write some wonderful
things about it. But they're in a lawsuit right now, and
they're not likely to say out loud what they feel about it until
they win. It looks like they're going to win the lawsuit, as
far as I can tell. I don't understand the suit to start with.
Teiser: Well, like the Scopes trial.
Amerine: Well, that didn't solve anything.
And this will not solve anything,
The Scopes people are back.
They'll be back. It's sad, I
Teiser: I wanted to ask you to characterize your major collaborators. I
know they have often been people from other fields. Could you
Amerine: Yes. Very early, when we got into sensory evaluation after the
war, we realized that you had to do a statistical analysis of
the results because of the variability of the results. Now, we
knew this in agriculture much earlier. But these were new
techniques. They weren't the old standard field experiments
that we used to have and which we all learned how to analyze.
So I became friends of George Baker and Edward Roessler in the
mathematics department at Davis. They collaborated on a whole
series of publications, Baker on the theory of sampling. We
found some non-normal distributions of sampling grapes in
vineyards; Baker and I wrote a paper on that--the whole issue of
the solera system and how it operates. Baker and Roessler and I
worked out the mathematics of that. They worked out the
mathematics; I posed the problem and worked with them. That
resulted in several papers, for the first time showing why and
how a solera works and what the end result of a solera system
issomething that you would not intuitively have guessed. Then
Roessler and I, for a number of years, published papers on the
human factors in sensory evaluation. People are not all the
same. They differ because of their backgrounds and all kinds of
We published papers on acids and sugars, and a number of
subjects, and found out that some people have a completely
different picture of the acid taste. It's not acid to them
until it's very, very high in concentration. Other people are
very, very sensitive and they can detect acid at very low
concentrations. With a bitter taste it may be a bi-modal
distribution. You may have a group of people that are very
sensitive, and then another group of people that are very
insensitive to it. Sensitivity evaluations involved
mathematics, which found their way into the philosophy of the
book by Amerine, Pangborn, and Roessler on principles of sensory
evaluation of food. This was a new contribution in that field:
that people did not all have to respond the same, because some
are more sensitive, some are less sensitive, just to the basic
tastes. This has all been expanded quite a bit in recent years.
Amerine: I think that, in general, sensory evaluation probably had a good
effect in food science. You don't expect everybody to like the
same sort of thing.
Well, those were the collaborators outside the department.
Teiser: Pangborn, too, was in the math department?
Amerine: Pangborn* was in Food Science. She was a student of mine
there. You see, it's not really right for me to say she was out
of the department, because I was on the Food Science faculty
also, where I taught two courses. I taught the introductory
course there with Professor [George] Stewart. We wrote the book
for the course, and I was the senior member of the faculty who
taught the course on the sensory evaluation of food.
Mrs. Pangborn was in the first class. Later on she joined in
teaching and published many papers on her research.
Until I retired I did most of the lecturing and she did
most of the laboratory work. After I retired she did the
lecture work (although she had some other people help her do the
lectures), and she did all the laboratory work. She was a very
splendid collaborator. We wrote just a few papers together, not
very many--except the big book, which was a major achievement.
A six-hundred-odd page book, still in print after twenty years.
It is rather rare in food science for a book to stay in print
that long without being revised.
Teiser: Baker and Roessler--did they just work on the mathematical
Amerine: Well, both of them were participating in sensory analysis work.
At that time we had a lot of consumer panels on the Davis
campus. There were two reasons for that: we needed a large
number of people for panels, and it was a good way of getting
the support of the faculty for a department that was sort of a
maverick department, working on wines which had gone through the
Prohibition period, and so forth. So from the day I arrived, as
soon as we started tasting in 1935, Winkler and I made certain
that members of the faculty participated in the tastings. So
they were all on our side. As a matter of fact, it didn't turn
out to be any problem. We never had any jealousy in the
University or any complaints in the University. We never had
any in the newspapers, either. Either we played our cards very
well, or we were so right that nobody was going to complain.
*Rose Marie Pangborn.
Inside the department, I collaborated with all of my
technicians: [William C.] Dietrich, [A. Dinsmoor] Webb, Ough,
[Thomas C.] Sparks, and [Douglas C.] Fong--you go through the
list of my technicans. Outside the department I would say the
collaboration with [Maynard A.] Joslyn was important, and I
think I explain in the first interview how that collaboration
came to be. It was instituted by the administration of the
College of Agriculture. We were doing research on two campuses,
and it was felt desirable that they have a unified point of view
vis-a-vis the wine industry. Joslyn and I were the fall guys
that were asked to write the bulletins. That accounts for
bulletins 639, 651, and 652 in 1939 and '40. Then Joslyn and I
collaborated on two books thereafter: the dessert wine book and
the table wine book. The table wine book went through two
So that was from another department. At that time I was
not connected with the Berkeley campus in any below-the-line*
way. It was not until the Food Science and Technology
department moved to Davis that I began to teach in that
How about Dr. Singleton?
I'm not going to talk about fellow staff members in the
department, because I published with them all; I was just
talking about technicians in the department. Another technician
who worked with me was [A. A.] Kishaba. That's number 82 in my
Publication List. He was a technician with Dr. Cook, but he did
some work with me.
You and others used the word
'technician." What is the
They were called laboratory technicians at that time. They have
other names now. They do actual analysis of samples and help
collect samples. If they contribute to the research with ideas
or methods of their own, they usually are (and should be) listed
as an author.
Going back to your question about collaborators, when I
was talking to these people, Roessler and, I think, Baker not
only participated in those panels (that's where they got the
idea of the statistical analysis and result), but when we were
doing the field sampling studies, Roessler actually went to the
*In the catalogue by departments, people teaching but not paid
by the department are put "below the line." M.A. A.
Amerine: field and helped collect the samples. It was not just me
collecting the samples and giving the data to him, and he
analyzing the data. Vice-versa about the solera system, the
blending system--! got the detailed information about how they
operate on one of my sabbatical leaves. Then I posed the
problem of what happens to the average age when the solera has
been used for a period of time. That's where that problem came
from. I worked on a lot of papers with Baker and Roessler.
Ough was the most important technician, if for no other
reason than that he lasted the longest. Webb had published one
paper with me earlier as a technician just before the war. Then
Ough came after the war, and we published a gob of papers. Some
thirty, forty papers have Ough's name.
George Root was a technician of mine. He went to the State
Department of Agriculture later. That's one of the problems
with the technicians. They get good, and you can only promote
them as technicians to a certain point. There's a cut-off
point, and it wasn't a very big cut-off point, salary-wise.
Whereas they could go over to the Department of Agriculture in
Sacramento and get a next-step-up appointment outside the
University and make twice as much. That's why I lost two of
Teiser: Some of them then went on to finish their degrees.
Amerine: Both Ough and Webb went on and got their degrees, yes.
There's quite a number of Baker papers also.
After Ough, Root worked during that same period. We were
so anxious to keep Ough that we used a special category called
specialist, which had a very broad salary schedule. So we could
promote him to get a higher salary. That's how we kept Ough.
Staff people that we used? I guess I published with all of
them except Kleiwer. But I published with [Curtis J.] Alley,
Berg, [Edmund H.] Twight, Guymon, [Robert J.] Weaver, Nelson,
Olmo, Kunkee, Singleton, and Winkler. I guess Castor, Kliewer,
and Lider are the only ones I didn't publish with.
Talking about collaborators, Paul Esau came to me as a
research associate. That's a non-paid job. We published three
papers together. He discovered a new sugar in wines. He'd been
a chemist with the California Canning Ccorporation. He was
living in Davis, retired, and wanted something to do. So I
asked him to come and work in the laboratory. He did, and he
did very good work. That didn't cost me anything except for
The Ough-Amerine publications lasted much longer than the time
he was ray research assistant, because he had gone up on the
Sparks was my technician. He went on to get an MBA. In
other departments there were not only Joslyn and Pangborn, but
also [George] Marsh and Stewart in Food Technology. There were
four of them in Food Technology that I published with. George
Marsh and I wrote one of our most popular things, Wine Making at
Yes, that's one that needs to be published again.
I have a great big box full of stuff on it, and even some
drawings, but I haven't gotten around to doing it.
Douglas Fong was my last technician. He's still in the
department. They've managed to move him upa very fine person.
Outside people--! published that little paper with Paul
Scholten. He had nothing to do with the University at Davis at
all. It was on use of varietal labeling in California. People
should read that and not neglect it. The idea that varietal
labeling was invented by Frank Schoonmaker is mainly malarky.
That's why Paul and I wrote it, just to show that it had been
very actively used in California in the 1890s. This is not a
reason to take any credit away from Schoonmaker. He certainly
applied it in a big way, but he did not invent it.
Phaff he's the fifth one in Food Technology that wrote
articles with me.
All my graduate students published with me, or published by
themselves when I thought they had done all the work. But if I
had conceived of the project and had participated in it, then
they usually published with me as the junior author, since they
did the work and carried it through. Whenever I did work with
people on the staff, they always, I hope, got credit for it
even though I may have done much of the writing. They
participated, contributed, and in many cases they polished the
paper after I had made a draft at twelve o'clock at night. So I
hope everybody got credit whose work is published with me. I
think they did, one way or the other, usually with their name on
Teiser: You mention Schoonmaker: I wanted to ask about his influence on
the post-repeal California wine market.
Amerine: He came to California on business in about 1939 or 1940. He was
already in the importing wine business. About this time, when
the European war had broken out, he couldn't get wine from
France and Germany across the Atlantic. He wasn't very keen
about getting Portuguese wine for the American market. Although
he did bring in some, I believe. So he came to California, and
among the people he saw were those at the University, Winkler
and me. He came several times. In fact, he stayed at my house
once. I got to know him fairly well. His company had an office
on Maiden Lane in San Francisco, with a resident manager in the
office. They hired Carl Bundschu from Inglenook to be a
consultant to the office. Tom Marvel, I think, had nothing to
do with the California chapters in the 1935 Complete Wine Book,*
although he'd earlier been a member of the San Francisco
Chronicle staff and knew something about the California wine
industry. I can't evaluate what Tom Marvel's contribution was
to the second book, American Wines.
But certainly, Schoonmaker knew exactly where to go when he
came here. He may have gotten that from Tom Marvel, and as to
how he came to the University, I haven't the least idea. He had
been to Bordeaux before and knew the people in Bordeaux, and he
may have gotten the idea from them. Or he may have gotten it
from Bundschu. We'd worked with Bundschu since '35 at
Inglenook. In fact, we'd gotten grapes from the Bundschu
vineyards at that time. Bundschu grapes were being delivered to
Inglenook during that period. So I knew Carl fairly well,
perhaps at the beginning as well as John Daniel [Jr.].
Anyway, I don't know how Schoonmaker came to Davis. But he
came to Davis and became a friend of Winkler and mine, and was
very much interested in the varietal research that had been
going on since '35. We were six years into our research and had
already begun to publish on it. Bulletins 639, 651, and 652
were already in print before he came. So he could see we were
serious about the wine business.
His first contribution to the California wine industry was
that he showed it was possible to go into a winery and pick out
the good and bad wine. That was a very important contribution,
because a lot of the winemakers in California just assumed that
*Published in the United States in 1934, Great Britain in 1935.
Amerine: their wines were good automatically at that period. They were
directly out of the bootleg period, and anything that was red or
white and had alcohol in it was wine and you could sell it.
Schoonmaker knew that you couldn't do that on a national market
or on the New York market.
He was not interested in dessert wines. That was his
second contribution. He did not get into the dessert wine
business at all. So that almost automatically moved him into
the Napa, Santa Clara, and Livermore area. There were no small
wineries in Sonoma at that time that were dedicated
wholeheartedly to making a better wine, with the exception of
Fountain Grove at Santa Rosa. Frank sold himself. That was, I
think, the third thing. First he proved that he could pick out
the good wines, that he could do it time after time and that
they couldn't fool him. If he liked bin 34 and they brought it
to him as bin 74, he'd say,, "This is bin 34, and this is the
wine I want." He had great confidence in his ability. And they
didn't have that many samples; they didn't have 150 samples, or
anything like that. So he was dealing with a finite number of
samples, and once he decided which ones he wanted, he didn't
change his mind. He picked originally Martini, Wente, Korbel,
and Larkmead, and he designed the labels. I think Martini used
part of the labels until recently, but now they have new labels.
Anyway, he was a very good conversationalist and a very
good person to be around, unless he got in an argumentative
mood. Then he was not very much fun any more. I never got in
an argument with him, so I didn't see that side of him; but
other people told me that he could be argumentative, and I think
maybe in his later years he was.
After the war I saw him less and less. He was a consultant
with Almaden after the war. I occasionally would see him with
Louis and Kay Benoist, but really I didn't see much of Frank
after the war. He went back into the importing business, and
the Wente, Martini, Korbel arrangement was aborted at that
time. He did not sell Almaden wines. He was a consultant for
Almaden; he was not an agent for Almaden. His selling of
California wines ended with the war. Then he went back to the
Frank Schoonmaker Selections abroad. His main contact in
California after the war was with Alma den.
Teiser: Mr. William Dieppe has spoken of him in his interview.*
*William A. Dieppe, Almaden is My Life, an oral history
interview conducted 1984, Regional Oral History Office, The
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 1985.
Amerine: Oh, yes. Mrs. Benoist was very fond of him, and he was very
good about suggesting wines and menus and food, and things like
that. I think he had a good deal of influence with wine and
food preferences of the Louis Benoists, but it was primarily as
a consultant and friend.
Teiser: Did the Benoists themselves have a large influence, do you feel?
Amerine: I don't know. Almaden, when they got the money to establish
Madrone, went national. They had an arrangement with somebody
from Seattle. I don't know what his name was. They established
that big winery at Madrone, and Almaden wines went over there
and were sold as Madrone wines. I think the Seattle people
acquired a lot of new vineyards at that time. That was when the
San Martin vineyards were acquired, and they planted a lot of
vineyards at that time, during the Madrone period. Then
suddenly that disappeared. Frank was very active during that
period in consulting. The development of the Green Veltliner as
a variety, because they happened to have it in Gilroy, was never
duplicated. It was a light, fresh wine and it was a new name.
Schoonmaker said that they would find it easier to sell because
they would not be competing with anybody. So Green Veltliner
was sold for several years. Now, I don't know the reasons why
Benoist and the man in Seattle decided to abort Madrone. The
Benoists moved back to Almaden and the comnpany got bigger, and
then, of course, it was eventually sold to National Distillers.
By that time Frank didn't have any input.
Teiser: Are there influential people that you can think of in this more
recent period that you haven't discussed in your earlier
Amerine: When I first came to the Institute, as I mentioned in the
interview, I saw Harry Serlis from time to time, and Harvey
Poser t. Then they went through the time when the Advisory Board
was disbanded. I saw Bob [Robert] Ivie. He was always very
nice to me. So were Harry Serlis and Harvey Posert. I got
along with both of them very well.
Teiser: What was Harry Serlis 1 contribution?
Araerine: I wrote a little introduction to his book. Harry was a p.r.
person, and I think he did a lot of good things, but I would not
be in a position to evaluate his career in the industry.
John De Luc a
Amerine: But I would be in the position to evaluate John De Luca, which
is the last ten years. I probably knew him as well as anybody
Amerine: inside or outside the industry, as far as that's concerned,
during that period. I have nothing but praise for his career
[as president] in the Institute. He came at a very difficult
time to the Institute, a time when we had Lost some very
important support that had nothing to do with him at all. East
Side and Heublein had pulled out, and John's first job was to
get on his horse and go and visit a couple hundred wineries. No
president of the Wine Institute had ever done that before. No
chairman of the board* had ever done it, either. John visited
fifty wineries just in the Napa Valley. He took Harry Posert or
Brian St. Pierre or me on various trips north and south of San
Teiser: You said that gave him a feel for the industry.
Amerine: He had more of a feel for the industry than any of his
predecessors, because he actually had been to all the wineries,
or a great many of the wineries, had gotten to know their
proprietors by their first names and their wives' names, had had
meals with them.
Teiser: Did he go to non-members as well as members?
Amerine: Well, I do not want to get into non-members, because there were
only two of them that were important and it is a long story. I
do not want to get into it, but I can tell you for a fact that
everything was done, from the President of the United States on
down, to make these people see the light of day, and they were
determined not to see the light of day. There can be no blame
on the Institute as an organization, nor on its president, nor
on its chairman of the board, nor its executive committee, that
these people pulled out of the Wine Institute. Various kinds of
compromise were offered. I was present at some meetings. I
want to be sure that it comes through loud and clear that John
De Luca knew that non-participation was the problem. It was not
forced by him. It was here before he came, i.e. , already in
place before he arrived. He did everything that he could in
that time, and I'm sure he is still working on this problem.
Teiser: In those visits to the wineries, did he go out to the small
wineries, ones that didn't happen to have become members, or to
*The staff head of the Wine Institute had the title chairman of
the board until 1955. Since then an elected industry member has
held that title, usually on a one-year term.
Amerine: There was at least one non-member winery in the Napa Valley that
I took him to because I knew the people there myself, but
whether they came into the Institute because of that or not, I
don't know. Then, of course, Setrakian* came in by himself. He
stayed until he was almost out of business.
Teiser: That was Robert Setrakian of California Growers Winery.
Amerine: Right. Let me finish a little bit more about John De Luca.
First of all, because of his wide acquaintances in the industry
he had a feeling for what was disturbing people, and he tried to
defuse arguments. I'm sure he was a master at that. It's no
secret in the Wine Institute that after John De Luca became
president, the chairman of the board was kept informed on a
daily and sometimes on an hourly basis of the problems that the
Institute was having. The telephone bills of the chairman of
the board of the Wine Institute must be astronomical, and a good
part of the time during the year, when they were chairman of the
board, was spent talking to John De Luca. In that respect, I
think he showed himself as a great organizer. Without the
support of the chairman of the board, the president would become
a functionary and would not have any input. He understood that
from the start, I suppose from his experience in San Francisco
as assistant mayor. He had to keep the mayor informed at every
stage of the game. I have been told that John did a lot of work
and that he also kept [Mayor Joseph] Alioto up to date on a
daily basis on what was happening.
He certainly did that here, and I think that was
important. He was a tireless political worker. He had a
political background and therefore he had more influence on
Washington in his years as president than we ever had before.
We never had the California delegation behind us like it is now,
never. Republicans and Democrats always vote the same on wine
issues now. That's due to John De Luca, not to anybody else.
That's a great contribution of his to the industry. We can get
instant recognition of our problems in Washington at the
legislative level. We don't get everything we want, but at
least we get recognition for the problems, and sympathetic
He's been very cognizant of the public relations aspect.
Soon after he arrived there was going to be a newspaper release
that there was enough arsenic in wine to kill you. The
newspaper release was for release on a certain day, during an
American Chemical Society meeting. John went to work with
everybody on the staff. We located for him a great arsenic
expert at the University of California at Davis, the greatest
expert in the country. After I located that person, John got
the information out that he needed, and the press release was
aborted. The article was never published. It was not a good
*0f California Growers Winery.
Amerine: article to start with, but he used every possible mechanism to
find out what the truth of the matter was, and when they found
out it was not truthful, the American Chemical Society on its
own aborted the whole thing. That showed what John could do in
the p.r. field. There are many other episodes. You'd have to
talk to Harvey Posert and Brian St. Pierre and other people in
the p.r. department about John's sensitivity to press criticism.
He has a great personal friendship with the Los Angeles
Times, but he's also had the San Francisco Examiner and
Chronicle people in to meet on a social basis, just to talk
about industry problems and so forth. So at least the press in
California, and certainly the Sacramento Bee, has been
cooperative in many respects on that. The Sacramento, Modesto,
and Fresno papers had better be cooperative, because that's
where some of the clientele are in the grape and wine industry.
But nevertheless, John has utilized his political friendships and
his public relations skills to keep the newspapers on the side
of the wine industry and, by and large, he's succeeded in that.
Teiser: He said recently that he had learned a great deal about the wine
industry from you and from Ernest Gallo.
Amerine: Well, I suppose I got to know John almost at the beginning
socially, and saw I could talk to him just as a friend, not only
about the wine industry. I think he did get some feel for some
people just by being at my dinner table or meeting them at my
club, and so forth. I'd been around a long time, and you do
acquire some prejudices. I think John was smart enough not to
acquire my prejudices but to pick up the things that were useful
as far as he was concerned. I didn't let him know all my
I think he found I was a good listener. That's what John
probably needed at that time. Some people really weren't in a
position at that time in the Institute to just listen. The
other people were working for him. I was not working for him.
I was just a consultant to the Wine Institute. Therefore I
could tell the Institute things: "You ought to do that. You
ought not to do that." So I think that John thought when he had
a dilemma--he had hundreds of them-- that he had to think about,
in some cases just my sitting there and listening to him was a
comfort to him. I can't claim that I gave him any great wisdom.
That certainly wouldn't be true. But maybe just being a
listener when he had problems was important to him, because the
other people couldn't be listeners in the same sense that I
could be a listenera disinterested listener. I think you need
- a disinterested listener sometimes when you have real critical
problems. I think that's the reason he said that. Then, I had
Amerine: But he's acquired an enormous background. I think he probably
knows the people in the industry now better than anybody. If
you do an interview with him, if he's in a position, you may
have to bury it in The Bancroft for fifteen years. I have no
real objection to that, rather than lose it. I would like to
know what he thought about all these people during this period
of time. He's not likely to say that when he's still working at
the Wine Institute, and he's not likely to say it when he's
still around politically in Calif ornia--if , for some reason, he
went into politics or went into some other political position.
I can't conceive of it. I think he's the right man at the right
place at the right time for Wine Institute. What I said at the
annual meeting, that I wish the wine industry would stop trying
to kill him with too much work, is still true. Just now I spoke
to him, and I said, "Are you busy?" He said, "Oh, I've been
busy since five o'clock this morning." The days start out at
his home and they end up at night at his home.
Teiser: How could that be helped?
Amerine: That would involve some rather serious rearrangements of the
chain of command. I'm not sure that John is a person that
doesn't want to be at the center of the decision-making
process. Maybe that's his style.
You should read that article in that magazine called
Executive. There was a whole profile in the magazine years
ago.* B~rian St. Pierre will get you a copy of it. It's a
series of interviews with John. They came to the conclusion
that he's over-qualified to be president of the Wine Institute,
that his skills are greater than the challenge of the Wine
Institute. I'm inclined to believe that's correct. So we're
very lucky to have him. To have a person over-qualified to do
the job is always on your side. You are getting more for your
money than you deserve to get. That was their conclusion on the
basis of their analysis of his career as of two years ago. He
is a terribly hard worker.
Teiser: Has he learned from Ernest Gallo similarly?
Amerine: I don't know, because those were all conversations, and he's
been to Modesto a number of times. Ernest has seen him in
several places. There have been telephone calls with Ernest and
the rest of the people down there. He knows all the hierarchy
of the Gallo wine company; Charlie Crawford and he speak
frequently. What their direct import is, I don't know, any more
*In the December 1980 issue.
Amerine: than I know the Impact that Robert Mondavi might have on him, or
Louis [P.] Martini or Joe Heitz. The chairman of the board--and
in his time that's included [Massud S.] Nuri and [Morris]
Katz--he has been very close to all of them, on an hourly basis.
The Grape-Growing Region System
Teiser: I want to ask you once more about your current view of the
region system and its future. I've asked you about this before
in relation to articles and other interviews. You said earlier
that it wasn't intended to be the final word.
Amerine: What I think I talked about, and I think it's still true
(Winkler and I were just talking about it last weekend), was an
attempt to make sense out of an enormous amount of data that we
had collected, starting in 1935. We had made six, seven
hundred lots a year from all parts of California. We had all
kinds of analyses on the grapes and on the wine, much more
analysis than [Eugene W.] Hilgard had had in his earlier work.
So Winkler had already been interested in the effect of climate
on ripening because of the Tokay problem, on Flame tokay. He had
published in the twenties on Flame Tokay and heat units.
The whole concept of heat units goes back into the 1870s.
If you look at the University of Calif ornia-Sotheby Book of
California Wine, in the chapter Phil [Philip M.] Wagner and I
wrote, you will see a footnote there about how old the heat
summation concept is. It goes back to the last century. And it
applies to many crops, not just to grapes and horticultural
crops. But Winkler deserves the credit for having done the work
of getting all the temperature data from all the stations all
over the state of California.
Then we took the data, and we saw that in Region I the
acids were higher, the sugars were lower, the pHs were lower,
and the colors were higher. And the ripening dates were, of
course, much later. In Region V the acids were much, much
lower, the sugar was higher, the pHs were much higher, and there
was no color, so we simply said, ,"We'll break it into five
divisions, arbitrarily." It could have been made into ten
divisions, or it could have been made into two divisions. As a
matter of fact, I've already told you that Hilgard got so far as
to break it into two regions, one the coast counties and the
other the interior valley. He recognized there was a difference
in ripening between those two regions, but he did not have any
heat summation data as to how warm it was.
Amerine: So that was Winkler's (and my) contribution, to apply that and
divide it up into five regions. I've said many times before,
there are undoubtedly more regions and more factors than the
ones we used to classify the regions. I've said many times that
we'll have ten to fifteen regions before they get through.
They'll be classifed not just by a heat summation, but possibly
by the amount of cloudiness they have, the exposure--the ones
that face west against the ones that face east. That makes a
difference in temperature.
Teiser: Is wind a factor?
Amerine: The wind effect in the Salinas Valley is important, although
they've learned to grow grapes with heavier wire so it's not as
disastrous an effect on them any more. That's for future
research to reveal, not for me to guess about. I think Kliewer
is the one that's doing it now. He has heat chambers and he's
worked out effective night temperature and day temperature as
another factor. A whole series of things could be added to
influence the ripening and the composition of the grapes when
they are ripe. He's even worked on the malic acid and tar tar ic
acid content under controlled conditions. There is a lot of
work still to be done, and Kliewer is the right man to be doing
it. It proves that we had a good problem to work on if there's
still some work to be done. The only bad problems are problems
where you solve all the problems. That's no fun at all. It's
hard for industry people to realize that. Good research always
reveals more problems than you can solve. Therefore you open up
new kinds of research- -maybe not to yourself, but somebody sees
where you were stymied, and where your data did not lead to.
Then they pick it up, as Kliewer did using the controlled
temperature data, where he could control the temperature, the
sunlight, the hours of sunlight, and so forth.
Soils and Vines
Teiser: Has anyone since Hilgard gone as far as he did into soil studies
in relation to growing?
Amerine: I've said what I'm going to say on soil studies in the
University of Calif ornia-So theby book. There is a little
section there. Winkler and I were discussing it the other day.
Outside of soil conditions which influence water permeability
and temperature (which are not really soil effects but simply
the structure of the soil), we will believe it when we see it,
but nobody has proven to us that it's calcium or potassium or
nitrogen. These are the three things that a plant needs. We
know we have soils with too much and too little boron. I'm
Amerine: willing to believe that, and that the vine reacts to that. It
doesn't grow. I can understand other conditions where vines
will respond to a poisonous or toxic thing. There's a new book
out called the Terroir de France. It says in there, in French,
that the terroir thing has been greatly over-emphasized by
people who want to protect their difference. They've had some
soil people working down there for the last fifteen years
G. Seguin. He still hasn't found any difference between
Chateaux- -Chateau Margaux and Chateau Mouton-Ro thschild and so
forth, and he's not going to find any difference because the
soil is all the same as far as we now know.
In Burgundy there are various soil conditions, but they are
mainly due to drainage. The high calcium soils are much better-
draining soils. That's true in this country, too, but
practically all of our soils are calciforous in California.
That's Hilgard's classification, and it's still true. He was
the first one to point out that California had high calcium
soil. People would say that only high calcium soil would grow
Pinot noir. We have plenty of it here. That is no problem at
all. I am not adamant about it. I just say, "Show it to me."
I'd like to see ten years of data with a lot of analysis, and
not just somebody's opinion--somebody who doesn't have an actual
interest in it. Of course Margaux is going to say that their
soil is different than anybody else's; that is what they are
selling, Chateau Margaux. You are not going to get a man to
give you an unbiased opinion. The University of Bordeaux, after
all these years, still has not been able to do it. That sounds
worse to me, from their point of view. It would be to the
experiment station's advantage to find some differences. They
haven't found them yet. They are scientists, not public
Viticultural Areas ##
Teiser: I wonder if you would comment upon the establishment of
viticultural areas here, the idea of them.
Amerine: I think that's an industry thing. It's partially a sales
maneuver. It has nothing to do with the areas. It's a sales
maneuver, pure and simple. It was developed for p.r. purposes.
It doesn't have any relationship to quality of the wine, the
types of wine, or anything. It's completely different from the
European system. They're going to establish as many of them as
- they can in order to make money on the concept. It protects
them from their competition down the road. Now we have
subdivisions within subdivisions, and later there will be
Teiser: Nobody's been wild about establishing named areas in the San
Joaquin Valley, have they? Like Fresno?
Amerine: Well, first of all there has to be some quality-composition
effect. And, after all, we already know that there are at least
three composition-quality regions in the coast counties. There
are only two in the San Joaquin Valley, and they're both on the
hot side. So you're not going to find much difference at that
level in the composition-quality of table wines.
Teiser: So far as p.r. is concerend, there's not much prestige attached
to the name s .
Amerine: It's all a matter of p.r. That's the name of the game.
Industry's calling that card.
Teiser: I should ask you, finally, to summarize what it is like to be
retired. But I have to put "retired" in quotes.
Amerine: Obviously, I will never be completely retired. One way of
staying young is to keep something to occupy your mind. I just
visited an old friend yesterday who has had an accident and his
eyesight is somewhat impaired. He can't read and he can't watch
television. He lives alone, and what can he do with his life?
He can't even play the stock market. He can't read the
newspaper. So I find that nobody should completely retire.
With time, you change the kinds of things you do. I will
probably do more bibliography in the years to come. That's kind
of mechanical. It occupies your time and it's never finished.
There's no such thing as a complete bibliography.
So I will keep doing that sort of thing. I do have a
folder about trips and another folder about some University
things which you and I have not discussed at all--my career in
the University hierarchy, in academic senate, and that sort of
thingwhich is an entirely different aspect of my life. It
doesn't have anything to do with the wine business at all. I
knew four University presidents personally, on a first-name
basis. One is dead already. [Clark] Kerr, I guess, is the
youngest one of them. He will last as long as I will. Maybe I
will write about that some day, from the University point of
view. I think that Clark Kerr and Charles Hitch and David
Saxon, whom I am going to see in a couple of weeks in Boston,
are all quite different personalities. I do not think they have
had their due share of credit from the University. I am sure
that Clark hasn't. I am going to write about that some day when
I ge t the time and energy to do it.
Maynard A. Amerine
Amerine: I will probably live in the country for quite a while yet.
There does come a time when you can't move around so much. Then
you think about where you live as where you want to be. Napa
Valley is pretty self-sufficient now. We have a symphony
orchestra and opera season, play season, and good restaurants,
and plenty of places to shop. I could conceive that I might not
move nearer the Bay Area. On the other hand, the big opera
season is here; the big symphony season is here; the big
libraries are in the Bay Region and not in the Napa Valley. And
Teiser: It depends on how much you want to drive, I guess.
Amerine: I do use the bus occasionally when I don't want to drive. There
is a bus a half a mile from my door that goes right to Seventh
Street in San Francisco. If they would just not stop in
Oakland, it would save quite a bit of time. They also stop in
Vallejo. They still talk about having a Napa Valley train.
Then you could come to Vallejo on it.
Transcibers: Lisa Grossman and Kyle Fiore
Final typist: Judy Smith
TAPE GUIDE -- Maynard A. Amerine
Interview 1: 11 February 1985
tape 1, side A 1
tape 1, side B
tape 2, side A 15
tape 2, side B 23
Interview 2: 11 September 1985
tape 3, side A 42
tape 3, side B 49
M. A. Amerine
1937 Winkler, A. J. , and M. A. Amerine. What climate
does. The Wine Review _5(6J:9-11; (7):9-ll, Ib.
Winkler. A. J. , and M. A. Amerine. Color in Cali
fornia wines. I. Methods for measurement of color.
Food Research 3_(4) :429-438.
Winkler, A. J. , and M. A. Amerine. Color in Cali
fornia wines. II. Preliminary comparisons of
certain factors influencing color. Food Research
Amerine, M. A. How the French market wines at whole
sale and retail. Wines and Vines
Amerine, M. A. Wines at the 1937 Paris International
Exposition. Wines and vines J_a_(.yj : lo-l / .
Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Viile si vinurile
Californiei. Romania Viticoia m.bj : 1 /i-l/b ; (o) :
Amerine, M. A. Aging of California wines. The Wine
Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Claret. Wines
and Vines 1_9_(1J :5.
Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Port wine. Wines
and Vines 1^(2 J :b.
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Chianti wine.
Wines and Vines .19^4] :4.
Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. Sherry. Wines and
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Sauternes. Wines
and Vines 1^(6) :3-4.
Amerine, M. A., and E. H. Twight. The wines made
from muscat grapes. Wines and Vines 19(7j : j-4.
Olmo-. H. P., and M. A. Amerine. Zinfandel. Wines
and Vines 1(9) :3-4.
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Angelica. Wines
and Vines T9(9) :5.
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler.
and Vines 1.9(10) :3-4.
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler.
and Vines 19(11) : 5.
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler.
Wines and Vines 19(12) :4-5.
Amerine, Maynard A. Der Weinbau in
Internationaler Weinbaukongress Bad Kreuznach,
Programmhef t , page 48. August.
Amerine, Maynard A., and George L. Marsh. Wine
judging methods. The Wine Review 7(10) :6, 20.
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. Wa'^er! Bring
the wine. California Monthly 4_Z_(2) :14-15, 38-39.
Amerine, Maynard A., and William DeMattei. Color
in California wines. III. Methods of removing
color from the skins. Food Research 5^(5) : 509- 519.
(Wines and Vines 22(4):19-20. 1941)
1940 Amerine , M. A.
and A. J. Winkler. Maturity studies
with California grapes. I. The Balling-acid ratio
of wine grapes. Proceedings of the American Society
for Horticultural Science 58 :379-387.
1940 Amerine, M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Commercial pro-
duction of table wines. University of California,
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 639:
1941 Amerine, Maynard A., and A. J. Winkler. Color in
California wines. IV. The production of pink wines.
Food Research 6_(1):1-14.
1941 Joslyn, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Commercial pro
duction of dessert wines. University of California,
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 651 :
1941 Joslyn, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Commercial pro
duction of brandies. University of California,
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 652:1-80.
1942 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Maturity studies
with California grapes. II. The titratable acidity,
pH, and organic acid content. Proceedings of the
American Society for Horticultural Science 40 :
29. 1942 Amerine, Maynard A., Louis P. Martini, and William
DeMattei. Foaming properties of wine. Method and
preliminary results. Industrial and Engineering
30. 1942 Amerine, Maynard A. Some comments on wine in America
Wine and Food NoT 3_6_: 192-199 .
31. 1942 Amerine, Maynard A. The cup and the sword. Wine
and Food No. 36:212, 214.
31a. 1942 Amerine, M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Champagne. The
Wine Review ]_0_(10) : 8-11 , 22. October.
32. 1943 Guymon, J. F. , N. E. Tolbert, and M. A. Amerine.
Studies with brandy. I. pH. Food Research 8_(3) :
33. 1943 Tolbert, N. E., M. A. Amerine, and J. F. Guymon.
Studies with brandy. TT~. Tlfnnin. Food Research
34. 1943 Amerine , M. A. , and A. D. Webb. Alcohol-glycerol
ratio of California wines. Food Research 8_(4) :
35. 1943 Amerine, Maynard A., and William C. Dietrich.
Glycerol in wines. Journal of the Association of
Official Agricultural Chemists 26(3) :408-415.
36. 1943 Tolbert, N. E., and M. A. Amerine. Charcoal treat
ment of brandy. Industrial and Engineering Chem
37. 1943 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Grape varieties
for wine production. University of California,
Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 356 : 1- 15 .
38. 1943 Amerine. Maynard A. American Books. Wine and Food
No. !57_:64, 66.
39. 1944 Amerine, Maynard A. Determination of esters in
wine- -Liquid-liquid extraction. Food Research
40. 1944 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Composition and
quality of must and wines of California grapes.
Hilgardia 1_5 (6) : 493-673.
41. 1946 Amerine, Maynard A. 1946 Vintage Tour of the Los
Angeles and San Francisco Branches of the Wine and
Food Society to Napa and Sonoma Counties. The Grab-
horn Press, San Francisco. Cl: - C7: p.
Amerine, Maynard A.
Amerine, Maynard A.
Books reviewed. Wine and Food
Book notices. Wine and Food
Amerine, Maynard A. New wine and old bottles. Five
page mimeograph of an address delivered before the
Society of Medical Friends of Wine. Dist. by Wine
Institute, February 13, 1947.
Amerine, Maynard A. The composition of
wines at exhibitions. Wines and Vines
42-43; (2):24-26; (3):23-25, 42-46.
1947 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. The relative
color stability of the wines of certain grape varieties
Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural
Science 4_9_: 183-185.
Amerine, Maynard A. An application of "triangular"
taste testing to wines. The Wine Review 16(5):10-12
Amerine, Maynard A. Hydroxymethyl furfural in Cali
fornia wines. Food Research 1_3(3) : 264-269 .
Amerine, M. A. Madeira 1947. Wine and Food No.
Amerine, Maynard A. Organoleptic examination of
wine. Wine Technology Conference, University of
California, August 11-13, 1948, Davis, California.
Amerine, Maynard A. The grapes and wines of Alameda,
Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz Counties. 1948 Vintage
Tour of the Los Angeles and San Francisco Branches
of the Wine and Food Society. The Grabhorn Press,
San Francisco. p. 5-14.
Amerine, Maynard A. Wine production problems of
California grapes. The Wine Review 17(1) :18-22
(Introduction; I. Pinot noir) ; (2):10-11, 12
(II. White Riesling) ; (3):10-12 (III. Zinfandel) ;
(5):10-12 (IV. Semillon) ; (6):11-12, 14-15 (V.
Cabernet Sauvignon) ; (7):6-7, 19-20 (VI. Folle
Amerine, Maynard A.
10(4) :206-208, 210.
California wine. The Vortex
54. 1949 Amerine. Maynard A. What is handicapping Califor
nia ' s~i7Ine~alTHu?tr'y . California Monthly 59:32,
55. 1949 Amerine. Maynard A. The influence of the constit-
uents of wines on taste and application to the
judging of commercial wines. Proceedings Wine Tech
nology Conference, University of California, August
10-12, 1949, Davis, California. (Mimeo.) 21-24.
56. 1949 Amerine , M. A. Que e que esta a embaracar a
industria vinicola da Calif6rnia? Institute do
Vinho do Porto Cadernos No. 118 :416-420. (Reprint
in Portuguese of #52.)
57. 1949 Amerine, Maynard A. exame organoleptico dos
vinhos . Institute do Vinho d Porto, Suplemento
ao Caderno No. 120:1-50.
58. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. On cooking. Wine and Food
59. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. The response of wine to aging.
Wines and Vines 31 (3) : 19-22 (I. Physical factors
influencing agingJT (4):71-74 (II. Biological and
chemical factors influencing aging); (5):28-31 (III.
Bottle aging, IV. The influence of variety).
60. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. Down-to-earth talk about wine
of the land. San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco
Bay Area Gourmet Guide, p. 4, May 15, 1950.
61. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. The acids of California grapes
and wines. I . Llfctic acid. Food Technology
62. 1950 Amerine , M. A. , and M. W. Monaghan. California
sparkling wines, bulk versus bottle fermented.
Wines and Vines 3^(8) : 25-27 ; (9):52-54.
63. 1950 Guymon, J. F. , and M. A. Amerine. Organoleptic
determination of quality in neutral brandy. Wines
and Vines 3JJ12) :27-28.
64. 1950 Amerine , M. A. A matter of taste. Wines and Vines
31. (9) :35-36.
65. 1950 Amerine, Maynard A. Bordeaux $ Burgundy. Wine and
Food No. 6^:166-168.
66. 1951 Amerine, Maynard A. Laboratory procedures for enology
(revised) . Divisions of Viticulture, University of
California, Davis. 96 pages. (Mimeo .) Several later edition:
1951 Amerine, Maynard A. The acids of Calfiornia grapes
II. Malic acid. Food Technology _5(1)
1951 Amerine, Maynard A., and Louise B. Wheeler. A
books and pamphlets on grapes and
University of Cali-
checK list of
wine and related subjects.
Amerine , Maynard A. Some early books about the
California wine industry. The Book Club of Cali
fornia, Quarterly News Letter XVI_(3) : 51-56.
Amerine, Maynard A. The wines of France. "World"
section of the San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday,
May 27. p. 11.
Heitz, Joseph E., Edward B. Roessler, Maynard A.
Amerine, and George A. Baker. A study of certain
influencing the composition of California-
during baking. Food Research 16(3):
1951 Amerine, M. A. Unification des methodes d'analyse
et d' appreciation des vins. Etats-Unis d'Amerique
Bulletin Office International du Vin 2_4_(241) :
1951 Baker, G. A. , M. A. Amerine.
Fractional blending systems
beverages. Food Technology
and E. G. Roessler.
for aging alcoholic
1951 Amerine , M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Table wines:
The technology of their production in California.
University of California Press, Berkeley. 397 p.
1951 Amerine, Maynard A. IV e Congress International de
la Vigne et du Vin. Athenes, 24 Aout - 2 Septembre
1950. IV e section: Economic viti- vinicole. Bull
etin Office International du Vin 24 (246) :52-38.
October. (See also, Rapports et Actes du Congres
1951 Amerine, Maynard A. California^ Wines of the world
pocket library. Edited by Andre L. Simon. The Wine
and Food Society, London. 15 pages.
77. 1951 Amerine, Maynard A. Dessert wine production pro-
blems of California grapes. Wines and Vines 33(1):
15-16 (Introduction; I. Palomino); (2):29-30 (II.
Tinta Madeira) ; (3):25-26 (III. Alvarelhao, Sousao,
Touriga and other red dessert varieties); (4):59-61
(IV. Muscat of Alexandria) ; (5):20-23 (V. Malvasia
Bianca, Muscat Canelli, and Orange Muscat; VI. Con
clusions . ) .
1951 Amerine, Maynard A. The educated enologist. Pro-
ceedings of the American Society of Enologists 1951 :
1952 Amerine, Maynard A. The search for good wine. Idea
and Experiment T("4 ) : 1 3 - 1 5 .
1952 Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and E. B. Roessler.
Theory and application of fractional blending systems
Hilgardia 2_1 (14) : 383-409.
1952 Guymon, J. F. , and M. A. Amerine. Tasting of exper
imental dessert wines produced with brandies of dif
ferent qualities. Wines and Vines 33(9) :19.
1952 Amerine, M. A. , and T. T. Kishaba. Use of the flame
photometer for determining the sodium, potassium,
and calcium content of wine. Proceedings of the
American Society of Enologists 1952:77-86.
1952 Amerine , M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Techniques and
problems in the organoleptic examination of wines.
Proceedings of the American Society of Enologists
Amerine, Maynard A.
equipment at Davis.
New controlled fermentation
Wines and Vines 34(9):27-30.
Baker, G. A., and M. A. Amerine. Organoleptic rat
ings of wines estimated from analytical data. Food
Research jj_(4) : 381-389 .
Amerine, Maynard A. The composition of wines.
Scientific Monthly LXXVII (5) : 250-254 .
Amerine, Maynard A. Influence of variety, maturity
and processing on the clarity and stability of wine
Proceedings of the American Society of Enologist
Maynard A. . George Thoukis, and Ramon Vidal-
Marfa. Further data on the sodium content
Proceedings of the American Society of
89. 1953 Amerine, Maynard A. New books on wine. Wines and
90. 1953 Roessler, E. B. , G. A. Baker, and M. A. Amerine.
Corrected normal and chi-square approximations to
the binomial distribution in organoleptic tests.
Food Research 1_8 (6) : 625-627 .
91. 1953 Amerine, Maynard A. Some recent advances in enology,
Wines and Vines 14 (12) :25-28 . 1953; 3_5_(1) :29-30 ;
92. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Nouvel equipement pour la fer
mentation controTee Davis. Le ProgrSs Agricole
et Viticole 141(5) :56-64.
93. 1954 Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and E. B. Roessler..
Errors of the second kind in organoleptic difference
testing. Food Research 1^(2) : 206-210.
94. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Italian treatise on enology.
Wines and Vines T5_(7) :29.
95. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Composition of wines. I.
Organic constituents. Advances in Food Research
96. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Ampelografski atlas. Wine and
Food No. 84_:268-269.
97. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine congress -- German style.
Wines and Vines I5_(12) :20-22.
98. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A. Tecnicas y problemas en el
examen organoleptico de los vinos. Agricultura
2_3(272) :702-707. (Summarized from: Techniques
arfd problems in the organoleptic examination of
wines. M. A. Amerine and E. G. Roessler, Proceed
ings of the American Society of Enologists 1952 :
99. 1954 Amerine, Maynard A., and Enrique Feduchy. Los
resultados de la cata del vino y del analisis
quimico. (Primeros^estudios para conocer su^
relacion en vinos tipicos espanoles.) Boletin
del Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agron-
omicas 14_(31) : 353-375 . (Also published as
Cuaderno No. 212)
Amerine, Maynard A. Fermentation of musts under
controlled conditions. X Congreso International
de Industrial Agricolas (Madrid) . Relacion de
Comunicaciones Presentadas II : 1945-1965.
Amerine, Maynard A. Further studies with controlled
fermentations . American Journal of Enology 6^
Amerine, M. A. Five ampelographies .
Journal of Enology 6_(2):50-51.
Amerine, Maynard A. The well -tempered wine bibber,
1955 Vintage Tour of the Los Angeles and San Fran
cisco Branches of the Wine and Food Society. The
Grabhorn Press, San Francisco. p. 5-19.
Amerine, Maynard A. Wine in the home and market.
Wine and Food NoT 87_:166-168, 170.
Amerine, Maynard A. Laboratory procedures for
enology. Department of Viticulture and Enology,
University of California, Davis. 108 pages, plus
6 tables. (Mimeo.)
Amerine, Maynard A.
not widely planted.
Some recommended grape varieties
Wines and Vines 36(11) :59,
Roessler, E. B., G. A. Baker, and M. A. Amerine.
One-tailed and two-tailed tests in organoleptic
comparisons. Food Research 21 (1) : 117-121 .
Thoukis, G., and M. A. Amerine. The fate of copper
and iron during fermentation of grape musts. Amer
ican Journal of Enology 7_(2):62-68.
Hall, Alice P., Lisa Brinner, Maynard A. Amerine.
and Agnes Fay Morgan. The B vitamin content of
grapes, musts, and wines. Food Research 21(5) :
Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Jjn Encyclopedia of
Chemical Technology, The Interscience Encyclopedia,
Inc., New York. Vol. 15. pp. 48-72.
Amerine. Maynard A. Tudor family portrait. Wine
and Food No. 91:191-192.
Papakyriakopoulos , V. G. , and M_. A.
Sensory tests on two wine types,
of Enology 7_(3) :98-104.
113. 1956 Amerine, Maynard A. The maturation of wine grapes.
A review^ Wines and Vines 37_(10) : 27 - 30 , 32, 34-36,
114. 1956 Nelson, K. E., and M. A. Amerine. Use of Botrytis
cinerea for the production of sweet table wines.
American Journal of Enology 7_(4) : 131-136.
115. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine and food in the diary of
Joseph Farington. Wine and Food No. 93:10-21.
(Also separately printed.)
116. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A. Refrigerated fermentation; pro
cessing and storage of wines. Commodity Storage
Manual. The Refrigeration Research Foundation,
Colorado Springs, Colorado. 6 p.
117. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A., and Cornelius S. Ough. Studies
on controlled fermentation. III. American Journal
of Enology 8_(1) :18-30.
118. 1957 Weaver, R. J., M. A. Amerine, and A. J. Winkler.
Preliminary report on effect of level of crop on
development of color in certain red wine grapes.
American Journal of Enology 8_(4) : 157- 166 .
119. 1957 Nelson, Klayton E., and Maynard A. Amerine. The
use of Botrytis cinerea Pers . in the production of
sweet table wines. Hilgardia 26 (12) : 521-563.
120. 1957 Amerine, Maynard A. Viticulture and enology in
Russia. (Translation) Wines and Vines 38 (3) :26-27 .
121. 1957 Amerine , Maynard A. Edmund Henri Twight- - 1874 -
1957. Wines and Vines 38(5) :29-30.
122. 1957 Amerine, M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Plastic or
cork? - - -A French experiment. Wines and Vines
123. 1958 Amerine, M. A. What the public likes -- Talk by
M. A. Amerine, mimeographed and distributed by
Wine Institute. February. 7 p.
124. 1958 Amerine, Maynard A. Tasting as a means for im-
proving wines. Wines and Vines 59 (2) : 19-20.
125. 1958 Baker, G. A., Vera Mrak , and M. A. Amerine.
Errors of the second kind in an acid threshold test.
Food Research 23 (2) : 150- 154 .
126. 1958 Amerine , M. A. , and E. B. Roessler.
determining field maturity of grapes
Journal of Enology 9(1):37-40.
Amerine , M. A. , and G. Thoukis. The glucose- fructose
ratio of California grapes. Vitis 1_(4) :224-229.
Amerine, M. A. Acetaldehyde formation in submerged
cultures of Saccharomyces beticus . Applied Micro
biology 6_(3) :160-168.
Amerine , M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Maturity studies
with California grapes. III. The acid content of
grapes, leaves, and stems. Proceedings of the Amer
ican Society for Horticultural Science 71 : 199-206.
Amerine, Maynard A. Comments on the nature of
sparkling wines. Wines and Vines 39(8) ;31-32.
Amerine, Maynard A. One and two page popular dis-
cussions for each of the following Wine and Food
Society of San Francisco tastings: California ports
and dessert wines, October 27, 1955; French Cham
pagnes, December 7, 1955; California white and- rose
wines, March 21, 1956; French still wines, June 21,
1956; Italian wines, September 6, 1956; California
white, rose, and sparkling wines, December 6, 1956;
French still wines, March 20, 1957; California red
wines, October 24, 1957; French Champagnes and
sparkling wines, December 3, 1957; California^white
and rose wines, June 26, 1958; California rose, white,
red sparkling wines, November 25, 1958; A tasting
of wines of the British Commonwealth, March 3, 1959;
Wines of Portugal, October 6, 1959, The Physicians
Wine and Food Society of Santa Clara Valley -- a
tasting of California Champagnes, March 3, 1957.
Wine and Food Society brochures.
Amerine, Maynard A. Wines at the French Court in
1820. Wine and Food No. 99:163-165.
Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine.
production under pressure.
Studies on aldehyde
American Journal of
E. G. , and M. A. Amerine. Studies on grape
American Journal of Enology 9_:139-145.
Amerine, Maynard A. Research for the industry, by
the industry, in the industry. Wines and Vines
136. 1958 Amerine, Maynard A. Composition of wines. II.
Inorganic constituents. Advances in Food Research
137. 1958 Amerine, M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Field testing
of grape maturity. Hilgardia 28(4) ;95-114.
138. 1958 Amerine, Maynard A. Harold H. Price. In Memoriam.
Wine and Food No. 100:226.
139. 1959 Amerine, M. A. , C. S. Ough, and C. B. Bailey.
Color values of California wines. Food Technol
ogy 13(3) :171-175.
140. 1959 Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Odor profiles of
wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture
141. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Continuous flow production of
still and sparkling wine. Wines and Vines 40(6) :
142. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. The romance of Pan American
wines. Pan American Medical Association, San
Francisco Chapter, Annual Bulletin 1958 : 21-27 .
143. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Report on the determination
of pH of wines. Journal of the Association of
Official Agricultural Chemists 2(2) : 337-338 .
144. 1959 Amerine, M. A. , E. B. Roessler, and F. Filipello.
Modern sensory methods of evaluating wine. Hil
gardia _2_8_(18) :477-567.
145. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. The professional status of
enologists. Wines and Vines 40(8) :51-32.
146. 1959 Amerine, M. A. The 1959 Vintage Tour, I_n, Vintage
Tour 1959 to selected vineyards in the Napa and
Santa Clara Valleys, San Francisco Wine and Food
Society c4: - :6: p.
147. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. A short check list of books
and pamphlets in English on grapes, wines, and
related subjects 1949-1959. [Davis: 61 p. (Mimeo.)
148. 1959 Pato, C. M. , and M. A. Amerine. Analyses of some
typical Madeira wines . American Journal of Enol
ogy and Viticulture 1_0 (3) : 110- 113 .
149. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Chemists and the California
wine industry. American Journal of Enology and
Viticulture 10 (3) : 124- 129.
150. 1959 Amerine, Maynard A. Vineyard and winery operations
by Jean-F. Levy. A transaltion by Maynard
from Vignes et Vins 40 (11) : 45-46 ,48 ;
Amerine, Maynard A. Hilaire Belloc on wine and food.
Wine and Food No. 104:219-225.
Mrak, V. _
M. A. Amerine
C. S. Ough, and G. A.
difference test with applications to
consumer preferences. Food Research 24 (5) : 574- 578
Ough, C. S. , and
M. A. Amerine. Dissolved oxygen
wine. Food Research 24(6) :744-
1959 Amerine , M. A. , and C. B. Bailey. Carbohydrate
content of various parts of the grape cluster.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 10
1959 Amerine, M. A. Hungarian vineyards and wines.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 10
Amerine, M. A. California white and rose table
wines. Wine and Food Society brochure. 2 p.
February 23, 1960. A tasting of French still wines,
Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. June 14, 1960,
A tasting of Austrian wines. Wine and Food Society
brochure. 1 p. November 7, 1960.
and M. A.
Ough, C. S..
duction by submerged culture
Amerine. Flor sherry pro-
Ough, C. S,
and M. A. Amerine
and Viticulture 11(1)
, Roessler, and M. A. Amerine.
dioxide, temperature, time, and
Ough, C. S. , E. B
Effects of sulfur
closures on the quality of bottled dry white table
wines. Food Technology 1_4_(7) : 352-356.
Amerine^ Study of wines
in specially designed
California Agriculture U_(9):10.
Ough, C. S., and M. A.
by controlled fermentations
161. 1960 Amerine, Maynard A., and
of California wines . II
162. 1960 Amerine , M. A. , and G. A. Root. Carbohydrate con-
tent of various parts of the grape cluster. II.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 11
Amerine, M. A. , and W. V. Cruess. The technology
of wine making. The Avi Publishing Co., Westport,
Connecticut. 709 p.
164. 1960 Amerine, M.
A. , and C. S.
Ough. Methods of pro-
Wines and Vines 41
165. 1960 Amerine, Maynard A.
Laboratory procedures for
Department of Viticulture and Enology,
of California, Davis. 124 p. plus 6
Baker, G. A. .
F. Filipello. The
in taste testing for
M. A. Amerine, E
B. Roessler, and
nonspecificity of differences
preference. Food Research
Amerine, M. A. A tasting of California wines
available in large containers. Wine and Food
Society brochure. 1 p. December 5, 1960. A
tasting of wines of Eastern United States. Wine
and Food Society brochure. 1 p. February 28,
1961. A tasting of French Champagnes and spark
ling wines. Wine and Food Society brochure.
1 p. November 20, 1961.
1961 Amerine, Maynard A. Modern
in the tech-
S. , and M. A. Amerine.
Studies on con-
V. Effects on color, corn-
quality of red wines. American
Journal of Enology and Viticulture 12 (1) :9- 19 .
Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine , and D. E. Kester.
Dependency of almond preference on consumer cate
gory and type of experiment. Journal of Food
Science 26 (4) : 377-385 .
Amerine, Maynard A. The dangers of translations.
Wine and Food No. 111:193-194.
Amerine, Maynard A. What makes wine wine? Bulle
tin of the Society of Medical Friends of Wine
173. 1961 Amerine, M. A. Legal and practical aspects of
the sensory examination of wines. Journal of the
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists
Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Polyethylene and
cork closures and the fermentation temperature
for sparkling wines. Wines and Vines 42 (10) :
27,28. (See also : Tapones de polietileno y de
corcho y la temparatura de fermentacion en los
vinos espumosos. El Embotellador , Enero-Febrero :
Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Studies with con
trolled fermentation. VT~. ETfects of temperature
and handling on rates, composition, and quality
of wines. American Journal of Enology and Viti
culture 12(3) :117-128.
Baker, G. A. , M. A. Amerine, and
Factor analysis applied to
four grape juices. Journal
R. M. Pangborn.
'paired preferences among
of Food Science
, and Maynard
on vine be
Weaver, Robert J., Stanley B. McCune
A. Amerine. Effect of level of crop
havior and wine composition in Carignane and Gre-
nache grapes. American Journal of Enology and
Viticulture .L2(4) : 175-184 .
Amerine, Maynard A. , and George L.
making at home. Wine Publications,
California. 31 p.
Amerine, Maynard A. Hilgard and California viti
culture"! Hilgardia 33_(l):l-23.
Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and D. E. Kester.
Consumer preference on a rating basis for almond
selections with allowance for environmental and
subject-induced correlations. Food Technology
181. 1962 Amerine, M. A. , G. A. Baker, and C. S. Ough. Con
fusion in sensory scoring induced by experimental
design. Journal of Food Science 2!7_(5) : 489-494 .
182. 1962 Amerine,
Ocean Co. , Tokyo
Maynard A. How
to make wine.
S., and M. A. Amerine.
mentation blending in color,
of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.
Enology and Viticulture 13(4)
Studies on con-
Fffect of ante-fer-
tannins, and quality
American Journal of
184. 1962 Amerine, Maynard A.
Forword, In The story of wine
in California, text by M. F. K. Fisher, photo
graphs by Max Yavno. University of California
Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 125 p.
Amerine, Maynard. Climate control could lead to
better wine. Vintage 2:411:38-40.
Amerine, M. A. White table wines. Wine and Food
Society brochure. 1 p. Feb. 27, 1963.
Nelson, K. E. , G. A. Baker, A. J. Winkler, M. A.
Amerine, H. B. Richardson, and Frances R. Jones.
Chemical and sensory variability in table grapes.
Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Production: United
States. The Encyclopedia Americana Z_y :41-44 ,40 ,4 /
Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. California
wine grapes. Composition and quality ot tneir
musts and wines. University of California,
California Agricultural Experiment Station Bull
etin 794. 83 p.
190. 1963 Amerine, M. A. , and A. J. Winkler. Grape varieties
for wine production. California Agricultural Ex
periment Station Extension Service Leaflet 154.
2 I. fold.
Amerine, Maynard A. Russian wines
Rancher L8(40) : 18 , 19 , 28 , 29 .
Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. The production of
table wines in regions IV and V. Wines and Vines
44_(6) :56-58, 60-62.
S. , and M.
relationship of grape musts
A. Amerine. Regional, varietal,
degree Brix and alcohol
and wines. Hilgardia
194. 1963 Amerine, M. A. Continuous fermentation of wines
Wines and Vines 44(8):27-29.
Amerine, Maynard A. The prejudiced palate. San
Francisco 6(1) : 22 ,48. October. Reprinted in
News from th~e Vineyards, p. 1,4. Spring 1964.
Reprinted by Pastene Wine Spirits Co., Inc.,
Boston, Mass. Cn.d.D
Roessler, E. B. , and M. A. Amerine. Further studies
on field sampling of wine grapes. American Journal
of Enology and Viticulture 14 (3) : 144-147.
Amerine, Maynard A. Do you know the uniquely
American wine- - Zinfandel? House Beautiful 105
(11) :237,277. November.
Amerine, Maynard A. Viticulture and enology in
the Soviet Union. Wines and Vines 44 (10) :29-34,
36; (11) :57-62,64; (12) : 25-26 , 28-30 .
Amerine , M. A. Physical and chemical changes in
grapes during maturation and after full maturity.
Proceedings of XVIth International Horticultural
Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Use of grape con
centrate to produce sweet table wines. American
Journal of Enology and Viticulture 14 (4) : 194-204.
Amerine, M. A. California sparkling wines. Wine
and Food Society brochure. 1 p. February 26.
Amerine, Maynard A. Recent Russian research in
grapes and wine. Wines and Vines 45:59,60,61.
Amerine , M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Studies with con-
trolled fermentation. VIII. Factors affecting
aldehyde accumulation. American Journal of Enol
ogy and Viticulture 1_5(1) : 23-33 .
Amerine, Maynard A. Der Weinbau in Japan. Die
Wein-Wissenschaft 1(5) : 225-231 .
Amerine, M. A. , and E. B. Roessler. Sensory
evaluation of wines. Wine Institute, San Fran
cisco, April. 26 p. (Processed)
Amerine, Maynard A. Enology, oenology, or
oenology. Wine and Food No. 122:74-76.
Joselyn, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Dessert,
appetizer and related flavored wines: the tech
nology of their production. Univeristy of Cali
fornia, Division of Agricultural Sciences,
Berkeley. 433 p.
208. 1964 Amerine, Maynard A.
Acids, grapes, wines and
American Journal of Enology and Viti-
15(2) :106-115. (The 1964 Faculty Re-
of the Davis campus.)
209. 1964 Amerine, Maynard A.
Wine. Scientific American
211(2) : 4 6 - 5 6\ Partjally reprinted in Panorama,
Chicago Daily News, August 29, 1964, p. 4.
Scientific American off print 190. Reprinted from
and Company, San Francisco
Agriculture. Readings from Scientific American.
W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, August,
1970. VII, p. 178-188 (see publication #277).
Ough, C. S. , V. L. Singleton, M. A. Amerine, and
G. A. Baker. A comparison of normal and stressed-
time conditions on scoring of quality and quantity
attributes. Journal of Food Science 29(4) :506-
211. 1964 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. The sensory eval
uation of California wines. Laboratory Practice
13^8) :712-716, 738.
Amerine, Maynard A.
San Francisco 6 (13)
The anatomy of
a superb wine
Singleton, V. L. , C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine.
Chemical and sensory effects of heating wines under
different gases. American Journal of Enology and
Viticulture 1J5(3) : 134- 145.
Kunkee, Ralph E., C. S. Ough, and Maynard A. Amerine,
Induction of malo-lactic fermentation by inocula
tion of must and wine with bacteria. American
Journal of Enology and Viticulture 15 (4) : 178-183.
Esau, P. , and M. A. Amerine. Residual sugars in
wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture
Amerine , M. A. The 1964 wine judging in Ljubljana.
Wines and Vines 4_6 (1) : 21-22 .
Amerine, Maynard A. Research on viticulture and
enology in the Soviet Union. Food Technology
Amerine, Maynard A. The wines of Germany. Wine
and Food Society brochure. 1 p. January 27.
Amerine, M. A. . E. B. Roessler, and C. S. Ough.
Acids and the acid taste. I. The effect of pH
and titratable acidity. American Journal of
Enology and Viticulture 16(1) :29-57.
Baker, G. A., M. A. Amerine, and E. B. Roessler.
Characteristics of sequential measurements on
grape juice and must. American Journal of Enol
ogy and Viticulture 16 (1) :21-28.
Amerine, Maynard A. The fermentation industries
after Pasteur. Food Technology 19(5) :79-80,82.
Amerine , M. A. , and V. L. Singleton. Wine: an
introduction for Americans. University of Cali
fornia Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 357 p.
Amerine, Maynard. American wine. San Francisco
Amerine, Maynard A. Acetaldehyde and related
compounds In foods . Journal of Food Science and
Amerine , M. A. , R. M. Pangborn, and E. B. Roessler,
Principles 5T sensory evaluation of food. Acad
emic Press, New York. x, 602 p.
Amerine, M. A. , and R. E. Kunkee. Yeast stability
tests on dessert wines. Vitis _5_:187-194.
Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Studies with con
trolled fermentations. IX. Bentonite treatment
of grape juice prior to wine fermentation. Amer
ican Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16 (4) : 185-
Amerine, Maynard A. Wine from the customer's
point of view. Mo~tel Management- -Review and
Innkeeping 181(1) :31-53.
Baker, G. A. , C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine .
Scoring vs. comparative rating of sensory quality
of wines. Journal of Food Science 30 (6) : 1055-
Amerine, Maynard A. The 1965 Ljubljana Wine
Judging. Wines and Vines 47(4) : 58-60.
Amerine, Maynard A. California varietal wines.
Wine and Food Society brochure. 1 p. March 9.
232. 1966 Amerine, M. A. Review, of A guide to the selection,
combination, and cooking oT foods. Vol. 2. Formu
lation and cooking of foods, by Carl A. Rietz and
J. J. Wanderstock. Food Technology 20(8) :64.
Amerine, Maynard A. American wines 1933-1966.
Wine and Food T3T:24-28.
Amerine, Maynard A. Relax and enjoy your wines
San Francisco Magazine 8 (10) : 34- 35 ,62 .
Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine
erature on wine making.
Effects of temp'
Bulletin 827. 36 p.
236. 1966 Amerine, Maynard A. Apport de Pasteur a 1'oenol-
ogie moderne: la pasteurisation. pp. 22-23 of
Plaquette published by the Office International
de la Vigne et du Vin, in honor of the 100th
Anniversay of the publication of Etude sur le
Vin of Louis Pasteur.
237. 1966 Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Fermentation
rates of grape juice. IV. Compositional changes
affecting prediction equations. American Journal
of Enology and Viticulture r7_(3) : 163- 173.
238. 1966 Amerine, Maynard A. Flavor as a value. I_n Food
and Civilization. S. M. Farber, N. L. Wilson,
and R. H. L. Wilson, eds. Charles C. Thomas,
Springfield, Illinois. pp. 22-58.
Amerine, Maynard A. The search for good wine.
Science 154: 1621-1628.
Baker, G. A., C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine.
Sensory scores and analytical data for dry white
and dry red wines as bases for predictions and
groupings. American Journal of Enology and
Viticulture r/_(4) : 255-264 .
Esau, P. , and M. A. Amerine. Synthetic ion-
exchange resins in wine research. American
Journal of Enology and Viticulture _17_(4) : 268-
242. 1966 Esau, P. and M. A. Amerine. Quantitative esti-
mation of residual sugars in wine.
Journal of Enology and Viticulture
Amerine, M. A. Psychological problems in eval-
uating food quality. Proceedings of First Inter
national Congress of Food Science and Technology.
Vol. 111:241-252. (i.e., 1966).
244. 1967 Amerine, M. A.
1 p. March 7.
Sparkling wines of Canada and the
Wine and Food Society brochure.
245. 1967 Amerine, M.
ix, 799 p.
A., H. W. Berg, and W. V. Cruess. The
wine making. Second Edition. The
Company, Inc., Westport, Connecticut
Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Controlled fermen
tation. A review of controlled fermentation exper
iments conducted at Davis: 1953-1966. Wines and
Amerine, M. A. Even wines don't always age grace
fully. San Francisco Magazine 9(10):29-31.
A. An introduction to some San
Ough, C. S. , and
Wine and Food 134:48-51.
M. A. Amerine. Studies with con
temperature on some
of Enology and
Effect of fermentation
compounds in wine.
250. 1967 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Sweetness pre-
f erence in rose wines. American Journal of Enol
ogy and Viticulture 18 (3) : 121- 125 .
Amerine, Maynard A. The wines of Germany. Wine
and Food Society brochure. 1 p. November 27.
Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Rose wine color
preference and preference stability by an exper
ienced and an inexperienced panel. Journal of
3_2_(6) :706-711. (Copyrighted 1968)
ienced and an
253. 1967 Amerine, M. A. , and V. L. Singleton. Wine. An
introduction for Americans. Third printing; re
vised paperback edition. University of California
Press, Berkeley. 357 p.
254. 1968 Amerine, Maynard A. California red varietal table
Wine and Food Society brochure. 2 p.
Amerine , M. A. Beverage process: Breweries,
wine making, and carbonated beverages. Chapter
34 of ASHRAE Guide and Data Book, Applications
1968. American Society of Heating, Refrigerat
ing and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., New
York. p. 423-436.
Amerine, Maynard A. The future of enological
research. Wines and Vines 49(8) :17-18.
Kunkee, Ralph E., and Maynard A,, Amerine.
Sugar and alcohol stabilization of yeast in sweet
wine. Applied Microbiology 16(7) : 1067-1075 .
Amerine, Maynard A. Hurrah for California wines.
San Francisco Magazine 10 (10) : 27-29 .
Amerine, M. A. Recherches sur les facteurs de la
vinification en rouge en Californie. 2 e Symposium
International d'Oenologie, Bordeaux-Cognac, 13-17
June 1967. 1^:345-361.
Amerine, Maynard A., and Ralph E. Kunkee. Micro-
biology of wine making. Annual Review of Micro
261. 1968 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Fermentation of
grapes held under anaerobic conditions. I. Red
grapes. American Journal of Enology and Viticul
ture 19(3) :139-146.
Amerine, Maynard A. Precedes d 1 elaboration , tech-
nologie et caracteristiques des vins mosseux aux
Etats-Unis. Bulletin de 1 '0. I .V. 4^(453) : 1218-
1229. See also XII e Congres International de la
Vigne et du Vin, Bucarest, Travaux Scientif iques ,
Bucarest. Oenologie :U:255-267. 1968.
Ough, C. S. , and M. A. Amerine. Die kontinuier-
liche Vergarung von Traubensaft. Mitt. Rebe u.
Wein, Obstbau u. Fruchtverwertung 18 :428-459.
Amerine , Maynard A. An introduction to the pre-
repeal history of grapes and wines in California.
Agricultural History 4J5_(2) : 259-268.
Amerine, Maynard A. California white varietal
wines. San Francisco Wine and Food Society
May 6. Society of Medical Friends of Wine.
October 27, 1970.
266. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A. A check list on grapes and
wines. 1960-1968 with a supplement for 1949-
1959. Davis, California 84 p.
Ough, C. S. , H. W. Berg, and M. A. Amerine. Sub
stances extracted during skin contact with white
musts. II. Effect of bentonite additions during
and after fermentation on wine composition and
sensory quality. American Journal of Enology and
Viticulture 20_(2) : 101-107.
268. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A. There really is quality in
A play in three acts. San Francisco Maga-
Ough, C. S. , M. A. Amerine, and T. C. Sparks.
Studies with controlled fermentations. XI. Per-,
mentation temperature effects on acidity and pH.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture
Amerine, M. A
acidity of wi:
and E. B. Roessler. The
; aged in the wood. Wine
Amerine, M. A.
and C. S. Ough. Acidification of
grapes from Region IV. American Journal of Enology
and Viticulture 20 (4) : 254-256 .
Amerine, M. A. The appreciation and judging of
wines. Wine, Spirit, Malt 3_7_(10) : 22- 23.
Amerine, M. A. Kellerwirstchaf t in den Vereinigten
Staaten von Amerika. Deutsche Wein Zeitung 102(2)
1158. (see also publication #278).
274 1969 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Fermentation of
grapes under anaerobic conditions II. White grapes
with some further tests on red grapes. American
Journal of Enology and Viticulture ^0 (4) : 251-253 .
-ugh, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Effect of subjects'
sex, experience, and training on their red wine
color-preference patterns. Perceptual and Motor
276. 1970 Amerine, M. A. , and M. A. Joslyn. Table wines:
the technology of their production. 2nd ed. Uni
versity of California Press, Berkeley and Los
Angeles. xxi, 997 p.
277. 1970 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Reprinted in Plant
Agriculture. Readings from Scientific American.
W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. VIII,
246 p. (see p. 178-188). (Also see publication
#209 - this article originally published in
Scientific American 211(2) :46-56, August 1964).
Amerine, M. A. Kellerwirtschaft in den Vereinig-
ten Staaten von Amerika. Osterreichische Wein-
zeitung 2J_:97-98. (See also publication #273).
Amerine, M. A. Convorbire Cu Profesorul M. A.
Amerine. Industria Alimentara 21 (2) :66-68.
Kunkee, Ralph E., and Maynard A. Amerine. Yeasts
in wine-making. In, The Yeasts, edited by Anthony
H. Rose and J. S. Harrison. Academic Press,
London and New York. 3 v. Volume 3, Yeast Tech
nology, xiv, 590 p. (see p. 5-71)
Amerine, M. A. Lecture. Israel Wine Institute,
Tel-Aviv. 33 p. November 12.
Amerine, Maynard A. The importance of Agoston
Haraszthy's activities for the development of
viticulture in California. In, The 100th Anni
versary of Death of Agoston Haraszthy, Congress
ional Record, Proceedings and Debates of the 91st
Congress, First Session. 8 p. June 19. (see
Amerine, Maynard A. What kind of wines in 1980?
Wines and Vines 51(9) :30.
Amerine, Maynard A. Introduction. In, This Un-
the Paul Masson Story by Robert
The Ward Ritchie Press, Los
(see p. vii) .
Angeles. 118 p.
the hottest one
Francisco Magazine 12(10)
Sparkling wines are a gas
on the market is Cold Duck
286. 1970 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Effect of
and post-fermentation addition of acids on
composition and quality of the wines produced.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture
287. 1970 Amerine, M. A. Effect of pre- and post- fermenta
tion addition of acids on the composition and
quality of the wines produced. Wines and Vines
1970 Amerine, M. A. The golden ages of wines. Address
given The Institute of Masters of Wines, July 30,
1969, London, England, published and circulated
under their auspices. 25 p.
1971 Alley, C. J. , C. S. Ough, and M. A. Amerine. Grapes
for table wines in California's regions IV and V.
Wines and Vines 52^(3) : 20-22 .
1970 Amerine, M. A. Wine. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of
Chemical Technology, Vol. 22, 2nd Edition. p. 307-
291. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A., and
making at home
George L. Marsh. Wine
Wine Publication, San
292. 1970 Amerine, Maynard A. Review. Landscapes of Bacchus
The vine in Portugal by Dan. Stanislawski , Univer
sity of Texas Press, Austin and London, 210 p.
Agricultural History 44(4) :427.
Amerine, Maynard A. Haraszthy de Mokcsa, Agos
(1812-1869). Encyclopedia Americana.
Amerine, Maynard A. Preface. In, Lines about
wines by Irving H. Marcus. Wine Publication,
Wagener, W. D. , C. S. Ough, and
The fate of some organic acids added to
prior to fermentation. American Journal of Enology
and Viticulture 22 (3) : 167- 171 .
M. A. Amerine.
Amerine, Maynard A. , and Vernon L. Singleton. A
list of bibliographies and a selected list of pub
lications that contain bibliographies on grapes,
wines, and related subjects. Agricultural Publi
cations, University of California, Berkeley. 39 p.
Amerine, Maynard A., and E. B. Roessler. Pleasant
and unpleasantness of odors added to white wine.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2_2_(4) :
Amerine, Maynard A. A scholar writes on U.C. -Davis
wine library. Wines and Vines 52 (12) : 20-25 .
Amerine, Maynard A. Some recent reports on wine
analysis" Report to Wine Institute Technical
Advisory Committee Meeting. 13 p.
300. 1971 Amerine, Maynard A. Wines of the future. San
Francisco Magazine 13(10) :80-82.
301. 1971 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine food - London, 1934-
1970 (Tribute to Andre L. Simon). The International
Wine 5 Food Society "Gastronomies", Chicago. p. 1.
302. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. , and Cornelius S. Ough. Recent
advances in enology. CRC Critical Reviews in Food
303. 1972 Amerine, M. A. Wine -- California's liquid gold.
Narrator and background information for Channel 13
(KOVR) Sacramento, 5-part feature; May 8-12; and
May 22-26, 1972. (Film, property of KOVR - Special
Collections will negotiate for it at end of one
304. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. Quality control in the Calif-
ornia wine industry. Journal of Milk and Food
Technology 3_5 (6) : 373-377 .
305. 1972 Amerine, Maynard. Bottled gold. San Francisco
Magazine 14_(10) :36, 56-58.
306. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. Amerine on Iron Curtain judg-
Wines and Vines 5_3 (11) : 22-23.
307. 1972 Ough, C. S., D. Fong , and M. A. Amerine. Glycerol
in wine: determination and some factors affecting.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2J(1):
308. 1972 Amerine, M. A. . H. W. Berg, and W. V. Cruess. Tech-
nology of wine making. Avi Publishing Company,
Westport, Conn. 802 p. 3rd ed.
309. 1973 Stewart, George, F. , and Maynard A. Amerine. Intro
duction to food science and technology. ATademic
Press, Inc., New York.
310. 1972 Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. Further studies
with submerged flor sherry. American Journal of
Enology and Viticulture 25(3) :128-151.
311. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A. Other vinelands of the world,
THE UNITED STATES. I_n, Gazetteer of Wines by
Andre L. Simon. The International Wine and Food
Publishing Company, David Charles, London.
312. 1972 Amerine, M. A. Our wonderful world of wine. Add-
dress to Upper Napa Valley Associates. Copy de
posited Napa Valley Wine Library, December 12.
313. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. The historical importance of
the Medical Friends of Wine. Address to One Hund
redth Quarterly Dinner and Annual Meeting of the
Society of Medical Friends of Wine, Wednesday,
January 10, 1973, at The Family Club , San Francisco,
CA. Bulletin of The Society of Medical Friends of
Wine 1_5(1) . 2 p.
314. 1972 Amerine, Maynard A.
In, Wine in America,
TTTe Newcomen Society
Introduction of Mr. Serlis,
and address by Harry G. Serlis
in North America, Princeton
315. 1973 Amerine
Maynard A. Wine. Reprinted from August
Readings from Scientific American, Food.
Sources and Resources. W. H.
San Francisco. pp. 169-179.
Freeman and Company,
(see also #209) .
316. 1971 Amerine, Maynard A.
for publication 1973
Vol. 23. p.
317. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. The wine industry- today and
tomorrow. San Francisco Magazine 1_5_(10) : 41-42 ,
318. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. A multi-language dictionary
of vermouth ingredients. Revista Ital. Essenze,
Profumi, Piante Officinali, Aromi , Saponi, Cos-
metici, Aerosol 55 (8) : 504-516 .
A. The wine
industry- -today and
October, p. 81-82,
B. and M. A.
American Journal of
Amerine . The
321. 1973 Amerine, M. A. L'industrie vinicole- -hier et
aujourd'hui. La Journee Vinicole, December 19,
p. 1,4. (See #317).
322. 1974 Amerine, M.
viii , 121
A. , and C. S. Ough. Wine and must ana-
John Wiley $ Sons, New York, London, Sydney,
(A Wiley- Interscience Publication)
323. 1974 Amerine, M. A. , and Douglas Fong. Fermentation
of grapes under anaerobic conditions. III. Hold
ing grapes under carbon dioxide before crushing.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture
324. 1974 Amerine, M. A. , and Douglas Fong. Research note:
Further studies on making wine of varieties grown
in region IV. American Journal of Enology and
Viticulture 2_5 (1) :44-47 .
325. 1974 Amerine. M. A. Les levains en oenologie. I_n
Vignes et Vins (Numero Special Consacre au Collo-
que International D'Oenologie D'Arc et Senans -
May 1973). p. 46-52.
326. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. American wines for Americans.
Ohio Grape--Wine Short Course, Proceedings, 1973.
Agricultural Research and Development Center,
Wooster, Ohio. pp. 50-53.
327. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. New methods of winemaking.
Ohio Grape Wine Short Course, Proceedings, 1973.
Agricultural Research and Development Center.
Wooster, Ohio. pp. 63-67.
328. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A., and Cornelius S. Ough. Wine
and must. I_n Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemical
Analysis, Vol. 19. John Wiley Sons, New York,
London, Sydney, Toronto. pp. 397-514.
329. 1974 Amerine, M. A. Current wine making practices in
California. Commemorative Lectures, Central Re
search Institute, Suntory Ltd., Osaka, Japan. 23,
26,18,59 p. (see p. 1-23.)
330. 1975 Amerine, Maynard A. The Napa Valley grape and
wine industry. Agricultural History 9(1) : 289-291
331. 1974 Amerine, M. A. Wine. In, Encyclopedia of Food
Technology, Arnold H. JoTfnson and Martin S. Peter
son, eds. Avi Publishing Company, Inc., Westport,
Connecticut. pp. 961-968.
332. 1975 Amerine, Maynard A. The Japanese fermentation in-
dustries. In, Transcript of Wine Industry Tech
nical Seminar, Rodeway Inn, Townehouse, Fresno,
California, November 15, 1974. San Francisco.
Amerine, Maynard A. The present status of method
for wine analysis and possible future trends. In,
Chemistry of Winemaking, Advances in Chemistry
Series, Number 137. pp. 134-150.
334. 1974 Fong, D. C., M. A. Amerine. and C. S. Ough. Re
search note: Citric acid in some California wines.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 25f4):
335. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine making. In, Encyclopae
dia Britannica, 15th ed. pp. 875-884.
336. 1974 Amerine, Maynard. L'industrie vinicole hier et
aujourd'hui. Bulletin de 1 'Office International
du Vin 7:276-281. (See #317 and #321).
337. 1976 Amerine, M. A. , and C. S. Ough. Analisis de vinos
y mostos. Editorial Acribia, Zaragoza, Spain.
158 p. (Spanish edition of Wine and Must Analysis,
translated by J. M. Gavilan, C. Romero, and J. L.
Suso.) (See #328).
338. 1976 Amerine , Maynard A. The evaluation of wines you
can't make a silk purse form a sow's ear. Les
Amis du Vin 13_(6) :15-17.
339. 1976 Amerine, M. A. North American wines. In, "Zlatna
knjiga o vinu Rijeka". Oktokar Kersovani, Rijeka.
340. 1976 Amerine, Maynard A., and Edward B. Roessler. Wines,
their sensory evaluation. W. H. Freeman and Company,
San Francisco. xiv, 230 p.
341. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Quality standards and quality
control for the small winery. Proceedings of
Ninth Pennsylvania Wine Conference, December 2,3,
1976. The Pennsylvania State University, College
of Agriculture, University Park, Pennsylvania,
342. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Le vin dans 1 ' alimentation
humaine. Symposium International sur la Consom-
mation du Vin dans le Monde, Avignon, 15-18 Juin
1976. Numero Special du Bulletin de 1'O.I.V.
343. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. American wines, 1995. Amer
ican Wine Society Journal 8:53-54.
344. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Quality standards and quality
control for the small winery. Redwood Rancher
(Vintage Issue) p. 33-35. (See #341).
345. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. Annotated bibliography on ver-
mouth with biochemical references. University of
California, Davis. 312 I.
346. 1973 Amerine, Maynard A. Annotated bibliography on ver-
mouth. University of California, Davis. 213 I.
347. 1977 Amerine, M. A. , and V. L. Singleton. Wine: An
introduction. Second edition. University of Cali
fornia Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. xiv, 373 p.
348. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A., and Paul Scholten. Varietal
labeling in California. Wines and Vines 58^11) :
349. 1977 Edwards, M. A., and M. A. Amerine. Research note:
Lead content of wines determined by atomic absorp
tion spectrophotometry using flameless atomization.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2_8_(4) :
350. 1977 Amerine, M. A. Wine. In, Encyclopedia of Food
Technology, Johnson and~P~eterson, eds. AVI Pub
lishing Company, Westport, Conn. p.
This was reprinted in, Elements of Food Technology,
Norman W. Desrosier, ed. AVI Publishing Company,
Westport, Conn. pp. 617-631. 1977.
351. 1978 Selfridge, T. B., and M. A. Amerine. Odor thres
holds and interactions of ethyl acetate and diacetyl
in an artificial wine medium. American Journal of
Enology and Viticulture 29(1) : 1-6.
352. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Andre L. Simon. Journal of
The International Wine and Food Society 4_(4) :
42-44. (Also in Gastronomies.)
353. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. El vino. Reprinted from Sci-
entific American, August, 1964, in a Spanish edi
tion. Los Alimentos cuestiones de bromatologia ,
selecciones de Scientific American. Introducciones
de Johan E. Hoff y Jules Janick. Hermann Blume
Ediciones, Madrid. pp. 213-223.
354. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Amerine speaks out on labeling.
The Pennsylvania Grape Letter and Wine News 5 (6): 7.
(Also released by Wine Institute and commented" upon
by several news papers and magazines.)
355. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Foreword to Wines of California, by R.L. Balzer.
Abrams , New York.
356. 1978 Amerine, Maynard A. Neo-Prohibitionists. The Friends of Wine 15
(3) : 10-11.
357. 1971- Amerine, Maynard A. Introductions to oral history of California
1974 wine industry leaders. Bancroft Library, Wines of California,
358. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. Future research on the values of wine. Bulletin
of the Society of Medical 'Friends of Wine. 21 : 5-6.
359. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. El vino en la alimentacion humana. Vinos y
Vinas, ISSN 0325-4712, #876. pp. 12, 16. #877, 1979. (See #342).
360. 1973 Amerine, M.A. Laboratory procedures for enologists. Associated
Students Store, University of California, Davis. 100, 9 p. Also
1965, 1967, and 1971. (See #66, 105, 165).
361. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. The biochemical processes involved in wine fer
mentation and aging. In: Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition.
Academic Press, New York. pp. 121-132.
362. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. Part II. Wine making. In: ASHRAE Handbook
and Product Directory. 1978 Applications. American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., New
York. p. 39 16.
363. 1979 Phaff, Herman J. , and Maynard A. Amerine. Wine. In: Microbial Tech
nology, 2nd ed. Vol. II. Academic Press, New York. p. 131-153.
364. 1979 Amerine, Maynard. The red and the white: the history of wine in
France and Italy in the nineteenth century, by Leo A. Loubere, State
University of New York Press, Albany. Book review. Agricultural
History 53: 655-656.
365. 1974 Amerine, Maynard A. Vermouth: an annotated bibliography. University
of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Berkeley. 69 p.
366. 1955 Amerine, Maynard A. Some facts and fancies about winemaking and wines.
Wine Institute Technical Advisory Committee, May 13, 1955. 4 p.
367. 1977 Amerine, Maynard A. Preface. In: Cabernet; notes of an Australian
wineman, by Max Lake. Rigby, Melbourne, p. 6-7.
368. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A. Foreword. In: The flavor of wine, by Max Lake.
The Jacaranda Press, Melbourne, p. ix-x.
369. 1957 Nelson, K.E. , and M.A. Amerine. Further studies on the production
of natural sweet table wines from botrytised grapes. American Journal
of Enology 8 (3):127-134.
370. 1979 Amerine, Maynard A. Stati Uniti d'America. In: Enciclopedia dei
Vini del Hondo, Lamberto Paronetto, ed. ArnoT3b Mondadori Editore,
Verona, Italy, p. 517-523.
371. 1980 Amerine, M.A. , and C.S. Ough. Methods for analysis of musts and
wines. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 341 p.
372. 1980 Amerine, M.A., H.W. Berg, R.E. Kunkee, C.S. Ough, V.L. Singleton,
and A.D. Webb. Technology of wine making. Avi Publishing Company,
Westport, Conn. 4th ed. 794 p.
373. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. Winery operations and sensory evaluation. In:
Proceedings of the Sixth Wine Industry Technical Seminar, 1979-1980.
374. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. The senses and sensory evaluation of wines.
Australian Wine, Brewing and Spirit Review 99(4): 14-16.
375. 1980 Amerine. Maynard A. The senses and sensory evaluation of wines.
Part 2. Australian Wine, Brewing and Spirit Review 99(5): 9-15.
376. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A., and Brian St. Pierre. Grapes and wine in the
United States, 1600-1979. JJK Agriculture in the West, E.L. Schaps-
meier and F.H. Schapsmeier, eds. Sunflower University Press,
Manhattan, Kansas, p. 108-113.
377. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. The words used to describe abnormal appearance,
odor, taste, and tactile sensations of wines. In: The analysis and
control of less desirable flavors in foods and beverages, G. Charalam-
bous, ed. Academic Press, New York, p.31'9-351.
378. 1981 Amerine. Maynard A. Development of the American wine industry to
1960. In: Wine Production Technology in the United States, M.A.
Amerine, ed. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 145,
Washington, D.C. p. 1-27.
379. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. It's my opinion how the consumer is deceived.
The Friends of Wine 18(2): 81. Reprinted XX(5): 12, Fall, 1983.
380. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. Describing wines in meaningful words. In:
Fundamentals of Table Wine Processing, Proceedings of 7th Training
Conference, University of California, Davis, p. 58-62.
381. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. California wine comes of age. Nob Hill Gazette
382. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. Tunisia is trying to up-grade its grapes. The
North African nation is shipping half its wine in bulk to Europe.
Wines and Vines 62 (7): 63-64.
383. 1981 Amerine, Maynard A. Rare lantern slides. Napa Valley Wine Library
Report Autumn 1981. 4 p.
384. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A. The changing preferences for wines. Food
Technology 36(1) -.106-108, 110.
385. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A. Zinfandel or Zinfandel.
Wines and Vines 63(3): 64.
386. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A.. Cornelius S. Ough, and
Michael P. W. Stone. Prices high at Nederburg
auction. Wines and Vines 63(7): 54-55.
387. 1982 Amerine. Maynard A. Scupemong: North Carolina's
Grape and Its Wines, by Clarence Gohdes. Book review
in Agricultural History.
388. 1982 Amerine, Maynard A. Three-day symposium was rich
in research. Wines & Vines 63(3): 44-45.
389. 1982 Amerine, Maynard Interview. Wine & Spirits Buying
Guide 1(2): 62-76.
390. 1983 Amerine, Maynard Interview. We don't do research
because we want to do it. We do it because we have to do
it. Napa Valley Wine Library Report. Spring. 1983: 8-12.
391. 1984 Muscatine, Doris, M. A. Amerine. B. Thompson, editors.
The University of California/Sotheby Book of California
Wine. U.C. Press/Sotheby Publications. Berkeley.
Los Angeles. London, zzzviii, 615pp.
392. 1984 Amerine. Maynard. The vine and its environment.
Vinifera Wine Growers Journal 11(4): 232-240. (Partially
reprinted from the preceding entry) 1984.
393. 1984 Amerine. M^ &._ and Philip M. Wagner. The vine and its
environment. (See pp. 86-121 of 391).
394. 1983 Amerine, Maynard A. The California wine industry and
how it got that way. In Betrachtung zum Wein, Ausfluge
in die Zeit-Raume des Weines- von Humanismus bis die
Gegenwert. Luzern. Graf ischen Betrieb Raeber AG.
395. 1985 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine-making. In World's Debt
to Pasteur. Hilary Koprowski and Stanley A. Plotkin, eds.
New York, Alan A. Liss. Inc. Vol. 2. p. 67-81.
3%. 1981 Amerine. Maynard A. Connaissance et travail du vin
[book review] Wines & Vines. Nov. 1981, p. 106.
397. 1984 Amerine, Maynard A. Wine. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of
Chemical Technology. Third edition, 24; 549-578.
398. 1980 Amerine, Maynard A. Foreword. Symposium Proceedings,
Grape and Wine Centennial, University of California,
Davis, p. III-IX.
399. 1983 Amerine. Maynard A. and Edward B. Roessler. Wines:
Their Sensory Evaluation. Revised and enlarged edition.
New York and San Francisco. W. H. Freeman, xv. 432pp.
400. 1982 Stewart. George F. and Maynard A^ Amerine. Introduction
to Food Science and Technology. Second edition. New York,
Academic Press, xiii. 289pp.
401. 1969 Amerine, Maynard A., Thomas C. Sparks and
Lura S. Middleton. Syllabus for wine appreciation. Davis.
University of California Extension. 30pp.
402. 1978 Amerine. Maynard A. Appreciation of Calif orni a wines.
Gastronomies XXIII (3): 1-4. Repeated from the New York
Wine and Food Society Newsletter of December 1977. Read
"good" for "bad" in the last sentence!
403. 1979 Amerine. Maynard A. Interview. Dr. Maynard A. Amerine
questions wine judging results. Vintage 8_(11) : 20-21.
Also in news release from Wine Institute. San Francisco.
404. 1979 Berg. H. W. . Min Akiqoshi and M. A. Amerine. Potassium
and sodium content of California wines. Amer. J. Enol.
Vitic. 40: 55-57.
405. 1985 Honoring a pioneer [Report of speech by M^ A._ Amerine]
The Wine Spectator 10(16): 21.
406. 1981 Boyd. G. D. Amerine: wine judging like dog judging. The Wine
Spectator ri(6) : 2.
407. 1985 Gordon, A. J. A nose for knowledge. This Davis scientist has
written the book on California wine and its technology.
The Wine Spectator 10_(5) : 29. 31.
408. 1985 Amerine. Maynard A. Foreword. In; Wine into words; a
history and bibliography of wine books in the English
language. Baltimore, Bacchus Press, p. vii. (See also p. 11-
409. 1986 Amerine, Maynard A. and Herman Phaf f. Bibliography of
Publications by the Faculty. Staff, and Students of the
University of California, 1876-1980, on Grapes, Wines, and
Related Subjects. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, University
of California Press, xxiii, 244pp.
410. 1988 Ough, C. S. and M. A. Amerine. Methods for Analysis of
Musts and Wines. Second edition. New York,
John WileySi Sons, x, 377 pp.
INDEX Maynard A. Amerine
acid, addition to musts, 3
alcohol and alcohol abuse, state advisory board, 18
Alioto, Joseph, 43
Alley, Curtis J., 37
Almaden Vineyards, 19, 40-41
Almendinger, Werner, 14
American Chemical Society, 3, 43
American Journal of Enoloav. 2, 8
American Journal of Enoloav and Viticulture. 20, 26
American Society for Enology and Viticulture
(ASEV) , 21
American Society of Enologists (ASE) , 5, 13, 20, 21
American Society of Heating and Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning Engineers, 9
American Vineyard Foundation, 20
American Wine Society Journal, 5
American Wine Society, 5
American Wines, 39
"Analysis and Control of Less Desirable Flavors,"
Analysis of Musts and Wines. 9
anti-alcohol movement, 17-19
anti-coagulants and wine, 15
Baker, George, 34, 35, 36-37
Balzer, Robert L. , 8
Baynard, Arnold, 30
Beaulieu Vineyard, 8
Benoist, Louis, 40, 41
Benoist, Kay, 40, 41
Berg, Harold W. , 9, 10, 11, 37
bibliographies, 5-8, 9, 29-30, 49
Bird, Rose, 14
Blanchard, Richard, 6, 32
Bohemian Club, 29
books on wine, 30-32
Brown, Edmund G. , Jr. , 14
Bundschu, Carl, 39
Cabernet. Notes of an Australian Wineman. 9
California Growers Winery, 14-15
carbonic maceration. See maceration carbonioue
Central Research Institute of Suntory, 3
Chateau Lafite, 24
Chateau Margaux, 24, 48
Chateau Mouton-Rothschild, 48
Chemical Abstracts, 3
citric acid in wines, 3
Complete Wine Book. 39
Cook, James A., 30, 36
Crawford, Charles, 45
Cruess, William V., 10
Daniel, John, Jr., 1, 39
De Luca, John, 17, 18, 41-46
"Describing Wine in Meaningful Words," 11
Dieppe, William A., 40
Dietrich, William C. 36
East-Side Winery, 14, 42
Edwards, Meridith, 8
Esau, Paul, 37
Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition. 8
fetal alcohol syndrome, 16
Fisher, Mary Frances Kennedy, 8
Flavor of Wine. The. 9
Fong, Douglas C. , 2, 36, 38
Food and Agriculture Orgnaization (FAO) , 21
Fountain Grove winery, 40
Gabler, James M. , 29
Gallo, Ernest, 44, 45
Gout du Vin. Le. 24
grape varieties, 25-26, 39
Guymon, James F., 10, 11, 28, 37
Heitz, Joseph, 46
Heublein, Inc., 15, 42
high density liptoproteins, 15
Hilgard, Eugene W. , 46, 48
Hitch, Charles, 49
Inglenook winery, 1, 39
Ivie, Robert, 41
Jacobs, Julius, 20
Japanese fermentation industry, 3
Joslyn, Maynard A., 25, 36, 38
Journal of the International Wine and Food
Kasimatis, Amand N. , 26, 30
Katz, Morris, 46
Kerr, Clark, 49
Keyes, David, 17
Kishaba, A. A., 36
Klatsky, Arthur, 15
Kliewer, W. Mark, 12, 37, 47
Korbel winery, 40
Kunkee, Ralph E., 10, 37
Lake, Max, 9
Larkmead winery, 40
Leake, Chauncey D. , 4
Lee, Russell, 19
Library Associates, UC Davis, 7, 30
Lider, Lloyd A. , 26, 30, 37
Lines About Wines. 8
Lucia, Salvatore P., 4, 14, 19
Lunardi, Paul, 18
maceration carbonique. 2, 3
Madrone winery, 41
Marcus, Irving, 8
Marsh, George, 38
Martini, Louis M. , winery, 40
Martini, Louis P., 46
Marvel, Tom, 39
Mayacamas Vineyards, 1
Mayo Clinic symposium, 8
McConnell, John, 30-31
mechanized harvesting, 33-34
medical research, 14-17, 19
Methods for Analysis of Musts and Wine.
Microbial Technology. 9
Mondavi, Robert, 46
Mothers Against Drunk Driving, 17
Mrak, Emil, 18
Muscatine, Doris, 27
Napa Valley, 50
Napa Valley Technical group, 2
Napa Valley Vintners, 15
Napa Valley Wine Library, 1, 30
National Agriculture Library, 31-32
National Distillers Corporation, 41
Nelson, Klayton E., 26, 30, 37
Noble, Anne C. , 2, 12
Nuri, Massud S., 46
O'Reilly, Robert A., 15
Office International du Vin, 4
Ohio Grape and Wine Short Course, 3
Olmo, Harold P., 11, 21, 37
Ough, Cornelius S., 3, 9, 10, 23, 26, 36, 37, 38
Pangborn, Rose M. , 2, 23, 34, 35, 38
Pasteur meeting, 30, 31
Permanente Foundation, 15
Peynaud, Emile, 24
Phaff, Herman, 7, 9, 38
Posert, Harvey, 41, 42, 43
Principles and Practices of Winemakinq. 10
Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food. 23
region system, 46-47
Remy Martin-Schramsberg brandy, 28
Roessler, Edward B. , 4, 23, 24, 34, 35, 36-37
Root, George, 37
Roseworthy College, 10
St. Pierre, Brian, 42, 43, 45
San Francisco Chronicle. 4
San Joaquin Valley Technical group, 2
San Martin winey, 41
Saxon, David, 49
Schneider, Patricia (Patty), 17, 18, 19
Scholten, Paul, 18, 38
Schoonmaker, Frank, 38, 39-41
Schramsberg Vineyards. See Remy Martin-Schramsberg
Seguin, G. , 48
Self ridge, Thomas C. , 8
"Senses and Sensory Evaluation of Wine, The," 10
sensory evaluation, 4, 10, 11, 23-24, 34-35, 36-37
Sensory Evaluation of Wine. The. 11
Serlis, Harry, 8, 14, 41
Setrakian, Robert, 43
Silverman, Milton, 4,
Simon, Andre L. , 8
Simonson, Miss , 1
Singleton, Vernon L. ,
soil studies, 47-48
solera system, 34, 37
Sparks, Thomas C. , 36, 38
Stewart, George, 35, 38
Story of Wine in California. The. 8
Students Against Drunk Driving, 17
sulphur dioxide, 19-20
6, 10, 23, 36, 37
Table Wines. 25
Technical Advisory Committee,
Technology of Winemakina. The,
Terroir de France. 48
This Uncommon Heritage. 8
Thompson, Bob, 27
Travers , Robert , 1
Tribune, Jack, 6
Turner, Thomas, 16
Twight, Edmund H. , 37
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization,
University of California, Davis, passim
Universitrv of California-Sotheby Book of California
Wine. 27, 46, 47
Uses of Wine in Medical Practice. 4
varietal labeling, 38
vermouth , 6,9
Vermouth. An Annotated Bibliography.
vineyard costs, 25
viticultural areas, 48
Wagner, Philip M. , 46
Weaver, Robert J. , 37
Webb, A. Dinsmoor, 3, 10, 11, 36, 37
Wente Bros, winery, 40
Wheeler, Louise, 5
Wine Advisory Board, 14
Wine. An Introduction. 8
"Wine and Human Nutrition," 4
Wine and Must Analysis. 3
wine auctions, 27-28
Wine in America. 8
Wine Industry Technical Symposium (WITS) 3, 20
Wine Institute, 14, 16, 17-18, 20, 29, 41-46
Wine Into Words. 29
wine judgings, 27
Wine Making at Home. 38
Wine Technology Conferences, 26
Winegrowers of California, 16-17, 18, 20
Wines and Vines. 25
Wines. Their Sensory Evaluation. 4
Winkler, Albert J., 12, 25-26, 35, 37, 39, 46-47
World Encyclopedia of Wine. 9
Yavno , Max 8
Grapes mentioned in the interview
Chardonnay, 13, 26
Green Velt liner, 41
Pinot noir, 48
Born in Portland, Oregon; came to the Bay
Area in 1932 and has lived here ever since.
Stanford University, B.A., M.A. in English;
further graduate work in Western history.
Newspaper and magazine writer in San Francisco
since 1943, writing on local history and
business and social life of the Bay Area.
Book reviewer for the San Francisco Chronicle,
Co-author of Winemaking in California, a
An interviewer-editor in the Regional Oral
History Office since 1965.