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a 4 -- 


v. -gJ 

:S al  

.X l^i 










Litterateur y Historian and Encyclopedist 

Author of " Civilization, an Historical Review of Its 
Element." "The Aryan Race." "Manual of Classical 
Literature." *'Man and His Ancestors," "Famous Men 
and Great Events of the Nineteenth Century," and 
numerous other works. Editor of "Twentieth Cen- 
tury Encyclopedia," "Biosraphical Dictionary." 
"Famous Orators of the World.'' " Half Hours with 
the Best American Authors." etc.. etc Member of 
the "Academy of Nattu«l Sciences of Philadelphia," 
"Geographical Society of PhiladelphU." "Natural His- 
tory Society," and "Society for Physical Research." 

Assisted by 


Authorities on Special Subjects 

In XTen tDolumes 






> « 

m « 


Chicago PHILADELPHIA Toronto 




The John C. Winston Co. 

Copyright 1912-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-2© 

Binder protected under 

United States Patent Rights of 
I August 27, 1918 

\ June 4, 1907 

Dominion of Canada Patent Rights or 

June 24, 1919 
made in u. 8. a. 


Three methods are used to indicate the pronunciation of the 
5;fords forming the headings of the separate articles : 

(1) By dividing the word into syllables, and indicating the 
syllable or syllables to be accented. This method is followed where 
the pronunciation is entirely obvious. Where accent mark) are 
omitted, the omission indicates that all syllables are given sub- 
stantially the same value. 

(2) Where the pronunciation differs from the spelling, the 
word is re-spelled phonetically, in addition to the accentuation. 

(3) Where the sound values of the vowels are not sufficiently 
indicated merely by an attempt at phonetic spelling, the following 
system of diacritical marks is additionally employed to approximate 
the proper sounds as closely as may be done : 

ft, a8 in fate, or in bare. 

ft, as in oima, Fr. ^me, Ger. Bahn=ft 

of Indian names 
ft, the same sound short or medium, as 

in Fr. bal, Ger. Mann, 
a, as in fat. 
A, afl in fall. 
a, obscure, as in rural, similar to u in 

bti^, ^ in her: common in Indian 

A, as in me=t in machine. 
e, as in met. 
^, as in her. 

I, as in p<ne, or as e» in Ger. Metn. 
i, as in ptn, also used for the short 

sound corresponding to 6, as in 

French and Italian words. 

eu, a long sound as in Fr. je^ne, = 
Ger. long 6, as in Sdhne, G^a 

eu, correspondiuff sound short or medi- 
um, as in Fr. pew = Ger. 6 short. 

5, as in note, moan. 

o^ as in not, frog — that is, short or 

0, as in move, two. 

tl, as in tube. 

u, as in t«b : similar to ^ and also to a. 

n, as in bull. 

U, as in So abfine=Fr. ^ as in dH, 
Ger. U long as in ffrun, Bfihne. 

ft, the corresponding short or medium 
sound, as in Fr. b«t, Ger. Mailer. 

oi, as in oil. 

ou, as in pound ; or as au in Ger. Haas. 

The consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, 1, m, n, ng, p, sh, t, v, and z, when 
printed m Roman type, are always given their common English 
values in the transliteration of foreign words. The letter c is indi- 
cated by s or k, as the case may be. For the remaining consonant 
sounds the following ssonbols are employed : 

ch is always as in ric^. 

d, nearly as th in thla = Sp. d in 

Matfrid, eta 
f is always hard, as in go. 
h represents the guttural in Scotch 

loc^, Ger. nac/T, also other c^milar 

9, Fr. nasal n as in bon. 
r represents both Eo/slish r, and r in 

foreign words, in which it is gen- 

erally much more strongly trilled, 
s, always as in so, 
th, as th in iAin. 
th, as th in thiB. 
w always consonantal, as in ire. 
z = ks, which are used instead, 
y always consonantal, as in yea (Fr. 

Ugne would be re- writ ten Itoy). 
zh, as « in pleasure = Fr. i. 



ChalGOndvlfl.a (kal-kon'di-las), Db- soft, and admitting no polish. It is an 
wucMwu«*j*»» j£5TBiU8, a Greek impure carbonate of lime, and is used as 

Sammarian, born at Athens about 1424. an absorbent and antacid, and for making 
1 the taking of Constantinople by the marks. — Black chalk is a soft variety 
Turks he came to Italy, was invited to of arg:illaceou8 slate. (See Black Chalk,) 
Florence by Lorenao de' Medici about — Brown chalk, a familiar name for 
1479, and afterwards by Ludovico umber. — Red chalky another name for 
Sforza to Milan, where he died in 1510 ruddle. — French chalky steatite, soapstone, 
or 1511. He did much to further the or talc, a soft mugnesian mineral. See 
study of the Greek language and litera- Cretaceous, 

ture in the west of Europe. f]haU^r\trgk (chal'enj), to jurors, is an 

Ghaldffifl. (kal-de'a), in ancient geog- ^UlUiCflgC objection either to one or 
^" ^"' raphy, the southerly part of all of the jurors. See Jury, 
Babylonia, or in a wider sense corres- nTiftllia (shari), an elegant dresa 
ponding to Babylonia itself. The name ^^o,iJAn fg^^^^^ ^f guj^ ^j^^ worsted 
was of comparatively late origin, the old introduced at Norwich in 1832. soft and 
titles of the country being Accad and pliable and with a clothy surface. 
Shumer. The name Chaldeans was niinlmpra (chft'm^rz, charmers), Al* 
eventually applied to a portion of the viiaxiucio exander, a British journal 
Babylonian Magi, who were devoted to [gt, editor, and miscellaneous writer, bom 
the pursuit of astronomy and magical at Aberdeen in 1759. where his fatheu 
science. See Babylonia, „ the founder of the first Aberdeen news- 

Chftldee iMlgUBJgt (kal-de), a paper, was a printer. About 1777 Chal- 

^^ name often mers came to London, was employed as 

Siven to the Aramean language (or a journalist, and edited the BHtuh Essay- 
lalect of It), one of the principal vari- i,^, from the Tatler to the Observer, pub- 
eties of the ancient Semitic. Chiddee Hghed 1803. He also issued an edition 
Uterature is usually arranged in two divi- of Shakespere. with notes, in 1809 ; and 
sions : the Biblical Chaldee, or those por- the works of the English Poets from 
tions of the Old Testament which are Chaucer to Cowper, with Johnson's 
written in Chaldee, namely, Daniel, from Lives, and additional Lives in 1810. 
ii, 4, to vii, 28; Ezra, iv. 8, to vi, 18; His most extensive work was the Gen- 
and vii, 12-26 ; and Jeremiah, x, 11 ; and eral Biographical Dictionary, thirty-two 
the Chaldee of the Targums and other vols., 1812-17. He died in London in 
later Jewish writings. See Aramaic, 1834. 

niialilrATi (chAlMron), an old English fJliolTnfkrfl George, a Scotch anti- 

vnaiarou ^^^^^^ ^f ^ bushels ; also ^aa^^icrB, ^^^^^ ^^^^^ j^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

a IT. S. measure, 26^ hundredweight led law at Edinburgh, and removed to 

r.TifLl^nr Hslv (sha-Wr'), an inlet of America, where he practised for up- 
viuucui Jjay ^^^ Q^^ ^j g^ La^. wards of ten years. On his return he 

rence, between (Quebec and New Bruna- was appointed in 17^ clerk to the 

wick. The French fleet was here defeated ?J5*^i °^, ^f?^®.' *?o*SP^®«^^^ ^J^^^^ 

by the British in 1760. ^}\, ^^^ ^eaj^ ]^ 1825. He nublished 

' various political and statistical works, 

riifi1ini» (charis), a term generally lives of Daniel Defoe and Thomas Ruddi- 

vuoiAUU uppiie^ iQ a communion cup man, and edited the works of Ramsay 

for the wine In tiie Eucharist, often of and Lindsay ; but his chief work was his 

artistic and highly ornamental character. Caledonia, a laborious historical aal 

Chalk (chft')* ^ well-known earthy topographical account of North Britain 

viwAA limestone, of a white color, from the most ancient to recent times. 

Chalmers Chalybite 

Clialllien. ^o?5 F^^ s,^^^ h truaion moTement Id the Scottish eharch 

Z_ • Boottisn pamter, oom at ^jjj^j j,jg name became most prominent 

MontiOM. He ,«tudied painting at the Throughout the whole contest to the Dla- 

Tnutaes 8dux>l in Edinlrargh under Scott ruptlon in 1843 he acted as the leader 


SSTL ^^^"^TiXi^^Th^^ of*^l gteouTnd/ort'he fiwrasismbirof which 
n^^#^ikJ^iri.J^;»-Jf^iOT^ «i«i« fce was moderator. Having vacated his 

f\9illwM^jl!mm^l^¥imS^u^<^ Uuiversity, he was appointed pnncipal 

2fec'S2^i^T87T''ilSo^^^^^^ "d primarius professor of divinity in 

his that deserve mentis are Running *S« "¥7 """"ok^^^oAi ^^^ ^^"^ Church. He 
Water. The Prayer, and The Legend, the 1>«^ May 30, 1847. - « , . ^ ^ ^ 

latter hi. last painting and one o? Ws Chaion-STir-Saone L* V a t?wn 5 
most beautiful. rfc« I^ocnrf is now in the „ ^ „. .t. ^'\c^°2; 

National GaUery at Edinburgh. He be- France, dep. SaOne-et-Loire, on the nght 
came an associate member of the Royal bank of the Satoe, which here becomes 
Scottish Academy in 1867 and a full mem- navigable for steamboata, and at the 
ber of the academy in 1871. commencement of the Canal du Centre. 

riiolmAra THOMAS, fm eminent Scot- It has a cathedral of the 13th century. 
viuujucim) tlsh divine, bom in 1780. a fine river quay, an exchange, communal 
at Anstruther Easter, Fife. He rtudied college, etc There are foundries, dye- 
at the University of St. Andrews, and work^ etc., and a flourishing trade. Pop. 
was licensed as a preacher in 1790, 26,638. 

afterwards becoming assistant to the r!1|dlA7ic|.a'nr-1/rai*llfk (sha-lO v-s d r» 
professor of mathematics at St. Andrews. ^^^^O^lS ^^^ JILarnc marn), a city 
in 1803 he was presented to the parish of France, capital of the department 
of Kilmany, in Fife, where he niade a Marne (Champagne), on the right bank 
high reputation as a preacher. In 1808 of the river Marne. The principal public 
he publlahcd an Inquiry into the Ewtent buildings are the cathedral, a nne edifice 
andBtahiUty of National Resource: In in the Gothic style; three other interest* 
1813 his article on Christianity ap- ing Gothic churches; the Hotel de Ville, 
peared in the Edinburgh Encyclopwdia, built in 1772 ; the Hotel de la Prefecture, 
and shortly afterwards his review of built in 1764, one of the finest buildings 
Cuvier*s Theory ^f the Earth, in the of the kind in France. There are manu- 
Christian Instructor. His fame as a factures of woolen and cotton goods; 
preacher had by this tlae extended itself also cotton mills, tanneries, etc. In 451 
throughout Scotland, and in 1815 he was Attila was defeated before the walls of 
inducted to the Tron Church of Glasgow. ChAlons, and from the 10th century it 
His astronomical discoursed delivered flourished as an independent state under 
there in the following winter produced counts-bishops, having about 60,060 in- 
a sensation not only in the city but habitants. After being united to the 
throughout the country, 20,000 copies French crown in 1360, it declined. A 
selling in the first year of their publictt- celebrated camp was established by 
tion. In 1819 he was transferred from Napoleon III about 18 miles from ChAlons 
the Tron to St JohnX ^ church built for the purpose of training the French 
and endowed expressly for him by the troops, still to some extent employed. 
Town Council of Glasgow, but his Pop. 21,487. 

Hr^a'ccSa* •^"is^r'thV Zr;' chalybeate Waters ^J^^'^t^. 

morsl philosophy at St. Andrews. In ing iron in solution, either as a carbon- 

1827 he was elected to the divinity ate or as a sulphate with or without 

chair in the University of E^linburgh, other salts. All waters containing iron 

an appointment which he continued to are distinguished by their styptic, inky 

hold till the Disruption from the Scot- taste, and by giving a more or less deep 

tish church in 1843. In 1832 he pub- color with an infusion of tea or of nut- 

lished his PoHtieal Economy, and galls. 

shortly afterwards his Bridgewater Gllfllvllite (l^&l'i'blt), an ore of iron. 

Treatise On the Adaptation of External ^**<**/ *'*»'^ ^ native anhydrous meta- 

A'aCwre to the Moral and Intellectual carbonate (FeCoa), existing abundantly 

Constitution of Man, During this under the name of spathic or sparry ore, 

period he was occupied with the subject or siderite. A siliceous or argillaceous 

of church extension on the voluntary variety called clay ironstone, occurring 

principle, but it was in the great non-in- in the coal-measures, is one of the most 

ChainJa Chamberlain 

ftbandaot and Talaable oree of iron, tion, etc. The office of lord-chamherlain 
Combined with carbonaceoas matter it of the h<yu9ehold is quite distinct from 
forms the blaclc-band ironstone. that of the great-chamberlain, and is 

diama (k&'ma)* the gaping cockle, changed with the administration. This 
a genus of large marine hi- officer has the control of all parts of the 
TaWes. The giant clam, Chama giga$, is household (except the ladies of the 
the largest shell yet discoyered, some- queen's bedchamber) which are not un- 
times measuring four feet across. It is aer the direction of the lord-steward, the 
found in the Indian Ocean. groom of the stole, or a master of the 

Chainade (sha-m&d'), a military term horse. The king's (queen's) chaplains, 
vjuMuauv j^^j. ^jj^ ^^^ ^^ ^ drum or physicians, surgeons, etc., as well as the 
sound of a trumpet inviting an enemy to royal tradesmen, are by his appointment ; 
parley. the companies of actors at the royal 

ChamsrODS (ka-mS'rops), a genus theaters are under his regulation; and he 
vriiaiii.a;xv|ia ^^ palms belonging to is also the licenser of plays, 
the northern hemisphere, and consisting PTioTnTiArlaiTi Joseph, an English 
of dwarf trees with fan-shaped leaves vnamucriiuu, gt^j^tesman. born in 
bom on prickly petioles, and a small London in 1836, and educated at London 
berry-like fruit with one seed. The C University school. He became a member 
^umlU$ is the only native European palm, of a firm of screw-makers at Birmins- 
It does not grow farther north than ham, but gave up active connection with 
Nice. The fibers of its leaves form an the business in 1874. He early became 
article of commerce under the name of prominent in Birmingham both in con- 
erin vigital (vegetable hair). Brazilian nection with civic and political affairs, 
grass is a fiber obtained from the Chamw- being an advanced radical and an able 
rop» argentia. A Chinese species, C. speaker, was chairman of the school* 
Poriunei, is quite hardy in the south of board, and thrice in succession mayor of 
England. the city (1874-76). In 1876 he entered 

ClLfl.maIll.ri (cham-a-lft'r6), Cham- parliament as a representative of Bir- 
wjM»iucuAXA ALHAM, a peak of the mingham, and at the general election of 
Himftlaya Mountains, at the western ex- 1880 he was chosen for the same city 
tremity of the boundary line between along with Mr. Bright and Mr. Munti. 
Bhutan and Tibet Height, 23,920 feet. Under Mr. Gladstone's premiership he 
diamber (chftm'b^r), a word used now became president of the Board of 
wjMMUM^A in many countries to des- Trade, and a cabinet-minister, and was 
Ignate a branch of government whose able to pass the Bankruptcy Act now in 
members assemble in a common apart- force, though he failed with his merchant 
ment, as the chamber of deputies in shipping bill. In the Gladstone govern- 
France, or applied to bodies of various ment of 1886 he was president of the 
kinds meeting for various purposes. The Locid Government Board ; but his 
imperial chamber (in German, Reichs- leader's Irish policy caused him to re- 
kammergerichi) of the old German Em- gign, and since then, as member for West 
pire was a court established at Wetzlar, Birmingham, he has been an active mem- 
near the Rhine, by Maximilian I in 1495, ber of the Liberal-Unionist party. He 
to adjust the disputes between the differ- was Colonial Secretary under Salisbury 
ent independent members of the German and Balfour, 1895-1905, and as such had 
Empire, and also such as arose between much to do with bringing on the war in 
them and the emperor. — Chamhera of ^uth Africa. His later advocacy of a 
commerce are associations of the mer- protective tariff brought on a schism in 
cantile men of towns for the purpose of the Unionist party which led to the res- 
protecting and furthering the interests igoation of the ministry in December, 
of the commercial community. 1905, followed by an overwhelming Lib- 

rniomViPrldiTi (cham'b^r-lin), an eral triumph in the general elections of 
l/namDenain ^^^^^ charged with 1906. He died July 3, 1914. 
the direction and management of the pri- pi.aYnhpr1aiTi Joshua Lawbbncb, 
vate apartments of a monarch or noble- viuwuucinnii, ^^^^ ^^ Brewer, 
man. The lord-chamherlain or lord- Maine, in 1828; entered the army in 
great'chamherlain of Great Britain Is 1862, was promoted brigadier-general on 
the sixth officer of the crown. His func- the battlefield by Greneral Grant in 
tions, always important, have varied in 1864, and made brevet majoivg^eneral in 
different reigns. Among them are the 1865. He was governor of Maine 1866- 
dressing and attending on the king at 71, and President of Bowdoin C:k>llego 
his coronation; the care of the palace of ISri-^. He wrote. Maine: Her rtaee 
Westminster (Houses of Parliament) ; in Hieiory: Bovereignt^ and Saerifhe; 
and attending upon peers at their crea- American Ideals, etc. Died, 1914. 




5'-" 1^1 







Editor -in- Chief 


Litterateur^ Historian and Encyclopedist 

Author of " Civilization, an Historical Review of Its 
Element." "The Aryan Race," "Manual of Classical 
Literature," "Man and His Ancestors," "Famous Men 
and Great Events of the Nineteenth Century." and 
numerous other works. Editor of "Twentieth Cen- 
tury Bncyclopedia." "Biosraphical Dictionary," 
"Famous Orators of the World.'' " Half Hours with 
the Best American Authors." etc., etc Member of 
the "Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia." 
"Geofiraphical Society of PhiladelphU," "Natural His- 
tory Society," and "Society for Physical Research." 

Assisted by 


Authorities on Special Subjects 

• I 

In Uen IDolumes 






Chicago PHILADELPHIA Toronto 


motiDtaiti* in Europe and We«t«rD A«Ia. 
Ita LoinB. which sre about 6 or 7 ini^be* 
loBfc, are rouod. almoat ■moolb, p«rpaiidio- 
olar and atralsht until near tbe tip, 
where they BuddeDly terminate in a book 
Arreted backwarda atid downward!. Its 
hair ia brown in winter, browD fawn 


oat of uw Id England ; but Ita medicinal 
properties reaetnble thoao of common 
chamomile, and It la atlll uaed in aome 
pHrta of Europe. 

Chamond ('W-mOo). St. * mano- 
(aeturlng town of France, 
department Loire, on tbe railway from 
Bt. Xtienne to Lyons. It Is well built, 
bai an old castle and a handsome parish 
chnrch ; and hai allk factories, larg* 
iron-found rlet, dye-works, etc. Pop. 

Chamonni <!"■"«•'•?>'. "' ,p=*- 

MONix (aha-mo-ne), a 
celebrated railey in France, department 
Haute-Savoie. in the Pennine Alps, oTer 
3000 feet above lea-level. It i> about 
12 milea long, by 1 to S milea broad, its 
B. side formed by Mont Blanc aud other 
lofty mountains of the cams range, and 
it la traversed by the Arre. The moan- 
tains on (he e. aide are always snow- 
clad, and from these proceed nnmerons 
gladera, such aa the Glacier de Boaaona 
and the Mer de Glace. The vlUaie of 
Cbamouni (pop. 806) ia much freqnented 
by touriata, and ia one of the points from 
which they visit Mont Blan& There it 
itatne in the Tillace to Saussure who 
  >eBk (1780), 

firat ascended the pea 

la (Antilopt ntpieapra). 

color Id summer, and grayish In spring. 
The bead is of a pale yellow color with 
ft black band from the nose to the eara 
and •nrrciundiug the eyes. The tail la 
black. Its BgiHty, the nature of ita 
hannta. and its powers of amell render 
Ita pursuit an vioaedlngly dilGcult and 
hacardona occupation. 

Chamomile, "'.^t"^!^^ ^^T'T 

' mil; AnJMmit noottu), 
 well-known plant belonging to the nat- 
oral order Compositie. It Is perennial. 
and has slender, trailing, hairy, and 
branched stems. The flower is white, 
with a yeUow center. Both learea and 
flowers are hitter and aromatic The 
fragrance ia dne to the presence of an 
•asential oil, caUed oil of chamomile, of 
a light blue color when firat extracted, 
ind used in the preparation of certain 
medieiiiea. Both tbe leaves and the 
flowers are employed In fomentations and 
poultices, and also Id the form of an iu- 
inalon aa a stimulant stomachic It 
la cultivated In gardens In the United 
Btatea, and also found wild. — Wild cham- 
oaU* lilmtrkmim ckamoMtUa) U now 

ince of France, which before the revoln- 
tion formed one of the twelre great mili- 
tary governments of tbe kingdom. It 
forms at preseut tbe departments of 
Maroe, Haute-Mame, Aube, Ardennes, 
and part of those of Tonne, Alsne, Seine- 
et-Marne, and Meuse. Troves waa the 

ChampaEme ("ham-pan'J, a French 
vuaui^nguu wiDe, wbitc Or red, 
which la made chiefly in the department 
of Marne, iu tbe formtir province Cham- 
pagne, and is generally ciiaracterised by 
the property uC creaming, frothiug. or 
effervescing when poured from tbe bottle, 
though there are also (It II Champagne 
winea. The creaming or slightly spar- 
kling Champagne wines are more highly 
valued b; conuoiaseurs. and fetch greater 
prkes than the full-frothing wines, in 
which the small quantity of alcohol they 
contain escapes from the froth as it 
rises to the surface, carrying with It the 
acoma and leaving the liquor nearly 
vapid. Tbe property of creaming or 
frothing possessed by these winea is d-le 
to the fact that tbey are partly fermented 
in the battle, carbonic acid being thereby 
produced. Wine of a similar kind can 
of course be made elsewhere, and some of 
the German champagnes are hardly to bs 
dlstinguiabed from the French. Mucb 
artifldal or Imitation champagne It aold. 

Champaign '^^ " Chancellor 

CilianiTioicm a ^'ity of Champaign Co., conflirts with the Iroquoig Indians roused 

Viuuu^ai^iiy Illinois. 128 miles s.w. a bitter enmity in that confederacy from 

of Chicago. It is the seat of the Univer* which Canada long suffered, 

sity of Illinois and has manufactures of ni,QniT^Alliftii (shft^-pol-yC?), Jeaw 

mill products, auto tools, sectional house, viittiu|iuAiiuii. pgANgois. a French 

knit goods, ejtectricja^fixturesjlocomodye gcholar, celebrated for his discoveries in 

crane*, etc Pop. (1910) 12,421 ; (1920) the department of Egyptian hieroglyph- 

15373. / V / -v rK >cs» ^^'^ a^ Figeac, department of Ix)t, 

ChamnertV \^^^^ pcr-U), or Cham- j^ 1790. At an early age he devoted hlm- 

yi J y^^Vii *" '5^i ^\ * ^"^^ self to the study of Hebrew. Arabic, 

gam with the plaintiff or defendant in Coptic, etc., and in 1809 became profes- 

any suit to have part of the land, debt, or g^p ^l history at Grenoble. He soon, 

""^^L^t^"^-*.^"*^ ^n""' iJ ^^^ ^55^^ i^""^ however, retired to Paris, where, with 

undertakes it prevails therein, the cham- ^^^ ^^^\^ ^^^ trilingual inscription of 

pertor meanwhile funiishing means to ^^ Rosetta Stone and the suggestions 

filial °'' ^® ^"'^' ^"""^ bargains are J°J^^^ ^^^ ^^^ p^ Thomas YSSng. he 

lilt J •■•- /oi«»«,^A«..8*a\ at length discovered the key to the 

Champ-de-Mars [hat^;** B?efd o^ graphic system of the Egyptians, the 

Mars, an extensive piece of 'ground in *^!«t,«^«°*^°i« ?f ril*rHr?So'*V^!S^ 

Paris formerly used aa a place of military paphic, and f.JP»iabetic—he expounds! 

exercise. It was here that Louis XVI before the Institute in a series of me- 

Bwore to defend the new constitution of ?oirs m 1823. These were published in 

1790, and it was the site of various expo- 1824 at the expense of the state, under 

aitions. Here is the Eiffel Tower. See the title of Vricxs du &y%Ume Ux^o- 

Paris glyphtque den Anctens EgypUens, In 

flliQTnnifmATi (8ham-pin'yon),aname 1826 Charles X appointed him to super- 

UnampignOIL ^^^^^ ^^ (^^ ViKnmon intend the department of Egyptian antiq- 

mushroom {Agaricus compesirtB'^ uities in the Louvre ; in 1828 he went 

as director of a scientific expedition to 
ChAmnlfLin (aham-plan'). Lake, a Egypt; and in 1831 the chair of Bgyp- 
xjunuiyxttLU, lake chiefly in the United tian archaeology was created for him m 
States, between the states of New York the College de France. He died at Paris 
and Vermont, but having the north end of in 1832. Other works are his Gram- 
it in Canada; length, about 120 miles; maire iSgyptien, and Dictionnaire Hi&ro- 
breadth, from a half mile to 15 miles. It glyphtque. 

is connected with the Hudson by canal. r!lioTnT)n11inn-Fi0*eRC (shftv-ppl- 

and has for outlet the Richelieu or Sorrei ^Jiampomon XXgcao y5^.fe.ahAk). 

river, into the St Lawrence. The scenery Jacques Joseph, the elder brother of the 

is beautiful and attracts many visitors, preceding, born at Figeac in 1778, died 

It was discovered by Samuel Champlain in 1867. His principal works are: An- 

(a.T.) in 1609. The possefision of the iiquiUs de Grenoble, 1807; Pal^ographie 

lake was a matter of imnortance in the Universelle; Annales des Lagidee, 1819; 

war of 1812-15, and Sir George Prevost's TraiU SUmentaire d^ Archiologie, 1843; 

attempted invasion of New York was de- tcriture d^motique ^gyptiennet 1843; 

feated here in a naval battle by the Amer- UHgypte Ancienne, 1850. 

leans m 1814. The American squadron ri,oTtr»A a^ P^nhnhiUUi 

was under the command of Captain Mac- t^HaiiCe. See Probabtltiy. 

th? wSil^.i, floSifi" rPi?^^®^ *^°I?*?^^ fiTlflTirpl (chan'sel) is that part ot 

^^ «,!«n5?S";i, The rout of the land l/Iiancei ^he choir of a church be- 

foroes succeeded the naval battle. tween the altar or commnnion-table and • 

ChamDlain (5*i*lP-plav), Samuel, a the rail that encloses it. 

. . French naval officer niiaTinAllAr (chan'sel-or), a high of- 

and maritime explorer, the founder of ^^a^^'^Aiui g^.^| j^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ 

Quebec, was bom about 1570; died 1635. kingdoms of Europe, the office including 

His exploits in the maritime war against in its duties the supervision of charters 

Spain in 1595 attracted the attention of and other official writings of the crown 

Henry IV, who commissioned him in requiring solemn authentication. The 

1603 to found establishments in North title and office are also ecclesiastical, and 

America. He made three voyages for hence each bishop still has his chancel- 

that purpose* In the last of which he lor, the principal judge of his consistory, 

founded Quebec, and was in 1620 ap- In the new German empire, the chan- 

pointed Governor of Canada. He did cellor (Reichskanzler) is president of the 

mnch to foster the fur trade and explore Federal Council, and has the general 

the region of the Great Lakes, and he conduct of the imperial administration 

proved an able administrator, but his In the United States, a chancellor is tb« 

Chanoellonville Cliannel Islands 

Judge of a court of chancery or equity The Chancery Division now consists of 

established by statute. the lord-chancellor as president and five 

The Lord High-ishanoeittor of Great justices. In American law a court of 
Britain and Ireland (originally of Eng- general equity jurisdiction. Separate 
land), who Is also Keeper of the Great courts of chancery or equity exist in 
Seal, is the first judicial ofBcer of the some of the States; in others the courts 
crown, and exercises an extensive juris* of law sit also as courts of equity; in 
diction as head of the Supreme Court of others the distinction between law and 
Judicature. He ranks as first lay per- equity has been abolished or never ex- 
ton of the state after the blood-ro;raL isted. 

He is a cabinet minister and a privy- CTioTida, (ch&n-dft'), a town of India, 

councilor in virtue of his office, is pro- ^**«*""'«* Central Provinces, surround- 

locator of the House of Lords by pre- ed by a wall 5^ miles long, with manu- 

■cription, and vacates his office with the factures and a considerable trade. Pop. 

ministry which appoints him. There is about 17,000. It is the capital of a dis- 

also a Lord Chancellor of Ireland, who trict of the same name. 

Is the head of the judicial bench. He is PliotifloTia-i (chan-dou>sS'), a town 

Bot a member of the British ministry. ^^»**»»"^»* of India. N. W. Prov- 

The chancellorship of Scotland was abol- inces, Moradabad district. Pop. about 

ished at the union. 30,000. 

The Ohanoellor of the Bwcheguer is the ChAnderi (ch<>n-d&'re), or Chan- 
principal finance minister of the British ^waa pg^u^gg^ ^^ ^^^^ Jq Central 

government, and as all questions of sup- India, Scindia's DominionB, in a hilly 

ply originate in the House of Commons, and jungly tract, 103 miles 8. of Gwalior, 

A peer cannot be conveniently appointed formerly of considerable extent and splen* 

to this office! It is sometimes held along dor, but now an insignificant place, 

with that of first lord of the treasury. There is a fort which ngured much ii 

Chancellor of a universiiyt the high- the wars of the Mogul dynasty, 

est honorary official in the university, GhailderilA^ore (chun'der-nug'er), 
from whom the degrees are regarded as \a****«»5v*.w ^^ Chan'dabnao- 

proceeding. The post in Britain is usu- ab ('city of sandalwood*), a town in 

ally occupied by a person of rank. Hindustan, belonging to France, on the 

ChanceUorsviUe ^^'liu^orlJi; Sf''«! ^"Ji clu^ ''^''iiJ^ eSU^ 

of the greatest battles of the American lished a formal cession of It, together 

Civil war, in which, on the 2d, 3d, and with its territory of 2325 square acres, 

4th of May. 18G3, a yictory was gained from Aurungzebe. It was three times 

by the Confederates under Generate Lee occupied by the British, but was finally 

and Jackson over the Federal troops restored to the French in 1816. Pop. 

commanded by General Hooker. Both of town and territory, 26,000. 

armies lost heavily in the battle, the Chflndniir (ch&nd'pur), a town of 
Confederates suffering severely in the '^ India, Bijnaur district, 

loss of their brilliant leader Jaclcson. N. W. Provinces; thriving, well paved 

GhailCerV (<^b<LQ'B^n), formerly the and drained. Pop. about 12,000. 

^*** J highest court of justice In ilharMfmCihfkVJ (chftng' chou), one of 

England next to Parliament, but since ^***'**& viiuw ^^^ largest cities of 

1873 a division of the High Court of China, in the province of Fokien. 36 

Justice, which is itself one of the two miles W. by S. of Amoy, its port. It has 

departments of the Supreme Court of »n active trade. Pop. est 1,000.000. 

Judicature (which see). Formerly it Clian^-CIIlOW * ^^^ ^^ China in 
embraced six superior courts called high « ZT \_m ' ^iaoK-Su province, E. 

courts of chancery, vis. : the court of the ^y "• ^' Nanking. Pop. 360^000. 

lord high-chancellor, the court of the Clianfir-SIia *.^^ ®' China, capita) 

master of the rolls, the court of appeal , _^ „.^ of Hunan province, o©. 

in chancery, and the courts of the three **>® Heng-Hiang. Pop. 250,000. / 

▼ice-chancellors, with various inferior r!lia.n1r-fi1ip11 the common conch- 

courts. The jurisdiction of the court was ^******^ oucxx, g jj e 1 1 {Turhinelh 

both ordinary and extraordinary, the PVrum)t of a spiral form, worn as an 

former as a court of common law, the ornament by the Hindu women. A shell 

latter a court of equity. The extraordi- with its spires or whorls turning to the 

nary court, or court of equity, proceeded right is held in peculiar estimation and 

npon mles of equity and conscience, fetches a high price. The chank is on% 

moderating the rigor of the common law, of the gasteropodo'us mollusca. 

and giving relief in cases w>^re there dlATlTifkl TfllaTiila (chan'el), a grouo 

was BO remedy in the common law courts, ^^ai"!©^ ISiailCU \^^ laUnds in tts 

Cbannels Chapel 

English Channel, off the w. coast of de- in great part leveled by the mob at the 
partment La Manche. in France. They revolution, but rebuilt by the Due d'An* 
belong to Britain, and consist of Jersey, male after the estate came into his po»- 
Guernsey, Alderney. and Sark, with some session in 1850. Along with its fine do* 
dependent islets. They are almost ex- main and its splendid art collection it was 
empt from taxation, and their inhabitants presented by the duke to the French In- 
enjoy besides all the privileges of British stitute in 1887. Chantilly is a horse- 
subjects. The government is in the racing center. Pop. 4632. 
hands of bodies called the "states," some Chantrev (<^han'tri). Sib Fbanois, 
members of which are named by the ^**"'"«*^J ^n Bnalish sculptor, bom 
2rown, while others are chosen by the in 1781 near Sheffieldf, was the son of a 
people, and others sit ew officio. The well-to-do carpenter. Bven in boyhood 
islands have been fortified at great ex- his chief amusement was in drawing and 
pense. They form the only remains of modeling figures, and he was appren- 
the Norman provinces once subject to ticed in 1797 to a carver and gilder. In 
Ehudand. Area 76 sq. miles, pop. (1911) 1802 he commenced work for himself at 
96,900. See the separate articles. Sheffield by taking portraits in crayons. 
Channels ^' Chain- wales, of a After studying at the Royal Academy in 
' ship, broad and thick London he eventually settled in the 
planks projecting horizontally from the metropolis, where he presented numerous 
ship's outside, abreast of the masts, busts at the exhibitions of the Royal 
They are meant to keep the shrouds clear Academy. This was the commencement 
of the gunwale. of his career of fame and fortune, ano 
CTiannillfl? (changing), William he soon came to be regarded as the first 
*'"•*" Ellert, an Unitarian monumental sculptor of his time. In 
divine and writer, born at Newport, 1816 he was chosen an associate and in 
Rhode Island, in 1780. He studied at 1818 a member of the Royal Academy. 
Harvard College, became a decided Uni- He was knighted in 1836, and died in 
tarian, and propagated Unitarian tenets 1842. His most celebrated works are 
with great seal and success. His first the Sleeping Children, in Lichfield 
appointment as a pastor was in 1803, Cathedral; the statue of Lady Louisa 
when be obtained the charge of a con- Russell, in Wobum Abbey; and statues 
gregation in Boston, and before long he of Pitt, Wallington and others in London, 
became known as one of the most popu- Pliontrv (chan'tri), an endowment to 
lar preachers of America. His reputa- v**"-**"*/ provide for the singing of 
tion was still further increased by the masses ; also the chapel where tiie masses 
publication of writings, chiefly sermons, are chanted. Chapels were frequently en- 
reviews etc.. on popular subjects. He dowe<1 by men who wished to have masses 
died at Burlington, Vermont, in 1842. — for the repose of their souls. 
His nephew, William Henry Chan- Channte (chA-not'), a city of Neoaho 
NINO, born 1810, also a Unitarian ^**"'"***'^ Co., Kansas, 126 miles 0. 
preacher (for some time at Liverpool) B.w of Kansas dty, Missouri, surrounded 
and supporter of the socialistic move- by about 2000 oil and gas wells. Here 
ment, wrote a memoir of his uncle and are the headquarters and car shops of the 
other works. Died in 1884. Southern Division of theSwita Fe R. R 

a melodic phrase or cadence. A single rilicin.Plinixr (ch&'o ch&'ou), a city 

chant consists of two strains, the first viiOrU viiuw ^^ China, province 

of three and the second of four bars in Quangtung, on the river Han, 195 miles 

length. A double chant has the length n. E. of Hong-Kong, the center of an 

of two single ones. important maritime division of the prov- 

CllATltprfille (8han-t6r-el'), a Brit- Ince, Pop. est. at 200,000. 

vnautcrciic .^^ ^^^^^ mushroom piioAa (ka'oa), in old theories of the 

iConiharellus cihariu$) of a bright ^"^"'V» earth, the void out of which 

orange color, with a pleasant fruity sprang all things or in which they ex- 

smell. Isted In a oonfused, unformed shape be- 

Ohantillv (shan-te-yfi), a town of fore they were separated into kinds. 

J^ France, department of the niiQnAl (chap'el), a term applied to 

Oise, 25 miles N. n.e. of Paris, cele- ^**»PC* buildings of various kinds 

brated for a variety of lace made here erected for some sort of religious service, 

and in the neighborhood; for the splen- Thus it may mean a subordinate place 

did chAteau, built by the great Oond6, of worship attached to a Urge chnreii. 

Chaplain Cjiaraceas 

and especially to a cathedral, separately daily chemistry. He supported the revo- 

dedicated and devoted to special serviceSb lation, and was appointed in 1799 coon* 

{See Cathedral.) Or it may mean a selor of state, and in 1800 minister of 

bnilding subsidiary to a pariah church the interior, in which post he cncoor- 

and intended to accommodate persons aged the study of the arts and estab- 

residlng at a distance from the latter; lished a chemical manufactory in the 

or a place of worship connected with a neighborhood of Paris. In 1805 he was 

palace, castle, university, etc. made a member of the senate. On the 

Chanlain (<^bBP'lix>)* literally a per- restoration he was obliged to retire to 

^/AAAjfMMu ^^ ^^^ .g appointed to a private life, but in 1816 the king nomi- 

chapel, as a clergyman not having a nated him a member of the Academy of 

parish or similar charge, but connected Sciences, and latterly made him a peer, 

with a court, the household of a noble- Chaptal's works on national industry, 

man, an army, a prison, a ship, or the chemistry, the cultivation of the vine, 

like. Chaplains in the United States etc., were very much esteemed, especially 

service have the assimilated rank of his Chimie AppUquie aum ArU (Paris, 

captain. They /eceive a yearly pay of 1807, four vols.), his Chimie Appliqu^e 

$1500. d VAifriouHure (Paris, 1823, two vols.), 

Plionl^f (chap'let), a string of beads and De Vlnduetrie Francai$e (Paris, 

xjonyiKh used by Roman CathoUcs 1819, two vols.). 

to count the number of their prayers. GlioDter (<^^AP'ter), one of the chief 
In heraldry it means a garland of leaves, •ua^/wx divisions of a book. As 
with four flowers among them at equal the rules and statutes of ecclesiastical 
distances; in architecture, a small establishments were arranged in chap- 
molding carved into beads, pearls, etc. ters, so also the assembly of the mem- 
Ghaillliail (^^l^ap'o^n), in general a hers of a religious order, and of canons, 

^^^ merchant or trader, but was called a chapter. The orders of 

in modern times more specifically a knights used this expression for the 

hawker or one who has a traveling meetings of their members, and some 

booth. societies and corporations call their as- 

flha.Ti Tnn. Ti OBOBas, an English poet, semblies ohaptere, 

jjruuk f ^j^^ earliest, and perhaps CliaT)ter*hOTlfte ^^® building at* 

the best, translator of Homer, was born ^**«*i'''^* axviaoi?, tached to a cathe- 

in 1567, and died in 1634. He was edu- dral or religious house In which the 

cated at Oxford, and in 1576 proceeded chapter meets for the transaction of 

to London: but little is known of bis business. They are of dififerent forms, 

personal history. but are often polygonal in plan. Some- 

mg^m J. WiLBTTB (1850-1018), times they were the burying-place of 

an American clergyman clerical dignitaries. See Cathedrak 


and evangelist, bom at RichmondT' Ind. fllifl.r ^^ Chabb (ch&r; Salmo urn* 

He graduated from Lane Theological Sem- ^"^^*'9 g/^)^ ^ European fresh-water 

inary in 1882 and was pastor of the BHrst fish of the salmon genus, found plentl- 

Reformed Church, Albany, 1884-00. For fullv in the deeper lakes of England, 

three years he was pastor of the Bethany Wales, and Ireland, more rarely in thoss 

Presbyterian CHiurch, Philadelphia; and of Scotland. The chars inhabit the 

after a notable evangelistic campaign, colder regions of deep waters, where the 

during which he visited various parts of temperature is less liable to vary. The 

the country, be returned to the Bethany body somewhat resembles that of a trout. 

Church in 1806. He was pastor of the but is longer and more slender, as well 

v^5w^HASSg® Pj«»Merian Church, New as more brilUant in coloring, with criDi- 

York, 100(X«5, after which he was repre- gon, rose, and white spots ; weight some- 

n!S^llS:I^'lf'%« pU.w«^?«*rfK^*'l'^ tim'es 2 lbs., but generally "under 1 

Committee of the Presbyterian Church, jb. char is much esteemed for the 

CliaDOO (c^hA'po'), a seaport of table. 

^ «^ China, province Chekiang,» (ka-rft'se-fi), an order of 

on the If. side of a large bay, 35 miles ^**«»*"'*'vc» crypt ogamous plants, 

N. from Ningpu. It carries on a con- nearly related to the Alge, composed of 

siderable trade with Japan. an axis consisting of parallel tubes, 

Chapra (d-p-rt-). Se. OXu^k. Z^^^'^^.J^^'TSStilnuSSii^t^ 

Chantal ("i^ap-til), Jban Antoxnb nant water, both fresh and salt, be* 

*^^^ Claude, Count de Chante- neath which they are always submersed, 

loup, peer of France, was born in 1756, They are most common in the temper- 

and devoted himself to the study of medi- ate sone, and amit an unhealthy, fetid 

dne and the natural aciencea, and saps- odor. 

Charade Charente 

Cliarade (sbA-i^&d' or sha-r&d'), a wooden vessels, as during long voyages, 
■^ kind of riddle, the subject has acquired an offensive smell, is de- 
of which is a word that is proposed for prived of it by filtration through char* 
discovery from an enigmatical descrip- coal powder. Charcoal can even re- 
tion of its several syllables, taken sep- move or prevent the putrescence of ani- 
arately as so many individual and signin- mal matter. It is used as fuel in vari- 
cant words. When dramatic represen- ous arts, where a strong heat is re- 
lation is used to indicate the meaning quired, without smoke, and in various 
of the syllables and the whole word it metallurgic operations. By cementation 
is called an acting charade. with charcoal, iron is converted into 
GharadriuS Cka-ra'drl-us), the steel. It is used in the manufacture of 

genus to which the gunpowder. In its finer state of aggre- 

plover belongs, forming the type of the gation, under the form of ivorybiack, 

tamily Charadriadae, which includes also lampblack, etc., it is the basis of black 

the lapwings, pratincoles, oyster-catch- paint ; and mixed with fat oils and resin- 

ers, turnstones, sanderlings, etc. ous matter, to give a due consistence, it 

CharaS (chaTo.). see OHarrc. 'AZrt (c^X'^'Z ?Uf SfiJ^: 
CharGOal (cbAr'k^l)f * t^^™ applied ^****''^ choke covered with straw in 
"^ to an impure variety of order to blanch them and make them less 
carbon, especially such as is produced bitter. — Beet charda, the leaf-stalks and 
by charring wood. One kind of it is midribs of a variety of white beet in 
also obtained from bones (see Bone- which these parts are greatly developed, 
black) ; lampblack and coke are also dressed for the table, 
varieties. Wood charcoal is prepared PliariliTi (sh&r-dap), John, son of a 
by piling billets of wood in a pyramidal vrjiaxuin Protestant jeweler in Paris, 
form, with vacuities between them for and a jeweler himself, was bom in 1643. 
the admission of air, and causing them Sent by his father to the East Indies to 
to burn slowly under a covering of buy diamonds, Chardin resided a number 
earth. In consequence of the heat, part of years in Persia and India, and latterly 
of the combustible substance is con- published an account of his travels. He 
sumed, part is volatilized, together with settled in London in 1681, was knighted 
a portion of water, and there remains by Charles II, was envoy to Holland 
behind the carbon of the wood, retaining for several years, and died in 1713. 
the form of the ligneous tissue. An- ni|oi*ATitP (shft-rAvt), a river in West- 
other process consists in heating the ^*^o,A.viL^%i ^^.^ prance, rising in the 
wood in close vessels, by which the vola- department of Haute-Vienne, and falling 
tile parts are driven off, and a charcoal into the sea about 8 miles below Roche- 
remains in the retorts, not so dense as fort, opposite to the isle of Oleron, after 
that obtained by the other process, a course of about 200 miles. It gives 
Wood charcoal, well prepared, is of a its name to two departments.— Charente, 
deep-black color, brittle and porous, an inland department, formed chiefly out 
tasteless and inodorous. It is infusible of the ancient province of Angoumois, 
in any heat a furnace can raise; but and traversed by the river Charente; 
by the intense heat of an electric fur- area, 22d4 sq miles; capital AngoulCme. 
nace it is hardened, and at length is soil generally thin, dry, and arid; one- 
volatilised, presenting a surface with a third devoted to tillage, a third to vine- 
distinct appearance of having under- yards, and the remainder meadows, 
gone fusion. Charcoal is insoluble in woods, and waste lands. The wines art 
water, and is not affected by it at low of inferior quality, but they yield the 
temperatures; hence, wooden sUkes best brandy in Europe, the celebrated 
which are to be immersed in water are cognac brandy being made in Cognac 
often charred to preserve them, and the and other districts. Pop. 351,733.— Cha- 
ends of posts stuck in the ground are rente-Inf£bieube (a^-fft-ri-eiir ; • Lower 
also thus treated. Owing to its pecul- Charente'), a maritime department, com. 
larly porous texture, charcoal possesses prises parts of the former provinces of 
the property of absorbing a large quantity Angoumois and Poitou ; area, 2791 sq. 
of air or other gases at common tempera- miles. Surface in general flat ; soil 
ture^ and of yielding the greater part chalky and sandy, fertile, and well culti- 
01 them when heated. Charcoal like- vated ; a considerable portion planted 

■•oporuer and disinfectant. Water is of common quality, and chiefly used 
wbicb. from having been long kept in for maUng brandy. Oyiten and aardinei 


■n tlw ODlf ltUcIm munfactnicd to mj aa thoM ntcd kmonf tke Efyptlau, 
treat extent. Ceidtal La Bochelle. Pop. AMyriaoe, Oneka, and Romani, were of 
403,70^ Tariooa torms, A common form iraa open 

Cha«ntott-Ie-Poiit g^;'*^-|f»-'j 

aboat Q mllea eaat from Farli, at the 

amBDCuce of the Uama with the Selna, 
with DDmcrou mercantile and mannfae- 
t:irinK estabUahmenta. Pop. 18,034. 
Chanra tchar]), in heraldry, tlgotflea 
l/Haige ^^ ™doua fignrea depicted on 
the eacntcheoD. — la tcnnnery charge 
n'lgnihf the qnantitT of powder need at 
one diacharice of a fnn- — Charge, in 
milltarj tactlca, fa the rapid adTBOce of 
infaDtr7 or cavalry agalnat the enem;, 
with the object of breaUm hli linea bj 
' 1 of the attack. Infantry 

Kenerally adTance to aboat 100 jrarda and 

fire, then fTadnaUj qafcken their pace 

into the coaTge-Bt«p, and daih at the »„.^..„ w.^^h.^..! nnuiiipii 

enemy-a Unee. Cay&Tj chante In echelon ItoptUn WM^harlot—HoaelllnL 

fire, then cradnaUy qalcken their pace 
- ■" :barfe - - --' '-^ -' "-- 
les. ( 

unnally formed In aquarea to receive them, two wheels. The chariot waa atroncly 
riiaiv^il'Affflir^a ((bir-ahfl-di f- and even eleeantly hollt, bnt not well 
Unar^a AnaireS \,). tb. title adapted for^>erf: in andent warfare 

AMTTlaa War^abailot.— Layard 

(ThnrilrAT (char-l-klr'), a town of an Elvlnf him a itreat adrantafa acalimt 

vuoijjuu AfBhanlttan, In the diatrict the Iiraelitei. The Phlliatlnea in their 

of Koblatan, 21 mllea north of Cabal, war againit Saal had 80.000 cbarioti. 

Pop. COOO. The acalpturea of andent E^pt ahow 

Cfaaj*ilIS>Cr08l <chflr^D(-kroa>, the that the chariots formed the atreogth of 

vMuuu^ ■uM.voB utnij, center of the EgyptUit army, tbeie vehlclN hulne 

London, no nanwd from a croaa which two-horaed and carrying the driver and 

atood until 1647 at the village of Charing the warrior, aomettme* a third iran, tha 

Id memory of Eleanor, wife of Edward I. ahleld-bearer. There la no representation 

It Is now a triangnlar piece of roadway of Egyptian aoldlera on horatbaek, and 

at Trafalgar Sqoare. eonseqoently when Moiea In hia aoog of 

Chariot (chnr'I-ot), > term applied to triumph over Pharaoh speaka of the 

w>Hu vw niiicica aagj ancienay both ' horss and Us rider,' ' ridtt ' ihnat ba W> 

Charltes Charlenu^fae 

dcntood to meao chariot-rider. In ths nlle; of BoDcesrallcs ij the Blscarana, 
Esrptiui chariots the framewoiit, wbeela, uid th« rear-cuard defeated ; Bolaiid, one 
pole, and yoke were of wood, and the St- of the moet famous wairlon of those 
tinis of the ioaide, the binding! of the timea, fell la the battle. Aa hi> power 
framework, aa well aa the bamcM were increaaed. ha meditated more serioady tb« 
dilefly of raw hide or of tanned leather. accompliahmenC of the plan of hla an- 
We have alw numbera of acolptur«i ceator, Cherlea Martel, to restore the 
which give a clear Idea of the Aaejrian Wertem Umpire <rf Rom'- Having goue 
chariota. These resembled the B^ptlan to Italy to aaaiat the pope, on Christmas- 
La all essential features, containing almost day 6m he was crowned and proclaimed 
invariably three men — the warrior, the Ccaar and Angoatna by Leo III, the titles 
shield-bearer, and the charioteer. A '* ' " *-'"' '*■"" ~- 
peculiarity of both is the qolver or 
qnlTers full of arrows attadied to the 
eide. The Assyrian war-chariot shown In 
the figure ia drawn by three horsea 

■at y^r by that 
1. Thus of bis 
'emained. Louis. 
m Charlemagne 
Q 813. He died 
-seventh year of 
ried at Alz-la> 
I usual place of 
was a friend of 
he name of re- 
] teacher of hla 
lis liberality the 
irs to his court 
from England), 
ay in bis palace 
Imncs of which 
I sdentlBc and 
He Invited 

abreast, and all the appointments are 
rich and elaborate. It has, as will be 
noticed, two anivera crossing each other 
on the aide, filled with arrows, and each 
also containing a small ax. A socket 
for holding the spear is also attached. 
From the front of the chariot a dngnlar 
ornamental appendage atretchea forward. 
fltiaritnn (sharl-tou), a dty, county 

&6 miles 8. by e. of Dea Holnes, on the 
Chariton lUrer. It has coal mines and 
manufactares of vehtdes, farm imple- 
ments, cement blocks, pumps. windmiUa, 

P»<-. Pop. (lOlO) 8794 : (1920) 517B. , ^ □ . _.» j 

ntinritv BiSTiM OT, Bee SMert of '. ,. , , "I- ^5u'''"JE*° 

vaariiy, nharita teachers of language and mathematios 

i,»onw. j^^ jjjjjy ^^ ji,^ prindpai dtlea of the 

Tire, and founded schools of theology 
the liberal sciences in the monas- 
~ "Ivate 

Great), King of tfae'Frank^'^nd aub^ time^of"hls'"dMthP"this intercourse re^ 

aequentlj Emperor of the West, waa malned his favorite recreation. His 

bom In 742, prebably at Aix-la-Cbapelle. mothei^tongua waa a form of German. 

Hla father was Pepin the Short, King of but he spoke several languages readilv, 

the Franks, eon of Charles MorteL Oa espedoUy the Latin, and was naturally 

the decease of his father, in 768, be elaqoent Be sought to improve the 

waa crowned king, and divided the king' litnrgy and church musie, and attempted 

dom of the Franks with his younger nnsnccessfnlly to introduce nntformi^ of 

brother Garlomau, at whoee death in meaaurea and weighta. He built a light- 

771 Charlemagne made himself master oE honsa at Boulogne, constructed several 

the whole empire, which embraced, be- ports, encouraged agriculture, and enacted 

■idea France, a large part of Gennany. wise laws. He convened councils and 

His first great enterprise waa the eon- parllamenta, publlahed capttularlea, wrote 

Sjest of 6ie SaztMis, a heathen natloa many letters (some of whlcb are still 
vine between the Weaer and the Elbe, eztant),* grammar, end several Latin 
whidb he undertook in 772 ; but It was poems. Hla empire comprehended France, 
not tin SOS that they were finally sub- most of Catalonia, Navarre, and Arogon. 
dued, and bi«oriit to embrace Ghria- the Netherlands, Germany as far as the 
tlanlty. While be was combating the Elbe, SosK and Eider, Upper and Middle 
Saxons, Pope Adrian Implored his aaslst- Italy, Istrla, and a part of Bdavonla. 
ance against Deaiderina, King of the In private life Charlemagne was exceed- 
liombaras. Charlemagne immediately Ingly amiable ; a good nther, and gen- 
marched with his army to Italy, took arous friend. In dress and habits he was 
Pavio, overthrew Desiderius. and waa plain and economical. Hfs only excess 
oowned King of Lombardr with the Iron waa hla tove of the other sex. In person 
crown. In 778 he repaired to Spain ta he was strong and of great stature. He 
asslat a Moorish prince, and while return- was sacceedea by bu son Loula (la 
ing hia troops were surprised In the IMbowialre). 

CharlemonT tSEarles IX 

Charlemont (•Uri-mAv). Sm Oivet. PKsmJ tbe MTolt ot the Poriiiaiu ana a 
«, , . ,\ , . »^«''« «' »"« pewwitB, kept lb« KIni 

CnHrlgrOl y'^'"'**''  ***■ •" *■ Navar™ at bay. and deprived the Enn- 
,, , Beldum, proTince ot Hab of a gnat pari of their donunioD in 

Halnaut, on both aidea of the river France. He died In 1380. He erecK^ 
sambre. M nilea t n. s. Mom. It baa the Bastille for tbe pnrpoae of oTenwicur 
naaufartiirea of gUaa. iroDware, etc, and tbe Paiisiaiia. 

woolen atuff. Pop. 26^ u * CharleS VI "™'>'rf the Bilh. 

Charleroi *.;^"^^"" ''J* '»""«*'"' ^," I^' Kin* or IVanoe and 
„  ..n ., " aBhinBton^Co.. Pennsrl- «» of the fbreeoinE, was born at Paris 
K?*;^„lrn?LH'';.5'"'>'"l^P''*'"^5Jl*»" ^368. and^l^ tcok the "in. "f 
tllnr worka, etc. Pop. 11.5f6. yea„ utn he lost hia reaaon, and one of 

CbarleB L gmperor <^ Aostria and the moat disaatroua periods of Fren. b 

rroiner or ine emppror Francia Joseph. AmniimaH fririaa •>■.>.« t-Tuib u 

On the death of the lutter Chariea became vTfTnJSnd^^^ ™, ?„ v li^"°.^ 
rmpPMr. Nov. 21. 1916; abdicate.) Nov. J "J S"fi£„ t^?^ °'" *° No'T"''^.^. 
12. lni8. fnllowinK defea of the empire. I?^J'n^"?''SLSL'S™' T"" "'^Sf"^"' 
_, , _ . , „• netory of Agiuconrt and compelled the 

Charlea I, '^^^ J" '^''f'S'' °' "■^ *>"? *• acknowledge him aa bii 

' W.^'U* ^'■'? "' France, anccessor, Charlea died In J422. 
waa aon ot IjOQla de iMbonnaire, and waa /Ti,n_i__ tttt Kln» of Fnniw wa* 
born 823. AfUr hia father'a death in CbatleS VII, hora a? ParU i?'l4fa 
«0 he fo.rtt with bU half-broth.r He„c«e<IedonIyw™h'a^SKi^ 
Uthaire for tbe^pire of the Franks inces of the kingdom. Henry VI of W 

tWS2^ tbi ™n ™ Jbe one ride a^ ^ ^"^■- J^« J^"*"'"' <'"'nl°i<'° l" Fran™ 

and Iha Mediterranean, on the ^rTBut M'h^''.'l-i''£i?' """' ^""y didthe Eng- 

be lo.t Southern Aqultolne to hU nephew f.?„Cj' /°''^'"'' ?'" "J^'5'"'" """ 

Pepin, and bad to divide Lorraine with ^^"'f ''?^ ,''""^t »b»ndoned the 

hia brother Ixmli the Oerman. In 875 "/"fB'e " hppeleaa when the appearance 

be woa crowned emperor by Pope John "' JMine d'Are, the ifa.rf of Orleamt. 

VIII. He died In 877. "": "''by a mlraele. a favorable turn 

Charlei H, Jl^.T'Sf^.'-^te " «« Eg,''eVn&of%'X!W^V,^^^^^^^^^ 

al«. known aa ChaVle. ftl. Em«w of ?i'::S'''"5f^ '?„ TiSf" ""^P* Calais 
(Jermany, and waa bom ab^ut g^2. He „"''*! ^'^'Li^U, 

aiFcndnd the French throna Id 8SS to the .. . . "' lMa.i» XI. wai 

prejudice of hIa couain. Charlea the ,7,45 ^70, and ancceeded hia father 

mmiite, but waa depoaed in 887 and died '°,i^»- . In 1491 he married Anne, Itae 

Ihtt followlncyear. heiresa of Brittany, and thereby aDneiPif 

Charlei lit. ^^"t <>' BVance, aor- "•■' '"SS"'"* "*"=''y '•> 'be Frenrb 

.. , . ' namfld the Himp^. waa ''""™- ^he chief event In the reign of 

icISP '*' "'""'■ ""* Htammerer, and born *^"rlM VIII ii his expedition Into Italv. 

In Il7n. Ilia relgn la noted for hii long ■'"' "P'd conqneat of the kingdom ol 

■initfle wJlh Ihn iilraDi'Dl Northmen or Naplea, a conqueit aa rapidly lost when a 

K'lmiaDa, I In illxd lu II21I. few months later Oonsalvo de Cordova 

OharlailV. ^''*' *>* yT»'*<», "ur r»"nnpxed It to Spain. Charlea wi* 

' tiarnM kt /Irt, or Iht meditating a renewed descent into Italy 

IIan4»omii, ihIM mm of i'billppe le Bel, "hen he died In 14B8. 

.r,^i;",,&.'ift r >riS\& Chan.. IX, siii,';,i-rc^,'z<;^. 

• lup- lad «IH1 VMn n pmm wu mad, 1 

Charles X Charles T 

1570, whicb. two yeara later, on 24tb Auitrle, and of Joaona, the daaghter of 
Augnst. 1572, was treacherous); broken Ferdinand and Isabella of Spun, was 
b; the Maiiaere of St. Bartholameic. born at Ghent, Feb. 24, 1500. Charles 
^e king, wbo had been nitle more Iban was thus ihe grandaoQ of the Emperor 
the tool o( bia ichenilDK mother, died twa Mazlmitiaii and Mary, daaghter of 
fean afterwarda, in 1Q74. Charles the Bold, last Dulie of Burgnod;, 

PhoTlna Tt King of France, Comts and Inherited from his fsrand parent* od 
liuancB .A., ^'Artola, born at Ver- both sides the fairest cauntries in Europe, 
■allies In 17S7, graodsoD of Loula XV, Aregon. Naples. Sicily, Sardinia, CaBtUe, 
was the youDgest son of the dauphin, and and the colonies in the New World, 
brother of I»uis XVI. He left France AtiHtria, Burgundy and the Netberlanda. 
Id 17^, after the first popular tnsurrec- On the death of Ferdinand, bis graud- 
tion and destruction of the Bastille, and father, Charles, assumed the title of King 
afterwards assuming tbe command of a of Spain. Id 1519 he was elected 
body of emigrants, acted In concert with emperor, and was crowned at Aii-la-Cha- 
the Austrian and Pruaalan armies on the pelle with eitraordinary splendor. The 
Rhine. Deapairing of success, he retired progress of the Reformation ot Germany 
to Great Britain and resided for aeveral demanded the care of the new emperor, 
yeara in tbe palace of Holyrood at who held a diet at Worms. Luther, who 
Edinburgh. lie entered France at the appeared at this diet with a safe-conduot 
Restoration, and in ]824 succeeded his from Charles, defended his case wltb 
brother. Louis XVIII, as king. In ft 
abort time hia reactionary policy brought 
him into conflict with the popular party, 
■nd in 1830 a revolution drove him from 
the throne. He died in 1836. His 
grandson, tbe Comte de Cbambord (which 
see), claimed the French throne as his 

nhat-laa TV Emperor of Germany, of 
VUaries l » , ^jj^ ,,„„gp „, Luxemburg, 
waa bom 1316. and was the son of King 
John of Bohemia. In 134G he was elected 
emperor by five of the electoral prince^ 
while the actual emperor Lonis the 
Bavarian was still alive. On the death 
of the latter e part of the electors elected 
Count Gnntber of Schwanburg, wbo soon 
after died; and Cbarlea at lengtli won 
over bis enemies, and was elected and 

consecrated emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle. ~. , .. ir. 

In 1354 he went to Italy and waa crowned f^*^" ^ "' Cwmaw 

King of Italy at Milan, and emperor at energy and boldness. The emperor kept 
Rome the year following. On his return ailent ; but after Luther's departure a 
to Germany in 1356 Charles issued his severe edict appeared against him In the 
Qolden Bull (which aee) regulating tbe name of Charles, who thought It his 
election of tbe German emperors, lie interest to declare himself the defender of 
died at Prague in 1378. Charles was art- the Roman Church. A war with France, 
ful, but Taclllatlng. and careless of all wbicli tbe rival claims of Francis I in 
interests but those of his own family and Italv. Ihe Netherlands, and Navarre made 
hia hereditary kingdom of Bohemia. In Inevitable, broke out In 1521. Neither- 
Germany banda of robbers plundered the aide bad a decided success till the battle 
country, and the fiefs of the empire were of Pavla in 1525, where Francis waa 
alienated. In Italy Charlen sold stales totally defeated and taken prisoner. 
■nd cities to the highest bidder, or if Charles treated his captive with respect, 
they themselves offered most, made tbem but with great rigor as regarded tbe 
Independent republics. But Bohemia conditions of his release. A league of 
flounabed during hia reign. He encour- Italian states, headed by Pope Clement 
aged trade, industry, and agriculture, VII, was now formed againat the over- 
made Prague s great city, and established grown power of Cbarlea ; but their Ill- 
there tbe first German university (1348). directed efforts had no succesa. Rome 

Charles VI Charles I 

Frands agminst the emperor any more made a French prinee« Philip, Dnke of 

succeeeful, the war endiDg in a treaty Anjon, grandiion of Louis XlV, heir to 

(Cambray, 1529) of which the conditions the Spanish monarchy. This occasioned 

were favorable to Charles. A war the war of the Spanish Succession, in 

against the Turks by which Solyman was which England and Holland took the part 

compelled to retreat, and an expedition of the Austrian claimant. Charles held 

against the Dev of Tunis by which 20r possession of Madrid for a time, and was 

000 Christian slaves were released, added supported by the skill of Marlborough 

to the influence of Charles, and acquired and Eugene, but he was eventually 

for him the reputation of a chivalrous obliged to resign Spain to the French 

defender of the faith. In 1537 he made claimant, and content himself with the 

truce with Francis, and soon after, while Spanish subject-lands, Milan, Mantua, 

on his way to the Netherlands, spent six Sardinia, and the Netherlands (Treaty of 

days at the court of the latter in Paris. Utrecht, 1718, and Treaty of Rastadt, 

In 1541 another expedition against the 1714). He became emperor in 1711. In 

African Moors, by which Charles hoped a war against the Turks his armies, led 

to crown his reputation, was unsuccess- by Eugene of Savoy, rained the decisive 

fnl, and he lost a part of his fleet and victories of Peterwardein and Belgrade, 

army before Algiers without gaining any After the death of his only son, Charles 

advantage. A new war with France directed all his policy and energies to 

arose regarding the territory of Milan, secure the guarantee of the varions 

The quarrel was patched up by the peace powers to the Pragmatic Sanction, whi^ 

of Crespy in 1545. The religious strife settled the succession to the Austrian 

was again disturbing the emperor, dominions on his daughter Maria Theresa. 

Charles, who was no bigot, sought to In 17^ a war with France and Spain 

reconcile the two parties, and with this regarding the succession in Poland ter* 

view alternately courted and threatened minated unfavorably for him, he ha vine 

the Protestants. At length in 1546 the to surrender Sicily, Naples, and psrt of 

Protestant princes declared war, but were Milan to Spain, and Lorraine to France, 

driven from the field and compelled to In 1727 he renewed the war with the 

■ubmlt. But tbe defection of his ally, Turks, this time unsuccessfully. Charles 

Maurice of Saxony, whom Charles had in- died Oct. 20, 1740. 

vested with the electoral dignity, again r!1iaY.lAfl XTJT Emperor of Germany, 

turned the tide in favor of the Protes- ^**»"CB V XX, YH}Ta in 1697, was the 

tants. Maurice surprised the imperial son of Maximilian Emanuel, elector ol 

camp at Innsbruck in the middle of a Bavaria. In 1726 he succeeded his father 

stormy night, and Charles with great as Elector of Bavaria. He was one of 

difficulty escaped alone in a litter. The the princes who protested against the 

Treaty of Passan was dictated by the Prajnnatic Sanction, and after the death 

Protestants. It gave them equal rights of Charles VI (see above), in 1740, he 

with the Catholics, and was confirmed refused to acknowledge Maria Theresa 

three years later by the diet of Augsburg as heiress. In support of his own claims 

(1655). Foiled In his schemes and de- he invaded Austria with an army, took 

Jected with repeated failures, Charles Prague, wts crowned King of Bohemia, 

resolved to resign the imperisi dignity, and in 1742 was elected emperor. But 

and transfer his hereditary estates to his fortune soon deserted him. The armies of 

son Philip. In 1555 he conferred on him Maria Theresa reconquered all Upper 

the sovereignty of the Netherlands, and Austria, and overwhelmed Bavaria, 

on January 15, 1556, that of Spain, re- Charles fied to Frankfort, and returning 

tiring himself to a residence beside the to Munich in 1744, died there the follow* 

monastery of Yuste in Estremadura. Ing year. 

where he amused himself by mechanical fSliorlAft T King of England, Scot- 
labors and the cultivation of a garden. ^^«***'?o ^f Umd, and Ireland, wft 
He still took a strong interest in public bom at Dunfermline, Scotland, in the 
affairs, though in his later years he was year 1600, and was the third son ol 
very much of an invalid, his ill health James VI and Anne of Denmark. He 
being partly caused by his gourmandising married Henrietta Maria, daughter of 
habits. He died on Sept. 21, 155S. Henry IV of France, and in 1625 sue- 
ChArlefl VI German emperor, the ceeded to the throne, receiving the king- 
^ second son of the Em- dom embroiled in a Spanish war. The 
pexor Leopold I, was born Oct. 1, 1685. first parliament which he summoned, 
He was destined, according to the being more disposed to state grievances 
ordinary rules of inheritance, to succeed than grant supplies, was dissolved. Next 
his relative (Charles II on the throna year (1626) a new pitrliament was sum- 
of Spain. But Charles II by his will moned; but the House proved no morw 

Charlwl Charla n 

tnclBble than b«fon, and was mod dl«- wai agalo sanmoDcd, which proved to ba 

•olved. Id 1628 the king wbb obUsed to the Umoua Long Parliament. An ac- 

call a third perliameDt, whkh allowed connt of the struggle between king and 

itself at mnch oppooed to arbitrar; mea»- parliament, the trial and eiecatlon of 

nres as it» predeceisor. and after Totiug Strafford and Laud, etc., cannot here be 

the BUppliea prepared the Petition of given, but tl)« result waa that both klnf 

Right, inilch Charles was coDstraJned to and parliament made preparations for 

pass Into a law. But the determined war. The king had on his side the great 

•plrlt with which the parliament rented bulk of the gGnirv. while nearly all the 

Faritens ana the inhabitants of the great 

trading towns Hided with the parliament. 

The first action, the battle of EdKeblll 

(23d Oct. 1642), gave the king a slUht 

advantage : but nothing very deHslve 

happened till the battle of Maraton \fDoi, 

In 1014 *here Cromwell routed the rofal- 

Ista. The loss of the battle of NaBebj. 

the Tear following, completed the ruin of 

the king's cause. Charles at length gave 

himself up t* the Bcotllsh army at 

Newark (5th Me;. 1646). After tomi 

oegotlationB he was surrendered to tbi 

commisstoners of the parliament. Tb' 

extreme sect of the Independente, largely 

represented In the arm; and headed bj 

Cromwell, now got the upper hand, and 

coercing the parliament and the morf 

hesitating of the PreBbjterlans, hroughl 

Charles to trial for high treason agslnsl 

the people, and had sentence of death 

prononnced sinalnst bim. All interpoal. 

the king's claim to levy tonnage and tion being vain, be was beheaded bpfort 

poundage on his own authority led to a the Banqueting House. Whitehall, on 30th 

rupture, and Charies again dissolved the Jan.. 1649, meeting his fate with greal 

parliament, resolving to try and reign dignity and composure. Charlei had 

wilhout one. In this endeavor he was many good qualities. Possessed of a 

supported hv Strafford and Laud as bis bighly-cultlveted mind, with a fine judg- 

chief counselors. With their help (Carles ment in arts and letters, he was also 

continued eleven years without summon- temperate, chaste, and religious, and, al- 

Ing R parliament, using the arbitrary though somewhat cold in his demeanor, 

courts of High Commission and Star- kind and affectionate. Nor was talent 

chamber as a kind of cover for pure wanting to him. But these merits were 

absolutism, and raising money by oncon- counterbalanced and all but neutraliaed 

■tltutional or doubtful means. In 163? by a want of self-reliance and a habit of 

John Hampden began his career of vacillation, which in bis position had the 

resistance to the king's arbitrary meaa- effect of Insincerity. Coupled with this 

ores by refusing to psy ship-money, the was a temperament which would not 

right to levy which, without authonty of brook control and (ended to abBoIutlsm, 

Esrliament, he was determined to bring pi,a-lAa TT King of F<ugland, Ire- 
Bfore a court of Uw. His cause was ^nanes lA, ^^i. and Scotland, son 
argued tor twelve days in the Court of of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of 
Exchequer; and although he lost it by France, was bom In 1C30. He was a 
the dedsion of eight of the JuUges out refugee at The Hague on the death of his 
of twelve, the discussion of the question father, on which he immediately assumed 
produced a very powerful impression 'n tlie royal title. Cromwell was Ibeu all- 
tbe public mind. It was in Scotlsntf, powerful in England ; but Charles ac- 
however, that formal warlike opposition cepted an invitation from the Scots, wbo 
was destined to commence. The attempts had proclaimed him their king July, 1650, 
of Charles to Introduce an Anglican and, passing over to Scotland, was 
liturgy Into that country produced violent crowned at Scone (1651). Cromwell'a 
tumults, and gave origin to the famous approsch made him take refuge among 
CotieHORf in 1638, to oppose the king's the English royallata, who. having 
design. An English army was sent north, gathered an army, encuunlpred Cromwell 
but was defeated by the army of tbe at Worcester nnd wern tctalty defeated. 
Covenanters, and In 1640 a parliament With great dIfDculty Chnrlea escaped t<i 

Charles n Charles Xn 

France. On the death of Cromwell the selfish, and Indifferent to anything bat hii 

Restoration effected without a struggle by own pleasure. He had no patriotism* 

General Monk set Charles on the throne honor, or generosity, but was not destitute 

lifter the declaration of Breda, his entry of the ability to rule. He had no 

into the capital (29th May, 1660) being legitimate children. His mistresses were 

nude amidst universal acclamations. In numerous, and several of them were 

1662 he married the Infanta of Portugal, raised to the highest ranks of nobility, 

Catharine of Braganza, a prudent and while six of his illegitimate sons were 

virtuous princess, but in no way calcu- made dukes. 

Imted to acquire the affection of a man like Charles XII ^^^S of Sweden, was 
Charles. For a time his measures, mainly ^**«***^" ^^aa, ^^^^ ^^ Stockholm, 
counseled by the chancellor. Lord June 27, 1682. On the death of his 
Clarendon, were prudent and conciliatory, father, in 1607, when he was but fifteen 
But the indolence, extravagance, and years old, he was declared of age by the 
licentious habits of the king soon involved estates. To his jealous neighbors this 
the nation as well as himself in dif- seemed a favorable time to humble the 
ficulties. Dunkirk was sold to the French pride of Sweden. Frederick IV of Den- 
to relieve his pecuniary embarrassment, marlc^ Augustus II of Poland, and the 
and war broke out with Holland. A Czar Peter I of Russia concluded an 
Dutch fleet entered the Thames, and alliance which resulted in war against 
burned and destroyed ships as far up as Sweden. With the aid of an English and 
Chatham. The great plague in 1665, and Dutch squadron the Danes were soon made 
the great fire of London the year follow- to sign peace, but Augustus of Saxony 
ing, added to the disasters of the period, and Poland, and the czar were still in the 
\n 1667 Clarendon was dismissed, and a field. Rapidly transporting 20,000 . men 
Cnpie alliance between England, Holland, to Livonia, Charles stormed the czar's 
and Sweden, for the purpose of checking camp at Nerva, slaying 30,000 Russians 
the ambition of Louis XIV, followed ; but and dispersing the rest (30th Nov., 1700). 
the extravagance of the king made him Crossing the Dwina he then attacked the 
willing to become a mere pensioner of Saxons and gained a decisive victory. 
Louis XIV, with whom he arranged a Following up this advantage he won the 
private treaty against Holland in 1670. battle of Clissau, drove Augustus from 
The Cabal ministry was by this time in Poland, had the crown of that country 
power, and they were quite ready to conferred on Stanislaus Leczinsky, and 
break the triple alliance and bring about dictated the conditions of peace at 
a rupture with the Dutch. As the king Altranstadt in Saxony in 1706. In Sep- 
did not choose to apply to parliament tember, 1707, the Swedes left Saxony to 
for money to carry on the projected war, invade Russia, Charles taking the shortest 
he caused the exchequer to be shut up in route to Moscow. At Smolensk he altered 
January, 1672, and by several other dis- his plan, deviated to the Ukraine to gain 
graceful and arbitrary proceedings gave the help of the Cossacks, and weakened 
great disgust and alarm to the nation, his army very seriously by difficult 
The war ended in failure, and the Cabal marches through a district extremely 
ministry was dissolved in 1673. The year cold and ill supplied with provisions. In 
1678 was distinguished by the pretended this condition Peter marched upon him 
Popish plot of Titus Oates. which led to with 70,000 men, and defeated him com- 
the exclusion of Roman Catholics from pletely at Pultawa. Charles fled with a 
parliament. In 1670 the Habeas Corpus small guard and found refuge and an 
Act wms passed, and the temper of the honorable reception at Bender, in the 
parliament was so much excited that the Turkish territory. Here he managed to 
king dissolved it. A new parliament persuade the Porte to declare war a^nst 
which assembled in 1680 had to be dis- Russia. The armies met on the banks of 
solved for a like reason, and yet another the Pruth (July 1, 1711) and Peter 
which met the year following at Oxford, seemed nearly ruined, when his wife. 
Finally Charles, like his father, deter- Catharine, succeeded in bribing the grand 
mined to govern without a parliament, vizier, and procured a peace in which the 
and after the suppression of the Rye interests of Charles were neglected. The 
House plot and the execution of Russell attempts of Charles to rekindle a war 
and Sidney re-established an absolute rule, were vain, and after having spent some 
He died from the consequences of an years at Bender he was forced by the 
apoplectic attack in February, 1685, after Turkish government to leave. Arrived in 
having received the sacrament according his own country in 1714, he set about the 
tc the rites of the Roman Church, measures necessary to defend the king- 
Charles was a man of wit, and possessed dom, and the fortunes of Sweden were 
an easy good nature^ but was entirely beginning to assume a favorable aspect 

Charles XTTT Cbajrles Edwaxd Stuart 

when he was slain by a cannonball as he against the French. In 1805 he corn- 
was besiegfing Frederikshall, Norway, manded in Italy against Mass^na, and 
Not. 30, 1718. Firmness, valor, and love won Galdiero (31st Oct.) ; but in the 
of justice were the great features in the campaign of 1809 in Germany against 
character of Charles, with which were Napoleon he was unsuccessful, the battle 
combined a remarkable military genius of Wagram (5th and 6th July) laying 
and a desire to emulate the career of Austria at the feet of the French em- 
Alezander the Great. But his rashness peror. With that event the military 
and obstinacy were such as to negative career of Charles closed. He died in 
the effect of his high powers. After 1847. He published several military 
his death Sweden sank from the rank of works of value. 

a leading power. V^oltaire's Life of fjliQrlpfi Alhi^rf K^ns of Sardinia, 

CKar\€9 XII gives a picturesque account ^*^**^n ^xiMCit, ^^ ^^q^ ^^ ^^ 

of his career. son of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of 

f!1iQrlAa TTTTT K>Bg of Sweden, was Savoy-Carignan. In 1831 he succeeded 

UimriCB ^J^x, ^^^ j^ j^-^g^ ijgi^g t^j jijg throne on the death of Charles 

the second son of King Adolphus Fred- Felix, but his government at first greatly 
erick. In the war with Russia, in 1788, disappointed the liberal party by its 
he received the command of the fleet, despotic tendencies. It was not till near 
and defeated the Russians in the Gulf 1848 that, seeing the growing strength of 
of Finland. After the murder of his the progressive and national movement 
brother, Gustavus III, in 1792, he was in Italy, he took up the position of its 
placed at the head of the regency, and champion. As such he took the field 
gained universal esteem in that position, against Austria on behalf of the Lom- 
The revolution of 1809 placed him on the bardo- Venetian provinces, but was crush- 
throne at a very critical period, but his ^ngly defeated at Novara, 23d March, 
grudent conduct procured the union of 1849. He abdicated in favor of his son, 
weden with Norway, Nov. 4, 1814. He Victor Emmanuel, and, retiring to 
adopted as his successor Marshal Berna- Portugal, died 28th July, 1849. 
dotte, who became king on the death of fHiorlAA AiKrufltils Grand Duke of 
Charles, Feb. 6, 1818. UnariCS ilUgUSlUS, Saxe-Weimar, 

r!liaT>lAa YTV o^^ D -. J -.^ bom in 1757; died in 1828. He suc- 

LnarieS AIY. See BemadoUe. ^^ded to the dukedom in 1775, and be- 

niiarlpa T King of Spain. See cause of his lasting friendship with 

vuaiACD ±j Charlea 7, Emperor of Goethe, gathered around him a cotene of 

Germany. literary people, which made his court 

Charles TV King of Spain, born at famous. He was one of the few rulers at 

vuaixus XV, j^.pig- 12th Nov 1784 that time with democraUc impulses. 

succeeded his brother Ferdinand VI in CharleS CitV. 5i,^*/'^"°^/ ®®*^ ^^ 
1788, was aU his life completely under "J^^^* ^\^^ K^""^^ ^9Sr ^°^*', ^° 
the influence of his wjfe and her ?»« P«**' River. Manufactures include 

paramour GodoyT" In ISOS'Charies abdi- J?.™*?,"^? traction engines, etc. Charles 
cat^ in favor of Napoleon. He died in SSd ^11^ pinsSo.^'''^ "^'^ " '" 

/«. 1 X in«. # T, , Charles City Cross Boads, » J^ 

Charles I, ^ i^\^r^%t Th"; m Vlr^nla, 1/ miles 8. e. of Rich.S^^^ 
German Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzol- ™ac*e famous by a battle in the Civil war 
lern-Sigmaringen. He was elected Prince between the Confederates under Long- 
of Roumania in 1866 and was crowned street and Hill, and the Federals under 
king in 1881, following the Russo-Turkish McClellan, June 30, 1862. 

55'^« S" "^^'^li^SH^*"' daughter of Charles Edward Stuart, fv**i«^ 

Prince Herman of Wied, became a notable , ^ ^ * ^ ^^ iJ?®*^^^ 

author under the pen name of Carmen lender, grandson of James II, A^imr oi 
Sylva. On the outbreak of the European England, son of James Edward and Clem- 
war he maintained the neutrality of Kou- entina, daughter of Prince Sobieski, was 
mania and kept in close touch with the bora in 1720 at Rome. In 1742 he 
Triple Alliance. He died on October 10, ^ent to Paris and persuaded Louis XV 
1914, and was succeeded by his nephew, to assist him in an attempt to recover tha 
Prince Ferdinand of HohenzoUem-Sigma- throne of his ancestors. Fifteen thou- 
ringen, in default of direct heirs. sand men were on the point of sailing 

Charles Abchduke of Austria, third from Dunkirk, when the English admiral 
9 son of the Emperor Leopold Norris dispersed the whole fleet. Charles 
U, was bom in Florence 5tn Sept., 1t71. now determined to trust to his own exer- 
oommander-in-chief of the Austrian army tions. Accompanied by seven officers he 
on the Rhine, he won several victories. landed on the west coast of Scotland 

Charles Harter Cliarles Xiver 

from a small ebip called the Douielle. October, 732, over the Saracens, near 

Many Lowland nobles and Highland Tours, from which he acquired the name 

chiefs went over to bis party. With a of Martel, signifying hammer. He died 

smaU army thus formed he marched for 741. Charlemagne was his grandson, 

ward, captured Pet-cb, then Edinburgh See Charlemagne. 

WBiiU'^<J«'8«oh'S ^ l\ Charles the Bold, SV'.'oSTr 

Prestonpans (Sept. 22), and adTandng Philip the Good and Isabella of Portugal, 

obtained possesion of Carlisle. He now bom at Dijon Nov. 10, 1433. While his 

caused his father to be proclaimed King father yet lived Charles left Burgundy, 

and himself Regent of England ; removed and forming an alliance with some of the 

his headquarters to Manchester, and great French nobles for the purpose of 

soon found himself within 100 miles of preserving the power of the feudal 

London, where many of his friends nobility, he marched on Paris with 20,000 

awaited his arrivaL The rapid successes men, defeated Louis XI at Montlh^ri, and 

of the adventurer now caused a part of won the counties of Boulogne, Guines, 

the British forces in Germany to be re- and Ponthieu. Succeeding bis father in 

called. Want of support, disunion, and 1467, he commenced his reign by severe 

jealousy among the adherents of the house repression of the citizens of Li^ge and 

of Stuart, some errors, and the superior Ghent In 1468 be married Margaret of 

force opposed to him, compelled Frince York, sister of Edward IV of England. 

Charles to retire in the beginning of 1746. Li^ge having rebelled, the dnke stormeo 

The victory at Falkirk (Jan. 28, 1746) and sacked the town. In 1470 the war 

was his last. As a final attempt ha with France was renewed, and although 

risked the battle of Culloden against the the duke was forced to sue for a truce 

Duke of Cumberland, April 16, 1746, in he soon took up arms anew, and, crossing 

which his army was defeated and entirely the Somme, stormed and fired the city of 

dispersed. The prince now wandered Nesle. Louis meanwhile involved him 

about for a long time through the wilds in greater embarrassments by exciting 

of Scotland, often without food, and the agamst him Austria and the Swiss. 

grice of £210,000 sterling was set upon Charles, ever ready to take up a quarrel, 
is head. At length, on Sept 20, 1746, threw himself on Germany with char- 
five months after the defeat of Culloden, acteristlc fury, and lost ten months la 
he escaped in a I^nch frigate. He a futile siege of Neuss. He was success- 
received a pension of 20,000 llvres yearly ful, however, in conquering Lorraine from 
from France, and of 12,000 doubloons Duke Ren6. Charles now turned his 
from Spain. Forced to leave France by arms against the Swiss, took the 
the terms of the Peace of Aiz-la-Chapelle city of Granson, putting 800 men to the 
(1748). he went to Italy, and in 1772 sword. But this cruelty was speedily 
married a princess of Stolberg-Gedern, avenged by the descent of a Swiss armv, 
from whom eight years later he was which at the first shock routed the duke s 
separated. (See Albany.) In the end forces at Granson, March 3, 1476. Mad 
he fell into habits of intoxication, died with rage and shame Charles gathered an- 
Jan. 31, 1788, and was buried at Frascati. other army, invaded Switzerland, and 
The funeral service was performed by his was again defeated with great loss at 
only surviving brother, the Cardinal of Morat. The Swiss, led by the Duke of 
York, with whose death In 1807 the Lorraine, now undertook the reconquest 
Stuart line ended. The cardinal received of Lorraine, and obtained possession of 
a pension from Britain of £4000 a year Nancy. Charles marched to recover it, 
till his death. but was utterly routed and himself slain. 
Chftrles Mfl.rtel' 'uler of the The house of Burgundy ended in him, and 
vuc»AA«/o 4iM»A v\0M, y ppnQj^g^ ^^s a SOU his dcsth without male heirs removed 

of Pepin H^ristal. His father had gov- the greatest of those independent feudal 

erned as mayor of the palace under the lords whose power stood in the way of 

weak Frankish kings with so much Justice the growth of the French monarchy, 

that he was enabled to make his office be- His daughter Mary married Maximilian 

reditary in his family. Chilperic II, king of Germany, but most of his French 

of the Franks, refusing to acknowledge territory passed into the hands of the 

Charles Martel as mayor of the palace, French king. 

^ ^tter deposed him. and set Clothaire ChailCS thc GlCat. ^ee CharUn 

IV in his pUce. After the death of ^"«***^" •'"^ \«*«c»v. fnaffne. 

aothaire he restored Chilperic, and sub- GharleS ElVer * "^o^ river in 

■equently placed Thierri on the throne. "***'^* •■*^^''*» Massachusetts, which 

Ohanes Martel rendered his rule famous flows Into Boston harbor, separating Bos- 

by the great victory which he gained in ton from Charlestown. It affords motiva 



power for many factories and is navigable 
for a few miles above Boston. 

Charles's Wain, see Bear, Qreai. 

nTiarlpfH-ATi (Gharls'tun). a city and 
l/naneSXOn ieaoort of South Caro- 
lina, on a toneue of land formed by the 
confluence of the rivers Cooper and Ash- 
ley, which unite just below the dtv, and 
form a spacious and convenient harbor 
extending about 7 miles to the Atlantic, 
and defended by several forts. The city 
is regularly laid out, most of the principal 
thoroughfares being 60 to 70 feet wide 
and bordered with fine shade-trees. It 
has become the metropolis of the Caro- 
linas, and is one of ttie leading commercial 
cities and seaports in the south. Its insti- 

tutiona are numerous, including the 
Charleston Library, founded in 1743, the 
College of Charleston, 1785, and the 
Orphan House, 1794, one of the oldest in- 
stitutions of its kind in the country ; and 
the Charleston Museum, the oldest in 
America. The staple exports are cotton, 
rice, lumber, and phosphate, as weU as 
manufactured goods from the Midwest. It 
also has important manufacturing indus- 
tries and is a military and naval center. 
Tt has a navy yard and a naval encamp- 
ment, with provision for 6000 recruits. 

It was the scene of the outbreak of the 
Civil war, April 12, 1861, and was evacu- 
ated by the Confederacy February 7, 1865. 
Pop. (1910) 58,833; (1920) 67.957. 

Charleston* S^*^h capital o^ west 

vMOAA^Buvu, Virginia, at the conflu- 

ence of the Great Kanawha and Elk 
Rivers, in Kanawha Co., near the center 
of the State. It was incorporated in 
1794, chartered as a dtv in 1870. It is 
the center of large coal and gas fields. 
Other industries include gun forging and 
high explosives, steel plants, iron foun- 
dnes, wood-working, sheet glass (notably 
the Libbey-Owens factory), lamp chim- 
neys, chemicals, fire brick, terra cotta 
clays, kaolin, bauxite, hard and soft lum- 
ber, salt brine, etc. Pop. (1910) 22,996; 
(1920) 89,608. 

Charleston, Soit^'coT'^mZ' &' 

miles w. of Terre Haute. It has flour 
mills and various manufactures. Oil, 
coal and gas are found in the region. It is 
the seat of the Eastern Illincas Normal 
School. Pop. (1920) 6615. 

Charlestown, Si^«<5,.f SiSL^^^: 

setts, incorporated with Boston (q. v.) in 
1874. Scene of the Battle of Bunker 
Hill (q. v.), June 17, 1775. There is a 
U. S. Navy Yard here. 

CharleviUe 9!SSJ^« VrtSSS Sf 

Ardennes, on the Meuse, opposite Mezieres. 
It has a large trade in coal, iron, wine, 
etc. Pop. 22,654. 

Charlock, see Mustard, 

Charlotte <J*^'^*>i4i^^\ar^!: 

North Carolina. It is the center of the 
cotton mill industry of the South, with 
over 700 textile mills and 170 cotton oil 
miUs within a radius of 150 miles. It has 
over 160 widely diversified manufacturing 
and industrial plants with an annual pay- 
roll of over $10,000,000. Textile mill 
machinery and equipment are among its 
important products. It is the Southern 
market for dyestui&i, and is a large dis- 
tributing Doint for automobiles. Center 
of extensive hydro-dectric development. 
It is the home of Queens College for 
Women and other colleges. Here was 
signed the first Declaration of Independ- 
ence, May 20, 1775, by the colonists of 
Mecklenburg Co. Pop. (1910) 34,014; 
(1920) 46,^. 

Charlotte, 5, city, eountv seat of 
vucftAAvuu^, Baton Co., Mchigan. 18 

miles s. w. of Lansing on the Grand 
Trunk and Michigan Central Railroads. 
It has manufactures of automobiles, fur- 
niture, farm implements, etc. Pop. 5126. 

Charlotte-Amalie, it\*)';'^^a'^^^^ 

of the island of St. Thomas, Virgin Is- 
lands, belonging to the United States. It 
has an excellent harbor with a floating 
dock. It is an important coaling and oil- 
refueling station. Pop. 7747. 

Charlottenburg Charter Oak 

f!liftrlottftlllnirff("^*''"^o*'«»'^«'*)»* Chart * hydrographical or marine 
i/nariOl1iCnDlirg^j^^n ^^ Pmaaia, on ^*1»", j^^p^ jjjj^j jg ^ draught or pro- 

rhe Spree, about 3 miles from Berlin, Jection of some part of the earth's sur* 

with a royal palace and park, many face, with the coasts, islands, rocks, banks, 

beautifol villas and handsome monu- channels, or entrances into harbors, 

ments, also important industrial and rivers, and bays, the points of compass, 

manu&cturing efftablishments, especially soundings, or depth of water, etc., to 

of electrical appliances. Pop. 906J978. regulate the courses of ships in their 

fniarlntf^flinllA ( Bh&raots-vil ), a voyages. The term chart is applied to a 

VimriQl,l.eBYlllC ^^^ ^^ Virginia, 97 marine map ; map is applied to a drauaht 

miles w. H. w. of Richmond. It is the of some portion of land (often including 

■eat of the University of Virginia, founded sea also). And plane chart is one in 

by Thomas Jefferson, and near by is which the meridians are supposed parallel 

Monticello, Jefferson's home. It has flour to each other, the parallels of latitude at 

mills, railroad shops, woolen and silk equal distances, and of course the degrees 

mUls, etc^ and is in a rich farm^g and of latitude and longitude everywhere 

fruit-growing district. Fop. 10,688. equal to each other. A great number of 

(JJll^fjQ^^^^Q^I^ a town of British excellent charts are produced by the 

' North America, cap- hydrographic department of the British 
ital of Prince Edward Island, on Hills- admiralty and are sold at a low rate, 
borouirh Bay« 110 miles N. of Hali- The United States Coast Survey Depart- 
fax. It contains handsome public build- ment produces similar charts. See Map, 
ings and churches, is advantageously Charter ^^^'^''^®'^* ^ written instru- 
situated for commerce, and its harbor ^*"**''^*' ment, executed with usual 
Is one of the best in North America. Pop. forms, given as evidence of a grant, con- 
(1911) 11,108. tract, or other important transaction be- 
Charm Anything believed to possess tween man and man. Royal charterB are 
x/ucMu*| some occult or supernatural such as are granted by sovereigns to con- 
power, SQch as an amulet spell, etc, but vey certain rights and privileges to their 
properly applied (as the name, derived subjects, such as the Great Charter, 
from Lat. carmen a song, indicates) to granted by King John (see Magna 
spells couched in formulas of words or Charta), and charters granted by various 
verses. sovereigns to boroughs and municipal 
Char^Tiel-Tlonafi • chamber or build- bodies, to universities and colleges, or to 
vuax ucx lAuus^l 1^^ under or near colonies and foreign possessions; some- 
churches where the bones of the dead are ^^at similar to which are charters 
deposited. granted bv the state or legislature to 
nil Aran (ka'ron), in Greek mythology, J,a°ks and other companies or associa- 
tnaron ^^^ ^^ ;^, ^^^^^^ J^ ^^^l^^ tions, etc. ,^ ^ „ ^ 

It was his office to ferry the dead in his CharterhOUSe. "*® Bn^h name for 
crasy boat over the rivers of the infernal ^. ^ ^, . ' * fS^^'^u ^^^ *if 
regions, for which office he received an ^AtiSl'^K^^^J'^^^ iil^^n^t ^iE!°2? 
obolus, or farthing, which accordingly was Mateon Chartreuae). The Charterhous^ 

usually put into the mouth of the ff.iiI^n^^T^TifTn/ .S«^S fff^JJ!! 
deceased. He was represented as an old fcl"V«rtHl?^«*°mn«£-''^h^ S.*i^«itS 

2LTtI«^'r5l"l=nVs^^ "*""' "^'"^^ SLu'V^'^'SlSfr X^Tuti^o^ Ke 
ana taiierea garaiencs. ^ . . , monasteries it passed through several 

Charpie \!°.*^Pf>' "*** '®' dressing hands till it came into the possession of 
^ Tk? '• IX . *u w . T Thomas Sutton (1531-1611), a rich coal 

Charpoy yn"Poi)» >» the Bast in- merchant, who converted it mto a hospital 
f "^ ^dies, a small portable bed, (ahnshouse) for eighty male pensioners 
consisting of a wooden frame resting on and a school for forty poor boys. The 
'our lepj. with bands across to support school developed beyond the original plan 
the bedding. of the founder and now ranks as one of 

Charani (c*^^!^^)? jerked beef, the the great schools of England. Among end- 
MKMi^ Chilean name of which the nent men educated here have been Addison. 
English term is a corruption. Steele, John Wesley, John Leech, and 

Pit am cf ^L Thackeray. (Consult Thackeray's The 

Uliarr. See Char. Newcome9 for a description. In 1872 the 

Charras <?SSen"w-^iVh%xXT^^^^^^^^ ?hnmTo^^4:'st^^ ,?^»iiSJSf ' 

Indian hemp and is collected for use as a Charter Oak, ^.J^'^^Sf wnf tJ?,5i^ 
narcotic or intoxicant, forming a con- p«„„««*««„f „„hi iSm a«wSSV5 ^S 
aidarable article of trad* in Arf, , Connecticut, until 1856. According to 


tradition, CaptBin Wadswoith, in 1687, refusal of the House of CommonB to con- 
hid the charter of the Colonr of Connec- eider a monster petition in favor of the 
ticut in the hollow o( this oak tree, when Charter, serious riots took place. In 
Governor Androa came from Boston to 1848 Ibe French revolution of February 
demand its surrender. stirred all the rerolutionar; elementa In 
riiflr+»r-nartv ^ ^ contract execut- Europe, and a ereat demonitration on 
\/UHi i,ci pni i,y ^ ^^ ,^g freighter the part of the Chartists was organiied. 
and the master or owner of a ship con- But the preparatioua taken b; the govern- 
talning the terms upon which the ship ment tor defense prevented outbreaks of 
Is hired to freiKht. The masters and nay consequence, and CbartiHtn then grad- 
owners nsnally blQd themselves that tbe ually declined. Some of the demands of 
fiKtdf, shall be delivered (danners of the the Charter have been adopted by the 
■ea excepted) in Jtood condition. The Liberal party and made Into law i while 
charterer is bound to furnish the cargo the more advanced section of Cbartlstn 
St the place of lading and to take de- hag been absorbed by Socialistic and 
liver; at the port of discharge wicfain republican movements. 
Kpecified periods called lav dav- niia.rt.rPll ("hftrtrl, a city of France, 
ChartllT (ahar-tya), AtAlB. a ^"*""* capital of the department 
viuubici French poet and moralist, Eure et-Loire, 49 miles b.w, of Paris, 
bom. it la supposed, at Bayeuz about It Is a very andenl city ; a large nambet' 
List!: died in 1440. His contemporaries of the honaes are built of wood and 
considered him the father of French plaster, and have their gables toward tfae 
eloqaeDce. Hla poems are often graceful street. The cathedral, one of the moat 
and nervoas, and bis vieorona prose con- 
tains many fine thoughts and pradent 

Cl^jtigjjl (chart'ism), Chartibto. 
viuMHBux u^jjj^ f^^ ^ political move- 
ment and Ita snpporters that formerly 
caused great excitement in Britain. Tbe 
reform bill passed in 1832 gave political 
en franchise ment to the middle classes, but 
>o tbe large body of the working clBsses 
It brought, primarily at least, no addi- 
tional advantages, and this circa instance 
was turned to account by many dema- 
gogiies, wbo urged on the people the Idea 
that they had been betrayed by the 
middle classes and tbeir interests sacri- 
ficed. A period of commercial depression 
and a snccessioD of bad harvests brought 
discontent to a head in tbe Chartist move- 
ment. It was founded on the general 
idea that the evils under which the people 
were laboring were due to tbe misconduct 
of government and a defective political 
representation. In 1836 the famous 
' Charter,' or ' People's Charter,' was pre- 
pared by a committee of six members of 
parliament and six working men. It com- 
prised six heads, namely: — 1. Universal 
saffrage, or the right of voting for every 
male of twenty-one years of age. 2. 
Kqaal electoral districts. 3. Vote by 
balloL 4. Annual parliaments. 6. No 
other qualification to be necessary for 
members of parliament than the choice of 

the elector*. 6. Members of parliatnetit The Cathedral, Chartraa. 

to be paid for their services. Immense 

meetings were now held throughout the magnificent In Europe. Is rendered con- 
country, and popnlar excitement monnted spicuous by its two iiplres surmounting 
to the highest pitch. Physical force was the height on which the city stsndib 
ndvorsted ss the only means for obtaining Manufactures : woolen, hosiery, hats, 
MtiKfncilon. In June, 1839, after the earthenware, ani) leather; there Is « oon- 

Chartrense Chastelard 

•iderable trade. This town was ioni; carrying on the Giyil war. In 1864 ht 
held by the English, from whom it was resigned office, and was appointed chief- 
taken by Dnnois in 1432. Henry IV was Jusace of the supreme court. He died in 
crowned here in 1501. Pop. 19,433. 1873. 

ChflTtrense (Bhttr-tre«z), or Obeat ChftSA WnxiAM Mebritt, «n Ameri- 

wAUMVAWMow ChabtreubEj, s famoufl ^**«*"«> can painter, bom at Franklin, 

Ckrthusian conastery in Southeastern Indiana, November 1. 1849. He went to 

France, a little northeast of Grenoble, Munich in 1872, Joining the group of 

situated at the foot of high mountains, American students afterward known as 

8280 feet above sea-level, the headquarters Munich secessionists, who etablished the 

of the order of the Carthusians. It was Society of American Artists in New York, 

founded in 1084, but the present building, He soon became noted for his brilliant 

a huge, plain-looking pile, dates from paintings, especially his portraits and 

1676. The monks of this monastery, ex- ugure pieces. He waa also active as an 

gBUed in 1003 and since then settled in instructor and lecturer. He was elected 

pain, manufacture the well-known liquor ^ member of the National Academy, 1890. 

called Chartreute, ChuiaMm (Jas'i-dfim). or^ Pieiistb, 

ChftTtnlftrv (char'tfl-lar-l), a record T: ^ ^^ the name of a Jewish sect 

vuiutuxaAjr ^^ register in which the which appeared in the eighteenth century, 

charters, title-deeds, etc., of any corpora- !*■ ^adherents are strongly inclined to 

tion were copied for safety and con- mysticism, depreciate the Old Testament 

venience of reference. They were often ^^^ ^^s ordinances, believe in extraoxdi- 

kept by private families. P*! ^^'^ 5i^, V^VL *" "?■* numerous 

Charvhdifl (ka-rib'dis). an eddy or in Russian Poland, Roumania, and some 

UnaryOOIS whirlpool in the Straits T^.^l ^^^ «^°? ^'ff^^' *?^ S* 

of Messina, celebrated in ancient times, !!f?I2?S t '^?i antipathy by ^e 

and regarded as the more dangerous to ?!^^2 ^^^^ ^^"^l?v** *^ **** 

navigators because in endeavoring to JJJJ® f2l%*; •f„t^^.n^^^r^Kl?!SL'^^ 

escape it they ran the risk of being J^Sl! J'ti^ ?^^StV*i^flir2^^^'^Jl 

wrecked upon Scylla, a rock opposite. ^ S!rA^2!^*^.iy*&?^l.^® ^^^^ ^' **^! 

Cliage (SasJT (1) in pJSing an .^ft ^fie PhariS^ ^^* ^^ ^'""'' 

vjMMv i^j^ frame used to confine types "JJ^* ^^ ®*t fffl^S « -i^ j 

when set in columns or pages. (2^ *he CliaSing J!! JJf f^2i7?^^lu.fui 

part of a gun between the trunnions and , • ., rative forms in low reUef in 

the swell of the munde, or in modem !?Hf^"'i^t«'rt2L''^®' ^^J^ ^Hiu^J^ 

guns, in which the munle has no swell, e'**ly . practised in connection with r»- 

Sei^hole of that part of a gun which U P<M«t^ .work, in which the figures are 

in front of tS teunnicms. punched put from behind and are then 

SSu not private pro^^r^ iSid is "ff •«**' *^/°r°Sli ^^. ?^^?*"^ ".o&* 

T^^ "SiSi >5vu5U a£d from i park, ^^^r.^^^^r.^'^'^V^^^^nl^ 4^ 

which is enclMed. m L'^**?v "^^^S ^^' 1} ^" about 4 Ib^ 

/iiL-Tli^ Ratmiiiv PosTr^RD atiLfMimMi "ghtcr thau the needle-gun and about 1 

Cll"«» f^^M^V^SI^ifiwuS^ IS; "«^**' ^^ ft? Martini-Henry rifl^ 

shire, in 1808. Having adopted the law CnaSSeurS i^'li'^i,,if'i„ J ' 

aa hU profession, he settled at ancinnati ^.. ^ ««mr rL«« *Sr^i?5nn. ^ 

and acquired a practise there. He early ?■ >• A. Pf?®, ^J^^ ^ various sec- 

showe? himself an opnonent of slavery, &?• S' ^^Ji^i"^"*'^ ^'^^ ^*^*^^ ^ *^* 

and was the means of founding the Free- jrencn service. t>t»«»- »• 

soil party, which in time gave rise to the ChOStelard «°SSSl)' JU. . JS«S5 

great RepubUcan party— the power that » . Boscobel ml a yoong 

brought the downfall of slavery. In J2?^™SIV» fnr"if«^ o«-*.n «f SSjJS* 

1840-66 he was a member of the United •^^^ i?*"*?5^®f Mary, Queen of Scota. 

Sutes Senate, in which he vi£orously !L",Xii,,\^.^^^ rt,^«!J; 

opposed the extension of slavery into the **^^ family, handsome, ^.'^ a.^rnto 

newterritoriS. In 1866 he was elected ▼«"e-making. He fell madly in love with 

governor of Ohio, being renslected in MftJ^^^HfJ* ?* Slfi2"? «« J^^ wT 

1867. In 1860 he was an unsuccessful i^']?y^i,J**^ *S ?fSS?.°ik.i "IvnT^ ™: 

candidate for the presidencv. In 1861 he !,.. v J«t «®if^-^ k\ w I-w. wl 

waa appointed secretary d tiie treasury J" ^f}^ ««M^R^.f^^flf aS^^ ^a 

in Lincoln's cabinet and in this post was 7" ^®?^JSR"^1 ** °^ -^""F®?" « 

signally anooeHful in providing fonds for aaagea (lo63)9 the queen resisting aU 


. ._ _,, ._ . noble ttmlly, 

.„ r - I September 14, 1T68, After •erriDs in 

loiiMBieut with prudence. the obt; and the acmr be tnTeled In 
PltasnMB (chaa'D-bl), the uppet gu- North Amenca; but Ue new* ot the 
l^naSUDie ^^^^^ ^^^ ^y ^ p^^^^ 81^1,^ „, Louj^ xvi and hli arrest at 
during the celebration of maas. It was VarenneH brought him back to France. 
oHsinallj circular, bad a hole in the Sbortlf after he quitted France and 
middle tor the head, but no boles for joiaed with other emigrants the Pnualan 
tbe arms. In later times the tides were arm; on the Rhine. After being 
wounded at the siege of ThlonvIUe and 
BUfCerlng many mlseriea, he made hla 
ws; to London, where, friendless and 
penniless, he was jutt able to earn a 
•ubsistence b; giving lessons in French 
and doing translBtiona. Here he pub- 
lished in 1T97 his Eitai HUtongue, 
which met with but smaU nccess. At 
this time the death of hla mother and 
the accounts ot her last moments trans- 
mitted to him by hla slater helped to 
effect a certain change in the religious 
opinions ot Cblteaubriand, and Crom 
a not very profound skeptic he became a 
not very profound believer. In 1800 he 
returned to France, and In the following 
year publisbed his romance of Atala, the 
■"  and 

Oinie du CKrittianitme, which is a Und 
of brilliant picture of Chriatiani^ In 
an {esthetic and romantic aspect. Style, 
tADelentroroiof CharoWe: 1, Apparrt of the power of description, and eloquence are 
"r^ „?-*-!-%h^:;;i^'«^'Pi2l''^iK''i'K! the merita of the book rather than any 
SSl'Si'tneU'r^mV-lpr*"" '■*'" depth ,o( thought; but it carried the 
Bt^oden form ot (A^uble. authors reputation far and wide, and 
contributed much to tbe retigions reac- 
ODt away to give a freer motion to tbe tloo of the time. After a short career 
arms, and It has now become an oblong as diplomatist under Napoleon, Chateau- 
garment banging down before and be- briand made a tour in the Elast (1806-7), 
bind, made ot rich meterUls, as illk, visiting Greece, Asia Minor, and the 
velvet, cloth ot gold, and baa a cross Holy l>and. As tbe fruit of his travels 
embroidered on tbe back. he published Lei Martyr* (1809) and 
Phnt (<^bBt), the popular name of Itineraire de Parii i Jirtisatetn (1811). 
vuAb ^j^^ ^f ^jjg ft^nus Samedla, He hailed the restoration of Louis 
family Sylvisdie or warblers. They are XVIII with flnthusiasm, was appointed 
■mall, lively birds, moving Incessantly ambassador to Berlin, and then to Lon- 
and rapidly about in pursuit ot the in- don, but in 1824 quarreled with the 
sects on which they chiefly live. There premier, M. de Viilfele, and was sum- 
are three species found in Britain, the maril; dismissed. On tbe revolution at 
stone-chat, whin-chat, and wheatear. 1630 be refused to take the oath of alle- 
Tbe yellow -breasted rbat of tbe United giance to Louis Philippe, forfeiting thna 
Stales is a larger bird, belonging to tbe a pension of 12,000 franca. At this 
geuuH leteria II. polvglotta), family time bis writings were chiefly political, 
Turdide or tbruahee. and mostly appeared as newspaper arti- 
Ch&tean («htt-l6), the French term cles, pamphlets, etc. In his later yeara 
for a castle or mansion In he wrote several works, but none of the 
tbe country ; a country-seat.— CAd fen u value of bis earlier productions. He died 
«» Etpagne, literally, a castle in Spain; 4th July. 1848, leaving memoirs (Mi- 
flguraclvelv a castle In the air, ao Imag- mo<re« (Toutre Tombe) which contain 
luary palace; a phrase of doubtful severe Judgments on contemporary men 
origin. arid things. 

Chateaubriand V.\',!^5;i'Ji; OUteaudun '.riS^S'-to. *!',; 

OVVTE. ricoun OK, a celebrated French et-LoIre, 26 miles B. a. w. of Chartres, 
■nthiir and politician, was born Kt SL nsu tha I«ire. Tha old caatle of tha 

Ch&teaurottx Chatham 

ooanti of Diinois overloolu the town, can Diyision made local advances, the 
Pop. 7296. 9th and 23d Infantry taking the town of 

Chfl.teA.liroilX (fha-tO-rd), a town of Vaux, and the marines finally clearing up 
\/itobvaiuvuA France, capital of the Belleau Wood. 

Department of Indre. Pop. 26,100. (3) Champagne-Mame Defensive — JmI& 

niidfAon-TliiPrrv (sha-tA-tyar-re), 15 to 18: The last phase of the Second 
xjuuwau, xuAcxAjr ^ ^^wn in the Battle of the Mame. The Germans at- 
Department of Aisne, France, on the tacked across the Mame and were stopped 
right bank of the Mame, 59 miles N. B. of by the French and two American divi- 
Paris: originally a Roman camp {Caa- sions, the 3d and the 28th (east of 
irum Theoaorici). Here La Fontaine was ChAteau-Thierry) . At the same time the 
bom. It was captured by the English in 42d American Diirision, operating under 
1421, by Charles V in 1546, and by the the 4th French Army, east of Rheims, 
Spaniaras in 1591. Here, in 1814, Napo- participated in that localit^r. 
leon defeated Blucher. Pop. 7770. (4) Aiane-Mame Offensive — July 18 to 

Chfttean-Thierry and its vicinity was August 6: The Allied offensive or counter 
the scene of much severe fighting during stroke at the Soissons-Ch&teau-Thierry- 
the World war, especially in 1918, when Rheims salient, just southwest of Soissons. 
the third great German offensive of the by the 1st and 2d American divisions and 
year was launched, on May 27, by the 1st Moroccan Division (French). The 
Crown Prince, from the Chemin-des- Germans were forced to retreat from the 
Dames, with Paris as the objective. west leg of the salient, being driven ba^ 

In three days the French were swept day by day by the divisions above named, 
from the Aisne, southward across the including the 26th Division: and from 
Vesle and the Ourcq, down to the banks the south and east by the 3a, 4th, 28th, 
of the Mame. The direction of this 32d, 42d and 77th American divisions, 
attack was towards ChAteau-Thierry, Chfttelet (shfit-lft), a manufacturing 
where the Germans expected to cross the v"**"^**''' town or Belgium, prov. of 
Mame, and by 4 p. H., May 31, their Hainaut, in the Sambre. Pop. 11367. 
advance troops reached the bridges into niidfAllAraTilf (shft-tel-rO), a town 
that dty. The Germans were halted here vuatcucrauii, ^^ France, depart- 
by French troops and the 7th Machine ment Vienne, 20 miles N. N. E. of PoitierB, 
Gun Battalion of the 3d American Divi- on the Vienne. Pop. 18,260. 
sion. This Machine Gun Battalion, after CliQtlLaill (cl><^t'&n>)i a town, naval 
a twenty-four-hour march of one hundred ^**«* »***«*"* arsenal, and seaport of 
and ten kilometers was the first of the England, C!k>unty Kent, on the Medway, 
American troops to actually participate in about 34^ miles by rail from London, 
the defense of ChAteau-Thierry itself. adjoining Rochester so closely as to form 

The fighting in the Mame salient thus one town with it. The importance of 
began on May 27, and before ChAteau- Chatham is due to the naval and military 
Thierry was finally relieved (August 6), establishments at Brompton in its Imme- 
seventy-two days of combat of varied in- diate vicinity. The royal dockyard was 
tensity had engaged the Americans and founded by Queen Elizabeth previous to 
their allies. During these seventy-two the sailing of the Armada. It has been 
days of combat, four separate and distinct greatly enlarged in recent years. The 
battles took place and have since been military establishments include extensive 
designated as major operations. barracks, arsenal, and park of artillery, 

(1) Aisne Defensive: Chemin-des- hospital, storehouses and magazines, etc. 
Dames and northeast of Rheims. between The town is defended bv a strong line of 
May 27 and June 5. This constituted the fortifications. Pop. (1920) 47,()00. 
first phase of the third German offensive niiofliQTVi & town of Canada, prov. 
in 1918, and it reached ChAteau-Thierry vuawmm, Ontario, on the river 
and vicinity, where it was halted. The 3d Thames, 45 miles E. of Detroit, Mich., 
American Division (regulars) partici- with water communication with the Great 

Sated at ChAteau-Thierrv and along the Lakes. There are manufactures of ma- 
(arae to the east. Tne 2d American chinery. iron and steel castings, woolens. 
Division (regulars and marines) partici- automobiles, motor tmcks. agricultural 
pated to the southwest and west of implements, etc. Pop. 16,000. 
ChAteau-Thierry. r!Tiflflici.Tn a town of New Branswick, 

(2) Montdidier-Neypn Defensive: Be- vuatuam, ^^ ^^^e Miramichi. It has 
tween June 9 and 15, the Geraians at- a fine harbor. Lumber and fish are the 
tempted to widen the Mame salient to chief industries. Pop. 61()0. 

the west, and the 1st Division (regulars) rHiafhain Whxiam Pitt, Earl or, 

was in the defensive line and assteted in ^uawuiuu, ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ illustri- 

•tqpping the German attempt. ous statesmen of Britain, the son of 

From June 5 to July 15, the 2d Ameri- Robert Pitt of Boconnoc, in CorawaB. 

Chatham Islands Chatsworth 

born Not. 15, 1708, and educated at Bton places fertile, and croi>8 of potatoes, 
and Oxford. He entered parliament as wheat, and vegetables are successfnlly 
member for the borough of Old Sarum grown. Cattle and sheep are reared, 
(which was the property of his family), and thus whaling or other vessels that 
and soon attracted notice aj a powerful call are supplied with fresh provisions 
opponent of Walpole. In spite of the as well as with water. The original in- 
king's dislike Pitt was powerful enough habitants, called Morioris, differed con- 
to win a place in the administration siderably from the Maoris, by whom and 
(1746), first as vice-treasurer of Ireland, a mixed race they have been supplanted, 
and afterwards as paymaster-general. The present population amounts to only 
In 1756 he became secretary of state and 420. The islands were discovered in 
real head of the government. Dismissed 1791. 

in 1757 on account of his opposition to Pliati (ch&'tS), a species of small 
the king's Hanoverian policy, no stable ^'=^*^*'^ leopard found in South Amer- 
administration could be formeii without ica, very destructive to small quadrupeds 
him, and he returned to power the same and birds, and especially to pouf try- 
year in conjunction with the Duke of yards, but so gentle, when domesticated, 
Newcastle. It was under this adminis- as to have gained for itself the name of 
tration and entirely under th«if inspira- Peli* mitU, or gentle leopard, 
tion of Pitt that Britain rose t^ a place pitAf^ii/^vft aiii> Qaiiia (shll-te-yOn- 
among the nations she had not before tnatlllOn-Slir-beine i a r-s e n) . a 
occupied. Wolfe and Gllve, both stimu- town of France, department of dote 
lated and supported in their great de- d'Or, 45 miles n. w. of Dijon, on the 
signs by Pitt, won Canada and India Seine. It is chiefly notable for the con- 
from the French and the support the gress of the allied powers and France 
Great Commoner gave Frederick of held here in 1814. Pop. 4430. 
Prussia contributed not a little to the niigf lurnaa &n extensive morass, 
destruction of French predominance in ^**^^ jilu»», ^^^^ about 6000 to 
Europe. The accession of George III 7000 acres, situate chiefly in the parish 
brought Lord Bute into power, and Pitt, of Eccles, Lancashire. It is remarkable 
disagreeing with Bute, resigned in 1761. as being the scene of operations for re- 
in 1766 he strongly advocated concilia- claiming bog-lands, at first successfully 
tory measures towards the American carried out on a large scale at the end 
colonies, and undertook the same year to of the eighteenth and beginning of the 
form an administration, he going to the nineteenth century ; — also for offering one 
House of Lords as Earl of Chatham, more field of triumph to George Stephen- 
But the ministry was not a success, and son, who in 1829 carried the Liverpool 
in 1768 he resigned. After this his and Manchester Railway over it after 
principal work was his appeals for a all other engineers had declared the feat 
conciliatory policy towards the colonies, impossible. 

But his advice was disregarded, and the nimf nvanf (sha-toi'ant), a term 
colonies declared themselves independent viiowujr»in# applied to gems that 
in 1776. Chatham died May 11, 1778. have, when cut and polished, a change- 
He received a public funeral and a mag- able, undulating luster like that of a 
nificent monument in Westminster Ab- cat's eye in the dark, 
bey. The character of Chatham was pVififrA (shft-tr), La, an old town of 
marked by integrity, disinterestedness, ^**»*'*c France dep. Indre, 21 miles 
and patriotism. With great oratorical 8. e. of Ch&teauroux, right bank of the 
gifts and the insight of a great statesman Indre. Pop. about 5000. 
he had liberal and elevated sentiments; niiofoTiynrfli (chats'worth), an es- 
but he was haughty and showed too ^■»*»*'»wun/U ^^^ ^^ ^j^^ Dukes of 

marked a consciousness of his own su- Devonshire, in Derbyshire, purchased la 

periority. the reign of Elissabeth by William Cav- 

diatham Islands ^ ?^QP of three endlsh, who began the building of a hall 

' islands in the which served as one of the prisons of 

South Pacific Ocean, belonging to New Mary, Queen of Scots. The present 

Zealand. The largest, or Chatham Is- building was nearly completed by the 

land, lat. (s. point) 44" 7' B. ; long, first Duke of Devonshire between 1687 

176* 40* w., about 350 miles e. from and 1706, the north wing being added 

New Zealand, and is about 38 miles by the sixth duke. It forms a square, 

long and 25 broad. Pitt Island is with an inner court, and is remarkable 

much smaller, and Rangatira is an in- for the collections of pictures and statues 

significant patch. A considerable por- it contains. The facade is 720 feet loner, 

tion of Chatham Island is occupied by or with the terraces 1200 feet. The park 

« salt lagoon. The soil is in many is about 11 miles in circumference, di- 


tr«rdiled by hill and dale. The eouMrra- 
toi7 coven utarly an acre, and wai de- 
sltsed b; Paitao, forming on a imall 
■caie the forprunner of the ezblbltion 
baildlnK of 18&I. 

Chattahoochee t*^f'":'';'">'=5*': 


of the 

United SlatPB, riaing In tbe Appalacblan 
Mountains in Oe«rgTa, and formins for a 
considerable distance the boundar; be- 
tween Georgia and Alabama. In Its 
lower coarse, after the junction of the 
Flint RlTer, it Is named the Appalachi- 
cola, and is navigable to Oolumbus in 
Georgia for steamboats. Total course, 
Bboat EiCO milea. 

Chattanooga i^.'^X?''." ii.." 

ilton Co., Tennessee, on [be Tennessee 
River, near tbe Georgia boundary, an 
important center of trade and manutac- 
tares, its induBtriea including iron works 
OD a large scale, textile milla, car, wagon 
and carriage factories, implement woras, 
Htuve worka. fumilure factories, boiler 
works, structural steel works, tanneriea, 
etc, white it has an extensive trade in 
coal. Iron and wbeat There ia 

at Bristol was completed, he inserted l 
paper la tbe Brittot Journal entitled A 
Detoription of Ike Friari' Pint PtHng 
over the Old Bridge, which he pretended 
he had found along with other old maoD- 
scripts in an old chest in St. Mary Bed- 
cliffe Church, Bristol. He also showed 
bis friends several poems of ■imilarly 
spurious antiquity which he attribuled 
Rowley. In 1769 he ventured to 

_ _ number of cJd Bris- 
tol painters which was clever enough to 
deceive Walpole for a time. Dismissed 
from tbe attorney's office, be left with 
hia manuscripts for London, where a 
favorable reception from the bookselleia 
gave him high hopea. For tbem be wrots 
numerous pamphlets, satires, letter*. 
etc., but got no substantial return, and 
his situation became dally more desper- 
ate. At last, after having been several 
days without food, he poisoned himself, 
25tb August, 1770. The most remarkabU 
of bis poems are those published ander 
the name of Rowley, spurious antique*, 
such as The Tragedy of itHla. The 
Battle of Haltingi, The Briitox Tragedy, 

1863, tbe Confederates bere suffered a 

great defeat after three battles, known as 

Lookout Mountain, Chickamauga and Mis- ni._i.j,__i__»_ /l-_™_ J 

Bionarv Ridge. Pop. (1910) 44,604; '-'IiattertOn 8 LOmpOIUta, 

(1»20> B7«». 

Chattels <fl?5«^'', pi^J^^IL. '^^^ 

Stockholm tar, resin, and gutta pen^ia. 
used in tbe construction of ■ubmariac 
telegraph cables, etc. 
riin.11RPr (cha'str), Geoffbet, 'the 
l^naUCer ,^jg^^ '^f English jKWtr,.- 
born In I^ndon probably about 1340, 
nntl not in 1328. tbe date formerly given. 

able and , — 

being freehold. Tie word chattel is orig- 
inally the same work with cattle, formed 
from late Latin capitalia, meaning 
heads of cattle, from U caput, head, 
('battels are divided into real and per- 
•onaL Chattels real are such as belong 
not to the person immediately, but de- 
{KUdent apon something, as an interest 
in a land or tenement, or a lease, or aa 
interest in advowsons. Chattels perional 
are goods which belong immediately to 
the penoa of tbe owner. 

Chatterers (ci^fer^w), the popu- 

*^ lar name of certain In- 

•e«orial birds of the family Ampellds, 
genua Amp^fi*), as the Bohemian chat- 
terer or waiwlng (Ampitii garrula) 
and tbe chatterer of Carolina (A. 

Chatterton (ctafer-ton), THOMAi, 
a youth whose gem as 
and melancholy fate have gained him 
much celebrity, was born at Bristol in 
170^ of poor parents, and educated at 

tbe charity achooL He eibibited great Geoffrey Chaoo.,! 

precocity, became extremely devoted to 

reading, and was especially fond of old died there on the 2Sth of October 140b. 
wridojta and documcuti. At tbe >■« of He woi the md of k Tiotur nimrt 

Chauoer Chaumontells 

John Ghaaccr. Nothing is known of OlioTini (cha'sS). an ancient Teuton 

his education, but in 1356-^9 he wa« a ^^»»^*'A ic tribe dwellinir e. of th«) 

Eage to Princess Lionel. He tells us Frisians, between the Ems and Elbe on 

imself that in 1359 he bore arms in the shore of the German Ocean. 

France and was talten prisoner. He Chaildes-Ai^Ties (shOd-ftg), a vil- 

was ransomed next year, the liing pay- **»»***vo xaa^ia^o j ^j France, 

ing £16 towards the necessary sum. In department of Gantal, 28 miles e. 8. E. 

11^7 we find his name as a valet of the of Aurillac, with thermal springs so 

king's chamber. Whether he married copious that the water is used for warm- 

his wife Philippa in 1966 or not till ing the town in winter and for washing 

1374, and who she was, we do not know fleeces. Pop. (commune) 1558. 

for certain. In 1367 he received a pen- Ghaiidet (B^^^ft)* Antoinb Denis, 

sion of twenty marks, and between 1370 ^"«*""**^ ^ French sculptor, born at 

and 1880 he was employed abroad in Paris in 1763; died there in 1810. His 

seven diplomatic missions. In one of first work was a bas-relief under the per- 

these, in 1372, he was sent to Genoa as Istyle of the Pantheon, representing the 

a commissioner to negotiate a commer- love of glory, an ezeelleDt work, the very 

rial treaty. It is probable that he visited simplicity and grandeur of which pre- 

the Italian poet Petrarch on this occa- vented it being justly estimated by the 

sion. In 1374 he was appointed comp- false taste of the age. In the museums 

troller of the customs on wool at Lon- of the Luxembourg and Trianon are sev- 

don, a lucrative post, and he also re- eral of Ghaudet's finest works: La Sen' 

ceived an annual allowance. In 1377 he $ihiUt4, the beautiful statue of Cypa^ 

was sent to Flanders and France on riMO, etc. 

diplomatic business, and next year to P.liQTiiii^rA (shOd-yftr), a river of 

I^mbardy. In 1382 he was appointed vuttuuicic Canada, Quebec prov- 

comptroller of the petty customs. In ince, which rises on the borders of Maine, 

1386 he was returned to parliament as near the sources of the Kennebec, and 

knight of the shire for Kent, but in the flows into the St. Lawrence about 6 

same year he shared the disgrace of his miles above Quebec. The bani^s of the 

patron, John of Gaunt, was dismissed river are generally steep and rocky, and 

from his comptroUership, and reduced to about three miles above its junction with 

a state of comparative poverty. Three the St. Lawrence are the Gbaudi^re 

years later, however, he was made clerk Falls, about 120 feet high. On the 

of the works at 2«. a day, and after- Ottawa river are other two fidls of lesser 

wards had other offices and one or two dimensions known as the Great and the 

annuities bestowed upon him, but in Little Ghaudidre. 

1394-98 he must have been quite poor. nhoiiffAiir (sho-f^r; French for 

In 1399 he got a pension of forty marks **"*«* "-**^*"' stoker or fireman), the 

from Henry IV, but did not live long to driver operating an automobile and the 

enjoy it. His most celebrated work, mechanic carried to look after its ma- 

The Canterbury Tales, was written at chinery and fuel, these bein^ usually 

different periods between 1373 and 1400. combined in one person. See Automo- 

It consists of a series of tales in verse hUe, 

(two in prose), supposed to be told by niiaTi1niTi9rft (shftl'mfi-gra), a tree 

a company of pilgrims to the shrine of viiauiiuu^ia (Qynocardia odorfi- 

St Thomas (Becket) at Canterbury in fa) of S. Asia, from the seeds of which 

1386. In its pages we get such pictures an oil Is obtained that has long been 

of English life and English ways of known and highly valued in India and 

thought in the 14th century as are found Ghina as a remedy in skin diseases and 

nowhere else, while it displays poetical complaints arising from blood impurities, 

skill and taste of a high grade. Besides and has been introduced into western 

this brilliant production Ghaucer wrote countries in the treatment both of skin 

many poems (and others are falsely at- and chest diseases. 

tributed to him) : The Book of the nVianTnATif (shO-mO^), a town of 

Duchei9 (1369), The Parliament of '^naumom; France, aipital of the 

??1^ Ji^^^}* Trot/tM and CreaHda department of Haute-Marne, on a height 

• ;lif27°^lji»^** ^^ff^^^ 0/ Oood Women between the Marne and the Suize, with 

(1385), The Houee of Fame (1386), manufactures in woolens, hosiery, etti. 

ete., some of which are founded on Here the allies (Great Britain, Russia, 

French or Italian works. He also trans- Austria, and Prussia) signed the treaty 

lated Boethins, and wrote a treatise on of alliance against Napoleon. March 1, 

the Astrolabe (1391) for his son Lewis 1814. Pop. 12,089. 

i^£» ?'®*S?^^. 1'^. ^?^' ^® ^'^ Chfl.11inontelle (shO-montel). a de- 
boried in Westminster Abbey. vttl»uxiiuill,cuc n^ji^us dessert petf 

men of 



^^^y Cheese 

irtdAtamiiAirrgnilnJeney, Guernsey, Chav-root t'^^^* ^^ «>o*« «* • 

snd the south of England. viiajr xuuu ^^^^^ biennial plant of 

ChannV (>bO'n§K a town of France. India, the Oldmlandia umheUata, growing 

-r dep. Aisne, 22 miles w. of spontaneously on dry, sandy ground near 

liaon. It wsa the scene of much fighting the sea ; and extensively cultivated, 

during the European war. It was cap- chiefly on the Coromandel coast. It yields 

cured bv the Germans in the first drive on a red dye used in coloring chintz. 

Anii* ^^^T^^K?^' retaken by the CheboVM.n ( s^S-boiW ). a dty, 

Allies in 1017, and fell again into German ^ncooygaa ^^^ ^^^ '^f Cheboy- 

hands in B£arch, 1918. It had extensive aan Co.. Michigan, on Lake Huron. It 
cotton nu^, bleaching grounds and tan- Has paper and pulp mills, tanneries, can- 
neries, and numufactures of sacking, soda, neries, and manufactures of wood prod- 
swPhurie and nitric adds. Pop. (1914) ucts. boilers, cigars, flour, etc., with ex- 
10,127* tensive lumber and farm interests. Pop. 
ChAnasAa (shOs), the Ught covering (1920) 5642. 
v4M»uQo«,B f^^ ^jj^ J ^^^ j^y^ Check See Cheaum 
reachina to the waist, formerly worn by ^"^CK. »ee oneque. 

of nearly all classes throughout niiPnlrArfli (chek'ers), the common 

»e. They resembled tight panta- vriici^Acio ^^^^^ j^ ^.^^ United States 

with feet to them. The name for the game of draughts (which see). 

ehauM$€9 de maillei was given to defen- fih^olrmaft^ /nh^^vmsfi a^ /»i*.. 

sive armor worn on the same paru of ^XieCJaiiaie (chekmftt). See Chen. 

the body. r!1iAf|#1n.r (ched'ar), a parish and 

Chantanana (chA-tftl^wA), a beau- vucuu^ir thriving viUage, England, 

uuauuiu^aa ^^^ j^j^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ Somerset. 18 miles s. w. Bristol. 

York, 18 miles long and 1-3 broad, 726 The dairies in the neighborhood have long 

feet above Lake Erie, from which it is been famous for the excellence of their 

8 m. distant. On its banks is the vil- cheese, which is made from the whole 

lage of Chautauqua, the center of a milk, and the whey skimmed oif, heated, 

religious and educational movement of and added to the curd, 

some interest. This originated in 1874, Chedllba (che-dO'ba), an island In 

when the village was selected as a sum- v**^** •**'«» the Bay of Bengal, belong- 

mer place of meeting for all interested ing to Burmah, about 25 miles off the 

in Sunday schools and missions. Since coast of Arracan ; length and breadth, 

then the Chautauqua Literary and Scien- each about 15 miles ; area, nearly 250 

tific Circle has taken origin here, the square miles; pop. about 25,000. The 

most prominent feature of which is to soil is fertile and produces tobacco, ric^ 

engage the members — wherever they may indigo, pepper, etc Petroleum is also 

reside — in a regular and systematic found. 

course of reading, extending, when com- (JhAAgA (ch6s), one of the important 

pleted over four years and entitling the ^^^^"^ products of the dairy, is com- 

student to a diploma. There are many posed principally of casein, which exists 

local branches or societies. In cows' milk to the extent of about 3 

ChanviniBin (Bh6'vin-izm), an un- or 4 per cent., fat, and water. It is 

\/u€»uvuu>oiu reflecting and fanati- made from milk, skimmed wholly, par- 

cal devotion to any cause, especially an tially, or not at all, the milk being 

exaggerated patriotism, so cidled from curdled or coagulated, and the watery 

IfickoUu Chauvin, a soldier so enthusi- portion or whey separated from the in- 

astically devoted to Napoleon I and so soluble curd, which being then worked 

demonstrative in his adoration that his into a uniform mass, salted (as a rule), 

comrades turned him into ridicule. and pressed into a vat or mold forms 

Chanx-de-Fonds (8h6d-f0^), La, a cheese, but requires to be cured or rip- 

vixni&A \A\0 A.VUWV ^^^ ^^ Switxer- ened for a time before being used. The 

land, in the canton and 9 miles N. w. coagulation of the milk may be effected 

of the town of Neufch&tel, In a deep either by adding an acid as in Holland, 

valley of the Jura. The inhabitants are or sour milk as in Switxerland, or ren- 

laraely engaged in the making of watches net as usual in Britain and America. 

and clocks, of which Chaux-de-Fonds and There are a great many varieties of 

Lode are the chief centers in Switzer- cheese, of which the most notable are 

land, and in similar branches of Indus- Stilton, C^faeshire, Cheddar, Dunlop, 

try. Pop. 36,388. amongst British; and Parmesan, Gruy- 

Chavica (<^havl-ka), a genus of ^re, (^orgonzola, Gouda, Roquefort, 

plants, nat. order Pipera- Limburg, etc., amongst European ones. 

cen, including the common long pepper, (See different articles.) In America 

Java long pepper, and betel-pepper. immense quantities of cheese are nrad^ 

Cheesefly Cheke 



almost an the different European kinds abled to creep oyer mud and sand when 
being imitated. Large factories are there left dry by the receding tide, and also 
dcToted to the manufacture. Other to take short leaps like a frog, whence 
kinds are known as sour-milk, skimmed- the name frogfish, as well as handfish. 
milk, cream, sweet-milk, etc., cheese. They are found in the estuaries of the 
Sheep's and goats* milk cheese are also norUieast of Australia. — The same name 
made. is given to a Brazilian genus of opos- 

Cheeseflv. ? small, black, dipterous smns, in which the hinder hands 

*^' insect bred in cheese, the are webbed, the Yapock opossunu 
Piophila catei, of the same family to niiAirn-nronfift a /ti« *-• 

which the housefly, blowfly, etc, be- l/iieiropracno. See CMroprocfw. 

long. It has a very extensible ovipositor ClieiroiltArfi. (kl-i^op't-e-ra), or 
which it can sink to a great depth in ^'^'^^^'r •***«* Bats, an order of 
the cracks of cheese, and lay its eggs mammals, the essential diaracter^ of 
there. The magot, well known as the which is the possession of a pataqfum, 
cheesehopper, is furnished with two o^^ expansion of the intgsument of the 
horny, daw-shaped mandibles, which it ,,£^ _^ °^^ ^X^j* ^^Ji: 

uses both for digging into the cheese and ^^^.^-•TS. fhSfiirh^t 1 1  

tor moving itself, having no feet. Its T^^S^ I ^v whSle leSith tS 
leaps are performed by a jerk, first brmg- VW9^^_/\\ the hinder limbs 

ing itself into a drcnlar attitude, when jA( ^^>f'^*'*>\\ as far as the 
it can project itself twenty to thirty x^^^Sl ^""^ ankle, and 

times its own length. *\ 1 /^ thence passes 

Cheesehopper. see Cheeaefly. Wy *l®°f *?«. ^^^ 

1 ^# ^^ of the body to 

Cheese-rennet, f », ^^p, „5 £S!!L^ siwieton wd wii».m«i- the fore-umbs, 

vu«^i^o« A«^;, 1^^ plant oeMJitMO* bnneiofNoc^deBat. which are great- 
Cheetah* same as Chetah. ly elongated, and give support and varied 

4^«i •« /^ii&'fK ^ a town of China movement to the expansion (which is pop- 
Che-FoO^^^^^Se^' proving of ShaS- ulariy called^ the wing) by means of the 
IJi ^Si i«flf nnrta oDcnS^to Very loug and sleuder digits. Other mam- 
tung, one of the htBt P^J^ts open^ to ^ j Squirrels and the 

foreign trade, which IS now^ consider- ma«^ the iower of gUding 

able volume. Pop. »»^"io^'?^ ^^^ through the air for so£e distance, but 
CheilOgnatha Kf two^Jders of none of them has^the power of susta ned 

., _. ? 1 1 J. 4.i:?^«ni?^SS- onH flight nor are the anterior extremities 
Mjrriapoda, including the millipedes and ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^y ^ ^ those of 

other forms. ,.,, . .^v „^ ^s the the bats. The Cheiroptera are divided 

Cheilopoda ^A^:^*yJ^^^ 'f MyriaDoSi ^^o two sub-orders, Frugivdra, or Fruit- 

*^rv ^^ *^^1" 5 «^ ^ShsiS: eaters, and InBeoHvdra, or Insect-eaters, 

represented by the centipedes in whi<A ^'^brfV 

a pair of mandibles two pairs off iSrl.°'l;:l*^^ (kl-pR-thCri-um), a 
maadilipeds or foot-jaws and a lower Up Cheirothennm iamT^ven to a 

are developed. ..,.._,..„_ v the waU- ««»* unknown animal tiiat formed the 
CheiranthUS ^J^J^'e^^e^^^ l*n?er footsteps upon the slabs of the 

ni«^;«^lATt;a (kl-rol'e-pis), a genus Triaa, or upper! New Red Sandstone, 
CheirOlepiS )^ ^^§^ ^'^^ \^^ and which bear a resemblance to the 

found in the Old Red Sandstone of human hand. It is supposed to be iden- 
Orkney and Morayshire, characterized by tical with the labyrinthodon. 
the great development of the pectoral filiAlrA (di^k), Sa John, an Bngliah 
and ventral fins. \juxiasi scholar, bom at Cambridge 

niAirATYiaTioir (kl'ro-man-si), or in 1514; educated at St John's College, 
UneirouUilK/jr Palmibtbt, the art and made regius professor of Greek, 
of divining by inspection of the lines of in 1544 he was appointed tutor to the fu- 
the hand ; it was practised in India in ture Edward VI, and he became secretary 
the remotest ages ; in Europe, during the of state in 155Si, and was also privy-coun- 
middle ages, it was in great repute, but dllor. On the king's death he supported 
latterly it took refuge among the gypsies. Lady Jane Gr^y, and was committed to 
PliA{i*ATiAr»fAs (k!-rd-nek't€9E), a the Tower. After a few months, however, 
^neuruuci^tcs genus of acanthop- he was set at liberty and settled at 
terygiouB fishes, having the pectoral fins Strasburg; but his connection with the 
supported, like short feet, upon pedun- English J?rotestant church gave offense 
clea by meana of which they are en- to the Catholics and, and hia estates wevs 

Che-kiang ChemiBtry 

confiscated. He lupported himself by 1882 and general in 1888, he was placed 
teaching Greek, bat in 1556, having been on the retired list in 1883. 
induced to visit Brussels, he was arrested ClieloniailS (ke-lO'nl-ana), or Chi- 
by order of Philip 11 and sent prisoner ^**^*^***«'**« lonia, an order of rep- 
to England. Unaer threat of the stake tiles including the tortoises and turtles, 
he recanted, and received the equivalent ftnd distinguished by the body being in- 
of his forfeited estates; but he felt so closed in a double shell, out of which 
keenly his degradation that he died of the head, tail, and four legs protrude, 
grief in 1557. His chief distinction was The order is divided into five families: 
the impulse given by him to the study of the Ghelididse, or frog-tortoises; Testa- 
Greek. dinidflB, or land- tortoises ; Emyde, the 
nViP-lriATicr (che-ke-Ang'). a maritime terrapins or fresh-water tortoises; Trl- 
viic xkxaug province of China, be- onychidae, the mud-turtles or soft-tor- 
tween lat. 27" and 31* N., and in- toises; Chelonids, or sea-turtles. See 
eluding the Chusan Archipelago; area. Tortoise, Turtle. 

36,700 sq. miles; pop. about 18,000,000. ChelSGa (chel'se), a suburb of London, 
It is traversed by several rivers, and has And & parliamentary borough, 

as its principal ports Ningpo and Hang- OQ the Thames, opposite Battersea, and 
chow, the capital. Staple exports, d& chiefly distinguished for containing a 
and tea. royal military hospital, originally com- 

Cht»}mnffkTi\ (chema'ford), a county ™«n<^ed by James I as a theological 
l/neimSIOra ^J^^ ^^ ^^^ EnSmd; <^ollege. but converted by Charles II into 
in a valley between the Chelmer and ^^ asylum for the reception of sick, 
Cann, with several handsome public build- maimed, and superannuated soldiers, 
ings. There are manufactories of agricul- The. building was finished in 1682 by 
tural implements, electrical appliances, Sir Christopher Wren. Connected witn 
etc. Pop. 21,500. the hospital is a royal military asylnm, 

Chelmsford « town of Middlesex J??,°^^^ '^ ^^' '^T the edocatlon and 

vuciiusiora, ^ Massachusetts, 4 S^^iP^^^ce <>' soldiers' children. Pop. 

miles 8. w. of Lowell, in a farming and %*?• , ^ , ^, 

fruit-growing district, with manufactures ChelSea. f ^1*^ ^^ Massachusetts, 

ofwoolens and worsteds, etc. Pop. (1820) ^^^^ (WbSJSIi.; U". Is,^ ^^ 

Chelmsford, ^i" ^rlST""^ '"f™^; Cheltenham j^^eitn-am)^^^ a 

Pn.rn.hl«w..,V?^^«^"^•^*'',*°i*JS?^ borough and fashionable watering-pUci 
S^ in 1877'ent^^ ^rW^±f. n iSn! ^ England, in the county of Glo/cSTer, 
wS t>i w?nV tona^i ^«i* /^^ ^^^' ^^ the small river Chelt, within the shel- 
Trtl S^ii «?! n*L**°^, *Jtomey-gen- ter of the CoUwcM HOli. The town has 
I^L^^^I^^'u ^""^^^ K^^k T" ap- fine squares, crescents, terraces, gardens 
?S« t^n^^^'^^/r*^^^'! ''^ 5?*^"^ ^° *"^ v^'^^^"' assembly-rioms, theatfr, et" 
i s5r*i° 1 n^d« Lo«^„Chelmsford; was ap- and has become especiallv distinguished aa 
pointed lord chanceUor again in 1866.— an educational center. Pop. 48:844. 
His son, the second Lord Chelmsford Chemiftflii*rftTiAnfi/»« (kem-i-o-thir- 

(Fredemck Augustus Thesioeb). born ^*lCimoinerapeTinCS ^a-pfl'tSsr 
in 1827 ; died in 1805 ; was educated at the science which deals with the treat- 

V ' *nd served in the Crimea and ment of disease by the application of 
through the Indian mutiny. As deputy chemical principles. Its fdm is the cure 
adjutant-general he served in the Abys- of disease by rationalized chemical prin- 
sinian campaign, was nominated C.B., ciples founded on the results of exact 
made aide-de-camp to her Majesty, and chemical research. In the past new reme- 
adjutant-general to the forces in India S?» ^^^ discovered largely by accident. 
(1868-76), and in 1877 was appointed ?^« chemiotherapists go to work with 
commander of the forces and lieutenant- »boratory methods to find the chemical 
governor of Cape Colony. He restored 2?^ Sli^*l* Si«P*''5f**® ^i""!?* S"®^ 
Kaffraria to tranquiUity. and was given ?S!*JSK2?^ Wl°* *^® patient Sndi is 
the chief command in the Zulu wS of SS SllVlSSf T?*^** **!? *?,« "^^ <»« ^ 
1878. After great difficulties with the SSJSrHn«i-??'"^"^*> ^t?^v«rf« dncf 
transport, and some disasters, he gained J^f^ination-flalvamn (whi^h see), 
the decisive victory of Ulundi, before the vnCmiStry \;?Sk** V *^® ^science 

arrival of Sir Garnet Wolseley, who had position and cha^^ of m«S«S^ 'rH *^™" 
been sent to suDer<iede him On h\» i-JT^tll!? aZr J^ p®" P\ matter. Chemis- 

.nd In 1884 became U^uUn^ntot^t^^^loiiu^eni^i^^^HVJ^V' 
Toww. Promoted Ueutenant-general In pr^^^ to,SS*UffpSM2 uij* 

Chemistry Chemistry 

1641) aBseited that solphnr. mercury, and failed to distinguish between atomic 
■alt, aubstances regarded by the alche- weights of the elements and the sum of 
mists as elementary, were present not the atomic weights of the same or differ- 
only in inanimate objects but also in liv- ent elements when joined together to form 
ing organisms. Upon this belief he built a definite chemical compound. For this 
op a system of medical theory which is sum of the atomic weights in chemical 
known as iatrochemistry (literally mod- compounds Cannizzaro proposed the term 
ical chemistry). The influence of the al- molecular weight (q. v.). The term atomic 
chemists and of Paracelsus continued to weight has since been applied only to the 
be predominant until the time of Robert weight of the free elements uncombined 
Boyle (1626-1601), who stated that all with atoms of other elements or even of 
matter was made up of very, minute par- the same element. The term molecular 
tides. He learned experimentally that a weight has referred only to the smallest 
substance after burning increased in possible division of a chemical compound 
weight. But Boyle's correct observation made up of two or more atoms of the 
upon the theory of combustion was disre- same or, more freguently, of different ele- 
garded by Stahl (1660-1734), who as- ments. The atomic weight of an element 
aerted that all inflammable bodies con- is derived from two previously determined 
tained a principle which he called phlo- chemical constants; the amount of the 
giston. Stahl and his adherents regarded element which combines with a known 
phlogiston as a hypothetical element, a weight of oxygen or its equivalent and 
pure fire. The doctrine of phlogiston was the molecular weights of the compounds 
tenaciously supported by most of the great which the element forms (see Molecular 
chemists of tne second half of the 18th Weight). Because hydrogen was the 
century until I^viosier, in 1783, declared lightest element known, to it was arbi- 
that a body in burning merely combined trarily assigned the atomic weight one. 
with oxygen. Oxygen had been discovered The Elements. — ^At the present time 
by Joseph Priestly in 1774. During the eighty-three elements have been definitely 
phlogiston controversy, and prior to that isolated and their atomic weights deter- 
time, investigations had been made upon mined. This number is exclusive of those 
the proportions by weight in which vari- elements which are the degeneration prod- 
ous elementary substances combined, nets of the radio active elements (see 
Much of this work was prompted by the Rtidioactivity), In the following list an- 
disputes centering about phlogiston. In tlmony, arsenic, boron, copper, gold, lead, 
18(13 the results of these investigations manganese, mercury, silver, sulphur, tin, 
were collected and published in tabular and zinc were known to the alchemists 
form by John Dalton. TMs list Dalton and most of them to the ancients. Several 
called a table of atomic weights of the of the elements, such as oxygen, hydro- 
dements. Undoubtedly Dalton had in gen, nitrogen, magnesium, and chromium, 
mind the same idea concerning the term were discovered orior to the year 18O0. 
atomic weight as it implies at the present The following table contains the names of 
time: that is, the relative weight com- the elements, the symbols for each ele- 
pared with the weight of hydrogen or of ment, and the atomic weight for each ele- 
oxygen, in which the smallest possible di- ment revised to 1921 : 
vision of a substance can enter into chem- ^. . .. *- . 

ical combination. Berzelius (1779-1849), ^JJSiiSS? hk iS i 

the founder of our present chemical sys- ^^^''^ ^ *^ 9 

tem and at that time recognized as the jSitnic. '.''.'.'.'.'.'.'.'... ............. Ab 74! 96 

greatest authority on chemical subjects, Barium Ba 137.37 

accepted Dalton's views, but at the same Biamuth Bi 208.O 

time realised the inaccurades in the lat- §<>«"» g JOJ_ 

ter's tables. Because he appreciated the SXSSn Cd 112 Jo 

necessity for accurate atomic weights if cakdum !**' Ca 40 07 

chemistry were to advance, Berzilius sub- Carbon .*.*.' !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! c i2!oo5 

sequently determined the weights of bun- Cerium Ce 140.25 

dreds of compounds as well as the atomic Cerium ^ *2??i 

wdghts of many of the elements by excel- ^lonne Cl 36.46 

lent analytical methods. SbX"*" Co 58 97 

Aiomio and Molecular WefgW«.— For Columbium.'.;!:.*:,!:!::::::::::: Cb 93:1 

many years following the publication of Copper Cu 63.57 

Daltons tables there was much confusion Dysproeium Dy 162.5 

and controversy regarding the number of Erbium Er 167.7 

atoms of a substance which would com- ^^,g^ f" ''{5 }{ 

bine with an atom of another substance. Qadoliniimi Gd 157 3 

Gannizsaro, in 1858, removed this diffi- Gallium....'*.'!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Ga 7o!l 

eulty by nointing out that chemists had Germaaium Ge 72.5 



OfaidBimi GI 0.1 

Gold Au 107.2 

Hflttum He 4.00 

Holmtttm Ho 163.5 

HjrdiocBa H 1.008 

Indium In 114.8 

Iodine I 128.92 

Iiidhim Ir 193.1 

Iitm Fe 56.84 

Krypton Kr 82.92 

TiMithMunn La 139.0 

Le«I Pb 207.20 

Uthhim U 6.94 

Lttteeiitm Lu 175.0 

Mesnenum Mg 24.32 

Mengueie Mn 54.93 

Mereonr He 200.6 

Molybdenum Mo 96.0 

Neodymium Nd 144.3 

Neon Ne 20.2 

Niekel Ni 58.68 

NiUm Nt 222.4 

Nitrogen N 14.008 

Onaium Os 190.9 

Ozysen O 16.00 

Plifiedium Pd 106.7 

Fhosphoroos P 31.04 

Platinum Pt 195.2 

PMaaiium K 39.10 

Pneeodsrmium Pr 140.9 

Radium Ra 226.0 

Rhodium Rh 102.9 

Rubidium Rb 86.45 

Ruthenium Ru 101.7 

Samarium 8a 160.4 

Scandium Be 45.1 

Helimfam 8e 79.2 

SilieoQ Si 28.3 

SilTer Ag 107.88 

Sodium Na 23.00 

Strontium 8r 87.63 

Sulphur S 32.06 

Tantalum Ta 181 .5 

Tellurium Te 127.5 

Terbium Tb 159.2 

ThaUiun Tl 204.0 

Thorium Th 232. 15 

Thulium Tm 168.5 

Tin 8n 118.7 

Titanium Ti 48.1 

Tungiten W 184.0 

Uranium U 238.2 

Vanadium V 51.0 

Xenon Xe 130 .2 

Ytterbium Yb 173.5 

Yttrium Yt 89.33 

Zino Zn 65.37 

Zirconium Zr 90.6 

Symbols and Occurrence of the Ele- 
ments. — ^The gjrmbols for the elements 
known to the ancients and to the alche- 
mists, were derived from the Latin word 
for the element by combining the first 
letter of the Latin word with another let- 
ter of the same word. Thus the symbol 
for iron, Fe, came from the Latin word 
fermm; Pb, the symbol for lead, simi- 
larly was derived from plumbum. The 
symbols of the elements discovered in more 
recent times almost invariably owe their 
origin to the first letter and sometimes one 
other letter of the English word for the 
element. Hie names of the elements them- 
selves come from many different sources. 

The names of the elements known to the 
ancients are veiled in the obscurity of cen- 
turies; the more recently discovered ele- 
ments frequently take their names from 
some striking property of Uie element. 
Oxygen, for example, means acid-forming, 
while chromium is an adaptation of the 
Greek word colored. Other dements are 
named after the locality in which they 
were first found, such as yttria. A few 
elements are named after mytholo^cal 
characters, as vanadium and thorium. 
Of the eighty-three elements known onlv 
eight are found in the earth's crust in rel- 
atively large amounts. Oxygen is bv far 
the most common; it constitutes almost 
one-half of the earth's crust. Bv weight 
one-fifth of the air is oxygen, ana oxygen 
constitutes about 89 per cent by weight 
of water. Next to oxygen in the order of 
their relative amounts found in the earth's 
crust are silicon, aluminum, iron^ calcium, 
potassium, sodium, and magnesium. All 
the other elements are found in amounts 
which are expressed in fractions of a per 
cent of the total material present. 

Valency and Latos of Combination, — 
The elements are divided into two classes, 
the metals and the non-metals. Metals 
form what chemists call bases, while non- 
metals are acid-forming. Both groups of 
elements enter into salts. Dalton early 
formulated the laws according to which 
these two classes of the elements entered 
into chemical combination ; the proportion 
by weight of the combining elements is al- 
ways unvarying in the same compound, 
and if two elements formed a series of 
compounds the combining proportions are 
simple multiples of the lowest ratio. To 
illustrate the last law we have S2 parts 
by weight of sulphur combining with 32 
parts by weight of oxygen to form sulphur 
dioxide; but in another compound of sul- 
phur and oxygen, 32 parts of the former 
unite with 48 parts of the latter. Thus 
the ratio of the oxygen in its two sulphur 
compounds is as 32 to 48 or 2 as to 3. 
The sum of the dements forming a chem- 
ical compound always equals the weight 
of the compound itself. Chemistry as an 
exact science is based upon these laws of 
combination. The joining of atoms to 
form molecules is attributed to what is 
caUed chemical afiinity. The degree of 
chemical afSnitf varies widely with the 
atoms of the different elements: oxygen 
combines with all of the elements except 
fiuorine and the inert gases of the atmos- 
phere, while the latter combine with no 
elements whatsoever. A list of the inert 
gases is in group ' O ' of Mendeleeff*s table 
below. Furthermore, the number of atoms 
with which a given atom may combine 
sometimes varies. The combining power 

Chemistry Chemistry 

of the atom is called its valency. Hydro- hydro and to the end of the word arc 
gen is one of the elements which has the added the letters * ic' The compound rep- 
least chemical combining power, and to it resented by the formula HCl is called hy- 
therefore is assigned the valency one. The drochloric acid. The salts derived from 
combining value for hydrogen or its equiv- this acid have the termination * ide.' Thus 
alent is the standard unit of valency. NaCl is sodium chloride. In general all 
Oxygen always has a valency of two and salts containing a metal and a non-metal 
aluminum of three, but nitrogen may have only have the same termination ; NavO is 
a valency of one, two, three, four, or five, sodium oxide, Na^S is sodium sulpnide. 

FormulcLs. — ^To represent molecules of Most acids contain oxygen ; they are 
various materials the symbols of the ele- known as oxy acids. In many of them 
ments forming the molecules arc written the valency of the non-metal varies. The 
in juxtaposition. Symbols written in this first discovered acid of such a group, and 
way constitute a formula. Thus to repre- ordinarily the most common, is designated 
sent water we have H^O. This formula by adding * ic ' to the end of the word of 
indicates that two atoms of hydrogen the non-metal in the acid. Accordingly, 
unite with one atom of oxygen to form one HClOi is given the name chloric acid, 
molecule of water. The formula for sul- But for an acid containing one less atom 
phuric acid is H^SOf, from which, by ref- of oxygen, such as HCIO^ there would be 
erence to the taole of atomic weights its added the letters * ous ; it would be called 
actual molecular weight may be calcu- chlorous acid. In the same manner HCIO 
lated ; for not only do the atoms in the is called hypochlorous acid. To the acid 
formula indicate tne composition of the containing four atoms of oxygen is given 
molecule but the weight of the molecule as the name perchloric, and its formula is 
well, which latter is found by taking the HCIO4. This system of prefixes and suf- 
sum of the atomic weights. In the case of fixes applies to all the elements which 
sulphuric acid the molecular weight is form oxy acids, such as sulphur, phos- 
equal to 2 for hydrogen plus 32 for the phorous, and nitrogen. By treating each 
sulphur, plus 4 X 16, or o4, for the oxy- of the above chlorine acids with a base, 
gen, the sum of which is 98. For water such as NaOH, sodium hydroxide, salts 
the molecular weight is 2 -4- 16, or 18. are formed. From HCIO4, perchloric 
Certain groups of atoms are frequently as- acid, there is obtained sodium perchlorate ; 
sociated; they are not easily decomposed, from HClOi, chloric acid, sodium chlor- 
and they act together in chemical changes ate ; from the hypothetical acid HC10a» 
in the same manner as an atom. Such a chlorous acid, there is derived the salt, 
^roup is called a radical. The SO4 group sodium chlorite, which is known in a free 
in sulphuric acid is an example of a rad- state; and from HCIO, hypochlorous 
icaL These radicals can exist only in acid, there is formed sodium hypochlorite, 
chemical combination ; they cannot be iso- This system of designating salts applies to 
lated. all similar groups of compounds such as 

Clasaea of Chemical Compounds, — Four the salts of nitrogen and sulphur, 
classes of chemical compounds take part Types of Chemical Reactions and Chem- 
in chemical changes : acids, bases, and ical Equations. — Chemical changes are or- 
salts, all of which will conduct an electric dinarily called chemical reactions. Of 
current when dissolved in water. A these there are five chief types : double 
fourth group is made up largely of or- decomposition, direct union or synthesis, 
ganic or carbon compounos, and tnese will substitution, decomposition, and molecular 
not conduct electricity. Acids invariably or internal rearrangement of the atoms 
contain hydrogen and a non-metal. In within the molecule itself. The latter 
water, acids turn a plant product called type of reaction only occurs frequently in 
litmus red. The hydrogen of the acid pro- organic reactions. In order to represent 
duces this color change. A base is a com- reactions concisely chemical eouations are 

S)und made up of a metal and the radical employed. The formulas of the elements 
H. The latter will impart a blue color or compounds acting upon each other are 
to litmus when the base is dissolved in placed upon the left side of an eouality 
water. A salt is the result of the action mark or an arrow, and upon the right side 
of an acid upon a base and contains both of the equality mark are written the for- 
a metal and a non-metal. mulas of the substances produced. Thus 

'Nomenclature, — In naming bases the the action of hydrochloric acid upon 
metal is first mentioned and then the OH sodium hydroxide is represented in the 
radical, which latter is called the hydrox- following manner : HCl -f- NaOH = 
ide group. Thus the compound NaOH is NaCl -f- H,0. This indicates^ that one 
callS sodium hydroxide. To those acids molecular weight of hydrochloric acid in 
containing only one non-metal combined contact with one molecular weight of 
with hydrogen there is prefixed to the root sodium hydroxide will form one molecular 
of th? wp^ for the nou-metal the term weight of the salt sodium chloride and pne 



molecular weight of water. This is an 
example of the type of reaction known as 
double decomposition because both of the 
compounds used are broken up and con- 
verted into entirely different substances. 
The action of phosphorous upon chlorine, 
P -f 3G1 = PCI,, illustrate a synthetic 
reacftion. Zinc dissolved in hydrochloric 
acid is shown by the equation Zn -f- 2HC1 
=: ZnCli 4~ ^1 ^^^ i^ <ui example of sub- 
stitution. The heating of rea oxide of 
mercury, HgO = Hg + O, typifies a 
decomposition reaction. 

CUuHficaiion of the Elements, — ^Prob- 
ably the greatest single contribution for 
the systematizing of chemistry was made 
by Mendeleeff in 1869. In that year Men- 
deleeff published the following table: 

therefore called this the law of octaves. 
As shown in the table each main group is 
subdivided into two parts, A and B. 
Li, Na, K, Rb, and Gs are somewhat more 
closely associated in chemical characteris- 
tics than Gu, Ag, and Au, Adjoining 
groups as I and II more nearly resemble 
each other than those widely separated. 
Group I is made up entirely or metak 
while group II is composed of strong 
non-metals. The blanks in the table in- 
dicate the places of elements which will 
probably be discovered eventually. The 
table possesses shortcomings such as the 
irregular groupings of the elements of the 
eighth column, the reversed positions of 
nickel and cobalt and of tellurium and 
iodine ; the lack of a place for hydrogen. 




















Group I 
A B 

Group II 
A B 

Group III 
A B 

Group IV 
A B 

Group V 
A B 

Group VI 
A B 

Group Vn 
A B 








































Ru- 101.7 



As- 107.0 


In- 115 



Te- 127.6 



Gb- 132.8 


139 to 174 














Mendeleeff observed that when the ele- 
ments were arranged in the order of the 
magnitude of their atomic weights, groups 
of them were formed by taking all which 
were separated by six elements. The ele- 
ments In these groups possessed very 
similar chemical and phvsical properties. 
Thus beginning with lithium, Li, in the 
above table, there follow six other elements, 
glucinum, boron, carbon, nitrogen^ oxygen, 
and fluorine. We then have sodium, Na, 
which has almost identical properties with 
lithium. Similarly in the same group, 
group I, each member in the order of atomic 
weignts is separated bv six other elements. 
Gounting as one the element chosen. Men- 
ddeeff stated that the eighth element 
repeated the properties of the first; he 

All these defects of Mendeleeff's table are 
eliminated in a table published by Moseley 
in 1914, which he called a table of atomic 
numbers. The weights for the various 
elements in this table were obtained by 
measuring the wave lengths of the rays 
which each element emitted when used as 
the anode of an X-ray bulb. 

Branches of Chemistry, — The study and 
application of chemistry may be divided 
roughly into four fields: inorganic, in- 
cluding the analysis of inorganic com- 
pounds; organic, physical and industriaL 
Inorganic chemistry embraces the reac- 
tions of all the elements except carbon. 
The essential principles of inorganic chem- 
istry have been mentioned in the foregoing 
sketch. The study of the compounds of 

Chemistry Chemulpo 

carbon, of which there are many thou- OiemTlitz (^m'nits), the principal 

sands, constitutes organic chemistry. In ^***'****"«'*« manufacturing town in 

1828 WoeUer synthesized urea from an Saxon ▼, Germany, on the Chemnits, 

inorganic compound. Prior to that time 39 miles southwest of Dresden. It is 

it was believed that organic substances well built, and has a castle, a lyceum, 

could be formed only in an animal or plant town-hall, school of design, etc. Tho 

organism. In 1856 Sir William Perkin principal manufactures are white aivl 

prepared mauve, the first artificial dye. printed calicoes, ginghams, handkerchiefs, 

A few years later Pasteur proved that woolen and half-woolen goods, etc. 

oxygen was essential in fermentation and There are also extensive cotton-spinning 

decomposition of organic substances. Or- mills, and mills for the spinning of 

ganic compounds are divided mto two combed wool and floss-silk; dye-works, 

groups, aliphatic, or fatty, and aromatic, print-works, bleach-works, chemical 

The former IS represented by such sub- works; large manufactures of cotton 

stances as alcohol, ether, and chloroform, ^ose, etc. The manufacture of machin- 

the latter by benzene and coal tar dyes. ^^y ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ become important. The 

A very important development of or- cotton hose and woolen goods are ex* 

game chemistry,, now, in fact, a distinct p^jted to Japan, China, Africa, and 

branch of chemistry, is physiological or, America, while the machinery is chiefly 

as sometimes called, biological chemistry, destined for Russia, Silesia, and Bo- 

Physiological chemistry is m general con- j^^^j^ ^ ^as had a rapid recent prog- 

cerned with what w called metaboliOTa. jj^^i^g now three times the popu- 

Jn^ t1f«*^ffL^^n^f fi^i'i^^ItHl^'flnHl ^^ lation it hSd in 1870. Pop. 286.454. 

?h°e' Silef "?^h1 ^Sfen^^KrlicWol^T. Chemilit2^ K^ Vwst^^^^^^^^ 

temal medicine is fundamentally aprob- , . . ,. ^aT^^r.,L^ ^^i^ Z. 

lem of physiological chemistry. Closely l^gian of the 16th <^°t"7i ^om in the 

associate with physiological chemistry. °*,^'"^ ,0^ ^'*°4-°?''''l '"^ ^^^f'u°® ^*! 

but also involved in the manufacture of educated at \} ittemberg and became a 

such inorganic materials as rubber, glass, ;^^o^olmaster in Wriezen on thn Oder, 

and clay products, is colloidal chemwtry. ^°»,1^^^*^S became librarian of Duke 

A colloid is a suUtance which will not Albert of Prussia, and about this time 

pass through a membranous tissue. Prac- wrote his Loci 7 neologtct, 1591, a learn- 

tically all animal and vegetable fluids are ea commentary on Melanchthon s sys- 

coUoidal or colloids. Physical chemistry tem of dogmatics. He subsequently went 

is a study of the fundamental causes un- as a minister to Brunswick, where he 

derlying chemical activity. It is con- died in 1586. Of his other works the 

cemed with the rate of chemical reactions, most valuable is the Ewamen CoMtlii 

the electrical conductivity of chemical so- Tridentini. 

lutions and the amount of heat absorbed Chemosh (l^^'mosh). the national god 

or emitted in the course of a chemical re- ^**^"*^ ** of the Moabites, who were 

action. By means of the chemical laws on that account called *the people of 

developed through physical chemistry it Chemosh' (Num., xxi, 29; Jer., xlviii, 

became possible to obtain nitric add and 46). At an early period this deity ap- 

ammonia from the free nitrogen of tne air. pears also as the national god of the Am. 

Both of these substances are essential in monites (Judg., xi. 24), though his wor- 

the manufacture of smokeless powder and ship seems afterwards to have given place 

of fertilizers. Chemical principles under- to that of Moloch (I Ki., xi, 5, 7), if 

lie the steel and iron industry, the manu- Moloch be not merely another name for 

facture of dyes, the preparation of medi- the same deity. The worship of Chemosh 

cines, and the refining of gold and silver ^as even introduced among the Hebrews 

from their ores. y^y Solomon, who " built an high place 

ChetMoal Warfare. — ^The first use of for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab. 

toxic gases in the World war was on Jq the hill that is before Jerusalem*' 

April 22, 1915, when the Germans em- q j^i^ xi, 7) 

ploved it in an attack against the French pi.-, '-.„•-. (kS-mO'sis), an affection of 

and British linea on the Ypres sahent. l^ncmOSlS \^^ .^» ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^, 

^^'^^I'cS^icTwMlfe Sem"e.''¥h; J^tlnea ''''"'"' "'''" '"' ''""'''" 

poison gases used in the war were of ^v xi. / 

various kinds. That first used was l/HemOtiier apy* See Serum Therapy, 

chlorine; afterward came the mustard -«, , /«iia.mni'nft\ nna nf th» 

SS^oT'el'J'"iiTX.SJlf«"fSk 22S?S Chemulpo ht'eTiSlaS-^lortSof <L.Su' 

common gases were phosgene and white p-.,.rt»t:„« hp«n«i einsene hides wheat. 

maaks offered a reasonable protection. can manufartures. Pop. 80.000. 

Chenab Cheque 

Clieil&b (^^®Q~^^)* & Tiver of Hinda- apetaloiu exogens, oongisting of more or 
Btan, one of the five rivers less succulent herbs or shrubs, belonging 
of the Punjab. It rises in the Himalay- to about eighty genera and 600 speaeti 
D* ??**" ^^ Kashmir, and entering the They are mostly innocent weeds, but 
Punjab near Sialkot, flows in a south- several are employed as pot-herbs, such 
westerly direction till it unites with the as spinach and beet, and others for the 
Jehlam ; length about 800 miles. At manufacture of soda. The genus Ckena- 
Wasirabad^ it is crossed by a great iron pod'ium consists of weedy plants, corn- 
railway bridge more than a mile long. mon in waste places, and known in 
ChenfiT '^ Chinese musical instrument, Britain by the names of goosefoot, fat- 
. ^' consisting of a series of tubes hen, good King Henry, etc. C. anffc«I- 
having free reeds. Its introduction into tninticum is a species well known in the 
Europe led to the invention of the accor- United States, where it is in repute as 
dion, harmonium, and other free-reed a vermifuge, under the name of worm- 
instruments, seed, the seeds or the oil obtained from 
Chfalftr (shft-nyft), ANDsfi-MABiB me, them being given as a remedy for worms, 
a French poet, bom at Con- C, Quinoa is an important S. American 
stantinople in 17tf2, went to France species, having edible seeds, on account 
when very young, and entered the of which it is largely cultivated in Peru 
army, but left shortly after his twenti- and Chile as a food-plant, 
eth year to devote himself to literary CTiAATia (kS'ops), the name riven by 
pursuits. In 1790 he joined the moder- ^**^^P" tierodotus to the Egyptian 
ate section of the Republicans, and made monarch whom the Egvptians them- 
himself offensive alike to the Royalists selves called Khufu. He belonged to 
and Jacobinical party. B^ing brought the rulers who had for their capital 
before the revolutionary tribunal he waa Memphis; lived about 2800-2700 B.C., 
condemned and guillotined July 25, and built the largest of the pyramids. 
1794. The poems of Ch^nier are incon- According to Herodotus, he employed 
aiderable in number, but give the author 100.000 men on this work constanuy for 
a high place among the poets of BYance. 20 years. 

His chief works are Hermes; The Elc Chenhren (ke^'ren), or CbpHa^k, 
gies; La Liberty , etc.; and some beauti- ^"^P******* was the successor of Ohe- 
rul odes, of which La Jeune Captive, ops as king of Eg[ypt, and the builder k 
written in prison, is perhaps the best the second pyramid. His name is prop* 
known. erly Khafra. See OheopB. 

fHi^Tiii^r Marie Joseph Blaise de, niiATisfnw (chep'std), a town and 
Vruemer, brother of the foregoing, ^^^psiOW ^^^ ^ fcngland. County 

bom Aug. 28, 1764, at Constantinople. Monmouth, on the Wye, 14 miles n. 
went when very young to Paris, served by w. of Bristol. The nigh tides of the 
as an officer of dragoons, left the service. Wye allow large ships to reach the town, 
and devoted himself to literary pursuits, which is very ancient, and has a castle, 
His dramas Charles IX, Henry VIII, portions of which date back to the 
and La Morte de Calas, full of wild Conquest In the vicinity are the beau- 
democratic declamation, were received tiful ruins of Tintern Abbey. Pop. 
with great applause. He was chosen a 2953. 

member of the Convention, where, for a Cliefllie ^^ Cheoe (chek), a draft 
considerable time, he belonged to the ^"^M.'*^* or bill on a bank, payable 
party of the most violent Democrats, on presentation. A cheque may be drawn 
His works comprise discourses on the payable to the bearer, or to the order or 
history of French literature, as well as some one named; the first form is trans- 
odes, songs, hymns, etc. He died in ferable without endorsation, and payable 
January, 1811. to any one who presents it; the second 

Crhenille (she-nir). a sort of oma- must be endorsed, that is, the person in 
\/«7 mental fabric of cord-like whose favor it is drawn must write his 
form, made by weaving or twisting to- name on the back of it. Cheques are a 
ffether warp-threads, with a transverse very important species of mercantile cur- 
nlUng or weft, the loose ends of which rency wherever there is a well-organized 
project all round in the form of a pile, system of banking. The regular use of 
Chenille carpets have a weft of chenille, them for all payments, except of small 
the loose tnreads of which produce a amount, makes the transfer of funds a 
fine, velvety pile. mere matter of cross-entries and tran»> 

IThihTiATinAaTiY (Rb&-noQ-s6). See ferring of balances among bankers, 
i/neiLQaueiiU& U,^^^ ^^^ ^^^^a greatly to economiae ths 

CI1lfillOtM)diA.f!effi (ke-n&-pod-i-ft'se-«). use of the precious metals as a car* 
vuvuvjfvuACi>v^n# 1^ jjjj^ order or rency. 

Cheqny Cheri1)0tt 

dhun-mr °f Chequbbed. See MeraU- works, and in ihort everything necessary 

wuc4Ujr, ^^ jgr ([jg buiiding snii fitting out of ships 

nkar (sh&r), a river of Oentral France, of war. Tliere is a great diqiie or break- 

^* a tributary of the Loire, wbicb water, stretching across the roadstead. 

It enters near Toars; length, 200 which, though protected on three sides 

mUei. by the land, was formerly open to the 

Cll^r (•*''''')■ 1 department of Central heavy seas from the north. The diquo 

vuv* fiance, named from the river was commenced under Louis XVI, 1* 

Cher, sod formed from part of the old 4120 yards long, and is 21^ miles from 

provinces of Berry and Bourbonnais ; the harbor, In water varying from 42 

ares, 2819 square miles ; capital, Bonrges. to 62 feet deep. A fort and lighthonse 

The surf«£e is in general flat, but is occupy the center of the digue, and there 

diversified in ihe ■(. ^y chains of incon- are circular fortd at the extreoilties. 

siderahle hills. Soil various, bat fertile The principal industry of tbe town Is 

in the neighborhood of tbe Loire and centered In the works of the dockyard. 

AlUec The forests and pastures are the commercial trade and manufactores 

: from shipbuilding heine compara- 

. „ J insiBnificant. It occupies the site 

tante require. The preparation and man- of a Romnn station. William the Con- 
nfactnre of iron, called Berry iron, is the queror foim^fed a hospital here, and built 
principal branch of iodastry. Tbe de- the cssile rhurcb. The castle was one of 
partment is divided into three arrondisse- the strongliiitdH of Normandy. A few 
mentn. Pop. 337,810. miles from the harbor the Federal warship 

nTiprhnnrtr (sbar-bSr), a fortified Kenmiric sank the Confederate ship 
l/ucruuiirg seaport and naval ar- Alabama (q. v.} June 10. 1864. Pop. 
senal of France. In the department of 43,731. 

Ia Hancfae. 196 miles w. n. w. Paris, fiiiirh'n'rv Lord. See Herbert, Ed- 
The fortifications are very extensive, and ^"'^^""^J'l ^ard. 

have been greatly strengthened in recent PTipriKnTi (sher'i-bon^, a seaport on 
years, so that Cherbourg, if not impreg- ^"«*i""" the island of Java, capi- 
nabte from tbe sea. is at least very diffi- tal of tbe province of the same name, 
cnlt of attack. The port is divided into Tbe province lies on the coast towards 
" ) commercial and naval ports, which the n. w., produces coffee, timber, i 
. — 1... j:_^^.> n.!.- I. — > mri,i.._i_^ n^tg indigo and sugar, and has 

 1,!STT.521 inhabitants. The town 1., 

,.i a deep bay on tbe north coast, and it. 

.__ _.__ J. dry residence of a Dutcb governor. Poi» 

dwb, bnUding-ebeds, mast-bouses, boilei^ 18,495. 

Gkerimoyer Cherubini 

CShfiriinover (^ ^ ® ^^'™ o i'e r) , the naturalised in the United States and 
\fMM^AMiMMvj%0M, fj^^ ^f ^jg A fi ^ 11 <» oommon in shmbberies. It is commonly 

Ckeriw^>liat a native of S. and Central called lanrel, bat must not be confounded 

America, idlied to the castard-apple. It with the sweet-bay or other true species 

is a hesTt-shaped fruit with a scaly ez- of laureL The leaves yield an oil nearly 

terior, and numerous seeds buried in a identical with that got from bitter al- 

delidoos nnlp. monds. The distilled water (odled 

ChemigOY. see Tchemigav. >^ J*!*'^ '^ tl^'tJt^ ^TJfu ^ii2^ 

o in meoicine in toe same way as diluted 

Cherolrefi (cher'o-ke), a dty, county hydrocyanic or prussic acid. It is poi- 

vuvAva.!^ seat of Cherokee Co., Iowa, sonous in large doses. The Portugal 

50 miles if. s. of Sioux City. It has laurel is another species. 

_ North American Indians during the Revolutionary war. when a 
in the United States, occupying an band of Indians, led by Joseph Brant 
allotted region in Oklahoma. Their old (q. v.) and Tories, under Walter Butler, 
seats were in Georgia. Alabama, Missis- son of Colonel John Butler (q. v.). fdl 

and newspapers in their own language, ciently a name applied to several penin- 
live in well-built villages, and have an sulas, as the Cimbrian Chersonesus 
excellent school system. Their numbers (Chersonesua Cimhrioa), now Jutland, 
are about 30,000. etc., the Tauric Chersonesus (Oh. Tau^ 

Cheroot (d.eK>t'). See Cigar. S^^iA^t^fiSSS-t^ Sto^ 

Cherrv (^^^)f » fruit-tree of the rjliAT-t (ch*rt), a variety of quarts^ 
^ prune or plum tribe, very ^•»*^*«» called also Hornstone or Rock- 
ornamental and therefore much culti- flint. It is less hard than common 
vated in shrubberies. It is a native of quartz, and is usually amorphous, some- 
most temperate countries of the northern times [globular or in nodules. Siliceous 
hemisphere. The cultivated varieties concretions occurring as nodules and 
probably belong to two species, Cerdsus layers in limestone rocks are also called 
avium and Cerdsus imlffdrU, the genus chert. 

CerQ9U9 being considered a subgenuii niiArfaAir ( chart's!), a town of Eng- 
of PnffiM. TThey are numerous, as ^"^*«'»cj land, in Surrey, 20 miles 
the red or garden cherry, the red s. w. of London, on the Thames, giving 
heart, the white heart, the black heart, name to a pari. div. of the county. The 
etc The fruit of the wild cherry, or Saxon kings had a palace here. Bricks 
gean. Is often as well flavored, if not and tiles are made, and vegetables largely 
^uite so large, as that of the cultivated cultivated. Pop. 13,819. 
varieties. It is said that the cherry was Chemb (ch^i'^ub ; in the plural CAei^ 
originally brought from Cerasus, in Pon- ^*^^*'^*^ ^^^ and Cherubim) ^ one ol 
tns, to Italy, by Lucullus, about b.c. 7C, an order of angels variously represented 
and introduced into England by the at different times, but generally as 
Romans about A.D. 4^ The cherry is winged spirits with a human counte- 
used in making the liqueurs Kirschwas- nance, and distinguished by their knowl- 
ser and Maraschino (which see). The edge from the seraphs, whose distinc- 
wood of the cherry-tree is hard and tive quality is love. The first mention 
tough, and is very serviceable to turners of cherubs is in Gen. iii, 24. The cher- 
snd cabinet-makers. An ornamental but ubs in E^ekiers vision had each four 
not edible species is the bird-cherry heads or faces, the hands of a man, 
(whidi see). The American wild cherry and wings. The four faces were the 
(CsrdtfiM VirginiAna) , is a fine large tree, face of a bull, that of a man, that of s 
the timber of which is much used by lion, and that of an eagle. (Ezek., iv 
cabinet-makers and others, though the and x.) In the celestial hierarchy cher- 
frait, growing in dusters, is bitter and ubs are represented as spirits next in 
rather astringent. It is famous for its order to seraphs. 

medicinal bark. Clienillini (k^-rO-be'ne), Mabia 

Chl!rrv*lfl.1irel *^® common name of v**^* •*"*-»** Luioi Cablo Zxnobio 
\/uvxxj Mftu^«^Ay Cerd^iis La»rocerd«iM, Salvatobe. an eminent Italian composer 
nat. Older Rosaces, an evergreen shrub, bom at Florence in 1700. His first 
a native of Asia Minor, but now opera, Quinio Fabio, was produced la 

Chemsci CheuS" 


Alessandria in 1780, and in Rome (in navigation. It receives the Susquehanna, 
an altered form) in 1783, with such Potomac, York and James Rivers and 
success as to spread liis fame over Italy, supplies a route to the sea for the com* 
After visiting London he finally settled merce of Baltimore, Washington. Nor- 
in Paris, where he became director of folk and Richmond. Off Norfolk lies the 
the tcoie Royale in 1822, and died in fine harbor of Hampton Roads, the 
1842. Among his compositions are scene of the famous battle between the 
Iphigenia in Aulide, Lodotdka, Faniska, Monitor and Merrimac, llie oyster 
Let Deuw Joum4es, etc. In his later fisheries of Chesapeake Bay are the fin- 
years he confined himself almost ex- est in the country, and its large num- 
clusively to the composition of sacred bers of wild fowl, especially the famous 
music, and gained a lasting fame by his canvas-back duck, make it a favorite 
Coronation Mass, and more especially resort for sportsmen, 
his gorgeous fi60tt«em. Glieseldeil (ch es' el-den), WUXJAM, 

Clienisci (ke-rus'sl), an ancient v**^"^*^*^-**' an English surgeon and 
German tribe, whose terri- anatomist, born in Leicestershire in 
tory probably was situated in that part 1688, went to l^ndon to prosecute his 
of Germany lying between the Weser studies, and at the age of twenty-twc 
and the Elbe, and having the Harz began to give lectures on anatomy. In 
Mountains on the n. and the Sudetic 1713 he published a treatise on the 
range on the a. This tribe was known Anatomy of the Human Body, long es- 
to the Romans before 50 B.c», and occa- teemed as a manual of the science. In 
sionally served in the Roman armies. 1723 he published a Treatise on the 
But when Varus attempted to subject High Operation for the Stone, and after- 
them to the Roman laws they formed a wards added to his reputation by oner- 
confederation with many smaller tribes, ating for stone. In 1733 was publisned 
and having decoyed him into the forests, his Osteography, or Anatomy of the 
destroyed his whole army in a battle Bones, folio, consisting of plates and 
which lasted three days, and in which short explanations, a splendid and accu- 
he himself was slain (a.d. 9). Upon rate work. He died at Bath in 1752. 
this the Cherusci became the chief ob- Cheshire (c^^^h'ir), or Chbsteb, a 
ject of the attacks of the Romans. Ger- ^**-^^^^^*-^ maritime county and county 
manicus marched against them, but palatine of England, bounded by tiie 
though successful in several campaigns counties of Lancaster, York, L>erby, 
did not obtain any permanent advan- Stafford, Salop, Denbigh, Flint, the es- 
tages. Subsequently tne Cherusci were tuaries of the Dee and Mersey, and the 
overcome by the Ghatti, and latterly Irish Sea. The area is 1027.8 sq. miles, 
they were incorporated among the of which only a sixteenth is uncultivated. 
Franks. The surface is generally level, the soil 

Chervil (<^bei^^l)« the popular name mostly a rich reddish loam variously 
**^ ■" of umbelliferous plants of clayey or sandy. There is some of 
the genus Chterophyllum, but especially the finest pasture land in England; and 
of C. temOlum, the only British species, cheese, the main produce of the Cheshire 
a hairy weed with longlsh, grooved fruits, farmer, is made in great quantities. 
Garden chervil is Anthriso^its cerefolium. Extensive tracts of land are cultivated 
an umbelliferous plant much used in as market-gardens, the produce being 
soups and salads in some European sent to Liverpool. Manchester, and other 
countries. The parsnip chervil (A. but- towns. Minerals abound, especially 
hdsus) has a root like a small carrot, rock-salt and coal, which are extensively 
with a flavor between that of a chestnut worked. Cotton manufacture is carried 
and a potato. Sweet chervil, sweet on at Stockport, Stalybridge, and the 
cicely, or myrrh is Myrrhis odordta, an northeastern district; shipbuilding at 
aromatic and stimulant umbellifer for- Birkenhead and other places. Trade is 
merly used as a pot-herb, growing in a facilitated by numerous railway lines 
semi wild state in Britain. and a splendid system of canals. The 

nnaaQTiAoVA Hair (ches'a-pSk), a chief rivers are the Mersey, and Dee 
\/iiC»a.jiciiiLC JJttjr spacious bay of and the Weaver. Small sheets of water 
the United States, in the states of Vir- called meres are numerous. Cheshire 
ginia and Maryland. Its entrance is has eight parliamentary divisions, each 
between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, returning one member. Principal towns, 
16 miles wide, and it extends 180 miles Chester, the county town, Macclesfield, 
to the northward. It is from 10 to 30 Stockport, Birkenhead and Stalybridge. 
miles broad, and at most places as much Pop. (1911) 676,356. 
as 9 fathoms deep, affording many com- r|]|Aafl a well-known game of great 
modloua harbors and a safe and easy ^-"^^^9 antiquity and of eastern orl- 

Chess Chat 

(in, havlDf probably arisen In India, and Q.R. The pawns are contracted : E.P_ 
thence spread throngb Persia and Arabia QP-. K.B.P., Q.ElP., etc The board 
to Earope. The game is played by two is divided into eight files runnins longi- 
persons, on a board consisting of sixty- tudinally from one player to the other, 
four •quorea arranged iu eight rows of and laterally into eight raidis or rows. 
Each file is named from tbe piece which 
occupies its first square, and countinK 
inversely from the position of each 
player to that of tbe other, the rows 
are numbered from 1 to 8. At White's 
rigbt-bood corner we bave thus K.R. 
square; immediately aboTe this K.IL2; 
and so on to K.R. 8, which com- 
pletes the file : tbe second file beglni 
with E.Kt square on the first row, 
and ends with K.KL 8 oa the eiKbth. 
White's K.It. 8 and K.KL 8 are thus 
Black's E.R. square, and K. Kt square, 
and the moves of each player are de 
scribed tbrougbout from his own posi- 
tion, in inverse order to the movea of 
bis oppoueot. 

Id cfiess aS tbe mea capture by oceo- 

pyins tbe poaition of tbe captoied mas, 

wblcb is removed fr«a tbe board; tbe 

only exception to this rale is the «n 

ChenHboKd, pMiatit capture by the pawn, which 

elgbt squares each, alternately black and will be explained later. "Tbe ordinary 

wnlte. Each player has sixteen men, move of tbe Paten is atroight forward 

eight of which, known as pauntM, are in the same file; a pawn never movea 

of the lowest grade ; the other eigbt, backward. The first time a P. Is moved 

called piecet, are of various grades, it may be played forward oue square 

They are, on each side, king and queen; or two; afterwards only one square at 

two buhopi, two kniohu, and two raoki a time. But in capturinc an adverse 

or cattlet. The board must be placed piece tbe P. moves diagonally one square 

that each player shall have a white to occupy tbe position of the captured 
square to bis rlgtit band. The men are man. 'TbuB if White open a game by 
then set upon the two rows of squares playing P. to K. 4 and Black answers P. 
next the players ; the pieces on tbe first, to K. 4, the pawns are immovable ; but 
tbe pawns on tbe second row, leaving if White now plays P. to K.B. 4 or P. 
four unoccupied rows io the center, to Q. 4, Black may capture the P. last 
The king and queen occupy the central advanced. Pawns have another mode 
squares facing the corresponding pieces of capture peculiar to themselves, known 
on tbe opposite side. The queen always as the en pa»»ant capture, which is 
occupies her own color, white queen on only available against pawns. If Black's 
white square, black on black. The two P., instead of occunying K. 4, stood on 
blsbops occupy the squares next the K. 6. and White played P. to Q. 4. 
king and queen ; tbe two knights tbe BIsck could not capture it by placing 
squares next tbe bishops : the rooks the his P. on the square it occnpies, whIcE 
last or corner squares. The pawns fill would be a false mr-ve ; but he is at 
indiscriminately the squares of the sec- liberty to make tbe capture by placing 
ond or front row. 'The men standing his own P. on tbe square passed over by 
on tbe king's or queen's side of tbe White's (Q. 6). The privilege of cap- 
board are named respectively king's and turing «n patiant has two important 
queen's men. Thus king's blsbop of limitations: (1) the P. to be captured 
knight is tbe bisbop or knight on tbe side must have moved two squares on Its 
o( the king. The pawns sre named from initial move, and (2) the capture must 
the pieces in front of which they stand ; be made immediatelt/ after it has moved ; 
king's pawn, king's knight's pawn, if other moves intervene tbe privilege 
queen's rook's pawn. etc. Tbe names in lost. When a P., by moving or cap- 
of the men are contracted an follows : — turing. reaches the eighth square of anv 
King, K; Ring's Bishop, K.B.; King's file It can no longer remain a P., but 
Knight. K.Kt.; King's Rook, K.R.; must at once be exchanged for a piece 
Queen. Q. ; Qneen's Bishop, Q-B.; of the same color. The player may 
Qneen's Knight, Q.KL; Queen's Book, choose any piece exeent tbe uni; bnt 

Chess Chester 

the queen, the most valuable piece, is ture the assailant It is also a funda- 
generally the piece chosen. This is called mental rule of the game that the K. can- 
queening a pawn, and a player may not be moved into check. When the K. 
thus have several queens on the board, can no longer be defended on being 
The Rook. — ^The moves of the pieces checked by the adversary, either by mov- 
are not, like those of the pawns, limited ing him out of danger, or by interposing 
to a single direction. The R. moves in another man, or by capture of the attack- 
any direction and for any distance that ing man the game is lost, and the. adver- 
ts open along either the particular row sary announces this by saying checkmate. 
or the file on which it happens to stand. When, by inadvertence or lack of skill. 
It can, of course, capture any obstruct- a player blocks up his opponent's EL so 
ing opposing piece or pawn and occupy that it cannot move without going into 
its place. The Bishop. — ^The B.'s move check, and no other man can be moved 
diagonally, either backward or forward, without exposing him, the player reduced 
and can never change the color of their to this extremity cannot, without yiolat- 
square. Like the R.'s, their range is only ing the fundamental rule referred to, play 
limited by the extent to which their at all. In such a case, the one player 
path is open or unobstructed ; a B. may being unable to plav and the other out 
also capture an obstructing opponent, of turn, the game is considered drawn^ 
The Queen. — ^The Q. combines the moves that is, concluded without advantage to 
of the R. and B. She is the most power- either player. 

ful piece on the board, and can move to, (JliAat ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^® higher verte- 
or capttire at, any distance or direction ^*^^'*^f brates. the cavity formed by the 
in a straight line. The King. — ^The K. breast-bone in front and the ribs and 
is at once the weakest and the most backbone at the sides and behind, shut 
valuable piece on the board. In point off from the abdomen below by the dia- 
of direction he is as free as the queen, phragm or midriff. It contains the 
but for distance he is limited to the heart, lungs, etc., and the gullet passes 
adjacent squares. Standing on any through it. See Thorax. 
central square he commands the eight fJliAflter (ches'ter), an English par- 
aqnares around him and no more. Be- ^•■*''»«"'* liamentary and municipal 
sides his ordinary move the K. has an- borough, county town of Cheshire, situ- 
other by special privilege, in which the ated on the Dee about 16 miles from 
R. participates. Once in the game, if Liverpool. It is a bishop's see, and oon- 
the squares between K. and R. are dear, tains an old and interesting cathedral re- 
if neither K. nor R. has moved, if K. cently restored. The four principal 
is not attacked by any hostile man, and streets have the roadways sunk connd- 
if no hostile man commands the square erably below the level of the footways, 
over which K. has to pass^ K. may which run within piazzas covered by 
move two squares towards either K.R. the upper portion of the houses, and in 
or Q.R., and R. in the same move must front of the ranges of shops. Flights 
occupv the square over which K. has of steps at convenient distances connect 

Sassed. This is called casiUng. The the carriageways with the footways or 
inight. — ^The Kt., unlike the other ' rows.' Tnere are also shops and ware- 
pieces, never moves in a straight line, houses below the rows. These features. 
His move is limited to two squares at a together with the ancient walls (now 
time, one forwards, backwards or side- a public promenade) and the quaintly- 
ways, and one diagonally, and he can carved wooden gables of many of the 
leap over any man occupying a square houses, give an antique and picturesque 
intermediate to that to which he in- appearance to Chester. Chester has 
tends to go. All captures in chess are manufactories of lead pipes, boots and 
optional. shoes, iron-foundries, chemical works. 

The definite aim in chess is the reduc- etc. The port has been improved of 
tion to surrender of the opposing king, late years, and there is a considerable 
The K. in chess is supposed to be in- amount of shipping on the Dee. Po^. 
Tiolable, that is, he cannot be taken, he (1911) 39,038. 

can only be in such a position that if Chester ^ ^^ ^^ Pennsylvania, on 
ft were any other piece it would be ' the Delaware, 16 miles be- 

taken. Notice of every direct attack low Philadelphia, with which it is con- 
npon him must be given by the adver- nected by steam and electric railway*, 
sary saying check, and when the K. is It was settled by the Swedes in 1653 
attacked all other plans must be aban- and is the oldest town in the State, its 
doned. and all other men sacrificed, if Swedish name being Upland. Within re- 
necessary, either to remove him from cent years it has grown rapidly and be- 
danger, interpose another man. or cap- come the p^^t of large manufacturing 

Chesterfield Chettik 

LUtereata, InctndiDK great shin jaida, steel mtad, dufc-gncn lekve*. The fniit eon- 
works, textile milia, and other induBtriea. aUta of two of more aeedi enveloped In 
Fop. (1910) 38,537: (1920) 6a030. a prlckb' hoik. Frobabl? a natlTe of 

Cliester " '^^J.' ■^""t; aeat of Chester Aila Minor, It baa lone been natnral- 
> Co., South Carolina, 65 miles lied la Europe, and waa perbapa Intro- 
H. by w. of Columbia. The principal in- duc«d Into Britain br the B«innna. 
doatry la cotton milla. It ia served bf Cheatnnta form a ataple article of food 
aeveral railroads and has hrdro^ectric 
power. Pop. BM7. 

Chesterfield, t",™j'5-^:^''**"'^ 

„ , ' England, 24 miles n. of 

Utrbj. It baa manufactures of machin- 
ery, allk, cotton, etc. Pop, 40,917. 

Chesterfield, Sf eS™™!""." 

Bnfllah atateaman and author, was born 
In London In 16M, and died in 1773. On 
the ncoewlon of Oeorce I (1714) he b»- 
came Oentleman of the Bedchamber to 
the Prince of Watea, and waa returned b; 
the boroiKh of SL Germalns, In Corn- 
wall, to psrliament He sacceeded bla 
father In the title In 1728, aat in tiie 
Hodse of Lords, and acquired aoma tUa- 
tincdon aa a apeaker. In IT28 he waa 

ambaaaador to Holland, In 1744 lord-Ueo- CbeMout (CuUiwa wm). 

tenant of Ireland, a position which ha 

occulted with rreat cndit, and in 1740 amonf the peasants of Spain and Italy, 
secretary of state; btit in 1748 rttlrrf The Umber of the tree la Inferior to that 
from pnbUc affairs. He obtained aoma of the oak, thonsh simUer in appearance, 
reputation as an author by essays and a Two American apedes of chestnnta, C. 
aertes of letters to his son. llieae SmerioOna and O. Pumlta or cMfiiopfn 

writiun combine wit and food sense with (the latter a shrub), have edible fmlta 

«reat knowledfe of aodety. smaller than the fruit of the European 

PltABf^r.lp.flfTWAf »■ town of Dae- tree. — He Dame of Cape Cheatnot I* 

LitteSier-ie-Bireei, j^^j ^^ ^^ J^^ to « beantital tree of the me tam- 

connty of and 6 miles If. of Durham, Ily, a native of Cape Colony. — l^e More- 

(trtna name to a parlinaeotary division ton Bay Chestnut is a legumluona tree of 

of the conn^. It haa coal-mines and Australia. Cattanotpermum Awafrats, 

Iron-worka. Pop. (1911) 14.713. with fmita rewmbllng those of the cbeat- 

nr. L L flmtwvr tTunr an Vhtm. nut — The water-chestnut is the water- 

Chesterton, ^^,S^- i", =^ caltrop Trapa na^«. Be. C.ltr^-^. 

tbor, bora at Campden Hill, Kenslnfton. hor»e-che»tnnt (which see) ia quite a dlf- 

In 1874; wai educated at St PinS ^JT"! 'I** ?^S.^® *=??""'*S.i'"**?''i;*. 

School; attended cUases at the Slada Chctah (cheta). ^^e Febt fMtt 

School, and began his career by review- . „ , "_,'^>'?","'S?* '""*2l- •; 

iiW^ booka? He haa contributed to W"f J*"5'K?.."' Tt'"'l'; \,^*^Z*^ 

many different neriodlcala and has writ- *^, V^^j^^^lt fi p m»?-,i^1^ 

ten a number orbooka, including Broum- ^A *'"'^i,.£""'!l °' '^Ji*^J.,P°3 

A u.-u-ir.i_~ Z,t ■/«. /iQio^ head in the proper alrectlon aud removes 

AMwxOaim of Men (1912). ^^^ ^^^^ It is about the else of a large 

CheBt-fonnderUUS. ? dla«aa« in greyhound, has a catlike head, but a body 

« . ^ r^ °"*^ *J*^ 'oo« lllfe a doB'B. A slightl'- different 

matic affection of Uie musclea of the form inhabita Africa, diatinguUhed as a 

cheat and forelegi, impeding boUi nt- different species, though with only trivial 

plratlon and the motion of the limba, vsriations. ~' ' -~' 

CllMtnnt (ches'nnt), a genua of rhrtfilr (chefdk). a tree of Java. 

l/Uenaoi ^j^^,,^ ^^^^ Cupullfer«, ^*lei"« the Btryihna, TieuU, yleU- 

allied to the beech. The common or tng a very vlralent poison caLed by tta 

Spaidah dieatunt (OatUMa ve*ea) la same name, owing Ita virulenca to tkt 

a itatalf traa, wlOi large, baodiome, aet^ atrychnlna It coutaliii. 

Chetvert Chevy Chase 

fTliAfir^'H: (cbet'vert), a Russian grain- them the most valoahle race of mountain 
vucifVCAb measure, equal to 0.7218 of sheep in Britain. The fleece weighs 
an imperial quarter, or 5.77 bushels. from 3 to 4 lbs., and the carcass of 
Oievfll ^ ^^ sh^v&l; French), on ewes varies from 12 to 16 lbs. per quar- 
vucvcuy horeeback, astride any object, ter, that of wethers from 16 to 20 
The troops are said to be arranged d lbs. 

oheval when they are placed so as to CliAvreill (>h^yreul), Michel Eu- 
command two roads, two banks of a ^^^ vacua qj^h^^ ^ French chemist, 
river» etc bom in 1786. In 1813 he became pro- 

G1ieVfl.l»9lASS <8h6-Tal'), a swing fessor of physical science in the Charle- 
wAAvvoA 5ACI100 looking-glass mounted magne Lyceum, in 1824 director of dye- 
on a frame^ and large enough to reflect ing in the Gobelins manufactory, in 1830 
the whole ngure. professor of chemistry in the College de 

CfheVAlier (8h^^A*l7&)t Miohil, a France. In 1870 he retired. He wrote 
\/iAvvau«A celebrated economist, bom various works on chemistry and dyeing, 
at Limoges in France, in 1806. He was and an important work on the Frinot- 
edncated as an engineer in the School pies of Harmony and Ooniratt of ColorB, 
of Mines, Joined the St. Simonians, and translated into English. He died in 
suffered sue months' imprisonment for 1889. 

promulgating the free doctrines of Pfere OliAirpnTi (shev'ron), a heraldic and 
Knfantin's party. On his liberation M. vitcviwii ornamental form, variously 
Chevalier renounced his extreme doc- used. In heraldry, the chevron is an 

trines, and was sent to the United States ordinary supposed to rep- 

and to England on special missions. He ^ 7 resent two rafters meeting 

became a councilor of state (1838), I at top. It is one of charges 

professor of political economy in the ^^^ I called honorable ordinaries. 
Collie de France (1840), member of ^^B^^J and is usually placed as 

the chamber of deputies (1846), and ^^^Vj shown in the accompanying 
member of the Institute (1851). By ^ ^ cut. Chevrons of vanous 
this time he had written a number of \^>my^m^ forms are used in several 
works: Leiirea $ur VAmerique du Nord; chJLa, armies as the distinguish- 
De9 InUr4U MatirieU en France; Easaia '^«wvn». ^^^^ badge worn oU the 
de Politique Jnduairielle; Coura d^Eoon- sleeve of a non-commissioned ofiicer. In 
omie Pohtique, etc He was known as architecture, the chevron mouldinp con- 
a strong advocate of free trade and as sists of a variety of fret ornament of a zig- 
a specialist on questions of currency, zag form, common in Norman architecture. 
Along with Cobden and Bright he had 
a great part in the commercial treaty of 
1860 between France and Britain. He 
died in 1870. 

wMvvOTMA u,^ MA0W 'friesland 

horses,' so called because first used at 

the siege of Groningen, in that province. Chevron Molding. 

in 1^), contrivances used in warfare, . / v » *« m ii 

consUting of long pieces of timber or Chevrotain (B^ievru-tftn; Trag^lua 

iron fonSing a center, with long, sharp- " „ ^^ ,l>y^7«^«*i';* t^?^*®5 

pointed spikes projecting all round, of raaall musk-deer found in India and 

placed on the ground and serving to de- Southeastern AsU and the islands. 

fend a passage, stop a breach, etc Glie'VY Ghase, Kf*^* PM«fi, ^h^jSTr 

riiAinnf TTilU (ch6'vi-ot, or cbev'i- /^ „ /^_/,T^ 1 *^"^l*li®'1r^"**^5?"^®'^ 
trAeVlOI niUS \^^y ^ ^ ^,^ ^^ ballad, which is probably founded on 

borders of England and Scotland, some actual encounter which took place 

stretching 8. w. to N. B. for above 35 between its heroes, Percy snd Douglas, 

miles ; culminating point, the Cheviot, although the inadente mentioned in it 

2688 ft. They are clothed for the most are not historical. On amount of the 

part with a close green sward, and are simflarity of the incidents in ttiis ballad 

pastured by a celebrated breed of sheep, to those of The Battle of Otterhoume. 

iTU^'^^4' C1«AA-*% a variety of sheep* the two ballads have often been con- 

CneVlOt Sneep, taking their niSe founded ; but the probability is that if 

from the well-known Cheviot mountain any historical event is celebrated at all 

range, noted for their large carcass and in the ballad of Ohevy Chaae, it Is dlf- 

valuable wool, which qualities, com- ferent from Hiat celebrated in The BaitU 

bined with a hardiness second only to of OUerbowme, and that the similarity 

that of the black-faced breed, constitute between the two ballads is to be ex- 

Cheyenne ChiavaR 

plained bj ■apptMing Uiat manr of the produced. Ghiuitl wine is full flavored 
wenU of tbe former were borrowed from and Bstrinseiit, with tn slcabolic atrenilb 
the Utter, There ve two veruona of of about 20 per cent, 
the ballad beatins tbe name of Ch^t Chiall Turpentine ^^^Tt\\\^T 
Chate, an older one, originally called "***»» *i*»|.»,*.»*— pentine or 
Tk« Buntinf of tkt CAeriol, and a more regin obtained from the laland of Chios 
modem one. From the fact that the (Sdo), yielded by PUtachia Tartbtn- 
older veraion U mentioned in the Com- thu*, a native of the Mediterranean 
playol of Scotland, written in 154S, it is ialanda and ghoree, nsed in mediciDe. 
clear that ft waa known in Scotland Called also Cyprus turpentine, 
before that time. The age of the more PTiianaft (cbfr-B'pia), a state of the 
modem venioD i« believed to be no later "*"<*i"-» Mexican Confederatioti, area 
tban the reitn of Charlea II. This ia the 27,222 square miles. It is in many 
version which forma the subject of the parts mountainons, is intersected by sev- 
crltique by Addison in Koa. 70 and 74 of eral considerable streams, and covered 
the fipecfator. with immense forests. They are rich m 

nisveniKi (shl-Bn"), capital of the minerals, including gold. Tbe vaUeys 
i^UCjrcuuc gtite of Wyoming and are fertile, and produce much maiie, 
county seat of Laramie Co., 105 milee It. sugar, cacao and cotton, etc Bui trade 
of Denver, on the main lines of tbe Union is quite undeveloped on account of the 
Pacific and Colorado & Southern rail- lack of roads, Tbe capital is Tuitla 
roads, and the Lincoln and Yellowstone Gutierrra. In this state are tbe famoui 
highways. It is the center of an immense mines of Palinque. Pop. (1910| 436.817, 
agricultural and stock-raising area. Tbe rhinrftTHnTltp (ke-*-r ft-mon't 11 ), a 
Cheyenne Frontier Days CelebratiOD, held ^"^"™"*""'^ town of Sicily, prov- 
annually, attracts great crowds. Fort D. Ince Syracuse, on a hill in a highly fertile 
A. Russell is a few miles from the city, neighborhood. Pop. 10,480. 
It is the main airport of the Rocky Moun- Phiori (k6-B're), a tovm of N. Italy, 
tain rt«ion (elevation. 6088 feet above *'"^'*^* province of and 14 miles w. 
sea level). Pop. (1910) ll..'!20; (1920) Brescia, with manufactures of silk. Pop. 
13329.— The nver Chetenne is a tribu- U,000. ,^, . ^.,_. 

tary of the Missouri, formed by two flniamRflnm tkl-a*roB*Mrft; an 
branches, riaiug in Wyoming : length. 100 *'"'""'**""" Itahan term. meanlDg 
miles. ' clear^obscure ' ; in Erencb, elair-ob- 

Cheyenne Indiana. " ■",?'"l''l* ;e'"'?-'u'.° '•"i"'!.''^' **< ^"t".'*?'*'™ <•' 

vu&jt,uuB Auuxaus, branch of the the lights and shadows in a picture. A 
Algonquin stock of American Indians, composition, however perfect in other 


_._„ ly on the Red River of the respects, becomes a picture only by 

North, later on the Cheyenne River in means of tbe chiaroscuro which gives 

Wyoming and as far south as tbe faithfulness to tbe representation, and 

Arkansas. During the Civil war and therefore is of tbe highest importance 

until 1867 the government bad frequent for the painter. Tbe drawing of a piece 

wars and other troubles with them. Tbey may be perfectly correct, tue coloring 

now form part of tbe Indian population may be brilliant and true, and yet the 

of Oklahoma, whole picture remain cold and hard. By 

Chifthrera (kl-t-bra'ri), Gabkhllo, the chiaroscuro objects are made to ad- 

*"** an Italian poet, born In vance or recede from the eye, produce 

1S52; died in 1637: wrote various kinds a mutual effect, and (orm a united and 

of poems, and imitated Pindar and Anac- beautiful whole. 

rcon in odes and cautooets, not nn- niiilUltnTite (kl-as'to-llt), a mineral, 
Buccessfully. wiiiiKiiPWiii,^ ^ silicate of alumini- 
fThiano. (kS-B'n&; andeutly Clanti), um, having crystals arranged in  pecn- 
LiIUlUUL , river and valley of Italy, liar manner. The form of the crystals 
in Tuscany and Umbrla. The river la is ft fourslded prism, whose bases are 
artificially divided into two branches, rhombs differing little from squares, but 
the one flowing into the Amo. tbe other each crystal, when viewed at ita extremi- 
tnto the Paglia. By works begun in ties or on a transverse section, is obvi- 
liSSl and completed only in 1823 the onsly composed of two very dillerent sub- 
valley of tbe Cbisna has been drained stances, and its general aspect is that of 
•nd bronght under cultivation, being a black prism passing longitudtnallT 
M>w one of the most productive portions through the axis of another prism whicn 
of Italy. is wMtiah, 
CTiiRilti (ke-An'M). • district In Italy. CliiaTnri (U-B'Tt-re). a aeaport town, 

amr the bwtinown i«d irina of Italy la Genoa, 23 miles E. by B. of Oenoa, b 



CShiavenna CIiioa«;o 

a district productive of wines, oliyes and the United States, situated on the a. w. 
eilk. Pop. 10,397. shore of Lake Michigan, and on ths 

Bergamo. It lies in a valley in the and its two branches separate the city 
midst of magnificent scenery on the road into three unequal divisions, known as 
to the Splttgen Pass, and has an impor- the North, the South and the West, con- 
tant transit trade. Fop. 8211. nected by numerous bridges and three 

ChibcliaS (chib'chaus), a nation of tunnels under the river. The streets 

semidvilized Indians, who are wide and are laid out at right angles, 
formerly occupied the region about the many of them being adorned by rows of 
headwaters of the Magdalena River, 8. fine forest trees. The city measures 
America, while branches extended widely 26^ miles in extreme length along the 
through the area of the present state lake and from 6 to 14 in breadth. Of 
of Colombia. ^ey are of interest this the business center occupies less 
for their abundant and striking archieo- than a mile square. It contains most of 
logical relics. These include neatly built the railroad stations, the post-office* 
small stone temples, lar^ carved images, court-house, art-institute, theaters, banks* 
rock paintings and carvings with figures principal hotels and stores, etc. The 
of men and animals and various others, site of the city ^as originally unhealthy 
Their burial places contain gold and sil- from its lowness, but a large portion of 
ver ornaments in considerable quantity, it has been artificially heightened (even 
^50,000 worth of gold being found in a while occupied by buildings) by 8 or 
sinue mound. Their gold vases surpass 10 feet. Among the chief buildings are 
in beauty of form any found elsewhere the new city-hall and court-house, the 
in America. custom-house and post-office and the 

ClliboilflTie (shin[)6k), a Turkish pipe chamber of commerce. There is a uni- 
^ " with a long stem. versity, which of recent years has had 

np- higli-dass colleges and seminariea To 
it parts of the Orinoco and the Rio supply the town with water tunnela 

ClliGa (chS'k&), a red coloring matter a great growth, and a large number _of 
viuucft ^mch the Indians on the np- 
per parts of the Orinoco and llie Rio 

Negro prepare from the leaves of a have l)een constructed which extend from 
plant native to that region called Big^ two to four miles under Lake Michigan, 
nonia Chioa, and with which they paint and convey the pure water of the lake 
their skin, in order to be better able into the town, where it is pumped up to 
to resist the rays of the son. See a height of 160 feet and distributed. 
Biffnonia. There are also a number of artesian 

Chica. (chiltft), a kind of beer made wells. From its position at the head of 
vuAVA from maize, in general use in the great chain of the American lakes 
Chile, Peru, and elsewhere in the moun- and at the center of a network of rail^ 
tainous regions of South America. The roads communicating with all parts of 
nsual method of preparing it is to steep the Union, Chicago has always been more 
the maize till it begins to grow, when a commercial than a manufacturing city, 
it is exposed to dry in tiie sun. The There are extensive docks, basins, and 
malt thus prepared is then ground, other accommedation for shipping. The 
mixed with warm water, and left to industries embrace iron-founding, brew- 
ferment The beer, when ready, has a ing, distilling, leather, hats, sugar, to- 
dark-yellow color, and a pleasant and bacco, agricultural implements, steam- 
somewhat bitter and sour taste, and is engines, boots- and shoes. In commerce 
very intoxicating. Sometimes the In- Chicago is second only to New York, 
dians, instead of grinding the malt, chew It has an enormous trade in pork-pack^ 
it. and this variety of the liquor is con- ing, and is the greatest market for grain 
sldered the best. It is the national and timber in America. Other articles 
drink of the Indians, and consumed by for which it is a center of trade are 
them in great quantines. Pito and poso flour, provisions, wool, hides and cloth- 
are other names for it ing. it is practically the transportation 
f!liino/»AlA or Chikakol (chlk'a- center of the continent, over 100,000 
UlUUUl/Uii;, ^QY^^ ^ ^^^^ ^f j^jj^ ^ mjlgg ^f railroad centering here, while 

the Oanjam district, Madras Presidency, the great lakes afford a splendid channel 

667 miles N. s. of Madras, notable for for inland navigation. The great feature 

its fine muslin manufactures. Pop. of the business of Chicago is its enor- 

18,196b mous dealings in foodstuffs. The Union 

ChirAfTO (Bhi-kgVO), a city of Illi- Stock .Yards, in the s. w. section of the 

viuui^v j^^ ^^ second largeot in oity, are the largest in the world, cov- 

Chici^ CMcKadee 

eting over 400 acres of area and having 1871, a great fire occurred which bomed 
accommodationfl for 75,000 cattle, 300,- down a vast number of houses and ren- 
000 hogs, 80,000 sheep and 6000 horses, dered about 160,000 persons homeless and 
Immense Quantitiefl of meat are shipped destitute, the total money loss being est!- 
from this point to every quarter of the mated at $190,000,000. But the energy of 
globe, those of dressed beef alone its inhabitants and its favorable situation 
amounting annually to more than 1,000,- enabled it to recover in a surprisin|ly 
000,000 pounds. Here is also the great- short time. The World's Columbian Ex- 
eat grain market in the world, approzi- position, held in Ghicafo in 1892-1888, 
mately half the total supply of grain re- celebrating Columbus' discovery of Amer- 
ceived at the eight leading grain markets ica, occupied a site of 633 acres on Lake 
of the country being handled here. Chi- Michigan, part of which is now Jackson 
cago was the pioneer in the construe- Park. In 1880 the population was 503,- 
tion of the lofty steel-frame business 185; (1890)1,099,850; (1900)1,6982575; 
buildings now so common and known (1910) 2,185,283; (1020) 2,701,705. 
as * sky-scrapera' The Masonic Tern- riiiAocyn TTAicylifa a city of Cook 

gle. one of the early examples of these, vrlUCagO nei^ni^Sy q^^ fuinois. 27 
I 22 stories high and can accommodate miles s. of Chicago. It is an important 
5000 occupants. There is a magnificent manufacturing city, among its producte 
park system, embracing a considerable being locomotives, steel rails and castings, 
number of parks circling round the city glass bottles, chemicals, pianos, etc Pop. 
from the lake and connected by parked (1910) 14,525; (1920) 19,653. 
boulevards 26 mUes long. It is in con- fJliiAftcyo TTtiivATftifv of "* insti- 
templation to add to these by a number ^mcagO, umvcrsixy OI, tudonfor 
of diagonal boulevards traversing the higher learning, in Chicago, occupying 
city outward from its business center, nearly 100 acres of land between the two 
To prevent the contamination of the prindpal parks of the South Park sjrstem. 
water supply by the sewage of a dty Several of its notable buildings — amouK 
of so great extent If poured into the them the double-towered Harper Memorial 
lake, a great drainage canal has been library, housing more than 500,000 books, 
coDstnjcted from the Chicasro River to and Ida Noyes Hall for women students — 
Joliet on the Desplaines River, a dis- front upon the Midway Plalsance. It was 
tance of 30 miles. This has a minimum foundea in 1890 and opened its doors to 
depth of 22 feet and for 10 miles is 200 men and women students Oct. 1, 1892. 
feet wide and 35 feet deep. By its aid In the academic year 1892-93 there were 
the sewage, diluted with lake water, is but 742 students. To-day there are over 
conveyed to the Mississippi, and the 10,0()0 students. The teaching staff has 
canal may ultimately be used as a ship- increased from a small group of men and 
ping route from Lake Michigan to New women to about 400 of all ranks. Endow- 
Orleans. ment has increased to $30,000,000, while 
Chicago has many public buildings the total assets in land, buildings and se- 
noteworthy for architectural beauty, curities exceed |50,(X)0,000. John D. 
among them the Art Institute, the Pub- Rockefeller, who aided in the first sub- 
lie Library and the Newberry Library, scription, afterwards added largely to his 
while the Auditorium is one of the larg- gifts, contributing in all some $35,000,000. 
est and best appointed public halls m One of its important adjuncts is the 
the country. The 0>liseum on South Yeikes Observatory (q. v.]. 
Wabash Street, the scene of national con* 

ventions and other gatherings, and the fThinliVaf Ar u^ episcopal and mnnlc- 

Intemational Amphitheater at the Stock ^^^** enter, ,p^j ^.^y ^^ ^^^j jggg 

Yards, are the largest public halls in the & parliamentary borough of England, 
dty. The Field Museum of Natural His- i^^ar the southwest comer of the country 
tory has a large and admirable collection, of Sussex, well built, with wide streets. 
The Universi^ of Chicago has erected a Its old wall, still in good preserva- 
handsome group of Engluh Gothic build- tion and lined with lofty elms, gives 
ings on the South Side, near Jackson It a very picturesque appearance. Its 
Park. The finest residence streets are the principal edifice is the cathedral, an 
Lake Shore Drive of the North Side and ancient Gothic structure with a most 
the boulevards. graceful spire. Chichester takes its 

Before 1831 Chicago was a mere ham- name (CHssaceaster) from the South 
let surrounding Fort Dearborn (built in Ssxon king Oigsa, who rebuilt it. Pop. 
1803). Its charter is dated March 4. 12.594. 

1837, its population being then 4170, but CUckftdeA (chik'a-dC), the popuUr 
since then it has advanced at a& alto- ^****"******'^ name In America or the 
gether extraordinary rate. On October 9, black-cap titmouse (Parut aixicapiUui) 

Chickahominy ChickasaT^ Indians 

and other allied species, being derived nooga in wild disorder. The Union army 
from their note. was defeated and only the splendid leader* 
niiinlraVinTniTiTr a river in Virginia, ship of General Thomas prevented a com- 
i/iiiu&iuiumiiiy, rising about 20 miles plete rout His troops fought with a grim 
N. w. of Richmond, flowing s. E. till it steadfastness and were handled in a mas- 
joins the James River. Near this river tcrly manner. Dodge, in Ms * Bird's Eye 
important battles took place during the View of the Civil War,* says : * No more 
Civil war, notably that of May 31-June 1, splendid spectacle appears in the annals 
1862. called the Battle of Fair Oaks, in of war than this heroic stand of Thomas 
which the Union advance, which had been in the midst of a routed army.' He re- 
thrown across the river, was attacked by tired to an eminence commanding the 
the Confederates with great impetuosity principal gap in Missionary Ridge, and 
and but for the arrival of reinforcements there sustained attack after attack for six 
would have been totally destroyed. hours, remaining at nightfall master of 
dliclcamail^a ^ chick-a-m^^'ga ) , a the position, with one-tnird of his force 
\/Ai.j.\/A.auxau5ci. gmaH tributary of dead or wounded. For his heroic stand 

the Tennessee River, joining the latter Thomas earned the title of ' The Rock of 
about 8 miles above Cnattanooga. Near Chickamauga.' But for him the battle 
it was fought a great battle in the Civil would have been a Waterloo for Rose- 
war, on September 19-20, 1863, between crans. When the right moment came 
the Federal forces under Rosecrans and Thomas withdrew in good order, joining 
the Confederates under Bragg. Early in the defeated right and center. Chatta- 
September Rosecrans had taken the initia- nooga remained in Union hands, though 
tive and by a series of skilful maneuvers the Confederates continued their efforts to 
had compelled Bragg to fall back from regain it. Soon afterward General Grant 
Tullahoma into Chattanooga. Below here was appointed to command all the forces 
he crossed the Tennessee River and ad- west or the Alleghenies, and Rosecrans 
vanced through the passes of the long was removed from the command of the 
mountain ridges that stretch in nearly Army of the Cumberland, being succeeded 
parallel lines to the south. This move- by General Thomas, 
ment threatened Bragg's base of supplies This important victory for the Confed- 
at Dalton, Georgia, and compelled him to erates was gained at the loss of about 
evacuate Chattanooga, which was there- 17,800 men. The Federal losses, in killed, 
upon occupied oy the Union forces. The wounded and missing, were estimated at 
maneuver, owing to the difficult mountain slightly over 16,000. 
country, necessitated the undue extension Cllifikanian^a Rock of. See 
of Rosecrans' lines, and he made the sud- ^*"'^^"'"*«*"'6**> Thomas, General 
den discovery that Bragg had 50,000 men George Henry. 

^^^ SVoS'.a?'"wiSJh*'cSmffl Chickamauga National MiU- 

not more than 20,000 and was separated f o^y Pa.rk ^ United States govern- 
b^ mountainous country from its two *'"'*J ^^*''^f ment reservation in Geor- 
wings. Bragg had an excellent opportu- gia near the Tennessee boundary, on the 
nity to crush his antagonist but he hesi- site of the battle of Chickamauga (1863). 
tated and while he hesitated Rosecrans, It was dedicated in September, 1805, and 
soon perceiving that the Confederate re- is maintained by Congress with the co- 
treat was onl^ apparent, succeeded in con- operation of Georgia and Tennessee. 

centrating his forces in the valley of CMckaSaW BluffS. **? Bayou, a 

Chickamau{?a. Bragg, who had been ^****'*»«**'«* » -^* •***», place near 

heavily reinforced by Longstreet from Vicksburg, Mississippi, the scene of a bat- 
Virginia, hastened to force a battle on tie between the Federal forces under Gen- 
Rosecrans in the hope of cutting? off his eral Sherman and the Confederates under 
retreat through the gaps in Missionary General Pemberton. It resulted in a vic- 
Ridge. The first daj of the battle, Sep- tory for the Confederates, who repulsed 
tember 19, was indecisive, Thomas holding Sherman's attempt to gain the rear of 
his ground on the Federal left against a Vicksburg and join Grant. The Confe<l- 
spirited attack by General Polk. About erate losses were about 200, while the 
noon of the next day, through a misunder- Federals lost some 2000 men. 
standing of orders, a gap was left in the nTiinlraoATxr TTii^iATia (chic'a-sa), a 
Union line near the junction of the center ^mUKftSaw xnoiaus tribe of Amer- 
with the right wing. Longstreet, in com- ican Indians of the Appalachian nation, 
mand of the Confederate left, poured his In 1833 they gave up to the United States 
troops into the gap, routing both the the last of their lands east of the Missis- 
Union center and the Union nght wing in sippi River, receiving as compensation a 
flank, driving them back toward Chatta- money indemnity and new lands on the 

Cliiokasha ' Chicory 

left bank of the Red River, in the Indian miles 8. E. (if Cadiz, built of snow-white 

Territory (now in Oklahoma). The stone, contains a magnificent hospital, and 

Chickasaws number about 5000. They has manufactures of linen, earthenware, 

made considerable advances towards civili- etc. The sulphur baths, temperature (JO*, 

sation, and had a senate and house of are efficacious in cutaneous affections, and 

representatives. are much freq^uented. Pop. 11.500. 

Chickasha (chUt'a-sha), a city, county ChiclC i^^^'^i j? ^® P?S"^ ^^^ *.?* 

wMAVA«Miu<» seat of Grady CJo., Okla- ^****'*^ fruit of the SapodiUa or Bully 

homa, 38 miles s. w. of Oklahoma, on the tree, grown in Brazil and the West Indies. 

Rock Island, Frisco and Santa Fe rail- The fruit resembles a bergamot pear in 

roads. It is the seat of the Oklahoma shape and size and is called naseberry. 

State College for Women. The fertile An elastic giim is obtained from it, and 

Washita Valley, in which the city is situ- this is extensively employed in the manu- 

ated, produces cotton, com and wheat in facture of chewing gum. The imports of 

abundance. It has cottonseed-oil mills, chicle to the united States in 1917 

cotton gins and compress, large broom com amounted to $3,108,153. 

warehouse, great cattle-feeding pens, for- Plnno (chS'ko), a city of Butte Co., 

tilizer ^lant, flour mill, etc. Much of its ^^^^^ Calif omia, 98 miles N. of Sac- 

prospenty is due to the discovery of the ramento, in a fruit-growing, dairying. 

Cement oil pool, 16 miles s. w. of the city, lumber and mining district. It has vari- 

WeUs arc also drilling in the district, ous manufactures including matches, elec- 

Pop. (1900) 3209 ; (1920) 10,179. trie cars, flour, etc. rfeat of Stete Normal 

Chicken-breasted, ^?V^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^*^^'*''^- ^^ ^75^ * ^1^^^^. ^1''^ ?f ^ 

wMAWA^u vj.^ar0irvMi ^£ breast, result- acres, presented to the city by General 
ing from malformation or from carious and Mrs. John Bidwell; extending into 
disease or spinal weakness, in which the the Sierra Nevadas, containing many 
vertebrate column is curved forwards, srenic wonders. Pop. (1920) 9339. 
giving rise to projection of the sternum ChlCODee (chik'6-p6), a city of Hamp- 
er breast-bone. %/a*a\/v^w ^^^ q^^ Massachusetts, on 

niiinlrATl.TiA'v (vabicella), an infec- the Connecticut River, at the mouth of 

uiiiu&Cii yuA. ^^^^^ disease mainlv the Chicopee, 4 miles N. of Springfield, 

confined to children. It commences with with manufactures of cotton cloth, ma- 

feverishness, and an eruption of pimples, chinery, automobiles and tires and rubber 

which speedily become blebs filled with goods, sporting goods, firearms, farm im- 

dear fluid and as large as split peas, piemen ts and many other articles. Pop. 

Within a week these dry up into dark- (1010) 25,461 ; (lfe20) 36^14. 

colored scabs, which within another week niiiRnTiPP "River * river of Massa- 

havcfaUenoff. The disease is never fatal, ^^^pcc «.ivci, chusetts. flowing 

and has no evil results. A little opening into the Connecticut River. It is about 

medicine and a mild diet is all the treat- 50 miles long and has an abundance of 

ment required. water power, which is utilised by Chico- 

nii'inlmAO the popular name of Cicer pec, Chicopee Falls (where Edward Bel- 

viuu&pcay arieiinum, which grows lamy was bom), Ludlow, Three Rivers 

wild alon^ the shores of the Mediterra- and other towns on its banks, 

nean and m many parts of the East, pro- CllicorV (cWk'o-ri; Chichorium), a 

ducing a short, puny pod with one or gen- ^*"*'*'*J genus of composite plants, 

erally two small, wrinkled seeds. It is an including the two important species of 

important article in French and Spanish C. Endivia (endive) and C. Intifhu* 

cookery, and the plant is cultivated in (chicory or succory). The former, a 

Europe, Egypt, Syria. India, Mexico, etc. native of the East Indies, is known under 

When roasted it is the common parched two sorts — the curled and the Baiavian 

wtlse of the East. The herbage serves as — both forming well-known salads by 

fodder for cattle. the blanching of their leaves. The C. 

niiinlrTirAAii the popular name of Intyhm or chicory is a common percn- 

viuuiLWCCU, stellaria media, order nial plant, from 2 to 3 feet high, from 

CaryophyllacejB, one of the most common the lower part of which milky leaves 

weeds in cultivated and waste ground in rise. The leaves are sometimes blanched, 

Europe, flowering throughout the year, to be used as salad, in the same way 

It has a procumbent more or less hairy as 0. Endivia. But the most important 

stem, with ovate, pointed leaves, and many part of the plant is its long, fleshy and 

small white flowers. It is much used for milky root, which when roasted and 

feeding cage-birds, which are very fond ground is extensively used in Britain 

both of its leaves and seeds. for mixing with coffee. Itij presence in 

ritiolQiio (ohP-kla'na), a town of coffee may easily be detected by putting 

VlUUiaiitt Spain, in Andalusa, 12 a spoonful of the mixture into a glass 

Chicoutimi CMld Labor 

of dear cold water, when the coifee will insuppNortable itching attends it. In 

float on the surface, and the chicory some instances the skin remains entire, 

separate and discolor the water as it but in others it breaks and discharges a 

subsides. thin fluid. The general treatment should 

Cllicoiltillli (she-ko-tSme'), a town be one prescribed, and extremes of heat 

"^^ of Quebec province. Can- and cold avoided. 

^on" ^^nYowr&OO. ^"^ ^ ""■ Childbirth. See BWtK. 

CWeri <K^'rt»;f!>kiy?-8 .^L ^ri. Si Child labor, g^! f^ iT Z 

Turin, with a very large Gothic church, necessity for strict regulation under State 
and manufactures of cotton, silk, etc. and Federal laws been recognized in the 
Pop. 15,454. matter of children's labor. It was as late 
Chietl (hS-fi'tS) , a town of Southern as 1^4 before the State of Massachusetts 
Italy, capital of province of crystallized into law the demands of the 
same name, on a hill near the right bank social workers for an adequate measure of 
of the Pescara. It is well built, is the see protection for the children employed in 
of an archbishop, and has manufactures industries. This pioneer law limited the 
of woolens, etc. Pop. 26,368. employment of children under thirteen in 
rjl|{fP.rjl|A^ one of the smallest of textile mills. Soon after. Connecticut and 
\jusM, \/iMu.f ^g European warblers, then Pennsylvania and New York followed 
whose name has been derived from its suit, until to-day twenty-six States have 
twittering note of *chiff-cha£E; chery- passed highly protective laws. With 
churry.' Its entire length is about five the question of Child Labor is involved 
inches. that of illiteracy, which is largely 
GIli?06 i^^^^)f o' JiGOEB, a very governed by the character of the 
o^^ curious insect (Ptftev or £far- legislation in the various States. In 1900 
copjyUa penetratM), closely resembling the there were 510,678 illiterate children in 
common flea, but of more minute sise, thirteen States, in which relatively back- 
found in the West Indies and South ward legislation existed, as compared with 
America and the Southern States of the 19,269 such children in the remaining 39 
United States. It burrows beneath the States. The advocates of strict legislation 
skin of the foot, and soon acquires the size urge the evil physical effects upon young 
of a pea, its abdomen becoming distended children engaged in work for several hours 
with eggs. If these eggs remain to be daily and ttiose which develop as a result 
hatched beneath the skin great irritation in later years. The first broad consider- 
and even troublesome sores are sure to ation of Federal legislation was due to the 
result. The insect must be extracted en- Beveridge Child Labor Bill. This blU was 
tire, and with great care, as soon as its substantially the same in principle as that 
presence is indicated by a slight itching. passed by Congress in 1916, but it failed 
niiiTiTiaTiTici (che-wa'wa), a city of of passage. It was only in 1912 that a 
uiuuuiuiua iiexico, capital of the Children's Bureau was established in the 
state of the same name, generally well- Department of Commerce and Labor. The 
built, and supplied with water by a no- laws of the different States vary in detail, 
table aqueduct. It is surrounded by generally in the South they are less fa- 
silver mines, and is an important entre- vorable, though in Tennessee and Louisi- 
g&t of trade. Pop. about 40,000. — ^The ana, the restrictions on the employment 
TATE is bounded on the n. by the of children are stricter than in some other 
United States and on the N. e. by the Southern States. The general tendency of 
Rio Grande del Norte; has a healthy legislation has been to lessen the employ- 
climate, and is rich in silver mines. Pop. ment of children under fourteen. The 
405,265. chief objections raised to the Federal law 
GhilaW (chi-lft'), a seaport town on of 1916 are based on the economic condi- 
the west coast of Ceylon, 45 tion of the cotton mill industry, which 
miles N. by w. of Colombo, formerly a has been so largely developed in that sec- 
place of greater importance than it is tion in recent years, and which it is 
now. Pop. about 3000. claimed must have access to ample cheap 
fhi11ll0.lTlR (chil'bljlnz) are painful labor to maintain itself in the face of 
vriixxuxaxus inflammatory swellings, advantages possessed by the mills of New 
of a deep purple or leaden color, to which England. The constitutionality of the 
the fingers, toes, heels, and other extreme Federal bill was questioned, and after a 
parts of the body are subject on being long legal fight it was declared unconsti- 
exposed to a severe degree of cold. The tutional by the U. S. Supreme Court, on 
pain is not constant, but rather pungent the ground that it invaded State's rights 
and shooting at particular times, and an in seekins to prohibit the transportation 

OhUdebert dim 

in interstate commerce of articles manu- tile Bioblts t!ie Valdivla. Lontae, Manle, 
factured by children. A new child-labor Itata and Cfanapa or lOapel. The sur- 
bill, setting the same standards as the first face is greatly diTersified, but rises in ele- 
bill, but invoking the taxing instead of vation as it recedes from the coast and 
the interstate power, was passed by Ck)n- approaches the Andes, along the water- 
gress in 1918 and became effective in shed of which a great part of the boun- 
April, 1910. dary runs. Some of the summits here 

niiililpliArf (chil-de-b«rt), the name rise to 20,000 feet or more, but the ele- 
viuiucucA b ^^ ^Ijj^ kings of the Tation decreases towards the south. 
Merovineian dynasty^ France. The first, Ghilod and numerous other islands fringe 
a son of Clovis, 49&-558; the second, a the coast in the south. Earthquakes are 
■on of Siegbert and Brunehaut, 570-596 ; common, those of 1822, 1835 and 1868 
the third, sumamed the Just, a son of being particularly violent. In the Chilean 
Thierry 1, 683-711. Andes there are twenty volcanoes at 

Children's Bureau a United states least, some of which are still in a state of 
i^41mu\ax«^uo Miuvoruy govcm m c u t intermittent activity. The climate is re- 
bureau in the Department of Labor. It markably salubrious. In the northern 
was established in 1912 and placed in the provinces it rarely rains — ^in some parts 
Department of Commerce and Liabor perhaps never ; in the central parts rain 
under the management of Miss Julia C. is sumciently abundant, while m the ez- 
Lathrop. treme south there is even an excess of 

CllildTeflS '^ ^^y* ^^^^^y ^^^^ ^^ Chil- moisture. Among the minerals of Chile 
■^^ ' dress Co., Texas, 220 miles are gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, sine, 

ir.W. of Fort Worth, on the Fort Worth antimony, manganese, arsenic, tin. snl- 
ft Denver Bailway, in a district producing phur, alum, salt and cubic niter. Silver 
cotton, com. wheat, etc. The county leads and copper are the two most important 
the State in pure-bred registered hogs, metals. The copper mines are most nu- 
The Fort Worth & Denver railroad shops merous in the northern districts. Nitrate 
are here: and there are cotton gins, gram of soda or Chile saltpeter, is a great 
milk and elevators. Pop. (1920) 5003. source of wealth. Coal is mined at sev- 
Cllildfl Geobge WnxiAM (1829-94). eral places. Though possessing many fer- 
\/uAAuo| ^^ American publisher and tile tracts, a great portion of Chile is in- 
philanthropist, bom in Baltimore. In capable of cultivation, being naked and 
1864 he bought the Philadelphia Public mountainous. The province of Atacama 
Ledger, then a small paper, and made it i« especially destitute of vegetation. From 
one of the most influential of newspapers, the 29th degree of latitude southwards 
He was widely known for his public spirit green valleys and fertile tracts appear, 
uid philanthropy. the character of the vegetation getting al- 

See PechUL ways richer, till in the southern provinces 

•f ^TL-i /^h&'ia ^kfi'in . '^^ fi°<i the sides of the Andes clothed 
ill, or Cnile i5„liS; ^^f UA^^Jli ^<^ ^<>^^^ and with herbaceous plants 
A^^riL -,f.«Hin» ^hsl^^fhJ iS^^S ^^ fi^owen of the richest and most beau- 
^!r*%>«^i?^ i«^ « «L.i5 f« n«S« ^^1 h"«8- I» some of the northern die- 
w^ ^ wi„H?„ir PWW^nH ^u^ ^^^ ^^^izc is Cultivated; in the southern 
5w' A^nili in^ finS ^f rrfir- JL^ districts wheat and barley are the chief 
v^tL n ff hS,mHi>S^ fhp ? h^^pfiS agricultural products. Fruits are abun- 

Tt"hTrive'r' ^la^^tWe^ ^uL^^?, gj^'lS^' o?aTei '^aTrS^eloSI'^e??' 

rated by the chief range of the Cordilleras. ^^3^^^ *°. ®^™® P^*^ ^J^ S«>^d .^V^ 
Its length from N. to s. is about 2800 '»»^^? "PfJ*.*%*^2 ^^^^\? ".P^^l^ 
miles ; its breadth, on an average, 120 carrying this farther. The wild animals 
miles ; area 307,620 sq. miles, divided into include the guanaco, puma, or American 
twenty-three provinces and one territory ; Hon, the chinchilla, coypu, deer, etc. 
population, about 5.000,000. By the war Cattle are raised in great numbers, from 
with Peru and Bolivia, which terminated 4000 to 20.000 being sometimes reared 
in 1882, Chile gained aU the seaboard of on one ranch. The manufactures are of 
Bolivia, and annexed also the Peruvian little importance, but include cordage, 
provinces of TarapacA, Tacna and Arica soap, copper wares, leather, brandy, etc 
(the latter two for ten years, after which The commerce is increasing rapidly. By 
a plebiscite was to decide whether they far the greater part of the foreign trade 
should CO to ChUe or Peru. Chile still re- is with Great Britain. Mineral products 
tains them). The chief towns are San- form five-sixths of the total exports, Uie 
tiago (the capital) and Valparaiso. The principal article being the native nitrate 
rivers are numerous ; the principal ones are of soda, the value of whidi alone 

Chili Chillon 

122.500,000 in 1884 and $75,000,000 in resulted in his overthrow. Jorge Montt 

1910. The value of exports in 1912 succeeded him. In 1896 Federioo Erra- 

was S139,878,201, and of imports $122.- suriz became president. During the presi- 

075,994, a total of $261,954,195. Ac- dency of German Riesco (1901-06) the 

counts are in pesos, the gold peso being boundary dispute with Argentina was set- 

the monetary unit, having a value of tied. Ramon Barros Luco became presi- 

abont 36 cents. In 1912 Chile's railwav dent in 1911, in which year the Alsop 

system had a total length in miles of 6738. Claim, a dispute of 25 vears' standing 

Chile is a republic, and is considered between Chile and the United States, was 

the best regulated in SouUi America. It settled, and was succeeded by Juan Luis 

ifl under a president elected for five years Sanfuentes in 1916. Chile remained neu- 

and a council of state. The legislature is tral during the European war. 

composed of a senate elected for six years, rii,:iT.nnf Poaa a Paw over the coast 

and a house of deputies elected for three vUliikUUi. xUbs, range of the Rocky 

^**"ii*.oo2i^™^t®^ revenue for 1912 Mountains in Alaska. It begins at the 

was |Jg3,261,000, the estimated expendi- town of Dyea and attains a height of 3502 

ture $375,147,000,^th an esUmated war f^ j^ ^as once a principal route from 

h^^^A fL^^'^i 1 J^,%f^?««oo1Sft' ^^« ^"^^"^ «^^^ *o ^« ^"^^^ «^^^ ^^^^' 
Home and foreign, IV^ll. was $bdD,ozAUOO. --- .„ /«un «a,.»\ « 4.^«*» ^# nvn^ 

The war strength of tie army is 85.000. Chilian [l^J^il^^? ly^t J^r.^ S^»* 

There Is an efficient navy of 6 battleships ^, , «^?^tal £ tiie Province of Nu- 

and cruisers, and a fleet of torpedo boats ^\i^ »° angle between the ChiUim and 

and submarines. The Chileans are mostly ^uble, connected by rail with Talca- 

of Spanish or Indian descent. They are ^"«°« »?<! Santiago. It is a ^n^g 

generally fond of agricultural pursuits, P'«?«' ^^^ ^lofll? S^ftlift^'^ ^ 

and possess a considerable amount of en- K^'^i^** *<>P' viyiw) ^D,\jiAf, 

ergy and enterprise. Schools and colleges Chilled Iron ^^° ^^^ ^ metal 

have been established, and the extension ^*"**^^ ^xv**, m^i^g called chilU, 

of the benefits of education has been of where, on account of the rapid conducting 

late one of the constant aims of the gov- of the heat, the iron cools more quickly 

emment, elementary education being now on the surface than it would do if cast in 

gratuitous. The Roman Catholic is the sand. Chilled iron is whiter and has a 

established religion of Chile, but the mem- harder surface than iron cast in any other 

bers of other denominations are allowed way. 

, a city, 

by Indians. TheAriucanians inhabit the cTt y , "oi"t h ree railroadT "it"*is"an educa^ 

nS^v il— * ^^^^ ^^ ."J«." ?19}^\^ tional and industrial center, with about 
and Valdma, and long maintained their lOO industrial, jobbing and manufacturing 
independence, till m 1882 they became plants. Pop. (1920) 6525; with student 

■^r^Mi** *^1— ® ?i^^K*? *^II''?™®JSi*- T enrolment, and suburbs, 10.230. 

ChUe originally belonged to the Incas /ii,;nj-»!!4."u-. a citv countv seat of 

«f^^2?\^Q2 "S?^' ^i^^^^^^A^r^^y Scioto River. 43 miles s. of Columbus. It 

SSS^,,^ V^i Fr°^P ^fl^ «P®1^ ioVf? ^as manufactures of book and magazine 

2£S°-^ *i«^J?''^ °' ®P^ ^l\ }^}^' paper, shoes, pottery, etc. It is centraUy 

«?«?^^'^^^^^iQ?T?"°?r"'^'^^^^^l^*^^' located and fias exceUent transportation 

2?i?5^it^? ■^^l^ *° *? i°<ifpendence. facilities. From 1800 to 1810 it was the 

£!S^fI2:^ K ^^l ^^™™?!l^°if ^r® %°^® capital of Ohio. Pop. (1910) 14,508; 
occurred; but the country has been free /1920) 15 831 

from these compared with other South ni*;n;*««U«^**.*l. William f 1602-44) 

Anierican states A war begun with ChlUingWOrth, ^"^g^g^iire^^^^ 

Spain in 1865, led to the blockade of the ^jan. bom at Oxford. He wal made chan- 

coast by the Spanish fleet, and the bom- cellor of the bishopric of Salisbury, and in 

bardment of Valparaiso m 1866. In the civil war supported the king^s cause. 

1879 a war broke out with Bolivia and He published many sermons : and his 

Peru, in reference to the rights of Chile Religion of Proiesiania formei an epoch 

in the mineral district of Atacama. This i^ jinglish theology and gave him lasting 

war was virtually finished m 1881, and fame 
the victorious Chileans gained a lar^e 

accession of territory from both Bolivia (lliilloil (sh^-yOv), a castle of Swit- 

and Peru. In 1891 an insurrection, ^*****v4a zerland. on the Lake of Ge- 

headed by influential members of Con- neva, 6^ miles s. e. of Vevay, once an 

gresa. caused by dissatisfaction with important stronghold of the (jounts of 

President Balmaceda's adminiatration. Savoy, and the prison-house of Francis 

ChOo Chimpanzee 

Bonniyard, prior of St Victor, Geneva, petaal snow 2600 feet from the Bammit 
from 1530 to 1536. It has acquired ln< and upwards. In 1880 it was ascended 
terest from Byron's poem, The Prisoner to the top for the first time by Mr. B. 
of ChiUon. Whymper. 

Chilo (mc). See ckoon. Chimere (f;?^^>ihe*'iSwS^^i^.erS? 

Olilo^ (ch6l-w&'), a province and a bishop are attached. 
VUXJ.W igimid Qf Chile. The province Cllillies (chlms)^ a species of music, 
comprehends the island of Chuo^, to- ^*^^^^^^ mechanically produced by the 
gether with a number of other ii^ands, strokes of hammers against a series of 
and a portion of the mainland. The bells, tuned agreeably to a given musi> 
island of GhUo6 is for the most part cal scale. The hammers are lifted by 
covered with dense forests, but large levers acted upon by metallic pins, or 
tracts of it are still unexplored. The wooden pegs, stuck into a large barrel, 
chief town is San Carlos, or Ancud. The which is made to revolve by aodswork, 
exports consist chiefly of timber from and is so connected with the striking 
tile forests of the island and the main- part of the clock mechanism that it is 
land. The climate is healthy but very set in motion by it at certain intervals 
wet Area of the province, 8593 sq. of time, usually every hour, or every 
miles ; pop. 91,022. quarter of an hour. The chime mech- 

niiilnfmoflio Chilopoda. See anism is sometimes so constructed that 
UiLUU^iiltbiitt, Cheiloffnatha. it may be played Uke a piano, but with 

Chilon (^'loi^)' or Ohilo, one of the the fist instead of the fingers. 
vf^uxAvu. g^j^niigjj seven wise men of GMmiieV (chim'ni), an erection 
Greece. He flourished about the begin- '^ generally of stone or brick 

nin|r of the sixth century B.C., and was a containing a passage by which the smoke 
native of Sparta, and one of the Ephori, of a fire or furnace escapes to the open 
or chief magistrates. A collection of his air. In this sense the first chimneys we 
sayings is extant hear of are no earlier than the middle 

ChimffiTA Chimera (ki-m6'ra), in ages. The longer a chimney is the more 
\ classical myth, a fire- perfect is its draught, provided the fire 
breathing monster, the foreparts of la great enough to heat the column of 
whose body were those of a lion, the air in it, because the tendency of the 
middle of a goat, and the hinder of smoke to draw upwards is in proportion 
a dragon. Thus the name came to be to the difference of weight between the 
used for an unnatural production of the heated air in a chimney and an equal 
fancy. column of external air. Smoky chim- 

nii-mokra (ki-mS'ra), a genus of car- neys may be caused either by the pres> 
xjiLLumiu, tiia^nous fishes. Almost ence of other buildings obstructing the 
the only known species is the Ohimiara wind and giving rise to irregular cur- 
moMtrdsa, which inhabits the northern rents of air, or by improper construction 
seas, and is sometimes called king of the of the fireplace and adjacent parts of 
herrings, and, from its two pairs of large the chimney. The first may generally 
teeth, rahbit-fish. There is but one gill- be cured by fixing a chimney-pot of a 
opcnmg. and the tail terminates in a particular construction, or a revolving 
point, the fish having, on the whole a sin- cowl, on the chimney top, in order to 
gular appearance. It seldom exceeds 3 feet prevent the wind blowing down ; in the 
in lengtL The name Oold and BUver second case the narrowing of the chim- 
Fish is sometimes applied to the northern ney throat will generally create a better 
chimnra because of its gorgeous coloring, draught 

In the southern hemisphere there is an- Glliiniiev-Diece ^^^ assemblage of 
other species of chimaera (CaUorhynchua ^ ^ * architectural dress- 

antarctic), called also eHephani-fish, so ings around the open recess constituting 
named from its prolonged snout, which is the fireplace in a room. 

bent backward into a hook-Uke form. The ChimneV-SWalloW. See Swallow, 
color IS satiny-white mottled with brown, ^ om/»*»«k/. 

and in size it resembles the northern GhiULDAIlZee (chim-pan'sS), the na- 
chinuenu ^ tive Guinea name of a 

GMmboraZO (<^h5m-W5-r^'«^).amoun- large West and Central African ape 
w«u.u«vvA«Miv ^.jj ^£ Ecuador, in the (Troglodgtea niger) belonging to the an- 
province of Quito, about 90 miles s. by thropoid or manlike monkeys, and to 
w. of Quito ; fat about 2** 8. Though not the same genus as the gorilla. When 
the loftiest summit of the Andes* it rises full grown it is sometimes about 5 feet 
to the height of 20.703 feet above the high, with black hair, and is not so 
level of the sea, and is covered with per- large and powerful as the goriUa. Uke 


tbe orang, it has the hair on its foi«- AREA AND POPULATION OF CHINA, 

arm turned backwards, but differs from Province Area, sq jn. PopuUtioo 

It in bjving an additional dorsal verte- chddang 36.680 

bra and a thirteenth pair of ribs. It cSSTv!? lisisao aisTiiooo 

walks erect better than most of the apes. Fokien (Fokien) 46,332 13.100.000 

It feeds on fruits, often robs the gardens Honan.... 67.954 25.600.000 

of the natives, and constructs a sort of S^S nJH iSlSoo'ooo 

nest among the branches. It is common gaSa '.*.'.'.*.*'.'.'.*.'. 7. 125'483 slboo.'ooo 

in menageries, where it shows much in- Kiangai..! !!!.!. !!!.".!.!.' 69,498 14.500,000 

telligence and docility. It has a great Kian^iu 38,610 17,300,000 

many human characteristics and becomes Kwanssi 77,220 6,500.000 

readily domesticated. The keeper of one Kwanctung ^?9'?gS ?!'ISR'?SR 

of the great zoological gardens tells of one S;SJS,r 54 826 17 loo'Soo 

chimpanzee who had been trained to some siSmi /.!.'.*.*.'.*.'.*.'." 811853 lo!00O,*00O 

extent, conducting himself very creditably 8han-tun« 55,984 29,600.000 

at the dinner table and at receptions held Shen-ei 75.290 8.800,000 

in his honor. He was very fond of the &e-chueii ?i2'S?? ^'SSS'SS 

costumes made for him, and had many of i"°:5*?.-- wTm i5*ai7'nnS 

the characteristics of a fop. When a suit Manchuna , ^^'^^^ ^^'^^^-"^ 

began to be faded or torn, he would ex- Total for China and Man- «-, io««/w. 

press his disgust by sulking; and on the ^^,,j^^^aa;hUB^T^ '^' 331.188.000 

appearance of the new clothes he would ^iStan. TTT!!.*... 981,800 2.491,000 

cease the plaintive sounds that had ex- Manchurian Militaiy 6r^ 

pressed his grief and after being re- ganixation ., 1,700.000 

arrayed would beg for the discarded rai- JUf' Dependcndee 'i^i'HJx A^nAnnn 

ment and tear it to shreds to prevent the "bet 463.200 fl, 

possibility of his being compelled to wear ^^^ ^otol 3.341.516 842,639.000 

it again. The head of the chimpanzee is . , «« 

remarkable for the large development of Peking is the capitaL There are many 
tbe ears, which stand prominently from laree and populous cities, 
the sides of the head. Physical Features. — Great part of the 

r.liiTia Republic of, a political division country is not well known. The coast 
Ijnui^f of Asia, extending from latitude l"ie forms an irregular curve of about 
18* to 50* N., and from longitude 74'' to 2500 miles. It is not deeply penetrated 
134*' E., area 3,341,515 square miles, Jy. ««l/8, the only one of great extent 
which is greater than that of the conti- Jeing that of Pe-chi-le in the jiortheast; 
nent of Europe. It consists of China l>ut numerous indentations of sufficient 
Proper (which now includes Manchuria), dimensions to form safe and capacious 
and the outiying dependencies of Sinki- roadsteads are found in every aparter. 
ang, Chinese Turkestan and Tibet It is It is characterized by a f n^e of islMids 
bounded N. w., n. and n. e. by Asiatic and islet^ t^ largest of which are For- 
Russia, along a frontier extending some m^sa and Hainan. The Cyulf of Fe- 
6000 miles, e. by Korea and those parts ^i-le. the YeUow Sea and the China 
of the Pacific known as the Yellow Sea Sea wash the eastern and southeastern 
and China Sea ; B. and s. w. by the CSiina shores, and are subject to tiie destructive 
Sea, French Indo-China, Upper Burma storms called typhoons, . The inland 
and the Himalayan states. It is narrow- boundaries are formed mainly by Ton- 
est in the extreme west. Chinese Turke- ^^5* Burmah, Tibet, and^ on the north, 
Stan, along tiie meridian of Kashgar (76" Bj}rtly by the Great Wall separating 
E.), has a breadth of but 250 miles. It China from Mongoha, one of the most 
rapidly broadens and for the greater part remarkable of human structures, being 
of its area is over 1800 miles across m a an artificial barrier 1500 miles long, 
direct N. and s. Une. Its greater length Two-thirds of the interior are estimated 
is from the N. e. corner of Manchuria to to be mountainous. The general slope 
the B. w. confines of TTibet, a distance of w ^rom west to east, and the mountams 
3100 miles in a direct line. Its seaboard, are a continuation of those of Tibet and 
about 5000 miles following tiie indenta- Central Asia. The great Kuen-lun range 
tions of the coast, is wholly in China throws off branches,, the Tsmg-Lmg. Fu- 
Proper. China Proper occupies the east- niu-shan and Mu-hng, which, runnmg 
em and southeastern part of the repubUc, eastward between t^ great valleys of 
and including the three Manchurian prov- the Hoang-ho and Yang-tse-kiang. tra- 
inees of Feng-tien, Kirin. and Hei-lung- verse ahnost tiie whole breadth of Chma. 
Chiang, is divided into twenty-one prov- Further north the Nan-shan branch of 
lnceiL the Kuen-lun range rons under various 

CMna China 

names (Koliang. Alaiihan, Inshan, etc) never fail to commit great deva8tatioii« 
along the nortneaat of China till it though bai^pily they always give such 
reaches the frontier of Manchuria, north timely notice of their approach that 
of Peking. The third great mountain preparations can be made. The Hoang- 
system of China is in the southeast, no and Yang-tse-kiang basins have a 
where extensive chains such as the Nan- pretty equable temperature, due to the 
shan, the Ta-yu-ling, and Pn-ling stretch soft moist winds of the Pacific 
on the south side of the Yang-tse-kiang Productiont, — China is well supplied 
all the way from the highlands of Yun- with minerals, including gold, silver, cop- 
nan to the eastern seaboard. Between per, iron and other metals, and there 
these mountain systems, and following are very extensive coal-fields, thoui^ the 
courses which mav be roughly described quantity raised from them is compar- 
as parallel, run the two great rivers of atively small. Salt is abundant, and 
China, the Hoang-ho and the Yang-tse- there are inexhaustible beds of kaolin, 
kiana. Here lie the central and richest or porcelain earth. Among animals it is 
provinces of China, On both sides of difficult to mention any that are charac- 
the lower Hoang-ho is an immense delta terlstic of the country; many of them 
plain, consisting generally of a deep allu- are identical with or differ but little from 
vial soil of unparalleled fertility. As those of Europe. In the south and 
they approach the seacoast the two southwest the tiger, the rhinoceros and 
rivers are connected by the Grand Canal, elephant are found ; bears are common 
700 miles in length, thus completing a in many parts; other carnivora are the 
magnificent system of inland navigation, wild cat, badger, lynx, marten, etc 
The Hoang-ho has changed its lower Camels and elephants are used in a do- 
course several times, and is subject to mestic state, but the chief domesticated 
tremendous and disastrous floods. Be- animal is the buffalo. The horses are 
sides these rivers and their numerous of a poor breed. Among birds the most 
tributaries, the most deserving of notice beautiful are the gold and silver pheas- 
are the Se-kiang in the south, of con- ants. Fish swarm in all inland waters 
siderable sisc but still more commercial as well as on the coast, the natural supply 
importance, having at or near its em- being immensely increased by artindal 
bouchure Canton, Hong-Kong and Ma- means. As regards the flora of China, 
cao; and the Pie-ho, which, though much it is tropical in the south (cocoa and 
smaller, forms a waterwav between sago palms, banana, pandanus, etc), 
Peking and the Gulf of Pe-chi-le. There subtropical farther north, and still far- 
are a number of lakes, mostly of no great ther north a number of plants and trees 
sise; the largest is Tung-ting, near the prevail identical with or closely akin 
center of China, with a circumference of to those of middle Europe. Flowering 
about 270 miles. A remarkable feature plants, shrubs and trees are so ex- 
of the surface of Northern China is the ceedlngly abundant as to form a feature, 
deposit of loesB, a brownish-ye^ow earth The bamboo, from the immense number 
of great fertility, which covers an im- of uses to which it is put, is one of the 
mense area both of mountain and valley, most valuable trees. Oaks, the chestnut, 
and enables agriculture to be success- hazel, pines, yew, walnut, etc, are 
f^ly carried to the height of 7000 or among forest trees. Wax and camphor 
8000 feet. trees abound. Azaleas are exceedingly 

CUmaie. — ^The greater part of China numerous; other flowerinff plants are 
belongs to the temperate zone, but it the camellia, rose, passion-flower, cactus, 
has what is called an excessive climate, lagerstroemia, etc Fruits are abundant 
At Peking in summer the heat ranges and varied. The soil, especially of the 
from 90^ to 100° in the shade, while the country comprising the two great river 
winter is so cold that the rivers are usu- basins, is extremely fertile, and agrlcnl- 
ally frozen from December to March, ture has always been held in high ven- 
At Shanghai, lat. 31° 20^ the maximum eration in China. Rice, as the principal 
temperature reaches 100°, and the mini- food of the people, is the staple crop, 
mum falls at least to 20° below freezing The rich alluvial plains which cover a 
point (12° Fahr.). In the south the great part of the surface are admirably 
climate is of a tropical character, the adapted for its culture, and by careful 
summer heat rising to 120°. Here the management yield amazing cropa In 
southwest and northeast monsoons blow the north there is a variety called dry- 
with great regularity, and divide the soil rice, which is cultivated like any 
year between them. Among the peatest other cereal. Wheat barley, and millet 
scourges of the country are the dreadful are the other chief grain crops. Other 
gales known as typhoons, from the Chi- crops are maise, bucswheat, a great va- 
aese Ta-fung, or 'great wind.* Hiey riety of beans, peas and pulse gener> 


Cliina CHina 

ally, sagar-cane, tobacco and vegetables swarming with junka, barges, and boats 
in endless variety, Inclading potatoes, ©f all sues. Roads, however, are few 
turnips, etc, and at the ports the best and bad, though railways recently have 
European and American vegetables. Va- received an impetus. Telegraphs are be- 
rieties of the cabbage tribe are ezten- ing rapidly constructed by Uie government 
aively cultivated for the oil extracted and the telephone has "been introduced, 
from the seeds. Three plants of the Under a new postal system letters can be 
greatest economical importance to China sent all over the provinces at a uniform 
are the mulberry, cultivated to provide rate. Prior to 1842 China rigorously op- 
food for silkworms, cotton and tea, the posed foreign trade; but the number of 
last formerly regarded as exclusively a treaty ports has been gradually increased, 
Chinese prodnct. The opium poppy was and commerce has shown a steady growth, 
extensively grown until recent years, when The chief ports are Shanghai, Canton, 
awakened public sentiment enforced legis- Hankow, Swatow, Tientsin, Ningpo and 
lation to prohibit ita cultivation. Foochow. The main artides of export 

Manufaoiuret. — ^In arts and indoft* are raw and manufactured silk and the 
try the Chinese have made considerable soya bean ; the main imports, clothing, 
progress. One peculiar feature in their tobacco, metals and metal goods. Tea, 
processes is the general absence of ma- formerly the staple of China's export 
chinery, and the preponderance of man- trade, nas suffered a decline through 
nal labor. Among the chief industries Indian competition and is now only third 
is the silk manufacture, which produces on the list of exports. The total ex- 
some varieties of stuffs unsurpassed ports and imports usually amount to more 
anywhere. Everybody wears silks ; it is than $400,0()0,000. In the year 1911 the 
the prescribed attire of high officers, exports amounted to $377,000,000; the 
The finer kinds of it form the ordinary imports, $471,000,000. The usual unit 
dresses of the opulent, wbile the poorest of money is the tael, the value of which 
manage to deck themselves in coarser, if varies from year to year: in 1912 the 
not on common, at least on gala davs. Canton tael was worth $0,738. According 
The embroidery of silk is carried on to to the new currency system (February 10, 
an amazing extent. Cotton goods are 1914) only the central government has the 
also largely made, though great quan- power of minting money. The system in- 
titles of European and American manu- dudes the silver yuan or dollar, half yuan, 
factures are also imported. Flax is not 2Q-cent piece, 10-cent piece (chio) ; the 
grown, but a good substitute for it is nickel 5-cent piece ; and the copper 2- 
found in the fibers of two or three plants, cent, 1-cent J/en) , 5-{«, 2-li and l-It pieces, 
from which the beautiful grass-cloth, Feople. — ^Tne Chinese belong to Cbe 
similar in appearance to linen, is exten- Mongolian race, but in them its harsher 
sivdy woven. Woolens are made only features, as represented in the genuine 
to a limited extent The porcelain of Tartars, are conmderably softened. They 
China has been famous from the earliest are generally of low stature, have small 
periods, and the manufacture of the hands and feet (the last artificially made 
nnest forms of it was long known to the tM> small in the women as to become a 
Chinese alone, though their productions deformity), a dark complexion, a wide 
are now surpassed by those of Europe, fbrehead, black hair, eyes and eyebrows 
In lacquered ware the Chinese continue obliquely turned upwards at the outer 
unsurpassed. In working in metals they extremities. In bodily strength they are 
have only attained to mediocrity. The Inferior to Europeans, but superior to 
metallic products most deserving of no- most Asiatics, and their great assiduity 
tice are gongs, mirrors, statuettes in and patient endurance of fatigue make 
copper and bronze, and various kinds of them valuable as laborers. In their 
carved, chased and filigree work, both in moral qualities there is mudi that is 
gold and silver. In a great number of admirable. They are strongly attached 
minor articles the workmanship is ex- to their homes, hold age in respect, toil 
quisite — ^fans, card-cases, seals, combs, hard for the support of their families, 
ch<>ssmen of wood, ivory, mother-of- and in the interior, where the worst kind 
pearl, tortoise-shell, etc. Faper is made of foreign intercourse has not debased 
of a great variety of substances, and the them, euibit an unsophisticated slmplic- 
art of making it — ^like various others — ity of manners which recalls the age of 
was practised in dHiina long before Eu- the patriarchs. The Chinese use great 
rope acquired it. politeness in their intercourse witii each 

Commerce. — ^The inland trade of other; but there is perhaps a want of 
China, aided by its vast system of water frankness and sincerity. They scrupu- 
commonication. Is of incalculable mag- lously avoid all contndiction and offen* 
Bitade, the rivers and canals literally «tve ezpresiiont ia ecmYenatloii. Qam- 

China Chinft 

hna hitherto been rare among them, arrangedln vertical columnB, to be r««d 
tboagh the habit of opium -smoking baa from top tn bottom. A new alphabet for 
become much extended. But, with man; China is significant of the present spirit 
Tic^oas characteristicB, the Chinese are of progresa. The old ayatem of writing 
preserved from degeneration hy their nni- required the student to memoriae no 
versa] frugality and thrift Hard work, fewer than 8000 ideograms. Stpps were 
done la the most nncomplaining way, baa taken some time a^o to conatract a 
become second nature with tbem. Filial phonetie alphabet, tbe task being en- 
piety is also a striking feature of their tniated to a learned committee composf^ 
character, and is. In fact, the priociple of Chow-Hi-Cbn, tbe Secretary ol the 

upon which Chinese society is conatiluted. Cbineae LeKStion at Rome, the adjunct 
Tney have chambers set apnrt for tbe secretaries Wan and Cbou, and Solo — 
worship of their ancestors, where religions hello, professor of Chinese and .Tapin 

ceremoniea are regularly performed. In at the School of Oriental Languat 
the traditional Cbfnese social system four Naples and one of tbe greatest pol2fl< 

world. Thi 

gentlemen have studied 
sll known alphabets and 
combined them to form 
one which shall repre- 
sent every sound in the 
Chinese tongue. Hie 
alphabet adopted bj 
them consiats of forty- 
two characters, of which 
twenty- three are vowela 

Bonanls. With tbeK 
characlera it Is possible 
to write all the worda 
naed In tbe vulgar 
tongue in any part of 
China. Tbe art of 
making paper la aaid to 
bave been Known in the 
first century after 
Christ: printing from 
wooden blocks in the 
seventh or eighth cen- 
tury, hundreds of years 
Bird'c-aen Sella-. before these TalnaUe 

arts were re-invented in 
classes are dlatlnguished : the literary, Europe. 

tbe agricultural, tbe artisan and the trad- Tbe Chinese literature is now taj 
ing class. Hereditary nobility in tbe extensive. It is remarkable for its an- 
Ehiropean sense scarcely exists, and tiquit;, for (he variety of aubjecta pr^ 
official position baa always been more sented, for tbe accuracy of its histoneal 
Ughiy esteemed than birth. statements and for its ennobling idesJa. 

Language and Literature. The Chinese For convenience tbe literature is divided 
Is the most imiwrtant and most widely into four classes — first, the Chlnesa claa- 
■pread of the so-called monosyllsbic laa- sica, together with lexicographical and 
VUgea of Eastern Asia, in which each philological work ; second, histories of 
>ord is uttered by a single movement at various hinds; third, philosophy, religion, 
lie organ of speech. There ia no alpha- the arts and sciences : fourth, poetry and 
fcet, each word being repreaented by a worka dealing with poetry. As literary 
tingle aymbol or character. These writ- eminence baa been for agea the sure avc- 
ten characters appears to have been orfg- nae to tbe highest honors and offices of 
lually hieroglyphics or rude copies of the state, the literati have been the 
the object designed to be expressed by gentry, the magiatrates, the govemora. 
them ; but the bleroglyphlc features have the negotiators and the ministers of 
almoat entirely disappeared, and many of Cbina. 

the symbols are formed of what seems The Chinese classics are the Coofadan 
to be an arbltarr combination of lines, or books and a few others, on whicb an 
u* built tip "t Ather lyoibolg combinad. tmonat ol pfttnataUng cgmmuitarj bw 

China China 

been expended; the histories are those of olics in China is estimated at 1,000.000; 

China herself and of the few foreign peo- the number of Protestants at 250,000. 

pies wiUi whom she has had any inter- In 1914 a bill prescribing the worship of 

course; the works of the third class are Heaven and of Confucius was passed by 

those of the literati of many ages and in- the Administration Council, thus estab- 

dude the works of Taoism and Budd- lishing a state religion, though not pre- 

hism; the poetry is rich in ballads, eluding freedom of worship, 
lyrical and descriptive pieces, eulogies Oovemmeni, The Chinese government, 

and elegies, but contains no great epic, based upon that of the family, was for 

Some of the historical romances and many centuries an absolute monarchy, 

novels are of very high order, although The emperor united in his person the 

fiction haa never been regarded by the attribute of supreme magistrate and sov- 

Chinese as an integral part of literature ereign pontiflf, and as the * Son of 

proper. Heaven '^ was in theory accountable only 

iPA^/^^*:^^ T»»^;.4>A*,«- T^\^«i^r^^^^ m^ni to heaveu. For more than 2000 years he 
Eduoaiton. Persistent missionary zeal ^ supreme head of the state, legis- 
and the necessity of mihtery reorgiu^^^ lltinibyXt in matters great and smill. 
uon must be jiven the credit ^orrecent j^ ^^' seventeenth century the Ming 
progress in education. Until 1905 the Dynasty was overcome by the Manchus of 
time-honored study of the Chinese dassics t^e north. The traditions of the old au- 
formed the only passport to State em- tocracy were preserved by the Manchus, 
ployment, and these were therefore «ie ^^t for many years previous to the revolu- 
textbooks in general use. GraduaUy. tj^n ^f 1911, the Civil Service had become 
however, European methods supplanted ^he real power in the empire, while the 
Chinese. One of the first problems of the central authority was but little exercised 
new republic was to adopt a sound educa- over the provincial and district adminis- 
tional system, and in 1912 the Ministry tration. Many reforms were initiated or 
of Education summoned a conference of promised in the last few years of the em- 
teachers and educators, upon the recom- plre; an executive bodv was created and 
mendations of which the present system is a legislative body promised. By the revo- 
based. Every city, town and village is lution of 1911-12 the autocracy of the 
required to establish primary schools, emperor and the power of the bureaucracy 
which, with the 'middle' schools, are to were merged into a republican form of 
be controlled by the provinces in which government The executive power is 
they are located. Technical and normal vested in a president and vice-president, a 
Khools are also provided, these to be con- premier and ten secretaries of state : the 
trolled by the Ministry of Education. The legislative in an Advisory Council of 126 
plan indudes four government universi- members (five from each of the twenty- 
ties — at Peking, Canton, Nanking and ^ve territorial divisions and one from the 
Wu-changf with courses in literature, district of Koko-Nor). 
sdence, medidne, law, commerce, agri- RaUtoaya, Doctor Sun Yat Sen, for- 
culture. Education is made compulsory merly provisional President of the Chi- 
and emphasis is laid on the education of nese Republic, has been authorized by the 
girls, on manual training and hygiene, and new Government to organize a corpora- 
on ue observance of Sunday as a school tion for the construction of 70,000 miles 
holiday. ot railways in China. In 1875 there was 
Religion. The chief religions in China ?,«* ^.^^^.^l^l^^}^^^^ 1?H 

are Colbfudanism, Taoism and Buddhism, S^°^*,L™'!!?f,^ ^?ra^o2^ ^m iTS 

fhp 1a Rt of lfttP«t nriirin Amonff the rr^at ^*^^ miles were operated and 2000 miles 

prevaU-. or a c^o«« mixture of religiou. ^^% ^^^^^^ u'^^si^^d'j^^ln. 

ideas and forms. Attempts to introduce another third divided ftmonir Franoe Gerl 

Christianity were made by the Nestorians SfanTEn^^Tud^ 

as early as the 6th century, but it was gf^ites Of lines built chie&r with C^^^ 

not until the arrival of the Jesuits with „pg^ canital bv Chinese f^nnnpprfi th#» 

Father Ricd in 1582 that the faith gained ^^^ Smificant is the PeliSg-Kklgan 

any foothoW. The first Protestant min- Frontier Railway, built under the direc- 

{■*^'«/S^" ^^^K"^ Morrison, who arrived tion of a Chinese graduate of Yale. The 

in 1807. Christian missions, both Roman valuation of all lines not owned by China, 

Catholic and Protestant, are established the sum which China would be obliged 

in every province of China, and freedom to pay were the Government to secure 

to embrace the Christian faith has been control, is estimated at $280,000,000, or 

gnaranteed by the Chinese government about one-third of the outstanding debt of 

■Ibc* 1860. The number of Roman Cath- the republic. 

China China 

Army and Navy, In the matter of In his reign the great wall (whidh see), 
armed strength China is far behind En- designed as a protection against ma- 
ropean nations. The Chinese military rauding Tartars, was begun in 214 B.G. 
force consists of a peace strength or Buddhism was introduce" in 66 AJk 
180,000; reserve of 100,000, making a Subsequently the empire broke up into 
total of 280,000 war strength. Under three or more states, and a long period 
English officers their training and dis- of confusion and weak government en- 
cipline have much improved of late, and sued. In 860 a strong riuer managed to 
the newest kinds of rifles and cannons consolidate the empire, but the attacks 
have been imported from Europe. Within of the Tartars were now causing much 
a few years China will have a standing trouble. In the thirteenth century the 
army of well-drilled and well-armed sol- Mongols under Jenshis Khan and his son 
diers 350,000 strong, and this army will Ogdiu conquered China, and in 1259 the 
probably be rapidly increased ; so that in celebrated Kublai Khan, a nephew of the 
any future war this country will be able latter, ascended the throne and founded 
to take care of its interests in the most the Mongol dynasty. His ninth desoend- 
approved modern style. The soldiers arc ant was driven from the throne, and a 
being taught to read and write, another native dynasty called Ming again sue- 
innovation, and military and naval ceeded in 1368 in the person of Hungwu. 
schools have been established, where offi- A long period of peace ensued, but was 
cers may be instructed in the principles broken about 1618, when the Manchua 
of their profession. The navy consists gained the ascendency, and after a war 
of two fleets — one for rivers and another of twenty-seven years founded tb.e re- 
for sea; but though it numbers many cent Tartar dynasty in the person of 
vessels, it is not very efficient, and is Tuncchi, establishing their capital in the 
scarcely able to dear the Chinese coast northern city of Peking, which was 
from the pirates who infest the numerous nearer their native country and re- 
creeks and isUts. It has lately, how- sources than the old capital Nanking, 
ever, been much strengthened by a num- The earliest authentic accounts of China 
her of steel corvettes built in England published in Europe are those of Marco 
and Germany. The full complement of I*olo, who visited the country in the thir- 
the navy is about 2500. A scheme for teenth century. The first British in- 
the reorganization of the Chinese navy tercourse was attempted nnder Queen 
provides for the overhauling of tLe dock- Elizabeth in 1596. and a trade was sub- 
yards, colleges, schools, and the personnel sequently established by the East India 
generally, and later for the building of Company, but no direct intercourse be- 
new battleshira, cruisers, etc. tween the governments took place till 

BtMiory. — The early bistory of the the embassy of Lord Macartney in 
Chinese is shrouded in fable, but it in 1792. A source of trouble arose when 
certain that civilization had advanced British merchants began to send opium 
mnch among them when it was only be- from India to China and established a 
^nning to dawn on the nations of large trade in this deleterious drug In 
Europe. The Chow dynasty, which was defiance of the protests of the Chinese 
founded by Woo-wang, and lasted from authorities. The trouble reached a 
about 1100 B.O. to 258 B.G., is perhaps climax in 1839, when $20,000,000 worth 
the earliest that can be regarded as his- of opium was seized and destroyed, 
toric, and even of it not much more is This led in 1840 to the 'Opium war,* 
historic than the name. Under Ling- in which the Chinese were everywhere 
wang, one of the sovereigns of this dy- defeated. In the treaty of 1842 the de- 
nasty, Confucius is said to have been feated nation consented to the opening 
bom, some time in the sixth century B.c. of the five ports of Canton, Amoy, Foo- 
During the latter half of the period chow, Ningpo and Shanghai to Britirii 
during which this line of sovereigns held merchants, the cession of the island of 
sway there appear to have been a num- Hong-Kong to the British in perpetuity, 
ber of rival kings in China, who lived in and the payment of $21,000,000 indem- 
strife with one another. Chow-siang, nity by the Chinese. In 1850 an insnr- 
who was the founder of the Tsin dynas- rectioo, headed by Hung-sen-tseuan or 
ty, from whicn China takes its name, Tien-te. broke out In the provinees 

g Lined the superiority over his rivals, adjoining Canton, with the object of ex- 

e died in 251 B.c. His great-grandson, pelling the Manchn dynasty from the 

a national hero of the Chinese, was the throne, as well as of restoring the an- 

first to assume the title of 'Hoane* (em- cient national religion of Shan-ti, and of 

peror), and called himself Che-Hoang-ti. making Tien-te the founder of a new 

tie ruled over an empire nearly co- dynasty, which he called that of Tiii- 

terminous with modem China proper, ping, or Universal Peace. After a kw 


period of dvil war the Tai-ping rebellion emperor Kwang-Seu, who had succeeded 
was at length suppressed in 1865, chiefly as a child in 1875, died, and with him the 
by the exertions of General Gordon and dowager empress Tsze Hsi Axl who for 
other British and American officers at many years had been the actual ruler 
the head of the Chinese army. In Octo- in China. A new emperor Pu Yi, a 
ber, 1856, the crew of a vessel belong- young child^ succeeded, under the re- 
ing to Hong-Kong were seized by the gency of Pnnce Chun, his father. 
Chinese. The men were afterwards Under the heading Oavemment the im- 
brought back, but all reparation or apol- portant legislative events of 1910 have 
ogy was refused by the British. The been given. In 1911 a series of histori- 
day of arbitration between strong and cal events took place of so momentous 
weak nations had not yet come. A war a character as to call for more extended 
with China commenced, in which the description. The discontent with Man' 
French took part with the British. The chu domination, which had given rise to 
war ended in 1858 with the concession the Tai-ping rebellion, now made itself 
of new advantages by China, but it manifest in an insurrection that prom- 
broke out again a year later and in ised to effect a radical change in the 
1860 the British and French forces oc- governmental conditions of the Chinese 
cupied Peking, this being followed by £mpire. An important stej^ was taken 
the ruthless destruction of the summer in this direction in the spring of 1911, 
palace of the emperor. There was a when the newly-constituted legislative 
second revolt that began in 1864, con- body, called as a 'consultative council' 
tinuing untU 1868. War was declared in 1910, but which assumed the posi^ 
between China and Japan on July 31, tion of a parliament from the start, 
1894. Japan, by a series of brilliant forced the Grand Council of the empire 
victories, both on land and sea, brought to acknowledge itself a ministry respon- 
the war to an end in April, 18u5. sible to the National Assembly. The 
Corea was declared independent. For- government had agreed to change the 
mosa ceded to Japan, and China was date of the promised parliament from 
forced to pay a very large war indem- 1916 to 1913, and the assemblv onder- 
nity. Trouble of a different kind came took to work out a national budget, em- 
in 1900, when an organization of Chin- bracing a regulation for popular parlia- 
ese called the Boxers, infected by the mentair elections. Those steps towards 
general hatred of foreigners by the peo- the inauguration of a constitulonal mon- 

Ele, and apparently secretly instigated archy doubtless aided to develop the in- 
y the government, attacked the embas- surrectionary sentiment latent in the pop- 
sies in Peking. The unwarranted occu- ulace, and in August, 1911, an outbreak 
pation of Chinese territory by Germany, of a threatening character took place In 
Great Britain, France and Russia, may the southern province of Szechuen, its 
have been an inspiring cause of this ostensible cause being a popular pro- 
antiforeign sentiment. As the Chinese test against the government programme 
authorities took no steps to suppress the of nationalizing the railways and build- 
outbreak, an army of rescue, composed of ing them with the aid of foreign loans, 
troops of the various powers, marched The insurrection soon gained head and 
upon and took Peking, rescuing the min- spread with remarkable rapidity through 
isters and holding that citjir until China Southern China, quickly becoming a de- 
bad agreed to pay a large indemnity and clared purpose of overthrowing the Man- 
to punish the principal offenders. The chu dynasty and restoring the old Chin- 
indemnity amounted to the enormous ese ascendency. The leaders were very 
sum of $337,000,000, an exaggerated radical in their views and almost from 
amount of which the United States re- the start the project of replacing the 
mitted its share some years later, much monarchy by a republic was openly 
to the gratitude of China. Russia had broached. City after city was taken by 
occupied the Chinese province of Man- the rebels, until nearly the whole of 
churia during the outbreak, and her dis- China south of the Yang-tse-Kiang was 
inclination to restore it led to the great in theftr hands. The government, dis- 
war of 1904-05 with Japan, ending in mayed by the growing revolt, hastily 
Russian defeat. Daring this recent offered concessions of amazing character, 
period the spirit of reform and progress but the rebellion went on, new cities 
above spoken of was active in China, were occupied, many of the imperial 
the telegraph became a common need, troops joined its ranks, and the fleet 
many railroads were built or projected, was surrendered. Severe fighting took 
and the ancient emnire showed a pro- place at Hankow, which was retaken 
nonnced purpose to adopt the institu- from the rebels by the imperialists, many 
tions of the western world. In 1908 the of its inhsibitants massacred and great 

China Grass Chinandega 


-.. of the city burnt. At tbe end ol trlala hare be«n made with it u a rab- 
. November the contest centered around jecl of manufacture. B«cently conud- 
the city of Nanking, in which a similar erable quantitiea hare been lued in 
massacre and conflagrBtion by the im- France, and woven both pure and mixed 

ErialiatB had taken place. Yuan Shi- into various beautiful fabrics. In Eng- 
i, a man of striking ability and the land such articles as ladies' acarfe, 
creator of the modem Chinese army, ae- handkerchiefs, umbrella-wvera, etc, are 
cepted the post of prime minister, and made of it. Hitherto, however, its hicb 
vigorous steps were taken to recover the price, owing to the difficulty of prepar- 
lo«t ground. The insurrection also was log it in a suitable form tot manufac- 
engineered by men of great ability, among ture, has been againat its use, but a 
them Wu Ting Fang, former Chinese sufliclently cheap process of prepanitioa 
minister t« the United States. Nanking, w Mid to have been recently invented. 
the last fltronghoid held by the imperial- CaUed also iI*ea,Rft««i, ifttmte, or itawee, 
ists in Southern China, was taken by the Cluna. Great Wall Of, '^f ^' 
revolutionists after a severe struggle. The ' "*^'**' " •*" "*» est arti- 

province of Sban-tung. of which Canton is fifial structure on the face of tbe earth, 
the capital, declared itself an independent " barrier eitending for about IDOO miles 
republic, electing as president its former in the north of China proper, of which 
viceroy, and Yuan Shi-Kai, apparently it partly forms the northern boundary. 
hopeless of saving the Manchu dynasty, It" western end is in the deserts of 
agreed to an armistice and the holding Central Asia, its eastern reaches the sea 
of  convention at Nanking for the pur- to the northeastward of Peking. It was 
pose of seeking a satisfactory solution of erected as a barrier against the inroads 
the governmental problem. On February of the barbarous tribes, and dates from 
12. 11)12. tho Manchu dynasty abdit-ated. about 214 B.C. It is carried over height 
The revolutionary delegates st Nanking and hollow, and avoids no Inequality of 
elected as provincial president of China, the ground, reaching in one place the 
Dr. Sun Tat Sen, a reformer who had height of over 5000 feet above the sea. 
been active in organizing the revolt. Yuan Earth, gravel, brick and stone were used 
Shi-Kai. premier of the eninire, was sub- in its construction, and in some place* it 
sequentlv made president of the republic is much more substantial than In others. 
In April, 1913, Chins definitely assumed Its greatest heighL including a parapet 
her place among the notions. The repre- on top. is about 50 leet, and it la strengtb- 
seotatives met at Peking and consiituti^ ened by towers at regular distances, 
the House of Parliament — the House of nhinfl. Ink ' blacR substance, wUcb. 
Repreoentatives with 596 members and *'■»"""■ ■»-"^» when rubbed down with 
the Senate with 274 members. In Do- water, forms a very pure black indelible 
eerabe^ 191S, the President aunounceii ink. It baa been used in China from 
Umsell as emperor. This led to a rebel- time immemorial. There are different 
UoQ and a speedy restoration of the accounts of the process, bnt It appeara 
republic. He died in June, 1916, anil wiih to be made by boiling tbe juices of ccr- 
sueceeded by Li Yuan Hung. A second tsin plants with water to a syrup, add- 
attempt to restore the empire was made lus to this a quantity of gelatine, and 

rin ambitious general in 1917, hut this then thoroughly iDCofporatlng the ear- 
auickly failed. Later In 1917 China bonaceous matter. There is generally 
{' lined the nations in war with Germany, added some perfume — a little mask or 
ut took no active part. The Chinese inmphor. The msss is then made Into 
representatives refused to sign tbe pence snuare columns of different sises, which 
treaty with Germany, in J918, becaiiKp it are often decorated with flgurea and 
inelitded clauses assigning German rights Chinese characters. ^any attempt* 
in Shantung to Jbmu. have been msde to imitate Chtneae Ink. 

CIllTlfL AtfUU SoeAmeria nivia, a some of which have been tolerably suc- 
wiuuauiiuw, ,^^ ^j ^^^ ^^^^^ cessful. Good Chinese ink should have 
family, a nstive of Southern and Eastern a velvety-black appearance, with a ^oia 
Asia and the Asiatic ialands, and now which becomes very conspicuous on rub- 
more or less cultivated in many other bing. The color It gives on paper should 
countries. It ylelda a fiber which be pure black and homogeneous, and if 
posseBSGB most valuable properties, and water be passed over it It should not 
has long been msde In China into a run or become streaky. It la IndeHble 
beautiful cloth. It Is very strong, pro- by ordinary solvents, but may be re- 
sents unusual resistance to the effects of moved sometimeB mechanically, 
moisture, and is fine and silky in appear- nliiiiftTiilMra (eh e-ni n-dl'gA>, a 
ance. As to Its full capabilities these I'iUHanaega town of Central Anwr- 
ara hardly as yet known, though many tea, Nicancna, 20 mDes nortliwest nt 

China Boot Chinese Exclusion. 

Leon, connected by railway with the Also applied to the common bedbug, 
port of Corinto, and carrying on a con- {Citnew lectularitu) . 
aiderable trade. Pop. about 12 000. , CMncha Islands (chin'chi), a 
nil in a l^nnf the root or rhizome of ^******'**"' *"*"•****" group of small 
uiiiimAUUbi s^^lf^g, China, a climb- islands off the coast of Peru, laL 13** 
ing ahmbby plant closely allied to sar- 38' 8. ; Ion. 76° 28' w. They are granit- 
saparilla, for whicJi it is sometimes^ used, ic, arid, and destitute of vegetation ; and 
Ghinfl. S.08A the name given to a the coasts bold and difficult of access. 
xjiAxiia iMfUoc^ number of varieties of Immense deposits of guano used to exist 
^rden rose chiefly derived from Rosa here, but are now exhausted. Guano 
tndioa and R. semperfhrens, both natives from these islands began to be imported 
of China. Also a name sometimes given into Europe on an experimental scale 
to Hibi9CU9 rosa ainensia, one of the about 1832, and the trade rapidly grew 
mallow tribe, common in China and the into importance. The Peruvian govem- 
Bast Indies, and an ornament in hot- ment retained the monopoly of the ex- 
houses, port, and made it one of the chief sources 
nTiiiici flAfl that part of the North of its revenues. 

uiuim facit, Pacific Ocean bounded n. CMnchllla (chin-chil'a), a genus of 
by Formosa, N. w. by China, w. by Anam ^*"***'*""«* g, American herbivor- 
and the Malay Peninsula, 8. E. by Bor- ous rodents very closely allied to the 
neo, and B. by the Philippines. It con- rabbit, which they resemble in the gen- 
tains numerous islands, receives several eral shape of the body, in the limbs be- 
considerable rivers, and forms the im- ing longer behind than before, in the 
portant Gulfs of Siam and Tonquin. conformation of the rootless molars, and 
niii^Tia.T[7QrA porcelain, the finest by the nature of the fur, which is more 
uiuiitt waxc, ^jj^ ^^^ beautiful of woolly than silky; but differing from 
all the kinds of earthemware, so called the rabbit in the number of their incisors 
from China being the country which first and molars, in a greater length of tail, 
supplied it to Europeans. When broken and also in having broader and more 
it presents a granular surface, with a rounded ears. O, lanig^a, a species 
texture compact, dense, firm, hard, vitre- about 15 inches long, is covered with a 
ous and durable. It is semi transparent, beautiful pearly-gray fur, which is highly 
with a covering of white glass, clear, esteemed as stuff for muffs, pelisses, lin- 
smooth, unaffected bv all acids excepting ings, etc. The chinchilla lives gregari- 
the hydrofiuoric, and resisting uninjured ously in the mountains of most parts of 
sudden changes of temperature. For the South America, and makes numerous and 
process of manufacture see Pottery. very deep burrows. It is of a gentle 
nil 1 Tin VJuT & Bort of wax depos- nature and very sportive. The short- 
UXLUia Wtti, ^^^ ^jy insects on a tailed chinchiUa. ChmchiUa Irevicaudata, 
deciduous tree with light-^reen, ovate, of Peru, is decidedly larger than the corn- 
serrated leaves, cultivated m the prov- mon chinchilla, vnth relativelv shorter 
ince of Si-chuen (Ssu-chuan) in South- ears and tail. The general color of the 
western China. The insects, a species fur of the upper pnrts is a bluish gray, 
of coccus, are bred in galls which are mottled with slaty black; the under sur- 
formed on a different tree, an evergreen face of the bodv, as well as the feet, being 
(a species of Ligustrum or privet), and white. The tail gradually becomes bushy 
these galls are transported in great towards the tip: its fur is a mixture of 
Cuantities to the districts where the wax grayish black, becoming darker towards 
trees are grown, to the branches of the tip on the upper surface. Cuvier's 
which they are suspended. Having chinchilla, Lagidtum cuvieri, is larger 
emerged from the galls the insects than either of the preceding. The length 
spread themselves over the branches, of the head and body Is from sixteen to 
which gradually become coated with a twenty inches; and the tail, exclusive of 
white, waxy substance, reaching in 90 the hair at the tip, is eleven to twelve 
or lOO days the thickness of a quarter inches. The ancient Peruvians made fine 
of an inch. The branches are then lopped fabrics of chinchilla wool for coverlets and 
off and the wax removed. It is white articles of clothing. 

in color and is chiefly made into candles; Chinese Exclusion. '^® '^P^^ ^^2 

it melts at 160®, whereas tallow melts ^******'»^ *'^^*"'"*V4*. cpgase of 

at about 95®. Chinese immigration into the United 

rj1|{]i njl the popular name of certain States and the bitter opposition aroused 

vrijjai.vuy fetid Ajnerican insects, genus by it among the laboring classes in Cali- 

Rhyparoohrdmus, resembling the bed- fomia, led to a treaty with China in 

bug, very destructive to wheat, maize, 1880. partly restricting this immigration. 

«tc., in the Southern and Western States. As the number of Chinese in this conn- 

Chingleput ChiquimTila 

try rapidly increased in the following RuhiaoeaB, consiating of small, often 
years, a law absolutely prohibiting immi- climbing shrubs, with funnel-shaped, 
gration was passed by Congress in 1888. yellowish flowers; fruit a white berry 
A similar policy of exclusion exists in with two seeds. The bark of the root <k 
some other countries, such as Australia C. angnifUga is a violent emetic and pur- 
and South Africa. This policy of exdu- gative. 

sion has recently been applied by treaty Cllioffffia (ke-od'j&), a seaport town 
to Japanese laborers. \/axj.v55xc* in Italy, on one of the la- 

dlinrienilt (ching'gl-put),orGHSNCh goon islands of the Adriatic, 15 miles from 
■^^o "**" ALPAT, a coast district, Venice. It is built partly on piles, and 
and its capitiU. Hindustan, presidency has some handsome edifices, its harbor 
of Madras. The district, which lies is fortified, and it has ship yards, fisher- 
8. of Arcot and Madras — area, about ies and a coastingtrade. Pop. 26,250. 
2842 square miles— has generally a bad GhiTiTn|iT|V Chip'muck, the popn- 
soil, broken up fpeouently by granite ^•*"F'****""^i lar name in America of 
rocks. Pop. 1,312,122. This tract of the ground squirrel, genus Tamias, 
country was in 1750 and 1763 obtained ChlDlieildAle (chip'en-dai), a style 
by the East India Company from the ^■'"•I'Jb'^**'*"***' of furniture made by 
Nabob of Arcot. The town is 15 miles Thomas Chippendale and his son in the 
w. from the Bay of Bengal, and has a pop. eighteenth century, and since frequently 
of 10,551. copied. It is distinguished by elaboration 

C}lini<)t (cl^'i-ot), a town of Hindu- of ornament and harmony of proportion. 
viixuxub gtmj^ Jq ^^^ Punjab, near the and though solidly built gives a general 
Chenab. Pop. about 15,000. effect of lightness. The chairs are of 

PTiiTtVo-niTi (chlnk'a-pin), the Ameri- great variety and many of them are very 
l^nilLKapiII ^^^ dwarf chestnut See beautiful. Chippendale introduced the 
Chetinui cabriole leg from Holland, the claw and 

Chin-kianC' Lc^i '»-''*- ^^«')» o>^ ^*" foot of the Orient the straight, 
unia JUan^ Tchanq-Kiano, a city, ^^^ Georgian leg, the lattice-work 
China, province of Kiangsu, right bank ^nese leg. the fret-work Gothic leg, etc 
of the Yang-tse-kiang, near the junction ^e. chair-backs are ec^ually varied, 
of the Imperial Canal; one of the British ChiPPeiUiain. \^'^\^ nam), a munlc- 
treaty ports, advantageously situated for ^ " , . ^^P?^ ?°?.r.R*J!. *™?« 
trade, ^n 1842 it was taken by the tary borough of England, Wiltshire. 12 

British, after a determined resistance on 2; ?' "^ **' ^^^* 2? i liw"' ?x^' ^Sf' 
the part of the Manchu garrison. It suf- CIllDDeWa FaUs (chip e-wft), /city, 
fered severely in the Tai-ping rebellion. *"^i;^ " *•* . county seat of Chip- 
Pop, est about 168,000. pewa Co., Wisconsin. 135 miles 8. E. of 
/^iT- !• /iri'n'n^iin* H-TT-V^ an niiv Duluth, Minncsota. on the Chippewa 

Chinohne \f,^Sir^"bta^^''^^^ ^is?iii^ S^?^ '%^^ '^Ji^'"^''' 1?^"^^^?: 

ing quinine with potash and a Httle Jj^tones flour md^^^ Seat of State 

witer. or by the dr^ distillation of coal. 5?^« ^o** ^^^^ ^ ""^/^ii^w^- F??\ « 
It is used in medicine as an antiseptic GnippewaVailS ^^^^ ^t iIaHVj J 
and as a remedy in intermittent fevers. ^^^L. st^k, in N^W. clnad^"" "' 

Chinon ^dt^'^^i^Vj^^^^^ Chippeways ^^^^T'tnt ^^f ^ 

Vipnnp 9« ™?U « "^JT n"/Tn^~ R«w American Indians, United States and 

1-5! W-- iS™ ^^ T;- JS^»^' p5^ Canada. They are distributed in band« 

1 lft0fiT%7l^ vicinity. Pop. r^^^j ^^^ g5^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^, j^,^^ 

iiwo; wii. ^ Superior, where they once owned va»t 

Chinook Winds 1^5,$,V' J;V^™ *™c^- They are of the Algonquin stock. 

I -^ « westerly w i n d s tall, and active, subsist chiefly by hunting 

experienced in some parte of the west- o„d fighi^g, and number about 18.000. 

Chi^S^a (^^-'ra). a fonner town Chipping SpanOW (/^-^'^ -^ 
or Bengal, on the Hugh, mon N. American bird, some five or six 
now part of the dty of Hugh. It was inches long. 

the chief Dutch settlement in Bengal ri'u;.^-^;—-- ttt-,-,-^«»,i.^ Spa Wm. 
and was ceded to the British in 1^. Chipping- WyCOmbe. %^^j^^ ^^ 

Chintz, cotton cloth or calico printed Chianimnla (chi-ki-mO'lA), a de- 

* with flowers or other devices vrmquimuia \,artment of the Ccn- 

tn various colors and generally glazed. tral American State of Guatemala ; area 

ChiOCOCCa (^^^kok'ka), a genus of 4000 sq. mUes. Pop. 65,000. Its capiUl, 

tropical plan to, nat. order of the same name, has about 4000. 


Chiquitos Cliittagong 

rriii/v'ni'fna (chi-WWs) , an Indian peo- the chanoela. ^ There are a immber of 
l/JIiqullOS ^j^ ^£ Bolivia, about the chiropractic schools in the United States, 
headwaters of the Madeim and Para- including the Palmer School at Daven- 
may. They number about 22,000, dis- port, Iowa. 

tributed among ten missions established Chim (che'rO). AntOdpe Hodg$ont, 
by the Jesuits. v**** ** ^ fine large species of ante- 

riiirfK^a (M-rag'ra), that species of lope found in Tibet, somewhat larger 
lyrnim^ra ^^^ which attacks and than the chamois. 

stiffens the joints of the hand. Chiaholm tP^^'«m)» a village in S^ 

nlirpffa (W-ret'ta), or Chir^'ta. an ^f^^^^^"^ Ws do., Mmnesote. 75 
IrllireXXa ^i^^jan bitter derived from miles N. w. of Duluth. In a lumber and 
the stems of Agaihotea Cfctrfit* (or mining region. Pop. (1920) 9030. 
Opfcelta OM'rdto), a gentlanaceoua plant ChislcllUrst V^S** ®^"^S"*^ ^n *. ^"5 
from the north of India, It is similar in I^ ^'^^^^^ **•. wh and .^^^ ot 
its medicinal properties to gentian. England, in Kent, where (at .punden 

/n.T^««; (ch^re-kS'), a district in Place) Napoleon III Uved after the 
Uninqul J>anamft, Central America. Franco-German war. Pop. 8668. 
It is naturally very fertile, end has good ChislcU (^^^^)* 5^ Kislew, the nintL 
harbors both on the Caribbean and Pa- ^^"^^^ month of tte Jewish year, 
cific coasts. The name is also given to a corresponding to December. On tte2pth 
lacoon and an archipelago on the coast of Chialeu commences the Hanukkah fes- 
©f this state. Pop. about 40,000. ^ tival, which lasts eight days. 

ril.{T./^mo-nnT7 (kl' TO-man-si). See nTiioTxrifik (chis'ik), a town iand par- 
Cmromancy ""cheiromancv. l^niSWlCK .^^^ England, county of 

/ru^.^^ (kl'ron). the most famous of Middlesex, 6 miles w. of Hyde Park Cor- 

CllirOII \|e Centaurs, a race fabled ner, London. Pop. (1911) S8»705. 

as half-men, half-horses. He lived at CMtaldlTIff (cMt-al-drOg'), a. district 

the foot of Mt. Pelion in Thessaly, and V'***"^*"^***^ and town of India, My- 

was celebrated through all Greece for gore, native state. The district, which 

his wisdom and acquirements; particu- is arid and stony, has an area of 4022 

larly for his skill in medicine end music, sq. miles ; pop. 408,795. — ^The town has 

and the greatest men of the time — fortifications constructed by Haider AIL 

iEsculapius, Jason, Hercules, Adiilles, Pop. 6792. 

eta — ^were represented as his pupils. Chitill (^'*^^)'» *^® <^«' tissue-form- 

ChirOIiecteS. See Cheironectes. ^^^ ^f in^ects^Sd^tile sheUs^of ctS£ 

OUir'f\r\e\Arr (kl-rop'5-di), the art of and other crustaceans. From these 

^mropoay treating diseases, callosl- sources it can be obtained by successive 

ties or excrescences of the hands and feet treatment with different solvents to re- 

PliiT«rkT%T*Qn'i-in (ki'r5-prak-tik).ameth- move inorganic matter, fat, etc. It is 

l/iurupriti/tii/ od of adjusting the cause «olid, transparent and homy, 

of disease, defined by its practitioners as rjTiifATift (kl'tonz) , ChitonidjB, a 

the study and application of a univeraal viixuviw family of gasteropods, afford- 

ghilosophy of biology, theology, theosophy, ^g ^he only instance known of a mollu»- 

ealth, disease and death. Mechanically ^^ ^^-j^ formed of many successive por^ 

it consiste in adiustmg hy hand (h^ce ^ ^ . contact and overUpping 

^^lle^^^^frimTm^^^^^^^^ ^^f"^': ^^* ?^?' ^^'^ ^^^ft^f 

of tS^ spS3%olumn, for the purpose The shell in ttie typical genus OMoi* is 

of permitting the ^e^reation of aU composed of eight pieces, the animal ad- 
normal cyclic currents through nerves hering to rocks or atones after the fash- 
that have been impisncd. The first chiro- ion of the limpet 

nractic adjustment of vertebraa was f!"h;ff||»A-niy (chitfa-gong)', a district 

made in September, 1895, by Dr. D. D. ^^IXXagOIlg ^ Hindusten, in the 

Palmer but the method was not developed s. E, of Bengal, having the Bay of Ben- 

until 1903, when his son, B. J. Palmer, gal on the W. ; area, 2567 sq. miles ; pop. 

D. C, worked out a well defined system i,35a,250. The level lands, chiefly on 

of philosophy and practice. Chiropractic ^^ coast and the valleys, are very fer- 

Is based upon the hypothesis that man is ^j ^ considerable majority of the 

Sn«te iStdlictuality reriding within the gong is also tte_ name of a coamtadon- 
Sdyof the patient that do«8 the heaUng: ership or diTimon of Bennd. Aiea, 
^mechanical adJustmenU simpl/ open 12,118 saoare miles; Bopi. 478T.78L— 

Ghittagong Wood Chlamys 

The city of Chittagong, chief town of the prepared himself by confessing, fasting, 
district and second port in Bengal, is etc. ; religious rites were performed ; and 
situated on the Kamaphnli about 12 then, after promising to be faithful, to 
miles from its mouth. Though very nn- protect ladies and orphans, never to lie 
healthy, its trade has of late been stead- nor utter slander, etc, he received the 
iW increasing. Pop. 24,100. accolade, a slight blow on the neck with 

niiiffQcroTicr TJUnnii the wood of the flat of the sword from the person who 
ViUiUi^Ull^ W UUU, several Indian dubbed him a knight This was oftca 
trees, espedallv of Chickraeaia iahutA- done on the eve of battle, to stimulate the 
m, order Cedrelaceae, a light-colored, new knight to deeds of valor ; or after the 
beautifully-grained wood used by cabinet- combat, to reward signal bravery. Though 
makers. Also Cedr^la Toona. See Toon, chivalry had its defects, chief among 

ChitteldrOOg. See CkUaU^. Z^'^rt^^'^^^L^ottn^t^t'^i 

Gllittoor (<^^^tftOr), or Chittoke, a profession, yet it is to be regarded as 

town or India, capital of tempering in a very beneficial manner the 

the North Arcot District, Madras Presi- natural rudeness of feudal society. As a 

dency. Pop. 11,500. — Also a town of In- system of education for the nobles it 

dia, in the state of CJochin. Pop. about filled a place in civilization which as yet 

10,000. the arts and letters could hardly occupy. 

Chinsa '^'t^^ -^^^^S^i Cl^vasso '^r^^^^^ Tlf'.^ 

Cuneo, pop. 5728; the other in Sicily, Pop. 4209. 

province Palermo, pop. 6605. flliivp or CiVB (chiv, effv), a small 

GhiUSi <kS-«'8e), the Clusium of the ^^^^^9 perennial garden plant (AlUr 
Romans; a town of Italy, um SchoBnoprdsum) of the same genus 
province Sienna, and 43 miles 8. from as the leek and onion, and used for fla- 
Arezzo. It was the capital of Lars Por- vorin^ soups, etc. It is a rare native of 
sena, and has collections of Etruscan and Britain, where it is often cultivated as 
Roman antiquities. Pop. 0011. an edging for garden plots. 

CMvalrV (chiv'al-ri; French chevaU CMadni (*lAd'n6), Ernest Flobent 
•^ erie, from cheval, a horse), ^*"«***^* FkiedbioHj a German physi- 
a term which indicates strictly the or- cist, bom in 1756; died in 1827. He 
ganization of knighthood as it existed in investigated the laws of sound and made 
the middle ages, and in a general sense important experiments on the vibration 
the spirit and aims which distinguished of metallic and glass plates of various 
the knights of those times. The chief forma His works include DiscoverieM 
characteristics of the chivalric ages were Concerning the Theory of Sound, 17S7; 
a warlike spirit, a lofty devotion to the Acoustics, 1802; Contrihuiions to Prae- 
female sex (the latter somewhat ques- tical Acoustics, with Remarks on the 
tionable), a love of adventure, and an Making of Instruments, 1822; etc. 
undefinable thirst for glory. The Cru- ChladnrS FiffUreS, S*^® figures 
sades gave for a time a religious turn &»***'«j formed by 

to the spirit of chivalry, and various sand strewn on a horizontal glass or 
religious orders of knishthood arose, such metal plate, or a slip of wood, when it is 
as Uie Knights of St John, the Templars, clamped firmly at one point, and set in 
the Teutonic Knights, etc. Hie educa- vibration by means of a violin-bow. 

S2 « ?oiW^ t%'^:i^ fJlr^Z Chlamydosanrus ^i^f^^^i:^ 

was sent to the court of some baron or ChlftTOVTlTinrTlR (kla-mif'o-rus) , a ge- 
noble knight, where he spent his time ^•^ nus of quadrup^ 

chiefly in attending on the ladies, and of the order Edentilta. The only species, 
acquiring skill in the use of arms, in C truno&tus, or pichiciago, resembles tiie 
riding, etc. When advancing age and mole in its habits; it is about 5 inches 
experience in the use of arms had quali- long, and its back is covered over with 
fied the page for war, he became an a coat of mail, consisting of twenty-four 
esquire, or squire. This word is from rows of tough, leathery plates. Its in- 
L. scutum, a shield, it being among other temal skeleton in several respects re- 
offices the squire's business to carry the sembles that of birds. It is a native of 
shield of the knight whom he served. South America, allied to the armadillo. 
The third and hignest rank of chivalry ChlaiUVS (l^l&in'is)* & Hg^t and free- 
was that of knighthood, which was not ^ ly-flowing scarf or plaid 

conferred before the twenty-first year, worn by the ancient Greeks as an outer 
except in the case of distinguished birth garment. It was oblong in shape, gea- 
or great achievements. The individual erally twice as long as its width. 

Chloral ' CMorodyne 

dllori).! (kl^'ral; CXHaCHO), a liquid chlorine^ but especially of the conuner- 

vruAvxax ^^^ prepared by Liebit? by cial articles the chlorides of lime, potash 

passinff dry chlorine gas through abso- and soda. 

lute alcohol to saturation, afterwards by CMorine l^l^'i^n; sym. CI; atom. 
Stftdeler by the action of hydrochloric ^^^^v**-**^ weight 35.5), an element- 
add and manganese on starch. The ary greenish-yellow, irrespirable ^as, with 
hydrate of chloral, as now prepared a peculiar, penetrating, suffocating odor 
(CCbCHO.HaO), is a white, crystalline and add. astringent taste, discovered by 
substance which, in contact with alka- Scheele in 1774, who named it dephlo- 
lies, separates into chloroform and for- gisticated marine acid. It was after- 
mic acid. Chloral kills by paralyzing the wards proved by Davy to be a simple 
action of the heart. It is a hypnotic as body, and from its peculiar yellowish- 
well as an ansesthetic, and is frequently green color the appellation of chlorine 
substituted for morphia. It has been (from Greek chUiroSf yellowish green) 
successfully used in delirium tremens, was given to it. It is always found in 
St Vitus* dance, poisoning by strychnia, nature in a state of combination. United 
in tetanus, and in some cases of asthma with sodium it occurs very largely as 
and whooping-cough. It should be taken the chloride of sodium or common salt, 
with great caution and under medical from which it is liberated by the action 
advice, as an extra dose may produce of sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide, 
serious symptoms and even death. The Chlorine is a very heavy gas, being about 
treatment of poisoning by chloral is to two and a half times as heavy as ordi- 
keep the person warm by means of blank- nary air ; it has a peculiar smell, and ir- 
ets, warm bottles, etc. Warm stimulat- ritates the nostrils most violently when 
ing dKnks should also be administered, inhaled, as also the windpipe and lungs, 
such as hot coffee, hot tea, negus, etc. It exercises a corrosive action upon or- 
It has been shown that an animal kept ganic tissues. It is not combustible, 
warm by wrapping in cotton wool re- though it supports the combustion of 
covered from a dose of chloral that many bodies, and, indeed, spontaneously 
otherwise would have killed it. bums several. In combination with other 
Clllora.ILtllfl.Ce&B (l^l^'i^^i^'thft'se-^), a elements it forms chlorides, which act 
vxAxvxc»ubua.w^cK^ ^^^^ order of apet- most important parts in many manufac- 
alous exogens, allied to the peppers, and, turing processes. This gas may be lique- 
like them, having an aromatic, fragrant fied by cold and pressure, and it solidifies 
odor; natives of the warm regions of and crystallizes at — 102* C. into a yellow 
India and America. Chloranthus ajBUcin- mass. Chlorine is one of the most power- 
itlis is reckoned a stimulant and tonic of ful bleaching agents, this property belong- 
the highest order. ing to it through its strong afiinity for 
Ghlorfl.te (klO'rftt)r^a salt of chloric hydro|[en. Hence in the manufacture of 
acid. The chlorates are bleaching powder (chloride of lime) it is 
very analogous to the nitrates. They used in immense quantities. When ap- 
are decomposed by a red heat, nearly all plied to moistened colored fabrics it acts 
of them being converted into metallic by decomposing the moisture present, the 
chlorides, with evolution of pure oxygen, oxygen of which then destroys the color- 
They deflanate with inflammable sub- ing matter of the cloth, etc. It is a 
stances with such facility that an explo- valuable disinfectant where it can be 
sion is produced by slight causes. The conveniently applied, as in the form of 
chlorates of sodium and potassium are chloride of lime. 

used in medidne. The latter, in doses HliloritG (klo'rit), a mineral of a 
of from one to twenty grains, is largely ^*"*'* "^ grass-green color, opaque, 
used in scarlet fever, inflamed throat, usually friable or easily pulverized, com- 
etc. It is also used in the manufacture posed of little spangles, scales, prisms, 
of lucifer-matches, fireworks and per- or shining small grains, and consisting of 
cussion-caps. silica, alumina, magnesia and protoxide 
flliloriP TCfliPT (l5l5-rik 6'ther). a vol- of iron. It is closely allied in character 
liUiuno xitucr ^^j^ ^ .^ (C.H.a) to mica and talc *here are four sub- 
obtained by passing hydrochloric add ^as spedes — chlorite earth, common chlorite, 
into alcohol to saturation and distilling chlorite slate and foliated chlorite, 
the products. Called also Hydrochloric rfTilArnilimA (kl0'r0-dln>. a popular 
Ether, , \>iuuruuyiic p^^^^^ medidne used in 

Cllloride of Iiime ® ® ® Bleachinff allaying pain and inducing sleep, and 
VM.AVAXMW VA .uxAAx^^. Pq^^^^ containing morphia, chloroform, prussic 

CMoriinetrV (kl^-rlm'i-tri), the add, extract of Indian hemp, etc. There 
^ "^ process of testing the are several makes of it, but all have to 

bleaching power of any combination of be used with caution. 

Chloroform Choiseifl 

Chloroform (^l^* i^^orm; GHCla), term is also applied to a disease of plants 

^ www ^^ perchloride of for- in which a deficiency of chlorophyll 

myle, a volatile colorless liquid of an causes a blanched and yellow appearance 

agreeable, fragrant, sweetish apple taste instead of a healthy green in the plant 

and smell, of the specific gravity of 1.48, Ghoate (c^^t), Joseph Uooqes, law- 

and discovered by Soubeiran and Idebig ^*^^^^^ yer, born at Salem, Massa- 

in 1832. It is prepared by cauuousiy chusetts, in 1832. Was graduated at Har- 

distilling together a mixture of alcohol, vard in 1852, and at harvard Law School 

water and chloride of lime or bleaching in 1854. A member of the bar in Massa- 

powder. Its use as an anesthetic was chusetts, he removed to New York City 

introduced in 1847 by Professor (after- in 1856 and was admitted to the bar of 

wards Sir) James Y. Simpson of Edin- that dty. A gifted orator and noted 

burgh. For this purpose its vapor is in- Jurist, he was appointed . ambassador to 

haled. The inhalation of chloroform first Great Britain bv President McKinley, 

produces slight intoxication ; then, f re- 1899-1905. He died May 14, 1917. 

quentiy, slight muscular contractions, (thofl.te RuFUS, lawyer, bom in Ips- 

unruliness and dreaming; then loss of ^^^"'^^f wlch, Biamachusetts, in 1799 ; 

voluntary motion and consciousness, the died in 1859. In 1830 he was elected to 

patient appearing as if sound asleep; Congress; also in 1832. In 1841 he suc- 

and at last, if too much be given, death ceeded Daniel Webster in the U. S. 

by coma and syncope. When skilfully Senate, serving until 1845. In many re> 

administered in proper cases it is con- spects he was the most scholarly of 

sidered one of the safest of anesthetics; American public men, and among the 

but it requires to be used under certain greatest forensic advocates America has 

precautions, as its application has fre- produced. « 

quentiy proved fatal. Chloroform is a r!lincolfl.te (chok'5-lAt; from Mexican 

powerful solvent, dissolving resins, wax, '^'"•^^'vxawc chocolatl). a paste com- 

lodine, etc., as well as strychnine and posed of the kernels oi the Theobrdma 

other alkaloids. CaoAo or cacao-tree, ground and com- 

ChlorODh&ne (lKl^'i^^~f^°)« & mineral, bined with sugar and vanilla, cinnamon, 

^ a variety of fluorspar or other flavoring substance; also a bev- 

which exhibits a bright-green, phosphor- erase made by dissolving chocolate in 

escent light when heated. boiling water or milk. It was used in 

ChlorODhvll (^l^'>'^fiO> the green Mexico long before the arrival of the 

'^ ^ coloring matter of Spaniards, and is now extensively used 

plants. It plays an important part in in Europe and America as a beverage 

the life of the plant, as it breaks up the and confection. 

carbonic acid gas taken ChoctaWS (chok'tfts), a North Amer- 
in by the stomata erf the ^^"^^^^^ ^ ican Indian trioe now set- 
leaves into its two ele- tied on a portion of Oklahoma, about 
ments, carbon and oxy- 16,000 in all. They formerly inhab- 
gen, returning the oxy- ited what is now the w. part of Alabama 
gen to the air, and con- and s. part of Mississippi. The^r culti- 
verting the carbon with vate the soil, are partially civilized, 
nkin^ lwii r i^. ' i^ the water obtained from having a regular constitution prefaced 
iSTSceSli dTl the rooU into starch, with a biU of rights, courts of justice, 
Leaf. Light is indispensable to books and newspapers. 

X?'tt%**"?al±T''biaS?hinrof ChOCZim {*o'tsim). See KMin. 
plants by privation of light, either by Ghoir (^l^^r), that part of a cruci- 
the art of the gardener or from accidental ^***'** form church extending east- 
causes, ward from the nave to the altar, fre- 
nilnrnsia (kl5-r6'sis; Greek chl6ros, quentiy inclosed by a screen, and set 
vriuuAUBxo yellowish green), or Gbeen apart for the performance of the ordi- 
SlCKinDBB, a disease specially affecting nary service. The name is also given to 
young girls, is characterized by a green- the organized body of singers in church 
ish or yellowish hue of the skin, languor, 8<»rvices. 

indigestion and general debility, and de- Ghoisenl (shwa-*eul>, an ancient 

rangement of the system. The patho- ^ *** French familv which haf 

logical condition of chlorosis is a diminn- furnished many distinguished individuala 

tion in quantity of the red globules of One of the best known is £tienne BYan- 

the blood, an important constituent of cois. Buke of Choiseul-Amboise, bom in 

which is iron, and accordingly the ad- 1719 ; died in 1785. He entered the army 

ministration of iron forms a leading part in early life, and after distinguishing 

^ th^ treatment Qf this disease, — ^The himself on various occasions in the Aor 

Choisy-le-roi -^ Choloft 

— — — ^ — - — — — , 

trian War of Saccession, returned to This disease is endemic in certain parts 
Paris, where his intimacy with Madame of Asia, and is liable to spread to other 
de Pompadour furnished the means of parts of the world, usually by the ordi- 
gratifying his ambition. After having nary channels of commercial intercourse, 
been ambassador at Rome, and at Vien- It nrst appeared in Europe in 1829. and 
na, where he concluded with Maria reached Britain in 1831, spreading tnence 
Theresa the treaty of alliance against to America. 

Prussia, he became in reality prime-min- The primary and essential element in 
ister of France, and was very popular the production of cholera has been as- 
through a series of able diplomatic certained to be a constituent of the ex- 
measures. He negotiated the famous oreta of cholera patients. Dr. Koch 
Family Compact which reunited the vari- asserts that the essential cause is a 
ous members of the Bourbon family, and bacillus, having the form of a curved rod, 
restored Corsica to France. His fall hence called the comma haciUuSf discov- 
was brought about in 1770 by a court ered by himself, and that the disease is 
intrigue, supported by Madame du Barry, caused by the multiplication of this or- 
the new favorite of the king. He was ganism in the small intestines, it being 
banished to his estates, but his advice in due usually to drinking impure water, 
political matters was frequently taken A cholera antitoxin was discovered by 
by Louis XVI. Professor Vincent, head of the Val de 

Clioisv-le-roi (shw&-s6-l-rw&), a Grace Military Hospital, Paris, who also 
J *** handsome town, discovered a typhoid antitoxin, and details 

France, 7 miles B. of Paris on the Seine, were presented before the Academy of 
In its cemetery is the tomb of Rouget de Medicine in March, 1015. 
risle. author of the MargeiUaise. Pop. What is called cholera mordfi^ is a 
(190(3) 12,0(X). bilious disease, long known in most 

Clioke-clierrv ^ popular name for countrieiy and is characterized by oopi* 
vuvA«/ vu«^AAj| ^jjg ^j. jjjj,j.Q species ous vomiting and purging, with violent 

of cherry (such as Prunus or Cerdaus griping, cramps oi the muscles of the 
haredlU, Prunus Virginiana), distin- abdomen and lower extremities, and 
guished by their astringency. great depression of strength. It is most 
C!lloke-d8.IIID ^' Aftkb-damp, the prevalent at the end of summer or the 
vruvxk^ ua.Au.^1 name given to the irre- beginning of autumn. Cholera infantum 
spirable gas (carbonic acid) found in (infants'^ cholera) is the name some- 
coal-mines after an explosion of fire- times given to a severe and dangerous 
damp or light carburetted hydrogen. diarrhoea to which infants are liable in 
C}lola?0?1ie (ko'la-gog), a medi- hot climates or in the hot season, and 
\/ixvAa«5vgu.«/ ^jjjg which has the usually due to improper methods of 
property of stimulating the liver and feeding and caring for the food, 
producing a secretion of bile thereby. Gholesterin (kd-les'ter-in; CmHuO). 
Cholera (kor*-ra), Asiatic, a deadly "va^oi/^^xxi* ^ monatomic alcohol 
parasitic endemic and epi- found in bile, blood, etc., which may be 
demic disease, characterized by acute obtained in the form of beautiful, pearly 
diarrhoea, vomiting, feeble circulation, crystalline scales, without taste and odor, 
coldness, cramps and collapse. The vie- It is widely distributed in the animal 
tims of cholera are those whose intestines economy, being essential to the brain 
are weakened by previous illness, bad and nerve substance, and having been 
feeding, exhaustion, or excess in eating found in milk, and many portions of the 
or drinking. In an epidemic, cases vary body, both as a normal and a pathologi- 
from those rapidly fatal to those of hardly cal constituent. 

recognizable diarrhoea; but with the typ- Gholet (sho-la), a town of N. W. 
ical pronounced case, in the course of a ^'"^***"' France, dep. Maine-et-Loire, 
few hours after diarrhoea begins the stools 32 miles s. w. of Angers, with manufac- 
have the typical ' rice-water ' appearance, tures of cotton goods and woolen stuflFs, 
caused by quantities of floating white par- and a brisk trade. Pop. (1906) 16,554. 
tides like rice, which are shreds of intes- CTlolnpTirnrnp (kOHo-krOm), Cholo- 
tinal mucous membrane. Vomiting begins, ^H^^OCnrome pjj^^ (k 6 - lo-f6'in) , 
at first of the stomach contents, and later the brown coloring matter contained in 
of * rice-water' material. The patient bile and in the intesHnes, and the sub- 
suffers severely from intense cramps of stance coloring the faeces and the skin in 
the limbs and unquenchable thirst; and janndice. 

unless reaction soon takes place, he falls Cholos ^chonos), in Peru, the name 

into a coUapsed condition, unable to ho p ^^^^^^ f^^ ^^^^^ ^b^, ^^ p^^l of 

himself in any way, although generally white, partly of Indian parentage, the 

quite clear-headed. most numerous class of the community. 

Chfliila Chord 

fflialwU (ehMaH}. * town of Hoi- Chon'sticks. (^ CTiinff HilKtitnte 

VDVUUa, ^ ^ _y^ s. I. by E. ol ^IM»F«"!*"» to our knift. fork and 

l l«j i « >, tomtflj k latKe dtj, tbe wat apotM at nwala, eaoudv of two amootli 

«4 iW rdifitfa ti the ancieDt Uexicaiu, Muks of buoboo, wood, or ivory, wbidi 

witk More than 4U0 Umplc*. One of are aanl for conierinc mat to tbe BKHith 

tboK IcBpha ttm remaina, bnilt ia tkc witb wooderfol dexteritj. 

Uirm of a pjramid, each nd« of ita baae nhnnttric Wnnnm^fit ik o- ra'iik). 

aU 1S4 fnt. On tli« top i* a chapd of «». 

SpaoUi ori^iii. Pop. about 9000. Chora^M (k*-rt'«~). • nwne fi»en 

(<lU,IlJrite (k'-XWt). a foa^ aea- *'norapU ^^ the Greeka to the iSadtr 
weed. or duvctor of the chomaea famished for 

dumdTDDterVeii (kon-drop-te-Hj'. tile pablic feBtii-ala, and who also de- 
i^ '» ill. one of the frayed the c«)en«M of the chonu. (See 
two sreat aedioiia Into which Cnrier di- Ckormt). "ae cborastia who waa ad- 
*lde« the claaa nacea or fiahea, diatin- Judged to have performed hia duty be«I 
sniahcd from the fiabea with true bone received a tripod of bran, for wbicb he 
by the cartiiaciiioiia or griatly aobataDce had to build a monoaient, on which it 
of which the bone* are compoaed, and waa placed. A atreet In Athena which 
bj the cartilaguHXia apinea of the Gna. contained a great number of tbeae cho- 
Tbe Umillea include the ■targeon, ahark, rasic moDumenta waa called the Street 
ray aod bmprey. of the Tripods. 

ChOndnU *"»'J""). the renna of ChoTal» (ko-rine). or Cno'til, the 
vuvmuu* i^weeds to which carra- *'"M'»*c p^^j^, ^^ j^yj^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 
green or Irish mosa belong*. German Protestant charchea, a simple 

ChOnOS ArchiDClaeO <chO'na«), a melody to be suns in hanaony or in nni- 
11 J ,_. - I ^'■•".P^ ™ son by a number of Toicea to aacred 

islanda lying off the w. coaat of Pats- words. 

gonia, mostly between lata. 44" and 4fl* Choral Mnaip (Wral), tooU music 
ft. and Ion 74- and 75" W. Two are "^HOrai JIUSIC \^ ^^, ^^^"^^ 
Urge bat tbey are all barren and scan- ten or arranged for a choir or chonu. 
tily inhabited. and includiuK oratorios, cantatas, ma nan. 

CllffDill '<^''OP'll)i 'D old liqnid meas- anthems, etc 

p T J are containing half a pint in Choral Scrvice '" *^' Chnrcli of 
England, a quart in Scotland. wuuiax crcivil^c, England, service 

ChODin **'">-P«(i). F»6d6bic Fban- with intoned responses, and 'the use of 
. .S"^^' P"""*"' ""^ musical com- music throughout wherever it la autfao^ 
poaer, of French extraction, waa bom at i»ed. The aervice ia said to be partlt 
Warsaw in 1810, went to Paris in 1831 choral when only canticleg, hymna etc, 
on account of the political tronbles of are sung; vthoUv choral, when in ad- 
Poland, and died tliere in 1849. He dition to these the versieles, responses, 
wrote numerous pieces for the pianoforte, etc., are sung. 

chiefly In the form of nocturaea. polo- Chord (kOrd; Greek cliorde, a string 
nalses, waltzea and maiurkas, all of *'""*" ^f gut), in music, the simolts- 
which display much musical iDveotion, neoua combination of different soundi. 
aboauding In subtle ideas with graceful consonant or dissonant. The common 
barmonli- effecta. cAord consists of a fundamenUl or bass 

ChODine ichop^n >, a very high shoe note with its third and fifth. When the 
1 . It. 1 ?'.Ple^>t«J clog, Introduced interval between the bass note and ila 
Into Koglaod from Venice, In the reinn third is two full tones the combination is 
-— - - of Queen Ehiabeth a major chord; when the interval is a 
and which became the tone and a half the combination is termed 
— enable wear of a minor cAord; when the Intervals be- 
L ladies d u r i n g tween the bass note and its third and tlif 
. t reign. They third and the fifth are each a tone tnd 

I ^^.J^'^uk"', ^w"' Sn.''""' ""^ '^'""■^ 's called di,nirUM- 
\ covered with leather The tonU, chord ia made tip of the kw 
- . colors, note and Kb third and fifth ; the *•-  

' white, red. yellow and .ant cftor^'-'consiab. of the dUln.^"o'r 
sometimes gill. Some fifth of the s^ale a«y™n.„?S kS th 

— h iiSrarruc?,' i:% ^"n -/ a^^" the's^S-*' *^ 

inches, the height of ?h-e'hoplne "in! or fo^J^^*' /?.' "' V'^ '*>« subdominMt 
straight line drawn, or nippowd to n- 

Chorda Dorsalis '^ Ghouans 

tend, from one end of an arc of a circle the names of the portions of verse which 
to the other. they recited, strophe, antistrophe and 

Chorda Dorsa^lis ^^^ notochord or epode, are derived. — In music, the chorus 
\/uvx\M» ^vxQo. xxoy dorsal chord, is that part of a composite vocal per- 
See Notochord. formance which is executed by the whole 

GhOTdffi- Vocables ^^ cords. See body of the singers in contradistinction 
\/uvxu«# Tv\/a.x^o^ jjjg Yocal chords to the solo airs, and concerted pieces for 
Larpnw. selected voices. The singers who join 

Chorea (^o-i^^'ft)* See Vitus* Dance, in the chorus are also called the chorus. 
vrixvxca g^^ rjjjg ^gjm ^ ^i^^ applied to the verses of 

Choriamhns (ko'ri-am-bus), in pros, a song in which the company join the 
vi&vAxcuuuuo ^ £^j^j consisting of four singer, or the union of a company with a 
syllables, of which the first and last are singer in repeating certain couplets or 
long, and the others short ; that is. a verses at certain periods in a song, 
choreus, or trochee, and an iambus PlioaA (shdz; French, a thing), in 
united. wam/o%* j^^^ property; a right to pos- 
Chorion (1^^'ri-on), in anatomv the session; or that which may be demanded 
V11VXJ.VU external vascular membrane, and recovered by suit or action at law. 
covered with numerous villi or shaggy Thus money due on a bond or recom- 
tuf ts, which invests the fetus in utero. pense for damage done is a chose in ao- 
Chorlev (<^h^i^'^)f ^ municipal bor- tion; the former proceeding from an em- 
" ough and market town. Eng- press, the latter from an implied con- 
land, Lancashire, on the Yarrow, 20 miles tract. A chose local is annexed to a 
N. w. of Manchester, with manufactures place, as a mill or tLe like ; a chose 
of cotton goods, calico-printing and dye- transitory is a thing which is movable, 
wood works, floor-cloth works, iron- PliAaATi (chO'sen), the ancient name 
foundries, etc. In the vicinity are coal, ^'***'»**" of Corea, now restored by 
lead and iron mines. Chorley gives Japan as the legal name, 
name to a parliamentary division of the niinarAAS T (kos'ro-es), sumamed the 
county. Pop. (1911) 30,317. v>iiu»ruc» X >ji,gt' the greatest of the 
Choroid (kdi*'oid). Cho'rioid, a term Sassanid kings of JPersia, reigned A.D. 
applied in anatomy to va- 531-579. At his accession Persia was 
riouB textures ; as the choroid membrane, involved in a war with the Emperor 
one of the membranes of the eye, of a Justinian, which Ghosroes terminated 
very dark color, situated between the successfully, obliging Justinian to pur- 
sclerotic and the retina, and terminating chase peace by the payment of a large 
anteriorly at the great circumference of sum of money. In 540, however, jeal- 
the iris. ous of the renown of Belisarius, ^e 
Chorus (^^'>^oci)» originally an ancient great general of the empire, Gonstantine 
Greek term for a troop of violated the peace, invaded Syria, laid 
singers and dancers, intended to heighten Antioch in ashes, and returned home 
the pomp and solemnity of festivals, laden with spoils. The war continued 
During the most flourishing period of till 562, when the emperor was again 
ancient tragedy (b.c. 500-400) the Greek obliged to purchase peace by an annual 
chorus was a troop of males and females, tribute of gold. The peace continued 
who, during the whole representation, for ten years, when the war ¥^s renewed 
were spectators of the action, never quit- with Justin, the successor of Justinian, 
ting the stage. In the intervals of the ac- Ghosroes being once more successful, 
tion the chorus chanted songs, which re- The following emperor, Tiberius, at 
lated to the subject of the performance, length completely defeated the Persians 
Sometimes it even took part in the per- in 578. 

formance, by observations on the conduct nji nfa lTa67)Ore (chu'ta n ft g-pur) , 

of the personages, by advice, consolation, ^"v*" *'«*5F*'*v qhtttia Naopub, a 

exhortation, or dissuasion. In the begin- division of British India, presidency 

ning it consisted of a great number of of Bengal, divided into the districts of 

persons, sometimes as many as fifty ; but Ranchi, Palamau, Hazaribagh, Singbhum 

the number was afterwards limited to and Manbhum; and two feudatory states, 

fifteen. The exhibition of a chorus was Total area, 43,020 sq. miles. Pop. 4,903,- 

in Athens an honorable civil charge, and 991. 

was called ofcoraf^y. {^^ Choragus,) Chotin (fcd'tin). See Z^o^m. 
Sometimes the chorus was divided into ^ 

two parts, who sung alternately. The Chonans (s^^'&n)* & name given 
divisions of the chorus were not station- '*'**^ •*«***•» to the royalist peasantry of 
ary, but moved from one side of the stage Brittany and Lower Maine, who carried 
to the other ; from which circumstance on a petty warfare against the republican 

Chouglf Gfirlstian Era 

{oyenuDent from an early period of the mother; and that there is no personal 
'rench revolution. The name was finally devlL 

extended to all the Vendeans. The name niiriafp'hiirp'h (k r I s t' church), a 
was derived from the first chief of the vrariStLaurcil p a r 1 i a m e n Ury 
Chouans, Jean Cottereau, who with his borough, England, county of Hampshire, 
three brothers organized these bands in 21 miles southwest of Southampton, 
17^. Cottereau had joined a band of pleasantly situated at the confluence of 
dealers in contraband salt, and acquired the Avon and Stour, about 1 mile from 
the surname Chouan from the cry of the the sea. There is a fin% old priory 
screech-owl (Fr. ohat-huant) which he church, dating from the time of William 
used aa a signal with his companions. Rufus, with a magnificent stone altar- 
He was killed in an engagement with the screen. Pop. 5104. 
republican troops in 1794. The Chouans miriafnTinrpli & town of New Zea- 
were not suppressed till 1799. and even vrJiri»i,Uiiuii/ii, j^^^^^ ^p^^j ^^ ^j^^ 

after that occasional spurts of insurrec- province of Canterbury, and the see of 

tion occurred down till 1830, when they the primate of New Zealand, is situated 

were fully put down. on the Avon River, 7 miles from Port 

Chon^h. (<^^u^)* GoBNiflH Chough, Lyttelton, with which it has railway com* 

\/iAvu5u ^j. i^KDLBGGED Cbow, a bird munication. It contains a number of 

belonging to the genus Freoilus, of the handsome buildings, among which are the 

crow fomily, but nearly allied to the provincial sovernment offices, the Cathe- 

starlings. F. graoulus is the only dral, St. Michael's Church, the supreme 

European species, and frequents, in Eng- court, hospital, museum, town library, etc 

land, chiefly the coasts of CornwalL Its There are a fine park, a botanic garden, 

general color is black, contrasting well and high-class educational and other 

the vermilion-red of the beak, \eK9 and institutions. Pop. 49,928, or including 

toes. There are other species, natives of extensive suburbs, 67.878. 

Australia, Java, etc. niiriafmTi (krisfyan), the name of 

Chretien A^ Trovea (krfi-ti-ev), a ^^""tiau ^^^ Danish kings, Chbir- 

Uareueu ae xroyes French trou- tian II, King of Denmark, Norway, and 

vdre, born at Troyes about 1150; died Sweden, was born 1480; died 1559. He 

about the end of the twelfth or beginning attained the throne in 1513. and in 1518 

of the thirteenth century. His fame rests usurped the throne of Sweden, from 

upon six romances still extant, viz., Iric which he was expelled by Gustavus Vasa 

et Ouide, Perceval le OalloiBf Le Chevalier in 1522. He was deposed by his Danish 

au lAonf Cligei, Chevalier de la Table subjects in 1523, and retired to the 

ronde, Lancelot du lac, and Guillaume Netherlands, whence he returned in 1531 

d*Angleierre. Other two of his works, with an army, but ws j defeated, and 

Trieian^ ou le Roi Marc et la Reine kept in confinement till his death. — 

Yeeult, and Le Chevalier d VEp4e, have Chbistian IV, King of Denmark, son of 

been apparently lost. Frederick II, born in 1577, succeedet! 

PVirism (krlsm: Greek c^mma, salve), to the throne as a minor in 1588; died 

vrUiTism ^jj^ jj^jy qJi prepared by the 1648.-~Chmstian IX. See Denmark,— 

£L Catholic bishops, and used in baptism, Chbistian X, born in 1870, succeeded 

confirmation, ordination of priests, and his father, Frederick VIII, in 1912. 

the extreme uncHon. The name is derived Christian EndeaVOr, TJnited 
from the Greek word * to anoint' v**a*ow*»4» .k^^^^wwAy w^^v 

niiriAATn (kris'om), a white garment Snpl l^tv nf ^^^ *^« promotion of 
UnnSOm formerly laid upon a cMM at OOCICXy 01, christion union among 
baptism in token of innocence. Protestant denominations, originating in 
riiriaf (krXst; from Greek Christoe, 1881, has now about 75,000 societfes and 
vi&Aiob ^jjg anointed; Meeaiah, from 4,000,000 members, represented in all 
the Hebrew, has the same signification), parts of the world. Its purpose is to 
a title of our Saviour, now used almost make the young people loyal and efilcient 
as a name or part of his name. See members of the church. 
Chrietianity and Jeeus Chriet, Christian Erft % *"** ^F* ^?,^ 
niriftfAilplT^liiftTis (k r i 8 t-a-del'fi- ^urisuan x-ra, almost universally 
f^nnsiaaeipiuans ^^^^^ ^ religious employed in Christian countries for the 
body of recent origin, who believe that computation of time. It is generally sup- 
God will raise all who love him to an posed to begin with the year of the birth 
endless life in this worid. but that those of Christ ; but that event seems to have 
who do not shall absolutely perish in taken place four years before the prewnt 
death ; that Christ is the Son of God. established beainning of the era. Time 
inheriting moral perfection from the before Christ is marked B.C.. after Christ 
Deitv, our human nature from his a.d. The era la computed from Januarj 

duistianla Christian Science 

1st, In the fourth ;ear of the 104th olym- The first conuannlty of the followen of 

fiiad, and 753d year from the building of Jeaua was formed at Jerusalem Boon af- 
tiimp. It was first used by DioojaiuB, a ler the death of their Master. Another 
Syrian monk, in the sixth century, but did at Antioch ia Syria first assumed (about 
not become general until about the middle US) the name of ChrUtianij and the 
of the fifteenth century. travels of tie apoatlea spread Chriatianity 

OiristiBTlin (kria-ti-A'ni-a). a city through the provinces of the Bomnn Bm- 
uiiiiBLiauitt ^^jj p^j.(^ jjjg capital of pire. Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, 
Norway, province Aggershuus or Chris- Greece, the islands of the Mediterranean, 
tiitnia, at the bead of the long narrow in- Italy, and the northern coaat of Africa, 
let called ChriatiaDia Fjord, abont 60 as early as (be first century, contained so- 
miles from the open sea or Skagerrack, cietiea of Christiana. At the end of the 
The houses are mostly of brick and stone, third century almost half of the inhabi- 
generally plain buildings, devoid of arcbl- tants of the Roman Empire, and of sev- 
tecturat pretension. Important public era! neighboring countries, professed this 
buildings are the royal palace, the nouse belief. While Christianity as a system 
of representativee or Storthing, the gov- was thus spreading, many heretical 
ernor a palace and the cathedraL An branches had sprung from the main trunk. 
From the Gnostics, who date from tbe 
days of the apostles, to the Nestoriani of 
the fifth century tbe number of sects was 
large ; some of them exist to the present 
day. The most important events in the 
subsequent history of Christianity are the 
aeparation of the Eastern and Weatern 
churches early in the eifihth century ; and 
the Western reformation, which may be 
said to have commeni'ed with the sectariea 
of the thirteenth century and ended with 
tbe estabUshmenC of Protestantism in the 
sixteenth. The number of Chriatlans 
DOW in the world is computed at 570.- 
000,000. Of these about 27S.O00.00O are 
Ilomaa Catholics, 120,000.000 belong to 
the Greek Church, and 175,000,000 are 
Cnriafiaiin (knst'yans), or Cbrib- 

i/nnsiians Via.v coniKCTioN, the 

name of a denomination in the United 

States aud Canada, adopted to express 

their renunciation of nil sectarianism. 

They are to be met with in all parts of 

the country, the number of their churches 

, .,„ . . „ ,, ^, being eatiinnteil at about 1200. Bach 

interesting building is the fine old eaatia church is an independent body ; the Scrip- 

of Aggersbuus, with its church and cita- turcs are their only rule of faith, and 

del crowning a point Jutting out into the admission to the church is obtained by a 

fjord. Attached to the university— the iimple profession of belief in Christianity. 

only one in Norway, opened m ISlii — is The sect is also known as the Oirlstlail 

- - - , containing a fine collection of nhurnh 

. The manufactures of the city fllhriHtifliiBflTiil (It rls'te-an-sand),  

 woolen cloth, ironware, to- i>nnsiiansana gg^i^^ i„ j^g ^Ijj^ 

pacco, paper, leather, soap, spirits, glass, of Norway, the see of a bishop, with 

etc., and there are extensive breweries, fishing iateresta. sawmills, wood-pulp 

The exports are principally timber and factories, shipbuilding yards, mechanical 

iron. The environs are exceedingly beau- workshops, etc. Pop. 14,701. 

Christiam^'°?i ' • .*■•■■•"■ »» '"'™''"'' ^'"""- £■ m"™ & 

\jliritH,lB.iu.j.y „!i_|oa instituted by Eddy to her interpretation of the Chris- 
Jeans Christ. ITioagh the great moral tian religion. Christian Science datet 
principles which it reveals and teaches, from 1S66. but Mrs. Eddy relates In her 
and the main doctrines of the gospel, have memoirs that she had been, for twenty 
been preserved without Interruption, the years before 1866, ' trying to tram 

GDins of the different nations and ages all physical effects to a mental cause. * 
.T« materially colored Its character. The written statement of ChristlBii 

Christians of St. John Christina 


Scienw dates from 1875, when Mn. Bddy riiriftfifiTiftf aH (k r 1 b' te-&n-flt&d), a 
published the Christian Science textbook, vnnsuanstaa \^^^ ^^ Sweden, 
Science and Health With Key to the capital of the l&n or government of same 
Scripturee. This is in the nature of a name, on a peninsula in the Helge Lake, 
commentary on the Bible, and purports about 10 miles from the Baltic, with 
to contain a complete statement of ' di- manufactures of gloves, linen and woolen 
vine metaphysics,* including directions fabrics, and some trade through the port 
for practice. We read on page 136 : of Ahus, at the mouth of the Helge. Pop. 
'The same power which heals sin heals 10,318. 

also sickness'; also on page 146, with HliriafiATiflf^rl (-sted), a fortified 
reference to * scientific healing': 'Its ^^^a»*'^»^bW5»* town, capital of the 
ethical and physical effects are indis- island of St Croix. Danish West Indies, 
Bolubly connected.' As a religious teach- ^ith a good harbor and some trade, 
ing. Christian Science is presented as the ^op. about 6000. 

restoration of original Christianity, with r!hriftflfl.nRllTli1 (-stmd), a seaport 
its absolutely spiritual understanding of ^^"^»''A»*"*^** town on the N. W. 
all true being, and its consequent power coast of Norway, 82 miles B. w. of 
over all unspiritual conditions, including Trondhjem, on three islands which inclose 
disease. As a religious movement, Chris- its beautiful landlocked harbor, with a 
tian Science is notable for the rapidity trade in dried and salted fish. Pop. 
of its growth. The First Church of 11,982. 

Christ, Scientist, was organized in 1879 Christina (kris-t6'na). Queen of Swe- 
at Boston. In 1914 there were over 1400 ^*** *•'•'***■• den, daughter of Gustavus 
Christian Science churches or societies. Adolphus, bom in 1026; died in 1689. 
A majority of these are located in the After the death of Gustavus, at Ltttzen, in 
United States, but they are numerous 1032, the states-general appointed guar- 
wherever the English language is spoken, dians to the Queen Christina, then but 
and a considerable number are to be "^^ years old. Her education was oon- 
fonnd in foreign countries. The Christian tinned according to the plan of Gustavus 
Science Church is distinctive because it Adolphus. She learned the ancient Ian- 
does not employ rites or ceremonies, and i^Affes, history, geography, politics, and 
does not rely on the personality of renounced the pleasures of her age in 

{)reachers. Each church of this denom- order to devote nerself entirely to study, 
nation elects two readers from its mem- ^^ 10^ she took upon herself the govern- 
hers for stated terms, who conduct its vienL A great talent for business, and 
services. On Sundays they read a 'les- p^&t firmness of purpose, distinguished 
son-sermon' composed of selections from ^^^ ^^^t steps. She terminated the war 
the Bible and from Science and Health ^^ Denmark begun in 1644, and ob- 
With Key to the Scriptures, by Mrs. tained several provinces by the treaty 
Eddy. These lesson-sermons are uniform concluded at Bromsebro in 1645. Her 
throughout the world. The remainder of >ubJects wished that she should choose a 
a Sunday service consists of hymns, a husband, but she manifested a constant 
solo, silent prayer, and a responsive read- aversion to marriage. During this time 
ing from the Bible. Wednesday evening ^^^ patronage of learned men, artists, 
meetings include testimonies of Christian ^^^ ^^^ l^ke was lavish. In 1650 she 
Science healing from voluntary speakers, caused herself to be crowned with great 
CTlriafmns of Sf TaTih a sect of Pomp, and with the titie of king. Prom 
l^nnsiians OI »X. JOnn, religion- *^** ^™« » striking change in her con- 
ists found in Asiatic Turkey, chiefly in ^"ct was perceptible. She neglected her 
the neighborhood of Bassora. They pro- ancient ministers, and listened to the 
fess to follow the teaching of John the advice of ambitious favorites. Intrigues 
Baptist and are wrongly called Chris- and base passions succeeded to her 
tians since they reject Christ, and are former noble and useful vi^ws. The 
practically heathen, whose deities are Public treasuri was squande:^ with ev 
darkness and light. Also called Zabians. travagant profusion. In 1^4 she abdl- of Sf T li n m o s S.**®^ *^ ^*^^^ of her cousin Charles 
unrisuaus OI ox. A n O m a S, Gustavus. reserving to herself a certain 

or Stbian Chxtbch of India, the name of income, entire independence, and full 
a sect of Christians on the coast of Mala- Power over her suite and household. A 
bar, in India, numbering some 500.000. ^^^ days after she left Sweden and went 
The church is doubtiess an offshoot of the to Brussels, where she made a public 
Nestorian Church of Persia, transplanted entry nnd remained for some time. There 
to India about the beginning of the sixth "^^ made a secret profession of the 
century. The yoke of Rome was thrown Catholic religion, which she afterwards 
off in 16S8. pablidy connrmed in Innsbruck. From 

Ghiistison ChriBtophe 

Innabruck she nent to Rome, which she out ChriBtendom it is kept as a holiday 
entered un horseback in the coatume uf and occasioa of social enjoyment. 

1 Amazon, with great pomp. When the modern timea it ia the most widely 

I'ope Alexander Vll confirmed her she obaerved of all feetivala, extending 

adapted the surname of Aiessandra. for throaKhout Christendom and being a 

some time sbe resided at Paris, and in- eeason of good fare, present giving and 

curred great odium by the execution of family reunion. 

aer Italian equerry Monaldeschi (or be- ClUTStmaS BoxeS, ^°'^ > ^^^^ 
trayal of eonhdence. Subsequently at- "■'"■"•'■'"*•" ■"''j^»'"i presents were de- 
tempts which sbe made to resume tbe posited at ChrigtmaH ; hence a Christmas 
crown of Sweden failed, and she spent gift. The custom of bestowing Cbrist- 
the rest of her life in artistic and other mas boxes arose in the early days of the 
studies at Rome. She left an immense church, when boxes were placed in the 
set collection and a large number of churches for tbe reception of ofleiings ; 
valuable MSS. Her writings were col- these boxes were opened on Christmas 
lected and published in 1T52. Dsy, and their conlents distributed by 
r>)ri«itiaAn (kris'ti-sun), SiB Bobebt, the priests on the morrow (boiiiis day). 
UnnSXlSOn an eminent physician, bom ClnHlltmaa fiftHa ornamental cards 
at Edinburgh 1797; died 1882. A special- ^*tJ-^of,uia.a oaius, containing word* 
ist Id toxicology, be was appointed to the of Christmas greeting to friaods to whom 
chair of medicsl jurisprudence in Edin- they are sent. The first of them ap- 
burgh, in 1822, aod in 1832 be was peared about 1802, and consisted of 
promoted to that of materia medica. Me pictures of robins, holly, etc. ; since then 
was twice president of the Boyal College highly artistic designs bave been liitro- 
of Physicians, president of the Royal duced, and their manufacture is con- 
Society of Scotland, and ordinary phy- aiderable in the United States, Qermany, 
sician to the Queen in Scotland. He was France and England. Immense quan- 
D.C.L. of Oxford and LL.D. of Edin- titieB of them pass through the poatoffice 
burgh, and was elected rector of the lat- every Christmas, 

ter university in 1S80. P,hri«.tmn» C.arrH ■> carol or song 

ChriatmaS Cfrrn'mas). the festival of t'iinSXmaS l^arOl, fl^a<.riptive of thS 

vnriatman ^^^ Christian Church ob- birth of Christ, of incidents connected 

served annually on December 25th in with it, sung specially at Christmas, 

memory of the birth of Christ, and cele- Christmas RoSC. **i^ ^A}''J^ 

brated by a particular church service, v"*-^"*"**" .w«ov, ^^^^ (black hel- 

The time when the festival was first lebore), so called 

observed is not known with certainty; from its flower, 

but it Is spoken of in the beginning of tbe which resembles a 

third century by Clement of Alexandria; Isrge white single 

in the Istter part of tbe fourth ceotory rose ; its foliage is i 

Cbrysostom speaks of it as of great dark and evergre . ., 

antiquity. As to tbe day on which it and the plant bloa- 

was celebrated, there was long consider- soms during the 

able diversity, but by the time of Cbrysos- ter moutbs. 


I the Western Church had fixed i 

' ler moutDS. ^ 

A^Kth of De'cemhef,"thongh"no~certain CllristmaS TtCC, i 

'   T Christ's birth a small fir-tree I 

 ' ■[ lighted up by means r 

knowledge of the day of Christ's birth i 

existed. The Eastern Church, which 1 „, _, 

previously had generally favored the 6tb of tiny candles 

of January, gradually adopted the same colored wax or small ChriMmu Bom (Hii- 
date. Many believe that the existence of Chinese lanterns, IMnutn^B-). 
heathen festivals celebrsted on or about ornamented with 
this day had great inSnence on its being flags, tinsel, ornaments, etc., and hnng 
selected ; snd the Brumalia. a Roman all over with gifts for children. 
festival held at the winter solstice, when niitnnf nlnenr (kris-tol'o-ji) , that brancli 
the sun Is as it were bom anew, has "-"^^B'-wiUej' of the study of divinity 
often been Instanced as having a strong which deals directly with the doctrine of 
hearing on tbe question. In tbe Roman the person of Christ. 
Csthohc, Greek. Anglicsn and Lutheran f<Ti ri ntnnli f> (kr?B-tof), HBSn, King 
churches there Is a special religions serv- ^"^iSt'OP"" of Hayti, was bom in the 
ice for Christmas Day ; and, contrary West Indies in 1767, and was employed 
to the general rule, a Roman Catholic as a slave in St. Domingo on the out- 
priest can celebrate three masses on this break of the blacks against the French 
day. Most other churches hold special in 1793. From the commencement of ths 
service, hut almost everywhere throngb- troahles he signalized Umietf if Urn 

Christoplier dirominm 

enersy, boldness and activity in many includes girls, is upwards of 1000. The 

bloody engagements. Toussaint-L'Ouver- London School occupied the site of the 

ture gave him the commission of briga- old Greyfriars monastery. Here Camden, 

dier-general, and he was largely instru- Richardson, the novelist, Coleridge, 

mental in driving the French from the Charles Lamb and Leigh Uunt received 

island. After the death of Dessalines their education. 

Christophe became master of the northern niiriflf' a Tlinm the Paliwrug acule- 
part of the island. In 1811 he had him- ^^*"«' » ±iivi:iij a t u 8, a small 
self proclaimed King of Hayti by the thorny shrub, order Rhamnacee, with 
name of Henri I. He also sought to small, shining, ovate leaves and yellow- 
perpetuate his name by the compilation ish-green, clustered flowers. It is com- 
of the Code Henri — a digest founded mon in the southeast of Europe and Asia 
upon the Code Napoleon. His cruelty Minor, and some suppose it to have 
provoked a revolt, which being unable to been the plant from which the Jews 
quell he shot himself, 1820. platted the crown of thorns for oar 
PTiriafnTiliAr (kris' to-fer), St., a Saviour. See also Jujube, 
Xjni^W^OKi: martyr of the early Chromate (krO'mat). See Chrtme 
church, beheaded in Asia Minor, accord- ^"*v*"**»'*' /i-qu Of^ Chrome Tellaw. 
ing to tradition in the year 250. The CliromatlC (kro-matik). in music, a 
Eastern Church celebrates his festival on ^'"* *'■"*«* *»■'•*' term applied to notes and 
the 9th of May, the Western on the peculiarities not belonging to the diatonic 
25th of July. scale. Thus a chromatio chord is a 
PliniafnTiViAT* ST. (commonly called chord which contains a note or notes for- 
VrnnSLUpucry iSt. KUis) a British eign to diatonic progression; chromatio 
island in the West Indies, one of the harmony, harmony consisting of chro- 
Leeward Islands, 23 miles in length, matic chords. The chromatio tcale is a 
and in general about 5 in breadth ; area scale made up of thirteen successive semi- 
68 sq. miles, devoted to sugar and pastur- tones, that is, the eight diatonic tones 
age. The interior consists of many rug- and the five intermediate tones, 
ged precipices and barren mountains. PlirnTnafin PrivifiTKy See Color 
The chief town, a seaport with open road- ^^rOHiaUO rnilUU^. p^^^i^g^ 

stead, is Basse-Terre. The island has a r!lironifl.t'ica ^® science of colon; 

legislature of its own, with an executive ^^^-^^^^^ ^^^^j that part of optics 

subordinate to the governor of the I^e- which treats of the properties of the 

ward Islands, resident in Antigua. It colors of light and of natural bodies, 

was discovered by Columbus in 1493 P'hrn'mA ArpPTi (krOm), the green 

and colonized by the English in 1628. ^-^^""^c \Jlt;cu ^^j^^ ^^ sesquioxide 

Pop. 29,127. of chromium, forming a green pigment 

niiriafn'nTilnft (kres-to-pOlos), Atha- used by enamelers. 

\/Aixxsuu^uxuD N^aiog^ the best of PlirnTni^ Trnn Or#* an ore of chro- 

modem Greek lyric poets, bom in 1772 ^^^""^c vrc, ^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^^ 

at Kastoria, in Macedonia; died 1847. eral of very considerable importance as 

His reputation as a poet rests on his affording chromate of potash, whence are 

Erotika and Bacchika, or Love and obtained various other preparations of 

Drinking Songs, which have been sev- this metal used in the arts, 

eral times collected and printed under r!liroTnA.«f aaI a steel in which the 

the title of Lyrika, He is also the au- ^^™™^C SlCCl, carbon is partly or 

thor of an ^olian-Dorio Grammar, and wholly replaced by chromium. It is 

translated into modem Greek parts of the asserted tnat this will bear a higher 

IHad and of Herodotus. degree of heat than ordinary steel, and 

Uliriaf 'a TTn«nifii.1 (generally known is less likely to become oxidized, or 

vnns^ S AOSpil^iU ^y ^^ ^^^^ ^j , ^^^^^, ^ working, and also rolls mnch 

Blue-Coat School, the title having refer- more smoothly than ordinary steel, 
ence to the costume of the children PTirnmA "Vpllnixr a chromate of lead, 
educated there), a school in London, ^^™"^C iciiuw, ^ beautiful pig- 
founded by Edward VI for supporting ment, varying in shade from deep orange 
poor orphans. Its present income is to very pale canary yellow, much used 
about $350,000 annually; the education in the arts. 

is essentially classical, but modern Gliroinilim (kr5'mi-um; chemical 

languages, literature, etc., are also taught. ^"-^ v-**" »*•»" symbol. Cr; atomic 

There is a mathematical school attached, weight, 52.4), a metal which forms very 

and scholarships are given either to Ox- hard, steel-gray masses : it never occurs 

ford or Cambridge. The average num- native, but may be obtained by reducinf 

her of pupils in London and at the the oxide. In its highest degree of oxi- 

preparatory school at Hertford, which dation it forms a compound of a mby* 

ChronioIitliograplLy Glironograpli 

red color. By itself it has received no niiroilic (kronlk; from Greek ckro* 
practical applications. It takes its name ^*** *'*"*' ^q^^ time), a term applied U 
from the various and beautiful colors diseases which are inveterate or of long 
which its oxide and acid communicate to continuance, in distinction to acute dis* 
minerals into whose composition they en- eases, which speedily terminate, 
ter. It is the coloring matter of the em- ChTOnicle (l^Po^'^~l^)t A history di- 
erald and beryl. Chromium is employed ^*"v"*^*^ gested according to the 
to give a fine deep green to the enamel order of time. In this sense it differs 
of porcelain, to glass, etc. The oxide of but little from annala. The term is 
chromium is of a bright grass-green or - mostly used in reference to the old his- 
pale-yellow color. This element was orig- tories of nations written when they were 
inallT discovered in 1797 by Vauquelin, comparatively rude. The histories writ- 
in tne native chromate of lead of Si- ten in the middle ages, some in verse, 
beria. some in prope, are known as chronicles. 

Pli'PA'mAliflincrra'n'hir (kr5'm&-lith- Well-known examples are the works of 
l^iironi011ino^a.pajr og' ra- fi). a Froissart, Monstrelet, Fabian, Hardy ng, 
method of producing a colored or tinted Hall, Hollinshed, Stowe and Baker, 
lithographic picture by using various Chron'iclea ^ooKB OF, two books of 
stones having different portions of the ^"^^"' *^a*5o> ^jjg qj^ Testament which 
picture drawn upon them with inks of formed only one book in the Hebrew 
various colors and so arranged as to canon, in which it is placed last Its 
blend into a complete picture. Some- division into two parts is the work of 
times as many as twenty different colors the Seventy, (See Septuagint.) The 
are employed. In printing, the lighter Hebrew name means 'acts of the days,' 
shades are printed off first and the dark- and is thus much the same as our 
est last. In the three-color process the 'journals.' The title ^ven to it by the 
use of the three primary colors suffices Seventy was Paraleipomena, meaning 
for all shades, and it is done on a print- ' things omitted.' The name Chronicles 
ing press with photo-electrotypes instead was given to it by Jerome. The book 
of stones. is one of the latest compositions of the 

ChromOSTlliere (kr0'm5-sfer), the Old Testament, and is supposed to have 
\/uj.vAuv0j/u^Aw name given to the been written by the same hand as Ezra 
gaseous envelope which exists round the and Nehemiah. According to its contents 
body of the sun, through which the light the book forms three great parts: — 1, 
of the photosphere, an inner envelope of genealogical tables; 2, the history uf the 
incandescent matter, passes. During total reigns of David and Solomon; 3, the 
eclipses it had been observed that a red- history of the kingdom of Judah from the 
colored envelope surrounded the sun, separation under Kehoboam to the Baby- 
shooting up to great distances from the Ionian captivity, with a notice in the last 
surface, it seems to have been first rec- two verses of the permission granted by 
ognized by Secchi ; and the projecting por- Cyrus to the exiles to return home and 
tions of it are commonly described as rebuild their temple. The Chronicles 
' red-colored protuberances ' and ' red present many points of contact with the 
flames.' To this red envelope the name earlier Scriptures, historical and pro- 
ehromoaphere was given by Mr. Lockyer. phetical, more especially, however, with 
The light from it is mucn fainter than the books of Samuel and of Kings, 
that from the photosphere; and till 1868, ClirOIIOPraill (l^rou'd-gram), a device 
when M. Janssei and Mr. Lockyer al- ^•****'**V6 *•""*** by which a date is 
most simultaneously pointed out a given in numeral letters by selecting cer- 
method of viewing it, it was never seen tain letters of an inscription and printing 
except during eclipses. The chromo- them larger than the others, as in the 
sphere and its prominences, when exam- motto of a medal struck by Gustavus 
ined with the telespectroscope, exhibit a Adolphus in 1632 :— Christ Vs DVX ; 
spectrum of bright lines, due to incan- ergo trlVMph Vs; where the values of 
descent gases. The most elevated por- C and the other capitals regarded as Ro- 
tions consist entirely or almost entirely man numerals gives the required figure 
of hydrogen, the lightest of the gases, when added together. 
Lower down are found the gases or va- GhTOnO&TaDll (l^^on'O-graf), the namt 
pors of the heavier metals — of sodium, o * given to various de^ 

magnesium, barium, iron and others, vices for measuring and registering very 
The lower the layer of the chromosphere minute portions of time with extreme 
examined the more densely is the spec- precision. Benson's chronograph is, in 
tram filled with lines of metals, and in principle, a lever watch with a double 
the prominences the red hydrogen flames sectmd hand, the one superimposed on 
tower high above alL the other. The outer end of the lower^ 

Chronology Chrysanthemnm 

most hand has a small cup filled with differs from the ordinary watch in the 

a black viscid fluid, with a minute hole principle of its escapement, which is so 

at the bottom, while the correspond- constructed that the oalance is free from 

ing end of the appermost is bent down the wheels during the greater part of its 

so as just to reach the hole. At the vibration, and also in being fitted with a 

starting (say) of a horse race, the ob- 'compensation adjustment,*^ calculated to 

server pulls a string, whereupon the bent prevent the expansion and contraction of 

end of the upper hand passes through the metal b^ the action of heat and cold 

the hole and makes a black mark on the from affecting its movements. Marine 

dial, instantly rebounding. Again, as -chronometers ||enerally beat half-seconds, 

each horse passes the winning-post the and are hung m gimbals in boxes 6 to 8 

string is redrawn and a dot made, and inches square. The pocket chronometer 

thus the time occupied by each horse is does not differ in appearance from a 

noted. This chronograph registers to one- watch except that it is somewhat larger, 

tenth of a second. Strange's chrono- GIlTOIIOSCOTie (kron'O-skOp), an in- 

graph is connected with the pendulum ^'*" v***'®*'^!'** strument for measur- 

of an astronomical clock, which makes a ing the duration of extremely short-lived 

mark on a sheet of paper at the begin- phenomena, such as the electric spark: 

ning and end of each swing. By touch- more especially the name given instrn- 

ing a spring on the appearance (say) of meats of various forms for measuring the 

a particular star in the field of a tele- velocity of projectiles, 

scope, an additional dot is made inter- Chmdiin i^^*^^^)f ^ town of Bohe- 

mediate between the two extreme ones, ^'*** *****<"* mia, 62 miles s. B. of 

and by measuring the distance of this Prague, with some manufactures and 

from either of these extremes the exact large horse-markets. Pop. 13,017. 

time can be ascertained to one-hundredth ClirvS&lis (l^ris'a'li8)t & form which 

of a second. Schnitzels chronograph, in ^*** J »«***• butterflies, moths, flies, and 

which electricity is applied, is yet far other insects assume when they change 

more precise, registering time to the five- from the state of larva or caterpillar and 

hundred-thousandth part of a second. before they arrive at their winged or 

Cliroiiolofirv C^^on-ord-jl; Gr. ohro' perfect state. In the chrysalis form the 

oJ^ no9f time, and logoa. animal isin a state of rest or insensi- 
discourse), the science which treats of 
time, ana has for its object the arrange- 
ment and exhibition of historical events 
in order of time and the ascertaining of 
the intervals between them. Its basis is 
necessarily the method of measuring or 
computing time by regular divisions or 
periods, according to the revolutions of 
the earth or moon. The motions of these 
bodies produce the natural division of 
time into years, months and days. As 

there can be no exact computation of i, 2,Chrywai» of the White Butterflyniioth ; «. 

time or placing of events without a Palpi or feelen; b 6, winc-caees; sucker; « c, eyes: 

fixed point from which to start, dates » «t antemue. 3, Chryaalis of the Oak Eaer> 

are fixed from an arbitrary point or »oth. 

epoch, which forms the beginning of an bility, and exists without nutriment, the 
era. The more important of these are lenath of time varying with the species 
the creation of the world among the anof season. During this period an 
Jews ; the birth of Christ among Chris- elaboration is going on in the interior of 
tians ; the Olympiads among the Greeks ; the chrysalis, giving to the organs of the 
the building of Rome among the Ho- future animal their proper development, 
mans; the Hejira, or flight of Moham- ChrvSRlltlieTniini ^kris-an'the-mumK 
med, among the Mohammedans, etc. See ^"■*Jo«*"*'"^'***«*^** a large genus of 
Epoch, Calendar. composite plants, consisting of herbs or 
Chronometer (kron-om'e-t*r), any shrubs with single, large-stalked, yellow 
wMAWMv.tM^vw« instrument that meas- flowers or with many small flowers; the 
nres time, as a clock, watch, or dial ; but, rays are sometimes white. The chrysan- 
speciflcally, this term is applied to those themum of gardens is a Chinese half- 
timekeepers which are used for determin- shrubby plant (C. Binenge), whose nn- 
ing the longitude at sea. or for any other merous varieties constitute one of the 
purpos* where an accurate measure of chief ornaments of our American gar- 
time is required, with great portability dens in October, November and Decem- 
in tfaa instrument. The chronometer ber. The ox-eyed daisy 0, Loucantheinim 

Chryselephantine ' Chrysostom 

and the com-marigold, (7. BegHum, are father, who had the command of the 

common weeds in Europe. imperial troops in Syria, died soon after 

Chryselephantine (tris-el-e-fan'tm ; the birth of his son, whose early educa- 

w«Mj»v«^^MHia«.vAMv Qj.^ ^ ]iji.ygog^ tion devolved upon Anthasa, his mother. 

^old; elephaSf ivory), made of gold and Chrysostom studied eloquence with 

iTory combined, a term applied to statues Libanius, the most famous orator of his 

executed in these two substances by the time, and soon excelled his master. After 

ancient Greeks, as Pheidias' great statue having studied philosophy with Andra- 

of Athena. gathius he devoted himself to the Holy 

Chrvsinnns (^^-slp'us), an ancient Scriptures, and determined upon quitting 

J^ x'l'**^ Greek philosopher belong- the world and consecrating his life to 

ing to Cilicia, lived about B.c. 282-209. God in the deserts of Syria. He spent 

He was the principal opponent of the several years in solitary retirement. 

Epicureans, and is said to have written studying and meditating with a view to 

700 different works, mostly of a dialecti- the church. Having completed bis vol- 

cal character; but only a variety of untary probation he returned to Antioch 

fragments are extant. in 381, when he was appointed deacon by 

Chrvsohervl (kris'O-ber-il; some- the Bishop of Antioch, and in 386 con- 

\/uAjrovucxjrx ^imeg called nymo- seciated priest. He was chosen vicar by 

phane, and, by the jewelers, oriental the same dignitary, and commissioned to 

chryaoUie), a gem, of a pale yellowish- preach the Word of God to the people, 

green color, usually found in round pieces lie became so celebrated for the elo- 

about the size of a pea, but also crystal- quence of his preaching that the Emperor 

lized in eight-sided prisms. It is an Arcadius determined, in 397, to place him 

aluminate of beryllium, is next to the in the archiepiscopal see of Constan- 

sapphire in hardness, and is employed in tinople. He now exerted himself so 

jewelry, the specimens which present an zealously in repressing heresy, paganism 

opalescent play of light being especially and immorality, and in enforcing the obli- 

admired. gations of monachism, thnt he raised up 

Chrvsolite (kris'O-Ut), a mineral many enemies, and Theophilus, patriarch 

viujTDvxxifC composed of silica, mag- of Alexandria, aided and encouraged by 

nesium and iron. Its prevailing color the Empress Eudoxia, caused him to be 

is some shade of green. It is harder than deposed at a synod held at Ghalcedon* 

glass, but less hard than quartz ; often The emperor banished him from Gonstan- 

transparent, sometimes only translucent, tinople, and Ghrysostom purposed retlr- 

Very fine specimens are found in Egypt ing to Bithynia; but the people tfareat- 

and Brazil, but it is not of high repute ened a revolt. In the following night 

as a* jeweler's stone. an earthquake gave general alarm. In 

PTi-rvsnlnroQ (kris-o-lo'ras), MANUEL, this dilemma Arcadius recalled his orders, 

\/arysuiuxu.» ^ distinguished Greek of and Eudoxia herself invited Chrysostom 

Constantinople, born the middle of the to return. The people accompanied him 

fourteenth century ; died in 1415. He triumphantly to the citr. his enemies fled, 

settled as a teacher of Greek literature and peace was restored, but only for a 

at Florence, about 1395. He also tauf^ht short time. A feast given by the empress 

at Milan, Pavia and Rome, thus becoming on the consecration of a statue, and 

a chief promoter of the great revival of attended with many heathen ceremonies, 

learning. roused the zeal of the archbishop, who 

nTirvso-nTioTi^iP A mil the yellow publicly exclaimed against it; and 

Vrnrysopnan IC ilClU, coloring mat- Eudoxia, violently incensed, recalled the 

ter of rhubarb. With potash it gives prelates devoted to her will, and Chrysos- 

a fine purple solution, and thus affords a torn was condemned and exiled to 

delicate test for the presence of alkalies. Armenia. Here he continued to exert his 

C!1irVB^ (-pras), a kind of pious zeal until the emperor ordered him 

viujfp vj^iaac quartz, being merely a to be conveyed to a town on the most 

variety of chalcedony. Its color is com- distant shore of the Black Sea. Tl^ 

monly apple-green, and often extremely officers who had him in charge obliged 

beautiful, so that it is much esteemed in the old man to perform his journey on 

jewelry. It is translucent, or sometimes foot, and he died at Comana, by the wav. 

semitransparent, and of a hardness little Here he was buried ; but in 438 his body 

inferior to that of flint. was conveyed solemnly to Constantinople. 

rTi'rrrana'fATn (kris'os-tom), John, St. and there interred in the Church of the 

\;iir jr BUB tuiu (•golden -mouthed'), a Apostles, in the sepulcher of the emperor, 

celebrated Greek rather of the church. At a later period his remains were 

bom in Antioch about a.d. 344; died at placed in the Vatican at Rome. The 

Comana in Pontus in 407. Secundus, his Greek Church celebrates his feast on the 

Chub ChnrcH 

13th of November, tie Romui on the coleined Bhells or from very pure iime- 
27th of January. His worka, which stoue, and used tor chewing with beteL 
coneiit of aermot*, commentaries aud nhiinnr (chun'Ar), a town and fort- 
treatUes, abound «ith information sa to """"•** reus, of Hindustan, 26 mile« 
the manners a^d characteriatica of hia aouthweat of Benares, on the Qaugea. 
age. The fortreaa standa on a lofty rock Ha- 

Chub " European river fiah, of the ing abruptly from the river. Pop. 992tt 

» genua Cuprlaua or carpa ; or, PhTITIC-lTiflTKr ■" importsnt «om- 

aa Bome regard it, of the subgenus '^"'^"6 ■»».i<»'"e) merdal city of China. 

J.tucitcui (i. cephaiut). Tbe body ia on the Yang-tae-Kiang, at its couSuence 

oblong, rearly round ; the bead and back vrith the Kia-ling. Pop. 800,000. 

green, sides silvery, and the belly riiiinrnli n-r CihanTa (cbup'rA), a 

white. It freqnenta deep holeaJn riTeri ^^Iprail Or l/Iiapra \^^^ „,'in„. 

dustau on an affluent of the Ganxes. Htn 

an active commerce. Pop. 4S,QW. 

^ " a city of South America. 

the capital of Bolivia; well situated on 

a plateau between the Amaion and 14 

Plata rivers. dSi'd feet above aea-leveL 

It has a cathedral and a university. It 

Onib (CnKinu UMciKw opUlw). Was founded by one of Pizarro'a officers 

in 1S39. Pop. formerly 27,000, now 

■haded by trees, but in warm weather estimated 12,000. — The province of 

floats near tbe surface, and furnishes Cbuquiaaca bas an area of 26,410 square 

sport for anglers. It is indifferent food, miles; a pup. of 300,000. 

and rarely attains the weight of S Iba. Gblir '^^'^- ^^^ *^s^ita] of the Swiss 

Allied AmericaiL species receive the — "" .■nninn nf ni-ionno a^^ i^~'» 

though eniBged as a glover and diandler, community of Christiana, and was thus 
be gave hia chief attention to philosopb- Qsed by the New Testament vrriters. In 
ical and theological study, and waa ™0'% restricted eiguiflcations It denotes  
celebrated In the Arlan controversy for par Ocnlar section of tile ChristlBa com 
bis argumentative keenness. In this con- 
nection be published in 1T15 The 8u- 
premacy of the Father Aiterted, besides 
various other moral and theological tracts. 

Chubb Lock, Jh''**^Mme "of'^ft8''^i" 

TenloF, a London locksmith. It bas more 
tumblers than usual, witb the addition 
of a lever called the detector, which is so 
filed that while It does not act under tbe 
ordinary application of the key. it cannot 
fall lo move if any one of the tumblers 
be lifted a little too bich. hh must be the 
case In an/ attempt at pickinc. Tbis 
movement nies the bolt immovHblv, and 
renders all further attempts at picking 

Chuck Will's Widow, SamTu 

the United Sfat»H for a bird of tbe jtoat- 
Bucker family. Anlroitdmu* caroUnenaia, 
BO called from its crv. 

w. IlindUKtan. which rises 
Id the Yladbva Mountains, and falls into 
tbe Jomua about 80 mil"s southeast of . „ 

Asra. after a course of BSO milea. rt, ' ^  . ^ - ^ ^ , 

Chtmam i^X^a^r'^name ^VVn £%' P^t^ " "d""^-SSw.'- T §^"".1 jV* * ^ 
mj fine ktod'of" q" ic"l^me S S?om t^Z^""- '■ """"■ '*■ "^ -"*-* 

Clmroli Chnrcliing of Women 

munity differing in doctrinal matters Alexandria, Origen, Easebius, Athanasias 

from the remainder, as the Roman Oath- and Chrysostom. The most distinguished 

olic Church, the Protestant Church, among the Latin fathers are Tertnllian, 

etc. ; or to designate the recognized leading Augustine, Ambrose and Jerome. 

^ j,«l A ^ Churchill (church'Ul), Charles, an 

|F   .■ If uauri/iuu English poet and satir- 

■^_JL 4 ^ ^ JUhKJti# ^^^ ^^^ hoTR in 1731, and died in 1764. 

Tl^jr n^Ai^^ ^ early and imprudent marriage was 

%*!! • y II followed by his admission to holy orders. 

(■■■Ip *  * jE».«|kBi|^ In 1761 he published anonymously a 

^^^ ° Bl poem called The Rosciad, a clever satire 

^■^f-^^^P"^ on the chief actors of the day, and The 

I' 3 Apology, a reply to his critics. A course 

mM^M «, m -m of dissipation and intemperance followed, 

*^*' ^ * . .. «v ^ '**" which excited much animadversion, and 

Plan of Wip Church. elicited from him his satire. Night. 

A A. ChMoel. B, Nave. c. North aule. d. Churchill now threw asidp all rPffard for 

South aisle. ■, North door, r. South porch, o, J;^aurcmu now lorew asiae au regara ror 

Tower, b. West door. 1»« profession, and became a complete 

church of a nation, as the EngUsh, Scotch, "S^^^^^^^^U^T^ S\t ^ntSIr^^^]SI'£fil^Ta 

or French Church. In yet another sense ^^^L^^'^^^ah^l^ 'rl-, P?J«k2n.V^«5 

it signifies the edifice appropriated to "^^k^de ^^ .,^*,2%£^?. ^^f ^^^^ «/ 

Christian worship. After the conversion n^^'^'A^V^^^Jfy,^^ «,^ 

of Constantine the basilicie or public halls Churchlll, ^^);™ Hnnn J .o^J 

and courts of judicature and some of the ^, .., t^A^^^J^??* s^cojid son p£ 

heathen temples were consecrated as i^q'."i^H^n 1 fiq%^ W^4'V*^hIH'5JS 

Christian churches. When churches 1849 . died in 1895. By 1884 he had risen 

^me to be specially built for Christian I?,I^?,P21'*^^^/,^^%^|lX^^« Conseira- 

worship their lorms were various-round, ^^/^Xv^n InS ^t^i-hi^JS*" }j^^^ 

octagonal, etc. Later on the form with ««cretary m Lord Salisbury s govern- 

^ecT^ aisle or transept {cruciform gf,f ; 95o?V^h.^r!lhn/ w«™iT?Jf ^?f 

churches) became common. Early ferit- f^l^ Hn,?«^ ^f ^nJJ^^m£-^^-^? n^^^^ 

ish churches were built of wood ; the first S« *S^"^1«?! ^™T^^ *°^ S^°J®^i2' 

stone churches erected being that of ^i^^^f f ?f 32" f ' ^"^ resigned at the 

^af 0^^^?;.?^%^^^^^^^^ chircm^^^^ ir^^ 

cZrl^^eSl^rrh^^rSor^^^^^^ Missouri, No^eXri^^fsn? ^^d^a^tS 

tion is common in Enriand and will ** "*® Naval Academy, Annapolis, but 

»nnMp thp r^nilpr tn iindpr<«tnnrl fh«» tprma devoted himself to literature. His novels 
Innlild tS the varioSs D^^^^^^ /2tc/wrrf Carvel (1899), The 

C^tAldral^/ Ge"erallv^^s^^^^^ an? 9r^^ (^^D* ^*^ OrosHng (1904), 

is called a church, though when of a 1, •'•- .„ xxr^^„^^„ t «««*«« G.«.«r 

minor kind it is usually designated a ChurchlU, ]^P®Til J^^J^f ^fJS 
chapel The term church, however, is of- "^ , , ' "^^^i/^^^!^ ^.^«^w^^ 

ten restricted to the buildings for worship J^^^^<^^?J ^'^^^^'S^Ik' ^^ ?T*^t^?2f 

connected with a natioual establishment, l^^^- ^e joined the army and took part 

They are classed as cathedral, when con- i^"."™**^^ ^^ important operations. In 

tainlng a bishop's throne; collegiate, )^.^^^ ^^"^^l^.^^'^^i^^ ^S ^^l^^ 

when served by a dean and chapter; ^^^^^ *? Asquith s cabinet. In 1910 he 

conventual or tnineter, when connected was made Home Secretary ; m 1912 First 

with a convent or monastery : abbey or ^^^^ ^^ the Admiralty, sorving through a 

priory, when under an abbot or prior; part of the Great War. Ho was appointed 

and parochial, when the charge of a secu- niinister of munitions in 191b. 

lar priest See Christianity, Greek PliTirnliill Pwpr a river of the 

Church, etc. UnurCillll XWVer, Northwest Ter- 

Church Fathers of the {patres ritories of Canada, which rises in La 
' eccleHfs), teachers and Crosse Lake, forms or passes through 
writers of the ancient church who flour- various lakes or lake-like expansions, 
ished after the time of the apostles and and enters Hudson Bay after a north- 
apostolic fathers (the immediate disciples easterly course of about 8(X) miles. It is 
of the apostles), from the second to the called also Missinnipoi or English river, 
sixth century. The most celebrated ,rT«Ti rnlii Tier nf WoTTl en a form of 
»mong the Grs^k fathers are Clement of 'i^nlircnillg: 01 WOmen, thanksgiv- 

Chnrcli-rate Gibber 

ing after childbirth, adopted from the sidered as the key of China, and was 
Jewish ceremony of purification, and prac- temporarily taken possession of by the 
tised still in the Koman Catholic and British in 1840, 1841 and 1860. The 
Anglican churches, the latter having a sacred island of Pu-tu to the east of the 
special service in the Prayer Book. above is covered with Buddhist templeq, 

r.liiirnli.raf«k in England a rate monasteries, etc., and is entirely in- 
Vraurcu rate, ^^j^^ j^y ^solution of habited by priests. 

a majority of the parishioners in vestry Chii tift UTa^Dlir ®^ Chota Naff 
assembled^ from the occupiers of land and ^'** **"*«* *^**81r»*** pore, 
houses within a parish, for the purpose ClllltlLV ^^ Chutneb (chut'ne), in 
of maintaining the church and its services. ^•** •*•'**•/> the East Indies a condiment 
In 1868 an act was passed abolishing compounded of sweets and acids. Ripe 
compulsory church-rates, except such as, fruit (mangoes, raisins^ etc.), spices, soup 
under the name of church-rates, were herbs, cayenne, lemon-juice, are the ordi- 
applicable to secular purposes. nary ingredients* They are pounded and 

P.'liiiTAli-«i7a'rilATia (church-war'dens), boiled together, and then bottliMl for use. 
UnUTCILWaraeiLS officers, generally Chvle (J^^)* i^ physiology, a white or 
two for each parish in England, who ^J^^ milky fluid separated from ali- 
superintend the church, its property and ments by means of digestion. Chyle is 
concerns. They are annually chosen by found in the intestines after the food has 
the minister and parishioners, according been mixed with the bile and pancreatic 
to the custom of each parish. juice. It is absorbed by the lacteal ves- 

ChllTebva.rd (church'v&rd). ground sels, terminating in the inner surface of 
\/uuxuiijraixu ^ which dead are bur- the small intestines, chiefly the jejunum, 
iedy adjoining a church. and thence passes by numerous converg- 

ITkTi'rnli^va'rii Haa^Ia the Blapg ing streams into the main trunk of the 
V^auruu yaru J^CCUC, ^ortisdga, a absorbent system, called the thoracic duct, 
very common insect found in dark, damp through which it is gradually poured into 
and dirty places ; it is black, but little the blood of the left subclavian vein at a 
shining, and the tip of the elytra forms a short distance before it enters the right 
short, obtuse point. side of the heart. The chemical con- 

Chnm ^ vessel in which milk or stituents of chyle are nearly the same as 

' cream is agitated, to separate those of the blood itself, 
the oily globules from other parts and Cbvilie ^^^°^)* ^^^^ after it has been 
gather them as butter. In the older forms ^ digested in the stomach. In 

a plunger worked vertically in a tub ; in the stomach It forms a pulpy mass which 
some of the modem forms dashers are passes on into the small intestine, and be- 
tumed by a crank, while in others the lUfiT acted on by the bile, pancreatic fluid 
tub itself is swung to and fro, causing and intestinal juice, is separated into 
the milk to dash against the ends and chyle and non-nutritious matters, which 
sides. In the combined chum and butter- latter are carried off by the evacuations, 
worker the butter can be partly or wholly Clbber (s^h'ber). Collet, a dramatic 
worked after the buttermilk is drawn off; ^* *'"*'•*■ writer and actor, bom at Lon- 
it is operated by power and used to con- don in 1671 ; died in 1757. Ue took to 
siderable extent in creameries. the stage in 1689. His first dramatic 

ChlirTTia Spp Charraa effort, Love's Last Shift, appeared in 

l/UUrras. see {yuarras. ^g^g. ^^^ j^ ^^^ followed by Voman't 

nTinmTiilftAn (chu-rn-bus'ko), a vil- Wit, the Careless Husband and the Von- 
vuuiTUUUSi/U ^ Q „jiigg g ^^ y^^^^^ ^j ^jjj^.jj ^g HypocHie of the mod- 

Mexico, the scene of a battle between the em stage is a new version. A court pen- 
Mexicans under Santa Anna and the sion and the appointment of poot-laureate 
Americans under Scott, Aug. 20, 1847, drew upon him the rancor of the wits 
in which the former were defeated. and poets of the day, including Pope. He 

Chugan Islands, ^.niSSdVcn^S? "Sr^S^rllu^y t"''^%VTS'o^ 

east coast of China, the largest in the Cither, etc. — His son Theophilijs, bom 
archipelago having the name Cbusan, and in 1703 ; drowned in his passage to Ire- 
being about 21 miles long, and from 6 to land 1757, was an actor and dramatic 
11 broad. Pop. about 200,000. Chief writer. He was much inferior to his 
town Ting-hae, pop. 40.000. Rice and father in capacity. — Susanna Mabia, 
tea are the principal products. Prom its wife of Theophilus Cibber (bora 1716; 
situation near the mouths of the Yang- died 1766), was one of the best actresses 
tse-kiang, which river forms the great on the English stage. She was sister of 
channel of communication with the Dr. Arae (composer of Rule, Britannia), 
capital of the empire, Chnsan is con- who taught her mudc, and introduced her 

(Sbol Cioen 

In one of his opema at the BaymAtket serrins a cami>aigii in tbe Manic war. 

Theater. Handel composed piecea ex- At the age of twenty-five be came for- 

. preMl; adapted to ber voice, and lued to ward as a pleader, and having nndertaken 

Uutmct her in HingicE them. Sbe buI>- tbe defense of Sextus Rosclus. wbo waa 

■egnentlr made ber appearance in trag- accQsed of parricide, procured his acqnit- 

edy, and gained universal admiration. taL He Tlsited 

Garrick is said to have exclaimed, when Greece B.a 76, 

Informed that sbe was dead, ' Then, conversed with the 

tragedy has expired with her,* philosophers of ail 

Cibol (a!'''"' ; Allium fiitulSium), a the acbools, and 

*"'"'* perennial plant of tbe onion profited by the In- 

geuuB, a native of Siberia, with bollow strnction of the 

■tema larger than those of tbe cbive ; masters of orator;. 

used for colinar^ purposes. Here be formed 

CilinTilini (si-bC'ri-nm), In the Bo- that close frlend- 

«/iUUiiuui ^^^ Catholic Church, a ibip with AtUcua 

Und of cnp or cbalice mode of gold or of which hislettera / 

■Uver and containing the bread naed in fnmlah such Inter- ( 

the aacramenb Also a sort of canopy e s 1 1 n f evidence. \ 

orer an altar. He also made - 

He males have o 

a kind of drum, with which they can On bis retom to R< 

make a considerable noise. Tbla, regard- eloquence proved the 

ad as tbe insects' song, was much ad- Instruction, and he 

mired by the ancients, and is freauently most diBtinrutahed or 

referred to by thei> poets. The larzest In B.C. 76 tie was appointed qunator of 

Eoropean speciea are abont an iucb Sidly, and behaved with such justice that 

long, but BOtoe American species are the SiciliaDa gratefully rememberd bim 

mncQ larger, and their note much loader, and requested that he would conduct 

Hhtj are nearly all natives of tiopieal or their salt against their governor Verres. 

warm temperate regions. The female He appeared against this powerful robber, 

has the posterior extremity of tbe abdo- and the crimes of Verres were painted 

men furnisbed with two serrated horny in the liveliest colors in his Immortal 

Elatea, by means of which it pierces tbe speeches. Seven of the Verriue orations 

ranches of trees to deposit its eggs. An are preserved, but only two of them were 

Engliih species (C anglica) is found in delivered, and Verres went into voluntary 

the New Forest. The seventeen years' exile. After this salt Cicero waa elected 

locost (Cicada aeptemieoim) occurs in to the office of eedile, B.O. 70, became 

many parts of the United States. pnetor in 67, and consol in 63. It was 

Cinaln rcbl-knlA^ The ricndn. """^ "'^t ^E succeeded In defeating tbe 

UCaiU ichiMJaj. i-M cicaaa- conspiracy of Catiline (see Catiline). 

Cicelv (^s'e-li), a popular name ap- after whose fall he received greater 

J plied to several umbelliferous honors than had ever before been 

B'tnts. Sweet cicely, or sweet chervil, is bestowed upon a Roman citizen. He 

yrrMi odordfo, a plant common In was hailed as tbe saviour of the state 

Britain and in other parts of Europe, and the father of his country (poreM 

It was formerly used in medicine, and patria), and thanksgivings in his name 

In tome parts of Europe is used as an were voted to tbe gods. But Cicero's 

ingredient In soups. Sweet cicely Is fortune had now reached tbe culmluatiug 

fbnnd in onr woods from Canada to point, and soon waa to decline. The 

Virginia. CatHlDsrian conspirators wbo bad been 

CifierO ("Is'e-rOI, Mabcub Tullids, executed had not been serteuced accord- 

vtvMM.v jijg greateBt of tbe Roman ing to law, and Cicero, as chief magis- 

orators, was bom 106 B.O. at Arpinum. trate, was reeponsible for the irregu- 

Bis family was of equestrian rank, and laritr. Publiua Clodius, tbe tribune of the 

his father, though living In retirement, was people, raised such a storm against him 

a friend of some of the chief public men. that be was obliged to go into exile (B.C. 

He recdved the best education available, 68). On tbe fall of tbe Clodian faction 

■tndled philosophy and law, became he was recalled to Rome, but he never 

(amtliar with Greek literature, and succeeded in regaining the inSuence he 

Mqnired Bome military knowledge from had once possessed. In B.G. S2 he be- 

Cicero Cigar 

came proconsul ot Cilicia, a province (licero ^ residential town in Oook Co.. 
which he administered with eminent sue- ^*-^^^^f Illinois, in the vicinity of Chi- 
cess. As soon as his term of office had cago. Pop. (1920) 44,995. 
expired he returned to Rome (b.c. 49), Cicindela (ai-sin-ddia), a genus of 
which was threatened with serious dis- ^**''«""'***'*«* insects to which C cam- 
turbances owing to the rupture between pestris, the tiger-beetle, one of the most 
Ctesar and Pompey. He espoused the common of American species, belongs, 
cause of Pompey. but after the battle of Giconia. (8i'lc^'i^i~&)f the genus of 
Pharsalia he made his peace with Gssar, ^'-^^"^^ birds to which the stork 
with whom he continued to all appearance belongs. 

friendly, and by whom he was kindly Cicutft (si-kti'ta), a genus of umbel- 
treated, until the assassination of the ^uua liferous plants, including C. 
latter (44 B.C.). He now hoped to regain virCaa, water-hemlock or cowbane. See 
his political influence. The conspirators Hemlock. 
shared with him the honor of an enter^ Cid ^^^^)* ^^ epithet (from the Ar. 

Erise in which no part had been assigned ^^^ aeid, a lord, a chief, a commander) 
im ; and the less he had contributed to applied to Ruy or Roderigo Diaz, 0)unt 
it himself the more anxious was he to of Bivar (bom in 1026; died in 1099), 
justify the deed and pursue the ad van- the national hero of Spain. He signalized 
tages which it offered. Antony having himself bv his exploits in the reigns of 
taken C^sar*8 place, Cicero composed Ferdinand, Sancho and Alphonso VI of 
those admirable orations against him, de- Leon and Castile; but the facts of his 
livered in b.g. 43. which are known to us career have been so mixed with glorifying 
by the name of Philippics (after the myths that it is scarcely possible to 
speeches of Demosthenes against Philip of separate them. His life, however, ap- 
Macedon). His implacable enmity to- ^ears to have been entirely spent in 
wards Antony inducea him to favor young tierce warfare with the Moors, then 
Octavianus, who professed to entertain masters of a great part of Spain. His 
the most friendly feelings towards him. exploits are set forth in a special chron- 
Octavianus, however, havini? possessed icie, and in a (^astillian poem, probably 
himself of the consulate, and formed an composed about the end of the twelfth 
alliance with Antony and Lepidus, Cicero century. The story of his love for 
was proscribed. In endeavoring to escape Ximena is the subject of Le Cid of 
from Tusculum, where he was living Corneille. Whatever chronicles and 
when the news of the proscription ar- songs have conveyed to us of the history 
rived, he was overtaken and murdered by of the Cid is collected in Southe/s 
a party of soldiers; and his head and Chronicle of the Cid. 
hands were publicly exhibited in the for- rj-jJAT (si'dir), a liquor made from the 
um at Rome. He died in his sixty- ^***^* expressed juice of apples. The 
fourth year, B.c. 43. Cicero*s eloquence apples are ground and crushea until they 
has always remained a model. After the re- are reduced to a pulp, the juice is allowed 
vival of learning he was the most admired to run into casks, where it is freely ex* 
of the ancient writers; and the purity posed to the air until fermentation takes 
and elegance of his style will always place, when a clear liquor of a pale-brown 
place him in the first rank of Roman or amber color is the result. It contains 
classics. His works, which are very nu- from 4 to 8 per cent of alcohol. Winter 
merous, consist of orations; pbilosoph- varieties of apples make the most desir- 
ical, rhetorical and moral treatises; and able cider. 

letters to Atticus and other friends. r!ipTifTiA<rna (the-en-f5-&'g08), a sea- 
The Hfe of Cicero was written by Plu- ^A^^^i^CBva ^ ^^ q^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

tarch. and there are modem lives by south coast of the island, with a safe 
Middleton, Forsyth and others. Cicero and capacious harbor on the Bay of 
left a son of the same name by his wife Jagua, 130 miles B. s. of Havana, with 
Terentia. Young Marcus was born in which (and other towns) it is con- 
B.C. 66, was carefully educated, and dis- nee ted by railway. It is among the 
tinguished himself in military service. In finest towns of the island, and exports 
B.C. 30. Octavianus (Augustus) assumed sugar, wax, timber, cocoa, molasses and 
him as his colleague in the consulship, and tobacco. Pop. 82.092. 
he was afterwards governor of Asia or CieZft (the-a'thi), a town of Spein, in 
Syria. — Cicero's younger brother, Qutn- the province and 24 miles n.w. 

TUB, was a man of some note both as a of Murcia, on an eminence near the right 
public character and as a writer. He bank of the Segura. Pop, 13,026. 
was married to a sister of Atticus. and Qr^ST (si-gar')* a small roll of mano- 
was put to death at the same time as ^^B**"^ factured tobacco leaves care- 
tke orator. fully made up, and intended to be 

Cig^arette Cimmerianfl 

•moked by ligbtiiig at one end and draw- Italy, whioh at that time had degenerated 

log the amoke through it. Tbe cboiceat into mechanical coaventionaliam. Hia 

ci(ar8 are those made in and imported beat paintings are in tbe Church of Santa 

from Havana, Cigara ace consumed in Maria Novello at Florence, and in the 
enormouB quantities in America and 
Europe. Medicated cigars, or cigars 
made of aome aubstance having remedial 
pruperties, are often used for certain 
complaiQtB, as ■tramoniam cigars (or 
aalhma. Cheroott are peeuliarly-abaped 
I'iKars mucb thicker at one end than tbe 
otner. and are largely imported from 


cut tobacco in'tbin paper "apeciully pre- 

Kred for tbe purpose. It is now a. 
rorite form with amofcera and immense 
numbers are used. 

Ciemani tche-nytt'ne), Oablo, on 
wagua.UA Italian pamter. born at 
Bologna in ltl28 ; died 1T19; the last 

great painter of the Bolognese school. Hia CiiMbu*. 

finest paiatings are frescoes in tbe saloon Sacro Convento at Assisi. Among bia 

of the Farnese Palace, Bologna, and in pupils was Oiotto, whom be discovered 

the cupola of the Church of tbe Ma- in a boy shepherd drawing figures on 

donna del Fuoco at Forli. His paintings the smooth surface of a rock while teiid- 

have been engraved by various artists. ing his sheep. 

ritrnli <chrgo-le), LuDOVlCO Gakdi pi'mornaa <chE-maTO'B&), DouENlCO, 
Kil^OU ^^ ggg ^„^j(^ Ijimarosa, ^ eomposer, born at Na- 
Cilia. ("''''-a; L. 'eyelashes'), small pies in 1748, -54, or -65 ; died at Venice 
^^^ generally microscopic, hairlike 1801. He composed about 120 operas, 
organs or appendages, averaging '/i™ most of which are comic. His best- 
Inch in length, found on the surface of known work is II ilatrimonio Segreto 
the tissues of most animals, and in some ('The Secret Marriage'), 
vegetable organisms (as Volvox), chieBy PJTn'bri (sim'brl), a tribe of ancient 
on tissues which are in contact with '-"■■'""■i* Europe, tbe oriein of which is 
water, or which produce fluid secretions, involved in obscurity. 'They were re- 
They are constantly in a state of active garded as Germans by the Romans, who 
moTement, and communicate to the fluid gave the name Chersonesus CImbrtca 
with which Ihey are in contact a corre- to what is now Jutland. Greek writers 
sponding motion. This is called vibratile connected tbem with the Scythian Cim- 
or ciliary motion, Jn most of the lower merii of tbe Crimea ; while modem writ' 
aqaatic animals the respiratory function era suppose that they were Celtic, and 
is aided by means of the vibratile cilia ; that Cimbri is the same as the Cymri of 
many animalcules move by a similar Britain. In the second century B.o. they 
mechanism ; and in the highest classes made formidable incursions into Gaul and 
of animals cilia have a share in the per- Spain, but were finally routed by the 
formance of some important functions. Consul Marius at VercelH B.O. 101. 

cuioi' SS'^J; '•J,T°b.«'„ c™« '■■■-'")• s.. «... 

Pamphylia and Syria, lying 8. of Mount ri-mTriP'TnaTta (si-mS'ri-anz), an aa- 
TanruB. Alexander made Clllcia a "J^^i^ci-ia^a cjem nomadic tribe that 
Macedonian province; it then passed to occupied the Taurlc Chersonese (Crimea) 
tbe Syrians. Under Angastus it became and Asiatic Sarmatia (the country of 
an imperial province. It now forms the the lower Volga). They are said, in pre- 
Turklsh vilayet of Adana, Homeric times, to have ravaged Asia 
niTnaliTi* (cb e-m&-bfl'a), GiovANm, Minor, and in a second Invasion to have 
Vimauut: Italian painter, born at penetrated to ^oUs and Ionia, and to 
Florence in 1240 : died probably In 1302. have held possession of Sardis. A myth- 
Two Greek artists, who were invited to ical people mentioned in the Odvitev na 
Florence to paint a chapel in the Cburcb dwelling beyond the acean-stream in the 
of Santa Maria Novella, were his first thickest gloom were also teemed Clm- 
maaters. He Is considered one of the merii, a fable which cave rise to thr 
chief restorer! of the art of pqintlng in phrase ' Cimmerian darkness.' 

Cimolian Earth Cincinnati 

r!iinn1iA.ii TSiirtli or Cimolitb in panicles or corymbs ; calyx adherent, 
i/UUOUan Xiann, ^^ . ^, ^.^ i t), a ent&e or toothed; corolla regular; sta- 

8i>ecie8 of clay or hydrous silicate of alu- mens attached to corolla ; ovary twt^ 
mina, named in ancient times from Gim- celled ; fruit infe- 
Olos or Argentiera, one of the Cydades, rior, dry or succu- 
where it is still to be found. It is of lent. They are 
whitish and soft texture, molders into a found almost ex- 
fine powder, and effervesces with acids, clusively in the 
In classical times it was used as a deter- tropics, and many. 

J;enty as a soap for cleaning delicate of the species are' 

abncs, and by the bath-keepera. of great medicinal 

CimoloS (ri-mOloe). See Arg<»Hiera. \^^S^" %l^f^g^ 

Cimon (^l'°^oi^> kTmon). an ancient emetics and purg^ 

\/xiuvu Athenian general and states- atives. Among 

man, was a son of the great Miltiades. their chief products 

He fousht against the Persians in the are Peruvian bark, 

battle of Salaxnis (480 B.G.), and shared quinine, ipecacu- 

with Aristides the chief command of the anha, coee, chay- dnohooa idntkona 

fleet sent to Asia to deliver the Greek root, etc. The mtednAra). 

colonies from the Persian yoke. The re- genus Uinchona consists of trees seldom 

turn of Aristides to Athens soon after exceeding 40 or 50 ft. in h^ht, with 

left Cimon at the head of the whole simple, opposite, entire leaves and small 

naval force of Greece. He distinguished flowers, inhabiting chiefly the east side 

himself bv his achievements in Thrace, of the Andes of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador 

having defeated the Persians by the Stry- and Colombia. The valuable Peruvian 

mon, and made himself master of the bark is yielded by various species: 

country. He conquered the pirate-island crown or loxa bark by (7. condaminea, 

of Scyros, subdued all the cities on the gray or huanuco bark by C micrantha, 

coast of Asia Minor, pursued the Persian and O. nitidaf red-bark by O. tuooirubra, 

fleet up the Eurymedon, destroyed more yellow or calisava bark by O. oalwa^a. 

than 200 of their ships, and then, having From the wasteful method of cutting 

landed, on the same day entirely defeated down the trees to get their bark it was 

their army (b.o. 469). He employed the believed that there would soon be a dearth 

spoil which he had taken in the embellish- of the valuable medicine, and hence dn- 

ment of Athens, and in 463 reduced the chona plants were taken from their na- 

revolted Thasians: but the popular lead- tive regions and plantations formed in 

ers, beginning to fear his power, charged various tropical countries, so that Ceylon, 

him on his return with having been cor- India, Java, etc., are now important 

rupted by the King of Macedon. The sources of Peruvian bark. The bark is 

charge was dropped, but when Cimon*s taken ott in strips longitudinally, and is 

policy of friendship to the Lacedaemo- in time renewed by natural growth. See 

nians ended in the latter insulting the Bark (Peruvian), Quinine. 

troops sent by Athens to their aid, his Ginchonine (sin'kd-nin), a vegetable 

opponents secured his banishment He ^****'***'"****' alkaloid contained in all 

retired into B<£otia, and his request to be the varietes of Peruvian bark, but prin- 

allowed to fight with the Athenians cipally in C. lancifoUa, or pale batk. 

against the Ilacedemonians in 457 at Though less bitter than quinine, it may 

Tanagra was refused by the suspicious be substituted for it in larger quantities, 

generals. Eventually Cimon was re- Cincinnati (wn-sin-i'tO. a dty of 

called at the instance of Pericles to con- ^****'***"«'«'* Ohio, ranking sixteenth 

dude a peace with Lacedsmon. He died in population in the United States, on the 

shortly after, in 449, while besieging Ci- north bank of the Ohio River, opposite the 

tium in Cyprus. mouth of the Licking and 47d miles by 

CincllOna (sin-kO'na or sin-ch5'na ; the water s. of Pittsburgh. It was founded in 

name is from the Countess 1788; incorporated as a village in 1802 

of Chinchon, wife of a viceroy of Peru, by the Northwest Territory; and became 

which consists of gamopetalous, calyci- stately buildings. St. Peter's Roman 
floral dicotyledons, sometimes regarded as Catholic Cathedral has one of the finest 
a suborder of Rubiacee. They are domes in the Western States. Other 
trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants, with buildings of note are the New Court 
simple opposite leaves, flowers arranged House, St. Brands De Sales, Rockdale 

Cincinnati Ciiinamon 

Temple, tlin Union Centra] Building <34 film b^lnR hptnre the oMecdve for an in- 
Btories high), the huildingB of the Uni- "tnnt, when a nowprfiil light passes 
versitj of Cincinnati, the Art Museum and through it. Seo Movtna 1 lature ilaclttnf.. 
Art icademj, The Obio Mechanics iBHti- «_.„_■- (ein-e-ra'ri-a), a Kenua of 
tute, the great Music; Hall, where the vuiciaiia pi^nta, nat. order Compoi- 
famous Cincinnati May festivals ara f/a, chiefi; found in South Africa. 

grea; the Government Building and re__o (ain'na), Luciua CoBNELina. 
ustom House, Lane Theological Semt- viJiUM ^^ eminent Roman, an adherettt 
nary, Cincinnati University of Music, tbe of Marios, who, obtaining the consulship 
CitT Hall (constructed of granite and b.c, 87, along with Gneus Octavius, im- 
Amherst stone, costing $2,000,000), and peached Sulla and endeavored tfl secure 
many other important buildings. The {be recall of Marina. Being driven from 
Lincoln Statue, by George Grey Barnard, the city of Octavius, he found aid in the 
in Lytic Park, wbich was unveiled in other Italian ciUes, and invested Home 
1917, has attracted world-wide attention, while Marin b blockaded It from the sea. 
Of spedal interest are the homes of On its capture the friends of Sulla were 
Lyman Beecher, Harriet Beecber Stuwe, masBBCred, and Cinna and Marius made 
and Alice and Phwbe Cary. themaclves consols (b.c. 86) ; but after 

Cincinnati ranks high as a manufactur- the death of Marius the anny refused to 
inf dty, the annual output of its Indus- follow Cinna against Sulla, and put him 
tries ranging from S200,000,000 to $2.'>0,- to death in B.C. 84. 

000,000. The products include railway fjinnahftr (sin'a-b4r), red sulphide 
roaterials and aupplies, carrlBges, fuml- »''''""«*"™i ^f mercury, tha principal 
ture, leather, boots and shoes, clothing, ore from wbich that metal is obtained, 
candles, soap and oils, and many other occurring abundantly in Spain, Call- 
articles. Next to Chicago it is the great- fomia. China, etc. It is of a cochineal- 
est pork market in the Union. It is also a red color, and is used as a pigment under 
very important horse market and a lead- the name of Termilion. See Meroury 
Ing exchange for grain and pig iron. There and Vermilion. 

are abundant supplies of lumber, hard jnd ninnomnTnTi'm (sin-a-mO'm u m), a 
■aft wood, iron and scrap iron, clay, sand, ^innamomum ^ ^ „, plants, nat 
lime, stone, copper, and certain mineral order Lauracta, natives of tropical Asia 
depoolta. Fop. (1900) 325,002; (1010) and tbe Polrnesian Islands. AU the 
363,591; (1920) 401,247. spedeg possess an aromatic volatile oil, 

GinoJlinati Soatm of the, an or- and one of them yields true cinnamon. 
vuivuuwui, ganiiation originating while others yield cassia. 
among the cfficers of the American revolu- fliTiTiamnTi (sin'a-mon), the bark of 
aonarj army in 1783, the right of mem- ^i""**""" the nnder branches of a 
benbip being restricted to officers of the specieE of laurel (Cinnamdmun xevlani- 
Cootlnental army and their eldest male oitnt — see CinnamomHm) which is chiefly 

descendants or eldest male of next cullat- found in Ceylon, 

eral brancb. The name ia after Lucius but grows also in 
Quinctius Cincinoatua. Malabar and other ^ 

Krta of the East 
dies. The tree at- 
""""—""""l wealthy Roman patri- tains the height of 
ciao, bom aboat 519 b.0. He succeeded 20 or 30 feet, baa 
in 400 to the consulship, and then retired oval leaves, pale- ' 
to cnltiTate hia amall estate beyond the yellow flowers, and 
Tiber. In 4S8 B-C. the messengers of the acorn-sbaped fruit, 
acnate foond him at work when they came The Ceylonese bark 
to auaimoii Um to the dictatorship. He their trees in April 
leacned tlw army, defeated tbe ^^al, and and November, 
returned onietly to bie farm. At the age the bark curling 
of dgbty ne «M again appointed dictator np into rolls or 
to oppoH tba unbltiauB aeslgna oC Spu- fluitls In tbe process CiDnuaoD (Cinitame- 

-,_-■«_,._ ^ „^''y'°?,=, "■  ' ' 

[ of a lantern with mechanism I 

. r it; indeed, the 

B often substituted for cinaa- 

whlcb it baa some resemblance. 

Cinnamon-stone Cipriani 

although in its qualities it is much Norman kings, on condition of providing 

weaker. The leaves, the fruit, and the a certain number of ships during war, 

root of the cinnamon plant all yield there being no permanent English navy 

oil of considerable value; that from the previous to the reign of Henry VII. 

fruit, being highly fragrant and of thick £^ach port returned two members to 

consistence, was formerly made into parliament, but after the Reform Act of 

candles for the sole use of the King 1832, Hastings, Dover, and Sandwich 

of Ceylon. alone retained this privilege. Rye and 

Cinnamon-stone. * jarfety of. gar- Hythe returning one each, and the re- 
vAMUAUAvu 0vvMvy jj^^^ ^£ ^ cinna- mainmg towns none. Sandwich was 

mon, hyacinth-red, yellowish-brown, or afterward j disfranchised for corruption, 
honey-yellow color, found in Scotland, and by the act of 1885, Hastings and 
Ireland, Ceylon, etc. The finer kinds Dover were each deprived of a member, 
•are used as gems. and Rye ceased to be a borough. They 

ffiTin Ha PiflfoiQ (ch6'n6 d& pes-to'- are, collectively, in the jurisdiction of a 
viJiU uii xiBtuxa y4)^ an Italian ju- lord warden, who receives $15,000 a year 
risconsult and poet, bom in 1270 at Pis- for his sinecure. 

tola. He was the friend of Petrarch and Cintra (^Q'^^&)f & town of Portugal, 
of Dante, and ranks amon^: the best of , 15 miles w. N. w. Lisbon, finely 

the early Italian poets. His poems were situated on the slope of the Sierra de 
first published at Rome in 1558. Cintra, And much resorted to by the 

f!iTia-Mfl.rfi (sapk-mars), Henri Coif- wealthier inhabitants of Lisbon. The 
xjLMLii juAAo pjjgj^ jjjj Ruz6, MABQUia kings of Portugal had a palace with 
DE, favorite of Louis XIII, born in 1620, fine garr.ens at Cintra. The town is 
and introduced at court by Cardinal celebrated for the convention entered 
Richelieu. The king made him master into there in 1808, by which the French, 
of the robes and grand equerry of France after their defeat at Vimeira, were con- 
when only in his nineteenth year, and he veyed to France, Pop. 5014. 
soon aspired, not onl^ to a share in the CiORO (c^^~^'^&)t Anobea di. See 
management of public affairs, but even Orcagna. 

to the hand of the beautiful Maria di Ciotat (l^~^'^^)* ^f ^ seaport of 
Oonxaga, Princess of Mantua. Thwarted, France, on the Mediterranean, 

however, by the cardinal, Cinq-Mars con- 15 miles 8. e. of Marseilles, surrounded 
cocted a plot for the overthrow of by an old rampart, and having well- 
Richelieu, and entered into treaty with built houses and spacious streets. Ship- 
Spain. To propitiate Richelieu the king building is carried on and an extensive 
was com'>elied to sacrifice his favorite, coasting trade. Pop. 10,034. 
who was arrested at Narbonne and be- ClDherS (s^'^^i^)* signs used to rep- 
headed with his friend, the young coun- y^^^-o rgg^jj^ numbers, whether bor- 
dlor De Thou, at Lyons in 1642. rowed signs, as letters, with which the 

r!iTin-nA.nPTifA (chdn'kwa-chen-tO ; It., Greeks designated their numbers, or 
vxiiq^uc uciitv ^.^ 5QQ ^^^ ^g^ ^g ^ peculiar characters, as the modern or 

contraction for 1500, the century in which Arabic ones. Tlie ciphers, such as they 

the revival took place), a term employed are at present, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 

in reference to the decorative art and did not come into common European use 

architecture belonging to that attempt at until the eleventh century. For cipher 

purification of style and reversion to as applied to methods of secret writing 

classical forms introduced after the begin- see Cryptography. 

ning of the sixteenth century in Italy. ffiTiTi'ns (^^P'^^K i° Roman antiquities. 
The term is often applied to ornament of I'l'**" ,| 1q^ column generally rec- 

the sixteenth century in general, prop- tangular and sculptured, and often bear- 

erly included in the term Renaissance. ing an inscription. They served as 

Cinnne-foil (slnsrk'foil>. in archi- sepulchral monuments, as milestones and 

vrxjA.«|^uv iuxx lecture, an ornament in boundaries, and in some cases to receive 

the Gothic style, consisting of five foliated the inscribed decrees of the senate, 

divisions, often seen in circular windows. Ginriaili ^^^ ^'P^^'^^)* Giambattib- 
fKumipPftrfft (singk). originally the ^ ta, an Italian* painter and 

l/XliliU«; xurts g^^ English Channel engraver, bom at Pistoia in 1732; went 

ports of Hastings. Romney, Hythe, to England in 1754; died at London in 
Dover and Sandwich, on the s. E. coast 1785. He was one of the first fellows 
of England, to which were added sub- of the Royal Academy, the diploma of 
sequently the towns of Winchelsea, Rye, which he designed. He furnished 
and Seaford. They were granted special Bartolozzi with the subjects of some of 
privileges by the later Saxon and earlier his finest engravings. 

Circassia Circuit Courts 

Circassia (sir-kashl-a), or TcHXB- to partake of an enchanted beverage. 
KEBSiA^ a mountainoua Ulysses under tbe guidance of Hermes 
region in the southeast of European compelled her to restore his companions* 
Russia, lying chiefly on the north slope and afterwards had two sons by her. 
of the Caucasus, partly also on the south, nir/tATieiaTi Aqtvipo (sir -sen'si-an). 
and bounded on the west by the Black ^irccnsiail uames g^^ Circus. 
Sea, and now forming part of the lieu- CircillRte (sir'si-nftt) in botany, said 
tenancy of the Caucasus. The moun- ^*'"'^*"«*''*' qI leaves or fronds, as those 
tains, of which the culminating heights of ferns, that are rolled up like a watch- 
are those of Mount Elbruz, are inter- spring before expanding, 
sected everywhere with steep ravines and Circle (sir'kl), a plane figure con- 
clothed with thick forests, and the ter- ^***'**' tained by one line^ which is 
ritory is principally drained by the Knban called the circumference, and is such that 
and its tributaries. Its climate is tern- all straight lines drawn from a certain 

Kerate, its inhabitants health v and long- point (the center) within the figure to 
ved. The people call themselves Adigh6. the circumference are equal to one an- 
the name Tcherkesa (robbers) being of other. The properties of the circle are 
Tatar origin. They are divided into investigated in books on geometry and 
several tnbes speaking widely-different trigonometry. Properly the curve be- 
dialects. While they retained their inde- longs to the class of conic aections, and 
pendence their government was of a is a curve of the second order. A great 
patriarchal character, but every free Cir- circle of a sphere is one that has its 
cassian had the right of expressing his center coinciding with that of the sphere, 
opinion in the assemblies. They pos- The celebrated problem of 'squaring the 
sessed none but traditional annals and circle' is to find a square whose area 
laws. Polygamy was permissible in shall be equal to the area of any given 
theory, but not common. The duties of circle. It is not i>os8ible to do so. All 
hospitality and vengeance were alike that can be done is to express appromi- 
binding, and a Spartan morality existed mately the ratio of the length of the 
in the matter of theft. Their religion, circumference of the circle to the 
which is nominally Moslem, is In many diameter, and to deduce the area of the 
cases a jumble of Christian, Jewish, and figure from this approximation. If the 
heathen traditions and ceremonies. As a diameter be called unity, the length of 
race the Circassians are comely, the men the circumference of the circle is 
being prized by the Russians as warriors, 3.141592G535. . . ; and the area of the 
and the women by the Turks as inmates circle is found by multiplying this num- 
of the harem, a position generally desired ber by the square of the radius. Thus 
by the women themselves. The early the area of a circle of 2 feet radius is 
history of Circassia is obscure. Between 3.14159 X 4. or 12.56636 square feet 
the 10th and 13th centuries it formed approximately. For trigonometrical cal- 
a portion of the empire of Georgia, but culations the circumference of the circle 
in 1424 the Circassians were an inde- is divided into 360 equal parts called de- 
pendent people, and at war with the grees, each degree is divided into ^ 
Tatars of the Crimea, etc., to whose minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. 

khans, however, some were occasionally r!iT<>1p Mm* at Roa xr^n^ni r'««v*?« 
tributkry. In 1705 the Tatars were de- ^l^Cie, Mural. Bee Mural Circle. 

feated in a decisive battle, but shortly Circleville 9L. '"^y* county seat of 
after the territorial encroachments of the '^***'**" ^> Pickaway Co., Ohio, on 
Russians on the Caucasian regions be- Scioto River, 30 miles s. of Columbus. It 
gan, and in 1829 the country was formally has large strawboard plant, canneries, 
annexed by them. A long and heroic re- flour mills, grain elevators, carriage and 
sistance was made by the Circassians un- broom factories. On Pennsylvania and 
der their leader Schamyl, and on being re- Norfolk & Western railroads. Pop. 7049. 
duced to submission numbers of the in- Circuit (s^^'l^iO* a division of a 
habitants emigrated to the Turkish prov- country for judicial purposes, 

inces. In the north and east, however, to some town or towns in which judges 
tribes of the Circassiap stock remain, come at regular periods to administer jus' 
The Circassians, properly so called, have tice. 

been estimated to number from 500,000 dip cxiit CoUrtS ^> ^^^^^ applied dis* 
to 6(X),000. ' tinctively to a class 

Circe (s^r-sd), a fabled sorceress of of the Federal courts of the United 
\^xiuv Greek mythology, who lived in States, of which terms are held in two or 
tne island of ^sea, represented by Homer more places successively, in the various 
as having converted the companions of circuits into which the country is divided 
Ulysses into swine after cauauig them for the purpose. 

Circulax Notes Gircumcisioxi 

nirnnlpr TTntAQ (sir'kQ-lAr), notes or animalcules the movement of the fluids of 
viir«/iuiurxiutC9 letters of credit fur- the bod^ is maintained by that of the 
nished by bankers to persons about to animal itself and by the disturbing in- 
travel abroad. Along with the notes the fluence of nutritive absorption. In the 
traveler receives a 'letter of indication ' Oelenterata (zoophytes, etc.) the move- 
bearing the names of certain foreign ment receives aid besides from the action 
bankers who will cash such notes on of cilia on the inner walls of the body, 
presentation, in which letter the traveler The Annelids, as the earthworm, possess 
must write his name. On presentation contractile vessels traversing the length 
the foreign banker can demand to see the of the body. The Insects, Crustaceans, 
letter of indication, and by causing the Mvriapods, and Spiders have a dorsal 
presenter to write his name can compare tube, a portion of which may be specially 
the signature thus made with that in the developed as a heart. The blood is 
letter, and so far satisfy himself as to driven to the tissues, in some cases along 
the identity of the person presenting the arterial trunks, being distributed not In 
note. special vessels, but simoly through the 

Circnlatin&r Hedinin. ®«® OHrren- interstices of the tissues. From the 
wAAvtucftWAMg .H^v^MUAu* ^^ tissues It is conveyed, it may be, by 

CiTfinlAtion (s^i'-hH-lA'shun), in an special venous trunks to a venous sinus 
vxxvuM»Mvii, organism, the flowing oi which surrounds the heart and opens into 
sap or blood through the veins or cban- it by valvular apertures. The mollusca 
nels, by means of which the unceasing have the heart provided with an auricle 
and simultaneous movements of composl- and a ventricle, as in the snail and 
tion and decomposition manifested in or- whelk ; two auricles, one on either side of 
ganic life are carried on. Although Galen, the ventricle, as in the fresh-water 
who had observed the opposite directions mussel; or two auricles and two ventrl- 
of the blood in the arteries and veins, cles, as in the ark-shells. Among the as- 
may be said to have been upon the very cidians, which stand low in that division 
point of discovering its circulation, the of animals to which the molluscs belong, 
discovery was reserved for William the remarkable phenomenon is enoonn- 
Harvey, who in 1628 pointed out the con- tered of an alternating current, which is 
tinuity of the connections between the rhythmicaUy propelled for equal periods 
heart, arteries, and veins, tiie reverse in opposite directions. All vertebrated 
directions taken by the blood in the animals (except Amphio9U9) have a 
different vessels, the arrangements of heart, which in most fishes consists of an 
valves in the heart and veins so that the auricle and ventricle, but in the mud- 
blood could flow only in one direction, fishes (Lepidotiren) there are two anri- 
and the necessity of the return of a large cles and one ventricle ; and this trilocular 
proportion of blood to the heart to main- heart is found in the amphibians, and 
tain the supply. In 1661 Malpighi ex- in most reptiles except the crocodiles, 
hibited microscopically the circulation in which, like birds and mammals, have a 
the web of a frog's foot, and showed that four-chambered organ consisting of two 
the blood passed from arteries to veins by auricles and two ventricles. In these two 
capillaries or intermediate vessels. This last-named classes the venous and arterial 
finally established the theory with regard blood are kept apart; in the trilocular 
to animals, but the movements of sap in hearts the two currents are mixed in the 
vegetables were only traced with difficulty ventricle. For circulation in man and 
and after numerous experiments. Many the higher animals see Heart, 
physiologists indeed are still disposed to CirGlllllGisioiI (sirncum-sixh-un), the 
refuse the term 'circulation' to this por- ^***'»****^*»**'** removal of the foreskin 
tion of the economy of plants ; but though from the male generative organ, a snr- 
sap, unlike the blood, does not exhibit gical operation sometimes required by 
movements in determining vessels to and anatomical conditions. Also a rite com- 
from a common center, a definite course mon among the Semites, though by 
is observable. In the stem of a dicot- no means peculiar to them, and possibly 
yledonous tree, for example, the sap de- derived by them from the Egyptians or 
scribes a sort of circle, passing upwards from some non-Semitic source. At any 
from the roots through the newer woody rate, the antiquity of its institution in 
tissue to the leaves, where it is elaborated Egypt is fully established bv the monu- 
under the action of air and light; and ments, which make it evident that It 
thence descending through the bark to- was practised at a period very much 
wards the root, where what remains of it earlier than the Exodus. It was, how- 
fs either excreted or mixed with the new ever, a primitive Arab custom, and its 
fluid, entering from the soil for a new practise among the Jews may with 
period of circulation. In infusorial equal probability be assigned to an Arab 

CiremnnavigatioA Cirotui 

SSw r*nrriLVSSS.%t''*l« Circtmuitaiitial Evidence. |« ? 

practised by the Aztecs and other peoples denoe* 

of Central America, and is still to be PirniiTnvii.llii.f-in'n (y a-l&'shnn), or 

found among tribes on the Amazon, VflTCUmvaiiaiiOtt ^j,j. ^y Cibcum- 

among the Australian tribes, the vallation, in military affairs, a line of 
Papuans, the inhabitants of New Cale- field-works consisting of a rampart or 
donia, and those of the New Hebrides, parapet, with a trench surrounding a 
In Africa it is common among the besieged place, or the camp of a besieging 
Kaffirs and other tribes widely removed army. 

from Semitic influence. It is practised rjirc-na (s^r'kus), among the Romans, 
also by the Abyssinian Christians, and ^*^^**^ a nearljr oblong building with- 
although not enjoined in the Koran has out a roof, in which public chariot-races 
been adopted by the Mohammedans on the and exhibitions of pugilism and wrestling, 
example of Mohammed himself. It was etc., took place. It was rectangular, ex- 
possibly in its origin a sacrifice to the cept that one short side formed a half- 
deity presiding over generation, though circle; and on both sides, and on the 
in certain nanons the rite has acquired semicircular end, were the seats of the 
a new symbolic significance according to spectators, rising gradually one above an- 
the stage of their spiritual development, other, like steps. On the outside the 
Circumciaion is also the name of a circus was surrounded with colonnades, 
feast, celebrated on the 1st of January, galleries, shops, and public places. The 
in commemoration of the circumcision of largest of these buildings in Rome was 
our Saviour. It was anciently kept as a the Circus MtMrimua, capable, according 
fast, in opposition to the pagan feast on to Pliny, of containing 260,000, and ac- 
that day in honor of Janus. cording to Aurelius Victor, 385,000 

rK'TATiTviTiQincyiifinTi (sir>kum-nav-i- spectators. At present, however, but few 
VirCUmnavlgauon ga'shnn), a vestiges of it remain, and the circus of 
term signifying a sailing round the earth. Caracalla is in the best preservation. 
Earliest tc succeed in this was Magellan, The games celebrated in these structures 
a Portuguese in the service of Spain, who were known collectively by the name of 
headed the first expedition which sue- ludi circenses, circensian games, or games 
ceeded in circumnavigating the globe, of the circus, which under the emperors 
though he did not live to complete the attained the greatest magnificence. The 
voyage. He sailed with five ships from principal games of the circus were the 
San Lucar September 20, 1519, passed ludi Komani or magni (Roman or Great 
the straits named after him in November, Games), which were celebrated from the 
1520, and was killed in the Philippine Is- 4th to the 14th of September, in honor of 
lands in April, 1521, Juan Sebastian del the great gods, so called. The passion of 
Cano continuing the voyage and reaching the common or poorer class of people for 
San Lucar with the only remaining ship these shows appears from the cry with 
in September. 1522. The principal early which they addressed their rulers — 
navigators, after Magellan, who succeeded Panem et circensesi (bread and the 
in making the voyage round the globe games!). The festival was opened by a 
were Grijalva and Alvaradi (Spaniards), splendid procession, or pompa, in which 
1537; Mendana (Spanish), 1567; Drake the magistrates, senate, priests, augurs, 
'(English), 1577-8(); Cavendish, 1586- vestal virgins, and athletes took part, 
'88 ; Le Maire (Dutch) , 1615-17 ; Quires carrying with them the images of the 
(Spanish), 1625; Tasman (Dutch), great gods, the Sibylline books, and some- 
1642 ; Cowley, 1683 ; Dampier, 1689 ; ttmes the spoils of war. On reaching the 
Cooke, 1708 ; CJlipperton, 1719 ; Rog- circus the procession went round once in 

fewein (Dutch), 1721-23; Anson, 1740- a circle, the sacrifices were performed, 
4; Byron, 1764-66; Wallis, 1766-68; the spectators took their places, and the 
Carteret, 1766-69 ; Bougainville, 1766-69 ; games commenced. These were : 1. Races 
Cooke, 1768-71 ; and Portlocke, 1788. with horses and chariots, in which men 

nirnTiniTiTifafinn (-nu-tfi'shun ; lit. of the highest rank engaged. 2. The 
VrircumnuiailOU \^ nodding round gymnastic contests. 3. The Trojan 
about'), a name given by Darwin to the games, prize contests on horseback, re- 
continuous motion of every growing part vived bv Julius Ciesar. 4. The combats 
of every plant, in which it describes with wild beasts, in which beasts fought 
irregular elliptical or oval figures. The with beasts or with men (criminals or 
apex of the stem, for instance, after volunteers). 5. Representations of naval 
pointing in one direction, moves round engagements {naumachim) , for which 
till it points in the opposite direction, purpose the circus could be laid under 
and so on continnoady* water. The expense of these games was 

Cirencester Gisteroians 

often immense. Pompey, in his second Hantaan and the Venetian proyincesv 

consulship, brought forward GOO lions at Bergamo, Bresdat Crema, Verona, and 

one combat of wild beasts, which, with Bovigo, the duchy of Modena, the prind- 

eighteen elephants, were slain in five pality of Massa and Carrara, Bologna, 

days. The modern ciroue is a place Ferrara, and Romagna, and eventually 

where horses are trained to perform, and its area was 16,337 square miles ; its pop. 

where exhibitions of acrobats and yarious 8,500,000. The legislative body held its 

pageantries, and the tricks of downs or sessions in Milan. On January 25, 1802, 

buffoons, are presented. Menageries of it received the name of the Italian Re- 

wild beasts usually accompany the trav- public; from 1805 to 1814 it formed part 

eling drcus. of the kingdom of Italy. 

Cirenepater ^' Cicebtbb (pron. col- fHunn Olia'ko), a dty of Eastland Co., 

LPireuCfssier, i o q u i a 1 1 y sis'e-t6r or vl»CO >rexas, 90 mUes 8. W. of Port 

flls^es-t^r), a town of England, county Worth, in the heart of an oil territory. It 

and 18 miles 8. ■. of Gloucester ; founded has refineries, oil wdl supplies, planing 

by the ancient Britons, and subsequently, mills, lumber yards, and manufactures of 

under the name of Corinium, a Koman tools, gas and oil engines, nitroglycerine. 

sUtion. It has a well-known Royal ttc. It has an abundant supply of natural 

Agricultural College. The trade is chiefly gas. Pop. 7422. 

agricultural It was a parliamentary n{g«|Q^n«. a ^Aniihlio (sis 'pa-dAn), 

borou£h till 1886, and now gives name to ^"Pattane ACpUDUC ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

a pari div. of the county. Pop. 7632. south of the Po set up by Napoleon I, 
nirrTinaiA (si-rO'sis), a disease charac- but speedily united with the Transpadane 
viiiiAuaui ^griae^ by growth of fibrous Republic to form the CUalpine RepubUc. 
tissue which gradually encroaches on and (ligf (sist), a place of interment of an 
by compression destroys the true struct- early or prehistoric period, consist* 
nre of the organ attacked. It is very ing of a rectangular stone chest or en- 
frequent in the liver as a consequence closure formed of rows of stones set np- 
of spirit-drinking; and hence the term 
'drunkard's liver.' 

GirrinedfiB ( " ^ ' 'i-p^dz ) , Cibbzpe'dia, 
\/xxAX|F«?u«B or CiBBBOp'ODA, a dass 

of marine invertebrate animals, having a ^ 

y'S^^^^'J^J?!"*!?? ^^K 7'^ •?^''i.fK Cist, found ie« Driffield.' Y^Mhiw. 

ticulated, tendril-like limbs (oim). which ^ ^^ *^™iiwu, xwuuuv. 

are protruded and rapidly withdrawn right, and covered by similar flat stooes. 

within the multivalve shell. They are Such cists are found in barrows or 

crustaceans which have undergone retro- mounds, enclosing bones. In rock^ dU- 

gradc metamorphosis, being free-swim- tricts cists were sometimes hewn in the 

ming in the larva form, but becoming rock itself. 

after a time attached by the head. When Gistaceffi (sis-til-se-^), a natural order 
adult they are affixed to some substance, ^**»«'«*^*^«*' of polypetalous ezogens, con- 
either set directly upon it, as in the genus sisting of low, shrubby plants or herbs 
Balanus; or placed on a foot-stalK, as with entire leaves and crumpled, gener- 
the bamade ; or sunk into the supporting ally ephemeral, showy flowers. Some ex- 
substance, as the whale-bamade. Sec ude a balsamic resin, such as ladanum. 
Balanu9t Barnacle, from a Levant species of Cistus. See 
Cirma (^ir^rus; in plural Cnua), the C%atu9. 

\/xAi.uo tendril of a plant bv means of GiaterGlflJia (sis-t^r'shans), a rellg- 

which it climbs, usually a modified leaf or ^*" "****'*"•**" ious order named from 

the prolongation of a midrib. its original convent, Clteaux iCiiier' 

Pii*inia Q^u% ffi^»tA ct«m), not far from Dijon, in Kastem 

l/irrUS. See Ctotfd. TtBiiQe, where the society was formed 

Cirtfl. (>l^ta). the capital of the ancient in 1098 by Robert, Abbot of Molesme, 

VAXM» Massyiii in Numidia. After the under the strictest observance of the rule 

defeat of Jugurtha it passed into the of St Benedict. The Cistercians led a se- 

hands of the Romans, and was restored verely ascetic and contemplative life, and 

by Constantine, who gave it his own having freed themselves from episcopal 

name. See Connianiine. supervision, formed a kind of spiritual 

r*iaolTiinA (siz*al'pin) Republic, a republic under a high council of twenty- 

vistupiuc g^^^^ gg^ ^jp j^ 2Y97 by five members, with the Abbot of Clteaux 

Napoleon I in North Italy, recognized by as president Next to Ctteaux the four 

Germany as an independent power at the chief monasteries were La Fert6, Pon- 

Peace of Campo Formio. It comprised tigny, Clairvaux (founded by the cele- 

Aostrian Lombardy, together with the bra ted St Bernard in 1115^ and Mori- 

Cistns Citroa 

Bond. In France they called tbemidTea loftiest aummit la 4620 feet In height 

AernarrftDM in honor of 8b Bernard. On its northern alope stood the dt; of 

Among the fraternities emanatlns from Flataaa. 

them the moat remarkable were the Bare- Cithpm "^ Cit'Tebh 

(ooted monks, or Peoillanta, and the nuns ^^"*<=*"* (a 1 1 h' e r n. 

Bit ern, Latin oithara, 

Greek kithara), an old 

inatmment of the Kiiitar 

kind, atrong with wire 

instead of gut Its eight 

atrlnga were tuned to 4 

notea, G, B, D, and E. 

It was frequently to be 

found in barbers' shopi 

(or the amusement of the 

WBltiDK customers. 

Cities of £efa^, 

rfx ont of the forty- "KTuiiicMn Mu^ 
eight cities given to the ■sum. 

tribe of Levi In the division of Canaan, 
Bet apart by the law of Mosea ae places 
of refuse for the manslayer or accidental 
homicide. Their names were Kedesh, 
Hhecbem, and Hebron on the west dde of 
Jordan; and Bezer, Ramoth-Giiead, and 
Golan on the <—' 


aolntion of monastenea. IJe general dtrons fruits. It is generairj prepared 

fate of relirions orders during the from lemon-Juice, and when pure Is white, 

French revolution reduced the Cistercians inodorous, and eitrnmely sharp in lis 

to a , few conventB in Spain, PiJand, taste. In combination with metals it 

Anatna, etc. There are still two or three forms crystalline saita known as rltrntni. 
honsea \n the British Iri^ The Cister- The acld'is us^ « ? dSrge 4"^^ 

cians wear whiU robea with black printing and as a mhstitute for lemon 

•capulanea. , ,. . '» making beverages. 

ClStnS («»^t"*). the rock-roae, a genua Citron (^if ron), Citrui mSdica. a 

_. T. ."' P'^"*;, "' ,"S°y species, '^ll'^oa ,n,aU evergreen shrub yleHing 

order Clataceie, natives of Europe, or of a fmit which la candied with sugar The 

the countnes bonJering the Mediter- rind is considered superior to the palp ; 

ranean. Bome of them are beanbful it is imported in a preierved state, and 

evergreen flowering shrubs, ornamental la la need in confectiouery. The juice is 

gardens or shrubberies. Gam ladanum less acid than that of the lemon. Se* 

is obtained from 0. erettcut and 0. Citnu. 

SSddri-f-".'). . >-»« ■«""■ Citronella aa".3"-&°?'iS,°d •',' 

1. *v 1 1°.?^ near a citv intended to grass UnirofSgon nardiu), cultivated 

Jeep the inhabitants in subjection, or to at Singapore and in Ceylon. It ia osed 

form a Una] point of defense in case of for scenting soap and driving awai 

an attack ot enemies, mosquitoes. 

Citation J.ffi^-'ace* '^^'>Z "l CitnOIiu [^'■,5.'"''»>- see ooio- 

per»nto appear in a conrt as a party Citrng (sifms), an Important genaa 

or witness in a ranae. vilius^, ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Anran- 

France, dep. COte-d'Or. See terlied by simple ovate acuminate leaves 

Cut«rouiai. pr Uafleta united by a distinct joint to the 

Clthseron iS".^?°': ' a! modern leaf-like stalk ; by having the stamena 

« ... V ""??A ' "*«>t«ln o' "Kited by their filaments into several ir- 

Qreeoe, which, stretching W. W., separates regular bundles, and by yielding a pulny 

B<Mtla from Megaris ud Attica. It* fruit with a spongy ii£i.—OUnit mMitn 


is the citron. Other species are the on the west side of the island of Minorca, 

lemon (Citrus UmCnum), the sweet Chief industries: weaving woolen fabrics, 

orange (Citrus aurantium), the bitter ezpressins oil and wine, and husbandry* 

orange {Citrus vulgaris), the shaddock Pop. 864o. 

{Citrus decum&na). and the forbidden Cillda.d-!R6al ( thi-tf-d&<i-r&-&l', 'royal 

fruit {Citrus paradisi), sometimes used ^* ******** *"^«** town'), a town of 

as an ornamental addition to dessert. Spain, capital of the province of same 

The genus Citrus furnishes the essential name, on a low plain near the Guadiana, 

oils of orange and lemon peels, of orange 100 iniles south of Madrid. The prindpai 

flowers, of citron peel, of bergamot, and edifice is the Church of Santa Maria, 

oil of orange leaves — all much esteemed a magnificent structure, though consisting 

in perfumery. See Lemon, Orange, etc only of a single nave. Pop. 15,327. — 

fKffoiiplla (ch§t-ta-dft'la), an old The province occupies the south ex- 

\/ ^^^jj^ ^f j^Qpjjj i^iy^ pp^j^. tremity of New CastUe, between the 

ince of Padua, surrounded by walls, parallel ranges of the Sierra Toledo and 
Pop. 8627. Sierra Morena; area, 7840 square 

Citt&-di-Cfl.stello <-^® kAs'tel-«), a miles. Pop. 321,580. 

wxxa-oi uasxeuo ^^^^ ^^ Italy, Ciudad-EodriM (thi-tt-cttd-rodrt'gft, 

province of Perugia^ <m the Tiber, the ^* **«»** -"^uii^u « Roderick town'), a 
seat of a bishop, witii a cathedral cox»- fortress in Spain, in Leon, on the river 


Malta, near the center and almost on the was of some importance in the Peninsular 

highest point of the island, 7 miles w. s. war, being taken by storm by the Brit- 

w. Valetta. The rise of the latter town ish under Wellington, after a siege of 

has almost ruined it, and its magnificent eleven days. The Cortes gave Welling- 

houses and palaces are almost deserted, ton the title of Duke of Ciudad-Rodrigo. 

It has a large cathedral and interesting Pop. 8930. 

catacombs. The ancient palace of the n-iirA (^v\ SUa rkin» 

Grand Masters of the Order of Malta ^^^® ^^^^' ^^ ^'***^*- 

also remains. Pop. (1901) 7515. fKirfit (^^'^^S Viverra), a genus of 

Cit'tern. See CUHem. TSriZ^r^ASTS^ lA S 

(sifi; Latin, civitas) in a gen- Malabar and Java, and distinguished by 
eral sense^ a town holding, from having a secretorv apparatus in whi<^ 
extent of population, favorable situation, oollects the odoriferous fatty substance 
or other causes, a leading place in the known as civet. The animal, which in 
community in which it is situated, form is intermediate between the weasel 
Popularly, also, it is used to desisnate and the fox, and from 2 to 3 feet long 
the old and central nucleus as distia- by 10 inches high, is of a cinereous 

i^uished from the suburban growths of color, tinged with yellow and marked by 
arge towns. The ecclesiastical sense of dusky spots disposed in rows. They are 
the term city is a town which is, or has nocturnal, and prey upon birds and small 
been, the see of a bishop. This seems to animals, and may be considered as form- 
be the historical use of the term in Eng- ing tiie transition from the musteline or 
land, and still possesses some authority marten kind to the feline race. The 
there, but to a considerable extent it has genus has been divided into two sub- 
been superseded by the wider one. In aenera — the true civets, having the pouch 
America the application of the term is large and well marked; and the genets, 
dependent upon the nature and extent of in which there is a simple depression in- 
the municipal privileges possessed by stead of a pouch. Two spe^es of the 
corporations, and a town is raised to the nrst and eight of the second are at 
dignity of a city by special charter, present known, the chief scent-yielding 
Generally the term implies the existence species beinr the common civet (viverra 
of a mayor at the head of the munici- civetta) of N. Africa and the sibeth (F. 
pality. zibetha) of Asia. The pouch is situated 

Gindad (thi-^<f&<l'). the Spanish word between the anus and the genitals, and 
TOT city, appearing in many the odorous matter obtained from it is, 
names of Spanish places. when good, of a dear yellowish or brown 

fli lift fill 'Rnliirflr ithi-^-dkd' bo-ie'- color. The smell is powerful and very 
wuuttu J^uuvar ^j^^.^ g^ Angos- offensive, but when diluted with oil or 

tura, other materials is an agreeable perfume. 

Cindadela (thi-^dk-dSilk), a walled The American variety of the civet (civet 
^ *^ *^ city and seaport, Spain, cat) is easily tamed. 

Civic Crown Civil Law 

Civic Crown (Biv'ik), among the Ro- drawings of animals scratched upon bone 
\/ATAv wxvwu mans, the highest mili- or slate. The discovery of metals con- 
tary reward, assigned to him who had stituted a great step in advance. Gold 
preserved the life of a citizen. It bore and copper came early into use, and 
the inscription * Oh oivem servatutn,* that bronze was soon discovered, though a 
is, * for saving a citizen,* and was made of long time passed before iron was smelted 
oak leaves. The person who received the and substituted for bronze where hardness 
crown wore it in the theater, and sat was required. Gradually the roving sav- 
next the senators, and when he came in age became a nomadic shepherd and 
all the assembly rose up as a mark of herdsman, or a tiller of the soil, accord- 
respect, ing to his environment. The practice of 
Civics (^^^^^^)f ^^® science that treats barter was in part superseded by the be- 
vf TxuB ^£ citizenship and the relations ginnings of some sort of currency. Ges- 
between citizens and the government It ture language gave place in part to an 
embraces ethics, or social duties; civil enlarged vocabulary, and picture-writing 
law, or governmental methods ; econom- to the use of phonetic signs. In the 
ics, or the principles of finance and ex- meantime man had begun to question him- 
change ; and the history of municipal de- self and the world on profounder issues, 
velopment. entering upon the myth-making age, in 
Gividale (<^b^^^*^&'l&)»&'^&Ued town, which was projected outwards on the 
Italv, Venetia, 8 miles s. N. chief phenomena of nature some shadow 
c. of Udine. It has a large cathedral dat- of his own personality. The worship of 
ing from the eighth century. Pop. 4174. the sun^ moon, and stars, a faith in a 

Civil Death. See DeatH. OivU. a^i^^ii^mlCe^t'thl ttt^^^o 

C!iviIi7AtioTl (siv-il-iz-a'shun), the and witchcraft, all sprang into being. 

wxvxAAACftiixvu. g^m j^j j^^y g^^gjj ^img Prayer came spontaneously to him; the 

of the attainments and tendencies by idea of propitiation by sacrifice would 

which the human race or any section of arise from his dealings with his fellows 

it is removed from the savage state. The and his foes ; the sacred books began to 

history of progress in civilization is shape themselves. Tribal and national 

usually presented from one of two points relations, arising from ties of family and 

of view — the first conceiving the race as exigencies of defense, were cemented by 

starting from a high civilization, to which unity of faith, and the higher social unit 

in point of intellectual and moral power began to perfect itself under the rule of 

it has ^et to return; the second viewing the patriarch, the bravest warrior, etc. 

the civilization of any period as the re- With varying needs, arising from diversity 

suit of a constant and increasingly-suc- of environment, distinctions of nationality 

cessful stream of effort upwards from an became more and more emphatic, and the 

origin comparable with the condition of history of civilization becomes the history 

the lower animals. The latter is the of the nation viewed from the standpoint 

prevailing scientific theory, which finds of moral, political, scientific, mechanical, 

the secret of progress in the interaction and general intellectual progress, 

of function and environment. According fji f v PlonniTl? '^ system now being 

to it, primitive man, at first feeding on ^*-^J j.«*iiijj.ix5, widely adopted in 

wild fruits and berries, and sheltering the United States for the betterment and 

himself under overhanging rocks or caves, adornment of cities, definite plans being 

entered upon the stone age, in which, as adopted in advance, to be worked up to, 

the contemporary of the mammoth and so that the development of the cities may 

cave-bear, he made himself sharp-edged be in definite lines. Comprehensive 

tools by chipping the flakes of flint found plans of this kind have been made in 

in the drift under gravel and day. In many cities and in some instances much 

the newer stone age he learned the art has been done in carrying them out. 

of polishing these rough implements, with An exhibition of such plans was made 

which he cut down trees to make canoes, in the City Hall, Philadelphia in the 

kiUed wild animals for food, and broke spring of 1911, and showed that highly 

their bones for marrow, or shaped them encouraging progress was being made, 

into weapons. Fire he turned to account not only in that city, but in many other 

to hollow out trees, to cook his food, to communities. 

fashion clay ware. Artificial means of f|i\ril LaW U}^ civfle) , among the 

shelter were constructed by piling rude ^*** **•* Romans the term nearly 

huts of stones, by digging holes in the corresponding to what in modem times is 

ground, or by driving piles into the beds implied by tne phrase positive law, that 

of lakes and raising dwellings on them, is, the rules of right established by any 

The artistic instincts found expression in government. They contradistinguished it 

Civil List Civil Service 

from natural law (;'«• naturdle), by peiiBea proper to the maintenance of the 
which they meant a certain natural order houBehold of the sovereign. It waa once 
followed by all living beings; also from a principle in England, as in other 
. the general laws of mankind established Teutonic nations, that the monarch was 
by the agreement of all nations and to pay all the expenses of government, 
governments Uu9 gentium). With the even including those of the army, from 
arowth and multiplication of the edicts the possessions of the crown, and until 
inued by the prcetors (in whose hands the Restoration the whole expense of 
was the supreme administration of the government continued to be defrayed 
justice) for the modification and exten- out of the royal revenue. In the reign 
sion of the positive enactments, a further of William, the Commons adopted the 
distinction became necessary, the whole principle of separating the regular and 
body of this praetorian law being known domestic expenses of the king from the 
by tiie name of ju9 hcnararium as opposed public expenditure, and establishing a sys- 
to the strict formal law (ju$ civile). The tematic and periodical control over the 
latter, however, included both the private latter. The amount voted to the king for 
law iiu9 privatum), which relates to the life in 1697 was $3,500,000 annually 
various legal relations of the different and the same vote was made at the com- 
members of the state — the citizens — and mencement of the reign of Queen Anno 
the public law {jut publicum), that is, and George I. By the beginning of the reign 
the rules respecting the limits, rights of George II the revenue appropriated 
obligations, etc., of the public authorities, to the civil list was found to have pro- 
The final digest of Roman law was made duced |150,000, and this sum was voted 
in the sixth century a.d. under the Em- on the accession of George II. Besides 
peror Justinian, but at first was only ad- the regular vote, grants had been fre- 
mitted as formally binding in a small part quently made to defray debts incurred in 
of Italy. After the eleventh century, the expenditure of the sovereign. On the 
in Upper Italy, particularly in the school accession of George III the civil list was 
of Bologna, the oody of the Roman law, fixed at $4,000,000, but instead of being 
put together by Justinian, was formed paid out of appropriated revenues in 
by degrees into a system applicable to which the crown lands were included, 
the wants of all nations; and on this these were surrendered, and it was 
model the ecclesiastical and papal de- charged on the ordinary taxation. Large 
crees were arranged, and to a considerable extra grants had to be made during this 
degree the native laws of the new reign. In the reign of William IV the 
Teutonic states. From all these the Ro- list was cleared of all salaries, etc., upon 
man law was distinguished under the it, and placed at $2,550,000, including a 
name of civU law. In this sense, there- pension list of $375,000. Other varia- 
fore, civil law means ancient Roman law; tions in the amount were made on the 
and it is contradistinguished from canon accessions of Victoria, Edward VII and 
law and feudal law. though the feudal George V. Many continental states have 
codes of the Lombards have been received a fixed civil list ; that of Russia is 
into the carpus juris civiUs, or bodv of $7,050,000: of Turkev, $4,600,000: of 
civil law. As the Roman code exerted the Austria, $3,650,000 ; of Prussia, $3,876,- 
greatest influence on the private law of 000. to which an additional grant of 
modem Europe, the expression civU law $1,125,000 has recently been added, 
is used also to embrace all the rules re- making a total of $4,500,000. 
lating to the private rights of citizens. (Jivil Service collectively, all offices 
Under the term civil law, therefore, in ^* »***'*'*'' **'^> under government ex- 
America and Europe, is to be understood cept those directly connected with the 
not only the Roman law, but also the army and navy. Formerly appointments 
modem private law of the various coun- to the civil service in Great Britain were 
tries; for example, in Germany, Das entirely in the gift of the executive gov- 
gemeine Deutsche Privatrecht: in France emment, and were obtained by influence, 
the Coda civil des Francats or Code while the bestowal of them was used as 
VapoUon. In this sense it is chiefly op- a means of gaining parliamentary sup- 
posed to criminal law, particularly in port on behalf of the government, but in 
reference to the administration of justice, 1855 a system of examinations was In- 
which is to be divided into civil justice stituted to test the efficiency of candidates, 
and criminal justice, and in 1870, it was directed that appoint- 

Givil List ^^ Britain, formerly the ments in the civil service should (witii 
^ whole expenses of the gov- certain exceptions) be filled bv open com- 
emment, with the exception of those of petition. — In the United States dvH 
the army, navy, and other military de- service a system was inaugurated by 
partmeats. It is now limited to the ex- President Jackson by which the party ia 

Civil War Clamecy 

power conferred the varioas appoint- oomposed a treatise on the fonr cnryea of 
ments on such of its members as had the third order, which, with his sub- 
most influence, or had done it most sery- sequent Reoheroheg sur leB Courbea d 
ice, there being thus usually a great double Courbwre, 1731, procured him a 
change of oflicials with each change of seat in the academy at the age of eight- 
president, on the understood principle een. He accompanied Maupertuis to 
that 'to the victors belong the spoils.' Lapland, to assist in measuring an arc 
After 1870 attempts at estabUshing a bet- of the meridian, and obtained the 
ter state of affairs were made, and in materials for his work 8ur la Figure de 
1883 a bill introducing a system of civil la Terre. In 1752 he published his 
service reform was passed by congress. TMorie de la Lune, and in 1759 calcu- 
The act creates a commission, composed lated the perihelion of Halley*s pomet 
of three members appointed by the presi- He died in 1765. 

dent and senate, known as the Civil Serv- r!l|iii.p (klar), St., or Santa Clara, 

ice Commission. They were to provide ^*«***^ Ordeb of, founded in 1212 by 

rules for open competitive examinations a lady of this name, of noble birth, bom 

for testing the fitness of applicants for at Spoleto, Italy, in 1103; died in 1253, 

the public service. Under the administra- and canonized in 1255. It has numerous 

tion of Cleveland and those of the sue- convents in Europe and America, 

ceeding presidents the competitive sys- fJloii^ton (klflr'tun), a city, county 

tern was greatly extended and it now '-'*«*** ^^^ seat of Clearfield Co., Penn- 

embraces most of the departments of the sylvania. on Susquehanna River, 35 miles 

government. N. of Altoona, in a rich farming district. 

Civil War. See united Statee. . Thwe are various manufactures. Pop. 

Clackmannaii ^^iL^afie^r^;^^^^^^^^ ''ol Clairvanx <^^^^)^ ^-^^^^^^ of 

Scotland,' containing little more than 47 Aube, celebrated for its magnificent abbey, 
Bouare miles, situate on the north side founded in 1114 or 1115, by St Bernard, 
of the Forth, by which it is bounded B. w., ^u^ suppressed at the revolution. The ex- 
while on nearly all the other sides it is igting buildings have been converted into 
hiclosed by the countries of Perth and an immense house of correction. See 
Stirling. The north part of the county is Oiaierciana, 

occupied by the Ochil HUls, which are dftirvovftTlce (klar-voi'ans; that is 
largely given up to sheep-farming, but Viairvuyanuc « clear-seeing'), an 
the other portions are comparatively level alleged faculty by which certain persons 
and exceedingly fertile, yielding large in certain states, or under certain con- 
crops of wheat and beans. The minerals ditions, are said to be able to see things 
are valuable, especially coal, which by some sort of mental or spiritual vision 
abounds. There are also some extensive apart altogether from the sense of sight 
ironworks, and some large breweries and nioTn the common name for the bi- 
distilleries ; woolens are also manufac- ^*^**^9 valves of the genus Ohama, and 
tured, and tanning, glass-blowing, etc., some other allied genera. In the eastern 
carried on. The principal towns are Al- United States the dams of market are of 
loa, Tillicoultry, Dollar, and Clack- two kinds; the hard or round clam 
mannan, the county town. Pop. 32,029. (Venus mercenaria) and the soft clam 
f!1fi.i1iTiTn (kl&'di-um), a genus of (Mya arenaria). The former are known 
x/AOiUAuaAA plants, consisting of twenty- in New England by the Indian name 
one species of wide distribution, nat ' quohog ' ; they live on sandy bottoms, and 
order Cyperacese (or sedges). The C. are obtained by raking or dredging. The 
MariecuSf or twig-rush, is a British * little necks ' are young clams of this sort 
perennial with keUed leaves, having a The soft clam is the Mya — ^the species 
sharp point and prickly serratures. It is used on the American Atlantic coast 
very common in certain fenny districts being M, arenarta, while that of Europe 
in Cambridgeshire, etc., and is used for is M . irunoaia. It has thin, elongated, 
thatching. white shells, is found deeply buried in 
f!1n.irfi.A (klft-r&k), a town of Prance, mud or sand near shore, and obtained by 
vFxaxxAv department Lot -et- Garonne, digging. The largest bivalve mollusc known 
on the Lot. ft was the first town in the is the giant clam (Tridacna) of the South 
south of France to declare in favor of Pacific region, whose valves may measure 
the Reformation. Pop. about 3000. two feet across and weigh 500 pounds. 
ClsLirtLnt (Uft-r6), Alexis Claude, GlameCV (>l*m-86)» a town of France, 
^**"***'' mathematician, bom at ^, V .^®P*^™^*,^ N*?^' ^9.^® 
PUris in 1713. In his eleventh year he ^onne. It has a fine church, founded in 

Clan Clap-net 

I49T. Wood-rafta tor the sapplr of Pari> waa frequentl]; formed of that of the 
witli firewood are made up here, and origliial progenitor with altii mac t*OD) ; 
floated down tba Tonne and Seine. Pop. tlius the Macltonalds were the ions of 
SS18> Itonald, and ever; individual of this name 

was cuniideted a descendant of the 
clan, and a brother of ever; one of iti 
inemberB. The chief exercised his antbor- 
it; b; right of primogeniture, aa the 
father of nia clan ; the clansmen revered 
and BCTved the chief with the blind devo- 
tion of children. The clang each occupied 
a certain portion of the country, and 
hostilities with neighboring clans were ei- 
tremely common. Next in rank to tbe 
chief were a certain number of persons, 
commonly near relations of tbe chief, to 
whom portions of land were aasij|ned 
during pleasure or on short leases, fiiach 
of tbese usuall; hsd a Bubdivimon of th« 
clan under him, of which be was chief- 
tain, subject, however, to tbe general 
bead of the sept. The jurisdiction of the 
chiefs was not very accurately defined, 
and It waa necessary to consult, in some 
— ftsure, the opinions of the most in- 
>ntisl clansmen and the general wishes 
of tbe whole body. It was latterly the 
policy of tbe government in Scotland to 
oblige the clans to find a representative 
of rank to become security at court for 
their good behavior : the dans wbo conld 
not procure a suitable representative, or 
wbo were unwilling to do so, were called 
broken clans, and existed in a sort of out- 
lawry. Tbe most notable instance of  
proscribed and persecuted clan waa that 
of the ancient clan MacGregor. who laat 
continued to hold their lands by tbe cotr 
a glaive, or right of tbe sword. Tbe re- 
bellions of 1715 and 1745 Induced the 
Brilish government to break op the con- 
neetioo which Bubsiati<d between the chiefi 
and the clansmen. The hereditary Juris- 
diction of the chiefs was therefore abol- 
ished, the people disarmed, and even com- 
Klled to relinquish their national dress. 
■w traeea of this institution now remain. 
except such as have a mers'>3 sentimental 
character: thus sll those who possess the 
«■ same clan name msy still talk of their 

Q^j^ ' chief.' thouKh the latter have now neither 

MtsT Woodw.rd), The W( v^v« lod muit].- ClaDhaHl 'dap ami. a BOOtheni solj- 

fob.. MRl h^l the wphon, «B tBiBovH!. , ,. R«- *"^" . urban district and pari 

pinlory nphona. the amttt indicatini the dj- borough of Tiondon. Clapham Common 

rretiOD at the cniTrenie; a o', Adductor muselea; is a fine open space of over 200 acres. 

»■ ?i"^ *■ """t "■ "r"""' '"'"'■ndrd by Pop. 58.5W. 

^^■i.^^^ '■ ^'■^■' '■ *""^ *■ '^"•'"^ "' Clap-net, " f^-n-^-p'-t "-"J by bird- 

„ ,. "i- " •, catchers, consisting of two 

Clan 'V^P,'|<^' n fibe or familyl, among ennal parts about 12 yards lone by 2\4 

the Ilighlauders of Scotland, con- wide, snd each having a slight frame, 

sisted of the common descendants of the They are placed about four yards anart 

aame pnigcnitur, under the patriarchal and arc pulled over by a string so as to 

control of a chief, wbo represented the inclose any birda on the InterveiiillK 

common ancestor. Tbe pame of ^he c\^^ epsce. 

Clappertbn Clarendon 

ClATmerton (clap'er-tun), Hugh, an Life and Scenery met with a favorable 

Kfuh^jfMMM. uvu ^f rnjan traveler, bom in reception, and the iaaue of his ViUape 

Annan, Dumfriesshire, in 1788. He Minetrel in 1821 won him many friends, 

entered the merchant service, but was A subscription furnishing him with |225 

impressed into the navy, in which he be- annually was, however, dissipated by 

came a lieutenant in 1816. He then ac- 1823. Andlda Shepherd's Calendar (1827), 

companied Dr. Oudney and Lieutenant which he hawked himself, was not a suc- 

Denham to Africa, where he remained till cess. He brought out a new work, the 

1825, returning with valuable informa- Rural Muse, in 1885, but became insane 

tion, although the disputed question of shortly afterwards, the remainder of his 

the course of the Niger was left undecided, life, from 1837 to 1864, being passed in 

On his return to Eneland Clapperton re- the Northampton Lunatic Asylum. Clare 

ceived the rank of captain, and im- was a genuine poet, and his pictures of 

mediately engaged in a second expedition, rural life are eminently truthful and 

to start from the Bight of Benin. Leav- pleasing. 

ing Badagry, Dec, 1825, he penetrated rHorp Talaviil ^^ island of Ireland, 

to Katnnga. within thirty miles of the ^'"*^^ ASiauu, Q^^j^^y ^ayo. It has 

Quorra or Niger, but was not permitted a lofty lighthouse. 

to visit it. At Soccatoo the Sultan Bello Claremont (klar'e-mont) , a town of 

refused to allow him to proceed to Bomu, ^*«** *'***"**•> New Hampshire, 50 

and detained him a long time in his cap- miles w. N. w. of Concord, on the Sugar 

ItaL The disappointment preyed upon River, the falls of which supply large 

him, and he died, April, 1827, at Chun- water-power, and feed to extensive manu- 

gary, a village near Soccatoo. He was factures of cotton, woolen, paper, machin- 

the first European who traversed the ery, etc. Pop. (1020) 0524. 

whole of Central Africa from the Bight rn&.reTlCfi (klar'ens), Geobqe, DUKB 
of Benin to the Mediterranean. vrx€»x^iiv«? ^P^ ^^^ ^^ Richard, Duke of 
Clfljanenra (I^l&'keiirz), the name Tork, and brother of Eklward Iv, King of 
"*H**^**** given in Paris to a com- England. On his brother's accession, in 
pany of persons paid for applauding 1461, he was created Duke of Clarence, 
theatrical performances, more especially and in 1462 lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 
on the production of any new piece. They but afterwards joined the disaffected War- 
were aomet\meB called chevaliers^U'lustre, wick, and marned his daughter. On the 
from mustering in great force near the eve of battle he rejoined his brother, and 
center of the pit, below the chandelier. was afterwards involve 1 in a quarrel with 
rjlora. Santa. See Claire. his brother Richard, who had married 
vriaxay Warwick's younger daughter, about the 
Clare 0^^^^' ^ maritime county of inheritance of their father-in-law. On 
vAcuv ir^idQj^ province Munster, be- the death of his wife Clarence sought the 
tween Galway Bay and the Shannon hand of Mary of Burgundy, but Edward 
estuary; area, 827,994 acres, of which interposed and a serious breach ensued. 
140,000 are under tillage. The surface A gentleman of the household of Clarence 
is irregular, rising in many places into having at this time been condemned for 
mountains of considerable elevation, using necromancy against the king, Clar- 
particularly in the E., w., and N. w. dis- ence interfered with the execution of the 
trict. Oats, potatoes, wheat, and barley sentence. He was impeached by the king 
are the prinapal cro;p8. The chief min- in person, condemned in 1478, and se- 
erals are limestone, lead, and slate, but cretly made away with in the Tower, 
the produce of the county is almost wholly The tradition that he was drowned in a 
agricultural. Lakes are numerous, but butt of malmsey wine is unsupported by 

Senerally of small size, and the county is evidence. 

efident in wood. The salmon-fisheries GlArendon (l^ax^^n-dun), CoifSTiru- 

are valuable, and there are immense ^*«** *''"***''** tions of, a code of laws 

oyster-beds in some places. Capital, adopted in the tenth year of Henrv II 

Knnis. It has lost largely in population (January, 1164), at a council of prelates 

through the miserable condition of the and barons held at the village of Claren- 

peasantry. Pop. in 1841, 286,394; in don, Wiltshire. These laws, which were 

1901, 112J.69. finally digested into sixteen articles, were 

Clarfi •TOHN, 'the Northamptonshire brought forward by the king as 'the 

^' peasant poet,* bom in 1793 at ancient customs of the realm,' and were 

Helpstone, near Peterborough, where his enacted as such by the council, but they 

father was a farm-laborer. He led a really involved a great scheme of adminis- 

rambling, unsteady life until 1818, when trative reform in the assertion of the 

he was obliged to accept parish relief, supremacy of the state over clergy and 

J^ 1S20 his Poems Descriptive of Rural laity alike. The power of the eccle9t« 

Clarendon Clarendon Press 

astical ooorts was restricted, the crown an unsuccessful attempt to impeach him, 
secured the right of interference in his influence with the king declined, and 
elections to ecclesiastical offices, appeals his station as prime-minister made the 
to Rome were made dependent on the nation regard him as answerable for the 
king's leave, ecclesiastical dignitaries ill success of the war against Holland, 
were deprived of their freedom to leave the sale of Dunkirk, etc The king's dis- 
the country without the royal permission, pleasure deepened when his plan of repu- 
etc. Becket signed them, but retracted diating his wife and marrying the beauti- 
his signature on the refusal of the Pope ful Lady Stuart was defeated by Claren- 
Alexander III to countenance them, don, who effected a marriage between 
Becket's murder followed, and to effect this lady and the Duke of Richmond, 
a reconciliation with the pope Henry The king deprived him of his offices, an 
promised the amendment of the Con- impeachment for high treason was com- 
stitutions of Clarendon. They were ac- menced against him, and he was com- 
cordinglv modified in 1176 at Northamp- pelled to seek refuge in Calais. He lived 
ton in favor of the church, but they are six years at Montpellier, Moulins, and 
not less to be regarded as containing the Rouen, where he died in 1674. His re* 

ferm of the ecclesiastical policy of Henry mains were afterwards removed to West- 
I. minster Abbey. During his second exile 

rjlar^Ajt^Qvi Edwabd Htde, Eabl of, he completed his History of the RebeUion 
\/Mu vuuvAty Lord High-chancellor of in autobiographical form, wrote a Wo- 
Englandyson of a private centleman of graphical Continuation in defense of his 
Dinton, Wilts, where he was bom in 1608. administration, and sought to vindicate 
After studying at Oxford and at the Mid- Lord Ormonde by a History of iKe Re- 
die Temple ne married, in 1629, the hellion in Ireland. 

daughter of Sir George Avliffe, and, in Clarendon George William Fbed. 
1632, Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas ^*«'*^"**v"j ebick Vhxiebs, Eabl of, 
Aylesbury. He commenced his political eldest son of the Hon. George Villiers. 
career in 1640 as member for Wootton- He was educated at Cambridie, entered 
Basset, and was again returned to the the civil service at an early age, and in 
Long Parliament (riovember, 1640) by 1820 was attached to the embassy at St 
the borough of Saltash, at first acting Petersburg. In 1834, as minister to 
with the more moderate of the popular Madrid, he aided in negotiating the 
party, but gradually separating himself Quadruple Alliance. He succeeded to Us 
from the democratic movement until, by uncle's title in 1838 and in 1840, was 
the autumn of 1641, he was recognized appointed lord privy-seal, and In October 
as the real leader of the king's party in chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, 
the house. Upon the breaking out of the He supported the repeal of the corn-laws 
dvil war he joined the king at York, and the reduction of duties, and in 1846 
was knighted, made privy-councilor, and was appointed president of the board of 
appointed chancellor of the exchequer, trade in Lord J. RusselFs ministry, and 
After vainly attempting to bring about a in the following year lord-lieutenant of 
reconciliation between the contending Ireland. He resigned with his party in 
parties he accompanied Prince Charles to 1852, when the Earl of Derby took office, 
Jersey, where he began his History of the but soon after the formation of Uie 
Rebellion, and wrote answers in the Idn^'s Aberdeen ministry he was appointed to 
name to the manifestoes of the parlia- the foreign secretaryship, which he held 
ment In September, 1649, he rejoined until Jan., 1855. After a few weeks' 
Charles at The Hague, and was sent by interval he returned to the post under 
him on an embassy to Madrid. Soon Lord Palmerston, and retained it until 
after his return he resumed the business 1858, being one of the signatories of the 
of the exiled court, first at Paris, and Treaty of Paris. In 1861 Clarendon was 
afterwards at The Ha^ue, where. In 1657, sent as ambassador-extraordinary to the 
Charles II appointed him lord-chancellor, coronation of the King of Prussia, and in 
After Cromwell's death he contributed 1864 was again appointed chancellor of 
more than any other man to promote the duchy of Lancaster. In the follow- 
tbe Restoration, when he was placed at ing administration, under Russell, he re- 
the head of the Enirlish administration, snmed the direction of the foreign office. 
In 1660 he was elected chancellor of the He was sent in 1868 on a special mission 
University of Oxford, and In 1661 was to the pope and the King of Italy, and 
created Baron Hyde, Viscount Combury, again occupied the post of foreign secre- 
and Earl of Clarendon. The marriage tary in the Gladstone ministry till his 
of the Duke of York with his daughter, death, in June. 1870. 
Anne Hyde, confirmed for a time his rnA.r^Tiilon Prf^fls ^^® press of the 
power, but in 1663 Lord Bristol made ^*"'«"«»*1 x«l», xjniversity of Ox- 

Claret Clarke 

ford, established in 1586. Here aU the CIayV Chablbs HebEB, an American 
printing for that university is done. vAwx^m, humorist, bom at Berlm, Md., 

rioY*Ai- (klar'et), the name given in July 11, 1841. Under the pen-name of 
Uliurct Britain, America, etc., to the Mux Adeler he was the author of several 
red wines of Bordeaux. A large quantity amusing books. His works include Out 
of wine produced in California is also of the Hurly Burly, Captain Bluiti, In 
called by this name, and is of a very ex- Hap^y Hollow, The Quakeress, etc. He 
ceUent quality. Tne name has become died in August, 1915. 
generic. See Bordelais Wines. Clark, G»9»ob Rogers, born in Vi^ 

fn • T. J rviar'i kord) or Clav'i- ^*«**'*'> ginia in 1752, settled in 1776 
Clancnord ^^l^^ an ©id keyed in- ^ Kentucky, where he soon became a 
strument, somewhat in the form of a ieade>' among the settlers. In December, 
spinS- Sometimes called the dumb spinet. 1777, he securwJ approval .of a plan to 
*^ VT. . - • -» ^ r conquer the British posts in the North- 

Clarification (War-i-fi-kftshun), or ^egt. In 1778 he invaded the Illinois 
^ , ;, ^ : , the separation of the country, and completed the conquest in 
insoluble particles that prevent a uquor ^779 ^ ^ resuH England gave up the . 
from being transparent, may be performed Northwest Territory by the treaty of 
by depuration, in which the hquor is al- yj^ pj^ j^ ^g^g 
lowed . to stand tmtil the Particles are ni i^ William. See Lewis and 
precipitated, and then decanted ; by filtra- V^iarik, ciark 

iwn, or straining through wood, sand, rn ^ TTniirArflifv an educational 
charcoal, etc. ; or by ooci/i«Za<»on. in which triarK university, institution at 
the labumen wntained in or added to the Worcester, Massachusetts, chartered in 
Uquid is sohdified and precipitated, tlie ^gg^ ^^^ devoted exclusively to post- 
extraneous substances bemg precipitated graduate work in the sciences. It was 
with it. Now commonly effwted by cen- founded by Jonas G. Clark. There is an 
tnfugal machines. See also Jftmng. institution of the same name at Atlanta, 

ClRrinet (Uar'i-net) or Clarionet, a Georgia, founded in 1870, and confined to 
\j».tM,M.ik%n/ wind-instrument of the reed colored students. 

kind, played by holes and kevs. Its low- OlorV a Charles Cowden. an English 
est note is E below the F clef, from which ^*"'* '»'*'> writer, bom at Enfield, Mid- 
it is capable, in the hands of good per- dlesex. in 1787. He was one of the minor 
formers, of ascending more than three oc- members of the Shelley, Keats, and Leigh 
taves. The keys of C and F, however, are Hunt group. His publications include 
those in which it is heard to most advan- his Hundred Wonders (1814), Adam the 
tage, though there are B flat. A, D, B, Gardener (1834), Shakespere Characters 
and G clarinets. (1863), and Motive Characters (1865). 

Clarion (klar'i-un), a musical instru- He is best known, however, by the edition 
• " ment of the trumpet kind, of Shakespeare, which he annotated In 
with a narrower tube and a higher and conjunction with his wife, and by the 
shriller tone than the common trumpet. Hhakespere Key (1879). He died in 
Clsirk Alvan. bom in Ashfield, Mas- 1877. 

\/M»Aik, sachusetts, in 1808 ; died 1887. Clarke Edward Daniel, an English 
He gained distinction as a skilful maker ^*"'*'^^> traveler and mineralogist, born 
of telescopes and achromatic object-glasses, in Sussex in 1768, entered Jesus College, 
— His son, Alvan Graham Clark (1832- Cambridge, in 1786; and was made a 
1897), succeeded him in business and fellow in 1798. In 1799 he set out on 
completed the Lick 36-inch refracting tele- an extensive tour through Europe, Asia 
scope in 1886 and the Terkes 40-inch in Minor, Syria, Egypt, etc., securing for 
1897. He made many discoveries in English institutions many valuable ob- 
double stars. jects, such as the celebrated manuscript 

Clark. (^HAKP (1850-1921), an Amer- of Plato's works, with nearly 100 others, 
'^ lean ClJongressman, bom in An- a colossal statue of the Greek goddess 
derson Co.. Kentucky. He was president Demeter (Ceres), and the famous sar- 
of Marshall College, West Virginia, 1873- cophagus of Alexander the Great. In 
74^ and later engaged in law practice in 1807 he commenced a course of lectures 
Missouri. He was elected to Congress on mineralogy at Cambridge, and in 18()6 
from Missouri in 1893, 1897, and from a professorship of mineralogy was insti- 
1897 served continuously. He led in the tuted there in nis favor. He died in 18^. 
Baltimore Democratic national convention A complete edition of his works appeared 
of 1912 for the presidential nomination on in 1819-24, under the title of Travels in 
29 ballots. He was chosen Speaker of the Various Countries of Europe, Asia, and 
House in 1911. Africa. 

Clarke ClassifiodtioiL 

Clarke Samuc, an English theo- throughout England, eren crossinf to 
^ logical and philosophical France to obtain the cooperation of the 
writer, bom in 1675 at Norwich, where National Convention. His labors went 
his father was an alderman; educated far to secure the prohibition of the slave 
at Caius Ck>llege, Cambridge. He became trade in 1807 and the emancipation act 
chaphiin to Dr. More, bishop of Norwich, of 1833. His death took place in 18M. 
and between 1699 and 1701 published His literary works comprise: A Par- 
E$9ayi an BaptUm, Confirmation, and traiture of Quakerism (1806) ; Hitiary 
Repentance^ replied to Toland's Amyntor, of the Abolition of the Slave Trade 
and issued a paraphrase of the Gospels. (1808). 

He was then presented with two livings, rnorlrffirillA (klarks'vil), a city of 
and in 1704 and 1705 twice delivered the ^"iriwviiic Tennessee, county seat 
Boyle lectures at Oxford on The Being of Montgomery C)o., on the Cumberiand 
and Attributee of Ood, and on The Ev^ River, 65 miles below Nashville. Here is 
dencea of Hatural and Revealed Religion, the Southwestern (Presbyterian) Univer- 
In 1706 he published a letter to Mr. Dod- sity. The dty is largely engaged in the 
well on the Immortality of the Soul, and tobacco trade and has manufactures of 
a i^tin version of Newton's Optica. He farm implements, flour, lumber, iron prod- 
was then appointed rector of St Bennet's, ucts, etc. Pop. (1920) 8110. 
London, and shortly afterwards rector fll a rlr TT-nivprfli fir ^^ institution 
of St James' and chaphiin to Queen ^^*^^ "*"^''""y> for higher leam- 
Anne. In 1712 he edited OcBaar'a Com- ing at Worcester, Massachusetts, founded 
mentariea, and published his Scripture in 1887 by Jonas Oilman Clark. Affiliated 
Doctrine of the Trinity, which became a with it, but under a separate endowment, 
subject of much controversy and of com- i<i Clark Collpge. 

plaint in the Lower House of Clonvoca- fllassic (klas'ik), a term derived from 
tion. His chief subsequent productions ^*«*""**' l. claasici, the name given to 
were his discussions with Leibnitz and the citizens belonging to the first or 
Collins on the Freedom of the Will, his highest of the six classes into which the 
Latin version of part of the Iliad, and a Romans were divided. Hence the Greek 
considerable number of sermons. He died and Roman authors have been in modem 
in 1729. His Eappoaition of the Catechism times called claaaica, that is, the excellent, 
appeared after his death. the models. The Germans, however, soon 

Clarksblir? ^ ^^^^* county seat of gave the word klaaaiach (classical) a 
wjAAADuuxgi Harrison Co., WestVir- wider sense, making it embrace: 1, the 
ginia, on the Monongahela River. It is standard works of any nation; and 2, 
the center of one of the greatest gas fields ancient literature and art, in con- 
east of the Mississippi, and there is coal tradistinction to the modem; and their 
and glass sand in abundance. It has glass example was followed b:|r other nations, 
factories (3000 operatives), spelter and A third use of the term, in contradistinc- 
carbon plants, machine shops, foundries, tion to romantic, is scarcely comprised 
tool works, casket factory, etc. Here under those cited, implying adherence to 
* Stonewall ' Jackson was bom. Pop. the established literary or artistic con- 
(1910) 9201; (1920) 27369. vention of some previous period, as op- 

Cilfl.r1cfidfl.le ^ ^^^* county seat of posed to the insurgence of new elements 
vfxax ikouax«;y Coahoma CJo., Mississippi, shaping a new convention. In this sense 
76 miles s. of Memphis, on Yazoo & Mis- classic usually implies the predominance 
sisNippi Valley R. K. Has cottonseed-oil of form over emotion and thought, while 
mills, etc. Pop. (1920) 7552. its antonym romantic implies the pre- 

ClflrkflOn (Klark'son), Thomab, an dominance of emotion and the departure 
vAcujkovu E n g lish emancipationist, from the old formal standards. From its 
bom in 1760 at Wisbeach, Cambridge- vagueness in this regard many writers, 
shire. He was originally intended for tiie such as G. H. Lewes, have vainly pro- 
church, and studied at St. John's Ck>llege, posed to dispense with the term. 
Cambridge, where be gain^ the vice- ClaSSiflcation (Was'i-fi-kft'shun), Is 
chancellor's prize for a Latin essay on ^*«'""***^"' •**'** commonly defined as 
the theme, *Anne liceat invitoa in servitU' the arrangement of things, or of our 
tern daref* (Is it lawful to make slaves notions of them, according to their re- 
ot men against their will?) His re- semblances or identities; and its general 
searches for this dissertation roused In object is to provide that things shall be 
him a passionate antagonism to the slave thought of in such groups, and the groups 
trade, and he allied himself with the in such an order, as will best promote 
(fakers and with Wilberforce. While the remembrance and ascertainment of 
the latter advocated the cause in parlia- their laws. As any collection of objects 
ni«nt, (Harkson conducted the adtation may be dauified in a variety of ways, 

Claude Ciandius 

no fixed method can be laid down ; but it of great value (usually called the Liher 

will be obvious that in correct dassifica- VeritatU), and much esteemed by 

tion the definition of any group must students. 

hold exactly true of all the members of rUoiidiAIIIlS (Uft-di-an'us) , Claudius 

that group and not of the members of ^*"' ***"«•**"'*» (commonly called Glau- 

any other group. The best classification dian), a Latin poet, native of Alexan- 

again will be that which shall enable the dria, lived the end oi the fourth and be- 

greatest possible number of general asser- ginning of the fifth century after Christ. 

, tions to be made; a criterion which dis- under the Emperor Theodosius and his 

tin^uishes between a natural and an sons. He did much to recall to dying 

artificial system of classification. Classi- Rome the splendors of the Augustan 

tication is perhaps of most importance in literature, ranking considerably above any 

natural history — ^for example, botany and other of the Iv.ter poets. Besides several 

zoology. In the former the artificial or panegyrical poems on Honorius. Stilicho, 

Linniean system long prevailed, in oppo- and others, we possess two of his epic 

sition to the modem or natural. poems, the Rape of Proserpine, and an 

Clande (1^^)> Jkan, a French prot- unfinished War of the CHanie, eclogues, 

**^ estant preacher and profes- epigrams, and occasional poems, 

sor of t|ie college at Nlmes, born in PlfiTiiliiifl (klft'di-us), often also called 

1619. He entered into controversy with vrinuuiUB ciodius. the name of a dis- 

Amauld and Bossuet, and on the revoca- tinguished Roman family of antiquity, 

tion of the Edict of Nantes took refuge gee AppiuM Claudius. 

m The Hague, where he died in 1687. niQ«/|l,'«- or. in full, TiBBBlUS 

His chief work was the DSfenae de la vittu uius^ Claudius Dbusus Nkbo 

Reformation (IplS). Gebmanicus, a Roman emperor, son of 

Clande 01^)» St., a town of France, Claudius Drusus Nero, stepson of 

vM»M«*w department of the Jura, at Augustus and An- 

the confluence of the Bienne and Tacon. tonuu the daughter 

It is the see of a bishop, and has a hand- ^f Augustus* s i s- 

■ome cathedral and communal college, and ^er ; bom at Lyons 

a fine promenade along the Bienne. It is (10b.c.). He lived 

celebrated for tumery, hardware, musical j^ privacy, occupy- 

boxes, etc Pop. 9024. ,_, • in« himself with 

Claude Lorraine iSS^a^Jid! ^iJSro^aX 

scape painter whose real name was Claude man history, and 
OeUe, but who was called Lorraine from other works, until 
the province where he was bom in 1600. the murder of Ca- 
When twelve years old he went to live Ugula, when he was 
with his brother, an engraver in wood at dragged from his 
Friburg, went from him to study under hiding-place and 
Godfrey Waats at Naples, and was after- proclaimed emperor 
wards employed at Rome b^ the painter (41a.d.). Theear- 
Agostino Tassi, to grind his colors and ly years of his 
do the household dradgery. On leaving reign were marked Tiberiitf CUudius. 
Tassi he traveled in Italv^rance and by the restoration of the exiles, the em- 
Germany, but settled in 1€C27 in Rome, bellishment of Rome, the addition of 
where his works were greatly sought for Mauritania to the Roman provinces, and 
and where he lived much at his ease until successes in Germany and Britain. But 
1682, when he died of the gout The later he became debauched, left the gov- 
principal galleries of Italy, France, Bng- ernment to his wives, and in particular to 
land. Spam and Germany are adorned Messalina, who with his freedmen com- 
with his paintings, that on which he Mm- mitted the greatest enormities. He was 
self set the greatest value being the pamt- poisoned by his fourth wife, Agrippina 
ing of a smaU wood belonging to tiie Villa (mother of Nero), A.D. 54. 
Madama (Rome). He excelled in lurai- frij,«J|,*„Q Matthias, a German poet, 
nous atmospheric effects, of which he viauuxu», ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ Lflbeck. 
made loving and elaborate studies. His His works, which are on a great variety 
figure work, however, was inferior, and of subjects, are all of a popular character, 
the figures in many of his paintings were any many of his songs have become a 
supplied by Lauri and Francesco AIlegrinL part of the national melodies. In later 
He made small copies of all his pictures life he became a convert to relifdous 
in six books known as lAhri di Veritd mysticism, and died at Hamburg in 1815, 
(Books of Truth), which form a work after having filled several public offices. 

dauenbug Claymore 

dansenbnrg. see jru.««.6.r,. ^^^''J^'^r^^ ISS; 

Clauathal. s^ Kiau^tkai ^SfVZ^^t^'^^^^^Z 

PlA«a4"ftf%<Mlitf%1>4a (klawB-tr5-f 61)14), crocibles, etc Loam is the same snb- 
UiauBXropilODia the fear of being stance mixed with sand^ oxide of iron* 
shut in. Like agoraphobia it is a symp- and yarious other foreign ingredients: 

torn of some cases of neurasthenia. The boles, which are of a red or yellow 

ClAVft^riA ^ genus of fungi« some color from the presence of oxide ox iron. 

vM»va xxthf gp^cigg qi which are edible, are distinguished by their conchoidaf 

ClaVerhoUSe. See Graham, John. S?*^*'*'®- ??^ ^^^^ *" ■j?""#***i ^"^ 

%#<M»v«#AuviM»w. wc^ uriMvwFfv, v 1/ ««• bolcs, contsiuing more oxide of iron. 

ClAvifihord. See Clariohord, ^^^^ varieties are fuUer't earth, TripoU, 

^/layicnuro. eee i/Mncaora. ^^^ houlder-olay, the last a hard clay of a 

HIavipIa (hlavl-kl), the collar-bone dark-brown color, with rounded masses of 
vAavxvAo ^ ^Q^ forming one of the rock of all sizes embedded in it, the re- 
elements of the shoulder girdle in verte- suit of glacial action. The distinctiye 
brate animals. In man and eundry quad- property of days as ingredients of tiie 
mpeds there are two clavicles each joined soil is their power of absorMng ammonia 
at one end to the scapula or shoulder- and other gases and vapors generated on 
bone, and at the other end of the sternum fertile and manured lands ; indeed, no soil 
or breast-bone. In many quadrupeds the will long remain fertile unless it has a 
clavicles are absent or rudimentary, while fair proportion of clay in its composi- 
in birds they are united in one piece, tion. ^e best wheats are grown on 
QaviCOm Beetles (Clavicomes), a calcareous clays, as also the finest fr^ts 
vAMVAvvAAA. M««^Mi^o i^Tge fsmlly of and flowers of the rosaceous kind. See 
coleopterous insects, distinguished by the the separate articles on the chief varie- 
club-shaped character of the antennae, ties. 

Burying-beetles and bacon-beetles are Clov Hbi^by, statesman, bom in 

typical examples, and there are aquatic ^**^* Hanover Co.. Virginia, in 1777. 

as well as terrestrial species. After acting as derk in two or three 

Cflftvis^ro (kl&-vi-A&'r5), Feanoesoo state ofllces he commenced business in 

vM»wA5«Av jg^vEMO, a Spanish his- 1797 as a lawyer at Lexington, Kentucky, 

torian, bom at Vera Cruz, Mexico, about He soon became famous as a public 

1720. He was educated as an ecclesiastic, speaker, and at the age of twenty-rix 

and resided thirty-six years in the prov- was a member of the Kentucky legis- 

inces of New Spain, where he acquired lature. In 1806 be was elected to the 

the languages of the Mexicans and other tlnited States Senate; and in 1811 to 

indigenous nations, collected many of the House of Representatives, where he 

their traditions, and studied their his- was at once made speaker, in 1814 he 

torical paintings and other monuments of proceeded to Europe and acted as one of 

antiquity. On the suppression of the the commissioners for adjusting the treaty 

Jesuits by the Spanish government in of peace at Ghent between America and 

1767 he went to Italy, where he wrote Great Britain. In 1826 he was appointed 

his Memioan HUtory, and died in 1793. by President Adams, Secretary of State. 

rriov (klA), the name of varioas earths. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the 

^^J which consist of hydrated silicate presidency in 1824, 1832 and 1844. He 

of aluminium, with small proportions of is best known for his endeavors to shut 

the silicates of iron, caldum, magnesium, out European influences from America, 

potassium and sodium. All the varieties and in connection with the 'Bfissouri 

sre characterized by being firmly coher- rompromise of 1820,' restricting slavery 

ent, weighty, compact, and hard when dry, to the states south of lat. 86* SO' ir.; the 

but plastic when moist, smooth to touch. Compromise Tariff of 1832, and a com- 

not readily diffusible in water, but when PPffwe in 1860 regarding the admission 

mixed not readily subdding in it Their of California, and establishment of lerti- 

tenadty and ductiUty when moist and torial government in New Mexico, Utah, 

their hardness when dry has made them £i^J?^M^!!2S°^ the slavery c^tert 

from the earliest times the materials of fc*^!!; *^® ^^aPJi ^Jl *Wo2?{l!i^ ^ 

bricks, tiles, pottery, etc Of the chief iS2^*'Sky ^M^anL^^Mv^^ S 

ymrieties p^UUfH^Jay kaoUn or china- ?he peSe^'t "SJaViS' AS?ert« ^^^^^^ 

™J' » ^Wte clay with occasional gray ^uced and a splendid party chief, idolized 

and yellow tones, is the purest. Poiier*$ bv his followers. 

olgy and jtip&^ilay, which are similar but (TliiiTTnAni (Uft'mOr), formeriv die 

IsM pore, are generally of a yeOowiah or ^^/^vio j^^^ two-handed, donfiii 

Clay-slate Gleavagre 

edged sword of the Scotch Highlanders. of England notes. Now, however, the va^ 
Cla.V«8lfl.te ^^ geology, a rock consist- rious banking companies and the clearing 
\jMy DAaifVy ^^ ^£ ^y which has been house itself have accounts at the Bank of 
hardened and otherwise changed, for the England, and the balances are settled by 
most part extremely fissile and often transfers from one account to another, 
affordins good roofing-slate. In color it The clearing-house system was introduced 
varies from greenish or bluish gray to by the London city private banking firms 
lead color. in 1775, but the foint-stock companies 

ClAVton Jo^i^ MiDDLETON, jurist, were in 1854 permitted to share its ad- 
vfiay iiuu^ hoTJx in Sussex Co., Dela^ vantages, and ft has been extended to the 
ware, in 1796. He was educated at Yale, provincial banks through their London 
studied law, represented Delaware in the agents. The system has also been adopted 
United States Senate 1845-49. and in in the larger provincial towns, and in 
1849 was appointed Secretary of State by New York and other large American cities 
President Taylor. He negotiated an im- it is in full operation. — ^The Railway 
portant treaty with England (see next Clearing House is an association insti- 
artide). He died in 1856. tuted to allow the various companies to 

PloTTf Ati-'RTi1'fi7AT TrAaf IT & treaty carry on their traffic over different lines. 
t^iayiun X>uxwcr xircatjry between Thus a passenger can purchase one single ' 

Britain and the United States concluded ticket which will carry him over lines 
in 1850, and having reference to the belonging to several companies, and 
construction of a ship canal across Nica- parcels are conveyed through without 
ragua. Both parties agreed not to erect additional booking, fresh entries, and con- 
fortifications here, nor to acquire any sequent delay, the claims of the different 
part of the Central American territory, companies being adjusted in the clearing 
This treaty was amended in 1901 by the house, which Is maintained at the com- 
Hay-Paunceforte treaty. mon expense. 
r.1 Aci Ti f li Aft ( kle-an'thes, a Greek Stoic ni aq ri ti ^.ti nf ( Siryohnoa potatih 

weanxnes 'phuosopherl bom at Assos ^leanng-nui; ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

about 300 B.C. He was a disciple of the same genus as the nux vomica, com- 

Zeno for nineteen years, and succeeded mon in Indian forests. Its seeds being 

him in his school. He died of voluntary rubbed on the inside of a vessel contain- 

starvation at the age of eighty. Only ing turbid water speedily precipitate the 

some fragments of his works are extant, impurities, this result being due, it is 

(Ttf^Ar Oape, a promontory 400 feet said, to the clarifying effect of the albu- 

VACiUy hish at the southern extremity men and casein they contain. 

^ift '" I'a lb^n?T% mur««£^ Clear'story. See Clerutorv. 

Uiearance OI V essexs ^ jj ^ exami- Cumberland. 4 mUes B. E. of Whitehaven, 
nation of vessels by the proper custom- with coal-mines and iron furnaces. Pop. 
house officers, and the giving of a certifi- 8302. 

cate that the regulations have been duly Oleava^e (kl^vij), the manner or 
complied with. Vessels are said to clear ^***"'*«*6** direction in which sub- 
inwards or outwards according as they stances regularly cleave or split * The 
arrive or set sail. regular structure of most crystallized 

PlAor-fiAliI (klSr'fSld), a borough, coun- bodies becomes manifest as soon as they 
victuiiCAU. ^y gp^^. Qf Clearfield Co., are broken. Each fragment presents the 
Pennsylvania, on the w. branch of the form of a small polyhedron, and the very 
Susquehanna, 40 miles N. of AltDona. It dust appears under the microscope an 
has products of brick, sewer-pipe, day, assemblage of minute solids, regularly 
coal, machinery, etc. P'^n. (1920) 8529. terminated. The directions in which such 
nAAriTl^ IToTlse (kier'ing), an in- bodies thus break up are called their 
vxciuxug jivuov; gtitution connected planes of cleavage; and the cleaving is 
with banks and railways. In the former called hatal, cubic, diagonal, or lateral 
case it is an establishment In large cities (or peritomoue) , according as it is 
where there are many banks, to which parallel to the base of a crystal, to the 
each bank connected with it sends every faces of a cube, to a diagonal plane, or to 
day in order to have its business with the the lateral planes. In certain rocks 
other banks adjusted. The sums due by again there Is a tendency to split along 
and to the banks amons themselves are planes which may coincide with the 
here set off against each otiier and the original plane of stratification, but which 
balance paid or received. In London the more frequently cross It at an angle, 
balance used to be settled In cash or Bank This tendency is the fonsequence of the 

Clebume Clement 

-- - r Ti I - — — ~ - — — -^>— -^-^— - - — •■' 

readjustment by pressare and heat of the Returning to France he was elected to the 
components of rocks, which la one of the National Assembly ; member of the Cham- 
phases of metamorphisnu her of Deputies 18t6-93 and 1902-20. In 
niphnmf^ (kle'bum), a city, county his daily, UAurore, he defended Dreyfus 
vfxcuuxuv; seat of Johnson Co., Texas, (q.v.), and it was in this paper that 
53 miles s. w. of Dallas. It has cotton Zola's famous J* Accuse was nublished. 
sins and compress, oil mill, peanut plant. He was a Radical, but offended the So- 
broom factory, car shops, etc. Pop. (1910) cialists by refusing to side with the strike 
10,364 ; (1920) 12,820. of the miners. From 1906 to 1900 he was 
niAnlrTiAofAii (klek'e-ton), a town of premier and minister of the interior, and 
VrieCKneawn Yorkshire, Enriand, 10 Suring the Great war (1914-18) he was 
miles w. of Leeds, with woolen and again called upon to take the reins of 
worsted industries, engineering works, etc. ^ce. becomine premier and minister of 
Pop. 12,867. war in 1917. Recognized as* the stroncot 
niAf (kief; French for 2;ey)» in music, man in France, popularly called 'The 
^^^"^ a sign placed on a line of a stafE, Tiger,' his inspiration was of incalculable 
and which determines the pitch of the benefit in winning the war, and he was 
staff and the name of the note on its lines, one of the towering influences at the peace 
There are three clefs now in use: the conference of 1919 when the Treaty of 

^ Versailles was being prepared. He re- 

tMhU or a det X written oa the «fned in 1920. «,„,„ t awa. 

fr AM niATviATia (klem'ens), Samuel liAHO- 

^ « B ^*'^"^'^^"» HOBNE, humorist, more «en- 

•eeond line ; the mean or O dei; n erally known by his pseudonym ' Mark 

n Twam/ bom in Missouri in 1836. He 

which may be placed on the first, second, S^F|^^/«^ some time «J » «>°ffrtl2r IS 

Sird, or fourth^ lines; and the 5ast or rf l^^ii^^P^J^ ^«}fe ^Sn^'^f^Sod,? ^ 

9 the Mississippi. He afterwards went to 

seated on the fourth Una. The Nevada and California, working in the 
""** mines and editing a newspaper in Vir- 

mean def is sddom used in vooal music ginia City. He subsequently engaged in 
Bxeept in part songs. lecturing, edited for a time a paper In 

C\att ^ name applied to varioua in- Buffalo, and finally married and settled 
^^^•' sects which are troublesome to in Hartford, Connecticut, making this his 
horses, cattle, and even to man from home for the remainder of his life. Los- 
their blood-suddng propensities. Such ing his fortune by the failure of a pub- 
are the great horse-fly, gadfly, or breeze Ushing firm into which he had entered, he 
{Tabdntu boi^iniM, the Chryiopa^ ccfour made a tour of the world in 1896^, 
i%ens,Bnd^eHitmatop6tapfu9iaUs), giving lectures and readings, and paying 
niATnafia (klem'a-tis). a genus of the debts of the firm with the proceeds. 
vticiuabiD ^oody climbing plants of He early made his mark as a humorist, 
the order Banunculacett. The most com- and is undoubtedly regarded as the great- 
mon spedes, O. Vitalba, virgin's bower or est humorist of the period. He died in 
travder's joy, is conspicuous In Bridsn 1910. His best known works of humor 
hedges, first by its copious dusters of are The Jumping Frog, etc. (1867) ; 
white blossoms, and afterwards by its Roughing It (1873) ; The InnooenU 
feather-tailed silky tufts attached to the Abroad (1869) ; Tom Sawyer (1876) ; 
fruitk Among the exotic spedes in ^ rramo Abroad (1880) ; The Prwee 
greatest favor with horticulturists are 0. and the Pauper (1882) iLtfe on the Ifu- 
flammiila, which produces abundant ^nippi (1883) ; and Huckleberry ^mn 
panides of small, wmte flowers, and has (1885). 

a fine perfume; C. ctrrfc^to, remarkable ni^Y^^iif (kle'ment), properly Titus 
for its large, greenish-white flowers; and vicjucut j'tAvnjs Cuocens, com- 
0. viiicellaj with its festooning branches monly known as Clement of Alexandria, 
adorned with pink or purple bdls. C one of the most famous teachers of the 
VirgUiidna is an American si>edes known Christian Church in the second and the 
by the same name as the English: €7. beginning of the third centurv. He was 
JaehmannL is a well-known garden converted from paganism to Christianity: 
hybrid. The fruit and leaves of the com- and after traveling in Greece. Italy, and 
mon dematis are acrid and vesicant. the East, became presbyter of the church 

Gllkni#klieefi.11 (de-min-sp')t Qeobgis ©f Alexandria, and teacher of the cde- 
Ui6iaciiui;ai& ^ jj ^ French stato- brated school in that dty. in which place 
Mum* bom In La YeDdee la lMi» ne be succeeded Pantsnus, his teacher, and 
was educated as a physician and resided was succeeded by Origen, his pupiL His 
in the United States from 1866 to 1869. chief remaining works are the Frotrep- 

power coDlerrM) the varioas appoint- oompoaed a treatiM on tbe foni 
m«Dts oQ Bucb of ita memben aa had the third order, which, with 
moat Influence, or had done it most aerr- aeiioent Recherohei <ur let ( 
ice, there beins tbua nsoally a great doMbl« Courbure, 1T31, procui 
chanie of officiala with each cbante ol aeat in the academy at the ast 
preaident, on the underatood principle eeu. He accompanied Mauj 
that ' to tbe victors beloni the apoila.' I^plaiid, to aauat in meaaurii 
Aiter 1870 attempU at eitabliahing a bet- of the meridian, and obtt 
ter state of affairs were made, and in materlala for hla work Sar la 
1883 a bill IntrodudEg a syitem of civil (^ Terre. In 1762 he pub 
aervice reform waa paaaed by conETeaa. fTMorie de la Lane, and in 1' 
The act creates a commission, composed lated tbe perihelion o£ Balle; 
of three members appointed by tbe presl- He died in 1765. 
dent and senate, known aa the Civil Serv- pi-i-* (klarl, Sr., or SAHi 
ice Commission. They were to provide «^«*»c Ohoeb of, founded ii 
rules for open competitive examinations a lady of this name, of noble t 
[or teatinK the fitness of applicants for at Spoleto, Italy, in 1193 ; die 
the public aervice. Under the administra- and canonized in 1265. It has 
tlon of Cleveland and those of the auc- convents io Europe and Amerlc: 
ceeding presidents tbe compedtiTe ays- Olair+nrt (klAr'tun). a dt 
tern waa greatly extended and it now "*<*** """■ ggat of Clearfleld  
embraces most of the departmenta of tbe sylvania, on Susquehanna Rivei 
govern men L N. of Altoona, in a rich farmic 

CiTil War. see united Bt»tM. . ^^ ""^ varions msnufactui 

Clackmannan 'r.!?;,— iV, "I Clairvanx K;.!'' dir! 

Scotland,' cootaintag little more than 4T Aube, celebrated for its magniflc 

auare miles, situate on the north side founded in 1114 or lUS, by 8t 

the Forth, by which it is bounded 8. w but suppressed at the revolution 

while on nearly all the other sides it is jg,ing buildings have been conv 

inclosed by the countries of Perth and an immeate bouse of correct 

Stirling. The north part of tbe county is cUttrciant 

occupied by the Ocbil Hllta, which are nioinrnTftnnp (klsr-vorana 

largely given up to sheep-farming, but vloxtvuyaiiuc 'dear-seeln 

the other portions are comparatively level alleged faculty by which certai 

and exceedingly fertile, yielding large in certain statea. or under ce 

cropa of wheat and beans. The minerala didons, are said to be able to 

are valuable, especially coal, which by some sort of mental or spiril 

abounds. There are also some extensive apart altogether from the aens> 

ironworks, and some large breweries and riam ^be common name fc 

distilleries : woolens are also manufec- *'"*"*) valves of the genus O'l 

tured, and tanning, glass-blowing, etc., some other allied genera. In t 

carried on. The principal towns are Al- United States the clams of mar 

loa, TilUcoultry, Dollar, and Clack- two kinds; the hard or ro 

mannan, the county town. Fop. 82,029. (Venut meroenoria) and the 

Cladinm (kla'di-um). a genua of (Mwo arenoHa). The former i 

uittUluiu plants, cousistlnR of twenty- in New England by the Ind 

one species of wide diatribuUon, nat. ' quohog ' ; they live on sandy bo 

order Cyperacen (or sedges). 'Tbe C. are obtained by raking or dredi 

MarUctm, or twig-rush, Is a British ' little necks ' are young clams o 

perennial with kelled leaves, having a The soft dam Is tbe Mya- " 

■harp point and prickly serraturea. ft is used on the American Atlai 

very common in certain fenny districts being M. arenaria, while that < 

in Cambridgeshire, etc, and Is used for is ll. truncata. It has thin, 

thatching. white shells, is found deeply 

Cluirflii (kl*-r4k>, a town of France, mud or sand near shore, and ol 

wiAuiM. department lot- et-Oaronne, digging. The largest bivalve moll 

on the Lot. It was the first town In the is the giant dam (Tridacna) of 

south of France to declare In favor of Pacific region, whose valves ma: 

tbe Reformation. Pop. abont 3000. two feet across and weigh 600 j 

viouauv niathematidan, bom at ' department Niftvre 

Paria In 1713. In his eleventh year h* Xoone. It has a fine diurdi, t 

 * . k 

Clement Cleopatra 


tik09, Paidag6go», and Sirdmateis or SirO- of high educative value. He represented 

mata (Patch- work) ; the first an ezhorta- perhaps the highest point of technique 

tion to the Greeks to turn to the one of his day, and his influence upon modem 

true God, the second a work on Christ, execution has led to his being char- 

the last a collection of brief discussions in acterized as ' the father of pianoforte 

chronology, philosophy, poetry, etc. Few playing/ 

of the early Christians had so wide a CleobnlllS (kle-o-bdlus), one of the 

knowledge of Greek philosophy and liter- v**'Vuiaxiao seven icise men of ancient 

atnre and it is as a higher philosophic Greece, a native of Lindus, who traveled 

scheme tibat he mainly discusses Chris- to Egypt to learn wisdom, and became 

tianity. He was regarded as a saint until King of Rhodes. He flourished B.O. 

Benedict XIV struck him off the calendar. 560. 

Clement, Cmimns Romanus, or Ole- Clg^jj^^j^^g (kle-omVn^^ the name 

^*^'***^**"'» ment of^ Rome, one of the '*'**' v4aava*.v» ^^ ^j^^,^ kings of Sparta, 

'Apostolic Fathers,' is said to have been the most distinguished of whom is 

the second or the third successor of Peter Cleomenes III, the last of the Heraclidie, 

as bishop of Rome, and the first of the king from 236 to 220 b.c. He intended 

numerous popes named Clement He is to reform Sparta and to restore the 

perhaps identical with Consul Flavins institutions of Lycurgus, and therefore 

Clemens, put to death under Domitian put to death the ephori, made a new 

A.D. 95. various writings are attributed division of lands, introduced again the old 

to him, but the onl^ one that can be re- Spartan system of education, made his 

carded as genuine is an Epistle to the brother his colleague, and extended the 

Vorinthians, first obtained in a complete franchise. He was defeated by the allied 

form in 1875. It is of importance as ex- Macedonians and Achsans at the battle 

hibiting the first attempt of the Church of of Sellasia (b.c. 222), and fled to Enrpt, 

Rome to exercise ecclesiastical authority where he was supported by Ptolemy 

over other churches. Euergetes, but was kept in confinement 

dement (kl&-m&Q), Jacques, the by the succeeding Ptolemy. He escaped 

vxuiuciAif assassin of Henry III of and attempted to raise a revolt, but 

France, bom in 1567, became a Domin- failing, committed suicide. 

lean, and the fanatical tool of the Dukes niAon (kld'on), an Athenian dema- 

of Mayenne and Aumale, and the Duchess ^^^^^ ^ogue, originally a tanner by 

Montpensier. Having fatally stabbed the trade. He was well known in public be- 

king, he was at once killed by the fore the death of Pericles, and in 427 

courtiers; but the populace, instigated by b.c. distinguished himself by the proposal 

the priests, regarded him as a martyr ; to put to death the adult males of ^e 

and Pope Sixtus V even pronounced his revolted Mytileneans and sell the women 

panegyric ,^,v «, . • *. and children as slaves. In 425 he took 

dementi (WJ-nient6),Muzio,piamst Sphacteria from the Spartans; but in 

vxciii^iiw ^ ' ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ violently attacked 

Rome in 1752. As early as his twelfth . _ A^of^«v.oT»«« in ♦»»« ir^^^h^. ^^a i«. 

year he wrote a successful mass for ^L^^^^^^'S^t.^^,^^^^ }S 

four voices and had made such progress ^"® Wasps. He was sent, however, in 

In the pianoforte that an Englishman, 422 against Brasidas, but allowed him- 

Mr. Beckford, took him to England to self to be taken unawares, and was slam 

complete his studies. He was then en- while attempting to flee. 

gaged as director of the orchestra of the CleODatra ("^l^-o-pft tra), a Greek 

o^ra in London, and his fame having ^ f^ 7, Q«e«5 ""KF^^H ^?,"-^- 

rapidly increased he went in 1780 to ^\Jt^ ^^^^ daughter of Ptolemy 

SiJii- .^S J« 17Q1 f.^ vTaTino uriioi^ ha Aulfitfis. Whcu shc wss sevcuteeu her 

S-^5i *Sui. iiA«lf L^ra^^^^^ father died, leaving her joint-heir to the 

played with Mozart before the emperor. ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^j^^^^ son Ptolemy, whom 

In 1784 he repeated his visit to Pans, ^^ ^^s to marry— such marriages being 

but after that remained in England till common among the Ptolemies. Being 

1802, when he went back to the con- deprived of her part in the government 

tinent He returned in 1810 to Eng- (b.o. 49), she won Cssar to her cause, 

land, where he settled down as superin- and was reinstated by his influence. In 

tendent of one of the principal musical a second disturbance Ptolemy lost his life 

establishments in London. He died in and Cesar proclaimed Cleopatra Queen of 

1832, and was interred in Westminster Egypt ; though she was compelled to take 

Abbey. His most important composidons her brother, the younger Ptolemv, then 

were his sixty sonatas for the pianoforte eleven years old, as husband and colleague. 

and the great collection of studies known Csesar continued some time at Cleopatra's 

as the wraduM ad Pamassum, a work court, had a son by her named Cc^rion 

Cleopatra*! NeedlM Clerestory 

(afterwards put to death by Aufiutiu), meat for tbe meaaarement of tiin« by the 

and gaTe her a mnpiflcent receptioii escape of water (rom a reMel throagh an 

when (he lubaequently Tlaited him at orifice. In the older 

Borne. B; pouoniiig her brother the re- ones tbe honrs were 

malned aole poMCMor of tbe regal power, eitimated rimply by 

took tbe rart of the trinniTitB in the dvil the elnkiiig of the snr- 

war at Borne, and after the battle of face of tbe water, 

Philippi sailed to Join Antony at Taiana. In others the water 

Their meeting was celebrated b; splendid anrf ace is connected 

festivals; she accompanied him to Tyre, with a dial-plare and 

and WIS fallowed by him on her return hand by a system of 

to Bgypc. After bis congaeet of Armenia weights and floats. In 

be again returned to ber and made bis the accompanying figure 

three aons by her, and bLio CnMirion, the float a is attached 

kings. On the commencement of tbe war to tbe end of a iJiain 

between Augostas and Antony tbe latter which is wonnd round 

lo«t a whole year in feetirals and amnie- the spindle B, and baa 

ments with Cleopatra at Epbeans, Samoa, at Its other extremity 

and Athens, and when at last tbe fleets tbe counterweight c. 

met at Acttom, Cleopatra suddenly took On water being ad- 

to flight, with all ber ships, and Antony, mitted from the ds- Qeponln. 

■a if wider tbe inflnence of frenzy, im- tern d the float rises, the conn ter- weight 

mediately followed her. They fled to descends and turns the spindle, wmch 

Egypt, and declared lo Augastus that if again turns the hand that marks the 

Egypt were left to Cleopatra's children hours. 

they wonld thenceforth live in retirement. ClCrestorV (Uer'sl&-ri), or Clxu- 

Angnstns, however, demanded Antony's stawtj btobi, tbe upper part of 

death and advanced on Alexandria. Be- the nave In Gothic cburcbes, above the 

Ueving Cleopatra who had taken refuge in triforlum where a trlforinm is present, 

her maiuoleum, to be treacherous and 

dead, Antony threw bimself on hla aword, 

and shortly afterwards Cleopatra killed 

herself bv a^plyinf an asp to her arm to 

.t. , p( Deing led In r 

""" Withh. • 

awpatra^s Needles, tj^^ ^^^l 

Egyptian obelleke, formerly at Alexandria, 
bnt one of which is now In London, the 
other in New York. They are made of 
tbe rose-red granite of Syene, and were 
originally erected by the Egyptian king 
^othmes III iu trout of tbe great temple 
of HeUopoll*, the On of the Scrlptares. 
where Moses was bom and brought up, 
l^ey were taken to Alexandria shortly 
before the commencement of the Christian 
era, and after the death ot Cleopatra, bnt 
poMibly in porsuance of a dedgn origi- 
nated by her. TAe Loudon obelisk, which 
stands on tbe Thames embankment was 

{resented to the Britleb government in 
820, bnt was long left uncared (or. In 
1877-78. however, it wsb bronxbt to 
, - .- j^ gi, 

„ _ J >50|66a ~Tbe New Pan ot Mklmcabiuy Abbey. 

York obelisk was presented to the United a. ChnMocy. s, Triforium, o, AnibM ct tla 

States by the Khedive of Egypt, and was «"vs. 

set up In Central Park in 1881, Each and formed by wells supported on tbe 

Is about 70 feet liigh and inscribed with arches of the nave, and lialng above the 

numerous hleroglniMcs. root of tbe side alslee. In these walb 

CleTWVdra. (Uep'Hi-dr&), or Watwr- windows are inserted for the purpose of 

'^ CLOCK, an andent inatm- increaiing the light in the nave. 

Clergy Cleveland 

Cler^V (Ue^'iU &om Greek kUros, en. It is his duty to lead the responses 

vTAi/Agjr 3^ xo^ through the Latin, and assist in public worship, at funerals, 

Clerioua and Low Latin olerioia), the etc. 

body of ecclesiastical persons, in contra- r!lArTnATit«flA.T^i1^VA (klftr-md^-d- 

distinction to the la»*y. The Greek word ^^®"*^""*^^ -*^^^^® lo^av), or 

came into use to indicate that this class Clermont do VH4rault (-d-lft-rO), a town 

was to be considered as the oarticular of France, dep. of Hdrault. 23 miles west 

inheritance and property of Goa, or else, by north of Montpellier. Fop. 5187. 

which is more Probable, because it was (JlermOllt - en - BcaUVaisiS <S?f " 

customary to select by lot those set apart ^a^^-^^^vaaw v«. .a#wwm.w<«mwp m5^. 

for special religious functions. At first t&;^-b6-T&-8S), or Clermont de VOue (d- 

there was no strongly-marked distinction Iwfts), a town of France, dep. Oisi^l7 

between clergy and lait^r, but the former miles east by south of Beauvais. Pop. 

soon drew apart, consisting, after the (1906) 4014. 

apoBtoUc age, of bishops, priests, and dea- fnprmnTif.'PArTsiTiii ( k 1 ft r-mO^-fft- 

cons. and in the fourth century of many Viennonx-X eiTana ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ 

additional inferior orders, sudi as sub- of France, capital of department Puy- 

deacons, acolytes, etc. With the in- de*DOme, on a hill at the foot of the 

creased complexity of the hierarchy there volcanic range in which the summit of 

was a steady accretion of privileges until the Puy is conspicuous. It possessed con- 

the burden of these became intolerable to siderable importance under the Romans, 

the laity. In England few of these now and became a bishop's see at a very early 

remain, the clergy being generally re- period. It is an antique and gloomy 

garded as invested with no inherent claim town built of dark, volcanic stone. The 

to regard. A clergyman cannot, how- most remarkable edifices are the cathedral, 

ever, oe compelled to serve as juryman* a huge, irregular, gloomy pile, and the 

he is exempted from arrest while cele- Church of Notre Dame, founded in 580. 

brating divine worship, from acting as It is visited for its mineral waters and 

bailiff, constable, or like office, from at- has various manufactures, including 

tendance at a court leet; but on the chemicals, ropes, hats, etc Pop. 44,113. 

other hand he cannot accept a seat In the rnermOTlt-ToTlIieTTII (kl&r^m69-ton- 

House of Commons, engage in trade or vr*«*xAij.vA*i# avau&^aav nftr), the 

farm lands of more than eighty acres name of a noble EVench family of whom 

without his bishop's consent. The one of the most celebrated was Count 

Episcopalians recognise three classes of Stanislas, bom in 1747. At the breaking 

clergy — ^bishops, priests and deacons ; and out of the revolution of 1780 he endeav- 

generally hold the doctrine of the apostolic ored to promote the establishment of a 

succession. Large numbers of Trotes- constitutional monarchy, founding with 

tants, however, reject this dogma, and be- Malouet the Monarchical Club, and with 

lieve in the ministry of only one order. Fontanes the Journal dee JmparHauo. In 

The Catholic clergyman, accordingto the 1701 he was charged with assisting the 

doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church, king in his attempt to escape, but was 

is endowed in his spiritual character with set free on swearing fidelity to the as- 

a supernatural power, which distinguishes sembly. In 1702, however, he was mur- 

him essentially from the layman. Reau- dered by the mob at the house of the 

lar clergy are those who live according Countess de Brissac 

to monastic rule, eeoular clergy those who Cleveland (klSv^and). a city, the larg- 

do not. \/A«¥^A€*Ai.u. est of Ohio in population, on 

Glero^ Benefit of. See Benefit of the south shore of Lake ISrie, at mouth of 

^*^*5/> Clermf" , , Cuyahoga River. It is the county seat of 

States. The plans for establishing funds plain above the lake, and for the most part 
vary, but in general they depend on con- handsomely laid out with streets crossing 
tributions from the clergy, supplemented each other at right angles. The abundance 
by endowments and gifts from local of trees gives it the name of ' The Forest 
diurch organizations. City.' The Cuyahosra la spanned by sev- 

ffiArlr JOHN, of Eldin, near Edin- era! bridges, notably the double-decked 
vici:&, i^urgh^ bom 1728; died 1812, a High Level bridge, 06 feet above the water, 
naval tactidan. for whom is claimed the connecting Superior Avenue and the Pub- 
invention of tne maneuver of hreah^ng lie Square with Detroit Avenue, built at a 
ihe enemy'e line. ^ ^ _ cost of |5,407,000. Qeveland has 14 

rifkrlr Pabish. a lay officer of tne miles of lake frontage, protected by break- 
VACX&, Church of England, appointed waters. The harbor has a spacious en- 

Clevelanfl Cliff-dwellen 

trance ; on the east side are the clocks for tion ; and in 1884 he was nominated for 
passenger service from other lake ports ; the presidency by the Democratic national 
westward are the great ore docks, with convention at Chicago, and was elected 
unexcelled facilities for handling ore. on November 4. Civu service reform and 
The Cayahoga River is also lined with tariff reform were advocated by him dor- 
docks. The Public Square contains a sol- ing his tenure of office, which came to an 
diers' monument, a statue of Moses Cleave- end in 1888. In lo82 he was again 
land, after whom the city is named ; and placed in nomination for the presidency 
a monument to the late Mayor Tom L. by the Democratic party and was a sec- 
Johnson. Under the ' Group Plan ' the ond time elected, his beinff the first in- 
public buildings are being arranged in a stance of a return to the presidency 
quadrangle enclosing the Mall. These after an interval of private life. Presi- 
buildings will include the City Hall, Fed- dent Cleveland's unflinching honesty and 
era! Building, Auditorium, Public Library, his diligent effort to promote the best 
etc. The plan of the Group Plan advisors interests of the countrv gave him a high 
included the i>lacing of a Union Station place in public estimation. 
on the north side of the Mall between the GleveS (^^^v'« ^ German JTIeve), 
city and county buildings, but it was later ^ ^ * " formerly the capital of the 
dedded to erect the Union terminal on the dukedom of Cleves, a town in Rhenish 
Public Square. From the square extends Prussia, 70 miles N. w. of Cologne, about 
Euclid Avenue, once regardea as the most a league from the Rhine, with which 
beautiful street in the country. There are it is connected by a cainaL It has 
2179 acres of public parks. The interest- manufactures of tobacco, leather and 
ing edifices of the city include the Western cottons, and a mineral spring with baths. 
Reserve Universitv, the Case School of etc. Pop. 14,684. 

Applied Science, the Art School, Museum Clew Bfl.V ^^ Ireland, County Bfayo, 
of Art, Music Hall, etc. ^^^^ ^^J9 a bay on the west coast 

The city is noted for its great diversity containing a vast number of islets, many 
of industnes, among which are its various of them fertile and cultivated, 
manufactures of iron, the refining of pe- Clioll£ (l^l^'s^^)* an electrotype or a 
troleum, wood-working factories, the man- stereotype cast from an en- 

ufacture of automobiles and parts, paints graving, especially from a woodcut 
and varnishes, and machinery of all kinds. Glichv (<^l^Bh^)» a town about 4 

It is an important railroad center, all . ^ miles n. w. of Paris, of which 

the trunk lines between New York and it now forms a suburb. Pop. 41,516. 

^^nr"tl'Sri»|Ve'"re'?'"l4'' S^ CUck-bcttle. ^ Water. 
commerce Ib very large, consisting chiefly Clients (l^i'^ntz). in ancient Rome, 
of iron ore, coal and lumber, amounting to ^'-^'^ were citixens of the lower 
nearlv $1,000,000,000 yearly. It is one of ranks who chose a patron from the 
the chief shipbuilding centers of the coun- higher classes, whose duty it was to ad- 
try. Settled in 1706 it became a citv in vise and assist them, particularly in 
1836. Pop. (1900) 381,768; (1010) legal cases, and in general to protect 
560,663; (1020) 706,836, being now the them. The clients, on the other hand, 
fifth city in population in the U. S. were obliged to portion the dauchters of 

Clf^VplfLTliI TTei<ylitfl a village of the patron if he had not sufficient for- 
l/Xeveiana XLeigniB, Cuyahoga Ca, tune ; to foUow him to the wars ; to vote 
Ohio, 9 miles E. of Cleveland. Pop. for him if he was candidate for an 
(1910) 2955; (1020) 15,236. ofiice, etc. This relation continued till 

f!1^irp1aTii1 a «ty, county seat of the time of the emperors. The term is 
\^AcvcuftiiU9 Bradley CJo., Tennessee, 29 now appHed to one who engages the 
miles E. N. E. of Chattanooga. It has iron services of a lawyer, 
foundries, woolen, hosiery, casket, fumi- Cllff-dwcllf^rs ^ ^^^^ or family of 
ture and flour mills. Pop. (1920) 6522. . ^wcxxcid, i^^^^^ ^^^ ^j. 
^, , , „ ^ ^, tmct or varied in habit, who formerly 

Cleveland. ^'^ST? Grover, 22d dwelt in recesses of cliffs in the vaUeys 
^ , ^ « ' *°^ 24th president of the of the Rio Grande and Rio Colorado 
United States, born at Caldwell, New and its tributaries. Their dweUing* 
Jersey, in 1837 : died in 1908. He settled places were so far up the sides of steep 
in Buffalo, and having acquired an excel- cliffs as to be almost inaccessible, many 
lent position as a lawyer was elected of them being skilfully built of stones 
"•7®^«*S ^^^- '^^ record for honesty in the rock openings. The stones are 
?22L®?*^?5^y •* mayor brought him in rudely dressed and laid in day mortar. 
1882 the Democratic nominatipn for gov- A coat of cUiy being spread on the walls 
•mor of New York, followed by his dee- outside and often one of pliuter on the 


& o 

i H 



davsen'bnrg Claymore 

ClaHSenburg. see Klau.^1>ur,. ESat,«»l2\nS7*'?egffi? ?Lfe 

OaiurtliaL b^ Kiau.tH<^ ^Ti^^*^^^^^ 

PlA«ia4>v#^««ltAVa (klawB-trO-fO'bi&)» cmciblefl, etc Loam is the same mb- 

l/iauSiropilODia the fear of being stance mixed with sand, oxide of iron, 

shut in. Like agoraphobia it is a symp- and Tarious other foreign ingredients^ 

torn of some cases of neurasthenia. The boles, which are of a red or jdlow 

Clfl.Vfl.^rifl. ^ genus of fungi, some color from the presence of oxide of iroii| 

\jiawat AXAi gpecies of wliich are edible, are distinguished by their oonchoidai 

ClayerhOTLSe. See Graham, John. ^?^*""- ??«. ^^*^* *" ■i?"*^^* ^^^ 
wMftYi9j.uvM»w« wcc vir»f»»pr*, w»» «. boles, containiug more oxide of iron. 

ClAVlAllord See Clarichord Other varieties are fuller's earth, Tripoli, 

Lriayicnura. »ee i^iancnora. ^^^ boulder^lay, the last a hard clay of a 

PIslvipIa (hlay'i-kl), the collar-bone dark-brown color, with rounded masses of 
vwvx^Ao a bone forming one of the rock of all sizes embedded in It, the re- 
elements of the shoulder girdle in verte- suit of glacial action. The distinctive 
brate animals. In man and eundry quad- property of days as ingredients of the 
mpeds there are two clavicles each joined soil is their power of absorbing ammonia 
at one end to the scapula or shoulder- and other gases and vapors generated on 
bone, and at the other end of the sternum fertile and manured lands ; indeed, no soil 
or breast-bone. In many quadrupeds the will long remain fertile unless it has a 
clavicles are absent or rudimentary, while fair proportion of clay In its composi- 
in birds they are united in one piece, tlon. The best wheats are grown on 
ClAVieom. Beetleft ( Glavlcomes) , a calcareous days, as also the finest fruits 
WAAYJ.VVAA1. M«^«^Mc»o j^jg^ family of and flowers of the rosaceous kind. See 

coleopterous insects, distinguished by the the separate articles on the chief varie> 

dub-shaped character of the antennae, ties. 

Burying-beetles and bacon-beetles are ClftV HbitbiT, statesman, bom in 

typical examples, and there are aquatic ^***J» Hanover Co., Virginia, in 1777. 

as well as terrestrial spedes. After acting as clerk in two or three 

ClAvil^ero (kl&-vi-^&rO), Fbancbsoo state offices he commenced business in 

vM»vAg^Av g^yjauo, a Spanish his- 1797 as a lawyer at Lexington, Kentucky, 

torian, bom at Vera Cruz, Mexico, about He soon became famous as a public 

1720. He was educated as an ecdesiastic, speaker, and at the age of twenty-six 

and resided thirty-six years in the prov- was a member of the Kentucky legls- 

inces of New Spain, where he acquired lature. In 1806 he was elected to the 

the languages of the Mexicans and other United States Senate; and in 1811 to 

indigenous nations, collected many of the House of Representatives, where be 

their traditions, and studied their his- was at once made speaker. In 1814 he 

torical paintings and other monuments of proceeded to Europe and acted as one of 

antiquity. On the suppression of the the commissioners for adjusting the treaty 

Jesuits by the Spanish government in of peace at Ghent between ijnerica and 

1707 he went to Italy, where he wrote Great Britain. In 1825 he was appointed 

his Mesfioan History, and died in 1703. by President Adams, Secretary of State. 

fHov (klA), the name of various earths. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the 

^"*J^ which consist of hydrated siUcate presidency in 1824, 1832 and 1844. He 

of aluminium, with small proportions of is best known for his endeavors to shut 

the silicates of iron, caldum, magnesium, out European influences from America, 

potassium and sodium. All the varieties and in connection with the 'Missouri 

are characterized by being firmly coher- Compromise of 1820.' restricting slavery 

ent, weighty, compact, and hard when dry, Jo the states south of lat. 38* W v.; the 

but plastic when moist, smooth to touch. Compromise Tariff of 1832. and a com* 

not readily diffusible in water, but when Pjona^fe ^n 1850 regarding the admission 

mixed not readily subsiding in it Their of California, and establishment of terri^ 

tenacity and ductOity when moist and torial government in New Mexico. Utah, 

their hardness when dry has made them fl^ J?*?!, P^!!BS°^^ the slavery contest 

from the eariiest times the materials of S!J^!S« ^auSi ^of *w.2wJl2l '«! 

wietles poroelatn^elay, kaolin, or china- the rreatest orators America has nro- 
day, a. white clay with occaidonal gray ^uced and a splendid party chief. Idolized 
and yellow tones, is the purest Potter's bv his followers. 

elay and pipe-eiaif, which are similar but fnovniore (Uft'mOr), formeriv (lie 
lev paTt» are gsnimU^ of a jrellowlah or ^"^J^^*'^ i^jge two-handedt doablt* 

Clay-slate Cleavage 

edged sword of the Scotch Highlanders. of Encland notes. Now, however, the ya- 
Clkv-slate ^^ geology, a roc& consist- rioos banking companies and the clearing 
\jAa,j oMa%t%ff jjjg q£ ^^y which has been house itself have accounts at the Bank or 
hardened and otherwise changed, for the England, and the balances are settled by 
most part extremely fissile and often transfers from one account to another, 
affording good roofing-slate. In color it The clearing-house system was introduced 
varies &om greenish or bluish gray to by the London city private banking firms 
lead color. in 1775, but the ^oint-stock companies 

ClAVtOTl John Middleton, jurist, were in 1854 permitted to share its ad- 
viajr kuiij j^jp^ jjj Sussex Co., Delsr vantages, and it has been extended to the 
ware, in 1796. He was educated at Yale, provincial banks through their London 
studied law, represented Delaware in the agents. The system has also been adopted 
United States Senate 1845-49. and in in the larger provincial towns, and in 
1849 was appointed Secretary of State by New York and other large American cities 
President Taylor. He negotiated an im- it is in full operation. — ^The RaUway 
portant treaty with England (see next Clearing House is an association insti- 
article). He died in 1856. tuted to allow the various companies to 

r!1flfrfATi.'RTilT[7Ar Trpnfv a treaty carry on their traffic over different lines. 
liiayxon-JJUlwcr xreuby, between Thus a passenger can purchase one single ' 

Britain and the United States concluded ticket which will carry him over lines 
in 1850, and having reference to the belonsing to several companies, and 
construction of a ship canal across Nica- parcels are conveyed through without 
ragua. Both parties agreed not to erect additional booking, fresh entries, and con- 
fortifications here, nor to acquire any sequent delay, the claims of the different 
part of the Central American territory, companies being adjusted in the clearing 
This treaty was amended in 1901 by the house, which is maintained at the oom- 
Hay-Paunceforte treaty. mon expense. 

Cleanthes <^^t*^'*?®^ JL^""^®? P*^i2 Clearing-nut (^''^^'^^o* ?,V**^ 

^A%0nAM,vAM.y,a philosopher, born at Assos ^*^w****& **«.w |.||,„)^ ^ small tree of 

about 300 B.C. He was a disciple of the same genus as the nux vomica, com- 

Zeno for nineteen years, and succeeded mon in Indian forests. Its seeds being 

him in his school. He died of voluntary rubbed on the inside of a vessel contain- 

starvation at the a^e of eighty. Only ing turbid water speedilv precipitate the 

some fragments of his works are extant, impurities, this result being due, it is 

CIaat Oape, a promontory 400 feet said, to the clarifying effect of the albu- 

vxcoAy high at the southern extremity men and casein they contain. 

S^inW iS fb2u^'lrter.?u'£^ Clear'story. See Cleruiary. 

east of Baltimore, County Cork. niAufnr IVTnnr (kl6-ft't6r mOr), a 

niMTATifie of Vessels (kl^r'ans). ^leawr muur ^^^^^ ^^ Enriand in 

triearance m V essei» ^ j^ ^ examl- Cumberland. 4 mUes s. K. of Whitehaven, 
nation of vessels by the proper custom- with coal-mines and iron furnaces. Pop. 
house officers, and the giving of a certifi- 8302. 

cate that the regulations have been duly Cleavafi'e (I^^^U)* the manner or 
complied with. Vessels are said to clear ^^^^^'o^^ direction in which sub- 
inwards or outwards according as they stances regularly cleave or split * The 
arrive or set sail. regular structure of most crystallised 

PlAorfi^lii (kler'feld), a borough, coun- bodies becomes manifest as soon as they 
\/icitiiicAu. ^y ggj^^ ^f Clearfield Co., are broken. Bach fragment presents the 
Pennsylvania, on the w. branch of the form of a small polyh^ron, and the very 
Susquehanna, 40 miles N. of AltDona. It dust appears under the microscope an 
has products of brick, sewer-pipe, day, assemblage of minute solids, regularly 
coal, machinery, etc. P^t). (1920) 8529. terminated. The directions in which such 
CHf^slTITl^ TToTlse (klSr'lng), an in- bodies thus break up are called tileir 
vrxcaxxug jjMiLinf gtitution connected planes of cleavage; and the cleaving Is 
with hanks and railways. In the former called hasal, cubic, diagonal, or lateral 
case it is an establishment in large cities (or peritomous) , according as it is 
where there are many banks, to which parallel to the base of a crystal, to the 
each bank connected with it sends every faces of a cube, to a diagonal plane, or to 
day in order to have its business with the the lateral planes. In certain rocks 
other banks adjusted. The sums due by again there is a tendency to split along 
and to the banks among themselves are planes which may coincide with the 
here set off against eadi other and the original plane of stratification, but which 
balance paid or received. In London the more frequently cross it at an angle, 
balance nsed to be settled in cash or Bank This tendency is the sonsequence of the 

Climax' Clinton 

posemes in proportion to its area baa a of cells and doplicationa so that they can 
decided influence on the climate. The retain sufficient water to keep the ^Xk 
almost unvarying temperature of the moist and enable the fish to five out of 
ocean equalises in some degree the peri- water six days. The climbing perch of 
odic distribution of heat among the India proceeds long distances overland in 
different seasons of the year, and the search of water when the pools in which 
proximity of a great mass of water it has been living have dried up. It is 
moderates, by its action on the atmos- also credited with a power of climbing the 
phere, the heat of summer and the cold rough stems of palm-trees, but as to this 
of winter. Hence the more equable latter point authorities disagree. It is 
temperature of islands and coasts as known of the climbing perch that the fish- 
compared with that of places far inland, ennen of the Ganges, who subsist largely 
and hence the terms intular oUmate and on these fishes, are accustomed to put 
continental climate. The British Isles, them into an earthen pan when caught; 
Tasmania, and New Zealand enjoy a the fishes live for days widioat water, 
mild or insular climate as compared PliTviKincy Plo-n^a &i^« plants of 
with, say. Central Russia or Central vumuin^ JTlUJU^f ^^.^k stems which 
Asia. Thus it happens that London naturally seek support from their sur- 
has a milder winter and a cooler sum- roundin^^s to rise from the ground. Some 
mer than Paris, though the latter is are twining plants, rising by winding 
nearly 3"* farther south. Similarly, themselves or their tendrils {cirri) 
though Warsaw and Amsterdam are round the trunks of trees, etc. Such are 
almost in the same latitude, the mean the honeysuckle and scarlet runner, 
annual temperature of the former is Others, like the ivv, attach themselves 
46.48''9 while it reaches at the latter by small roots developed from the stem 
54.4"* Fahr. The proximity of large as they ascend. Some in climbing 
masses of water involves also the pres- always twine spirally from right to left, 
ence of much aqueous vapor in the at- others again always take the opposite 
mosphere, which may be condensed In direction. 

abundant rains so as to greatly influence CliTieTii»r«1iiii1f C l i n k b b-built 
the plant-life of a country. Direction ^^^^'^^^ uiui&, (^in'sher, klln'ker). 
of mountain chains, set of ocean cur- a term in shipbuilding applied to that 
rents, and nature of soil are other mod- method whereby the planks are so ar- 
ifying elements. In exhibiting graphi- ranged that the lower edge of the plank 
callv the chief climate facts of a region above overlies the upper edge of that 
various methods may be adopted, but in below it. 

all the use of iaothermal linee is one of Glillicfll (^^l^'^-hal) Medicine (from 
the most instructive features. These are the Oreek klin9, a bed), that 

lines drawn on a map or chart connect- department of medicine which teaches 
ing those places which have the same how to investigate, at the bedside of the 
mean annual temperature or same mean sick, the nature of diseases, to note theii 
summer and mean winter temperature, course and termination, and to study the 
In this way we may divide the earth into effects of the various modes of treatment 
Bones of temperature which by no means to which they are subjected. A oUnie is a 
coincide with the limits of the lones into medical lecture given in the presence of 
which the earth is astronomically di- patients and students, 
vided, and when compared with these on Clinton (hlin'tun), a city, county seat 
a map show interesting and instructive ^******''* of Dewitt Co., Illinois, 22 
divergences. Geology teaches that vast miles a. of Bloomington. It has railroad 
changes have taken place In the climate shops and farm interests. Pop. 6808. 
of most if not of all countries, the Clinton '^ ^^^ ^^ Vermilion Co„ In- 
causes of which are not fully under- ^*****»v*a, diana, 16 miles N. of Terre 
stood. Haute. There are 27 coal mines within 

Climax (kirmaks; Greek, kUma», a a radius of 7 miles, employing 6000 men: 
**^ ladder or stairs), a rhetorical also stove and overall factories, brick and 
figure in which a series of propositions tile plants, etc Pop. 10,962. 

to the most impressive or final. roads. The Chicago & Northwestern car 

Climbing Percll (hllm'ing; Anabne shops are here. It has manufactures of 
vruAUMXMg AVAvu §canden$)t a sin- wood products, glucose, starch, bridges, 
gular ilsh, type of the family Anabasidn, engines, tractors, trucks, boilers, shoes, 
nstei^rkable for having the pharyngeal wire doth, wagons, locks, harness, candy, 
bones enlaswed and modified into a series paper, flour, etc. Two steel bridges cross 

Clinton Clive 

^M - T ^M - -  — ~ 

tiie river here, each a mile long. It has part of the food of the whale, and hence 

many educational institutions. Pop. often called whales food. 

(1920) 24,151. CllTlTier (Uip'er), a modem huUd of 

fJllTlton * ^^^'^ ^^ Worcester C3o., ^"I'lf^* saikng ship, having a long, 

vruuiivu) Massachusetts, beautifully sharp bow, the greatest beam abaft the 

situated on the Nashua River, 40 miles center, and a great rate of speed. It was 

N. w. of Boston, with manufactures of introduced in 1843. 

ginghams, carpets, wire doth, woolens, niifliprftP (klith'e-rO), a municipal 

etc. Pop. (mO) 12,979. trllineroe i^^ugh, England. CJounty 

rriiTif ATI * ci^» county seat of Henry Lancaster. 28 miles w. N. w. of Man- 

UAiuwUi ^^^ MiBsoun, 85 mUes 8. e. Chester. Pop. 11,414. 

of Kansas City. It has flour and corn- nKf^iq (kll'tus), the foster-brother of 

meal mills, iron works, etc. Pop. 5098. vxxvud Alexander the Great. He 

Clinton ^" Witt, lawyer and states- gaved Alexander's life at the Granlcus, 

_ ". "' man, born in Orange Co., but was afterwards slain by him in a 

New York, m 1< 69; died m 1828. Wm- fit of intoxication, an act for which 

ning eminence in Democratic politics, he Alexander always showed the bitterest 

was elected United States Senator in remorse. 

1801. Mayor of New York in 1803, Ueu- ni:«.p (Uiv), Robert, Lord Clive and 

tenant-governor of that state in 1811 and vrxivc Baron of Plassey, English gcn- 

Sovemor in 1817. It was due to his in- eral and statesman, was born in 1725 
nence that the Erie canal was begun j^ Shropshire. In bis nineteenth year he 
and he lived to see it completed and the entered the East India Company's serv- 

prosperity which itj?roduced. ice at Madras as a writer, but in 1747 

Clinton Gbobgb (1739-1812), an quitted the civil for the military service. 
> American statesman, first It was a perilous time for British in- 
govemor of New York and vice-president terests in India. The French under Du- 
of the United States. He was born at pleix had gained important privileges 
Little Britain, N. Y., the son of Charles and large grants of territory, and in 
Clinton, an American colonist, who came alliance wiui Chunda Sahib, Nabob of 
from Ireland in 1729. George Clinton Arcot were threatening the very ex- 
served with his father and brother, James istence of the British establishments. In 
(q. v.), in the expedition asrainst Fronte- 1751 Clive, who had already a reputa- 
nac, and afterward studied law. In 1777 tion for skill and courage, marched on 
he was chosen governor of New York, and the large city of Arcot with 200 British 
held office for 21 years in all. In 1804 troops and 300 Sepoys, and took it, 
he was elected vice-president of the U. S. although strongly garrisoned, without a 
in Madison's administration. blow, withstood a siege by Chunda Sa- 

Glinton ^^ Henbt ( 1738-05), an bib for nearly two months, and at last 
' English general in America, routed the enemy, took possession of im- 
He took part in the battles of Bunker portant posts, and returned to Madras 
Hill, Long Island, Forts Clinton and completely victorious. In 1753 he sailed 
Montgomery, and in 1778 succeeded Howe to England to recover his health, and 
in command of the British army in Amor- was received with much honor. Two 
ica. In 1780 he blockaded and captured years later he was back in India, in his 
Charleston. Sir Guy Carleton succeeded governorship of St David's, from which 
him as commander-in-chief in 1781. he was soon summoned to command the 

Clinton James ( 1736-1812 ) , an expedition sent to Bengal, where the 
' American soldier, brother of Nsbob Suraj-ud-Dowlah had attacked the 
George Clinton (q. v.), bom at Little British, destroyed their factories, taken 
Britain. N. Y. He served at Frontenac Calcutta, and suffocated over 120 of his 
in 1758, commanded the forces raised to prisoners in the Black Hole. Clive soon 
protect Ulster and Orange counties took possession of Calcutta and brought 
against the Indians in 1763. and accom- Suraj-ud-Dowlah to terms, but having 
panied Montgomery to Quebec in 1775. no trust in the loval intentions of the 
At Fort Clinton he was defeated by a su- nabob he resolved to dethrone him. 
perior force under Sir Henry Clinton and With the help of Meer Jaffier, one of the 
severely wounded. He was one of the nabob's officers, he effected his purpose, 
generals with the Sullivan expedition and in the battle of Plassey completely 
against the Indians in 1779 and was pres- overthrew Suraj-ud-Dowlah*8 forces, 
ent at the surrender of Comwallis. Meer Jaffier now became the new nabob, 

Clio (hll'o), a genus of pteropodous and Clive was made Governor of Cal- 
molluscs of which one species, C. cutta. Here he was equally successful 
boredlU, is extremely abumlant in the against the encroachments of the Dutch, 
northern seas, constituting the principal defeating their forces both by sea and 

Clivers Clodk 

land. Clive now yisited England again, also have a spring setting their works 
where his success was highly applauded in motion. The use of a horoloffiumt 
without much inquiry as to the means; or hour-teller, was common even among 
and in 1701 he was raised to the Irish the ancients, but their timepieces were 
peerage with the title of Lord Clive, nothing else than sun-dials, hoar-glasses. 
Baron of Plassey. In 1704 fresh and clepsydrae. In the earlier half of 
troubles in India brought him back, but our era we have accounts of several at- 
now as President of Bengal, with com- tempts at dock construction: that of 
mand of the troops there. Before his Boethius in the 6th century, the dock 
arrival, however. Major Adams had sent by Uarun al Rashid to Charle- 
already defeated the Nabob of Oude, and magne in 809^ that made by Pacificus, 
Lord Clive had only the arranging of Archdeacon or Verona, in the 9th cen- 
the treaty by which the company oh- tury, and that of Pope Sylvester II in 
tained the disposal of all the revenues the 10th century. It is doubtful, how- 
of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa. In 1767 ever, if any of these was a wheel-and- 
he finally returned to England. In 1773 weight clock, and it is probably to the 
a motion supported by the minister was monks that we owe the invention of 
made in the House of Commons that clocks set in motion by wheels and 
* Lord Clive had abused the powers vidth weights. In the 12th century clocks 
which he was entrusted,' but it was were made use of in the monasteries, 
rejected for a resolution that ' Lord which announced the end of every hour 
Clive had rendered great and meritori- by the sound of a bell put in motion by 
ous services to his country.' His health means of wheels. From this time for- 
was by this time broken, and in one of ward the expression, ' the dock has 
his habitual fits of melancholy he put an struck,' is often met with. The hand 
end to his life, November 22, 1774. for marking the time is also made men- 
Clive was of a reserved temper, although tion of. In the 14th century there are 
among his intimate friends he could be stronger traces of the present system of 
lively and pleasant He was always clockwork. Dante particularly men- 
self-directed and secret in his decisions, tions clocks. Richard, Abbot of St 
but inspired those under his command Albans in England, made a dock in 
with the utmost confidence, owing to his 1326 such as had never been heard of 
bravery and presence of mind. In pri- till then. It not only indicated the 
vate life he was kind and exceedingly course of the sun and moon, bat also 
liberaL He married the sister of the the ebb and flood tide. Large docks on 
astronomer-royal Dr. Maskelyne, by steeples likewise were first made use of 
whom he had two sons and three dangh- in the 14th century. Watches are a 
tcrs. much later invention, although they have 

filiirAra fi^A ruu^m^^m likewise been said to have been invented 

i/UVers. see LUfaven. ^ ^^^,y ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ century. A cele- 

ClntLnJL (kl5-a'ka), an anderground brated clock, the construction of which 

vxutti^a conduit for drainage, of which is well known, was set up in Paris for 

the oldest known example is the Clottca Charles V in 1379, the maker being 

MawimOj or great sewer at Rome, built Henry de Vick, a German. It probably 

■ome 2500 years ago. A portion of it formed a model on which docks were 

is still standing. It is about 13 feet constructed for nearly 300 years, and 

high and as many wide. — ^The term is until Huyghens applied the j^ndulum to 

also applied to the excrementory cavity clockwork as the regulating power, 

in birds, reptiles, many fishes and lower about 1657. The great advantage of 

mammalia (Monotremata), formed by the pendulum is that the beats or osdlla- 

the extremity of the intestinal canal, and tions of a pendulum all occupy substan- 

conveying outwards the fieces, urine, etc tially the same time (the time depend- 

riApIr ^^ instrument for measuring lug on its length), hence its utility in 

vxvuik| ^jjjg j^jj^ indicating hour*, imparting re^larity to a time-measurer, 

minutes, and usually seconds, by mear i^he mechanism by which comparative 

of hands moving on a dial-plate, pjid regularity was previously attained, 

differing from a watch mainlv in having though ingenious and simple, was far 

the movement of its machinery rega- less perfect; and the first pendulum ef- 

lated by a pendulum, and in not bemg capement, that is, the contrivance by 

portable. T%e largest and most typical which the pendnlum was connected with 

clocks also differ in having their ma- the dock-work, was also less perfect 

chinery set in motion by means of a than others subsequently introduced, 

falling weight or weights, the watch especially Graham's dead-heat escape- 

wheelwork being moved by the force of ment, invented in 1700. (See Escape- 

HH oncoilinir spring; but many clocks ment,) In a watch the balance-wheel 



aad sprinc serve the same purpose as 
the pendultim, and the honor of being 
^ the InTentor of the balance-spring waa 
contested between Huyghens and the 
English philosopher Dr. Hooke. Vari- 
oas improvements followed, such as the 
chronometer escapement, and the addi- 
tion of a compensation adjustment, by 
which two metals having unequal rates 
of expansion and contraction under vari- 
ations of temperature are combined in 
the pendulum or the balance-wheel, so 
that, each metal counteracting the other, 
the vibrations are isochronous under 
any change of temperature. This ar- 
rangement was perfected by Harrison in 
1728, and is especially useful in navi- 
gation. The accompanying cut shows 
the going^part of a dock in its simplest 

form. ▲ is a drum 
on which is wound 
the cord p, to which 
the weight is at- 
tached, the drum hav- 
ing a projecting axis 
with a square end to 
receive the key in 
winding up the dock. 
The drum is con- 
nected with B. the 
first wheel of the 
train, by means of 
the ratchet-wheel F, 
and catch B, which 
allow the clock to be 
wound up without 
turning B. The 
wheel B drives the 
pinion and the 
wheel D, the latter 
called the minute 
wheel; and there is 
a similar connection 
between D, E, F, o, 
and H. The last is 
named the escape- 
Clookwork. ment wheel, and into 

its teeth work the pallets of the anchor 
K, which swings backward and forward 
with the pendulum. The wheel D turns 
once in an hour, the wheel H, 60 times 
(the pendulum marking seconds), and 
by means of other wheels, and one aziB 
working inside another, the clock hands 
and dial show hours, minutes, and sec- 
onds. The striking machinery of a clock, 
or that by which hours, quarters, etc., 
are sounded, is no necessary part of a 
clock, and forms indeed a separate por- 
tion of the works, usually driven bv a 
separate falling weight, and coming into 
play at certain times, when there is a 
temporary connection between the two 
pornons of the clock machinery. See 
also Waieh, 

Clodins (Ud'di-us), Publius, a no- 
torious public character of 
andent Borne, son of Appius Claudius 
Pulcher, who was consul about 70 B.C. 
He served in the third Mithridatic war 
under Sucullus, and filled different high 
posts in the provinces of the East, 
where his turbulence was the cause of 
serious disturbances. Returning to 
Rome, he became a popular demagogue, 
was elected tribune m 59 B.O., was the 
means of procuring Cicero*s banishment, 
and continued to be a ringleader in all 
the seditions of the time till killed in an 
encounter between his followers and 
those of Titus Annius Milo. One of 
Cicero's orations was written in defense 
of MUo. 
Cloe-almanaO. V^ almanac or calen- 

ting notches or characters on a clog or 
block, generally of wood. The block had 
generally four sides, three months for 
each edge. The number of days is 
marked by notches, while various sym- 
bols are used to denote saints' days, the 
golden number, etc 

Closrlier (kl^'s^>')> & village and oM 
o episcopal see of Ireland in 

County Tyrone, with cathedral and 
bishop s palace. The see, of which St. 
Patrick is said to have been the first 
bishop, is united with tiiat of Armagh. 
Pop. about 280. 

Cloisonne (klw&-son-a). see Enamel, 

Cloister (Wds't«r), an arched way or 
^* gallery, often forming part 
of certain portions of monastic and col- 
legiate buildings, usually having a wall 
of the building on one side, and an open 
colonnade, or a series of windows with 
piers and columns adjoining an interior 
yard or court on the other side. Such 
galleries were originally intended as 
places of exercise and recreation, the 
persons using them being under cover. 
The term is also used as equivalent to 
convent or monastery. 

cionairiity (;?ro'^»iad.v«*nf; 

Cork, with a considerable trade in grain. 
Pop. 367a 

fSlAiiTnAl (klon>mer), a munidpal 
UAUumci j^j,^ ^jj^j jggg parliamen- 

tary borough of Ireland, partly in County 
Waterford and partly in County Tip- 
erary. It lies in a beautiful valley on 
both sides of, and on two islands in, the 
river Suir, and has a jail, barracks, 
courthouse, etc. ; carries on tanning, 
brewing, and flour-milling, and has a 
trade in agricultural produce. It was 
the birthplace of Sterne. Pop. about 

Clontarf Clotbing 

Clontarf (Uon'turf), a town of Ire- supported by more than 100 memben and 
vAvuncMA 1^^^^^ County Dabiin, on the opposed by less than 40, or have the eup- 
northem shore of Dabiin Bay. It is a port of 200 members. The introdaction 
much-frequented watering-place and is of the closure was intended to prevent 
historically interesting as the scene of debates from being too long continued. 
Brian Boroimhe*s victory over the Danes Plnfli ^ fabric formed by interweav- 
in 1014. Pop. 5106. ^/lUUl^ ^^ threads or fibers of animal 
Clootft (U^^)> Jk^iv BApnsm Babon or vecetable origin, as wool, haiir. cotton, 
\^Awvo ^ Binguiar character weU known flax, nemp, etc Cloth may also be made 
during the revolutionary scenes in by felting tM well as by weaving. See 
France under the appellation of Atuh Coiionf woolen. Bilk, etc. 
chanie ClooU. He was bom at Cleves Glothfifl-moth ^® n^me common to 
in 1766, and was brought up at Paris. ^*vi»A*i*a-AiAvw4A| several moths of the 
He became possessed of a considerable genus Tinia, whose larvae are destruc- 
fortune. which he partly disripated in tlve to woolen fabrics, feathers, furs, 
fantastic schemes for the union of all etc, u]pon which they feed, using at the 
peoples and races in one democratic same tune the material for the construc- 
brotherhood. The outbreak of the French tion of the cases in which they assume 
revolution afforded him the kind of the chrysalis state, 
career he sought. In 1790, Cloots pre- Clothincr (hl^'^^ing)* the clothes or 
sented himself at the bar of the national ^^^^ «*****& dress, that is. the artificial 
assembly, accompanied by a considerable coverings, collectively, which people wear, 
number of enthusiastic followers of van- Nothing is more necessary to comfort 
ous nationalities, English, German, than that the body should be kept in 
Italian. Spanish, Arabians— or Pari- nearly a uniform temperature, thus pre- 
slans dressed up as such. He described venting the disturoance of the important 
himself as the orator of the human race, excretory functions of the skin by the 
and demanded the right of confederation, influence of heat or cold. A considerable 
which was aranted him. His enthusi- degree of cold often lays the foundation 
asm for radical reforms, his hate of of the whole host of chronic diseases, 
Christianity and of royalty, and a gift foremost among which are found scrofula 
of 12,000 livres on behalf of the national and consumption. The only kind of 
defense, gained him in Sept, 1792, elec- dress that can afford the protection rv- 
tion to the national convention, in which quired by the changes of temperature to 
he voted for the death of Louis XVI in which the cooler or temperate cUmatett 
the name of the human race. But be- are liable is tooolen. Those who would 
coming an object of suspicion to Robes- receive the advantage which the wearing 
pierre, he was arrested and guillotined of wool is capable of affording must wesr 
March 24, 1794. He met his fate with it next to the skin ; for it is in this situs- 
great indifference. tion only that its health-preserving power 

Cloanet (klo'kwetV a village of Carl- can be felt. The great advantagies of 
^ W^, J^on Co., Minnesota. 30 miles woolen doth are briefly these: — ^the readi- 
w. of Duluth. It ban lumber and paper ness with which it allows the escape of 

ton Co., Minnesota. 30 miles woolen doth are briefly these : — ^the readi- 
h. It ban lumber and paper ness with which it allows the escape of 
mills, etc. Pop. (1920) 5127. sweat through its texture; its power of 

Close CorDOration. ^u/^? rporatlon preserving the sensation of warmth to the 
'^ , , ' which fills up Bkin under all drcumstances ; the slowness 
Its own vacancies, the election of mem- with which it conducts heat ; the softness, 
bers not being open to the public lightness, and pliancy of its texture. 

Close-hauled. ^^ navigation, said of Cotton cloth, though it differs but Uttle 

' a ship when the ^ gen- from linen, approaches nearer to the 
eral arrangement or trim of the sails is nature of woolen, and on that account 
such as to enable her to sail as nearly must be esteemed as the next best sub* 
against the wind as possible. stance of which dothing may be made. 

Closure (kl<>8'flr), a mle in British Bilk is the next in point of excellence, 
r ^T Pfrliamentary procedure, but it is very inferior to cotton in every 
adopted in 1887 by which, at any time respect. Linen possesses the contrary of 
after a question has been proposed, a mo- most of the properties enumerated ss 
tion may be made with the speaker's or excdlendes in woolen. It retains thh 
chairman's consent * That the question matter of perspiration in its texture, and 
be now put,' when the motion is Imme- it conducts heat too rapidly, 
diately put and decided without debate ninflio (klO'thO), in Greek mythology 
or amendment So also if a clause of a ^^vnuv ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ three Fates of 
bin is under debate a motion that it Parcn whose duty It was to spin the 
stand or be added may be put and carried thread of life, while Lachesls assigned the 
in the same way. The motion must be lot, and Atropos, the Inflexible^ cut the 


dotnre Goud 

thread. The three appear In Hcalod aa thick, heaTy douda often touch low moun- 
the dauKhtera of Zeiu and Tbemla. Id art talna, atceplea and eren tree«. Cloods 
dotho was repnaeDted by the iplndle, differ much In form and character, but are 
liAcheala bj ths gbba, and Atropca bj a nueraUr daned (foUowlnK Luke Howard, 
■nndlaL In his EMiav on Clowib) , Into three rimple 

Clotniv ^B clodng of debate In a le«- or primary forma, via. : — 1. The oimtt, ao 
v«wvius, m,(jyg body. The U<^ of called from its raemhiance to a lock of 
any provtaion for thia in the Senate of the hair, and conaiating of fibers which diverge 
United Statea haa often led to Intermin- In all directions. Clouds of this descrip- 
able debates, and in certain caaea to the tlon float at a great height, usuatly from 
defeat of Important biUa with majoridea 3 to 6 mUea above the earth'a aurface. 
In their favor, through being tallied to Long, atreafcy forms are called more'* 
death by a minority. On March 8, 1817, toil*. 2. The cumulut or heap, a cloud 
• nil waa pasaod eatkbliahlng the right to which aasnmea the form of dense convex ot 

OaiHKSrnia. Claod-Cumutua. 

Ooud-Stntua. Ck«d-NIiiibua. 

doM debate nnder certain condltiona. It eonleal beapa, resting on a fUtttsb base; 

provided that In two days after notice In called also aummer-cloud. Under ordi- 

writing has bepn given by 16 Senators the nury clrcumatuncee these clouds accom- 

clodng of debate on a parUcular bill shall P*"! ^n" weather, especially In the beat 

be called for, and, if settled in the affirma- 2i J"^^^',: ^'^° , aocp^Ban? ^" ""J"* 

dve by a two-thlrde vote, that bUl shall ^^- ^^ cnmulua cloud ia at the top 

b. heU before the Senates until its final ?i 'r"^°y'"a?Sto'Slir""«'StT^ 

dlap«dtion.en|A Senator being Umitrf to ^J^T'ln rte 'af^e'^nTld Sl^y d^ 

one hour^debato in all on the bill, with creaae towards aunaet. 3. The *lroliM, 

its amendments and motions arising from gg named from its spreading out nnl- 

IL Also after ths two-thirds vote no formly in a horiiontaf layer, which re- 

amendment shall be offered without onanl- ceivee all Itx augmentationa of volume 

mona canaent. from below. It belongs essentially to 

Cloud ' collection of visible vapor or the night, and is frequently seen on calm 

> watery partldea suspended In summer evenings after sunset ascend- 

the atmosphere at some altitude. They Ing from the lower to the higher grounds, 

differ from fogs only by their height and and dispersing In the form of a cumulus 

less degree of transparency. The average at sunnae. These three primary forma 

height of donda Is calculated to he 2\h of clouds are subdivided as foll<^ : — 1. 

mlus, thin and light douda being mucu The enro-cumwIiM, composed of a coUec- 

Ugku than the huhest monntalna, while tlos ot drri, and spreading Itsdf tre- 

Cloud Clover 

qaently oyer the sky in the form of beds highly distingoiBhed himself. On Ms 
of deUcate snowflakes. 2. The cirro- return from a tour in America (1852) 
stratus or wane-^loud, so called from its he was appointed an examiner attached 
being generally seen slowly sinking, and to the educational branch of the privy- 
in a state of transformation; when seen council office. He died in 1861, at 
In the distance, a collection of these Florence, while returning from a jour- 
clouds suggests the resemblance of a ney to Greece. His poems, of which 
shoal of fish, and the sky. when thickly the best known are Bothie of Toher-na- 
mottled with them, is called in popular VuoUcht Amours de Voyages, and the 
language a mackerel sky. 3. The c«- Tragedy of Dipsychus. were published* 
muTo-stratus or twain-cloud, one of the along with a memoir, in 1802. 
grandest and most beautiful of clouds, and (Jlnve Bark ^^ Gulil'awan Babx, 
consisting of a collection of large, fleecy ^*v» a»c»xxk, ^ furnished by a tree 
clouds oyerhanging a flat stratum or of the Molucca Islands (CtfinafndsisM 
base. 4. The nimbus, cumuUhoirrO' Culitawan), It is in pieces more or len 
stratus^ or ratfi-cloifd, recognizable, ac- lone, almost flat, thick, fibrous, covered 
cording to Mr. Howard, by its fibrous with a white epidermis of a reddish-yel- 
border and uniformly gray aspect. It is low inside, of a nutmeg and clove odor, 
a dense cloud spreading out into a crown and of an aromatic and shari> taste. In 
of cirrus and passing beneath into a commerce the name is also given to the 
shower. It presents one of the least bark of the Myrtus oaryopnyUdta, It 
attractive appearances among clouds, but is of a deep-brown color, very thin and 
it is only when the dark surface of this hard, and has similar properties to dn- 
cloud forms its background that the namon. 

splendid phenomenon of the rainbow is r!1nirp.cn11irfl oixfAr (kldv-jll'flower), 
exhibited in perfection. VlUVC-JflliyjlUWtsr ^^ carnation, or 
mnnii (l^lo), St., a town, France, de- a dove-scented variety of it 
vAuuu. partment Seine-et-Oiae, 6 miles Clover ®' Tbkfoil (klOVer, trC'- 
8. w. from Paris, charmingly situated ^*v*^^9 foil), a name of different spe- 
on the slope of a hill overlooking the cies of plants of the genus TrifoUum, 
ri?er Seine. It is celebrated for its nat. order Leguminose. There are 
ch&teau and its magnificent park, a about 150 species. Some are weeds, but 
favorite holiday resort of the Parisians, many species are valued as food for 
As the residence of the monarchs of cattle. T. pratense, or common red do- 
France, St. Cloud is historically inter- ver, is a biennial, and sometimes, es- 
esting. Louis XIV bought the old diA- pecially on chalky soils, a triennial 
teau and presented it to his brother, the plant. This is the kind most commonly 
Duke of Orleans, who enlarged and cultivated, as it yields a larger product 
transformed it into a splendid palace, than any of the other sorts. Trifolium 
which became the residence of Henrietta, repent, or white clover, is a most valu- 
queen of Charles I of England, during able plant for pasturage over the whole 
her exile. It was sold by Louis Phi- of Europe, Central Asia, and North 
lippe of Orleans to Marie Antoinette, and America, and has also been introduced 
after the revolution chosen by Napoleon Into South America. The bee gathers 
for his residence. It was the summer much of its honey from the flowers of 
residence of Napoleon III, and was this spedes. T. hybridum, alsike, hy- 
greatly damaged in the Franco-German brld. or Swedish clover, has been long 
War. Pop. 7106. cultivated in the south of Sweden, and 
ClondberrV (t^loudlier-i), or MouN- for some time also in other countries; it 
vrAvu.uv«^xxj y^jj Bramble {Rubus is strongly recommended for cold, mdst 
chamttmOrus) , a fruit found plentifully stiff soils. It resembles the common red 
in the north of Europe, Asia, and Amer- clover in duration, stature and mode of 
ica, of the samegenus with the bramble growth. T. medium, perennial red or 
or blackberry. The plant is from 4 to 8 meadow clover, much resembles the com- 
or 10 inches high, with a rather large mon red, but differs somewhat in habit 
handsome leaf, indented and serrated and the bright-red flowers are larger and 
at the edges. The flowers are large and form a less compact head. Its produce 
white, and the berries, which have a is less in quantity, and not so nntoritive, 
very fine flavor, are orange yellow in as that of the common red. T. Incams- 
color, and about the sise of a bramble- tvm. crimson or Italian clover, is mndi 
berry. ^^ cultivated in France and Italy and is 
Clonfirh tlfl«ff>' Abthtjb Huoh, an spreading to other countries. It bears 
o English poet, bom at Liver- oblong or cylindrical spikes of rich crlm- 
pooL 1819. He studied under Dr. Arnold son flowers, and is sometimes pUuited 
at Rugby, and then at Oxford, where he for decorative purposes in flower gar> 


Clover-weevil Clnb 

dens. The name clover in often applied dox, wblle moat of the western princea 
t(i plants like medick and meliloC, cul- were Aria no. It now became nia ol>- 
tivated for the same purpoae and be- ject to rid himaelf by any means of all 
longioB to the same natural order, the other Frankiah rulers, in order that 
although not of the aome genua. he might leave the whole territory of 

Clover-weevil ' ^"^^ "' weevil, the Franks to his children ; and in this 
vivvvi. wcc»ji, genus Apion, differ- purpoae he succeeded by treachery and 
ent species of which, or their larvs, feed cruelty. He died at Paris, which he had 
on the leaves and seeda of the clover, aa made hia capital, on Nov. 2T, 511, in the 
also on tares and other leguminoua thirtieth vear of hia reign. In the last 
plants. A. apricant, of a bluish-black year of his reign Ctovia bad called a 
color, and little more than a line in council at Orleans, from which are 
length, is especially destructive. dated the peculiar privileges claimed by 

Cloves (^'^^')i B. very pungent aro- the kings of France in opposition tu the 

matlc spice, the dried flower- pope. 

buds of Caryophj/Uua aromaticiu. a na- CIoWH *'*'^ buffoon or practical jester 

tive of the Molucca Islands, belonging ' in pantomime and circua per- 

to the myrtle tribe, now cultivated in formances. On the uld Englisb stage 

Sumatra, Manritiua, Malacca, Jamaica, the clown was the privileged laughter- 

etc. Tbe tree U a handsome evergreen provoker, who, without Caking any part 

from 16 to 30 feet high, with large, ellip- in tbe dramatic development of tbe piece 

tical, smooth leavea and numerous pur- represented, carried on his improvised 

plisb flowers on Jointed stalks. Every jokes and tricks with the actors, often 

indeed addresaing himself directly to the 

audience instead of conSning himself to 

the scheduled play upon tbe stage. In. 

Shakespere'a dramas a distinct part is 

aaaigned to the clown, who no longer 

appeara aa an Mtempore jester, although 

the part he plays is to a certain extent 

in keeping with his traditional functions. 

He is now confined to tbe pantomime 

k and the circus. Id the former of which 

r he playa a part allied to that of the 

I French pierrot. 

Clovnp (kloiii), a town in Ireland, 16 

_ seat of a Roman Catholic bishop. From 

rt™. /r»™n»,j(„. «™««™.i 1^38 to 1833 it was the see of a biahop 

OovB «7an«pHta« ™no<™.). ^j ^^^ EaUWished Church, but in thS 
latter year it was united with Cork and 

part of the plant abounds in tbe volatile Ross. Pop. about 1400. 

oil for wbicb tbe Sower-buds are prixed. fJlTih a select number of persons In 

The spice yields a very fragrant odor, viu-u, ^^^ habit of meeting for the 

and has a bitterish, pungent, and warm promotion of aome common object, as 

taste. It is sometimes employed as a social intercourse, literature, politics, etc. 

hot and stimulating medicine, hot is It is a peculiarly English institution, 

more frequently used in culinary prep- which can scarcely be said to have taken 

arations. root in any other country except Amer- 

Clovis (tlO'T's; from old Ger. Chlod- ien. Tbe coffee-houses of the 17tb and 

*^ icig, mod. Ger. LudKig. Fr. I8th centuries are the best represeota- 

Loiii»), King of tbe Franks, born 465, tivea of what is meant by a modem clnb, 

succeeded his father Childeric in the while the clubs of that time were com- 

Spar 481, as chief of the warlike tribe of monly nothing but a kind of restaurants 

alian Franka. who inhabited Northern or taverna where people reaortpd to take 

Gaul. In 486 he overthrew the Roman their meals. But while anybody was 

governor at Sotaaons and occupied the free to enter a cciffee-houae. it was neees- 

conntry between tbe Somme and tbe sary that a person should have been 

Loire. The influence of hia wife Clo- formerly received as a member of a clnb, 

tllda, a Burgundian princesa, at length according to ita regulations, before he 

converted him to Christianity, and on was at liberty to enter it. Among the 

Dec. 25, 496, he was baptised with aev- earliest of tbe I-ondon clubs was the Klt- 

eral thousands of his Franks at Rheims. cat Club, formed in the reign of Queen 

and was sainted by Pope Anastasius as Anne, among whose forty members were 

'moat Christian king,' he bdng ortho- dukes, earls, and the leading authors 

Coadjutor Coal 

to ride on horseback, the use of carriages CoR^nlation (kO-ag-a-la'shnn), the 

being considered effeminate. They do ^^«*6«**"'»'*vaj. changing of a fluid into 

not appear to have become common till a more or less solid substance, or the 

the fifteenth century, and even then were separation of a substance from a solution, 

regarded exclusively as vehicles for wo- through the substance becoming more or 

men and invalids. Later on they be- less solid. Thus, albumin of egg can be 

came, especially in Germany, part of dissolved In cold water, but if the solution 

the appendaaes of royalty. They seem to be warmed, the albumin undergoes a 

have been introduced into England the change, separates out in white, flocky 

middle of the sixteenth century, but were masses, and cannot again be redissolvcu 

long confined to the aristocracy and the in the water. Coagulation is well exem- 

wealthy classes. Hackney-coaches were plified by the 'curding' of milk and 

first used in London in 1625. They were 'dotting^ of blood, 

tiien only twenty in number, and were (jQahnilo (kO-A-wBlA), a state of 

kept at the hotels, where they had to be voanuua Mexico, on the frontier of 

applied for when wanted. In 1634 the United States, rich in woods and 

coaches waiting to be hired at a particular pastures, and having several sflver-mines; 

;i*^^Ti^'^*'if^*'5« ^T^n^o'iTt^ *"**' ^'^^ «1'*^'"« °^^J ^^' 3«7.652. 
to JUU in looJ, to oUU in 171U, and to -- •- /!,*»„ *i\ j«xi^. ^^^s^^^m ^«^ 

1000 in 1771. Stage^aches were intro- Coaita ^f^SlT .V.^f'?; fi,J^fl^:«S 
duced into England about the same time , ^^ C i ^J?^i otthe 8. Ameli- 

as hackney-coaches. The first guge- ^^?, ™°°*®^«'' '^^^^^S*^,*** *^^« "^ 
coach in London appears to have run 5Pife%?'^^?a "*** *^ ^^^'' "*** ""^^ 
in the seventeenth century, and before the ^^^^ ^^ captivity. 

end of the century they were started on Coftl ** formed from vast deposits of 
three of the principal roads in England. ^^"^ vegetable matter of the carbonifer- 
Their speed was at first very moderate, ous age, during which the growth of 
about 3 or 4 miles an hour. They could plants was luxuriant In course of time 
onlv run in the summer, and even then decay took place in the fallen plants and 
their progress was often greatly hindered succeeding centuries covered them with a 
by floods and by the wretched state of sediment of mud and sand that arrested 
the roads generally. In 1700 it took their destruction and exerted a pressure 
a week to travel from York to London ; that combined with heat, and chemical ac- 
in 1754 a body of Manchester merchants tion slowly drove off most of the hydrogen 
started a conveyance, the Flying Coach, and oxygen contained in the vegetation, 
of an improved kind, which did the leaving the carbon behind. Hence there 
journey to London in the unusually short are few traces of its vegetable origin 
period of four days and a half. The found in coal. Nevertheless the outlines 
system of mail-coaches was established of leaves and stems that have entered into 
in London in 1784 and these continued its formation are sometimes seen, and in 
to be the means of traveling in Ehigland sandstones, clays and shales with which 
until their place was taken by the rail- coal is found the plants from which it 
ways. In the United States the unsettled originated are found distributed freely in 
state of the roads in the colonial period the fossil state, and, more rarely, the 
delayed the introduction of coaches and trunks of trees with roots extending down 
it was late in the eighteenth century into the subjacent clay formatioa. 
before a stage-coach line was started be- These, though replaced by mineral sub- 
tween Philadelphia and New York, the stances, have preserved their structural 
two largest cities, a wagon twice a features so perfectly that botanists have 
week, and making three miles an hour, been able to establish their affinity with 
sufficing for all travel at first. In 1766 existing species. Tree fossils of large siie 
a coach was put on that made the journey go recognized have been found to oe re- 
in two days, and ^js advertised as a lated closely to the arancavia as found in 
flying naachine. In li 89 it took a week gouth America and Australia. The corn- 
to travel by stage from New York to moner forms of vegetable life found in the 
Boston, the coaches often sticking fast in ^cks of the coal formation include the 
the mud. Within recent years the coach gigiUaria and stigmaria, the lepidoden- 
has largely been replaced by the automo- ^^q^ the calamite and tree ferns. Prom 
^"<^« the animal fossils in coal it is to be as- 

Cofl-dintor ^^^-<^'J<>'^or)» A Latin term, sumed that some deposits occurred in 
vrvaujuvvA nearly synonymous in its fresh water, probably lakes, while others 
original meaning with asnsiant. The appear to have occurred at the moutlis of 
term is especially applied to an assistant rivers reaching salt water. The period 
nishop appointed to act for and succeed during which the transformation of the 
on« who i^ :oo ^ or infirm for duty. jregetable into the mineral substanoe wu 




(kUd), a ri^er of Scotlandt rank of Ueutenant-coloneL In 1842 he 

which hat ite sources amid the was in China in command of the 08th 

hniT that separate Lanarkshire from Regiment, and on the termination of the 

the countries of Peebles and Dumfries Chinese war took active service in India, 

and forms an extensive estuary or firth where he acquired such reputotipn fai the 

before it enters the Irish Sea, at the second Sikh war as to receive the thanbi 

southern extremity of the island of Bute, of Parliament and the title of K.C.B. 

Prom ito source to Glasgow, where In 1854 he^became maior-general, with 

navigation begins, its length is 70 or 80 the command of the Highland Brigade in 

miles. Near Lanark it has three cele- the Crimean war. Uis services at the 

brated falls — ^the uppermost, Bonnington battles of Alma and Balaklava, and dur- 

Linn, about 30 feet high ; the next, Cora ing the war generally, were conspicuous, 

Linn, where the water takes three dis- so that on the outbreak of the Indian 

tinct leaps, each about as high; and the mutiny he was appointed to the chief 

lowest, Stonebyres, also three distinct command there. Landing at Calcutta on 

falls, altogether about 80 feet The August 29, 1857, he relieved Havelock 

Clyde, by artificial deepening, has been and Outram at Lucknow, and crushed 

made navigable for large vessels up to the rebellion entirely before the end of 

Glasgow, and is the most valuable river the ^ear. For his services here Sir Colin 

in Scotland for commerce. See OloMgoio. received the thanks of both houses of 

1/iyae, 1915), an American clergyman ^^^2.91'nS?''''" ^^^^^\ ^?^ k*^ "^r^^i^cSS 

and author, bori at White Deer Valley, gf ^0.000 a year allotted him. In 18^ 

Lycoming Co., Pa.; served in the Ciioi ^« ^" made field-marshal. He died 

war; graduated at Lafayette CoUege, i^^^. ^^^ 1^' *"^ '^'^ ^^^^ ^ 

ISee, and studied for the ministry at S®**°?*°®'?Lif^Ii®^C i * ^vi « ^^ 

Princeton Theological Seminary, gradu- Clvster (^^^^ **"•)• »» V\^®^^*V^ ?f 

ating in 1866. He was successivefy pastor ^ ^ , enema, a medicated sub- 

ofthe Presbyterian churches of Centre- ^^f introduced into the lower boweJU 

vine, Iowa 11869-70), Shenandoah, Pa. ««ually ^of }^^ purpose of expelUng its 

(1W0.72), F»ser,Pk. (1872-79)7 and contents, but sometimes also for the pur- 

koomsbuiT, New' Jersey (1879.19(tt). P^f ^'^i^^^^^^ 

He was^^dent of the Northampton thus administered in cases of diarrhoea. 

County mstorical and Genealogical So- ClvtenmeStra ^J^^^^C^^j!Sh\^J? 

dety and chaplain of Lafayette Poet 217. .,,:..,, - «-.„, nSj/jJf,. ^i^'rlSS' 

G. A. R. Among his many publications ?*2»^i«J f{ ^^fJlI^^^»^tl\ufiil 

are: History of the Irish SSiilemeni of "^^ half-rister of Helen. Dunng the ab^ 

Pennsylvania I Roshrugh, a Tale of the KJfe of Agamemnon in the war apOnst 

Revolution; tife of James CoMn; ChUde ^i^..u,??® „„^®*^?;^!!„„1L^^^ 

to Von-Liturgioal Prayer: Mohammedanr ^^^* A*^ioi?«^?^« w2 «.SfiS £lS: 

ism a Pseudo-Cl^tianUy. ?^^ot'a1df ^o?e'th^^^^^^^ 

Clyde, t^^^^* ?*' 59™ ^^"^^'^"iJS? governed Mycenae for seven years. Her 

u J. K? *; ^^^S??^' ^ ^T?^' «« Orestes killed them both. See 

where his father, John McLiver, a naUve Agamemnon and Orestes. 

of MuU, worked as a cabinetmaker. His n«,-^--. (ni'dus), or G nidus, an 

njother's maiden name was Campbell, and l^aittUB indent Greek town in Carta, 

■he was the daughter of a wnall pro- ^ province of Asia Minor, a great seat 

prietor in Islay. By the assistance of of the worship of Aphrodite (Venus). 

bis mother's relations he was educated ^ho had three temples here, in one of 

at the High School of Glasgow, and ^^ich was a famous statue of the goddess 

afterwards at the Military Academy, ^y Praxiteles. 

Gosport. In 1808 he received an ensign^s (I||q«i, (kOch), a general name for all 
commission in the 9th Regiment of Foot, ^vauu covered carriages drawn by 
having previously changed his name to horses and intended for the rapid con- 
CampbeU, at the suggestion of his veyance of passengers. The earliest car- 
maternal ande, an officer in the army, riages appear to have been all open, if 
He served in Spain under Sir John Moore we may judge from the figures of As- 
and Wellington, being engaged in the Syrian and Babylonian chariots found 
battles of Barossa and Vittoria, and hav- on the monuments discovered amid the 
ing displayed distinguished gallantry at ruins of Nineveh and Babylon. At Rome 
the siege of San Sebastian, where, as both covered and uncovered carriages 
well as at the Bidassoa, he was severely were in use. After the fall of the Roman 
wounded. In 1819-25 he was in the Bmnire they went out of use afl^, and 
West Indies. In 18S6 he attained tiie during the feudal ages the custom was 

Coal ^ Coal 

Effected was of long duration, so long as As ita name indicates, it contains bitumen, 
lo be qaite undeterminable. a soft, mineral substance, a native mix- 

dnttmcite, or bard coal, has nndergone ture of bjdrocHrboDs. oiygenated, that 
a greater degree of decomposition tban oozes out when it is subjetted to beat. It 
bituminous or soft coal. It is tbe oldest contains from TB% to 85% of carbon, 
of the coal formations and contains most with trace* of suliihur, and a greater per- 
uncombined carbon, tbe percentage being centage of bjdrogen and oxygen than an- 
from 90 to 94?c, the remaindpr conRistiug thracite. It ia black snd on its smootii 
of hydrogen, oi.vgen and asb. It is pure surfaces la glossy, but laclts the bluish 
black, or with n bhiiah metatlic lustre and lustre that somptimeH appears in hard 
bas a Hperitic grnvity of 1 4li or about tbe roal. It in also Kofter than anthracite, 
same as tbot ot tbe hard wooda. It burns Its specific gravity is 1.27. In burning 
it emits a yellowish flame, much greater 
tban that giveo out by hard coal, and 
gives lesa heat, while its imperfect com- 
bustion pt'oduces heavy, black smoke and 
dilluKfg -Jisagreeable gsBes, Tbe bydro- 
carbuns can be driven off as gases by 
beating the coal without access of air. In 
this way one kind of lllumiDating gas is 
made and tbe carbonaceous resiUiie is coke. 
CanneX, or gas coal, is ot the bitumin- 
ons variety, but coutaina less uorombined 
cartHin than tbe coking or fumsre hinds ; 
it burns freely and is used largely in mak- 
ing illuminating gas. 

Ligniie la of comparatively very recent 
formation, intermediate between bitumin- 
ous and peat ; indeed, a period of less than 
five hundred years is known to have con- 
verted timber into a sort of ligniie. The 
percentage ot carbon in lignite, which ia 
brownish in color, never eiceeda 70%. and 
the ash shows that a considerable quan- 
tity ot earthy matter enters into its com- 
position. It exhibits much of the struc- 
ture of tbe wood from which ft is formed. 
Its heat-giving property is low, hence it 
can be used only where a hot Ere is not 
needed, but it is very volatile. 

Ptat is the latest of the coal formations. 
It has undergone but a partial change 
from Its original state and the slight pres- 
sure to which it baa been subjected by the 
small covering of sediment has given it 
but little density ; it contains over 90% 
□f volatile matter. It forma in boggy 
ground from plants undergoing decay and 
covered by water. The roots and stems 
Bectioo of put ot K«»]-fi.^ld. ■]»>«{>« a <>' P'""*^ become matted and, mixed with 
Buoosasion of burled tr««a and land niHaoe; earthy matter, form peat. It Contains 
a. HndaloDea; b, ahslea: c, coal-o-ami much water, especially near tbe top of the 
J, undei-Elnya or aoil*. layer when removed from the bo^. but 

Wltb little flame, Is practically smokeless the bottom greatly resembles lignite in ap- 
aod deposits no soot in the chimneys, nor pearance. As a fuel it is chieSy used 
does It give off gss to any extent. Ilence where coal and wood are scarce and high 
it is the idesl fuel for domestic use and in price. Mnny experiments have been 
for furnaces and malt kilns. It is less made to treat this substance for more 
abundant than other varieties and greater general use as a fuel, and considerabk 
111 price. It WB8 first discovered in Peon- success has followed the method of satu 
■ylvanla in 1791. rating it with petroleam, which ia adopted 

Situ oiinout, or soft coal, is of later tn Southern Itiissla. where there is an 
formaUon then antbradte ; it has under- abuDdance ot peat and a cheap supply of 
gone leH pressure and 1* leu decomposed, petroletun. See Ooal if<ni*v. 

Coal Brass Coal Kiniiig. 

CoaI Bnuui ^^® ^^^ pyrites found in directly into them, and in hilly eectiona 
vrucu APxooDy ^^^ measures, so named tunnels are opened to them through the 
on account of its brassy appearance, intervening rock. It is, however, far more 
Coal containing much pyrites is bad for general to have recourse to the sinking of 
iron smelting, and it is unpleasant for shafts, by which entrance the transmis- 
domestic use on account of the sulphurous sion of power to the workings, their venti- 
add which it gives off on burning. Coal lation and the pumpinc of water is 
brass is useful in the manufacture of effected. The shafts are driven with par* 
copperas, and in alkali works. ticular regard to the depth and the dip 

nnolYirnnlrilalA (korbnjk-dal), an of the seam. Where the depth is only 
UOaiDrOOKaaie gjgugj^ eoal and moderate and the dip is gentte, it is eco- 
iron producing district in Salop, along nomical to locate the shafts at the lower 
the bank of the Severn. level of the seam, whereas where the seam 

Pi^al J||1a a borough in Schuylkill is deep and without inclination it is found 
vuaxuiucy county, Pennsylvania, near advantageous to locate the shafts as near 
Tamaqua. It has ooal-mining interests, to the centre of the mine as may be, so as 
Pop. (1020) 6338. to facilitate operations to the greatest 

Cofll-fiflli ^ spedes of the ood genus possible extent Shafts vary in sise and 
\/vcu ALOMLf (^Qo^^g oarhonariut), named shape, the determination of which depends 
from the color of its back. It grows to particularly on the extent and depth of 
a length of 2V^ feet, and is found in great the workings and somewhat upon the 
numbers about the Orkneys and the locality. 'Riey are either rectanralar. 
northern parts of Britain. In Scotland which is more common in the Unitra 
it is generally known as the aethe or aeaih. States, owing to the readier supply of 
Coal Oas ^® variety of carburetted timber for ifiiing, elliptical, or drcnlar, 
* hydrogen, produced from the latter shape being now more generally 
coal, which is used for common gaslight, favored because of their greater inherent 

riAQlincv fifofinna stations estab- strength. An important advantage of the 
uuaiin^ OUlJ0lUUSf jj^j^^^ ^^ various circular shaft is that it offers the least 

important points over the ocean, where resistance to the passage of ventilating 
ships, both of the navy and the mercantile air currents. The sise of the shafts de- 
marine, may obtain supplies of coaL The pends on the depth and output of the 
utility of such stations, when properly mine and the number of cages to be 
fortined, as points of refuge, defense, and hoisted. A shaft of suffident dse for an 
repair in the event of war can hardly be output of 1200 to 1500 tons a day should 
over-estimated. Britain has very many have a diameter of about 20 feet Two 
of them in accordance with the width of shafts are necessary for each mine, and 
its interests, the United States, as yet, these must be furnished with a winding 
comparatively few. gear at the surface. The bottom of the 
Coalition (k6-a-li'shnn) , a term used shafts are arched over, forming what is 
wcMAMvu ^ diplomacy and politics termed the ' porch,' in order to strengthen 
to denote a union between different par- it, the thickness being proportionate to 
ties not of the same opinions, but who the weight and pressure that it may be 
agree to act together for a particular ob- expected to bear, and wooden blocks are 
ject Among states it is understood to sometimes also built into it to give das- 
mean theorencally something less general ticity under sudden pressure and in addi- 
in its ends and less deeply founded than tion an inverted arch is in some cases 
an aUianoe. built into the floor. Still further protec- 
Coal Measures. ^«^«PP«' division tlon of the shafts and strengthening 
 77 ^ of the carboniferous against surface weight is afforded by 
svstem, consisting or beds of sandstone, leaving a pillar of solid coal surrounding 
shale, etc., between which are coal-seams, the shaft The depth at which coal may 
Coal IffiniTig ^« depth, thickness be profitably mined is about 3000 feet 

»• and direction of the although in some cases, as In Belgium, 

coal seams having been determined by mines are worked at a depth of 4000 feet 

prospecting, the next step is the provision The regulations governing the mining of 

of shafts. Several considerations govern coal varv considerably in different coon* 

their location, such as the contour of the tries and in the United States there is 

surface, the adjacency and availability of likewise a lack of uniformity and changes 

transportation, the facility of generating are frequently made, so that only general 

power, the inclination of the strata, the statements are useful here. 

Sresence of faults and the method of work- Working is carried on by practically 

ig the coal. In cases where the seams two methods, known as pillar work and 

cmterop at the surface, drifts are driven long-wall work. The first conpiisst 

Coal Ifining Coal Minii^: 

' piUar-and-Btall/ ' bord-and-pillar ' and or by blasting. All coal seams, except 
' ro(»n-and-piUar ' and is done by driying antJiracite, have planes of cleavage which 
roads or stalls through the coal and con- admit of ready splitting. Roads driven 
necting them by cross-passages, leaving in the direction of snch planes are known 
pillars of coal between them to support as *ends/ and those driven across them 
the roof as the workings advance. When are styled ' bords,' or ' boards,' the latter 
sufficient work has been effected in this enabling easier working than from the 
manner the pillars are cut away and the 'ends.' Cutting by mechanical means is 
roof is supported by heavy timbers. In used chiefly in thin seams because of the 
the second, or long-wall work, all the coal increased output they allow, the greater 
is removed as the work proceeds from the speed of the operation, that they produce 
pillar at the shaft, the face gradually less small coal, and that there is the 
extending. The waste or 'goaf' is minimum risk of the falling of the roof, 
stacked oehind, and through this com- The principles of operation in the two 
municating roads are left open. This is types of cutters used in the United States 
what is known as long-wall working for- are those of a pick or drill and a chain- 
ward. The opposite plan, or long-wall cutter. The former gives a rapid succes- 
working back, is effected by driving the sion of sharp blows with a long, chisel- 
roads to the outside or boundary of the like pick ; the latter operates with a series 
mine and then taking the coal backward of cutting wheels rotating on an endless 
towards the shaft This plan avoids the chain driven by a motor, either compres- 
necessity of keeping roads open through the sed air or electricity. Gunpowder is used 
waste coal and is so far more desirable^ in making the blast in wet mines where 
but, of course, it involves greater capital there is no gas present, but in dry and 
outlay. Where spontaneous combustion dusty ones, or where gas is present, it is 
is probable this plan is chiefly used. Long- necessary to use some flameless high ex- 
wall working is best adapted to thin plosive, which in exploding discharges an 
seams ; where the seams are thick, or near aqueous vapor that destroys any tendency 
the surface, or beneath towns, iiideed in to ignite coal dust or gas, if present, 
all cases where there is danger of subsi- Mauling. Coal is hauled from the work- 
dence the pillar-and-stall method is ings to the shaft by hand labor, horses, 
practised. In the United States it is the or mechanical power ; hand labor, obvi- 
one largely used. In getting the coal it is ouslv, is used only in small mines, 
indispensable that the workings be prop- Mechanical power nrstems are: (1) the 
eriy supported. This is carried out by jig or self-acting incline, feasible only 
timbering the roofs and sides of roadways where the shaft's bottom is at the lowest 
and the coal faces, and for this purpose point of the coal seam, in which case the 
the best materials are piue, fir, and oak, cars loaded with coal running down the 
which are creosoted. In the pillar incline pull up the empty ones, the wire 
method there is, of course, less need for rope attached to the descending load being 
timber support, the pillars themselves fastened over a pulley or drum at the 
affording the chief protection, but timber upper end of the incline and Its other end 
roof props are also used to prevent the attached to the returning empty cars, 
fall of loose portions, and at the road- Friction rollers set at intervals between 
ways adjacent to the faces cross-pieces are the rails on the incline carry the rope. 
used, supported by props or hitches in the Where a double line of rails cannot be 
side wall. Still other strengthening is used, the single track is provided with a 
effected in the haulage ways with steel pass half-way where the descending and 
and iron supports, brick arch work or ascending cars meet and pass. Sometimes 
brick walls and girders. a single line is employed throughout, 

Oetiing the Coal. The first stage is when a balance weight runs between the 
bringing down the coal, which is done rails altematdy, being drawn up by a 
either by blasting without preliminary loaded cars and drawing up an empty one. 
work, and is called 'shooting off the (2) Single rope haulage is employed 
solid ' ; or by blasting preceded bj under- where the shaft^ bottom is at the top of 
cutting or ' shearing,' so as to give more an incline ; in this case the full cars are 
than one face to the action of the ex- hauled up by a winding engine and the 
plosive : this requires that grooves be cut empty set run back by gravi^. The most 
vertically parallel to the walls. In the generally used system is the endless rope 
former, called ' holing,' a notch or groove which is adapted not only to level seami 
is cut in the floor of the seam, extending but may be advantageously used on steep 
about tiliree feet back from the face, leav- roads. Usually, a double line of road ie 
ing the overhanging rock supported bv better. The cars nm in .<«ets of ten or 
timbeza c&iled ' sprags/ to fall of itself twelve, and a stretching pulley is used to 

Coal Hilling Coal Mining 

keep the rope tant when the pall of the or frame Is from 80 to 100 feet above the 
load leesens. The endless chain system surface level to give head room to the 
requires a doable roadway, one of which cage, the landing platform beinr generally 
accommodates the full cars and the other placed at some height above the ground, 
the empty. The chain passes over a pulley The head gear is provided with automatic 
driven by an enaine so placed that the devices to avoid disaster, such as detach- 
chain rests on the top of the car and ing hooks that operate in case of over- 
passes round a second similar pulley at winding ; safety catches are also furnished 
the far end of the plane. The endless rope to hold the cage should it get out of ccm- 
system overhead is substantially similar trol or become detached from the rope, 
to the endless chain plan. Main and tail On reaching the platform at the top of the 
rope haulage is employed where the incline shaft the cars move by gravity to a 
is insufficient or not uniform, and a sec- weighing machine and then to the 'tip- 
ond rope is needed to haul bade the empty pie, a cage turning upon a horizontal 
cars. One road only is required, as in the axis that is devised to discharge the load 
case of single rope haulage. A second in the first half of the rotation and re- 
rope, the tail rope, supplements the main stores the car to its normal position in the 
rope that runs direct from the engine second, after which it is drawn by an end- 
drum to the head of the loaded cars ; the less chain, or creeper, fitted with grips or 
tail rope runs from a drum on the same hooks, to the cage, to resume its trip to 
shaft as the main rope drum, along the the workings. 

side of the roof or roadway, and passes Ventilation is one of the most import- 
around a return pulley at the end of the ant of the problems with which coal mine 
road to the end of the set of loaded cars, operators have to grapple. Not merely 
This rope draws back the empty cars as has the impure air to be drawn from the 
the main rope hauls In the loaded ones, the workings, but the possible presence of 
Besides these methods underground haul- gases must be considered. Ventilation is 

S\e is done in the United States and in obtained by keeping in movement in the 
urope in mines where mine roadways are same direction a large volume of air which 
flat or have only slight inclines by loco- is brought from the surface by the 
motives operated by compressed air, elec- * downcast ' and is carried out of the 
tridly and internal combustion. In the workings by the ' upcast ' shaft To effect 
case of seams too shallow to admit of this, powerful mechanical means are 
using cars for hauling, conveyors are used, needed. The method prindpally used is 
operated by compressed air or electricity ; exhaustion by machinery. It is sometimes 
these conveyors are low wagons jointed in done by the rarefaction of the air in the 
sections, from which the cofu is discharged ' upcast ' shaft by means of a furnace at 
into cars at the bottom of the shaft. the bottom of the shaft The furnace may 
RaUing the Coal to ike Surface from be worked by the return air where there 
the bottom of the shaft on the arrival of is no gas, but it is far better to take fresh 
the cars from the workings is effected by air directly from the ' downcast' uid 
running them into the cage over rails to never must the return air from a fiery 
which they are locked, ^e cage is con- mine be allowed to reach the furnace, 
structed of a framework of vertical iron Ventilation by exhaustion is conducted 
or steel bars and has a top bar to which by two methods, direct exhaustion and 
the hoisting rope is attached. The cage is centrifugal displacement of the air to be 
provided with a deck or decks, in some removed. The latter is more generally 
cases as many as five, and each deck wUl adopted, as the weight of the machines 
hold two cars. The cage runs within required by the former results In too slow 
guides of wood or other material affixed to a rotation. This method drives the heated 
the walls of the shaft; sometimes four air at the bottom of the shaft forward 
guides are used, but more frequently three, and upward through it, through the prea* 
two on one side of the shaft and one on sure of the colder air behind it In cen- 
the opposite side, placed intermediate as trifugal displacement, fans are placed at 
related to the guides on the wall facing, the top of the 'downcast' shaft in some 
By some managers only two guides are cases. There are several kinds of centrifti- 
provided, which they consider safest The gal fans, but the main essential is to 
hoisting is effected by means of wire rope secure great speed with a minimnm of 
of steel, with a diameter of about two weight and size. In furnishing an indis- 
inches ; this rope is attached by tackling pensable volume of fresh air to the work- 
chains to the cage. The hauling or draw- ings at all times, calculations must indade 
ing rope is carried over a head gear or the presence or absence of gases. In order 
pulley frame at the top of the shaft and that all the workings may be supplied 
then around a dram of like diameter with fresh air, it becomes necessary to 
driven by the winding engine. This gear split or divide the current at different 

Coal Mining Coal Uining 

points in its path and convey it directly workings use is made of steam or corn- 
to the places where it is needed. It is pressed air, or water under pressure in 
further necessary to prevent the mixing pipes, electricity, or wooden or iron rods, 
of an intake current with a return cur- Steam power is generally used, however, 
rent; this is done by passing one current to operate the winding and hauling ma- 
over the other by means of an air-crossing, chinery, but it is less advantageously 
and providing temporary partitions, used in transmitting underground power. 
* brattices,' constructed with wood or with Compressed air is a desirable agent for 
wood and cloth, in cases where the intake cutting, drilling, hauling and pumping 
and return airways pass along the same machines, but it offers the dinad vantages 
passage, thus separating the currents, of greater cost and low efficiency. Hv- 
Where the workings reach great distances draulic pressure is made use of also m 
from the shaft, very powe^ul ventilating underground pumping as a means of 
fans must be used to overcome air resist- transmitting power. A system of endless 
ance and from 250 to 500 H. P. engines wire ropes or chains operated from the 
are employed. surface has likewise been used for under- 

lAghting fills an important part in the ground hauling, as well as to operate 

operation of collieries. In mines that are dynamos and drive ventilating fans. But 

free from gas naked lights may be used; electricity is displacing other powers for 

oil lamps are commonly used in some underground work, as well as for ventilat- 

parts of Europe, but electricity is fast dis- ing, lighting and hauling. It has its 

placing it. drawbacks in the liability of sparking at 

Gas constitutes a great hazard to work- the motor and of short circuiting, but ex- 

ers in coal mines. Explosions due to a perience and care minimize these and its 

sudden release of stored-up gas in coal employment is rapidly extending in col* 

masses, ' blowers ' as they are called, are liery working. 

often given off at high tension and are too Grading. As the coal leaves the tipple 

great for dilution by the ventilating cur- it falls on screens which sort it into va- 

rent. Methane, marsh gas, or fire-damp, rious sizes, after which it is carried on a 

is the chief gas to be provided against, long travelling belt, three to five feet wide, 

When diluted in from four to twelve times and is then sorted by hand and the waste 

its volume of atmospheric air, it is ex- removed. The grades usual in the Amerii 

)losive, but it burns quietly when the air can market are : rice, pea, chestnut, stove, 

dilution is greater or less than the pro- egg, broken and steam sizes. There are 

port* 9ns mentioned. Coal dust also con- also buckwheat, which is smaller than 

stitf ies a serious danger in dry mines, pea, and cherry, which is larger. Coal is 

Although it is not likely to be ignited by sometimes put through a washing process, 

a naked light or flame, it may explode, which is effected by conveying it by 

even, though not usually, in the absence bucket-elevator to a stream of water, or 

of gas. Against such dangers constant by passing a stream of water through and 

precaution is exercised, and protective over the coal which has been placed in a 

measures are always under consideration, trough or tank. By this means the dirt. 

Pumping. In different mines the pump- being heavier, sinks to the bottom, while 

ing of the water is of greater or less con- the coal passes away with the water, 

cem, depending on the depth of the work- The most extensive coal fields in the 

ings. To keep the workings free of water world are located in the United States, 

it is drawn off into the shafts and from Its distribution in quantities of commer- 

there pumped to the surface. Where, cial value extends to twenty-eight States 

however, there is but a small quantity it and the Territory of Alaska. Anthracite 

is raised in tanks operated with the cage is produced only in Pennsylvania, New 

or independently of it. Sometimes the Mexico and Arizona, the last two fumish- 

water is removed by syphoning, but this ing only about 100,000 tons per year. The 

method, as well as that by tank removal. States in which bituminous coal is worked 

is quite unimportant in comparison with are: Alabama, Arkansas, California, 

the method of continuous pumping. For Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indi- 

this purpose an engine at the surface ana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, 

operates rods that pass down the shaft to Michigan, Missouri, Montana, New Mex- 

the pumps, or the water may be forced ico. North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, 

to the surface by means of steam, com- Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, 

pressed air, hydraulic pressure, or electric Utah, yirginia, Washington, West Vir- 

pumps set at the bottom of the shaft. To ginia and Wyoming. The chief producing 

bring the water from the workings to the of these are Pennsylvania, yielding over 

shaft's bottom pumps are also employed, one-third of the total production, • West 

of which there are several designs. Virginia, over one-seventh, Illinois, nearly 

For the traosmission of power to the one-ninth, and Ohio, nearly onetwelfth, 

Goal Milling Coast Def eiue 

the last three together yielding a little years a great number of valuable producti 

over nine-tenths of the product of Penn- have be^ derived from it by distillatiou, 

sylvania. The total, in long tons, of such as ammonia, naphtha, creosote, car> 

anthracite yielded by Pennsylvania in bolic acid and benzene, while it is also the 

1015 was 79,459,836, and in value, $184,- source of the whole series of aniline oobn, 

663,498. The aggregate output in the and other dyes, of alizarine, salicylic add, 

United States of bituminous in the same etc. 

year included brown cosl and Ugnite, and (Joonzo (kO-an'za), a large river of 

the small output of anthracite outside of ^viui«* ^^^ Africa, entering the 

Pennsylvania was 442,626,426 short tons, Atlantic near 9" 10* s. 

of the value of $602,037,688. It may be n-.^-i. a-^*ii tha ^ii»n n^^ii^ 

noted that of the coal-bearing formations Coast ArtlUety, g«^™j ^^^^ 

in the four great producing States men- ooiihAr uspH fnr i-hA flmAmon^ r^f ^ml 

^?v«niJ^ 1KS^^^)^J*nh^n^^9ft^ carriages do not subserve the purposes of 
sylvania, 15,800, and Ohio, 12,000, to- transportation. Four systems of mount- 
getiier about 87,000 out of a totid coal- ing aw used with such artillery, i. e., the 

260,000 square miles, and that their and the mortar^arriage. 

annual output is over two-tiUrds of i^e in the United Statn tiiese guns consti- 

Si«nR X^ ifi fSSfoS?'tn^^ liT-i«' ^ati^*^- ^<"^ purposes of administration 
14^(W0 kentSSf^SOoS'^^ "^^ instruction the coast artillery of tin 

radolO^WW lo!^^^^ 7cWo ViSJ^ continental United States is ol^anised 
ing, '6,760.060, tenneiee, 6,k)0,600, and }^^ ^^^ ,ft5"?^^® ^^ Atiantic, 
Virgima, b,80b,000. including all the forts from Maine to New 

Comparing the yield of the United ^^^^ harbor, inclusive ; the South Atlan- 
States with that of Europe, it will be seen tic, including those from Delaware Bay 
that Great Britain only approaches with to Texas, inclusive ; and the South Pacific, 
a total of 300,000,000 tons m 1914, while including those from California to Wash- 
Germany furnished in the same year 176,- ington, inclusive. These districts are com- 
000,000 tons. France, Russia and Bel- manded by colonels of the Coast Artillery 
gium each have large coal-bearing areas. Corps or bv brigadier-generals appointed 
the product of which has been of great ^^om that branch of the U. S. A. The 
importance in contributing to their manu- forts of each harbor arc grouped into 
facturing and industrial progress. China, coznmands called Co&st Defenses, each 
Japan and India also contain large coal designated by the name of the harbor on 
fields, in all almost equal to the coal- which located. In the outiying posses- 
bearing area of the United States. Dis* sions of the United States the seacoast 
cussions are frequently recurring as to the forts are organized into separate coast 
period of exhaustion of the coal supply, defenses. The Coast ArtUlery Corps is 
In the United States, broadly speakmg, t^^^ P^.^ ^ ^® U- S* ^' which is engaged 
the resources are so great that such a ^ serving the seacoast guns, 
crisis need not be very seriously consid- (Iao af Def enfill ^® systematic pro- 
ered. But in Europe, where the reserves ^v****" *^«*^*ao^j tection of a country 
are so much less, the subject has created against hostile attack along its coast- 
serious discussion and official investiga- lines. In providing such defense a nation 
tion. will consider not only the safety of its 

Coal-nlants "^^ plants as have by territory, but also the security of its com- 
P *' their remains formed merdal interests. In any system of coast 

coal, chiefly allied to the ferns, lycopods, defense a good navy is the most important 
and horse-tails. See Coal, feature ; and so essential is it considered. 

Goal Trt ^' Gas-tab. a substance ob- that all other means are regarded as ad- 
' tained in the distillation of juncts or auxiliaries of the navv. Along 
coal for the manufacture of illuminating a well-defended coast, in suitable places, 
gas, a dark-colored m'vte or less visda are stations or jpoints of sunport wnere Si 
mass, consisting principally of oily hydro- stored the requisite material for buildin& 
carbons. It passes over with the gas into equipping, repairing, and supplying naval 
the condensers along with ammonia liquor, vessels, and where provision Is made for 
but bdng heavier than the latter, it is furnishing men when additional force li 
easily separated from it when the whole needed. Forts are built in places where 
is allowed to stand. It was formerly of the coast artillery may co-operate with 
comparatively llttie use; but in recent the navy in obstructing the advance of 


Coast Guard Service ^ CoatI 

im enemy intending to capture a city or ment of laws relating to anchorage of 

to inyade the country ; where their gunB yesBela, neutrality, quarantine, and immi- 

may command the entrance to a harbor pation laws; suppression of mutinies on 

or other approach by water; wherever board merchant TeBsels; protection of 

they may cnpple the enemy*s attack on game, cmd the seal and other fisheries in 

the defensiye fleet, leaving it free to at- Alaska; suppression of illegal traffic in 

tack the enemy in turn ; where forts may firearms, ammunition, and spirits in 

assist each other and co-operate in re- Alaska; medical aid to seamen of the 

pelling an invasion or preventing a block- deep-sea-fishing fleets. 

^"5.%f'2S?p';SS'°«Jiy"b^"Jo.^"Coa8t and Geodetic Survey, 

guarded, thus enabling the navy to give a scientific department of the government 
entire attention to the main channel, etc. of the United States, for the purpose of 
Torpedo-boats^ harbor-mines and tte making geodetic and hydrographic sur- 
searchlijtht are all valuable aids for the yeys to determine the coast-line ; of mak- 
forts. The tinforttfied coast, as well as jng charts of harbors and tide waters, 
the land approaches to cities, must be and of the bottom of the ocean along the 
defended in time of war by whatever coast ; of indicating positions for the erec- 
means are at command. National policy tion of lighthouses ; and the making of 
determines the character and extent of various meteorological and other observa- 
coast defense, and long-continued friendly tions. It extends its observations to all 
relations with other countries may make parts of the globe, as serviceable to navi- 
extensive protection unnecessary. gation. 

The history of modem coast defense fi-^oaf HfrnnTifoiTitt CJoAST Raitgil a 
In the United States begins witii the crea- UOaSt JHOlintailLS, ^»/ or series 
tion of the Gun Foundry Board in 1884. of ranges extending along the west of 
which was succeeded by the so-called California, Ongon, Washington and Brit- 
Bndicott Board in 1886. In its final re- igjj CJolumbia, at no great distance from 
port the Endicott Board fullv and clearly the Pacific coast, and rising to the height 
set forth the general principles governing of 11,000 feet 

coast defense, and elaborated a suitable fiftnaf-an'aA TthiIp or Coasting 
system. The changed conditicms since vui«itw«c xrUrUC^ Tbade, the mari- 
1886, due to the development of guns, time commerce between ports of the same 
smokeless powder, and all kinds of mum- country, usually limited by law to ships 
tions of war. made it advisable to revise of domestic ownership. The coastwise 
the system of the Endicott Board, and the trade of Great Britain is not so limited, 
National Coast Defense Board, coxnposed ^^t that of Canada is limited to British- 
of distinguished army and navy omcers, ]y^i vessels, and tii&t of the United 
under the presidency of W. H. Taft, then states to American vessels (vessels built 
Secretary of War, was convened. This within the United States, forfeited for 
board, known as the TaftBoard, sub- breach of laws, or captured in war). The 
mitted its report early in 1906. The Taft coastwise trade of the United States, al- 
Board recommended the fortification of ways of great importance because of the 
29 ports in the United States (7 more enormous coast-line, was stimulated by 
than under the plans of the Endicott the opening of the Panama Canal in 1915. 
Board), 6 in the insular possessions, and ^ j.i. -j^ rirAflirin « town in 
2 in t^e Canal Zone. . ^ Coatbndge g^^J^.^'^/Lan*^^ 

Coast Guard Service, ^' .f •• 2? 9% mUes east of Glasgow. The district 

feSSS SS^tes^^TnTn-^er^l "Srdutie. ol ^-^v e^c in tiie neighborhood. Pop. 

the Revenue Cutter Service, which de- ^^^]' **:f°^- ,_^ , ... . ^ , . 

5>lved upon tiie Coast Guard, were: As. CoateSVllle ^^Zr^hJ ^lAvl^ 
sigtance of vessels in distress ; co-opera- ^^ „ ^^^^r'nu^'^j * «JP»y*vf: 

tion with the navy when directed by the nia, 38 miles w. of Pluladelphia. It 

President; destruction of derelicts and has rollinfj mills, steel 0ggj?» -«;^. and 

other menaces to navigation ; protection woolen mills, etc. Pop. (1920) 14,015. 

of the customs revenue; enforcement of Coati, 5' Coati-mondi (k6a-ti mun- 

the navigation and other laws governing ^^^^ 9 di), a name of South American 

merchant vessels and motor boats ; inter- plantigrade carnivorous mammas, of the 

national patrol of the ice fields in the genus Nasua, belonging to the Ursidie or 

North Atiantic ; regulation and policing bears, but recalling rather the racco9n or 

of regattas and manne parades; enforce- civets, and having a long probosas or 

doat of Arntr^ Cobbold 

■noat They feed on worms, insects, and but after nine months he enlisted in 
the smaller qaadrapeds. the 54th Foot, and shortly after went 

Coftt of Arrna ^^ Arms and J?er- with the regiment to Nova Scotia. His 
vrvav vx aa^auo* ^^^^^ regular habits and attention to Ms 

Coat of MqiI ^ piece of armor in duties soon brought him promotion, and 
\/vab vx ^ > the form of a shirt, he was sergeant-major when the regiment 
consisting of a network of iron or steel four years after returned to England 
rings, or of small laminse or plates, (1791). During his service in the armyj 
usually of tempered iron, laid over each Cobbett had employed all his spare time 
other like the scales of a fish, and fas- in improving his education. He now 
tened to a strong linen or leather jacket, obtained his discharge, married, and pro- 
Cobfllt (1^^'bftlt; G. kohalt, kobolt, the ceeded to America to commence as a 
same word as kobold, a goblin, political writer. Under the signature of 
the demon of the mines, so called by Peter Porcupine' he wrote papers and 
miners because cobalt was troublesome pamphlets of a strongly anti-republican 
to miners, and at first its value was not tendency. In June, 1800, he sailed for 
known), a metal with the symbol Co, England, and on his arrival started first 
specific gravity 8.5, of a grayish-white the Porcupine, a daily paper, which had 
color, very brittle, of a fine close grain, small success, then the Weekly Political 
compact, but easily reducible to powder. Reffister, which soon acquired a great 
It crystallizes in parallel bundles of circulation. The Register had started 
needles. It is never found in a pure state, as a Tory paper in support of Pitt but 
but usually as an oxide, or combined with gradually changed its politics till it be* 
arsenic or its acid, with sulphur, iron, came known as the most daring and 
etc Its ores are arranged under the fol- uncompromising of the government's op- 
lowing species, viz., arsenical cobalt, of a ponents. Three times heavily fined for 
white color, passing to steel gray; its libel, Cobbett continued his attacks on 
texture is granular, and when heated it the government, in consequence of which 
exhales the odor of garlic ; gray cobalt, a he deemed it prudent to retreat to the 
compound of cobalt, arsenic, iron and United States (1817), transmitting his 
sulphur, of a white color, with a tinge articles regularly, however, for the Reg- 
of red; its structure is foliated, and its ister. In 1819 he returned to England, 
crystals have a cube for their primitive and made an unsuccessful attempt to get 
form; sulphide of cobalt, compact and into Parliament for Coventry. About 
massive in its structure ; owide of cobalt, the same period he commenced a series of 
brown or brownish black, generally fri- papers entitled Rural Rides, afterwards 
able and earthy; sulphate and arsenate reprinted, which contain charming pic- 
of cobalt, both of a red color, the former tures of English country scenery, and 
soluble in water. The great use of cobalt are among the best of his productions, 
is to give a permanent blue color to In 1824-27 appeared his History of the 
glass and enamels upon metals, porcelain, Reformation, in which he vilifies Queen 
and earthenware. Alloyed with molybde- Elizabeth and the leading reformers. On 
num, chromium and tungsten it is used the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832 he 
for cutting tools. See Stellite. was returned as member for Oldham, but 

f!nl>fl.1t ^ ^^"^ ^^ Cobalt Lake, On- was indifferently successful in the house. 
\/uucMb, tario, 75 miles N. of North He died June 18, 1835. Cobbett is also 
Bay. It is the richest silver district in the author of a Parliamentary History of 
the world. The mines are the chief source Englandjrom the Conquest to 180S : Ad- 
of the world's supply of cobalt, which vice to Young Men and Women; Village 
occurs abundantly in the silver ores. Sermons, etc. He wrote in a pure and 
There are saw and nlaning mills, concen- vigorous English style, and his writings 
trators, etc. Pop. 5630. contain much useful information, and 

Cobftn (k^vSn'), or Vera PaSL a show a sound judgment wherever the 
cathedral city, state of and 90 matter did not go beyond his strong 
miles northeast of Guatemala. It is the practical sense. 

center of a rich coffee and cane producing nnhliniri Thomas Spenceb (1828- 
region, and a trade in hides, skins, rub- ^vmmwx\x, gg^^ ^^ English botanist 
ber and sarsaparilla. Pop. about 31.000. and anatomist, bom at Ipswich, Suffolk 
Cobbett (J^o^'bet), WnxiAM, an Eng- county. After a preliminary study of 
^ ^ • lish writer and politician, anatomy, he took the regular medical 
was the son of a farmer and publican course at the Edinburgh University, grad- 
at Famham in Surrey, and bom there uating in 1851. He was appointed 2ec- 
pn March 9, 1762. In 1783 he sought turer on botany at St. Mary's Hospital in 
his way to London and obtained a sit- London in 1857, and later lectured on 
nation as copying-clerk to an attorney, zoology and comparative anatomy at the 

Cobden * Cobra di Capello 

__. ,„ «. .^ 1 «> 1 _4. « for the second time, a place in the 

Middlesex gosmtaJL He was l«5turer on government, but again preferred to keep 
f^JfJS'o** V*® British Museum from 1868 gj^ independent position. He refused 
to 1873. A chair of hdminthology, was ^^^ ^ baronetcy and several other digni- 
created for him at the Royal Veterinary ^^^^ ^^^ i„j ^^^ ^^,rk was the com- 
College, where he had been professor of mercial treaty which he was the means 
botony. He is best remembered for lus ^^ bringing about between Britain and 
researches in hehmnthology— that is, the France in 1860. During his later years 
study of parasitic worms m man and nni- ^^ ^^^ ^ gyg^t deal in retirement 
mala. His pubhcations include ; Entozoth Hf^UA^j. ni^l. an association formed 
Tapeworms, Human Parasites, etc. VUUUCli UIUU, about a year after the 

at London in 1865. After receiving a growth and diffusion of those economical 
very meager education he was taken as an and political principles with which Mr. 
apprentice into a warehouse in London cJobden's name is associated. The Cob- 
beloneing to his uncle, and in this situa- den Club has distributed a vast number 
tion he rapidly made up for the defects of books and pamphlets. 
?^ ?j?«^^i?^*^^? J*^ ^^l °??i <^i^i«?»ice. ri^Vi^o (k6-b€'W), or Puerto La Mar. 
In 1830, being left by the failure of his vuuij» ^ geaport formerly of Bolivia, 
uncle to his own resources, along with now in the territory of Antofagasta, 
some relatives he started a cotton manu- chile. Its population has fallen off from 
factory in Manchester, which in a few about 4000 to less than 500. 
years was very successfuL His first» or Cobble (kob'l), a low, flat- 
political writing was a pamphlet on Eng- vwmx^, floored boat with a square stem, 
land, Ireland and America, which was used in salmon-fishery. 
foUowed by another on Russia. In both CohlPTl7 (kO'blents; anciently Conflu- 
of these he gave dear utterance to the wux^ux* ^^g,^ from its situation at 
I>olitical views to which he continued the confluence of the Rhine and Moselle), 
through his life ri^dly to adhere, advocat- or Koblenz, a city of Germany, capital 
ing non-intervention in the disputes of of Rhenish Prussia, finely situated on the 
other nations, and maintaining it to be left bank of the Rhine, in the angle be- 
the only proper object of the foreign tween it and the Moselle, opposite the 
r»olicy of England to increase and fortress of Ehrenbreitstein, which, prior 
strengthen her connections with foreign to the European war, 1914-18, was one of 
countries in the way of trade and peace- the strongest places in Germanv and ca- 
ful intercourse. Having joined the Anti- pable of accommodating 100,000 men. 
Corn-Law League, formed in 1838, it was American troops began the occupation of 
chiefly the extraordinary activity of Cob- Coblenz and Enrenbreitstein December 10. 
den, together with Brii^ht and other 1918, in accordance with the terms of 
zealous fellow-workers, which won victory armistice. The new part of the town is 
for the movement. In 1841 Cobden well built with broad streets and fine 
entered Parliament as member for Stock- squares. The palace of the Elector of 
port, and after several years of unwearied Treves was later used as a Prussian royal 
efforts at last induced Sir Robert Peel, residence. The industries of Coblenz are 
then prime minister, to bring in a bill for wines, ships, hats, pianos. Pop. 56,487. 
the repeal of the com laws, a measure Cobnnt ^ large variety of the hazel- 
which became law in 1846. Next year he ^^»'**»*«'> nut. 

was chosen member for the W. Riding of Cobonr? (kO'burg), a port of Canada, 
York, a constituency which he repre- ^v*'^"'*© province of Ontario, on Lake 
sen ted for ten years. His business, once Ontario, 69 miles e. by n. of Toronto. It 
highly prosperous, had suffered while he is well built, has sundry manufactures, 
devoted himself to the agitation, and as a good harbor, and an increasing trade, 
a compensation for the loss he had thus Pop. (1911) 5073. 

sustained a national subscription was rJAlirfl. dl GaTlfillo (k5'bra di kap'eU 
made, and a sum of about $350,000 pre- ^"""* *" \/ttpciiu \^, that is, * snake 
sented to him. Cobden continued his of the hood'), the Portuguese name of 
labors as an advocate of parliamentary the hooded or spectacled snake Naja 
reform, economy, and retrenchment, and trioudians, which is found in Southern 
a policy of non-intervention, in all of Ama, a closely allied species (Naja 
which he found a firm and ready ally in haje), also called cobra, or asp, being 
Bright both being strong opponents of found in Egypt It is called spectacled 
the Cnmean war. In 1859 he was chosen snake from a singular marking on the 
member for Rochdale, and was offered, back of the neck, while its other name 

Cobnrg Coboiu 

is fiven from the remarkable manner in influence on a crjBtallizable alkaloid 
which it spreads out its skin on the sides called cocaine (CiaHuNOa), which, besides 
of the neck and head when disturbed or having effects similar to the leaf, jkm- 
irritated, raising the anterior part of its sesses valuable anesthetic properties, 
body so as to appear to stand erect, and Applied to the skin cocaine has littla ef- 
expanding its hood. So exceedingly poi- feet, but applied to mucous membranes 
sonouB is its bite that in numerous in- in the form of a solution of the hydro- 
stances death has followed within a few chloride, it produces complete local anfe- 
minutes, and under ordinary circum- thesia, lasting for about ten minutes. It 
stances a few hours is the longest term is much used in operations on the eyes, 
where promi>t measures have not been nose, tonsils and throat, etc. It is also 
taken. But indeed recovery rarely takes administered hypodermloally for such mi- 
place, though injection of potash into nor operations as the amputation of a 
the veins is said to be a remedy. In finger, etc. The stimulating effect which 
India thousands of natives lose their lives the drug produces on the brain tends to 
yearly through cobra bites. Its food con- the formation of the cocaine habit, which 
sists of small reptiles, birds, frogs, fishes completeljr undermines the nervous sys- 
( being an excellent swimmer), etc Its tem. Stringent laws governing the sale 
great enemy is the ichneumon. It is one of cocaine have been enacted. 

^rfOTm'frkS ^t*h ^* "nake^ihanners Cocaine (k^J-kftn', k6'ka-in). See Oooa. 

Cobnre ^^^^^>* * *o^ S?^^?!?*^? Coccinella (kok-si-nera), the^ udy- 

WWUA5 ^^ Germany, now united with ^^*'^****'**«' bird genus of insects. 
Bavaria, formerly capital of the duchy of See Ladybird, 

fSst^i^^-gri^-of Fr^Wort-«n-Bii[£ CoCCOlite (kok'O-Ut). See Au^ 
and contains the palace of the dukes of CofiGO (^o'kO) Root, the name for the 
Saze-Coburg-Gotha and an ancient castle "^^^^^ conns of several plante of the 
where Luther found concealment. It has genus Colocaaia (order Aracen), used as 
various manufactures and extensive brew- food in tropical America, 
eries. In the reconstruction of Germany, CofiGAfitens (kok-os'te-us), a genus of 
in 1W8, the inhabitants of CJobur? voted ^^CUOBICUS ^^^^ q^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 
in favor of union with the repuolic of Bed Sandstone, having small berry-like 
Bavaria; consummated Mareh, 1920. It tubercles studding the plates of their 
sends 3 members to the Bavarian National cranial buckler anl body. It differs from 
Assembly. Pop. 76,000. Gephalaspis in having its back and belly 

Cn'hnnr & ^^^ fabric of worsted and both covered with a cuirass. 
vu UIU59 cotton, or worsted and silk, CoCCIlllIS (kok'fi-lus), a genus of East 
twilled on one side, for ladies* dresses, ^'vvviaaimj Indian menispermaceous 
intended as a substitute for merino. plants, consisting of climbers with heart- 

PaIitit^ pATilTiflTllfl. ^ peninsula on shaped leaves and small flowers. The 
vuuu.1^ x^ciixuDUMy ^jjg north coast species are generally powerful bitter 

of Australia in the Northern Territory febrifuges. The fruit of the OoooiUui 
of Southern Australia. Indicua forms a considerable article of 

Pohixri^h (kob'web), the web or net- commerce, and is sometimes added to malt 
vruuwcu ^^jj.j^ gp^m j^y spiders to liquors to give bitterness. 

catch their prey. C0GGII8 (Kok'us), a genus of insects 

CoGfl. ((W»*)» Eryihrowylon Coca, a ^*'*'*'**" of the order Hemiptera, fam- 
vuvck g^Q^ American plant, nat. ily GoccidsB, or scale insects. The males 
order Erythroxyle®. The leaf contains are elongated in their form, have large 
a stimulating anaosthetic, and is chewed wings, and are destitute of any obvious 
by the inhabitants of countries on the means of suction; the females, on the 
Pacific side of South America, mixed contrary, are of a rounded or oval form, 
with finely-powdered chalk. It has effects about an eighth of an inch in diameter, 
somewhat similar to those of opium. A have no wings, but possess a beak or 
small quantity of it enables a person to sucker, by which they suck up the Juices 
bear up against fatigue even when re- of the plants on which they live. At 
ceiving less food than usual ; and it pre- a certain period of their life the females 
vents the difllculty of respiration ex- attach themselves to the plant or tree 
perienced in climbing high mountains, which they inhabit, and remain thereon 
Used in excess it brings on various dis- immovable during the rest of their exist- 
orders, and the desire for it increases so ence. In this situation they are impreg- 
much with indulgence that a confirmed nated by the male; after which their 
ooca-chewer is said never to have been body increases considerably, in many 
recUUmed. Coca-leaves depend for their species losing its original form and ■•- 


Cooeyz Cooliiii- 

young. -- . - 

iniecta are troublesome in gardens, plan- Christians, partly belonging to fbe 
tations, and hot-houses, while others are Jacobite and Nestorian churches estab- 
of great value. For example, kermes, lished here In early times. The capital 
cochineal, lac-lake, lac-dve, and gum-lac is Emakolam. Formerly Cochin was the 
are either the perfect insects dried or capital, a town on the Travancore 
the secretions which they form. Kermes estuary, within half a mile of the British 
consist of the dried femaJes of Ooocu$ town of Cochin (which see). 
iUcia, found in great abundance upon a tiAAliiTi-Cliinfl. (kd'chin-chfna)» a 
species of oak (buercus ooccif^a), a ^wiiiJi vrjiiiia country forming part 
native of the Mediterranean basin, and of the peninsula of Southeaitem Asia, 
gathered before the eggs are hatched. It and formerly regarded as comprising 
was known as a dyestuff in the earliest the whole of Anam (which see) and 
times, but has partly fallen into disuse Lower or French Cochin-China. The 
since the introduction of cochineal, latter belonged to Anam till, in 1863, a 
Cochineal con^sts of the bodies of the portion of' it was finally ceded to France 
females of the Cooou» caoU, a native of after a war occasioned by the persecution 
Mexico, which feeds on various species of of French missionaries ; other portions 
cactus, particularly on one called nopal were gradually acquired, the territory 

iOpuntia cochinilUfira) . See Cochineal^ obtained covering 23,082 sq. miles, with 
ac, and China Waw. Spherical bac- a population of 2,968,529. It is now 
teria are also called coed. organized in departments, prefectures, 

Cofifimr (kok'siks), in anatomy, an subprefectures and cantons. The north- 
\jv\/%*jA, luaemblage of small bones em and eastern parts are hilly, but 
constituting the lower extremity of the the rest of the territory consists al* 
backbone, consisting of the last four most entirely of well-watered, low, allu- 
vertebm, in a rudimentary form, co- vial land. In the low and wet grounds 
ossified. It is triangular in shape, and much rice is grown. In the more elevated 
convexo-concave. It is the homologue in districts are grown tobacco, sugar-cane, 
man of the tail in animals. maize, indigo and betel. Among the 

CodlAbftmba (koch-a-bam'ba)* a other products are tea. gums, cocoanut 
vfuvuauaiuua town in the interior of oil, silk, spices. The climate is hot and 
Bolivia, capital of the province of Coch- unsuited for Europeans. Industrial arts 
abamba, situated in a fertile valley 8435 are as yet limited among the natives, 
feet above the level of the sea, with a But they excel in the use of wood, of 
good trade and considerable manu- which their temples, pagodas, and tombs 
tactures. Pop. 31,014. — The province are built, beinglomamented with elabo- 
bas an area of 25,288 sq. miles; pop. rate carving. They live in villages ad- 
540,000. jacent to the rivers, which form almost 

PaaViiti (k6'chin), a port of British the only means of communication. The 
wuiiiu xndia, Malabar district, Mad- only roads at present existing are those 
ras Presidency, on a small island ; a pic- connecting Saigon, the capital, with the 
turesque place with many quaint old principal towns; a railway of 42 milea 
Dutch buildings. Its hnrbor, although connects Saigon and Mytho. The prin- 
sometimes inaccessible daring the 8. w. cipal export is rice, mainly to China: 
monsoon, is the best on this coast. Its cotton and silk are also exported. The 
trade, however, has for some years been export and import trade is mostly carried 
declining. CochiL was one ox the first on by Britisn vessels, while the local 
places in India visited by Europeans. In trade is chiefly in the hands of the 
1502 Yasco da Gama established a fac- Chinese. The French number only 
tory, and soon after Albuquerque built a several hundreds. The majority of the 
fort; he also died here in 1524. In 1663 inhabitants are Anamese. In their 
the Dutch took the place, in 1795 the monosyllabic language, their religious 
British. Pop. (1901) 19,274. See also tendencies towards Buddhism or the 
next article. system of Confucius and in their social 

flnnlilTl ^ email native state of India, customs they much resemble the Chinese. 
\A/vuj.ii| ^^ ^jjg g^ ^^ ^jj. Malabar coast, — ^Uppeb CJcchin-China is the name 

connected with the Presidency of Madras, sometimes given to the narrow strip of 

intersected by numerous rapid streams land on the east coast of Anam between 

descending from the Western Ghauts, and the mountains and the sea extending from 

having several shallow lakes or back- Tonquin on the north to Champa on the 

waters along the 'oast. Chief products: south, or from about 18® to 11^ IV. Sea 

timber and rice. The rajah has to pay Anofik 

Cochineal Cockchafer 

GorllinAA.1 (kocfa'in-^l), a dyestaif birds are oaslly tamed, and when domestf- 
w«/iuiicax consisting of the dried cated become very familiar. The sulphur- 
bodies of the females of a species of inr crested cockatoo {Pliciolophus gaienia) 
sect, the Coccus cacti (see Coccus^, a na- of Australia and Tasmania is a favorite 
tiye of the warmer parts of America, par- cage-bird. So are the white-crested cocka- 
ticularly Mexico, and found living on a too (P. alhus) and Leadbeater's cockatoo 
species of cactus called the cochineal- (P. Leadheaieri) , the pink cockatoo, 
fig. The insects are softly brushed off, whose crest is barred with crimson, yellow 
and killed by being placed in ovens or and white. The Kaka of New Zealand 
dried in the sun. naving then the ap- (Nestor meridiandlia) belongs to this 
pearance of small berries or seeds. A family. 

pound of cochineal contains about 70,000 flnnlrcifTnnA (kok'a-tris), a fabulous 
of them. The finest cochineal is pre- vruvikttnii.c monster andenUy be- 
pared in Mexico, where it was first dis- lieved to be hatched from a cock's egg. 
covered, and Guatemala; but Peru, Bra- It is often simply another name for the 
all, Algiers, the East and West Indies basilisk. See BasUish. 
and the Canary Islands have also entered nonVhrim (ko'bum), SiB Gbobgb 
into this industry with more or less sue- ^OCXDUTU (1772-1853), a British 
cess. Godiineal produces crimson and naval officer, bom in London. He entered 
scarlet colors, and is used in making the navy while still a boy, serving on the 
carmine and lake. East India, home, and Mediterranean sta- 

Cofihlfifl. (hokie-a), an important part tions. He became a rear-admiral in 1S12 
vrvvuAv^ of the internal ear. so called and took a prominent part in the war 
from its shape, which resembles that of with the United States, assisting in the 
a snailHBhelL marauding expeditions that laid waste 

Cochlearia o.^-^;^^^- Jf^^^^^V^Jr^p^^ 

Jadumng tte ho«enidl.h and c^'non ^^J^^f^^j-^ ^^^J^-^^ 

isit *IJni^ 'states ChaMeujr8V"^in'*18SI *^®™P* ^ take Baltimore. Ross was killed, 
he was nominated vice-oresident. and in ^^^ Cockbum escaped injury. In 1815 he 
1865 became attorney-general of New ^<^ Napoleon to St. Helena, remaining 
for^ '^ ' B ^ governor of the island till 1816, later 

n^^i...^*.^ - ^ -. becoming one of the Lords of the Ad- 

OOCnrane, lord. See Dundonald. miralty^ 

Cock. 8e*Fo«t Cockbnra ^ko-bu™). h™« D^j^ 

CnolraAt^ (ko-k&d'), a plume of cock's Scottish judge, was the son of Archibald 
uuuiu&uu leathers, with which the Cockbum, one of the barons of the Court 
Croats in the service of the French in the of Exchequer, and bom in 1779. He 
seventeenth century adorned their caps, studied for the Scottish bar, and was 
A bow of colored ribbons was adopted for admitted a member of the Faculty of 
the cockade in France, and during the Advocates in 1800. He attached himself 
French revolution the tricolored cockade to the Liberal party, rose to eminence in 
— red, white and blue — ^became the na- his profession, and became, under Bait 
tional distinction. National cockades are Grey, solicitor-general, for Scotland. He 
now to be found over all Europe. was a good example of the blending of 

pAAlrofAn (kok-a-tfS'), the name of a wit, law and learning common enough 
ijQC&^WU number of climbing birds at the old Scots bar. He died in 1«Sl 
belonging to the family of the parrots, or His Afemorials of His Time (published 
Psittacids. or regarded as forming a dis- in 1856) is an invaluable record of the 
tinct family Plictolophidaa or CacatuidiB. social history of Scotland. Not leas in- 
They have a large, hard bill; a crest, teresting is his life of his friend Lord 
capable of being raised and lowered at Jeffrey, published in 1854. 
the will of the bird, commonly white, CockcllRfer (kok'cha-fer), a spedes 
but sometimes yellow, red, or blue ; a tall '*'*'^***'**"*^* of lamellicom beetle, 
somewhat longer than that of the parrot, eenus Melolontha, remarkable for the 
and SQuare or rounded ; long wings ; and, length of its life in the worm or larva 
for tne most part, a white plumage, state, as well as for the injury it doet 

Cooker Cockroach 

to TeteUtioii after it baa Bttained it« n&tUMl chancier ol the manifeutBtioDs ; 

perfect condition. Tbe common cock- but it was found out that the linoclilDga 

obafer {itelotontha vutgArit) ia batched were produced by a. prl employed by 

from an egg which the parent depoaita in Parsons. 

a hole about U inches deep, nbich she fJnnVlp (kok'l), a name for the 

digs for the purpose. At the end of ^'"'•■■"s bivalve moltusca of the genus 

about three munths the insect emerges as 6'ardiutn, especially Vardium edoie, cum- 

B small grub ur maggot, and feeds on the mou on tbs sandy shores of the ocean, 

rootH of vegetables in the Ticioity with much used aa food. The general char, 

great voracity. When full grown it is acteristics are: shplls nearly enuilatpral 

over an incb in length ; it makes its way and equivalvular ; hinge with two amall 

underground with ease, and commits teeth, one on each side near the beak, and 

Sreat devastation on ^rass and corn, two larger remote lateral teeth, one on 

n the fourth year the insect appears as each side; prominent ribs nioning from 

a perfect coleopterous insect^a beetle the hinge to the edge of the valve, 

over an inch long, of a black color, with CocklC. See Corn-cockle. 
a whitish down. It usually emerges . . , . 

from the ground about the beginning of Cofiklfi StOVe " Btuve in which the 

May, from which circumstance the Bug- *""'"^'' ui-uvc, j, re-chamber is sur- 

lish name Man *"# or beetle bas been rounded by air-currenta, whi.'h. after be- 

given it. In its perfect state it is very ing heated sufficiently, are admitted into 

destructive to the ieavee of various trees. Ibe apartments to be warmed. 

Cocker (kofe'er), a dog of the spaniel CocklieT <''"'"»|,)' a nickname for 

UOCKer ^j^^ ^(ijp^ (jj jfip Blenheim *'"*''»'"'=J a Ix.ndon citisen. as lo the 

dog, used for raising woodcocks and origin of which there has been much dis- 

BDipes from Ibeir haunts in woods and pute. The word ia often, but not always. 

marHheB. employed slifhtly as implying a pptiiliar 

nnr1rf>r Edwaed, an English en- limitation at taste or judgment, the 

vu(.KCif graver and teacher of writing epithet is as old at least as the time of 

and arithmetic in the aeveoteenth cen- Henry II. 

tury, bom about 1631. His work, (JQck Of thC PlalUB 'f'«"''"?"« 

Cotter'* Arithmetic, upon which many "'^'^ "* ""•* ^'■'***^ urophaiiSnt . 

succeeding treatises were framed, waa a large North American species of grouse, 

imblished in 1677. Inhabiting desolate plains in the western 

Cockennonth [Uy^t'h^^^^in^ 1%^ ^f the Eock f^"""?'". ""• 

England, at the mouth of the Cocker, 2^ „ f . "^^ ■", ^* .''""Jl" *■ * 

miles B. w. of Csrlisle, now giving name South American bird of a rich orange 

to a pari, div, of the county. It has color with a beautiful crest, belonging to 

an old ruined castle, supposed to have the manakin family, 

been built soon after the conquest. Cock Of the Woods. "V- ^"""^ 
Thread and tweeds are manufactured ; ,,,,.,, cailtte, 

and there are coal-mines In the neighbor- CookDlt <J''''P'"- '? " raan^)f-wBr 

hood. Cockermonth was the birthplace of "'""*!' " the place where thn wounded 

the poet Wordsworth. Pop. 1011. 5203. WO" dreased in battle or at other time* 

------ . . ^ and where medicines were kept. 

. .-. - r ' " 

couD tries, first perhaps among the Greeks 
and Romans. At Athens there were an- 
nual cockfights, and among the Romans 
qoails and partridges were also used for 
this purpose. It was long a favorite 
sport with the British, and the training, 
dieting, and breeding of cocks for figbting 
waa tne subject of many treatises. It Is 
a favorite sport in the island of Cuba, 
in tfae Philippine Islands, and some other 

Cook-Lane Ohost, i'^Jl^'AlS 

many Londoners were deceived in 17S2, 

conristing In certain knockings heard In 

the bouse of a Mr. Parsons, in Cock 

Lane, Smithfield. Dr. Johnson waa the Ortbopterons or stratgbt-winged of- 

omonc those who believed in tbe super- der, ebaracteriied by an oval, elongated. 

Cocksoomi) Coooannt Oil 

depressed body, which is smooth on its shape, from 3 or 4 to 6 or 8 inches is 
superior surface. They have parchment- length, covered with a fibrous husk, and 
like elytra, and in the female the wings lined internally with a white, firm, and 
are imperfectly developed. They are noc- fleshy kernel. The tree (Cocoa nuoifira) 
tumal in their habit^ exceedingly agile, which produces the cocoanut is a palm, 
and devour provisions of all kinds. Cock- from 00 to 100 feet high. The trunk ii 
roaches, like other orthopterons insects, straight and naked, and surmounted by 
do not undergo a complete metamorpho- a crown of feather^like leases. CRie nuts 
sis; the larve and nymphs resemble the hang from the summit of the tree in 
perfect insects, except that they have clusters of a dozen or more together. The 
merely rudiments of wings. The eggs are external rind of the nuts has a smooth 
carried below the abdomen of the female surface. This encloses an extremely 
for seven or eight days till she finally fibrous substance, of considerable thick- 
attaches them to some solid body by ncss, which immediately surrounds the 
means of a gummy fiuid. The species nut The latter has a thick and hard 
are numerous. The Blaiia orientAUs, shell, with three black scars at one eod, 
or common kitchen cockroach (in Eng- through one of which the embryo of the 
land commonly called black beetle), was future tree pushes its way. This scar 
oriainally brought from Asia to Europe, may be pierced with a pin; the others 
and thence to America, where it is now are as hard as the rest of the shelL The 
common. The Blatta Americdna, or kernel incloses a considerable quantity of 
American cockroach, throws to be 2 or sweet and watery liquid, of a whitish 
3 inches long, including the antennie. color, which has the name of milk^ mils 
Throughout the southern portion of North palm is a native of Africa, the East and 
America and in the West India Islands West Indies, and South America, and is 
this species invades houses and is very now grown almost everywhere in tropical 
troublesome. countries. Food, clothing, and the means 
CoclcflOOlllh (koks'kOm), a name of shelter and protection are all afforded 
wvvxkovvAuw given to fiowering plants by the cocoanut tree. The kernels are 
of various genera. By gardeners it is used as food in various modes of dresring, 
properly confined to Celosia crUidta; and yield on pressure an oil which is 
but it is popularly applied to Pedioularie largely imported into various countries, 
or lousewort, Rhinanthua criata-gdlli or (See Cocoanut Oil,) When dried br 
yellow rattle, as also to Erythrlna oriata- fore the oil is expressed they are known 
gaUi, as copra. The fibrous coat of the nut ii 
Goclc's*foot CooK's-rooT Gbabb, a made into the well-known cocoanut 

' perennial pasture-grass matting; the coarse yam obtained from 

(Dactglia fflomerAia) of a coarse, harsh, it is called coir, which is also used for 

wiry texture, but capable of growing on cordage. The hard shell of the nut is 

barren, sandy places, and yielding a polished and made into a cup or oUier 

valuable food for sheep very early in domestic utensil. The fronds are wrought 

the spring. It is a native of Europe into baskets, brooms, mats, sacks, and 

fenerally, also of Asia and America, many other useful articles; the trunks 

!'he name has been jriven to it because are made into boats or furnish timber 

of the resemblance of its three-branched for the construction of houses. By bor^ 

panicle to the foot of a fowl. ing the tree a white, sweetish liquid 

ffAAlrflTiiii* Til Am the CraiwguJ called toddy exudes from the wound, and 

\;OCKSpur AUOrn, crus-galll a yields by distillation one of the varieties 

North American shrub which has long of the spirit called arack. A kind of 

been cultivated in Britain as a shrubbery sugar called jaggery is also obtained 

ornament. There are several varieties, from the Juice by inspissation. 

which are admired for their snowy bios- GofiOfl.111lt Beetle (^otoc^ra r«5if«>« 

floms in May. wvv«.A»t*w a#«^vvav ^ i^^^^ beetle of 

i\iuAt9xntk\r% (kok'swftn; colloquially the family Longicomes, the larv» of 

vuu&swaiu cok'sn), the officer who which inhabit cocoanut trees and eat 

manages and steers a boat and has the into the stems. 

command of the boat's crew. GoOOannt Oil ^ ^^^ vegetable &t, 

Gnrleil Spp WM-ailuM ' largely used in can- 

UOCies. See Horatxua, die-making and in the manufacture of 

Coeoa (kSlcO), a name given to the soaps and pomatum. This fat is got 

\/vvvcft ground kernels of the cacao or by pressure from the albumen of w 

chocolate tree prepared to be made into cocoanut kernel, and is as white as 

a beverage. See Caoaa, lard, and somewhat firmer. Manila and 

CocoaniLt ^^ (properly) Ck>coNUT. Ceylon export large quantities of ttir 

* « woody fruit of an oval useful oiL 

Coooa-plnm Code 

»)iu animala ibim- 

k and thus attract 

Roaacen, which la eaten in tlie Weat Seeta o( fiahermeii. Few members of the 
Indiea. It ia about the aiie of a plum, animal creation are more universally 
with a aweet and pleaaaot thougf. aome- aerTlceable to man than the codfiih.' Both 
what austere pulp. in ka rresh ataCe and when aalted and 

Cocoon (k"-l'Dii')i 'b^ name given to dried It la a aubatantla! and wholeaome 
the web or ball spun bv cater- article of diet ; the tongue la conildered a 
pillara l>eCore paaalng into the chryuli* dellcac;, and the swimming-hladdera or 
atate. The valuable product thus ob- *oundt, besides tieins highly nutritious. 
toined from the silkworm Is well known, auppi;, If rlghtl; prepared, an iainflaaa 
COCOS (I'ok'oB' Islands. See Keel- equal to the beat Hussion. The oil ex- 
icp Iilanit. tracted b; beat and presaare from the 

CodBah (GoAh nwiThiia). 

fVwmn) (kO'knm) BuriEK, Coomi-oii., liver li of great medldnal value, and con- 

*'*™'*^ a pale, grecDlsb-fellow aolid tributes considerably to the high economic 

oil obtained from tbe seeds of Qaroinia value of the cod. The cod ia enormously 

purpurea, a tree of the same genus with prolific, the ovaries of eacb female con- 

mangosteen, oaed in India to adulterate tatning more than S.000.000 of eigs ; 

ghee or fluid batter. It is sometimes but the numbers are kept down by a Lost 

mixed with bear'a-greaae In pomatums. of enemies. The spawning season, on the 

Coovtnil 4k<V-kI'taa ; from Greek kC- banks of Newfoundland begins about 

J^ Kuein, to lament), a river the month of March and terminates in 

of ancient Epims. Also, among tbe June ; but the regular period of fishing 

ancient Oreeka, one of the rtvera of tbe does not commence before April on ac- 

lower world. count of tbe storms, tee and fogs. Tbe 

(inA (Oodot), a genus of well-known season Issta till the end of June, when 

"^^ soft-finned fishes, of the same the cod commence their migrations. Tbe 

family as the baddock. wbiting, ling, average length of tbe common cod Is 

etc, distinguished by the following char- about 2U or S fe^t. and tbe weight be- 

acters: — A smooth, oblong, or fusiform tween 30 and SO lbs., though sometimes 

body, covered with small, soft scales ; cod are caught weighing three times this, 

ventrals attached beneath the throat ; The color la a yellowish gray on the back, 

glls large, seven-rayed, and opening spotted with yellow and brown ; tbe 

terally : a amall beard at tbe tip of tbe belly white or red. with golden apots 

lower jaw; generally two or three dorsal In young iudivldnalt. It Is caaght by 

fins, one or two anal, and one distinct llcea and books. 

l?°the' ^mm^' o'?'*6ai"* '^V'7o"1?" C<*^' '^"^ «« ^""^ ^"^ 

rh«a). Thouih foood plentifully on the fJo^ (kO'dal, in . , .._ _ 

coasts of other northern regions, aa ^'vua ^^ ^j^^ close of a compontloD, 

Britain, Scandinavia and Iceland, a for the purpose of enforcing tue final 

stretch of sea near the coast of New- character of tbe movement. 

foundland Is the favorite annual resort of Caja (kOd), In jurisprudence. Is a 
eoimtlesa multitudes of cod. which visit name given to a systematic col- 

tt« Chetmd Bankt to feed apon the lection or dlgett of lawa. The following 

leine Codlin 

the chief codes which hate affected the whole of the Nev Teatament, the 

laws of Europe : The Theodoiian EplatJe of Baraabas, and a part of the 

e {Codex Tlieodotianut), a compila- Shepherd of Hermaa, discovered in the 

executed in 42U bf a commisilou on monaster; of St. Catherine, on Moant 

m ot TheodoBluB the Zounser, and Sinai, b; Tischeadorf, in 1859, and now 

Dulgated as law throughout the east- at St. Petersburg. It is written on 

and western empires. The JuHtiniau iiarcbment in four columnB, in early 

e (Codea JuatiiUamu), a code com- uncial characters, and bears every mark 

1 in D^ in the reign of the Em- of bei ' • —•—-'— — ■•- 

>r Justinian, incorporating all the older __ 

s, rescripts, edicts previously in use signed by Tii .. .. 

 Civil Lav!i). The Code SapoUon, tury. The Old Testament is defsctive, 
Code Ciril, undertaken under the but the New Testament is complete, not 
lulshlp of Napoleon by the most a word being wanting, which is the more 
lent jurists of France, and published remarkable inasmuch as it is the only 
1SU4. The Code Napoleon (under manuscript of the New Testament whicb 
;h name other four codes of com- is complete, being from this and its early 
;ial law, criminal law, penal law, and life of the highest value. It has been 
of procedure, drawn up at the same publlsbed in facaimlle. — Codea Taticaniu, 
>, are often included) was a code in an ancient Greek MS. of the Old and 
strictest sense, that is, not merely a New Testaments, so called from beinf 
«tiou of laws, but a complete and contained in the Vatican Library at 
naive statement o( the law, virtually Borne. It Is written on thin vellum, in 
unting to a recasting of the laws of smalt uncial characters. The msnascript 
country. In this country one of the is assigned to the fourth century, end ou- 
t complete codes which has been til the discovery of the Siuaitic was re- 
led is that of Louisians. made after garded as the best manuacript of the Old 
session to the United States and sn- and New Testaments. The greater part 
eded by a new one in 1824. In the of Genesis in the Old Testsment, and the 

of revision of eiiating law an ad- whole of the pastoral epistles and the 

ible example is that of the Revised Revelation in the New Testament an 

ntes of the State of New York, which wanting. A facsimile of it was pnb- 

ted the inauguration of a widespread Ushed m 1808. 

rm in jurisprudence, "tending to Coflgx JJg^p^g a pubKcadon. of a 

land, India, Australia, and most of ''""*•■* jav***v«o, periodical charac- 

Amerlcan States. The principal re- ter, containing a llat of tberapentie 

la were the abolition of the distinc- aeents, methods of manufacture, etc 

between legal and equitable practice. There are several now published, some 

the simpllScstion of proc^ure in relating to a specialty In medical science 

tbI. Gongreaa has a committee en- and art The name of the French phar 

4 in a codification of United States macop<Bla. 

'• flndipil (kod'i-sil). In law, a snpple- 

Imti* (k«-de'in; Gr. kddeia. a pop- ^w*"^" m-nt t„ . win t„ t- ™. 

leme p,.bead), a crystalUzable sidered 
lold 0-- '  • -' ''^ 

rists tL . . . _ . „ ._ __ _., __. .. 

lbs. It is used to produce aleep and ator's former disposition. A codicil may 

ootbe Irritable coughs ; and la some- not only be written on the same paper 

a the chief remedy in diabetes; doae, or affixed to or folded up with the will. 

nin and upwards to 1 grain. It is but may be written on a different paper 

lison in excessive doses. and deposited in a different place. In 

leffa (ko-det'a). In music, a short general the law relating to codlcila is Hie 

ICIfMk nBHMVR which (Vinnecta one Ulnn  that ralsHnv tn uHlla %7iA Ihf 

r—sage which connects one same sa that relating to wills, and the 

ion with another. same proofs of genuinenesa must be for- 

[ex (k^'deks), an ancient written nlahed by algnature, and attestation by 

^^^ book : an important ancient witnesses. A man may make as tasny 

, as one of the Scriptures or of codicils as he pleases, and. If not cob- 

e classical writer. A coUection of tradlctory, all are equally Talid. 

I was slso called codex, as Codex Godllla (ko-dU'B). the coarsest psrt 

Ddoalanus, Codex Juatinlanus (set; "»"*^*«* ^f hemp, which ia sorted ont 

e). — Codex Alexandnntii. See AUm- by itself; also, the coarwst part of 

-ion VtrtioH. — Codea Sinaiticitt, a flax. 

andent aod valuable manuscript of Trulliii (kodlln), CooLiifo. a nsmefoT 

Greek Septuagint version of the Old ^"^^"'^ several varieties of Utcbea 

tameot (tnclndliig the Apocrypha), apple with large of tnedioni-alMd fralL 

Codling-motli Coffee 

PAfHiTKy-Tnnfli a small moth the gineer, born 1641 ; died 1704. Having 

uuaiin^ muvii, j^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ f^^^ entered the Dutch military service he 

on the codling apple. distinguished himself by his invention of 

Coil Iiiver Oil ^^ ^^ extracted from small mortars, called after him coehoms, 

vuu XII vex vxx, ^jjg livers of different but more by his eminence as a master of 

kinds of cod — the Gadus morrhua (com- the art of fortification, whence he baa 

mon cod) being specified in the phar- been called the Dutch Vauban. He forti- 

macopoeia — and allied species. The fin- fied almost all the strong places in 

est and palest oil is got from fresh and Holland, 

carefully-cleaned liver, the oil being ex- fjoel ^^ Aligarh, 
tracted either in the cold or by a gentle 

heat The darker kinds are got at a Cffilenterata (se-len-ter-&'ta; Gr. 

higher temperature, and often from the koilo8, hollow, enteran^ 

livers in a putrefying state. Only the an intestine), a subkingdom of animals, 

pale oils are used in medicine; the dark including those whose alimentary canal 

oils are too rank and acrid, and they communicates freely with the general 

are onl^ used in dressing leather. God- cavity of the body (* the somatic cavity '). 

liver oil is a somewhat complex sub- The body is essentially composed of two 

stance, but the main ingredients appear layers or membranes, an outer layer o^ 

to be olein and margarin. Acetic, butyric * ectoderm ' and an inner layer or ' endo- 

and phosphoric adds, iodine, bromine and derm.' No circulatory organs exist, and 

phosphorus are also present, and to these in most there are no traces of a nervous 

the oil may owe some of its odor. This system. Peculiar stinging organs or 

oil is now a recognized agent in the treat- * thread-cells ' are usually, if not always, 

ment of rheumatism, gout, scrofula and present, and in most cases there is a 

especially of consumption, being taken radiate or starlike arrangement of the 

internally and containing easily-asami- organs, which is especially perceptible 

lated nutritive matter. in the tentacles, which are in most in- 

Codo^no (ko-dd'ny5), a town in stances placed round the mouth. Dis- 

o North Ital^, province of tinct reproductive organs exist in all, but 

Milan, in a fertile district between the multiplication also takes place by fission 

Po and Adda, with a large trade in Par- and budding. The Gcelenterata are 

mesan cheese. Pop. 10,033. divided into two great sections, the 

CodmS (l^^'<li*us), according to Greek Actinozoa and the Hydrozoa, and include 

legend the last king of Athens, the medusas, corals, sea-anemones, etc. 

Having learned that the enemies of his They are nearly all marine animals. 

country would be victorious, according to Crplpstin /oa_i«.'*^'«\ a«^ n^j *' ^ 

the declaration of an oracli, if therdid ^^^CSUIl (se-lestin). See CelesUne. 

not kill the Athenian king, he voluntarily G(Sle-Svria. (^'^^ sir'i-a; that is, 

entered their camp, provoked a quarrel ^ * Hollow Syria * ) , the 

and was slain. The grateful Athenians large valley lying between the Lebanon 

abolished the royal dignity, substituting and Anti-Lebanon mountain ranges in 

that of archon, esteeming no one worthy Syria. Near its center are the ruins of 

to be the successor of Codrus. Baalbek. 

f!ftdv William Fbederick, scout and Coethen ^^ Kothen (keu'ten), a 

^^**J' showman, known as 'Buffalo ^^*' "***'**> town of Anhalt, Germany, 

Bill,' bom in Scott county, Iowa, in 1845 ; 80 miles s. w. of Berlin. Beet sugar is 

became a pony express rider and a gov- the main industry. Pop. 22,083. 

emment scout and guide (1861-65). Cmnr d'Alene (k^r da-lfln'), a dty, 

During the construction of the Kansas . •* county seat of Koote- 

Pacific Railroad he contracted to furnish nai Co., Idaho, 33 miles E. of Spokane, 

the laborers with meat and killed in eight- Washington, on Lake Coeur d'Alene. It is 

een months (1867-68) over 4000 buffaloes, the seat of Cceur d'Alene College and has 

Subsequently he engaged in a great num- large lumber and farm interests, also 

ber of Indian fiehts. and in 1883 produced brick yards. Pop. 6473. 

and toured with his 'Wild West Show.* Coffee (^ofg), is the seed of an ever- 

Author of several books. He died Janu- green shrub which is culti- 

ary 10, 1917. vated in hot climates, and is a native 

riAA-ffimPTif (k^-e-fi'shent), in algebra, of Abyssinia and of Arabia. This shrub 

UOemcienii ^ multiplier of a quan- {Coffea AraUca) is from 15 to 20 feet 

tity. Thus in the expression 3aa^ we in height, and belongs to the Rubiaceie. 

should understand as the coeflScienf of jp, The leaves are green, glossy on the upper 

9a, and as the coefficient of (ur, 3. surface, and the flowers are white and 

CMhom (kO'hom), Menno, Babon sweet-scented. The fruit is of an oval 

wv^»AVAu y^jj^ ^ Dutch military en- shape, about the size of a cherry, and of 


Coffee Coffee 

these oonUina two cdla, and each cell a caitomed to the Xemcnite variety aie 

■insle aeect, vUcb ia the coffee u we aee uU to coiulder hardl; drinkable. Amer- 

it Mfore It undertoea the procea* of it^aii coffee holds In the Judgment oi all 

' ~ toaattng. Q r e a t Oriental* the very last rank. The Dutch 

attentiati ii paid were the firat to extend the coltiTBtion of 

to the culture of coffee beyond the countries to which it ia 

coffee in Arabia, native. About llfSO some coffee aeedi 

~ ' ' 9 were brought to Java, wbere the; were 

e d out In and ten jears after it was introduce 
and shady from thi " ' 

ni, on slop- maica, a 

ing arouuds or at It was i 

the loot of monn- Braail, uuw uie greaLefli 41'^^ u*^^ OL 

tains. Care la coffee in the world, commenced its euIUva- 
taken to conduct tion. Coffee as an article of diet is of 
little rills of water but oomparativel;/ recent introdnctioiL 
to their root% la the Greeks and Romana tt was wholly 
which at certain unknown. Wioa Arabia it passed to 
seasons require to Xgypt and Turkey, whence It was intro- 
be kept constantly duced Into England by a Turkey mer- 
moist When the fruit has attained Its chant named Edwards In 1662, whoae 
maturity cloths are placed under the Greek servant, named Pasqna, first 
trees, aud upon these the laborers ahake opened a coffee-house In London. In 
it down. They afterwards spread the 1871 an Armenian named Pascal aet up 
berries on maU, and expose them to the a coffee-house in Paria. In Great Britain 
son to dry. The husk Is then broken much leaa Is drunk than on the coutineut 
off by lane and heavy rollers of wood of Europe or in the United States and 
or iron. When the coffee has been thus Canada, tea being the British national 
cleared of its husk It is again dried in beverage, while coffee ia the favorite 
the sun, and, finally winnowed with a American beverage. The excellence of 
large fan, for the purpose of clearing coffee duiends in a great measure on the 
It from the pieces of hnsks with which skill and attention exercised In roaatluf 
It Is intermingled. A pound of coffee Is it If It be too Uttle roasted It 1* devi^ 
generally more than the produce of one of Savor, and If too much it becomea 
tree ; but a tree in_great rigor will pro- acrid, and has a disagreeable, bnmed 
dace 8 or 4 lbs. The best coffee ia Im- taste. Coffee is need in the form either 
ported from Mocha, on the Bed Sea. It of an Infusion or decoction, of which the 
IS packed in large bales, each containing former is decidedly preferable, both as 
a number of smaller bales, and wben regards flavor and strength. The fine 
good appears fresh and of a greenish- aromatic oil whlcb produces tbe flavor 
olive color. Next In quality to tbe and atrength of coffee is lost by boiling. 
Mocha coffee ma; perhaps be racked that Tbe best mode is to ponr boiling wattt 
of Sontbeni India and that of Ceylon, through tbe coffee In a btggin or strainer, 
which is strong and well flavored. Java which is found to extract nearly all the 
and Central America also produce large strength; or to pour boiling water npon 
quantities of excellent coffee, and Mexico. It and set It appn the fire, not to exceed 
in one district a croo which ranks with ten minutes. Prepared In either way it 
Mocba. Brailllan coffee, though produced is line and strong. In the Ariatic mode 
much more abundantly than any other, of preparing coffee the beans are pounded, 
varies very greatly In qnattty, though Its not ground ; and though the Turks and 
best does not take rank with some of Arabs boil the coffee, they boil each cup 
those mentioned. Liberian coffee la es- by Itself and only for a moment, ao thst 
teemed by many. Of the best Mocha cof- tbe effect Is much the same as that of 
fee grown In tbe province of Temen little InfudDn. In Arabia some additional 
or none ia said to reach tbe Western apiclng, general!; of saffron of some 
markets. Arabia itself. Syria and Egypt aromatic seeds, is considered Indlsnen- 
cocsume fully two-thtrds. and tbe re- aabls; but neither Turks nor Arabians 
malDder Is eielusively absorbed by Turk- use snrar or cream with coffee. Since 
ish or Armenian buypra. The ontv other tbe middle of the eighteenth century both 
coffee which holds a first rank In Eastern tbe culture and consumption of coffea 
opinloB la that of AbyMlnla. Thai comes hart continually Increued. Tlie |«f» 

Coffee-bug Cohesion 

diml supply of the United States is de- pleaaa&tly aitnated on a hill, crowned by 
rived from BraBil, which famiehefl 75 the remains of an old castle. It is 
per cent of the whole iinport It is famous for the brandy which bears its 
known in commerce as ' fiio.' Coffee name, and which is exported to all parts 
acts as a nervous stimulant, a property of the world. Pop. 18,889. 
which it owes mainly to the alkaloid hnfrnttt^A (koff'n&to), relations by the 
caffeine (which see). It thus promotes vrv5uc»»v« mother's side. See Ag- 
cheerfulness and removes languor, and naiet, 

also aids digestion; but in some consti- f!|)imizfl.lifie (kog'ni-ians. konl- 
tntions it induces sleeplessness head- ^v5«aa»j*w« sans), in heraldry, a 
ache, and nervous tremblings, particu- crest, coat of armiu or similar badge of 
larly after over-indulgence. distinction appertaining to a person or 

CoflPee-llll? Lecanfiim ooffew, an in- family ; in law, judicial or formal notice 
wuTO MU59 g^^ ^£ jjjg Coccus family» or acknowledgment of a fact, 
very destructive in coffee plantations- dttmtvmt^'n (kog-nO'men), the hered- 
CofFer (kof'fir), in architecture, a ^u&aoiaca \^^ f^^^^^j ^^^ ^,,^ 
\jviL%,x g^Qi^ panel or compartment in as Cicero, Cato, etc) among the ancient 
a ceUing of an ornamental character, and Romans. The other two names gener- 
usually enriched with moldings, and ally borne by every wdl-bom Roman, 
having a rose, pomegranate, etc, in the vis. the promomeii and nomen (as in 
center. Marcus Tullius CHcero), served to denote 

f\nff^TmAtkm ft temporary wooden en* the individual (Biarcus), and the ^ens 
Lroner aaiU| closure formed in water (Tullius) or clan to which his family 
in order to obtain a firm and dry fonn- belonged. 

dation for bridges, piers, etc. Co^nOVlt (l^og-nOMt), in law, is a 

nn-flpA^innllA a city in Montgomery ^vg****^*" written confession given 
xjQUKyYiUKy^^ Kansas, on the Ver- by the defendant that the action of the 
degris River, 19 miles B. of Independence, plaintiff is just, or that he has no avail- 
It has oil refineries, brick and tile plants, able defense. 

zinc oxide plant, paper and flour mills, Gofi>w]ieeL * wheel with cogs or 
sash and door factories, etc. Both ele<^ » **»»*j teets. 
trie light and water plants are owned and Pi^liAir Cohbxbbss (kO-ar*, kO-ftr^es), 
operated by the city. Pop. 18,452. vrvu«^j.A| ^ j^j^^ ^^^ ^^ heiress, one 

Coffin (^<>^^)y the chest or box in who succeeds to an inheritance that is 
\j%MuiML ^]||ch a dead body is enclosed to be divided among two or more. 

JiU'S^^'Srr^!^', ^b^J^t Coheleth. See EccU,U^. 

persons of distinction. Among the Collision (k^liS'>l>an)f the force by 

Romans it was Is erly the almost uni- ^*'**^»**'** which the various particles 

versal custom to consume the bodies of the same material are kept in con- 

with fire, and deposit the ashes In nms. tact^ forming one continuous mass. Its 

In Egypt coflins seem to have been used action is seen in a solid mass of matter. 

in anaent times universally. They were the parts of which cohere with a cer- 

of stone, earthenware, glass, wood, etc tain force which resists any mechanical 

A sort of ancient coffin is known as a action that would tend to separate them, 

saroop^o^iis. Coffins among Christians In different bodies it is exerted with 

were introduced with the custom of different degrees of strength, and it is 

burying. (See Burial,) Modem coffins measured by the force necessary to pull 

are usually made of wood. them asunder. Cohesion acts at insen- 

Coffill ^™ Isaac, admiral, bom in sible distances, or between particles in 

WVIAU&5 Boston, Massachusetts, in contact, and is thus distinguished from 

1769; died in 1839; entered the British the attraction of gravitation. It unites 

navy when 14 years old under Sir John particles into a nngle mass, and that 

Montague, becoming commander in 1782. without producing any change of prop- 

During the Revolution he remained loyal erties, and is thus distingmshed from 

to the mother country. He founded the od/keMdn, which takes place between 

famous Coffin School, Nantucket, Mass., different masses or substances; and 

* to be a perpetual tree of knowledge In from chemical attraction or affinity, 

this sterile spot.' In January. 1899, the which unites particles of a different kind 

foundation was valued at $60,000, and it together and nroduces a new substance. 

was decided to allow an emergency fund Hardness, softness, tenacity, elasticity. 

to accumulate. malleability and dnctiUty are to be con- 

fJuMfioA (kon-y&k), a town In France, sidered as modifications of oohesloD. 

\/v5uaiv j^p Qii^rente, and near the The great antagonist of cohesion If 

riTer Charente, 22 miles w. Angoultee, heat 

Cohesion Figures Coinii^ 

Cohesion Figures ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^® five-cent piece weighs 77.16 era., 75 

^ o"" ** ' urea produced per cent copper, 25 nor cent nickel. The 

by the attraction of liquids for other cent weighs 48 grs.. u5 per cent copper, 

liquids or solids with which they are GoinllLlP (koin'ing), the art of con- 

ill contact, and divided into surface, sub- ^*'**"**8 verting pieces of metal into 

mersion, hreath, and electric cohesion current coins for the purposes of oom- 

figures. Thus a drop of an independent merce, usually performed in a govern- 

liquid, as oil or alcohol, will spread ment estabishment caUed a mint. It 

itself out on the surface of water always is one of the prerogatives of the supreme 

in a definite figure, but difitering with power in all states, and counterfeiting 

each fluid dropped on the water. Breath or otherwise tampering with the coin 

figures are produced by putting a drop is severely punished. In the United 

of the liquid to be examined on a slip States the Bureau of the Mint was es- 

of mica, and breathing on it, when each tablished as a division of the Treasury 

fluid takes a distinct characteristic Department in 1873. It has charge of 

shape. Electric cohesion figures are the coinage for the government and 

produced by electrifying drops of va- makes assays of precious metals for pri- 

rious liquids placed on a plate of vate owners. The process of converting 

glass. the precious metals into coins is an in- 

Cohohfttion (l^^hd-bft'shun), the re- teresting one. The rolling machines 

\/vuvuaifXvu pea ted distillation of the through which the ingots are passed arc 

same liquid from the same materials. adjustable, the space hetween the rollers 

Cohoes (ito-hdz'), a city of Albany being governed by the operator. About 

County, New York, on the two hundred ingots are run through per 

west bank of the Hudson River, ^t the hour on each pair of rollers. When the 

mouth of the Mohawk, with great JIvaiter- rolling is completed the strip of metal 

power derived from the Mohawk* falls, is about six feet long. As it is im- 

There are large cotton and other mills, possible to roll perfectly true it is neces- 

Pop. (1920) 2&,987. sary to ' draw ^ these strips, after bs- 

Cohort (kC'hort). See Legion. jjf softened by annealing. The draw- 

, ing bencnes resemble long tables, wita 
nnimliafArA (ko-im-ba-tOr'), a city a bench on either side, at one end of 
uuiiauairorc ^^ Madras, British In- which is an iron box secured to the 
dia, capital of district to which it gives table. In this are fastened two perpen- 
name, situated on the river Noyil, with dicular steel cylinders. These are at the 
wide streets, abundant water, and a same distance apart that the thickness 
health/ climate. Pop. 47,007. — ^The dis- of the strip is required to be. It is 
trict IS fertile, producing sugar, cottcm, drawn between the cylinders, which re- 
rice, and tobacco ; and is well watered by duces the whole to an equal thickness, 
several rivers. These strips are now taken to the cut- 
nmmlirfi. (kS-^m^bra), a city of Por- ting machines, each of which wiU cat 
\j^Mxukuii^ tugal, capital of Coimbra 226 planchets per minute. The press 
district (1508 sq. miles; pop. .360,056), used consists of a vertical steel punch, 
in Beira province, on the Mondego River. From a strip worth $1100 about $800 
Seat of the University of Ckiimbra ( found- of planchets will be cut. These are then 
ed 1290). It has manufactures of linens, removed to the adjusting room, where 
woolens, etc Pop. 20,581. they are adjusted. After inspection they 
Coinafire (kpin-aj), the system of are weighed on very accurate scales. 
••o** coins used in a country. The If a planchet is too heavy, but near the 
metallic coinage of the United States con- weight, it is filed oflf at the edges : If 
sists at present of gold double-eagles, Uny heavy for filing, it is thrown aside 
eagles, half-eagles, and quarter-eagles ; with the light ones to be remelted. The 
silver dollars, half dollars, quarter dollars planchets, after being adjusted, are taken 
and dimes ; the nickel five-cent piece and to the coining and milling rooms, and 
the bronze cent. Under the first coinage are passed through the milling machine. 
■*^ ^^^}J^riH KoW^eagle weighed 270 They are fed to this machine through 

^•'u?^.® ^Cl ^°®", ^}u.7^^ *?^"<^<^^ 1^ an upright tube, and as they descend 

weight to Zoa grs. in 18t$4, and the fine- are caught upon the edge of a revolving 

ness was changed to 900. The early half- wheel and carried about a quarter of a 

eagle weighed 135 grs., but now weighs revoluHon, during which tte edge is 

129 grs^ 900 fine ; the quarter-eagle. 64.5 compressed and forced up. By this ap- 

grs. The silver <iollar of 1792 weighe<l paratus 56U nickels can be milled in 

fu 5"lv J*"ii " ^^ft ^ ^^u' "^ ?P^' a ?"l"^«^,^or larffe pieces the average 

the hal^dollar. 192.9 grs. ; the quartor- g 120. The masiSve but delicate coin- 

floUar, 96.45 grs.; the dime, 38.58 grs. ing presses '\)in fiwm 80 tt 100 pieces 


Woman fecdina pluicheta. or cxria blanla, to brtM tuba from the bactom of shich they tn earned tc 

iteel dm which form tho coini. 

Coir Coke 

a miniite. These presses do their work wanted without smoke and flame as in 
Ia a perfect manner. After being smelting. The retort or by-product oven 
stamped the coins are taken to the coin- has been recently greatly developed so as 
er*s room. The light and heavy coins to eliminate waste, the yield of coke aver- 
are kept separate in coining, and when anng 75 per cent, the weight of coal used, 
delivered to the treasurer they are mixed while in the * beehive * oven the average is 
in such proportions as to give him full only 65 per cent. Sometimes two kinds of 
weight in every delivery. By law, the coal are mixed to get a coking combination, 
deviation from the standard weight, in Pennsylvania exceeds all other states in 
deUvering to him, must not exceed three the production of coke. The outr)ut in 
pennyweighU in one thousand double IwO was 13.357,205 short tons : this had 
eagles. The coinage of the United risen in 1JK)5 to 20,573,736 short tuna, 
States mints since the organization of and in 1916 there was recorded the enor- 
the government has amounted to nearly mous output of 31,270,695 short tons. 
6,000,000,000 pieces, valued at over Kl® total output of thetJnjted Statas for 
$4,000,000,000. 1®!^ was about 45,000,000 short tons. 

finir (koir), cocoanut fiber, fiber from The coke produced in British Columbia, 
^"** the husk of the nut, from which m 1916, amounted to 267,725 tons. Nova 
are manufactured matting, bagging, Scotia's output was 669,478 tons. In 
ropes and cables. Coir cordage, from Alberta there was a large output from 
lasting well in salt-water, as also from 367 ovens. 

its lightness, strength, and elasticity, is Goke I>esmond (1879- ), an English 
preferable in many respects to ropes of ^^"^^ noveust, educated at University 
hemp. Mats and matting are now College, Oxford. He served in 1915-16 in 
largely made of coir, which is also used the European war and was invalided home 
in coarse brushes, for stuffing purposes, with the rank of captain. His novels in- 
etc. elude: The Pedestal The Golden Key, 

PmrA (kwar), or Chub (fcUr), the Helen Bretfs Career, The Worst Howe 
vruixc capital of the Swiss canton of at Sherhorough, 

the Grisons, on the rivers Plessur and Goke ^^^ Edward, an eminent Eng- 
Rhine. It is irregularly built, and ' lish lawyer, was the son of a 

possesses many houses in the ancient Norfolkshire gentleman and was born in 
style of architecture. Not far from 1551. After finish'ng his education at 
Coire the Rhine begins to be navigable Cambridge he went to London, and en- 
for small vessels. Pop. 11,718. tered the Inner Temple. His reputation 

Coix *^ genus of grasses. See Job*8 and practice rapidly increased. He was 
vuxAl j^^QY8. chosen recorder of the cities of Nom'ich 

Coke (^^^)f ^^ carbonaceous residue and of Coventry, knight of the shire of 
wikc of coal which has been heated his county, and, in spite of the rivalship 
in an oven or retort, or in any way of Bacon, attorney-general. As such he 
by which little air is admitted, until conducted the prosecutions for the crown 
all volatile matter has been expelled, in all great state cases, notably those 
The simplest method of producing coke of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh, which 
is based on the preparation of wood Coke conducted with great rancour and 
charcoal, the coal being arranged in asperity. In 1613 he became Chief-jus- 
heaps which are smothered with clay tiee of the Court of King's Bnnch ; but 
or coal-dust, and then set on fire, suffi- his rough temper and staunch support of 
cient air being admitted to keep the constitutional liberties brought him into 
mass at the proper temperature for de- disfavor with King James and his cour- 
composition without wasting the coke, tiers. In 1621 he was committed to the 
After the volatile portions are got rid Tower, and soon after expelled from the 
of, the heap is allowed to cool, or is ex- privy-council. In 1628 he was chosen 
tinguished with water, and the coke is member for Buckinghamshire, and greatly 
then ready. Methods of heating the coal distinguished himself by his vindication 
in close or open ovens until the gase- of the rights of the Commons, and by 
(itis and fluid products are driven off the proposing and framing the famous 
are also commonly used. Gas-coke is Petition of Rights. This was the last 
that which remains in the retorts after of his public acts. On the dissolution of 
the gas has been given off. Good oven- the Parliament he retired to his seat in 
coke has an iron-gray color, submetallic Buckinghamshire, where he died. Sep- 
luster, is hard, and somewhat vesicular; tember, 1634. His principal works are 
but gas-coke has rather a slagged and Reports, from iSOO to 1616; Institutes 
cindery look, and is more porous. Coke of the Laws of England^ in four parts: 
contains about 90 per cent, of carbon, the first of which contains the celeorated 
and is used where a strong heat is commentary on lAitleian^B Tenure 

Col ColoMonm 

i'Coke opon litUeton') : A TreatUe of Garden of Plants and bnilt an obaerra- 

'Otl and Moinpriae^ Complete Copy- tory in which he employed Hnyghena and 

holder. CaaainL He besan the meaaurement of 

Col (F>^c>^<^^ neok), an elevated moon- the meridian in France, and sent men of 

tain paaa between two higher gum- science to Cayenne. After having con- 

mits. The name is used prindpaliy in ferred the greatest benefits on his coun- 

those parts of the Alps where French try he died in 1683, out of favor with 

is commonly spoken. the king and the people. 

Cola. See Kola. Colbnm ^^?^'S"'^\! ^f^' *?*»«^- 

WM»« w^ «^v«». WAV MAM. cuiating boy/ bom in Ver- 
Colflnder (luiran-der), a vessel with mont, in 1804; died in 1840. Before hia 
wvMMAu^A ^ bottom perforated with sixth year he began to manifest wonder- 
little holes for straining liquors. ful powers of arithmetical computation. 
Colbenr (korberg), or KoLBEBO, a and in public exhibitions astounded 
WAMVA5 Prussian fortified seaport in learned mathematicians by the rapidity 
Pomerania, on the river Persante, 1 mile and accuracy of his processes, but the 
from the sea, with a good shipping trade faculty left him when ne grew up. After 
and well-frequented baths. Formerlv a actinc as a teacher and itinerant 
regular fortress, it has often been held preacher, he was latterlv professor of 
against strong armies. Pop. 20,200. languages at Norwich university, Ver- 
Colbfirt (kol-bar), Jkan Baptisik, a mont. Others besides him have possessed 
vrvAuvAv celebrated French minister this remarkable faculty, which indi- 
of finances, born at Rheims in 1610. cates powers in the brain little under- 
After serving in various subordinate de- stood. 

partments Colbert was made intendant, Colfilieflter (kol'ches-ter), a borough 
and at lenath comptroller-general of the ^vavh^dv^a ^^^ river-port of Eng- 
finances. His task was a difficult one. land. County Essex, 51 mUes ir. K. by i: 
He found disorder and corruption every- Iionaon, mostly situate on the summit 
where. The state was the prey of the and sides of an eminence rising from 
farmers-generalt and at the same time the river Colne; well built and amply 
maintained only by their aid. The peo- supplied with water. It has a good 
pie were obliged to pay 90,000,000 livrea coasting trade and employs a great num- 
of taxes, of which the king received ber of small craft in the oyster-fishery, 
scarcely 35,000,000, the revenues were It is a place of high antiquity, there 
anticipated for two years, and the treas- being no place in the kingdom where so 
ury empty. Colbert at once commanded great a quantity and variety of Roman 
a system of stringent reforms, abolish- remains have been found as here. It is 
ing useless offices, retracting burden- supposed to be the Oamalodunum of the 
some privileges, diminishing salaries, Romans, and was called Oolne Otaeter, 
and distributing and collecting the taxes from its situation on the Colne, by the 
by improved methods till he had reduced Anglo-Saxons. Pop. (1011) 43,468. 
them almost to one-half. To his talents, PnlnliAftf Ar ^ town (township) of 
activity, and enlarged views the develop- ^"^d^n^CM Chittenden -Co.. Ver- 
ment and rapid progress of industry and mont The town includes Colchester 
commerce in France were largely due. and Wlnooski villaaes. Pop. 6460. 
He constructed the Canal of Languedoc; ClnlnliiAiTiA (korchi-sin), an alkalcdd 
declared MarseiUes and Dunkirk free voiumomc obtained from colchlcum, 
ports; granted premiums on goods ex- used for the alleviation or cure of gout 
ported and imported ; regulated the tolls ; and rheumatism. It acts as an emetic, 
establi^ed insurance offices ; made uni- diuretic, and cholagogue cathartic, and in 
form laws for the regulation of com- large doses as a narcotico-acrid poison, 
merce, labored to render the pursuit of f!AlATiiAiiTn (korchi-kum), a genus of 
it well esteemed, and invited the nobiUty ^uiuuiuuiu plants, order l^Ulantha- 
to engage in it. The French colonies in ce«, allied to the lilies. The Oolckioum 
Canada, Martinique, etc., showed new auiumndle, or meadow saffron, is a bulb- 
signs of life; new colonies were estab- ous-rooted, stemless, perennial plant, 
lisned in Cavenne and Madagascar, and which grows In various parts of Europe, 
to support these Colbert created a con* From a small corm or bulb buried about 
siderable naval force. Under the pro- 6 inches deep, and covered with a brittle 
tection and In the house of the minister brown sUn, there rises in the early 
(1663) the Academy of Inscriptions was autumn a tuft of flowers having mudi 
founded. Three years afterwards he the appearance of crocuses, flesh-colored, 
founded the Academy of Sciences, and white, or even variegated. • They soon 
in 1671 the Academy of Architecture, wither, and the plant disappears till the 
Ha enlarged the Royal Library and the succeeding spring, when some broad 

Cololiis ColenM 

leaTes are thrown op by each conn along market cb^ can be kept unspofled f6r 
with a triangular oblong Beed-TesseL another. In transporting perishable ma- 
The plant is acrid and ^oisonoas, and terial by ship or car the same precess 
cattle are injured by eating it, bat it is used. Meats thus kept need to be 
yields a medicine valuable in gout and used quickly after being thawed, since 
rheumatism. See Colchicine. they spoil more rapidly than in their orig- 
GolcMft (horkis), the ancient name of inal state, and in some cases prove injun- 
vrvAv^uAo ^ region at the eastern ex- ous from putrefactive changes, 
tremity of the Black Sea, resting on flnlilofrAOTn a village of Scotland 
the Caucasus, famous in Greek mythol- vuiustrcam, .^^ Berwickshire, on the 
ogy as the destination of the Argonauts, Tweed. When General Monk quartered 
and the native country of Medea. here in 1669-60 he raised an infantry 
Colcotliar (horkO-thar), an impure regiment called the Coldstream Ouarda. 
. "7* V brownish-red oxide of Coldwater « ci^7» county seat of 
iron, which forms a durable color, bat ^*'***wai,ci, Branch Co., Michigan, 
ia most used in polishing glass and HO miles w. a. w. of Detroit. It has man- 
metals. * ., , .^ nfactures of iron, furniture, cement, 
flAlrl the absence of sensible heat, es- leather, brass, and a mUk condensory. 
^"***> pedally such a want of heat as Pop. (1920) 6114. 

causes some discomfort or uneasiness. dAA Wft.v^ the name given in the 

The temperature in which man and ^^*** wave, United States to spells 

other animals live is generally below the of severe depression of temperature, as 

natural heat of the body, but this is that of hot wave is given to the oppo- 

easily kept up in ordinary cases by cite condition. Cold waves are due to 

means of the food taken in and digested, persistent winds from the northwest 

A high degree of cold, however, pro- which spread over the country tiie ddll 

duces bodily depression, and is a fre- conditions of the great plains and moun- 

quent source of disease, or even of death, tain ranges of Weetem Canada. 

For the ailment called a cold, see Ca* QqIa Thomab, a landscape painter. 

iarrh. wa^?, jj^ ^^^ 1^^^^^ ^ England in 

Cold-blooded Animals, * ,*.®/™ ^^•. ^"^ i7"v*^?S x^^^ao^^^I^^ ^ 

wvAu. MAvv«A««& "™— , n^ppjjg^ ^Q America, where he died in 1848. Among 

in accordance with that of the surround- (Jnle Timothy, an American wood-en- 
ing medium. ' graver, bom in London, England, 

Cold C!rea.m. ^ ^ white, semisolid, in 1852; came to America with his 
wvAu. \jM.%iOMM^ unctuous ointment for parents in 1867. He entered the employ- 
dermal application to soothe irritated, ment of the Century Magazine (then 
excoriated, roughened, or abraded skin 8crihner*$) in 1875. and in 1883 went 
and softening hard, harsh, or dry skin, .to Europe, beslnning his remarkable 
It ia composed of spermaceti, expressed series of Old Masters. These represent 
oU of olives, white wax, oil of rose, so- .the work of many years and indude 
dium borate and water. The first three Italian, Dutch, Flemish, English, Spanish, 
ingredients are melted together carefully French and American masters. 
by the aid of gentle heat, the oil of rose Colebrooke (J^l'hrak), H e n a T 
and water are made into rosewater, and vm*vv«.w fj^^^^^^ ^j^ Oriental 

with the aid of the sodium borate the scholar, bom at London in 1765; died 
two liquids are mixed together and there in 1837. He became professor of 
stirred until cold. With it may be incor- Sanskrit at Calcutta and director of the 
porated medidnal and coloring substances. Bengal Asiatic Society. His translations 
i\t%lA fifArocMk a method of preserv- from the Sanskrit and his essays on 
\jQlQ, DWragCy jjj^ perishable food Hindu subjects are valuable, 
materials by keeping them in a low GolenSO UF^-1«o'b5). John William, 
temperature until needed for consump- Bishop of Natal, bom in 

tion. This is done by the aid of freez- 1814; educated at Cambridge; assistant- 
ing machines similar in principle to master at Harrow, till 1842; appointed 
those used in making artificial ice and ia 1853 first Bishop of Natal, South 
by which the temperature can be re- Africa. His works on the Pentateuch and 
duced to and kept at the requisite de* Book of Joshua, which called in ques- 
gree. Cold storage warehouses are In tion the historical accuracy of these 
use in all our principal cities, in which books, involved the author in a con- 
fhiits and meats are kept for long peri- flict with hia ecclesiastical superiotiL 
pds, while the unsold material of 009 9^ ^^ waa deposed by the Bishop g| 


Cape Town. But the decisions of the young Coleridge took little interest in 

privy-council and Court of Chancery the ordinary sports of childhood, and 

were in his favor, and he continued to was noted for a dreamy, abstracted 

officiate as bishop. He died in 1883. manner, though he made considerable 

PnlpATiteni. (ko-le-op'te-ra; Greek progress in classical studies, and was 

wicupbcia ]^0icos^ a sheath, and known even at that early age as a de- 

pteron, a wing), an order of insects, vourer of metaphj[8ical and theological 

commonly known as beetles. They have works. From Christ's Church he went 

four wings, of with a scholarship to Jesus College, 
which the two su- Cambridge, where ne remained for two 
perior (elytra) years, but without achieving much dis- 
are not suited to tinction. At this time, too, his ultra- 
flight, but form a radical and rationalistic opinions made 
covering and pro* the idea of academic preferment hope- 
tection to the two less, and perhaps it was partly to es- 
inferior, and are cape the difficulties and perplexities gath- 
of a hard and ering about his future that Coleridge 
One of the Coleopiem homy or parch- suddenly quitted Cambridge and enlisted 
(CiniuMa compeafTM) ment-like nature, in the 15th Dragoons. Rescued by his 
a. Head, fe, Thorax, c, Thg inferior friends from this position, he took up 
fTvn^ ?f aJS^' wings, when not his residence at Bristol with two con- 
e «. wingv. //. Antenns. . ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ .^j gpirits, Robert Southej, who had 

transversely under the superior. The lust been obliged to quit Oxford for his 
coleoptera undergo a perfect metamor- Unitarian opinions, and Lovell, a young 
phosis. The larva generally resembles a Quaker. The three conceived a project 
short, thick worm with six legs and a of emigrating to America, and estabtish- 
scaly head and mouth. ing a pantisocracy, as they termed it, or 

Coleraine (kOl-rfin'), a town of Ire- community in which all should be ^QQaI* 

land, county of London- on the banks of the Susquehanna. This 
derry, on both sides of the river Bann, scheme, however, never became anything 
47 miles ir. w. of Belfast. Its trade, more than a theory, and was finally dis- 
chiefly in linen, agricultural produce posed of when, in 1785. the three friends 
and provisions, is considerable. There married three sisters, the Misses Fricket 
are extensive salmon fisheries. Pop. of Bristol. Coleridge about this time 
about 7000. started a periodical, the Watchman, 

flnlATiilcFA (ksrrij), Habtlet, eldest which did not live beyond the ninth 
vuACiiugc g^^ ^^ Samuel Coleridge, number. In 1796 he took a cottage at 
was born at Clevedon, near Bristol, on Nether Stowey, in Somersetshire, where 
September 19, 1796. In 1815 he went soothed and supported by the companion- 
to Oxford, where, three years after, he ship of Wordsworth, who came to re* 
took his degree with high honors. T7n- side at Allfoxden, he wrote much of )^ 
fortunately he had contracted a propen- best poetry, in particular the Ancient 
sity for drinking, and was deprived, on Mariner, and the first part of ChrittaheL 
account of his intemperate ha nits, of a WhUe residing at Nether Stowey he 
fellowship he had obtained from Oriel used to officiate in a Unitarian chapel 
College. He then left Oxford and took at Taunton, and in 1798 received an in- 
up his residence at London, but later he vitation to take the charge of a congre- 
resided in the lake country, where he gation of this denomination at Shrews- 
occupied himself with literary composi- bury, where, however, he did nothing 
tion. In verse, his sonnets, and in prose further than preach the probation ser^ 
his biographies (Worthies of Yorkshire mon. An annuity bestowed on him by 
and Lancashire and Life of Massinger) some friends (the Wedgewoods) fur- 
are the most important of his works, nished him with the means of making 
He died January 6, 1849. His life a tour to Germany, where he studied at 
was written by his brother, Derwknt, the University of Gftttingen. In 1800 
bom 1800; died 1883. In 1841-64 he he returned to England and took up his 
was the principal of St. Mark's College, residence beside Southey at Keswick. 
Chelsea, in 1864-80 rector of Hanwell. while Wordsworth lived at Grasmere in 
Pn1»rifl(rA Samttel Tatlob, a cele- the same neighborhood. From this fact. 
vuicriu^9 brated English poet and and a certain common vein In their 
philosopher, was bom October 21, 1772, poetry, arose the epithet of 'I^ake 
at Otterv St. Mary. Devonshire, of which School ' applied to their works. About 
place his father was vicar. Sent to 1804 Colendge went to Malta to rees- 
school at Christ's Church Hospital, to tablish his health, seriously impaired by 
which he had obtained a representation, opium-eating. In 1806 he returned te 

Coleridge-Tftylor Collation 

Englaad, and after ten years of desultory organ of the Whigparty, which he edited 

literary work, took refuge from the world for many years. He was elected to Con- 

in the house of his friend Mr. Gillman at gress in 1854 and was at three different 

Highgate, London. Here he passed the times chosen Speaker of the House. In 

rest of his days, holding weekly conver- 1868 he received the Republican nomi- 

saaiones in which he poured himself nation for the yice-presidency and was 

forth in eloquent monologues. His views elected with President Grant. He served 

on religious and political subjects had one term. 

become mainly orthodox and conserva- Cnlift (hol'lk; from colon, a portion 
tive, and a great work on the Logos, ^""^ of the large intestine), a pain- 
which should reconcile reason and faith, ful disorder of the bowels, usually of a 
was one of the dreams of his later years, spasmodic charficter, unaccompanied by 
But Coleridge had long been incapable of diarrhoea, and presenting itself in vari- 
concentrating his energies on auy thing, ous forms. When the pain is accom- 
and of the many years he spent in the panied with a vomiting of bile or with 
leisure and quietness of Highgate nothing obstinate costiveness it is called a bit- 
remains but the Tahle Talk and the frag- **><*« coMc; if with windy distension, it 
mentary notes and criticism gathered takes the name of flatulent or windy 
together, and edited by his nephew. He colic; if with heat and inflammation, it 
died July 25, 1834. The dreamy and **^®8 ***« °*™® ®^ inflammatory colic, or 
transcendental character of Coleridge's enteritis. There are many other van- 
poetry eminently exhibits the man. In ^ties of this complaint, some of which 
his best moments he has a fine sublimity ^F^ peculiar to certain occupations or 
of thought and expression not surpassed districts, as the patnters; coltc (see Lead 
by Milton ; but he is often turgid and ver- Pptsomng), the Devonshire coltc. 
bose. As a critic, especially of Shake- CollCmV (koi-i>i-y6)._GASPABD de. a 
spere, Coleridge's work is of the highest J^^J" k 'T'^ir ^iS^J^^L^'J^Hi^^ 
rank, combining a comprehensive grasp *^?P^®\ °^^ *^ .^^V » distinguished him- 
of large critical principles and a singu- self binder Francw I and.Henry H, who 
larly subtle insiglit into details. Cole- ™£?® ^1°* ? i^^ Admiral of France, 
ridge's poetical works include The An- ^*if ^.u *** o ^®**^* *? 5®".^^*?^ Cohgny 
dent MaHnef, Christabel (incomplete), *22:H t^e Protestant side in the jelirious 
Remorse, a tragedy, Kuila KHanT i «?^!f* ^ ^^ *^®' ^^ ^*^™® theliead 
translation of Schiller^s Wattenstein, etc.; ^l ^^^ P^I!^^^^\^^J^K i?,^ T*®#^®°Sr 
his prose works, Biographia Litiraria, ?"? unfortunate In tiie battles he fought, 
The Friend, The Statesman's Manual S'*^ speedily repaired his defeats by pru- 
Aids to Reflection, On the Constitution ^®°^® *"^ «°5^ management. When 
of Church and State, etc. Pe^f® ^^ "^^^ Cohgny was received 
H^Ia'w^A^^ rr<«— i» nAXTTTVT o «nn«t "^^th spparcut favor at court. But this 
COlendge-Taylor, 5^^^ * ™™; was only a wind ; and on the night of 

Anglo-African descent, bom i^L^Sfon in %Si Bartholomew's (Aug 24, 1672) 
^; died in 1912. He studied at the Coligny was basely slaughtered, and his 
Royal College of Music, and soon began S?T^ ^^''^ViPil'^^A ^''"^^*.^^^^^ 
his brief but brilliant cireer. His works Gohma i^^^t^Jh VX L^^f 

nl^'^Tl^'T^^ same name?%i^a"ti*lSn^^ ^tiWaSj 

Khan, He also composed incidental mu- /?^*.v^^^^^ ^k ^^'n « 'o w^J 

fkm^l ^^rij'Zft!^ n^e^fi ^^e ^^fy^Ts^lhl'^Sk''^^^^^^^^^ deUm^a 

aSi"?e"fam^eVa''cr4'Sve^Su^^^^^^ *" S lirTSl^ no?^el\Vl '"' *" *^"* 

Coleseed [^^^^..^-^ l^iraSt CoU^Um ^^^^ Bee Colo. 

STtS Me t^ i^edfnf crt'tlr '^ °^^'^ COU, ^^^^^S ^V^^* r^Vr' 
Colet i^i'«*L»sT ¥^^'^^ gyle, on^ennhe^^Heas,''St^^^^ 

founder "St'bt^Tauvl ic\oSriSnd*S^ ?"^«^ ^T '^"^^ ^"'S ^ V u^^ "^^^' 
born in 1466; died in 1519. ^"^^^^ P^^^^Vi^ great portion of it is moor, 

ri^l^^Av rkoVfiikR^ arTTTTvnrii of.f<.». incapable of cultivation; but there are 
Colfax i^^i^Xj' It^e^^nrk In «««« ^^^^s of light and sandy soil 
1823 ; died in 1885. About 1845 he estaS T^^^^H ^''^ tolerably prodncttve Gaelic 
lished at South Bend, Indiana, a weekS^ 15 S?*Tr^^y/lP?Sl?V ^?P- ^^' ^ 

paper, the St. Joseph' Valley RegisZ-,^ ColktiOll l^f l^^^Jl" ^ * * ^TS!^^ 

, ^mmm g^jj Q^ Qug copy or tning 



«f a like kind with another, eepedally 
mannaczipti and editions of boou. — ^In 
canon law, the pteientation of a clergy- 
nun to a benefice by a bishop who has 
the zifht of patronage. In such a case 
tlie combination of the act of presenta- 
tion and institation constitute coUation, 
(JoUMt (kol'tect), a term appUed to 
^'''***^* certain short prayers in the 
litnzsies of Tarioos chorches. Some of 
the collects of the Hnglish Charch are 
taken from the old Boman Missal, and 
are supposed to hare been written by St. 
Jerome. Others are still more andent; 
whUe a few hare been added after the 
Beformation. There is a collect for 
every Sunday in the year, and a corre- 
sponding e^tle and gospeL 
Collefire (hol'ej; Latin, coUe^«m), in 
^^^^^^ a general sense, a body or 
society of persons inrested with certain 

Sowers and rights, performing certain 
uties, or engaged in some common em- 
ployment or pursuit In Great Britain 
and America some societies of physicians 
are called coUegea So, also, there are 
colleges of surgeons, a college of heralds. 
etc. The most famtHsr application of 
^e term college, howerer, is to a society 
of persons engaged in the pursuits of 
Uterature, including the professors, lec- 
turers, or other officers, and the studenta 
Am applied to an educational institution 
the name is somewhat loosely used. The 
higher class of colleges are those in 
wmch the students engage in study for 
the purpose of taking a degree in arts, 
medicine, or other subjects, and are 
connected with, or have more or less the 
character of uniyersitlea The early 
Ustory of these institudons is some- 
what obscure: the probability is that 
they were originally founded in the vari- 
oQs uniTendnes of the middle ages, 
with similar objects and from the same 
charitable motives. Hotels or board- 
ing-houses were provided (principally by 
the religious orders, for toe benefit of 
those of their own fraternity), in which 
the scholars lived unde** a certein super- 
intendence, and the endowment of these 
liostels by charitable persons for the sup- 
port of poor scholars completed the 
foundation of a college. Out of this has 
developed the modem Bnglish college as 
seen at Oxford and Cambridge, where 
each college, though a member or compo- 
nent part of the university, is a sepa- 
rate establishment whose fdlows, tutors, 
and students live together under a par- 
ticnlar head, called iiMwter, pHnoipol, 
«Mn<eii, etc., of the college. In the 
United States and Qermany the college 
Is practically one with the university, 
the latter body performing all the func- 

tions alike, of teaching, examining, de- 
gree-conferring, etc. 

wMAv cjgjiy common in Scotland, 
thouah now popular among Amerieui 
dog-fanciers, and from its intelligence of 
much use to shepherds. It is of medi- 
um sise and varies much in coloring, 
black and white being common, and 
black with tan-colored legs^munle, etc, 
being highly esteemed. The head is 
somewhat fox-shaped, the ears erect, but 
with drooping points, the tail rather 
long, bushy and with a pronounced curt. 
Collier (hol'yer), Jxbeht, an Bn|^ 
l/OiUer ^^^^ ^^ politieal winter, 

bom in 1660. He was educated at 
Oambridse, and having entered into 
orders obtained the rectory of Ampton 
in Suffolk in 1669. He was a xealoai 
opponent of the Bevolutlon of 1688, and 
was repeatedly imprisoned for his pottti- 
ical writinga He is chiefly remembered 
now for his Short View of ike Immo- 
rality and Profaneneu of the BngUih 
Stage — a ii'ork of considerable merit 
which is said to have effected a decided 
reform in the sentiments and language 
of the theater. He died in 172a 
riAlli^r John Patzie, an English 
VrOUier, Shakesperian critic, bora in 
London in 1789; died in 188a. He be- 
came known as a critical essayist on old 
English dramatic literature, and was 
editor of the new edition of Dodtley** 
Old Playe in 1826. In 1831 his best 
work, the Hietory of Ent/Mh Dramm^ 
Poetry, was published. In 1842-44 he 
published an annotated edition of Shake- 
spere in 8 vola ; in 1844 ShakeepereTg lAr 
hrary. SubsequentW he published sev- 
eral editions of Shakespere, and an ex- 
cellent edition of Spenser (5 vols., 1862 K 
He made himself notorious by duming 
that he possessed a copy of the 2d IV>1io 
Shakespere, 1632, witii many marginal 
emendations and annotations written in 
the mid^e of the seventeenth century, 
though, as was discovered, these notes 
were labricatioas, probably by himseit. 

Collimatioii <]^»t[-j;*SJiJ£;ia 

instrument, such 
as a telescope 
or transit in- 
strument, the 
straight line 
which p a B s e R 
through the 
center of the 
object-glass and 
intersects at 
right angles a 
svstem of spider- 
threads placed at 


Collimators CollisioiL 

the focus of the eyepiece. The proper from which he never quite recovered. He 
adjustment of the fine of eoflimadon of died in 1759. 

the instrument is necessary to accurate fJollilLfl Wuxiak, an English painter, 
observation of the time at which move- ^^*^^^*^f noted for his landscapes and 
ments of the heavenly bodies take place, domestic scenes, bom in London m 1787, 
Collimfl.torfl (kol-i-mft'tors), two and elected Ii<^al Academician in 1820l 
^vAAAAuawxp gmall, subsidiary tele- He died in 1847. 

■copes used for collimatinff astronomi- CoIllllB WoxiAic WiLKn, son of the 
cal instruments; that is, for adjusting ^^**^**^9 pxeoeding, bom in London in 
the line of coUimation, and for deter- 1824. Ha was educated for the bar. but 
mining the collimation error. turned aside to literature, in which he 

nnllin^ Qaa KfJUm. espccialiy distinguished himself as a nov- 

l^Oiiiu. see -fl-O"***- „. elist of great dramatic and constmcttve 

CoUineSWOOd i*®L"l^I?°'' u"5i Pc^wer. Among his best known works 
wxxuigBwuvu dential borough of ^^ Antanina (I860), BomI (1862), 

Camden (^., adjoining CModen^^wlth j'fce Woman <» TfWte (1860), TJktf 31 ooih 
some manufactures. Pop. (IWO) 8 714. ,tone (1868), The New MagMen (1878). 
CoUinffWOOd (kol'ing-wwd), ClJTH- The SMI OenUu (1886), etc. Died 1889. 
\^uiimswuuu mTTL^, an B^ Collingville « ^^ ^^ Madison CJo., 
naval commander (1760-1810), bom at vOlunsviue, mjn^Jijj; 12 mUes E. N. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He entered the ^ ^f g^ Louis. It has coal mines, brick 
navy in 170., and took part as flag-captafai yards, hosiery mills, lead and sine smel- 
on board the Barfeur in Lord Howe's ters, ete. Pop. (1920) 0763. 
victory off Brest, 1794; commanded the PAiHaiATi (kol-iih'un). In maritime 
BwoeOeni during the battle of Cape St. vomsioa affairs, the shock of two 
Vincent, 1797 ; and was made rear ad- ships coming into violent contact, where- 
ndral in 1799. His most distinguished by one or both may suffer more or less 
service was at Trafalgar, where his skill injury. Collision may happen without 
and resolution drew warm praise from blame being imputable to either party. 
Nelson. On the latter^s death he took as where the loss is occasioned by a 
supreme command. He died on board the storm, in which case the misfortune must 
VtUe de Paris while cruising in the Med- be borne by the party on whom it hap- 
iterranean, and was buried in St. Paul's, pens to lisht Or a collision may arise 
nnlliTiirarAArl a town and jport in where both parties are to blame — ^where 
vuAiiu^wuuu, gimcoe Co., (Ontario, there has been a want of due diligence 
on Georgian Bay. It has great steel ship- or skill on both sides ; in which case 
building yards and dry docks. Manufac- neither party has an action against the 
tores include foundry products, wire nails, other, l^irdly, it may happen by the 
brooms, printing, etc. The town owns misconduct of the suffering party only 
waterworks, electric light, sewerage and and then the rule is that the sufferer 
hydro-electnc power. Pop. 7700. must bear his own burden. Finally it 

CfAllina (kol'ins), Anthont, an Bug- may have been the fault of the ship 
\A^uxuB Ush deistical writer, bora in which ran the other down, and in that 
1076 ; died in 1729. He was a friend of case the injured party would be entitled 
Locke, who described him as a man who to an entire compensation from the 
had 'an estate in the country, a library other. Strict laws and regulations to 
in town, and friends everywhere.' His prevent collisions have been laid down, 
chief works are Disooune of Free Thinh- which contain rules concerning lights, 
ing; PhUosophieal Inquiry Ooneeminff and sailing and steering rales. By the 
Human Liberty; Di$oour$e on the rule of the road at sea, if two sailing 
Grounds and Reasons of the Christian ships are approaching each other end 
JteUgUm; Literal Scheme ef Prophecy on, or nearly so, the helms of both 
Considered, must be put to port, so that each may 

GoUinfl WnxiAM, an English poet, pass on the port side of the other; In 
\jvxxxjkay ^j^g jjQj^ ijj 2J21 at CMches- crossing so as to involve risk of colli- 
ter. While studying at Oxford he wrote don the sailins ship with the wind on 
his Oriental BcloffueSt the moderate sue- the port side snail keep out of the way 
cess of which encouraged him to try a of the ship with the wind on the star- 
literary career in London. In 1746 he board, but if they have both the wind on 
published his Odes, containing pieces the same side the ship which is to wlnd- 
which now rank among the finest lyrics ward shall keep out of the way of the 
in the language. Disappointed with the one that has it to leeward. If a steam- 
reception nil poems met with, and un- ship and a sailing ship are approaching; 
strung by irregular habits and excite- so as to involve collision thf^ former 
meat, he feU into a nervous melancholy, must keep out of the way of the lattsr. 

CoUodion Cologne 

If one YMsel is ovtrtaking another she junction with Garrick). From 1777 till 
mast keep out of the way of the last- 17U1 he conducted the little theater in 
named vesseL the Uaymarket, London. 

Collodion (ko-lCdi^n). a substance Colman. ^^^f ('the Younger'), 
wMv^Mvu prepared by dissolving vrvxiXM»ii, ^^ ^^ ^^ preceding, was 

pyroziline (guncotton) in ether, or in born in London in 1762; died there in 
a mixture of ether and alcohol, which 1836. He assisted his father as director 
forms a useful substitute for adhesive of the Haymarket Theater, and succeeded 
plaster in the case of slight wounds, him as patentee. His dramas include 
When the fluid solution is applied to the John BuU, The Hetr^t-Law, Poor Oentle- 
cut or wound it immediately dries into man and Love Laughs at LocksmithM. 
a semitransparent, tenacious film, which ^ , irArwAn /vnrmav) m. 

adheres firmly to the part, and under Colmar, dtv of^rmkLv S OToi 

i^flSSmrtSSf V'r'SSehtlv' moffi ^^^ forSVin^uTe^^F/endf dSSS?. 
inflammation. In a sligntiy modinea _.-_|. '« Honf Rhin aft milM a nlv 

form collodion is also employed as the g£i^,b2rg % h^' manufaSu^^Tf 
basis of a photographic process called n^SrSd tood« nftl^o. .ilkiT^ hL 

the collodion process. See Photography. S^^^tS^ill^fa^eri^ Si* mi 

-«« .tn aS^iS^lL gelatine, ^ Qennany by the Treaty of VersaiUea, 

l/OUOt tt HerOOlS ^^^^ ^^j^e, i Coin. See Cologne. 

leader in the French revolution, bom in fi^i^^ (kOln), a town of Bngland, Id 

1760; died in 1796. He became promi- i/OinC Lancashire, 34% miles nT^ m, I 

nent as a leader of the Mountain or ex- ^f ^he city of Manchester. The dlief i 

treme party. He was sent by Robes- manufactures are cotton and woolen 

pierre along with Foucn4 to Lyons in goods. Pop. 25,603. 

17d3, with almost unlimited powers, and PnlAnaaio (kol-6-kft'Bi-a)t a genns of 

was guilty of the most flagrant enorml- vuiuuiuiill j^iants, nat. order Arooso; 

ties. Returning to Paris ne became a the leaves and tubers of which are acrid. 

determined opponent of Robespierre, and Xhe latter contain much starchy matter. 

being chosenj)resident of the Ck>nvention and they are used as food in the south 
(July 19. 1794), contributed to his falL of Europe after the acrid matter is sep- 
He was later banished to Cayenne. arated by washing or boilina. C. escw 

Collusion (ko-ltl'shun), in law, n se- lenta, C. macrorhtzat and others furnish 

cret agreement between op- the taro of the Pacific islands. ^^* 
posing litigants to obtain a particular Cocco Root, 

Judicial decision on a preconcerted state- p^]rt^_.i.i. (kol'ft-slnth), the froit of 
ment of facts, whether true or false,^ to l/OlOCynxn Xj^cumia (or Citrullus 
the injury of a third party. Collusion, Colocynthua) , a species of cucumber, the 
when proved to exist, nuUifies the judg- ^^ ''^nd powdered pulp of which U the 
ment obtained through it colocynth of the shops. It is used in 

CoUver. ?o?™^» »^ American Uni- medicine as an aperient 

rJ^. / tr J*r\*^ ™^^®T«^y?^^» ^^oJ*^ *i PnlncniP (ko-16n'>, (changed oflBdany 
Keighly, York^ire, England, in 1823. and l/OlOgnC \^ ^^^N In 1901), German, 

died in New York in 1912. He learned jj^g/,! (ke«ln), a city of Rhenish Prussia, 
the blacksmith trade, which he practised on the left bank of the Rhine, a fortress 
for some time after coming to America of the first rank and important commer- 
in 1850. He was at first a Methodist cial city, is 358 miles by rail 8. w. of 
local preacher, but became a Unitarian in Berlin and 24 miles 8. E. of Dflaseldorf. 
1859. He founded Unity Church, Chi- The old fortifications, dating from the 
cago, and was for many years pastor of middle ages, are being, or have been re- 
the Church of the Messiah, New York, cently, swept away, new works being con- 
His books include Nature and JAie structed in accordance with the principles 
(1864), The Simple Truth (1878), Talkn of modem fortification. The town itself 
to Young Men (1888), Things New nnd has been improved and extended, and 
Old (1893). streets once dark and filthy have been 

ColmAn (h6l-man), Gejobgb, an Eiig- opened up or otherwise improved, but 
wMAMftM jigjj dramatic writer and Cologne is still irregularly built and 
theatrical manager, born at Florence in largely in the antique style. There are 
1733; died in 1794. He is author of many fine old buildings as well as excel- 
Polly Honeycomhet The Jealous Wife, lent modern ones ; the churches in parties 
and The Clandestine Marriage ^in ^nti. ular are interesting* 

Cologne Colombia ' 

Tbt most import&nt edifice of all Is th« imporUoce was greatly diminished wben 

cathedral, befun in 1248, one of the it was taken bj the French in 1794. ceded 

fiueat and Inrgeat Oothic structures in to them by the Treaty of Luniville in 

Europe. It was completed only in the igOl, and restored to Prussia in 1S14. 

1!%.^^^*^^ %':&ofiSo:'% ?. "^^'^ "' ^"'-- ^«^«-. ^-^-j^^om. 

In the form of a cross ; its entire lensth ColOfne Earth. *, "" , ocher, 
ia about 480 feet: breadth. 282 feet; ^ ' of a deep-brown 

height to ridge of roof, 202 feet : height color, transparent, and durable id water- 

of the two western towers, between color painting. It is an earthy varielT 

which U a grand portal, G20 feet, being of lignite or partially fossUiied wood. 

Colosni, showing CsUiedrsi snd Cbiueh of St. Msrlio 

thus among: the btshmt edifices in cBe Cntntrnp VJttiPT Aqua Cot.oost 

world. The council -house. mu«eum, and ^**t"Sne W aicr, enmib. EAU UE Co- 

fine St. Martin Church with its im- loone, spibitus ouubatus, is a yellow 

posing tower should also be mentioned, iah liquid perfume composed ot spints 

The manufactures embrace sugar, to- "'^"i"*^ -j^a • ew droiw of ™^^^ 

bacco. glue, carpels, leather, ma-hinery. S™« U was fi?^t nJ^uced iS 

Chemic-ls. pianos and the celebrated J^CTby Jean Farina?in S^Sd ta 

ew ie Cologne. The trade by river and .hu manufactured there by persons beap- 

railway is very great. — Cologne Is of in( or assuming the aame oame. Its 

pre-Christian origin, and was originally foi nnla is a secret. 

called Oppidum Ubiomm, being the chief fi, lncmi> Vpllniir *■ pigment coa- 

town of the Ubii. a German nation. ^ lOgne leUOW, ^,^(5^^ ^j y^^ 

Th^ Romans made It a colony a-D. 51, diromate of lead, sulphate of leao, and 

and called it Colonia Aarippi«a (whence aulphate of lime. 

tbe name Cologne). LAter it was at- nnlnrnTiia (hMom'b^&), Kepdblic OF, 

tached to the Frankish empire, and ^OiOniDia formerly aOled New Ora- 

became one of the most powerful and nada. a republic, fourth in aise among 

wealthy cities of tbe Hanseatic Ijcague. the countries of South America, conalst- 

bot latterly it declined, and its commercial iug of 15 departments, four tetritorlw 

ColomUa Ctilomb$ 

P^^JUJl*^*"^ ^^^^ ^* PojwlAtlon Cartagena, and Buenaventura. In 1908 
!" J?^-]?%v.^'*^&?®^V,"r? approx- Panama, once a department of CSolombla, 
koatdy 641,000. The chief town; are aaserted its independence and waa formed 
J^o^^ J^V^^^lf^^^^f ^^^ Carta- into a separate repubUc. On April «. 
ma. The territory of the repubUc 1014, Colombia signed a treaty with the 
formerly induded the Isthmus of Pan- United States agreeing to recognise the 
amA, but PanamA declared ite indepen- independence of Panama, and receiving in 
dence m November, 1903 and there is return $25,000,000 and certain rights in 
much disputed boundary territory in the the Canal Zone. This treaty was ratified 
uUnd ^regions towards the south and by the U. 8. Senate on April 20, 1921. 
east According to surftu» conformation, The foreign trade is mostly with Britain 
the coun^ may be divided mto the de- and the United Stotes. The exports are 
vated rqrion of the Cordilleras in the mainly coffee, hides, bananas, goM, silver 
west, aiid t^t of the low-lying lands in and platinum ; the imports conrist of food- 
theeast The former occupies the greater gtufls, metals, cotton goods and drugs. In 
!???^«iljffiL «>^J?y. and presents a igao the exports amounted to $80,000,000 ; 
ridihr-diverrffied surface, bdng formed the imports to $48,000,000. There are about 
^efiv of ttree mountain chafiis which 900 nfies of railroad. The money stand- 
stretch north and south m a nearly par- ard is the pew or dollar, nominal valua 
allel direction, indosing between them the $1. — Colombia is divided into 15 depart- 
valleys of the rivers Cauca and Magda- ments, 4 territories and a federal district 
lena. These, the two great navigable ^e government is carried on by a presi- 
riyers of the country, flow noithw^s, dent, a supreme court, and a legismtuM 
joining their waters about 120 mUes from consisting of an upper and lower house; 
Uieir embou^ure in tiie Caribbewa Sea. the former chosen V electoral coUeges. 
I» l**«,?5'*P*l,'^^E? ^ ,^« ^^rte?!^' the latter by direct votes. The depart 
?2*?oo**'*^^^?^i!** Sf ▼?!<»"<> o| T61ima, mente have appointed governors andbi- 
IM^ feet high. The low lands of the ennial assemblies. The constitution dates 

ro£S Wo^iSf^B^Sl'^^^^^^ ^ 4!^bT'?fce""^:e^3^ei".SSfeS 

fi.*r.J?iJ"S^*Kr'T?«'.J?® fi5^5t^ ^«» enlarged. The finances of the »- 
ing carnea to tne Amazon and Urinoco. ««nh1i<« hsvn iihown mmridM^MA imnmv*- 

hot The rainfall is very heavy on the «"««>"• New Granada declared ito inde- 
coast At some places on the Caribbean Pendence of Spain in ISll^d alter eleven 
Sea, and on the I^cific coast, yellow fever J^^ o^ warfare succeeded ^with the help 
is endemic ; but for the most part in the of Venesuela in effecting its liberation, 
elevated country, as the Plain of BogotA, Both states then united with Ecuador, 
8000 feet above the sea, the climate is ^^ fr««5 from the Spanish domination, 
perfecUy salubrious, and the tempera- to form the first republic of Colombia : but 
ture seems that of eternal spring. The internal dissensions arising, the three 
flora is rich and luxuriant A great part ftates again separated in 1831, forming 
of the country is stiU covered with vir- three independent republics, which have 
gin forests, which yield excellent build- ^ * TJ^^ troubled existent. In 18«1 
ing-wood, Peruvian bark, caoutehouc, the states forming New Granada by 
vanilla, etc The fauna include the agreement adopted a new consdtutioiL 
jaguar, puma, tapir, armadillo, sloth, the republic to be «lled the United 
various species of deer, and the gigantic States of Colombia. This title was re- 
condor. The mineral wealth is various tained till, by the new constitution of 
and abundant though still imperfectly 1886. the state ceased to be a federal 
explored. It comprises coal, gold, silver E5PS4*,? *"^ became a unitery republic 
(both now largely worked by foreign 35«» the name of RepubUc of Colombia 
companies) , emeralds and salt Industry ™w 1" » president, supreme court and 
is at a very low stege. Maiz^ bananas, legislature of two houses, 
and plaintains are the chief articles of Colombo (aMom'bO) , a seaport town, 
food. Tobacco and coffee are cultivated '^^*^***"^ the capital of Ceylon, on 
and exported. Sugar-cane is also grown, the southwest coast and about 70 miles 
Manufactures can scarcely be said to west by south of Kandy, with whidi it 
exist Panaml hats, mats, and coarse is connected by railway. It is a pleas- 
cotton cloths being almost the only ant town with an extensive fort within 
articles that can be mentioned in this which are some of tiie beat houses, and 
dass. Chief porta are ^,«i'ranQuiUa« which occupies a pioieeting point of 

Colombo Colony 

land. On the north aide of the fort, on ment of troops, ranking below a brlga- 
the manrin of the sea, ia the Pettah or dier-general, and above a lieutenant- 
Black Town, inhabited chiefly by Sin- ooloneL 

ghaleee, while in the environs are most CoIohha (ho-lon'a), an Italiaa family 
of the houses occupied by the English, ^vavau&a ^^^ |^^ become important as 
The public buildings comprise the gov- early as the 8th centurv. its fame 
emment offices, government house, su- during the middle ages edipaed that of 
preme court, museum, etc. Through the every other Boman family except the 
construction of a breakwater and other neat rival house of the Ondni The 
works there is now excellent harbor ac- CSolonna family is at present represented 
eummodation, and numerous vessels call by several branches, the Ck>Ionna-Sciarra, 
here. Pop. (1911), 213,896L Golonna-Stigliano, etc It played an im- 

Colombo. See C<ri.«*.. ^ST ^ ^ te jS^Sit*' hoSS*% 

TnlnTi (hOlnn; Gr. kdlon), the mid- Italy, Spidn and Germany, and has 
\j\tMMiL ^Ye portion of the large intes- furnished manv celebrated warriors, 
tine, or that which lies hetween the popes, and cardinals, 
cecum and the rectum or terminal por- CAlnnnfl. Gape (ancient 8unium)m 
tion. In man it is about 4% feet long, ^v*^**"**** the southern extremity of 
and forms a series of pouches in which Attica, Greece. Its summit is crowned 
the digested food is for a time detained, by the ruins of a temple of Poseidon 269 
It is itself believed to have some diges- feet above the sea, of which thirteen 
tive power. columns of white marble are still stand- 

Colon, fn^Tf^'^^^i^^do^'L"^^^^^^ V ITT OBI A, the most re- 

the other, thu^s f uJS to mSk a%\'"l2 ^T^lni^JS'lt ^gfflo V^ 
the sense that sometimes might also be JH **^® *^u?**'*S' iS' 7"'""5 Colonna, 
Ldicated by a full stop. It also indl- ^-^^^iV^^^, *U^n?^«?US« Sb^wiS 
cates a connection between a preceding l^^-, A^ JS?® **® of nineteen. she was 
ShSse and a f ollowSg one, and is useS Ji*"*^!**i?*„"!Si:J ^/ w'ionth' whn 
preceding a quotation. SSiie'^Sn??/*?^ disttsf An"" of 

Colon, formerly Aspnnvjix, a seaport his age. They lived in the happiest 
' of Panama, on Mansanillo Ii- union, and when her husband died of 
land, on the north side of the Isthmus wounds received at the battie of Pavia 
of Panamfl, at the Atlantic extremity of (1525), Vittoria sought consolation in 
the interoceanic railway, and near that solitude and in poetry. She became the 
of the PanamA Canal. Established in object of the deep affection of Michael 
connection with the railway, it had an im- Angelo» then in his sixty-fourth year, who 

gortant transit trade before the canal was addressed some of his finest sonnets to 
egun. and since then the place has been her. She died at Rome in 1547. Her 
entirely transformed. Since 1903 the most celebrated work is the Rime Spirit 
United States has had jurisdiction over tuali, 1538. 

sanitation and quarantine, and by a treaty fJnlnTiTinilA (kol-o-nftd'), in architee- 
in 1914 was given control of the harbor, vuiuiiiittuc ^ ^^^ series or range 
There is extenrive harbor accommodation, of columns placed at certain intervals 
Pop. (1912) 17,748. ^ , ^ . ^ from each other. When surrounding the 

Colon ?, ^"^ ^' .9^^A Province of building on the exterior the colonnade is 
^ , > Matansas, 40 miles B.K. from called a perutyle: when projecting be- 
Cardenas. It is in a sugar-growing r»- yond the Une of the building it is called 
gion. Pop. 7124. a poriioo. 

Colonel (h^r'nel), the commander of noloTiv (koro-ni), a settiement formed 
wuiuiici ^ regiment, whether of horse, vUluny ^ ^^^^ country by the inhabit- 
foot, or artillery. Any rank above a ants of another. Ck)lonies may either be 
colonel constitutes the bearer of it a formed in dependence on the mother 
general officer. In the British service country or in independence. In the latter 
the rank of colonel is honorary, except case the name of colony is retained only 
in the artillery and engineers, and is in a historical sense. Properly, perhaps, 
usually bestowed upon officers of supe- the term should be limited to a settiement 
rior rank and princes of the blood. In which carries on a direct cultivation of 
the (sferman, Austrian and Russian the soil, as in the Dominion of Ganada 
armies, when the regiments are very or Australia; such settiements as those 
large, the colonelcies are mostly honor- of the British in Hindustan or Malta be^ 
ary posts, held by roval or distinguished ing the mere superposition on the natives 
persona. In the United States army a of a ruling race which takes littie or no 
OOloBal is the chief commander of a regi« iiart in the geaeiml industry of tha 

Colony Colony 

country. The motives which lead to the on the Malabar coast of India. The 
formation of colonies, and the manner first Portuguese colonies were gariisoas 
of their formation, are various. Some- along the coasts where they traded: Mo- 
times the ambition of extending territory sambique and Sofala on the east coast of 
and the desire of increasing wealth have Africa, Ormus and Muscat in the Persian 
been the chief impulses in colonisation; Gulf, 6oa and Damao on the west coast 
but colonies may now be said to have be- of India. Colonies were established in 
come a necessity for the redundant pop- Ceylon in 1505, in the Moluccas in 151U. 
ulation of European states. Among Brazil was discovered in 1499, and this 
ancient nations the principal promoters of macnificent possession fell to Portugal, 
colonization were the Phoenicians, the ana was colonized about 1630. Bad 
Greeks, and the Romans ; the greatest government at home and the subjection of 
colonizers in modem times have been the the country to Spain caused the loss of 
English and the Spaniards, next to most of the Portuguese colonies. Hie 
whom may be reckoned the Portuguese, Portuguese now possess several tenitoriet 
the Dutch, and the French. The Ger- in Asia, at Goa, Damao and Diu, Indis: 
mans have latterly contributed largely to Macao, Chipa ; and some islands in the 
the tide of emigration, particularly in the Indian Archipelago. In Africa thex 
direction of America ; but they have done possess the Cape Verd and other islands ; 
little directly as colonizers. settlements in Senegambia, Guinea, 

The Phoenician colonies were partly Mozambique, Sofala, Angola, Benguelt. 

caused by political dissensions and re- Mossamedes, its colonies in Airica cover- 

dundant population, but were chiefly com- ing an area of nearly 800,000 sq. miles, 
mercial, serving as entrepots and ports Soon after the Portuguese the Spaa* 

of repair for Phoenician commerce along iards commenced the work of coioniss- 

the coasts of Africa and Spain, in the tion. In 1492 Christopher Columbus dis- 

latter of which they numbered, accord- covered for Spain the principal islands of 

ing to Strabo, more than two hundred, the West Indies and Haiti, or Stn 

But it was in Africa that the most Domingo, Porto Rico, Jamaica and Cabs 

famous arose, Carthage, the greatest were soon colonized. Before the middle 

colonizing state of the ancient world, of the sixteenth century Mexico, EiCnador. 

The Greek colonies, which were widely Venezuela, New Granada, Peru and Chile 

spread in Asia Minor and the islands of were subdued, and Spain took the first 

the Mediterranean, the coasts of Mace- rank among the colonizing powers of 

donia and Thrace, in South Italy and Europe. But the Spaniards never really 

Sicily, were commonly independent, and attempted to develop the industrial re- 

frequently soon surpassed the mother sources of the subject countries. Tbt* 

states in power and importance. The pursuit of minin^r for gold or silver 

colonies of Rome were chiefly military, occupied the colonists almost ezdusivdy. 

and while the empire lasted were all in and the enslaved natives were driven to 

strict subordination to the central govern- work themselves to death in the mines, 

ment As the Roman power declined the Cities were founded, at first along the 

remains of its colonies amalgamated with cossts, for the sake of commerce and as 

the peoples among whom they were military posts; afterwards also in the 

placed, thus forming in countries where interior, in particular in the vicinity of 

they were sufllciently strong what are the mines, as Vera Cruz, Cumana, Porto 

known as the Latin races, with languages Bello, Cartagena, Valencia, Caracas; 

( Spanish, Portuguese. French andf Ital- Acapulco and PanamA on the coast of th^ 

ian) which are merely modifications of Pacific; Lima, Concepcion and Bueno« 

the old Roman tongue. Before America Ayres. The colonial Intercourse with 

and the way by sea to the East Indies Spain was confined to the single port of 

were discovered, the only colonies belong- Seville, afterwards to that of Cadiz, from 

ing to European states were those of the which two squadrons started annually — 

Genoese, Pfsans, and Venetians in the the galleons, about twelve in number, for 

levant and the Black Sea, flourishing Porto Bello ; and the fleet, of fifteen large 

estsblishments on which the mercantile vessels, for Vera Crnz. When the power 

greatness of Italy In those days was of Spain declined, the colonies soon took 

lareely built. the opportunity to declare their independ- 

The Portuguese were the first great ence, and thus were formed the republics 

colonizers among modem states. In of Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia. Ecus- 

1419 they discovered Madeira, the dor, Peru. Bolivia. Argentina, Chile, etc. 

Azores, and the Cape Verd Islands ; the Its remaining colonies. Cuba, Porto Rico. 

Congo and the Cape of Good Hope fol- and the Philippine Islands, were taken 

lowra ; and before the century was out by the United States as a result of the 

Vasco de Gama had landed at Calicut war of 1896, Cuba becoming an lode- 

Colony "^ Colony 

pendent republic The Ladrone group ly the whole of India, this vast territory 
pras transferred to Qermany with the being still under the government of thi 
exception of Guam, held by the United East India Company — a mercantile com- 
States. The colonies of Spain are now pany, controlled by Parliament, but ex- 
confined to about 250,000 sq. miles in erdsing many important functions of 
Airica and some small islands. sovereignty. 

The hate of Philip II, who prohibited The discoveries of the Gabots, follow- 
Dutch vessels from the port of Lisbon, ing soon after the voyages of Columbus, 
forced the people of Holland to import gave the English crown a claim to North 
directly from India or lose the large America, which, though allowed to lie 

Dutch East India Company, with a tion on a large scale. Raleigh's settle- 
monopoly of the East India trade and ment on Roanoke Island (North Caro- 
sovereign powers over all conquests and Una) in 1585 proved a failure, but in 
colonies in India. The Dutch now 1607 the colonists sent out by the London 
rapidly deprived the Portuguese of nearly Company to Chesapeake Bay founded 
all their East Indian territories, settled Jamestown, on the James River, in Vir- 
a colony at the Cape of Good Hope ginia. The next great settlement was 
(1650), established a West India Com- that of the Pilgrim Fathers, who landed 
pany, made extensive conquests in Brazil December 21, 1620, in Massachusetts 
(1623-60), which were soon lost, and Bay. The colonization of New Hamp- 
more permanent ones on some of the shire. Maine, New Jersey, (Connecticut, 
smaller West India Islands, as San Rhode Island, soon followed. In the 
Eustatia, Curacoa, Saba, etc The grow- * State of New York and the Hudson River 
ing power of the British and the loss of territory the British found the Dutch al- 
Holland's independence during the Napo- ready in possession; but in 1664 they 
Iconic wars were heavy blows to the seized the colony of New Amsterdam by 
colonial power of the nation. But the force, changing its name to New York in 
Dutch still possess numerous colonies in honor of James, Duke of York. Pennsyl- 
the East Indies, among which the more vania was founded by William Penn, and 
important are Java, Sumatra, Dutch colonized with Quakers in 1682: Mary- 
Bomeg. the Molucca Islands, and part of land in 1631 by a party from Virginia ; 
New Guinea, also several small islands Carolina in 1670 and Georgia in 1732 by 
in the West Indies and Surinam. colonies from England. Colonies were 
No colonizing power of Europe has had early established in the West India 
a career of such uniform prosperity as Islands, including Barbadoes, half of St. 
Great Britain. The Enslish attempts at Christopher's (1625), and soon after 
colonization began nearlv at the same many smaller islands. Newfoundland was 
time with the Dutch. After many fruit- taken possession of in 1583, colonized in 
less attempts to find a northeast or north- 1621 and 1633. Canada was surrendered 
west passage to the East Indies, English to Britain at the Peace of Paris in 1763. 
vessels found their way round the Cape In 1764 began the disputes between 
of Good Hope to the East Indies in 1591. Britain and its North American colonies. 
The East India Company was established which terminated with the acknowledg- 
in 1600. English commerce with India, ment of the independence of the Unit^ 
however, was not at first important, and States, Canada still remaining a British 
they possessed only single factories on dependency. 

the continent up till toe beginning of Australia was discovered in the begin- 
the 18th century. The ruin of the Mogul ning of the seventeenth century. The 
Empire in India after the death of first Australasian settlements of Britain 
Anrengzebe (1707) afforded the oppor- were penal colonies. New South Wales, 
tunity for the growth of British power, discovered in 1770, was established as a 
as the British and French were compelled penal colony in 1y78. Tasmania (Van 
to interfere in the contentions of the Dieman's Land), discovered by Tasman 
native princes and governors. The in 1642, followed in 1803. West Aus- 
French appeared at first to maintain the tralia became a free colony in 1829. Vic- 
superiori17 ; but the British in turn crot toria was colonized in 1835 and made an 
the upper hand, and the victory of Cliye independent colony in 1851. South Aus- 
at Plassey in 1756 laid the foundation tralia was settled in 1836. All these 
of an exclusive British sovereignty in states are now included in the Common- 
India. By the middle of the next century wealth of Australia. New Zealand was 
the British territory embraced, with the discovered by Tasman in 1642 and made 
reception of a few dependent states. near> a colony in 1840. The Fiji Uanda were 

11— a 

Colony Colony 


annexed in 1874 and New Guinea in 1884. the territory during the European war. 
In South Africa, Cape Colony, first let- By the treaty of VersaiUeB, 1919, Ger- 
tied hy the Dutch in 1652, became an many lost all her colonial possessions. 
English colony in 1814. Great Britain Great Britain and dominions gained much 
holds possession of the Boer republics and the larger portion of Germany's posses- 
other vast stretches in Africa. Kgypt sions in Africa, also the Pacific islands 
was formally declared a protectorate in south of the equator. France gained some 
1914 during the European war; Cyprus of Germany's African possessions, 
was annexed at the same time. Japan is the most recent of the empire- 
France was somewhat late in establish- building nations, her policy of expansion 
hag colonies. Between 1627 and 1636 the dating from 1854, the year in which Corn- 
West Indian Islands of St. Christopher's, modore Perry succeeded in establishing 
Goadeloupet. and Martinioue were colo- treaty relations between Japan and the 
nixed by pnvate persons. Champlain was United States. French omcers remod- 
the pioneer of the French in the explora- elled her army ; British sailors her navy, 
tion of the North American continent, and following her easily successful war 
and fonnded Quebec in 1608. Colbert with China she was ceded Formosa in 

Snrchased several West Indian Islands, as 1894. As a result of the Russo-J^apanese 

Cartinique, Guadeloupe, St. Lucia, etc., war the paramount interests of Japan in 

and sent out colonists In 1664 to Cayenne. Korea were recognized, and in 1910 Korea 

In 1670 the East India Company formed was formally annexed by Japan, and 

by Colbert founded Pondicherry, which given the name of Cho-sen. Japan also 

became the capital of extensive posses- acquired the Liao-Tung peninsula with 

sions in the East Indies. At the begin- Port Arthur, China's strongest fortress, 
ning of the eighteenth century France had« which Russia had seized. The port of 

extensive settlements in Canada, Nova Tsing-tao (Kiao-chow), which Germany 

Scotia and Newfoundland, the most flour- had leased from China, was talcen hi 

ishing of the West Indian Islands, and Japan during the European war in 1914. 

she seemed to have a prosperous career Her ' special interests^ in China were 

before her in India, in time, however, recognized by the United States, and an 

the rival interests of British and French extension of her colonial power in that 

colonists brought about a conflict which country is expected, 

terminated in the loss of Canada and Bel^um became a colonial power by the 

other North American possessions, as well annexation in 1908 of the Congo Free 

as many of the West Indian Islands, while State, which had been under the personal 

the dominion of India passed into the overlordship of Leopold II. King of the 

hands of the British. Belgians, who had governed the territory 

The chief colonial possessions of France with extreme cruelty. 

are : Algeria, Tunis, part of Morocco, Italy attempted to take part in the par- 

iS^ch West Africa, Equatorial Africa, tition of Africa among the European 

Somaliland, Madagascar, Mavotta, Island powers, but had an unfortunate experi- 

of Reunion, French India, Cochin-China, ence. In 1882 it erected into a colony a 

Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, coaling station held by it on the Red sea, 

and some islands in tne Pacific. in 1885 occupied Massowah, and in 1889 

Of recent years Germany has made an combined its colonial territory under the 

effort to take rank as a colonial power, name of Eritrea. This lay along the Red 

and at the b^inning of the European war Sea coast of Abyssinia and the whole of 

(1914) had an African empire of over that ancient kingdom came to be looked 

1,000,000 sq. miles. Togo, Southwest upon as tmder an Italian protectorate. 

Africa, and the Cameroons were acquired But there was a rude awakening in 1895 

in 1884, East Africa in the following vear. when an Italian force, which had pene- 

German New Guinea, which induoea the trated Abyssinia, was attacked at Adowa 

Bismai^ Archipelago, Kalserwilhelms- and completely defeated. As a result, the 

land, and some of the Solomon islands, independence of Abyssinia was acknowl- 

came under the German colonial govern- edged, but Italy still held Eritria. and 

ment in 1884. The Carolines and other adaed to it a larger district in Somaliland, 

islands in the Pacific were acquired in in the extreme eastern section of Africa. 

1899. The long arm of the German em- It seized on Tripoli, a Turkish possession, 

pire stretched out to China, where Great in 1911, a war ensuing between the Ital- 

Britain had established herself at Hong- lans and the Turks ana Arabs. Denmark, 

kong, Weihaiwei, and elsewhere, and in the remaining colonizing countrv of Eu- 

1898 the bay and surrounding coast of rope, possesses Iceland, Greenland and 

Kiao-chan (193 square miles), were the Faroe Islands, ancient acquisitions, 

leased by China to Germany for a period though of little value. She owned Santa 

of 99 years, but Japan took possession of Cms, Saint Thomas and Saint John* three 

Colony Colony 

islands in the Virgin Island group of the campaign to selae the isUnds that it waa 
West Indies, but the United States par- several weeks before the army coold be 
ehased the Danish West Indies from Den- sent. Bven after the American forces had 
mark in 1917. taken Manila, there seems to have been 

At the end of the Spanish-American little intention on the part of tiie admin- 
war (1898) the United States foond itself istration at Washington to hdd the 
with four new oveiHseas possessions : Ha- islands permanently. Agoinaldo^ the 
waii« Porto Rico. Guam, and the Philip- leader of the last Philippine rebellion, had 
pines. Prior to the war the native queen been brought back from exile in an Amer- 
of Hawaii had been deposed and the new ican war ship, and had been encouraged 
government had attempted to negotiate and assisted hy Dewey in starting a new 
a treaty providing for annexation to the uprising. Thero was no agreement to 
United States. President Cleveland made assist him in securing the independence 
an effort to restoro the deposed queen to of the Islands, but thero was a sort of alli- 
power, but failing in this, another treaty ance between him and the American 
of annexation waspresented to the Senate forces against the common enemv* Amii- 
in President Mcmnley's administration, naldo had occupied nearly all of the rest 
This was still pending when the war of the Island of Luzon when the United 
broke out. The events In the Philippines States forces took Manila, 
forcibly called the attention of the coun- The preliminary peace protocol had 
try to the necessity for controlling Ha- provided that 'the United States shall 
waii^ which was invaluable as a coaling bold and occupy the city, bay, and harbor 
station for the trans-Padfie voyage^ and of Manila, pending the conclusion of a 
action upon the treaty was consequentbr treaty of peace, which shall determine the 
hastened. The annexation was finally ef- control, msposition. and government of 
fected by a jdnt resolution passed July 7» the Philippines.' This had been rogarded 
1898. by Spain as providing for the ultimate re- 

The other new possessions were taken turn of the islands to her. President 
from Spain as the result of military vie- McESnlev apparentiy had no desiro to re- 
tories. Porto Bico had been invaded and tain the islands for the United States, and 
in large part conquered by American public opinion in this country was en- 
troops near the end of the war, and its tirelv undecided as to the course which 
transfer to American sovereignty was should be pursued. In the interval be- 
thereforo looked upon in the United tween the signaturo of the protocol on 
States as the natural consequence of the August 12, 1899, and the condusion of 
conflict. The people of the island appar- the Treaty of Peace on December 10 of 
entiy desired annexation to the Union, the same year, however, thero was a com- 
since they had littie ambition, as had the plete change in the attitude of the Ameri- 
Gubans, for national independence. The can people, which was roflected in the ac- 
provision was thereforo induded without tion of the government. When the peace 
question in the treatv of peace. The same commissioners left the United States in 
was true of the little island of Guam in September, they wero instructed to de- 
the Pacific, which was taken simply for mand the cession of tiie Island of Lucon 
use as a coaline station. and the grant of reciprocal commerdal 

With the Phmppines, however, the case privileges in the other islands of the 
was different The original occupation of arohipdaeo. On October 2CL they wero 
these islands by the United States might instructed by cable to demand the cession 
almost be described as an acddent. At of the entiro group. The Spanish com- 
the outbreak of hostilities, Admiral missioners objected strongly, but wero 
Dewey, with the United States Pacific finally foroed to accept the compensation 
squadron, had received orders to attack offered — ^tiiepayment by the United States 
the Spanish naval foroes at Manila. This to Spain of |20,000,000. The Philippines 
was an obvious move from a military thus became the property of the United 
point of view, because the destruction of States. 

the enemy's naval foroes in the Far East The sudden diange In the attitude of 
was necessary both for the security of the the United States was due to the so- 
West Coast of the United States and for catted ' imperialistic ' movement which 
the security of American commerce. The swept the country in the autumn of 1898. 
administranon had at the time no idea of Thero wero several factors which contrib- 
acquiring the Philippines. After Dewey's uted to arouse a strong popular opposition 
brilliant victory at Manila Bay, when the to the abandonment of what was regarded 
Admiral asked that troops be sent to oc- as a legitimate conquest. The cemnon of 
cupy the dty, and to destroy the Spanish the islands by Spain had been demanded 
army there, the offidahi at Washington by the peace commissioners on politiod, 
wu« 80 little prepared for an aggressive commetcial and humanitarian grooad. 

Colony ^ Colony 

Their retentioik seemed, indeed, to be the 1896. Sl,050,093,666 in 1807, and 1,231,* 
only coune consonant with the national 482,380 in 1^8. (1) The percentage of 
honor and dignity. It was impoeaible to manafactured goods to the total exports 
return them to Spain, after the revela- had increased from 14.78 per cent in 1890 
tions which had been made regarding the to 21.18 per cent in 1800 and to 30.15 per 
inefficiency and barbaronsness of her rale cent in 1897. (2) This chance in the 
there, and after the alliance which had character of our trade, the imperialists be- 
ezisted between the American forces and lieved, would force the United States to 
the Philippine insurgents under Agui- embark on a policy of territorial enian- 
naldo. It was equally impossible to make sion. The raw materials which had mth- 
them independent, bcKuiuse of their mani- erto predominated in the country's foreign 
fest unfitness for self-government. There commerce had found a ready market ui 
was a strong belief that Germany, which the great manufacturing countries of Bo- 
had become an object of grave suspicion rope, but the increase in the volume of 
since the unpleasant episode between the manufactured ffoods made it vital to se^ 
commander of her far eastern fleet and new commercial outlets in countries which 
Admiral Dewe^ after the battle of Manila were industrially less devdoped. These 
Bay. would seise the archipelago as soon outlets could only be obtaineoin colonies, 
as the United States withdrew. The vie- for the great powers of the world, which 
tories of the war, moreover, had aroused had already divided between them the 
a consciousness of national strength and greater part of the earth's surface, wers 
national greatness which lifted the people applying or threatening to apnly to their 
of the United States out of their absorp- possessions a closed door policy, which 
tion in their own internal affairs, and would exclude the trade of other nations, 
filled them with an ambition to play a The Philippines would not only furnish 
larger part in the world than ever before, for American goods a maricet of great ul- 
Newspapers and orators began to speak timate potentialities, but would also pro- 
of the United States as a world power, vide a center of distribution for Ameri- 
and to point to the acquisition of the can trade in all parts of the Far East. 
Philippines as the first step in the ful- The arguments of the imperialists were 
filment of our destiny to dominate the violently combated in the united States. 
Pacific. There was a strong feeling that by persons who believed that the new 
the United States ought to obtain a terri- movement involved an abandonment of 
torial foothold in the Far East, in view the nation's traditional policies and ideals, 
of the apparentlsr approaching partition The opponents of expansion dedared that 
of China. The seizure of several ports in neither our form of government nor our 
that empire by European powers In 1898 national experience fitted us for the con- 
had aroused grave doubts as to whether it trol of subject races, and that the ac- 
was destined to remain independent many quisition of colonies could not but alfeet 
years longer, and the interests of the injuriously our own internal political and 
United States in the future of the empire economic life. Many regarded the exer- 
were felt to be so great that it could cise of power over another people as a 
hardly afford to neglect an opportunity to violation of the principles laid down in 
obtain a naval and commercial base from the Declaration of Independence and the 
which it might exerdse an infiuence upon Oonstitution, and branded the whole 
the course of events. movement as un-American and pernidous. 
The expansionist movement was, per- Others said that the new possessions 
haps, not so much optical and senti- would force the United States to become 
mental as economic The business inter- a military power, with danger to tiie lib- 
ests of the country were convinced that it erty and security of its people. The op- 
was time for the United States to adopt position to the administration's policy 
the imperidist ideal which had guided the was so strong in the Senate that the 
foreign policy of England, France, and treaty of peace might not have been ae- 
Germany during the three decades Just cepted if it had not been for the rebellion 
past. Their arguments were the same as in the Philippines, which made many of 
those of the conmiercial leaders who fa- its opponents feel that it would be cow- 
vored expansion in the European coun- ardice to withdraw from the Islands until 
tries, nrhey believed that the United order had been restored. Immediately 
States had reached a point where it was after its vote of ratification, however, the 
impossible for it longer to subsist on its Senate passed a resolution stating that 
internal trade. The country was at the its action did not constitute a final deter* 
time passing through an era of immense mination of its attitude towards the 
expansion in commerce and manufactures. Islands. 

The total exports, wUch had been $857,- The Samoan islands were parceled oot 

828,684 in 1890, were $882,000,938 in among the nations ?n the result of th# 

Colophon ' Color 

intervention of the powers foUowine a Light,) The colors thus shown are 
series of internal disturbances, fostered, it usually said to be seven — ^red, orange, yd- 
must be admitted, by the three foreign low, green, blue, indigo, violet; although 
|x>wers possessing considerable interests in resdity there U an enormous, if not an 
in Samoa : Germany, Great Britain, and infinite number of perfectly distinct colors 
the united States. Great Britain re- in light. The seven colors are frequently 
ceived the Solomon and Tonga Islands, called the primary colors, and other tints 
Germany got Samoa, and the United and shades are producible by mixing 
States took possession of Tutuila and a them ; but in a stricter sense the primary 
few other small islands. colors are three in number, namely, red. 

The Canal Zone, a strip of land extend- green and violet (or blue) . These three 
ing 5 miles on either side of the Panama colors or kinds of light cannot be re- 
Canal, was acquired by agreement with solved into any others. In the scientific 
the newly created republic of Panama, in sense of the word white and black are not 
1903. the United States paying $10,000,- considered colors, a white body reflecting 
000 in gold and $250,000 annually for the and a black body absorbing all the rays of 
perpetual right of occupation of the terri- light without separating them, whereas 
tory. the colors proper are due to s%»aration of 

The Virgin Islands, formerly the Dan- the ravs of light by partial absorption and 
ish West Indies, were acquired by tiie reflection or by refraction. If a body 
United States in 1917, the compensation absorbs every other kind of light and re- 
being $25,000,000. The islands composing fleets or transmits red light only, it will 
the group are Santa Cms, Saint Thomas, appear of a red color; if It absoros every 
and Saint John. kind except blue rays, it will appear blue ; 

ColonliOTi (^ <> ^'^^ on), an ancient and so on. If more than one kind of light 
wAvyuvu Qpeek city of Asia Biinor, be transmitted or reflected the object wiU 
about 15 mfles n. of Ephesus, one of the appear of a color compounded of these 
places claimed as tne birthplace of different rays of light. 
Bomer. Here dwelt Mimnermus. the In art the term color is applied to that 
degiac poet, and some other men of emi- combination or modification of tints which 
nence. produces a particular and desired effect 

ColonllOIL ^^ device or imprint at m painting. The colors of the spectrum 
^ * the end of a published have to be distiD^uished from color used 
work, which in old books frequently stated in reference to pigments. The pigments 
the name of the author as well as the red, blue and yellow, regarded in the arts 
printer's name, along with the date and as the primary colors, produce effects, 
place of publicationi most of which infor- when mixed, very different from those 
mation is now put in the title-page. produced by admixture of the correspond- 

ColODhonV (hol-ofo-ni), the dark ing spectrum colors. These three pigment 
-r***'**/ resin obtained by distil- colors form other colors thus: red and 
ling turpentine. yellow make orange, vellow and blue make 

Color (I^^'^P)* the name given to dis- green, and red and olue moke purple: but 
tinguish the various sensations red, blue and yellow cannot be produced 
that lights of various rates of vibration by any combination of the other colors. — 
give to the eye. As in the case with Loeol oolora are those which are natural 
many of the words that denote oar sensa- to a particular object in a picture, and by 
tions, the word ooZor is also applied to the which it is distinguished from other OO" 
properties of bodies that cause them to jects. — Neutral coJotb, those in which the 
emit the light that thus affects our senses, hue is broken by partaking of the reflected 
The molecular constitution of a body de- colors of the objects which surround them, 
termines the character and number of the — Positive colors, those which are un- 
light vibrations it returns to the eye, and broken by such accidents as affect neutral 
so gives to each body its own character- objects.— -Oomplementory colors, colors 
istic color ; hence the term color is used to which together make white ; thus any of 
denote that in respect of which bodies the primary colors is complementary to 
have a different appearance to the eye the other two. — Subjective or accidental 
independently of their form. colors, the imaginary complementary 

Ordinary white light (the light which colors seen after fixing the eve for a short 
comes from an incandescent solid or time on a brieht-colored object, and then 
Uqnid) when transmitted through tri- turning it suddenly to a white or light- 
angular prisms of glass or other media colored surf ace. 

diirering in dispersive power from the Colors in heraldry are azure, Uue; 
atmosphere is shown to consist of a gules, red; sable, black; vert, green; 
number of colored lights, which, meeting purpure, purple; tcnnd or tawny, orange; 
the eye, together pioduce the sensation and murrey or sanguine, dark crimson. 
a white light. (See Spectrum and (See Heraldry,) Ifilitary colors are the 

Colorado Colorado 

flaga or ensigns of a regiment. See perfection. In general, cattle and sheep 
Colorit Military. grazing are the leading pursuits of the 
Colorado jkol-o-ril'dO), one of the rural population, though cattle raising on 
***** United States of America, a large scale is decreasing. Sheep raising, 
situated in the central belt of states in which is confined largely to the southern 
the Rocky Mountains, between lat. 37** cotuities. has likewise decreased, 
and 41* N., and Ion. 102" and 109** w., The oimate is dry and healthful, con- 
and containing an area of 103,948 sq. sidered especially beneficial to asthmatic 
miles. The western and central portions and pulmonary sufferers, and the charm- 
of its area are occupied by an intricate ing parks are becoming great natural 
plexus of wild and irregular ranges in- sanitariums. The chief wealth of Colo- 
dosing valleys known as 'parks, most rado consists of its minerals, principally 
of wmch are fertile, well wooded, and gold and silver. These were developed 
of a mild climate. These ' parks,' are until Colorado led the states in their pro* 
apparently the basins of former lakes duction, the yield of these two metabt in 
upheaved and deprived of their waters 1897 being valued at $47,078,535, more 
above the level of the sea. These parks than one-third the total yield of the 
are generalbr small, but a few of them country. For many years after 1873 the 
are larger than some entire states of the output of silver was greater than that of 
Union, as North Park, Middle Park, and gold; in 1892 it was six times as much; 
South Park. A large number of the but in 1898 the gold was estimated at 
mountains are over 14,000 feet high, in- $24,000,000. the sihrer at $14:250,000. In 
eluding Pike's Peak, Long's Peak, and 1910 the gold yield was stated at $20,408,- 
others. Of the mountain parks, the one 641; that of silver (commercial value), 
best known and most frequented is Estes about $5,000,000. Coal was the mineral 
Park, northwest of Denver, a favorite product of second importance and silver 
summer resort. The eastern section of ranked fourth. The coal fields of the 
the state is a great plain well adapted for state are divided by the major ranges of 
pasture. the Rocky Mountains into three groups. 

The rivers include the Arkansas, South the Eastern, the Park, and the Western, 
Platte, Grand River, etc. ; some of them the Eastern being the most highly devel- 
remarkable for the grandeur of their oped. ^ The coal ranges from sub-bitumi- 
cafions. (See ArizonaT^ Amone wild an- nous in the Denver regions, through van- 
imals are found the grizzly, the olack and ous grades of bituminous, including the 
the brown bear, prairie-wolf, several kinds high grade cooking coal of the Trinidad 
of deer, big-horn sheep, etc. There are and Glenwood Springs fields, to true an- 
cxtensive forests. In the mountain re- thradte, in the Crested Butte and Yampa 
gions the rainfall is small and of the fields. Iron, copper and lead are mined, 
arable lands in the state a great portion iron being widely diffused. Other min- 
require irrigation. As a result the agri- erals are manganese, petroleum, zinc, 
cultural development has had a compara- cement and fire-clay, 
tively recent beginning. Although a large Though pre-eminently a mining state 
part of its area is of a character which Colorado is active in manufacturing, part 
makes the growing of crops impossible, of which owes its existence to the needs 
large portions are admirably adapted for of the mining industry. Irrigation of the 
cultivation. The eastern two-fifths, which fertile valleys of the Platte and Arkansas 
lies within the Great Plains section of the rivers and other streams has made the 
United States, is largely utilized for graz- beet-sugar production of Colorado greater 
ing purposes, but dry farming has oeen than that of any other state. The can- 
successful and irrigated portions yield ning industry is also the outgrowth of the 
large crops. development of irrigation. The fact that 

To the west of the divide in the San Colorado is a natural grazing country is 
Luis valley, in the south-central part of responsible for the development of such 
the state, tne rainfall is at times consid- industries as slaughtering and meat pack- 
erable. To the east of the divide, on the ing. the manufacture of butter, cheese, 
plains, the rainfall is heavier, and here and condensed milk, the rendering of 
some crops are grown without irrigation, grease and tallow, and wool scouring. 
The growth of agriculture ia indicated bv The public school system isj^ood, and 
the following figures : The number of all there is a state university. The trans- 
farms in 1910 was 46,170, compared with portation facilities are excellent, and (jol- 
24,700 in 1900. The value of farm prop- orado claims a greater railway mileage 
erty from lOCiO to 1910 shows a remark- than any other of the Rocky Mountain 
able increase. In the latter year it was states. In view of the fact that there ate 
$491,471,806 as compared with $161,045,- no navigable rivers in the state the legis- 
141 in 1900. Orchard fruits are in some lature of 1909 created a State Railroad 
parts brought to an unusual degree of Commission to take general charge of the 

Colorado Colors 

regmlation of railway rates. Colorado was Ck>lor-blindne68 occurs in eyes whose 
omnized as a territonr in ISei, and ad- power of vision, as to form and distance, 
mitted as a State in 1876._ The State cap- is quite perfect, and may exist unknown 

/^Jfe 2S?Z25- S^Euv^^i^LJ^*'^^' to the person affected by it This defect 
(IWO) 799,024 ; (192 0) 939,376. is common, espedaUy among men. The 

ColorftdO. UN1VKH8ITT OP. a State co- cause of it in almost every case which has 
T» ij r% I educational institution at been carefully investigatea has been found 
Boulder, Colorado, opened in 1877. Num- to be seated in the sensorium, not in the 
ber of teachers, 200; students, 1500. visual apparatus. It will be easily under- 

riolArfi.l1 A A name of two rivers of stood that those whose eyesight is thus 
\/uiuiTftuu, ^jj^ United States.— (1) defective are disqualified for holding vari- 
the Western Colorado^ or Rio Colo- ous positions. 

RADO, formed by the junction of the Colorimeter (hol-o-rimVtdr), an in- 
Green and Grand rivers, at about lat. ^*'*^* ****«•'*'* strument for measuring 
38** N. ; Ion. 110^ w., in Utah. It flows the depth of color in a liquid by compari- 
southwest and south through Arizona, son with a standard liquid of the same 
and between Arizona and Nevada and tint. 

California, and after a total course, in- Pnlnr PriTifiTicr the art of produc- 
cluding Green River, of about 2000 miles, ^"*"^ XTlUWn^, j^^ pictures, de- 
falls into the Gulf of California. Among signs, cards, etc., in various colors by 
the most wonderful natural objects in means of lithography, printing from 
North America is the Grand Cafion of the metal blocks, etc. The ordinary methods 
Colorado, between Ion. 112** and 115 ** w. are: (1) the chromo-lithographic, in 
Here the river flows between walls of which a tracing of the original picture, or 
rock which are nearly vertical, and are in the like, is first made, and a copy trans- 
some places 6000 feet high. This cafion is ferred to as many stones as there are 
more than 300 miles long. (2) A river in colors in the original, every color requir- 
Texas which after a course of about 900 ing a separate stone. The drawing of 
miles falls into the Gulf of Mexico at the each stone is made to fit in, or register, 
town of Matagordo. (3) A river in Ar- with the preceding one, and as the paper 
gen tin a. about 620 miles long, which passes through the machine an additional 
empties into the Atlantic Ocean. color is added every time, and thus the 

Colorado Beetle ^^ American spe- picture is built up color upon color (each 
vfvxvAauu s^sisihx^f ^^ ^^ beetle being allowed to dry before the next is 

{Chrysomila or Polygramma, or Doryph- put on) until It is completed. Some 

6ra deoemlineAta) , nearly half an inch in chromos or oleographs may have as many 

length, almost oval, of a yellowish color as 25 or 30 printings or colors. (2) Block 

marked with black spots and blotches, or surface color printing is specially 

and on the elytra with ten black longitu- adapted for book illustrations or similar 

dinal stripes. The wings are of a blood- work where nicety of detail or rapidity of 

red color. It works great havoc among production is required. As in chromo- 

the potato crops, and is popularly known lithography various printings are neces- 

as the Potato Bug. sary; but these, while producing similar 

PnlArofln Q^nrincra county seat of effects, are reduced in number by a method 

Ijoioraau opiin^S, ^j p^^ q^^ ^^ printing several tints of the same color 

Colorado, 70 miles s. of Denver, at the foot at one operation. Each block, which is 

of Pike's Peak : elevation. 6038 feet. It is usuall:^ of zinc and prepared in the usual 

the seat of Colorado College and has ore way, is capable of producing three or 

refineries, etc. Summer and winter resort, more gradations of the same color; the 

Pop. (1910) 29.078; (1920) 30.105. darkest shade from the normal surface, 

P.nlo-r.'hli'nilTiAaa total or partial lighter shades being got from parts 

UOlor-DUUauesSy incapabiUty of dis- which have been bitten or corroded m an 

tinguishing colors. Color-blindness has almost imperceptible degree— the deepest 

been divided into three grades: (a) In- corrosions giving, of course, the lightest 

ability to discern any color, so that light shade. When all the tints of one color 

and shade, or black and white, are the are thus printed from one block and at 

only variations perceived, (h) Inability one oi>eranon, a second block with grada- 

to distinguish the nicer shades of the more tions, in the same way. is used, registering; 

composite colors, as browns, grays, and as in chijomo-lithography, and so on until 

neutral tints, (c) Inability to distinguish the picture is finished, 

between the primary colors, red, blue and Colors Militabt, the nationu flag 

yellow, or between them and their second- "^v*v*»> and the flag of the reriment 

aries, green, purple, orange and brown, which contains the device and number of 

Bed is the color which the color-blind are the regiment in gold. The colors, when 

most commonly unable to distinguish, uncased, are entitled to a salute when 

while yellow is the most easily recognized, borne past a guard and by the command- 

Color-Sergeant Colosfnim 

Sng officer and staff when carried past in Demas, another fellow laborer who later 

review and in general by all officers and deserted Paul (2 Tim. iv. 10), lacking the 

enlisted men under regulations prescribed heroic mettle of the great apostle, 

by the Army Regulations. Similar cus- Colossilfl (ho-los'us), in sculpture, a 

toms prevail in the navy. The national ^*'**'""**» statue of enormous magni- 

flag is raised at sunrise with a gun salute tude. The Asiatics, the Egyptians, and 

and lowered at sunset with a gun salute — in particular the Greeks have excelled 

the playing of the "Star Spangled Ban- in these woriks. The most celebrated 

ner" by the band. Egyptian colossus was the vocal statue of 

HaI nr.a^r CTAonf a non-commissioned Memnon on the plain of Thebes, supposed 

vruiur Msr^eaui., ^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^ identical witii the most northerty 

who is a member of the regimental staff, of two existing colossi (60 feet high) on 
There are two color-sergeants to each reg- the west bank of the rfile. Among the 
iment, who carry and have charge of the colossi of Greece the most celebratedf was 
national and regimental colors and are the Colossus of Rhodes, a brass statue of 
escorted by the color^guard. Golor-ser- Apollo 70 cubits high, esteemed one of 
geants rank line-sergeants and receive the wonders of the world, erected at the 
better pay. port of Rhodes by Chares, 290 or 288 B. c 
ColosSffi (kU-os'sS), an ancient dty of It was thrown down by an earthquake 
^/vavdock; ^^^ Minor, in Phrygia, on about 224 B.a The statue was in ruins 
the Ltcus, a branch of the Meander. It for nearly nine centuries, when the Sara- 
was the seat of one of the early churches cens, taking Rhodes, sold the metal, 
of Asia to whom the apostie Paul wrote weighing 720,000 Ibs^ to a Jew, about 663 
about 62 or 63 A. D. A. D. There is no authority for the 
ColflSflenm (kol-o-s6'um). a name popularly-received statement that it be- 
vrvAvoDviuu. giygQ to the Flavian strode the harbor mouth and that the 
Amphitheater in Rome, a large edifice for Rhodian vessels could pass under its legs, 
glaaiatorial combats, fights of wild beasts. Among the colossi of Phidias were the 
and similar sports. It was begun by Olympian Zeus and the Athena of the 
Vespasian, and finished by Titus, 80 a. d. Parthenon ; the former 60 ft. high and 
The outline of the Colosseum is elliptical, the latter 40. The most famous of the 
the exterior length of the building being Roman colossi were the Jupiter of the 
620 and its breadth 513 feet ; it is pierced Capitol, the Apollo of the Palatinelibrary, 
with eighty openings or vomitaria in the and the statue of Nero, 110 or 120 rt 
ground story, over which are superhn- high, and from which the contiguous 
posed three other stories, the whole rising amphitheater derived its name of Colos- 
perpendicularly to the height of 160 feet. seum. Recentiy rock-cut sUtues have 
Although two-thirds of the original build- been measured at Bamian on the road 
ing have disappeared, it is still a wondei^ between Cabul and Balkh, the largest 
f uT structure. being 173 ft. high and the second 120 ft 
PnlnaaiaTia Epistle to the. An Among the modem works of this nature 
vruiUBBMiiSy epistie written by the is the colossus of San Carlo Borromeo, at 
apostie Paul, when he was a prisoner in Arona, in the Milanese territory, 60 ft. in 
Rome. It falls naturally into four parts : height ; the ' Bavaria ' at Munich, 65 ft 
(1) introduction and thanksgiving; (2) high; the statue of Hermann or Arminins 
nature and work of Christ; (3) doctrine; near Detmold, erected in 1875, 90 ft in 
(4) personal matters and salutations, height to the point of the upraised sword. 
The tidrd chapter is a picture of the which itself is 24 ft in lengtii ; the height 
Christian life as seen by PauL It is a of the fijinire to the point of the hehnet 
plea that, having put off * the old man,' being 55 ft; the statue of Germania, 
the Colossians shim live like new men, erected in 1883 near Riidesheim, a figure 
putting aside all uncharitableness, bear- 84 ft high, placed on an elaborately sculp- 
ing themselves with meekness and kind- tured pedestal over 81 ft. high ; and Bar- 
ness. The probabilities are that Epaphras, tholdi's statue of Liberty presented to the 
of whom the writer speaks, preached first United States by the French nation, and 
to the Colossians and was the means of which measures 104 ft, or to the extremity 
their conversion. Among other early of the torch in the hand of the figure 

loved physician'; Aristarchus. a 'feUow ^OlOStTUm milk of mammalia se- 

prisoner ^; John Mark, called here Mar- creted after gi^g birth to young. It 

<ni8 ; BamabuR, a landowner of Cyprus, differs in composition from ordinary muk ; 

who sold his land and laid the price at has a purgative action, and serves to dear 

the feet of the aposties in Jerusalem, be- the bowels of infants of the meconium or 

coming a co-preacher with Paul ; and faecal matter which they contain at mrth. 

Colporteur Columbia 

Colnortenr (kol-por-tetfr'), a French preaching the Christian faith and found- 
"^* ^*^ term now naturalized in ins monasteriea, all of which he made 
the United States, and appropriated to a suoject to that which he had set up on 
class of men alwa3m, or most commonly, the island of Hy. The Oolumban church 
subsidized by societies or associations was in some points of doctrine and cere* 
with the view of disseminating rdigious monial opposed to that of Rome, to which 
literature by carrying about publications it owed no allefpiance. Shortly before his 
for sale, generally at reduced rates. death he revisited Ireland. There is a 

Colt (Kdlt), Samuix. (1814<^), an well-known life of St Columba, Vita 
American manufacturerMnventor Sancti Colpmhw written by St Adam- 
of the revolver, was born in Hartford, nan, Abbot of lona. 
Conn., and in 18«S5 secured a patent for nAliiTnllfl.niia (kol-um-b&'nus). Saint, 
his revolving pistoL See Revolver, wxujii.m»a£i*o ^j. qj^j^^ Columban. a 

Colton (kdl'ton), Chables Caleb, an missionary and reformer of monastic life. 
vuAifUu Engiigh writer, bom 1780;. died born in Ireland apparently about 540, be- 
by his own hand at Fontainebleau, 1832. came a monk in the Irish monaster^ of 
He held the united living of Kew and Pe- Benchor (Bangor), went through BSng- 
tersham, but was eccentric in his manners, land to France with twelve other monks 
extravagant in his habits, and irremedi- to preach Christianity, and founded the 
ably addicted to gambling and its at* monasteries of Annegray, Luzeuil (590), 
tendant vices. Bewildered by his pecn- and Fontaine in Burgundy. His rule, 
niary obligations, he fled to the United which was adopted in latter times by 
States, and after a sojourn there of some manv monasteries in France, commands 
years took up his abode in Paris, where blind obedience, silence, fasting, prayers 
he acquired a fortune of $125,000 by and labor, much more severe than the 
gambling, which was soon dissipated. Benedictine rule, and punishes the small- 
Through apprehension of a surgical opera* est offenses of the monks with stripes, 
tion he committed suicide. He wrote He retained also the old ecclesiastical cus- 
several satirical poems, jETypoomy, toms of the Irish, among which is the 
Napoleon, etc. ; but his most remarkable celebration of Easter at a different time 
work is Lacon, or Many Thinga in Few from the Roman Church. He appears to 
Word$, have remained at Luzeuil for nearly 

Colt's-foot T^**^ffo Farfdra, a weed twenty years. He then went among the 
\/vAb D Avvv) ^i ^Yxe order Composite, heathen Alemanni, and preached Chris- 
the leaves of which were once much em- tianitv in Switzerland. About 612 he 
ployed as a remedy for asthma and passed into Lombardy, and founded the 
coughs. The name is given from the leaf monastery of Bobbio, in which he died in 
somewhat resembling the foot of a colt, 61S. His writings comprise his monastic 
being broad and heart-shaped; -the flowers rule, sermons, some poems and ecclesias- 
are yellow. tical treatises. His life was written by 

Colt's EcVOlVCr. See Revolver. ttB^hhi^^ * auccessor In the abbacy 

Colnber (kol'tl-b^r), a genua of non- fJAliiTnllArilim (JFol-um-ba'ri-um>, in 
UQlUOer venomous serpents, which in- V»011UIlDaniua ^^nian antiquities, a 

eludes, besides several N. American place of sepulture for the ashes of the 

snakes the Coluber ^soulapU, common dead after the custom of burning the dead 

in the neighborhood of Rome, and re- had been introduced. Columbaria con- 

garded as the serpent which was sacred sisted of arched and square-headed re* 

to iGscnlapius, the god of medicine. To cesses formed in walls in which the ciner- 

the same family belongs the common ary urns were deposited, and were so 

ringed snake of Britain (Tropidon6tu9 named from the resemblance between 

natriw)^ which attains a length of 3 or 4 these recesses and those formed for the 

f^t doves to build their nests in a dove-cot. 

Colnmba (ko-lum-ba). See OaU^ml^ Columbia yS;re;Sl\La%?SSiS' o"n 

ColnTn^llft ^''** ^ native of Ireland an elevated plain on the left bank of the 

vrvAuw. ftM»9 (Gartan in Donegal), bom Congaree, 129 miles N. w. of Charleston, 

in 521 ; died in 597. In 545 he founded It contains some fine public buildings, 

the monastery of Derry, and subsequently Among the educational institutions are 

established many churches in Ireland, the South Carolina Universitv. founded 

About 563 he landed in the island of Hv, in 1804, and the Presbyterian Theological 

now called lona, and founded a church. Seminary. The principal manufactures 

About 665 he went on a mission of con- are cotton and fertilizers; in addition to 

version among the northern Picts, and which there are sash and door factory, 

traversed the whme of Northern Scotland iron works« foundries and machine shops. 

Columbia Colnmbu 

The dtr waa set on fire while occupied by turns abruptly to the west and forma the 

General Shenaan's army in 1865. It was boundary between the States qf Waahinf- 

made the State canitfd in 1790. Pop. ton and Oregon. It drains an area of 

(1910) 26,319; (1920) 37,524. 260,000 sq. oules ; length, 1,400 miles. 

Columbia, |oo^i^\C"i^orri? i&' Columbia University, SSuSlSSJ' 

miles w. by N. of St. Louis. It is pri- tution in New York City, established in 

marily a school town, although coal min- 1754, and ^ving courses m literature, ad- 

ing and shoe nuinuf acturine are carried ence. medicine, law, etc In 1920 the total 

on. It is the seat of the University of number of students was 16,000 ; teachera, 

Missouri ((^. v.). Christian 0)Uege (a 950. Affiliated with it are Barnard Od- 

school for girls under the control of the l^e. Teachers' College, and the College of 

Christian Church), Stephens (College (a Pharmacy. 

school for girls under tbe control of the nnlnin'hioTi "RYnoaifiAii An inte^ 

Baptist Church). Missouri Bible CoUege ^OiUittOiaa Xiiposilion, national 

(the State divinity school of the Christian exposition of arts, industries, manufac- 
Church), a coaching school for Annapolis, tures, etc^. held in Chicago from May 1 to 
a school of commerce, and an excellent October 30, 1893, in celebration of the 
system of city schools. Pop. (1910) 400th anniversary of the discovery of 
9662; (1920) 10,379. America by (Columbus. The buildings 
Columbia ^ borough of Lancaster were covered with a white coating which 
*^> Co., Pennsvlvania. on the gave the appearance of marble and led to 
Susquehanna River, 81 miles w. of Phila- the exposinon being given the name of the 
delpnia. It is the trading center of a wide * White C!ity.' The amusements were 
area and has manufactures of iron, silk, grouped in the Midway Plalsance. Total 
boilers, stoves, brushes, umbrellas, cut attendance, 27^539,041; total receipts, 
glass, wagons, automobile bodies, castings, |33429O,065 ; disbursements, $31,117,363. 
etc. Pop. 10,836. Colninbllfl ^ ^^» county seat of 
Columbia * ^^^y» county seat of ^v*i***j.Mu.», jfoacogee CJo., Oeoigia,on 
*^ ' Maury Co., Tennessee, 47 the Alabama border, at the head of navi* 
miles s. of Nashville. It has flour mills, gation on the Chattahoochee River. Seven 
extensive phosphate, live-stock, cotton and lines of railroad radiate in all directions, 
grain interests, and manufactures of fur- and the river furnishes ample hydro-elec- 
niture, etc. It has a military academy, trie power. It is the second cotton mill 
arsenaL and the CJolumbia Institute for center in the South. Among the other 
young ladies. Pop. 5526. leading articles of manufacture are iron 
Columbia I^istbict of, a small tract and steel products, fertilizer, brick, tile, 
^/vAuauuAo*, ^£ country on the east sewer pipe, show cases and fixtures, lum- 
bank of the Potomac River, about 120 her and Duilding products, bottled eoods, 
miles from its mouth, surrounded on three etc. Camp Benning, the newly established 
sides by Marvland, and forming a neutral Infantry School of Arms, is 8 miles dii- 
district for the seat of the United States tant. The city is renowned for its school 
government. It has a land area of 60 system. Including kindergartens, and in- 
square miles ; was formed into a territory dustrial, literary and finishing schools, 
in 1871 ; and contains the city of Wash- Pop. (1910) 20,554 ; (1920) 31,126. 
ington, which has been the national capi- nnln'm'hTifl ^^^ capital of Ohio, lo 
tal since 1800. Georgetown, a former ^vauiuuub, Frankbn Co., on the Scioto 
city, is now part of Washington. As River, near the center of the State. It is 
origin^y laid out, the district was 10 the seat of the Ohio State University (in 
miles square, induding a small area in which, with its various coUegw. more than 
Virginia; but this section was retroceded 6000 students are enrolled), Cfapital Uni- 
in 1846 and only the Maryland section re- versity (Lutheran), and the Columbus 
tained. The affairs of the district and of Bosrs' Academy. The Capitol budding. 
Washington are administered by three Catholic Cathedral, Memorial HalL and 
commissioners directly under Congress. State institutions for the feeble-muided, 
Pop. (1910) 831.069; (1920) 437,571. the blind and deaf, and the insane, are 
nnlTiTn'hifl PiwAr or Obegon, a river among the buildings of the dty. It is an 
UOiumom Aiver, ^^ ^j^^ United important center of distribution and in- 
states, flowing into the Pacific Ocean, and dustries. The principal manufactures art 
rising at the base of the Rocky Mountains machinery of sU kinds, shoes, automobQe 
in British Columbia. It has a very wind- accessories, steel and iron products, and 
ing course, partly in British Columbia, printing. Although Ck>lumbus suffered 
but mainly in the United States, where it heavily from the 1913 flood, practically all 
receives two large tributaries, CHark's of the damage has been repaired. Pop. 
Fork and Snake River. Farther down it (1910) 181,511 ; (1920) 237,031. 

Colbniliiu Columbus 

ColnmllllS ^ c^^y* county seat of Bar- Indies applied to the r^>up of islands 
^#vAtuuuuoy tbolomew Co., Indiana, on of which Guanahani forms one. On 
the White River, east branch, 41 miles landing Columbus threw liimself upon 
B. by s. of Indianapolis. Its manufac- his knees and kissed the earth, returning 
tnres include wood pulleys, leather, thanks to God« The natives collected 
threshing and sawmill machinery, tools, round him in silent astonishment, and 
ete. Pop. (1920) 8800. his men, ashamed of their disobedience 
nnlnTnlins & city, county seat of and distrust,- threw themselves at his 
vuAUifiUiuiy Lowndes Co., Mississippi, feet, begging his forgiveness. Columbus, 
on Tombigbee River, in a cotton and hard- drawing his sword planted the royal 
wood luinoer region. It has cotton and standard, and in the name of hia 
oil mills, etc. The State Industrial Insti- sovereigns took possession of the coun- 
tute is here. Pop. (1920) 10,501. try, which, in memory of his preservation, 
GAlnm'hiifi ^ ci^7> county seat of he called San Salvador, He then sailed 
WAIUUUU0) Platte CJo., Nebraska, 92 in search of other lands, and discovered 
mUee w. by N. of Omaha. It has flour Cuba, St. Domingo, and several other of 
miUs, etc. Pop. (1^0) 5410. the West India Islands. Being so far 
pAlnTviliTio Chbistopheb (in Span- successful, he built a fort at Hispaniola, 
VrUilUUDUBi jgij^ CrUtoval Colon; in Hayti, left some of his men there, and 
Italian, Cr%%ioforo Colombo, which is set out on his return to Europe, where 
his real name), was bom in Genoese he was received with almost royal honors, 
territory about 1446; died at Valladolid, In 1493 he set out on his second great 
Spain, in ISCJd. His father, Domenico voyage from Cadiz, with three large ships 
Colombo, a poor wool-comber, gave him of heavy burden and fourteen caravels, 
a careful education. He appears to carrying 1500 men. He discovered the 
have gone to sea at an early age and to island of Dominica, and afterwards Ma- 
have navigated all parts of the Medi- riegalante, Guadaloupe • and Porto Rico, 
terranean, and some of the coasts beyond and at length arrived at Hispaniola. 
the Straits of Gibraltar. In 1470 we Finding the colony destroyed, he built a 
find him at Lisbon, where he married the fortified town, which he called, in honor 
dau^ter of Bartolommeo de Perestrello. of the queen, Isabella. He then left the 
a distinguished navigator. He had island in order to make new discoveries, 

SadnaUy come to the conclusion that visited Jamaica, and returning after a 
ere were unknown lands belonging to voyage of five months, worn down with 
Bastern Asia separated from Europe by fatisue, found to his great joy that his 
the Atlantic While the Portuguese were brother Bartolommeo had arrived at 
seeking to reach India by a southeast Isabella with provisions and other sup- 
coarse around Africa he was convinced plies for the colony. Meanwhile a gen- 
that there must be a shorter way by the eral dissatisfaction had broken out among 
west. He applied in vain to Genoa for his companions, who, instead of the ex- 
assistance, and equally fruitless were his pected treasures, had found hardships and 
endeavors to interest John II of Portugal labor. This and news of calumnies being 
in the enterprise. He then determined to set on foot against him at home induced 
apply to the Spanish court; and after him to return to Spain, where his 
many disappointments he induced Fer- presence and probably also the treasure 
dinand ana Isabella to equip and man he brought silenced his enemies. In May, 
three vessels for a voyage of discovery. 1498, he sailed with six vessels on his 
It was early in the morning of Friday, third voyage. Three of his vessels he 
on August 8, 1492, that Columbus sent direct to Hispaniola ; with the three 
set sail from the port of Palos, and after others he took a more southerly direc- 
sailing for two months the expedition tion, and having discovered Trinidad and 
narrowly escaped failure, llie variation the continent of America, returned to 
of the needle so alarmed the crews that Hispaniola. His colony had now been 
they were on the point of breaking out removed from Isabella, according to his 
into open mutiny, and be was obliged orders, to the other side of the island, 
to promise that he would turn back if and a new fortress erected called St. 
three more days brought no discovery. Domingo. Columbus found the colony ia 
On the third day (Oct 12. 1492) the a state of confusion, but soon restored 
island of Guanahani or San Salvador was tranquillity. His enemies, in the mean- 
sighted, which Columbus believed to be- time, endeavored to convince his sove- 
long to Eastern Asia and to be connec- reicns that his plan was to make him- 
ted with India — a belief which he carried self independent, and Columbus was not 
with him to his ffrave. Hence the mis- only displaced, but Francisco de Boba- 
taken name of Indians applied to the dilla, a new governor who had come from 
natives of America, and that of West Spain, even sent him to that country in 



chains. On his arrival (in 1500) orders 
were sent directing him to be set at lib- 
erty and inviting him to court, but for his 
injurious treatment he never got redress, 
though great promises were made. After 
some time hf was able to set out on his 
fourth and last voyage (1502) in four 
slender vessels supplied by the court. In 
this expedition he was accompanied by 
his brother Bartolommeo and his son 
Fernando. He encountered every im- 
aginable disaster from storms and ship- 
wreck, and returned to Spain, sick and 
exhausted, in 1504. The death of the 
queen soon followed, and he urged in 
vain on Ferdinand the fulfillment of his 

Eromises; but after two years of illness, 
umiliations and despondency, C!olumbus 
died at Valladolid. His remains were 
transported, according to his will, to the 
city of St. Domingo, but on the cession 
of Hispaniola to the French they were 
removed in January. 1796, to the ca- 
thedral of Havana in Cuba. In 1899 
they were removed, with much ceremony 
to Granada, Spain, though there is some 
quebtion as to these being the correct 

ColninellA (kol-u-mel'a), Luciub Jir- 
LfOlXUneua j^^^ Modebatus, a Ro- 
man writer on agriculture ; bom at Cadis 
in Spain; lived about the middle of the 
first century after CThrist and wrote 
twelve books, which are still extant, one 
of which, on gardening (De Re Rusiusa), 
is in verse 

Hnl n Til n ( kol' urn ; Latin, oolumna ) • 
UOlUUm \^ architecture, a round 
pillar, a cylindrical solid body set up- 
right and nrimarily intended to support 
some supenncumbent weight A column 
has as its most essential portion a long 

classical architecture columns have com- 
monly to support an entablature conoist- 
inc of three divisions, the architrave^ 
irxeze and iximioe, adorned with mold- 
ings, etc The accompanying cut will 
illustrate these and other terms. Col- 
umns are distinguished by the names 
of the styles of architecture to which 
they belong; thus there are Hindu. 
Egyptian, Grecian, Boman and Gothic 

^•™ -^F 

of Gothio Columiu. 1^, South 
Gothic. 6-12. North Oothio. 

solid body, called a Bhait, set vertically 
on a Btylohate or on a congeries of 
moldings which forms its 5a«e, the shaft 
being surmounted by a more or less 
bulky mass which forms its capital. In 

Column (TuMui order), illustrating th« tomi 
AppU«d to the leveral parte. 

columns. In classic architecture they are 
further distinguished by the name of the 
order to which thev oelong, as Doric. 
Ionic, Corinthian, (Jomposite or Tuscan 
columns. They may also be characterised 
by some peculiarity of position, of con- 
struction, of form, or of ornament, s« 
attached, twisted, cabled, etc., columns. 
Columns are chiefly used in the construc- 
tion or adornment of buildinga ney 

Ooliunn Com1)e 

have also been used, however, aingly for of Mexico. They were excellent horse- 
various purposes, especially for monu- men, and extremely warlike, but their 
ments. See Corinihlant Doric, Ionic, numbers are now insignificant. Some of 
Qothic, etc. them have been collected on a reserva- 

Colnmn ^^ military tactics, a forma- tion in the western part of the former 
vrvxiuuuy ^j^^ ^£ troops drawn up in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, 
deep files, showing a small front; as GoiliaVfl.eilfl. (kO-m&-y9.'gw&), a town 
distinguished from line, which is ex- ^v"*** j »8 »*«• ^f Central America, in 
tended in front and thin in depth. They Honduras, the capital of a department of 
are said to be close or open, according the same name, situated on the southern 
to the intervals between the battalions, border of the plateau of Comayagua. 
regiments, etc., of which they are corn- about midway between the two oceans, 
posed. Sometimes the name column is It is a bishop's see and has a cathedral, 
given to the small army, especially when Pop. about 8000. 

actively engaged. Comb ^^ instrument with teeth, made 

Colnre (l£o-lGr'), in astronomy, one of ^v-*"*'* of tortoise-shell, ivory, horn, 
^vxuxc two great circles which divide wood, bone, metal, or other material, 
the ecliptic into four equal parts. One used for dressing the hair, and by women 
passes through the solstitial and the other for keeping the hair ija its place when 
through the equinoctial points of the dressed. Combs have been usod from the 
ecliptic earliest times by rude as well as by 

nnlvmhnfl (ko-lim'bus), the diver ge- civilized races. 

vrvxjiuMun j^^g ^f p^^^^^ giving name CoTllliaPOTniTil (kom-ba-kd'num), u 
to the family Colymbidee, which includes ^omDaconum ^^^^ ^^ Hindustaa. 
also the Grebes. presidency of Madras, district of Taii- 

Cnlza Oil (J^ol'*a)» ^^ o^l ^vich em- jore. It was the ancient capital of the 
xjvM^ta WAX ployed for burning in Chola dynasty, and is one of the most an- 
lamps, and for many other purposes. It dent and sacred towns in the presidency, 
is expressed from the seeds of Brastica It has a great many well-endowed Hindu 
campestris oldfSra, and from allied plants temples, a government college, courts, 
of the cabbage family. It is yellowish etc. A brisk trade is carried on with 
brown, and has little or no smelL It visitors and pilgrims. Pop. 59,623. 
becomes thick and solid only at very low r|nyn'l|o t Tbial bt. See Battle, Wager 
temperatures. vrwuiMaw, ^^ 

CnmtL (kd'ma), in medicine, a state of PnTnliA (k(5m), Andsew, a noted phy- 
VrOHm complete insensibility, resulting ^OHIDe gician and medical author, 
from various diseases, as apoplexy ; from bom at Edinburgh in 1797 ; died in 1847. 
narcotics, as opium; from accident or He was educated at the Edinburgh High 
injury to the brain; or from excessive School and afterwards for the medical 
cold. When accompanied with delirium profesnon at the university there. In 
and the person's eves are wide open, it 1822 he commenced practice at Edin- 
is called coma vigU, burgh, and had considerable success. In 

Coma ^^^ luminous, nebulous^ haip- 1838 ne was appointed one of the physi- 
^ like substance surrounding the cians extraordinary to the queen in Scot- 
nucleus of a comet. land. His chief works are: Observations 
C^mtL 'Rf^rpniVpfl Bebenice'b Haib, on Mental Derangement (1831), Princi- 
LrOma J>erem CCS, ^ ^^^^^ constella- pies of Physiology (1834), Physiology of 
tion of the northern hemisphere contain- Digestion (1836), and A Treatise on the 
ing about forty stars visible to the naked Physiological and Moral Management of 
eye, situated between BoiStes and the tail Infancy (1840). Like his brother George, 
of JLeo. he was a zealous phrenologist. 
GomaOClliO (ko-mak'ki-d), a fortified CoHlbe, Gbobgb, brother of the fore- 
vrv.uxc»wwAuv to^n^ Italy, province of ^^**^*^9 going, was bom in 1788. at 
Ferrara, amid unhealthy marshes, about Edinburgh ; died at Moore Park, Surrey, 
2 miles from the Adriatic, with pro- in 1858. He was bred to the law, and in 
ductive fisheries. It is the seat of a 1812 was admitted a member of the 
bishopric. Pop. 7944. Society of Writers to the Signet. He 
ComATlfl. (lKom&'x>&)f cui ancient city was the first to introduce the doctrines of 
vrviiiaiii.a ^f Cappadocia, celebrated in phrenology into Great Britain; and 
antiquity as the seat of the solemn wor* visited Germany and America lecturing 
ship of Ma (the moon goddess). Its on his favorite science. He was also a 
site has not been identified. sealons promoter of the cause of popular 
ComanGlies (l^^inAn'c^^)* &n Amer- education and social progress; and was 
wuxauvix^o j^g^jj Indian tribe for- among the first to advocate compulsory 
merly roaming through Texas and part education and the establishment of a 

Combe Comett 

board of health. Beaides the OatutiiuHon pounda which they form with each other 

of Man, publiahed in 1828, and which haa and with nitrogen, have received the 

had an enormous circulation, he ia name of supporters of combustion, while 

the author of A Syatem of Phrenology to the latter the term combustibles has 

(1825) ; Lectures on Popular Education been assigned. 

(1833) ; Moral Philoeophy (1840) ; The Spontaneoue Oomhustian is the iani* 

Life and Correepondenee of his brother, tion of a body by the internal devebp- 

Dr. Andrew Combe (1850) ; Prinoiplee of ment of heat without the application of 

OrinUnal Leifialation and Prison Disci- fire. It not infrequently takes place 

£ If fie Investigated (1854) ; and the Re- among heaps of rags, wool and cotton 

ition between Science and Religion when sodden with oil; hay and atraw 

(1857). when damp or moistened with water; and 

flnmYiA WnxiAM. See Coombe, WH^ coal in the bunkers of vessels. In the 

UOmoe, Kaim first case the oU rapidly combines with 

nATnTiATTnATA (kom'b«r-mer). Si a the oxygen of the air, this being aooom- 

uuumermere Staplbton Staple- panied with great heat; in the second 

Ton-GorroN, Viscount, an English gen- case the heat is produced by a kind of 

eral, born in 1773 ; died in 1865. He en- fermentation ; in the third by the pyrites 

tered the army in 1790, and took oart in of the coal rapidly absorbing ana oom- 

the Mysore war against Tippoo Saib in binina with the oxygen of the air. The 

1708 and 1790. He served with distinc- term is also appHed to the extraordinary 

tion through the Peninsular war, and alleged phenomenon of the human body 

was commander of the allied cavalry af- being reduced to ashes without the direct 

ter 1810. In 1814 he was created Baron application of fire. It is said to have 

Cbmbermere. In 1825 he was appointed occurred in the aged and persona that 

conmiander^in-chief In India. He was were fat and hard drinkers; but most 

latterly Constable of the Tower, and a chemists reject the theory and altogether 

field-marshaL discredit it 

Combination. gS^a^i!'*'"' "^ Comedietta ^^t^V^^L^^'^ 

Otim'hr^iQOf^a^ (kom-bre-t&'se-6), an comedy cUss. bat not so much elaborated. 
\/Omorexacew ^^^^ ^f shrubby or Comedy («om«-<M). a dramatic com- 
arborescent polypetalous exogens, tropical ^ position of a light and amus- 

shrubs or trees, with leaves destitute of ing class, its characteiv being repre- 
stipules, and long, slender stamens. Some sented^ as in the circumstances or meet- 
of them are astringent and used for tan- ing with the incidents of ordinary life; 
ning (myrobolans), and the kernels of distinguished from tragedy by its spright- 
others are eatable. They are chiefly liness, and the termination of its plot or 
valued for their brightly-colored, showy intrigue being happy ; and from faroe by 
flowers, especially in the genus Com- its greater refinement and moderation* 
br€tum. an<l oy more of probability and less of 

rinniliYiatiAii (kom-busfyun), the op- burlesque. See Drama, 
trOmDUBUOIl eration of fire on in- GomeilinB (k^-mr nl-as). Johaxh 
flammable substances; or the union of «'«mm.b Amos, a Moravian edoca- 

an inflammable substance with oxvgen or tional reformer, bom in 1502: died in 
some other supporter of combusaon, at- 1671. He was chosen bishop of the Ho- 
tended with heat and in most instances ravian Brethem, and suffered much in the 
with light. In consequence of the com- persecutions of that bodv. He was the 
bination of the carbon in fuel with the author of upwards of ninety works, the 
oxygen of the air being the universal most important of which are Janum Lm- 
method of getting heat and light, and as guarum Rescrata (1631) and Orbit Sen- 
when the action takes place the tuei is sualium Rictus (1668). His hl|^ repo- 
said to bum or undergo combustion, the tation brought him invitations from Eng- 
latter term has been extended to those land, Sweden and Hungary to aid m 
cases in which other bodies than carbon organizing public instruction; and the 
— for example, phosphorus, sulphur, above works have been frequently trans- 
metals, etc — ^bum m the air or in other lated and imitated, 
substances than air — for example ConietS (iKom'ets), certain celestial 
chlorine. Though the action between ^ bodies which appear at occa- 

the gas and the more solid material, as sional intervals, moving through the 
coal, wood, charcoal, of whose combina- heavens in paths which seem to cor- 
tion combustion is the result, is mutual, respond with parabolic curves, or In a 
the one having as much to do with the few instancea in elliptical orbits of great 
process as the other, yet the former, aa eccentricity. The rormer, after being 
oxygen* chlorine, iodine, and the com- visible from tiie earth for a shorter or 

Comets Comets 

longer time, disappear into space ap- between seventy-five and seyenty-si) 
parently never to return; the latter re- years. Their distances from the sun, 
turn to UB periodically. Some comets when in perihelion, or when nearest to 
are only visible by the aid of the tele»- that luminary, had been nearly the same, 
cope, while others can be seen by the beins nearly six-tenths of that of the 
naiced eye. In the latter case they earth, and not varying more than one- 
usually appear like stars accompanied sixtieth from each other. The inclination 
with a train of light, sometimes short of their orbits to that of the earth had 
and sometimes extending over half the also been nearlv the same, between 17® 
sky, mostly single and more or less and 18° ; and their motions had all been 
curved, but sometimes forked. In a retrograde. Putting these facts together, 
comet which appeared in 1744 the train Halley concluded that the comets of 
was divided into several branches, spread* 1466, 1531, 1607 and 1682 were reap- 
ing out from the head like a fan. The pearances of one and the same comet, 
train is not stationary relatively to the which revolved in an elliptic orbit round 
bead, but is subject to remarkable move- the sun, performing its circuit in a period 
ments. The direction in which it points varying from a little more than seventy- 
is always opposite to the sun, and as the six years to a little less than seventy-five ; 
comet passes its periheUon the train or having, as far as the observations had 
changes its apparent position with ex- been earned, a variation of about fifteen 
traordinary velocity. The head of the months in the absolute duration of its 
comet is itself of different degrees of year measured according to that of the 
luminosity, there being usuidly a central earth. For this variation in the time of 
core, called the nuoUiu$, of greater bril- its revolution Halley accounted upon the 
liancy than the surrounding envelope, supposition that the form of its orbit had 
called the coma, been altered by the attraction of the 
Comets were lone regarded as super- remote planets Jupiter and Saturn as it 
natural objects, anof usually as portents passed near to them ; and thence he con- 
of impenoing calamity. iVcho Brahe eluded that the period of its next appear- 
was the first who expressed a rational ance would be lengthened, but that it 
opinion on the subject, coming to the would certainly reappear in 1758 or early 
conclusion that the comet of 1577 was a in 1759. As the nme of its expected 
heavenly body at a greater distance from reappearance approached, Glairaut calcu- 
the earth than that of the moon. The lated that it would be retarded 100 days 
general law of the motion of bodies, as by the attraction of Saturn, and 518 by 
well as his own observation on the comet that of Jupiter, so that it would not come 
of 1680, led Newton to conclude that the to the perihelion, or point of its orbit 
orbits of the comets must, like those of nearest the sun, till April 13, 1759. 
tbe planets, be ellipses, having the sun It actually reached its perihelion on 
in one focus, but far more eccentric ; and March 13, 1759, being thirty days 
having their aphelUmi, or greater dis- earlier than he had calculated. Along 
tances from the sun, far remote in the with the period of this comet and 
regions of space. This idea was taken its perihelion distance, the magnitude 
up by Halley, who collated the observa- and form of its path were also calculated, 
tions which had been made of all the Estimating the mean distance of the earth 
twenty-four comets of which notice had from the sun at 96,000,000 miles (the 
been taken previous to 1680. The results number which was at that time con- 
were very interesting. With but few sidered as the true one), the mean dis- 
exceptions the comets had passed within tance of the comet was calculated to be 
less than the earth's shortest distance 1,705,250,000 miles; its greatest distance 
from the sun, some of them within less from the sun, 3.356,400,000 ; its least dis- 
than one-third of It, and the average tance, 55.100,000; and the transverse or 
about one-half. Out of the number, too, largest diameter of its orbit, 3,410,600,- 
nearly two-thirds had had their motions 000. This comet, therefore, is a body 
retrograde, or moved in the opposite belonging to the solar system, and quite 
direction to the planets. While Halley beyond the attraction of any todj wtiich 
was engaged on these comparisons and does not belong to that system ; and as 
d^uctions the comet of 1682 made its this is determined of one comet, analogy 
Appearance, and he found that there was points it out as being the case with them 
M wonderful resemblance between it and all. In 1835 it again returned, being 
tiiree other comets that he found re- first seen at Home, August 5, and from 
corded — ^tbe comets of 1466, of 1631 and that time continued to be observed till the 
of 1607. Tlie times of the appearance end of the year in Europe, and through 
of these comets had been at very nearly a great part of spring In 1836 in the 
■sgolar intervals, the average period being southern hemisphere. It returned agaim 

Comets Comets 

in 1910. but on this occasion had lost 50'' to 80*>, 39 ; and SO"" to 90*. 8. The 
most of its brUliancy and was barely comets that have been observed have made 
observable with the naked eye, mach to their passages through very different 
the disappointment of those who had been parts of the solar system ; 24 have passed 
awaiting its return with expectations of within the orbit of Mercury, 47 within 
a striking spectacle. that of Venus, 68 within that of the 

Tlie comet denominated Enck€*§ cometf Barth, 73 within that of Mars, and the 
which has made repeated appearances, whole within that of Jupiter. Of a 
was first observed in 1818, and was hundred or thereabouts, mentioned by 
identified with a comet observed in 1786, Lalande, about one-half have moved from 
also with a comet discovered in 1795 west to east, in the same direction as the 
by Miss Herschel in the constellation planets, and the other half in tne op- 
Cygnus, and with another seen in 1806. posite direction. The direct and ret- 
Its orbit is an ellipse of comparatively rograde ones do not appear to follow 
small dimensions, wholly within the orbit each other according to any law that has 
of Jupiter ; its period is 1260 days, or been discovered. fYom 1299 to 1582 all 
about three years and three-tenths. It that are mentioned were retrograde; and 
has been frequently observed since. An- five that were observed from 1771 to 
other comet, the history of which is of 1780 were all direct, 
the utmost importance in the latest That the comets are formed of matter 
theories regarding the connection of these of some sort or other we know from the 
bodies and the periodic showers of shoot- dense and opaque appearance of their 
ing-stars, is one known as Biela's comet, nucleus, as well as from the action of the 
discovered In 1826. It revolved about planets upon them; but as their action 
the sun in about 6% years, and was upon the planets has not been great, or 
identified as the same comet which was even perceptible, we are led to the oon* 
observed in 1772 and in 1806. Its re- elusion that they are not bodies of the 
turns were noted in 1832, 1839 and 1845. same density or maniitude as even the 
In 1846 it divided into two, returned smallest and rarest of the planets. They 
double in 1862, but has not since been a«*« probably groups of meteoric masses, 
aeen, the supposition being that it has tarying in fdxe. One theory of the nature 
been dissipated, and that it was repre- of comets is that these bodies were 
sented by a great shower of meteors that ejected millions of years ago from the in- 
were seen in Nov. 1872. One of the most terior of suns, or planets in a sanlike 
remarkable comets of recent times was state. When a comet is viewed through a 
that known as Donati*& discovered by telescope of considerable power there a|h 
Dr. Donati, of Florence, in 1858. It was pears a dense nucleus in tne center of the 
yerv brilliant in the autumn of that year, luminous and apparently vaporous matter 
and on October 18th was near coming of which the external parts are composed ; 
into collision with Venus. The year and the opacity of this nucleus varies in 
1881 was remarkable for the number of different comets. On its first appearance, 
comets recorded. During that year no and again when it recedes, the Inminons 
fewer than seven comets, including the part of the comet Is faint and does not ex- 
well-known short-period comet Encke'h tend far from the nucleus ; but as it moves 
were observed. on towards the perihelion the brightness 

The paths in which comets move are increases, and the luminous matter length- 
not, like those of the planets, all nearly in ens into a train, which, in some cases, 
the same plane as the orbit of the earth, has extended across a fourth of the 
but are inclined to that orbit at all an- entire circumference of the heaven. The 
gles. Leaving out the small planets that most remarkable discovery of recent times 
have recently been discovered, all the oth- regarding comets Is the identity of the 
ers are contained within a zone extending course of some of them with the orbit of 
onlv 7^ on each side of the earth's orbit ; certain showers of shooting stars. This 
and, with the exception of Mercury (by was first demonstrated bv the Italian 
far the smallest of the old planets) , thev astronomer Schiaparelli, who proved the 
are within half that space. But the orbits agreement between the orbit of the great 
of the comets are at all possible angles; comet of 1862 and that of the star-shower 
and the number increases with the an^e^ seen annuallv about August 9th and 
so that they approximate to an equal dia- 10th. It has since been demoTistrated 
tribution in all directions round the sun that every meteoric stream follows in 
as a center. Taking all the orbits of the train of some comet large or small 
which the inchnations have been asccr- which either pxists now or has been dia- 



foUuwed or preceded by a train of mete- 
ors, extending over a greater or less por- 
tion of the comet's orbit. 

Besides the very interesting Halley 
comet, which, true to the period assigned 
to it, re-appeared in 1910, the most im- 
portant recent comet appearances have 
been that known as Pons-Brooks, which 
made its re-appearance in 1884 and has a 

geriodicity of about seventy-one and one- 
alf years, or about five years less than 
Halley's; the Westphal, which last ap- 
peared in 1913, with a period of slightlv 
over sixty-one years ; the Olbers, in 1887. 
its period being about seventy-two and 
one-half years. Those four are of what is 
called the Neptune 'family,' and describe 
elliptic orbits. Besides the Biela comet, 
whose re-appearance occurred last in 1852, 
but which has failed to aopear according 
to the periodicity established, another 
comet, known as the Brorson, seems to 
have Wn lost. It last appeared in 1879 
and has been looked for in vain since that 
year. It is suggested that in 1880 its or- 
bit intersected that of Denning II near 
the orbit of Juj^iter and that it underwent 
such perturbation as materially to alter 
its orbit and period. Almost every year 
a number of short period comets are dis- 
covered. In April, 1916, Wolf discovered 
at Heidelberg a new comet with a periodi- 
city of nearly eight years; it reached its 
perihelion in June, 1917. Schaumasse's 
comet is another short-period comet, ap- 
pearing every six years. It was observed 
in 1913, within 90,000,000 miles of Jupi- 
ter; again at the end of 1919 it ap- 
proached within 120,000,000 miles of the 
earth. See DonaiVa and Bailey's Comets, 

Comf rev (com'frS), a name given to 
wv.uu.A«#j several European and Asi- 
atic plants of the genus Symphytum, nat. 
order Boraginacese. The common com- 
frey, S. officinale, is found on the banks 
of rivers and ditches. Its root abounds 
in mucilage, which is useful in irritations 
of the throat, intestines and bladder. 
Comiso (k6-m6's0), a town of Sicily, 
vrviAixov proyinee^ Syracuse, 13 miles 

w. of Ragusa. Pop. 21,873. 
Comitifl. (h^-misVi-a), with the Bo- 
vrvuuMot nians, the. assemblies of the 
people in which such public business was 
transacted as the election of magistrates, 
the passing of laws, etc. These were of 
three kinds: (1) The oomitia ouriata, or 
assemblies of the patrician nouses or 
populus in wards or curi<B, (2) The 
comitia centuriata, or assemblies of the 
whole Roman people, in divisions called 
eeniuries. (3) Tne oomitia trihuta, or 
assemblies of the plebeian tribes only. 

Comity of Nations (-Ht^'" ,g^- 

adopted in international law to denote 
that kind of courtesy by which the laws 
and institutions of one state or country 
are recognised and given effect to by the 
government of another. 
GominA (kom'a), in punctuation, the 
vrvxiuun point [ , ] denoting the short- 
est pause in reading, and separating a 
sentence into divisions or members ac- 
cording to the construction. — In music, 
a comma is the smallest enharmonic inter- 
val, being the difference between a major 
and a minor tone, and expressed by the 
ratio 80 : 81. 

Commander 1S**°*S*'^*'^; * ^®'' 

w«uAua.«AM.vj. ^g officer of an army 
or any division of it. The office of com- 
mander-in-ohief is the highest staff ap- 
pointment in tne army. In foreign armies 
title is sometimes not commander-in-chief, 
but field-marshal commander-in-chief, the 
difference being that the former is ap- 
pointed by patent for life, while the latter 
IS appointed by a letter of service, and 
holds office only during the pleasure of the 
sovereign. In the United States the Pres- 
ident is declared by the Constitution to be 
commander-in-chief of the army and navy. 
In the navy, a commander ranlu a lieu- 
tenant. In matters of etiquette he ranks 
with a lieutenant-colond in the army. 

Commandeering <a^Tm-fJed^; 

the Boers in the Bridsh-Boer war to des- 
ignate the seizing of supplies, cattle, etc. 

Commandery (kom-an'de-ri), a term 
w vMA««.w««.wA J ^g^ jj^ several senses 

in connection with some of the military 
and religious orders, as the Templars, 
Hospitalers, etc. In certain religious or- 
ders, as those of St. Bernard and St. 
Anthony, it was the district under the 
authority of a dignitary called a com- 

Commandments, see Deealogue, 

Commencement Snnh;^Si5^'«S 

collies of the United States, also in that 
of Cambridge, England, the day when 
bachelors and masters of arts and doctors 
receive their degrees. 

Commendam teS:S;^>i,%'^: 

sional management of a benefice during 
a vacancy. The person entrusted with 
the management was called eommendator. 
The grant of ecclesiastical livings in this 
way gave rise to great abuses. In Eng- 
land the term was applied to a living re- 
tained by a bishop after he had ceased 
to be an encumb^t. By 6 and 7 WIS- 

Commensal Commeroy 

lUm ly the holdinc of livings in cam- aModationt originated in France eariy in 
mendam waa, for the future, abolished, the eighteenth century. Nearly all large 
CommfinaAl (kom-en'sal; L. con, and cities in the United States hare cham- 
vvuuu«;uocM ff^^f^^Q^ ^ table), a mess- bers of commerce. 

mate ; ^pUed in soology to animals Commercial LaW (5®»;*«^«*>«1 • ^ 
who live on or in other animals for ^v******^****** — ^^ ^^ i^^ mer- 

IMtrt or the whole of their life, simply chant), the law which regulates commer- 
sharing the food of their host without dal affairs among the merchants of dif- 
being parasitic on him: thus the oea- ferent countries, or among merchants 
crabs uve within the cavity of shellnsh, generally. It is derived from the dif- 
and find their food in the water Intro- ferent maritime codes of medieval En- 
duced for the benefit of their host rope, the imperial code of Borne, inter- 

finTnTviAiiaiirQ'klA (kom-en'sur-a-bl), national law, and the custom of mer- 
trOmmenSUraDie ^ appellation chants. Lord Mansfield (1704-83) was 
given to such quantities or masnitudes the first great exponent of oommerdal 
as can be measured by one and the same law in Britain. In this country the term 
common measure. Commen$urjble num- is applied to that system of laws which 
hen are such as can be measured or refers to mercantile contracts, and is 
divided by some other number without based upon the custom of merchanta. 
any remainder; such are 12 and 18, as The principal subjects embraced within 
being measured by 6 or 3. it are the laws of shipping, indudinc 

nATnmPviforv (kom'en-t&r-i) , a term that of marine insurance; the law of 
\/Omilieil1.ajy ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ negotiable bills of ezchance and piomia- 

sense as memoira, for a narrative of par- sory notes ; and the law of sales. 

ticular transaotions or events, as the nAmmf^n^iQl Travel Ara salesmea 
CommentoHeg of Cesar. (2) A series ^viuiuciruiai xravcicni ^hotravd 

or collection of comments or annotations, in the interest of trading houses or 

These may be in the form of detached manufactories. Formerly merchants from 

notes or in a series of remarks written in smajler towns sought ue large cities te 

connected form. make purchases; and do so yet to 

nAmmPTifrv (kom-m&v-tre), a town extent, but competition in business has 

UQmmemry ^^ France, dep. of Al- led to the custom of sending travdlBg 

lier, 8 miles b. e. of Montlucon. in the agents to the smaller dealers to soUdt 

midst of a vast coal-field, to which the their trade. 'Drummer' is tiie famlUar 

town owes its prosperity. Pop. 7581. name for these agents in the Unitid 

nATnm Ar#»A (k o m ' 6 r s) , the inter- Rtates ; ' bagman ' or ' rider * In EnglaAd. 

commerce ^y^ , ^^ Commercial Treaties. 52?*? T 

chandise, or property of any kind be- ^*'*********va«a aa«^c»m«^| ^^^ into 

tween countries or communities ; trade ; between two countries for the purpose of 

traffic. The commerce of the United imoroving and extending their commer- 

States has grown greatly within recent cial relations; each country encaging to 

years, reaching a total in the fiscal year .abolish, to reduce to an agreed rats or 

1910-11 of $3,590,000,000. The expoHs otherwise modify the duties on articles of 

exceeded the imports by $530,000,000. production and manufacture imported 

The manufactured goods exported reached from the one country into the otiwr. 

the high total of $910,000,000. They are usually for a limited period, but 

f!nTnTnArAA Depabtment of, an ex- may be renewed and modified aeoordiag to 

vuiiuucruci ecutive department of altering conditions. In these treaties the 

the United States government, created in phrase , ' most favored nation,' implies 

Feb., 1903, as the Department of Com- concessions equal to the most favorsble 

merce and I^bor. It has charge of the pranted under any similar treaty. The 

commercial interests of the country, and firet treaty of commerce made by tSngland 

until the creation of the Department of with any foreign nation was entered into 

Labor in 1913 had charge of the labor with the Flemings in 1272; the second 
interests. Its head official is a member was with Portucu and Spain in 1308. A 

of the President's Cabinet measure to establish reciprocity of trade 

CommerGfi Chahbkb or, a board between the United States and Canada 

wu&Au.i^Av«») chosen from among the was passed by the Congress of the United 

merchants and traders of a city to protect States In 1911, but was rejected by Oan- 

the interests of commerce; to lay before ada. Treaties of like nature have be^ 

the legislature the views of their mem- negotiated with most of tiie American 

hers on matters affecting commerce ; to and a number of the Bnropean nations. 

furnish statistics as to the staple trade dAvtiTViArinr (kom-^r-sS). a town ef 

of the locality: and to atUin by com- vonuuBruy jva^ee, dep. MenasL oa 

bination advantages which could not be the Mense, 21 miles & of Bar-le^l>iis; 
reached by private enterprise, etc. llieM Pop. (1906) 0822. 


CommiBuoners of Highways 

Commination iSST'l^'^f ^lito^ 

of the Church of Bngland, appointed to 
be read on Ash Wednesday or on the first 
day cf Lent, containing a recital of God's 
anger .:ad tbreatenings towards sinners. 

CAmmiTiM o^ CoiciinES (k5-m«n), 
LrOHUnineSy ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^ France, 

the other in Belgium, on opposite sides 
of the Lys, 8 miles N. of Lille. Anciently 
they formed a single town, which was 
fortified and had a castle, in which 
Philip de Commines was bom. Pop. of 
French Ck>mmine8, 8U00; of Belgian 

Commines, 6000. 

flAmmiTiAa (kO-mdn), Philipfi dk, 
UOmmineS ftench writer and states- 
man, bom in 1446 at Commines; died in 
1509. He became confidential adyiser of 
Charles the Bold, Dnke of Burgundy, 
but in 1472 he passed into the service of 
Louis XI, who loaded him with marks of 
favor. After the death of Charles the 
Bold Louis took possession of the duchy 
of Burgundy, sent Commines there, and 
soon uter appointed him ambassador 
to Florence. He was afterwards sent by 
Ix>uis to BaToy, for the purpose of seiz- 
ing the young Duke Philibert, and of 
placing him entirely under the guardian- 
ship of the king, his uncle. In 1483 
Louis XI died, and next year Commines 
attended Charles VIII in his inyasion of 
Italy, and served him in a diplomatic 
capacity. Soon after that date he began 
to write his Memoirs, valuable as con- 
tributions to the history of his times. 
The first edition was published at Paris 
between 1523 and 15&. He relates in 
them the events which occurred during 
his life, and In most of which he had an 
active share, in lively, natural language, 
and displays everywhere a correct judg- 
ment, acute observation, and a profound 
knowledge of men and thinss. 

Commissariat (kom-i-s^ri-at), the 

^ rrw«^*«*w department of an 

army whose duties consist in supplsdng 
transport, provisions, forage, camp equi- 
page, etc., to the troops; also, the body 
of officers in that department In the 
British army the commissariat and trans- 
port are under the Ordnance Store De- 
partment, with two commissaries-general 
and a number of deputv-commissaries- 
general, assistant commissaries-general, 
etc In the United States army the Sub- 
sistence Department has one brigadier- 
general (commissary-general of subsist- 
ence), two colonels, three lieutenant- 
colonels, eight majors and twelve cap- 

Commissary <i«"j2c1Siifi^' te^.! 

an officer of a bishop who ezercises 
spiritual Jurisdiction in remote parts of 

a diocese, or one entrusted with the per- 
formance of the duties in the bishop's 
absence. 2. In the army a term applied 
to officers charged with furnishing pro- 
visions, etc., for its use. 

Com'missary-court, i^rt^eriS"^ 

county court which decrees and confirms 
executors to deceased jpersons leaving per- 
sonal property in Scotland, and dis- 
charges relative incidental functions. 

Commission (ko-mish'un), a formal 
V^umuUBSlUll ^^^ ^^ ^^g^ . ^ warrant 

by which any trust is held or authority 
exercised. — ^A written document, invest- 
ing a person with an office or certain 
authority. — ^A certificate issued by author- 
ity by which a military officer is con- 
stituted; as, a captain's commUsion, — ^A 
body of persons joined in an office of 
trust, or their appointment; as, a build- 
ing commUsion. — ^Brokerage, allowance, 
or compensation made to a factor, agent, 
etc., for transacting the business of an- 
other; as one per cent comtnistion on 
sales. — OommUtton of hanhruptoy, a com- 
mission appointed to investigate the facts 
relative to an alleged bankruptcy, and to 
secure all available assets and effects for 
the creditors concerned. 

A commiaeion merchant is one who sells 
goods on behalf of another, being paid by 
a certain percentage which is called his 
oommiseion, — Putting a ship in comnUa- 
eion is fitting her out for service after 
she has been laid up. 

Commission, City Qovemment 

Vkyr a method of municipal government 
vft adopted originally in Galveston, 
and since applied successfully hi New 
Orleans and many other Amencan cities. 
Its purpose is to conduct the business 
affairs of cities on business principles 
and to do away with the system of 

Solitical control and patronage. Usually 
ve prominent business men of the city 
are elected as heads of the several 
municipal departments, and the manage- 
ment of affairs put under their care. Uie 
dticens retaining the right of recall of 
these officials from office if they prove 
incompetent or dishonest The system* 
when fully tried, has proved desirable 
financially and otherwise. In 1912, 207 
cities in 34 states had commissions. 

Commissioners of Highways^ 

officers having certain powers and duties 
concerning the highways wiljiin the lim- 
its of their jurisdiction. In some of the 
states they are county officers and their 
Jurisdiction is co-extensive with the coun- 
ty. In others they are town or township 
officers. They have power to establish* 

Commisrare Common 

repair or vacate highwayp, and it is their flATnTn Aflnm (kom'O-dOr), In the 

duty to canae them to be kept in good vuuuuuuurc feritiah navy, an officer, 

order. generally a captain, holding a tern- 

ClAinTiiinmr* (kom'i-friir), in anat* porary commisaion with a rank between 

vuioJaiBBurc ^^^y^ ^ joining or union that of captain and admiral, who oom- 

of two parts, as the sutures of the mands a ship or detachment of ships in 

oorpiM cwoMum or great commiature of the absence of an admiraL They are 

the brain. of two kinds — one having a captain nn- 

CoTnTnitt^i^ (kom-ifS), one or more der him in the same ship, and the other 

\A;iUiiubtvu persons elected or ap- without a captain. The former has the 

pointed to attend to any matter or busl- rank, pay, and allowance of & rear- 

ness referred to them either by a legis- admiral, the latter the pay and allow- 

lative body, or by a court, or by any cor- ance of a captain, with a special allow- 

poration, or by any society or collective ance as the admiialty may direct. They 

body of men acting together. In Parlia- both carry distinguishing pennants. In 

ment or Ck>ngress, when a committee con- the United States the title of oommo- 

sists of the whole members of the body dore was occasionally given by oonrtes7 

acting in a different capacity from that to captains in the navy in former wars, 

which usually belongs to them it is called as in the case of Commodore Perry, but 

a eammitiee of the whole houae, the busi- it was not made an official title until the 

ness of which is conducted under some- time of the Civil war, and it was abd- 

what different regulations from those ished again in 1900, all the commodores 

under which the business of the house now recognised being those on the retired 

when not in committee is carried on. list The title is also given by courtesy 

Familiar examples are comtniiiees of to the senior captain of a line of mer* 

tupply and eommiiteee of y>ay$ and chant vessels, and also to the president 

meane. — Standing oommitteeM are such as of a yachting dub. 

continue during the existence of the dATninodlia (kom'&-dus), L. Mujj% 

legislative body, and to these are com- '*'va4M*Av**M.» AuiacLroB, a Roman em- 

mltted aU matters that fall within the peror, son of Marcus Aurelius, was bom 

purposes of their appointment, as the in a.d. 161 ; killed in 1^. He succeed'Hl 

committee of elections or of privileges, etc. his father in 180, and gave early proofs 

— Select comnUtteeM are appointed to con- of his cruel and voluptuous character, 

aider and report on particular subjects. — He gave himself up to the lowest sodetf 

Whea the House of Representatives re- and the most shameless habits. He used 

solves itself into the committee of the to fight in the circus like a gladiator, and 

whole house the speaker leaves the chair, caused himself to be worshiped as Her- 

which is occupied by one of the mem- cules. One of his concubines, whom be 

hers, denominated the Chsirman of Com- intended to put to death, administered 

mittee. poison to him ; but it operated too slowly. 

Committee of PubliO Safety *3f,^^^f ^" singled by a favorite 

(ConUtS du Salut Public), b. body elected (lATnTnAYi (kom'un), in law, *a profit 
by the French Convention (April 6, ^*'mmOH );^y^^^^ ti'mtm hath in tbr 
1703) from among its own members, land of another.' There are certain 
at first having very limited powers con- rights of common which are recogiused 
ferred upon it — that of supervising the bv the common law, namely, of pMiar«, 
executive and of accelerating its actions, or piacarv or fishing, of eetovert or cut- 
Subsequently, however, its powers be- ting wood, and of turbary or of digging 
came extended ; all the executive author- tunL But the phrase usually means thf 
ity passed into its hands, and the mln- right of pasturing cattle, horses, etc., in 
isters became merely its scribes. It a certain field, or within a certain terri- 
was at first composed of nine, but tory. These rights have been mostly de- 
waa increased to twelve members, viz.: termined by prescription or immemorlnl 
Robespierre, Danton. Couthon, Saint- usage. In Scotland a common is a piece 
Just, Prieur. Robert-Lindet, H^rault de of ground of which there is no superior. 
S^helles, Jean-Bon Saint-Andr^, Bar- but the land is the land of the commu- 
rftre, Camot, Collot d'Herbola and Bil- nity generally. 

laud Varennes. The severe government CATnniATI (IfLrri^rc o^ n^^^^ 
of this body is known, as the Reign of ^OHUHOH uaiTierB. Bee Carreer. 

'^^\ ^^^^ *"^^ ^i*^ *^® execuHon Common Council. *^A «^^^ «^ * 

of Robesnierre and his associates in ^v**"***** ^vu.i*vxx, ^i^j ^^ corpo- 
Jub*. 1T94. During the commune rate town, empowered to make by-laws 
(March to May. 1871), a similar com- for the government of the citiaens. The 
mitlea waa catabliahed in Paris. common conncila sometimea consist of two 


hoaoeB, cbambera, or courts, and some- ward VI ; was 
times form only one. Id tbe American aKain with aomt 
cities tile cit; council is generally com- sligbt alteratloi 
posed of two branches, called, respec- wben it was I 
tivel;, select and common. Tbe; are BliEabeth. In t 
elected by tbe p ' 

Com'moner, _ 

cept the hereditary nobility. copal Church I 

flnmrnnn Imvj f'e unwritten law, after several r 

ceives its binding force from immemorial until tbe adopti 

usage and universal reception, in dlstini:- the General Coo 

tion from tbe written or statute Uw i land, in 1892, 

sometimes from tbe civil or canon law ; ter, 1S93, and ii 

and occasionally from the I« mercatoria. CommonS, ' 

or commercial and maritime junspru- —-"""•— j | 

deoce. It consiatB of that bod; of rules, Cnmmnn Snl 

principles, and customa which have been '^onunon OCJ 

received from former times, and b; wbich as eauivaleDt b 

courts have been guided in their judicial schools. The; i 

decisions. The evidence of tbis law is to and tbe rent or 

be found in the reports of those decisions Pn-mm/iii Tii 

and the records of tbe courts. Some of ^0"l"«'ll ±11 

these rules may have originated in edicts contains an eve 

or statutes which are now lost, or in the such as two l 

terms and conditions of particular grants their equivaleni 

or charters ; but it is quite certain that simple and cod 

many of them originated in judicial decl- time is that wb 

slons founded on natural justice and a bar, or an; d: 

equity, or on local customs. It is con- square (_ . 

trasted with (1) the statute law con- Compound comi 

tained in legislative acts; (2) equity, four beats of th 

vhich is also an accretion of judicinl each beat 

decisions, but formed by a new tribunal. CommOnWeS 

which first appeared when the common wviiiiiiumiwo 

law had reached its fnll growth; and (3) pie in a state; 

the civU law Inherited by modern Europe lish histor; tbe 

from the Roman Emptr* . Wherev<;r government est 

•tatute law, however, rani' coonter to of Charles I, a 

common law, th« latter is entirely ovei^ restoration of ( 

ruled ; but common law, on the other ConimnTlBlif 

hand, asserts its preeminence where ^vnxu^v-LLmu-c 

equity is opposed to it. ment by comin 

nnrnTtinn P1»fUl *•» law, pleas towns and dist 

WJmmon rieas, brought by private vanced r^ubUc 

persons against private persons, or by the where. Tbe do 

government when the cause of action ifl aune, or at le 

* a civil nature. In many States of the r -- ' 

United States a court having jurisdiction etc., should be 

generally in civil actions. In England state in itself, 

the Court of Common Pleas is now federation of si 

merged in tbe High Court of Justice. must not be cc 

Pnmmnn Prav^r Book of, tbe lit- i»m, with wblcti 

i^ommon rrayer, „ ^^ public and historically 

form of prayer prescribed b; the Church are perfectly dii 

uf England to be used In all cfanrches (lAm-mTinp (' 

and chapels, and which the clew are to vommunc j, 

use under a certain penalty. The Book being one of I 

of Common Prayer is used also by tbe into which that 

Ehiglish -speaking Episcopal churches in tbe name la also 

Scotland. Ireland. America, and the in some other o 

colonies, as well as by some non-episcopal tbe country a 

bodies, with or without certain altera- braces a numbe 

ttons. It dates from tbe reign of Bd- large cities are 

Commiine of Paris Company 

commanes. In either case each commane A remarkable member of the family wai 
ia governed by an officer called a mayor, the Princeaa Anna Comnena. See Amm 

Gommime of Paris, 7l i 1 1 o n w ComcT^'^^'™* ; andenUy Oomum), capl. 
committee which took the place of the ^^*^^ tal of the province of Gomo, in 
municipality of Paris in the French rev- the north of Italy (Lombardy). 24 milet 
olution of 1789, and soon usarped the M. n. w. of Milan, in a delightfiil valley at 
supreme aothority in the state. Among the B. w. extreoaity of lAke Como. It 
its chiefs were some of the most violent has a splendid marble cathedral dating 
of the demagogues, such as Hubert, from the fourteenth century, the ola 
Danton and KoBespierre, 2. The name church of S. Fedele of the tenUi century, 
adopted by the ultraradical party in the town-hall finished in 1215, the fine 
Pans brought once more into prominence theater built in 1813. Here were bora 
by the events of the Franco-German war, Pliny the elder and youncer* and Volts 
more immediately by the siege of Paris the natural philosopher. Pop. 34,272.— 

(Oct, 1870, to Jan., 1871). They ruled The province of Como has an area of 
over Paris for a brief period after the 1049 square miles. Pop. 676^5. 
evacuation of the German troops, and (Joino ^^^^^ ^^ (Logo di Cosio, 
had to be suppressed by troops collected ^ andentlv Lacui lAiHus), a lake 

by the Natural Assembly of France, in the north of Italy, at the foot of the 
Muoh bloodshed and wanton destruction Alps, fed and drained by the river Adda, 
of property took place before the rising which carries its surplus waters to the 
was put down by M. Thiers' govern- Po. It extends from southwest to north- 
ment. east 80 miles, giving off towards tlie 

fiATnTtiTiTiiATi ( ko-muu^yuu ) . the act middle, at the promontory where stands 
LrommimiOII \^f partaking with Bellacgio, a branch running for about 
others of the sacramental symbols in the 13 miles southeast to Lecco. called the 
Lord's Supper. See Lord*$ Supper, Lake of Lecco ; greatest widtn 2% miles. 

CommnilifiTil (kom'tl-nizm), the eco- greatest depth 1929 feet It is celebrated 
^v"--""""r"i nomic system or theory for the beautiful scenerv of its shores, 
which upholds the absorption of all pro- which are covered with handsome villas, 
prietary rights in a common interest, an gardens, and vineyards, mountains rising 
equitable division of labor, and the for- behind to the height of 7000 feet Trout 
mation of a fund for the supply of all and other fish abound in tiie lake. 
the wants of the community; uie doctrine Gnninrin (kom'5-rin), a cape forming 
of a community of property, or the nesa- v**** ^j^^ southern extremity « 

tion of individual rights in property. No Hindustan (lat 8*' 4' v., Ion. 77* SS' I.) 
communistic society has as yet been sue- and consisting of a low. sandy point 
cessfuL Robert Owen made several ex- ComorO TnlftTiiiii (kom'd-rO), a vol- 
periments in modified communism, but ^^•*"*'*v *»*cma\a» canic group in the 
they failed. St Simon, Fourier and Indian Ocean, between the northern ex- 
Proudhon have been the chief exponeiits tremity of Madagascar and the continent 
of the system in France. Socialism of Africa. They are four in number: 
(g. V.) is succeeding communism as an Great Comoro, Mohilla, Johanna and 
economic system. Mayotta ; total area, about 700 sq. miles : 

Commutator (hom-n-tll'tor) , a piece pop. 82,000. The people are nom- 
vrvAAuu uifovvA ^£ apparatus used in inally Mohammedans, and are akin to 
connection with many electrical instru- the mixed races of Zansibar. They have 
ments for reversing the current from the large fiocks and herds; and the coast 
battery without the necessity of changing lands are very fertile, abounding in trop- 
the arrangement of the conducton from ical grains and fruits. Mayotta has be- 
the poles. longed to France dnce 1843, and in 1886 

Comne^ni ^^ extinct family of sov- the othera became a French possessloo. 

, J i «^*R"j »tatesmen, genei^ GomoailieS (k « m ' P J -n8s} , JoniT- 
als and authors, said to be of Italian ^*'*— jf«~***« stock. See Joini-Mtoek 
oririn, to which belonged, from 1067 to Companies and Parinerthip, 
1185. six emperors of the Bast—Isaac I. ComOailiolL <kam-pan'yun). a raised 
Alexis I, John II, Manuel I, Alexis 11 ^^*"jf»****'** hatch or cover to the 
and Andronicns I. When the Crusadera cabin stair of a merchant vessel. — Cosi- 
had overturned the throne of the Comneni panion Ladder, the steps or ladder by 
in Constantinople a prince of that House which persons ascend to and descend 
founded an independent state at Trebi- from the quarter-deck. 
Eond in Asia Minor, where he was gov- ComnanV (kum'pa-ni), in military 
emor (1204). The last sovereign of ^v***P«***j language, a subdivision of 
this house was David Gomnenus (1481). an infantry regiment or battalion, eor- 

CompaiatiTe Anatomy 


to 109 men and commanded b; a captain. 

Comparative Anatomy, ^^f ""*■ 

inflccUoDS of adjecdves or adverbs 

. rings called Klmbalsi bo 

filed by the crOM centers to the box that 
the Inner one, or compass-box, shall re- 
tain a horiiontal position in all motioiiB 

SB decrees of tbe original quaUty, dbu- 
aUy dlrided i:  ' " 

and Buperlatii 

Tided into positive, compsmtii 
iiperlative ; as ttrong, §ironger, 
*tn)ttge»l, gloriout, mora glorioiu, moft 

CamnRM (kara'P"). ^ instmment 
i^uuipuBB yg^ ^^ Indicate the mag- 
netic meridian or the position ot objects 
with respect to that meridian, and em- 
ployed especially on ships, and as sur- 
veyors and travelers. Ita origin is nn- 
kwiwii, but it Is sopposed to uave been 
broDgbt from China to Europe about the 
middle of the tbirteentb century. As now 
generally used it conrists of tbree parts: 
namely, the box, tbe card or fly, and tb« 
needle — the latter being tbe really 

BUp's CompkB. 

ab, Neadlx. ee. Box. d <l, Inngr limbiil. //, 

Ootar ^Bb^. i. Pivot upon which tha ckrdu 

(iHad. M, Bnflwtor. r r. Cud. ((,««, Sup- 

Vonlng plvota. 

essential part, and consisting of a small 
magnet so suspended that it may be able 
to move freely In a horizontal direction, 
^le bos, which contains tbe card and 
needle. Is, in the ease of the common 
■MrtHar't oomp^ti, k drcnlar brass ra- 

Compua Cud. 

of the ship. Tbe circular card la divided 
into thirty-two equal parts by lines 
drawn from the center to the circum- 
ference, called points or rhumbs ; the in- 
tervals between the points are also divided 
into halves and quarters, and the whole 
circumference into equal parts or de- 
greee, 360 of which complete the drde. 
The four principal are called cardinal 
points : vli. North, South, E^t and West. 
The needle, ot magnetieed steel, turns 
freely round its center, and one of tbe 

There is, however, liable to be a certain 
deviation owing to tbe maipetism of the 
■hip itself, and this Is especially strong in 
Iron ships. (See Deviation.) Am mounted 
on board ship, magnetic compEiBBes are of 
two kinds, dry and liquid. The Dm Com- 
pa»» consists of a very light aluminum 
Iroine carry ing several light needles 
(magnets) and supported on a pivot. On 
top ot the frame is tbe compass card, n* 
most common form of the dry compass ia 
that devised by Lord Kelvin (see lllus- 
tration). In tbe Liquid Compos* tbt 
needles are carried by a buoyant frame in 
a nen-freeiing liquid (alcohol and water). 
The liquid is contained in a bronie howl 
with a flat glass cover. — He increased 
use of steel for shipbuilding, which causes 
difficulty in the use of magnetic instfu- 
ments led to the invention of the Oynt 
Compass. The principle is that of a 
floating gyroscope whose fly-wheel is spun 
around rapidly by tbe help of an electric 
motion. When free to move in only two 
planes tbe gyroscope Invariably seta pap 

Compasses Composite 

GomnftBflefl (knm'pa-BeB), or Paib of period over 15 days a sum ia paid equal 
wMAynoovv C50MPASBE8, a mathemat- to the wages for the period, this not to 
leal inatminent need for the describing of exceed one year. Since 1910 laws of this 
cirdes, measuring lines, etc. They con- character have been passed in 82 States, 
aist simply of two pointed legs, movaUe These vary so much in their provisions 
on a joint or pivot, and are used for that we can only speak of them gener- 
measuring and transferring distances, ally. The injury must not be due to 
For describing cirdes the lower end of one carelessness or drunkenness on the part 
of the legs is removed and its place of the workman, and the payments shall 
supplied by a holder for a pencil or pen. bear a certainproportion to the rates of 
— Hair Compaaaes are compasses having wages paid. H^e effect of sudi lavrs has 
a sprimr tending to keep the legs apart, been very useful. Devices to prevent 
and a nnely threaded screw by which the injury by unprotected machinery liave 

Sring can be compressed or relaxed with been introduced -by employers, costly liti- 
e utmost nice^, and the distance of gation ha» been avoided, and drunkenness 
the legs regulated to a hair's breadth. — on the part of employees has mudi de- 
Baw vompa9Be9 are compasses having the creased, many employers refusing to 
two legs united by a bow passing through employ drinking men. Espedally in the 
one of them, the distance between the legs case of railroad employment, where much 
being adjusted by means of a screw and depends on the carefulness of train 
nut — Proportional Compa$9e$ are com- movers, intoxication has become pro- 
paasea usied for reducing or enlarging hibited. 

drawings, having the legs crossing so as ComDlifflie (kd9'Pe-&i>^)» & Frendi 
to present a pair on each side of a com- ^*'***i'**'o**'' town, dep. Oise, on the 
mon pivot By means of a slit in the left bank of the Oise, 46 miles n. n. e. 
legs, and the movable pivot, the relative of Paris. It has a splendid chAteau, 
matances between the points at the re- built by St Liouis, rebuilt b^ Louis XIV, 
spective ends may be adjusted at pleasure and improved by Louis X v, Louis XVI, 
in the required proportion. and Napoleon I. It was the autumn re- 

GomVaSS Plant {^ • { ^ *••*"* todna. sort of the court of Napoleon III. In 
ww«u|raM»w *M»Mw ^^^^^ n composite 1430 Joan of Arc was taken prisoner 

Dlant growing in the prairies of the here by the English. Pop. 14.062. 
Missismppi Valley, and remarkable from GomDleXlOIL (kom-plekshun), the 
the fact that its erect radical leaves stand ^^"^r**'^^^** color or hue of the skin, 
so that their edges point almost exactly particularly of the face. The color de- 
north and south, especially in midsummer, pends partly on pigment in the deep ceUi 
This is said to be due to the action of of the epidermis and partly on the blood 
light, and to depend on the leaves having supply. The nature and color of the 
an equal number of atomata on either hair seem closely connected with the corn- 
face, plexion, and these combined are impor 

ComnenSAtion (^^^^'P®^'*^'^^^)* ^'^^ distinguishing marks of different 
\/vjuj#«?uac»Mvu B^u^jfCE, FiNDULUM, rscea Bee^lihnotogy, 

a balance-wheel or a pendulum so con- ComDline (kom'pun), the last of the 
structed as to counteract the tendency ^^*"r****^ daily canonical hours in 
of variations of temperature to produce the Ronuin Catholic breviary; the com- 
variations in tiie rate of vibration or plement of the Vespers or evening office. 
[ oscillation. This mav be accomplished ComnositfiB (kom-poe'i-t6), the largest 

I in various ways, as by bars formed of ^*'"*|fv"*''«*' known nat order of 

two or more metals of different expansi* plants, containing over 12,000 described 
bilities, so that the expansion of one species of herbs or shrubs distributed all 
counteracts the expansion of another, over the world. The flowers (generally 
They are used to produce perfect equality called fioreU) are numerous (with few 
of motion in the balances of watches exceptions) and sessile, forming a dose 
and chronometers and the pendulums of head on the dilated top of the receptacle; 
docks. And surrounded by an involucre of 

nATntiPnoofinii Tjiura ^e first law whorled bracts. The flowers are mono- 
, \MlilipeilBauua .Ijaws. ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ petalous, and the order is divided into 

pensation of workmen injured while in three natural groups from tiie form of the 
service was passed by (jonness in 1906. corolla; (1) TuhuUflOriBy in which it is 
This related to employees injured or killed tubular, with five, rarely four, teeth ; (2) 
while in government service, if not due Lahiatifi(frw, in which it is divided into 
to negligence or misconduct on the part two lips; and (3) LioulifUirw, in which it 
of the workmen. In case of deaUi, those is slit or ligulate. The stamens are in* 
dependent on the victim are to receive a serted on the corolla, and their anthen 
sum equal to one year's waaes of the are united into a tube (syngenesions). 
j deceased. In that of disability for a The style is two-deft at the apex. The 


failt is diT and seed-like. The bead of 
muneroaa florets was called b; tbe older 
botanists a compound flower, hence the 
name. Many are common weeds, like the 
daisy, dandelion, 
thistle, etc. ; many 
STB cultivated in 
sardens. such as 
the asters, mari- 
gold, etc. : others 

nomic or medicinsl 
Tsloe, as chlcor7, 
artklioke, cbamo- 
mlle. lettuce, 
wormwood, arnica, 

C o m p 8 ite 

(kom'pos-it) Oi- 
DXB, in architecture 
the last of the fire 
orders : so called 
because the capital 
belonginK to ft is 
composed out ot 
those of the other 
orders, borrowing a 

Suarter-roQod from 
le Tuscan and Doric, i 

Comporit* Onkr, 

„_ »„„ „ .c, a row of leayes 

from the Corinthian, and volutes from 
the Ionic. Its cornice has simple mo* 
dilllona or dentils. It is called also the 
Roman or the liaUo order. 

Oompoation SS&'.f^Sli I 

bankrupt or person in pecuniary difficul- 
ties makes with hlft creditors, and by 
which he arranges to pay them a certain 

Sroportion only of the debts due. See 

Composition of Forces and 

Wntinna 1° mechanics, the union or 
nuuuiui, aggeniblare of several forces 
or molJone that are oblique to one another 
Into BD equivalent force or motion in 
another direction. Thus two forces act- 
ing in the directions of the adjacent sides 
of a parallelogram compose one force 
Bctlnc in the direction of the diagonal, 
and If the lengths of the adjacent sides 
represent also the maicnitudeB of tbe 
forces, the diagonal will represent the 
magnitude of the compoond force or 

«ompo.tella aX.T^'5'::U.=£ 

lib knijrtits formed in the twelfth century 
to protect the pilgrims who flocked in vast 
nninbers to Santiago - de - Compostella, 
where the relics of St James were kept 


Composts (kom'posta), in agricuUura 
*™ '" • are mliturea of variona 
fertilizing substances. See Jfanurs. 

Compound Animals, « " i m a i ^ 

which by no means belong to the loweit 
types, in which individuals, distinct as re- 
gards many of tbe functions of life, are 
yet connected by some part of their frame 
BO es to form a united whole. Such are 
the polyzoa and some of the ascidia. 

Compounding '^ST'S,"!^ 

log of a consideration tor forbearing to 
prosecute ; or the agreeing to receive one's 
foods again from a thief on condition ot 
not prosecuting. This is an offense pun- 
ishable by fine and imprisonment 

Compressed Air <X"i;",;r2; .»": 

K eased by means of pumps, etc., and used 
driving stationary and locomotive en- 
ries. and excavating machines ; ss also 
working pneumatic despatch tubes, rail- 
way brakes, etc. Large railroad tunnels 
have been excavated by the use of com- 
pressed air motors, such as Uoosac tun- 
nel and the MouDt Cenis and others. 

CompreMibiUty li£»-»„"„-™ w, 

bodies in virtue of which they may be 
pressed into smaller bulk. Alt bodies are 
probably compressible, though the liquid* 
are bat slightly so. The gases are ex- 
ceedingly compressible, and may be lique- 
fied by pressure and cold combined. Tbow 
bodies which occupy their former space 
when the pressure is removed are called 

Compulsory Insurance, Jp ^"^ 

to any system of Insurance enforci^ by a 
government for the benefit of its working 
classes. Compulsory insurance against 
accident has been in force tor some time 
in Great Britain. Germany, Aaatria, 
France, Norway, Italy, and Holland. In 
the United States custom difFers in the 
various states. In Germany there Is a 
national and compulsory system ot In- 
surance against sickuesiy accident and old 
age. for all those earning less than $500 
a year. In France there is a compulsory 
insurance against old age and invalidity. 
The year 1912 saw the establishment of 
a revolutionary system of insurance 
against sickness and unemployment in 
Great Britain. 

Compurgation 'S.'M'ta.i:'-.!': 

lowed by the Anglo-Saxon law in Eng- 
land, and common to most of the Teutonic 
tribes. The accused was permitted to 
call a certain number (usually twelve! of 
men, celled compurgators, who joined 

Comstock ' GonoepeUm 

thdr otLtbB to his in testimonj to 'Hk Brace in the Convent of the Minoritef 
innocence. At Damfriee in 1306. 

CJAnifitonlr Awthont, secretary of the Con. an Jtalian prepoaitlon dgnifyinf 
vumsMlUiLy New York Society for the ^^**> unth, and of frequent occurrence 
Supprenion of Vice, bom in 1844; died ^ muaical phrafleology ; con amore, with 
September 21, 1015. feeling; con hno, brilliantly; oon gutto, 

Conwtook lode i^^^STSS Co^re (fej' V'^-'SS'tL* SS 

«eumc W« bi the w«iten. p«t of th« „„„ j^ iJSSd^ot'^ni.rl^^^'^ 
State of Nevada, on the eastern slope of tion of a farm for i KinffiA Tron thl £mf 
the Virginia Monntains. To it belonsed be£g naidto the fSSfe? S^^mSS^v^ 
the Biff Bonanza and other mines, wldch fn iSkS 

or^^^^linftnffi*^ ■"''"' *^ ^ ''*^'''' Concan (komam), a maritime sab. 
of over 1300,000,000. vruucan division of Hindustan, in the 

Gomte (f^V^)* IBZDOBB Augustv Mabix presidency of Bombay. It consLsts of a 
wvAuyv FEAiigois Xavieb, founder of long belt of sea-coast, stretching from 
the ' positive ' system of philosophy, was north to south for about 220 miles, with 
born at Montrollier in 1798; died at an average breadth of 85 miles, and 
Paris 1857. His family were sealous bounded on the east by the Western 
Catholics and royalists. He was edu- Ghauts. It includes the town and isl- 
cated at the icole Polytechnique, and and of Bombay. Area about 12,500 sq. 
embraced enthusiastically the socialist miles; pop. 8,035.654. 
tenents of St Simon. As one of his most GA]infl.nieaii (k6Q'k&r-n5), a seaport, 
distinguished pupils he was employed, ^v**v»***vi»i* France, dep. Finistftre, 
in 1B20, to draw up a formula of the on an island in the bay of La Foret 
doctrines professed by the St. Simo- Has sardine and pilchard fisheries; a 
nian schooL whidi he accordingly accom- Eo51ogical laboratory, connected with the 
plished in his ByaUme de PoUtique Po- college of France: is much visited by 
«i<f90L This work did not, however, meet artists. Fop. 7887. 
with the approbation of St Simon, who CoiLOftVA (l^on'kAv), hollow and curved 
asserted that Comte had made a very im- ^ ^'^^^ or rounded, as the inner sur- 
portant omission by overlooking the re- face of a spherical body. A surface is 
Ugious or sentimental part of human €oneave when straight lines drawn from 
nature. In 1826 Oomte commenced a point to point in it fall between the 
course of lectures on positive philosophy surface and the spectator ; and conve» 
but only four lectures were given wnen when the surface comes between him and 
he became deranged in mind, and did not SQch lines. .... 

recover till the end of 1827. In 1830 he ConOentratlOIL (kon-j«nrtrt'8hun),in 
commenced the publication of his Ooun ^*'***'^**«'*"»*v** chemistry, the act of 
de Fh4lo$<n>hie Potitive. which was com- increasing tiie strength of solutions. This 
pleted in six volumes in 1842, and was *« effected in different ways ; by evapo- 
freely translated into BngUsh and con- rating off the solvent as U done in tte 

densed by Harriet Martineau (two Tols. ■fPJJS^®'^ 5' ^^ ^™ "^"IJ^^^f.' J? 
1858). (See Potiiwe Phao9opk^.) distilling off the more volatile Uc^nid, 

£% — /irA'f«in.\ <n fi«* laf** HiwaV m Ih tho rectificatiou of spirit of wine; 

CornUS ^^^S^^yX.'^SJ^SrJ^, M'ca^ti'oV'o^Te^T'^b?^^^ 
feasting, a/d noSumal Sitertainmen£ ISriffi as in pJ?tiLsSj's^^^^ 

Milton 8 C<^us is a creaticm of Ws own. /j^-^g 'j-.^ (kon-sep-se^in'), a sea- 
Comvn ^^""f^^k i?™^!.^^'? ♦!?* VOnoepOlOn ^ ^ of Chile, capital of 
• JT S'^^'^^^^r ^"* ^^^tJ?K ft* » province of the same naie, on the 
commissioners s^t to confer about tiie rig£t bank of tiie Biobio. 7% mUes from 
marnage of the MaM ofNorway to Pr^ moutii, a well-built town, with a 

Edward of England. On ttie competition cathedraL Its port at Talcahuano, a 
for the Scotch throne in 1291 Ck>myn put small town on the Bay of Concepdon, 
in a claim as a descendant of Donald about 8 miles distant, is one of the best 
Bane. The date of his death is uncertain. In Chile. Ooncepcion was founded in 
but he was alive in 1209. — ^His son. 1550, and has suffered mnci from earth- 
John GoiCTir, called the 'Red Comyn,* quakes and attacks by the Araucaniana 
was chosen one of the three guardians Pop. 55,458. There are towns of the 
of Scotiand. and defeated the English same name in Paraguay and Uruguay, 
^t Roslin in 1802. He submitted to of 10.000 to 12,000 each, and others of 
Edward I in 1304, and was killed by gmaUer sise in iLathi America. 



Conception ^^j^^'^'^K'^^y^ 

in the mind; in phuoBophy, that mental 
act or combination of acts by which an 
absent object of perception is brought be- 
fore the mind by the imagination. 

Conception, SlT^^c*" ^tS.^ 

the doctrine that the Yirdn Mary was 
born without the stain oz original sin. 
This doctrine came Into favor in the 
twelfth century, when, however, it was 
opposed by St. Bernard, and It afterwards 
became a subject of vehement controversy 
between the Scotists, who supported, and 
the Thomists, who opposed it. In 1708 
Clement XI appointed a festival to be 
celebrated throughout the church in honor 
of the immaculate conception. Since 
that time it was received in the Roman 
Church as an opinion, but not as an 
article of faith until the year 1854, when 
the pope issued a bull which makes the 
immaculate conception a point of faith. 

Conceptualism iS ** ^-^^Srd^'a 

doctrine in some sense intermediate be- 
tween realism and nominalism. Con- 
ceptualism assigns to universals an ex- 
istence which may be called locical or 
psychological, that is, independent of 
single objects, but dependent upon the 
mind of the thinking subject, in which 
they are as notions or conceptions. 
Concert (^on'serU a PJlblic or private 
\/vu\/«Av niusical entertainment, at 
which a number of vocalists or instru* 
mentalists, or both, perform singly or 

Concertina ^'m';?;-,) v?nSf ?; 

Professor Wheatstone, the principle of 
which is similar to that of the accordion. 
It is composed of a bellows, with two 
faces or ends, generally polygonal in 
shape, on which are placed the various 
stops or studs, by the action of which 
air is admitted to the free metallic reeds 
which produce the sounds. In the Eng- 
lish concertina the compass is three oc- 
taves and three notes. The German con- 
certina 1b an inferior instrument. 

flnTiAArfA (l^oi^-<2b®^^)* ^^ music, a 
^/OnceiXO ^^ ^^ composition, usually 

in a symphonic form, written for one 
principal instrument, with accompani- 
ments for a full orchestra. 

Concert Fitcli. see phok. 

Concession ^i-^-^^^ ^, ^^. 

emment to a person or company to 
do certain things; specially applied to 
grants of land, of privileges or immuni- 
ties in connection with certain enter- 

prises, such as mining, the construction 
of railways, canals, or the like, usually 
subject ts fixed conditions and limitations. 

Conch '^i' i^^^-^A ^n 

trumpet shape, and which may be blown 
as a trumpet, as in the practice in 
Hindustan and some of tiie Pacific 

Conchif era ^^tfot^i fefSli 

of acephalous molluscs which have sheUs 
consisting of two pieces, commonly known 
as Hvalvea (oyster, mussel, etc). 

Conchology iSS^^'tk^k Zt t" 

IMirtment of ao^ogy which treats of the 
naturev formation and classiflcation of 
the shells with which the bodies of many 
moUusca are protected ; or the word may 
be used also to include a knowledge of 
the animals themselves, in which case it 
is equivalent to malacology. In systems 
of conchology shells are usually divided 
into three orders, univalves, bivalves 
and multivalves, according to the num- 
ber of pieces of which they are composed. 
See Molluwa, 

Conclave <tSf :SSik.2'* JlSSaf lo^r 

the election of the pope ; also the electoral 
assembly of the cardinals themselves. 
Pope Gresory X, whose election had been 
delayed for three years, established in 
the council at Lyons (1274) the regula- 
tions of the conclave. The cardinals are 
shut up together in a particular suite of 
apartments in the palace where the 

Eontiff dies, and tiiey are supposed to 
ave no communication with the outside 
world during the period of the election. 
The companion, either lay or clerical, 
whom the cardinid is allowed to take 
with him into the condave during the 
election of a pope is called a conoiavkt. 
The office is one of great delicacy and 

Concord <iS?H«i«L 5 1^^' mSl 

comDixiEtion or two or more 
sounds pleasing to tiie ear. Concords are 
the octave, the fifth, third and sixth. 
The two first are called perfect, becAUse 
as concords they are not liable to any 
alteration bv sharps or flats. The two 
lait are called imperfect, as being alter- 

Concord ^^^H^ S„'S?»'coS^ 

cord River, 20 miles w. n. w. of Boston. 
It has a state reformatory and manu- 
factures of harness, rubber, etc., and is 
a large railroad center. It was the 
home of Bmerson, Hawthorne, Thoreau, 
Louisa Aloott, and other eminent 
writers, and is historically famous as 

Concord Concurrent Jurisdiction 

the scene of the first fight between tte provisions remain in Fnmce »t^e prej- 
British and Americans in the Revolution, ent day. Since the middle of the eiiht- 

ing pubUc edifices, and large manufac- of »ach an <>'^^^^ jSi^J^J® .*« .^ 

tures, having water-power in abundance, *<* **»^«H, ^^^ ?*?,5i^™|J!S^ 
Itepr^ucts include cotton and woolen concrete; those of clasww, absteicL A 
t^o^^ir^iia mflAhinprv flnd various concrete name is -a name which stands 
JSSfi ^fiS?«r?S^rri^ of ftae CT^iS ^oT a thing ; an abstract name is a name 
whSh • ^^XSvdv workSl W ^Wch stands for the attribute of a thing. 
7iQ^^ ^1«7 ^ worked. rop. pon/crftte » composition used in 

(lw20) 2Z,lw. 4ri«v«^ VrOn Crete, building, consisting of 

Concord, 2^'&~&°orthTa^uSS^ ^ydrauUc or StSeV monitor ^eTwlth 

miles N.E.\f^hMe?''V'm-^^^^^ If'lV^ Tu ^""^rl^^' ^l^ 

2r J^f'^^.^'^inZ'^iJ^^ LV5?d*;r wiLrfor"^^^^^^ to torn 
fc?^ ^-^®M^^ ^^ (colored) IS ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ sluice, or the 
here. Pop. <l*^^}."J^-_^,^„gx -. v^ok foundation of any structures ndsed^ in 
Concordance \n wWeh Se oiSiSSS «»« ««» ; and it is also frequentiy used to 
^ « .^ i« .nl Jnrk o?nu^er 5 make a bed for asphalt pavements, or to 
words «8ed in My work or number or ^ foundations for bufldings of any 

works^ as the S^^P'"'/"' »*^«J«f >^!!;ij^ kind. It has aUw come extensively into 
ton. Tennyson, Homer g^c.. are arranged ^ ^ material with which the walls 
alphabetically, and the book chanter a^ ^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ concrete beln^ 

verse, or act, scene, Un^ or o^' »"^ fimly rammed into molds of tiie nq^- 
division in which each word .occurs are ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ allowed to set 
noted ; designed to assist an inQOiJ er in j^ j^ buUdings a material known as 
findmg any pMMge by mewttsof any 1^^^^ reinfoMd oanoreie has come into use. 
ing word which he can recollect, or to the reinforcement consisting of strong 
show the character of Jhe language and ^^^i ^^^ around which the concrete is 

very gi 
7 large 1 
:his^ man] 

.".yt/^N *'*'-^"- ^—^ idV ^9~ XM^^ ^^^ '**"* "' cuncrvits lui «. building uiAi^i^i' 

biblical concordances, that of Mary jg rapidly growing. 
Cowden aarke to Shakespere deserves n^JLj^Jlzg.^^ fkon-krC'shuns), Mo- 
especially to be mentioned. V»onurci»loa» ^^^ j^ animal economy, 

ClnnnfirdAt (kon-kor'dat); a conven- hard substances that occasionally make 
Vronouroiib ^ion between „the Pope, ^^\^ appearance in different parts of the 
as head of the Boman GathoUc Church, i,ody, as well in the solids as in those 
and any secular government, for the set- cavities destined to contain fluids. They 
tling of ecclesiastical relations. One of are usually named according to the parts 
the most important of the^earlier con- ^f th^ ^^y in which they occur, as 

Henry V, has been regarded as the most common constituents are phos- 
fundamental law of the church in Ger- phates, urates, or other salts, in combi- 
many. Another celebrated concordat was nation with mucus, albumen, fibrin, and 
that agreed upon between Cardinal other organic matter. See 0alcuW9, 
Gonsalvi, in the name of Pius YII, and fiAnAY,i|{«.oiyA (kon-ktl'bi-nftj), sexual 
Napoleoi in July. 1801. Bv it the head WnCnDinage 'cohabitation of a man 
of the state had the nomination of bishops without legal marriage. It was per- 
to the vacant sees ; the clergy became sub- mitted among the ancient Hebrews and 
ject in temporal matters to the civil the Oreeks without limitation ; but among 
power ; all immunities, ecdefloaeticu the Romans in the case of unmarried men 
courts, and Jurisdictions were abolished concubinage was limited by the Lex Julia 
in France, and even the regulations of and Lex Papia Popp»a to a single con- 
the public worship and religious cere- cuMne of mean descent 
monies and the pastoral addresses of the n ah nnrr Aiif TnriftiliAtion 
clergy were placed under the control of UOnonrreni • ^Fir**^?**^ 
the secular authorities. Most of these (kon-kur^-ent), the Jurisdiction of diff<»r- 









Concussion of the Srain 


ent courts anthorized to take cognisance 
of the same kind of case. In criminal 
cases the court which first takes up a 
case has the right of prevention, that is. 
of deciding upon that case exclusive of 
the other courts which but for that right 
would have been equally entitled to take 
cognizance of it in civil cases it lies 
with the suitor to bring his cause before 
any court he pleases which is competent 
to take it up. 

Concussion of the Brain ^^§: 

un), a term applied to certain injuries of 
the brain resulting from blows and falls, 
though unattended with fracture of the 
skull. Stupor or insensibility, sickness, 
impeded respiration, and irregular pulse 
are the first symptoms, and though these 
may subside there is always for a time 
more or less risk of serious inflammation 
of the brain setting in. 

Condamine, g^^F^ ^/^ ^ ^ 

**j See La Oondamine. 
Conde (kOn-dft), town and fortress of 
wuuv France, dep. Nord, at the con- 
fluence of the Hayne and Scheldt. It 
fave their title to the Oond6 family. 
*op. (1906) 2701,— For another Oondd 
see Oond^'$ur-'2foireau, 
PatiiIa Louis he Bottbbon, founder 
\^OUae, of the house of, bom in 1530 ; 
killed after battle of Jamac, 1569. See 

CMnAH Louis dk Boubbon, Pkince of 
\/QUaey (the Great Condi), a famous 
general, bom in 1621. In 1641 he mar- 
ried a niece of Cardinal Richelieu. His 
defeat of the Spanish at Rocroi, in 1643. 
was followed, in 1645, by his defeat of 
Mercy at Nordlingen, and by his capture 
of Dunkirk in 1646, the year in which he 
inherited his father's title. During the 
troubles of the Fronde he at first took 
the side of the court; but believing him- 
self to be ill requited by Mazarin He put 
himself at the head of the faction of the 
PetiU Matires, and was imprisoned for 
a year by Mazarin (1650). On his re- 
lease he at once put himself at the head 
of a new Fronde, entered upon negotia- 
tions with Spain, and, his attack on 
Paris being indecisive, retired to the 
Netherlands, where he was ai>pointed 
generalissimo of the Spanish armies. In 
this capacity he unsuccessfully besieged 
Arras m 1654; but he was more fortu- 
nate at Valenciennes in 1656, and at 
Cambrai in 1657. In 1658 he was de- 
feated before Dunkirk by Turenne, but 
was restored to his rank in France after 
the peace of 1659. In 1668 he accom- 
plished the reduction of Franche Comt6 in 
three weeks : and in 1674 he defeated the 
Prince of Orange at SenefL Qis snocessea 

over Montecnculi in Alsace in 1675 closed 
his military career. Four years later he 
retired to Ghantilly, near Paris, and died 
at Fontainebleau in 1687. 
flnnil^ Louis Joseph db Boubbon, 
vuiiuc, pkinck of, bom at ChantiUy 
in 1736 ; only son of the Duke of Bourbon 
and the Princess of Hesse-Rheinfels. 
He distinguished himself in the Seven 
Years' war, and in .1762 defeated the 
Prince of Brunswick at Johannisberg. 
On the outbreak of the revolution in 1780 
he emigrated, and in 1792 formed, at 
Worms, a corps of emigrant nobllitv. 
which firstjoined the Austrian, and, m 
1785, the Efnglish service. In 1797 he 
entered the Russian service, but in 1800, 
after the separation of Russia from the 
coalition, reentered for a time the Eng- 
lish army. He Uved in England tiU 1813, 
retumed to Paris in 1814, received 
various honora, and attended me king in 
his flight to (ihent On his return he 
was appointed president of a bureau of 
the chamber of peers, but soon after re- 
tired to Ghantilly. He died at Paris in 

Condensation ^e^b^mtt^f Sf Wb"? 

ics, the act of reducing a gas or vapor 
to a liquid or solid form. Bwrface con- 
dentation, a mode of condensing ste&m 
by bringing it in contact with cold metal- 
lic surfaces in place of by injecting cold 

Condensed Milk fc-J?S% ^IJf 

orating part of its moisture, mizinir with 
refined powdered sugar, and packing in 
air-tight cans hermetically sealed; the 
sugar may also be omitted. 

Condenser t\Tcf ".^'li *,5!SiS^ 

into a receiver. Also a vessel in which 
aqueous or other vapors are condensed 
by cooling into the liquid form. 

Condensing Steam-Engine. 

See Steam^ngine, 

Cond6-snr-Noireau (Jl? ? '$Jk^^ 

n w a-ro), a 
town of France, dep. Calvados, at the 
(confluence of the Noireau and Drouance. 
Chief manufacture, cotton. Pop. 5709. 

Condillao tJ^^-^J^-yAk)' ^tiewnb 

WUM.UMAV BoiJiq^oT VE, a French 
philosopher bom in 1715. His Estai tur 
POrigine des Oonnaissanoet Humaineg 
(174B), in large part a polemic against 
abstract methods of philosophizing, struck 
the keynote of his system, and his TraitS 
de9 8y8i^me9 (1749) continued the con- , 
demnation of all systems not evolved from 
experience, from sensation. In VTHi 
appeared his TraltS des BmtaihnBt and 

xitidm on Bnffon. The ufuitr uid notmd of tdnltery It U & leial pic* 
led to bu ap- detuucb 

Conditional Inunonlity Condoroof 

ITSB tii* TraM 4m Animaum, a jnir> In «t seticn'for diTorc« rai the 

-iddm on Bnffon. Th« ttf-" "" — — ' ' -'-' " '" " ' — ' -'— '" 

JMiVMB of bia wtiUup l«d I 

gntnicnt m tn' " ' """ - 
Dla XV, the 1 „ . _...._. 

lor whom he wrote In ITW Us Ooutm American bird, the BaroorhaKtphut gm- 
TBtuiM, Indodiiuc a rnuni°>', an irt phot, one of the largeet of the VultnridM 
raorire, an Jrtie BaUonner, an Art or Tolturine Urdfc In Ita ea^ntial fea- 
U i*MHer. and a general hiatary. Hla tares. It reeembles the common yalbiTea. 

I et I« ffouoemwe -■- • - - 

^ii Tear aa the IfwJ 

(1776), I 

HmiMJMcnD to it. in 1768 be waa elMtcd and, loncltadinal 

to 4eAci - - — "" -' ■"- 

to pnblica 

jMsO-imonali- in 17B8. 

St^ea^j. *He''(Sed"'BhoS|yifter a 
_B pnbliMtiMi of bis LogU) in 178(^ Ua i 
Lmi«m in OahaU btlng patdlAed 
rasO-imonaii- in 1798. 

[tenditional Immortality^ 

UMl), a doctrine held b7 certain relic- 
Ions sects, which hold that Immwtalltr u 
Sependcnt noon certain conditionB ol be- 
llel and conduct, and replace the tenet of 
Fatore PDulaliment by tliat of annlhila- 
tion. llils doctrine baa been advancad at 
laterrels from ancimt times, and In our 
day it baa many advocates. 

Conditioned and Uncondi- 
tioned, ?„^?"*'/ViKH^- 

ton. Tlie UncoDdltloned is retarded by Hunboldt met with no spedmena whose 

Blr William Hamilton as a gcnns IndtHl- wincs exceeded 9 feet In ezponae, tlioart 

bf two apedes; the Inflnite, or the ao- it haa occaaionallT been known to attda 

condltioDaIl7 nnllmited, and the AbscdDte an expanae of M feet It la fonnd in 

or the nnconditiouailr limited ; and the freatcat UDmbere In the Andea diain be- 

thMla which be malntaina and esponnda, onentlnK regions from 10,000 to 16.000 

and whicft forma one of the leadiog doc- fnt abore the lerel of the aea, whete 

triiMS of hia philosophical syatem, la that the; breed, depositing thdr two white 

the UnconditlODed, aa tbae ezolalned, la egn on the bare rock. Ther are lenerallr 

nitirelT nntbinkable. The mind la con- to be seen in groups of three or fonr, and 

Bned. ut point of knowledge thooib not only descend to tbe plains under atrev 

sf Uth '- "- •■-'•-' —■* — Ji*i— » * •■ -»• - - - — - "- 

» Juth, to the limited and conditioned — of hnnger, when they wUI mcceMfaUT 
the Condltloaed being the mean between attack sheep, goats, deer and boUocka. 
two nnconditiooatee. mntoaOr szdnslTa Tbey prefer cwion, howerer, snd, when 
and eqnallT Inconcdrable, bnt of which, ther hBTs opportonitr, sprge tbemeeWea 
m tbe prlndplea of contradletlos and sz- until ther become incapable of riaing from 
eluded middle, one mutt be tdmttttd «> the ground, and so baeome a prer to the 
•aeattsrv. Tbas Infinite space is Inoon- Indiana. The Uncroltnre (S. Papa) ia 
eetvable D7 na, whHe at the aame time It anoUier bird of Qie same genas. 
ie equally Impoarible to ob to conedre of ConilATAet (koa-dor«IK MABn Jcul 
■pace as flnlte ; yet one of these must be vvuuwaw* ^jpjf,i^jt ViooLAa n Gas- 
admitted neeetaary, and onr oonceptioa itat, HiMtns ot, ax enlnent French 
Is in some sense a mean between the In- writer, bom (if 1743. At the aae of 
ao n o d taMefc Tlte doctrine waa applied twantrooe he presented (o the Aead w ta 
ir Uansel to determine tbe limits ol re- of Sdenoea an Bnat «w te Colosl ImU- 

(1906) 404R. publication of blimooeirfe* AoaMmlelmt 

RrniAAnfttfrni ncoB-dft-nl'Aimy, Ifl »orU avMt 1609 (1778). be was w- 
UOnaonanOB ^^^ forglTeness U in- pdnted perpetoal secretary (1777). ^ 

1777 bit n«om of ComeU gained tbe 
raise offered bj the Academr of Berlin; 
be enricbed tne TramacUon* alt muir 
leaned McletieB ; and took an actiTe part 

of tbe people. By the dtr of Pari* he 
was elected depatr to the legiilatlTe aa- 
aembly, of which be was (K>oD_a{>polnted 


callr connected with thick atrlpa of cop- 
per which are carried Into the ironnd to 
a cotulderable depth and termuiBted, if 
potalble. In water or In wet earth. Vari- 
oua other forma of eondnetois bav« been 
intiadaced, aach aa are ahown Is tbe ac- 
companjinf cat, where a la a condoetor 

favor of the Bevereet eentei 
■t tbe Bame time be prop 
CBpttal puntshmentai txei 
i^mea asainst tbe state. 
Oiroudist party. May 81, : 
tbe coDttitutioD which 
drawn op from being acee 
freely crttlcUed the com 
took Iff place he wai den< 
an accomplice of Bri^eot. 
ney, a voman of noble f« 
blm for elrbt mouthy di 
wrote Ua B»qui»*« d'ltn 
riTM fc« Progri* ds Fi 
Ijeit he iboald endanger Ii 
ever, be left tbe bonie aec 

tlon to her wlehee. fled f. 

wandered aboat tin arrested and thrown 
Into prison, where, Marrh 28. i'^M, ha 
was fonnd dead on the floor, faaTing ap- 
parently awallowed poison. 

Boldlers who, in tbe fourteenth and 
teenth [Centuries, hired tbemselyea ont to 
carry on the petty wars of tiiB Italian 
states. Montreal d'Albamo, R gentleman 
of Provence, was tbe first to give definite 
oi^aniiatlon to a lawless band of this 
kind, and many of them attained a con- 
siderable sise and power. One of tbe 
most noted was the company of Sforaa 
Attendolo, whose son made himself Dnke 
of Milan. For the mont part, these mei- 
cenaties were good soldiers and splend- 
idly equipped, but rapaclona and cruel to 
all bat their own class. 
Conduction, See Beat. 
Conductor Oon-^nk'tur), or Libht- 
uuiiuu\.M/i NINO-COB nncTOB, an In- 
strument by means of which either ^e 
electricity of tbe clondi. tbe cause of 
lightning, la conducted without explodon 
Into tbe earth, or the lightning Itaeif Ii 
recelred and conducted qntetly Into the 
earth or watpr without Injuring buiidinn, 
ships, etc. It WBB iuTented by Benjamin 
BVanklin abont 1TS2. and met with speedy 
general adoption. It usually consists of 
• atont Iron rod with one or more points 
at tha topt tbe lower end balng metalli- 

t * i, Vuloas (ami sf AtMob- 

coosistiiuc of metallic stripe Joined to- 
gethfiTt ft M. conductor of copper wires In- 
tertwined with Iron rodu, e a conductor 
condadng of a metallic itrip forming a 
tube wiu spiral flangea. Tarloaa kinds 
of Up* are also in use, as will be seen in 
the cat, d being formed of several metala 
endoaed tbe one within the other, the 
moot fndble being out^e: g, K t show 
bow In some cases sncceaslTe sections of 
rods are connected. 

Conduit (kon'd't). a line o' plpef «' 
an underground channel of 
some kind for the conveyance of water, 
electric wires, etft 

Condyle ('■":''*": °'- 'sl"")- •» 

•^ ^ anatomy, a protnberance cm 

Condv's nuid, » P«l«»tlon of per- 
uuuuj •> .k^iuu, manganate of potash 
which is largely used as a deodoriser and 
disinfectant In fevers, etc It la also em- 
ployed as a gargle In diphtheria and other 
throat affectlona, and Is especially val- 
uable for cleansing ulcers and Bores. 

Cone t""*?,'' •" ""^ '" ff^S**^' 'F°" 
*""*" erally means a right drcular 
cone, which may be defined as the solid 
figure traced ont when a right-angled tri- 
angle la tnade to revolve round one of the 
ddes that contain the risht angle. A 
more comprehensive definition may he 

{Iven as follows: — Let a straight line be 
eld fixed at one point, and let any otber 
point of the line he made to deacrlb* any 
doaed cnrve which does not cat Itself: 
the solid figure traced out is a oone. 
When the curve which tbt second point 
describes la a drdet tbe cone is a right 

Cone ConfesnoDal 

circular cone. The cubical content of k cnu the provirioDa of a bill with ttfui 

riibt circular cone ia one-third of that to which the; are dlsaKraed, with tiie 

of a c;liiid«r on the aame baae and of object of elFectinB ■» aKnemeat between 

the same attitude, and ia therefore found them. (3) The annual meetioK of the 

by multiplying the area of the base by Methodist Episcopal Church for deUb- 

the altitude, and taking one-third of the eration on Its affairs, 

product See also Oonio Section*. ConferVACes (kon- 1 er^vt'se-C), a 

Cone *" botanj, a dry compound *'"»"»'* »»*"i"* family of marine or 

> frnit, consisting oi man; open freah-water algn having green frondi 

Hcalea, each with two seeds at the baae, which are composed of articiilated fiU- 

as In the conifers ; a strobilas. ments simple or branched. 

Hnniko-liflnA ( lco-nel-v&'n&) , a town The cella are sbortiflh 

vuuegiiiiuu ^, jj^( pKjTlneo of and cyUndrlcal, and they 

Treriso, 28 miles «. of Venice. It has a are reprodaced not by 

caatle and cathedral with pointings by conjugation, but by boS- 

Cima da Qmegliano. Manu&cturea : silk spores formed from the 

and woolen cloths, Pop. 10,000. cell- contmts and fur- 

wwuv BU.VU. uCT v—1. cilia. The tvpical genus 

flnnaaa-i.TiaTt (kon-es'si), the bsrk of Conferra is found, either 

^OneSSI-DaTK "^^-hH^ mtidyienter- attached to various bod- 

ica, an apocynaceous plant of India, used ies or Boating iwoUen 

as a tonic, a febrifnge, and on astringent up with babbles of gas, .—r—;- .-^r r 1 

in diarrbtea. , In dense masses on ponda. STTSSlJi """" 

CMYitttr TalanH « amall island ft miles Tbe well-known marine "'•■"'™" 

VOUey XBIILUU, ^utbeast of New deUcacy, layer (Porphtn ladniatm and 

York, at tbe west end of Long Is)an4, a P. vulffirit), with tbe green laver (ffh* 

popular eeaside resort, abont one hoar by latitsima), belongs to thia tribe of 

trolley from Manhattan City Hall. Here plants. 

New Xorli City has undertaken the crea- rintifssBinTi (kon-fesh' 

many as SOO.OOO people often visit Coney profession of faith ; for instance, the Con- 
Island in a single day during the sum- fission of An^burx. It tometlmea also 
mer. signifies a reUgious sect ; as the three 
Hn-nfMlamt* StntMi tbe name Christian confessions— tbe Roman Gatbn- 
U)nieaerai;e awa, ^j^^^ (^ ,1,^ ^^^ ^^^^ Lutheran end the CalTlnirtc 
eleren Sonthern States of the American Confiteor (I acknowledge) is tbe eonfn- 
Union which attempted to secede on tbe sion which the Calholic prieata make br- 
election of Abraham Lincoln, the Repub- fore fie altar when beginning n>a« or 
lican candidate, to the presidency in No- pablic worship. 

vember. ISflO. thuB leading to the great C.nTtf»amn-n AiiBicni.AB (sw-rlk'O- 

(Jivil War which lasted till 1860. Bee V^oniCMign, j^^j^ ^^ y^^ strictest 

United State*. sense, tbe disclosoce of sins to the priest 

— • " -• - .. _. . _. .L_ — *___- —  _,.t B yie^ to obtain 

lie person con- 

, . .. - Dceaf no rin of 

Napoleon Ronaparle in 1806. and Indud- conaeqnence which he remembers to luTe 

ing Bavaria, Wurtemberg. Baden, Hesse- committed, and the father confesaor i* 

Darmstadt, tbe Kinndom of Westphalia, bound to perpetual secrecy. The practice 

eta It eitended over 125,160 aq. miles, of a public acknowledgment of grtnt sinii 

and comprised 14.608.877 inhabitants, was altered by Pope Leo the Great la 

Tbe princes undertook to raise collectively 460, into a secret one before the priest 

a large body of troops In event of war. and the fourth general Ijileran conndl 

and estnblltihpd n diet at Frankfort; but 11215) ordained that every one of th* 

the failure of Napoleon's Russian cam- faithful, of both seies, come to yean of 

paign of 1812 shook the structure, and discretion, should privately confeaa all 

the league soon after broke up. It was tbelr sins at least once a year to their 

succeeded by a new league, the Germanic own pastor, an ordination still bindini; 

Cnn federation. on members of tbe Roman Calboltc 

TnTifpTPiifi* fkon'f er-ensl, (1) a Chnrch. Confession is a part of tbe 

\4UUiercat,C n,p^ting ^f ,1,^ „j,rt- sacrament of penance, 

nentatlves of different foreign countries PnilfptUlinTlftl 'kon-f eaVun-al), te 

for the discussion of some question. (2> '^omeBBloaai Ro„g„ Catholli- 

K meeting between delegates of the two churchea end chapels, a kind of endoaed 

home* nf a 'eglalatlTe body called to dia- seat In which the priest rita to hear 

Gonf esBion of AugBlitu^ 


pcnou confeM tbdr alna. The ooafea- 
titokai is often not unlike a lentrr-bos, 
the prieat rittini within and the penitent 

ConfcirioDil. Oxhsdnd et St. Guduk, BtumU. 
kneeling vitbont uid apeaklns throash an 
aperture. Man; coufesaloDala are In 
tbfM divlaionB or compartmeata, the cen- 
ter, which la for the reception of the 
Srlea^ beiuK closed half-way op by a 
warf door, and havlnr a aeat wtthiu It 
The aide compartmenta, which communi- 
cate with the center by grated apertarea, 
are for the penitents. 

Conf esflion of Augsburg. |j^; 
ConfemioB of Faith, Si'^SSS; 

beliefs, a kind of elaborate creed. (See 
Creed. | What Is moat distinctively 
known by this name is Ihe document pre- 
pared by the Assembly of Divines which 
■net at Westminster in obedience to sn 
ordinance of Psrllsment issued June 12, 
1643. The whole nomber of the assemble 
amounted to 174 members, noBtly Puri- 
, tblr^two being members of Par- 

ent; There were also six Scottish 

commiMtonera appointed to consnlt and 
deliberate, but not to vote. One of the 
chief results of the delib^rBtions was the 
framing of the Confession of Faith, which. 
on Ihe retnm of the Scottish commls- 
donera, was adopted by the Assembly of 
the Chnicb of Scotland, AoKust 27. 1647. 

Confldential Communication, 

In law, a commnnicatton made by one 

Crson to another which the latter cannot 
compelled to give in eridence as a 
witness. Oeneraflr all comma ni cations 
made between a clfent and bis agent, be- 
tween the agent and the coanael in a suit, 
or between the sereral partlea to a aoit, 
are treated as confidential. The piiTUege 
of confidentiality does not extend to dio- 
dorarea made to t medical advlaer, and 

in England It has been decided also that 
confeasiona made to a priest are not to 
be treated as confidential. 

Oonflmation SS^i-Mi^ 

of hands by a bishop in the adroisston of 
baptixed persons to the enjoyment of 
Christian privileges, the person confirmed 
then taking apon himself the baptlamal 
TOWS made In bia name. It la pmcttaed 
in the Greek, Roman Catholic, Lotheran 
and English churches. In other Protes- 
tant churches a public confession of faith 
before the first communion takes the place 
of the rite. Confirmation is one of the 
MTen sacraments of the Roman Catholic 

coiflsoatioii <.'s-J,-'j;S;;!i.,"u 

forfeited, and adjudeing to the poUIa 
treasury, the roods of a criminal ia part 
pnnlsbment of a crime. 

Conformable il5i;«l5°-K'-»,t 

having the same dip and cbangea of dip : 

said of strata, the oppoaite term from 
II nconformablo. 

Cn-nfnninu (fcm-fHsh'yua) , or KoNO- 
l/OniUOlUB ^a^gg. (igiiyiag. 'the 
teacher, Kong'), the famoua Chinese sage, 
bom about S50 B.O. In tbe province ot 

SbnhliaDg-beih, who was of royal descent. 
died three yeara later, and the boy was 
reared in comparative poverty by bin 
mother, Chtngtsal. At the age of seven- 
teen he was made inspector of corn- 
markets, at nineteen he married, and after 
about tour years of domesticity, in which 
a son and two daughters were bom him, 
he commenced his career as a teacher. 
In 517 B.O. he was Induced by two mem- 
bers of one of the principal houses in Lu, 
who had joined hie band of diadples, to 
Tisit the capital with them, where he had 
Interviews with Lao-tie, the founder of 
Taonism. ^ongh temporarily driven 
from Ln to Tri by a revolntion, be soon 
retumed thither with an Increasing fol- 
lowing, and at the are of fifty-two was 
made chief magistrate of tbe dty of 
Chung-tooL Bo atrlUug a reformation 
was effected by him that he was chosen 

Congi d'Elire 


for higher poiU, became minister of crime, 
and with the aid of two powe»hil diaciplea 
elevated the itate of Lu to & leading poid- 
Hon in the kingdom. Its marquia, how- 
ever, loon ifter jniTe himaelf up to 
debauchery, and Oonfuciua became a 
wanderer in many atatea for thirteen 
yearib In 488 he returned to Lu, but 
would not take office. The deaths of his 
favorite disdples Yen Hwin and Tse-lu 
in 481 and 478 did much to bring about 
his own, which took place in the latter 
year. Confucius left no work detailing 
his moral and social system, but the five 
canonical books of Confucianism are the 
Yih'hing, the Bhu-hing, the Shi-kinff, the 
Leaking and the OAvit-Msfi, with which 
are grouped the ' Four Books/ by disciples 
of Confucius, the Ta^hio or * Qreat Study,* 
the Ohung-Yufho or 'Invariable Mean,' 
the Tun-yu or '^Philosophical Dialogues,* 
and the Hi-Ue, written by Meng-tse or 
Mendus. The teaching of Confucius has 
had, and still has, an immense influence 
in China, though he can hardly be said 
to have founded either a reli^on or a 
philosophy. All his teachings was devoted 
to practiad morality and to the duties of 
man in this world in relation to his 
fellowmen; in it was summed up the 
wisdom acquired by his own insight and 
experience, and diat derived from the 
teaching of the sages of antiquity. It is 
doubtful if he had any real belief in & 
personal god. 

Cong* d'Elire ^»jg*J ^^^ «J 

' leave to elect,' designates the sovereign's 
license authoniing tiie dean and chapter 
of a vacant see In Bngland to proceed 
with a new election. Though nominally 
choosing their bishop, yet the dean and 
chapter are bound to elect, within a 
certain time, such person as the crown 
shall recommend, otherwise they incur 
the penalties of a prtnniffMre. 

Conger^ ^^^ttk,^J^^^ 

by a long dorsal fin beginning near the 
nape of the neck, immediately above the 
origin of the pectoral fins, and by having 
the upper jaw longer than the lower. 
The best-known member of this genus is 
the Conger vulgM», sometimes as thick 
as a man's thigh, frequently attaining a 
length of 10 feet and more than 100 lbs. 
in weight. It is pale brown above, gray- 
ish white below, with whitish dorsal and 
anal fins fringed with black. Its flesh 
is eaten, but is somewhat coarse. 
RAHfr^ftHnii (kon-jesfyun), in medi- 
LrOngesnon cine simifies an excessive 

accumulation of blood in an onran, which 
thereby becomes disordered. Among the 
causes oi congestion are the different 

periods of development of the human 
body, each of which refiders some 
partkular organ unusually active; dis- 
eased conditions ; and the accidental exer- 
tions of certain organs. Again, if the 
current of blood to one organ is checked 
the blood tends to accumulate in another ; 
and the vessels which bring back the 
blood to the heart — that is, the veins- 
are sometimes obstructed, as by external 
pressure, by tumors, etc Congestioa 
sometimes lasts a short time only ; but if 
not early cured, and its return, which 
would otherwise be frequent^ prevented, 
it is only the beginning of other diseases. 
Sometimes it terminates in bleeding, 
which is a remedy for it; sometimes It 
increases into inflammation ; sometimes it 
becomes a chronic disease, that is, the 
blood accumulates for a long time and 
expands the vein^ the expansion becomes 
permanent, and dropsy may result. 

Congleton ^^^'^^^'k^^c^ 

shire, in a deep valley on the Dane, 22 
miles B. of Manchester. It has cotton and 
silk manufactures, the latter forming the 
principal industry. Pop. (1011) 11.810. 

Conglomerate <^^-;$X««^;>-^ 

ologists to rocks consisting mostly of 
water^worn pebbles connected together by 
a matrix of siliceous, calcareous, or other 
cement, often called also plum^fiuddtng 

Coniro (l^oi^'sO) » formerly Zaibe, one of 
WU5V ^g rreat rivers of the world, in 
Southern Afnca, having its embouchure 
in the South Atlantic. The mouth of the 
river was known to the Portuguese in 
1485, but the lower part of its course was 
first explored by an English expedition 
under Captain Tuckey, which, in 1816. 
ascended it for about 172 miles. In 1887, 
however, Livingstone discovered a con- 
siderable river called the Chambni, rising 
in the Chibaltf Hills, and having followed 
it to Lake Bangweolo traced it thence as 
the Luapula to Lake Moero, and tiience 
again as the Lualaba to Nyangwe. From 
this point its exploration was taken up in 
1878-77 by Stanley, who proved its 
identity with the Congo. It carries more 
water to the ocean than the Mississipoi. 
its volume being next to that of the 
Amason. Its total length is perhaps 
8000 miles. Its chief tributaries are the 
Aruwimi and the Mobangi from the risht, 
and the Ikelemba and Kwa from the left, 
which latter represents the collected wa- 
ters of immense rivers from the south 
such as the Kassai, the Kwango, etc It 
is navigable for about 110 miles from its 
mouth, after which the navigation is in- 
terrupted by cataracts. See next article. 

Congo Cox^nreii 

Conn), Beltrian fomicrlr C o n o o ot the natlTCa in ttia coUccdon of mbber 

.. _r ' ^ ' F*n State, on led in Ihs eftrlj twwiti«th centnrr to In- 

the Tint Oonjo, Id South Central Afrlcfc difDMit prot««t« from treTelers and oth- 
■tretchlDc b; & kind of narrow neck of ers, and in 1908 Kins Leopold txanaferred 
teiTitorr to the riTer*! mouth, bat ex- the cootrol of the state to the Beliian 

pandlng inland eo aa to cover an immense KOTeminent. Tariona reforms have since 

area, mainly Iring aoath of the rirer. been authorised. Area estimated at 930,- 

The obvious adnntagea of the Conao aa 000 aq. miles; pop. 8,000,000 to 1R,000,- 

a waterwar In openins op the conuoent 000. 

led to the lormadon at Braseels in 1S78 nATurrwontinnnliafji (kon-are-ta'- 

o£ a Comil* d'£tudes da Haut Conio, WIlB«S»"OnaiUM \hnni-leta>. 

under the patronage of Leopold II, ba7- or IXDEPEinnNTfl. The diatlnctlTe prin- 

ing as Its aim the intematlonallxation ciple of GosffregatlonaJ polity ia tlukt 

and derelopment of the Congo area, erery congrefatiou la entitlM ' to elect ita 

Under its auspices Stanley returned in own officers, to manage all ita om affaire, 

1879 (see preceding article) to open up and to stand independent of, and irre- 

the river and form a free itate under Bn- eponaible bx all andiorln, aavlnx tliat 

ropean auHpices. He established a firat only of the Supreme and DlTine Head of 

station at VM, the limit of maritime the Chnrdi, the Lord Jemu Christ' Con. 

navigation, 110 miles above the mouUi of gregadonallam denies that there is any 

the river, coDstmcted roads past the Yel- auuority in Scripture for uniting tm 

lala and Livingstone cataracto, and hauled cbnrcbes of a nation or province into one 

ateamera up to the higher reaches of the corporation to be ruled by biehopa, aupe- 

Cong<H where In 1882 the station of Leo- rior to the pastors of partlciilar congre- 

poldviile waa formed on Stanley Pool. Of la'''"'*' "^ °7 *' presbytery or synod, 

the 223 mllea between Vivl and Leopold* ^is Is It which dUtlngaishei Congrega- 

vUla only 88 are navigable water; but tioDaUsm from Episcopacy and from 

' " ' " itadon to Stanley Falls Preahytetr. As early as the daya of 

from the latter station to Stanley Falls Preahytetr. As early as tha daya l. 
the Gouo Itadf la oonUnnonsly navigable Queen Elbabeth Indepeodenta, t« Brown- 
for 1000 miles, to which its great affluenta i>ts, as they were also named after Robert 
already exploKd add no fewer tiian 0000 Browne, were jnunerona, and pnnlahmenta 
miles of aerviceable waterway. Above of banlidiment and even death were in- 
Ibe Stanley Falls station (destroyed by dieted opon some. Finally, larse numbera 
Arab slave-dealers in November 1866) the <>' them retired to Holland ana to Amer- 
river is again navigable for a distance of !<■- By the Act of Uniformity in 1662 
8SS mile* to Nyangwe, which ia about Ux Independents were subjected to much 
1300 miles from the Chamhed sourcea. auffering. l%e Bevolntlon of 1686, and 
The work having been thus initiated by ^^ paadng of the Tderatlon Act in 1688. 
Stanley, and the feaalbllity of the project brought than relief. Efforts were made 
made manifest, the anodatlon in 18S4.8& ■■^'Ot thb time to bring about an accom- 
entered into treaties with all the Ea< raodation between them and the English 
ropean powers and the United States for Pwsbyterians, but with little remit In 
the recognition of Ita sovereign power ''^^ certain PresbyterlaDS, Baptists, and 
The boundaries of the new Coituo Fbxb Independents formed themselvea into a 
Stats were eettled at the same time It o^itod body, under the name of the Three 
being agreed that the basin of the ConBo DenominafloM. The Indepuidents are 
and its tributaries should be free to all ™^ largest dlsMnting body In Englsnd 
nations, that no duties ahould be levied *""?* J?* W esleyan Methodists, 
on imports, and that the alave trade The history ^ AmericM Congregadon- 
ahonld be soppreased. The central gov- *^'S '"^i^ early years Is practlMlLr Ihat 
ernmnit was at Brussels, consisting of ^,tf'!v'"^«!5 "f , *,'L5H^?^^i'>T''»*"« 
the King of Belgium as sovereign, and ''ritt the arrival in l^o7 the first group 
three departmental chiefa. I&llways «' Puritans. In 1643 the four congrega- 
have been constructed around the lower tlonal eolonini of Plymontb. Ma^cEu- 
raplda and elsewhere along the stream, Comiectlcut and New Haven 

m that there is now contliiuoue^^: '^^%"i'F- .^^ ^5* Jj?" 

mnnlcation by rafl and water from the ^^^, College to provide traln- 

rfTer-s mouth to Kalengwe Falls, a dis- '' mlll»'ers. «id ten years later 

tance of 2800^mtte.. Rubber 'u the irioiJ''th™'°t-!!fT5 If 

leading commercial product of the state. f" }^^^^"^J^t, ISrSS 

coffee and cacao are successfully grown ^-^„^„-,^^ S!:S2i^^^ ^*^ 748,000 
and ivory, ctnwl and palm oil and ker^ «'"™'«"<«": memhera. 
SSiVJ^mS' ^E?*^-* "^^ minerals nnnamtt *>>« n"™" liTen to the 
- i"lln*'£* P>W^latinum, iron, coal l/OnyrCBB, wi^atlve asaembly of the 
Wd palUdfnau^nie end axplottatlcit United Statw rfAiericarSu3stSi™ 

Congressional Apportionment 


two hoiiBe»-^a Senate and a House of 
Representatives. The Senate consists of 
two members elected by the legislature of 
eadi state for a period of six years, one- 
third of whom are elected every two 
years. The Representatives in the lower 
house are elected by the people of the 
several states every two years, and their 
number varies in each state in proportion 
to the population as determined by the 
decennial census. The united body of 
senators and representatives for the two 
years during which the representatives 
hold their seats is called one Congress. 
See United States. 

Congressional Apportionment, 

the number of people appointed by act of 
Congress to be represented bv one Rep- 
resentative in Congress. The number 
fixed in the Constitution was 30,000 with 
the provision that each State should have 
at least one Representative. This num- 
ber was increased at each successive 
census, in order that the membership of 
the House should not become unwieldily 
large. The successive ratios since the 
formation of the government have been 
as follows : 

1780-1792 bMed on the Conatitatdn 80.000 

17M-I803 based on Cenmis of 1700. 33.000 

1803-1813 " 1800. 33.000 

1813-1823 " " 1810, 36.000 

1833-1833 " 1820. 40.000 

1833-1843 " " 1830. 47.700 

1843-1863 ** *' 1840. 70.680 

1863-1863 " " 1860. 03.420 

1863-1873 " " 1860. 127.381 

1873-1883 " " 1870. 131.626 

1883-1803 *' " 1880. 161.912 

1803-1003 " " 1800. 173.001 

1003-1013 " 1000. 104.182 

1013-1023 " " lOia 211377 

The change under the 1010 census in- 
creases the membership of the House from 
386 to 435, Arizona and New Mexico, 
which were admitted in 1012, each being 
given one Representative. 

Congressional Library <^^f: 

un-al), the library of the United States 
Congress, established in 1800. It now 
numbers nearly two million books and 
pamphlets, exclusive of maps, charts, pho- 
tographs, etc. Copies of every work pub- 
lished and copyrighted in the United 
States must be sent to it. and it contains 
large numbers of duplicates. In 1897 it 
was removed from the Capitol to a mag- 
nificent building erected for it in the 

Congressman-at-large, JefofSe 

United States House of Representatives 
who is elected by the voters of a whole 
gtate instead of by districts. 


(kon'^gr^), WzLUAic, an 
English dramatist, born 
1670, educated at Kilkenny, and at 
Trinity College, Dublin, from which he 
entered the Middle Temple, London. A 
novel entitled the InoogniUt, under the 
pseudonym of Cleophil, was followed, at 
the age of twenty-one, by his oomedr of 
the Old BaoheloTf the success of which 
procured for him the patronage of Lord 
Halifax, who made him a commissioner 
for licensing hackney-coaches ; soon after 
gave him a place in the pipe office ; and 
finally conferred on him a very lucrative 
place in the customs. He afterwards re- 
ceived an additional sinecure in the ap- 
5 ointment of secretary to the island of 
amaica. His next play, the DouUe 
Dealer, was less successful; his third 
comedy. Love for Love, and his trasedy 
The Mourning Bride (1679), were both 
popular; but after the cold reception of 
his Way of the World in 1700, he ceased 
altogether to write for the stage. He. 
however, continued to write occasional 
verses on public subjects; and in 1710 
published a collection of his plays and 
poems, which he dedicated to his early 
patron. Lord Halifax, to whose person 
and party he remained attached in all 
fortunes. He died in 1729. His plars 
belong to the artificial school of comedy, 
which aimed rather at the production of 
a sustained flow of wit than at the pre- 
cise delineation of character. 
riATKrrA'irii Sib Williaic, inventor of 
Vrungreye, ^^^ Conweve rocket was 

bom in England in 1772, and entered the 
army, from -which he retired in 1816 widi 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel of artillery 
and entered the House of Commons. He 
invented the rocket about 1804. It was 
first used in active liervice in the attack 
on Boulogne, 1806, and on Copenhagen, 
1807. He tock out patents also for the 
manufacture of gunpowder and of bank« 
note paper, and wrote treatises on the 
mounting of naval ordnance and on the 
hydro-pneumatic lock. He died at Tou- 
louse in 182S. 

Congreve Socket. See Rochet. 

Coni ^^ Cu'nbo (kO'na-«), a town of 
wuA, North Italy, capital of the prov- 
ince of Coni, charmingly situated on 
a hill, at the confluence of the Stura and 
the Gesso, 47 miles 8. Torin. Formerly 
all merchandise passing from the seaport 
of Nice to Lombardy, Switzerland and 
Germany went by this route, but the rail- 
way has confined its trade to Turin and 
neighboring towns. It has manufactures 
of silks and woolens. Pop. 27.065. 

*^*' Folatila alkaloid, the active 

Conic Seofions 


poisonous principle of Conium maculaium 
(spotted hemlock), nat order Umbelli- 
fersa. It exists in all parts of the plant, 
but especially in the not quite ripe seed. 
When pure it is a colorless, oily liquid, 
specific gravity 0.878, changing by ex- 
posure to air to a brown fluid, and ulti- 
mately to a resinous, bitter mass, insolu- 
ble in water but soluble in alcohol, and 
when purified yielding a jelly with a 
butyric odor. It has a nauseous taste 
and very disagreeable odor, sharp and 
choking when strong, but in small quan- 
tity like the odor of mice. It is exceed- 
ingly poisonous, appearing to cause death 
by inducing paralysis of the musdes used 
in respiration. It is antispasmodic and 

Conic Sections %?y-^'^^i,'i^^ 

bola, the parabola, and the ellipse, so 
called because they are formed by the 
intersection of tiie surface of a cone with 
planes that cut the cone in various di- 
rections. If the cutting-plane be parallel 
to the axis the curve formed is the 
hyperbola (1) ; if parallel to the slope 
of the cone the curve is a parabola (2) ; 

Conio Seotioiis. 
if passing through both sides of the cone 
obliquely the section is an ellipse (3). 
A section perpendicular to the axis of 
the cone forms a circle (4), which may 
also be considered one of the conic sec* 
tions. A perpendicular plane through the 
apex gives a triangle (5). 

Conidia ^l^®°?<^'^-f)'„i? botany, the 
***^**"* simple, dustlike, asexual re- 
productive cells produced on some lichens 
and fungi, as in the potato-blight. 

Conifer® i^„^;'^f^'^>'iv*^^ p'°^' fi"; 

and their alhes, a natural 
order of gymnospermous exogens, the 
essential character of which consists in 
the manner in which the ovules, not en- 
closed in an ovarv, receive directly the 
action of the pollen without the inter- 
vention of a stigma. The ovules in these 
plants are borne on scales or modified 

leaves, which are spread out, not folded, 
and generally grouped in such a manner 
as to form a cone composed of s. greater 
or smaller number of these leaves, of 
which only a portion may be fertile and 
bear ovules. The disposition of the ovules 
in relation to these scales permits of 
a division of the CnniferiB into three dis- 
tinct families or tribes. In the Cupren- 
»%ne<B, which include the juniper, cypress, 
etc.. the cones are formed of simple scales, 
each of which bears towards the base of 
its superior surface the ovules erect and 
sessile. The second famUy, Abietinew, 
has, in place of simple scales, scsles 
actually double or formed of two parts; 
the lower on^ usually designated the 
bract: the other bearing at its base the 
ovules^ reversed. This family includes 
the pines, firs and larches, the arau- 
carias, welllngtonias, dammaras, etc In 
these two families the ovules are com- 
pletely covered by the scales which con- 
stitute the cones, which unite after fecun- 
dation and enclose the seed till tiielr 
maturity. In the Tawinew, which con- 

u*i*®**^® 9**''^ familv. the scales are 
short, imperfect, and partly stenle, and 
neither cover the ovules at the period of 
fecundaHon nor at that of maturation. 
The ovules are usuallv set in the same 
manner as in the Oupressinew. The 

famHy. The Conifene are found in large 

Ami!!?^"^ 1^^ "^r^^ of Europe and 
America, and are of great importance as 

SS«t« *^^- ^^7 abound also In 
resfaouB juices and yield turpentine, 

Sll n.n«n J*" i?"^*" i^^' ?*<=• The leavei 
SSnSS ^fl'^ *^*,f'?*> *»^ »^1 or needle 
fiP 5liMi'«-°*u^ ^^^^^ ^^ moncedous 
aLia^^^^^J}^^ ™*^« flowers being in 
deddnous catkins, the female in cones. 

Conune (kO'nI-in). See Oonia. 

Conirostres ^^^'12^^^^' ^hLJ"^ 

, ^. ^ ^ mthology, a subdivision 
of the order Insessores or Passeres, con- 
psnpK of genera having a »tout, conical 
peak. The best-known genera are the 
larks, tits, finches, sparrows, gold-finches, 
linnets, bullfinches, crossbills, sterlings, 
crows and birds of paradise. 
Coninm (S^nl'um), a genus of umbel- 
^ llferous plants. Bee Hemlock, 

Conjeveram (kon-1e-ver-um') , a town 
* „ , of Hindustan, presiden- 

cy of Madras, district of Chingleput 
It stands in a valley, is irregulariy built, 
Md from 5 to 6 miles long. It possesses 
two famous parodas dedicated to Vishnu 
SiwI*' *°^**® inhabitants are mostly 
S^?!?^!:. ^^ narae^* Benares of the 
Nouth has been somertmes given to it 
Cottons are manufactured In the tow^ 

)nji^ral B^hti Conneotiont 

aUMiM iiUMion KbooL Fop. 46a«- Uaeen VlctorU, bom io 18D0. He «u 
minipal Birhti (kon'jS-sBl), in trained in tbe Bojal MiUUrr Acadnu, 

ilcb hoaband and wife have to each 188S. Ula pramotion w«« rapid. In ISTB 
ler'a Kxdet;, comfort and affacUoD. be mairUd Princeaa Iioolse Margant of 
ininilfltion ( '' ° n'Jook'iliiui ), la Pnuaia. In 190S be waa made peraomd 
H1J1U.WUVU p^mniar ^ connective «d«J»^«n»p to Edward VII, and In 1910 
Icdlnnble particle aerrlny to nnita opened tbe firat parliament of the Unlra 
rda, eentencefl, or claiUM of* aentence, of Sooth Africa. In 1911 he aaccceded 
I Indicatlnc their relation to one an* Earl Qrer aa QoTemor^enernl of eas- 
ier. He7 are cUal&able toto two ada. He democracy of hla rtidme laTe 
in croDpa: (1> CoOrdinatinf conjnnc- him wide popnlarity. 
na, it^inx independent propoaiaona, nnnnaant (kon-e-af), a townof AA- 
I aubdlvtnble into Cw^llaaTe,^3ii5wl? *^*"ie»nt tabula Co., Ohio, on Lake 
a, adTeraatire and iilatlre conjnnc- Erie. 68 milea n, e. of Clereland. It haa 
na. (2) Snbordlnatlnc conJoncdona,  food harbor and la a big ore port, lliere 
klni a. dependent or modifjins clauaa are manufacturea of Iran, uuber, tin- 
the principal aentence. pl^ etc. Pop. <1920) D848. 

mjunotion, %^^'^-, *;? g: Connectioiit 'crif^;''"^iiJ:,,''S: 

iT«nl7 bodies, aadi aa two planeta, or weat branch of which formi bj treaty the 
< nn and a planet, when they baTe the boundary between tbe United Statea and 
ne lonfitnde (are in tbe aame direction Canad* to lat. 4B* N. It riaea on tbe 
m the earth). When it la atrnply aaid north border of New Haupahirei farms 
", a planet la in eonjuneUon, con- the bonudary between Vermont and New 

"■ ■- — •■ Ure, pnases thtoagh tbe west part 

■achnaetta and the central part of 
ticut, and falla into Lone Island 
— -.„.„ ... __.>. „ „c .„. ^.,_ .„__ It la naTifable for Teasels draw- 
it of the earth accordiuf as tbe son Inc from 8 to 10 feat for abont 300 milts 
between na and them or they betweea from its month, Babddiarr canals, how- 
and the son. ever, being rebnired abore Bnrtford ; 

m JTinntiwfl. (kon-Jank-tl'*a), the total lenftn, 4S0 miles. 
mjUnOUVa l„ocons membrane Connentiflnt o"' o' f** tWrtaen 
icb lines the inner surface of Oie eje- ^'OnaeoiHJUl,, ^^^,1 gtates of lbs 
I and is contlnned over tbe forepart of American Union ; bounded bj New York. 
I globe of the eye. Maaaachusetts, Rhode liland and Long 

mklillff (konkling), ROSOOE, law- Island Sound; lenath, east to west, abont 
B year, orator and political 96 miles; grefttest oreadth, nortb tosootht 
der, bom at Albany, New York. 1S29 ; about 72 mUet ; area, 49W sq. mUes. It 
d in Utica in 18SS. He was In Con- conlalna seTeral dladnct ranges of hilb, 
m 1860-eS and 1865-67, and United bat none of them have any great eleii- 
itea Senator 1897-81, when be angrily tlon. Ita principal river la the ConnfCti- 
Igned on account of dlaagrecment witn cot, which divides tt into two nearlv 
Mdent Oarfield on tbe qnestion of egual parts. Tbe coeat ia indented wltli 
Ideal appointments to oflice. Dumfruoa bays and creeke, which fnralah 

i flTlft TnyTlt <kon'u||t), Oie smallest many barbors. Its mineral 

S"" of tbe four provinces of not exteneive, but include iron. tnngslCD 

land, altnated between IJetnater and and porcelain-clay. Lime la produced in 

r Atlantic: area, 6862 saaan miles: Ita large quantitieB, aud there la abnudanc 

it aoaat la much broken up br na- of buildlns-stoue. Tbe soil la in general 

rons baya and Inletai, nnd u thickly better enlted for graaing than tillagp. 

dded widi lalanda. ^le (central parta abounding In fine meadowa. But where 

I conparatlvel; level and of llmettone agriculture is practised there are amplr 

matkm, while tbe aurroonding nnd crops of hay, tobacco, com. rye, wheat 

tnreaqne mountains are formed of oata. barley, potatoes, etc. ; and frnltn. 

ndatope, clay-date, granite and anarts. particularly apples, flouri^. The masD- 

large proportion of tbe province Is bog, factures cooaiat cblefly of woolen, cot- 

1, generally. It Is the least fertile o( ton end silk goods, metal goods, paper, 

tbe provtnces. It la divided Into five clocks, hats and caps, lesther goods. 

Wtles — Oalway, Uayo. Boaoommon, pottery-ware, glass and machinery, 

itrlm and BUgo. Pop, 846,932. firearms, sewing machines, soap, ean- 

innancrtit A«IKUn WniUK Fat- dies, bricks, antomobllea, etc. The prin- 

PUUKUIfUI., „Q^ AWBT, DOKE «r. cipal exports consist of agricultnnl 

'ConnellsYille Consani^iiinity 

prodnce and manofactures; The foreign escaped to Cypms, and afterwards Joined 
commerce is nearly ali carried on through the Fersians agaiiiBt the Spartans, being 
New York and Boston, but there is a appointed to the command of a Persian 
considerable coasting trade, and a large fleet in 307. In 394, with Phamabazus 
amount of tonnage engaged in the cod- he defeated the Spartan admiral, Pisander 
fisheries. Fish-culture has received spe- of Onidns, and in 893 returned to Athena 
cial attention, many millions of shad to restore the walls and fortifications, 
ova and young salmon having been intro- CrOIIflliest (konglsweat) , the act ofi 
duced into the rivers. The number of ^''**l •**"•" subduing. In International 
miles of railway in operation is over law it la defined as the forcible aoquisitioa 
1000. The chief educational institution of enemy territoi^ or the territory so ae- 
is Yale College, one of the most cele> omred. Immovable property taken from 
brated in the States. Connecticut is the enemy la called oonqnesi; movable 
divided into eight counties ; the seat of property on land is called hootp; and cap- 

Sovemment is Hartford. The State at tare on the high seas la called pHge. Ptlr 
rst consisted of two colonies— Connect!- wg9 is onanthoriaed plundering, 
cut, with its seat of government at Hart- nnTini.i1 T (kon'rad). King of Geiw 
ford; and New Haven, with capital of ^vniaux j^^^^^y (911-918); died De- 
same name. Connecticut was settled in cember 23, 918. During his reign the 
1633 by emigrants from Massachusetts, oountrv was invaded by the Danes, Slavfc 
Hartford was settled by English in 1635, and Magyars, and he was constantly at 
the Dutch having previously built a fort war with his own subjects, 
there. The colony of New Haven was CanrtLii TT * ^le Salian,' King of Ger- 
settled by English in 1638, and the two ^*'"*»** ""-Jmany and Emperor of 
colonies were united under the name of the Romans, reigned from 1024 to 1039, 
Connecticut, in 1662. Pop. (1900) 908,- and is regarded as the true founder of 
420; (1910) 1,114,756; (1920) 1,380,6^ the Franconian or SaUc line. On his 
Connfillsvilll^ (kon'els-vil), a dty of election he proclaimed a Ood*% Truce in 
vrvuu«;uovxuc Payette Co., Pennsyl- order to attempt certain reforms in the 
▼ania, 37 miles s. E. of Pittsburgh. Its kingdom ; but his attention was too dis- 
production of coke is the largest in the tracted between Italy and (Germany for 
United States; also has manidactures of 1^™ to do more than repress some of the 
iite. steeL alass and other products. Pop. niore marked evils of the feudal system. 
(1920) 13304. Conrad m ^"V <>' Germany and 

ConnemAra. (hon-n«-ma'ra), a di»- ^^^^ -^*--., emperor from 1138 to 
vuiUiCiuara ^^ ^^ Galway, Ireland, 1152, waa^ the founder of the Suabian 
about 30 miles long, 15 to 20 broad. It ia dynasty of Hohenstaufen. During the 
mountainous and boggy. struggle with his rival Henry the Proud, 

ConnenvillA (kon'ers-vil), a dty, *ne factionB of Guelf and Ghibeline, 
^/vuuvadvjkuv county seat of Payette named from the war-cries of the resoec- 
Co., Indiana, on White Water River. It tive partieiL came into existence. (?on- 
haa manufactures of automobilea, blowen nid, persuaded by St Bernard, took part 
and gas exhausters, etc. Pop. 9901. ^- ® second crusade, from 1147 to 1149. 

Conning Tow^r the low, shot-pmt His marriage with a Greek princess led 
UUUJUIIK AOWer, ^^^ ^^^^ ^f^ ^ his adoption of the double-headed eagle. 

armored vesseL In submarines the con- % J^S* succeeded by his nephew Fred- 
ning tower is a low tower on the deck *"^ Barbarossa. 

which serves as a post of observation: it fi«%«i«Mi;i Joseph ah EnfflUli nnvAi{«f 
has a hinged top which may be lifted to COIUPatt, SSm^* Sland S 1857 kS 
permit men to enter or leave the boat. naturalized iS^iSain. His paS wew 
Conoid V^ °4^I' ^p. «eometry^ a soUd impUcated in tiie Polish uprising of 1862. 
formed by the revolution of a Conrad took to the sea and sailS all over 
conic section about its axis. Thus the the world, embodying his experience in his 
solid resulting from a parabola is a par- story, Youth (19(»). His otiier works 
abolic conoid or paraboloid; if a hyper- include Almayer't FoUy (1895). Tale9 of 
bola, a hyperbolic conoid or hyperboloid« Unrest (1898), ^Twimt Land and 8ea 
«I<^- /w*. X ..V . .^ (1912) and 4 PertonalBecorrf (1913). 

Conon i«*>^n<>p)» an Athenian who Consftlvi (kon-sAl'v8), Ebcolb, car- 
wuiiuu j,^^ ^^ command of a fleet in ^^aivl ^^j^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ miniiter of 

413 RC. to prevent the (Corinthians from Pope Plus VII, bom in 1757 ; died in 
relieving Syracuse then at war with 1824. He concluded the famous concor- 
Athens, and who, after various services, dat with Napoleon in 1801. 
micce^ed Alcibiades in 406. When the ConManflninitv (kon-sang-kwin'i-tf), 
Ath#niaii fleet was surprised and Athena ^""aJWUMUiy the relation of per! 
oaptOMd by I^sander in 405, Conon Mna deicended from the same anceator. 


It is either lineal or collateral — lineal 
between father and son, grandfather and 
crandaon, and all persons in the direct 
Une of ancestry and descent, from one 
another; collateral between brothers, 
cousins, and other kinsmen descended 
from a common ancestor, but not from 
one another. 

Conscience (kon'shens), that power 
wvuovA«^Mv«» Qp facnlty, or combina- 
tion of faculties, which decides on the 
riffhtness and wrongness of actions; 
otherwise called the Moral Sense. Whe* 
well defines it as 'the reason, employed 
about questions of right and wrong, and 
accompanied with the sentiments of ap- 
probation and condemnation, which, by 
the nature of man. cling inextricably to 
his apprehension or right or wrong.' See 

Conscience yMh^^oVeK^a'J 

Antwerp in 1812 ; died in 1883. Having 
educated himself, he taught for a short 
time in a school, and then served in the 
army for six years. He was for a time 
tutor in Flemish to the ro/al princes, 
and from 1868 conservator of the Wierts 
Museum at Brussels. His novels, some 
of which have been translated into Eng- 
lish, are partly based on the history of his 
ooantry» partly pictures of everyday 
Flemish life. They include The Lion of 
Flanders; Jakob van Arievelde; Batavia; 
Wooden Clara; Blind Rosa; The Poor 
Tfohleman; The Young Doctor; Maternal 
Love, etc. He also wrote a History of 

ConsdonsneSS (kon'shu».nes),aterm 
wAvvAVM0M^iM9 yg^ jj^ various 

senses, most commonly perhaps to denote 
the mind's knowledge or cognizance of its 
own action. 

Conwription ^^^^^Kf&^^i^^ 

tants of a country capable of bearing 
arms, by a compulsory levy, at the 
pleasure of the government, being thus 
distinguished from recruiting, or volun- 
tary enlistment The word and the 
system were both introduced into France 
in 1798 by a law which declared that 
every Frenchman was a soldier, and 
bound to defend the country when In 
danger. Excepting in times of danger it 

Crovidod that the army should be formed 
y voluntary enrolment or by conscrip' 
iion. The conscription included all 
Frenchmen from twenty years of age 
complete to twenty-five years complete. 
On the restoration of the Bourbons con* 
scription was abolished. It was. how- 
ever, reSnacted. and continued through 
the Second Empire to form the mode of 
recruitment in France. An army bill. 

Consequential Damages 

passed by the National Assembly in 1872, 
affirmed the universal liability to con- 
scripdon* with certain exemptions. The 
Prussian conscription law of 1806 per- 
mitted no exemptions ; it was extended to 
all Germany and became a potent factor 
in the Franco-Prussian war, 1870. The 
system was abolished in Germany by the 
peace treaty of 1919. Similarly Austria, 
which had enforced conscription, was 
compelled by the treaty of 1919 to abolish 
universal compulsory service. Under the 
Russian law of 1872 all men of twenty- 
one years were compelled to serve in the 
army six years. Italy and Switaeiiand 
and most of the other countries of Europe 
have adopted conscription. The outstand- 
ing exception was Great Britain, which, 
prior to the war of 1914-18, had fought all 
her battles with volunteer troops. In the 
stress of the Great War she was compelled 
to forego her volunteer policy^ and on May 
24, 1016, enacted a conscription law call- 
ing all men between the ages of 18 and 41 
to the colors. This law was not applied 
to Ireland. Canada adopted conscnption 
August 29, 1917, callinff to the colors all 
men betwen the ages of 20 and 45. The 
age limit was lowered to 19 in May, 1918. 
Canada raised a volunteer army of 405,- 
984, adding onlv 83,355 by the draft. 
Australia refused to adopt conscription. 

In the United States conscription was 
resorted to on several occasions nuring the 
Civil war. Again in 1017, following the 
declaration of war with Germany, the 
United States passed the Selective Senrice 
Law on May 19, calling for the registra- 
tion of all males in the United States be- 
tween the ages of 21 and 30 years. Neariy 
10,000,000 Americans registered on Jime 
5. A second registration, one year later 
(June 5, 1918, and August 24. 1918). in- 
cluded those who had become 21 ^eara old 
since the first registrntion. A third regis- 
tration (Sept. 12, 1918) extended the age 
limits downward to 18 and upward to 45. 
The total number registered was 24,234,- 
021 ; number inducted to Nov. 11. 1918. 
2,810,296. In round numbers 4,000.000 
men served in the Army of the United 
States during the European war (q. v.). 
HnTiaAnrofinTi (kon-se-krft'shun), the 
l/OnsecraUOn dedication with cer- 
tain rites or ceremonies of a person or 
thing to the service of God; especially 
(1) the ordination of a bishop or arch- 
bishop ; (2) the dedication of a church to 
God*s service, performed by a bishop ; (3) 
the act of the priest in celebrating the 

Conseqnential Damages J*^^ 

shal), in law, are such losses or damages 
as arise out of a man's act, for which. 

Conservatioii of Energy CbttBexratory 

according to a fandamental principle In the western fovemment domain, indud- 
law, be is answerable it be could bave ing the extensiye coal beds duiooyered 
avoided tbem. The same law applies to In Alaska. These have been withdrawn 
railways and corporations generally, as from private use, with the expectation 
determined in numerous cases. that ttev can be handled in a way to 

ConserVEtion of XSnCrcrT* S®*-"** yield a large income to the government 

Ov ergy. and thus be made a source of national 

Conservation of Natural Be- SR?^^™«°^_ ^ J^^^^ ^ Prwddent 

__ , , „ Tart withdrew from settlement, under an 

SOnrceS. ^® ^f^* ^^^ heedless waste act of CJongress of that year, 43.668,805 

of the extensive natural acres of public lands, of which 35,073,- 
treasnres of the United States, especially 164 were coal sites (not including the 
the forests, has led within recent years to coal lands withdrawn In Alaska) , the 
a concerted action for their conservation others petroleum, phosphate and water- 
for the benefit of future generations, power sites. Whfle tnese may be re- 
The first national movement in this direc- opened to settlement it will be with the 
tion was made by President Roosevelt in provision that the ownership of settlers 
1908, when he called a convention of will be confined to the surface, the min* 
State governors to consider what could eral deposits underground being reserved 
be done for the preservation of our great for national use. 

natural wealth. The result of this move- nnTiOAnrafiTrAa (k o nns^r'va-tivz) , in 
ment was the formation of a National ^UUttcrvnUYCB ferftjah poUtics the 
Conservation Commission, under the party that substantially corresponds to 
chairmanship of Gifford Pinchot, chief- what used to be the Tory party; taking 
forester, to take measures for this pur- the opposite side to the Ltheralm The 

Sise. in December, 1908. Canada and name came into use about the time of the 
exico were invited to take part in the passing of the Reform Act of 1832 and 
movement, and in February. 1009, letters is often used as implying greater enUght- 
were sent to 45 nations, invitine their enment or liberality than Tory, 
concurrence with the idea of calling a Conservatorv ^^ ^ n-s6r'va-to-ri), a 
World Conservation Conference to con- W4«w**¥c»uvxjr name given on the 
aider in what way the vast natural re- European continent to a systematic 
sources of the world could best be con- school of musical instruction. Conserva- 
served for man's benefit. Steps for the torles were originally benevolent establish- 
preservation and Judicious handling of the ments attachea to hospitals, or other char- 
American forests had previously been itable or religious institutions. In Naples 
taken, by the withdrawal of public forest there were formerly three conservatories 
areas from exploitation and their con- for boys; in Venice four for girls; 
irerrion into national forests, the total the Neapolitan sroup being reduced in 
area thus withdrawn to July^ 1, 1914. 1818 to a single establishment under 
being 185,321,202 acres. ABureau of the name Royal College of Music. In 
Forestry was created in 1905, having Milan a conservatory was established in 
control of these areat wooded reserves. 1808. In France the musical school 
At present these forests yield an annual established in connection with the Op4ra 
timber crop worth on the ground about received its final oiganization in 1795 
910,000,000, and furnish forage for cat- under the name oi Conservatoire de 
tie, horses, sheep and goats worth as musique. Among its teachers have been 
much more to Western stockmen, while M^hiu, CherubinI, Gr^try, Boieldiou, etc. 
their yielding value is increasing instead The Conservatorium, founded at Leipzig 
of diminishing. In addition are State in 1842 under the auspices of Menaela- 
forests aggregating several millions of sohn, is perhaps the most influential in 
acres, yielding a profitable lumber supply Germany, though of late years other 
and conserving the headwaters of many schools have pressed closely upon IL 
streams. These waters are being largely Institutions of the same description exist 
utilized in the West, by the building of in Warsaw, Prague, Munich, Berlin and 
irrigation dams, for the development into Vienna, and the term has been adopted in 
fertile farming lands of vast tracts of the United Ctates and the British do- 
formerlv arid and barren soils. Conser- minions. 

vation has also been extended to streams GonservatorV ^ gardening, a term 
yielding water-power, which have been ^^**"*'* »■••'*'* J f generallv applied by 
widely withdrawn from private exploita- gardeners to plant-houses, in which the 
tion and retained as government proper- plants are raised in a bed or bordef 
^ for the future benefit of the people at without the use of potsL the building be- 
large. Similar steps have been taken in ing frequently attached to a mansion, 
xv^atd to the great are« of coal 1ad4s ^ The prindplefi of their construction ars 

)iuerT«' 'tkaoj^iBej 

Me, with the dnsle diCereoce that the marl&me Uwb. ^ f"»"«" « 

"*'n.*"fl '" ^''. '7* .**i'', "^ «""' CnnnnlA (kon'»M). in »rchit8chirt, t 
^h™ l^''?" "J/"?^ Thui dUtuK- et hBTlns for its contoor Rcnenllr > 
jkt^r^^^'ilSc^'rte^priSS"^ '™"* "' ««"'"' fl«— "^«- 

™««T^e *^5i'S",>i,t.'"^75„^' 

m ia pmariTM. 8e« Pruervaifon of ' 

Go., PeniurlTuilB, od Schnylkill 
ror. 13 milM n. w. ot Philadelphia. It 
I iteel milla, rubber works, woolen and 
tot) mills, foandriea, stone qnarriea, 
m works, etc Pop. (1920) 8481. 

nnderation iaw''"*'uit'"M''iSi*'M 

•taatfal ground which induccB a party Cerake luppoitaii by rmrnnkt. ^ a. 

enter into a contract ; the egoivalent , 

aomething civen, done, or soffered. It P'ofed to support a cornice, ba«t, rsae, 

r be either ezpreaoed or Implied, that '^■' the likp. but la frequently nMd merelj 

where Justice reqnires it and the law  "«> ornament, 

iliea IL Consols (Konsolz), or CORaoUDATXD 

nai<mnii>Tif (kon-iln'ment), a mei^ , . Anzitjitibb, a public itock 

nBlgnmeiH candle term which forming the greater portion of the na- 

ina either the sending of goods to a tional debt of Great Britain. It was 

tor or agent for sale, or the goods «o 'oraied in 1T51 b; an act consolidating 

t The term is chiefl? used in relation several separate stocks bearing intereat 

foreign trade. The receivers of con- «t 6 per cent into one general stock. At 

iraenta have ucuallr to keep magazineB <he period when the consolidation took 

I stores, for the use of which their Place the principal of the fnnds nnited 

signers are charged. The profits of amonnted to £9,137,821; but through the 

xmsigniDg agency often compare fa- addition of other loana It has increased 

aU]' with the occasionally larger but *o much that now, after conridermble 

cb l««a Bste profits of original ven- reductions, it still amonnts to more than 

ea. The conalgidng trade Is protected half of the national debt. The Interest 

special laws. In most coantries a of about £5,000,000 is payable in Dublin, 

■igner can elalni hla goods and collect that of the remainder in London. 

OQtataudiug debts for goods sold on CoiLSOn&IlCB ( ^°d'*'^°k>ib) , in innslc, 

account by a consignee who has aaa- w*»»i*i*» ^^ ameable accord ol 

ded payment ■onnds, such as the tbird, fifth, and oc- 

ndatnTv (kon'sls-tor-i). tiie hlgb- lav& See Concord. 

'"""''"'? est ooondl of state In Gonsonailt (kon'aft-naat ; I* com 

papal govemmenL The name is also w"™"«"" ^ith, sonore, to sonnd), 

illed to the conrt of every diocesan a letter so named aa being sounded only 

lop, held in their cathedral churches in connection frith a vowel, though some 

the trial of ecclesiastical causes aris- consonants have hardly any sound even 

within the diocese. In the English when united with a vowel, serving merely 

irch the consistory is held by the to determine the manner of beginning or 

top's chancellor or commissary and by ending the vowel sounds ; as in op. pa. •■ 

Meacons and their offlciala either in ia. In uttering a consonant Uier« la 

cathedral church or other convenient neater or less contact of some parts ol 

» In tba diocese. the organs of speech ; In tttlering a vowel 

nuilain flpl lyTarn f^*- '"■ '•*'* ^^"^ " = '"''* "f such contact, the vocal 

[IBOiaXO Qei JOare („„„^„tg^„, P?™^*, ^iS? °P^°' .though varlouslj 

:lan dtles, as Venice. Genoa, Pisa and nnnanimriv (kon-spir'a-sil . In law. an 

alfi. together with those of the cities '^"■pirat-y ofT^nse ranked as a mla- 

h wfalui tfaey traded, aa Barcelona, demeanor, and punishable by tmprUoB- 

raellka, etc It baa formed the basis ment and hard labor. It In constltnteJ 



by a combiiiation between sereral peraonB 
to carry into effect any pur^se injnriouB 
either to indiyidaala, particular claaBe8» 
or the community at large. When the 
conapiracy leads to any overt act of an 
unlawful kind, the offense becomes felony. 
finTiafnlilA (kun'sta-bl; Fr. contUtahlej 
\jQJlSl3,Die Old Fr. ooneatahU; Lat 

comeM MtaJmli, 'count of the stable'), an 
officer of high rank in several of the me* 
dieval monarchies. Among the Franks, 
after the major domut, or mayor of the 
palace, had become king, the comet stalh 
uU became the first dignitary of the 
crown, commander-in-chief of the armies, 
and highest judge in military affairs 
The conn^tahle, however, acquired so 
much power that Louis XIIl in 1627 
abolished the office entirely. Napoleon 
reestablished it, but it vanished with his 
downfall. In England the office of lord 
high constable was created by William 
the Conqueror, and became hereditary 
in two different families, as annexed to 
the earldom of Hereford. After the at- 
tainder of Stafford, however, lord high 
constables were appointed only to offici- 
ate on special occasions. The office of 
lord high constable of Scotland, expressly 
reserved in the treaty of union, is hered- 
itary in the noble family of Errol. 

In the common modem acceptation of 
the term constables are police officers in 
towns, counties, etc, having as their 
duties the repression of fdonies, the 
keeping of the peace, the execution of 
legal warrants, etc. In case of special 
disturbance a certain number of private 
citizens may be sworn in as gpeoial con* 
9iahl€$. In the United States a consta- 
ble is usually the acting bailiff of a jus- 
tice of the peace, serving writs, execut- 
ing judgments, making distraints, etc. 
Constable* Archibald, a Scptdsh pu^^ 
wvu.0vc»wAV) lisher, born m 1774; died 

in 1827. He was the original publisher 
of the Edinhurph Review and of Scott's 
novels, and his failure in 1826 Involved 
Scott neavily, the life of tiie famous nov- 
elist being given through a strev.uous ef- 
fort to meet the claims of creditors. 

flnnafciTtlA Henbt, a poet of the Eliz- 
l/OnsxaDie, abethan era, born in 1556, 

educated at Cambridge. His chief work 
was his book of sonnets, Diana, published 
in 1582, when few sonnets in the Italian 
form had been written. He was probably 
the author also of the Forest of Fancy 
(1579), attributed to Chettle. Suspected 
of treason against Elizabeth, he was com- 
pelled to leave the country in 1595, and 
on his return in 1601 was confined in the 
Tower for three years. Date of his death 
la unknown. 

PnTiflfalilA John, an English land- 
trunsraoie, scape painter, born in 177t; 

He was employed in the business oC 
his father, a wealthy miller, for some 

J ears, but entered as a student of the 
Loyal Academy in 1799. It was not till 
1814, twelve years after he had begun to 
exhibit pictures, that he succeeded in 
getting any of them sold. In 1819 his 
Vieto on the River Stour procured him 
admission as an associate of the Acad- 
emy. From this period his reputation 
widely extended itself, both over Britain 
and the continent, and for some of his 
works exhibited at the Louvre he re- 
ceived a gold medal from the King of 
France. Be died in 1837. His careful 
studies of landscape in respect of tone 
were of great influence in art, especially 
in Tvsnce* which derived its best land- 
scape work from bim. 

f!oTlfitsi.T)AP (kon'stans), a town of 
UOnsiance ^jermany, in Baden, on 
the south bank of the Lake of Constance, 
at the outflow of the Rhine into the 
Lower Lake or Untersee, its chief edi- 
fices being a magnificent cathedral, sev- 
eral churches, the Kaufhaus (merchant- 
house), an ancient palace, a arand-ducal 
residence, several convents, a theater, etc. 
The town has various branches of in- 
dustry and a considerable trade. It was 
once a fiourishing imperial city much 
larger than at present Pop. 24,818. 
nnnafnTirfk ConifCiL of, a special 
l/OnSXance, council of the Church of 
Rome, held between 1414 and 1418. The 
German emperor, the pope, 26 princes, 
140 counts, more than 20 cardinals, 7 
patriarchs, 20 archbishops, 91 bishops, 
600 other clerical dignitaries and doctors, 
and about 4000 priests, were present at 
this assembly, which condemned to death 
Huss and Jerome of Prague, deposed the 
rival popes John XXIII, Gregory XII. 
and Benedict XIII, and elected Martin 
V to the papal chair. 
flniisfQ-nnA Lake of (anc. Locus Bri- 
XjQUSl^UWf gantinus; Ger. Bodensee), 
a lake of Central Europe in which Switz- 
erland, Baden, Wflrtemberg, Bavaria, and 
Austria meet: forming a reservoir in the 
course of the Rhine ; length N. w. to s. ■. 
42 miles, greatest breadtn about 8 miles; 
area 207 sq. miles; greatest depth (be- 
tween Friedrichshafen and Uttwil) 838 
ft. ; 1283 ft. above sea-level. At its n. w. 
extremity the lake divides into two branch- 
es or arms, each about 14 miles in length; 
the north, called the Uberlingersee. after 
the town of Uberlingen, on its north bank ; 
the south the Zellersee or Untersee, in 
which Is the fertile island of Reichenau, 
belonging to Baden, about 3 miles long 
and IH broad. The lake, which is of s 



dBrk-sreen hue. U lubject to sudden ria- 
Inga, the cauaei of wEiich aie unknown. 
It Ireeses ia severe winters ool;. TLe 
trafflc on it is considerable, there beinf 
numerous slesmers. The shores are fer- 
tile, but not remarkably picturesiiue. 
Constant (itfio-stai}), Bknjamih, por- 
1..0Il»taJlt ,^git ^nter, was born at 
Paris in 1845. He studied in the ftcole 
des Besui Arts and under CabaneL He 
eitiibited with srowing diatinctioa, at 
•nccessive salons, from that of 1800 with 
his Samlet. bU Saniton in IS72. his 
Scenti jrom AlBttn In 1873-74. his great 
historical paintinf of Uohammed II in 
liSS in the exposition of 1878, and la 
1886 a large OrieDtal subject, as melo- 
dramatic as possible, with splendid r«n- 
derinc of the human figure and strotiK 
effects of color. His noble picture of Jt*- 
tinian la In tbe Metropolitan Art Mo- 
seum. New York. He was decorated with 
the cross of the Legion of Honor in ISTZ, 
aud was a member of the French Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts. He died in 1902. 

Constant de Eebecqne ^^^^\ 

HxNBi BiNjAiuN, bom at lAusanne m 
176T ; a prominent French liberal poli- 
tician. During the revolution be distin- 
gui^ed himself by his works upon poU- 
Uca and on revolutionary subjects, and 
was elected to the office of tribune; but 
his speecbes and writings rendered bin) 
odious to the First Consul, and he was 
dismieacd in 1802. He died in 1830. 
nnnntiantifl. (kon-stan'tl-o), a small 

uonsianiia ^j^^^j ^ (i^^ c„^^ 

a few miles from Cape Town, celebrated 
for its wine, made from vines bronght 
originally from IVrsia and the Rhitie, 
esteemed the best liqnenr wine after To- 
kay, and owing its special properties 
largely to the soil. 
rnntttiLTifiTia (kon-etin-te'n*), a town 

K. of Seville. Argentiferous lead mines 
are in the vicinity. Pop. 9687. 
flnntitftntiiip (kon-stiu-tSn't, a town 
l.oaswnime |^ Algeria, capital of a 

(irovinoe of name name, on a rocky pen- 
nsnla, lINiS ft. sbiive the see, and acces- 
sible only on one side. It is surrounded 
by walls, and the only edifice deserving 
notice is the palace of the bey. now the 
restdpnoe of the French governor. Both 
within the town and in the vicinity Bo- 
man remains abound, the town having 
tteen built by the emperor whose name It 
bears, on the site of Cirta. the capital of 
the NumldiRn kings- Tlie maDufacturea 
consist chiefly of woolen snd linen goods ; 
the trade Is in com. linen, and was. Pop. 
af town (1006) 48306. 

nnnatantinp (kon'stan-ten), Caiitb 

i<onBianiine \,.ui„nB valbuob ah- 

BXL1U8 Clacdicb, Uoman emperor, sar- 
named the Great, sou of tbe Emperor 
ConstantioB C'hiorus, was born A.D. 274, 
When Constantine's father was associated 
In tbe government by Diocletian, the son 
was retained at court as a hostage, bttt 
after Diocletian and &laiimian had laid 
down the reins of government, Gonstan- 
tine fled to Britain, to bis father, to es- 
cape from GaleriuB. After the death of 
hia father he was chosen emperor by the 
soldiery, in the year 30G, and took poa- 
session of the countries which bad been 
aubje.  -  -.-.-. 

feated the Franka who had obtaiiied  

fooling in Oaul and drove them acroas the 
Rhine; and then directed his arms 
against Maxentius, who bad Joined Hai- 
Imian against blm. In the campaign la 
Italy he aaw. It is said, the vision of a 
flaming cross in the heavens, beneath the 
sun, hearing the inscription, ' /■ koe tigno 
vincet.' Under the standard of the crom. 
therefore, he van qui shed tbe army of 
Mazenttua under the walls of Rome, and 
entered the city In triumph. In 313. to- 
gether with his son-in-law. the esstem 
emperor, Lidnius, be published tbe mem- 
orable edict of toleration In favor of 
the Christians, and subsequently declared 
Christianity the relirion of the sUle. 
I'Icinlus, becoming jealous of his fame, 
twice took up arms against him. but was 
on each occasion defeated, and finally 
put to death. Thus in 323 Constantine 
became the sole bead of the Roman Bm- 
pire. His intemsl admlnlstratioii waa 
marked by a wise spirit of reform, and by 
many humane concesalous with regard to 



■laves, accQBrf persona, widows, etc. In 
329 be laid the foundation of a new capi- 
tal of the empire, at Byzantium, cal^ 
after him Constant inople. In 332 h* 
fought againHt the Goths, relieved the em- 

K' e of a disgraceful tribute, and secured 
frontier upon tbe Danube. In 337 he 
was taken ill. was baptited. and died, leav- 
ing bis empire tietween his three sous, Con- 
stantine, Conatactlus and Gonstana. He 
ia sometimes numbered among the saints, 
and his festival observed May 20 or 21. 

Constantine, ^f;^!:?"'V'^„**/"i± 

> prince ot Kassla, sec- 
ond son of Paul I, born in 1779. He dis- 
tincnisbed bimself iu 1799 under Suwar- 
rolf. and at Austerlitz in 1805; and in 
1812, 1S13 and 1814 attended his brother, 
the Emperor Alexander, in alt his cam- 

Constantinople (Vo"?°o™£.-. 

tine,' called by the Tnrbs Stamboul, from 
the Greek eit tin poltn, into tbe city), 
a celebrated city of Turkey in Europe, 
capital of tbe Turkish Empire, situated 
on a promontory jutting into tbe Sea 
of Marmora, having the Golden Horn, 
an inlet of the latter, on tbe north and 
tbe BoBpborus on the east The city prop- 
er is thus surrounded by water on all 
oides excepting the west, where ia an an- 
cient and lofty double wall of 4 miles in 
length, stretching across the promontory. 
On the opposite side of the Golden Horn 
are Galata, Pera, and other suburbs, 
white on the Asiatic side of the Bospborus 
entrance Is Skotari. Occupyiug the ex- 
treme point of the promontory on which 

SwtioD ol Santa Sophia, ConsUatliiDpU. 

paigns. Idter be superintended aSalra the city stands Is the Seraglio or palace 

in loland. On the decease of his brother of the saltan, which, with its buildings, 

in 18-!5 he was proclaimed emperor, but pavilions, gardens, and groves, includes 

renounced his claim. He died in 1831, a Urge apace. At the principal entrance 

execrated by the I oies as one of their is a large and lofty gate, called Bab 

most barbarous oppressors. Humayum, ' tbe bigh door * or ' sub- 

Gonstantine I. iy,"f "' "JSSS,* '""" l™* porte.' from wbich has been derived 

K„ » ..I. . ... t,'*oJ^"i *?' tlie well-known diplomatic phrase. Of 

«>™ "' ■*'^^'i'' August 2. 1868. At the tbe 300 mosques, tbe most remarkable are 

ontbreak of the European war his sym- the royal mosqoes, of which there are 

E?™m J .f V J ^^^iu°'i*"'?1"" "■«"■' S""""- esteemed the finest in tbe 

combination, the Kaiser Wilhelm being „orld. First among these ts the mosoue 

his broth er-in-law. He professed neutral- nf St Honhln the %..,.( .„.?(„» =,1 .' „ 

fty. but Great Britain and her AJIies Christian^ rt!n;^h^^™»t3tiA^'!'°.* 

(oried his abdication and placed his ae<v a mogoa^ fJ^thJ ™nt,™ nf fi, ^J°i " 

ond son. Alexander, on the throne of the the T??k, Anoth^r'^mStn^L f ^ *" 

HeUene. on June. 13.. 1917. Constantine ^ tbi^'Jf'goltman ; sf?er^S ," °5^-" 

was chained with 'having violated the of the SuTtBtm VbIWo K,.iiti.'J';i,""^"'Jil'" 

Omttltufon of_which^F,5i.«., England Sf Moharam" T™d of SnYtan Achm^^^^^ 

the most conspicuous object is the dty 

and Bnaaia tin the trustees.' 


lAen Tl«wed from tlw Bm of Uumorm. 
n* rtreeta ut' moatl; extramdr narrow, 
duk, jlrty, u>d in paved, and excMdlnfly 
«ioo«d aud tortnon*, bat there has been 
a certain opening ap and ImproTemcDt 
■rlthlo recent yean owlnf to the oonjtrac- 
tion of traiDwayi and the railway to 
A^rUnople, which rani alooBthe ahore 
ot the Sea of Harmora and past the Sera- 
jrilo to the entrance of .the (Solden Horn, 
^w nnmerona covered and nocoTered ba- 
nara are aeverally allotted to [ttrtlciilar 
tradee and raerchandtee. Conetantlnople 
'ua bnt one remarkable aqnare, called the 

dent Hippodrome. Hiere are about 130 
pnbUc '.2tba In Oie cttr, moatly of marble, 
of (daiB exterior, bnt oandBone and com- 
modioaa within. The namerone cemeter* 
lei^ noatlj' ontdde the weatem wall, bare 

and limr 

ara Chiefly confined to artl- 

morocco leaOier, laddlerT. to- 
Ipei, fes «ap«, anna, petfomea, (old 

•^- Ideriea, etc Kie foreicn 

_.„ HSder^e. n» batt>or, 

Ae Odiea Horn, which moie leaemblea a 
*^ - ^^ acta a harbor. It deep, well 
.— and capable of contalnlDg 120O 
Ate wUd mar load and nnload 
ride ttw qnaTi. It ia aboot 6 mOM 


lonf^ and a tittle more than half a mil* 
braid at the wldeet pert, Amoni O* 
Importa are grain, timber, cotton atnb. 
and other mann factored gooda. The ex- 
ports cooaiat of ellk, carpet*, hldat, wmI, 
goata' hair, ralonia, etc. — The aobarb Oi- 
LATA ia the principal eeat of foreign con- 
nerce. Here are dtuated the areenaU. 
the dock-yard, the BrtUlerr barracka, ttc 
extending j- -  — 
1^ mllei. __ 

occupiea the n , 

promontory of which Galata forma at 
maritime parL Both It aod Galata haw 
now moeh of the appearance of 
modem Enropean 'towna. — Top- 
Hakcb la altnate a little fvrtber 
Dp the Boaporua tlian Galata, of 
which it forms a contlnnation. It 
baa a goTemment foandrr and 
arsenal for cannon .^^^metanti- 
nople occnpies the site of the an- 
cient Bysontlnm, and waa namrd 
after Conatantlne the Great wbo 
teballt it about A.n. 330. It was 
taken in 1204 b; the Cmeadrra. 
who retained It tin 1281 ; and Iv 
the Turka onder Uobammed II. 
Hay 20, 1463— an event which 
completed the estinctlou of the 
Bysantine Empire. See Byraalisc 
Smpire end Bi/ainlium, Pob 
{lft54), 1,300,000. 

CoMtantinople, gouKciti 

or. ^ese inclode the second, 
fifth, aiitb, the Trallan, and the 
^hth. The lecood waa convoked 
by Tfaeodoalaa the Great, in 381. 
to put down the cnemiea of the 
Nicene Creed, who had already 
been restrained by hia decreea. 
Hie fifth general coundl waa held 

who were soipected of NeatorlaoiaiD, a 

declared heretica by the conndL ^le 
eiith conndl, held 680481, condemned 
the doctrines of the Monothelites, and de- 
clared their leaders heretica. As these 
two conndlt made no new «cdeeIaslSeal 
U*a, the Emperor Jnstlnian II, in flOZ, 
again anmmoned a general eonncil, which, 
becanae it wai heldln the Trnllan Puace, 
waa called the Trullan Oouneit. It in- 
•Utated rigid laws for the derry, aaeoc 
tiiea thoae fixing tha rank or tibc pt* 
tnartfta and the permlaalon oT manlaga 
to prieata, which were ao olfenaiva to 
the I^tln Chnrch that aba rejected all 
tfaa demaa of thia eonaen: bnt bi tka 
Ontk Oburcb they ara «tJDl TtUd. Vha 



eighth general council (869-870) declared 
against the Iconodaata* deposed PhotiusL 
and confirmed St. Ignatius In the see of 
Constantinople. This council is not rec- 
ognised by the Greek Church. 

Constellations <^ "" 2:* tei-ia'shmis) 

wu0vvM.niiAVAA.o ^j.g ^g groups into 

which astronomers have divided the fixed 
stars, and which have received names for 
convenience of description and reference. 
It is plain that the union of several stars 
into a constellation, to which the name 
of some animal, person, or inanimate 
object is given, must be entirely arbi- 
trary, since the several points (the stars) 
may be united in a hundred different 
ways, just as imagination directs. The 
grouping adopted by the Egyptians was 
accordingly modified by the Greeks, 
though they retained the Ram, the Bull, 
the Dog, etc.; and the Greek constella- 
tions were again modified by the Romans 
and again by the Arabians. At various 
times, also, Christianity has endeavored 
to supplant the pagan system, the Vener- 
able &ede having given the names of the 
twelve apostles to the signs of the sodiac, 
and Judas Schillerius having, in 1627, ap- 

{>lied Scripture names to aU the constel- 
ations. Weigelius, a professor of Jena, 
even grouped the stars upon a heraldic 
basis, introducing the arms of all the 
princes of Europe among the constella- 
tions. The old constellanons have, how- 
ever, been for the most part retained. 
Ptolemy enumerated forty-eight constella- 
tions, which are still called the Piole- 
mwan. They are the following: — ^1. The 
twelve signs of the zodiac (see Zodiac). 
2. Twenty-one constellations found in the 
northern hemisphere — the Great Bear 
(Urta Major), the Little Bear (Ur»a 
Minor), Perseus, the Dragon, Cepheus, 
Cassiopeia, Andromeda, Pegasus, Equulua 
(Horse's Head), the Triangle, the Wag- 
oner (Auriga), Bo5tes, the Northern 
Crown (Corona Borealis), Ophiuchus, 
the Serpent (Serpeniariua) , Hercules, 
the Arrow (Baaitia), the Lyre, the Swan 
(Oygnut), the Dolphin, the Eagle (AquU 
7a). 3. IHfteen constellations in the 
southern hemisphere — Orion, the Whale 
(Cetui), Erldanus, the Hare (Lepw), 
the Great Dog (Oanit Major), the Little 
Dog (Canit Minor), Hydra, the Cup 
(Crater), the Crow (Corvat), the Cen- 
taur, the Wolf (Lupua), the Altar 
(Ara), the Southern Pish (PiMoiB Atw- 
trAlia), the Argo, the Southern Crown 
iCorHna Auairdlia). Others were sub- 
sequently added, this being especially ren- 
dered necessary by the increased naviga- 
tion of the southern hemisphere, and now 
the different groups of stars have come to 
bt ftH(K**^te« wit^ all sorts of animals 

and objects, including the Camelopard, the 
Fly, the Air-pump, the Compasses, etc. 
The different stars of a constellation are 
marked by Greek letters, a denoting 
those of the first magnitude, P those of 
the second, and so on. Stars of the sixth 
magnitude are the smallest visible to the 
naked eye. Several stars have also par- 
ticular names. 

CoMtipation <S3'^«;fflSi>-o,*|k: 

fiBceflL Its immediate effects are disor- 
dered appetite, a dry, coated or clammy 
tongue, thirst, or a disa^eeable taste in 
the mouth, dullness, giddiness, or pain in 
the head, torpor, irritability and despond- 
ency. Its less immediate effects are cu- 
taneous affections, dyspepsia, colic, hys- 
teria, hemorrhoids, etc. In most cases 
it is produced by indigestible food, as- 
tringent and stimulating drinks, seden- 
tary habits, excessive indulgence in sleep, 
etc. The immediate use of purgatives, 
followed by strict attention to regimen, 
is in many cases all that is necessary. 

Constitncnt Assembly yiJSo?*'* 

name given to the first convention of the 
delegates of the French nation (1789-91) 
to distinguish it from the legislative as- 
sembly or 1791. It drew up and obtained 
the acceptance of the first of the famous 
revolutionary constitutions. The Constit- 
uent Assembly of 1848 had a similar 

Constitation ^t^^^^^^l^r^l 

State, whether it be a written instrument 
of a certain date, as that of the United 
States of America, or an aggregate of 
laws and usuages which have been formed 
in the course of ages, like the English 
constitution. The Ideal constitution is 
that established by a free sovereign people 
for their own regulation, though the ex- 
pediency of other forms at various stages 
of national development cannot but be 
recognised. The cnief of these are: — ^1. 
Constitutions granted by the plenary 
power of absolute monarcms, or conaHiu- 
tion9 ooiroyiea, such as Louis ^.. /Ill's 
Charte. 2. Those formed by contract be- 
tween a ruler and his people, the con- 
tract being mutually binding — a class un- 
der which, in a great degree, the British 
constitution must be placed. 3. Those 
formed by a compact between different 
sovereign powers, such as the constitu- 
tions of the German Empire, of the 
United Provinces of Holland, and of the 
Swiss O>nfederation. 4. Those made bv 
the people of a country or state for their 
own government, as in the United Staten. 
In regard to political principles, consti- 
tutions are: — 1. Democratic, when the 

Constitntioii Coanl 

luudamental law suaranteei to every cit- pelled by tbe ioint eSorU of the pttri- 
■en equal rigbu, protection, and partici- dans and plebeiatia (EtOB B.O.), two con- 
WtloD, direct or indirect, in tii« BOTcm- aula (oondilec) were placed at the head 
ncut, aach as the coDstitQtioiia of the of the aenate, the body in whose handa 
United StAte* and of aome cantoni of was the adnuniatration of the republic 
iwitserland- 2. Aristocratic, when the TheM oStcera were snnnally elected, at 
:onatitution lecoKiiiceB privileged claaaea first only from the patridani ; at a later 
\M the nobility and clergy, and entruata period <36tJ B.O.) also from the plebeians. 
Jie goTemment entirely to tbem, or al- In order to be eligible to the conaulahip, 
owB them a very disproportionate sbare tbe candidate was to be forty-fire year* of 
a it. Ouch a constitution was that of age, and mnst have passed through the 
Venice, sod such at one time those of inferior offices of qiuestor, sdUe, and 
lome Swiss cantona, for Instsnce, Bern, pmtor, and he was required bj taw to b« 
I. Of a mixed character. To tbia latter in Rome at the time of the election. All 
Uviaion belong some monarchical consti- tbese lawa. however, were disregarded at 
iutiona, which recognize tbe existence of various Junctures in Boman history. Tbe 
1 king wboae power ia modified by otber Inalgnia of the conanla were a staff of 
>r«ncnea of government of a more or lesa ivoir with an eagle at Ita head, a toga 
jKipuUr cast. Tbe British coiutttatioa bordered with purple Itoga prattmtt), 
»elon«s to this division. Tor the text of whicb nnder llie emperor* was embrold- 
the Couatitution of tbe United States, see ered; an ornamental chair (lella oarflli*), 
Unittd Stale). and twelve lieton, who, with /mom and 

HnnfltitTltion Thk- s" American frig- sies. preceded tbem. In the beginning 
UUll»UlUWUU,^(g of 44 guQs. launched of tbe repubUc the anthorlty of the con- 
Sept 20, 1797, whicb became renowned «u1b waa almost aa great aa that of the 
in the luppresaion of Barbary pirates aud preceding kings. They could declare war. 
For her many victories in the war of 1S12. conclude peace, make alliances, and even 
She was the anbject of O. W. Holmes's order k (dtisen to be pat to death ; bnt 
poem Old IronMdet, by the Infiuence of tbeir powera were gradually cnrtallec, ea- 
which aha baa been retained in tbe navy pecially by tbe establishment of the trib- 
and la now at the Boeton Navy Yard, unea of tbe people, early in the fifth ccn- 
9he captnred th« Britiih frigate Querriere tnry. But they atiU stood at tbe head of 
an Cape Rac«, August IS, 1812, in an the whole republic; all officers were nn- 
action which lasted 80 minutes. der them, the tribunes of tbe people only 

CAIIKTlhAtftlltial (hon-Bub-stan'shsl), excepted: they convoked tbe aenate, pr*- 
LfOaBUDSlimuai ^j, eqaiTalent for posed what they thought fit, and «e- 
the Greek term AomooN*io«, the true sig- cuted the lawa. In time* of emergacy 
aificatlon of whi(4i disturbed the religioua they received nullmlted power, and eoold 
world early In tbe fourth century. The even sentence to death without trial, Uvy 
AthanaaianB, or Trinitarians at the Coun- troops, and make war without the r«- 
eSl of Nice in 32S, gave it tbe meaning solve of tbe people flrat obtained. Onder 
Indicated in tbe Nicene Creed, ' Of one tbe emperara the consular dignity sank 
■ubitsHce with tbe Father* (applied to to a shadow, and became merely hoiKii> 
Christ). ary. The last consul at Rome was Hieo- 

 h e-a shun; In France the name of eoniul was tem- 
tbe doctrine that the body and blood of porarily adopted for tbe cbic^ magiatratM 

tain their nature as bread and wine ; op- atK>iigbed by the revolution of the 18th 
90Bt6 to the Roman Catholic doctrine of Brumaire, of the year VIII (Nov. 9. 
[ransulMtantlatlon. The term consubetan- 1799), a provisional consular Rovemment, 
liation was employed in tbe doctrinal con- consisting of Bonaparte, SiSyta, snd 
troversies of the Retonuatlou by nou- Roger Docos, establiahed tbe fourth con- 
Lutberan writers to designate the Luther- alitution, proclaimed Dec. IK. by whicb 
tn view of the Saviour's presence iu the France was declared m republic nnder a 
Holy Supper. Tbe Lutheran Church, government of oonnli. lliree elective 
Iwwever, naa never used or accepted this consuls <Bonaparte, Cambac«ria, Lebnm) 
term to eipreaa her view, but has always had almost uncontrolled execntlve autbor- 
ind repeatedly rejected It and tbe meaning Ity, while the letrislative power was In the 
It conveys in her official declaratlona. bauds of the tribonate and the l«rlslatlve 

Consul (1;<"»™),^* name originally assembly- a conservative senate was sho 
givM to the two highest mag- elected. But as early as Aug 2 1902. 
latratea In the lepnbUc of Rome. After Bonaparte was proclaimed Flrat Oonnl 
King ^rqainlns Bnperboa bad beoi ex* for llfa and tnoB the conatlttitloB rf 


FruiM became aeuii practical]]' monar- ure of epeda 

dlicaL On April 10, 1804, he w&a pro- effideat cooat 

elaimMl emperor, and erea the doiuIqbJ edge can be 

eonaulate ended. service. Ano 

At present ootuuU are offidals ap- American cod 

pointed In' the goremment of one country equacy of aal 

to attend to its commerdal IntereBta in posts carryini 

seaports or other towns of another coun- Bome cases fei 

trj. The duties of a codbuI, generally add very mat 

■peaking, are to promote the trade of the consul ; bnt 

coontr; lie represents; to give advice and anregate inc 

aaiiatance when called upon to his fellow- with that of 

aubjecta ; to uphold their lawfnl interests elgn natiotia. 

and prlvilesea if any attempt be made to Conaular t 

ininre them ; to transmit reports of trade ters are nub 

to his own fovernment, to authenticate tistica. l^est 

certain documents, etc. They are gen- collected in i 

erally of three ranks : contuU-aenerat, times Inqulr 

eoHiuU, and vice-con»ul». trade and iod 

The poeidon of the United Btatea con- conanta, and 

■nl> ia minutel; described in the Kegula- by the same 

tions, Wasbiniton, 18fl6. Under Tarious _ 

treaUes and conventions they enjoy large l/OnSUIIlGr 

privUeses and jurisdiction. By the treaty „.„_ _- »^«. 

of 1818 with Sweden the United States *™" "J ff™ 

BOTerament agreed that the consuU of the rS_^ii ,kS. 

two itatea respectively should be sole ^t " "¥; 

Jndfes in diapntea between captains and lai? ^ \ 

crews of veaMU. (Up to 1906 there were J?^=/ o, l^ 

eighteen treaties containing this clause.) Sr "^ ,^"** 

Bt convention with France in 1853, they Womeng Soj 

likewise agreed that the consuls of both »ng an invest 

conntrie* should be permitted to hold real '"* employm 

estate, and to have the "police interne dea stores ana c 

narirea & commerce." In Borneo, China, ^"^ consumei 

Korea. Uorocco. Persia, Siam, Tripoli ment. The : 

and Turkey an extensive jurisdiction, the Consnmi 

dvil and criminal, is exercised by treaty {January, 16 

stipulation in cases where United States lea. The leai 
aubjecta are interested. Exemption from conditions of 
liability to appear as a witoess is often the retail el 

aubjecta are interested. Exemption from conditions c 
liability to appear as a witoess is often the retail l 
stipulated. To the consuls of other wages, hours 
nations the United States 
has always accorded the privi 

a which 

-- . — --• through whic 

u» sLoi^ courts. They also recognize for- to purchase { 
eign conenls as representative suitora for dertook to all 
absent foreigners. The United States tions and laii 
commerdal agents are appointed by the be satisfled 
president, and are distinct from the con- chKee goods c 
aular agents, who are simply deputy con- „hich mieht 
BUla In districts where there Is no prind- Zhn mm? n 
pal consul By a law of April, 1906. the "i„" „!;?„" 
U. S. consular service was reorganized J;,.' !,. _|„. 
and graded, the office of consul-general '^^^' '" '"" 
being divided into seven dasses, and that GoilSllIll'pt 
of consul into nine dasses. . i- 

Conauls are appointei' - - . 

with the concurrence o 

with changes of the administration. The of the produ 
mnlt of tnla system has long been recog- having an i 
■" *■ ■' • meaa- uaoalv chat 

Contact Action 


unprodnctiye, according as it does or does 
not conduce to the etficiency of a pro- 
ducer and to further production. Thus 
wealth in the form of machinery is con- 
sumed productively by wear and tear 
in the processes of production; and, 
similarly, wealth expended in improving 
land is productively consumed; but the 
wealth expended in the maintenance of 
an operatic artiste is, from the ordinary 
point of view, unproductively consumed. 
The classification, however, is not of a 
very definite kind, the distinction lying, 
for the most part, in the degree of direct- 
ness and obviousness with which the act 
of consumption is related to production. 
Hence in the case of the operatic artiste 
it is sometimes urged that the recreative 
benefit conferred upon the community 
tends indirectly to increase efficiency in 
production, and that from this point of 
view the artiste consumes productively. 
Bo the expenditure of wealth in war, or 
in preparations for war, usually classed 
as unproductive, may be really productive 
consumption, as tending to the assurance 
of the producer in the stabilitv of the 
commerdal conditions. The perfect char- 
acterisation of an act of consumption as 
productive or unproductive involves the 
consideration of elements of a frequently 
incommensurable kind, and the rough 
practical economic test has to be employed 
with some amount of reservation. Con- 
sumption is the end of all production; 
and as the demand of the consumer de- 
termines the employment of the various 
coefficients of production, land, labor and 
capital, it is urged by many later 
economists that the scientific treatment of 
economics should proceed from consump- 
tion to production, instead of from pro- 
duction to consumption in accordance 
with the method of the older economists. 
Too much stress may be laid upon this 
method, but the consideration of economic 
problems from the standpoint of the con- 
sumer is of advantage, as giving the 
social need, rather than the producer's 
profit, the prior claim upon the attention. 

Contact Action. See CatalytU. 

CoTltll.^on (kon-ta'Jun), the com- 
l/0ni»^OIl munication of disease by 

contact direct or indirect. A distinction 
has sometimes been made between oot^ 
iaqion, as the communication of disease 
strictly by contact, and infection, as com- 
munication of disease by the miasmata, 
exhidations or germs which one body 
rives out and the other receives. Then 
is little doubt that excessively minute 
disease germs proceed from the breath, 
th« perspiration or other excretions of a 

disiased person, and are capable of prop- 
agating the disease in another person; 
but much remains to be learned con- 
cerning the action of these. Antiseptiet^ 
or dittnfeotantif are used to destroy the 

Eoisonous particles, such as fonnalde^ 
yde, carbolic acid, sulphur, permangan- 
ate of potash, chlorine gas, etc 

Contagions Diseases (Animals) 

AM- an act of the British Partis- 
^ ment passed in consequence of 
the ravages of the disease known at 
Rinderpe$t or cattle-plague, which broke 
out in 1866. Commissioners were ap- 

Sointed to investisate the subject, and in 
869 an act (subsequently amended by 
acts in 1878, 1884 and 1886) was passed 
enforcing regulations for preventing the 
introduction and spread of contagious 

In the United States similar acts were 
made to stamp out pleuro-pneumoaia, 
or lung plague, which caused much loss 
amonc neat-cattle. Kentucky, Indiana, 
Illinois and Missouri suffered largely from 
this disease, but it has been completely 
stamped out by the Bureau of Animal In- 
dustry. The symptoms of lung plague 
are fever, dry mtmle, accelerated pulse 
and respiration, dei^ression. cough and 
indications of pleurisy and pneumonia. 
In about 50 per cent, of the cases death 
occurs in from one to two weeks from Its 
attack; of the remainder about one-half 
become chronic and recover. No thera- 
peusis that has been tried has been found 
of any value, so governments have made 
regulations to quarantine infected and 
suspected animals, and for the slaughter 
of those regarded as dangerous to healtiiy 
animals. The United States freed itself 
from pleuro-pneumonia by enforcing these 
measures. It is estimated that the loss 
caused by this disease reached several 
million dollars in this country, while in 
Britain the annual loss for some years 
amounted to over S10,000,000. It does 
not affect human beings. See Rindet' 

ContaneO (kon-tang'gO), in stock- 
^ "* o^ Jobbing, a sum of money 
paid to a seller for accommodating a 
buyer, by carrying the engagement to pay 
the price of shares bought over to the 
next account day. In reality, contango 
is interest paid for the loan of money 
for the interval between account days. 
The price at which the bargain is entered 
is called the making-up price. 

Contarini tov**;r'^fi{ce* w"^' 

furnished seven doges to the State, b» 
sides several men of note. 

' Contempt 


fioTit^TnTit (kon-temf), an ofCeiue 
trOUXempi against the dignity, order, 
or authority of a court or legislative 
assembly. Contempts committed out of 
court may be punished by fine or im- 
prisonment, contempts done before court 
are usually punished in a summary way 
by commitment or fine. The power of 
▼indicating their authority against 
contempt is incident to all superior 

riATi^-i-nATi^ (kon'ti-nent), a connected 
trOnXineni jj^ct of land of Kreat ex- 
tent, forming a sort of whole by itself, 
as Europe, Asia, Africa, North anq 
South America; or we may speak of the 
Eastern and Western continents, Europe, 
Asia and Africa being regarded as one, 
and North and South America another. 
Australia, from its size, is often regarded 
as a continent, while Europe and Asia, 
regarded as a single body of land, are 
frequently spoken of as a continent un- 
der the name of Eurasia. 

Continental System ^^J't^^ 

devised by Napoleon to exclude Britain 
from intercourse with the continent ot 
Europe. It began with the decree of Ber- 
lin of November 21, 1806, by which the 
British Islands were declared to be In a 
state of blockade; all conmierce. inter- 
course and correspondence were prohibi- 
ted; every Briton found in France, or a 
country occupied by French troops, was 
declared a pnsoner of war; all property 
belonging to Britons, fair prize, and all 
trade in goods from Britain or British 
colonies entirely prohibited. Britain re- 
plied by orders in council prohibiting 
trade with French ports, and declaring 
all harbors of France and her allies sub- 
jected to the same restrictions as if they 
were closely blockaded. Further decrees 
on the part of France, of a still more 
stringent kind, declared all vessels of 
whatever flag, which had been searched 
bv a British vessel or paid duty to Brit- 
ain, denationidized, and directing the 
burning of all British goods, etc. These 
decrees caused great annoyance, and gave 
rise to much smuggling, till annulled at 
the fall of Napoleon, 1814. 
rnnfificrpiif (kon-tin'jent), the name 

of troops which Is to be furnished by 
each member of a number of states com- 
posing a confederation. 
PnTifiTiiiifir (kon-ti-nfif-ti), Law of, 
continuity \^ important principle 

in the investigation of the laws of motion 
and change in general. It may be enun- 
ciated thus: nothing passes from one 
gtate to another vrithout passing thrtugii 
jA the intermediate states. 

Contorniati 'l^^-^^X^lr^^ 

dallions in bronze, having a curved fur- 
row ioontomo) on each 3ide, supposed 
to have been struck in the days ot Ck)n- 
stantine the Great and his successors} and 
to have formed tickets of admission to 
the public games of the circus of Bome 
and of Constantinople. 
Contonr (kon'tOr), an outline. In 
wuifviu. geodesy contours, or contour 
lineSf are lines or levels carried along the 
surface of a country or district at a 
uniform height above the sea-level, and 
then laid down on a map or plan« so that 
an approximately true outline of its con- 
tour is presented, the degree of accuracy 
depending on the number of lines or 
levels taken between the sea-level and the 
highest point in the region. 

Contraband <ie°S;ir*-Si'"*>i^, ""^i 

wares exported from or imported into 
any coun^, against the laws of said 
country. There are, also, a number of 
articles termed contraband of war which 
neutrals may be prevented, by one 
belligerent m>m carrying to another, 
^ese formerly were confined to arms aiu 
munitions, but the contraband list has 
been so lengthened during recent wars an 
to include practically everything that 
might be of benefit to a belligerent. 

ContrabaSSO Ujon-tra-bas'so), the 
wvMv««*vw«»v itaijan name, now usu- 
ally employed by musicians of all na- 
tionalities to designate the largest instru- 
ment of the violin kind (called some- 
times the double bast), with three strings 
usually tuned in fourths. Its compass 
is from the lower A of the bass del to 
tenor F. In Germany a fourth string is 
used, which gives it a range of three 
notes lower. 

Contract (ko^'trakt), in law, an 
agreement or covenant be- 
tween two or more persons, in which 
each party binds himself to do or forbear 
some act, and each acquires a right to 
what the other promises. Contracts may 
be in express terms or implied from the 
acts of the parties; they may be verbal 
or written, and at common law both 
forms are binding; but by statute law a 
promise must be in writing. To be valid. 
a contract must be entered into by parties 
legally competent ; that is, of sound mind 
and of fun age. The act contracted for 
must not be contrary to law or public 
policy. Thus, an agreement to do injury 
to anouier or a contract not to marrv 
at an (except in the case of a widow) 
is void. l%e contract must be founded 
on a consideration either of money or 
■ome act whertby an ondoubted Mowmm' 

ontraot Conversazione 

ge accmca to the part; aaed. Lutl;, ders of a court ; the offenM of noii-i^ 

a contract ia voidable if obtained b; pearance when snmmoned Jadltdallj. 

and, miatake, or compDlsioa. Conns (''^'''Ib), a genua of ga«t«r- 

nntronf OaioiSAi, or Social, in »"'""^ opodoua moUuaca, the type of 

DUirttCb, poiiticB, that which is aup- the family Conidn or cone-ahdlB. ao 

«ed to exist irom Ibe beginniDg between named from the conical form of the 

e ■orereigD power and the aubJecL ahelL Tber are found la the aoutheni 

ich a contract ia evidently a mere aup- and tropical aeaa. 

C°i^S;°JM"hi!;rS.'i;S^'r?S: Convales'cent Hoqiital^ fjf; 

mifi^/>H1itir (kon-trek-til i-ti), the intermediate between ordinary boapiCala 

Viil.i:tH,buii,jr powpr which certain and the homes of the patieota, eitah- 

laaea in animala and plants have dur- lislied in order that tboae who liive 

g life, of shorten log them selves. It been succeufuUr treated may b« fully 

17 be either voluntary or involuntary, restored to health and atrengtb before 

rmtrantin-na (k n-trab'ahuns), ab- going back to their former unaanltary iDt- 

BntlBCUOns breviationa emplojed roundinga. 

Itb the view of aaving labor in writing. f'nnTallarifl (kon-va-U'ri-a), a genua 

id alao in former dmea with the view of vuuvauanit ^^ plants, naL order LU- 

vine parchment In extending MS- iaces, the only apeciea being the lUy-of- 

{iea of worka. deeds, etc Contraction tbe-valley. Convallamarin and oonvalla- 

ea place io several modes, as by rin are two glucosides obtained from the 

[don ; writing a smaller letter above plsnt and are u«ed in functional alec- 

e word contracted ; running two or tiona of the heart and in cardiac dropsy 

ore letters into one character ; by for their stimulating effect on the heart, 

mbola representing syllables or words; Conv»r>tinTi nf TTf>itt ^iie transfer- 

' initial letters ; thus : reed, for re- ^'OnVCCnon 01 Heal;, ,„„ ^ ^^^ 

ived; qam for guam; Mr. for Ifoiler,* by means of the upward motions of the 

e S^ 

lis . 

I, for sllimo, it is more correctly monks or nuna. See Afonottery. 

rmed an abbreviation. See Abbrevia- nnnvpTtHpIp (kon-ven'ti-kl), a private 

tnt. UOnvenUCie ^^^^0^117 or meetTng for 

nntv^ltrt (kon-tral'tS) , In music, the the exercise of religion. Historically, the 

ViiLiiuw highest voice of a male term was specially applied to meettnga 

[olt, or the lowest of a woman or a of petty sects and dissenters in the 

•7, called alao the Jllo, or when pos- statutas of the time of Charles IL 

_...__ r, — .__. .. .^ _ .. ,L n'abon; Latin. 

'ejecting perjiendicalarly to the plane Parliament is given to the assembling of 

the wheel. Parliament without the king's writ; aa 

nnfpavallafinTI f^ <■ »"* rs-val-lft'- in 16flO. when Charles II waa restored, 

DairavaiiatlUU ghun). in fortifica- and in 1688. when the throne waa left 

in, a line formed in the same manner vacant by tbe flight of James II. — So- 

I the line of circum valla tloo. to defend tionol Convention, in French history, the 

t besiegers against the enterprises of name given to that body which met after 

• garrison. the legiBlative assembly had pronounced 

nnfravprvo. (kon-tra-yer'va) , the the suspension of the royal functions 

oncrayerva aromatic, bitterish (September, 17B2), and proclaimed the 

at of Dor$tenia Contrajerva. a plant of republic at ita first sitting. 

« nettle family, imported from tropical Pnnvpraa-nn (kon-ver-a&'nOK a town 

merica, and used aa a stimulant and ^""vcrsano ^^ g^^^^j, j^^^ province 

nic of Bari. 18 miles b. k. of Bari. with a 

nnfmll*!* (kon-trAler) , a public of- fine cathedral, and a trade in wine. oD, 

OUifUUCr li^^p appointed to con- almonds. Sax and cotton. Pop. 13,fl8B. 

ol, overaee, or verify the accounto of ConVersazione (-"t-rf-O ne>. a re- 

her ofBcen. ««iin,* «»««»*» ceptlon, usually on 

imlnmailT (kon't(l>nia-Bi) , In law, a large scale and in tbe evening, at which 

vukiuu»vj dtsobedienM of Uie or- tbe company move abon^ canv«TM with 



their acquaintances, partake of tea, cof- 
fee, or other refreshments, and often 
have objects of art, science, or general 
interest set oat for their inspection. 

Conversion tkon-v6r'shun), a term 
wM.«««AiMVM. jjj logic. A proposition 

is converted when the predicate is pat in 
the place of the subject, and the subject 
In place of the predic«ke ; as, ' no A is 
B' (*no virtuous man is a rebel*), the 
converse of which is * no B is A' ('no 
rebel is a virtuous man*). Simple con- 
version, however, in this manner is not 
always logical. In the case of universal 
affirmatives, for example, * all A are B ' 
(say, *all men are animals'), the simple 
converse ' all B are A ' (* all animals are 
men*) would not be true. 

Hn-niTA'H-A-p (kon-v^r't^r), the vessel 
l; ^^^ j^ ^^^ Bessemer 

steel-making process which holds the 
molten iron or carbide of iron which is 
to be converted into steel. 
nATHTAV (kon'veks; Latin convewue, 
UUUYCJL vaulted, arched), rising in a 
circular or rounded form ; the contrary to 
concave (which see). Thus the inside of 
a watch-glass is concave, the outer sur- 
face convex. 

Convex Lens. See Lena. 

Conveyancing te^-r/rlwSl 

deeds, leases, or other writings {convey-' 
ancea) for transferring the title to prop- 
erty from one person to another, of 
investigating the title of the vendors and 
purchasers of property, and of framing 
those multifarious deeds and contracts 
which govern and define the rights and 
liabilities of families and individuals. 
The business of conveyancing is carried 
on by barristers, solicitors, and members 
of the legal profession generally. 
Convict (kon'vict), the general term 
'^ *"* for a person who has been 
found guilty of a serious offense and sen- 
tenced to penal servitude, such servitude 
consisting at times of forced labor on 
some public work. In England transpor- 
tation was formerly the equivalent pun- 

Convocation C^ o n-vO-ka'shun), an 
wvuTvvnvxvu assembly of the clergy 

of England, belonging either to the prov- 
ince of Canterbury or to that of York, 
to consult on ecclesiastical matters. From 
the fact that the province of Canterbury 
is by much the more influential of the 
two provinces into which England is 
ecclesiastically divided, the convocation of 
tbo province of Canterbury is often 
spoken of as the convocation, as if 
there were only one. In former times 
convocations had the power of enacting 

canons; but this power was virtually 
abolished by the statutes of Henry VIII 
and Elizabeth. 

Convolvulacea i''^--J?i3^-iJ^t?:*)f 

Slants comprising about 700 species 
irgely consisting of climbers. Some of 
them have valuahle properties. Jalap is 
derived from the Exoffonium or Ipomaa 
purga, an inhabitant of Mexico. 

Convolvnlns ^^'''''T?^Y"^?*)iJL'^^ 

WUVVJ.VMAM9 jj^g ^f plants, type of 
the nat order ConvolvulacesB, consist- 
ing of slender twining herbs with milky 
juice, bell-shaped flowers, and five free 
stamens. Some species are commonly 
known as hind-weeds (0. arvenaie) ; 
others are cultivated in gardens. 0. tri^ 
color, or minor convolvulus, with its large 
flowers of violet blue, with white and 
yellow center, is a familiar species. 
Scammony is obtained from the root of 
the Convolvulus Scammonia, a native of 
Syria; the liqueur noyau from O. dU- 
sectus. Some species, like the C. BatH- 
tae, or sweet-potato, have tuberous and 
fleshy roots capable of being used as 
food. Convolvillua Jalapa was lone con- 
sidered as ^Fielding the true jalap of com- 
merce. This is now known to be pro- 
cured from Eaogonium or Ipomesa purga^ 
an allied plant, found in the monntidnous 
regions of Mexico. 

ConVOV (^<>^'^oiK a fleet of merchant- 
J^ men under the protection of a 
ship or ships of war, or the ship or ships 
appointed to conduct and derend them 
from attack and capture by an enemy. 
In military language it is used for escort. 

Convulsion i'LT5?^^??>'.''pa»i^ 

muscular contraction or series of con- 
tractions, with alternate relaxations. 
Convulsions are universal or partiid, and 
have obtained different names according 
to the parts affected, or the symptoms. 
The^ muscles principally affected in all 
species of convulsions are those imme- 
diately under the direction of the wUl, as 
those of the eyelidsj eye, face, jaws, neck, 
superior and inferior extremities. Con- 
vulsions are produced commonly by irri- 
tation of some part of the brain or spinal 
cord, such as the general convulsions in 
inflammation of the brain membranes or 
of the nerves themselves. Children of a 
nervous temperament are often the sub- 
jects of convulsions during dentition, 
particularly when accompanied bv a dis- 
ordered state of the bowels or the pres- 
ence of worms. 

Convnlsionists ^ri;?S'^«J?2:*f*'l- 


those fanatics of the eighteenth century 
in France who had or affected to havs 
convulsions, produced by religious im- 





Conway u»k 

m.wiiiuf,;e.t _. Coooh-Behar, yj^gS.?;?', 

<kOch-be-hilr'), a i 

..iCh ot North WUw Id OinmrrOLillIre, r'£,S''„f;,"'!?Si'.!'JS"'i '' S?" ot ■)., Co,,,,. It .. ooUbl. tor "™1 .'/ °"-SS'"b%''BSS.I,"?.4S, 

casus Duiii ny cawira i, a ■□■- ti,--—-,*-. „„— ), 
peiuioii bridle built by Telford, and a tu- ^yf ^i JKH.^"' "i«T"' li 

Pop. B242.-tlie rifer Conway ha« a R^^ iS^lJ^^lZ^^^^ a 
pour^ of about 30 mile* through mucb SSS^'S^^?"" '^"V'^ f"""* »«°«'««n; 

/tT^™^ HM.T SiTMOtm. au Bue- "* <*' ">= ^««Ja«>. Pop. 12,000. 

Conway, ST'^IS^^^, 1Sm*="fu Cook, i^r£,/riT^„S^"V« 

rf*J;unS:ri-S3at''cS5X''lfl746.^"^- gT^,^: «" *■',■' TJ 'PPr"?^ 

Id 1761, wa> Secretary of State in the ^^S' th. '^?^'' '. '^'" ,i / ^™* *" 
WbiB cabinet 1761-6& was made oom- ffi.'?5^,,*i!,,r?J"L?SS* JJ'^h.'"*? J^ 
manaei-in-phief of thHrmy in 1782. and ISSnSli «lf,5l,U^%l~ ?« ^,^1^; 
moTed in Parliament to f4aBe boaUlitiea Rfr?f?'^.I^'i''„rfII*!?,, 'S. "tT^T^ 
■lalnrt the United State*. In allualon to Sl,?L "^^T^?™ «W™Sf„„^^ °^ 
thii Burke i*id.  AU Bnfland, aU Amer- Ne-foundUnd. Soma obMrradona on . 

lea. Joined in his applause.' He died in 


flnnvraT Moncvwc Dakiel, author 
\jVUWHy, ^j preacher, bora in 8U(- 
ford Co., VlTfluia, in 1832 ; died in 1907. 
He entered the Methodist ministrr in 
1840, but afterwards became a diatin- 
tuiHhed Unitarian pastor and an earaest 
antiolavery advocate. He i>ecame pantor 

of a conareiation in London in ISSt. Ele ' 

wrote The Uolden Hour, Demonology and 
ItevU Lor«, Tke Wandering ./eir, Pine 
and Palm, Life of Thomai Paine, etc 
f!nTi1xr(>t1 It u B a E L L II., American 
l/OnweU, c,p an. born at Worth- 

tnrton. Haas., Febnian' 15, 1843. Aftn 
■PTvinK in the Civil War and as newapf 
per correspondent, he wae ordained to the 
mtniatry and became pastor of Grace 
Baptist Church, Philadelphia. Thti 
church, now known as the Baptist Tem- 
ple, has prospered greatly under his ad- 
Dilnistration. He ban rIho founded the 
Temple College (now Temple University, 
which see) and the Samaritao Hospital. 

English version of the Bible as a trausla- solar eclipse, communicated to the Royal 

tlon of a Hebrew word probably meaning Society, brought him into notice, and 

the Uyram Syriieut, a rabbit-liae animal he was appointed commander of a sdeu- 

common in Syria and Faleatine, inlubit- dflc expedition to the Pacific; Durhig 

ing defta of rocks. See Bjinui. this expedition he successively visited 

ConVZa (k'^i>t'")t > genus of plants, Tahiti, New Zealand, discovered New 

^ nat order Composite, annual SoDth Wale*, and returned by the Cape 

or perennial herb«. scattered over the of Good B<4»e to Britain in 1771. In 

warmer regions of the earth, a few being 1772 Captain Cook, now raised to th* 

tooad Is temperate couutrle*. None po»- null of « oommuider in the navr, cmit 



manded a second expedition to the Pacific 
and Southern Oceans^ which resulted, like 
the former, in many interesting observa- 
tions and discoveries. He returned to 
Britain in 1774. Two years later he 
again set out on an expedition to ascer- 
tain the possibility of a northwest pas- 
sage. On this voyase he explored the 
western coast of North America, and dis- 
covered the Sandwich Islands, on one of 
which, Hawaii, he was killed by the 
natives, February 14, 1779. Captain 
Cook wrote and published a complete ac- 
count of his second voyage of discovery, 
and an unfinished one of the third voy- 
age, afterwards completed and published 
by Captain James King. 
HaaIta J'^'ff banker, horn at Sandusky, 

He engaged in the banking business at 
Philadelphia in 1842 and established a 
new firm in 1861, which did a large and 
useful business as a government agent 
in placing war-loans. It subsequently 
financed the Northern Pacific Railroad, 
this leading to the failure of the firm in 
1873, the nrst event in the great financial 
panic of that year. The later success of 
the Northern Pacific Railroad restored 
Mr. Cooke's wealth. 

nnnlrA John Esten, author, born at 
\yUQJL6, Winchester, Virginia, in 1830; 
died in 1886. His works include The 
Virginia Comediantf Lurry of Eaglets 
Nett, The Last of the Forests, Hammer 
and Rapier, also History of Virginia, 
Life of Robert B, Lee, etc 
HoaV A Rose Tkbbt, authoress, bom at 
VUO&eji Yf^^ Hartford. Connecticut, in 
1827; died in 1892. She wrote Borne- 
hodf^e Neighhor», Huckleberries, Poems 
by Rose Terry, etc., most of her writings 
being short tales of much power and 
literary merit. 

flnnVpTir (kuk'e-ri), the preparation 
uoui^cry of food so as to render it 
more palatable and more digestible. The 
art is of great importance, not only for 
comfort, but also for health. Food is 
mainly prepared by submitting it to the 
action of fire as by roasting, boiling, 
stewing, etc Bach of these processes 
develops a different flavor in food, but 
they result alike In rendering the tissues, 
both of animal and vegetable food, softer 
and much more easily dealt with by the 
digestive organs. The art of cookery was 
carried to considerable perfection among 
some of the ancient natioos, as for 
kstance the Egyptians. Persians, and 
Athenians. Extravagance and luxury at 
table were notable features of Roman life 
under the empire. Among moderns the 
Italians were the first to reach a hirh 
degree of art in this department. Their 

cooking^ like that of the ancient Romans, 
is distuguished by a free use of oil. 
Italian cookery seems to have been trana- 

Slanted by the princesses of the House of 
ledici to l^'rance, and was carried there 
to perhaps the highest degree of perfec- 
tion; even yet the skill and resource 
whidi the French cook shows in dealing 
often with very slight materials is a 
highly creditable feature in the domestic 
economy of the nation. No other people 
seems to have equaled the French in this 

Cook's Inlet, S* S^®*^?' ^^ ^""^^^ 

wwA. AAiAvvy Pacific Ocean, run- 
ning into the territory of Alaska for 
about 150 miles; explored by Captain 
Cook in 1778. 

Cook's Islands, JerfdiS^'i^vS 

to them because discovered by Captain 
Cook. See Hervey Islands, 

Cook's Strait. ^^^ channel ^, which 
wvA B k^ VACM.WI g e p a r a tes the two 

principal islands of New Zealand, dis- 
covered by Captain Cook in 1770. 

Cookstown i^^'S^'^i,?,^,?: 

10 miles north of Dungannon ; has manu- 
factures of linen and large trade in flax. 
Pop. 3531. 

Coolers (l^^'^rs), Watkb, vessels of 
wAv^A0 porous, unglazed earthenware 
in which a liquid can be kept cool by 
constantly exuding through the substance 
of the ware and evaporating from the 
outer surface of the vessel. 
Coolie Of?Tf;Tamil, *iiK) anamein 
Hindustan for a day laborer, 
also extended to those of some other 
eastern countries. Many of these have 
been introduced into the West Indies, 
Mauritius, and other places, their passage 
being paid for them on their agreeing to 
serve for a term of years. The first 
coolie emigrants appear to have been 
those sent to British Guiana from Cal- 
cutta in 1880 to supply the want of labor 
felt after the aboliaon of slavery. The 
coolies employed in Guiana are chiefly 
from India. 

Coolikv ^k5^6), Thomas M., Jui4st, 
vuuiey bom at Attica, New Vork. in 
1824. He removed to Michigan in 1843, 
studied law, and in 1859 became pro- 
fessor of law in Michigan University. 
He was a justice of the Supreme Court 
of Michigan in 1864: chief justice in 
1867; retired from the bench in 1885, 
and was appointed by President Cleve- 
land on the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, of whi'*h he was chairman. 
He resigned In 1801 and died in 1896. 
He ranked among the highest of consti- 
tutional jurists and was the aathor of 

Goolidge CoQperatlTe Societies 

muwraiu IcB&l works, ehieflj bawd ob Uokieant, are funiliar namea to tlie 

the Conadtutioii of the Dnlted States. novel-reading pubUc. After riritinc 

flfwiliilvA (kdtlj), GALniT (1ST2- ), Europe and serving as coniut for the 

VUUUiHSC ^ American public official, United Slates at Lyons for three jmn, 

horn on a farm in Vermont, Mlucated at Cooper returned to America, where be 

BUeh Biver Aeadeny and Amherst Col- died at Cooperstown, New YorlL ia 18611 

lefe (BTadnated 1800). He practised law Besides bis novels he wrote a hiatory of 

In Northampton, Uast., and was succes- the United States Navy and aonie Tol- 

■iTelr major, aaMmhljmau, State senator, umes descriptive of bis travels. 

Uvatenant-Boremor and Eovemor. His fJooner "i^ an American inreatar. 

Arm itand for law and onler during the ""^^iti, mftnufaeturer, and nhilAii- 

polle« strike in Boston, In September, thropkt, born in 1T91 ; died in 1883. He 

1B19, hronght him Into natioDal promt' started life with few advantages, ImIus 

nenee, and in 1920 he was elected Tiee- almost self-educated ; hut by dint ol 

presldrat of the United States, hdng the energy, perseverance, sagscit; and lnt»- 

nominee of the Republican part;, with rity, accumulated a large fortune. He 

Warren G. Harding as president. carried on the manufactare of glne and 

GoOmaSSie. See Suma,^. isinglass for over fifty years, and was 
also conneeled with the iron manatac- 

r!oninhi>(^'>>)i^l^'A>' fl'^^l-l^'- ("'«• ^^ railways (he designed and 

vvuuiuc J British author, horn at Bria- built the first Auiericao locomotlT«), 

toL He wrote the Diobotiod; the Devil and the telegraphs of the United State*. 

I7|MH» Two Slicks in England, a continun The ' Cooper Union ' in New Zork was 

tion and Imitation of Le Sage's novel ; established by him to fornlah a fr«* 

tha Ttmr of Dr. Synln* In Searnh of the education la art and practical adence. 

PtotoresmM; Bnglith Danoe of Dealk, It comprises day classea, in which 

etc an iHDatrated bv Rowlsndson. women are Instructed in drawing, palnt- 

Coomn^Jl (kflm'ta), a town of In- ing and other branches of art; erening 

vuviu^Mus ^jij pj, (jig sea-coast, In classes. In which young men and womeq 

tha presidency of Bombay, about 330 are taught art, engineering, chemistry, 

milea a. a. E. of Bombay. It has an mathematics, etc. ; free reading-room and 

open roadstead and a large cotton trade. library, etc. 

&f^»„',r,, s,. A.T,^ p„- Co6p,iatiTeSocietiM <y,j;''^ 

^^^f^t^^ Ton, an English aurgeon, waa associstioDs of individuals for mntnal aa- 
bom in Norfolkshire In 1768 : died in sistance in industrial or commercial ob- 
1841. He studied medicine in London, jects. One form of coSperative sodeties 
and attended the lectures of John Hun- Is that of an association of men helongina 
tar. After vlsitluK Paris in 17M he was to some trade or industry for the pnrpoae 
appt^ted professor of anatomy at Sur- of carrying it on entirely by their own 
geon'a HaA, end in 1600 head surgeon efforts, and thus securing all tiie profits 
of Guy's Hospital He became a Tery of their labors to themsdvea; bat mach 
eminent aurgeon. In 1S22 app<>ared his more common aseodations are those the 
treat work on Dwlooation* and Fractiirei. object of which la to provide the memben^ 
Shortly afterwards he became president and sometimee also fbe general public 
of the Boyal OoDem of Surgeons, and with the ordinary household neceadtiea. 
boDors and tldea W every kind poured at as near as possible the prime coat 
In on him. Associations of the former kind are thus 

Coinwr J^MOa PEvnfOBE, an Ameri- associations for production, those of tb^ 
*^ * can norellat, born at Burling- latter for distribution, by means of what 
^/ S*? Jeraeft in 178!t. studied at are commonly known as OoSpentiM 
Tale College, and entered the American Btoret. Cooperative sodeties of tha lat- 
MTy aa « mldi^pmsn at the age of ter kind have been established very widely 
dzteen. In 18M appeared the norel in Great Britain, one of the firat and 
of Pneamh^n, the first production of most succesHfnl of them being the Roch- 
Us POL Though aoccessful, it gave m dale Equitable Honeers' Society. This. 
•*"P* for hU peculiar poweij, and it like others, is conducted on die prbtdple 
was not Hll the production of the 8p» of dividing the surplus profits amoug the 
and the Ptoneer$ thst he began to take members alone In proportion to their 
 w't "'/^ ^?f ' contemporary par<*«ies, after a certain fixed percent- 
noveUst*. After diat wme a steady age has been deducted for Interest on 

^ "a .'"^^'v*'*"JiHl,"*"'Ji'%"A.*v* ""^ <*P'*«' subscribed. Thia ^^ 
aaa end In the backwoods, moat of which, commenced In TfU4 with nniv ■>«»«>«. 
like Ih- Pilot. Rf4 RoPfr. Wotcrtritcd. memteri- It hasliWeW)0 o? TwSP^ 

Cooper's CreeK 


aion than j|1300,00a A striUiif feature 
in con&ectioii with the societies in the 
North of EnsUnd, where thej are very 
nameroas and flourishing, is the forma- 
tion of an association of cooperative 
societies. The North of England Co- 
operative Wholesale Society, for the pur- 
nose of making their purchases on as 
laiv* & scale as possible, so as to increase 
the profits. There are now in Great 
Britain about 13U0 societies, with sales 
amounting to |15O,00U,0UO a year. Simi- 
lar associations have been formed for the 
benefit of other than the working cisssesb 
such as clergymen, lawyers, medical 
practitioners, officers in the army and 
navy, members of the civil service, etc 
The Civil Service Supply AesooiaUin^ of 
Jjomdan is the most extensive of these, 
and has been rery successful, the an- 
anai sales amounting to about $8,- 
&UU,O0O. Manufacturing associations of 
all kinds have been tried on the Euro- 
pean continent, but neither there nor 
in Britain have they, on the whole, been 
very successfuL In these societies, gen* 
erally called Working Men*s Asso- 
ciations, the shareholoers are usually 
also the workmen, and the surplus profits 
are divided among them as workmen 
after they have received the fixed per- 
centage as shareholders, and In some 
cases also among the workmen who are 
not shareholders, if there are any such. 
In German V there are societies for the 
purchase of raw materials, manufactur- 
ukg associations, societies of united shops. 
and cooperative stores. In the United 
States cooperation has ss yet chiefly 
taken the form of building-loan associa- 
tions for providing the members with 
bouses of toeir own, productive and dis- 
tributive societies having made slow 
progress. See slso Building SocieUee 
and Friendly 8ocietie9. 
f*AATftAv*'a r!r»Alr o^ the Babcoo, 

irooper 8 i/reeK, ^^„^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

name chiefly in its upper course, the 
largest inland river of Australia, which 
rises in Qoeenslsnd by two branches, 
the Thomson and Victoria (or Barcoo), 
and flows southwest to Lake Eyre. 
RoArdinatM (kO-or'di-nftts). in jre- 
^HIOraiuaireB <,nietry, a term applied 

to lines, to which points under consid- 
eration are referred, and by means of 
which their position is determined. Co- 
ordinates either determine the position 
of a point in space or in a plane which 
Is understood to contain all the figure 
under considers tion. They determine 
position by straight lines only, or by a 
straight Une and angles: in the latter 
ease they are called polar coordinates. 
Wb«n ooOrdlnates are at right angles 


to each other they are cslled reetangu- 
lar coordinates, and m*ben they make 
any other angle 
with each other 
they are rallprf j ^ 

obltque coordi- 
nates. In the fig. 
ox or are two 
fixed lines at 
right angles to 
each other, and 
P is a point* 
whose position is 
to be determined. 
If we know on and on we can easily find 
the position of P, of which on ob are 
called the coordinates. 

Coonr ^^^^t)* ^^ KuBO, an ancient 
o principality now a province in 
Southern Hindustan, lying between My- 
sore on the east and northeast and the 
districts of Sooth Cansra and Malabar 
on the west; srea, 1583 sq. miles. The 
country has a healthy climate and yields 
coffee, spices, timber, etc. The capital 
is Merkara. Pop. 180,607. 

Coos (kO-os). See Cot. 

Ciuwv (kO'si), a river of Northern 
vrutnijr Bengal, which rises among the 
Nepaul Himalayas, flows in a southerly 
direction, and falls into the Ganges after 
a course of 325 miles. 
Hnot l^^^y* ^ graliatorial bird of the 
^*'"* rail family (Rallids). frequent- 
ing lakes and ponds. The common coot 
{Fullca atra) has a bald forehead, a 
black body, and lobated toM, and ia 
about 15 inches in length. The nests, 
which are very large, strong, and com* 
pact, are composed of reeds and rank 
water-herbage, built sometimes near the 
water's edge, and sometimes on small 
islets at some distance from the abore. 
Should the nest be set adrift by a rise 
of water, the female coot seems in no- 
wise disturbed, but sits composedly oa 
her em until it is stranded. The eoot 
of India, China and Japan is said to 
be identical with that of Kiirope, but tha 
North American coot is now recognlacd 
as a distinct species, and has received 
the name of F. WiUoni, 
Copaiba. Co^^aiva Cko-pa'ba, ko-pt*- 

and an oIL The balsam is a liquid 
resinous Juice flowing from incisions 
msde in the stem of a plant. Copmifim 
officinAli9 (nst order Leguminosv), and 
several other species of tiie genus, grow- 
ing In Brasil, Peru, etc. It consists of 
several resins dissolved in a volatile oil 
The resins sre iwrtlv scid and nartlv 
neutral: the oil is clear, oolorissa and 
has an aromatic odor. It Is used io 

Copais Cope 

:^ifo-*'B'SSJ:IlL'"<.;'S'ol' S: copartnership. s«i*«r,-^.wp. 

Iirin»-feiiital orfuu). Cope *'"'P2l.. *_ **i=*'^,*'^I , 2.^^,"**^ 

Cofniba Flul <C«pa«>ra a/UmMt). 

1/OpaU \ae or iMTdi of Ofeece in 
BoMtla, eudoMd by mountaliiB oo erery 
aide, and (ormiiic a ahaUow expMulon 
of the river Uepbiuoa Kme twenty 
milea broad, the water having numerona 
aubterranean outlets to the sea. In 1881 
A b'rench company waa (ormed (or draln- 
iDir ibe lake or marsh, and tbns re- 
deemlni some 62,000 acres ot land. 
UperatToDS were commenced in 1881, 
and tbe drainafe nu completed before 
the end of tlie century. 

rArrnl (Wp^lJ *■ » inm-r««in yielded _, , , 

^^1"^ by different trees in Africa, Oaio. I, Cive. a. flcnn fraa Pncin'* riii—n 
South America, India and Australia, 333. Cops, 
and differiuc considerably in qnality in and partici 

ita several varieties; but In (eueral It pope and i , -. — — _, 

is hard, Bhinlng, tranipnreat, and citron- priests. It was one at tbe vestmeota 
colored. When dissolved lu alcohol or retained at the Reformation in the Angli- 
Inrpentine it makes a tteantifDl and very can Church, 
durable varnish. Indian copal, known Can» Cbamlms West. 

Ian copal, known Cooe Cbamlms West, an Knilish 
ihhU, Is produced *'^ir^t painter, bora in 1811, studied at 

Palerw iiwcay Madafaacar copal the Boyal Academy and in Italy, and 

" "--■ ^raxUiaii first_ ubiMted at the r~' '- 

__ .. /<i«#3 ] . . __ _. _ 

copal or copoli* is fonnd in some place*. Jacob and BaehaeL he secured the com- 

from tfymentra csfrwodio,- BraxUiaii first ezbibited at the academy 

copal from several species of HysMMVa In X8tt hejtalned a prise of 

and loiea, and from TraekuUtbimm lUs picture The Fir$t Triat by 

marliaiism. A substance called fottil 1844, by bis fresco the Mi 

it reaembiea copal resin In odor and miMlon for one of six frMcoea for the 
«doT. House of Lords, producing sccordlnflr 

CopalcheBark(iS';,''f.'.'Jinr* "' "' ' " ' 

•lot piewfogiuiM (order EuphorUacea) , 
• natii ' " -1 — 

rhina (order L^anlaces) of fdexico. the subjects being historical, romantir. 

It resembles cascarilla bark In its prop- or domestic. He also produced Lait 

ertlee. DayM of Cardinal WoUrf. DtpariMr« of 

finnan (kO-pao'). an ancient ruined the Pitgrim Fathtrn. LAUagra and It 

viufiou ^tynf Honduras. Central Amer- Pmueroto, MtlloH'i Drram. flkvtoefc tnd 

icB. on the Copan Blver. with some Jettica, Anyt PBae and Bhitder. Ltmr 

remarkable remains of Indtaa origin. and Cordelia. Hr hpcame A.R.A. In 

flnTtATCPnArv 'ki>-P"r'se-na-riK In 1844 and H.A. In 1848, but retired in 

W)parcenBry ,g^ partnership in 1883, and died in 18B0. 

inheritance: Joint heirship In irtilch each finna Edward Dbirkei, an «m]nnt 

la entitled to a diatlnet share of the ben- ^^i^f naturalist, bom at Philadelphia 

efits. while the property lemalns nn- Pennsylvania, In 1840 : died In 18B7. H* 

AvMed. waa profcuor of B&tnral Uatory at 



Haverford College 1804-87. and for 
miinjr years {MUieontologiBt to the United 
States Territorial Surreys. In 1884 he 
was appointed corator of the National 
Mnseam in Washington, in 1891 became 
professor of geology in the University 
of Pennsylvania, and in 1896 was presi^ 
dent of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science. He gave 
special attention to comparative anatomy 
and did excellent work in the systematic 
arrangement of the fishes and hatra- 
chians and some groups of reptiles and 
mammals. He discovered and described 
over lOUU species of- fossil vertebrata and 
made extensive explorations in the fossil- 
bearing strata of the western United 
States and elsewhere. He made im- 
portant contributions to the theory of 
evolution, writing Origin of the Fittest 
and Primary Factors of Organic UvolU' 
tion, also many works and papers on 
systematic anatomy and descriptions of 
the Cretaceous and Tertiary Vertebrates. 
His Emtinct Vertebrata of the Eooene 
Formations of Wyoming describes some 
of the most remarxable types of mamma* 
lia ever discovered. He purchased the 
American NaturaUst in IS^l and edited 
it till his death. 

CODeck Uf^'Pf ^ J kopeika, a lance), a 
wj#%«wA Russian copper coin, so called 
from the impression of St George bear- 
ing a lance, the hundredth part of a 
silver rouble, or about the eightieth part 
of a paper rouble. It Is equal in value 
to about three-fourths of a cent. 

Copenhagen ^^^^ij^l^^,'>^^;. 

chants' haven), the capitaJ of Denmark, 
on the Sound, the larger and older por- 
tion of it on the east side of the Island 
of Zealand, a smaller portion on the 
north point of the island of Amager, with 
a branch of the sea forming the har- 
bor between them. The old fortifications, 
which formerly separated the city from 
its extensive suburbs, have been leveled 
and converted into promenades, and a 
modem system of fortifications con- 
structed on a grand scale, far beyond the 
site of the old town and embracing 
canals to flood the approaches to the 
dty. These convert it into a great 
stronghold. The city is mostly well 
bulit, principally of brick. The chief 
buildings are the roysl palace of Rosen- 
borg with many antiques and precious 
articles; the Amalienborg, consisting, 
properly speaking, of four palaces, one 
of them the usual residence of the sov- 
ereign: the pslace of Charlottenborg, 
now the repository of the Academy of 
Arts; the Royal Library, oontaming 
660,000 Toltimes and 26,000 manuscripts; 

Thorwaldsen's Museum, containing a. 
great many of the sculptor's works: the 
university buildings, the Tor Fruf 
Kirke. the arsenal, etc The univer 
sity, founded by Christian I in 1478, has 
over 2000 students, and a library ot 
800,000 volumes. The museum of North- 
em antiquities and the ethnographic 
museum, founded in 1892, are unrivaled 
of their kind. The harbor is safe and 
commodious. Copenhagen is the princi- 
pal station of the Danish fleet and the 
center of the commerce of Denmark. It 
carries on an active trade with Norway, 
Sweden, Russia and Germany, and in 
particular with Britain, the principal 
exports being grain, butter, d&eese, beef, 
pork, cattle, horseiL hides, etc It has 
foundries and machine-works, extensive 
shipyards, woolen and cotton mills, por- 
celam works, breweries, distilleries, etc, 
and produces also watdaes, docks, piano- 
fortes, etc. Sugar-refining and tanning 
are carried on. Copenhasen is first men- 
tioned as a fishing hamlet in 1048. In 
1443 it was made the capital of Den- 
mark. It has occasionally suffered much 
from fires and from hostile attacks, the 
most disastrous being the bombardment 
by the British from the 2d to the 6th 
of September, 1807. In 1801 the Danish 
fleet was here defeated by Sir Hyde 
Parker and Nelson. The environs in 
iKftme parts are verv fine. Pop. with sub- 
urbs, in 1911, 669,898. 

CoPeDOda (kp-PJP'o-^), an order of 
Jr 1^ minute entom ostracoua 

fresh-water and marine Crustacea, so 
named because their five pairs of foot 
are mostly used for swimming (Gr. 
kopif an oar). 

Copernicus <pte^X^Ho2Iaf ^J^ 

tronomer, bom at Thorn, then in Poland, 
in 1473, his family being supposed to 
have come originally from Westphalia. 
He first studied medicine at Cracow, and 
afterwards devoted himself to mathe- 
matics and astronomy, and in 1600 
taught mathematics at Itome with great 
success. Returning to his own country, 
he was made canon in the cathedral of 
Frauenburg, and began to work out his 
new system of astronomy. Doubting 
that the motions of the heavenly bodies 
could be confused and so complicated 
as the Ptolemaic system (which see) 
made them, he was induced to consider 
the simpler hypothesis that the sun was 
the center round which the earth and 
the other planets revolve. Besides this 
fundamental truth Copernicus antid- 

Eated, for he can scarcely be said to 
ave proved, many other of the prind- 
pal facts of astronomical sdence, rach 

Copiapd Copper 

u the motioa of the e&rth ronnd its the mo*t ductile end malleable of mettlai 
axis, the inunense distance of the start It is more elastic than any m«t>l ^uept 
which made their apparent podtioii the steel, and the most sonoroos erf all ex- 
same from an; part of the earth's orbit, cept aluminium. Its conductiiiK power 
etc His general theorjr alao enabled for heat and electricitf is inferior 4ni1; 
bim to eiplsin lor the first time man; of to that of Bilver. It has a distinct odor 
the important phenomena of nature, and an unpleasant, metallic taste. It is 
such as the vsristions of the seasons and cot altered by water, but tarnishes by 
the preceHsion of the equinoies. The exposure to tbe air, and becomes co?- 
great work in which Copernicus ex- ered with a green carbonate. It occon 

Slained his theory, De Orbivm CfElettium native in branched pieces, dendritic. In 
'evolulionibui ('On tbe Revolutions of tbin plates, and rarely in regular oyt- 
tbe Celestial Orbs'), was completed in tals, in the primitive and older second- 
1530, and published at Nuremberg in sry rocks. Blocks of native copper have 
1&4S. He was not ex communicated on sometimes been obtained welshing many 
account of it. He died at Frauenburg tons. Its ores are numerous and abun- 
in 1543. danL Of these, several contain sulphur 

G0DiaT)6 (k&-pe-a-pO'), the name of a nnd iron or other metal, such as copper 
r^ r^ river and a tuwn in Ata- glance or vitreous copper (CdiS) ; gray 
cams, Chile. The river flows west from copper or Fablers, one of tbe most aMO- 
the Andes to tbe Pacific, and has a. course dant and Important ores; and copper 
of 1S5 miles. About 30 miles from the pyrites or yellow copper ore (CnFeSi), 
sea is the town of CopiBp6, or Ssn Frsn- another abundant ore. The red oxide 
dsco de la Selva, the center of an impor- of copper (Cu^) forms crystals of a 
tant mining district. I*op, 10,287. The ""« red color, and is used for coloring 
seaport, Calders, stands at the moutb of glsss. There are two native carbonates, 
the river and has about 2800 inbabl- the blue and the ^reen, the latter bein; 
tnntn. the beautiful mineral malachite, tbe 

,. „.' npper former also known ss blue malachite. 

__ „ ., ^ wall made to Blue vitriol is a snlpbate, and is used for 

project and slope so as to carry the rain- dyeing and preparing pigmenta, as ore 
water clear of the walL various other copper compounds. Ver- 

CotiIpv (hople), John SnfOLrrOR, a diffrit is an acetate. Tbe arsenite of 
vvyis,j Belf'tsugbt snd distiDruisbed copper is the pigment SoA«ele'i green. 
painter, born in 1737 at Boston, Massa- BchtoeinfuriK green is another copper 
cbusetts; died in London In 1815. where pigment. All the compounda of copper 
he bad settled in 1TT& acquiring a are poisonous. It is found tn most 
reputation as a historical painter. Be European countries, in Australia and 
was elected a member of the Royal Jspsn. in Africa and in America, tbe 
Academy in 1779. His most celebrated United States being much the grestest 
picture is the Death of Lord Chatham, producer. The world's total annual yield 
now in tbe National Gsllery. His son of copper is about 1,250,000 metric tons, 
becsme Lord Lyndburst. of which the United Stnles produces from 

,. .„ ., flOO,000 to 800,000 metric tons, the great 

Idelds being in Arizons, Montana, Hicbi- 
ian, Utah and Nevada, 

^- „, ,.^ _.. ,v„ .„ ,„,. _..^j iu,„„B„ Copper is extracted from Its ores eiUier 

the Mexican war, resigning in 1856 snd by the dry or tbe wet process. For the 
becoming professor of Engliab litera- former, what is known as the Welsh 
tnre In the University of Pennsylvania. Process Is most common in the Cornwall 
He was president of Lehigh University mines of Great Britain, snd may be de- 
1866-75. afterwards profeasor of history scribed. It consists In alternately roast- 
there, and in 1874 waa made a regent of Ing tbe ore, and then smelting It In a 
the Smithfwnian Tnifitutlon. He wrote fnmace with a suitable slag, until Im- 
BlemenU of Logic. Elements of Rhetoric. Pure or bUtler oopp<^ Is obtslned. &- 
Congueit of Spain bv the Arai-Maort. fore this stage is resched a metallic 
etc. Died in 1895. compound of copper, sulphur and iron 

PnTtTiBT fliop'erl. one of the most has t>een produced, technicsllv known as 
uuppcr anciently known metals, de- moll, regului. or coane metal, snd sub- 
riving Its nsme from Cvprvi. large sop- sequently a tolerably pore sulphide of 
plies baring in Greek and Roman times copper called fine metal. The blister 
eome from fhnt Island. It In a metal copper is refined bv burning off the enl- 
•f a pale-red color tlnared with vellow : pbur. arsenle, and other volatile Im- 
cbemlcal symbol Co. atomic weight «3.2. purities, and by melting it along wldi 
Next to gold, riWer and platinum it Is wood charcoal and stirring it witb a 


wooden pole. The quality is then tested, 
and, if found satisfactory, the copper 
is cast into ingots. In extracting the 
metal from pyrites by the wet process, 
the ore is first roasted to get rid of the 
larger proportion of sulphur, then the 
calcined residue, still containing sulphur, 
is mixed with common salt, ground and 
heated in ovens. The copper is thus 
converted into chloride, part of which 
voiatilises, but is condensed along with 
arsenic and other substances, by pas- 
sage through flues and water-condensers. 
After some hours the calcined mixture 
is raked out of the ovens, cooled, and 
transferred to tanks, where it is ex- 
hausted by successive treatment with 
water. The solution, containing chloride 
of copper, sulphate and chloride of so- 
dium, and iron salts, is next heated along 
with scrap-iron. Copper precipitates in 
the form of a ruddy, lustrous, tolerably 
compact mass, with a crystalline appear- 
ance, and mixed with metallic iron and 
oxide. The larger pieces of iron are 
picked out, the precipitate washed and 
drained, and then rendered compact by 
heating in a furnace. A slag containing 
the oxide of iron formsj and the cop- 
per, when judged eufiiciently pure, is 
run into molds. Afterwards this crude 
metal is refined and toughened in the 
usual way, and the slags are employed 
as in the Welsh process. Some of the 
alloys of copper, especially those con- 
taining tin and sine, are of considerable 
importance, e. g., bronze, an alloy com- 
posed of varying parts of copper, and tin ; 
heUrtnetal also produced from an alloy of 
copper and tin; British bronze coin- 
age, copper 05, tin 4, zinc 1. Copper 
is applied to a great many useful pur- 
poses. In sheets it is used for shentning 
the bottoms of ships, covering roofs and 
domes, the constructing of boilers and 
stills of a large size, etc. It is also used 
in electrotyping and engraving, for vari- 
ous household utensils and fittings; but 
its use for household utensils is by no 
means free from danger on account of the 
action of acids on it, which produces ver- 
digris. As it is one of the best cond\ictors 
of electricity, it is now largely employed 
for this purpose, especially in conducting 
the powerful currents used in power 

Copperas i^ ^ p'®-^ » «> • f^^P\^}% 2^ 

ww^^wAMM jfQji^ or green vitnol (FeS- 
0«.7HaO), a salt of a peculiar astringent 
taste and of a fine green color. When 
exposed to the air it assumes a brown- 
ish hue. It is much used in dyeing black 
and in making ink, and in medicine as a 
tonic. The copperas of commerce is 


usually made by the decomposition of iron 

Copper Glance <„^),^nrw 

gray color. It contains a high percentage 
of copper, and abounds in Cornwall, Eng- 
land, and in many European countries. 

Copperhead. .* venomous North Amer- 
wv^^^AMvw^a.^ j^j^j snake, the Ancia- 

irodon contortriw of the rattlesnake fam- 
ily, of the same genus as the water- 
moccasin, but it is not aquatic. While it 
has no rattle, its bite is as deadly as that 
of any snake of its size. 

Copperheads, ^n epithet applied to 

^"^ ' pacifists and disloyal 

Northerners during the Civil War. The 
Ohioans are given credit for the first use 
of the term, probably having in mind the 
characteristics of the snake of that name. 
The copperhead snake hides in tall grass 
or lurks in crannies of rocks and strikes 
without a previous hint of his animosity. 
He never comes out into the open. Sim- 
ilar traitorous characteristics were sus- 
pected in the pacifist, hence the transfer 
of the title. During the European war 
the epithet was revived and applied to 
those who did not believe in carrying the 
war to a military conclusion. 

Coppermine Kiver, ^^^^^y'^^^li 

British North America, which falls, after 
a course of about 250 miles, into the Arc- 
tic Ocean, in lat. 68* N. ; long. 116° w. 

Copper-nickeL **"• kuppebnickel, 

'^'^ ' an ore of nickel, an 

alloy of nickel and arsenic, containing 
about 60 of the former and 40 of the 
latter, of copper color, found in the mines 
of Westphalia and dsewhere. It often 
accompanies cobalt and silver ores. Called 
also ntccolite. 

Copper-plate, 1^2?^^^ ^^\^ .S^ 

^ ^'r r y copper on which the 

lines of some drawing or design are en- 
graved or etched to be printed from ; also 
a print or impression from such a plate. 

Copper Pjrrites (pi-rf-tcz). or yei- 

'^^ •' low copper ore. a 

double sulphide of copper and iron, com- 
posed in equal parts of copper, sulphur 
and iron. It occurs in metalliferous veins 
and is the commonest of the ores of 

Coppice ^^^op'is)* or Copse Wood, a 
^'^^ wood in which the trees are 
cut periodically as they attain a certain 
size. The term is also used in a general 
sense for a wood of small growth, or con- 
sisting of underwood and brushwood. 
Copra (^op'ra)f the dried kernel of 
^ the cocoanut, from which the 

oil has no