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I\F 1761'^ 

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1 WTilteptn& £. Shellbart Ijlckory. S. Bed wjruce. 4, Inc«DM» DeO&r. S. Hemlfick, •- Blftck **lniit, 7. 

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Patents Nos. 910034, 9160^, 916036 





LiueraUuTy Historian and Encyclopedist 

Author of "Civilisation, an Historical Review of Ita 
Elements.'* "The Aryan Race." "Manual of Classical 
Literature." "Man and His Ancestors," "Famous Men 
and Great Events of the Nineteenth Century," and 
numerous other works. Editor of "Twentieth Cen- 
tury Encyclopedta." ' Biographical Dictionary." 
"Famous Orators of the World." "Half Hours with 
the Best American Authors," etc.. etc Member of 
the "Academy of Natural Sictences of Philadelphia,** 
••Gecwraphical Society of Philadelphia.** "Natural Hia- 
tory Society," and "Sodety for Psychical Research.*! 

Assisted by — 


Authorities on Special SubjecU 

In XCen IPolumcs 



Philadelphia, Pa. Chicago, III. 


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Kf /7<^/"2 

1 I 


IMar LMtMi Pftteat Not. 010034. 010035. 010008 


Thb John C. Winston Co. 

Copyright 1012, 1013. 1014. 1015. 1010, 1017 

Tbe«ntin Contents and IUusti«tloiM In thia work 
nra pcoiooted by oopyright, and the CumuUthro 
Byatem is protected by patent lishts. AU persons 
are warned not to use any portion ofthewoilKOO 
sake UM ol the Oumulauve Bysteoi. 

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Three methods are used to indicate the pronunciation of the words 
forming the headings of the separate articles: 

(1) By dividing the word into syllablesi and indicating the syllaUe 
or syllables to be accented. This method alone is followed where the 
pronunciation is entirely obvious. Where accent marks are omitted, the 
omission indicates that all syllables are given substantially the same value. 

(2) Where the pronunciation differs from the spelling, the word is 
re-spelled phonetically, in addition to the accentuation. 

(3) Where the sound values of the vowels are not sufficiently indicated 
merely by an attempt at phonetic spelling, the following system of diacritical 
marks is additionally employed to approximate the proper sounds as 
dosely as may be done: 

I, at la tattt or in iMne. 

I, as in elms, Fr. 4iiie» Ger. Balm=A 

of Indian names. 
Af the same sonnd short or medinm* as 

in Fr. bal* Oer. Mann. 
«f as in fat 
i, as in folL 
•» obscure, as in mrel, rimilar to n in 

bst, 6 in h«r: common in Indian 

f^ as in me=» in machtne. 

e, as in met. 

fy as in her. 

I, as in pine, or as e< in Ger. Moin. 

I, as in pin, also used for the short 
souna correspondinf to S, at in 
French and Italian words. 

en, a lonf sound as in Fr. J«tee^=s 
Ger. lonf d, as in 8^9ine, Gtftho 
(Goethe). < 

en, correspondins sound short or medi- 
urn, as in Fr. pen = Ger. 9 short. 

0, as in note, moon. 

o,a8innot,fro8^ — that 1% short or medium. 

0, as in moye, two. 

11, as in t«be. 

u, as in tifb : similar to 6 and also to sl 

n, as in biilL 

a, as in Sc ai>«fne=:Fr. 4 as in d^ 
Ger. # lonf as in grfin, Bfihne. 

ft, the correspondinf short or medium 
sound, as in Fr. Imt, Ger. MitUer. 

oi, iM in oiL 

ou, as in pound ; or as an in Ger. Hans. 

The consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, 1, m, n, ng, p, sh, t, v, and z, when 
printed in Roman type, are always given their common English values in 
the transliteration of foreign words. The letter o is indicated by 8 or k, 
as the case may be. For the remaining consonant sounds the following 
symbols are employed: . 

di is always as in tiok. 
4, nearly m» ih in ihiB^Bp. d in 
Madrid, etc 

I is always hard, as in ^a 
represents the futtural in Scotdi 
lock, Ger. nacik, also other similar 
^ Fr. nasal n as in bow. 
t r epr e se nts botii Bnflish r, and r in 
fonofa words, in whidi it is fen- 

erally much more strong trilled, 
s, always as in to. 
tti, as <J^ in thiiL 
ih, as M in thU. 

w always consonantal, as in «oe. 
X = ks, which are used instead, 
y always consonantal, as in yea (We^ 

Ugne would be re-written Itey). 
ih, as t in pleasure = Fr. /. 

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W the twentieth letter in the English 
9 alphabet, a sharp mute consonant, 
representing the sound produced by a 
quick and strong emission of the breath 
after the end of the tongue has been 
placed against the roof of the mouth 
near the roots of the upper teeth. By 
Grimm's Law t in English corresponds 
to d in Latin. Greek and Sanskrit, and 
to t« or 8 in German. 
T&AfiiT10*A (td'sing-^), an island of 
Ac»wM.A&5^ Denmark, south of Funen; 
area, 29 square miles. Pop. 4035. 
T&b&HllS (t<^h'a-nus). See Oad-fiy, 

a sort of tunic of 
ages, worn oyer 
the armor, and generally embroidered 
with the^ arms of the wearer, or if worn 

Tabard ^^l^^'> 

Tsbsrii, Sir John Cornwall, AmpthiU Oburch, 

by a herald, with those of his lord or 
•oyereign. It still forms a part of the 
oflBcial dress of heralds. 
TabflAGO (tA-bftsIcO), a state of Mezi- 
ACftMCMw ^^^ between Yucatan Penin- 
sula and Vera Cruz; area, 10,072 square 
miles. The surface consists almost en- 
tirely of a great flat, sloping northwards 
to the Gulf of Mexico. A Targe portion. 
of the state is still covered with primeval 

forests. The inhabitants are chiefly In- 
dians. The capital is San-Juan-Bautista. 
Pop. of the state, 159334^ 
TaVasheer. ^' Tabashib (Persian), 
* ^ ' a siliceous concretion re- 

sembling hydrophane, sometimes found 
in the joints of bamboos and other large 

frasses. It is highly valued in the East 
ndies as a medicine, but its virtues are 
merely imaginary. 

Tabbv (^A^'^)> ^^ name given to 
d.c»MMjr gtuffg watered or figured by 
being passed through a calender, the 
rollers of which, bearing unequally on 
the stuff, render the surface unequal, so 
as to reflect the rays of light differ- 
ently, and produce the representation of 
waves. Silks treated in this way are 
called motr^. 

Tabernacle i^\^S^^%\l^''^ 

sanctuary in which the sacred utensils 
were kept during the wanderings of the 
Israelites in the desert It was in the 
shape of a parallelogram, 45 feet by 15, 
and 15 feet in height, with its smaller 
ends placed east and west, and having its 
entrance in the east. Its framework con- 
sisted of forty-eight gilded boards of shit- 
tim-wood, bound together by golden rings 
and set into silver sockets; and this 
framework was covered with four car- 
pets. The interior was divided by a cur- 
tain into two compartments, the outer the 
'sanctuary' proper, and the innermost 
the holy of holies. In the sanctuary was 

E laced on the north the table of show- 
read, on the south the golden candle- 
stick, and in the middle, near the inner 
curtain, the altar of incense. In the 
center of the holy of holies stood the ark 
of the covenant The tabernacle was sit- 
uated in a court 150 feet by 75, sur- 
rounded by costly screens 7i feet hight. 
and supported by pillars of brass 7i feet 
apart, to which the curtains were at* 
tached by hooks and flllets of silver. In 
the outer or eastern half of the court 
stood the altar of burnt-offering, and be- 
tween it and the tabernacle itself the 
laver, at which the priests washed their 
hands and feet before entering the sane- 

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tuaiy. It was superseded by the temple 
at Jerusalem. 

Tabernacle, ^ cccleslology, an oma- 
Af»MVAu«»vAvy mented receptacle In 
which the hoet is kept on the altar; also 
a reliquaiy. 

Tabernacles, SS^'SrS?' ^S.tX8.' 

vals of the Jews which required the pres- 
ence of all the males in Jerusalem. Its 
object was to commemorate the dwellinf 
of the Israelites in tents during their so- 
journ in the wilderness, and it was also 
a feast of thanksgiving for the harvest 
and vintage. The time of the festival 
fell in the autumn, when all the chief 
fruits were gathered in. and hence it is 
often called the feast of the ingathering. 
Its duration was strictly only seven days, 
but it was followed by a day of holy con- 
vocation of peculiar solemnitv. During 
the seven days the people lived in booths 
erected in the courts of houses, on the 
roofs, and in the court of the temple. It 
was the most joyous festival of the year. 
TabftS (till)te), a term formerly ap- 
A»w« jjg^ j^ ^ disease characterised 
by a gradually progressive emaciation of 
the wnole body, accompanied with lan- 
guor, depressed spirits, and, for the most 
part, imperfect or obscure hectic fever, 
without the real cause of the affection 
being properly localised or defined.-^ 
ra6e0 mefeiilenoo. abdominal phthisis, or 
consumption of the bowels, is a disease 
of the bowels caused by the formation of 
tubercles similar to those of the lungs in 
ordinary consumption. It causes extreme 
wasting, feebleness, and thinness of body, 
and recovery is rare. — Tahet dorMi$ is 
the same as locomotor ata^y (which see). 
TfihiTi^t (tab'i-net), a rich fabric con- 
J-aOineX slstlng of a warp of silk and 
a weft of wool, employed for window 
curtains and other furniture purposes. 
Table ^®^^^^* ^^ Round Table, 

Tableaux Vivants ^§^^T5R: 

ing pictures*), representations of scenes 
from history or fiction by means of per- 
sons grouped In the proper manner, 
placed in appropriate postures, and re- 
maining silent 

Table-land. otFllteav (pu-to;), a 

A.AWAiT'MUAUi g^^ ^j. comparatively 
level tract of land considerably elevated 
above the general surface of a country. 
Being in effect broad mountain masses, 
many of these plateaus form the gather- 
ing-grounds and sources of some of the 
noblest rivers, while their elevation con- 
fers on them a climate and a vegetable 
and animal life distinct from that of the 
surrounding lowlands. In Europe the 

chief table-lands are that of Central 
Spain, the less-defined upland in Switxer- 
land, and the low plateaus of Bavaria 
and Bohemia. In Asia is the most ex- 
tensive table-land in the world, the sandy 
rainless Desert of Gobi, nearly 400/000 
square miles; also the loftiest inhabited 
table-land in the world, that of Tioet, 
with an elevation of from 11,000 to 15,- 
000 feet In Africa are the platans of 
Abyssinia, and the karoos or terrace 
plains of South Africa. In America the 
great table-lands are those of Mexico and 
the Andes. The table-lands of the West- 
ern United States are of large extent, 
comprising much of the states of Colo- 
rado, Utah, Oregon. Washington, and 
Idaho, with considerable portions of other 

Table Mountain, g ™f ?°**?L« ^^ 

^%m*M*,^ .M»wiUAvcMU| South Africa, 
south of Table Bay, its highest point be- 
ing right over Cape Town. It is about 
3600 feet high and level on the top. It 
joins the Devil's Mount on the east, and 
the Sugar Loaf or Lion's Head on the 

Table-tnmin&r. ^°® ^' /**^,-tZ^f 

AWMAv VMJ.UAU5I nomena of spiritual- 
ism, in which a number of persons sit 
around a table, with hands or fingers 
touching it, the result in many cases be- 
ing a tipping or other movements of the 
table, questions asked being frequently 
answered bv responsive tips indicating 
*yes' or ^no.' The phenomenon has 
been ascribed to involuntary muscular ac- 
tion of the sitters, but in view of the 
fact that the table is occasionally lifted 
bodily from the floor, while touched only 
on its surface, this explanation seems in- 
sufllcient The a^ncy at work is claimed 
to be that of spintual beings, but further 
investigation is needed before any decision 
in this problem can be reached. 
Taboo ^' Tabu ( ta-b5' ), a peculiar 
A»Mvv| ingtitation formerly prevalent 
among the South Sea islanders, and used 
in both a good and bad sense — as some- 
thing sacred or consecrated, and as some- 
thing accursed or unholy — both senses 
forbidding the touching or use of the 
thing taboo. The Idea of prohibition was 
always prominent. The whole religious, 
political, and social system of the prim- 
itive Polynesians was enforced by the 
taboo, the infringement of which in seri- 
ous cases was death. 

Tnlwir (tftni)ur), a small drum, beaten 
**"* with a stick, and used as an 
accompaniment to a pipe or fife. 
Tolwtr (t&l>ur), a remarkable hill of 
Atmur Northern Palestine, rising 
abruptly in the shape of an almost per- 
fect cone from the plain of EsdraUon to 

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a beifbt of nearly 1000 feet It is 
clothed with woods to the very summit, 
where a view of immense extent is ob- 
tained. Its isolation led the earlier ec- 
clesiastics to make it the scene of the 
transfiguration; but the historical data 
which we possess show that its summit 
was employed without intermission from 
218 B.a till 70 a.d. as a stronghold. 
Tftbor (t&'bor), a town of Bohemia, 
•*■* ' on an eminence above the 
Losebnits, 48 miles 8. 8. E. of Prague, 
with old walls and towers. Its castle was 
a stronghold of the sect of Hussites called 
Taborites, and makes a conspicuous figure 
in their history. Pop. 10.703. 
TaboriteS. see Sussites. 

TohrAA7 or Tabbiz (tk-hr^: the 
xaurcez, ancient Tauris), a cltv of 
Persia, capital of the province of Azer- 
bijan, on the Aigi, 36 miles above its en- 
trance into Lake tJrumia. It lies at the 
inner extremity of an amphitheater, 
about 4000 feet above sea-level, with hills 
on three sides, and an extensive plain on 
the fourth. It is surrounded with a wall 
of sun-dried brick, with bastions, and en- 
tered by seven or eight gates. There are 
numerous mosques, bazaars, baths, and 
caravanserais. The citadel, originally a 
mosque, and 600 years old, was converted 
by Abbas Mirza into an arsenal. The 
blue mosque dates from the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Tabreez has manufactures of silks, 
cottons, carpets, leather and leather 
goods, etc. It is the great emporium for 
the trade of Persia on the west, and has 
an extensive commerce. It has frequently 
suffered from earthquakes. Pop. esti- 
mated about 200,000. 

Tabular-spar ^^^^'V^^.^j^^''. ^^^ 

AMMiucM a^a,M. gp^jj (called also Wol- 
lc9tonite)f in mineralogy,^ a silicate of 
lime, generally of a s[rayish-white color. 
It occurs either massive or crystallized, 
in rectangular four-sided tables, and us- 
ually in granite or granular limestone, 
occasionally in basalt or lava. 
Tacabont (tak'a-hat), the small ^lOl 
Aw^/«M*vM.v f^pnj^ QQ tjjg tamarisk- 
tree (Tamariw indica). It is of great 
value for the gallic acid obtained from it 
which is used as a mordant in dyeing and 
in tanning. 

TaoamtdiaC (tak'a^ma-hak), the 
A<»vTYiiinruMv ujinjg given to a bitter 

balsamic resin, the produce of several 
kinds of trees belonging to Mexico and 
the West Indies, the East Indies, South 
America, and North America. The bal- 
sam-poplar or tacamahac is one of these. 
See also CalophyUum. 

Tacbygrapby <^^^'^-fi>- ^^ 

Tachypetes iJtwr^Jf"*^^- seeFHi^- 

Tacitus (tas'i-tus), Caius Cobneli- 
us, an eminent Roman his- 
torian, bom probably about 54 a.d. Of 
his education and early life we know lit- 
tle. He seems to have been first ap- 
pointed to public office in the reign of 
Vespasian. Under Titus, by whom he 
was treated with distinguished favor, he 
became questor or eedile ; was pnetor un- 
der Domitian (a.d. 88), and consul un- 
der Nerva (a.d. 97). In 78 he married 
the daughter of Cneius Julius Agricola, 
the celebrated statesman and general, 
whose life he afterwards wrote. He was 
several years absent from Rome on 
provincial business, and probably then 
made the acquaintance of the German 
peoples. After his return to Rome he 
lived in the closest intimacy with the 
younger Pliny, and had a very extensive 
practice in the profession of law, acquir- 
ing a high reputation as an orator. The 
time of his death is uncertain; but it 

grobably took place after a.d. 117. We 
ave four historical works from his pen: 
his AnnaUf in sixteen books (of which 
books seventh to tenth inclusive are lost), 
which contain an account of the principal 
events in Roman history from the death 
of Augustus (A.D. 14) to that of Nero 
(AJ). 68} ; his History (of which only 
four books and a part of the fifth are 
extant), which begins with the year 69 
A.D., when Galba wore the purple, and 
ends with the accession of Vespasian 
(70) ; his Oermany, an account of the 
geography, manners, etc., of the country; 
and his Life of Agricola. The works of 
Tacitus have been pronounced, by the 
unanimous voice of his contemporaries 
and of posterity, to be masterpieces in 
their way. His style is exceedingly con- 
cise, so much so as to make it often 
difficult to gather his full meaning with- 
out great care. He had a wonderful in- 
sight into character, and could paint it 
with a master's hand. A high moral tone 
pervades all his writings, though he gives 
no clue to his religious belief. 
Tack (^^^): ^° navigation, the course 
* of a ship in regard to the position 

o£ her sails and the angle at which the 
wind strikes them. Tacking is an oper- 
ation bpr which a ship is enabled to beat 
up against a wind by a series of zigzags, 
the sails being turned obliquely to the 
wind first on one side and then on the 
Tackamahack. ®^ Tacamahac 

TaCUa (tak'n&), a town of N. C^hile, 

in a plain on a river of same 

name, connected by rail with Arica. It 

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is of some commercial importance. Pop. 

Tfi.r»Anifi. (tA-ko'mA), a city and port 
xacoma ^^ Washington, on Com- 
mencement Bay, Puget Sound, 80 miles 
from the Pacific coast and 23 miles 8. by 
w. of Seattle. Its situation is one of 
great beauty, commanding a magnificent 
yiew of Mount Rainier. It has an ex- 
cellent harbor, with docks and wharves 
several miles in length, and has a laige 
ocean traffic; also extensive shipyards. 
Lumber, shingles, and flour are very 
largely manufactured and there are 
many other industries. There are four 
steamship lines to the Orient and others 
to many iMirts of the world. Pop. 83,- 

Taconio Mountains i^fnVi^^^'r.'f 

ran g e o i 
mountains fn the United States, con- 
necting the Green Mountains of Western 
Massachusetts with the highlands of the 
Hudson. The ' Taconic System,' in sfeol- 
ogy, was named from the characteristic 
strata of this range, a metamorphic rock, 
believed to be older than the Silurian 

Tactics (tak'tiks), the branch of mili- 
tary science which relates to 
the conduct of troops in battle. Naval 
tactics has the same significance in re- 
lation to the handling of ships and 
fleets. Strategy, on the other hand, re- 
fers to the movements leading up to a 
battle. See Battle. 

Tacunga ^^^If^^^,^^,, »T t^l 

province of Leon, at the foot of Goto- 
paxi. Pop. 15,000. 
Tadema. ®^ Alma-Tadema. 

Tadmor. ^^ Palmyra. 

Tadnole (^^'P^Of the name given to 
" the larval or young state of 

frogs and other amphibians. 
TiiaI (t&l)* a money of account in 
***^* China worth about $1.50, the 
value of which varies considerably ac- 
cording to locality and the rate of ex- 
change. The tael is also a definite 
weight, equal to 1.208 oz. troy. 
TsBnia ®*® Tape-toorm, 

Taepings. ^^ ^**'»*- 

Taffeta (tafe-ta), or Taffety, was 
^^^ originally the name applied to 

all kinds of plain silks, but has now be- 
come a kind of generic name for plain 
silk, gros de Naples, gros des Indes, shot 
silk, glac^i and others. 
Taffrflil originally the upper flat 
Acu&ACMA; part of a ship's stern, so 

called because frequently ornamented 
with carvings or pictures; now a trans- 
verse rail which constitutes the upper- 
most member of a ship's stem. 
rpnff Alphonso, jurist, bom in Town- 
^^*-h send, Vermont, in 1810; was 
judge of the Cincinnati Superior Court, 
1866-1872; appointed Secretary of War, 
March 8, 1876; and made attorney- 
general. May 22. He was United States 
minister to Austna in 1882-1884, and 
to Russia, in 1884-1885. He died May 
21, 1891. 

Toff LoBADO, American sculptor, bom 
^^^h at Elmwood, IIL, in 1860. He 
was for a number of years an instructor 
in the Art Institute, Chicago. Amons 
his works are The Solitude of the Soul, 
The Blind, Fountain of the Oreat Lake: 
He is the author of Htstory of American 
Sculpture (1903). 

Toff William Howabd, twenty-sev- 
''^^'•h enth President of the United 
States, was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
September 15, 1857; son of Alphonso 
Taft Admitted to the bar in 1860, he be- 
came judge of the Superior Court of Ohio 
in 1887; United States Solicitor-General 
in 1890 ; and a judge of the United States 
Circuit Court in 1892. He held this 
position until 1900, being also dean and 
professor in the law department of the 
University of Cincinnati, 1896-1900. In 
the latter year he was made chairman 
of the Philippine Commission, and in 
1901 civil governor of the Philippine Isl- 
ands. In 1903 he was appointed Secre- 
tary of War in President Roosevelt's 
cabinet, in 1906 was seat to investigate 
tile troubles in Cuba, of which he was 
for a time provisional governor, and in 
1907 and 1909 made tours of inspection 
to Panama. He was elected president by 
the Republican party in 1908. His ad- 
ministration was distinguished by two 
special sessions of Congress, the passage 
of a new tariff bill, the prosecution of 
several corporations and movements in 
the line of conservation and reform. He 
was renominated in 1912; but was de- 
feated, partly owine to the split in the 
Republican party, oee Progressive Party. 
Ta^anrOfi* (tA-gAn-rok'), a seaport of 
^^ o Russia, in the government 

of Ekaterinoslav, on the low cape on the 
northern shore of the Sea of Azof. It 
is built chiefly of wood, but the im- 
perial palace where Alexander I died in 
1825. and the Greek monastery are 
worthy of notice. Pop (1910) ^300. 
Tiia»1iATii (t&l-yO'ng), Mabie, bom in 
Xagliom jQQ^-^ was knowT through- 
out Europe as the first ballet dancer of 
her time. She retired from the stage in 
1847 ; but supported herself in London as 

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Tagore Talavera de la Beina 

a teacW of deportment She died at for transmitting sounds to a distance 
Marseilles in 1884. through the agency of light He took 

TafiTOre Rabindbanath, a Hindu poet part in the 1874 expedition to the South 
o ^ born in I860, known in the Pacific to observe the transit of Venus. 
Occident chiefly through his own transla- Was decorated by the French Academy in 
tions of his poems, though in India he 1809. 

is widely honored as a teacher and man Tqitiitio* or Taspinq (tl-ping'). See 
of affairs. Tagore's works best known in •■••"I'AU^, ^^,-^ *' "** 

English are (Htaniali (devotional), The fftif (tftt), Abghibald Campbell, 
Garden and The Crescent Moon, xcut archbishop of Canterbury, son of 

Taenia (ta'gus: Spanish, Tajo; Portu- Crauford Tait writer to the signet, was 
- « , guese, re;o). the largest nver bom at Edinburgh in 1811; died in 
of Spain and Portugal, issues from the 1882. He was educated at Oxford, and 
mountains of Albaracin, on the frontier there opposed the Tractarian principles, 
of New Castile and Arason, flows north- He was appointed headmaster of Rugby 
west and southwest and enters the At- on the death of Dr. Arnold in 1842; dean 
lantic. It has a total length of 540 miles, of Carlisle in 1850; bishop of London in 
and is navigable for 115 miles. 1856; and archbishop of Canterbury in 

Tahiti tJ^'K^^V ,*K la^gjest of the 1868. His primacy was marked by the 
"* Society Islands, consisting of disesUblishment of the Irish Church, and 
two peninsulas, connected by an isthmus by the passing of the Public Worship 
3 miles broad, and submerged at high- Regulation Act of 1874. 
water; area- 412 square miles. It is m^jx Peteb Guthbie, physicist and 
hUly, volamic, beautiful, and highly fer- A*"**) mathematician, born at Dal- 
tile; and produces sugar, oocoant^ keith, Scotland, in 1831 ; was educated at 
arrow-root, dye-woods, etc. Pop. 10,639. Edinburgh and Peterhouse, Cambridge. 
See Society lalanda. In 1354 he was appointed professor of 

Tailor-bird {OrthotHmus longiowh mathematics at Queen's College, Belfast, 
ACUJ.VA wxxu. du9), a bird so named and in 1860 professor of natural philoso- 
from its curious habits of weaving or phy at Edinourgb. He was the Joint- 
sewing together leaves in order to form author, with Professor Sir William 
a nest It belongs to the sub-family of Thomson, of a textbook on Natural 
the Sylvinffi or true warblers, and in- Philoaophy, and with the late Professor 
habits India and the Eastern Archipelago. Balfour Stewart of The Unseen Universe. 
Tuinivr (tl'm^r), a peninsula of His Heat appeared in 1884, Light in 1884, 
xaxiujri Northern Siberia, extending Properties of Matter in 1885, and Dy- 
into the Arctic Ocean, between the mouth namics in 1895. For his various mathe- 
of the Yenisei and Khatang Gulf, and matical and physical researches the Royal 
containing Cape Chelyuskin, the most Society, London, awarded him a royal 
northerly land in Asia. medal in 1886. He died July 4, 1901. 

TfliTiA Ctftn ), HiPPOLTTB Adolphe, a Taiixmii (tl-wAn'), the capital of the 
Xiuue Jip^nch writer, bom at Vou- ^^^^^"^ Chinese island Formosa, one 
Eiers (Ardennes) in 1S2S, and educated of the treaty ports, with considerable 
at the Collie Bourbon and the Ecole trade in sugar and opium. Pop., includ- 
Normale. In 1854 his first iirork, an ing Takow, which almost forms one city 
Essay on Livy, was crowned by the Acad- with it, 235,000. See Formosa, 
emy; in 1864 he was appointed professor T^i-MoTiaI ( tAah-ma-hAl' ). See 
in the School of Fine Arts in Paris; and ***J •™-»**«^ Xnra. 
in 1878 he was elected to a seat in the Tainrah (t&-J5'r&), a seaport town 
Academy. li\% History of English Liten^ *«*j*m.€»ix ^^^ ^^ie African coast of the 
iure, one of the best and most philo- Gulf of Aden, on a bay of the same name, 
sophical works on the subject, appeared in It is the outlet of trade from Shoa, and 
1864 (four vols.) ; his PhUosophy of Art was ceded to France in 1887. Pop. 
in 1865 ; his Ao<e« on England m 1872 ; about 2000. 
and his Origin of Contemporary France TaVnixr See Taiwan. 
in 1875-84, the last a work of great re- -^»^"w. 

search and value, in two sections, the TalflfrAro iIa lo Paitio (t&-14-vfl'r4 
first dealing with Uancien Regime, the •^*"»vcr» ac in, xirCiua ^^ ,^ ^^,^ 
second with the Revolution, He die^i ^^)jl ^ town of Spain, in the province 
March 5, 1893. of Toledo, on the Tagus, 64 miles south- 

Tainter (t&n'ter), Chables Sumneb, east of Madrid. It has a picturesque ap- 
**^ inventor, bom at Watertown, pearance, and various interesting build- 
Massachusetts, in 1854. He was the in- Ings. A great battle was fought here 
▼entor of the grapbophone, and aided in July 27 and 28, 1809, between the French 
Snyenting the radiophone, an instrument under Victor, Jourdan, and King Joseph, 

Digitized by 




and the British under Wellington, in 
which the former were defeated. Pop. 

Talbot (^ftl'b^t), a kind of hound for- 
merly in vogue, pure white in 
color, probably the original of the blood- 
Talbotype. ^^ Photography. 

Talo (^^^)> ^ magnesian mineral, con- 
"* ** sitting of broad, flat, smooth 
lamins or plates, unctuous to the touch, 
of a shining luster, translucent, and often 
transparent when in very thin plates. 
There are three principal varieties of 
talc, common, earthy, and indurated. 
Talc is a silicate of magnesium, with 
small quantities of potash, alumina, oxide 
of iron, and water. It is used in many 

?»arts of India and China as a substitute 
or window-glass. A variety of talc 
called French chalk (or steatite) is used 
for tracing lines on wood, cloth, etc., in- 
stead of chalk. See Potstone, Soapatone, 

Talca (tal'kA), a town of Chile, capi- 
tal of the province of Talca, on 
the Claro, is connected by rail with Santi- 
ago, and has manufactures of ponchos. 
Pop. 42,766. The province has an area 
of 3664 sq. miles, and pop. 146,685. 

Talcahnana ^^l'}^;^f^^Sl' r.tJ^ 

port 01 Chile, province 
Concepcion, with an arsenal, shipyards, 
etc Pop. 13,499. 

Talent (tal'ent), the name of a weight 
and denomination of money 
among the ancient Greeks, and also ap- 
plied b^ Greek writers to various stand- 
ard weights and denominations of money 
of dififerent nations ; the weight and value 
dififering in the various nations and at 
various times. The Attic talent as a 
weight contained 60 Attic minae or 6000 
Attic drachmse, equal to 56 lbs. 11 oz. 
troy weight As a denomination of silver 
money it was equal to $1218.75. The 
great talent of the Romans is computed 
to be equal to $406.66 and the little talent 
to $375. A Hebrew weight and denom- 
ination of money, equivalent to 3000 
shekels, also receives this name. As a 
weight it was equal to about 93} lbs. 
avoir. ; as a denomination of silver it has 
been variously estimated at from $1700 
to $1980. 

Talfonrd i^»''^"''^^v, ^?\ thomas 

^^^ Noon, an English dramatist 

and poet, was bom in 1795, and was 
brought up at Reading, where his father 
was a brewer. He was called to the bar 
in 1821, and in 1833 was made serjeant- 
at-law. In 1835 he was returned to par- 
liament for Reading, and in 1836 his 
tragedy of Ion (published the previous 

year) was produced at Covent Garden, 
and achieved distinguished success. The 
tragedies subsequently produced by him 
were The Athenian Captive; Olencoe,or 
the Fate of the Macdonalda; and The 
CoitUian, an historical tragedy. Besides 
his dramas he was the author of a Life 
of Charles Lamb and of Vacation Ram* 
hies. In 1849 he was raised to the bench 
in the Court of Common Pleas, and re- 
ceived at the same time the honor of 
knighthood. He died suddenly in 1854 at 
Stafford, while delivering his charge to 
a grand-Jury. 

Taliacotian Operation i^:^)l 

See Rhinoplastic Operation, 
TflliAaaiii (tari-sin), a Welsh bard 
xuixcsaiu g^.^ ^^ ^^^^ flourished dur- 
ing the twelfth or thirteenth century, and 
styled Pen Beirdd, ' chief of the bards.' 

TaUpot Palm iifM^^f.-^t^ 

great fan-palm, a native of Cevlon. The 
cylindrical trunk reaches a height of 60 
70, or 100 feet, and is covered with a tuft 
of fan-like leaves, usuallv about 18 feet 
in length and 14 hi breadth. The leaves 

Talipot Palm {Cor^pha umbraculiffra). 

are used for covering houses, for making 
umbrellas and fans, and as a substitute 
for paper. When the tree has attained 
its full growth, the flower spike bursts 
from its envelope or spathe with a loud 
report The flower spike is then as white 
as ivory, and occasionally 30 feet long. 
When its fruit is matured, the tree gen- 
erally dies. 
Tflliamfl-n (tal'is-man), a figure cast 

Digitized by 




and made, with certain superstitious cere- 
monies, at some particular moment of 
time, as when a certain star is at its cul- 
minatiniT point, or when certain planets 
are in conjunction. The talisman thus 

Srepared is supposed to exercise extraor- 
inary influences over the bearer, partic- 
ularly in averting; disease. In a more 
extensive sense tne word is used, like 
amulet, to denote any object of nature or 
art, the presence of which checks the 
power of spirits or demons, and defends 
the wearer from their malice. Relics, 
consecrated candles, rosaries, images of 
saints, etc., were employed as talismans 
in the middle ages: and at that time the 
knowledge of the virtues of talismans and 
amulets formed an important part of 
medical science. 
Talitrus (taJ'i-trus). see Sandhop- 

Tallage (tal'ij), a sort of tax for- 
Acuxorgc merly levied by the English 
kings on towns and counties, as part 
of the revenues of the crown, being origi- 
nally exacted probabl:^ in lieu of military 
service. It was abolished by statute of 

TalialiaSSee (tal-A-has'se), a city, 
***"********'^^ capital of the State of 
Florida and of Leon Co., 165 miles w. of 
Jacksonville, and 26 miles N. of the Gulf 
of Mexico, being connected by rail with 
the seaport of St. Marks. It has cot- 
ton and cigar-making industries, and has 
the Florida State College, the Florida 
Normal and Industrial School (colored), 
and several libraries. Pop. 5018. 
Tallard (t&l-l^r), Camille de la 

Aouaxu. g^xTME, DUC DE HOSTUN, 

CoMTE DE, Marshal of France, descended 
of an ancient family of Dauphlny, was 
bom in 1652; died in 172a He entered 
the army while young, and after serving 
under the Great Cond^ in Holland, was 
engaged under Turenne in Alsace in the 
bnlliant campaigns of 1674 and 1675. 
He distinguished himself subsequently on 
various occasions, and in 1693 was made 
lieutenant-general; marshal in 1703. In 
1704 he was taken prisoner at the battle 
of Blenheim, and was carried to England, 
where he remained seven years. 

Talladega i^'-yi^dei.%': SS: 

bama, 100 miles N. v. E. of Selma. It 
contains a State iiistitution for the deaf, 
dumb and blind, and has large manufac- 
tures of cotton, fertilizers, etc. Pop. 5854. 
Tallecralla ital-e-gal'la), or Brush 
»^^"^ Turkey, a remarkable 
genus of rasorial birds, belonging to the 
family of Megapodidae, or mound-birds. 
(See Megapodtus.) The Tallegalla Lor 
thdmi is the best-known species, and that 

usually designated by the distinctive name 
of * brush turke^.^ It inhabits Aus- 
tralia, where it is also known by the 
names 'wattled tallegalla' and 'New 
Holland vulture ' — the latter name hav- 
ing reference to the naked vulturine head 
and neck. The male when full grown is 
colored of a blackish-brown above and be- 
low, with grayish tints on the back. The 
head and neck are covered with very 
small feathers of blackish hue, whilst a 
large wattle, colored bright or orange yel- 
low, depends from the front of the neck. 
These birds are remarkable on account of 
the huge, conical * egg-mound ' which they 
form, several of them jointly, for the pur- 
pose of therein depositing their eggs, 
which are hatched by the heat of the de- 
composing mass of vegetable matter piled 
up. The eggs are greatly sought after 
on account of their delicious flavor. 

Talleyrand-P^rigord ^a^-^wrT. 

Charles Maurice de. Prince of Bene- 
vento, a famous French diplomatist, was 
born at Paris in 1754 ; died there in 1838. 
Though the eldest of three brothers he 
was, in consequence of lameness caused 
by an accident, deprived of his rights of 
primogeniture, and devoted, against his 
will, to the priesthood. His high birth 
and great ability procured him rapid ad- 


vancement, and in 1788 he was conse- 
crated bishop of Autun. On the meeting 
of the states-general he was elected dep- 
uty for Autun. He sided with the popu- 
lar leaders in the revolutionary move- 
ments; and his advocacy of the abolition 
of tithes and the transference of church 
lands to the state gained him great popu- 
larity. In 1790 he was elected president 

Digitized by 


TaUien TaU^ 

of the national assembly. When the became one of the most popular men of 

dyfl constitution of the clergy was adopted the revolutionary party, and took part in 

be gave his adhesion to it, and ordained most of the sanguinary proceedings which 

the first clergy on the new footing. For occurred during the ascendency of Bobes- 

this he was excommunicated by a papal plerre. After the fall of Danton and 

brief, and thereupon embraced the op- his party, he perceived that he should be- 

portunity to renounce his episcopal func- come one of the next victims of Robes- 

tions (1791). In 1792 he was sent to pierre if he did not strike the first blow, 

London charged with diplomatic func- and it was mainlv bv his influence that 

tions, and during his stay there was the latter with his friends was brought 

proscribed for alleged royalist intrigues, to the gulUotine. He subsequently be- 

Forced to leave England by the provis- came a member of the Council of Five 

ions of the Alien Act, in 1794 he sailed Hundred, but his influence gradually de- 

for the United States, but returned to dined. In after vears he was glad to ac- 

France in 1796. The following year he cept the office of French consul at Ali- 

was appointed minister of foreign affairs ; cante. He died at Paris, in poverty and 

but being suspected of keeping up an un- obscurity, in 1820. 

derstanding with the agents of Louis TflJlig (taris), Thohas, author of 
XVIII, he was obliged to resign in July, ******* gome of the finest music in the 
1799. He now devoted himself entirely cathedral service of the English Church, 
to Bonaparte, whom he had early recog- was bom about 1515, and served in the 
nised as the master spirit of the time, and chapel royal during the reigns of Henry 
after Bonaparte's return from Egypt con- VIII, Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth, 
tributed greatly to the events of the 18th He died in 1585, and was buried in the 
Brumaire (November 10, 1799), when parish church at Greenwich, 
the directory fell and the consulate began. TalloW (^^'^)* ^^^ harder and less 
He was then reappointed minister of for- *****^ fusible fat of animals, espe- 
eign affairs, and for the next few years cially cattle and sheep, melted and sep- 
was the executant of all Bonaparte's dip- arated from the fibrous matter mixed 
lomatic schemes. After the establish- with them. Tallow is firm, brittle, and 
ment of the empire in 1804 he was has a peculiar heavy odor. When pure 
appointed to the office of grand-chamber- it is white and nearly insipid; but the 
Iain, and in 1806 was created Prince of tallow of commerce has usually a yellow- 
Benevento. After the Peace of Tilsit in ish tinge, which may be removed by ex- 
1807 a coolness took place between him posure to light and air. Tallow is manu* 
and Napoleon, and became more and more factured into candles and soap, and is 
marked. In 1808 he secretly joined a extensively used in the dressing of leather, 
royalist committee. In 1814 be pro- and in various processes of the arts, 
cured Napoleon's abdication, and after- Vegetable iaUoio is contained in the seeds 
wards exerted himself very effectually in of various plants, one of the best known 
reestablishing Louis XVIII on the throne of which is the candle-berry (which see), 
of his ancestors. He took part ia the See also China Wax, and next article. 
Congress of Vienna, and in 1815. when TalloW-tree {SttUingia iehifera), a 
the allies again entered Paris, he became *«****' ^ vx^^ ^^^ ^^ ^1^^ ^^^ order 
president of the council with the portfolio Euphorbiaceie, one of the largest, the 
of foreign affairs; but as he objected to most beautiful, and the most widely 
sign the second Peace of Paris he gave in diffused of the plants found in China, 
bis resignaUon. After this he retired From a remote period it has fur- 
into private life, in which he remained nished the Chinese with the material 
for fifteen years. When the revolution out of which they make candles. The 
of July, 1830, broke out. he advised Louis capsules and seeds are crushed together 
Philippe to place himself at its head and and boiled; the fatty matter is skimmed 
to accept the throne. Declining the of- as it rises, and condenses on cooling, 
fice of minister of foreign asairs, he The tallow-tree has been introduced into 
proceeded to London as ambassador, and the United States, and is almost natural- 
crowned his career by the formation of ized in the maritime parts of Carolina, 
the Quadruple Alliance. He resigned in It has also been acclimatized by the 
November, 1834, and quitted public life French in Algeria. The tallow-tree of 
forever. His Memoirs were published in Malabar is Vateria indica, 
1891. Tallv (tal'i), a piece of wood on which 
Tallinn it&l-i-ap), Jean Lambebt, a ***'"'J notches or scores are cut, as the 
Acuxxv^u. ppench revolutionist, was born marks of number. In purchasing and 
at Paris in 1769, and first made himself selling it was once customary for traders 
known by publishing a revolutionary to have two sticks, or one stick cleft into 
jounuil ouled Ami du Citoyen. Ho soon two parts, and to mark with scores oc 

Digitized by 


Tally System 


notches on each the number or quantity 
of goods delivered, or what was due be- 
tween debtor and creditor, the seller or 
creditor keeping one stick, and the pur- 
chaser or debtor the other. Before the 
use of writing, or before writing became 
general, this or something like it was the 
usual method of keeping accounts. In 
the exchequer of England tallies were 
used till late in the eighteenth century. 
Ad exchequer tally was an account of a 
sum of money lent to the government, or 
of a sum for which the government would 
be responsible. The tally itself con- 
sisted of a squared rod of hazel or other 
wood, having on one side notches, indicat- 
ing the sum for which the tally was an 
acknowledgment On two other sides 
opposite to each other, the amount of the 
sum, the name of the payer, and the 
date of the transaction, were written by 
an ofllcial called the writer of the tallies. 
This being done the rod was then cleft 
longitudinally in such a manner that 
each piece rttained one of the written 
sides, and one half of every notch cut in 
the tally. One of these parts, the coun^ 
tertiock, was kept in the excheouer^and 
the other, the 9tock, only issued. When 
the part issued was returned to the 
exchequer (usually in payment of taxes) 
the two pax'ts were compared, as a check 
against fraudulent imitation. This an- 
cient system was abolished by 25 Geo. Ill 
IxxxiL The size of the notches made on 
the tallies varied with the amount The 
notch for £100 was the breadth of a 
thumb, for £1 the breadth of a barlev- 
com. A penny was indicated by a slignt 

TaUy System, SpoS'^^.^m'!^'.!!?! 

the purchaser agrees to pay for the pur- 
chase by fixed installments at a certain 
rate, and both seller and purchaser keep 
books in which the circumstances of the 
transaction and the payment of the sev- 
eral installments are entered, and which 
serve as a tally and counter-tally. This 
mode of doing business has lately in- 
creased enormously in all branches of 

Tfllma (t&l-m4), FBANgois Joseph, 
Acuiua ^ celebrated French tragedian, 
was the son of a Parisian dentist, and 
was bom at Paris in 1763. In 1787 he 
made bis d^but at the Commie Francaise 
in the character of 8iide in Voltaire's 
Mohamet, His greatest successes were 
achieved at the Thdfttre Francais (after- 
wards Th6&tre de la Republique), which 
he and others founded in 1791. He en- 
joyed the intimacy of Napoleon, and was 
the friend of Chtoier, Danton, Gamille 
Desmoulins, aBd other revolutionists. Ha 

died in 1826. Tahna was the greatest 
modem tra^c actor of France, and one 
of the earliest advocates of realism in 
scenery and costume. 
Talmafi'e Oarmaj), Thomas De 
^^^ o WITT, clergyman, bom at 
Boundbrook, New Jersey, in 1832. 
After holding several Dutch Reformed 
pastorates, he became pastor of the Cen- 
tral Presbyterian Church in Brooklyn in 
1869, and of the First Presbyterian 
Church in Washington in 1896. He won 
great popularity as a pulpit orator and 
lecturer, and his sermons were printed 
weekly for over thirty years in a large 
number of newspapers. For years he 
was editor of the Christian Herald, and 
published a number of works on religious 
subjects. He died April 12, 1902. 
Tfl.lTnTii? (tal'mud), a Chaldaic word 
J.aiiUUU gignifying 'doctrine,' and 
sometimes used to designate the whole 
teaching of the Jewish law, comprising 
all the writings included in what we call 
the Old Testament as well as the oral 
law or Mishna, with its supplement or 
commentary the Oemara, but more fre- 
quently applied only to the Mishna and 
Oemara, The main body of the Talmud 
— in the second of these two senses — 
consists of minute directions as to con- 
duct. Its contents are hence very mis- 
cellaneous, and they are as varied in 
their character as in their subject Much 
of it is taken up with regulations of the 
most puerile nature, and not a little with 
details only fitted to excite disgust In 
other parts again there are passages con- 
taining the loftiest expression of reli- 
gious feeling, passages which are said to 
be the source of almost all that is sub- 
lime in the liturgy of the Church of 
Rome, and those liturgies which have been 
mainly derived from it Interspersed 
throughout the whole are numerous tales 
and fables, introduced for the sake of 
illustration. The Jews are carefully in- 
structed in it, and its very language is 
sometimes quoted and acknowledged in 
the New Testament The injunctions 
referred to in the sermon on the mount 
as having been 'said by them of old 
time' (properly, the elders) are all 
from the Mishna. The Gemara was origi- 
nally an oral commentary of the Mishnd, 
as the Mishna itself was originally an 
oral commentary of the Mikra, or writ- 
ten law. It consisted of the explanations 
and illustrations which the teachers of 
the Mishna were in the habit of giving 
in the course of their lessons. These oral 
comments were handed down from age 
to a^e, differing of course in different lo- 
calities, and gradually increasing in quan- 
tity; and they were at last committed 

Digitized by 




only a few inches in length, presents a 
wonderful resemblance to the lion. 
Tamarind (tam'a-rind; Tamarindu8 
^^^ tndtca), a large and beau- 

tiful tree of the East and West Indies, 
nat order Legumi- 
noste. It is culti- 
vate d .chiefly for 
the sake of its pods 
(tamarinds). The 
West Indian tama- 
rinds are put into 
casks, with layers 
of sugar between 
them, or with boil- 
ing syrup poured 
over them, and are 
called prepared 
tamarinds. The 
East Indian tama- 
rinds, which are 
most esteemed, are 
preserved without 

^¥^I\ V^^y *'® Tsmwrind (Tamartmrw 
dried In the sun, or indiea). 

artiflcially with 
salt added. 

Tamarisk (tam'a-risk), the common 
^.waucMxoA. jjj^jjj^ ^^ shrubs of the 

genus Tamarim, the type of the natural 
order Tamaricaceee. T. aallica is very 
abundant all rouifd the Mediterranean, 
and is naturalized on some parts of the 
south coast of England. It attains a 
height of from 16 to 20 feet, has small 
flowers of a bright rose color, and alto- 
gether has a very attractive appearance, 
which makes it very much sought after 
as an ornament for shrubberies and parks. 
TfLmniinfL (tA-ma'kwA), a town of (tfim-A-tttv'), the chief 

lamaqua ^chuyikiiLCo., Pennsyiva- Aamaiavc ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^j^^ 

of Madagascar. It was for a time capi- 
tal of the island. Pop. about 6000. 

to writing in two forms, the one called 
the Jerusalem and the other the Baby- 
lonian Gemara* or, with the addition of 
the Misbna, which is common to both, 
the Jerusalem and the Babylonian Tal- 
mud. The Jerusalem Talmud is the 
earlier and by much the smaller of the 
two. The language of both the Gemaras 
is a mixed Hebrew, but that of the Baby- 
lonian Gemara is much less pure than 
the other; in the narrative portions, de- 
signed as i>opular illustrations of the 
other parts, it comes near the Aramaic or 
vernacular dialect of the Eastern Jews. 
The style is in both cases extremely con- 
densed and difficult. The Misbna, with 
its corresponding Gemara, is divided into 
six orders or principal divisions. The 
subjects of these orders are agriculture, 
festivals, women, damages, holy things, 
and purifications. These orders are sub- 
divided into sixty-three tracts, to which 
the Babylonian Gemara adds five others, 
thus containing sixty-eight tracts in all. 
Other divisions of the Talmud are the 
Halaka, the doctrinal and logical por- 
tion; Hasada, the rhetorical or imagma- 
tive portion; and Cabala, the mystical 

gortion, including theosophy and magic, 
[any translations of parts of the Talmud 
have appeared. 

Talpa (^^'P^^* ^^ ^^^' 

Tfllns (ta'lus), in geology, a sloping 
A.CU.UO jjpj^p ^£ broken rocks and stones 
at the foot of any precipice, cliff, or rocky 

Tamandna (ta-man'da-a). a spe- 

***"*********■* cies of ant-eater. 


nia, 17 miles N. e. of Pottsville, and in 
an extensive coal-mining district. There 
are many collieries, iron foundries, and 
machine shops, and manufactures of ex- 
plosives and hosiery. Pop. 9462. 
TamaricaceSB (tam-ar-l-ka'se^), a 
A.c»ui.c»j.xva.vvcx^ small nat order of 

polypetalous exogens. The species are 
either shrubs or herbs, inhabiting chiefly 
the basin of the Mediterranean. They 
have minute alternate simple leaves and 
usually small white or pink flowers in 
terminal spikes. They are all more or 
less astringent, and their ashes after 
burning are remarkable for possessing a 
large quantity of sulphate of soda. See 

Tamarin (tamyrin), the name of 
^^^ certain South American 

monkeys. The tamarins are active, rest- 
less, and irritable little creatures, two of 
the smallest being the silkv tamarin (Mi- 
daM roialia) and the little lion monkey 
XAf* leonina)^ the latter of which, though 

Tamanlipas (JArya-ji-isrp&s) astate 

A«Kux»«AXAj^c»o ^j Mexico, on the Gulf 
of Mexico, north of Vera Crux; area, 
32,270 sauare miles. The coast is low, 
but in the interior, towards the south, 
the surface becomes finely diversified by 
mountain, hill, and valley. The soil is 
generally fertile. Cattle in vast numbers 
are reared on the pastures. The foreign 
trade is carried on chiefly at the ports of 
Tampico and Matamoros. The capital is 
Ciudad Victoria. Pop. 218,048. 

Tambookieland. ^^ Ttmhuicnd. 

Tambourine iTiMS'^t Vrhl" 

drum species, 
much used 
among the 
Spanish and 
Italian peasants, 
as well as else- 


Digitized by 




where. It consists of a piece of parch- 
ment stretched over the top of a broad 
hoop, which is furnished with little bells. 
It is sounded by sliding the fingers along 
the parchment or by striking it with 
the back of the hand or with the fist or 
the elbow. 

Tambonr-work /^^^Trf-a tel 

a species of embroidery on muslin or 
other thin material, worked on circular 
frames which resemble drum-heads. 
The practice of tambouring is rapidly 
dying out, being replaced by pattern- 
weaving, by which tambour-work can be 
closely imitated. 

TumliAir (t&m-bof'), a government of 
XamDOY ^^1^ ^^^ •f Nijni-Nov- 

gorod and Vladimir, between the basins 
of the Oka and the Don ; area, 25,676 sq. 
miles. It is one of the largest, most fer- 
tile, and most densely peopled provinces 
of Central Russia. More than two- 
thirds of the surface is arable. The 
principal crops are com and hemp. Vast 
numbers of excellent horses, cattle, and 
sheep are reared. The chief industrial 
establishments are distilleries, tallow- 
melting works, sugar works, and woolen 
mills. Pop. 3i205;200.— Tambov, the 
capital, 2^ miles southeast of Moscow, 
is built mostly of wood. It has a great 
trade in corn and cattle, and soap and 
tallow are largely made. Pop. 60,729. 
Tamerlane (tam-er-lan). See Ti- 

TamiaS (^™'*'*^8)« See SqutrreU 

Tamil (^aQ^'^D* the name of a race 
AcuuxA ^iii^jh Inhabits South India and 
Ceylon. The Tamils belong to the Dravid- 
ian stock of the inhabitants of India, 
and are therefore to be regarded as among 
the original inhabitants who occupied the 
country before the Aryan invasion from 
the north, but they adopted the higher 
civilization of the Aryans. The Tamil 
language is spoken not only in South 
India and Ceylon, but also by a majority 
of the Indian settlers in places farther 
east, as Pegu and Penang. There is an 
extensive literature, the greater part of it 
in verse. Among the chief works are 
the Rural of Tiruvalluvar, an ethical 
poem, and the Tamil adaptation of the 
Sanskrit Ratnayana. 

Tamise <^-™^]v S^ manufacturin| 
ACMUAw town of Belgium, province of 
B. Flanders, on the Scheldt Fop. 12,463. 

Tam O'Shanter, *^® hero of Burns's 
i&.cMu w MUMuwAy poem of the same 

name; also a cap with a close-fitting rim 
and large, flat top, usually with a knob 
or tassel in the center; in Scotland, a 
tight-fitting woolen cap or a braid bonnet 

Tammany <*^A*"J^^'u« ^^^^'^^^^ ^^^ 

"^•^ or Columbian Order, 
formed in New York city in 1789, as a 
counterweight to the so-called 'aristo- 
cratic' Society of the Cincinnati; deriv- 
ing its name from a noted friendly Dela- 
ware chief named Tammany, who had 
been canonized by the soldiers of the 
Revoluti<m as the patron saint of Amer- 
ica. The grand sachem and 13 sachems 
were intended to typify the President and 
the governors of the 13 original states. 
It was organized for social and benevo- 
lent purposes, but always had a 
political character. Always essentially 
Democratic, it represented the distrust 
of Hamilton's aristocratic policy. It is 
the leading political mainspring of New 
York politics. 

Tflmmv ^'^^^s> Taminb, or Taminy, 
A9»*uMM.jf ^ j^jj^ ^j woolen cloth highly 

glazed, used for makins fine sieves em- 
ployed in cooking, which are also called 
tammies. It is also used under the names 
of lasting and durant for ladies' boots. 
TuinTiil. (tam'pA), a port of Florida. 
J.ampa ^jusboro CoTon the Guli 
Coast; a rising business center, the ter- 
minus of three railways, and the point of 
departure of steamers for various ports. 
Among its places of interest are De Soto 
Park and the Convent of Holy Names. 
Here are large cigar factories and lumber 
mills and it is an important shipping 
point for naval stores, fruits, fish, and 
cattle. It has become a favorite winter 
resort Pop. 37,782; including suburbs, 

T<LTnTiir»n (tim-pe^kd), a seaport town 
AampiCO ^j Mexico, in the state of 
Tamaulipas, in the extreme south, 5 miles 
from the mouth of the Panuco. On ac- 
count of a bar the harbor is not accessi- 
ble for large vessels; nevertheless, the 
trade is considerable. Strong fibers used 
in place of bristles for brushes, are ex- 
ported from there. Pop. 17,569. 
Tflmfini (t&m-sS'e), a town of China, 
Acuuotu. f gland of Formosa, One of 
the treaty ports, with a trade in tea. 
Pop. about 100,000. 

Tom.funi o^ Tom-tom, a cylindrical 
Xam-l»m, drum used in the East 
Indies. It is beaten upon with the fin- 
gers, or with the open hand. Public no- 
tices, when proclaimed in the bazaars of 
Eastern towns, are generally accompanied 
by the tam-tam. 

Tana (t&'nft), (1) a river in the ex- 
AooAA lYeme north of Norway, forming 
part of the boundary between it and Rus- 
sia. (2) A river of B. Africa, within 
the British 'sphere of influence,' risine 
in Mount Kenia, navigable for about 100 
miles in the rainy season. 

Digitized by 




Tan fleers ^ ^*'*' * " ^*" h passerine 
i&.c»uc»5^xo bir^g^ genus Tana^ra, fam- 
ily Fringillide, or finches, distinguished 
by the bill being of triangular shape at its 
base and arched towards its tip, and re* 
markable for their bright colors. They 
are chiefly found in the tropical parts of 

Tanagra Figurines, l^^^^ ^^^ 

ra-cotta statuettes and reliefs, first found 
in 1888 in the necropolis of Tanagra, 
Greece, but since found elsewhere in 
Greece. They date from about 40O B.c.» 
though some of them are prehistoric 

Tanais. ®^ ^^' 

TananariVO. ®®® Antananarivo. 

TtLTiort^A (tanlcred), son of the Mar- 

Bmma, the sister of Robert Guiscard, 
bom in 1078, was one of the most fa- 
mous heroes of the first Crusade. He 
distinguished himself at tlie siege of 
Nic«a (1097), at the battle of Dory- 
lieum (July, 1097), at the capture of 
Jerusalem (July, 1099), and at Ascalon 
(August 12), and was appointed by God- 
frey de Bouillon Prince of Galilee. He 
died in 1112, in his thirty-fifth year, of a 
wound received at Antioch. He is repre- 
sented by Tasso in the Jerutalem De- 
livered as the flower and pattern of chiv- 

Tatiait (tft'ne), Rooeb Bbooke, Jurist, 
xaucjr ^j^ in Calvert Co., Maryland, 
in 1777. He was graduated from Dickin- 
son Ck>llege, was admitted to the bar in 
1799, and elected to the Maryland Senate 
in 1816. In 1831 he became Attorney- 
General of the United Sutes, and in 1836 
was appointed to succeed John Marshall 
as Chief Justice of the United States 
Supreme Court, a position which he held 
until his death in 1864. The most fa- 
mous of his decisions is that in the Dred 
Scott case, denying freedom to a slave 
going into a free State, an incident used 
effectively in the antislavery movement 

Tanganyika o^&^'ilSL'afiitJj 

to the south of Lake Albert Nyanza. It 
extends from about S"" 25' to S"" 40^ s. lat., 
and from 29« 20' to 32« 20' E. Ion. It 
is 420 miles long, has an average breadth 
of about 30 miles, and is 2700 feet above 
the level of the sea. The basin in which 
it lies is inclosed by an almost continuous 
series of hills and mountains. It is fed 
by numerous rivers and streamlets, and 
discharges by the river Lukuga into the 
CJongo. There are several London Mis- 
sionary Society stations on Tanganyika, 
and Ml the eastern shore is the Arab 

town of Ujiji. A carriage-road, 210 
miles, runs to Nyassa. Tanganyika was 
discovered by Speke and Burton in 1858. 

Tangent iKrL^h'ira^ 

or meets a circle or curve in one point, 
and which being produced does not cut 
it; a straight line drawn at right angles 
to the diameter of a circle, from the ex- 
tremity of it, as HA in figure, which be- 
ing continued at A, would merely touch 
and not cut the circle. In trigonometry 
the tangent of an arc is a straight line 
touching the circle of which the arc is a 
part, at one extremity of the arc, and 
B meeting the diameter i>as8- 
' ing through the other ex- 
tremity. Thus AH is the 
tangent of the arc A B, and 
it is also said to be the 
^tangent of the angle a on, 
^of which AB is the meas- 
ure. The arc and its tang- 
ent have always a certain 
relation to each other; and 
when the one is given in parts of the 
radius, the other can always be computed. 
For trigonometrical purposes tangents for 
every arc from degrees to 90 degrees, 
as well as sines, cosines, etc, have been 
calculated with reference to a radius of 
a certain length, and these or their 
logarithms formed into tables. In the 
higher geometry the word tangent is not 
limited to straight lines, but is also ap- 
plied to curves in contact with other 
curves, and also to surfaces. 
Tancr'hiTi (tang'gin; Tanghinia vene- 
Aaugmn ^f^^ ^ tree of Mada- 
^ascar, nat order Apocynaces, bear- 
mg a fruit the kernel of which, about the 
size of an almond, is highly poisonous. 
Trial by tanghin was formerly used in 
Madagascar as a test of the guilt or in- 
nocence of a suspected criminal. The 
person undergoing the ordeal was required 
to swallow a small portion of the kemeL 
If his stomach rejected it he was deemed 
innocent, but if he died, as happened in 
most cases, he was deemed to have de- 
served his fate and suffered the punish- 
ment of his crime. 
ToTicnpr (tan'jSr), a seaport of Mo- 

raltar. It stands on two heights near a 
spacious bay, and presents a very striking 
appearance from the sea, rising in the 
form of an amphitheater, and defended 
by walls and a castle. Tangier is almost 
destitute of manufactures. The hatbor 
is a mere roadstead, but there is a large 
trade. In 1662 Tangier was annexed to 
the English crown as part of the dowry 
of the Infanta of Portugal, the wife of 
King Charles II, but in 1684 it waa 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Tanner Tanning 

trated a very large army for the recon- tlie voice of the Virgin Mary, whom he 
quest of East Prussia. hears calling upon him to return. The 

General Samsonoff, who had been in goddess allows him to depart, when he 
command of the southern army, pressed hastens to Rome to seek from the pope 
on through Allensteia, with intent to (Pope Urban) absolution for his sins, 
reach the Vistula. To succeed in this it The pope, however, when he knows the 
was necessary to pass through a belt of extent of the knight's guilt, declares to 
diflScult country, abounding in lakes, him that it is as impossible for him to 
marshes, and woods around Osterode, obtain pardon as it is for the wand which 
Tannenberg, and Eylau. he holds in his hand to bud and bring 

It was here that Hindenburg with his forth green leaves. Despairing, the 
intimate knowledge of the swampy land knight retires from the presence of the 
gave battle to the Russians. The Battle pointiff, and enters the Venusberg once 
of Tannenberg lasted three days, and a more. Meanwhile the pope's wand ac- 
quarter of a million men were in action tually begins to sprout, and the pope, tak- 
on each side. On the 30th of August the ing this as a sign from God that there 
Russian flank was turned, and the en- was still an opi>ortunity of salvation for 
veloping movement was carried on during the knight, hastilv sends messengers into 
the night. On the 31st the collapse of all lands to seek for him. But Tannbftu- 
the line began. As the Russians gave ser is never again seen. The Tannha.u- 
way under the converging pressure of ser legend has been treated poetically by 
front and flank attacks they found that it Tieck, and Richard Wagner has adopted 
was a difficult matter to extricate them- it (with modifications) as the subject of 
selves from the wilderness of woods, lakes one of his operas. 

and marshes in which they had given bat- TaiiTiir* AniH (tan'ik), or TAiaaw, a 
tie. Throe Russian generals fell in the AaiiA^v a^iu peculiar acid which ex- 
final struggle: Samsonoff, Postitsch. and ists in every part of all species of oaks, 
Martos. The Germans claimed that of especially in the bark, but is found in 
the five army corps which formed the en- greatest quantity in gall-nuts. Tannic 
emy's main battle line they destroyed acid, when pure, is nearly white, and not 
three and a half. It was the most com- at all crystalline. It is very soluble in 
plete victory won by the Germans in the water, and has a most astringent taste, 
openinf: phase of the war and resulted in without bitterness. It derives its name 
a preciijitate evacuation of East Prussia from its property of combining with the 
by the invaders. Rennenkampf fought a skins of animals and converting them into 
heroic rearguard action, falling back by leather, or tanning them. It is the active 
way of Gumbinnen, recrossing the fron- principle in almost all astringent vegeta- 
tier and retreating to the Niemen, where ties, and is used in medicine in preference 
large reinforcements awaited. to mineral astringents, because free from 

Tanner Henby Ossawa (18d9- ). irritant and poisonous action. The name 
> an American painter, son of is generally applied to a mixture of sev- 
Benjamin Tucker Tanner, bishop of the ^^\ substances. 

African Methodist Episcopal Church. He Tqhtiitio* (tan'ing), the operation of 
was bom at Pittsburgh, Pa., and began xa»iixu^ converting the raw hides 
his studies at the Pennsylvania Academy an^ gfeing of animals into leather by ef- 
of Fine Arts under Thomas Eakms ; later fecting a chemical combination between 
a pnml of Jean Paul Laurens and Benja- ^jj^ gelatine of which they principally con- 
min Constant of Paris. He specializ<^ m gjgt ^nd the astringent vegetable principle 
religious subjects. He is represented in called tannic acid or tannin. The object 
the Luxembourg ( Raising of Lazarus ), ^f ^he tanning process is to produce such 
the Wilstach Collection, Philadelphia a chemical change in skins as may render 
(/Annunciation*), Carnegie Institute ^hem unalterable by those agents whiah 
(*Chnst at the Home of Mary and Mar- tend to decompose them in their natural 
Vi^'rJ^^T^^^ 9^^^1 m^ J??^^SJ® state, and in connecUon with the subse- 
(*TheTwoDiscinlesattheTomb ). He q^ent operations of currying or dressing 
IS an Associate of the National Academy. J, 5^5^^ ^jj^m jn^o ^ state of pjiability 
TaiiTiA-p'a QnTnonli See Coriaria. and impermeability to water which may 
xaniicr 5 oiuuiiuii. adapt them for the many useful purposes 

TflTiTiTionaAr (t&n'hoi-z*r), or Tan- to which leather is applied. The larger 
**"^***^*^* hXuseb, in old German and heavier skins subjected to the tannmg 
legend, a knight who gains admission process, as those of buffaloes, bulls, oxen, 
into a hill called the Venusberg, in the and cows, are technieally called Mdet; 
inte-ior of which Venus holds her court while those of smaller animals, as calves, 
and who for a long time remains buned sheep, and goats, are called tkim. la 
in sdnsual pleasures, but at last listens to preparing the hides and skins for tanning 

Digitized by 




they are subjected to certain operations 
already described uader Leather, after 
which the tanning proper begins. The 
Tarious substances used for tanning are 
oak, fir, mimosa, and hemlock bark, su- 
mach, m^robalans, divi-divi, yalonia-nuts. 
cutch, kmo, gambir, and oak-galls — all 
of which contain tannin. The impregna- 
tion of the hides with this tannin may 
be effected either by placing them be- 
tween layers of bark (oak bark being the 
best) in a vat filled with water, or steep- 
ing them m a liquor containing a small 
at first, but steadily increasing propor- 
tion of tannin throughout a series of pits. 
This liquor usually consists of water in 
which the ground or crushed tanning 
material has been steeped. The raw bida 
takes about a year to prepare it for the 
best quality of leather. There is also a 
process called iawinp^ which is employed 
chiefly in the preparation of the skins of 
sheep, lambs, goats, and kids. In this 
process the skins are steeped in a bath 
of alum, salt, and other substances, and 
they are also sometimes soaked in fish-oil. 
The more delicate leathers are treated in 
this manner, those especially which are 
used for wash-leathers, kid gloves, etc 
After the leather is tanned it is finished 
for use by the process of currying (which 
see). Various improvements have been 
attempted to be made in the art of tan- 
ning, such as the preparation of the skins 
by means of metaillic solutions instead of 
by vegetable tan-liquor; the forced ab- 
sorption of the tan by applying pressure 
between cylinders; and the preparation 
of the skins by a chemical agent, so as to 
induce a quicker absorption of the tan. 
It has been found, however, that the slow 
process followed by the old tanners pro- 
duces leather far superior to that pro- 
duced by the new and more rapid 
methods, though a fair leather for certain 
purposes may be produced in five to ten 

Tflnrec (tan'rek), or Tenbbo (Cen- 
*^ Uies), a genus of insectivo- 
rous mammals, resembling in outward ap- 
pearance the European hedgehog, thev 
being covered with bristles about an inch 
in length. These animals inhabit Mada- 
gascar. They hibernate like the Euro- 
pean hedgehog, and live in burrows, 
which they excavate by means of their 
strong claws. 

TanSV i^^'^^* Tanadtum vulg§re)t is 
A,mLoj ^ well-known plant, being 
abundant throughout Europe and natural- 
ized in the United States. It is a tall 
Slant, With divided leaves and button-like 
eads of yellow flowers. Every part of 
the plant is bitter, and it is considered as 
tonic and anthelmintic* tansy-tea being 

an old popular medicine. It is now cul- 
tivated in gardens mainly for the young 
leaves, which are shredded down and em- 
ployed to flavor puddings, cakes, etc. 
Tantfl. (tftn'ta), a town of Lower 
Egypt, situated on the railway 
about 50 miles n. of Cairo. It has many 
large public buildings, besides a palace of 
the Khedive, and is celebrated in connec- 
tion with the great Moslem saint Seyyid- 
el-Bedawi, to whom a mosque is here 
erected. Tanta has three great annual 
fairs, which are held in January, April, 
and August; and at the latter 500,000 per- 
sons are said to congregate from the sur- 
rounding countries. Pop. (1907) 54,437. 
TAntfllniII (tan'ta-lum), a rare me- 
AAuvcuiuu tuiji^j element discovered 
in the Swedish minerals tanta lite and 
yttro-tantalite ; chemical symbol Ta, atom- 
ic weight 182. It was long believed to 
be identical with ntobtum, but their sepa- 
rate identity has been established. 
Tantalus (tan'ta-lus), in (Jreek my- 
*•* "^ thology. a son of Zeus, and 

king of Phrygia, Lydia, Argos or Corinth, 
who was admitted to the table of the gods, 
but who had forfeited their favor either 
by betrayine their secrets, stealing am- 
brosia from heaven, or presenting to them 
his murdered son Pelops as food. His 
punishment consisted in being placed in 
a lake whose waters receded from his lips 
when he attempted to drink, and of be- 
ing tempted by delicious fruit overhead 
which withdrew when he attempted to eat. 
Moreover, a huge rock forever threat- 
ened to fall and crush him. 

Tantalus, l, «frbet„'tm?.,''1? 

loeulator is the wood-ibis of America, 
which frequents extensive swamps, where 
it feeds on serpents, young alligators, 
frogs, and other reptiles. The African 
tantalus (T. ibis) was long regarded as 
the ancient Egyptian ibis, but it is rare 
in Egypt, belonging chiefly to Senegal, 
and is much larger than the true ibis. 
ToTifroa (tan^tras), a name of certain 
X an bras Sanskrit sacred books, each 
of which has the form of a dialogue be- 
tween Siva and his wife. The tantras 
are much more recent productions than 
the Yedas, the oldest being long posterior 
even to the Christian era, although their 
believers regard them as a fifth Veda, of 
equal antiquity and higher authority. 
The Tantrikas, or followers of the tan- 
tras, indulge in mystical and impure rites 
in honor of Siva. 

TflniSTn or Taouism (t&'5-izm, tou'- 
xauism, j^jjj)^ ^ religious system 
formed in China by Lao-tse. He taught 
a comparatively pure morality, but in its 
later developments his doctrine is too 

Digitized by 




often associated with magical rites and 
superstitious observances. See Lao-tze, 
Taormina. ^ tA-or-me'nA ), a town, 
xuurmiua province of Messina, Sicily, 
on Monte Tauro, overlooking the Strait 
of Messina. Its chief interest is in the 
ancient theater, sepulchers, reservoirs, 
etc., which are still in good preservation. 
It is a favorite place of resort for travel- 
ers. Pop. 4351. 

Taos (^'^")> ^h^ name of a district 
A.i»vo jjjj^ town of New Mexico, about 
50 miles N. of Santa F^ watered by the 
Rio de Taos, a tributary of the Rio 
Grande. Here is a fine example of the 
pueblo Indian architecture, of prehistoric 
date, yet still inhabited by a large num- 
ber of Indians. This was the seat of the 
first Territorial government, was the resi- 
dence of Kit Carson and Colonel Burt, 
and has now a town of about 500 inhabi- 
tants, a market-place for the Indian 
farmers surrounding. 

ToTiflina (t&-p&-zh6s'), a river of Bra-|iajUB jjj^ ^|jj^.j^ g^^g through the 

province of Para, and enters the Amazon 
after a northward course of nearly 1200 

Tanestrv (tap'es-tri), a kind of 
"J' woven hangings of wool and 
silk, often enriched with gold and silver, 
with worked designs, representing fig- 
ures of men, animals, landscapes, etc, 
and formerly much used for lining or 
covering the walls and furniture of apart- 
ments, churches, etc. Tapestry is made 
by a process intermediate between weav- 
ing and embroidery^ being worked in a 
web with needles mstead of a shuttle. 
Short lengths of thread of the special 
colors required for the design are worked 
in at the necessary places and fastened 
at the back of the texture. In Flanders, 
particularly at Arras (whence the term 
arra%t signifying 'tapestry*), during the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the art 
was practiced with uncommon skill. 
The art of weaving tapestry was intro- 
duced into England near the end of 
Henry VII I *s reign. During the reign 
of James I a manufactory was estab- 
lished at Mortlake. which continued till 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
Recently a royal school of tapestry has 
been established at Windsor, and some 
excellent work has been done by Mr. W. 
Morris at Merton (Surrey). The first 
manufacture of tapestry at Paris was set 
up under Henry IV, in 1606 or 1607, by 
several artists whom that monarch in- 
vited from Flanders. But the most cele- 
brated of all the European tapestry 
manufactures was that of the Qobelins, 
instituted under Louis XIV. (See 
B^titum Taputry ancl Qohelin% Manufao- 

iory,) The term tape»iry is also ap- 
plied to a variety of woven fabrics hav- 
ing a multiplicity of colors in their 
design, which, however, have no other 
characteristic of true tapestry. The 
name of tapestry carpet is given to a 
showy and cheap two-ply or ingrain 
carpet, the warp or weft being pnnted 
before weaving so as to produce the fig- 
ure in the cloth. 

Taneti (tapVti), the Brazilian hare, 
* P * the Lepun BrasilieMis, the only 
bare inhabiting South America. 
Tape-worms, tli« name common to 
***P^ wvxAAio, certain internal para- 
sites (Entozoa) constituting the order 
Cestoidea or Tsniada of the sub-kingdom 
Annuloida, found in the mature state in 
the alimenta^ canal of warm-blooded 
vertebrates. Tape-worms are composed 
of a number of flattened joints or seg- 
ments, the anterior of which, or head 
(which is the true animal), is furnished 
with a circlet of hooks or suckers, which 
enable it to mahitaui its hold on the 
mucous membrane of the intestines of 
its host. The other segments, called 
proglottidea, are simply generative organs 
budded off by the head, the oldest being 
furthest removed from it, and each con- 
taining when mature male and female 
organs. The tape-worm has neither 
mouth nor digestive organs, nutrition be- 
in^ effected by absorption through the 
skin. The length of the animal varies 
from a few inches to several yards. The 
ova do not undergo development in the 
animal in which the adult exists. They 
require to be swallowed by some other 
warm-blooded vertebrate, the ripe prog- 
lottides being expelled from the bowel 
of the host with all their contained ova 
fertilized. The segments or profflottides 
decompose and liberate the ova, which are 
covered with a capsule. After being 
swallowed the capsule bursts and an 
embryo, called a proscolew, is liberated. 
This embryo, by means of spines, perfo- 
rates the tissues of some contiguous 
organ, or of a blood-vessel, in the latter 
case being carried by the blood to some 
solid part of the body, as the liver or 
brain, where it surrounds itself with a 
cvst, and develops a vesicle containing a 
fluid. It is now called a scolew or 
hydatidt and formerly was known as the 
cystic worm. The scolex is incapable of 
further development till swallowed and 
received a second time into the alimen- 
tary canal of a warm-blooded vertebrate. 
Here it becomes the head of the true 
tape-worm, from which proglottides are 
developed posteriorly by gemmation, and 
we have the adult animal with which the 
cycle begins. Eight true tape-worms oc- 

Digitized by 




car in man, Ttsnia toliifm, the cystic 
fonn of ^hich produces the measles of 
the pig, l>eing the most common. An- 
other, T* mediocanellataf is developed 
from the scolex, which causes measles in 
the ox. The tape-worm of the dog, T. 
Berrat€k, is the adult form of the scolex 
which produces staggers in sheep. T. 
Eehinaooccus of the dog produces hydatids 
in man, through the development in man 
of its immature young. In all cases the 
only conclusive sign of tape-worm ia 
the passage of one or part of one in the 
fnces. One mode of treatment for this 
disorder is, for an adult, a teaspoonful 
of the extract of male-fern. A few hours 
thereafter a strong dose of castor-oil 
should be taken. 
TftDlOCfl. (tap-i-Olui), a farinaceous 

^ substance prepared from cas- 

sava meal, which, while moist or damp, 
has been heated for the purpose of dry- 
ing it on hot plates. By this treatment 
the starch-grains swell, many of them 
burst, and the whole agglomerates in 
small irregular masses or lumps. In 
boiling water it swells up and forms a 
viscous jelly-like mass. See Cassava, 
TftDir C^'P^^)* the name of ungulate 

-'^ or hoofed animals forming the 
family Tapirids. The nose resembles a 
short fleshy proboscis; there are four 
toes to the fore-feet, and three to the 
hind ones. The common South Ameri- 
can tapir (Tapirus americanus) is the 
sixe of a small ass. with a brown skin, 
nearly naked. It inhabits forests, lives 
much in the water, conceals itself during 
the day, and feeds on vegetable sub- 
stances. There are several other Ameri- 

HaUy Tapir (TapTrtM malayantu). 

can species. The T. malayanuB or {»- 
dicu9 is found in the forests of Malacca 
and Sumatra. It is larger than the 
American species, and is a most conspicu- 
ous animal from the white back, rump, 
and belly contrasting so stronglv with the 
deep sooty black of the rest of the body 
as, at a little distance, to give it the 
aspect of being muffled up in a white 
■beet. Fossil tapirs are scattered 

throughout Europe, and among them is 
a gieantic species, T. giganteuM, Cuvier, 
which in size must have nearly equaled 
the elephant. 

TaBBin? (tap'ing), or Pabacente'- 
*'!'***& SIS, a surgical operation 
commonly ];>erformed for dropsy, but also 
for empyema, and for the relief of other 
morbid efitusions in natural or accidental 
cavities of the body. It consists in 
piercing the wall of the cavity with an 
Instrument, commonly a trocar or a 
bistoury. The fluid usually flows out, 
but it is sometimes necessary to use an 
instrument which acts as a syringe. 
Taprobane (ta-prob'a-n§), the an- 
A«.^j.vM«.A&^ cient name of Ceylon. 
See Ceylon, 

TflTifi or Taptee (tip'te), a river in 
xupu, Hindustan, rises in the Ner- 
budda division of the Central Provinces, 
and after a course of about 460 miles 
falls by several mouths into the Gulf 
of Cambay, 20 miles below Surat and 
30 miles south of the mouth of the 

Taqua-nut (^^-^^T^ A'^mS^ 

tree PhyieUphas macrocarpa, known 
under the name of vegetable ivory. The 
fruit is as large as a man's head and 
contains numerous nuts of a somewhat 
triangular form, each as large as a hen's 
egg. When ripe they are exceedingly 
hard and white, resembling ivory very 
closely and being used for similar pur- 

Tar (^^)* a thick, dark-colored, viscid 
* product obtained by the destruc- 
tive distillation of organic substances and 
bituminous minerals, as wood, coal, peat, 
shale, etc. Wood-tar, such as the 
Archangel, Stockholm, and American 
tars of commerce, is obtained by burning 
billets of wood slowly in a conical cavity 
at the bottom of which is a cast-iron pan 
into which the tar exudes. Wood-tar is 
also obtained as a by-product in the 
destructive distillation of wood for the 
manufacture of wood-vinegar (pyrolig- 
neous acid) and wood-spirit (methyl 
alcohol). It has an acid reaction, and 
contains various liquid matters, of which 
the principal are methyl-acetate, acetone, 
hydrocarbons of the benzene series, and 
a number of oxidized compounds, as 
carbolic acid. Paraffin, anthracene, 
naphthalene, chrysene, etc., are found 
among its solid products. It possesses 
valuable antiseptic properties, owing to 
the creasote it contains, and is used ex- 
tensively for coating and preserving 
timber, iron, and cordage. Coal-tar, 
which is largely obtained in gas manu- 
facture, is also valuable inasmuch as it 

Digitized by 




is extensively employed in the production 
of dyes, etc. See Coal-tar and Aniline, 
Tarfl. (^'r&)* o' Tabo, the native 
****** name ffiven to plants of the 
genus ColoooMta, nat order Aracee, 
especially C. esculenta and C. maororhieaf 
cultivated in the Pacific Islands for their 
esculent root, which, though pungent and 
acrid raw, becomes palatable when 
cooked. A pleasant flour is also made of 
the roots or tubers, and the leaves are 
used as spinach. The name is also given 
to the allied Caladium esculenta, whose 
tuberous root and leaves are used in the 
same manner. 

Tara P^rn ^ species of fern (Pterig 
xartt xcru, esculenta) from the root 
or rhizome of which a flour was obtained 
which formerly made a staple article of 
food for the natives of New Zealand. 
Tfl.rfl.i (ta-ri'; 'moist land'), a moist 
******* and jungly tract of Northern 
India, running along the foot of the 
first range of the Himalayas for several 
hundred miles, with a breadth of from 
2 to 15, infested by wild beasts, and 
generally unhealthy. The name is given 
distinctively to a district in the Kumaun 
division of the Northwest Provinces, con- 
sisting of a strip of country of about 
90 miles in length E. and w. along the 
foot of the Himalayas, and about 12 
miles in breadth. Area> 938 square miles. 
Pop. 118,422. 

Taranaki iS^'^'^'AV' ^orm.«riy 2^e« 

**********'*^ Plymouth), 2i provincial dis- 
trict of New Zealand, on tne west coast 
of Norlh Island. Its coast-line extends 
to 130 miles, and it has an area of 3339 
square miles. The coast is almost with- 
out indentations, and has no good natural 
harbors. Nearly three-fourths of this 
district is covered by valuable forests, 
and the rest is adapted for cattle rearing. 
There is a good coal-field on the banks of 
the Mokau, and the titaniferous iron- 
sand, which lies from 2 to 5 feet deep 
along the sea-beach, is believed to be the 
purest iron ore known. The soil Is ex- 
cellent, and a moist climate and temper^ 
ate atmosphere render vegetation luxuri- 
ant. New Plymouth is the chief town, 
and has direct railway communication 
with Wellington and other parts of the 
colony. Mount Egmont, an extinct vol- 
cano, in the soutnwest, where the sur- 
face is most elevated, attains a height 
of 8270 feet, and is in many respects the 
most remarkable mountain m the colony. 
Pop. 38.000. 

TarantaSS (taj-an-tas^), a large cov^ 
.b«.A»A&««.99 gj,^ traveling carriage 

without springs, but balanced on long 
poles which serve the purpose, and with- 
out seats, much used m ftussia. 

Tarantella <Si^Sii'Sliu.'dan'S^l; 

six-eight measure. 

Tarantism < taj'an-tlzm ), a leaping 
**•*•***"**'*** or dancing mania, of the 
medieval period, somewhat similar to the 
disease called Bt Vitus' dance. It was 
ascribed to the bite of the tarantula. 
TflroTifn (t&'r&n-tO; anciently Taren- 
xaraaw ^^^^^ ^ fortified seaport of 
S. Italy, in the province of Lecce, on a 
rocky peninsula at the northern ex- 
tremity of the gulf of same name. It is 
well built, and contains a cathedral and 
several other churches, a diocesan semi- 
nary, and several hospitals. The manu- 
factures include linen, cotton, velvet. 

muslin and gloves. There is now a 
proposal for making Taranto a station 
of the Italian navy. The ancient Taren- 
tum was founded by the Greeks in B.a 
708, and became a powerful city. It 
was captured by the Romans B.a 272, 
and remained a notable Roman town 
until the downfall of the empire. Pop. 

Tarantula (^-ran'tia-la), a kind of 
*•* ^ •* spider, the Lycdia iaran- 

tiUaj found in some of the wanner parts 
of Italy. When full grown it is about 
the size of a chestnut, and is of a brown 
color. Its bite was at one time supposed 
to be dangerous, and to cause a kind of 
dancing disease; it is now known not to 
be worse than the sting of a common 
wasD. In America the term is given to 
the large mygalid spiders. 

Tarapaci ^ ^'J^"P^'lfK?\^ * ^^ 

*******^**^** province of Northern ChUe, 
containing deposits of niter and borax 
and silver mines; area, 18,131 square 
miles. CapiUl, Iquique. Pop. 101,105. 
TflrftTA (t&-rilr), a town of France, in 
xaiaix ^j^g department of the Rhone, 
20 miles northwest of Lyons. Silks, vel- 
vets, and muslins are made. Pop. 11,79L 

Digitized by 




TurAnnAii (tA-ras-kov), a town of 
xarascon Southern France, depart- 
ment of Bouches-du-Rhdne. on the Rhone, 
opposite Beaucaire, 50 miles N. N. w. of 
Marseilles. It has interesting mediaeval 
stmctures. Pop. (1906) 5447. 
TorovaniTi (ta-rak'a-sin), a bitter 
xara&aum crystalliaable principle 
ooDtained in the milky juice of the dande- 
Hon {Leontodon Tarawdcum)^ especially 
in the juice of the roots. It possesses 
tonic, aperient, and diuretic properties. 
Torfl7ATifl (tA-ri-thd'ni), an episco- 

larazona p^, ^^^^ ^^ ^^^j^^ ^ ^^ 

prorince of Saragossa, 57 miles w. N. w. 
of the town of Saragossa, on the Queiles. 
There is here an ancient episcopal palace 
and a cathedral, founded about the thir- 
teenth century. Pop. 8790. 
TarhAll (tarl)el), Ida M., writer, 
xarueil ^^^^ ^ g^j^ q^^ Pennsvlva- 

nia, in 1857; was associate editor of the 
Chautauquan, 1883-91, and of McClure't 
Uagitzine after 1894. She attracted at- 
tention by her vigorous arraignment of 
the Standard Oil Company and its meth- 
ods, also wrote Lives of Napoleon, Lin- 
coln, Madame Roland, etc 
TarliAft (t&rb),a town of France, cap- 
xiurucsi .^j ^£ ^jj^ department of 

Hautes Pyrto^es, situated 110 miles 
south of Bordeaux, on the left bank of 
the Adour. Its principal edifices are the 
cathedral, and the church of St. John 
(fourteenth century). The manufactures 
embrace leather, woolens, machinery, 
weapons, etc. Pop. 20366. 
Tarboosh (tar;b58h), a red woolen 
ACMMwou gjjuii^ap or fez, usually 

ornamented with a blue silk tassel, and 
worn by the Egyptians, Turks, and Arabs. 

Tardierada (tai-di-gra'da; *siow 

ACMUA^AMuo. steppers*), the name 
applied by Cuvier to the family of eden- 
tate mammals, which includes the exist- 
ing sloths and the extinct Megatherium. 
Tare i^^^)* ^^ common name of dif- 
ferent species of Viciaf a genus 
of leguminous plants, known also by the 
name of vetch. There are numerous 
species and varieties of tares or vetches, 
but that which is found best adapted 
for agricultural purposes is the common 
tare (Vida sativa), of which there are 
two principal varieties, the summer and 
winter tare. They afitord excellent food 
for horses and cattle, and hence are ex- 
tensively cultivated throughout Europe. 
(See Vetch,) The tare mentioned in 
Scripture (Mat. xiii, 36) is supposed to 
be the darnel (which see). V. $ativa is 
found in fields in the United States. 
fTapA in commerce, a deduction made 
Ac»A«/9 ^j^jjj jjjg gross weight of goods 

as equivalent to the real or approximate 

weight of the cask, box, bag, or other 
package containing them. Tare is said 
to be real when the true weight of the 
package is known and allowed for, 
average when it is estimated from similar 
known cases, and customary when a uni- 
form rate is deducted. 

AUA^MVMAu. ^£ Allegheny CJo., Pennsvl- 
vania, on the Allegheny River, 21 miles 
IV. E. of Pittsburgh. There are large plate 
and flhit glass factories and steel mills, 
with various other industries. Pop. 7414. 
TarentTUXL ^^ Taranto. 

Target (tAr'^et), (l) a shield or 
****o^*' buckler of a small kind, such 
as those formerly in use among the High- 
landers, which were circular in form, 
cut out of ox-hide, mounted on strong 
wood, strengthened by bosses, spikes, etc., 
and often covered externally with a con- 
siderable amount of ornamental work. 
(2) The mark set up 
to be aimed at in arch- 
ery, musketry, or ar- 
tillery practice and the 
like. The targets used 
in rifie practice are 
generally square or ob- 
long metal plates, and 
are divided into three 
or more sections, called 
huU'B eye, inner (or 
oenter)^ and ouierf 
counting from the center of the target to 
its edges ; some targets have an additional 
division (called a magpie), situated be- 
tween the outer and the inner. It is the 
marksman's aim to put his shots as near 
the central point as possible, as if he hits 
the buirs-eve there are counted in his 
favor 5 points, the center 4 points, the 
magpie 3 points, and the outer 2 points, 
or some similar proportions. 
Tarimm (tAr'gum), a translation or 
* o ^^ paraphrase of the Hebrew 
Scriptures in the Aramaic or Chaldee 
language or dialect, which became neces- 
sary after the Babylonish captivity, when 
Hebrew began to die out as the popular 
language. The Targum, long preserved 
by oral transmission, does not seem to 
have been committed to writing until the 
first centuries of the Christian era. The 
most ancient and valuable of the extant 
Targums are those ascribed to or called 
after Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. 
All the Targums taken together form a 

Paraphrase of the whole of the Old 
'estament, except Nehemiah, EiZra, and 

ToTifo (t&-r§'f&), a maritime town of 
xariia, ^p^j^^^ j^^ Andalusia, 52 miles 
southeast of Cadiz, and the most south- 


Digitized by 




erly town in Europe. It is surrounded 
by fortifications built by the Moors, and 
contains a very ancient Moorish castle. 
Pop. 11,730. 

Tariff (tar'lf), a list or table of duties 
or customs to be paid on goods 
imported or exported, whether such duties 
are imposed by the government of a 
country or agreed on by the governments 
of two countries holding commerce with 
each other. The tariff depends upon the 
commercial policy of the state by which 
it is framed, and the details are con- 
stantly fluctuating. The tariff has long 
been a leading political problem in the 
United States, and has fluctuated with 
the dominance of one or the other great 
party, the Republicans favoring a high 
tariff, protective of the manufacturing 
interests, the Democrats a low one, 
confined to revenue purposes. The oppo- 
sition to a high tariff at first came from 
New England, but was afterwards shifted 
to the South, becoming so strong by 1832 
as to lead to an attempt on the part of 
South Carolina to secede from the Union. 
A lower tariff policy was then adopted, 
and there were several changes until 1861. 
when the high tariff of the war period 
was adopted. The Republican party be- 
ing long afterward in toe ascendency, the 
high tariff was continued until 1894, 
when the Democratic party was in power 
and passed a tariff bill much lowering the 
rates of duty. In 1897 they were again 
increased. During the succeeding years 
the feeling developed that they were too 
high and In 1909 a new bill was passed 
making many reductions yet leaving some 
leading articles in an unsatisfactory state. 
The policy of partial revision then came 
into favor, a permanent commission be- 
ing appointed to study the several items 
subject to customs duties and recommend 
such changes as seemed desirable. At 
the end of 1911 this commission made an 
elaborate report on the wool industry, as 
a guide to the deliberations of Congress. 
The Democratic Congress passed a new 
tariff law in 1913, the main features of 
which were a longer free list. A Tariff 
Commission forms a part of the Revenue 
Bill passed by the House in 1916, and 
provides for a board of six members, ap- 
pointed by the President, with the consent 
of the Senate, of which not more than 
three shall be of one political party. Its 
duty is to investigate the administration 
and fiscal effects of the tariff laws. 
Torlofan (t&r-la-tan), a thin and fine 
xarJUtUU fabric of cotton, mostly 
used for ladies* ball dresses. It is cheap, 
but does not stand washing. 
Tftm (tarn), a river of Southern 
xaxu France, which rises on the south 

slope of Mount Losftre, near Florae, in 
the department of Lozftre; flows through 
the departments of Aveyron, Tarn, 
Haute-Garonne and Tam-et-Uaronne ; 
and finalljrjoins the Garonne. Its whole 
course is 230 miles, of which about 100 
miles, beginning at Alby, are navigable. 
Tarn ^ department of Southern France, named from the above 
river; area, 2218 sq. miles. The surface 
is intersected by hills, which generally 
terminate in flat summits, on which, as 
well as their sides, cereals and vines are 
cultivated. The minerals include iron 
and coal, both of which are partially 
worked. Woolens, linens, hosiery, etc, 
are manufactured. The capital is Alby. 
Pop. (1906) 330,533. 

Tarn-et-Garonne, |.r^?e"n°l^' 

after its two chief rivers; area, 1436 
square miles. This department belongs 
to the basin of the Garonne, which 
traverses it south to northwest, and re- 
ceives within it the accumulated w&tert 
of the Tarn and Aveyron, which are 
both navigable. The arable land raises 
heavy crops of wheat, maize, hempi 
tobacco, grapes and fruit of all kinds 
The most important manufactures con» 
sist of common woolen cloth and serg^ 
linen goods, silk hosiery, cutlery, leather, 
etc Montauban is the capitaL Pop. 
(1906) 188,553. 

TftmO'Dol (t&r-no'p6l), a town of 
XamupOi ^alicia, Austria, on the left 
bank of the Sereth, 80 miles e. 8. E. of 
Lemberg. It contains a Russian Catholic 
and a Greek Catholic church, castle, 
Jesuit college, gymnasium, etc The in- 
habitants are chiefly employed in agri- 
culture. Pop. 32,082. 
TamOW (tAr'nOf), a town of Galicia, 
Austria, on a height above 
the right bank of the Biala, 48 miles 
E. 8. E. of Cracow. It is well built, is the 
see of a bishop, has a cathedral, mon- 
astry, gymnasium, svnsgogue, infirmary, 
and manufactures of linen and leather. 
Pop. 31,691. 

Tarnowitz i^fJi^'^l^^^Jt tSTin^J 

Prussia, in the province 
of Silesia, not far from the Polish 
frontier, with mines of iron and lead. 
Pop. 11,858. 

Tftro ItA'rO), a plant of the genus 
***^ Colocasia, See Tara. 
Taman (t&r'pan), the wild horse of 
P Tartary, belonging to one of 
those races which are by some authorities 
regarded as original It is about the 
size of an ordinary mule. The color is 
invariably tan or mouse, with black 
mane and tail. During the cold season 
the hair is long and soft, but in sum- 

Digitized by 


Tarpaulin Tarrasa 

mer much of it is shed. They are some- Martius, and at his death was unani- 
times captured by the Tartars, but are mously elected his successor. According 
reduced with great difficulty to subjection, to Livy he made war with success on 

the Latins and Sabines, from whom he 
took numerous towns. Tarquinius also 
distinguished his reign by the erection of 
the Cloaca Maxima, the Forum, the wall 
round the city, an(^ as is supposed, he 
commenced the Capitoline Temple. 
After a reign of about thirty-six years 
he was killed in B.C. 578 by assassins, 
who were employed by the sons of Ancus 

Tarquinius, IZ^'' ff^^^^^ST, 

the last of the legendary Kings of Rome, 
was the son of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. 
,^— .-^_^3- - Tarouin, on reaching man's estate, 

TftrnAn murdered his father-in-law. King Servius 

x»fv»ii. Tullius (the date usually given for this 

Taroanlin (tAr-pftlin), canvas well event is B.c. 534), and assumed the 

«^^^^ coated with tar, and used regal dignity. He abolished the privi- 
to cover the hatchways, boats, etc., on leses conferred on the plebeians; ban- 
shipboard, and also to protect agricultural ished or put to death the senators whom 
produce, goods in transit, etc., from the he suspected, never filled up the vacancies 
effects of the weather. in the senate, and rarely consulted that 

TRrDeian S.OGk (t&r-pg'an), a pre- body. He continued the great works of 
0.0*^^x0.11. .MvvA. cipitous rock form- his father, and advanced the power of 
ing part of the Capitoline Hill at Rome Rome abroad both by wars and alliances, 
over which i>ersons convicted of treason By the marria|re of his daughter with 
to the state were hurled. It was so Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum, the 
named^ according to tradition, from most powerful of the Latin chiefs, and 
Tarpeta, a vestal virgin of Rome, and other political measures, he caused him- 
daughter of the governor of the citadel self to be recognized as the head of the 
on the Capitoline, who, covetous of the Latin confederacy. After a reign of 
golden bracelets worn by the Sabine nearly twenty-five years a conspiracy 
soldiery, opened the gate to them on the broke out by which he and his family 
promise of receiving what they wore on were exiled from Rome (b.g. 510), an 
their left arms. Once inside the gate infamous action of his son Sextus being 
they threw their shields upon her, in- a chief cause of the outbreak. (See 
stead of the bracelets. She was buried Lucretia.) He tried repeatedly, wi th- 
at the base of the Tarpeian Rock. out success, to regain his nower, and at 
TarDOn (t&r'pun), or Tabpum, the length died at Cumse in 495 b.o. 

" Megalopa atlanticuSf SiheTTing' TaiTa?OIl (t*r'a-gon; Artemisia Dra- 
shaped fish found on the southern coasts *«"■"■■«'€*''"■ ci<ncfi/tt«), a strong erect 
of the United States and in the West perennial plant of the composite order, 
Indies. It reaches a length of 5 or 6 a native of Siberia, cultivated in gar- 
feet, and from a hundred to several hun- dens for flavoring dishes. 
dred pounds weight, and is of giant Tfl.TTR?OILa (tflr-&-go'n&), a seaport 
strength. Though too coarse ordinarily *«***«'6viia. ^^ Spain, capital of a 
for food, it is a great attraction to province of its own name, on the 
anglers. Its scales, which are of great Francoli, at its mouth in the Mediter- 
size, are now largely used in ornamental ranean, on a limestone rock. The chief 
work. building is the large cathedral, a fine 

Taraninins (t&r-kwln'i-us), Lucius, Grothic building partly of the eleventh 

H *""*"*"* sumamed Priscus (the century. The town was founded by the 
first or the elder), in Roman tradition Phoenicians, and became of great impor- 
the fifth king of Rome. The family of tance under the Romans. In its environs 
Tarquinius was said to have been of are an ancient amphitheater, a circus, an 
Greek extraction, his father, Demaratus, aqueduct, etc. It was taken and sacked 
bein^ a Corinthian who settled in Tar- by the French under Suchet in 1811. 
quinii, one of the chief cities of Etruria. It has a trade in corn, oil, wine, fruit, 
Having removed with a large following etc Pop. 26,281. 

to Rome, Tarquinius became the favorite Tarrasa (t^r-rft'si), a town of Spain, 
and confidant of the Roman king, Ancus '^^*'*'^^^ province of Barcelona, with 

Digitized by 



Tartaric Acid 

manufactures of cottons and woolens. 
Pop. 15,956. 

Aqneduet of Tamgons. 
Tfl-mrfntim a village of Westchester 

A airy town, ^^ ^^^ y^^^ ^^ ^^ 

Hudson River, 25 miles N. of New York 
City. It has several manufacturing in- 
dustries; but is largely residential. Pop. 
(with North Tarrytown) 11,000. 
TarsWsh (t&r'shish), a place fw- 
" quently mentioned m the 
Old Testament. It is now generally 
identified bv biblical critics with the Tar- 
tessus of the Greek and Roman writers, 
a district in Southern Spain, near the 
mouth of the Guadalquivir, settled by 
the Phcenicians. 

Tarsia-work <**^?*"*>'^ ^'""^ ^' 

Ac»x0A«. TTVAA. nj^gaic woodwork or 
marquetry much in favor in Italy in the 
fifteenth century. It was executed by 
inlaying pieces of wood of different 
colors and shades into panels of walnut- 
wood, so as to represent landscapes, fig- 
ures, fruits, flowers, etc. At Sorrento 
and other places the manufacture of 
wood-mosaic, in modem times, has be- 
come celebrated. 

Tarsins (t&r'si-us), a genus of quad- 
rumanous mammals of the 
lemur family inhabiting the Eastern 
Archipelago. In this genus the bones 
of the tarsus are very much elongated, 
which give the feet and hands a dis- 
proportionate length. Tarsius spectrum^ 
the tarsier, seems to be the only species 
known. It is about the size of a squirrel, 
fawn-brown in color, with large ears, 
large eyes, and a long tufted tail. It is 
nocturnal In its habits, lives among trees, 
and feeds upon lizards. 
TfiTflTift (t&r'sus), in anatomy, that 

is popularly known as the ankle, the 
front of which is called the instep. It 

corresponds with the wrist of the upper 
limb or arm, and is composed of seven 
bones. (See Foot.) In insects the 
tarsus is the last segment of the leg. It 
is divided into several joints, the last 
being generally terminated by a claw, 
which is sometimes single and sometimes 
double. In birds the tarsus is that part 
of the leg (or properly the foot) which 
extends from the toes to the first joint 
above; the shank. 

TarsTia ^^ ancient city of Asia Minor, 
xaiiiusy the capital of Cilicia, now in 
the province of Adana, in Asiatic Turkey. 
The Apostle Paul was bom, and Julian 
the Apostate was buried there. Its in- 
habitants enjoyed the privileges of Roman 
citizens, and the city rose to such dis- 
tinction as to rival Athens, Antioch and 
Alexandria. It is situated on both banks 
of the Cydnus, and has a considerable 
trade. Pcyp. about 25,000. 
Turf ATI (t&r'tan), a kind of vessel 
X»nilUl ^g^ ^^ ^^^ Mediterranean, 

both for commercial and other purposes. 
It is furnished with a single mast on 
which is rigged a large lateen sail; and 
with a bowsprit and fore-saiL When the 
wind is aft a square sail is generally 

Tartan ^ well-known species of doth 
' checkered or cross-barred with 
threads of various colors. It was orig- 
inally made of wool or silk, and consti- 
tuted the distinguishing badge of the 
Scottish Highland clans, each clan hav- 
ing its own peculiar pattern. An endless 
variety of fancy tartans are now manu- 
factured, some of wool, others of silk, 
others of wool and cotton, or of silk and 

Tartar (^i^tar), the substance called 
also argal or argol, deposited 
from wines incompletely fermented, and 
adhering to the sides of the casks in the 
form of a hard crust. When purified it 
forms cream of tartar. (See Argal, 
Cream of Tartar,) What is called tar- 
tar emetic is a double tartrate of potas- 
sium and antimony, an important com- 
pound used in medicine as an emetic, 
purgative, diaphoretic, sedative, febri- 
fuge, and counter-irritant Tartar of the 
teeth is an earthy-like substance which 
occasionally concretes upon the teeth, 
and is deposited from the saliva. It con- 
sists of salivary mucus, animal matter, 
and phosphate of lime. 

Tartaric Acid (tAivtar^ik; cao.), 

AMAVK^AAv AAVAu. ^jjg j^^j^ ^£ tartar. 
It exists in grape juice, in tamarinds, 
and several other fmits; but principally 
in bilartrate of potassium, or cream of 
tartar, from which it is usually obtained. 
It crystallizes in large rhombic prismsi 

Digitized by 


Tartars Tasmania 

transparent and colorless, and very solu- include a large portion of Southeastern 

ble in water. It is inodorous and very Russia. In a restricted sense it is iden- 

sour to the taste. A high temperature tical with Turkestan. It received its 

decomposes It, giving rise to several new names from the Tartars or Tatars, 

products. ThMB solution of tartaric acid Tartrate (t&r'trftt), a salt of tartaric 

acts with facility upon those metals which **** i*****^ ^^ji^ Some of the tartrates 

decompose water, as iron and zinc. There are of considerable importance, such as 

are five modifications of tartaric acid, tartar emetic and Rochelle salts. See 

characterized chiefly by the differences in Tartar, Rochelle SalU, 

the action exerted by them upon a ray Tamdant (ta-rS-dant*), a town of 

of polarized light; such as dextro-ordi- *"•*"-"'«***« Morocco, at the southern 

nary tartaric acid, Isvo-tartaric acid, foot of the Atlas, about 30 miles east 

para-tartaric or racemic acid, meso-tar- from the Atlantic. Pop. about 8500. 

taric acid, and meta-tartaric acid. Tar- Tasllkeilt (t&sh-kent') , or T a sB • 

taric acid is largely employed as a dis- *«*»'»*^^***' kend', a town of Asiatic 

charge in calico-printing, and for making Russia, in the government of Turkestan, 

soda-water xK>wders and baking powders, formerlv in the khanate of Ehokand, on 

In medicine it is used in small doses as a the Tchirshik, near its confluence with 

refrigerant Sir-Daria or Jazartes, in a fertile oasis. 

Tartars (t&r'ta]:z),orTATABS, avague It is surrounded by a lofty wall of dried 

Ac»Aucu.a ^j^^ ^.^jj ^^ ethnological sig- bricks, about 12 miles in circuit, and is 

nificance, usually applied to certain rov- entered by twelve gates. The streets are 

ing" tribes which inhabited the steppes of very narrow, and the houses, composed 

C^tral Asia. More specifically, how- of mud, are mean looking. The princi- 

ever, Tatar or Ta-ta appears to have been pal buildings are the castle, several large 

the name of a tribe of Mongols who oc- mosques, a bazaar, numerous colleges, 

cupied about the ninth century a district and a number of old temples. The man- 

of Chinese Tartary on the Upper Amur, ufactures are silk, cotton, gunpowder. 

Though Tatar is the native form of iron, etc The trade, carried on chiefly 

their name, it has long been anglacized by caravans, is ver^ extensive. Tashkent 

as Tartar, which is the form in common was taken possession of by Russia in 

use, while their country is known as 1865. Pop. (1912) 271,700. 

Tartary. The true Tartars formed part Tasimeter (ta-sim'e-ter), an appa- 

of the horde of Genghis Khan, when that *«*o*'"*^**»'*** ratus for measuring 

conqueror carried bis arms from the changes in length, temperature, etc., of 

country known as Chinese Tartary to bodies, by means of variations in the elec- 

Europe, as well as to the successive trical conductivity of carbon, the result 

hordes of similar origin who followed in of pressure. 

their footsteps, and to the districts from Tasmania (taz-mft'ni-&), formerly 
which they came, or in which they set- *«w»'»"'«*'"-^«' Yan Diemen's Land, an 
tied; hence the names of Chinese Tar- island in the Southern Ocean, fully 100 
tary. Independent Tartary, and Euro- miles south of Australia, from which it 
pean or Little Tartary, which comprised is separated by Bass Strait; greatest 
most of the Russian governments of length, 186 miles; mean breadth, 165 
Orenburg, Astrakhan, Ekaterinoslav, the miles; area, 24330 square miles, or In- 
Oossack provinces, and the Crimea. eluding islands, 26,215. The island may 
Tartarus (t&r^ta-ms), a deep and be roughly described as heart-shaped. 
** ** sunless abyss, according to The coasts, which are all much broken 
Homer and the earlier Greek mythology, and indented, have some excellent harbors. 
as far below Hades as earth is below The islands belonging to Tasmania are 
heaven. It was closed by iron gates, and numerous, the principal being the Fur- 
in it Jupiter imprisoned the rebel Titans, neaux S^up, on the northeastern 
Later poets describe Tartarus as the place extremity. Tasmania is traversed by nu- 
in which the spirits of the wicked receive merous mountain ranges, the chief sum- 
tbeir due punishment ; and sometimes the mits of which are Mount Humboldt, 5520 
name is used as svnonymous with Hades, feet ; Mount Wellington, 4195 feet ; and 
or the lower world in general. Ben Lomond, 5002 feet The prevailing 
Tartarv (t&r'ta-ri), a name formerly rocks are crystalline, consisting of basalt, 
**" " applied to the wide band of granite, gneiss, quartz, etc. The chief 
country extending through Central Asia rivers are the Derwent, the Huon, the 
from the seas of Japan and Okhotsk in Arthur, and the Tamar. There are sev- 
the east to the Caspian on the west, and eral large lakes. Lake Westmoreland (45 
Inclndinc Manchuna, Mongolia, Turkes- sq. miles) being the largest. The climate 
tan, and all the south part of Russian is very mild. Mount Wellington is fre- 
iLiik. It was used sometimes even to quently covered with snow in the summer 

Digitized by 




months; but at Hobart, in its immediate made in 1808 by a iruard with a body of 
vicinity, snow never falls. The mean convicts, who settled at Restdown, but 
temperature throughout the year is about afterwards removed to the site now w> 

^°A. The average rainfall is about 
24.05 inches. Much of the soil of Tas- 
mania is well adapted for cultivation. 
Wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, pease, 
beans, and hops are largely cultivated, 
and the fruit includes grapes, cherries. 

cupled by Uobart. The development of 
the country made slow progress until the 
land was divided into small allotments 
and farming stock and government pen- 
sions reckoned as capitaL Convict labor 
was supplied, and at a very moderate ex- 

plums, quinces, mulberries, peaches, apri- pense tarms were cleared for cultivation, 

cots, walnuts, filberts, almonds, etc Sheep, cattle, and horses were introduced, 

Fruit-preserving forms an important in- and the raising of stock has always been 

dustry. Woodland was formerly general carried on with great success. Until 

and much of it 
still remains. 
Kangaroos and 
other herbivo- 
rous animals of 
the pouched kind 
are numerous. 
There are also 
two marsupial 
carnivorous ani- 
mals called the 
Tasmanian wolf 
and the Tas- 
manian devil, 
both of which 
are destructive 
to sheep. The 
natural forests 
are ciiiefly of 
tJhe eucalyptus 
or gum-tree, 
pine, and acacia 
tribe. Among 
the minerals are 
gold, silver, cop- 
per, iron, tin, 
coal, freestone, 
limestone, and 
roofing slate. 
Smelting • works 
have been erect- 
ed at Hobart 

1824 Tasmania 
was a depend- 
ency of New 
South Wales, 
but in that year 
it was made an 
independent col- 
ony. It became 
one of the states 
of the Common- 
wealth of Aus- 
tralia in 1901. 
For a series of 
years the pros- 
perity of the 
colony was re- 
tarded by the 
hostility of the 
natives and the 
depredations of 
escaped con- 
victs, known by 
the name of 
The aborigines 
have ceased to 
exist, in 1853 
depo r tation 
was abolished, 
and about the 
same time the 
name of Tas- 

for the iron which abounds in that dis- mania was officially adopted on the pe- 

trict. The staple export from Tasmania tition of the colonists. Pop. 181,100. 

is wool, and the other articles include Tfl^infl.nifl.n DfiVll ®®^ Dasyure, 

gold, tin, timber, grain, fruit, hides, and *«*»***«•*""•** Ar*/vx*. 

SS'i. &e'i:^^o1^t''H^urtfa'e Tasmaiiiaii Wolf. ^ ^^v'-'^- 

capital, on a fine inlet of the south coast, Tasillfl.llite^^^^'°^^°'^^^* ^ translucent, 
and Laonceston, on an inlet of the north, •*"""^*'*' reddish-brown fossil resin, 

are the chief towns. Education is com- occurring in Tasmania. 

Sulsory, and the higher education is un- TasinaillLia (taz-man'i-a), a genus 
er a council, which holds examinations *«**»"*«***"*"«* of plants, consisting of 
and grants degrees. one Tasmanian and two Australian 

Tasmania was discovered in 1642 by shrubs, nat. order Magnoliaceffi. The Tas- 
Abel Jansen Tasman, who named it after 
Van Diemen, the governor of the Dutch 
East Indies. It was visited by Cook in 
1769, and during the next twenty years 
by various navigators. In 1797 Bass dis- 
covered the strait which has been called 
after him. The first settlement was 

manian species, T. odorata^ 
aromatic qualities, particularly in its 
bark. Its fruit is used by the colonists 
for pepper. 

Tassisudon <rirrn'"''^t.ter^?d' 

situated on the Gbd&da River about 130 

Digitized by 




miles N. w. of GofilpAra. There is a 
palace where the Deb R&j& resides. 
Tasao C^^'^)* Bernardo, an Italian 
xopoov gpi^ j^jj^ lyric poet, father of the 
more famous Torquato, bom of an an- 
cient family at Bergamo in 1493 ; was edu- 
cated with great care; entered the service 
of Guido Rangone, general of the pope, 
as a political emissary; and became sec- 
retary to the Prince of Salerno, whom 
he accompanied to Tunis. In 1539 he 
married Forxia de Rossi and retired to 
Sorrento. Subseouently he received the 
patronage of the Duke of Urbino, and in 
1563 the Duke of Mantua appointed xhim 
governor of Ostiglia, where he diea in 
1560. He published numerous lyric 
poems, but his chief work is the epic of 
UAmadigi^ founded on the story of Ama-' 
dis de Qaw. 

Tasso ^OBQUATO, an eminent Italian 
ACMov^ epicj)oet, son of the preceding, 
was bom at Sorrento in 1544. He was 
early sent to the school of the Jesuits at 
Naples, and subsequently pursued his 
studies under his father's superintend- 
ence at Rome, Bergamo, Urbino, Pesaro, 
and Venice. At the age of sixteen he 
was sent to the University of Padua to 
study law, but at this time, to the sur- 

Srise of his friends, be produced the 
Hnaldo, an epic poem in twelve cantos. 
The reputation of this poem procured for 
Torauato an invitation to the University 
of Bologna, which he accepted. Here he 
displayed an aptitude for philosophy, and 
began to write his great poem of Oeruaa- 
lemme Liherata (* Jemsalem Delivered*). 
While engaged on it he secured a patron 
in Cardinal Louis d'Este, to whom he 
had dedicated his Rinaldo. He was in- 
troduced by the cardinal to the court of 
Alfonso II of Ferrara. Here he remained 
from 1565 to 1571, when he accompanied 
the cardinal on an embassy from the 
pope to Charles IX of France. Having 
quarreled with his patron, Tasso re- 
turned to Ferrara, and in 1573 brought 
out the Aminia, a i>astoral, which was 
represented at the court. In 1575 he 
completed his epic of OeruBalemme Li- 
herata. About this time he became a 
prey to morbid fancies, believed that he 
was persistently caluznniated at court, 
and systematically misrepresented to the 
Inquisition. To such a pass, indeed, had 
this mania come in 1577 that the poet 
drew bis poignard upon one of the do- 
mestics of the Duchess of Urbino. He 
was immediately arrested, but was set at 
liberty after two days' confinement. At 
his own request he returned to Ferrara, 
to the convent of St. Francis; but from 
here he made his escape, and traveled in 
dliKaise to his native place, Sorrento, 

where he stayed with his sister Cornelia. 
He again asked permission to return to 
Ferrara, a request which the duke coldly 
granted. But in his excited and jealous 
condition of mind Tasso found it impossi- 
ble, to reestablish the old friendlv rela- 
tionship at the court He fled from 
Ferrara again, but again returned. So 
outrageous had his conduct now become 
that he was seized by the duke's orders 
and confined as a madman in the hospital 
of St. Anne at Ferrara. Here he re- 
mained from 1579 to 1586, until he was 
released at the solicitation of Vincent di 
Gonzaga. Broken in health and spirit, 
he retired to Mantua, and then to Naples. 
Finally, in 1595, he proceeded to Rome 
at the request of the pope, who desired 
him to be crowned with laurel in the 
capitol, but the poet died while the prep- 
arations for the ceremony were being 
made. Tasso wrote numerous poems, but 
his fame rests chiefly on his Rime or 
lyrical poems, his Aminta^ and his Oerusa- 
lemme Liberata (translated into English 
by Fairfax). His letters are also in- 
TflaQATii (tas-sd'nS), Alessandro, an 

died in 1635; chiefly known from his 
mock-heroic poam La Secchia Kapita 
('The Stolen Bucket'), founded on an 
incident that gave rise to war between 
the Modenese and Bolognese in the 
thirteenth century. 

Taste i^^^^)f ^^^ sense by which we 
perceive the relish or savor of a 
thing. The organs of this special sense 
are the papUUBt or processes on the sur- 
face of tne tongue, and also certain parts 
within the cavity of the mouth and the 
throat, as the soft palate, the tonsils, and 
the upper part of the pharynx. See 

Tatar-Bazarjik (ti-tar'pi-zAr-jek'), 

Ac»vc»x .wc^ciwxjAA. ^ ^^^^ j^ Eastern 
Roumelia on the Maritza. Pop. 17,549. 
Tatars. ^^ Tartarg. 

Tate (^^^> Nahum, an English poet, 
* was bom in Dublin about the year 

1652; received his education in Trinity 
College; went to London, where he en- 
gaged in literary pursuits ; was appointed 
poet laureate; and died in the Mint, 
whither he had retired from his creditors, 
in 1715. He was the author of several 
dramatic pieces; assisted Dryden in the 
second part of Absalom and Achitophel; 
altered and arranged Shakespeare's King 
Lear for the stage; and wrote, in con- 
junction with Dr. Nicholas Brady, the 
metrical version of the Psalms which 
used to be appended to the English B«ok 
of Common Prayer, 

Digitized by 




Tatian (t&'shyan), a beresiarch of the 
second century, was bom in 
Assyria about 120, and died about 172. 
He was educated in Greek philosophy; 
traveled extensively; caused himself to 
be initiated in the rites of various reli- 
gions; and eventually embraced Chris- 
tianity. Tatian became a disciple of Jus- 
tin, after whose martyrdom he left Rome 
and journeyed into Mesopotamia, where 
he preached certain Gnostic and heretical 
doctrines. He seems to have disbelieved 
in the divinity of Christ, and his teach- 
ing inculcatCNl abstinence from wine, 
from animal flesh, and from marriage, 
Ab a Christian apologist he wrote Oratio 
ad Or<Bco», which is still extant, and his 
Diate98aron seems to prove the existence 
of four gospels about the middle of the 
second century. 
Tfl.tillft Achhixs. See AchiUcM To- 

TflfATiiiv (taf9-ft), a kind of arma- 
j.uvuuay ^^^ 0asypu9 taiouay, or 
Xenuru9 unicindus) remarkable for the 
undefended state of its tail, which is 
devoid of the bony rings that inclose this 
member in the other 'armadillos, being 
only covered with brown hair. 
Tatrfl. (tlL'tr&). See Carpathian Moun" 
***•**• tains. 

ToHa (t&'tH), a town in Kar&chi Dis- 
Aabira ^j^^^ gjjj^ ^^ ^|j^ Indus, about 

00 miles east of Kar&chl. Tatta has 
some manufactures of cotton and silk 
goods, but its commercial importance has 
greatly declined. Pop. 10,783. 

Tattersall's J[^/^'^^">' Knights- 

i&«.v«^j.»cMx o bridge Green, London, 
is the great metropolitan mart for horses, 
and headquarters of the turf, removed in 
1865 from Grosvenor Place, where it was 
established by Richard Tattersall in 1773. 
A subscription room is open for betters 
on the turf, where they make and settle 
their beta. 

Tattle (^^^)> ^ ^® B^^ Indies, a 
* thick mat or screen, usually 

made of the sweet-scented cuscus-grass, 
and fastened upon a bamboo frame, which 
is hung at a door or window, and kept 
moist so as to cool the apartment 
iTattin? (tafing), a kind of narrow 
*** o lace used for edging, woven 
or knitted from sewing-thread, with a 
shuttle-shaped instrument 
Tftttoo (ta-t5'), a beat of drum and 
Ac»vvvv ijngie^aii ^t night giving no- 
tice to soldiers to repair to their quarters 
in garrison or to their tents in camp. 
TattOOine (ta-tO'hig), a practice cpm- 
***^^^ o mon to several uncivilized 
nations, ancient and modem, and to some 
extent employed among civilised peoples. 
It consists in pricking the skin in a de- 

sign, and introducing into the wounds 
colored liquids, gunpowder, or the like, so 
as to make it indelible. This practice is 
very prevalent among the South Sea Is- 
landers, among whom are used instru- 
ments edged with small teeth, somewhat 
resembling those of a fine comb. Degrees 
of rank are sometimes indicated by the 
greater or less surface of tattooed skin. 

Tauchnitz i^°,S25iS?B^5T(^ 

man publisher, bom in 1816. His estab- 
lishment at Leipzig, founded in 1837, is 
widely known from the collection of Brit- 
ish authors issued from it, which numbers 
considerably over 2000 vols., and is con- 
tinually increasing. Baron Tauchnitz 
was appointed in 1872 British consul-gen- 
eral for Saxony. He died in 1895. 
Taunton (f^n'^"?* t^p'tun), a par- 
^^^^ liamentary borough, Somer- 

set, England, on the Tone, 45 miles 8. 8. w. 
of Bristol. The principal buildings and 
institutions are the parish churches of St 
James and St. Mary Magdalene; a Wes- 
leyan and a Congregational College; the 
library, and the museum of the Somerset- 
shire Archffiological and Natural History 
Society; an old market house; the castle; 
the Shire Hall; a hospital, etc. The 
town was long celebrated for woolen, and 
afterwards for silk manufactures, but its 
chief trade now is in agricultural produce. 
Taunton is of great antiquity, and was a 
principal residence of tne West Saxon 
kings. Here Judge Jefitrevs held the in- 
famous * bloody assizes ' in 1685. Pop. 

ToTiTif ATI a town, one of the capitals 
J.aUILl0n9 Q^ 3j^g^^j ^^^ Massachu- 
setts, on the Taunton River, 35 miles 
south of Boston. It is well built and con- 
tains a frreat number of handsome edifices. 
Its institutions include the Bristol Acad- 
emy, organized in 1792, and a State in- 
sane asylum. Its manufactures are very 
extensive, embracing many large cotton 
and yarn mills, silverware factories, 
stove foundries, and locomotive works; 
also manufactures of printing presses, 
nails, shoe buttons, etc. Pop. 34,259. 
Tannns (tou'nOs), a mountain range 
amukUus ^f Westem Germany, mainly 
in the Prussian province of Hessen- 
Nassau, extending eastward from the 
Rhine, north of the Main; highest sum- 
mit. Great Feldbers, 2886 feet It is well 
wooded, and exhibits much picturesque 

TflTiriilft (tft'rC-di), a government in 
xaunaa ^^ ^^^^ ^^ Russia, bounded 
north by Ekaterinoslaf ; east by the Sea 
of Azof; southeast, south, and west by 
the Black Sea, and northeast bv the 
government of Kherson; area, 24,539 

Digitized by 




■qoare miles. It is very irregular in 
snape and may be regarded as one large 
penlnsala. subdivided into two minor 
peninsulas, one of which is the Crimea. 
It is watered by the Dnieper; the north- 
em peninsula consists almost entirely of 
an extensive steppe, and the chief occupa- 
tion of the inhabitants, who consist of 
Russians, is cattle-breeding and agricul- 
ture. Pop. 1,634,700. The capital is 
Tun ma (t^'ms), the Bull, one of the 

which the sun enters about the 20th ApriL 
Taurus is also the second zodiacal con- 
stellation, containing, according to the 
British catalogue, l4l stars. Several of 
these are remarkable, as Aldebaran, of 
the first magnitude, in the eye; the 
Hyades, in the face; and the Pleiades, in 
the neck. 

ToTiima a mountain chain in Asiatic 
xuuruB, Turkey, stretching for about 
500 miles from the Euphrates to the 
^2gean Sea, latterly running north of 
the Gulf of Adalia. In the east it takes 
the name of Ala Dagh, in the west that of 
Bnlghar Dagh. It descends steeply to 
the sea on the south; northwards it 
merges gradually into the plateau of Asia 
Minor. It is connected by the Alma- 
Dagh with the chain of Lebanon ; and by 
Anti-Taurus, with Ararat, Elburz and 
the Caucasus. 

Tantoe (^^'to«>» » ,^^ . (Tautoga 
© nigra or amertcana) found on 
the coast of New England, and valued 
for food. See BlackfUh. 

Tantphoens ir^.T'^i.^Cr?/ 

James Montgomery, of Sathill, Ireland, 
bom in 1807; died in 1883. She mar- 
ried a Hungarian nobleman and wrote 
novels in English, mainly of south Ger- 
man life. They include The Initials, 
Quits, and At Odds, 

■Po vernier (tA-ver-ne-a), Jean Bap- 
i^aYenuer „g^ ^^^^^ d'Aubonne, 

tlie son of a Dutch merchant settled in 
Paris, was born at Paris about 1605, 
and died at Moscow in 1689. Before 
his twenty-first vear he had visited a 
coDsiderabje portion of Eurox>e, and he 
repeatedly traveled through Turkey, Per- 
sia, India, and other Elastem countries, 
trading as a diamond merchant In 1669, 
having realized a large fortune, and ob- 
tained a patent of nobility from the 
French king, he retired to his estate of 
Aubonne, In the Genevese territories. He 
compiled, with the aid of French littera- 
teurs, Nouveile Relation de Vlnt&rieur du 
Strau du Grand Seigneur, Sim Voyages, 
and ReoueU de Plusieurs Relations, which 
kaw been often reprinted and translated. 
»— 10 

Tavira (t&-v6'r4), a seaport of Portu- 
gal, province of Algarve, on 
the Rio Sequa. The town is well built 
and has a considerable trade, especially 
connected with the sardine fisheries. Pop. 

Taxriaf Aplr (tav'is-tok), a market town 
xaviSlUUK Qf England, county of Dev- 
on, in the valley of the Tavy, 16 miles 
north of Plymouth. It has a guildhall, 
public library, etc., and some remains of 
a once magnificent abbey. Copper, tin, 
manganese, arsenic, and iron are found 
in the neighborhood. Sir Francis Drake 
was a native, and the town possesses a 
colossal statue of him. Pop. 4392. 
TftVOV (tft-voi'), a district in the Ten- 
Aa.vvjr asserim division of British Bur- 
mah ; area, 7150 square miles. The coun- 
try is mountainous with thick forests 
and Jungles, and the chief rivers are the 
Tavoy and the Tenasserim. The chief 
town and the headquarters of the deputy- 
commissioner is Tavoy, situated about 30 
miles from the mouth of the river of the 
same name. Pop. 22371. — There is also 
an Island of Tavoy, the largest and most 
northern of the extensive chain which 
fronts the Tenasserim coast. It is about 
18 miles long and 2 broad, and on the 
eastern side there is a well-sheltered har- 
bor called Port Owen. 
TftWin? i^t^'^^s)f tb® manufacture of 
o sheep, lamb, and goat skins 
into white leather. See Tannina, 
Tax (^^^)* ^ contribution levied by 
^^^ authoritv from people to defray 
the expenses of government or other pub- 
lic services. A tax may be a charge made 
by the national or state rulers on the in- 
comes or property of individuals, or on 
the products consumed by them. A tax 
is said to be direct whan it is demanded 
from the very persons who it is intended 
or desired should pay it, as, for example, 
a poll-tax, a land or property-tax, an in- 
come-tax, taxes for keeping man-servants, 
carriages, dogs, and the like. It is said 
to be indirect when it is demanded from 
one person in the expectation and inten- 
tion that he shall indemnify himself at 
the expense of another; as, for example, 
the taxes called customs, which are im- 
posed on certain classes of imported 
goods, and those called excise duties, 
which are imposed on home manufactures 
or inland production. Taxes are also 
rates or sums imposed on individuals or 
their property for municipal, county, or 
other local purposes, such as police taxes, 
taxes for tlie support of the poor (poor- 
rates), taxes for the repair of roads and 
bridges, etc. In the United States and 
elsewhere taxes on real estate form the 
largest part of the local revenues, mu- 

Digitized by 




nicipal revenues being almost entirely 
raised from this source. Adam Smith 
has laid down four principles of taxation, 
which have been generally accepted by 
Dolitical economists. These are: (1) 
The subjects of every state ought to con- 
tribute to the support of the government 
as nearly as jKmsible in proportion to 
their respective abilities. (2) The tax 
ought to be certain, not arbitrary. (3) 
Every tax ought to be levied at the time 
or in the manner most convenient for the 
contributor. (4) Every tax ought te be 
so contrived as both to take out and keep 
out of the pockets of i the people as little 
as possible over and above what it brings 
into the public treasury of the state. 
^ee also Income-tax^ Inheritance-tax^ 
Customs, Excise, etc. 
Tfl.XAGeffi (takB-&'se-€), a suborder of 
j.a.Aavca; Coniferae, sometimes regard- 
ed as a distinct order, comprising the 
yew-tree {Taxus) and other trees or 
shrubs which inhabit chiefly the temper- 
ate parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and 

TotaI (taks'el), the North American 
J.ii&ci badger (Meles labradorica) , Its 
teeth are of a more carnivorous char- 
acter than those of the true badger, and 
it preys on such small animals as mar- 
mots. Its burrowing powers are remark- 
able, its hole often being 30 feet long. 
TaTiilArmv (taks'i-der-mi), the art 
xauaermy ^^ preparing and preserv- 
ing the skins of animals, and also of 
stuffing and mounting. 

Taxodium a^;f-?>;ae'r«! 

em. The T. distichum, or deciduous 
cypress, a common ornamental tree grown 
upon lawns, is a native of North Amer- 

lea. The bark exudes a resin which is 
used by the negroes for dressing wounds, 
and the roots, which are hollow inside, 
are used fox bee-hives. 

Tfl.V ^^^)* ^® longest river in Scotland, 
* J^ and the one that carries to the sea 
a greater volume of water than any 
other in the British islands. It rises 
on the north side of Ben Lui. near the 
borders of Argyleshire and Perthshire; 
is known in its earliest course as the 
Fillan, and enters Lock Tav, after be- 
ing joined by the Lochy. as the Dochart; 
issues thence as the River Tav, at Perth 
widens out into the Firth of Tay, and 
finally enters the North Sea. Its length 
is about 120 miles, its greatest breadth 
in the estuary 3^ miles, and the area 
drained 2400 square miles. It is navi- 
gable as far as Perth, but Dundee is 
the chief port. The salmon fisheries are 

'PoY Loch, a loch of Scotland, in the 
J^' county of Perth, 15 miles long and 
about 1 mile broad ; receiving at its south- 
west end the Lochy and the Dochart, 
and discharging at its northeast end at 
Kenmore by the Tay. It is 100 to 600 
feet deep, and is well supplied with fish. 
On its northwest shores rises Ben 

Tflv "RriilfyA 8- ?reat railway bridge 
ittjr uriu^c, in Scotland crossing the 
estuary of the Tay from Fifeshire to 
Forfarshire at Dundee. A bridge was 
built here in 1878, but much of it was 
blown down by a violent storm in 1879. 
It was replaced by a much more sub- 
stantial one, opened in 1887. This is 
more than 2 miles long, contains 85 piers, 
carries a double line of rails on a steel 
floor, and has an average height, above 
high-water, of 77 feet under four of the 
spans in the navigable channeL The 
piers are formed of cylinders embedded 
in the river bottom, and filled with con- 
crete, while the superstructure is mad«» 
of brickwork and malleable iron, braced 
by various stays and arches. 
TofTVAfiift (ta-ig'^tus), a mountain 
AaygeiUS ^^^^ ^^ Southern Greece 

(the Morea). See Greece, 

Tftvlor (ta'lor), a borough of Lack- 

xa.jrxvx awanna Co., Pennsylvania, 3 

miles 8. w. of Scranton. It has silk 

mills. Pop. 9940. 

Tavlnr * *own of Williamson Co., 

tin. It has cotton gins, compress oil 
mills, and other industries. Pop. 7785. 
Tavlor (^'lor). Bayard, writer and 
•^ traveler, was bom at Kennett 

Square, Pennsylvania, in 1825. He 
learned the trade of a printer, contrib- 
uted to various magazines, made a 
journey through Europe on foot in 1844- 
46^ and on his return published Vistot 
Afoot in Europe. This gained him a 
position on the stafit of the New York 

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Tribune. He afterwards traveled extens- 
ively, and wrote works under the titles 
of Eldorado (1850) ; Central Africa 
(1854) ; The Land9 of the Saracena 
(1854) : VuiU to India, China, and 
Japan (1855) ; Northern Travel (1858) ; 
Crete and RuMsia (1859) ; Byways of 
Europe (1869) ; and Egypt and Iceland 
(1874). He also published several 
novels, including Hannah Thureton, The 
Story of Kennett, and John Qodfrey*» 
Fortune9,eji^ a number of volumes of 
poems. He was for some time United 
States secretary of legation at St. Peters- 
burg, and later was United States 
minister at Berlin, where he died Decem- 
ber 19, 1878. 

TavIat Bbook, an English mathema- 
xajrxuxy tician, bom at Edmonton in 
1685, was educated at Cambridge, and 
died in 1731. Chosen a fellow of the 
Royal Society, he became its secretary in 
1714, an office which he retained four 

fears. His chief works are: Methodue 
ncrementorum Directa et Inveraa (Lon- 
don, 1715), and Linear Perspective 
(London, It 15). He was discoverer of 
the mathematical formula called Taylor's 
Theoretn, of extensive application in the 
higher mathematics. 

Tflirl nr Sib Henbt, an English 
xayiur, ^iter, bom in 1800; died in 
1886. At the age of fourteen he entered 
the navy; afterwards he became a clerk 
in the storekeeper-general's office; con- 
tributed to various periodicals, and un- 
dertook the editorship of the London 
Magazine^ but soon afterwards accepted 
an appointment in the colonial office, 
where he remained for nearly fifty 

fears. His contributions to literature are : 
$aae Comenanue, a tragedy (1827) ; 
Philip van Artevelde, a dramatic ro- 
mance (1834) ; The Stateeman, a series 
of essays (1836) ; J^diom the Fair, his- 
torical drama (1842) ; The Eve of the 
Conquest, and other poems (1845) ; 
Notes from Life (1847) ; Notes from 
Books (1849) ; The Virgin Widow, a 
comedy, afterwards named A Sicilian 
Summer (1850) ; and St, ClemcnVs 
Eve, romantic drama (1862). He pub- 
lished an Autobiography in 1885. 
TofrlAT Isaac, a voluminous writer, 
xayior, bom at Lavenham, Suffolk, in 
1786: died at Stanford Rivers in 1865. 
His life was passed without anv note- 
worthy incident, and his publisheo works 
include: Elements of Thought (London, 
1823), The Natural History of En- 
thusiasm (1829), The Natural History 
of Fanaiiotsm (1833), Spiritual Despo- 
iiem (1835), Physical Theory of Another 
Life (1836), and various others. — His 
AStes, JAJn Tatlqe (1783^1824) » pub- 

lished Display, a tale (1814) ; Contribu- 
tions of Q.Q., a series of essays; and, in 
conjunction with her sister Ann, Origi- 
nal Poems and Hymns for Infant Minds, 
— His son, Isaac Tatlob, canon of York, 
was bora in 1829, and graduated as a 
wrangler at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1853. He is the author of Words and 
Places (1864) ; Etruscan Researches 
(1874); Greeks and Qoths (1879); 
The Alphabet, an Account of the Oriain 
and Development of Letters (1883) ; 
Origin of the Aryans (1889), etc. 
TflvlAr James Edwabd, artist, bom 
xajriur, ^^ Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1839. 
He began the study of art, but left it 
to engage in the Civil war. In 1863 he 
became artist and war correspondent for 
Frank Leslie; in 1867 was artist with 
the Peace Commission to the Indians. 
One of his best paintings is The Last 
Orand Review, made for General Sher- 
man. Others of bis paintings are in the 
Congressional Library at Washington. 
He died June 22, 1901. 
Tfi'vlnr Jkkemt, one of the greatest 
J.a.jriuiy names in the Church of Eng- 
land, was born in 1613 at Cambridge; 
died at Lisbume, Ireland, in 1667. He 
was educated at Perse's Free School in 
his native place; entered, in 1626, as a 
sizar in Caius College, where hejgradu- 
ated Master of Arts; and in 1636 ob- 
tained by the patronage of Archbishon 
Laud a fellowship of all Souls' College. 

Jeremy Taylor. 

Oxford. In 1638 he was presented by 
Bishop Juzon to the rectory of Upping- 
ham, in Rutlandshire, and in 1642 he 
was appointed chaplain in ordinary to 
Charles I. After the outbreak of tlie 
civil war he continued to attend Charles 
as chaplain, and when the parliamentary 
party proved yictorioas be was tx» 

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qaently imprisoned for short periods, 
Byentnally ne retired into Wales, where 
he was received by the Earl of Carbery. 
under whose protection he was allowed 
to exercise nis ministry and keep a 
school. Afterwards he removed to Lon- 
don, but in 1658 he accepted an invita- 
tion from Lord Conway to reside at his 
seat in Ireland. Here he remained until 
the Restoration, when he was elevated 
to the Iri^ see of Down and Ck>nnor, 
with the administration of that of 
Dromore. He was also, in the same 

I rear, made a privv-councilor for Ire- 
and, and chosen vice-chancellor of the 
University of Dublin. The greater i>art 
of his writings consist of sermons and 
devotional pieces, and upon the former 
rests his fame as a master of varied 
English prose. 

Tavlnr John, usually called the 
xajTAVA^ water-poet f was bom in 
Gloucester about 1580, and died in 1654. 
He served an apprenticeship to a water- 
man, was at the taking of Cadiz, under 
the Earl of Essex, in 1596, and was many 
years collector of the wine dues exacted 
by the lieutenant of the Tower of Lon- 
don. He afterwards kept a tavern, first 
at Oxford and then at Westminster. His 
pieces to the number of sixtv-three were 

Eublished in a folio volume in 1630, but 
e was the author of a great many more 
both in prose and verse. They are char- 
acterised by a certain rough vigor not 
free from vulgarity. 

TflvlAr Philip Meadows, bom at 
xuyiur, Liverpool in 1808; died in 
1876. From being a merchant's clerk in 
Bombay he entered the Nizam's army; 
received an appointment as administrator 
of the state of Shorapore; maintained 
order in the Berar district during the 
mutiny of 1857; and received the rank 
of colonel, a companionship of the Star 
of India, and a commissionership of the 
Western Deccan districts. He published 
the Confessione of a Thug (1839), 

Tippoo Bultaun J 1840), ^aTom _ (1863), 

Hietot^ _^ _ 
QMeen (1^78) 

ilph DameU (1865), Manual of the 
Hiatory of India (1870), and A Noble 

TflvlAr Thohas, the ' Platonist,' bom 
xayiur, j^ London in 1758; died at 
Walworth in 1835. He studied with a 
view to the dissenting ministry, but en- 
tered a banking-house, when all his 
leisure was devoted to classical and 
philosophical studies. He published, 
chiefly with the aid of patrons, about 
forty difiterent works, the most remark- 
able of which are Plato (five vols. 4to, 
1804) , printed at the expense of the Duke 
tf Norfolk, who kept almost the whole 
edition locked, up Ulf 1848; and Ari$totle 

(ten vols. 1806-12), printed at the ex* 
pense of Mr. W. Meredith, who gave 
Taylor an annuity of £1(X), which he en- 
joyed till his death. 

TavIat Tom, bora at Sunderland in 
Aajriur, 1817; died in 1880. He re- 
ceived his education at Glasgow Uni- 
versity and Trinity (>>l]ege, Cambridge; 
became professor for two years in uni* 
versity College, London; was called to 
the bar (1845), and went on the north- 
era circuit; appointed, in 1854, secre- 
tary to the Board of Health; wrote and 
adapted for the stage a great number of 
plays; and succeeded Shirley Brooks 
(1873) as editor of Punch. The most 
popular of his plays are: New Men and 
Old Acree^ Maeke and Facee (in col- 
laboration with Charles Reade), Still 
Water* Run Deep, The Overland Route, 
and The Ticket of Leave Man. His 
historic dramas include: The FooVe Re- 
venge, Joan of Arc, 'Twimt Awe and 
Crowf^ Lady Clanoartu, Anne Bdegn. 
etc He also published biographies of 
B. R Havdon (1853), C B. LesUe 
(1859), and Sir Joshua Reynolds (1865). 
TAvlonrillp & ^^^y^ capital of Chris-' 
Xayiorviue^ tian do., Illinois, on the 
south fork of the Sangamon River, 28 
miles s. w. of Decatur. Its manufactures 
include paper, chemicals, wagons, etc. 
TflirlAT William, bora at Norwich, 
xuyiur, England, in 1765; died in 
1836L He was educated for a mercantile 
career, but after a lengthened stay in 
(Germany he resolved to devote himself 
to literature. His published works are: 
a translation of BQrger's Lenore (1796) 
and Lessing's Nathan the Wiee (1806), 
English Synongme Discriminated (1813), 
and a Hietorio Survey of German Poetry 

Tavlor Zachast, twelfth president of 
Aayiur, ^^^ United States, bom In 
Orange county, Virginia, in 1784. He 
entered the army in 1808, and rose to 
the rank of major; took command of 
the United States forces at the outbreak 
of the Mexican war; repeatedly defeated 
the Mexicans, and finally triumphed over 
Santa Anna in the battle of Buena Vista 
(1847). This was the moat spectacular 
battle of the war, Taylor winning the 
victory over much larger numbers, and 
it gave him a wide reputation, he becom- 
ing a popular favorite under his army 
title of ' Old Rough and Ready.' This 
popularity brought him the Whig party 
nomination for President in 1848 and 
he was elected in the following Novem- 
ber. Though with little education and 
no political experience, he showed good 
sense and judgment, but died in the 
second year. of his term, July 9, 18501 

Digitized by 




Tftvra (^^« (M^m harhdra)t a caiv 
AmjM,m ||iyor,)„g animal allied to tlie 
ftattoot found in South America. In 
color it is black, save a large white patch 
on the breast 

TaIiiiiI (chftd), Chad, or Tbao, a large 
J.onaa Jresh-watcrlake of Central 
Africa, In the Soudan, haying the ter- 
ritories of Bomou, Kanem, and Bagirmi 
surrounding it; length, about 150 miles; 
breadth, about 100 miles; area, about 
20,000 square miles, with a Tariable ex- 
panse according as it is the wet or dry 
season. Its principal feeder is the Shari 
fnnn the south, and Its shores are low 
and marshy. The lake (which has no 
outlet) swarms with turtles, fish, croco- 
diles, and hippopotamL It contahis a 
number of small islands, which are 
densely peopled, as are also great part 
of its shores, especially on the west, 
where is the large town Kuka, capital 
of Bomou. 

Tcherkask Ic^er^sk), or Novo- 
Avuvi.A4»BA. TcHEBKASK, a towu situ- 
ated on the Don, and capital of the Don 
Cossack country. Russia. The town is 
well built, and has a cathedral, collere, 
library, market place, etc. Pop. 52,005. 

Toherkassy <,'?->S^f 'o," ffl 

Russia, situated on the Dnieper, 190 
miles southeast of Kieff. It is built of 
wood, and has a considerable trade. 
Pop. 29,620. 
TchernieOY (<*'gov), Tcmnua- 


a government of Little Russia, situated 
on the left bank of the Dnieper; area, 
20,232 so. miles. The country is chiefly 
an undulating plain, fertile for the most 
part, and watered by the Soj, the Desna, 
and the Dnieper. Agriculture and cat- 
tle-breeding are the chief employments; 
corn, linseed, timber, tobacco, and sugar 
are exported. Pop. 2322,007. — Tcheb- 
laoov, the capital, is situated on the 
Desna, about 80 miles N. lY. B. of Kieff. 
It is the see of an archbishop, has a 
cathedral, a college, hospital, etc., and 
a considerable txade. Pop. 27,028. 

AVM«^AMvci^uj. f^^ ^ \ji\Mck soil in Rus- 
sia of extraordinary fertility, covering at 
least 100,000,000 acres, from the Carpa- 
thians to the Ural Mountains, to the 
depth of from 4 to 20 feet, and yielding 
an almost unlimited succession of similar 
crops without nreparatlon. 

Tcherny. 8«* <?««^. 

Tolmdes i?S:^^>an.T5.e«fc 

races in the northwest of Russia. It 
has now acquired a more general ap- 

plication, and is used to designate the 

S'oup of peoples of which the Fhins, the 
sthonians, the Livonians, and Lap- 
landers are members. 
Tea. (^^<*)« A genus of plants, nat 
*^** order TemstrcBmiacett (that to 
which the camellia belongs), comprising 
the species (T. sinenaia or chinemis) 
which yields most of the tea of com- 
merce. By different modes of culture' 
this species has diverged into two dis-i 
tinct varieties, entitled Thea viridU and 
Thea hohea. The former is a lan^e hardy 
evergreen plant with spreading branches 
and thin leaves from 3 to 5 inches long; 
the latter is a smaller plant, and differs 
from the other in several particulars. 
From both, according to the process of 
manufacture, black and green teas are 
procured. The tea plant is cultivated 
not only over a great part of China, but 
also in Japan, Tonquin, Cochin-China, 
Assam and other parts of India, and 
Ceylon. It has also been experimentally 
introduced into Carolina, Brazil, and 
Australia. Its growth is chiefly confined 
to hilly tracts; it is raised from seed, 
and the rearing of it requires great skill 
and attention. In seven years the plant 
attains the height of 6 feet, ana the 
leaves are plucked off carefully one by 
one four times a year. In their green 
condition they are placed in a hot pan 
over a small furnace, and then rubbed 
lightly between the palms of the hands, 
or on a table. This process is repeated 
until the leaves become small, crisp, and 
curled. The black teas thus prepared 
include bohea, congou, souchong, and 
pekoe; the green teas, twankay, hyson- 
skin, young hyson, hyson, imperial, and 
gunpowder. Green tea gets less of the 
fire than black tea. The broken leaves, 
stalks, and refuse of the tea are com- 
pressed into solid bricks, which are im- 
ported by the Russians into the greater 
part of Central Asia, where (besides be- 
ing used as a sort of coinage) they are 
sometimes stewed with milk, salt, and 
butter. There is considerable adultera- 
tion in the teas sent from China to the 
European market, and they are often 
artificially colored with a mixture of 
Prussian blue, or of gypsum and indigo 
carefullv mixed. The infusion of tea- 
leaves in hot water yields a beverage 
which has little nutritive value, but It 
increases respiratory action, and seems 
to have a stimulative and restorative ac- 
tion on the nervous system. This Is 
chiefly due to the essential oil and the 
theine (an alkaloid in its nature identical 
with the caffeine in coffee) which it con- 
tains, while the tannin, which is also 
present, acts as an astringent. If the 

Digitized by 



Technical Education 

water is boiling, an infusion of ten min- 
utes is sufficient to extract all the theine, 
and a longer period only adds to the 
tannin in the beverage, a result which 
is very hurtful to digestion. From his- 
torical sources we learn that tea was 
used in China as a beverage in the sixth 
century, and two centuries after its use 
had become common. In England we 
first find it mentioned about 1615 by an 
asent of the East India Company; In 
1660 Pepys says in his diarv, 'I did 
send for a cup of tea, a China drink, 
of which I never had drunk before'; 
and in 1664 the East India Company 
made a present to the king of 2 lbs. 2 oz. 
In the year 1678 the import of tea to 
BriUin was 5000 lbs., but forty years 
after it reached 1,000,000 lbs. and is 
now more than 250,000,000. China, un- 
til recent years, held almost a monopoly 
jn the production of tea, but now India 
and Ceylon have entered the market as 
important competitors, and the product 
of Japan is lai^e. Britain is the princi- 
pal tea consuming country in the world, 
coffee being lesn in favor there than in 
many other countries, the United States 
and Canada for example. Tea is also 
very largely used in Russia and in great 
part of Asia. The tax laid on tea and 
the effort to force the colonists to use it. 
was one of the chief instigating causes of 
the American Revolution. 
TaoJp (tek; Tect6na ffrandii), a tree 
A^cuk ^£ ^Yxe nat order Verbenaceie, a 
nativo of different parts of India, as well 
as of Burmah and of the islands from 
Ceylon to the Moluccas. It grows to 
an immense size, and is remarkable for 

Teak {Teetinagrandis), 

its large leaves, which are from 12 to 
24 inches long, and from 6 to 18 broad. 
The wood, though porous, is strong and 
durable: it is easily seasoned and shrinks 
but little, and from containing a resin- 

ous oil it resists the action of water, 
and repels the attacks of insects of all 
kinds. It is extensively used in ship* 
building and for many other purposes. 
— African teak, a timber similar to East 
Indian teak, is believed to be the prod- 
uce of Oldfieldia africanei, nat. order 

Teal (^^^)* ^^® common name for ducka 
Avcu. ^£ ^jjg genus Querquediila^ the 
smallest and most beautiful of the 
Anatidfls, or duck family. The common 
teal (Q. crecoa) is an annual visitor to 
Britain, remaining in parts of Scotland 
all the year. North American species in- 
clude the ^reen-winged teal (Q. oarolin- 
enais) which is very like the common 
teal, and the blue-winged teal (Q. 
disoori), somewhat larger than the com- 
mon teal, and easily domesticated. 
Teasel (t^'s^l)! the English name of 
Avoro^/x ggygfij plants of the genus 
Dip$dcu9, nat order Dipsaceie, allied to 
the composite order. One species (D. 
Mylveatria) grows wild in England, and 
in this country in hedges from Massachu- 
setts to Indiana. Another species, the 
fuller's teasel (Z). fuU6num)f by some 
regarded as a mere variety, is cultivated 
for the sake of the awns of the head, 
which are employed to raise the nap of 
Foolen doths. 

Tebeth (tS'beth), the tenth month of 
the Jewish ecclesiastical year, 
beginning with the new moon in Decem- 
ber and ending with the new moon in 

Technical Education. 'SSmSVaT 

education, properly speakinjg, includes the 
field of all instruction relating to the arts, 
sciences, professions, and trades; but in 
common use it is restricted to the field 
of the industrial arts, and more particu- 
larly to that instruction in which theory 
rather than practice bears a preponderat- 
ing part. The courses oflfered extend 
over four years and lead to the B.S. de- 
cree, one or two further years of study 
Deing required for professional degrees, 
viz., C.E. (civil engineer), E.E. (elec- 
trical engineer), etc. The courses which 
may generally be found are Uie following : 
engineering usually in all branches, chem- 
istry, physics, architecture, mining and 
metallurg^r. For the two last-named sub- 
jects special schools have been developed, 
especially in those states where mining is 
the chief industry, such as Ck)lorado, 
New Mexico. Montana, and Michigan. In 
addition to lectures and laboratory prac- 
tice, in most technical schools practical 
experience, under actual conditions, 
is demanded from students before proceed- 
ing to a degree. 

Digitized by 


Teohnology Teeth 

TAAliTi/^1/^<nr (tek-noro-ji), that TaaI (t^)f Tekl-sxed, an Indian name 
XecnnoiO^ branch of knowledge ^^^'' for SeMmum Indicum and its seed, 
which deals with the yarious industrial See Sesamum, 

arts. There are a number of schools of O^AAg (tte), a river in England, which 
technology in the United States devoted *^^» rises near Cross Fell, in Cumber- 
to the study of civil, electrical, mining, liand, and marks the southern limit of 
and mechanical engineering and similar the county of Durham, to its mouth in 
subjects. Among these are the Massachu- the North Sea, where it forms an estuary, 
setts Institute of Technology, at Boston, its whole course is between 70 and 80 
the Stevens Institute of Technology, at miles. 
Hoboken, N. J., the Case School of Ap- vpAAf li the name given to certain hard 

?lied Science^ at Cleveland, Ohio, the a^^**"! structures growing out of the 
!owne Scientific School at the University Jaws of vertebrate animals, and serving 
of Pennsylvania, Sibley College at Cor- as the instruments of mastication. The 
nell, the Armour Institute at Chicago, the teeth of animals differ in shape, being 
Sheffield and Lawrence Scientific Schools, destined for different offices. In man 
at Yale and Harvard respectively, the and the higher mammals two sets of 
School of Mines at Columbia, etc teeth are developed, the early, milk, or 

Teck Alexander, Pbincb of, was deciduous teeth, and the permanent set 
T . J^i? ^J5^?^f^^ Palace, Lon- in fishes the teeth fall off and are re- 
don, AprU 14, 1874, third son of the Duke newed repeatedly in the course of their 
of Teck and Princess Mary Adelaide. He Uves. Teeth do not belong to the skele- 
served with ho^uor at Matabeldand in ton, but to the skin or exoskeletal parts 
laW. and m South Afnca, 1^^1900. of the body, and are homologous with 
On May 7. 19H. he was appointed Gov- hairs. In man the teeth are imbedded 
emor-Ueneral of Canada. * , * in sockets in the upper and tower jaw- 

TeCOma (te-k6ma), a genus of Plants, bones. There are thirty-two In all, six- 
^ nat order Btgnonwcew. The teen in each Jaw, and each consists of 

species are erect trees or shrubs or dimb- the crown or visible part, and the fangs 
ing plants, with usually pinnate leaves, or buried part. The four central teeth 
and termmal panicles of dusky red or of each jaw having chisel-shaped crowns 
orange flowere. There are about 80 spe- ^uh sharp edges are called incisors; 
aw, some of them as T. tmpettfftnosa, on each side of these four is the pointed 
medicinaL /^•i.^u i-i«r canine tooth (which in the upper jaw 

TcCtlbrancluata ^A^^^f "^SSo'n of ^% ""t^^^ ^^"^ eye-tooth) ; on each side 
, 1, ^^» aoivision or ^f t^gg^ ^pg two bicuspid teeth (pr»- 
gasteropodous mollusca. comprehending molars) ; and behind these agahi are the 
those species in which the gills are pro- ^olar teeth, three on each side. (See 
tected by a shell, or by toe manUe, in- j)ental Formula.) The last of the 
eluding the sea-haw and others. permanent teeth to appear are the 
TeCnmseh Vl- M?;f5 J/ fi?f q?oS!S; farthest back, grinding teeth, which, ow- 
T ^T. . y^^ i^^'ji^^^Af^a^^.^^^Z^Vf J°« to tl»«»' a"ival »>«tween the seven- 
Indians, bom hi 1768. After taking part ^^^^1^ ^^ twentv-fif th years, are called 

fewSSf~"*4«*i«S^« j2^^?i*.rf2S^I tlie wisdom teeth. Each ti)th has a 
S!^*J^tr™^nHi?$.^p^C?f ♦ha'^^Mt?/ ce'^tral cavity filled with a soft pulp con- 
the Western Indians against the whites, t-injn- hlood.vpsflplft and n*»rvA«* thi« 

82JlSfl ^i^^Ji^ ^Z^llf^^^li ^^^/y^^r^^^^ byien^LTa ha'iS 
General Harrison and wm defeated at gubgtince composed of phosphate and 
Tippeouioe, November 7. 1811. This put ^rb^nate of uSeToutside the fang is^a 
tSr*?h«t^Jl^'1?J%-nteZ**RHHSf cemVut-like suStince resemblini %one: 
SfJ?. k?n^ «T rt,p h«J?i«!^f th« TTi™ while outside the crown is a hard enamel. 
5?t^ K iftia ^ In yo"°« teeth the enamel is covered by 

October 5, 1813. ^ delicate membrane called " the skin 

Teddm^on (ted'ing-tun), a town of of the teeth," which in adult teeth is . 
Avu.ux1j.5bvu England^ i^ the county worn off. Toothache is due to decay of 
of Middlesex, on the Thames, and about the substance of a tooth, dental caries 
13 miles 8.W. of London. Fop. 17,840. as it is called. When the enamel which 
Te Denin ^^ dd'um), a name (from covers the tooth becomes flawed the un- 
*^ ^vu-uj. ^g opening phrase, Te derlying dentine is exposed and soon 
Deum laudamus) of the well-known Latin breaks down. When the decav, passing 
bymn usually ascribed to St Ambrose inward, reaches the pulp which contains 
mnd St Augustine, although it cannot be the blood-vessels and nerves it causes 
traced farther back than the end of the inflammation, aching, and suppuration, 
fifth century. It is used in the ritual of Any treatment of toothache, short of ex- 
Bflman (Catholic and Anglican churches, traction, is seldom satisfactory if the 

Digitized by 




^ulp has been actually attacked; but 
neuralgia is often mistaken for tooth* 
ache. See Dentiiiry. 
Tcctotalism. Se^^emperance. fiooi- 

Teff (Er^nn'OMiii Ahy$9inica), a grain 
eztensiyely cultivated in Abyssinia, 
liaving seeds about the size of those of 

T^tmi^T (teng-n&r'), Esaias, a Swed- 
xc^uer jgjj p^^ y^^ ju ^7^2, studied 

at the University of Lund, became in 
1812 professor of Greek literature, and 
in 18^ was appointed bishop of Wezi9, 
where he died in 1846. Amonfr his 
works may be mentioned his Frtthiof$ 
SagOy an epic poem, repeatedly translated 
into English; his national song of the 
Qoiha Lion; and The Children of the 
Lord^a Supper, translated by Longfellow. 

Tegucigalpa iK^fflJ^** 

the Rio arande, about 3370 feet above 
the sea, surrounded by mountains, with 
a venerable old church, a high school, 
and an active trade. Pop. about 35,000. 

Teenexin (te-geks'to. reiyt Tei^i^ 

^o ^ in), a species of lizard in- 

habiting tropical America. A full-grown 
specimen may exceed 5 feet in length, and 
they are able to swim with great ease and 

Teheran iit'rtJlUlt' ttfr'£ 

the northeast of the province, 66 miles 
south of the Caspian Sea, at the south- 
em base of Mount Elburz. It is 4 miles 
in circuit, surrounded by a strong wall, 
flanked by numerous towers, with a 
broad dry ditch, and glacis. The city 
has six gates, from which the main 
streets lead to the bazaar in the center 
of the town. Since 1870 the city has 
been much Improved, the streets being 
lighted with gas and laid with tramways. 
The principal edifice is the citadel-palace 
of the shah, which has considerable 
strength, but little architectural merit. 
During the summer months the court re- 
moves (on account of the intolerable 
heat) to more agreeable quarters on the 
heights to the north, and a third of the 
inhabitants (including the European 
embassies) follow the royal example. 
The principal manufactures are carpets, 
silks, cottons, and articles in iron. Fop. 
(hi winter) 280,000. 

Tf^liri (tft-r6'), a state of Hindustan. 
j.^uj:i. ^^ Garhwdl. Tehbi is also 
a name for the state of Orchha (which 
see), and for its capital, an ill-built town 
with a pop. of 33,871. 

Te1i11&i!fl.n (tft-wA-kAn'), a town in 
Xenuacan ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ Puebla, Mexi- 

co^ at the southern extremity of the high- 

lands of Anahuac, on the right bank of 
the Salado, and 125 miles southeast of 
the city of Mexica Pop. 7139. 

Tehnantepec i^l^^^-^^^'i' ,^ 

State of Oaxaca, 14 miles above the 
mouth of a river of the same name, fall- 
ing into the Pacific Ocean. On account 
of a dangerous bar the river is little 
used for navigation. Pop., mostly In- 
dians, 10,386. The town is near the 
south side of the Isthmus or Tehuan- 
TKPEO, the narrowest part of N. America, 
having the GuLT or TsHUAirrEPEO on 
the Pacific side, the Bay of Gampeachy 
on the Atlantic side; width, about llD 
miles. There have been various schemes 
for constructing a canal or a ship rail- 
way across the isthmus, the most recent 
of the latter sort being that of an Ameri- 
can engineer named Eads. See Ship 
Raihoay, A railroad now crosses the 
Isthmus and a large and valuable trade 
has developed. It is expected to com- 

E^te with the Panama Canal when fin^ 
bed, as furnishing a much shorter 
Atlantic-Pacific route from northern 

Teignmoutli <?3'°'SJI?i'eAo:S'"5 

England, in the coun^ of Devon, at th« 
mouth of the Teign, which is here crossed 
by a wooden bridge 1671 feet in length. 
It is divided into East Teignmouth and 
West Teignmouth. East Teignmouth, 
which is the more modem, is almost en- 
tirely appropriated as a watering-place. 
West Teignmouth, the port and principal 
seat of business, has a safe and com- 
modious harbor. The fisheries employ a 
considerable number of the inhabitants. 
Pop. (1911) 9221. 

T^iTiHa (tends), the Scotch law term 
XCXliUS j^y ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^j ^^^ 

fruits of the land. In the majority of 
instances the telnds now belong to the 
owners of the land formerly paying them, 
to the crowiL or other proprietors, they 
being charged in all cases with the pay- 
ment of the parish minister's stipend. 

Telamon. ®^ AUante$. 
Telautograph i^AUnft'^;^^^^^ 

vented by Professor Elisha Gray, based 
on a novel svstem of transmission, 
whereby a fac simile reproduction of the 
handwriting of the sender of a message 
is effected. See Telegraph. 
Teledn (t^^'^^)* ^ Javanese camiv- 
orous quadruped, familv Mus- 
telidfle, allied to the skunk, and like it, 
when provoked, capable of diffusing a 
most abominable stench; the stinkard 
(Mydau9 melicep$). 

Digitized by 




Teleeraph (tel'e-graf), a general 
o *^" name for any instrument 
or apnaratus for conveying intelligence 
beyond the limits of distance at which 
the Toice is audible, the idea of speed 
behiig also implied. Thus the name used 
to be given to a semaphore or other 
appliances for signaling, which are now 
designated as signaling apparatus. The 

Single-needle Insfenunent. 

word telegraph has come to be restricted 
in its application to the electric tele- 
graph, which from its power of rapidly 
conveying elaborate communications to 
the greatest distances has completely out- 
rivaled all others. The electric telegraph, 
as comprising the entire system of ap- 
paratus for transmitting intelligence by 
electricity, consists essentially (1) of a 
battery or other source of electric power ; 
(2) of a line-wire or conductor for con- 
veying the electric current from one sta- 
tion to another; (3) of the apparatus 
for transmitting, interrupting, and if 
necessarv reversing the current at pleas- 
ure; and (4) of the indicator or signal- 
ing instrument. The line-wires for 
overhead lines are usually of iron, pro- 
tected from atmospheric influence bv 
galvanising or by being varnished with 
boiled linseed-oil, a coating of tar, or 
other means, and are supported upon 
posts, to which they are attached by in- 
sulators. (See Insulator,) In under- 
ground lines the wires are insulated by 
a gutta-percha or other non-conducting 
covering, and inclosed in iron or leaa 
pipes. The battery and line-wire are 
common to all telegraphic systems; 
it is in the method of producing 
the signals that the great variation 
exists; but in all of them advantage has 
been taken of one or another of the three 
following properties of the current: (1) 
its power of producing the deflection of 
a magnetic needle, as in the galvan- 
ometer (which see) ; (2) its power of 
temporarily magnetizing soft iron; and 

(3) its power of producing chemical de- 

The needle-telegraph of Coolce and 
Wheatstone is an application of the first 
of these properties. This, the earliest 
form of telegraphic instrument, originally 
employed five needles, each woilced by 
two wires. The number was subse- 
quently reduced to two, and now only 
one wire is used. This hangs vertically, 
but can move to right or left between 
two stops. The signals are formed by 
combinations of the deflections in the 
two directions. These are variously 
combined to represent the letters of the 
alphabet, the Morse code being used. The 
needle-telegraph was never adopted out 
of England, and even here the Morse has 
been generally substituted for it 

The electro-magnetic instrument of Pro- 
fessor Morse is an application of the 
second of the above properties. By 
means of an electro-magnet, an armature 
which is attracted when the magnet is 
temporarily magnetized, a lever moved 
by the armature, and a style which moves 
with the lever, this instrument impresses 
a message in dots and dashes on a rib- 
bon of moving paper, and by it forty 
words may be sent in a minute. This 
' dot and dash ' system which was in- 
vented by Morse is now in very general 
use. A modification of this instrument, 
called a sounder, in which the lever 
makes audible sounds by coming in con- 

Receiver or Soonder. 

tact with a brass rod, indicates the mes- 
sage by the length of the strokes pro- 
duced. This is sDOwn in the illustration, 
which shows the arrangement, by which 
the hammer-head h is attracted, and the 
arm HP is brought into contact with 
the pin a. Upon the cessation of the 
current the spring brings down the arm 
upon the pin ft. Frequently the Morse 

Digitized by 




is simultaneously a recorder and 
sounder. It beins necessary that this 
instrument should produce sharp and 
Jistlnct impressions, and the current be- 
insr weak for stages over 50 miles, a 
relay, or subsidiary electro-magnetic 
circuit, is added to it in the case of 
longer distances. The transmitting in- 
strument is a lever, which, on neing 
gressed, permits the current from the 
attery to flow into the line-wire during 
the time the contact is made. Both on 
account of its intrinsic merits and for 
the sake of uniformity the Morse is the 
most extensively used system, being that 
in use in America and on the continent 
of Europe, and being also largely em- 
ployed in Britain. 

Hughes' printing telegraph is the in- 
strument chiefly used by the submarine 
telegraph companies. It works with one 
line of wire, and has about three times 
the speed of the Morse system, with the 
advantage that the message is printed 
in the ordinary Roman type. The ma- 
chine is rather complicated, but its prin- 
ciple can be easily understood. A wheel 
having type engraved on its rim is made 
to revolve at a known rate; a strip of 
paper, as in the case of the Morse, is 
drawn ot£ a drum over a roller which 
lies under the rim of the revolving type- 
wheel ; by means of the current the roller 
with the paper is raised against the 
type- wheel as the proper letter passes, 
and in this way the despatch is printed. 
The operator works on a keyboard much 
like that of a piano. Chemical tele- 
graphs work on the principle that an 
iron wire pressing against a paper pre- 
pared with cyanide of potassium or other 
substance will, while a current is passing 
between the wire and the paper, produce 
a dark streak of Prussian blue or other 
mark, and when the current is inter- 
rupted the streak of pigment is inter- 
rupted. BonelIi*s telegraph is worked by 
means of five wires. The message is set 
up in brass types in one line; the let- 
ters are common block letters ; five styles, 
like the teeth of a comb, press against 
the raised portions of the type, and as 
the line of type is drawn through each 
style sends a current along its wire to 
a corresponding style pressing against 
prepared paper at the distant station, 
making a mark pp the paper there corre- 
sponding to the raised portion of type 
which sends the current. The chief ob- 
jection to Bonelli's telegraph is the five 
wires necessary between the stations. 
Autographic telegraphs are chemical 
telegraphs, and consist of a message writ- 
ten with a pen dipped in some non-con- 
dueting substance on a surface of tin- 

foil or other conducting material pasted 
on a cylinder which is made to revolve 
at a certain rate; a style presses against 
the surface, and is movea up or down 
the cylinder at a certain rate so as to 
describe a helical line; a current passes 
between the cylinder and style except 
when the non-conducting writing comes 
between them; at the distant station a 
similar cylinder covered with paper pre- 
pared with cyanide of potassium revolves 
at the same rate as the first cylinder; 
and its style being connected with the 
first style by means of the telegraph 
wire makes a mark of Prussian blue, 
which is a continuous helix, except when 
the current is interrupted at the first 
style. In this way a copy of the mes- 
sage in the handwriting of the sender is 
produced at a distant station. Bain's 
automatic telegraph is Bonelli's tele- 
graph, wherein by adopting the Morse 
alphabet one wire is suflicient; and the 
type is simply a strip of paper with 
dots and dashes punched in it. In addi- 
tion to the delicate mirror or refleeting 
galvanometer, which Sir W. Thomson in- 
vented in connection with the Atlantic 
telegraph, that distinguished electrician 
invented a self-recording instrument, 
consisting of a light coil of wire, very 
delicately suspended in a magnetic field, 
the motions of which coil, when a cur- 
rent is passed through it, are the means 
by which messages are recorded. The 
coil is attached to a very light glass 
siphon in the shape of an exceedingly 
fine capillary tube, through which ink 
from a reservoir is drawn by electric at- 
traction, the reservoir and the moving 
paper ribbon upon which the ink falls 
bein^ oppositely electrified. The ex- 
tremity of the siphon is not in contact 
with, but only very near the paper. 
When there is no current the ink traces 
a straight line; when the current is 
passing the marks or deviations consti- 
tuting the letters are produced. The 
delicacy and rapidity of this instrument 
are even greater than th6se of the mirror 
galvanometer, and the siphon recorder 
accordingly is highly valued. 

As early as 1747 Bishop Watson 
showed that signals might be sent through 
a wire stretched across the Thames by 
discharging a Leyden-jar through it. 
In 1753 there appeared in the Scots 
Magazine a letter signed G. M., in 
which the idea of signaling by means of 
electric discharges is put forward. 
Lesage, 1774, erected at Geneva a tele- 
graph line consisting of twenty-four 
wires connected with the same number 
of pith-ball electroscopes, each represent- 
ing a letter. Reusser, in Germany, pro- 

Digitized by 


Tclegrapn Telegraph 

posed in the same year to replace the Wheatstone and Ck>oke on the London and 
electroscopes by spangled panes exhibit- Birmingham and Great Western rail- 
ing the letters themselves. Volta*s dis- ways. The wires, which were buried in 
covery of the galvanic pile, and Oersted's the earth, were five in number, each act* 
discovery of electro-magnetism, by sup- ing on a separate needle, but the ez- 
plying electricity of a Kind more easily pensiveness of this plan soon led to its 
retained on the conducting wires, af- beinz given up, the double-needle, and 
forded much greater facilities for trans- finally the single-needle, system replac- 
mlttin^ signals to a distance. Ampere, infirit. 

in 1k20, proposed to utilize Oersted's This historical sketch may be corn- 
discovery by employing twenty-four pleted by a statement of the more re- 
needles to be deflected by currents sent cent inventions of importance in tele- 
through the same number of wires ; and graphic science. The first great improve- 
Baron Schilling exhibited in Russia, in ment after the general introduction of 
1832, a telegraph model in which the the Morse system came in the multiple 
signals appear to have been given by the or synchronous system, which was first 
deflections of a single needle. Weber suggested as early as 1852. The early 
and Gauss carried out this plan in 1833 forms of this system proved unsatis- 
by leading two wires from the observa- factory, but Delany*s later invention, in- 
tory of G5ttingen to the Physical Cab- troduced about 18fe, supplied a practieal 
inety a distance of about 9000 feet, multiplex telegraph, by which several 
The signal consisted in small deflections messages could be sent simultaneously. 
of a bar-magnet suspended horizontally The principle involved is the synchronous 
with a mirror attached, on the plan since rotation of sets of mechanism at opposite 
adopted in Thomson's mirror galvanom- ends of a line. The difficulty to be met 
eter. At their request the subject was is that of maintaining perfect syn- 
eamestly taken up by Professor Stein- chronism. This system differg in prlncl* 

A$ Punehsd. 

•• • •# %••••• • #• • • • 


As Printed. 
Wbeatstone's Automatic System. 

heil of Munich, whose inventions con- pie from that of duplew telegraphy^ de- 
tributed more perhaps than those of any veloped by a number of inventors, and 
other single individual to render electric now in general use in America and Eu- 
telcgraphs commercially practicable. He rope. Edison's quadruples system, in- 
was the first to ascertain that ^arth troduced in 1884, is an improvement 
connections might be made to supersede upon the duplex. In this two keys are 
the use of a return wire. He also in- provided in the sending circuit, and two 
vented a convenient telegraphic alphabet, relays, each having a coil in both the 
in which, as in most of the codes since line-circuit and compensation-circuit, 
employed, the different letters of the One key reverses the current, and the 
alphabet are represented by different other brings into the circuit three times 
combinations of two elementary signals, as much battery power, which permits of 
His currents were magneto-electric, like the two extra workings. A variety of 
those of Weber and Gauss. The attrac- other printing telegraphs have sup- 
tion of an electro-magnet on a movable plemented that of Hughes, including the 
armature furnishes the means of signal- Phelps and House machine, the Rogers, 
ing which is the foundation of Morse's Gray's telautograph, and various others, 
telegraphic system, introduced in 1844, In the Gray instrument two wires are 
and notable for its convenient alphabet, used and written messages are repro- 
now in use in all parts of the world, duced. The writing instrument may be 
About the year 1837 electric telegraphs an ordinary pencil, the pen of the re- 
were first developed as commercial spec- ceiver being a glass tube, carrying its 
nlations in three different countries, ink capillarity. The duplication of the 
Steinheirs system was experimented with motions of the pencil at the transmitter 
at Munich, Morse's in America, and is performed by current impulses con- 
Wbeatstone and Cooke's in England, trolled by the shortening or lengthening 
The first telegraphs ever constructed for of two silk cords to which the pencil is 
commercial use were laid down by attached. By a complex mechanism the 

Digitized by 


Telegrapli Cable Telephone 

impulses at the transmitter are so dupli- This principle has been developed in the 

cated at the receiver as to cause two modem range-finder. Acoustic telemeten 

aluminum arms to shift the receiving record the time between the flash of a 

pen along positions similar to those as- gun and the hearing of the report 

sumed by the sending pencil and the silk Tfilftolo^V (tel-e-ol'd-ji), the science 

cords, so that the record at the receiver ^v^^vxwgjr or doctrine of final causes ; 

is always a fac simile of that at the the doctrine which asserts that all things 

transmitter, whether words, figures, signs, which exist were produced by an int^i- 

or sketches are made. The transmission gent being for the end which they fulfill, 

of drawings can be made by this and TftlnnAAnnift (tel-e-O-sa'rus), a genus 

several other instruments. ^ XClCUSaUTUS ^^ fossiTcrocoiilei oe- 

In the printing telegraph of recent in- cnrring in the lower Jurassic rocks. They 

vention the message is prepared bv a are found with marine fossils, and 

species of typewriting machine, which seem to have been especially fitted for 

punches holes in a paper tape, which an aquatic life. 

tape is fed automatically through a Teleostei (tel-e-oa'te-I), a large and 
transmitter, having minute levers which **'*^voi*^x ijnp^rtanj^ sub-class of the 
make connections through the holes in class of fishes, distinguished primarily 
the tape and send corresponding impulses by the usually hony nature of me skele- 
over the wire. The speed of this instru- ton as compared with the cartilaginous 
ment depends on the rapidity with which skeletons of some other sub-classes. Al- 
the typewriter can be worked, as the most all our common fishes are included 
tape can be sent through the transmitter in this order. See Ichthyology. 
at almost any speed. Two hundred or Telenathv (tel-ep'a-thl), thought 
more words a minute can be sent, De- *^*^i'«**''"'j transference from mind to 
spite the rapidity of these methods, how- mind through intermediate space. This 
ever, the simple Morse system still holds word was coined about 1886 oy the So- 
its own, all more rapid ones suffering ciety for Psychical Research to Indicate 
from some degree of complication. An the supposed cause of various phenome- 
interesting development of telegraphy is na observed. These were very namer- 
that of sending messages from moving ous and varied, and sufficed to convince 
trains. This is done hy induction from many members of the Society that such 
an instrument in the train to an external a power existed, they maintaining that 
wire. The cost and little need of this the facts observed by them admitted of 
system has prevented it from coming into no other explanation. These facts con- 
use. For the most recent and one of the sisted of drawings made by a sensitive 
most interesting discoveries in telegraphy when surrounded by others, who concen- 
see Wireless Telegraphy. trated their thoughts on the object to be 
TMf»(rrfl.nTi HAhlf^ ^^ Submarine drawn; the successes far surpassing 
XCie^mpiL ^&Die. ^^^^^^ ^j,^ U^^jy ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ chance. In ad- 

Tele?raT)ll-T)laiLt {Desmodium fy- dition were communications received men- 
AVAvgj.c»yu ^Aauv rans), an Indian tally from a distance, occasionally a very 
leguminous plant, with small lateral great one, conveying some intelligence of 
leaflets, which display a strange spon* a personal character that was afterwards 
taneous motion, especially in a warm, corroborated. Many maintain that the 
moist atmosphere. They jerk up and phenomena known as spirit communica- 
down as if signaling, as many as 180 tions are telepathic in their origin, and to 
times in a minute, and also rotate on sustain this give a great expansion to the 
their axes. power of thought transmission. 
TelemachUS ite-lem'akus), a son of JeleDhOIie jtel'e-fdn), an Insteument 
AVAvuMarvuu0 Ulysses and Penelope, a^*^!'"^!*^ ^^^ transmitting the hu- 
who is reputed to have gone through man voice or other sounds by means of 
many adventures in search of his father electricity and telegraph wires. About 
after the close of the Trojan war. He the year 1860 the idea that sound-produc- 
is the hero of a French prose epic by ing vibrations could be transmitted 
F^nelon (1609). through a wire by means of electricity 
Telemeter (tel-em'e-ter), a device for began to be recognized bv several men 
^ measuring distances; a of science. Reis of Frankfort invented 
distance-meter. The simplest forms con- an apparatus which could reproduce at 
sist of telescopes containing parallel wires a distant station the pitch of a musical 
accurately spaced, or there may be two sound by means of a discontinuous cur- 
telescopes at stations of known distance rent along a telegraph wire. A great 
apart, the difference in the angles of ob- step in advance was made in 1876, when 
servation affording a basis for calcula- Prof. Graham Bell discovered an articula- 
ting the distance of the object observed, ting telephone which depends upon tht 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


; ' 

Digitized by 




principle of the undulating current, and 
by means of which the very quality of a 
note, and therefore conversation itself, 
could be reproduced at a distant station. 
Eliaha Gray had made a similar inven- 
tion at the same time, and Bell and 
Gray applied for a patent on the same 
day, Feb. 14, 187a Bell's application 
came first and the patent was granted 
him. The telephone was first shown in 

?ublic at the Centennial Exposition of 
876, at Philadelphia. Several varieties 
of telephonic apparatus are now in use for 
inter-communication between distant 
places. The Bell telephone in its com- 
mon form is shown in the accompanying 
cut. A strong ordinary bar-magnet m 
has round one of its ends a coil of fine 
silk-covered wire in metallic communi- 
cation with the two terminals 8 8, One 
of the terminals communicates through a 
telegraph wire with one of the terminals 
of the coil of a precisely similar instru- 
ment at the other station, the remaining 
pair of terminals being connected 

Bell Telephone Beceiver. 

through the earth, or through a return 
wire. Just in front of the extremity of 
the ma^et there is a thin plate of iron 
p. and m front of this a^ain there is the 
mouth-piece of a speaking-tube o. By 
this last the sounds to be transmitted are 
collected and concentrated, and falling 
on the metal plate cause it to vibrate. 
These vibrations in their turn excite un- 
dulating electric currents which corre- 
spond exactly with the vibrations; that 
is, with the original sounds. The elec- 
tric currents being transmitted to the re- 
ceiving telephone cause corresponding 
vibrations in the plate or disc in it. and 
these reproduce to the ear the original 
•ounds. A telephone invented by Edison 
la based upon the variation of resistance 
to the electric current of carbon with 
Tariation of pressure. The microphone, 
in the invention of which both Edison 
and Berliver claim priority, is the basis 
of the carbon telephone. It has not 
into OMi the Bell principle being 

everywhere employed. The telephone is 
now an established institution throuah- 
out Europe and America. Copper wire 
is generally employed in the lines in pref- 
erence to iron, on account of its superior 
power of electric conduction. Telephone 
exchanges exist in all the principal towns, 
subscribers to which have their houses or 
places of business in direct communica- 
tion with each other. Long distance 
lines are also rapidly joining city to city, 
lines between New York and Chicago 
having been years in existence, while 

greater distances have been covered both 
1 America and Europe. In the United 
States the telephone has made greater 
strides than in any other country. There 
is scarcely a village or small town but 
has its telephone exchange, while in the 
large cities there are many thousands in 
use. Throughout the country they may 
be found in many farm-houses and serve 
to reduce the isolation of the farmer's 
household. There are at present more 
than 22,000,000 miles of telephone wire in 
use in the United States and 37,000,000 
in the world. See Wireless Telephony. 
Telenhote (teKe-fOt), an instrument 
* " for telegraphing images of 

objects b^ the agency of electricity acting 
on selenium, the electrical resistance of 
which varies greatly with increase or 
diminution of light. It was invented in 
London in 1891. 

Tf»1pflPAnA &° optical instrument es- 
xcxcsuupc, gentially consisting of a 
set of lenses fixed in a tube or a number 
of sliding tubes, by which distant ob- 
jects are brought within the range of 
distinct, or more distinct vision. The 
law of action b^ which the telescope as- 
sists human vision is twofold, and that 
under all the varieties of its construction. 
A distant object viewed by the unaided 
eye is placed in the circumference of a 
large circle, having the eye for its center, 
and consequently the angle under which 
it is seen is measured by the minute por- 
tion of the circumference which it occu- 
pies. Now, when the distance is great, it 
is found that this angle is too small to 
convey to the retina any sensible im- 
pression — all the light proceeding from 
the object is too weak to affect the optic 
nerve. This limit to distinct vision re- 
sults from the small aperture or pupil of 
the eye. The telescope substitutes its 
large object lens or reflector for the hu- 
man eye, and consequently receives a 
quantity of light proportioned to its area 
or surface; hence a distant point, inap- 
preciable by the eye alone, is rendered 
visible by the aid of the telescope. The 
rays of light, after transmission or re- 
flection, converge to a point as they at 

Digitized by 




first proceeded from a point, and thus an 
image of the object is formed which, 
when Tiewed by the eye-piece or lens, is 
more or less magnified. The telescope 
therefore assists the eye in these two 
ways: it gathers np additional light, and 
it magnifies the object ; that is to say, its 
image. The refracting telescope is con- 
structed of lenses alone, which, by suc- 
cessive refractions^ produce the desired 
effect. This instrument was formerly 
very cumbersome and inconvenient, inas- 
much as its length had to be increased 
considerably with every accession of 

Oriving-elock of the 26-inch Equatorial Tele- 
scope of the U. S. Naval Obserratory at 

power; but the substitution of achromat- 
ic for ordinary lenses has rendered it 
more portable and convenient. The re- 
flecting telescope is composed of specula 
or concave reflectors (see Speculum) 
aided by a refracting eye-piece. To this 
instrument we owe some of the most 
wondrous discoveries in astronomical 
science. The names of Newton, Gregory, 
Herschel, and Lord Rosse are connected 
with its history. The following dia- 
grams exhibit the principles of construc- 
tion and action in both sorts of tele- 

scopes. In fig. 1, which illustrates the 
refracting telescope in its simplest form, 
A and B are two lenses of difter«nt focal 
lengths. Rays of light from a distant 
object falling upon the object-glass a 
are converged to a focus at c. The eye- 
glass B, placed at its focal distance from 
the point of convergence, gathers up the 
diverging rays and carries them parallel 
to the eye. maffnifjing the image formed 
at o. (See Optics,) The magnifying 
power of the instrument is as a c : c B, 


Fig. 1. 

or as the focal length of one lens to that 
of the other. In this construction the 
object is seen inverted or turned npside 
down, and hence it is nnsui table for ter- 
restrial purposes. To render the image 
erect, and thus show it in its natural po- 
sition, a more complicated eye-piece, con- 
sisting of two additional lenses, is nec- 
essary. Another refracting telescope, 
consisting of two lenses in its simplest 
form, is called the Galilean telescope. 
It differs from the former in having a 
concave lens for its eve-glass, which lens 
is placed nearer the object-glass than the 
focus of this lens, producmg an image 
which is not inverted. This kind of tele- 
scope is the one used in opera-glasses and 
field-glasses. Fig. 2 shows the structure 

Pig. 2. 

of the reflecting telescope as constructed 
by Dr. Gregory, a B is a large speculum 
perforated m the center; upon this fall 
the rays 5, a and d, c, which are reflected 
to convergence at e. A smaller speculum* 
c, takes up the diverging rays and re- 
flects them, slightly converging, through 
the aperture o, where they are received 
by a lens, and, after transmission, they 
intersect at a, and proceed to the eye- 
glass, whence they emerge paralleL The 
magnifying power of this instrument is 
great for its length. In the telescope in- 
vented by Sir William Herschel there is 
no second speculum, and no perforation in 
the center of the larger one placed at the 
bottom of the tube. The latter is fixed in 
an inclined position so that the image 

Digitized by 




formed by reflection falls near the lower 
■ide of the tube at its open end or mouth, 
Inhere it is viewed directly by an eye- 
piece, without greatly interfering with the 
light. This arrangement, in the case of 
larce reflectors, is imposed by their great 
weight and difficult management. Were 
it otherwise the ordinary construction 
would be preferred, the inclination of the 
speculum being a disadvantage. Chro- 
matic aberration; which arises from the 
different refrangibilities of the different 
colored rays, and leads to the formation, 
by a lens, of a separate image of a 
bright object for each colored ray, is rem- 
edied by achromatizing the lens, that is, 
by constructing it of two or more lenses 
of different kinds of glass, so that the 
colors, separated by one, shall be reunited 
by the others. (See Achromatic.) The 
most powerful refracting telescope yet 
made is that in the Yerkes ObservatoiTt 
Wisconsin, which has an object-glass 40 
inches in diameter. Next in size is the 
36-inch telescope at the lick Observatory, 
California. The Hosse telescope is the 
largest reflecting telescope, its lens being 
6 feet in diameter. The Came^e reflec- 
tor, now making, will have a 100-inch lens. 

Telescopium <l\ir^!iS.?;!;''J?iitei* 

lation, was introduced by Louis de 
Lecaille in 1751 after extended observa- 
tions. He placed the Telescopium be- 
tween Ara and Sagittarius. The constel- 
lation is now obsolete. 

tions, perfected by Thomas A. Edison in 
1914. A phonograph record takes down 
every sound that comes over the wire, the 
recording apparatus being started or 
stopped by pressing a button. The chief 
use of the telescribe is in fixing exactly 
important business agreements by tele- 

ehone ; in case of dispute its decision will 
i final as to what was said by the per- 
sons concerned. 

Telescriptor i^l^^a'aw 

with keyboard transmitter and an auto- 
matic receiver of the revojving type-wheel 
pattern. The operator strikes the keys 
exactly as if he were writing on a type- 
writer, and the words come out on a strip 
of paper that unrolls before him, while 
at the same time the message is being 
written before the eyes of the man at the 
other end of the line. 

through whom he was appointed surveyor 
of puDlic works for Salop. He then ex- 
changed his original occupation for that 
of civil engineer, and was intrusted with 
the construction of the Ellesmere Canal. 
In the years 1803 and 1804 the parlia- 
mentary commissioners for making roads 
and building bridges in the Highlands of 
Scotland, and al^o those for making the 
Caledonian Canal, appointed Telford their 
engineer, and thus an immense amount of 
work was carried out by him. Above 
thirty harbors were built or improved by 
him, some of which, as at Aberdeen and 
Dundee, were upon an extensive scale. 
He superintended the construction of a 
number of large bridges, and the execution 
of numerous important works for the 
metropolis. Besides the 900 miles of 

lanon is now oosoiete. 

Telescribe (tei'e-scnb) or ph 

A^x^ovxxM^ graph recorder, an ini 
ment for recording telephone conv< 

Thomsi Telford. 

roads laid in Scotland h« engineered a 
system of roads through the more inac- 
cessible parts of Wales, which involved 
the erection of the magnificent suspen- 
sion bridge across the Menai Straits, be- 
gun in 1820, and the Conway bridge, be- 
gun in 1822. He employed a system ef 
road-making since known as the Telford. 
In 1806 he was employed by the Swedish 
government to lay out a system of inland 
navigation through the central parts of 
that kingdom. He died in 1834, and was 
interred in Westminster Abbey. 


See Algeria, 

TAlfnril Thomas, engineer, bom in TaII William, a famous peasant hero 
xeuura, 1757 at Eskdale, Dumfries- •''^"^ of Switzeriand, reputed to have 

done some daring and wonderful feats in 
his resistance to the tyranny of the Aus- 
trian governor Gessler, but now proved 
to have been a mythical personage. Hq 

■hire ; became a mason and worked at his 
trade in Edinburgh, which in 1782 he 
qtdtted for London. Here he was be- 
friended by Sir William Pultney, 

Digitized by 


Tell-el-Eebir TempS 

is said to have belonged to the cantoo of TAlnliArovA (terfer-ij)» a •ystem f6r 
Uri, and to have united with others be- *c*F"'^*«*S'' the antomatic transport 
longing to this canton and to those of of goods by means of electridty densiMl 
Unte^walden and Schwyx in resisting the by Fleeming Jenkin in 1881. It con- 
Austrians. In particnlar, having re- sists of a line of steel rods or cables soa- 
fnsed to do homage to Gessler's hat, set pended from brackets or posts, 70 feet 
upon a pole, he was seized and con- apart, and serving at once as a suppor- 
demned to death, but was granted his life ter of weights and a conductor of electric- 
on condition of shooting with an arrow an ity. Buckets or other receptades ara 
apple placed on the head of his own son. hung from the line bv a wheel or pair of 
This he did successfully, admitting at the wheels, and a small electrical motor, 
same time that a second arrow he had hanging below the line, supplies tiie 
was intended for Gessler in case of fail- power. Trains of buckets nUed with 
ure. He was therefore still kept a pris- goods may be conyejed at one time, or 
oner; but while being conveyed over the they may be carried forwaM In a con- 
Lake of Lucerne he manacled to leap tinuous stream. The system was devd- 
ashore. and soon after, having lain in oped in conjunction with Professors Ayr- 
wait for Gessler, he killed him. ton and Perry. 

Tell-el-Kebir (tel;'), a village TelgTii (tyeVshC), a town of Russia. Itt 

xcii-ci Jkcuir ^^ g j^ ^jjgj.^ ^jj^ xeuiU ^^ government of KovnoTlCO 

British troops under Wolseley defeated miles N.w. of vilna. It has a population 

those of Arabi Pasha, September 13, of 7700. 

1882. Telni^ll (te-ia'gu), or TKLnroA. one of 

Teller (^rer), Henbt Moobb, statea- *^***B** the languages of India, be- 

man, was born at Granger, New lonaing to the Dravidian group, and 

York, in 1830; died in 1914. He was a spoken in southern India by about twen- 

lawyer in Illinois and Colorado and was a ty-one millions of people. The Telufu 

major-general of Colorado militia in the are the most numerous brandi of ue 

Civil War. In 18 1 6 he was elected to the Dravidian race, but are less enterprlsina 

United States Senate ; appointed secre- than the Tamils. The language is allied 

taiT of the interior in 1882, and in 1885 in roots to the Tamil language, but dif- 

and 1891 again elected senator. He fers considerably otherwise, 

withdrew from the Republican party in TATnT^tiloTi^ (tem'b5-land). a district 

1896 and was reelected in 189? as an TCHlDlUantt if Uie^SansieUn tSS- 

Independent Free-silver Republican, and tories in eastern South Africa, which ara 

as a Democrat in 1903. bounded by Cape Colony, Basutoland, and 

TellicherrV (teH-cher'i), a seaport NataL Tembuland has an excellent di- 

*^ *^, of Hindustan, in the mate and a fertile soil, whidi is wdl 

presidency of Madras, a healthy and pic- suited for pastoral and agricultural pnr- 

turesque town, built upon a group of poses. The coast regions are adapted to 

wooded hills, with a citadel or castle in the growth of sugar, cotton, and coffctt. 

excellent preservation. It is a mart for The minerals include coal and ooppar. 

sandalwood, coffee, etc. Pop. 231,151. 
Tellnrinm (tel-l<lr'i-oni), a metal 

AVAAK&AAiuu j^^^ recoguizcd as a dis- nTATnAoiroi* (tem'esh-vRr), a town of 

tinct element in 1798. Symbol Te, ^^"ACiiVttr Hungary, in the Temes Ba- 

atomic weight 127.5, specinc gravity nat, on the river Bega and the Bega 

6.27. It is a brittle, silvery- white de- Canal, 75 miles N.N.B. of Belgrade. It 

ment, melting at 452*^C. and boiling at is strongly fortified, and is for the moat 

478'*C. Occasionally found native, but is part well built, with spadous streets and 

very rare, and is mostly obtained in com- squares. The principal buildings are the 

bination with other elements. It com- Greek Orthodox cathedral and other 

bines directly with hydrogen to produce churches, the government offices, town- 

telluretted hydrogen, a highly poisonous house, tneater, various schools and col* 

gas. There are two chlorides, the di- leges, arsenal, civil and military hospitala. 

chloride and the tetrachloride. Bromides The manufactures consist of woolens, 

and iodides are known. With oxygen it dlks, paper, tobacco, etc; Held by the 

forms the dioxide and the trioxide, and a Turks from 1552 to 1710, Temeavf^ waa 

monoxide has been described. Two adds r* taken by Prince Eugene. Pop. 72,556. 

exist, tellurous acid and telluric add. Temnikov (tyem-nyi-kov'), a town in 

No well-defined normal salts in whidi **'*""***'^^ the Russian government of 

tsUurium acts as a metallic radical ara Tambov, on the Moksha. Pop. 5737. 

known. Tellurium is found in Transyl- Ti^niTie (tem'pC), Vale op, a beautiful 

Tania and other parts of Hungary, in die •*'^*"y^ valley of northern Greece, in 

Altai ailyer mines and in North Ameriot. Tbessaly, on the Peneus, much celebrated 

Digitized by 




by the ancient poets, having Mount 
Olympus on the north and Mount Ossa 
on the south. 

Tempera. See Distemper. 

Temperance Societies. L^odau?n 

for the purpose of influencing public 
opinion in onJer to check the evil of in- 
temperance was a society formed at Mor- 
eau. New York, in 18()8. It was followed 
in 1813 by the Massachusetts Society for 
the Suppression of Intemperance. In 
1826 a new impulse was given to the 
movement by the establishment in Bos- 
ton on a more extensive plan of the 
American Society for the Promotion of 
Temperance, the first annual report of 
which announced the formation of thirty, 
and the second of 220 auxlliarv associa- 
tions. By 1831 more than 2200 socie- 
ties, embracing 170,000 members, were 
in correspondence with the parent so- 
ciety. Reports of the movement in Amer- 
ica soon began to have an effect on the 
other side of the Atlantic In August, 
1829, a society was formed in Ireland, 
and before a year had passed sixty or- 
ganisations, with 3500 members, were in 
existence. In 1838 a great impetus to 
the movement was given by the Rev. 
Theobald Mathew, a Roman Catholic 
priest, who succeeded in less than two 
years in persuading 1,800,000 of his 
countrymen to renounce the use of ardent 
spirits. The first temperance society in 
Scotland was established at Marvbill, 
near Glasgow, in October, 1829, and the 
Greenock and Glasgow and West of Scot- 
land Temperance societies were consti- 
tuted soon afterwards. On the 14th of 
June. 1830, the first temperance society 
in England was founded at Bradford, 
and by the close of the year there were 
in existence some thirty associations, 
numbering about 10,000 members. These 
societies went no further than the resolve 
to abstain from ardent spirits, the use 
of fermented liquors in moderation be- 
ing permitted. But the principle of total 
abstinence soon followed. In 1832 the 
war against intoxicating liquors of all 
kinds was opened in England by Joseph 
Livesey of Preston, and by 1838 the total 
abstinence, or teetotal, party had tri- 
umphed all along the line, the old tem- 
perate or moderation party having gradu- 
ally disappeared. Of late years many of 
the advocates of total abstinence have 
sought to enforce their views by legisla- 
tive measures, as exenoplified In the cele- 
brated Maine Liquor Law (for the sup- 
pression of the manufacture and sale 
of intoxicating beverages), so called from 
the state in which a prohibitory law 

was first enacted. Some other states 
passed similar laws, but at the end 
of the century only three maintained 
prohibition^ Maine, Kansas, and North 
Dakota. In the early years of the 
twentieth century an active movement 
was instituted in favor of local option 
and state prohibition of liquor selling, 
beginning in the South, where negro 
drunkenness had become a serious evil, 
and extending to some of the states 
of the North. As a result, on January 
1, 1911, complete prohibition existed in 
nine states, these being Maine, Kansas, 
North Dakota, Georgia, Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and 
Tennessee. Since that date active pro- 
gress has been made in the temperance 
cause and nine more states have been 
added to the list These include Arizona, 
Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Oregon, 
Virginia, Washington and West Virginia. 
Among the important developments In 
the temperance movement are the ot^ 
aanizations known as the Independent 
Order of Good Templars and the Anti- 
Saloon League. (See these titles.) The 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
long under the presidency of Frances E. 
Willard, has been an influential Society. 

Temperature i^'^^^^' >„ "JJ^ 

State of a body with regard to heat, or 
to its power of communicating heat to 
other bodies. It often refers to the at- 
mospheric heat of a locality at a partic- 
ular time. When we speak of a body 
having a * high ' or a * low ' temperature 
it is implied that the condition of heat in 
the body may be compared with the 
thermometer. See Thermometer, 

Temperature of Animals. ®*® 


Temperincr /tem'per-lng), in metal- 
*^ & lurgy, the process of giv- 

ing to metals, principally iron and steel, 
the requisite degree of hardness or soft- 
ness, especially the process of giving to 
steel the necessary hardness for cutting, 
stamping, and other purposes. If heated 
and suddenly cooled below a certain de- 
gree it becomes as soft as iron ; if heated 
beyond that degree, it becomes very hard 
and brittle. The process essentially con- 
sists in plunging the steel when red-hot 
into cold water or other liquid to give 
an excess of hardness, and then gradually 
reheating it until the hardness is re- 
duced or brought dovm to the required 
degree. The excellence of all steel-cut- 
ting instruments depends on the degree 
of temper given to them. Different de- 
grees of temper are indicated by differ- 
ent colors which the steel assumes. Thiir 

Digitized by 


Tenul Tench 

in different materials, and in the same law; and the outgoing tenant became en- 
material it varies with the state of the titled to compensation from the proprie- 
body in regard to temperature and other tor to an amount varying according to 
circumstances. The resistance offered to circumstances. The act contained other 
tearing is called absolute tenacity^ that provisions giving compensation for im- 
offered to crushing, retroactive tenacity, provements, but as it did not succeed 
The tenacity of wood is much greater in in doing away with all crievances a 
the direction of the length of its fibers fresh bill was prepared and passed un- 
than in the transverse direction. With der the name of the Land Law Act, 1881, 
regard to metals the processes of forg- which established a land commission to 
ing and wire-drawing increase their ten- revise rents, and to fix them for fifteen 
acTty in the longitudinal direction; and years. This measure has been amended 
mixed metals have, in general, greater by subsequent acta. See Ireland. 
tenacity than those which are simple. T^THLftflf^rim (ten-as'er-im), a mari- 
T^TiAil (te'nftl), Tenaiixe, in fortifi- -^cnnwcruu ^^^^ division of Bur- 
Aciicux ^jutjQQ^ an out- work or rampart mah, about 500 miles in length, and 
raised in the main ditch immediately in from 40 to 80 in breadth, with an area of 
front of the curtain, between two has- 46,730 square miles. The eastern bound- 
tions, in its simplest form having two ary of the district is formed by a range 
faces constituting a reentering angle. of mountains from 3000 to 5000 feet in 
Tf^nSLTlt (ten'ant), in law, one who height. The coast is for the most part 
Acuaiib Q^jcupies, or has temporary rocky, and off the gouthem part of it the 
possession of lands or tenements, the sea is studded by the innumerable isV- 
titles of which are in another, the land- ands, large and small, of the Mergui 
lord. A tenant-at-icill is one who oc- Archipelago. There are several good har- 
cupies lands or tenements for no fixed bors, formed by the mouths of the rivers, 
term other than the will of the landlord. Tenasserim is a hilly and densely wooded 
A tenant in common is one who holds region, with here and there tracts of 
lands or tenements along with another or arable land. It passed into the hands 
other persons. Each share in the estate of the British at the close of the first 
is distinct in title, and on the death of Burmese war in 182G. Pop. 1,159,55a 
a tenant his share goes to his heirs or Tenbv (^^^^'l^Ot a municipal borough 
executors. A tenant for life is one who **^""J and seaport of Wales, in the 
has possession of a freehold estate or in- county of Pembroke, on the west side of 
terest, the duration of which is deter- Carmarthen Bav, on the point and north- 
mined by the life of the tenant or an- east margin of a rocky peninsula. It 
other. An estate for life is g:enerally has a fine old church and several other 
created by deed, but it may originate by buildings of note, including the Welsh 
the operation of law, as the widow's es- Memorial to the late Prince Consort, and 
tate in dower, and the husband's estate carries on a considerable trade in fish 
by courtesy on the death of his wife, and oysters. It is besides a bathing- 
See Landlord and Tenant, place, celebrated for its fine sands, beau- 
TpuftTif.ricrlif a term specifically tiful scenery, and agreeable climate. 
xciiuiit ix^lLhy applied to an Irish The old walls of the town are still to 
custom, long prevalent in Ulster, either some extent preserved. Pop. 4362. 
ensuring a permanence of tenure in the Tencll * teleostean fish, belonging to 
same occupant without liability to any ^ ^ the carp family and genus 
other increase of rent than may be sane- Tinea, of which T. vulg&rit (the common 
tioned by the general sentimenU of the tench) is the type. It inhabits most of 
community, or entitling the tenant of a 
farm to receive purchase-money amount- 
ing to so many years' rent, on its being 
transferred to another tenant; the tenant 
having also a claim to the value of per- 
manent improvements effected by him. 
In course of time the advantages of 
tenant-right granted to the Ulster far- 
mers were claimed by the farmers in the 
other provinces of Ireland, and the cus- 
tom spread to a considerable extent. At 
last, under the management of Qlad- 
stone and Bright, the Landlord and Tenck (Tinea vtdpSris). 
Tenant Act of 1870 was passed. By it 

the Ulster tenant-right and other corre- the lakes of the European continent, and 

tponding cuatoms received the force of attains a length of from 10 to 12 iochcac 

Digitized by 


Tender Teniers 

The color is generally a greenish-olive coast of Asia Minor, 15 miles southwest 

above, a light tint predominating below, of the Dardanelles, about 6 miles long 

It is very sluggish, apparently innabiting and 3 miles broad. The channel which 

bottom-waters, and feeding on refuse separates it from the mainland is 3 miles 

vegetable matter. It is very tenacious broad. The interior of the island is very 

of life, and may be conveyed alive in fertile, and is remarkable for the excel- 

damp weeds for long distances. The lence of its wines. Com, cotton, and 

flesh is somewhat coarse and insipid. fruits are also produced. On the east- 

Tendfir (ten'der), in law, an offer of em side of the island, near the sea, is the 

A^uu\;x compensation or damages town of Tenedos. Pop. about 4000. On 

made in a money action. To make a it is the little seaport of Tenedos. 

tender valid the money must be actually Teneriffe (ten-4r-if ). Tenebiffa, the 

produced. A tender made to one of sev- *^"'^*"*^ largest of the Canary 

eral joint claimants is held as made to Islands (which see), is of an irregularly 

all. A tender of money for any pavment triangular form, and has an area of about 

is legal, and is called a legal tender, if 782 square miles. It is of volcanic for- 

made in current coin of the United mation, composed principally of enor- 

States : in silver coins less than $1, not mous masses and cones of trachyte, lava, 

exceeding $10; in gold and silver coins, and basalt, which culminate in the Peak 

for any amount ; in United States bank of Teneriffe, 12,182 feet high. The coast 

notes, except for duties on imports and consists of an almost uninterrupted series 

interest on the public debt. of lofty cliffs, and the only good harbor 

Tender (^^^^I)* ^ small vessel ap- is that of Santa Cms, the capital, on the 

pointed to attend a larger one, northeast. The most remarkable feature 

and employed for her service in procur- of the interior is the celebrated Peak, 

ing stores, etc. In railways a tender is the summit of which forms a crater half 

a carriage attached to the locomotive for a league in circuit, and from which is 

carrying the fuel, water, etc. obtained one of the most magnificent 

Tendon (ten'dun), the name given to views in the world. Two eruptions have 

the 'sinews' by means of taken place since the colonization of the 

which muscles are inserted upon bones, island oy the Spaniards in 1496, namely. 

They consist of bundles of white fibrous in 1706 and 1y98, and at all times the 

inelastic and very strong tissue disposed internal activity of the volcano is indi- 

in bands, and separated by areolar or cated by frequent streams of hot vai)or. 

connective tissue. The principal productions are maize, 

Tendotome (ten'd5-t5m), in surgery, wheat, potatoes, pulse, almonds, oranges, 

A^uuvvvux^ ^ subcutaneous knife, guavas, apples, honev, wax, silk, cochi- 

having a small oblanceolate blade on the neal, and wine. Cochineal, tobacco, and 

end of a long stem, and used for sever- wine are the chief exports. Pop. 138,- 

ing deep-seated tendons without making 008. 

a large incision or dissecting down to TenesmnS (te-nes'mus), in medicine, 
the spot. MMM^\io*iM.iM.o ^ continual inclination to 
Tendr&O ^ ten'drak ) , in zoQlogy, a void the contents of the bowels, accom- 
small insectivorous mam- panied by straining, but without any dis- 
mal, from Madagascar. It is about two- charge. It is a common symptom in 
thirds the size of the common hedgehog, dysentery, stricture of the urethra, etc. 
Tendril ^^ botany, a curling and Teniers (ten'e-6rz), David, the name 
"*• ' twining thread-like process *^*"^**» of two celebrated artists of 
by which a plant clings to another body the Flemish school, father and son, both 
for the purpose of support. It may be natives of Antwero, in which city the 
a modification of the midrib, as in the elder was bora in 1582. Having studied 
pea; a prolongation of a leaf, as in under Rubens, he spent six years in 
Nepenthes ; or a modification of the in- Rome. On his return he occupied himself 
florescence, as in the vine. They have principally in the delineation of fairs, 
been divided into stem tendrils and leaf rustic sports, and drinking parties, which 
tendrils. Called also cirrhus, and by the he exhibited with such tmtb, humor, and 
old authors capreolus and clavicula. originality, that he may be considered the 
Tenebrio (te-n§'bri-d), a genus of founder oi a style of painting which his 
*^ beetles, the type of the fam- son afterwards brought to perfection, 
ily Tenebrionidffi. The larvae of one His pictures are mostly small. He died 
species (T, mplitor) are the destructive in 1W9. — His son was bom in 1610. and 
mealrworms which infest granaries, flour- was taught painting by his father, whom 
stores^ etc he excelled in correctness and finish. He 
Tf^Tiedos (ten'§-dos), an island of became highly popular, was appointed 
xcucuuo Pintle Turkey, on the west court painter to the archduke Leopold 

Digitized by 


Tenimber Islands 


William, goTernor of the Netherlands, 
and gave lessons in painting to Don 
John of Austria. He specially excelled 
in outdoor scenes, thoug many of his in- 
teriors are masterpieces of color and 
composition. His general subjects were 
fairs, markets, merry-makings, guard- 
rooms, taverns, etc., and his pictures, 
which number over 700, are found in all 
the importantpubUc and private galleries 
of Europe. His etchings are also highlv 
esteemed. He died at Brussels in 1690. 

Tenimber Islands. |"/^</*^^'' 

Tennant (.ten'ant), William, a Scot- 

* ••^ tlsh poet of some note, bom 
at Anstruther, Fifeshire, in 1784, studied 
|for some time at the University of St. 
Andrews, and becoming a good oriental 
linguist, was in 1835 appointed to the 
chair of oriental languages in St. Mary's 
College, St. Andrews, dying in 1854. 
His chief production is Anster (that is. 
Anstruther) Fair^ a humorous poem of 
Scottish life in the same stanza as 
Byron's Don Juan, which it preceded, 
being published in 1812. Besides Antter 
Fair, Tennant was the author of several 
other poems and some dramas. None of 
them, however, attained any success. 
Grammars of the Syriac and Chaldee 
tongues were also published by him. 
Tennent ^^ James Emebson, states- 

* "^^ ^ man and writer, was bom at 
Belfast in 1794, and educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin. From 1845 to 1850 he 
was civil secretary to the government of 
Ceylon; in 1852 he waS secretary to the 
Poor-law Board; and from 1852 to 1867 
he held the i>ost of secretary to the Board 
of Trade, on retiring from which he re- 
ceived a baronetcy. He was the author 
of several books of travel and other 
works, the most important being a valua- 
ble account of Ceylon (1859, two vols.). 
He died in 1869. 

TAtiTiPoaAP (ten-es-se'). a south-cen- 
xennessee ^^^^ g^^^ ^^ ^^^ American 

Union, bounded on the north by Ken- 
tucky and Virginia, east by North Caro- 
lina, south by Georgia, Alabama, and 
Mississippi, and west by Arkansas and 
Missouri; area, 42,022 square miles. 
Tennessee is popularly divided into three 
sections. East Tennessee, an extensive 
valley, and agriculturally one of the most 
important sections of the State, stretches 
from the eastern boundary to the mid- 
dle of the Cumberland tableland, which 
has an average elevation of 2000 feet 
above the sea, and abounds in coal, iron, 
and other minerals. Middle Tennessee 
extends from the dividing line on the 
table land to the lower Tennessee River, 
and is a tegion of fertile terraces, includ- 

ing the great elliptical basin of nearly 
5^K) square miles, known as the 'Gar- 
den of Tennessee.* West Tennessee ex- 
tends from the Tennessee River to the 
Mississippi, the bottom lands along the 
latter stream being a low, flat, alluvial 
plain, covered with forests and with many 
lakes and swamps. The Unaka Moun- 
thins, a section of the Great Smoky 
range of the Appalachian chain, nut 
along the eastern frontier, and have an 
average elevation of 5000 feet above the 
sea. The Mississippi, with the Tennes- 
see and the Cumberland, drains three- 
fourths of the State. The two latter are 
navigable for a considerable distance, 
and other rivers with numerous tribu- 
taries supply valuable water power. 
The climate is very healthy, the mean 
temperature of winter being 87.8**, and 
of summer 74.4^. West Tennessee is 
extremely fertile and produces com and 
cotton abundantly. Middle Tennessee 
is generally fertile, also the valleys of 
the east The principal grain crops are 
Indian com, wheat and oats; and cot- 
ton, tobacco, hay and forage are ex- 
tensively cultivated. The rearing and 
fattening of live stock are carried on 
under peculiar advantages, and immense 
numbers of hogs grow up on the mast 
of the forests, which cover a very large 
area. The wool clip is large and excd* 
lent and much attention is paid to fine 
breeds of horses. The most valuable 
minerals are coal and phosphate, which 
are very abundant, the coal deposits un- 
derlying 5100 square miles. Gold, silver, 
copper and zinc are also found, and there 
is a small output of iron ore and lime. 
Tennessee is nch in fine marbles, lime- 
stone, and other building stones. There 
is some output of clay, barytes and metal- 
lic paints, and considerable bauxite. Pe- 
troleum, sulphur, chalybeate and salt 
springs are plentiful. The lumbering in- 
terest is very great, and the lumber and 
timber industries lead all others. Other 
manufactures are flour and gristmiU 
products, foundry and machine shop prod- 
ucts, cars and general shop construction, 
oil, cottonseed and cake, etc. Besides the 
facilities for traffic afforded by the navig- 
able streams, internal communication Is 
further provided for by an extensive sys- 
tem of railways. Among the educational 
establishments stand the University of 
Tennessee at Knoxville, the University of 
Nashville, Vanderbilt and Fisk Univer- 
sities, the last for colored students. The 
chief towns are Nashville (the capital), 
Memphis, Chattanooga, Knoxville. The 
first settlements in this State were 
made shortly before the Revolution, and 
in 1784 the settlers organiied the State 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Tennessee Tennyson 

of Franklin, which existed until 1788. Cambridge, where in 1829 he won the 
In 1796 it was admitted to the Union as chancellor's medal by a poem in blank 
the State of Tennessee. It joined the verse entitled Timbuctoo, As early as 
Southern Confederacy in 1861. though 1827 he had published, in conjunction 
a great majority of the inhabitants of with his brother Charles, Poem* by Two 
East Tennessee were Unionists. Pop. Brothers^ but his literary career may be 
(1910) 2,184,789. said to date from 1830, when he pubUshed 

TenneaseA * "^®^ formed by the a volume entitled Poem9, chiafly Lyrical. 
A%^MMM\,ao\,%,f union of two streams in It was not received with any great favor 
the eastern part of the State of Tennes- by the public, although it was recognized 
see, flows southwest, passes through the by many to contain much that distin- 
northern part of Alabama, then flows guishes the true poet Its success at least 
north through the western part of was sufficient to encourage the poet to 
Tennessee and Kentucky, and enters the prepare a second collection, which ap- 
Ohio, of which it is the largest tributary, peared in 1833, and contained such poems 
about 10 miles below the confluence of as A Dream of Fair Women, The Palace 
the Cumberland. Length, 1200 miles. A of Art, (Enone, The Lady of Shalott, and 
great dam was completed on the Tennes- others. At this time he sustained a great 
see River in 1913, and a powerplant with loss in the death of his friend Arthur 
60,000 horsepower opened at Hale*s Bar, Hallam, and this, with the severe criti- 
a few miles from Chattanooga. The dam, cism which his last volume received in 
which is 1200 feet in length, with an Blackwood*s Magazine and the Quarterly 
avera^ height of 62 feet, holds up a lake Review, may have occasioned his long 
30 miles long, and lets pass a larger silence. It was not till 1842 that he 
volume of water than passes over any again appealed to the public with a selec- 
other navigable river dam in the United tion of his poems in two volumes, and 
States. The power house and lock are it is from this time that we find his 
equally gigantic. work beginning to receive wide recogni- 

Tenniel (}?ny^)» John, a famous tion. The collection then issued in- 
^ . Jlr3}^"®*J?^''' ^^ "°"* ^* ^^^' eluded Morte d* Arthur, Locksley Hall, 
don m 1820. He was almost entirely The May Queen, and The Two Voioes, 
self-taught, and his first picture was ex- all of which, it was almost at once 
hibited while he was little more than a acknowledged, entitled him to rank very 
boy. He painted one of the frescoes in high among modem poets. His reputation 
the House of Parliament in 1845; in was more than sustained by_the works 
1851 became connected as an illustrator that immediately followed. These were: 
with Punch; and he also illustrated The Pnnoesa, a Medley (1847) ; In 
many books, including ^aop'a Fables, Memoriam (1850), written in memory 
Ingoldsby Legends, Ahce*s Adventures tn of his friend Arthur Hallam; and the 
Wonderland, etc. He died in 1914. ode on the Death of the Duke of Wei- 

Tennia (ten'is), a game in which a lington (1852). The latter was his first 
A^xuxxo j^jj j^ driven continually great poem after receiving the laureate- 
against a wall in a specially constructed ship (1850) upon the death of Words- 
court, and caused to rebound beyond a worth. After that date hardly a year 
line at a certain distance by several passed without his adding some gem to 
persons striking it alternately with a our language. Maud and other Poems 
racket, the object being to keep the ball was published in 1855, Idylls of the King 
In motion as long as possible without followed in 1858 ; Enoch Arden and other 
allowing it to fall to the ground. The Poems, in 1864; The Holy GraU and 
game was introduced into England in other Poems, in 1869; The Window, or 
the thirteenth century, and continued to the Songs of the Wrens, in 1870; and 
be very popular with the nobility to the Gareth and Lynette, in 1872, the latter 
reign of Charles II. The modem game volume, which included the Last TournO" 
of rackets is a descendant of tennis, ment, completing the series of poems) 
(See Rackets,) Lawn Tennis , is a re- known as the Idylls of the King. In 
cent modification of the game. See 1855 the University of Oxford conferred 
Lawn Tennis, on Tennyson the honorary degree of D. 

TATinvson (ten'i-sun), Alfred, Lobd, C.L., and in 1869 the fellows of Trinity 
xviuijovu. £jj|j.^ g^jj ^£ George Clay- College, Cambridge, elected him an hon- 
toD Tennyson, rector of Somersby, in orary fellow. So long ago as 1833 he 
Lincolnshire, was bom at the same place, had had printed for private circulation 
August 6, 1809. He received his early a poem entitled The Lover*s Tale; in 
education from his father, attended 18t9 this was republished, together with 
Louth Grammar School, and in due a sequel entitled The Golden Supper. 
coone proceeded to Trinity College, In the following year appeared Ballads 

Digitized by 


Tenor TeocaUis 

and oth^ Poems* Among his later com- being counted by the number at pins that 

poeitiom are the dramas, Queen Mary are caused to falL 

(1875), Harold (1876), and The Cup. Tenree ^^ Tanrec. 

The latter was successfully produced by *^*"^^* 

Mr. Irving at the Lyceum Theatre in Tent ^ portable dwelling-place, formed 

1881, as nad also been Queen Mary. *»u.v| ugQally in the simplest manner. 

The Falcon, another drama, was pro- of canvas, for instance, stretched with 

duced by Mr. and Mrs. Kendal in 1882, cords upon poles. Tents are much used 

and The Promise of May was brought for private purposes and everywhere for 

out at the Qlobe Theatre the same year, army shelter. The soldiers' tents in the 

. The Cup and The Falcon were published United States army have ridged tops, 

as a single volume in 1884, and in the while those of the British army are cir- 

same year appeared the historical drama cular, supported by a vertical pole in 

of Beoket. in 1885 appeared Tireeiae the center 10 feet hiah. 

and other Poems; in t88& Lockeley HaU: Tentacle (ten'ta-kl), in soOlogy, an 

Simty Years After, which also included *^'**"'"^**' elongated appendage pro-a 

The Promise of May: and in 1889 ceeding from the head or cephalic ex-| 

Demeter and other Poems, this last tremity of many of the lower animals, 

volume containin|r work of as high a and used as an instrument of ezplora- 

quality as any of his previous writings, tion and prehension. Thus the arms of 

Tennyson was raised to the peerage in the sea-anemone, the prehensile proces- 

1884 as Baron Tennyson of Aldworth, ses of the dmpeds and annelids, the 

Sussex, and Freshwater, Isle of Wight, cephalic feet of the cephalopoda, the 

Few writera have developed so rare a barbs of fishes, are termed tentacles, 

mastery of Bnglish as a poetic instrument, Tf^ntnAlllitefl (ten-tak'a-llts), a genus 

and his works have a high rank in the •^C'^wwuiikCB ^^ ^^g^jj ^j^^j, ^^^^^ 

literature of the nineteenth century. He abundantly in Siberian and Devonian 

died October 6, 1892. — His brother strata. Some writers regard them as 

Ghables (bom 1808; died 1879) as- tubicular annelids, while others refer 

sumed the name of Turner by royal them to the pterqbods. 

^^^TJlir^^fh^r^l^'^JL^ Tentlirc'do. »«« saw^tnes. 

deatn of nis granomotDer. He puDusnecl, 

in conjunction with his brother, Poems Tj^Ti^frrrci. or Tenttbis. See Den* 

hy Two Brothers (Louth, 1827), now a *^^ ^J'^f derah. 

great bibliographical rarity. He became Ti^TiiiirilirfrrPfl (ten-ti-i-ros'trez; slen- 

vicar of Grasby. Lincohishire, in 1835. ACmuru»vrc» aer-beaked), one of the 

and published Bonnets (1864), Small four sections into 

Tahleauw (1868), and Sonnets, Lyrics, which the order, 

and Translations (1873). Insessores of 

Tenor (t^n'uf t "^ Italian, tenore), in birds is divided. 

Avuvx mugijj^ |g tiig njQpg delicate of This group, rep- 

the two adult male voices, and its com- resented by the , 

pass generally extends from C in the bass humming-birds, ^^^ ^ 

to G or A m the treble. The qualities creepers, sun- ^^^^ * 

of the tenor render it suitable to the birds, hoopoes, 

expression of tender and delicate etc.. is character^ 1 

sentiments. In a vocal composi- isea by the gener- 

tion of four parts, for mixed voices, ally elongated 

the tenor forms the second middle bill, which usu- Hsads or TunnaorntBi. 

part, deeper than the alto, but ally tapers to a ^ «. Sun-bird (^•ctaHni* 

higher than the bass; but in a song of point rftSiXfli ^SS^iSr^ 

the four male voices the tenor, as the TATm~fl S • e V kS^JS^^SS^ 

first voice, leads the chief melody, and as ICnUrCS. g^ (Si£^w^$ah 

the second is the higher middle voice. Tenure of. 

Theclef of this voice is the C clef, placed TeoAflUia (te-n-kal'is; * houses of 

upon the fourth line of the staff, as •*'«v^»"« God'), the name given to 

here shown. the ancient temples of Mexico, of which 

Tennins ?, common game in the there are extensive remains. They were 

*^ ^ United States adapted from generally solid four-sided truncated 

the older English game of ninepins. The pyramids, built terrace-wise, with the 

pins (round pieces of wood) are set up- temple proper on the platform at the 

right in triangular form at the end of summit. Tney were constructed of earth, 

a long level platform, and are bowled faced with brick, and many still remain 

down by round bowls of varied sise rolled in a moi« or less perfect state. The 

4own the length of the platform, the game principal existing sfecimena are thoaa 

Digitized by 




tf GholalEt near Mexico, and of Palen- 
que, in Yucatan. See Cholula and 

Te08 (^'^)* ^^ Teiob, anciently a 
town on the coast of Ionia, in 
Asia Minor, opposite Samos, the birth- 
place of the poet Anacreon. 
TeniG (^*P^')f & town of Mexico, in 
* " the state of Jalisco, pleasantly 
dtuated and rendered peculiarly attrac- 
tive by terraced gardens and shady 
promenades. It has manufactures of 
woolens and sugar, and mines in the 
neighborhood. Pop. 15,48a 
Tenlitz (tftplitz), or Tdpurz, a town 
Av^AAVA ^1 Korthenr Bohemia, pleas- 
antly situated in a valley between the 
Erzgebirge and Mittelgebirge, with a 
castle and fine park and gardens. It has 
celebrated thermal baths. The springs, 
seventeen in number, have a temperature 
varying from 99''.5 to 108* .5 and are 
efficacious in cases of gout and rheuma- 
tism. The bathing establishment is very 
complete, and during June and July the 
whole town is filled with visitors. Pop. 
Terai. ^^ Tarai and Him&laya. 

TemnO (t&'ra-mS), a town of South- 
A«»j.cuuv ^j^ Italy, capital of the prov- 
ince of same name, in an angle formed 
bv the confluence of the Tordino and 
Vezaeola. It is the see of a bishop, and 
has an old, though modernized, cathedral 
and remains of Roman baths and theater. 
Pop. 10,508. 

Teranllilll (ter'a-fim), household dei- 
""^^^ ties or images, reverenced 
by the ancient Hebrews. They seem to 
have been either wholly or in part of 
human form and of small size, were re- 
garded as penaieM or household gods, and 
in some shape or other used as domestic 
oracles. They are mentioned several 
times in the Old Testament. 

Teratology i<,rrph^ii A-^'ati 

anatomical science devoted to the investi- 
gation of abnormalities in the structure 
of animals and plants, and to the deter- 
mination of the exact nature of the 
deviation from a normal type of struc- 

Terbium (ter^l-um), was the name 
.■.^AMxtuu giygjj ^^ ^ supposed earth- 
metal now found to be nearly identical 
with erbium, and which has been resolved 
into several elements. 
Terlimv (terT)urg), or Tebbobch, 
*^**'*"o Gerasd, a Dutch portrait 
and genre painter, bom at Zwolle, near 
Overyssel, about 1617. His father, a 
historical painter, gave him bis first les- 
Kms in painting. He continued his 

studies at Haarlem, and afterwards 
visited Germany, Italy, Spain, England, 
and France. On the meeting oi the 
peace congress at Mfinster in 1646 he 
painted the assembled plenipotentiaries, 
which is now in the National Qallery, 
London. He subsequently visited Madrid, 
London, and Paris, whence he returned 
to Oversrssel, married, and became burgo- 
master of Deventer, dying in 1681. His 
portraits and pictures of social life are 
remarkable for elegance. He excelled in 
painting textile fabrics, particularly satin 
and velvet 

Terce (^^i^)> ^^ & l^&l llfe-rent 
^ amounting to one-third of her 
deceased husband's landed estates recog- 
nized by the law of Scotland in favor 
of a widow who has not accepted of any 
special provision. 

Terceira ^T^^^^'^.^^'T t^ 

Azores; greatest length, 20 miles; aver- 
age breadth, 13 miles; area, 223 square 
miles. The soil possesses great natural 
fertility, and heavy crops of grain, pulse, 
etc., and abundance of oranges, lemons, 
and other fruits are produced. The cap- 
ital is Angra. Pop. 48,770. 
Terebinth (tere-binth), the common 
name for various resinous 
exudations, both of a fluid and solid na- 
ture, such as turpentine, frankincense 
and Burgundy pitch, Canada balsam, etc. 
The volatile oil of various of these 
resins is called oil of terebinth, or oil of 
turpentine. Terebinth is also a name 
for the turpentine- tree (which see). 

Terebratnla i^lt^f^^'^Ac^t- 

pod bivalve molluscs found moored to 
rocks, shells, etc. One of the valves is 

Serforated to permit the passage of a 
eshy peduncle, b^ means of which the 
animal attaches itself. There are few 
living species, but the fossil ones are 
numerous, and are found most abundantly 
in the secondary and tertiary formations. 
Teredo (^-re'dO). see Ship-worm. 

Terek ( ty&'rek ) , a Russian river which 
descends from Mount Kasbek, 
on the north side of the Caucasus, and 
flows into the Caspian by a number of 
branches; total course, about 300 miles. 
T^r^iiPP (ter'ens), in full Publhts 
J.CXCUI/C rJ^E^B^jTius Afeb (that is, 
'the African'), a celebrated Roman 
comic writer, bom in Africa, B. c. 195, 
and while a child bought by Publius 
Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator, 
who took him to Rome and gave him a 
good education. His master having 
emancipated him, the ^oung African as- 
sumed the name of his benefactor, and 

Digitized by 


Terrestrial Magnetism Tessellated Pavement 

T«rr^8trisi.1 Htn^n^fium See Mag- She appeared on the stage in a child's 

XerreSXnai magneXlSm. netismT part in 1856, and continued acting until 

Terrier ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

that dug ofbS^rowefLX^und'iS Pfared at the Lyceum Theater with 

reatneted to smaU or moderately small t^e United Stat^. Amone her best parts 

dogs of a number of breeds. The type of are Portia, Pauline, and Ophelia, she 

the class is the fox terner iq.v,). Ter- playing the last to Irving's Hamlet, 

riers vary in siae from the toy black and TaranliAlliiKy ( ter-skel' ing ), an 

tan, and Yorkshire, very small breeds, to ACISK/Ucuiu^ island of the Nether- 

the Airedale (g. v.), the largest and lands, 10 miles off the coast of Friesland, 

heaviest of the class. The bull terrier, between the islands of Vlieland and 

as its name implies, is a cross between Ameland. It is about 15 miles long by 

the bulldog and the smooth-coated white 3 broad, is flat and sandy, and exposed 

terrier of early time. It is a quick, agile in some parts to inundation. The in- 

and powerful dog, of unfailing courage, habitants are chiefly pilots and fisher- 

and has been much used by the sporting ^^^' ^Pop. 3685. 

fraternity as a pit dog, that is, a dog used Tertian Fever# ^^ A^i*e. 
for fightmg when matched against one of , a r^ t 

its own breed. The Boston terrier is an TertiaXV Formation. ^^ Geology, 
American breed, originated about 1870, .7 , ^ ^ , , ^ . - „ 

It arose from breeding a brindle three- Tertnllian ( ter - tul' van ) , in full 

quarter English bulldog which had one- *^*''*^°'" Quintus Skptimius Flo- 

quarter terrier, and a pure white terrier kens Tebtuuianus, the earliest Latin 

of stocky build and low on the legs. A father of the church whose works are 

further breeding and selection of this type extant, flourished chiefly during the 

as developed by the above cross, resulted reigns of Septimius Severus and Cara- 

in the standard Boston terrier, whose calla (a. D. 193-217), became a presbyter, 

characteristics are a screw tail, a white and continued orthodox till he had 

blaze on the face and on chest and feet, reached middle age, when he w^t over 

a fine short and bright coat, and a deep, to the Montanists (see Montanu$), and 

broad chest It is a good tempered, cour- wrote several books in their defense. ^ His 

ageous dog. There are many other breeds most celebrated work is the Apologia, a 

of terriers, as the Scotch, the Skye, the formal defense of Christianity addressed 

Bedlington, the Welsh and the Irish to the Roman magistrates. Among 

iq.v,), a very popular breed. other works whose period is not known is 

Territorv (ter'i-tor-i), a section of ^dversus Hermogenem, in which Tev- 

J.errii;ory \y^^ national domain not tullian maintams the doctnne of the 

yet admitted to statehood. It has a gov- creation of the world out of nothing as 

emor, appointed by the President, with ^posed to the eternity of matter per «e. 

a legislature of certain limited powers. The works of Tertullian display great 

At present there are two — ^Alaska and learning, much imagination, and a keen 

Hawaii. wit, but their style is bad. They are 

•n rfA»'A..\ "RwrAicr />!>. *v»« «.«•« chlcfly valuable for the light they throw 

Terror ^:!i:i^\^^^ So^^^'^^ 'Li^in^r^r:^?^ir^X^U' ""' 

of the French revolutionary government ^"""^ ^ *^« ^ ^ r «m« w 

from the appointment of the revolution- TeshO-lama. ^^ hamatsm, 

2S.^Wrir« ^¥7ft?wi"^i'^f^l^n? Tpfila (tes'la), Nikola, bom at Smil- 
RobSnie^^Jutv J? 1^94? sle ^n^ i^"' Seifvia, in 1857. Becoming 

/m!?£I!7^ ^ ^ • ^* See/Tcnce ^ g^u^ electrician, he came to the 

TerrV (te^rf)* Alfred Howe, soldier, tered the Edison works at Menio Park, 

^ bom at Hartford, Connecticut, New Jersey. He subsequently set up an 

in 1827. He engaged in the Civil war as establishment of his own in New York, 

a colonel of volunteers; became a briga- He has made important inventions in 

dier-general in 1862. He commanded a lighting and other uses of electricity, 

division in the army under Grant in the His most valuable device is his oscillator, 

summer of 1884 ; became a major-general a combination of dynamo and engine. 

Sed'D^wyisSJ:""^''"'^- °' TessellatedPavement, »i*„V^oJ 

Turrv Bllbn Alice, actress, born at rich mosaic work, made of squares of 

^^^^Jf Coventry, England, in 184& marbles, bricks, or tiles, in shape a^H 

Digitized by 




dispoBition resembling dice, and known 
as te99eras, 

TeSSerO&rraph (tes'ser-d-grtf). the 
o *^^** name applied to a ma- 
chine for printing railway tickets as 
needed, invented by Robert Piscicelli 
Taeegi, an Italian engineer. One of these 
machines first in use in Italy printed any 
one of 400 different kinds of tickets at a 
cost of about one five-hundredths of a 
cent each. 

Test Acts >°<^'«de all statutes which 
IB ^ require persons holding 

Eublic offices to profess certain religious 
ellefs. In England, from the time of the 
Reformation onwards, a large number of 
such acts were passed in favor of the 
Established Church. The various test 
jcte were for the most part repealed in 

Testament, see wm. 

Testinfir (test'lng), the process of ex- 
•**o aminmg various substances 
^ means of chemical reagents, with the 
view of discovering their composition. 
The term testing is usually confined to 
such examinations as seek to determine 
what chemical elements or groups of ele- 
ments are contained in any substance. 
without inquiring as to the quantity of 
these elements. Testing is carried out 
either by the application of chemical re- 
actions to solid substances, or by the ap- 
plication of reagents in solution to a solu- 
tion of the substance unde*: examination. 

Test-papers. ^^^? ?^. unsize<l paper 
*' -"^ ^ soaked m solutions of 
vegetable coloring matters, used as in- 
dicators of the presence of acids or of 
alkalies, and, in some instances, of special 
chemical compounds. The most common 
test-papers are litmus and turmeric papers. 
Testudo (tes'ta-dd). See Tortoise. 

T^sfnilA among the ancient Romans 
xwvuuuy a cover or screen which a 
body of troops formed with their oblong 
shields or targets, by holding them over 
their heads when standing close to each 
other. This cover somewhat resembled 
the back of a tortoise, and served to 
shelter the men from missiles thrown 
from above. The name was also given 
to a structure movable on wheels or roll- 
ers for protecting sappers. 
TjkfoTi'na (tet'a-nus), a spasmodic 
xctauiiS rigidity of the whole body, 
■udi as frequently results from wounds. 
Hie affection occurs more often in warm 
climates than in cold. If the lower jaw 
is drawn to the upper with such force 
that they cannot be separated the dis- 
order is called loch-jaw (tmrnvs). Tet- 
aniu frequently terminates fatally. 

Boman Testudo, from Trsjsn's PilUr. 

TSte-dn-pont niS;T^wo'?k 'JSS 

defends the head or entrance of a bridge 
nearest the enemy. 

TetrabrancMata <tL'^f';;'»'Srf^-'-of 

Cephalopoda or cuttle-fishes, having four 
branchisB or gills, comprising the two 
families Nautilidae and AmmonitidjB. 
Of this order the pearly nautilus may 
be regarded as the type, being the only 
living member of the order, though its 
fossil representatives (Orthoceras, Am- 
monites, etc.) are abundant. See HaU" 

Tetrahedron (-he'dron), in geom- 
*^ "" etry, a figure com- 
prehended under four equilateral and 
equal triangles, or a triangular pyramid 
having four equal and equilateral faces. 
It is one of the five regular solids. 

Tetra^o. ®®® orouse. 

Tetrarch (tet'rArk), a title which 
XCtxarua originally signified the gov- 
ernor of the fourth part of a country. 
By the Romans the title was used to 
designate a tributary ruler inferior in 
dignity to a king. 

Tetrastvle (tefrA-stll), in ancient 
A^bxaotjxc architecture, having or 
consisting of four columns, or haiang a 
portico consisting of four columns. 
Tetnan (tet-5-ftn'), a town of Moroc- 
CO, on the northern coast of 
Africa, 33 miles southeast of Tangier. 
It is about \ mile from the Mediterran- 
ean, is surrounded by walls and defended 
by a castle, and carries on an active 
trade. The environs are extensively 

Digitized by 




»lanted with yineyaids and gardens. 

>op. «S,000. 
Tetzel (tefael), Johank, a man 
AVMKM whose name has become promi- 
nent in connection with the Reformation, 
was bom aboat 1470, at Leipzig, where 
he studied theology. He entered the 
order of the Dominicans, and in 1QQ2 
was appointed by the Roman see a 
preacher of indulgences, and carried on 
for fifteen years a successful propaganda 
of them. It was his preaching in 
Saxony of the indulgence in behalf of 
the rebuilding of St Peter's in Rome 
that roused Xnther to revolt Though 
many of the sayings attributed to liim 
by his critics are fictitious, yet there is 
little doubt that he often mdulged in 
frivolity and went farther in his promises 
than the teaching of his church authorised 
him to go. The best Roman Catholic 
historians condemn bim for exa|»eration« 
Tetsel died of the plague in 1519. in the 
Dominican convent at Leipsig. See 
TeuthiS. SeeSgi««. 

TeutobTirg Forest ifrf^f^^ 

WiXD, a hilly district of Germany, in 

Westphalia, where Arminius defeated the 

Roman general Varus, aj>. 9. See 


Ti^ntAiiAft (tfl'tun-te), a tribe of Ger- 

bri, invaded Gam in b.c. 113. In B.C. 
102 they were defeated with great 
slaughter near Aqu» Sezti« (Aiz in the 
department of Bouches du KhOne) by 
the Roman general Marine. A tribe of 
the same name Is mentioned by Pliny 
and others as inhabiting a district north 
of the Elbe, which appears to have been 
the original settlement of the Teutones 
before their invasion of GauL See Teii- 
tomo Peoples. 

Teutonic Knights <«-£15'^'-''^' 

ligious order of kniffhts, established to- 
ward the close of the twelfth century, 
in imitation of the Templars and Hos* 
pitallers. It was composed chiefly of 
Taotons or Germans who marched to the 
Holy Land in the Crusades, and was 
established in that country for charita- 
ble purposes. In the thirteenth century 
they acquired Poland and Prussia, and 
they long held sway over a great extent 
of territory in tliis part of Europe. The 
order began to decline in the fifteenth 
century, and was finally abolished by 
Napoleon in 1809. 

Teutonic Peoples, ^^"(aj^^j; ^, 

High OermaAs, indudiag the German 

inhabitants of Upper and Middle Ger- 
many and those of Switzerland and Aus- 
tria. (2) The Low Germans, induding 
the Frisians, the Plattdeutsch. the Dutcl^ 
the Flemings and the EingUsh descended 
from the Saxons, Angles, etc., who set- 
tled in Britain. (8) The Scandinavians, 
including the Norwegians, Swedes, Danes 
and Icelanders. See PhUolomf* Indo* 
European Languages. 

Tewfik Pasha 4S2Lnl!^ve"5 

Egypt, eldest son of Khedive Ismail, was 
bom in 1852, and succeeded to the vice- 
royalty by decree of the sultan, August 8, 
1879, upon the forced abdication of his 
father. He was the sixth ruler of Egypt 
in the dynasty of Mahommed All Pasha. 
He died January 7, 1892. See Egypt. 

Tewkesbnry <,^'>t?^' %&^ 

borough of Ehigland, in Gloucestershnre, 
at the conflux of the Severn and Avon. 
The parish church is a noble pile of 
buildinc in the Norman style, and one 
of the latest in England. It is part of 
the monastery of Tewkesbury. Pop. 
(1911) 6287. 

Texarkana <J«feJSX*>*^*»13: 

Jacent to a town of the same name, 
capital of Miller Go., Arkansas. The 
two tow^ form a single municipality. 
It has car and engine works, cotton-seed 
oil mills, manufactures of lumber, furni- 
ture, etc. Pop. of Texarkana, Texas, 
9790; of Texarkana, Ariuuisas, 5665. 
TAYOft (teks'as), the most southwest- 

American Union, is bounded v. by New 
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Arkansas, s. by 
Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana, w. by 
New Mexico, s. w. by Mexico, and s. B. by 
the Gulf of Mexico; extreme lensth, east 
to west, 825 miles; breadth, 740 miles; 
coast-line, 400 miles ; area, 205396 sq. 
miles. The surface in the northwest bears 
many mountains, which, in proceeding 
southeast, subside into hills ana undulat- 
ing plains, succeeded, on approaching the 
Gulf of Mexico, by low alluvial lands. 
These extend inland from 20 to 80 miles, 
are traversed by numerous rivers, ana 
consist for the most part of rich prairie 
or forest land. The hilly region behind 
this is formed chiefly of sandstone and 
limestone ridges, separated by valleys of 
considerable fertility. The general slope 
of the country gives all the nvers a more 
or less southerly direction. The Rio- 
Grand, rising in New Mexico, forms the 
southwest boundary of the State. The Red 
River forms the greater part of the north- 
em boondry. The other important 
rivers are the (Colorado, the Brasos, th^ 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Trinity, and the Sabine, which, during 
the greater part of its course, is the 
boundary between Texas and Louisiana. 
The great timber region of the state lies 
between the Sabine and the Trinity a 
region generally level and sandy in the 
south, with eztensiTe pine forests, but 
rolling and fertile in the north. Between 
the Trinity and the Colorado prairie land 
extends, timbered along the streams, but 
in the north there is an extensive forest, 
extending through Central and Western 
Texas to the Red River and called the 
'Cross Umbers.' The timber area em- 
braces about 42,000,000 acres, 25,000,000 
being in pines. The pecan tree, a valu- 
able nut-bearlBg tree, is widely distrib- 
uted and yields largely. Western Texas 
is chiefly prairie. A long chain of la- 
goons stretches along the Gulf of Mexico. 
The soil of Texas is, on the whole, ex- 
tremely fertile. The staple products are 
cotton and maize, both of which are 
larcely cultivated. In the lower or coast 
reiJon, the sugar-cane and rice also grow 
luxuriantly. Wheat grows chiefly in the 
north and center. Rye, oats, barley, to- 
bacco and sweet and white potatoes are 
grown to some extent, and both in the 
elevated and the lower levels fruits in 
almost endless variety are abundant 
Texas leads the states in cotton produc- 
tion, yielding one-fifth of the world's 
crop. Sea-island cotton is grown in the 
south. I%ousands of acres are under ir- 
rigation from flowing artesian wells, 
mainly in the southwest The pastures 
are often covered with the richest grasses, 
and the rearing of cattle, sheep and swine 
is carried on very advantageously. The 
minerals include copper, of which there 
are large deposits; argentiferous galena, 
which is also abundant; coal, induding 
m field of lignite about 6000 sq. miles in 
area; iron, occurring in very large quan- 
tities; asphaltum, which occurs abund- 
antly; salt, obtained from rich salt 
q>riiig8; petroleum, of recent discovery 
and now very largely produced ; saltpeter, 
marble, slate, potter and fire-clay, and 
fertilizers in great abundance. The 
manufactures of Texas, which increased 
dOO per cent in the period from 1890 to 
1910. depend largely for their raw ma- 
terials upon the stock-raising, agricul- 
tural and mineral products of the state, 
and have been greatly stimulated by the 
rapid increase in the production of these 
materials. Galveston, an important com- 
mercial center in the state, is one of the 
largest ports of entry in the South, and 
Sabine is also a port of growing prom- 
inence. Thewe avenues of transportation 
afford excellent opportunities for inter- 
■Cate, domestic, coastwise and foreign 

conmierce. Hie first permanent settle- 
ment in Texas was made at San Antonio 
by the Spanish in 1718. After Mexico 
won its independence Texas became one 
of the Mexican states. Several colonies 
of American citizens, invited by the 
Mexicans, settled in the eastern section, 
and gradually increased in numbers. 
Texas then revolted from the Mexican 
covemment and in 1836 declared itself 
independent Santa Anna attempted to 
reduce it but failed, being himself beaten 
and taken prisoner at the battle of San 
Jadnto by General Houston. Texas now 
managed its own affairs as an independ- 
ent republic till 1846, when it became one 
of the United States, and thus gave rise 
to a war which proved disastrous to 
Mexico. It joined the Confederates dur- 
ing the Civil War, and was the last state 
to submit It was under military control 
till 1870, when it was restored to the 
tJnion. Austin is the capital, and other 
diief towns are Galveston, San Antonio, 
Houston, Dallas, Fort Worth, Waco, etc. 
Its growth has been rapid. Pop. 3,896,* 

TiftTikl (teks'el), an island of the prov 
J.C&C1 j^^ ^j ^^^^ Holland, 14 miles 
in length and 6 in its greatest breadth, 
situated at the entrance of the Zuvder 
Zee, and separated from North Holland 
by the narrow channel of Mars-Diep. 
The island furnishes excellent pasture 
for sheep, and it is noted for cheese 
made from sheep's milk. It is well se- 
cured with dikes of prodigious strengtii 
and height Pop. 69^. 
Ti»7nAPA (tes-k6'k6), or Texcoco, a 
AezcOCO J^^^ ^j Mexico, in the de- 
partment of Mexico, on the eastern shore 
of the lAke of Tezcoca In andent times 
it was the second city in the kingdom. 
Here are the remains of three pyramids, 
each measuring 400 feet along the base 
of their fronts. The modem town con- 
tains many handsome edifices, and car- 
ries on an active trade. Pop. 5930. 
Tezel (^^^'''^)* Same as TetgtL 

Thackftrav ( thak'e - ri ) , WmiAic 
Anac&eray Makepeace, an English 
novelist and humorist, was bom at Cal- 
cutta in 1811; died December 24, 1863. 
His father was in the civil service of 
the EsLBt India Company. At the age of 
seven Thackeray was sent to England 
for his education, and was placed at the 
Charterhouse School, London, afterwards 
continuing his studies at Cambridge. 
He left the university without taking a 
degree; and, being well provided for, ke 
chose the profession of an artist He 
spent several years in France, Grermany 
and Italy, staying at Weunar, Roma 

Digitized by 




and Paris, but gradually became con- 
vinced that art was not his vocation, 
and having meanwhile lost his fortune, 
he resolved to turn his attention to litera- 
ture. His first appearance in this sphere 
was as a journalist Under the name 
of George Fitz-Boodle, Esq., or of Michael 
Angelo Titmarsh, he contributed to 
Frater^s Magazine tales, criticisms, verses, 
etc., which were marked by great knowl- 
edge of the world, keen irony, or playful 
humor. It was in this magazine that The 
Oreai Eoggarty Diamond, YeUotoplu^h 
Papert, and Barry Lpndan appeared. 
In 1840 he published separately the 
Pari9 Sketch-hook, in 1841 the Second 
Funeral of Napoleon and the Chronicle 
of the Drum^ and in 1843 the Irish 

William Mskepeaoe Thsekeraj. 

Sketch-hook. None of these writings, 
however, attained to any great popu- 
larity. In 1841 Punch was started, and 
his contributions to that periodical, 
among others Jeamet* Diary, and tibe 
Snoh Papers, were very successful. In 
1846-48 his novel of Vanity Fair was 
published in monthly parts, with illus- 
trations by himself; and long before its 
completion its author was unanimouslv 
placed in the first rank of British novel- 
ists. His next novel was the History of 
Pendennis, completed in 1850. In 1851 
he delivered a course of lectures in Lon- 
don on the English Humorists of the 
Eighteenth Century, which was repeated 
in Scotland and America, and published in 
1853. Another novel, The History of 
Henry Esmond appeared in 1852, and 
was followed by The Neweomes (1855). 
The Virginians (1859K a sort of sequel 
to Esmond; Lovel the Widower^ The Ad- 
ventures of Philip, and Dents Duval, 
which was left unfinished at his death. 
In 1855-56 he delivered a series of lec- 
)tt«M in the United States — TAe Four 

Georges, and afterwards in England and 
Scotland. In 1859 he became editor of 
the Comhitt Magazine, in which his later 
novels and the remarkable Roundabout 
Papers appeared, but he retired from that 
post in 1862. He wrote a good deal of 
verse, half-humorous, half-pathetic, and 
often wholly extravagant, but all char- 
acterized by grace and spontaneity. He 
undoubtedly ranks as the classical Eng- 
lish humorist and satirist of the Victor- 
ian reign, and one of the greatest novel- 
ists, essayists, and critics in the literature. 
A collection of letters by Thackeray was 

fublished in 1887. — His daughter, Anns 
SABELLA (Mrs. Richmond Ritchie), 
born in 1838, inherited much of her 
father's literary talent Her first story 
appeared in (^mhill in 1860, and was 
called Little Scholars in the London 
Schools. It was followed by the Story 
of EUzaheth in 1867. Old Kensington, 
which followed soon after, is probably 
the work by which she will be best 
known. Among her other works are Blue 
Beard's Keys, Toilers and Spinsters, Miss 
Angel and Mrs. Dymond. 
Thais (th&'is), an Athenian courte- 
san, famous for wit and beauty, 
who was in Asia with Alexander the 
Great, and is said — on doubtful '\uthor- 
ity — to have induced him to bum the 
palace of Persepolis. 

Thalamiflorse (thai-a-mi-fl6'P§), a 

w*«*# class of exogenous or 
dicotyledonous plants in which the petals 
are distinct and inserted with the 
stamens on the thalamus or receptacle. 

Thalber? (tarber^), Sigismund, a 

^^^ o celebrated pianist, was bom 
in Geneva in 1812, received his first in- 
stmction on the pianoforte in Vienna, 
and already as a boy was famous as a 
performer. Towards the end of 1835 he 
went to Paris, where he at once estab- 
lished his fame. He subsequently visited 
England, the Netherlands, Russia and 
Italy, being everywhere received with 
the greatest enthusiasm. During the 
years from 1865 to 1868 he visited Brazil 
and the United States, and after several 
years' retirement on an estate he had 
purchased near Naples, he once more 
visited Paris and London (1802), and 
later Brazil. He died April 28, 1871. 
He left a number of compositions, in- 
cluding sonatas, studies, a concerto, sev- 
eral nocturnes, and other small pieces. 
Thaler ^ ta'Ur y, a silver com for- 

merly in use in Germany, of 
the value of about 75 cents. See Dollar. 
ThaleS (tha'l&s), a native of Miletus 

in Ionia, or, according to some, 
of Phoenicia, the earliest philosopher of 
Greece, and the founder of the Ionian 

Digitized by 




school, was bom about 640 b.c. He is 
said to have made several visits to Egypt, 
where he received iDstructions from the 
priests, from whom he probably acquired 
a knowledge of geometry. After his re- 
turn his reputation for learning and wis- 
dom became so great that he was 
reckoned among the seven wise men, and 
kls sayings were held in the highest 
esteem by the ancients. He died about 
B.C. 548. His philosophical doctrines 
were taught orally, and preserved only 
by oral tradition, until some of the later 
Greek philosophers, particularly Aristotle, 
committed them to writing. He con- 
sidered water, or rather fluidity, the 
elemental principle of all things. His 

ehilosophical doctrines are, however, but 
nperfectly understood. 
Thalia (tha-U'a), one of the nine 
Aucftuo Moses. She was the patron of 
comedy, and is usually represented with 
the comic nuusk and the shepherd's crook 
in her hand. One of the Graces was also 
called Thalia. 

ThldlilUn /thari-um; from Gr. «Aal- 
AAMMAAU.U1. 2^^ ^ green twig), a metal 
discovered by Crookes in 1861, in a de- 
posit from a sulphuric acid manufactory 
In the Harz. In its physical properties 
thallium resembles lead, but is slightly 
heavier, somewhat softer, and may be 
scratched by the finger-nail. It fuses 
under a red heat, and is soluble in the 
ordinary mineral acids. In color it re- 
sembles silver, but is less brilliantly 
white. Its specific gravity varies from 
11.8 to 11.0, according to the mechanical 
treatment to which it has been subjected. 
The tenacity of the metal is less than 
that of lead ; it is possessed of very con- 
siderable malleability. Thallium and 
its salts impart an intense green color 
to a non-luminous flame; when a flame so 
colored is examined by the spectroscope 
one very brilliant green band is noticed, 
somewhat more refrangible than the so- 
dium line D. (See Spectrum.) The 
salts of thallium are exceedinglv poison- 
ous. The symbol adopted for this metal 
is Tl, and the atomic weight 203.64. 
With oxygen it forms two compounds, 
T1,0, T1,0|. Small quantities of thallium 
appear to be widely distributed in nature, 
the metal frequently occurring in iron 
and copper pyrites, in native sulphur, 

ThalloeenS (thal'o-jensK one of the 
^^^^ o primary divisions of the 

vegetable kingdom, comprehending those 
cryptogamous plants which are extremely 
simple in their structure, and possess 
nothing like the green leaves of phaner- 
ecamous plants. They have no woody 
iber properly so called, being mere masses 

of cells. Thallogens include algse, char- 
aceae, fungi, and lichens. 
ThallUS <^^al'us), in botany, a solid 
«.M.«M«u.» mass of cells, or cellular tis- 
sue without 
woody fiber, con- 
sisting of one or 
more layers, us- 
ually in the form 
of a flat stratum 
or expansion, or 
in the form of 
a lobe, leaf, or 
frond, and form- 
ing the substance 
of the thallogens. 


the most impor- 
tant river of 
Great Britain, is 
usually said to 
rise about three 
miles southwest 
of Cirencester in 
near a bridge 

over the Thames ^h^^ ^, ^,^ y^ 
and Severn ieulotu*. t, t. Fructifies. 
Canal, called tion. «, «, Air blsd- 
Thameshead dert. 
Bridge, but is 

more properly formed by the Isis, Chum, 
Colne and Leach, which have their sources 
on the east side of the Cotswold Hills, 
and unite near Lechlade, where it becomes 
navigable for barges. Thence it flows 
E., past Oxford and Abingdon to Read- 
ing, after which its course is mostly 
E., with great bendings and windings, to 
its output in the North Sea, passing 
through London in its course. Below 
London it flows eastward to the Nore, a 
broad estuary, its mouth being about 60 
miles below the capital. Its total course 
is estimated at 250 miles. It pursues a 
winding way through London, with an 
average width of about 1000 feet The 
Basin of the Thames has an area of 5400 
square miles, and belongs entirely to the 
upper part of the Secondary and to the 
Tertiary formations. The depth of the 
river in the fair way above Greenwich to 
London Bridge is 12 to 13 feet, while its 
tides have a mean range of 17 feet and 
an extreme rise of 22 feet. (See also 
London,) By means of numerous canals 
immediate access is given from its basin 
to those of all the great rivers of Eng- 

Thana (^'°*)» Tanna, chief town of 
a district of the same name, 
Bombay Presidency 21 miles n. e. of 
Bombay city. It is a favorite residence 
with the Bombay officials. Pop. 16,011. 

Digitized by 




TTiQiiA (thftn), a title of honor among 
J-liauc ^^ Anglo-Saxons. In Eng- 
land a freeman not noble was raised to 
the rank of a thane by acquiring a certain 
portion of land — five hides for a lesser 

thane — by making three sea-voyages, or 
by receiving holy orders. Everjr thane 
had the right df voting in the witenage- 

mot, not only of the shire, but also of the 
kingdom, when important questions were 
to be discussed. With the growth of the 
kingly power the importance of the king's 
thanes (those in t^e personal service of 
the sovereign) rose above that of the high- 
est gentry, ealdormen and bishops form- 
ing an inferior class. On the cessation 
of his actual personal service about the 
king the thane received a grant of land. 
After the Norman conquest thanes and 
barons were classed together. In the 
reign of Henry II the title fell into disuse. 
In Scotland the thanes were a class of 
non-military tenants of the crown, and the 
title was in use till the end of the fifteenth 

ThonAf (than'et), Isle of, a district 
xuaucb ^j England in the county of 
Kent, at the mouth of the Thames, sepa- 
rated from the mainland by the river 
Stour on the south and the rivulet Nether- 
gong* an the west, with an area of 41 sq. 

Thanksgiving Day, fe^t wSf ol 

thanksgiving for the mercies of the clos- 
ing year, originating in New England in 
1^1, after the first harvest at the Ply- 
mouth settlement. It slowly spread to 
the other colonies, and since 1863, when 
President Lincoln issued a proclamation 
recommending its national observance, his 
example has been followed by succeeding 
presidents, the last Thursday of No- 
veml>er being chosen as Thanksgiving 
Day and kept as a holiday throughout 
the Union. 

Til a 11 11 (tan), Germany, in Alsace, 
i,uuaa jj^g ^ gjjg Gothic church with 
a spire of open work 328 feet high, and 
has manufactures of woolens, cottons, etc. 
Pop. 7901. 

Thar and Parkar <f-;.,f 'J^-K^a 

east of Sind, British India. It is divided 
into two districts, the * Pat * or plain of 
the Eastern Nara, and the ' Thar ' or 
desert. Area, 12,729 sq. miles. Chief 
town, Umarkot or Amnrkote, the birth- 
place of Akbar. Pop. 4924. 
ThaiO (thlL'so), the ancient Thasos^ 
an itfland in the ^Egean Sea, a 
few miles south of the Macedonian coast, 
belonging to Turkey. 
TTlfl-Ttpr (thaks'ter), Celia, an Amer- 
xuiukbcx j^.jj^ poai^ born in New 

Hampshire, in 1835; died in 1894. She 
resided for years on the Isle of Shoals, 
and wrote Among the Isles of Shoals, 
Drift Wood, Poems for Children, etc. 
Thaver (tha'6r), Abbott Hendebson, 
xuajrcx American figure painter, born 
in Boston in 1849. He was a pupil of 
G^rAme at the Paris Ecole des Beaux 
Arts. Among his best-known works may 
be mentioned The Virgin, The Virgin En- 
throned and Caritas, 

Til Ao fin Aft ( the'a-tins) , an order of 
XUeauues j^^^j^^ founded at Rome id 
1524, principally by Gianpietro . Caraffa 
(Pope Paul IV). archbishop of Chieti, in 
Naples (anciently Theate). They bound 
themselves to preach against heretics, at- 
tend the sick and criminals, and not to 
possess property or ask for alms. The 
order formerly flourished in Fiance,. 
Spain, and Portugal, but is now chiefly 
confined to the Italian provinces. 
Theater (^^^^'a-ter; Greek, theatran), 
an edifice appropriated to 
the representation of dramatic spectacles. 
Among the Greeks and Romans theaters 
were the chief public edifices next to the 
temples, and in point of magnitude they 
surpassed the most spacious of the tem- 
ples, having in some instances accommo- 
dation for as many as from 10,000 to 
40,000 spectators. The Greek and Ro- 
man theaters very closely resembled each 
other in their general form and principal 
parts. The building was of a semicircu- 

Theater of Segesta, Sicily — restored. 

lar form, resembling the half of an am- 
phitheater, and was not covered by a roof. 
In Greece the semicircular area was often 
scooped out in the side of a hill, but Ro- 
man theaters were built on the level. 
The seats of the spectators were all con- 
centric, being arranged in tiers up the 
semicircular slope. The stage or place 
for the playefs was in front of the seats, 
bein^ a narrow platform along the 
straight side of the theater. Behind this 
rose a high wall resembling the facade of 

Digitized by 


Theater Thebes 

a building, this being intended to repr'e- galleries or balconies run in a semidrcu- 
sent any building in front of which the lar or horseshoe form round the house, 
action was supposed to take place. This The seats in the galleries rise terrace- 
was called in Greek akSni (L. acena), the wise from the front, so as to allow the 
stage being called proakenion (L. proa- persons in the back rows to see on to the 
centum ). The semicircular space between stage over the heads of those before them, 
the stage and the lowest seats of the Immediately in front of the stage is a 
spectators was called orcheatra, and was space occupied by the orchestra. Part of 
appropriated by the Greeks to the chorus the stage flooring is movable, either as 
and musicians, and by the Romans to traps through which actors or furniture 
the senators. Scenery, in the modem ascend or descend, or in long narrow 
sense of the word, was not employed ex- pieces which are drawn off at each side of 
cept in a very rude form, but the stage the stage to allow the passage of the ris- 
machinery seems in many cases to have ing scenes. Within recent years there 
been elaborate ; and in particular there have been great improvements in the art of 
was a well-known machine or contrivance stage setting, for the production of nat- 
of some sort from which deities made uralistic effects, and the stage of to-day 
their entrance as if from the sky. A presents an extraordinary advance over 
good existing example of an ancient that of the past centuries, 
theater is that of Segesta in Sicily. ThebfiS (tbebz), an ancient capital of 
Between the decline of the ancient and *'**^"*'* Egypt, in Upper Egypt, on 
the rise of the modem drama there is a both sides of tne Nile, about 300 miles 
long interval, in which the nearest ap- s. 8. E. of Cairo, now represented by the 
proach to theatrical entertainments Is four villages of Luxor, Kamak, Medinet 
found in miracle plays, mysteries, and Habu ana Kurneh, as well as by magnif- 
interludes. These performances took icent mins which extend about miles 
place in churches, convents, halls, etc., along the river. When Thebes was 
or in the open air. In 1548 the Con- founded is not known ; the period of its 
fraternity of the Trinity opened a theater greatest prosperity reaches from 1500 to 
in Paris, in which they performed secular 1000 B.c. The ruins comprise magnifi- 
pieces. The first theater erected in Italy cent temples, rock-cut tombs, obelisks 
seems to have been that of Florence, built decorated with beautiful sculptures, long 
in 1581, but the first building that ap- avenues of sphinxes, and colossal statues, 
proacbes the modem style was one con- The largest of the temples is that at Kar- 
stmcted at Parma in 1618. In England nak, which is about i\ mile in circum- 
there were organized companies of actors ference. The great hall of the temple (or 
as far back as the time of Edward IV, but * hall of columns ' ; see Egypt, section 
as there were no regular playhouses the Architecture) ^ the most magnificent in 
performances took place in tennis-courts, Egypt, measures 329 feet by 170, and the 
Inn-yards, and private houses. The Lon- roof was originally supported by 134 gi- 
don Theater was built before 1576, and gantic columns, of which 12 forming the 
the Curtain in Shoreditch and the play- central avenue are 62 feet high and 11 
houses in Blackfriars and Whitefriars feet 6 inches in diameter, the others, 
date from about the same time. Shakes- which are in rows on either side, being 
peare*s plays were brought out at the fully 42 feet in height and 28 in circum- 
house in Blackfriars and at the Globe on ference. Within the temple courts are 
tbe Bankside, both of which belonged to several obelisks of red granite; one — 
the same company, to whom James I the largest obelisk known — is 108 feet 
granted a patent in 1603. The Globe was 10 inches high and 8 feet square. Above 
a six-sided wooden stmcture, partly open Kamak are the village and temple of 
at the top and partly thatched. Movable Luxor, the latter at one time connected 
scenery was first used on the public stage with fi[amak bv an avenue of sphinxes 
b^ Davenant in 1662, and about the same (some of which still remain) about a 
time this manager introduced women to mile long. The Memnonium or temple of 

Slay female characters, hitherto taken by Rameses II, and tbe temple and palace 

oys and men. Modern theaters are all of Rameses III, on the other or left bank 

very much alike in their internal con- of the river, are objects of great interest, 

struction. The house is divided into two both for the grandeur of their architecture 

distinct portions, tbe auditorium and the and the richness and variety of their 

stage, the former for the spectators, the sculptures. (For plan of former see 

latter for the actors and scenery, which Egypt,) Here are also the colossal 

is often of the most elaborate and realis- statues of Amenoph III, one of them 

tic kind. The floor of the auditorium known as the vocal statue of Memnen 

is always sloped down from the back of (which see). In the interior of the 

tbe bouse to the stage; several tiers of mountains which rise behind are fonad' 

Digitized by 




the tombs of the kings of Thebes, excava- 
ted in the rock, the most remarkable be- 
ing that of Sethi I, discovered by Belzoni, 
and containing fine sculptures and paint- 

TTiaTiaa <^ <^ity 0^ ancient Greece, the 
xaeuc5, principal city of Boeotia, the 
birthplace of Pindar, Eipaminondas, and 
Pelopidas, was situated about midway 
between the Corinthian Gulf and the Eu- 
boean Sea. Cadmus is said to have 
founded it in 1500 b.g. It lost much of 
its influence in Greece through its perfid- 
ious leagues with the Persians. Under 
the brilliant leadership of Epaminondas 
and Pelopidas it became the leading state 
in Greece, but its supremacy departed 
^hen the former fell at the battle of Man- 
tinea (B.G. 302). From this time the city 
never recovered its former importance, 
and gradually disappeared from history. 
The modem Thebes or Thiva is an unim- 
portant town of some 3000 inhabitants. 
Thefifl. (thSTui). in botany, the spore- 
*"^^** case of ferns, mosses, etc 
Theft. ®^ Larceny, 

Theine (t*^*'*"*)- ®^ caffeine, 

TTiAiam (thS'izm), the belief or ac- 
J.iiej.5iu jmowledgment of the exist- 
ence of God, as opposed to Atheism, See 
Deism. , ^ „ 

TTiPifift (tis), a river of Hungary, 
xaci8» formed in the east of the king- 
dom by the junction of the Black and the 
White Theiss, both descending from the 
Carpathians and flowing into the Danube 
about 20 miles above Belgrade; length, 
about 800 miles. It is the second river in 
Hungary, being inferior only to the Dan- 
ube, with which, for about 100 miles, the 
lower part of its 
course is almost 
parallel. Its prin- 
cipal tributary is 
the Maros from 
the east 

dess of law and 
justice among the 
Greeks, was the 
daughter of Urft- 
nus and GS 
(Heaven and 
Earth) ; accord- 
ing to some, of 
Helios, or the 


an Athenian com- 
mander, born in 


514 B.G. On the second invasion of 
Greece by Xerxes, Themistocles succeeded 
by bribery in obtaining the command of 
the Athenian fleet, and in the battle 
of Salamis which followed (b.c. 480), 
the Persian fleet was almost totally de- 
stroyed, and Greece was saved. The chief 
glory of the victory is due to Themi» 
tocles. Subsequently he was accused 
of having enriched himself by unjust 
means, and of being privy to designs for 
the betrayal of Greece to the Persians. 
Fearing the vengeance of his countrymen, 
he, after many vicissitudes, took refuge at 
the Persian court. The Persian throne 
was then (465 B.C.) occupied by Arta- 
xerxes Longim&nus, to whom Themis- 
tocles procured access, and whose favor 
he gained by his address and talents, so 
that he was treated with the greatest 
distinction. He died in 449, according to 
some accounts by his own hand. 

Theobald < *^^'^^^?i. .Sl^^\ ^^ 

* ^ "^** nounced tib'ald), Lewis. 
an English writer, bom about 1690. was 
brought up to the profession of the law, 
but earlv turned his attention to litera- 
ture, and wrote some plays, now quite for- 
gotten. Pope was meanly jealous of him, 
and ridiculed him in his Duncit^. Theo- 
bald, however, had his revenge, his edi- 
tion of Shakespere (1733) completely 
supplanting Pope's. He did great ser- 
vice to literature by this painstaking 
work, many of his emendations having 
been adopted by subsequent editors. He 
died in 1744. 
Theobroma (thS-o-brO'ma). see Co* 


Th^opraov (th&-ok'ra-si), that gov- 
XneOCracy emment of which the 
chief is, or is believed to be, God himself, 
the priests being the promulgators and 
expounders of the divine commands. The 
most notable theocratic government of all 
times is that established by Moses among 
the Israelites. 

Theocritus <)*^>L1i;'"tV i^r?^ 

poet, bom at Syracuse, 
who flourished about B.c. 280. We have 
under his name thirty idyls, or pastoral 
poems, of which, however, several -are 
probably by other authors. Most of his 
idyls have a dramatic form, and consist 
of the alternate responses of musical 
shepherds. His language is strong and 
harmonious, and his poetical ability high, 
his bucolic poems being regarded as mas- 
terpieces of their kind. 
Theodolite (thS-odVlIt). a survey- 
Au^vuv*Av«^ jjj^ instrument for meas- 
uring horizontal and vertical angles by 
means of a telescope, the movements of 
which can be accurately marked. This 
instrumeot is varioosly conf(truc^e4, but 

Digitized by 




its main characteristics continue un- 
altered in all forms. Its chief features 
are the teIe8coi>e, a graduated vertical 
circle to which it is attached, two con- 
centric horizontal circular plates which 
turn freely on each other, and two spirit- 
levels on the upper plate to secure exact 
horizontality. the whole being on a tripod 
stand. The lower plate contains the aivi- 
sions of the circle round its edge, and the 
upper or vernier plate has two vernier 
divisions diametrically opposite. The 


?Iate8 turn on a double vertical axis, 
'o measure the angular distance horizon- 
tally between any two objects, the tele- 
scope is turned round along with the 
vernier circle until it is brought to bear 
exactlv upon one of the objects ; it is then 
turned round until it is brought to bear 
on the other object, and the arc which the 
vernier has described on the graduated 
circle measures the angle required. By 
means of the double vertical axis the ob- 
servation may be repeated any number 
of times in order to ensure accuracy. 
The graduated vertical circle is for tak- 
ing altitudes or vertical angles in a 
similar way. The theodolite is a most 
essential instrument in surveying and in 
geodetical operations. 
Theodora. (th§-o<l6'ra), the wife of 
*^ the Byzantine emperor Jus- 

tinian, of low birth, at one time a dancer 
on the stage, and notorious for licentious- 
ness. She later assumed the character of 
a pious benefactor of the church, and 
died in 548, aged forty. See Justinian I. 
TliAAilorp (the'u-ddr), one of the 
xaeoaure ^^^ distinguished ecclesi- 
astical writers of his age, bom at Antioch 
about the middle of the fourth century. 

Early in life he followed the example of 
Ghrysostom in embracing the monastic 
life. He was ordained priest, and for 
fifty years distinguished himself as a 
zealous opponent of the heresies of Arlus, 
ApoUinarius, and others. From Antioch 
he removed to Tarsus, and in tbe year 
392 or 394 was chosen bishop of Mop- 
suestia in Cilicia. dying in 429. Only a 
few fragments oi his works are extant, 
the most important of them being com- 
mentaries on almost all the books of the 
Bible, and various polemical treatises. 
His doctrine approximated somewhat to 
that of Pelagius, and was later consid- 
ered heretical. 
Theodore H, ^l n g^^ of ^AbyjdnU. 

of Kwara in 1818, for many years a 
rebel, finally fought his way to the throne 
(1855). He was a man of great parts, 
an inveterate foe of Islamism, a bom 
ruler, and an intelligent reformer. But 
intolerance of any power save his own 
finally made a tyrant of him ; and in con- 
sequence of the imprisonment of Consul 
Cameron and other British subjects he 
brought upon himself a war with Eng- 
land, which ended, April 13, 1868. in the 
storming of Magdala and the death (sup- 
posedly by suicide) of Theodore. See 

Theodoret <*^^'"-''«V% ^* ^^m°' 

AAAvvuvAvv gujghe^ ecclesiastical his- 
torian and theological writer, bom at 
Antioch about the close of the fourth cen- 
tury, and in 420 or 423 raised to the 
bishopric of Cyros or Cyrrhus. Becom- 
ing involved later in the quarrel between 
Nestorius and the overbearing and intol- 
erant Cyril of Alexandria, he was de- 
posed at the so-called robber council of 
Ephesus, a sentence which was reversed 
by the general council of Chalcedon in 
451. Theodoret appears to have died in 
457 or 458. The most important of his 
works consist of commentaries on numer- 
ous books of the Old Testament and on 
the Pauline epistles; EccleaioBtical His- 
tory, History of Heresies, etc. 
TliAAilorio ( th6-od'u-rik), King of 
ineoaonC \^^ Ostrogoths; bom in 
A.D. 455, died in 526; was the son of 
Theodemir, king of the Ostrogoths of 
Pannonia. From his eighth to his eight- 
eenth year he lived as a hostage with the 
Emperor Leo at Constantinople. Two 
years after his retum he succeeded to the 
throne. In 493, after several bloody en- 
gagements, Theodoric induced Odoacer, 
who had assumed the title of King of 
Italy, to grant him equal authority. The 
murder of Odoacer at a banquet soon 
after opened the way for Theodoric to 
have himself proclaimed sole ruler. The- 

Digitized by 




odoric ruled with great yigor and ability. 
He attached his soldiers to his service by 
assigning them a third part of the lands 
of Italy, on the tenure of military serv- 
ice; while among his Italian subjects, 
whom he conciliated by introducing an 
improved administration of justice, be 
encouraged industry and the arts of 
peace. Alt^iough, like his ancestors, he 
was an Arian, he never violated the 
peace or privileges of the Catholic 

Theodosius (thS-o-dO'shi-us), a 
AA&vv«&voAu.9 Christian Roman em- 
peror, bom in Spain about 3G4, and 
selected by the Emperor Gratlan, in 379, 
for his partner in the empire. To bis 
care were submitted Thrace and the east- 
ern provinces, which he delivered from 
an invasion of the Goths, concluding a 
peace with them in 382. On the defeat 
and death of Mazimus (388) he became 
the sole head of the empire, Gratian hav- 
ing been previously killed in the war 
against Mazimus. Is 390 a sedition 
took place in Thessalonica, and in re- 
venge for this act, Theodosius caused the 
people of the city to be invited to an ez- 
hibition at the circus, and when a great 
concourse had assembled they were bar- 
barously murdered by l^is soldiery, to the 
number, it is computed, of 7000. St Am- 
brose refused him communion for eight 
months on account of this crime, and 
Theodosius submitted humbly to the 

{)unishment He died at Milan, aj>. 395, 
eaving the eastern portion of the empire 
to his son Arcadius, the western to his 
son Honorius. He distinguished himself 
by bis zeal for orthodozy, and his intoler- 
ance and persecution of Arianism and 
other heresies. 

Thpolo^V (th§-ol'o-ii ; Greek Theos, 
J.acuiU|^jr (^^ ^jjj i^g^^ doctrine) 

is the science which treats of the ezist- 
ence of God^ his attributes, and the Divine 
will regarding our actions, present con- 
dition, and ultimate destiny. In refer- 
ence to the sources whence it is derived, 
theology is distinguished into natural or 
philoMophical theology, which relates to 
the knowledge of God from his works by 
the light of nature and reason; and su- 
pernatural, po»itw€y or revealed theoloffyt 
which sets forth and systematizes the 
doctrines of the Scriptures. With re- 
gard to the contents of theology, it is 
classified into theoretical theology or dog- 
maticSf and practical theology or ethics. 
As comprehending the whole eztent of re- 
ligious science, theology is divided into 
four principal classes, historical^ ewegeti' 
col, systematic, and practical theology. 
Historical theology treats of the historv 
of Christian doctrines. Ezegetical theol- 

ogy embraces the interpretation of the 
Scriptures and Biblical criticism. Syste- 
matic theology arranges methodically the 
great truths of religion. Practical tbeoi- 
ogy consists of an ezhibition, first, of 
precepts and directions; and secondly, of 
the moiives from which we should be ez- 
pected to comply with these. Apologetic 
and polemic theology belong to several of 
the above-mentioned four classes at once. 
The scholastic theolog\( attempted to clear 
and discuss all questions by the aid of 
human reason alone, laying aside the 
study of the Scriptures, and adopting in- 
stead the arts of the dialectician. 

Theophrastus ^X^^.ll'i^^^,,,^ 

philosopher, was bom at Lesbos early 
in the fourth century b.c., and studied at 
Athens, in the school of Plato, and after- 
wards under Aristotle, of whom he wa8 
the favorite puptl and successor. On th€ 
departure of Aristotle from Athens after 
the judicial murder of Socrates he became 
the head of the Peripatetic school of phi- 
losophy, and composed a multitude of 
books — dialectic, moral, metaphysical, 
and physical. We possess two entire 
books of his botany, but only fragments 
of his other works, such as those on 
Stones, on the Winds, etc.; and his 
Characters or sketches of types of char- 
acter, by far the most celebrated of all 
his productions. He died in 287 B.C. 
To his care we are indebted for the 
preservation of the writings of Aristotle, 
who, when dying, intrusted them to his 

Theophrastus Paracelsus. 

See Paracelsus. 

Theoaonhv (th§-os'u-fi), accordhig to 
xaeusopuy .^ etymology the sci- 
ence of divine things. But the name of 
theosophists has generally been applied to 
persons who in their inquiries respecting 
God have mn into mysticism, as Jacob 
Bahme, Swedenborg, St. Martin, and 
others. At the present day the term is 
applied to the tenets of the Theosophical 
Society, founded in New York in 1875 
by Henry S. Olcott, the objects of which 
are: to form the nucleus of a universal 
brotherhood of humanity, to promote the 
study of Eastern literature and science, 
and chiefly to investigate unezplained 
laws of nature, and the physical powers 
of man, and generally the search after 
divine knowledge — divine applying to 
the divine nature of the abstract princi- 
ple, not to the quality of a personal God. 
The theosophists assert that humanity is 
possessed of certain powers over nature, 
which the narrower study of nature from 
the merely materialistic stand-point has 

Digitized by 




failed to develop. They maintain the 
Hindu doctrine of transmigration of souls. 
The membership in the United States is 
about 5000. Mrs. Annie Besant is at 
present the president of the society. 
Thera. See sanatoria. 

Thcrapeuta < ^f^^mee^ ^|^ 

first century after Christ, somewhat akin 
to the Essenes. 

Therapeutics <«'-?i?^^?Hi' jX 

cine which treats of remedies in the 
widest sense. 

Theresa (te-rS'sa), St., a religions 
^ ^^* enthusiast, bom at Avila, in 
Spain, in 1515, who took the veil among 
the Carmelites at the age of twenty-four. 
Being dissatisfied at the relaxation of 
discipline in the order to which she be- 
longed she undertook to restore the orig- 
inal seyerity of the institute. The first 
convent of reformed Carmelite nuns was 
founded at Avila In 1562, and was speed- 
ily followed by a number of others. She 
died in 1582, and was canonized by Pope 
Gregory XV in 1621. 

TheresioBcl (ta-ra-sM'pei), or ma^ 

Xl&^x ^OXV^^M. m ^ . X H E BESIEN8TADT 

(Hung. Szahaaka)', a royal free town in 
Hungary, in the county of Bftcs, is more 
properly a district than a town, as it 
covers, with its numerous suburbs, an 
area of more than 600 square miles. It 
has manufactures of linen and woolen 
cloth, dye-works, tanneries, soap-boiling 
works, etc., and a trade in cattle, horses, 
hides, etc. Pop. 82,122. 
Therms (ther'me), a name often 
Au^AAucK^ given to the large bathing 
establishments of ancient Rome. 

Thermidor <^.l^'™^"^?J^'-*?i? ®^®^' 

•*•***** ^**^* enth month of the year 
in the calendar ot the first French repub- 
lic It commenced on July 19th and 
ended on August 17th. See Calendar, 
Thermit ^^ name given a mixture of 
xii.vj.itu by aluminum powder or filings 
and powdered oxide of iron, used for 
welding the ends of iron rails or fractures 
in iron goods. If set on fire it yields a 
temperature of 5400^ F., far above the 
melting point of iron. In burning it 
produces practically pure iron in a 
fiqnid state and oxide of aluminum as a 
slag. The molten iron fills the fracture 
or the space between the rails, which it 
welds in hardening. 

Thennodynamic Engine \^^^^^ 

nam'ik) any form of heat engine (as gas 
or steam engines) by means of which a 
percentage of the heat lost by one body 
called the source, on account of its con« 

nection with another body called the re- 
frigerator, is converted into kinetic energy 
or mechanical effect, and made available 
for the performance of work. The effi- 
ciency of a heat engine is the ratio of the 
heat available for mechanical effect to the 
total heat taken from the source. A re- 
versible engine is called a perfect engine, 
because it is the most efficient engine be- 
tween the temperatures of its source and 
the refrigerator. 

Thermodynamics, TATt^u 

ence which investigates the Taws regula- 
ting the conversion of heat into mechani- 
cal force or energy, and vice versa. 

Thermo-electricity, «'„«^^'<>'iy p"^ 

Junction of two metals, or at a point 
where a molecular change occurs in a bar 
of the same metal, when the junction or 
point is heated above or cooled below the 
general temperature of the conductor. 
Thus when wires or bars of metal of dif- 
ferent kinds, as bismuth and antimony, 
are placed in close contact, end to end, 
and disposed so as to form a periphery or 
continuous circuit, and heat then applied 
to the ends or junctions of the bars, elec- 
tric currents are produced. The princi- 
ple of the arrangement is shown in the 
accompanying figure, in which the bars 
marked a are antimony, those marked h 
bismuth. The junctions 1, 3, 5, 7 are to 
be at one temperature, the junctions 2, 4, 


6, 8 at another, g is a delicate galvanom- 
eter which measures the force of the 
current produced. The thermo-electric 
battery or pile, an apparatus much used 
in delicate experiments with radiant 
heat, consists of a series of little bats of 
antimony and bismuth (or any other two 
metals of different heat-conducting 
power), having their ends soIdere<l to- 
gether and arranged in a compact form; 
the opposite ends of the pile being con- 
nected with a galvanometer, which m very 
sensibly affected by the electric current, 

Digitized by 




induced in the system of bars when ex- 
posed to the slightest variations of 
temperature. To the combined arrange- 
ment of pile and galvanometer the name 
of ihermo-multiplier is given. Two metal 
bars of different heat-conducting power 
having their ends soldered together, and 
the combined bar then usually bent into 
a more or less horseshoe or magnet form 
for the purpose of bringing their free ends 
within a conveniently short distance, 
designated a thermo-electric pair, are 
much used in thermo-electric experiments. 
But as the electric current developed in 
a single pair is very weak, a considerable 
numl^r are usually combined to form a 
thermo-electric pile or battery. Bismuth 
and antimony are the metals usually em- 
ployed, the difference in electro-motive 
force being greater between them than 
between any other two metals conven- 
iently obtainable. 

Thermograpli ^y^^rte'r^trl^deS 

with a registering device ; and mechanism 
for reading teznperature. The United 
States Weather Bureau uses a crescent- 
shaped bulb filled with alcohol and hermet- 
ically sealed. Changes of temperature 
affect the curve of the bulb, ana its al- 
teration of form is communicated to a 
series of multipljring levers, which act 
upon a recording pen. Bartlett*s thermo- 

graph is designed for greenhouses, it be- 
ig electrically connected with dials in 
the house and ofBce, so that changes in 
temperature can be readily noted. 

Thermometer /XSeTt'%TU.2g 

the temperatures of bodies are ascer- 
tained; founded on the property which 
heat possesses of expanding all bodies, 
the rate or quantity of expansion being 
supposed proportional to* the degree of 
heat applied, and hence indicating that 
degree. The thermometer consists of a 
slender glass tube, with a small bore, con- 
taining in general mercury or alcohol, 
which expanding or contracting by varia- 
tions in the temperature of the atmos- 
phere, or on the instrument being brought 
into contact with any other body, or im- 
mersed in a liquid or gas which is to be 
examined, the state of the atmosphere, 
the bodv, liquid, or gas, with regard to 
heat, is indicated by a scale either applied 
to the tube or engraved on its exterior 
surface. The ordinary thermometer con- 
sists of a small tube terminating in a 
ball containing mercury, the air having 
been expelled and the tube hermetically 
sealed. A scale of temperatures is at- 
tached, in which there are two points cor- 
responding to fixed and determinate tem- 
peratures, one, namely, to the temperature 


of freezing water and the other to that of 
boiling water. In the thermometer com- 
monly used in the United States and the 
British empire, known 
as Fahrenneit's ther- 
mometer, the former 
point is marked 32*" 
and the latter 212*"; 
hence the zero of the 
scale, or that part 
marked 0**, is 32® be- 
low the freezing-point, 
and the interval or 
space between the 
freezing and boiling 
points consists of 
180**. The zero point 
is supposed to have 
been fixed by Fahren- 
heit at the point of 
greatest cold that he 
had observed, probably 
by means of a freezing 
mixture such as snow 
and salt In France 
and other parts of Eu- 
rope, and nowadays in 
all scientific investiga- 
tions, the Centigrade 
or Celsius scale is 
used. In this the space 
between the freezing 
and boiling points of 
water is divided into 
100 equal parts or de- 
grees, the zero being 
at freezing and the 
boiling-point marked 
100**. IWaumur's ther- 
mometer, in use in 
Germany, has the 
space between the 
freezing and boiling 
points divided into 80 ^ 
equal parts, the zero I S "S 

being at freezing. o A9 fci 
The following formu- Thermometer 

l0B will serve to con- Scales, 

vert anv given num- 
ber of degrees of Fahrenheit's scale fato 
the corresponding number of degrees on 
Rteumur's and the Centigrade scales, 
and vice versa: let F, R, and C (the 0* 
of C. and R. being equal to F. 32"*, and 
the three scales from freezing to boiling 
point being F. 180% C. 100% R. 80% or 
in the ratio of 9, 6, 4) represent any cor- 
responding numbers of degrees on the 
three scales respectively, then: (F.— 32*) 
X4 = R.; (F.— 32*) X 1 = 0.; R. x 

} + 32*=F.; C. Xf+32*=F.; C. X 
= R.; R. X J = C. For extreme de- 
grees of cold, thermometers filled with 
spirit pf wine must be employed from its 



Digitized by 


Thermo-pile Thetis 

great resistance to freezing temperatures, performing. His first representation 

whereas mercury freezes at about 39° be- took place in 585 B.C. See Drama, 

low zero on the Fahrenheit scale. On the TliAa&alnTiiciTia ( ^^^s ' a-ld'ni • ans ) , 

other hand, spirit of wine is not adapted -■■iiC»»»A"i"»"a Epistles to the, 

to high temperatures, as it is soon con- two New Testament epistles written by 

▼erted into tapor, whereas mercur;y does St. Paul to the church at Thessalonica, in 

not boil till its temperature is raised to all probability during his long stay at 

660** F. As the ordinary thermometer Corinth, and therefore not very long after 

gives the temperature onlv at the time the foundation of the Thessalonian church 

of observation, the necessity for having on St. Paul's second missionary journey, 

an instrument which would show the A note at the end of each of the epistles 

maximum and minimum temperatures in our Authorized Version states that 

within a given period is easily apparent they were written from Athens, but there 

in all cases connected with meteorology, can be little doubt that this is erroneous, 

and various forms of instruments for this and that they were really written at 

purpose have been invented. A common Corinth. They are the earliest of Paul's 

form of mawimum thermometer consists writings, and are characterized by great 

of the ordinary thermometer fitted with simplicity of style as compared with his 

a piston which moves easily in the tube, other epistles. The genuineness of the 

The instrument is placed horizontally, first epistle has hardly ever been ques- 

and the piston is pushed along the bore tioned, but according to the newer criti- 

as the mercury advances, and is left at cism, that of the second epistle is more 

the highest point by the retiring fluid, than doubtful. 

This point is noted by the observer, who TlieaftfllnniGfl. (thes-a-lo-nS'ka). See 

then erects the thermometer, causing the ****'»»«*** galonVca. 

piston to sink to the mercury, the instru- Tlieasalv (thes'a-li), the northeast- 

ment thus being in condition for a fresh •*'***^»*'«**j em division of Greece, 

experiment. A similar action takes place mainly consisting of a rich plain inclosed 

in the spirit of wine minimum thermome- between mountains and belonging almost 

ter, the small movable piston being, how- entirely to one river basin, that of the 

«ver, immersed in the fluid and drawn Peneios (Salambria), which traverses it 

back by the convex surface of the con- from west to east, and finds an outlet 

tracting fluid, being left at the point of into the ^gean through the vale of 

greatest contraction. The maximum and Tempe. In the earliest times Thessaly 

minimum instruments combined form the prop<ir is said to have been inhabited by 

self-regUtering thermometer, ^olic and other tribes. Subsequently it 

TheimO-DUe ^^ Thermo-electricity, was broken up into separate confederacies, 

xuvxu&v ^MAM* ^^^ seldom exerted any important in- 

ThermODvls (ther-mop'e-le), a nar- fluence on the affairs of Greece generally. 

•k''^ row defile in Northern Thessaly was conquered by Philip of 

Greece, leading from Thessaly southward, Macedon in the fourth century B. 0., became 

between Mount GSta and the sea (the dependent on Macedonia, and was finally 

Maliac Gulf, now the Gulf of Zeitouni), incorporated with the Roman Empire. 

25 miles north of Delphi, celebrated for After the fall of the Bjrzantine Empire it 

its brilliant defense by 300 Spartans, to- fell into the hands of the Turks, became 

gether with allies, under Leonidas, against a part of the Ottoman Empire, although 

the Persian host under Xerxes, in 480 b.o. most of the inhabitants are Greeks. The 

ThesenS (t^^'^i^)* & mythical king of greater portion of it was in 1881 incor- 

Athens and famous hero of porated with the kingdom of Greece, 

antiouity, son of JEgeus by ^thra, the Capital Larissa. Pop. 344,000. 

daughter of Pittheus of Troezen, in Pelo- T^fitford (thet'f^rd), a municipal 

poonesus, of whom many notable deeds •*"**^ *'*-"'■'**' borough of England, partly 

are related, as the slaying of the Mino- in the county of Suffolk and partly in that 

taur and the freeing of Athens from the of Norfolk, on both banks of the Ouse, 

tribute of seven youths and seven maidens here crossed by a handsome iron bridge, 

annually sent to Crete to be devoured by It is a place of great antiquity and has 

that monster. As king of Athens he is a remarkable Celtic Mound called 

reputed to have governed with mildness, Castle Hill. Pop. 4778. 

instituted new laws, and made the gov- Tli Affnrrl WiTiAa a city of Quebec 

emment more democratic. xnctiuru jiliucs, province. Canada, 

ThefiTllft (thes'pis), a native of a vil- 26 miles s. w. of Quebec. It has rich 

.■.lA^o^Ao j^g^ jj^j. Atbeng^ ^bo lived asbestos mines. Pop. (1913) 7500. 

in the sixth century b.o., reputed to be ThetlS (^b^'^is), a Greek divinity, a 

the inventor of tragedy and of the masks ^•**^*'*^ daughter of Nereus and Doris, 

which the Greek actors always wore in therefore one of the Nereids. By Peleus, 

Digitized by 


Thirty Years' War Thistle 

many marched against Frederick, who, forces at N5rdlingen (Sept, 1634) again 

with an army of Bohemians, Moravians, gave to the emperor the preponderating 

and Hungarians, kept the field until power in Germany. The Elector of 

November 8 (1620), when he was totally Saxony, who had been an ally of Gus- 

rouied at Weissenberg, near Prague, by tavus, now made peace at Prague (May, 

Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. The 1635), and within a few months the 

Protestant cause was now crushed in treaty was accepted by many of the 

Bohemia, and the people of that province German princes. The Swedes, however, 

suffered cruel persecution. The domin- thought ft to their interest to continue 

ions of Frederick, the Palatinate of the the war, while France resolved to take 

Rhine included, were now conquered, a more active part in the conflict Thus 

the latter being occupied by Count the last stage of the war was a contest 

Tilly, assisted by the Spaniards under of France and Sweden against Austria^ 

Spinola. At the Diet of Ratisbon in which the Swedish generals gained 

(March, 1623) Frederick was deprived various successes over the imperial forces, 

of Us territories, Duke Maximilian re- while the French armies fought with 

ceiving the Electorate. Ferdinand, whose varied fortune in West Germany and on 

succession to the throne of Bohemia was the Rhine. Meanwhile the emperor had 

thus secured, had now a favorable op- died (1637), and had been succeeded by 

portunity of concluding a peace, but his his son, Ferdinand III. The struggle 

continued intolerance towards the Prot- still continued until, in 1646, the united 

estants caused them to seek foreign as- armies of the French, under the great 

sistance, and a new period of the war generals Turenne and Conde, and the 

began. Christian IV of Denmark, in- Swedes advanced through Suabia and 

duced partly by religious zeal and partly Bavaria. The combined forces of Swe- 

bji the hope of an acquisition of tern- den, Bavaria, and France were then 

tory, came to the aid of his German about to advance upon Austria, when the 

co-religionists (1624), and being joined news reached the armies that the Peace 

by Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick, of Westphalia (1648) was concluded, 

advanced into Lower Saxony. There and that the long struggle was ended, 

they were met by Wallenstein, Duke of TTiialiA (thiz'be). See Pyramus and 

Friedland, who. In 1626, defeated Mans- •^^"»"« Thishe, 

feld at Dessau, while Tilly was also Tlngtle (this'l), the common name of 
successful in driving Christian back to ^ prickly plants of the tribe 
Denmark. In the peace of LUbeck which Cynarace«e, nat order Compositie. There 
followed (May, 1629) Christian of Den- are numerous species, most of which are 
mark received back all his occupied ter- inhabitants of Europe. The bleesed- 
ritory, and undertook not to meddle again thistle, Carduus henedictuM of the phar- 
in German affairs. After this second macop(Bias, Cnicus benedictus or Cir- 
success, Fredinand again roused his peo- sium henedicium of modem botanists, is 
pie by an edict which required restitu- a native of the Levant, and is a laxa- 
tion to the Catholic Church of all church- tive and tonic medicine. The cotton- 
lands and property acquired by them thistle belongs to the genus Onopordum, 
since 1555. To the assistance of the The common cotton-thistle (O. Aoan- 
Protestants of Germany, in these cir- thium) attains a height of from 4 to 6 
cumstances, came Gustavus Adolphus, feet It is often regarded as the Scotch 
King of Sweden, who landed (1630) thistle, but it is doubtful whether the 
with a small army upon the coast of thistle which constitutes the Scottish 
Pomerania. Joined by numerous volun- national badge has any existing tjrpe, 
teers, and aided by French money, he though the stemless thistle X(^^*<i^^ 
advanced, and routed Tilly at Breiten- acaulis or Cirsium acaule) is in many 
feld (or the battle of Leipzig, September, districts of Scotland looked on as the 
1031), victoriously traversed the Main true Scotch thistle. Some dozen species 
and the Rhine valleys, defeated Tilly of thistle are common in the United 
again near the confluence of the Lech States, spreading from New England to 
and the Danube (April, 1632), and en- Florida, among them the Canada thistle, 
tered Munich. Meanwhile the emperor one of the severest pests of the farmer, 
sought the aid of Wallenstein, by whose TTiistle Obdeb of the, a Scottish 
ability and energy Gustavus was obliged *'*"'"*'*^> order of knighthood, some- 
to retire to Saxony, where he gained the times called the order of St. Andrew, 
great victory of LUtzen (Nov., 1632), but It was instituted by James VII (James 
was himself mortally wounded in the II of England) in 1687, when eight 
battle. The war was now carried on knights were nominated. It fell into 
by the Swedes under the chancellor abeyance during the reign of William and 
Ozenstiema, till the rout of the Swedish Mary, but was revived by Queen Anne 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



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Thomas it Eempis 

in 1703. The insignia of the order con- 
sist of a gold collar composed of thistles 
interlaced with sprigs of rue; the jewel, 
a figure of St. Andrew in the middle of 
a star of eight pointed rays, suspended 
from the collar; the star, of silver and 
eight-rayed, four of the rays being 
pointed, while the alternate rays are 
shaped like the tail-feathers of a bird, 
with a thistle in the center surrounded 
by the Latin motto 2femo me impune 

Order of the Thistle — Star, Jewel, Badge 
and Collar. 

Iaces9it; and the badge, oval, with the 
motto surrounding the figure of St. An- 
drew. The order consists of the sov- 
ereign and sixteen knights, besides extra 
knights (princes), ana a dean, a secre- 
tary, the lyon-king-at-arms, and the 
gentleman usher of the green rod. 
TlinlpTi (td'Ien), an island in the 
xuuAcu province of Zealand, Holland, 
between the Scheldt and the Maas, with 
an area of about 50 sq. miles, and a 
pop. of 15.000. 

Tholnck (to1«k), Friedbich Au- 
AuvAuvA Q^g^ GoTTREU, a German 
theologian, bom in 1709; died in 1877. 
He was educated at the universities of 
Breslau and Berlin, and devoted himself 
to theology. Tholuck filled the chair of 
theology at Halle from 1826 till his 

TTiATnna Qeobge Henry, general, was 
XnomaS, ^^^ .^ Virginia in 1816, 
and at the age of twenty entered the 
military academy at West Point, passing 
^to the artillery as* sublieutenant at 

the age of twenty-four. He took part in 
the Mexican war (1846-47) ; was ap- 
pointed professor at West Point in 1850 ; 
recalled to active service in 1855, and 
employed in Texas against the Indians. 
When the Civil War broke out Thomas 
had attained the rank of major, and being 
appointed lieutenant-colonel of volunteers, 
April 25, 1861, was some months later 
sent into Kentucky, where, in the follow- 
ing year, he defeated Zollikofer. As 
major-general of volunteers he took part 
in the battle of Murfreesborough, wnere 
he greatly distinguished himself; while 
at the bloody battle of Ghickamauga, in 
September, 1863, he saved the Federal 
army from destruction by his stubborn 
resistance after the defeat of the Federal 
right, earning the name of *The Rock 
of Ghickamauga.* In 1865 be com- 
pKelled the Confederates to raise the 
siege of Nashville, for which he received 
the thanks of Congress, and was raised 
to the rank of major-general in the 
regular army. The brevet ranks of lieu- 
tenant-general and general were offered 
him by President Johnson, but he de- 
clined them. He died in 1870. 
ThomftS (^om'as), Joseph, scholar and 
linguist, bom in Cayuga Co., 
New York, in 1811, was, with Thomas 
Baldwin, author of Baldwin* 8 Pronounc- 
ing Oazetieer, In 1851-52 appeared his 
first book of Etymology, followed by an 
edition of Oswald's Etymological Diction- 
ary, In 1854 he prepared A New and 
Complete Gazetteer of the United States; 
and in 1855 A Complete Geographical 
Dictionary of the World (popularly 
known as LippincotVs Gazetteer of the 
World), and which for accuracy and 
completeness had scarcely an equal. In 
1864 appeared his comprehensive Medical 
Dictionary; and in 1870 his Universal 
Pronouncing Dictionary of Biography and 
Mythology, which occupies a high place 
among books of reference. He died De- 
cember 24, 1891. 

Thomas Theodore, noted orchestral 
^ leader, born in Germany in 
1835; died in 1905. His family moved 
to the United States in 1845, and he be- 
came an expert on the violin. His sym- 
phony concerts began in 1864, and for 
thirty years he was conductor of the 
Brooklyn Philharmonic Society. His 
later years were passed in Chicago, where 
the Symphony Hall was built through 
his efforts. 

Thomas a Kempis <„r„V\I*pT„: 

his birthplace, in the archbishopric of 
Cologne) was bom about 1380. At the 
age of twenty he retired to an Augustine 
convent near Zwolle, in Holland, where 

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ke took the towb, and where, in 1471, 
he died 8ulM>rior of the convent. He 
copied many MSS. in a beautiful hand and 
wrote numerous orii^nai works, including 
sermons, exhortations, ascetic treatises, 
hymns, prayers, etc His name, however, 
would hardly be remembered were it not 
for its connection with the celebrated 
devotional work called The Imitation of 
Christ, 'De Imitatione Christi,' a work 
which has passed through thousands of 
editions in the original Latin and in 
translations. The authorship of this 
book has long been a disputed point; but 
it is generally ascribed to ft Kempis. 

AMVAu«^Tj.MV9 g^j.^^ county seat of 
Thomas Co., Ga., 200 miles w. s. w. of Sa- 
vannah. It has a lumber trade, various 
industries. Pop. 6727. 
TTinmiafa the followers of Thomas 
xaumi»b», Aquinas. See Scholasticism, 
TlinniTianTi Almon Harris, born in 
inompSOn, gtoddard, N. H., in 1839: 
died in 1906. He became a member of the 
United States Topographic Engineers in 
1870. In 1882 he was appointed geojra- 
pher to the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, and (1884-95) did important work 
in connection with the survey west of the 

Thompson, benjamin, count Rum- 
AMw.u*j^»w«*9 FORD, an Amencan scien- 
tist and Bavarian administrator, born at 
Wobum, Mass., in 1753 ; died at Auteuil, 
near Paris, in 1814. He commanded the 
King*s American Dragoons in the Revo- 
lutionary War^ and became aide-de-camp 
and chamberlain at the court of the elec- 
tor of Bavaria (1784-1802). He left 
funds to Harvard for the professorship of 
physical and mathematical sciences and 
to the American Acadeniy of Arts and 
Sciences and the Royal Society of Ten- 
don for prizes for the most important dis- 
coveries in heat and light 
Thompson, I>enman, actor and play. 

1^ ' wnght, born near Girard, 
Pennsylvania, in 1S33; died in 1011. He 
is best known by bis Joshua Whitcomb, 
remodeled into the highly popular plav of 
The Old Homestead, in which he long 
took the leadingpart. 
Thompson, P^^NCis, an English poet, 

-*^ > bom at Ash ton. Lanca- 
shire in 1860; died in rx)ndon, November 
13, 1907. His early life closely resem- 
bled that of DeQuincey, but he was finally 
befriended and launched u^on the career 
of journalist and poet. His verse, while 
often eccentric and even forced, abounds 
in passages of rare beauty. 
TTinmnflAii Jerome, painter, was 
XUOmpsou, ^^^ ^^ Middleborough. 

Massacbusetts* in 1814; died in 1886. 

Aside from portraits, his principal pic- 
tores are scenes from rustic American 
life, such as The Apple Qatherinff, The 
Old Oaken Bucket, the Old Stage, and 
The Lost Lamb, Many of his works 
have been made familiar by engravings. 
Thompson, sir John Sparrow, Ca- 
•'^ ^ nadian statesman, bom 
at Halifax in 1844; died in 1894. He 
entered early into public life and be- 
came premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. 
He was appointed attorney general of 
the Dominion in 1885 and became prime 
minister in 1892. He took part in the 
fishery treaty and the Behring Sea arbi- 

Thompson, Jf^u^» sculptor, bom in 
•*^"^**> Queens Co., Ireland, in 
1833; died in New York in 1894. From 
1874 to 1881 he resided in Rome. He 
achieved great success as a portrait 
sculptor, and was elected a member of 
the Academy of Design in 1862. 
TTiATTiTian-n Maurice, poet and nov- 
J.UUmpson, ^jj^^^ ^^ ^^ Fairfield, 

Indiana, in 1844; died in 1901. His 
principal works are: Hoosier Mosaics, 
The Witchery of Archery, A Tallehassee 
Girl, His Second Campaign, and Songs of 
Fair Weather, 

Thompson, Ko™»r Eixis, educator, 
i^ ' was bom m Ireland m 
1844, came to America in 1857, was grad- 
uated from the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1865, and in 1873 was ordained min- 
ister in the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church. He was successively professor 
of mathematics, of social science, and 
of history and English literature in the 
University of Pennsylvania, and has 
been president of the Central High 
School of Philadelphia since 1894. He 
was editor of the Penn Monthly, 1870- 
80, and became editor of The American 
in 1880. He wrote Social Science and 
Political Economy and Elements of Po- 
litical Economy, 

Thompson-Scton, ee«^t^^ evan. 

thor, was bom at South Shields, Eng- 
land, in 1860. He lived as a boy in 
the Canadian woods and on the western 
plains, became naturalist to the govern- 
ment of Manitoba, and wrote Birds of 
Manitoba and Mammals of Manitoba, He 
afterwards studied art and became an 
animal painter and illustrator. He also 
became an active lecturer and wrote 
many popular books describing the 
habits ana intelligence of animals. The 
best known among these is Wild AnimaU 
I Have Known, Other writers followed 
him in this field and a controversy arose 
as to the truthfulness of their stories 
of animal intelligence. The conception 

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Thorns Thomson 

of the organization of Boy Scouts, now 1730 his Autumn. After traveling for 

so popular, is ascribed to him, though not some time on the Continent with the son 

the title, and be is the leading spirit in of Sir Charles Talbot, the chancellor, he 

this organization in the United States was rewarded with the post of secretary 

(see Boy Scouts). . His name was legally of briefs, which he held till the death of 

changed from Seton-Thompson to Thomp- the chancellor (1737), when he received 

Bon-Seton in 1901. a pension of £100 from the Prince of 

Thorns (^oms), William John, an Wales. Meanwhile he had brought on 

• English author, bom at West- the stage his tragedy of Sophonisha 

minster in 1803; died in 1885. He was (1729) and published his poem on 

secretary to the Camden Society from lAheriy, the cool reception of which 

1838 to 1873; deputy-librarian to the greatly disappointed him. He now 

House of Lords; originator and for (1738) produced his tragedy of Aga- 

many years editor of ^otes and Queriei, memnonf and a third entitled Edward and 

and author of various antiquarian works. Eleanora, In 1740 he composed the 

Thomson (tom'sun), Sib Charles masque of Alfred in conjunction with 

Auvuun/u ^YViLLE, naturalist, bom Mallet; but which of them wrote the 

in 1830 in Linlithgowshire; died in 1882. famous song, Rule. Britannia, is not 

Educated at the University of Edin- known. In 1745 bis most successful 

burgh, he l>ecame professor of miner- tragedy, Tancred and Sigismunda, was 

alogy and geology in Queen*s College, brought out and warmly applauded. 

Belfast, in 1854. In the dredging The following year he produced his 

expeditions of the Lightning and Porcu- Castle of Indolence, a work in the Spen- 

pine (1868-69) he took part, afterwards serian stanza. For a few years he held 

publishing in The Depths of the Sea by deputy the confortable post of sur- 

(1869), the substance of his discoveries veyor-general of the Leeward Islands, 

in r^rd to the fauna of the Atlantic, and he died in 1748. He left a tragedy 

In 1^39 he l>ecame fellow of the Royal entitled Coriolanus, which was acted 

Society; in 1870 professor of natural for the benefit of his relatives. Thom- 

history in the University of Edinburgh, son was greatly beloved for his amia- 

In 1872 he was appointed scientific chief bility and kindness of heart His Sea- 

of the Challenger expedition, which was sons, on which his fame rests, abounds 

absent from England 3^ years, during in sensibility and beauty of natural de> 

which time 68,890 miles were surveyed, scription. His Castle of Indolence, 

On his return he was knighted, and en- though not so popular as the Seasons, 

trusted by the government with the task is highly esteemed, but his tragedies are 

of drawing up a report on the natural almost forgotten. 

history specimens collected during the TTiAmsnii James, poet, was bom at 

expedition. But he lived only to publish •■■^^wiusuii, port-Glasgow, Scotland, in 

a preliminary account of the expedition, 1834, and was brought up at the Cale- 

The Voyage of the Challenger: the At- donian Orphan Asylum, both his parents 

lantio (1876-78). having died when he was very young. 

TTiomaAn Elihu, an American elec- He became a schoolmaster in the army, 

xixuuisvu, trician, bom in Manches- but quitted that occupation in 1862, and 

ter, England, March 29, 1853 ; came to became clerk in a solicitor's office. In 

the United States and subsequently se- 1860 he became a contributor to the 

cured more than 600 patents for inven- National Reformer, in which was pub- 

tlons which included the Thompson lished, under the signature * B. V.,' The 

method of electric welding. He was Dead Tear, To Our Ladies of Death, and 

awarded the Grand Prix, m Paris, in the poem by which he is best known, The 

1889. for electrical inventions, received City of Dreadful Night (1874). Among 

the decoration of C^hevalier of the Le- his other works are : Tasso and Leonora 

gion of Honor, for electrical research, (1856) ; The Doom of a City (1857) ; 

etc Sunday at Hampstead (1863); Sunday 

TTiomaAii James, poet, was bom in up the River (1868) ; A Voice from the 

XUUIUBUU, ^7QQ^ ^^ Ednam, near Kel- Nile (1881), and Insomnia (1882). 

so, in Scotland, his father being minister Thomson*s verse is characterized by much 

of Ednam pansh, and was educated at brilliancy and traits of graceful humor, 

Jedburgh and the University of Edin- but its prevailing tone is one of despair, 

burgh. He went in 1725 to London, He died in 1882. 

where Winter, the first of his poems on TliAmfiAvi John, a landscape painter, 

the seasons, was published in 1726. In A*lW"l»W*ij bora at Dailly, Scotland. 

1727 he published his Summer, his Poem in 1776, succeeded his father as minister 

to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton, and of that parish in 1800, and exchanged 

hk Britannia; in 1728 his Spring and in that living for Duddingston, near Edin- 


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burgh, in 1805, dying there in 1840. 
Thomson early turned his attention to 
art, and produced a lar^ number o£ 
landscapes, which are considered to rank 
him among the best painters of his na- 
tive land. 
Thomson, Joseph, an African ex- 

' plorer, was born at Pen- 
pont, Scotland, in 1858, and was educated 
at Edinburgh. When twenty years of 
age he accompanied Keith Johnston to 
Central Africa, assuming full charge of 
the expedition on the death of Mr. John- 
ston. In 1882 he explored the Rovuma 
in East Africa, and in 1884 made an im- 
portant journey through Masai Land, in 
eastern equatorial Africa. Among his 
other achievements are an expedition to 
the Atlas Mountains, and one to the river 
Niger. He was a graphic writer, his 
published works including Through Masai 
Liand, To the Central African Lakes and 
Back, Travels in the Atlas and Southern 
Morocco, Life of Mungo Park, etc. He 
died in 1895. 
Thomson. Joseph John, phvsicist, 

' was bom near Manchester, 
England, in 1856, a cousin of Lord Kel- 
vin. He became professor of experimen- 
tal physics at Cambridge in 1884, and 
wrote Vortew Rings, Recent Researches 
in Electricity and Magnetism, etc. He 
is especially notable for his researches 
into the constitution of the atom of 
matter, and the promulgation of the 
theory of the electron, now so widely 
accepted as the basic element of material 
nature. His studies into the char- 
acteristics of this have been intimate and 

Tlinmann Thomas, a Scottish chem- 
xaomsou, ist, bom at Crieff in 1773; 
died in 1852. He adopted the medical 
profession, and embraced chemistry more 
especially as his favorite pursuit. In 
18(D2 he published the first edition of his 
System of Chemistry, which obtained 
rapid success both in Great Britain and 
on the Continent. It was followed in 
1810 by his Elements of Chemistry, and 
hi 1812 by his History of the Royal 
Society. In 1813 he went to London 
and commenced there a scientific journal, 
the Annals of Philosophy, which he con- 
tinued to edit till the end of 1820. The 
lectureship (afterwards the regius pro- 
fessorship) in chemistry in Glasgow 
University was conferred on him in 1817. 
His great work on the atomic theory was 
published in 1825, under the title of 
Attempt to Establish the First Principles 
of Chemistry "by Experiment, In 1830- 
31 he published his History of Chemistry, 
in two volumes, and in 1836 appeared 
kis OuUines of Mineralogy and Geology, 

TTinmann Thomas, antiquary, brother 
xnomsoU) of the Rev. John Thomson, 
of Duddingston, was bom at Dailly, 
Scotland, in 1768; died in 1852. He 
was called to the Scottish bar in 1793, 
appointed deputy-clerk register. 1806, and 
principal clerk of session, 1828. He was 
an early contributor to the Edinburgh 
Review, and president of the Bannatyne 
Club, for which and for the Maitland 
Club he edited numerous valuable works. 
TTiAifianTi William, Archbishop of 
xnomson, York, was born at White- 
haven, Feb. 11, 1819, and was educated 
at Shrewsbury School and Queens Col- 
lege. Oxford, of which he was succes- 
sively fellow, tutor, and head. In 1858 
he was chosen preacher of Lincoln's Inn, 
and in 1859 was appointed one of her 
majesty's chaplains in ordinary. Two 
years later (1861) he was raised to the 
episcopal bench as bishop of Gloucester 
and Bristol; but before he had held the 
appointment twelve months he was trans- 
ferred to the archbishopric of York. 
Dr. Thomson was author of a number 
of works, including: An Outline of the 
Necessary Laws of Thought; The Aton- 
ing Work of Chnst, viewed in Relation 
to some Current Theories; Crime and Its 
Excuses; Life in Light of Ood's Word 
(sermons) ; Limits of Phtlosophical In^ 
quiry; Design in Nature; and a series of 
essays entitled Word, Work and WUL 
He died in 1890. 

Thomson, ,%.^rtf AV^^^l 

mathematicians and physicists, was bom 
at Belfast, Ireland, in 1824, his father be- 
ing James Thomson, professor of mathe- 
matics in Glasgow University. He was 
educated first at Glasgow University, and 
then at Peterhouse, Cambridge, where he 
graduated (1845) as second wrangler, 
and first Smith's prizeman, and was 
elected to a fellowship. In 1846 he was 
appointed professor of natural philoso- 
phy in the University of Glasgow, a i>ost 
which he continued to hold. The same 
year he became editor of the Cambridge 
and Dublin Mathematical Journal^ to 
which he contributed valuable papers on 
the mathematical theory of electricity, 
being also a distinguished contributor to 
Liouville's Journal de Math6matiques. 
Amonp: the most important of his con^ 
tributions to electrical science are the 
construction of several delicate instru- 
ments for the measurement and study of 
electricity. It is, however, in connection 
with submarine telegraphy that Sir Wil- 
liam Thomson's name is most generally 
known, his services being rewarded, on 
the completion of the Atlantic cable of 
1866, with knighthood and other honon. 

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He also made important additions to our 
knowled^ of magnetism and heat, and 
invented an improved form of mariner's 
compass now in extensive use. He was 
president of the British Association at 
Its Edinburgh meeting in 1871. He was 
the author, jointly with Professor Tait, 
of a well-known treatise on natural 
philosophy, and issued many valuable 
papers. A notable theory of his, the 
vortex theory of atomics, attracted wide 
attention, but was finally abandoned by 
its author as mathematically undemon- 
Btrable. He was created Baron Kelvin 
in 1892. He died December 17, 1907. 
TYiAT (thor, tor), son of Odin by JOrd 
^^^'^ (the earth), the Jupiter of the 
Teutons, the God of thunder. Thursday 
has its name from him. See Northern 

Thoracic Duct [^^Jf * >• ®^ 

TTiAroY (th6'raks), the chest, or that 
XUQIUX. ^^j^ ^/ ^jjg human body 

formed by the spine, ribs, and breast- 
bone, situated between the neck and the 
abdomen, and which contains the pleura, 
longs, heart, etc The name is also ap- 

Thorax in Man. 
Thor»cic regions denoted by thick blsek 
line*. 11, Right and left Hameral; 2 2, do. 
SnbelaTian; 3 3, do. Mammary; 4 4, do. 
Axillary; 5 5, do. Subaxillary or Lateral; 
6 6, do. Scapular; 7 7, do. Interscapular; 
8 8, do. Superior Dorsal or Subscapular. — 
Yiscera or contents of Thorax, the position of 
which is indicated by dotted lines, a a, Dia- 
phragm; b. Heart; c. Lungs; d, Liver; e, Kid' 
n«ys; /f Stomach. 

piled to the corresponding portions of 
other mammals, to the less sharply de- 
fined cavity in the lower vertebrates, as 
birds, fishes, etc., and to the segments 
intervening between the head and abdo- 
men in msects and other Arthropoda. 
In serpents and fishes the thorax is not 
completed below by a breast-bone. In 
insects three sections form the thorax, 
the pro-thoram, bearing the first pair of 
isfi; the me»o-l^or<i0, bearing the second 

pair of legs and first ^air of wings; and 
and meta-thorawt bearmg the third pair 
of legs and the second pair of wings. 

Thoreau (t^o'r<». henry davie, 

writer on nature subjects, 
was bom at Boston, Massachusetts, in 
1817, and was educated at Harvard tJni- 
versity, where he was graduated in 1837. 
From that time till 1840 be was en- 
gaged as a schoolmaster. Then for 
several years he occupied himself in 
various ways, in land-surveying, carpen- 
tering, and other handicrafts, but devot- 
ing a greater part of his time to study 
and the contemplation of nature. In 
1845 he built for himself a hut in a 
wood near Walden Pond, Concord, Mass., 
and there for two years lived the life of 
a hermit After quitting his solitude. 
Thoreau pursued his father's calling of 
pencil-maker at Concord, where he died 
in 1862. Besides contributing to the 
Dial and other periodicals, he published 
A Week on the Concord and Merrimao 
Rivere (1849), and Walden, or Life in 
the Woode (1854). After his death ap- 

§ eared Ewcureione in Field and Forest, 
*he Maine Woods, Cape Cod, and A 
Yankee in Canada. Thoreau was a 
friend of Emerson, and imbibed much of 
his spirit and method of thought 
TTiATnirm (th6'ri-um), the metal of 

discovered by Berzelius. It is in the 
form of a heavy metallic powder, has an 
iron-gray tint, bums in air or oxygen, 
when heated, with great splendor, and 
is converted into thorina or oxide of 
thorinum. It unites energetically with 
chlorine, sulphur, and phosphorus. Hy- 
drochloric acid readily dissolves it, with 
the evolution of hydrogen gas. The 
symbol of Thorium is Th, and the atomic 
weight 116. 
Thorn ^^ Hawthorn, 

Thorn (tCni)f ^ ^^'''^ *°^ strong fort- 
*'"^*" ress of Pmssia, province of 
East Pmssia, on the Vistula. It con- 
sists of an old and a new town, has 
several churches, one of them containing 
a statue of Copernicus, who was bom 
here; manufactures of machinery, soap, 
and a famous g! igerbread ; some ship- 
ping, and a nood trade. Pop. 29,626. 
Thorn-apple, see Datura. 

Thom-hack Ray. see Bay. 

TlinmhTirv ( thora'bu-ri ), Walter, 
xauruuury ^ miscellaneous writer. 
I>ora in London in 1828. Beginning his 
literary career in Bristol at the age of 
seventeen, he soon after settled in Lon- 
don, where for thirty yean he was al- 

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most continuously at work writiiur for 
Household Worda^ Once a Week, 
Athenwum, etc Among his numerous 
works are Shakespeare's England, Songs 
of the Cavaliers and Roundheads, 
Haunted London, Legendary and Historic 
Ballads, and a Life of 2'umer, under the 
supenrision of Ruskin. He died in 1876. 

Thornhill (thora-hiii). sp james, 

«.**v«.«M*M* an English painter, bom 
in 1676; died in 1734. He was much 
encased in the decoration of palaces and 
public buildings, in which his chief works 
are to be found. Among his best efforts 
may be mentioned the dome of St. Paul's, 
the salon and refectory at Greenwich 
Hospital, and some rooms at Hampton 
Court His forte was in the treatment 
of allegorical subjects. 
Thrnnri & borough in Lackawanna 
Xiixuu|i, Q^^ Pwinsylvania, 4 miles 
from Scranton. It has coaling interests. 
Pop. 6133. 

Thorough-bass, see Ba#«. 
ThorOUghwOrt. SeeBoi.e.e«. 

TTiATTiA (tborp), Benjahiit, an Eng- 
Xnorpe ^y^ ^tolar who greatly fur- 
thered the study of Anglo-Saxon; bom 
in 1782; died in 1870. Among his nu- 
merous publications are an English edi- 
tion of Rask's AngUhBawon urammar. 
Ancient Laws and Institutes of the Anglo' 
Soman Kings, The Oospels in Anglo- 
Sawon, an edition of Beowulf, The 
Anglo-Samon Chronicle, Northern Mythol- 
ogy, etc 

Thome Fbancis Newton, an Ameri- 
" ' can author, bom in Swamp- 
scott, Massachusetts, in 1857. He is 
author of The Qovemment of the People 
of the United States; The Story of the 
Constitution; The Constitution of the 
United States with Bibliography; The 
History of the CivU War, and numerous 
other works on historical and political 
subjects. He was professor of American 
Constitutional History at the University 
of Pennsylvania, 1895-98. 

Thorwaldsen irnrSgllfSo^ioi^ 

(Bertel), a celebrated sculptor, bom at 
Copenhagen November 19, 1770. At first 
he helped his father to cut figureheads 
in the royal dockyard, then, after some 
years' study at the Academy of Arts, he 
won the privilege of studying three 
vears abroad. Going to Rome (1797) 
he was much impressed bv the works of 
Canova, the sculptor, and Carstens, the 

fainter, who were then residing there, 
t was not until 1803, however, that he 
became at all widely known. Then by 
a lucky chance he received a commistion 

from Sir Thomas Hope to execute in 
marble a :statue of Jason, which the 
sculptor had modeled. This was so bril* 
liantly executed that commissions flowed 
in upon him, new creations from his 
hand followed in quick succession, and 
his unsurpassed abilities as a sculptor 
became everywhere recognized. In fel9 
he returned to Denmark, and his Journey 
through Germany and his receptions at 
Copenhagen resembled a triumph. After 
remaining a year in Copenhagen and 
executing various works there, he re- 
tumed to Rome, visiting on his way 
Berlin, Dresden, Warsaw and Vienna. 
He remained at Rome till 1^8, when he 
undertook another journey to Copen- 
hagen, being principally moved to this 
step by the contemplated establishment 
in that city of a museum of his works 
and art treasures. His retum was a 
sort of national festival. The remainder 
of his life was spent chiefly in the Dan- 
ish capital, where he died March 2^ 
1844. The Thorwaldsen Museum, opened 
in 1840, contains about 300 of the works 
of the sculptor. Thorwaldsen was emi- 
nently successful in his subjects chosen 
from Greek mythology* such as his 
Mars, Mercury, Venus, etc His religious 
works, among which are a colossal group 
of Christ and the Twelve Apostles, St. 
John Preaching in the WUdemess, and 
statues of the four great prophets, dis- 
play almost superior grandeur of con- 
ception. Chief among his other works 
are his statues of Oalueo and Copernicus, 
and the colossal lion near Lucerne, in 
memory of the Swiss guards who fell in 
defense of the Tuileries. 
Tlinfli (thoth, tot), an Egyptian deity 
J-iiUtii jdentified by the Greeks with 
Hermes (Mercury), to whom was at- 
tributed the invention of letters, arts, 
and sciences. The name is equivalent 
in significance to the Greek Logos, and 
Thoth is a mythical personification of the 
divine intelligence. 

Thou X^^)* Jacques Auguste dk, a 
Auvu. j^rench statesman and historian, 
bom in 1553; died in 1617. Henry IV 
employed him in several important nego- 
tiations, and in 1593 made him his prin- 
cipal librarian. In 1596 he succeeded 
his uncle as chief-justice, and during the 
regency of Mary de' Medici he was one 
of the directors-general of finance. His 
greatest literarv labor was the composi- 
tion in Latin of a voluminous History of 
My Own Times, comprising the events 
from 1545 to 1607, of which the first 
part was made public in 1604. To this 
work, which is remarkable for its im- 
partiality, he subjoined interesting 
Memoirs of his own lift. 

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Three Sivers 

Thonght-reading. s«e Tctopa**^. 
Thourout Z*^'?)* * ^^ ®' ^^i?™' 

AuwMAWMv In the province of West 
Flanders, with various manufactures and 
a larse trade. Pop. 10,146. 

Thousand and One Nights. 

See Arahian Night$, 

Thousand Idandu, l^rZ^g, 

which really number about 1800, in the 
St. Lawrence immediately below Ijake 
Ontario. They partly belong to Canada 
and partly to the State of New York, and 
have become a popular summer resort 
Thrace (thrfts), or Thbaoia, a name 
applied at an early period 
amonc the Greeks to a region lying north 
of Macedcmia. By the Romans this 
country was regarded as divided into 
two parts by the Hemus (or Balkan), 
the northern of which was called Moesla 
and the southern Thrace. The Gredui 
early settled colonies on the coasts, and 
the country, besides possessing rich 
meadows and corn-lands, abounded in 
mines, while the Thracian horses and 
riders rivaled those of Thessaly. Of the 
rivers of Thrace, the latest and most 
celebrated was the Hebrus (now 
Maritsa). Abdera, the birthplace of 
Democritus and Protagoras; Sestos, on 
the Hellespont, celebrated in the story of 
Hero and Leander; and Byzantium, on 
the peninsula on which Constantinople 
now stands, were the places the most 
worthy of note. 

Thrashing-machine, ?o"*i^Ja«t! 

ing grain from the straw, and in which 
the moving i>ower is that of horses, 
oxen, wind, water, or steam. The 
thrashing-machine was invented in Scot- 
land in 1758 by Michael Stirling, a 
farmer in Perthshire; it was afterwards 
improved by Andrew Meikle, a millwrjyght 
in ESast Lothian, about the year 1776. 
Since that time it has undergone various 
improvements. The principal feature of 
the thrashing-machine as at present con- 
structed, is the three rotary drums or 
cylinders, which receive motion from a 
water-wheel, or from horse or steam 
power. The first drum which comes into 
operation has projection ribs called 
beaters on its outer surface, parallel to 
its axis. This drum receives a very rapid 
motion on its axis. The sheaves of grain 
are finit spread out on a slanting table, 
and are then drawn in with the ears fore- 
most between two feeding rollers with 
parallel grooves. The beaters of the 
drum act on the straw as it passes 
through tba rollers, and beat out the 

grahi. The thrashed straw is then car- 
ried forward to two successive drums or 
shaken, which, being armed with numer- 
ous spikes, lift up and shake the straw 
so as to free it entirely from the loose 
grain lodged in it The grain is made 
to pass through a grated floor, and is gen- 
erally conducted to a winnowing-machine 
connected by gearing with the thrashing- 
machine itself, by which means the gram 
is separated from the chaif. Improved 
machmes on the same principle, many 
of them portable^ are extensively used in 
the United Sutes and Britain, those of 
the former country being particularly 
light and effective. In American thrash- 
ers two modes are employed for sepa- 
rating the straw from the grain; the 
* endless aprons' answer an excellent 
purpose when not driven too rapidly, and 
make clean work. The * vibrator^ con- 
sists of a series of inclined fingers, the 
rapid shaking motion of which tosses up 
the straw and shakes out the grain; to 
the machine is attached a measuring hop- 
per, showing the quantity of grain pass- 
ing through it Another machine foi 
thrashing rve carries the straw throuch 
unbroken, for binding in bundles. The 
portable steam thrashing-machine, moved 
from farm to farm, may perform the 
thrashing-work of a wide district for the 
whole season. 

Thrasiinene (pr^i^nfflNU8),LAM:. 

^ ^ See Perugia, Lago dt. 
Thread (^i^)» & slender cord con- 
sisting of two or more yarns, 
or simple spun strands, firmly united to- 
gether by twisting. The twisting to- 
gecuer of the different strands or yams 
to form a thread is effected by a thread- 
frame or doubling and twisting machine, 
which accomplishes the purpose by the 
action of bobbins and flyers. Thread 
is used in some species of weaving, but 
its principal use is for sewing. 

Thread-worms, fftf name for thread- 
AAM^wM. vTVJ.A«Aa) j^i^^ intestinal worms 

of the order Nematoda. The Owyuris 
vermioularia occurs in great numbers in 
the rectum of children particularly. See 

Three Rivers, ^.f M,^^. J^t^ 

St. Joseph River, 25 miles s. of Kala- 
mazoo. Manufactures cars, railroad sup- 
plies, electric motors, furaiture, tools, 
pulleys, paper, etc. Pop. 5072. 

Three Rivers, - ,„t^'|„a"- « 

entry of Quebec, Canada, 95 miles N. e. 
of Afontreal, at the confluence of the 
rivers St. Maurice and St. Lawrence. It 
has an extensive trade in timber, and im- 
portant manlifactures oTironware, ajnd ifl 

Digitized by 




one of the oldest towiu in the province, 
being founded in 1634. It ie the re&i- 
dence of a Roman Catholic bishop, and 
contains a cathedraL Pop. 9981. 

Thresher-shark, ^^^^^ ^ 

nus of sharks containing but one known 
species {AlopiaB vulpei). with a short 
conical snout, and less formidable jaws 
than the white shark. The upper lobe 
of the tail fin is very elongated, being 
nearly equal in length to the rest of the 
bodv, and is used as a weapon to strike 
with. Tail included, the thresher attains 
a length of 13 feet It inhabits the 
Atlantic and the Mediterranean. See 
Thrift. ^^ Sea-pink. 

ThriDS ^ senus of minute insects, or- 
yoj ^gj. Hemiptera, suborder Ho- 
moptera, closely allied to the Aphides. 
They are extremely agile, and seem to 
leap rather than fly. Thev live on 
flowers, plants, and under the ba^ of 
trees. T. cerealium is a common species, 
scarcely a line in length or in extent of 
wing, residing in the spathes and husks 
of cereals, especially wheat, to whidi 
it is most injurious. 

Throat (tlir^t), the anterior part of 
the neck of an animal, in 
which are the oesophagus and windpipe, 
or the passages for the food and breatlL 
See Larynx, (E$ophagu9^ Trachea, Diph* 
theria. Croup, etc. 

Thrombosis ffir^'tVJ'S. ^^h^ 

heart or a blood-vessel which may block 
the vessel, causing serious results. 

Throstle, see rAm.*. 

Thmsh ^^^ name applied popularly 
> to several msessonal birds. 
The true thrushes (Turdidw or Meru- 
lidig) form a family of dentlrostral 
passerine birds, including the song- 
thrush or throstle, the missel-thrush, the 
blackbird, etc. They feed upon berries, 
small molluscs, worms, etc Their habits 
are mostly solitary, but several species 
are gregarious in winter. They are 
celebrated on account of their powers of 
song; and are widely diffused, being 
found in all the quarters of the globe. 
Nine species of the thrush family are 
found in the United States. These in- 
clude the wood thrush, found east of 
the Mississippi and south to Guatemala, 
the liquid, half plaintive notes of which 
excel in sweetness those of any other 
American bird. The notes are few in 
number, but possess a charm beyond de- 
scription. The common robin also is a 
member of the thrush family. There 

are several Ehiropean species, among 
which are included the missel thrush and 
the song thrush of Britain. These are 
also sweet singers. 
TVimali ^ disease common in infants 

thm,) The name is also appUed to an 
abscess in the feet of horses and some 
other animals. 

Thua'nus. seer»o». 
Thucydides iWJi^gl'o^^fS^l: 

torians, was bom in Attica about 471 
B.O. He was well bom and rich, being 
the possessor of gold mines in Thrace, 
and was for a time a prominent com- 
mander during the Peloponnesian war, 
which forms the subject of his great 
work. For many years he suffered exile 
(being accused of remissness in duty) ; 
but appears to have returned to Athens 
the year following the termination of the 
war, namely in B.C. 403. He is said to 
have met a violent death, probablv a year 
or two later, but at what exact time, and 
whether in Thrace or Athens, is not 
known. His historv consists of eight 
books, the last of which differs from the 
others in containing none of the political 
speeches which form so striking a fea- 
ture of the rest, and is also g;enerally 
supposed to be inferior to them in style. 
Hence it has been thought bv various 
critics to be the work of a different au- 
thor, of Xenophon, of Theopompus, or 
of a daughter of Thucydides; but it is 
more probable that it is the author's own 
without his final revision. The history 
is incomplete, the eighth book stopping 
abruptly in the middle of the twenty- 
first year of the war. As a historian 
Thucydides was painstaking and in- 
defatigable in collecting and sifting facts, 
brief and terse in narrating them. His 
style is full of dignity and replete with 
condensed meaning. He is unsurpassed 
in the power of analyzing character and 
action, of tracing events to their causes, 
of appreciating the motives of individual 
agents, and of combining in their just 
relations all the threads of the tanfled 
web of history. The best translations 
are by Jowett and Dale. 
Thills ^^® name applied to a secret 
xuugsy ^^^ ^jj^ widely-spread society 
among the Hindus, whose occupation 
was to waylay, assassinate, and rob all 
who did not belong to their own caste. 
This they did, not so much from cupidity 
as from religious motive, such actions 
being deemed acceptable to their goddess 
Kait. The government first took active 
measures against them in 1831 and 1835, 
and Thuggery is now practically extinct. 

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MiPfoditctd fcy ptrmiisiGm of iht PhUadrtphiti Afuieums. 


JUpFodmctdby permission of the Philadaphia Museums, 


The upper view ihowv aide hill hArvwten drawn by teams of twenty-eight hones each. The machines 
GBt the gram, and tie it ttp in bandies, which are droi>ped outside. The machine in the lower view is sdf- 
propdiing, cttte and threshet tht grain, throwing out the straw, and plaoes the grain in ladcB ready foc^ 

loading on the wagon. v. 

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See Arhar Vitw, 

Thnle (thole), the name given by the 
xuiuv ancients to the most northern 
country with which they were acquainted. 
According to Pytheas it was an island 
six days' voyage to the north of Britan- 
nia, and accordingly it has often been 
identified wfth Iceland. Some have im- 
agined it to be one of the Scotch islands, 
others the coast of Norway. 

Thumb-screw, !i*^?!S!.'L'''fn!"^°^ 

' of torture for com- 
pressing the 
thumbs. It was 
employed In 
various coun- 
tries, Scotland 
in particular. 
Called also 

Switzerland, in Sooteh Thumb-Screw, time 
the canton of ofCh«rleiI. 

Bern, beauti- 
fully situated at the northwestern ex- 
tremity of the lake of its own name, at. 
the point where the Aar issues from it 
It is the seat of the Swiss military school, 
and the chief place of arms in the coun- 
try. Pop. 6069.— The lake is 10 miles 
long, 2 broad, and about 720 feet deep. 
At its southeastern extremity it receives 
the surplus waters of the Lake of Brienz 
by the Aar, which again emerges from 
its northwestern extremity. 
Thunder. ^^ Lightning. 

Thunder-fish, ^ ^p^^^i ®^a.?*^^^^ 

A^M^^««A *M,a^j ^g family Siluride, 
found in the Nile, which, like the torpedo, 
can give an electric shock. It is the 
MalapterHruB dectricua of naturalists. 

Thundering Legion. ^ ^r^, 


ThurfiraU (tur'srou), a canton in the 
xiiui^UU northeast of Switzerland, 
bounded mainly by the Lake of Constance 
and the cantons of ZUrich and St. Gall; 
area, 381 square miles; capital Frauen- 
feld. It differs much in physical con- 
formation from most other Swiss cantons, 
in having no high mountains^ though 
the surface is sufficiently diversified. 
The whole canton belongs to the basin of 
the Rhine, to which its waters are con- 
veyed chiefly by the Thur and its afflu- 
ents, and i^artly also by the Lake of 
Constance, including the Untersee. The 
principal crops are grain and potatoes; 
large quantities of fruit are also grown. 
In many places the vine is successfully 
caltivateiL The manufactures consist 


chiefly of cottons, hosiery, ribbons, lace, 
etc Pop. 113,221. 

Thurible ^ifj^;; 

kind of censer of 
metal, sometimes of 
gold or silver, but 
more commonly of 
brass or latten, in 
the shape of a cov- 
ered vase or cup, 
perforated so as to 
allow the fumes of 
burning incense to |, 
escape. It has 
chains attached, by 
which it is held 
and swung at high 
mass, vespers, and 
other solemn offices 
of the Roman Cath- 
olic Church. 

Thiiringerwald Z^^-^o^^'^^V. 

BINQIA, a mountain chain in the center 
of German V, stretching southeast to north- 
west for about 60 miles. Its culminating 
points are the Beerberg and the Schnee- 
kopf, which have each a height of about 
3220 feet The mountains are well cov- 
ered with wood, chiefly pine. The miner- 
als include iron, copper, lead, cobetlt, etc 
Thnrinaia ( thtt-rin'ji-a; German, 
Xnunu^a >jpj^^ringen, ttt'ring-^n). a 
region of Central Germany situated be- 
tween the Harz Mouutains, the Saale, 
the Tbtiringerwald, and the Werra, and 
comprising great part of Saxe-Weimar, 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and other small ad- 
joining states. 

Tlmrl#kft (thur'les), a town in Ireland, 
xiiUliCB jij ^^^ county of Tipperary, 
on both banks of the Suir, with con- 
siderable trade, a Roman Catholic cathe- 
dral and college, etc. Pop. 4411. 
TTinrlAur (thur'Io), Eowabd, Lord, 
xiiuiiuw lord-chancellor of England, 
was born at Little Ashfield, near Stow- 
market, Suffolk, in 1732, and in 1778 
was made lord-chancellor, being raised to 
the peerage as Baron Thurlow. Pitt 
suspected Thurlow of intriguing: with the 
PrlDce of Wales, and from this time an 
open disagreement took place between 
them. Pitt demanded his dismissal, to 
which the king at once agreed, and he 
was deprived of the great seal in June, 
1792. He died in 1806. 
Thurman (thur'man), Allen Gran- 
a.Ai.uMLaucMi. ggjjY^ Statesman, born at 

Lynchburg, Virginia, in 1813. He en- 
tered Congress in 1845, and was elected 
to the supreme bench of Ohio in 1851, 
occupying the position of chief -justice. 
Ohio sent him to the United States Sen- 

Digitized by 




ate in 1869, where he became the recog- 
nized leader of the Democratic party. 
He was the author of the act to compel 
the Pacific railroad corporations to fuU- 
fil their obligations, known as * the Thur- 
man act.' In 1888 he received the nomi- 
nation of the Democratic party for the 
vice-presidency, but was defeated. He 
was called ' the old Roman ' because of 
his special devotion to the Republic He 
died December 12, 1895. 
TTinrftflflV (thurz'dA; that is, 'Thor's 

week, so called from the old Teutonic 
god of thunder, Thor. See Thor. 

.Thursday Island, *, Xl^l 

in Normanby Sound, Torres Straits. It 
is a government station, and the harbor 
— Port Kennedy — is one of the finest in 
this quarter. It is in the direct tract of 
all vessels reaching Australia by Torres 
Straits; is the center of a large and 
important pearl and btehenle-mer fishery; 
and is a depOt of trade with New Guinea. 
TlmraA (thur'sO), a seaport of Scot- 

ness, on the shore of the bay of the 
same name. The chief trade is the ex- 
portation of grain, cattle, agricultural 
produce and excellent paving-stones. 
Pop. 3723. 

TliiirafnTi (thurs'tun), Robebt Hen- 
XnurSXOn ^^^ physicist, was bom at 
Providence, Rhode Island, in 1839; died 
in 1903. He graduated at Brown Uni- 
versity in 1859; served in the navy dur- 
ing the Civil war; became assistant pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy at the Naval 
Academy in 1865, professor of mechani- 
cal engineering at the Stevens Institute 
in 1871, and director of Sibley College, 
Cornell University, in 1884. His experi- 
ments and inventions were of great value 
to his profession. He wrote UUtorp of 
the Oroioth of the Steam EnginefFriction 
and Lubrication^ Materials of Engineer' 
ing, etc. 

TTifTAflfAa (thi-es'tez), in Greek my- 
xuyesi^es t^ology, son of Pelops and 
Hippodamia, and grandson of Tantalus. 
Having seduced the wife of his brother 
Atreus, the latter, in revenge, served up 
to him the body of his own son at a 
feast See Atreiu. 

TlivlaPlTiA ( thil'a-sSn ; ThylacinuM 
xnyiaciue cynocephdlus) , a carniv- 
orous marsupial animal inhabiting 
Tasmania, and commonly known as the 
Tasmanian wolf. In size it is generally 
about 4 feet in total length, though some 
specimens attain a much greater size. 
It is nocturnal in its habits; of a fierce 
and most determined disposition, and is 
very deBtructlve to sheep and other ani- 

mals. It has an elongated and somewhat 
dog-like muzzle, and a long tapering tail ; 
the fur is grayish-brown with a series of 
bold transverse stripes, nearly black in 
color, beginning behind the shoulders and 
ending at the tail. 

Thylacoleo ^^yT«^^''^^'. * f^ 

* '^ ^ markable extinct carniv- 
orous marsupial, whose bulk and propor- 
tions appear to have equaled the lion. 
Its fossil remains are found in Australia. 
Thvme (tl°>! Thymus vulg(tri$)f a 

* "^ *^ small plant of the nat order 
Labiatie, a native of the south of Europe, 
and frequently cultivated in gardens. It 
is from 6 to 10 inches high, with narrow, 
almost linear leaves, and whitish or red- 
dish fiowers; has a strong aromatic odor, 
and yields an essential oil, which is used 
for flavoring purposes. The fragrant wild 
thyme found in several of the United 
States is the Thgmua SerpyUuM of botan- 
ists. Both species afford good bee-pasture. 

Thymelaceas i,i^p\;SrSSSfJ'«. t* 

der of exogenous plants, consisthig of 
shrubs or small trees, rarely herbs, 
with non-articulated, sometimes spiny 
branches, with tenacious bark. The 
leaves are alternate and opposite, and 
the flowers spiked and terminaL The 
fruit is nut-like or drupaceous. The 
species are not common in Europe; they 
are found chiefly in the cooler parts of 
India and South America, at the Cape 
of Good Hope and in Australia. See 
Daphne and Laoe-barh Trees. 

Thymus Gland /thrmus). a duct- 

«.M^«M.»M« ^*MiM^ jggg temporary or- 
gan situated in the middle line of the 
body. After the end of the second year 
of life it decreases in size, and almost or 
wholly disappears at puberty. It is 
covered in front by the breast-bone, and 
lies on the front and sides of the wind- 
pipe. Its functions are still undeter- 

Thyroid Cartilage, see Lorynw. 
Thyroid Gland ,<r"Jf4tS«'"?n 

man which covers the anterior and in- 
ferior part of the larynx and the first 
rings of the windpipe. It is of a reddish 
color, and is more developed in women 
than in men. It may become abnor- 
mally enlarged, as in goitre. Its use 
is not at all clear, but it probably exerts 
some influence on the blood and circula- 
tion, especially in childhood. 
ThvrSUS (thir'sus), among the Greeks, 
J^ a wand or spear wreathed 

with ivy leaves, and with a pine-cone at 
the top, carried by the followers of 
Bacchus as a symbol of devotion. In an- 

Digitized by 




cient representations it appears in various 

about 140 tons burden reach Rome. It 
is subject to floods, and carries down 
quantities of yellowish mud, hence its 
the yeUow Tiber.' See 




See OalUee^ Sea of. 

Ysrioas formi of Thynas, from snelont VaMS. 

terous insects that undergo no meta- 
morphosis, and have, in addition to their 
feet, particular organs of motion, gener- 
ally at the extremity of the abcbmen. 
The group is often divided into two 
families, Podurid» or spring-tails, and 
Lepismidn or sugar^lice, etc. BLecently 
it nas been divided into two orders by 
Sir John Lubbock: 1. CoIlembOla, com- 
prising those members known as spring- 
tails, and nearlv co-equal with the 
Poduridae; 2. Thysanura (restricted), 
comprising those whose anal bristles do 
not form a spring, as the Lepismidas. 
See Podurida, Leptemidw. 
Tiam. (tl-ft'ra), originally the cap of 
xxaxa f^^ Persian kings. The tiara of 
the pope is a high cap, encircled by three 
coronets with an orb and cross of gold 
at the top, and on two sides of it a 
chain of precious stones. The miter 
alone was first adopted by Damasus II 
in 1048. It afterwards had a plain 
circlet of gold put round it. It was 
surmounted by a coronet by Boniface 
VIII. The second coronet was added by 
Benedict XII, the third coronet by 
Urban V. 

TibbllS (t^b'uB), a people of the East- 
em Sahara, probably allied in 
race to the Berl>ers. 

TiliAr (tl'ber; Italian, Tevire: an- 
j.iucr ciently, TiUrU), a celebrated 
river of Italy, which rises in the Apen- 
nines, in Tuscany, and, after a general 
southerly course of about 240 miles, falls 
into the Mediterranean by two mouths 
(one of them artificial). It traverses 
the city of Rome, here forming the isl- 
and anciently called Insula Tiberina. 
About ninety miles of its course are 
navigable for small vessels; those of 

Tiberius (ti-b€'ri-us), in full, Tiot. 
** *^* Bius Claudius Nero Gjesab, 
a Roman emperor, born B.C. 42, was the 
son of Tiberius Claudius, of the ancient 
Claudian family, and of Livia Drusilla, 
afterwards the wife of the emperor 
Augustus. Tiberius became consul in his 
twenty-eighth year, and was subsequently 
adopted by Augustus as his heir. In 
AJ). 14 he succeeded to the tlirone with- 
out opposition. Dangerous mutinies 
broke out shortly afterwards in the ar- 
mies posted in Pannonia and on the 
Rhine, but they were suppressed by the 
exertions of the two princes, Gkrmanicus 
and Drusus. The conduct of Tiberius as 
a ruler was distinguished by an extraor- 
dinary mixture of tyranny with oc- 
casional wisdom and goed sense. Tacitus 
records the events of the reign, including 
the suspicious death of Germanicus, the 
detestable administration of Sejanus, the 
poisoning bv that minister oi Drusus, 
the emperor^s son, and the infamous and 
dissolute retirement of Tiberius (a.i>. 
27) to the Isle of Caprese, in the Bay 
of Naples, never to return to Rome. 
The death of Livia in a.d. 29 removed 
the only restraint upon his actions, and 
the destruction of the widow and family 
of Oermanicus followed. Sejanus, aspir- 
ing to the throne, fell a victim to his 
ambition in the year 31 ; and many in- 
nocent persons were destroyed owing to 
the suspicion and cruelty of Tiberius, 
which now exceeded all limits. He died 
in March, 37. 

Tibesti (t6-bes-t§'), a region of the 
Eastern Sahara, supporting a 
scanty population of the Tibbu race. 
Tibet ^^ Thibet (ti'bet, ti-bet'), a 
' country occupying the south 
portion of the great plateau of Central 
Asia, lying between Ion. 73** and 101 • K., 
and lat. 27*" and 36'' x., and extending 
east and west from Cashmere and the 
Karakorum range to the frontiers of 
China; area about 700,000 sq. miles. 
Its plains average about 10,000 feet in 
height, and many of its mountains have 
twice that altitude. In Tibet nearly all 
the great rivers of South and East Asia 
take their rise (Indus, Brahmaputra. 
Hoang-ho, Yang-tse-kiang, etc.), and 
there are numerous salt and freshwater 
lakes, situated from 13,800 to 15,000 
feet above the sea-leveL The climate is 
characterized by the excessive dryness of 

Digitized by 




the atmosphere, and the severity of the 
winter. From October to March v^eta- 
tion is almost wholly dried up, and the 
cold is intense. Notwithstanding the in- 
clemency of the weather there is a great 
abundance of wild and domestic animals* 
Of these the most remarkable is the yak» 
which exists both wild and domesticated. 
It supplies food and clothing, and is also 
used as a beast of burden. Other ani- 
mals include the musk-deer, the Cashmere 
goat, wild sheep, wild horses and fat- 
tailed sheep. Agriculture is practiced to 
a comparatively small extent, suitable 
localities beinc rare. Minerals include 
gold, copper, iron, borax and rock-salt 
Tibet does a large trade with China, ex- 
changing gold-dust, incense, idols and 
European and Indian goods, for tea, silks 
and other Chinese produce. The capital 
is Lhasa. The form of government is a 
hierarchv. The religion Is Buddhism in 
a form known as Lamaism (which see), 
of which Tibet is the principal seat The 
lama8 or priests form a large proportion 
of the population, and live m monas- 
teries; the two ^and lamas being re- 
garded as the religious and political beads 
of the state. Remains of an earlier creed 
exist in the Boupo, a religion evolved 
from Shamanism, but much influenced 
by Buddhism, and frequently confounded 
with the Ola school of the Buddhists. 
The inhabitants are of an amiable dis- 
position, but much averse to intercourse 
with foreigners, few of whom have been 
able to gain admittance to the country. 
Recently, however, the country has been 
traversed bv persistent explorers and its 
general characteristics learned. The 
manners and mode of life of the people 
are rude. Polyandry is a common cus- 
tom. The language is allied to Chinese, 
and has been written and used in litera- 
ture for 1200 years. Tibet was gov- 
erned by its own princes till the com- 
mencement of the 18th century, but since 
1720 it has been a dependency of 
China. A Chinese functionarv is always 
stationed at the residence of the grand 
lama, and a Chinese governor with a 
military force is stationed in each of the 
principal towns. A recent event was the 
sending of a Chinese force to the coun- 
try to seize the Dalai Lama, who was 
suspected of ambitious views, and who 
fled to India, putting himself under 
British protection. The population is 
estimated at from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000, 
though by some it is supposed to be con- 
siderably larger. 

Tibia (tib^i-a), a kind of pipe, the 
xxuxa commonest musical instrument 
of the Greeks and Romans. It had 
boles at proper intervals, and was fur- 

nished with a mouthpiece. For the tibia 
in anatomy see Leo, 

libullUS (ti-bul'us), ALBIU8, a Ro- 
* ^^ man elegiac poet, who be- 
longed to the eouestrian order, and died 
in the flower of his age, about b. c. 18. 
His poems are among the most perfect 
of their kind, but their moral tone is 
that of a reckless voluptuary. We pos- 
sess four books of elegies under his name» 
but the third and part of the fourth are 

Tic Douloureux ^f a^s^VioS Ti 

facial nerve, a species of neuralgia. It is 
characterized by acute pain, attended 
with convulsive twitchings of the muscles, 
and continuing from a few minutes to 
several hours. It occurs on one side of 
the face, and may be caused by a dis- 
eased tooth, by inflammation in the ear 
passage, b/exposure to cold, by dyspep- 
sia, etc The removal of the cause is 
the natural remedy; and warm applica- 
tions, the employment of electric currents 
over the nerve, and morphia administered 
subcutaneously, are sometimes efficient 
TlPlTlA (ti-chS'nO; German and French, 
J.XVX11V f Off gin) ^ a river of Switzerland 
and North Italy, which rises in Mount 
St. Gothard, and after a course of about 
120 miles joins the Po on the left It 
traverses Lake Maggiore and separates 
Piedmont from Lombardy. 
TiPiTin (German and French, TeMB%n)f 
Xioiuu ^ canton in the south of Swit- 
zerland; area, 1088 square miles. The 
northern and greater part of this canton 
is an elevated and mountainous region, 
the SplUgen, St Bemardin, and Mount 
St Gothard forming its northern bound- 
ary. The chief river is the Ticino, and 
there are numerous small lakes. Lake 
Maggiore is partly within the canton. 
In the north the principal occupations 
are cattle-rearing and the preparation of 
dairy produce. In the south the olive, 
vine, ngs, citrons, and pomegranates are 
grown. Manufactures and trade are un- 
important The chief towns are Bel- 
linzona, Locarno, and Lugano. Pop. 
138,638, most of whom are Catholics and 
speak Italian. 

Tinlr^ll (tik'el), Thomas, an English 
XXCiLCix ^^ ^j letters, born in Cum- 
berland in 1686. His success in litera- 
ture and in life was mainly due to 
Addison, who procured for him in 171? 
an under-secretarvship of state. In 1725 
he was appointed secretary to the lords- 
justices of Ireland, a post he held till 
his death in 1740. His chief works are 
Prospect of Peace, a ballad entitled 
Colin and Lucy, and a fine elegy on the 
death of Addison. 

Digitized by 




TinlrAf-Af-lAQirA & certificate given York, situated upon the stream connect- 
j.iClS.Cl. Ul iCiiVCy j^ ^ convict by ing lakes George and Champlain. It 
which he is permitted to go at liberty, figured prominently during the colonial 
under certain restrictions, before the ex- and revolutionary period, bavins a fort- 
piradon of his sentence. This system ress built by the French in 17^, which 
exists in Britain and a similar system, was attacked by the British in 1758 and 
known as parole, has recently been captured by Ethan Allen in 1775. The 
adopted in parts of the United States, ruins of the old fort remain an object 
It amounts to a conditioned pardon, de- of interest. Pop. 2475. 
pendent upon the conduct of the pris- TiJ^ol Motor ^ motive power receiv- 
oner. * jm.vvva, ^^^ .^^ energy through 
Ticking (tik'ing), a strong cloth, com- the lift and fall of the tides acting upon 
AJ.VXWLU5 njQniy made of twilled linen a suitable apparatus, 
or cotton and of a striped pattern* It Tide (^^^^» ^^® rising and falling of the 
is chiefiy used for covering mattresses for **^^ water of the sea, which occurs 
beds. periodically, as observed at places on the 
Ticknor (tik-nur), Geobge, historian, coasts. The tide appears as a general 
•*• ^ bom at Boston in 1791 ; died wave of water, which gradually elevates 
there in 1871. He was graduated from itself to a certain height, then as gralu- 
Dartmouth College in ISO?, and was ad- ally sinks till its surface is about as 
mltted to the bar in 1813. In 1815 he much below the medium level as it wae 
embarked for Europe, and visited the before above it. From that time the 
chief capitals for the purpose of pursu- wave again begins to rise; and this 
ing his studies. On his return in 1820 reciprocating motion of the waters con- 
he was appointed professor of modem tinues constantly, with certain varia- 
languages and literature in Harvard tions in the height and in the times of 
University. In 1835 he resigned his attaining the greatest degree of height 
professorship, and for the next three and of depression. The alternate rising 
years traveled in Europe with his family, and falling of the tide-wave are observed 
In 1849 he published a History of Span- to take place generally twice in the 
ish Literature, corrected and enlarged course of a lunar day, or of 24 hours 
editions being subsequently published. 49 minutes of mean solar time, on most 
It was at once recognized by scholars as of the shores of the ocean, and in the 
a work of value, and has been translated greater part of the bays, firths, and rivers 


into Spanish 
and German. 
After com- 
pleting some 
works of min- 
or interest he 
produced, in 
1863, a Me- 
moir of Pres 
cott, the his 

torian, with 

n, witn /^ 
he had [mJ T\ 

long main- ^-^ 

tained a close 


Ticks * family of the Aca- 

A,x%j£kOf j.jjj^ ^j^ miteH, class 

Arachnida. Ticks are para- 
sitic animals, po»^i?f^.^ing oval 
or rounded btMliei^p and 
'months, in the form of suck- 
ers, by which tln?y attach 
themselves to dogfi. sheep, 
oxen, and other mnnjmals^ 
Birds and reptUes are also 
annoyed by the attacks of 
certain species and man is 
subject to their attncka. 

Ticonderoga <,'^,V.°- .15: 

itge in Essex C^., New 





which commu- 
n i c a t e freely 
with it The 

©tides form what 
are called a 
flood and an 
ebb, a high and 
low water. The 
whole interval 
between high 
and low water 
is often called a 
tide; the water 
is said to flow 
and to ebb; 
and the rising 
is called the 
flood^tide and 
the falling the 
ebb-tide. The 
rise or fall of 
the waters, in 
regard to eleva- 
tion or depres- 
sion, is exceedingly different at 
different places, ana is also vari- 
able everywhere. The interval 
between two succeeding high- 
waters is also variable. It is 
shortest about new and full moon, 
being then about 12 hours 19 



Digitized by 




minutes; and about the time of the 
moon's quadratures it is 12 hours 80 
minutes. But these intervals are some- 
what different at different places. Tides 
are caused by the attraction which the 
sun and moon exert over the water of 
the earth. The moon is the nearest of 
the heavenly bodies to the earth, and the 
mobile nature of water leads it to yield 
readily to the attractive influence. Those 
parts of the waters directly under the 
moon's vertical path in the heavens are 
drawn out towards the moon. At the 
same time the moon attracts the bulk 
of the earth, and, as it were, pulls the 
earth away from the water on the sur- 
face furthest from it, so that here also 
the water is raised, although not quite 
80 much as on the nearer side. The 
waters being thus heaped up at the same 
time on these two opposite parts of the 
earth, and the waters situated half-way 
between them being thus necessarily de- 
pressed, two hiph and two Uho tides oc- 
cur in the period of a little more than 
one revolution of the earth on« its axis. 
The sun's influence upon the tides is 
evidenced in its either increasing or 
diminishing the lunar tide, according as 
the sun's place in the heavens coincides 
with the line of the moon's attraction, 
or the reverse. It is this difference 
which produces what are known as spring 
tides and neap tides. Spring tides occur 
at new and full moon, and are the result 
of the gravitating influence of both sun 
and moon; neap tides occur when the 
moon is in her quarters, and are not so 
high as the spring tides, the lunar in- 
fluence being lessened by the sun's force 
acting in a direction at right angles to 
it. The accompanpring figures illustrate 
the theory of the tides, s Being the earth, 
M the moon, s the sun, Wi w* the water 
raised up by attraction on the opposite 
sides of the earth. Fig. 1 shows spring 
tide at new moon, fig. 2 spring tide at 
full moon, the low tides being at o and d. 
Fig. 3 illustrates the neap tides, Oi a, 
being small tides caused by the sun alone. 
The interference of coasts and irregulari- 
ties in the ocean beds cause the great 
variations as to time and range in the 
actual tides observed at different places. 
In some places, as in the Qerman Ocean 
at a point north of the Straits of Dover, 
a hign tide meets low water, and thus 
maintains perpetual mean tide. In the 
case cited high water transmitted through 
the Straits of Dover encounters low water 
transmitted round the north of Scotland, 
and vice versa. The interval of time at 
any place between noon and the time of 
high water on the day of full or new 
moon is called the establishment of the 


part The height of the tide differs 

greatly in different localities. In the 
adfic Ocean it is generally small, fre- 
quently not exceeding two feet It is 
much higher in the contracted waters of 
the British coast than in the open waters 
of American ports. In bays, where the 
inflowing waters are lifted through con- 
traction, the tides are necessarily high, 
and this is especietlly the case in the long 
and narrow Bay of Fundy, where the 
tides are exceptionally high, rising from 
50 to 70 feet, while the rush of water 
into and out of the bay is very rapid. 
Ti^nrA (tI'dOr), one of the Moluccas 
xiaure {^hjch gee). 
TiAnlr (tek), Lxtdwio, a German writer, 
**^^*^ bom at Berlin in 1773. He was 
educated at the University of Halle, and 
at QOttingen and Erlangen, and having 
returned to Berlin came forward as a 
writer of tales and romances, including 
his tale of Ahdallah, and a novel entitled 
WUliam Lovell. His Peter Lehrecht, a 
History ioithout Adventures, and Peter 
Lebrechfs Volksm&rchen displayed great 
imaginative power and rich humor. At 
Jena in 1799-1800 he entered on friendly 
relations with the Schlegels, Novalis, 
Brentano, and others, and through this 
association arose what has been denom- 
inated as * the Romantic School of 
Oermanv.' In 1799 he published Ro- 
mantische Dichtungen, Bui in 1804 ap- 
peared his comedy Kaiser Octavianus. 
His Phantasus, however, gave the first 
sign of his having freed himself from the 
mysticism and extravagance of his earlier 
works. In 1817 he visited England, 
where he collected material for his 
Shakespeare: and on his return resided at 
Ziebingen till 1819{ when he removed to 
Dresden. From this period his writings, 
as exemplified in his Tales, bear the true 
stamp of genius. These tales were ulti- 
mately published complete in twelve 
volumes (Berlin, 1853), the principal 
being DichterUhen (* A Poet's Life — 
Shakespeare ') ; Der Tod des Poeten 
(*The Poet's Death — Camoens*); the 
Witches* Sabbath; and Aufruhr in den 
Cevennen (* Revolt in the Cevennes'), 
an incomplete work. In 1826 he pub- 
lished his Dramaturgische Blatter. His 
study of Shakespeare resulted in Shakes- 
peare's Vorschule, and the continuation 
of the German translation of Shakespeare 
commenced by Schle^el. His last story 
of iniportance was Vtttoria Accorombona 
(1840). On the accession of Friedrich 
William IV Tieck was invited to the 
Prussian court in 1841, invested with a 
considerable pension and the rank of a 
privy-councilor, and thenceforward acted 
as a sort of supervisor of the Prussian 

Digitized by 




Btafe. He died at Berlin on April 28, 
I80&, — His brother, Chbibtian Fbied- 
BiCH (bom in 1776; died in 1851), was 
celebrated as a sculptor. 
Tiel (^^^)' ^ ^^^^ ^^ Holland, in the 
***'* province of Gelderland, 19 miles 
w. 8. w. of Amhem. on the right bank of 
the WaaL It carries en a considerable 
general trade. Pop. 10.788. 
TiATifaiTi (te-en-ts£n), a town in the 

river-port of Pekin, 70 miles away, and 
with which it communicates by the Pel-ho 
Biver and by a railway line. The Pei-ho 
is navigable only by native craft, and 
large vessels have their caixoes trans- 
shipped outside the mouth of the Taku 
roadstead. A large import trade is car- 
ried on, chiefly in European goods 
i Tientsin being one of the treaty ports), 
'he principal Imports are cottons, sugar, 
opium, paper, and tea; exports, dates, 
cotton, camers wool, and coal. The 
Taku forts were taken by the British and 
French in 1860, and the capture of 
Pekin followed. Since then the defenses 
of the Pei-ho have been immensely 
strengthened. The city is surrounded 
by a lofty wall with towers and presents 
a mean appearance by its great expanse 
of low nouses. The foreign quarter, 
however* which is outside the main city, 
is well Imilt. Pop. estimated at about 

Tierra del Pnego <5T''>i^/^^i 

Fire'), a large group of Islands at the 
southern extremity of South America, 
separated from the mainland by the Strait 
of Magellan. It consists of one large 
island and numerous smaller islands, with 
a total area of about 32,000 square miles. 
The eastern part of the group belongs to 
the Anentine Republic, the western part 
to Chile. These islands consist chiefly of 
mountains covered with perpetual ice and 
snow, or clothed with stunted forests, 
mainlv evergreen-beech. The climate is 
wretched. The natives in the northeast 
resemble the Patagonians in color, 
stature, and habits; but those in the 
southeast are short and stunted, unclean 
in their habits, and pass a most de- 
graded existence. Tierra del Fuego was 
discovered by Magalhaens (Magellan) in 
1520, and named 'Land of Fire' from 
the numerous flres he saw on its coast 
during the night. 
Ti^nuMstf (ti-ir-2ft-t&; 'third es- 

the ancient French monarchy to the 
third order of the nation, which, together 
with the nobility and clergy, formed the 
i$4fts g4n4rauw (states-general). It con- 
sisted of the deputies of the oourgeotBie, 

that is, the free inhabitants of the towns 
and communes who did not belong to 
either of the other two estates. In 1789 
the states-general, or rather the tiers' 
6iat by itself, assumed the name of the 
National Assembly. 

Tiff an V (tif'a-ni). Louis Oohfobt, 
Axuaujr American artist and art man- 
ufacturer, born in New York CJity in 
1848. In 1880 he began to devote him- 
self almost entirely to the production of 
decorative glass. The Favrile ^ass, 
which he discovered, is favorably known 
in both Europe and America. 
Tiffifi (tif 'in), a city, capital of Seneca 
j.UiUi p^, qj,{q^ jg situated on the San- 
dusky River, 40 miles s. E. of Toledo. 
It is the seat of Heidelburg University 
and the college of Ursullne Sisters. 
Natural gas and oil are produced and it 
is the shipping point for large quantities 
of wheat and com. The manufactures 
include stock food, chemicals, grain, coal, 
woolen goods, farming implements, emery- 
wheels, pottery, glass, well-dnlling ma- 
chinery, etc. Pop. 13,217. _ 
Tiflia (tif-lis), capital of Russian Cau- 
xxuxo casia. Manufactures include cot- 
ton and silk, leather, soap, etc. The ar- 
tisans of Tiflis are celebrated as silver^ 
smiths, gunsmiths, and sword makers. 
Pop. 303,150. — ^The government has an 
area of 17,000 sq. miles : produces cereals, 
fruits, etc Pop. 1,000,000. 

Ti^er (^i?®''5 ^^^** tigr%9 or Tigris re- 
^"^ g(U\8)^ a well-known carnivo- 
rous animal, possessing, in common with 
the lion, leopard, etc., five toes on the 
front feet and four on the hinder feet, 
all the toes being furnished with strong 
retractile claws. The tiger is about the 
heieht of the lion, but the body is longer 
and the head rounder. It is of a bright 
fawn-color above, a pure white below, 
irregularly crossed with black stripes. 
The tiger is an Asiatic animal, attaining 
its fuU development in India, the name 
of 'Bengal tiger' being generally used 
as synonymous with those specimens 
which appear as the typical ^d most 
powerful representatives of the species. 
The tiger also occurs in Java and Su- 
matra. In habits it is far more active 
and agile than the lion, and exhibits a 
large amount of fierce cunning. It gen- 
erally selects the neighborhood of water- 
courses as its habitat, and springs upon 
the animals that approach to drink. 
•Man-eaters' are tigers which have ac- 
quired a special liking for human prey. 
The natives destroy tigers by traps, pits, 
poisoned arrows, and other means. 
Tiger-hunting is a favorite Indian sport. 

Tiger-beetle ;^^t't:1Sie.T?^t 


Digitized by 




opteroas insects which are swift and 
active in their movements, and prey upon 
other insects. 

TwAr-ftftf a- name of not very defi- 
J.i)^t;rut^ ^j^^ significaUon, some- 
times given to some of those animals of 
the family Felidse which are of middling 
size, and resemble the tiger in their form 
or markings, such as the chati, the 
margay, the ocelot, the serval, etc, which 

Tiger-flower Z^^^^i^Ant 

of the nat order Iridaces, frequently 
cultivated in gardens on account of the 
magnificence of its flowers. The stem 
is about 1 foot in height, with sword- 
shaped leaves. The flowers are large, 
of a singular form, 
and very evanescent. 
The petals are of a 
fine orange-red to- 
wards the extremity; 
whitish or yellowish 
and beautifully 
spotted at the base. 

Tiger-lily (,«««« 

num) a native of 
China, common in 
American gardens, 
having scarlet flowers 
turned downward, the 

Tiger-lily {LUium 

perianth being reflexed. I^ is remark- 
able for having axillary buds on the 
stem. The bulbs are eaten in China and 

* o ** of lepidopterous insects, 

the caterpillars of which are well known 
under the popular name of * woolly 
bears.' The moth is colored red and 
brown. The larve feed on dead-nettles. 
Tifirhe ^^^* ^^^^ Blackford, an Irish 
o poetess, bom in Dublin in 1774, 
and married to Henry Tighe in 179a 
Her writings were published after her 
death in 1810. Her cnief poem is Psyche, 
or the Legend of Love, written in the 
Spenserian stanza. Her other poems are 
short occasional pieces, frequently of a 
religious cast. 

Tiglath-pile'ser. see AMyno. 

i^UCS S^ Armenia, 


See Ahytsinia. 

Tifinis (*^'8fris), a river in Western 
o •» Asia, having its principal source 
in the Turkish province of Diarbekir, on 
the southern slope of the Anti-Taurus, a 
few miles to the east of the Euphrates. 
It flows generally southeast, passes 
Diarbekir, Mosul and Bagdad, and joins 

the Euphrates somewhat more than 100 
miles from its embouchure in the Per- 
sian Gulf, after a course of IICK) miles, 
the united stream being known as the 
Shatt-el-Arab. Large rafts, supported by 
inflated skins, are much in use for the 
transport of goods. The region between 
the Tigris and the Euphrates is known 
as Mesopotamia. 

Tikus. s^ ^*'^^- 

Tilden (til'den)f Samuel Jones, 
statesman, bom in New Leb- 
anon, New York, in 1814. He was 
elected to the State assembly in 1845, 
and in 1846 was a member of the State 
Constitutional Convention. From 1855 
more than half the railway corporations 
in the North were his clients. By 1868 
he had become the leader of the Demo- 
cratic party in New York State. His 
determined opposition and practical 
measures broke up the Tweed rmg. He 
was elected in i874 Governor of New 
York and in 1876 was Democratic candi- 
date for President The election was so 
close that a contest arose, the dispute 
being finally settled by the decision of 
an Electoral Commission. The electoral 
vote, as declared finally, was 185 for 
Haves; 184 for Tilden. In 1880 and 
in 1884 a renomination was pressed upon 
him, but declined. The greater portion 
of his fortune (which was estimated at 
$5,000,000) he devoted to public uses, 
but the will was contested and the estate 
went to the next of kin. He died August 
4, 1886. 

^TSIa (til), a term applied to a variety 
of articles made either for orna- 
ment, such as inlaid paving tiles (see 
Encau9iio TUe» and Afo«aio), or for use. 
as in tile-draining (see Draininp) ana 
roofing, which last are made similarly 
to bricks, and of similar clay. 
Tiliacece itiH-a'se-e). the llme-tree 
AAXAw^/wvw family, a nat. order of poly- 
petalous dicotyledonous plants, consisting 
chiefly of trees or shrubs, with simple, 
toothed, alternate leaves, furnished with 
stipules. The species are generally dif^ 
fused throughout the tropical and tem 
perate parts of the globe. They have all 
a mucilaginous wholesome juice, and are 
remarkable for the toughness of the 
fibers of their inner bark, which is used 
for various economical purposes under 
the name of hast. Among the most im- 
portant genera are TUia and Corchorus, 
the former containing the common lime, 
the latter jute. 

Till ^ name given in Scotland to un- 
' stratified stony bowlder-clays, and 
now extended bv geologists to any similar 
surface or drift deposit 

Digitized by 



Tillandsia (tjl-and'si-a), a genus of 
^ epiphytes, belonging to 

the nat order Bromeliaceae, natives of 
tropical America. T. amcmo and T. 
9plenden$ are cnltiyated in hothouses on 
account of the singular variety and 
splendor of the colors of the spathes and 
flower^spikes. T. umetiideg is a native 
of the Southern United States, where it 
hangs in festoons from trees. 
Tiller (^**'*^}» ^« '^^er or handle of 
the helm by which the rudder of 
a vessel is turned. See Steering ^p- 

Tillmail (tn'man), benjamin Ryan, 
statesman, born in South 
Carolina in 1847. A farmer until 1886, 
he began to agitate for industrial educa- 
tion and other reforms; was elected 
(Governor of South Carolina in 1890 and 
1882 and United States Senator in 1894. 
As a member of the Senate he has been 
radical in his views and very pronounced 
in his expression of them. He instituted 
in his state a system of selling liquor 
under State control and founded an in- 
dustrial school for boys, the largest lu tue 
South. He died July 3, 1918. 

TiUotson ,\rp*Xks»fcfo?f: 

ier near Halifax, was born in 1630. In 
1647 he became a student of Clare Hall, 
Cambridge, and was elected a fellow in 
1651. He was a Presbyterian preacher 
until 1662, when he submitted to the 
Act of Uniformity, and was chosen 
preacher to the society of Lincoln's Inn, 
and lecturer at St. Lawrence, Jewry, in 
1664. After becoming a D.D. in 1660, 
he was made king's chaplain, and pre- 
sented to a prebend of Cfanterbury. He 
was subsequently appointed dean of 
Canterbury, and in 1689 he became dean 
of St Paul's. During the suspension of 
Archbishop Sancroft, Tillotson exercised 
the archiepiscopal jurisdiction, and in 
1691 reluctantly accepted the arch- 
bishopric. His liberal views rendered 
him obnoxious to the advocates of ortho- 
doxy, and he was assailed with great 
animosity after his acceptance of the 
primacy. He died in 1694. Tillotson's 
sermons were at one time very popular. 

Tillv (^*^'*» t6-y6), JOHANN TSEBK- 

****J LAES, Count of, one of the most 
celebrated generals of the seventeenth 
century, bom about 1559, in Walloon 
Brabant. After being educated by the 
Jesuits he served successively in the 
Spanish, Austrian, and Bavarian armies. 
On the outbreak of the Thirty Years' war 
he led the army destined to crush the 
Protestants in Bohemia. (See Thirty 
Years* war.) He defeated them on the 
White MountalDfl (Nov., 1620), and ia 


1622 conquered the Palatinate, defeat- 
ing several Protestant commanders. On 
August 27, 1626; he defeated Christian 
IV of Denmark m Brunswick, and com- 
pelled him to return to his own country. 
In 1630 Tilly succeeded Wetllenstein as 
generetlissimo of the imperial troops. The 
act by which he is best known in history 
is the bloody sack of Magdeburg, May 10, 
1631, the inhabitants being ruthlessly 
slaughtered. Gustavus Adolphus met him 
at Breitenfeld, near Leipzig, September 7, 
and Tilly was entirely beaten, and was 
himself wounded. In a subsequent en- 
gagement with the Swedes on the Lech 
a cannon-ball shattered his thigh, and 
caused his death in 1632. 
Tilsit (til'sit), a town of Bast Prus- 
* •' sia, on the Memel, by means of 
which it carries on a large trade. Manu- 
factures include iron castings, machinery, 
paper, cloth, soap, oils, leather, cheese, 
etc. Pop. 37.148. The town is cele- 
brated for the peace concluded here in 
July, 1807, between Russia and Prussia 
and Napoleon. See Prussia, 
Tilf-liftTnni^r * large and heavy 
XlU-nammer, hammer worked by 
steam or water power, and used in forg- 
ings. It has been largely superseded by 
the steam-hammer, but is still advanta- 
geously used with light work. Cogs (ar 



at in cut) being brought to bear on 
the tail of the hammer (a), its depres- 
sion causes the head (d) to be elevated, 
which, when the tail is liberated, falls 
with considerable force by its oyrn 

Tilton (til'tun), Theodore, anthor, 
•*•*•'" was born in New York City in 
1855 ; died in 1907. He was chief editor 
of the Independent, 1863-71, and of the 
Golden Age, 1871-74. He wrote The 
Sexton* 9 Tale (poems, 1867) ; Sanctum 
Sanctorum (1869) ; Tempest Tossed 
(1874) ; Thou and I (poems, 1882), etc. 
Timber (^i°>'b^r)» & general term ap- 
plied to wood used for con- 
structive purposes, as that of the dif- 
ferent kinds of fir and pine, the oak, 
ash, elm, beech, sycamore, chestnut, wal- 
nut, mahogany, teak, . etc. The sap in 

Digitized by 



Tin Tinamou 

taken prisoner. The conquests of the greater part of the foreign metals in 
Tartar now extended from the Irtish a solid state. The molten tin is stirred 
and Volga to the Persian Gulf, and in order to disperse the gases, and, when 
from the Ganges to the Grecian Archi- partially cool, it separates in zones, the 
pelago. He was making mighty prepa- upper consisting of nearly pure tin, 
rations for an invasion of China when while the under is so impure that it 
death arrested his pr^ress at his camp must be melted again. The upper layer 
at Otrar, beyond the Sir-Daria, in 140d, is removed, cast into blocks, and sold as 
and his empire inunediately fell to hlock-tin, the purest specimens being 
pieces. He was fanatical in his reli- called refined-tin. Tin-pyrites, the other 
gion, and although no conquests were ore of tin, contains from 14 to 30 per 
ever attended with greater cruelty, dev- cent of tin, and is found in Cornwall, 
astation, and bloodshed, he was in a in Saxony, and in Bolivia. Pure tin 
measure a patron of science and art, has a fine white color like silver. It 
and is also reputed author of the /f>- has a slightly disagreeable taste, and 
stiiutions of Timur and the AutohioQ' emits a pectQiar sound when rubbed. 
raphy of Timurf both translated into Its hardness is between that of gold and 
English. lead, and it is verv malleable. Specific 
Wljl a hard, white, ductile metal; at- gravity 7.2a Melting point about 230** 
* omic weight 118; chemical symbol O. Tin is very flexible, and when bent 
Sn (from L, siannum). Tin appears emits a crackling sound, sometimes 
to have been known in the time of called the cry of ttn. It loses its luster 
Moses; and the Phoenicians traded when exposed to the air, but undergoes 
largely in the tin ores of Ck>rnwall. The no further alteration. Oxygen combines 
mountains between Galicia and Portu- with tin, forming protoxide of tin or atan- 
gal, and those separating Saxony and nous omide (SnO) ; aesquioxide (Sn^O.), 
Bohemia, were also productive of tin and dioxide or «f an m'c oaride (SnOa). The 
centuries a^o, and still continue unex- compounds of chlorine with tin are di- 
bausted. Tin occurs in the Malay chloride or Btannous chloride ( SnCla) , sea- 
Peninsula, the island of Banca, India, quiohloride (SusGla), and stannic chloride 
Mexico, Bolivia, Peru, the United States, (SnCl4). Stannic chloride has long been 
Australia, etc. In the United States known as the fuming liquor of Ltbavius, 
there are rich deposits of both vein ore so called from Libavius, a chemist of 
and stream-tin, but they are yet little the sixteenth century. Tin also com- 
worked, the extraction of the tin being bines with phosphorus and with sul- 
difficult. The most important localities phur. Stannus sulphide (SnSa) has 
are the Straits Settlements, Banca, and long been known in chemistry as aurum 
Bolivia. In Australia tin is found in mosaicum or mosaic gold. Tin will 
New South Wales and Victoria; also oc- unite with arsenic and with antimony, 
curs in Tasmania. There are only two but does not readily combine with iron, 
ores of tin; the native binoxide, called Combined with copper it forms bronze, 
tin-stone, and the double sulphide of tin bell-metal, and several other useful al- 
and copper, called tin-pyrites. The loys. With lead it forms pewter and 
former is the only ore used for obtaining solder of various kinds. Tin-plate is 
metallic tin. It occurs in various cr^s- formed by dipping thin plates of iron 
tallized forms, in deep lodes blended with into melted tin ; they are afterwards 
several other metals, as arsenic, copper, cleaned with sand and steeped for 
zinc, and tungsten, when it is known as twenty-four hours in water acidulated 
mine-tin; or, in disseminated masses in bv bran or sulphuric acid. Tin is prin- 
alluvial soil, in which state it is called cipally employed in the formation of al- 
stream-tin. Mine-tin, when i^educed to loys. Its oxides are used in enameling, 
the metallic state, yields hlook-tin, while and for polishing the metals, and its 
stream-tin yields a purer sort called grain- solution in nitro-muriatic acid is an im- 
tin. The ore is first ground and washed, portant mordant in the art of dyeing, 
and then roasted in a reverberatory fur- rendering several colors, particularly 
nace to expel the sulphur and arsenic, scarlet, more brilliant and permanent. 
Mixed with limestone and fuel, it is Tin-plate is used for roofing, the making 
again fused in a furnace for about eight of culinary utensils, etc. 
hours, the earthy matters flowing off Tin&.mnil (tin'a-mO), the name given 
with the. lime, while the oxide of tin, **'**«"***viA ^^ ^ genus and family of 
reduced to a metallic state, falls by its birds occurring in South America, and 
own weight to the bottom, and is drawn allied in some respects to the ostrich and 
oft. The tin, still impure, is again mod- emeu. They somewhat resemble a par- 
erately heated, when it melts and flows tridge, and vary in size from that of • 
oft into the refining basins, leaving the pheasant down to that of a quail The 

Digitized by 




treat tinamoa (Tinimus bratiliensis) is 
about 18 inches long, and inhabits the 
forests of Guiana. 

Grest TiiiBmoa (Tindmus brasUienHs). 
Tinavelly. ®*® Tinnevem. 

Tincal ^ ting'kal ), the commercial 
name of borax in its crude or 
unrefined state. See Boraa, 
Tincture (tingk'tOr), a spirituous so- 
*^*^ lution of the active princi- 
ples of some vegetable or other medicinal 

Tindal (^n'^al). Matthew, an Bng- 
lish controversial writer, bom 
about 1657; entered Lincoln College, Ox- 
ford, in 1672; became a fellow of All 
Souls*, and received the degree of LL.D. 
After the revolution he sat as a judge in 
the Court of Delegates. In 1706 he pub- 
lished a treatise entitled the Right of 
the ChrUtian Church, attacking hierarch- 
ical supremacy. This work excited the 
animosity of the high church clergy, and 
the House of Commons ordered it, to- 
gether with two defenses of it written 
by Tindal, to be burned by the common 
hangman. In 1730 he published his 
most famous work, Christianity as Old 
as the Creation, or the Gospel a Repub-* 
lication of the Reliffion of Nature, in 
which he maintains that there has been 
no revelation distinct from the internal 
revelation of the law of nature in the 
hearts of mankhid. He died in 1733. 
Tindall ®' Ttndale, William, a 
aauuonu^ martyr to the Reformation, 
bom about 1484 in Gloucestershire, ano 
educated at Oxford. After taking orden 
he went as a tutor to Gloucestershire, 
where, in consequence of his opinions in 
favor of the reformation doctrines, he 
was reprimanded by the chancellor of 
the diocese. He then removed to Lon- 
don, where he probably began bis Eng- 
lish version of the New Testament, and 
•obaeqiiantlj procteded to Germany, 

visiting Luther at Wittenberg. Having 
completed his translation he got it partly 

Erinted in quarto at Cologne; but be 
ad to flee from this town, and the 
complete work was printed in octavo at 
Worms. The greater part was sent to 
England, and the prelates Warham and 
Tunstall collected all copies they could 
seize or purchase, and committed them 
to the flames. The only fragment of the 
quarto edition known to exist is pre- 
served in the British Museum. Of the 
first octavo edition only two copies re- 
main, one in the Baptist Museum at 
Bristol, the other (imperfect) in the 
library of the Chapter of St Paul's. 
Revised editions were soon issued by 
Tindall himself. Tindall also translated 
the Pentateuch, and subsequently Jonah. 
In 1530 he took up his residence at Ant- 
werp. In 1535 he was thrown into 
prison at Vilvorde near Brussels, and 
being found guilty of heresy he was 
strangled in 1536 and his body burned 
at the stake. Tindall's translation of the 
Scripture is highly eftteemed for perspi* 
cuity and noble simplicity of idiom. 
Tinder (^J^'d^r), any substance arti» 
ficially rendered raadily ignit- 
ible but dot inflammable. Before the in« 
vention of chemical matches it was the 
chief means of procuring fire. The tin* 
der, ignited by a spark from a flint, was 
brought into contact with matches 
dipped in sulphur. Tinder may be 
made of half-burnt linen, and of various 
other substances, such as amadou, touch- 
wood, or German tinder (which see). 
Tinea. ®^^ Ring-worm, also Clothes- 
TiTl-foil P"'*® ^^°» or an alloy of tin 

about TiAnith part of an inch thick. 
When coated with mercury it forms the 
reflecting surface of glass mirrors. 
TiTlTl^v^lli ( tin-€-vel'i ) , a town in 
xiiiiicvciii ^^g southeast of India, 
in the presidency of Madras, the largest 
town of the district of the same name, 
the administrative headquarters of which 
are at Palamkotta (which see) on the 
other side of the Tambraparni River. It 
has an interesting ancient temple and Is 
an active Protestant missionary center. 
Pop. 40,4G9.— The district, which occu- 
pies the extreme southeastern corner of 
the Indian peninsula, has an area of 5381 
square miles. Pop. 2,059,G07. 
Tinnin? (tin'ing), the process of cov- 
o ering or coating other metals 
with a thin coat or layer of tin, to pro- 
tect them from oxidation or from cor^ 
rosion by rust 

Tin oil (tfi'n6s), or Tino (anciently 
xiUOT teno«), an island in the Grw^M 


Digitized by 




Archipelago, one of the Gycladee, im- 
mediately southeast of Andros; area, 
about 85 sq. miles. It produces barley, 
silk, wine, figs, oranges, and honey. 
There is a town of the same name near 
the south coast Pop. of the island 12,- 
300; of the town, about 2000. 

Tin-plate. ^^^^ 

Tintoretto («n.t6-ret't5), the sur. 
AAuvvA^vw imme q£ i^ Venetian his- 
torical painter, Giaoomo or Jaoopo Ro- 
BUSTi. bom at Venice in 1518; died there 
in IC^. He studied for a few days 
under Titian, but, being dismissed with- 
out explanation by his master, he after* 
wards pursued his studies alone, and en- 
deavored, according to his own motto, 
to unite Titian's colorings with the 
drawing of Michael Angelo. He painted 
many works for his native city, among 
which are a L<ut Judgment, the Israd" 
ties Worshiping the Oolden Coif, & 
Cruoifiaion. the Marriage of Cana, the 
Miracle of 8t. Mark (*Miracolo dello 
Schiavo')f his masterpiece. His por- 
trait, by himself, is in the Louvre; and 
there are many of his paintings in Ger- 
many. Spain, France, and England. 
EiQual in several respects to Titian or 
Paul Veronese, he wants the dignity of 
the former, and the grace and richness 
of composition of the latter. His man- 
ner of painting was bold, with strong 
lights, opposed by deep shadows. His 
execution was very unequaL 
TinOCeraS ( tl-nos'^r-as ), or Tmo- 
AXAi.vv«^Ac»a THERiUM, a genus of mam- 
mals now extinct, found in the Eocene, 
and representing the order Dinocerata. 
The individuals were all large, some of 
them nearly equaling the elephants, while 
the brain was smaller than that of any 
living or fossil mammaL 

Tippecanoe <,*'i^Sli^f' i'^S. 5lS 

in the K. part of the State, flows w. s. w. 
and 8. 200 miles, and empties into the, 
Wabash 10 miles above Lafavette. It is 
famous for the battle fouf^ht near its 
mouth, November 7, 1811, m which the 
Indians, undei Tecumseh's brother, the 
prophet, were defeated by General Har- 

Ti-nTiAToli (tip-p€'r&), a district of 
Xipperan ^^^i^i^ i^dla, in the Chit- 
tagong division of Bengal; area, 2491 
square miles. Capital, Comilla. 
TiTmprarv (tip-p6r-ft'ri), an Inland 
Xipperary county in Ireland, in the 
province of Munster; area, 1659 square 
miles. The soil is extremely fertile; the 
chief crops are oats, potatoes, and 
wh^at T^e highest elevation is 3000 
Ue*^i the level country forms part of the 

great central plain of Ireland, and in- 
cludes some branches of the Bog of Al- 
len. It is drained mainly by the river 
Suir. Mineral productions comprise 
coal, copper, zinc and argentiferous 
lead; slates of good quality are exten- 
sively obtained near Killaloe. Grazing is 
the principal employment, and there are 
numerous dairies. Chief towns: Clon- 
mel, Carrick-on-Suir, Nenagh, Thurles. 
Cashel. Tipperary and Roscrea. Pop. 
160,232. — TIPPERABY, the county town, 
situated on the river Arra, 98 miles 
s. w. of Dublin, in a district called, from 
ite fertility, the 'Golden Vale.' It has 
a large trade in butter. Pop. 6281. 

Tippoo Sahib (ti-P«' saiiib), sm. 

^ ^^wv •^%m*M^*0 ^^ ^f Mysore, son of 
Hyder Ali. bom in 1749, succeeded his 
father in 1782. (See Hyder Ali Khan,) 
He continued the war in which his father 
was engaged with the British, and 
abandoned the Camatic in order to check 
the British advance on the Malabar 
coast. In April, 1783, he forced the 
British commander, Matthews, to sur- 
render at Bednore. Matthews and a 
part of the garrison were put to a 
shameful death. Mangalore also fell 
into his hands; but in March, 1784, be- 
ing deprived of the assistance of the 
French by the Treaty of Versailles 
(Sept, 1783), he was induced to sign the 
Treaty of Mangolore on advantageous 
terms. In 1789 he attacked the RaJah 
of Travancore, an ally of the British. 
An offensive and defensive alliance was 
concluded (June, 1790) between the 
East India Company, the Peishwa of the 
Mahrattas, and the Nizam. In the cam- 
paign of 1790 and 1791 several places 
were reduced by the allies, and Tippoo 
was finally besieged in his capital, Serin- 

fapatam. By a- peace concluded in Feb., 
792, the sultan agreed to relinquish 
half his territor^r and to pay 33,000,000 
rupees. But Tippoo was unwilling to 
submit to this loss and entered into 
negotiations with the French. Suspect- 
ing that Tippoo's preparations were con- 
nected with Bonaparte's invasion of 
Egvpt, the Company determined to an- 
ticipate hostilities, and on Feb. 22, 1799, 
in connection with their allies, they de- 
clared war against the sultan. Tippoo 
was defeated in two battles, and retreated 
to Seringapatam ; which place was at- 
tacked bv General Baird on May 4, and 

completely reduced, Tippoo perishing in 
the assault. 

Tintnii (tip'tun),'a town in Stafford- 
^^ shire, England, 8 miles w. N. w. 
of Birmingham. It dep^ids chiefly on 
its manufactures of heavy iron gooda 
Pop. 31,763. 

Digitized by 



TlDTilfl. (tip'u-la), a genus of dipter- 
"^^ oufl insects or flies, of which 
the great crane-fly (T. giaaniea) is a 
typidftl species. See Crane-fly, 

Tiraspol (Jy«:f?^*^^'y'>» * ^^^^ ^i 

*^ South Russia government 

Kherson, on the Dniester. Pop. 31,616. 

Tirl pm nixt ( tirl-m6v ) , a town of Bel- 
linemonx ^^^ ^ ^^^^^ Brabant 

It has a diarch dating from the ninth 
century, and manufactures of woolens, 
breweries, and a large trade. Pop. 18,544. 
TimaU C^r'nou), Tybnau, a royal 
free town of Hungary, county 
of Pressburg. Pop. 13,181. 
Timova (tir'n6-vA), or Teb'nova, a 
xuiiuva ^^ ^j Bulgaria, capital of 
province of same name. Pop. 12,185. 
Tirol. See Tyrot 

Tiraitz (tecr'pitz), Alfmd, Grand 
Au^Auo xdiobal von, a German com- 
mander, born in 1849. He entered the 
navy at sixteen; saw service in South 
America and the West Indies and in the 
Franco-German war. He was made a 
rear-admiral in 1895, and in 1898 became 
secretary of state for the Admiralty, the 
head of the German navy. He is a man 
of creat personal force and has done much 
to build up the German navy. 
Tinma (tt'rins), a very ancient ruined 
xirjruB ^^ ^j Greece, in the Pelopon- 
nesus, in the plain of Argolis, about 3 
miles from the sea, with remains of 
Cyclopean walls, and of a palace of the 
eleventh or tenth century B.C., excavated 
by Schliemann. 

TiftfiliftTiilnrf ( tish'en-dorf ) , L o b e- 
xiscuenaon ^^^ frudrich Kon- 

BTANTIN, a German biblical <7itic, bom 
in 1815, studied at Leipsic, and in 1845 
became professor extraordinary there, 
becoming professor ordinary of theology 
in 1859. He made several visits to the 
East, and brought back valuable MSS., 
the most remarkable being (in 1859) the 
famous Sinai tic Ck>dex (which see). 
TiBchendorf was continually engaged in 
editorial labors, and was broken down 
by overwork in 1873. He died at Leipsic 

Tiflio. See Garofato, Berwenuio. 

TissHA (tish'fl), (1) in animal anato- 
Axoouv my, the texture or grouping 
of anatomical elements of which the sys- 
tems of organs are composed. Thus in 
special histology we speak of muscular 
tts9U€, or flesh ; oaseouM tissue, or bone ; 
adipose tissue, or fat; cartilaginous tis- 
suOf or gristle; pigmentary tissue^ or 
coloring matter seen in the skin, etc.; 
gnol gr > oetMiirf or oonneoUve tissue, 
widely diatribaied in every part of the 


body, and serving to bind together and 
consolidate other parts and tissues. (2) 
In vegetable anatomy, the minute ele- 
mentary structures of which the organs 
of plants are composed. Plant tissues 



VxasTABLx Tissns. 
^roienohyms or Woody Tiiiue. 2, 

Horizontal section of Prosenehymatoni TiHue. 
8. Do. do. of a Single Cell, snowing the sue- 
cessive layers of deposit in the interior which 
give hardness and flrmnesi to the wood of 
plants. 4, Cylindrical Parenchyma. 5, Round 
or Elliptical Parenchymatous Tissue. 6, 
Spongiform or Stellate Tissue. 

are composed of elementary membrane 
and elementary fiber, and the principal 
forms under which they exhibit them- 
selves constitute ceUular tissue, fibrous 
tissue, and vascular tissue. 

Experiments have been made in keeping 
pieces of animal tissue alive in proper 
media outside of the body. So far thev 
can be kept alive only for a certain length 
of time — from three to fifteen days — but 
it is believed that death may be ratner 
contingent than necessary, due to the ac- 
cumulation of waste products. Alexis 
Carrel has devised a system of artificial 
rejuvenescence, by washing the tissue 
from time to time in Ringer's solution 
and by placing it in a medium of plasma 
and distilled water. The excised heart of 
a turtle will, under appropriate condi- 
tions, continue beating for several days. 
Tit. See Titmouse. 

Titania. See Mah. 

Tif onin Wreck of thk. On the night 
lixamc, ^f ^p^ 14.^^ 1912, took 

place the greatest disaster recorded in 
the history of ocean travel, the total 
wreck on her maiden trip, of one of the 
two largest ships that had ever been built, 
with the loss of 1635 of her passengers 
and crew. The Olympic and lltanic, of 
G6.000 tons each, were launched by the 
White Star Line— the Olympic in 1910, 
the Titanic in 1911. l^ese floating palaces 
were of equal dimePsioPBfc having a total 

Digitized by 


;Titanio Titie 

lenfth of 882^ feet, breadth 02^ feet the band playing, and without a cry of 
and height from bottom of keel to top of deapair from the doomed multitude, 
the captain's house 106^ feet Olieir It was at break of day that the Car- 
decks numbered 11, and they were pathia, reached by the call for aid, came 
equipped with 15 watertight bulkheads, ?|rithin sight of the lifeboats. Those who 
the claim being made that they were un- fiad not perished from exposure were 
sinkable. While of 66,000 tous displace- taken on board and the ship's head was 
ment, their registered tonnage was 45,- tamed backward for New xork, whence 
000 tons. The Titanic, the one of these she had sailed. She arrived with the 
twin steamers with which we are spe- rescued on the evening of Thursday, April/ 
cially concerned, was capable of carrying 18. Those alive numbered 705. Severali 
5000 passengers, and had an average died on the voyage homeward. The story' 
speed of 21 knots. She was prepared in told indicated that the berg had rent the 
almost every particular for the comfort, side of the Titanic through a gretit part 
enjoyment and safety of her passengers, of her leugth, rendering many ot her 
being equipped with such unusual appli- waterproof compartments useless. The 
ancesas salt-water swimming pools, squash disaster would probably not have occurred 
racquet couits, sun parlors and other in a head-on collision. The loss was 
pleasure devices. The one condngency great, not only in life, but in value of the 
unprovided for was that of sufficient life- ship and cargo, estimated at 112,500,000. 
boats to carry those ou board in the im- A number of multi-millionaires and prom- 
probable event of an accident. Her water- Jnent persons were aboard. Investigation 
tight oompartmentB were deemed sufficient into the causes of the disaster led to more 

The iHtanic left Southampton, Bng- adequate safety regulations, 
land, on April 10, 1912, in charge of TitaniUm («-til'ia-iun), a meUl dis- 
Captoin B. J. Smith, a navigator of long *~^~7 covered in 1791. It is 
experience, her crew and passengers num- round combined with oxygen in several 
bering 2340. A disaster was threatened minerals, and occurs especially in iron 
at the outset, the suction made by her ores, whidi hence receive the name of 
great bulk as she began her course being tttaniferous iron ores. Titanium is a 
so great as to drag the American liner wrk green, heavy, amorphous powder, and 
New York from her quay, a perilous col- Bome auttiorities doubt its metaUic diar- 
lision being imminent Proceeding on her «cter. Olie ores of this metsl indudo 
eventful voyage, Sunday, April 14, found nienachanite, from Menachan in Cornwall, 
her in the seas southeast of Newfound^ Where it was originally found; iserine, 
land, then infested with icebergs to an fr^ the nyer Iser in SUesia; sphene, 
nnusual extent News of the presence of J2?/«» °"*^fi^» ®?^ i ^ ». _.,. i 
these bergs was received by wireless mes- TltaHS \\} tans), in Greek mythology, 
sages from other vessels, but there was . ,„ ^he sons and dauahters of Urft- 
no abatement in the speed of the Titanic, «»» (Heaven), and G€ JEarth). They 
her record rate of 21 knots an hour being Were twelve in number, six sons Md six 
maintained. At 10.25 at night her wire- O*?*^*^'*^ t?®^ ^?f awinst Urftnus. 
less operators sent news of disaster far J?<> deposed him, rai^ng Cronus, one of 
over the seas, their message being picked ftf>r number, to the throne. They were 
np by a number of ships within range, afterwards overcome by Zeus, and 
It stated that the Titonic had struck an ^^n into Tartarus. -,,^^^^ 
iceberg and needed immediate assistonce, TltchClier, T^^^ Bradpobd, an 
her position being given as latitude 41» ^. . . \ ^ufS.^^^ psychoi- 

46' nOTth, longitude 50» 14' west The ggf** ^S^n at Chlchwter, England in 
•ti/w«ir nf fh» ^i««lftn xr\th thp hAwr hfl<1 1867. _ He Studied at Brasenose College, 

shock of the colUsion with the bera had JS'- , "e studied at iiraswiose College, 
been so slight that few of those on hoard Oxford, and at the University of Leip/igj 
apprehended danger untU an hour or more JSJ, ?22o*^S i?*^ lecturer at Oxford 
hkd passed. Thin it grew apparent that ^^J^^'^fy,^^ h^^ ?2g profewof 
the riiip was fatally wounded and was ^.P^^^f^W ^^^^e sinf 18fc, a^^^ 
alowly filUng and the Ufeboats were hast fjined J^ternafaonal |ame- . His best- 
Uy lowered and set afloat the men on ^^Zn»^nQM!^^^% !^ 
board holding heroically back and putting ^^ZK^il^l^Ai^^rS?^^^^ 
the women and children on board, l^n- tTJ^ nSL^V'^Jt^I^^J*^ 
fortunately the boats were not capable of Jt*J*n^^k{ ^""^ Tewilook of PBychoU 
holding one third of the passengers and 2Z?J^ /iVi*. A««i^fl-^^« *^#i- •. 
crew, yet no panic took place, the great- TlthC tf^V nf?/^r^^''?;«JS^r.^^ ^ 
est ieroism was shown, and wh*»n the ,. «„.i^!tS^v??ril^'«if^«^^ ?J?"fhI 
great ship finally olunged beneath the l^i^fil^^rS^lt^Z^^l^a it^^K^'^.^^ 
^ters, at 2.20 A. M^. carrying more than l^^^y,^\}f^2^^ *Jj ♦^2^lJ?J^^«f^*^ 
1600 to inevitable death, she did so with »^ ^^ industry of the occupants, al- 

Digitized by 



lotted to the clergy for their maintenance. 
The custom of giving and paying tithes 
is very ancient, and was legally en- 
joined by Moses (Lev. xxvii, Deut xiv, 
and elsewhere). In 778 Charlemagne 
established the payment of tithes iu those 
parts of the Koman Empire under his 
sway, dividing them into four parts: one 
to maintain the edifice of the church, the 
second to support the poor, the third the 
bishop, and the fourth the parochial 
clergy. Similar laws were afterwards 
enacted in various countries of Western 
Europe. Their payment was first en- 
joined in England by a constitutional de- 
cree of a synod held in 786. Oflfa, king of 
Mercia, in 794 made a law giving the 
tithes of all his kingdom to the church, 
and similar laws were enacted by Athel- 
stan and Canute. The first mention of 
tithes in statute law is in 1285. In the 
earliest arrangement a man might give 
the tithes to what priests he pleased, 
which were called arhttrary conseoration$ 
of tithes; but when dioceses were 
divided into parishes, the tithes of each 
parish were allotted to its own particu- 
lar minister. It is now generally held 
that tithes are due of common right to 
the parson of the parish^^ unless there 
be a special exemption. The parson of 
the parish may be either the actual in- 
cumbent or else the appropriator of 
the benefice. (See Impropriations,) 
Tithes in English law are of three 
kinds: L prtedial, arising immediately 
from the soil, as corn, hay, fruit, etc.; 
2, mimed, such as calves, lambs, pigs, 
fowls, wool, etc; 3, personal, arising 
from the profits of personal industry ui 
a trade, profession, or occupation. They 
are divided into great and small. Great 
tithes are chiefly com, hay, and wool, 
and belong to the rector; small tithes 
are chiefly mixed and personal tithes, and 
belong to the vicar. Originally all the 
land in the kingdom, except crown and 
church lands, was tithable. By acts 
passed in the reign of Henry VIII, 
however, tithes could be temporarily re- 
deemed by the payment of a lump sum. 
The circumstance that tithes were en- 
acted from dissenters and the difficulties 
of collecting them, long led to constant 
bickerings between the clergy and the 
people. The popular demand for a 
measure of commutation was at last met 
by the Tithe C!ommutation Act (1830). 
This act. amended by subsequent stat- 
utes, provides for the conversion of all 
the uncommuted tithes in England and 
Wales into a com and rent charge, pay- 
able in money, and estimated on the 
average price of a bushel of com for the 
seven years ending at the preceding 


Christmas. In Ireland the tithes were 
commuted into a money rent charge in 
1838, which by the Irish Church Act of 
18G0 was vested in the commissioners of 
church temporalities, with power to sell 
such rent charge at 22^ years purchase 
to the landowner. The tithes in Scot- 
land are called teinds (which see). 
Tithes were collected in Virginia in 
colonial times, and Patrick Henry first 
won fame as an orator by his vigorous 
defense of those who refused to pay them. 
The lack of an established church has 
kept this form of taxation out of the 
United States, all church support being 

Tithin? (tn^'ing), an ancient subdi- 
o Tision of England, forming 
part of the hundred, and consisting of 
ten householders and their families held 
together in a society, all being bound for 
the peaceable behavior of each other, the 
chief of whom was the tithtM-man. 
TithonUS (t^-thO'nus), in Greek my- 
**" ^ *^ thology, a son, or brother, 
of lAomedon, king of Trov. He was be- 
loved by Eos (Aurora, Morning), who 
importuned Zeus to make him immortal. 
Her prayer was granted, but she had 
neglected to ask for continual youth, and 
in time her lover took on all the signs 
of extreme age. Tithonus' prayer to the 
gods to be relieved of the burden of old 
age was answered bv his being metamor- 
phosed into a grasshopper. 
Tififln (tish'i-an), or Tiziano Vecel- 
XXUan jjQ (tit-si-tt'no ve-cheni-6),one 
of the most aistinguished of the great 
Italian painters, and head of the Vene- 
tian school, was bom at Pieve de Ca- 



dore. in the Camic Alps, in 1477. He 
studied under Giovanni Bellini of Venice, 
and in 1507 was associated with the 
pahiter Giorgione in executing certain 
frescoes. In 1511 he was invited to 

Digitized by 




Padaa, where he executed three remark- 
able frescoes which are still to be seen 
there. In 1512 he completed the un- 
finished pictures of Giovanni Bellini, his 
former master, in the Sala del Gran 
Consiglio at Venice, and the senate were 
BO pleased that they gave him an im- 
portant office. To this period are at- 
tributed his pictures of the Tribute Money 
and Sacred and Profane Love. In 1514 
he painted a portrait of Ariosto at Fer- 
rara, and after his return to Venice he 
painted an Asnimption of the Virgin 
(1516), considered one of the finest pic- 
tures in the world; it is now in the 
Academy of the Fine Arts in Venice. 
About 1528 he produced his magnificent 

Sicture, The Death of 8t, Peter the 
lartyr — ^^ a picture,* says Alrarotti. 
' in which the great masters admitted 
they could not find a fault,' unfor- 
tunately destroyed by fire in 1867. In 
1530 the Emperor Charles V invited him 
to Bologna to paint his portrait and ex- 
ecute various other commissions. In 
1532 he again painted the emperor's por- 
trait, and he is said to have accompanied 
Charles to Madrid, where he received sev- 
eral honors. He remained, it is said, 
three years i|i Spain, in which country 
many of his masterpieces, such as The 
Sleeping Venu9^ Christ in the Garden, St. 
Margaret and the Dragon^ are still to be 
found. In 1537 he painted an Annuncia- 
tion^ and in 1541 he produced The De- 
scent of the Holy Ohost on the 
Apostles, The Sacrifice of Abraham, and 
David and Goliath. In 1543 he painted 
his picture of The Virgin and San 
Tiziano: and in 1545 he visited Rome, 
where he painted the famous group oi 
Pope Paul III, the Cardinal Famese, and 
Duke Ottavio Famese. He was patron- 
ized as warmly by Philip II as by bis 
father, Charles V. Of Titian's private 
life but little is known. He died of the 
plague in 1576, aged ninety-nine, having 
painted to the last with almost undimin- 
ished powers. Titian excelled as much 
in landscape as in figure-painting, was 
equally great in sacred and profane sub- 
jects, in ideal heads and in portraits, in 
frescoes and in oils; and though others 
may have surpassed him in single points, 
none eaualed him in general mastery. 
A^ a colorist he is almost unrivaled, and 
his pictures often reach the perfection of 
sensuous beauty. 

Titicaca (tlt-^kft^ki), a lake on the 
northwestern frontiers of 
Bolivia, situated in a valley of the 
Andes, 12,600 feet above sea-level; esti- 
mated area, 5300 square miles. It con- 
tains several islands, and abounds with 

Titlark, see Pipit. 

Title-deeds, ^"^ l^^' ^? *^« ^<^? 

**"**' \*.«*«***o, ments, such as mort- 

Sages, conveyances, etc., which afford evi- 
ence of the ownership of real property. 

Titles of Honor, appellations given 
Axi;j.«^0 vj. AA\/Aj.\/xy ^^ certain persons 

in virtue of particular offices or dignities 
possessed by them, or as marks of dis- 
tiiiction and special rank. 'Hiey have 
existed probably among all peoples. 
Such were in Rome the titles of Magnus 
(Great) and Africandus (African) ; and 
the epithets Csesar, the name of a fam- 
ily, and Augustus, which were gradually 
applied to all who filled the imperial 
throne. See Nobility, Peer, and Address 
{Forms of). 
Titling. See Pipit. 
TitTnonae (tit'mous), Tit, or ToM- 

number of dentirostral insessorial birds 
inhabiting most parts of the world. 
They are very active little birds, contin- 
ually flitting from branch to branch, 
devouring seeds and insects and not spar- 
ing even small birds when they hap- 
pen to find them sick and are able to 
put an end to them. Their notes are 

Bloa Titmoote, msle snd female (Parus 

shrin and wild. They build in the hol- 
lows of trees, in walls, etc The great 
titmouse (Parus major) is between five 
and six inches long, ana inhabits Europe 
generally. There are various other Bu- 
ropean species, and several occur in the 
United States, some of them known as 
chickadee (which see). 
Titration (tl-tr&'shun), in chemical 
analysis, a process for as- 
certaining the quantity of any given 
constituent present in a compound, by 
observing the quantity of a liquid of 
known strength (called a standard solu' 
tion) necessary to convert the constitu- 
ent into another form. The reaction is 

Digitized by 



ofliially marked by a change of color or 
by the formation of a precipitate. 
Tifnfl (tl'tus), or in full, Titus Fiay- 
xxi/uo j^g g^^BiiaJs VEaPASiANUS, a 
Roman emperor, bom a.d. 40, was the 
eldest son of the Emperor Vespasian. 
He served with credit as a military 
tribune in Germany and Britain, and 
accompanied his father in the war 
against the Jews as commander of a le- 
gion. When Vespasian became emperor 
(69) Titus was left to conduct the war 
in Judea. He took Jerusalem (a.d. 
70), and after visiting Egypt returned 
to Rome in triumph, and was associated 
with his father in the government of the 
empire. He became sole emperor in 79, 
and showed himself an enlightened and 
munificent ruler, distinguished by benevo- 
lence and philanthropy. He died Sept. 
13, 81, after a reign of a little over two 
years and two months. His brother 
uomitian was strongly suspected of hav- 
ing poisoned him. 

Titnfl ^ disciple and assistant of the 
xxvuo, apostle Paul, and the person to 
whom one of the canonical epistles of 
the New Testament is addressed. He 
was a gentile by origin, and probably a 
native of Antloch. He labored with 
Paul in Asia Minor, Macedonia and 
Crete, and is said to have been the first 
Christian bishop of Crete. 
Tifna Epibtle to, one of the three 
^^^^*^ pastoral epistles of the New 
Testament (the remaining two being those 
addressed to Timothy), believed to have 
been written by St Paul after his first 
imprisonment at Rome. The topics 
handled are the same which we find in 
the other two kindred epistles. See 
Timothyt EpUiles to. 
Titus liviUS. ^ee Livius. 

Titnsville ( ti'tus-vll ), a dty of 
XiroSYUie Crawford Co.. Pennsylva- 
nia on the Pennsylvania and New xork 
Ontral railroads. It has steel and forge 
works, oil refineries and manufactures of 
iron, radiators, saddlery, etc. Pop. 9000. 
TinniiiTi (ty9-mftn'), a town in the 
XlUinen government of Tobolsk, West- 
em Siberia, on the Tura, an affluent of 
the Tobol. It is the center of the West- 
em Siberian trade, and has various man- 
ufactures. Pop. 29,588. 
TifTPrfnn ( tiv'er-tun ), a municipal 
XlverbUli borough of England, in the 
county of Devon, pleasantly situated 12 
miles north by east of Exeter. It con- 
sists of several well-fbrmed streets, and 
has a spacious market place, guildhall, 
assembly rooms, public baths, etc.; and 
important manufactures of lace. Pop. 
(3911) 50,706. 


Tivnli (tiV5-M; the ancient Tihur), a 
xivuu ^^^ ^£ Central Italy. 17 miles 
s. IV. E. of Rome (connected by tramway), 
on the left bank of the Teverone (or 
Anio), which here forms fine falls. It 
has steep, narrow, and ill-paved streets, 
and houses in general poorly built; with 
a modem handsome cathedral, and some 
other churches. It was a favorite re- 
sort of the ancient Romans, and among 
the remains in the town and neighbor^ 
hood are the circular temple oi the 
Sibyl, the ruins of Hadrian's villa, 
the villa of Maecenas, etc. The wine of 
Tivola was famous in ancient times* 
Pop. 12,881. 
TizianO. ®®® Titian. 

TlaKCala J[«*'k»-1A), a ^ate of 
^^^^ Mexico, surrounded nearly 

on all sides by the state of Puebla ; area* 
15,957 square miles. Pop. 172,315. The 
capital, which bears the same name, wfui 
once an important citv. Pop. 2715. 
Tlemcen (tlem-sen')» a town of Al- 
V^" geria, in the province of 
Oran, 70 miles s. s. w. of the city of that 
name, finely situated 2500 feet above the 
sea, in the midst of olive groves, vine- 
yards, and orchards. Its chief buildings 
are some fine mosques. Pop. 24,060. 
Toad 0^)* ^^ name applied to va- 
* nous genera of tailless amphibians. 

Toads have a thick, bulky body, covered 
with warts or papillse. They have no 
teeth, and the tongue is fixed to the front 
of the mouth, but the posterior extremity 
is free and protrusibfe. The hind feet 
are but slightly webbed. They leap 
badly, and generally avoid the water, ex- 
cept in the breeding season. Their food 
consists of insects and worms. Toads 
have a most unprepossessing aspect and 
outward appearance. The bite, saliva, 
etc., of the common toad of Europe 
(Bufo vulgdris) were formerly consid- 
ered poisonous, but no venom or poison 
apparatus of any kind exists in these 
creatures. The toad is easily tamed, and 
exhibits a considerable amount of intel- 
ligence as a pet. It lies torpid in some 
hole during winter. Insects are caught 
by a sudden protrusion of the tongue, 
which is provided with a viscous secre- 
tion. There are several species of toads 
in the United States. The Surinam toad 
is described fh the article Pipa. The 
toad is extremely tenacious of life, but 
experiments have conclusively shown that 
there is no trath in the oft-repeated 
stories of the creature being able to sup- 
port life when inclosed in solid rock for 
immense periods of time. Dr. Buckland 
has shown that when excluded from air 
and food, frogs and toads, in virtue of 


Digitized by 




their slow circulation and cold-blooded 
habits, might sarvlTe about a year or 
eighteen months at most. 
Toad-fish ^ i^&nie sometimes given to 
* ^ the Lophiu9 piacatoriu9. 

See Angler, 

Toad-flax ^^® English name of va- 
Avcxiu ^a^f novm plants of the genus 
Linariat order Scrophulariaceae. The 
common toad-flax is L. vulgdris, which 
in its general habits is not unlike flax. 
The flowers are of a bright yellow; the 
corolla labiate, resembling that of snap- 
dragon in shape, but provided with a 
long spur. It grows in hedges and fields, 
and is a reputed purgative and diuretic 
The ivy-leaved toad-flax (L. Cymbalaria) 
is often found trailing over old walls. 
Allied to this genus is the Antirrhinum 
(which see). 

TnhfLPnA (to-bak'6), a very important 
AOOacCO jjj^jjj^ belonging to the nat 
order Atropaces, or night-shade order. 
The introduction of the use of tobacco 
forms a singular chapter in the historv 
of mankind. According to some authori- 
ties smoking was practiced bv the 
Chinese at a very early date. At the 
time of the discovery of America to- 
bacco was in frequent use among the 
Indians, and the practice of smoking, 
which bad with them a religious char- 
acter, was common to almost all the 
tribes. (See Calumet) The name to- 
bacco was either derived from the term 
used in Hayti to designate the pipe, or 
from Tabaca in St. Domingo, whence 
It was introduced into Spain and Portu- 
gal in 1559 by a Spaniard. It soon 
found its way to Paris and Rome, and 
was first used in the shape of snuff. 
Smoking is generally supposed to have 
been introduced into England by Sir 
Walter Raleigh, but Camden says the 
practice was introduced by Drake and his 
companions on their return from Vir- 
ginia in 1585. It was strongly opposed 
by both priests and rulers. Pope Urban 
VII and Innocent IX issued bulls ex- 
communicating such as used snuff in 
church, and in Turkey smoking was 
made a capital offense. In the canton of 
Bern the prohibition of the use of to- 
bacco was put among the ten command- 
ments, immediately after that forbidding 
adultery. The Counterblast or denuncia- 
tion written by James I of Enj^land is 
a matter of history. All prohibitions, 
however, regal or priestly, were of no 
avail, and tobacco is now the most ex- 
tensively used luxury on the face of the 
earth. The most commonly cultivated 
tobacco plant (Nicotidna tab(icum) is 

S'ltinous, and covered with a very short 
WJ> ; the stem upright, 4 or 5 feet high, 

and branching; the leaves are lanceolate, 
■ometimes two feet long; the flowers are 
terminal and rose-colored. A less es- 
teemed species is N, ruaticOf distinguished 
by a short yellowish-green corolla. All 
tne tobacco plants are natives of Amer- 
ica, and that continent has continued the 
principal producer, the chief tobacco- 
growing countrv being the United States, 
and the chief localities being Kentucky, 
North Carolina, and Virginia. The N, 
quadrivalie and N. re- ~ 
panda have white or 

Sellow corollas. The 
itter is cultivated to 
some extent in CuIml 
and is known as Yara 
tobacco. There are 
^Ye leading types of 
tobacco grown in the 
United States — the 
Seed Leaf, White Bur- 
ley, Heavy Shippinc 
or Dark, Yellow, and 
Perique. Tobacco 
owes its prineipal 
properties to the pres- 
ence of a i>oisonous 
alkaloid named nico- 
tine (see Nicotine). 
The cultivated forms 
of the present day are 
highly developed and 
very sensitive. In 
some localities the 
plants are shielded 
with slats or cheese- 
cloth. Clayey soils yield heavy leavea; 
sandv soils, light. All plants except those 
which are to be kept for seed are topped. 
When the leaves begin to turn yefiow 
the plants are cut close to the ground, 
and afterwards carried to the dry-shed, 
where thev are hung up in lines to dry. 
Artificial heat is sometimes nsed. Prim- 
ing, which is also largely practiced, con- 
sists in removing the leaves in the order 
in which they mature. When perfectly 
dry the leaves are stripped from the 
stalks and packed in boxes, in which they 
are allowed to heat and sweat or ferment 
Cigarette tobacco is cured in large drying 
ovens and is consequently light in color 
and without the agreeable cigar-leaf 
aroma. Snuff is tobacco ground to a pow- 
der and perfumed. Chewing tobacco con- 
sists of pressed cakes or plugs, or of a 
spongy mass of fine threads called 'fine 
cut,' and is flavored with vanilla, sugar, 
licorice, etc. Pipe tobacco is sold in rolls 
of the natural leaf, or it may be cut fine. 
In the manufacture of cigars the leaves 
are saved for 'wrappers,' while smaller 
pieces, sometimes of inferior grade, are 
used as ' fillers.' 

VirginiA Tobaoeo 
{Nicididna Ia6d- 

Digitized by 



As the best leaf is grown in Cuba, so 
also are the best cigars made there. 
The leaf used for the manufacture of 
Manila cheroots is gcown chiefly on the 
island of Luzon. Tobacco is one of the 
most profitable crops in the United 
States; about one-half of the produc- 
tion is abM>rbed for home use, the other 
being exported, the far largest customer 
being Britain. The plant has numerous 
insect enemies, among them being the 
Northern tobacco- worm (Protoparoa 
celeut), and P, Carolina, the tobacco- 
worm of the Southern States. These 
are called, when adult, sphinx-moths; 
they are strong, rapid flyers, and at 
twilight are often mistaken for hum- 
ming-birds. The eggs are laid singly on 
the tobacco leaves, and quickly hatch; 
the larva — homworm — is a voracious 
feeder and inflicts much damage, par- 
ticularly in the large, * wrapper^ leaves. 
The greasy cutworm (Agrostia ypsUon) 
is another pest The tobacco-fly or 
flea-beetle (Crepidodera cucumerit) lives 
through the winter in a winged state. 
The annual tobacco crop of the United 
States ranges from 700.000,000 to 1,000,- 
000,000 pounds, much surpassing that 
of other countries, and its consumption 
there also much exceeds that of any 
other country. 

TAhfLiTA (td-bft'gO), an island of the 
xvun^v j^ritigh ^egt Indies, belonsing 
to the Windward group, was annexed in 
1889 to Trinidad ; area, 114 square miles. 
Two-thirds of the island are covered with 
primeval forests, and out of a total area 
of 73313 acres, only about 10,000 acres 
are cultivated. Sugar, rum, molasses, 
and cocoanuts are the chief productions; 
but attention is now being turned to the 
cultivation of cocoa and coffee, for which 
the soil and climate are admirably 
adapted. This island is one of the most 
healthy of the West Indies. Tobago was 
discovered by Columbus in 1408, and 
was ceded to Great Britain by France 
in 1763. Principal town, Scarborough. 
Pop. 18,751. 

Tobit'bit). Book of, one of the Old 
Testament apocryphal books, re- 
jected by the Jews and Protestants, but 
included in the Roman Catholic canon. 
It contains an account of some remark- 
able events in the life of Tobit, a Je^* of 
the tribe of Naphtali, carried captive to 
Nineveh, and his son of the same name. 
TobOSrean (t^bog'an), a kind of 
* »o sledge, of Indian inven- 

tion, made of a piece of birch bark or 
similar material, with the front end 
turned up and a rope attached by which 
it was drawn over the snow. This was 
m use in Canada and was adopted and 


improved by the fur-traders and explor- 
ers of that country. Lately it has be- 
come used for sport in cities of cold 
climates. As such it is made of carefully 
prepared hickorpr splints, from 5 to 15 
feet long, the sides strongly braced, and 
is used to slide down a snow-covered hill- 
side or an artificial slope covered with 
frozen snow, called a toboggan slide. 
Tobol (to-boD, a river of Siberia, 
which rises in the west slope of 
the Ural Mountains, in the government 
of Orenburg, and joins the Irtish at the 
town of Tobolsk, after a course of about 
550 miles. 

Tnbolftlr (td-bolsk'), capital of the 
XUUUX5& government of Tobolsk, West- 
em Siberia, on the left bank of the 
Irtish. It has a cathedral, arsenal, bar- 
racks, a large prison for Siberian exiles, 
a theater, etc. The climate is exceed- 
ingly severe in winter. Pop. 21,401.— 
The government comprises the north- 
western part of Siberia, and has an 
area of 539,659 square miles, and a 
population of 1,656,700. Its mineral 
products, of the Ural region, include 
iron, copper, gold, silver, and platinum. 
The north is widely forested; the south 
fertile, yielding wheat, oats, and other 
TAAQTifiTifl (td-kftn-tSns'), a river of 

14** s., flows northward, receives the 
Araguay, and enters the Atlantic by the 
Parfl estuary, forminji; one mouth of 
the Amazon. The entire course is 1590 
miles, and is navigable for 1080; but 
navigation is much impeded by sand- 
banks and rapids. 

TocqueviUe h^^l^'m.i''^^ 

DE, a French writer, born in 1805; died 
in 1859. Being commissioned by the 

government to proceed to the United 
tates to report upon the penitentiary 
system, the results of his inquiry were 
published in 1833 under the title Du 
SysUme Piniieniiaire aux Eiaia-Unia 
ei de son Application en France, His 
most celebrated work, however, was La 
D^mocratie en AmMque ('Democracy 
in America,* two vols. Paris, 1834), 
which was translated into the principal 
European languages. In 1849 he ac- 
cepted the portfolio of foreign affairs, but 
soon resigned it. After the coup d*6iat 
of 1851 he lived retired from public af- 
fairs. He wrote also UAncien Jtigime et 
la Revolution; Histoire Philoaophique 
du Rigne de Louis XV, etc. 
Tndas (t6'das), a race inhabiting the 
AvuMo upper part of the Neilgherry 
Mountains, in Southern India. They are 
few in number, and under the influence 


Digitized by 




of polyandry and IntemDerance they are 

rapidly disappearing. Their language is 


Tnrlrlir (tod'i), the name given by the 

which are extracted from the different 
species of the palm tribe, including the 
cocoanut tree. When newly drawn from 
the tree it is a sweet, cool, refreshing 
beverage, but when it has been allowed 
about ten or twelve hours to ferment it 
becomes highly intoxicating. The name 
toddy is also given to a mixture of spirits, 
hot water, and sugar. 

Todhnnter (todTiun-ter). ibaao, 

a.v\ui>UKUv%^A mathematician, was born 
at Rye, England, in 1820; studied at 
University College, London, and after- 
wards graduated as senior wrangler at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
resided as fellow, tutor, and principal 
mathematical lecturer until his death in 
1884. He wrote a series of popular text- 
books on mathematics, a Htstory of the 
Mathematical Theoriet of Attraction and 
the Figure of the Earth (two vols., 1873), 

Tnrlli^hi^Ti (t6tna-b«n), Fsajtcis Ed- 
XOaxeueu ^^^ count, a Russian 

feneral and military engineer, bom in 
818; died in 1884. After leaving the 
schools of Riga he entered the College of 
Engineers at St Petersburg, and served 
against the Circassians m 1848. In 
1854 he took the chief part in the de- 
fense of Sebastopol, and after the peace 
of 185G wrote a Narrative of the War in 
the Crimea, During the Russo-Turkish 
war Todleben was sent (in 1887) to 
reduce Plevna. The place was soon in- 
vested, and Osman Pasha, the Turkish 
commander, was compelled to surrender 
at discretion. For his services Todleben 
was created a count, and he subsequently 
became commander-in-chief of the Rus- 
sian army in Turkey. He was after- 
wards appointed governor of Odessa, and 
later, of Wikia. 

ToHmordeTl (tod'mor-den), a town 
XOamoraeu ^^ England, partly in 
Lancashire, partly in Yorkshire (West 
Riding), on the Calder, in a beau- 
tiful and romantic valley, 21 miles 
N. N. E. of Manchester. It has extensive 
manufactures of cotton goods. Pop. 25,- 

Todv (^^'^); ^^^ name of certain 
xwujr tropical birds, genus Todus^ fam- 
ily Todidffi. They are birds of gaudy 
?Iumage, and feed on insects, worms, etc. 
'he most elegant species is the T. regiua 
(royal or kingtody). a native of Cayenne 
and Brazil. The green tody (T, viridis) 
is also a pretty bird, about the size of a 
wren. It is very common in Jamaica. 

Roman Senator wear* 
ing the Toga. 

Tofana ^^ Aqua Tofana, under 
*^ "• •*• Aqua, 

To^a (t6'ga), the principal outer gar- 
^-^B^ ment of wOol worn by Roman 
citizens. It cov- 
ered the whole of 
the body except 
the right arm, 
and was origin- 
ally worn by both 
sexes until the 
matrons adopted 
the Btola. The 
toga virilis, or 
manly gown, was 
assumed by Ro- 
man youths when 
they attained the 
age of fourteen. 
The variety in the 
color, the fineness 
of the wool, and 
the ornaments at- ' 
tached to it indi- 
cated the rank of 
the citizen; gener- 
ally it was white. 
ToffO (^^'s^)* Heihachibo, a Japan* 
o^ ese admiral, who took an active 
part in the war with China in 1894, and 
opened the war with Russia in 19()4 by 
an attack on the Russian fleet at Port 
Arthur. On May 27-28, 1905, he anni- 
hilated a powerful Russian fleet in the 
Korean Straits, winning one of the most 
notable of naval victories. 
Tnc^nlflTiil (td'g6-land), a German 
XO^Oiana protectorate on the Slave 
Coast, Guinea, acquired in 1885. It lies 
between the British Gold Coast Colony 
and Dahomey, with a coast line of 12 
miles, but a wide expansion haland, the 
total area being estimated at 33,000 sq. 
miles. Various tropical plants are grown, 
and palm oil, gum and palm kernels are 
exported. Pop. estimated at 900,000, 
with less than 200 whites. 
Tokar (t^'kar), a town of the Eastern 
Soudan, south of Suakin, the 
scene of two battles between English and 
Arabs in February, 1884. Pop. 20,000. 
Tokat (t^kftf), a town of North- 
*^ eastern Asia Minor, 75 miles 

south of the Black Sea. near the Yeshil 
Irmak. Pop. about 30,000. 
Tokfl.V (td-ka'), a town of Hungary, 
Avivajr ^^ ^jjg conflux of the rivers 
Theiss and Bodrog; pop. 5110. This 
town is celebrated for the wine grown in 
its vicinity, especially for a fine, rich, 
sweet variety. Inferior and imitation 
wines are often sold under this name. 
Tokens (tO'kens), pieces of money 
current by sufferance, and not 
coined by authority ; or coins only nomi- 

Digitized by 



ually of their professed value. In Eng- 
land tokens first came into use in the 
reign of Henry VIII, owing to the want 
of authorized coins of lower value than 
a penny. Stamped tokens of lead, tin, 
and even leather were issued by vintners, 
grocers, and other tradesmen during the 
time of Elizabeth, and were extensively 
circulated, being readily exchanged for 
authorized money at the shops where they 
were issued. Token money has been 
frequently issued in other countries. 


empire, with fall faculties and an at- 
tendance of about 4000 students. This 
city may be considered the center of the 
political, commercial, and literary activ- 
ity of Japan. Its foreign trade is 
limited, on account of 'the shallowness of 
the bay and rivers, but manufactures are 
active and developing. Its population, 
once estimated at 1,!SOO,000, fell oflt till 
in 1872 it was about 780,000. It has 
since rapidly increased and in 1909 was 
2,168,151, ranking as the fifth city in 
the world. 


Tolrio (t5'k6-0), or Tokyo, formerly the world. 

xvikAv ^j^jj^ Yeddo, the capital of Toland (Wland), John, an English 

Japan, and chief residence of the mikado, *v*«*""^ deist, bom in 1669; died in 

Japan, and chief residence of the mikado, 
is situated on a bay of the same name, 
on the 8. B. coast of Hondo, the largest of 
the Japanese islands, and is connected 
by rail with Yokohama and Kanazawa. 
The bulk of the houses are of woooL but 
there are manv new buildings of brick 
and stone, and an imperial palace has 
been erected near the center, as also 



P A a t f t Q Q £ A H 

public oflSces, etc The greater part of 
the town is flat, and intersected by nu- 
merous canals crossed by bridges. The 
streets of the modem city have been 
made fairly wide and regular; they are 
kept clean and some of them are tra- 
versed by railways. Gas has been in- 
troduced, and the sanitary arrangements 
have been improved. Education is well 
organized, ana there are numerous pri- 
vate and elementary schools. Tokio con- 
tains the imperial university, the most 
Jbiportant educational institution of the 

1722. He entered Glasgow University 
in 1687; was graduated M.A. from Edin- 
burgh in 1690, and afterwards studied 
theology at Leyden. In 1696 he pub- 
lished his Christianity not Mysterious, 
which created a great sensation, and was 
burnt by the hangman at Dublin, bv 
order of the Irish parliament, in 1697. 
He subsequently settled down ' as a 
voluminous pamphleteer in London. Of 
his other works the chief were: Life of 
MUton (1698), accompanying an edition 
of his writing Anglta Libera (1701). 
Socinianism Truly Stated (1705), and 
Pantheisticon (1750). In the last of 
these works Toland distinctly avowed 
himself a pantheist. 

Tnl^iln (to-le'dd; anciently ToUtum), 
xuxcau ^ ^ijy Q^ gpj^.^^ .jj ^^^ Castile, 

capital of a province of the same name, 
on a rocky eminence washed by the Ta- 
gus, and 1820 feet above the sea, 55 miles 
southwest of Madrid. It is the see of 
an archbishop, who is primate of Spain. 
The streets are narrow and steep, and 
the houses crowded together. Toledo 
contains a ruined alcazar, or palace and 
fortress, dating from 1551, and a Gothic 
cathedral, one of the grandest in the 
world, completed in 1492, in the style of 
the thirteenth century; also other in- 
teresting buildings. The Toledo sword- 
blades, renowned for many centuries, are 
manufactured in a larse building (a 
government establishment) on the Tagus, 
about a mile from the town. Toledo 
was taken by the Romans in 193 B.C., 
and is celebrated in the history of Spain. 
It was successively the seat of sovem- 
ment under the Goths, Moors, and kings 
of Castile. Pop. 23,317. Province: area 
6919 sq. miles. Pop. 376,814. 
ThIaHa a <^ity, capital of Lucas Co., 
xuxcuuy Qjjj^,^ ^jj ^jjg Maumee River. 

about six miles from Lake Erie, and 65 
miles s. s. w. of Detroit Toledo is the 
northern terminus of the Miami and 
Erie Canal, and the center of several 
extensive railway lines. It has an ex- 
cellent harbor and is one of the largest 

Digitized by 



Tolentino Tomato 

grain-shipping points of the country; towards an explanation of hia peculiar 

also ships large quantities of iron-ore, social and mystic religious ideas. Among 

coal, lumber, provisions, lire stock, etc. them are ConfesHont, My Reliffion, The 

Manufactures are important, beer and Search for Happiness, Two Oeneraiions, 

wine being largely produced and many Infancy and Youths Death, Qreat Proh- 

other articles made. Boat- and ship- lemM of History, What is My Life? The 

building are large industries. The city Kreuizer SonaPi, etc Regarded as one 

has some notable public buildings, and of the leading writers and reformers of 

possesses a aodlogical garden. Pop. the world, he was annoyed in his old age 

168,497. by visitors and the social duties which 

TMlfknfiTiA ( t6-lftn-te'n5) , a town of interfered with his life pursuits, and 

xviciitiiiu Central Italy, in the prov- left home secretly with an idea of 

ince of Macerata, with a fine cathedral, escaping these distractions. The severe 

Here Pope Pius VI, in 1797, concluded weather to which he was thus exposed 

a humiliating peace with Bonaparte, and broueht on inflammation of the lungi, 

[in the neighborhood, in 1815, Murat, at and he died November 19, 1910. 

the head of the Neapolitans, was de- TnltftPfl (tol'teks), a prehistoric people 

:feated by the Austrians under Bianchi. *vj.wci/o ^f Mexico and Central Amer- 

Pop. (commune) 13,197. ica, to whom the Aztecs and the Mayas 

Tolcrfttion* ^^ Religious Liberty, ascribed their arts and ancient monu- 
ments. See Mexico, 

Toleration, Acr»-. see^co/roi- Xoln-babam '^^^^,1^^^^, 

Tolima (t^'lS-mA), a state of the Re- tree of tropical South America, the 
^^^^^ public of Colombia, intersected Myrospermum i\fyroTylon) toluiferum 
by the upper course of the Magdalena. or peruiferum. Tolu-balsam becomes hard 
and embraced between the two chief and may he pulverized, has a pleasant 
chains of the Cordillera; area, 18,400 aromatic flavor, and is used in certain 
sq. miles. It produces cacao, sugar, medicinal preparations, 
maize, and tobacco, and is rich in gold Tnlnnfl (tG-lonci), a Mexican city, 
and silver. The volcano of Tolima has *viuv€fc ^^^^ of the State of Mexico, 
a height of 17,660 feet Pop. 305,185. 45 miles s. w. of the federal capital; 
Capital, Neiva. situated 8500 feet above the sea. The 

Toll (^^1)* A ^^ P^^^> ^^ ^^^y imposed, city has a cathedral, a theater, etc., and 
'*'^" for some liberty or privilege or is noted for its hams and sausages, 
other reasonable consideration: such as Pop. 25,940. 

(a) the payment claimed by the owners Toluol (toro-ol). See TriniiroUh 
of a port for goods landed or shipped ■*•"•■•»"'■• luene, 

there; (6) the sum charged by the Tn-molifliiylr (tom'a-hftk), the light 
owners of a market or fair for goods ^^uuxuuw ]s. battle-axe of the North 
brought to be sold there; (c) a fixed American Indians. The head was origi- 
charge made by those intrusted with the 
maintenance of roads, streets, bridges, 
etc., for the passage of persons, goods, 
and cattle. See Roads. 
Tolstoi (tol'stoi). Count Leo Niko- 
xvxobvx LAiEvrrcH, a celebrated Rus- 
sian novelist, bom Au^. 28, 1828. In 
1851 he accompanied his brother to the 
Caucasus and entered the army, and dur- 
ing the Crimean war took part in the 
defense of Sebastopol. At tne close of 
the war he retired to his estates and de- 
voted himself to literary composition 
and schemes for the education and social 
improvement of the peasantry. Eventu- Tomabawki of the North American Indians, 
ally he gave himself up to working out 

the higher problems of life experi- nally of stone attached to the shaft by 
mentally — working along with the thongs, etc., but steel heads were after- 
peasantry in a sort of communistic life, wards supplied by American and Euro- 
Among his earliest writings of moment pean traders. The Indians could throw 
are his vivid sketches from Sebastopol. the tomahawk with remarkable accuracy. 
His three great novels are the Cossacks, Tomato (^-m^'^* tu-m&'tO; Lyooper* 
War and Peace, and Anna Karenina. '*'*'*"«*''V •ioiim etculentiim), a plant be- 
His later writings are all mostly directed longing to the nat. order Solanacett. 


Digitized by 



Formerly known also as Love Apple, 
It is a native of Soath America, bat has 
been introduced into most other warm or 
temperate countries. It is cultirated 
for the sake of its fmit, which is fleshy, 
nsnally scarlet or orange, irregularly 
shaped, and is largely used in sauces, 

Tomato {Lifeop$r9ieum eteultntum). 

stews, and soups, as well as eaten by 
itself. The plant is a tender, herbaceous 
annual, with yellow flowers, and has 
come into hich repute, and its cultiva- 
tion has rapidly extended in many parts 
of the world. Its general use as food 
has been chiefly within recent times. 
Tomb (t^°>)» A°7 sepulchral structure, 
MVMU.U Qgyaiiy n chamber or vault 
formed wholly or partly in the earth, 
with walls and a roof, for the reception 
of the dead. See 8aroophagu8f Burial 
and Funeral Riiee. 

TaiviYioa Tombak (tom'bak), an alloy 
lOmDaCy consisting of from about 75 
to 86 parts copper, mixed with 25 to 
15 parts sine, and used as an imitation 
of gold for cheap Jewelry. When arsenic 
is added it forms white tombac. 

Tombigbee irh^JTsli'TSho'cilS^ 

go county, Mississippi, and after an ir- 
regular course of 460 miles joins the 
Alabama River ^ miles above Mobile; 
the united stream is called Mobile River 
below the junction. It is navigable for 
410 miles from Mobile Bay. 
TnmnAil (tom'kod), an American name 
AUmcoa f^^ certofai small cod-fishes. 
TninellAftO (tom-el-ld's6), a town of 
lOmeUOBO ^p^j^ ,^ ^a Mancha, 50 

miles E. N. E. of Ciudad ReaL It has 
lately risen into importance as a center 
of the wine trade, a mat part of the 
claret and 'cognac* of commerce being 
here produced. Pop. 13,929. 

Tompkins i}^!.)!^^^:., ^"f^m^n 

* vice-president, was bom in 

Westchester Co.. New York, in 1774 ; died 
in 1S26. He was elected to Congress in 
1804, was governor of New York 1807- 
17, and was vice-president of the United 
•tatet daring President Monroe's two 


terms. He was entfgetic in the war 
against Bneland and aided in having 
slavery abolished in New York. 

Tommy Atkins, 5,,-^,,|i'^,t» 

British army. It is said to have origi- 
nated in the custom of makinir out 
blanks for military accounts witn the 
name, ' I, Tommy Atkins,' etc. Kipling 
has immortalized it in verse. 

Tom of Coventry, |,'U^?J«.'^«- 

Tomsk * *®^^ ®' Western Siberia, 
* capital of the government of 
Tomsk, on the right bank of the Tom, on 
the great road to China. Manufactures 
include cloth, leather, and soap; and 
there is an extensive trade in furs, fish, 
and cattle, obtained in exchange for arti- 
cles of European and Chinese manu- 
facture. Pop. 112,083.— The government 
of Tomsk has an area of 331,159 square 
miles, and a pop. of 2,412,700. It is 
watered by the Obi and its tributaries. 

Tonawanda il^lvVeTaf *iJ4w* ffi 

on the Niagara River, 11 miles s. e. of 
Niagara Falls. Bridges connect it with 
North Tonawanda, on the opposite side of 
Tonawanda creek. It has a large pine 
lumber trade, engine, boiler, and steel 
works, and wooden ware factories. An 
armory is located here. Pop. 8200. 
Ton (^°)' A denomination of weight 
equivalent to 20 hundredweights 
(contracted to act), or 224M) lbs. In 
the United States goods are sometimes 
weighed by the short ton, of 2000 lbs., 
the hundredweight being reckoned at 
100 lbs.; but it has been decided by act 
of Congress that, unless otherwise 
specified, a ton weight is to be under- 
stood as 2240 lbs. avoirdupois. 
Tone (^^i^)t iu music, the sound pro- 
Avu%^ duced by the vibration of a string 
or other sonorous body ; a musical sound. 
Nearly every musical sound is composite, 
that is, consists of several simultaneous 
tones having different rates of vibration 
according to fixed laws, which depend on 
the nature of the sonorous body and the 
mode of producing its vibrations. The 
simultaneously sounding components are 
called partial ioncM; that one having the 
lowest rate of vibration and the loudest 
sound is termed the prime, principal, or 
fundamental tone; the otner partial 
tones are called harmonica or overtones 
Ti\r\tk Theobald Wolfe, Irish patriot, 
*"^^> bom at Dublin, Ireland, in 
1763; educated at Trinity College; stud- 
ied law in London, and was called to the 
bar at the Middle Temple (1798). He 
was an ardent sympathizer with the doc- 
trines of the French revolution, and hav 



Digitized by 


Tonga Islands 

Tonio Sol-fa System 

ing promoted the combination of the Irish 
Catholics and Dissenters he founded the 
society of United Irishmen in 1791. 
The discovery of his secret negotiations 
with France drove him to the United 
States (1795). He sailed for France in 
1796, and became brigadier in Heche's 
projected expedition to Ireland. He 
served in the Bavarian armv in 1797, 
and in 1798 he was captured on board 
a French squadron bound for Ireland. 
He was brought to Dublin, and sen- 
tenced to death by a court-martial, but 
committed suicide in prison, November 
19, 179a 

Tonga Islands fcVAan.f*'' 
Tongataboo <i-f]S?:'*r'-f^?fe- 

most southern of the Friendly Islands, 

in the Pacific Ocean. It is of coral 

formation, about 60 miles in circuit. 

Its soil is extremely fertile. See Friendly 


Tongking. ^^ Tonquin, 

Tnncrr^ft (to^-gr; Flemish, Tongeren), 
XOngres ^ ^^^^ ^^ Belgium, in the 
province of Limburg, on the Geer, 12 
miles southwest of Maestricht Tongres 
has a church (Notre Dame) dating from 
1240. Pop. 9152. 

Tnnimik (tung), the organ found in 
xviiguc ^^ mouth of most vertebrate 
animals, which exercises the sense of 
taste, and also assists in speech and in 
taking food. The name tongue is also 

fiven to very different structures in 
nvertebrata. In man the tongue is at- 
tached by its base or root to the hvoid 
bone, its other extremity being free. 
The upper surface is convex with a 
fibrous middle septum, called the raphi. 
The front two-thirds of the tongue are 
rough, and bear the papilke, in which the 
sense of taste resides. The posterior 
third is smooth, and exhibits the open- 
ings of numerous mucous glands. The 
substance of the tongue consists of nu- 
merous muscles. The papillae, which 
cause the characteristic roughness of the 
tongue, are of three kinds, circumvaUate^ 
fungiform, and filiform. The largest or 
circumvallate papillse number from eight 
to ten, and occupy the posterior part of 
the upper surface. Tney vary from 
Ath to tVth inch in diameter. The 
fungiform papilloi are scattered irregu- 
larly, the filiform over the front In 
structure the papillae are like those of 
the skin (which see), and contain capil- 
lary vessels and nervous filaments. Nu- 
merous follicles and mucous or Ungual 
glands exist on the tongue, the func- 
tion of these latter beincr the seccetion 

of mucus. The nervous supply is dis- 
tributed in the form of three main nerves 
to each half of the organ. The gustatory 
nerves and the glossopharyngeal branches 
are the nerves providing the tongue with 
common sensation, and also with the 
sense of taste; while the hypoglossal 
nerve invests the muscles of the tongue 
with the necessarv stimulus. The con- 
ditions necessary for the exercise of the 
sense of taste are: firstiv, the solution 
of the matters to be tasted; secondly, the 
presence of a special gustatory nerve ; and 
thirdly, that the surface of the tongue 
itself be moist The t<^ and edges of the 
tongue are more sensitive to taste than 
the middle portion. The sense of touch 
is very acute in the tongue. 
Tonic (ton'ik), or Key-note, in music, 
the first or fundamental note of 
any scale, the principal sound on which 
all regular melodies depend, and in which 
they or their accompanying basses natu- 
rally terminate. 

Tonic ^° medicine, any remedy which 
> improves the tone or vigor of 
the fibers of the stomach and bowels, or 
of the muscular fibers generally. Tonics 
mav be said to be of two kinds, medical 
and non-medicaL Medical tonics act 
chiefly in two ways: (1) indirectlv, by 
first influencing the stomach and in- 
creasing its digestive powers; such be- 
ing the effect of the vegetable bitters, 
the most important of which are calumba, 
chamomile, cinchona bark, gentian, tar- 
axacum, etc. (2) Directly, by passing 
into and exerting their influence through 
the blood; such being the case with the 
various preparations of iron, certain 
mineral acids, and salts. The non- 
medical tonics are open-air exercise, fric- 
tion, cold in its various forms and 
applications, as the shower-bath, sea-bath- 
ing, etc. 

Tonic Sol-fa System, .^..Tet' of 

notation and teaching which has re- 
ceutlv been widely spread among the 
English-speaking population of the globe, 
chiefly through the untirins efforts of 
the Rev. John Curwen, of Plaistow, who 
obtained the leading features of his plan 
from Miss Glover, of Norwich. The fol- 
lowing is an outline of the system: As 
of the two relations of musical sounds, 
those of pitch and key (see Music), the 
latter Is of transcendent importance, 
every means should be taken to impress 
this fact on the mind and ear of the 
learner. Any diatonic scale is a natural 
scale, whether it is founded on the key 
of C, D, E, or on any other tone thus 
represented by a letter-name iij the 
ordinary notation. The tonic or key- 

Digitized by 



note of the scale is always called do]i« 
the second rmj^ the others me, f ah, soh, 
lah, to, successively, no matter what the 
absolute pitch of the sound may be, the 
initials only being ordinarily used in 
printed music: thus, d, r, m, f , s, 1, t« 
To designate a sound of absolute pitch, 
the tonic-solfaist uses the first seven let- 
ters of the alphabet just as the followers 
of the other musical system do. Time 
and accent are marked thus, | : | , or 
I : : I , or | : i : | , etc. ; the space be- 
tween the lines and dots indicating the 
aliquot parts of the bar (the beat or 
pulse), the line showing the strong ac- 
cent, the short line the medium accent, 
and the colon the weak accent Ac- 
cidental or chromatic tones are indicated 
by a change in the vowel sounds of the 
Bvllables ; thus, dolu rmj^ f ah* etc., when 
sharpened become de, re, fe, etc.; and 
me, te, etc., flattened become ma, ta, 
etc The higher octaves are marked d|, 
rl, m|, etc, the lower d|, r|, m|, etc. 
The ' last two lines of the psalm tune 
French would therefore be printed 
thus: — 
Key F. 


In teaching the system great use is made 
of the modulator, a chart which repre- 
sents pictorial ly in an upright position 
the relative places of the notes of the 
scales, the chromatic notes, the closely 
related scales, etc. 

Tonka (^onta), Tonga, the fruit of 
x.vuA.a ^jjg Dipterix odorata or Couma- 
rouna odordta, a shrubby plant of 


Tonka Bean Plant {DipUrix odordta), 

Guiana, nat. order Leguminosie, subor- 
der Papilionacesp. The fruit is an ob- 
long, dry, fibrous drupe, containing a 
sinpe seed. The odor of the kernel is ex- 

tremely agreeable. It is used in per- 
fumery. Called also Tonkin bean, Ton- 
*quin hean. See Coumarin, 

Tonnaee ^^^^y)* * ^^^ originally 

o signifying the number of 
tons weight which a ship might carry 
with safety, but now usea to denote the 
gauge of the vessel's dimensions, and 
the standard for tolls, dues, etc. It is 
generally assumed that 40 cubic feet 
shall constitute a ton, and the tonnage 
of a ship is considered to be the multiple 
of this ton which most closely corre- 
sponds with the internal capacity of the 
vessel. Formerlv the rule was to multi- 
ply the length of the ship by the breadth, 
assume the depth to be the same as the 
width, multiply by this assumed depth, 
and divide the product by 04, the 
quotient being the tons burden. But 
this mode was found to be both mis- 
leading and dangerous ; for as harbor and 
light dues, towage, etc., were charged 
according to tonnage, shipowners had 
their vessels built so deep and narrow 
that they were often unsea worthy. An 
improved system was introduced in 1835. 
The depth from the deck to the bottom 
of the hold is taken at different places, 
and the breadth is measured at different 
elevations in depth. If the vessel is a 
steamer an allowance is made for the 
space occupied by the engine-room, 
boilers, coal-bunks, etc In vessels with 
a break or poop in the upper deck, the 
tonnage of this poop space must be ascer- 
tained and added to the ordinary tonnage. 
This system of measurement is in com- 
mon use in the United States and British 

Tonnage and Ponndage^^^Jj'g® 

formerly imposed in England on exports 
and imports. Tonnage was a duty upon 
all wines imported. Poundage was an 
ad valorem duty of 12d. in the pound on 
all merchandise imported or exported. 
They were first levied by agreement, and 
were granted by parliament to the crown 
for a limited period in 1370. They were 
afterwards granted to successive sover- 
eigns until 1787, when they were finally 

Tonanin (ton-k§n'). Tongkino, the 
* most northern province of 

Anam in Asia; area, between 40,000 
and 50,000 square miles. The chief river 
is the Song-ka. The principal agricul- 
tural products are rice, cotton, spices, 
and sugar; and the province is rich in 
timber and minerals. The climate is un- 
healthy. By treaty dated June, 1884, 
Tonquin was ceded to France. Pop. 
estimated at from 8;;000,000 to 10,000,* 
000. See Anam. 


Digitized by 




Tonsber^ (tuns-Wrg'), a town in 
AOiiBuer^ Norway, situated on a fjord 
branching off from Cbristiania Fjord. 
(See Christiania,) Many vessels be- 
long to the town. Pop. 8620. 

TonsiUtis i^iZ'u "'"^- ^*« 

Tonsils (^<>Qs^ls)t iQ anatomy, two 
X.V.UOUO oblong suboval bodies situated 
on each side of the throat or fauces. 
Their minute structure resembles that 
of the closed sacs or follicles of Peyer 
in the intestine, and their function is not 
yet understood. See Palate. 
Tonsure (ton'shOr), the name given 
to the bare place on the 
heads of the Roman Catholic and Greek 
priests, formed by shaving or cutting 
away the hair and keeping it so. The 
custom of cutting away the hair in token 
of the dedication of a person to the 
service of God is mentioned as early as 
the fourth century. Shaving the hair 
precedes consecration: it is performed by 
the bishop. The tonsure admits the sub- 
ject into holy orders, and the extent of 
the tonsure increases with the rank held. 
TATifiTi#k ( ton-ten' )f a kind of life an- 

ventor Tontl, an Italian of the seven- 
teenth century. A tontine is an annuity 
shared by subscribers to a loan, with 
the benent of survivorship, the annuity 
being increased as the subscribers die, 
until at last the whole goes to the last 
survivor, or to the last two or three, 
according to the terms on which the 
money is advanced. By means of ton- 
tines many government loans were 
formerly raised in England. 
Tooke i^^)» John Hobne, son of 
John Home; a rich poulterer, 
was bom in Westminster, England, in 
1736. He was educated at Westminster 
and Eton, afterwards proceeding to St. 
John's College, Cambridge. In 1760 he 
entered the church, and obtained the liv- 
ing of New Brentford. A close friend- 
ship with Wilkes ended in a public 
altercation in 1770 and 1771. The year 
1771 also witnessed his contest with 
Junius, in which, in the general opinion, 
he came off victor. In 1773 he resigned 
his benefice to study for the bar (te 
which from being in orders he was not 
admitted) ; and oy his legal advice to 
Mr. Tooke, of Purley, he became that 

fentleman's heir, and assumed his name, 
n 1777 he was prosecuted for a seditious 
libel condemning the American war, and 
his trial resulted in a year's imprison- 
ment, and a fine of £200. He was a 
short time member of parliament for Old 
Samm. He died in 1812. He wrote 
several political DCMnpblets and an in- 

fenious linguistic work entitled Epea 
HeroeniGt or the Divenions of Purley. 
TadIa (t51), John La whence, a come- 
J.UU1C ^^^^ jj^j.jj .jj London in 1833, 

and was educated at the City of London 
School. After serving for some time as 
a clerk he took to the stage, and made 
his first appearance at the Haymaiicet 
in 1852. In 1880 he commenced the 
management of the Folly Theater, Lon- 
don» which he later on reconstructed and 
named after himself. In 1874 he visited 
America, in 1888 he published his Remi- 
niaoenoes, and in 1890 made a successful 
tour in the Antipodes. He was one of 
the most popular actors on the stag^ 
and inimitable in his i>ersonation of 
semipathetic and semiludicrous char- 
acters. Among his most successfol im- 
personations were Paul Pry, Caleb 
Plummer in the Cricket on the Hearth^ 
Vnde Dick in Vnde Dick's Darling, etc 
TnAin'hft (t5ms), Robert, secessionist, 

gia, in 1810; died in 1886. He was 
elected to the United States Senate in 
1853 and 1859, became a leader in the 
Secession party in Georgia and resigned 
from the Senate to join the Confederate 
cause. He was Secretary of State in the 
Confederate Congress in 1861; Senator, 
Febmary, 1862 ; and resigned to become a 
brigadier-general in the army, but won no 
distinction as a soldier. He refused to 
take the oath of allegiance to the United 
States government after the war and re- 
mained rebellious till his death. 
TnoTi 1 ^^^ ) » TooNA, the wood of an 
-^""^ East Indian tree, the Cedr&a 
Toona, nat order Cedrelacee. It is 
sometimes called Indian mahogany, and 
also Indian cedar. Another species (C 
AuBtrdlie) yields the so-called cedar- wood 
of New South Wales. Toonwood is 
highly valued as a furniture wood, and 
is used for door-panels, carving, etc 
See Cedrela, 
ToOl^Onef . ®^ Tourguenleff. 

Tooth. SeeTcei*. 

ToofTillpTiik (tdth'ftk), a well-known 
lOOXnacne iffectlon of the teeth, arts- 
ing from various causes. Inflammation 
of the fangs of the teeth is a common 
cause. If the inflammation is not re- 
duced matter forms, and the result is 
a gum-boil. Caries is a frequent cause 
of toothache, the outer part of the tooth 
rotting away and exposing the nerve. 
Neuralgic toothache is a purely nervous 
variety, and may occor either in sound 
or carious teeth. As a preventive against 
toothache the teeth should be kept 
scrupulously clean, and when they show 

Digitized by 




symptoms of decay the services of a 
skillful dentist should be had recourse 
to. The decay of a tooth is very often 
arrested by stopping or filling up the 

Tooth-shell. ®^ DentaUum. 
ToothwOrt. ^^ Dentaria. 
Toowoombd. (t5-w6m'b4), the prin- 

ling Downs district of Queensland, Aus- 
tralia, 100 miles west of Brisbane. It 
occupies one of the best localities in 
Soutnem Queensland, in the center of a 
large agricultural settlement; contains a 
number of religious, educational, and 
other pnblic buildings, and many hand- 
some private residences. Wine is pro- 
duced in the vicinity. Pop. 9137. 
Tonaz (tO'paz), a mineral, ranked by 
* " mineralogists among gems, 

characterized by having the luster vitre- 
ous, transparent to translucent ; the color 
yellow, white, green, blue; fracture sub- 
conchoidal, uneven ; specific gravity, 8.409. 
It is harder than quartz. It is a silicate 
of aluminium, in which the oxygen is 
partly replaced by fluorine. It occurs 
massive and in crystals. The primary 
form of its crystal is a right rhombic 
prism. Topazes occur generally in igne- 
ous and metamorphic rocks, and in many 
parts of the world, as Cornwall, Scot- 
land, Saxony, Siberia, Brazil, etc. The 
finest varieties are obtained from Brazil 
and the Ural Mountains. Those from 
Brazil have deep yellow tints ; those from 
Siberia have a bluish tinge; the Saxon 
topazes are of a pale wine-yellow, and 
those found in the Scotch Highlands are 
of a sky-blue color. The purest from 
Brazil, when cut in facets, closely re- 
semble the diamond in luster and bril- 

Tone (^^P)t * popular name for a 
^^r^ species of Buddhist monument in- 
tended usually to mark some important 
event. The oldest monuments of this 
kind are spherical or elliptical cupolas, 
resting on a circular or rectilinear base, 
with an umbrella-shaped structure on the 
apex. See Dagoha. 

Tone (Galeus catiM), a European fish 
*"F^ of the shark family, attaining a 
length of six feet. 

TnnAlra (to-p$'k&), a city of Kansas, 
XOpeKa capital of. the State and 
county seat of Shawnee Co., on the Kan- 
sas River, 67 miles w. of The Missouri 
River. It has wide, well-built streets, 
and contains a handsome State house, 
State memorial building, State hospital 
for the insane, reform school, Washburn 
College, Bethany College, etc. It has ex- 

tensive railroad shops, flour mills, cream- 
eries, packing houses, foundries and other 
industries. Since 1885 there have been 
no saloons in the city. Pop. 47,385. 
Top-Haneh. ^^ Constantinople. 

Tophet. ^^ Gehenna. 

ToplitZ. SeeTepKte. 

ToTpTi-fiftli (tOrch'fish), a deep-sea, 
lOrcn-nsn pedlculate fish which is 
found off Madeira. The first dorsal spine 

Torch-Fish {lAiaophryU lueiff), 

carries a luminous bulb above the eyes 
which resembles a torch. 
Tor^an (t^^sou), a strongly fortified 
o town of Prussia, province of 

Saxony, 45 miles e. N. E. of Merseburg, 
on the Elbe. Pop. 12,299. 
Torm ATI til L tor'men - til ; Potentitta 
lOrmeniU i^ormentma), a trailing 

Slant common in healthy or waste places, 
ee PotentUla. 
Tornado (tor-na'dO), a term applied 
^ to hurricanes and whirlwinds 
in general, such as are prevalent in the 
West Indies and on the west coast of 
Africa about the time of the equinoxes 
and in the Indian Ocean about the time 
of changes in the monsoons. They 
are accompanied with severe thunder and 
lightning and torrents of rain, but are 
of short duration and limited area. It 
is especially applied to the very destruc- 
tive whirling storms, of very narrow 
width and brief duration, common on 
the plains of the Mississippi valley and 
occasionally appearing beyond this area. 
Originating in an overhanging cloud, a 
tornado sends down a funnel-shaped 
cloud to the ground, the lower portion 
long and narrow. This is caused by an 
immensely rapid vertical whirl in the air, 
capable of twisting off the limbs of great 
trees and of destroying whatever it 
touches. The tornado is a traveling 
storm, its track usually a narrow one^ 
but often several hundred miles in 

Digitized by 


Tornca Torpedo 

length. Death and destruction are left gineering works, agricnltural implement 
in Its path, especially where this passes factories, breweries, carriage-works, tan- 
through a town or city, and tornadoes neries, soap-works, boot and shoe fac- 
are greatly feared in the localities sub- tories, piano and organ foctories, stove 
ject to their visitations. foundries, etc. There is a large export 
TomeS (tor'ne-6), a seaport of North trade in flour, grain, live-stock, etc 
Finland, Russia, at the mouth Toronto was founded in 1794. The 
of the River Tomea, which rises in latest official census gives a population of 
Sweden and forms part of the boundary 376^538, but the city subsequently took 
between it and Russia. It has an active a <^nsu8 through its police department, 
trade in timber, nsh, pitch, furs, etc., the returns of which were as foUowi: • 

and near by is a hill which tourists Ward 1 63,704 

ascend at the summer solstice to view ** 2 00,204 

the midnight sun. Pop. 1500. •• 8 54,758 

Toronto (t^ron'tO), one of the chief •• 4 71^60 

xuxuiLtu ^j^jgg ^f ^g Dominion of •* 5 72,897 

Ganada, capital of the province of On- ^ 6 83,589 

tario, situated in the county of York, •• 7 18,395 

on a small bay on the northwest coast 

of Lake Ontario, 315 miles w. 8. w. of Total 425,407 

Montreal Its site is low, but rises Tomedo (.tor-pd'do), the name of 
gently from the water's edge to a height *vj.fFcu.v ^g^^g allied to the rays, form- 
of above 100 feet The fine bay in front ing the type of the family Torpedinldie, 
of the city forms a splendid harbor. The and noted for their power <^ giving 
town is regularly built, the streets cross electrical shocks by means of specially- 
each other at right angles, and are developed electrical organs. The electri- 
wide, well paved, and in general of cal organs consist of two masses placed 
handsome architecture. The common on each side of the head, and composed 
material is brick, of a pleasing light of numerous vertical gelatinous columns 
color; the public buildings are numerous, separated by membranous septa, and 
and many of them very handsome. The richly furnished with nervous filaments, 
churches most worthy of notice are the The production of electricity by these 
Anglican and the Roman Catholic cathe- fishes is explicable on the ground of tiie 
drals, both in the pointed style, the conversion of an equivalent of nerve 
Metropolitan Church (Methodist), and force into electric force by the electric 
St. Andrew's Church (Presbyterian), organ; just as, under other circum- 
Among secular buildings the finest (al- stances, nerve force is converted into 
most completely destroyed by fire in 1890) motion through the musdes. The power 
is the University of Toronto; the others of the discharge varies with the health 
comprise the lieutenant-governor's resi- and size of the fish. The torpedoes occur in 
dence; the magnificent new Parliament typical perfection chiefly in the Mediter- 
Buildings; Osgoode Hall, the seat of the ranean Sea, and in the Indian and Pad- 
provincial law courts; the normal school fie Oceans. A spedmen may measure 4 
buildings; Trinity College, in connection ft. long, and weigh from 60 to 70 lbs. 
with the Protestant Episcopal, a highly Tomedo ^ name for two distinct 
ornate building; the Upper Canada Col- ^^'^x'^'^^^Jc' asses of submarine destruc- 
lege; the custom-house; the post-office; tive agents, namely, torpedoes prope^ 
the public library; the Government which are moveable, and are propdled 
School of Practical Science; and the against an enemy's ship; and submarine 

froup of buildings where the annual in- mines, which lie stationary in the water, 
ustrial exhibitions are held. Charitable Of the first class, called offentive t^r^ 
and benevolent institutions are numerous, pedoea, there are three principal types: 
Queen's Park, in which the university (a ) the * automobile,* of which the 
is situated, is the prindpal public park. Whitehead is the best-known form; (5) 
The university is one of the best equipped the * towing torpedo * of Captain Har^ 
in America; and besides Trinity College vey; and (c) the 'epar' or 'out- 
there is Knox Ck>llege, a Presbysterlan rigger' torpedo. The Whitehead, or fish 
theological institution; Wydiffe College, torpedo, may be described as being a 
an Anglican theological school; M'Mas- cigar-shaped vessel, varying from 14 to 
ter University, supported by the Bap- 22 feet in length, and from 14 to 21 
tdsts: the Upper Canada (College; the inches in diameter, the largest weighing 
Provindal Normal and Model Schools ; 2000 pounds. It is made of specially pre- 
two schools of medicine, two colleges of pared steel, and is divided into three com- 
music, a veterinary college, etc Tfte in- partments; the war head contains the 
4aaUie8 include iron-foundriea and en- charge, consisting of wet guncotton, trini- 

Digitized by 


Torpedo Torpedo-boat 

tro-tolnol or some other high exploBive. only from a fixed base and. are thus fitted 

This charge is exploded bv a priming to be discharged only from shore, it beins 

charge of dry guncotton which in tnm evidently a difficult problem to control 

is fired by a primer struck by a firing their movements when discharged from a 

pin carried in the war nose screwed into moving base, as a ship or torpedo-boat 

the head of the torpedo before discharg- To the latter the Whitehead, or other 

ing. The central portion of the torpedo self-moving form, is well adapted, but 

contains the air flask in which air, com- it is unlikely that the wire-controlled 

pressed to 2500 pounds to the square forms are ever likely to be used except 

inch pressure, is carried for driving the from shore stations. The Whitehead is 

propelling engine. The after part con- the form commonly in use. In addition 

tains the encine, which is of reciprocating to these types of traveling torpedoes sev- 

design ; the horizontal steering gear which eral kinds of fixed torpeooes are in use, 

consists of a gyroscope driven by a spiral known as torpedo mines or submarine 

spring. Any deflection of the torpedo mines. These have been for many years 

from the line on which it was fired causes effectively used in warfare, and are of 

the ^roscope to act on a steering engine two types, the self-acting and the con- 

which moves tiie horizontal rudders and trolled. The first type is fired either 

restores the torpedo to its proper course, mechanically or electrically. A conunon 

The compartment also contains the au- mechanical device consists in a set of 

tomatic vertical steering gear. pins projecting at different angles from 

The range of torpedoes may be as high the head of the torpedo, any one of which 
as 10,000 yards at a speed of 25 knots being struck is driven down on a fulmi- 
an hour, but shorter ranges (up to 2500 nating base. The electrically fired are 
yards) are more practical and at the anchored so as to float 5 to 20 feet be- 
shorter ranges speeds up to 50 knots per low the surface, or may be ground mines 
hour have been attained. with a buoyant float. The electric cir- 

In recent practice the use of torpedoes cuit is completed and the mine fired when 

has been almost entirely confined to sub- float or mine is struck by a passing vessel, 

marines, which use a short-range torpedo The controlled mines have wires leading 

carrying a very large charge of high ex- to shore stations. In one form the clos- 

ploeive. The long range guns of modem ing of the circuit at the station does not 

battleships and battle cruisers precluding fire the mine, which must be touched by 

a sufficiently near approach for the use the vessel to complete the firing circuit 

of torpedoes. There are several forms of In another form observers watch the 

torpedo operated from shore. Of these the movement of the vessel and fire the mine 

Brennan carries in its interior two drums from shore when the ship is over the 

on which is wound piano wire. The torpedo. The spar or oumgger torpedo 

wires pass out of the rear and are at- consists simply of a metal case contain- 

tached to jK>werful enidnes on shore, ing the explosive substance (gunpowder, 

These reel the wires oir the drums, can*, gun-cotton, dynamite, etc.), and fitted 

ing the latter to rotate rapidly and to f^^ a fuse constructed so that it can be 

act upon the propellers. Increased speed °^ ** ^l^^fi ^' exploded by contact 

in the enrines causes the torpedo to move ^\^n * ship s side. It is screwed on to 

more rapidly, while it can be steered by * long spar, whicli is usuaUy fixed m the 

diecking one of the wires, these acting °^^ ^' * swift boat or steam-launch, 

on vertical rudders in the torpedo. The which endeavors to reach and push the 

operating range is a mile or more. In the torpedo against the hostile vesseL Sta- 

Sims-Edison torpedo there is a 'float' tionary torpedoes or submarine mines, 

from which the torpedo is suspended, so such as are placed in channels or coasts 

that it hangs about six feet below the to prevent the approach of an enemy's 

inrftice. Here an electric motor forms vessels, usually consist of a strong metal 

the propelling agency, it being worked case containing an effective explosive, 

from shore throogh an electric cable such as gun-cotton, etc.. and having a 

wliicfa is paid out as the torpedo advances fuse or cap which will explode the 

towards its mark. Another form, the charge on the slightest contact; or the 

Lay torpedo, has compressed carboi^ explosion may be effected by means of 

add gas for its motive power, the working electricity, the operator firing it at will 

of the engine being controlled by an from the shore. 

operator on shore throuch an electric TnimA/lA.TinQf The modern torpedo- 
cable. Both these forms can be exploded iOrpcao-PUai. ^^^^ jg ^ g^,^! ^^p. 
by aid of the electric current through the ship equipped with torpedo tubes as its 
eable, their speed bdng about 10 or 11 chief weapons of offense. It must be 
knots per qiile. The three wlr^-controlled capable or bil^ sneld, able to launch its 
loiiDg mentioned can be folly oontrolM torpedoes effectuaJuy and seaworthy in pro* 

Digitized by 


Torpedo Net 

Torrens System^ 

portion to its size. There are two main 
types, the torpedo-boat destroyer and the 
torpedo-boat, a smaller type of 200 to 400 
tons displacement which has been largely 
superseded by the destroyer type and 
relegated to harbor and coast defense. 
This type is equipped with two or three 
torpedo-tubes, several three-inch guns and 
smaller arms. It has a speed of from 25 
to 30 knots. The torpedo-boat destroyer 
is a larger vessel usually of 900 to 1200 
tons displacement, though larger vessels 
in this class have been built From four 
to eight torpedo tubes are carried and 
four 4-inch guns, together with lighter 

Sieces. A destroyer has a speed of about 
knots per hour and is highly efficient 
both as a scout and as a defense against 
submarines. Originally designed for_night 
attacks on larger ships the development 
of rapid-firing guns and searchlisfhts has 
been such that operations of this char- 
acter are rare tnough destroyers were 
actively engaged on both sides during 
naval engagements in the European war 
(q. v.). The motive power of these ves- 
sels is steam generated by fuel oil for the 
sake of space, economy and convenience. 
They are driven by high powered quad- 
ruple expansive engines operating twin 
propellors and are sufficiently seaworthy 
to accompany a battleship fleet on the 
high seas. 

Originally a torpedo-boat consisted 
simply of a small boat filled with ex- 
plosive which was itself destroyed in the 
explosion. Such vessels were used as 
early as 1585 at Antwerp. Submarine 
craft carrying torpedoes which were to 
be affixed to the bottom of the enemy 
ships followed. Surface craft appeared 
in the American Civil War, most of them 
using torpedoes on long spars attached 
to their bows, but it was not until 1877 
when Herreshofif brought out the first 
torpedo-boat fitted to discharge White- 
head Torpedoes that the nrindples of the 
modem vessel of this class were estab- 
Kshed. . ^ ^ * ^ , 

TAimAfiA Wpf A net made up of steel 
lOrpeaOXiei. ,{q^9 ^bi^h is earned 

on a warship as a defense against sub- 
marine torpedoes. The usual practice is 
to suspend the net from the ends of 
booms pivoted at the inboard end to the 
side of the ship. When the shin is at 
rest these booms are swung out horizon- 
tally and the net unfurls, falling to a 
sufficient depth to protect the hull. When 
the ship is in motion the net is of no use 
and the booms are swung ij» the net 
being furled and lying in a shelf. 
TAt^iiQV (tor-k(^'). a seaport and 
lOrqnay ^aterin^-place of England. 
on the 8onth coast of Devonshire, pleas- 

antly situated on a series of heights and 
depressions on the north side of Torbav. 
It is well built, and consists principally 
of two streets, of several commanding 
terraces, and of a great number of 
isolated cottages and villas, with gar- 
dens attached. It has several handsome 
churches, a town-hall, assembly-rooms, 
etc., and a long pier forming an excel- 
lent promenade. The water supply and 
drainage system are excellent Vor in- 
valids its climate in winter is among the 
best in England. Here William of 
Orange landed in his invasion of 1688. 
Pop. (1911) 38,772. 
Torane (tork), or TOBC, a personal 
^ ornament worn by certain an- 
cient nations, as by the ancient Britons, 
Gauls, and Germans. It consists of a 
stiff collar, formed of a number of gold 
wires twisted together, and sometimes of 
a thin metal plate, generally of gold, and 
was worn round the neck as a symbol of 
rank and command. 

Torqnemada <»';;'|Jl*;S^6ai'?^ 

bom at VaUadolid in 1388 ; died in 1468. 
He entered the Dominican Order in 1403 
and became noted for his theological writ- 
ings and took part in many Important 
church councils. 

Torquemada, Jj*?;^*?/^ ^ '•*- 
Torre Annunziata <^!;^,.r^: 

port in the province of Naples, Italy, at 
the foot of Vesuvius, on the Bay of 
Naples. Pop. 28,084. 

Torre Del Greco ^rpornrW 

in the province of Naples, on the Gulf of 
Naples, at the foot of Mount Vesuvius. 
The town has suffered much by eruptions 
of Vesuvius. Pop. 35,328. 
Tnrr#kTift (tor^rens). Lake, a large 
xurrcus shallow salt lake of South 
Australia, about 00 miles N. of Spencer's 
Gulf. Length, about 130 miles; average 
breadth. 20 miles. In the dry season it 
is merely a salt marsh. 

Torrens System, %l^ToA^!o 

real estate originated by Robert S. Tor- 
rens, and first brought legally into opera- 
tion in South Australia in 1858. Some- 
thing of the same character had been em- 
ployed in Austria in 1811 and Hungary 
in 1855, and Denmark had registered 
titles by judicial decree as early as 1550. 
But the Torrens system differed from 
these earlier forms, and gradually spread 
throusrh the Australian provinces and to 
the Fiji and New Guinea Islanda In all 

Digitized by 


Torrens System, Torsk 

these the registration of titles was made 4)efore the Legislature of Michigan. These 

(ompulsory on the alienation of crown were the latest States to take action 

lauds, but was otherwise voluntary. Only upon the system, 

fee simple titles could be registered, and Torres Strait (tor'rez), the strait 

the title obtained by registration became *vxxco i^i^xaai^ which separates Aus- 

indefeasible. tralia from New Guinea, bein^ about 80 

From Australia the system snread to miles across. It ia crowded with islands, 

various colonies in America, to Norway, shoals, and reefs, rendering its naviga- 

Denmark, Germany and Austria, to Eng- tion difficult. 

land in 1862 and Ireland in 1865^ In Torres Vedrfi^ (tor'rOsh v&'drash), 

these, leaseholds for life or for twenty *v***'" ' ^u.xc*o Lines of, so-called 

/ears were included. Absolute, qualified from a village in Portugal 24 miles 

or possessory titles may be registered in northwest of X/isbon. These stupendous 

England; only absolute titles in Ireland, works, constructed by Wellington in 

In Canada the system was adopted in the 1810, consisted of two fortified lines, the 

several provinces at various dates from one 29 miles in length, the other, in the 

1871 to 1906, the act being compulsory on rear of the former, 24 miles in length, 

alienation of crown lands, except in Brit- forming an impregnable barrier between 

ish Columbia, and voluntary otherwise the French troops and Lisbon. The 

except in Ontario, where it is wholly vol- lines of Torres Vedras saved Lisbon, 

untary. bafDed a well-appointed French army. 

The registration of land titles under and gave Wellington a fair opportunity to 
statutes usuaUy known as ' Torrens Acts ' enter upon offensive operations. See Spain. 
has been adopted in many parts of the Tnrrf^ir (tor'ri), John, botanist, bom 
United States. Illinois in 1895 was the *"**^J at New York in 1796; died in 
first to adopt it The act was held 1873. He became a physician in New 
there to be unconstitutional, but was re- York and engaged in botanical study, 
enacted in 1897, the point of objection publishing the first volume of his Flora 
being removed. The same happened in of the Northern United States in 1824. 
Ohio, a law being passed in 1896 and With Prof. Gray he produced a Flora of 
repealed as unconstitutional in 1898. It North America in 1838. He was pro- 
was re-enacted in 1913 when the Consti- fessor of chemistry at Princeton College, 
tution was amended. Various other 1830-54, and botanist of the Geological 
States adopted it. New York, in 1906, Survey of New York. In 1860 he pre- 
being among the latest to do so. The sented his herbarluni, containing about 
method pursued differs in form in differ- 50.000 specimens, to Columbia College, 
ent States, the local procedure varying Torripplli ( tor-ri-chel'l€), Evangb- 
widely. The daim to the title must be av^aa^cjxi j^^^j^ ^^^ Italian physicist, 
definitely passed on by examiners of title bom in 1606 ; died in 1647. TorriceUi's 
and in the event of a contest, this needs name is important in the history of 
to be passed upon by a court. The de- science as the discoverer of the law on 
cree, when given, becomes absolute and which the barometer depends. See 
conclusive after a period varying in dif- Barometer. 

ferent States and Territories, ranging Torrinoion (tor'ing-tun), a borough 
from thirty days in Massachusetts and *vxxa*a5vvij. ^^ Torrington township, 
the Philippines to five years in California. Litchfield Co., Connecticut, on the Nauga- 
The title, when registered is. generally tuck river, 26 miles w. by N. of Hart- 
speaking, indefeasiole, the exceptions ford. Its manufactures are of brass, ma- 
being by private parties for fraud, foe chinery, needles, automobile accessories, 
varying oeriods and under varying oondi- hardware, etc. Pop. 20,000. 

"tc protect the todefewible quality of Towioil Balance i^s^t^J-^^St"^' em" 

the r<»«^stered title, provision is gen- ployed to measure the intensities of very 

erally made for an 'assurance fund,* the small forces. It consists of a fine wire, 

proceeds of which are used for the reim- silk thread, or the like, suspended from a 

bnrsement of any one injured by reason fixed point, and having a horizontal 

of the decree upon which the registration needle attached, the force being meas- 

wfls based. Such a person must bring ured bv the resistance to twisting which 

suit within a fixed period, varying from the filament exhibits when the force 

six to ten years in different States. A (that of attraction, for instance) acts 

constitutional amendment submitted In on the needle. 

1915 in Pennsylvania provided that new Torsk i^rosmius vulgdris), a fish of 

courts should be established for carrying *v*^'*' the cod tribe found in great 

the system into effect in that State. In quantities off the Orkney and Shetland 

the same year a Torrens bill was brought Islands, where it constitutes a consider- 


Digitized by 




able article of trade. It is, when salted 
and dried, a savory stoclc-fish. It ifi 
from 18 to 30 inches long, and is called 
also iusk. 

Torso (tor'sO; Italian), an art term 
xuxav gignifying the trunk of a statne 
of which the head and the extremities are 
wanting. The torso of Hercules, in the 
Belvedere at Rome, is considered by con- 
noisseurs one of the finest works of art 
remaining from antiquity. 

Torstenson <'^/«^J?T°^' '^?^^' 

AVA0VVU0VU a Swedish general, bom 
in 1603; died in 1051; distinguished in 
the Thirty Years' war (which see). He 
was appointed leader of the Swedish 
army in Germany in 1641, and com- 
manded it for five years. 
Tort ^° ^^^' denotes injustice or in- 
Avxify jury. Actions upon torts or 
wrongs are all personal actions for tres- 
passes» nuisances^ assaults, defamatory 
words, and the like. 

Tortoise (tor'tis), the name applied 
■*'"**'"* to various genera of reptiles 
included in the order Cbelonia, along 
with the turtles and their allies. The 

Oonunon or Greek Tortoise {TestCdo OrcBca). 

distinctive features of the tortoises and 
other Chelonians consist in the modifi- 
cation of the skeleton and of the skin- 
structure or scales to form the well- 
known bony box in which their bodies are 
inclosed, the upper portion of which is 
the carapace, the lower the plastron. The 
Testudinidse or typical land-tortoises have 
short stunted limbs adapted for ter- 
restrial progression; the short toes are 
bound togetner by the skin, and have 
well-developed nails. The carapace is 
strongly convex, and is covered by homy 
epidermic plates. The homy jaws are 
adapted for cutting, or may be divided 
into serrated processes. The head, limbs, 
and tail can be completely retracted 
within the carapace. Though capable of 
swimming, the tortoises proper are really 
terrestrial animals, and are strictly vege- 
table feeders. The most familiar ex- 
ample is the common Greek or European 
tortoise {TestQdo OrcBca) so freauently 
kept as a household pet, and which oc- 
curs chiefly on the eastern borders of 
the Mediterranean. These animals some- 

times live to a great age (over 100 years 
according to some), and hibernate 
through the colder season of the year. 
They attain a length of 12 inches. A 
much larger species is the great Indian 
tortoise {T. Indica), which attains a 
length of over 3 feet and a weight of 
200 lbs. Its flesh is reckoned food of 
excellent quality, as are also its egas. 
The box tortoise of India and Mada- 
gascar {Cinywis arachnoides) is remark- 
able for the curious development of the 
front part of the plastron, which shuts 
over the anterior aperture of the shell 
like a lid when the animal retracts it- 
self. In the box tortoise of North 
America {CistOdo Carolina) the hinder 
part of the plastron forms a lid. It is 
included among the Emyds or terrapins. 
(See Terrapin,) Other genera include 
the alligator terrapin (Chelydra serpen- 
tina) of America, also called the 'snap- 
ping turtle.' (See Snapping Turtle,) 
The mud or soft tortoises (Trionyohida) 
occur in Asia, Africa, and North Amer- 
ica. They have soft fleshy lips, and no 
homy plates are developed in the skin. 
Very frequently also the ribs are not so 
modified as to form a hard carapace, as 
in other chelonia. See also Turtle, 

Tortoise-sheU, *,fr?oX'JhlTiTr 

rather the scutes or scales of the tortoise 
and other allied chelonians, especially to 
those of the Chelonia imhrto&ta (the 
hawk*s-bill turtle), a species which in- 
habits tropical seas. The homy scales 
or plates which form the covering of 
this animal are extensively used in the 
manufacture of combs, snufif-boxes, etc., 
and in inlaying and other omamental 

H«wk*Bbf11 or Tortolse-Bhell Turtle 
{Chelonia imbrie&ta) . 

work. It becomes very plastic when 
heated, and when cold retains with sharp- 
ness any form it may be molded to in 
its heated state. Pieces can also be 
welded together under the pressure of 
hot irons. It is now largely imitated by 
horn and cheap artificial compounds. 

Digitized by 


Tortoise-shell Butterfly 


Tortoise-shell Butterfly, J^^^^ 

two British batterflies, the small tor- 
toise-shell (Vanessa uriloa) and the 
large tortoise-shell (F. polyoMdroM) , 
from the coloring of the wings. 
Tnrfnlfl. J[tor-t6'lA), a British West 

Virgin Islands; area. 2o sq. miles. It 
is bare and rugged* nsing to a height of 
1000 feet. It contains Roadtown, the 
capital of the group. Pop. 8431. 
TnrfATiA (tor-tO'n&), a town in North- 
lOrrona ^^ italy/ 12 miles east of 
Alessandria, in the province of Ales- 
sandria. The principal edifice is the 
cathedral (1575). Pop. 7889. 
TArfAfto (tor-tO'iA), a fortified city of 
xun^usa ^p^^j^^ ^ Catalonia, 48 miles 
southwest of Tarragona, on the Ebro. 
There is a cathedral dating from 1374, 
but the other buildings are unimpor- 
tant. An active trade is carried on. 
Pop. 24,452. 

TortueaS (^r-tO'gis), or Dbt Tob- 
AVA yu^a,9 xuoAS, a group of ten small, 
low, barren islands belonging to Florida, 
about 40 miles w. of the most western 
of the Florida Keys. On Loggerhead Key 
there is a lighthouse 150 feet high. Fort 
Jefferson, on one of the islands, was a 
penal station during the Civil war. 
Torture (tor'ttlr), the arbitrary and 
especially excessive inniction 
of pain judicially, whether to extort con- 
fession or to aggravate punishment 
Torture has been common in all the na- 
tions of modem Europe, and it was also 
practiced by the ancient Romans. The 
practice was first adopted by the church 
in the early middle ages, and when the 
old superstitious means of discovering 
guilt (as in ordeal by fire and water) 
lost their eflicacy torture became general 
in Europe. Though never recognized by 
the common law of England, it was em- 
ployed there as late as the reign of 
Charles I, and in Scotland torture was 
not wholly abandoned till very near the 
close of the seventeenth century. Every 
reader is familiar with the horrid tor- 
tures inflicted on those accused of witch- 
craft, and on many of the Covenanters, 
by means of thumbkins, the boot, etc., 
in order to discover alleged hiding-places 
and the like. In the German States tor- 
ture continued to be practiced under cer- 
tain restrictions till the close of the 
eighteenth century. The chief instru- 
ment of torture was the rack (which 
see) . 

Taihi TVnff ^ Hindu girl of wonder- 
lOrU iraiX, f„, prec<^ity, bom at 
C!alcatta hi 1856; died in 1877. She 
spent several years in England and 

France, studied the literature of these 
countries with avidity, and at eighteen 
published a critical essay, showing 
strange maturity, on Leconte de Lisle. 
She next studied Sanskrit and translated 
Sanskrit texts into English blank 
verse. In 1876 she published A Sheaf 
Gleaned in French Fields, being English 
translations of about 200 French poems. 
After her death, in her twenty-second 
year, was published a romance in French, 
Le Journal de MdUe d* Arvers, and An- 
cient Ballads and Legends of Hindustan, 
TorV (td'ri), a political party name of 
*^*J Irish origin, first used in Eng- 
land about 1679, applied originally to 
Irish Catholic outlaws, and then gener- 
ally to those who refused to concur in the 
scheme to exclude James II from the 
throne. The nickname, like its contem* 
poraneous opposite, Whig, in coming into 
popular use became much less strict in its 
application, until at last it came simply 
to signify an adherent of that political 
party in the state who disapproved of 
change in the ancient constitution, and 
who supported the claims and authority 
of the King, church, and aristocracy; 
while their opponents, the Whigs, were if 
favor of more or less radical changes, an^ 
supported the claims of the democracy* 
In modem times the term has to some ex< 
tent been supplanted by Conservative. 
Tnfam (to-tft'ra; Podocarpus totara), 
XUtaiH. ^ timber-tree of New Zealand, 
allied to the vew. 

Totem (totem), a rade picture of 
Avw^^iu g^jjjg natural object, as of a 
bird or beast, used by the American In- 
dians as a symbol and designation of a 
family or tribe. A similar practice has 
been found to prevail among other sav- 
age peoples, and some theorists have 
given it a very wide extension on purely 
conjectural grounds. 

ToUfiftn ^ tou'kan ; Rhamphastos ) , a 
xvuvooi. genus of scansorial or climb- 


Red-billed Toucan {Rhatnphattos 
€rythrorhynehus ) . 

Digitized by 




img birds of the family Rhamphastids. cause found in Lydia in Asia Minor. A 

These birds inhabit the tropical regions series of needles (called touch-needles), 

of South Americat and are distinguished of which the composition is known, are 

by a large keeled bill. The bill is about used for comparison with the article to 

8 inches long, and its substance is hoi- be tested. When the color of die streak 

lowed out into air-cells, thus being com- produced by both the needle and the 

paratively light The toucans feed on trinket on the stone is the same the 

fruits, seeds, insects, etc The prevail- quantity of alloy they contain is supposed 

ing colors among the toucans are yellow, to be similar. 

bUck, and red. The bill is frequently TnTinliiuAAil & "oft white substance 

very brilliantly colored. XOUCnwooo, j^^^ ^j,,^ ^^^ ^ ^^. 

Tonell ^^ sense of feeling and the verted by the action of such fungi as 
xvuvu) most widelv diffused of the PolypHrue igniariue. It is easily ignited, 
flenses. It resides in the skin (see Skin), and continues to bum for a long time 
and is exercised through certain struc- like tinder. 

tures situated in the papille of the true Toin (^^0» a town of France, depart- 
skin and connected with terminal fila- ^^*^ ment of Meurthe - et - Moselle, 
ments of sensory nerves. These struc- on the Moselle, 12 miles west of Nancy, 
tures have some variety of form, and are It is strongly fortified, and has a fine 
called tactile cells, tactile corpuscles, com- Gothic cathedral, completed in the fif- 
pound tactile corpuscles. Pacinian cor- teenth century. Toul was taken in the 
puscles, etc. All the kinds are to be Franco-€torman war after a siege of five 
regarded as terminal organs of the sen- weeks, September 23, 1870. Pop. 0523. 
sory nerves, act- " " 

ing as the media 
by which im- 
pressions made 
on the skin are 
communicated to 
the nerve fibers. 
Although the 
sense of touch 
is diflfused over 
the whole body, 
it is much more 
exquisite in some 
parts than in 
others. Experi- 
ment shows the 
tip of the tongue 
to be the most 
sensitive surface, 
the points oi 
the fingers come 
next, while the 
red part of the 
lips follow in 
order. The neck, 
middle of the 

Toui-opf Harbour 

Toula.' IJJ 
Mer (»-•«?- 

a seaport, and 
after Brest the 
most important 
naval station of 
France, in the 
department of 
the Var, situ- 
ated on a bay of 
the Mediterra- 
nean, 42 miles 
E. 8. B. of Mar- 
seilles. It is de- 
fended by nu- 
merous forts and 
redoubts, and 
strong forts and 
outworks occupy 
all the heights 
surrounding the 

town. Toulon 

back, and the middle of the arm and has a cathedral, originally Romanesque, 


thigh are the least acute surfaces. 
Tonch-me-not. ®«® Impatiens. 

of the eleventh century, a good town-hall, 
theater, etc., besides the arsenal and 
other marine establishments, which are 
on a most extensive scale. The chief 
harbors and docks are separated from the 

Toncll-needleS. S«® Touchstone. 

Tonrh-na.'nfir V^V^^ steeped in salt- roadstead by moles, which are hollow and 

xuu^u }Ma,}M%ii,j peter, which bums bomb-proof, and lined by batteries, and 

slowly, and is used as a match for firing the storehouses, shipyards, workshops, 

gunpowder, etc. etc., are most complete. The trade is not 

TnTinTiafnTiP & variety of extremely important Toulon suffered severely at 

XUUi/iiStuiiC, compact siliceous schist, the hands of the republicans in 1793 after 

used for ascertaining the purity of gold the withdrawal of the British, whom the 

and silver. Known also as black Jasper inhabitants had voluntarily admitted, and 

and hasanite. It was called Lydtan who destroyed here the French republi- 

«/ofie, or lapis Lydia, by the ancients, be- can fleet Pop. 101,002. 

Digitized by 




Tonlnnftp (t5-15z), a town of South- 
XOUiOUSe g^ France, capital of the 
department of Haute-Garonne, on the 
Garonne (which is navigable and crossed 
by three bridges), 160 miles s.E. of Bor- 
deaux. The streets are narrow and ir^ 
regular^ and the houses generally un- 
pretentious. Among remarkable public 
buildings are the cathedral, the church of 
Ht. Semin, the Hotel de Ville, and the 

till 508, when Clovis gained possession of 
it. Subsequently it became the capital 
of Aquitaine, was long governed by mde- 
pendent counts, and in thQ thirteenth 
century fell a prey to the cruel bigots of 
the Inquisition (see Albigenses) , and then 
was joined to the French crown. The 
French were defeated by the British under 
its walls in 1814. Pop. (1911) 149,576. 
ToTirarn (ttt-rak'6), a name of inses- 

Coryihaix or TurOcus^ natives of Africa, 
and allied to the Scansores, or climbing 

St. Semln, Toulouse. 

Palais de Justice. Toulouse has univer- 
sity faculties, a Roman Catholic univer- 
sity, a lyceum, and other educational in- 
stitutions, public library of 60,000 vols., 
etc It is the chief entrepot of the dis- 
trict for agricultural produce and general 
trade, and is an important industrial 
center. It is a place of great antiquity, 
and rose to eminence under the Romans, 
who embellished it with a capitol, amphi- 
theater, and other edifices of which 
vestiges still remain. It was the capital 
of the kingdom of the Visigoths from 419 

Touraco {Coryihaix eryihrohph'UB). 

birds. Their prevailing color is green, 
varied in some species with purple on the 
wings and tail. They feed cniefly on soft 
fruits, and frequent the highest branches 
of the forest trees. 

TnnrfliTiA (t5-r&n), an ancient prov- 
XOUIUine j^^ ^^ France, bounded 
north by Maine, east by Orltenais and 
Berry, soath by Berry and Poitou, and 
west by Anjou and Poitou. It now 
forms the department of Indre-et-Loire. 

TOUrCOing ^^-•LTe'^'deJarS o1 
Nord, 9 miles n. n. e. of Lille; a well- 
built thriving manufacturing town, the 
staple manufactures being woolen, cotton, 
linen, and silk stuffs, brides dye-works, 
soap-works, sugar retineries, machine 
works, etc Pop. 82,644. 

TnHIHyAA (tO]>zh&'). ACBION WlNB- 

AUur^ee ^ novelist, bom at Wil- 
liamsfield, Ohio, in 1838; died in 1905. 
He served through the Civil war, and in 
1866 engaged in the practice of law at 
Greensboro, N. C. He took an active 
part in the Constitutional conventions 
of 1868 and 1875, and was judge of the 
Superior Court. 1868-73. In 1897 he 
was appointed United States Consul of 
Bordeaux. France. His best-known novel 
was A FooV% Errand, He wrote also 
Br%ck9 Without Straw and other novels, 
and some legal works. 

Digitized by 




xviuguviix^u Seboetevitoh, a cele- 
brated Roasian novelist, born at Orel in 
1818; died near Paris in 1883. He be- 
longed to a noble and ancient family, and 
was educated at Moscow, St. Petersburg, 
and Berlin. In 1842 he obtained an ap- 
pointment in the ministry of the interior ; 
but having written an article displeasing 
to the authorities, he was shortly after^ 
wards banished to his paternal estate. 
For some years he led the life of a country 
gentleman, gaining an intimate acquaint- 
ance witn Russian peasant life. His 
first important publication v^as trans- 
lated into English under the title of 
Ru8$ian Life in the Interior, or the E»- 
perienoee of o Sportsman, It was fol- 
lowed by a great number of short tales 
and dramas, contributed principally to 
Russian periodicals. His earliest novels 
were A Nest of Nobles (1859), and On 
the Eve a8(»$). A powerful politico- 
social novel, Fathers and Sons, was pub- 
lished in 1861, and met with much ad- 
verse criticism in Russia. His other 
works include Smoke. Sprinq Floods, 
Virgin Soil, etc., all of which have been 
translated into English. Tourguenieif 
has been ranked with the greatest masters 
of fiction. 

Tourmaline (Wr'M-lln), f mi^ral 
AWM.AAUCMJ.A&V occurring crystallized in 
three-sided or six-sided prisms, terminated 
by three-sided pyramids, the primary 
form being a rhomboid. It scratches 
glass easily, has a specific gravity of 3, 
and consists principally of a compound 
silicate and borate of alumina and mag- 
nesia. Tourmaline occurs most commonly 
in igneous and metamorphic rocks, espe- 
cially in granite, gneiss, and mica-slate. 
Some varieties are transparent, some 
translucent, some opaque. Some are 
colorless, and others green, brown, red, 
blue, and black. Red tourmaline is 
known as rubeUite, blue tourmaline as 
indioolite, and black tourmaline as schorl. 
The transparent varieties include various 
well-known jewelry stones, as the Brazil- 
ian sapphire, the Brazilian emerald, etc. 
Prisms of tourmaline are much used in 
polarizing apparatus, and it possesses 
powerful electric properties. 
TnTiniAi (t5r>nft; in Flemish, Doomik, 
XOUTUU ^or'nik)^ a town of Belgium, 
in the province of Halnaut, on both sides 
of the Scheldt, which is here crossed by 
seven bridges and lined by fine quays. 
The streets are for the most part spa- 
cious, with well-built houses. Among the 
principal edifices are the cathedral, an 
ancient structure in the Romanesque 
style; the Church of St Brice (twelfth 
century) ; and the old monastery of St. 

Martin, now used as a town-house. The 
leading manufactures are linens, wool- 
ens, cottons, and Brussels carpets. 
Toumai is one of the oldest towns of 
Belgium, and was anciently the chief 
town of the Nervii, and afterwards the 
residence of some of the early FranUsh 
kings. Pop. (1904) 36,744 

Tournament 4iSr'?"JSS?™L'^'^ 

NET, a common sport of 
the middle ages, in which parties of 
mounted knights encountered each other 
with lances and swords in order to dis- 
play their skill in arms. Tournaments 
reached their full perfection in France in 
the ninth and tenth centuries, where they 
first received the form under which they 
are known to us. They were introduced 
into Ehigland soon after the Conquest by 
the Normans. Jousts were single com- 
bats between two knights, and at a 
tournament there would often be a num- 
ber of jousts as well as combats between 
parties of knights. The place of combat 
was the lists^ a large open place sur- 
rounded by ropes or a railing. Galleries 
were erected for the spectators, among 
whom were seated the ladies, the supreme 
judges of tournaments. A knight taking 
part in a tournament generally carried 
some device emblematic of a lady*s favor. 
Tournaments gradually went out with the 
decline of chivalry. 

Tournefort <J»ri»'>'/^SS=boSS: 

ist, bom in 1656. He was educated by 
the Jesuits, and in 1683 became profes- 
sor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes, 
Paris. He visited Greece and Asia 
Minor, and wrote Voyage au Levant, 
His chief work is entitled Institutiones 
Ret Herbaricp (three vols., Paris, 1700). 
He died in 1708, being then professor of 
medicine in the Collie de France. 

Tourneur ,\r?4'>fc<^ofw!SS 

existence we have little certain infor- 
mation beyond the respective dates of hii 
first and last extant works (1600-13). 
The two plays on which his tame rests 
are The Atheist* s Tragedy (1607) and 
The Revenger's Tragedy (1611). 

Tourniquet ii^-'iJ^'^li, J» ^^^^l 

practice of sursery to stop bleeding, its 
use being only intended to be temporary. 
Some kind of ligature twisted tight' with 
a stick forms a simple tourniquet 
Tnnrft i^^^)^ & town of France, capi- 
Auum ^j ^j ^jj^ department of Indre^ 
et-Loire, on the left bank of the Loir^ 
145 miles by rail southwest of Paris. 
The Loire is here crossed bv two sus- 

gension bridges, a railway bridge, and a 
ne stone bridge 1423 feet long. Many 

Digitized by 




of the streets are nMicious and elegant, 
and there are seyeral historic chateaux in 
the neighborhood. The principal edifice 
is the cathedral (Tours being an arch- 
bishopric), fianiiea by two towers, 205 
feet high, a fine building begun in the 
twelftli, completed in the sixteenth, 
century. Of the old abbey church of St 
Martin of Tours only two towers remain. 
The modem buildings include the Church 
of St. Joseph, the theater, and the mu- 
seum. Manufactures include silk, clothe 
carpets, chemicals, etc., and there is a 
large printing and publishing establish- 
ment Tours was known to the Romans 
by the name of GesarodunuuL In later 
times it became famous for its silk manu- 
factures, and had a population of 80,000, 
when the revocation of the edict of Nantes 
deprived it of nearly half its inhabi- 
tants, a blow from which it has never 
recovered. In 1870 Tours was the seat 
of the government of national defense. 
Pop. 6lS07. 

Tonrvillft (Wr-vil), De, Anne Hua- 
*^"" wx**v jjjQjy j^ CJoLENTiN, Count. 
a distinguished French admiral, bom at 
Tourville, La Manche, in 1642; died at 
Paris in 1701. He entered the navy in 
1660, became a captain in 1667, and was 
created vice-admiral in 1689. He de- 
feated a Dutch-English fleet off the Isle 
of Wight in July, 1690. In 1692 he was 
ordered to attack a far superior Dutch- 
English fleet off La Hogue, and was de- 
feated. He was created a marshal in 
1693. and in 1694 destroyed a Dutch and 
English trading fleet off Cape St Vin- 

Tonssaint-LoTiverture 4moK? a 

distinguished negro, bom a slave in the 
Island of Hayti in 1743. After the in- 
surrection of 1791 Toussaint served in 
the army of the blacks, and later rose to 
be their leader. He displayed great mili- 
tary and political ability, and in 1796 the 
French government appointed him gen- 
eral-in-chief of the troops in San jDo- 
mingo. After a severe straggle with in- 
surrectionary movements he assumed su- 
preme civil authority, and in 1801 was 
completely master of the island. He was 
appointed president for life of the Re- 
public of Hayti, and under his vigor- 
ous government the commerce and agri- 
culture of the island began to revive. 
But Napoleon did not choose to see him 
independent, although professedly loyal 
to France, and sent a powerful expedi- 
tion to subdue Toussaint who was 
forced to surrender. After a vigorous re- 
sistance he was seized and sent to Franc^ 
where he died in prison, on the 27th of 
April, 1806. 

Tower (^<'^'^^)» CHAHTJnfAGiCB, diplo- 
mat, was bom at Pottsville, 
Pennsylvania, in 184a He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1872; was admitted 
to the bar in 1878 ; became an oflicer and 
director in several corporations; and in 
1897 was appointed Minister to Austria- 
Hungary. In 1899 he was made Am- 
bassador to Russia, and in 1902 to Ger- 
many, returning in 1908w He is the 
author of The MarquU de La Payette in 
the American Revolution. 

Tower of London, S~1«^^*S.'2; 

London, consisting of a collection of 
buildings of various ages on a somewhat 
elevated position on the north bank of j 
the Thames, outside the old city walls.* 
It covers about 13 acres, and is sur^ 
rounded by a battlemented wall flanked 
with massive towers, and encircled by a 
moat There is also an inner line of 
circumvallation broken by towers^ and in- 
terspersed with other buildings. In the 
center is the White Tower, the keep of 
the old fortress, around which are 
grouped the chapel, the jewel-house, bar- 
racks, and other buildings. The Tower 
was a first-class medieval fortress, and 
served at once as a palace, a p rison, and 
a place of defense. The White Tower 
was built by Gundulf, bishop of Roch- 
ester, for William I, in 1078. It was 
successively strengthened by various 
English sovereigns. The regalia, con- 
sisting of the royal crowns, scepters, 
etc., are now kept and exhibited in the 
jewel-bouse. The armory contains a 
fine collection of armor and wMpons. In 
the part called the Bloody Tx>wer the 
two young princes, sons of Edward IV, 
were murdered. The Tower is now 
chiefly used as an arsenal, and has a 
small military earrison of the yeomen of 
the guard. It is govemed by a constable 
and deputy-constable. The governorship 
is still a post of distinction. The White 
Tower was slightly damaged on January 
24. 1885, by an explosion, the work of 
Irish dynamitards. 

Town. ®^ ^**y- 

Townn^lerk, ^l^^^^ a^munidiga 

the town-coundL In the United States, 
an officer who acts as custodian of civic 
or municipal records, and enters all the 
official proceedings of a city, town, or 
borough. In England his chief duties 
are to keep the records of the borough 
and lists of burgesses and to take charge 
of the voting papers at municipal elec- 

Town-OOnncil, \^^ governing body 
<A.vTTu vwuuvAAy ^ ^ municipal cor- 


Digitized by 




poratioD elected by the legal voters. 
The principal duties of this body are to 
manage the property of the city, impose 
taxes for public purposes, pass laws for 
the good government of the town, for the 
prevention of nuisances, and the like. 
ToWTIslieTld (toun'zend), Chables, 
AUWIlBIieua g^^j^^j viscount, an Eng- 
lish statesman, bom at Rainbam, Norfolk, 
' in 1G74 ; succeeded to the peerage in 
1(>87, and took his seat as a Whig in the 
House of Peers in 1695. After acting 
as a commissioner for arranging the 
Scottish Union (1706), he was joint 
plenipotentiary with Marlborough in the 
conference at Gertruydenburg (1709), 
and then, as ambassador to the states- 
general, signed the Barrier Treaty. For 
this he was censured by the House of 
Commons, and declared an enemy to the 
queen and kingdom. He thereupon en- 
tered into communication with the 
Elector of Hanover, who, on his acces- 
sion ns George I, appointed Townshend 
secretary of state, 1714. In 1717 he 
became lord-lieutenant of Ireland; and 
he was again secretary of state from 
February, 1721, to May. 1730, when he 
retired on account of differences with his 
brother-in-law and colleague. Sir Robert 
Walpole. He died in 1738. 
TniUTlftTiPTirl (toun'zend), Charles, 
xgwu^nena grandson of the above, 
born in 1725; entered the House of Com- 
mons in 1747, and became a commissioner 
of trade and plantations in 1749. He 
was a lord of the admiralty in 1754, 
member of the privy-council in 1756, 
secretary of war in 1761-(53, chancellor 
of the exchequer in 1706. He supported 
Granville's stamp-act (17(55), and in- 
troduced the celebrated resolutions for 
taxing the American colonies (June 2, 
1767). He died in 1767. From so 
often changing his political opinions he 
was known as the * weathercock/ but he 
had a great reputation for oratory and 
ready wit. 

TrnxTTiflliin (toun'sbip), a subdivision 
XOWnsiup ^^ ^ county, without ref- 
erence to its population. Townships 
in the central and western United States 
are frequently square areas of six miles 
to a side. In England, a township is a 
division of a parish which has a con- 
stable, and may have overseers of the 
poor belonging to itself. 
Toixmqinllft (tounz'vil), the chief 
XOWnSYlUe municipality of North 
Queensland, Australia, on Cleveland 
Bay, about 850 miles n. w. of Brisbane. 
Being the port of an immense territory, 
including several gold-fields and a large 
area of pastoral country, there is a large 
shipping trade. Extensive harbor im- 

provements have been made. Pop. 12,717. 
Toxicolo^V (tok-si-kol'5-ji), the sci- 
&•' ence of poisons and anti- 
dotes. See Poison. 
Toxotea (toks'o-t§z), an East Indies 

genus of fishes, with two 
species. See Archer-fish, 
Trafierv (tra'se-ri), the ornamental 
xxa^cxjr stonework in the head of a 
Gothic window, arising from the mul- 
lions, and presenting various combina- 
tions of curved or straight lines. 
TrEched. (trftte-a), or Windpipe, in 

anatomy, the name given to 
the tube extending from the larynx 
(which see) down into the chest to a 
point opposite the third dorsal vertebra, 
where the tube divides into two chief di- 
visions or bronchi (which see), one of 
which supplies each lung with the air 
necessarv for respira- 
tion or breathing. The 
trachea in man is of 
cylindrical form, about 
4i inches long, and 
from 3 to 1 inch in 
diameter, and is com- 
posed of from sixteen 
to twenty rings or 
zones of gristly or 
cartilaginous nature, 
separated and con- 
nected by fibrous tis- 
Bue. Each cartilage Trachea — Sec- 

forms an " 

ring, being 
behind, and having 
the gristly edges merelv joined by fibrous 
membrane. The windpipe is lined by 
delicate mucous membrane which is cov- 
ered by epithelial cells provided with deli- 
cate vibratile processes or cilia. All 
mammals, reptilia, and birds possess a 
trachea, but some amphibia want this 
organ; the lungs in such cases spring- 
ing directly from the larynx. The cut 
shows the trachea A A, the epiglot- 
tis B, the larynx c, and the oesopha- 
gus D. 

Traclieotomy J^^* • ke - ot ' o - mi) , 

or Bronchotomy, an operation in which 
an opening is made into the trachea or 
larynx, as in cases of suffocation. 
Trachoma (tra-kO/ma), a specific 
contagious form of m- 
flammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. 
It is associated with filthy conditions and 
is common in Egypt, Arabia and parts of 
Europe. Individuals suffering with the 
disease are denied entry to the United 

Trachvte (traltlt), a compact vol- 
* '"•' wv ^jj.^ j.^jj^ breaking with a 
rough surface, and often containing cryv^ 

imperfect tion througli part 
unclosed of face and neck. 

Digitized by 




tals of glassy felspar, and sometimes 
hornblende and mica. This rock is ex- 
tremely abundant among the products of 
modem volcanoes. 

Tracing-paper < lif^SSr wwTSS: 

ables a drawing or print to be clearly 
seen through it when laid on the draw- 
ing, so that a pen or pencil may be used 
in tracing the outlines of the original. 
It is prepared from smooth unsized white 
paper rendered transparent by a varnish 
made of oil of turpentine with an equal 
part of Canada balsam, nut-oil, or other 

Tractarianism ^tl'^i^f^t'^iV 

given to a system of religious opinion 
and practice promulgated within the 
Church of England in a series of papers 
entitled Tracts for the Times, and pub- 
lished at Oxford between 1833 and 1841. 

Traction-engine. 1^^^^?^'^*^^ 

Tracv (^^'^Ot benjamin Fbankun, 
^ statesman, bom at Oswego, New 
York, in 1830. He became brevet brig- 
adier-general in the Civil war, United 
States district attorney in 1866, and judge 
of the New York Court of Appeals in 
1889. In 1889 he became Secretary of 
the Navy under President Harrison. He 
was an unsuccessful candidate for mayor 
of New York in 1897. Died Aug. 6, 1915. 
Trade ^^^^ ^^* ^^^ Board, 

Trade' Dollar, -^ ^itk"'<^- 

taining 378 troy grains of silver and 
42 troy grains of alloy. Dollars of this 
description, issued under Act of Con- 
gress of Feb. 12, 1873, were legal tender 
to the amount of $5. Those issued under 
the Act of July 22, 1876, possessed no 
legal tender power. The trade dollars 
were intended for trade with countries 
doing business on a silver basis; hence 
the name. 

Trail Pain a rV & peculiar mark used 
ATaae-marK, ^^^^ manufacturer to 

distinguish his own productions from 
those of other persons. Such marks can 
now be registered and protected in all the 
more important countries, and between 
these also there is a general reciprocity 
as to protection. Regarding trade- 
marks many nice questions may arise, 
i^nd it is not easy to define what con- 
stitutes a valid trade-mark. A mere 
descriptive title or a geographical name 
will not constitute a proper trade-mark; 
what it is best to select is some invented 
word or words* or a word or words hav- 
ing no reference to the character or 
^oality (though suggestive of excellence), 

some distinctive device, figure, emblem, 
or design, or a written signature or copy 
of such. Any mark or name calculated 
to mislead as to the real nature or origin 
of the soods will be vitiated. In the 
United states trade-marks are registered 
at the Patent Office, at a fee of $25, 
the right running for thirty years. 

TradeSCantia (trad-es-kan'she-a), a 
A M, «.u>^»wwAj. V4.c» genug qI hly-like plants, 

nat order Commelynaces. The species 
are natives of America and India, and 
many of them are cultivated as orna- 
mental plants in flower gardens. They 
are well marked by their three sepals, 
three petals, three-celled capsule, and 
filaments clothed with jointed hairs. T* 
virginica, a United States species, is 
known by the name of spiderwori. It 
has succulent stems, shinme grass-like 
leaves, and blue or purple flowers, and 
it is common in the flower borders of 
gardens. Other species are cultivated. 

Trades-nnions. t>^il^^%^ 

combination of workmen to enable each 
to secure the conditions most favorable 
for labor'; and although trades-unions, 
as they are generally called, almost al- 
ways have other objects in view In ad- 
dition to that specified in the definition, 
that object is their distinguishing one. 
Combinations of this sort in Qreat 
Britain are considerably more than 
three centuries old, for there is a 
statute of the year 1548 expressly di- 
rected against them. They are looked 
upon as the lineal descendants of the 
mediaeval gilds. Trades-unions generally 
endeavor to regulate the prices and the 
hours of labor, and in many cases the 
number of men engaged by an employer, 
the number of apprentices which may be 
bound in proportion to the journeymen 
employed b/ a master^ and the like. 
As accessories these unions may collect 
funds for benefit societies, and undertake 
the insurance of tools, libraries, and 
reading-rooms; but their fund, to which 
every member must regularly contribute 
a stated sum, is principally reserved for 
enabling the men to resist, by strikes and 
otherwise, such action on the part of the 
employers as would tend to lower the 
rate of wages or lengthen the hours of 
labor. That trades-unions enable the 
men to benefit by the state of trade 
more than they otherwise would have done 
would appear from the fact that the 
worst-paid trades are those without 
unions. Trades-unions are also said to 
have, furthered the safety of the laborer 
by producing beneficial modifications of. 
the conditions in which he works. Some 
hostility against trades-unions has been 

Digitized by 




Krodaced by the outrages of a more or 
M serious nature of which some of the 
unions, or members of them, liave been 
guilty, such outrages being directed 
against the property of employers, or 
against the persons and tools of non- 
union men. The Trades Unions of the 
United States originated within the last 
century, and have united into general 
organisations embracing laige numbers 
of workmen. The oldest of these, the 
KnighU of Labor, originated in 1869. 
The American Federation of Labor, or- 
ganised in 1887. includes the areat bulk 
of the local unions, both of the United 
States and Canada. It has a membership 
of about 2,000,000, representing about 
27,000 local unions in the two countries. 
Britain has also a general Federation of 
Trades-Unions and similar organisations 
exist in other parts of Europe and else- 
where. See Labor Organizations. 
TrfliiA«iinTii1 one of those perpetual 
ITaae-Wina, or constant win^ which 
occur in all open seas on both sides of 
the equator, and to the distance of about 
30"" north and south of it On the north 
of the equator their direction is from 
the northeast (varying at times a point 
or two of the compass either way) ; on 
the south of the equator they proceed 
from the southeast The origin of the 
trade-winds is this: — The great heat of 
the torrid lone rarefies and makes lighter 
the air of that region, and in consequence 
of this rarefaction the air rises and 
ascends into the higher regions of the 
atmosphere. To supply its place colder 
air from the northern and southern re- 
gions rushes towards the equator, which, 
also becoming rarefied, ascends in its 
turn. The heated air which thus as- 
cends into the upper regions of the 
atmosphere being there condensed flows 
northward and southward to supply the 
deficiency causfnl by the under-currents 
blowing towards the equator. These 
under-currents coming from the north 
and south are, in consequence of the 
earth's rotation on its axis, deflected 
from their course as they approach the 
equatorial region, and thus b^me north- 
east and southeast winds, constituting 
the trade-winds. The belt between the 
two trade-winds is characterized by 
calms, frequently interrupted, however, 
by violent storms. Trade-winds are con- 
stant only over the open ocean, and the 
larger the expanse of ocean over which 
they blow (as in the Pacific) the more 
steady they are. In some places the 
trade-winds become periodical, blowing 
one-half of the vear in one direction and 
the other half in the opposite direcUon. 
See Ifomoofi. 

Tradition (tw-diah'un), in iU gen- 
* "^^ ** eral application, is any 
knowledge handed down from one gen- 
eration to another by oral communica- 
tion. It plays a very important part in 
the Jewish and Roman Catholic churches. 
In theology, the term is specifically ap- 
plied to that body of doctrine and dis- 
cipline, or any article thereof, supposed 
to have been put forth by Christ or his 
apostles, and not committed to writing, 
but stUl held by many as an article of 
TradUCdaiiisnL ^^ CreaOoniBm. 

Trafalgar LT^^^/recuV^'Wal: 

gkf)f a low and sandy cape on the 
southwest coast of Spain, at the north- 
west entrance of the Strait of Qibraltar. 
The famous naval battle in which Nelson 
lost his life, after defeating a larger 
French and Spanish fleet under the com- 
mand of Villeneuve and Qravina, was 
fought off this cape, October 21. 1805. 
The Franco-Spanish fleet lost 19 ships 
out of 33. 

Tragacanth i^Sf'ISS)^.^ 


the prod- 

in or gum-tragacanth 

uce of several 
species of the 
aenus Astragilh 
Xu9, leguminous 
plants natives of 
the mountainous 
regions of West- 
em Asia. In 
commerce tra{^- 
canth occurs in 
small twisted 
thread-like pieces, 
or in flattened 
cakes, in color 
whitish or yel- 
lowish, devoid of 
taste or smelL 
It is demulcent, Trsgscmnth {AttragVliu 
and is used in gymnUiw), 

coughs and ca- 
tarrhs, and to make lozenges and pills 
It is employed also in calico-printing. 
Tra^edv (^nLJ'e-dl), a dramatic poem, 
*^^ ^ representing an important 
event or a series of events in the life of 
some person or persons, in which the 
diction is elevated and the catastrophe 
melancholy. Tragedy orixinated amons 
the Greeks in the worship of the god 
Dionysus or Bacchus. See Drama. 

Tragopan <,*Sf(,*-^ii,&, « «! 

the genus Oeriomii, and of the family 
PhasknidiB, closely allied to the commMi 

Digitized by 



fowl. O. noi^lra^ a common species, is a 
naUve of the Himalayas. The plumage 
is spotted, and two fleshy protuberances 
bang from behind the eyes. When the 
bira is excited it can erect these pro- 
tuberances until they look like a pair of 
horns. A large wattle hangs at either 
side of the lower mandible. 
TragOpOgOn. ®^ QoaU^Aieard. 

Tram-bands, S.e'Tatu?r^fX^' 

miUtia and volunteers, instituted by 
James I and dissolved by Charles II. 
The term was afterwards applied to the 
London militia, from which the 3d regi- 
ment of the line originated, and in which 
the renowned John Oilpin was a captain. 
IVAJyia Abmobbd, railway trains of 
AAcuowy which the engine and carriages 
are protected from email-arm fire by 
armor in the shape of high parapets of 
iron or steel plaung. Loopholes in the 
armor allow the men to use their rifles. 

Training CoUeges. |^!''"'«* 

TrftmTi (trft'j&n), in full. Ma bo us 
AAajou tlLPius TRAJANX78, a Roman 
emperor, bom in Spain 52 A.D., was the 
son of Trajanus, a distinguished Roman 
commander under Vespasian. He served 
against the Parthians and on the Rhine, 
where he acquired so high a character 
that Nerva adopted him and created him 
Cssar in 9 7. 
Nerva died in 
98, and Trajan, 
who was then in 
Germany, peace- 
a b 1 y succeeded 
to the throne. 
He made peace 
with the Qerman 
tribes, and pro- 
ceeded to intro- 
duce enlightened 
measures of re- 
form into the 
public service. 
One of his great- 
est military 
achievements was 
his defeat of the 
D a c i a n s, and 
the reduction of 
Dacia to a Ro- 


anonymous charaes. For some years 
Trajan occupied himself with the work 
of administration, but in 114 he set out 
on an expedition against the Parthians 
which resulted in the reduction of 
Armenia to a Roman province. He died 
in Cilicia in 117 aj>.. after having nomi- 
nated Hadrian as his successor. He is 
said to have been sensual in his private 
life, but his good qualities as a ruler were 
such that even 250 years after his death 
senators greeted a new emperor with the 
wish that he might be more fortunate 
than Augustus and better than Trajan. 

Trajan's Column. ^^^^^ 
Trajan's Wall, %J^^^,'^\^l 

(Roumania), extending s. from the 
Danube to Kustendii on the Black Sea, 
a distance of 87 miles. It is a double, 
in some places a triple, earthwork on the 
south side of a natural fosse consisting 
of a narrow marshy valley. Another 
wall of the same name, built by a Ro- 
man legion, 105-155 a.d., extends from 
the Pruth B. to the Black Sea. 
TrfilAA (tr&-le'), a town and seaport 
xnuee ^ Ireland, in the county of 
Kerry, on the river Lee, 55 miles south- 
west of Limerick. It has an active trade 
in farm produce. By means of a canal 
vessels up to 800 tons can discharge 
their cargoes within 100 yards of the 
town. Pop. 9687. 

ilVoTnTnel (tnun'el), an instrument 
Axooiuiii^x ^^j. ^jn^^ing ovals, used by 

joiners and other artificers. One part 
consists of a cross with two grooves at 
right angles ; the other is a beaii-compasa 



man province. It is supposed that it 
was in commemoration of this war that 
he erected at Rome the column which 
still remains under his name. In 103 
he wrote the famous epistle to Pliny, 
governor of Pontus and Bithynia, direct- 
ing him not to search for Christians, 
but to punish them if brought before 
him; and on no account to listen to 


carrying two pins which slide in those 
grooves, and also the describing pencil. 
TrotnTi tbe colloquial name for va- 
xiiuu|i, grants or wanderers. The 
term ' tramp ' in general use means a 
wandering, disorderly person, without 
visible means of support, though vagrant 
in a wider sense is applied to many per- 
sons who cannot be classed as tramps. 
In Bngland laws have been enacted for 
many centuries for the regulation of 
vagrancy. In the United States tramps 
were formerly so few that before the 
Civil war they received little attention. 
Later, partly owing to the disbandment 

Digitized by 


Tramway Transit 

of the armies, the scatterine of the camp- of the main Caucasus ridge, and which 
followers, the disastrous times of 1873, includes the governments of Kutais. 
and the incr^se of foreign vagrants by Tiflis, Elisabethpol, Erivan, Kars, etc. 
immigration, they increased so largely, Transcendental (™o8-sen-den'tal), 
besides becoming so dangerous and vi- **"'""^*'"«*'"»'"'* a term applied in 
dous in character, that the evil was so the system of philosophy founded by 
great as to attract public attention. Kant to all those principles of knowl- 
Now many of the states have promul- edge which are original and primary, and 
gated vagrancy laws to abate the nui- which are determined d priori, such as 
sance. It has been found, however, that Bp&ce and time. They involve necessary 
severe treatment Is not a great deter- and strictly universal truths, and so 
rent. transcend all truth derived from ex- 

Tram WftV (tram'wa), the English perience, which must always be con- 
xiaiiiwajr ugm^ f^p street railways, tingent and particular. The term trau' 
which see; also Electricity and Trolley, scendentali^m is now generally used in 
Trance (trans), a condition resem- a sense not very different from mysticism, 
xAaiAv«7 biing sleep, in which con- or for that which is vague and illusive 
sclousness and many of the vital func- in philosophy. In mathematics the term 
tions are susx>endea, and during which is applied to quantities that cannot be 
the action of the heart is diminished and expressed in oixiinary algebraic terms, 
the breathing reduced. The subjects of Transent (tran'sept), in architecture, 
trance are usually hysterical, and In **o^"*^i'»» th^ transverse portion of a 
some cases it is induced by exhausting church which is built in the form of a 
disease or emotional disturbance. In cross; that part between the nave p.nd 
this condition the face is pale, the limbs choir which projects externally on each 
relaxed, the mental functions are in side, and forms the short arm of the 
abeyance, no effort at rousing will pro- cross in the general plan. See Cathedral, 
duce a return to consciousness, and this Transfnsion ( trans-fa'sbun ), the 
state may last from a period of several **»-**«»'^W'0*vix transmission of blood 
hours to many weeks or months. When from the veins of one living animal to 
the trance lasts for a lengthy period those of another, as from one of the lower 
food is taken in a mechanical way at animals into a man, or from man to man, 
intervals by the sleeper. Most cases with the view of restoring the vigor of 
recover. The term is also applied to a exhausted subjects. This operation is a 
sort of ecstatic state in which some per- very old one, but seems to have generally 
sons are said to fall. ended in failure until about 1824, the 

Trani C^^'***)' * seaport Sn South chief cause of failure probably being the 
AAooAA Italy, province of Bari, on the want of due precautions to exclude the 
Adriatic, 26 miles northwest of Bari, air during the process. It is now oc- 
with old walls and bastions, and a ca- casionally resorted to as a last measure 
thedraL Pop. 34,688. in cases of great loss of blood by hemor- 

TrftTinnpliflr (tran-kwe-b&r'), a sea- rhage, especially in connection with 
xjiiui^ueuiir ^ j^ ^jj^ district of labor. 

Tanjore, Madras Presidency, India, for- Transit (tran'sit), in astronomy, (a) 
merly a Danish settlement and a busy ■*•*"'""*• the passage of a heavenly 
nort. Pop. 13,142. body across the meridian of any place, 

TransbaikaUa ^^rVr^^vU 

E. of Lake Baikal; area, 240,780 sq. 
miles. It has an elevated, well-watered 
surface, and climate dry and extreme 
both in summer and winter. Agriculture 
' and trade are limited ; gold is found to 
some extent. Pop. 742,^. 

Transcaspian Kcgion i^lt^]' 

a territory to the E. of the Caspian re- 
cently annexed by Russia. It has an 
area of 220,000 sq. miles, mostly unin- 
habited desert, and is traversed by the Transit of Mebcubt. 
Transcaspian Railway, which connects a, Mercury. The dotted line ■howi the path. 
Samarcand with the Caspian Sea. 

Trn.n firman OAfti ft ( trans-ka-ka'shi-a ) , a phenomenon which is usually noted by 
xj:iiU5i.»uuii5itt ^jjj^j p^j^ Q^ ^jj^ ^ ^j^^g.^ instrument. The determination 

lieutenancy of the Caucaaos which lies b. of the exact times of the transits of the 

Digitized by 


Transit Instrument Transvaal 

heaveiily bodies across the meridian of objects. In the teaching of the Brah- 
the place of observation enables the manic Hindus it has its foundation In 
astronomer to ascertain the differences the belief of the connection of all living 
of right ascensions, the relative situa- beings, and of the gradual purification of 
tions of the fixed stars, and the varied the spiritual part of man and its return 
motions of the sun, planets, and comets, to the common source and origin of all 
in reipect to the celestial meridians, things — God. The Buddhists accept a 
(h) The passage of one heavenly bodj similar doctrine, but with them the 
over the disk of a larger one; but the ultimate goal of the soul is not absorp> 
term is chiefir restricted to the passage tion by the Deity, but annihilation, Nir* 
of the inferior planets. Mercury and vana. Transmigration also formed part 
Venus, over the sun's disk. The tran- of the teachhig of the Egyptian priests, 
sits of Venus are of great importance in The doctrine probably pa^ea from Bgypt 
astronomy, as they aliord the best means into Greece, where it was never generally 
of determining the sun's parallax, and current, but was confined to tne mys- 
consequttitly the dimensions of the teries and some philosophic systems, 
planetary system. These transits are of itrans-vttr), now Vaal 
rare occurrence, four taking place in '*'*«***»^«'«** Kiveb Colony, was orig- 
243 years, at intervals reckoning from the inally formed by part of the Boers, of 
transit of 1874, in the order of 8, 122, 8, Dutch descent, who left Cape Colony in 
and 105 years, which gives the transit 1836 for Natal, and quitted that colony 
years 1882 (Dec. 6), 2004, 2012, 2117. on its annexation by Great Britain in 
The transits of Mercury occur more 1845. Its independence was recognised 
frequently, but they are of far less as- by the British government in 18S&, It 
tronomical interest, as they cannot be lies north of the Vaal River and south 
used for the same purpose, the planet of the Limpopo River, and is bounded or 
being too distant from us. the west by Becnuanaland, east by Por- 
Transit Instrument, ?» impor- tuguese territory, SwazUand, and Zulu- 
AACM&Mv AAMVA luuvuvy ^^^ iustru- Isud, south by Natal and the Orange 
ment adapted for observing the exact River Colony. Area, 114,360 so. miles, 
time of the passage of heavenly bodies Its population is 1,68C,212, of whom 
across the meridian. (See Tratmt.) about 300.000 are whites. Its largest 
It consists essentially of a telescope fixed town is Johannesburg, with a popula- 
at right angles to a horizontal axis, tlon of 237,220. This city is a gold- 
which latter has its ends directed exactly mining center. The region is a plateau 
to the east and west points of the hori- of from 1500 to 6000 leet elevation. It 
son, so that the line of collimation or is well suited to agricultural and stock- 
optical axis of the telescope may move raising pursuits, and large numbers of 
in the plane of the meridian. The in- farm animals are kept. The great 
strument is susceptible of certain nice wealth of the region is in its mineral 
adjustments, so that the axis can be resources, notably gold, diamonds, and 
made perfectly horizontal, and at right coal. The gold mines have the greatest 
angles to the plane of the meridian, in output in the world, and the diamond 
which plane tne telescope must move, product is of considerable value. 
It is generally used in connection with In 1877, owing to a war with the 
the mural circle (which see). Kaffirs, a British force assisted the 
Tranakei (trans'kl), a division on the Boers and the territory was annexed to 
east coast of Cape Colony, Great Britain. Troubles ensued, the 
Africa, extending southward from the Boers rose in arms in 1880 and defeated 
Kei River to Tembuland, and bordering the British in 1881 at Majuba Hill, 
on the Indian Gcean; area, 2552 sq. Their independence was then recognized, 
miles. The interior rises to an elevation though their foreign relations remained 
of about 9800 feet It is a very fertile under British supervision. The rapid 
region, with dense forests. Many cattle development of the gold-mining industry 
and sheep are raised. Copner and coal brought new elements of difficulty into 
are found. Pop. 177,647; 1700 whites, the problem, the Boers refusing to the 

Transmigration of the Sonl, Xa}i^^°£lJiL^'*^^^«^ miners who sought 

^ , .... V "*®*'^ country any political privileges, 

or McTEMPSTCHOSis, (met-emp-si-kd'sis), while laying upon them the great burden 

the passage which, according to the be- of taxation. The discontent of the 

lief of many races and tribes at all Uitlanders (outlsnders) led, in 1895, to 

times, the soul after the death of the an invasion of the republic by a party 

body makes through the bodies of the of British settlers under Dr. Jameson, 

lower animals or other human bodies, or, This was easily suppressed by the Boera 

It may be, through plants or inanimate and the troubles grew more prominent 

Digitized by 




M yean went on until in 18d9 a petition, 
signed by 21,000 British subjects, was 
sent to the queen pointing out their 
grievances. The negotiations which fol- 
lowed proved ineffective, and conditions 
grew so strained that the British gov- 
ernment called out 25,000 of the reserve 
forces. In reprisal the Boer government 
demanded that all troops on the frontier 
should be instantly withdrawn and that 
no more troops should be sent to South 
Africa. This demand not beinj; com- 
piled with, a Boer force at once mvaded 
Natal, where they invested Ladysmith, 
and for a time bad much success. In 
1900 the tide of the war turned, the 
British forces Increasing until nearly 
250,000 men were in the field under Lord 
Roberts. Ladysmith and the other be- 
sieged towns were relieved, and though 
the Boers fought with great courage and 
skill they were so largely outnumbered 
that their case grew hopeless. Bloem- 
fonteln, Johannesburg, and Pretoria were 
occupied, and the Transvaal Republic 
with the Orange Free State, which had 
joined It In the war, were proclaimed 
British colonies. President Kruger fled 
to Europe, where he sought In vain for 
European Intervention, and the war on 
the part of the Boers became a series 
of guerilla raids, continued until but a 
handful of fighting men were left In 
May, 1902, a treaty of peace was signed, 
and the two republics passed under 
British rule, the terms granted them be- 
ing very favorable. For the restoration 
and restocking of the Boer farms, which 
had been ruined during the war, £3,000,- 
000 were given by the British govern- 
ment, which also agreed to make loans, 
free of Interest for two years, for the 
same purjpose, while no special tax waa 
to be laid on the colonies to pay the 
expenses of the war. The total cost of 
the war to Qreat Britain was about 
£233,000,000 or $1,165,000,000. In the 
years that have succeeded these events 
the possessions of the suffrage by the 
Boers has, in a measure, given them pos- 
session of the country again, they form- 
ing a majority of the inhabitants, this re- 
sulting In the election of one of their late 
leaders to the chief post of authority In 
the colony. The Transvaal and Orange 
Free State now form States of the Union 
of South Africa, organized in 1910. 
Tranavlvania (tran-sil-va'nl-a; Ger- 

Hungarian, Brdely), a grand-principality 
belonging to the crown of Hungary, 
forming the southeastern portion of the 
Austrian Empire; area, 21,213 square 
miles. The surface is mountainous, the 
CfuiMithlan chAin covering Its southern 

and eastern frontier, and sending out 
numerous ramifications Into the Interior. 
The chief rivers are the Aluta or Alt, 
the Maros, and the Ssamos, all flowing 
directly or Indirectly into the Danube. 
The forests are extensive and valuable; 
the vine flourishes everywhere, and the 
crops Include maize, wheat, rye, hemp, 
flax, tobacco. The minerals are Impor- 
tant, and Include gold, silver, copper, 
lead, coal, salt and iron. The chief 
towns are Hermannstadt, Kronstadt, Bis- 
triti and Szamos-Ujvar. BMucation is 
in a very backward state. The popula- 
tion (2,456,^8) is very mixed. Including 
Roumanians, Ma^ars, Germans, Gyp- 
sies, Jews, Bulgarians and others. Since 
186t it has been an integral part of the 
Kingdom of Hungary. 
OVoTi a term rather looselv and vaguely 
****r> applied by the earlier geologists 
to some or all of the multifanous 
igneous rocks that belong to the paljeoxoic 
and secondary epochs, as distinct from 
granite on the one hand, and the recent 
volcanic rocks on the other. Trap-rocks 
often assume a terraced appearance, 
whence their name from trappa, the 
Swedish for a stcdr. Their composition 
may be described as consisting chiefly of 
felspar and hornblende. Trap-rocks of 
crystalline structure are distinguished as 
greenstones, basalts, clink-stones, compact 
felspar, and felspar porphyries; while 
the softer and more earthy varieties are 
known as clavstones, clavstone porphy- 
ries, amygdaloids, trap-tuffs, and wackes. 
Basalt (which see) is the most compact, 
the hardest, and the heaviest of the trap- 
rocks. The hill scenery of trappean dis- 
tricts Is often picturesque. 
Trana (trap'a), a genus of plants, 
* -fc^ order Onagraceie. consisting of 
several species, floating in water, and 
having long jointed root-stocks, with haii^ 
like roots. They yield edible seeds. T. 
natan9 of Central and Southern Europe 
has received the name of water-caltrops 
from its four-homed fruits. These, which 
are called Jesuits*-nuts In Italy, and 
water-chestnuts in France, are ground 
Into flour and made into bread in the 
south of Europe. T, hUpin68a yields the 
Singhara-nuts of Northern India. 
TraDani (trtt'pA-n§; ancient, Drepd- 
AAayaux ^^^ ^j. Dfrepdnum), a forti- 
fied seaport town in Sicily, capital of 
the province of the same name, 47 miles 
w. s. w. of Palermo, on a peninsula shaped 
like a sickle, and hence Its ancient 
name, from the Greek drepan^ a sickle. 
It has a cathedral of no great merit, 
lyceum, nautical school, etc. There Is a 
good trade, and the fisheries are exten- 
sive. At a short distance s. ir. e. of the 

Digitized by 


Trap-door Spider 


Trap-door Spider 
and Nest. 

town is Mount San Qiuliano, the an- 
cient Eryx. (See Eryw.) Pop. 68,986. 

Trap-door Spider, « ^« %f^^^- 

that have the habit of constructing 
tubular dwellings in the ground, some- 
times a foot or more 
in depth, and an inch 
or so in diameter, 
closed by a sort of 
hinged door. They 
belong to several 
genera, and are found 
in Southern Europe, 
Western United 
States, and elsewhere. 
The dwelling is lined 
with the silky sub- 
stance spun by the 
insect, and the hinge 
of the door is formed 
of the same, the door 
itself being con- 
structed sometimes of 
earthy particles con- 
nected by threads, 
sometimes of leaves, etc. Some species 
construct nests that have a main tube 
and one or more branches, the latter 
having a door where they join the main 
tube. Cieniza Sauvagei of Corsica, Ne- 
tn€9ia (Myq&le) ccementaria of S. W. 
Europe, and Ctenlza Calif omica of the 
United States are examples. 
Tni.'nP70lfl (trap'e-zoid), or Trapb'- 
XrapeZOia 2\uM, a quadrilateral fig- 
ure of unequal sides, 
and consequently un- 
equal angles. It is dif- 
ferent from a parallelo- 
gram, which is a quadri- 
lateral figure with the opposite sides 

Trappe, ^tippl'^"^''^- ^^ ^' 
Trasimenus, ^^^%^ ^** Perugia. 

Trass ^ volcanic production, ronsist- 
* ing of ashes and scoriae thrown 
out from the ancient Eifel volcanoes, on 
the Rhine, near Coblentz. It is equiv- 
alent, or nearly so, to the puzzolana of 
the Neapolitans, and if used as A cement. 
The same name is given to a coarse sort 
of plaster or mortar made from several 
other argillo-ferruginous minerals, used 
to line cisterns and other reservoirs of 

Tranii (troun), Lake of, a small but 
''•**^^ beautiful lake in Upper Aus- 
tria near the town of Gmunden. The 
river Traun passes through the lake ^nd 
enters the Danube. 

Trftnt^non (trou'te-nou), a town of 
XTauxenau Northern Bohemia, in 


the valley of the Riesengebirge, with 
flax-spinning and other industries. Pop. 

Trftvanror^ (trav-an-kdr'), a native 
ATavancore ^^j^ ^^^^ gubsldiary 

to the presidency of Madras, occupying 
the extreme southwest of the peninsula; 
mrea, 7091 square miles. It ui for the 
most part hilly, and is bounded on the 
east by the Western Ghats, elsewhere 
chiefly by the sea, having Gape Gomorin 
in the extreme south. Hie climate is 
healthy, and the soil fairly fertile. The 
principal products are iron, plumbago, 
timber, pepper, areca nuts, sugar, cocoa, 
coffee, tea, etc. Pop. 2,952,157. 

Traveler's Tree < ^^w^^noia ^ moo- 

Urania apecioaa), an arborescent plan^ 
native of Madagascar, having the ap- 
pearance of a palm about 90 feet in 
height and forming the only species of 
the genus to which it belongs. Its 
trunk terminates in a bundle of leaves, 
each of which is borne by a petiole 6 or 
8 feet in length and has a blade about 6 
feet long. The seeds of tills tree, ground 
into fiour, are eaten by the natives, and 
the water contained in the cup-like 
sheaths of its leaf-stalks was formerly 
ibelieved to be an aid to travelers. 

TraveUng Sidewalk, J, ^X^j 

moving in a continuous manner with a 
uniform rate of speed for the purpose of 
transportation, it was first suggested 
in 1870, but not put to practical use 
until 1893, at the Golumbian Exposition, 
Chicago. One with three parallel plat- 
forms was a feature of the Faris Exposi- 
tion, 1900. It was a belt or loop rail- 
way, with one or more intermediate 
steps between the first stationary and 
the third fast-moving platform, which 
was furnished with seats. Two speeds 
enabled a passenger to mount or alight 
easily on or from the rapid platform. 
In some cities this principle is taken 
advantage of in the large stores as a 
traveling stairway or escalator. 

Traverse City <rj;r^'8eV**o'i 

Grand Traverse Co., Michigan, on the 
west arm of Grand Traverse Bay, 147 
miles N. of Grand Rapids. It has a good 
harbor and is a summer resort. Here is 
the Traverse City State Hospital. The 
manufactures are fruit baskets, wooden 
dishes, furniture, etc., and it is a fruit 
' and potato center. Pop. 12,115. 

TrflVprfiTip (trav'er-tSn), a white 
xraveiTine ooncretioijary limeatooe. 
usually hard and 86Qucryiit«Uin% ^ 

Digitized by 



Treasure Trove 

posited from the water of Bprings hold- 
ing carbonate of lime in solution. Trav- 
ertine is abundant in different parts of 

Trarertine with impreuioni of leaTes. 

Italy, and a large proportion of the 
edifices of ancient and modem Rome 
are built of this stone. 

Travnik J[f5*^'S*i; \i?:?' S^^ 

nia, on toe JL«asva.. it nas 
a garrison of Austrian troops. Pop. 6261. 
TrA^iTKF (trftHng), a mode of fish- 
xntWiin^ ine in which a net in the 
form of a large bag, with a strong frame- 
work keeping the mouth properly dis- 
tended, is dragged along the bottom of 
the sea. It is the mode chiefly adopts 
in deep-sea fishing, and in British 
waters has largely developed in recent 
years, being much prosecuted by small 
steam vessels specially built for the pur- 
pose, but it is not allowed within three 
miles of the shore. Cod, whiting, and 
other white fish are taken bv it in large 
numbers, and some kinds of flat fish, as 
soles, can scarcely be taken in any other 
way. Trawling can be practiced only 
on a smooth bottom, as a rough bottom 
would destroy the net. See Net. 

Traz-os-Montes . ( tr^hHw-mcv'tash ; 

.■.ACMi V0««^o •Beyond the Moun- 
tains'), a northeast frontier province 
of Portugal; area, 4260 square miles. 
The province is fertile in parts, and the 
wine-gpowing district of Alto Douro Is 
the native country of port The chief 
towns are Villa Real and Bragansa. 
Pop. 427,358. 
Treacle (^'kl). Bee sugar. 

Treacle-murtard, J^ST^iy^^iS: 

cheiranih{>ide$, also called ioorm^eed. 
See Eryaitnufn, 

Tread-mill, *° ipstrnment of punish- 

"> ment, of modem origin, 

roDsisting of a large wheel* about 20 or 

25 feet wide, with steps on its external 
surface, upon which crmiinals are placed. 
Their weight sets the wheel in motion, 
and they maintain themselves in an up- 
right posture by means of a horizontal 
bar fixed above them, of which they keep 
hold while moving their feet from step to 
-step. The power thus obtained may be 
applied to the same purpose as water- 
power, steam, etc. The tread-mill has 
recently been abandoned in most peniten- 
tiaries. It was introduced into the 
prisons of Great Britain about 1820. 
Treason 0i^'2i>)t high. Treason, 
the crimen Iwew majeMtatie 
of the Roman law, is that crime which 
is direct! V committed against the su- 
preme authority of the state, and is con- 
sidered to be the greatest crime that 
can be committed. Formerly in England 
certain offenses against private superiors 
were ranked as petit or petty treason, 
and it was in opposition to such offenses 
that treason against the sovereign was 
called high treason; eventually high 
treason was made the only treason. In 
a monarchy it is considered to be the 
betraying or the forfeiting of allegiance 
to the monarch ; but in a republic It has 
reference to the government or the whole 
community. The concealment of treason 
is called misprision of treason. (See 
MieprtBion,) In the United States trea* 
son consists in levying war by a dtixeq 
against the country, or adhering to its 
enemies. The penalty is death. 

Treasott-f elony, SJ«™ BriSfn^S 

designate snch offenses as seeking or in- 
tending to deprive the sovereign of any 
of the royal powers or prerogatives, to 
levy war within the realm in order to 
forcibly compel a change in the royal 
measures, to intimidate either house of 
Parliament, or to excite an invasion in 
any part of the country. Treason- 
felony is punishable with penal servi- 
tude for life or for a term not less than 
seven years, or with imprisonment for 
a term not exceeding two yean with or 
without hard labor. 

Treasure Trove < J'«^'°^ ^"S^ >• 

AAvcM>«u.«^ .a.xvvi^ ^jj^^ j^ silver- 
plate, or bullion found hidden in the 
earth or in any private place, the owner 
of which is not known. In Britain snch 
treasure belongs to the ctown ; but if the 
owner is known, or is ascertained after 
the treasure is found, the owner and not 
the crown is entitled to it. It is, how- 
ever, the practice of the crown to pay 
the finder the foil value of the property 
on its beimr delivered up. On the other 
hand, diouTd the finder conceal or ap- 
propriate it he is guilty of an indictable 

Digitized by 


Treasury Tree-ferns 

offense puoishable by fine and imprison- Asiatic Torkey, capital of a pashalic of 

ment In the United States such treas- the same name, on the Black Sea. It 

ure, under the common law, beloxigs to has an extensive trade, exporting silk, 

the government, thoagh the right is sel- wool, tobacco, wax, oil, etc., from Asiatic 

dom, if ever, enforced. If the treasure Turkey ; and silk fabrics, shawls, oarpets, 

is found on the surface, not hidden in etc.. from Persia. Pop. estimated at 

the earth, the law is construed that the 40,000. 

finder* not the government, is entitled Treble (treb'l), in music, the highest 

to it *A^Mx%? vocal or instrumental part in 

Tre&snrV (treth'ur-i), the department a concerted piece, such as is sung by 

* «^ of a government which has women or boys, or played by instruments 
control over the management collection, of acute tone, as the violin, flute, oboe, 
and expenditure of the public revenue, clarinet, etc., or on the higher keys oi 
The Treasury depaitment in the United the piano, organ, etc.: so called because 
States is in charge of the Secretary of it was originally a third part added to 
the Treasury, appointed by the Presl- the ancient canto fermo and the counter- 
dent and Senate, and a member of the point 

President's Cabinet It has sole charge Tredc^ftr X tred'S-gUr ) , a town of 
of the national finances, under the laws ******^6*** England, in the countv of 
of Congress, collects the revenue, pays all Monmouth, 12 miles west by south of 
expenditures, audits all accounts, has Abergavenny, on the Sirhowy. Near it 
charge of public buildings, national are valuable mines of coal and iron- 
banks, coinage and paper money. stone, with extensive blast-furnaces and 
Treatv C^^'^O* an agreement, league, steel works. Pop. 18,497. 

J' or contract between two or Tree ^^^^> * perennial plant having a 
more nations or sovereigns formally **^'' woody trunk of varying size, from 
signed by commissioners properly author- which spring a number of branches, hav- 
ised, and ratified by the several sover- ing a structure similar to the trunk, 
eigns or the supreme power of each state. Trees are thus distinguished from shrubs. 
Treaties are of various kinds, as treaties which have perennial stems but have no 
for regulating commercial intercourse, trunk properlv so-called ; and from herbs, 
treaties of alliance, offensive and de- whose stems live only a single year. It 
fenslve, treaties of peace, etc. In most is diflicult, however, to fix the exact 
monarchies the power of making and limit between trees and shrubs. Trees 
ratifying treaties is vested in the sover- are both endogenous and exogenous, by 
ei^; in republics it is vested in the far the greater number both of indi- 
chief magistrate, senate, or executive viduals and of varieties belonging to the 
council ; in the United States of America ktter class. Those of which the whole 
it is vested in the President by and with foliage falls off periodically, leaving 
the consent of the Senate. Treaties may them bare in winter, are called deciduous; 
be concluded and signed by diplomatic those of which the foliage falls only 
agentBL but these, of course, must be partially, a fresh crop of leaves being al- 
fumished with full powers by the sover- ways supplied before the mature leaves 
eign authority of uteir states. Among are exhausted, are called evergreen. 
the most significant and important of re- Trees are the longest lived organisms of 
cent treaties were two treaties of arbitra- the vegetable kingdom, and attain a 
tion formed in 1911 between the United great and indefinite age, far exceeding 
States on the one part and France and that of animals. See Arhoriculture, 
Great Britain on the other, providing for Botany, Timber, etc. 
the ])eaceable settlement of almost any Tree*Gr&.b ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ genus Birgus, 
question that could arise between these **^^ vx€*m, in^ji^j^j among the land- 
nations, even those affecting so-called na- crabs. It breaks open the shell of the 
tional honor. Similar treaties have since cocoa-nut, etc., by repeated blows of its 
been made with other nations, until they great claws, in order to feed upon the 
now number 30 in alL soft pulp of the nut. Tree-crabs can 
Trebbia (treb'bS-A), a river of North live lor long periods out of water, but 

* ** Italy, which rises in the deposit their eggs in the sea. 
Apennines, and flows into the Po near Tree-f emS ^^® name given to several 
Piacenza after a course of 65 miles. ^^^'^ x^aaxo, species of ferns which 
Here Hannibal defeated the Romans in attain to the size of trees, as the Also- 
218 B.C., Lad in the vicinity the Austrians phila vestlta, Cihotium Billardieri, etc. 
and Russians under Suvaroff defeated They are found in tropical countries, 
the French under Macdonald in 1799. A handsome species, Cyathea medulldris, 
TTAbizond X ^^^'^ * ^^^^ • anciently contains in its trunk a mucilaginous pulp 
AAvvAAvuu ff^^0mg)^ n seaport in comparable to sago, which is used ex- 

Digitized by 


Tree-frog Trenton 

tensively for food in Polynesia and New as far as Gainsborough, 25 miles, by 

2iealand. vessels of 200 tons, and more than 100 

Trei^-fr09 ^ name of frogs differing miles by barges. 

MASfsi AAvgi £|.Qm proper frogs in the Trent (German, Trienf, Latin, Tri- 

extremities of their toes, each of which dentum), a town in the Tyrol, 

is expanded into a rounded viscous pellet Austria, picturesouely situated on the 

that enables the animals to adhere to left bank of the Etsch or Adige. It is 

the surface of bodies aud to climb trees, fortified, and has a castle, formerly resi- 

wbere they remain during the summer dence of the prince-bishops, a noble 

feeding upon insects. Hyta versicolor^ Romanesque cathedral dating from 1212, 

of the Northern and Middle United and other interesting buildings. Trent 

States, is very noisy towards evening. is a place of great antiquity, having 

Trefoil (tre'foil), a distinctive title been made a bishopric before 380. The 

a.xv;xvxx uppij^d to plants of various only memorable event in its history is 

kinds on account of a peculiarity of the the council which was held in it, and 

form of the leaf, which consists of three bears its name (see below). Pop. 24,- 

leaflets; examples, buckbean, clover, and 808. 

medick. The same term is also applied Trent ^^^^^^ o^* & celebrated oecu- 

to an ornamental foliation in Gothic ' menical council of the Roman 

architecture, used in the heads of win- Catholic Church, convened to settle vari- 

dow lights, tracery, paneling, etc ous controversies that were agitating the 

TrATTiofAila (trem-a-to'da), a division church during the Reformation period, 

xrematuutt ^^ gcolecida, belonging to and for the reform of abuses, ft met 

the group of Platyelmia or flat-worms, during the pontificate of Paul III at 

and represented by such forms as the Trent in 1545, but the wars in Germany 

flukes or Distoms (see Difftoma) and their caused its transference to Bologna in 

allies. They are parasitic worms, usu- 154(>, when it dispersed. Pope Julius 

ally of a flattened or rounded form, and III again convoked it at Trent in 1551, 

are furnished with one or more suctorial but it dispersed a year later on the ap- 

pores, like minute cupping-glasses, for proach of the Lutherans. Eight years 

adhesion to the tissues of their hosts. afterwards it was again called together 

TrATtinlifA (trem'u-llt), a mineral, a by Pius IV, and it finished ito labors in 

xremoilie variety of hornblende. It 1563. This council definitively settled 

ib a silicate of calcium and magnesium, the doctrines of the Roman Catholic 

is white or colorless, and usually occurs Church. 

in long, prismatic crystals. Trent Affftir ^^ October, 1861, 

Tr ATI nil RicuABD Chenevix. ecclesi- **^"" *x«.cw.x. q^^^ Charles Wilkes, 

xxc^xiv/AA, astic and philologist, was United States Navy, intercepted at sea 

bom at Dublin, in 1807, and was gradu- the British mail steamer Trent bound 

ated at Cambridge in 1829. He entered from Havana to St Thomas, and took off 

the church, and eventuallv became dean two 0)nfederate commissioners, accredited 

of Westminster (1856-63), and arch- to France, Messrs. Mason and Slidell, 

bishop of Dublin, 1864. He was the who were among her passengers. They 

author of a collection of poems, and a were taken to Boston, and imprisoned at 

popular writer on philological and theo- Fort Warren, but were released on Jan. 

logical subjects. His works include 1* 1862, on the demand of the British 

Notes on the Parables (1841), Notes on government, and permitted to proceed to 

the Miracles (1846), On the Study of Europe. The affair created intense ex- 

Words (1851), Proverbs and their Les- citement at the time, but Secretary 

sons (1853), Bynonyms of the New Seward accepted England's demand as an 

Testament (1854). English Past and adoption of the American doctrine which 

Present (1855), On Plutarch (1874), denied the right to search, and on that 

Lectures on Mediwval Church History basis gave up the captives. The demand, 

(1878), and many others. He died however, gave rise to much irritation. 

March 28, 1886. Trenton (t''«Ji'tmi), a city, capital 

TrATinliAft the name given fn general of Grundy O)., Missoun. is 

xreucucs, ^^ ^j, ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^Ich on a branch of the Grand River, 102 

are used in attacking a fortress. See miles n. e. of Leavenworth, Kansas. It 

Siege^ Sap^ Fortification. is the seat of RusUn College and has 

TrATif & I'iv^^ of England which rises railroad shops and flour mills. Pon. 

xreni, ^ Staffordshire, 4 miles north 5656. 

of Burslem. It flows through the conn- Trenton ^ ^^» ^^ capital of New 

ties of Stafford, Derby, Nottingham, and ***^**''vaa| jeyggy^ ^^ ^^^ Delaware at 

Lincoln, and falls into the Humber after the head of tide-water and steamboat 

a course of 144 miles. It is navigable navigation, 29 miles iv. b. of Philadelphia. 

Digitized by 


Trepang Trevithick 

It is laid out with great regularity, and such officers may maintain poesesaion if 
has a state-bouse, court-house, state- once they gain entrance. Malicious tres- 
prison, state hospital for insane, armory, pass is a willful, malicious, or mis- 
reform home for girls, normal and model chievoua injury of private or public 
schools, and a Koman Catholic college, property, real or personal 
The manufactures are large and numer- Trevelvail i^'®"^^' y*^)» SiB 
ous, including extensive pottery works, **^^^*J»** Geoboi Otto, nephew of 
wire-cable and other iron works, steam Lord Macaulay, bom in 1838. He was 
turbines, and various others. Pop. educated at Harrow, was graduated at 
108,000. The battle of Trenton, per- Trinity College, Cambridge, and entered 
haps more than any other, decided the the Indian civil service by competition, 
success of the Revolution, by giving new He was elected to parliament in 1865, 
courage and confidence to the people. On and with the exception of a short in- 
the morning of December 25, 1770, Wash- terval always followed Gladstone's lead, 
ington, with about 2500 men, crossed holding several cabinet positions. He is 
the Delaware River from the Pennsyl- the author of the Life and Letters of 
vania side, eight miles above Trenton. Lord Macaulay, Early EUtory of Charles 
After a forced march, he surprised CoL James Fom, History of the American 
Rail, the Hessian general, and captured Revolution, etc 

his entire force. Tr^v^ft (trSvz; German Trier, Lat 

TreDftn^ (tre-pang*), the ^j^ **^v^» Augusta Trevirorum), a town 

'^ o sea-slug, a ma- |^k In the province of Rheinland, Prussia, 

Hue animal of the genus «H on the right bank of the Moselle. It is 

Holothuria, belonging to the «■ considered the oldest city in Germany, 

class Echinodermata, order IV and contains many Roman remains. It 

Holothuridse, popularly MM is surrounded by wails, and is indiffer- 

known as * sea-cucumbers,' or »■ ently built. The chief buildings are 

btehes-demer. ^H^ ^^^ cathedral, built at various times 

TrPTtflTiTiiTifF (tre-pan'ing), ^^^ from the sixth century downwards, and 

xxcpitiiiiiii^ the operation T« containing the Holy Coat (see Holy 

of cutting a circular opening ^S Coat of Treves) ; the Liebfrauenkirche, 

into the skull by means of a J^V or Church of our Lady, an elegant 

surgical instrument called a JV Gothic structure; and the old archi- 

trepan or trephine. This con- S^ episcopal palace, now used as a barracks, 

sists of a handle, to which is ^|» The Roman remains include an amphi- 

fixed a small hollow steel *^ theater, the Porta Nigra (Black Gate), 

cylinder, of about i to 1 Trepang baths, etc. Treves became a Roman 

inch in diameter, having teeth (Hoiothu- colony under Augustus, and subsequently 

cut on its lower edge so as liasdUlis), it was the residence of several emporors. 

to form a circular saw. Tre- It rose to great splendor under the 

panning is especially resorted to for the archbishop-electors, who exercised g*eat 

purpose of relieving the brain from political influence in Germany. Fiom 

pressure, as in fracture of the skull or 1473 to 1797 it had a university. Pop. 

In cerebral abscess. 43,324. 

Trpsnfliift (tres'pas), in law, a term TrAirifio (trft-v6'£6), a town of Italy, 
xrcsptuis which is applied generally ^rcvisu capital of the province of 
to any offense against the person or Treviso, 15 miles N. N. w. of Venice, on 
property of another, but is more espe- the Sile. It is a walled town with 
cially applied to a peaceable but unlaw- spacious streets and large squares, and 
ful entry upon the property of another, has a great number of nandsome build- 
the remedy for which is by action of dam- ings. The manufactures consist chiefly 
ages. Any injuries committed against of silk and cotton goods, machinery, and 
land or buildings are in the most ordi- cutlery. Pop. 16»933. 
nary sense of the word trespasses, as Trevitlliclc (trav'i-thik), Richabo, 
entering another's house without permis- *'*'^^''^"^^*^ engineer and inventor, 
sion, walking over the ground of another, bom in Cornwall in 1771 ; died in 1833. 
or suffering any cattle to stray upon it. In 1797 he succeeded his father as a 
or any act or practice which damages the leading engineer * in Cornish mining, 
property, or interferes with the owner's Amone his first inventions was an im- 
or occupier's rights of possession. A cred* proved pump, which soon came into 
itor or customer can be ordered away by universal use in de^p mining. He next 
a householder or shopkeeper, and even perfected a high-pressure steam-engine, 
the civil courts have no power to give a and began to experiment in the con- 
right of entry to officers intrusted with struction of locomotive engines. Passen- 
the execution of legal processes, though gers were first conveyed by steam by 


Digitized by 


Triad Tridiina 

means of his road locomotive in 1801, lines of a triangle are all corvee, the 

and he soon after successfully worked triangle is said to be ourvUmeoTt as 

a tram road locomotive. His ideas were fig. 5. If one or two of the aides are 

afterwards taken up and developed by straight and others or other curve, the 

Stephenson. He was the first to recog- triangle is said to be mwiUmear^ fig. 

nize the value of iron in shipbuilding, 6. If the sides are all arcs of great 

and the application of steam to agricul- circles of the sphere, or arcs of the same 

ture. His request for recognition and circle, the triangle is said to be apkeri- 

reward for his numerous inventions was cal, 

disregarded by the government, and he Trifl.Tl?1lla.tion ^ method used in 

died in poverty. **"o*"** ^"» su rv eying. See 

Triad (trt'ad), a trinity, a unity of Trigonometrical Survey, 

^* three. In Welsh literature, the Trios Tbiassic System. See Otology, 

name is given to a class of ancient com- ***«**»> 

positions — moral and historical — com- Tribmie (trib'fln: trihUnua), in Ro- 

prising enumerations of particulars ****'•***'' man antiquity, originally an 

bound together in knots of three. The officer connected with a tribe, or who 

Hindu Triad, Trimurii^ or trinity, con- represented a tribe for certain purposes; 

sists of the three deities Brahma, Vishnu, especially, an officer or magistrate chosen 

and 8iva, considered as an iniseparable by the people to protect them from the 

unity. oppression of the patricians or nobles. 

Trial ^^^ *^^^ ^°^ Procedure, Civil, and to defend their liberties against any 

AxxAx. attempts that might be made upon them 

Triangle (trfang-gl), in geometry, a by the senate and consuls. These magis- 

* o*^ figure bounded by three trates were at first two, but their num- 

lines and containing three angles. The ber was increased to five and ultimately 

three angles of a plane triangle are equal to ten. This last number appears to 

to two right angles or 180**, and its have remained unaltered down to the 

area is equal to half that of a rectangle end of the empire. There were also 

or parallelogram of the same base and military tribunes, officers of the army, 

altitude. The triangle is the most im- each of whom commanded a division or 

portant figure in xeometry, and may be le^^ion, and also other officers called 

considered the element of all other tribunes; as, tribunes of the treasury, of 

figures. If the three lines or sides of the horse, etc See Rome {History). 

a trianele are all straight, it is a plane TricUna (tri-kl'na), a minute nema- 

or rectilinear triangle, as in figs. 1, 2, ***^*****» toid worm, the larva of 

8, 4. If all the three sides are equal, it which was discovered in 1835 in the 

is an equilateral triangle, as in fig. 2. tissue of the voluntary muscles of man. 

If two of the sides only are is giving rise to a disease since known as 

an isosceles triangle, fig. 3. If all the trichtniasis or trichinosis. The worm is 

A A common also to several other mammals, 

|\ A A especially to the pig, and it is gener- 

I \ / \ / \ ally from it that man receives the dis- 

I -\ / • \ / \ ^^^s®* When a portion of flesh, say of 

|\/'\/*\ the pig, containing larv» is taken into 

lA. \ / \ / \ the stomach the larvs in a few days 

become developed into procreative adult 

W >^\ fv worms, having in the meantime passed 

W X \ / X ^^^ "*® intestines. The male worm is 

\\ / \ I \ about V«th of an inch long, the female 

\4\ / t \/<\ about a half more. The female produces 

U \ / If I embryos in extraordinary numbers, 

^^^^^'v^.^^^^ /^-^ which gain entrance into the muscles by 

»nJ^"7^ 4*—*^ penetrating the mucous coat of the intes- 

Triangles. tine and entering the capillaries, whence 

they art carried to their habitat by the 

three sides are unequal, it is a scalene circulation. There they disorganise the 

triangle, fig. 4. If one of the angles is surrounding tissue, setting up at Uie 

a right angle, the triangle is right- same time morbid action in the system, 

angled^ as fig. 1, having the right angle manifested by swelling of the face, body, 

at A. If one of the angles is obtuse, and limbs, fever, pains, etc., and result- 

the triangle is called ohtuse-angled, as ing sometimes in deatlL In the mnsdes 

fiff. 4, having the obtuse angle b. If they become quiescent, are encased in a 

an the angles are acute, the triangle is cyst covered with c^careous matter, and 

Qcute-^npledf as figs. 2, 3. If the three may give no more trouble Thorough 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 



Digitized by 


TricMniasis Trifolium 

cookinr kills the trichinae, and thus pre- TridaCna. ^®® Clam. 

Tents bfection. 

TrirliiTiiflaift Trichiwobis ( trik-i- Triil^ntinp Rmmril the Council 

iTicJumasiS) m^a^jg, triki-no'sis), J-naenxme uouncu, ^^ rp^.^^^ g^ 

a painful and sometimes fatal disease Trent and Trent, Council of. 
produced in man by eating meat, espe- Triest (tr6-est'; Italian, Trieste)^ a 
dally the flesh of pigs, either raw or m- ***^»'' seaport town in Austria, 214 
sufficiently cooked, infested with iri- miles southwest of Vienna, on a gulf 
chinw. Set Trichina. of same name, at the northeastern ex- 
Trir^TiinrtnAlv (trich-in-op'6-li), a tremity of the Adriatic. The old town, 
xiiv/iiiiiuyuxjr j^^jj ^£ British India, on an acclivity crowned by a castle, has 
capital of district of same name, in the steep and narrow streets, but in the 
presidency of Madras, on the right bank new town the streets are spacious and 
of the Cavery. It is a military station, well paved, and there are handsome 
and contains a citadel on a granite peak thoroughfares and squares. The chief 
500 feet high, which commands the sur- buildings are an ancient cathedral in the 
rounding country. The native town lies Byzantine style, and the exchange block 
at the foot of the rock, and beyond it of buildings, which is a handsome edi- 
are the European quarters, barracks, fice. Triest is the chief Austrian port, 
hospitals, St. John's Church, with the and the most important trading place in 
tomb of Bishop Heber, a Iloman Catholic the Adriatic, and has now very extensive 
chapel, etc. Pop. 122,028. harbor accommodation. Triest is the 
Triclininin Oi^*Klln'i-um>, among headquarters of the Austro-Hungarian 
AXXVAXUJ.U111 £^g Romans the dining- Lloyd's shipping company, who have ex- 
room where guests were received, fur- tensive shipbuilding and other establish- 
nished with three couches, which occu- ments here. Triest existed under the 

?>ied three sides of the dinner table, the Roman empire (Latin name Tcrgeste or 

ourth side being left open for the free Tergestum), but did not rise to im- 

ingress and egress of servants. On these portance until recent times. Pop. 221,- 

couches, which also received the name 993. 

of tricilinium, the guests reclined at din- Trif olilllll ^ trS-fdli-um ) , the Trefoil 

ner or supper. Each couch usually ac- ^^-^v**"-"* or Clover, a genus of low 

commodated three persons. herbs, with the leaves, as a rule, di^- 

Tricolor Ort^ul-ur), the French na- tately trifoliate and with red, purple, 

* tional flag, or one formed white, or yellow flowers, rareljr solitary, 
after the model of it. The French tri- There are about 150 species, chiefly found 
color is blue, white, and red in equal in the northern hemisphere, abounding in 
vertical sections, the blue being next Europe and many of them natives of the 
the flag-staff. United States. Several of the species 
TVirAirnia TriTrnwia (tri-kd'pis), are very useful in agriculture, both as 
±TlCOUpiS, XTlKUpiS fcHARii!lo8, pasture plants and from their power of 
« Greek statesman, bom at Nauplia in enriching the soil. This arises from their 
1832; died in 1896. He became minis- roots being infected by certain nitrogen- 
ter of foreign affairs in 1866, and pre- fixing germs, through the action of which 
mier in 1875 and on several later occa- the clovers add to the nitrogenous con- 
sions, and was active in efforts for the tents of the soil. The true clovers have 
development of Greece. Failing in his herbaceous, not twining stems, roundish 
efforts to relieve the country from its heads or oblong spikes of small flowers, 
financial difficulties, he was crushingly the corolla remaining in a withered state 
defeated in the election of 1895. until the ripening of the seed. The most 
Tricvcle (tn'si-kl), a three-wheeled important to the farmer is the common 

* ^ variety of velocipede, intro- Red Clover (T. pratense)^ a native of 
duced about 187o, and therefore subse- Europe, but naturalized in all parts of 
qnently to the bicycle. The earliest pat- the United States, widely cultivated and 
tema were rear-steering, but were soon growing freely in meadows and pastures, 
superseded by front-steering machines, The White or Dutch Clover, Creeping 
the latter being steadier. Tricycles were Trefoil, or Shamrock (T. repens) is 
first worked by pedaled levers, but this found in most parts of North America 
form soon gave way to the rotary action, and Europe, nearly always springing up 
which is produced by a cranked axle to where a barren heath is turned with the 
which the pedals are fixed. This axle spade or ploui'h. It is a valuable feed- 
is connected by chains running on ing plant in dry and thin soils, and its 
toothed wheels with the driving axle, spontaneous growth in a meadow Is hailed 
The positions and sizes of the wheels, as a sign of improving conditions. In 
and the steering gear, vary neariy in laying down permanent pastures, except 
fTirj make. in strong land, it sbomd be somewhat 


Digitized by 




•tock raisinc region. Has railway shops, 
foundryand machine shops and other in- 
dustries. Pop. 10,204. 
ISnuirlorl on® <>' *^« British West 
xniuuiiU) jjj^j^ Islands, and, except- 
ing Jamaica, the largest and most valu- 
able. It is tlie most southeriv of the 
Windward group, lies immediately off the 
northeast coast of Venezuela, and is 
about 65 miles long by 40 mUes broad; 
area, 1756 square miles. There is a lake 
of mineral pitch, 104 acres in extent, con- 
taining an almost inexhaustible supply. 
The chief products are sugar, cocoa, 
molasses, rum, cocoanuts. pitch, timber 
and fruits. The climate is healthy, and, 
though hot, is well suited to Europe^s. 
Trinidad is a crown colony, the puUie 
affairs being administered by a lieutenant- 
goTemor, assisted by an executive and a 
lerislative committee. It was discovered 
by Columbus in July, 1491, and taken 
from Spain by the British in 1797. The 
capital Port of Spain, on the northwest 
side of the island, is one of the finest 
towns in the West Indies. Pop. (1912) 

TriTiiioii a town near the southern 
xmuaaa, ^^^ ^^ Qu|>a, in SanU 
Clara province. It is one of the seven 
original dties established by Diego Vel- 
asquez ; founded in 1514. Pop. 12,000. 

Trinitrotoluene ti^;\,^*»J^lS>i: 

line substance, insoluble in water, but 
soluble in alcohol, ether and benzine. It 
has recently been adopted as the base of 
shell-fillers instead of prussic or ammo- 
nium nitrate compounds. It is not dan- 
gerous to handle, bums without explod- 
ing, and has no bad effects physiologically. 
TVinifv (trin'i-ti), a theological name 
xxxiixtjr gj^^^ ^ ^jjg peity as expres- 
sive of the Christian doctrine of the 
Triune nature of God, the union of the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit 
as Three Persons, and One God. The 
doctrine of the Trinity is nowhere ex- 
pressly taught in the Old Testament, but 
m the New Testament it is clearly 
taught, though the word Trinity does 
not occur. A comprehensive statement of 
the doctrine of the Trinity is found in the 
Athanasian Creed, which asserts that ' the 
Catholic faith is this: That we worship 
one God as Trinity, and Trinity in Unity 
— neither confounding the persons nor 
dividing the substances — for there is one 
person of the Father, another of the Son, 
and another of the Holy Ghost. But the 
Godhead of the Father and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost is all one; the 
alory Equal; the majesty co-etemaL* 
iMfference in interpretation of the doc- 
trine of the Trinity led to the division of 
the Church into the Eastern and Western. 



(tr6'5, tri'6), a musical composi- 
tion for three voices or for three 
instruments. Also a record or subordinate 
division of certain musical compositions. 

Triple Amance.|«-^^*^«ti 

are known by this name. The first was 
formed in 1668 bv Great Britain, 
Sweden, and the Netherlands asniinst 
Louis XIV ; the second in 1717 by Great 
Britain, J^rance, and Holland against 
Spain. In 18S2 was formed that of Aus- 
tria, Germany and Italy. From this Italy 
withdrew during the European war. 

Triple Entente <2»^*grt>Je^o^J 

Britain, France and Russia. Great 
Britain remained for long outside of alli- 
ances, but at the opening of the twentieth 
century, owing cluefly to the efforts of 
Edward VII, began to enter into formal 
ententes, first with France and then with 
Russia. The Triple Entente— or Under- 
standing — ^aroee from a Dual Alliance 
between Russia formed in 1887, an in- 
formal understanding between Britain and 
France in 1904, and a similar understand- 
ing between Britain and Russia in 1907. 
Tri-nlA* (trip'let), in music, acombina- 
xxx^i^v ^Q^ ^j£ ^pgg ^oteg to \^ played 

in the time of two. They are joined by 
a slur and distinguished by having the 
figure 3 above them. 

Tripod (trf:p?d), 

AAx^vu. anciently a 
bronze altar consist- 
ing of a caldron 
raised on a three- 
legged stand of 
bronze. Such was the 
altar of Aiiollo at 
DelphL Tripods of 
fine workmanship in 
precious metals were 
placed in Apollo's 

Tripoli (trip'o^).a 

the north of Africa, 
largely desert ; is 
bounded on the north 
by the Mediterranean, west by Tonla, 
south by Fezzan and the Libyan Desert, 
and east by the Libyan Desert and 
Barca ; area, about 410,000 square miles. 
Its boundaries are somewhat uncertain, 
but it extends inland for about 800 miles. 
The coast-line, which is 700 or 800 miles 
in length, including the Gulf of Sidra, 
or Greater Syrtis, has only one harbor, 
that of the capital, Tripoli. The eastern 

gart of the interior is mostly barren sand, 
ut in the south and west it is diversified 
by mountain ranges, attaining a height 
Of about 4000 feet The richest tract of 

Antique Tripod. 


Digitized by 


Tripoli f ritiouni 

Tripoli is that which stretches aboat 15 it was the capital of Morea> but Ibrahim 
miles along the coast, and inclades the Pasha took possession of it in 1828 and 
capital. It is prodactive of wheat, bar- razed it to the ground. It has been 
ley, millet, and Indian-corn; oranges, partially rebuilt Fop. 10,4^. 
pomegranates, lemons, figs, apricots, Trinng See Camhndge, Univeraity of. 
plums, and other fruits. Abundant rains ***r^°» 

fall from November to March, while from Trintvcll (trip'tik), a picture, carv' 
May to September the heat is intense, the •^'-'■if^j^"' ^g^ q^ other representation 
sirocco often blows, and the thermometer in three compartments side by side; 
rises at times to a high figure. The most frequently such as is used for an 
population, which in the outlying dis- altar-piece. The central picture is 
tncts consists of Berbers and Bedouins, 
and in the town chiefly Moors, is esti- 
mated at about 1,000,000.— Tripoli, the 
capita], stands on a tongue of land pro- 
jecting into the sea, has a moderately 
good harbor, and consists of a great num- 
ber of narrow and uneven lanes, the chief 
buildings being the governor's castle, 
the great mosque, a handsome structure, 
synagogues, bazaars, public baths, etc. 
The trade across the desert extends as 
far as Timbuctoo and Bornou. The chief 
manufactures are carpets, long cele- 
brated, other woolen goods, and leather. 
Tripoli, originally held by tlie Phoenicians, 
became in time part of the Roman prov- 
ince of Africa, and in the 8th century 
was conquered by the Arabs. It was Triptych. — Painting by Allegretto Nucci, 1465. 
taken b/ Spain in 1510, and assigned to 

the Knights of St. John, who had been usually complete in itself. The sub- 
driven from Rhodes by the Turks. The sidiarv designs on either side are smaller. 
Knights surrendered to the Turks in 1551 and frequently correspond in size and 
and it remained a province of Turkey shape to one-half of the principal picture, 
until 1714, when its bey became largely Trireme (tn'rOm), a galTov or vessel 
independent Turkey subdued it again ■^•'■•'"'•ciiic ^^^.jj three benches or rnnkn 
in 18->5, and it remained a vilayet o_f the of oars on each side, a common class of 
Ottoman empire until 1911, when Italy, war-ship amont: the ancient Oreeks. Ro- 
which had long sought to extend its in- mans. Carthapinians, etc. The trireme 
terests in Africa, invaded it and after a was also nrovided with a large square 
war continuing until October, 1012, ob- sail, which could be raised during a fair 
tained possession. At present the posses- wind to relieve the rowers, but was never 
sion is limited in great measure to the employed in action, 
narrow atrip of coast held by the Italian Triqnipcnflfiifl See Hermes TrUmc- 
army of occupation. Pop. of the capital AnsmeglBlUB. ^^^^ 


about 30,000. Trismus '(triz'mus), a species of 

Trinnli Tababolto, or Tripolis, a ***""*•*•» nag affecting the under 
xxxi^/xxy geaport of Syria, capital of a with spastic rigidity ; locked- jaw. 1 
paahalic of the same name, situated on are two kinds of trismus, one attacking; 
the Mediterranean, 48 miles northeast infants during the two first weeks from 
of Beyrout There is a trade in silk, their birth, and the other attacking per- 
wool, cotton, tobacco, galls, etc. I'up. sons of all ages, and arising from colds 
about 90,000. or a wound. See Tetanus. 

Trinnli a mineral originally brought m*-i.-,«. W A Pirn Tin (dA-k^n'yA). 
XTipOUy ^^^ TripoU and used in AFlSXan U ilCUIIiia ^^ j^ » ^ ^^ 

poliahing metals, marbles, glass, etc. It three islands in the South Atlantic (the 
10 a kind of siliceous rottenstone, of a others being Nightingale and Inaccessible 
yellowish-gray or white color, rough to island), about 1300 miles 8. w. of St. 
the touch, bard in grain but not com- Helena. It is mountainous, and one 
pact, and readily Imbibes water. It is peak rises to the height of 7640 feet 
also found in BYance, Italy and Ger- The island was taken possession of by 
numy. . . ,. . v . Great Britain in 1817. Pop. less than 

Trinolitzfl. (trip-u-lifKi), a town of loo. 

***«^**'' Soathem Greece, province hp^ifi^nm (trit'i-kum), the ffenm of 
pt Azcadia. PrtHom to the revolution xriwcum g^^^g^^ including wh«at 

Digitized by 


Triton Troglodyte 

Triton ^^ Newt Travancore state* Madras presidency, sit- 

xxxtuii. uated about two miles irom the sea. 

Tritonidie (tn-ton'i-de), a family of The town is of considerable importance, 

Axxtuiuuo; marine nudibranchiate, has a fort containing the rajahs palace 

gasteropodous molluscs, many of which and other buildings, an ancient temple, 

are found on the coast of England, college with European instructors, medi- 

France, and other European countries, cal school, hospitals, Napier museum, 

Tritons (tri'tonz), in Greek mythology, various handsome buildings, and a mili- 

^ ^ the name of certain sea-gods, tary cantonment Pop. 57,882. 

They are variously described, but their Trivinm (tHv'i-um), the name given 

body is always a compound of the human *****»*"*• in the middle ages to the first 

figure above with that of a fish below, three of the seven liberal arts — gram- 

They carry a trumpet composed of a mar, rhetoric, and logic. The other four, 

shell, which they blow at the command consisting of arithmetic, music, geometry, 

of Poseidon to soothe the waves. and astronomy, were called the quad- 

Trinmnh (tn'umf), in Roman an- rivium. See Arts. 

MxxiL±u.yfu, tiquity, a magnificent pro- Troad ^^ Troy. 

cession in honor of a victorious zeneral, **^"'**» 

and the highest military honor which he Trooha. (f^'^^)* derived from the 

could obtain. It was granted by the ^*'^^^"'^ Greek and meaning a circle, 

senate only to one who had held the As known in Cuba, during the insur- 

ofllce of dictatof, of consul, or of praetor, rection of 1895-98, it was a barrier, ex- 

and after a decisive victory or the com- tending across the island, built of posts, 

plete subjugation of a province. In a at times three and even five deep, to 

Koman triumph the general to whom this which barbed wire was strung. Behind 

honor was awarded entered the city of this stockade the Spanish soldiers fought. 

Rome in a chariot drawn by four horses. United States officers speak of its dire 

crowned with laurel, and having a effectiveness. 

scepter in one hand and a branch of TrOChee (trO'ke), in prosody, a foot 

laurel in the other. He was preceded ^''^^^^^ of two syllables, the first 

by the senate and the magistrates, long and the second short, as Lat. 

musicians, the spoils, the captives in fdmo, or Eng. nation. 

fetters, etc., and followed by his army TrOcMlidffi ^^ Humming-hird. 

on foot, in marching order. The pro- •*-*v*/Aijj-i.u.«i« 

cession advanced in this order along the Trochn (tro-sbU), Louis Jules, a 
Via Sacra to the Capitol, where a bull '^*-^^**'^ French general, bom in Brit- 
was sacrificed to Jupiter, and the laurel tany in 1815; educated at St Cyr; en- 
wreath deposited in the lap of the god. gaged in the Algerian^ Crimean, and 
Banquets and other entertainments con- Italian campaigns ; published a pamphlet 
eluded the solemnity. A naval triumph entitled UArm^ Frangaise en 1867, and 
differed in no respect from an ordinary showed the weakness of the French 
triumph, except that it was upon a army, by which he forfeited the favor 
smaller scale, and was characterized by of Napoleon. At the outbreak of the 
the beaks of ships and other nautical Franco-German war (1870), however, 
trophies. he was made /governor of Paris, and 
Triumphal Arch, see Arc*. when^fte repubhc^w« ^^n^Uimed^he^^ 

Trinmirir (tn-am'vir), one of three a posidon which he held until the capitu- 
xxxuiAivxx jjj^Q united in office. The lation. He wrote Pour la V4rit4 ei pour 
triumvirs (L. triumviri) of Rome were la Justice, and L*Arm4e Frangaise en 
either ordinary magistrates or officials, 1819, He died in 1896. 
or else extraordinary commissioners who Tro^lodvte ( trog'lu - dit ) , a cave- 
were frequently appointed to execute **v5xw\*jv^ dweller; one dwelling in 
jointly any public office. But the men a cave or underground habitation. The 
best known in Roman history as ancient Greeks gave the name troglodyte 
triumvirs were rather usurpers of power to various races of savages inhabitmg 
than properly constituted authorities, caves, especially to the cave-dwellers on 
The term triumvirate is particularly ap- the coast of the Red Sea and along the 
plied in Roman history to two famous banks of the Upper Nile in Nubia and 
coalitions, the first in 59 B. c. between Abyssinia, the whole of this district be- 
CiBsar, Pompey, and Crassus; the second ing known by the name Troglodytik& 
in 43 B. c. between Antony, Octavian, It is shown by archsological investi- 
and Lepidus. See Rome (History), gations that cave-dwellers in all lo> 
Trivandrnm (tP6-van'dr5in), a town calities probably preceded house-build* 
xixvouuxuui ^ India, the capital of ers. 

Digitized by 



TrOelodyteS < -tea ) . the generic 
4.xv5AVF\i.jr vwo name of the wrens; 

also that of the gorilla and chimpanzee. 
Trnfrnn (tro'gon), a genus of birds, 

gonidae. The trogons inhabit the forests 
of the intertropical regions. 
Trm'q "Rivi^rpci (trwu-ri-vy&r; 'three 
irOlS lilViereS divers'), an old city 
of Quebec, Canada, situated at the junc- 
tion of the St Lawrence and St Maurice 
rivers. It has various thriving indus- 
tries. Pop. (1913) 18,000. 
Trollev (trol'li; electric railway). A 

•^ truck which travels along 
overhead wires conveying an electric cur- 
rent, and forms a means of connection 
between them and a railway car. Cars 
moved by this system have come very 
widely into use and are commonly known 
as trolley cars. See Electric RaUwap. 
TrolloBe (tw>rop), Anthony, an Eng- 

•t^ lish novelist, a younger son 
of Frances M. TroUope, was bom in 
London in 1815; died in 1882. In 1841 
he was appointed clerk to a post- 
o£Sce surveyor in Ireland, where his ex- 
periences gave him material for bis first 
novels. The MacdermoU of Ballycloran 
(1847), and The Kellya and the O^KeUys 
(1848), neither of which was success- 
lul. Meanwhile he was appointed in- 
spector of rural post-oflSces in Ireland 
and parts of England, and continuing his 
novel-writing bis first success was The 
Warden (1^), followed by Barcheater 
Towers (1857), Dr, Thome (1858), and 
numerous others. He also published ac- 
counts of his travels, including The 
West Indies and the Spanish Main 
(1859), Australia and New Zealand 
(1873), South Africa (1878), besides a 
Lfife of Cicero (1881), etc — Thomas 
AooLPHUS Tbollope, eldest brother of 
the above, was bom in 1810; resided 
chiefly in Florence; and was the author 
of Impressions of a Wanderer in Italy 
(1852), Tuscany in 1849-59 (1859), 
History of Florence (1865), etc. He 
died in 1892. — Fbances Milton Trol- 
Ijopb, mother of the above, was born 
about 1790, and died in 1863. She was 
the author of Domestic Manners of the 
Americans (1831), The Refugee in Amer- 
ica (1832), books which were very 
severe upon American life and customs. 
Trolls (trdls), in Northem mythology, 
a name of certain supernatural 
beings, in old Icelandic literature repre- 
sented as a kind of giants, but in modem 
Scandinavia regarded as of diminutive 
size, and represented as a kind of mis- 
chievous imps or goblins. 
TrnmlinTiP (troml>dn), a deep-toned 
xrumouue ^^^^ instrument of the 


trumpet kind, consisting of three tubes; 
the first, to which the mouthpiece is at- 
tached, and the third, which terminates 
in a bell-shaped orifice, are placed side 
by side; the middle tube is doubled, and 
slides into the other two like the tube 
of a telescope. By the manipulation of 
the slide the tube of air is altered n 


1, Valve Trombone. 2, Slide Trombone. 

length, and the pitch accordingly varied. 
The trombone is of three kinds, the alto, 
the tenor, and the bass; and some instru- 
ments are fitted with pistons, when they 
are known as valve trombones. 
Trnmn Martin Habpebtzoon, the 
j,xvxu.^f son of a Dutch naval officer, 
was bora at Briel in 1597. He went to 
sea with his father in 1607; received 
the appointment of lieutenant-admiral; 
gained a decisive victory over the Span- 
ish and Portuguese fleet near Dunkirk in 
1639; encountered Blake and Monk in 
1653, and in the same year he again 
encountered Monk and was killed in the 
battle. — His son, Cornelius, bom at 
Rotterdam in 1629, was also dis- 
tinguished in the naval service of his 
country. He died in 1691. 
TroTTifiA (trom'sen), a seaport of Nor- 
J.1U1XIOV ^^y capital of the province 
of Troms5, situated on a small island 
of the same name off the west coast. It 
has an extensivQ trade In fish, train-oil, 
etc Pop. 6956k 

Trondhjem MI'^tT^ci.Jt T^^ 

way, the ancient capital of the country, 
situated on a bay at the mouth of the 
Nid, on the south side of the Trond- 
hjem-fiord. It poaiesses strong fortifica- 
tions on the mainland and on the small 
rocky island of Munkholm. The chief 
buildings are the cathedral, which in 
some parts is as old as 1033 ; the Kongs- 
gaard, or palace of the old Norwegian 
kings; and a museum, including a pic- 
ture-gallery, and a library with some rare 
MSS. The trade consists chiefly in ex- 
ports of timber, dried and salted fish, tar, 
and copper. Pop. (1910) 45,335. 

'TrOOB ^^^P)» ^ ^^y o^ cavalry, 
•t^ usually consisting of sixty troop- 
lers, under the command of a captain and 
two lieutenants. 

Digitized by 




from the blowing of trumpets in the 
temple with more than asual solemnity. 

Trumpet-shell. ®^ ^^'*^'^- 
Trumpet-weed, ^t^l^^!^^^^ 

fUa huccindliSf the stem of which being 

hollow is used as a siphon, and also as a 


Trumpet-wood. ^^ Cecropia. 

Trunk-fish. ®®® Oatradon. 

Trunk-hose, t ^^'S^ ^' short wide 

**^"*'' breeches gathered in 
above the knees, or immediately under 
them, and distinguished according to their 


1, Charles IX of Prance, 1550-1574. 

2, Bobert Oarr, Earl of Somerset, died 1645. 

peculiar cut as French, Gallic, or Vene- 
tian. This garment prevailed during the 
time of Henry VIII, Elizabeth, and 
James I. 

Truro (^ru'rO), an episcopal city, sea- 
port, and municipal borough of 
England, county of Ck)mwall. at the con- 
fluence of the Kenwyn ana St. Allen. 
8i miles n. of Falmouth. The principal 
edifice is the new cathedral (the first 
Protestant cathedral, except St. Paul's, 
built in England), consecrated in 1887, 
when Truro was established as a bish- 
opric. The smelting of tin is carried on 
to a great extent. Pop. 11,325. 
Trnrri Nova Scotia, on the Intercolo- 
J.IUIU9 Dial Railway. It has manu- 
factures of foundry materials, lasts and 
pegs, hats and caps, knit goods, etc. 
Pop. 6l0r. (See Truro.) 
Truss ^ surgery, a bandage or appa- 
' ratus used in cases of hernia 
to keep up the reduced parts and hinder 
furtlier protrusion, and lor other pur- 

poses. — In building, a combination of 
timbers, or of iron-work, or of both to- 
gether, so arranged as to constitute an 
unyielding frame. The simplest example 
of a truss is the principal or main couple 
of a roof, in which the tie-beam is sus- 
pended in the middle by the king-post to 
the apex of the angle formed by the 
meeting of the rafters. See Roof, 

Trust ^^ ^^^» * *^"®' ^ ^ peculiar 
species of ownership, in which 
property, real or personal, is invested in 
one or more persons for the benefit of 
others. The person who holds the pzop' 
erty is a trustee; the person for whose 
benefit it is held is called cestui que 
trust (he that has the benefit of the 
trust). Trusts, as originally employed 
in England, applied to real estate only, 
but in recent times have been extended 
to personal property, and before the mid- 
die of the nineteenth century the latter 
form developed into what are known as 
commercial trusts, great trade combina- 
tions ostensibly intended to cheapen ex- 
penses, regulate production, and re- 
move competition, but practically going 
beyond those ostensible purposes. Trusts 
of this kind quickly made their way to 
the United States, where they have 
developed more rapidlv and greatly than 
in England, some of them having be- 
come immense in the amount of capital 
involved, so much as to be regarded by 
the community at large with hostility as 
threatening the foundations of honorable 
industry. As so regarded, the term trust 
is applied to cases foreign to its original 
application, being employed to designate 
trade combinations in general, irrespec- 
tive of their form and mode of creation. 
As such the term corporation is also 
commonly applied. The combinations 
now in existence have ceased to be nor- 
mal trusts from the fact that the 
trustees have come to control, not the 
real and personal property of the cor- 
porations involved, but the shares of 
their stockholders. This gives the trus- 
tees the power of managing, though not 
the legal ownership of, the property con- 
cerned. Against these great combina- 
tions of financial and commercial 
property a vigorous enmity has arisen, 
and the governing powers have pro- 
ceeded against them in various instances 
as law-breakers and foes of the com- 
munity. Thus suits were brought against 
the Sugar Trust in New York, the 
Standard Oil Company in Ohio, and the 
Chicago Gas Company in Illinois, and 
the illegality of these combinations was 

E roved. The forfeiture of one charter 
1 each case, with the liability to a 
similar forfeiture in the case of the other 

Digitized by 



corporations coQcemed, operated effectu- 
ally to dissolve these trusts in their 
earlier forms. This preliminary battle 
against the trusts simply changed, with- 
out destroying them. They were quickly 
reorganized in new and different forms 
and continued in operation. They disap- 
peared as corporate trusts, but con- 
tinued to exist as combinations held 
together by contract And their old 
methods of injurious procedure were 
continued: the stifling or competition of 
minor concerns, the procuring of special 
rates and privileges in railroad traas- 
portation, the issue of watered stock, 
increasing the sum of floating capital far 
beyond the value of the property; all 
these tending to keep alive the enmity 
of the community at large. There have 
"been many new suits at law brought 
against the trusts, and legislative in- 
vestigations by the House of Representa- 
tives, the New York Senate, and the 
Canadian Parliament Anti-trust laws 
have been passed in a number of the 
states, and in 1890 Congress passed a 
National Anti-trust Act It cannot be 
said that these had much beneficial 
effect Most important of all has been 
the creation of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, for the purpose of dealing 
with all illegal practices of the trusts. 
Unfortunately tnis Commission was 
lon^: hampered by lack of full powers of 
action, a weakness only recently re- 
moved by new legislation. Of late years 
it has proceeded actively against the 
trusts and won some notable victories. 
A spectacular one of these was the de- 
cision given by a Federal court in 1907, 
fining the Standard Oil Company the 
immense sum of $29,240,000 for accept- 
ing illegal rebates in railroad freights. 
This decision was afterwards reversed by 
a United Stalies Circuit Court of Appeals, 
but it went far to do away with the 
evil of rebating, which is now strictly 
forbidden by law. Another notable suit 
was against the Sugar Trust, in the 
operation of which fraudulent methods 
of weighing imported su^ar had been 
discovered. In a decision rendered 
March 5, 1909, the trust was fined 
$134,116 for these practices, and in 1910 
it was compelled to disgorge over $2,000,- 
000 for fraudulent weighing. The two 
most important suits were those brought 
against the Standard Oil and the Amer- 
ican Tobacco corporations in 1911. 
These were both decided adversely to the 
trusts, which were found guilty of 
stifling competition and ordered to dis- 
solve. Steps have been taken by the 
companies to obey the orders of the court, 
bot bow effective their breaking up into 


their elements will prove remains to be 
seen. Variuu& devices have been proposed 
for the more elTective control of trusts 
by the Federal Government, and a Corpor- 
ation Tax has been imposed since l909. 
The Clayton Anti-Trust Bill, passed by 
Congress in 1014 supplements the Sher- 
man Law and makes it more rigid; and 
the Trade Commission Bill, likewise 
passed in 1914, provides for a commission 
with full iaquisitional powers into the 
operation and organization of corpora- 
tions and authority to condemn unfair 
methods of competition. 
Tmstee (trus-te'), in law, a person to 
* whom property is legallv com- 

mitted in trust for the benefit of some 
other party or parties, or for some 
special purpose. See Trust. No one is 
compelled to undertake a trust, but if he 
once accept he cannot renounce it unless 
the trust-deed contains a provision en- 
abling him to do so, or a competent court 
grants him a discharge, or by the con- 
sent of all those beneficially interested in 
the estate. Trustees are liable for the 
consequences of any breach of trust 
however innocent, and the estate of a 
trustee deceased, who has misapplied the 
trust fund, is uable for the deficiency; 
but generally speaking, the law only re- 
quires of a trustee the same amount of 
care and prudence he would be expected 
to display in managing his own affairs. 
Where there are several trustees each is 
liable for his own acts and receipts only, 
unless there is common agreement 
Trusts are generally to protect the in- 
terests of married women and children, 
by placing in the hands of trustees for 
them the legal rights which they would 
be incapable of exercising. Frequently 
trusts involve the sale or purchase of 
lands, or investment of funds, in which 
cases the trustee has to exercise due 
caution, as he may be rendered liable 
for any loss. 

T-m-villn or Trujuxo (both tru-h^l'- 
J.riULUiU, y^x ^^ ^ ^Q^jj ^f Western 

Spain, prov. of Caceres, the birthplace 

of Pizarro. Pop. 12,512. (2) A town 

(also called Chimti) in the north of Peru, 

near the coast, and havine as its port 

•Salaverry. It was founded by Pixarro, 

has a university, and a good trade. Pop. 

about 8000. (3) The canital of the state 

of Truxillo, Venezuela, 90 miles 8. w. of 

Barquisimeto. Extensive coal deposits 

exist in the vicinity. Pop. 10,000. 

TmvfATi (truks'tun), Thomas, naval 
ATUXliOn ^gj^^ ^^ ^^ Long, igi^^ 

in 1755; died in 1822. He commanded 
a privateer and took valuable prizes in 
the Revolution. In 1794 he was made 
captain in the navy and in the naval 


Digitized by 


Trygonidae Tuber 

war with France (1799-1800) captured ernment remained in her hands, the em- 
the French frigates U Insurgente and peror being kept in a virtual captivity. 
La Vengeance. The latter victory She opposed rerorm, encouraged the Boxer 
brought him a gold medal from Congress, movement, but a few years later, after 
TrVGronidflB (tn-gon'i-de), the family the Russo-Japan war, became herself a 
•^^ name of the stingrays reformer and took active steps to mod- 

( which see). emize Chinese administration and meth- 

TsaritSVH ^ Russian city in Saratov ods of education. In many respects a 
A»M "''J **> province, on the Volga, woman of unusual powers, the tendency 
Pop. (1910) 100,847. of historians is to class her among the 

TftRmfeov^-Sfklo (tsar'skO-yS sye-l6), great women rulers of the world. From 
j.Mi9&vjrc acxv ^ a b s ko J k-selo the death of her husband in 1861 to the 
(* Czar's Town '), a town of Russia, in time of her death, a period of nearly half 
the province of St. Petersburg, containing a century, she was practically the ruler 
the summer residence of the imperial fam- of China« She died November 15, 1908. 
ily. Pop. 22,353. TnRm (tS'am), a town of Ireland, 

Tachaikovakv (chl-kofski), Peter •^"►0'"* county of Gal way, 129 miles 
.■.»^AM%xA.vFT0A.j iLiTcn, a noted Rus- northwest from Dublin. It is the seat 
sian composer, born in 1840; died in of the Bishop of Tuam, and also of the 
1893. In 1862, when the Conservatory Roman Catholic archbishop. Its princi- 
of Music was founded at St. Petersburg, pal edifices are the Protestant and Ro- 
he gave up an official position to devote man Catholic cathedrals, the bishops' 
himself to music, studying under Anton nalaces, and the college of St. Jarlath. 
Rubinstein and Zaremba. From 1866 to Pop. 3012. 

1878 he taught in the conservatory ; then npriflninf n Talanila ( 1 5 - a - m 6't a ) , 
retired to devote himself to composition. AU^«U*AV«'U J-o******* i>AUMOTU, or Low 
He is best known by his symphonies. Archipelago, an extensive group of is- 

Tsetse-flv (^^t'se), a South African lands in the Pacific, lying eastwards from 
^ dipterous (two-winged) in- the Society Islands and south of the 
sect (Oloasfna morsitans), akin to the Marquesas. They are mostly under 
gad-fly, whose bite is often fatal to horses, French protection, and have a population 
dogs, and cows, but was long considered of 7000. They exjwrt pearls, motherK)f- 
in noxious to man and wild beasts. It has pearl, trepang, etc. 

been discovered that the same insect car- TnRricks ( tO'a-rikz ), TuAfiSGSy or 
ries the ^erms of the deadlv sleeping sick- * uaxiui^p TawIbiks, a race of no- 
ness, which has long been known in parts mads supposed to be connected with the 
of Africa and of late years has proved Berbers in their origin, and inhabiting a 
especially fatal to the natives of Uganda, great part of the Sahara desert between 
Active efforts are now being made to 5° w. Ion. and 13° E. Ion. They are of 
check the ravages of this disease by pre- a handsome and muscular physique, of 
ventlve methods, the habits of the fly war-like habits, fierce and cruel aisposi- 
being studied and its haunts broken up. tion, and Mohammedans in religion. 
Tsi-nan Tsinanfu, a Chinese city on Their numbers are estimated at 200,000. 
' the Ta-tsin River. Glass and Tnher (ttt'ber), in botany, an under- 
silk wares made. Pop. 300,000. Auucx ground fleshy stem or append- 
TovA Hai An ^^® ^^*® dowager em- age to the root, being usually an oblong 

^^ •*** ^"^^ press of China, born ^ 

in Manchuria. She became one of the "* 

wives of the emperor Hsien Fung, who 
ascended the throne in 1850. A woman 
of remarkable political acumen, she 
raised herself to the position of co-em- 

gress. On the emperor's death she put 
er son, Tung Chi, on the throne, acting 
as re|:ent during his minority. From 
that time forward she was the practical 
ruler of China. On the death of Tung 
Chi, in 1875, she placed her nephew, Tuberous Roots. 

Kwang Seu, an infant, on the throne, l, Palmate {Orchis maculata). 2, Didjmoni 
she again becoming regent. When he iOrehi§ mascula). 8, Fasciculate {Fiearia 
grew up and assumed control, his at- ranunctUoide$), 
tempted reform movements led to his be- 
ing deprived of authority by his despotic or roundish body, of annual duration, 
aunt, backed by. the conservative party, composed chiefly of cellular tissue with 
a&d from that time to her death the gov- a great quantity of amylaceous matter. 

Digitized by 




intended fer the development of the 
Btems or branches which are to spring 
from it, and of which the rudiments, in 
the form of buds, are irregularly dis- 
tributed over its surface. Examples are 
Been in the potato, the Jerusalem arti- 
choke, and arrow-root. Tubers are dis- 
tinguished, according to their forms, into 
didymou$ (in pairs), palmate (hand- 
like), fasciculate, globular , ohlonOf etc 
Tnberfilp (tH'b^r-kl), a small aggre- 
XlLOercie ^^^^ of round cells Snd 
cnberde bacilli which tend to spread and 
invade surrounding tissues. In doing so 
it breaks down in the center into an 
opaque, yellowish or cheesy material, car- 
rying the normal tissue with it in its de- 
structive change. Tubercles may be de- 
veloped in different parts of the body, but 
are most frequent in the lungs and mes- 
entery. The tubercle bacillus in the lungs 
is the cause of the well-known fatal dis- 
ease, pulmonary consumption. 

Tuberculin* f ""^t^^ "?2J^ contain- 

AUWVJ.VIUAU9 ing the growth products 
of the tubercle bacillus, put forth as a 
cure for tuberculosis hj Dr. Koch in 1890. 
It failed as a cure, but is used in diag- 
nosing tuberculosis of cattle. 

Tuberculosis ^ttl-bAr-kd-to'da) is the 
*u.»/vAviMv»M Q^jjj^ applied to an in- 
fectious, contagious disease due to inocu- 
lation by a rod-sbaped, microscopical 
germ, the Bacillus tuberculosis, measur- 
ing in diameter 0.25 and in length 1.5 to 
3.5 micromillimeters. There are two va- 
rieties, the human and the bovine, the 
former being the longer. The tubercle 
bacillus attacks chiefly the warm-blooded 
animals, being common among the do- 
mestic creatures — fowls, cows, pigs, etc. ; 
the horse is only slightly susceptible to 
infection. The guinea-pie, while com- 
paratively immune to infection, is very 
susceptible to inoculation. 

The bacillus gains entrance into the 
body through wounds, the air inhaled, 
or food ingested. It reaches the blood 
stream, where the bacilli multiply and 
are carried throughout the body, no or- 
gan or tissue being exempt from their 
ravages. The bacilli produce a toxin, 
which is disseminated throughout the 
system by the blood. In the various tis- 
sues the bacilli lodge and multiply and 
around them is formed the characteristic 
tubercle, which aives the name to the 
bacillus and the disease. The tubercle is 
a small nodule, which may be white, 
gnjt or yellow in color. The smallest 
tubercles are called miliary. These may 
be many or few in any particular area. 
The tubercle is a mass of epithelioid cells 
with large, oval nuclei and glistening, 

nuclear bodies. In the center are so- 
called 'giant cells,' which are round or 
oval, with prolongations, and containing 
from 20 to 100 round or oval nuclei, 
which in old giant cells are arranged in 
a chain around the periphery. Outside 
the epithelioid cells is a zone of lymph 
cells from the blood. In old tubercles 
the center undergoes a cheesy degenera- 
tion, due to lack of blood supply in the 
center. Sometimes a fibrous capsule sur- 
rounds and imprisons the tubercle. The 
severity of any case of tuberculosis is 
proportionate to the number of tubercles 

Anv injury may provide an entrance 
for the germs, as tney may be floating 
in the air at the time. A person may 
inhale them at any moment, since a tu- 
berculous person may be exhaling them 
in the vicinity or they may be wafted by 
the breeze from a distance. Or a tuber- 
culous person may expectorate them and 
after the sputum has been desiccated 
they may then be blown about. The 
mere inhalation of the germs, however, 
will not produce the disease, as the tis- 
sues of the body may be able to destroy 
or cast off the bacillL Attendants in 
tuberculosis hospitals, exercising proper 
care, do not become infected. .But 
should a sickly person inhale them, his 
likelihood of escaping the disease is not so 
good, and if a well person harboring the 
germs becomes ill or some acute inflam- 
matory disease — cold, pneumonia, influ- 
enza, etc. — tuberculosis may then start 
up. Prolonged exposure to the exhala- 
tions from tuberculous persons in poorly 
ventilated apartments, as in crowded ten- 
ements; the faulty disposal of tubercu- 
lous sputum; the coughing by the tu- 
berculous into non-tuberculars* faces; 
infecting the pockets by placing spit- 
cloths therein, are modes of infection. 
Foul air, overcrowding, lack of sunshine, 
dark bouses, dampness, combined with 
low altitude and insanitary conditions 
generally are all potent factors in the 
propagation of the disease. Direct con- 
tagion by kissing is possible and also 
may occur by using eating and drinking 
utensils after a tuberculous person that 
have not been sterilized. Infection by 
tuberculous meat eaten in a partially 
raw condition has been frequently dem- 
onstrated, as well as by contaminated 
milk. The latter is thought to be the 
source of intestinal tuberculosis in chil- 
dren. The eating of tuberculous meat 
has probably been pretty well eradicated 
by careful inspection of abattoirs and 
veterinary bacteriological inspection, but 
vigilance in this direction must not be re- 
lazed. All meat should be thoroughly 

Digitized by 




<!3ooked to kill all germs that may have 
found a lodgment therein. The disease is 
not hereditary, but a predisposition is 
transmitted to offspring. 

Tuberculosis is to be prevented by 
strict attention to hygienic rules. Tu- 
berculous persons should not swallow 
their sputum nor expectorate it on the 
ground or pavement or into cuspidors, but 
carefully eject it into impermeable re- 
ceptacles, without soiling their hands, 
clothes, or the receptacle. All the spu- 
tum receptacles should be destroyed by 
fire. All eating utensils of the tuber- 
culous should be sterilized by thorough 
boiling, as also should all their clothes, 
though the latter may be fully sterilized 
by exposure to formaldehyde gas for 
twenty-four hours. All meat and milk 
should be freed from tubercle by veteri- 
nary inspection of herds. All excreta 
from the tuberculous should be sterilized 
by fire, 5 per cent, carbolic acid solution, 
or 4 per cent chlorinated lime solution. 
Much fresh air should be admitted to 
rooms which human beings and animals 
inhabit. The tuberculous should avoid 
kissing and fondling others. Bedrooms 
should be cleansed with moist cloths and 
not have the dust swept into the air. 
Sunlight and fresh air are the enemies of 

Tuberculosis is the most widespread 
and fatal disease to which man is heir, 
about 40 per cent, of deaths in cities be- 
ing due to it. Longitude and latitude 
have but slight influence upon its prev- 
alence, thou^ altitude appears to exert 
a more or less controlling influence upon 
the life of the tubercle bacillus. 

Tuberculosis of the skin is called lu- 
pus and contains tubercles. Eventually 
large areas of skin are transformed into 
reddish, ulcerated patches, more or less 
deep, with pjockets of yellowish, piirulent 
matter. It is treated by X-ray, Finsen's 
phototherapy, radium, surgical removal, 
and caustics. The lymph glands are at- 
tacked and enlarge and finally degenerate, 
surgical removal being required. The 
mucous membrane of the alimentary canal 
may become affected, tubercles, ulcera- 
tions, hoemorrhages and weakness result- 
ing. If the ulceration is sufficiently deep 
to produce perforation, peritonitis or fis- 
tula may result, which latter is frequent 
in and around the rectum. The liver, 
pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and other vis- 
cera may be affected similarly. 

The great tuberculous disease, however, 
is tuberculosis of the lung. There are 
two varieties of the disease — acute and 
chronic — and three successive stages. 
In this disease small nodules are scat- 
tered more or less profusely throughout 

the diseased areas. As the affection 
progresses the nodules enlarge and be- 
come more numerous, finally coalescing to 
form large masses of consolidated matter. 
When this liquefies, cavities are formed. 
If, with this infection, there is added 
some of the pus-forming bacteria, a more 
rapid variety is the consequence, and an 
irregular fever results. In the acute dis- 
ease there is a sudden chill, fever, pain 
in the side, cough, and bloody sputum. 
In a fortnight a mucopurulent expectorar 
tion occurs, which may contain the ba- 
cilli. Then are found chills, fever, and 
drenching sweats; the fever is higher tn 
the evening than in the morning; the 
heart is weak and rapid, breathing is dif- 
ficult, and the tubercular gradually sinks. 
The chronic disease begins usually as a 
bronchitis, though it may come on stealttk- 
ily with no prodromal signs. People us- 
uallv describe it as a severe cold that 
settles on the chest and cannot be gotten 
rid of. There is some cough, dry at first, 
but later profuse expectoration, fever, and 
emaciation occur. There are gradual loss 
of strength and appetite, ansemia, profuse 
or slight hoemorrhage. This may con- 
tinue for a long period o£ time or sud- 
denly get worse. 

It is treated by cold, dry air at an ele- 
vation of 2000 or 3000 feet above sea 
level, which is stimulating to the tissues, 
arousing Nature's forces to repel the 
bacteria and excrete the toxins. They 
should remain outdoors the entire time, 
summer and winter, if possible, only pro- 
tected from storms. Buildines with re- 
movable sides, or large sashes, constructed 
of a material to withstand strong chem- 
ical disinfectants, should be occupied, and 
the body will adapt itself to the en- 
vironment, provided warm clothing is 
worn. At a lower altitude in damp 
weather ventilation is secured by having 
open the windows in an adjoining apart- 
ment and an open fireplace in the room 
occupied. Personal hygiene is impera- 
tive, as are the preventive measures al- 
ready given. An impermeable sputum 
flask should receive the expectoration. 
The tubercular requires good nourish- 
ment Milk, cream, meat, eggs, butter, 
vegetables, and game should be liberally 
provided. Tuberculin is administered 
sometimes by hypodermic injection until 
the person no longer reacts to it 

TnViPrAflP (ttll)e-r<>s; Polyanihe$ tube- 
xuDeruse ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ „^^ 

order Liliaceae, originally brought from 
the East, and now largely cultivated in 
American gardens both for its perfume 
and for its beautiful white flowers. It 
has a bulbous root, and an upright 
branchless stem growing to the height 

Digitized by 


Tubicols Tuokerman 

of 3 or 4 feet. It is caltivated for the Tnnlr^r 3^* Geoboe, jurist, was bom 

perfumers in France and Italy. xuuxk^jx, j^ Bermuda m 1762; died in 

Tubicolffi (ta-bik'u-l€; 'tube-dwell- 1827. While he was stiU a boy his 

ers*), an order of anne- father removed to Virginia and he 

lids, comprehending those which live in entered the William and Mary College, 

calcareous tubes, composed of secretions where he was graduated in 1772. He 

from the animal itself, as in serpula studied law, and during the Revolution- 

( which see) ; in tubes composed of sand ary war served in the patriot army, 

and fragments of shell connected together In 1778 he married Mrs. Randolph, 

by a glutinous secretion, as in terebella; mother of the celebrated John Ran- 

or in a tube composed of granules of dolph of Roanoke. After the war he 

sand and mud, as in sabella. became a judge and also professor of law 

TiiViiTicrATi (tU'bing-in), a town of in William and Mary (College, was made 

AuuxiAgcu Wttrtemberg, in the circle judee of the State Court of Appeals in 

of the Schwarzwald (Black Forest), on 1803, and of the United States Court 

the Neckar. 18 miles southwest of for the eastern district of Virginia in 

Stuttgart. It is irregularly built, and 1813. He published numerous works in 

the streets are for the most part steep prose and verse, and was especially 

and narrow, but the environs are pictur- happy in vers de societ4, — Henby St. 

esque. There are various manufactures, Gboboe Tucker, his son, was bom in 

but the town is supported chiefly by Virginia in 1781; died in 1848; studied 

the university, which was founded in law under his father, and like him be- 

1477. It has a library of 300,000 vols., came eminent in the profession. He was 

a botanic garden, chemical laboratories, professor of law in the University of 

collections of zodlogy and comparative Virginia, chancellor of the fourth Judi- 

anatomy, of minerals, of coins and cial district, president of the State Court 

medals, etc. The number of teachers of Appeals, and a member of Congress 

is nearly 100, of students over 1200. 1815-19. He wrote Lectures on Consti- 

Reuchlin and Melanchthon were pro- tutional Law and other legal works. — 

fessors here, as was also F. C. Baur, who Beveblet Tuckeb, another son, bom in 

founded the Tttbingen school of theology. 1784; died in 1851. He also became a 

a school which has been distinguished lawyer, and served as a judge in Mis- 

by its critical method, and its tendency souri from 1815 to 1830. From 1834 to 

to the rejection of the supernatural ele- his death he was professor of law in 

ment in Christianity. Pop. 16,809. William and Mary College. He wrote 

TnliinorJi. (tu-bip'o-ra), a genus of legal works and several novels, one of 

xuuxi^vxn corals belonging to the or- which. The Partisan Leader, published 

der Alcyonaria, and represented by the in 1836, in a measure foreshadowed the 

familiar organ-pipe coral (T. musica), secession movement of 1861. In the 

and by other species. convention at Nashville in 1850, his 

Tnlmfti TalsiTirlq (t5-b»-I'), a group visrorous invectives against the North re- 

lUDUai ISianaS ^ the Pacific c^led the speeches of his half-brother. 

Ocean, south of the Society Islands, and, John Randolph of Roanoke. — George 

like them, under France. Tucker, a nephew of St. Geon^e Tucker, 

Tnlmlftr T^riflirp See Bridge, was born in Bermuda In 1775; died in 

lUDlUar linage. ^^ IS^l H^ ^^^^ ^^ Virginia in 1787, 

TnfikflllOfi ( tuk-a-ho' ) , a singular studied law under his uncle at William 
Auvxvcui.v^ vegetable found in the and Mary College, and was a member of 
southern seaboard section of the United Congress from 1819 to 1825, when he 
States, growing underground, like the became professor of ethics and political 
European traffic. It is also called Indian economy in the University of Virginia, 
bread and Indian loaf. It is referred to holding this position for twenty years, 
a genus, Pachvmat of spurious fungi, but He wrote a standard Life of Thomas 
in all probability it is a peculiar condition Jefferson; a History of the United 
of some root, though of what plant has States, down to 1840; The Valley of the 
not been properly ascertained. Shenandoah, a novel, and A Voyage to 
T4ip1rpr (tuk'er), Abraham, an Eng- the Moon, a satirical romance. Sfost of 
XUI/&CX j^gjj miscellaneous and philo- his later life was spent in Philadelphia, 
sophical writer, bom in 1705; died in Tllokermfl.n (tuk'er-man), Henry 
1774. He was educated at Oxford, lived *»*^«^^*"*"'" Theodore, an American 
the life of a private country gentleman, man of letters, born at Boston in 1813; 
and published his chief work. The Light died in 1871. His writing are very nu- 
of Nature, under the pseudonym of Ed- merous, and consist mamly of mono- 
ward Search. It has been frequently re- graphs relating to biography, literatures 
published. and art Among the best known are 

Digitized by 



Italian Sketch Book; Artist Life; The 
Optimist; Characteristics of Literature; 
EssaySt Biooraphical and Critical, etc. 
Tn/»aATi (tuk'sim), a city, the capital 
XUCSUli ^^ pinj^ county, Arizona, 130 
miles 8. E. of Phoenix. It is the seat of 
the University of Arizona and of St. 
Joseph's Aoademy. The chief industries 
have to do with mining and stock-raising. 
Hides, wool, and metals are dealt in. 
Pop. 13.193. 

TnGnm (t^'^ni)» * species of palm 
^ (Astrocaryum vulgdre ) of 

great importance to the Brazilian In- 
ians, who make cordage, bow-strings, 
fishing-nets, etc., from the fine durable 
fiber consisting of the epidermis of its 
unexpanded leaves. The name is also 
given to the fiber or thread, and to an oil 
obtained from the plant. 
TTiPTimRTI ( t6 - ku - man' ) . or S A N 
XUCUmau Miguel de Tucuman. a 
town of the Argentine Republic, capital 
of the province of the same name, in 
the northwest of the country, near the 
foot of a mountain range on the Upper 
Rio Dulce. It is a rising place, con- 
nected by railway with Buenos Ayres. 
Pop. about 55,000. The province is 
fertile, and has a fine climate; area, 
8050 sq. miles. Pop. 263,079. 
Tndela (tO-tha'lA), a city of Spain, 
province of Navarre, on the 
right bank of the Ebro, 156 miles north- 
east of Madrid. It has an ancient ca- 
thedral and other churches, a medical 
college, etc. Pop. 9499. 
TtiiI nr (tti'dur), the family name of an 
xuuur j^ngiigij r^jyal line founded by 

Tmdor Architecture, Hongrave Hall, Essex, 


Owen Tudor of Wales, who married the 
widowed oueen of Henry V. The first 
of the Tudor sovereigns was Henry VII ; 
the last, Elizabeth. See England. 
TTlflnr-fiftUTPr ^ trefoil ornament 

architecture. It is placed upright on a 
stalk, and is employed in long rows as 
a crest or ornamental finishing on cor- 
nices, ridges, etc 

Tudor Stvlf* ^^ architecture, a name 
XUQOr Diyie, frequently applied to 
the latest Gothic stvle in England, being 
the last phase of the perpendicular, and 
sometimes known as Flortd Oothic The 
period of this style is from 1400 to 1537 ; 
but the term is sometimes extended so 
as to include the Elizabethan period also, 
which briuM it down to 1C03. It is 
the result of a combination of the Italian 
style with the Gothic. It is character- 
ized by a flat arch, shallow moldings, 
and a profusion of paneling on Vie 

TnesdaV (ttte'^*)* the third day of 
«^ our week, so called from the 
Anglo-Saxon god of war, Tiu. See Tvr. 
Tufa (tfl'fa), or Tuff, the name orig- 
** inally given to a kind of volcanic 
rock; consisting of accumulations of 
scoria and ashes about the crater of a 
Tolcano. The name is now applied to 
any porous vesicular rock; thus rounded 
fragments of greenstone, basalt, and other 
trap-rocks, cemented into a solid mass, 
are termed trap-tuff , while a vesicular 
carbonate of lime, incrusting and incor- 
porating twigs, moss, shells, and other 
objects that lie in its way, is called oalc 

TuilerieS (twA'le-ris; from Fr. tuile, 
a tile, because the spot on 
which it is built was formerly used 
for the manufacture of tiles), the resi- 
dence of the French monarchs, on the 
right bank of the Seine, in Paris. 
Catharine de* Medici, wife of Henry II, 
began the building (1564) ; Henry IV 
extended it, and founded the old gallery 
(1600) ; and Louis XIV enlarged it 
(1654), and completed that gallery. 
The side towards the Louvre consisted of 
five pavilions and four ranges of build- 
ings; the other side had only three pa- 
vilions. During the revolution of 1830 
the palace was sacked. It was restored 
by Louis Philippe to its former splendor, 
but in 1848 it was again pillaged. The 
Tuileries then became successively a hos- 
pital for wounded, a picture gallery, and 
the home of Louis Napoleon in 1851. On 
May 23, 1871, it was almost totally de- 
stroyed by fire (the work of the commun* 
ists), and the remaining portions wera 
removed in the year 18&3. 

Digitized by 


Tula Tmnof 

viiHia (tU'lk), a goverament of Central compact, and fine-grained, and is em- 

* ***** Russia ; area, 11,954 square miles, ployed for various useful purposes. The 

The surface is generally flat, and the bark, especially of the roots, has an 

principal rivers are the Oka, the Upa, aromatic smell and bitter taste, and has 

and tne Don. By canal there is com- been used in medicine as a tonic and 

munication with the Baltic, the Black febrifuge. 

Sea, and the Caspian. Much grain is TuUe ^^^^» ^ town of France, capital 

produced, and vast numbers of horses, of the department of Corrfeze, sit- 

cattle, and sheep are reared. Iron is uated on the Corr^ze, 115 miles n. I7. b. 

smelted and manufactured to a large of Bordeaux. It has a cathedral and 

extent Pop. 1.662,000. — Tula, the capi- episcopal palace, a communal college, a 

tal, is situated on the Upa, 107 miles diocesan seminary, courtuouse, etc., and 

south of Moscow. It is the residence manufactures of firearms, wax-candles, 

both of a civil and a military governor, playing-cards, leather, and the famous 

the see of a bishop, and has extensive Point de Tulle lace. Pop. 11,741. 

manufactures of firearms, as also cut- Tulle ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^P^° ^^^ manu- 

lery, ornamental steelworks, platina »***^) factured at Tulle in France in 

Buuu-boxes, silks, hats, goap, candles, narrow strips, and much used on ladies' 

cordage and leather. Pop. 136,530. caps, etc. 

Tula-metal, *"* ?."^y ^^ silver, with TiQloCh <^«1'^)» .iS^^* theologist. 

' small proportions of lead ******'*'** born in 1823 at Bridge pf 

and copper, forming the base of the cele- Earn, Perthshire; died in 1886. He was 

brated Russian snuff-boxes popularly an influential leader in the councils of the 

called platinum boxes. Scotch Church, was for many years 

Tnle (t5'le), a large species of rush or principal of St. Mary's College, St. An- 

sedge, Soirpus validuSy nat order drews, and was the author of the Burnet 

Cyperacee, which grows to a great prize essay on Theism (1855), Leaders 

height^ and covers large tracts of marshy of the Keformation (1859), Enalish 

land m parts of California, being also Puritanism and its Leaders (lo61), 

found generally throughout the United Rational Theology and Christian PhUos- 

States. ophy in England in the Seventeenth cen- 

Tnlin (tti'lip), a genus of plants (Tu- tury (1872). Pascal (1878), Facts of 

*»***P ttpa), nat. order LiliaceuB. The Religious Life (1877), etc. 

species are bulbous herbaceous plants, TnllTia Hostilins ( tul'us hos-tiri- 

inhabiting the warmer parts of Europe ********* *avoi/xaxu.o ^^^ according to 

and Asia Minor, and are now exten- the legend, third king of Rome and suc- 

sively cultivated in gardens. About cessor to Numa Pompilius (B.a 670^ 

forty species have been described, of 638), a warlike monarch, in whose reign 

which the most noted is the common took place the combat of the Horatii and 

garden tulip (7. gesneriana), a native Curiatii. 

of the Levant, now an ornament in TnlfpliA (tulfcha), a town of Ron- 
American gardens. Upwards of 1000 •*•*"«'*'**«* mania, on the Danube, which 
varieties of this plant have been enu- near it divides into its three chief mouths, 
merated. The wild tulip (T. sylvestris) It has a good trade. Pop. 18,880. 
has yellow flowers, and blooms in April Tnlao a city in Tulsa Co., Oklahoma, 
and May. The sweet-scented tulip (T. ****»**> 14 miles N. N. K. of Sapulpa. It 
suaveolens), prized for its fragrance, is is the center of a vast oil-producing region, 
grown in the United States. About the Among the industries are: oil refining, 
middle of the sey«ateenth century an coal mining, wheat milling, etc Pop. 
extraordinary tulip mania prevailed in 28,240. 

Holland. Enormous sums were given Tnmbrel (tum'brel), Tumbril, a 
for bulbs, the ownership of a bulb being *"-*""**'* covered cart or carriage 
often divided into shares, in which men with two wheels, which accompanies 
speculated as they do in ordinary stocks trooj^s or artillery^ for conveying the tools 
or shares. The close of this mania led to of pioneers, cartridges, and the Uke. 
great losses. Tnmor (^^'Q^ui*)' ^^ surgery, in its 
Tnlin-tree *^ American tree bearing **"*v* widest sense, a morbid enlarge- 
Atux^ i»x^vy flowers resembling the ment or swelling of any part of the 
tulip, the Liriodendron tulipifera, nat. body or of any kind ; more strictly, how- 
order MagnoliaceflB. It is one of the ever, it implies a permanent swelling oc- 
most magnificent of the forest trees in casioned by a new growth, and not a 
the temperate parts of North America, mere enlargement of a natural part. 
Throughout the States it is generally which is called hypertrophy. Tumors 
known by the name of tulip poplar, white may be divided into two well-defined 
wood, or canoe-wood. The wood is light, classes: (a) Simple, hemgn, or innooeni 


Digitized by 




tutnorSf the substance of which has 
anatomical resemblance to some tissues 
of the body; they gradually increase in 
size; and generally only produce incon- 
venience from the great bulk they some- 
times attain; a complete cure may be 
effected by simple excision, (b) Malig- 
nant tumors^ which bear no resemblance 
in substance to normal tissue; they are 
exceedkigly liable to ulceration, they in- 
vade all the textures of the part in which 
they occur, affecting the mass of the 
blood, and terminate fatally; when ex- 
cised they are apt to recur not only in 
the immediate neighborhood of the 
previous site, but also in remote parti 
of the body. This recurrence in remote 
parts is due to transference of some of 
the elements of the tumor by fiieans of 
lymphatic or blood vessels. Hence if a 
malignant tumor is to be excised it must 
be done early to avoid such secondary 
infection if possible. Innocent tumors 
are often named from the tissues in 
which thev occur, as adipose or fatty 
tumors, fibrous tumors, cartilaginous 
tumors, tony tumors, and the like. Of 
the malignant class cancer is a well- 
known example. See Cancer, 
Tumuli (^'n^A'lOf artificial mounds 
Au»u&uxj. ^£ earth or stone raised to 
mark the resting-place of the dead. They 
are very abundant in parts of the United 
States, the work of prehistoric Indians. 
Bee Boifrows, 

'Tnyt an old measure of capacity. The 
•*•**"> English tun of wine contained 
four hogsheads, or 252 gallons, but in 
English-si)eaking countries the gallon is 
now the highest legal measure of capacity. 

Tunbridge WeUs, l^rTJ^nl 

place of England, partly in Kent, partly 
in Sussex, 32 miles s. s. E. of London, 4 
miles 8. of Tunbridge. It has a spacious 
parade, a town hall, corn exchange, pub- 
lic halls. Pump Room for visitors tak- 
ing the waters. Convalescent Home for 
Children, and manufactories of toys and 
fancy articles. The spring to which the 
place owes its origin and prosperity is 
chalybeate, and is considered very effi- 
cacious in cases of weak digestion. Pop. 

Tundras ^X^^.nJ^'S^.to^^^l^f 

to the immense stretches of 
flat, boggy country, extending through 
the northern part of Siberia and part of 
Russia, where vegetation takes an Arctic 
character. They are frozen the greater 
part of the year, and are very difficult 
to cross when not frozen. 
TnTi<ysfATi (tung'sten), a metal dis- 
xua^ucu covered in 1781; atomic 
weight 184; symbol W (from its other 

name wolfram). It has a grayish-white 
color and considerable luster. It is brit- 
tle, nearly as hard as steel, and less 
fusible than manganese. The ores of 
this metal are the native tungstate of 
lime and the tungstat* of iron and man- 
ganese, which latter is also known by 
the name wolfram. 

TunS^S (tun'gus), a term applied to 
^^^o certain Mongolian tribes in 
the northeast of Asia, consisting of no- 
madic and hunting peoples, spreiMl over 
Eastern Siberia, in a wider sense the 
term Tungtisians is wted to include the 
Manchus, who conquered China in 1644. 
'TniiiA (tH'nik), an ancient form of 
AIUU.V garment in constant use among 
the Greeks. Among the Romans the 
tunic was an under garment worn by 
both sexes (under the toga and the 
palla), and was fastened by a girdle or 
belt about the waist The term is also 
used ecclesiastically to denote a dress 
worn by the sub-deacon, made originally 
of linen, reaching to the feet, and then 
of an inferior silk, and narrower than the 
dalmatic of the deacon, with shorter and 
tighter sleeves. 

Tunicata i^^,;°^"^>>' *'! ^^^^ ^' 

^^^ Molluscoida or lower mol- 

lusca, which are enveloped in a coriace- 
ous tunic or mantle, provided with two 
orifices, the one branchial and the other 
anal, and covering beneath it a second 
tunic, which adheres to the outer one 
at the orifices. These animals are popu- 
larly named sea-squirts, and are found 
either solitary or in groups, fixed or 
floating, and sometimes joined together 
in a common mass. See Ascidia. 

Tuniner-fork, a steel instrument with 
AM.uxAi.g xvj.A.y ^^^ prongs, designed 

when set in vibration to give a musical 
sound of a certain fixed pitch. The ordi- 
nary tuning-fork sounds only one note 
— usuallv the middle or tenor C in 
America, and A in Germany; but soma 
are made with a slider on each prong, 
which, according as it is moved up or 
down, regulates the pitch of the note 

aS]Yi{a (tti'nis), a country of North 
Auau.o Africa, now a French protecto- 
rate, is bounded on the north and north- 
east by the Mediterranean, on the south- 
east by Tripoli, and on the west and 
southwest by Algeria; area, estimated 
about 51,000 square miles. The coast- 
line presents three indentations, forming 
the Bay of Tunis on the north and those 
of Hammamet and Cabes or the Lesser 
Syrtis on the east. The northwest por- 
tion of the country is traversed by the 
Atlas Mountains, which on their lower 
slopes have many fertile tracts, partly 

Digitized by 



under culture. Between these moun- 
tains and the Gulf of Hammamet on the 
east stretches the extensive plain or 
plateau of Kairwan. The only river of 
any consequence is the Mejerdah. Agri- 
culture is very much neglected; the 
principal crops are wheat, barley, and 
maize; olive plantations are numerous, 
while tobacco is largely, and cotton, in- 
digo, saffron, and opium partially, grown. 
On several parts of the coast the fisheries, 
including that of 
romXt are valuable. 
The manufactures 
consist chiefly of 
woolen fabrics, soap, 
dyed skins, and ordi- 
nary and morocco 
leather. The inhabi- 
tants consist of a mix- 
mre of Moors and 
Arabs, along with 
Berbers, here called 
Kroumirs, occupying 
the elevated tract 
north of the valley of 
Mejerdah. In an- 
cient times Tunis be- 
longed to the Cartba- 
pfinians, afterwards 
formed part of the 
Roman province of 
Africa, and many rel- 
ief of Roman archi- 
tecture remain. 
It was subdued 
about 675 by 
the Arabs, be- 
came a powerful 
state under inde- 
pendent rulers in 
the thirteenth 
century, and in 
1575 was incor- 
porated with the 
Ottoman Em- 
pire. In the 
spring of 1881 
the French in- 
vaded Tunis, in 
order to punish 
the turbulence 

Mlnmret at Tonia. 

of the Kroumirs, 
and the French minister resident is now 
the virtual ruler of the country. Under 
French administration the Tunisian debt 
has been consolidated, commerce has in- 
creased, the means of transit have been 
improved, and a number of primary 
schools established. The resident army 
of occupation numbers 10,000 men. 
Pop. estimated at nearly 2,000.000.— 
Tuins, the capital city, is situated on 
a salt lagoon connected with the Bay of 
Tunis by a narrow channel, where is 


the port of Ooletta, there being another 
salt lake on the other side of the city. 
Both Tunis and Goletta are built of the 
materials of ancient Carthage. Almost 
the only building of importance is the 
palace of the bey in the Moorish style; 
the bazaars are also interesting, and un- 
der French direction a cathedral and 
other, buildings have . been erected, and 
schools, etc., established. Pop. about 
250,000, nearly half being Christians and 
TunkerS. ^^ DunkerB. 

Tunnel (^un'el), a subterranean pas- 
^^^ sage cut through a hill, a rock, 
or any eminence, or under a river, a 
town, etc., to carry a canal, a road, or 
a railway in an advantageous course. In 
the coofitruction of canals and railways 


St. Gothard Tunnel. Section showing eon< 
atruction in soft strata. 

tunnels are frequently had recourse to 
in order to preserve the desired level and 
for various other local causes. Tunnels, 
when not pierced through solid rock. 

St. Gothard Tunnel. Section near entrance 
on Italian side. 

have usually an arched roof and are 
lined with brick- work or masonry. The 
sectional form of the passage is various. 
Among the greatest works of this kind 
are the tunnels of St Gothard, Mont 

Digitized by 




Cenis, the Arlberg, the Simplon, and the 
recently constructed Loetschberg, in the 
Alps. In Britain the Severn and Mersey 
tunnels are noteworthy, while in America 
the Hoosac tunnel and that through the 
Cascade range in the State of Washington 
are of much interest (See the various 
headings.) Many important tunnels un- 
der rivers have been recently constructed, 
the most interesting bein^ those unu^r 
the Hudson and East nvers at New 
York, especially the great Pennsylvania 
Railroad tunnel, which passes under both 
rivers and under the city of New York. 
Another of interest is die tunnel under 
the Elbe, Germany, at Hamburg. Two 

freat tunnels, through the Pyrenees from 
Vance to Spain, were completed in 1913. 

TfnjijiY i^'"^''^» ^ fi^^ ^^ ^^^ genus 
A\MMM,j Thynnua and family Scombe- 
ridie, the T. vulg&riSf closely allied 
to the mackerel. These fish live in 
shoals in almost all the seas of the 
warmer and temperate parts of the earth. 
They are taken in immense quantities 
on the Mediterranean coasts, where the 
fishing is chiefly carried on. The flesh 
is delicate and somewhat resembles veal. 
The common tunny attains a length of 
from 4 feet to even 20 feet, and some- 
times exceeds half a ton in weight. Its 
color is a dark blue on the upper parts, 
and silvery white below. The American 
tunny {T, aecundo-dorsaiis) is found on 
the American coast from New York to 
Nova Scotia. The albacore (T. pacifi- 
CU8) and the bonito are allied species. 

TunstaU ii^a'.T'sVS.Sk'^fi 

miles N. E. of Newcastle-under-Lyme. It 
has rapidly risen from a hamlet to a 
considerable town, with manufactures of 
china and earthenware, bricks and tiles, 
etc. The district is rich in coal and iron- 
stone. Pop. of district 39,292. 
TuBftlA (ttt-pe'ya)» a genus of remark- 
'^ able mammals. See Bartering, 

TnBftlo (ttl'pe-ld), a North American 
* " *^ forest tree of the genus Nyaaa, 
the N* dentioulaiOf nat order Santala* 
ce». It is a lofty tree of great beauty. 
The same name is given to other species 
of the genus, some of which are also 
called Uack gum, sour gum, gum tree, 
piptridge, etc. 

TlinTier (tup'er), Snt Chables. a Ca- 
xu|y|fvx nadian statesman, born at 
Amherst, Nova Scotia, in 1821 ; died Oc- 
tober 10, 1915. He was a representative 
for Nova Scotia in the British Parlia- 
ment for many years, was premier of 
Nova Scotia, 18C4--(>7, held various posts 
in the Dominion cabinet, and become 
premier of Canada in 1896, losing his 
post the same year. As minister of rail- 

ways, 1879-84, he promoted the construe- 
ti(m of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 
He was one of the commissioners who 
formed the fishery treaty of 1887-88, and 
was made a baronet in the latter year. 
TnnnAT Martin Fabquhab, writer. 
xuppci, bom in London in 1810; died 
in 1889. He was educated at the Char- 
terhouse and Christ Church, Oxford; 
studied law, and was called to the bar 
at Lincoln's Inn. He published a num- 
ber of novels and plays, but his fam9 
rests upon his Proverbial Philosophy 
(1838), a work in a kind of blank verse 
which has gone through numerous edi- 
tions. His reminiscences are to be found 
in My Life as an Author (1886). 

classes into which human speech has been 
divided, and including the Ugrian or 
Finnish^ Samoyedic, Turkish, Mongolian, 
Tungusic, and possibly the Dravidian. 
It is called also Altaic and Scythian, It 
is characterized as agglutinate and polv-^ 
synthetic, from the fact that its words 
are polysynthetlc, or composed of several 
distinct words, each, even in composition, 
retaining its significance. See Philology, 
Turban (t^^*n), a form of head- 
Au^wcMj. jj^ggg ^Qpu by tjje Orientals. 

It varies in form in different nations, and 
different classes of the same nation. It 
consists of two parts: a cap without 
brim, fitted to the head; and a sash, 
scarf, or shawl, usually of cotton or 
linen, wound about the cap, and some- 
times banging down the neck. 
Tnrbellana (Jur-be-lAr'i-a), an order 
Au^v^xMMM» ^^ Annuloida, of the 
class Scolecida, almost all the members 
of which are aquatic and non-parasitic. 
There are two sub-orders, Planarida and 
Nemertida. See these articles. 
Turbine (turl)in), a kind of horizon- 
•*■ tal water-wheel, made to re- 

volve by the escape of water through 
orifices, under the influence of pressure 
derived from a fall. Turbines are now 
made after a large variety of patterns. 
The oldest and simplest is the Scotch 
turbine, or Barker's mill (which see). 
In another common form the water 
passes vertically down through the 
wheel between the fixed screw blades, 
which gives it a spiral motion, and then 
strikes similar blades attached to a mov- 
able spindle, but placed in the opposite 
direction, so that the impact of the water 
communicates a rota^ motion to the 
blades and spindles. Or the water may 
be passed from the center horizontally 
outwards through fixed curred bladeSi so 
as to give it a tangential motion, and 
thereby cause it to act on the blades of 

Digitized by 





Oae of four 0000 hopMpoirer machines In ooune of erection. The water head required to operate them i« 
66 feet and the speed 150 revoltttionB per minute. 

Digitized by 




the wheel which revolyef oatside. In 
the annexed cut the water is introdnced 
into a close cast-irm vessel a by the pipe 
ht connecting it with the reservoir. 
Here, by virtue of its pressure, it tends 
to escape by any aperture which may 
be presented ; but the only apertures con- 
sist of those between a series of curved 
float-boards, ff, fixed to a horizontal 
plate ff, mounted upon a central axis h, 
which passes upwards through a tube 

Section of Turbine. 

connecting the upper and lower covers, 
o and (i, of the vessel a. Another series 
of curved plates ee, is fixed to the upper 
surface of the disk d, to give a deter- 
minate direction to the water before 
flowing out at the float-boards, and the 
curves of these various parts are so ad- 
justed as to render the reactive force 
of the water available to the utmost ex- 
tent in producing a circular motion in 
the disk and the axis h with which the 
machinery is connected. The turbine has, 
to a considerable extent, replaced the old- 
style water wheel, and has been adapted 
to steam engine purposes by substituting 
steam for water as the moving agent. 
See Steam Turbine, Oaa Turbine, 
TnrTiM (turni>ot), a well-known and 
xuruub jjjgjjjy esteemed fish of the 
genus Rhombu9 or Pleuronectea {R, or 
P. mammua), family Pleuronectidse or 
flat-fishes. Next to the halibut, the tur- 
bot is the largest of the Pleuronectidn 
found on the Eluropean coasts, and is the 
most highly esteemed for the table. It 
is of a short and broad form, brown on 
the upper side, which is usually the left 
side, and attains a large size, sometimes 
weighi^ from 70 to 90 lbs. The 

American or spotted turbot (RhambuM 
maculatus), common on the coasts of 
New England and New York, attains a 
weight of 20 lbs. 

TnrdnS (tur'dus), the genus of birds 
^ to which the thrush belongs. 

Tnrenne (to-ren), henbi de la toub 


Marshal of France, bom in 1611 at 
Sedan, was the second son of Henri de 
la Tour d'Auvergne, duke of Bouillon, 
and of Elizabeth, princess oi Nassau- 
Orange. He learned the art of war 
under his uncles Maurice and Henry of 
Nassau in the Dutch service, entered the 
service of France in 1630, served with 
distinction in Germanv and North Italy, 
and in 1643 received the command of 
the army of the Rhine in the Thirty 
Years' war, and was made a marshal. 
His successes in this post, as in the 
battle of NOrdlingen (1645), great W con- 
tributed to the close of the war. During 
the disturbances of the Fronde the vic- 
tories of Turenne led to the termination 
of the civil war. In the war against 
Spain he also distinguished himself, and 
after its close in 1659 he was named 
marshal-general of France. When war 
was renewed with Spain in 1667 he con- 
quered Flanders in three months. In 
the Dutch war of 1672 Turenne had the 
chief command. He first marched against 
the Elector of Brandenburg, and having 
driven him back as far as the Elbe 
forced him to sign the Treaty of Vos- 
sem in 1673; while in the brilliant cam- 
paign of 1674-75 he destroyed two Aus- 
trian armies by the battles of Mfihl- 
hausen and Tfirkheim, and conquered and 
devastated the Palatinate. In 1675 he 
was killed while making preparations to 
engage Montecuculi. 

Turcot l^ur-go), Anne Robebt 
*"' o^ Jacques, was bom at Paris 
in 1727, and died in 1781. He was edu- 
cated for the church, but renouncing this 
purpose he studied law, and in 1671 was 
appointed intendant of Limoges, which 
post he occupied for twelve years. 
Shortly after the accession of iJouis 
XVI, in 1774, Turgot was appointed 
comptroller-general of France, and In 
order to reform the political ana financial 
condition of the country he moderated 
the duties on articles of the first neces- 
sity, freed commerce from many fetters, 
and encouraged industry by enlarging 
the rights of individuals, and abolishina 
the exclusive privileges of companies ana 
corporations. Such, however, was the 
opposition of the clergy and nobilitv to 
his reforms that he was dismissed from 
office in 1776» and retired into private 

Digitized by 


Tm^eneff Turkey 

TnTon^n^ft S^ Tourguenief. with silk, which the country produces 

XlU^ueacn* abundantly, are exported to India, Kaah- 

Tnrin (^'^Q! Italian, ToHao), a city mere, and Tibet; while opium, tea, linens, 

AUAX1& ^^ North Italy, capital of prov- and woolens are imported. The inbabit- 

ince of same name, at the confluence of ants, who are mostly Mohammedans, are 

the Dora Riparia with the Po, and be- very mixed. In 1863 a rebellion broke 

tween those two rivers. The city is out, and after a war of several years 

essentially modem, the streets being Eastern Turkestan succeeded, under 

broad and regular, and many of them Yakoob Beg, in effecting its separation 

lined with arcades, while there are from the Chinese Empire, but after his 

nomerons wide squares and gardena assassination, in 1877, it was again 

The chief boildincs are the cathedral, brought under Chinese sway. The chief 

a renaissance boilding, completed in the towns are Kashgar and xarkand, and 

beginning of the sixteenth century, and the pop. is estimated at about 2,000,000. 

remarkable for its marble facade; the -^Westebn Turkestan comprises the 

royal palace, a plain brick building, Trans-Caspian districts, the Turkoman 

which contains the king's private library, steppes, the khanates of Bokhara and 

with valuable MSS., and the royal Khiva, and the oasis of Merv. This im- 

armory; the university, a fine edifice re- mense region, under the government or 

cently coostmcted, in which there is a protection of Russia, is watered by the 

larce librarv; the Palaszo dell' Ac- Oxus or Amu Darya, and the Jaxartes 

caoemia delie Scienze, witti a picture or Syr Darya. Maize, millet, rice, and 

gallery and museums of natural history cotton are cultivated in the oases along 

and antiquities; the Palazzo Carignano, the rivers and on the slopes of the hills, 

used at one time by the Sardinian and and trade has greatly increased since the 

Italian parliaments when they met here Russian occupation. Pop. estimated at 

(1848-65), and now given up to a col- between 5,000,000 and 6,000,000. 

lection of natural history ; the Madama T|]rke8tfl.II ^ town of Asiatic Russia, 

Palace, an old and interesting building. * ^""■^^"''^"•j in Syr Darya province, 

and several theaters. The environs of 145 miles n.w. of Tashkend. It was for- 

the city are beautiful, and offer many merly an important place of pilgrimage, 

objects of interest. Among the educa- and its mosque, built by Tamerlane, is 

tional establishments, in addition to the one of the most striking edifices in Cen- 

university, which is attended by about tral Asia. Pop. 11,592. 

2700 ■tudents, are an episcopal seminary, TTn-tpv (tur'ki), a Mohammedan em- 

a royal mUitary academy, a polytechnic ^ ^^^y pj,^ of Southeastern Europe 

school, and various other colleges uid and Western Asia, under the rule of a 

schoola The manufactures consist, be- sultan. In Europe it now occupies a 

sides the staple of silk, chieflv of woolens, small portion of the Balkan peninsula, 

cottons, linen, paper, ir^mpngery, and in this portion is situated the capi- 

earthenware, and porcelain. Turin was tal, Constantinople, but the larger part 

ancioatly the capital of a tribe called of Turkey is in Asia. The immediate 

the Taurini, and under the Roman Em- possessions of Turkey in Europe, or those 

fire was called Augusta Taurinorum. directly under the sultan's rule, until the 
t was long the capital of Savoy, thg Balkan war extended from Montenegro, 
of the Sardinian kingdom, and from 1881 Bosnia, Servia, and Bulgaria on the north 
to 1865 of United Italy. Pop. 427.106. to the iEgean and Greece on the south, 
Turkestan (tOr-kes-tan;), a wide re- and from the Black Sea to the Adriatic, 
. . ™^ gion of Central Asia, the Straits of Otranto, and the Ionic Sea. 
roughly divided into two portions. East- The Treaty of Berlin in 1878 greatly re- 
em Turkestan and Western Turkestan, dnced the area under direct Turkish rule. 
Eastern or Chinese Turkestan is in- besides confirming the independence and 
closed on three sides by lofty mountain extending the limits of several of the 
ranges (Thian-Shan, Karakorum, Kuen- formerly tributary states ; and the Treaty 
Lan), and on the east has the desert of of Bukharest in 1913, still further reduced 
Gobi Near tlie center is the basin of the limits and power of Turkey. (See 
tlie Lob-nor, a lake fed from the west Ottoman Empire and Balkan War, The 
by tlie Tarim and its tributaries. The immediate possessions in Europe have an 
greater part of this area is uncultivated area of 11400 sq. miles, pop. about 2,000,- 
steppe, but there are fertile j;>ortions 000 : in Asia, 682,960 sq. miles, pop. 
watered by the rivers Kashcar, Yarkand, 17,000,000 : in Africa, 400,000 sq. m&es, 
and Karakash. The products include pop. D,S2i.lOO. Egypt, however, has 
cereals, root-crops, and cotton in large ceased for the present to be part of Tur- 
quantitiet, partly manufactured in the kev and TripoU has come under Italian 
country. Oaiptta and felt clotlis» along rule. The island of Crete or Candia. in the 

Digitized by 




^geau Sea, formerly possessed by Tur- 
key, was at the close of the Balkan War 
left autonomous, its annexation by Greece 
being foreseen. 

European Turkey, — European Turkey 
was by the Treaty of Bukbarest at the 
conclusion of the Balkan War (1913) re- 
duced to a very small area, including, 
however, the creat strongholds of Con- 
stantinople and Adrianople. It stretches 
from the new eastern limits of Bulgaria 
and the Black Sea on the west and north 
to the JEgean and the Sea of Marmora on 
the east and south. Until 1913 Turkev in- 
cluded the provinces of Adrianople, Mace- 
donia and Albania. (See Balkan ^^ar,) 
In 1908 the Turkish provinces of Bosnia 
and Herzegovina, which had been ad- 
ministered by Austria since the Congress 
of Berlin, in 1878, were formally annexed 
by the latter country. Turkey protested, 
but eventually accepted a payment of 
$12,500,000 from Austria as compensa- 
tion for the provinces. In 1909 the inde- 
pendence of Bulgaria was also recognized 
bv Turkey, on tne assumption by Kussia 
of $9,000,000 of the Ottoman national 
debt The climate of European Turkey 
is Mediterranean, with sub-tropical rains 
and summer droughts. The temperature 
is variable, and owing to the cold north- 
east winds is much colder than that of 
other Mediterranean countries in the same 
latitude. There are few manufactures ex- 
cept in Constantinople and Adrianople. 
The special industries are tanning (re- 
cently established) and manufactui-es of 
fine muslins, velvets, silks, carpets and 
ornamental weapons. Until the outbreak 
of the Balkan War, Turkey was making 
substantial advance in agriculture. 

Turkey in Asia comprises the ];>enin- 
sula of Asia Minor, the country inter- 
sected by the Euphrates and the Tigris, 
the mountainous region of Armenia be- 
tween their upper courses and the Black 
Sea, the ancient lands of Syria and 
Palestine, and the coast strips of Arabia 
along the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. 
jOmitting Arabia, the country consists 
mainly of (1) a high plateau traversed 
bv the mountains of Taurus and Anti- 
Taurus, and stretching from the Archi- 
pelago to the borders of Persia; (2) a 
plateau of less elevation and extent 
(Syria and Palestine) traversed bv the 
double range of Lebanon; and (3) the 
extensive plain of Mesopotamia on the 
Lower Tigris and Euphrates. (See Asia 
Minor. Armenia^ Kurdiatant Mesopoia- 
mia, Syria, and Palestine.) The islands 
Chios, Lesbos, Rhodes, etc., belong to 
Turkey in Asia, while the island of 
Samoa is a tributary principality, and 
Cyprus is held by Britain. The chief 

towns in Asiatic Turkey are Smyrna* 
Damascus, Bagdad, Aleppo, and Beyrent« 

Commerce, Communications, etc — 
The chief exports are raisins, figs, and 
dates, silk, cotton, wool, and mohair, 
opium, coffee, wheat, wine, valonia, olive- 
oil, and tobacco; while the imports are 
cotton, woolen, and silk goods, metals, 
iron, steel, glass wares, etc. Accounts 
are usually kept in grush or piastres, 
the value of which is something less than 
4^ cents; a hundred piastres make a 
Tuiicish lira or gold medjidi4 (value 
about 36 cents), and 500 make a 
•purse.' The unit of weight is the ohe, 
equal to about 29 lbs. avoirdupois. The 
usual linear measure is the arshin, equal 
to 30 inches. 

People. — ^The inhabitante of the Otto- 
man Empire are of very diverse races. 
First in order are the Osmanli Turks, 
who, as the dominant race, are dif used 
over the country. They are proprietors 
of the greater part of the soil, fill all 
the civil and military offices, live gen- 
erally in towns employed In various 
trades, and are seldom agriculturists. 
The Crreeks form the bulk of the popula- 
tion over great part of the iEgean coasts 
and islands, and constitute to a very 
considerable extent the mercantile and 
trading community of Turkey. Amauts, 
or Albanians, are found in the west 
throughout Albania; the northwest is oc- 
cupied by Servians; and Bulgarians in- 
habit the district south of the Danube 
and east of Servia and Albania. In 
Asiatic Turkey the Turks are an im- 
portant element, but there are also num- 
bers of Armenians, Arabs, Kurds, Jews, 
Greeks, Circassians, etc. The Turkish 
language belongs to the Turanian family 
of languages, and is allied to the Hun- 
^rian and the Finnish. The literature 
IS considerable in bulk, but not very 
original, consisting in great part of 
translations from the Persian and the 
Arabic, and in recent times from Eu- 
roi>ean literature. 

Government. — ^The head of the govern- 
ment of Turkey is a monarch, usually 
designated the sultan, regarded by the 
Turks as the caliph or head of Islam. 
His edicts bear the name of Hatti-sherif. 
and his government is often designated 
as the Sublime Porte. The public officers 
who conduct the administration under 
the sultan are divided into three classes. 
The first class is that of law and religion, 
and at their head is the Sbeik-ul-Islam. 
who governs a judicial and ecclesiastical 
body called the Ulemas. The secimd 
class consists of the 'officials of the 
pen,* or the members of administration, 
and at their head is the grand-vizier or 

Digitized by 


Turkey Turkey-stone 

SadratenL The third class includes the schools in that city. Roberts College, 

' officials of the sword/ at their head be- in the Qiristian section of the capital, is 

lag the Seraskier or minister of war, and an important institution, of American 

the Gapudan Pasha or minister of marine, origin. 

The supreme deliberative body is the History, — See Ottoman Empire, 
divan or privy-council, with the grand- Tnrkev ^ large galUnaceous bird 
visier at its head, other members being **"'^^J> (Meleagris gallo pavo), well 
the Sheik-ul-Islam and the ministers of known as an inmate of the poultry yard, 
war, m a r ine^ finance, justice, education. It is a native of North America, and 
commerce, etc The immediate posses- was introduced into Europe in the six* 
sions of the Turkish Empire are divided teenth century. Wild turkeys abound in 
into general governments or vilayets, at some of the forests of the United States, 
the head of each of which is a governor where they feed on berries, fruits, in- 
bearing the title of vali. The vilayets are sects, reptiles, etc., their plumage being 
themselves subdivided into sanjaks, ad- a golden bronze, shot with violet and 
ministered by mutessarifs; and these green, and banded with black. On ac- 
again into kazas administered by kaima- count of its size and the excellence of 
kans. Military service is obligatory on its flesh and eggs the turkey is one of 
all Mohanmiedans. The service lasts the most valued kinds of poultry. There 
twenty years: six with the Nissam and is another species, the Honduras or West 
first reserve, eight years in the Redif, Indian turkey (MeleagrU ooeUato), 
and six in the Mustafiz (eauivalent to which derives its specific name from the 
the German Landsturm). The army on presence of bright eye-like spots on the 
a i>eace footing comprises about 375,000 tail-coverts. It is not so large as the 
of all arms and ranks ; if put on a war common turkey, but its plumage is more 
footing it might contain 500,000 more, brilliant 

It is organized on a new system dating Tnr1rpv-1iil79^ri1 ^^ Tubket Vuir 

from 1887. At^xk^j MuxiAoxu^ txjbsl, a rapacious 

Finances.'^'The financial condition of bird belonging to the vulture familv 

Turkey is thoroughly unsound. From (Vulturidse) and the genus Ca^^rie< ((/. 

IK^ the state had contracted a series aura) : so named from its bearing a dis- 

of foreign loans, the total nominal capi- tant resemblance to a turkey. It Is about 

tal of which amounted to about f 1,140,- 2h feet long, and with wings extended 

000,000 in 1877. In 1875 the ffovem- about 6 feet in breadth, general color 

ment announced that they would pay black or brownish. It inhabits a vast 

half the interest on the debt, but in range of territory in the warmer parts of 

1876 they declared themselves unable to America. It is of importance in the 

pay anvthlng. In 1881 an arrangement cities of the southern United States as 

was effected by delegates of the bond- a destroyer of carrion, and is protected 

holders who met at Constantinople. The on account of its useful services in this 

capital of the debt was reduced to $532,- direction. 

1^5,000, and the Turkish government Tlirkev-Cfl.rDet ^ carpet made en- 
agreed to hand over the excise revenues ^••"'^^J v€*i^^v, ^i^ij ^f ^ool, the 
to a commission representing the bond- loops being larger than those of Brus- 
holders, so that interest to the extent sels carpeting and alwavs cut The cut- 
of 1 per cent has been paid since 1882. ting of the yam gives it the appearance 
In addition to the foreign debt the coun- of velvet 

try is burdened with an internal and Tnrlrpir-rprI A brilliant and durable 

floating debt At the end of 1910 the debt AUiikcy rcu, ^^ ^j^^ produced by 

remained about as above stated, with no madder upon cottom doth, and introduced 

immediate prospect of liquidation. from the East about the end of the eight- 

Religion and Education. — The estab- eenth century. The processes which a 

lished religion of Turkey is Mohammed- fabric undergoes in receiving this dye are 

anism, but Christianity under the Greek numerous, and vary in different estab- 

form is professed by a large majority of lishments, but the most essential is the 

the Ore^ and Bulgarians, while part preliminary treatment of the fabric with 

of the Albanians are Roman Catholics, oils or fats, combined with certain other 

The educational system of Turkey, in substances, such as carbonate of potash 

accordance with the law of 1869, pro- or soda. 

Tides for the erection of elementary Tiirkev-stoiie ^ ^^^ fine-grained 

schoc^ in every oommune, and of sec- ^**^^^J owu.^, siliceous slate, com- 

otidary schools in the larger towns. The monly of a greenish-gray, sometimes of 

University of Constantinople, officially a yellowish- or brownish-gray color, 

iooode^ in 1$00, has not yet been opened. When cut and polished it is used for 

IhfiBEie axe law, military, and medical sha^ening small cuttiiig instruments. 

Digitized by 


TufEomans Tume^ 

TnrlrnmaTia (tur'k5-manz), a no- 1807 he wag elected professor of per- 
X lu JkUiuaua ^^^^ Tartar people oo spective in the Royal Academy, and the 
copying a territory stretching between following year appeared his Liber Stu- 
the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Aral, diorum, or Book of Studies, which 
the khanates of Khiva and Bokhara, Charles Turner, Mr. Lupton, and others 
Afglianistan, and Persia. They do not engraved. Other works by him which, 
form a single nation, but are divided into were engraved are his illustrations of 
numerous tribes or clans. Lord Byron's and Sir Walter Scott's 
Turks ^ widely spread race, supposed poems; Roger's Italv and Poemt; The 
> to have had its original seat in Riv€r$ of England; The Riven of 
Turkestan or Siberia, but now extending France, and Scenery of ike Southern 
from European Turkey through Asia to Coast. 'The reputation of Turner,* 
the shores of the Northern Ocean. Be- says Mr. R. N. Womum, 'among land- 
sides the Ottoman Turks or Osmanli of scape-painters stands alone, solitary, 
Turkey, the Turkomans, Kirghiz, Us- colossal; no man has displayed at the 
becks, Yakuts, etc., all belong to the same time such great powers of general- 
Turkish race. See Turkey, Ottoman izlng and concentrating the beauties of 
Empire, etc. nature. For half a century Turner pro- 
TnrVa Talotiila constitute the s. E. duced a succession of great works, from 
XUTJLS J.»xiiuas portion of the Ba- 1790 to 1840. After this period, he fell, 
hama chain, and along with the Caicos for the most part, into that vague trifling 
Islands are a dependency of Jamaica, with mere effects of light and shade and 
having a government of their own. The color which has done so much for a time 
chief island is Grand Turk, about 7 miles to almost destroy the great reputation 
long and 2 broad. Their chief export is he had justly acquired by his previously 
salt. See Caicos Islands. unrivaled works. He worked in three 
Tnrmerifi (tur'me-rik), the dried tu- styles: the best of his early works re- 
aumLiuvxav Ij^j^ ^j. rhiaonjeg of CurcH- semble Wilson and the Poussins; in his 
ma lonaa, nat order ZingiberacesB (gin- second style Claude was his model; and 
ger). It is largely employed in In- in his third he competed with nature 
dia and China as an important ingredi- onlv. ... As examples of his three 
ent in curir powder. Unsized white styles may be mentioned the Garden of 
paper, steeped in an alcoholic solution of the Hesperides, the Shipwreck, and the 
turmeric, when dried, is employed as a Sun Rising in Mist, illustrating the 
test to detect alkalies, which change its first; Crossing the Brook, the Morning 
color from vellow to reddish brown, of the Chase, and Apuleia in Search of 
Turmeric yields a yellow color, which Apuleius, his second or Claude style; the 
has great brightness but little durability. Rtse, and the Fall of Carthage, 1815 and 
It is also used medicinally in the East 1817, showing his transition from this 
as a carminative. second style to his third and greatest, of 
Turner Charles Tennyson. See which the Bay of Baim, CaUgula*s 
> under Tennyson. Bridge, and ChUde Harold* s Pilgrimage. 
Tnmer (tur'ner), JOSEPH Mallobd painted between 1823 and 1S32, are grand 
WILLIAM, a great English examples; and lastly, the Fighting 
lands^pe-painter, was bom in London Temeraire, painted in 1830, may be in- 
in 1775; died in 1851. His father, who stanced as tne indication of the point of 
was a hair-dresser, proposed to teach the final transition from the sublime to what 
boy that trade, but afterwards allowed we must call the ridiculous in some of 
him to follow his inclination, and in those strange productions which occupied 
1789 he entered the Roval Academy as the last years of his prolonged life.' By 
a student. After remaining there for five his will he bequeathed all his pictures 
years, and working actively at his pro- and sketches to the nation, on condition 
Ifession for another five, during which of a suitable building being erected within 
I period he sent to the exhibition no less ten years for their reception. They have 
than fifty-nine pictures, he was elected been placed in the Turner Gallery, occu- 
in 1799 an associate of the Royal pying two rooms in the National Gallery. 
Academy. In the two following years Tnrnf^r Sharon, historian, was bom 
he exhibited fourteen pictures, and in -^^^^^^^f in London in 1768; died in 
1802 was elected an academician. Till 1847. Educated at a private school in 
this date he had chiefly been known as Clerkenwell, he was articled to and be- 
a landscape-painter in water-colors, but came an attorney in the Temple, but sub- 
thenceforth be turned his attention to sequently devoted his time to historical 
oil-painting, and in the ensuing half- and philological researches. His chief 
century produced at the Academy ex- works are: History of the Anglo-Sawons 
hibitioni upward!^ of 200 pictures. In (three vols., 1799-1806) \ aittory of 

Digitized by 




England (nine vols., 179^1829) ; Sa- 
cred History of the World (three vols., 
1832): and Richard Third, a poem 

TumilOUt L^^^'^ont'), a town of 
AU.AAUAVMV Belgium, province of Ant- 
werp, 26 miles K.NJB. of the town of 
Antwerp. It has manufactures of linen, 
woolen, and cotton fabrics, colored paper, 
playing-cards, and various other Indus- 
tries. Pop. (1904) 22,162. 
Tnminir (tumping), the art of giving 
*********© circular and other forms to 
articles of wood, metal, bone, ivory, etc., 
by making them revolve in various man- 
ners in a machine called a lathe, and 
applying cutting instruments so as to 
produce the form required; or by making 
the cutting instrument revolve when the 
substance to be operated upon is fixed. 
See Lathe. 

Tnmin (tur'nip), the common name 
XUnup ^^ ^^^ Braaeica Rapa, a cru- 
ciferous, biennial plant, much cultivated 
on account of its esculent root, and of 
the same genus as the cabbage, cauli- 
flower, and broccolL The turnip, as a 
culinary vegetable and as a cattle food, 
was well known to the Greeks and Ro- 
mans. The root is generally used as a 
culinary vegetable in 
all temperate climates, 
and in some countries 
the vegetable is culti- 
vated on a large scale 
for feeding stock, the 
root being invaluable 
for this purpose. In 
the field culture of 
the larger-rooted va- 
rieties the most ad- 
vantageous mode is 
by drills. The roots 
of the turnip have 
often a tendency to 
divide and become 
hard and worthless 
— a condition known 
as finger-and-toe, or 
dactylorhiza. The 
plant thrives best on 
a rich and free soil 
and in moist cloudy 
weather. There are 
aeveral varieties, all apparently the re- 
sult of cultivation. The Swedish turnip, 
which forms a valuable field crop, Is 
probably a hybrid between B. campeatria 
and B, Rapa or Napue, rape. B. NapuB 
yields rape, cole, or colza seeds, from 
which a well-known fixed oil is ex- 

TurniD-fly, Tuw^i^. the Haltica 
*^ **jj f^^ff^^^^^ a small coleop- 

ttroat ioaecty very destmctive to young 

turnips. It is common in British 
meadows from April to October, and may 
be recognized by two yellow stripes on 
its wing-cases. The name turnip-fly is 
also given to a hymenopter, the Athalia 
centifolia. The larvae of this fly, popu- 


Striped Turnip-fly (HtUtica nemZrum). a a. 
Natural aise. b b. Magnified, c, Larva, nat- 
ural aize. 

larly known as niggers, are very de- 
structive to the leaves of the turnip. 
Turnpike (tum'pXk), a gate that 
•*^ may be set across a road, 

and is watched bv a person appointed 
for the purpose, in order to stop car- 
riages, carts, wagons, etc., and sometimes 
travelers, till toll is paid, for the cost 
and upkeep of the road. Such roads are 
called turnpike-roads, or simply turn- 
pikes, and formerlv were common in the 
Atlantic States, but recently tolls on 
roads have been very largely abolished. 
See Roads. 

Tnmsnit (tnm'spit), a name given 
xtaxuoyxb j^ ^ variety of terrier dogs, 
tmm their being trained to turn the spits 
or roasting-jacks in mansions. The breed 
is now practically extinct 
TnmafATiP & grallatorial bird of the 
XUrnsliUne, plover family {Strepsilas 
coU&ris.) The length of the bird is about 
9 inches. It takes its name from its 
practice of turning up small stones in 


Tumatone {Strtptilat coUdris). 

search of the marine worms, minute 
crustaceans, etc., on which it feeds. It 
appears in most parts of the globe, and 
is found throughout North America, on 
the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. 
Turn-table, «n railways, a circular 
AUAu v<»MAw, platform of iron and 
wood, supported on rollers, and turning 
upon a center without much friction, even 

Digitized by 




when loaded with a considerable weight 
It is used for removing single carriages 
from one line of rails to another, and 
also for reversing engines on the same 
line of rails. 

Tnraentine (tor'pen-tin), an oleo- 
xurpeauue ruinous substance flow- 
ing naturally or by incision from several 
species of trees, as from the pine, larch, 
fir, pistacia, etc Common turpentine is 
obtained from the Pinut tylvestrU or 
Scotch fir, and some other species of 
pine. Venice turpentine is yielded by 
the larch, Larim Europaa; Strasburg tur- 
pentine by Ahiet picea or silver fir; Bor- 
deaux turpentine by Pinu9 maritima or 
maritime pine; Canadian turpentine, or 
Canada balsam, by Ahie9 halsamifera 
or balm of Gilead fir; and Chian turpen- 
tine by Pistacia Tereltinthus. All the 
turpentines dissolve in pure alcohol, and 
by distillation yield oils which are 
termed »pirit$ of turpentine. Oil or 
spirits of tun>entine is used in medicine 
externally as an excellent rubefacient and 
counter-irritant, and internally as a 
vermifuge, stimulant, and diuretic It is 
also much used in the arts for dissolving 
resins and oils in taking varnishes. 
Large quantities of it are obtained from 
the pine forests of the South Atlantic 

Turpentine-tree, J5me"^^r5 

trees of the genus Pistacia, nat. order 
Anacardiaces, which yield turpentine, 
as the P. Terehinthus, the Chian or 
Cyprus turpentine tree, P. lentiacus, the 
Alount Atlas mastic or turpentine-tree, 
etc. See Pistachio, 

TriTOpfh (tur'peth), the root of Con- 
XUrpeia ^o/^^j^, Turpethum or Ipo- 
mesa Turpethum, a plant of Ceylon, 
Malabar, and Australia, which has a 
cathartic property. It is sometimes 
called vegetable turpeth, to distinguish it 
from mineral turpeth. See next article. 

Tnrpeth-mineral ^^.^ ««ie'giv«eS 

to the yellow basic sulphate of mercury. 
It acts as a powerful emetic, but it is 
not now used internally. It is a very 
useful errhine in cases of headache, 
amaurosis, etc 

Turquoise <^"^'\^?r tur'kwftg), s 

****H**^**'^ greenish-blue opaque pre- 
cious stone, consisting essentially of a 
phosphate of alumina^ containing a little 
oxide of iron and oxide of copper. The 
true or oriental turquoise, a favorite or- 
namental stone in rings and other articles 
of jewelry, is found only in a mountain 
region of Persia, and was originally 
brought into Western Europe by way of 
Turlrey (hence the name). 

Tnrrpf (tur'et), in architecture,, a 
xiurct jjj^^ ^f g^^j, ^^^^^ Turrets 

are chiefly of two kinds, such as rise im- 
mediately from the ground, as staircase 
turrets, and such as are formed on the 
upper part of a building by being car- 
ried up higher than the rest 
Tnrret-Ship. ^^ Ironclad vessels. 

Turtle (^^^0» the name given to the 
marine members of the order 
Chelonia, being reptiles which differ but 
little from tortoises, the name turtle or 
tortoise being in some cases applied in- 
differently. Thev are found in all the 
seas of warm climates, and feed chiefly 
on marine plants. The most important 
species is the green turtle (Chelonia 
mydas), which is from 6 to 7 leet long, 
and weighs from 700 to 800 pounds. Its 
flesh is highly esteemed as a table luxury. 

Hswk'sbiU Tartle iOhsOnsimbrienta). 

It is a native of the tropical parts of the 
Atlantic as well as of the Indian Ocean, 
being especially abundant near Ascension 
Island. The logger-head turtle (Ch^ne 
or Chelonia caretta) yields an oil which 
is used for lamps and for dressing leather. 
The hawkVbill turtle (C. imbncdta) is 
remarkable for the beautiful imbricated 
horny plates covering the carapace, and 
constituting the tortoise-shell of com- 
merce. See Tortoise, 

Turtle-dove <^*V:<«*' comments), a 
small variety of pigeon, 
about 11 inches in length, color pale 
brown marked with a darker hue above, 
a purple tinge pervading the feathers of 
the breast They are in general smaller 
and more slender than the domesticated 
pigeons, and their cooing note is plaintive 
and tender. 

Tuscaloosa (tos-kA-W'sA), a city. 
AU9vc»xw9a ^japiUl of the county of 
that name, Alabama. It was once the 
capital of the state. It is situated on 
the Black Warrior River, 56 miles s.w. 
of Birmingham. Here is the Univenity 

Digitized by 


Tuscan Order of Arohitectnre 


Tosean Order. 

of Alabama and various other edacational 
institiiUons. It is engaged in the coal 
and iron industries, has cotton manufac- 
tures, and is an important cotton sliipping 
center. Pop. 8407. 

Tuscan Order of Architecture, 

one of the five orders 
of architecture, ac- 
cording to Vitruvius 
and Palladia It ad- 
mits of no ornaments, 
and tho columns are 
never fluted. Other- 
wise it differs so lit- 
tle, however, from 
the Doric, that it is 
generally regarded as 
being only a variety 
of the latter. See 

TuMany i^^?'^,)^{i 

ian, Toioana), for- 
merly a grand^luchy, 
now a department of 
Italy; area, d289 

Xare miles. Pop. 
ut 2,500.000. The 
chain of the North- 
em Apennines forms 
a considerable por- 
tion of its northern 
boundary, the sea being its boundary 
on the west The principal river is the 
Amo. Cereals cover a large area, and 
vineyards, oliveyards, and orchards are 
numerous. The manufacture of silk is 
considerable. The marble of Tuscany, 
especially that of Siena, is well known. 
Tuscany corresponds to the ancient 
Etruria, which was, however, of wider 
extent (See Etruria.) After the fall 
of the Western Empire (476) it passed 
successively into the hands of the Ostro- 
goths. Byzantine Greeks, and Lombards. 
Charlemagne made it a French province, 
and it was governed by marquises or 
dukes until the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, when it became broken up into 
a number of smaH republics, four of 
which were Florence, risa, Siena, and 
Lucca. From the first Florence occupied 
the leading place, and it gradually ex- 
tended its territory. In 15o9 Pope Pius 
I granted to Cosmo I the title of Grand- 
duke of Tuscany, and this position was 
retained, with interruptions, by the 
Medici family (which see) until 1737, 
when it passed to Francis Stephen, duke 
of Lorraine. In 1859, when under his 
descendant, the grand-duke Leopold, it 
was annexed to Sardinia bv a popular 
vote, and in 1861 became, with Sardinia, 
part of the kingdom of Italy. 

Tnscnlum llS^'^j^^iorm^rSK 

near the site of the modem Frascati, 15 
miles 8. E. of Rome. It was the birth- 
place of the elder Cato, and a favorite 
residence of Cicero. Many fine remains 
have been dug up in recent times, among 
them being the so-called Villa of Oicerow 
the Forum, theater, amphitheater, and 
ancient castle or citadel. 

Tuskegee Institute <5^JS'g^i„! 

al. non-sectarian institution at Tuskegee, 
Alabama, founded by Booker Washington 
in 1881 for the instruction of colored 
students in industrial pursuits. Aided 
by charitably disposed persons and man- 
aged with remarkable ability, it has 
played an important part in the develop- 
ment in industry of the negroes of the 
South. It has now 167 instructors and 
over 1600 students, with an endowment 
of nearly $2,000,000. 

TuSSar-silk (^^s'^r), or Tussbh- 
AM00WA 0AAA. gjj^^ ^ coarse silk ob- 
tained from the cocoons of a wild native 
Bengal silk-worm. See Silk, 
TuSSilaerO (tus-ai-la'gO), coltWoot, a 
^^^^^ genus of broad -leaved 
plants, nat order CompNositfle, sub-order 
CorymbifersB. The species are natives 
of Europe and America. T, Farfdra 
(common colt*s-foot) is found in the 
Northern and Middle States. See ColVa- 

Tussook-grass (^f^^^;- f <^^«;«. 

grass, of the same genus as the cock's- 
foot grass of the United States, a native 
of the Falkland Islands, Fuegia, and 
South Patagonia. It grows m great 
tufts or tussocks sometimes 5 to 6 feet 
in height, the long tapering leaves hang- 
ing over in graceful curves. The plant 
is a useful food for cattle, and several 
attempts have been made to establish it 
for that purpose. 

Tussock-moth, a grayish-whlte moth 
a.u.o0vvA AuvvAA) about an mch long, 

the caterpillars of which do great mis- 
chief in hop grounds, and are known as 
hop dogs. The caterpillar is delicate 
green in color, with brush-like tufts of 
yellow hairs on several of the segments. 
It feeds on leaves throughout the sum- 
mer, becomes a hairy chrysalis about 
September, and emerges as a moth in 
the following spring. 
Tntena? (ta'te-nag), Chinese white 
o copper, an alloy of copper 
50, nickel 19, and zinc 31, uised for taole 
ware, etc. A small quantity of lead or 
iron is added in some formulas. It much 
resembles packfong, which is also called 
Chinese white copper. 

Digitized by 



Twin Falls 

Tntieorin (t5-t«-kor'in), a seaport of 
XUUCOnu i^^i^ ^ terminuB of the 

Soath Indian Railway, 33 miles east of 
Tinnerelly, Madras. The roadstead is 
and the trade considerable. Pop. 

Tutor (tti'tur), (1) in many nniversi- 
"" ties, the name given to scholars 
attached to the various colleges, by 
whom, assisted by private tutors, the 
education of the students is chiefly con- 
ducted. They are selected from the col* 
lege. (2) In Scots law. the guardian of 
a bo7 or girl in pupilarity. Bv com- 
mon law a father is tutor to his children. 
Failing him there may be three kinds 
of tutor, a tutorHu>minatef a tuior^t-laWt 
or a tutor^tive. 

a.u.vvM.«i^«u Wtirtemberg, on the 

Danube, near the Baden frontier. Pop. 

(1905) 14,627. 

Tutuila </^iH'*^' ^* of theUrgest 
A.U.V1UA0 of the Samoan or Navigators' 

Islands. It rises about 2000 feet above 
the sea, is covered with vegetation, and 
has the excellent harbor of Pango Pango, 
or Pago Paga It was annexed to the 
United States in 1899. Pop. about 4000. 
Tuvere («l-y6r', or twe'yar). See 
xujrvxv blast-furnace. 
Tver (^^Ar)> ^ ^own of Russia, capi- 
tal of the government of the same 
name, situated in a plain on the Volga, 
96 miles northwest of Moscow. It con- 
sists of the Kremlin or fortress, sur- 
rounded by an earthen wall, and the 
town proper. The manufactures are 
numerous and varied. Pop. 45,644. — 
The government of Tver has an area of 
25,225 square miles, and a population 
of 2.053,000. Rye, barley, hemp, and flax 
are largely cnltivated, and the forests are 
^P^ ^ JH Mabk. See Clemens. 

Twat ^° ^^^^" group in the Sahara, 
^^^^f southeast of Morocco, to which 
it is considered as belonging. The in- 
habitants are al>out 800,000 in number, 
partly Arabs, partiv Berbers, and are 
fanaUcal Mohammeaans. 
Tnj^^il (tw^), a river of Scotland, 

of Peeblesshire, forms the boundary line 
between England and Scotland for 16 
miles, runs through England for a short 
distance, and then enters the North Sea 
at Berwick; total length, 97 miles. Its 
waters abound with salmon and trout, 
and its name is celebrated in connection 
with some of the best literature of Scot- 

TuTAHil H.iTKy i^ political combination 
XWeea Mug, ^"^^^^ York city 

which, about 1868-71, secartd eoatrol 
of the municipal elections and reTemMS. 
the latter of which were plundered of 
many millions of dollars. Its mling 
spirit was William M. Tweed, who be- 
came the head of the Tammany organisa- 
tion. He was brought to trial in 1873 
and sentenced to prison for 12 years. 
He escaped in 1875, but was captured 
and brought back, and died AprU 12, 1878. 
Tw^lfth-flav ^^^ twelfth day after 
XWeUin-aay, Christmas, upon 
which is held the festival of Epiphany 
(which see). On the evenhig of this 
day, called Twelfth-night, various social 
rites and ceremonies are observed in dif- 
ferent countries. One of these is the 
baking of a cake, into which a bean is 
introduced, the person who receives the 
bean being made king for the occasion. 
Ttinnlr^Tilioni (twik'en-am), a town 
XWlOKennam li Middlesex. England, 
on the Thames, nearly 11 miles 
8.W. of London. In the 18th century 
it was a fashionable resort Pop. 29.374. 
Twilight (twi'Ut), daylight whidi 
X wAugut continues after sunset, occa- 
sioned by the reflection of sunlight from 
the higher parts of the atmosphere which 
are soli illuminated after the sun has 
become invisible from ordinary heists, 
and which contain floating matter whidi 
reflects the sun's beams. It is supposed 
to last till the sun is about 18* below the 
horizon, but is much influenced by the 
state of the atmosphere as to douds. etc 
The light preceding sunrise is also given 
this name. In low altitudes (that is, 
near the equator) there is little twiliaht. 
TtxTilicyl^f QlA*n a method of indne> 
llVlllgni Dieepy ^ painless child- 
birth, worked out in the medical dinic 
of the University of Baden, and in 1914 
reported to have been used successfully 
in 5000 cases in Freiburg. Germany. The 
* twilight sleep ' is a borderland condition 
between sleepinc and waking, induced by 
the hypodermic In jcction of a small quan- 
tity of a combination of two drucs, scop- 
olamine and morphine, which produces an 
unusual delicately balanced condition of 
consciousness in which the body loses aU 
sense of pain, but retains the power of 
muscular contraction. 
qVrr{11 a textile fabric, in whidi die 
AwxxAy weft threads do not pass over 
and under the warp-threads in regular 
succession, as in common plain weaving, 
but pass over one and under two, over 
one and under three, etc. 
TToHti Ffi^llfl * dty, county seat of 
llVlIIJJauS, Twin Wlls Co., Idaho, 
near the Snake River, 120 miles 8. w. or 
Pocatello. It is in an agricultural dis- 
trict Pop. 8000. 

Digitized by 


Twin Screw 


Twin SfirftW * propeller of a steam- 
X^V^m DCrew, Tessel, composed of 
two teparate and parallel screws which 
reroWe fai opposite directions, thus giy* 
inc increased power over a single screw 
propellet. The twin-screw system is 
now employed in the principal warships 
of the world, and triple-screws are used 
on many modem Teasels. 
Tunftft Sib Tbatebs, bom in West- 
*^"^ minster. England, in 1810. 
He was educated at Oxford; became a 
fellow and tutor in his college; was ap- 
pointed successively professor of politi* 
cal economy at Oxford (1842-49) ; pro- 
fessor of international law, King's 
College, London (1862-55) ; professor of 
ciTil law in Oxfoid (1855-70) : and ad- 
Tocate-general of the crown (1867-72). 
His chief worlu are: The Oregon Qnst- 
tion 17«amffied (1846), View of the 
Progreu of PolUioal Economy in Europe 
(1847), Leotnret on the Science of In' 
iemationol Law (1856), the Law 
of Netione (1863), and BeUigerent Right 
on the High Beae (1884). He died in 
Tvhnra (tfbnm), a turnpike at the 

London, noted for the public executions 
of metropolitan malefactors which long 
took place near it. The turnpike was 
removed in 1829. 
Tyche~ t^'^^)* ^^ Fortune. 

Tyco Bralie. see Brohe. 

Tvl^r (tlHer), a town of Texas, capi- 
* J*«^ tal of Smith Co., 19 miles N. w. 
of Troup. It has cotton and oil mills 
and other industries. Pop. 10,400. 
IWr John, tenth president of the 
*/*^*> United SUtes, was bom in 
Virginia, March 29, 1790. He studied 
law. was elected to Congress in 181G, and 
in 1825 became governor of Virginia and 
also succeeded John Randolph as United 
States Senator. He subsequently be- 
came identified with the Whig party, and 
in 1840 was elected Vice-President under 
the presidency of General Harrison. On 
Harrison's death in 1841 he succeeded as 
President, and as such came into col- 
lision with his party on the National 
Bank Bill and other questious. The an- 
nexation of Texas was the chief event of 
his term of office, at the end of which 
he retired into private life. On the out- 
break of the Secession war he espoused 
the cause of the South, and was a mem- 
ber of the Confederate congress. He 
died in Richmond in January, 1862. 
1Sr1*i* Moses Corr, historian, bom at 
*y*^*> Oriswold, Connecticut, in 1885. 
He graduated at xale University in 1857, 

studied theology, and l>ecame a CJongre- 
gational pastor in 1850. He was pro- 
fessor of English literature in Michigan 
University, 1867-72 and 1874-81, and 
literary editor of The Christian Union, 
1872-74. He became priest in the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in 1883. 
He wrote History of American Litera- 
ture During the Colonial Period. Man- 
Mat of English Literature, etc He died 
December 28, 1900. 

Tyler ^^T* ^^ En^ish soldier who 
*J*''*> served in the French wars, and 
was one of the leaders in the rebellion 
of 1S81 against the poll-tax (which see). 
He led the men of Kent upon London, 
where, after fire and pillage, they were 
partly dispersed by a promise of the 
king to grant them charters of freedom 
and amnesty. Tyler, however, remained 
with a body of the insurgentcu^ and was 
met by the king next dav at Smithfield, 
where, for his apparent insolence in the 
royal presence, he was stabbed by Wil- 
liam Walworth, mayor of London. 
qVlAT EowABO BuBNETT. anthropolo- 
'^J^^''9 eist, bom at Camberwell, Eng- 
land, in 1832. He devoted himself with 
much success to researches in the historv 
of man and civilization: became presi- 
dent of the Anthropological Society, 
keeper of the Oxford University Mu- 
seum, and reader in anthropology. He 
was appointed first Gifford lecturer at 
Aberdeen in 1888. His chief works are: 
Researches into the Early History of 
Mankind; Primitive Culture; and A»- 
thropology. He was made professor of 
anthropology at Oxford in 1895. 
Tympanum < tim'pa-num ), (Da 
*j***r«***»**** cavity of an irregular 
shape situated in the ear. (See Ear,) 
(2) In architecture, the triangular spare 
in a pediment included between the 
cornices of the inclined sides and the 
horizontal cornice; also, any similar 
space, as above a window, or the space 
included between the lintel of a door 
and the arch above it. The tympanum 
is often ornamented with carving or 
TvHCLale ^^^^'^'^^' ^^ Ttndall, WO- 

Tunilall (tin'dal), John, physicist, 
xyuoau ^^ j^ jggO at Leighlin 
Bridge, Carlow, Ireland; was educated in 
a neighboring school; joined the Irish 
Ordnance Survey in 1839; engaged in 
railway engineering for several years; 
was appointed teacher in Queenwood Col- 
lege, Hants; was elected to the chair of 
natural philosophy in the Royal Institu- 
tion in 1853; visited Switzerland in 1866 
along with Huxley, and made repeated 
investigations in that country 


Digitized by 



Type-setting Machine 

fluently: lectured throughout the United 
States In 1872; and presided over the 
British Association in 1874 at Belfast 
His chief works are: The Olaoiera of 
the Alpt (I860) ; Heat Considered a» a 
Mode of Motion (1863) ; On Radiation 
(1866); Sound JiBG6); Light (1870); 
The Forme of Water (1872) ; Floating 
Matter in the Air (1881), etc He died 
December 4, 1883. 

Tyt«^ (tin), a river of Bngland, 
^jMM.^ formed by the Junction near 
Hexham of the North Tyne, which rises 
in the Cheviots, and the South Tyne, 
which rises in the east of Cumberland. 
The united stream enters the sea at 
Tynemouth after a course from Hexham 
of nearly 30 miles. The Tyne has, since 
1854, been the subject of large engineer- 
ing operations, consisting of extensive 
dredging, the construction of piers at its 
mouth, the formation of lar^ docks, and 
the building of a swing-bridge at New- 
castle. These Improvements have re- 
sulted in a great increase in its trade. 
See Netocaette-on-Tyne. 

Tynemouth <f-^|^i ^^^'ft 

Northumberland, at the mouth of the 
Tyne on its north bank. There are 
many handsome buildiuj^ a parade 
nearly a mile long, the ruins of a pictur- 
esque old priory, an aquarium, winter- 
garden, baths, etc., and the place is much 
frequented for sea-bathing. The port of 
North Shields and several villages are 
included within the borough. Pop. 58,- 

Tvne (^P)* ^ rectangular solid of 
*Jr^ metal, wood, or other hard ma- 
terial having a raised letter, figure, 
punctuation mark, or other character on 
the upper end, which, when inked, is used 
to make Impressions on paper and other 
smooth surfaces; the term is also used 
collectively. Types must be all of a uni- 
form height, and perfectly true in their 
angles, otherwise they could not 
be locked firmly together to be 
printed from. The nicks d d d 
shown in figure are notches 
made on one side of the type 
to assist the compositor in dis- 
l, tlnguishing the bottom from the 
top ; the groove (e) is a channel 
made In the bottom of the type 
to make It stand steadily. From 
the character of the letters types 
are known as capitals, small 
or lower-case letters, italic8f scripts, etc. 
From their size they receive the following 
names, the titles ranging from hrilUant, 
which, however, Is rarely used, to Eng- 
lish, the largest tyi>e used In ordinary 
book work: — 




Baby WOUam Csxton was the first Ena^ 

Nonparaa .....WiUsm Cazton was the first Bndia 

Mfakkm William Caxton was the first Eng 

Bravier William Cazton was the first 

BmttK9oiB ^..William Caxton was the fir 
Lone Primer William Caxton was the 
Small pfoL^^William Caxton was th 

Pica .William Caxton was 

William Caxton 

Bievi« WiMxk lltttrr or <Mft &i9lisl| 

Late in the nineteenth century the 
* point' system was adopted generally by 
printers. The old names with their near- 
est equivalent in the point system are as 
follows : 

BriUiant 31 poiAt 

Diamond 4 ** 

Pearl 41 •* 

Ruby 5 

Nonpareil 6 ** 

Minion 7 " 

Brevier 8 ** 

Bourgeois 9 ** 

Long Primer ....10 •* 

SmaU Pica 11 

Pica 12 •• 

English 14 •* 

Types are made by casting (which is 
now done by machinery), the letter being 
first cut upon the end of a steel punch, 
and the punch then driven into a piece 
of copper, which forms the matrix or 
bottom of the mold intended to produce 
the letter. Type-metal is an alloy of 
lead, antimony, and tin. See Printing, 

Type-setting Machine, 

a mechanical device for setting type. A 
machine for this purpose was patented 
In England as early as 1794, out the 
first in any way available was the 
Churd machine of 1822. This cast the 
types as well as set them. Various other 
machines were subseouently produced, 
but it was not until tne last quarter of 
the century that any was Invented that 
competed profitably with hand-setting. 
Of those now in use that set previously- 
cast types, there are two which may be 
named, the Thorne and McMillan ma- 
chines. The first of these sets and dis- 
tributes the type, while the second has 
separate machines for setting and dis- 
tributing. Of type-casting machines, 
there are two in common use, the 

Digitized by 


Typewriter Typhoon 

Mergantbaler and the Lanston. The feet, eyes, or ears. It la a native of 

Mergantbaler machine, perfected in 1884, South Africa. 

is known as the Linotype* from the fact TvDiiOid FeVfiT (tl'foid), called also 
that it casts a line of type instead of *Jl'**^*** **^^* enteric fever and 
single types. It has long been widely gastric fever, a disease somewhat re- 
used in newspaper offices and is now sembling typhus, but essentially different, 
largely employed in book setting. The It is characterized by serious disorder of 
Lanston, known as the Monotype, casts the bowels, and is not infectious in the 
single types, a keyboard being used as sense that it can be communicated from 
in the Linotype, each key controlling one person to another by breath or bv 
the casting of a special type-letter, mark, the skin, as in scarlet fever and small- 
space, etc. This is in considerable nse, poz. The poison seems to consist of 
and there are other single-type machines living organisms or disease germs which 
on the market. exist in the discharges from typhoid fever 
nVnPizrrif AT ^ machine intended to patients, may gain admission to the 
xjriicwAxtcX) be used as a substitute water of wells, and hence to the human 
for the pen. and by which the letters stomach, through drinking water or that 
are produceo by the impression of inked used to wash milk dishes. When these 
types. The essential elements in such germs gain access to the alimentary canal 
machines are a movement to bring the of a person whose general health is im- 
type into position, an inking device, an paired, the disease is usually set up. 
impression movement, and means for let- It is uncertain what time may elapse 
ter and line spacing. A successful form between the introduction of the poison 
of the machine has a series of letter and the appearance of the disease, but 
keys arranged in rows, to be worked by the period is usually about three weeks, 
the fingers of both hands, a letter being The symptoms of the disease are languor, 
imprinted on the paper (which moves chills, violent headache, thirst, and 
automatically) each time a key is struck, pains in the limbs. Soon diarrhoea sets 
In recent years many type-writers have in, accompanied by a distended and ten- 
been brought before the public, such as der state of the abdomen. The temper- 
the Remington, Hammond, Bar-Lock, ature rises, the skin loses its moisture, 
etc, and improvements are made from the kidneys cease to act freely, and the 
time to time. In these there are two tongue becomes drv and brown. Then 
rows of keys, 29 in all. Each key works a rose-colored rash appears over the 
a lever to which is attached a capital chest and abdomen, which mav soon dis- 
letter, an ordinary Roman letter, and appear, only, however, to be followed by 
a figure. The capital letters and the a new crop of spots. At this stage de- 
fiffures are brought into play by means lirium and other serious symptoms arise, 
of two small shift stops, and the print- and as the disease advances ulceration 
ing as it is performed is in full view of or perforation of the bowels may take 
the operator. In others, as the Gali- place. While the symptoms here de- 
graph, Yost, and Smith Premier, there is scribed are those of a typical case, there 
a separate key for every character pro- are numerous instances where the pa- 
ducible. tient may have no marked looseness of 
Tvnliaceffi (tl-f&'se-^), a nat. order the bowels, no spots on the skin, and 
Ajri^uov^cx^ of m o n o c o t yledonous no delirium. In the treatment of the 
plants, characterised by their calyx be- disease the most important thing is the 
mg three-sepaled and half-glumaceous. or dieting. Only soft liquid foods are 
a mere bundle of long hairs, by tnelr allowable, such as milk» in abundance, 
long lax filaments, clavate anthers, soli- boiled bread and milk, corn-flour, etc. 
tary pendulous ovules, and peculiar Looseness of the bowels, if excessive, 
habit The order includes two genera, should be checked bv catechu and chalk 
Typha and Sparganium, the species of mixture, with the addition of laudanum, 
which are abundant in the northern if necessary, to a grown-up i>er8on. The 
parts of the world. They are herbaceous ^ease is serious and often proves fatal, 
reed-like plants, growing in marshes and See Vaccination. 

ditches. See Reed-mace, TtrnTinTi (tffon), the Greek designa- 

TvDhline (tiflin), a curious lizard *JF""" Uon of an Egyptian deity 

A^|/iuxuv belonging to a family in called Set or Seth, son of Seb, and 

which the eyes and ears are hidden under brother to Osiris, whom he is said to 

the skin. In the typical species, the have destroyed. He seems to have repre- 

common typhline (or blind acontias — sented the volcanic forces of the' earth. 

TpphUna Cuvferii), the limbs are en- TvnllOIITl (tl-f5n'), a violent hurri- 

tlrely wanting, and the animal looks ut- *jlf**^'vii. ^^^ especially one of those 

terly helpless, having no apparent legs, which rage on the coasts of China, and 


Digitized by 


Typhus Tevcr Tyrol 

Japan and the neighboring archipelago. Tvrfl.ILt (^'^c^t)» originally, in an« 
They occur from May to November, bat * J *■***" clcnt Qreece, one who had 
are most frequent and disastrous during usurped the ruling power without the 
the months of July, August, and Sep- consent of the people or at the expense 
tember. of the existing government Such a 
TvDlmfl Fever (tl'^us), known also ruler, although he obtained his power 
*J"" ^ as hospital fever, illegally, did not always use it oppres- 
jail fever, etc., is essentially a fever of sively and violently; on the contrary, it 
the poor, ill-fed, and badly-housed in- was frequently used humanely and 
habitants of . large cities. It is infec- beneficentlv, and some tyrants were 
tious, and the infection is believed to be patrons of literature and art. In mod- 
transmitted by germs carried by lice or em times the word has a different 
other vermin. Free ventilation is the significance, indicating a cruel or op- 
least favorable condition for the spread pressive ruler. 

?La^ a^^riod^'^SSrSv^'S Tyrant Flycatcher, f^. ''•'"•" 

twelve days may pass aftet* the person Tttta (^i*)» one of the most celebrated 
is infected. Then there is generally a ^J*"^ cities of ancient Phoenicia, and 
shivering, followed by a hot, dry skin, a with its elder sister, Sidon, long a great 
suffused condition of the eyes, a small trading mart. It was built partly on 
pupil, thirst, a dull, stupid expression, an island and partly on the mainland; 
great prostration, and costive bowels, and the insular fortifications formed its 
About the seventh day a rash of irregu- chief strength when besieged and taken 
lar spots and of a dusky hue appears by Alexander the Great in B.O. 832. A 
over the chest and back, but sometimes mole or causeway then constructed to 
this is entirely absent. As the disease the island was the origin of the isthmus 
advances the patient's strength becomes which now connects it with the main- 
exhausted, the urinary secretion is land. Tyre was famous in the tenth 
scanty, if not entirely suppressed, de- century B.C. under Hiram, the friend of 
lirium sets in, and the disease is often Solomon; was besi^ed In vain bv the 
complicated by bronchitis, pneumonia, or Assyrians in 725-720 B.O., and by 
pleurisy. About the fourteenth day, in Nebuchadnezzar, 585-572 B.C., and re- 
favorable cases, the turn of the fever is mained an important place till it came 
shown by the patient falling into a into the hands of the Turks. It was 
sound sleep, from which he awakes with famous for a dye (the Tyrian purple) 
the fever gone. In unfavorable cases the obtained from the shell-fish Murem 
prostration increases, the feverishness is (which see). The modem Tyre or Sur 
heightened, convulsions may occur, and is an insignificant place of 6000 inhabl- 
at length the patient sinks into uncon- tants, under the government of Beirut, 
sciousness. The treatment consists in See also PhcBnicia, 
keeping the patient in a well-ventilated Tvrol (tir'ol), or Tibol', a province of 
room, and preventing exhaustion by a *J**'* Austria (including Tyrol proper 
light and wholesome diet Milk, beef- and Vorarlberg), is bounded north by 
tea, nourishing soups without vegetables, Bavaria and Lake Constance, west by 
should be given to the patient in small Switzerland, east by Salzburgand IUyria« 
quantities at short intervals. south, east, and west by venetla and 
TvBOfirraDllV (tI-PO«'Pa-fi). See Lombardy; area, 11325 square miles. 
*Jr*'&*«*if**i/ Printing, In magnificence of scenery Tyrol is only 
Tyr (tir), in northern mythology, the inferior to Switzerland, of which it is 
^^ son of Odin, brother of Balder, a continuation. The Alps enter it from 
and the god of war and victory. He Switzerk^nd in three chains, of which 
corresponds to the Anglo-Saxon Tiw, the central (the Tyrol or Oetzthaler 
from whom Tuesday is named, and the Alps) is the loftiest, and divides the 
day is similarly named among the Danes country into North and South Tyrol, 
and Icelanders. The drainage of North Tyrol is mainly 
IVniTiTiiia (tl-ran'us), a genus of in- carried to the Danube by the Inn, which 
xjrnumus gegsorial birds. The best- is the only navigable river; that of 
known species is the tyrant fly-catcher South Tyrol is mostly conveyed to the 
(T. Carolinen$i9) , which is remarkable Adriatic by the Adige. About one-third 
for its bold and pugnacious disposition, of the surface is practically inaccessible. 
It is a native of the United States, feeds another third is occupied by forests, 
on insects, and is not afraid to attack The vine and cereals are cultivated, and 
birds of prey much lanrer than itself, minerals, especially iron and salt, are 
It is also called lynuil-tiirt&e and king- extensively worked. Silk, metal wares, 
bird, wood articles, lace, and embroidery, aro 

Digitized by 




amoDf the maniifactims. The capital is 
Innabrock. Pop. 850,002. 
TirrATi^ (tl-r6n'), a ooanty of Ireland, 
xyruue ^ ^^ province of Ulster; 
bounded by Londonderry, Donegal, 
Armagh, Monaghan, and Fermanagh; 
area, 1260 8q. miles. The surface is 
hilly, rising into mountains in the north 
and south, and declining to a level to- 
wards Lough Neagh. The soil in the 
lower districts is fertile, and the county 
Is watered by numerous branches of the 
Foyle and Blackwater. Agriculture 
cenerally is in a backward state. Goal 
is mined to a small extent near Dun- 
gannon in the eastern portion of the 
county; linens, woolens, earthenware^ 
whiskey, beer, chemicals, etc., are made. 
Principal towns, Strabane and Dun- 
gannon. Pop. 150,567. 
IVpatia ^ borough of Blair Co., Penn« 
AyruuCi gvlvania, on the Little Juni- 
ata River, 14 miles N. E. of Altoona. 
It has extensive coaling interests, rail- 
road shoDS, lumber and paper mills, etc 

Tyrrhenian Sea (tir-rt'ni-an), the 

*/********•*** *^** name given to the 
part of the ^fedUerran^an Sen adjoining 
the soiitUweflt coabI of Italy* and extend- 
ing to Corsica* Sardinia^ aod Sicily. 
Tvrtffina (tlr-t^'ua), a Greek lyric 
*^ poet of the »<"veiith century 

B.O., a native of Attka, celebrated for his 
war soues written for the Spartans. 
IVtiefTiiH (ter'it), Thomas, bom in 

1786. He was educated at Eton and at 
Queen 'a Collep?, Oxford i became a fellow 
of Merton; clerk to the Honae of Ck>m« 
mons (l?61-^7) ; and in 1781 was ap- 

pointed a curator of the British Museum. 
Among his writings were: Obtervaiiotu 
on 9ome Pa$9age4 of Shakespore (1766) ; 
an edition of Chaucer (1775) : and an 
edition of the so-called Rowley^B Poems, 
in the appendix of which he exposes the 
fraud of CSiatterton. 
TvfM^nft (tfsens), Peteb, a distin- 
xyBSeus mulshed Flemish painter, bom 
at Antwerp in 1625; died in 1602. He 
excelled both in portraits and historical 
painting. Amonc the latter is The At- 
sumption of the Virgin, — His sons, 
NiOHOULS and AuousTiifE, were also 
talented artists, the former painting birds 
and flowers, the latter landscapes of great 

TvtlPT Patbiok Fraseb, fourth son 
*J"^^> of Alexander Fraser Tytler 
(Lord Woodhouselee), was bom at 
Edinburgh in 1791, and died in 1849. 
He was educated at the University of 
Edinburgh, became a lawyer, and finally 
engaged in literature, writing his chief 
work, the History of Scotland, 1823-43. 
Among his other works are his biogra- 
phies of the Admirable Grichton, Wlck- 
ly£f, and Sir Walter Raleigh.— His 
father, Alkzandeb Fraseb Tttleb 
(Lord Woodhouselee), Scotch judge, was 
bom at Edinburgh in 1747; died in 1813. 
His chief work is the Elements of Oen- 
erol History, He also contributed papers 
to The Mirror, The Lounger, etc. — Lord 
Woodhouselee's father, Wiluah Tttleb, 
of Woodhouselee, born in 1711; 
died in 1792, nublished an Inquiry into 
the Evidence Against Mary Queen of 
Soots, Criticisms of Hume's and Robert- 
son's Histories, the Poetical Remains of 
Jamm the First, etc. 

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rr the twenty-fint letter and the fifth 
' vowel in the English alphabet. Its 
true primary sound was that which it 
still retains in most of the languages in 
Europe, that of oo in cool, tool, aood, 
wood, etc., answering to the French ou 
in tour, the sound being sometimes short, 
sometimes long. 
TJbangi. ^^ Mohangi. 

tfbeda (^ba'da), a city of Spain, 
^ ^ province of Jaen, on the right 
t>ank of the Guadalquivir. It contains a 
fine cathedraL Pop. 19,913. 

uucrwc^ bom in Rhenish Prussia in 
1826; died in 1871. He studied at GOt- 
tingen and Berlin, and in 1862 was ap- 
pointed professor of philosophy at 
K5nigsberg. He wrote A 8y»iem and 
HUtory of Logio (1875) and A Bitiory 
of Philosophy, both translated into Eng- 
XJbeS ^^* ®^ Seiuhal. 

TTcayale (»-ka-gri«)t or Uoata'u, a 
•^ large river of Peru, one of 

the headwaters of the Amazon. It he- 
fins in the Apurimac, is upwards of 
.000 miles in length, and is navigable 

by large vessels for 100 miles. 


TtdaiDiir (^'^^pv), or Oodktpobe, 

" a town in the northwest of 
India, capital of a native state of the 
same name in Rajputana, on a lake 
2000 feet above sea-level, contains a 
notable royal palace, and exports 
turmeric, cotton, indigo, etc. Pop. 45,- 
595. — The state, which has an area of 
12,670 sq. miles, came under the pro- 
tection of Britain in 1817, and the rajah 
ranks highest in dignity among the 
Rajput chiefs. Pop. 1,030,212. 
Tidal. ^^ ^^^ Right, and Allodium. 

TT AtL\^ (fi'dal), Nicholas, the author 
uuiux ^^ ^^jp^ Roister Doister, the 
first regular English comedy, bom in 
1506; died in 1556. He was master of 
Eton School from 1534 to 1541, and the 
play was written for performance by the 
^holars. Its authorship was not ascer- 

tained till 181& He was in favor at 
court as a writer of pageants and Inter- 

TTddevflllfl. (ud-e-vAl'lA), a seaport in 
UaaeviUili ^^^ southwest of Sweden, 
at the inner end of the Byfjord. It has 
an active trade and textile manufactures. 
Pop. 9442. 

TTdine (O'd^nA), a walled town of 
vuAuv North Italy, ci^ital of a prov- 
ince of the same name and see of an 
archbishop, 60 miles northeast of Venice. 
It contains a castle (now a barrack), a 
Romanesque cathedraL bishop's palace, 
etc and has manufactures of linen, silk, 
woolens, etc. Pop. (1914) 48,962. 
TTfo {6'fk), a government of Russia, 
*'*** separated in 18«5 from Orenburg; 
area 47,094 square miles. On the east, 
where it is bordered by the Southern 
Urals, the country is mountainous, 
wooded, provided with excellent pastures, 
and rich in minerals. It is also well 
watered by the Bielaya, and has abun- 
dance of arable land on which good crops 
are raised. Pop. 2,620^600.— Ufa, the 
capital, stands on the Bielaya, at the 
confluence of the Ufa, 735 miles east 
by north of Moscow. It is the see of a 
bishop, and has considerable manufac- 
tures and trade. Pop (1910) 103,485. 

UffiziGaUery SS^''*^- «- 

N. w. of the Victoria Nyansa. It is a 
rich agricultural country with a mild 
and uniform climate, and the inhabitants 
are of a comparatively high type. 
Within it, wholly or in part, are the 
large hikes Victoria. Albert, Albert Ed- 
ward, Kiogo and Rudolf. It was first 
visited by Speke and Grant in 1860, and 
is the seat of several mission stations. 
Under King Mtesa, however, and his 
successor Biwanga. the Ghristians were 
persecuted, and Bishop Hannington was 
put to death by the latter. It is now 
a British protectorate, the British seat 
of administration being^ Entebbe, the na- 
tive capital Menga Pop. estimated at 

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Ugrians tlmaoese 

DT^riftTlA (tt'gri-4nz), a term applied of Russia and signed a separate peace 

V5AJ.CUA0 ^^ ^^ Finnic group of Tu- with Germany in 1918. Pop. about 

ranian peoples, comprising the Lapps, 30.000,000. 

Finns, and Magyars or Hungarians; TJlans (ti'lanz). See Uhlans, 

their language is termed Ugrian. v*a.4i.o 

TTlilsiTifl r^'iant), JoHANN LuDWiG, TTIpAr (ul'ser), a sore in any of the 
Uiiiauu ^^ j^^ ^j. Tubingen in ^*^^* soft parts of the body, either 
1787; died in 1862. open to the surface or to some natural 
TTliI EiDWiN Fuller, statesman, bom cavity, and attended with a secretion of 
' at Rush, New York, in 1841; died pus or some kind of discharge. Ulcers 
in 1901. He studied law, became are of various kinds, as Moorhutic, oaf»- 
mayor of Grand Rapids, Mich^ in ceroMM, »orofulou9f etc 
1890, and was made assistant Secre- TnAftliArcy (5'le-o-borg), a town of 
tary of State in October, 1893; and W^«»""*5 Russia, in the Grand-duchy 
during the sickness of Secretary Gres- of Finland, at the mouth of the Ule&, 
ham was Acting Secretary of State, in the gulf of Bothnia. Pop. (1904) 17,737. 
While in this office be was entrusted TTleiIlfi.8 (U-16'maz), the hierarchical 
with the arbitration to settle the boun- *'"*«*" corporation of learned men 
dary between Brazil and the Argentine in Turkey, composed of the Imams or 
Republic. He was made ambassador to ministers of religion, the Muftis or doc- 
Germany in February, 180G. tors of law, and the Cadis or adminis- 
ITlllfl.118 (3'Iai^)> a species of light trators of justice. 

cavalry in the armies of the TTlfilaa ("I'fi-las), Ulphilas, or WuL- 
Austrians, Russians and Germans. wxoiacwj riLAS, a bishop of the Gothe 
TTIlTicllSVille (ytl'riks-vil), a citv of of Moesia, was bom, it is supposed, in 
vuAAvuovAXA^ Tuscarawas Co., Ohio, 311; consecrated bishop by Eusebius of 
on Stillwater Creek, 9 miles s. E. of New Nicomedia, probably at Antioch, in 341; 
Philadelphia. It has manufactures of died at Constantinople in 381. He 
fire clay and sewer pipe. Pop. 4751. translated most of the Bible into Gothic 
Trintall MnnntflinA (Q-in't&), op (Moeso-Gothic), employing the Greek of 
UlUl^aa moUnxaiUS uinta, a the Septuagint for the Old Testament, 
range of lofty mountains in Utah, which and a Greek text, different from the re- 
extend B. from the Wahsatch range, and ceived text, for the New. Only some 
occupy a large area. Some of the peaks fragments of this translation have been 
reach an altitude of over 13,000 feet. preserved, including the greater part of 
ITist i^'^st), two islands of the Outer the four gospels, and these are of the 
vxoif Hebrides, named North and South highest linguistic value. See Gotht, 
Uist The people are principally en- TTIIftixrfltfkr (<ilz'wa-ter), the largest, 

Sged in fishing. Pop. about 9000. uiiownwci ^^^^^ Windermere, of the 

itlanders (weetMan-derz), out- English lakes, 8 miles n. of Windermere; 

xbxcuAucxo landers or foreigners, the length, 7i miles. It is noted for its 

fiame given by the Boers of the Trans- picturesque scenery, 

vaal to the whites who lived In that TJlin ^11^2i}» * strongly fortified town 

country before its annexation to the of Wflrtemberg, 45 miles s. s. E. 

British empire. of Stuttgart, on the left bank of the 

TTiifliTi (P-Jftn')> a town of India, in Danube, on both sides of which there 

vjjaxii Scindias dominion, 350 miiea are important fortifications. It is an 

northwest of Bombay, surrounded by a old town, irregularly built, with narrow 

stone wail with round towers. It was winding streets, and has a cathedral in 

one of the seven ancient holy cities of the the old Gothic style, one of the largest 

Hindus. Pop. 39,892. churches in Germany with the tallest 

TTVroiiiA (Q'kran) , a region in the spire in the world (530 feet — completed 

ujikioxiic ^o^jiY^ of Russia along the in 1890). Its manufactures mclude 

northern shore of the Black Sea ; called machinery, woolen and linen cloth, leather, 

also Little Russia, to distingulKh it from paper, brassware, etc. The capitulation of 

White Russia Ijring further north along Ulm in 1805, when General Mack surren- 

the border of Austria-Hungary, and Great dered to Napoleon, was the turning-point 

Russia, which centers around Moscow of the campaign in Austerlitz. Pop. 5(5,109. 

and Petrograd. It formed the Russian TJlinaGeffi (ul-mft'se-§), a nat. order 

governments of Kief, Chemigof, Podolsk, w*"*«»v^«/ ^^ exogens, oi which the 

Karkof and Poltava. When Nicholas II genus Ulmu» or elm is the typo It is 

was deposed and the communal system of nearly related to Urticace® (the nettles), 

{government was inaugurated under the from which it differs only in having a 

eadership of Lenine (q.v.), the Ukraine two-celled fruit and hermaphrodite 

peoples declared themselves independent flowers. It consists of trees and skrabSi 

Digitized by 


THna . 


which have scabrous, alternate, simple, 
deciduous leares and fugacious stipules. 

TJlna. ^^^rm. 

TTlphilaS. ^ee Ul/Uas. 

TTlriPi (ol-r6't86), Hermann, a Ger- 
""*^^ man philosopher, bom in 1806; 
died in 1884. Having studied at Halle 
and Berlin, in 1834 he was appointed 
professor of philosophy at Halle Uni- 
versity. His principal works are: A 
History of Greek Poetry (1835), Shakes- 
pere's Dramatic Art (18^), The Funda- 
mental Principle of Philosophy (1845- 
46), Compendium of Logic (1860), Qod 
and Nature (1862), Body and Soul 
(1866), Elements of Practical Philosophy 
( 1873) • 

TTlster (ul'ster), the most northerly of 
the four provinces of Ireland, 
8613 sq. miles in area. It is moun- 
tainous in part, the heights reaching 
2800 feet The coast is bold and rocky. 
In the north is the famous Giant^s 
Causeway. This province is the chief 
seat of the Irish linen manufacture, and 
shipbuilding is actively carried on at Bel- 
fast Pop. 1,581,350. 

Ulster King of Anns, J ^ « p^^- 

aid of Ireland, and of the order of St. 
Patrick. This office was created in 1552. 

intima Thnle (Uppermost Thule), 
wAVAAuo. AAJ.U.J.V ^ name given in an- 
cient times by the inhabitants of South- 
em Europe to the remote regions of 
the unknown North. The Greek navi- 
gator Pytheas (who probably lived in 
the latter part of the fourth century 
B.C.) made a voyage along the coast of 
Britain and wrote an account of what he 
learned about the Shetland and Orkney 
Islands and possiblv the n. mainland 
calling the region Thule. The name be- 
came vague in its application, especially 
under the form Ultima Thule. Norway, 
Ireland, etc., bore the title in turn; and 
many strange superstitions were current 
regarding the region. 

Tntimatum <«l-ti-mfl'tum), any final 
wAVAAAj.wvM.AAj. ppopQgaj Qj. Statement of 

conditions; e8i>ecially, in diplomatic ne- 
gotiations, the final terms of the one 
party, the rejection of which often in- 
volves an immediate mpture of diplo- 
matic relations and a declaration of war. 

intramarine /"' '},"?; ™»; ''!?'^ v,^ 

vAVA»uj.aAAuv |jeau^,fu] and durable 
skj-blue pigment, a color formed of the 
mmeral called lapis lazuli. This sub- 
stance is much valued by painters, on 
account of the beauty and permanence 
of its color, both for oil and water paint- 
ing: Artificial ultramarine is prepared 

by heating sulphide of sodium with a 
mixture of silicic add and alumina. 

Xntramontanism i^^^i^^^; 

of that party in the Church of Rome 
who place an absolute authority in mat- 
ters of faith and discipline in the hands 
of the pope, in opposition to the views 
of the party who would place the na- 
tional churches, such as the Galilean, in 
partial independence of the Roman curia* 
and make the pope subordinate to the 
statutes of an oecumenical counciL Ac- 
cording to ultramontanism the pope is 
superior to general councils, independent 
of their decrees, and considered to be 
the source of all jurisdiction in the 
church. The Vatican Council of 1870 
virtually established the views of ultra- 
montanism as dogmas of the church. 

Xnugh Beg, Olug Beg iS'^^t 

Moslem astronomer, bom in 1394, grand- 
son of Tamerlane, and king of Transox- 
iana. He began to reign in 1446 and 
was killed by his son in 1459. 
TTlverfttAH (ftl'ver-stun, locally pn^- 
UlVerSXOn i^^nced tts'tun), aieaiK)rt 
of EiUgland, in Lancashire, about H 
mile from Morecambe Bay, to which 
there is a canal. It has a paper-mill, 
shoe-factory, blast-furnaces, etc.. and 
there is a small amount of shipping. 
Pop. (1911) 9552. 

TTIiraapa (Q-lis'ste; in Greek, Odys- 
Uljr55C5 ^g^^)^ ^.jj^ ^f ^^^ jgj^j ^^ 

Ithaca» was 'one of the Greek heroes 
who engaged in the war against Troy. 
In returning to his own country after 
the siege he visited the country of the 
Lotophagi in N. Africa, the Cyclopes in 
Sicily (see Polyphemus) , the island of 
i¥]olus, king of the winds, reached the 
island JEtsa, where Circe changed 
(temporarily) his companions into pigs; 
visited the infernal regions, where he 
consulted the soothsayer Tiresias how to 
return to his country; passed in safety 
the coast of the Sirens, and the dangers 
of Scylla and Charybdis; remained for 
seven years with the nymph Calypso 
after losing all his men; and at last, 
after an absence of twenty years, re- 
turned to Ithaca. Here he found his 
palace occupied and his substance wasted 
by suitors for the hand of his wife 
Penelope, but with the aid of his son 
Telemachus he put them to death. He 
lived about sixteen years after his re- 
turn. These adventures of Ulysses are 
the subject of Homer's Odyssey, 
TJmballa. see Amtala. 

TTmbel (um'bel), in botany, a variety 
VAUMVA ^ inflorescence which coMisti 

Digitized by 



TTncial Letters 

of a DtuDber of pedicels or flower-stalks, 
nearly equal in len£th» springing from a 
common center, with tne blossoms on 
their smnmits forming a level or rounded 

IJmbeU of Hemlock. 

surface. When a number of such um- 
bels are combined in the same way we 
have a compound umheL the smaller um- 
bels being called partial umbels. 

XTmbellifero 4'•nS;J^'rd'1i'p2^^^- 

nat order of plants, the flowers of 
which are almost alwavs in regular com- 
pound umbels. The plants of this order 
are natives chiefly or the northern parts 
of the northern hemisphere, and nearly 
all herbs with fistular furrowed stems 
and divided leaves; the fvuit consists 
of two indehiscent ridged carpels united 
by a commissure. Some are very poi- 
sonous, as hemlock and certain others; 
others are esculents, as celery, carrots, 
and parsnips: many yield aromatics, as 
caraway, coriander, dill, anise; a few 
secrete a foetid gum-resin, much used in 
medicine, as asafetida, galbanum, opop- 
anax and sagapenum. 
TTmber (umb^r), a well-known min- 
eral pigment, of an olive-brown 
color in Its raw state, but much redder 
when burnt. It occurs either naturally 
in veins and beds, or is prepared artifici- 
ally from various admixtures. The 
commercial varieties are known as 
Turkey umber, raw and burnt, and Eng- 
lish umber, the latter being an artificial 
ochrey admixture. 

** ^*^ vel and Placenta. 

TTmlirQ (um'bra), in astronomy, a 
^"^"** term applied to the total 
shadow of the earth or moon in an 
eclipse, or to the dark cone projected 
from a planet or satellite on the side 
opposite to the sun. See Penumbra, 

UmbrellA (um-brel'la), a portable 
^*AM.^M,^MM» giju^g^ screen, or canopy 

which opens and folds, carried in the 
hand for sheltering the person. The um- 
brella had its origin in the East in very 
remote times, where it was (and still 
is) regarded as an emblem of royalty 
or a mark of distinction; but as a de- 
fense from the rain it was not used in 
the West till early in the eighteenth 

TTmbrella-bird, ?.^®®/"A** ^^,"«rican 

** "*• Mxx*A, jjjj^ (Cephaioptirua 

omAtus) allied to the crows, remarkable 
for the crest of blue-black feathers rising 
from the head ^nd curving towards the 
end of the beak, which it nearly reaches. 
Another long tuft of feathers hangs 
down from the breast. 

Umbrella-tree, ® °*.™® «2^f? *® ^^ 

v«xA»^A^x4.«. wxvv, gp^,eg of Magnolia, 
M, umbrella and M. tripetala, from the 
form and position of the leaves. The 
same name is given to PanddnuB odora- 
tissimuSf the screw-pine. 
TTTnlirifl (um'bri-a), a division of 
uiuuxiit jj^iy^ ^jj ^jj^ Adriatic, which 

derives its appellation from the Um- 
brlans, by whom it was inhabited in 
ancient times. It now forms the prov- 
ince of Perugia. The Umbrians were an 
ancient people who spoke a language akin 
to the Latin. See Euaubine Tables. 
Umlaut C?m'loat), in philology, the 
^ change of a vowel in one syl- 

lable through the influence of one of 
the vowels c, f\ u in the syllable im- 
mediately following — a common feature 
in several of the Teutonic tongues. 
Ummre (u^'P^r)* a person to whose 
^ r*'*'^ sole decision a matter in dis- 
pute between two parties is referred. 
Specifically, in law, a third person to 
whom the dispute is referred for decision 
when, in an arbitration, the arbitrators 
do not agree. 

Umritsir. ®^ Amritsir. 
Unalaska /^-na-ias'k/), one of the 

vucMCMMko. largest of the Aleutian 
Islands (which see), being 75 miles long, 
and 20 miles at its extreme breadth. 
On it there are a number of volcanoes. 
UnaH i^'°?^' ^ species of sloth. See 

Uncaria (un-kA'ri-a), a genus of 
^ ^ •* plants. See Gambtr. 

Uncial Letters ("«^'8hai), letter of 

ancient Latin and Greek manuscripts. 
These letters were compounded between 
the majuscule or capital and minuscule 
or small character, some of the letters 
resembling the former, others the latter. 
Uncial writing ii supposed to have been 

Digitized by 


Uncle Sam TJngulata 

employed in Latin MSS. as early as the TTnderwOOd l^^ci^^ Mabous, botan- 
third or fourth century, but was seldom *'****^*'^w**> isK born at New Wood- 
used after the tenth. stock. New York, in 1853. He became 
TTnde Sam ^^^ familiar name of the professor of geology and botany in the 
** ^ United States govern- Illinois Wesleyan University, and wrote 
ment, used as John Bull is with respect Our Native Fem» and Hoto to Study 
to England. It is an extension of the Them, and other botanical works, 
letters U. S. (United States), printed TJnderwriter ^^^ name given to in- 
or stamped on the government property. vi* wxxv^x, dividual marine in- 
It was first used in Trov, New lork, in surers. These persons were formerly 
1812, when certain goods purchased for not permitted to enter into any joint- 
the government and branded U. S., were stock action as a company, but wrote 
officially inspected by Samuel Wilson, under policies of insurance with the 
whose local nickname was Uncle Sam. sums for which they severally bound 
The coincidence of initials suggested the themselves. The system still prevails 
application of the nickname m full to abroad, but there are also numerous 
the government companies whose business it is to grant 
ITllGOIlfoniiable (un-ka-for'ma-bl), marme insurances. The underwriters of 
vuvvuAvx MMj.^ jjj geology, a term American cities do not confine their 
applied to strata whose planes do not business to marine insurance alone, 
lie parallel with those of the subjacent TJiidilie (nn'din), a water-spirit of 

wu-uxii^ ^^ female sex, resembling in 

character the sylphs or spirits of the 
air, and corresponding somewhat to 
the naiads of classical mythology. Ac- 
cording to Paracelsus, when an undine 
married a mortal and bore a child she 
received a soul. One of these spirits is 
the heroine of a celebrated romance by 
De la Motte Fouqufi. 

Undidatory Theory A"?'taphy"8: 

ics, the theory which regards light as a 
Unconformable Strata. mode of motion generated by molecular 

vibrations in the luminous source, and 
or superjacent strata but have a dif- propagated by undulations in the subtle 
ferent line of direction or inclination, medium known as the ether, presumed to 
See also Conformable, pervade all space and to occupy the m- 

TTti/»+iati Extreme. See Extreme tervals which separate the molecules or 
\3 u\*\,i.\3U,y u faction. atoms of bodies. When these undula- 

TTn A ik'Ttrr^ti-nYiA "RailrAarl ^'^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ *ct on the nerves of our 

UnaergrOHna itaiiroaa, retina they produce in us the sensation 

the name given before the Civil war to of light. The only other theory of li^ht 

a secret arrangement for helping slaves which can be opposed to this, and which 

to escape from the South, by passing is variously called the corpuscular, emis- 

them from one hiding place to another sion, or material theory, supposes light 

until they reached Canac^ or other places to consist of material particles, emitted 

of safety. Large numbers gained their from the source, and projected in 

freedom in this way, through the aid of straight lines in all directions with a 

antislavery sympathizers. velocity which continues uniform at all 

TTnrlpraTiAf-wliPPl a form of water- distances, and is the same for all in- 

uuucisiiuw wiicci, yf\^ee\ having a tensities. The undulatory theory is, 

number of float-boards disposed on its cir- however, now universally adopted by 

cumference, and turned round by the physicists. 

moving force of a stream of water acting TTnomlfttft (nng-gQ-lfl ta), the ungu- 

on the float-boards at its lowest part. ^ "&»**"'•'"' late or hoofed quadrupeds. 

In this wheel the water acts entirely by forming the largest and most important 

its momentum, its weight taking no part order of the mammalia. This order is 

in the effect. subdivided into (a) the section Peris- 

TTth^ptwaaiI Francis Henry, au- sodactyla, or odd-toed ungulates, which 

uuucrwuuu, jjjQ j^j^ j^j. Enfield, includes the rhinoceros, the tapirs, the 

Massachusetts, in 1825; died in 1894. horse and all its allies; and (6) the 

He wrote Handbook of American Liter- Artiodactyla, or even-toed, which com- 

ature. Handbook of English Literature, prises the hippotamus, the pigs, and the 

and some novels and biographies. whole group of ruminants, including 

Digitized by 


TTnicom Union of South Africa 

oxen, sheep, goats, antelopes, camels, UnifiTenitUS dci flliUS <**^^ ^ 

deer, etc. In the former section the *'***&*'***•'**» **vx uuuo gQ^t^^ son 

hind feet are odd-toed (one or three of God*; from the initial words), a bull 

toes) in all the members, and the fore- of Pope Clement XI (1713). 

feet in all except the tapirs; in the lat- TTtiiati (Qn'yun), a town of Hudson 

ter section the toes are always even in w-^**"!! ^j^^^ ^^^ Jersey, opposite New 

number, either two or four. York, one mile N. of Hoboken. It has 

TTnicOrn (^'m-kom), a fabulous ani- gUk and other industries. Pop. 21,023. 

^ ^^ ** mal represented as with one TTtiiftn a town of Union CJo., South 

horn i^rowin^ from its forehead. Such w*"vii, Carolina, 70 miles N. N. w. of 

an animal is frequently mentioned by Columbia. It has cotton, cotton-seed- 

Qreek and Roman writers, who generally oil, and hosiery mills. Pop. 5623. 

describe it as a native of India, of the TTfiiAn The, in English history, the 

size and form of a horse, the body being vnxwii, uniting of the parliaments of 

white, and a straight horn growing from Scotland and England by the Act of 

its forehead. The reem of the Hebrews, Union, 1707; also, the legislative union 

of which unicorn is a mistranslation of Ireland with Great Britain in 1800. 

(Deut xxxiii, 17, and elsewhere), was — The Union is a term frequently applied 

probably a urus. It was a two-horned to the United States of America. 

animal. The unicorn is one of the sup- TTtiiati Poliinna are textile fabrics 

g)rters of the royal arms of Great *'*""ii 4:auxiU9| j^^^^g ^£ ^ mixture 

ritain, in that posture termed salient, of different materials, as cotton and wool. 

It was taken from the arms of Scot- cotton and silk, and similar mixtures, 

land, which had two unicorns as sup- in which flax, hemp, jute, etc., are mixed 

porters. with other fibrous materials, 

TTnifiATTI-mnt ^ popular name of TTtiinn Janir the national ensign of 

unicorn rooi;, ^j^^ . ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ union jacK, 3^^^^ „^ ^ \^^ 

no$a, a native of Nortn America, which form as a jack — that is, displayed at the 
furnishes one of the most intense bitters end of a bowsprit The name has come 
known, used as a tonic and stomachic. (wrongly) to be applied to the union flag 
TTniform (<i'ni-^orm), the distinguish- itself. It is formed by the union of the 
w ^*'***' ing dress of any body of crosses of St George, St Andrew and St 
soldiers, sailors, members of a society Patrick. The jack is not flown on shore, 
or club, etc Military uniforms seem TTTiinn nf Snnfli Afn'pft a federa- 
first to have been adopted in England "^"011 01 DOnxn -ainca, ^j^^^ ^^ 
about the time of Henry VIII, being four British colonies of South Africa, 
used for his bodv-guard and that of sue- including those of the Cape of Good 
ceeding monarcbs. Uniforms for the Hope, NataL Transvaal, and Orange 
army came in use in 1661, when. Free State, dating from May 31, 1910. 
on the restoration of the Stuarts, a The movement for the union of the 
standing army was first formed. Scai'let South African colonies was launched by 
became the national color of the a convention in 1908. This convention re- 
British uniform, as blue did of that of assembled in January, 1909, and pro- 
the French and German, though the color ceeded to draft a constitution which, after 
varied with circumstances, white being revision, was adopted. This constitution 
used in hot climates. Blue was adopted vests the executive power in the Brit- 
in the United States, and during the isb kings and his representative ; the legis- 
Civil war blue and gray were the dis- lative in a Senate and House of Assembly, 
tinctive colors worn by the soldiers of A Sui)reme Court is also provided for, 
the North and South respectively. The of which the several supreme courts of 
head-dress forms a distinctive part of the colonies are to form part. This con- 
the uniform, and very showy hats and sists of judges elected by each of the four 
helmets are at times worn, but chiefly for States. The Senate consists of 40 mem- 
parade purposes. In recent times, hers, 8 appointed by the governor-general 
owing to the advent of smokeless powder and 8 elected by each of the four states, 
and long range rifles with telescopic The House has 121 members, divided 
sights, showy uniforms of any kind and among the States according to their re- 
color have grown dangerous, and there spective importance ; the Cape colony hav- 
is a growing tendency to adopt the ing 51, Natal 17, Transvaal 36. and 
khaki, dust-colored wear, from its indis- Orange Free State 17. The federation 
tinctness when at a distance. The idea was confirmed by Parliament, August 16, 
of display in military dress is being 1909. Herbert John Gladstone was ap- 
abandoned in favor of that of safety. pointed as the first governoivgeneral. 
TTnifAmiifiy Act of. See Act of General Louis Botha, of the late Boer 
viuxviiuii^jTy xjf^ifoffg^Hy^ army, being made premier. Each colony 

Digitized by 


Union Theological Seminary 

United Brethren in Christ 

retained Its own goyernor and legislature. 
The area of this new federal union is 
4r2,887 sq. miles, the pop. 5,450,217. 

Union Theological Seminary^ 

a divinitjr school in New York City. Pres- 
byterian in origin but now independent of 
ecclesiastical control. It offers courses 
leading to the degrees of bachelor of di- 
vinity and doctor of divinity. The semi- 
nary buildings are on Broadway at 120th 
Street. There are 130,000 volumes in the 
library. In 1917 there were 30 instruc- 
tors and 230 students. 

Uniontown, ^^l^iZ?T^f^ 

B. by B. of Pittsburgh. It is in an iron, 
and coal district, and has coke, iron, steel, 

flass, and other industries. Pop. 13,- 
Unit (^'°^^)> ^^ arithmetic the least 
*^ " whole number, or one, represented 
by the figure 1. Every other number is 
an assemolage of units. This definition 
is applicable to fractions as well as to 
whole numbers. In mathematics and 
physics a unit is any known determinate 
quantity by the constant repetition of 
which any other quantity of the same 
kind is measured. It is not itself one, 
but is a length, or a surface, or a solid, 
or a weight, or a time, as the case mav 
be, while 1 is only a numerical symbol. 
— Specifio gravity unit: for solids or 
liquids, 1 cubic foot of distilled water 
at 62* Fahr.= 1; for air and gases. 1 
cuWc foot of atmospheric air at 62® 
Fahr.= 1. The unit of heat, or thermal 
unit, in the United States and Britain, 
the quantity of heat which corresponds to 
1® Fahr. in the temperature of 1 lb. of 
pure water at about 39** Fahr. ; in France, 
the heat required to raise a gramme of 
pure water at about 3.94'* C, 1* C. — In 
electricity the unit of quantitff is that 
quantity of electricity which with an 
electro-motive force of one volt will 
flow through a resistance of 1,000,000 
ohms in one second, called a farad; unit 
of current, a current of one farad per 
second; unit of work, that which will 
produce a velocity of one meter ^39.37 
mches) per second in a ma^ weighing 
one gramme (15.432 grains) after acting 
ui>on it a second of time. — A dunamic 
unit is one expressing the quantity of 
a force or the amount of work done. 
One such unit is the foot-pound (which 
see). The system of units recommended 
bpr a committee of the British Associa- 
tion for scientific calculations, and 
known as the C,0,8. system, adopts 
the centimeter as the unit of length, the 
gramme as the unit of mass, and the 
$eoond as the unit of time, these words 

being represented respectively by the 
above letters. (See Dynamics.) In 
this system the unit of area is the square 
centimeter, the unit of volume is the 
cubic centimeter, and the unit of velocity 
is a velocitv of a centimeter per second. 
The unit of momentum is the momentum 
of a gram moving with a velocity of a 
centimeter per second. 
Unitarian (tt-m-ta'ri-an), a religious 
^ "^ sect or congeries of sects, 

distinguished by the denial of the re- 
ceived doctrine of the Trinity. The Uni- 
tarians may be divided into classes: (1) 
The conservative or orthodox Uni- 
tarians, who accept the general articles 
of the Christian creed (with the excep- 
tion of the Trinity), such as miracles, 
the resurrection of Christ, and the 
plenary inspiration of Scripture. (2) 
The liberal or progressive Unitarians, 
whose creed is purely rationalistic. 
The^ consider Christ as a mere man, 
inspired as other great men are, though 
in a greater degree; they reject the 
doctrmes of original sin, eternal punish- 
ment, the belief in miracles, and gener- 
ally the whole supernatural element in 
Christianity. They den^ the necessity 
of an atonement, considering Christ's 
death but as a martyrdom in defense of 
truth. This latter class forms the 
majority. Unitarian views have been 
held more or less in all ages of the 
church, but they came more prominentlv 
forward during the Reformation period, 
especially in connection with the teach- 
ing of the elder and younger Socinus, 
L«ilius and Faustus, uncle and nephew. 

United Brethren in Christ, 

an American religious sect, founded by 
Philip William Otterbcin, a minister of 
the German Reformed Church, nnd Mar- 
tin Boehm, a Pennsylvania Mcnnonite. 
The church was organized in 1800; it 
was at first confined to a membership 
that was largely German, but it widened 
its scope and grew rapidly. There are 
nearly 3600 churches, with about 346.000 
members and 2000 ministers. Ten col- 
leges and several academics are supported 
by the church. Bonobrake Theological 
Seminary, Dayton, Ohio, dates from 1871. 
The church has an extensive publishing 
house at Dayton. The theology of the 
United Brethren in Christ is Arminian. 
They have two sacraments : baptism and 
the Lord's Supi)cr. The ceremony of the 
washing of feet is sometimes used. Home, 
Foreign Mission and other societies are 
supported. At the time of tho revision of 
the Confession of Faith in 1880, the con- 
servative element withdrew and estab- 
lished the * Old Constitution ' body, which 

Digitized by 


XTnited Greeks 

ITnited States 

now has an estimated membership of 
about 22.000. 

United Greeks 5M3?*^«.^ 

to the Greek Church, but whom the Ro- 
man Church has united with her own 
members on certain conditions. They re- 
tain the ancient rite, the Greek language 
during service, the strict Greek fasts, and 
the Lord's supper under both forms, in 
common with the old Greek Church. 

TTnited Kingdom. ^ ^^*^** 
Tlnited Presbyterian Chnrch^ 

the Bame adopted by that Scottiah 
church which waB formed by the union 
of the Sec^sloa Chunch and the Relief 
Church in May, l&il. This churth ad- 
beres to the theological dootrinea taught 
in tbe Westminster Coufe^fiion of Faith 
and the Larger and Sborter CatechismB. 
The Bystem of chorrh govertiment diflfera 
from that of the Established and Free 
churches only In having no iatennediate 
court between the presbyteries and the 
Bupreme court, the latter of wbich is 
called a General Synods and stta o&ce a 
year. In the Onltetl States there are 
about 1000 churehea and orer 150,000 

TTnited States li^%''^^^i^, 

a federal republic of North America, one 
of the largest and most important coun- 
tries of the world, which occupies 
nearly one-half the total area of the 
continent and extends from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific oceans, and from 
the Mexican republic and Gulf of Mex- 
ico on the south to the Dominion of 
Canada on the north. Its greatest 
length, from east to west, is 2800 miles ; 
greatest breadth, north to south, 1600 
miles ; area, 3,026,789 square miles, equal 
to more than three-fourths that of all 
Europe. In addition it possesses the 
isolated territory of Alaska, 590,884 
square miles in area, making its total 
extent nearly equal to that of Europe. 
Recent additions to its territory com- 
prise the Philippine and Hawaiian 
Islands, in the Pacific, and the island of 
Porto Rico in the Atlantic, with a few 
smaller islands, adding a further area of 
132,310 square miles, the total area 
under the American flag being 3,749,983 
square miles. The boundaries on east 
and west are the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans, on the south the waters of the 
Gulf of Mexico and the ^northern border 
line of Mexico. On the north the 
boundary west of the 95th meridian of 
w. longitude is, with slight exception, 
the 49tli parallel of v, latitttde. Bast 

of this meridian it is irregular, follow 
ing the median line of the great lakes 
and the 8t Lawrence Btver, which It 
leaves at the 45th parallel of latitude. 
This parallel forms the northern bound- 
ary of New York and Vermont, but 
Maine projects northward nearly to the 
pazallel of 47** 30^. The population of 
this country, exclusive of its outlying 
portions, was in 1910, 91,972,266 ; in- 
clusive of Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto 
Rico, 93,402,151. That of the Philip- 

?ine Islands (census of 1903) was 
,635,426, makuig a total under the 
dominion of the great republic of over 
100,000,000. This includes a n€«ro 
population of nearly 10,000,000, and a 
foreign-born population of over 13,000,- 
000, exclusive of that in the island pos- 
sessions. The federation consists of 48 
states (13 ori^ally) ; 2 organized terri- 
tories, Hawaii and Alaska; 1 unorgan- 
lized, Porto Rico; and the depend- 
encies of the Philippine, Guam and 
Tutuila islands. There are three cities 
of over 1,000,000. eight of over 500.000 
populatioQ* these being New York, 4,766,- 
§83: Chic4igo, 2.185,283; Philadelphia, 
1.549,003; St Louis, 687,029: Boston. 
670.5S5; Cloveland, 560,663; Baltimore, 
5aS,485, flDd Pittsburgh, 533,905. The 
cities of over 100,000 number fifty-one. 
The table on the following page gives the 
areas and populations of the States and 
Territories, those marked * being the 
original States. 

PhyHcal Characienstio9,— The United 
States is very diversified in physical 
aspect, soil and climate, extending, as 
it does, from 25"" to 49"" N. latitude, and 
from east to west over lowlands, plains, 
plateaus and mountain ranges. It has 
two broadly marked features, the Mis- 
sissippi River, with its great valley, 
crossing it from north to soutl^ and the 
wide elevation of the Rocky Mountains, 
with its bordering plains and plateaus, 
following the same direction farther west. 
The Mississippi Valley, covering about 
one-half the area of the United States, 
comprises in its northern portion a 
prairie region, largely treeless, in parts 
quite level, but generally a rolling coun- 
try. South of the Missouri and the 
Ohio its surface is more varied, there 
being numerous hilly tracts, while the 
level reaches are often swampy near 
the rivers. Forests formerly covered 
this southern region somewhat generally, 
and considerable tracts of woodland re- 
main, but farming and erasing lands now 
occupy in great part the ancient forest 

Passing eastward from this vast valley, 
with its elevatioQ varying from 700 feet 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


United States 

TJnited States 


Alabamn. ..,.,.. 

AfluJOBflJi. .,.,,,. 

Arisona ......... 

Californim. , , 

Colorndo . , , 


•Delmwart* . . 

Florida. ......... 

*t}roT«ia .»,..,.. 

Jd&ho * . - 


IndiA&A. ..,...«,. 
Iowa ►,♦......,.. 

Kadaa. ... . . 

Louiiidna. . , . 

Mjup^e. . » , , 



MinnHota. .,.,., 
MiflewJppL ...... 


Mod lann . . 

KtbraAkft... , . , , . 

Nl?V|lCtjl| , r ...... . 

*Nffw HnxnpAhiTp 
•New Jertry. . . . . 
Kew Mt^iiico. , . . * 
•Nrw York 

Nonb D&kota,.. 

Ohio... . 

OklflLhoma ....... 

Or*5ioii , , . . . 


* Rhode Islnnd , . , 
•^uib Camlitia.. 
South Dfikota.... 


Teiaa , 


V?rmoiil*,*^t ,*. . 

Washifi^too. ,,,, , 
Wmt Vinjinia. .. . 



Turrit oripfl 
■j>d DiftUirta* 
D- of Columbia. . 

Alfii^kA. . ■ , 

HawaJi . , , ^ 

Porto RicH*. I . . '. t . 


103 .MS 





33,04 a 



0,34 1 















1 84 J 35 


















1,340,3 Ui 

2,020,6 1«| 


1, §54, 184 





278,7 IS 











at the bead of navigation to sea level in 
the coast district, an elevated region is 
reached, the Appalachian uplift, which 
borders the great valley on the east, as 
the Rocky Mountain region does on the 
west. Those mountains extend from 
northern New England to central 
Georgia and Alabama, reaching an eleva- 
tion of 6293 feet in Mount Washington, 
N. U., and 6710 in Mount Mitchell, 

N. G. (See Appalachian Mountains.) 
From the eastern base of this mountain 
system to the sea extends a coast plain, 
narrow in Maine, but widening south- 
ward, with the exception of a narrow 
belt at New York, and finally attaining a 
width of 200 miles in North Carolina. 
It is hilly in parts of New England, 
but below New xork presents a distinct 
coast region and a more elevated slope, 
the latter southward becoming a somewhat 
abrupt terrace, rising from a few hun- 
dred to more than a thousand feet and 
known as the 'Piedmont Plateau.' The 
coastal region is seldom more than 100 
feet in height, and has a sandy soil, 
with extensive swamps in many places 
near the coast. The coastal plain ex- 
tends from the Atlantic westward along 
the Gulf border and in its South At- 
lantic portion ectends far southward, 
forming the peninsular State of Florida. 
In this are extensive swamps, which have 
been partly reclaimed. Proceeding west- 
ward from the Mississippi River, the 
land rises in a very irentle slope until it 
reaches the base of the western plateau, 
where elevations of 5000 and 6000 feet 
are attained. This region, known as the 
Great Plains, has a light rainfall and 
is not nearly so well adapted for agricul- 
ture as the lower eastward region, but 
it is covered with nutritive grasses and 
forms extensive regions of pasturage, 
the great grazing section of the country. 
Westward still the foot-hills of the 
mighty Rocky Mountain system appear. 
(For the characteristics of the latter see 
Rocky Mountains.) Westward from this 
region of lofty peaks and arid soil 
stretches to the ocean the Pacific slope, 
broken by mountain ranges which em- 
brace the Sierra Nevada and the Coast 
Range, and including the Great Basin, 
a vast arid plateau, none of the drain- 
age of which reaches the sea. The Great 
Salt Lake is its most extensive body of 
water, the relic of a supposed much more 
extensive lake of past ages, known to 
geologists as Lake Bonneville. From 
these mountains and plateaus the land 
slopes downward to the Pacific coast. 
In the northeast Puget Sound, a deep 
open channel of navigable water, ex- 
tends far into the State of Washington. 
In southeast California is another great 
depression, the Mohave Desert, waterless, 
but sinking in its deepest part to a depth 
of 260 feet below sea-level. 

A splendid system of drainage exists 
over the greater part of the broad surface 
of the republic, especially in its great cen- 
tral agricultural plain, which is crossed by 
the Mississippi tnrough nearly its whole 
width, while its great lateral affluents, the 

Digitized by 


ITnited States United States 

MiMoari and Ohio, with their numerous the rainfall is abundant, but not ex- 
branches, gather up the greater parts cessive, and in the Mississippi valley the 
of the waters of the east and west, and rains are sufficient in quantity and regu- 
farther south the Arkansas, Red, and lar enough in distribution to aid eyery- 
other streams pour their waters into the where in successful agriculture. On 
great central artery of drainage. East- the Pacific slope, on the contrary, the 
ward of the Appalachian extend numer- rains come periodically, there being wet 
ous shorter streams, the Connecticut, and dry seasons, while within the Rocky 
^ud8on. Delaware, Susquehanna, Poto- Mountain system the rainfall is in gen- 
mac, James, Roanoke, Savannah and eral so deficient that irrigation is neces- 
various others. On the Pacific slope the sary to render agriculture remunerative, 
rivers are of lesser size, the mountains or even possible, in many sections. On 
diverting much of the waterflow into the coast of Washington the annual fall 
interior reservoirs, as in the Great is in places as high as 80 inches, while , 
Basin, while the lesser rainfall supplies in the mountain r^ions it is reduced to 
a smaller quantity of water. The Co- 14 inches or even less, and in the Cali- 
lumbia, with the exception of the Yukon, fornia Desert and Death Valley there 
of Alaska, is the largest river of the may be no rain for years at a time, 
continent flowing into the Pacific In the arid and semiarid sections of the 
There are various smaller streams, the west, irrigation, long practiced by the 
most notable being the Colorado, famous people, has been taken in hand by the 
from the gnind canyon through which government, already with the addition of 
it flows. This, however, renders it un- Targe areas of very productive land to 
serviceable to mankind except in its low- the national resources and the promise of 
est section, where it is proving of great millions of acres of fertile farm lands in 
value as a source of irrigation. A the future. 

notable feature of the water system of Flora. — The territory of the United 

the United States is the series of great States, when settlement first began, was 

lakes which extend between the States covered in ereat part with dense forests, 

and eastern Canada, sending their waters a region of flounshine woodland unsur- 

by the channel of the St. Lawrence to passed in extent and value. But the 

the ocean, and forming an interior com- needs of settlers led to the removal of 

mercial waterway nowhere rivaled. vast acres of this woodland for agri- 

Climate, — The great width of the cultural puri>ose8, and the demands for 

United States from north to south and lumber of an increasing population has 

its diversified topography give it a great added immensely to this destructive 

variety of climatic conditions, varying process, until what fovests remain are 

from semi-arctic to semi-tropic in tern- largely confined to the mountains and 

peratures. The icy blasts from the great are insufficient to supply the growing 

northwestern level of the continent find demand. The government has recently 

their wa^ southward over the wide cen- undertaken to conserve what remain 

tral plains with little interruption, to of those forests on the public lands. The 

the Appalachians, which, in a measure, existing forests cover 550,000,000 acres 

save the Atlantic States from their Arctic or about one-fourth the area of the 

influence. Warm southern winds, en- United States. Much the larger part of 

tering from the Gulf region, similarly this woodland belongs to private owners, 

make their way over the valley, bring- but there are very extensive national 

ing summer temperatures, often of forests, and nearly 200,000,000 acres of 

tropic heat This frequent variation of these nave been withdrawn from settle- 

the winds between north and south ment and sale to be kept for the benefit 

makes the climate of the east more of the whole community and utilized for 

variable and with greater extremes of the preservation of the head- waters of 

temperature than that of the west, where streams. A forest service has been or- 

tbe changes of temperature are much ganized for the care of these large 

more regular. . In the North Atlantic national forests and vigorous efforts are 

States the temperature frequently falls being made to prevent the decimating 

below zero, and in Minnesota it descends fires which have proven so destructive 

to as low as — 40**, but the dryness of in the past. The forest region of the 

the air renders such extremes easily country embraces a northern belt of 

bearable, except when accompanied by pines, in which the white pine, one of 

strong winds and * blizzard * snows. In the noblest and most valuable to the 

the Middle Atlantic States the tempera- wood-worker of American trees, occupies 

ture at times rises in summer to 100** or a conspicuous place. It has, however, 

even above, but such extremes are rarely been verv largely removed by wasteful 

of long continuance. In this section and reckless forestry and the less valu- 

Digitized by 


ITnited States United States 

able pines of the South are in a measure sheep, the so-called Rocky Mountain goat 
taking its place. Other northern trees (a goat-like antelope), the wapiti or 
of considerable industrial value are the American stag, the Virginia deer, the pec- 
n>ruce, hemlock, yellow cedar, larch, lin- cary, the cougar or puma, the black 
den, ash, maple, birch and elm. Some- and grizzly bear, the panther, the 
what farther south range the hickories prairie wolf, the raccoon and the beaver, 
and oaks, the chestnut, tulip tree, walnut. Among the birds are swans, wild tur- 
poplar, plane, beech, catalpa, cherry keys, wild geese, wild ducks, eagles, vul- 
and other valuable timber trees, some of tures, mocking and humming birds, etc. 
these extending as far south as the Gulf Among the reptiles are the rattlesnake 
coast. The flora of the southern coast and other snakes, turtles and tortoises, 
regions is especially characterized by sev- alligators, etc. The smaller animals in- 
eral species of pine, the live oak, pal- elude the lynx, weasel, foxes of several 
metto, cypress and other species. The species, muskrat, marten, skunk, otter, 
Appalachian mountains are generally prairie-dog, opossum, rabbit, porcupine, 
covered with thick forests and the lower numerous species of squirrels and gophers, 
Mississippi valley is richly forested, and a large number of destructive ani- 
The prairie region of the northern half mals of the rat and mouse family. Among 
of this valley, ranging from western water animals there is a great varietv of 
Indiana to eastern Dakota, formerlv fishes, many of them, as the cod, shad, 
mainly treeless, now contains much herring, salmon, mackerel, etc., highly es- 
woodland, of recent planting, and the teemed for table use. Chief among shell- 
great plains east of the Rocky moun- fish is the oyster, more abundant on the 
tains, where the woodland was of old Atlantic coast than anywhere else in the 
chiefly confined to the banks of streams, world and unequaled in quality in any 
is becoming in a measure forested. The other country. Of crustaceans, the Ion- 
vast mountain region of the west is ster comes first, of a siiecies quite distinct 
richly covered with woodland, especially from that of Europe. As for domestic 
on the coast ranges, where grows one of animals there are none of American 
the densest and loftiest forests on the origin, all the animals of field and house- 
globe. This Pacific region has a char- hold having been brought from Europe, 
acteristic flora of its own, largeljr com- It is the same with the poultry yard, with 
posed of coniferous woods and yielding the exception of the turkey and some 
the tallest masts and finest spars to be species of swimming birds, 
anywhere obtained. Noblest among Minerals. — The mineral resources of 
these trees in the north is the great the United States are enormous in sup- 
Douglas fir, and in the south the splen- ply and exceedingly varied in kind, be- 
did redwood of the California coast mg in some respects beyond rivalry, 
range and the giant sequoias of the Very much of this wealth is centered in 
Sierra Nevada, the most stupendous the Rocky Mountain region and the 
trees of the earth. The minor flora Pacific coast states, but this does not 
of the country embraces a large variety apply to the highly valuable stores of 
of fruit trees and berries, with plants of coal, petroleum, natural gas and iron, 
economic value for various purposes, which are very largely developed in the 
The pines of the south have a utility Appalachian region and the Middle 
separate from that of timber purposes, West The Appalachian coal fields em- 
yielding large quantities of tar, turpen- brace an area of over 59,000 square 
tine, rosin, and similar products^ known miles, including the small but richly pro- 
collectively as ' naval stores.' In many ductive anthracite region of Penn* 
rural districts the forests supply the sylvania. In addition there are about 
principal fuel used. Peat is locally em- 125,000 square miles in Illinois, Mis- 
ployed as fuel, and in some of the tree- souri and other Mississippi valley States, 
less districts hay, straw, and flax are Petroleum, at first obtained only in 
burned for domestic purposes, ingenious Pennsylvania, has been found abundantly 
inventions having rendered such ma- elsewhere, and extends to Texas and tlM 
terials useful for this purpose. California coast, where it occurs in large 
Fauna. — The fauna of the United quantity. Iron ores abound in many sec- 
States, like its flora, is very varied, in- tions, being very rich in Pennsylvania, 
eluding many species found in foreign West Virginia, Tennessee, Alabama, 
lands, and some which are exclusively Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri and 
American. Among wild animals are the several other States. Copper is nn- 
bison or buffalo, now almost extinct in equaled in quantity, the United States 
a wild state, the moose or American elk. supplying over five-eighths of the world's 
the caribou, or reindeer, the prong-homed product. Its great fields are in Arizona^ 
antelope, the big-horn or Rocky Mountain Montana, Michigan, Utah and Call- 

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TTnited States 

fornia, the ores of Michigan being 90- 
95 per cent, pure metal. Gold and 
silver are widely distributed, the United 
States standing second only to South 
Africa in its production of gold, and to 
Mexico in that of silver. The leading 
States in these metals are California, 
Ck>]orado. Nevada, and the territory of 
Alaska, in gold; and Montana, Ck>lorado, 
Nevada, Utah, Idaho and Arizona in 
silver. Other metals in which this 
country is rich are lead and sine Tin 
ore is abundant but in unworkable con- 
dition, and there are minor yields of 
nickel, platinum, mercury, antimony, etc. 
In the Rocky Mountain region are vast 
deposits of lignitic coal, hitherto little 
used, but now becoming available, and 
of late years exceedingly valuable coal 
deposits have been found in Alaska, not 
yet worked. Copper is also abundant in 
this territory. Aside from the minerals 
mentioned are many others of economic 
value, including salt, borax, limestone, 
marble, sulphur, cement, etc. Geolog- 
ically the United States possesses ex- 
amples of all the formations, and is rich 
alike in fossils of the primary and the 
later periods. It is especially notable 
for its abundance of vertebrate remains 
in the geologic strata ranging from the 
Permian to the Quaternary, including the 
gigantic dinosaurs of the Jurassic and 
Cretaceous epochs, the flying reptiles and 
toothed birds of the Cretaceous, and the 
greatly varied mammals of the Tertiary 
age. Among the latter are several types 
in the life history of the horse, and in 
later time the horse itself. There are 
also giant edentates, allied to the more 
recent ones of South America; and the 
mammoth and mastodon, relatives of the 
elephant, all of which appear to have ex- 
isted in recent geologic times. These are 
the more notable among a multitude of 
fossil forms. 

Agriculture, — It is estimated that the 
arable lands of the United States exceed 
a million and a quarter smiare miles in 
area, of which over 870,000 square miles 
were occupied as farms in 1910, about 
475,000 square miles consisting of im- 

E roved lands. Considerable additions 
ave been made to this area within the 
last decade, irrigation in the west hav- 
ing brought under cultivation large areas 
once deemed hopelessly arid. The basin 
of the Mississippi, the Pacific coast 
lands, and the valley of the Red River 
of the north vie with each other in fer- 
tility, and other highly productive lands 
are those of the Gulf coast, the region 
draining into the Great Lakes, and 
much of that east of the Appalachian 
mountains. Westward, however, is a 

very extensive section in great i^art unfit 
for cultivation except under irrigation 
on account of deficient rainfall. This 
comprises most •f the region between the 
eastern foot-hills of the Rocky Mountain 
system westward to the Sierra Nevada 
and Cascade ranges, an immense area 
embracing about one-third of the whole 
country. It includes the States of Ari- 
zona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, 
Wyoming, Montana, most of Colorado, 
and southern California, a larse part of 
Oregon, Idaho and Texas, and parts of 
the Dakotas, Nebraska and Kansas. A 
large part of this jgreat region is grass- 
covered and yields food to immense herds 
of cattle and sheep. Much of it also may 
yet be rendered fertile bv irrigation, but 
there is a great extent of absolute desert 
to which irrigation cannot be applied. 

Of American crops the two distinctive 
ones are cotton ana Indian com, of each 
of which the United States produces 
much more than all the rest of the 
world combined. Most of the cotton 
goods of the world are woven from 
American cotton. The com, however, is 
very largely consumed at home, especially 
for the feeding of live stock, the hog- 
harvest being largely dependent upon it. 
Wheat is another product of great im- 
portance, the crop of the United States 
having long been the largest in the 
world. Russia in Europe is now a dose 
rival, but all other countries are far sur- 

gassed. There are also large crops of 
ay and oats, the five named being the 
leading crops of the country. Other 
products of great importance are i>ota- 
toes,N tobacco, sugar, and rice. In 1910 
the com crop reached the vast total of 
over 3,000,000,000 bushels, the wheat 
crop nearly 700.000,000 bushels, the oat 
crop 1,100,000,000 bushels, the cotton 
supply (1911) 12,132,332 bales, the total 
value of all farm crops increased from 
$5,000,000,000 in 1900 to about $9,000,- 
000,000 in 1911. Other cereals grown 
are rye, barley, and buckwheat, and com- 
mon farm products include sweet potatoes, 
flax, hops and peanuts, each largely 
grown. No other part of the world is 
so rich in fruits, alike in quantity and 
variety. Very important among these are 
the apple, peach and pear. Plums, apri- 
cots, cherries and grapes are produced 
abundantly, and a considerable variety of 
berries and nuts are grown. The grape 
is an important crop in many parts of 
the east, and especially so in California, 
and much wine is made. To the tem- 
perate products must be added those of 
the semitropics, the orange, lemon, olive, 
fig and almond, abundant in California, 
and the orange and pineapple of Florida. 

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United States 

Live-Mtock. — The abundant com and 
bay crops of the United States and the 
very extensive grazing grounds of the 
region of prairies and plains give a great 
opportunity for the raising of live-stock. 
The leading cattle-breeding State is 
Texao; sheep-raising is most extensive on 
the elevated plains east of the Rocky 
Mountains and on the Pacific slope; 
horses and mules are bred in great num- 
bers in Missouri, Kentucky and Tennes- 
see, while hogs are raised in all the corn- 
growing States of the Central and South- 
ern section. Slaughtering and beef and 
pork-packing are carried on very exten- 
sively in Chicago, and various other cities 
of the Middle West. The dairying in- 
dustry of the country is very large and 
immense quantities of butter and several 
varieties of cheese are made. 

Manufactures, — The United States has 
become the foremost manufacturing 
country in the world, its supplies of coal 
and iron exceeding those of any other 
quarter of the globe, while the industry, 
inventive genius and enterprise of the 
peoi>le and the rapid development of fa- 
cilities for transportation helped to ad- 
vance the material interests of the coun- 
try throughout the nineteenth century, 
and have ^iven unquestioned industrial 
supremacy m the twentieth. Among the 
greatly varied manufacturing industries 
that of textiles stands high, the cotton and 
woolen manufacture being very flourish- 
ing, while in silk manufacture this coun- 
try is becoming a rival of France. Knit 
goods are largely produced, while the pro- 
' auction of ready-made clothing is a very 
active industry. Iron and steel produc- 
tion has reached a very high level, sur- 
passing that of any other country, while 
the manufacture of iron and steel wares 
is most varied and abundant. Chief 
among these industries are the production 
of building steel, iron bridges, railroad 
iron and steel, locomotives, armor for 
steel-clad battleships, fire-arms, steel cars 
and machine-shop products in general. 
Other great fields of manufacture are 
those of electrical appliances, automobiles, 
agricultural implements, tin-plate, leather, 
boots and shoes, paper (the pulp for 
which consumes whole forests), pottery, 
furniture, flour, beet-sugar, beer, lumber- 
products and many others. As for the 
smaller industries, they are innumerable. 
The value of manufactured goods has 

frown from $5,300,000,000 in 1880 to 
20.600,000,000 in 1910. 
Commerce and Transportation. — The 
commerce of the United States has vied 
with its manufactures in development. 
Transportation has been provided with 
extraordinary rapidity. For internal 

commerce the navigable inland waters of 
the country have been of immense value, 
in view of the fact that steam transpor- 
tation was established upon them early 
in the history of the republic. Canals 
were early provided to add to the facili- 
ties in this direction, chief among these 
being the Erie Canal, from Buffalo to 
Albany, which for the greater part of 
a century has been a valuable carrier of 
freight But railroad development has 
largely replaced that by water in the in- 
land commerce of the country. This 
began in 1830 with 23 miles of track. 
In 1900, seventy years later, it had 
erown to 194,334 miles. In 1912 it 
had reached nearly 250,000 miles, far 
surpassing in length that of any other 
country, and equaling that of all Europe. 
The foreign trade of the country has 
grown to great proportions, though it is 
much surpassed by the internal commerce. 
In the last century the great bulk of it 
consisted of agricultural products and 
meats, cotton being a leading article of 
export. Of recent years, however, this 
country has ceased to feed and clothe 
Europe to the extent of the past, the 
home demand having grown so greatly, 
especially for food stuffs, as to consume 
the great bulk of them, while several 
other countries are competing largely in 
wheat, and to a small extent in cotton. 
On the other hand the export of manu- 
factured goods has grown until now 
these form a very considerable part of 
the goods sent abroad. At the beginning 
of the twentieth century the commerce 
of the United States was valued at about 
$2,500,000,000. In 1911 it reached a 
total of about $3,500,000,000. Of this 
much the greater part were exports, the 
balance of trade in its favor being in 
1900 about $500,000,000. It has de- 
creased somewhat since then, but is still 
a notable amount. About two-thirds of 
the exports go to Europe, half this 
amount going to the British Isles. The 
bulk of the British purchases consists of 
cotton and food-stuffs. The exports of 
manufactured goods embrace iron and 
steel wares, leather, tobacco, oils, agri- 
cultural implements, copper manufac- 
tures, cotton goods, leather, wood prod- 
ucts, etc. The imports include chemicals, 
cotton goods, fibers, fruits, furs, hides 
and skins, wool, tin-plate, india rubber, 
jewelry, silk goods, coffee, sugar, tea, 
tropical fruits and various other wares. 

Government, — The government of the 
United States is a federal republic based 
on the constitution of 1787, drawn up 
by delegates from the thirteen original 
States, and subsequently amended. The. 
constitution and modes of adminlitl^tion. 

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United States 

of the individual States bear a close re- 
semblance to each other and to the na* 
tional government Bach State main- 
tains its independence, and by means of 
a State legislature and executive (vested 
in a governor) has complete manage- 
ment of its own affairs. The combined 
States have one supreme legislature, 
which takes the name of Congress, and 
consists of a Senate and a House of 
Representatives. The Senate consists 
of two members from each State elected 
bj its citizens for six years, one-third 
of the whole body being renewable 
biennially. The House of Representa- 
tives consists of members chosen for two 
vears bv the people of the several States, 
in numbers proportioned to their popula- 
tion as ascertained by the decennial 
census. The head of the executive power 
of the government is a President, elected 
by the people and holding his office for 
a term of four years, witn a Vice-Presi- 
dent elected at the same time and for 
the same term. Only persons bom in the 
United States and who have reached the 
age of 85 years are eligible to the presi- 
dency. The President is commander-in- 
chief of the army and navy and of the 
mUitia in the service of the Union. He 
has the power of a veto on all laws passed 
by Congress: but, notwithstanding his 
veto, any bill may become a law on its 
being afterwards passed by each House of 
Congress by a two-thirds vote. The Vice- 
President is em ofHoio President of the 
Senate. The presidential succession is 
fixed by Chapter 4 of the acts of the 
49th Congress, 1st session. In case of 
the removal, death, resignation, or in- 
ability of both the President and Vice- 
President, then the Secretary of State 
shall act as President till the disability 
of the President or Vice-President is re- 
moved or a President is elected. If there 
be no Secretary of State, then the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury will act; and the 
remainder of the order of succession is; 
Secretary of War, Attorney-General, 
Postmaster-Oeneral, Secretary of the 
Navy, Secretary of the Interior (the of- 
fices of Secretary of Agriculture, Secre- 
tary of Commerce, and Secretary of 
Labor, were created after the passage of 
the act). By the 15th amendment to the 
Constitution neither race nor color af- 
fects the rights of citizens, though un- 
taxed Indians and Chinese are excluded 
from the frsnrhise. The same is the case 
With women except in ten states in which 
they have full franchise and a number 
of others in which they have a partial 
franchise. There is a third section of 
the government, the judicial, consisting 
of a Supreme Court, which deals with 

interstate subjects of controversy and 
has the power of invalidating the enact' 
ments of Congress, if it decides that they 
are not in conformity with the Constitu- 
tion. (See succeeding article on United 
Staiee^ PoUiioal Development of the,) 
The governments of the States are based 
on a similar principle, each having its 
Supreme Court, the decisions of which 
are final on a constitutional question. 
The Constitution can be amended only by 
a vote in favor of the proposed amend- 
ment of two-thirds of each House, and 
subsequently by the acceptance of three- 
fourths of the States; or by the calling 
of a constitutional convention on the de- 
mand of two-thirds of the States, with 
ratifying conventions in three-fourths of 
the States. While each State is guar- 
anteed a republican form of government, 
and in general their governments are 
based on the same principle as that of 
the national government, the territories, 
organized and unorganized, are under the 
direct control of Congress, the organized 
ones being represented in Congress by 
a delegate, who has no vote, and having 
legislatures elected by their people. 

Finances, — The public debt of the 
United States reached its ultimate height 
in 1866, as a result of the expenditure 
for the Civil war, its amount on July 1 
of that year being $2,773,236,173. 
Thirty years before the country had been 
out of debt and with an excess of funds 
which it divided among the several 
States. After the war the reduction of 
this debt proceeded with marked rapidity, 
until by 1912 the interest-bearing debt 
had decreased to $963349390, and the 
debt bearing no interest to $383,499,246, 
making a total of $1346,848,636, in- 
cluding $1351,810 on which interest had 
ceased. Against this there was in the 
treasury a reserve fund and cash balance 
amounting to $300,400,000. During this 

Eeriod the expenses of the government 
ad steadily increased until what was 
called a billion dollar Congress was 
reached in McKinley's first term, while 
in 1912 the appropriation for a single ses- 
sion of Congress was over $660,000,000. 
Artnff. — The United States army is 
based on the principle of that of Great 
Britain, being recruited by voluntary 
enlistment only, not by conscription and 
forced military service of all able-bodied 
men, as is generally the case in the na- 
tions of Europe. The island condition of 
Great Britain and the strength of her 
navy has removed the necessity of general 
military duty, while the oceans which 
divide the United States from all other 
powerful nations have rendered a nower- 
f ul army in this country in times of peace 

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United States United States 

unnecessary, a strong navy being de- National Guard, are subject to duty nn- 
pended upon for protection. As a result der demand of the government if any 
the army has been generally restricted to national emergency should arise. The 
the numbers requisite for military police militia law of 1903, amended in 1908, 
duty, the keeping a great multitude of provided that 'The militia shall consist 
men under arms in times of ];>eace in of every able-bodied male citizen of the 
readiness for possible war being not respective States who is more than 18 
considered requisite. This policy has al- and less than 45 years of age.' These 
ways prevailed, no more men being kept are to be divided into the organized 
in the ranks than are deemed necessary to militia and a reserve militia, subject to 
maintain internal order, the government duty should necessity demand. The total 
relying upon the enlistment of volunteers number of this unorg^ized reserved mill- 
in times of emesgency. In 1790 the tia wad stated in 1015 at 20,538,347. 
national army consisted of only 12(30 Navy. — The United States has the 
men, under the command of the Presi- credit of first demonstrating the advan- 
dent. In 1861 its numbers had grown tage of an ironclad navy, this being done 
to 14,000. During the Civil war 2,039,- in the Civil war by both sides engaged. 
748 men were called into the ranks Britain and France had already built 
chiefly by voluntary enlistment, in some ironclads, but the first battle between 
measure by conscription, or by bounties ships thus protected w^as the memorable 
of from ^00 to $1000 to each volunteer, conflict in Hampton Roads, in 1862, be- 
After the war the army was disbanded tween the Monitor and Merrimac The 
with the exception of the number re- wooden ships of the older navy, previously 
quired for peace service, and by an act attacked by the Merrimac, proved hope- 
of Congress of July 15. 1870, tnis num- lessly feeble before this powerful antag- 
ber was limited to 30,000 men. This onist and were put out of service with 
number was subsequently increased dur- startling suddenness, and only her encoun- 
in^ the century to about 60,000. The ter with the Monitor checked the Merri- 
brief war with Spain, in 1898, demanded mao In her career of destruction. The 
a sudden enhancement of the army, which lesson thus taught was quickly taken 
was readily accomplished by a call for advantage of in Europe, where a rivalry 
volunteers. But the lack of careful in building iron- and steelclad war-vessels 
supervision of this large body of raw begun which has continued without in« 
soldiers was seriously felt, bad manage- terruption to the present day. But the 
ment resulting in the death of large United States was very slow in putting 
numbers of them by disease. After the into practice the lesson it had taught, 
olsbandment of this volunteer force the Resting secure in its thousands of miles 
limit of strength of the regular army of ocean boundary, it let twenty yeais 
was fixed by Secretary of War Root and pass before It awakened to the advisabil- 
General Miles at 77,284 men, in accord- ity of preparing for possible naval war. 
ance with General Miles's proposition of Id 1882 there were 140 vessels on the 
one soldier for every thousand inhabitants, navy list, but of these 25 were mere tugs. 
The length of service was fixed at five while a laige number of the others were 
years. The need of a more scientific antiquated and useless. Shortly after 
management of the military establish- this the government aroused to the need 
ment was seriously felt, and by a bill of possessing a modern naval establish- 
of February 14, 1903, the oflice of Lieu- ment, and began the construction of the 
tenant-General commanding was dropped powerful navy it has since possessed. Its 
and a staff corps of eminent ofllcers, ap- long negligence left to the European na- 
pointed by the President, was adopted, tions the task of experimenting in the new 
In accordance with the policy pursued system of war-vessel construction, and 
in European army organizations. Under gave It the important advantage of par- 
laws passed in 1901, 1907 and 1908 the ticipating without cost in lessons learned 
army now comprises 30 regiments of by a long-continued practical study of the 
infantry, 15 of cavalry, 6 of field artil- new system in Europe. At the period 
lery, and a coast artillery corps, with of the Spanish-American war a navy of 
a Porto Rico regiment of infantry, and fair strength for that date existed, one 
a considerable force In the Philippines, that with remarkable quickness put the 
52 companies of which are native scouts, weaker Spanish navy out of commission. 
The total strength of the army is about Since then many war-vessels fitted to 
87,000, and it is provided by law that compete on equal terms with the strongest 
it shall not exceed 100,000 men. In ad- of tnose possessed by other nations have 
dition to these are the organized State been built, and in 1912 the United States 
militia, a drilled and equipped force of bad, built and building, 28 battleships of 
over 120,000 men. These, Imown as the recent type with 9 of older type, 12 first- 

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ITnited States ITnited States 

clau armored cruisers, and a considerable British dispossessed the Dutch on Man- 
number of second and third-class cruisers, hattan Island, and named the settlement 
monitors, gunboats, torpedo boats, destroy- New York. The first effort at a union 
ers and submarines. In this respect it of the colonies was in 1643, when the 
ranks high among other nations, Great settlements in Massachusetts, Connecti- 
Britain considerably and Germany slightly cut and New Hampshire formed a con- 
surpassing it in number and strength of federacy for mutual protection called 
war ships. The United States nas a sat- * The United Ck>lonie8 of New England.' 
isfactory number of the powerful Dread- The growth of the colonies was at- 
nought and super-Dreadnought class. Of tended by occasional warlike relations, 
these the Arkansas and Wyoming, with not only with the Indians, but between 
their ^.000 tons displacement and arma- the Europeans of different nations. There 
ment of twelve 12-inch guns ; the New was war on several occasions between the 
York and Tewas, 27,000 tons, and the Enelish of South Carolina and Georgia 
Nevada and Oklahoma, 27,500 tons, each and the Spanish of Florida, and three 
with ten 14-inch guns, are much sur- successive wars broke out between the 
passed by the 31,400>enii«y{vanta and Art- British of the North and the French 
tona and the 32,000 CaUfomia, Idaho and of Canada, in 1689, 1702 and 1744. 
Mississippi with twelve 14-in. guns each. These were hostilities between the colo- 
History. — The territory now occupied nists arising from wars in Europe, but 
by the United States of America, though in 1754 a more important war begun 
it appears to have been visited on its due to rivalir between the colonists 
2f. K. coast by Norse navigators about the themselves, and which in turn gave rise 
year 1000, continued the sole posses- to an European war. This, known as 
sion of numerous tribes of Indians till the French and Indian war, continued 
the rediscovery of America by Colum- until 1763, its origin being an effort of 
bos in 1492. In 1498 an English ex- the French to take possession of the 
pedition, under the command of Sebas- Ohio Valley and the determination of 
tian Cabot, explored the east coast of the British colonists to prevent this. 
America, from Labrador to Virginia, Its seven years' continuance was attended 
perhaps to Florida. In 1513 Juan Ponce by varying fortunes of war, the French 
de Leon landed in the Florida peninsula, at first generally successful, the British 
and explored a portion of that region in finally everywhere victorious, Quebec, the 
a romantic search for the Fountain of capital and military stronghold of Can- 
Touth. In 1539-1542 Ferdinand de Soto ada, being finally taken. The result 
led a Spanish expedition from the coast was disastrous to France, which was 
of Florida across Alabama, and dis- obliged to surrender its possessions in 
covered the Mississippi river. In 1584- Canada to Great Britain. Its territory 
1585 Sir Walter Raleigh sent two ex- west of the Mississippi was transferred 
peditions to the coast of North Carolina to Spain. The close of this war was 
and vainly attempted to form settlements soon followed by discontent on the part 
on Roanoke Island. A Spanish settle- of the colonists with their treatment by 
ment was made at St. Augustine, Florida, the British government In 1761 the 
In 1565. The first successful English enforcement against smugglers of the op- 
settlement was that planted at James- pressive Navigation laws, by the use of 
town. Virginia, in 1607. In 1609 the general search warrants which gave the 
Dutch explored the Hudson River, and customs officials the right to enter and 
some years later began a settlement on search any domicile, caused a strong 
Manhattan Island, New York harbor, excitement against the English govem- 
Plymouth, Massachusetts, was settled by ment, especially in Boston. Parliament 
the Pilgrims, members of a persecuted also resolved to increase the revenue by 
religious sect, in 1620, and Massachu- a general stamp-duty through all the 
setts Bay by the Puritans, another sect, American colonies. Accordingly, the 
in 1628 and 1630. Later settlements Stamp Act of 1766 was passed ; but this, 
were those of Connecticut, in 1633; after opposition, was repealed next year, 
Manrland, in 1634; Rhode Island, in Britain still claiming, however, its right 
1635; Carolhia in 1663 and 1670; to tax. In accordance with this claim 
Pennsylvania in 1682, and Georgia in a duty, In 1767, was imposed upon tea, 
1733. Meanwhile the French from paper, glass, etc.; but the colonial op- 
Canada, under La Salle and others, had position was such that three years later 
explored the Great Lakes and the Missis- the duties were all repealed except the 
sippi, and settlements bad been made one upon tea. To such a pass had the 
at points in Illinois and along the Missis- opposition now come that in 1773, when 
sippi, while Mobile was founded in 1702 British ships loaded with tea attempted 
•ad New Orleans in 1718. In 1664 the to effect a landing in the port of Boston, 

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United States 

a number of the inhabitants, disguised 
as Indians, seized them and threw their 
cargoes into the sea. In punishment of 
this, parliament passed the Boston Port 
Bill, wh^h declared that port closed to 
all comioerce, and transferred the seat 
of colonial government to Salem. This 
caused loucn suffering in Boston and 
from thi& time It became to many evident 
that a conflict was inevitable. This be- 
gan in April, 1775, when a British force, 
sent from Boston to destroy the mili- 
tary stores at Concord, fired upon the 
colonists at Lexington, and was subse- 
quently attacked and forced to retreat. 
Before the end of April the British gov- 
ernor and army were besieced in Boston 
by a revolutionary force of 20,000 men ; 
the northern fortresses of Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point were seized ; and a Con- 
tinental Congress which assembled at 
Philadelphia took measures to equip an 
army and navy, with George Washington, 
who had won fame in the French and 
Indian war, as commander-in-chief. On 
June 17 the British attacked the in- 
trenched position of the colonists on 
Bunker Hill, which commanded Boston 
harbor, and captured it with great loss 
to their troops. In the following year 
thev were forced to evacuate the city 
and retreat to Halifax. This success 
encouraged the colonists in their resist- 
ance, and it was declared by the thir- 
teen States assembled in Congress that 
*The United Colonies are, and ought 
to be, free and independent States; that 
their political connection with Great 
Britain is, and ought to be, dissolved.' 
This resolution was embodied in a 
declaration of independence, drawn up 
bv Jefferson and adopted July 4, 1776w 
The British government now sent an 
army asainst the colonists under the 
command of Sir William Howe^ and in 
a battle on Long Island (August, 1776) 
Washington was defeated and obliged to 
abandon New York. He retreated 
through New Jersey and crossed the 
Delaware, but later in the year won a 
victory at Trenton, New Jersev, which 
enabled him to establish himself in that 
State and threaten New York. In 1777 
the British invaded Pennsylvania by way 
of Chesapeake Bay, defeated Washing- 
ton on the Brandywine and captured 
Philadelphia. Fortune^ however, favored 
the Americans in the north, where Gen- 
eral Gates at Stillwater defeated General 
Burgoyne, his whole armv being forced 
to surrender. This event led to a treaty 
with France in 1778, and subsequently 
Spain and Holland gave support to the 
Americans. The British army now left 
Philadelphia and the conflict was trans- 

ferred to the South. Here it was prose- 
cuted with varying fortunes, but in 1781 
the surrender of Lord Cornwallis with his 
army at Yorktown to a combined French 
and American force under Rochambeau 
and Washington, virtoallv terminated the 
war. On September 3, 1783, Great 
Britain formallv recognized the independ- 
ence of the United States by a treaty of 
peace signed at Paris. The new-formed 
States, however, were very imperfectly 
united, and in 1787 a convention met at 
Philadelphia and after four months' de- 
liberation framed a Constitution. This 
Constitution, which remains the basis of 
the government, came into operation in 
March, 1789, and on April 30 Washing- 
ton became the first president. The Con- 
gress appointed by the thirteen States 
then proceeded to impose duties, estab- 
lish a federal judiciary, organize the 
executive administration, fund the debt 
of the United States, and establish a 
national bank. In 1792 Washington 
was unanimously reelected president, but 
in 1796 he refused to be elected for a 
third term. During his administration 
the States of Vermont, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee were admitted into the Union. 
John Adams was elected second presi- 
dent, and it was while he held office 
that the hostile demeanor of France led to 
a brief naval war in which all the success 
lay with the United SUtes. In 1800 
the seat of government was transferred 
from Philadelphia, which had been the 
capital, to Washington, and in 1803, nn- 
der President Jefferson the territory of 
the new Union was immensely add^ to 
by the purchase from France of Lonisi- 
ana^ the great region between the Mis- 
sissippi and the Rocky Mountains. A 
new source of hostility to Great Britain 
soon arose from her claim to the alle- 
giance of American naturalized subjects 
and the right to search American vessels 
for British seamen. In 1807 the Brit- 
ish frigate Leopard overhauled the United 
States frigate Chesapeake, near the en- 
trance to Chesapeake Bay, compelled her 
to surrender, and took off four of her men. 
Reparation was asked in vain ; some time 
later all trade with France and England 
was prohibited by Act of Congress, and in 
June, 1812, war was declared against 
Great Britain. This lasted until the end 
of 1814, the armies having varying suc- 
cess upon land, but the Americans win- 
ning a brilliant series of naval victories. 
The final event in the war was Jackson's 
victory over the British at New Orleans, 
fought after the treaty of peace had 
been signed. After this the chief his- 
torical events were the wars against tha 
southern Indian tribes and l£t acqoisi' 

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tion of Florida from the Spanish in 1819 ; 
the annexation of Texas, which led to a 
war with Mexico isx 1S4G; and the 
acquisition of a large territory in north- 
ern Mexico, consisting of New Mexico 
and Upper California, which were ceded 
to the United States on payment of the 
sum of $15,000,000 to Mexico. The 
great question during this and the suc- 
ceeding period was that of slavery in 
the South, against which a strong party 
arose in the North. Texas had been in- 
troduced into the Union as a slave- 
holding state, and the endeavor to act 
similarly with regard to the territory of 
Kansas led to local conflicts. The ques- 
tion was still further complicated by an 
antislavery insurrection (1859) at Har- 
per's Ferry, led by John Brown, which 
nelped to bring the question of the aboli- 
tion of slavery to a crisis. The presiden- 
tial election of 1860 turned to a great ex- 
tent upon this question, and when Abra- 
ham Lincoln, the Republican candidate, 
was elected, the slave-holding States of 
South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Ala- 
bama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas 
formally seceded from the Union. These 
States formed themselves into a separate 
union on February 4, 1801, which they 
named * The Confederate States of Amer- 
ica,' with Jefferson Davis as president. 
They were subsequently joined, after 
hostilities had begun, by Virginia, North 
Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas. The 
custom-houses, arsenals, and United 
States buildings in these States were 
seized and occupied by the Confederates, 
and every preparation made to organize 
a separate government. War was in- 
evitable, and the first blow was struck 
on April 12, 1861, the Confederates 

Sroceeding to bombard Fort Sumter, in 
harleston harbor, which wai forced to 
surrender. President Lincoln then called 
out by proclamation 75,000 volunteers, 
and the first battle on a large scale took 
place at Bull Run, south of Washington, 
on July 21, the Federal forces being de- 
feated. During the remainder of 1801 
^frequent collisions took place between the 
rival forces at different points. In the 
spring of 1802 General Grant captured 
Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland 
River and obtained a victory over the 
Confederates at Shilob, or Pittsburgh 
Landing, in Tennessee. In April the 
Federal fleet, under Porter, ran past the 
forts at the entrance of the Mississippi, 
and aided in the capture of Vicksburg and 
Arkanaaa Post. An attempt was then 
made, by General McCSellan to invest 
Ridimond, the capital of the Confed- 
eracy, but this was prevented by the Con- 
federate generals Lee and 'Stonewall' 

Jackson, who drove the Federals back to 
the James River, where they established 
themselves. General Lee then assumed 
the offensive and moved with his whole 
army upon Washington, defeating General 
Pope with great loss at Bull Bon and 
invading Maryland. Here he was met 
on the banks of the Antietam by Mc- 
Clellan, and, after an obstinate fight, 
compelled to recross the Potomac. Soon 
afterwards MoClellan was superseded 
by Bumside, and in December another 
advance to Richmond was commenced. 
This General Lee had anticipated, and 
intrenched himself behind the town of 
Fredericksburg, a position from which 
the Federals endeavored in vain and 
with severe loss to dislodge him. In 
the following April General Hooker, 
superseding Bumside in the command ox 
the army of the Potomac, commenced 
another movement towards Richmond, 
but was defeated bv General Lee at 
Chancellorsville. Following np this gain 
Lee transferred his army to the valley 
of the Shenandoah, entered Maryland, 
and crossed into Pennsylvania. At Get- 
tysburg he unexpectedlv encountered the 
Federal forces under Meade, and after 
three days of desperate fighting and 
the loss of 28,000 men was defeated 
and was forced to retreat into Virginia. 
On the Mississippi the fortune of war 
was also in favor of the Federals. Aided 
by the fleet, which dashed past Port 
Hudson and seized Natchez, General 
Grant assumed the offensive and cap- 
tured Vicksburg with its large garrison, 
while at the end of this year (1863) he 
inflicted severe defeat upon Bragg at 
Chattanooga. In 1864 General Grant, as 
the result of his successes, was appointed 
commander-in-chief of all the armies, 
and at once he set himself to reorganize 
the Federal forces. He took command 
of the army of the Potomac himself, with 
which he proposed to meet Lee, while he 
despatched Sherman to operate against 
the Confederate forces In Georgia. In 
May Grant moved his main force across 
the Rapidan and immediately attacked 
Lee in The Wilderness, where severe fight 


ing lasted for six consecutive days, 
able to route the Confederates, Grant 
endeavored by a flank movement to cut 
them off from Richmond, but Lee antici- 

gated the attempt and foiled it. Severe 
attles followed and finally Grant crossed 
the James River and attacked Petersburg, 
but was repelled, and obliged to begin 
a regular siege. Meanwhile Shermau, 
with a large Federal force, defeated 
Hood (who nad superseded Johnston as 
commander in Georgia), and occupiec* 

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Atlanta. From this point he crossed the 
country by forced marches, seized Savan- 
nah, and by February, 1865, occupied 
Charleston and marched into North Caro- 
lina. During this brilliant movement the 
forces under Lee and Grant had faced 
each other in the lines round Richmond, 
but in April, 1865, a general advance was 
made by the Federals. Lee defended 
Petersburg and Richmond with great 
skill and obstinacy, but after three days' 
sanguinary conflict the Confederate lines 
were broken, and Richmond lay at the 
mercy of the Northern armies. Lee re- 
treated to Appomattox Court House, but 
was so closely followed by Grant that he 
was obliged to surrender with his whole 
army. The remaining Confederate arm- 
ies in the field soon afterwards sur- 
rendered, and the four years' war ended 
in favor of the Federal government. In 
the course of the war the abolition of 
slaverv had been proclaimed by President 
Lincoln, and he had just entered (April, 
1865) upon his second term of the presi- 
dency when he was assassinated in 
Ford's theater at Washington by John 
Wilkes Booth. 

As the seceded States returned to 
their allegiance to the Union they 
were readmitted to their state and na- 
tional privileges, being obliged to agree 
to a number of amendments to the Con- 
stitution, two of which gave the manu- 
mitted slaves the rights of citizenship, 
including that of the suffrage. The elec- 
tion of General Grant to the presidency 
in 1868 served, in some measure, to con- 
solidate matters. The government de- 
clared its ability to pay the enormous 
war debt, and an attempt was made to 
reform the civil service. The question 
of equal rights, without regard to color 
or previous condition of servitude, gave 
rise in 1874 to hostile conditions in 
the Southern States between the negro 
and the u;hite population. The difficult 
suppression of the hostile Indians in the 
northwestern states formed one of the 
tasks of the Grant administration. His 
administration was also able by means 
of arbitration to bring the claim of 
damages against Great Britain for the 
depredations of the Alabama and other 
cruisers built there, to a favorable issue 
for the United States. In 1876 a Cen- 
tennial Exposition was held in Phila- 
delphia, in celebration of the one hun- 
drcMlth year of American independence. 
The exhibitors, from all parts of the 
world, numbered 30,865, and the exposi- 
tion was the most brilliant which had 
been held iip to that time. After a 
presidency of two terms General Grant 
was succeeded by Rutherfocd B. Hayef^ 

whose election was strongly contested 
but was granted by an electoral commis- 
sion formed by compromise between the 
parties. At the next election (1880) the 
Republicans elected General Garfield. 
Soon after (July 2, 1881 ) he was shot by 
Charles J. Guiteau, and died Sept. 19, 
1881, Chester A. Arthur, the vice-presi- 
dent, becoming president. In 1885 Grover 
Cleveland, the first Democrat holding the 
office since 1861, succeeded as president 
The Anti-polygamy bill, virtually disfran- 
chising Mormons, became a law in 1886; 
also the Interstate Commerce bill, estab- 
lishing a commission to secure uniformity 
of railroad rates, nationalize through- 
route traffic, and break up harmful trade 
combinations. In 1888 North Dakota, 
South Dakota, Montana and Washington 
territories were admitted as States. A 
bill passed in 1879 prohibiting the immi- 
l^ration of Chinese as laborers, amended 
in 1882 making the restriction to last for 
20 years, was further amended in 1888 
by taking away from the Chinese now 
or heretofore in the country the privilege 
of return unless they had previously pro- 
cured certificates. President Cleveland 
retired to private life after a cautious 
and prudent administration, signalized 
by patient attention to details and strong 
assertion of official prerogative. In 1889 
Benjamin Harrison, elected by the 
Republicans, became president, the is- 
sue of the campaign being Free-trade 
V8. Protection. One result was the 
enactment of a strongly protective tariff 
bill. Acts to admit Wyomiuff and Idaho 
as States were passed in 1800. On June 
19, 1890, the report of the International 
American Conference was presented, 
forming the basis of the policy of reci- 
procity by which treaties were entered 
into with Germany, France, Spain, 
Brazil and the countries of Central and 
South America. By the end of 1892 
these treaties began to bring about an 
anticipated increase of trade. The Beh- 
ring Sea question, long a diplomatic 
stumbling-block between the United 
States and Great Britain, was, after 
skillful diplomacy, referred to a board of 
arbitration. In 1892 Cleveland was re- 
elected to the Presidency, and during his 
administration a new tariff bill was 
passed, under Democratic auspices, re- 
ducing the rates but not sufficiently to 
satisfy the President, who, however, per- 
mitted it to become a law without his 
signature. An interesting event of his 
administration was a grand exposition of 
industry held at Chicago in 1893, in honor 
of the discovery of America by (iolumbus. 
four ce&tnries before. Another event of 
loterett, aa suataiJUQg tb« * MoAroe Voo 

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trine,' was the intervention of the Presi- 
dent in a controversy between Great 
Britain and Venesuela in regard to 
boundary questions. Cleveland went so 
far as to threaten forcible intervention 
if Yenesaela was despoiled of any of its 
rightful territory, and demanded a set- 
tlement by arbitration. This was finally 
granted and an amiable settlement 
reached. In 1896 William McKinley, the 
Republican candidate, was elected to the 
prMidency. Important events marked his 
administration. An insurrection against 
Spain liad broken out in Cuba, and the 
war there was attended by acts of bar- 
barity against which the people of the 
United States vigorously protested. The 
battleship Maine^ sent to Havana harbor, 
was sunk by an explosion^ nearly all on 
board perishing. This untoward event led 
to a declaration of war and a brief period 
of hostilities succeeded, in which the 
United States was uniformly successful. 
Santiago, Cuba, was taken, after the 
destruction of the fleet guarding it, and 
a similar capture and destruction of a 
Spanish fleet took place at Manila, capi- 
tal of the Philippine Islands. The re- 
sult was the freeing of Cuba from Span- 
ish rule, and the cession to the United 
States of Porto Rico, the Philippine Is- 
lands, and the small Pacific island of 
Guam. Another event of interest was 
the annexation to the United States of 
the Hawaiian Islands, in the mid-Pacific 
In 1900 the United States took part in 
the occupation of Peking, China, as a 
result of the ' Boxer ' outbreak against 
the national embassies to that countrv. 
The gratitude of China was subsequently 
won l>y the government of this country, 
which remitted its share of the large 
indemnity which the offended nations had 

In 1900 President McKinley was re- 
elected to the presidency, Theodore 
Roosevelt being elected vice-president. 
In September, 1901, the President was 
shot by an anarchist while visiting an 
exposition at Buffalo, New York, and 
died of the wound, Vice-President Roose- 
velt succeeding to the presidency. Im- 
portant events of his administration were 
the full establishment of the republic of 
Cuba, the purchase by the United States 
of the partly completed Panama Canal 
and the taking of active steps towards 
its completion, the settlement oy arbitra- 
tion of the disputed boundary between 
Alaskla and Canada, and the holding of a 
magnificent World's Fair at St. L.ouis, 
in recognition of the centennial anniver- 
sary of the purchase of the great 
Louisiana territory. There was also im- 
por^nt Itgislation, at the instance of 

tiie President, tending to control the 
operations of railroads and ot^er corpor- 
ationi. In 1904 Roosevelt was elected 
to the presidency, and during this term 
instituted a number of reform movements, 
bills being passed to regulate freight 
charges on railroads, to prevent the evil 
of rebates in freight charges, to check 
unclean methods of meat packing and 
adulteration of food-stuffs, and to in- 
vestigate the great business corporations, 
several of which proved to be nests of 
fraud and corruption. Among the gen- 
eral events was a Peace Conference held 
at Portsmouth, N. H., at the instance 
of President Roosevelt, which broucht 
to an end the terrible war of 1904-1905 
between Russia and Japan. In 1906 
San Francisco was in great part destroyed 
by a severe earth9uake and subsequent 
conflagration, causing a loss that elici- 
tated large sympathetic contributions 
from all parts of the countrv. Oklahoma 
Territory and the Indian Territory were 
united in 1906 and admitted to the Union 
as a State, which was given the name 
of Oklahoma. Another event, of spec- 
tacular character, was a circumnaviga- 
tion of the globe by a fleet of American 
battleships, which visited all the leading 
ports of the Pacific and returned to 
Hampton Roads, February 22, 1909. In 
1908 William H. Taft, late Secretary of 
War, was nominated as the Republican 
candidate for the presidency, elected in 
November, and inaugurated March 4, 1909. 
The beginning of his term was signalized 
by a special session of Congress and the 
enactment of a new tariff bill making 
considerable reductions in the customs 
charges. These reductions were not suf- 
ficient to give general satisfactjlon. Presi- 
dent Taft was an advocate of several 
radical measures, one of these being 
a treaty of reciprocity with Canada, 
which was passed, but failed to meet the 
approval of Canada. The formation of a 
new party, the Progressive, was one of 
the notable pi^jitlcal events of 1912, and 
another was the election to the presidency 
of Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat The 
chief events of his administration were 
the passage of a lower tariff bill; the 
reform of the currency system ; measures 
regulating corporations; the passage of 
income tax and popular vote for senators' 
amendments to the Constitution and semi- 
warlike relations with Mexico. 

Wilson was re-elected in 1916. Ten- 
sion in the Mexican situation was greatly 
increased by a raid into American terri- 
tory by Villa, a Mexican bandit, and a 
primitive expedition was sent into Mex- 
ico and the niiobilization of practically the 
eatire national guard, on the border. 

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Gennan submarine attacks on shipping under the control of Herbert C. Hoover 
led to the breaking off of diplomatic re- and Harry A. Garfield, and an embargo on 
lations with Germany in 1917, and war commerce between the United States and 
was threatened. The strength of the the neutral nations of Northern Europe 
army was increased to 208,828 and a bill which had been supplying Germany with 
passed for large increases in the navy, war materials purchasecT in the United 
The acquisition of the Danish West In- States. In October a second Liberty 
dies was completed in 1917. Loan was negotiated, the large sum of 
When the second term of Woodrow about $5,000,000,000 being obtained from 
Wilson as President of the United States the people by these loans. Congress ad- 
began, on March 4, 1917, the relations journed on October 6, after passinga war 
between this country and Germany had loan tax estimated to yield $2,53437(4000 
grown seriously strained as a result of the of revenue, chiefly by increased levies 
relentless U-boat war on the part of Ger- upon incomes and taxes on excess war 
many. It was growing evident that an profits. It also included an increase in 
overt act on the part ot the latter country the postal rates, stamps on chedu, on the- 
would precipitate war between the two nter tickets, travelers tickets and various 
nations. Diplomatic relations between other items of daily use. The second war 
these countries having already been appropriation of Congress in 1917 cov- 
broken, only open hostilities remained, ered the large total of $4,810,779,370, of 
and an attack on the liner Lucania by which $3,771,927,320 was maae available 
a submarine was regarded as the overt for immediate use. This was the largest 
act awaited. Congress was at once called appropriation ever made in the United 
into extra session and on April 4 and 5 States, exceeding by more than S2,000,- 
the two Houses decided by heavy ma- 000,000 the first bill passecl. Tne war 
jorities that a * state of war ' existed be- bond bill passed by Congress on Septem- 
tween Germany and the United States, ber 6 amounted to $11,538,945,460. 
This action threw the nation into a state When Congress came again into session 
of intense activities and strenuous prepa- on December 3, its first act was to declare 
rations, for hostile relations at once began, war against Austria, this being carried 
The navy was immediately mobilized, 90 with only one dissenting vote. During 
German vessels in American ports (620,- the war a number of munition plants, 
0(X) tons, $148,000,(XX) value) were taken stores of materials, vessels laden with war 
over by the government, together with 14 supplies, etc., haa beon destroyed, pre- 
Austrian ships. Active financial measures sumably by spies, and it became necessary 
were also instituted, consisting in a reve- to take steps to prevent German and Aus- 
nue bill for a bond issue of $5,(XX),0(X),000 trian residents in this country from work 
and a Liberty Loan for public subscrip- of this kind and to pass stringent laws 
tion of $2,(XX),(XX),(XX). Of the sums dealing with spies and alien enemies, 
raised $3,(X)0,(X)0,0()0 were to be loaned Aliens were not permitted upon the water 
to the European allies of the United fronts of the seaport cities unless with 
States. Other steps taken in war prepa- permits, and decisive measures were taken 
ration were the conscription of the Na- to protect all depots of supplies. The in- 
tional Guard of volunteer soldiers into dustrial staff of the country was largely 
the Federal service and the passage of a employed in the production of war mate- 
Relective conscription bill, covering all the rials, the railroads were requisitioned for 
young men of the nation between 21 and the transportation and such materials and 
31 years of age. Registration for this all the products of the country held sub- 
purpose was made on June 5, 1917, the ject to government demands. All this 
number registered being about 10,(XX),000. led to a large increase in the prices of 
In July a first draft was made, to cover food, fuel and other necessaries of life, 
an army of over 600,0(X), and a force of some of these growing very scarce and 
regulars was subseouently sent to Prance, dear, while the railroad service became so 
under the command of General Pershing, congested that on December 28 the Presi- 
late commander of the Villa punitive ex- dent took possession and assumed control 
pedition to Mexico. This force was at- of the railroad lines of the country and 
tacked on the high seas by German sub- the systems of water transportation under 
marines, but reached Europe in safety, their control. William G. McAdoo was 
Other important steps taken were for the appointed Director General. Meanwhile 
building of a large number of small ves- large numbers of the newly organized 
sels, fitted to cope with submarines, and army were transported to France with- 
for the construction of 20.(X)0 war aero- out loss, the seas in the danger «one 
planes for field service at the seat of war. being patrolled by swift destroyers. The 
Bills were also passed for the regulation new recruits were put under intensive 
of the food and fuel supply of the country, training on French soil and before the 

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year ended many of them were in the Si^oumey (1791-1865) ; the sons- 

trenches, getting their final discipline writers, Francis Scott Key, Samael 

under the guns of the foe. Their pres- Woodworth, John H. Payne (author of 

ence on the battlefield and a large increase * Home, Sweet Home '), and Stephen 

in their numbers were felt to be absolutely C. Foster. The later and in part more 

necessary. The coal situation became famous names are John G. Whittier 

acute at the end of 1917 and the beginning (1807-92), Henry W. LongfeUow (1807- 

of 1918, and to relieve it the President or- 82), £klgar A. Poe (1808-49), James 

dcrcd cessation of general industrira for a Russell Lowell (1819-01 ) , Kalph Waldo 

t>eriod of five days and the Monday of Emerson (1803-82), Oliver W. Holmes 

each week for several weeks. (1809-94), Wait Whitman (1819-92), 

Literaiure.—The first literary work of Thomas B. Aldrich (1836-1907), Alice 

any consequence in the United States Cary (1820-71), and others of later date, 

was a translation of Ovid's Metamor- "^^e prominent novelists include James 

photes by George Sandys, written in Vir- ^^l^"^^ ^^^.All^^^^\ u^*™« 

ginia (1620) and published in London ^*''^« ,P«,Hyi?«, J?J^^vV'-^^' r^^'S? i: 

'p'^\.^: ^rr ^'^^^^' **;: fiir7^o)^a^^^^^^ 

^/"^'n ^^^^.u^^® ^?V?22^«^'l "^""^ ^4) Harriet Beecber Stowe (1811-96), 
of John Winthrop (1588.1649), gov- and Bayard Taylor (1825-78). Those of 
^^9.^^^^^^^***^***^^^' ^y.?*^ Winslow more recent date include WilUam Dean 
(1595-1655), governor of Plymouth col- Howells, Francis M. Oawford, Frances 
ony, Nathaniel Morton (1613-85), etc., H. Burnett, Henry Jamen, Georee W. 
have been valuable to the historian. The Cable, Francis Bret Harte. Mary Is. Mur- 
most notable ef the earlier writers were free, Frank Stockton, Louisa Biay Alcott, 
the theologians, such as Increase and etc. There are also many writers of the 
Cotton Mather, Roger Williams, and short tale, most famous among them being 
above all Jonathan Edwards. The only Edgar Allan Poe, followed by others too 
one whose writin^rs are still read to any numerous to mention. Humorous writers 
extent was Benjamin Franklin, whose also became numerous, the most famous 
Auiohiographv and Poor Richard's Al- among them being Washington Irving, 
manao are the only popular literature James Russell Lowell, Samuel L. Clemens 
remaining from the colonial period. Tlie (*Mark Twain') and Charles Farrar 
Bucceedinx or revolutionary era was chiefly Brown (* Artcmus Ward *) . 
remarkable for its political writers, The United States has been the blrth- 
among whom were James Otis (1725-83), place of a number of historians of su- 
Josiah Quincy (1744-75). John Adams perior merit, chief among whom are 
(1735-1826), Thomas Jefferson (1743- George Bancroft (1800-91), John Fiske 
1826). Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804), (1842-1901). William H. Prescott (1796- 
John Jav (1745-1829), and James Madi- 1859), George Ticknor (1791-1871), 
son (1751-1836). Of historical writings John Lothrop Motley (1814-77), Francis 
belonging to this period there were the Parkman (1823-93), Wood row Wilson 
Jlitiory of New England by Hannah (bom 1856), John Bach McMaster (bom 
Adams; of the American Revolution^ by 1852), and others. Of writers who 
William Gordon and David Ramsay, and achieved fame in other fields than those 
the Annals of Americat by Abiel Holmes, mentioned may be named Washington 
Philology was represented at this time by Irving, Ralph Waldo Emerson, whose Es- 
Lindley Murray (1745-1826), and by says are oi world-wide fame; Henry D. 
Noah Webster (1758-1842), the compiler Thoreau, Bayard Taylor, William Ellery 
of a famous dictionary. The list of poets Channing and George W. Curtis. The 
includes Philip Freneau (1752-18^^2), orators of high reputation include such 
John Tmmbull (1750-1831), and Joel well-known names as Patrick Henry, 
Bariow (1755-1812). The first well- Daniel Webster, Henry Cloy, John C. 
known novelist was Charles Brockden Calhoun, Edward Everett. Wendell Phil- 
Brown (1771-1810). lips, Henry Ward Beecher and Charles 
It was not, however, until the nine- Sumner. This compilation of names is 
teenth century that the United States by no means exhaustive, and there are 
produced the higher forms of pure liters- many writers of recent date that might 
ture. The poets of this epoch may be well have been added, but the list given 
headed by William CuUen Bryant (1794- includes the most famous of American 
1878), and following him come Richard literary artists. 

H. Dana (1787-1879). Charles Spraguc TTTiif^il $iffif^s Political Develop- 
(1791-1875), James G. Percival (1795- wiutcu Oittics, mknt of the. The 
1856). Joseph R. Drake (1795-1820), description of the United States so far 
Washington Allston (1779-1843), Fite- given is confined to its natural condf 
Greene Halleck (1790-1867), and Mrs. tions and its industrial, historical an4 

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literary progress. To gain a fuller idea 
of its progress and significance as a 
whole, it seems desirable to speak of its 
political development, as exemplified in 
the several great State papers which 
have been from time to time issued, and 
which have few counterparts in the his- 
tory of any other country. The United 
States differs from republics in general 
in the fact that its system is the result of 
a nradual evolution instead of a revo- 
lutionary overthrow, as in the case of 
France; or of imitation, as in the case 
of the# other American republics, the 
governments of which were based upon 
that of the United States. The repub- 
lic of Switzerland alone resembles that 
of the United States as being a result of 
political evolution. But it is on so smaU 
a scale that it cannot properly be com- 
pared to the giant federal organization 
of the United States, which ranks in 
size with the greatest of the world's na- 
tions, covering half a continent The 
stages by which the organization of this 
great government was reached are indi- 
cated in the Declaration of Independence, 
the Constitution, and the other great 
documents which appeared from time to 
time, each as the outcome of a period of 
preceding development and each as a 
stepping stone of a future development 
in the great problem of political prog- 
ress. Tbis country has been democratic 
in sentiment from its origin in the col- 
onies that settled at successive periods, 
along the Atlantic coast, their people 
plainly indicating this feeling, and resist- 
ing all efforts to subject them to the 
dominance of king or parliament without 
due representation. They insisted on hav- 
ing their own legialatnrea, makinf their 
own laws, imying their own ofiicials, and 
in other ways maintaining a just degree 
of independence. This spirit is shown in 
all the American State papers. 

At a very early date in the history of 
the United States, that on which the 
Pilgrims sought a new home beyond the 
seas on the l^leak New England shore, 
the immigrants gathered In the cabin of 
their little ship, the Mayflower, and 
drew up for themselves a compact of 
government in which they determined to 
make their own laws and choose their 
own governors. This brief declaration 
of intentions, dating from 1620, forms 
the first chapter in the great volume of 
documentary American historv, and we 
give it here as the genesis of American 
political progress. 

In the name of God, Amen: We, 
whose names are underwritten, the 

loyall subjects of our dread Soveraiane 
Lord King James, by ye grace of God 
of Great Britaine. France, and Ireland, 
King, defender of ye faitn, &c.« having 
undertaken, for ye glorie of God and ad- 
vancement of ye Christian faith, and 
honour of our King and countrie, a voy- 
age to plant the first colony in ye North- 
erne parts of Virginia, doe by these 
presents solemnly and mutually in ye 
presence of God and one of another, 
covenant and combine ourselves together 
into a civill body politick, for our better 
ordering and preservatione and further- 
ance of ye ends aforesaid ; and by vertue 
hereof to enact, constitute, and frame 
such just and equall lawes, ordinances, 
acts, constitutions, and oflSces, from time 
to time, as shall be thought most meete 
and convenient for ye generall good of 
ye colonie, unto which we promise all 
due submission and obedience. In wit- 
ness whereof we have hereunto sub- 
scribed our names. Cape Cod 11 of No- 
vember, in the yeare of the raigne of 
our Soveraigne Lord King James of 
Englandj France^ and Ireland 18 and of 
Scotland 54. Anno Domini, 1620. 

Passing onward down the road of de- 
velopment, it is proper to sute that Vir- 
ginia had already a legislature of its own 
election, though under a governor ap- 
pointed by the king. The New England 
colonies went farther, electing their own 
legislatures and governors and making 
their own laws, so that from their origin 
they were practically republics, their alle- 
giance to the distant kin^ being one 
rather of formality than of submission. 
In 1689 the New Haven colony became so 
liberal as to give all freemen the right to 
vote, embodying this principle in a writ- 
ten instrument, the first known in his- 
tory drawn up by a people for their own 
government. The document made no 
mention of the English king or com- 
pany, and was in effect the constitution 
of a separate republic In 1043 a step 
was taken towards the formation of a 
federal republic, the colonies of Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut and 
New Haven forming a confederation for 
defense against the Dutch and Indians. 
This they called 'The United Colonies 
of New England.' 

The time came when it appeared de- 
sirable to combine all the colonies for 
defensive purposes, and in 1754 a con- 
vention was held in Albany in which 
the question of a general union was 
brought forward. Of the several plans 
offered that of Benjamin Franklin was 
adopted. It provided for a union of the 
colonies under the following terms: 

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FrankUn susgested that Philadelphia, 
the most central laiise city, should be 
the capital of the united colonies. The 
foverament sitting here was to consist 
of a grand council, elected every third 
year by the colonies, but holding yearly 
meetings, with a governor-general ap- 
pointed by the kinf with power of veto 
over all laws. This government was to 
have the power to make general laws, 
levy taxes, regulate commerce and per- 
form other governmental duties. This 
governmental scheme proved in advance 
of the times and was rejected, the colo- 
nies thinking that it took too much power 
from them to give it to the general gov- 
ernment, the king that it gave too much 
power to the colonies. 

The first colonial congress held in 
America was that known as the 
'SUmp Act Congress,' held at New 
York in 1765, and composed of dele- 
gates from nine of the colonies, its pur- 
pose being to consider the threatening 
relations between the Parliament of 
Britain and the colonies of America. 
It made an appeal to the king for 
American rights. In 1774 the idea of 
colonial union had further advanced and 
the * First Continental Congress ' met 
in Philadelphia, all the colonies but 
Georgia being represented. It also peti- 
tioned the king to redress the wrongs 
of the colonists, and drew up a declara- 
tion of rights. It did not ask for 
American representation in Parliament, 
but demanded the right to make all laws, 
except those relating to foreign com- 
merce, and to levy all taxes needed for 
colonial uses. In 1775 the * Second 
Continental Congress ' met, with delegates 
from all the colonies. This issued a 
'Declaration of Colonial Rights,' and on 
July 4, 1776, a 'Declaration of Inde- 
pendence.' This famous paper, with 
which the history of the United States 
began, is here given. 


IN C0NGBES8 JULY 4, 1776. 

The unanimous declaration of the 
thirteen United States of America. 
When in the course of human events, it 
becomes necessary for one people to dis- 
solve the political bands which have 
connected them with another, and to as- 
sume among the powers of the earth the 
separate and equal station to which the 
Laws of Nature and of Nature's God 
entitles them, a decent respect to the 
opinions of mankind requires that they 
should declare the causes w^ch impel 
^em to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self- 
evident, that all men are crtated equal, 
that they are endowed by their Creator 
with certain unalienable Rights, that 
among these are Life, Liberty and the 
pursuit of Happiness. That to secure 
these rights. Governments are instituted 
among Men, deriving their just powers 
from the consent of the governed. That 
whenever any Form of Government be- 
comes destructive of these ends, it is the 
Right of the People to alter or to abol- 
ish it, and to institute new Government, 
laying its foundation on such principles 
and organizing its powers in subh form, 
as to them shall seem most likely to 
effect their Safetv and Happiness. Pru- 
dence, indeed, will dictate that Govern- 
ments long established should not be 
changed for light and transient causes; 
and accordingly all experience hath 
shown, that mankind are more disposed 
to suflter, while evils are sufferable, than 
to right themselves by abolishing the 
forms to which they are accustomed. 
But when a long train of abuses and 
usurpations, pursuing invariably the 
same Object, evinces a design to reduce 
them under absolute Despotism, it is 
their right, it is their duty, to throw 
off such Government, and to provide 
new Guards for their future security.^ 
Such has been the patient sufferance of 
these Colonies; and such is now the 
necessity which constrains them to alter 
their former Systems of Government 
The history of the present King of Great 
Britain is a history of repeated injuries 
and usurpations, all having in direct ob- 
ject the establishment of an absolute 
Tyranny over these States, To prove 
this, let Facts be submitted to a candid 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, 
the most wholesome and necessary for 
the public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to 
pass Laws of immediate and pressing 
importance, unless suspended in their 
operation till his Assent should be ob- 
tained; and when so susnended, he has 
utterly neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for 
the accommodation of large districts of 
people, unless those people would re- 
linquish the right of Representation in 
the Legislature, a right inestimable to 
them and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies 
at places unusual, uncomfortable, and 
distant from the depositorv of their pub- 
lic Records, for the sole purpose of 
fatiguing them into compliance with his 

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He has dissolved Representativefundamentally the Forms of our Govern- 

Houses repeatedly, for opposing with ments: 

manly firmness his invasions on the rights For suspending our own Legislaturea 

of the people. and declaring themselves invested witE 

He has refused for a long time, after power to legislate for us in all case« 

such dissolutions, to cause others to whatsoever. 

be elected ; whereby the Liegislative pow- He has abdicated Government here, by 

ers, incapable of Annihilation, have re- declaring us out of his Protection an4 

turned to the People at lar^e for their waging War against us. 

exercise; the State remainii^ in the He has plundered our seas, ravage^ 

meantime exposed to all the dangers of our Coasts, burnt our towns, and de^ 

invasion from without, and convulsions stroyed the lives of our people, 

within. He is at this time transporting large 

He has endeavored to prevent the pop- Armies of foreign Mercenaries to com; 

ulation of these States; for that purpose plete the works of death, desolation an^ 

obstructing the Laws for Naturalhsation tyranny, already begun with circum 

of Foreigners, refusing to pass others to stances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely 

encourage their migrations hither, and paralleled in the most barbarous ages, 

raising the conditions of new Appropria- and totally unworthy the Head of a 

tions of Lands. civilized nation. 

He has obstructed the Administration He has constrained our fellow-Citizena 

of Justice, by refusing his Assent to taken captive on the high Seas to beat 

Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. Arms against their Country, to become 

He has made Judges dependent on his the executioners of their friends an^ 

Will alone, for the tenure of their offices. Brethren, or to fall themselves by theii 

and the amount and payment of their Hands, 

salaries. He has excited domestic insurrectioni 

He has erected a multitude of New among us, and has endeavored to bring 

Offices, and sent hither swarms of on the inhabitants of our frontiers, th« 

Officers to harass our people, and eat out merciless Indian Savages, whose known 

their substance. rule of warfare is an undistinguished dci 

He has kept among us, in times of struction of all ages, sexes and condi* 

peace. Standing Armies without the Con- tions. 

sent of our legislature. In every stage of these Oppressions 

He has affected to render the Military We have Petitioned for Redress in the 
independent of and superior to the Civil most humble terms. Our repeated Petf^ 
power. tions have been answered only by re- 
He has combined with others to sub- peated injury. A Prince, whose character 
ject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our is thus Marked bv every act which may 
constitution, and unacknowledged by our define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler 
laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of of a free people, 
pretended Legislation: Nor have We been wanting in atten- 

For quartering large bodies of armed tions to our British brethren. We have 

troops among us. warned them from time to time of at- 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, tempts by their legislature to extend an 

from punishment for any Murders which unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We 

they should commit on the Inhabitants have reminded them of the circum- 

of these States: stances of our emigration and settlement 

For cutting off our Trade with all here. We have appealed to their native 

parts of the world: justice and magnanimity, and we have 

For imposing Taxes on us without our conjured them by the ties of our com- 

Consent: mon kindred to disavow these usurpa- 

For depriving us in many cases of the tions, which would inevitably interrupt 

benefits of Trial by jury: our connections and correspondence. 

For transporting us beyond Seas to be They too have been deaf to the voice 

tried for pretended offences: of justice and of consanguinity. We 

For abolishing the free System of Eng- must therefore, acquiesce in the necessity 

lish Laws in a neighboring Province, which denounces our Separation, and 

establishing therein an Arbitrary gov- hold them, as we hold the rest of man- 

emment, and enlarging its Boundaries kind. Enemies in War, in Peace Friends, 

so as to render it at once an example and We, therefore, the Representatives 

fit instrument for introducing the same of the United States or America, in 

absolute rule into these Colonies: GfiNERAL Congress Assembled, appeal- 

For taking away our Charters, abolish- ing to the Supreme Judge of the world 

ing our most valuable Laws, and altering for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in 

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the Name, and by authority of the good 
People of these Colonies, solemnly Pub- 
USH and VVCLASM, That these United 
Colonies are, and of Bight ought to be 
Fbeb Ain) INDKPENDIITT States; that 
they are Absolved from all Allegiance to 
the British Crown, and that all political 
connection between them and the State 
of Great Britain, is and ought to be 
totally dissolved; and that as Fbcb and 
Independent States, they have full 
Power to levy War, conclude Peace, con- 
tract Alliances, establish Commerce, and 
to do all other Acts and Things which 
Independent States may of right do. 
And for the support of this Declaration, 
with a firm reliance on the protection of 
Divine Providence, We mutually pledge 
to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, 
find our sacred Honor. 

In this notable paper the colonies 
united in declaring their independence 
from Great Britain, but they were still 
separate commonwealths, though fighting 
together for one general object. Some- 
thing rarther was needed. In the Decla- 
ration they called themselves simply 
' Free and Independent States.' If they 
were to be 'United States' a great 
further step in political evolution was 
needed. To win their independence an 
actual Union appeared necessary, and on 
July 11, 1776, the Continental Congress 
appointed a committee to draw up a 
form of confederation for the States. 
This was completed and signed July % 
1778, but its ratification was made gradu- 
allv by the several States, Maryland 
being the last to accept it (January 80, 
1781). The first Congress under the con- 
federation met on March 2, 1781. This 
first form of a United States Constitution 
is of much importance as a step forward 
towards a firm and durable Union. It 
is here appended: 


Abtioles op Confederation and Per- 
petual Union between the States 
OF New Hampshire, Massachusetts 
Bat, Rhode Island and Providence 
Plantations, Connecticut, New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, and 

Article I, The style of this Con- 
federacy shall be, 'The United States of 

Artide 11. Each State retains its 

sovereignty, freedom, and independence, 
and every power, jurisdiction, and right, 
which is not bv this Confederation ex- 
pressly delegated to the United States in 
Ck)ngress assembled. 

Artide IIL The said States hereby 
severally enter into a firm league of 
friendship with each other, for their com- 
mon defence, the security of their liber- 
ties, and their mutual and general wel- 
fare, binding themselves to assist each 
other against all force offered to, or at- 
tacks made upon them, or any of tftem, 
on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, 
or any other pretence whatever. 

Artide IV. The better to secure and 
perpetuate mutual friendship and inter- 
course among the people of the different 
States in this Union, the free inhabit- 
ants of each of these States, paupers, 
vagabonds, and fugitives from justice ex- 
cepted, shall be entitled to all privileges 
and immunities of free citizens in the 
several States; and the people of each 
State shall have free ingress and egress to 
and from any other State, and shall enjoy 
therein all the privileges of trade and 
commerce subject to the same duties, im- 
positions, and restrictions as the inhabit- 
ants thereof respectively; provided that 
such restrictions shall not extend so far 
as to prevent the removal of property 
imported into any State to any other 
State of which the owner is an inhabit- 
ant; provided also, that no imposition, 
duties, or restriction shall be hiid by any 
State on the property of the United 
States or either of them. If any person 
guilty of, or charged with, treason, fel- 
ony, or other high misdemeanor in any 
State shall flee from justice and be found 
in any of the United States, he shall, 
upon demand of the governor or execu- 
tive power of the State from which he 
fled, be delivered up and removed to the 
State having jurisdiction of his offence. 
Full faith and credit shall be given in 
each of these States to the records, acts, 
and judicial proceedings of the courts 
and magistrates of every other State. 

Article V. For the more convenient 
management of the general interests of 
the United States, delegates shall be an- 
nually appointed in such manner as the 
Legislature of each State shall direct, to 
meet in Congress on the first Monday in 
November, in every year, with a power 
reserved to each State to recall its dele- 
gates, or any of them, at any time 
within the year, and to send others in 
their stead for the remainder of the year. 
No State shall be represented in Con- 
gress by less than two, nor by more than 
seven members; and no person shall be 

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capable of being a delegate for more than 
three years in any term of six years ; nor 
shall any person, being a delegate, be 
capable of holding any office under the 
United States for which he, or another 
for his benefit, receives any salary, fees, 
or emolument of any kind. Each State 
shall maintain its own delegates in any 
meeting of the States and while they act 
as members of the Committee of the 
States. In determining questions in the 
United States in Congress assembled, 
each State shall have one vote. Freedom 
of speech and debate in Congress shall 
not oe impeached or questioned in any 
court or place out of Congress; and the 
members of Congress shall be protected 
in their persons from arrests and im- 
prisonments during the time of their go- 
ing to and from, and attendance on. Con- 
gress, except for treason* felony, or 
breach of the peace. 

Article VL No State, without the 
consent of the United States in Coiyress 
assembled, shall send any embassy to. or 
receive any embassy from, or enter into 
aiiy conference, agreement, alliance, or 
treaty with any king, prince, or state; 
nor shall any person holding any office 
of profit or trust under the United 
States, or any of them, accept of any 
present, emolument, office, or title of any 
kind whatever from any king, prince, or 
foreign state; nor shall the United 
States in Congress assembled, or any of 
them, grant any title of nobility. 

No two or more States shall enter int* 
any treaty, confederation, or alliance 
whatever between them, without the con- 
sent of the United States in Congress 
assembled, specifying accurately the pur- 
poses for which the same is to be entered 
Into, and how long it shall continue. 

No State shall lay any imposts or 
duties which may interfere with any stip- 
ulations in treaties entered into by the 
United States in Congress assembled 
with any king, prince, or state, in pur- 
suance of any treaties already proposed 
by Congress to the courts of France and 

No vessel of war shall be kept up in 
lime of peace by any State, except such 
number only as shall be deemed neces- 
sary bv the United States in Congress 
assembled for the defence of such State 
or its trade, nor shall any body of forces 
be kept up by anv State in time of peace, 
except such number only as, in the judg- 
ment of the United States in Congress 
assembled shall be deemed requisite to 

?:arrison the forts necessary for the de- 
ence of such State; but every State 
shall always keep up a well-regulated 

and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed 
and accoutred, and shall provide and con- 
stantly have ready for use in public 
stores a due number of field-pieces and 
tents, and a proper quantity of arms, 
ammunition, and camp equipage. 

No State shall engage in any war 
without the consent of the United States 
in Congress assembled, unless such State 
be actually invaded by enemies, or shall 
have received certain advice of a resolu- 
tion bein^ formed by some nation of In- 
dians to invade such State, and the dan- 
ger is so imminent as not to admit of 
a delay till the United Sutes in Congress 
assembled can be consulted; nor shall 
any State grant commissions to any ships 
or vessels of war, nor letters of marque 
or reprisal, except it be after a declara- 
tion of war by the United States in 
Congress assembled, and then only 
against the kingdom or state, and the 
subjects thereof, against which war has 
been so declared, and under such regula- 
tions as shall be established by the United 
States in Congress assembled, unless such 
State be infested by pirates, in which case 
vessels of war may be fitted out for that 
occasion, and kept so long as the danger 
shall continue, or until the United States 
in Congress assembled shaU determine 

Article VIL When land forces are 
raised bv any State for the common de- 
fence, all officers of or under the rank 
of Colonel shall be appointed by the Leg- 
islature of each State respectively by 
whom such forces shall be raised, or in 
such manner as such State shall direct, 
and all vacancies shall be filled up by 
the State which first made the appoint- 

Article VIII. All charges of war, and 
all other expenses that shall be incurred 
for the common defence, or general wel- 
fare, and allowed by the United States 
in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed 
out of a common treasury, which shall 
be supplied by the several States in pro- 
portion to the value of all land within 
each State, granted to, or surveyed for, 
any person, as such land and the build- 
ings and improvements thereon shall be 
estimated, according to such mode as the 
United States in Congress assembled 
shall, from time to time, direct and ap- 
point The taxes for paying that pro- 
portion shall be laid and levied by the 
authority and direction of the L^isla- 
tures of the several States, within the 
time agreed upon by the United States 
in Congress assembled. 

Article IX. The United States in 
Congress assembled shall have tbe mI; 

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and exclusive right and power of deter- 
mining on peace and war, except in the 
cases mentioned in the sixth Article; of 
sending and receiving ambassadors; 
entering into treaties and alliances, pro- 
vided that no treaty of commerce shall 
be made, whereby the legislative power 
of the respective States shall be re- 
strained from imposing such imposts and 
duties on foreigners as their own people 
are subjected to, or from prohibiting the 
exportation or importation of any species 
of goods or commodities whatever; of 
establishing rules for deciding, in all 
cases, what captures on land or water 
shall be legal, and in what manner prizes 
taken by land or naval forces in the serv- 
ice of the United States shall be divided 
or appropriated; of i^ranting letters of 
marque and reprisal in times of peace; 
appointing courts for the trial of piracies 
and felonies committed on the high seas: 
and establishing courts for receiving and 
determining finally appeals in all cases of 
captures; provided that no member of 
Congress shall be appointed a judge of 
any of the said courts. 

The United States in Congress as- 
sembled shall also be the last resort on 
appeal in all disputes and differences now 
subsisting, or that hereafter may arise 
between two or more States concerning 
boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause 
whatever; which authority shall always 
be exercised in the manner following: 
Whenever the legislative or executive 
authority, or lawful agent of any State 
in controversy with another, shall pre- 
sent a petition to Congress, stating the 
matter in question, and praying for a 
hearing, notice thereof shall be given by 
order of Congress to the legislative op 
executive authority of the other State in 
controversy, and a day assigned for the 
appearance of the parties by their law- 
ful agents, who shall then be directed to 
appoint, by joint consent, commissioners 
or judges to constitute a court for hear- 
ing and determining the matter in ques- 
tion; but if they cannot agree. Congress 
shall name three persons out of each of 
the United States, and from the list of 
such persons each party shall alternately 
strike out one, the petitioners beginning, 
until the number shall be reduced to 
thirteen ; and from that number not less 
than seven nor more than nine names, as 
Congress shall direct, shall, in the pres- 
ence of Congress, be drawn out by lot; 
and the persons whose names shall be so 
drawn, or any five of them, shall be 
commissioners or jndges, to hear and 
finally determine the controversy, so 
always as a major part of the judges who 

shall hear the cause shall agree in the 
determination; and if either party shall 
neglect to attend at the da^ appointed, 
without showing reasons which Congress 
shall judge sufficient, or being present, 
shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall 
proceed to nominate three persons out of 
each State, and the secretary of Congress 
shall strike in behalf of such party alh 
sent or refusing; and the judgment and 
sentence of the court, to be appointed in 
the manner before prescribed, shall be 
final and conclusive; and if any of the 
parties shall refuse to submit to the au- 
thoritv of such court, or to appear or 
defend their claim or cause, the court 
shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce 
sentence or judgment, which shall in like 
manner be final and decisive; the judg- 
ment OP sentence and other proceedings 
being in either case transmitted to Con- 
gress, and lodged among the acts of 
Congress for the security of the parties 
concerned; provided, that every commis- 
sioner, before he sits in judgment, shall 
take an oath, to be administered by* one 
of the judges of the supreme or superior 
court of the State where the cause shall 
be tried, * well and truly to hear and de- 
termine the matter in question, accord- 
ing to the best of his judgment, without 
favor, affection, or hope of reward.' Pro- 
vided, also, that no State shall be de- 
prived of territory for the benefit of the 
United States. 

All controversies concerning the pri- 
vate right of soil claimed under different 
grants of two or more States, whose 
jurisdictions, as they may respect such 
lands, and the States which passed such 
grants are adjusted, the said grants or 
either of them being at the same time 
claimed to have originated antecedent to 
such settlement of jurisdiction, shall, on 
the petition of either party to the Con- 
gress of the United States, be finally de- 
termined, as near as may be, in the same 
manner as is before prescribed for de- 
ciding disputes respecting territorial 
jurisdiction between different States. 

The United States in Congress as- 
sembled shall also have the sole and ex- 
clusive right and power of regulating 
the alloy and value of coin struck by 
their own authority, or by that of the 
respective States; fixing the standard of 
weights and measures throughout the 
United States; regulating the trade and 
managing all affairs with the Indians, 
not members of any of the States: pro- 
vided that the legislative right of any 
State, within its own limits, be not in- 
fringed or violated; establishing and 
regulating post-offices from one State tD 

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another, throughout all the United 
States, and exacting such postage on the 

gapers passing through the same as may 
e requisite to defray the expenses of 
the said office; appointing all officers of 
the land forces in the service of the 
United States, excepting regimental 
officers; appointing all the officers of the 
naval forces, and conmiissioning all 
officers whatever in the service of the 
United States; making rules for the gov- 
ernment and regulation of the said land 
and naval forces, and directing their 

The United States in Congress as- 
sembled shall have authority to appoint 
a committee, to sit in the recess of Con- 
gress, to be denominated *a Committee 
of the States,* and to consist of one dele- 
gate from each State, and to appoint 
such other committees and civil officers 
as mav be necessary for managing the 
general affairs of the United States 
under their direction; to appoint one of 
their number to preside; provided that 
no person be allowed to serve in the 
office of president more than one year in 
any term of three years ; to ascertain the 
necessary sums of money to be raised for 
the service of the United States, and to 
appropriate and apply the same for de- 
fraying the public expenses; to borrow 
money or emit bills on the credit of the 
United States, transmitting every half 
year to the respective States an account 
of the sums of money so borrowed or 
emitted; to build and equip a navy; to 
agree upon the number of land forces, 
and to make requisitions from each State 
for its quota, in proportion to the num- 
ber of white inhabitants in each State, 
which requisition shall be binding; and 
thereupon the Legislature of each State 
shall appoint the regimental officers, 
raise the men, and clothe, arm, and 
equip them in a soldier-like manner, at 
the expense of the United States; and 
the officers and men so clothed, armed, 
and equipped shall march to the place 
appointed, and within the time agreed 
on by the United States in Congress as- 
sembled; but if the United States in 
Congress assembled shall, on considera- 
tion of circumstances, judge proper that 
any State should not raise men, or 
should raise a smaller number than its 
quota, and that any other State should 
raise a greater number of men than the 
quota thereof, such extra number shall 
be raised, officered, clothed, armed, and 
equipped in the same manner as the 
quota of such State, unless the Legisla- 
ture of such State shall judge that such 
extra number cannot be safely spared 
put 9f the same. In which c^se they shall 

raise, officer, clothe, arm, and equip as 
many of such extra number as they 
judge can be safely spared, and the offi- 
cers and men so clothed, armed, and 
equipped shall march to the place ap- 
pointed, and within the time agreed on 
by the United States in Congress as- 

The United States in Congress as- 
sembled shall never engage in a war, 
nor grant letters of marque and reprisal 
in time of peace, nor enter into any 
treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor 
regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain 
the sums and expenses necessary for the 
defence and welfare of the United States, 
or any of them, nor emit bills, nor bor- 
row money on the credit of the United 
States, nor appropriate money, nor 
agree upon the number of vessels of war 
to be built or purchased, or the number 
of land or sea forces to be raised, nor 
appoint a commander-in-chief of the 
armv or navy, unless nine States assent 
to the same, nor shall a question on any 
other point, except for adjourning from 
day to day, be determined, unless by the 
votes of a majority of the United States 
in Congress assembled. 

The Congress of the United States 
shall have power to adjourn to any time 
within the year, and to any place within 
the United States, so that no period of 
adjournment be for a longer duration 
than the space of six months, and shall 
publish the journal of their proceeding^ 
monthly, except such parts thereof rela- 
ting to treaties, alliances, or military 
operations as in their judgment require 
secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the 
delegates of each State, on any question, 
shall be entered on the journal when it 
is desired by any delegate; and the dele- 
gates of a State, or any of them, at his 
or their request, shall be furnished with 
a transcript of the said journal except 
such parts as are above excepted, to lay 
before the Legislatures of the several 

Article X, The Committee of the 
States, or any nine of them, shall be 
authorized to execute, in the recess of 
Congress, such of the powers of Con- 
gress as the United States in Congress 
assembled, by the consent of nine States, 
shall, from time to time, think expedient 
to vest them with ; provided that no 
power be delegated to the said Com- 
mittee, for the exercise of which, oy the 
Articles of Confederation, the voice of 
nine States in the Congress of the United 
States assembled is requisite. 

Article XI, Canada, acceding to thii 
Confederation, and joining in the meas- 
ures of the United States, «haU be md- 

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United States 

United States 

mitted into, and entitled to all the 
advantages of this Union; but no other 
colony shall be adniitted into the same, 
unless such admission be agreed to by 
nine States. 

ArtMe XIL All bilU of credit 
emitted, moneys borrowed, and debts 
contracted by or under the authority of 
Congress, before the assembling of the 
United States, in pursuance of the pres- 
ent Confederation, shall be deemed and 
considered as a charge against the 
United States, for payment and satisfac- 
tion whereof the said United States and 
the public faith are hereby solemnly 

Article ZIIL Every State shall abide 
by the determinations of the United 
States in Congress assembled on all 
questions which by this Confederation 
are submitted to tnem. And the Arti- 
cles of this Confederation shall be In- 
violably observed by every State, and 
the Union shall be peri>etual; nor shall 
any alteration at any time hereafter be 
made in any of them, unless such altera- 
tion be agreed to in a Congress of the 
United States, and be afterwards con- 
firmed by the Legislatures of every 

And whereas it hath pleased the 
Great Governor of the world to incline 
the hearts of the Legislatures we respec- 
tively represent in Congress to approve 
of, and to authorize us to ratify, the said 
Articles of Confederation and perpetual 
Union, know ye, that we, the under- 
signed delecfates, by virtue of the power 
and authonty to us given for that pur- 
pose, do, by these presents, in the name 
and in behalf of our respective con- 
stituents, fully and entirely ratify and 
confirm each and every of the said Arti- 
cles of Confederation and perpetual 
Union, and all and singular the matters 
and things therein contained. And we 
do further solemnly plight and engage 
the faith of our respective constituents, 
that they shaU abide by the determina- 
tions of the United States in Congress 
assembled on all questions which by the 
said Confederation are submitted to 
them ; and that the Articles thereof shall 
be inviolably observed by the States we 
respectively represent, and that the 
Union shall be perpetual. 

The Articles of Confederation served 
their purpose while the war for inde- 
pendence continued. The necessity of 
working together was then imperative. 
But the war had no sooner ended than 
their innate weakness became i4n>are»t' 
The States hftd kept too lacs« ft ^hie^ve of 

power for themselves and left the Con- 
federation a weak and almost i>owerle8S 
body. They had retamed the power of 
taxation, which proved a fatal defect. 
No Union could hold together with the 
purse-strings in the hands of thirteen 
semi-independent commonwealths. Also 
there was no President, Congress being 
at once the legislative and the executive 
body. The new government could pass 
laws but could not make the people obey 
them. It could incur debt but could not 
tax the people for money to pay its 
debts. The States were to provide 
money for this purpose, but they showed 
little inclination to do so. They were 
jealous of one another and each was in- 
clined to act as a single nation. Wash- 
ington thus described the situation: 
* We are one nation to-day and thirteen 
to-morrow.' Evidently the political evo- 
lution of the United States was far from 
complete. It must go farther or go back 
to dissolution ; be one strong nation or 
thirteen weak ones. The last alterna- 
tive frightened the States. They were 
already being pressed and threatened by 
foreign nations. Feeling that they could 
not stand alone, and could not keep to- 
gether under the Articles of Confedera- 
tion, a convention was called to revise 
these Articles. It met at Philadelphia 
in 1787. The Articles of Confederation 
proved unsuited for revision, no change 
could make them serve the purpose, and 
the convention devoted its four months 
of labor to working out a new Constitu- 
tion. This Constitution, as afterwards 
amended, is that under which the United 
States has since been governed. Glad- 
stone has spoken of it as the greatest 
document ever produced by the force of 
human genius. Its full text, with its 
amendments, follows, with the under- 
standing that the headlines of the several 
sections as here given, such as * Preamble,' 
'Legislative Powers,' etc., are appended 
for the convenience of readers, and do 
not occur in the original document: 


Preamble. — We, the people of the 
United States, in order to form a more 
perfect Union, establish justice, insure 
domestic tranquillity, provide for the 
common defence, promote the general 
welfare, and secure the blessings of 
liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do 
ordain and establish this Coxstttution 
for the United States of America. 

Article /. Legislative Powers. — Sec- 
tion I. All legislative powers herein 
S^saated shall be Tested in a Cooipress of 

Digitized by 


United States 

TJnited States 

the United States, which shall consist of 
a Senate and House of Representatives. 

House of Representatives. — Section 
II. 1. The House of Representatives 
shall be composed of members chosen 
€?very second year by the people of the 
several States, and the electors in each 
State shall have the qualifications requi- 
site for electors of the most numerous 
branch of the State Legislature. 

Qualifications of Representatives. — 2. 
No person shall be a Representative who 
shall not have attained to the age of 
twenty-five years, and been seven years 
a citizen of the United States, and who 
shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant 
of that State in which he shall be 

Apportionment of Representatives. — 
3. Kepresentatives and direct taxes shall 
be apportioned among the several States 
which may be included within this 
Union according to their respective num- 
bers, which shall be determmed by add- 
ing to the whole number of free persons, 
including those bound to service for a 
term of years, and excluding Indians not 
taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made 
within three years after the first meet- 
ing of the Congress of the United States, 
and within every subsequent term of ten 
vears, in such manner as they shall by 
law direct The number of Representa- 
tives shall not exceed one for everv thirty 
thousand, but each State shall have at 
least one Representative; and until such 
enumeration shall be made, the State of 
New Hampshire shall be entitled to 
choose H; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode 
Island and Providence Plantations, 1; 
Ck>nnecticut, 6; New York, 6; New Jer- 
sey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1; 
Maryland, 6: Virginia, 10; North Caro- 
lina, 6; South Carolina, 5, and 
Georgia, 3.* 

Vacancies, How Filled. — 4. When 
vacancies happen in the representation 
from any State, the Executive Authority 
thereof shall issue writs of election t* 
fill such vacancies. 

Ofllcers. How Appointed. — 5. The 
House of Representatives shall choose 
their Speaker and other officers, and 
shall have the sole power of impeach- 

Senate. — Section III. 1. The Sen- 
ate of the United States shall be com- 
posed of two Senators from each State, 
chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six 
years; and each Senator shall have one 

Classification of Senators. — 2. Im- 

* Set Article XIV, Amendments. 

mediately after they shall be assembled 
in consequence of the first election, they 
shall be divided as equally as may be 
into three classes. The seats of the Sen- 
ators of the first class shall be vacated 
at the expiration of the second year, of 
the second class at the expiration of the 
fourth prear, and of the third class at 
the expiration of the sixth year, so that 

one-third may be chosen every second 
year; and if vacancies happen by resig- 
nation, or otherwise, during the recess 

of the Legislature of any State, the Ex- 
ecutive thereof may make temporary ap- 
pointments until the next meeting of the 
Legislature, which shall then nil such 

Qualifications of Senators. — 3. No 
person shall be a Senator who shall not 
have attained to the age of thirty years, 
and been nine years a citizen of the 
United States, and who shall not, when 
elected, be an inhabitant of that State 
for which he shall be chosen. 

President of the Senate. — 4. The Vice- 
President of the United States shall be 
President of the Senate, but shall have 
no vote unless they be equally divided. 

6. The Senate shall choose their other 
officers, and also a President pro tempore, 
in the absence of the Vice-President, or 
when he shall exercise the office of Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

Senate a Court for Trial of Impeach- 
ments. — 6. The Senate shall have the 
sole power to try all impeachments. 
When sitting for that purpose, they shall 
be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried, 
the Chief Justice shall preside: and no 
person shall be convicted without the 
concurrence of two-thirds of the members 

Judgment in Case of Conviction. — 7. 
Judgment in cases of impeachment shall 
not extend further than to removal from 
office, and disqualification to hold and 
enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit 
under the United States; but the party 
convicted shall nevertheless be liable and 
subject to indictment, trial. Judgment* 
and punishment, according to law. 

Elections of Senators and Repre- 
sentatives. — Section IV. 1. The times, 
places, and manner of holding elections 
for Senators and Representatives shall 
be prescribed in each State by the Legis- 
lature thereof; but the Congress may at 
any time by law make or alter such reg- 
ulations, except as to places of choosing 

Meeting of Congress. — 2. The Con- 
gress shall assemble at least once in 
every year, and such meeting shall be on 
the first Monday in December, unless 

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United States United States 

they shall by law appoint a different of Representatives and the Senate shall, 

day. before it become a law, be presented to 

Organization of Congress. — Section the President of the United States ; if he 

y. 1. Each House shall be the judge of approve, he shall sign it, but if not, 

the elections, returns, and qualifications he shall return it, with his objections, 

of its own members, and a majority of to that House in which it shall have 

each shall constitute a quorum to do originated, who shall enter the objec- 

business; but a smaller number may ad- tions at large on their journal, and pro- 

joum from day to day, and may be au- ceed to reconsider it. If after such 

thorized to compel the attendance of reconsideration two-thirds of that House 

absent members in such manner and shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be 

under such penalties as each House may sent, together with the objections, to the 

provide. other House, by which it shall likewise 

Rule of Proceedings. — 2. Each House be reconsidered ; and if approved by two- 
may determine the rules of its proceed- thirds of that House it shall become a 
ings, punish its members for disorderly law. But in all such cases the votes of 
behavior, and with the concurrence of both Houses shall be determined by yeas 
two-thirds expel a member. and nays and the names of the persons 

Journals of each House. — 3. Each voting for and against the bill shall be 

House shall keep a journal of its pro- entered on the journal of each House re- 

ceedings, and from time to time publish spectively. If any bill shall not 

the same, excepting such parts as may be returned by the President within 

in their judgment require secrecy; and ten days (Sundays excepted) after it 

the yeas and nays of the members of shall have been presented to him, the 

either House on any question shall, at same shall be a law, in like manner 

the desire of one-fifth of those present, as if he had signed it, unless the 

be entered on the journal. Congress by their adjournment prevent 

Adjournment of Congress. — 4. Neither its return; in which case it shall not be 

House, during the session of Congress, a law. 

shall, without the consent of the other, Approval and Veto Powers of the 

adjourn for more than three days, nor President. — 3. Every order, resolution, 

to any other place than that in which or vote to which the concurrence of the 

the two Houses shall be sitting. Senate and House of Representatives 

Pay and Privileges of Members. — may be necessary (except on a question 

Section VI. 1. The Senators and Rep- of adjournment) shall be presented to 

resentatives shall receive a compensation the President of the United States; and 

for their services, to be ascertained by before the same shall take effect shall be 

law, and paid out of the Treasury of the approved by him, or, being disapproved 

United States. They shall in all cases, by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds 

except treason, felony, and breach of the of the Senate and the House of Repre- 

peace, be privileged from arrest during sentatives, according to the rules and 

their attendance at the session of their limitations prescribed in the case of a 

respective Houses, and in going to and bill. 

returning from the same; and for any Powers Vested in Congress. — Section 

speech or debate in either House they VIII. 1. The Congress shall have 

shall not be questioned in any other power: 

place. To lay and collect taxes, duties, im- 

Other OflSces Prohibited. — 2. No Sen- posts, and excises, to pay the debts and 
ator or Representative shall, during the provide for the common defence and gen- 
time for which he was elected, be ap- eral welfare of the United States; but 
pointed to any civil office under the au- all duties, imposts, and excises shall be 
thority of the United States which shall uniform throughout the United States, 
have been created, or the emoluments 2. To borrow money on the credit of 
whereof shall have been increased during the United States. 

such time; and no person holding any 3. To regulate commerce with foreign 

office under the United States shall be a nations, and among the several States, 

member of either House during his con- and with the Indian tribes, 

tinuance in office. 4. To establish a uniform rule of 

Revenue Bills. — Section VII. 1. All naturalization, and uniform laws on the 

bills for raising revenue shall originate subject of bankruptcies throughout the 

in the House of Representatives, but the United States. 

Senate may propose or concur with 5. To coin money, regulate the value 

amendments, as on other bills. thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the 

How Bills Become Laws. — 2. Every standard of weights and measures, 

bill which shall have passed the House 6. To provide for the punishmert of 

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United States 

TJnited States 

counterfeiting the securities and current 
coin of the United States. 

7. To establish post-offices and post- 

8. To promote the progress of science 
and useful arts by securing for limited 
times to authors and inventors the ex- 
clusive rights to their respective writings 
and discoveries. 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to 
the Supreme Court. 

10. To define and punish piracies and 
felonies committed on the high seas, and 
offences against the law of nations. 

11. To declare war, grant letters of 
marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water. 

12. To raise and support armies, but 
DO appropriation of money to that use 
shall be for a longer term than two 

13. To provide and maintain a navy. 

14. To make rules for the government 
and regulation of the land and naval 

15. To provide for calling forth the 
militia to execute the laws of the Union, 
suppress insurrections, and repel inva- 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, 
and disciplining the militia, and for gov- 
erning such part of them as may be em- 

§loyed in the service of the United 
tates, reserving to the States respec- 
tively the appointment of the officers, 
and the authority of training the militia 
according to the discipline prescribed by 

iT. To exercise exclusive legislation in 
all cases whatsoever over such district 
(not exceeding ten miles square) as may, 
by cession of particular States and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat 
of Government of the United States, and 
to exercise like authority over all places 
purchased by the consent of the Legisla- 
ture of the State in which the same shall 
be, for the erection of forts, magazines, 
arsenals, dry-docks, and other needful 

IS. To make all laws which shall be 
necessary and proper for carrying into 
execution the foregoing powers, and all 
other powers vested by this Constitution 
in the Government of the United States, 
or in any departmeht or officer thereof. 

Immigrants, How Admitted. — Sec- 
tion IX. 1. The migration or importa- 
tion of such persons as any of the States 
now existing shall think proper to admit, 
shall not be prohibited by the Congress 
prior to the year one thousand eight hun- 
dred and eight, but a tax or duty may 
be imposed on such Importation, not ex- 
ceeding ten dollars for each person. 


Habeas Corpus. — 2. The privilege of 
the writ of habeas corpus shall not be 
suspended, unless when in cases of re- 
bellion or invasion the public safety may 
require it. 

Attainder. 3. No bill of attainder or 
ex post facto law shall be passed. 

Direct Taxes. — 4. No capitation or 
other direct tax shall be laid, unless in 

Eroportion to the census or enumeration 
ereinbefore directed to be taken. 

Regulations Regarding Customs Dut- 
ies. — 5. No tax or duty shall be laid on 
articles exported from any State. 

6. No preference shall be given by any 
regulation of commerce or revenue to the 
ports of one State over those of another, 
nor shall vessels bound to or from one 
State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay 
duties in another. 

Moneys, How Drawn. — 7. No money 
shall be drawn from the Treasury but in 
consequence of appropriations made by 
law; and a regular statement and ac- 
count of the receipts and expenditures 
of all public money shall be published 
from time to time. 

Titles of Nobility Prohibited.— 8. No 
title of nobility shall be granted by the 
United States. And no person holding 
any office of profit or trust under them 
shall, without the consent of the Con- 
gress, accept of any present, emolument, 
office, or title, of any kind whatever, 
from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Powers of States Defined. — Section 
X. 1. No State shall enter into any 
treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant 
letters of maraue and reprisal; coin 
money: emit bills of credit; make any- 
thing but gold and silver coin a tender 
in pajrment of debts; pass any bill of 
attainder, ex post facto law, or law im- 
pairing the obligation of contracts, or 
grant any title of nobility. 

2. No State, shall, without the con- 
sent of the Congress, lay any impost or 
duties on imports or exports, except 
what may be absolutely necessary for 
executing its inspection laws; and the 
net produce of all duties and imposts, laid 
by any State on imports or exports, shall 
be for the use of the Treasury of the 
United States; and all such laws shall 
be subject to the revision and control of 
the Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent 
of Congress, lay any duty or tonnage, 
keep troops or ships of war in time of 
peace, enter into any agreement or com* 
pact with another State, or with a for* 
eign power, or engage in war, unless 
actually invaded, or in such imminent 
danger as will not admit of delay. 

Article II, Executive Power, in WhoiD 

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ITnited States 

ITnited States 

Vested. — Section I. 1. The Executive 
power shall be vested in a President of 
the United Sutes of America. He shall 
hold his office during the term of f«ur 
years, and, together with the Vice-Presi- 
dent, chosen for the same term, be elected 
as follows: 

Electors. — 2. Each State shall ap- 
point, in such manner as the Legislature 
thereof mav direct, a number of electors, 
equal to the whole number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the State 
may be entitled in the Congress; but no 
Senator or Representative or person 
holding an office of trust or profit under 
the United States shall be appointed an 

Proceedings of Electors. — Proceed- 
ings of the House of Representatives. — 
3. The electors shall meet in their re- 
spective States and vote by ballot for 
two persons, of whom one at least shall 
not be an inhabitant of the same State 
with themselves. And they shall make 
a list of all the persons voted for, and 
of the number of votes for each, which 
list they shall sign and certify, and trans- 
mit, sealed, to the seat of the Govern- 
ment of the United States, directed to 
the President of the Senate. The Presi- 
dent of the Senate shall, in the presence 
of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, open all the certificatei, and the 
votes shall then be counted. The person 
having the greatest number of votes shall 
be the President, if such number be a 
majority of the whole number of electors 
appointed, and if there be more than one 
who have such majority, and have an 
eoual number of votes, then the House 
of Representatives shall immediately 
choose by ballot one of them for Presi- 
dent; and if no person have a majority, 
then from the five highest on the list the 
said House shall in like manner choose 
the President. But in choosing the 
President, the vote shall be taken bv 
States, the representation from each 
State having one vote. A ouorum, for 
this purpose shall consist of a member 
or members from two-thirds of the 
States, and a majority of all the States 
shall be necessary to a choice. In every 
case, after the choice of the President, 
the person having the greatest number 
of votes of the electors shall be the Vice- 
President. But if there should remain 
two or more who have equal votes, the 
Senate shall choose from them by ballot 
the Vice-President.* 

Time of Choosing Electors. — 4 The 
Congress may determine the time of 

* This cUnte it tuperteded by Artlold XTT, 

choosing the electors, and the day oo 
which tney shall give their votes, which 
day shall be the same throughout the 
United States. 

Qualifications of the President-— 6. 
No person except a natural-bom citixen, 
or a citizen of the United States at the 
time of the adoption of this Constitution, 
shall be eligible to the office of Presi- 
dent; neither shall any person be eligible 
to that office who shall not have attained 
to the age of thirty-five years and been 
fourteen years a resident within the 
United States. 

Provision in Case of His Disability.— 
6. In case of the removal of the Presi- 
dent from office, or of his death, resigna- 
tion, or inability to discharge the powers 
and duties of the said office, the same 
shall devolve on the Vice-President and 
the Congress may by law provide for the 
case of removal, death, resignation, or 
inability, both of the President and Vice- 
President, declaring what officer shall 
then act as President, and such officer 
shall act accordingly, until the disability 
be removed or a President shall be 

Salary of the President — 7. The 
President shall, at stated times, receive 
for his services a compensation which 
shall neither be increased nor diminished 
during the period for which he shall have 
been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that period any other emolument 
from the United States, or any of them. 

Oath of the President — 8. Before he 
enter on the execution of his office he 
shall take the following oath or affirma- 

* I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that 
I will faithfully execute the office of 
President of the United States, and will, 
to the best of my ability, preserve, pro- 
tect and defend the Constitution of the 
United States.* 

Duties of the President. — Section II. 
1. The President shall be Commander- 
in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the 
United States, and of the militia of the 
several States when called Into the 
actual service of the United States; he 
may require the opinion, in writing, of 
the principal officer in each of the execu- 
tive departments upon any subject re- 
lating to the duties of their respective 
offices, and he shall have power to grant 
reprieves and pardons for offences against 
the United States except in cases of im- 

May Make Treaties, Appoint Ambassa- 
dors, Judges, etc. — 2. He shall have 
power, by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate, to make treaties, 
provided two-thifdt of the Seoatom piee- 

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TTnited States 

ent concur; and he shall nominate, and 
by and with the advice and consent of 
the Senate, shall appoint ambasBadors, 
other public ministers and consuls, 
judges of the Supreme Court, and all 
other officers of the United States whose 
appointments are not herein otherwise 

f>royidcd for, and which sliall be estab- 
ished by law; but the Congress may by 
law vest the appointment of such in- 
ferior officers as they think proper in the 
President alone, in the courts of law, or 
in the heads of departments. 

May Fill Vacancies. — 3. The Presi- 
dent shall have power to fill up all vacan- 
cies that may happen during the recess 
of the Senate by granting commissions, 
which shall expire at the end of their 
next session. 

May Make Recommendations to and 
Convene Congress. — Section III. He 
shall from time to time give to the Con- 
gress information of the state of the 
union, and recommend to their con- 
sideration such measures as he shall 
judge necessary and expedient; he may, 
on extraordinary occasions, convene both 
Houses, or either of them, and in case of 
disagreement between them, with respect 
to the time of adjournment, he may ad- 
journ them to such time as he shall think 
proper; he shall receive ambassadors and 
other public ministers ; he shall take care 
that the laws be faithfully executed, and 
shall commission all the officers of the 
United States. 

How Officers May be Removed. — Sio- 
TION IV. The President, Vice-Presi- 
dent, and all civil officers of the United 
States shall be removed from office on 
impeachment for, and conviction of, 
treason, bribery, or other high crimes and 

Article IIL Judicial Power, How 
Vested. — Section I. The judicial 
power of the United States shall be 
vested in one Supreme Court, and in 
■och inferior courts as the Congress may 
from time to time ordain and establish. 
The judges, both of the Supreme and in- 
ferior courts, shall hold their offices dur- 
ing good behavior, and shall, at stated 
times, receive for their services a com- 
pensation which shall not be diminished 
daring their continuance in office. 

To What Cases it Extends. — Section 
II. L The judicial power shall extend 
to all cases, in law and equity, arising 
under this Constitution, the laws of the 
United States, and treaties made, or 
which shall be made, under their au- 
thority; to all cases affecting ambassa- 
dors, other public ministers, and consuls ; 
to all cases of admiralty and maritime 
jari idktiptt;, to contronrersies to whiqh 

the United States shall be a party; to 
controversies between two or more 
States; between a State and citizens of 
another State; between citlxens of dif- 
ferent States; between citizens of the 
same State, claiming lands under grants 
of different States, and between a State, 
or the citizens thereof, and foreign 
States, citizens or subjects. 

Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court — 
2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, 
other public ministers, and consuls, and 
those in which a State shall be party, 
the Supreme Court shall have original 
jurisdiction. In all the other cases be- 
fore-mentioned the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to 
law and fact, with such exceptions and 
under such regulations as the Congress 
shall make. 

Rules Respecting Trials. — 3. The 
trial of all crimes, except in cases of im- 
peachment, shall be by jury, and such 
trial shall be held in the State where the 
said crimes shall have been committed: 
but when not committed within any 
Stats the trial shall be at such place or 
places as the Congress may by law have 

Treason Defined. — Section III. 1. 
Treason against the United States shall 
consist only in levying war against them, 
or in adhering to their enemies, giving 
them aid and comfort No person shall 
be convicted of treason unless on the 
testimony of two witnesses to the same 
overt act, or on confession in open 

How Punished.— 2. The Congress 
shall have power to declare the punish- 
ment of treason, but no attainder of 
treason shall work corruption of blood 
or forfeiture except during the life of 
the person attainted. 

Article IV. Rights of States and 
Records. — Section I. Full faith and 
credit shall be given in each State to the 
public acts, records, and judicial pro- 
ceedings of every other State. And the 
Congress may by general laws prescribe 
the manner in which such acts, records, 
and proceedings shall be proved, and the 
effect thereof. 

Privileges of Citizens. — Section II. 
1. The citizens of each State shall be 
entitled to all privileges and immunities 
of citizens in the several States. 

Executive Requisitions. — 2. A person 
charged in any State with treason, fel- 
ony, or other crime, who shall flee from 
justice, and be found in another State, 
shall, on demand of the Executive au- 
thority of the State from which he fled, 
be delivered up, to be removed to tha 
State haviag Joriadictioa of the crim^ 

Digitized by 



United States United States 

Laws Regulating Service or Labor. — this Constitntion as under the Confedera* 

3. No person held to service or labor in tion. 

one State, under the laws thereof, escap- Supreme Law of the Land Defined.— 

ing into another, shall, in consequence 2. This Constitution and the laws of the 

of any law or regulation therein, be dis- United States which shall be made in 

charged from such service or labor, but pursuance thereof and all treaties made, 

shall be delivered up on claim of the or which shall be made, under the au- 

party to whom such service or labor thority of the United States, shall be 

may be due. the supreme law of the land, and the 

New States, How Formed and Ad- judges in every State shall be bound 

mitted. — Section II L 1. New States thereby, anything in the Constitution or 

may be admitted by the Congress into laws of any State to the contrary not- 

this Union, but no new State shall be withstanding. 

formed or erected within the jurisdiction Oath: of Whom Required and for 
of any other State, nor any State be What — 3. The Senators and Represen- 
formed by the junction of two or more tatives before mentioned, and the mem- 
States, or parts of States, without the bers of the several State Legislatures, 
consent of the Legislatures of the States and all executive and judicial officers, 
concerned, as well as of the Congress. both of the United States, and of the 

Power of Congress over Public Lands, several States, shall be bound by oath or 

— 2. The Congress shall have power to affirmation to support this Constitution; 
dispose of and make all needful rules but no religious test shall ever be re- 
and regulations respecting the territory quired as a qualification to any office or 
or other property belonging to the United public trust under the United States. 
States; and nothing in this Constitution Article 17/. Ratification of the Con- 
shall be so construed as to prejudice any stitution. — The ratification of the Con- 
claims of the United States, or of any ventions of nine States shall be sufficient 
particular State. for the establishment of this Constitu- 

Republican Government Quaranteed. — tion between the States so ratifying the 

Section IV. The United States shall same, 
guarantee to every State in this Union 

a republican form of ffovemment, and Done in Convention by the unanimous 

shall protect each of tnem against in- consent of the States present the seven- 

vasion; and, on application of the Leg- teenth day of September, in the year of 

islature, or of the Executive (when the our Lord one thousand seven hundred 

Legislature cannot be convened), against and eighty-seven, and of the Independ- 

domestic violence. ence of the United States of America 

Article V, Constitution, How Amended, the twelfth. In witness whereof we 

— The Congress, whenever two-thirds of have hereunto subscribed our names, 
both Houses shall deem it necessary, Go: Washington, 

shall propose amendments to this Con- Presidt. and Deputy from Virginia, 
stitution, or, on the application of the 

Legislatures of two-thirds of the several Avinvm*irwT« -m twit nmcaTTTTTT^nw 

States, shall call a convention for pro- Amendments to the constitution 

posing amendments, which, in either *_,. » . j..^. ^ .4 j ^ 

case, shall be valid to all intents and pur- AT**^^^ tn addttton to, and Amen^^i 

poses, as part of this Constitution, when ^f/ *}^ Cpmt%tut%on of the United States 

ratified by the Legislatures of three- of America, proposed hy Congress, and 

fourths of the several States, or by con- ^V*^^ ^^ *^ h^^^V'''1S:Z{ *^l/-^?^i 

ventions in three-fourths thereof, as the fi""*^*. Pursuant to the Fifth ArUole of 

one or the other mode of ratification may **^ prtgtnal Constitution. 
be proposed by the Congress; provided 

that no amendment which may be made Article I, Religion and Free Speech, 
prior to the year one thousand eight hun- —Congress shall make no law respecting 
dred and eight shall in any manner affect an establishment of religion, or pro- 
the first and fourth clauses in the Ninth hibiting the free exercise thereof; or 
Section of the First Article; and that abridging the freedom of speech or 01 the 
no State, without its consent, shall be press; or the right of the people peace- 
deprived of its equal suffrage in the ably to assemble, and to petition the 
Senate. Government for a redress of grievances. 
Article VL Validity of Debts Recog- Article II. Rieht to Bear Arms.— A 
nized. — L All debts contracted and en- well-regulated mintia being necessary to 
gagements entered into before the the security of a free State, the right of 
adoption of this Constitution shall be as* the people to keep and bear arms shaJl 
valid against the United States under not be infrmged. « 

Digitized by 


United States TTnited States 

Artide III. Soldiers in Time of United States by the Constitution, nor 
Peace. — No soldier shall, in time of prohibited by it to the States, are re- 
peace, be quartered in any house without served to the States respectively, or to 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of the people. 

war but in a manner to be prescribed by Article XL Judicial Power.— The 

law. judicial power of the United States shall 

Article IV, Right of Search. — The pot be construed to extend to any suit 
right of the people to be secure in their iQ Iaw or equity, commenced or prose- 
persons, houses, papers, and effects, cuted agahist one of the United States, 
against unreasonable searches and seiz- by citizens of another State, or by citi- 
ures, shall not be violated, and no war- sens or subjects of any foreign State, 
rants shall issue but upon probable Article XII. Electors in Presidental 
cause, supported by oath or affirmation. Elections. — The electors shall meet in 
and particularly describing the place to their respective States, and vote by bal- 
be searched, and the persons or things lot for President and Vice-President, one 
to be seized. of whom at least shall not be an inhabi- 

Artide F. Capital Crimes and Arrest tant of the same State with themselves; 
Therefor. — No person shall be held to they shall name in their ballots the per- 
answer for a capital or other infamous ^^ voted for as President, and in dis- 
crime, unless on a presentment or indict- tinct ballots the person voted for as 
ment of a grand jury, except in cases Vice-President; and they shall make 
arising in the land or naval forces, or in distinct lists of all persons voted for as 
the militia, when in actual service, in President, and of all persons voted for 
time of war or public danger; nor shall as Vice-President, and of the number of 
any person be subject for the same votes for each, which lists they shall 
offence to be twice put in jeopardy of »*«?» and certify, and transmit, sealed, to 
life or limb ; nor shall be compelled in the seat of the Government of the United 
any criminal case to be a witness against States^ directed to the President of the 
himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty. Senate; the President of the Senate 
or property, without due process of law; shall, in the presence of the Senate and 
nor shall private property be taken for House of Representatives, open all the 
public use without just compensation. certificates, and the votes shall then be 

Article VI, Right to Speedy Trial. — counted; the person having the greatest 
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused number of votes for President shall be 
shall enjoy the right to a speedy and the President, if such number be a ma- 
public trial, by an impartial jury of the jority of the whole number of electors 
State and district wherein the crime appointed; and if no person have such 
shall have been committed, which dis- majority, then from the persons having 
trict shall have been previously ascer- the highest numbers, not exceeding three, 
talned by law, and to be informed of the on the list of those voted for as Presi- 
nature and cause of the accusation; to dent, the House of Representatives shall 
be confronted with the witnesses against choose immediately, bv ballot, the Presi- 
bim; to have compulsory process for ob- dent. But in choosing the President, 
taining witnesses in his favor, and to the votes shall be taken by States, the 
have the assistar.ce of counsel for his representation from each State having 
defence. one vote; a quorum for this purpose 

Article VII, Trial by Jury. — In suits shall consist of a member or members 

at common law, where the value in con- from two-thirds of the States, and a ma- 

troversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the jority of all the States shall be neces- 

right of trial by jury shall be preserved, sary to a choice. And if the House of 

and no fact tried bv a jury shall be other- Representatives shall not choose a Presi- 

wise reexamined in any court of the dent, whenever the right of choice shall 

United States than according to the rules devolve upon them, before the fourth 

of the common law. day of March next following, then the 

Article VIII, Excessive Bail. — Ex- Vice-President shall act as President, as 

cessive ball shall not be required, nor in the case of the death or other consti- 

excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and tutional disability of the President 

unusual punishments inflicted. The person having the greatest number of 

Article IX, Enumeration of Rights, votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice- 

— The enumeration in the Constitution President, if such number be a majority 
of certain rights shall not be construed of the whole number of electors ap- 
to deny or disparage others retained by pointed, and if no person have a ma- 
the people. jority, then from the two highest 

Article X. Reserved Rights of States, nombers on the list the Senate shall 

— The powers not delegated to the choose the Vice-President; a quorum tot 

Digitized by 


TJnited States TJnited States 

the purpose shall consist of two-thirds States, shall have engaged ia iiunirre6» 

of the whole number of Senators, and a tlon or rebellion asamst the tame, or 

majority of the whole number shall be given aid and comfort to the enemies 

necessary to a choice. But no person thereof. But Congress may, by a vote 

constitutionally ineligible to the office of of two-thirds of each House, remove 

President shall be eligible to that of such disability. 

Vice-President of the United States. The Public Debt— 4. The validity of 

Article XIII. Slavery Prohibited. — the public debt of the United States, 

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary serv- authorized by law, including debts in- 
itude, except as a punishment for crime curred for payment of pensions and 
whereof the party shall have been duly bounties for services in suppressing in- 
convicted, shall exist within the United surrection or rebellion, shall not be 
States, or any place subject to their questioned. But neither the United 
jurisdiction. States nor any State shall assume or 

2. Congress shall have power to en- pa^ any debt or obligation incurred in 

force this article by appropriate l^^la- aid of insurrection or rebellion against 

tion. the United States, or any claim for the 

Article XIV. Protection for all Citl- loss or emancipation of any slave: but 

sens. — 1. All persons bom or natural- all such debts, obligations, and claims 

ized in the United States, and subject to shall be held illegal and void, 

the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of 5. The Congress shall have power to 

the United States and of the State enforce, by appropriate legislation, tn« 

wherein they reside. No State shall provisions of this article, 

make or enforce any law which shall Article XV, Right of Suffrage. — 1. 

abridge the privileges or immunities of The right of the citizens of the united 

citizen* of the United States; nor shall States to vote shall not be denied or 

any State deprive any person of life, abridged by the United States or by any 

liberty, or property without due process State on account of race, color or 

of law, nor deny to any person within previous condition of servitude, 

its jurisdiction the equal protection of 2. The Congress shall have power to 

the laws. enforce the provisions of this article by 

Apportionment of Representatives. — appropriate legislation. 

2. Kepresentatives shall be apportioned ArUcle XVI, The Congress shall have 
among the several States according to power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, 
their respective numbers, counting the irom whatever source derived, without 
whole number of persons in each State, apportionment, among the several states, 
excluding Indians not taxed. But when and without regard to any census or 
the right to vote at any election for the enumeration. 

pllMon^f^nT^Jh! nni^If'tt^^o^^^^ ^rticU XV IL The Senate of the 

f/n?«H?ai ^n^^Poilr^ ^J^^^.SSFfv'a ^^ited Statcs shall be comoosed of two 

fnTlnXioi nffi^oSf^'p «fof. ^^^ Senators from each State, elected by the 

mal»l« nf ?^^T^J^L^.^^fL.2L^^. Reople thereof, for six years; and each 

3i^^ fn Inl nf^Si^u i^ifJS?/' is Senator shall have one vote. The elec- 

«ri.^h S^-^^i^fni^'^f ^'winfi^^n^^^^^ tors iu each State shall have the quaU- 

Sf ll}lTMf^^^.f,y:T^l.J^\l!fI^ fications requisite for electors of the most 

oi ?f '«SS Jal oStiHSi^oF^l.f'^f^^^ numerous branch of the State Legis- 

or in any way abndged, except for par- i«f«-oa 

ticipation in rebellion or other crime, the w^« «*.a«..^a. i«.».«^.. i« ♦v^ «^^«- 

basis of representation therein shall be ^^S^rT^^J'J^^^fF^^^ ^^^I^^It^ 

reduced in the proportion which the ^^^^iJL^'L^^ll^^ 

number of such male citizens shall bear fii^"'t^**''5^i^i.rt^' T fii?*^.!,'^ 

to the whole number of male cithtens iX1p«^^v?iJ tSof^h^rSj.!^^^^^ 

twenty-one years of age in such State, nancies, provided that the Legiriature of 

Rebenion Aiainst the Unh^ Stftt«L ^?^ ^>*^ ^^^ empower the Executive 

Ket^iiion Against the ^mt^ Stat«k ^Yi^^^^i to make temporary appointments 

Repre^eU^U^^n^cSL^^^^ ^^..^I^^^'L^.^ l^^i^^ 

President and Vice-President, or hold «^^^^o° ^ «!« Legislature may direct 

any office, civil or military, under the Ratification or the Constitution. 

United States, or under any State, who. The Constitution was ratified by the 

having previously taken an oath, as a thirteen original States in the following 

member of Congress, or as an officer of order: 

the United States, or as a member of Delaware, December 7, J'W, unani- 

any State Legislature, or as an execu- mously. 

tive or judicial officer of any State, to Pennsylvania, December 12i 1*97. tocs 

support the Constitution of the United 46 to 23. 

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United States ITnited States 

New Jersey, December 18, 1787, unani- nor can I forget, as an encouragement to 

moQsly. it, your indulgent reception of my senU- 

Oeorfia, January 2, 1788, unanimously, ments on a former and not dissimilar 

Connecticut January 0, 1788, vote 128 occasion. Interwoven as is the loye of 

to 40. liberty with every ligament of your 

Massachusetts, February 6, 1788, vote hearts, no recommendation of mine is 

_ 187 to 168. ^ ^ ^^ necessary to fortify or confirm the at- 

MaryUind, April 28, 1788, vote 63 to 12. tachment 

South Carolina, May 28, 1788, vote 140 The unity of government, which con- 

to 78. stitutes you one people, is also now 

New Hampshire, June 21, 1788, vote 57 ^j^^ j^ ^^^^ i^ isHusUy so; for it is 

tri!^ . T «te iToo ^ oo « TO * DoaJn pillar in the edifice of your real 

Virgima, June 25^788, vote 89 to 79. indepenrf?nce — the support ot your 

^^^^Jn^Jl^^^^^J^^ vote ao to^ tranSuillity at home, your peace abroad, 

^^i'^ P*?K*°* November 21, 1789, vote ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^y of /our prosperity, of 

R^^Al^d. May 29, 1790, vote M pL''''Uut''^l! in^ti tHor^See'ffi 

^" **• from different causes and from different 

Ratification or thb Amendicents quarters, much pains will be taken, 

December 15. 17~- ^ , ^ as this is the point in your political 

XI vw declared in force January 8. fortress against which the batteries of 
1798. internal and external enemies will be 

XII regulating elections, was declared in most constantly and actively (though 
force September 28, 1804. often covertly and insidiously) directed 

XIIL The emandpation amendment -T^*,> ^' infinite moment that you 

was proclaimed December 18, 1865. should properly estimate the immense 

XIV. Reconstruction amendment was ^*,\"®,,^^ ^^^^ 5?^^S'^^' u"°K" '^ li^l 

proclaimed July 28, 1868. collective and individual happ new ; that 

▼V nj^^mm^ ^Txm^I^t^ «.M«««;i«MA..f ^o. V^^ shouW cherish a cordial, habitual 

^;w,i!fSS ^f^fc'ft? amwidment was J^^d immovable attachment to it; ac- 

^J!?**ii? .^*^* ' ^ . ^ customing yourselves to think and speak 

Xvl. The income tax amendment be- of it as of the palladium of your polit- 

came a provision of the Constitution, iod safety and prosperity; watching for 

February 8, 1918. its preservation with jealous anxiety; 

XVn. Popular election of Senators be- discountenancing whatever may suggest 

came a provision of the Constitution, even a suspicion that it can, in any 

April 8. 1913. event, be abandoned ; and indignantly 

• -«^^ ^ .«♦•.. , , frowning upon the first dawning of every 

In 1796 George Washington took leave attempt to alienate any portion of our 

of the people in a famous address. Its country from the rest, or to enfeeble the 

concluding portions are here given: sacred ties which now link together the 

various parts. 

TirAanTxrnmrki^*a V4i>VTrr«TT ^^' '^^® ^^^ ^^® ®V«T inducement of 

WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL sympathy and interest Citiaens by 

ADDtil!i»B birth or choice of a common country, 

Here, perhaps, I ought to stop; but a that country has a right to concentrate 

solicitude for your welfare, which can- your affections. The name of America, 

not end but with my life, and the appre- which belongs to you in your national 

hension of danger natural to that capacity, must alwajrs exalt the just 

solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like pride of patriotism, more than any ap- 

the present, to offer to your solemn con- pellation derived from local discrimina- 

templation, and to recommend to your tions. With slight shades of differences, 

frequent review, some sentiments, which vou have the same religion, manners, 

are the result of much refiection, of no habits, and political principles. You 

inconsiderable observation, and which have, in a ^mmon cause, fought and 

appear to me all-important to the per- triumphed together; the independence 

manency of your felicity as a people, and liberty vou possess are the work of 

These will be afforded to you with the joint counsels and joint efforts, of com- 

more freedom, as you can only see in mon dangers, sufferings and successes, 

them the disinterested warnings of a It is important, likewise, that the 

parting friend, who can iKtssibly have habits of thinking, in a free country. 

Qo personal motive to bias his counsel; should inspire caution in those in- 

Digitized by 


United States 

United States 

trusted with its administration, to con- 
fine themselyes within their respective 
constitutional spheres, avoiding In the 
exercise of the powers of one department, 
to encroach upon another. The spirit 
of encroachment tends to consolidate the 
powers of all the departments in one, 
and thus to create, whatever the form 
of government, a real despotism. A just 
estimate of that love of power, and 
proneness to abuse it whicn predomi- 
nates in the human heart, is sufficient 
to satisfy us of the truth of this posi- 
tion. The necessity of reciprocal checks 
in the exercise of political power, by 
dividing and distributing it into dif- 
ferent depositories, and constituting 
each the guardian of the public weal, 
against invasions by the others, has been 
evinced by experiments, ancient and 
modern; some of them in our own coun- 
try and under our own eyes. To pre- 
serve them must be as necessary as to 
institute them. If, in the opinion of the 
people, the distribution or modification 
of the constitutional powers be, in any 
particular, wronjj, let it be corrected by 
an amendment m the way which the 
Constitution designates. But let there 
be no change or usurpation; for though 
this, in one instance, may be the instru- 
ment of good, it is the customary weapon 
by which free governments are destroyed. 
The precedent must always greatly over- 
balance, in permanent evil, and partial 
or transient benefit, which the use can, 
at any time yield. 

Observe good faith and justice toward 
all nations; cultivate peace and har- 
mony with all; religion and morality 
enjoin this conduct; and can it be that 
good policy does not equally enjoin it? 
It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, 
and, at no distant period, a great nation, 
to give to mankind the magnanimous 
and too novel example of a people al- 
ways guided by an exalted justice and 
benevolence. Who can doubt that, in 
the course of times and things, the fruits 
of such a plan would richly repay any 
temporary advantages which mieht be 
lost by a steady adherence to it? Can 
it be that Providence has not connected 
the permanent felicity of a nation with 
its virtue? The experiment, at least, is 
recommended by every sentiment which 
ennobles human nature. Alas! is it ren- 
dered impossible by its vices? 

Against the insidious wiles of foreign 
influence (I conjure you to believe me, 
fellow-citizens) the jealousy of a free 
people ought to constantly awake; since 
history and experience prove that for- 
eign influence is one of the most baneful 
foes of republican government. But 

that jealousy to be useful, must be im- 
partial; else it becomes the instrum^it 
of the very influence to be avoided, in- 
stead of a defence against it Excessive 
partiality for one foreign nation, and 
excessive dislike for another, cause those 
whom they actuate to see danger only 
on one side, and serve to veil, and even 
second, the arts of influence ob the other. 
Real patriots, who may resist the in- 
trigues of the favorite, are liable to be- 
come suspected and odious, while its 
tools and dupes usurp the applause and 
confidence of the people, to surrender 
their interests. 

The great rule of conduct for us in re- 
f^rd to foreign nations, is, in extend- 
ing our commercial relations, to have 
with them as little political connection 
as possible. So far as we have already 
formed engagements, let them be ful- 
filled with perfect good faith. Here let 
us stop. Europe has a set of primary 
interests, which to us have none, or a 
very remote relation. Hence she must 
be engaged in frequent controversies, the 
causes of which are essentially foreign 
to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it 
must be unwise in us to implicate our- 
selves by artificial ties, in the ordinary 
vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordi- 
nary combinations and collision of her 
friendships or enmities. Our detached 
and distant situation invites and en- 
ables us to pursue a different course. 
If we remain one people under an effi- 
cient government, the period is not far 
off when we may defy material injury 
from external annoyance; when we may 
take such an attitude as will cause the 
neutrality we may at any time resolve 
upon, to be scrupulously respected ; when 
belligerent nations, under the impossi- 
bility of making acquisitions upon us, 
will not lightly hazard the giving us 
provocation; when we may choose peace 
or war, as our interest, guided by jus- 
tice, shall counsel. 

In offering to you. my countrymen 
these counsels of an old and affectionate 
friend, I dare not hope that they will 
make the strong and lasting impression 
I could wish ; that they will control the 
usual current of the passions, or prevent 
our nation from running the course 
which hitherto has marked the destiny 
of nations; but if I may even flatter 
myself that they may be productive of 
some partial benefit; some occasional 
good; that they may now and then recur 
to moderate the fury of party spirit, to 
warn against the mischiefs of foreign 
intrigues, to guard against the impos- 
tures of pretended patriotism; this hope 
will be full recompense for the solicitude 

Digitized by 


TTnited States 

TTnited States 

for your welfare by which they have 
been dictated. 

Qeobge Washington. 

United States, September 17, 1796. 

Next in order in the series of famous 
American documents is the * Monroe Doc- 
trine/ issued in 1823 as part of Presi- 
dent Monroe's message to Ck>ngress in 
that year. Spain had long been hav- 
ing trouble with her American colonies 
and there was serious danger of some of 
the other nations of Europe giving her 
aid and receiving American territory in 
exchange. Russia was also seeking to 
extend its holdings on the Pacific coast. 
Under these threatening circumstances 
Monroe gave warning to all ambitious 
nations that the United States would 
not stand idly by and see the southern 
republics seized by any foreign power. 
This declaration holds good to-day and 
has been frequently invoked as a warn- 
ing to European powers to keep off of 
American soil. We give below the text 
of this significant declaration of Amer- 
ican policy, the recognized political prin- 
ciple of * America for the Americans.' 


In the discussions to which this inter- 
est has given rise, and in the arrange- 
ments by which they mav terminate, the 
occasion has been deemed proper for as- 
serting, as a principle in which rights 
and interests of the United States are 
involved, that the American continents, 
by the free and independent condition 
which they have assumed and maintain, 
are henceforth not to be considered as 
subjects for future colonization by any 
European power. . . . We owe it, there- 
fore, to candor and to the amicable rela- 
tions existing between the United States 
and those powers to declare that we 
should consider any attempt on their 
part to extend their sjrstem to any por- 
tion of this hemisphere as dangerous to 
our peace and safety. With the existing 
colonies or dependencies of any £}uro- 
pean power we have not interfered and 
shall not interfere. But with the gov- 
ernments who have declared their inde- 
pendence and maintain it, and whose 
independence we have, on great con- 
sideration and on Just principles, 
acknowledged, we could not view any 
interposition for the purpose of oppress- 
ing them or controlling in any other 
manner their destiny by any European 
power in any other light than as the 
manifestation of an uc^riendly disposi- 
tion toward the United States. 

Though this doctrine has the weight 

only of an executive statement, it has 
been maintaiaed as resolutely as though 
it were a section of the Ck>nstitution, be- 
ing invoked on several occasions, and 
especially in that of the occupation of 
Mexico by France during the American 
Civil war. European nations have rarely 
ventured to disregard it, and never suc- 

The most perilous threat against the 
stability of the Union came in later 
years, when the great controversy be- 
tween the advocates of slavery and 
emancipation arose. It led, as all 
know, to one of the greatest wars of 
the nineteenth century, the struggle in 
the field between the parties which had 
for years contended on the rostrum. In 
the midst of this great war President 
Lincoln issued a proclamation of free- 
dom for the slaves which the event of 
the war lifted into the category of the 
great State papers of the United States. 
Its terms have since been accepted by 
North and South alike. The text of 
this proclamation is here given: 


Whereas, On the twenty-second day 
of September, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty- 
two, a proclamation was issued by tne 
President of the United States, contain- 
ing among other things the following, 
to wit: 

'That on the first day of January, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-three, all persons held 
as slaves within any State or designated 
part of a State, the people whereof shall 
then be in rebellion against the United 
States, shall be then, thenceforward, and 
forever free; and the executive govern- 
ment of the United States, including the 
military and naval authority thereof, 
will recognize and maintain the freedom 
of such persons, and will do no act or 
acts to repress such persons, or any of 
them, in any efforts tney may make for 
their actual freedom. 

'That the Executive will, on the first 
day of January aforesaid, by proclama- 
tion, designate the States and parts of 
States, if any, in which the people 
thereof, respectively, shall then be in 
rebellion against the United States; and 
the fact that any State, or the people 
thereof, shall on that day be in good 
faith represented in the Congress of the 
United States, by members chosen 
thereto at elections wherein a majority 
of the qualified voters of such State 
shall have participated, shall, in the ab- 
sence of strong countervailing testimony, 

Digitized by 



United States United States 

be deemed conclusive eyidence that such to be an act of justice, warranted by the 

State, and the people thereof, are not Constitution upon military necessity, I 

then in rebellion against the United inyolce the considerate judgment of man* 

States.' kind and the gracious iayor of Almighty 

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, God. 
President of the United States, by vir- 
tue of the power in me vested as com- In witness whereof I have hereunto 
mander-in-chief of the army and navy set my hand and caused the seal 
of the United States, in time of actual of the United States to be affixed, 
armed rebellion asainst the authority Done at the citr of Washington, 
and government of the United States, this first day of January, in the 
and as a fit and necessary war measure year of our Lord one thousand 
for suppressing said rebellion, do, on eight hundred and sixty-three, 
this first day of January, in the year of and of the Independence of the 
our Lord one thousand eight hundred United States of America the 
and sixty-three, and in accordance with eighty-seventh, 
my purpose so to do, publicly proclaimed *.«.«.,, t^^»* 
for the full period of one hundred days Abrahau Lxncout. 
from the day first above menttoned. q^^ ^^j^ ^^i^f 5^t notable declara- 
order and desUmate as the States and ^ion from President Lincoln will suffice 
parts of States wherein the people ^^ ^^^^ ^his series of naUonal docu- 
thereof, respecUvely. are this day In re- ^^^^^ ^ ^ y^ ^^dress at the dedica- 
bellion against the United States, the tj^n ^f Gettysburg Cemetery, November 
following, to wit: 19 igQ^ j^ j^g ^i^^^ been regarded as 

Aransas, Texaj I^uisiana (except ^ '^^ p^„ unsurpassed f^ dignity 

L^t^esT^Sl'^ei;.?:!^ cte ^^^-'^^^ '- '^^ --^^'' ^'^^^' 
lonnrLif^efst''^^^^^^^^ LINCOLN'S GETTYSBURG SPEECH 
tin and Orleans, including the city of Fourscore and seven years ago our 
New Orleans), Mississippi, Alabama, fathers brought forth upon this conti- 
Florida, Georflda, South Carolina, North nent a new nation, conceived in liberty. 
Carolina and Virginia (except the forty- and dedicated to the proposition that all 
eight counties designated as West Vir- men are created equal 
ginia, and also the counties of Berkeley, Now we are engaged in a great dvfl 
Accomac Northampton, Elizabeth City, war, testing whether that nation, or any 
York, Princess Anne and Norfolk, in- nation so conceived and so dedicated, can 
eluding the cities of Norfolk and Ports- long endure. We are met on a great 
mouth) ; and which excepted parts are, battlefield of that war. We are met to 
for the present, left precisely as if this dedicate a portion of it as the final rest- 
proclamation were not issued. ing-place of those who here gave their 

And by virtue of the power, and for lives that that nation might live. It is 

the purpose aforesaid, I do order and de- altogether fitting and proper that we 

clare that all persons held as slaves should do this. 

within said designated States, and parts But in a larger sense we cannot dedi- 

of States, are and henceforward shall be cate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot 

free, and the executive government of the hallow this ground. The brave men, liv- 

United States, including the military and ing and dead, who struggled here have 

naval authorities thereof, will recognise consecrated it far above our power to add 

and maintain the freedom of said per- or detract The world will little note 

sons. nor long remember what we say here but 

And I hereby enjoin upon the people it can never forget what they did here, 

so declared to be free to abstain from It is for us, the living, rather to be dedi- 

all violence, unless in necessary self-de- cated here to the unfinished work that 

fence; and I recommend to them that in they have thus far so nobly carried on. 

all cases when allowed, they labor faith- It is rather for us to be here dedicated 

fully for reasonable wages. to the great task remaining before us; 

And I further declare and make that from these honored dead we take 

known, that such persons, of suitable increased devotion to the cause for which 

condition, will be received into the armed they here gave the last full measure of 

service of the United States to garrison devotion ; that we here hiffhlv resolve 

forts, positions, stations, and other that the dead shall not have died in vain ; 

glaoes, and to man vessels of all sorts that the nation shall, under God, have a 

1 said service. new birth of freedom, and that govern- 

And c^oo this act, sincerely believed ment of the people, by the people, and 

Digitized by 


Vnited States 

ITnited States 

for tb« people, ehall not perish from tbe 

The poUtleal oondidon of the United 
States, as it at present stands, is a re- 
sult of the several stages of soyem* 
mental evolntion above deocribea, and 
especially of the operation of the Gon- 
stitntioQ, the basis of the Federal Union 
of the States. This Constitution em- 
bodies the general principles of govern- 
ment adapted to the orcanisation of such 
a union, the result being that when 
particular questions have arisen in tbe 
history of the nation, it has frequently 
become the duty of the Supreme Court 
to decide on the constitutionality of such 
questions. Thus numerous acts have 
been passed by Congress tbe agreement 
of which with the Constitution was 
doubtfuL It is not the dutv of the Su- 
preme Court to deal with such acts unless 
a suit is brought bv some party or par> 
ties to determine their constitutionality, 
in which case the Supreme Court takes 
the matter in hand and renders a decision 
as to whether they are in harmony with 
the Constitution or the contrary. Such 
a dedsion is final and by this means the 
intmity of the Constitution against dis- 
cordant acts of Congress is preserved and 
its exact significance developed. In this 
way the Supreme Court of tbe United 
States has become a great balance wheel 
by the aid of which the course of gov- 
ernment is made to run true. It may be 
further stated here that tbe Constitu- 
tion of the United States differs from 
that of Qreat Britain in being a written 
document, inflexible in its provisions, 
while that of Great Britain is, properly 
considered, not a constitution at all, but 
simply an aggregation of the many acts 
of Parliament, which is changed or added 
to by every new Parliamentarv measure. 
The general organization of the Federal 
republic is as follows: Tbe powers of 
the national government are of broad 
and general scope, embracing those sub- 
jects that affect the country as a whole 
or pass beyond the borders of any single 
State, including the relations of the coun- 
try to foreign nations and of tbe States 
to each other. Under this general gov- 
ernmental organisation lie tbe several 
States, each a sovereign commonwealth 
within its own borders and with ffO\ em- 
mental control over all subjects that re- 
late to itself alone, or to intrastate as 
distinct from interstate interests. Thus 
each State has duties of importance be- 
longing to itself, outside of tbe jurisdic- 
tion or the general government, and to 

deal with these it 
Asntal oifgniiatioa 

a govern- 
on the model 

of the national government Each State 
has its Constitution, its Senate and 
House of Representatives, its Qovemor 
(corresponding to the President), its Su- 
preme Court, with duties similar to those 
of the National Supreme Court, and in 
all these respects is a copy in miniature 
of the Federal governmental organisa- 
tion. It has its own code of laws, 
which is not operative beyond its bor- 
ders, and in this way is a little nation 
in itself, with powers which cannot be 
abrogated. Tracing down the details of 
this composite scheme of government we 
come to the cities, in which in some 
measure the same type of organisation is 
preserved, as they have a legislative body 
of two branches, and a Mayor as their 
chief executive oflldaL They lack the 
Supreme Court and their local govern- 
ment is in some measure under State 
control, but in various respects each is a 
Uttle sovereignty in itself. This is 
especially the case in the metropolitan 
city of New York, the present population 
of which exceeds that of the remainder 
of the State, and which has control of 
local interests of great diversity and im- 
portance, in the management of which it 
has accumulated a municipal debt far 
greater than that of any State in the 
Union and surpassed only by the 
national debt of the countrv as a whole. 
In the development of this great 
congeries of self-governing units some 
friction has from time to time arisen, 
and there has been vigorous discussion 
of State and National jurisdiction and 
powers, the result being at present the 
existence of two great political parties, 
the Democratic and the Republican, the 
first standhig for State rights, the sec- 
ond favoring a broadening of the Na- 
tional sovereignty. While these parties 
difiTer in other particulars, this funda- 
mental distinction has usually been main- 
tained, and since the formation of the 
government two parties with these gen- 
eral views have existed, at first those of 
the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, and* 
after them parties with various names, 
but with this division of views. At 
present the tendency seems to be towards 
a widening of tbe powers of the national 
government, but it has not escaped 
vigorous opposition from the adherents 
of the States rights doctrine. There has 
also recently been developed a degree of 
friction between the executive and the 
legislative branches of the general gov- 
ernment, the executive in some respects 
trenching upon the functions of the leg- 
islative and this vigorously maintaining 
its rights and privileges. There has also 
been manifested a tendency to bring the 

Digitized by 


United States 

TJnited States 


great business orgaDizations of the coun- 
try within some considerable degree of 
goyernmental control, under the plea that 
their vast growth and power has made 
them inimical to the rights of the public 
at large and that it is the duty of the 
government to act as guardian of the 
industrial rights of the people. 

With this orief review of the status of 
governmental and industrial affairs now 
existing within the United States it will 
be of interest to consider in some meas- 
ure the workings of the great Federal 
organisation here outlined. In the pre- 
ceding artide* on the subject of the 
United States in general, the organiza- 
tion of the government under the Con- 
stitution is stated, and in the Con- 
stitution itself, as above given, may be 
found the clauses which define this or- 
ganization. But in the working of the 
government machinery several adventi- 
tious departments have arisen, some 
account of which is necessary before the 
operation of the governmental organiza- 
tion can be properly understood. This 
has principally to do with the great ex- 
ecutive departments of the government, 
the series of officials who compose the 
cabinet of the President, but who were 
not provided for in the Constitution, 
having arisen through the multiplicity of 
executive labors. 

It was quickly perceived, in fact, that 
the duties of the executive branch of the 
government were too varied and numer- 
ous for management and control by any 
one official, and at the start President 
Washington was obliged to call several 
persons to his aid, the so-called cabinet 
officers, at first consisting of the Secre- 
taries of State, of War, and of the 
Treasury, and the Attorney-General, 
appointed in 1789. These had no official 
standing under the government, but were 
simply aids to the President, chosen by 
him and removable at his will, yet in- 
dispensable to the multitudinous duties 
arising in the conduct of public affairs. 
This continues the position of these offi- 
cials to the present day, in which they 
form the President's official family and 
;body of advisers, but possess no power 
beyond that which the President chooses 
to give them and whose advice he is in 
no respect obliged to take. From time 
to time it became advisable to add other 
officials to the four above named. The 
Postmaster-General was at first looked 
upon as a temporary position only, and 
did not become permanent until 1794, and 
this official was not considered a Cabinet 
officer until 1829. The Secretary of the 
Navy was added to the list in 1798. 
The later additions to the list were thoee 

of Secretary of the Interior in 1849. 
Secretary of Aifriculture in 1889, and 
Secretary of Commerce in 1903, and 
Secretary of Ivabor in 1913. Under each 
of these officials there are assistants and 
a considerable number of division and 
other officers, the scone of departmental 
work having grown wide and its duties 
numerous and complicated as time went 
on and the country grew in population 
and wealth. Members of the Cabinet re- 
ceive salaries of $12,000 a year. The 
duties of the several heads of depart- 
ments are as follows: 

Duties of the Secretary of State. — The 
Secretary of State is charged, under the 
direction of the President, with the 
duties appertaining to correspondence 
with the public ministers and the consuls 
of the United States, and with the repre- 
sentatives of foreign powers accredited 
to the United States; and to negotia- 
tions of whatever character relating to 
the foreign affairs of the United States. 
He is the medium of correspondence be- 
tween the President and the chief ex- 
ecutives of the several States of the 
United States; he has the custody of the 
Great Seal of the United States, and 
countersigns and affixes such seal to all 
executive proclamations, to various com- 
missions, and to warrants for the extra- 
dition of fugitives from justice. He is 
regarded as the first in rank among the 
members of the Cabinet He is the cus- 
todian of the treaties made with foreign 
states, and of the laws of the United 
States. He grants and issues passports, 
and exequaturs to foreign consuls in the 
United States are issued through his 
office. He publishes the laws and resolu- 
tions of Congress, amendments to the 
Constitution, and proclamations declar- 
ing the admission or new States into the 

Duties of the Secretory of the Treas- 
ury. — The Secretary of the Treasury is 
charged by law with the management 
of the national finances. He prepares 
plans for the improvement of the revenue 
and for the support of the public credit; 
superintends tne collection of the rev- 
enue, and directs the forms of keephig 
and rendering public accounts and of 
making returns; grants warrants for all 
moneys drawn from the treasury in pur- 
suance of appropriations made by law, 
and for the payment of monevs into the 
treasury; and annually submits to Con- 
gress estimates of the probable revenues 
and disbursements of the government. 
He also controls the construction of pub- 
lic buildings; the coinage and printing 
of money; the administration of the life- 
saving, revenue-cutter and the pnbUc 

Digitized by 


TTnited States ITnited States 

health and marine-hospital branches of Department He appoints all officers 

the public service, and furnishes gener- and employees of the department, except 

ally such information as may be required the four Assistant Postmasters-General 

by either branch of Congress on all mat- and the purchasing agent, who are ap- 

ters pertaining to the foregoing. pointed by the President, by and with 

Duties of the Secretary of War, — The the advice and consent of the Senate; 
Secretary of War is head of the War appoints all postmasters whose corn- 
Department, and performs such duties pensation does not exceed $1,000; makes 
as are required of him by law or may be postal treaties with foreign govem- 
enjoined upon him by the President con- ments, by and with the advice and con- 
cerning the military service. He is sent of the President; awards and ex- 
charged by law with the supervision of ecutes contracts, and directs the man- 
all estimates of appropriations for the agement of the domestic and foreign mail 
expenses of the department, including service. ^ ^^ „ ^ , , „ 
the mUltary establishments ; of all pur- ^J*^„ of *^« Secretary of the Navy. 
chases of army supplies; of all expendi- —The Secretary of the Navy performs 
tures for the support, transportation such duties as the President of the 
and maintenance of the army, and of }^°.*^?^ States, who is Commander-in- 
such expenditures of a civil nature as Chief, may assign him, and has the een- 
may be placed by Congress under his «ral superintendence of construction, 
direction. He also has supervision of manning, armament, equipment and em- 
the United States Military Academy at ployment of vessels of war. 
West Point and of military education in Duties of the Secretary of the Interior. 
the army, of the Board of Ordnance and — The Secretary of the Interior is 
Fortification, of the various battlefield charged with the supervision of public 
commissions, and of the publication of business relating to patents for inven- 
the Official Records of the War of the tions; pensions and bounty lands; the 
Rebellion. He has charge of all mat- public lands and survevs: the Indians; 
ters relating to national defense and sea- ^ucation ; the Geological Survey and 
coast fortifications, army ordnance, river Reclamation Service; the Hot Springs 
and harbor improvements, the prevention Reservation, Arkansas; Yellowstone Na- 
of obstruction to navigation, and the tional Park. Wyoming and the Yosemite, 
establishment of harbor lines; and all Sequoia, and General Grant parks, Cali- 
plans and locations of bridges authorized fomia, and other national parks; distri- 
by Congress to be constructed over the bution of appropriations for agricultural 
navigable waters of the United States and mechanical colleges in the States and 
require his approval He also has charge territories ; and supervision of certain 
of the establishment or abandonment of hospitals and eleemosynary institutions 
military posts, and of all matters re- in the District of Columbia. He also 
lating to leases, revocable licenses, and exercises certain powers and duties In 
all other privileges upon lands nnder the relation to the territories of the United 
control of the War Department. States. 

Duties of the Attorney-Oenerdl. — The Duties of the Secretary of Ayriculture, 

Attorney-General is the head of the De- — The Secretary of Agriculture exercises 

partment of Justice and the chief law personal supervision of public business 

officer of the government. He represents relating to the agricultural industry. He 

the United States in matters involving appoints all the officers and employees of 

legal questions; he gives his advice and the department with the exception of the 

opinion, when they are required by the Assistant Secretary and the Chief of the 

President or by the heads of the other Weather Bureau, who are appointed by 

Executive Departments, on questions of the President, and directs tne manage- 

law arising in the administration of their ment of all the bureaus, divisions, offices, 

respective departments ; he appears in the and Uie Forest Service, embraced in 

Supreme Court of the United States in the department He exercises advisory 

cases of especial gravity and importance; supervision over agricultural experiment 

he exercises a general superintendence stations, which receive aid from the 

and direction over United States attor- National Treasury; has control of the 

neys and marshals in all judicial dis- quarantine stations for imported cattle, 

tricts in the States and territories; and of interstate \]uarantine rendeied n^ces- 

he provides special counsel for the United sary by sheep and cattle diseases, and of 

States whenever required by any depart- the inspection of cattle-carrying vessels; 

ment of the government. and directs the inspectioi) of domestic 

Duties of the Postmaster^Qeneral. — and imported food products ' under the 

The Postmaster^eneral has the direc- meat inspection and pure food and drugs 

tion and management of the Post-Office laws. He Is charged with tht duty of 

Digitized by 


United States 

United States 


Swuing roles and regoUtions for the pro- 
tection, maintenanoe, and care of the 
National Forest Beserres. He also is 
cbarxed with carrying into effect the laws 
prohibiting the transportation by inter- 
state commerce of game killed in viola- 
tion of local laws and excluding from im- 
portation certain noxious animals, and 
has authority to control the importation 
of other animals. 

Dutie$ of the Secretary of Commerce, 
— The Secretary of Commerce and Labor 
is charged witn the work of promoting 
the commerce of the United States, and 
its mining, manufacturing, shipping, fish- 
ery and transportation interests. His 
duties also comprise the investigation of 
the organisation and management of cor- 
porations (excepting railroads) engaged 
in interstate commerce; the administra- 
tion of the Lighthouse Service, and the 
aid and protection to shipping thereby; 
the taking of the census, and the collec- 
tion and publication of statistical infor- 
mation connected therewith; the making 
of coast and geodetic surveys ; the collect- 
ing of statistics relating to foreign and 
domestic commerce; the inspectlou of 
steamboats, and the enforcement of laws 
relating thereto for the protection of life 
and property; the supervision of the 
fisheries as administered by the Federal 
Government; the supervision and control 
of the Alaskan fur seal, salmon and 
other fisheries ; the jurisdiction over mer- 
chant vessels, their registry, licensing, 
measurement entry, clearance, transfers, 
movement of their cargoes, and passen- 
gers, and laws relating thereto, and to 
seamen of the United States; the super- 

nese; the custody, construction, main- 
tenanoe and application of standards of 
weights and measurements; and the 
gathering and supplying of information 
regarding industries and markets for the 
fostering of manufacturing. He has 
power to call upon other departments 
for statistical data obtained by them. 

It is his further duty to make such 
special investigations and furnish such 
information to the President or Congress 
as may be required by them on the fore- 
going subject-matters and to make annual 
reports to Congress upon the work of 
said denartment. 

DutieM of ike Secretary of Labor, — 
The Secretary of Labor is diarged with 
fostering, promoting and developinr the 
welfare of the wage-earners of the United 
States; improving their working condi- 
tions and advancing their opportunities 
for profitable employment. He has power 
to act as mediator and to appoint com- 
missioners of conciliation in labor dis- 
putes whenever in his judgment the in- 
terests of industrial peace may require it 
to be done. Further, he is vested with 
authority over any bureau, office, officer, 
board, branch or division of public serv- 
ice included in the Department of Labor. 

The act creating the Department of 
Labor, approved March 4. 1913, changed 
the name of the Department of Com- 
nferce and Labor to the Department of 
Commerce. The Bureau of Labor, 
Bureau of Immigration, Division of Na- 
turalisation and Children's Bureau were 
organised into this new department 

The Armv of the United States at the 
beginning of the second year of America's 

Army Pay Table. 


PAV or ornccKS ik activs sxrvicx. — ^Tearlj p*j. 


After 5 

After 10 


After 15 

After 20 

Lienttnaat-Gsaeral . . . 


BrigadieT'Oenenl . . . . 

Colonel ih) 

Lieatensnt-Oolonel (h) 

Major (6) 


First liieateiiABt 

Second Lieutenant ... 


10 p. e. 

20 p. c. 

80 p^ e. 




8,120 . \ 

40 p. c 


vision of the inunlgimtion of aliens, and entrance into the European war (1918) / 
the enforcement of the laws relating had a strength of 1,500.000 men. The / 
thereto, aott t» the ewlmriim of (M- Army and Navy pay is aa per UUe : 

Digitized by 


TTnited States 

United States 

Chaplaiiii have the rank and pay of $24, nn increase of $12; over 924, and 
major, captain and first lieutenant, re- less than $45, an increase of $8; and 
■paetiTalj. those whose base pay is $45 or more per 


PAY or BBTIRSD OFriosss. — ^Yearly pay. 

First 5 

After 5 

After 10 

After 15 

After 20 



' 93.750 66' 



' 98,800.66 * 


Lleutenaat-GMiarsl . . . 


Brifsdier-Oenarsl . . . . 

Ooloael (b) 

Lieatensnt-Oolonel ( b ) 

Major (b) 


First Lieataiuuit 

Seeond Lieutenant ... 

(•) Service increase of pay of officers month, an increase of $6 per month. 

below rank of brigadier-general cannot 
exceed 40 per cent in all. 

(I)) The maximam pay of a colonel is 
$6000, of a lieatenant-colonel $4500, and 
of a major $4000. 

Fir8t-cla«8 seumen receive $38.40 por 
month ; Rcumcu frunners, $36.60 ; firemen, 
first clasH, $46.50; musicinns. first cln.«s, 
$43.20; seoond-olass seamen, $35.00; 
third-class seamen. $32.60. First-class 

Navy Piy TaUs. 



Rear-Admirala, first 9 

Rear-Admirala, seoond 

mandant Marine 



Lieutenant • Command* 


Lieutenants (Junior 


Chief Boatswains. 
Chief Gunners, Ch'f 
Carpenters, Chief 

Midshipmen (at Naval 








Cn Shor^ 








Midshipmen (after 


Medical and Pay Di- 
rectors and Inspec- 
tors having the same 
rank at sea 

Fleet • Surgeons and 
Fleet-Paymasters . . 

Surgeons and Pay- 


Professors and Civil 

Kaval Constructors. 

At Sea. 








On Shore 








The pay of non-commissioned officers is 
from $40.20 to $96 per month, and of 
privates from $33 to $36.60 per month. 

The Act of Congress of May 22, 1917, 
provided that commencing June 1, 1917, 
and continuing until six months after the 
war, all enlisted men of the navy of the 
United States whose base pay does not 
exceed $21 per month shall receive an in- 
crease of $15 per month; those virhose 
base pay ia over $21, and not exceeding 

petty officers receive from $47.60 to 
$77.50 ; second-class, from $46.50 to $52 ; 
third-class, $41. Chief petty officers re- 
ceive from $61 to $83 per month, present 
war pay. In the messmeo branch attend- 
ants receive from $32.60 to $41; cooks 
from $41 to $61 ; stewards to com- 
manders in chief and commandants, $72; 
cabin and wardroom stewards, $6^1 ; other 
stewards, $46.50. 

Digitized by 


CTnited States 

United States 

Hospital apprentices receive from 
$20.90 to $26.40 per mouth; pharmacista* 
mates, from $38.50 to $44 ; cliief pharma- 
cists' mates, acting appointment, $66; 
chief pharmacists* mates, permanent ap- 
pointment, $77 per month. 

The organization of the legislative 
branch of the government is as follows: 

The Senate. — Two Senators are 
elected by the legislature of each State 
for terms of six years each. Each Sena- 
tor must be thirty years or over of a^e, 
and must have been for at least, nine 
years a citizen of the United States. 
He must be a citizen of the State from 
which he is chosen, and cannot, while in 
the Senate, hold any civil position under 
the government nor act as a Presidential 
elector. He is elected in the following 
manner: The election takes place on the 
second Tuesday after the organization of 
the legislature chosen next before the ex- 

firation of the preceding senatorial term, 
n each house of the legislature the mem- 
bers present, by a viva voce vote, the 
name of a person or persons for Senator, 
and the name of the person receiving the 
greatest number of votes is entered upon 
the journal of that house. At noon on 
the next day the members of both houses 
meet in a joint session, at which the 
journals of Uie two bodies are read, and 
If the same person received a majority of 
the votes in both houses he is declared 
elected Senator. However, if no person 
receives such majorities, the members in 
joint session proceed by a viva voce vote 
to choose a Senator, a majority of all 
the members being necessary for an elec- 
tion. If such a majority is not secured 
at the first session, the two houses meet 
Jointly at noon on each succeeding legis- 
lative day and take at least one ballot 
for Senator until one is elected or the 
legislature adjourns. If a vacancy in 
the representation of any State in the 
Senate occurs by reason of death or 
otherwise, sudi vacancy is filled by the 
legislature in the same manner as a 
Senator is regularly elected. But if 
such vacancy should occur during a re- 
cess of the legislature, or if the legisla- 
ture should adjourn without electing a 
Senator, the governor of such State may 
fill the vacancy by a temporary appoint- 
ment until a Senator is elected at the 
next session of the legislature. This 
method has been varied in one imjnortant 
particular since the passage in 191^ of the 
XVII amendment to the Constitution ; 
Senators being now chosen by direct vote 
of the people. This important function is 
thus taken from the legislature. 
House of Representatives, — ^The House 

of Representatives is composed of mem- 
bers chosen each two years by the people 
of the several States. The number of 
members depend upon the pojpulation of 
the States, each one representing a fixed 
number of inhabitants, varying after 
each census. As fixed under the 1910 
census the total number of members is 
436, including three from the new States 
of Arizona and New Mexico, admitted in 
1912, there being one for each 211,877 of 

Qualifications, — ^A Representative must 
have attained to the age of twenty-five 
years and have been seven years a citizen 
of the United States. He must be an in- 
habitant of the State from which he is 
chosen and cannot hold an^ civil office 
under the United States during his term 
of office nor serve as a Presidential 
Elector. By custom he is a resident of 
the district from which he is chosen. 

Election. — The number of Representa- 
tives to which each State is entitled is 
determined by Congress after each decen- 
nial census. Congress has fixed the time 
of their election as the * Tuesday next 
after the first Monday in November* in 
every even-numbered year. In States en- 
titled to more than one Representative, 
they are elected by * districts composed 
of contiguous territory and containing 
as nearly as possible an eciual number of 
inhabitants,' which districts are deter- 
mined and the boundaries fixed by the 
legislatures of the States. When, in a 
reapportionment, a State's representation 
is increased, the additional Representa- 
tives are chosen by vote of the whole 
State, until the State is redistricted. 
They are called Representatives or Con- 

Judicial Branch of the Oovemment, — 
The judicial power of the United States 
is vested in a Supreme Court, nine Cir- 
cuit Courts, nine Circuit Courts of 
Appeal, eighty-six District Courts, and 
a Court of Claims. Judges of the United 
States courts are appointed by the Presi- 
dent with the consent of the Senate and 
serve during good behavior. 

The Supreme Court is composed of a 
Chief Justice, and eight Associate Jus- 
tices. The court sits at Washington, and 
holds one session annually, commencing 
on the second Monday in October. 

The United States is divided into nine 
judicial circuits. To each circuit the 
Supreme Court allots one of its justices, 
who must attend at least one term of 
such court in every two years. For each 
circuit there are also appointed two or 
more circuit judges. The Circuit Court 
sits twice a year in each district within 
the circuit 

Digitized by 


TTnited States 

United States 

The Circuit CJourts of Appeal are nine 
in number and were created for the pur- 
pose of relieving the Supreme Court of 
certain classes of appeals. A Circuit 
Court of Appeals consists of three 
judges, two of whom form a quorum. It 
IS held by the justice of the Supreme 
Court allotted to that circuit and two 
circuit judges, but a district judge is 
also competent to act. No judge, how- 
ever, can hear a case in the Circuit Court 
of Appeal at the trial of which he pre- 
sided in the District or Circuit Court 

Congress has set apart each State as 
a judicial district, except in case of the 
more populous States, which are divided 
into two or more districts. There are 
eighty-six judicial districts in the States 
and territories. There are one or more 
resident judges in each district and the 
court is held by a district judge. 

The Court of Claims consists of a 
Chief Joatice and four Associate Judges. 

The State governments are organized 
in the following manner: 

The Bmeouiive Department — At the 
head of this department is the Governor, 
elected by the people, for a term of one 
to four years. It is his duty to see that 
the laws are executed. He may call to 
his assistance judges and gherifiFs and, in 
case of need, the militia of the State. 
When public business is conducted with 
another State, the Governor acts in the 
name of the State. He sends a message 
to the legislature at the opening of its 
session, informing it of the conditions 
throughout the state, and in time of 
pressing need may call the legislature in 
extra session. 

In many States the Governor has the 
power to pardon criminals, or commute 
their punishment. He appoints many 
officers and in some States he appoints 
Che judges of the State courts. Most of 
the States elect a Lieutenant-Governor to 
serve when the Governor is unable to be 
at his post. He acts as the President 
of the State Senate. The Secretary of 
State, sometimes elected, sometimes ap- 
pointed by the Governor,, is the highest 
clerk of the executive department The 
State Comptroller or Auditor manages 
the financial business of the State gov- 
ernment. The State Treasurer is the 
custodian of the funds of the State, which 
he disburses only on orders from the offi- 
cers designated by law. The Attorney- 
General is the law officer of the State. 
The Superintendent of Public Instmc- 
tion is the head of the school system of 
the State. 

In addition to these officers, which are 
found in almost every State there are in 

15 10 

many States other executive officers and 
boards whose duties are very important, 
such as the Insurance Commissioner, 
the Board of Railroad Commissioners, 
the Inspector of Factories, the Liquor 
License Commissioners, the Board of 
Charities, the Board of Health, the Tax 
Commissioner, the Board of Pardons, 
the Superintendent of Banlcs, the Board 
of Medical Examiners, the Commissioner 
of Agriculture and the Board of Public 

The Leffislative Department, — The 
legislature of a State is always divided 
into two branches — a Senate and a 
House of Representatives. In some 
States the lower house is called the As- 
sembly, in others the House of Delegates, 
in New Jersey the General Assembly. 
In many of the States the whole legis- 
lature is called the General Assembly. 
Both the Senate and the lower house are 
representative bodies. The counties or 
towns and cities are represented in the 
lower house according to population, de- 
termined by a census taken every five or 
ten years. The State is divided into 
senatorial districts from each of which 
a senator is elected. The minimum age 
for senators is generally higher than for 
representatives, and their term is usu- 
ally longer. 

The State legislature may not pass 
any law contrarv to the Constitution of 
the State nor of the United States. It 
grants charters for the government of 
cities, boroughs and villages; and for 
the organization of railroad companies, 
banks, colleges, and many other public 
and private institutions. It makes lawi^ 
governing the public schools. It defines 
the boundaries of counties and towns. 
It makes laws concerning property, real 
and personal. It makes laws concerning 
the social relations, marriages, divorces, 
etc. It makes laws regulating the man- 
ner of holding elections and the oualifi- 
cations of voters. It re^^ulates railroads, 
and other public utilities operating 
within the State. It regulates manu- 
facturing, trading, mining, agriculture, 
hunting, fishing, etc 

The Judicial Department, — The lowest 
court is conducted by a justice of the 
peace or magistrate, who acts in the 
name of the State. He renders deci- 
sions only in small and unimportant 
cases. The next court is called the Cir- 
cuit Court, the District Court, the Su- 
perior Court, the Supreftie Court or the 
Court of Common Pleas. This court 
sits in the courthouse at the county 
seat The same judge may serve in 
several counties. The judges are gener- 
ally elected, hot in some States appointed 

Digitized by 


TTnited States 

United States 


by the Governor. Appeals from the 
lower court are taken to the Supreme 
Court, or Court of Appeals, the highest 
court of the State. It usually meets at 
the capital of the Stale. In some States 
there is an intermedin te court between 
the lower and hlffher, which hears ap- 
peals in certain classes of cases. 

The District of Colufubia. — The mu- 
nicipal government of t e District of 
Columbia is vested by act of Congress 
approved June 11. 1878» in tiiree Com- 
missioners, two of whom are appointed 
by the President from citiiens of the 
District having had three years' resi- 
dence therein immediately preceding that 
appointment, anC confirmed by the Sen- 
ate. The other Commissioner is detailed 
by the President of the United States 
from the Corps of Engineers of the 
United States Army, and must have 
lineal rank senior to captain, or be a 
captain who has served at least fifteen 
years in the Corps of Engineers of the 
Army. The Commissioners appoint the 
subordinate official service of said gov- 
ernment, except the Board of ESducaaon, 
which is appointed by the Supreme Court 
•f the District of Columbia. 

County Oovemment. — Every State 
and territory is divided into counties 
(in Louisiana called parishes). In the 
Southern States and in many of the 
Western States the county — outside of 
towns and cities — assumes most of the 
functions of local government. Each 
county has a county seat where the pub- 
lic business is transacted. Most of this 
business is done by a ^Vmrd of County 
Commissioners or Supervisors, called in 
some States the county court; in others 
the levy court, because it levies the taxes. 
There are no County Commissioners in 
Rhode Island. 

As a rule the County Commissioners 
fix the rate of taxation for the county, 
appropriate money for the payment of 
the salaries of county officers and to meet 
the other expenses of county government, 
make contracts for building and repair- 
ing roads and bridges, appoint subordi- 
nate county officials, and represent the 
county in the courts when it Is sued for 

At every county seat one or more 
judges sit for the trial of cases. These 
judges are generally State officers, but 
they receive the assistance of several 
county officers. The Sheriff carries out 
the orders of the judge. He has the 
custody of prisoners, executes the death 
penalty, sells property and preserves 
peace and order. When necessary he 
may call to his aid deputies or helpers. 
The Prosecuting Attorn^, called also 

the State's Attorney, the District Attor^ 
ney, the County Attorney, or the Solic- 
itor, appears in the county court and 
presents the case against a criminal. 
The Coroner takes charge of the body of 
a person found dead or who dies mys- 
teriously, and inquires into the cause of 
death. If foul play is suspected, be im- 
panels a jury and holds an ' inquest.' 
In some States in case of a vacancy by 
death, resignation or inability to act of 
the sheriff he assumes the duties of that 
office. The Clerk of the County Court 
or Prothonotary keeps the records of the 
county court In some States he keeps 
a record of deeds and mortgages, issues 
marriage certificates and records births 
and deaths. 

The above officers are found in almost 
every State; in many States there are 
also a County Treasurer, County Audi- 
tor, County Assessors, County Tax Col- 
lectors, Register or Recorder of Deeds 
and Superintendent of Schools. 

The Probate or Orphans* Court — In 
Qeorgia the judee of this court is called 
' Ordinary ' ; in New York and New Jer- 
sey * Surrogate.' 

Townahip Oovemment. — In the Mid- 
dle Atlantic and Middle Western States, 
township government is organized. It 
usually supposts public schools, cares for 
public roa(&, and helps the poor. In 
many States it levies and collects taxes 
for these purposes. The township offi- 
cers vary greatly in different states. 
The more usual ones are the Supervisor 
or Trustee, who cares for roads and 
bridges; the School Directors, who con- 
trol the public schools; the Township 
Clerk, the Assessors, the Tax Collector, 
the Auditors, the Constable, who assists 
the justice of the peace and is the peace 
officer of the township, and the Overseers 
of the Poor. 

Town Oovemment* — The town as a 
politiod organization is characteristic 
of the New England States. It cor- 
responds in effect to the townships 
elsewhere, being partly rural, and con- 
taining villages, all combined into one 
political group. Its most important fea- 
ture is the town-meeting, composed of all 
citizens and usually held once a year in 
the town hall. At this meeting the rate 
of taxation Is fixed, money is appropri- 
ated, by-laws are passed, and town offi- 
cers are elected. The principal officers 
are: The Selectmen, who carry into 
effect the measures adopted at the town 
meeting; the Town-clerk, who keeps the 
records; the Assessors; the Tax-collec- 
tor; the Town-treasurer; the Overseers 
of the Poor; the Constable; the Sur- 
veyor of Highwayst who keeps roads and 

Digitized by 



ITniversal Language 

bridges in repair; the Fence-viewers, 
who settle disputes over boundaries, and 
the Field-driver, or Pound-keeper, who 
takes charge of stray animals. 

Village or Borough Qovemmeni, — In 
thickly settled communities a village or 
borough may be organized under a char- 
ter from the State. It usually has a 
President or Mayor or Chief Burgess 
and a body of Trustees, Ck)mmi8sioner8. 
Councilmen or Burgesses, who pass local 
laws or ordinances, levy taxes, and pro- 
vide for police and fire protection, street 
paving, sewerage, etc; and School Di- 
rectors, who provide for the needs of the 
schools. It may also have a Clerk, a 
Treasurer, Assessors, a Tax Collector, a 
Constable and a Street Commissioner. 

City Oovemment. — When the village 
or borough grows to a large size, it be- 
comes a city; it is still organized under 
a charter from the State, but with 
broader functions and greater powers. 
The city always has two departments — 
executive and legislative — the judicial 
department being a part of the State gov- 

The Mayor Is the executive officer of 
the city. His powers and functions vary 
greatly. He ha nearly always elected by 
the people, but in a few cases is chosen 
by the City Council. His term of office 
varies from one to four vears. His chief 
duty is to carry out the ordinances of 
the Council. In most cities he can veto 
an ordinance, but it can be passed over 
his veto by a two-thirds or three-fourths 

The City Council is the legislative de- 
partment of the city. In large cities it 
often has two branches, whose members 
are called Aldermen and Councilmen, or 
Select and Common Councilmen. These 
members are usually elected by wards. 
They meet in the city hall and make 
laws, called ordinances, for the govern- 
ment of the city. Their powers and 
limitations are defined by the State legis- 

The Commission Plan. — In many cities 
of the country, more than 300 in 
number, the ' Commission * plan of city 
government has been adopted. The com- 
mission consists of a Mayor and a small 
body of Councilmen or Aldermen, each 
the head of a department, and all elected 
by the whole body of voters without re- 
gard to wards or precincts and usually 
without regard to party. The commis- 
sion both makes the laws and executes 
them. The Mayor is chairman of the 
commission but does not have the veto 

tTiiivfl.1vfe (a'ni-vtlv) , a moUuflC with 
umvadve ^ ^^ compoeed of a gis- 

gle piece. The univalves include most 
of the Gasteropoda, as laad-snails, sea- 
snails, whelks, limpets, etc The major- 
ity of univalve shells are cone-shaped 
and spiral. 



Univalvjc SHXX.L OF Buecinum undatum. 

A, Apex. B, Base, o, Aperture, d, Aii> 
terior canal, x, Poiterior canaL F, Inner 
lip, pillar lip, columellar lip or labinm. o, 
Outer lip or labrum. dfcg, Peristome or 
margin of aperture, w, Whorli or volutions, 
s, Suturei, or line* of aeparation. v, Variz. 
— ^The last whorl of the ihelL usually much 
larger iimn the rest, it called the 'body 
whorl,' the rest of the volutions constitute 
the * spire.' 

Universalist ^l;£kir'^"'2k^ 

according to the 'profession of belief 
as adopted in 1803, at Winchester, New 
Hampshire, by the New England Con- 
vention, believes in the Holy Scriptures; 
in one God, whose nature is love, re- 
vealed in one Lord Jesus Christ, by one 
Holy Spirit of Grace, who will finally 
restore the whole family of mankind to 
holiness and happiness; that believers 
ought to be careful to maintain order 
and practice good works, as holiness and 
true happiness are inseparably connected. 
The system of government is a modified 
Presbyterianism. The general convfen- 
tion, held annually, consists of clerical 
and lay delegates f^m each State con- 
vention. There are in the United States 
about 900 churches and 66,000 members. 

Universal language, JJ^SSIHS 

serve as a medium of commercial com- 
munication for all countries, with the 
possibilitv of its eventually superseding 
all existing languages. Such languages 
have been partly or fully worked out at 
various times, as by Urquhart, Dalgamo, 
Wilkins, Leibnitas, and various others in 
the past, and in Volapfik and Esperanto 
of recent times. Vigorous efforts have 
been made to get these two artificial 
languages adopted, but as yet with little 
prospect of success. Figedn JBnoUih and 
the IrtN^ Fronca of the liedi&rbuitai 


Digitized by 


tTniversal Prime Meridian 

TJnivenity Settlements 

are partial and spontaneous efforts in the 
same direction. 

Universal Prime Meridian, 

in astronomy, the meridian of Green- 
wich, adopted at an international con- 
ference of scientific men, held at Wash- 
ington. D. C. in 1883. While adopted by 
the other principal countries, it was not 
adopted by France until 1911. but is now 
in use throughout Europe and the United 
States. Universal time, for international 
purposes, was adopted at the conference 
above named. It is reckoned from mean 
noon at the Universal Prime Meridian, 
the day commencing at midnight, and 
being divided into 24 (instead of into 
two portions of 12) hours each. 
University (ft-ni-jer'si-ti), a corpo- 
«' rate body or corporation 
established for the purposes of instruc- 
tion in all or some of the most important 
branches of literature and science, and 
having the power of conferring certain 
honorary dignities, termed degree^y in 
several faculties, as arts, medicine, law, 
theology and others. In most cases the 
corporations constituting universities in- 
clude a body of teachers or professors 
for ffiving instruction to students; but 
this is not absolutely essential to a uni- 
versity, the staff of London University, 
for instance, being merely an examining 
body. In the middle ages, when the 
term began to be used m reference to 
seminaries of learning, it denoted either 
the whole bodv of teachers and learners, 
or the whole body of learners, with cor- 
porate rights and under by-laws of their 
own, divided either according to the 
faculty to which they were attached, or 
according to the country to which they 
belonged (hence the 'nations* into 
which the students were classed, and 
which still exist in some universities). 
At a later period the expression uni- 
verB%ta9 literarum (the whole of literature 
or learning), was used to indicate that all 
the most important branches of knowl- 
edge were to be taught in these estab- 
lishments. Some, forming their notion 
of a university from the universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, suppose that it 
necessarily means a collection and union 
of colleges, that it is a great corporation 
smbodying In one certain smaller and 
iubordinate collegiate bodies; but this 
is not correct, for many universities exist 
in which there are no colleges. The 
oldest of the European universities were 
those of Bologna and Paris, and these 
formed the models on which most of the 
other earlv universities were established, 
a papal bull being generally regarded 
as necessary ta tl^ The United StotM 

possesses the largest number of institu- 
tions bearing the name of universities, 
but a large proportion are sectarian, and 
may represent only a single faculty, and 
in no proper sense deserve the name. 
For the chief universities see under 
separate heads, and refer to the articles 
on the different countries. 

tTnivenity CoUege, f^^f^ £[ 

stitutlon belonging to a university, or 
such as mi^ht belong to a university. 
The University College, London, is close- 
ly connected with London University. 
(See London^ University of,) The 
name is given especially to three of the 
four colleges which are intended to form 
a Welsh University, viz. the VniverHty 
College of Walet at Abervstwith, Unl- 
veraitg College of South Wales at Car^ 
dlff, and the University CoUege of North 
Walet at Bangor. The students of 
these colleges, proceeding to degrees, have 
to go through a course at either London, 
Dublin, Edinburgh, or Glasgow. The 
University College of Oxford is the 
oldest of its colleges, founded about 1253. 

University Extension, * e" t''^ 

progress to extend the means of higher 
education to persons of all classes and 
of both sexes engaged in the regular 
occupations of life. Anv community may 
avail itself of the privileges by forming 
a local committee, which provides the 
necessary funds and fixes fees, etc. The 
mode of instruction consists In courses 
of lectures by specialist graduates of the 
universities, each lecture being preceded 
or followed by a class, in which the 
students are orally examined by the 
lecturer, who also corrects written 
papers done at home. An examination 
is held at the end of each course and 
certificates awarded. The movement be- 

gan in 1872 with Cambridge University, 
ut Oxford did not go heartily into it 
till 1885. The movement has extended 
widely in Britain and in 1890 reached 
the United States, where there has de- 
veloped a liberally conducted movement 
for university extension, spreading from 
Philadelphia as a center to many sec- 
tions of the country, being established 
mainly in connection with colleges and 
universities. A well-developed plan has 
been evolved by which institutions of 
learning in every section are enabled to 
share in the benefits of the movement 
and to extend them to others. 

University Settlements, j^^'^jgj 

poor districts of cities where educated 
men and women live and- come in con- 
tact with the poorer classes for social 

Digitized by 




edacational and civic purposeA. These 
■ettlements provide dubs, and offer a 
home and recreation for poor workers. 
Children are taken care of and have 
many amusements, all with a view to 
waken in them a desire for better things 
and right living. The first settlement m 
the United States was founded in New 
York city September 1, 1889, by the grad- 
uates of several women's colleges. It has 
since extended to all the large cities of 
the country, Hull House, Chicago, 
opened in the same month with the 
New York settlement, being one of the 
most notable examples. 

wMvwATVMA««.wu. g^igg canton, bounded 
on the north by the Vierwaldstfttter Lake, 
on the east by mountains which separate 
it from Uri, on the south by Bern, and 
on the west by Lucerne; area, 295 sq. 
miles. It is divided into two valleys, 
Upper and Lower (Obwalden and Nid- 
walden), bv a forest called Kemwald, 
and these districts being also politically 
distinct, send each one representative to 
the Swiss Council. The chief town of 
Obwald is Samen, and of Nidwald, 
SUnz. Pop. 28.000. Both cantons are 
almost entirely Roman Catholic. 
TTnvftro (3-ny6'r0), a district of Bqua- 
uu/uru ^^^j^, Africa, lying to the west 
and north of Uganda, to which it is 
tributary, and stretching to the Nile. 

TTpanishads iferS^ui;. 1i ^T. 

given to a series of treaties or com- 
mentaries on the Vedic hymns, the con- 
tents of which are partly ritualistic, 
partly speculative. They are of different 
dates, some of them being as old as sev- 
eral centuries b.c. 

Upai Tree (AntiarU toxiearia). 

llDftfl (tt'pas), a tree common in the 
w^c»o fQi^g^g Qf Java, and of some of 
the neiffhborinff islands, and found also 
in tropical Africa. It is a species of 
the genua Antiom (A* UMricaria)^ aat 

order Artocarpacee. Many exaggerated 
stories were formerly current concerning 
the deadly properties of this plant, its 
exhalations being said to be fatal to both 
animal and vegetable life at several 
miles distance from the tree itself. The 
truth is, that the upas is a tree which 
yields a poisonous secretion and nothing 

Tlliemivilc (5-per'ne-vik), the most 
upciiiivuk northerly of the Danish I 
settlements in Greenland, on an island! 
off the west coast, in lat. 72" 48' N. 
It has long been a place of call for 
arctic expeditions. 
Upholsterer-bee. ®^ Carpenter-hee. 

TJdoIu <^P^-lS')f the chief of the Sa- 
vyvAu. m^jj^n group of islands in the 
South Pacific. It is about 150 miles in 
circumference, and cotton and cocoa-nut 
oil are its principal products. Apia is 
the capital. It belongs to Germany. 
Pop. 19,842. 

Upper Senegal-Niger, ^Jf^""^ 

French West Africa, formed in 1894 out 
of the territories of Senegambia and the 
Niger, with the exception of the former 
Sen^ral protectorate, which was restored 
to Senegambia. In 1907 the several 
Dahomey districts were added to the 
colony, which now has an area of 302,- 
136 sq. miles. Capital, Bamaka; pop. 

XlDSala ("p-8a'ia)» * town of Sweden, 
wyoo^M 45 miles n. w. of Stockholm. 
It has a cathedral (archiepiscopal, the 
finest in Sweden), which contains the 
tombs of some Swedish kings and of 
Linnieus; a celebrated university founded 
in 1477, with a library of about 250,000 
volumes, a botanical garden, observatory, 
etc. Pop. 22,855. 

UDShlir ("P'«hur), Abel Pabkeb, 
^'•r statesman, bom in Northamp- 

ton Co., Virginia, in 1790. In 1841 he 
was appointed Secretary of the Navy by 
President Tvler. Two years later, on 
the resignation of Daniel Webster, he 
was appointed Secretary of State. 
Early in 1844 he was on the United 
States steamer Princeton^ on the Po- 
tomac River, in company with the Presi- 
dent and other members of the cabinet, 
to witness experiments with a large 
wrought-iron gun which burst, and 
mortallv wounded him together with sev- 
eral others. He died near Washington, 
February 28, 1844. 
XTp'upa. ®^ iloopoe. 

TTr^inift (O-rS'ml-a), a diseased con- 
urwmitt ^j^j^j^ ^j ^jj^ j^y arising 

from the presence of urea in the blood, 
in consequence of the urine not being 


Digitized by 





properly secreted, as in Bright's disease 
or other ailments, thus leaving in the 
blood elements that should be carried 

Tlrftl C^^'r^Of a rivtfr of Russia, which 
** nses in the Ural Mountains, forms 

part of the boundary between Europe 
and Asia, and enters the Caspian after 
a course of about 1000 miles. 

Ural Mountains, S^l^'^^aSd "" piS: 

teaus stretching nearly north and south 
between Europe and Asia, from the 
shores of the Arctic Ocean for a dis- 
tance of about 1900 miles; highest sum- 
mit, 5613 feet. There is but fittle strik- 
ing scenery, and the rise is so gradual in 
some parts that the traveler from Perm 
to Ekaterinburg, for instance, hardly 
notices that he has crossed the chain. 
The Ural Mountains are celebrated for 
the mines of gold, platinum, copper, coal 
and iron which they contain, and in the 
south are many broad valleys of remark- 
able fertilitv. 

TTrolaIr (0-ralsk')> a town of Russia, 
uraiSJL on the Ural, 170 mUes w. s. w. 
of Orenburg. It has a considerable 
trade, espedally in fish and caviare. 
Pop. 43,006. It is the capital of Uralsk 
province, which borders on the Caspian 
Sea, with an area of about 126,000 sq. 

TTraniA ^ fl-ra'ni-a ) , in Greek my- 
vxoaucft thology, the muse of astron- 
omy. She is gen- 
erally represented 
holding in her left 
hand a celestial 
globe to which she 
points with a little 

a rare metal 
whose chemical 
symbol is U, ato- 
mic weight 240, 
specific gravity 
18.4. The chief 
source of uranium 
is pitchblende. 
iMetallic uranium 
'is obtained in the 

form of a black 

powder, or some- Uranis, antiqne itatue In 
times aggregated the Vatican, 

in small plates, 

having a silvery luster and a certain 
decree of malleability. It forms several 
oxides, which are used in painting on 
porcelain, yielding a fine orange color in 
the enameline fire, and a black color 
in that in which the porcelain itself is 
baked. It is strongly radio-active, per- 

haps from containing radium, a con- 
stituent of pitchblende. 

TTraima (u'ra-nus), in Greek my- 

U ran us t^joiogy^ ^^^ g^n ^f q^^, the 

earth, and by her the father of the Titans, 
Cyclopes, etc. He hated his children, 
and confined them in Tartarus, but on 
the instigation of Geat Kronos, the 
youngest of the Titans, overthrew and 
dethroned him. 

TJ'ranTIS, ^°, astronomy, one of the 
V A»M«.iM9^ primary planets, and the 
seventh from the sun, discovered by 
Sir William Herschel in 1781. It 
was first called Oeorgiutn Sidus in 
honor of George III, and afterwards 
Herschel, in honor of the discoverer, 
finally receiving its present name in ac- 
cordance with the practices of naming 
the planets after the deities of mythol- 
ogy. To the naked eye it appears like 
a star of the sixth magnitude. Its 
mean distance from the sun is about 1754 
millions of miles, and the length of the 
year 30,686.82 days, or about 84 of our 
years. Its mean diameter is estimated 
at about 33,000 miles. Its volume ex- 
ceeds the earth's about 74 times, but 
as its mean density is only 0.17 (the 
earth's being 1) its mass is only about 
12% times more. The length of its day 
is supposed to be between 9 and 10 hours. 
It is now generally admitted that this 
planet has four satellites, which differ 
from the other planets, primarr and 
secondary (with the exception of Nep- 
tune's satellite), in the direction of their 
motion, this being from east to west, and 
they move in planes nearly perpendicular 
to the ecliptic. 

XT'rari. ^^ouran. 

TTm. TvnhA 1^'"^ tyS'be), a town of 
Ura lyUDe ^^^^^ Turkestan, in 

the district of Sir Darya, with walls 
and a citadel. Pop. 22,()8& 
Urban (u<^l>an), the name of eight 
vauooa pop^^ Qf whom the most nota- 
able were: Ubban II (Othon de 
Lagny), 1088-99, was elected by one 
party in the church, and in a council 
held at Rome he excommunicated his 
rival Clement III and his supporter, the 
Emperor Henry IV. By his decision 
and energy he extended the power of the 
popedom, and it was at his kistigation 
that the first crusade was undertaken, 
and Jerusalem captured. — Urbait VI 
(Bartolommeo Prignani), 1378-89. so 
exasperated the cardinals by his reform- 
ing zeal that they caused a schism ir 
the church by electing Clement VII 
The two popes excommunicated esLck 
other until urban died, under circum- 
stances which suggested poisoning.— 

Digitized by 




Ubban VIII (Maffeo Barberini), 1623- 
44, was more of a temporal prince than 
a cleric, extending the power of the 
church by raising armies, bailding 
fortresses, and entering into an alliance 
with France against the powers of Aus- 
tria and Germany. He condemned 
Galileo and Jansen. 

TTrhfliifl a city, county seat of Cham- 
Uroana, paign Co., Ohio, 47 mUes 
w. by N. of Columbus. Here ia Urbana 
University (Swedenborgian), organized 
in 1851. It has manufactures of straw- 
board, w^ol, brooms, paper and auto- 
matic telephones, etc. Pop. 7739. 

XTrbana ^"':*^^'*Al * <?ty, county 

***"***•* seat of Champaign Co., Il- 
linois, 31 miles w. of Danville. It is the 
seat of the University of Illinois, a 
flourishing institution with over 5000 stu- 
dents, of the Illinois Laboratory of Na- 
tural History, and of a Government Ex- 
periment Station. It has railroad repair 
shops and other industries. Pop. 8500. 
TTrbinO (^r-b^'no), a town of North 
^ Italy, province of Pesaro e 

Urbino, 21 miles west by south of 
Pesaro. It is the see of an archbishop, 
the seat of a university; the chief build- 
ings being the ducal palace and the 
cathedraL It was the birthplace of 
Raphael, whose house is still shown. 
Pop. 18,244. 

TJrobilL ^'^ ^^ Echinui. 
TTrdll* ®^ HinduttanL 

Tr«^ (Qr), Andbew, chemist, bom at 
^^^ Glasgow in 1778; died In 1857. 
He was educated at Glasgow and Edin- 
burgh universities, where he was grad- 
uated in medicine; became professor of 
chemistry at the Andersonian Institution 
(1804), director of the Observatory, 
Glasgow (1809), and was appointed 
analytical chemist to the Board of Cus- 
toms (1834) in London. His chief 
works are: A Dictionary of Chemiiiry 
(two vols., 1821), The Cotton Manufao- 
turet and Mines (two vols., 1837) 
and a Dictionary of ArU, Manufao' 
tur€8 and Mines (two vols., 1837- 
39), enlarged by Dr. Robert Hunt (4 
vols., 1875-78). 

\Tredo (ti-re'd<^), a genus of minute 
vxcuv parasitic fungi, the species of 
^bich are parasitic on plants. The dis- 
eases called smut, brand, burnt ear, rust, 
etc, are caused by their ravages. 
Wrftter (tl-rg'ter), the excretory duct 
vx^^v^x ^j. ^^^ which conveys the 
urine from each kidney to the bladder. 
In man it is about the size of a goose- 
quill; and its length is from 16 to 18 

TTretTirsi. (fl-re'thra), in anatomy, the 
ureiora ^^^^j j^^j^^ ^^^^ the tiad- 

der to the external urinary opening, and 
serving for the excretion of the urine. 
In the male it is a complicated structure 
varying in length from 8 to 9 inches, 
and in the female it is a narrow mem- 
branous canal about 1^ inches in length. 
TJrfft (ur-ftt'), a town of Turkey in 
^ •• Asia, in Upper Mesopotamia, a 
seat of an Armenian bishop, and of a 
French and an American mission. Pop. 
about 60,000. 

Tlr^a (^i^^)t & Chinese town in 
***&«* Northern Mongolia, on the river 
Tola, on the trade route between Peking 
and Kiachta. Pop. 30,000. 
TTri (d'ri), a canton in Switzerland, 
** bounded by Schwyx, Unterwalden, 
Valais. Tessin, Orisons and Glarus; 
area, 415 square miles. It is one of the 
most mountainous of the Swiss cantons, 
presenthig a complete chaos of mountain 
masses, the most famous of which is the 
St. Gothard. An interesting mass is the 
Urirothstock, 9620 feet high. The most 
important portion of the canton Is the 
valley of the Reuss, which enters the 
Liske of Uri, an arm of the L<ake of 
Lucerne. The chief industry is cattle- 
rearing; sheep and goats are also numer- 
ous: and timber is exported. The in- 
habitants are mostly Roman Catholics, 
and speak German. Uri was one of the 
three original Swiss cantons. It is 
visited by many tourists. The capital is 
Altorf. Pop. 19,700. 

Uric Acid <^'?i>'^«„.ra„a'?tlS 

in the healthy urine of man and quad- 
rupeds, and in much larger quantity in 
the urine of birds. Uric acid constitutes 
the principal proportion of the urinary 
calculi and the concretions causing the 
complaint known as the gravel. 
Urim (^'^^)* * ^^°^ o^ ornament or 
** "^^ appendage belonging to the cos- 
tume of the Jewish high-priest in ancient 
times, along with the thummin^ in virtue 
of which he gave oracular answers to the 
people, but what the urim and thummio 
really were has not been satisfactorily 
a seer tained. 

Xlrinary* Calculi, ^ee caicuiu». 

Urine (fi'rin), an animal fluid or 
** ** liquor secreted by the kidneys, 
whence it is conveyed into the bladder 
by the ureters, and through the urethra 
discharged. In its natural state it is 
acid, transparent, of a pale amber or 
straw color, a brackish taste, a peculiar 
odor, and of a snecific gravity varyinc 
from 1.012 to 1.030. The character of 
the urine, however, is apt to be altered 


Digitized by 


TTrmiyah TTraguay 

by the state of health, the season of the family. But the order is more frequently 

year, age, food, and a variety of other confined to the Urticee, or nettle family, 

causes. A knowledge of the urine in typical genus, Urtica. (See Nettle,) 

health, and of the variations to which it The juice of the restricted order is 

is subject in disease, is of the utmost watery, not millur; the wool in the ar- 

importance to the medical practitioner, boreous or shruDbery species, which are 

One of its morbid constituents is diabetic all tropical, is soft and light. The fiber 

sugar. See Diahetea, of the bark of some is valuable. It is 

TIrmivah ^^ Urumiyah, in the restricted Urticace» that species 

wA.uu.jrcu&« covered with stinging hairs are found. 

TTrri a kind of vase, often one for hold« TTni'hainhfl ( nr-al)am-ba ), one of 

^^"> ing the ashes of the dead. See W^**"»"*"» the head streams of the 

Cinerary Urn, Vase, Amazon (which see). 

TTrodelfl. (fi*i^o-de'la), an order of am- TTm'bTi (tl-ral)Q), the native name of 

vAvu^ACR. piiibiim vertebrates in which *'****'^ an American vulture, the Catk- 

the larval tail is always retained in the arUta Iota (black vulture or zopilote), 

adult, the body being elongated posteri- veir nearly allied to the turkey-buzzard, 

orly into the tail. There are two which it closely resembles. This vora- 

sections, the Perennihranchiate Urodela, clous bird is common in the villages and 

in which the gills are retained through towns of the southern portion of the 

life, as in proteus, siren, etc. ; and toe United States, acting as a scavenger. 

Caducibranchiatej in which the gills dis- Trrnmiov (^ru-gwl', or fi-m-gwa'), a 

appear at maturity, as in newts and *'***8*"*/ river of South America, 

salamanders. which rises in Brazil, in the province 

XTrsa llajor. XTrsa Minor. ®^ ?*°^ catharma, flows first west- 

vAoa .uM^jvxy vAon .iu.xaj.vj.* ^^^^ds, then gradually turns south, and 

See Bear, Great and Little, finally enters the estuary of La rlata 

TTrfline Seal (nr'sin; Otaria urtlna opposite Buenos Ay res; length, about 

wA0Au« Kn^tM ^y Arctocephdlus iir- 800 miles. 

sinus), one of the otaries or eared seals, TTrnanAV ^^ BAin>A Oriental del 

a native of the North Pacific, about 8 *'*»*5*"*/i Uruguay, a republic of 

feet long. Called also sea-bear. South America, bounded on the north and 

TTrsimift CtAUff^t^ a non-sectarian ?^f*^!f«* ^^ .?^^\^\^^L^^^t **^ *^® 

ursinus ^^ouege, collegiate institn- Atlantic, on the south by the Rio de la 

tion, established in 1869 at CoUegeville, Plata, and on the west by the Uruguajr, 

Pa. It has about 300 students. separating it from the Argentine Repub- 

TTrftftTi (ur'sun), a name given to the 1^/ aroa estimated at 72,150 square 

ursou srethison dorsdtum, or Cana- ^ll^*- Th« surface forms a vast undu- 

dian porcupine, which is 18 inches in Jatmg plain, generally flat, but broken in 

length, and the quills of which are smaller ♦?« interior by several ndges of moderate 

than in the common porcupine. elevation. Gold is mined to some extent, 

TIrRTlla (ur'sii-la), St., a virrin mar- and fUver, copper and lead exist. The 

Ursuia ^y according to the legend a P"**^^P?* ^^.^"".^ *?® ^®^' ^^'K^ ^^- 

daughter of a prince in Britain put to l\^^ the state into two nearly equal poiv 

death at Coloene by a horde of Huns, fi^n?' and on the southeast frontiel is 

some say in 384, others in 453. together *»>« larg« '?^®,?u^ Menm. The climate is 

with 11,000, or more probably 11, largins mild and healthy, the feneral range of 

who accompanied her. *be thermometer being from 82** to 90* 

TTrfiTllini'fl (-Unz), or Nuns or St. F. The extensive plains seem admirably 

urBUUUes tJasuLA, a sisterhood adapted for agriculture, but they are 

founded by St. Angela Mericl at Brescia, occupied by large herds of horses, sheep 

in 1537. They devote themselves to the and cattle, the rearing of these^ beinc 

succor of poverty and sickness and the the pnncipal industry. The pnncipal 

education of female children. They had agricultural products are wheat, maise, 

many houses in France during the aeven- oats, rye, millet and flaxseed. The chief 

teenth century. The Cana^an Ursulines exports are hides, tallow, preserved 

date from 16&. meat, sheepskins, bones, wool and horse 

TTrtiTia a n ^air, while the chief imports are cotton 

UTBUB. 8ee Hear, goods, woolens, coal and iron. Primary 

TTrtifiafififfi (ur-ti-ka'se-e), a nat or- education is compulsory; there are nor- 

u X iiAuau^cxj ^gj. ^£ exogenous trees, mal, secondary and hisher institutions, 

herbs and shrubs. In an extended sense and a university at Montevideo. The 

the order includes the Ulmeas, or elm Roman Catholic Is the state religion, 

family ; the Artocarpejp, or breadfruit but all faiths are tolerated. The country 

family; and the Cannabinetc. or hemp is divided into nineteen provinces, ana 

Digitized by 




Digitized by 


TJminiyali TTtali 

by the constitution of 1830 it is cov- TJaliailt (u^^^'^nt; French, Ou€s$ant), 

erned by a president, a senate and a *"»•******" an island of France, 15 miles 

house of representatives. Uruguay at off the west coast of the department of 

one time formed part of the Spanish Finist^re, to which it belongs; area, 6 

viceroyaKy of Buenos Ayres, and the square miles. It presents a very bold and 

lans[uage of the country is Spanish, rocky coast; fishmg and the rearing of 

Capital and chief port, Montevideo, sheep are the principal occupations. Fop. 

Pop. (1908) 1,042,66a 2761 

TTmmivflJl (^ni-me'a), or Us'ia- TTalioa (fl'shas), in Hindu mythology, 

VAUUXAJCU& YAH, a town of Persia, *'•'**•*•' one of the ancient elemental di- 

said to be the birthplace of Zoroaster, in vinities. the goddess of the dawn. In the 

the west of the province of Azerbijan, Vedic n^ns she is represented as a 

situated near a lake of the same name, young wife awakening her children and 

65 miles southwest of Tabreez. The sur- giving them new strength for the toils of 

rounding district is of surpassing fertil- the coming day. 

ity. Pop. about 30,000. — The lake, sit- TTglier vUBbei')f a° officer who has the 
uated 4300 feet above sea-level, is about *'"**^* care of the door of a court. 
80 miles long from north to south, by 20 hall, chamber, or the like. In the royal 
miles broad. It is extremely shallow household of Britain there are four gen- 
throughout. tlemen ushers of the privy chamber. The 
TTmintsi (u-r5m'tsS)y a city of Cen« Oenileman u»her of ihe Uack rod is an 
vAUAuvoA ^j^j ^g.^^ j^ ^jj^ Chinese officer of the order of the Garter (see 
province of Dzoungaria, on the northern Black-rod) ; the Usher of the green rod, 
side of the Thian-Shan Mountains. It an officer of the order of the Thistle, 
was formerly of great commercial Im- The service of ushers is customary in 
portance in the trade between Russia, American churches, at weddings, and in 
Turkestan and India. Pop. estimated at places of amusement. 
30,000. TJslier ^^ Usshek, James, Arch- 
TTmii (ft'rus), a kind of laige ox which *'*»•***'*> bishop of Armagh, bom at 
*'*" ran wild in Gaul at the period of Dublin in 1580; died in 1^. He took 
the Roman invasion, as described by orders in 1601; in 1607 received the pro- 
Cesar, perhaps the wild ox such as still fessorship of divinity at Trinity College, 
exists in Ehigland, at Chillingham in Dublin, and the office of chancellor of 
Northumberland and Hamilton in Lan- St. Patrick's; in 1620 the bishopric of 
arinhire, or else the aurochs. Meath; in 1623 a place in the Irish 
TTgo^aro (tk-sa-ga'ra), part of the privy-council; and in 1624 the primacy 
V 00*5 MA a German possessions in East of Ireland. He was a man of great eru- 
Africa, occupying an extensive area of dition^ his chief works l}eing the Annalea 
country inland north of the river Rufiji. Vetert9 et Novi Testamenii, which forms 
It has mountains of considerable height, the basis of the received biblical chro- 
and is generally fertile. nolo^y; and Britannicarum Ecdesiarum 
TTsambArfl. ^ A-sam-ba'ra ), a moun- Anttquiiates, 

voc»AUMc»xc» talnous territory of Ger- TJaliVTi'D ^^ Uskub (us'kup), a town 
man East Africa, situated about 50 miles *'"'*'^^r> of Northwestern Turkey, on 
N. w. of Zanxibar, extending inland from the river Vardar, seat of a Greek arch- 
opposite the island of Pemba. The bishop, with manufactures of leather, etc 
country grows rice, maise, india-rubber Pop. 20,000. 

and tobacco. TTssiiri (^^^'rO. a river of Eastern 

Usbeoks (Ss'beks), or Usbeks, a *"»*•**** Asia, a tributary of the Amoor, 

Turkish tribe which at one forming for a long distance the boundary 

time formed the ruling class throughout between Russia and Chinese territories; 

Western Turkestan, m Bokhara, Kho- length, 300 miles. 

kand, Khiva and Balkh, and parUy also TJanfmot (^'z^-^rukt), in law, the 

in Eastern Turkestan. In Western **"**** w-^" temporary use and enjoy- 

Tnrkestan they are now completely under ment of lands or tenements, or the right 

the control of Russia, but in the districts of receiving the fruits and profits of lands 

mentioned they still form the nobility and or other things without having the right 

landowners. to alienate or change the property. 

TTftf^ilnni (5'ze-dom), a Prussian TTftTirv (tl'zha-ri). See Interest. 

useaom ,g,^^^ .„ ^^^ g^j^j ^^ ^^^ usury 

coast of Pomerania; area, 150 square TJtall (^'^'^)* a Western State of the 

miles. The inhabitants are employed in ^ Amencan Union, bounded N. by 

agriculture and fishing; chief towns, Idaho, n. k. by Wyoming, e. by Colorado, 

Swinemttnde and Usedom. Pop. about b. by Arizona, and w. by Nevada; area, 

88,000. 84,990 sq. miles. The northeastern part 

Digitized by 


trtah Lake TTtioa 

of the State consists of the hi£h rangei of the Jordan River. Several Mormon 

of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains, towns are on its eastern shores. 

Practically all of eastern and southeast- TTtahs ^^ Utes, a tribe of American 

em Utah consists of a series of broad de- ** va'**o> Indians of the Shoshone fam- 

vated plateaus, deeply cut by canyons ily, living on reservations in Utah and 

and narrow stream valleys. The west- Colorado, having sold most of their lands 

em portion of the State lies entirely to the United States govemment. Pop. 

within the Great Basin region and is about 2000. 

separated from the more eastern portion TT'folro-moTi/l See Ootaoamund, 

by the steep escarpment of the plateau. " WUWUUaaa. 

Within the Great Basin region broad, TTtAniA (<i'ter-us), or Womb, an or- 
nearly level desert areas are interrupted wi»cxu» ^ ^£ females, situated be- 
by steep and rugged mountain chains run- tween the bladder and rectum, in which 
ning north and south. Within the pla- the embryo is contained until it arrives 
teau portion, there are numerous small at matunty, when it is finally bora or 
valleys which are irrigated for intensive expelled. In the virgin female it is some- 
agriculture, but upon the plateau itself what pear-shaped, and measures about 3 
grazing is the principal industry. The inches long, 2 inches broad, 1 inch thick, 
greater portion of the agricultural land and weighs about 1^ oz. It is divided 
of the State lies along the western border into a fundus or base, a body and a 
of the mountain and plateau district cerviw or neck. It opens into the vagina 
where the water from higher levels is by a transverse aperture (os uteri), 
brought down and applied to the sandy The organ is retained in its place by cer- 
and gravelly loams around the margin of tain ligaments derived from the peri- 
the Great Basin region, and to the finer toneum. Its internal cavity is small, 
grained sediments of the stream valleys and at each superior angle at the fundus 
and of the level floors of recent lake a Fallopian tube or oviduct enters, 
basins. The possible dry farm area of These tubes convey the ova or eggs from 
Utah is practically all of that which is the ovarjf (which see) to the uterus, 
not covered by mountains or under ir- In structure the utems is composed of 
rigation canals, with the exception of an outer serous coat, a middle muscular 
some of the more desert districts where coat, and an inner mucous lining. The 
the rainfall is less than ten inches. The arteries of the uterus are derived from 
irrigating ditches of the State are over the internal iliac and the aorta; the 
6,887 miles in length, of an estimated veins are large, and are called Hnuiea 
cost of $17,840,775.00, and the reservoirs in the impregnated state. The nerves 
are extensive. The agricultural products spring from the inferior hypogastric and 
include wheat, oats, barley, com, pota- spermatic plexuses, and from the third 
toes, onions, cabbage, peas, tomatoes, and fourth sacral nerves. The womb is 
sugar beets and fmits. Over 37,000 liable to many diseases, of which the most 
acres are devoted to the sugar beet and frequent and important are inflamma- 
46,000 acres to fmit and nursery in- tory affections and tumors. It is also 
terests. The chief wealth of the State liable to become displaced in various 
is in its agricultural and mineral re- ways from laxity of its liraments and 
sources. Its minerals embrace gold, sil- other causes (see Prolap$u9 uieri) , 
ver, copper, lead, iron, coal, salt, etc. TTfiAO (tlti-k&). an ancient city of 
In silver yield, Utah stands next to Mem- ^ •'•^^«* North Africa, on the river Ba- 
tana. Manufactures are mainly confined grada, near its entrance into the Medi- 
to goods for inter-mountain consumption, terranean, about 25 miles IV. w. of Car- 
though much beet sugar is made, and thage. After the destruction of Gar- 
there are large smelting works. The thage Utica became the capital of the 
capital is Salt Lake City; the next Roman province. It was destroyed by 
largest city Is Ogden. Utah was settled the Araos In the latter part of the 
in 1847 by Mormons ; organized as a ter- seventh century. 

ritory in 1850 and in 1896 admitted as a K'tica * ^^ <>' New York, county 
State, In 1882 Congress passed a ^ "*«», ^^^ ^£ Oneida CJountv, situ- 
stringent law against polygamy, and in ated on the south bank of the Mohawk, 
1890 the Mormon CJhurch decreed its 95 miles w. by N. of Albany. It has beau- 
di neon tin uance. Pop. (1910) 373,351. tiful parks and charitable institutions, 
1Tta.ll Lake ^ fresh-water lake in and is the site of a state hospital for the 
*•»*!.»/, j.jjg Stsite of Utah, 30 insane. Among its public buildings are 
miles 8. of Salt Lake Citv. It is 25 the Federal Building, the Ounty BuUd- 
miles in length w. to 8., with an extreme ingf City Hall, State Armory, Public Li- 
width of 13 miles. Its waters are brary. It has large and diversified manu- 
irained into Great Salt Lake by means facturing interests including twenty-two 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 



Digitized by 


utilitarianism TJzbegs 

textile mills. It is also the center of a engaged in the war of the Spanish Sue- 
large dairy country and is a market for cession. On April 11, 1713, the States- 
cheese. It is on the Erie Canal and the general, Prussia, Portugal and Savoy, 
D. L. and W., the N. Y. C, the II. R., signed separate treaties with France, 
the N. Y. Ont. and W., and the W. Shore The emperor refused to accede to the 
railroads. Pop. (1910) 74,419. peace, and his differences with France 
TT+"ili+flriflniani (Cl-til-i-tft'ri-an-izm), were subsequently adjusted by the 
Uliliwniiiusni ^jjg general name treaties of Rastadt and Baden in 1714. 
given to those schools of morals which By the treaty with England, France, 
define virtue as consisting in utility, among other things, recognized the 
The name is more specially applied to Hanoverian succession, engaged never 
the school founded by Jeremy Bentham, to unite the crowns of France and Spain, 
of which the m«8t recent exponent is and ceded to Britain Nova Scotia, New- 
John Stuart Mill, but there are many foundland, St. Kitt's and Hudson Bay 
other developments of the same principle and Straits. Gibraltar and Minorca 
both in ancient and modern scnopls of were also ceded on behalf of Spain, 
morals. See Ethics, Holland retained the Spanish Nether- 
TT+n-nifl (tt-t6'pl-a), a name invented lands until a barrier treaty was arranged 
utupxa by Sir Thomas More, from the with Austria. (See Barrier Treaty,) 
Greek ou iopoa (no place), and applied Louis XIV recognized the title of the 
by him to an imaginary island, which King of Prussia, who received a part of 
he represents as discovered by a com- Spanish Guelderland, and the sovereignty 
panion of Amerigo Vespucci. As de- of Neufchatel in Switzerland, while re- 
cribed in his work called Utopia, writ- nouncing the principality of Orange, 
ten in Latin and published in 1516, the Savoy and Nice were restored to tne 
Utopians had attained great perfection in Duke of Savoy, who was recognized as 
laws, politics, etc. presumptive heir to the Spanish mon- 
TT'+rn/mia+a See Caliwtines, archv, and received the title of king. 
U truquiSliS. pjjiifp V was not recognized till the con- 
TT+rPPli+ (O'treAt), an important town elusion of these treaties, but France 
Ubici^ub of Holland, capital of a prov- treated for Spain, and formal treaties 
ince of the same name, 2^ miles south- corresponding with those with France 
east of Amsterdam. It is pleasantly sit- were afterwards signed with that power, 
uated on the Old Rhine, is traversed by TTtiera (^^-^ra'ri), a town of Spain, 
two canals crossed by numerous stone province of Seville, 18 miles 
bridges, and is surrounded by strong s. e. of the city of Seville. It has a 
forts. The town is well built, and has fine Gothic church and a Moorish palace 
several squares, promenades, a govern- Pop. 15,138. 

ment house, a Protestant cathedral (a TTtricularia (A-trik-il-lft'ri-a), the 

fine Gothic building), mint, handsome ^ v ***«.* » generic name of the 

town hall, palace of justice, etc. Educa- hladderworta (which see), 

tional establishments include a well- TT'vrila See Palate, 
equipped university, a veterinary school, * 

musical college, and schools for drawing TjTbrid^e (uks'brij), a town of Eng- 

and architecture. Utrecht is the central ^-^^^^^s^ land, in Middlesex, on the 

point of the Dutch railway system, and CJolne, 15 miles w. of London. It has 

carries on an extensive trade in grain an ancient church, an iron foundry, 

and cattle, and in the manufactures of breweries, brick kilns, etc. There is a 

the place, which include Utrecht velvet, good trade in corn and flour. Pop. 

carpets, floor-cloth, cottons, linens, chem- 10,374. 

icals, etc. Utrecht is the oldest town of TTiTTnal (^-13Q&10» an ancient Indian 
Holland, and was called by the Romans ^^^^^"^ town of Yucatan, Centra