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Mr. & Mrs. E.L. DelBeccaro 


. 1 

' I 

f ■. 


■ t 


B A r 

r*M Ian M»m«<^ 


on TBI 


The Genoese Rivieras, Italy, Spain, Corfu, Greece, 

the Archipelago, Constantinople, Corsica, Sicily, 

Sardinia, Malta, Algeria, Tunia, Smyrna, 

Asia Minor, with Biarritz and Arcachon, 



yiiiniii (IF THm hotal collioi nr mTfieiAifB, LniiiKiH, 


D&CdItO* Ot ABTES mCHti-Ult v7 I'llVhlC^.L BCllffCIB. 

A^lr m-CTUK Ur MlJflClVk OV Tdl BUimilUlIt, AHb up mK VFITUBITV. PAtla, 

flTC. HTC^ 


Kii^n EniTiox. 



' l«7i> J 




Sir i\t Ittmors 

FBiiQw or tsB loiAL coLLBei OF susoBONB SHOLUiD ; 


Tais Wobj: 



HIS motto: 



The present work embodies the experience of fifteen winters 
and spring passed on the shores of the Mediterranean, 
frooi October, 1859, to June, 1871, under tbe followiug 
circnmGtancee : — 

Five-and- twenty years devoted to a laborious profeasion 
and the harassing cares which pursue a bard-worktid 
London physician, broke down vital powers. In 1859 I 
)>ecame consumptive, and Etrove in vnin to arrest the pro- 
gress of disease. At last, resigning all professional duties, I 
wrapped ray robes around me and departed southwards, in 
the autumn of the yt'ar 18jy, to die in a quiet corner as 
I and my friends thought, like a wounded denizen of thi; 
forest. It was not, however, to be so. Tlie reminiscences of 
former travel took me to Mentoue, on the Genoese Riviurii, 
and under its genial sky, tVced from tlie labours uiid 
anxieties of former lile, to my very great surprise, I soon 
began to rally. 

The second winter 1 wished to (iud a locality even raoi-e 
favoured, one more in the stream of life, present or pust, 
and sought for it in Italy. Tlie search, however, was 
vain, and tiie unhygienic state of tlie large towns of thut 
classical land partly undid the good previously obtained. 
I retraced my steps, therefore, and again took refuge in 
quiet, healthy Mentone, The second trial proved even 
more satisliictory than the first. I gradually attained a 
very tolerable degree of convalescence, and once more my 
thoughts instinctively reverted to professional studies and 
to professional pursuits. 

To return altogether to the nreiia of London practice 
would have been folly for one just recovering from so fatal 
a disease. I therefore determined to adopt Mentone as a 
permanent winter professional residence, merely resuming 



London consitltiiig prnctioiy (luringr the vummer months. 
Since then 1 liave adhered to this plan, and have spent the 
wintctv at. Mvntone, nnd the eiimmoiB in and n(.<»r London. 
Bi-twevn tht! close of the Rivit^ra winter KCiuon, and the 
resumption of nrofeasiouttl duties in London, I take a 
holiday, in April and May, and have every year employed 
thu k-i»uro in the inveEtigation of the cHmati; and vc^-tntJon 
r>f other coantnes on the ehorcs of the Mcditi^rraneau. 
These spring jotirnoys have been conscientiously undertaken 
with the view t^ discover a better winter climat« than that 
of the Genoese Riviera, ir such exists in thu Mediterranean, 
1>oth for my own advantage and for that of others. They 
have extended over a period of more than eighteen roontlis. 

Hitherto I have not succeeded in finding a butter winter 
dimatvin ihuMeclit^-rrunvan ihnn thai ofthe more sheltered 
regions of the western Kiviera, and the re&ullsi of niy 
reeearehes may be embodied in a i'ew woids. On the shores 
and islands of the Meditcrraue&a there are two kind^ ot* 
winter elimatcs : — let. The mild and dry : vi^., tlic north 
shores of the Mediterranean in gvneml, and more especially 
the western Genoese Itiviera, and the east coast of Spain. 
2nd. The mild and moist : viz., the lonLin Inlands, the 
Grecian Archipolafjo, Corsica, Sicily, Stirdiiiia, Ktulta, and 
also the south coast of the Medit<*rrujiean, Algeria, Tunisia, 
*he delta of Lower Egypt, Paletitine, and jVsLn Minor; all 
in vnrinbtc degree. I must refer to tlie book itself for the 
data on which tliis statement is founded. 

Thu work first appeared ae a mere essav on tl)* winter 
climate and vegetation of the Mentone am phi theatre, and was 
published in l!>61. It has ci(i>atw]cd,in sueccseivc editions, 
until it has become a i;uTeful nieli:uroUigii:iit and hotanictU 
study of the vegetation and of the winter and iipring olimat«6 
of tiie shores nnd isl.ii>ds of the Mediterranean basin, with 
the exeejition of Kgj-pt and Pulestiiio. Not liaving u« yvt 
visited these counttie*, I have said but littk aliout them, 
my rule being only to describe localities personally explored. 
The purely scicntiliu character has been, >> some measure, 
Uiid aside, and the thoughts, fancies, and travelling iinpnw 
sions of a long |>enud of invalidism have been recorded. 

Id studying the climate of these rarioua regions of tl 




X«d!IS9Biki|fMa I have taken tut my guides Bolan/ 
and tlorlioultare, bvcaase they are the tunet, the Imiit 
uipablo of daoeivioff. Obwrvncioos founded oo the ther- 
mometer and on toe TOgiatratton of wiridM arc very un- 
certain, and are opea to many sourocs of error. Tlic reaolu 
obtained by their meann may lie invalidated by bias on the 
part of thv observer or by hi* ignorance of meteorology, by 
imperfect iDstrnrnvntfl or by a hadly-seleclcd locality for 

With the vegetable world it ia far different, for it eaonot 
deceive, and erroDeoas conduaioiu are eatily avoided by one 
who knoWK it* tawa. To its oamponent members, tompera- 
tare is simplv a nutter of life and death, iind the prn^^'nou 
or absence of a plant in a locality mys more than would 
pngM of thermomrtrical observations. Plants, moreover, 
reveal much mure thnn mere tcmperutura, for they are iu- 
llucnce'l in life, health, und liixunancc by moisture or dry- 
, Mas, hy wind or by oalm, and by the nature of tho soil in 
which they grow. 

At tbe onme time I have avoided entering into minute 

.botanical detailjt, or giving long ligt* of planle, for my 

^bjoct was not botanical research and exactness ; I have 

wished merely to study climutc through vegetation. I 

have willed to flwcertain by the obaervatioo of common 

trees, sbnibs and flowers, and of their epoch of producing 

foliage und flowere, the difFerenoe that exiat« between 

[ihe winter and spring chmato of difTcrent regions of the 

Medilermiiean an oomnared u-ilh the nurtb of Kurope. 

A more minute stiiuy of the Mediterranean Flora would, 

, certainly, havo rendered this work more valuable in a 

[•oicntiGo point of view. I am, however, on the one hand, 

rjcaroely prepred for such a study by previous luboura in 

the direction of purely scientilic botany, and on the other 

I might have repelled mere medical and general readers, to 

whom I tnoTC eH]kcnnlly iiddfCHS myself, and who, as a rule, 

U« unacquainted with the minutiie of botanical scicnoc. 

As, how*vcr, my descriptions of natural piienoincTia were 
written on the spot, and may W troniiidered earefu! mental 
photograplia of what nctnally ex'uia in the regions dt^scribed, 
Uiey may prove useful even to scientihc readers. Frofeesed 


botanitts, met«aro1ogitt« abd gcologiist*, may nee more m 
my dcaeriptioDi than I myself see, with » moTo limited 
knowledge of tbeee edeDoee. 

In CV017 region of tlie Meditvrmuean examined, both 
on the uortb and routb >honw and on the islands, 
the ground in any given point is occupied, according to soil, 
by pretty nearly tlie same plnnte in a gi'mTut Ktni'V. la 
Other wordt), iilthotigli in any rc^on a l>otani«[t might find 
in a equuro tniln iievi^rtil hundred s)>ecieB, yet tbe ground is 
•oUially occupied by a limited Dumber of species ; they aru 
tb* real inbabitants of the country, and shoutder the ran-r 
Bpcci<9i out of Iho wiiy into bolu and corners aa it were. 
Probably this is the caa« everywhere, and makes the Fludy 
of vrgetal4on, in a supirficiid sense, a much v»m-r iiiattor 
than it i( genemlly supiwecd to be. Moreover, the Morn of 
the entire Mediterranean baain is everywhere very similar, 
ind4M(l all but identical in its main features, for the same 
toils and under the eamc conditions of pratcctiun and 
t^^rupcraturc. This will be perceived by my dcfloriptious of 
vegetation, and muat be the explanation and excuee for 
their sameness. 

Although mon^r of the rcgioun deceribwl were viBil«d 
several time* in the course of my liiVeen years' rambles, 1 
have adhered throughout to the narrative elyle, preserving 
tlie finit written dexeriptiunH. Fiivt imprcK'-'iiinx hiive, or 
ought to have, a fie^hneaa about them which (^mntitute* 
the cltnrm of a book of travels, if cfaaim it bos ; these first 
impmHioiis ore essentially fugitive, tUey cim never be re- 
called. "We never again see even the loveliext scene in 
nature nith the feelings that were lirst roused in our 
mindii. I have, however, modified and su|iplemented 
" Hret impressions" whenever neecsmry, so ae to secure 
correct ucE«. 


Tint Vtanv, WiraRiccr, Scbiikt, 1 
ftnoarmua Sinut, Laxnott, j 

M 1x10:1^ roANCS (nioMf). 

," ,' ' '■ 1 ■. :-i 


' rtat 

labodnetofynnuib— 11ieUeditamii«a>iLbaDiiuiditieliiiiata 1 





Mentone — Situation — Climate as showB bj v^^tation . 8 


G«ol0g7 — The ontaceoos or secondary period — The nnminiilitio 
or tropical period — The conf^lomerate and glacial period — 
The Bone caverns — Fre-historic man . . .39 


Physical geography and meteorology of the Biviera and 

of Uentone <3^ 

Flowen and hortioaltare on the Biviera C<> 


The Uedherranean — History— Navigation— Tides— Depth- 
Sonnding — Storms — Temperature— Fish — A natoralist'H 
preMrre— Bine oolmu— The 8t Louis rocks . -122 



The olimate of the OeaoMe Biviera and of Mentone considered 
medicallj 152 


Uentoue in its social aspect — Amnsemente — Drivea— Bides — 
Pedestriui ezcnraions — Uountaiu vUlogeB — Casino — 
ChnrclieB— aociftl life 173 


Western Italy— The two Rivieras— Eastern Italy — Bologna — 
Ancona— Taranto— Brindiei 207 


Spain— Oarthaffena — Mq roia— Elche — Alicante — Valencia — 

Cordova— SBTille— Malaga— Granada — Madrid— Vallado- 
lid— Bnrgos 245 


Corfu and the Ionian Islands— Greece and the Archipelago— 
Conatantinopla— The Danabe 292 

PART n. 



Corsica — Its physical, geological, botanical, and social charac- 
teristics — Its history — Its climate — Ajacoio and Bastia as 
winter cliinat«a — Orezza and Gnagno as sunmer stations 
— Sarhme — Bonifacio and the eaatem coast . • . 331 

• ■* 

oomKNTi. ' zm 


fthnoo— Mwim*— Oitiiii* Momit BtM Oyrwuie 
llMMtiim 406 


Sudimft— Tli« ToyiRe— 1« Xaddelena— llw Stntiti of Bom* 
Cuio — FbTBMl gMgn{>lir — Porto Torrw— BMwri— 
Oiilin Oriituno TglwiM — The bdo ud iMd minni 
ThaOMiipidmiii— dgliari - . iSB' 


MiH*-nw TtTigs finn Tonu— Il^riaal gnognpb j^-TaJatte 
— YageUtioiir-^nia mteriop— Onttmlaoa— Tha St AntoDio 
gatdBU»— Windi — Tt*!"*^!! 4U 




Algiers and Algeiia^-The tea TOTage— Algierg— The experi- 
mental garden— The Trappiet monoeteiy — Kabylia — Fort 
Napoleon— Blidah— The Chifik Gorge— MilianHh—Teniet- 
el-E&d- The Cedu foreat—The Deeert^The TtUle; of the 
Cheliff—Orteanaville—Oran— Climate and medical oondn- 
mona 492 


Toaia and Taniaiar— ArriTal- Bailroad— The cil7— The Berdo 
-T^^etataon—Oardena— Climate— The roina of Oartliage 66ft 


Smjraa and Ana Hiiun— /The Golf of Bmjmar— The citf^ 
Vegetation— Climate— A flra— The misa of Bpheana . 574 






The Italian lates — Lake Iseo— Como — Lngano — Uaggiore— 

Orto — The Scotch Lochs — Loch Awe — Loch Uaree — 

Iselle— The Simplon Pus &8I 


Bi&rritE —' BiBTTitz as an antamn and winter reiidence — 
Situation— Cliiaat« — Seabathing — The lat« Imperial resi- 
dence— Arcachon . ■ 604 

Thermometrical Tables and Bemarks 617 

The jonmej from England to Uie liediterranesn— The Return 630 


Tilt Engravingt and Jlapt to h* hovnd opporite thepofo. 





TBB LBVOM OIBL -.■...'..• 19 



rOHIL VrVKDLITSB .,,.■. 42 




MT ITALIAN aAXDSir (bntbahcb) 06 




















Tinr or alsibu , 497 




ASAB aiBL 602 


JBW corrsB bxllbb 606 





BurriB 681 



max) 656 

The Mapa contained in this work are cbromolitLograplied bj 
M. Erhard, of Fane. 

The Frontispiece ia chromoUUiogTaphed &om a water-colour of 
Mr. £. Binjon, hj MesBTS. Brooks. The woodcata are bj- Uesara. 
Bntt«rwortii and Heath, from aketcheB and ironi photographB bj 
U. Davenne and bj Mr. W. Roach. The Algerine wood engrav* 
ingB are priudpallf from photographB hj MesBrs, Oeiser, of 






The fifteen winters that I have ^pent oil the Genoese 
Riviera is etudy and meditation, the yeur iiiid a halt' 
devoted, in April and May, to the exploration of ihi; Mi'di- 
lerrjncon shores and ii-lands, iiavc produwd their I'niits. 
I have attained a muL'h more comprclicni^ivt.' kixmlud^o ol 
the climate of the MediteiTiuu-an gcntirally, as iilsu of ilt 
vegetation, than I po^csEed wlien the Hrst tditioun of ihis 
Work were puhliHlied. By df^'^rei-s, as my iKiisoiiai vx- 
pericnce of the diliertiiit ri.'^i<>iiij of tho <rri;at iiiiiind i-vu \itiy 
extended, an my Unowledyu of its vi'tii.'tiilioii Ujis iuc'ri^i'^cd, 
the laws wiiieh ri'^ulalu aiid di'cidi; tlie )k>dili'i'i'atie:iii 
elimateij liave beenmu deuiTi-, nioie iiret-ir-u. It is my wish 
and intention intlies^c iutroduefory lemiirlis tostiilc, liuiilly 
and eoncist'ly, what these law*! are. Tlivy will cdii-litulr 
the key to tlie <.ntii-e work, and will tind llair fxplitnation 
and elucidation in each ^ncecssivL' (:ha]it('i'. 

Climate may he e-aid to be the result i>]' ■rcoMi-ii]>hii-al 
oonditions and of jiroximily to hind or wati:r. Wiallii-r 
depends on seasunw and on "wliieli wav the wind 

Except in the Tr0]iics, winds I'rtun the north arc euld in 
winter, eool in summer; whiUt winds licnn the umlii nre 
niild in winter, hul in siinnnor. Attain, both in u'lnter and 
tiummer, winds north or toutli are dry if they ociiie ovrr 



ciintinenU and moiintainti, inout if th«y enme over waterj 
ocfiao, sea, or lake. 

TIk<s(? data unr rascepUMo of so ;;cneral an applicalion^ 
timt tt ])cr«o» posEU»«) of » moderAW kti()wio>Ip.'or mctt«i>-J 
olo^y and of (ilivsii'nl gwjrrKjiliy iniirlit nlinosl dett^ritiii>« 
the dim»t« of any reijioii fif the e;iitli without leaving his 

Tim McditcrruncAi), the flortli's " ffrent inland ««,' 
comprinL-d liriwotin latitude 45* mid -Id' i^orlli, and liL'tvreeu 
lonatiimle 5* W. and W E. lu width from the Straits . 
Gibroltar to Syria in S^UU miles. Its bri-iidth at the iiai 
rowiiit, part, Iwtwwn Sicily und Afriai, is 'rt miU-« ; at tli( 
liruadi-Ht part, fn>m the liend of tlie Adriatic to Alriciiy^ 
liOa inilea. IFiile Map at end.) 

The North shotee of tho Mcditorrnncan, from Gibraltar 
to Constant! nt' pip, «rc frinfjcd hy niuiinUiiiis, grncrnlly 
abiitlii)<; on the ahnrtui, which coiiittitutc the southern 
estrcinity of the continent of Europe. The South shores 
of the Mediterranean are partly ocou|)ied by a narrow nin^ 
of niouiiliiinB and inoiinlain land (Atlas) and piirlly hy tliu 
de*ort of Sahara, whii-h averf a {irkint portion of the con- 
tinent of AfricJt. The gn-at desert bcj^iia behind the Atlaa 
ranse, not moie than a hundred miles from the soa, and 
reaches its shon-s between Tripoli aqd Syria, The desert 
of Sahnni is Micved to Iw the hottest re^rion in the world. 
The inlands of the Mcdilerranean are all mountainous. 
They may he oaid to be the summits of submarine moun* 
tains and of mountain ranges. 

Thns the Mi'diU^rraiiwm it n suUtropical n-gion by lati- 
tude. DiyHii'uUy it is u deep depre^Aion or bn«ii), com- 
municatin^; witli tho ooean. frinKcd continuously t\'ith hitili 
mountains on ils north shore, hounded by lower moiinlnins 
nnd by tlio i^nntlest and hotl»t desert of the globe on it« 
southent «hore. 

I'rom its i<ul>tro)iical position the sun is very powerful, 
winter and summer, all over the Mcditcrmncan, when not 
olmcurwl by clouds, l'"roni its geographical position, sur- 
ronnde'l by Innd and hy coiitjnonl*, eluiidy nv-^itluT in not 
veiy (rk-queni, nor in rain very abundant, so that liie clinmte 
i^ excvptionally snnny, winter as well as summer. Ad the 

atmospbero tiaon geaenily dry, the sky is eeaeraUy elur 
mA blae, wad the rays of tka sua ba<ra ootoal^ mora pow^r 
tiuu in the tropin. 

Id wintw, when the oontiuent of Earope is bound up iii 
frostaod corered with snow, when th« maiintiiiuj of Nur- 
wajrind Sweden, the Baltie sod Polar r«i^ions, artj aneiniias 
o! ice, a north wind, crossing the Mi^turniiieati in a tew 
honrs, brin^ cold weather to the entire inliiitd si:.i, to its 
isUnds, and to its sOBthem shores. Thus in winWr itisolk-n 
oold,and oocostonally freezes at Algiers, Tuiii^, Aliiduiilriu, 
Beymt. Hoarfrost may be seen day ai'ter djy at siitiriee 
IB the defl»t of Sa&aru, south of the Atlus (Tiistiun). 

Inspria^, in AprilaodeveninMay, acoldiiuith wiQ<i may 
bring oool, even chilly, weather to these sonlhei-n regions. 
I have been quite ootd, with a norl^-west wind, ui Alliens 
on the 12th of April. This very year (187 1), dnring the ' 
first week in May, at Tunis, the nights were coul, Mow 
60° Pah,, and the day not above 68° or 70° in a west room. 

Id winter, on the other band, a south-west equatorial 
wind, or a south-east Sahara wind (scirocco), lasting several 
days, will bring mild weather, not only all over the Medi- 
terranean, but all over Europe, up to St. Petersburg. 

Id spring, in April and May, the same winds, especially 
the south-east or Sahara wind, may bring intense heat to 
alt parts of the Mediterranean, and what is usually, but 
irrationally, termed "unseiisonable heat" to all parts of the 
continent of Kurope, as far north as St. Petersburg. Such 
heat and such wind^i, however, in epiiug never last more 
than a lew days either in the Mediterranean or in conti- 
nental Europe, the north winds resuming their sway. In- 
deed Europe may be said to lie between an ice house, the 
polar regions, and a furnace, the desert of Sahara. 

Thus, in no part of the Mediterranean basin, shores, nnd 
islands, is there an immunity frtim cold and frost in winter 
from mere latitude; neither ia ther« anywhere — glorious 
as is the spring — perfect immunity from chilly winds or 
weather iu spring from mere latitude. 

Immunity from cold wind in winter and from chilly wind 
in spring can only be secured, even in the Mediterninean, 
by the protection of high mountiiina running e:i'>t and west. 




Moi]i>t»in ridi^ea and nnasees wliicit run from fuet to wc 
intDTccpt norih windti, whether these winds are iiortb-i-i 
w iiurUi-wi'st, ^ Muuiitiiin ndsM niniiinsi from norUi to' 
Houtli, nil lilt' ApdiiiintDi, int(.-ri.'cpl c>np of thrtv wiiidf only, 
llie norlti-mvt or the north-west, uL-coniing Ut tht; wiile on 
whk'h thf olnserver is jilui^td, Thi-y do not iutereejit liolb, 
Ko Hint th« protection thi'v give fiuin north n-iods a only I 

Tlie dc){rcc of prutection gireii hy moiintuin Hdge«, 
whether runniii^ir ^^^^ "i^d tvcst or noi-thand south, depends 
on iwvvral iToixlitioiis — th« hcinlit of the moiintniits, Ihrir 
Mope, iii< tlu* inoru ptTpL^idicnliir thi-y iirc t)ii; [;r<;>it4>r tlitti 
pi-olei-tion ; the di^jilh and extent of the moiitituin n-^ton ; > 
ItiD |)roximity of iIil- observer tu Hie base oftlie mountain, > 
fill thf nmrcr lie is Die griitti-r the protection. This hitter 
fact in ilhiftrntvd by fmit Irck-v in nn orehard ; tlioec naikd 
to the .iheltvring muII arc more protected from a north 
nind lilouini; over it than those that are planted at i>ome 
distance from its base. 

Ulie maps appended to thid vrt>rk have heen specially' 
rnjjravi-d iieKinHn^ to my directionti, (w t\» to fjivc the' 
ictiitive clcvaiiou and power of the m»nnLuin» of KuuthiTtt 
Ktiropeand of the Klediterranenn luibin. They are intended 
III allord u panoramic viciv of the Mediterruiiean rej^ons »n 
teen from nhove, ami l" ilhwtnite ihc givut and important 
ijiii'Klioii iif proli-irtion from north wind-t. 

Not«i(hi'tfliidiiig all my travels in the Mediterranean, 
all my researches and investigations into the climate of il« 
viin«n8 rcffione, 1 have hitherto liiih-d t" iliwiover a ioeiililjr 
more »hellrred from eold windu, I'rmt, and lain, thnn tlia{ 
(■<'nu««t: Western Itiviera, especially the region extendinij 
Ifom \illo Fianehe to St. Itemo. Indeed I have not foui 
B8 yet a Figion where the vt-jji-tution i«as southern, or j^ircs 
fvidcneu ot as much uliellcr. with the exception ul' thclm«oof 
Hie mountiiinf in tiie victnily ol Mitl:ifi;i( or the base of the 
J)nlmaHan monnlnitjs, in front and north ofCorla. 

Thim the prepostessions of the meiv tourist nliich led 
tne to settle as an invalid at Mcntonc, on the Uiviira, in 
\i)hV, have Ihtii jiihlitiid by ^iihsetpieiit rcKi-iinh and cx- 
pvrirncf. Thnl it iilioiild W eo will be at onic ajipurent to J 



any who cost thnr eye orcr the naap of tli« (iiilf of OeiKw it 
the Winnnio^ of tliu next chapter. It will be aeen at otu-t 
tfaot riiit only is there in this region m«rked )>n}t«ction I'roin 
the north, hut also from the nnrth pjhI mul nDrth-wwt. 
Hiffli, dwt> mmmtiiiriH r«rni ■ Mmicinzlo r<iiiii<l Ihu (inH' ui' 
Genoa, giich as 't» not to he toimd iu any other part of Iho 

The iKwuliariy mild dimato of tli^ oiwt-linc of the (juif 
of (>en<M. known under the iuii»e»r Hivittrn di [jirvuntoAnd 
Riviera di l'uti«nte, or Kaateni and WcHtern Kiviora, is 
indeed much more relerable to the protection afforded I'v 
lootitnin mii!^« than to latitude. Thv Alps and A|ie:ii)iiR>s 
nn an inimeikne M^rei.')! to the iiorlh-e««t. The Sitiss A1|hi, 
which l«riuii)ate rather abniplly in the plains of Piudimnit 
by the tfrood Alpine hei^ht^ of Mont Ceni)!, Mont St. 
Bernard, Mont Simplon, ar« continued in Savoy and Dnu- 
phiny down to the Meditorranean at Toulon, Ilyt-ix'S, 
Cftnues, and Nice. From Nim the monnlam nin^o, whidi 
Llhen lake* the nnnie of Miiritimc Al]iit, Kliirt-s the nhurv of 
'Mm Uiiir or (iftioa in a north-ea:<tt-rly dir<.taioti ita I'nr iw 
that city, and in a 0ODtii-«ast«rly dir-'ction as Tar a4 Lucca. 
At Uenou it nnit«« with the Apcnniiico, or ratlu-r hveomM 
tb« Apennines. At I/h-ca, Wving the ooaot, iho Apeiitiinm 
i^tiuy Cvnlral Italy, Ibrining a kind of hauklioii«, m far 
gntL as Uejif^io. 
O'viht; tu thia latter g^otfi-aphicul Inct Ibdy is less 
ahi-lt'i-ri-d than the vowt of tliu Uulf of Genoa, and Ihe 
l)«altli cltninlw of lt«ly are liniit<-d to ibi ivfuu-rn rhrirea. 
'The A(ienui'i«s separate Italy into two loii|;'tud)iial sectioiis, 
fr<Kn (jenoa to the straits uf^Mesbina, and aslheaonionnUiins 
ri»e ff"m fonr to ninv thoitNind feet in lK-i>;hl, they conotitulv 
A tittrrit-r whieh prolecU the «itire wettlern eua«t>line from 
the north-<!ni>t winiU of eentral and oortheni Kiirope, Thence 
a totally dilferLDt winter climate tliron-^liotit the luhiin 
pi:niii>ula, on tUe ea^l and west of the Apeniiim* riil;j;<-. On 
tile ciuilcrn, or Adriatic side, in th« plaiiiH of fii-dtnont, 
I'mhria, and lliu .Maivlns, on'inj; to the pre^li>miniinc« of 
the uuld windii front the centre and east of Ktirope, the 
wintof and aprin^ are very cold, inneli colder than on thu 
wcntern or Mediterranean stdv, the one on whieli we Hiid 



the Itjilian plensmre citifs, Piea, I'lorence, Home, Xa pies. 
Tlie wmttrn (Must uf Italy ie nut tmly piotcclcd IVom tlie 
noi'tli-ciiet (vindc, nliii-li iiro ibc coltk-st in winter in Etiiogio, 
bull it is n]H.Mi to tliv wiirm N'lutli-weit wiii(lj<, uliic-ti very 
olicii blon- lirim IIil* Mrditt^rruiieaii during autiiniti and 
epi'iufT) and lirin:? wiih tliem warm et-a-currenfc. At th« 
Miin» time, it is entirely ojicn to the tiaith-woet winds, which 
in winter iiivolti-ii VLTV lii.'t-n. Tlie Wi-sH'in Hivirrn.on tlie 
uontniry, i* uUu ehdlt'rt-d IVinn ihtwc li'ji'th>wc»l wiiiiJM. 

Frot«i;tioti from tlie luirlli-winds, and espooLire to the 
euntli-wimis, however, <;ives to thvviitiro rei^ion fromTouloo 
lu Pieii, a mildness of winter climotv whivh Intitudu alonu 
wonid iii't iin|>iii-t, dilli-rin^ in degti-e airi:titiliii{; In locidity. 
TliUH Meiiliini! and Monarn, two of llio muHt xhidten.^ and 
wurtnent sputt* on the iiiulli toast of the Metiitorranean, lire 
situated only in lalitode 4^° 45', between tliirty and Ibrty 
niil'K more to the north than Toulon (43° i'} or Mniseillrs 
(18'' 17')! bnt thi) lalter are, the one Icm pvoteeted, the 
otlier un|iri>t(Nrted, niirt hwardft, by inoiintMiii ruii<^-N, und 
consequently at Manrt^ille^ very sbuip lio^ts take pluce every 
winter. Nor in this sinpTisin); when we consider tbnt in 
the north mid centre of Europe llu- ground is ofltn covered 
with mow lor many inoiithii dnriiij; winter, and that a high 
wind truvolti at the rate of from thirty to forty mileit an 
hour. The distance, any from the highest Swi^s inounlaiu, 
Ds rt'presented by Mont Diane, lo the MediterratieaD is not 
more than a hundred and sixty miles. Astrun;; north wiuil 
will not only naeli the cuuitt-line in a few Imnii^, wbcru 
iiiiiirpedt'd l>y mounlninif, brin^in;; with it cold weulht-r to 
all iinproleLled regions, but it will crdsa the Meiliu-rrun<:an 
iind bring cold i-ains, and even Irost, to Algeria, and to tlie 
imrth of Alrini, 

During (lit- winter the most protected and watmcst luirt 
uf this Bonlh-euxtein eoa*t of Frunee and wc>letn eoarl ol' 
It:ily, the uiidtreliir «f eentnil KuTope, is unquestionably 
the Hiviera di I'onente, or Western Kiviera, <'\Ieiidiii|^ from 
N ire to (lenoa. The excciilionally mild winter climate of 
this region in principally to be ottribnt'd lo the fjrcat height 
of the monntiiin range skirling iherhore, and Id its cxln-nio 
proximity to the sta. Ai> one o) il» iiamiti implies, Curnieei 



the Hiviom is a mCK Lfd'je or coaet-line at tlit? fuot of tb« 
moll II In inn, which pn>U.-Cl it iiorth-ncst niiil north -inut. 

My kii4)n-le<)^' ol' Ihi; winter cliniiito iind of tlie vc^tiuj 
tion itf tho Mediu-rraueiiii id |iriii(.'i[ialK' Uerived i'nim nij 
Hi'pti wliiti'r*' rtrsidencii" at ,M«utone, on tho Western 
ivicra ; hitt my Fpriiifj tmvL-ls hnvc shown mi.- Unit iho 
inil phyiit-nl, gwildgliMl, met^orohi^ical , and hwtunii-iil 
iitinnft of the Me<)itcTraiii:iin «b«r«t uiiil ii>liini]s are so 
far i(leuti<!al thai the fads olwerved in un« r«gion a)>(>ly to 
All, with eurh mod iht-ut ions ns the j^rciitcr or less umount 
ofshclttrand tin; nature of the soil imply. 

I piitiKMe, tht'ri'futr, in Ihu fn^l piirt of ihiif work U> 
diitizrilie the north .4)1 ore of thv ML-dileiTiiiieun, l;iUiii^ aa 
an i1!u6triitifln its moat sheltered rtjjioii, the XVtilern 
Uivitfrii. Wilh Ihfs iiitcntioit 1 shall nmre especially study 
iho L'limntc, yivolngy, and vc^Htion of the Mrntoiiu 
amphithmtn.', adding a griii;rul :i(-(.-oi4nt of the MrditL-r> 
ntneuu Son. In the second [larl 1 yliul) i)<«:ril>c tliu lar^e 
ilaDds of the Mediterranean ; and in the thiixl purl itti 
th shore. 

The opening of the r.iilwiiy froiii I'aris to Nice and 
Genoa has rendered the lovely lUvii-ni vi-ry etii^y of nvuctnt, 
wen to roritlrnii-d invalids, aud 1 believe that the t^me is 
t'a>t iippToMi'liinij; when tenit of Ihotiaonds from the lioilb of 
Kur<ij>e w ill udopt the habita 'if tlit^ stvalluw, and traiistbnn 
etery town and village on ita ciiaat into sunny winter 
Ktn-nts. 1 tnny remark that it is the fin-t (mint of the 
Mrditermuean shore wliere hinls ofpoMsge Irum tho north 
make a bait fur the winter. 

imlHAhii UvlM 





" lodi i monti Lignstici e Riviera 

Clie cor aroDci e aempTe verdi mirti, 
Qaasi avendo perpetua primaTera 
Spurge per I'ana, bene olonti spirti." 

Ariosto, Canto prime, Iiiii. 

There are few old Italiaa travellers to whose mind the 
word " Hiviera" does not recall the recollection of happ/ 
days of leisurely vetturino progress, along a sunny, pie- 
tureaque shore, overshadowed by ' bold mountains, and 
inhabited by Rshermen who, on a fine autumnal evening, 
often seem to realize the sc^ne of the market chorus in 
" Masaniello." When, overtaken by ill health, I was 
obliged to abandon the hard work of active life, it was a 
consolation to me to know that I could migrate to this sun- 
favoured cOast, and conscientiously spend the dreary winter, 
in legitimate idleness, on a shore which memory painted in 
(flowing colours. In this instance the memories of the past 
viere fully verified by the realitits of acttial experience; and 
now that rest and mild southern winters have restored me, 
in a meiiaure, to health, I am desirous to make known the 
Riviera and Mentone to the tribe of sufferers obli>^ed to fly 
in winter from the British Isles; for our beloved country is 
"merrie," in winter, only for the hale and strong, who can 
defy and enjoy the cutting winds, the rain, the snow, and 
the frost of a northern land. 

Along the entire Riviera there is no more picturesque spot 
th.iii the one in wliioh Mentone lies, encircled by its amphi- 



mountains; my selec4ion of a wiator home vru 
tl)ii9 a rortunate one. 

McnutDu 16 M smiill Italtnn town oF five tlioiiKand inhabi*:! 
t«tit«i, !(ilunt«tl in latiiude -t-'l" lit', ninotcen miles inu't 
Nice, at tite fwit of the Maritime Alps. It is the fir 
nLiitiun oat of Niw, on the Cornioe road to Genoa, and wa 
tlM Ur>f«iit lowD of the priocipality of Moiiuco hcforo it 
SDDexaliun to Fnmoi-, nlun>; with H'vx. 

TbeUulfof Ucitnii ih forntwl betweeu Nicse and Lucca, 
l>y tJie Miiriliiiie \\\» and the Apenuines, tl>e iintnense 
naasaa of wtiich dcaoead to the sea so abruptly in eunie 
places as to Usirft no shore, their beetlin;^ cr^i:^ tormimitin<» 
dirx-cUy in the mm. TIiim ia the uukv imtiii-diiitily Wiiiiid 
uml to the eastwurd of Nice. Owinj; ti> tlitn (Urt->jm>lanutf, 
lliofe was formeily no continuous curriau^ niad from Nice 
to (tcn<Ni. The tun<l coinmiiuicatiDn bulweL-n these citiesj 
WB« carried on by muaiu of ii very pict unique, but very! 
unaafe mule track, along ilui rooky coii^t. Thu carriagof 
t^oad Uiat now vx-'wUt was commenced by Napolixin al tho 
lietnunin;; of the century, as a military roiul, all hut 
in<ti>|>cu»4lili' whi-n Itidy was annexed to the French Ke- 
puiilii;. lie Ivit it in un unlinished («tate, btit it hus since 
thon U-ni c^mpk-u-d by sncocssiva Oovernniitnls. Until j 
within Uiu lost few yixn tliis road was very tinmfe 
■ftpr heavy rains, owinf;^ to the abeenoa of bridj^es over 
•uine »f tliv torrent nvers, and to frcipicnt landslips. 
AfU'r Ibo tropii'ii) rams to which the Itivicrn t*: exposed and 
whii-h <l<nin-n<l f rum the nvountains that frione itH >>)i<>rvK,th«sie j 
rirvrs riiUimnicnno masses ofvratertotliest^a, uud thin either 
U^rome imiMssiible for a time, or are crossed with difHcnlty, 
and uvirn ilanK«r. In days still <)uilo recent, every winter, 
varria^^ wvni overturned and curried towanls tho sea, 
and aometimen tmvellers drttwnud, but such attastroptuM) 
have now ceased U> olvui', most of the rivero beinjf J 
I'nwHvd by (rood briiltjes. 

The road has Ih-i.-ii Lurried in many places over and 
iii)r hi(Fh mountains and prccipituuK etiirM. When; the 
bore cKuta, it is generally a mere rocky, ftUingly, or 
sandy letli;e or beaeli, from which the motintaius rise directly. 
lu soma points, however, wher« nvers mi^^h tho sea, thvitf 



■re ■mall plains at tl*a foot of tli« mouDtaiiu, lu at 

On Invintr Nice Tor Genoa, the road nt mice begins to 
iMcen<l tlio Turbin, n tliouldi-r of tlie Am^l. This moun- 
tain in iiWut 30()U r<-vt l>if;t>, niui is vnc of tho ^mn 
tliat tun directly inlu tlie wva. Tlvo fuir <:it}- of Nice li« 
at iU ueft^ni base, llie ascent nccni^iiw two hoiiiVt 
t))« roitd iviidiin^ an «levalion of iUli) fet-t, two miles 
Iwroru arnvio-; nl Ihv villi^e of Tiirliia. Tliv <Ii>6c«nt 
urcnpii-K nii lionr and a liiiir, and at its t<^^n)i tuition is 
nitiiutfd Mentiim-. A> thv timvvlW a^n-ndu tl»e Turbia 
fmm Nice, tje obtains a vi.-ry benntifnt p;in'irumic view 
ol the town, and of the inouwljin-<:in--Ied plain in 
whidt it ii«s. Till- vy« rv^i* with interoNl and pkMQI* 
on till- t'tnincnoe that oinimnndx Niif, erowniil in rormcr 
davi liy the old furlrvks, near llii^ onlkt to the viill^y of 
the Paillon river which piLTOfti the ba«k}i:n>und of kit)ce 
motinlains to the noTth-eai^l, and on the bcantiful coast> 
line, aa far as the distant KutL-rel ranov. It is a very 
lovely vitw, e*pvciiilly in tho anrrnoon, when tho am, 
|Nuwing to the Ki<iith-\vn>t, <;ii»t> its radianoo over the 
ccenc. ImUW, 1 »h«idd advi^' travellers Mcntone bound, 
twit presM'd for time, or over-hurdened with travelling 
" impedimenta," to abandon the railway at Nice, and 
drive to Mcnlniie, hiiio'; a private carriii;^ for IIm? pnrpci 
ll»-re ia not a more 1ii-iiiilt<Ml drive in Europe, and by rai 
it r> entirely \i^H. The atiirt fnini Nice alvould W ma< 
alHKil twelve o'lWk, so n^ to have tho eotith-woiU'm sun 
to illumine the roiid all tlie way. First impre>«ii'nt< are of 
i;reiit iin)>orlancr, and the drive from Nicr to Menluno ja 
tu) pic-turtivquc that it Kliontd idways be tukon by Itnltlt 
tMirikts, and esp^ciiiHy by futtiru itojotirnert at Menione, 
pr>>vided the weather be fine. ^^ 

'Itie railway, now open from Nice to Mentone, on tl*^^ 
Iljdian lroi>liiT, miub (acilitiitee thie stiinf; oltlie jmimey, ' 
to tliiwe who niiih to tnivi-l nipidly, Moiffivcr, Fkirlin}; 
the i<u-l of tli« mountain*, {uiicin); ucimk* lovely bays, 
tbiotitfli many ftliort tunncU, it ^ivw f^limpnca of mii 
piclurc«i|ue coaet BoeiKTV. Still, the traveller who ado|i 
it bxwM many beiiutirnf mountain views, of a diurarterl 

il t«_ 




U'tully ilitrircnl rram what u Men in motintaio redone in 
till.' tiorrh tif Eoroiio, 

Wben the vilUt^ of Turljia lini' Ixxa rciicliod, i>n<1 Hie 
ij^urtit beglriH, a [luuonimii I'Vi-n more ^luriuua iirusuiils 
ilselt lo tliu eye. Al our Teet lios Moiutco, crownint; » 
promonktry lliitt advHiK-cs into tliu fifii uii<l liirme u MniiU 
port. Ah the niii<l dt-KL-i'mU, wiixliii'; a\u»g thv mountuiii 
ffUlu, a lirown aim-huTtil. vill.ige is apGii^Koot-abruaa, 
clinKttii; ti) lh« rouks. Then a corner ia turn<?d, «nd 
br-li'ili! B ma>;tiiKc«nt mountain BmphithcatTe npjieiirf!, that 
of Munlunv. The hi;;hrr moiinUiiiK, rueuding round a 
Wauliriil hay ojieniii^ tu 11>u (u>iilh-<-iixt, form tbis amphi' 
theatre, the oeiilre of which 'u uhout two miles (rom tlie 

The voiiKt oullinc, which is almtit four iniK« in cimuH, id 
diviOeil into twu uncijiml i>*y*, th<: eiut and llie w^l, by a 
hilly apur or huttruut {;rniliuilly »lopin-c IViiKt one of the 
hi|;ner moitnlaiiia to the sea, and on the eide^ of which 
L-hnil> the houseH that constitute the old town of Menti>ne< 
The •^luivv Lei»<.-«D the t>eii nnd the tnotintuins roin)in<; thei 
ani|ibittii-iitrt', moiintains U-tux^^n -lUOU and VDOO li-ct hi^li, 
Ik o(-i.-(ipiit) iiy a ftii-K i>\' hilU wliieh ivnt on tlie tl.itiliH of 
the higher rauy;e. Th'-y nlope gently to the sliore, and are i 
rent liy numerous ravines and toricnlial vullujii. Thai 
higher muunltiin*, ofa greyish-white oolitic limrsUme, im] 
lly prrcipiiouK nnd hurt-, with the exct'pliun of « lewr 
of niuriiiniir lirx. jMi>-.l ol the louir lull-, nliich 
nso to u iM'iyhl ol IVom Mil) to ITiOO IVet, arv dtnst-ly 
eoveriHl with ulive-trcus, and preei^nt at a diBliiiiM; the 
M[irct of tree-covered, roundiil ridges, (gently dvecciifling 
to tho »ea. 

Till) i-.nlire twy and the tonn of Mentonc, with tlie huck- 
(pruund of swellinf^ olive-etiid hitts, uloHed in l>y the umphi- 
UNalre of inouutiiin§, are tlius tburouffhiy piutt^L-ted Irum 
the niiilh-wtf^l, iioitli, nnd noitli-eaxt uinds. The ptisilioa 
ol ihf town, w'illi relrnrnt'i' to llm hajs, will he he»t uiider- 
ktuorl hy re'errin^ to the fronliHpicce, whieli in taken Ironi 
eome projecting rockit at the euktevu exticinity of the 
r.ifttarn Uiy. 

To thorotighly undentand and appreciate the dittrtvt. 



and itM vingnliirly prolcc-ted chamoLer, a IxMit shotilil Iw 
t«kc» and tlm jmnoriimii viowcil a mil« or two from Uie 
shore. The extreme bL-auty of thi^ rouxl will iim|>ly repay 
tho 1roul>le,- Tlina seen, nil the details uri> blended into on« 
hiirmonioiis whole; the two hayr becomiiii; on?, and tbu 
littU' town Fairci-ly dividing tlienn. Tlie (^tideur of tlifi 
semiuirviilur ruiigo of moimtaiiw, goiieniUy Kt^eped in 
gloiious Huiishitie, also cornea out in broud outline. These 
mountxiiiH positively a[>p«ir to ]>artly encircle the Men- 
touiau am phi til (.'litre in their arms, lo separate it mid it« 
inliubiUuiU fmn] thit world at tur<^e, and to pri-»i.-nt ttivm to 
the Ittue Mvditeininvan wave*, and to the wann toutliera 

Behind the mnuiittiius tvliicli form the hncki^oiind of 
the Montonian rid|;(.-s nnd valleys, nru i-till lii^fUer niotin- 
biinH riNing in KiiCovKKive r»n§^ to mi Hltitude of front 
6000 to DUIIU ft-el. The hi^fhcr rangea conxtitute the ntaia 
chain of the Maritime Alps. They extend from east to 
norlli-we^t far inland, until they mingle with the h'^h 
Alps d( Savoy and Dauphiny. Tlii; pretenuo ol tliis M-nmd 
und hi^hiT imiuntiiin rungi- jfrr-atly iiii-ri'tiKi-s th« protection 
slFonled to the ctiiut-line hy lh« lower (iin-, and jiartiy i-x- 
plttinH it« fsceptionnl immunity from th« winter cold of 
continental Ktirojie. 

Thus, the Kieiitono amphitheatre, lN.-in<> only open to th« 
south Miuth-eaiil and wMith-wvKt, the mietral, a* a north* 
wc«t iviud, is not at all fell, and but tilijrhlly an u d«fl«cted 
eouth-we^t wind. All the northerly winda pass over the 
l>i>;lii.<r mountains und fidl into the sea at some disCanoe — 
Keveral tniks fmm thit shoro. Wlicn they n-i;:n, there is a 
culm not only iu the buy at Mcntone, hut lor Home diHtanee 
from tbu »hvre; whilst at a few miles diatunoe the sea 
may be crested, while and furious. This is uonstnntly ob- 
served oa asi-etidin-f hi^li |*routid. Owin^ to tiie M«ttitu- 
nijiil buy opi-nin);; lo the south-t-ast, the imutli-iMHt (tJie 
leirvcw), the direct »outh and the ffjiilh-we»l winds, blow 
dirwtly inlo the bay, and when 9>ti>ong ciceoj^iun a heavy, 
ruUiu); swell. These southerly wiutU, to wiiich alone 
Meutone is dii«clty exposed, are never cold. When, tiow- 
Qvvr, hurricBnes rvi^i in tontini-ntid Kuropo fiom tl 


north-west or nortli-ewt, the wind Mmetimes tnriM roand 
tbe protecting nonntMns weat icd eut, and ii reallf felt on 
the shore line, much to the sDrprise of those who hare been 
told that north winds cannot by any ponibilitjr retch this 
Avonred r^^n, 

Clikatb as showk bt VconjiTioN. 

Oiring to the eomplete protection the monntains afford 
to Mentotie from the west, north-west, north, and north- 
eaat winds, owing to its southern exposure, and to the re- 
flection of the son's nya from the sides of the naked 
limestone monntains which form the amphitheatrei its 
winter climate is warmer than that of Ktce, its neighbsnr ; 
indeed, it is wanner than that of any part of the northern 
or central regions of Italy. That such is the ease is shown 
by the vegetation. The latitude of Palermo, five d^rees 
further south, mast be reached, to find the same vegetation 
as at Mentonc — groves of lemon-trees growiog in the open 
air, like apple-treea in an Engli^th orchard. Even at 
Palermo, which looks, to the north, the lemon orchards are 
protected by walls, or the trees are planted in ravines, as I 
have found to l>e the cose in the warmest regions of the 
Mediterranean, wherever the lemon grows and thrives. 

The peculiar mildness of the winter may also be partly 
at-counted for on geothermal {earth heat) grounds. It is 
well known that even in England the warmth imparted to 
the surface of the ground by summer heat is not exhaosted 
by radiation until the winter be far advanced. Thus, at 
three feet from the surface it is only at the end of January 
thnt the soil has cooled to its lowest point; that is, bos 
exhausted by radiation the heat accumulated during 
summer. How much jfreater must be the winter radiation 
of summer- accumulated heat in a locality like Mentone, 
surrounded by an amphitheatre of limestone rocks, which 
become heated to an extreme extent during the long 
summer days, under the rays of an al! but tropical buq, 
and in a cloudless sky ! The importance of this element, 
in the consideralion of climate, will be better appreciated 
when we' know that it takes several months for a thermo- 
meter to cool down after the glau tube has been closed by 



monn'ntnry exiKisurc lo the Dame or Uie blowpipe.* Il i 
only nlt^r tliat lapse of iim<! thiit the glitM liii^ n-(;ninc(l n 
normal statu, iiiiil that it cuii be ^(diintvct, wIh'Ii HciiMiiitie 
nrc-trinioii U in view. So ri>t«utive uf hrat ni-e nidHt suliil 
iKHlii'^, ai)(l HO ]ong A period of time doea it talcc Tor them ' 
loa-i \ty radiation ht.-iit oncu ii<.v]iiii'C(l. 

Thccxcfptioiiiil wttrrnlli of ilu- winter climnV of Mei*^ 
t»ti(!, uvuii f»r ih<^ Itiviurit, ia proVL-d, in-yoiid ull ([ill's I ion or 
diiiibt, 1>v tho pre^trtico of jcrovee of lar;*o, htraltliv Lcmnii- 
tre^B, which ripen Uieir IVuit i-vci-y in the (iill^wl 
pfrreclidii, ill nvnily "II Iho ruvincw mid on the wiirtnvr 
hill-«idii', wlii'tx-vi-r water enu be obtained. Constimt 
trrigiitioii, friiniiiier snd winter, is neceesarj^ for their tulti- 
vation, BM well a» -^reiit eumtncr lieAt and n mild winter 
temperature. Tin- Ijcnion-trei-si are, indeed, muoh inor* 
numerous thun the Urunge.treea, althoui;h many fine 
plantations of the latter are fmiiid throii^liuut the district. 
The presence, however, of Oranjfu and Lemon-trwM *p^w- 
iiiR in healthy luxuiianee, as Ibrest tree§, in tlio open air, 
doen not prove that wc Iihvo rmclicd a tropical vliiiiatc, 
where ocild iii unknown. When the wemher in dry, and tJie 
sky is covered with clondg, whieh iinvHi. terr^trial mJia- 
tion, the fruit of the Oraii^>-lr«o will bear 7° Fah, belnw 
the freezing; point, without injury, and Oranpu-truwt tlicm> 
selvt-x KTv ojily killed by i I di-^reeH of front. Th<i Ijcrnoti 
Iruit, uniler similar circumBlanevs, c»xi only bear !>* withuut 
injiinr, and the trcea are killed by 8° or 9". Bnt if the rold 
wcatlier Ei-ts in alter a thaw, or alter ruin, if the BtiQO«pl>vra 
is loaded with moiiftiiiv, or if tbv fky is cbuidlcw, and the 
rucliation fnim the curlh is thuH rapid iit ni^ht, eilher the 
fruit or the ti-ecs may perish at a niueh lLi;ilii=r teiiipcmttire. 
The iidiahitaniK uf KoutliL-rn di^triets eeem to think thut a 
li»it amount of Iroct U futiil 1» Leinon anil OrBn;»«-trec»; 
but my own fxperieni-e dnrin^ many winters corroborattM 
the above dat;i, l^ikeu frum lUiubaudi's work ou Nic 
very ncicntilic boi.k. 

Oil tuie iii'lir iif the wisleni liiy, near the IVnt St. Ijoui»7 
the waniteitt and moot iiheUitrcd region of Mentonu, tliv 

• DnVa Practical Hetmrology. p. H. 



side ofth') moiintBin is partially covered with Lenioti-trciM, 
nliicll iwirPtMl oil tfmici's to u conKidcnil'lu lieiglit nbove tItaJ 
Mna. 1*)ii'y are in lluwt^r, iiiul |tprfiiniv iIk* air ut ull tcasoat. 
In titrso " warm terraces," pr>t«cted from ■!) wimli but 
thii Mouth, vx|)i><c(l to Uiu sun from m'Wninff to ai;$lit, 
winti.-r iiuiy Iw witl out to oxivl. T)iroii;;hoiit iu viitii-e 
duralinn iti»cct life is utmiiilHiil. The lively Mziti^ lU'wr 
hylwrnat««, biit daily bask^ imd epi>rt« iu the min, and tlie 
brilliant drrt'^'in Ity may l>u sL-i>n ilsrtin-; Hboiit in mid- . 
wlntvr. Tli<! >|)id<:r i>)>iiiii liiit W4'b, finding ■bunitnnl fo-xl, ' 
iiinl lh« swallows or nitlier Hie inartiru iiovcr irii^i-ate; 
liwy u<e cDtMUntly swii iiirelm:; aiuon;; the rock^. The 
HaroLcll, Ilia n.'d Viilrrliiii, Vitilcts, and oiir own pritly 
Vi-ronicii, flower in Owumlicr and January in thtu fuvoitrail 
ipftt luiii; Wfore titoy ii|>|>oar elitewhero. 

Tim tcnxms prodiuwd nt Moulonc iire known throuj>hout 
Mortbirrii Kiini|w and Amnrira, im<l ft't4:h ii hi|;h priix-. 
The Li'mnn-triv Unworn lioru hII tin- yc;ir tliniii^jh, nvver 
n»liii(j — II fjit ivUicU im|)tini vniLitant mid n^jlivc vcgctn- 
tinn, williiiut any period of rvpcwe. Thu crop id f^pithered 
at four dilft-Tcnt cjmchs, the treea bearing at the uime time 
llowcra and fniit* iil' all sizm. The existcnoe of liir[^ 
Li-i»i>n-1r>N)ii in graru*, fnini twi^nty \a thirty, or morv, 
vi'ant iiK), williuiit artitlriiil pMtvction, and tht-ir prDriliihlu 
riilliviilitiii tlirrmyhoiit the yenr, prove that witere they 
(•row Liki-ro iiuiHt hiivc liLi'n frci-dom from severe frost lor 
many van', t wax inli-rmi-d, howovcr, lliut about Ihirty 
ycur* ii^o nuarty idl the Li-mon-tn.fa in tlie country were 
(l<a>t rt>yr<l in one night, wbidi may aocuunl for no very old 
tnw )wtni; seen. 

Ditriiit; tlic liftm'n winton that T Iinvo paewd nt Montonc 

have found ii |;fvitt dilffrvncoin tho d<-gr<-ein)d tl it- >>» verity 
al thii w>ld from year l« year. In tint more buvi-tc wintiTs, 
with a nortliei'ly »iiid, I haw n.>|>L-at«illy known the llicr- 
momcUT lo drM^i-nd kloW xi.*ru Kcver<il ni;;htF conMUiitivt-ly, 
nciir the »ru-*hi>re, and ut ihu onlh-t of the torrent bealti, 
«)ieriBlly in tlio western buy. Sli:rht HIms of ire then fiinn 
iiuehMllow |Miiititon(hu iNml mid iiuurlhe torrents, i.>pi.-<:iully 

, llie «i^)«'ni Imy, whicih in more i'xp(i»<'d to iloivn-dnmgbit" 
tbv ni»nntHin*i and the higher muuntnin rangi> may 



Iw cove red with simw to the level of the olive givivet. T\w 
iiiitowurit Hlato of tiling i^nerally oceaBioiis ;fTvat dismay 
in the niiiida of the inlialiitnnU, whoM princtiM) riL-liue an 
the lemon Rrovcfi. 1 liavo known mnny Mt up Ibr ncvonil 
DlglitH, in tlie ^viiU'kl <'[in!ili>niiitiiin, vtnU.'liin|f the tlicr- 
mometi-r. Iniki'd, t)ii-re iei in ihcxe (n»m quile a paoic with 
reference to the lamentable condition of the weather. Such 
fcelini^ and fears plainly indioutc that frost and »now nro 
uiiuvuaI und unwelcome vinitorw. Snow olWn, however, lies 
for t>i!V(-ral diiy* on the higher nioiinlaiits, iliereby giviilg 
tliem a niiiHt {>ii'tiire?que, Swi»s>!ike appearand. 

On vtry e.vwptionnl occat'ion^ biiow may «v*ii fall on the 
aI>ore levtt, incUinfi w it full*. In Januiirj-, KSOV, thora 
wna R front of unuHual iiit«iisity thmu^hout the south of 
Europe, in Italy and Spain especially. At Mcntone it froze 
on tho eca-level ecvenil nights consecutively, both in the 
awt<>rii un<l vrt-ctcrn huy«, and nnow fvll on thu shorc-li^vrl. 
For several days it lay in northern and ehaded eitnalioiw, 
althou;;h a hn^it sun was shining. Many IjenioD treea 
were killed, and much fntit dentroycd ; but the trees tJiat 
were killed were all at the outlet of vnlteyc inniiin;; np to 
tic mountKinv, when- they bad been planted, I vm told, in 
opposition to previouR experience, tvery twenty or tliirty 
years an exceptionally intenee froft ocatra, and kilU the 
lieraon 1ree» in all but really warm and sbeltcreil positions. 
The eiiltiiii! of the Icnion hcin'>: veiy remuni-ralive, the 
aj^iculturiHt i* npt to deopise thc^e warnin^H, and to 
endeavour to extend lis rant^e. All ^oos well lor a lime, 
and then tlie exceptional frost year oeeun', dcKtruya the 
trce» imprudently planted, and miirk» Uie limit ol catt" 
ration . 

It if tho KiniB in Enifland. Kvery now and then a vet 
wrorc winter nccuro, and kills many of tho shrnlis and tre«(" 
iinported from all paitu of the world, und apparently well 
eslahliHlied in our country. It ri-t|nire« hall a century to 
prove the tbuToufj^h adaplnbility of a foreign fihrub or tree 
>•> a new climate. With us xiieh trees as the Oak, the KItn, 
the l]awthorn, the Chestnut, arc either native or really 
acclimatized trt'ca. They do not »o readily admit of an 
addition to their number as mi{j;ht at lirst be imoj^ined. 



TtiUM tho »ovcri> vrinter of I8C0-1 \vilnc!<se<l the destruc- 
tioii gf niBDV upjMjreuily established favoiiriUs. 

Oh IK) other ]>nrt of Uie Cornico tdiuI do LenvoD-1ret« 
prow us fiwlv :m iH Mi-iiUmc, At Canno* lUcv ore all but 
anliniTtl of, ntiil ni Nioe Uiev oniy grow in ebellcred und 
nrolvutcd sit«a, and Dot Itmuniintly. As I have stated, th« 
latitude or ISiuty, five dc^rrCH fiirthcT R>iith, must be rmchi'd 
to lind tlHini growiii<* with erjiml luxuriuiiiio, iiiii) wen there 
th«y »ro iretnTHlly inxitecti-d by walls, and refuse to prow 
wUrrever tliere is a dowa-4lraught from Deijjbbourintf 

l^ie Oniiict>-tr«o f\ovrtr» 1>ut once in ihu yojtr, nnd Ittan 
ooa crop "^ ^'^i^ only. It is a more iiwnly tree, m tliin 
liotiiiical fact implies, and can bear without injury, aa we 
have mwn. sevenil dcj^rfeH of ffist. Still, as the fruit 
RUituDi' in aiitiinin and uiiitcT, il docK not attain oxccllfnoc 
in rcfjiom whom the winter is cold. There are niftny line 
proves uf Oran^e-tnvs at M>?titon«, eejHcially the on« at 
the base of tho Ca[i Miirlin. Tliey ate, however, always in 
sitiiatioiiK slK-lt«red from wind, whidi they, sppnrantty, 
uitmot h«tir n« well ax Lcmon-treex. Although tlic Irn* 
arv large, und the fniit ripens well, the oraou«8 are scarcely 
equal to these we get from the Azorct:, from the Balearic 
lelce, or from Mulu. Thi* defieiency, however, uppciii-f to 
br owin'T more to th« seledion of interior vari«tiut> than to 
defective i-limulo. Some trees in private gardens, and others 
umwinu near Monaco, only a few milc« dist:mt, and in a 
locality prvMoting the name climate condition, are aa ^ooiL 
an any in Europe if allowed to remain on tlic tree until 
r«a)iy rt]M>. 

I'o lirin;; oat. the real sweetnent of the orange it shnnhl 
be iillowed to n-muiii on the tre.r all ■nmmer. It i» insipid 
during th<i hot months, but after iheuutiitun ruins fillii uith 
bikciou-i juic«. This is seldom or never donct liowcver, 
where oranges are eidtivak-d for (irotit. 

Thurt' are many varietivw of the Oran|>;e, Mmc of which 
Are much sweotf-r and ritien earlier than othera, as, lot 
instance, the Maltese and Majorca or»ni;e, but then they 
an- mu«llv thin-»kinni-d, und do 


thiuk-iikiiincd or rortu-jul variety. Ttiu latter are, tbeic- 


fore, prefcrr<td gs th« Ixwt for cxportdlioit. Ornn;*o« il 
tondeii for expnrtnlion nre (fatht-rwl in JiMiuaiy uinl Foil 
nary, beroru tiiey am ripe, as otli<!rwi!>i> tbi-y ^could not 
bear the patkiii^ and traimport. They do nol really become 
ripe and swoet on the troo before April, or even Afay—Iong 
ulti-r lhi;y rctldcli. Those ex pomil for nile at Mi-iilon* «Pe 
a tMirt of the oranges pielted under tht^e coDdilions. The 
only way, therefore, to have really good oranges i« to pur- 
uliAsc tliv crop of one or more tree«, to leave the omnt^'s on 
the Irw- until tiiey iire quite sweet and ripe, whieh ia not 
uutil April, or even May, an<l to pick then) as wanted. 

The erop of un ora'ia:e ;;rcive or orchard is fjenerally nold 
on tliu tree, to fpceuUtors from TariE, fora given num. The 
latter iimlurtabn tim picking and packing, iiiid iu January 
and February tlie town and eouiitry are quite alive with 
thoir operations. Troops of triik and women may be hmii 
duily coming down from the mountains with large luiakets 
of omng4» or lemons poised on their hi-itdx. The}' «;arry m 
miieh IIS a hundred- weight, or more, nt a time, with :ip|iarent 
ease. They are [{enernlly barefooted, to enable them to j^tet 
a better |ira«p of the rocky paths, aud look very pieturcMiue. 
Only tlie slrongant and heallhiefil girl* can imdcrtalcu thia 
work, and that hut lor a few ycurx. They go to anil from 
the mountains, a distance of from two to four miles, eeveral 
linie« a day, and rain about fifteen pence. 

Throughout the winter llie orange grove*, eorcrwl with 
tbeir golden fruit, form a ehaiming feature in the landscape, 
rcmiodiog the looker-on of the garden of the livsperidea of 
olilen time*. From the regularity of its giowlh, the abuii- 
duueeand golden hoc ofitti fruit, the orange-tree ia ■ innch 
moru piotuieaqne ohjent than the lemon-tree. The fruil of 
the latter is always either green or a pale yellow, and the 
Itabit of the tn-*-, ynung or old, ii r;ither straggling. Both 
lemon and orange-tn^ex, wlicncver tliey emerge IVuni the 
va3leyB, on the hill-side, contrnat vividly, by tlieir bright 
green tinge, with the sombre hue of the olivotreet*. 

The Olive-tree i« the real lord of >the Mentonian amphi- 
theatre, coTerina the lower hills and the \vtat of the high* 
ones to a height of about two lliuusand feci ab 
level of th« sea. lu the south of France the olive>t 

he higbt^^ 
iliovti tk^H 



however Tortile, U a mtiuTiible object. It is i^nerally 
ln-:iU-il Mf II piilUivl, is einall uml ilwarlUh, and l<x)ks mucb 
liL)- a iiiiitil:iti.-il iliiiil-covcT<.-ii willow. A* m>»ii, liotvcver, lis ' 
the Kstere) mouiit-iini an yiof^tiiX, uml ('utinea in reaoheil, 
we eot«r on a ditTi-reiit cliiuatv, iiiiire iiroteutwl in wiuter, 
mil] mora tuitv^l to lis growth. It is ulliwoil to grot* m a | 
Torait tree, and ut oncv &s<^iitnea a di^nily and grnndeiir 
which (jnite &urpri»M thoM who have only seen the stunted 

Sf 3lMfe 

TIIK UutON mil;. 

spccinHMi* nf "la IwIIi; Provwnoo." Tlio Olive-tree i« .inly 
d««trayed by n frost of tlllfoii or nxlei-n decrees Fall., n> 
that it ie not iiijiin-)! or killed un the Kiviorii by uxcwptional 
widlvrM, UH »rc ibe di-licuto LL-niuii- Ireex. Hiit tliv )'<Hin<; ' 
ahiMla and the I'ruit arv fro/.on and irreutediably injured 
when the Miermuinetcr {«\U >ix ur ituvun dc^rue-t Mow tli<- 
frcrxintc (Miint. No flruot, however, to which this ri'<;ioM U 
expoiKtl, i-vcn once in a ountury, can injuixt the trci;, ki thai 
il goe« on {jroiting ifltlclinilely, and uttatiu its natural 




period of 1an^vit}r, nf do with tm tin- trcL's that ure natii 
of «ur couiitrv, the Birdi, tl'e Beecit, the Scotch Fir, and 
the 0»\(. Like them, it rceiste the tcrrihie cold of cxoepj 
tioDa! yearn, sucli as the yeani ISCfl-fil, and r«ip|>cnn' i»_ 
■prill)?;, ha1u> nnil vij^roiiu, whoi) nliole unnin of a|)pareDt)y 
iiatunih'^ed fonHgiicR hove suociiiiit'ed. 

The lon-j;evity of the Olive-tree, in n con-ieniiil eltmnt 
like thnt of Menlone, mny indeed he Htd tn l)«: iiideUiiit 
There lire Oli^-e-trecK «lill alive al Monaco, nt th« 
IMsrtin, am! elsCTvhere, which are Bupposed to he oocTflF 
with the Koinan empire. It is a slon-.^irowiii^ tree, and 
forimt ctttllmiils of hard rofitc, whieh till and cover tt 
ground nhi-ri' it Ktniidi^ When, alter Hevoral hiiiidre 
years, the tnink decay*, the bark remains alive. As tt 
decay pro]B>res»eB, the tree splits, lu it were, int«» tw<i, Ihr 
or more Bcctioiif!. Tlie bark twtblfl and curl* roiiitd ona 
of thenc dcenyed wection^, and nnites <>n the other Bidj 
Then, inftead of the old tree, we have, in iU plac«, 
three, or more, appaiently separate, altliou^li in reality at 
growing from the same root, When these in tiii-n die^^ 
new chootn uprin;; up from the "hi rooti', and thim tlij 
life of the tree in iiidofiiiitelv priilonyyd. The old Oli* 
grove.H are, from this cause, indescrihnhly sin^-ular and il 
ttrcsting, prceenlin^; on every *ide evidence* of hoaij o\i 
age. All the ntnjje* of (•rowth above de»erihed may be 
witneewd vrithin the sjiaee of u few vards; and ihe |muv 
tinlly decayed, pnrtinlly split, (rnarlod, twisted, cnrved^ 
tntiilcr are [>ieliirt-«[ne in llie t-xtreme. ~ 

The healthy fnll-fp^jwn Olive-tree is really very heaatif 

It is often as lar^^e as a tine old oak, but with fewer 
limlw and a more spane foliage. In the variety of tl 
Olive-tree gcncrallv cultivated nn the Rivicm the tertnifl 
extremity of the hrauchpK han^ down, so a* t<> give 
the eh a rad eristic appearance of a weeping ash or willot 
The " wci'pin-i" character of the tree is, honever, miicir 
luKK niaiked than in those jii^t mentioned, owini; t<> the 
more scanty folia^, and to the extremities of llie Hmnller 
hivnches only droopinj-. To some who are md, to mouniera, 
tlie dcn«e masses of these iiombre erey-colonrvd trecA, with 
banging foltiige, giw m vorrowfuT, moumfnl character 


the landscape. But it is only those who have sadoess 
in their hearts, a eadness which reflects on nature, who 
view the Olive-tree ia this light. To others, the play of 
the wind on the ever-moving pendulous masses of foliage, 
and that of the suu and light ou the dark green leaves, 
especially when seeo in massds from a heigbt above, is 
both beautiful and soothing. 

I never fully appreciated the beauty of the Olive-tree, 
nlthough I had seen it in its glory in southern Italy, until 
I had passed a winter under the shadow of an Olivti-clad 
mountain at Mentone. The fact is that the Olive-tree, 
like our own evergreen Spruce and Scotch Fir, is much 
more lieautiful in autumn and winter than in summer. 
At the latter period of the year most of the leaves are old, 
and have become browned by the summer heat and by 
at least a year's existence, so that the entire tree often 
assumes a faded, dingy hue. In early summer, too, the 
yellow hue of the pollen of the male flowers of Conifers 
gives a yuUowish tingt to the entire tree, owing to their 
extreme abundance. In spring the new leaves of tlic ever- 
green tree form, in summer aud autumn the old ones are in 
a great measure cast oH', and when winter comes, it is in 
all its glory. It liaa thrown off its worn-out damaged 
giirments, and is again clothed iu the grace and beuuty of 
early youlii. 

Thus, instead of the brown, dust-coloured foliage which 
the pk'usure traveller sees in his autumn journey, the 
winter invalid sees leaves, sombre it is true, but fresh and 
beautiful to look .it, either from near or from alar. Tiie 
jicantiness of the Olive-tree foliage iu winter, also, is an 
advantage. It lets the sun liltcr pleasantly through, 
breaking its power without concealing it, and rendering a 
walk or a lounge in "the Olivc-grovcs," even in the 
hot midday sun, most enjoyable. Many and many an 
afternoon have I spent at Mentone, in December and 
January, sitting with a book under the sliade of an old 

The predominance of these Olive-growers gives u very 
peculiar character to the Mentunian amphitheatre and to 
the Kiviera in general — a Scriptural character, if I may so 



term it. Ilic Olive-trc^, which is a nntivc of Aria Minor, 
or of Palntiiie, is rli« tiTc of thr Ilolj- I^m), am) is con. 
Htaiitly ineiilionec) in Scripture. Thus its prvseiiw, ns the 
pnDci]>a] feature of the BUrroundin); ve^tation, impnrt^ iin 
KuKti'rii cliomi 1o tlic ptncc, taking; the iniiiil 1u the Mount 
i^f OlivoM, to Joriinii]<-in, iiii'd to the «wr<^ Hci'iii-a of Holy 
Writ. We foel tliat it wus in Biich a Iniid tlist the events 
no hnve read of from our cbtldhnod upwania nith revcr«»cc 
nnd iiiterM. look pl«ce. We feci thiit we nro nearer to 
these itoencit than in onr ovm nortliern iiJand, and we really 
Hiiderfitand what it la "to tiit under the Fig-tre«," and to 
widic "in the Olive-jriove." 

Tlie firHnchi'B of tin- OHve-troo are not nnmcroa*. They 
apritig from the tnink, lu'or the groiiml ; or rather, the 
trunk (jenerally dividi^ inln two or three brnnohes. The 
Utter extend, nt an acute angle, a lonj; difllance froRi the 
iree. Their folia^^e bi'irig I^Tininal, and the wood non- 
elastic, tliey ore not iidapti-d to hear a heavy burden, for t' 
nets as a u-ei(r|it at tlie extremity of a long lever. Thua^l 
wlien enow tell tliicUty in the rigorous ninter of 1^4—5, 
wit liout Ricltiiii* — an tinheard of event — large olive brunch 
broke iiir by huudrcils, and great loi* wn* thereby entailed 
on the coiintrv. 

In northern regions the Knes, the l-'^rs, indeed Conifvra 
in gene I'D I r hnve their branches arranged in fiuee<eeeive 
statues, or whorl*^ which extend only a short dit^tanw from 
ttio trunk of the tree. Tliesc branohea, also, oither dro<^ 
downnanU by natural eoDlbmintion, so as to throw off the 
snow which fnlU on them, or bend downwards, so aa (o 
shake it ofT. The nt-in whieh fills ihc wood of tb« tne 
(•ivea the neeewary elasticity, nnd enables it thus to bend 
and throw off the enow, wheu the poor Olive-tree reeiata the 
unnalural lond and breaks. ^J 

The Olivc-lfve flower* in April, and beans every y«ar.^| 
But a year of abuminnce is generally foll»w«l by one, or " 
even two, of comparative MerlHty. It has to W well 
manured every neomd or third year, in order to seeur« ita 
rniitfulnees, For thin pur^ioite ihc liivourite inannre is old 
woollen and linen raj^, which are imported from Ituly in 
boat*loiid*; and such rags! I verily believe tiiat eveu our 



poper manufacturers would Morn tb«nt. A trench if <Ia^ 
rouDil thti trunic of iho Iroe, at M>ine little clislanctf— aliaut 
two ki:l lUir.p, and thrvu tu^Tt wido. In this tmnch tltc 
nig« arc plm-eil ; tltcf an then Konlced with )ii)iii<) munun*, 
and «>vcn.>d ii|> with the ettrtlt — a jimcesa whivb no duuht 
(Ictroy^ a vimt arnnnnt of lilb. Althott^h done hy mere 
nHitinf, Ihin Kytit'^tn of "uriMiriculUin-" i* <ih<!mk'My jiiiii- 
viau^. Wiiiil ointuin* nitru^n like all oilier iiniiiiiil mii!)- 
stancm, so that woollen ra^ must be and are valimblo as < 

Tlti> oUTtf-Wrry riprns in tltc auUimn ; il bcoomvM blnck, 
and bejpiu to fall olT th« trM in l)cccml)l^^ iind J»niiury. 
Somo of the treus are at onoe clrAred by bcatinj; the 
bmnrlit-'t uith loii;> cimee. In Ihiil case the oil is not 
•0 a)>iiiid:int, but i« "f bi'tlw qunlily. In other ctwm the 
bi!m(f9 Me leli >iit thi^ Irw^i for two ur three mouths luu^r ; 
until indeed they uvarly all full olf. The oil made from 
tbl■M^ l<crnc« i* moru aliimdnnt, but not eo f^oui. The 
olivni arc «miilliT than tliuM which wo eat pieklvd ; the 
latter hvtlon); to another ii)»ccie« of the Olive-tree, tvhioh it I 
priti«ii>»lly L-iiltirnted in S|>ain. 

Pii-kiu); ihi! olivo berries from the i^ound iindiTiicnth 
the trv^w it- <[>tiUs an o<wa]>ation with old or infirm tvomun, 
nnd with young giri>- They nnrn about twenty nous {Uhl.] 
a day, and their labour eontraata strtlcin^^ly with that 
of the siron;; ruddy orange and lomnii i^irlfi. Mittiy, no 
dnubt, rotnmenoe a» the latter, strong in youth iiud health, 
tn end by ulive-piokin^ «n<:e the heyday of life if over. 
Thr jMwr olive-pickon., clod only in thin cotton dreseeei' 
niv a|)t to become rhenmutic, from eroiichin<r ko long over 
the ground, at timns diiin|> I'mni the winter niimr. Such, 
tJHi ol'tuu, ix ll>c ooiitnixt lH:twi-en ymith and age in the 
working eUssee in all conntrini. 

TIte olives, onou gathered, are taken to the olive-mills, 
where tJiej- are cru»faed, and the oil in extracted. Tbew 
tnilla nr^ picturaaujiie buildingx, luluat^d in the ravines inl 
nrder to mmmund wnlrr. In some vi.itiT is used alone, in 
others combined with horse>)>owcr. The olivca are cnisbed 
by stum* tullen; ; the pul|) ia ]>nt in «to<it cylin<lriojd buKkctii, 
wittiruled witli hot wat«r, ami lubjeulvd to great (ireeaure. 



Tbe water thus squeezed out eairies the <>il wiUi it to va 
vfhtra it lloate on tbe top mid is skimmed olT. Tliis wat 
whni it h»» thiif done iti; duty, U t>r » diirk hron-n oolwrf 
Hnd ia cDtmlmilly Mcen eoiniiig donii tlio raviitea, euItKinn| 
llie tvater'VUUTBCs. ^'o st«am>]iuwcr inilU are as jrcC 

'I'lu- (dive oil i* ofi«n stored in Inr^'e i-lesnwlly-Jtliuirod 
jiiiv, ijiiiie lui'(;e enough to coiititiii n uiun hiddeu. Un 
looking intoii wareliouse and M«ing these lur^ j»re ranged 
in rowealoii); tl>c ivall I aiu alwaVB reminded of the E^tKtvrB 
IhI« oI" " llndji BaUa. and the Forty Thitrw." niews vivr 
I'videiitly tht: idviitind jui'!< in which the thieves ei>tioealeJ 
I heti)>r'lveti duritif; the night, and wi-re oxttnoiiuuted 60 
iruniiin'iily by Morttiaua. 

Tlio hard tuotsand wood nf the OHvo-tre« conKtitut« ll 
oidj Tuel urcd at Mcntone, the cooking; liviug tiiiiicipallj 
e:irried u» by tneniin ol'ehareoul, tm in Frunec. I'he tialiva' 
|)opiilot)uii, however, seldom muke tires, except for cuUnaiy 
purposes. Tliey trust entirely to wai'iu woollen Karmi'iibaj 
even on the few really cliilly days, w htn the »iiiiutnil> ol tlw 
f^nrronmiing liei^litK lire whiti; with mkiw, and )jli>t«n in 
tbe nun like tbe Miow-eupiied uiuuutaiiiK of Switzeilaud or 
tho Tyrol. 

Even strati|*ers from tlio Dorlh, secuetomed to large coal^ 
lin« or Ifl xlovo'uanned rooms for u grrat piirt of the yeurJ 
seldom think of liithtingu liix- in uMitith xnn-ux|K)*i'd rouiiK 
until evening, and iben often more for eoiii|ianionihip th»u 
(rum abKohitu nccit^ity. On the exceptional eloudy aud 
iTold dii'iji, however, lUe " biiskets" of oUve-roots and 
linitiebes di^uppeiir rapidly. Tbey do their duty, too, iin 
warm us ; whereas in uiir own cliuiato sueb I1r-s would 
of no Rvnil, a mere delusion. 

Tbiiii, in di-Meendini; lix>m the north, we have at laa 
reached a region Mifliciently »lu-ltered and vnllioiently 
to the sno for its mys to pi-uduee nannth eouu^h lo »u[ 
)>ort human life with no other nrlilicial assistance than tbuti 
oCdothes. Wo no lotiyt-r rctjiiire the dente furcsls of more 
itortheru and inoi« Urtile regions. W'c are no lon^^er 
dependent on tbe vast coaMields whioh the ««rtti eonbitus 
witiiin ilo bosom, the rvmains of the active vet;t;tatton ofj 




brtner periods of the wotM'ii hixtory, the fossil iKud xun- 
ams, 08 it were, orag^ far, I'ar di>timt. 
AnotUrr ovUli-iiou of tlio exce|>tioi)al (vsnntli oT the 
wintiT L-liiiiatc ix the jtreKi-nci) of Inr^ EuphorUiit l>iishv« 
■iifl c>r lar^u CuroulM-tri'iw. Some tpoeios of tli« Kiipliur bin, 
of nliicli there are maoy, become shruba in tliis itv^ion, 

L.vitli liir;;i; liirneoiie sti^ms. In muny of tho mfirc prulvutej 

ftt-yHinN liioy grow ilk lur-jf iitc Uliuiluilvndroii Imshi-s. At 
tiUw I only fuunil titcin us liixuriur.l iii onu sjiut, the tfoulh- 

mBteideof the castle hill. In ItJy the lutiliiilcor SutiUmrn 
Sicily mu«t Iw rmchc^l to liud tliciii c-quitlly Honrtsiiinif. 

"They nre »iiiggliir [iliml*, aiii] gn>w in the mnxt mid xjtobr, 
on lK'«|ie or BtuiifS an Win »vii-«hore, in thu crevioL'« of roclcs, 
y«t with u vi;*our aiid lii\uriiiiice wliioh is |>LTleclly sorpria. 
in(>. I'hrir gnmlli iK't-ins uith the autumn rutins, when thuy 
throw out u inuua of lij;ht i^rc-un tcrmiiml li-uvt-i'. They th«ii 
prodnce niiniiMuua suiidl yellow iitli-gixt-ii llowvrs thriiu;;hoiit 
ihe winter, i-arly or late, accortlin;f to 8[>ec-ies. IW secret 
of the iuxnruiiit verdure, under a bnrnin;; sua, in the i»o9t 
arid i>|iotfi,of MK-hn iniisii uf di-lioite folin;;e, is thu cxistvnve 
of a kind ofcaoutohu in thvtr whitv airid .iui(-i.-M. Tiii.« gnni 

ItrweuUi the eraiwrjlion thni nunld tnku i>lace from the 
inives, uiid whioh would si>oii dry ii^ the loliii^ of a pisiit 
growing under such ci run mvUin el's, without »omo pwuliur 
protcctiun. The white milliy nap of the Ku[thorbiu is 
rpiiiitoiiouH to man. I r<*colli-ct ivading ahout casus of 
roisunini; at Multa, atlTihut^-d to drinking the milk of 
ihitt lud (od iipui) it. 
The vlfginit white vilver-lviived Cineraria mntitim» is 
nnd alnniduntly in the samo tixuilitiiii. It grows from 
l^erevicet) in shtlti-reJ rucks, p^uerally in the immediute 
vicinity of the Bfu, and olV'nattuinH theeiKeolH lari^e hosh. 
This pretty ohrah hiu heen intnxlucud into our oomHirvntorics 
lud into otir summer ^■i"l<'i3 as an edging plant for the 
■ke of it« foliage, «inoe the taste for fuhagc pUntii hiiK 
icuine so ({vnvrul, and it is pleasant to lind it in its native 

Tha Carouba, of loeust-lree, i* really one of the glories 
of tliu ai>d of other kirrcn but warm regions in the Moutli 
of Eoropo. It 18 u benutittil evergreen tree, v>};orous, frei»h. 


■nd pnioefnl, with nn nbuiiHant lieht-gTMo folbgv. 
f>rnws in the moft rtony. Arid, nii<l Lurnt-up |>laoec, on rocli 
miul o» niouiiLitM sitl«ui where there t» scarcely a p«rtic)e of 
Boil, and where its vm* existence is n mnrv-el, a pmhlcm, a 
source of positive ^iiriinFO nnd fsiillatton to the Miulder^ 
I»dr«<), tbo Cnroiik^ may he ermvideietl nn emblem of ever 
CTecn ve^tation, ami a pert'eL-t botmiiirj) demons t ration J 
Siicb a iree can only live very purtiiilly from its roots, 
timy often only bind it to the rock on whiJi it grows 
erwping into cr«viee« and laying hold «f every invuualil] 
of (j^round. It mubt live in a great nM-usnre by its {eavM[ 
OB moat everffreeiw <lo, to a very considerable extent. The 
Carouba- tree bears bfiin)i in pod*, very uKcfiil for the feedinff 
ofc«ttl«. Kach trti'insiiid to prodiiMO, one year with another, 
twenty franca' worth of fruit. Thew beans tiave 1>eeQ intro- 
duoed of late into Enfrland for this purjione. In Ilie almost 
rainlcH r^ijion on the contb-cast const of Spain, between 
Valencia II nd Malaga, the Caro»ba4re« taorni of the principal 
featurex of the auaitty vegetation. In many nuii-bumt, 
Boorched dUtrict«, this tree, with the Uliveand the Opunlia 
or prickly ]>ei:r, are all hut the only products of the soil. 
The ximiliinty of vegritatton indicate* similnrity of climate : 
drrncaa, anmmer beat, and winter inildni-«it, 

rhe exutenee of the Carouba explains why vegetation is 

ftrincipally evergreen in arid rocky spots, where there is 
ittk- or no »oil, and where that little is in a great measure 
fonned by the pulvcrii^ation of riK-ks, or contain* but slight 
nutritive eleinenls, as sand for instance. The acnuty or 
poor toil will not (vei plants that only bear ]«uvea (bra 
few nionlhs in tlie ynir, uhi^renith to extract nourishment 
from the air, so nature Mupplieit their place by dvergreem, 
which have all the year mund millions of lungK, in the 
bIuim! of leaves, pumping noarishment, in the form of 
carbon, from the air. In northern climat«s, in hi^h lati- 
tudes, in arid Siinily Roils, it in the eveigrc«n Conit'ere i>r 
Fir trilx;, the Heaths and the llolliiti, that thitK upply to 
the air lor Ihu itotiriKhmont rehisu-d to them by the soil. 
In southern lutitiid'^, >ui'h as Mentone, it ia the Orange, 
tl»e I^'mon, the Olive, and higher up, in cold monntain 
.regions, Cunilt-rs again, ns in ihe north, that perform tlte 



MUM! (Mrt. Thns n explained Uic fact of lh« T«!*vtiition of 
the Mviiloiiiuti amiitiitbeaLre, u cnciv riicky mrinntniit-Kidc, 
beiflfi; lieariy all of uii evergreen cl)ar:i«tvr. No oltit-r kind 
of wirutiition i-milil Ufv iiDtl Ihrivo tlivre. The tifVf ilec'l- 
diUMU trrffl, Hoeli lut O.iko, rtniivtf, nml Willowx, tliut ure 
foDnd, unt |trii)d|Mlly tnt>t with uloiit; IW mkr^in of tliu 
torrenUi as they Bjiproach tlie sea, wbere ulIiivUl soil has 
beon dt'ivv^iu-d into whk-h ntoi§ture percolnUw IVviii Uie 
lii^jhvr luouiituiii r<!^oni>. 

AUtiu; witli tiie Cai-ouUi may I>e mentJoiked FUtacin 
Lentbciis and TerebinthiniH Chio as pectdiaily indicativa 
of ■ dry, Hiinshiay, fioiitheni climnte, and of ii rocky, arid 
ngion. I'. LcnlitictM in un cvt-rgrcen slirul>, ufincli grown 
frfHy ill the namu regions as tiie Curouba, lIoweriiiK during 
live wiutiT, ami is very abundant between Nit-e and VcnU- 
mi^lia-, indood, all alon^ iho ICivicra. 1 ItHind it even 
m>nv cmiQiun in Conicu, wbere it contribiite* t" form llic 
muqiiin or liTu»hn'ood, as alHO in Sardinia, and in Africa on 
tito ra uii tics t ion* of &Iuunt Atlas. It form*, I believe, ono 
(if llic efitef botanical fuuturoa of Palestine and Syria. 

Tcrvbititbiuus Chio t* frequently mot with on tb« nio«t 
nhflicrinl, onnnicsil, vameat, and mmt arid miHintain aide*. 
]l in a iiij;iiflous shrub or small tree, and is remarkable as 
beiii^ tb<r Ust tree or ehrub met with in the I><»«rt of 
Saliaro, on di;Ki;ending frtfin tho Mtith slopes of ttiu Atlas. 

AImjvi' tin; Olive-tcco eluvutjun, that i*, al>ov« 2HO0 feet 
or tiiormlMUt«, ('onifera only are met with naturally, al- 
Lbon^li fruil-lrees, Apples, tears, Cberriea, and Vines are 
eultivaU'd; as for iiistunee around St'. A^ncs, a mountaia 
vilb)^. Tlie CoiiifoK oecupy the lower ventral bilU when 
U)« noil is sandy or gravelly from the xhoi-e InviO, uiid olimb 
up Uieir siilea. Whert- not too precipilous, they also 
Doeapy the ^itlfs of the hii^hvst or back limestone mouHUiin 
noge. Behind the M«ntone nmpbttheatru the Conifen 
only ooeuiiy northern slo|>ea until we reaeh the Col dc 
Tend*, troin tlic shore level the higher trees appear mere 
shrubs, owing to the great elevation, but once thoy aiv 
i«*ched, tliey prove to bo regpeetnbly-Bix«tl tnn-c. Still 
tliUM fonwta ovftninly contain no timber " lit for huildinj; 
men -of' war," as a member of the Douse of Conimoiia 




slated during tite Oeltttte on Uie ceesiDii of Mi^ntono and 
Kmcaltnina to Frniioe. Tbcy coDtnbutc but little to the 
vr«alth o>' thu country. 

The Conifi:ni wliivli oover t)ie sandy hills, and cliinb up 
the limeetuue mountaius, arc principally tliu Piuiis ina- 
titima, with llie Juniper and the Pinus Ilalqiviii'iN or 
Ak-jipo Pint-, tltv comntonoit on Um cuiuL un<l islauiiti uf the 
ModitvrranMin. Tlier do not attain any vt-ry ^rirat height, 
but are hvaltliy aod nourUhiii^. 'llio Mntittmo I'ino is the 
most abtmdant and hardy pine on the norlh ehoru of 
the Iklcdilrrmncan, und thrivM on calcarvou* fortnationt 
l^ucarly hn wi-ll an on Hclitttic and «audy soils. Althon 

~ •wooded, and not very valuable as timber, it is still 
BDsiveljr used for biitlilin>; and other pur[>os>.-F, for want 
woodg. In spring-time the Pine fortiil* olWn iU!' 
fton the BtliickH of th« caU-rptllur of the Uoinlnx pr«ce** 
aionis tnoth. 'llicse cat«rpillan> come U> lile in lartfv 
woolly nests suspended in the trees liku bog*. AVheo tiilly 
developed they leave the uest, previous to piueing into tlui 
chrysalis stji};v, nod fonn Icnt^thvia'd proomiouH, wliidi 
iro often met witii in the fbreat paths, and ni-t' very 
enriotui. The caterpillars mart-h one alter the other in 
sinjfl^! file, elimbing over everytliiii>;. Tlicy »hould not be 
handled, as initation of the i>kin follows. 

In one spot, in the (grounds uf the Madonna Villa, in the 
western bay, are some very line specimens of the Plnua 
Pine«, the stone or umbreiUi Pine, the oiaKsU-al Piuo of 
Italy. One, morw wjH-cinlly, n very iM-aulilul tree, throwi 
up a hir^ ftein viii-niouutvd by nn immense nmbrvlla- 
likv muss of LHUianl deep-;;rei.-n foliage. Tlicre is some- 
tliiug peculiarly Italian in the ap|>varunce of thi» nohio 
tree, willt its canopy of rich green leavca extending table- 
like. In ludy it is no vlU'n a prominent feature in th« 
lan<lacBpe, that it becomen as»ueiat«d in the traveller's 
iniod with llie monuments and niiiis indelibly stamjied on 
his recolki^lion. Indeed, whtn »iltiii|;; under tho shade of 
theiie treee, the de«p blue nen ut our feet, the clear i=ky 
above, and the sbnrp clear outline of the adjoininj^ muun- 
tninc aronnd, it it iinpo^^iblo not to fivl that wa really ate 
iu Italjr — notwithKluridin;; diplcmittic uouexulioM. bo* 



luted spvcifnons only of this Pine are seen at Mcotone. At 
(!uniH-«, nt itic foot of the E$U-ri'l moiintuin, thirrc ii< <)uil»| 
■ fiirrHt. i>r 1bt>ni. I pnictimc ii iiniMl^' roil in nil but oiii^iiltiil 
to llieir wcll-bciiiKi iw it t* for inoft Conifers. Ttie Pinus 
tnaritima thrivint; as stal«d on OJtlcarvouB soils, encceeds 
pcrfrctly at M«nt<i»L- ami coven: the Cap Iklartin, n limc- 
ttnnt- rock tin th<! mil Ivri-I, m well m Uie Hanks of ihe 
hi)flier ooHtio TnuiiiitJiiufl. 

Th« Cork tree ((Juercns Suhor) is oocnsiouiilly met with 
nn thu Riviera, l>ut is not nlKiiidant n> on tlie fatidy 
■chiKtin lununtiiinK of tlm Kvlttivl, where it grown v«ryi 
froclr, and is ctillivated for prolil. llie acorns are ^ven 
III piKB, the hark is used for tanning, and tliu cork is 

Till? raritv of docidnoiis trcpa giv«a a pecniiarly iiniilini>, 
diierfiil, stimmi'r n^[ir<;t to the entire district, with its 
bills, rid^ir^, and valleys, even in mid-winter. In no pnrt 
of Italy or Sjmin that 1 havo vj^iltii have I olwervcd tin* 
univcrmil winti-r vcrdviro here witiK-Bucd. liven lJ»c far- 
(itmnl Ijny of Xophv, m teen (Vom the )soa on entering, 
nfliera t« the traveller nearly aa winterly an aiipcot in 
Uewtnher as EhkIuikI or FiviMie. The hi;*!! grannd of 
Ni'hia, und of the continent, pro^ciilK nkimcroua nuked Fig-, 
Inv* and Vincv, th^ uvikkI of wliieh i» very ditfuivnt to i 
IhnL of the atctn trees that cover the Meatonian amphi*] 
theatre, Wo meet with winter venlure in our own for««ts 
of Scnteh or Spniw Firs, but tlien the wi»l«r itVy i« gcno- 
rally somlii'v. tilled with mawes of lMul-i-o)»ured chruils, anil 
the SHU is oliscured. At Mentone, on the eontrary, the 
•un moRtly shines, and ijoneraHy throws a greater glow ottJ 
the iiimlKcnpc in Jiiniiary th^tii it dow on our evcrf^recnl 
fuTcst^ in .Inly. The verdure at lin<t uppeattt ratlier vombre, 
as it is prini-t|iii1ly formed bv the Ulive woodx, the Orun(;« 
and iMMion-trees ceneralty hiding in the valleys, but the 
eye f;^dtinlly gels arxiustomed to the hue. In the eRstcrn 
bay, however, aa wo have ittta, thoro are many groves o( 
liubt-griren Lemon- Ireea, ocoii()ying th« open mountain , 
*ide for the first IdOU feet in oUitude. 

'Dio dfcidiKitu Irei-s arw princi]>ally Planes, WiHowe, and 
Kig-Lioua, llitf Willows line the margin of some of ihv 



larger torn-iiU nn tlicy a|>proach the sua. The PlanaT 
are |ilai)lu<l in iivuimi'si, I'lir thn miltu of the deiise aud 
gratdul shade they give in Humnier. One avenue is the 
mnin rond from Nice, and ia ooDtinueJ into the town ; the 
other i« along the bniil.s of the tonvnt nliiirh desveiidi 
from {he nionntain by the nide of the Turin ni»(), in th« 
vtilley "du Cnrei." This latter is the piiiit-ipal summer 
]>romcti»(li; ol' the inhabitants. There are a (v\v d«<;iduous 
Uaks and Ch<-)>tniit« scattered about the hill* aiid thit 

The oriental I'lane has been cidtivated from time im-^^ 
in«morini in Asia .Minor and in Greece, and Trum th« ttia4^| 
of the Itfimanti in Italy, but for its shiule only, tho woocP^ 
not being vuluable. In former dayit it watt treated with 
fi^eat reverence and resiieot. No tree in these c)imat«s can 
bti compared to ii for beauty and density of foliugv in 
siimmtir. In the xoutli uf Hiirogic, and in the flast, it it 
hardy ami vigiirouK, uttjiinin<; very i^r'^'At size, and ihiurish- 
in^ in the midst of town«. Thi^ latter power it owes in 
part to the habit of shedding yearly a portion of it« Uirk ; 
It thus, as it were, gets rid of its eoilcd outer garniciilK, 
coutatninaleil by the town nlmnitphere. The rcxintano* of 
the Fbue tree to city inlIuenci-» is well exemplified at 
Toulon. The dense and healthy grove that casta bo im- 
pMHjtraUe a shade on tho " PUi-c" in the very centre of 
tile town, ia componud entirely of Plane*. Owing to thin 
tree bearintr the pruning knife as well as an Kngliah holly, 
in towns the top branches are geuerally clipped back rutb* 
IcMly wheu spring arrives, so that they may forni, by the' 
new aliDots, a regulur canopy of verdure. Many of 
readers have no dunbt been awakened at early dawn by the 
chorus of inuumcRible birds that fretjuent the venlunt 
grove of the market-place at Timlon. A similar ehor 
may be hi-aid each eveninj; in the tre» growing in tt 
market-place near the euslern bay at Mentone in 
aulnmn and early part of the winter; indeed, nntil 
]i«ve« have all lullen. 

TheHe XiKKit d<j nut lose their leaves until the ni^bta 
become cold, so that they are often preserved until the cad 
of DeeoDiber. The ball-like capsules which contain tho 



Hwjs rvmiiii hansiog rrom th« terminal lifanobes aU 
wint«r. Tlit'v nn- liir;{i'f thuii in the Amerioaii Plane tree, 
whioli vro cnlttvuic witli xii<.vi.iiii in Kii^laiid, siid wbioh, 
liki! t)i<i orit^tital, Uran well \he iitiiio«]>l>oro uf Uiwna, M 
may lie swn in Uerktley Sjuan.'. Tlio priiniuji takes pliice 
early in Murch ; iiinl tliv ncn- Mowers nii^ loavctg nppc;ir in 
April, tlw ronnor pn!i-«ding tlii.' bttcr. Tin; onuiitiil i'tanc 
tre«, alUiMU|{)i ({iiiU' at homo, xloc* not upitear, however, to 
nacli ite full size in the Huutli of France anil luly. Th«r9 
u a Plane in the Galf of Li-panto in Uraece, Uie trunk of 
wliioh IN furty-nix fttet in (.-iremnrcrenee; aiitl i>n« on t)i« 
U<)i9[>liufu<», thti Lnink of whic^h U unu liimilivJ and fortr- 
an« re«t in circumference at llie base. l)e Cundolle Uiitiks 
it RtufiL Ifc two thuusaiid yvin old, and that it is one of llie 
UrgMt UvtM in Uio world. 

Fiff-tn«8 thrive, an ererywliere elsi; in Italy. Fortu- 
nately, hnwever, for tltc loveni of the picturCKlue, they are 
not very nuimirouR at Montonc. Thoy lo«a thvtr leaves 
early, l>y cLa oitd of NowmWr, and do not rfgnin tliein 
uuul April, ami thoircliiin.-:y, (;mcelcsi:, weird-like liraricliea, 
are ait>lht«g but ornumcntul during the winter, Tite fruit 
ia uf liraUi'atc qttalily. 

Owut); t» Uie niMunoe of froet in nil l>iit very osponxt 
Eituationw, many of our Knylinh i^arduii (lowew, which are 
cut down by Lhe lintl frosty ni;;bt, continue lo Dnurish 
and blooni all the winter tbruu^j^h. 'Itiis is the esse, iov 
iaalanoe, with lImi CicMninm, the lleliotriipit, the Vcrttonit^^ 
the Nasturtium, the Salvia, ond M-unc kinJii of llosM, 
tncludint; tlie China lVa-ro»e, whioh continue to Hower 
Uin>u;;h(>nt U»e winter in sheltered t;ar<lcns The NaHtur- 
tium, an nnnuid with us, licGonit-s u [Kri-enniul llmicoiu shrub, 
at in IVu, itit liativo country. So dura the C'oUieii scandens, 
»'hii-h luu* a ligneous stem, and lluwers continiicinwiy in 
winter, 'tliere are aleu many flowers |H-cii1br In miielt 
moru southern ulimulei, wlitvh bUM>n) tliri>u^li(iHl the winli^r. 
Itiit aa I purpose dovulin^ ii xpci-iid uhiipler to eidtivalet) 
tluwers and hortieulturu, I stiall now conliuo myoulf to wiUl 

Wild, sweet- )>mdlin|* Viuleta npi^ear almat the middle of 
Uec-euiber in the warmott si>ot4. The Nurciostu nivens. 




un<l other flowers of llie same g«nu« arc found cqtuilly enriy. 
By llic tml of Janunry viol«ts liavi- liccoim; n w««d, flowc'riiiij 


from titc fU'vioiU) ol every mill, along every patli, nn<l i, 
ereij' torr«iit>1>ed that Uie ami reaches. Tlie delk-ate Ly 
podiam of otir hot-haus(« iind Goneen'ntoriiit rcpluues 
nocompanies Uie moi^'e of thv north, gr<i» lag fmAy in all 
dump pIncM throughout the winter. Wild Aneinoiiee of 
dilTerent oiwcies, eoine of which are very beaiitilul, Iwtriii to 
MorHom in DcM-mbcr or Jitncury. TWy are rapidly iiua- 
Cevded l>y Daffodilx, Narcissus, lijactntliK, Tuiipx, Gladiole 
HfputicuM, and Primroses. All these flowera are fount! wil^ 
but onir ID certain regions known to the " initiiitcd" and i . 
Bome of the donkey women. The white AlvKtiuni, which wi> 
liM! forgnrilcn eil(;in[^, iei ver^' CDinmoii,nii(l flowera throug 
out ihe witiU-r, as iJ<ies a lari;e species of daisy. 

Mignonette <:rowii wild in ^omc lomlitics, on thu terrac 
of the eastern bay for instance, l>nt it hae but very litL 
odour, unlike Uie swvot-tcentcd api-cieit yHttttla oiivrala) of 
our gardens, which in n native of the o|ipn)iit«, or African 
shore of Ihe Mediterranean. The Caper pbnt, a tropica] 
shnih, thrives and |n-nduceB fruit almiidanlly, a fact in il«clf 
evidence of a wanii i-liinatc. It i* of dwidtiotw hahtt, and 
toMiiir it« leavMi eaily in the autumn merely to refrain them 
lat« in the eniing, docs not at all contribate to nintt^r 
decoration. The Peppcr-lree (KinuK Mcilli) a cultivated 
ill gardenn, on acooiiiit of it« foliage. It rcmaini* in Iraf 
during the winter, and ie a handsome tree with pendulotia 
leaves and pretty red berries in cliistci-s. Th« Anetralian 
Eucjilyptiiii, or Gum-trec, prow* ami thrive* wherever then; 
is ■ certain depth of Hoil, with it« ukuuI Tn|iidity nod 

Succulent plants thrive wherever planted", and in eoma 
rc(;ione have become tiuite wild. The lar^u Mc«omhryan- 
themtim ih peculiarly Iiixuriiint in it* growth, and brilliant 
in its bloom. The absence of winter frost, the heat and 
drjrneDS of summer, and the he^vy rains of antnmu and 
spring, nvrm ijuile to o»i)iimiIntc the climate to that of iu 
native country, the hilln uiid plain.'< ol the Ca))e of Good 
Hope. It is in full flower by the middle of April. 

Tne Prickly-pear {Oj/uiitia vutgarit), the commonest 



tUo Cwtsoeie in tiw Moditetraaean, flouHsUn in llits clitaato 
a» well a» in ihe rooky mountains of Mexico, ita unlive 
country, as mil}- be bccd by lhi> llmvint; Fpecimens in various 
pitru or ttiv town, nnd in my Orimnldi i^Jink'n. 

llto Alo« is eqnnlly ut Iioiiw in tlie divtrict, indeed 
all over the Meditctranean luasin. lint at Meiitone 
it ilm-x not firum to bo a[»preciat«d as nt Nice, whcru mnny 
ma^iiiliaint niMMimen* ar« to be itecii. lnd«vd, the Mon- 
toauns do not a[i[)«jir to value land«osiw giudeniit^ or 
g»rd«nin([ of any kiod. Very few flowers are cnltivated, 
cieopt for preparing perfumes or in ttiv gardeoa Mttochvd 
to toe ItouNCH let to ktmnj^era. They seem to tliink it a 
toM of time to bestow labour or trouble on auythin^ that 
ia btpt dratincd to bo eonaiimod as fixnl. Tins oomplot« 
abamoeof llic IntenMloveof llowerHantl tirnnmcntJil [fitrdun- 
injf whiob (n-rvades all classes of society in more riiiiorous 
dimatfs eliiimcUtriivs Sontbem Europo^It«ly, Pianoe, 
ond S]iun. .Wbere do wo kcv tbe Rom*, the Ck-matiit, the 
jHauiinv.olimbiiigorertkGiiMHiat'soottage «» in Kni>land? 
One njanon is ttie ditlioulty of kei'ping plants ahve and 
Bourishin;* without watering, duriii); the long summer 
droaglitjt, and the dilliuully und ox|>viinu of tindini; water. 
Itul ihia dui-s not afiply tu the Aloe or the CactacoiD^ 
which d<.-hi-hl and thrive in the drieet re<^ons. And what - 
con be niurv |:;rnndio«e than llie inmieiwo AIo«b Men in 
the vicinity ol Hht, vegtttuble gtantu, on« of which ia 
oRen as biTjre as a small houra ! Is tltere not also great 
intoreel in wnlvhing tlw large ltowur<epike which, alter 
the Aloe has lived a long life of digniltetl re|Ki!<e, iihoota ' 
op in u lew weeks, on a &t«m like a Mmall Fir-tree, Iroiii 
ItKwn to twenty l<;ut hi^ih, utterly di'ntioying, by itt- rapid, 
mhauatine gruwUi, the parent pinnt? Kv<-ry winter mnny 
of iheac uevtmetive children may be t«tMt rjsinji I'rum their 
unfoTttinate parents, doomed to die with their olfxprincr, 
among the Aloes nt the Chatcaa of Is'ioe. Aloua in llower 
may nlwaya bo obaerved also at Monaco, where there i» n 
gfove of young Aloc« on tlie terraces of the old t<>wn, but 
smaller, and of more rtvent {jrowth than those of Xice. 

The Lily tribe, to whieh the itpiny Alue Iwlongs — unlikely 
aa it may seem to the nun-liottinical obderve^— has anotbir 




representative at Menlone whiuh conn the tcmoei ii 
Pflbitixry with while cliistera of lovely ilowera, aod witii 
w« OAU aW cl.-iim, n vpuctva of R-irlie, tlie Allium Nonpol 
ttinum. Tu tl)L< tiatnc nutnral onli:r LhO'hij^ tint Axuirii^ui 
a Bpecies of vrhicli grows wild in tliia <li*triot, aud w uearf 
alliM Uf ihv wild A>ipnni;;us fouDd in Bn-^land. 

Tim (>l«itn()oT, <ir imm I^mrifl, as the Frotnih nil it, wi 
UM » stove plant, grows in tlio opi'ii air to the sizi; of u sin 
tree. It tnny Iw seen both along the wcsteni and thi 
outtcrn bays, alon^ thu «cjt-shi)rc, and is also found \ni\ 
wild ill some of i1>h valli^Tx to the cast. Pi-i>ni the lirillinnt 
red hue of its IIowi-m wht-n in full blossom it haa ^iven tlie 
namo of Campa Itomo to a emnll town in the va)W of 
Dtilec A<i<|ua l»-yond Vi-ntiniifilin. It frioK** *''"■' margin of 
the rivers in Mmuit Atb.i, thtLi funnitti^ a iHiUincul link 
between Huroi>e and Africa. The oUandtr flowers in tlie 
eumnicr and autumn, ami as neitlier its habit nor it« ever 
green folia-^ w rcmarkiible, it doefi tiot ultniet mud 
attention. 'Htn Tamariiik, with us a well-known Mv-Midia 
shrub, aUa bt'C^mea a small tree with a gooii-aixvil trunk. 
Ah with IIS, it lories its fulisgi> in winter, but n'jr.tins it 
curly in April. There ut n row of thwc Tnmiiritk-ircps 
Mkir(in>; the U-aeli in the wislern bay. Tliey fjruw in the 
ahiii^Ie that forms the beach, a few feet from the sea, 
thus illustrating, a« in the north, thiHr peculiar marine 
■ympathieti. Some plantst, like some men, thrive anywhrrv, 
an CMmopolite, whilst others lIouriKh only in their native 
soil, under special conditions of climate, and without th< 
pine and eventually die. 

Ah ilhulriitive of the e'mmo|)oIili! plmit may h« ni 
(ioneil the friend of our childhood, tht- common Blaekberr 
wllieh wo are ^^ad to wetooinv evuu at Mvntoiie, In the 
warmest, wildest, and roekiest regiunii it f;rowK ax vigo- 
ronoly, a« joyouxly, as in any r,uiet lane in England or Scot- 
land, only in such situations it becomes an evenireen — in> 
thit svnM! that it doe^ not I'wt! one xet of k-avp« until it 
ha* got another. It is, in (ruth, u siiij.>ul;>rly h;irdy plii'il, 
with a uiosl peculiar power of mhiptin^ itself to circum< 
ataoce". All climates seem to agree ecjually well with i 



hot or cold, rainy or dry, marilime or iiilani], plain or 
inoiinUin. I luvv DOt'or been ton spol in Kuro|>i>ur Alrim 
vrhuri! I liuvo not fmiod it, I'mnt Siilliurbndsiiiru to the 
BDutli 'if S.irOiiiiii, »idto tlie mui^iti or tlic Sutiarn dciwrt. 
I ni'Ht: (Miiri.->« t<> u fwrtiiii i)e;;reci of surprlso whuii I ituw 
tlii* fiivourilM ofour lihj'ly Rti^ilish Uik-m t-mwiiif^ at Mun- 
lono with wild and <lt!U>rmiii()il laxnriiiiiuo, lillii)>^ up the 
Iim) of ilry tiirrenU, climijini; up trvcs to a lieix'i' "f tivenly 
or thirty fwt, mil chokiiii* p.«»sii;fcs l)i-tiv«eii Icmnn tarrjLvs : 
oil tliL' nioDiiuiii sidi!, and lliat in re^ii»iii wlturv it ufVi;n 
dow not r'in iii situini«r tor six or eight months togolhvr, 
and uniliT tlie glura or lliu li<»r(.-e Mudit«rraiie.-in sun. 
Orluinly it iiiukI Iiuvv a nii>(<ioi) u> \'n\f\i, anil pi>iliii[M tlint 
iniMi'in it to mip}ily a ^ralvlul IVutt Ut llit* children of tJic 
vurv poor, 'ritu tiiiys whoti tliey (;o Llackbernin'^ arc tnily 

tivtf dnvK to tin-Ill, and Imt fi-w an- tht; iiuits thi-y tail 
ill in our ultiiuitt-s. Its Hi)^hl in always u-cIkhhi;, iis 
ts all that reiniiiilB the sojourner in foreij^n lands of his 
nattvv <.-oiintry, and of llii- hauulsaud pleasures of iii^ diild- 
hiwxl and of hi« lurly yviuv. 

In cprini; n vory familiar plant >liow* tU iar:^', vvlwty 
tnealv li^^vi.'a, in many placir«, on the roud sides, and at 
the bottom of wulU — tin- Verluiiicnm. At the mmi: time 
•ppeiini ill i^n-iit almudantx- and liixuriancit, in lliu eame 
vt^utnn, a tar>:e, eI<-Kaatly>varii!f^jt«d while and ewea 
Tlmtle. Tlicy both are in flower early in AfPil, as also ii 
the Aotirrliinuin, or Snapdrai><'ii, <>vhi<;h u found wild on 
tlin wjrin tvrraiiirs. It tH-l<in^ to the Kiimn natural order 
as lUo VLTbasi-um, that of tlio Sci-i>pliuU>iace». This i« 
nUo thf tinii- wlii-n the i.ik-t;iint tittk- ^npi- llyat^'inth, (lie 
Htar (if U.'thliihi'tn, ihe CUhw or roi^k row, tin; priokly 

Droom, ihe I'yli'us, Ihui'iir IIj, and muny othtT Waiititul 

(lowers am in full hloom, and tranfloim the ravines and 
t«rruiws into r<^ilir gardens. 1 muKt not i-itlier furiji't to 
niontion tiic (ground orctiida, of whii-li many difTeriiit kind* 
um lonnd — ilie tly Orchis, the spider Orcliis, the Orchia ; 
It4-u, the Ih^ Orchin.tho Ion;;- Ira clod. 

'l'l><> vegetation of oooi-mi \av'n<* avoonling to the nature 
of the a»il. Sotue of the lower hilU are of sandstone, whiuh 


impreBsef) od the flora its ]HM;u)tar clinrnotcr. Tti« trctv n 
Pines; till! ehruW, th<; ArLinlitt;, tliv Myrtiv, tbe Jiitii|>ttr, 
prickly Brooiii>muunt»iii Liav«D<)cr, and Heath. AlChmt- 
inaa our coidmoo Itii;;; Hcatli U iu full flower. Another 
very Iwautiful IleAth — the Mcditcrrnnran or arbom^ 
llon-LTs in Foliniury iiiitt Miiix'li. It liux an erect sUim, 
riviiiv to tbe height ul five or ntx Awt, and its spikes of 
numerous white tlowere arc moet lovely. 

The most remarkable of tlienc sautbtonc liitU k the ond 
liotwecn the Cabroie and Gorbio valleyt, cullod the St'. 
Lucta and the Arbutus riil;i;e. Tbe Teg^tution I have 
emimerated is quite that of the Corncnn and Sudiniao 
giunitic aiiil m mitt I one innunlaiiiB: it iit sIko tlutt of the 
same I'oi millions on ^Inunl Atlns, iu Africa. Thus a coiijile ' 
nf boura Hi)ent on these bills give a ni06t graphio and liu^^ 
idea ol the vegetation that covets some of the mo«t lovo^j^H 
and roniunttc regions of Uic mountains of Corsica, SiinlintO^^ 
and of North Africa. It is a little comer of .Africa encased 
in the Mcntonian amphitlteatre, and this ideutity of 
%'egetation seems to prove that the day has been when 
the Miirilime Alj*, the ApeDiiincs, and Mount Atlas wct« 
one syKtein of mountains. 

A species of evergreen creeping Smilax, or Sareanaritb, 
with variog»tc<l trinngutitr lejivt« and groups of red berritt, 
i« very common. Our old friend the Ivy is eonsilantly net 
with in the vallevs nnd watercourses, wherever the soil 
roQtatne lime. Feme are very numerous throughout tite 
dit'triet, nnd their growlb is favoured by the peculiar stinc- 
tiire of the terraces. The walls bv which these terraces are 
bounded are formed by the simple superstructure of large 
stones, dnd the earth gradually filtrntmg into their inter- 
stjces, toTins a cool, damp bed, utlmimbly a{hipte<l to their 
growth. All the old terraces are clothed with the Ceteraeh 
lern, the Asplenium trichomancs, and the A>^plenium adi* 
nntum nigrum, which, with the Capilluii vcnvnK, or maiden- 
liair Pern, are the must common. The lattiTiua merewi'dl, 
and waves its U-autitul IVuiidfi near every tank, every brook, 
every sroali irrigation caniil, indeed, wherever there is either 
running or stagnant water. The Ptvris aquilina, or brake 
Fen>, is common, but it is a summer Fern, us with us, i 



Tnmd» only appearing" in April, wIkd tlie invalids are priN 
paring to migrate Qvrtliivnnis. Tb« Scolopuudrium, the 
FolypoOium vul^re, th« RuU mnniHit, AKpl«ni»in Putriir- 
oluu, ukI ruiitainim, the Grjnimitiii Lepl/>|)liylla, and ihn 
CbAiliiutlio» (idurun, ure k-M uitivoDiuUy dt'^tributed, altliough 
liy no means uneominon. On llic wliolo, I found ttrvlvo 
diffcreut sjwoitt of fenis, wtUiin a fuw iiundrod fvc-L uf llm 
BM, most of whkb aru also root with in Ku^Und. In lUa 
hi^h mount^iinti thura ara other fl[M)citw to be gathen^l. I 
wuM nthor aurprixcd iu the Rummer that I'ollowvd my lirtt 
int«r nt Montone to find the Aapleuiiiin trivliomiim^n 
ivin;' Willi eqnal luxuriance, not only on a wall in the 
cmulltM gardens, but also on the ruins of an old chapel 
ia a tiolitMry isli^t at the northern extremity of wild and'^ 
beautiful Loofa Awe, in the far north, on the west coast of 

For a full ucotmt of the vogctation of the Genoe»« 
Rivii^ru I would rofor to M. Ardoino'* " Horc de* Alpea 
Maiitimes," and to Mr, Traht-riie Moggridjfe's very beauti- 
ful book, "Contributions to the Mora (if Mi-iitone and to a 
winter Flora of the Itiviera from .Marscill<;B to Genoa." Mr.'i 
T. Mot;grid[;v has aUo pulilishod a itidiit intcrovtin^ liook 
on " Horvwliug Ant» and Trup-door Spiden. Nutiut and 
OlMervations on their Habits and Dwellings." It is a model 
ofeloBe observation, and a dinrmin^ illustration of the way 
in whioh th« lelmrv of invalidism tn^iy be made a source of 
delist and joy hy muruly turning to niiture. 

Nearly all the cuitivuLed vegetation of the Meatonu 
amphitheatre — Liomoii, Olive, and Orang«-trees— est-cpt I 
what ia found on the narrow seaboard, grown on tumiwif, 
bailt,orexi»vutcd on till- ntdffof the mountain. Thex- turmcc* 
have be«n produovd by the lalH>ur of inany ages. The moun* 
tains and billa rtwi too rapidly from the se« level for even 
Olive-trcca to gnjw without this preliminary etep heiag . 
adopted to iiupp»i't untl fumi the soil. A terrace Is a Itdgtt' 
cut in thii hUl Nido. Itie clone taken out of the hill furtn* 
Um wall, the earth from the crevices, the broken stones, and 
a little oartli brought from other regions, form the soil, 
'ilieM tamwcs arv uxpousivu to make, a» tntieh no, I have 
old, oa hnu»a ; whereas Uie product ia prospective 


only. T)i« man who buildH them einke li'm capital mnra Tc 
hU nliildren's Wnefit Dian Tnr liis own. If he plaDle Ltrroon 
or Ornn-fu-lrors lie itintit alxo tli)> n 1itr{*i: limk, aiii) tiu atlc 
to ffH wulor Id fill the tuiili, in oidcr to irn|;iili' tlitm lU 
the niiiili-ea Htimiiier. ll' he plants Olive-trct-H they grow 
so slowly that in twenty years the produce k 6till ine!^ 
i)ilicnnt. The nloncs, oven, hnve to erumUe into toil, under 
the itifliionce of inointiii-i-, wind, und weather, uixl maim 
has to he added, hefure the tt-rruce van produce the greet 
crops wliich are generully planted ou those occupied 
yoiinj; Uwn. 

And yt:t th« nioiinttiin Hidm nrexeiirred with fhi-Ke ler- 
racce, which .iW in i^ui'eeseive tiers, and are the (inuidiitiim 
of the a^icultiirsl riches of Ihi! country. Tliey are the 
evidence, in stone, of the thrift and induHtry ol poft nenftr, 
rutioiiH — a Kih-nt hut doiitii-nt iKoniimcnt of the ilonienti 
virtues of the forelathers of the preeent race. Many nc 
terraces have been budt during the last few years, nwin 
to the iucri'asing prosperity of the inhabitants. 

Many new tanUf have aUo lieeii eonstructcil. Tliiir foi 
mution is nllended with a heavy ex|M.'nditiirc, nit I know to 
my cost. The avails have to he maile very thieli to »u]>[iort 
tlip preieurc of the water inside, and the entire lahn<.' has to be 
cemt-ntcd ecvoral liiniv, intenially, with hydiaiilie cement, 
to pievent the cNOipc nf the water. There taukii can ln> 
tilled at tlic end ol m inter, before the vprinK* are dividetl 
lielwcen the proprietors, a proceetlin>; which usuully taken 
])]a(-e in May. The water i>f a spring is as valuuhlv- as the 
];ind, and in owned, s'> many houm each niek, hy the 
landed prnprieturs. Without t^uch a li^ht to water l,ii)d IB 
all hnt in mountain localities like Urnnaldi. This village 
I and the vcf^ciation around it, <'w-e Iheir exUtenee to a »prii»g 

I thutt appriipriated. In winter, liy immemorial right, the 

I water of the frpring belongs to two olive millH noikt-d 

I water power. 




MX cMmtumom at raocamAST rmoD— tbi ninnruTic at mMf 
- CAb rtMioD-rtaa ocaauaaajsw uo ina eutsAi nuucM^ 



■ i 
" There roDs the deep where grew the tree, 
earth, what cbangea thon bait Men 1 
Thf^re where the long street roars, hnth Wen 
The stillneBB of the central sea. 
" The biUa are thadowa, and they flow 

From form to form, and nothing utaedB ; 
They melt like mist, the solid lands, 
Like cioiidB they shape ihemaelvpfl, and go," 

TiNSYSON, In Memoriam, ciiii. 

Tbr geological features of the country are very i n teres tin ff, 
and much may be observed in a small coinjiass. The hi<;h 
range of mountaiDH which form the amphitheatre helongn 
to the loner cretaceous rocks, nnd is composed of very fine- 
grained limestone full of minute globular animal organisms. 
At both the eastern and western extremities of the Men- 
tone bay this formation juts out into the sea. At the 
eastern extremity, the road to Genou is cut out of the side 
of the mountain, and asceods to a great elevation, croasiujf 
a deep ravine in this limestone by a bold bridge, the Pont 
St. Louis. 

A short distance on each side of this point are observed 
some of the middle and upper cretaceous strata which 
replace the upper greeu sund, gault, chalk, marls, and 
white chalk of England. According to my learned and 
deeply regretted triend, the late Froi'easor li. D. Bogers, of 




Glasgow UDJvomty, <vlii> ivaa nn omament to liis native 
OOunlV/r the Uiiiled 8tat«e of America, tliey form the tul- 
lowiiitf strata: — a friwip, cotiHistiu;; 1st, of )>luc fihxico, 
with iiilvrcaUttKl tliin \nyvn of inicnivoiis hkuIkIdik^ M>ine- 
limes aboiimlint; in thu nO'CiilloJ gni-ii Huiid, cmioeDtly 
charaotcristio of the middli* cretiu:i.'i>tia strata; £nd, ofa 
ooDrae, uauiilly very thick bciUlcd BaiKhtoiie, ollon noiit^lo- 
iDL-ntic, inti-rviilatcd, in tt« u^tpir part, with Itvii* of shule^ 
like ihove of tin; group that imderlicM it. 

Ahove these upper secmdarics eommcue« the tertiar;, 
eyeteni l>y n U'ell>(luvclo|ied eocene iiummiililie tiniostone, full 
of iiummnliti'», M'hidi in evrtaiii locnlitit^'f is ovoriuid hy 
iir^iIWi-i>ii:< Ktnttu iitid these by a reinarkiibly uontM con- . 
k'glamei'ate, both of the pieiooene sffe. ^fl 

The«c eti-aln nrc observed on both sides of the toot St.^ 
Louis, ill tlic Mime onlvr, euslwurd towards the town of 
Ventiini{/;ha, and westward towurda Roecabruna, at the 
huso of tlie Turbia ascent. At both theae jtoitita api>i;iir 
the ()loioceiie clays and con (glomerate. Thua the lower 
hill'', which occupy the f^ouud-plau, as it were, of the 
Mentone aniphitheatic, represent from onst l« west, dit- 
feretit Htrata hctweeu thi- lower vrelnceoua limi-Htoiiu iiimI 
the pleiocene con glome rute. Thene strata are alM> repro- 
duct'il in the same ordur, between the St, Louis roclca and 
Yentimigliu, near which the tertiary days and ooD^lome- 
Tttte ar« found efiuully well ilcvelupci). 

The age and (|:eutogicul position of tlioac pleioocnc stnila 
are indicated by the fossils they contain. My friend, 
)lr. Mug{p-id(;e, who has devoted much time and thought 
10 the geology of Una district of the Maritime Alps, hu 
found, near \'entimigliii, many focKils in the oltiys which 
underlie the eouglomerate, chnracteriatie of the Iat«r 

Silciocene period The accompanying chart, which Pro- 
MSor ll'igori'' kindly drew np for this work, will show at a 
gUnoe the above details. 

The conglomerate is roagniBcently developed Iwlh at the 
entruni^-e to the Mentonian amphitheatre, on the Nioe road, 
near the villajre of Koecubnina, and seven miles further oa, 
at YentJmiglia. It u, indeed, onii of the most interekting 
loaturcs in the geology ol the di«tricl. The deposit is 



- <»» '"' i3awBm«m i*t Bum uoiuna wz ram 


■ 'TTtnrrcHir 

Ljionaf C-rnLFb^ KTisntiitl bmnt* torpid. 



'almarawlUBlul mill ute 

■h» tb* 

__■ — Iwt IbwIiHgwi* Hm i^mi t^m, IB ii» aulftwirtii or to- 

_ ...Ic^lMsl It >4>llH4cpcall (fa «j lonyMulqaltl t(rl*d- BllBK 

"" "~ - • ^" ihii™l>ii» rtnia, u il* uvt" «oo»» wi4 nwlor«n« ••• 

irt^irrrmof "f tcmir vidx tnttfl of Ihi dMrtdf bowat^ Ih* 

T-.fn] -,iiLjf iTi ^hich Ihr M*> trfd ahwrtikJ In ■ntmal H fe. 

I".,; ,1, iM> »iii 'li. i'';la<*l» HbVllIMB Wm IMW dFJ 

K-'flM*^ * 


fft'SSTrf B«^>Vhy ««i' -bifc Mbi*^ 


m of itie CilaoKiIe iiUi ■" 

1 hilhcrb) 4iM*n»d «nut>nnita|| 

UMt c* nc wDV V «< 
iMemiplMa ts Ih* b^ 

n of (h* VoaiDlc 

iIt *)lnMI friiiiOm 


t ««n»t» 


rri^' '■ilnrmn.ilrfuHHMIIimlllMil^ 

> H«ll HI 

nlf ■" 


_ ._ .waMnr. 

•I lbs loKaoartdrif Ml 4iirtif « 

Wl4 i.i'.'- 



oompoecd of Urge sitm», roaoded by wutvr a»(3 fndioti, 
imbeddod ilk calcaroous (gravel, l'on^tittltill9 what lia* boon', 
turmnl p«KldiD^-«tone, and is very itxti'iihive; it indicalea a 
(Xinod of gient uouvuUioii, ii pi-rJ<Hl wlicn tUv wntore of thu 
MvdU«rraD«aii were prolmWy tlirown «iih Mmtu; viulcncw 
ott thu moiiDtiiiD muifscs ivhicli Torm the Maritime AlpH iii 
tlio fur btV liiK:kgn>iiQ<l. Por)>hyry, und p^anit« etoDee of 
Urge volume, am common in tliiii i-oii^lomenitui, nnd thcso 
lurinntioiiH «re only met witb at a coniii(Jenil>le dixtAiico 
from thf ^I<Hlib>rTnneian coa^t. 

TIk! vilht,"!' of ntK-iMlitiiim is Imilt on lh« conftlomcmtc, 
w)iii-li uhm.-iii1s mticli hi^hur on tlie Mt^ of X\tv iiiouiitiiiii 
■l'<n^ llie Nice road. 'IVadilion sayx, tliut K^n-viibrutia tva» 
in formi-r <luye Minv hvoluindred feet hitchor uji the moun* 
tftin, Ijut tbat n ^^ntio tiind-slip oucurml. niitl tliiit the 
bed of boulders na tvbloh it wiua built dirvc^ndcd bodily to 
its pr«flent poi-itioD. I much doubt, buwewr, tUe veracity 
of Ihis tbtt popnkr vi«w as to the orijjioal habitat of the 
" brown roor' vilbiKe- 

Tlio various i;volu';i<;al fommtionfi observed in the limited 
MentvQinD «mpUitheatri! hiiiif; homo to uk, " iu wonl« of 
stuiie," some of the muet int«r«ati»g pbasee through which 
the world bos \>asacd during recent geological) p>>noda. The 
word ruc^nt, however, muet be uiiduretoud to apply to 
periods M{)arut«<] from tu by countless ago, and only 
recent aa comjiared with the tin fathomable jwriudx of timd 
during which the pninury and ^teoondary strata were formed. 

The lower cr^-taceon« litnestonc rocks, which foi-m the 
bnus of thv Mentonian uniphiUieutrc, and the strata 
tbervtn found tliat correHiKiml (o our ohaik or upper cre- 
taceous era, repreuent the highest or most tecoiit t'orma- 
tioiia of the secoutbiry period of geology. The nummulitio 
liincstuno whi(.-h crowns the Ht. Lonis rocl>s, and wliieti in 
being quarried for building purpoMN where Die fui't de^ 
■ovuding eastern bend ocouDt, belongs lo the eocene oi 
tertiary formation. 

Tbe nnmmulilic formation is not the carlioBt of thu 
«ooeiui i<rriod, but ocuupi4>« a middle position. At Mcntone 
the lower eooene formation i* not rvprcNciited, it ia a hlunk ; 
oor ore tbe upper strata of tlie euucnu Byateni, nor any of 



Uie miocrnc They ntx- nil w:iniint; up In tlie plMowne 
cUj'fl whirh underlie the «m[.'l'imiTato. Al Iwst eticli » 
Profi-sMor Koyi'iH' vic>v of tlie Kt;"l*>gy of lliiit dulricl, the 
rwitlt of careful aiiulv-«is snij of many exoursions of inquiry 
in wliii'h 1 had tiie iilwuiiin; of his relined nnd intell<ecliul 
oom|>anion>'liip, and ihe opinion of so nMc b t^-oloKiiit mutt 
liavu tiTViit vii-ishl. lie considers, a* we biivc wen, th« 
•halns and »imdKton<.i>, ntiich lie east mh) vreiit of the 
St. I^min limeHtime, to Iw memlx'rs of tlm upper or«tiioeo<iB 
family, niii] not t«i'ti;iries, a» >• giriMirully EitppoBud. 

1, 2, KnmiiinUtei liDvigatu ; 3, Section of do^ aliowuig it* celli. 

'tliere ia a fentnre of frreat inlen-»t eonntcled with the 
tiummolitic limmtone. It lx.>)ont;><, most iiiduliit^tilr, to 
the mid<ll<! eoocne, it was iiiKj^iettionnbly formed un(Ii.*r rait 
water — for the niinimtditra or «oin-hke slielis which it 
contains are the chi-llt! of^tilt water teMiio'se— and yet this 
loimntion i* found liit;li!j' dwdojiod oii tlie Iii^h-.-Bt and 
most cenind tH>Ttiona of the AI|>m, the CiirjMithiims. Ihe 
Pyrenees, and the H i ma lays ft, 'Hiis fact alone wmdd 
fltifflce to prove that thv»'e Ftii{R'ndous mountain chains ure 
of comparatively ri-ooiit formnlion. They ootild not liare 
exist4-d ut thv time the nummidittc limv«1one wan forniinf; 
tinder the »ea, at a time when Knjiland was alri-ady jtvoplell 
W various quadrupeds, and miiftt have been raised uliove the 
SMI U'vvl HuW<.-qiii.-nlly Id ihiit i>oriod, l>y some mighty coD- 
Vidvion of naturi,'. 

Durini; the |>eriod of the enilh's liistory whvn tlic 
mimmulitic limestone wan formed, and dnring the friih- 
N^tuent or miocene [leriod, the c:limatv of Europe wus warm 



'Or mbtmpiml. Hie vegvtatioii wn* nil t»tit that or the 
tropics or Uie |>re»«ot day, as teelitieiJ try the beds of lit;r)itfl 
or wood coal b«^longtng to this pL-riud. which nru round in 
llio»e Mtnta. Hit! iinimalH of ihu trrtiiiry pi-iiud wt-rc the 
\^rg6 and curious [trecumon uf the prAMinl ruovs. An idea 
or thMo animals may he gained tiy the speciiavoa thnt have 
bwn «o cunoiinly ruprodnci-d in the Riirdcns or thu Cryittul 
Polaoi 'I'hi-y wctw rvmiirkiilili' for Iheir rhu nnd devi'lop- 
ment, wliitih indii^^tttd luvMiivilile cotiditiona ol' niaUirisI 
lil'e, abundanco of fitod, and a i^enial ilimotij. 

"niOMMaiid rivcra woru iileo pt-opM hy cxnborunt nnd 

(rraiitlioK lift', indii:ative of tropicul warmth — Urjrn Sharka, 

and Iluy», Turtlitt, Uulphiiio, and tiucb like. The nnra- 

malitM, or coin-like flhelU, found io the St. Louis quarry, 

' were' living in Uxindlcsij ptofiieion in (ho wurm new. So 

' ulnindaiit wrn> thoy in Ihi; ocuino of llu'W <)iiyii that 

' ibotmnds of niilt^s of niinmiiilili(Hin>i'stitni> »uvi'rul litindred 

! fovt in ili-plh, all hut colirely coni)>06(.-d of their remains, are 

tfamd in irome n'gions of the Old World. 

^I^hcti, nftvr the pk-iot-ene period a dark cloud <.'jmc over 

fln eurth. From name nnknuwn cnut-o itM ti-mpt-rnturio 

lowered, »n<l the ghKiiid period not in. IWl of Kurupe ai)d 

A^ia «ii1>?idi.-d tiiiJiT the «m aH the oliniale buciimc cold. 

GUciem i.tIiiIiIkIu-iI tlicmtn-lvi-s on \he mcmiitainif of a con- 

■ideraltlr portion uf tvhut icmuincil ol Ihe Euriipe of to-day, 

and on other legiom non- »u!inter)ri-d, duivn to the ^tlth 

puntllL-l nf latitude (A},>aw^iK^. The tropical ve^^tation K*ve 

May to a northern flora. The tropical animals died out or 

rmi);rut«d to ttion: iiotitheni n-frioni!, and wirre MipciiwduJ 

jAMvew forms of lire nion- miiipted to a bureul itimati*. 

m^hc multriiU noild went on as before, under the iiitluenoo 

' or llie winic lurts. '1 he rain, the IVoiit, the uir (iiNintc^'ratctl 

the rockx, Ihi' ilctriltut ol which wa« rirriird by riviileltf and 

riven* to the nea. Theve fm<pnent«, large and small, were 

rounded and polished both by the aclioii of the uaters that 

brought tliem from tbe beti^bts, and by Ibe action of 

the *tit» to which Ihey were cutricd ; a« u the gum: with tho 

•liingle on modern nhonv. Iliiiie ]iortionM of the tflacirrK, 

that reachid the ^a in iniiny phici-s, were broken oll'durin)^ 

tUku ebort tnminer. Covered Milh i-oeks, stonee, and eaniij 



wliioli \hvy liroiight from tlie moiinlainjt, io the ravines 
which they vn-TK furmetl, tUvy Hiiiletl out to sea. Tens of 
tbousauds of iuel-er^ now sail every eummer in th« sitma 
way, into tiic Atlnutio from the polar rc;;ionH. On melting, 
tliuir ear-jo of f;r«vel — for of such is frnvel — of Iwnldcr*, 
B»d of liirjn! roi.iki!, u now dvpoititod, nn foinieriy, »l ll: 
bottom of u\e ocean. 


After an inL«lciilable period of time a chiin^ a^uin ea' 
over our )^Io1k>. The warmth of the Hun agtiin renctied iw, 
anil t)K! NiibinergH] portionji of Kiir»|><!, Atita, and Nurih 
America, ajtiiin ho^n to rise ; oa aW, no doubt, did re^'ions 
which for the fint time appeared abuv« tbo waters, Tbi« 
rixe apju-ars to have bt-cn f^aduol, us wdl ii* the imprurc- 
meut iu climate which accompiiniod it. Thus, by stow 
degrees, the pi>ecent state of the e:.irth was nttainud. ^ 

The oonglomerato formation observed at Rucciibruna *ilfl| 
Ventimigiia extends over an immenKO area between tli<^' 
£<terel luid San Ittimo, nnd on the itouth eid« of the 
Maritime AI|m. In name regions, also, it att^iiuM extreme 
development. Thus, it is found on the course of the V»r 
and of the VL'subie, as also on a grent part of llie ri-;lit ftde 
of the Roya valley. On the left Kidi- it principally forms the 
noun lain II UH elevation which separates the Uoya from the 
valley of Iho Nervia. Above Bordistheia, al the Teeln de 
Aipe, aceordini: to Dr. Nicpoe of Nice, it attainv an eleva- 
tion of nl>ovG uUOU feet. 

Dr. Niiipcc bnK rc-ccnUy pnbtifhed in the Ile«tie de Jiiet 
{\%1V) a series of interoslin^ articles on the tertiary lorma- 
tioUB, and on the oongloraeratea of the dejHtrtnient of the 
jVlpi-s Maritimea. The results at which he has arrived 
corroborate the views of Profceaor llneere, as (civeii in his 
chart, and *c^'m «o coniittent with our geolojfical know- 
ledi^, and with reason, that I think I cannot do be' 
than reprodtiee them. 

Tho con^lomornti?s, or pudiliiig stone, were formed under 
the tea and on the Hlion- l)y the crushing of rocks and the 
diisliing I'f targe maRMt^ii of water ui^inst the rocky shore, 
which must have cliararteriied the frequent and terri" ' 
coovulsions that oocurred during the lalur tertiary ^wTiod 

]n tliis region, the Apcnuine Ny«t«m and the Aljw systei 



of moantain* meet, a» it n-ene, tind during tlio varlbqiinketi, 
rolcaaic eruptions, and up)i«avtn^, wlitoli ntuxT^cd cacli 
otW lit tiiut period pf tlio tfartli's history, tbis vonlliut 
btftwwn water nod nxk, the i^riuding und cniehinir tluit 
took plac«, rnual )iiiv« ramltt-d i» ttii^ furuuilion of immi-nse 
SMMM of shini;le, such na wo now see at Uritflil'iu, Duvor, 
■nd Dii'|>|>«. Form<:<) thus under wat«r, Wl'ore the glooial 
period, un u]>heaval at the end i>f the pl«»oa'»c i>])Och raiseJ 
the cani;Ioineral«B to their ]>r«f«cnt site, where they biwajDM 
c«m«nt«d hy ulcarccfls infiltrfttions. 

Some g<-rili>)^ii>l<i have niAiataincil Unit thi'«e coni^tome* 
ntt» are delUa of local rivers existing or " dufuiicl." But 
thtH Dr. Niepw denies on convincing grounds. The Siagii«, 
tJut Viir, the K<>y>i, the Nurvtn, must havo comi; into exis- 
tvocv MiWe<)ueutly to tlio formation nnd upht^iival of thu 
oongtofneriile. Kiiisunn were rvnt in the latter during tnili- 
BM]u«nt e«rtliqaaL-c«, volt^anic eruptions, nnd upheavals, nnd 
tltuA wviu fornietl Uiv prt^xenl iii4» of th«(rc rivers. tVncca 
of violent volcanic action arc round all over Uiu country, 
mich «• the preaeiioe of volcanic rocka at Ueaulicu, Anlibe^, 
OuiDea, U^«rel, independently of the upheavaU, twiatings, 
and oonvuleioni:, (rverywhure to he seen. 

I nm pl«a*rd lo find that Or. Ni^pce supports, hy hia 
rwearuhea and experience, tho opinion 1 expressed in former 
editions as to tlic presence of truces of glacial action in the 
AI]>o« MarilimM. Thus he states that on the sides, lioth of 
the Koya and of the Var, e»iHraially at Colomas in the Var 
vaiW, he has found well marK«d ioe erosiona nnd polishings 
on the conglomeralo itself. This fact in one of the ur^u- 
motlto on whit-h he founds the opinion that the furniatioD of 
tlwoonghiuifrate, nnd of the i«ntA in it wltiih constitute tho 
river hedH, were ant«cedunt to the glacial period. 

Admitting tlint suvli waa the Gikw, tliu hedn of theae 
rivt>n>, es|N.-cially that of the Koyu, alford u good illustrolioD 
rif the way ill which glacial action scooped out a river 
vnlliry, and transformed a mere titsnrv or rvnt into a wide 
open eatuary. 

I'ha valley of the Roya has all the cbaract eristics of a 
gWi«r-«x<uivate<t viilh-y, scconling to tin- most rccvnt 
writonau Uiutuhject (Hooker, LycJI> Au*tiid>. It la very 



w!J« anil very di-e|>. IL apjiinm much more proW'le that 
it vian excavated \>y the notioD of n glncu-r, Ibimi-d by- 
millions of tuns of icu, pliiwly dvcuixliiit; to th« Mtii, uritid- 
iiijf it« way tliruu;;]] rocltK «»d motintiiins thnii Ity the- 
wvariiiif power uf tlie small river that now o«!ii[>iea it« 
centre. UlaL-)<>rs mifit hnvc eKtcndtH] not only as fur m 
this CAOJ't ill the Mwliti;n«ii''iin {4-'i*), 1>ul ma>^i m^rns to 
the south. I found nmii uiidi>ul>led erideuoe of slaoiiil 
iictton, mortiines and boulder drilV, in the bouth of Conioa, 
bt-lwcvn SiirU'iic niid ItitniOtcio. 

It in niirlliy of nutior tlmt t)i(! iiidK-iivnU of itiu moun- 
tains, liilk, nrnl ridges along this cunst hav« alt tjkeu place 
by movements iii a direction from south-ciist t'> norlli-wcst, 
and rife wrui — that in, alon^ a line fruin th» voluinio 
Gentr«« of Ktna, Strombnli, and Vesuvius, to the estiitot 
volcanoes of Auvor^e, in Franco. The rocky summits, 
th« cn-«t« of the atuny wiivvs, all lii.- at rif^Ul un^irx to t 

AIUinu);h there are no igneous roclcH in the Menlonc 
aniphitU-tatre, tliey arc ioimd very near, as wl> hare eiiid, at 
liuiiuliLti, Villcfnini;he, AntilK', and in the iippur port of Ihu 
vallry of the Koya, iind tho vvi<lunco of i^ni-outi actioti i« 
everywhere seen. In some iiistanees the strntiticutiou uf 
the lim<'«toiic has been dcstroyod hy its inlliicnce — in mniiy 
th« lim<%tone him been vrystalli/A'd in piilohcs, tninsibrmitl 
into niurhle. In soini' n-ciuns, as iil ihe (^p Moulin, it 
has been honeycombed, fi«ttird into Iioles and cavities, evi- 
dently by till! aelion oOU'dm. All these fiu-ts are evidence* 
of the teri'ible cunvuUiohK to which thin rct>ion of l£uropM_ 
wae snbjecteil in former periods of the earth's history, aiU^| 
especially dnrini; the tertiary era. ^* 

Thns, ill thiii little Meiliti^^nitncan bay, do vrc find 
vanoiiH important phases of the earth's marvetloos history 
stamped in indelible tharaulers. On the east of the 
amphitheatre are rucks, the nnniniulilie, whinh [loiiit to 
guiniy skies, warm sviia, and rxubeninl life, cxisltn[; pre- 
vious even tu the raising of the muiii chain of the Muri- 
time Al|Mt, fur conntless ages. On the weet arc con|;lo- 
merate formations which |>r«eeded a jiwioil of polar cold, i>f 
gloom and barreuiicss, that also existed during count 



_«. Around w tlio evidence of anotlier era, tUe present; 
itM-iri]<!»ti[iv«l tini|ii«stioiinb)y to ultimate clinn;^. 

TliL- |j;lju;iui ]H'rioi) winch i in mediately prevedvil our em 
a(ipctii-8 to hiive been (feneml, that is, to Uav* exl«ndi!d lo 
loth liotni^pheri'g. iho tropica alone eecnpin;; its di^Bstroiia 
intliiriii-i'. Tin- ;;r«vetH and gtiwicr-driUvd boiilderit utii 
n)ol(g (vliiuh tenlily to its csistunoe, Hre fmtix) in Australia 
aiiij fSuiith America, m well as in Asia, Kiirojw, and Nortli 
Amin-icti. Mwl of lite np-olugielB who h^ta studied th« 
i;liidal M-tiod durin); the la»t few yrnn< hiivo Kimply r<^- 
00i;nise<l and deHcHlied it, witlioul uttt!m|it)0(t lo ei;ilaiTi 
it* oiiiiKt-c. ViiMoiis attempts, hoivever, havti l>een niade to 
tinntvol lliio {ji-iiluyica! !iiy*t.;ry. Thiis, M . Baltitiet, «!' tin; 
I'rriiirli I itxtiliitt-, liitH iidviino'd an iiHlroiioMiiual vx plan tit ion 
vlnrii hnds Tavuur willi many lliiukera. 

Fixvd dtiirc, it is well known, are buns, com|inraUe in 
■1) tvapM^tji to tbc i>un wbicli forms tho centre of onr 
plani'tary system. Now «i)me »tiirs have proved "variulde" 
within uiir a^tiiinttmieiil nini^n of time; Hint l>, tliey have 
>b<inu witli variuble brilliancy at iivtervalii ol' longer and < 
>l)art<T diiralioii. or tliey have even disappeiircnl totnlly f<jr 
a linn*. Some well-knuwn itam in nnoiont euLilo'^uen have 
di>u|)j>rared entirely, and have Dwver returned j they are 
U>^t eUit*. Lastly, some elars' have appe«ve<l and sliono 
wilEi gnmi bnlliattey fur u short timci and bav« tliei) <Ii»- 
appcjired for ever. Such wu tho Pilgrim »\nt, which 
up[ii-nred in 157^, shone as brilliautly as the planet Venus, 
lUid uHer a your dteapjieiired, It is ^uppoMcd that the 
vurinble ntar»i aru dimintvliod in (picndunr or tveii (>W-iir»:d 
nt timt-H by Ihe vontiiet of matter existing iu fjuK-e, to 
wliieli tho nam« of " cosmiu elotids" ha« been ^ven, and 
which in neither eomut nor planet. If our «uii i« a variable 
vtiir, rxpoocil to the (xriiKlicid contact of such cosmic 
cluiids, which would intcrce)>t \\\^i\. and h«al, the ({l^cial 
iwriod is eKplaiiivd, and its ret«irn at somu lime or other 
ui.-conieH poktibic. if not pmluilile. 

It ha* bi-^n *\f^'4vii,\fi\ by Colonel Jamrn, of tile Ordnance ; 
Sonroy, that the rlian^^es of the earth's oliuiale in geo* ' 
lo^iml ix-riods may Iw duo to chnuties in tho iiielinution of 
the t-urlir* iixi#, brought about by allvralion* in the crtut 



of th« onrtli i^nidHiilly ufft-rtius tli« ocntrc of gi*' 
C'^totiel l>rnyK»n, in n meniuir read befnra th« Avtroiiumical 
8oci«ty in IS7lt, attrihutea the gUcUl period nnd other 
chanf><.-8 ol' climate on the rorth's stirfacG (;colo>riciilljr evi- 
denced 1o the prec«**i«n "f tliu cquino»«. He Ktmes, ait a 
r«stiU of hiH n-*earcheti, that the [lole of the earth traces a 
curve in th« heavetis which is a circle round a point 8 
(]ot;ree» From the pole ol' Ihi- eiltpiic, ami thiit thiN nme 
curve civeM >n ohlitjuity of upwai'd)' of 3') det;r>-i.-ai f4>r the 
date ]U,0()0 B.C. I'hiiit the date of the hi^t cbcial period 
would be 6xed, and it must have extinded over the whole 
of th« Xorlhcrn hum in ph ere, down to the 5Uh d(-{^rei,> or 
latitude, Ac<v>rdin|! to thiR view. Hie pole of the heavena 
traces a circle in the heaveu§ in 3I,UU0 yeAra, the centre of 
tills circle bein^r a point 6 dcgrecH from the pole of tlie 

Prufi-wior Rogets tliinkn that at the end of the picioeene 
period the land which separates the hend-water of the 
Baltic from the Arctic Ocean was probably below the Iev«l 
of tliu Baltic. Kvcn now it n only a IVw hnndritl (iect 
high, nnd uilhin hi*tori<t pi'rio(U there Ijiih be^r^ a con- 
tinuous) although slight, upheaval, ll'such was the case, 
the passage of a cold aretic current, with iceboi)^, down 
tbo Baltic, iniiy have modified the eliniot« of Europe, so a* 
to accomit for the (^Inciul iM-riixl, which the Professor con- 
siders to h.ive been much exa^^raU'd by recvnt writ«r8. 
Similar vicw« have been fiiippnrt«-d with gn-et talent iu a 
recent work, " Fro»t and Kire," l>y Mr. John Cnniphell. 

Thcae explanations are men^ly theoretical, and may or 
Diay not be correct. The fuel Tcmnitis, thai the canh hns 
tinocrgone, within the limit of g<.-<>logicul investigatkins, 
various tm)ioriant chiingen of cliiiiule, llial have reacted on 
life, such as are exemptitied in the Mcntonian amphitheatre, 
and that these chnn"CE have not been limited to the uarm 
tertiary and ould glacial jwriodM. Mr. I'agc, in his most 
interesting work on "The Past and Present Life of the 
Globe," p. lt<8, states hi« belief ihut similar warm and 
cold oycIcK must have existed duriu)* the earlier periods of 
the earth's existence. If he im right, he has discovered the 
Bxistcnce of a law which must have repeatedly changed tlid 



I obt 

eartli and ils inliatiitant«, and whioh it may be prconmiid 
16 ili^«liD«*l u^^iii k» clungo it, in tJie ordinurf course of 

IHio water whioh fi*U§ on the Mentutie mountttinx, in 
Gniliti;; itfl way to Iho tv*, has cxcai-at«d de^-p ravincti, 
utiirh ■•x{kfM Uiv utructure of Uk- tiTtinry mi'Iik. It hnii 
lliiis rortiKil uiiii)erou» narrow vnltey^, by nliii^h noM-sii in 
obtiiiDed lo the hi<;fh<.'r tuotintniiis, and to three or four 
ill! pii'lurwqup villain's thvri-iii Vuiilt. Thi-ei- ravines 
iiKtitnlr, lui no nhull sm, an iinpnrliiiit fviiluiv in thi^ 
Mtiiitary history ol* Mcnlone. Owinjjf to the biuskbone of 
Itii* district, iw it wvnr, being limestone, thu water is evcry- 
wh<-n' verjr Uuni, and tJie spring eoiuidered llio pureKl uxv 
l(»adcd with liuve. TroaUil with oxulio neid, the vAtor 
l>ives o inntit ubunJatit pTe4.'i]>itnt«, eveit wheu taken frrim 
spriniin ii> thi'' hiiikUUuii' riKk", 1 hove had to meet this 
dillii-idly by pviiit; dintillt^i u liter, or ruin wiilxr, or niitd 
mineral watvre, tutnTahds. liisoine instanceB the hardness 
ol' ibo water is evidently beneliiial, an, for inalancCj in 
(3ISI-8 of eliruilie diiurlKiin, 

In tbr< un»tnitilie<d liineitonc rocks at the Pont St. Iiow'if 
lire many orevices «nd cavenis, similar to those which so 
fi V ocriir in the hanlvr limentnne nKkf in (jirm-nd. 

'1 ' irvti and eavenm owe tJictr exitit«iiuw to varioiiH 

unui, l-'onned under water, and during tbrir upheaval 
id dryini; eiibjctrted to pressure and heal, the limestone 
rmtis liuvq a tvtidetiey to split an<l to contract, iin<l thiM tn 
ttmn erevioes und cavities, lite presence of these fii*siires 
■ml caverns is utten tlio evidunt result of tbo dissolving; 
iclioii ol uater iin the sohiblv liinrjttoiie rock, and of thu 
iiifiltrutiims of subterrnuean spriii)^ or of rivers in d^tye 
lie by, IV' format ion of the*"' ciivcnis on a lar^^c sciile is 
luitruled in the HniCHtooo MlnilA of l><;rhy»hiri', of ('■'inn> 
thia, and of Kentucky. Tlie Mammoth Cave of Kentuoky, 
tins caverns of Adelsber^f, in Cariiithia, and the Devil's 
Cavt!, in l>4irt)y«liire, are cited ainon^ot ihu wondcis of the 

Un the shore, at thv easteni extremity of the inniT hay, 
h) th« " ivd rockn," ns tiwy are called, nro acveral gwid- 
ixed oavca, which contain in gtval abundance r>rganto 



If mains — tbe lionrs ol' liir^e and smaU mainmirers — imJ 
IxHlilei) in hanl miiiil nti<l calcjiri'oiie nwitur. Tliit organifi 
rcniiiinH l\\\» iiiilit'ilik'ii v'ovi;)' llic tlnor to u <l<!)itli (>r nianj 
I'lri. iiiiil arc mls^J »'it)i tliv Hint wuiipuiis nD<l uloii^ils utiil 
knives, which liavo bXcitoil »a inucli atU'iitioii iliirin;; li 
litsl I'l-w >'<»irsi Inlirvlii^ lis ihcy do to tbv cxi^Uiiivi- 
I'ui-cK ut'mL-n ill fur \iiic\i |iiv-hUi<»n<.' titnv». 

Thu exist«ni;e uf flint wo.ipbiis mnont; tbe l>ones fuiind il 
the Montonu oiivcriis wMii first Dotk'L-d, 1 Uvlicra, lu IHM 
W M. Korvl, II SwiMi g«(>1iigiiil. He |>ubli*hv<t, in ISBO, n 
uu'inoir,* ill which hu g\vv» \h« iMiilt of his rescurchvH. 
M. I'orL'rs iiive«tij{ntionB were prindiMlly mudv in the third 
«n-l fujirlh cuvvf, coiiiiling frutn Akutiini.*. l\v fciiml ii 
^lYiiL ijuniitity of brukitti buiii'tt, whclls, leiiiaiiiii of <!ruHtiiC«W, 
Hi>d ineL-es of chartoal. A1od;{ with th*»e lie disoovure*! 
miiny rrutrnu-'tils mid spHtitui>i nt' llint. Mid hIso many iirrow 
mid InncL* bt,WK, itiK'nr |iuiiit^, und tnaDguUr pivce* of tUut, 
uvidviitly inti-iided for knives. Tlie bones belonned tostaga, 
iiht^ei), liuiiiB, lioKes, tvolvch, dogs, cats, nil'hits. a Iar;;B 
carnivorous aniinid, iind onolo the Boe primi^uniiis, a lar>^ 
liiitl which hcl<}n;>)i to the gliiciiil )>i^ri[>tl. 

During ihu winter of IS4i2 Mr. .Mb)^rid}fe <wntini: 
these researches, wilU greflt can-, in tlie wcouu cavern, und 
unions gu-ut iiuiFticti o\' hunvH oIko found the Hint iiinlru- 
tnetil* above cimmerttt^d, Rome uf them in a ixfrfcot statu. 
Pieces of charcoal were likewise found mixed with them. 

1'hv existence of tlic«c bone caves at Mentone, aloDf^ 
nitb the geolcgicuil fcaliirM of thi- diHtvi>.'t, draws attention' 
to one of the most iiiterwting and dilliLiilt g^olopciil qiie^- 
tiow* of the day. Th»wq flint innininiciiid wcnj evidently 
niiidc by men, an<i l>y men to whom the liret duwn of himiuti 
eivilixAlion was unknown, who were living iis savages now 
live in Aii&lmliu. They knew bow to make firrM, as tli« 
pieivB of chiireoiil nhow. They lived evidently in the cuvt 
and (levLruyed the aiiinuds, the hones of u hicb form the Hod, 
by means of the flint weapons^ feeding; on iheir llesb. Tbc 
qiH'ation is, wlion did they live? 

* " KMice Rur le* InxtrBniMilJi rn Silvx <1 In Oiivninntit troiiv^a 
dani Im Cavrmcn h Ucnton." Alin'ci. IbOtk 


These bone caves have l>een found all over the world, 
aud, latterly, in nriRny, us at Mentone, the bones of animals 
have been found mixed with flint instruments. That the 
latter have been mude by the hand of man appears ratiou- 
ally undeniable, and the first conclusion was that these 
Ravage men must have lived in the early historic periods ; 
for the Celts and early Gauls used flint and stone weapons 
and utensils. 

A minute inveeti^tion of the facts, however, soon proved 
that such could not he the case. Firstly, these cave flint 
utensils are quite different to those used by the Celts and 
the early tribes of the Old and New World. Secondly, they 
have been found in some of the caves mixed up with the 
bones of animals existing long before the present era, in 
geological epochs before, during, and after the glacial 

Thus, in a cavern at Kirkdale, in Yorkshire, have )}een 
found the teeth of two or three hundred hyenof. In this, 
and in that of Brixham, in Devonshire, and in other similar 
caverns, have been also found in abuudancc the remaini^ of 
otlitT races either totally extinct or extinct in these climates, 
such as the Tiger, the Bear, the Mammolh, the Tichorrliine 
flliinoceros, the Hippopotamus, and the Irish Elk. These 
are races that existed in tiie warm pleiocene epoch, when 
the climate of Europe was subtropical, beibrc the subsidence 
ol' tonlinciits and tlic formation of the glaciers that gave 
rise to the boulder and gravel drift above described. 

These races appear to have been gradually or snddenly 
destroyed, or driven simtli by the glacial change. I say 
suddenly, for in some ]iarts of the world the chimge seems 
to have been very abrupt A Miimmoth, in the tjesli, was 
dug out of the Irozeii shores of the Li'na, in the north of 
Af^ia, some few years ago. Its actual flesh was eaten by 
dogs, alter having been ihus preserved probably for tens ot 
thou.'sands of years, and tlie skeleton and hair adorn the 
iluseum of St. Petersburg. The skeletons of Irish Elks 
have i>een found iti the same regions, buried in the frozen 
soil, erect, with their head tiirown back, as il they had 
been suddenly overpowered, sulfoeated by a snow storm, 
aud over»'bclmed with mud and drift. The skeletons of 



M»tnniiilliK nre foiintl in such quiiiititiev, preserved m tlti 
riozun toil of llie iioilli ol' Asia, liint ("or CoDluriw llicri> !i 
Wcu n Wifk trade in tbe ivury of whivti llieir tiii>)iM u 

ir ilie ►ilfx weapons and utensils had only bc«n foimil 
n1on;{ with the bonee ot* i-stiiict niiimals lu uivi-e, doiihts 
tuiKtit Iinvv liivR rniM-d lis to llirir xhouing tho triK't) ol 
vany ravi-* <>!' nu-n uliu lived wlii-n lliustt uuiinitis lived; 
chasHil und dwiti-oved tlieiu. Tliey might have liti-n Itft i 
tlioi^e cjivi-s by men wlio inlialiitod tViom lit a Utirr iionui 
But Un-rt- i* ollior t-viiiciiw. 

They hjive heun f'uuiid togetUi-r in the open, in Kids of 
gmwl and drilt, llif ;>eoli>jrical imtitjuilir nixi diitu of u hicli 
lire tlrtiifd l>y in> (;«ti^!otpHt. Indvcij, il ih in unoh a hi'd al 
Aniioni'thiiltlieljuiit3>urcxlinctaniiiial>iaii(l Biiit nexpoui 
the li«ce of DiaD — were Bret disgovored, liy M. Boucher de 
PcrMiM, in iho ycnr IciO. Hi» first Kttitcmcntti wtv mut 
witi) iiidUri'Trme, il' not dJklx'ltfr; but tbv ini^^t thiiroti-^b 
nnd (.■ongticntidiiit exMininiilioii uY the I'Mcts hi* imnuunocst, 
on lUi; piirt ol* nil thu teiiditi;; ^eulo^ti&tfi of the <\»y, \iot\i 
Engtifh tind (.-oiitincnlii), luw liitlerly led ti> their Bcccplanoa^H 
and fimrirnnitiuu. V 

If men il) H HiiVH^ stnte existed before and duriiig; ihe 
glaciiil period, alun^ with riices of unimids long extiMol, 
and it' Uiesu wi-rc tli« itt<-n wlio miidt; the varione tlinl 
wcagions and ntcneila liitind in the Mentuno eaves, tlic pre- 
Eiiniplion il* that lln^ tfiK-cs of liabiiatioii which th«e eavM 

E resent belong to this fur diMant period of the i-nrth's 
istory. The St. Louis limestone rucks, in nhivh thceavcM 
exii^t, long covered hy the tat, were probably raised fntin 
itK lw#oin in tinie t<i witness all the ennngeE thst preceded 
and followed the glacial period, and the caves thi-insclvex 
may have been inhabited btjii:ire the conglumeiate of Uueca* 
]irnnn wn* fonni-d. 

In Older lu clear up the geologiea] history of the Men- 
tone cave deposits, a mus^eum has been formed in the lown 
li;,Il ol Mi--iit()iii", wbcrc llii- bcnii-K and Hint utensils found 
ill tli*m by geologists ure to be coUeeled for investigation, 
along with nil other specimens pertuiniiig to the natural 
hi-ttwry ol Ibe district. Future intiuirvntj iu their resca 



Tor flint vreiipnita and utetiiiilii, will fJntl tlie accomninyint; 
LwoodoiU viiI>iiiIiIl-. It is r«pnKluoeil from Mr, Pngv's work, 

rKB-iiiaTOHJc run ismHotiKXTt. 

l.S. from Valbjr orSomnw; S. 4, 5, Rnglitnili 6.7.6. Canada; 
9, I'}, SeauAiaaria. 

Ilaviii'* wiiil HO mncli on Ihe preaiimiid pre-liistoric race 
lit RU-ii, I iiiuKt l>"t lenv« tlic Bubj«cl. Ul'W, pcrliaps, lu 
mnnjr, vritlumt n>in»rkiii);, lliat these inv-fBtiifiitions have 
Inmi MUcei'tLiI t>y auny of tliv mty»i emitK-iit (jtylo^cal 
lL(ltvi5n. Il IB iiilt, huml)!}', llial what is true viaritiol lie 
C'liilnrv i'l 8vri|>1iir(i, nltliuiit'l) we mny not l>o ah\o nnie to 
n-n Itit; tinli, llii- i!'in<Mril«ni'i', iimi lliat jjcolo;;}- may L-onliiiii« 
ita n.'Niiiicliii( iiiti) ihi; [iitut Iii<it<iry ot (liu •.nrlli. iind uv«n 
ol" th«i Iiiutiuii raci*, without Uiir nr *i;riiiilr. The foiigor- 
(Liit<.-e tvill moft assurifdly come, i wmil'l iiIho a<l(l I lull up 
tu tho fnweiiL tiinu tiivrc lias bucn nu tlini-oviTV of liuiniiii 
boDw under ttuch drciiinntimtivs ss to pruvont dmiU or 
cavil, >lt)ioii);h several iirvHumvd diwivorie^ Iiavi^ Wen 
liri»i|;ht rotwunl. Tliia is, al presi-iit, one of tlie difKcuU.ii'M 
til' ihi- (|iK.-iti<iu. .Si-iciitiiic men, however, iiru on llic louk- 
uul, iinil iiKpi-til from day to day to diMH>vur tlivin. Wo 



may, tlierefore, join in the search at >Ientoni>, and perliai 
Hiiu this solution to thU inyiit«r}', bo nnxiomly tletired. 

Tilt! itbovi- ]>!triiL;rA{ili u|>[H.Mri.Hl in th<t xoooiid eUilion of 
thin work in I'^tli. It vtaa h Uiud uf |)n'[>Iieuy. In Marcli, 
Ihlif .M. Kivi^re, a dialin;jiiiBhed French (^ilo^ist, Jis- 
covL-n-(l a woll-preeei'vci] skvlirton, U-lonj^iii};, it is gonvrally 
uinniik-rtid, to pre-lii»tvric times. | 

M. Ilivif^ru luul liucn ivorkitig Tor aeveral wtnt«r8 at tlie 
Mirntone caves under tlie anBpices of the Frenoh Govem- 
invnl, and had I'unnd liuncs iinil instriinK-ntMof iMnc and 
sili-x, l>nt no hnmnn rcmitin*. Hi fvould never, in all ]>ru* 
bttbilit)', huvi? finnid the losail man had it not kiieu for an: 
accidentul uircumnt^nc;. 

In pnssin;; alon^ the coast the railway tu GunvM 
through a (k-q> cultini; iil tho Immi: of thd red nteks, i. 
t'ruiit ut' the bone <uivt»ni9. Thia uutlin;; b about twenty^ 
one fiwt de<!tt, in Tront ui' thu fourth CAV«rn. M. Hivi^re 
iiiid, us he tlioU|^ht, exhausted thJe vnvvni in his prvviuiu 
arduous researvhes, and had t^ivcn up nil itU-n of |iiireuiii^ 
them. The cutlinij, hnwovcr, rev<Mk-i| dvqier trvii»ura, 
so he »et t.' work with renewed vi)j;itur. lU- hud been ex- 
cavating threu miintha, pjiNiing the soil raised thron}|;h a 
hiuve, and had reaL-hed a dirpth uf about ninelvuii feet belu>V 
the (Urfiiw, when he came upon the akeh'tnii. 

I I'urefully examined it the itVl\i of March, throo doyH 
aftor the tii>>t di^cuvi-ry, when it was still two-tliirds em- 
bcildud in the cnmpuct soil of tlic <-ave, iilong with I'rolbRsor 
Hn^hcii lli-iinett, uf Kiliiibiirgli, and thi! latu Pr. John 
Martin, lit' I'oriKniuuth, an eminent dcntiitt. M. Kivi^ii}^^ 
was oblig«d to scrape and separate the soil from the skeleaj^^ 
Ion with the utmost care. This labour took him abovu a ^ 
week. »-o iinxions was he to do no injury to the hones. The 
i<kelr(on, that of n niiin uliove *ix fet^t in h 'ight, wax in a 
recuuib<^nt, Mem i-eur veil nt.ite, as in sleep or repose. Death 
must have coine suddenly durin^f sleep, or "juietty during 
rvpos>;. There had evidt-nUy been a rude kinil of inhuma- 
tion, for Iheix; wure Hume hir-^v *loneK hohind and round the 
liewad, and on and around tliv nkdetoa was ftfunil a metallio 
j)owdiT, appufeiitly iron. The i-aleareous earth of iJieM 



rockt cADtAinti o iv>n«i(lcnbK> amotmt of iron, so much so 
ttint a Tracture mmid reddffo* t>y oxi(!»ti<>ii of On- it^ii. The 
iron Imd «videollv helped to (irraerw and foHsilixo tint nVcliv 
ton. Still the ixxiy cirurty Iny n-here it had died, and in 
tlie attitude in which death hiu) overtaken it, under the 
shelter of the cavern, the feet towur^U it» rcciw«w, the hrad 
to the untnnee. 

ranit t rNortwaArii or laK mtotL » Liriau ** nvsa in tue 


lite skeleton is that or a tall man, all titit peilei:!, baviii|if 
1)11 nwrml'luncf whiitover lu that of the oran(7>onUa^ or of 
ativ moMkuy. Tli« nkiill in elongated, rery eonvitx Rupcriorly, 
ihiliii'jiliatH- ; lei-th all preitent in the uppi:r maxillary, which 
wja eiitiri^ly awn. Tlie lower inaxilUry was only half 
cxpottnl, hut the teeth in that half WL-re all perfect. The 
RiuUra were nvrii Hat, an if, laid Dr. Martin, by the triiurj- 
tiun of hard foful. The urbitiil euvttieti ^vcrv very iweiiiiir, 
iliiri-tent in their length and diameter froni tlioite iti any 
kmnvn roue of men, and rather oimilar U> those of the skrJI 



Nx. I fuiiiiO III ('ro-Mngiiui), ill IViigiird, in 186H. Mi 
Itivitsiv tUi»ka this )H-ciiluirity al»iii,> may int|>ly a pre- 
liiMnric Wt t}'|io of m:iu. 'i'bc oiilj' cnpons by which w« ' 
(-JIM |iiiKKilily (k-ti-rmiiiu llii; period ut wliicli thiti fi«^il nianJ 
vsiHti'il, U Ihc ><tu<ly of t1i«' luiHilK iiiitl iii^triimfiils fontid'l 
;il)'ive, aruiitiil, iiud Iti-low tlii> ski'Ietoit. In M. Ilivicre'g" 
]'iiMi*lipil inemi>ir (Uaillicre, Paris, ls74) he givvg(ii'[iarjU'lv 
iIr- list <if tlif tiiiiim foiinil in Ihu twi-iity-om; feel of full. 
uljnvL' the bikoleton, alid thu !itil of tlif likutia Coniii] irnmc 
itidluly in contact with tho skfletuD, around, nnd immv* 
(ImU'ly Wlow, The two lii-ls ore as foilnw-A : — 


Carnii'ora. — UrsHs siit'litiis, Ursiis nrutofi, Ilywna spvt 
Vc\\» Kjii'IaM, O-niK lii|>iii', KriniieiniK KtirupiL-ii!:. 

pai-hffiiriiMs.- — Uli iiiixM'niii. Kcjuiim cuiui)]u«, Sua Miiors. 

I<ii<ienf\a, — Lopus cuii 11.-1)1119. 

UnmiuiHlia. — IJoH priiiiii^tiius, CVi'viifi bIccb, C. eleplius, 
C, tanndciisis, (.", i-oi>ioiiniis (?), C, capreohis, Cai'ia primi> 
gt-niii, AutfK']ii; nipicuiird. 

Mallit*ra. — Tilt shwlU ol' tni.lUifccii weri; vi-ry niinieroua,; 
unil llie tn')lhi»(Ui that iuh^itiited them no doubt served M' 
food tbr the men who hvi'd m thi' t-nvc. Sumu of there 
fln*II» were t'ntiiX", pcmi- were broken. Some were pcrfo- 
riitt'il, and wi^re pr»)mbK umhI lur pcrstonul uruunient. The 
inolbisca wen? both marine and terrfelrinl. 

fk\lV^ ViiV>,0 lUUKUMTKLV AIIOVK, AltOnKP, AND llklAW] 

Ilvienii R[>elien, Felis speliea, V. anlitpin, K. lynx, V. cattU'J 
Urxns s|ielwtis, U, tircloc, Caiiis hipns, C, vulpen, Uliinocx-T 
tii'horhiniiH, ICqiius ciibnllus, S;ie eun^b, Lt'piiM cnnicLihiA 
Uiis primi-fi-iiiiiK, (Vtvuh uIci.'«, C. cU-jihiw, (^ipra primi* 

The inBlriimenla found by M. Riviirc in this cavern wer 
ill biiiH-, in detT-hnru, or in stone, or in eilex hf<va the ohall 
t'»riuiilion wiiieh exi»l<i in ihu iiei^hbunrhood. Thoeu 
hone ami hnru were arrows, painted inKtruniunt", needle 
.aitd iuetruiiiente uppnrenlly destined lu \\.\\wi\ ihe threiic 

OEouKiY — rni: FOMHir. man. 


nl'mwu skins. Amfin-f tht^m was oiiu lluil iipjioant U> havn 

llNjvn B camniati<IiT'8 hiiton or etair. Tiie oUtue niul silex 

Finxl mmoiiU ivcre (iiuitJ I>y tliu<l, i( IVii^jment-i omj 

[•ciiti'* itrc Ig be t-i'>iiiitv(l. Movt v/ere well [HVKri'VOil, iiti<l 

Lniuiiy i-tilin-. The roinmuiK-:«l lurm* wifiv Mi-apL-io. Tliuy 

w<*r<! niiide nf sik-s frxm the chalk, or of h-j.iU'. They were 

i\'>i^lily u-»rk<.-<l, itnd appciir tu hflmi-; t» thL> iiliJirFil-Knowii 

ntnii« piTtwl, iht OIK ill n-liivli ttixlriitncnU in buuc are rurc 

uid th<>«c ill iilvnn iniK'h man mimortius. 

TIk' nkiill of the Bkeloton wiib (iniaRit-ntui) liy Mediterni- 

ti«iiii EhirlU, the Naftiii or Cycl<»iii»«u iifiiloii. Tik-it weru 

, mIwi (in it Iwi-iity-twu caiiino t«i'tli of thi* CorvuH. AL t.liv 

' siilu III' the )ti-a<) was a |iotiianl, or juvehii, (iiatlu out ol' lliv 

ruiltiis iit « dcLT, ttehiiid the head werv two triangular 

IjIai]l-« in Eiliic. 

M. Rivicrv hiu shown great rvierve in hin tnenioir as to 
hJH opinion rxvpL-ctiii,; tJie gfiolojicul iturioi] in which hia 
^JowiJ rami lived. At p. HH, however, he aays : " Ainoii^ 
the variiius aninutti th«l 1 bave enxntenited, four more 
i.-«Iieri.illy, n'lii<:)i I hnii iilrMuly foiiiKl at h hi;;1iei- elevation 
in tb« '■ami! ciivern, \>y their iirewnee iiloite, near tin- >kele- 
ton — ihi' grejl t'eii*. or f^e/ia upela, tlie Vf»i» iiielnita, the 
tlififHi* ti*c(rt'i, the Riimitrrut — prove the ^freiit antiigiiity 
of the )]auiis<« Mnwfi Mm. I therefore think Lhnt 1 am 
wun-aiil«l ill oiiu<iilering him u 4!ont«ni|Kirary of the vx- 
tiu<-t ■ttiiiial ii)iinriii(, an Wloi);;iii^ to ttio paleolilkio 

M. Riviere luiri recently ili^covered nnothtrr linmiii) iitliilb 
«lirlctoi), hel'W the tir»t, Init iiol in meh goo.l llr^■H■^va- 
lion I aa hImi that of a chihl. Itkit)) ptuenl the lutuc cha- 
ravteriat icH at to akiill and ^eiieial eon formation us the lirst, 
and vvi^lently beloo;; to the Hume 

Ill Sir Cliiirleo livell'H vrork. " Ttie Geologicnt Kvi(Ience« 
nfthe Anti<]iiity of Man," 4ili edition, IS7:t, ttio dideoi-ery 
of Uiiii Hkeletun U deacrilx-il, )>. i\\-t\. Sir Cliarles ooii- 
cliide!) ill the fullowitig word* :— " . . . from the manner 
in ivliicli hi* remitin* were atta-tciatei) with niipoliKh'-il 
im|>liiini*utii und tlt« li-inrn of extinet unimiilK, it *w.<\w not. 
itti|ii*ot»ble lliiit M. Kivirre him Immght to li;fhl a com* 
plute liuman skeleton of Rile»Ut)iia age." lu the Pruliuw, 



pii^ vii., ho *iiyit ..." I linvc aUu given a t]e«oriptioii ot 
a skcli^luLi fimmi bv M. Riviere in a cave at Mcntone, 
which, from the unpolished implemenU and exttitct aitimala 
iiKfiociatcil Willi it, i am im-lincd to (.■oiwidur at of I'liUiw 
liLhic u;^. Since th<! KhMrts went printtnl, ii second skelelAD 
has been bnmght lo hght by M. Uivitre in a nci^jhbouring 
oaveru under eimiUr condilion^. lie informs ine in a 
lotUr (April IT, 1S7-^) that hv loiind with this aeoond 
human loBisil a Iliiil lau<x mid Hint hntvhi:!, hutb polished. 
. , . Gxlinct animals were Tuiind abo at a hi<'her level 
thim thigReixini) likclcton, but I infer from k-tton ruccivvd 
fium Mr. Chnrlwi Mooru, now iil Mentono, Unit the tima f 
of inhumation of thene reniuitu of elenhautt), rliinocerw, 
and care bears, in Buboei'ial Iji^ooias at different altitudes ill 
the eiiffs will have to be criliciilly iisecrUuned ln'kire their 
•reuld^it^al U^nriu^ on the a^ of the human ^kl•let<n)A can ' 
be fiiwUv settled." ' 

It wiit be seen by tiie above that Mr. Charles Moortfj 
duabts the Paleolithic (or nupuliphed stone) age of thi 
Kkdi'tonK, and tbinlis they miiy belong only t" the neo- 
lithic »r ]>i>linhed xtune perioil, wherna Sir Charles Lyell 
ap{)eara to luun to their l^aWlithic character. 


As we iiavo seen, several of the lower or secondary 
hills cncloued in the nni]ihitlifatrw uru formed of ■ I 
Runiiyloiie. With this exeeptiou tim Koil may !)<■ said to 
be priuoipnily of limestone formiitiun, with here and tliure 
uluminoiH clays. The a>ifricul(nral };eolo|^v of the diftriet 
is, consi-ipit'iitly, rxn-e«lin^ly interesting, olll-ring much to 
ubaerve in a very Uinitol an-a. 

The clay »triita, in their iiulnral unworked ^Utte, appear, 
as elsewhere in Italy, very sterile. Tho sides of the deep 
ravines woni in them by mountain torronta present little 
niituoii vi-gt-tation ; »« nniv be M-en in tlit; upper part of 
the Gurl'io vulh-v, and tu the eaxt of the mountain village 
of Ca&tellare, Where, however, the fall is not precipitous, 
and I'Speciully where terraeis h;ive lioen formed, and ihv 
soil lia» bi-cii work(-d and miiininil, the clay tlr»ta uppi-ar 
to become very pioductivu. This is easily explniiMd 



elajra contain tli« poUxh, lime, and oth«r snibi ni.«ei>eary Tor 
ve;iv{atii>n, nn<) <>v>:'rvwbi'^t] tneroly require cultivation und 
irri;^tiuti lo lN<<y>nH> f>?rtil«. 

TIm saivdstunti hilla are luotv itulurally Tmlilii titan tliu 
daiY, to t^Hjir o«-n [xwuliar v«;{eU»tioi» — Conilvm, lli»th!i, 
' inJ Broonw^but <!<> i>ot ofRtr tlte snme reoourutts tu ctilti- 
vatton. Tlie w>il IxHn^ prin«ip.illy inticioitf, niid uonUi»in|; 
in wry sinull proportion tti« ealla und mineral oonatiluontei 
n>>|iiin^) for oorvnU wid the veji^tion of fc^ \aaA, it 
il-A-s ii»L appear U> ItCoomo »a oii»ily tWrtilo iinilur culti^i)- 
lion. Slill, with ttiu li«tp or t^irriwHw, irrii^niion, and 
nmniiriii!;, il etieaa to respond to tliu wants of the ever- 
j^mn Olirf, LiMiioii, and ()ra»;riNtm», i!s]>t>i.-ially wbore tliu 
md join* thv tinKwUme, nitd tlicrv ix u lnixlun^ of l><>tl). 
Tlte itnen »iiitd, u'li<>i\' il apitmirs •^\v^!* as n.itinl a muttt 
proJiioiivL* 6oil, us liir ii»tanc<e hiijl) ap in the Cubrole 
vull«y, (i.wUi i>r St*. Anncw. 

'IV' twnl »tnitiri<xT limwtMM; wliioli ouii'tituH^ ilic 

MoilUtntiin Uikin, arul ol' wliioU the lii^hi-r nng\' of hiltx 

is mainly, il' txd untiroiy, uomtKWMl, l>y itN (k-o-imiiositiou 

furms n very fi-rtile soil, IndiMd, lite ^niduitl ili^mtd;{rA- 

tion ol' this ban) n>arbl«-like mck lulmiralily illi«itriiti^« 

tb« f-Tnution of M>iU in tho cnriy i>i'ri<>() of llto t-urtb'* 

LTL-jtinu. Like lintratoue* in ^iterul it contains, louked 

I up >n it« all b«it aduiuaiiline Ktructuiv, mo^t of th« miDeral 

Mffiiiciitii iivtweRify fur ve;;vtiition, invludioi; iron. Ttiv 

pnwtfuce uf ifoti in at onou appan'nt from lite rvd hue of 

tha mono |)er|M7adi<;nlar rouk*. \Vhen a fruotitre oucutv, 

lib* fnHiture is at lirsi w)iit«, ImiI from e.ipoaiire to tti« air 

jUiu intit puwvn to lh« Btata of tliu n-d pcruxtde, iu which 

[ataltf it il uell kituvvn, if not Ux) abiKulmiL, to irroatly in- 

rroiittc tliL- fcrtitity of toil*. Iletivu tliif tvO bu>* of the rooks 

I ivliuili IhiuimI llie inner bay ifur thu i'ual 'St. Louis, am) of 

'Uio aoii t;<'rii>r.i)ly, formed by tlie delnlii« itt' tiniv tmkUv. 

At the foctt and on th« sides of tb««<: linKwt'iDu rovkti aro 
vast ntimitm of ittontv and d*^tritu)i that Imve lallen IVoni 
tb« L-hib adjoiniiij;, broken olF l>v tbe (.■onibiiied action of 
Inoiaturv, 6iin, and uriud, Tiicse gradtuilly onimbtv wbeiu 
tbey lir,}i'rUlini;up their miner.d uun^lit^MmU, and forntiii;; 
a kuitaMe uiiIiim liir iMudf M>Lvn eitliur by the Itaud of 



Knliire or hy Hint of miin. If llie Irmon or olive ifl 
planted iit such soil, il k'"^^" o^ '^^^ vigorously and 
ti<.-till1iily. If vp-jetnl'loe and <.-i?i'piilg aiu i^oirn, th«y nppoar 
tit U- njDiilly at lionic. Tlio nimioi'wud tt-rriu'w ri-cviiily 
ci'dHtruotitl on th« side ol' the muiiiitiiii), iiikI iit the l<ioLJ 
of ilie clilts near tJie St. Ixiuis ruvine, and the seir-sowitl 
jthiiit^ [;ro\riiit; nntilially in the sum? re;noi>, illut>tr»t«1 
Ihiwr IhcUt. Tltiix, no dmibt, wn» the ^oil of the hiibiluhlv] 
ttlolie Ibrmts] whi-n ita niunntuin^t lint Kiin-tl thftr heads | 
ahot'e the uave^. 

iM-oni what precedes, it will hi! nt once understood that 
the vc^trtiitioii of the Mfiitniiian ainphitlR-iitri-, cxwpt that ' 
It r I ho ^utid liilli>, ill wliiil may he lorin<'d a htite veL>ot:il ion. 
In other words, the plants thut thrive the heft urv prin- 
cipnlly thoee that lluurish in a eaicai'euus soil, in difitriut»J 
in nliiidi lime i» ii eom|N>iK'nt pni t ol' the rod. 

TliUK ivy guiiv." Iteely in the r.ivines, and un th« walU,| 
nhcre there it* nmiMnre. Fellilory, es!>enliii11y a lime plants ' 
ffixinfi out ol eveiy wall and teri'aee. Widlll-wi-r, Viri;ini«n 
Stock, and Pink aiid Ci.irnntton ^roiv and bloom most 
hixiirinntly in the gardcnn, with little or no cultivalioiti] 
Thvy form lar^c huKhiit in the wintir, and ore one huge ' 
iiui»8 ol' hixiinant hlomoni very early in vjirin^. There is a 
email wild Piuh, a native, which grows out or creviex-s in 
the dni«l and m<^>Et i;iinhornl rocks. Tho Odouelur ntbrum, 
or rid Valerian, ^rona vrild everywhere, ihrnwing out thick 
auci'ulent MeniH and laige tipiktv id' llower livin tu<-re erevice* 
in the dry sunbumt roch. 

Tu \\i*w may Ikj added, ae «iQinpl«ii of Hme-plants, th« 
Arnm Ariraium, theKumitorj*, theCnoorum tncvecnm, and 
the Crat^iiliitH'u.' or Stnni-en>i«. 'Flic Fuiniliiry if the eom* 
nmnest wild plant. It ukius and llcweis everywluve on 
the leiiiices throughout the « inter. The Arum Ari^ariim ia 
cquiilly pixiltfie and niiiverFol. Its dull purple Howcr eovers 
llie olive lerriices, and HltnielB ininiedialv ntU-nliim alter 
the autumn raiua. I am told that the iwt Ik [food loud for 
pigs, but it i» deep below the surlaee, eomtetjiieutly ol nitber 
ditlicnlt i-xtraetton, and appeai-s not tu be tboU);lit worth 
cl'iSffing op. Muicover, pi^s do not Ecem to be mitch 



ik), or their Kwtety cultivatwl in th« Mcntoniaa 

Till? Cnwruin tricnocum is a rntlier et^;ant, amulUnii'A'U 
liaiihy pUril, ivitli miiJill <liirk';;n?on le:tvi,«, smnll yellow 
llvxveni, and ti-ilubLil n^oA, which i* only fimml in Um 
uiUlvst, ruckiMt, unJ driest rc^ous; in such liimilitii'ji, 
fnr iii>i1ikni.v, UN I)h- rocks iitiove the Si. Lonix l{ri<l;fe, 
when? it ^rowa fr>-»ly, II iH'ton^j* in tli« IVretiintlinrwB, 
rhii-lly a Iropk-jl oidir. anJ in in lIowiT iiH winUtr; itllhoii:.')i 
luxiiili)* t!irf<' (ii'l.iUu-l nod t)ii«« g«;dt^, it ia occ-usioiuUy 
lour {>rUilW nn<l foiir soodci). Alon^ with it, buvniise 
Iviiud ill thti sjtiio luculiliiH, intut iw named ii v«ry lovWy 
ihrubhy ni4lviio«»iu8 jibiit, tht) Laval«ni, with delicate 
pinky-white " miillow" flowt-t*. It MoKsoms vpry frotly 
nil winter in thu ubotre loralitieM, uiid uln';iy)i attriioU the 
«t'l«ut»0D of the Ptmnj^i- who leaves the shore and the 
terracvK to ctimh ihe rvcky lioi'^hto. 

Ttie Sl4>iiwro|M are very at^undiuil on thu w«I1m, in the 
warinAl iind driest re>{iouii, j^enernlly growinj^ out of their 
inlpffitiooe. Tliey flower in April. 

Nor mniit 1 furgct Ut muntion, an ni!ornin£f tlioo rocky 
rvj^iona, Kne, Itiiaennary, anil wild Thyme. The two ktter 
({TOW friwly ninl nhundantly, flowering nil winti;r, \Vi> can 
thiMi, t)ir<>ili;hi>iit the winter, in Doueniher and January, 
iBurtanr tvitv vtnx,~~ 

"I know a roek wliurmu Ui« wild thyme grown." 

Another nmniiitir liiliiiit«, futind nlxmdantly, ix Mint; hut 
ili huliitiil JM dill'erent. It ntiist be iook«d lor in laueM and 
ilanifi ravines, in mobt lootditic*. 

The 8oil Kiiilt' the Vine, which flonri«hi?« in a)l t>uch 
inouiitJiin recoils with a tNMilhern expusinro, on thu Afedi* 
tcrmnejn shores. It is principalty cultivutcd on ternti.vs, 
at frnni iiUU to 2O0U f<.-i:t alwve ttiu nc-n level, and l'or> 
tnerlv very gcKHl win« waa made in the district, some ot 
whidi may Mill be hod. Vur many yc.trti, however, Uie 
oidiiin) Tci^ined with the Kanie xiivn^ inti-nHity as at 
Madeira, and no nine whatever wax produced. No doubt 
the evil mi^ht have been remedied by- proeuitn^ sound 



cultlnj^ from the nei);hl>oiirl)ood of A<x, wh«re tlte diseai 
bii* nrvcr jiitpr-jire^i, ami l>v eiilphiinni; aFMiluoiiFly, Bi 
t)ie Mi-iitoiiiati u|;nL'«ilturiiiti> liud imt snlliciciit oupff^ 
or onttT|irise to atlupt tttis cour>«. Tliev succumbed to 
what Ihpv ihoiiifhl tbc will of God, cnitsidi-rtn}; it, I am 
tuld, iinpioiM to vlrive atn>i<>i>t lite diKvoMC. Ti> me their 
itiMtion waa more likely lite result of tJial apathy and dit- 
lucliiiulioD to adopt i>cw-fant;l«d ways tiiut elioractcrixM 
the o^nailtuml mind, in nil dountrri'*^ Laltorly Vines have 
Ih-oi) ptiii)t<.-<l, and lieture loiig vru may Iwtpe to i>ee (piod 
M'iii«a;:Hin produced at Mcntoue. live presence of atranKem 
ba« ercaird a rcmly market, and no doubt in cITort wil( be 
iD»de to supply their wuiila. 

During the winter the Vin«e are without teares, and, 
being like old ropes when trailed, Italian Tu^Ji ton, from tre^ 
to tree, add nothing to th'' In-outy of I lie mene. The Pwid 
and Almoud-ti«es are e>|ually devoid of foliage, and tltcre-J 
fore stiinc by their abwocc. Tliey blo«6i>m, however, in' 
i'Vbrnary, and tl:i-n Iwoomc ornamental ; they arc more 
iiumcTouK in the rii-inity of the higher inouBtiiiii vilhij^ot 
than nirar the ahore. 

Fruit-trees of all kinds SMm to find the sea-level t 
warm, and are principally cultirated at a much gnat 
elevation, Hich an the vicinity of the Turbia, or of St'. 
A(inc«e, nt'iive HWi feet lii^h. Here Vines, Apple, Pear, 
Cherry, Peach, and Almond- 1a^<« abotind, coveriiit; the ter> 
raeex, and taking the place of the Olire-tn-e. The Mintrr 
fntfcta arc wviTt; at thi» elevation, for 1 have r<-peatedly 
M«D ice an inch thick. Thio degree of winter cclii seeoia, 
inde^sJ, lo auit their constitution better than the tnild winl 
rtimitle of the »riish»re re|*ion. 



Tlw i:hum«t«Ti«ltcii of tlic M(-Btoiie*r[ut«rflUmate w«, " Abaeacc of 
frrnt, piwvKlvBm of Borllinrly wimls, modunte drfn«M of tbe 

MUlMMfpbiqv. «>m|i1iTlv nlnuooo or fog, IMiKit^r of nJBjr &}■•, 
diMnuMM lUfi liliirimii o( aky. gcnuraj lient aiid lirilliuiej of 
ran. oool iki)ifat t«ui|n)r«tur», n lirturinj; axdoMB of lb« aiiDO- 
■lihurv tti'niirullj'. anil a iDcan •liflirivnoo o( M' f(. Falir. oii)jr 
Mtwrvu thuitu^r niKiimniu and tli« iiigbt nunimatn."— (p. tfl.) 

('.MtrrL^[.»biH.>rvation, duriiii; lirtt>t<ii wintvrs, of tlie meteor* 
ul«(jirul nuDclitioiui whiirh ivi-fn «n ihc Gpnocjir Rivii-ra, 
nntl at Motitont', hw grailuully M me to fumi a denr i<lvu 
(if ihoir iiuturu and nt tl)«>ir infliicncn over the climate. 

Ai w« Ii»v4! ■«<•», ttiv Mt>nU»iiiiD iltKlrii-t, whieh bnti hcnu 
tlia (iriDcipol seat of.iiiy ol«ervaU')ii and atiulv, is a small 
Binjijiitlirittrf, tiiti4.it4.-il on tiiv coaet-Um* or tinuerclilTof llie 
niimiilBiri* uf noullH-rti Ktir<>|ii', di^ thrj' rciu:)! t)i>' Mt-'diUrr- 
raiivuii. To tlie norll)-i.-a!il, norlli, niid mirlli-wi-Jit, art' the 
lii^tliiiit iiiiiiiiilain cliaiiis of F.urujiv, cxlenilinf* htindrtnls ol' 
mili-ii (•IT Miipn, Golf of (ivnnii und nt Mc<litcmine«n]. 
t'ltrtUxr ttill to llie norlli-uast lies lliu tuble-liiiid of Kiimjie, 
wittdi rewhi-s tu the arctic rrf^ioite. As a ove^tsary K'fiiilt 
of litis gvogruptiical punition, tlii; nurtheni wicKl*, exM'iriallj' 
the north and imrlli-cjisl , irniBt \ie very dry wintU. rirally, 
tlii-jr have \mcn dried hy tfiivullins over a jjreot coiilitH'iit, 
i^rx'oudly, lliuy Imvtt hud ix-urly uU the rtmiiiniii^ inuihttiiv 
M TOii(t irtit of them hy the extreme cold of the Iiiffh reuioii» 
whioh ihiry have Lo |k>m over when crcie!>iii(; theAlpiae 
ehniDs, bcl'on; they fiM:h the McilitL-minean. 

Tito nhyuool evideoces of the extreme dryness of the 
atn]D«pn«n>, when northerly winds reign, nre manifokl. 



Firally, witli a nortli mid notth-L'ititt wind, Ihtw is gen«-' 
riilly H ilifrorMioe n\' from iiiiii! t<i tni'lve cle;^ri?t» Vnhr. be- 
tween llie wel and dry-bulb tliemiometers. Willi lh« 
north-Hivt, wliieli crorsi-e lawvr inuuiitaiii c-liain*, nnd inny 
come frpm tlii^ Nurtli AtlitDlit-, llii: dillLTc-nc-e iH (^iierallf' 
fi-Hin iivi- U' I'iylit or nine derives. Svcaudlv, tbe atmo-' 
n|ihere is u^tmlly clear, the eky blue, tliv fnn eIhiips tviirmly, 
the nii;lit8 iirc C()i)i|iiiralivi-ly ciild, Biid llic KiimmiU uC 
niotinliiiuK, above I'uiir thousuiid feet litf^li, ure free from 

These phcnonicim are eiisily ex]>1itiiied on invti'orolct;;iciiL 
grouiul)!. Tbi; |ir<fcncc of tnoiKturc in Hk- iiir, uillit-r iM, 
ini|icrcT|>t)blc vii]iour or ns cloud, uivea n whiit- a]i|)taraii< 
to the el>y, and veils the eurtb from tbe eiin's rays. I 
thus liocoin<w u IciimI of itliii-ld, a prottotion from tin 
wiirmth of Uic siin. When moisture fcarui-ly exists, um 
llie flit is dry, lis in Iho ilt'djterrnnean lishin with a north' 
wind, ill K^ypt, in tti<^ dencrl of Siilmrii with Koiillt wiimIs, 
indeed in nil dry rt-giotiK, the ^Icy is idnuy* blue, tlio kuu 
xhiiic* with ^I'ful power, and at niglil, uwin^; to riipiit 
radiation of the oarlh's heat into »pace, tU« nir becom' 
enm|iiir»ti%'i'ly, cold. Sticb w th« elinintc of tbo rioitlii 
Meditvrrniit-an cou>L uitb iiurilicrly nindv. 'lliu >ky i 
clear ntid blue, tlio eun thint^s like a ^lubc uf fin*, wlitvh l 
rertlly in, nnd iln ijyn r*'acli llm Piirili willi ;;rciit powi 
Tb« uii^'bli' aie llion ck-ur, the )itn» nliinc with a biiglitnns 
tiiil<riowii in Uie north, oud tlio temiieratiire of tbe air is 
cold, oonipari'd ivitb wbat it is in thf d.iytime. 

Tbe Kn^liiih climate is pnrtly vxplniiu-d by th« abo 
fncU. The utmospbcrc above tin? British Isli-s in always 
loiidcd with aipu'OUK vap»iu', which gives to tbe sky its 
usual i^hitisli eiiluur. The ai|uc>>us vapour of the ntmu- 
spbcru shields the enilh from the action of the huh'k rays 
during duy, and prevents radiation during;; ni^ht. lience 
the coolness of uur summer, us c-onipared with tbat of tli« 
sumo Continental liilitudrs, where ihis aquciiiKi shield is 
wautin|{. In winter, when ihc sun is low on the horixuu 
and ils rays are feeble, the cluud utnio«|dien-, by prevontiti); 
nidialion, ktyjis in the heat previously atquin-d, mid ooii 
Iributev, with ibv Uull xtroiini, to render Uie lirititib wint 


milder tlian that of the (lri«r Continental regions id the 
same pwaltel of latitude. 

The influence of the«o m«tcoro1o(»ical conditions on 
climnlr liiw burn well ex|itiiinciJ, of liit<r, Ity frofci 
Tvndiill ill liiit Iraturcs on liiiut, It i» nl^ui licaulifully ' 
il]u9tnite<l by the meUoroloifical obaerva lions of Mr. 
GUiGlier, during his aeronaulic nscensions. Once above 
Uie aqiicoiw vapotir and tliv clotitls, which vxtend »itvi.Tul 
thoutHiiid foet lii^^h in our climate, a dry atinoapherio 
ivKi"i> i» reached, where the skv appears intcusely blue, 
llie buu'b raya here have so much power that lliey scorch 
nd htitfter the fare and hands, »llhou;;h thu thertnoineler 
Ay lie much Im-Ii>w thu freezing point. 
The Miiliterraiiuaii climate, when the itorlh winds blow, 
13 like this upper region of our own »tmoephere, Tlie uir, 
rontnininj; hut liUlc mo>«tare if Uichu north windH rvit^n, 
Bit ttitv do during the gn-atci part of the niiitvr, the nky is 
blue, and the oun shineH through it fiercely, even in mid* 
winter. It thus warmn directiv all the gbjectti with which 
it enmea in conlaot, and by retlectioa everythinj^, for some 
difttanee from the ctitTs or motintaina. 

The north-wu»t wind, c»llwi the mi*trol in this part of 
tho M^vlitvmitieiin, blovm from the centre and south of 
I'Viince M a cold, dry, cuttintc wind, whicli is mueh druaded. 
Tlwre are many explanations and theories oa to itc origin, 
but 1 think that there is no d<>nbt at to it<> being a wind 
ori};inatiiig in the monnlainouH region of Fi-niu-e that 
•striMU I'roni Switzerland to the western Pyrenees, include 
in;; llio Daiiphiny Alpa, th« Puy de Dome, and the 
CVvi-niies. Cold air nisiics down lii)ni IIk»c ngions to the 
^Ii-diltirrantan bnain to lake the place of the rarcfio) wurni 
air that aooends. One of the ^reat climate adv«nta^et> of 
Mentnne ia its complete protection from this wind by the 
Turhia mountain, which aeparalcK it from Nice. When the 
mistral blow*, the vky remaiii* blut^, and ihc »im #hiniM 
warmly. So me times, however, the norlh-weiit wind hlovrx 
UQ Ioniser as a local wind, ori>>inalini; in the »oi)tli of 
Frani-v, hut as B grand north-wcHi l^uropean wind, corointf 
from the Xotth acas and North-went Athintic, Then it 
bi-inipi block cIoihU toudvd with rain, which may fiill in 



the (li^tricl.or out iit ««», an<] tlie ililTcrGncc Wtwctfiitl 
VL'L-t iiikI 1\h- ilrv litill) thi'rmoinvtt'rK tlimtiiifiliw. 

Iliiw wb«ii r.iin doeit fall, witb a iiortli-wcst wind, thj 
cause is ij^iierallv n grnnd oc^uoic aod Kurojwan iiortll' 
weetorly (itorm ; but twh rain b rare. It » ^lil) more oo 
willi tli« Mriody cnnliiipntul wniils, tlie iiij|-(h-«a«t, nn^ 
vnM. IiiiIcmI, wbeii rain fulU at Mcittone with an] 
«in;Ii wimis, it is gcneially at the end ol" » EuMpean jpile 
from tbcse reginOE, coviTiiiR iiU Kiimjic with eiioiv atid iw, 
of wliii'li tli« iH'wsiiiipcre biinp; ii» the di-Hiil» a frw d:iy« 
Inter. Siu-li rain licconivs enow cii the bigh«r eluviitiDiis of^ 
t)i4.> niodittaii)!! that surround and enclose ^leDtone. 

£veu with a direct eoutb-enfit wind, snow- may fall, ei 
oeptionalty, inside tbc Moiitonv xnipbitliciitrv, owiii<> li 
its Iciii^ o]>un to the toutli-ciot in ii Iiul' with Ut» high 
moiitilaiiw ul' Corsica, whtcb lie directly sutitb-oa^l, and ate ^ 
then owveri-d with snow. Snow, with a Hoiitli-eaBterl| 
wind, generally lalU in the latter part of the winter, in^ 
Muri'b for inetnnoi-, when immonso macBcs of snow linve 
nw:timii1itU;d Oil the C'oreican inounliiin*. Bi-rom ihis iie- 
rii mill. il ion him tiiken plnee, in early winter, the Mnitb-i'iLHt 
wind in n tvtinn wind, the SL-iroceo. 

Thus, during; winter there is very little rain from the 
northt'i-n ■iiuirti.^rv; nnd iw, diirini; the winter montli*', from 
Noveoiher to -May, the wind in generally from these 
qunrtem. Die dr^% clear, euniiy, but cool winter cliniiile of 
>l«Dtflne is explained. The exceptional winter warmth, 
for the latitude, depend)' on tnotintuin protect inn, and on 
other r.^ti«-.v, whieb will he proently «\umii>vd and a 
plained, not mi hiiittide. 

When rain falls, with the wind steadily in these norl hem 
quarters, it is {jentk', iiKulrnitc in quantity, never pivsen tin jj^ 
Uiv tropical ehariictiT uf tiirioti* downpour. 

AVhen ibv tiorlherly winds brin^r cloud* nnd send ov 
the rmmntains, and the atnioHphere in the Meitti'mnn 
amphitheatre and out nt sea io warm, these clouds oIt>*n 
Diell RTadually, and disappear. It U n very iiilcn'Ktini; 
e'phl o "rn thick banks of cluud* tints rtKin-;; over the 
Hiimmib of the bigher mountains in the lack ground, );ei)e* 

^■v from the nortb-westj expanding on the sky tihuvej tind 


rmrsicu. qeoqrapht and hetbobolooy. 67 

then melting away aa tlicy advance wiitbnrards, into 
wanner atunwplieric str.ita. AlW a lime, however, if tlic 
Lwiitd whwli iiDpeln tlii-ni is jHiu-irrfiil, llicy cool tbo air, 
raoiniiniiUu-, and the vntire fky lxM.-<>m>'ii civirrciuit. 

Witti »outJi-WL-)il<.'ily and Mintli-i-ustctly windd, tbe fall of 

tain at MentAiie, and on the Itiviera in •^I'nerul, is oftvii 

very {fTv^t in a lintititt tftMx of time— Jiid Mil, i\tiiUi Iropi- 

^cal. 'Him i» alio mimrtitne* the cai>c when northerly wiD<l9 

QMt southerly vurretitti on or near tlie coat't line, and 

[•citndense their moisture. The rainHill in^iy in eitiier uieo 

' kniount to five ur eis inehen in the tivcnty-foitr hunna. 

Whi-m-ver thin ikithm, llic waUTDtmnicii nro tillt.-\i, from 
hjnic tn ImiiiIc, with cnorniouw volumi-K ul' water, wliicli 
carry down great mas^eo of etoiH! like straws from th« 
mountainfl, and exeavate wide beds oa they npproiieh the 
•hore line. Then.- w*iil«rvour«c» arc, at other tiniea, an iii 
Ciiitml and *utilh<Tn Italy, mere rivrn of xtom-tf, with a 
'tliiii i<trejiRt of Wilier tnrkliug throu<;li the middle. On 
cue ni^lil, Dec. l^TiO, four and a half inches fell in ten 
hours. Tlio ^rcateBt nmonut of rain tliat wiis known to 
have falk-n in twenty-four hours at Oreetiwiob, iu five 
yvan, waa 2'tt^l imhea (Drew), 

TIio atnalle^l rills lieiuome imgwtuoua torrents when the 
rain falls with this tro|>ical viuletice. As they nish madly 
111 tha MM, their vellow wiilen-, like thoeu of thu " lUviti 
TihiV iif the old I.<utin )>uetK, carry down vast qiuuitities 
(if •tonev iHid earth, washed from the mountain nit lea, and 
diitoidotir the waves fur aontu diitanee from the shore. The 
dmvnt of thritc earth and btono-hidcn waters into the scfl 
tllu>LnitD«, on a untall K-ale, tliu way in whii;h the dcltiut at 
the mririth of hirfpt rivera, aiich as the Nile, the Ganges, 
thu Minsissijipi, iutve Uvn and are being created. Il iilso 
illii>^lrtiU-e the mode of foriiiatiou in past geoloctca) eras of 
the Nejilunian or M-dinu-ntiiry strata. The i-itrtn eontained 
in roUitton and thrown into the M-a, gruduulty BiilR<ides and 
ainka to the holtoin, there fonuiug liuriicuntal layera, Uifl 
compoaitioii and nature of which depend on the kind of toil 
oarnrd away rr«)ni the land by the river or torrent. A* 
M deposita take [ilace, numerous aninintvd beitigs, vs- 
|i«ciaUy tlwae that cuntivl get nwuy very faiit Ihtni tba 



tntii) -shower, such as crustacete, become entombed, V 
etitiit« tbe fowils of future ages. 

Thtw heavy rains, as we nave twcn, are all bat oon(in«d 
tn the ■outhrrly ninJx, or (o th«ir collision with north^rly 
winds, on tb<r tthort mourttain*, or near tbe shore. Cofnin!; 
from Uie warm w>iith, the southerly nimls are warm, and, 
in piissin^ nver the Atlantic and the Mcdit«rranean, alt^orb 
large qitnntitieB of moisture. On arriving nt tlte mounluin- 
([irt must of the Ktviprta, Ihi-y iire arreHted by oold currctiu 
irom the north, or have to amend the Hides of the mountain 
ranges. In either case, in winter, ihcy cnme in contact 
with cooler atmospheric strata, and arc obtt|;e<l to part 
with their moisture, wliirJi forms deiuw clouds ana is 
rapidly precipitated in the shape of heavy rain. 

Tlie total rainfalt diirint> my first ninter's repidcnee at 
Mcntone, l8aU-6(l, was 23-6H in., from OcloUi ftth to 
April 21*1; via:., October, S 02 in.; November, 2-21 io.;^f 
iM-emlier, 6-93 in. : January, 3*21 in.; February, '18 iii.j™ 
March, l-SMJ in.; April, l-Sl in. These data were (civen 
me by a friend who Kept an aecurate re;^s1cr. Aeeoixliiif* 
lo my own obsemtions, it rained in that winter, in 
November five days, in Deeember five, in January four, in 
February one, in March six, and iu April, up to tbe 2:)rd, 
ei;;ht days; in all, twenty-nine days, from Noveoiber 9rd 
until April 23rd. In Oetobcr it rained tiearly every day. 
llic heaviest and moat continuous rain always oceu 
with a south -westerly e<iuatorial wind. Coming f>om th 
Atlantie, and havtnj; traversed a great extent of tha 
Meilit'-minean, from Gibraltar to the Ouif of GvnoA, thia 
snulh-wcsti^Hy wind impinges on the shore in 8ueci.>mive 
UsfW hiden with mnistui-e, which i» precipitated in ira> 
mente quantities as in the tropicn. It is also with these 
galea that are sccu the heavie«l M;as. 

It very oAen rains on the mountain!', or a few miles out 
at «<-a, when it iii quite dear and fme on and mar the sea- 
shore. In the former ea-e, the wind is pi-neraUy a soutJtem 
wind, anil, as it aKrend<' the mountain, tt evidently miMlta 
witli colder slralit of air, nhii:h preeipitale itn nioisluie, 
f r.»iii cIpiikIs, I have repeatedly sat on the niiMin- 
« and watcliod a eurrent of warm air rise from tJie 


BOB, «t a disUnce, forni at fir»t a vapour on the shore, and 
ttii'D n whitf ctotid, t^Jnsily :iscendin|; the mountain. It 
. ix Kingulur to mx thi; emiill cloiiil thiie epriii^, as it were, 
rrom tJw wave* near iho coiist-lin«, gTiuliully vxpHnding 
anil eiilar^iiu m it creeps up tJie mountain -side. I waa, 
■tideed, lorcibly r«miiided of iJie tisherman in the Arabian 
tale, wbu opeita a caekul on the sM-etiorv, from wliich tho 
tfuut iaauca io the fonn of a thin vapour, which rupidly 
MGomes a oloud, nowrin^ the horixoii. 

A more reverent sud more striking illuiilrAtion at this 
nluMionenon k to Im found in the history of the prophet 
Klyab, in MUvred writ (1 Kin){i<, ehiip. xviii.), "Au<l he mid 
tobisservBut, GoupDow, loolicliiwnitU tiieMa .... and it 
came to pass at the seventh time, that he said, Bc-hoM, 
then- oriRvtU n little cloud out of the sea, lik«a man's hnnd. 
Aad be aaid, (Ju up, e:iy unto Ahab, Prepara thy ehuriot, 
md get tbee down, thnt the ruin )iti>p theo not And it 
vixme to piass in the iiitMiitvliili', that the heAven U'as black 
with clouds and wind, and there was a great niin." 

The rain, in tlieee instanees, is often oontined to the 
upper niuuntaiuD, and incrpiisea the volume of toircnUi and 
rivulets, nltJiunijh it may remain ijuito tine at and srouud 
Meutunc, as uliw on thit nva horizon. 

When, on the contrary, it rains a few miles out at sea, 
wl)il»t there is fine dry weather at Mentoue, the wind 
Ifcnvrtdly eomot from the contniry direction, from the 
nurlh. The cold north wind, pasttinK overhead, impinges 
ujHin thta sea somu diHtuncv from the tiliore, mw>ting warmer 
utuiiwphetic strata. Dark banks of clouds thus lonn on 
Iht' horixon and rain falls ^•verul milea from the coa«t. 
In cither caw tJM coacl led^ tn»y, and ollon does, enjoy 
a happy iuimunity. 

Tile uvera<^' fall of rain at Ntee U 25 inches. 1 pre- 
Munie Uial the unnuul full at Meutone tt greater, from its 
being lurruundvd by niuuntsins on all sidea but the south, 
the southnjiut, and «outh-weet. Aceordiug to Iloulnudi, 
the author of a vuluahlc work on the clinute of Nice, the 
Hver4;^ Qumber uf niiny days at Nioe is sixty. M. du 
Brvu, a native and resident of Mentone, and a gentloniun 
or hi^h «L-i«:ulitic atlMnments, has published a mvtCOTolo- 




ginl tftkle, TouiMlnt on ten ^nn' Dl>»«mlton, rrom ISSl 
to 1^1. According to h» ex|>erien«e, lh« avenge numl>er 
of days or nighte (luring which it rained littl« or niiK-li «t 
Mcntone is 8(1, or 20 moTC than at Nice. We may )>r<- 
»inio, tlicrorore, that thv full o( rain in grrat^, although 
tlic conavquencn u not neerstnTy. At (Inieiiwich, the 
av«ra^ rainbll is only 2^ iuoht-s, yet th« niin)l>er of| 
raiiiy <Iaye is 155. At Tortjuay, the averap? number of ' 
miiiy days w ahu 155. At nm, th« avcra;^- rainfall i* 43 
inclie»; ruiny dayf, 110. At Maliign, Die numlx-r oi' rain^ 
days la only 4U (Francta). At Madeira, tlie rainfall ta 
variable ; the average about 30 inehcs, the rainy daya SS 
(Dr. White). 

llic principnl rninfnil taVrs place at tlio aiituinn and 
apring viiiiinKXcy. In iiiituinn the mm i* descending towards 
the etjuator, and drags the south- westerly winds with him. 
Ttio north wiud takes advantage of the opportunity of tlia 
weakening of ila adverwir>-'s foroee, and gives battle. From 
the oi4li«ii>n follow tears in the shape of rain, tliundcr, uid 
lighlnitig, nntur\;'it artillery. The result U then nliraya 
the nine, the north n-itid in vietoriou*, drivi^ the nouth 
wind towards the tropies on the trace of ita geiiersl, tlia 
ma, and winter is ev^tahliahed. At the spring eipiiuox all 
is reversed. It is the north wind that i« in possession, and 
the BOdth wind that, advancing with its geiieml, the stinyJ 
from tiie er|uatoT towards the north, gtvea battle. OneoJ 
more lorrenls of rain fjll, once more thunder and li;;htnin)( i 
announce the Reroo oontAsl of the elemcntn. This time,. 
however, it is tJi« constantly reinf»rue<l lallaliun* from t3>i) 
■oulh that are viclnrioiiii, the north wind la driven back, 
and summer » once nmre eetubli^hed. 

Thin explanation, although more paelical than 8cien- 
tilie, of the equinoxes anil of Die cau^o of the hravj' rains 
that then Jtill, is ftriclly correct. Thwe raitm art; the 
rmtit of a eontest hutw«eu the north and south winds, in 
OOntMxion with the sun's path, dceuending to and ascend* 
iiig frttm ihe equator. 

The amount of ruin that falls does not so mueJi charao*] 
ttrini the cliuiatc of u locality as the niannvr in which il 


falls. At Mentone, is at Nite, aiul alon;; the entire 

Uvwra, Uioroug))l>- cloudy tlayo, and <liiy8 or iitwt^Dt 

ptiin, am nn. Tticy do. Iiuwcvlt, occur uccjiKKirinlly in 

tb« wiiilvr, iiririciikilly iit tin' aiitiiniit iiixl ii|iriiigfi|n:ni>xt'ti, 

and ^Piit^riUlv n'itli curitiiiut^d Mititlierly vritidK. Tlie xky in 

tlieo i|uilL' iibeijiiri:d, hu Lliut llic sun is not seen, ns in iho 

norlli, aiw] ruin miiy fall for ei.'V4:nil diiya nnd iii<;ht«. But 

|tl)M tUi<m nut iwiially lake |i1ik:u inori.' tli'Hi two or thrau 

ttiniuH iti tli« oountu of t)a> winlcr. Many iucUv* »( rain 

|£ill ui) lli«so oooftgiun^, lltorongtdy woxkin^ the ground. 

AHi'f Iw't) or thrvc days, llii.* eluudi) dHiierse, ttie sun shines 

l'|>i>rlli, and u;;aiu catY-vnr throii<;h a cUar hluo sky, tiki- ii 

[yaxiti;; lirv. tn » (ew huuni tlic ;;ruitnd )H-coriitv dry, and 

Lmuty dnva uT un)iit4:rni|)tvd Hiiiiahinu )j>'ni-riilly Ibllow, 

[iluritig vvhioh ooUdiior life goes on as durin); a fine rainless 

slunber with ns. 

Then) an, thiin, two rainy smsons on tli« Rivioru: tljo 
[aiituiunal citiinox, at .the Inttor end of Si-|)tvmU-r, and 
liluriii;; OctiiUir, and tli« vi-nial iM]iiinox, in .Miiruh, 
lviidin)|r with the tinit wwk of A|iril. 'Iliu nut mm ml miny 
Mrason ia rather trro^jular in itii ]>frio>livity. it usually 
occurs uodur Uio inlUii'noe of s(iuth>wcat(.-rly (jfalum, and 
i-xtwnds, mora or l»e, into MovemWr. 'ilic r;iiiii> <lo not 
ImC, in iniol Miiil«r«, more th.ui tlii'w or four wct-Ln, iin<l 
that not cxniiniioitKly. TliC ri-itt of thu tvintcr, iiiilil the 
•prinjfi is ueni^ndly dry iiimJ line, under the iutlueni'i' of 
the northerly winds, with the cxL-c|iti»D of a few ooi-^isiuiiid 
tlayfi uf ruin, when the wind turns lo eoutticrn quiii-t^.-ra. 
Ilwvy rain a^iiiu falls in th« lattvr halt* of Miireli, with 
(uitith-w'Mtvrly or si>utl)-«u»terty g:i\e» and »toriiiM, as in 
niiitht-rii Kuro|>V. TlH-se raiid Kitunitu the earth and 
r>!ucw thu spring; under thuir fosterint; inlhicnuo, and 
with the hi'lir u( the ard«ut sun, which dhim.'e through the 
I'U'ur dry attnuojthcrt), vt^tativn tlMiU advoiwcs with nur- 
giriaiiii; nij>i<tity. 

As in iiluj{l.uid, nnd in mutfl other rc;;i»n8, the E«.i.v>n8, 
and more o«in;ci4lly the winter, vary in did'erent years, 
K'l that it is (lillicuU to (nrin a ourr^^ot i>iiiuion IVou) the 
■x|K'ruine« of any o»o yuur. Thont ure winters during 


which south -westerly winds prevail, often clonJiii<; 
Fky iintl brin[rinGf rain, at inlervnis, throui^hont the wintCT. 
Surh wt-rtt thi) wirittrs of 186-1-05 and of ISi«8-69. 

During tlic summer but tittle or no ruin faWit. In noinsj 
y^ars the druiiglit laulK, without ce^tation, for six or seven 
months, from April or May to October or November. 
Thence the nbsolute necessity of tanks for the irriftntton of 
the Icrnfiii iind orange- trceic, whicli.ius we hiive »talwl, eannot 
Uirivennil hour fruit without irriipitiun <lurin|r the dry seaaon. 

The enceptionol ilryneoa of the aummer uloni; tJie Iliviom, 
in the eouth of France, in Spain, and in the Slciliterrniifcaii 
generally, ts explained by the I'act that this [;reat iiiUnd , 
Mra lien on the norllieru limit of ihnt part of the earth's J 
surface to which, in physical t?(nt;niphy, is given the namaj 
of " the rainlenn tract." Tiie highest expre^ioii of thic 
rcfpon is the desert of Sahara, which continues t)t»M.' of 
Arabia and Central Asia. The )>rinci)iul cause of their ex)»- 
Icnce in, no doiiltt, tljc passni-e of noi-th-eaitterly winds orerj 
AniN and southern Kuropu during the entire yisir, either as 
upper or surf^ice eurrmli^ Thi-^c wind:', passing over coa- 
lineiitd and ^reat chains of mountains, frraduully Ineo their 
moisture, until they have but little to Wstow on the re<nons 
they reach in the more advanced stage of their pnigrcsv, 
ami ibc lutter eonsi^qu«nl)y become dry regions or descr 
for want of nin. 

The winds that course over the earth's surface may be 
divided into two principal currents. The one, from Iho 
poIcK to the r<{Uator ; the other, a leliirn current from the 
I'tpiutor to the pules. Owing to the earth's diurnal motion 
of rolutiiin, the wind from tlie jiokw to the equutdr t.ikes a 
slantiuji; easterly direction; that from the cijuutor to the 
[lolef, a westerly one. TIiun, in the northern hemisphere 
the wind from the pole to the equator is a north east wind;: 
that IVum the equatur to the pole a south-ivesterly 
From the tropic of Cancer, or from iibuut latitude 30*, W 
the eijiiatorial region, the norlh-cunt wind is always 
finrfiicc wiml, and cuuistitulcM the nortli.east trade, irotn 
the pule to the tropic the systemic north-east wind ts cither 
iin upper current or a surliice one, according to soafions »t ~ 
other inlluences. 


The titVM>tint> of liigh moantiiia citiiiiis in the «<)iiUi or 
Euriipe, iiikI ilje rnrelWtion of llii! atm(i»]il)i;iv I>y Nun-heat 
in till- |>(eat Mi-(lit«rraiionn basil), bolK uoutribute to bring 
the upftrr tiorili-i.'ast«rly eystcmic wind to the lower sttiuo- 
apbcric rf;;ions uixl to miiku il a t^iirract; wind diiriii-; n grc-at 
jH>rtion dI' ll>e yitir in tlm MudiUtrruiimii rejpcni. Tlic xuulh- 
vreat«Hy, or nnssagv return windn, wliicli are nil but coH- 
stant in the North Atlantic Ouenn, conwquenlly redch the 
vborrs nl* Enn>]»o, to the north of tin' Mt.-([iti>ri-nni-)iii li-v«l, 
tliiriiit; lilt f^valcr part of th« year. Tlii-y brinjj inoi*tiire 
and mill »ith tbrm, und thoifi.^ tliv vitry ntiny cliiiiaU; of 
ilritUaiiy, NiTmaiidy, and of the aoiitb anil wl-hI ctmist of 
Knglund. In winter the trade winda, folluwinif the deelen- 
eion of ttic euti towards th« ty|tiat4ir, desccud south ; thi-ee 
iMUth-wmt wiridtt re]>laoc them, ittid thueidi.«ce[id tutliu must 
southern lalitudcn of Kuro|iL>. Thv proKvtice of tJivac aouth- 
weflterly wind^ iit luwcr laliludes oi n iiil«r approaches seems 
t^i \k- the principal oauBe of the autuiniiat raiii§ in the south 
of I'runoe, Spain, and in the Mediterranean basin generally. 
Mniiry, in his interesting work on tlie " Physiail Geo- 

Eraphy of thv S«nf,'' attriwitrs tJie vxiBt>.^nov of tin: " rain- 
w tract" in A»iii and Etiropu to tlio inl1ucn(>e of the Andes 
or CordilleniH of South Aiiieri<u. 

According to tliia view, the south-east trade winds of the 
southern heini^pliere, alXer sweepm;; thv wide Eurliico of t)io 
Athinlic;, and bccomint' perfectly finlurak-d wtth moislnre, 
rvaoh the continent of South Aiuvriuit below the eiptalor ; 
they ciuNN it, and meet the huge inutiiilain burner uf the 
Andes, ascending its ct»teni aides to an eiiuruous elevation, 
■varying from fourteeu to twenty tboneand fiet. The ex- 
[iramA ooldncH of the upper r«t;ionti of ttie Andii- WiIk to 
rth* prsctpitalion of tho moisture which the wiii<l< contain — 
^K|DiWBe« it out of tht-m. Thence the origin of the iniineiiHv 
rivera which doK'vnd from the eastern shiiwiiof these moun- 
tains, such as tlie Atnaxou and tho Oiinoco, two of the 
i largost rivers In the world. 

Tbcso nx'iel soitth-eaiiter^y Atlaotiu trades, nflvT thns 
prrcipilating tJieir moisture, become dry wind». In tho 
r<|uaU)rial ealms they cross the nortli-ea»l tradiw, ascend l^i 
the ti^|M:r rejjious of the atiuo^pherej aud then dix«el liieir 



entin't' to the narth-eiwt, ax na njii'cr soutb<w«st current. ■ 
Kn'roKxiDi; tliu Suiith Ainerkun eantinent, tlicy Tvach Clio 
AtUntio, sDi) croM it, still as an ajt/jer sodlh-wwl curriyni^ 
for llie noilli-i-ai^terly trudes occ-ii|))- thw *urfaeo ol' the i 
AtlRDtic liL-tu\'cii ilnf 30th dcfra-c i>i' Intitixle and the «|Iib. 
toi'uil i-almx. Alinvi.' the iiurtlivin limit of the trades Ihuy 
ajniin htviitne imifnee v,-iiid», and ci>uetitiit« tlir cuutl^ 
weelerly or [issan^^ (viuds of North Afrit-ii iind ol Kunnia, 
Bvticliiii;; the nurlh>western coci«<t of ATnai, utill as diy 
winds — (or. as wv hnvc kccu, they liiivi; piuwod the Atlnntio 
lis u dry upper current to the norlli-rtt*lt'rn trades — they 
have HO ntnii^tdru tr> \^\\i: to ii Ivvel wuriiice, .ind them-c, 
nccording lo ihia tliwirj', the dentrt of Saliani, mid, in 
summer, the dryiie^ orsoiilhein Kurope. 

The liiet of the MciliterniDi-aii Boulh-wentrrfy wind in 
KiiRitiier hi-iti|; a dvy South Amenatii Kmilhwust wind which 
hua jias^iod uvtr the Atlantic uii iiii upper current to tlia 
north-east trades, is proved, nccordiug to Maury, hy & very 
siilguliir nuturul lact. OceasioikiUy, hem tinio imnicmorinl,! 
a kmi] of red dtirt settli-s on the ilcfkH biitl tai\*- ol' vi-<»rU 
ill thi.- Mvdit4.Trunviin inul mi its isbiiilK mid Khoi\-9>. Suh- 
mitt<-d recenlly to mit^r«hi-opie t-siiuiinatiun, it has heen 
diseovi>rv<t that thin dunt, whieh wuji sup|i<iBed to ooiiie from 
tlw Afrienii deceits, is uoinpoavd of the microocopic shell* 
of ilifuFoiia which inhahit the itruKils, the dried ituutince| 
hedn i>r tlie irihut^irif* i)f t,li« Amnzoii imd Oriiioi-o. The 
furious Mxith- westerly dry wiihI of thcKC iv;>ioiis evidenUjri 
raises Uiem up un iuipulpiihk- diut, \\nii* thetn acroi«l 
the Atlantic as an uppL'r oiLTCiit to the uoith-eiu>l triuhvj 
and iiiiiilly dc)>i>r-it6 llii-ni in summer on the C'npu Vcrda< 
Iklaitdit and ^lediterrancan Sea, on Sicily, on Malta, and 
OD the (ircoiuu Arrhip'-la^. Maury kiokit upon this fitcb 
ax conclusive evidence of the crossinjf ol' iho M>uth-eaalerly 
and noil h- easterly trades in iheunlm n.-'jionaof the equator, 
and of their return to the north and imjiiih poles as eoulli-rJ 
uoKierly and iinrth-wt-stcrly winds. In winter, lis th« 
northuiii limit of the trudc-wi ^iils is lower, llieKc iip|>vr 
current!) dtvccnd at a lutver lulitude in the Alhinliv, iiu< 
I'Ciieh the ileditcrranean, »ui a* dry wimlx, huX ua muisb 
wnler-ludeD south -westeilv winds. 




During the ^tieea wiDtera that I kave jae^ed at Men- 
t^no, livint; in the «aateni hay, I have never scon n fo^, 
rithiT Hi tfcH or liind, diiy or nii;lit, morning or l^vvllil)^, 
i-'Xi o]iL 00 one wicaKioa early in May. TiuK t'lict in the more 
reinurkable, as ou my lintt vi^il U> C»raica, in the mouth 
of April, ISSi, lor several days there was n &eH-f'oi» all 
rouuU the islanJ. It ro$« to alwut thirty Tout abovo the 
•M iir nh'jn.', tlif wuathcr l>«in<; heuutil'ul anil sunny, itnd I 
Vtaa told by |MMC»i;frH on IxMin) the uteamer Imm Mar* 
willcs to Ajacoio that it eslimduil from one port to the 
iitturr. The followinj; explanation given mo by my lattf 
trirTiil l'rolV«sor Itngvie I boliove to lie tli« Iriiu one: — 

WltonrvvT till! air ooniu* I'rom tti« htod il in fritui tlia 
nortb, and in tliiH re^i>>ii it i« ko very dry that it nlworba 
ftll lite molstitro it can pnusihly obt:uD from the sea, how- 
ovrr low its femptratuiv, without forming vnpour or fn-^, 
Wlioni;v«r, on tho contrary, the uir conuw from ibe eoiith 
cii- -ciitrnnltt, both it tiiitl tho litntt it ri^tcbe* aro ho warm 
tbul it-< cap-kcity for the iib*or[it40ti of vapour it) iiulli>rierit 
b) (liable it to oaittinuc to ntlain it until it hm rejiched a 
CO iiKi lie ruble olevalion. It does not, therefore, part with 
inuitttire, in tJiu form of fog nr cloud, until it ha« aKcviidcd 
th« monntuin* to a oonsidsrable height. 

Wlii'it tbi- IxwoMt cloudi AK Kvoral thoosand fuet higher 
tlinti thftr summit, the atmoDpheriL- dryness tuurt bo very 
^TiMt. Ill the iipiH^r regions of tlie sky, above the m>>nn> 
tuiiiK, am often Been eligbt fleec-y masses of cirrus, torn and 
twitiecl by aerial eurrrute, which rcflL-cl in the muit Wautilul 
manner iJie l>nght ligtit of the soiilhern day. Still more 
bnaiitit'til are the dcii^ muiweit of ciimuKiB cloud which ara 
fiinpii-nl ly He«n hanu>ing over the high motiutains of Coraics, 
ou th't •^oiith •easier II bori&>n, anehorod, as it wort-, to lb<.^ir 
»iiinnii(H. Tuvvjinls «nnHL-t lliey aro olU-n ting-'il wiiU 
glorioiu line* rvlluiUsl from tJie we»U The brilli.iney "f 
thc?>e doiid*, lloattn^ in the npper n'giona of a serene, clear 
attnimplivre, oflen several miles above the earth, ie jmrtl/ 
owing t« titeir being oumposed of snow. OncO the re^jion 
of ct4-rnal xnow is n-nched, — in this latiluile about ^'il;ht 
lliiiiiMind fiNil high, — llit^ cIoh'Ih lhem>eUe» li(i';oiii<! cun- 
{{calMl, and lloat in tho air a* niiitaek of dowuy suow. 



Generally speaking the iiky ie clear, and llie nun thint 
ill the hi'avens like a globe of fire. Even on cloudy (l»y 
the nun is ofton seen, and its power felt. So ponerftil are' 
its rayw nlivn the sky a clviir titnt vreii in l>vcvii)lx.'r ur 
Jnnuqry it U dtfii^rrceahli! tii nolk without the linvd pMnwol, 
•o generally carried in the Euat. The use of these parasols 
w not confiDed to ladies, few t^ntlcmeo braving the ran 
without them. They nre a |)o«ilivt want, and tho«v vilta^ 
objeut la their use itt firet gvt hcadaebr, and arc sure 
adopt them before long. Those who have lived in tnkptnit 
climates ollen a^suroe the peculiar headgear uiied in India 
M a prottfction against the Biin. 

Snnshiiie w quite Oi)rin*iit in the t^outh of Enrope to 
what it i« in Kuglund und the uorth-wcst of Kurope. In 
our climate the air, even in eummer, is lilted with watery^^ 
vapour, whid), tm we have seen, gives a whitish hue to tbl^H 
»ky in July or Auj^uet.and mitigates the power of the ftiin's i 
nys. In the Medilcrnincun rt^^iou it is olherwise. Tn tine | 
weather, winter or tiummcr, the »ky i« of a banl Uu--, nnd 
ohjectji ut II iIikUiikv of many miles are »een elearlv and 
distinctly, without any of that base which forms so peculiar 
fl feature in an English landl^cape. Imm«dialely hehiiMl 
IIk- house where I reside rtsei) a mounUiin, the Bcrcean, 
the higher jwak of which in »>>oO feet high. It is mdc- 
mlly, throughout the \t inter, peifectty free fnint filoud*, 
und seems so near that niithing hut al.sohite ha ro metrical 
mciisurvmont convinced me of it<i real ht^ight; tlie i^ummit 
doe* not apwair to the eye to W more than £500 feet above 
the aea level at tlie very utmoot. Indeed, tliL« moitntain, an 
welt oa ita neighboars and oominnious, may be considered 
firrt-rate hygromet^ra. llie position of the clouds above ita 
peaks, or on its llnnks, indicates in the most unmistakeablu 
manner the defp-ee of dryncNi of the atmoxpherc. If wc 
nUoulate 1° of dilferencc between the wet and dry bulb 
tliermometcr for each 300 feet of elevation from the sea 
lere), free from etoud, there must bo above 1 S' of drj ness j g^j 
the apper atmospheric stnta for this mountain to be viitii'elflH 
free from clouds and ini«t. *'' 

The great dryntMof thcatmoitphereis proved by another 
intvreetiDg meteorologicul phenomenon. Even when the 



wind ia i» tb» eontli, and rain ia fitUin^ in lorrontf, thvni 
U often ■ conBiderable diHWrcnce belweun tin; wi-t «nd ilry 
bulb ihyrmomctiT (iVom tlirec to fonr or five decrees). Tin, 
min a|»pi'»n> tu be liirmed in tliv uppvr ntnioBplionc ro^omS 
»ml to foil t1irntifi;li Ute air willinul satii rutin); it., its <H:cun^ 
in nnrtliem oliinntes. When siicli ia the casu Ihure ia 
mit ttiut re«lin|^ of dumpni-Ks usnnlly experii'nced when mill 
rdlx in thf nnrtb, iiiiil i-lii-Ht invulidn arc tiot oppressed as in 
inoiitfr ctimnte*. 

There are ttiiia many inHuencea that 0»mbin« to render 
th« ntni<wph«rv dry in winter : llie prvvnloncc of northerly 
(fintU, tbv gKnl |Kiwvr of thv mm, the l'rc-«?dum from fo;;, 
thi> KnutI] number of rainy daya, and the drv, rnuky chu- 
r»ct<;r of llie Boil. This drynesa of the air is tlluntrutod l»yj 
the fiK-t that wH linvn dritf, out of thu ann, in a ithort timffff 
at any i)^riwl of the wint*^.^!"'!)! when it ruins or theeky 
in iilmnirol, Throii;{li(>ut tin; winter it ia puaxible to sit. out 
(if diiorH Tor many hours al a time, anj for many d:iy« 
lottethiT, in annny abeltered apota. This 1 am in the liabit 
of lining inyMlf, eviTy wint«r. in Iviaiiro houra I merely 
a ajiot aheltcr^d from tho wind, at the foot of a wall^ 
, or Olive-tree, nnd cx|>o<Aed to the aun, front which it] 
ta, however, j^nemlly' uecewary to hv pri>t«cted \>y a lin^J 
paraaol. U'ltliout Ihi* precaution the position would ofteol 
l>e (|iiite untenable. A therm omeb^r in mich n aitiintion, 
in the ahade, ttenerally marks from GU° to Ql". At the 
luiin^r'a fei't, and around, are nlwaya insects, uttracled in 
rocky |>!acv» by ihv miutMv of wild Ihyniu, and by other 

There i» a (treat ebarm in thua readin;; and musing for 
houfB, rfpucially with agrefahlc companions, sciitccl on the 
IfTound in aome lovely, «unny, pii-lnmNiuc nook, anch, for 
inHlnnoe, ua llic western coiwt of the Ciip Martin, or the 
warm tetracea of the eaatcrn bay, Nothint; la more itivi);<)< 
ratioff or refrcahing to the invulid. Indwd, this laxiirone 
enjiiym«nt in midwintt^r of aun'thine, air, and Hi>.>ncry ia 

ueii more benvfieial for invalida and uj^ed penoua than 

ntt tiring walks. 

V\ hiUt N|>Ciikini7 of inKocte I mnst mention that one of 
tlm cliarma of the elimiite in that, not>t'ithataudi»<r Ihu 

01 unii 



w w o rt h 

first c>IJ 

l^ve aTti6«aUjr mil iruitcr 1>t iKe rooBu I^O^ ni4iiitnilti-(l 
at k bt(*fa tem p rtrntnre. If tbey are fed >t at;:ht. ami tliua 
kept warm ia the ilav, Xhtj nrnj live OD iiHlefiiiiUly. Tills 
imimmity ■ owtofr to tbc ircMni eco h — of ibc ni^it 
fanmvnlni*. Pnvlaa* to tbc first eeld nights to NunrmWr 
flr Dccrnbcr, in tbe ■BtDnm, tlie maMjaitiNsi an- vi-ry 
tiottllwpine, owing to the U^b \mag ceneraily fcirnished 
with ctirlatui whkh are do protection wlmtever. Tti«-y ar« 
BMially open, ati<] of too dosr ■ matcriml fur it not to IMw 
ioaoffmibl; rl>w« when ther «rv broof^ht t(^eth«r. It i^H 
qaite worth in tnvaltd's while to bsve refpilw net moeouitd^ 
cnrtaittf, eueb m are meii in India, taaAo on arrinJ. Onoe 

ktboy ban diuppesred, the taoM}ailoc« <lo not nappcar 

Sliltil Miminflr. 

Acconiiti;; to M. (Ic 'Rita'* ^UXul'vai, omiltiiiEF tho friic- 
tiona, the aunuul number of lin« ilays in which the i<iin 
shines without ciouda is 214; the nnmber ofdajre in whief 
thv sun tihinn with clouds is 45 ; and the uumber of daw 
in wliii'h thr kuo i> not neen, the oky l)^in^ coiiijili-ti-iy 
tifu-'itrfd, without uin, is 24. To which we may add 

'dnye of rain, ttU, mnny in part stmshiuv. 

TliL-nsiny diija principnlly occur, as wchnvcscen, Ix-tW' 
the montlis of October ainl May ; whilst iu snmmer, thviv ■ 
eomeliintv not a dm]> of rain for montlis together. 11: 
winds can then blow from the sonth without their vapoi 
being oondrnscd into clouds and ruin on the niounlai 
anmmtts which f>kirt the i.-ou>t. Thi> mnuiitiiiiiH uro ihifin* 
si'lvea hi'nt«Ml wilh the powerful niysof the summer sun, mid 
the wami m-hurtiu winds mevt cunroiite slill warmer llinn 
thenutflvcs. V.wn \n winter a very Kcnllc south wind from 
the m.-ii may not bring cloud and rain. All its super> 
abuiiilitnL muiatura may Ira at oure taken up, owing to 
the givnt drj'iii'ss of tliu eoliicr motinlain atmosphere. 

NottvilhHtiniding the niilOncKs niid sunny bri^litncss of 
'Vrnlht-r, ycl it is still deotdvdly winter ul Mi'lttunu 
'voviubvf to April, 


Tlie Di(;lilBBre cUilly duritifj; foor mnnOut— rrom DtTcmWr 
to April — tlic tiieriuo meter p?iierjlly rullin^; to li«lvr<!i.'ii 10* 
nntl 51', HJtli stititli winds, and witti north winiis lu lietwecit 
40* ntKl -16°, KoPictimn Uelow 40'. lu the diijtitnu it w 
l^nrrally oool in the slindv, ntid out of the tthwlc wh^ii tii« 
6UII \f ol'Bcuivd \<y clouds. The ordiuary " ehadu maximuii)" 
vitrii-H from .il>' lo bG' whvti the sun ehinrs, aod (8 lower 
rlill uriirti it doi-M nut. Ttir tt-rn|>cnilUT« nlwnys fulls as soon 
n« thv Kiiti diKipiiPim or itct*, and olWii at uooo rviiohvK tlitf 
miiiitniini of the tivciity-four hours, owiii^, no doubt, to n 
«M>1 <lown dran^^t from the nKiuntains. The he4t is 
evidrnlly |>rodit>rr<l by the dirvct inlluuitce of the sun. In 
a ualh niom, ivhc^ovvvr Iho xtiii ia on tliu room, the wiiiddiv 
aa bv h-ft wide open, and, without it fire, the tlieriminieifr 
will p.-iii:ially rommn at nbotit GV; hut when the eiiii dis- 
upju-nrslhi- wiiiilowliau to U- jmrlly shut, nnd ehilly |>fr»oiis 
rv<juiri' u ivihmI tire. In iniddiiy tht.' iirrth riwiiut vu tliti 
same floor are, even when the aim nhinea, four, aix, or ei(;ht 
Acgjrvn eiildrr ihiiu the analh. Even hefurc aunset, an soon 
o^ thf Him dtFtM|>]>ciirB behind the mountains, there is a 
, dilfepcijcf of sis or i-ij-hl deKr^rs in iho teiiiprralHre of the 
MtmrHiiherf if northerly win<iti jirevail. When the Biin it> 
Ipennanrntly olnwurf)! hy cl•>lnI^ the air ulWn feels chilly, 
even with a Bouth wind, and the com]>laints against the 
weather are loud nnd numtrous. 

Tti<-so-c'iin|ihiiiit« Mcm jHirlly to 1iav« their origin in (hu 

extreme drprvmion which a|)|ieant to nltAvIc the entire com- 

iminity, Imt inure especially the invalids, when it in tlnu 

tstiKldy nnd wet, and wlien the sun is oincuied. I have 

lltoth observL-d lliiii depr'-xsion and piiinfutly ex]M-nenoed it 

Iflivwrlf. Ill fUvU wi-ather most of im an- indiwerihiihly 

|.ii-retrhe<l und mini-table, llien, indwd, we lee) vividly 

that wo are ]M>ur invalids, exiles from home, stranded on 

the sliorM of the *trv«m of life. But with the return of 

bn;*hl kunahiny wcathvr, »l) th«ae gloomy thoughts dis- 

Lappi.-ar. Oni» more wo are «>¥ ^nd cheerful, inclined, 

[indeed, to look on our ilUheJuth as in some respects a 

{Kisilivo udvanliigo. Is it not the nnne of our beinj; able 

iw avuiJ ih« dreary winl«r of our norlheru eluud-yirt 

ulimd '( la it not to our ill-health that we owe the 

oa the 
i^ the HwuiylnL. al»tf»cu 
beat, Md c«gJ> IW nicr wvAe. Ib a diy atmwplMV* Kk* 
tJMt uf iW Rmna, humam liMg sn no* " pNuos jkn,'' 
um) w« ooaM don, bb tfcc water tht laUv cMtaiii, bi 
rapid w^MMMioA. Tbk fact, sad tU pbjvial m! 
Mooool for tbe ilwhili •aecndj of vtiy vann dnlbi: 
■nd for tbe apHUiBoe of tbe iWiiirtiB puiw wbiefa o(l 
follow tbe Bc^ikct of tbia pcwaatioa. 

Tbe McDtone vi^cUtioo dtowv tbe tofiBciuw of a powrr 
ful Mtn vanDiDg a chiUv ataioa|ibere. Dccidooas tivcs lose 
titt-ir IttiVM in December, as moo as the Dtghls. bnjome 
col'l, unci <t'i not rei;ain tlirtn BDtil April, vtbrn tlwy are 
Iwojiitiiig wurnicT. The grem, for«ct-likc appettmnce of 
the l>illf am) vitlleya, in midwinter, is nwiug etitirelv to the 
everyr" I'll Olivr, OraDse. Lemon, and Pine-trees, The few 
dcctdiiuu* irttm are mere dry utick* until Ajiril. Od tlic 
other hniid, in aheltered siltuitionx GxjKwcd to the aouth, 
the hcnt of Iho sun durintf tlw day eo warms the soil, tbat 
it liM not lime to con! ut night. These HtuntionB tfaaa 
U'i'riiiir re^fiiinr forcinj^ huilH, pnxlucin^, iw I hiive Mated, 
Viul»*t" iti I )c<'emlK*r, Anemones in Januury, and all our 
iitirt>ii< tluwvm eiirly in Fi?l)tunry. Id shady sitiialiona, 
D sun dom not [lenotrattf, the ground- vc»vtiitioR 
oi'|ii(J, liku the deciduous tract, till March, 
Uto MunuxpuM-d looalitiea luv very numerous 


tlie it1)dt«red lower hills, and in protected vallvye, nn-ay 
from the s«a^ the grotiniUv^^tatioii is nil the wiDt«r very ' 
liisuriaot Bad aboDdant, oBerin}^ »iM)t retiuurces to the 
botADul and Soriet. Iud«et\ in the nurmer valleys tho 
only wiot«r u on the tlwroutrlily rniny duve. 

From what precmlea, it will W iicrccivod that tlio clta- 
ractemticfl of the climate of Muntoni; aud of the Riviera, 
M eviiU-tK'vd during the fifteen winters I have spent there, 
■n : nh»cuc« of fioet, protrulxnuo of Qottherly winds, ntodu- 
nte dryness of the atiiwtphvrv, cumpk-to iihueiive of to;;, 

iMiucily of rainy dnys, cluanie^ and Uueuos* uf aky, pinuntl 
ii.-at and bTtlluuicy of Eun, a coul night temperature, a 
hravint; coolniaia of the atmotiiptiere, and a mean di&V-ronce 
of 12'^ tj' Falir. only lietween iho <Jay maxinium and l)ic 
Aii^t minimum. Kv«n when th« Hun is ohseurvd hikI 
laiu falls, as the wind is then {(oner.'iUy fix>m the floiilli> 
WMt or ihe fiouth-nut, it is not cold, at any period of 
tho winter. On tliu nrc tXH-usitms, however, wlien it 
rains, with the wind from a northern ijutirter, there may 
bo a» Hiijterahle and chilly a tilatc of thinjpi ns in a drixxlin;; 
Novecnlier day in En^'^i"!- ^^ i*"'" '"'ly falls on ■ 
vmall number of days in winter, and then otU-n not during 
Uiv wliuUi ilay, and a* the other days are all bat uniformly 
bright, dear, aui] aunny, for tivu days out of six, 
exereiM: in tlie o]>cn air can be prudently taken, frorm 
uine until three, four, or five, aegctdiii;; to the svuson, n-Jtlt' 
both pleasure and benefit. 

Nutwitbalandiiig the complete protection from the north, 
Dorth-east, and north^weat, the wind is oilen rntiier hinU 
ear the eboni. £vcn when really in thr norlhorn qiiarlviiJ 
, may aeem to come from sunth-voat or iwuUi-westj'^ 
the oyea region, no doubt owin^ U> the land-locked chti* 
net«r of tho district. Still, however elron^ tho northern 
wiHils may bo, llie niounluin vullL-ye and tlie more intemntj 
hiUj are quite stielteted and pmteeteil. The smaller or' 
ewtcni bay is decidedly belter pruteeted from tho north 
winds, anu is several (le^^mn warmer than the western, 
owint; t^ a iipor from the lleremu roountjiin ri*ing iinine* 
Jiately behind the houses which lina the whonr. 'I'herfl 
urUtiuly is no atmoapberic sta^jnutiun at Mentun^ tut soois 




writ«rfi liBvc very erroneoufljr a«Mirt«<l. On llie ly 
tlii'ns ix ooiiKtiint ntmospherio motion between mu, lund, and 

According to Admiral Smyth, in Iiw very intcrprtlng 
wort on "Tbe Mi.'dit<Trnn«iii'** (p. 233), tJii' nmst pre- 
valuitt winds in that Ku are tliose that blow from wottt 
round uortliwiirdK to north-east, during two-thirds of th« 
year, from Muy to February. Dnriiip ttw coonths of Peb- 
nijiry, March, and April, on the contrary, the soiith-ensC 
and BoiUh-ncst wiiid» wonlil prevnil. My cxpcrienee of the 
Mi-ittoiiiiin vhoTv diirini; \vint<-r only partbtly iiij^rtex with 
this statement. In October and the early part of No- 
vember, after the aiiliiinnal equinox, soutb>west viada 
hiivf appeared to mo to prevail, brinf^n;; the Iieft' 
atittimniil rainK. Then the north wintlii gain the up[ 
hand, and nsually, but with oeeasional tcmjioraiy excc[ 
tions, reieii until ihe sprins months, March and April. At 
this ffpoeh, the noulh-wi-steily and easterly winds agaiD 
eevm to biivc the uvoi'mhiney, giving; rise to the ^lee and-j 
rnin« of Mureh. The prevulencu of northerly winds during 
the winter mtinths, in moet years, ta the real key to the 
climate, as I have already Htated. Duriii<r the four cold 
winter months, November, Di-oemlwr, January, nnd Feb. 
rnary, the hi<!;h mountain harrier proteelv the ampliiibeatro 
from these noithi'rly winds. During the early sjiriiiij;, in 
Mitri-h anil April, the previilent foutherly wiuds, to which 
it IK ijiiile open nnd exposed, bring genial warmth and. 
fostcrintc showers, 

Tliu southerly winds, to which Meolone ia fnlly opo: 
whether they hring rain or not, are ^nerally mild, if n 
warm, "llie soulb-cast, or deirocco, tW pl.^gne of eouthern 
Italy, all but loses its languor-creaUn|r, pernicione eha- 
ractvr, in ,iutumn and »prin;r> by the time il sirikea the 
head of the (iulf of Genoa. Ori;;inatin^ in the Africao 
deserts, it leaven the Aftiir^an nhurcK a> a hot, dry, ecorchins 
wind, imbibing shimdaut muUture as it eroKsex the Medi- 
terrrnean, XVhvn-ver it reaches the shores of soutbeni 


tThti MediliiiTiiiienn 1 a Memoir, PhTsical. ii»i 
kL" By Uear-AOiuiral W. U. timytlL rarkor. 

lliiitorical, and. 

1&4. iH 


Italy it is impnnsed with tliis (l<Mililt> cliflra«ter, h«at atiil 
muiKttin.-. Mid is mncli divailvd. When it urrivce at 
ML-ntoii4', however, il hus iiaweed over thv Apunoiiiw iind 
th« lii^i granitio range of Corsica, some of the oiiiiiiiiita 
wliiidi arc clotlivd wilh eternal snow. It has thns 
mnch ctKiliT thiin in the twuth or centre of Kaly. 
[tttlecd, in the montlm of l-Vbruar)' and March, the Miiroct-o 
ao cooled by the );reat maso of enow on the Cursituu 
nantainK t^t it may renich MeDton«, as already slut«d, 
Utt a «old wind, hriu^ing oohl rain, and eomettines snow 
inUi the amphitheatre. The only oceawioiiii on which I 
^linre known snow rail inside the amphitheatre, down to 
ito ara level, have boen under its intlucnoe. 

There i» gvoloifi'uil rvideiice that in times jwst th« doaert 

cif Sahara wna (.iivered with water, whiuh wax [irohLihly one 

Bf the reneous why the Alpine glaciers descended into the 

plains ol' Lomlmrdy, for then tJita Routh-eii«t wind or scirocco 

roiild not pn>«M.'itt iti> present chiiraetcristico. When this 

'^Inhind ova dried up, and the prvmnt desert of Sahara was 

lurnK-d, lh« hot Huimcoo wind miwt have appwirc-*!. and havo 

■Duob contributed U> the melting of the glaciers of North 

Italjr. M. Ijasaep6, the hero of the Isthmus of Suez canal, 

bat rCMDtly proposed to H^ain turn the desert, or part of it, 

ioto a tea, uy makin;^ a xhc^rt (.Miial from the Gulf of Ciilx-s 

or little Syrtiei, below Timis. It is oertaiu that south of the 

Atliu mountain« a large extent of the desert is below the 

level of the Aledit«rronean,aiid that the ptiin is reasible) bat 

Im malts might Ix- moitt dijutrous to the climate of Bnropo. 

On reading AditiirnI Smyth's work I hare been Ktruck 

»ith the remarkable agreement between my observjlioiw 

on the winds, and on their iiitliienoc over weather and 

slimute in the western IkU-dilerranran, and the resulta of 

'tb« oliMTrntions of the ancient Greeks, made at Athens 

more than two thousand jears ago. There is still extant 

LKt Athena a kind of observatory tower, erected by the 

r istronomical arvhit^t Andronieus CyrrhexllK-x, which has 

aurvivtH] the wi-ur and tear, the storms and calastropbea of 

twenty centuries, for it was probably built about one 

hundred and fiily years n.C. This towcr is octangular in 

IWiu, uuJ give* the eight (wiuls of the compasa then re- 

S o 



OOfTDlsod, witli tho re|>ut«(l quality of the winds in llic 
ntrridian of AtticH, by svtnbolic etntuco. I saw it a {k^v 
ynim ngw jiwt a» tit' (iuHcrilic* il. 

In addition to the polur, e<iiiatonal, and local winds, vei 
often, when it is fine, and wfien the snn shines with fo 
on the Mentonian amphithealrp, there is a very docidi-d 
sro-brMM (Inriiic; the niidill« of the diiy, 119 in tropienl 
countries. The air, iteootnin;: heated and niretled in the 
mountain baiin, rises, and e<ioler air from the sea rashes 
in tu supply ils place. But for n decided tics-bree»i thus 
to rise in winter, Uiero mnut be a ^troni^ wind blowing 
from louic of the northern quarters. When thin is th^ 
cane, in the earlv pnrt of the day, until about eleven o'clock, 
the north nind only renc-hing the sea at some distanec 
from the beach, owing to the moiinUiu protcetion, leaves 
the waters ini^hore calm or n<-arly no. The sen air that 
later rushes in to supply the ]>)acp of the rareGed land nir, 
puxhine angry billows before it, is merely the north wind, 
which having pnsscd overhead and gone out to sea, ia pulled 
back by the niiilday heat. When the air is perfectly calm 
in the nppcr ami lower ntmosiiheric r<'gioui'. 1 he calm of the 
early inurnin;; oontitiiti-s all day, because therti in then no 
strong wind and angry sea to be drawn inland by the 
eflects of land heat. The liitt<T iit winter is not suffic-iently 
ereat to create lhi» little ni<iiisiH>n when thu utinospherc is 
in a state of complete repose, It was long before thcaboTO 
facts became elcnr to me, before 1 nnderslood why, on two 
days apparently identical as regarxlit sun^ihiue, the ntimiini* 
calm on one occasion continuea all day, and on another 
gives place, about eleven o'clock, to a strong scta-breezo and 
to a rough sen. 

lu winter, the sca.lirwTte retgna from about eleven to 
tlire-e. In summer it begins much earlier— before eight. 
Tluis, the seashore of Klentoue is decidedly windy, even in 
fine summer weather, and this sea-brecz« is oft'^n cold in 
winter, for it is tlie north wind, wliich ha.-i poMwd over- 
head, drawn buck. Thi.-> is a fact that invalids ought to 
reinember. Tbcy should Iwar in mind that the genth) 
breeze that fans them when sitting on the sMubcAol) on a 
line sunny day, may be merely a cruel, treacherous north 

I us 




wind pulled bitvk by the boat, nnd to Ihj carefully avoided. 
Thin n-tuni in'a-l>ro«M can, moreover, Ijc complmcly nvoidiid 
kr lesviiij^ the sbore and ^■)itiin>; thu iiiitiieroiia valleyii. 
We nusL rvooUcct, at the same time, tliat wind Is a health* 

S'Wu^ J>;^nl> imriRer of the earth, that a place whcro 
are u iiu wind would eoon become ii mere cirbciii-hiailed 
woU, putfe«tly pestilentud, )Mp«<;ially iit a tuiutliera dimnte. 
It ia only ttetnmeulal to conGrni«d invalidii, and they can 
tily avoid, it nt Mentone, without remaiuin); iDuoors, 
Inleu on the rare ociMtsions when a hurrieanc is blowing. 
The sea-br«eze, which daily poura into the ^Tcntoniaa 
aphitheatre when th« dry north windu blow, Imvin;^ im- 
_ IiiIkm] moieture IVori ite cuntuct with the »ea, modihes, 
' diininiHheM tlio «xlron>e dryness of these northerly wind«, 
au inipuitant rael fur the invalid population. Thn», unleim 
when llieru ia a ponilivu hurrioano fruni the north, the dry- 
at»s ie acvvT extreme. The wet-bulh tliormonieter shoivs 
kthiii inlluenei-. On these days the dr)'ne8s generally di* 
'iniiiuihes a eouple of de;;i-eeE by midday, Bhowtn{^ that tlm 
alini)«phcrv liao bevomc so much the moister. 

At ui^Iit tliure u a land-brcexe, which detociids from 
tlic moiintaina to the iihore and sea. Uctween t^e suh< 
aiding of the iii;;ht Und-breoKe and the ri^in); of the day 
aaa-brwrae, and n^n between the Hub>iidin|r of the duy- 
jLrewMS and the rinirijj of the itit;hl land-bweKv — -in rine, 
'briifht ftiiiuthiiiy weather — there in a iierioii of repose, n 
lull, durin); which the air ia c:ilin. The preaent Italian 
inarinur« eall this period of ealm ionacvia, as hcinj; unac- 
tximpHnied by dan;;er ; their mor« sturdy Roman pred«- 
cwKire ^lesitpuitcd it mi/rKrcia, fruni ilti being a cauae of 
dilatrreeabli- det«-ntion. Hit* jwrtod lasta, in winter, from 
fli;^iit to eleven i.«., and from three to six or seven, V.M., 
iveewrdin>; to the luii^^h of the day and tho amount, of aiin- 
ahinu. The moniiii}; lull in the time for confirmed invalids 
to walk on thu abore. 'I'lidse who are woU — the atronff, the 
hculthy^-oan rmsiive no linnn whate^'er from s good blow, 
if wpII doUied, and not heated by violent exercise. 

The land-bre«]!u from the mountains, at night, ix utnally 
vcrjf gvntli', isijKviiiUy in winter. OecMiionally, however, 
owiU); to auddcn uhange of t^impuruture Iwlweeti liuid and 



tea, the land ninds descend suddt-tily uid with j^t 
iin|wtuo«it)', w io all ports of tlie Mi-ditcmnvnii okir 
wiUi higli mountaiiu. Tb«noe the goaiM«l u»e of " Uto«n ' 
or Iruin^lar suib, attat^Kl to yarda thxt oati inetantly be 
let down l>y the na, for the "xeb^s, IVhiccan, and other 
omft which con^t th« ehom within their inflncnw." 

It I* oaly nt oight that the liind-hreex« dcsci-ttds from 
the high mouDtain nng«s. It i* (]uitc jwrceptible, ev«n 
ID winter, as soon as the etin has set, eeiwvtally in the 
western l)ay. The g^vater n-armth of tlie ensteni hay at 
Mcntone in cridently dae to thv protection of the »M!oiKiiry 
nage of hillo, whii-h, rtaing inimcdijttfly from tho sen, cuts 
off, aa il were, this cold air current. In the western bay 
the lower valley of Gorbio is similarly protected by the 
iandftone htll of St*. Lucia. Consequently the temperature 
of this Tolley is aUo exoeptionally warm, as vvidcn^wd by 
its early and lusuriaitt vegvtjition. Wherever tltere is a 
gully, ravine, or torrent b^, the temperature is generally 
two or three degrees lower in it at night than elsewhere in 
cither boy, owing to their forming funnels down which the 
cohJer mount^iin currents derccnd to the »ca. 

In >iiniin«r the oold mountain currents ut night power* 
fnlly G(>ntribute to diminish heat, and, combined with the 
day sea-breeze, produce a much cooler and mom equable 
tvaiperatura tliiin in found inhind in the Fame littitudcf^ 

Thus the temperature is very twldom uUivc ^U'' Fah. at 
any time in the summer, whereas both in Haris and in 
London a higher temperature is reached every enrnmer. 
On the other hnml, during icvcnl months, June, July, 
August, and Hejitcmber. tliero is but one or two degrvea 
dilferenc« between the day maximum and tlic night mini- 
mum, which constitutes the real drawback to the summer 
climate, etipecially for invatids, 

The dillii.'ulty of recogniHing from which direction the 
wind blow* ii> very great ul Menloiie when tlierv in u calm 
in the lower atmosphere, or when norlhcni eurrenlif from 
thii north-east or north-west are diverted lu tlio south-east 
oraouth-wcMt by tlie motinlnins which Ibnn the bay. When 
this ill the ease, nnd aloo undfr Xim influence of the wn 
breeze, all the weathercocks will point to the south, when, 


in reality, th« weather and olimato-iufluciicing wind oome^ 
fram llio north, All my early ol».'rvalioiis ncrc invnli- 
d«t>^] \>y th« noii-riKo^nitbii of tliwo riu-tx, ani] 1 think 
liM»t of thiiHo tliuL hiive Iwen |>tililii<heil have b«en iiivali* 
dat«() bv the &iime cause. Very often it is only by consult- 
ing tho \rvt ani] An l>utb thci'inoiuotem tliiit doubtx Kin he 
■olveO lu to lite real dirL-ctioi) of thu u-iiid, Thoy are of 
great axMittuuoe, for iiorllt winds are alwayii dry, mid south 
vimU moist. 

The apjuireDt twUting and turning of a north-enst wind 
to the voutli-i-aBt as it enters the hay, ofa nortli-we^t to tliir 
auulh-»<'iit, iind the rntincul bwi-1hvc«, aWit to the wind 
till- a]i|)vai'ano<! of iteiirly always Ciiming from tho south. 
Tbia error, a most |jal|>ahle otie, has, 1 believe, been itiadi. 
\>y most observers. There are, in reality, many eddies and 
local eiirrentx in the Meutonian amphilhoatre winch are 
iiiai<p)iti(-aiit iw re^ardit weatlii-r timl i^'liuiatv. It i.i the 
upner currents atone that rule the wi.-:ithi-r and the clinuite, 
aa<l they can only l>e aseerlained by a uarel'iil exainination 

Euai study of the |lo^ilion and |ii-i>^ra^ of the clouds in 
eoon^xion with the highest mountain summits. Tlie local 
wmtlicrcoukM are all but usirlfs» fur thif purjioM*. 
A rcmarkahk fact which rcnilen' it all the more ditHaulb 
to deciile which way the ivind hlnws in, that constantly two 
winds areubeorved blowint^ at the same time from ditrercnt 
(liurtrn of tha horizon, fri>ni the north and from the si>iith, 
and that even in ruic weather, Indivd. the (ienoi-Ke Hivicni 
is a ni^ular battleliotd, where the ni>rlhand tlic»outh utiidH 
t'ousLantly meet ia mortal comhat, the weather depending 
uu which has tho victory. 
The climate of the Mentono amphitheatre and of tho 
Aiviarn in gvoeral is a favountble upociimt-n of what hutau- 
kts uall the warmer turnperate xone. Flatita live nearly 
pvcrywhero which front kills, many annuals in a colder region 
heiMinv ptrrenuialH, and many fornis of vegetation new to 
the more northern llora make their nppearancw. It is the 
Mediterranean climate, but that of the more favoured 
Medilerraneun rejpoti«. In Italy, for iiintaiiee, tho nio»t 
|>rott'cted tKititheni rrifionn must be ruuched to find the B.imu 
immiiuity frvm froKt. Uu the aonthei-n shores of thi: Mudi- 


THE ltl%-liai,\. AND HENTONB. 

tiTi'utifiiD, in Al^^rm, iiiiJ iit Tunin, then is th« tame 
immunity from froot, tint, owing to thu prcvcnott of tlio 
AtluH mi>iuit»ii)D, cool mixM )>r«iIuiiiiDate througliout the 
winter, with the north M'imb, which usually lule at that 
lime of the year. Mentone also is warmer, more pro- 
t<.-cteil frDDi Tiorihvrn winds than it« neighbour Nto.% more 
Ki> than Camicw, iittlioiifjli llie gcnvral l('atiirv9< of the cli- 
mate are tliu Kame, fur all three are only a oliort dialanoo 
apart. It is the oiieetioD o{ fruit nails in orchards in th« 
eaine distriot, one lii};her and ;;iviai; mon> protection than 
the nthen*, but all turned towards the K>nth. At Nice there 
are aheltercKl Httuiitionx, Hiieh lut Uio Cimiez, the Cnrabocel, 
mid VilWrranohe, in which the )iroteetion ia tfreater than 
in tha tonn itscltj nnd which thus assimilate to Mcntone, 
without, liowi-viT, vijiiallin;; it. 

It iK well to reuolkct that in Hueh a climate, in the 
warmer temperate xone, winter i.i by no mt-an:* avoided. 
Tlte deMriptioiw of the winter climate of Nice, Cannea, 
Hyerce, and of Italy in general, contained in most books of 
Ir.ivcl, works on climate, and (fuidc-books, are mere poetical 
<IWu«ions. The (wrpeluul cpriii;^, tho elernai eummfr, ilio 
warm »outh«r» Imlmy atnioftplicre, detcribed to the rea<ler 
in Boeh glowing termi*, only exist in the imagination of the 
writers. Allliou(i;h there i'^ so much sunshine, so much fine 
woiither, aueh immunity from fo^ and driKKtin^ rain, vro 
are alill on the ountinenl of Europe, with iee nnd snow 
behind iia, for more than two thousand miles, up to the north 
pole. It is still winter; wind, rain, a chilly atmosphere, 
and oeoasional cold weather, with snow on the mountains 
and flakes of ioe in vxiio^cd Eitiiulii.>n^ liavc lo be ciioonn- 
tered. It ia as well, therefore, that the invalid traveller 
should be prepared to encounter them, otherwise, antici- 
jwtiu;* an Jildorado, balmy Zfphyrs, perpetual sunshine, 
and an cver-i^milint; nutui'o. ho is disappointed. 1 believe 
' that coutinuouM warm weather in winter, and the (complete 
abmnoe of cold days or ni^htx, are not to be met with in 
ttio temperate Kune!*, only in trupieal regions; and these 
n*yions present many diawba^^ks both lo health and comfort. 
If they are considL-rL-d rctjuitiitc, boworer, the tropics, or at 
least Madeira, slioiild be seJcctvdj not the Mediterranean ; 



or bcttxT ctJlltthv invnlid longing for KiitDmcr, for c<>i»tiint 
6ne warm weather, aIkuiIiI at once jru to Uic ADtipoiies, to 
Austrnlia, or to the Cu|)e. 

Thf t!xist«Doe of Oran-;e and Lemon-trees, of Gc-ranimns, 

nutintropoa, Verbcniu, aud Uoscs, flowering thniiii;li(>ut 

the winter, do«« not ocvLift'nrily iiiii>ly thv nbicnce of cold 

weaUi«rr merely the aUaeiive of absolute froet. lliis ie 

I well known to all who are familiitr with the manii:;cmciit 

•of coniii.Tvutoric« and of winter tIowcr<gnrdcDti in Kiigtaud. 

lOnn' llic tiowon", gatlicrcd from ovory clime, which maU« 

[an EtiKliili conaorvutory micli ii mx-ne of g\»ty in winter, 

are fully in bloasoin, aad havo b<;eu brouj^ht in from the 

forcii)g-housc8, all ^rdenere know that a rathvr low t«in- 

|)en1tir« i« bonirlicuil, and prolong the hloom and Ijcauty 

of tlicif llonil fiivanrite*. Tho Cliintvi! I'rimulaa, the 

IXcatha, the K[ia<rride«, tho ('atm^lli^, the Aznleaa, the 

Corrcus, tlie Chorozcmas, tlie bulboiia plantj^, contiiuie to 

,«xruu)d and thtivu at a ni^ht tvinpuratiiru of from 38" to 

4V. ll i« tJiv IroEt thoy four. 

A few mile* from Mentone, nt Bordighcnt. groves of 
Palm-Lre«9 grow in ^reat luxuriance, and are looked upon 
by all tnnrellers aa evidences of an all Imt tropical tlimutc, 
■s are those that Rrow on tho " Place" nt HycreM, aiitl in 
tlin gardens at Nioc. Such, however, U not the case. l*iilm!i 
twill grow a« outdoor tree^ in uny nrgion of the Ittviera, 
and would be generally cultivated, were it not that t.liL-ir 
cultivslioti is unprofitablo every w lit.- re, e\(.-ept »t llordighcru, 
which has the monopoly of supplying llomo with piilmn on 
Pulm Sunday. On the Uiviera itiey cither do not prnduco 
fruit, or their fniil ia not fit to ltuI ; toripen the fniit of tJio 
dato Falni the sultry Hummer heat of the sotith-eastcointtor 
Spain, uf E^ypt.orof thedMort ot'Siihjraii^re'piircd. Kven 
in Kgj'jit the Arabs place the dati<K in jur*, whi<.:h they bury 
in ibe Mod to oompletv tlic procim of ripening. This ti-ce 
may Ixi oompared, wlieo growing in southern Europe, to 
the CtieHttiut>tree in tJie north of Knjfland. As a tttv tho 
latter i^wa there in j^rcat hixunutiei>, but it* fruit w all 
]l>ut Wortblew. Tho centre and ihi' kouUi of Kurope alone 
I'linvo •uUioJcnt Kuranier warmth to idUiw the fruit to n^iiuh 
Iferfeotioii. The i>T«aonoe of luagnilioeot Chestuut-ti^-u» in 



our clinale Ooes not, UiL-refure, iitiHuite that it Is a warnn 
one. I have, indeed, 6(xn Cbestout-trees in the llii;h- 
iHnds of Scolbad, as, for instance, nt Artochar, on Loul 
Long, growin); with the greatest luxuriiiucc. 

The proximity of the ttca exercise* a coiiKiiloruble in 
fluetice over the climate of Mentone, as the temporaturs 
of the Medtt«riaDean is never very low. When the 
weather is cold, and especially when the eun ts obecuml, 
tlM Bvn is a rn^crvoir of htut, and pi.Toc])lihly wiiriiiM lUe 
air; for it in then wui-mur on the Hea-Uivrl than on the 
hilU. When, on the contrary, an is uaually the case, the 
Bun f^liiiics, the evnporatiun wliich constantly takes place 
cools the air at the sca-levcl, and it becomes puruL-ptibl 
wanner u«-thc hilU are aitcended. There are thvltei 
eunoy Doi}kB in the vicinity of Ca^tcllare, a inoantai' 
village 1200 feet above the sea-level, where, owing, 
doubt, to the conceiitiation and revcrbcmtion of Ihcsuii'ti 
roytt, thu climate is exceptionally mild, and n'heni violL-ti 
and unvmoiK-s apjii^ar iit Iciut ten days before they are 
found ut much lower clevaltoas, or even in sheltered upoU 
at the sea-level. 

The summer cUmate of ]Slen1one is cool compared to' 
thiit of suuthcri) France and of conlineittal Itjity, otv)ii», im 
we have wen, to the 6ea-bivcz« whiuli seU in rcgwlnrly ia 
the uiorniufc, and blowM tin- •|n!itU-r part of the duy, aud to 
the Litid-breezt! which descends at niyht frum the higher 
mounUiiiK. Jtut then, on the other hand, it remains, 
night and ilny, at a high temperature for scvtrul montlnt. 
In the tropicH, on the seacouHt, there in alwo this sea-hreese 
daily, which makes the warm weather bearable, even agree- 
able 1o some; hut it does not prevent the high temjK-rattiixi 
producing its u§ual physiological ctllvts vn the htimnn 
frame. W'armth, when the air is wtngnant ami loiided willi 
moiature, Ih very diHiuull to endure, because the in^eruihle 
perspiration culleetv on the skin, and 'at not carried off. 
'JI11S renders warm weather so unpleasant in KngUud, 
where the air is generally more or le^ uiturated with 
m»i»tiire. When, on Ihe contrary, there is light brecM 
fanning the bmly, and the air is dry, as on the Mentoue 
Conetj the peratpiralioii i» uoustontly cartic<l away, und tJie 



body «oo1«d by it« vaporisatioii. I hare been for S6T«nil 
days OD the outskitte of the doeorl of Sahara, in Al;;i>ria, 
with tUe tbormomctvr at ]>0% wJUiout fecltn;^ any distruss, 
olthougli strvaming with i)cn]>iriit4on. It wm merely be- 
cause the Bciroocu was blowing on me t'fofu the deacrt and 
flvapoMting the moisture from the okiii, VVhilat oDce, on a 
Uunilbo stniimvr, in the ^nme tcmponiturej thu heat wiM ull 
but unbonrublu iml<>M I plniv<l myvelf on the |irow of the 
vessel and encouDten-d the draft created by ito movement. 
The trying feature of the summer climate in the Itiviern is un- 
douhlodly tlichighDi<;ht temperatura, which has to be borne 
constantly, during Uie <uinmi-r, from )[ay until Octolwr. 

Thuti Siciiniporc, uii<ler the equator, huH u temperature ot 
abont m" all t]ie year through, variation beiug limited to 
two or thre« dotfrce*. This heat in nut c\treme; it tH 
mueb loH ihnn that of India in summer, but its iMntinu- 
anoe rendcra Sincapore anything but a healthy rusideiic«. 
It suffices to develop the diseases of hot climates. 

Saoh being the caw, — althoug'h persons in health may 
find it an agrc«able residence, — I do not advise invalids to 
rvtnain at Montonv during the summer scnson. If they 
do not w-iih to return to Ku'^laud, tlie buMt; mimmcr climate 
ill Eurojw fur health, they hud better seek a refuge fram 
the hciit in some of the high mouutain tiamtarla to which 
tliu iiii-diciil inon of Xioe, Geneva, and Swiljcerland send 
their paticuti*. 1 may montion, a» easily aocessible, St. 
Untmas, on the Maritime Aljw, about six hours' distance 
Iroin .Mentane; the Orand Chartreuse, near Coni, m Pied* 
niooti fui-lher away, the Grand Courmaycur, a wetU 
shelterod and picturvst)uv nwuHtuin valley, with sulphur 
spritigu, near Auttla, on the aouth side of the Mi>unt St. 
Itemiird, and Monte Generoao, above lakes Ma;;giora 
and Lugano. 1 have sought for such a refuge in Corsica, 
which tlie weekly steamers from Nice now rentier very 
ncueMibU), but hitherto without any succesn. The cool 
Bumniur climate exixU there, but without the aeeommoda- 
tiou which would make it useful or available, as will be 
expLiiied herealW. 

Many of the roouiitains that surroiuid the Mentonian 
amphiihmtni are above 4t)0t> tcct high, th« Atguillc uod 


(iran Moudo Tvr instunco, and prenc-nt lovcl)' jtlaleaiix 
and Piue IbresU, and would oll^r a charmiiifi: isuminer 
letmit, nerc Tension Hotels built upon them. ^ly IVioiid, 
l>i'. Farinu, of Mcnti>n«, is now i;tigiiKC'l in an ulloinpt to 
eetablisb such a mouutjiiii etatiixi ubovc Dolce Aqu* in the { 
valley of tbe Nervi», only a few hours' disloot. It will 
l>e a i;i-«at Loon when thu winter invalids bave only lo ' 
a->CL!nd tlic mountaind that haw protected thorn fiotn tlioj 
north M'indti in ninU^r to find Khultur from thv aumnter^ 
beat of the south. Now Uiese cool mountain heights are 
left to the ehepberda. 

In Switzerland there arc many retreats of this kind, at 
dilfereut gtBd<« of elevation. Aim>n^t tlic pUaKuntexb j 
and best, aoooixlinf; to the late Ur. B<,-ziincanet, of AiglSj,] 
are the bntJis of Morgjins, in the V'alais, above 400O leet 
high, » rharmin<; mountain valley, well known for ita 
strong cbrilylH-nte spring. I have not mynelf been there, 
but have l>ecn told ihut it U a deligUtfid retreat from the 
heat of a ciintin«nlul iiunimcr, and that the air ijt bracing, 
without being: ohilly. The valley is wide, and tbe sky] 
Bunevidly Wiyht and clear, A respectable hoUil has been j 
htiilt, which nffbrds travellers and invalids the pmlec-tion 
and comforts they require. I niny alwo invrition Se|>ev or 
Uniiouds, aWiul seven lenguea from Vevay, 3;JU0 feet high; 
anil La Ko^iui&re, a pretty miiuntaxn village, with a guod 
hotel. Aiglc, Bex, and L'larene can be recommended fur 
early immnier. The three latter arc on the level of the 
Luke of (>en«vn, itself 1200 feet al>ove the sea-level, so 
that the elevation is still oonniderable. In eartv summeT 
and in the autumn they are better calculated for th« 
invalid than tbe higher elevations, which are only suitetl 
lor invalids during the i^reftt summer heat» — from the 
middle of July to the end of Aug'ust and the middle of 
ESeptember. At all these places there are comrortahltf 
hotels at reasonable rates. 

In cases of phthisis, more especially, extreme heat shoul 
\ie avoided durini; the summer, as calculated to acoelerat 
the progri'BM of the disc»M). The patient shouhl, indi'ed, be 
kept iu a tmipi^rature hcUxH TO" Fah. Thiii, in Contineutul 
Europe, can only be done by leaving the plaios for tUa 



■DOUnUins, and attaining ihcroon a coosiderablo elcval>i>n 
— At leant four thoiMind fcot. 

Th«re t!i, however, some littlo mk to be encountered by 
those who tbus fly to the mountains to escape tho heat of 
tUt plains, ir tho mtmmer is dry and fine, ull is vtvW ; the 
iDoiintuin air i» found pure and bnidng, the scenery is 
iitichantingi and lienlth oft«n imitrove^ rapidly. Bat if 
vnl weather sels iii, the mountain retreats are at once 
enveloped in cloud or fo^, and may remain en for workH, to 
t]iD great detriment of the coiuiumptive intient. Again, 
tbo latter t* Hurroiinded by healthy, eutliusiaatio toiiri.tts, 
eajjer to explore the majeotic beauties of the Alpine 
sccnerr, wbich tUuy have come to sl^o and examine. Tliuir 
oxainpio in C(inta«io(i<, and it im very diffioiiil for thu iniwt 
Tvasonabli; not t» be Ird utruy, and not to be induced tu exert 
theniHlveB more than is desirable or pruJont. 

1 have known many break down from one or both of 
thuM caiiseM, and under tho inllucnee of aceiduntd disease, 
to loM complutuly in a frw wettks ull the benciit gained by 
« winter'* rMidence on the Kiviera. it is the n^i^ol lection 
iifsoch cases that makes mo now always recommend the 
invalids witom I have ciirrii-d nafely through the winter to 
leave touring to better times, and to return if poKHilile, for 
the Humtncr, to cool, green, heullhy England. If not 
jHissible or desirable, the summer may f-cncmlly bo aneiit 
more safely on Iliv coast of the North Sva or of the British 
CUniiRel, ut any of the jwrU between Ustend and Tiouvillo, 
than in Switzerland. 

One of the beet sammer stations in Switzerland is, un- 
questionably, St. Afiirit}!, in th<- np|ii-r part of tlie Engadiii 
vallev, on the river Inn, at an eleruliun of .'')300 feet. St. 
Morilx has become a favourite summer re^rt of lale yenni, 
and there is now plenty of hotel accommodation. The air 
ia cool and pleowtnt Ibroughotit the summer. At thia 
liai)fht, iu ease of rainy weatJier, the clouda olVta lie at a 
lower elevation, and tlie bad weather may be partially 
avoided. For thoroughly oonvalesocnt patients n resideiiec 
in theve Alpine regionn in Uie montlm of July and Augmt 
may Iw advanta^nia ae well as agreeuible. Hut it is not 
jamciouB or safe lor then who uu suiTering from Mriooe 



cliest disease to niD the risk of possible cold, stormy wentlier, ' 
nbioti at no ^rcnt nti elevation iu tbc Swies Al]>e iwnietiiaes ^ 
occiiiKfvtn in midsummer. 

It tins bceu proi>uecd lately to send constrniptive patients 
to the Engadin lor the wmter. I only look upon tJiis 
propofa] us iin evidenco of the rciuiioQ taking pine*' in the 
modinal mind ngsiiuit llic trcntroeiil of plitbiniH by tropicul 
wannth and moisture. Tlie same reaction has oeeurred 
in the United States, where some pbysieinns are ^endiu;]' 
patiiMitji to St. Paul, in Mi»n«ota iu winter, for tbenkeofa 
dry cold Ihnt freezes the rirera many feet deep I ThuM tlia 
human mind, like the pendulum, has always a teodeney to 
fto to extremes, although truth and prudence say : safety 
lica in the middle coumc, " In mcilio fwlitt'mim ihU." Tins 
iH tbe motto 1 have taken fur mv tv»rk un the t.r<-ntini-nt of 
pulmunarv consumption, in which theee cliuuLe <jueiitiona 
ure fully discussed. 

noTERs ASD nowncwnmz on hie rivieba. 

" fortunntoii nintitun, na «i bona nArint 
Agriooba T' . . . 

YiseiL.— Owr]r<M. 

" Si j'nvai* nn niTwnt <l<' tci. mont. xtH, nn pUiiM^ 
Aroc nn liti-t il'i^au. U.rrenl, nature, on TniKMuiii, 
J'y tilntitvraiit un atliTV, otiricr, Mtulu, nu eUut; 
3'y (ibtinus no Wit, chaiimo, tiiUo, o» nwcftu." 

" Henrmuc qui <]i»i<;«iiii»it laiua oonlor n •m, 
8uu clxirclicr leu homumn^ ma exeitsr I'rarltf, 
Dftni Im puluii d«g) gmncla, |ioii jnlntu d'Atra admin, 
Kt panni mi ^gaos tmtt cboi«ir avu auia." 

AcTiioH CxKsovni. 

How many tfaorc iint among tlio bnxy workcn uf social 
lifu «hain«l to town dtitJc», €an», and occupntionN, livitifi; 
In Mil atmovnliere of brioks and mortar, who have n Kccrut 
psasion for flowers and bortu:ultiiro ! Such was my ncc 
lor many n year. TIim pinwion bttret forth in rarly yotitli 
in an enthiiNioiitio devotion to botuny, which h:i<l to be 
Burmoutit^d and surrendered with a eigh for tc"* fiisct- 
nating hot more important eluilics. If, later in life, in- 
viilidixm haH brought witli it any iwlaoc, any comptriisation 
for a forced withdrawal from the active dutlcH of an " ex- 
oelaior" career, I hare found it princinally in "flower*," 
and in their cultivation. To a meiliciil man the study of 
flowers and plant*, of horii culture, has nu exceptional and 
poculiur charm. It is merely continuilkg in the vc^'table 
trreatiou the profeseional study of life, of its fuuetioun and 
diMMae. The fu-Kl is a frcxh one, but the main facts 
ollMmd and itudtvd arc the Mnie. Indeed, I may safely 



ray tlist tlie analy^in uf ttio jilii 

jf life in llie veg»* 

tubl« wurld has niucli agitruudiKud utiil 4le«pcii<Hl my know- 
ledge uf tliu (amo pbeoomena ia the humBQ boing. .Man^ 
are tlie eirnrs commiltml by Iraninl (ihysictiuiit, which' if 
commU(«i] liy a gan]«n«r in hi* cliiKHhousee would co«t 
him his phux in three moiithe. lli« jilant clienU wuuM 
fade iimi dif, and he would l>o turned oQ' as " iiKxinii'i'tent." 
Au old viritiiT on widening, whote iinmc wcapes me, 

3naintly rcnaarka, that a tlowimng nluiit isi litte awry 
ulicately organized human being. If irentcd with (<wter. 
in^ mrv and nltuntiou it returns the Inljoiir und iiflVction a 
hundr«iiru1d, and beoonivit a thing of beauty, producing 
lovely flowers to rejoiei' the heart of the friendly owner, 
But if negleetcd and ulMnduncd, or treated with eaprtciuuf 
teudcriiess, it fades, droofw, and dies. 

1 have long had a j^nlen in henthor'clad, 6r-coverad 
Surrey, where Hammer (lowers smile on roe when I rctuni 
from the South, but it is only a tew years ago that tb 
thuLi^Ut came to eeljibliiih n ^nlcn on the Hinny shorw a 
the Kivit-ni. At fir»t I was ntistied with the luxuriant 
wild rejiKlalion of winter in this nijiiiii, with the sun-^hine, 
and wiih the natunjl beauties of the district. Aa I bccAuie 
more and more familiarized with my winUr home, I began 
to grieve thnt the |ir(.-ciouii yiiiuhine, light, and lioat, that 
surrounded tne should be turned to so little horticultural 
account. Nature in the«e soiilliem regions is luft pretty 
mnch to henvlf as ivgnrda Howem, and il i« tiurprtsiiigwhat 
lluricuUural wonders she does produce unassisted. Tb«ii 
the desire came to see what I myrdf could do with tb 
gardening lore previously aciiuired in Kuf^land. So 
purchased a few terraces, some naked rocks, and ao oil 
mined tower, on the mountain side, near Montone, aoni< 
three hundred feet above the sea, with a wmth-wt^^tcri 
awpect, and sheltered from all northerly windu. Hen; 
linuginj^ as it wera on tltc fbink of the muiinlaiii, 1 M 
to work, nwioti^l hy an inli^tligent peasant from the Dei^ 
bonring viibffi! of Urimalili, whom I have ruiiK'd to tin 
dignity of iiejd-gardeuer, and in whom 1 hav« suci 
in instilling nuile a passion for horticulture. We think 
luiw done wonders m the course of a few years only. 



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w the iveulU oUaioKl throw a oonsidernlite 1tf>ht on the 
winlvr cliiiMit« of this part of the wurld, I slniH brk-Hy 
narrate tbcin. I cm encouraged to <1<> noalvo hv the rvlk-c. 
tioD that sliQutil this work lull into t\\e liancls of others 
Uyiog, like luyself, to eeUblieh a winter ^alcn in tliu 
•outk or Europe, my espcrteiice, Flight ns it yd i*, toity Iw 
ofvomc kviiil. 

I would firstly re^wat that I think I hnre found oat 
why iiortictilture is so utterly ne^lvcti-d in the lioulh of 
EiirojH', and in warm coiinlrien gvnvndly. Mon; ordinary 
garUvnin^; — tliv ciiltivtition of eominon ({urden flowers — is 
attended with cunxideraMe expense, owinj; to the neoeseity 
of Slimmer nnd wen winter irrifTstion, if any de-^rce of 
cxcdlenoc, or if certain nisullii, are to bo ubtuiiii.-(l. In 
dimate* where, ua on the Kivtera, it does not rain from 
April until Oct«l>er, where the rain faltti tropically, in ea- 
tuTsels, at the autiimnsl and vemul fqtiinoxes, and where 
lifti-n ill midwinU-r there an iU"nf;hts nf «ix weeks' duru- 
ti»u iiiuler an unlt'nt burnii)>; kiih, frequent wnt4!riti^ lic- 
Gomw itidinpenMalilc fur mo«t garden [i1atit<>. Thu^' udili> 
tional hibour is retjuired, nud a htravy expense entitiled, 
in addition to that of the ordinary work of the {prdeii. 

On thtt other hond, Koolheriiers of the higher and middle 
dacses are thrifty and economical in tht^ extreme, have few 
ontkta for activity, and are at the same time indolent. 
Thowu who have projK-rty iiHunlly live on one-liilli of llieir 
iuoomv, and {Hit by the rcHt. They thusi provide t'i>r th<;ir 
ehililrvn, and yet ean remain quiescent, taking life easily, 
and npi'ndin;; their days in an agreeable statA of "dolce far 
uiftnle." By vueh jK^riKonii horlicuHuni) expenKee are con- 
ei<lvnKl an exUuviigance, and those who indulge in them 
ore thoii-;ht to bo alt but demented. Should misfortune 
OTortflke ihem, and their Gitancial cireuniKtaneiti bei-ome 
cniburrassud, it ).■> all atlrilmted to the gardening;. 'Hicy 
understand paying labour for jilanting and irrigating 
Orange-trcee, Cabb.iges, Peas, or Wheat, because theru is a 
return— a nrofil on the tnninaetioii ; but to Mpend gnotl 
montjjr on lU«ea and Ja*mtneB, unless to make ]icrfumi'ji for 
iiri'hension. Thus mv Men 




\/uun long thought, und |UTha[M Ktill think, that I anL 




prcpirinf* for the erection of a largo bouse, and nearly sll 
tliu miieuns in thv country have ii|>jili<;d to me for my 
jiiiln>i)ii^>. Tlifv cannot under»tjitKl »ny one miiking a 
rnvTv tlower fi;aru«n for |>l6asure on tlie mountain nide, ft 
mile or twa from tlie town, so I am aski-d l>uilding priMs 
fur llie :ill but uorllilvw rm-ks iimiind me, and Diid it diffi- 
cult to vxU'nd my tiorlioiOltirul domain ai I xtioiilil wi«h. 

Till! »i)il or the garden is tlie uHiial lime xoil of tlio 
country, farmed by tbe lireulc up of the oolitie limestone 
rocks Mtiich form the- ski-k-ton of llie divtnct. Itieli in the 
miiienil fli-iiifnts reijiiired fuf vegetation, it in poor in ifmug, 
in the or^iiio constituents, fo that it requirfs manure 
to Lriug out its poirers, wlii';l>, with the addition of tbe 
lutle;, are cousideruMe. Tlie clim.ilc nf Mentone is, aa n-e 
buvc seen, n wry pcouliar one, and, aUhoiigh th« preceding 
chapter contains a full account of ita mete'iroloi;ieul oha- 
rui-ter, it may be as well to briefly recall tbe cbief " borti- ' 
cultural" fealuncs. 

From the iR-Rinniiiji of April until the end of September, 
or the U'Kinning of OctoWr, tliere w m> tain at all, exi^ept 
6n ocoa^iimid thunder storm. When these Ktiumtt occur, 
either in n inter or summer, nothint; can be grander, more 
aublime, than the socnc ns witnesced from my f>urden, or 
from any mountain height, 'lliey are quite tropical; the 
Hashes of lightning iltuminate tbe heavens, revealing every 
one of the mountain rcccnec, partly covered witli dark 
clouds, and tbe thunder [wela and reTcrbernlcs from crag 
to « rag, as iftbc^kies werealwut to fall; — Die sky is clear, 
the sun ardent, the liyht intense, the heat varieii from T** 
to Hi", and is nearly the same by day and by night. Be- 
tween September and April about twenty-live inches of 
ruin full, the greater part about tbe autumnal and vernal 
ecjuinoxes. Prom tlic middle of December to the middle of 
February the night minimum i» about H" Fab., the day 
miniintini about 54", in the shade. Two ur three times in 
thu winter tbe thermometer (foi-s down for a night or two 
to as", 30', 34%or even to 30' in exposed situatioiis, at tie 
moiiib of tavinea and torrents, on the dca nhorc, but it never 
fn-exw in lens exposed loealitics. These temperiitun-s of 
mid-winter and mid-summer arc reached by a gradual fall 





nT the thermometer in autumn as tlte dayo sUorton, and 1>y 
• i^dunl liae in spring; .is thtry increase in length. The 
•ntjre rcgiun w prnU-clvil Ity im iutiphitli<!utro or ncmicirolu 
of nii>iintjit».H, •lumc LOOU ft-el 1ii&;ii, from nurlh, north -wr-nt, 
and nortli-east winds. Tims the inbabitants, animal and 
VL-^ctalde, arc like plnt«s in a pliito-wanncr before a kitehcn 
fir* — riilriietl, tlii! "iiii ; or like fniil treen «n it nouth wall. 
$nch lire the data on whtoh the veg^etution of the distriet 
is linked; longdrouxbtawithnbigh temjitrature in summer, 
ftll Ifiit LropicAl ruiR'' from the couth -ww^t or sotith-eaHt in 
Biittiinn und ngirint;, dry miiiiiv \rt.Mthcr in winlor, with, fur 
tiro muritbs, a night iniuiniutu tt-inpcraturc of about 44", 
A»d no Troets. 

Such climatic conditions nra peculiarly nnitcd, aa alrendy 
Htotvtl, to the Olive, the Lemun, and the Oraiigu tree, which 
caver the hill sides, and constitute all but the boIc a^ri- 
cultural produov. In the <^rdcnE, sia-li as thoy are, mo<illy, 
if Dot cutituly phiutcd iii* ii<ijiin<-t)' t'l the villas boilt fur 
fftruigent, many flowerti and jiliinlti will thrive and blu^oni, 
more or lean, all winter, with x-iirL-ely any eare. Tliim the 
fnlloM'inj' grow iuxiiriantty, and most ivjh stand the summer 
dniiisht without inigaliiin : — Aloe, Cflctacew in •roneral, 
Menembryunthemum, Irin, Maritime Stjuiil, ('inururiu 
manliiiia, Alysoura, lloaeroary, Thyme, WullHotver^, Stoeliti, 
Carnntton", .Marguerite, Geriioium, I'dar'^'onium, Miiri^old, 
AnibiK, Siiene [xmilulu, IViiiuda (<i)mmon and Chim-se), 
VinK-td, Paimies, Nemopliila; llepatioji, Kksi-h, t'hry^^inlhe- 
miim, Salvias of nisiny kiii'ls. Lavender, .MIuii:iU(-lle, 
Fubriiiiiu imbrioata, Jii«Lida alhu, ToImioco, red Vuleiian, 
Ujplnie, Spirca, Aeliiik-a, Vcronion, Erica Meditcrranen, 
Niialurtinm, Habrothamnus elegana, Lantana, Abuttlon, 
D«tur» Stramonium, Liniim lni;yniim, Spannannia Afri- 
oniutj Petunia, Cyelanien, ('am<'lliiis, Axiikim, Ciilla /Ethio- 
picB, Itichnnlia .Elbiopiej, Wiifandta Caniiiwaiia, IJif^ 
UonidB, ]{e^oni«e, C'inerar i-t, Verbena, Cytisu^, Cistiis, many 
apeciM of P.UKion llon*ei», Cboruxflmn, and most Aiu-liulian 
winter Hutveriii^ Mimocie and Aeaeiu; iiprin<; bullw — 
CroouH, Unotvdrop, Hyacinth, Raimuoulua, Narvi»u)>, Txiu, 
Sparuxtd. Ax i>tatc<l, mo«t of tbrso plants can rest in thu 
warm dry aummer without being injured thereby. They 

u 2 


nro lill, or ncnrly all, porpnnini in this climate. TItey : 
iuto life wiili the niittmin mine, (Inwcrinn more or lew wirW 
in the wiDler nr itpring, and moKt of ttiem otintinue in full 
bloom from Christmas to April, a innnth which, hofti- 
ciiUnrnll}-, con«fipon<ls to Juno in Enjflani]. 

Most w,-inti*r», in Eng'liiml, ]mrn|!rrii]>bii appear in Uic 
nt^n-Bpapers, from reHidentu in the more favouroil roj^inns of 
our inlnnd, eivinp lists of Iho flnwers still blooming in their 
gurrlen*. Il miiy V- remarkcil, however, Hint tTirsc lists 
never appear utter ('hrif.tniiii', i)r the end of Dweinlier nt 
the latest. The fact in that in Knitland Novembi-r and 
Deet'mber are generally rainy, and not very cold months. 
Altb()iij;h the wenthor is very often damp, fo"gy, cool, iia- 
favourable to hnman brallh, it Kcldom Hetiially (nvXA'» bo 
ss to destroy vej^table life, The bard frosts of winter 
(•encrally commence about Christmas or the week sn«r, 
and then the autumn fluwere nrc all dotroyed to the 
ground, and no fwh llorieultuTal pnans arc poMibk. 

On the Genoiiie HiriiMra, on the contrary, afler Christ- 
mas, if there h.-is been sufBuenl rain, TCf^etation takes ft 
start and rapidly trains ground, under the infliteitec, not 
w) mtwh of a bigb ni^ht tempemlnre (for we feci the 
Jantury cold of efntincnt^il JCurtipi-) , but of the inerMaini; 
Icni-th of the day, and of the ardent light and suiisbinc of | 
an imdoiidfd sky. 

The imireawd leni^li of the day ia scarcely sulBcientlj^ 
estimated in caleuUtinj; the effect of temperature on ve-iB. 
tation. I was much etriick by its action in Entfhmd in iho 
your ]S(!T. The dayn wrre more ibiin usuallyoold and rainy 
until August, and the thennometer at ninlit often went 
d"wn ni'iirly to the freezing point, and yel vet^tatinn pro- 
(jressed miiell as nsual, eaeh plant and flower coining to 
mulnrity at about llie UHual (leriud. Kvidfollv the iuci-eas* 
injr length of ihe day, and the decre.iein^f Icngib of the 
night, n-er« favouring and advancing vogclation. Thuit on 
I thr north shorvof the Mediterranean, although in Uecember 

I an<l January the days are generally days of warm anient 

I sunshine, they are so short, »ay nine or ten boure otily, 

I com|>ared (» the odd nigbt« of fourteen or lifteon hour*, 

I tJint vegetation receives a great cbeck. Uuring tlieae 




montho tiu! guii«rHlity of flowcnnt; plants, altbousli theve 
ii nn froMt uni] no cutting north wiikIh, n'mtitti rattier 
Btatiotijiry, witb some brilliant exceptions, only well formed 
bada opeoin;; out. 

Moet ol' tlic ub<>vo- mentioned pliint« hnrc been long tried 
in tho gHrdenit of tliiK purt of the world, and have bceu 
f'liuud adapted to the soil and climate. They eurvivo the 
eummer beat and drou;;fat, and require' merely common 
csf«, with nrtillciat irrigation iu autumn, tf the autumn 
ruins fail, as they oceuvioniilly do, in order to thrive utid 
doner in tlw open air. 

I commenoed my gardening with tbe already well-knon-n 
plants, and soon eccorod flonvrs for every winter mo[)th in 
sulli(ji<-nt nitundaiiee to deceive tbe eye and to innlce winter 
liiok like Kutnuivr, both iu the open garden and in the 
drawing-room. Now I am trying to cultivate §om« of the 
flowers belonging to tbe lower UtiluJcs of tho southern 
hi'miKpliero ul Australia and South America, wliicb bloom 
lutwrally in winter, and whicb we cultivntv iu winter eon* 
Mtrvii lories, iiud buve found that the winter heat in sulliuicnt 
to llower many of tlivm in tbe open air. Thus I bare 
pLintetl in tbe open air, in an artiHeial prepared Bi>il, Cho- 
rozemas and Kennodyas, Isiae and Si>araxi;', whtulk Imvu 
pBMvd through tbe winter in good bcialln,aud have ll>jwered 
fri>oly. 1 bwvc repeatedly tried Ep:ioriMa and Cagie lieatlis, 
tbinking that tbey would thrive in such a climate, wbieh 
must be very simiur to that of Australia and of tho Cape 
of Good Hope. They g*;t thro'igb tho winter very well, 
but wither and die iu summer, more, I ri'nlly believe, from 
vtatil of proper shading and watering than becaose the 
climate is uosuit^ible. This §eeim, however, to be the general 
expitrienra of horticulturists in the south, for tbey arc not 
found in the eatalogmrK of the leading houseN at Marxeillea 
and Nice, bii-aiim', I wiin titld, they did not an^wi-r. Thus 
I hud to aeud for tbe plants 1 have tried fmm Kngland. 

On arriving at my Iliviera garden the last week nfOclolwr 
T am able to form a pretty eorrecl idea of tho manoor in 
whieh Uie plants haw stood the iuflucncKi of the scorching 
hrat of mimmer. Six months of bhuting snnsliim-, whieli 
ao heats the ground that if the peaiiuttci touch it barefoot 



tlio mIm of their feet ore Imnit, without clouda or rain, 
Lnrrini; a very exoi-ptional almtvcir »!' huir-iin- hour's dura- 
tion, are calculated to teat the idiosyncraBy, the peculiar 
constitution, oi' any plants. The tlieltored sitnndon of tlitt 
gnrdt-n nMidcra it pofnliarly tryiTi;» in numinor, for it i» in 
ao an^lu of Uiu limwlcnie nnilt, Moutli-i-utt and west, and 
expoded to tlifi full powur of the sun atl day long. M^' 
pnrdeaer rather quittntly tvlls me that in midsuinmcr it is . 
a IVirnocc — " C'etl atrarne Caiftr, t/UMtimr." 

The plants tliat xtand thix xun hi-ut and ilroiighl the best 
without any irrigation are the plants whiirU are natives of _ 
the country, and which in it find their natural habitat, tho 
C')nditioni> most favotirablu to their vxiiil«nce, nc\i M , 
Thyme, Rosemary, Cioemnu inariiiniB, tiwcct Alyssum, , 
Ijavatera, Iris, Scilla maritima. Juniper; also the Cactacea» 
ill ^encial, the Aloe, the Meaetnhryanthemiim. They still, 
alter all this roostinff, look porfeully well and lloiirithint;,. 
All thi'Si^ phiiiU have very lonjf iihruiin rnoU, which in- 
xintiuCu thcmHclvcs into llie cri'vicwK of tin- melt* in thai 
aeauih i<ir nioiiitiire, and prolialily find it. In thin re>j>eot,j 
however, the Geranium and the Pelargonium apjwar to! 
rival them. It is positively mnrvcllous how well thvy kuiirj 
thtt iMiut and tlrou^^ht ; they thrive in the roeIii<-«t, wanntMt, ! 
drievt part of ihe )^ard<!n, and at tlio end of the Hummtr, 
when even Ahies are droopiiijj; for want of moisture, they 
ore all rif*ht ; lliey have mcri-ly lost the greater part of their 
lviivi->-, nnd UK rc.idy to start into fidl luxurinneo iin soon ns 
they nre watotvd. ^[y ^irdcner trit-d an ex|>Rrimcnt one 
summer. He had several lar^ Aloes, wet! E«tuhlished, a'ld 
planted in the warmest regions, in a IViot or two of soil only, 
III curiiors of the rocks. Hu U-lt them entirely without 
wut«T all summer, an aho GirranitimH iiml tVliir±>(iniiiuii in 
the same locality. When autumn arrived the .Moi-s ajipeand 
to have nearly sucvumlN.'d, fur their thick leaves fell llaccid, 
am) appeared partly withered, whilst the iieranitims an<l 
i*>-l,ir>^niums, also lefl to themselves, were all ri^hl nnd 
thmrishiut;, hoatinff their companions l>y a long way. I 
muHt add that when the Aloes were watered they soon fitted 
their leaves, pricked up their hcad^, and in a couple of 
weeks were as healthy and as good looking as any io tlia 


garden. No doubt this is the way they meet sacli trial* 
Mid tDisfortuneB id their own conntiy.- The Geraninm 
fljDwera all winter sparsely, and prornBeljr by March. The 
ciwicest Petargoniums become large bushes, and nower 
sparsely in March.and profusely inApril,iu the open ground, 
in iunny, sheltered spots. From this may be drawn the 
moral, that in our own country they may be planted in the 
driest places and safely left to nature. 

The Aloe, Squill, and Iris may be pnt in the same 
category. They seem to care nothing at all for sun roast- 
ing and Bcorchin^r. The large bulb of the Sqnill, the root 
of the Iris, may be pulled up and left in the blazing son 
for weeks, and yet once planted and watered they will 8(arG 
and grow as if nothing had happened. Another feature 
connected with them is that they are what my gardener 
calls " det man/ft tout," that is, they take complete posses- 
sion of the soil around, and starve out everything else. If 
planted in little, or indeed in all but no eoil, they thrive 
und do well, but attain no great size. If, however, they 
are planted in a boixler with a good d^pth ff the lime siil 
uf the country, they start into vigorous, deturmiuti'd growth, 
throw out strong roote in all directions, and smother all 
other vegctatiuii. The Aloe especially seems determined to 
have the border oil to himself. He sends out roots ten, 
tifteen, or more feet lonir, and at the end of these roots 
ap[)ear new plants, wiiiuh if left to themselves would soon 
vie with their parent in hungry desperation. We have 
been obliged to take up the Aloes, the Irises, and the 
Squills, whieh we had placed as edgings, untl put them on 
the top of a wide wall. Many of the Aloes we have put 
"in prison," as Anloiue, the gardener says — that is, we 
have built small nooks and corner terraces for them against 
the rock, and have put them there by themselves, us in a 
penitentiary, where they can do no harm to anything else. 
1 have left one large fellow in ten feet of soil to do as he 
likes, and it is a pleasure to see the vigorous manner in 
whicii he is growing. Within a few years he has become 
a giant in size. 

I have no doubt but that tlie Aloe might he cultivated 
protitably on the arid ttanks of the mountains of tho 



Rivi«ra. Its leaves contain abuodunce of stron;; I'tiutie 
fibrM, which nre easily eitracteii by u procwvofiiULvratin^ 
iind clcnitiiijr in ]kIi'xico, iu nntivc couuir)'. Tbvy are 
impoTlvd to a ooiisidi-rubli: extent int» Bn|2la»() for bni«b- 
maliin;;. In Mexica tbey tm also used for making ntpi'*, 
nvU, aud mats. Another specivs is ciiltivatt<(l in Mi-xico 
for the nko of th« jiiic« of the IcavoK, with wlitcli an 
alcoholic driiitc called " pulque" ix made. 

The enduranee of hvat «hown. by the Sqtiill (ScilU 
mnritima) ie not surpmin^, for 1 found it iu the dritsfc 
piirt^ of Al-;«rtn, and was ttild that it pcDi-triit^'O into the 
di'«t>rt of 8iihai», and wait nil lint the Ia«t pknt to Kive in. 

llie itnmo rcnmrk, but in a minor derive, may be miide 
with regard to all the other plants that are natives of ilia 
country. The Cineraria marilima, planted in a boi'der 
M itli plenty of soil, inntoad of Win^, as usual bore, a small 
Fhriib gToning out of the creviciw of the rocks, becomes In 
a year or two a hnne bush, a« does the I^avatera, the very 
ptL'tly mountain Miillow. We ^t )(00(l plants of Cineraria 
marilima by pnllingj; tlicm out of the orevicce of the limr- 
&U>ne rocks RfW heavy rains, which have rt^uchcd tb« root* 
and luofcnvxl tliem. I dare not Kiiy where, aooording to 
Antoine, tlivsi* rool« go tu, but they certainly go a lon^ 
way, I'ur they sometimes como out several feet in length, 
TIu-Tliymi- and Itosemary also grow with wihl hixununca 
when platiti-il a» an cdt;i»^ to the buniere, hu as even to 
Dstoiiieli tlie natives ol' the ooiintry. The Thyme, as a 
dwarf dense shrub, so cuveivd with tlower in early ^^prin^, 
tliiit tbe leave* can scarcely be scon, is reidly bcautiliil. As 
I sit writing these lines in a Fern (grotto or KumnRT-honw 
ovcrlnoking the sea aud the Meiitonc amphitheatre, llie 
Thyme bitvhcs scent the air, and are covered with real wild 
" ]>i);iirbn bec¥." 

Ditfen'nt speeies of Mi-Kcmbrjanthcmuni also ifrow 
without care or irii^tion iu the warmi-nt n^gions, Iiaii^iii;; 
down theKunbdrnt walls, and on theshipin;; baiik!> and rocka 
in hnge veidant festoons, liko rivers of verdure. W'hetl 
planted so an to banjj dtjwn jH-rjicnUiciiUr walls there conies 
a t'ine when the mere weight nf tiic mass uf llcrhy hnves 
ttningtm the plant and it dies. I'hey require a good supply 






of mrth for th«ir ruiiU. They begin to flower in Mjrcli, 
iiikI iiro ill full llower by the bi.-;;ii)iiiiis or iiikMIl- of April. 
Tilt- K-jirk't varicly is tnoru eepc^iiully •jrnml wlini cuverod 
witb ttiouNindK of Howciv, which mukv the wiill, or rock, 
or bank, one ^li>wiu<; maun of Noarlet. There is a flower 
Kl tbfl sxil ofvvery lleehy leaf. 

AllfurtflofCackic^ietluurish in thesamo vi'*oroiiKnintiiier; 
they •ei'in lo beublcli* iive, like the Aloe, oil un iiiriiiitesiinal 
iiipply ufnirtb, mid they ni>|i<*iir only to waiitsoin«tbiti<; lo 

id oil by. t {irciume tliul a lurge prqioitiun of the 
••{■ccies of tliis family would survive here in the open air, 
K> out of a collcctioD of tlirue btindreil difiitretit fpeuiea 
leceivtsl from n wvll known PHrisiiin rtowct, M. I'feredorff, 
and (iluntml otit, more than ttvcthiriU Itiive iiurviveil. Tlio 
Opuotia, or Prickly-i>ear, soon lieLMmcK a ;;roteBt)u« kind of 
tn-v on the Riviera, de in CoKica, Surdinin, !^icily, iiikI 
Africa; but it is not much rullivatod on the I^igmiuu 

«t, ivhert! il» fruit ut not ii<.-ld in much i-Ktei-tn. 

Kuxcjt — Hylridv, Ti-.iit, livn^l*, Multiilorts, BankMoa, 
Ceiitilolias— be^in their npriiig flowenn*; in M^rch, and 
flower oa freely in April and May as they do with us in 
Jiiiio and July. If not allowed to cshimt^t themnrlnii, kept 
nt r«l diitinK the hot monttiK, mid wul«fed from September, 
the IlybriJit and Teou, eiipeciiilly the (Jloire de I^ijon 
lod Sofraiio, make a now growth, Uowrr freely a»nin in 
antuniii, October, Xorember, and DeceinbiT, and ^jmrvely 
tliruu£;hout the winter in warm shi-lti-rud situation*. In 
audi loculilivn the Uougala and monthlien flower I'redy all 
winter, ao tbut there are alwayn Koflex for bouijueta even 

midwinter, grown in the open uir. 

Chrj-snnthemuins 1 find in full f^lory on my arrival in 

tobiT. lliey CDiiiinue tlowerinjj uniil C'liri-lmiii'. Th'-re 
ia one birge wliite i<|te<.-ii.<«, of u Irailini; liiibit, which m oer- 
fecitly lieauliful: it eovere the ground wiUi lovely wliitv 
Sowvn', and looks like a bridal bouquet. Very eoon ap|>ear8 
the Linum Irigynum, which thrivi^B and flowent like u 
tQooeeberry biixh. The noil and eliniate must he jiiit what 

requinw, for tt t;rotvs readily from euLlJii^> without eare, 
tonnn ingurous plants without manure, and beur^ myriiids 
of huudsume yellow tlowore, which continue until Alarch, 




by wlikli time every brnndt i* cnvettd with Mi-d-pod 
GszoiiiiiA lire <iuitv bnrdy, lloweriDg in Miircli. 

One of the w inter -floweriiiff shrutw wliicli does the 
and Suwere the mo&t freely, is the Ilahiuthatnims vli'gMM^ 
It throws n« a hiii^h some ten or fift<i-ii feet hi^h, im in 
fluwvT by initnniii, atii) U-am myriiKlx of llotvcra mil wiiiter. 
The A(rfrati)malK» Dowers all winter freely, in the driest and 
rocbii'alparUorthe garden. It grows toa pood-sized hush, 
tind is one maae of bloom. The eamo may be Hiid of 
the compPfiitc; O- teoi'])rrntiim liiid of ihe Puttim Stra^ 

The Da^ylirium thrives thoroughly in tho open proiind; 
Sonic pluiita reei-ivei) from Algiere u few yeiire o-jpi, anil' 
phintcd in rocknork, have become larj^c and buuiitirul 

The HeHotmpe lii^eii the lime foil and the sunny di 
weather, for it grown and thrives like » Ijlat-kheiry biisli, ' 
flowering profiiscly all through llio winter in slRltircd 
sunny situations. As it does not die dotvn, but bi-eomca it| 
larft"-' lis'tfci's shnih, and heare itn swert-Mrcntrd evcp*' 
renewed tlowern on every twig, it ia an irn purl mil feature 
ui the winter garden at Mentoue. Its hi-nlthy luxuriance 
iit January and Fehniary ia also a good test of the mildness 
of tho totality, and of its tnimunity from froet. In th» shiule 
nnd in cx|K)i>«d Bitimtion* ii doi-s nut die, but vegetaliw and 
thiwera sparm-Iy only during the winter. 

Luntanns also (lower very freely diirinv the autumn ani] 
winti.T,h(comiiiglnr(*clisiK'oUK«hriilis^ne;irly trees, indeed 
They M,'eni to retiuire little or no carr, and jfrow well in dryJj 
rocky, suDhurnt Kituatious, bearing the Eumnicr heat and 
aridity uninjuivd. 

Bougainvilica epectabilis is generally considered, I b»(| 
lieve, to nquire rallii-r a hi^h temperature. I have had^l 
howt'ViT, ^t-vi-ra! plimU' tfrowinjj in iho open air for »om( 
year*, nhieh are peil'eetly heulthy, and are (lowering fre«'ly. 
1 was led to plant them out owing to the lullowing 
circnm!^tnnc«s ; — Id tho garden of M. Thuret, the uelU 
known hotimist at Anlibes, whieh is moro esposed and 
colder than Mentotie, 1 I'ouitd on April ii, the nontli. 
easlern la^-ade of the house completely .eovHvd with a 
nagniliccut Boutin villea spoctabUis in full Hower. U 



iraly a s|>k-n(lt() ii;;l>1, for the entire front of the house 
vra» otio lit.i7.i- witli tlii; llon't^n und rose-uolourecl tirnotii of 
this lovely cHmbyr. Oil my n-liirn to my country reaU 
ilirnvc at Weybridjfc I was sur|>ri8ed to tiotl » Bous»ii)viliea 
four yvixn old in lull dower far the first time, hair tilling ii 
bothouae. In this house, which hiid alwiiye Ixii-n he»lC(I 
antil that very winter, t!i<! l)i>u^.iinvillL-a, planted in peat 
und leuf-moulii iu a Iwrder fontied hy biitrking up an 
lin{{Ip, had tliriven but never (lowered. Owing to altcru- 
tionii it Ijiiil W-n kept eool, the frowt mori'ly hiivirifj bci^n 
kept out of tlie homo. My nirdonur, whn liiid lived fori 
muiiy years in a leiding hortienltural cstalitisliineiit, t'jIdJ 
mv that he had always kuotvn the IIoii};uinvillea treat4.>d.] 
hy hut, nnd was siirprist-cl to sec it Hower so wry freely 
under oool tmtment. Thift reiuilt, liowovor, euincidud 
wilh wliiit I had witne^e'l at .M. Ttnirot'ii at AntiU'i*. I 
nijy ud.l, that I hove also ainoe seen it Hi>weriiig profusely 
in"i'lv und ontside a siiinll trln^^liouse at Alphunse Kerr's 
l^iirdon at Nice,— at the Jardin d'Kssai Algiers, at Malta, and 
in Siirily on noulli wulls. In the nme house iit Wcylirid^ 
Wtf have lI(iweT«<) for yeiirn in MtioccKHion, in niodernl« heat, 
oilier plants, [tignotiia j;i4minoid«R, and Khynohospermum I 
juiimiiioides, nsiinlly treati'd with beat. 

The Mwcet Alyssum, so much usci) with us as au edging, 
ia A native uf tlitM country, and ^^ws luxuriantly in the 
orevices of the lime rock* on th« wido of the roads every> 
where, indeed flowering freely ail winter. Like thv other) 
iiiilives, if furnished with plenty of soil it becomes quite 
hu-h^, and i« then nne muss of Howers. Chinese I'timnUis 
HnUI'Uh M iM^n'uniilii. 

A remarktilile feutiirc In Itivicra gardening in that many 
n<iM'erR which with us are annuuU and die down in tlis 
autumn, lire here perennials and attain a ooiisidemble size. 
Thuii Fetuniimiinrvive the winter, and speedily become largo 
biishet*, whieh ate covered wilh Howom cairly in Februarv ; by 
lliv end of that month they arc quite g«r.;eoiw. Cxnia- 
lionx uUo ilo not sutler from the winter, and beeoine larg« 
bimheit if taken care of; they (lower sparsely during wint«r 
in the sun, but not in the slin<le. Pinks bloom, but noti 
until A[nri|; Ten-week StockH and Wnllflawem becoiitu 
br^e permanent husliea, and arc vpleiidtd in Jklarch, Uio 



8u>oks ea[>eciiiUy an; duzalina witli tlie profusion of tlie!^ 
flowers. The singular Coecoloba platycladou llourUhcs b» a 
huffis bitsh. 

Tliu Nucissufl and Tulip seom to like tfic lime aoil, and 
grow will] in [iroAirion oil Homu of the cuUivaUd t^rrnoes, 
80 mucib »» iii I'l 1)6 a uuiiiiinL-v to tiie a^ricuUiiri^U. Tliu 
Natx.-igf'Ufi begins t« (lower in January, the Tulip not uiilil 
(111- tiiidilli* ot February. Hyacintluinro founil wild, but not 
iiliiiKbinlly ; ihcy llirive well in th« *o\\ of" tlie country, 
Tbt'i'e which I liuvii Inviti^lil from Knglntid, Ituwered in 
]iot«, and, flobse<iuenllv ('bnlod out, have since bloomed in 
tbe open tjiirdi-u as bnlli.-iiitly as tho tiist year. I pruoiimu 
ibe climalu is very mucli like tb»l of Ou-ir nntiv<( counlry. 
liideod tliey do WtU-r in thu ltin« t>uil o( this region, 
eli^htly manured, than when planted in Clieetnut mould. 
]n the Ifflttt-r they jfrow too ranlily, as if the soil were too 
ricli for ttiom. 

Primrysfji and Hi'paticutr nrc found wild nbund&ntly on 
thtf »liiii[y nidc of a dcs-p wutiTcoiimr llii'iiu;xli a dundet'ini) 
valley, culled the i'rirnr>i»e valk-y. I havu placed tliem in a 
light arlitii^ial soil, where they lioufish, as do Cyclamen 
pL'reictim, Crocnsi'S, and Snotvdrops, the Inlter brought 
fi-om England. Snuwilraps, however, singularly uiiough, do 
not fliiwer before Juniiary or 1-Vbruury, as in the north. 
They retain their natural habit, an does the Peach and Apri- 
cot will* ns, and die out aHer a year or tno. as iiorlhernera 
unKuib.-<l Ifi the eliniiite of the noulh. Ktinnnculi dn very wi'll 
even in the lime itoil, but belter still in a lightartifiuiul mould. 
They Hower by the eud of February, and are very lovely. 

Camellias and Azaleas, and, in general, all plants with 
wry imiiH, delicate roots, do not eiiccecd in the lime «oil, 
whieh Ncemx loo Ftitf and hot for them. In the abnenoe 
of peat, which ii ditTK-ult to obtain in the dry stinbunit 
regione of the south of Eurii[K'i it is UKiial to plant them in 
Chestnut earth, mould formed by the decay of the Cheninut 
leaves in Chestnut tree forests. But at Menlone even this 
4-urlli i» diHiciilt to obtain, and expensive, for it has to be 
fetched by tnule* from Mniv tvn miles or more in tlie moun- 
tains. Ilowever, I scouiied out all the earth Irom a sninll 
slightly -shaded terrace dotvn to the rock, and lilted it with 



an artificial aoil, fonned of ttvo-thirde Chcslout e«rtti, one- 
third siknd, iiti<l K liUlo powdered ch4iri»iil. In this border - 
I pluntvil Catnc-Diai and Azll]^aH «ovcrnl ycara affn. 
Tbry liiive done very well, without any protection wiiit«r 
or Mimater, and the CamolliaB have fluwered freifly each 
winter Trom ChrivtmnN to April ; the Azahas do not bloom 
until April. Ijotu-ily my gardener hn» discovered iu ilns 
liigb«r moiintaiiia a rettion cuven-d with Calluna Tulgarix, 
oar ling h^atiier. The eoil, to the depth of several inches, 
is formed hy tliu deciiy of tlnf hentlirr leaves. 1 have hiul a 
t|iiHntity or thix tioil brou^^ht down here, filled two ti.-Tr4cc« 
hewn out nf the rock, away from olive ruots, and have 
planted them wilh Camvllian from hago Mn^xiore wbivb 
are doint; very well. I therefore eonnider the question 
•oIvihI itx to the adaptability of the climate to the cultiva- 
tion of Camellias in the open, provided n proper soil be 
eiipplicd, Aeyvt they have not Wm ^r»wn in this district. 

The CajM! JuKmine or (iardenia, plaiiti,'d ont in Uicku 
artificial m\\», {^>ws bixuriuutly, and ia covered with W4:tl- 
fonned buda, which bloiwom at the end of May and 
heuinninif of Jane. The (gardener telli me that tlie 
IIowcn>i aro very l>cii<itirul, but that their odour is very 
bad, actually poisiuiin;; the (jarden. This view of the cii»u 
ii a gi>od illu«tra(ii>n of the inditrcreocc, nAV, po>iliv« dislike, 
of many nitiithirntm tii the iKenta which wi.- ptixe the movt, 
whiUt thfiy Mt-m to poaiiivcty rejoice in the most viDanoit* 
and Biiiiit unwholesome odoiire. 

X mittt aot (ortjct to siy u lew wonN nlwut the Salvias, 
many tpveica of which llnwcr and floiiriiih throughout the 
iviiitjir. The most valiial;le, however, are ; the ijalvia 
cardinnlip, or imperinliu a» it is uilled bore, the Salvia ^ 
KC« lie nit' Horn, and the- S. ^ph-iidenx, The former [imwK 
juxuriiinlly as a large li^iieotis bush, from live to eij^ht tei-t 
hi;;h, and ia oovered with a profusion "f terminal crimson 
flowcrv. It begins bo Auwer early in Dcci-mher, and cun- 
llnnca to pmwnt a fforgvoue dabm i>f bloom for a couple of 
months. The two tatter grow and flower with the same 
liixitriance, be<^inni»;; to blowom about Christmas, and 
c><i>tiiiiiiug U> form daxzUng mamea of Bcarlet flowcm uUj 
winter. Tbvy really ore perfectly splendid, and bol 



dcepTve Ihc cpitlict " »pl*ii(lmF/' pppcciuHy when in eld 
proximitv to n liirfru biihli ni' llii' Miir^ii-rilo, or Clirvviii 




icoaura. Thici latter sliiiib UMiiiiies 
piw, snd W the middle o)' Febniaiy, in the sun, is covered 
utth thousands of Duisy-like tlowvrs, n-hich look like a 
fherl t>f M'liile. The»e plant*, with tb« NuKliirtium, otxnipjr 
a iirnmiiient plate in our winter ^nlenirir fiom the 
liijtiirianct' ff their bloom. The Nuntiirtium flowers freely 
111! winter, but in the ewn only, becoming u ligin-ous 
pcri'iuiicl elimbt^r, ^J 

Tlio^oil of my ^nnlcn nnd rocks bein;; entirely calcareous i^^l 
not fnvourablctollio gem-rul run of CoMilVrs. Tlicrc lire some. 
liowi^tT, wbiL'ti iwcni im'iiHiirly iiuiti-d to niicb ahiIk, :uid , 
thrive on catcareoua rocks all over the Mediterrnn<fln 
basin, such as Pious mnrilimn iiml Pinuv hulcpuntiiii,and most ' 
Cyprcwi^, wpiciiilly CiiprwHus pymniididia, C ni«i.-rooiir|>a, 
C. Liiiiiln-itiatiii, The very liinuliful Norfolk Inland I'tni^^^ 
Araucariu cxccUia, seenm to yrow vi^rwisly in ihis »ii]3PV 
There are t>everat very lieaiititiil f^pcciniL-ti8 at the Moiiuco 
(jardcns which have gronn to n hfiyht of IS fi-cl in lct« 
thon four yeHR<. I found them llourivbini; t)l#o in Ihi' lima 
voil of Multa. There are several speciefl of Juniper uild oa 
my rocke, and thiiving luxuriuntly. 

Uanauiiit crow, lioun«b, and Hpcn their fniil in jiJiellored 
wuim localitica, sa, lor instance, in the ^ai'den of Cienenil 
^Ivuton, on the biai'li, belon' the Ituc^'iihrnna stHlion. I 
imported from Alpora w-vcrul Abyi'i'initin Mumii^, the Mu^a 
ICoiivIe, which hiive (irown vi^rouxly in my t:urden and 
have become very bcunlifiil " trees," in tbe course of lem. 
than three year*. 

Inipre«fed with the idea that in A elimatc where thi 
Date Palm flouriehea so well other hardy Palms migh' 
•uoceed, 1 seot to Algiers and Marseilles for iboHC 
marked half hardy in thi; eatulogui?, plunted them out, 
nnd HuocoMled in (cettm^ many through the winter. The 
Cliamnrope humilis proves to be perfectly hartiy, which 
was euro to be the cflKc, ii* it vuceeedH where tlie winter 
climate in much more severe than on ihia coaat. Titus it 
grows freely and abundantly in Mindy, uncultivated loca- 
lities in tbe soutU of Spuiit — in Andalusia evpcciaUy — w 





frwly ii)<lee<l asGorse on our commons ; and it used, it is mi, 
to ^row wild ill Pruvcnoc and on tlic Rivii-rii. The 
(')iaiui?ro|<« Putmvttu iiad exoel^a «Iho liavi! MurvivMl tJte 
wtnlen in perfuot health, as likewiiie Uttuiiia ilorlmnicii, 
UoOM ol«rucou, Phoinix rttnnoiM, Siilinl Adniiwiiii, Chamai- 
lvi|M etaurncitntliit, Oreo:loxii S>iiniX)nH, and Rhuiiitt lliiliolti- 
t'ormitf. Uthcnt die<l, but I Iwlieve that 1 did not )i;ive 
th«m B fair trial. They camo to mu from a li«:ited 
Palm-huusc, and veto at once pluntinl out in Novcmhur. 
PerhapA tliL-y noiitil liavf Hurviv«d had the tcaniiitioii Uon 
We* Hitddvn. Whiit mukva me think ao ia that aotae |>]iiatit 
of liiuiim trigyniim which as I have Btaled is perltctl/ 
hard)' hcii;, flowurin^ profuMcly nearly nil winter, received 
from MurMcilteM nt tW Mine lime, no douht Trdra ii plant- 
hoaiie, hin^i»hed and perished. Mureuver, the I'lilniM were 
planted ill the lime soil of ihy country, and more extended 
rxpcrienctt of the Pttlin trihc in Africa and .Spain led 
ma to coiieludv that to gire tliem a fair chancu the soil la 
which they ur*.* pljuited :<liriuld hn oilher mainly ur pnilly 
fliliceoii*. Certainly, n-henever I have Mti-n th<- IMni 

.crowing; lEixuriantly in moMos, thv soil has heen of this 


For many n-jntcra I hav-o lieen in the habit of putting 
Palou. principally Lalania jlorbouicii and Corypha auxtrali*, 
in [>ots and XaJarHiniifei, and keeping th«ia in south draw- 
iD|;-raoin», in n day tempviaturo of from dt' to Vi^', and 
niu;ht tcmpcMture of Ai to 60*. They remain |)erl'cctty 
healthy all winter, and on refrnttinj; them in the !>nriii|j: I 
generally lint) their root* quite frch and sound. Palms are 
much UM-d in thiii way in I'ariti, ev«n in winU-r, for house 
diHioration. They are very ornamental in ruiniia, and very 
Ijiurdy, bt^arint; the drync«i< of the atmiNiphorc ot inhahitetl 
koiuce with ap]>itn;nt immunity. Indeed, it ii Knt]i>;ii.-nt to 
visit the Falm-houMS on the Continent in apriuf; to bu 
(nnviuced of their hanliltood. I may mention, as an illua- 
trutioD, the I'alm-hoii«c of the Dutanio Oanlon lit Mont- 
pulivr, whivh I vUited one year at the end of April. 1 
found it perfectly crammed with Pdlma of all SDrtit, riinall 
and lar^, which had iicurc^ly ntoiidin^ room, and yet (hey 
ill ap{ieflre<l to bu healthy and doiii(f well nller a loaj* 


vrintrr'it con ii DC men I in n liiilf-iigUted lean-to 1>uili]iTi)>, I 
wttB twid that in aummer tlie^ nere nearly ull ptit out in 
the Ksnkn. 

Wiebint; to luiCCTtein. hy pononal obwrrntion, what 
light horticulture throws on thu cliraatu of other protectml 
regions of the north shores of the Mediterranean, more to 
tiie v/eet, in the npring of 1H<I6 I made « hoTticiilliiral 
exciirnon from Mt-ntonc to Mancillcs, Bturling Apr 
th« loth. 

At Nice I cKaminn) the j^riteDa of Count ^fa^^aria» 
M. Gastaux, and Biiron Vi^ricr. Id all I TonDd, ns in mj 
own, the onliiuirv oprin^ lh>wcn', Siilvian, Iln-ris Kcmprr- 
virviiii, Silene, llyacintli, Narciasus, lianuaculus, Vir-sj 
giiiisn Stock, Roinf? off. Rosqb oomin|r on. 

Coiint Mur};ariit's f^nlc-n ts more mpccially remarliahte 
for hilt ctdlivution of tin* Camellia in the 0|>cii air. Hi- hiia 
scores of lai^ Camellia trees, from ten lo litleen rr Ivvciity 
feet high, suvh as are seen on the shores of Lake Como, all 
lookin;{ perfectly hoalthy, and coven-d with thonsantls of 
flowers. Tlie CVvitnt told me that hu hnji liMtn cultivntiDf 
Cumellin* for many years at Nice, and had ohlaihe<l mcaE 
of his trees from Conto. They had f;ivoii him {•rest trouble. 
He hfld tried varioiiK artifwial noiU, tho cidairoouM soil of 
Nice, a* stiitM), not HuitJn^ Camellias or fiue-roo1i-d pliintg 
in general, lie hod planted them in eoiU com|>06ed of ' 
charcoal, decomposed manure, and vanil, and in chestnut 
leai'-mould, the tiaual M>il !«lect«i) in the !^>uth of Knropc,. 
hut had never been saliahed with the results oUained nntil ] 
he imported soil from the neighbourhood of Lake Como, 
whieli ho ha<l done nt a great cxpenite. Thiit mil la a rich 
loamy i>eat, more compact than the peat of the north of 
£nKipe, appateiitiy containing; a cofiEidernhlc amount uf 
onlin.iry icar-mniild. It in more Ktiitcd to the dr)* iiir and 
scorching nun of the Biviera and Nice climate than ordi- 
nary [leat. It is the soil in nhich the Camellia ^rowH to be 
a tree twenty or thirty feet high, nnd shows such surprising. , 
luxuriance, on the shoiva of Ladcea Como and Maegiorc. / 

At lirat the Count, oonforming to tlie ueonlideiis on 
this «uiijcct, planted his Camellias in the shade, hut 
rvcuUecliug that the Como trees arc planted in the 



Opes air, in s loculily nearly as warm as Nic», he boldly 
tnrrw nsi<lD nil ntU-mpts nt ehiiJin};, removed or cut down 
ail protection, leaving tbi'm in the full blaite of the 
sua, and tliat wiUi decidH advantajre. I tnyadf recollect 
^bcing surprisi>d to see the large tree Cametlina at the llaliaa 
Ite in full Ktinrhinc, for wlieR-vw I have lieon, before or 
nnce, 1 have always found hidfHhade inculcated m n precept 
ID their cultivation. Still it must be remembered that the 
air in not so dry, nor the mm so ardent aittl Hcorcliini;, at 
the Itttliwi lake* as it i« on ttie north ithorc of the Mrditcr- 
nneui. I would remark that these lar^ tree Camulliu^, 
eoYerMl with thousands of ftowere, bcaiitifid as they are, 
havtf one ereat diiadvuDtngc when coni{inred with smnller 
tplautH. Aft t]>e bloMotns oome into Rower in Kucceesion, 
[iBot all si once, many muBt bo Tadiof;. These faded llowera 
' not fall olT for vomc time, and Fpnil the look of the tree 
mleas taken ofTwith the hand Thin the ganJener does in 
a conservatory, but it becomes impossible when the trcA is 
oovered with myriads of flowers. I'hus, although it BW>tin<ls 
vety grand to hear of Camellias covered with thoiiFands of 
bloMomx, viii'h Irece in reality do not louk an wirll when in 
flower, as amalU'r, more manasenble plants. The prineijunl 
sorts cultivated were the IriiW, allm plena, varicifatii plena, 
Ancmnna-floni, incarnnia, ulthii'ithira plena, llowonntf tn 
K"Vinib.-r and Deeenibfr ; Henri J-labre, Uival rorige, pul- 
cherrima, Printempe, tIowerin<; in Jannary ; and Grand 
Monar<)ne rwige, flowering in February. 

In addition to the plants which I have de*eril>cd as 
flourishing throughout the winter in my sarden in the open 
ur, without protection, I found at Count Mar-Aria's per- 
fectly hcidlhy apccimens of the fnllowing planiv: — Diwyli- 
riuiu rolMiihim, jutK-ifuliiim, longifolium, ttracile, chniciim, 
etrictum, Alsophila exeelea, Fiium re|)enii, Beauoami.'a recnr- 
[vubi, Ajniostu* sinuat^ia, (jrevillea a)|>c<trii>, Chiinttemps 
' escelaa. I)ambi)t>a l-'ortniiei, ituniia villosa, horrida, Phor- 
mium lenax, Bignoom llccvcsiunaj Philodendion jxirtusum, 
Bi^nonia jastniiiilolia. 

The ganlon of Uaron Vigier, which riHes by a t;cntle slope 
from the sea, looks I'lttl B()nth-we%t, and is th<'ri>ii'^hly hIicI- 
luied frvni the north-east by the mountain of Vdlefranohe. 




It contains inany remarkuble specuneos of Mine of th« d 
BiVDlioiKil planUt, growing luxuriantly in the open air, m 
aim muny olhera, amongst wliii:li I wotild nmnu Yuoca 
|)eiidii]a, qtiadricolor, dnwonis; UTiuieiia Dnico, guaU- 
malensis; Greigb sphaceluta; Ficus Cbauren, I'orteuna; 
BrnliL'a dulcis; Dion «!Oiil«, Chainwrope GliiLitbrc'^htii, 
tomenkin; Anilia daolvlir»lia, Araucartu cxm-Ikii, gtimm 
robusta; Melaleuca erkifolb. ^^ 

'rh« ganlan cruaUid by M. Gu«Uitix, notr tho property o^H 
M. Onmbatt, oonlains Duuy uf the above plattu, but is 
mure eepednllv remarkable for the magnificent specinuiita 
of Uie Miiea EiiKutv and of tlic Araiicnnn which it contains. 
Th«v grow atone or iit ^roup* on the lawn, mid urv nl) iwble 
plunla. Two Aunicaria excelea have rapidly urown in 
liie course of a few ywrs to an elevation o( thirty-five 
or forty loct, and are ]>erfevtly *|)li;iidtd trv*.« ; their foliage 
i« giw*y and bright, and ea«n whorl of braiichva snoooods 
the other with niatliematical precision. The soil and dimat* 
ninst tiuit theui tliorou^hly ; the former is a red cali-ureotia 
eurtb, mixed with loam, lliu Muwi £n«ct« migiit also be 
in its native AbyMioia; in three or four years Itiv plants 
have ri«en to a lieight of above twenty feet, and coiMtitute 
one maas of wide graceful leavn, not drooping as in tlio 
common wlihlc Bitnaiiu, or torn by the wind, as itre nlwuys 
itiv IfitvuN of the latter when planled in Ibe optn air, but 
intact and erect, folding i^ntovfullv one over the oilier. Aa 
alieady slated, 1 have myself received <evend from Algiers^ 
whiuh are faal becoaiinu very beautiful plants. 

ThisKarduniaoDu of the curiosities of Nice. Itoocnp* 
a larjfe area u lillbr ulwvc the rca level, nnd biw \Kvn brougl 
into tbortxitrb I'ollivattnn. Variuim ovciiufK have beei 
foimt^d of Kuculyjilu^ globulus, Schiniis mulli, MAi:nuln 

Sindiflora, and tlieyarenll growing with amazing vigour; 
e two foimci bare become liir^c IrocM in the CuorH of a 
few ycare. The Kucalyptus is being planted extensively 
ovirihis iiartof tlie Mediterranean shore, us also in Corsi< 
and Algeria. The summvr warmth, the mildm-as of 
wtntcni, and the dryness of the atmosphere appear to repro 
duce ite native Auetridian climate, to that it grows with 
all its natural vigour. As the woud is liard and good— fit 

of a I 





./or l>uUdiug and ship purpows, iiotnitlistandiDg: lis very 
Bpid growth, it is likdy to prove a very vtHuMv Api|tiifiiliu» 
tbc itrboriiniUtirtt of the toulh of Eiin>pu. TIil* liirge 
• nivutcii n«nr th« railway station al Nice, the g;rowUi 

'of half a dozen yoan, well illustralo its capabititius a» a 
tBpid grower. Monrnvcr, it iip)M.>ant to potauo tin: virl.iio 
arremivriiii; malanouit ivt;i»i)s heiilth}', pruhably by draiiiiiiij* 
lie soil. It has been tried in inareh«, but does not thrive 
in nctuidly wet land, or in very hot rlimuto;. 

Oh leavii)); Nice, I went over to UuH' Jiiitn, a few miles 
am CaniicB, to sue the gardens of M. N'arhonnard, a 

^irell-knowD borticuUiirist in that re^fioo, who supplies 
mo«t of the Cmidm gmdeni. 1 fotind him fully uHvu Ui tin; 
oapuhihticH of the itoi), !,un, and chmute of lliin puit uf the 
north ^horo of the MediU-rranmti. lie told me that the 
ftilur«> of nuMt minaltiin to laisc- Pulma, Dntcnuus, Dii^y- 
Urinm, Yuccat, which would ri'^tly grow Mid flourish in thiH 
region in the open air, were owini;, aa 1 presumed, to the 
•pticimeiis ptaatod bein^ received direct from hothouses. In 
hie estabhshmcnt the plaitU rnis4^d from seeds in he-nt, and 
kvpl under cover for a year or two, arc put ont-of-tluors 

'gradually, kept entirely witJiout protection f»r & couple of 
jeai-H, and then only ^ivcn to his enstotnere. Ity such treat- 
ment ho ooldd rely on their «t«iidin(; out of doors the eli^lit 

k-cold oftoutlierH winters. He showed me a lurgo eollect.ion 
of planl« usually considered too delicate for outiluor culliva- 
tioD, evi-n in the w>iith of Europe, which he could warrant 
to Rt«nd llie winter ciihl between Toulon and Pifa. In nearly 
■11 this region the ihermoincter gooidowu to iliefrei-xingr 
point or to a dc^rcu or two above or below, times in 
the winter. Auion^ theM w«ro — Phaxiii puinila, leoneiieix, 
nvliniitrtj CoMM eitn))>est ris, Jlexiiosn, auntriili"! ; Jiibuui 
Bpectabilis, SeaforUiia ele^aua, Coryplia uuilralis, Dion 
Mol*, Sbmin horri<hi, Cycu revoluta, Channeiop elesans, 
Smoeoa ourdyliDB, Yucca atoifolia, glorious i Costiarina 
tenakrinu. Btriota. He had a eollection of healthy Araii- 
caria exct-lsa, from two to three feet hi|j;h. 

The next day (April 12} 1 man nt C'«iUies,and went care- 
fully over the garden of the Duke of VidombroM. whiuh is 
very sheltered Irom the north on a slopti all but due houIIi. 



1 finind vps^atinn qiiilo ns ntlvanood ns nt Mentone, Nityf, 
ftnil (idirjuiin. The Mewrmbrjiinllicmum Dovred don-ii the 
bank siiieH like a river of purple and libc. Th« Bunkeun 
ami miiUiflLira Koeos were in bloom, other Ro««« were 
bi^t^inning to opt-ii, »* idKO Spiraea, Cvtiens, Fabinoa im- 
bricatu, iind KHcx arI)on»i. There were in the open, io a 
vtate of perfect health, larjjo specimena of Cvcasi rcvoliiUi, 
Dion ediilf. Ch«n>tcr<>i» ntcliiiiHii, Phoenix Iponensiu, Arau- 
coria Bidwillii, Arnha Sieboldi, ^Iumi Enrntv, 1>asyiiriuin 
loogiemmum, Vucca tnoolor, Alaophita austridis, Khopala 
CoTOovadonsis, Dranena indtvi^a. Indeed^ the impreMton 
produced upon me by the earvful examination of thia 
oeaotiful and well-kept Rardeo is, that Mlthungh vome 
regtoDs of the Oenoeeo Hh-iem or ^[editerranenn uDder- 
difl*, i^iioh a« Monaco, Mentone, and St. Kcmo, may he 
much more itkeltered frooi disagreeable windit than Caimes, j 
UmI much lefis expoBod to ni;;ht froete, the amount of nuq^sbM 
heat reeeit'cd there, in favoured epote, maet be ({utte as^V 
grent as in any other of these rcgioiiH. I may asy the same 
of Hybroa, which I visited on another occaaion a little later 
(on tJie tiud of April). I found vegetAtion nearly, if not 
quite as odTan<vd as at Nice or Cannes. Although mor« 
trotihled with the mitlrat, or north-went wind, which is the 
peclilcni-e of the South of l-Vance or Provonee, it luicrt Hhsro 
in the general eun^hont and protot^tion which pertains to tliu 
cowt region* nhfltered by the Mariliine Aljw and by the 
Apennint-H, aa proved by it« vegetation. 

From Cannes I proceeded to Marsrillos, and, bettidea 
visilini; the ptiblio ganienn, wentover, carefully, the beautiful 
griHiiidx and hothwiHes of M. Scaramooeya, an eminent | 
Greek meivhani, who«e gardening pslitblishinent, 1 mom told^rf 
by hortieiilturisU, »one of the bi'ol ami m(#t complete io^^ 
the vicinity of Mar*.-ill«i. 1 was intn-h struck (Aj-ril 13) ' 
with the extreme diftVreuoo between the vegetation of tUia 
garden and that of the protected voaNt linewbich I had Ji»t 
lelt. Tlic recent prewince, and the habitnal pn-ircnce of 
winter, wa« evident everywhere. Allhongh in the nme 
latitude, the want of prelection fr4>ni the north showed 
iteell in the wmplete alfenee of nearly all ooutheni veyc- 
tation »ucli aa 1 have described. No Lemon or Ornn^> 


FIjOWRR-S asd horticulturb. 



trees, no Palms, no Dniicamw, no Duvlirlum, only the 
most hardy Vuocod. Even the aprin^ nowere were back- 
ward, itniJ GuraniiimE pluiit<>d nut recently in sliclUirod, 
Kunny Hitiutiun*, liiid their Ichvim t>in<;i.-d hy fnMt. Ddqi- 
(liioud trves sc^irculy ithowed iiiiy evidence of lifi;, and ibere 
were many other evidentea of recent severe weather. The 
l^aidviiiT, ■ viT)' int«llif^Ql man, was fully aworu of th« 
lUUMC of thiit >tutc of tliinf'i'. Mari<i,*i]I^M hiw no ri-al pro- 
tection from the uoith wind^, \yhin as it does at the bottom 
of the funnul down which the llhone dareccnds to tliu sink. 
ThuN, in wiDter, thi- tlicrmometcir oiU-n goes down from 
lU'' to !&" below the fn^cxiiig jxiiiit, irhil»t in summer, 
owinK to its southern altitude, it is burnt up by the scorch* 
in); hont nllvcUil from the limestone mountains that ttur- 
rouud it. Even iDsiimmtrr 1 wuh (old that the thi;tni(iint-ti-r 
oooasionally deactfnd* buKiw the freuKing point at night. 
Oa ibo other band, the woutii-weet wind olten blown fri>ni 
iSlV tarn to strongly m to bend and brt-ak trees and (rhriil^j, 
or to diispoil tbeot of nearly uU their foliage. The m<iMlh 
of March thitycarlmd huen nnuxually Kuvereiind ljoi»tcrciii«, 
and many sbruUi that bud sLuod tlieir unround for years had 
been killed. In the conservatories and hothouses, however, 
1 found ull the wotithcrn plants cultivated in the opi^n uir in 
my ((urden at Mcntune, anil at ('uiinits, Nice, and Hy^rei', 
Tne»e plants wei'e niunt luxuriant, snd olearly required 
1k«s nltcntion and beiit than in similar houses in tlie 

The horticultural knowledge aciinired on the lUviera bas 
in its liiru he«n of une to me in England, and some of my 
reudum, gardening im Itob sandy aoil, may Ix; iutcrcitvd to 
know hi>w thin knowledge ho* been applied. 

My suhurlKin retreat at Weyhriilgc, in Surrey, is sitnatcd 
on the margin of a (ir'covered, lieutber-clad f<.>rest. Thu 
flower gunlen is small, only extending over nhonta couple of 
ucref> of itilie«ouH oand. The »it«- wai9cho)>en lu favournhlu Ut 
the health of man, for it is a well known fact thai the worse 
a locality is for the cnltivation of plants, the drier, the 
Windier it ts, the better it is adapted for human health and 



hdtnan longevity. Th« coDveree » eqaalljr true. A deep, 
taoist, rich soil, calculatoj to f^upport r»nk fertility, such aa 
K fotiiiil in V(itk7«, on the hank* of rivers, is twt one ihnt 
tlic leanicd iu medicine would choose Tor » eonvAlcMent 
boepitd, Bueh »a the admirable inetitution on Waltoa : 
ComnwD, n milo or two rrom mc. 

I l>c<Min« tlic owiwr of Uits wiDdv el^'xitiin many yvnr* , 
ago. I had previously been absolutely a townsman, my liro 
having; been entirely paired in two great cttiee, Paris and 
London. What I kn«w of butany imd tiorticnlturA was 
merely what tontianien ^'t out of botanioal gardens, 
berharia, and oocaeional holiday glim]ie>es of the conntry, 
their "Arcadia." I entrnetvd tlic luyin); out of nty bit of 
common to a "nkilTul" ktiiltw:ii)iu gardrner, re«ommrndud 
by n friend, and nu'delf remuiued passive, mindful of lb« 
proverb "jV« tii/or." , 

The future garden, formed of eiliccoas ennd, containing 
n very »«inty idlowanoc of vegetuble noil, nwlinl on un iron 
pun u few iiichex from the surllaoe, Nomc three int-hcs thick, 
and iw Itard as the foot pavement in Fall Mall. It waa 
Bi>ai'i<t--ly covered with Heather, Gorse, and Broom. All 
this was removed, and the ground " pii:tiire)'i)iiely" hiid 
out by cartti)-; thucoil from Llie centre, and r»rmii)g irre- 
{TiiUr nlopini; bedii all round, in front of the dniwinji-room 
window^!, and at the angles. I paid for deep treuchin;; of 
the entire siirfuec, and IW the dowtruction of the iron pan, 
but I wax not there to suixirinlcnd the worki;, and it was 
only purtitdly done, ae I leanit to my sorrow many ycara 
alterward». Then on these beds of sand, raised on tJie 
unbroken iron pan, wore planted above 7U/. worth of 
Ojiiilcrs, cvergreena, and itliruhf, the garden, it must boi 
re<;ul]<M;ted, not bein^ more than a couple of aores. | 

The battle for life, initiated under such oonditJona, waB-i 
attended with the result that mi^lit have been anliciiiAted 
ill a sunny, hot, dry Kituuliun, and in it candy Hoil. At th« 
end of two yeant but few of thu ran:r iihrula were left, 
Bhododendrona, fortu)^ Laurels, Uemlo<^ Spruces, Spruoe 
Firs, Taiodium semperviivos. Hollies, a few Deodars, and 
Abies l>»iigla»ii, with Lnbunium, Ai^h, and Birch, wen 
pretty nearly nil that ivmained, and they were anythinff 



but vii^rons in growth and size, Then followec] years of 
uapcrli,'>vt Rnnlcn dcvt-KipmiiDt, 

My gLiritiMiiii;; cxiktHl-iiw han tlios beon gained on twn 
rdifiercnt soils, the one calcareous, tlie otiier siliceous, both 
'yrtMnn'tng very little rentable soil. It has lud me, in ulL 
numihty, to quuntion a (loctrinu recently broiuihcd by oni 
of our gnat botuuicjil authoritieK — viz., ttie adaptabiUty 
of all plants to all soils. In the battle orlife those having 
nnluriii uflinitics to partictdar soils seem to me to gain tbo 
day. or courei^ in rich alluvial M»iU, more leaf-mould, all 
plants thrive. But a lar^ jwrtion ol'the earth's siirfuce is 
Dovurud with lime or sand, and not with deep alluvial soil. 

During thMB ycare, had it not bcirii Tor what was donv 

Bnder |{bi««, I nbould havu but little plnirure from 

Ithv garden. However, thanks to tho kuowled^ recently 

[■oquired in th<i south, which thoroughly applies to a dry, 

[nnburiit Eitgitsh garden, an era of improvcniuiit bos 


On diffging down to the roots of the trees and of the 
shrubs, Co see why tiii>y did not thrive as they ought to 
have duito, I found everywhere at dill'i'TOnt dL-plbs lUi iron 
[pan J fondly imn^ned totally destroyed. This vtu bi-uteii 
up, removed wlM!n.*vvr it could be |^t nt, and replacL-d by 
tb« beet soil obtainable in the nei|;h hour hood. I also 
lavoHod moet of tlis nised beds. In rcjility, it is purfoctly 
fKliouloni to nuilcc raised nlopin^ bciU in n dry wmdy, sun- 
burnt Miil. Nearly all the rain falk otF in sumuivr un lirom 
a gbiZL-d siirlai-t-, or from the roof of a house. It ia still 
woiee to rai^e such sand beds when they lie on an unlirokoii 
[iron |uin. The only plants that had penetrated thiw iron 
, pan were young oiik», and thiif fact IK n good illuntralion of 
the imnieoae tlriinglh and power of the tap-root thrown 
out by tJ»e ooom. Where the beils were not levelled *plit 
]engtliM of Firs nlwnt a foot in iliamvtor w«ro imbedded 
' soniv lour iitches ut the margin of the mbed beds, and Bllod 
in with good loam, thim arresting the rain, and preventing 
it nmiiing off the l>'>rder. Plants thrive woudcrl'ully bi-hitii 
Ilirnie Kptit Firs, which give « pictnresquo fininli to the be<b<, 
with tlowenng pl4iiC«, such ait i'eluniai, Verbeniu, trailing 



A him^riy, mugre soil, Boch os I d««criLe, whieb onas* 
BiBtetl pTovn unuDik only h Cew iiiclice liit;li, being really: 
ini&pable alone of doing juBtioe to gatdeniiig vSorts, a [^at 
quantity of {^oil loam and sisnurc was mixed willi iL 
TkcD, iniiU-iHl or dqKiidiD^ cbieHy on nniiiiuls, wbicli in drj 
Miuoiii in irudi lujila arc tiuoii burnt up uttd pcristi, n large 
etook of the plants that 1 Gnd do the best in tliu drj. 
<:ltm&t4] of tlie Aivicni ig prepared and plnnUnl every 
where: Snect Alyssum, Pcliir|roniiims, I'eluniait, and Mu 
^uerit<-.i. They are planted out and never watereil after 
the lirst week or two, even during long periods of droii»lit; 

{'vt, as anticipated, tliey do not tla» in the K-aiit, and ituun 
lecame one bluiie of bloom. Ontiturea candidiwinia and 
gymnocarpa sloo do very well witli little or no natoriug. 
A margin of Alyssum or Centaurea, with a thickly -planted 
I'order of PetuniiiK or Geraniums, and later in the Hi:a9M>n a 
luckgfDund of DaliliiiH, look reiiuirkubly w«ll. (jcraniums 
ilo not ^row niiii^h in size in sudi dry soils, but they flower 
fri-ely in the hottest und driest weather. Amongst foliage 
plunta 1 find Irv«ine IlerbBtii a failure during drou;*lit 
uitliout water, but il puKliex up with tlic autumn rainii, 
nnd look* very handvonio. On the other hand, Amaranthus 
r'iber does very well during lou^ continued drought, as 
does the I*;-nlla. Well manured, tlie soil suits admirably 
G hid lull. 

I find aliio that, imitating the doulh, mnnh more orna> 
mental use may I e niade of .\liie», ('uctaet'iu, »ueh an Kehe- 
vonas, and of hardy Palms, botii for garden and house decora- 
tion, than i» u«uul. They reajuiro but little beat protection 
in wintirr, and tlo nell in Kuinmer anywhere — indoor* or 
out. Palms require a deal of water whou growing in warm 
weather, but Aloes and Cnctaoeie demand so little that they 
really give no trouble ot nil. The Aloes too reprodaM 
theiu^elves very freely by olT^hoolM. 

Subtropical P^Ima in reality are very hardy plunts. I 
bav<3 some healthy, vigorous Pulinti, Lut.tnia Dorboniea and 
Curypha Australie, received lour years ago from Algiers, 
fh inehcK high with four leiivee Ibrmed. They are now 
three I'eut liii;h with twelve leave". They are plunged in 
the gardeu every year from June tUtJt to September lOlh 



without any protection. Tbe remainder of the year, nine 
months, ihey live io a disUBeil couch-house through which 
I have passed the flue of a stove, and iu the doors of which 
I have put ^lass. This is also the winter residence of the 
Aloes and Eeheverias, of the Orange and Lemon trees. 

I am unfortunate in my gardens aa regards Koses, b' 
the queen of Howers ; lor neither sandy nor caliniret 
soils are suited to their conEtitution. I would except I 
Bank^ia, which flourishes in the Mentono lime soiL 
have, thereiort:, io Loth gardens to rely on soils artifii 
prepared with loam and manure. 

In conclusion, I may say, that the horticultural facta 
contained in this chapter corrobociite the researches made 
on the shores and islands of the Mediterraneitn, and prove 
conclusively that protection from north winds has an 
e&trerae influence on climate and ve>;etatiou, an influence 
which it requires many degrees of latitude to compensate. 

This taet apjilies to England as well as to llie suntii of 
Europe. In building our houses and making our gardens, 
we do not think enough of protection from the north. 
With iu assistance our climate may be rendered much less 
trying both to tbe human and to the vegetable consti- 
tution, as is proved by Hastings, Ventnor, and Torquay, 
this chief merit of which is protection from the north. 




BLinrBi: — risa— a xatuiuluit'» fiuskuvk— iiLim colovk—tiu aft] 

It^ i'a)(iotr {fif) irofta ffira noXvifiXoioSoio SaXdamit. 

Uomuk's Iliad. 

" Than) tilirinka no e1>1> in that tideleaa Mtti 
Which chnneoloM rolla i^tenintlj|; 
So that wiIdo«t of wuvr*. in their oogriiut mood, 
Hoarce bretib on the boondi of iho Intid for a roo<l ; 
And tho pow«rle*ii mooa b«kolda tli«m Anw, 
H«edl«n ir sho come or go> 
Coim on hij^h, in main or h»y. 
On titiiir Gniir«o iihp hnth no xwny. 
The roclc unirom ito bunir doth biire. 
And I00I18 o'er the mirf, but it comox not there; 
And the frinM of the fuatn inajr be weo below, 
On thn line that it left lon^i age* Offo; 
A amootli short npuoA of jcUow itiUM 
DctwM-ii it and the graener land." 

Briton'* Sfeje (/OtwftUI^ 

TtiK onliiinrj- notion of the SfwlittTrnncan is that of a 
blu« an<l l['aii<iMJl ocean lalfi^. At Mcnton<-, during tha 
winter, this noetical view of the great inland sea id ollva 
Btiiiiipi'ly rnUifiud. Suiiietim»i, tor weeks toyelhor, it is 
constniitly »n<;r}', qiiit« milir.tiig the iMC{Hrri«iice of "pious 
AitiCM" II) (Jaj-K gone hy. l-'or it then in imIri'J "trouliU-d 
and nerfidious," ever hreakiiig in ttugry hiUnwit on the > 
phi ugly beach. 

To those who are familinrized with the ever vaiymfp 
mooiU (if (Hir old ocwin, ever iidvuiioiii^, ovifr n-trraliiii;, this 1 
eeethiii)^, all but tidelvsa (tea, which day and night heata 
tlio shore with impotent ragej oever advanoing, never re- j 



tivating, M at ftrat t«dtoiu In the oxtremb Grndually, 
however, the eye, the «ar, the mind, beocMne aoMistomed to 
it< monotonous anther, and open to its real lnl^^iliccncp, 
Then at Uist wc Tcvl tliut it it ii glorious privtlc;;c Id livo, 
as we do ut M«ntoiie, in front of the apiuu-ently boundless 
liquid Mediterranean plain — at one time heaving restlcBely,' 
at Btiothor, in a calmer mood, covin'ed with mynadii of 
faeeta on whkh the spiirkling aunMhinc dunces nnd glittei-H, 
The dailjr rioing of the sun, also, in the eiut, out of the 
wat«n, colouring the skies and the waves with hues which 
aurpon tboee ol the ninbow, is a magnificent tight, that 
never pa I In. 

To a reflective mind, the Meditcrranoan ia the most In- 
tcrcalini; of all aeas, of all waters. Its shores are hullowed 
l>y uxsuciation with the entire history of human dvilinitioii. 
It muy he wiid to luivc liccn th« ctudlc of tin; huniiiit race 
and intellect. When the rc«t of the world was a blank, a. 
mystery, eveiy region of its circumference waa known and 
inhabited by (he nations whom we may consider the fathers 
of history. The Jetv-s, the Phtenicians, the EtJ^yptiunK, tlic 
Greeke, the Carthaginians, tho Romann, nil lived on ita 
efaotee, oA-iwited its wiitcm, ami (U'velo|>ed their life »s 
nations withm ^ight of it. In early, half-fabulotis diiys, it 
carried the fnir Helen from her Grecian home to Troy, nnd 
then brought hvr ill ui«cil hii<hiind, and the kings and 
chicltains of (jreece, to tho wulU of her doomed anyhim. 
]julcr, it witnessed the rise and nro^rees of Chris tiunity, 
was the scene of the voyajies, the shipwrecks, and the trials 
of tl»e a|Kuitlcs, It carried the nrusadera on ita liosom to 
fight for the Crotw, and boro hock the remnant of their 
miirvellous armamenta to their northern homes. In modern 
times, 1(10, the Mediterranean has Iwen the road to the 
£aat, thi* butlle-rietd of the world, the councoting link 
between Kuro]>e, Asia, and Africa, 

Wo have aulhentio records of the climate and inetcnr- 
olojry of the Mediterranean in the writin;^ of the anoient 
Greeks and Romano, such a» Fausnnias und Vitmrius, ex- 
tending to ahove two thouKand yi-ani. Hoth climate and 
m«li-<i[olot;y appear to have been then what they arc now, 
and the Meditcmnoan was navigated, by those who in- 



habit4!d it* coaai*, pretty niueli u it is nnvi^'atcd in oi: 
own days, in a cautious land and sholter-loving roanner.. 
Then, as now, the winter was a stormy time, and th« 
(laii<;vr of niivij^uting with eaili a ka in winch there in eO 
much uneertiiitity as to the direction of thu wind, and such 
frequent collisions between north and aouth, was eo im- 
pressed oil thu minds of mariners, that all loiiir voyagM 
were ubanduncii. Murchiint vcbkcIs wtrc pulled on »hore, 
and remained " in port," free fr»m the d.ingers of the deep, 
from the beninnint; of October until llie beg^ioningof April. 
Mnriuc insur;iiices were known at Athens even in those 
times; but niivi^atiun in the «ix forbidden months wim 
CotiKidorcd so dan^rous that no iuiturjincea were taken, and 
the interval was specially set ap^rt lor deciding liti^iation 
in maritime casc«, as a time when all the parties concerned 
Were Kurc to be at home. 

MiiriiieiH in thoite ditya hu>:gcd the shore, and at the 
slijj^htest unfavourable change r»n iuto the nearest port, or 
touk shelter uuilcr the nearest heutdland; and this, nob- 
wilbstaodin;; all the modern improvements in navigatioOf 
thfiy do even now, With a »li|;ht bruexe, the sea, near t.hVj 
land, lit studded with veiseb, their white liiteen snilit tx.' 
tended, like swallows skimming over the waters of t 
deep; but if a stitF wind and a heavy sea nee, they in< 
Vtantly seek shelter, and dUu|>|H-Hr. Then, for dnys to-t 
4jcttnr, not a sail u necn, merely u stray vteamvr neariD; 
the laud for shelter in north winds, until line weathi 
returpio^, a^nin lures thorn out of their retreats. 

The vc^els now employed in the coasting trade are 

Erobubly much the yame, in size and form, ns thoite usi.-<l 
y the old (jreeks. They are, ^neruUy speaking, from 
aWut twenty to lil\y tons burden, seldom larger. This is 
no doubt owing to the cirennutanue that mo»t of thu 
cmidler ports arv inelFcctually protected from the wiiiil and 
the Hea, so that Uiey have to be pulled up on the beach tor 
safety. This is done by means of windhisses, and with thtt^J 
flseistanco of tlic cntirv maritime population. They araflH 
thus unloiided and loaded on dry lan^I, when they are again n 
dnt^l^ed atwl pushed down the beach iuto Uie sea, by main 




Tn Ih* small portu nil iilonf; the Rivierfl acoiw of tho*e 
Ainull vessels may be »eeiii liigh and dry on tlie beac-lt, 
waitinjf for carpo or fair weather- There is n jelty now 
Imililiu); at Mctilone n'h!cli alrauly giv<j* iionR' vlioHrr, 
but up to quite recently all the vcwels that came and 
departed n-ei« thu« hauled ashore. So it was that tlic 
Orci-kn pulhtl up tbolr vtBMrl* on thi> shore* of Troy, nfler 
landin);, and it was when ihuH drawn up that they were 
fired Bnd destroyed by their leader, 

Allhough poflically callcfi tid<'lewt. the eK)inn>iC of waivt 
that forma thi- Mi-dilermtii-an obcyx the Hamt' lawn a^ thfi 
fl^nt ocean. Like the ocean, it tVcIs the vicinity of our 
cold fatellitc thn tnuon, and rtKCs and fulls, at statvd hoiire, 
under iU iiitluence. The body of water, ho»-eviT, is no 
much smaller thao that of the ocean, notwithatandiog the 
^reat depth of tlie Meditcrranonn, that the moon's attrjc- 
tioti prmlurca a comparatively tntling ufTi^ct. 

The height of the tidal wave varies considerably in dif- 
ferent re;'ioii8 of this great inland sea, ran^H)^ from a few 
lines to a foot or more. On one occni"ion, when at NnpW, 
at uii hotel near the shore, an invalid, I UMcd In aintiKc 
myscif by Matching the sea, as it broke against the sea- 
wall hcneatJ) the windows. Duriiii; a cidm, which lasted 
mfire than a week, I olwerved that a rock omtvucd with 
aen-weed, immediately in front, waa daily covered and un- 
covered by an evident tide. 

WheiMSvcr the wind blows on or off the phore, it isisoe 
or lowent the sea-Ievi-t, all over the }k tedi terra neun, several 
feet. This makes it nil the mnre ditfieult to recognise (he 
cxiKti-nee of the tiilal wavil. At Mentonc, when the wind 
hi(H born blowing st-vrral daya from the south-eaKt or south- 
west, the aea readies nearly to the road in the eastern buy. 
When, WD Uie contrary, it has been Wowin-; sovcral days 
from nhorc, not only the sliiuglc, hut a line of sandy beach 
it often uncovered. 

The style of navigation adopted by the Mediterranean 
saihiTN, may and dtMw r<ndi'r llirm expert houlmcn, but it 
i« »aid, also, to make them less Bt for lenKthcned tiaviga- 
tioti than their more odventuroaa northern brethren. Tlio 
Dtivigation of an inland «ea cannot, certainly, rear such a 

125 TUB MEDn-EItRAKi:A.K. 

race of hardy s&ilora sm is producod l>y the navic^ntion 
tho wide Atliiiitic uiid Pacifli; Occaun, »tid by the )iui'Huit of 
th« {rraut tishoricA, amidst the storma and ioebergjis of th« 
Northeni seas. No wonder tho nilore of Columbtis, iu> 
customed to Dover loM sight of Innd for more thuii a fwr 
diiVM, dhoidd Imve trembled ivhea they had been week* out 
at sea, xnd should hsvo fenrvd tbry vivtk suilin^ intoaal 
un fathom able nbytfn, fr»m vfhich tben- wan no njturn. 

When thest-a id hreakinjj furiously on thebeach.asitofttti 
doea in winter, there is hut Itttlo marine life visible. The i 
Bea-lsvcl bcin^; ever tho Hume, owing to the abHeiit'e of per* 
eoplible lidoo, there are no explorins walks on tlte eanda at | 
low tide, as on our cou«t«, no ECarcbtng alter soophytcs and 
fuci. On culm dnyii, however, a walk to the extrc-me end 
of the Cup Martin introduces the amateur natnralist to 

I loots lyinif between ,iagRt.-d rocUi", where there n mueb to 
ic (lUcrvcd. There are i)«o otlwr points alonf; th<^ rnftera 
eoa»l where Kimilur pooli may be found, containing varioni 
kinds of sea-wecU, sea anemones, hennit crabs, inliabitin){ 
pretty shells wbich they have dragged from deeper watoFi 
and other murino trojisiiros i only to be didcuvercd, how- 
ever, on days of perfect culm. 

The Mediterranean is a deep sea, and its depth is very 
great on this court nvur the shore. According to Lyelt, 
Sjiii!<«nre found u dejitb of ttvo tlioUKan<l fc<:t< a few yards 
from the land at Nice, and from Toulon to Genoa llie sea 
is everywhere very doep near the uliortt. This is always 
tlie cane in the Mediterranean, and eUewhere, whenever 
mountAins terminate abruptly in or near the sea, as along 
the Itivicrn. The abysMK of Uie wa arc probably at least 
ut (loop as the mountains in their vicinity ure bit^h j and a» 
ut Mentone the biglier mountain range reacheH the aoi 
line, there are no doubt al{>inc valley» many ihoiiHinil feet 
deep wttbin n very nhoK duitaitce of tiie shore—a grand 

I'bua is explained the absence of deltas at the mouths of 
the lurgc torrents which dcaoond from the mountains, and 
fidl into tlw sea in the Mentonian amphitlu'fltre. For 
countless ages these torrents have been rolling;;, during the 
winter rains, maisw ol soil and boulders i»tv tb« sea, and yefeg 


too impression hex been produced on th« outliiM of tint 
hays, whi<:h remain porfwi. No doubt these boulders, 
whieli Torni the sbiiiglv beach, aoon full into thcsu al) bat 
tin fathomable dc|>tbs, just as stones rolled down u hoasc-top 
would fall into the Fpnoc bolow. Tho came remark appllcH, 
in pnrt> to tiiv l*iiilion at Nice. Tlius, at tbo bottom of 
tUe»« murine valleys are now furmin;;, no doubt, beds of 
olay and sand, and perhaps of eoii^loineratt-v similsf in 
charnt-tCT to the on« on whieb the villagu of RoccabruDa is 

The Mediterranean may truly be considered a deep fcn, 
for, in » };n-iit portion of iti extent, it« depth varies from 
five to ten thoimnd Teet, or between one and two miles — a 
fact which has been ascertained in Inying the t^le^niph 
eahleu, which uross it in vnrioiie diri-etionii. Vet, even thi« 
depth in tritline;, conijiHred with that of the Atlantic, be- 
tween Europe and Africa, and America. A depth of 31 50 
fatbonu, or 18,900 fevt, bus bn>n reached (CAaiitHger, 
1873), and it in presumed that the depth may extend to 
thirty thousand feet, neurly six miles. 

Korinorlv deep sea sonnding was effected by ineanN of a 
lead or weight fastened to a line, and tJirown out fiom the 
ship. By llii» plan, however, it was found dilTicuIt, if not 
impoMiilile, to reach a depth much above nix hundred 
fulhoms, or between three and four thouNiiid feet. If tho 
lead was h*iivy, it could not be haulod back, and the line . 
broke ; if it was lit;l>t> it was floated awny by currents. 
The impossibilily ofhantiiit; in a heavy weight, once it bos 
reaobed deep water, will he easily understood, when it is 
known that at a depth of fourteen tliousuud four hundred 
feet tlie pressure of the wntcr is as three tons on every 
•qoare tncii of euifaoe. To this niuot be added the weight 
ol' the whole liiw used for deep-sea M>un<lii)g)i, which woold 
itself, at that deplb, amount to one ton. The dilTienlly 
has, hoivcver, been ovcreonic by the application of steam 
power, which ia now used iu soundiniu; aud dred^iig at (rreat 
dcptlu. Weights are used, so contrived, that on tiiticbiiig 
thu bottom, tJiey separate from the line, which can tJicn be 
hauled up. Thanks to thi» contrivance, and to the use of 
■taUD« the grater (lart of tJie lledit«rraneaH and of the 



Atlnnlic lias been tiirvcycd. The Atliintio tian bepii fonnrl 
to bi« II (lL-e|i vmliey, Ijing tetween Kurope, Africa, uiid 
Amoricn, and dipping deeper Wlow the eca-lcvcl than tb«. 
hiplK'st mouiitHia rises above the siirfnt* vf the gWio. 

It w:i.iNtii>poiifd by the pioneer of doep-sea dre(ii*iu^> the 
late Kdwaru Forbes, that at about 6U0 fathoms' depth all 
life ci-nscd, that below this It-vel all ivas gluom and darkneex, 
and Mint lifi; exiiiU'd'not. The proyireas nia«le vlnce hia 
death in deep-sea dred^inf; has dispelled all such views, 
irovin;; lliem to be nlto};«lher errtineons. Life is fouixl 

iTvwhcre, in the uttcnnont depths of the ooenn, u* on thu 
hi;;Ue^t moiint.iitia. Sir John ftoss, in 181S, dredging in 
Bufliii's Bay, brought up sen worms from lOUt) tinthonu, 
&iid from SOO fatbomv, a Me<]usa, The latter wo* than 
thought to have beeu entangled in the line, but is now 
rueo};niM<d to be a spcctcs inhninting ihoso deep waters. 

In IMll, Prtifetaor l-'lcining Jenkin, sent tn rrpiiir n 
ruptured telei^raph cable betweeu Sardinia atid Bona, 
brought up u rr.i^-nient of cable from 1£00 fathoma, with a 
true coral, a (.'a ry op hill in, iittach«d to iL Lat«r, Dr. 
William Caqn-nter and Dr. Wj-ville ThomMon, in the Bur- 
veying atiipa, LighlMng, 186S; J'oreupine, 18(19 — 70; 
and V&aUfngcr, 1873 — 4, have found life in the Atlantic 
ul, all but the deepest deptbH reached, 2Sau fathoms or 
17, DUO feet. At the«e imnifuso deptha it \» dotibtrul if 
liglit penetrates, and the source from which the living orga< 
nixniM lint) the cl«nieiitK of nutritiuD they rei]tiire is still 
a nij'Btery, a debated point. 

Although theMedilcrmncnn is only separated from tlie 
Atlaiitie by the peninsiilit of Spain, the elevated and 
motiutninoua cfaoraeter of that eountry, and the other 
conditions I have elaewhere enumerated, prevent a large 
proportion of the storms that oeeiir in Uie western Atlantic 
reaching it. ThuM M. Matti-uei hs.t recently publiihcd a 
paper in which he shovrs that out of 118 storms coming 
from the Atlantic and striking Kngland und Ireland, A,y 
only reach i-d Italy. In Octolier, November, and l>eceinber 
the progress of these storms to Italy is much more 
fri'iincnt ihiin »t other periods; while in winter, and still 
more in Biimmcr, a grejtt dimiuiitiou ocoun. Id thu tLrc* 



months aamed, out of 29 storras S3 ranched Ituly ; in April, 
M«r, June, July, und AujriiFt, oul< of 41 only 3 nrrivwl nt 
Itaiy. Hiette fuctit Huli^luntiatc my own otworvation* u* to 
the fre(|ueucy of aoulh- westerly Ftorm* in autumti, and 
explain the luiiai fine weather in this iuland sea in summer. 

Tho Modit«rr4nv;in inti witrm son. At nil times ofthc 
yeiir it in fiv« or nix dejFrvuK wiirmcr tliiui ihv Athinlic 
Ocean under tlie ramc Utitudd ; und iu winter it i* never 
ixioled dourn to the same extent us the latter in northern 
and vmn tcni|>i-rat4) ro-;ions. In the open oceans thure »n, 
deep bolowr tli« nurrdee, cold currvnt^t I'rom tho north nnd 
south |h>1e, which have been revealed i)y the d^ep-MA 
■oundin^ ol' Lieut, Maury and others. Thus, in the 
Atluotte Oc<.-un, — ;it the bottom of tho Gulf Stream, a tem- 
jieriiture of only UJ" Fab. has beiin found, whilgt the mirfnou 
IS above 8f. 'rh« Mediterranean, a lHn<l 'enclosed aca, 
is not accessible to these polar eiirrenta, which la one of the 
oauus itudoubt uf its exceptional warmth. Even in winter, 
I have never foiiml it lower than 54" on the Mentone ooost 
six or ten feet U-low the surface. 

Dr. Car])e»ter Mlalcii that if wcga deep enough in the 
oeoan we sliall always find the temperatara as low as H"; 
tut in enclosed »ea^, such as the Meditorrjncian, Die dci-per 
and <^lder water, circiilatintr from the poWn, ennnot eot4.r; 
llieivforc tlie lowcat bottom temperature i* determined by 
the luweet winter temperature of the Kurfaco. Scarcity oF 
life in the Mediterranean he considers to be owing to a 
ileticieiiey of oxyfjvn in the ivator, duo toit«Coml>inintf with 
a laryi; (quantity of organic nnitter brought down l>y the 
rivers and emptying into it. ThuM, wbilu in the Atlantic 
we usually tind iU per cent, of oxygen and Hi per cent, of 
carhonio acid, in the bottom waters of the ?k[e<litcrnin«n 
there is often only !i per cent, of oxygen and over i(.1 per 
cent, of carbonic acid. He consilient the Itcd Sea and its 
neitthbourhood the hottest region on the earth, the tem- 
iwraUire of Uio surfiice water rifint; to 80° or 90°, and ibe 
bottont tempctnturv b(-ing about 71°, corn-rponding to the 
^rcNteot winter cold. Untxide of this sea, however, in the 
Arabian Otilf, the bottom temperature ia DH'. As the lowest 
Itottom temperAtora of the Ited Sea is as high as 7 1°. Iivin;|> 



oornle stioiild oociir there at greater deptlis tUn anywher 
dsi' in till! world. 

Tlivic Kiiemii to have liccii Ulll« iranrcliBiipr in tin- U-m- 
jiernture of llie Medi terra iiean and ol' its slKin.'S witliiti the 
memory Tlic^ame ve^i.'tati<>ii exists and llourit^hce 
around it that existed undllouriFliL-d when tlicoarlicetrvL-nrdK 
were j>cimod, tlioec of Sncrcd Writ and of Hvincr. Thf 
^nlogical fcatutcs do not either nii)iear to have rhiingcd 
within that jjenod, except as regards slight elcvniiotis 
and dO])r«i4iioiis of Komc coiKte. Tlmi'. the elimnte has pro- 
\mh\y hi'fii till! Biiine during the hi«ti)rie jHTind. Itha^hcen 
characterized iii fnriuer historic days, as now, by duiiahim.*, 
hy little ruin, and by no almospbere which does not contain 
ooe-halfofthe moisture of the Eiistii^h at RiospherG. Indeed, 
it« elima'.c hat: no doubt heon what it i^ now over xiiiec th« 
continents of Aoiu, Africa, and Europe have asHumed their 
present tthape, ever since the existence of the rainless tract 
of which the deserti of Sahara, of Arabia, and of Cohi are 
the expression. 

Otvinp to the paucity of rain and to the ftmall number 
of lar^ river* ihut empty into the Mediterranean, the 
tiipply of fr<-jil) >valcr In that sea is much below the amount 
taken up by evaporation. To meet this deliciency a wide 
stream or curi-enl of scii^water, many hundred lect deep, 
nets in throii<{h the Strait* of (libraltar from (he Atlaiitie, 
at a rat« of from three to six miles an hixtr. Tlii^ inwanl 
current was formerly sii|ipoeed to be owing to a dilVi^renoe 
of level ; the MHiferraticJin, in this hypothesis, bein-j lower 
than the Atlantic. The rvscarches id Admiral Smyth, un<l 
of other observers, have nrvved this view to Im lallncioue. 
The Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Ithick Sea, thsj 
Adriatic, and even the Red Sen, have all the same level. 

Admiral Smyth and Sir Charles Lycll donU the es-.| 
istenee of a dee|> counter-current from the Metlitcrrancnt 
to the Atlantic throu(:h the Straits of (iihraltar. Lieut. 
Maury, on the contrary, considers it« existence jimved by 
reaxoiiiri^ as well as by observation. Were t-uch a countii ~ 
current not to exivt, be says, the waters of the Mcditer-*^ 
ranean would not only be sli-ilitly valter tbnn those of the 
Atlantic, as they actually an-, but n ould become very much 





like tliOBu of the DeMi Sua, wliicli haa no outlet, and 
would (lu|)u«iil Hilt at the l>i»tt.itn from uvfr>(utiirHliu[i, Tliw 
19 i)Qt till) K«»', whicU (iravi^, be tliiuki, tlial ihure wm#/ bu 
a dwp oouiitof and ouLer currvnt ol' water, ol' a deiiairr 
gruvity — fruin incfLM^d satiirntion witli s;ilt — thitn liit- 
uiijH-r and iitward Atlantic riirrviit. Sir CltarW Lydl 
ftdtnits tli« prrKL'iiL-e ut' »n muler uurri-iiL at limiat in the 
Straits, but thinks that more rucunt ubiorvatioDS ebour it 
to he inoruly tid^l. 

TIm; vswjtliunal wiiniith nf ihe M<<ditvrriineiin rucreiwm, 
«a we liHVt} K«vH, all inllui-iii'e ou tbu cHinutt', which it 
nodillea liivotinit)!^. ll nUo exercWe a ivinurkublu iu< 
fliwnco oil the finny trilioi that inlinbit it 

As I^eut. Miiury >t:it<.-c, thv culd <>c-oiiti« and »tiu nre 
tboae in whidi tinh, uimtuvi-r the ciitise, eopv-uiully ;;i>od 
edible fiidi, thrive the tnu^t, and nie the a)o«t |ii-idilii:. 'I'ho 
Oixl, ihr mai-kirn-l. thu hi-rriti;;, thi- ii»l<-, thi- tialnioii, nil 
bclvHg ta rHirUiurn htitudi-K. FiNli nre abundiint unJ ^md 
on the north ww"t of Amrriai, wmt and wiwl, ami im the 
oortli count of Kiiru)ii>. 'V\w xhouU of hi-nini;^, uiacki.-1'i.d, 
pilcliardK, cud, that vioit our ee;Ǥ (.'vltv year, all coiim.' from 
tli« nonh, and rt^turo to it. Ik-twwii tliu (inK SMxam, an 
it ajtcviKlf the Athnliv fnitn tliu (julf ul' Flxridii, uu<l the 
count of the l.'iiilL'd St^t4.'a, t-liere in a hand or Wbdi;^ of 
water, desctfndin;; from thu north, whieh is many di-',;rees 
cttldur than thu asccitdin}' fitters ol thir Gtdf Sli-tuim itMrlC. 
Thin band o) cold «»t>-r i* lull of good itlihle lish, whcrvuK 
the w»rrn<T vvatem of ihu (iulf Stream cunlnin cimiiiiira- 
lively lew Gnh, and those not good. In the Itupica, and in 
wanner bum also, thu lixh uri.- utrilin'r so ^od not ^o mime- 
roiii>j allhoiiffh niori- brilliant und fuulavUe in colour and 
ehajw. 'Hi« Mvditi'iTuiiean i» »o exeejitiou to thia ruk-, as 
1 can testify from considerable expeiiencc. The fisli it 
Goiit^ns are, iu ){encial, iiL-ithor (fuuil nor abiindaiit, uhiuh 
occountH (or the Homan Cnlhi>!ic inhabit. mt^ i-f its ubii-e* 
cuDDUniin^ fo Wj^eji iju:tntily uf tho {■[udiii.-l of thu hirrilij;: 
and cifd hsheries of Northern Kuroiie. 

At Mentoiie Iho griiat depth ol the hm at a uliort dis- 
tiance from tlie dhorv is no doubt nn additional drutvback, 
as vei'v dei-p waters are neither lavourabie to the breeding; of 



Bull, nnr arc they ro™! fi-hinir-sjrotimis. Otir ImwI fieliin^- 
groiiiidii UK nil mIukiI Mini)l<aiiks, itx, lor inaUiiioe, tliu Uuggt'r 
Hank, ami that of NewIuiiudUDd. 

Ou » Bne day, when th« wa is calm, the Mentone fieher- 
Biro *n on tlw iklert betimor, anil ikv bay is Rtnddcd willi 
ImmIs. a very olooc-ntevlMHl bag nvt u Ihrovrn uut nod 
baoyod, and ihta dni^^<xl in sfiore by loni; ropes, with 
grvat excitement on the piirt of those eii;^i;;i'd. Ther« are 
odcii ten or twelve tnon, women, mid children to (yioh tii-l. 
^Vhvn nt laft, however, it i* drawu in, iiud ils vontciiti* ure 
scattered oti tli« beiu;)i, these etfurta remiU the Table of the 
inminlaiii in labour, llicre is seldom anylhin); in the bo; 
btit H lew pounds' wvi^ht of a innidl tr»nw]Min.*nt whitobtiit 
kind offixh, u few giirdimw and iiniall red inulK'tH, Nuinr dimi- 
nutive sword -I'lKh, luid two or three crabs the size of a five- 
Btiillin<; piece, that have not bevn able to i^l out of the way. 

^Yh(■^ the Qi'ts arc drnwn, and tbi-ir livi»<; coiiteiits are 
strewn on the shore, the joniif^, and I n)»y nty not dd- 
f^iwntly tin; old, are nvixed with an ardent dexiie lo f»V« 
some of the stmn'^Iing inmates of the deep, or in other 
words, to estab1ii<h an aijuarium. Basins, tubs, all kinds of 
ntunnls arc i-nlistcd in their bvhidf, b:it I am sorry to ndd 
with but very Utile mioc>.-9U!. The xmall Hat UkIi, winitnes, 
Bword-lish, the shrinim, after darting about furiously for 
some hours, vainly cndeavotirinj; to escape from their prison, 
turn on their tide and die. They ri-ally appear lo die from 
nervous exhaustion, for it cannot b<; for want of iieratvd 
water, as the same result is obscived when either a lar|^ or 
small ve«svl is nsed. I find that Mr. Philip Go«^sc, tlie 
ohanniiig naturaliiit, aUo talcM this view of the early dealh 
of marine animals thus auddenly conlim-d. He xtrikingly 
rentiii'kB, " It is as if a ninu, shut up )>eiieath the duuie of 
St. I'aulV, khoitld W found dead by dayliglit for want of 
air to bi-eiithe. Are the gilU of an onneluid or a niolUisu 
more exacting than the lungs of a man?" 

The umall-meehed nets must be ver)- destructive to you 
£tii, and ub they am everywhere used on the Medilerrane 
""wt, thi>y must tend to render its wat«r« even more un-' 
etive than Nature intended. The tishrriiivn on tliir>c 
■ maintain, lu did our own fishermen with refereiico 



to whit«bait, that the umall tnin«pBR-Qt fiith llie^ raitcli in 
eticli niimWrH arv ■ tMiparate *pccit« that n<!ver (;i'ow any 
luFj^r, niid which it ia, oonaequently, legitim»te to destroy 
for food. To settle tliis qutntion, I brought some homu, 
premrrvcd in epirJU of winu, *nd cubinitlcd thcin to the 
woll-known ii;iilhyii!i)|riHt, Ur. A. Giinther, of the Itritieh 
MtHHium. Alter cartl'ul examination. Dr. Gualher wroto 
Bie as follows: — "There cun ho no doubt thiit tiio xpet^imL'ntt 

J'on hava submitted to me for cxuminiilion are the young 
ry of some specie)) of Ciupra, nud ttom the position of the 
vert«bnil tins, and the number of vertchrve, 1 believe tliem 
to be the young of Cinpea Sprattun, or a epociufi closely ullied 
to it." Dr. OUnthur hat ratisfiictorily esUibli^ihed that our 
whit«lwit iirv the youny; fry of the herring, tto that botli on 
our shoreH and un the Alediterranean the wholesale destrnu- 
tion of tiiese sinitll lish is ccjually unju^^liliablu. 

The French Uoveniment, which hiu puid great attention, 
during the lust few yenni, to piseionlture, to the reptenish- 
meot both of iU salt and freih vrjler« with li.ih, has become 
alive lo this lact. A eommiMiou has reoently been ii|»* 
pointvd to inquirv into the condition of the ti»heri<a on the 
northern shon- of the Alediturrancan, tvil.h a view to their 
improvomunt ; and the probable reiiult of its Ubotirs will be 
a pruliibilton of the use of thvse sm.ill-mi^lied nct«— ^ verj 
oescMary 8t«p. Tluiy nnquestionably tend to dolroy thu 
fishetiM wlierevcr us«d, by uuuihiUling the small fry on 
the shallows. Unlew some such nveiuure is adopted, lish 
must all but disappear from tiiis part of th« Mcditurruneun 
6hon«, stimulatud us their destruttiou ix by the pTvnnce of 
wealthy fit h-tta ling nlr.ingeri^ A few ymra ii;;o the email 
fry, like ivhit4:batl, were) M>ld at Mentotie for four town 
(twoiwncv) a pound ; the larger for eight sous. Now the 
small l<it<.')i twenty, and the larger thirty. 

Wherever 1 have l>oi!n, in Comiua, in Italy, in Sicily, I 
have always found the loiial fuhennen, and many better 
inronn«d [ki!r»4>ni4, pertinai: loudly maintain that the>U xuialt 
Hsh are not the s[iawn of larger fi^l). but a peculiar speeie* 
that always remains small, and ihit were thexe nets not 
allowed a volutliln kind of fooil would be lust to all da^sw 
vt aociuty. Wti have aeen that suoh ia not thu caei;, and it 



m I'l lie hopL-tl that tli«ir diittruoLiciii will Im^ l^uJiy pnt-j 

Tlic gentle att is etiltivated at Muntone by many zealoasl 
native pi)icatorL-iR§, who miiy be econ dny alWr tiny fubinff'! 
frmn llic piiiaiu-L of the c[iiay lit iho cnlmncc (if ihc lourn, 
iVnni riH'lcM lyiti^; in ihv kca, or Ifuiii tlii> »hciru. Some of 
the vinitoro nlso, iT1^pirell by Ihi'lr example, (locasioiially 
enter the lista. Theii- patience and skill, however, meet 
with but SI poor reward, as mit;bt be anticiput<-d rram what 
has bi't-n ctnlod. Tlieir piinrijial recompense appear* (o bo 
tlie luxy enjoyment of the hnrmonioH ol nutiiru co dear to 
all wlio love "the eonteinplalivo man's recreation." Thai^ 
melody of the- waved brejkin^ at our IV-ct, the siir^inf; of] 
tltc blue waters over llie nc^aviucd covering lite Hulxiiurinc 
rocke, the vuiiud buea that llie fuci n»»uuie, as tbey an 
alt«rnatfly ex|>uiidc(l, biioyed up by the coming wave, and 
then lell bigb and dry »» it reliejte, the eifecle of the crer- 
varj inff cloml, ehndow, and Ktiiiii^ht on the sra, tliu roelca, 
the inoiintiiinH, and thi; hori/.nn, arc. uover Ix-tter olHicrvcd, 
or more lh'>r<>ii<;lily tipjirc-eialed, Ihun by llie lUiHtieccittiful 
angler. Very liUle piaestorinl encccea sutifefica the true 
lover of nature, and eiich nearly nil enlhiititii^tic pisca- 
torians lire. This love of niitiirc ib, I .believe, the koy to 
their od-ubtiM-d pojtliine. In the educated it is fell am) 
analysed, in the uneducated it exists as an instinct, a 
F^ensution, but is nr>t analysed, 

t'uUlc-fiKli arc abundant in thftfC wateni, and arc «atvn 
by the iiihal.itantM dm a dt-liuacy. They are ocvusinnally 
founil of eiiornioiis sixe. 1 bavo »een a monster, at least 
BIX feet in k'n;*th, with villniiousdookin^ IcDtaeula several 
feet lonar- Such anlagouisl" would lii; very loriiiidablo 
even to u Ktrong Kwimmer, if lliey attacked bim. Tbey 
could e:i!>ily Burrunml him with their suclctrs, and perhaps 
]iiill him under wulc)'; but I have not hcjiixl ol any biicIi 
iicf.'idcnt. MunetroUM cuttlc-li>b, wilb iibrllit twelve feet 
in circumferance, churacterizcd the warm bean »f the chalk 
period and i>( the epoch in which the nummulilcs of the 
St. Loui4 rocks uicisled. Kveu now, in tropical sens, there 
nre cuttlr- lish of viiormctw nixo. Well authenticnled talca 
of Icniacula an thick a» a inaii'* arm, thrown by 



cutUi'-risU like those of yore av«r (He aides of a boat in thMu 
rogioiui, iuhI (Irnj^in;; seamen ovcrlMBri], or upeettini; liirf^ 
bonb. TIk'hc "slrnntfc lisli" Imve ltm|» iv^o die"! out in 
llie Meilitei-ranraii, liiit {irulubly tliow! I have Been an 
(h«ii' lineal biit ile^etiernW ile^oendant^. The Einall anil 
twiulifiil nniililiis is still alivi-, altboii^h it, loo, ltvi.>d in 
tlii."e n-miitt; days uloni; wiOi iu nwCiil i'0>n|Kini<>n. 

The fiHliiii^ fur cuttle-Hsh in one «i' the lealurcs ol' these 
bhores. The bout is ruwed gently aloti;; the shallow parta 
ul' the buy, H-h«re tin? rocUs aie cnvered with seaweed. In 
the prow sits the lishennan, holdiiii; ti lon^ tilick, to whioli 
a lio<l a piece «f mvul ilc luit, [nrltidly covt.-retl tvith a few 
i;reeo twi^a, ThU perch U poked iiniong the seaweed, 
tinder the rueke and stoDes, in likely places. If the ciiltle- 
ti>h t« tlii-ru hv inMlic* a e)i)lc-h at the hint, nnd uliii^ to it 
with aueh vxtreniv tvnaeity llint he Lt eiisily hiiuled into the 
Ijoat. At niu;ht tibhin^f is olten carried uii by means of a 
lira lighted in a kind of metal basket suspended over the 
prow of the boat. The tishermao wsea a two or threo 
pronged luocc. Ho leans over tliu Me of the l)oat and ex- 
plon-H the bottom of the *cn, t>y the glare of the tire, as the 
iioat ^Itdfs gently alon^. If a fish b seen many feet 
under the water the trident ia thrown with nil but unerring 
uccuntey, and the fish is hrotii^ht tip wriggling un iU teclh. 
This night-lubing has a picturesque ftflect iu> seen Trout the 
shore. It U ulsu praetised on tbe Elalian bkes. 

There is an interesting fact connected with the Modi' 
tArraneun that is but little known, even by the scienliite 
world. Thix sea n the favoiiriUi hiibitalioti, tho ligme, of 
one of the bruent and most sin^ubr fi»h that inhabit the 
wilderness of waters, the devil.6hh. The deviUlish is a 
■■[icciva of mut»^lroits hideous my or Hoiitider, Hat, brood, of 
I'tiormdUK di men stout:, and of extraordinary niuneiilar power, 
with a h»g« mouth anil slomaoh, all one, in the front of its 
mitsbawii head. It inhabits the tropica) seas, the broad 
Allanlic, IIS well as the ^, and is everywhere 
an object of euriosity and awe, when *cen or nii'tght, 
which it very rarely is. The .A.frican traveller, Le Vailtant, 
caught one twenty-live feet long in the body, and thirty- 
feet wide in the tins, on one of hie journeys to Africsa, 



Oilier travellers Iiuri; hvkr tticin tloim(k-rtn|^ on tbe surfuce ' 
or the sen, apiiaroiitly m br^e aa tlio veusel they w«ro in, 
Tui'o wer« caufjlit at Villelninthc, nciir Niw, in 1H07, in 
one of tW tunny acXt, aiiJ liavc been minwU-ly dt^iwriljei] 
by Rimto, the l(.'«nied Nioe iiatiinilu>t, under Iho name of 
" CephahipKra Massen*." The one first vad;;!)!, a female, 
W«i){he(l iiiS patiodij ; it monned pitcoii§ly. The malo nrtu 
t«-n for two dsys to hover mnnd the nets whvre nhe wan 
taken, Miarcliiii)* fur it« mate, ■iid then was l:iken in tiio 
Bame net ! The |Kior loving deriUfiah were thus united iit 
death. The male was smaller, weighing bSj pounds only. 

TiiK RKni^riau. 

Th« ^lediterrnncnn li^hormen are ac(|Hiiint«d with the 
deril-Rsh tradilionolly, ciilhuff it raixti. Tlicy lH-liev« that 
ilit anpearunuc in an uinvn, and purteudx disuxter. A xniuU 
apecieti i* not unoommou in the West Indifs, and U aiim«- 
timee pursued, hut rarely taken, in Kinjrstou harhour, 
Jamnivu, iiccurdint; to the lion. It. Hill, who hiw publishud 
a very int«r^tin^ account of this eiirioiui fitih {ltile{Uehal 
Oifterrer, Octohcr, IStiJ), The drawing given is copied 
IVoni thi« article. \Vhcn ouu of these lisli is obscrvttl 
lluatiug on the water, the modv af attack is to haipooD it. 
The monster immediately strikes out fur the ncti, with 
amazing VL-Im-ity and power, towing its enemy alon^ with 
It. Other hoa'K attach thcmsolvro to the first, and they 
are itll toived out, generally fur several nul<«, het'ore it again 
rises Indeed, tliey are ffeqnently ohligcd to abandon tlte 
chnsfl altogether. 

OHcn, uhi'n, «tee]>ed in the soiithcrn winter sunshine, 
I lie in my favonnte leii^iirv hiiuntH, among the St. Louia 
" eks, i; at the Medilvrruncan, in one of it* culm, 


Tire TUNNY. 


pincid inon>ont8, 1 tbiiik of these monstotv nnil repeat to 
u^i^i'lf tlie luinitoniuiw v«:i«m of Mn. ilcniituK : 

" WlMt ludml tlioii in thy in^gim-cavm and oclln. 
"niou cvar-«Qundiag itnd mTmtcriou* mhl" 

Perhaps at Hint very moment somo of tliwe monstroos 
■ntcdilitvinn tUti un; dUportiDi; tlittmiu^lvcH in the duepi 
wattfK ut my feet ; fur it i« not id th« very <le<'piMt n-gion« 
tbat ev«n tt>« Ur^eftt linh um and da live, lu thi! greiit 
dt-'pthe of tlio Bca, bo marvellously reiiieiied of liite, there 
16 lilllv if ttny li^lit, mid only tbfi mo«t rudimuniMry kind 
»f lit'o. 'Vlw wound ol\en brin^ up loicroctvopio xhelU un- 
diiiini^t^cd in their d«lioaite atrueture by friction. Ttiey Imve 
fnllon Iberc ihruu^h the water, nnd there tbey remiiia 
mat4onlcM. The de^d Kiilor, who w thioivn over the «ido 
of UlC VCMtil, will) a {uinnon-itbol altuolicd tii bin fivt, 
deaoenda to these deptlis, thtiri-> proluhly to remain, stiinilin^ 
eroot, preoorvvd by the pressure of the water, until the Day 
of Judgment. 

A* Njirini; udvitnovs wmc of the fwih, nhtch tbvu descend 
in Huch enormoui nboab front the XnrtHirni n^i* into tl)« 
Atlantic, liiid tbt^ir way inlu the MedilerniniMn, thrim^h 
thit 8truit« ol' OitM-ultar, and iire very welcome, 'l^ius, 
rory tar);e maekervl uad wbitinj; ktv caught in great 
nnrnWrM, a»d a large and much valued lixh, the tunny, 
makiRt its ap|)ear«i»;i*. 

" The tunny or lAyaniu is a fish which kelmifpi to llio 
geniiK Riavkrml, tcomUr, which it ra»eniblcs in form. It 
groiVM to more than aeven lut-t in lcn>;th, nnd often wutgha 
as much as four hundred weigtit." 

At\er pusung the i^traits in dense masses, the tnnity 
skirts IIm9 coaoia of Spain, France, and Italy, to spitwii in 
the liliu-k 8cu. It visits the Mnallent Uiys unu vovox, 
which rvnders its capture fessible^indeid, easy. Large 
and ftron;; nets are fastened by cables and anchors, ut 
the eiitrauov of the buy where they ara cxpec-ted, and a 
sentinel io [iniited (rn some emini'm-c to watch Jor their 
uilvenU When ih'-y are seen appruneiiing along the omHt, 
the [iabvrmeu get ready, and as eooo as the ftsh have 



eiiterwl, Uiey cKme the nrl« nroiimi or iK^hind iJiPin. Tlie 
pcMir (i*li are lli^n Mlatii^liU-nsI nitli laiit-c anil Unil'p, llto 
twa ln'iiiii rtiltlpned witli tlicir blood. As "c Imvc otntcO, 
lliL-ir (loll, tiltlioii^l) nut very tlcliciite, u etill inui:li iijiprc- . 
ciuted Uy nouttu-riu-rF. 

The inniiy roiu-li Afeiilone in eaHy a[)riiig, and abonbJ 
llic tniiliDi? ol' April imiy bo seen in tbi> eastern bay, otfA 
('ii]> Miirliii, (he prrpiral inns Iji-tiiij nind« lor their iidv«nC( 
Tliese pre)iuriitiiiiiK am on riiUicr u umitll scitle, nnd cnnsisft 
merely of tliree «r four b<tats, u loinj net in ibe wati-r, and 
t)ie locik-ont, peMied on u liind of plittlurm mised Mom* 
thirty feel hiftU on ttie sliore. 

In some )>artii of tho coiint of Ilttly, Sardinia, and Sioil) 
Inr^^e ncis, called madiii^uea, half a niil« or a mile lon-.f, i 
used in lisbint; for the tnnny, Tliesc nets, which are iltvide<tl 
into obnnibi-rfl by cross nd^, iirc sunk in det'ii water, i»1il 
some distance fn>ni the phore. The tunnies, which follow 
thooout in a Nhonl, pa«i bctw<-on it and the mt, and on 
roaehin^ the extremity of tlie lutter are arrested iu their 
prognciw by a cr<>s§ net. They then tnrn, anil am driveo 
into the eliamlwm of tlie large m-t by the linhennen, where 
Ihey are ilenlmyeil, ait described, by htindreds, in favonmbls , 
years. The sport is stated to he very exciting ; but. un- 
forlunately, it t.ilces phiee in tin; month of May or vT\y lit 
Jtini-', tvheii lii-altli ti>urixt^ have alreatly taken tUghi to th« < 

Tlic tnnny is not only allied to the mackerel, but aUo to' 
the Iiiinito. a henutil'ul Intpienl tUh of a lovely blue colour. 
The. bunilo, allhou;;li a tropical lUh, is represttnled in th« 
Medilcrrancan by a distinct and e(|(ially bcautiftd species, 
the p/i-itaff* Sitrtiii, the len<;th of which is from twenty lo'j 
thirty ineheit. 

Whab-s not uii frequently puHit into the Medilermneaa] 
through the Strait-^ of Uibrallur, for a stati-ly promenade 
or "swim." On one of my excursions to Corsica wo met 
one when out of night of land. The iet«omer pnMcd very 
near him, and he indiil)^d \t* with a apkndid spout. The 
French sailors chilled the whaln " uu euufHeur" [a blower},|j 
nud be well deserved tlio term. 

I'vriKiiscs nrv numeroim, and as amu«injr iu their {gambols. 




1cii)M(, ami (inwitlily irjr.ition«, ns in the n^irttiern sets. 
'ilify cMjnslanlly come in ftliore. On une «i.'i'4"i<>n we met 
with n xlioal out at Ha, oridcnlly on frolic iiiU-iit ; tlu'y 
wcr<' a|>|iiir(!iilly |iuniuin({ nivli ntlifr, liki; ImyK iit l«>ii|i-i(Oi^. 
IU';;ardl>«!t of our pnwence, tlioy ki-pt springiin; out of the 
H'litcr, «'ith n kind of llyiii|{ lenp. Soniclitiifs linlf-a-duzitn 
woqIJ bo in the nir nt n tim<-, all in « lino. Thi-y pushed 
our \irtw», iiiid thi-n wvre foon out of )ii[;lit, lU our countea 

If, on B calm fine day, a liei^jht of Bome hiitifired feet or 
more is att;itni-d iibove ihf elimc, and the siirluc-e of tlie >'l-:i 
is carvfiilly rsnrtiinisl, it will bi; hkvix to piesont riblioni', an 
it wcTi', iif water of ditfeient uoloiiin, liylilcr ;ind darker. 
Tbi-se ribbons describe all kinds of irre:;alar liiiuid imtlia 
nnj simuieitici in the buy, and for n mile or tn-o from ihu 
•hotv. They are vtirytnt; murine riirn-iil*, tb<t cfliixc of 
wbiob it is difliciilt t/> determine. Inoiiimlilii-a of Mxrfaec 
at the bottom, dif)ereucc-i> of temperature, winds, all, no 
donLit, <v)ntribi]t« to prodtice tliein. Tbey illustrate on the 
Kdrriicv cf II cslm •w* tbu deeper anJ more pmverrul corn^nls 
wliiuli play »» irnj><>rtnut u p.irl in th« biitory of the ^rcat 

TliMe currents are tlio preserve, the delight of the marinu 
naturali't, a fni^ but little known. I wax introduce^] tu 
tbein by Profeaaor l';i;rt!riBl«elier, of Heidelberg, a well- 
known and entbii^iitHlic naturalist, who eame to Meutone 
two sprints pur|>'w^^ly to isittily iu murine zoology. It 
■fwint ibut the eurrentj) draw into tlieir eoiirfc all tbe 
vv;^table or animal detritna tl<>atiiif{: al the Hurfacu of Ihe 
Mi'a where they pass. The pres«n<« of ihese "elements of 
mitt-ition" attracts nnimalvubo iiml the smaller inhabitanttt 
of the direj). Tboy, in turn, attract the lar^rr molhiMtw, and 
thus these current!! become a kind of uaiuialialii' cover, 
ivhcre the inhabitants of marine depths in.icensible to 
dred^in^ are funuil in abiiniLince. 

The bcttt lime for this kind uf fiitliin^ is early in the 
mornin|>;, ut sunrise. The bunt should start from the shoiv 
ju»t ns tho sun uppears on the ea»t«rn horizon, so that the 
current or liifhini; ground, previously delvrmineil un, is 
gained m the sun's raya illuminate the Ueplhs of tho sut — 



" Ami now th« jinrplc clouds 
RiM }ikt a noDuUin ; now thv nan look* tint, 
PiUin^, o'erllowiiiu with bis Klorioui ti^lit 
Tlio noble &mphit£eatr« of IiuIh." — lUratRS. 

All aoiinated nntuio becomes cntlacd with trvsh life, ■: 
nnivm'nl iWire f'vr fuvJ i* fvlt, antl the briny pathjt ttn 
soon orowdL-d with voracious cuKtumera. 

llie t'lHliiiig is carrit^ on hy means of two nrts, liko 
bkitlerfly avis, only ]uri;(>r, fastened to ettiut ftii-ke. One is 
of g«od lizo «nd rtoiil t«xturi>, tiic uthcr Kmallvr, iind of 
more delicate material. Tliey arc held out, four-fillhs 
immersed in the water, from the side of the bout, the 
concavity turned in the direction the boat is f^in;*, and of 
■.'oumv cutch i-vorylhili^ ill their way. There ■hoiihl aW be 
suverul juni ol'Dea-water in the boat, ready for uhc. Every 
now Bud then the smaller and more delicate net should bs' 
takin in, the wtilcr nllowcd to eecapo from the ba(; end, 
and then tlu- hn^; it«cll turned in^ideout intooneof tlivglun 
jiiri of niKi-water. AlthungJi the eye may detect »othi»g 
on Inokiiig at the water from above, if the jnr ia lil^d ap 
and the ohsencr looks "tbrouBh" it, he will Roner^lly 
ece, liy triuiBinilted ti^ht, many very Kingulnr tunn« of 
marine life, whieh tlie net has eau[;ht di9r|)i)rtin^ on the 
surfaee of the sea, 1ml whieh ore quite iiivwihle to the eye 
from aljove. The snme plan may be followed with the 
larger net, but it is more eKpeeiully inteiidisl to e-jteh tit* 
larger molluscs and ziio]>liyte», whieh the eye dixliiivtly 
peroeives swimmintf or floating in the etirrent, 1 thuf 
became arijuainU'd, lliankti to the Professor, with many 
very ninf^iliir and U'litititiil fomiif of life, and was highly 
delighted with this new mode of fi*luii{f. To him 1 ewe the 
following notes of what we fonnd : — 
I Id these cunvnts will be found a great number of email 

l^_ cruotnecnnfi called Co|)vpode«, of a white, onuige, or rod 
^B colour, whieh seem to rent on tlieir antennie; tSai>hirine«, 
1^^ which, rising and fulliuj,;, look like a precious etoiie or n 
I drop ot dew, and fpnrkle llkcatlower; marvellous larvie, 

^K Asteria* and IJntins, whieh, tvilh the fri«kiness of youth, 
^H are taking an excursion in deeii watent, whiUt the father 
^H and mother are oonoealed amongst the rvuUa in quim bays 




Bodtularin, tt«latinous balU Ulc« chains of froj^a '^SIP', 
piiiictuntwl witti bliu) uml yullow, and proMmtii);; micro- 
Mi-opio -jiili^ uf iiil<:x ul' mwit «l(eunt flhape*; >iiuill Pti'rn- 
[xxltw, wliioli, prutt^L-U'd l>y a oalcaraotw box, and supplied 
u-ith twu u-iii^, en-im ubout in tho wurm wator; like lliw 
und ItiitU'rIlivit in liti- nir. Thu t^lam j^ir into w-liidi the nut 
IN UirDod >ti(t wittliGd tH «iii)» lillinl nilh tlione members of 
tlic micromopio world, and U> a naturalist tbe^ give day* 
or study, picMisiira, and inlbrmAtian. 

Wlivn t(i« iiirftci' not is iwcd a sharp eye mimt 1)0 caj«t on 
tliv wiiU-n urar tlii; bout, it* it i» only intended to catch 
tJie .Mul1ii»(<6 and Xoophy tefi, which are perceived Bwiniminir 
or Hoatinrr in the current. The obE«rver Will pmhtihly sdod 
disouvur cUuiiiM of Siilpa, i-ilhcr the gi^intic form, SJilpa 
ArHeaiui Dinximn, with it^ niidcuti of a Sienna brown 
o&lour, or the mure dLdicat« Bjieciea unmcd " deniooratioa 
tnaximH," n'loored in ultramanDe. Sometimes muro than a 
hundred individtials uv united in a chain Hcveml feet liiDf;. 
Thi* t« a Kiii<;i]liir i;«nne. in which tlie nwlh<'r tlivex hirth 
to oni.' daiight^-r very difl«rcnl fmm lierKcir. Thii^ d4U;^h(cr, 
in h«r luni, produce* hundredn of children united lik« tJie 
8iaine«i twins, but each like the grandmother. At 6n»t 
tfa«y an all unitifd, and form chiiino and rin^ o» the aur- 
taet of tlio wa, Ixit one after the ulher, as their turn to 
reproduce tlic race urrivea, separate from the rest, and ^ive 
Qp the dnnoes and pastimes of youtji for tho more Mrions 
dotJM of life. 

Anionj; ihi; tre;i.s lire Trove "ill bo jelly fiihes, bL-lont;in{f 
to the fiimity of <i<ir;;i>iiideit, which even in the jar try lo 
eatch some small fry, as likewise Ct«nophotcs, e«p>K:iully 
tho livrou ovats, a real crystal cncumbor, the Eucharis 
tDultieuniia, which, r>Me or yellow tinged, tweins aa it pussoa 
under the hark Ui be merely a rellection of Uie full moon, 
and is not much more solid; the girdle of Vcuuk. ^vhieh, 
^lidine Mer|>ent-like in the tvavcs, is nearly invisibU, uhJiuUjih 
thre« foet in len'^th. When »cen, iU edge* present all the 
colours of the rainbow, owing to tlie vibration of ciliary 

If tlw (lay ia n favourable one, thu " fishurman" will 
probably mciitv a Sipliunopliora, » iiwimniin^ polytiior- 



pliouE colony, dt-ncrnlly ti|>hi-l(1 liy ii smiill Miidiler lull of 
iiir, |<roviilc<l ivitli ii L'cilunin of billii nliori-Milli lo Hnim^ 
anil ciirrjing below a crowd ol" polyps armed with urticani 
filaments, opeiiiti-; their moutlis on all sides like it poly* 
wptiiil Hydra; liic I'nga cymbilorinis; Uio Ilip]>opi>(Iiti>j 
ItiU'it.i; tlu- Abylu pi^iitiiguiia; tlie Dtphyes aaiminiits j 
t li*' tArkuUa cyfitviiiiu, but lor tUe biter will Ih; rc-cjuiied 
the lai<^»l jar, wliieli one cclony will lill to the briin ; till 
I'liroiiiimit »('(li'titiirin, ii erii>liK'riin uliii.-h pri-M-rven iff 
cliildren ciirelully in a cradL- «!' uryt>lul tiki-D from tlie 
very snbstiiiiee ol' some Kelnliiioua aniinni ; the luryB 
Firolvs, c-ulk'd by tlie Mi-diu-rriiuodH RDhermen "oliliiii 
di mare;" IiikLIv, tliv Cymbuliii lVro«i»i, which cou<:cali 
itf fot't body in a clipper of ocyntul, u Hli]i|H-r that reeall 
the one Cindercllu wore. It is one of the niost elej^not 
obji<eU ima>finiiblv, iind for its eake alone the itHtt *t 
home who are iiiixioii»ly wuitiii;; iho lelni'ii of the '< fnulish 
fiKh«rn)en," will purdon the diiLurbuiict; eix-alid by tlie 
departure before break of day, 

I'rofeMor I'u^ensteeber was very Bucces^fid, ho told mpj 
diirtn<; th't lew wcekx he Kpent with lie, niiil rrtiiniud tn 
Heidelberf; hiden with tiiiin<;ruu« Hcicnlitiu trousur&i, and 
very happy mini. 

1 may riniiirk thnt I have never knowu an tinhappy, 
iniKunthropit.'iil niittindii't. As a clues, I think they are 
truly the happiest ami moat eontcnlctl of men. ('oikiLanl 
communion with nature drawK their thoughts from the 
cureo, the nnxietiet;, the heaiiicbeft, the passions ol life, sn<] 
thereby j)iinti>.ii and elevates their minds ; whilwt every 
advance in knowledge, every diKeoviry iii:ide, incieiistt the 
admiintioii, the reverence fell for thu Divine Author of al' 
thin^H, who hiiB eo tuurvellouslv organized everything foi 
the best. 

All who sail on or live near the Mediterranean iioLi< 
the peculiar bluene^s of ilo waten. Thii* tiii;;e would seei 
ti> im]>ly that they euntain more ault than the waters of thtt 
ocean. The more tuU held in solution by wiiler, the bluer 
it ii; the le^ salt, the greener it in. Ilcnoe the lt){ht 
Rrceii hue of the I'olur seaa, whieh contain much more 
Iresh Waiter than lhi«e ol the tropics. Tho litter are 




mllj', rrom tliiit etoft, of a docp indi^, like tliv ^tcJitt-r- 
rmiMii. 1*110 eva|>or4ition fniin lltu fcurtitco of the Mtilt- 
terranenn al^tracU a much gn-atiT ijuaiitily of waler lb4» 
it« nvcn I'lipply. ]lcii<;u tiio «lron^ LUrruiit that sets in 
from till' Di-mii at <iibn>ltnr, and nUo, no <loubt, tliu bluo 
linjce of iU saline w^tvtA. 

The c<orreclncttB of the sbovo views baa hc«n quoetioDed. 
I wuutJ, howfVLT, rufiT thut-i.> who doiibl to Iho tirsl throo 
|Mnigni)>hit »r Livulrnurit Munry'i' very vuliuihl« work mi 
"TIm! I*h_vsicjil (i«^j|phy of ihc S«a," It ia to ihi.i really 
r*si-iiuit>ii;,' hook thut 1 am ii)d(.'litetl fur llic explaiiatiou 1 

iVo gtvaa ol tJio |icciili:ii- ti»Ii-{o blue colour o< the Mcdi- 
in«iin. It tpay he oon»idt;n-(l pruvvil, lii- *t4itn!, by fvclti 
derived fruin other le^ioiia of the wurlil'n wstuTa, uid by 
KtunI experiments. 

The Guir StrL-am, whioh oamrs from tlie tropitf, from 
tJie Gulf of .Mfxico, where llie heut ik pxln'mi; and evnpo- 
ntioD very great, is of » deep blue eoWr, like Iht- Mcdi- 
terntnean. This colour ix co dillVrent t'rxim thitl of ihc 
Rurruiindin(t occun Umt the hue ol <li-niar(r:ition U olwttrved 
with eiiK% and in cidm weather half of the ship mav he 
¥ivn in the (Julf Streiiin itnd half out. AnulysL'd by Dr. 
ThuTnawy, by ineuns of a. delicate in«triiment, tlie aalt hn« 
Lmh found lo be -t per cent, in the blue UuU Stream, 
oppoeite C'hatli-ston ; 4i'ii per cent, in the blue tRH)e>wiiid 
resell; whetw* it via* only 3j per cent, in the (-rei-iier 
wutcra of the l^y of llinejiy. A^iiin, in the valt-work^ ou 
the Bboren ol' IIk- Adriatic und of Frunce, the valit or |'o«Im 
into which the eea-water is rvceived lor evuporation 
irxeniplify the roct. After rtandin-^ suniu time in one pool, 
for the purjiooe uf ev-nponilion, the Co»cci)triited (teii-wiitcr 
i« Tinssvd luto another, and bo on. As it becoini-x more 
and mvrc loaded with oalt the colour tj;radually chun»a 
from liphl t» de< p Moo, lo indif^o, and tinally to a reddish 
tint witiii rryitalliiMtion i« about to comtnenoe. "Tb« 
iiall-inaki?r« jitd-te of the rlchuna of the sea-water in full 
by iu colour; Ihc ({neuer the hue the Ire^her the water." 

'Hie cobiur of the waters of glaciair Klmuna, of the Swiss 
Idkes, or of the Uhine at B&tc, i» quite « dilTcrenl hue lo 
lltat of ttie Mediterriineiin. It ii a kind of light blui^ih 

I -I I 


KTvea, and ia «vidonUy owiti^ to some other plijvieaf 

In 'lescribiii); tliv nntunil fcaturM of tlto Mentonian 
■fflphitlivatro, I rou>t not omil to Dienlton, thnt its olivo 
niKJ pin« woods are alive wilb featlieiiMl 8ong»t«n. Tiie 
notes of come are very musical, and tliose of others re- 
produM »>un<l8 familiarly Iirard in tiiv t^iimmor in our own 
pine foniftK in FiiglxnJ. The wme cannot hi- Mtid of the 
Htnall ffrtvri Iree^fro^ that scramble about on the brfin<;hefl 
of the Olive-lrees, or of lli«r larger brothers that live in or 
nmr thu binkt^. In winlor they arc, fortunately, silent ; 
but wt Kprin^ urrivM, they comnxmoc every cvvnins an 
endlt^na choriiH, which lastd until after dayliglit, mucli to 
the dismay and distress of thoeo who live in their neigh- 
boarhood. Thoy certainly more than compcnsnte for the 
DJghtingali:, which arrive*, tm with uh, <-jtrly in May, and 
warble» all iitgbt long in every tree. Many of the birds 
«ra winter emigrants from the north, like ourselves in 
search of a southern sun. Others in spring make a more 
or less extended Dojourn on the North Mcditerrnncnn coast 
on their ruliirn from rooi-c mluthuni re^^ions. Thu olives 
and pine conea allord them ubtiiidant food. 

On the sea, near the shore, aro constantly seen troops of 
eefi-(^lls, attracted by the household refuse which the 
inhubiUtntH lire rather too prone to «tfl over tbi; Hi-a-wall 
into the mU water. ^Vhen wind and storm ore looming 
on tJie horiiton they are more especially numerous, some- 
times congTi't^tin^ in tloclcR of eovcrul hundred. 'I'hey 
cvnomtly nwini abuut on the wavcn near the shore, and 
took very picturei«iue when present in such numbers. Sea- 
gulls are iiiterestinj; birds in more ways than one. When 
ridinu on llie waters Ihi-y buvc more than the usual (^ce 
and elt'-;.itR-« of utjuatic btrdx, and whoii s'imiiiii; aloli, all 
but motionlvM'. or de*cribing eddying circk-H, the ntrengtb 
and BtoouthncM of their f)i)fbt, and their perfect seU'-pos- 
Bession, are pleasant to behold. $i-n-<;ullK appear to soon 
become familiur with man in the piiniuit of food, anil a 
truly reniaiUahIc ftalure iu their history in the perlinaeHy 
with which tht-y fallow vessels, et'pecially stenmeis, for the 
I of the ollu! thrown overboard, lu the Meditormnuan 



ihty lie In wait off the \mrU, nud a choccn baD<i itarts 
wiLli ncjirly every Bt«uiiier, and follows it, fair weather or 
foul, to it« dcetinntion. They have thus Qccom|>3nied me 
on moet of my loti[^r MidiUirrnnMii excumon^, euch as 
from Corsica to Marsetllw, from Mewtiiia to MnnMiillex. 
On the Utter voya^^ a troop of ei^ht joined iia aa we left 
the )>ort of Mi-!>«ma, and were 'lying about us for three 
i)ie;htji and two days, sppurcnlly ever on the wiiiff. 
Wliciiever I was on di-clc Uipy were there, not merely fnU 
htwin({ the veescl, hut leisurely flyiiifj iu ciicles half a mile 
in advance of u*:, or a mile or two heliind. Bits of lii-ead 
thrown into ihi: »c» hmut^lit them all to ok in a fi-tv 
■nconds. 'riieir wondcTfutly acute ei^ht at once detrctMl 
the prise, when they wonld descend from a great hei){lil, 
liki) RQ arrow, and pounco on the finnllest moreel lloating 
in the foaming furrow traced hy the vessel. 'Hie cnptniii 
ajtid that thi-y knew the tra«k of the Mediterranean 
«t«au>erN aa well as the oldest pilots. I have heen told 
tliat thi-y follow in the same way the 8t«amorB trom New 
York to Europe for tvn days and more. They proUthly 
rest and sltrep oceaHionally on the hoaom nf the aea, and 
afterwards overtake the ship by their rapid lii^:ht, 

Thu martins or swnllowH, im I have slated, never aban- 
don Um sbeltttred ntviiieN ami kiin-heatcd rooky m<mii|jiinti of 
the Pont St. Louiii throughout the winter, findint; ^ufKoient 
ini^i^'t life to maintain them. All.houii^h in an'cptioually 
warm and r-hcllerad nook like theM* rocks they may thus 
rc^niain, the general awallow population migrate* from the 
Jtiviera as it does from more northern countries, eroMJng 
the Mixliterrancan to AfricA. It is not really known where 
(hey llniilly go in mid-winter. I'rolinbly ihi-y kwp movini; 
south a^i wtnt4-r advaiiu-s. In Algeria they aiv nut more 
statiounry than in southeni Europe, goiug Bouth, into the 
desirri when winter, cold, niiil rain sets in; nnlofe il ho iu 
Hiimo ■■xcptiiiiinlly sheltered nook, sndt lu tbt- Uorgo of 
C'liilfu. There 1 wm told that they retnairwd all winter, 
M at the St. Louis rooka at Mentone, keeping comjNiiiy 
with the monkeys, of which, however, we cannot boaat. 
Some travvUcTM »prak ofiieeiiig them in Senegal in mid* 
wiiiliT, und Herodotus, twenty-three ceatnriot ago, states 




that Bwalloivsare TouikI tliroui^liout tbe yi-nr iit tlio eotirccs 
of the Nile. As he cuitninly had not vii^itiNl the NiU lic;i<), 
n e\nTy rcMrved to our oouDtrymen in recent daya, b« tni»t 
have had the uimc hazy nolioii urwhat becomes ofstrBllovra 
in winter that we have-. 

The pTvsvnue of the martins .itlmc1« hiiwkti and occumion- 
nlly the inajebtie eng1« IVuin the adjoininj; Alpine r«-s;ions. 
I have often luin, in mid-;vint4.-r, fur hours nmon;^ the rocVs 
at St. Loiiif!, high ahovo thu hluv vi>sHi,-l-dollt.-d *ea, wilh 
tlic wild Thyme, tlie Hoacinary, and the Cneoruin in ftill 
llower .iround me, watuliing their movcmenta. As they 
Ifstn conlitJenco Uiuy n-i'iimi; ihvir rapid tli^ht in nod out of 
the rockf, chiwinsj; the InHcct* iu< nn a fiuv Kiii^h^h »nmini'r 
irv«niii^. Suddenly a nohle hatvk, occasinnully a niujeetio 
Atjjiiie ea;;lc, appctire, fu.irincf aloft with «'ide-ftrot<'hed 
|iinion». The poor niailin*, Klridii'n with IWr, JnKluntly 
Mck u tehi^v, and iu a iew ^eoundH di:<ii{i[iiriir fruni the ^xe 
of thrir rulliU'K!' iinmuer. Sweepinir from ontt rock to tha 
other, he cceuis to enjoy the oonlufion and solitude he has 
<:reated, iind remains "the monarch of nil hu surveys." 

My irieiid Mv. Truherne Mogjjridge, iiuthor of the wtrrk 
I havu menliuned, "The t'lura of ikii-ntone," who haa 
made thv ornithology of the Riviera a study, tells mo 
that the rock Martin kwhIIow dops not vi^it Kn<;lnnd 
in the summor, allhuut;h il awcndii qiiitu ii* far north, in 
an easterly direction. Like many other summer mixrunia 
from the t>oulh, il tnkcx n north-ctisterly course. The rock 
Martin i« the «oIe memhi-r of tim swidlow gciiux that 
winters iu KiiMjie, and that oiilv in a few warm shcitered 
localities, such iis Oihroltar, Mentone, and Ibc coast of 
Gix-cce. Mr. T. Mo^gridire says that he has noticed other 
Urdu iif [mssiige during the winter al Mentone, such ns tita 
Idaek Uedstart and the Willow Wren. In oampany with 
Uiesu I'irdH, altlKiii^h of very different habits, he has ob. 
■crrad lh« heiiiililnl Book Cncper {TirioJrumii gorti/iiia), a 
live of the Tree Creqicr of our woadv. Like thii) latter 
it is nintlj sei-n on ihi- win;f, but ui-eejis npstit'p and 
-mtty impracticaljie surlnocs of rock, with a jerking 
II and slight spue mod iu ex[)an«iou oftheuing, dipping 
■ng I'tll into the enevices of the rock ait it ascends. 



Tlic Txxljr i« of a inoucc ?rcy, but tho upper pari "f tlii." 
iii?;irly Muck wing is of a line crimson cakitir, imd tlier« is 
a row of white spots on the qtiill foiithLTs. Tha Pont St. 
IjouU rocVs wri- u fiivoiirit<i r<*ort of tlii* very iiiU-rL-»t!n-; 
hint, hut iici ihmht it niiiy l>e siien on ollii-r t>otntA uf ih<: 
coast. Itius it hiLs been notic«i) npartlio miln'ay tunnels 
through the rocks on thv romi hi-twm-ti Fiiifilo atitl Genoii; 
it in woll known in Itnly inui Sjmin. 

Oats of the oritantentjt of tho llower ^nlen in autumn, 
ami a constant visitor to onr rooms in winter, is the hum- 

injf bin! hiiwk moth {Afurro^l'MM »/ft/<ilarnm). It in li 

rgc hnt.wn moth, with a nuxi^e-likn haAy iind hvntl, bril- 
liant ey«, small ivinsfs, and a ti)nmie un inch or two in 

nclh, UHitatly Qurlcd ap probo^ms sfinpe. It ha^ llie power 
to uurt thin ton<pj«, witli invuintjini'imx r.iptOity, Into tho 
CofolU of f\ttvn>n, to hlle them of tho iiuL'tar on which it 
feeda. When liorering over llowera I am toM that it 
thoroushly resembles the hiiromini; bird oC tropical 
eoiinlrii-s, whence its name. Thcst- moihs nro nc<!asior>a)1y 
neon in warm ifnmmi^r wiuthiT in Knt^Utxl. Tlicy arc tut 
doubt driv4-n into the houseit by the incrensin^ cold of the 
ni^l«. lliey arc really pri-tty (.-iviitiircs, nnd I liitvo oDcq 
hud Mveral in the drHwinjr-nioTn fonhiy" t«g\-lhi'r, hovt-rin-j 
over eiit lh>woni, daKin;; their tongue in an<l out of tho 
corollas, nnd fecdia;; ou their sweats. 

The St. Louis rooks nuu all but perpend icalnrly from the 
fciii, on Uie Oiwlcrn wide of the <rai>ti;rn buy, the Oeiioii r^iail 
'bciug bliiotml fnim their flanba. They proH'ut, ni^r the 
bliore, u flw-p, irrcjiular, and picttire^ue clell .ir ruviiK-, 
ciecupiod by ii w:it<T<:i)nr*o which I'iills :is u casende from a 
eonaidi-rstlilu hi<ii;ht. The road urovHOK this ravine by ii hold 
nnd ele|>iint brid;^ of one arch, which U now the frontier 
between France and Itidy. .Mii&ttrs of rock, i^re^nlar{y 
divided and worn by tlm convulxioHH of nature, wid by tho 
arlion of wat«r nnd weather, form the tioiiudBrii.-H of the 
ravine. 'I'hi^y are |Mrlly naked, jiarlly cicithcd with moun- 
tain plant*, LuntiMuo buHh<-«, Thyme, the Cneorum, 
VaWian, Oyti»ii», (JorouiUn, and Bliii,-I)>'ll. TlirBi- rocks are 
viiiiHuuoua with the r>d:;e thai nt^eendn t» llio Kerv«:ni, one 
of the high mount£ii»8 of tho Mentoiiian umphitbeutre 

L, i 



(3850 feet). A few hundred fwl atravu ttic s^a lin« 
tbo fconv Iwcoincs very wild and ^ruod. 'Jlu- moiititaiii 
awuniat Ihe form ol' a fanUutio vans* nf hu^ rucks ami 
NtODW. In one re{jion tbey form a epeciee ol' stony tor«nt, 
urmted in its npid dicn-nt i in snotlicr thi-y niv pili-d 'im? 
I'YcT the other in tivery onuoivahle whupi', It in thv wild* 
ntv* and naked stony confueion of a mountain summit, 
n-ithin a few hiindrml k-vt of the wa-level. 

On th« NKtvm ride of the St. Louis ravine, lying on the 
itid« of the mountain, neven hundred feet above the tva, is 
« very picturesque, grpy-lookins villa<Te, Urimaldi by name. 
It La nwn from the town aud llio eastern bay, unarming 
ilielf iu tlic >uu, aud iw generally rendered consi>ietii>u* by 
patches of while which surround it; this ia the linen of 
the infaaljitants, lyiu); on the mountaio to dry. On the Iei\ 
eidc of till- (ienoa rvmd, wbivh winds above the shore lliuttcd 
oat of t]ie solid limeMtone ri>eli«, below the village, i< an old 
mined mcdiuval ca«t«llati'd tower, which formrrly belonged 
to the Counts of Grimaldi. It was built either (o protect 
the coaet and tiio town from the attacks of the roving 
MiHirx and Saracens a thouMiud yoary ago, or by the liitt«r 
when they were maetem of the countn'. It is known by 
iUk name of the Grimnldi or Saraien tower, and it is from a 
small watch turret near it llial >e taken the very trulliful 
view of the Mentone ampbitheatru reproduced in the frontis- 
ptuec. This is one ol the most sheltered Hjiots that can be 
fonod in the entire did net, and t)ie view from it is certainly 
line of the tnuot coni|>k-tc and nioift lovely. It tw lu-n; that 
I have eatahlished my winter garden. ^Viih a view to the 
eidtivation of llowcr^ and to the tranquil enjoyment of 
"invalid Warunv life" in honre of leisure, 1 have become, 
as already ttalcd, the biippy pro])riotor of the old tower, of 
the cmiling sunny terrnoes that adjoin it, and of a eomiider- 
able extent of the rocky mountain side. 

At the Wtom of Ihc |itctiiiVKquc ravine, which is eroescd 
by the 1k>M Si. IaiuIi bridge, tbi-re lo a wiitei'coum', that ia 
made to irn^ateaud fertilize all I lie terraccB to wliiob it can 
he diverted. litdei-d, the s''°v^ of Lemon trees which 
-«ver the mountain side before we rrai.h the St. Iiuuis 
•w uwe tbeir exbtencetoits waters. In the lower |>art of 





, t(i« mvine th«re ik an aqueduct on aruliea, whioh tniJilioii 
Bays was Imilt in the tinio oi the Itomans. Scvoril liunJiol 
fiH-l liijjlii'r there is n smiill water can»l, ncoojwil out of lli« 
rock, nhkh d«Meii(lj iVotn the up|>er part of th<! rjvine. An 
it id a eliort cat from the villa^ of Urimaldi to Alcntont!, 
the vilUgors constantly mnko u«0 of it, iiltlion^U them in 
ccnr«ily foot-room for oiio ]>i;r*on, and tin; pr^cipicu it 
imiuedtutely ul the niili*. In one part the aqiie{l*iot tii su 
iDUcli iit a DoUow of tho rock that there is scarcely room t>i 
pau upri<;ht. A tiile i*; t'lM o( n yuitti^^ •;trl who all hor 
life hu Itlitlioly mid fe^rUiwly (nivi^rmHl this {xilh. Shu i^tt 
married, had a baby, and carried the cradle on her head, ai 
is the cuAtiiin of thu pi?asant6 va this couutry. One day shu 
took the likmiliar road, with the cndle in the lutu] position, 
forgot the roek above, sLniotc against it, and was ilajilied 
over the precipice with her child. 

On the western side of the St. Louis ravine are thu 
" warm lermiMui," u I have lumod tl)i>m, the warmml 
ru^rion of Mmitoiie. Ou the rocky mi>uiitain tflope the 
owuvra have aeooped out and built a aerii^s of terraces, whieh 
have been entirely planted with Lomon<treee. Thwe 
trtx-8 owe thiiir esistenci? entirely to the streamlet which 
bn* been diverted from the ravine watereonrae, and which 
ii'iiiraU'* the terraces, HUiiii; lar^^e tanks for summer usu. 
Shvltvred on every ^idc except the south and south-west, 
saturulei) with annihlne ri-<.>m early morning to evenin:;, 
the roi'k and »<>il n>-vcr cmoI, and cotd and fr>j«t arc iinknoivn, 
well oil oxeeptioiial cold daya. Thiu they conatitute a 
iialui'al hotbed, whui-e ve-,^tution is always in advanei-, 
where winU'r in unknown, aud where invalids may eufi-ly 
while away the dity in the coldcs't we-atliur. 

The strau^T wanderinij; amon^ the rocka above these 
temUKS may accidentally come across a small bl^ck metal 
crow. This ero<4 c<)mmcmi>rateit a painftil catiwtrophe thnb 
ocourred aome years n;;o. A »prii;litly F2uglL<h girl of ten, 
whoso parenta occupied the villa below, esoaped with a 
youniter sister from their eaverDOds, and, in li;fht-henrt«il 
play, verambled up the rocko. Having reached this wild 
rcjtifip, Uh) elder one climlwd upan a p.Mk to mive her 
haiidkeruhief in r<.*c»gnition to a friend beloiV. Uafortii- 


nattily the Wtlu'r fnoting, Ml Iicml-runNno*!, ninl wtt» killeJ 
Oil the spot. 'Micre was uuivur^iil mourning; f'»i' the auiI futv 
of the lair Eii^li^ii child on llic |>urt of tlie kiiid-henrtLtl 
Ml' Utopia IIS, mill tvcii now llm fcavfiil accidiMil is ncviT 
iiicnliuiiviJ without (le(.-)i nymiiutliy for llio Uumvcil puniiitf. 

'riie b.acli uiiiWrneatii ana beyonJ the SL Louis raviue 
is singularly hcautiriil. Thu red liiDPstonc nicke, ttic red 
t'ovk«,ii)f l\ivy lire gun orally (■iilK'il,iiscrii>I iH-rpCiiilitnlnrly to u 
gteal hei);hc, and tliti nUom u moivly lannvd of d^liriaand of 
udvanuiii;; butlrcsecti of iho eamu formatioD, unrked liy the 
waves into llii- moi^t jii(;<^:d, irn-f^liir, and innlu^tii^ sliajn-s. 
^Vbetl tlitfi'o i* It nlrtitig fouIh-wcKtcily f^iilf lilowiiig the 
Uii\eaare tlirowii uu Ilieee ruuke willi extremt; I'uive, and 
aie broken ioto fonm and Fpray that rise, with a noise liko 
Ihundoi, to a i^reul lH'i};ht. On one ]>oint thci% is a «nb- 
terraiR-un jiuMSiiire or tuiiniO, ihio whiuli the vcu ix enguirvd, 
to wfcape further on in the shape of a ma^nilk-ent "jet 
d'l'jm." The eigiit, in stoimy weather, is vtry grand. 
TliL- Bunc caves ar« at tho bow of these red TocJiti, ahovv tfav 
coast line. 

Along uud on tliu tihori; rocks used to pass the road to 
(Knoa, a meiv mule track, an belorost^ti-d. llemains of it 
slil) exist, mid it constitutes onu of tho must pieturesi|UO 
and |)leiiMknL promcuudiv. Thu view uf Meutone mid of 
il» uniphitheutie is veiy ilne from this potrit. Ahuut half 
H mile Iwyoiiil the torrent that deeceiids from the St. Iiouia 
ravine, tho path pusse» iilong the shore over a t^ully, by » 
bridge of one areli, no thin and light that it i« croMtid for 
the first time with some apprehension. It iii »uid to be of 
Ilomun construction, and, sjnall as it is, eeenia worthy of 
mich iin ori;;iti. 

Sonio biild rocks which here rife out of the nca near ilie 
iHliore, and give llie command of deep water, are the favourite 
liiiuut of an}:lers. 1 have tried my fuitnne, in a piscatory 
Kense, but uilh very little success. ^Vnuld not mm« 
T)lat) of gruund-buiting be likely to attract the (inny tribe? 
The refiixe whieh the tuwnapeople throw into the »ea, over 
the <juay, at the entrance of tho town, seems to huvo that 
I'Hect: a fact which accounts for the biibiluHl pu-vence of 
tuitivv migten. I leave thi» 4ueHtioti, however, to tbote 




more learned than myself in the art. On tliMo roctis w 
found till-' "sanijihirf," whiirli Ik not coniinctl to lli>! tiiray 
bei^hts of Dover. The ret^ion is nU'j a labourite habitat 
of th« CiDcm maritima, and oi'the ele^nt I^vatora. 

A etron<; sea wall, Dn<l a brcuxl foot C4u<eway linvc been 
built al<)n<r th« dioro of the eiurt<!rn hay, from tliu town 
to th« St. Lotii« rookd. Tims an atltnirable promenade, 
fihelt«rcd from the north-east, hiu; been formed, nioxt 
vidiuibli; to the inTalids who inhabit Ih^ eastern bay. 

1 would, huwevrr, warn all real invahda iiuver to loniiife 
or sit on the aca-bcai'h unless thero be a dead onlm. 
Gonrrally spt'iiliinfj. whi-n there is a perccptiUc swi-lin-PiC, 
with rollin;* wnvc-c, it i* ilangvrouK. A* previou.-dy ox- 
plaineKl, alllioii^h this hree2« apparently oonies from the 
eoutb, it is olten in reality a north wind dellected UtniU 
H-ar<)e. As suoh it may produce a ehill, and |;iv<^ rinc to 
ooldn or sore-lhroaU, or to even more serious mincliief. I 
ut^en lev) inclined to stop my carriage, and pUi)tinlhropi> 
rally to warn inv.ilid strangers, whom I see sittiiij; or 
lyins on the bcauh in January or rebruury, as if they wvrv 
enjoying "otiam t'mf /itynit'ilt" on our own nhorcH lu July 
or An^isi. This luads mi! to reinnrk that iu our active, 
fevertHh modern civllixation the old chiMio snyin;; which 
I have quoted (awry) ha« oeawd to bo true. " Kum- or 
letfiirc and dignity" no longer go together. Now, it must 
be ease without dignity, or dij^nily wiUiout eas«. Tim two 
caD no lunger be combined. 



" Wboom wishM to inveatij^tA mKlioine proprrlT. alKiald 
procood tliim : in Um first place to coasidor tko Kiuoiii oi the ,v«ttr, 
and wbiit cSoeta cacb of tluem pniilaiio* : for thej iu« not all itlike> 
but differ much frotd tlieiiiaelveti id ngurd tu tbeir chaogoe." 

BiFrocnATKs lOn Atra. Waters, Ukd PIacon). 

To appreciate t1ip meilirnl vbarnct«ri«tics or tlio climiite of 
the Genoese Riviera mid of MiMitone in r^ncral, it is only 
neocwnry to weigh the motoorolo^ricul fncUi eiiunciatvd in 
n preceding chapter. 

A cool but sunny atmosphere, so dry that a fog is nev«t 
seen at any period of the «-int«r, either on sen or lnn<l, 
muse be bracinff, invigoraliiift, i^tiiniilaling. Such are tha 
lending feature* of thiv region — the undercliff of central 
Km rope. 

Uehind the monntainx which nkirt the Riviera and Uio 
Mentoniaii amphitheatre, tu midwinter, tut wc have mttm, 
flroirt and unow may and -^tten do extend up to the north 
{Kile, more than two thousand five hundred mileE, On the 
other hand, the wind hlow« from the northern <|i)ttrt<jrs 
during the greater part of the Hinti:r neainin. The air 
miMt, t]ietefore, he eool, and wouhl Iw eohl, were il not 
M'arnied by an ardent Bun, darting it« rays thrau;:h a cloud- 
\we elcy and » dry atmufphcre-^wcre it not, aUo, for the 
summer heat stored up in the rooka, and t;iveii out by them. 
These eanses keep Menione free from frost when it reigns 
all around, but cannot make it a tropical climate. There i» 
no Bui'h ehmata on the ihore* and in the ii^linidit of the 
Mctliterrnnean ; there b no region in the Mediterranean 
basin free from tJie inHitence of the cold poUir winds. 


Sucli n wiittcT climate, hovrevor, in perfedion for nil who 
want bracinj.', renovation — for llie very youii;', thf invalid 
miilille-a;^!, »iid the VL'ry old, in wliom vitiility, defoutive 
or tl:i;,"B'"(Ji tW|iiiiX'x roiiHiiig «nil »timnliling. It unitox, 
indeiHJ, all the (tondiliotiH uak-uljted to ext-fciiw n btinelidul 
iullueooe in any state ot' lowerod vitnl power. 

Ttu) cool, but plu;isant tern pv rut u re, thv PliFniilatio;* in- 
flt)«nev of the siinHhine, the usual alMfiKM' of rain or of 
continuwl rain, the m<Kk'mte dryness of the air, render 
daily eitercise out of door§ both po^-iblo and a^reeablu. 
Ii)drH-d, in BHi-'Ii n region lifu mny U* spent out "f doors 
thro»|i;liout idl Imt the rnlin; uintvr. Sm'li un oxiatuTici?, 
in such cxindilaons, bud a direct tendency to create ami to 
•u«tnin tli« appetito, anil to improve the digestive and 
Dutritivu ftiiiotionK. 

lt»e pureH of the akin, ako, are kopt permnticiitly opon, 
sod thus the liinjts are relieved of the estra burden which 
is bIwdj-r thrown upon them in northern cliiniitcs, when the 
eold itainp of wintL-r superveocs. It is, indeed, bvcaiisu the 
fanctionu of the skin, u an excretory or^in and u« n piirtllcr 
of the blood, arc all but arnwted by the odd t» our eUmat*-, 
that so re* throat, intiuenza, bronchitis, «nd kidney diseases 
in t^utieral are oo prevalent in winter, or vsititing, bcuumo ho 
iigt^nkvate<l. TIm; work of Itlnod-piiri lien t ion, accompliKliml 
in w;inn wither by the «kin, is thrown in winter on the 
Rineoiu nicmbnines of the lunio< aud air pnssajfee, And uQ 
the kidtieyN. Thirco or^in)! arc oon^^-Htcl, diokod, as it 
iw«r», ami auecinitb to tJie extra »v.>rk, the blood ileelf 
beooming poisoned by ita delicient purilicatioii of worn out 
nuteriala Hence the cotda or mucons membruie inHam- 
mattonii, aitd Uic fwcr that aceoinpaniet them, in tin; 
winter season of the norlb, as liken-tso varioua other tornis 
of chest and kidney di»easo. llenue also the comparative 
immunity Ifoin tlietie allections on the Riviera. 

I Mcloutcd Mcntone i« my winter rcxideneo many yc9n> 
a^, Ixx-atiMi 1 wiL< nuffenn)F from advanced pulmonary 
consumption. Many of tlie invalids who liave foliowml 
my example have lial)ourG<l under the same dire disease. 
That ihu clioioii wax n rational one, will, I think, be 
^(■ernlljr admitted, on counidonitiou of the facts above stated. 



Wtiun I Gnit arrived, there were scaroely any Rtrang 
))Ul sinuo 1 have <lr»»-n tlie attention of mj fdlow )>nie> 
titiuncRt to thr viiIih; of Ilik climate nf n health resort 
iu clieat aflectiooN, ttio f»i\-i<;ii jioptilitioii lias ycurly in- 
«re««;d, ami numWred last winter (1873-74) above xixteen 
iiuiidred. It oontiiins teprcsentativcs of irMNtt Kuroiwan 
nation*; the Eii^lUh and French, liowcver, have hitlierto 
been tlie tami ainnvinito. Since the translation of thift, 
uork into (iermau (in 18(i3) mnny Gormnni? Iinve made it 
tlieir winter aWIe, Our American cmwinn are also fimlinf; • 
tlieir niiy to Mentoiie in yeiiily inercjutini; nwinUn*, wimMj 
the fouitli edition wu nulilistiea in New York (1870). i 

I'hlliiiiis is eMentially a disease of debility. It prin»| 
<'i|ially attnckf those wiw have reecived «rfj«ii«ation« 6«>»[ 
lieient in vitality ftom their parents, or who have injured 
the vitality of an originally good conslilution by exeewe* 
of any kind, or in whom siK-h a ciinstitution has been 
)Ri|>.iirei] by over work, or by hardsliipw and privation* 
iiiileptndent of their own will. In mucIi a difcase — OiM 
depi-ndent on defcetive vitality — a bracinf;, EtimnUtinff 
elimatv, such as 1 have deecrilicd, must Iw Ixnieficial, and 
has been most deetdt<dly so, both in my own case and ID^ 
tlioHc of tha man^- wliunt I have attetidwl. 

With Uie awistance of sunahiiic, a dry, bracing atino>^ 
epherc, R mild temperatui-e, and rational ethenie treatment 
tiygieuie, dietolie, ami me<Iicin»l, I have tumid piilraonar}' 
coneiimptiou in thin favoured ri't;iiin,e!(|)eeiully in it? earlier 
eUtifif, by no means the intractaMi^ diHensc tlial 1 formerly 
Jound it in London and Paris. After liflceu winters passed 
at Meiit'>nG, I am aurroundcd by a phalanx of cured or 
Hireett.'d coustimptioa eaaea. Thin eurative result haa only 
In-eii attnint^^, in evi-ry instance, by rousing and improving 
the orgiinic powew, and jirineipally thiJW of niitritiun. If 
a eunsiainjitive patient can bi; iii>ptviv<,-<l in health, and thus 
bruutiht to eat and sleep well, ihrtroiit^hly di;ie*lin!{ and 
asxtniilating Ibod, the battle is half won ; and the principal 
bcnt'lil of tW winter climatv of the Riviera ia the assistanc* 
it givea the phy«ioian iu attaining thi» end. 

Amoii|f^t the consumptive patients I have attended, llio*e 
who wvrv in the 4'arly or even secondary stages of thfi 



drttiifc, and fiad vitnlity and const itutioniil aUmiiia left, 
huvB iii<r»tly (iom- well. I Imvo st-cii, in muny yoiinp persons, 
w-t-lU Ml .irked crutle tut>eiX'uW dugiiiKitx dUuppiiir, gradimlly 
abt>orl)t.-d. In various oasts of Bvcid«tiUil t>litliuU in iiiidilli^ 
u^^il, oi'or-wurki'd mun, tlie amvlioratioD tiaa been still more 
uiiiun-iit. 1 haw siuoii wi-ll-murkud mvilios bccoini.- piirlly 
or entirely cii.-atrize(I, and ibe cdnxtilutiuiiul Hyiniitnuis 
erudtuUy snUide ; tbe g^ner^l heallb and etrengtii steaddy 
improvinfr. For moru extondeil inTorniation rcsiicvtiii;; tliv 
iunuetioea of ttif^ olitniit^! of thu KivKTa in piilmonury von- 
Bumptiou I must refer lo mysiHfeiol work on llie Biibjeot.* 
I must, bowcvcr, \tc allowed tnstat« bere that llic tilWn 
yi'aiV t-xiH-riiiiw 1 bnvc Imd <jf pidmonary consumption in 
tbe aoutit of Eumiii: hiis led me lo ttie conviclign tbul 
tliere is a greater pntbubility of ibo diseaae being arrested, 
uf lifb beiiifT prolong^], and ovon of a cure bein^ eventually 
ctfeuted if tlie palient odd winter in llie south tliKii if lie 
reiiiuins all tvint«r in tlie north of Europe. I certainly 
have infinitely more conlidenee in and reliance on the value 
ol n «int«r residence iii the south than I bad 6it«cn yc-irs 
ii;;o, when 1 fint lell Enj^Und for the winter, n eonrirnied 
invalid. As m |iriicti>iti^ phyMciini in Ijondon, 1 hail not 
seen the ^lood results from winteiiii); abroad thai I have 
eincc cxpcrioueed and u-itncsscd at Mentono. The c\(i1an»- 
lion, however, to me in obvious. Fuur out ol' five of my 
fririner putientti and friendii evidently committed all kinds 
of mistakes, against wbiih, from ivant of eitpenencf, I 
omid not guard them as 1 can now. Tbuy travelled about 
lor pU'iiMuru, Mhen lliev oii^ht to have cuiisiilervd thetn- 
Mjlvet Gunftrmed invalids on the brink of the Ktave, and 
have rotnaiuetl stationary-. Tliey often took up their iibod« 
iu lar^e, dirty, fevcr-|>oisoiied Fotithern Utwnt, more occu- 
pied in giij{i)t-MTing than in hi-alth-^eekin;;, and constantly 
expii^ to roaur peinli-iuUH inliiienees. U it extiaordinury 
that thoy sboofd generally have come Ukek as bad as, or 
uvun worse, Uiud when they sturbed ? 

* " Od Ili« Truktiasnt of Putinonar^ Consuaivtioa l>v Hy^ene, 
(.'hiiinte, anil Mcdidoo, in it« ccmaoxion vritli Modera DoclniM*." 
B^ JoiiiM lInHr7 Ucoinel, ^o<l edition, 1H71. London; CbarcbiU. 



Tho mpst aati^rnctorjr cases that I have witneeBed ha 
been tlioee id which climate has not been alouo relied od, ii 
whicli the patient has Ueon iimlur constant and juilidomj 
medical muna^mont, in which the rxtutinu of daily lift 
has ht-en guiiled by medical exiMvicnue, and in wliiclt the 
vurioog thfriipeutical resniircue that our improvcil know- 
ledge of phthisis gives the profc-Ksion hivo been aleadtlyl 
I II- nil v<! red in. I'ulienlx left to thetn«tlves, or to niletJ 
laid down for thuir ^uidnnce at homL*. commit all kinds of] 
errora. They coiistimlly omit to do whut they ought to 
do, nnd curried away by llic exam]>le of others, or by the 
lirst dawn of improvement, ilo much that tliey oaght not! 
to do. 

In some imttancn, even of tulrnnced phthisis, in whichJ 
tlitrt! in, from the fimt, but liltio rhum.-)^ of rwiovery, thej 
invalids, Borrounded by dear friends, are so charmed with J 
thf sunshine, with the foreign scenery, and with tho vcgo-J 
tntioii. that it more thnu compensates for all their liitigutiS.J 
Indeed, I have known them r^yoicc U} I« under the brii^ht] 
sky of (he south, even in the midiit of ^reut physical triiils.j 
To Eueh siill^rera, admirers o{ the picturesque, mcnljillyl 
alive to the benutifs of nalurc, to the ti^ory of Ihc unit duilyl 
cnrveiing in a bi.ixi: ^>i li<^ht thr»ii-^h the beaventt, to Iha^ 
beauty of the "evcr-chiiiii^in^" ftesi, to the shadows on the 
mountains, the quiet repose out of doora nil hut daily 
enjoyed mukcsampleamendii forthcsacrificcsofcxilc. Tltey 
descend the valley of the shiidinv of dt^ath rejoicing, nor can 
tiny one, in their case, regret Ihe fatigue encnuiiterod in the 
journey from Kn<;l;)ud. 

Persons sulfeMii^ from pulmonary consumption nhould 
oIbo be onutioned a(;aiiist trustinfi to the lidli« and delu- 
sions of homdvpiithy and of othiT niodi-ni fuUacies. They 
■hould ever rcinemher that they are liibourin'j under n 
diniease, curable in xomu nufv», but ut^iially faLnl; from a 
di«ra»e that is still, with all our imprvivements in medicine, 
a verdiol of dvaUi to n large pvopurttun of tliose whom it 
attacks. U it not, therel'onj, tempting Providence, throw- 
ing life away, abandi'nin<r the lai't clinuee of i-eeuvcry, to 
di»<uird tho experience of ages, and to entrust life to tlie_ 

Vtiown profeeson of doctrines which every mastcr^mii; "' 



irope, en|{sg«d in the etmly and practice of tlic mcdk-al 
proforion, prouoonces itiisaiH- ilulii-->iiiii«, tn my tht! U-asl '( 

Muiiy |ieNOM who have ulwayg Hitirered riinn lironchttis 
ill England are qnite free from it at MenLonc, owin;; pro- 
bitbly to tlte dryness of tb« ntmooplicTc. I luiv« an old 
frientl at ]N'ic«, » Ijoiidon pliytiicuu, now abovo eJxiy, who 
Dlwndoiied ^london fimiiy years agu, owin>; to ri?peat«d 
sttacke of winter brunchilM, which lit lii»t \v.i\ to very 
eerioiw oomplicutioitx. llo itixdc u wint«r KutilL-inent nl 
'Hkh, Hiid, ever since, tins there passed the cold eeason, 
perfectly fre« from aU brouchiul miecltiei', and in flourisliing 
' tieollh. In ei^vitnil in»tnntie« of thin deMtiptlon with which 
1 am aninainted, Uie attempt to once more spend the winter 
ill Kii;;land has been attended with a return of tiie bronchial 
afli-etioD with its luual Mvcrity. 

In one avc, utlendcd during my fir*t winter")! iiojourii 
in tlto south, which 1 quote a» illustrative of what climate 
■lid persoverai]c« may aivomplieh, a tfentleman a;^d forty- 
three, with softened tubercles, who b«<l tuH'cred fmm chionic 
1aryn(rit(i> and bruiichilU for nearly ihri'c ye4in> iu En^bitid, 
]u«t all coui;b and Uiyngeal irritation al\er two winters' 
renidonoe at Alcntonc, and bos had no sorious return of 
disease. In his cnw pbthif^ix (oIIowmI jxintuviTin^i; attempt* 
to gi;t rid of giHil in the chronic form, supervening on a 
firt>t aciitv attack. Kxercise, and a rather low diet, were 
evidently cnrri«d too far, and continued too long, coQ- 
Hiilcrini; tlvu urduouit nalure of profuuMtonul itunuitd. This 
jiutirnt, who got rid of gout merely to fall into tubercular 
oachexia, ia now quite well, and shows no external evidence 
of thii past diEcJiiic. 

It i» viixy tit uiidenitnnd that a dry, braciiii^, cool, invigO' 
rating; elininte audi an 1 have de»cribed, should Itave s 
hi-neliciiil iiitUieiioe on the rcspinitorv mucous membraDe of 
inrwiiis who hiiVB still some of the vit*l pinvcr of youth, or 
Hiine conslitiitionalstiiiniiia left. When we add to this, all 
but daily i-xerci^ in Uio open air throu^iout the winter, in 
the midst of magniliceiit eoenery, removal from thu carvs, 
auxii-ties, and dutios of ordinary life, pleaMint KOvial int«r- 
oiune with rillow-^nHVivrN and their families, all tnitcd to 
ihw sain« uni«on of cbeerful and hopeful R-si^iatioD, we 



ovrlninly Imvc, united, tlie liygicuiv mllu<*noft« tiiOeulaled tol 
reiiuvule the ^i^nvral health, and thus to nrrest tlio d«velo|)- 
tnent of tuliereular dieouep, Indeed. I iiin linnly oonvinwd 
that n wBrmcr und niildi-r winter irlimnti-, only to h« fmmA 
in u Inipii^al or iii.-mi-lT(i[>k'ul region, U li-tts ravoiirahti- to 
tlio recorery of heullh in chtooio dieet disease ; — providi^J, 
however, rigid nttviitiitn be paid to tht- precjiiitionK ncKvrfary 
ill n r«gion where tho tetnptruture vuriiw so ooDKtiinlly im 
it dacM on the shores of the Mediterrnnean. Heat and 
innisture debilitate and relnx the economy: m ode rnt« cold 
and a dry atmosphere invigorate and Hlrcnglhcn it. 
In tht! tjealment of phlhiiiis, the renovaiion o( tho con- 
i>titiitio»al lowers, of the general health, is of primary 
imports Hue. 

Chronic bronchitin doe» well, m we have wen, tinduf 
jiidiciuUH mfdical inanaj;:enient. (ieiicrally sneaking, it 
gradually dies awny, provided, also, the patient do prucieDt, 
'ey hytjifliiio and medical rides, and do not make a stovo 

hulhuuse of the room wht-re he or nhe liv«s, day or night, 
'y fulling into this 1att«r t-rror, lis nearly all from tlra 
north-east of Kurope do, it is c|uit« pocsilde to make ft. 
northern elimntc of Mi-iitnnc, and to fall tVom one cold 
into iinothor thruughont Uiu entire winter. 

The form of asthma which is connected with chronia 
br'>nchiti)<, llio emphysematous form, also does well. As 
its gravity dopend" on the hn)nchiti«, if the lattur is 
improved sn in the asthma. I bi-licve, indeed, lliut many of ' 
the pitiahle snfferere who pri>*nt this on m plication, ami 
who every winter get worse, with the vista before them at 
home of inevitable aggravtition of their tltHcase, might 
attain all but entire freedom from ehiuit siilTcring bj < 
passing eeveral successive winters on the Uivieia. Toi 
them, in reality, the henlth tjinstion is as important as ill 
in to the eoiiMimptive. Thi» form of nsthma gradually 
leads to death iu those who are advancing in life, and that ' 
through u eliige of great suffering. The heart, the liver, 
tho kidneys, ollen become secondarily congested and 
ikJ demth is the result of the combined inflnenoa 
rions secondary maladies. In corrolioration of 
tut, 1 mny mentii^m that 1 have kiiuwn si^veral 

JIKDICA1.I,Y oos'smFmBa 


ini'timcca of puti«tiU iirriving iit Munlonc iii al] l>ut 
(lyiii); state fmm chruuio bronchitis and netbma, who h«v 
)t;rii(ItiaUy rallied, aiitl eveutiully attainmi n very brambla^ 

I uinitot say Uiu same o! the opnBinodic form of nuttima, 
t\i« furui thai OL-cura ill diildliood, in middl« ajjis, at any 
p^rioil of lilV, appnroiitly fi-om iktvohs causes. I hav« 
Uiiinvii Hudi cauva do wi-U, Wt the inttjority i)n not. I 
iii^uume, that the climuU; is tiio dry, loo st iron la tin;;, and 
] km indinml to think that n tnoU'or climatv, siK-h am th:it 
of Pail, Ajuvdo, Palumio, Alf^ii^ra, ar .Mad<-ii'a, woiM bo 
muK Vikviy to aiiic, I do nut say tliat persona nufTifri'ii; 
IVoiii ncrvtMM asthma Kliould nut try Afetilonc, li>r, a^ 1 bax'a 
sUtol, 1 have known th»e ca*m do wdt; hiil I think iti 
wiHil<l Im! iinimideiit for sucli ii*iti«nts to make a rt-guliir fix 
mocitbs' winUr ^ultlumcnt buroiv tryiite whothi^r it siiita 
llit-m or not. This remark N{i|>li(« e^iually to othiT and 
dilTL-ronl dimutuH. Kvrvoii« anUima is so i-apriciouB a 
A'meiuui, no much under the iiiDiiuneu in itit manirt^Lntion 
(jf hidden, obscure, nvrvous, and met^orolni^ii-al cnnditinns, 
thut it is iniponiblu to toll buf'irchand ivh<rtbi'i- a locality 
nill igroe or not. Th« W-ft plun, tlwrvlorc, m Ui go Snt lo 
an hotd, and t*> tie ^uidL-d l>y ro^nlu. 

I would mcntiiin, ttiat to some asthmatic persons t)je'| 
Run- tWl ol' living; nvar tliv «^a, or » few btiiiilird yarda 
Ihim it, may maki'Mll tliu diircrencu bi^twtion Hivcre enflV-nnjj 
or jicrfect immunity, and conversely. At M«nlone, Uiere- 
fiire, Ixitli situationii shonld bu tried in case of need, I have 
Mh(>ervfd thiil nruriy all )i<:niotiM who in England are ill 
when living; ■<■ iminediiit« pioximilv to llie »r.i, at'["^'=*<' ■>''"> 
to suiter at Mentune. 1 should therefore advine no mich 
pereoi)'- lo Hcttle then; tin!i.-)« tbcy c:iu otitiiti one ol' tl>a 
huiineit built awny fiviin the xuu. 'to live at Mentono, in a 
lar|j;u proportion of the houses, in rtiullv like living on (thin- 
buard ; for most of tttoec tiral built, and nearly all the holeU, 
lUTv Mt■lall^d on or nwir the biMeh. Within (he lnKt fciv 
yiairn, hoWi-v«r, a nnmbcr of vilhw have been eri-elml al 
■omo dislan<v from the sea-shore, within the omphithoal r«r 
iw also two hotels, the Motel du l^iiivre, and the Hotel 
Boati Si^onr. To dteet cai^s in general, Uiu pruxinuly of 



theim i«, I tliiiilc, dccidmlly Wnelicial. Sea voyifccB 
iiiiiverully reoanimendcd iit eiicb disease*, *ni! neiirly «!! 
Uio saniUm for the consumptive, stich osTorquuy, liourae 
mouth, Ventnor, Miilii;^u, iind Fiiiieliid, in Kliidi-ira, a(u on 
the aea-coiist. Indeed, salt is UtidL-d by some luodrrn |>liy- 
eiciane ns a panaccii [or plithisis. ^Mii-n the sea beats on 
the short; at MvritontT, \\iv xpinv it thrown inlnnd in Uie 
)ihu|>e of a tin« dunt-like vapour, wliich extends fifty <>r 
urei) » hundred feet fi'ooD the beach, and must be inhaled 
by those who liv« in the house* ttint hue the shore. The 
air coming from the >ca in undoubtedly the pureitt and most 
wholesome w« ean possibly bmthe. 

There is another clasis of patients who do not appear to 
bcnclit , .1$ n ride, by the cUuiulc ul. Mentone— lhoi«! sulTeriDi; 
fi'om the more s>:^vere Ibrma of apasmiidio and iiUermitteDt 
neuralgia. I presume that the dry, keen, cool air of the 
north Med i terra neiin coust in giencral ia too stimnlatini* for 
such cjiBcs. In on«, ihnt of a lady, a former patient of my 
own, nlioni I had Hent from Kn^luiid un account uf age 
nidng lie, which tii«ual1y lasted all winter, and who bad 
been free the fir^t year at PuUrmo and Niipli-s, the tic 
rdiirned with itn uwual violence ut Moiitone, iitid liut«d 
MvvernI month», aa it would have douo in Kn^limd. During 
mibecquent winters, passed at Naples and Malts, this patient 
bus again purtially csospod. In ottiut' Uvs Kl'ven^ canes I 
have known the ncurnlgio attack, a]>|>areutJy roused by the 
cold dAys, long to resist medical treatment. 

I mu«t odd, huwever, that in some instonces patients 
liablfl to neuralgia huve cvnipliti-ly, or all but completely 
fsca]>ed from their ubuoI enemy during the entire winter. 
It appears to ni" that these favourable cases occur mostly 
iu I ervouN mert^lv liable to oenrul(;iv pains in eonniJxion with 
derailed digestive and eonHtitulivtiid ittjitpiE, the unfuvour- 
iiblc ones in persons suflVrinf from neuralKi^ in ite mora 
nilgrravaled form, n vvry didicnlt malady to dcid with 
any locality in any diinute. 

To those who, without having any {lartienlar ailment^ 

k, ailing, dyi^pcptic, lieluw par indeed, and who want 

iiig and bracing, I liuvc lound the climate very 

IS n winter residence. 






To weak, sickly cliililreo, ihe duily ituiMhine und out- 
door life are ineelimable. KacU winter I see many delicate 
children rally in n moet marvellous nnd trnitiryin<; mnnner, 
lustvttd of nufiV'ring from cuUrrlml iifreclions >»• i" "o ofWn 
Vae case at home, lliey seem to enjoy a happy immunity 
ttoio the^e silments. Constantly out of doore, in tlie sun- 
'•faiD«, tti«y Hoon broomo mrenoug for footl, eU-cp well, and 
gi-t fat iHid rijHy. It i» the very c]im«tu for •trumnii.i 
children uhn generally lont ground durinf; our Ion;; 
northt-m wiiitcra. Climate nlone, however, must not be 
tnuted; ffuod food, plenty of air day and nigbt, and 
judifiiouN medioni tnuilmeiit if required, are meotiiil. 

The very f-j;pd, like the very young, aeem to thrive in 
the mild winter i-limate of Mentone. They can get out 
conntiiiitly, either on fnut, tn Itath or donkey -cbairii, or in 
earriujiiii, iniit«ud of hi-in^ cunlSiied to thi; houxo for months, 

is olten the ease in Ktigland. Moreover, they are never 
exposed to extn>me cold, so fatal to old age. In Kngland 
a ehiirn frost kills the aged «a it kills Hies in autumn ; the 
blotid lit driven internally, and fntal eongcfltions of the lungx, 
])nin, and heart occur, or Ftill more fatal inflummutury 
siTeeliiins. All these danf^'m are escaped. Instead of the 
Cold eaet winds of the sprintf, which yearly fill the obitu.trie«, 
tbkra is n truly genial, balmy spring, tlio spring of the 

The Riviera clima(e,in ita more sheltered equally 
propitiiitiB to those suSerini; from disease of the kidney : 
congii'tion, ulhuniiiiuriit, gravel. The dryness and niilduese 
of the almosplieTv, by promotiii<j; cutiineous trunitpiration, 
relieve the kidneys as well as the lun^j^e — for in our climate, 
Ba w« have sren, the kidneys have aUo extra work to do in 
winter. Moreover, the power of living in the oiten air, and 
the tmprorement which follows in the general Health, \s of 
u great importance in these diseases as in chest nfTcoliuns. 
I have met with many very rcmarkahlv ease* of improve- 
Bient and even of cure. 

One important rearon whv the climate of Montonc and 
the Itiviera is beneficial in all these rorms of dlMilK ia, that 
it isMildom or never, at theanmc t\mt,coltl and mt. When 
the weather iu cold it ia witli nvrlli winds, and Uic air i^ 


dry. When the air is inoi«t touth wiatls prevail, *aA the 
tomp^ratare w mild. 

I hare U>tt|{ remarkn] id Enslam] that coMn in tbe ImmI, 
•ace-throats, altaclcf ot Lroncliiti^ and inflyenu, onlr biroine 
pgnrralcnt wki-ii Dm wMlti«r id ImiIi cold bikI wet. ('<iM dry 
wcfltlxT nloiie ilries not proiiucu thi-m rg.idrmicftlly, nor d»«« 
mild damp wcathor, IIou-«virr wH itnd ibmp it may b« in 
Kngland, or in tUt ntidvt of tlie rain and mi*i9t orth« ireat 
cowl of ScotUnd, «» i'>u^ aa a eunimer t«mperatun9 Uitta, 
and tb« therawmeter w at or above BU*. v<rrv fvw cold« are 
BMit with. IiL-t it, however, (all to 40*, 45', or even nu°, 
■ml lb«n damp or wvt wi-nther is imntedlatelir follovritl hjr 
thf devfh'pmcnt of i-al^rrhid disiease on a^« scale 

Ind«vd, rainy wtriither, u-bi.-i) Uie tJii-nnoinetcr is not 
below 55'' Of atiove 65", nijjlit or day, i* not injuriotis to 
health. Tlic cool, ruinv Hnmm<M^d wbicli we somctiniiti have 
in England, and which cliaraeterixe th« west coast of Scot- 
bad, are healthier than dry, warm, line Bnmmvrs. 

Thus, Ihi- summttr of 1 86U, one of the- miwt miny known 
for many ycat», wuk alMi one of th« hi'dlttiit-xt. In I Sf,] it 
rained all hut tnc<-!imintly on the west coast of Svullisnd, 
from the middle of June until the middle of 8ept«nil>cr. 
Dnrini; the summer qiiartt-r the ruults of observation at 
lilVy-live stati«n»«f tho ^iHcorohfgical Society showwl that 
the niinl'aH vaa 15'G4! inches, imitcad of 8'NO, the average 
of ihn pTrviou* yoiire, and yet thu srason was unusually 
bmlthy. Thti* the mui-tidily nine 1J5 dfnths in every 
10,VU(} porsuns livinit, whiltit iti Kii[;luiiit it n-u» [99. 
Tltero wuB tliu u«nal dilTcrcnce between the town tiiortalitr 
and that of the eonnti'y : — in the luwus it was, in ScotlauJ, 
Ht\ in every lO.OOO ]>ers<>ni>, in Knj;huid HO; in the i^cothind, 142, in Kngland lis. Thme data are 
IjiIccii from the qnaitcrly report of the Registrar-Ueneral. 

I wuH rcaidin); or travelling on the we«t coast of Seotland 
durinir (ha ^rrat^r part of iliia cjuarter, oa »n invalid, and 
'"""■•■I ti»it llie tenipi-ralitre kept between ri5° and CJ°. 1 
' I'viT hiiind it either ahgve or below. 1 observed 
inv, nl*o, BB on nievious visite, all hut. univenal 
ty from vulHrTha) atTcclions, colds, or coughs. I 
B|>ent the day fishing, ot^n nndcr an umbrella, 



in II bmt on the IouIim, iukI nvver oiwc cantrht the 
«lii{l)ti»l coll), ultlioiigh very liubte lu do so in ii lower 
t«ia|)t;niture it' there is the Iwist dLiraji. In KuKlaixt 
the siimmvr vriiE much drier miii wuriiifr thiit ycttr. Ilcxvy 
tain DO <luulit neU Ijcnvtiutiilly iii dourin^ ibt; ulina)i)>lii;r«.-, 
the earth, unJ tlic dMitis, ol' putnrawQt matter nnti ut' 
miasmaWi espocifllly when rain lulU in grc^t <iuaiititi«8 in 
B short timi.*, iw in Wiiriii cliniiitvu. 

Un thtf otIiiT liaml, cuiitiiiiivJ raiu ami (lump, with n 
teniiwratura at or abi>re TO", Uyynntiimihtm the livvr 
nutl Bkin, prediiipoeiug: to liver aud inUixtioal afieuljoua, to 
diurrhtna, hihI dyscutiiry, and tu cutaneous dtc«acu8. 

At Meotune Uiit winter tvinpurature in the vlmdc is gone- 
rally below CU", but the air U usually dry, and thin i» no 
doubt the reason caUtnhul allcctious are rare. \\'henever 
the weather is both cold aud ilamp, cold« are ci)ii};ht at 
Alifittone an eUewhcru, but th«y getu-rally die away us soon 
a» the dry viin«hinc returns, even il' the iliermotncter 
lemaiiu low. TIium who enjoy tlie greatt^st immunity are 
ilioee who keep their rooms coot and well ventilated day 
limd iii{>ht. TlioM who miiku lar>;c tires, whu eto<e their 
winilutvH hermuttisitly, and avoid every bruath ot' air, luu 
preijiscly thoae who sulFer the moat in this respect. 1 may 
itistuDc-e the Ucrmans and Swi>>if, wlxo, acvu»tumed at home 
ty nhiil every cn.-viee, and to trtail the external air us an 
enemy, gem^rally lijllow the same plan at ^lentone, and 
aufltic accord iu(;)y. 

Otio of iho most convincing proola of the healthiness of 
Mentone is the "Coeral alraenett of itevcrc aeeidenlal diiieuse. 
Ouriu)^ my htleen wiuter^ rcHidence [ have »een but very 
litUo of tile diiivaaea usually met with m the suuih of 
KurO|M)-~ lever, malaria, dysentery, or of any sei iou^ iniilady 
attribulitbte to exU'rual e^ini<eit. IndoiKl, 1 have been jiriii- 
cipally cuuttulted tir the diseases und ailments that the 
iuvaltds brongfat with them. This is thv more remarlcabk 
when we oonsiiii-r that m many lar-^e ooiiiiueotal health 
towns, anch aa Naples, Itome, Malaga, a ooDsidorahle pru- 
[tortion uf the foreign phyMciune' duties oonsista in iiltiTndin^ 
tlicir cuuntjynien lur maladies of the aboTtt-aicntionud eha- 

H i 



To derive tliat licitiefit, however, fioin the climate of 
Mentone, and o{ the south ol' Europe Rpneraily, which it 
i» eapableof atTordinjDr in diseaBf, nnd (^Mjiueially in pulmo- 
imrj- eonnimptioii, the moot ri|ri(t adherence ahuuld W juiid 
to the liygieuic i\i\t* necvsfory in thei^e regions during th« 
winter eenson. It ^muld never he forsotteo that in wiuter 
till* hpnt i§ BUD-heat, and that the nir, Imrrin^ its inlhieitct-, 
iif iisiiiilli,' ccild. ^VllrlQ clothtat and wooIU'h outer ^ntnu'lits 
should be UKi'd. In dreBtiD^ for out of duotn, a Ihcrmij- 
meter, jilaced ouUiite a north room, should he daily con- 

ThoKc who vieit the Nouth Tor the Bni time oPtL'n think 
that 6umn)<-r dothing only ia necetisary, and thiit warm 
clothes and great-coats may he discatiled. 1 huve even 
known phyt^ii-inns at home, who should havu been better 
infurnii-d, Udl Ihtir pntienl* no, Nnver waK there a ■;r<;iit4T 
miHake; summer clothes are iiteleRit from IVivmbrr to 
May. Those re(|iured are the light hut warm wuullcn 
elotncB we wear during our cold spri'.ig and autumn, with 
light over f>unneiit«. The hitter can ecldom he ulcly dis- 
pensed wilh, even on the ninniett and warmext winter dnyti, 
on account oi' tlie greut di0erence between the ninBhiiH! and 
the shade. We may take a Icscon from the native {Ecntle- 
mvn, who, whenever it in not ahtinliilcly warm, cover them- 
mIvch lip to the chin with heavy clouks. 

If these roles are not observed, if warm woollen clothes 
arc not constantly worn, and even watm flannel or merino 
vvtU next the skin, rbeuinBtic pains oltt-n nllack thir ^tron^ 
II* well as the weak, and more es|>edally those nhu ara 
advancing in lil'c. Indeed, I question whether, in the 
aouth of Europe, in winter, it is not as difficult to keep 
Tree from rhcumalio puiim us it ia in the north. The heal 
of the sun in th« day makes northfrnerB thoughtless iihoub 
outer garments, whilst the least expo^iirv to the cool dry air 
which leigns for months may ho Ibllowed with this penally, 
Attcndiincu at church is a Iruitfu) cause of thcunialiKm and 
OoldM. If the church ts warm, ]>eople catch cold on going 
out. If it is cool, they ncurly all eonio inneh loo li<-htl/ 
i) for sitting still a couple of hours " in their Sunday 

si," and oiUn ntiirn home with eliarji pains, which 




try to wccfliint fur by imsgitwry drna^lits. I my««lf wcur, 
in all weullicrH, a thick woullen Invi-niceei c.i|ii?, hucIi as 
1 should wtrar in Seotlnnd, and tbut throughout thu winter; 
it it; nn itilmirxhlti pirmoiit for Mich ii climittc. 

ThiM U-iidi*iicy to Hictiiniitiv piiiiix i* tiol {leuuliar to the 
itivii-m. It t?xiat«, in wttit^^r, all uver the south and the 
e«st, in luly, in Spain, in K^ypt, in Algeii;i, uiid cvou 
in till! TX-tiLTt of Sahara. Thu JkdouJn Aralw, iit wiiiU'T, 
with Uic th«rmomct«r at SO' or W in the iluytinnf, nwitlie 
ttit^mix-lvi:^ np in woollen garinctiUi and woollen cloaks, 
fur rlu'uitiatidin ia their enemy us well as ouni. 

AltJtouE^h rhtMimatic pain? are common, itiouinAtic fever 
i« rare. 1 have Kuen, it in true, sevcnl mneit, hiit it h^s 
ulwaya boen i^arly in the winter, in pentonsi who evidently : 
brou^^bt the blood prediaposition wiUi tliem. The free 
action of the skin, in this cliuiale, probably tends to purify 
the blood and to render rheiimatio lever uncummon. It is 
not by any meant u fro()ueiU di^iwc ainun;; the mitivefi, 
althuiii^h iiiiiiteuliir rheuin^ilimn, on the contrary, is very 
common, imiii);, no doubt, to expuiitire and to iiHulKcient 

As tnijrlit b« anticipated, such n climate is favourable 
to ^»ut, and I have known ninny ^uty pcraona ei\jay a 
happy immunity from habitual sulFeriua. Sharp ntlacks 
of gout, howi^ver, may occur hero as eXsewhere, in tlioBO 
who are liable l^i tliem, espuciatly soon after arrival fruin 
tiie North. The free and constant action of the Kkin ii 
favouniUe to the gonty as well a^ to the rheumatic. 

The hours for out-or>door exercii>e should be between nine 
and three or four, and iJie return should I>c so arranfTMl 
Q« tu iweiire the arrival at home before «iinset. Italiiin 
physieiiina ap|>ear lo attach a myRtcnuna and noxious in- 
tliiL'nce t<j the hour of sunset. In suuh a climate a§ that of 
Mctiloiii; and Niue, 1 am persuaded that the dan<fer is 
in the rapid lowerini; of the temperature at that time, 
whii:h exposes to sudden chillii, tlit; puroa ot the skin bciti^ 
odvu open at the time through pre>iouB t-xereise. Iliie 
Midden ehill in southern climates is no doubt alone Kuliicicnt 
to produce lever of the iiitcrmilteiit type, without any 
iiialiirioiut agency, it i* because the same dan^jer exisU 



uveii in mifliW, i» possitifi iicci'lciitnlly from tlic win 
thu Ntiiidvj lliul it U iilwiiys'eBui'y t» bu ilrL-esud fur thti 

The invnitd should inhabit a eouth room, and not nnnain' 
Imij^ in n novtli worn \iu\v»* th« wCJitliiT W wurni, nr uiilout 
it be u'urnutl by ii liro. The one ia summer, tlie othvr 
winter. Wbcii the w«at1icr is bud, be or ^be shoiild maku 
a gdod Rre, iintl 6criipulouHly stay at home in ivcll-VfiUilulcd , 
roomg luitil it chan^t-e. SiinKKJne and tvaruitb aiv Rirsj 
KQon to rcn|>i>(.-jir, and tliiii< to brin^ tbe cotilineineiit to Wf 
i-lose. AIUt »(-(-i<r4] ilayH af oliilly ruin, as alii-ndy Btated^l 
•lore Ibroata, colds in tin- head, ooiijfbs, and TbcuBialiu pains J 
bi'gin ae inEn-^innd; but Uu-n Ibc titin ii^^'aiii Kbimx, iind' 
tbcy MKiinlly nt uiicc die imay. All (linhur and uvtrninjj 
purlii's sbiKild be blriL-ily luibidduii to iiivulid)?. Tliejr 
should be in beluru eunset, and not Icnve iiunie again uutiLj 
the fulli-tving morDtn!;, thion^^hoiil the winter. 

Lin=lly, exuicifC and oul-duor lil'c nitiKt n«1. hv carri^ so' 
Tar u to pioduci- [icrmiiiK^nt liifsitiiOv. Mnny 'jf the moft 
i-onfirmi-d invjlidn Dili inlu thin eiror — oiiu e^oily cum- 
niittc'l — owinf; to the yfcat attractions of oul-door lile, tc 
the all but constant fine weat1i<.-r, and to the tnjuuvlioa] 
(jcnrndly niiidi- to tiiltc daily fXcKi«', if p»Ei»iblc. 

This la»t ronmrk iipjiliiv moru L'Hpecially to fimiiURiptivi 
patieiitH. Physiial di-l>ility ir a more ordinary accompaui- 
tntnt of plitbisifi thnn is (jeiierally eiippo&ud, and when it' 
oxiclK much cxLinov is decidedly pcniidoii'. lu Mine t-aiwiiiJ 
iiidei-d, warc-vly any uuicIm van tHtlakun without itnpatntie.1 
the difji'Btion of food, and thus producing »Uepleifiue«s auil | 
ixtri'ino laesilude, a lact not yciieraily known, even by.J 
]>hyf-ictiini>, and diarly a result of the organic caclivxiu 
i'Liiinc<.'t<.'d \villi tlie diKciiKC. 

Uurint: the tiltt-en viintcre I have punned at Mi-ntone, 
ctinEtantly eunounded by coneuinptive palii-nts labourins 
under every etii*;e of the diseiide, I huve bicomi; iniirc aiic 
inort convinced of tla- truth and iinpcirtanci: of thia fact^l 
Those who do the best are those who aoccpt their poeitioi 
cliccrfiilly, who tjccedv entirely fniin the valid ]>ait of th^l 
jHipuhition, I'lom their ainuei-ntciiti: and oouiip.itione, nndj 
are content to lead a quiel, cuutejiiplulivc exiKtenue. Uappjf! I 



I th«y if tlioy can lind ploosuro iu boolis, music, sholching, 
and tlie atiidy of nature; if ihity cnn b« NitiKTiitl to Kuend 
ihtir tiaya in Uil' \-icinity of the house in which tliey live, 
•111] to sit or lie for houm bii§kiD^ in the sun, liku an 
"invjiliduil liuinl on the wnll," followiti;' i[]i|>hcilly tlifl 
roedicjl rulex laid don-ii fur tJieir iruiduiieo. Nourly nil th« 
iMet cases 1 have met wivli hnve been ninoiig such. Those 
«hi> huv« no metitjl iveources in tbemsulvue, wh'i urc inise- 
rahl« imloKi i^ngu^cd in iictivc pureuits, Ynrt \ho wuri't, huth 
it) body mid mind. Tlicy do not roii^nedly nuoept the 
furred inaction tbeir disease etitaiU upon them, are dis- 
coiitcntit] and ry8tk-?9, conat.-inlly comtnil impriidencce for 
the K^ko of uiniiKemcnt, and oter-tiix their etrrnj^th by 
eiiiK-itvoiirini; to piirtiuipitc in the pleiwuros and puniuiU 
of the healthy mid Htron^. 

A Ko<id plan for th« inralid ia to walk, ride, or drive to 
ODD of the tn»ny romntitic rci>rions ia the nei<;hbotirhood-^ 
to Uocviibruiia, thti CuUolo ridley, tho Cup Martin, the 
Pont St. Lduik, the Niw, or (lenoii Ruud, or, on calm days, 
to the )iit:ture4(]ue roeky beach — to take tho oushiuiis out 
of tbc cariia-j^e, if drivini;, with ft cloak or two, iiud to 
rutniiin «itlin;; i>r tying in the siitifhine, in noin* »i>«t 
Hhelterv<l from wind, fur two or three houre. The rnuii;e of 
observation i» tliua ioc-reaaed without fatigue, the (glorious 
Nenery of the district is seen and enjoyed in iUt ever- 
vnryinK ph«e*, nnl the mind i* rorrp»ht;i) by change, 

On line days, when the kca is culm, buulai aluo can be fur a suit or a row, and air and exercise oUiiined with- 
out fatijfitc. Thn^c who are c<|<iil1 ti) a sad and a drive the 
MRH) day can, according to tlic wind, Mtil caKt or went idon^ 
til* oowt BH lar u* Ventimif^lia or Monaco, distant, the one 
seven, the other live tniW They can tlien land and return 
by tncmnsof n carnage oent on from Mcntone to me«t thuin. 
Tho view uf the inuiinljiinif thun obtained from tbe sea ia 
truly inagnifx.rnl. Ind<?etl, it is only from the sea, as I 
have iit«te<l, th;it the t;rundeur of the muuntnin and ooMt 
scenery can be truly appreciated. 

With tho above precautious, tlie olimBte of Mcntone, 
and of the south of Burope tcet)s>^llyi >b safe and beneticial ; 
witiiout tliom it isunnleand treachcroua. Tiiia is evidenced 



l)jr the great winter moHalitv of the natJvesof the Nioe and 
)lL-nlotK- <listi-icU, and of ItJily nntl Spiiiu •fononilly, by 
pnciiinniiiu iind pkiiriBV, two uf llic commoncut muUdiM. 
Ddiii^ hadly clothed, iiuver making fitvt*, and i^norantly 
hraviiij; tlie atniosphflrii; diaiigee, the lower orders are 
L-onetnitlly exposed to chdls, niid Hucciimh iu numhors to 
tlicsic discoMV, treated, an they are in Italy, hy hlcvding 
every few hour*. I'lsrsiona in t)ie lutter atjtgea of phthiKii 
mom especially sufTur from the slighteBt dereliction of tha 
a\io\e rulee, wbiuh they are not always the moet careful to 
follow. Indeed, I have no hi^ilation in atiwrting that tha 
improvement of tiie plitlii.iiail intulid ili^pend.i a« mudi on 
close altuntioo to tliese iujiinctiotis us oa the medicid fkill 
of his attendant, and that it is the more decided the mora 
fitithluUy ihcy arc observed. 

One (^at advaiitjige of the dryntu^s of the atmcwphere, 
and of the atisenoc of suvere cold in the »i;;ht, is that bed* 
loom windows may he lelt open, more or Icbb, without risk 
of anv kind, tbroii^hout the winter, and thus perfect night 
ventilation of the bed-room cim be ntlaitied. This it. a most 
im|>ortuiit point both for the sonnd and the uiKound, hut 
mor** especially for invulidit and fur those who are sulleiing 
from pulmouary consumplion. 

Invalids should invariably sleep in a south room, w they 
thereby innurc a mild and opiaMe night tcm|icraturo 
ihrouij;hi>iit the greater part of the winter, even with tha 
window open. The same rule, however, does not npply to 
tbo«e who are sutmd, or to those who have in a great 
measure rei^overed heulth. 

In south rooms, satnraled all day by warm sunshine, the 
temperature seldom falls at niglit below from 50° to ftU* 
Fall., owing, no doubt, in part to the nidtnlian of heat from 
the walls, In north rooms, on the cuittrary, the tempera- 
ture approximates much more to that of the external 
atmospiiere, unless raised by fin.>. With the window 
slightly open, it will generally range from oO" Xu 56*, 
according to the eoIdnL-sii of the ni^ht. This in a much 
more wholesome Btate of things for the healthy, as a 
moderate degree of rold at ntght braees and invigorates tha 
syat^ni. ']1ic warm bed-room i» a debilitating hothouse to 



pvrvoiH ill liolth. Indeed, a lower tomper^ture Uy ulgliL 
itiait by day ia imlicJitcd l>y nntiiri.'. It im tWml iiuccMury 
for the wrelt-bflinx of plant* in all stoves, bothousue, and 
eomwrvittorivs, nod was evideutly iatiimltxl by nii nll-wiHc 
Pn>vi<lciici!, w)iicb only turned the earth tiiwiird tbc huu 
lor a |iurtiiiii •>!' tbe twunly-ruiir li»un. 

In cuucliidinff the^e reinarku t>» the medical charoc- 
teristicy of Uio Uivieru climate, there is one iinpoitsnt favC 
to which I would mora particularly druw iittmilitpn. Cun- 
tinued and eurefiil observation during a loujr aertus of ye>r8 
has lod me to the concluoion that thi; beueBt to be deriviNl 
from a winter residence in this faToured \>xTt of Knri>|iL-, or 
in any olhur Itvklthy locality, is not always ol^tainud at 
(Mice; sonoetimiu not even thu llrNt wint4.'r. 

Confirmwl invalids bnn<F tbcu- cunatitutioa with tliom. 
Ah the L:itin poci nye — 

" Omtaih. noo aiunuuii, niutatit <|iti trana tuuro curruiit.'' 

The illni^tf timlei- which they snlFi^r lim probably been the 
re*ull of jtcrnieioui; inlliu-itce«, const i t ul ion nl, liouial, di- 
nuital, which have Im-imi ia iipi'r.ilioii I'ui' m;iny yiMv-H. Tlie 
ealiro organization i» nnfuvuurably, inurbiilly modilied. 
KvOD if tint locality and climat« chosen are llio very W-st 
that vould pouibly be found, it is unre:Monal)le to wxpcot 
an imiuediato or »udd<.'n clian^. Yet it is what moat 
invalttlH do expect; and, owing to their ignorance of this 
tiuit, they olU-ii foul disappointed, and eipn-ss thuineelvcs 
w», wImiii time pomes and bul little appiircnt bunelib is 

In r\.uility, in conlii-ined progreaui^ diseftK, not to get 
WOrM!, merely to remain statioiwry, may be eridcnca of itiit 
■nooeas of tho meitnK uKud, tlie evidence of real impvovctmeul. 
If a lr.iin is rusliin^r furiously into some danger, and the 
guard and engine-driver put down Uie breaks and reverse; 
tlic en^iia-, the tmin does not litnp all at onen. U continuum 
its proifru-m for n lime, notwilhiiliindin;^ tbtt most judioiuun 
maa eminent steps to arrest it. When it ytuhls to eooirul 
■t finb it nmaiDs stutionary, and later, oitly, bugiiiv to 
retrace ilc stepit. 

So it in in difiL-iutc ; ita onward progress Iios first to be 



chvi-lieJ. Cliange of climute, ihe removal of all dblnrbiiijf, 
|ifrniciflti6 inllut-DCi^s, niity not apparently tell nt the iHil>i<.-t, 
ultlKui^lt tlicy may lip Hli-utly, <]iii«(ly exeri-ifing the ile- 
biTvd anil atiiicipiilfd inituk'nce. Tlion i.vini«K the Hltttii'iiury 
period, aui) only later ntill — in pulmonsry vonsuruption often 
nut until the second or third winter — the ronlj unduubtddj 

I have wntohcd nuiiiy jiiiiTcn're for sni-m-sEive winlpro, and ' 
hive thne bad the opiHirtiiiiily of juditiiiij comparatively, 
l. ii(]iit'Htlonulily thu mor-t palihl'aoloi'y cases of arretted 
imd of cured phlhii^iM lliiit I have «i-eii, hnve Ixeti umoiig 
thotie wlio huve Imd llif imnt^r and the will to lettini ot^uin 
And a;;ain ; who have adopled one of my mottoes, i-lfeiu/am 
iJif, "to be or not to be," and hav« clieerfully mitde every 
pOMiibli; yucrifioc of lainily lies and of eociid posiliuu and 
duties, in order to give ihi^mx-lvt'o a fair ohiince of life. 

Thw health of the native popuiution i» exceptionally (^od. 
Acooriliiig to the late Dr. It.ittirii, in lii^ work enlitled 
" Meitton ct son Ciimiit," this much regretted phyeioian, 
U'lio had pnietiscd more than n quarter of a century in th« 
diittriet, Kay* that the average duration of life ix rorlv-llve 
years, an avu-rage liir above that of the town population of 
tlie eouih of Kiirope in jt^ncial. Ho also stutcs tnat a iarjce 
proportion of the older inhahitanU of the diKtrit-t. aitiiin to 
above xcvenly ytMit of age. Tliiii i* the mon? n'markniili;, 
as the housrH of the olil town are croudcd, one above ihe 
other, in a most unhyyienio manner, Uiit then they are 
built on A wry »tcep acclivity, bo Ihat nearly all enjoy light, 
tiir, and £iin»him', ucitn-ilhslnndin-; their citremu proximity 
to each other. Moreover, the Ati-ect«, althou;:b narrow, ant 
■.'iciin, owin^ t« everything; that can be turned into manure | 
I'cin^ earefnlly pRScrved, and carried off lo (ha mountain 

The di.4eai>ca under which they sutler present nolbin|{ 
peculiar beyond a tendency to scrofula and chtorosi* in the 
yt'uii;;, whicii may be alirihuted to a low vci^etaMe diet, 
(lout iH all but unknown, rheumatic fever ran-, a« already J 
atjiled i indeed, it ia M-hloni M-en except in persons rcoently 
arrived, alihou;;h* rouseoliir rheumatism is cummon. As a 
^ncrnl rule, iDlermitti-nt and remitleut r<Dver»,^tbat is, 



tnaliimue fovcre, nre all l)ut tioknnwn. A few yoavs 
ujja, liiiwcviT, fi>r tw.'n Kuininors tlnTc wcro miiny aine*. 
This iti a very sint^ulur tiuit, ilitUuult Ut ncoutit for on tliu 
mtinh tlieory, as there nre »o uiui-bIim i»r |>lains whatever in 
tile tltt^li'iirt. Homv of the uses occurred In mountitin 
viib^iM nui-b lu Oriinatili, perched ou the Toek viiltt TOO luet 
above the sea. Tlio maniCeitliiliuii of iiit«rmitteiit fever in 
Euch a ioculity seems tu me n {irui>)' tliat in eert»iii uloctrieal 
iinti thvrmDmclriui) coiiditioiu of the atmoeplieru thenc 
fevvra am he i^rtieriiletl witliunt miiivh iniiiKnialii, by mere 
ohilis, when the etionoiny U ]ire<ii>|><>wc(l l>y {irevioiif intense 
lietit. In Coi^ioA and Al^^eria I touitd intermittent and re- 
mittent I'fvor to exist evcryn-lietv, <>n hi^ih mountains ns 
well a« on plaini<, ultliough tindunMidly iniioh lecx frtnidviib 
and severe ou the former. It i* cerlniidy Hin>rular that 
mnlaTioiis fevers shoiili) be little observed on tlio Itiviern 
when they nre eo rifu and de.kdly on the oppoeito cuust of 
Contica. The pruliahle (.-jiusl* is the equability of the day 
and nii^hl t('m[ieniluivs, but 1 chilli discnss thin quentiun at 
lenijth in anutliL-r cliiipt<-r, that on ('uniicu. 

The sick poor are attended by jihysidans and surneons 
Mppointvd and paid by the town or dtsLnct, These gentle- 
men are liie mvdiad and surgical attendants of an liotipitjd, 
erected in the aniiie ol the euHtern bay a few years nffo, 

i^dmo^arv conituuipliun is a rare mulady amont; the 
native popnlatiou, llie deaths from this cjiiset buiii^ only 
fnie in lilly-livu io'ti-ad of one in live, ivf in Ijondon and 
I'aris, and one in mix at (iencvu. Tluiitc whom it attacka 
are alt but invattahly people uho follow sedi-ntAry pur> 
Biiit*. The disease is nearly unknown among thoBo who 
work in the open air. It is a well eetablishcd tlicl, that 
alUiuu^h Inbt-n-nlor diei-niw is mure eommon in ('<>ld, damp 
elimatcs, like that of En^^land, Holland, and the noitli of 
Kraiio-, it <-an be and is <levi.'lo|ii.-d nnywheie, by dek-ctive 
ventilation, tin; want of light, bad food, nnd ovenvoik of 
body or mind. AH ihefe cautm are uniled in many ol the 
unhealthy t«twps of the oouth of Knrope, nnd in all sneh 
eunviimption ia more or lees rile. To prevent or arrest it, 
nut only do we re^iuire u iitvouniblc climate, hut ul»o every 
bygieaifl condition and piccaulioii. Thu», in Naples, a very 



iinliypiei'ic poiilhcm town, tlie (IcathK from phthwifi arc ( 
iti oif^lit; lit Mmi«krillc», wlieru llm liy^jit-nit; i-ttTulilionii iiri;, 
or uaei) to be, utill woreif, the morCaUly Iroro tliU muse is, 
or riither woa, as great as oug in four. This fact will sur- 
pr!Kt> no oiii> n-1io bus rondo ■ journey of discovery in thu 
old ijuurtom, bcfon; tlie Tucent iin[irov<Mncnls. The loww of 
Marscillfit, however, is being regenerated. 

Notwithstanding the heat of the stimmor, Hver aflectionB 
arc run;, at-- iiUo is <i)s.-nU'iio cliseaiic. The cool wuttbcr 
of uiitiimti iirrivi^ sutrieii-ntly «arly in November to check 
the tendency to abdominal and intestinal disease produced 
by the warmth of tho snmincr and autumn. Asiatic choWra 
Iia« never uppcnn-d nt Mentone, n rather Kingulur fuct, m it 
has exereiaeil considerable ravages ou niovt other partR of 
the Kiviera. 

Thi*i all but total absence of octuul dysentery at Mentone 
I a strong vvidcnco of tlio bvalthini*«H of the diMtciirt, for 
lie suminei' iind autumn hciit arc certainly ijuiu.- midicicut 
topKdiipoMto it were otbe^ conditions favoumble to its 
development. Tliere is, however, a most remarkable con- 
nexion between dynenlcry and the intL-rmitlcnl and re- 
mittent fevcn> known ni" innUiiiniiK. Thry are met with ia 
the same reg;iona, and und>r tlii; »aiue i-cmditiotis, and 
tppcar otlen to take the place one of the other. Tlius, tlio 
general immunity of the Mentoiiu dislrict (mm mnlnriouH 
fever* may be aaid to ex]>lain it* gi-neral imniuuity from 
djrscntery. Bilious diarrhcca, borderinfj on dysentery, ia 
oot iiDcommon in the autumn, especially wilh iiivahds who 
arrive too mrly. The tn«L ten <lays of Oi.-lobi.-r is i)iiit« 
early enou^li for arrival, and the firiit wovk of M»y 'u quite 
early enough for departure. 



AIII7ftKMX!CT» -DBIVM— BtOM— rBlir,«Tlll*S MCDMIOXd— MOVJfTAlJI>— CksiKO— ciii-KCiiH— socui. ur*. 

" All ! what ft lifo wp re lhi», how swMt. liow Ufniy I 
Uirm n'lt thu liawtbnm bii*li a director shodo 
To HlipphrrJn Wkiiiu on liicit irilly *hcc)>, 
Thnii iloUi a rk-li (niibrulJ«rwl cuDupj 
To kin^R, ibnl fcor tli«ir •iil>jecu' treachwrf 
O JO*. it dotK ; ■ thon*aml-rold it doUi.'*— SUAlKnuiz. 

SiNCK tlic fir^t edition of this n-ork vraa ptibli^lied, in 1661, 
MciiloiK- liaK ijtiilv cliiiii^sl iu ctintiR-tor. It n-ns then n 
qiiift liltld IlaliaD town on t)i« aiiniiy ahure of tli« Kiviera, 
iviti) two or thr«o small hott^ls, principally used by pafsiDj; 
travel) I' fit, und bulf » ioKit rvccnlly eTv«tL-d vilW. Now 
it hait bi-'cona* a well-known und ri«(|iii>iitt:d winter rcjiort, 
with tbirty botela, foui- tiin&i that number of villas, and a 
mixed I'on-i^n nintor jiopiilation of above Mxtneii hundred. 
Many of tU&c. winter viKitiirs iiro invalids in search of 
biiulth, but a turc:6 pn>|)'>rlion aro mere Kun~wor>'bipper', 
who have lelt the norib to bosk in the southern aunabine, 
or Imwllcrs to or from It«ly, i>lad to rpst for a tiina und«r 
tho I^moD and Olive-clad bills of lowly Afuntone. Its re- 
eotirc«B for visitors, liowever, are still principally in pic- 
turesqm) outdoor life. The ^.-cncTy is most t;rantl und 
impomig in the mountain bucU^round, inont picturesque! 
And romantic in the nearer billii and const outline. Every 
ravine, every valley is a path of frrcAt lovdineeti. u^cuiiding 
gently towards the bigbvr ninge 'llie Uora in very abundant, 
and, ai wc have aeon, moat of our garden spring (lowers 
(trow wild in great luxuriance. I'he geological aspects of 
the country arv also very iii»trw;tivp, and aflbrd constoDl 




oocnpAtion and ninueemcnt to those intfrcetod in eu< 

Tliv proat ini-nluU, if i>rii(li:iit, inoM.ljr keep to the driv 
and walka alun^i; tlie seashure. Tliose who are stronger, 
mounted on tiirf-)boti-d donkeys, ii»;Liid the nDoiiiitiiiii piithit 
n* tinr iii' tin ir Ktrt-iiglli pi-rniil* ; whiUl tho iutiti>l iiml valid 
mfiiibcR' <if Ibc comnniiiity try their pedeslriau poweis 
l)v asceuiiiiig the hi^ther mouiit:iine in varioue directions. 
M iK-ncvt-r Ihc eiin nhines there ara prot«vte(l v»l leys and 
*u(iny nmuiitain naokl^ wht-rc at all ticiiCK, ii) Dtvinihcr 
Juiiuary, u» well as earlier and later, warmth, a <)tii 
alRio^jiherc, and Doners are eiire to be found. What wi 
ilicKL' o(vii]>utioii*, l>oci]i« and pnpers and the hurTnoiiioi 
itilervoiirite uf eoiiotvyit^cii iinilcil by thu bond of cominoi 
ori;;iii, the winter |>;i!wi-s ph-itsantly ; merely aadileurd, oci 
eiun;illy, t>y the finnl dejKtrtiire ofsume hopeleea euft'erer. 

Allhout^li the- Menlonitin ainphitht-utre if. limited, as 
dcKoribed, it Ik sulTicientlv extensive to ollor all but i-ndl«fi8 
cxciimions to viKitorf, ill or well, and more w^iccially U) 
pedeBtrians. The protected valleys and bills are very iium«- 
rotis, !tnd nitbm the reach even ot the invalid population. 
Once, aUo, tbv higher barrier of mounttiinii liiv bi-en pooM'd, 
n perfeet Switzerland »peni« ont U> the adveuturoun and 
to the vtilid tourist. 

Within th« immeiliato niea of the Mentone district' 
tJiere are other |M)intic of int<-reKt iicsiJeit thv valloye and 
bilLi. The driven are very pietiiretiiuc and lovely in tlieir 
entire ext<.'nt, ami arenllnithin the peculiar nheltcr of tin 
beiditv. Jbtsy are : ihe be»titiliil wtsUrn or Nn-e roiid to 
Itoccabrnua and thoTinbia; the eipmlly boinlirul t-ai-lerD 
or GL'iiua roud to Wiitimigliii and UonliKben; Ibe eharming 
road along tho shore to Moniico ; the road to Uie Cap 
Martin, to its bold, broken, ri'uky point, to the niina of llio 
old convent in the centre, and to the telegraph tower; ilia 
mountain pucx road np the Caret valley, which winds ov 
tlie mountains l.i SiwpWto and T»ii in ; and lastly, the rou 
that letida alon^ the C«hiole valley to the foot of the St' 
Lueia and St*. A|fDcse mountains. 

The liist-nieniiuncd drive, tbut to lloccabrnntt, TutLIAj 
and Nice, boa already beeu deacribed. It is the road the 








Btr£iR:;er pitesea alon^ ou bis amval ul Tklcntnne from Nico, 
mill is Ko Dxtiiii'^Itt.-ly bi-aiitiftil that it {^cneraUy remaioa iha 
fiivftiiriUcxc'iirHJiiii, ovo) cliiriii^n r<-j=ii!<.*iici;ormniiy montlis. 
Two limm ure rviiuirL-il tu u^iilly asuL-iiil tliu mourituiii m<Il> 
IVoin Mtiritone to Turbia, at the summit of the pa's. Durin;sr 
thu entire nscent thv mod U tlii^roii^hly shvllvrnd from tho 
noi'lh, iitid iilcfpotl ii) iiiuishiiiL' until ihi; sun iltsiuuntlit buhiiid 
the moiiiil.iinB on the wi'Hteri) lionzun. Tho return onl^ 
takes one lionr, or one and a half, nccording to paoe. Thfl 
vitb'^ of Turhia, whiuh crowns ihc puss, is it Inndmurl; iu 
hi^t^iry. Il wuh the fronlii^r butwovn Oiiiil and l.i^tiria In 
tliH time of the Uoiuun^, and ihere ia sliil to bu Men ueiir 
the road the very inlere^tii)^ rtiios of a tow er Ituilt by the 
Romuri i-inpuior Ati^islus, nearly two thousand yearx a<;o. 
These ruin* show well in what n inniwivi; Ktyic aiilitiiry 
woricM were constructed by tlit: Itomaiu, and ureqiiitt: worth 
a special visit. 

Thv Gonoa roiul, which skirts the coast, is, fts I Itave 
stat^^'d, i-(|iiidly Ix-autil'iil. It begins to ascend at oiira on 
leaving the WJiterii Ixay, pUMJn^ iiviT the pictiiri-siiuv bridge 
and ravine of St. Ijouti^. Abiiv« lhi:i il is positively blat>led 
out of the side of the limestone rock. 

In oold weiithrr, the invalid i^hoiild not go beyond tlia 
turn or hi>;br^t point of this road, as there i» a cold gurgu 
beyond. Hut on a tine warm clay the drive may be j>r»- 

Dgol alon-; Ihe coa^t to Vcntimi;:liii, n quaint old fuitiliud 

wn, with a fiiir-Ki/.t'dMnow-formcd river, tlie Royii, wliiuh 
i'dcKeendx alonx a {>ietui't-i«<|i>e and wide valh^y Irum the foot 
«f the Coi de Ti'ude. Vi-ntim!};!!!) i* seven niilea from, 
Sluiltooe; and Bonli-ihera, where the Palm trees are tot 
with in all tlieir ^lury, ia four miles further, Un the rvtum,' 
if " imprudently" made to^vards sunset, a most fcluriiiiia 
view in obtained when the highest purl of the roiid ii 
reached near Mentoiie. The entire aniphithuitre is beuuti 
fully seen, and ike settinj; sun behind the Esterel mountain! 
reveals their sharp outline", the isle Si, Mors'icrile 
Cannes, and the ligiitboune at AntllieH, an dt^tiuclly us if 
only a few miles distant, instead of liRy. Tbey are chithed 
•Im), in tbe most luagniltoent ooJoon, pur|de, eriinion, 
and red. 


" Ilut 1(1 ! thn ann ia itcttuig; earth and alcj 
OiM Uuie of glory : 

lie liii^ro jtt i and letwiiiDg to a point, 
Kliinva lil» thB«]rr of hcnvon— -then withdraw! j 
Anrl Inmx tlin xt-nitli to tlic ntnKwt •kirUi 
AU iH ooledtiul rtiil."— BooKH*. 

'Hie Jrive to Monaco, al>oiit five miles aloni; the coast, nt 
th« Toot of tliG mountaini:, is cprtainly oni- of Ibo ino&t 
Iwniitiriil ill Europe. It wimln uions tfic rhorv ri>llowin(f 
tlio iiuli'tilationB of the coasi ; at one moment ull but \tvvl 
witJi the lieach, at another rlsio}; more than a hundred feet 
ahovfi it. 

On the land wde arc mumitains, Hsci-nding rapidly mnny 
hundred foct uhove the itca, liuur »ith iiue, ront and lorn in 
every coiit-civahle fhape. Sonielinies huge i-wlts ihat have 
been riven iVom the parent mountain by iialuri-'e a;;encieB, 
haii^ Above the road os if nbout 1» fa)) i>n ihr! tiuvclhr; or 
th*^j have actually failun, leapt over it, and lie in wild con- 
fn»iu» umlerncuLh. In one apot, u-here an avalni>ch« of 
this kind has dpsccndcd from on bij^h, there is a mclc 
IIS Isr^v NS a small houtti-, arrested in it« downwai'd prof^ress 
\>y the trunk of aii uld olive Int. The veteran nppeHiit to 
be hruv«ly endeavouring to ntem tbe descent of itf enemy, 
und BO far has succeeded. 

On thu Mcditcrrunoan Kide are quiet coves nnd bays, 
where Iho v.-Mva ripple gently on sundy iH-uehef, at the foot 
of jaRRed, capriciously shaped ruclis, eiiveitd with pines 
»aa brushwood. They apiK-nr indescribably lovely from the 
nwd, and innpire the wayliircr with an all hut imitixtiblv 
deeire to st<ip his progreaa, in order to hatlie, or to tit 
hienrely on Uio sliorc watching the pby of tbe briny 

Doth Koiue to Monaco and returning, from early morn 
to evening, this lovely road is steeped in the jjliwing sun- 
fhiiie of tliv south. Being thus sheltered and in the sun 
all the nay, it e»n be rexorted to whenever ihc tvind duex 
not blow Iroin ihu sea. Monaco, a little town perched on 
a rooky peninMiln nil but surrounded by the si-a, is ilKclf 
very inleiesting. IL is a ealm and lovely spot on n (ina 
sunny day, with its pretty btlle poit, &U hut rock-sur- 





rounileJ, olfiur aii<l blue, ciiIivoDcii only by a fuw fiahiDg- 

Tlio r.iilnay from Xice to Gcoon has now beou npeii fur 
si>ntc tint*-, t>n<l » NtniiU 8t4-»niLT tliat iiMtl In jity lietwt^cn 
tiuM nnd Aloit.ico has ceased to run. Few n-iti truft to the 
faitlitest), capricious deep who dtii ovoid it, und yet uu a finti 
day it is n most cnjoynbli: mode of ivocliintc Nice. Tb« 
niilwjiy IVon» Nico to -Mi-iilonc wn» a most <liffic-ult nitd cx- 
])«ii«)vc tindt-rUikiri^, and occupied sfvi.-ral yuiini. It paMCi ' 
throii(;h nine tunnels, and sbiits ilecp bays and indentations 
of llic coiml OD eoa walU and i.>aii8ewaye, at the foot q[ 
wliicli tbu Nca brualu oonwtantly. Tbc ovast is vcfy lordy, 
and, ill n:y eye?, tlie ntilway, coiivenioiit attbongb it be, 
ratlier mars its beauty. Kstuiv wcms to have been 
wotindvd, scarrud, iiibcrl'crcd with tii rviMy i^cnso. Sho will 
tKion, lionever, obliterate ttie acan hIki bun roUi'ivfd with 
wild [iluiitti and with soulberu verdure, and then we shall 
pttrhapa learn to look ujwu Ibe line merely aa a mesBenger 
of protfivse and civilisation. At the time of tbe anm*xii- 
tioii tile Frcticli (iovemniciit )>rc>nii«e<l to eonctruct a port 
at Mvntunt!, aiHl is now redeeming its promise ; a pier ia 
bein^ thrown out beyond the old Ul-uocmc cmtle. The latter 
ia Uiill on a rock in the »eH at the point of the promontory 
on which the town i(tund:<. This pier, al thou f'h only half 
finished, already protects and improves the port und 
SBchoragv, and facditiitm the loading and unloading of 
the vewela that oonx; to Menlone. 

Mcolone and the village of Itoocabnina formed n part of 
the prinvi|i«lily of Monaco from the i-arly Middle Ages. 
Tlio Princes of Monaco liejd their snudi principidity ua 
fradiiloriea cf Pitslinoiit, and idlboii^U Kwept away by the 
French Kevolution, were recognised in their former riffjita- 
at llie Treaty of Vienna. Their authority, however, wh« 
hnrHlily cxorciK-d, and in 181'^ Mt-ntune uml Huccabrtioa 
made a umall revuhiltou in imitation of France, drove Uie 
Prince away, and declared tlicmMilvcx indeiwndeut. The 
happy independence thus gained, witJi Arendian immunity 
from tiixcK iir oontK:Tiplion, they enjoyed untd ISCtO, when 
the Prin<« of Monaco ceded hit rights over his revolted 

Ca to the Emperor of Prance for the sum of 1211,(10(1/. 



^lonn<^n, his rnitlirul city of eix Imndred inhnliitanto, 
rvUiiied us tlio uijnul or tlic diminisht-ii priuci|NJ 
under ihv juriKlictioii of Kriinc«. 

Tiiv old city or Monaco is built on nn derated promon-^ 
bory, unti from iU advaudn;- cone: dumbly into the sea, 
heyoQil ttiu coiiKt line, it is rntlK-i' Lou inucli rxpo<^i-<l to Iha. 
riitslrni or ni>rth-vr<>->t wind to be nn agTomblo wintcH 
residence. It wsia well linown to the llomiiflH, is olU-oJ 
mentioned by dus«i<-jil n-ritcra, And liii« litid n link' histur 
of ilH own throughout Llio dark »nd Middle A^ei>. It 
nrinn-9 have Iteea »ma)l kiuKH on their eea-uirt roi^k, iind 
tinve oilen vn^cd war, iindt-r the wiii<; fitvt of one [towerfut 
(imtrolor, ttn-n of another. Thp Sunliniiin«, the French. 
■ he (•vtiix-in>, hiive ull in tnrn been nlHea or fot«, until 
at laHt a ival nnnexalion to France h&s taken place.' By a 
treaty made nitli tlint L-ouiilry, lliv uuoToms and criminal 
jnri'J|)r<idi>nte hnve bi-en jriirrenderod, iih wt-ll u* ^fcntonL'. 

'l\e late Krvnuh limperor, however, allnwed the Friiico ■ 
Monaco to retain bia (raining establish men t, althouj^h um 
wore permitted in Pmncc, aiwl tliiit when the German^ 
(lttk(« worv about to abandon thi« tiourej.- of revvDue. 
But tlie oriinifOfi, th« lemnns, oiid the oil, arc nenrlv gone 
vriih Monlononnd Koccabnina, and lh« Piinoes of i^IonaGO_ 
do not ftiel dinpoxed, it nmy lio p^tvtimcd, to ubandon tti 
niuttt) imputed to them of old : 

" Snn Ikloiinco soiira ini sco^lio 
Noa Mmino « non mrcs^lio, 
B pur uangiare tokUo." 

The temptation uiroided hy Uio liirK*-' inooinc derive 
fVom this source waa too great to bo withstood, and nol 
that all lh« Gerinun cni^'UK-liouses iire aitpprvKxtid, MonacOT 
ni*:!!!* tiu|iri'nin ue nearly the only gambliQ;; eslalilinhment 
in Kurope, iiud oerluinly the only unc uirricd on in ttw, 
princely «tylu of IIombuTK and liaden in former days. 
Leblanc, thi! priiscnt l(«scv, hus spent nn immense sum 
money in bitildini; a beautiful euxino on the niudel of the 
one at Hi'ntburj;, several first-class hotels, and man] 
cleftant villas, in iius moct protected situations. The 
buildings hure all been creotcd in a picturesque spot, on tb 



nETtiid.' oF till! port, about haif a milo finm tlie town. 
Tiiiid llic- ]>niiii(mto]y on which tlie town of Honaea ii 
Parched shelieni the now Bumlititig colony, in a gnwl 
rneiis*ir«, from the noitli-went witnl, to which the town 
ibelf ia cx(>o*cd. AL Lel>Unc U spending I'fpiHy a por- 
tion of his income in iinprovcmctitii of every kind^ 
r'>iul«, briiljfea, terravi'^ — and in shrnvin" much mori? taste 
in Un crfutionB, and in the aiTaii;;uiHoiit, of the lovely 
IfTUuriilii urouiii] tin? ciii^iiii', than the Alentuiiiaiis havu 
as yet exhihitwi. Hut then hin mi.'iin'' are very fireat, 
for he leviea trihule oti u hr^e oommiinity, (liu gamblin^t 
))o))uhttion of Etirope, Tlic garden ia beDnitifulIy phinlcd 
iind laid out, ami ihc U-i'raci-s fucin;; the »cu are covcrvil 
M'itli KhiiitM and tlowt-rii that (li>iiriiFh and bloom in winter. 
Certainly, under his aiii]iit»?H, Momico hiut become a fairy- 
land, and it is lamentable to think that eo mtK-h luvGtiiic»!< 
ithoiild ori^uiilu in nucli a gotiroc. 

'i'hc band piny* twicit & day, from half-pnet two to four, 
and from half-pn»t ei^ht to tvn. It ia composed of cvvi'nty- 
four thortiufrhly gtwil nuuiciann, selcoted from Qennauy 
and lUly, and discoiiraes really " Bncct music'' iti a noble 
nuii'ioliiill iir bMl-rooin. It if a great treat tM lixtt^n to to 
admirably li'd and tto well-trained an orchestra, iu this out 
of the nay {iLiee, and it is a pleasure n-c Mentoniaua can 
vnjoy when we like. The drive tukcs about an hour at an 
easy pace, b'lt by rail it i« only ti-n minuter. 

On a line Hunuy winler'a day it is a mo&t cliarmin^ 
excursion to drive over to I^Ionnco, to luneh at the Inxu- 
rioua Udtel de Pari«, or ti{/re*co in pic-nie wtyle on the rojid ; 
toiMnter over the gardens, to listen for an hour to the 
Aiiry-likc musie, and then to rettiro leisnrely home, bufurv 
ninset chills the air. The drawback i« the i<lea that always 
haunt* oa«, th^t the vice of ([ambling should be the means 
of plaoing tlie«e <)niet, health-tfiviiis p1va)ture« at onr dia- 
poeal. I try, when 1 go there, vrhioh I often do for the 
ra\co of the Jlowent ami the musio, to for[;el all abont it, and 
with that Tiew seldom or ot-vcr ciiler the gnmin;; Haloon«. 
I never recommend any one to aetlle at Monaco, for 1 can- 
not but tliink that the immediate pioximity of a iramiDdf 
table, iu tlw absenoe of alt active occupation, is dangcroua 

N 2 



to mntiy who would uevcr ira^itivel)' seek its excitement 
an<! risks. Moreover, the comjinnv, mule and fi'miilc, it 
very Iwd in tlio evening. Tlie lour o'elocrk nlli-niooii tnun 
from Nice briii)^ daily n crowd of Iuom: eliaracU-rs. 

The Clip MartiD, a semitircular i>euin§ulu, covered wi 
UD Olive grove in (ho centre, and a protecting Pita- fori 
on the const tnKrgin, id aiiolhcr cluirming driv*. It lortoi 
one itidv of thu weftti-m hny, and ia a moitt picturesque and 
nttractii'e tipot. The road lirancheB oil' Trom tho Nice road 
near the town, |iii>«<ut through an Olive grove of Rue, 
ctiri»ii« old trcoit, and then divides into two. The onej^^J 
after psuKiiig by Boine pretty orange orchards, ekirte thj^H 
phore, fnii<;ed with irregular, wiiU"r-worn rocks, htanehcd " 
Ly thf v.avet Athtdi tho Houth-wcnl wind drivvit oii them 
with extreme fury. When there is a storm from the eouth- 
weet or eonlh-caet, it \e n niagnideeiit spectacle to watch 
the soil da*hiiig viotenUy on llie sharp, jagg^-d inaasea of 
lime«toDc, und breaking into dense magscH of foam and 

At the extremity of the cnpe, ju^t tus the ecashora road 
begins to turn and to anccnd, there is u little shorp track, 
that wiiulfi round the prouioutury, shove th« eta, at tho 
(out of tlio tteep myrtle-covered dillk ; and amidst the cod- 
fnscd, irTcgulor ntawi ofrockis which line the shore thiTware 
viirioua little warm and lovely coves, 'iliii) ]tiith ix, wiUiout 
any doubt, one of the most dclighttil spots in the district 
for the qniet contemplation of nature's sterner beauties. 
The time to spend an hour or two here iit in tlie afternoon, 
wlitn the sun, pas^ini; to the west, pours its warm rays OQ 
thi*, tliv wei'tcri] Hide of the enpc. An intelli'^ent survey 
of the wildi-tneits of rocks will reveal n handred Doof 
worthy of nn emptror's siesta. 

The other branch of the Cup road ascinds to the higher 
ground of the promontory, a»d leadn, through lovely wvoda 
of Olive and I'lnc, with n brushwuDd of Myrtle, Leutisous, 
pnckly Broom, and Thyme, to some old ruinu, said by 
some to be Uvman. and by others to be the renuiins of a 
convent. Near them is a telegraph tower, which 
«l«ctriu wire ban reniicred iinelvs*. 

fiolk theoo roade ail'onl at every step magnilicenti 



of the ^fonluniai) amphitheatre, of the Krandlau laoiin- 
taiii9 Diut form it, and of tlio bold anil irre;;ular coast line 
tta far as Bonlii^hcm, "omo twelve miles ofl", Bordi^liera, 
built on B proinoitturj' vrliich ii(lviin<.-(-!i otit to nim in a 
•outh •MIA tern diroclion, is a very ))n)miuetit object IVom 
every pari of the voaet as far as Antibee, It |{ivL>s at a 
distance lUo promise of {■rcaUsr bi^aiity than it ri»liz<id on 
a cloNor iiiapccliui). 

The Turiu rood (see local map) asceods the deepest and 
toDgeat valley in the atnphithcatra— that of Carai, at tlie 
entmnca of the town. The miCetit begins iiWut a mile 
from tliii »bore. It ia for some (li;<LiTic« very gentle, 
until a mile beyond the vilLi^ of .Monti, when it begins 
to climb the eido of ihu mountain by a terraced, en;^- 
HMirvd causeway, like one of tlio gresit Swiss [iomos inta 
I Ituly. Tlii» road, only recently completed, reachm the 
^^Kummil of the pass, abotil three milea from the shore, at 
^Kin elevation of 240U feel, It then pai^scs through a short 
^B^inu^lf descends and joins the road Irom Nice to Turin by 
^Vtho Co) de 'IVnde at SoKjitftlo, the Meond stage from Xitie. 
Tlic Mentoniati amphitheatre ia thu« now in free commu* 
niealion with the highland reijions that surround it, and 
from which it had hiUivrto been cut olF by iu monnlain 
barrier. Siipplikts of forage, and of luountuui produce 
generally, now uasily get to Mentone by rood carriage, 
whereas formerly they could only reaoh by mules, or round 
by Nice. 

Moreover, n be^iulirul and interesting highland district 

IU Iweoine acce^^ible throughout the winter, not only to 

bardv pe^Iestrians, as heretotore, but to all stnmgers and 

vuids capable ot ]>rudcut]y leaving the protected regions 

■nd of sjiending a lew hixira in n carriage. This part of 

the Maritime Alp^t mmUinH m.iny places of interest, many 

picturesque loeilities, which can be viiiited by all but the 

anore conlirratHl iuvali<U during a great part of the wint«r. 

'Even the invalid vi*it'>r in now able to (leDetnite beyond 

the mountain burner in tlic autumn, before severe weather 

laa M!t ill, and in the early spring, in April and May, 

hen the reign of winter baa ceased iu tlieeo southern 




Th« liidl tiiitnei) drive U along ihe Hoirie or Ca 
vallej'. 'I'hia rond, a icm:trkably i^ood ttaH nt-urly tevt-l one, 
is al>out a mile aod a hall in extent. It Hkirlf a mounlaiii 
torrviit, wliicli oectipit:* ttiu verjr octitre of tbu iMeiitone 
uni)i)iitheatrf, mid which carries to the rcd the wiitt^rBh< 
of a considcrnble cxtvtit of t1i« Btirmuodini* mountiiiu: 
When 1 Rtst knew Mviitolie tliero was no brld^ ova 
tlii>> ti>m-iil, uh<-i-t! it timiwv iudf into tlic sen, near t)i« 
etitniiice of the town, .iiul alter htaity rains it was somo- 
times eo ewollcn as to intercept sll cumininiicatiun for 
many hoiin. A new )'ri>]|^- hiw heen Imilt, hii tliat h«r^. 
at l«iuil, trnvcHent will no lungi-r have to watt " until thi 
river runs dry," foT we could ntsver say with Uoriiui^ 

"!Rni(ticUB«XBp«t«tdi)in dHliiatnniiUi at ilU 
IdlHtnr, et ubetur in omne volabilia torum, 

Tlic view of the mountiiinft from thin valley is niiif-nificent, 
for we nrc nt their bn»e, in the very heart of Ilic amphi- 
lti<-atr<>. 'So wimU over jionetrute, not even llie wa bit)ezi>, 
the viilley de«eriliing an anju;le whi<.'h efleetivelv slitits it out. 
The railroad station has been erected at il» entrance in tlie 
midfit «r lovely mountnin f^enciy. At the (crniinntton of 
the Ciirriagc road there i^n pidnn-Hrineolivemill, iind liiyond 
B romantir pulUwuy, uhich extundu lor an<itbcr mil--, nionn- 
dciing ainou^ Olive and I'ine groves, nntil it ifaihis tb 
(mall vilhi^o otCabrole, tit the head of the valley. 

About the centre ot thut jmrtion of the valley ivhirh 
occupied hy the carrisfte road the torrent reeeives a tri 
lary from the went, lirini;ins the waters of one of 
iireltivKt Mind»lone niviiK-* of the dietnet. It is called the 
ViintKine and ilqiatica vatliy, oaing lo the l^r^■^e^«■ of 
these fluwcrn in [irofii^iun in curly spring. Huth tlic Cahroli.* 
and the Primrose valleys are invaltmble to the invalids of 
the western buy, oRi;nng a Hife retreat I'loni cveiy wind, 
Mintihine, and the moht wild, beaiitifiit fcenery. Ueinp* 
nith^n half a mile of the entiance of the town, they arc an 
uccesftihlc to pcdtstriant as to those who ride or drive. 

Stiaiigcrt have to learn how to enjoy these drives. The 
|>lan that I n-commeiid in not ineri-ly to drive (o ii point 
and then Lack again, but, once the general fcutuie* of the 



itn- I 






eountrjr have become rumiliur, to iiiuld.' tisu of the i-ArTui)j;« 
«r llutli-L-lintrar ilutiliey inertly tojiMvli the moat nln-'llt-rcl 
■ lid {tii;liiiv<H(iic |»rl ul llic rr:^uii ticlei:ti.-<J. Tlit'lt il. fliwiltl 
lit alHtridi-iVRtl, ill ul-(li.*r loiMnri-lv to t-x]jKiri' on r»ol tlio 
romantic monutuiii iMttis mid the diuruiiii^ woodlmiii iiuoks 
tluit ctii only thus uv reuclicd. ll tiue(|ual to kikIi mi vxer- 
Lion, Uh.' invalid c:m rvuline io snmc diOH'U s)m>I, Uuiiixhio 
tjistiioi), on tlie t^roiuhl, iu tin- i^unittiine. Willi tin: liul[i of 
ni;^ and clusikc, ur ol llie C4m;iuru cuEiltiotis, a comtortabli! 
tnampaiciit mtiy bi; inadi.-. in winch iin ham' or more lu^isvo 
wry Mwillly in Uiv vnjoyniunt ol' ttiu I'ulicity h> •.'l<M|iu-ntly 
di-scrii^d by ±ibjl(ii|iuun; iu ttiu vurMiM ut ttiv liuud ol' litis 

Iiould even this be too gr«it an csei-lion, the tarrin;^ 
Iw slopped ill somo exo^tionaDy lowly E|iot, t^iriivd m 
aa lor (tie houd to iitWil )>rolivtioii iroin tbv mid or Hind, 
the inv^ihd mudi! coiiilijitiiitlv, uiiU thvn tbe vidid tneuiWra 
ol' ibi- |iiii'ty can de]>iirt fur n rUM. 

No one DCtid be iilVaid of tliu» Ki-liiiing oil the ground, 
■s tlioru is un vntirv abijoucc at Mentoite of all aiituiutvd 
cnMittin-« of H veaomoiiH iinttirv, with liiu cxtvption . of 
moM|itiiaiii. 'I'lieiv iirv, it i« tme, little bWk Buurpions, 
but they s«um to byberniit« in winter, and arv unly I'oiiiid 
by tliosc wlii> look lor them under ilie burti tit d<rviiyi.-d 
oliv« Irciis. Ill A|inl, iii>t bclijic. Kcr()fiil-« ii|i|iiMr on very 
wttfin 9>uiiny ruehH iind kiu-k, but ihvy U-Idii^ to the hann* 
low 8|ivi:ini iil tliu " culbibr.i," an iu KnL;Unil. No utlief 
Bpci-ie:*, uot evcii vi|K-fa, are kiiowu to exist. Uliun? u ii 
Muall ilut-lieiideil ii({ly lizard wlii<!li the puu^nts euunidvr 
V4)nviiii>iu, Uiiii destroy whuii they Ittid it. I it;tw one of thin 
idetitiral njiecin Vi AlVicii U[nuii<; the niin>i iit C^irt lu^tV' 
mid was told by iiiy dra^otuan tbat il was dr-.-idi-tlly 
veiiumouf, Tiie Nice natuivli?tJ>, houi-vt.-t', duiiy tiiiit it ik 
Mj, utid ray tliiit tliu pojiular idt-a is u luUiiuy, li>uiide<l on 
iu really ivpulMVo ii|i]>uiiranc«. 

The (KiMitjility of Ua'mg tUu]> ublo to lie, liaekiuf; iu the 
mn, ou llie ki*"""'! or on the rocks, in shvUored «unnf 
nooke, mo«t days tlirou^hont t)iL- winter, if, 1 vouKtder, mio 
ill' ihv ^rrviUfst advunliii^es to hexUli thntthe Uivieiuolt'etb; 
uot but tliut it is alutiya jtrudcni tu bave a cloub, a rug, or 



cushioa aDd«rn«ntl), and to uei; » good sumliado or pnnuoT 
M » protection from gbiv nnd wtn<l. Ry thiit niMiis many 
hi)ur)< may Ih* ijusUwi) out of doore oh nioet ilay.i without] 
iiiti)j;uc. It is an itnmscmeiit and a pleasure to look about 
for these sunny nooks, to fiud oHvo tret-s slnntin;; in 
required dirvction, *o iw to form n oomfortsMc support to^ 
ihc buck, Onwf fouiul itiioh «|>oU hi-oonm Tavouritw, nnd 
are mmii em bored. 

AIUt some houre of such repose we rise refreshed, r«n< 
vnt«l by cnnlitnt with thf wrth, «it better nnd slw 
Bounder. W« aru like th« Titniin in IWrniir diiyx, the mim' 
of the nartl). When fi^htin^ with Jupiter they wens 
repeatedly hurled to the curth, their mother, hut eaeh time 
they totiohed ht-r tlu-y wore eiiduwed with fresh pnw-tr for 
tlie fight ; n^rlaluly tho idlog:»ry conccidw ii triitli. Or, a 
more modern and " soii-ntilie" tlieory nuiy he adopted ; we 
may Assume that we imbibe directly some of the esirtti'a 
electricity, her vital llitid, and are thus diivctly vitalised. 

Quiet communion with nature is infinitely preferable to 
h>ng futiffiiiiig drivAi, aud contribute* mu4:li more to the 
improvement of health. A carriage otwd in this way givea 
an invalid the command of all tJie most beautiful scenery 
of the district, and I stron|>ly advise all who can allbrd it 
to engage one for the sc-juunij the more >o as curnH^roa an'\ 
both dillkiilt to obtain and dear if taken for a day or k.i 
drive, just as in smsll country towns in England. Ent^aged 
by the month or season tlivy are not more expensive tluin in 
INiris or London. A oomlortable open carriage, with two 
lior»es, can be bad, from cither Meutonu or Niect, fur iiliont 
thirty pounds or guineas a month, includini; the driver, 
and alt expenses. There are now very tolerable hack cabs, 
open and stint, stAndin;; for hire, at a fixed turilT, op|H)<ito 
thv Caoino or Club in the town, hut their rntiit are high, 
and the drivers are dilQeult to control, as they wiih to bo 
employed for the day. An omnibus runs from one end of 
the town to the other, at Ntatcd hours. 

llorK'K are but little adapted to the inoitntHinotu cha- 
racter of tlie country, and are so little ]>alnii>iiu.-d that 
they are not easily attainable. They may, houever, bo' 
obtained from Kic« by vc|uustrians who are stationary long 


enoiir>h, and an; strong enough, to make it worth their 

Puiikoyit nro tlic imiuil means of ancent ti> Um iiicttireiqas 
mouiiuiit vnllcvii aixl nAgt»; miilus hk Wt Utile uaed. 
llie al)te i^ede^triun caminatidfl tlie entire MentonUn 
amphitheatre ; hut it ia not so mtli the iuvolid, with Uiliea, 
children, iind the weak Bcncrnllv. TtiB iixocnu are ofleti 
winding and ^tvep, the rowU »«io broken tracks, and were 

niK DoxKRir mtxAX. 

it not for tlio donbeye, much of the most wild and |>i<!tii- 
rveqiw scenery would be all hut innccesaible to the invalid 
population. 'J'hvnc iinimnlM nru niiinerous, ati every pooMiot, 
tliv owner ol' a Tew mountain terraces, kecm oiiu a» a 'bciu>t 
of burdvQ. Donkeys are ah peculiarly auit«d to a riu^d 
tnountain cli«Lrict as th« uimvl in to the desert. At Meo- 
tono they are mi»lty fine, liunilsoin<: animiiU.and more than 
usually docile and i;iiud-lt'ni[>en'd, pi'oliahly l»cu:tiMe thvy 
are well tended and treated with aH'ection and kiuduew. 



instrad of with contempt and bnila'ity. The pcannnt? 
nlu'nys giiido them l>j- llio v<>ii-c, not l-y I'bwK. It u inti-- 
riNlin^ In »cu tbc iii-tt'-]iDs»i,-niirin niiil Mt-iirily of ftiot u ilh 
which llicy <iew:eud the mont nrmpitoiia ]>uthf, at one time 
eliding, as it were, on their batinclies, in »toc-[> pliiui')), tit' 
Another ckipjiin'* like kidt, nlthoiif^li heavily Indian. Thu 
donkey numuii uri; unly ihe owiR'ni <>\' tlie tuiddles, hiriu;; 
the donki-ys I'roin the iieitMHit". Hence the nvweeity "' 


hes|>eakinK tbo donkeys over night, othiTwHee they urc aft] 
to th« niouniuiiiR Iiy ciirty mom. 

The viewa ute cvcrywhtic iwrfectly mngntflcent. TheJ 
most iKmitintl und Ihotn; Ihnl [-ive tiie beat idea of thi 
district are those fruin the Cup Miirlin, and from mj 
f^rdt-n and rocks at Urimuldi. Alttionpih in my truvels 
have iii»v oil !?iit encirckd the >[editvrran<'Hn, I hove ' 
noivhcrw iiuiiid any Bwiioiy that ci.n be comjiured to them, 
with the »in^le exceplt>m of the Diitmntian coast, ae viewed 
ficim (jort'ii on n line sunny djiy. But beaiilil'iil a* it is, 
there is not the great viirit-ly of mountain hei;^hl» presented 



(jy th(! ^fcntntii- nmpliitlmtrc. I Iiiivn Wii lolJ Uiat tin; 
'tceiirry at Mfiit'tiie is very like thai of Mndi-ira, only «t 
Muntoue then- nre si-voml miles of k'vcl coast T>>n<) nloti^ 
tliu ficu-Fhori*, H'iia-h iit Muildnt arc wanliii(>. To p.*t ii 
tlioroii(;lily giio'l ulitn of tlit' diulrict the alrangvr alioiiM 
take llif drtvex whicli I liave describeJ, nntl then inulie an 
excursion mi foot, or on a tlonkoy, to the inoitntniti vil)at;i-)i 
of R4)C(-itljniiiii (unv lumr), CcMtellurc (oiif hour and n hnlf), 
Qurbin {two h<>im uiiU ii half), and St*. Aj^iimu (three 
hours). 'I'Ui lii'st v;in l>e rcaulicd in a cBrria;;e, the otliere 
ouir on foot or on donlcBye. Si'. A^aeae, tho most rtimoti', 
if Bitti»ti.-«l at ihv )!uininit of tho fii^l h)icl( Mgv. 

Koccikbruna. C>tHtc1]ui-e, nu<l St*. Ajiuesu nre mountain 
villH(;i-8, f»un(li.'(l hy Ihi-ir inhabitunts, ag^e a^fo, on account 
of the liicitilii-^ they ulfiTilcd for i)<3rvi)i.-o. ll»u<-ubruna is 
xbuiil 800 fov-t above thv Ka ; OHvtelluro 1^00, mtd St". 
Ajnmt 2400. 

Until a recent perind, the ndjaeont itlioreii, nnd indcod 
those of the entiiv Hiviera, n'ei« expired tu the eoustant 
attnoks of the Mahommcdnn pirates of the south AIodit«r> 
miii-an. For inmiy ixnttiric-s it wiu lU« SarJicetiF, later tliu 
OSirkf and Til'Min <if TuuIj^ and Aly;ti'n(, who puriodtrally 
nviiged thexe coaxlc. 'I'heir forays were nut for wealth, 
n'htvh thL> poor liBh«riDeD and labourers did not pai?sc«s, 
but for olavt-fi ; f»r the women were liaiuU'jmc, >iid tJie men 
6lroni;. To wilhitaud thme atlui'.lcx, the inhaliituntiiof the 
towns choi>c4li'reu>ibleBituutiunN, auith bh the Hteep proniou- 
toriei and eminetices on which Monaco, K»a, Metitone, 
Veiitiniiiflia, and San Iteino. arc situated; fortilyiu;' th^'tn- 
eolves al<^> with Etr^)ni; (vuIIk. Tho u-^riRulturistf soii^liC 
Kufi^ty by pi-ri-liiii^ their villtig«a od all but inacui-snible 
hci|j;hla, uheiR-e tbey could see their enemiea ni)pi'u.icliiii);, 
and where thi'v could easier tie It/nd iheinselvee if allntkcd. 

There are still men alivu at Mentone, who, i» the early 
part of tliii' cenlury were r*-ixvA on the court by the MourH, 
and Aub«c<inently lived foryeara us slaves at Alj^iers and 
Tunis. That such should be the case is not nurprisiu'/, 
when wo retii-L-t that piracy rci;;ned supreme in the Mt-di- 
ti^rraiiean uuttl tlw year IStlJ, when L>ird Lxinoiith 
bombnrded Algiers, and that it wan Dot finally extiugui^ied 



until t lie French took pof»»i9iou of A1f;i«n in 1830. At' 
till' time of Lord ExmoitUi'e boin)iurdR)«ot Uiere were 
thou!<an(I>i ■>(' Kiirupmn Klavci< in the Aliroriiie fcaWeya. 
Theao slaves were mostly natives of the northern Medtter- 
ran can shores, taken ntciea Prom the lishing boats and miUn-; 
vowels, or rrom thu const villiti^cs and tawna by sudden 

At St'. Aijnese and K^jceabruna then? are (lie ruins oT 
ancii;iit castles. Tliat of St". Asnose must h-ivu bwii a 
plfict- (if wninidoi'uljlc stronfjth. LoKil triitiition* say that it 
wa« built by the Suruoena, in order to keep in aubjeotion 
the smiling distriolA which constitute the MentoniMi am- 
nbit)R>atre, Probably, than »; now it wai; a ganliMi, rich 
in (ilivos in oran;^^s and lemons, iind was oonsidered A 
denii-iible eonciuoKt by the sniithi-ni inv.idera. 

The castle of lloecabruua is evidently of much more 
reoODt date, allhou;>h it goes hack to tlic Midilic Ai^tis. 
It recalls to mind the stronj^boKb of " The Kbine Itaruns," 
and ib> possoMiors no doubt levicil bliiuk-mail on those who 
trav<-1luil aluiii; the 4>oaiit-ri>nd from Nice to Genoa. 
AltlK'U.rb n mere mule track, thin road must have been 
much Irequented in winter in the days when tbcru was not 
a single cuTrini^e rond ncroEK the Alps, and ivlicn winter 
rcnilvrcd tlieir snow-ubul sumniitat an all but impassable 

All alon;; tbe coast to Genon may be seen at inl«rval9 
the ruins nf watuh-towen, «rect4.'d in Tirmer lima in posi- 
tions iavouRihle to defence, or suitabli; fur looking oat. 
They evidently farmed a part of the (tener.d system of 
protei'li'iii everywbura necessary against the pinitvs. Those 
towers, thi- old lnwiis, prcMiud into the smallest possible 
o.jHioe, and iiurruuudi'd with wnlls, thv villages perched on 
heichts up to which the inhabituuls hud to toil wearily 
after the day's Ubaur, all vividly point to times far different i 
I'l till'' pri^L-iit. Thoy tell of life passed in coastdut alarm, 
of ey«a constantly hirn«d witli anxiety to the sen, lixini 
whence the human hawkn were ever ready to pounce on tha 
young, thd handsomi.', and the ^itrun^ — of ht-art^ toni by thai 
<li:<tant gronns of retittivcs in ciiains u) a land. Sucli 
tliuiights have oftvu passed through my mind whet) gining 



iron 8o«ie muuntain height on tlie now pamcM sonw 
Iwlow. Truly no, or tUu present day, haT»aiwdt tv-to 
thankrul for; our lol Iium Uwn cn^t in mncli h»ppk-r Hmex. 
The good old tiaies do not bear oxumiiiutiitii ; tlicy nvm, 
everywhere, duye of opp rest) ion, rnpine, violence, and di>ie«8fe 

A wiiWrl'id) oulk-d the CiiscntliF, in ihv Carri valley, ifl 
worth vivittnf;. After niin thrro ion goml full of wtttvr, 
above a huiidrcrd fiMt hi$;li. ttiiiibliiig; over vast mowee of 
broken tiatur-woni rocks, and formin» vharminf; pools. 
Thi! prettin't miul is through Ciwt«llariMnid I'Uirtiiig; the 
lower part of the back range, over wliieb tin- wattr de- 
BCendfi, The return can be uinde down the Ctirei valley, 
by tho Turin or Soepcllo rond. It is n favourite place for 
fornK, ntid ut»o for pii-nicH, The road from ('ust^llure, a 
donkey-track, taking the visitor to the oenlre of the baclt- 
f;roundof the Mentoninn amphitheatre, affords many lovely 
views. Tlie entiro distance, there and back, is about nine 
or ten milen. 

In the immediate vieiuity of the cajicade there ia a 
hi-nnil's cave hi)>h up in the rock. Its very euHtence was 
a tradition until iin Enjjlii'b FUilor climbi^ up a few ycar« 
M^o, and found Mmi^ buutw, ut<;n>ili>, a half- obliterated 
inscription, and a date, 11>9S. Since then it bos beeu 
r^)eiat«dly reached by Scottish dr«r- stalkers and hardy 
mounlainccrit, but not without considt'rablv ri&k. Indeed, 
I do not advise anv one to attempt it. 

'f he view from tne castle of Itoccabruna is very beautiful, 
na ulm ara IIkxw from Coet^lUrc, Gorbio, and St'. Agneso. 
Tbey aro all four mere mountain village*, iuhabit^rd by the 
peaeantry ulio till the ut))>er terraces, a simple, burd>work- 
inf^ rnee, who kiww but little of iha world and of its doings. 
In tiieaii villii<^ the cur^-, or priest, is the fattier of tlie 
tlock, and the great man. 

From Oorbio to KoceabniQa there is a donk«y-tmek over 
tJlO hilla that luaiis through a very boautirul niuuutuin 
district, with magniilcciit views od every side. From thL^ 
rood is veil seen, skirtini^ the mountain side, an acjueduct, 
wliicli bringH water to Itoccabruna from a ^reat distance. 
It was completed about twenty yean ago. itefore that the 
inhabitants of Itoccabruna were very badly off for water, 



ntid (lopcD(lcil all Irtit fiitirdy on tlicir rain lank*. Ni>W 
i\u^y have u good nupply from ii ^priii^ tliat is nnvcc i 

Tho6i*vrho nrestron" nnd wi-U cun )>oout in nil woathora 
unlet* tliu ruin full in uiiUinu-U, )>iit ihc invuliil viiuuUI 
keep at liniiii! wlit-ii the wind hluwrs luinl, uvi-u from the 
Ki>itlli, niul nlieu lliG ireather is broken. Tho dutcntion 
xddoni Innts mor« tliiin t\to or lliroc diijn, iind it is n jjtjod 
(Kdiisiun ti> write k'ttuni, ulwnys in iirrc^r Uvm tiie Icmjx 
tation llio oonstjnt line wpatlit-r atl'ords to out-door lil'e. 
Indvud, invidido eliviild livo in wcittlii-r-prool liouec^s, liko 
heea in tlicir liivu. If it I'OcomrN cloudy und niins in 
gummer bcea will be wen tmajving linme in great iiumben. 
Kvi-ry now nnd then one oomes to tbe door to eee how the 
weather i». Il hu i%|mi-t« i-ttiii over nnd eiinshinc Uicy onoo 
more nlly forth to rillu the lliiw<-r« uf tlicir Kwcelx. So 
should wv do wh«D ill and no longer lit to battle witb the 
dome II ts. 

Moxt of tile plactt- bostEuit«d for esccursioos arc indicuU-d 
on Uic tnni) of Mcnti>n«, wliicli hos been drawn ui» witb 
ureal care from tlic Italian ordnance survey. I^et no on«, 
however, imagine, eays my friend Mr. Mofcgrtdge, " that 
when tifl have htvtx vit^iti-d Iio bos exbkosted the ko&utics 
of llic imme<liate ncTfjhtonrhood of Mcnlonv ; on the con- 
trary, there ia fre<iuently an entii-cly new vieiv to be had 
within iUfi or 3UU }-«rds ri[;bt or lelt o? main paths, while 
eadi hill, little knoll, or gorge nlTords u vuHrty in the 
pcenery, either peculiar to itnelf, or in combination witb 
thu (Hslitnt countr}-. I'o^ing beyond tbo limit" uf Ibc map, 
the countiy become* wildvr and more gntnd, but many uf 
the moiiotain vallevn are rich beyuud comparison in ii^ri- 
Giilluml prQdocte. If ever there niw a valley that did ' liingb 
and I'ing' it is that of CuiruMi, » tribiitjuy «!' the lluya. 
Here in June the rich rdluvial noil is covci'ed with abuDdaot 
crops sboulderinK one anotbcr. Aeceuding Irom thenuo 
thron^b a line lorrpl of ChostnntSj Pintut tiylvvctm, Ahie» 
excetru, A. pcclinaln, Pinun ecmbra, and the Larch, a fine 
extent of p;riisB Und la reached, varying; in heif^ht from 
50U0 to DODO feet. This is the niHWni arrets: of Aut^n, 
and belure it hua becD vivited by the mower the blaze < 



wild (lowcn;— rrrnny of tliom Wjmtiful nnd rnro— U iilnioat 
too mudi for tlitt <lii/;£lu(l »i)i;lit. There is uiii! gorga in wliich 
1 would direct attention, becausa it is witliin rvaxii of Men- 
tone — the (^>rgi: of Pinon, one Imiir't ividk trom Sospello 
(M(lU;l Curvnco) on ihu roa I to MoUiDutto. Twa vnry prutty 
wnterlulU (jfivet you at the entrance: a little further the 
eavn^ rocka, the brokeit fortstfi, and the tossinir, tumbling 
river (■'*■« u i»iieoei«io« of views ijver oburaiin:*, ever iiuw, 
tliiit ure exoelled only by the ifreut gorgas of the Hoya, 
Mniiy rure wild flowers muy bo gullier«d here even iu the 
Muntoiie H,'ii5(>ii." 

The moon mid Htata are muolt more brillunt on tlic north 
ehorcA of tiie Meditcrruuean tkuu in our lulitudea, owin^ 
no doubt (o the i^uat dryinms of tlio ulinosplicre, to the 
pnucity of wntcry viipour. It i* the Nime meteorological 
condition that niukaii tlie sunshine eo brilliant and ll)<> sky 
so blue in the daytime. Thnii the ni);hte, t^ner^illy, are iu- 
dc«enbaldy bviiutilul ; the kUii-n eliint] out with Binj{ulsv 
vividHeM, an<l the iilanetit and larger ttam make trvi.'ks of 
lil{ht in tkfr nea tike the moon with us. When, however, 
the moon is fall, or even partly so, their brilliancy poles 
iMifbre her vivi<l rnye. One of the favounlu exeiireioris, 
with UieMroti);, b to go ut ni^ht, vrhen tlie muon it full, 
al'in^ the shore to the St. Louis her rny^ then illumi- 
nnte the dwpent reeesses of tUu ravine. 1 ott«n myself sit 
at my window and wateh tlio moon ri»ini; over the cusbtrn 
moiinlKins. Lon^ before she appears ut the imminit of the 
rid(je, the lijciit thrown on the sky is all hut that of diiy, 
and when fhv doe* »how herself, each tree and shrub on the 
mountain brow becomes vLiible. The "tr:iok of light" on 
the sea is not a mere path, as with us, but a " river or Hood" 
of light. On one occasion I was sent for to Finale by 
tvlegmph, before the dayit of the railroad, and had tu port 
alnn({ tne ooasl on a beautiful ni^ht, willi the moon ut its 
full. For hours she ^bcd her river of li;;ht on the sua, 
brilliantly illuminnling it portion of iloi Hurfuce, I was en- 
tranced, ouuld not kvep tiiy (•jua from the stream iif Hitvor 
wav«8 danoins in the moonbeams, and I fully comprehended 
and aocept«4) a wild Cauiidiun legend onoe read. A young 
man disappeared on his marriage night, and was tracked to 


the margin vfLlu'KTcat Ontario liik«, then rroiii^ii nndcnvori 
with Biiow. A ball was Uikii)^ ]>laoe, and he tiud sudden 
loft liu bridv, his family, nod his fmnO^, in the midst 
of the fi-jilivitim. He hud Ulcon hix rkntCK with him,! 
fflitened tlieiti 1o Ills f<^et on the margiD of the lake, and 
seized DO doubt vrilli sudden insanity, bail started off in 
tlti: moontrack, for it was full moon. Hi* frirnda folh> 
hia tracts for many mileK, but wvve obliged at lust to return 
to uve their owu lives. Sledges were then procured nn 
8(*nt oir, but too late to save him. He was found dead am 
i'ruxvi) tome twenty inilev from ihc Khore! 

'I'lie language spoken by the pi'asautry is a "patois," 
semi-Italian, semi- I'Veneh, but incliinnp: to Itnlinn. The 

tirojiriel'im and tradeKinon all f\icu\i both Jliiliati and French, 
lul u'itli them French now {iredominales, although it was 
not BO when 1 first knew Mentone. The shop-sii^s, for- 
merly Italian, aru now Frviioh. In roelin<;, tin- Mento- 
tiians occupy ahuiit the same midway pot^ition. although 
their Itiilian aympathicM predominate. At the time of the 
annexation they petitioned unanimously to be " left alone," 
but their pttiliun wits not allowed to sec the lii^ht. They 
are rallicr a haiidvotae race, uilh Italian feature*, hliiek 
liair, and dark eyes. Many very handsome young women 
are seen. ^fl 

Ab already stated, M«ntono has made n. great iitc]> >n^4 
advance since 1 tir»t drew attention to it as a winter sanita- 
rium. There are now some Inxtitiotis and ninny commo- 
dious villoA to Itrt furniiihed, and nion? arc building. I'hcre 
■n alao many good tirrt-^lat« hotels and xevcrul loarding- 
bouMB, and Fecond-clnsa hoteln. The rent of the villus 
varies from two lo twelve thousand francs for (be winter 
scftfon. Mi:i:<^t vf the hotels take inmali's "en pension," 
that ix, boarders, and thv temia for bonid and lodging vary 
Jrom eight to twelve or Blteen Iranca a day, according to 
the character of the honsc. 

The proximity of Nice is n groat advantage and mmirce 
not otdy Ui those who are well and strong, but even to in- 
valids. By mesne of the railway Nice may easily he 
vinited between hroJikfast and dinner, and that withotil 
any real fatigue. Formerly, when tbo Turbia had 





croEged, Nice was all but imtcccseiblc to the iniriilid popu- 

Nice ia a ■mull southern capital, wiUi it« Italtiin opvm 
and Frciioli theatre, it« daily fashionnble proin«Ra(le and 
drive, it» mililnry band. And tts nivtirm o( giiily-d reeled 
pi'ojilc. Mont xf lliu TiortherriL-n who coivd thi^tv in thtt 
wiiit4.T iirt! not invalids at all ; they are the otired invalids 
of former days, of all nations, to ivhoiu the southern 
winter sun hiis bi-comc a nwewily. Th«y arc also ppi-ci- 
nicnaufthc more ivullcsn of our iioumrymcn and women, 
Anglo-Saxons, who, al\er wjnderini^ all over Europe for 
yeara, settle down at Wt for the wioter at Niw, on 
iiocoiint of its Eocitd uttniclioTis, hoca<isc tt i* neiir home, 
and U-cnuttc IctttfK reach in thirly<£ix liuurs. Our Ainmcuu 
cutisins have altio adonted Nice an a winter residence ol 
late years, in great antl yearly incrcn«iiug ntinibers. 

Until latterly but few of tliu tribe nt liealth loungers 
cboac Montoue a* a rwidence. The Mentoniitnw were at 
tint all real invalids, glad to escape from the gnietivM of 
Nice, aa well aa fMra its du^t and ocea&ionalW cold winds. 
Many, however, ar« bocominc attached to tins pietureaqiie 
Mediterranean nook. It is t\ui<^ U-t^itmintr to attnict meru 
sunwoTHhipjiers, and a forei;;ii {Kipublion i» griulually 
fjrowinj^ up, of tlie same deseriptii)i) an that of Nice and 

The inhabitauta of Mvutone are ozooedin;;ly gracious 
and cordial to stran^^erH, and are doing their utmofit to 
render the place agreeable to them. An elegant Cercle or 
ttlub baa been built in Ihe centre of the town, wliich is well 
Bupplted with newspiipem. It iic open to visitors by suh- 
ecriptiou, and oontiiiiis billiard, »ird, and convermtioii 
nirims, and a good- siy-^d theatre ami lialt-moin. Ou the 
Mhurc, in the town, there te an coptuniide, or sea-terrace, 
constructed in 1861, and to which the name of " Promenade 
till Midi" has been given. It is intended to cmtinue tliiti 
terraoi- OJi far as the Cap Martin ; wliun linishud it will make 
a delightful Kea-«idu proiaenade and drive. 

Kaeh winter a series of elegant xiihiicription balls uiw 
uivpn by the memb?ni of the " Cercle," tu which lln: 
vieitiin are invited. They are well attended by the l-'rendi, 




uni] (i1»u by many ta«m\»v* of the En>;lish oommunityi 
mud) to tbe ijralitiuition of llie Meiitonuns. Vorwii 
(fthor yhaa for the iinprovomenl of tite town mh] iIr vicinity 
are on Hid ta])is. 

In tIiu town tottm of tho beet lioi)i>cv of ttic principul or 
iiK'dttrn Hlrcut an- Ivt in npnrtint'ntti, or flaiM, liirniKlnti or 
iiTiriinuBlieO. Tliew ajnulmenls are not so (icBiralile fur a 
reBHlcncc us the Ftilmrljiiu villne, but they itrc mucli Dio: 
rvst-otiiil>!u in price. 

During Ibu Itut few yeare, 1 inn happy to »ny thit a 
(.■unBitlvrnble amount of attpittion haa been devoted by tb« 
prc^H at homo to tbv by-;ivnic state of eotilhem hcialtli- 
r(«tirt>i. Ak 1 mm nit] CI niviidf in n gnai mmenra the 
ori;^innt»r of IhiH t'celiii);, bcinu the tirnt author on olinint« 
who h:i=> made liyj-itiiic (.-uDililiaRs the chief baatH of bin ^^ 
reMrnrL'bo);, I iim [;rntiliod to tind that public opinion iv^H 
bu<;inni»t; to awakt-n to thcM vitul qiiMitiunK. Ono or tno^^ 
wiiti-nt, however, have described Mentone iia tveo moro 
dirivi<!ut in thif re6|)eot than other sunitnria on thu 
ooual ; a nioitt unfounded and unfair mielaUe. So far from 
this bein<; the ciisc, I do not hwilatu to eay that tho 
li) •^ii-nic KttiU- of Mvinto»« i* miidt 1>ott«r than that of any 
olliL-r nnitjirium between Marseilles and Genoa, not fro 
any peculiar for«thuU|tbt on the part of ite inhabitants, but 
becaofc ite population, native and fuit'ign, in emnller. 

Th(! diuitiage of Urge towna involves one of tlio mov 
diflicidt prubleins of Diudeni civilization, one of aa much 
importiMicv lo as In our northern i«k- tu to the inhabitants 
of Kijuthern Kunipu. In the «nnill priir.itiv« iigricnlt ural 
towns of the Ligurian coast, and of the south of Kurnpi 
aeiierally, tbo want of main diaing is not lelt. All tin 
'iDhnbiUnt^uruusuallylaiidvxl proprietors. Olive and Lcnio 
Int-a, wen iit the sunny south, vrill not bi.-«r <:rop« ol IViiik' 
williout manure, and where is it to come from in countries 
when- there ia little or no pnHuro unlera it be from th< 
hunu-K of the proprii-tom? tienec, at Mrnlone and cl 
' nbvre, before thu udvent of stranften', the household dniin- 
aj(e WHS everywhere stiuputoiitly preserved, placed in small 
oueks hvrnK'ticjilly closed, and tJiken up to the tiTnii-cs on 
Uie inounlaiti side every few daya by the donkey w 


most possess. There • trend) was made mund the baee of 
a tree, the contents of the tub mixed with the roil, and the 
trench closed. Such ii the primitive system followed also 
throughout Corsica and Sardinia outside of the two or three 
large towns. I have repeatedly been in what may be called 
feudal residences in the moantaioa of those lovely islands 
where no other system is known, and who can say that it 
is alto<rether bad ? Is it not deodorisation by earth, the 
return to the earth of all excreta, the solution in coimtrr 
places of the health question, " What is to be done with it r' 

When, however, hundreds, nay thousands, of strangers 
pour into these little country towns, as they have poured 
into Hy&res, Cannes, Mentone, aud San Remo, where large 
hotels are built, each aontaining more than a hundred people, 
and numerous villas occupied by large families, tbp state of 
things alters at once. Main drains, with collaterals, were 
not constructed before because they were not wanted. Now 
that thi-y are wanted, are they the right thing? If made, 
the only possible outlet is the sea-sliore, and a very small 
amount ot'driiinage thrown into little sheltered bays in an 
all but tidelesa SL'a like the Mediterranean would soon 
reproduce the polluted shores of Naples. 

After mature deliberation I hnve come to the conclu^ioD 
that lor villas and hotels, in gardens of their own, a good- 
sizt'd CL'sspooI, isolated from the house, with a sound venti- 
lating :iir-sh:il't run up alongside the chimneys to the top 
of till! house, and a good manure pump attached to it, is 
the ix^t plan to deal with the difticuUy. This is what is 
attempted, but olten imperfectly carried out, in these 
southern villas. Often there is no ventilating sbaft at all, 
i.r the latter is not air-tight, and thus foul air p.iGses into 
the house by the closets or through the walls. Then such 
a thing as a manure-pump is generally unknown. On some 
line moonlight night the cesspool is opened, a little tub tied 
to a long polo is put down, and the contents are laboriously 
ladled into small casks. In the house in which 1 reside I 
made the landlord a present of a manure-pump from Lon- 
don, and now they do in one hour what used to take them 
tu'o nights, and with oue-twenlieth part of the annoyance 
to the surrounding community. 




This diiriculty aliaut drainapie followt tnnn cveryivlie 
and iioaafnues m much importaooe in Eni^Und as on t 
CoDhnent. Xtoiidon p1iyi>iciun« aro coBsUutly sent for inta 
the cooiitry lu soc fimin of iiiu)i<^utnt di»«iii', fi-ver, ciinr- 
rhna, which we know an- the rL-nult of bad dniinuj^*?, niid 
that ID elegant coantry residences l>o)oa|tii>S ^ ^''^ f^nlry 
and nobility. It is n <]tio>tion whether the water oiit-of- 
eight-out-of-mind Kyi!t«ni, which hu mado us hu fiuUdioiis 
on tliiBseare, liaa not done more harm than good. In ne&rly 
nil modem country houscx the closets are connected with 
what are called " percolating cvespooU." The fluid content* 
sinli int'> the earth, and tho volid alone rcmuia, merely 
rc'iuiriiig to be cleared away every year or two. By degreea 
the soil that separatt-s th<^ cwpoot fVoip the water levelloee* 
its deodorising power, and tlie Buid drainage contaminntM 
t lie water of tlic adjoining wcliti. Then como fcvere, putria , 
noi-e^throut, diiditheria, dysentery, wliiuli aurpriHe every 
one in " so healthy a Bituation." I believe rayeelf that the 
only perfectly safe drainage system for a country residence 
in England or eW-whcre i* either the old-fashioned garden 
I'UiK.rt of our farming jiDpulation, regnlarly d«odoruw(l by 
L-arth aeiv>T\ling lo Mr. Aloule's plan — a decided improve- 
ment, on the pael- — or a Roman cemented cesspool with B| 
nianiire<pumpfltBdiKtnneofroni the house. From this every 
day or two an amount of drainage eipnil to what entera 
should he rv^Urly pumped and applied to the garden lawn^ 
or hind. 

The only way, however, to prevent towns, in such si(iia-j 
lions as the Genoese llivieni, becoming unhealthy Irom theJ 
druinage of a redundant populntion is for them to reraaiDl 
small. It isthi-reloreto he hoped that the winter emigraDts] 
from the north will diKpuree themselves over the entirol 
Riviera, finding out and olonizing new sites. One coo-l 
valeseent hoci|)ilal, with UOC inmates, on a hejdlliy eummoafl 
puch as that of M'alton-ou-Thamea, may remain, with car^ 
tiuluhrioUH and health-giving. Put four, with a thousand 
iiinialea each, on the vanie locality, and it bctumes a quca- 
tion whether it would be worth while for them to leave 
London, llie excreta of man are poisonous, and all 
agglomt-rutioiiB of men tend to breed disease, 'tbo fallen 



Jiliers or civilization, the sivk and ill from towns, bIioiiIJ 
ok the ootintry, trew, naked ixii^ks, i)]>areely-iDbubitcil 
divtrtctii. As im invalid myi"^!!', I would riitlior ]>us» lUc 
winti-r ill tiic \<nre uir ul' Dnrimoor lliuu in the coiitamu 
nutt'dfitmoenbereoDar^, til thy soulliern towns like Nftplea, 
Komi-, and Mulu[^, where the uvcra;;i! dur»tioti of life in 
low, where the ItMilthy and vif^ruiis cannot n-JU'h tliv 
onlinury mcdiurn diir;tli<iii of miio'i vxiHtunot!. Ity thuii 
c>'Ioni&in|; a lai-ije ari?a, likewise, the clement of competition 
nitl be brought to bcur, mid it is the only mi^na oi' |)Uttiu>> 
an end to exorbitant demands from whomsoever they may 
Mentone.aa an English colony, may be satd to hare 1)een 
founded by the late llcv. Sir. Mor^n, an English olergy- 
miiii, who settW tlicre with his family at Mcutone in 1?^57. 
The timt Ellgliiih cbiireh, the one in lli« eamern bay, wii* 
Uiilt by aub6cri|ition, under the t<u|>ennteiulenee of Mr. 
Morgan and of myself, and opt^ned for divine wursbip in 
H883. THe Uev. Morant Brock, of Uath, la the present 

The faet of tliid churoli having been built at an iiioon> 
veniunt distAUce from those wlio reside ou the westi-m 
iide, bae led to the erection of anotbiT and more olaboriito 
and «x|M!Dsive eliurch in the western b^y, under tim din^e 
tion of the Jlev. W. Barber, Ute of Lvioenter. The ohitroh 
ia in the early style of the Hth eentiiiy, and waa built by 
tlie incumbent's son — Mr. W. Bailjcr. 

Ilic town of McQtone hiu pmcntcd to the Protmlant 
communily a plot of ground for a cemetery adjoining 
their own. It ia situated on the vminenee that crowns 
the old town, wheru a fortified ensile reared its head iu 
funner timet, the niiuH of which may still be seen. It ia 
a peaceful, pietiireiupte spot, and is ulrea>ty the hst home 
ol many whoee memory is dear to Mentuniims^ It has been 
KurrOUDded by a wall at the exjii-nsu of thu Prott-slant COD- 
greRationx, and a umitll mortuary vhnpul ha* been built, to 
which the mortal remains of those ivhu have died in hotels 
ean be removed and kept aa long us the relalivea wish. 
There is no law, as usiuilty supposed, that renders prompt 
.burial ini[>eraliva in Franou. The law only rules that 



no pcnon shall be kui'i«d in irM than twenly-fvur boiiT 
tfter dmtli vi-rtifiitl by u modKiil mitn. But in liotvis 
it is clifficuH to rwiat tlm " cuntom" of the ooiintr)', wlitult 
is in I'uvour of prompt liurial. 

A (vvt ymn njpy Mei)t«ne was merdy a small Itiilian 
town, liki* lliv ollu-r towiiM oit ll)» Illvivra, with but littla 
puvror to Hopply the wauto of funii^ntnn, and t-i>|MM!tully of 
the Kniflisli, who, wliererer they are, expect to be made 
oomfurtahlei Ik'in;; aucnstoiued In faro well at homv, 
many of our couiitrynifti Wfhcn abrxnd, i?*p«inlly the un-. 
Iruwlled, IhU into a »l»tv uf extmme (Inipiiiult-rKsy if vallvd 
upon to hear wilh coaree moat, own- bread, anil liad butler. 
Every winter, however, has improved the markvU, and now 
^)od brciul, meat, poultry, f>;>-s and I'uttur, aio to he hiul,] 
alllioMgh MoiDrliniox only nil h u little trouble and contri- 
vance. Kaeh winter the itiippliii!> huvn improved in quantity 
and quality, e^peeiaily eince thu railway has been opcnwL 
Many of the Urge hotels gel their meat, poulf ry, and i; aam 
rcfjtiUily from Lvone, two or thrte timcj « wwh. 

The MenU>uiuti am])hitl.i'atrt^ ilKL-h' pmiluoes tittle ' 
if auytiiingj beyond olive oil, lemons, ofanKea, and a few 
ri-getahles. The only good butter comes livim Mihui. 
Buttcf ix inutle in the mountjins, but piobaldy not witU 
the eare and twrupiilonn elvaiitini.-»:i that are )nd)&]>eiiaal>U) j 
to insure ita quality. Tbut ])riidiiei-d in the cslensive 
poBtunij^rs whieh f<iirroiin(I MiLn, ie well known nil over 
the north of Italy, and ix really very jjoud. Iteunirsiby 
Hlt-amer fruni Genoa to Nice twiee a week, and is supplietl 
to MeDtone from thenee. Poultry reaches from all part*, 
—from tlic mountain icgrions aionnd, from the ooanti 
totMiH, and even from Turin. Many fowl*, turkev*, dneka, 
■re liniii(*ht hy the diligiinee which travels d;iily beueea 
Tuiin and Niee, |ia-8in(f over the Col de Tendo. Gamv 
is to be had, hut is cxpen-^ive, with the exciqition uf harec, 
Mhich are Tiai(>onid>lc in price. 

t'ltih naa ncarov and dear before the railway was opened 
to iNice. Now it cornea Id (treat ahundamw, by rail, rroin 
the Atlantic to Nice, and reaches Menlone in a t^owi iftntu 
of prooeivatiun, once the eoul weather has Mt iti. Thus 
»ole«, lurlwt, oyaters, are then all tut doily obtainable. 



The mutton is rurnisliecl hy tita eurrouixling mmttitaiii 
ni^iaaSi rnitl w ivaWy gooA. I have iiucn ti>l<l \>y Scoti^li 

I gcntlecnm, guod Judges in Htich a oase, tJiat it is v<;iiiil in 
the bliKik-fiioed mutton of the Ilif»tihinds. The liunb ia 
killm) too young, but is still wry tuntlcr, iiikI good food for 
ioralidt. Th« veul iitiiiKo killed yonni;, and itt good. Tho 

riieeT is BOmetimea ({ood, at others indiirerent, aa it is likely 
to be in II country where thcra are no paetiirii};4.->i, iiiiil where 
it iiiuit ouiBC from a |^r<;nt dixtaimc, ]iriiici|>ully lVt>m the 
|>lainA of Piwlmont. An the poor Mttl« hnve to walk all 
th« way, alon^ the coast or over the mountains, they an>, 
of course, lean oa their arrival, however good the t>reed, 
and it would nob [lay to fatten them, lu formur days tlie 
ialittbiLanta of thuse rugtouit scein to have been 4iiit« satisKed 
with the Desk of old cuwa and oxen. 

The L'xpeuse of living at Meutonc has quite donbled oinL-e 
K have known it, that u, williin a period of filleen yeara, 
and is DOW quite uh liti>h as iit Nice and C-annes. This is, 
however, easily explained by the mora luxurious styk* of 
livinff, and I cannot say that the inhabitants of Munlune 
are to blame. 

lIouHO rentd have ri^cn very considerahty, owing to titi* 
demuud havin|f been very much greater thiin tho »u|'|dy, 
which miees prievi; all the wort'l over. Mniiy hi>ilKi?9> aru 
ni>w building, or in conteiiiiiliition, which will no doubt 
tvnJ to diminish rent», or ul teoHt to prevent further rat. 
MiiFL-over, the neighbouring town of Sua Itemo, also n good 
winter st«tivu, if be^innini; to bo alivu tj> tlif money value 
of foreign reiidento, and in ntaki»;r greut etforl^ to please 
and sfcure them, opening ht>t«U and building villas, which 
will create a Sidutary diversion. 

The uost of living has tJiuM inurc4>cd, hut then the 
niarkeU are inlinit«ly better HUpplied, wliiuh ut-counts fi»r 
thu change. An I have been told hv Mi-ntoniiin hotvl 
kevjwrs, the diuneni wc positively roijuire and eiuiul every 
day at Lite hold* and "|fen«io»!i" are to thum fejttive 
dinners, which ihey never dream of unle-u to wetcotne 
friuads lor a raarriitge or ii baptism. To provide this hi-rh 
oUuilard of lood t^ in. my hundred ntniii'^jirrs, Uio eo'iniry 
liiu U> bj lUJMekud for a himdred and liiiy luiltw around i 



(Iciioa, Turin, Milan, Nice, are all iiut under contribution. 
In otiier words, onr standard of livinj;. and Uiat of our 
Americwi ooueips, is very iniic-)) higher than that of con- 
tin«ntiil peojile in p;i)i?Tul, and i-K|>i'diiliy of Oiv inWIiitiints 
orooiiUu'rn Kurope. Wo ni« »<> ready, liki-wlsi*, as a nation, 
to go to uny fi-asib)« expense to obtain what we want, thai 
we iuevitably donblu lol^al piiccs wherever we Httln in anyj 
number, and tltitt all the world ovvr. 

As yuur by year Uic niimlN-r of winter visitors and resi- 
deiita increasee, llieir wants and rt^uiremenls become better 
supplied; thf invulid pupubtiun itbilf partly providing for 
tbi-m. Thus eviriy winlur bringn invalid profr««ont iiml 
nrti^ts, willing and able to muke tbenuielvei uNeful. There 
li also a l''i'tni-li communal college, tlie prorpscora of whicb 
ure oil woll i-ducnled, iDtcUigeut men, who fetch French,. 
Ilniiiin, and elasvieit. 

Fur Boiiie years there Itua keen a Book Club id connexion 
with Mudie'a, whii:ti works very well. New books are 
received in November iiud January, and at the end of the ' 
»-aeun the siirphi* I'lind*; iiru employed in the purehiue of | 
•ume of the more permunttntly vulimblo workK. There is , 
already a very fair eolleotion of modern books in hand, m ; 
the nucleus of a library. 

Thi»ru are Huvcrnl bankers at KIcntone, and English 
chc[[uc» ate reccivMl and eaiihr^ al tinve with a proper 
introduction. 'Ihe hotel -ketpei^, landlords, and princi)<a) 
IrudcHpcopIc also iicerpt cheques from welbknown tenants 
und cuKtomcnt witJiout uny dilTicidty, as they eauily get 
them uushed at the banks. Indci'd, at limt, thin implicit 
reliance ou English honour was carried too far. Cata- 
strophes connecte<l with the proximity of Monaco hara 
latterly made all parlieK more cnrcful m lo solvability. 

Mentone uflers great attraction to invalided arlixls, for 
they can both attend to their lieultb and study their art 
in tnidninter in the open nir. The Fcenerj' is ^(lorious, and 
the play ut the HunKhinc and of li)i,ht and »hudow on the , 
mountains, on the clu\ids, and on the sea, prodnevs vver- 
viirj'ing elTect«, whicli t'otrance the artist's eye. Sometimee 
their profetuonal KCrvicCf eun be enlixled, and landscape^ 
drawing, and jiaiuting cIusbcs are formed. 



A u-inter ]>uie^ at Mentone in u dmma, a lillle epitome 
of life. The [iluoe in »o small, so aepoiratcd by its iDoiiiitain 
barrwrs Trum tlic rc«t of tho world, and the numU-r of 
KCtdent Ktrangvnt i* to limited, that n kind of common tiu 
binds tJiein togetlier. This fueling may iint extend to the 
entire torei^^ oommiiDily, but it is very strong iimon>r tho 
mcmlwra of tliu eimui nutioti. It w tlie ssuiw ftuliii); of 
union, of n oommtm oii^in iind olijt-i't, Unit fxixtx among 
the inesengera of a stii|i on a loii^ m-ti vuvBt^e. It Joes not, 
of course, include |)as?in}> strnu^rc, tbe visitors from Nice, 
and iboeo who only remain a fi'W days or necks tn autumn 
and spring, on thoir u-ny to or from Italy; they atv looked 
upon aa itian^n. Tim Mentuuian family is composed of 
the winter reeideut?, of those who Iiave made up their 
minds to niwnd six month« in the happy, smiling;, Mcntonian 

In October the tjuestion u — who is coming? In No. 
verober neuriy all the winter residentv have arrived, and 
liavu located themselves. Friends Iind eachothtr; uuforc' 
Hccn pointt of eoiituct " at homv" arc brought out, and 
little erunpii are formed of intimdtcx, of tlxfw who have tlie 
same ideas and sym]iiitliies. A kind of general notion also 
Itepns to g«t abr->ii(I im In who is (he invalid in each family, 
and of the d-jfu^c of illiic**. 

Owing to my rccommendAtions having been followed by 
my medical brethren in Kngland, very few extreme hopeless 
casts of illn«M, in the very fiuit stage of disease, are now sent 
outt and there are few or no canualtics among the Englivh 
during the lir«t rouiith or two. But it ia very ditF<;nut 
with the French. 

By ntuvt of our countrymen and women the order to 
winter in the touih is considered a boon, an opportunity of 
indultfing the darling wish of seeing the world, and a real 
coRsoUtJon in illness. To the French, on the cuntrar)', it 
is the last drop of bittemces in the cup of sorrow. Tho 
French cling <ti>>ipcral«ly to home, to family tii-s, and to 
their own country, in illneM a* in health, and can with 
((Teat difficulty be persuaded to leave, however severe their 
malady. Perhaps, aUo, their medical men have not tho 
•Btne faith in eltangc of climate that wc have. Hener, 



ciicli winter, I wc French piitivnU arnve in the Inst iitikee' 
of plilliwij^— «u ill, indeed, tliat tlieir bearini; tlie jouniev is < 
& autiject of Burpriae. A very few wpcke alter thoir iirriviil , 
thv last sratrk of vitnl power •fivtw wuv, nni] tliuy rail, liko 
uuttimn IcHvcM liofore th« fii>l blmt of winter. Tlicy are 
ttathered to tlieir lutht'iv, nud the Hrst wnil of lament 
nriscB on the southern ^hore, wixtrL' they h;ivo arrivod oiiljr 
^> di«. 

Among Lhir peculiar xightA and ceremoniea that meet the 
eye of a Atrah^LT un hin lirst arrival in an Italian town 
and Mmitone really is Italian — none U inoi« striltin-* thaa ' 
Umi funeriiU of the dead. The rank' eummunity w nil hub , 
divided in tivu fraternitii*, tlial of the " WiuLtntfl Noirs,"' 
and that of the " FiJiiitcnt* U!««i»." The formci- dress io 
« black ?owi), the latter in a white one, TOiichitf^' to U10 [ 
feci, and with a (^inllv round the waist. Tli<-y uUo wear n.] 
eowl of the Mtnie colour drawn over ibe head and face, 
leaving only the eyca to appear. They follow the priesta 
and ehori^ters, the former in full canonit^uls, two by Iwo, to 
tb« number of fiiVy or a huiiiln.d, with u taper in their 
haDdN, chanting the jwulmi^ tW ihv dead. Kvury one tliey 
meet, jitnniU Htill and takes his Intt olf. The appenmave 
of the whole proeee^ion is very noird and iTr>p<j«ing, not to 
fiiy KhiMtly ; it i« a homage [wid hy the living; Vu the dfjid! 

Then comes the eloae of tiie year, (^hrintiuaa, with its 
home assoeiatirus, and the new and wondrnua 6i;H>t of 
Slimmer sunshine and Lemon blossoms, of Ur^c drui^n- 
tliei', and of otlur tnMvtti, pursuing e.aeh other in the hud, ' 
^Btead of th(> bleet and »now and nlooin wbieh ue romember,. j 

.<] of which wo rvjid, in the fatherland, •^omclimi-s, bow-^ 
ever, snow tips even our muuntains, and i-iniindx ii« of') 
home. But Uie contnul in then all the more Hrikiiigr' 
between the snow-crowued mountains which ffirt as, and 
the Slimmer Knnshine and summer vittetation hy whidi wo- 
arc Kiirriinmli.-d. Ijater, com^ the new year, wcleonied at 
Alentonu ui in Krance, and the fextivilivii of tlie Itomish 
Chiirt.'b. lysut, the Holy Weielt, the ('arnival, are all oele- 
bnited according to the traditions of the Middle Ages, in A', 
vi'ry pictu rest) tic manner, by the native population, iw iaij 
the large towns of Italy. 



A1)out the moQlh or Fvl>ruiiry tl)o Eui^lish oommiinilj* 
ill ila turn hv/nt t» xiitlur. Sdiik; ut' tli<: iiiviiHdK liiivv 
)ttni;;L; in vain for henltli anil lilW. Clmii;:« of ditimtv, 
mL'Jiiail ttealmmit, tlie devoted siHt-ction itiiil litndor care of 
frienils, liave in vsiu b»ltle>l with thv uiv^l of iK-ulb. HiM 
nppitMcluw itlthoii^lt kIow Iiavc IriMtn nun:, utiii lliin lifu hu 
tu W ttbunUuned lor a better. The« iIuuiIih oa^t a gloom 
mi all tU« cominunily. TIik dyparttsl hav« i-nJcared liiom- 
selvL-B la the eurvivurs ; they havti Uvt-il iimon^«( them, Ihcy 
Imvc »hiiivtl lhi;ir joys, tliuir mirrowN, lln-ir oxtlc fwling*. 
The lu9H in felt U> be a oonimon loss ; it igi Ihut iif thi; )ia»* 
Hi'iiger who has lived fur moolhs in the Mme ship, sut at 
the sani« tulile, wulkcil the kioic duek. 

At UiKt Almroh and April arrive, the glorioiu southern 
Rpriii-;, thv real Hprinir uf the old xuuthirrn poeLi, of Hoinur 
and Anaureon, ol Horace, Viryil, and Lucretius. Our own 
norttieni pouts, iiiicoitsciutisly iiniut n;; thi-ir Ora^rk and 
Kuiiiiui preduueHsura, describe spring; ats it in Been in Ureew 
iinil Italy, nnl iia it iiecnnt in unr boreal vlimuti). liciictt 
Uic feeling oi irritation vte all *fX]>erienue when every year 
with ve Bprin); amvos, and instwid of balmy zephyrs and 
auQshiniv with a prufiisioii uf Flora's ooiiijuutonn, it only 
brin*pt void, bitiit); MoTlh-<:aiit windii, oflen witii iiletft 
and nnuw and a I'rost-buund aotl. At Metitone, with the 
meeptiou of u few dayii of fonth wind and min in March, 
the iHielicul Kpriii;; hint urrivvd. Ti.e Olivo and Orail<^ 
turraoc" an; enamelled hy nature wjtli rcnl uanlvn Howcr*, 
and day afti^r day truopti of viniLoi^, pfiiiei|)ally Knglisfa, 
may be TCoa rcturnin<' from mountain excursiona, llower 

1 would, in paM^ing, earm-Htly reipivnt vl^iitoni not to 
pay the ditldren and ilie donkey-women lor seeking and 
brm^int; them fluwerx. Some uf our moni wtralthy rv*id«nt« 
do ao oouasioiially, without rull^-etint; tiiiit by lliiM acting 
they are giving a inarkcl value to wild lluwer.i. Tlie reHuit 
has been felt idreaily. Feaiunta, who fornii-rly dcliifhtod 
to allow cliildrcn and alrangere to ^alher th« violets and 
lUtwerH i>f III) value whatever to tXivinwelviw, begin to guard 
clieui Juiloiwly, and to drive otf all who altvmpt to piolc 
tbeni. Wore thia to beixKutt ge»enil, half the viiarui uf 



till' moiiDtain unlks would lie di-Mroypd. I woitlil 
urj:*! on nil not to [lull ti|t flowcrt Ity tin- root*, or to allour 
children and aerraiita to do mi; and not to wantonly 
di'Blro)- and deface flowering shrube, or to pull up rnro 
FeniH 1)1)1 wniitud fur prp*ervation, OtlievwiBn ttic moiin- 
tain valluya :ind tttrnton will unon lH-(,>ome, in nil iLi-ueKniblo 
rP);ioii», a wilderness, and f^row iiol)iii)g but the vegetables 
Mown in them. 

Olio of Uiu i^reat eharms of a residrnce in the nior« 
&)ielt«i'ed n^^ion of the Itivitrra i« thut wild llnwer^, aa we 
have seen, may W found throiiglioul llie winter. At the' 
samv timo, until Matili has arrived, they do not prow 
wild Kixrli iirotnsion as to take away from the pteHFiirc of 
t«un-hin^ and liiiding. It is tnn<{ular that Uiv love of 
flowers abotild churuoterini; thv two oxtreniest of life, early 
uhildhood and odvancintf years. Between tlie two thvro 
IK a Mtage of fvvei'i^h interest in the world and il« doin>rs, 
tJiat ^•ncrully tjkes the mind away from the oln<«rvatioa 
of nature and hi-r workH. TlH^ oliild fan-N not for kings or 
emniree, for ambition or i1^ toys, so it pours unl its lova 
and cnthiifaiasni on " wild" (towers. The old, who hav*: 
gone ihrou^li all (ht- pleasiiree and cxcili-meiit* the world 
can ^ive, oili-n ruttirn to the jova of their cliildliood, to 
rature's pru.luctionH, and cnltiviite with love "garden 
tlowen>," ir. the eompaiiy of whii-h they 6nd a partial solaM 
for all they huvc loKt or failed to i^ain. 

It has been said, truly, tliui a love of fluwer« and of tbvir 
cultivation is "the last inlirniity of sober minds." Fortu- 
nate it i» that Kiicli sliuiild be thu ca^c, llnit iix w<- udvanc* 
in life evfn jiluin mutter of (act pvuple nhould lind acHiie 
earthly joys that do not ]iall, for age la olteu "weary to 
bear." \\v hare to abandon, one by one, those who 
fo^tvu-d an<l cherished onr early atepe, who shared our 
hopes and fi'mix, who eympathiu'd will) iia in our auccess, 
Were pained liy our failure. It is the penally we musl pa 
for living, to lose those with whom lite has been wnip;^ 
up, to find ourselves abaudoned in our earthly pdgrimuf^ 
ill wid Mucit-ssion by th<M=e without whoec companions! 
life itself often becomes hard to It^ar. 

Aa we advance in life we ate like a regiment of soldi 


pea ~ 



stonniDg B well-ilerondKd fortress on a bill. Our cocDradeH 
fnll at our siiJ<-E, aiiJ «bovo the din of Intttlo sound* 
tbe voice ol' the uffiucr, calling, " PM in, Si'rre: let rang*." 
So Wtt do fall in, until it' lee yr^x, neur tliv wuminil, but 
very few ofthosu who wi-re Milh ua at tbo start remain nt 
our i:idL«. 

The Horruwin;^ rriun<1i< o! Ibi- d<-piirtt!d are gi>no. Th« 
■unrivora, impraved both in health and spiriu, are more 
keenly nlive thmt ever to the hnrmouii's and lKautii.'« of 
thv not, llw «lcy, the mminluinH, and the i-urth. Plum for 
the future, which earlii-r in thti winter ap)>eared too 
uncertain to be contemjilited, are once more taken inlo 
consider 4tipn, and the journey homcwiirde is thought of. 
Moreover, NicK then wnA* to Mentona troops of hwiltliy, 
pleasurc-^^eekini^ people, utroii;;, gay, and happy. They 
are merely anxious for novelty and mountain excursions, 
and di-Hirotu to iMunpc the Murch wiudii, mor« trying with 
Utoin than with us. 

Then ootnea the comparing of rouUw fi»r the return 
hume, of i^ans for the eumuit-r, and Tinully the Icave-takinj; 
and departure. Aloat are tony, at bst, to leave the little 
•uuny Mi-dileri-! nook when- they huve Hpent many 
happy )ii>ur<, and it in to be hopeil recovered health, or at 
IvoKt arreted the progress of oerious disease. In many 
oasea more friendahips have been fortned tlian would kave 
Leen formed in year* at home, atnl Uie new atnl valued 
friundN hare t4) be ahundoned us well as itmiling Mentone. 
In many iuatanvee, however, the separation, both from 
friends and Mentone, is only a temporary one; there is the 
l)opu of again meeting. 

To the phyaioiati, however, who proetises in auch a 
locality, among eueh a community, th^re is a bright side 
to de|url4iie. It closes an cw of pain, of sorrow, of suffer- 
iug witnwRied, alleviated it is l*> Iw liopinl by his efliirta, 
and certainly shared through fiympalhy. Away from 
C'liintry, family, and friends, the tie between the iinysi<;ijti 
and bis MtienCs beeomes very close, very sln>ng, muuli 
more so tliun at homo. Their soetnl a» well att their phy- 
sical suireriugs and trials thus find in him a sympathetie 
echo, and Ins part becomes doubly trying. Iriu actively 



ongnfr".'*! phy*imn is truly a cturmy pctwK Whew th#re^ 
in lii-iillh uiid lin|i|iitics3, inirtb and joy, he does not appL>»r ; 
he hns not the time, he is not nanted. Ilis minixtry begins 
wliun ill-heiillh uihI Borrow show tlieiiiM-lvii> As in Uii> old' 
lulih) hi' in nin'ii}')! roHing !<tom-.H U)t the hJII ; onm, hnueverj 
the st«ne has reoc-hed the sumtuit, it dues not neceeearil 
rotl dawn Bcain 1 IT he has to tlixt-ml, it is to fetch tt nv 
»toiie, not the rmmv ; kw thut, tttXcr all, he i« Ix-tltT olT tha 
)iui>r Sinytduis; 1 Am profoundly ci>n»cioiifi thiil one { 
mv |>riii(-'i]>al motives for penimhnlnlin^ the Mediterrntien' 
in April ihh\ May, lik« lTly»«.* of old, diirin;,' ihc luff 
lii^4-<-n yonm, hnit been to recover, by communion with 
nattite, Irom the depre«flion of feelinif produced by fix 
monthft' concent ration of thought on Mid t'urms of htiinnn 
Biitfcrinft. Tlic rwrnudy »iiccecd». Kvt-ry y(!ur I rvtiirn to 
my Engliiih home " n-joicitig," ready ii^iiin to encounter 
the luitllo of pro fees iun a I hfe. 

Such iH MenloDL-, physically and materially. I was to 
pleaved uith my 6r«t it-siilence there that 1 should hav«i 
at once decided on retuniine the foUowiiiu winter, had i 
not b«Mru for tho love of change, which imp>-i1e«l me to 
march tor ■ still better climate. Thin dentre for chango 
a leatnre in the invalid population met with in theeonth 
Europe, Change ofwcne in income respects hcnefioial in it 
o|K>ratioti, by giving ilie mind fresh objeitu of interest, b;^ 
takiii); llii< tnoiighte from eelf, and from the ntanv t'acrilicea 
whioh hcnilh exih* from humf, and thcirrompniiion?, have 
to niakf. The (liffervnoe between thr umiling Kunvhine of 
a Men tone- winter, a mere long Kngli*b autumn, and 
oar sis months' dismnl 8en*>on is very grf*'. and yefcl 
thuiv .iro few of the vhovrlul Mcntotiian exiles who wonl< 
not gladly return to our olou<l-»luwiirrd islani) nt a»: 
time, were it prudent and pt-ssibte. 

The wari'h after an unimpeachable climate, however, 
in «omv nvpcctr, like that for Ihc philowpherV nloiie, lor 
the elixir of life, or tor thu (]iiadrature of the eti-cl« — a 
fruitless ore. This will he exemplified bv my travels in tlie 
Mfditeimnetin and its inlands, as detailed in tho sultsequent 



"O linly. l">w l^tintifuMtfiu iirt! 
Yot I c<nild ww(>— I'or Ihoa ivrt ijiBg, aU*, 
Low in tbu du4t; .... 

—But why iU9i|iftirf Tiriot hut thoii lived alrwd^i 
I'wki.' iiboiii- iim<>n(f thi- luitioa* oTthn tcorld. 
At \\i« Dun nliiiii^H uni'jutj Ititf IctiteT ILflita 
Of h<aTi?i( ; tNP KiiaT.T jir.MX. 'the buur tiluill c««ii« 
Whan tlu-y wlio Ibink to bind tli« iHlirionl ipiiit 
Wlio. lil« Uw iiiBk oowcriiiK oVr hia ptoj. 
Wnlcli with ijtiii.'k '.■_vi.-. ii'i>l strike utiil rtnkv again 
If but u iiiicvr ribrutv. Hliali uonfvu 
Tbeir wtwlotn ron;." .... 

BiMi Kits' Holy. 

A1.T110C011 plMii>«<l with my fin>t winter at MontODf, I won 
unsiouii, the tiillowiti;; »ittiiinn (I80U), to lind a still hellet 
climultt, and, lik« omihi invnlids, 1 tlionplit I might as well 
MM) tliL- world, and thiiE combine pluueuri.' and protit. Like 
most invuiiiU, hI«», I wjivvii-d Ix-lwivn many {diuiiw. 

As lon){ aa jiulruutiiii y vonaumption was coiiMJdered a 
»l>fcios of inttanimutory disease of tti« lunifs, a w^rm anil 
rntlivr moiht wintrr climate wiu niiii;>di.T<-d n^lit lor 
consuinptivu atitreruni. Itui now tho motv unl it'll kiietl 
incmWrB of tlie n>e4liMl pnttetiBiun know thai tiibereulnr 
divi-iuw of the liin^rfi ie in reality a malady ot tJiu blood and 
of tlio dilative syntcm, a diauHM of lowoivd gcneml vitality, 
and that deatit can mily Ijo nv<Hded by the reaovatton of 
tb(t general keattli. What I had to look for, Ihifreforc, 
wan a dry, sunny, mild winter flimutfl, in or near Hurope, 
prexvnliii;: nilviiiita)^i-9inK gmit, if not greater, than recently 
ilitK-overi.'d Mfiitoui;. 

I thi-nfure dctfrmitied thii^ timi; to timi my iteiw townrdu 
Italy, and to criticnlly vxnmiuu the Ijiwtvrn Riviera, I'iaa, 



Rome, Naples, and the more southern const of Italy. 
Guided bv n previously acquircil pcreoniil knowk-di^ of tlie 
country, by tin; iuformntioii nbtiinn-d during tht" (trgceding 
winter, and by the n-jtorla of oilier obsi-rvere and writerfl, 
] felt eant>uin<.' as to Hndin;; in Italy an "Eldorado" COti 
Lining all the advantages of whith I wax in Ki'iirtth, 

In fornu^r dayn, in the daya of health and utrcnn^tli, 
Itidy fixm-Ued over me, as over all those whiise minds are 
imbued with the history of the post, nn indi'^criliabtc fnsiM- 
nation. Hovcral timw I cwuped from thi- biwy secnn of 

fr»re!tiiii>nAl lifi% and ru«1ied to vinit its cities and plains. 
Is chissii-ul, historical, and artistic souvenirs and attrac- 
tions tlirew over it a charm that never pullod. I then 
Eur|>oi^t-ly threw ii«idi- the phyKlciuii, in order to Kue nothing 
tit riiiii», liattle liebU, paintings, and statues. Sickness 
and human decay appeared a profanation, and I strove to 
forgtrt tlicm, so as to hriay: back none but pi (.-ueii ruble r«* 

NupU-K wan the nouthern city, lying on the lovely bay 
wliera rises fire-crowned Vesuvius, where the revealed citieo 
of llercidnneum nod Pompeii, Bniro, the Islands of Capri 
and Isc'hia rcciill n thxiisiind roeolk-elion;. Hiimo wait the 
fimiier imocn of the worKI, the cradle of Chriiiti unity, still 
studded with innumerable vestiges of its ancient ^andoiir. 
Florem-e was " La Bella Firenzc" of Dnnte, the homo of 
the Mcdiri, the ubiide of ooimtlt'iui urtiMic IrooKurcx. Pisa 
was the birthplace of Galileo, where the lamp thai first 
rvveided to him, when a youth, the laws of the pendulum is 
yet to l)c »ee» owjillating in the glorious viilhodrid. Whilrt 
Genoa was the proud coinmerciul eity of former dayx, «till 
(;randly overhanging the sea it once ruled, still full of 
monuments and puhu-es. 

This time the &cene had ehiingrd. I returned to Italy 
an invalid in search of health, and the arta »ank into 
insif^niGcancc, whilst hyttiene, climate, and health quea- 
lionn nded the diiy. With views thus altered, dif- 
ferent impressions were produced, and iiD|H>r'.ant medical 
facts became evident, which, as a touriat, I had not 

I entirred lloly by Mouut Cenis, and although it woa 



Obly tW 2OII1 Octolter, IIimb wn« a (jreaf deal of siiftw on 
the mmtntiiinx, «nil it Wiw very cold in the liiijlicr ipffions. 
~jiile«d, the weather was muoh too i^old for ohttit iiivuliil*, 

rho, if they otoas the Alps should do so earlier. 

Oeomi U not so much a tncdiuni Httilion tw a re«tin<^plaoe 
for truvcllrn uiii] iiiTnlitlH entering or leaving Italy. Its 
Btluiition IB admirable, st the ani;)e of the gulf formed by 
the outteni and western Rivii-nifi, protectm} by inountains, 
and expoitod tu llm Miith-wcxU.-rii aim. Heiioo it in vcr ' 
warm iii stuniiniT, but in winter the proUwtion atrurded by 
the Apennines is incomplete, owing to a "defect in its 
armour." Drhind Genoa the A|H-i)tiin»i present vnllcye, 
throuf^U wliicb llie milroad fnim Turin has tnrinu^cd to 
Gtid its way, and tlirougb which also the north-east wind 
reiu;hee the town when winter has fairly set in on the 
plains of Limiliiirdy. Still the protection is suHicient to 
make the climate perfectly different to that of lliese plains 
in autumn and spring. On the i2nd of October there was 
kboMTycoM fo<;'when 1 lefl Turin, which continued until 
W« raachctl the rofiantain [hubi!*, tumpleli-ly obxcurin^ the 
borjxon ; winter was everywhere, Ihu trees leafless, and] 
the soil denudwJ. The fof; had lefl us when we emGi^»od ' 
from the fint tunnel, and t)ie air had hoeoine olear, dry, 
md bniicin);. On escaping from the last tanncl, near 

^enoa, we had (foae back to midsummer; the sky was 
hie, the sun bn;;hl, the air warm, the windows and doors 

rere wido o|i<'n, and the outiloor life of Italy vrua in ftill 
operation. It was indeed difficult to believe that half an 
hour — the \taff^'ffe by a tunnel through a mountain— 
could be attended with auch a cluinge in the n^pi'Ct of 

Oenoa jtnemts two fftt^t di<iadvanla^e ; it i« a dcnwly 
bpopululei) Hty, and, like nil Italian tuwim, badly drained, 
■nd unhvpenicnlly built. In alt tar^e towns in Italy, 
Turin excepted, the streets are very narrow, generally only 
a few feel wide. The object was 110 iloubt twofold : lintly, 
to provide for the exigencies of fortiljesl ion, and aeoondly, 
to exehide the sun, the summer enemy. Tbe towns and 
villugeit now found in the Koiith are all htatorieal ; tbera 
arf no nties iiVe Ihe buay Uirivitis: tiauesshire marts, thv 




ptuiliicl of maniifitcti]Tx;r«' »ctivily in trmilcrn times. TIi« 
towns and viIIiii^l-h are ttnwe of t)i<; >[i<litl<; Agee, anil uh 
such circumsorilted within wnlU and foitiiiculioiis, .iiul 
perchi'd upon licifrlit« for prf-tfclioii. juBt ns tlicy wcru 
liundrvdH lit' vMirK ii|^. Such ii atylc of urfliitivliiri- 
proverbially unb«altliy, ettpeciullr in tlie soutli, amoiitt«t 
popiilntion tn whom the cIuaiilincM nnd the exnntions of 
modi-rn civilixiituin an a* yi't hut Utile Icnnwn. To vtuivn 
the nhtile, the principal \Kilv\it nt (>enoa nru on the pi)rt, 
thv rcocptacle ol' nhiit drains there are, and tidelos, aK'iir 
all pcirls in the M<;<liU-rriini.-iiii. 

Uwlnj; lo the ahove rauses, iilthr.ii^ti to tlit" travfllur ono 
of thi' moel piclureiiijiie and intercHtini; towns of the 
Mviliterruncan, tbv native city of CcihimhuH is not a 
healthy abod«. 11m invalid, therefore, had better nti 
prolong hi* Btny, unle&e he have the command of a earden 
euiTOundcd villu in thu siihiirl«. In tho holds it. io Ix'tli-r 
to cboDM! the higher dtorie!", as llic higher the ronnis 
ocoupif-d tlie |)uror lliv nir, and the Iiha liltcly is the 
occupant to sullt-r from atmoBpheiic impurity. 

I must remark, that throughout the Continent the 
travolk-r, ill or well, kIiuhM Icavu tho window mora or \e»a 
open at ni^ht, the air of the staircasei' and pHsssifeB being 
all but invariiibly very impure, even iti the W-9i hotclii. If 
lh« window is not upuned at night, tlio hedcharal>cr la 
supplied from Ihiii vitiated source, foul air is breathed, and 
typhus lever olton generated. 1 believe that the numerous 
truvellent who every year niournlully die all oviir thi> Con- 
tinent of " gastric fever," as it is amiably called, away 
from home and relations, are mostly poisoned in this way. 
If the window in even slightly oin-ned, pure air in admitted, 
insteud of the foul air of the paasages, and this dunju;er is 
avoided, or at least diminished. Pur>» air can do no Imrm, 
niifhl or day ; ni^-ht air is only iiijuriouis to th<x<e who 
KxpuMe thcmiielvi-* to it out of dtiun, without sulHeieut 
olotliinK, or in bad or delieate health. 

Descending the east*Tn Riviera, the fintt town or village 

of any importuneu i» Xervi, a station much uMtvomed hy 

y the phyHieians of the north of Italy for consumptive 



patk-iiU. Nurvi U better protected than Genoa by the 
ni»iinlairi», which «ppn»ob nenrer the coast, nn) Uem-^ 
•mall, |>rini-i(>ally cumpuMd of one luti:> ittivirt ahuwj; the 
titore, it is (tix from the hygitiniv ohjeuti'>i)a t» whuOi 
Gviioii in «\|Ki!ieiL NiTvi does not, however, ai>pcar to tr\<- 
to present any pecuhur re<:oiDinendatii>ii to Ktnin^-ni. Tli« 
v«KutAtion w thiit of the cdIuu Riviera couH, and doi^ 
not iit'licate an exceptional elimate. The position is not 

|>eculiurly pictiires<iiie, iind I believe the iiccoTnmOiIiition to 
10 found ifl fflMtntiully Tulimi, whieh docx ni^t in iiny 
rvNiiect HatiKfy the Kn^tixh. There U, however, a bonrdin^ 
mid l<id>pii^-hoiiM, nndsT the direction o1' au I'^i^li^h 
phytictun of Gi-iioti, piincipnlly supported by the Ki)^li<h. 
Tlie proximity of Nervi to Genoa and Turin appears to he 
ltd urincipul recoaimeodation. 

Cliiiivari, the iioxl town, in gitiiatcd along the soa-shore, 
in pretty much the tatne amdititinii a» Nervi, and prcMAntit 
no feature calculated to arri:iil attention. 

8«98tri, further on, ia an cxceediiiijly piciiiresquo town, 
on the mnr^in of a tfmall buy, und iit the loot ol'n bi;;h 
i>pur of the mountain chain, wluL-h TJina into the »0». Uitt 
11 faces Uie north-east, and is ecreened from the south by 
the e|)ur in question, so that it Iomuh all cliiim to be con- 
vidensj a winter Hanitury tiUtlion. 

Th« r»ad, wliich ((radually becomes very ln>ld and pio 
t>ircMiue, then cnMsea the mountiiin, and di-soeitds on 
^pezsiu. I had retniDed from funner truvi-l a very hi;rli 
ioeu of the beauty of La SriezzJa, and wa» ipiilt? j<ti-|iHrf<l 
tv make it my winter residence hud 1 found the ehinate 
Iwar Mcriitiiiy ; auult, liowovor, was not the case. Ti>e 
town ia utuaU'd at the foot nf u mii<piific<.-nt j^df seven 
miles in depth, bordered on eaeh aide by inountiiiiis of ciiif 
oidorable hiii<;ht. The mounlains also ext^'nd f:ir inbn<) 
liL-hind, but lliey are not unflitjiently hiyh l*> iht<'r<f'pl the 
oorlh-eaiit wiikIh. A.h a neoviisary result nf tUt!i ni->unl:iin- 
mirrouudiMl sitmitioii, at the ba><c uf a deu|), nari'uw ijulf, 
there it a grviit dc^d uf rain tHrout(hout the winter, niid Ihe 
wciiUtcr IB oltvii latlter cold, ta iihown by the vr;;etulii>u. 
MoriMver, tliere are marshes of oonsiderahle extent at thv 

I- i 



foot of thv hills which BiiiTouDd the (own, and in 
autumn mKliirU i« nlu. 

The uulf iUielf is verr lovely, and contains on both ita 
vhorw several pretty villa^, much more tiheltcred and 
picturMquQ than the tutvn. Thtis Lerici, about Rve miles 
irona S{>exzui, on thi; «oiitli«frn nhoie, Uom cosilv in a HEnnll 
luiy, at the foot of a blofiiuj; bill nix hundred fv^t h'mh. At 
the Hunt livrn extremity ol' the buy, on a hi^h promontory, 
uri! tilt* WL-tl-pmcrvL-d n-miiiiiM "!' » utron^ lorlrw*, the 
Cattle ol" Leiici, oelebraled in moditeval hiHtory. It ba- 
loii)^-d to tlio family of T&iicn-di the crusader, and Frands 
the Fir«l ol' France wu* eunlinud thenf:, after \mng madflfj 
prisoner at the battle of favia. There is xtiil a lineal 
dt-M'cndunt of tho f^rmt Tnnerrdi living in the village, but 
lie is mfrdy a small peitMtut proprietor, no bin'^-r the 
owuur of even tliu ruins of the proud cavtlc built by bis 
ancestors ! 

On the other 8id« of tlie promontory which forms thai 
north cide of the buy ic it factory for smeltin;; lead, princi 
puUy suppli<>d from tb« li-ud nuinot of Sanlinia. It wafl 
formerly mann^:ed by au ituliaii compuiiy, and proved a 
Inciiig concern. It ihen paired into the hands of an 
I-'iiglUh gfiitk-man, a friiniil ol minv, and under his ener- 
^vtie direction it huH become a moat valuable property, 
[lassed several days with him and bis family at his hoa- 
piliiblu villa on the brnw nf the ticrici bill, overloulciug tlis 
pri tty buy, the gulf, the inliiuda at its entrance, and tb 
opposite coast. Under the f>uidaucc of his nmiiiblf'j 
dan ■•hi ITS, who brought up partly in Italy piirtly i 
Kii^liiud unilc the most pleasing characteristics of botli< 
nations, 1 boated, ronmi^d about on the olive Icrrncce and in 
the Ivy and Lycopt'diuni clolbiMl tunes, hiy dii'cuun'ing, 
mnsingon the Leucii, or pic-iiicnl among the ruins of the 
custle, until I thoruuglily understood the love of Shelhipr 
lor this smiling spot. The bouse that Shelley occupied is 
on the shore cIokv to the sen, near the village. . It i 
wpiare old-fashioned Italian villa, which, with it« surround' 
ings, must have thomuKhly suited Shelley's poetical mcdi 
taUvv temperament.. The local triKlition is that bis deal' 





was not lb« result of ao aooident, bat tbat liie yncht wa* 
purpoMly run down by some pirnlical tiKb«ria«D tor the 
lake <>r whiiC, booty thuv ooiild ^tt. 

During tliesic lew tiars 1 tliiis bad an opportiintty of 
narrowly niirvfyinff tin.- vegetation of the locuUly, one of 
till! most I'lidU'fxid f]n)t« of the i-jwitorn Riviera. I IbiinJ 
it tbe MRie as that of the watleru Kiviern, but iviih 
diiCemioes tliat indicated a lower temperature Jo winter — 
mora frost. There wen no Lemon«, the Oruiis^-tn-'.'si wuru 
Ainal!, iind only in the mcxtt i>li<'l1ereil (-ornt-rs ; and Hi;lio- 
trupea, fantiy Febr^onium^, Uelioite CacUcew, were nut 
living and fiouritihine out of doors. Still it i» a very lovdy 
apot, and I letV it u-itli iVE>rot. No doubt the vomfurt nnd 
eharm of Uio AD|;lo-Ilultan m-nt into which my good 
fortune had led me conlribut«d to this leulinf^. 

Between Spezsia and ti^a there is only one spot worth 
mentioning, iind that i« ^lastiii CitrrariL The town in 
email and ctcan, open to the «oiitU-wi»t and prot«ctcd Iruin 
the uurlh-t-uKt liy thu lii^h inoiiiitjiiMs in wbiuli the m^irbte 
is worked. The Oran^c^-trueii appear^] liir};er and licilthicr 
than on any part ol this coast. It must \k an exfcpli'miilly 
gWKl wititvr station for tho eitnturn Riviora, and there i> ii 
uood, clean, Mtmlortahlo huti;!. Uiit it h a dull bttlu ptaee, 
haviuit: no vi«w of the aua, although near it. Neither here 
nur anywhere elati along this coast did I see the Inxiirinnt 
iieinoii' (^ves of Mcntone. Indeed, the proliK.-tii>i) alTunlMl 
by the inouotainjt whii:h form the biicltr^oiind of ih>- Men- 
tone reifioD ia intiuitely Huperior tu anything met with 
along the eastern Uivicra between Genoa and I'isa. The 
vegeLition if, conacqiiently, mors sonthem, and indicates u 
much higher dc^nre of winter tonipemture, at and n^ar 

This time I examined Pisa attentively undi^r tbe climate 
and liy^unie ]H>int of view only, and k^l'l it with a inowt 
unravourablo impn-Hsion, thoroii;^lily (.'uiilircned by snbse* 
ijuenl visit* and expi^rienoe. Fisa is aitoatud in an open 
plain, some miles Irotn the mountains which pi'olccl ii. 
This plain duos not show the alijfhtest ev-iilenuu of lumthvrn 
vc^tmoo : it due« not even contain the Olive-trew so 



common ilonu llid ciui8tfln<l on Uie ailjoinioj; liills. N<i 
Ibiiig JK itfCH Imt tlw! «lry in(>p-lirn<l<.-<l ik-viiliioutt .Mulberrji 
with ViiK-K, liki! uld tnpvn, (miliii;; I'rom Litem. Tta- tonii 
k surrounded l>y a very high wall, wliicli must im[ 
veoUlUlon ; tU<r tttrects are niirrow, etmlms, damp, unil c-old. 

The iBrfiimctl Anio, which pitf»v)> through Dip city, 
formiti}!; ni) nrc, i* n mere ditch or itii<at, hke the moat of 
nn <i)d ibrtincM) town in the north of Ftaoce, with Htoneit 
ineteiid of tfT&m, and a elii>ft>i>th «lirty t-tnram muindenn); Bt 
the bottom ; it is in reiilily n men." Kpi'cit-K of o(n-n mnin- 
drain. Tli« ([uurtcr of llie invalids is a quay oil the limd 
of Ihis niout river, ahout a mile lonp, and bordered by 
f;l<iiiiiiy third-rnt« hoi>Hr«. Ht^rc thi-y lire ooiidemned 
lo ivultc up and down, looking ut the Mount and dirty 
water l>eh>w them, occa«ional1y stvollen itilo a yellow tor- 
rent l>y the raihH. The sanli'sa streets are ») chilly that 
eh>^ {Mtie»t>! arc seldom allowed lo go into them ; the 
eounlry aruund in a mere dull, denuded pluin, whiih even » 
soiilliern s-un auinaot enliven. Morwiver, it in olVn very 
colli nl Pi«u, mort- so than at Itome, there are often foga 
on llie Aroo, and it rains consUtiitly iu winter. 

To crovru all, Pisa is an tmhealthy tow ii to itK inliahitants. 
like Genoa, tlorvnee, Home, I4n))leii and all llii-se ill-built, 
ilUilraiued, dirty, wall-cminped auulhern ciliew. The averagDj 
duruiiuii of life is twenty-nine years at I'i^ji and Kl.'rem«,r 
and tw'enty-cit;ht only at R<inu-aiid Xu])K«; whilst iit I'atit 
it iM thirty- nine, nnd in I.niidun fortv-roiir. Fur eorrol 
riilive evident* on these poinis 1 would reler to ihe eha)>tcr 
devoted to I'isa in I>r. Cjirikre's hiyhly eetcemed work, 
eulilled " Lo Climut do I'lUilie." 

All experienced phyNieiiinB utlucli extreme importanec 
llie influenee of the inind over the body. A cheerful, happyl 
Imme of mind favours the digestive proe^-siea, tends to 
]>iomuU^ sleep, and thus connlervels tlie inlliienoe of disease. 
The dreary, elieerlees monotony of »loiii-« and mortar at 
PiHa, with iu ditch river, mnm exeioiee a moiit nnfavourabit; 
iiilluence on invalids exposed to it lor month aUer month. J 
OiK-o the magnilioeul rathednil, the liir-fanied leaningj 
lower, nnd the Cmnpo Suuio, or cenieterj-. have 
rxplured, there b literally nutliiug for the imalid to doa] 


21 A 

Tlieri; », it is tnt«, tbe niiiversitv, where many Irarned nnij 
cy)i-)>nitMl prul'i-i^ors hold forth, but ite soientitic collectioii 
atid iU U-'CUirvn are only inU'rciiliii:; to utiidonts, or to moil 
or ocieiitific and literary tu>t<-a. Kvi:n m thttrn 1 qui'sttioii 
whfther the iiiiiviTsity would not be a snure inateiid of a' 
boon. Indoor work of any kind, mviilAl or bodily, and 
oloso ilI-vi-iitil;iU'i! Icctiirv- momf , tliry should avtiid. 
Lounging ))utanic;d or (HL-ologici) rambles, or tiucli rcadiiiK 
as can t^ carried on silting; out id tJie open air, sliould 
ulone he ullowud. 

Wlii'ii thi' prevent png^R wi^re firxt written (ISilO) a rail- 
road aloHft the eastern Umera was uot even thought oC 
Now (1S74) it is iiu ncoampliehed fact, from Oenoa t<> I'iea, 
witli the ox>:<-|>tioi) of the mtfiinlaiiuMu rvg'on beturecn Sentri 
and Spc7Jiii>, ivhirre there u « brcftk, soon to be Gllvd. 'I'hooe 
who are tr*velliii)y for pleasure should, however, reject Um 
nlliiK'im-nts of the rapid railway journey, take a comlurt' 
able velturino ciirriiigi!, and uli-i-p one or two ni^liU on the 
way, r»y at Swtri otid MaKsii Ciirrara. The nea-ciuit, 
mouiitiiinK, and rogids aru very lovely ; indeed, the itceiiery 
b%' r<uid is only a deyrree inlerior to that of the western 
Kiviera. On thu nulrood the i-x<]uiHtte bi-iiuty of nutiire i# 
all htit entir>.-ly Inst; forttic line in oonstAntly either piaaning 
tlinxigh a tunnel or ovlt high viaducts. Homo of these 
viaduotfl will hear comparison with the high level bridge at 
Newcwtle-on-Tyne, and urc nut nitieli more tii«c;i[iHliiig. 
No one who liao mc^rt-ly travillid iilong thin coaitt hy rjtil 
Clin have the I'utnlest idea oi' it^ rtal beauty. At SeHlri I 
liud to takf u I'uniiiije to cross a spar of the mountain, 
whiuh hfTL- runs down tn the sira, and the chitngu wa» an 
iiiexprenxibli; reliiif. Once more 1 experienced lor u few 
bonra all the delight of old days' travelling, an we ascended 
picturesque hills, winding along their sides, and rapidly du- 
ccL-niird by zigug ro:id« into precipitonx ravines. I waM iiorry 
nheii we rcache<] Spi-xxiii, ulicrt! 1 lie rail had to be n-sumed. 
From S|>rKxia the roud to I*iBa leaves the coast, and crosses the 
pLtiiu oriu-cany ; it ih not, thcrerorG,of soinuch importance 
what etyle of travellio^ w ailupted. 

Florcnov i« not n ninter residence lor invalids; it is a 
HMnintain town, and much too oold. From Fuca you pats 



through thirty miles of vaIIpvb »ad motinliiiDs U> ix-nch ^ 
und (itivu thuro, yo» Arc siirroundi^il bj' in<iuiitjiiiis on uvory 
»i(le, miiny of wliidi I liuvi- htvii covered ititli enow early 
in NovoedIim. 'I'he north vt'tnd, or traTttontana, is nleo vny 
tiyiii}; to iovaliOs uheu it Howe, which u often lliu cuM. 
Ill 187:!-^ tkBtiug wna continued for u fortnight «u the 
froZ'tM Ariio. 

Home is a winter residence for healthy totiriste, not Ta 
invatidHj oialnriii ret;;n6 lher«, more or Iceir, nil the year,' 
Kvcry winter it niiiktui victimn, even uinoiig the healthy,_ 
and the m«dieul praL'titinnen nlio lmv« been settled tl 
lor yeura mv that nuUaria lever cumpliait^B, more or 1« 
nearly every form of disease, slijjht or severe, thnt occttr 
even durin;^ the winUir mouths. Whfii the north wiud- 
tLe era moil tana— blown, hIiil-U is not ontre(|uently the 
for HeviTfll diiys togither, it is very cold. Moreover, invalids ' 
should KiTii[iulou»)y avoid churuhrs, gallorisw, vaullx. e-4tii- 
oombft, t'l-iilivitiitt, iiud [lartieN — and what i.s llouie without 
tbeee, the lile of tiie Ktcmal City ? — merely a tem[ilution 
and a enare. I may add that all that lias been eaid about 
the defective druio3<^<, and t;i-ncrul inthitalthineHi of Uenoa 
and i'ina «(]ual!y applies to Floi^-iice iiiul Itomc. 

Thus 1 had to continue my ]iili!iimu;-e, and Htni-t>»l froi 
Civita Vecchia for Naples. 1 did not intend to remaiv^ 
thei-e, but to go on to Salonio, the celebraled medical M;hool 
of former days, wliioh in near und adniirably cilimted, I 
u\*o wi*licd to cBrelully exuniitie the l>ay of (iaeln, of tlit 
smiling and all htii tropieul luxuriance of which 1 had* 
ralaiiHid a very pleasing reuullevlion. These plans, however, 
were not to bo carried out. I onee mor« saw the buy o( 
Gaeta, it in inie, but nndor ciroumstances which made unj 
explorution an iiDpott'>ihitiiy. 

3lany yean previously, uflvr makinj; a plcucnre toor in 
Italy, and vii^itini; Naples for the lirat time, witli uncloudod 
delight, I started for Ijegbom in SQ old steam.r called tha, 
Firffiiii', It was a bc«ntifnl ituttimnal alWrnuoii, nrid ll»aj 
nta|;niti(«nt bay of Naples wiw perfectly culm, like a mirror. ^ 
A» We stvamcd yenily pust old Vesnvitis, the cla'vical coost^ 
of Raia?, and the beautitnl Inland of leehin, tve all n-mained 
oiidovk, eiitranwd «iLh the ^Wiuus scene. Ua passiiij; out 



' thL> hay the bdl ran(^ tor dinner ; iin one drttimt oF bcin^ 
ill, ami we all tuit tlowii, s iiivrry Kti;'li»U piiHy, for Deuriy 
all were Ht);(lUh tourists reluriiiiiic U> rutlierlanO . 

Bnl ulas I unconscioiifl victims to Nepliino, ire knew not 
tliHt thf Scplenilwr wjuitiogtiul t^aki; worv- duv, lli^kt the 
iMircitnot«r had Jallcn liall' a» inch tliiit iil1l<;rnix>n, thai the 
cnptain and twauieu were anxioua, and that we were dostinedj 
lo dire torments. When wo reached the deek ftgiiin the 
aevne vnu* Already chnn^iii^. Tliv>'va and wind were ri»in);^, 
and before ni^htrull we were in one ol' the woi-st Htonni 
that hitd been ktioiva for years. Our xt^amer was old and 
flow, not Mv to netioniplish mori* thjin six knot* iin hour 
in fuir ive&thur. With the kvind all but diiad a^uiniit us 
and a raging sett, her |>erfannaneeii wore anythin-,; bat| 
MtiaDictory. In twenty-fotir houre we only inailo about a 
hundred inilo, and the vtoim continutn<; witJ) unabated 
fury, and our fut^I bein^ all but exhuiMted, wo had to turn 
about, to retr^Ke our steps, driving belore the wind, and to 
nuke for the jwrt of Oaeta us a ret'u;te. 

Qaet« wi* eventually nuivhud, to our inexpramble xntis- 
foction, abiut xeven •■'olnok in the evening <if' the ibilowiri;; 
day, and fondly hupcd that wu were at the end of our 
trmibltM. But in this we were very much mi^tuken. Thu 
port is a niihUiry port, aud uvoordin<r to the rule* uf tho*it 
dayH, at P u. all uoininunication with the ahipping ce^ued. 
So ntriclly was thiti rule entureed, that ulthoutfb thiix (InVHO. , 
in by stress of weikther, with womun and inv^ilid^ on board-' 
very ill, >vo wert- not nltuwed to land Provisions and c<»Is 
wetw oven denied uii until the opuninp of the port the nest 
morning, and until ordem from the U»vk:rninent at Nuple^, 
twenty miles distant, had been received. We were thus 
obli)riKl to apend the night riding with one anchor in it 
periUus, expotteii amrltora-jv, willi fire* out for want of fuel, 
and in i^reat danger of bein;; blown out to sea and ditslu-d 
ugainst the rocks. As to provisions, if received, but few 
could have done honour to them. 

liy ten o'eloek nest morning order* iiad been rweived 
frotu head-quarters to allow tlie " very dau^ferous crew"' of 
the Vifgiiio to Land, so boats were sent to tJte «hip, and a 
tile of »otdivr« were dniM'ii up on the buaeh. We were then 



lutnU'il between two ixiws of the eoKlierp, and nmrchwl 
<>u font, lilfi- HI niiiiiy (''»>vielK. to tin' tnwn liiill tt> lini 
wir passjiorls oveihiuiKd. Tin- Mnrin uiis uver, the anil: 
t'hiuing glorious!^', and by this time, nl^or a fi'ily-lourj 
hoiivK' fiisl, w« hud liceomc ravcnoiiP, iinJ implort-J out 
inililnry visecirt Tinit to luku uk to n caff, fur lircukfiint.^ 
Our entreaties «n<l olJiir^Hliims were, hiwever, all in vain. 
We were, 1 pixsiinie, considered dnneeroiiB people, vila, 
liberals, revobilionistc, not to be nlluwed lo eonn' in enntiiet'l 
nitti the ]oy»\ inhabilnntit of Uaete. We were tberefoK 
dra^rged ruthleesly before the "authoritieft," tbence lakcl 
in tlie tmnie niihtary, or conviet, §t)'le to the t;»tes of thi 
loun, bundled into c-Jirrtuges, and, witli n >H>Ulier oa eaely 
box, driven to Mola di Oaela, « villtt^e at the luillnm 
th« bay. Hefe we arriv<ed at midday, and, free at laet froii 
our exrort. vrt-rv alloned to repair the wants of nature. Tbi*! 
repuvt wna, I think, even more mirtbfid nod pUsi^nnt tbun 
tbe one we liad |inrliiken nT tmmis foi'ty-ei^bt hwtn before 
in Ibe bay of Naples. We were all sitk tif tbe sea, and 
separated to Riid our way bomeivarde as bert ne could. 

I and two of my companions determined, iw n eompcnua 
tion for paat hardahipii and diingcn, to make a comfurtabli 
and leisurely nrogTCw. We gut a carria^je from Xaple 
and potted all tbronch Itjily, merely travellint; botweeol 
l>ruik1'i».t and a lute liinner. 'line moKl enjoyabk joumc 
Irtmi (iaeta to ChamlK'iy haf rcnniini'd in niy memory, 
markeil with a white &lone. llie weather wac lovely, the 
cuuntiy gloriuux, tny eumpaniune cbeeifnl, witty, and 
pleiirant, and every row nnd then (be Ki|;lit of oitr lat«^^ 
fnmiy the t.<-a added a very deli<;btrul »enfe of iti«iirity toflf 
cur enjoyment of tbe seene. I may udd, Ihal. frum ihat " 
niument I l>ecani« a moet irreconcilable enemy to Kinf;^ 
Bumii:! of Niijiltj:, of tthnse hucpitiiliiy lo Khipwn-eked I 
tinvulleis 1 hud had Hiieb a ohai'mln^' illiii>tTiitii>n. | 

Since this memotshle exjiediltou I Imve olten made 
CODBling voyages in the MtditerrAne.iii, but 1 bavu n«v«tj 
again bceii eanght in an actual isli-rni, l-'ir*tly, 1 avoid 
]>i<)xiniily of thv ei|uiuoetial galea; and xtiondly, I carry 
a» aneixiid bummeter with me, and couxiilt it lor two or 
tliree daye belurH 1 emburk, with the aMistnuw of Aduiirol 

arrv n 





Sniytli's »n<! Ailininil Filzroj-'* irislriR-ttonM. Tf the stnto 
of tbititi^ ill at iill suK[)triuti!i — that is, il* llii* barometer is 
fiillin^ ifradually — however line, L Tomain on sliore. T liiivc^ 
t)iu8 Fvveral times avoidod euvcrc iit»rnit! wlii>jh 1 iihgiilil 
otiierwwe hare eiiuQuntored, 

On the (iivaeDt ooeuaion we had left Civita Veccliia 
ovcnii^ht, on one of the French Bt«a[nera, for Nit[)lti>. At 
fl»« o'cloi'lt in tlic morninji we were uwiikvnci] in nur hertiis 
l>y the stL'wnr<l, wlin toti] u» iliiit tlio »t<-aiii(!r hud run into 
G^teta with deBjiatohes for the Krciioh tleet, and that it wan 
Worth while going on <leek. Wo all dressed ra|iiilty, and 
when wo n;«ch«d the drek a 8t<fht met our vyen wlii<.-h can 
iievi>r he Tor^ttep. We wcrv in the well-rcmemberifd hay, 
the haven of former dayit, and I eouUl have fancied that I 
tra^i etill in the Virf/il-io, at anchor, before the small |>ro- 
montflry-crow nwt town. The nii^ht was olear and i*larli:;ht, 
and »a illuminated by a moon nearly lull, that every fealuro 
ot the mouiitainons coast eame out eirarly, as it had done 
during the di«ary Dii:bt*watob in limes yone by. lint tli« 
siX'ne was very difTi-rent, for one of the ni-uat events nf 
modcra Italiun hislorj* was being ennded before ue. My 
former iubos]>itabIe host, l-Vrdinatid the First, «f iti^lorionn 
memory, ivas dead, after suflL-rin); in his latter days, ibrimgh 
dire diM-aee, some of the «b%"'''^ ^^ '""' 'n'l'i-ted ot! hu many 
innocvnt jxilitieal victinm. Hi>:»on and suices-^or, Ferdimiud 
the Seroiid, »* a retribution for \m fatlierV misdcciN, was 
t<>»|X!d lip with the last remnant of his army in ihi' lorlivsa 
of (iaeta, then before me. 

Gnclii crowns a took scvcnd hundred fwt bijrh, which 
lerminatim a uromonlory, the northern limit of the bay 
and port of tiiat name. The walls, tbo forts, the housM 
and the ehurcKrfl, built of while otone, whone in the ealni 
nn>oiiht;ht. There wvre in-anvly any lights to be seen, 
niid th« town a|'[H-are<l i-alm and aslii'p, as il were. Uut 
we knew tlut few of its inhabitanta were aHleen lliat ni^hl, 
li-r Rrvat events were lukin); litnoe. Thousands were lyinjf 
stek with lever and dysentery Within Its walls, and it also 
ci>iit;iined a kiii^ at bay, surrounded by a tcrror^Htrickeii 
I'onrt — a kinj^ uhuse crown was csi'apint; from his feeble 



AtihtfoU of Owta, M tbe 
IW ton with llN iwiwhaJ 
Tlay tMlMsUd iIm to wp — a t at momm tHanmair ofroyil 
traofi^ fbr wImmr Umk wm db rao« in tb* tovn, aad vkoM 
p yi MM KTTad to protect tU 71km a mUe of ilirfciw, 
•■d beyond, Dcarer tli« carr« of tha bttjr, fjlarad in the irnik 
m toon tttmitd oolkction of LiTOoac fin*, oorrnn^ ibt 
Ao n mk) faiOiNiU: t/j ■ ooanitaMa eKlent, uii iodieatiag 
tlw p f i M M of a mach l«r|^ faodr «f tmopc Tbse eoa- 
rtitatad th* SanliRwn jumf bniegiog Oaeta. 

Ill tim Wj, > frvt LiiDdred j'sru* FrDdi us, Ujr s Dumbtr 
of French ram-of-wnr, tiriliuntly ilium imtcd. All tbetr 
pnrtboloi wm open, and fiom each portbolc pit>oc«led m 
bbu of liifliti ibe gaiu were ihotttf). and the gnnnen 
wrv l*F)ii<le Dioin ready to fire. A mile or m> beyond the 
Fri'iifli fivi'l, lliua [irejiared for Wttle, we ooulO peroeiv« 
nrxillKT 'lark niawi, I'ornwd of litri^c ships, with but teWf 
]itj-lit<: tliiK woa the Sanlitiian tici-t. We were ga»ti_ 
will) ii»l(iiiii|im<!i)t iind itit<;rvst al thiH dramatie foene,] 
whoi) a Ixiit, mniined by Nix aturdy raameD, lefi the Preocli - 
udiiiinil'* Nttip, and n^idly approiiched tie. Several yttr- 
■oni raine uii lionrd our tiU-umer, and we •ooii learnt tbt 
miMillDtr of what wiw |iiiiMii)g. 

TliL* previirtui duy tlie SaTdinian army had left Molii di 
Onsta, uiid iiiiulo a vi^rurixis altatk on tht? Neapolitan 
iiriiiy in front of ()iii.-lu. The Siirdinian Awl hml entered 
thtt Iniy, lulvaticixl alatig Ibo oonut, und «it]iporled the land 
Irooim vory ilIluiiMitly by itit fire. The army of Kin^i 
I'uniiimtid, anil the fortroBB of Oaeta itself, wei'e pluc-cil in' 
uttint jcopanly by the combined uttack of the Sardiniaa 
land und iinval IbrcscH, whon the Krvnch admirul intimated 
ti> l\m SiirdinUu admirul lliu order to stup, threatening to 
(iro Btiil NJnk bii vmiiela if ho advanced. It was to support 
thi* Ihri'iit that the prepamlionc we tuiw were made; tho 
IfunneiH liail litN-ti at tlii<ir ^una uU nit^ht, n-jidy to lire had 
thu iSiinUnian tieut tulvtmcvd. Thia extrsordinary and 
iinciiUv<I-f(ir Ntup on the part of the French coiieed tho 
prnnt^'Kl aiiMniilimenl thronghoiit Europe ; it ar routed Dm 
« of th<- Karilinviins, and wits thu muiina ofdelayiny.j 
>f Kvnlinund ILfommntl munlhs. We carrii-d Ihl 



n«n>)i to Napien, wh«rc it n]>pcnreil to «xcit« an nil but 
univemal li'clinj; of uUnii atiU iiidij^iuliflii. 

Naiili.-* trxhibits thu en men trillion of all tlic uiihyi>iviiic 
coiiilitions prvviouiily ailudud to. Mure than tillU.OOU 
&i>uttierner§ ar« livitiu in an extreaidy coiiltiii-il s|)nv<.', in 
hi)*h hoiiMfi, ill damp sunless streets, nnd tltc ilniin* ii)l 
mil into U)i; lidvlomm-u. In the Riiwt fnahionablo part of 
the tou'D, ill IVont of tlie kousea an<l liotcl^i ocuugritHl by the 
nobility notl by stnin^ftfrB, is a narrow public gurdoit, tlio 
fuAhioiuiUv prDmi'tiiuli.-, "the Villa IWle," rtinninj^ for a 
mile al(>ii>c tin; aliurL'. On this vliore ci<;lit publiv dMiiis 
empty tUcmsclvi.'« into the ecn; the lar;>i'si of these drain* 
IS oppimite 0114! of tli4! vhief hotvlx, and is nfteu so ofiiinaive 
that Uwae who are alive to tlvwe quntiuiM reel inclined to 
take B ran in passinf^. 

On tlie Inml Hide of the Villa Itolc is thu main drivu, or 
fltreet, " the Chi^a," and on each Htdu of ihu pavcnu-nt, as 
in most other strrets. there are lar^e slits in the ruiid every 
few feet, a foot long and about nn inch bmid, U> allow the 
nin-nrat«r to OMajte into the dniinn, which thus fmily 
dommnnicatc with the cxti^riur. It is between thene tkor* 
drains on the one side, nnd the drain-ventilated street oa 
the other, that faahiouuble Naples daily prom<!ntidc*, and it 
is by tlie side of this ehoioe n-fpon that nearly all our 
countrynten live, and not unfreijui.-ntly die. 

The pieltinuquuneitgi of Nuplen life, chucly aiudywd, is in 
a very jfrenl measure tliu*. of tilth and rjiffs. 1'he pic- 
tiiri-i^(|ii>; listiermen pase their lives fishint; at the mouth of 
thtsu Hi'wera. The jtietuiwpie lower orders eat, drink, nnd 
sleep, an it were, in public, windows and diKim opr.n, if 
they have any. Many are clothed in raj^s, which ihey 
appear seldom to take off until they fall from them, and 
they are infested with vermin, wldeh tliey scratch olfeach 
other Ht tlie stroet'CornerE^ The town, moreover, is sur- 
rounded by |>estil>rntial manhcH, and is built on a tufa rock, 
or kind of punuce-stone, so porous that it lets the rain 
iMink in tw<.^nty feot, to (pve it out in dry weittlier by 
le^reci. ThuH, in ivinter, moss gfuws wherever the sun 
does not reach. 

A fciv d.iys ufVer my arrival in NovcmlMlT, tlic autatnn 




rainit ooinnienc«d n-itli ■ wnrm opjirCEsivc eciroocA, nr sionth- 
UHBt wiud. Ttie torrents orniiii tliiil M\ iu the firet twelve 
lioiii^ U'nxhvi] the Mroets and draiiin of their accumiilatml 
aliciniiiialiiiiiK iiiU> tliv fm. Tho ufivvS nnd the mirt, «i) 
tlie otlii-'r liuml, drovi! tliem buck ii^ain and agitm on the 
shore-, whilst the wind, rushing up the drains, NCiipud 
tlirough the ruin n{iciitn<*« in tlie «trcct«, und through lh« 
open cluaets iu the liouitca, Thn nmell thront^hotit the 
tintir* lower purt of the city vaa awful, imd a conMOvraUk 
portion of the p()|>it]iition wufi nl onuc utroctcxl witli 
nhdominni pninit, iliHrrliiui, and oven dyiientery. I whs 
one «f th« first victims, and after ue*rly ihi'oo wwIib' 
sulTering Iroiii llic lutler diseBsi*, I aliunduninl nil ideii of 
pxploriii^ Salerno nnd the South of Itiily. I had only one 
idea, thut of returning aa quickly »8 posiiihlc to put*, 
bealtliy Mentone. 1 thervffire embarked on a Genua 
sU-unier ii« koou nx I \viu< cfunl to thv voyage, nhd as soon 
m* till- barometer nhowed nie thiit it was prudent so todo— 
thnnifih il« friendly aid esoaping a violent storm— and 
n'achol Mentone eufcly. There I reniuinud during tbd 
rest of th« witiUrr. 

To eoiu'lude, howeror, about Naples and ita bay. Thuy 
arc most foHcinatinu to mere healthy touii&tK, for they are 
hallowed by a^socintiunit and U-autif* of the moat vane«l 
character; but to the invalid, Naples should W abeolutt'ly 
forbiddtn. Even hardy, heahhy tourisU may besilatti 
about a pTulougi'd revidi-nci'. Tliny »lioul<], aim, ratlier 
choose the more elevaltnl rejjious of the city than tli4 
riiKhionable Chiiya. The defective sjititaiy arrau;^em«nta 
are not the only draivbiK^kK. When llie wind is in U»e 
nortli>eait, the Apeunine* in that direutiuu are so low that 
it panes over them, tbey become covered with enow, and 
the cobi ia intciiM. ^^'bcn it veers lo tlii! noutb-oaHt^-jhe 
sutrocoo— on the contrary, the heat become* intense, and 
tiie air, heinj; loaded with moisture from the soa, is very 
oppreiimve. Tlicsc extremes, following ciich other very 

rapidly, are uw»t trying and nuluultliy. The nurtb-we«l, 
or mistral, oiw> Irefjueiitly blows into the bay with ^reIlt 

""rileiR'O, and is a tryin-r, iliingeraiuE wind to invalids 
hiiut the Me>lilerruije;iD. C^ntelbmare and Suireiil" 






N'APi.i« ASn ITS DANneita. 


bbiii^ liii-iied to Ui« nDrlli-wrmt, receive thia bitter win<l ir 
full. Tlii-y have been mucli recommended of lata ycuni 
ufv w'tiitvr rvsiilynofs, but tho rcc/tmmriMlalion w «n error, 
IquikIin) od octnixioiuil unil cxMriitioiial line weather. Tliosi! 
bwalitivB are tlie summer re»ideiicM of tUe NfiiiHilitunif, 
bucauoo tlwy urv lurnet) to the north. 

It wiM ii'it, hitwovoT, wiUiiiut re^Tot thit I nbantloned 

Na)>l«8. Notwithstamlintf illnrafi and suRl-rin);, I was 

b(>i;iniiin(; to foci the iiithiunco of its uetial liiw.'i nation. 

Ttiirint; ilh)eni', ala>, I biitl rrpiinmHl AnJerM.-n'!< siiii-im- 

preaecd history of " th" ImproviButori!," anti Lamaitine'a 

tfttcul tsitt of "GrazicUii, the Maid of I«nbitt." Tin- 

inh bo<i«in« Ktron^ ugaiii to Tt«it Poin|ioii. n^^iit to 

|X|>lore the Oran^ cbd bilU of Castellamare anil Sorrento, 

to sail over the lovely blue bay to Capri, to tho axiiiu 

|rrvttu, and lo Iwhia. Imh-ed, it rvquiitd a clron:; iiiiriit«l 

^ort lo drjif; nn,- (Wnn the (Jiroean allon-iiieiit« ii( Naples 

back to ({uiet Mfiitonn, where no gn-nt deeds have beta 

iidunv, where wro inusl be tatii^liL-d with tde charms of 

I nature, aixl where Ute monumenU are merely thoae of thv 

henriii'i early career, in pni-bidorical agva. 

At that time altio the );rvat and g;lorious politieal events 
that vlianictcrirA-d the foiimlation of United Itnljr vrcre 
.lieinf; ico»mplinh>-d, ami Najileit waa a centre of int«n8e 
iJitiloreBt. The Ifin;^, Victor Hmmanuel, made hiB cnlmiKi: 
Bto Ntpin Kf I <va« becomiitg convalnwviit, and daily 
undor my windowm (Nov. tSSl) ; the entire ]x>pula> 
tioii were wild with joy at their detiveraoce from the 
Koutbuiie, and lit Ihe r<-[>eiiurdtion of their native country. 
I saw, Uki!wiiw>, the llaliuii hero, Uaritialdi, and that under 
ciicumBtuncm bo creditable to him, that I cannot refrain 
from mentioning them. 

Alter coMi|t«rrin;; Sieily with hi* one ihouHund folJfiwens. 
and alter Iiid Irinniphant prui^refs through tlie ^foiitlt •>!' 
Italy from liv^fpo to NapUiB, he hud com« over to that oily 
to aeu hia friend, the king, and insiHled on reniaiiiiu<; 
inco^CtiiU). Ilu lelt tiiat Die )>o«itivfl adoration the Ncapo^ 
lilana eutertjiined fur iheir deliverer would have led U> 
drmonatrat iona of aiteh an cnthuainxtie chanifiter had ho 
ahowu himiiell', Uuit the kin^ would tiave beoome (|uito 



a secondary personage. lie tlicreforc wtnt to nil hotti, 
like n ]>riviitv tnilivitluul, ami rt:t\i»i^ during' liU Iwi-iitjr- 
ftmr liDure' slay lo receive any dtrpiita lions, or iiiiieed to 
allow hif presence in Naples to be made known. Naples, 
liowcvrr, iieari) of Iw n<lvent, and th« entire wily wiwt wild 
to «ce him and kIiuw him Iioiiour. I impjiened to ri»iiL tfant 
very afternoon the En}>lieh rending- room, wliioh whs kept by 
twoEnsliNh Inilifx. [ foimd tlit-m in tht-anle-toont, H'anditi^ 
and <-onvtT»iiig with two gentlemen, one of ubom was (lari- 
baldi — a mild, amiaMe-lookin); man, of middle lii-it;ht, with 
nothing of the firi'-cat^-r iiboul Uiin. In u few minutn Imi 
took liiti l«ave, and the Udica then totd me that they had 
known him intimately for many years, and that that 
mornin;^ he h>d sunt word that lie would t^me and lunch 
wilti them in jirivate. True to hix ivnrd, hi! came at the 
time appointed, and remained two hours in their little 
homely pnrloiir, cnling fruit, conversint;, and singing aongs. 
This little trait chows the nmiuUc simplicity and warm- 
hearted faithfulne«s of the hero. When all Naples wiM 
anxious lo full at his feet, and the kin^ of his making was 
waitinp nnxioncty lo loud him with honourK, lie prt-ferrfd 
devoting Iiis nflernoon to the agciety of two humhle I'riendfl 
of former d:iys. 

If the fasL-iiintion oxcreised l>y the l>ay '>f Naples la so 
great that itie invalid tourixt eunnot pussiliiy tear himself 
away, 1 should recommend htm to muke the inland of 
Capri his lieBd-<inurters, The island is of limeictone— • 
heulthivr tfi^ologicid lortnation than the suk tufa rock of 
Naples. Tlie popujnttou ia amall, the seenery iiiterestiny, 
and llicre are several hotels wli^re ti'lernbly (.■omfortabTe 
qnarten may he obtained. Itien there aru no maraltes, 
and the air ia const.iutlv purififd by the sea-breeije. Thfl 
Niiplis physicians sre m the halitt of sending conva 
li-vcenta (iieie, and with the lj|>-t rvsultn. In liut; wea' 
tliore is daily comioHnication with the mainland by boat 
and Mteamer; bnt in winter, in bad weather, the commu- 
nication iii Mimetimes interrupted for week*. Tlie iaolation 
is then nearly as great as that of Garibaldi at bis islaoi 
homo of Csprvra. 

The iidanti of Capri is a pi4-tiire»>iiM: man of rock*, ni 




milts in circumferoncp, and tn-o ami a half in wiilUi, 
riluaU-il at tUu otitstdo or the buy of Nui>U!k, tweuty tnilca 
from tliiit city, t«-u miicM from tlie uuHtern cape o)' the 
bay, U'n mili-» from the western cape, or Cape Misi-uo, and 
forma a epccics ol' amphitheatre fucini; Nnpl's on tint Durth. 
It in a very lovely little i^lniid, j"srg<''i ^""1 >rrej[ular in 
outline, n perfeH cliaoft of roolu, und a charming residemv 
for a month or two iu e.irly autumn or in Eprin-;, but not 
for midwinter. The northern exjioFiire of tliii isluixl and] 
its ditttaucc from thi- prutcctinf' Apeiininrn, leave it ivithont 
defvtiw againft the n»rtliern vvinda. Friends and patients 
I who have wintered there nil agree tJiat they had a great 
1 of rough weather to eneountcr, much more than on 
Biviein, owin^T'to the (.-omplcle ubNenec of pruteetiou 
9ID thenorthcni qnarters. Ita eauthern shore is a precipi- 
tous rock many handrcd feet high. 
Cuprt is full of rccolleclion« of TibertuK th« Roman 
■JT, who ]MU>sed the IuhI ten yean of his life there, 
bulging in ever)' ttpet-ieii of debauchery and crime. Up 
bis elevation to the empire, at the mature nge of Rfiy^ 
ire, Tiberius had been known only a* it great warrior and 
(Lesmun, us u \«i»e, virtuous L-iliKen, iw a ^ood huitWnd, 
and father. Then, singularly, at an dua when even viciuii 
men ollen abdicate their vices, Tiberius, uiidor tho in-J 
flu«n«o ofa kind of momt insanity, threw himself liuadlongJ 
into every spcciis of vruelty and sensual indulgence, 
and that in such a shatneleta manner as to raise tha 
indtgDsUon of even this depraved age (a.d. 14). ' Cupri, 
wboro hfl retired, apparently the Iteltt-r to give untram- 
imelled M-ope to his cruelty and passionci, retains to this 
'day the impress of iiis presence. The ruins of liis palace, 
of his prisons, and of bis batlis arc still shown. Above all, 
the memur}' of his nearly unpandlcied vices remains ns a 
kind of pallover the beauUruI isUod. It still lives vividly, 
after nearly two thousand years, in the memory of tti« 
ptasaut inhabitants. 

Dr. BiKhuji — then the leading Knples physician, now 
practising in Paris — told me the history of a countryman, 
which is not only interesting, but poinla out a danger — a 
bidden rock ou the path of the couvalcvncnt x>btUistcul 



patient, and tliereforo dwerv« to be re«;a^ from o' 
livion. This jtcntlcmiin ciim« to Niiplcs m a i^oiilirmml 
plitliiiiicitl inviiliil. A!thoU|fI) iii iin ntlvuiicotl «tii^e of 
di^tase lio rulli<.-d, and apiiaivDlly regained Win hculth. 
UnforttiDiiti'ly he b^nmi! diwperately attached to a verjr 
hiimli^>m<i yoiiii^ Itnlinn giil, Wlow him in itocini rank> 
Uidilcfi the hvui of Lnniartiiie's ln^iilHul talu of (in 
zii'llft, lie married the object of his atf'i-ctions, aud reti 
with her to live nt CHpn. This iimvi^e step, howevei^ 
inv"lv<^d hitn in many piiiiitid and Irving ordeid?. Thi 
Ntnrtit of litiman pii»!-ii>iia Inid uW liei'n rouiFed in « 
unRoiind cons-titiition. It was the leaky ship goinjj; to ne*, 
and exposed to the tempest and to the hurncane. DisoaN 
relumed, and made a rapid progrerf, and as this time 
nothing could arrest it, his exiatenee soon t«rininat«Hl. ^^ 

Leaky veM(.-ls should remain in port, where, like Nelson^^H 
old ship, tlic f'ic/ory, tiny may long riile with dignity on ' 
the vmocith watoot that mirmiind tlK-m. The buttle of 
life— its storms aud temi^st^t— mostt bo icll to the yoniig 
and to the stronif. The convale'eent phthisical patient 
ahould ever recollect tliut be benrs within him the aeede 
of death, thnt his diwiise may retuni any day, that hi 
live^ oil Kiitfernnoe, and should act awoidingly. 
aeliial truth should l<e known, courageously recognl 
and thoroughly accepted. 

As I havi- prfvioiii'ly st.ited, 1hi> iinprefston mailc npon 
my niind by the sanitury survey of the prineipiil health 
towns of llaly was unsatisfiictory in the exlreme. The 
authors wboKc works I have rend on winter climates have, 
it Hjipeam tu me, mode nn extraordinary, but all- important 
omisMon. They have studied winds, sunshine, eloitd, 
t«mperatiire, protection, and all tliu various elements 
whith constitute climate, forgctiintr hggifHf. 

And yet, are not the laws of hygit^ue of more importanoo 
to the invalid than all the rest put together? Of win 
avail is it to place a patient tJulTering from a constitution! 
disease, sucli as phthisis, in the most favourable cliinat« 
condition, if every law of hygiene is violated— if" ho ia 
made to live in the very midKt of biidly-d rained, badljr- 
venlitatcd towns, Miieh as Florence, Rum«, Naples, Vukocia, 

M I 





or M«Iao:a? lu these tinhealthjf centres of southern pojflt- 
lation, where the ntort«Hty i» iiilbituiilly very Iit^h iitii<iti;;Ht 
the ho^llhy nntivi-ii, mueh highiT, as we have iteeti, than 
in 0(ir moHt unwhulesome iiiAuufiicturins localities, whitt 
right have we to expect the t^cnerul henllh of otir piitientH 

' to rally ? Id nulity, it wouhl he \a reuMonalilv to Keiid 
ooDHumptiTe {Mtienttt in the summer months ta live in the 
worst parts of Wbitechapel, Liverpool, or Glapgow, as it 
is to Ecml them in wiiitt-r to live in the ccntT« of these 
uiihi'iilthy southern towns. 

I» I'onuer days, when the laws of hytfiene were isnoreJ 
by the me<dical profi-stiiun as well as by the nonini-dioiil 
puliiic, when fcvt-nt and pliignw wens merely studied and 
treated an instirutiihle dtHpensationa of Divine wrath, it 
was, i>erbApfl, escasahle lor writers on climate to devole 
their nndividod attention to meleurnlo^ricnlqiKslioTis. But 

|£ow that the nii»t and darktie-tM have bi-en diHj'i'llcil, that 
typhoid fever, dysentery, and other town disnasis liii^c lieon 

l^lraeed to their causes — tiltli, defective ventilation aiul limin- 

lage, — vre know thnt atk-ntiou to hygiene is even more 
Bry for Uic recovery of health Itian for ifs n'tention. 
In choosing a winter residence, therefore, hygienic con- 
ditions should be first considered, even before warmth and 

[ sunshine. 

If 1V0 are to 1>e f^ttdctl by such considerations, however, 
I muKt candidly e^mftsa that 1 have not yet MMiii ■ Uirgt 
town in the S'Hith of Kiirope (the health quarters of Nice 
and Pan excepted), the hyj^ienie stale of which is em-h as 
to render it a safe winter rvaidenee for an tnviilid. 1 n most 
of these towns, moreover,— towns such as thu!<c I have just 
named,— the positions selected for and devoted to iiivulida 
are central, and owe their proleetion in a great mvasiire to 
building*, whieh (teeiirt- Xo them the town utmuHphere 
undiliite<]. 'ilius are explained the frequent deaths from 
" fever" amongst our eonntfymen, ill or well, residing in 
them, which we every year see chronicled. On the spot 
you are told that they haro died from the fever of "the 
country." But this fever of the country, as far as I can 
gather from minute inquiry, is no other than our own eld 
enemy, typhoid, under a continental garb. Its charaelcrietic 




fttUircs ni»y Ic modifipd by some malurious or calarri 
^miL-nt, Iml Die t)'|W w tlic Mtnc. The caiioc, too, is 
idi^titicil \a tint Italian mirble tialiicc unci iti tliL' St. Giles** 
liovel — foul air innde and outride tlie house— etorjwlieTe. 

Iliivinp failed to discover any more Bhplt«n>d spot than 
th« MciDlom* amphitlii'atn-, in tlio raiterii Kivii-nk, and in 
Wtstern Italy, 1 determined, on leaving (Jenoa, to minutely 
exnmine the weftcrn Itiviera, along whic-h there nru ninny 
]io|iiiloiic tov>nii iiml vtllDgi-«. Each «ic<;e*HVC (.liition— 
Bavunu, Fin;i1<-, Oneglia, San Keino, Ventimiglia— uoh «?x- 
Binincd.anil nbiindoncd as inferior, unlil 1 onee more lonn* 
myfeirin tin; well-rememljered cite «f my previons winter' 
experience. The oonviclion wliinh thixjourDfy [irodiii-cd, thi 
the Men tone amphitheatre aUbrdssuiierior protection loan;^ 
to lie (bnnd hetwcvn it and Pic^n, on either Riviera, is at one*' 
explained liy reference to the mii|>* in ihii; work. 

On no piirt of the coaAt do the inounluitiB in the imme> 
diate vicinity riflc in a ehuin to the same height — mimely, 
from 3600 to 4000 feet. Nowhere do they rewfde in tiie 
same manner from the ehoro in the form of an unlinikcn 
umpliithvatn-, t>o aa to completely ahelter from the nnrth, 
mmt, and west a hilly district Nuch as the one which vonsti- 
ttite« the oentie of the Mentone region. Nowhere hIko is 
tliei* snch a iMickfrround of >til] higlxir niounLains lying due 
north, so »*i to protect in itii turn the semioircuiar shore 
chain. Thib backt^round of mountain-land extends lifly miles 
to the uiTth into Savoy, and i« limited only in that direc* 
tion bv theTenda, a chuin which rises irora 70UU to !)000 
feet, 'rhese hi<;hcr monutaiDS extend towards the shore in a 
BODth-cni'terly direction, iini) reaeh it nt Finale, more than 
half-way Ueiween Ni(« and (ienoa. lletween <ien'ia and 
Finale the mountaius which ekirt thoshore are neither very 
deep nor vi-ry liigli ; hctweon Kiimle and Nice ihi' depth and 
height of ttiv northern mountain-land constantly incn-aHe. 
Consequently, the amount of protection offered from llie 
north incrca«« in tbu same ratio, until at Mentone the 
|;n-atvst amount of protection and shelter and undoubtedly 
tlie warmeet' climate of the entire Hitiera are reached. 

The various towns which skirt tho coilfI arc f^nerally 
plM«d at the mouth* of tli« rivers which form tlieir jiorte, 




and tlie riv«N of conrso empty tliomsDlves from valleyB 

wliich break Uie tnouiitaiii-line. Tliuoe valleys lioinjf 

[Dearly always directed oorth and south, or tWrcaboutii, 

rmoft of the towne arc placed in the coldest situutiona 

on the ooawt, at t)ie entrance of brojikt; in the mountam- 

ohain, down wkici) the cold u-indx IjIuw. A glimceutthe 

I VCifeUition shoivs this : Orauge- trees retreat, and Oliven 

Will Pinnt take liieir pIiKt'. Ilure iind there, aa the road 

winds alonji; the const, iihellered nook* and nitnantic littlo 

bays are seen at one's feet, where the Orun^ and tbo 

iljumon, Um) Caciits and the Carouba<tree, seem to thrive 

[luxuriantly, finding the same warmth and ihelter as at 

TMentoue. But in these exoeptional ennturs there is gena- 

I roily no population — scarcely a house; the traveller can 

'only admire iind piiKK oh. A^iiin, in the Itivteru towns 

the itdiuhitants are thoroughly Italian; th«y still live nii 

Doeciironi, olive-oil, soup, and bread, racely indulging; in 

at, aix] i<rnDre entirely the multitudinous wanis and 

rRquiremtiiita of our "dilTieult-to-pleaao" cuuntryraen. 

■These towns will have to be raised to a much hitflief 

[civilization level bclbre they can be iidoptvl iw winter 

rreiiiiluniv* by iuvulitlf. I am persuaded, however, that in 

Ihe oiiurw uftimu their day will come. 

An exception may even now be maile in Tavour o\' San 
^£emn, which participates in the H[jecial prot«-etion met 
'with alMontoue. San Kerauis uttiwnorsume importance, 
■t>out liltecu miles east of Mentouo. It has .11,001) 
inlitiliiliMits, and many hoiutON on the uut«kii't!> of the town 
that nii^ht bo mode a^i-twable to straufittn. Moreover, it 
is iu Italy IhorouKhly lulinn, and the Italian langua;je 
is ttpokcn, altliou);h n»t with >;reitl purity. 

The example of Mentoiie, the faiit that laud iu the 
Mentonian amphitheatre has decupled in value within th« 
last ton years, has awnkeued the proprietors of San Uento 
^ tbe gtt»i money value of the northern invalids. Several 
and eoralortable hot«U have been built, and a number 
' villas have also been erected for str4ii}«ers. Althuti^rh 
picturesi|UJ than Mentone, and tiiliWH milM furlher 
from Nice, a great druwbiwk, San Kemo dtiserveis the 
patrunaj{« of winter emigrants. The cllmite is the sama 

Mlhal «ftlw mttUn bar St UtUbam, ud aado«bt all 
wbo do well at tb« one wotdd do w«U at t^ atkcr. I had 
1»opcd Uiat H wmtU ba loa expnorrv, b«t I dn aet Sod 
tut tbm ii Doch dlfcu a w. No*- do I xhmk thme wilt be 
St aDjeftbe BiTiefakowBa,oaeelfa(j'hanbccB ^ 
■p to the atandud nqaind ■■ ■ ■i ai— i by i 
iW expesM of baa fei R af fcnMfci ag , aad mT a b fcii w iag 
ponsaoos bom a datmcf, aoM be fwlty neailjr the nne 

Otnpetitioa, bowrfer, is wboleaome, aad Uiovr wtw b«4 
with BO aceoauDodatioo to tbctr tarte at Ni» aoii) Mi^laoe, 
who wiah tolirdljr to annd the pleaaaRS, MawJwktDcata 
aod aaaranf Uoaaco, or wbo anMaaaat to be aetuaUjr 
oa ItaHaa aoQ, aiaj waSdj fma eo, aad 117 San Bobou 
As lb« Engluh eoMar jttLfiaif the aeocMguwdatiaa will 
Mudy imjiruv^, as it has improred at Mentooe, and ac it 
JMpnTai ia all cnDliaratal to<rtM which are patroaiaad b^ 
oar eoQiloft-lonng oonntryinen. 

Bofdii^hCTa, tota OiiW froai Saa Reois, and dem 
from Meutone, t« a toane of ii)l«r«t to all tnvcflers, aa 
the Mene of the advcnlnrrs of Dr. Anloaio. The [>ru- 
atoBtciy, on the tommil of which it rtancls, jata out iaUt 
the MM, »o ae to fonn a vety ooiMfnctKwie aoa ptetana^ 
tH^feti all along the watera eoart, as far ai Meoaoo aad 
evea Atilibcii. It appean Icm pMrturaqiic, howerer, oa • 
tMir apim'sch, and tuTns out to be merely ooe of the •mall 
cirnm|W-tii> Italiao town*, of which there are a acuro akMi{> 
the coast, all very much alike. Theeuliuflii pnsent nolhiDg 
Virr)' iiilefestinj;, with the excqilion of the lar-ramed I'ulm 
giovra. In tbcac ip«vi«, ivhii:h earrouDd the town on all 
•uIm, ihonaandfl of I^ilnM arc snvcittg ntlh truiv Orieatal 
:VitC>"r und lusiimnce, atid ^ive a very Kuslei a diameter 
to tlie Iindwape. They are of all sizies, from a few feet 
■liove a huiidn.t], and of all a-:e«, Ironi a low yeara to . 
tboound or niofr. In the {^anli-n of the Freneh 
Blora eapeeially, ure to he found nohle and majestic e|i 
oanw Ml thit liniutifDl tfee ; mauy of them he Utld me w< 
more tJuin a tbouMUMj years old. The spot on which thoy are 
■ituati'i] wua the garden of a ■nonaktfry of DominioanH, in 
eery byjfoiw dity>, more thao a thouaand years aga It 



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i« ■':/ ^ .^^*f": . ■ " 

ISI^H^H^E' ^'' 

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was tUcse monks who introduced itnd planted llio Palm-tree 
in the district. Muny of thoee existing were actually 
pluuted ill tliiF, thv olden timo, by tho monkf, uf wlioia , 
not atraoe, iiuta veKli-;er>>miiiiii«, with thv vxcc^tioii ofthcso ' 
thoir fAvoiirite treea. The acooinpanviii^ u-imd engraving 
will enulilfl tlio rand«r to form some lUtle idea of tlia. 
Oriental cbanicUir of the ec«n«, wliich is well worth 
iwsaintf viail. Tlie fioriliglicni I'iiIi»k, bitwtivcr, ure not" 
«o beatitjful as those ol' Elabe in Spain, or of the Africaa 
det«rt, owin^ perhaps to- their leaves bein;; ceneniUy 
tied up. Itgnli^her.t supplies Romv witb Palms for Pulia 
Sunday, and ax the Ikihicm in for tbetn to ha white, 
the le.ivee are thu^ artilioijlly Mandtel. It is this liict> 
tlw monopoly of the supply to llome, that «spUiiie the 
existence of the P.ilm grove* ; they citn bo cultivuted 
protitubly at Uordif^hera and nowhere elae. They would 
grow on any part of lbs more sitelt^rod regions of ihe 
lliviera, fnira Nice to Finale, but then their eultivatiou 
would i>e olt't^i^ther pniiitlexs, m they do not ripec tlieir 
fruit on the north shore ul' the Mediterranean. 

It is possible that the siliceous sand that comes down tb« i 
vullcy of the Hoyu from the Teiida moiinUin, and formil 
tilt- alluvial sandy flat bi-tween Ventimi;:tia and Botd;;;herii 
conlribiUes to the health and well-being of the Palms. 
Alihiiiigh they certainly will ^^row in calcareous soil*, I 
have always found *awi, both in Kiiro|)C and in Africa, in 
the soil of the ri'giuus where they thrive and are the most 

Tlie Itordighera Pulm grove* botng only cloven miloa 
dislant are a favourite picnic resort of the Mentunian^, and 
most of us have pleasant recollections connected with tlicii 
atately shade. There arc two hotels at llordighcra ; aud 
sevent villus as alxo an Kn;4lUb church have keen builU 
llie lallur is the Ki^V of a resident, Mrs. FimshHWU, 

Four miles rurtber we come to Vcatimigli^, at the moat 
of ihc Hnyn valley. It la a town of seven thousand inbi 
bittnts, furmerly fortitleJ, »nd is interesting us a spwcimtfM 
of Riviera towns unmoiilied by strangers. Situated at th« . 
moulh of a wide valW ojMtning north, Ytntiintglu is not, 
and probjbly never will be, a health station. It is, bow- 



erer, ono of the farourit« drives from Mentone, and bctwMfl 
the two etatioQB there are many lovi-ly Ehcltcrcd nook» ami 
cornpr^, on the couet Mae and on th'« hilU abore. tbtj 
will i-vi-ntuAJIv be oiiloiitxed by tliow who, makm^ » 
southern iteltlement, want space, a few ncrcs of ]ar<], with- 
out pAyJng the fabulous price now ticked in the M«nU>ne^^ 
tmphitlicatrc. ^H 

Tims we gradually get back to little Mentone in tt^^^ 
smiling amphitheatre of hills, the view of which is nBarlf 
OS Wautiful when wo demand to it from the tut ns when 
we dencend to it from the went. 

Mentone was built, like all other Italian town?, for Uie 
piirpot'c of defence, and is no esception, therefore, to tlio 
Kivii.>ni mil-. Moid of it» (lUler utrt'i-ts uro ixiiileitM lane«, s 
few feet wide, but the visitors hare notliintc to do with 
them, and never need enter them itnle«e it be to -tratify 
curioMly. !t is, however, cleaner ihan the prent Italian 
towns, i>wing to the greut value of Uie refuse. Th« people 
— an iiidtistrioua race — have to eullivate the rocky terraees, 
and have no posturajfe, no cattle hut donkeys and mules. 
They huFhand their mauitre, tliercf"re, with jciilouw care, 
and let none e«cii]i(! into the ma or elH-where. Tbi^ remar]( 
applies also to all the villages and towns on the lliviera. 

Thus, neither the land nor the «on are poisoned an in 
larger towns of tlic Meditc>rruni-an eouat, un<)uisilionablr 
one of the (jreat health advantages of small localities, ft 
in worth all the ruins ami art Irctuurcs of Italy to th< 
real iiivulit), with whom the main point ik to Mtve 
pioloH); life, not tctupomry artistic or Kuciul pleasure and' 

The Cienoese Riviera censcfi, gcoffraphicnily, at Nice, th' 
Brijfhton of the Medilerruni-nn. llut Antibex, Golf Juan, 
and Cannes may ha said to Iwlong to it roeteoroloirically 
anil holaniciilly. They are sheltered from the north-west 
wind or tniKlral by the I-^tcrel, from the north by tlie 
nKitinlains behind Cintide, from the noith-cjis'l by the 
hiifher ridges of the maritime Alps. The vegetation ii 
the Kumc as in tho Riviera, bat with a diSerenee aa to 
degree, llie protection buing inoonipleto, tho winds are 
stronger, ant) in celd exceptional weather the thcrnioiUttt«r 



taWa ]ovrer. Cannes is now an e^ituMished favourite, one of 
the mrMt Sourishinpf ED}>li8l) wiiiUir colouin on the McJU 

Cros-iimt the K^iterel vn come to Hy&res, near Toulon, 
lon^ the favourite winter station for invalids on this coast. 
HycrcH is half a de^c, thirty miles, mora south thim 
Cannon or Menli>nc. Tho mm in iw |iowei'fiil, the Jiumm -r 
heat as ^reat, but Ihtin tho moont^iiu sUelt«r ia Ie«s even 
thttn nt Cannes, so the mistral or iioi'th-west wind often 
blowa with violence in aiitiimii and t-prin^. Henc^- thit 
tide of iiivulidiHrn and fn^hion now wi" eautwanl. It ih 
still, however, much patrtini/<.nl hy the Kreiifh, and hy 
eonto of onr older physicians, true tu thepnrtialilies of their 
younger i)ay«. In some cokcs Hyi'.r«e bun un iiilvni)ta<rc 
over all the coo^t loivnit we have named on the Itiviera. 
It is thive miles from the sea, so that persons to ^rhom tho 
|>rDxiiitity to tho sen is disa^rM-ahlu or p^^^lil■i<^ull may 
h«re take refu^', and still enjoy iu winl«r the advanUi^i-s 
of the Biiinxhitie and utmoitph«rie drynefs of the north 
shores of the Mediterranean. 

It is worthy of remark that as facilities for travdlin); 
have iuereaiwd, the winter miration of invalidism has 
descended more to the south and to the east, Whuii 
oommunicalion with and on the continent was dlttiuult, 
our own mnilaria and Mad<:ira, no uoc«^ible by sua, 
answered Ibe purpose. As travellin)!^ facilities increii^od, 
Mdiitjwlier, Pnii, llyeres, Nice, Cannes, successively ln-cuino 
faviiiiritei, Owin)* to the impolKu ^iven bv thi^ work 
and my teaching, the (}eniieti<: Riviera ha« been invoilei), 
and colonized by tile tribe of invalids. But the move- 
ment will not stop there ; when thu InJinn mail cruote* 
fruni Snlonica in Thenuly to Alexandria in forty-eiifht 
houn", and there are Hteamboata and comtortable hotfis 
on till- Upper Nile, a propoition of tho wull-to-do invalids 
will no doubt every yuur got up nearly a« far ikt the upper 
wutcTB of that DO longer mysterious nver. 


I As I have already stated, the great political, pleatiuro, 

I and health cities of Italy, Uenoa, Fisa, l^'loi-ence. Home, 



Nnplee, Salerno, am all on the vteat eidc of tho Apcnni' 
and tlius Kli(.-It«rvd from the nortli-wnt wimiw. 
Genoese Kivicru licloii^ to tliii tlitt wfatern or prelected 
half of Italy. Bologna belongs Xo the rich piniiis of 
I'ii'i) mont and is on the high road from Ihonvo to Florence. 
South of Bulo[>nn there arc no towns of any iin[)orIuii<.-6 
in a )iolitieal, nrtintiv, or hialth t^eime, for Anoonn, Bari, 
Voffun, Urindisi, 'I'aranto, cannot be considered such. 

1 had long wished to explore the curtern division 
Italy, bnt hiid alvrays i^ne with the crowd south and 
west, until the spring of li^72. SUiiin^ for an enetent 
tour, and having to embark at Urindisi, I resolved to 
mak« a leitfurely progress through thu Adriiitic proviuci 
of Italy on my way soutli. 

I was anxiuns to learn by ocular demonstration ho 
thCMO provincoii fared in spring without the protection which 
tlie Apenniiii'H itffiird to the weHti.-rn coaat. 1 may safely 
sseert that all, or neiirly all, that has been written about 
the climate and veKClalion of Italy iii'plies only to its 
WCBtern or protected shores. The i-astcm or unprolevtvd 
Adriiitic provinei-s, are wldom viKiHii by toiiriKU. and 
G«ldom even alluded to by the authors of travels in Italy 
So it has been for ages. Italy has lived id history, 
acieticc, and in art, on her western whores. 

1 It'll Mi-ntone April the lOth. The vog«tation on 
sbeltered and sun-warmed shotea of the (Ji-noese Itivicra, 
at CunncK, at Niee, at Mentone, at Sun Kcmo, was that of 
the Kimlh of Knt^liind at the end of the fiM or teeond 
week in June. Sjiriiig tliiwers were over; the BankBian 
and Bengal Roses had been some tim« in full hlonm, a* 
also ihu IjcnioD tncs. Hybrid Ito»es and the Orange 
trcfs were nigndiy curaing into llower; deciduous trees. 
Planes, Oil ks, Figs, were rapidly coming into leaf; Willo 
had long been iu full leaf, Viuos were about to llower. 
nun i]uil« 1-ummer. 

At (ienoa vegetation was nearly as far advanced 
with ns, but ou jwnaing out of the Apcnnini'S into t 
flat plains of Piedmont, which are exposcJ 1o t' 
tioiihrrn bUNia rushing down from the Alp», loo diatant 
tu (iroteot them, a cliunge caiii« over the spirit of if 

era. I 



dream— we wrat baolc six »vei'kit. There was not an 
Orange, a Lemon, a Pulm, or even a Fig tree to be seen, 

iitns to 

The Poplars, Willow^*, and V; 

judt III 

lovrf, and vines were 

were iiakecl, 

the Cherry and Hawthnni in flDwer; cereals were two 
inchi.-e from the ground, and rather yellow, »» if they 
had reci'iilly hcen exposed to severe cold. Moreover, 
there wan a eold north-cnst wind blowing, ituoh aa I had 
not once Telt durini; the winter at Mentone. It was 
evident that in these Piedmontese plains the actual froMtfl 
of winter must l>e severe, and tbat, owiii^ to Um alienee 
of protect ion, winter u prolonged far intoBprin;;. 

This cold nortb-east wind and tlie dust it raised 

funucd tui to I)(ilo);i)n, where I was gUid to take refuge, 
[ere I heard tliat the prdvionii winter ther« had b-ien 
Bcveral feet of snow in the streets, which remained for 
wevka, and that the ieo on a c^inal with a rapid stream, 
whieh ninii thnuii^h the town, wak more than u foot tbiek. 
Kor is this surprising when we look at the map. and see 
that Bolof^ia ia in thu plains uf Lombardy, ntthe foot of 
the MHtcm slope of th« Apennines, with nothing whnttiver 
to protect it from the north-eaKt biu^ta tbat bluw from the 
cnow-ix) rered mountains of Styria. So Bolo;rn-i is in- 
tensely bot in Slimmer, from a latitude similar lo tbiitof 
Mvnt'ine with it* Orange aiiil Ix-mnn treeii, am) i* intenM^ly 
«old in winter from expiisure. Although 7" further suutn 
than Knghmd, it appeared to mc to have abc^ut the pame 
vci^tation ; wc mii»t, however, except the Vine and Maize, 
which the extreme beat of the Routlii.^i Kummcr ri]H'iia. 
Tlie Vine and the Maize do nut get with us the fuur 
months' min-hrat Uiey rctiuire to ripen their fruit ; our Sup- 
tember in too culd, 

Bolow Bido^na {April 19), aa griin^ south wo receded 
fnim tbi* high moimtiiiDs which limit Italy to the north, 
the oiild norlh-oant wind seemeil to lie b)wing ilo power, and 
ve;;eIution was roure advunecrd. Tlie Poplura were in leaf, 
the Mulberry and Acacia trees showed small leaves, as did 
the Hlnin ; the Vine shoots worn two inoh«« long, ccr«»l8 
three iiit^lies a1>ove the ground, and iiealtliier looking; ehno 
|JMme«l ]>riooipiilly cultivat>;d to support the Viiie«. They 



are alluu-ed to grow tome nix or Hght feet, anJ th«a madsl 
to divide into two, tliree, tour, or five braocbee or furks, oaf 
wtiicli ns many shoote of m Vino aro trainod. The Vinel 
plaiitud 111 the foot ic not train t-il round the trw — |m>WU/« 
that it niiij' not, latvr, alniiiglt; it — but ciimud straight up 
onu ftlde to the point whtre the branchee divide, whi-n oito 
shoot is tied to ench branch of tliB tree. Olten iihooU 
are carried in festoon* from one tree to another, ■h<1 an tli« 
treeH are planted in rawa, about forty feot apart, tlie eSect 
in BUmmcr, when they *Ta covered n-ith fmit and h«v««, 
inufl be very pic-tureiKitie. Mi-;ht v,e iii>t mnke tun of 
Vine* trained on tren* merely fur thtir («liiig«? Their 
power ol nil but indefinite elon^lion, would thiia havo fair 

Iilay, and un Oulc or Kim covered in numnier with Vin« 
eaven up to the aummit wuuld look very well. Then, 
were neither Kg, Olive, Oran;^ nor Lemon trees. W« 

fiflfKi-d throuj;)) a tial, well •irri tinted, cnrefnlly cultivated^ 
>ut numt nnpiclnrt-K()ue <rountry, buuiidtsj eu the weHtem 
lioi'ixon by low hilla, the dyi»<^Mb>|iea of the Apuiiitinea. 

lliili>i:na in about forty luiles from the Adriatic, and tlw 
rnilrond litrikee the 6ca eome sixty miles to the south. Hi 
then KkirU the tihore uulil Aneona ia readied. Aivcona, 
altliotij^h a town of considerable cominereial importauoef 
beid:! the emporium of Italian tnido in the Adriatic, Is onfei 
of ihe tniek of toiiiiatx, and cvt-n of trnvelleni fur the en*tt| 
'Hie lutier all but iuvariubly pursue their journey by! 
ni;;ht h-jin to Itnndisi. It remiiinn therefore in the dead-1 
nlive Mute of inont purely Itjilijin towni". Ilie etrcv'ta art 
narrow, the ahogia |Joor, tlio hotel aecominodudon very bud, 
fillli-rate, althuUKh there are fine ducks anti warehouaefl ; 
so I wati glud to be olT early the next day. 

The nil front Ancouu tu Brintlini akirla the ahore all thi 
way, exeejit when croasinff the base of a iirom'tntory after^ 
reaejiin;; the town of \^to. Proximity lo the 6ea docs 
not, lioivover, eoem to promote a milder cJimato, lu on tbe 
weKliTii cout. Prolaibly the Adriatic ia colder than tJM 
^htitilenanean, from the coldness of the norlherii rivers 
t)>al run into it. Moreover from it« niirrowness the cold 
nurtb-eatit wind^ have not time lo get warmed by contact 
in crowing, ao the shores are bleak and deaolnle, much more 



to tlinn tlie country iminfidiatcly Iwlow DoUigiia. No 
doiilil away from the sea, in fliclt«i'i:d vnll^ys, at the foot 
of the Aponniiiiw, aro Dooka in wliicli v<'g(.'triti«n in more 
»outlit-rlyi liut all alon^ the fhore, iu the va^t ]ituii)a we 
traversed, houtidiid on the fsr-oH' western hoinz'>n by low 
hills, all was itlill bleak and winterly until we rvaclied 
Vwto, on a purnllel line n-ith Hora<v Previoiialy wo had 
Men a few small FSr trees, stiu^y^lin}; for exifitence in back 
yards, or in ^nrJucis surrtiundetl by hi^h waits, as we hoc 
them in our own country*, «ay at Kyde, Iiile »r Wight; 
but they never seemed able to boldly take to the o|ieii 
country. These immense plains were principally covered 
with cerrrals, or lyin>; fitlluw, not a hcjid of cattle was to 
l)C nvn, and no farmhouite«. The native pciputaliou evi- 
dently stagnated in aiiarse viUu}>«9 and towns, with little 
evidenc« of civiliEuliou around tlicm excejtt huD<Lsom« 
churches. It ix clear that iu Southern Kiir(i|H', iu the 
Middk Ages, all the savings, all the superlluuiiH wejlth of 
the country, must have been devoted to building and embeU 
lishin^ ehurchcf^ On no other i^ound can we explain 
their number uud magnificence iu countrios which must 
have lieen then even more wretchedly poor than they 
atipear to he to-day. That may he one reason why capital 
did not accumulate! in thcute days, nnd take Other (lireetionc,- 
M it does now. 1 anked tTavellingoompaniona how thctic 
immense corn plains were manured, and the answer was 
that they were not manured at all, but allowed to remain 
Tallow, ami to recover themselves by " natural processed." 

Tticsc companions wore principally local gentlemen, few 
and far between, who ^t into the carriagu to travel from 
one town to another. I contrived, by diligent crosM-qucs- 
tioning, to get a dt-al of information from them on the 
tuhjeut of their luitive districts. It became ck-iir t» me 
that the passage of the railway throuKh these littJe- 
frequentcd regions, ami the amalgnmotion of all Italy into 
one kingdom, " Ituliu UniUi," hw given a great impulse to 
civilization. It has inei-eiased the value of land and of its 
products; it hns raised the wages of labour, aad ia 
powerfully stimulating the intellect and resources of all 
cloawa iu this part cf Italy. My Italian fellow-travellens 



w«ro fnll of Bchemn for the udvimccinenl nntl roj^hcntion 
of tbeir native provinco. A few yvan wilt, nio«t luwuredly, 
inoculute the entire puptiblion with iOeos of progrera, awl 
woHi woud«rs in tlio ncifure of these eaBt«rn reitiona 
hitherto iK> u)iittlii^lic, liithi^rto lull behind in the prof^reM 
of Italian oiviliiutioD. 

Such vras the opioion aUo ofnn En;;lish |*«ntlcnian who, 
like myMlf, was going down to ]lrin(li«i, and wiu my 
priiK!i|wl wmpanion duHnf; a loni; day's juurD<-y. He wu 
an etif^ineer, residing at Sydney, in Auntralia, bad been 
awiiy two munlhs Ironi homo to do a little iKisincsa in 
£rigUiid, had uccomplivht'd tt, and wait on hifi wny back. 
The httle husiucM mat uierely thiit. He wuh vuunectvd 
with a railway in Aiu^tralia, for which capital and labour 
wera r«qnir(id. So ho hod lefl Sydney three montba 
before, had ctomd thn l^ciltc, landing at San Franci»co, th« 
Amorii-an continent by nii), and then the Atlantic. lu 
Imndon he had niist-d the money he required, engaged 
600 navvieN, shipped them off in two vwkcU, and wan on 
Ilia way honiu, where he expected to he within xix wtniks. 
He vhowed me pbotogrnphs of hie wife and children, living, 
Buy Adelaide Ternwe, Sydney, and tidkcd of this joumev — 
in which, like Ariel, ho hikd put a girdle rotind the enrtfi^ 
oa calmly as if it had been a mere excursion frum London 
to Dublin. I could t>ol help thinking that a dozen of mwi 
like him in eleepy Ancona would foon rcvolutioniza th^^J 
place, an<l make a very dilfen^nt city of it. ^H 

Below Vasto, on creeping the base of the promontory, we 
cane upon mme modern tv-tiixcd Olive treco. Uerv nnd there 
W(* pnsviM through putclit? of uiicullivated ground, Kandy, 
silick-ous, which was covi-red with the same vc^tation as 
Uu: maqui* or brushwood in Corsica — Cistus jimt beginning 
to llower. Juniper, Lenti««uK, Ferula, Asphodel, Ilex, Corlc^ 
Oak, but no Mediterranean Heath. 

At Biiri, whieli in parallel with Naples, a branch Unegoet 
to Tarunto. I hud long wished to viiiit this dLy, it looks 
90 very tempting on the map; sixty niilee (one di'grec) 
nouth of Kaples, turned to the Eoutli-wi'ct, und sheltered 
from the north>e«at by a Miinicirciilar mountain range, 
quite exjiocted to SihI an unknown southern KIdonido, 



t was (li«appoihle<]. The moiintnin mn:^ only riseB 
lOOO fH;t— tiol enough to give complete juiitrplirm from 
th« north-east winds, «veD in this southern latiludu, anil 
the lull exposure to tlie »oiilh-w«<tvrl}' winds if cWarly a 
dieailviintag«. Still, some striking unci interevtiD^r Tncts 
rm tlcveloped in this Blifiht ascent and eliort journey. 

On leaving Bari, nt tlie hiim of the low r»nL'«, ue crossed 
(frovc of very r<w[iC<;lal)li' ()liv« tr«esc, hot iit IJIKI r.;et they 
lelt iiK, to be replaced by a forest ot stunted deeiiluoitx oiiIck. 
In their turn they dieitpppiircd at ahont TiMI I'eet, und rri>Ri 
this to the Biininiil, which I found lOllO feet. The north- 
east wind had it clearly nil its own way on thin the north 
ttitie of the range. At this low altitude there waa Knirc^ely 
n tree to bo seen, but immense trAot* of fresh green scanty 
puturii(^>, juKt US on a WeUh mountain. On dexcondiog 
the Roulheni side there were no Uuks, the Olivea beginninf* 
to ajipt-ar at 700 feet. At firrt poor and small, they 
gradnally became lari^T, and ut ttiv southern base we 
saw line old troex, although not lo lurge u* Umno of the 
(iriioiM^- Kiviera. Taruuto ia an old waU-eaclused Itjdian 
oity, eTntn|>ed and confined, aa all such towns are in Italy, 
situated at the hufc of a penin*ulii. In a market garden, 
Etirroun<le<l by high u-kIIk, 1 found large Fig tnie*, I>omo- 
granatin. Apricots, no Oranges nor Lemons. There were 
plenty in the market, hut, what with the north-east wind 
at the liaek, and the hliutt of euuth-wentcrly gide* in front, 
thoy oouhi not grow on the coa^t, I was told, altltungh they 
grew freely in the interior. Tnranto it«clf ia a wretched 
but pie1tirc«c|uc Italian town of COUO inhabitant*), with no 
rcgnlar >nu or hotel — merely a cal'^ with some aleeping- 
rooms above it. 

1 rclurn<s) to Bari, and purawed my journey to Brindisi. 
Here 1 found the eaine conditions tliat had marked tho 
entire journey from Ituli^^a downwards— -a sotitheni lati- 
tude and powerlul sun in vain contending with expufure to 
northH'a>t wiudK. Brindiai is on a promontory turned to 
the north, and gets its aun laterally, as it were. Wben:ver 
the north-eaj>t wind reaches, the land is litondly naked, 
ndiicc«l til vines and cereals; where there ia exposure to 
tlio »un, and proleotjon from the north by wolU or other- 



wtiH>, it (TTOWB a\\ the Routlicrn prcducts, ji»t liko Napla 
or t>ulfrti<(. Thiis, tbcrc are fimiW gardeni in \iw totro 
in wli»c}i »t^ fine Onmp- mid Li-mon trees, coreiwl uith 
bvaulirul fniil of exci-llciit quality ; but they ate id 
C4>urU, or iurrouiided by •Katta tn-eiity feet bigb. Vou do 
Bol tvi'ii uw th« lojM of the Ireiw iti pa^aing alow^ tli« 
vtjvvU at Ihc bnM> of th« giirden walld. On the othi-r sid«* 
of lUo harbotir, in a valley or fold of bind wttli a tiuutb- 
wtMitt'rii fxiici*iirr, mid prolet-tcd from the north by n belt 
of Fit trrvn, I MW (April iT}) in floiv«r many of the plant* 
1 bod led ill Itoner in loy Itivicra pardcn cjfrht day« 
Ix'furo. Swcvt I'voB, Kotics — Baiikmn, Bi-ngnl, miiliillon, 
TcR, hybrid ; amoDg otbvrn, Chromatclla, (jluire <\v Dijon, 
Iiiiniar<|iii>, Malmaition, limpeivui' de Maroc; Jaemiuum 
rovolulum, Liniim nibrnin, Verbciin, Zinnia, Pt-t«inia, 
Ijunlaita, Cincrariii, IMiirfruiiiiim, double (iei'aniiim, Straw- 
bnrrifs nearly ripi>. Most of these plants, however, tlie 
lIoKCB escfpted, were not luxuriant and fresb, as with me at 
Meiitone. Tbcy memed stinted, f^-ncridly unhappy, as if 
they Imd niffured from cold in tbe winter. In tin* garden 
were largo Alotw and Oiiuntias, unknown all alon;; the eooat. 
In the very centre, ami in the most sheltered site in tli« 
^rdvn, Ihono was a Lvmuu tree, «nmc ten foet high, cuvcted 
with fiuit. From th« way i» which Ofanij^ett and LfinoDS 
thrive in Italy and in Spain, in the closest possible ^iiiarten 
— in courtyiiriU in the centre of towiin, MirrotiinK-d with 
high wall*, in IiuHowb and valleys without down dttiu):bl«— 
I ibiuk it oleor th«y would thrive und I'ruit with ub abun- 
duiilly under glawi, and might, m Mr. Rivera anys, be 
cultivated wilh proHt, as Grapes and Feachea are; pi-rhuua, 
even, we might improve on qiialiiy. An old quarry, witli 
a )H>utbern expo«iirc, would be tlie very plu'.'c for an Oiange 
oirbard. \Vhut tliey appvur not to be able to bear in froul 
or wind; otherwise ihey ai-e easily pleased. Some of the 
finest Orauge trees I have ever sieii were in the cloeo COUtt* 

till- Sevillu Cathedral, in 8pain. 
found, once more, that complete protection froni 
via, Buch as is obtained on the (ienoese Kiviera, 
> for many de^^recs of latitude ; wlicicas (-x|KM'Uru 

iDouiitain windu, «ucb aa impinge on the euttrv 




firn onft"t nf Italy, titkes away the f^nod efTi-ct oF many 
di.f{re«« gf btittnU*. The v*K^tatioii of the Ocnoi-w Hiviora 
id th»t of Ihe <.he1t:«ri>(l rejfifiua of Sicily, 6' fuftlier Bnutli i 
wherea§ titc ve';«t.ition o( Dolo^iia and Aiicona is tliat of 
the Miitnil r«^OM of Frmicf, 6° more iiortli. Tlit: fui-t 
illuMtruted ia tli« adrautatre of pratcclioii frnm tlie north in 
all r^<^nBi Ai^d °f f")' expoBore to tbo sonth. Every etvp 
of my Meditiirmneiin cxplonition* and jountcj'ingit hiis 
confirmed th« truth i>r thin ittuteroent. 

The excuTHtoii to Tarunto mudo mo too late for thu 
■tvumur on which I itilcmU-d lo oinliark for lh« Kort, m I 
bad to wait acvcral dayH fur the next. Tliix interval I 
mmt very comforlably at the " Untnd IIot«l," exploring 
. Urn prcifiiit town, ruminating on the past, and epccnliitiu;; 
on ttie future. The K^reiiter pari, of the time I wu» quite 
■lone — tlie only (jueat in this hotel, built by the Fenineular 
Compuny for tla-ir piiF>>engi.TR to nnd from Ak-xundriii. It 
ia a moit comfDrlAbic, hixuriouK i^irtiviini>iii), iind pre»ent(* 
the corioiia ftatare of fillini; and emplyiii^ by u kind of 
tido on tho advent of the Alexandria sU-nmerx. On the 
arrival or departure of one of thwc mngnifit-cnl vrwcU the 
h<it4.-l auakett as from a deep clumber. All b bif^tie 
aitd orderly afrttation, moat of the liO rooma are occnpicd, 
and movement prevaiU in the ertjibli-ihmi-nt for twenty-four 
or fiiTty-eight hours, by which lime all have dejiurted, and 
silenc« and rspose are oiuw more the order of ihe day. 

One ■teantr arrived fVom Aloxandria, with the Indian 
mail and paaMit^rs, and one ilep;irt«il, doritiK my Kojourn. 
Both were moat dramatic event* to the looker ou, and each 
explained aitd complvte<l the other. 

The depaiiure represented youth — the commencement of 
life, am) of an Oriental career ; the arrivid was the rcvoru 
of the pielure. Tho arrivid from the Kaat ffavc, iw it w-n-, 
a tal'ieJU of the retnrn of (he nm« joyous, boisleruus, 
youtldiil j»iBsen<^ra, ten, twenty, thirty yeare hence. 
They retnnit-d mm Nober, middlc-a^ed men, with pale 
wives, will) thin sinkly-louLin;; cliiidren, with Oriental- 
viMiuud wrvants, ayahs, and bearers ; or na oged men at 
the end of their euotern eai-eer, aharp-eycd nnd life-woni, 
men who had clearly been ucciutomcd to commaod and to 




ho iilicycd, nnil nho were returning to «nd their Jayi 
tlit!ir MitivL' (■■Miiiiry. 

'I'lie liiftt — the (i«i)iirtiiiir iiasteii^era — were roostly youasf, 
Ftroriif, healthy, (vell'ilresfed, in boisterous spirit*. 0«iitl< 
tiit-ii und ladies, eecmpd like n troop of youii; pco[ilo aV 
lU'f^ent'K Pnrlc nowrr-iihow on u line MUinmer dxy; ev< 
their lugKrage was quite new and handsome. Tbe arriving 
piwscnjjers — men, women, and children— hnd evidently 

fiasiaed through the lr)'int; "rdeulii ol' lift;. They hnd do 
on^r rosea on their cheeks, and ninny loobeii til and 
anxions. Their Barn.onts were trnv«l-worn and utinnod, 
tlieir luggage wim old and batlored. Tliuy liud evidently 
been battliitg with life, sti'U|{KliiiK with work, etinutle, a 
oiirps for years, nnd many had clearly sulfered in the slrugg! 

Itrindisi, in the duys of the Komsu cmjienir*, wiu a great 
and important city, the termination of the A)>pian way 
from Rome. It was the military nnd coinmereinl port of 
emliarltation for the East, fur Ora-ce, t^^ypt, t':ik'slinL>, and 
Ai>in Minor. On the tulwidi-ncv ol' the Koniun empire, it 
fell into decay, became and remained an insi^nilican 
provincial town, without commcrceor even local importau< 
And that until ijuitu recently. 

i)uring the Franco-Oermnn war tlie Indian mail wi 
diverted from Marseilles lo Brindisi, a chane^ rendered 
fcnKihlo by the completion of the luilian railway down the 
Adriatic coaitt. With tbe stream of paeaen^em finm Eiu-o[ie 
to tbe East, a new life lias been infused into the dormant 
city. The government ha* dredged the ma^niti<'<'nt old 
port, which had been allowed to till up. and haa h'ltit 
great jetty or pier, cmnoclint; an island outside with t. 
main land, tbu> f»rinin<; un ostcniiive onior port. Doi 
And wareboaseii are also beiui; built, partly by private ooi 
paniea, and land has (|andrupled in value. On every si 
Are cvideoct^d of improvement, of activity. 

'riiia revival of energy, however, ia, I wax told, taking 
place from without, not from within. It is Italians from 
the noiih, from Genoa and Milan, and foreigners, who ar« 
the loading promotei-s of all this commercial and social 
pri>gn<s8. A little incident in tlic social state of Urindisi 
gives the key to tbe tiumnolence of itu native inhahi> 
t«iil«. J wanted some books to read, and in this town of 

scARcmr OF books — national revival. 243 

16,000 inhabitants tlierc were none to be either borrowed 
or bou;>lit; thvru wns neither cirvuliitin;; lilirury nor 
bookwllur. Alter aiaay inquiries, I wili <l)rcDted to it kind 
of baznar; the proprietor opened a cupboard, and abon-ed 
in« eomo fiflf volumes of nchoolbooUt! and missDU, or 
di arch -Iter vtev*, with a few rcligiouii work*. IL uux all he 
had, nor waa there a newsriaper on Mile in the town. It is 
difficult for us to oonceiva such a <tat« of intellectual 
Bomuiiluiicu in the nineteenth eentiiry. 

Not finding any books in the town, 1 inquired if there 
WM anjr pubhc library, and was told that thcro tvas one at 
tlie epiacopal [Mbiee, »o I Ktnricd to fiixi it. At the palncu 
1 inquired for the librarian, and after being; handed about 
from one servant to another was shown into the presence of 
a dignified old gcntlemim, who proved to be the archbishop 
himself I I made an apology and explained my mission, 
on which he made mc «it down, and conversed a lon^ 
whilt uitli me, lukiiif; all kinds of qiiesliitns about my 
Jonrner'and itit object, Kugland and our fvatem of popular 
education. He then deputed one of his conplains Co show 
me the library. With Uiis ruverond gentleman, a most 
oourleouH and learned man, I tipent a \atig moniing ex- 
aminiu); early and curious editions of the classics and of 
theolo)^ical works, of which the library lit mainly composed. 
Tlie arch bishop and hi:* cliapluitis were men of refinement 
and cultivation, ^^'hcn the heads of the educational de- 
partment in a conntry an- thus enlightened, and the rest of 
the commnnity luv left in thorouf^h intellectual iltirkness, 
the dilTerenoe between the two mu«l be intentional, the 
result of a systein. 

I luivc recently (May, 1S7-1) traversed Italy from Xaplea 
to Turin, and have found everywhere Ibc mo«t und'.-iitabte 
evidence of a national revival. Since the entire country 
luu been nnit«d under a single national government, A 
complete intellectual regeneration has uppurently com- 
menced, and is rapidly progressing. Italy is now totally 
diflerent from the country that I Knew twcnty-Rve ^vcura 
ago. Public and private improvements are going on every- 
where. In Catania, Messina, Naples, Rome, Florence, anil 
in nearly evety ottier town there is rvtdcnoc of pr'^grcaa UD 
every side. New uawalls and jeltiett, docks and wan- 



linu^cs ill mnrittmc townii, draining and rebuilding in the 
ooDtinenUl towns, are in pro;rrcc« ever>'wb«rc. The Tail- 
ways, thfl Bi™mi.-T«, nml tile eondCriptioD, bv mixing 
pi-dvincnt Dud riires, ure amal^mntin^ the w1i»l« nation. 
Picturi-snue costumeB are disappenring. and at IU>me and 
Naples Uicy nro now scarcely fwn. But tlu-n with thvni 
are uli^o diMipprnrin^ iS\e hegpan, the. luzznrone, fvnt 
into almphotiees; in a word, the pictureBqueoeM of dirt and 
ol rnRs is ili-jiarl inji from Italy, 

In the Goiinlry lift! is Irn'oming more a^rure, the pi^aaaota 
hilhert« huddled in llieir towns and viltaK«B, lor the nice 
ut' muliial Riccour unci mpport nf^ninRt brif;anda and evil- 
doeni, ure heninninp to isBiu' forth. Bi-forc long there will 
)>e isolatod inrmhouses and fini.ill lianilett>, ss with iis, as in 
Pii-dniont and Ixinilmrtly. 1 found the fertile wmntry 
from Nupl<-H t<i Koriie, I'rom Kcim« to Moreiiei;, eiilliMit«r<l 
like a iraiden — not s need to he seen, and thai iis it wer« 
hjt invihille hands, by pcavanTs who in these regions live 
still in villiip;-K and smull towiiK, and have to Idao hours 
daily ill walking 1o and Trom their work. 

And thus is U-iii^ lullillod the prophecy in " Itoi 
Italy/' placed at the bewl of this chapter — 

, . . , "Twii-eliart thou lived already; 
Twien sbone among the oatioiia of tlio wnrlil, 
A* Ih* ma •hinn among th« lentcr lighu 
Of hoaveu ; «xd bd^Lt aqais." .... 

Notwithttandini; the d«-arth of Imnlta at Biindin, I 
inanii;;ed to aci over mv five days' detention Vi-ry Kutia- 
fuctorily. liVhat with ^attinfj* in th« innvr putt, lionling 
and hathiu); in the outer one, explorintt the loun and iia 
BUtiiiuitii'v, as iileo the (pirdeuF and phintaticmH in the 
vietnity, whiil with watehiii^ and moralixin^ over tho pas- 
setitcerB deput'tintt for and arriving; from India, u hut with 
interviewing; the arrhbishop and his vhupUinu, cornpleling 
arrviim of L-orn-ypondence, and wi'itinj; u i-(hi|iIu of oenyE on 
tnedii-al and horticultural si)bj(i.-te, time did not hniii; wry 
hoiivy on my baiKls. Stilt when the Corfu steamer airiv 
from TriiAitv, I was ijuite ready to depart. 






. . . . " And be there joined 
Patience and temperance nitn this high reserve, 
Honour that knows the path and will not awervo, 
Affections which, if put to proof, are kind. 
And pietj towards God. Such men of old 
Were England's native growth, and throughout Spain, 
Thanks to high God, fokests op such ksuaih. 
Then, for that country, let our hopes be bold, 
For matched with these shall Policy prove vain. 
Her arts, ber strength, her iron, and her gold," 

WoKDSWORTU, Sontust xxviiL 


1 HAW been visiting Algeria with some friends, and we had 
brought our Alj^L-rian explorations to a close at Oran. We 
left Oran <ni the SOtli of April, 1S159, at p.m., and reached 
Curthj.>^ena the followiiij^ morning, in fifteen hoiirs. Tiie 
passage was rough, owini^ to the strong west or nortli-weat 
wind from the Atlantic, which was liurrying south to fill 
the vacuum caused by hi-at over the Desert of Sahara, 
sucked in by tliat j^reat natural furnace. This wijid was 
carrying with it dark ruin-loaded clouds to water and lerti- 
lize Algeria. The captain told us that the wind svuuJd 
lull, and the sea become calm, when we got within fifty 
miles of the coust of Spain, owing to the shelter of Cape de 
Gala. Wlielher we really did get under tlie shelter of tliis 
cape, or whether it was, as I suspect, that the African 
Desert pulled tlie wind down south, out of our wny, I 
cannot say, but the captain's words proved true. We had 
some hours of calm aad comfort before we reached the coast, 

243 SPAIN. 

ami were nble to Bcnn its rocky shores from ikTar. Tliere vettr* 
nil bat u culm wlioii we entered the magniGoeut port of 
Ciirthat^ena, tlie Plymootli of Spain. 

On Inok'intr ri>un(l at t)ic nigh limcetono roclts nnd^ 
inoiiiitiiiiis whicb form th« cnvft liiii,', «nd »iiiTOUtid the 
port, I niblteJ my eyi» nilh astouUhnieut. Nut a shrub, 
not » blade of gnus, not a vestigi; of vegetable life uf on/ 
kind or denniptioii was tberu to be seen on tlie eVttEt, or 
on the shore inbiid. St-orchetl, browned by the sun, the 
rooky coast mi^hl have »>me that very day out of Pluto'a 
laboratory. 1 wns subsequently tuM by the French Consnl 
that it t'oldoin mined at Ciir'bagena, and that they had 
then bei-n vi^lit montln* witlmut luiy min at all, Ihat a, 
diirin-f one of the ruinietit winters on record tn Europe 
•^'tii-ndly, as well as in the north of Africa. I took a wulk 
on the rampHrt^, and in the vk-inity of the town, but Tound 
no more vegi-tnt ion thnn on a brick kiln, with one excep- 
tion, a smnll herbiici-oua jdant, from six to twelve inc^Mfl 
in liei^hi, with jirfcn ilestiy leaves, whicb f^KW sparsely 
bi-n- anil there, and of which no one knew the nanii'. I 
Kuw nolhini' in this sunburnt, dirty, niinenible town to 
deacrve atti^nlion, e»<;ej)ling the port, llw fortillcations, and 
a g^rand old lower built by the Cartba;;iniait9 more tlinn 
two tlionsand years a^o. The Spanish Goverriment, 
Vandal like, i; at present levi'llin^ to the ground this 
curioun remiiHiit of antiijiiity, to make way for some im- 
provements. Ovvin^ to tbe existence of a deep and aaf« 
port, onv of tbe very lwt>t in the Mcditorrnnraii, Cartha- 
geni) bim altvays been an important military station, and 
wua ibe prinri]>iil military and eummerciul i>ort in tbe 
Hoiirisbinij^ daja of Spanitih colunieutiun. Tne priuei{Ml 
riches of litis distriet, now-a-days, are valuable leod and 
sivcr mine*, worked by Iho Citilhiif^^nians in former ttmcf). 
H.iving Hwn 'jiiiU' enough of Ciirtb ij^i-na in (be oixirM; of_ 
tbe day, wn started that evening for Miirein, described ii 
bi''>ks of travel as an Kden of rtrlitity and beauty. 

'I'hv railioad at once enteretl upon n pkin cradually 
riain^ to tbe north, the a»jH>et of wbidi was peculiar. It 
waa e4rel'uUy ploughed and furrowed, but not the vesttfue 
of a crop was tliera to be seen — nothing but ibe naluid 




^^rth. On inquiry, I lennit that the land bad Wu fully 

!)rv)Miv<I mid that Bt-cd l>ii^ been sown, but that m no rtiiii 
lad fullen yiiice Iiul SepteiiiU-r, tlic KOi-d »uwii had uuver 
come u|). Such a swni; must be witnessed to be belii;ved— 
thirty miles of ploughed bind without u hladu ofgriini on it, 
fur wutit of rooiittiire. Thi« I whs told wiiii thu ousu two 
years out of tlitee; ull ho|ie of hiirveat I'ur iliia year was 
lodt. Kvon if raio came it woald uow be too late, tho sua 
had Wonto too powerful, and would burn up tlie t;rain 
wer« it Ut i^rmiiMtc. A* it wji* nearly ripi,' iii other rei;ioii8, 
tiiiB can be «aitily undenitoad. I'liere uih nut, however, un 
euliri; abwocc of vojfetuble lite, ua ut und near C'arthu<;i'na, 
for tlie i>tiiia was Ppareuly dotted with Fi-^, Olive, Curunba, 
Almoad, Mulberry, and Pouu-^iuiiutc trui-x, tho latter in 
flower. They wave uU sm^il), and miberuiile in their leaf 
d«rvlopm«ut, owing to the drouj^ht and to tho poverty of 
tb« fuil^-u mvn culcarvotu rubble, vnriud by »]>ptirently 
Miff oUya, 

111 thi» arid dc«ert, the like of whieh I never witnuased 
in Ai^o^ria, 1 repi-atedly >aw lulbt of the Chamserops humilis, 
wliii-b thu- estiiblislietl iu ri^ht of domicile in eouth-oastern 
Knrope. I hUo mt-t wilb it btcr, between Mnrda luid 
Altuunt«, and iu dvnse maMeit in tho Andulusiiun valleys. 
Xear lite rare houses or farmii were i^lumps of Opuntia or 
Burbary I'ig in Huwer. The speeiL-s ;;ro\vn ts the ODO 
without Mpim-s, or with Roft 8pine«, whieli the cattle can eitt. 
Uttierwise, there was no Korub nor " inuijiiii^," no brufib- 
wood, no K'^-'^xes, nothiofp for mile after mile but plains 
eai-i.-liilly pion;jhed and sown by the lubuur of man ; ull to 
no iivail. On eiigb side of the widu pbiin ro«C limeKtono 
inouutains, |>re«enlinf{ buwiltic Hawk livre and there, and 
dftninuhin^; in heit;ht aa the niilroad (gradually ascended. 
At ulwut (SOU feet above the sea, (tome thirty mile* from 
the chore, whvrv tlie desolation had Weonie, if pua^ible, 
fiercer — for even the Curouba and Olive Ireea had ({iven io 
— the line turned to tJie west, and passed thruiii^h a kind of 
gor^e, to descend into the plain of Murcia. 

The plain of Murvia in nlluviul, iu the form of ft delta, 
between tivo ranges of limedtotke inountiiins, some 20UO or 
3000 feet high, aad is raudcred fertile by the presence of a 



small river, and hy a evstcm of itrlii^tion which dntm 
tliv time ol'tho Moors, siiU trniiFrDrmtf a barren wililem 
into II pi^i'fudi (;iinlL-ii. Tlii; inounluin fuiw coiitiniied to 
present exnotly tlie name I'eatui'es of Wrrcti draoUtioii as 
near CarthaiJiena, until a level ivas attained which i^nabled 
the water to lie iisrd, and tlii.-n thv tranii formation waa 
magical. By the nicimii of niiiutK of derivation taken at a 
liij^Tiur level in the valley, a very considerable ei^teat of th« 
sliiping ground even is bruu^fht iiiidf r the bcnelioial iiitlacQce 
ol" water, and at once iiniile* with fertility. From the 
harnmi'ti'r, 1 should Kay lluit the irri;;ation hrginK about 
lOUti feel aluive the sea-levei. Inatantly, the nuked, barren, 
furrowed fields rivc place to Wheat orops, whidi increa. 
ill Itixurianve im w« dcboi-nd. As the nod forru^noua U 
toil bi-ooineii deeper, and rieher ia huniun prodiivui) )>y cei 
turieii of previous cultivation and vei^etation, the Carou' 
tbe Olives, the Fij; trees liecome larger — more flonrishinfjj 
the Vines, up to then, mere dry );uarled rootd, iiMiiit; one 
foot from tlie ground, hIuiw k-aves ; Mnlherrj- tri-w make 
their appvuranee, thi^n I'omi-^ranntv^ in Hower, bI*0 Dat« 
Piibna in uonsiUerable numbers, in i;roupa of two, three, or 
more, principally near the farms. 

When till- level phiin tvan reached, a roaplu of milea 
from the town of Miir>-i;i, tUi; luxuriance of vi-j«lati<>ii was 
extieine. Curoub;ii>, OpuiitiuH, and Olivua all but disap- 
peared, the land had became too valuable for them. Tlie 
amall Fin trei's had (^hnn>ri-d into lar^ forest tnx-e, many 
fot in diameter; the Mulbktrry waa planted tbic-lcly ahmff 
the side of the roati and antaml the tields, whilst the ground 
Vtaa piiaeipally occUj>ied by dense luxuriant erops of Wheat, 
thnau feet hi^h, jntt tnrnin;; colour, with here and thenj 
p«toliea of Flax, Bi;an>., iVai>, and more Pidmn from twenty 
to w^venty or eighty lect bit;h. This huuriiint vegetation 
owed its existence entirvly to ini^ation, i«r her*, aa at 
Carthagena, I was told that it bad not rained for aix or 
ci^ht montlia; but an entire river had been divert^-d from 
itii uoumu and uiied up. Kvery plot of cultivated |;rouii<i 
waa Burrounded by an irri;-at)ou ditch, every field by a 
rairad Mrth hank, some ten inches hi}>h, ami by this means 
thvre wa> tlie power of Uirowiu;' water over every foot of 


tluF arUficuilly fcrtili,* rpfl^ion. The riviT ituclf minfj in 
Die mouiiUuns of tlit* interior wb^ru plt-nty of luJii full*, 
the supply of water is uever wnntin-*, bowevcr great atid 
continitoiis muy Ihi Uio \ocn] drought, cvcu if it laets for 

Ttms, the fertile pliiin of Muroiu Jtt iodopendeut of raiii* 
&1I. With a newr-failiuf^ supply of sumhine, bpati and 
WBtvf, il had buen, from the time of the Moor», who tint 
ebt«)»liiihcd the »ytU:m of irrij^ittion, ii mc-rc innrkct i;urdcn,i 
like those at Battvisi-a, and baa be«n oultivatvd in the 
ume way, one ciMp rapidly auoceedin^ anotlier. As 
a rmiilt of this prol'iiHU prodiielion of the ncucEsarios of 
life in a *oiithern diiiiato— oil, wine, brvitd, dutcif, vvge- 
table!*, fruita — a large town bas jirown up in the midat of 
it, th(t totvn of Miircia with its 45,00(1 inhubitants, liviQij 
unii fiittumn;; on Kiiliiry'K boimly. From lh« cathi-dr 
towvr U ncen vWrly llii; immcDou dvltjt, with iu Imhc oii 
the J>ea, vncli»ed betiveen two liiiieftttine mountain ruiiges, 
eutin-ly coveiw) with th« ve^etalion I have describoii, nod 
di>tt(.tl with groups of tiill i'alme, which givu a very Oricntul 
apiwnrunoc to the avL'nery. 


On rising tlie morninj; after our arrival at Murcia, and 
leaving; the huti.-l, to look nliout ns, wc found out thut we 
rwilly were in Spain, in the country of the IJiirher of 
Sevilio, of Count Atmaviva, of Uun Ba.iiliii; evurvthin^ 
was ijpanish. The women hud nmntdlai and fans, and the 
men rvidly viotv the dr^.ml ftintiutical costunKM wu tUM 
reprpMinU^ on the situije and in hook*. The Ktreeta were 
narn>w, tbejiotmed low, the wimlous ]>roii-cU-d with iron 
ecreeno, Udgini^ out Irom thx window-sill. Tliu l>u;;',;iini 
were ptirt4ires({<m and importunate. The churobe* wvru 
niimei^tuN and ini|)oiitnif, towering over the t^iwn and 
dwarfinc all other buililin|!;8, jtlst as the Churth of the 
lutpiiiiilion, for centuries, toweled over and dwarfed irve 
judi^etit and social lil'v in S]MiH. 

It wiw Sunday, iind the entire population was out oCj 
door* in holiday costume, wbieh gave ns a ;;uod opportunitji 
of Btwlyin;; costume and race. Tbo lower ordvm, and tin 




lowvr mi(I(l1« cIamco, lind clearly a d««1 or Arab or Mooris 
blood in tliL'ir veins. Th«r Bomplexions ivere Bwarth; 
oliv« oolouied, and their eyes and hair ({vncraUy cootl bUtck. 
TIte women <lid nut titrikv »iv lu piirtivularly lovely, but 
thoy had u lin;, an aiiiniiiluni about their sneeob anil move- 
ments that we seldom see in northern climea. Many of 
the hif|>l>er oUas women sMmcd to belong; to a diircreat 
moo, for they wer« tairskiiincd, and liud brown, even lit;ht 
halt. I'hiH diilerenoi) of race cliaracteri alios was fitill more 
marlced further north, at V';ilencia nnd Madrid. No doubt 
these li<;hl-coin|)loxioiR-d 8piiniurd>^ arc the liiiuti deMccn- 
danta of thu norUu-rn rlle>^s ihiit Inn;; held S]iain iu aubjee* 
tton, of the Goths and N'uudala of earlv hi&tory. 

M'hilst at Murcia there was a " Aull-fiffht," so, us in 
duty bound, wc w«nt to witix-ss the purformanco. It wm 
the first exhihittoii of lh« kind that I bad seen, and will ba 
the last that 1 shall ever ivitnees. I wj^ not so uiuch struek 
with the cruelty of the entire procwedin;;, although tliul ia 
very great, as with the Irwcliery nnd barhanty shown 
the bnivB bull. Tliu one that 1 «iiw fought like ii IVujud 
of old, K|ili;iidiilly, magnilieeDtly, ref'u»in[; no enemy, no 
eoeounter. Ue turned over the I'icadors like men of straw, 
ripped tip Uie horses, and drove all before him like chaff. 
Tlu-n, III laitt, out of hreath, tired with hia vain cfri>rtii to 
f(et at hit> enemies, he went to the gate by whieh he lia<l 
Mitered.and bellowed to be let out. He seemed to say,' ~ 
have liiul onougl) of this conlumpliblc fully, let m* oat*^ 
lie was allowed lo depart for ii few minut««, whitat tli6 
dead horses were drawn awuy, and the aniphitbMitre wiia 
put ID order. Tbon the portal was opened, and the same 
bull bounded into the arenii perfectly furioifs, W-llowing 
and tossing the sand at bis feet> He Rocmed to have 
thought better of it, and to be determined that thia time 
lie really would make niinocmeut ot his eneunics ; he was 
clearly miieh mora dan|rert>ue. Within five miiiuU-H lie oil 
but pinned one of hia tornumtors to the wooden huluBlmde, 
making the building resound with the sliuck, and tearing 
otTone of his honm. The man was clearly hurt, for a)- 
tliou}>h be eonlrived to jump over the bubietrade, and to 
quietly walk aivay, puttiii)^ a good fac« on it, be aoou dis* 


appeared, and was seen no more. By this time my sym- 
pathies were thoroughty enlisted on the bull's side. I 
mentally applauded him, saying with the Spanish audience 
" Bravo Toro," and applying to the injured Toreador the 
Yorkshire jury's verdict, "Served him right." Then to 
my indignation, ds if in revenge for his uoble defence, a 
dozen large bulldogs were let loose ou the brave animal. 
They instantly fastened on hiin, one on each ear, one on 
the tail, two on the neck, and one on his muzzle. The 
poor brute had a perfect chaplet of these bloodthirsty dog! 
hanging on him like leechts. He was quite powerless to 
get rid of them, and kept careering madly round the 
am uh it heat re, bellowing piteouGly all the while. This waa 
DO longer fair lighting, but a brutal persecution of a noble 
beast. When he was all but exhaugted, he elood still, 
quivering in the arena, and the master of the dogs came 
forward and pulled them away. 

Freed from his tormenlors, his lips torn to shreds, the 
place of his lust horn murkeil by a ^<'ry ga>^h, blood stream- 
ing from bis laucrated cars, neck, sides, and tail, he was 
still game, bellowed deliuuce lustily, and turned round 
once more on his enemies, I thought of Byron's Hnes^ 
for even then, after so brave a fight, there was to be no 
mercy for him, he had not gained his life by so viiHuutly 
defending it. 

" Foil'd, bleeding, farioiis to the last. 
Full in the centre standu the hull at hay, 
'Mill woiindH. a,nii clinging darts and luncea brast. 
And foei Jisablecl in the brutal fray. 
And now the niataiiores aronnJ him play. 
Miiako the red clouk and poise the reudy hrand. 
Once more through all he bursta his thundering way. 
Viiiii rajre ! the maiitlu (juita the conynKO hand, 
Wrajis his fierce eye — "tia past — he Binks upon the sand !" 

BvBON. Childt Iluroid. 

And BO sank my fierce, brave bull. I mourned over him^ 
and left, although the clarion announced oth^r fiithts. But 
I was myself becoming blondtliirsty, and felt, that had tho 
hull pinned one of his tormentors to the earth, as he pinned 
the horses, the sufferer would have haJ but scant commieera- 



tioR from me ; bo I ttioiight it bo«t to depart. It M trul 
■ Itiirbiirous dcone. It noiild liiive a mlflftRiin? finttiK if 
the IniU could Kuvi.' hiM life hy liU bruvi-rr, hiit do, he 
ifl always butdicred, howpvrr lirillianlly he mny fislit. llo 
may nlways siiy, ns did the Komnii Glodiittur of old, 
wben dcfittii); Iclorc the Hvnian emperor, " Morilurua te 
■alutat, impcnitor." " A ninu ubout to die salut«e Uiee, 
O eni|K'ror." 

Whilst at Miireia I went to eco the i)uinmi.T rwidenoe of 
tUe tale Jjiml Hi)wdvn, formerly our ainbaMador at Madrid. 
Some twelve ye;ii'8 previously he houfiht a plot of this rich 
land, nlioiit a mile from the town, built a hou'c, and m:ti)e 
a giirdun. Tho latter is very iiitLTMtiii;; as uk vvidtfiice of 
the rapidity of (rroHtU in tiuch a climatR, with rich earth 
and vater atl liiitum. If what his bailifT lold mo be 
Correct, the Date I'alm planted under fuch coiiditionx t« hf 
no lucan* a kIow fjrowin-f tree, as u<iin!ly niiiiponed. Palnu 
only jiix yeiioi old from the seed «i-ie live feel in the stem, 
whiUt olhi'i'M, twelve yi-nnt old, wciw nvelve or fifti-en feet ; 
quite yoiHit; trees. They are planted in profusion, l>ut 
nearly idways in beds or ditches, sunk two feet below the 
level, so as to admit of water betnff turned in, and of llieir 
beini; thus liternlly drenched. This, 1 wad told, was 
repeatedly done diirin^c the nummer or frrowin;; time. In 
the garden [May l»t) tbi-re was a profusion of monthly 
Roses, multilliira, Uenjjal, Biiuht'ia, and Centifulia, very tew 
hjhrids; also Hullyhuek, Dilphtnium, Poppy, white Lily, 
Jasminiini ivvolutum, Petunia, Carnation, Pink, Stock, 
wilh Iti^nonia jusminoides and Paetion Flowers, «> <:liin 
all in flower. 

In the pnbtie garden at Murcla I found the Mme flowei 
that i>i, with the exception of the last two nametl, our earlf 
eumnier flowers. I tvas rather surprised to si-o in a lurgo 
conservatory at Lord Houdeii's. plunla in ]ioto which I 
should have thought would have done well out of doors— 
Felar|(oniums, Lnntanas. Ijalonia Borbonica, Ahutilous, 
Ileliotriipes — a fuet which seemed to imply cold nights and 
MRie fr»ct in winter. With all its lusnrinnce this valley 
niiut then have a very winterly look, when the Mulberry, 
¥ig, Pomegranate, Almond, and Vine atv all devoid of 






IciivcM. Tlie Oranfte trees an numemiis in tlic diMn'ct, 
lm(. they are RoinTally iibiiitecl id orcbnitls aixl uot an orna- 
im'titn) livi's. Mori'DTifr, they niv Irentecl in a manner 
wliicli much <liiniiiit<tiee their Wuuly. Wlu-n yomi;; tho 
otirtii IB cut near the (around, and the iiuraemuH xhooti 
wtiii-h spring n|> ure pnservi-il, r) that the trei> t;row§ up as 
a hiiKh iinil rviUAins eo. It is );racvfiil cnnu^lt m nn vver* 
ert'eii li\isit, ten or ttftt-en feet lii^h, but lutn all tlte 
oiunity and hcauly of the Ornnye tree whon fully deve- 
loiu'd, a* on the (iimoeee Kivtera, ut Biidiih in Alg«rria, or 
at ShlU ill S^trdiniii. 

I ha<i Icfi Cnithiijiina with n eliudd^r at the very idea of 
twint; (■utidi'iniied to remain th^ri-, not the winter, hiil rvpo 
a vreck "r tuo, allhoii^h, I have iio dnuht, tluil tiiL- climat* 
IB eSii'ittionnUy mild, dry, iind healthy in nintcr. But 
who vuuld rt-main lor moutha in a filthy, diriy, diiitty, 
Hinlfurut S|inimh eeiiport, a kind of eouthern \Vii|)[)ii)K? 
Then there i« no accominodiilion, and prolml'ly nn food fit 
to fut, Tiie inn we sti'pjicd iit was wretched, in a luirrow 
olo«a utreet, without comforia or any onl^ redet-miii'^ |i<iint. 
Thus Ciirlhii;;ena ta altQ(;uthur out of the queetion ae a 
health texiii. 

With .Muivia I was more aareenWy impressed. The 
Ilote), althoni;)! very xvcond rate, wua Itirge iind more cam- 
modiuni', and the fare was belter. 1 have no duuht that 
lifo miKlit 111' artniidwl with tolerablo cutufurt; but Ihca 
this Ui>te1, Ihe piitiiij'ul one, is eitutiti^ in the eentre ol the 
Spanioli l<mn, in a imrrovr Rtrvel, fron) which ellliviae, 
ftnythin^fUut aromatie, constantly aecendtid to my wimiuwit. 
1 have no doulit, from wliut I saw, thnt the winter ojinnte 
is )ilriiNtnt and healthy, dry, vunny, iiud mild, hut t 
prCMurne not sunnier, or milder than in the OeiiouBe Uiviera, 
perhafM^ Hot ni much ko. If nioh ih the ca^c, why dewettd 
to the moot southern extremity of Kurojie, iu the most 
•oulli-enBl corner uf Spain, mcrvly to find what be 
found within a Iwcnty-fDur hnunt' journey of i'lirin? In 
definitive, my mtiilal eoneliision wns, that if I*rd Waldeo 
were to kindly olfer nic, and my friend*, hi* pretty, wetU 
built, uhi-vrfid, airy vilb, on the nutnliirts of tho town, I 
mi-;hl he temptt-u to try Muruia, were 1 still in mnirvb 

254 SPAIN. 

or winter qtmrtprs ; not othcrwisp. Evpn then I sboul j 
have a (jiialm ; I elioiiUi nsk m)w;If w)ii;tli«r tfw very 
extensive anil pcrfvct irrif^tion of hU flower ^rd«n and 
Palm trew, and of the markot -^nrdi-ns snil Palm tfeee 
of hia neighhoure, may not ftmilticv ngue, (ever, miiUria, u 
it <Io«s in tile ontti of the Deeert of Sahara, autl tJiat ev«n , 
in raid-winter. 


In order to understand the climntcs and the very vnri< 
vegetation of Spain, tho exam in at ion of whi«h ivos th« 
viHU^-ial ohjei't of my visit, we aiu»t bear in mind tlie prin- 
oi[>al geo}{raphical and Roolotfical fMlnros of tlio oountr}'. 
I will thvri.-fore biictly n^^pitulat^ tliem before wc proceed 
on our jo 11 ri ivy to Alicante. 

'Hie pi-iun&ula of Sjiain is a mountain pbin or tahk-- 
taiid, raided from two to tlirc^* tliooRund fie«t above its own 
COBita and aliovi; the mw. Thix tuli]ol«niI i* it-'=cir divided 
into parallel Bections, from cast to west, Ity a eeritw of^^ 
hi^ mountain rnngea, all hut parallel to the Pyr«neee, th^^H 
prineipul of which are the Sierra (iuadarrama, thv Sierra^^ 
Tutedo, the Sierra Morena, the Sierra Nevada. tiel«-KO 
these mountain oliaiaN urn tin; i^rvat central raised plains of 
S|>ain, more than two lliotisand feet aliove the aea-k-vol, and 
formei'ty the hottomft or beds of seas and estuariea, or of 
frenhwuU-r lakes. In these pluinit run all the lur(^ rivera, 
all of whicli empty themselves into llie Atlantic with the 
exot'ption of the Kbro. Their course is parallel to the 
mountain chains. Below this tableland u the coast) aoine> 
tiroes a mere ledffe or underoliff, but oftener preMiiting 
■mall alluvial plains of grratvr or Iptw width, watered br 
the rivers tbnt descend from the hi];her rrgion*. It will 
be at once understood that such a country must prvstint two 
totally <liflV-rcnt climate* ; the climate of the coa^t or aea- 
levul. that of the latitude in whieli vJpain is rituat^d, and 
the climate of the eciitr>d raised pl.iins and mountains. 
Tlic latter muKl Iw, and is, from its gvctil uUitude, a much 
colder climate than that of the coast. 



The irmin featUTM of the ffeology of Sjiain *re Twy 
Btmpio nntl ciLiily relaiiicil. Tliv iDDiinlalTi dmin^ cnuoic- 
nit*'(i are primary, and form Ihc biwiit of tin.- j^"»lof;v of 
Spain. Tliejr ctncrgpd before tlio secondary jioriud, lit?fi>re 
the sccwmii»rj" ri>rni«lii>n(i wliicb BUiroiind them. Th« 
(iuadariunia chain is formed of granite, ^riuivH and (■ryxtiil- 
line echtsts ; the Toledo chain of }(Tauit« ; tlie MoreDa 
clintn of xlntcD, pMinmilva, i{uartzit«s, nai sandstone ; the 
Ketrada chain, 3.E. of tirauada, of tnuatet of ervKtallinc 
Mhista with nnmcrooa g)irnL-t«t. 

Thfl •econdary roolia are represtvntcd hy the Trias triple, 
wliich extends from the Pyrenees to Uie i>r<ivint'eil of 
i Adturias and SiintandiT, and also by the Jui-asitic and 
la formationti, n-hich occupy n rutt arm in th« 
and mutliern re);ion8 of S|>ain, funning to tliv 
monntiiine many thousand foot hiifh, whicb ooustttuta 
titn iH?iiitriitiwn between the ctutcrn iind western watershed, 
ond |>enetTat« into the heart of the cvuiitry along the 

Th« twrtinty formations arc represented by nammtilitic 
[xocka or older tvrtiarivs, always contorled, as at SiinUuidcr 
■ad at MalaRS, and by mioceoe or yonnger tertiary bedii or 
depoifite, bnth marine and freshwater. Thc^c youni^r 
tortiiirim ocetipy very extensive arew, iirincipally the uluina 
and valleya of the great rivers, the Kbto, Uonro, Tagus, 
titiiKliaiiA, and Ouoduiquivir, which, a« already stated, w«re 
fomii-rly aeas, eatuaries, or freshwater lalEca, In some 
re);ione the mioccne and pliocene de|K>8)t!i Tvach an eh-va- 
tion of 26UO feel, which sliow* how greatly the peninanlA 
of !S|>niii must have t>een raised in eumpuru lively rLTi.'iit 
geolocieal times. Many, both of the freshwater and 
tnitrinc foKnil sliellH, belon<> to K]>ccie» still living. 

For the above ^jeological details, which entirely corroborat* 
and give form to my own ol«ennit>oni<, I am indebted to 
Ford's valuable " Hundbouk for Spain." I did nut bring 
the work with me, expecting to find it at the livKt Spanifili 
port, but could not obtuin a copy until 1 n-adicd Madrid; 
a hint to other travellers. I would remark also, as a proof 
of the scientific apathy of the Spaniards, that 1 failed to 
obtain, either at VutvnciJi, the seat of nn impurlnnt univer- 



mty, or nl Miiclri<1, tlio capilttl, a ^eolofHctl in*p of Sinio 
or any work on itn );eotoJf^^ 1 was told by all the book- 
Kcllcrs to whom I applii-d, thiit no iiih-h ma]) or work 
evUUtl, unli-Hit in n Frfiivh or Kn;;li!ili fonn, iini) tliiit , 
then* was no demand what«ver lor such maps or worli 
thvY did not kcc|> thera. The booUsc-lk-rs' nhop* throu<^ 
nut Spain are lew nml fur Wtu-ccn, iiiNi inUerubly niipplio 
Tliey Bpp«r to contuiti little eUe but eli'm«Htary educi? 
tiotial woi'Ue, tran^tatioDa ol' French uovcU, aiid rcli^ioos 

\Vi§hin[c to see the Piilm (rroves of Etcbe, and 
country bi-lwitin Mmda nntl Aticuntc, wocbnrlered a kind 
of lijkfht oiunibu», driitTH by four multa, and atarlt^l 
ei^ht oVInck in the mormTig. We were to remain tv 
hours nt BIche, and ti> reach Alicanti- bv six o'clock, tb 
•tutu of tho road |H.Tmilliiig. The mad to Aliviintc, a 
senpiirt alwut forty mitea distant, ]M)>Hefl in a iior(b-e;iMerly 
diri-cUon over a tpur of llic Hccondnry linu'slonc mniiiitain 
that b'linxU and r>>rn)fi to the ncirth ihtt valt- of M nrcia j 
it agaia I'alls into the latter ut Oribiiein, almut twelve 
miles from Murcia. As soon as we bad ascended :iut of 
the rvadi of irri;;utinn, dcucilution reappeiired ; thousands 
of acres of ploughed land, without a blade of ^niiii or 
grflKS, witliDUt a weed, and vef^talion reduced to small 
«tu(it*-d Olive, Fiff, and Carouba trees, espivially the 
lnttt-T. At tlie same time, tjroves, tliieketa of Opuntiu 
thowrd thirinKvlvi'R, all in Howlt. Men eat the insipid 
fruit, oallle the leaves, w> some good i» ^nt oittoflhom, 
■nd they seem all but able to crow out of a burning rtickj^ , 
thi-y clivrly like tbe lime soil. On dcecendin}; at;nin int 
the vnle nl' Murcia at Orihtiela, as Kuon ax water is rau;h«d^ 
tlie »aine niB;;ii-al ohan^e as before is witnessed. 

Tlie KrNt well is indicated by a house, some vecetatit 
around, and two, thrive, or more Palm trees ; for, iu> in lhd_ 
Alrican Desert, the I'alm tree means water, in the »oi! 
bcli'w lln- HiiH'iiei!, n well or u nmnin<; slrvam, more surely 
than doi^s the lioinlfunly I'oplar in Contim-nlal Hnrope. 
M'bon steady irn;;alion comnicnt'es the same extdicmnt 
fertility iippearcul as near Murcia, and tbc Wheut was alao 
turniug yellow ; Uierd were Ueuns, Peas, FUx, largo MuL 



twc*, Olive, Coroiihn, Almnnd, Apncot (rt-w, with 
Viiieo and Foinegniiiutoii. I nvri;r li^t'ore mw sucli Apricot 
trees, [os lar^e as fifty year old Ouks, and 8[>r«ndin^ likti 
tlieiD. Tliu IVuit was W^nnin}; to ripi-ii, but it- iiik-rior, hh 
is till! fniil of mont trfi'K {^rown in tlic o]>i;ii tlt-ldft mi the 
Cuntiiii'iit. But the peculbr Twiture of OriliueU ia tbe 
P«liD8 ; they appeared !o oruhards, in ^rov«H, in tUJckots 
of ft'Vy'r u hiindrvd, or more acri-e, from ton to n hiindicd 
f^ hiyti, csnctiy Win: tlie I'uliiu in India, as one ut* my 
compsnious, an Indian officer, bUited. 

Tliu vx|>lanation of their preeenoe, in suoli muUitudOK, Jn 
this dirtrict i:a that from Ctirthngi'uii to Atioaiitv, owii)|; U> 
Uie intense heat of tii« summer, and to the dryness of the 
winter climate, they ripen their fruity whiuh con»eqiieDtly 
become* an important ohject of trade. The Dalvs are the 
brcv, iBriuueeuim «pvci«i>, not llie »i>t\ Mwoet kind vncmstvd 
witli eujtar. Orihuela ia » dvn»e hive of human beiu^s, 
I'J.UUO Btroiig, all Huli^isting oti tlie bounty of Nature thua 
liel|K-d by man, and in a great meuaure on the produce of 
the I'alm dates. I lemarked throughout thiit rir<;ioii 
basaltic rooks vroppin^ out of Ute liniuHtono mountains, 
tad it is probable that their pre»cnee gives another element 
to the tinictstone soil, and one that suits tiie constitution of 
ihe Date Palm, a* 1 have prevtoutily stated, llatber scveia 
earthquakes are oecaxiimally felt. 

On ri»iu» out of this huppy valley, in our track across 
the rainlcM oountiy, tve once more entered o.iliAreous 
plains, sunburnt, and all hut devoid of vet;otablc lifo. 
They would have been entirely »<i had it not been for the 
Caroaba, Olive, and Fig, whi«h here a-;^n, although 
■tuntcd, DUUMgo to live through all tb«« diHieidties. 
Hmm treee poneM routs that have the power of tniveliing 
rariy any distance, or dippinj; down nearly any depth in 
Hareh of food and water. 'Hiey are, as my Mentone 
gardener calU thum, " robbers," and I have had to cxtirpiit« 
the Fi({ entirely in my Kivtem ^irden, lor wherever I 
mad* a rich border, there I found hiu roots at the etui of u 
yvar or two. lliis explains tlieir power of reaialauc« to 
draught, oonpied with a constitution suited to intense b«rt 
and to toog-continuud vegetative rests or sleeps during hot 



drjr wcathfr. But althnnifh tttey am (hns I 
ymt or morp, ull biit vritboat wiitt-r, mcnily muiBton«l hy 
tlto ilcw of h«arnt, they do not produce frtiit, or at li-Mt 
MlaUe fruit, under such ndveree drcaniBtances. It m*d« 
me qait« ead to see so roiich litbour and eeed wasted, an 
ffntirc country clcantd, p1ou^h<-d, and t>nwii, and not eTen « 
crop of woudR to di|r in for the n«xt season. On on« occa- 
sion I leFt the carrlBge and walked over twenty or thirty 
acres of tho ploughed land, and only found half-a-doMD 
hcrliiicooiiN Kiiiiliorhiiiit, some three or four indiCK hi^h ; two 
or ttir«o Nmnll TiiiBl1e<i, and a amall Conrolvulus flower, nt the 
bottomof a ditc'h. The calearcoiia mountnin rid^ra to the 
north-west, which wc Fkirtvd, were mori; bare than the whit« 
cliff* ef Dover in their most precinitous part. Truly did 
tliey seem the bore Iwrns of the eartli piercinif its skin. 

After n procrosB of some twenty miles through this 
ciiltivateil wildemeiw, we came to iinothcr vallvy, antt (hm 
buntton our n«toniahcd eyes an onsis of the Afriean d«Mrt, 
eui'h nN we had winhed to see in Africa, but had not scon 
— a forest of tropical Date Palme, extending over a vast 
re(pon, many miles in cirrumferenee, and mirrotindinj; tbe 
fnnied viltn|;<! or town of Klche. The river bed wu croaseil 
by a f;ond brid^f, but in it there was no river. It bad 
liccn tuken up Ixidily by th(> inhnliitnnt!, and distributed 
in cannU to their friemis and brvad-jjivfru tlie t'alnw. I 
rctniiined here several boun, and walked miles in the Palm 
forest, tbe like of which my Indian companion had never 
Men In Ibc tropin. Th'rre n-era canal* full of water 
Hflwiiit; rapidly in every direction, and the ground was 
evenywlieie prepared for constant irrigation, in trenohes, 
in tipiares, in paralleloffroms, banked up W earth walls 
one or t>v« fert biuh. Wiiter was constantly let into these 
t/emlies ond »^iiiireH, nnd allowed xlowly to soak in m> as 
to moisten the soil thoniutrhly, wherever there were 
roots. Thus, a(tuin, whs I reminded of the Arab sayintt, 
that lb« I'idm "must have his roots in the water, and liis 
brad in the Are." Tliere were Palms of all sixes, from 
twenty to ciphty feet of every shape and direction. 
Soma erect, like the Tnijan column of Homo, others 
fully twisted or incliuvd. Sometime* they wen 



growinf* oapricioosly, somcttmee id rovre, or in M|iiare8, 
mcthoilicjiUy pUnh-d. The D«te Turest wm irnitt i(x-idi'ntly 
n vuhialile ]>ro|>crty, aad the boaiidary of each ])riipricti>r'ii 
grounda waa protected by walls, with doors here ami there, 
admtttini; oi easy ing^rCM and vgrfxt. The dates were 
being gathered from Nome of the tree*, n-hiiNt other trcvf, 
•ometJmea tlie same one, were in full floirer. Iti some 
regions of the Ibrtets, where the Palms were not so close 
toi^'thcr, then: were rcm-tnbh-s, l\-tu. Beans, prowin^ 
undi-itieath tfaeiDi but UiU waH the exceptiDH. Evidently 
the dat^K were too valuable a crop, like lemons at Men- 
tone, for ererythingelBO not to pire way to tbem, wherever 
they oould be cultivated, n/iW irrigati^d. Th<- lund nppeare'l 
to b« a calearoouH loam, but on examining the t^mply river 
bed, I found it a mass of siliceous sand, so tliat, no doubt, 
the soil in the district i« improtrnated with siles. The 
dattw are gatJiered by boyi', who Nwiirm up tlic trees, an 
opentiou tJiat wu cocily ]>errormed hy a »iniil] hoy for uur 
ediSoation. LikethuHe ut Mureia and Orihucla, thiy nn; of 
the solid farinaceous variety. The soft saccharine Sahunan 
dates, which ore principally im))ort«d into northern Europe, 
I did not MX in 8pnin. In the Algerinc Dc-ieii and in 
Egypt tbisi variety of the date is roure rained and more 
expensive, because it is the one cliown for exportation, but ; 
the 9olid rariiiiKMiniiH variety is prefernr*! for fond, ns in 
ftpain. In this eouiitry the duteit ripened on the south- 
eastern coaat are exteimvely u^ed us an urtiele of fond. I 
saw large (|uantitieB of thorn in all the mnrbetii I visited. 

Near Elche I also saw many of the fine Apricot trees 
before deteribcd, growing like (laks, in the opun fields, and 
covered with fruit, neorlv ri|>e. The Aprieut eh-arly like* 
dry warm soils of a siheo-calcnreons nature. This fact, 
parbapK, explains my greitt «ucx:>ws with Apricot trecH on 
walb (the Moor Park), in niy hot watidy giirdeii in Surrey* 
I each year raise on a south wall, with the assistAnce of 
sprin^f protection, the most luscious and the lnrK<''>t Aprirota 
1 liiive ever ween, t liave totally faik-d to obtain ii crop I 
with llieiae same tre«« in the rich artificial loom of a largi; 

. glnse orchard house. 

I At Elche, we dined at a Posada, or Inn, which exem. 



Clifti-d in It* roimtmrtion SpauMli nnyti iw npplu>(] U> a tvtnii 
itttiitii; <-ltmnt«>. Tho crntre of tli« hou3« was likr an 
initnphfG linrn, t^ith a vcn' lieftvjr roof, and in one ciirn«r 
wiLk n i]r<'|) well of pun! cool water. As iit tlic D«8crt of 
Sah>rB, ill lUi-Ho tniimimt regions, n«ar mminUitia, tbpra ia 
ollon wntiT ill liikii, rivt-n, and Mirin|fi«, Wlow tlie aurfaee, 
flltUou^li Ihv Iiillcr is |wrclie<l and siinbamt. If the wntcr 
Clin !>«■ prsiclx-*), man ei-tllM round the precious well, and 
liiK InlKiiir irrtjjntt'" tlie coiintr/ around, producing luxuriant 
vrtfctutifn wherever llie water can be applied. Hut the 
liiliuiir in nrrnt, ii fact which limits its fL-rtilhcini; powers to 
a •mail am. No doiilit many of tliese diiitncta might 
he rcrlilizrd !>; Ar1n>tnn welU. In this Inni-like disem- 
bowellttl houHi" or cavern were several aarriaKcs and carts 
drawn Dp in n i-orner, many imptcDiL-nts of hiisliandrv, and 
«]| kinds ol' odds hdiI endx. It vrus evidently thi' kiluhcB, 
IMrlonr, innl hall, an well a-i wiiih)Kiu»e, store, and Uinibcr 
niom : and a very pleinant ciivem house it Mwnnd iu Uie 
Ileal ffvcn of curly May. Iteliind was a yard, and l>ehind 
»thnt a roomy stulde, with staodint; for a hundn-d hnivM, 
>r mlher tnules, the animal generally uied in Spuin uii 
Br<'i>iinl of il« huidilxMid and suliviety. 

Itetween KIche and Alicante I found the same t-uUivated 
hnrrenni-M, th>> snme hrovrn nuked fields, dotted with u few 
KtiiiiUd Cii rail has, Olivr*^ and Fiu*; even on arriving at 
Alicante thii dcvolaliun of thirst did not cease. 


Aliennto ha» a ([mid port., in a good bnr. which hringi 
conimeree. htit it hue no valley, no river, only one ^ooll 
H]>ring, which never driix ii|i, and dix-s nut even mudl 
diniiniBh in ye«n of drixi^jhl. This spring, sitnaled aliovt 
a mile from tho town, is, I was told, rcuUy a fountain of 
Mil for Alimnte, inasmuch na it snpplirw the ihtnt nod 
"oeeanioual" ablutions of n town ol 3I,!>(I0 iiihal>itAnt«; 
with the assistance, however, of large rain-water tAuW 
ued for retaining min when it dues fall. The town 

olf uJt«r this wuitvr'a drought was likv Cartbag«iug a 


mere enter to a voloano, without regetation, with tho ex- 
ception of a fvw stunted Acuciae, C^ruubiut, itiid otUur I rcsa 
with spurBC foliage, [>lunl«<l along llic «idcH of Uie mitin 
road, moh in a dvep circular bi-iuked liule tionie luur levt in 
diameter, for irri^liun. There naa au uttempt iil ii garden 
in a s'^iure on one side ol' the towi), whcro Mt>iit)ily anil 
Ben:^il l{u««g, Puppii-K, Anlirrhiiiiims, I)i!i|iliiniiitiix, uml 
Ilmris, with Vtrgiuitiii SLuck, roniiud tlie llower-liL-d!!, 
without a trdiee of winter (ra-rilaniag. From the odalla rocb 
wt: 6UW one ^reeu spot in the tuwn, the gurdeti ol' tho 
unvvrnor, who evidently gi^t« the lion'it ^haie of the water. 
Tlie coiiat tK rocky, and the hca and hay utv |>iL.'tiii'iM<jLit!. 

T)ie town itaeli* is open, not surrounded by wails, and 
the principal streets near the poit aiv wide and cliriin. It 
Itee at tlie koiiI h-e-.Mitern l>;jsi- of a rouk 4I)U lei-l high, 
00 which IN perched the eu«lltt, wlilcli tltii» eomjilelely 
coiDmandA the eity. There ia a hvge hotel, the " I'linda 
d«l Vajwr," with un ohliyinj^ host, at which we were made 
quit« couirortable. Tiits hotel oecupiei^ un extensive hiiitd- 
ing, fortnorly ■ caslom house. It is oppueito tiie port, au 
olyvction, a* the ways of Lhe IxhourerK of a Houtliuru aca- 
pott are not alwaya pleamnt to witncNi. 

The town is ao diuty, so surihurnt, so arid, so dried up, 
no devoid ol* vegetation, and consequently so di'«olair, tlitit 
a retidoneo here tor mouths would hu a wad punanee, 
Otherwise Aliuaud; uppmrs to nic decidedly the nmul 
(avourahle health ^Utiou llmL 1 have .-ieen on the routh- 
eaptcni cojst of iipain. The climate roust bo mild, sunny, 
and dry, aud there uk no rice grounds to produce malaria 
as at .Murciu or Valencia. Thi re in a Unert^i, or irrigated 
valley, it is true, connucted with Alicjintc, but it is Kituatud 
lit some di»taaoe north ol' the town. I had no lime to 
viitit it, hut was told that in ihiis vallcv, »« in those of 
Murciu and Viilvnciii, owing !■> the prcucuee of water, 
vegetation never fl->^H, and tite cropa follow each other iu 
rapid anceeasion nil the year round. 

Indeed, the entire province of .Muieia, fri'iu Oarthagcna 
to Alicante, mu«t he exuepttonally tuvoured in winter— > 
dry, sunny, cool, and hracing. It^ vi-gulatinn iiidieutoa 
th« same dimate chanwteriitius aa tlioae that whlviii od the 



GenoeAe undei%li(r, ^reat heat in tummer, except? 
ilryaees and mildness in winter. Thus we have in both 
regions, growiof; Uuiiriantly, Date PuIdis, Lemon, Oran^, 
Carouba trees, Opuntiiu<, AWs. The drynetw ul' Miircii 
mml, however, be greater than that of the Rivie 
inosmueh iis the fertility of the ene is entirely owing 
irrigation, whereas in the other it results in a great measure 
from nntnral ritinfnll. The dryness of Miircta ts so cxtr<.-mc 
that the entire province rescmbh-a the Desert of Sahara, 
where nothing grows epontaneounly, except in the hodsi of 
torrents, and on the margin of springs, or of lakes, w hich are 
dry pjirt of the year. I was ^^eatty stnick with the euddi-n 
change from Algeria to Muruia : I luft Algeria ■ very 
gurdt'ti of verdure, of fertility, aod found Sfnin " tlie 
ilebcrt" Alj^eria is so erroneously presumed to be. 

I believe that nil forms of disease requiring F^uch a clima 
nil that 1 have enumerated in the medical trhiiptvr on the 
Rivicru ns likely tu benefit by mild, dry, hnicing winter 
weather, would do well in any part of Mnrcio. I do not 
•my "niuallv" welt, because it remains to be proved by 
aotunl experience whether extreme dryness, on atmosphere 
where it oltcn docs not rain twice in the winter, may not litt 
too flimuliiling; periods of long drought in winter at Men- 
tone buvu olU-u appeared to me to be so. But tu lest this 
QUeslion, and lor Murcia to be a safe winter relu^^e for 
^eat invalidK, there Is ftlll mni'h wanted. An Kii'^livh or 
foreign company with a large capitui, flmuld build 
hotel in the suburbs of Carthagena, Mureia, Orihu' 
Elche, or Alicante, for tbey must be all good stati 
regards winter eltmatc. A choice situntion should bo 
sejeeted, an abundant KU]ip)y ot waler (>l>li<in«tl hy ineiint 
of nn Artesian well, a nice flower and shrub g^^rden there* 
with created, and the decencies and eomtoris of northern 
i-iviJization secured. \Vero there such an hotel, 1 should 
be quite willing to spend a winter there myself. No doubt 
there nrv in many regions of Mnrcia subterranean water* 
courses, and springs capable of being tapped and brought 
to the snrruce if pmpcr means were employed, and thus tha 
area of its fertility might lie {jrcnlly extviidrtl. 
The TL-ry ouatume ol' the inhabitant* of the province of 

'^ilKfl or 

tions t^^ 




Inrcia iiKltcatcv a dry mild winter olimnttf, as thai of Uio 
inbnbiUnU of Al;;ierji indiwitc* s m%i'i»t coci) one. Th« 
taller vroar oue, two, or three thick wmjllcif bournous with 
faooda, which envelop them from ihe head to the fict. 
The rorinor tnerel}' wei>r linen drnwere, ending n lilllu holuw 
the knee, and a linen tunio, which i« i'uHtcndd by a girdls 
at t)ie waist, and desoetidH ni-arly to th« knees. It is a 
kind of tirexk coetunie. Thu head is covered with a species 
of turban cap, and tbc aoUw of the feet arv clipped in r»pa 
MtndaU, which Leave the feet naked, and would in no way 
defend tliem from wet or mud. On holidays, and no doubt 
generally in winter, they wear on tboir shooIderB a many- 
coloured Hcarf, or mania, us it ii> called, us tbu tliglilaudcr 
weara hia plaid. 

^K Tlie railroad by which we left Alicante for Valencia ^ ^ 
^^H but due west for about Bflecu miles, over culcareout 
mountain slopes, exactly of the same character as those by 
wbieh we entered Aticanlc. The country bore precisely 
the Kime »taiiip of drymrsn — oi vain attemplx to raiitc by 
careful and laborious liuabun<li-y a grain crop. Tbc Jidda, 
were all limited by the itanie litile banks of earth sonio 
eight or ten in<rhe« bii^b, to keep in rain that bud never 
come. It wan painful to think of the Ions, and probably ruiil, 
entailed on the cultivators of tbc soil by a Kuccesiiion of 
BeaKone sncli as the present, for the stunted Carouba, Olive, 
and Fi<; Ireea »biiwed that the drought, although greater 
thiayear than uiual, wan not nn exceptional event. Indved 
wliat I have seen in thin n-j^ion, in .-Vfrica, and elsewhere in 
the south of Kurope, baa led me to tbc conviction that with 
all tbc uncertainty of our climate, our agriculturicts ara 
better olT titua those in many rc^ons uauully conMidered 
more favoured. Wherever a deep well oan reach water, 
there we found one, with a homestead, a few trees, and % 
sparse cullivation. We constantly saw, bci-e and elicwhure,. 
the entire family, father, mother, children, ul work, drawtnj*^' 
water, by meanit, not of bucket and rope, but of a l<ing 
dI« worked as a lever. At an elevation of lUUO feel, we 

2G4 srAm. 

rcacli«(l n TKU«y throiigli winch flows tlie little river tn? 
n«iirer Uio wn, fcrlilizi-a the Pulm I'oreete of KIcbv. WiUi 
uontrol over wiTUr, at odl-c ooinini.' detvrininvd eirurU 
nt cultivation. Fig, Olive, AlinomI, and Caroulu trees, 
iiD(l |iatcheB of cereals, occupied llie valley, wliilst Vines 
extended ovrr the hill-sides. Gradunlly, hs the dcratiou 
becuiDC creator, the viilloy wiw too xteeji, and the cotitse of 
the Bniall river too turrcntiul to admit of irrigation on an 
extensive Ewale ; the Fik, Ohve, and Cnrouba tre«s wore 
Rcaiiiticr and smaller, iind Vines, all but alone, Dceupicd tlic 
aouthem alopcs of the hiiU. 

The soil became very otnny and jKinr, ho that, s1thou(i;b 
the Wheat crop, here and there, had coine out of tJis 
{^lund, it was only three or four inches hi);h, Ricngrt 
and thin. About thirty miles from the fhorc, at aa 
clvvation of some 2200 ftNil, we reached the tabteIaD<l 
of central Spuin. Tlie soil emitinued to be of the same 
character, a thin vejietable loam lying on calcareous rocks, 
itntil we came to the jnnctioii of the Madrid Rnilway, at 
Almnztir, 2200 feet above the seatevcl. We were tlieo 
in the high [ilains of ecntiul Spain which form Old and 
Jt'e"' Caistile. Not a tree was to W seen in any direction, 
nothing but naked plains, mounttiins bounding the horizon, 
and fields in vain tilled with (he plough for Wheal, 
niiire wrrtched-looUini; district, agricultoniily, 1 nev 
saw. The Wiltshire downs are fertility in comparison 
the Curouba, Olive, and Fig trees had abandoned us, tiii 
were replaced by nothing, neither tree nor htish. 

Our progrew was so slitw that wo liml plenty of leisni 
fop obsori'atioD. The Spanish railways are only made with 
one lino of rails, and the mils themselves are n)Ui-h lighter 
than in Knyland or Fr*iiRV. Consttjuently, frequent stojv 
jiuyV^ tiik<- place, mid the npi^ed i» not greater tlian aUmt 
iil'iei-n miles an hour. Although the railways, which now 
connect nearly all the principal townn with Madrid, hav« 
rendered travelling in ^pain infinitely maro commodious 
than formerly, it is still very tcdioux. The carriages are oa 
good ait our own. 

At Alicante we left (May 6) a temperature of 7^° by < 
and 70" by ni^bt, and a midsummer vegetation. When 


arrircti on tln! ocittrul pining wc liitj fionc luick to April. 
IIk! tliurmomet«r wna OU", thtt win<l oolO, t)ii' cercul* ou\f 
jnat npjiearing above the ^iniuii], oiid llw few trees w« 
saw at tiie dtalionE, principally Acncin and Melin Azeda- 
nck, JitMt comiii'; into haW The InlU-r is vtrry coinmrjiily 
growa Tor orriaiii^tit id Spitin. anil is i»lled Biraisa ill 
Andalufiia. It has a pretty llower, very much like the 
Xiilnc, but ite foliatrc is th<n, §o that it really doi-o not ilu- 
Tve ihc wtfem in wliwh it in held ; probubly from its 
iodiflurence tn dtou^^ht iind drvni-KH. ADcir eiintini;iiig our 
rutiti- tor some lioura iu a norlli-iveaterly direction thi'Oii;fh 
lia bloak, trei-le^, calcareotis plain, without farini; or 
lOtiaea, occasionally slo]i|>in<; at villii-^s or rnnall towns, 
formed by an agglomeration ornDiihurnt dwellings huddled 
on Ihe (op or side of a hill, we turned eastward, and begUQ 
ito dmcvnil towatda ValvoHa. 

A-H ftoon u» the brow o)' the mountain wns pn>wc>1, and 
a Bonth-eii»tem espovua' wii« ohl^iinud, even at an tjlevutiou 
;Of £000 feet, an indicated by un aneroid barometer, stunted 
live aDd Vig trera, with Vines, made their appB.iranc0. 
Tlie hill-nidc presented also in every direction dt-ep water- 
Worn ravineo, the bed»of lormer river* and turrenU. I aajr 
" former" l>coaiise it ii cluar that now no considei-abte bod/ 
of water ever flows thrau^h them, intismueh as in the very^ 
buds of thctic ravines are planted Fig and Olive trees, whiob 
•ay cunvideniMe muh ot waii-r during the previous twenty' 
or forty years wouhl elcurly have uiirrii'd away. Theee dry 
tne planted watercourses clearly imply a ehan|re of elimatir, 
probubty the reeidt of the forest deniidalioD of the plaltu I 
had ermiM.-<] in the marntn;;. 
^^r In liinner liiNlJiric dayn tlicwe plains were covered wilb 
^Hfurvet trees, whioh the inliabilaTita have riithles«ly destroyed, 
^^ partly for fuel and buildin-,;, and partly in complianne with 
L an iiiKniie but universal prejudice. The Spanixh peasantry 
L think that treeK Imrhnur binli', and that as l>irdB destroy th4 
cere^ils, tlic only way to jfct rid of the birds is to cut down 
the trees. Thus have they, in the long run, ehanged the 
climate of Central t^pain, moditied the natural rainfall, and 
made Die centml plains only a du^oe leaa dry than the 
raiiileHs oiwtcrn ooust. 



As the line <Ic«o«n<U, the Olive and Fii; tnt» 
larger, uiid Curonbu trees appear, until at ubuut 1200 
elevation tlii; scene clionges into one of t-xuberant ferlility. 
Water — n'at«r iu abundnnco, a real river — iios been reachea ; 
^8t«inatic scicntilio irrt<;Btinn, a Kift of the Moors in timita 
gone by, curries llie water everywhere ; unii tlic rieli vege- 
tation of the irrigated valleys of Murcia and Orihuela ia 
ugnin rcproduci^d, oven iik a more g^randioee style. The rail 
reaches at this vlcviiti»n the southern lioundnry of a trian- 
gular plain, or 9l()])iti}; valluy, with ite buse to the Ken eunU 
wards, through which three small rivers run from the 
eontnil mountainouK tuhlcland to the Rest. Wherever thinr 
waters ean be carried by irrigation, the sunshine and heat, 
combined with protection from northern nindK and viealous 
traditional cultivation, produce the roost wonderiul fertility. 
This fertility incrxaecs as we descend to the sea, as the 
ooTiditicin.s of ht;iil ami protection inoreaso, as the ulluvta 
soil l)i>i<oi])»i doL'pcr, and as eumplutc and repeated irri>;uti(] 
become* easier. 

The veitetatiun b exactly the same as in the valley 
Mur«in. Lar^^ Olive, Fi;;, and Carouba trees, tbe latt«l 
always in the driest aitiuilions, the liMvt accessible to 
jtatiuii, often magnificent treea like OalcH; Apriool trees < 
the same aize, really beautiful to look at, but covered witli 
Bceond-rate fniit; Vinf8 on the bill-eide; Cereals, Beans, 
Peas, on the irrigalrd levels, the former three feet high, 
thick, luxuriant iu the ear. As we approMcli Vutoncia there 
are orchards of Pumej^nate aad Orange trees, the latter 
ispuill, M at Murcia, by beiiit? grown in bushes, cut down 
close to the ground and ulluwed to grow up with a doun 
sten)s, tike large Portugal Lauvels. I hud hirard so niueli 
abifut the Orange jjrovcs of Valencia that 1 was greatly 
disappointed ; these hush trees are not to be compared for 
beauty to the largo Oraiijie trees of other sheltered region* 
of the Mediterranew). I pret>ume they are cultivated in 
this way as a protection Irom the wind, which Orange trees 
cannot stand, esjK'eially if it comes from the north, nortlw 
east, or north-west. 

As the lower levels are reached a new feature appears — 
cxtvusivo Uice Bclds. These fields, ou the river side, aro 


sDrTonnd«jl witli motin<Iit of csrth some cightom inchoe 
hi|rh. The mi) is ploii)rhed, water ia let in to xoiilc it 
tfaorot^bly, then tli« Rice is sown, watvr is a^io )et in to 
the depth of xix ttK-tiCf , nnd the ercd pluiigh<.-d in a second 
lime umlcr the vruter. the men tind inul<-N norkinfj; with the 
slough kntH> deep, 'lite water is allowed to remain od thfl 
land, reuewed as it mobs in, and the Rice comes up as a 
water ptimt. Prom th« oiitbcdnil tower of Viik'noiJt the 
entire expiinw of thi« fruill'iil region in »c«n, oxU'iiding 
down to the sea. Valencia is three miles from the coaitt, 
and the entire district is doited with these Uice grounds. 
Tlwy are u serious dranbui-lt to the pnblic health, giving 
ri»e, it in ititi<l, to much iiitermittt^iil ivvar in tliu autumn. 

Spuiieh writers, and travellers in general, go into rap- 
torea about the wondrous heauty of these fertile valleys, 
but I mui;t eoiift<e» tlint 1 cunnol join witli them. Uice, 
com, bcauA, noiitli-rcd oil-producin<; Olive tn-c*, »ilk- 
prodocing jioltard Mulherry trees, I*omc^rnnBtL'ti, Vinea, 
Orange bushes in rows like soldiers, are all very well in 
their way as evidoDces of cultivation and '>f a fertile soil, 
but Diiqno^lioniihly they no more conduce to hcnutifitl 
Kenrry than doi^ the eultivuliou of the market gnrdciK 
round London or Puris, Indited, these far-famed valleys 
are market gurdcns, nothin^^ more, iin<l bounded as they are 
t>y hiirrcn, naked, cnlenriMUK hiiU, they are inferior in natural 
bv-Jiuty to any of the apura of the .\i\aM ntngt^ in Algeria, 
clothed with Ilex, Thuja, Muuntuiu Ash, Cytisitii, Lenliseua, 
or to any mountain vale in Knj;land in summer time. In 
winter, too, ■« many ol the tree*— the Fig, tho Mullierry, 
tlie Apricot, the i'ome>;[nnatL', the Vine — are deciduous, 
they must look nearly as naked and desolate as vulleya in 
old Kn->b&d, mure so tbun our conifer clothed dielricts. 


Valencia is one of the largest cities of Spain, with a 
population of IU^,l)<i(). It eo vers a large area of ground, 
and is the cenlrv of Spnish civilization on the eastera 
Diipst. It has all the resounHii of a great city, iuoluding 
Very tolerable hotels. Although the winter climate ia no 




doiit't «xceptiDnallj good, it oaiinnt, hoirever, be cotM 
a health city. TIte Btri-eto are very tuirruw, mere laiiee, and 
the hotels are all situated, for oonveniencw, in the wrr 
centre of the town, or iit the mnall ocnlrjil s(|uuru)i. They 
nre hiiilt and miinaged for tlie reception of couinenHal 
travellers, and of tlio tr.ivelliii^ piiblie iu geoeral, not Cur 
that of health tourists, who ari> not wanted, expected, or 
pret>nred fur, Tlio larpe com mr rein I uilii.-* of thn Cuntineut, 
Riieli us !{:irr(!]oi]u, ViihriiL'iii, Miilii>j;«, MurMillefl, Naples, 
may be compared to Dristo), Liverpool, Cilas)cow in Eng- 
land. They are not health cities, but racial .ind eoraiiiercial 
oentn-«, iit whieh invalids and siuk |ieO|)le am not ihoiifcht 
of. Health towns, audi »» Chi-lteiiltaRi, Tiinhrid;;^ Wells, 
Toiqiiay, Pan, Nice, and Meiitone do nut exi^l iu Sp.-(iit. 
Thus allho(i>;h ihu ntntcr climate is excellent in tonic of 
tliexe citie*, r<-al invaltdi( ciinnnt comlorlubly »t prudently 
remain because tWro id no provbaion for them. Then tbis 
Rioe ground* round Valencia are on much againnt a reaidcuoe 
in tile suburbs aa the confined, close, atutl'y streets arc at^atnst 
II n^idcnee in the interior of the town. Lod':in(^ Hii(;bt 
l>e hud, I was toltl, on the FiomeondR, the Alaainda, but 
IiDw far the double iuUuenc« would be avoided, and how far 
SpaniaU lodgings could t>e made eomlortable, 1 tarinot say. 

I would add, that as xvfffud* climate, although I l>vlievtt 
lliat the winU-r climate of Valencia is dry, Hunity, anil 
mild, 1 much ijiieBtion whether it preaenta any odvuuta)^ 
over the mnoh more aecessible Uenoose Hivier*. liidoed, 
from the exain illation of the vc-relation, I found rvason to 
oondiKle that the winter protection from north wiiida is 
Icn, end the wintt^r cold (greater ul Valencia, us at Muroia. 

Whilst at Viilencia 1 went over the itolaiiiu Garden 
oarefntly. It ajipcars to be more viewed and dinx-ted as a 
pkoaiirc ganlen than iik a sciiiutitie c>itnblii>hiiicnt, hut even 
aa auob wiu intereitling. The plants in tlower (.Muy 6} 
were the common flowers of our Knn^lish cardens fur Jnne ' 
and July; Monthly and llL'ngal Roses, with a few hybri<l 
and Tea Rocct, Delphinium, Antirrhinum, IWris, Iria, 
Stocks, Silene, Jaxminum rovolntum, RumtmHiluii, ICsch- 
•el)olt»a, Swc«t William, Poppies, Verbenn, Spira.M, iiab- 
ruthomuuK, I^uonics, Nasturtium, Piaka, Aquilo|{ia, Petunia, 



Csrniitioiw, Collimia, Vtlnirniim, Convolviilug minor, Tri- 
ttiniit cnx'nitt, Oak*lcflvie(l l'i'];ir^>iiium, Vir(;iiiiiiii Stixilf, 
Aiil>rietia, lljilran(jt'a, TliiTu was a ^lawlioii^-, much 
neKlectv^l, in wtiiuh I foiiiKJ Bou>;ainvilleas, Liintaiiaa, 
ViiK'HK, Hvlivlnipc^, Pelaraoniiimtt, Cinomriiw, Colcuo, na 
Al MtiixiU. In ttiia glass-liouse were alt the Pnlmn, and 
CvciMhiRw, n-hicli nra f^wn in th« open air on the 
Gcnw»v Itivit-m, with lli« exception of numo rbomirn>iw 
hiimilix iiiid Lutiiniu Horhanica, plunted out i'l ii wry 
tbelUrcd spot. Thos it conlnineil Conrpha Auftralis, 
Oaryota, Dion ciluir, Thrinnx, Cycug revolutai Cord)lin«ii, 
Dracwiiiif, Yuci^us, Kii-ua repena, iVrftikiii, Ar.iliii, Pbilo- 
dendron, KuBwlia juncca, Cypcrus altcrnif'i>liu.i. Banana. 
There wen Abulilonx and Oleanders in the ({ardun, Imt 
not in flower. It ia frata the above facts thai I feel 
uutliorixed to conclude, that the wintiir oold is t^n-ater 
at Valencia than on lh« Itinera. If it were not Bfi, why 
should plants that wc can cullivato with ease iirthe open 
air be placed in (;liui!(<li»ii>u-H, uud why »Uo i^hould the open 
gardens Oonlaiu Utile eUe hut what id fvtind in the gnrdena 
of more northern European ren^ons? This can b« easily 
uiideratood. 1'he uni't coast of Spain, favoured as it b ta 
climate, u bounded, nortli and wcat, hy bigli mountaiiia, 
and the t^wns of Murcia, Alicante, Vali>noiu, arc at soiae 
ditftatice from the foot of tbeee muuntuins — that ix, from 
Uieir protection— M(o the cold winds fall down iipoa 
thcin. The Uenocse Kivtcra, on the contrary, in at the 
very foot of the mountain wall that protcctJt it ; and the 
oold winds, passing over, leave it baakins; in the south sun. 
At Valencia and in this n-gion generally, the Lemon tree 
ia only grown exci^jitionally, in very sheltered and warm 
■ittiatious, althouf^h in such localities it laoceedii thoroughly. 
Ifowhere did I Hud it grown in Urife orchards facing the 
Bcs, as on the Hivicra, between Nicv and San Itemo. 
Hiero were aome large timber trees in tlic gardt^n, which 
^^ ore often met with on the promenades in these regionit of 
^B Spain: Puulownia impcriulis, with elegant blue terminal 
^^ Bowers; Oltts auatralin, a large beautiful tree; Diuspyrvs 
r LutiiN, Cratiegiis meUnucarpu, OWilKtbia triueuutliof, 

I Sophora Japooii.«j Sohinus Mulli, Melia Aicedari^. 

1W ^t aw dw, Wl «^ ■ tke MM? 

I? It en mmkw W 

fl^ Asdd >rT«^ tW MMlB 

■aaOi wwC AtiMtie wiadB, brt i^ 4o Mi iW Mrtb- 
. «Weh «n n^uBf wiada » wtaicr a tlw 
fWaA »htAtrogl u iiM li cf minWAJgwii, 
ab»Ma||iMatotbcf«taacnrtar8«bi} ItUakajF 
mtnamtomtmf U AlgerH gnv the ker to :1m ofBlv 
tat b tAjrflial timfu^y. 

1 txrlicvc that time aarth-^mAtdf wiadl nc Mml^ 
wekaJ io W tlw tirat Dnert of Sakan beTnfe tiKf laek 
thi Ipanyi Aon. Tttt racvam formad b^ the r^iajt into 
tbi appar ntpom of moe of the air beatnl bj Um aaa^ 
awAMof tlw (treat Docrt b attctHled nritb ■ raah of atr 
frsM tlw MMlttcmwaan, aocked in to All iu place. From 
whctowr laarlm tlia wind roiii«8, when it mrhve ttw 
•Mitlicni fffxiittM of the Mi-rlit«rrunran it feeb tlw ioflntaM 
of til" Afm-an l)ami, aud nislM» tmith, briBgitig> moiator 
to Alicvria, to ibe Atlas moiintaini and vallevo, and leannl 
tl)« aMUirti ooaat of Spain in dry calmnon. Tbis is pro? 
imUy Ihx real i>x|ilination of tfa« calm we net vrben forty 
■hUm from lh« ooait, on cromiiK from Orao, and not tb« 
protaotiMi of Cft|M dfl Uata. Tho wind tiiat opposed our 
|fO|fr«M OH l«aving Uran waa riubing down to Llio D»crt, 



l«ll it behind lu. Thus is trxpUinod o ujririff at 
Alicante that t)io buy \» «o hubiluiilly c-ubn tliut it is • 
"woman's an<l cliild'a eeu," a» alio the f net of the Mnr- 
Beilles and Alliens steaniere alwnya evoking ahclUir on the 
Spanislt coiut in vtortos. 





The journey from Vnlvncin to Cordovi by rail taken th« 
traveller inU> tbn mntra of S])Ain, nnd of tlie high table- 
land (New CAstile) in a tretit^rly dire<!t)on, th«D d^wccnds 
due south, oro«Me tli« Sierra Morons, and follows the vativy 
of the Oaadalqutrir. Kor miiny botire, for buodreds of 
mile*, the line crosses the monotonous cdrareous plains 
already described, treclcM and houselns, with no cjittte to 
enlit'eo the sc«nv. Tlic entire region seemed eultivnted, 
but half or two-lbinU wan biire of nil crops, tyin^f fallow. 
Tliiii is, it appears, the tjitaniah nyatem of cullivntion, as 
n-it)i as agea ago. The land, natumlly pior, with ii thin 
soil lyinj; on acalcnrcous base, very bke the chalk downs 
and fields of Wiltshire, seldom or never mniiured, is allowed 
to lie fallow one or two years out nf throe, nnd thus to 
recover itself by the unaided elTorts of Natnre. The owner 
enpplioB the reed, and he anil the tenant divide the crop. 
So in the years of drought or inaetivily, is there is do rent 
paid »r receivoii, tenant and landlord both gvl on, if they 
can only keep body attil t.nul together. Moreover, they both 
acem to l>e quite- Huti.illcd if this can be accomplished, and 
with tlieir abstemious habits very little autHciw. 

The fact, too, of the entire population beinjj Oj^^^gsted 
In towns, as in tJie Middle A^s, when men had to unite 
for mutual protection, at a diKtiinee from the sent of their 
lalwurs, is a very (;reat drawback, a national one. TIm 
nMQ, with their xniithi^ni fi-iir nf motsturc, stay from work 
if it rains, or appcam liki-ly U> rain, for f<iitivitie», for aiijr , 
vxeupe ; the women gotimp nil day, the children play about 
in the streeU. ThiiF the peasant squanders his own time, 
and docs not ^ct that usHisUnce from his family which ho 
doe* when they all live in the centre of the tivld of labour. 

No cattle are seen, and very few are kept on those plains , 



anil t was I'M tliat the vnliic or mannre u to little IcnAtrn 
Hint the peaHiintry rt^nitv |>a)-in^ lo lake it auay t'n>i» the 
towns. As iDBv he supp(Mi?(I, with gtich a soil anil such 
vitwK of cultivHtion, thv risinf; cropo of Mn-uls, only fmiti 
Iwo to Tour ii)chi-a hit^h, vmm very ihin, poor, ■nil miKC* 
Table, oft'erinK hut little |irDmi§e for the future. Uren at 
Ihie lii^h clvvnttuii, fvom liUOU to 2500, or SUOO feet, th«re 
hiid IxTii hut Ittlltt rain, iind ftirthvr rain, before t]>u 
»UD)tn«r licut neta in, wa^ anxiously expected. As ilrvady 
explained, the rainfall from the vVllantie winds is arrwtcd 
by iht; hi-;h mount^iinB on thi; wcMcrn euiu^t of Spain and 
of Porttigsil, nhitirl the easterly windii seem sciiivcly to 
reach thia region of Spain, or to hrioe no min with tbero. 
The dcfttniution ot the limber adds no douhl U* the drou|*ht, 
U trOM arc well known to attTui:t ruin, in ptainN nn wvU ni 
OD mountJiinB. Att to temperature, we had gone bavk to 
early vVprit in Kn^fland, and the cold was poEitivcly bitter, 
very trying after a month in Algeria and south-oastetQ 
Spain, There was not the veKtigc of u iwutbera climaU 
ill the aspect of Nature. 

Afl Die railway descending due sontb approaches the 
Sierra Morcna mountains, the direction of which is 
cast and u-i'Et, l]ie gralo^icnl nature of the »uil change*. 
The calrflTcouH noil and melcs are replaced by a xiliccoaa 
Boil, hy gvliittlii: and sandstone rocks. With this change 
of Eoil at once iii'pciirs n change in vegctatioa The 
change is obwerved both norlli und aouth of the Morenft 
mountains, which are crossed at first throu{(h pieturciiqiM 
iforges, and then liy a tunnel nt an elevation of 2tfU0 feet. 
The familiar FhrnlNi of tlic Conicun und Atlas granitie 
tandetonc and wvhittio rangca reappear. The Ci>tiui or 
Rock Rowe, the Broom — the common European ibim with* 
out spin«>, not the prickly Broom of the nboro rvgions; 
Thuja and Juniper Bushes, the Mnntimii and Alepfi 
Pines, Myrtle, LentiseoM, Mountain Lavender, and 
tha south side great numbcrH of the ChaDin.'rop8 huroiltl 
Palm. The T«mariBk fringes the river xidcs, and tl 
Oleander is often Been along with it. Thus in Anttalusia 
ths Tegetalion of Northern Africa, of the Atlas rangw 
and riveiB, is reproduced, eopecially along the course of the 



Oiiiulalqiiivir, and mora decidedk tlmn in Coreicn, where, 
M tUtcd, I never euw tliv Tumnnsk, OkMtiitcr, nor Clinmif 
mps. It IB tiiti-*iiliir tliitt thv Chaiiiu.-ra[is Palm nlionld lie 
deecriWil sut poi;uliiir to Algeria, fur in tliis [larl uf AiiiIn- 
liisiii it ill att common as Uor^ on Eii^jlish licitllis. I i4»\r 
tlii>n«uiidft of ocras coii-reil willi Iliiw tlwiirt' P.ilm. [•I'owi'iit 
luxiiri.iiitly in tufti*. Ituliied it. i-vidinitly iimim;;!!!!'* ils-H' 
^[•oiiUiieoui'ly wherever the soil in the (iuadiil<juivir vulle/ 
i« too poor to t«ropt cultivutiim. As 1 had seen it likewise 
in the ba^^Uiu euils near Curtliagcnu and Miirciii, I have no 
i)oul>t that il i^ to lie found all over Southern Spnin iti 
silitiooiw dintricty, jmt aa in AljTeria, tvhcrii it disiip|ii>;ir« 
tbc moment the »oil Iwcomes cak-areous. Tliis is uuutht-r 
evidence of the geological anion of Africa snd Europe in 
former days. 

AlWr passing the Sierra Mitrena the line dciicundii 
rapidl.Vi and soon reaches an elevation of 000 or 7UU l'oi:t 
onlj*. I'hvn with u eouthem exposnrc, protection from 
north winds, more rain than on the eiwtrrn coiut, ai>d a 
KU>dy Mill, vei^^^talioti bi'conii'K niii<-li more In&uriHiit thiin 
on Uio etevatt^d CL-iitnil pluiri thnt we had just k-ft. i^lill [ 
MW Uothin^ to warraut iho raptures of puets and triivflk-rs 
»b«0 describing the far lamed GuHOakjuivir valley. It 
sMnis to roe that thi-'C rapture* arc ralher thu n-tinlt of 
oomiwrison with burnmtidiiifr nakedness and sterility than 
of any actual exubei-ant fertility of the valley ilsell'. 
AllhoU(>h tht-ru is a gnod f\<u:d river rulliti;; iu precious 
wat«-rK in the midat of a wide and level plain, there is no 
irritation. This at Bret pnezled me, for the eiilirc region 
was muny Cfnturiee in the hands of llic Moor^, who urv 
the peiiplu who made and esUhlisheil the irrii;ntion works 
of the really luxuriant vulkya of Murcia, Vaknein, and 
Granada. Indeed Cordova, uhieh,i& built on the river 
Ijiink, was the centra, the capital of their dominion. Then 
it on-urretl to me that it may be of but little uiie to irrigate 
a )M>or sandy noil, an tliti water ronsl alt sink llirtin^^h it, 
and do no good commensnnite with the expense ineufrad. 
The valleys named above, where such extensive inijj[atioii 
works have exivted for centnries, and when) they sWMre 
exubcnnt fertility, all principally rantaii) lime FoiU, 




Whcro the sandy or gnvelly soil Uiroitgti whic-h we 
pOMed WM cuttirnted, the eropa wore thiii and poor — iii' 
dtwd u-rctchifl, iind thnt tvitliout tlio excuse of altitiidv. 
Side I>y %\Ae witii thcue cultiv»u>il region* iriTc wide moor- 
lands covered with bush Il«x, Mounb^Jn LavviidKr, Hrooi 
ami the Chamscropg Palm, which no doubt in former da_ 
•xt«»dcil over t\\« i-ntiri- ntgion, and yet retnaiDO, m wo 
have sei!U, on the jioon'r iincuUtvutcd KoiU, just s» Heatli 
and Oorse reinnin with un. Still the country had a vi-rdim 
pniiling look. In the vicinity of vilUi'^cs and towns, j^vuo- 
rully built nciir th« livcr, in i'C};ion)> wh«fv the alKivi 
eoil is deeper, arc urovc* of Oiivox, Vifft, P'-miffianat 
and us we ncured Cordova nccnaionul Fuliiu — the Mucnir 
diictylircra — were seen. Tlie hill-eides in llio diatanw 
were no long4.-r nuked, hh iti tiiu lime re';ioni>, but clothed 
more or lesoi with Ill^x, Cork Unkc, l*intu<. tiid4».-<l, poor, 
pandy, gravelly eoiis, when covered with very littlo vegC' 
table sail, are everywhere, even in dry, warm ciimatei, 
more verdant, more luxuriant with their peculiar vegeta- 
tion than lime rockt. hillx, or eoilii under the mine eundi- 
tioDH. 'rb« vc^et^ttoii tliut dotho iheite HoiU beurv dnni^ht 
better, also, than that which lives in rivh alluvial soils, 
cspi'dnlly tvhen they rcet on clay. The reJieon is no dotibl 
that in Bandy, gravelly eoilK the root:^ of ihi- plants, •hrtibs, 
and trecK can go down all but any di^laoee in scaroh of 
motsturi! and find it, whereas on lime soils and rocks, or oi 
clnys, when they raioh the suImmiI tlii-y (top fhort, am 
have to depend pnly for nouriKhmont and moisture on what 
they find above. 

Thus 1 remember, in the very dry summer of 1808, 
beiii}? very tnnoh struck by the dilfercnci' belwcen the staf" 
of the vefj<-latio» of Surrey and Middii->4-x. In Sum 
where my ccmntry residence i» Hiltiiiled, and where much of 
the toil is sand or gravel, the Weymouth l*ioeti. Spn 
Firs, Scotch Mrs, Bireb, lleecli, ()iik». CluTtri'ita, Ili-ii'lici 
vrero ptrtcclly heiilthy and grvt-n in Auguvt, after th 
ironth*' drciii'tiit. There was no pereepttWo differenci* as 
eoinpurcd with otWr years. Jtnl uhcn 1 cr<,>i-e<l tiiu ri 
into Middk«i-x, on the rich alhivtal i^ntbt 1/inj; on uUy, 
found n tvlnlly dillvrent ttiitc of things. Tlie ground 

ic- ' 




pAroliM] — till hat n-iliiwJ to hay, nnd 

^_ B^larill|t tlieir lutivca b.4 in Kovcinbur. Anothf 

reason may posBililjr be adduced, as my ^deii«r au^gesttidn 
Otir Siirruy plaiiU ara liku poor poopl«', auciistoinod to poaf^ 
fiire, so when a rauiine Gomes they l>G;ir jirivalion hi-ttttr 
tb^in th^ir richer Middlesex Dci^^hbuurii, aouustomed t<t 
A ridii;r mid l>utlLT di<:Uiiy. 



At Cordova nad at Svviile, both on tlic Giiadnlquivir 
river, littitudo 37% the flume elim^te ntid vufjiautivc woii- 
dttioiM appear to prevail as on the soutlt-eaut coast. Thu 
D<te Palm is e<en hero and thcro, grown for ornament, 
not for fruit, which do doubt dnes not ripen. Omn^ 
treeti grciw xiilendidly in courtyards tind gardens, prcilectcd 
by hiuh watls Tram the north wiiulii, a» in the court- 
ard m the catbedral and in the ^anlen^ of the Alcazar at 

viDo; but they »tv nnt R-en, as i: > m o|K<n, unpro. 

cted tpaccs, ejipuaed to the north, in mi. ^'iililic garik-n«, 
vriiich ure numeroiu, I found (Muy II), tlie i;umi»on 
garden tlowers eo often enumerated, about six weelis earlier 
than in the north of Europe j but tliurt: wns vt-ry lilllc, if 
any, evidence of immunity from vM tiiglits iiivd uold windit 
in winter. There were Uenpid, munlhiy, and common 
while Itti«ee, but (cw hybtidK or Tcn«, Dulpliiniums, Ilidiy- 
liocks, Verbena*, I'hlux, Fuliu-^^niumv, Ar|uilcj;ia, Ijilies, 
CamalJona, Thluipi, t^wctl Willtiiii), but »o LiUilanns, 
Abutiloiks, Daturas, \Vi^aiidia<^, and winter Salviaii. Tlit^^e 
ffordens, liowever, iinul be nmrly as nabod to winter us our 
own, or more xo, us the troM gnven aic nearly ull 
di-i-iduouH, meant for summer sluule. Clearly, the inhabit 
tantd of tbero rcgioDs accept the winter as winter, and 
have no idea of deceiving Uie eye, no wish to c«ca|>u from 
iu inlluenve un Ihelundnenpo by pliiutini^ evi^r^^reens. The 
very summer-like look even of the Uenoeee Uivien w 
nwin^ (o the fact that UiB eomplctu protevlion from 
northerly n-inda a<lmitK of at couthent evergreen ve^>tiition 
—Olive, liomon, Urauge trees — whieb exiula all but atone. 

Thftre was much to eee, mneb to enjoy in these tivc 



yieat cities, Init T m<i*t leave the description of 
chorme to |ili-iuiir<; touriKti°. Aly IniBiness n-as merely 
III linil i^iit by iiolual ciliw'^rrHtiai), by tliv niiiilyi;i« of tT 
vcuelutiou, liow far they are fit to be RcliNrted a* u win 
I'eattleDoe liy contirmml invalids. Viewed in tliia li^i 
tlie venlicl, with<Hit iiny liexttntjon, is nuravnuraUe. For 
l>i;r>oii)( xli^litly out ot health, who ninh to muiio Away m 
winti-r ill a southiTti land, in tlie mid^t ol' the menioriea of 
fiirmer dny*, and who arc (lUposcil to select «f the ohjeot oT 
tlivir ftiidipa and ineditnliuna the Alooni nml Saracons 
o( OKI Spain, their tnonumenbi, their habits »nd ciuloma, 
which furvivo to tJiis dny, Cordova or Seville will do Vi 
well, and will rcivard the fiitigticit of the jounioy. Then 
immunity fioni actual cold wciither, much sunshine, aoil 
the novelty of Spanish life aud ways, in addition to 
i;lamoiir of the pnnt. 

I'he real invalid, however, iiitunt on finding the 
winter climate he win, in onier to cucape from seven Btrf? 
tci'in^r, or to save tile, can d» much Ix^ttcr. All the dis- 
advantages enumerated aa pertaining to Valencia and 
Muioia, are equally nfc at Seville. The streets are narrow, 
the hoti-ls an; ail in the centre of the town, the weather 
niuKl be oHen cool, not to aay cold, and n conMdenible 
iiniount ol' rain falls in the course of the winter, owing 
Lo proximity to the AlUntie. lloth Cordova and Seville 
are in tlu! plainlike valley of the Guadal(|iiiv>r, which 
throws itself into Uie stormy AtLintio Ooeao a little to,,^ 
the {«uth-we«t. J^| 

None of the txiwna of the south or Moorisli region of^ 
Spain present any grandeur, nMythiii|r worthy of notice in 
an aTCliitcetural (loint of view, with the exception of their 
ciilhcdialK. That of Cordova is a magnificent Aloori»h 
inoccjiie, Htill prcsiMilini; eleven hundn'd Saracenic column^ 
although two hundtt-d weie detitroyed, with very bad taste, 
tinder Charles V., to make way for a Uothic addition, a nave, 
wry grand iu its proportionn, bnt sadly out of barmoni| 
with the moatiue to which it wan dovctaiU-d. The Sevilfl 
eiithcdral is one of the ni<'st magnificent monumeo'ii 
of (Jothic architecture that 1 hiivo ever seen, IVom th<; 
immeni^ height of the eulunins and of tlie roof which the* 



support. The Alcaxar, or the remains of the Moorioh 
Poluec, U worthy Drall prniM »n(l admirntion. 

The luwiiii tliem.4i<lvi;!i, on tim contrary, nre mean in IUl- 
extreme. They are camiwsed of small, whilewaslieJ, two- 
storied hoiisos, enclo>«e<l in tortuous streets from ten U> 
litlocit foot wide. Mtwl of thcM slrvet* nrv quite inaeocMible 
to a carriage, aod Id tlioae that are so u»ed, two oarriftgee 
ean only pass each other at foot's-pace. 

Owing to the diminutive size of the dwelHng-hoiHes, 
ftnd to the narrowneiw and iii>'i';iiili<Mitir.(* nl' llio Klrivts, the 
grandeur and at^itelinen of the Seville citlhedrul, produced, 
Bs did thnt of Murcia, a peculiar impression on my mind. 
It would soem as if the town, with its human inhiibttauis, 
hiid been nothinj^, whilst religion und thv churvli hiul been 
everything, towerintr as the lalier doee immeasurably above 
Immunity. No doubt this was the impression meant to be 
eoineyed, and who would 4I0 otherwise tbua tckuowlMlge, 
with humility and rcvercnev, the eorrcctnew of the anti- 
thesis, bad the religion of those who created these magniii* 
cent temples cast a truly Christian mantle over tho country. 
Uufortiuintely, it wao not so at Seville. Whilxl guxing 
on the (jrand Ciitiiedrut it i* impossible not to recollect the 
gloomy raiiulicism tliat i^-iyotd in it« walls for centurii-H, 
unUi-r the cloak of rL'li}>ion. The borriiite tyr.inny of the 
Inipiihilioii, Uie terrible human KncritivuK thai btooilthiKty 
inslittitioi) puriodioally demnndeil, with iVf freiiuent "aut«- 
da-(c," and its dungeons tilled witJiviulims during centuries 
of opprewion, all rose bodily before me. In no part of Spain 
were greater horrom pi;r|H;tmted under tho maoK of religion. 
This gloomy religious tyninny dwarfed the intellect of the 
Sjiantsh nation, uciitroyed its national jirosperity, and made 
it what it iK at pnsent', a mere shadow of the paid. Now 
that ihese ahat-klc* have boeD cust olf Utr ever, now that 
mental as well as politiunl freedom has been attaiued, we 
may hope that a glorious future is opening out fur Spain as 
well lui for Italj'. As Wordsworth iruly says in the vent* 
4uutcd at the head of this chapter, there are FonUTS of 
men, g«od and true, yet to be found in Spain. The nntiuu 
is sound at the core, and, onoe Irced from the trammels of 
«up<ir»titioii, ignonnoe, and bad government, will uo doiitit 



rise in the eosl^ of humaiiily, and again aseuin« its 
iimon^ niiit(ini=, liut tiinu if rnjuircil. 

The SjiHiiiiirds htc a ruct- ni nniiiitLaiiicers, liartly, sober, 
iiliatemiotisi, enduring ol' futigue, kind, and cUeerlul. Thejr 
have only been too true to their eel^eh, ranaticnl rulers, 
who have coiistnnlly led them to deuth in a had ghukc, liHVtt" 
i'oniit4intly triidedon their xinijile-mindod devotion wid atPec^J 
tion to rtli^iun aiul to tlie kini;. By supiKirtiii:; a corrupt 
t^ourt for many ycnra, the cler;;y have tost their hold on the 
iTK|iec[ of tlif niitimi, and h«v« liillun with the court, and 
that intixt. defervedlv. 

Nearly all the best houses are built on the Mooriiih 
model, »g at Algiers. They have « ociiti-ul court or 
:^idvn, wlii<d) IK often adL>rned by A roiinlnin us well 
us hv Jlow«i-s. The life of tlio family is centred in and 
around this court, or interior K'"'t^'^n' I" summer, an 
unnin^ i« drawn ov«r from ulnive, ond it beoontes l4w 
ganrrAl citlini^-rortm during the hut tvoather. 

We received the ^rL'ateiit kindnetu and civility from Mi 
r1u8^e« of SpaiiiArda, hoth in tJio towns and on the roadfl.f 
All we met Bcemed to viv with raeh other to httip us on.' 
\^'e wore more especially dtntelc with lhi» cctTxIia) civiUtji 
ill S(-viIte. 0»in^ to the tortuous nondesGript chanctcr of 
the eli'eets, yt' generally lost our way nhcn we went oat' 
without an interpreter, and all but invariably iho tir«t porson 
of \vliom we iiiiked the rond volunt<x'red to take il<< home. 
On one aftenioon, I and my Irieiids, thive in tjumber, all 
went oul Repiiral'.'ly ; we all four lost Otir way, and we wer« 
all jour brought Imck to the hotel by fourdiBcrc-nt persons, 
the first to wliom tv« appealed. 


From Seville I took the railway to Malaga. The line 
paesw in a south -cii>-t<'rly direction aeron aome hilly fertile 
plains, then ascending thr(>ui>h a mount^iinous dialricl, 
piercca the Sierra Nevada by a series of deep cuttin^fa and 
tuuncU. On emerging, it descends rapidly into a eultlvau-d 
phiin, at the edge of nhieh, nn tlio tnuthern coa»t of Spain, 
IS Malaga. 

I was much disappointed with much vaunted ^lataga. 

HALAUA. 27i> 

It ii: a clove, confined Spanifli nommorml senport, mtli 
110,1)00 itilialiitanU packed iiitn u very ^lunW uri-ii, lUvi 
slreeU being from liv« to ttn fuel widu utiK. Tin,' Jiorl i* 
dirty, the felion.- t'ontiiminat4.'<l with all kinds of filtli, U>tlt 
insiilo llto t«n» and (iir B'>iih' diKtinicc from il. The hotels 
una ••l<H»my anddin^', and xiliiatcd on n niiM>ral>lt' prumuniKk' 
— Iliw only one in tli« town. This, the AUm«dn, in merely 
SOU yards long by forty liroad, jilaiited with double rows 
of cliabhy (liH-idnouK (rci-<t, Kim, Acacia, SopliorH Ja|>onic«, 
Mcliu Aiu-darach ami itmall i'lancv, mo that ill n-intcr it mtist 
\m c|i]lti- nJiked. Tliere are some noanlcM bnnta, and niiy 
■autnlior of mcndicanle and ^utt«r children. Tliia la the 
rt, iIk- Kiib<-c, of tbe jwor invalids oondvmtivd for tlieir 
cini' to wint-^r bure. 
I Tlio only real oanJeo wiUiin three milea of the ton-n i* tbv 

I EngUtih ccnMttcry, on n buriit-up hilUside, where even lite 
^H.l*cUr<^i<niunH bad scHrevly any folin-^, o>vin^ 1o the lon^; 
^Hdntught, incrvly a few terminal Icavcit and Hunci-i;. Hcve 
^■Ht luxt there really wa» the evidence of n very mild fiuiithcru 
^■winter, eiiob as n-e have at Meutone, in the in'o-xinui: of 
r Lantana, ltoii<;uiiiviltca, Carouba, ScbinusMulli, ileliotrojx;, 
I Aloti. But till- cvidenci' of cxi.-C|it4on)d MintcrmildncnwuH 
I atill Hioro marked in a garden belonging to au Aniirrican 
Inerchnnl, about lliree miles from tUe town, at tbo buso wJ' 
the monnlaiiiit wbii-b, rising due ni^rtb behind Malaga to 
a bei^bl of itOOO fcet, [iroicet it thoroughly from northerly 
winds. Here I fouud, in full flower. Euphorbia jiwqiiiDi- 
tlMia. Itutwliajiiiicfs, Lanlanae, Abutdona, llol'rotlianiliiiN, 
Salvjji )lorniiniim, giwnenrfloR), 13ouvai-diu tlava, Erytbriim 
rmla gulli (Coral tree), (iaillardiu, PittoF]iern)uni ; indeed, 
the Bftine winter flowera and vegetation a» at Iklentonc. I 
may add tluit Malaga is the only place in Algeria or Spain 
when I fi>und the nnmc cvidcuLv of winter mildneoe or 
entire immunity fnim front u» on the Ocnoi-Ki^ Hivicra from 
Nice to 8a n Itcmo. The winter climate of Malaga must 
present (be «anii- exceptional mildness, but the Nociul owl 
sanilarj cumdilioiix ore vili', ro liad as entirely to neulndixe 
the clinialtf advantages; unlexs vue could have the ootinlry 
house I saw, or a Nimilar one, milea from the town, at the 
base of the ravine or gorge by wliicb Malaga is rrailiecl by 



rail. Tn defeeBilinj; thntu^fh this valtej-, I saw reiy Riil 
Orange trew. 

Such Icing^ tho ca^e, tlic climato of Malni^ Ih-ui^, 
|)n>vc'i3 by ila wjj«t«tioii, exueptioiiully mild uml tin-, witli-^ 
'•111 losing the braotng character th^t oertmiif to nil "dry" 
liun^peiiit cliraalea in winter, it would eeem that the ea- 
coniiLim^ confcrrud iiprjn it liy miiny wrttore are jnstili«d.l 
And eo llK'y wnnlil U- if MiiU'ia wurc ii hc.ilthy cily, or^ 
were thure Iie-iltliy mibiirbau reftidi'iicwi or hott'l:!, in 
eitiialiona, in which invalida coidd reside. 

Unfortntiatcly, however, none of theeo conditions 
renlincd. Th« city 18 nitimtt-d on a sutndy pUin tin ii deu 
level, its Rtreets are even niirrciw«r and dosor than thmi- »f' 
Seville or Valencia, and it« eanitai? condili'm is dt-eidi^dly 
worse. It mny Iw thought tliut « mere Hying vi*iil does 
not entitle mi la njniik ho aiilhiintii lively on the utilijeet, »0 
I will quole other data. 

'I'lienc have Wn five irpidemies of cholera at Mala^^sinc 
1S3£, when U firal appLiived in Europe, nnd aone of the 
<luti8e«t and mont nnhealtliy eenlre* of Enrvpeiin popiitntion 
linvv been more al11ict«d. It is a well-known fm-t thati 
'■Itnlera haa constanlly chosen the most populated and most 
unhealthy cities in which to cxercieo ile rnvii<;cn, and the 
Tact of five epidcniiot of cholera havintf oeuurred in any 
Ido.ility during the thirty-iteven yearn that have clajs 
since it first appeared lo Europe must be fatal to a iwpu 
Idtion for RnluWity. 

I would, aluo, refer my readera to the inoxt recent writcr 
"n the climate of .Mahi^ra, Dr. -More Madden, in hia p«m« 
phlet entitled " The Climate of Malaga in the Treatment 
of Chrvmiu Pulmonary Piscasu. Onhlin, lH65." At 
page IS Dr. Madden aay» very {^phieally and ea 
plicitly : — 

'* Toe hygienic condition of Malnt>* is as dcfoclivo as it 
ciin well be. In a great many of the houtie« there ia nc 
prnvinion for xewage of any kind; and even in the moro 
civiltxed )>urt of the city, in the hoteb on the AUmeda, the 
drainagfe is very bad indeed. The main wwers, wliieh 
run under the princijuil ittrcetfi, are choked up by th« do- 
compMing aecumnlation of yeunt, and bi;ing provided with I 



irnmonM sqtuiro opciiiniTS, throif^h which tho <]irt ntid 
riibbUh uru thrown inlo ihcm, in tliii cvtittru o( the Htreeta, 
the mopbitio ft»»ea evolved be\>i\v freely eaca[>e into the 
atmosphere of the narrow lanes of the city. The bol of the 
(>iiiuliilini.-<lmii ix really tho mnin softer of MaW^n ; and i)»- 
r»r nearly ten inontlu annually it bi libtk* mure than a wide 
dry bed of gravel, buin^ de[ii!'iident on the torrents ia winter 
for its purifiGntion, the odour it exhales in warm w<»itltcr 
renilvrs a residvnco ncjir it as di»i^rDcablc m it U mi- 

" The oannexion between epitlemie di.teiue and bad sewage 
is, I think, very well illustrated in Mala^^n, n-liich has at all ; 
limes been remarkable fur ilia prevalence of zymotic tliMiiuu. 
I have oollcoled from the older S|>iinti>li writeni notiee^ of 
no less than tweuty-two epidemio ]>cHttlenee!i, some of which 
utmost <lepopiiIat«d the city, between l-Wi and 1804^. The 
ntrlier of tlieMe iieem to havi; been t-pidomics of u;<^tiiitne 
Orieiitid plague, xnd the latter jr«>ticrully asMumed the form 
of yellow fever. Of bte years, ainee H31, these pe8tileaoe»| 
have not ap|H>an-d, but Mioii' pluee has been taken l>y Asiatic ' 
oholrra, whti-li ha« several tiinwi ravaged the town," 

'rim dlxive uoHt inviting deacription uf Mnlaj^a Ln written 
by the author of a recent work ou climate, who, alter tra* 
veiling all over Kiirope to find the best winter »nit(irium 
for the coniiumptive, hiu li\ed on thiir mo»t niilnbrirHM lon-ii 
as the sought<for Eldorado. So that thin ehusen Kuiopeiiu 
A'liifat, in fui'tuer and present times, ol tho pla;;iie, yellow 
fever and ehuler.t, in to be Hi-luvlcd to restore tlip health i>f 
our poor oiiuiitrymen und women, already dvbiliuicd by 
diwuM, Oiinslilutionally broken down, and a prey to un 
organic mulady. 

Surely, as I hav« repeatedly ulatud, it is mer« wanton 
triSini; with hnman life to »end aiieh nuiri-n-ra, with a view 
to the recovery of their health, to wiiitur in liirge, ouliealthy 
ibinth'-rn Iowmd like Itome, Niipk-o, and MaJa^tt, fooi of 
malari.i and of epidemie and /.ymolio dbteuNM. Xheti not 
the simplest common sensu tell us that invalids, with lli« 
seeds uf death in them, should not be located for months 
in the contrv of towns whertt even the healthy oaiinot live, 
and die annually at the lAto of thirty or more in the 



thousand? Siiicnlui'l)' enoiipli, 1 lielii>\'c I am the 
utid as yi^ tiir onlv wriler on i^limiiti.', w)io liiiii ri'(^<>2<ii"(!< 
tind fori-ibly iitiiii^leil <iii tlie alKimporUtnt itnil 9e1l-(^vi<li'iit 
("net that oonaumptive palietiU fliould reside, wiiitiT imt 
Slimmer, in Kntrland or ul>rua<l, wlicrc tlu'y cnn lire^tix 
puie iiir ni;;ht iind lUv^Uiiit in, in the wMinlry, in hwilthj 
villagpK, ill tho lioitlthy oiilekirln of lowns. Tli«ir hreattiio^ 
pure ail' is of inlinitely more importauce than a lew de^^rees 
orteniperuture more or lc«s, or a liltlo more or Ufft prot«e* 
lion li'iim tliit- or ihut wliiil. A faei ko coiiitnnant willt 
niixlorii jihyxioIoL')' i^ud putholo^ ha* only to be brought 
forward to he universally acknowledpred, and the time if 
near whL-n tnvdionl men nill wondirr liovr tlit-y could cvei 
lliiiik of i!oo)iiii>^ lip tht'ir puticDtM in unhMillliy bouUiiyi 
towns fur the sake of warmth, which they do not get 
llutter fur that they should slay nt home than purchns 
t*xt-mp1tiin fmrn tin- cold of our (.•limati-s hy l-xp<i»iirti to 
liysk'iiii' conditioncwIiKh produci.', os a mntt«r of cottrw, in^ 
auccM*iv« (rencraUotui, phigue, yellow fever, and eholurw. 

Guided by what 1 saw myself, and by what Dr. Mop 
Mnddtrn and others tell us, ns uhove, 1 eonsider I am yvf 
fi-i'tly wHiiiint^l in mlviiinsj the midteal j>ro!W»ioi» lo utrik*" 
iMuhiicm out of the list of wintt^r renorU' for invulids I'ur thu 
present, DotwithslandinE>! its rtiitty ^nml elimate. Whciii 
hoteln niid villus, comMning ihe i-e'pnremrnts of Kngli«l 
invulidx, hiive brt-u bnllt sointt iniU-t) out ul lb*! town, at Um 
base of the hills, whei-e tbewctillhy Mub^a inerebanlal 
<«t»hlisli4.-d tbeir country rceidenees, and when the stat* of 
tlie country renders it tuifv to inliiibit tbrm, thfii, and th«nj 
only, will it he prudent lor invalids to wioler at Malugn, 

■AiaoA TO ghanada. 

Wc started for Gmniida at rix o'clock in the moniinf 
in a kind of onv-Lodicd omuibuM r\nffi drawn by ei|jtlij 
mulee, and at uncc struck the mountain to the north-ens 
«l iHc foot of which Mala(;a is situated. Ilie rond wound' 
up the south eidiw of the mountain for ibicv h«um, giving 
us a splendid view of the city, which seemed to liav ' 



Oi] itself nraund the largo oatlicdral, oa one side oft 
iangillar pluia, iKiuntled by mminUint nn<l llic wn. 
ThetK Diimntaina are ecnialic in Ibniuition, frialilo, and. 
water-worn into innumerable etij^dr-Ioaf cones, tlie t^iiles at 
WtSivh nrc criTywlitTc plantud with Vjik'=. I'hf Viiiw are 
cut down to tite Ktn[np» annually, and ut tlici tiiiiL- of my 
viait {.May 11) werejml sprouting, ao tbiit the bill-sides, at 
a difttanoe, seemed uovercd with Grass. Tbe Vinu-cliid hilla ^ 
Bpokc of a ripli wine country. The l«»t iviMnx iiIm comai 
fnini Miilng-j, and are )>re[iitri-d from aniiHealtrl grap<» wbiclt 
ii* (fruwn on thwe innniitAin slopes. Luiidon alonu receives 
H,OllO tons yt-Mrly. As wo ascended, the Chamairops 
linmili", the GvniKia, ('vliMia, and Minintain Liiv<.-n(lcr, 
ahowed themselves as uaual. We led the tbermoroet«r] 
If lit niKlit, 7S' in t)iu dny, at Mida^a, lo find it three 
hours later, at un devatioii of .^0(10 feet, only o^' at nine 
o'L-lo4:k, with a cold wind. Ilex, Cork Oak, oereaU, and. 
Vines occupied the bill-aides, until wo descended to lime> ' 
stone rocks and soil, where the Olive, Fig, Caroubti, AIiiU 
terry, reappeared, with hixurinnt yrwund crops, and h>riir 
wat*r Lomburdy Poplun, Wbit« Poplars, and Willnwa. 
Thifl ia tbe eliaraeter of the luxuriant irrii^ted valley 
HDund tiranadu, llie renowned " Vetpi," which repi-at« at 
an cli-vuti'in iif nhont 200U t'cel the fi-rlility ol' thu Miireiun 
and Vxlenetan lime valleys. There is more yenerid verdure, 
however, lor it reuUy d<>i>K rain in tlie province ol' Grauuda, 
i«i that oultivution doiai miL depend entirely on irri)^ation. 
Tlie entire country, from the nionii-nt the mountainit wliieh | 
overlap and jirotcct Malaga hud been crossed, liore (haJ 
evidvitue of winter niio. Altitude and proximity to the<; 
Atlantic clearly controlled other inlhieneei'. 

7'he mode of truvellinj; greally inlene^led u«. We had 
a postillion on one of the first mules, a coachman with lonj; 
reina on a hi^h box, and u siipplementAry driver, called the 
mayoral, aittin;; at hia feet at timea, but olteuer ruuntai; 
by the side of the mules, whippinj; and urging ihem on. 
The eiiduiancc of the young postillion and of this mayoral 
[Kwitively amuzml ut. 'llie former rode nil the journey, 
eighty milea; be was twelve houn in the saddle. The 
latter ran, a great part of tbe day, by the side of the 




malm, lulling them, sltoiitii))? nl tWm at the t<>p 
faiaToice, and often tbrowing utones u-itb wliiuli he ml«d 
hU pockets. This wa?, no doulit, th« wny id wbich 
travelling wns carried on all ovrr Spiiin tHtroru tliv ilnvH of 
railways. Vfe thus imsse'l through u diiU of pretty tnouii- 
tain Hcencrv, Vine<cla(l hilts, fertile Olive and Mulberry- 
covirrcd valWvs. 

THi: kLlllMUHt. 


OnnudA, nben I saw it in the middle of Mav, wsa v«ry 
lovely with spring verdure. Owiug to ite altitiidc, 2500 
Ceet, iti the inidsl of n tnoiintain region, there it no Inok at 
moulure; indeed, il rninvd heiivily while 1 wu tliere. In 
nintev, I vtaa told, tt is often very cold, now falls and 



it freexes ; whilst io tho heitfht of annimer it u rery hot^ 
Hii arc atl similiir elevations ia Spain. Thus OraowlB 
iit only Iitt4xl lor ii spring or autumn nMidtncv. In winlor 
it is too cold, it) snnimer too nrarm. The g^reai atlrnctinn 
ia the Alhambra, the palaci: of the Moorish c.iliphs in the 
days of vid, MtiU in wondcTfit) inx^trfrvitliun. This " iirchi- 
tcotural dreiim" (leKcrvea a n-oelc'tt atirutiTiy und Kludy. It 
is an earthly realization of the Mahominedan'fl idea of; 
paradiM. Surronnded by flowers and houris the sonsuiilj 
Mahommudau c^otild hore Kitut out thi- wmld iind funojrj 
that h« had really crossed the bridu;e at xhurp um a ruxor,! 
lapported by n guardian antfel, and had arrived at thoj 
ffKiradisc promised to all ^od Musstdniuns by Mahommed. 
Tima wa* preoioint, »o I wan oblij^cd to tear rayeeir awjiy 
from the fn^innliono of Uranada and lh« Alhambra, and to 
lniTBue n>y pdj^rirnajfe " hometvarda." 


Wo left Ornnada in xplendid stylo, in a i^rand dilifrenn 

Ijjtut like the oh) Fretmh three-bodii'd dili;>enceM of furnier 

dnyS) drawn by a string of twelve handifoni<> mules. We 

itad the thrcu att«ndant«, the postillion, the coachman, and 

Lilie mayoral, or xu]>erniimerary mule-whippcr. Tho postilHoii 

' rode all day, iVtiin four o'dvck in the morning untd Bve 

in the afl^^rnoon, when we reached the railway at Andnjar. 

A Spnoish travelling companion told me that before th« 

railroad was opened to Andiij^ir tJiv Nime poHtillion used to 

ride from Uranada to Madrid, two duya and a nit'ht, and 

Kometimos died at the end of the journey. The dnver had 

clearly the Ix^t of it, for he snt still, merely hohlin<; the 

ruiRH and oucasionally using hia long whip. The mayoral, 

Jike tive po«tillion, had a hard time, for he was up and 

down every five minutes, and was as ofien runnin-f by Ihu 

Bide of the mulo, shouting at the top of hia voiee, liwhing 

oat with a lony^ whip, or throwiu|i «tone» at them, oa 

sitting in liia seat at the feet of toe driver. These men 

ailorded a goud i)lu«lration of tlio power and endnmnce of 

l.liainaii muscle and vitality in youth under clfieicnt and 

constant training. 



Until we struck the Guadalquivir valley, a few mil« 
liefore reat-'hin^ tlie rui), we wi-ru all diiy in ii mountuin^ 
(liHtriot, betwL'cn IJOO itnd 2500 fevt above the vca. H«l 
il cli^iirly rainK in wint«r, aod the scenery was very fit 
turesqiie and lovely. The rocka w«ro ^vnerully swcondi 
cretaceous, with here and there Hcliisili*; de|iixit« from tlie' 
bigher primary m»initikiiiM. In the luwer valleys we fotiiid 
the Olive, Miilherry, Fo|>lar, Willow, in the hipher schistic 
rv^ons, the Cork Ouk, the Ilex, eonii-tiin<-K ^nind tre<»j^ 
with the Broom itnd siritilar «hriilM, The Hiiwthom wi 
very euinmon on the loaJside, uiid being in lluwer gai 
quite an Kngliitli look to the road. 

Wg tuck the railway at eix I'ur I^diilrid, but I was d4 
terinined not to upend a ni|>ht on the road, itueh a cour 
being oltojMther o|iposed to my travellinj; princijtles. 
was told Inat there was no licAnililu place wliere I could 
tind oocommodulion for the night t» break the Journey, 
bnt I di-termined to rnn any risk, and (topped »l 1U.30, n^ 
Viil de PcDux, n little town, the cetitre of a well know _ 
wine dislriet. I and a friend, who was willing to try tbi 
adventure, wera deposited at the Etation, half a oiilo from 
the town. I manai;rd to make (he Ktaliori-oinfitvr u»d< 
Bland that wc wiinti^d bi:d*, and lie sent a porter utF wit 
tis. In a few minutes we reached Vul de Henas, an assea 
l>Ugc of one or two-storeyed, whitcwa»hi.-d hotisuM, in wi<lc 
clean, re^uhir ntrci-'tii at right an<;luii to each <i1I)lt. Wf 
knuckcd at a sroull but respectable dwelling' house, tbs^ 
inmate* of whieli hml retired to rest, and after some demur 
Were admitted, and >howu into a " Mootiith" C|L)iidtangular 
courtyard, with sii arcade all niund. A bustling, good- 
iialured woman iiflhcrad us into a nice cK-an room, opening 
on tills arcade, wlicru w« found two decent U-dH, and ifler 
the haid dii)'s journey from (iraiiada, we wou found 
oblivion in sltiml«r. 

\Vu had not to leave Val dc Pcuas until ont> o'clock, so 
did not ri<« very enrly. On appearing wc found oar lively 
and obliging ho^tiss biihily cmplowd coniliing the long 
black ttTMo^ iit' a dark-eyed grown-up ijui><£litcr, who was 
sitting nn a clair in the courtyard. Thi« ]:errorn)uncu 
ouncliidcd, with sundry amiable tiods and smile* frum 



mother and duuijlilor, wu contrivcO, partly by eignt, 
to Diakc kiiiinn our wnuU fur UvuUlnst, ivhicli were 
utlondixl to. The fe|i;iHL was a vi'ry plisiK.iiit one, auJ 
)Mrtuk«u will) a certain (le;{ri!u of stute uiidi^i' Uti- urv-mlu,' 
fur the best crix:ki:ry, eviiloutly tiv-ii«iti*uJ corioiitieii, vrtu 
brotisht out for the* i>u>.-n<iii(ii. [ly thin litnu \vv- liaJ found 
uot that wc were u«t in a " l'c)»adii," bui ^iii.-xl!t oI'Die 
bliiL-kainith of the villa:{Q. The atatioa-nuisler liad rightly 
onDcludud tiiut we ehould liu buttur Ifvatcd thuie than at 
thu iniiK, which wv Kub«-i|iiently mitv, iiitd which did uut 
loolk very t«TU|>tiii){. Whilst wi^ wwu brtuikfoittin;; our 
boiL* Kit do^vu nt>ar us, and with ei^nst, itiiiikis, gn- 
tures, and tlio k-w wonis of S(>uiii)ih vrn c:mlJ muiitur wa 
anoagod to keep up nil aniii)iit<:<l i-iiiivfritatioii. VVn werai 
crideotly even moru a auhjuct ut vuriusity to tbetu than 
thoy were to U8. 

AlWr breakfast wc made a perambulation in the town, 
and wcro cvvrywhero received with fjrwit vi>rdiality and 
civihty. Tliv population boru Nlflinpcd uq tlivtr r»tliires 
tfot>i\ natuiv, eohricty, bard wurk. and health. They 
dearly belong to the simple-minded ruce to which 1 have 
alluded, to tn« ta«o that Iism) toe centuries ehud ite blood 
liko water to defuml Ktipentitton, naively tbiiikint; it wan 
aiipporting rali^ion, niul to pr»lei.-t a eorrupt racuufkinga 
and iiiibles, under the impre^ion that it was pei't'orming aj 
Bacred duty to its native euuntry. Such a race, ouce ' 
ciliieiitvd, emancijuited fiom the traijiniebt of Kuperstition 
Hud uf fealty to corrupt lulers, who have forft-ited evtiyj 
claim to respect and euppoit, is sure, aa I have Miid, aj^aia 
to niiiic the name of Spain to a high rank in the family of 

Anion^t other Itouseit that we vuited was a lurj^ wine 
exporttfr's premises, The business was uuried ou in a 
Fpiiciituv qiuulranfrular courtyard uf the unuikl character sur- 
iiniuiled by buildingN. In addition to vats containing^ 
wine, there were an imnien&ti number of pigakina, son 
lilled with wine nnd doin;; duty for eaiks, others in thfl i 
various AtMges of preparation fur lliat piirpoMc. The »kiiui 
arc very artistienlly pulled olf the uoinial, ao ua only tij 
leave two good uized holes, one at the oeek the other at the 



tjul, am) four email onm at the feet, "nw br<^r IioIm are 
pieo«d nilh jiiece* of iilcin ; tb« smaller are sewn 1i;;litly, §o 
that no esuofie of the wine is possible, l^rev-iuiisly lo i)ii« 
heiuf; done the bristles are ecrapnl oiF tiin<l llie ekitis edIu 
niitled to some eofl«ning firoccM ; vre mw hundrcils thus 
prvpariiig for uav. At one o'clock we re^inttl the iTatn, 
mi;'htilF pleaded nith this lillle iusij^htinto •SpatiiBli village 
life, atid i^ralcful for the cordiality of oar rucepUun by : " 
nith uliuna we hod oopw in contAcl. 


Madrid iR not like any olher city that I saw tn Sfnit 
In its modern part, at leaft. it reseiiibles a portion of I>aria 
or of Doideaux. Ttie houses are tall, many- windowed 
French houMV, and tliR vtrrets are tolcnihly with- rartsiat) 
Btra-ts. llie m(>st peculiar feattire alMiiit Jkliidrid ia its 
siituation in a plain i!700 feet above the sea, ten milM front 
the southern base of the Guadarrama chain of mountains 
'fbe mere altitude makes it cold «vcn in the latitude of 40* 
in winter, and iW *iluatia» at aome diNtanov from the 
»f higli mounlaina covered with snow from autumn 
epring, eutposes it to dry, picrcin;; down diatighta an« 
winds from the north. Ttieite Dtcteoroh>gical eoiulilic 
rekder the inhabitants liable lo acute iunummatory ■lli>< 
tiona of the chest, which are very common, sevei'e, and 
fatal. In the eiinimer lite obivatioo docs not preeerri 
Madrid in thin latitude from extienut hoat. It ia tiien 
fiercely dry and hot as it in dry imd cold in winter. Whe 
1 waa there. May iO, llie teinperaluro was oitol and asrei 
able, and the weather very pletuunt. Tliis I vat told 18 
f^nerally the cnve in apiiuj^ and untumn. 

There ia much to see at and near Ihlndrid, bnt .-is I had 
only a few days to dtFpose of, after examiniti)' the ni]i{;uifi> 
(lent piaturc Ralli-rit», I turned my attention to my iisua) 
Ntudy, ve|^-t4tti(it) fl« illiwlratinv climate. 

It ia moHt intercstint; to observe at Madrid, on an ex< 
tensive scale, how elevation nciitruliM-s Intitiule. JiKJ^JDfc' 
fV'jm the ve)fet4ition, the winter and oi'Hiig muot be imrtjr 
a« co]<[ an they are in KngUnd, although the eummots an 



Bntieh liotter. When I was titcrc, May IS, tliorc witc hut 
§te« sprintc tlowcre in the piililir ^nnlvcix, iiiid tlii' iiliiiiting 
out ot' (jL-rnnuini!', H«Uolrope*, Verbenas, had but juat lieeii 
comiilvtcd. There were Stocks, PaiiBiw, Delphinium, Swwt 
^Villiam, Aquile^ia, Eecbecholtzia, Siltiiic, Antiirhinimi 
^Antbts, in Howw or cuniiiig into llowi'r. The deciduous 
BtJiK« )iiid juKt made tbeir new leaves ; there were bul Tuw 
Keonirers or everi^rNtis. 1 Tound tlic names of ecvcnil oniit- 
KiDeilta) trees n*hu-h 1 hsd vi'Cn in othur piirt« of i^piiii) with- 
kot being «1>I« toubloiii their di-ni^'tiaiioii. Tlie tiillowiii;; 
hrere irrowinK w larije trees : — Ccrcia Biliquastrum, Ailantw 
gtitiidulosa, Celtifl ntittralic, Piniif marilima, 1'. I Intopensie, 
Rubiuiu pBCudo-Acouiu, very commonly- uiuid jII tiv«r Spain 
M a tuwn tree, no doubt Ironi its doinf; well with littJe 
water. The same may be said of Uie SopJiorn Japonica mid 
I of the Melia Axedanteb, Ctillin oc«iiteiHjiliit, Tiliii intor- 
^^Biedia, Glt-ditnohia Iriacanthos, Neff^umlo fraxiiiifoliuin, 
^Hjlroussonetia pH|iyrifera, Acer pseudo-Plantanus, Aeaeia 
^^P f amesiana, I'rotopis eiliqua^trum, riiitanue occidentalis, 
^HDuvatui dfpcucIi-iiK, CiymiiveJudiw CaiiactuMxin, llubinia 
^^ftttmbmculifcra, Cedrus Libani, I'opulus caiineeni, Aeer 
^HvatDpestre, Ciiprcesns horizontalis. The soil at Madrid is 
^^t|iartl)' silinxitiK, the grmt mt)imtiiin!« which riiie to tho 
north t« u hi-i^lit ot'ftUOU or COOO feet buin^ ttriinitit;. 
TItc railway from Madiid to the Dorthcrn front li-rasct'ixiH 

Cto a hfiifht nf nearly 6000 feet, into an Alpine country 
thickly woodwl with Coiiifeni and Oiiki;. The liittcr wiTe 
th«n beginnini;; ((lie SOth of Itlay) to vend rortli their It-uvea. 
It ia the north winds from these snow-oovered motinUiitla 
titat contribute so much to cmbilt«r the elimale of Madrid. 
On their norlliem alopea the mountains itre, for a (preat dift- 
iutee, iMTTen and treeless. 

True to the principle not to travel at nisbt, I stopped at 
Valladolid and at Btirgo* to bn-iik the journey, and toum) 
both these cities wcrtJi vii>iting. They are much Km 
Spanisli tJian the towns south ol tho (iuadarrama chain. 
Ttio utrveta are tolerably wule, whilst tho faonsca rea<:h 
three storeys, and are not all whilvwa»h(.>d. Alto;;ither 
there is a norlhero character about them, explainvd liy ttw 

I elevation, which is considerable, and by tbo ooitsctjuvut 
: . 



coldness of tlic nnntcr tcmpcmtiiro. In Viilladolid I snw 
thehoiiM in wliifli CbnKto)>iiL'r('i)liim))us died, ii fm^morablf! 
raonum«»t; nud also the House and room in whicli Mii-bael 
Cervantes wrotfi Don (^uixoU. I eat for some minutes 
the very window froiii which he must liiivc <l»ily look 
wliiii cnmi'tHiini; hiit renowned work. At Dui^b the jk^ri^al 
sight ift the mtlicdral, a truly inajriiificent structure, tjiiite 
worthy of twonty>four hours' dcUy on.llic part of the 
p:w»iiig travfllcr. 

Aller leaving Btira;o9 we rapidly approached the Pyrenees 
and their spurs, pnsftiiif; throui^li the UiKque proviDce. il 
wc lost sight of the |x:cidiar features of central and eaot 
Spain aK a ruinlcNt, treeleits country \t'A\i warm shi^rea uui 
cold hi^h centRtl plaius. Trees, forests, pasturen made their 
sppearancc, n« iilso the outward evidence of thoiiglilful, 
ckilfut ciiUivattiiii. It wo* clear thnt n-e were iipprciaohii: 
th« shores of the Atlantic, and the moist ctimale of t 
n-ealern coast of Europe. St. Sebaslian was reached, tl 
the French frontier, and a few minutes lat«r BiMrrilz. 



The me<lical concKsions at which I have arrived, respec 
inp the climnto of Spnin, have hcoii recorded a«i 1 liiivc 
piof;reps<'d in the narration of my tour, to I have not 
merely lo recti ]iituUte. 

The health regions of Spnin are confined to the east 
and fwitth-eatitcrn coastiE, at the foot of the oentral t«bl«- 
lund. Owin^ to the south and north -westerly winds having 
their moisture precipitated by the mountaiDsof the western 
and central re>pon» ol' Spain, and owins to the north ^a«terly 
winds being pulled down to Al^M'ia by the Desert of Saliar 
the enitem ooast of Spain is probably the driest region i 
Eurom, drier even than the Genoese Uivicni, 

Thifl eastern coast of Spain ia ut«o one of the mildert 
winter regions of I'^umpe, although witli the exception of 
Malaga, and its vicinity, probably not ({uite s'> mild, not 
quite so free from slight winter frosts, as tbo morv pro« 
toctcd regions of the Geoocw nodcrolilT, 


Stirli tioii)^ th«ca*«, (til tbnl I linvostatfid in llio medicil 
cliajitcr on the Hivten ftjimlly :iii[itie9 lo tiit'§L' ivj^ioiii 
of Spain, lis (.'Hmato mii^t ho cqiully bi-ncliL-iii] in .-ill ■.iikuk 
rv^l'iiring ilry, inilU, Unicinjf, sunny, Ktiinubliii'; wintt'i' 


D i 



"Till Ortvcc, but living CrfMO DontflK! 
Su ooldly >w»et, so d«ad)jr fair. 
Wo stftrt, (or Mat ia wauttnif Ibere. 
• • ' • c « 

Voir elinc, wW* every mmod umlea 
Ik-Bignwit o'#r theee 1>l«^m«d mIm, 
IVrc DiQdly diicpling, Occlui'* ohoek 
B<'Hn,*t« tho tinti ofRinny k ponk 
Cauftht by tiie Iniigbinjt tidcti tlikt litve 

TbuM I£d«u« of Mto outwn waTe." 

Bnoit— TAif Oiaoar. 

Oyr. of the mnet enjoynblu moiJcs of returning liome after a 
winter spent, in Itul)- in by tlio r(>utv dLtioriUid nt the head 
of lltiti dhHjiter. I bad lonif wiBbed to taku ttib jounusy, 
not only for pleasure, but >tso to study tbe Bprin;; vegeta- 
tion itnd tb(! climate of the north shore of the MnliU-mnean 
eAst of Italy. At but the loug-coulGtnplatK) plan becamt 
feosibic, and in the ovenitig of April iiTtb, 187~, 1 si 
frtiin llrindiiH on an Aiutrian Lloyd steamer for Corfu. 
The weather was Rnc, tlie sea calm, and th« veiumi 
and commodious. As soon as the lights of BriDdisi beg^n 
to pale on the horiion 1 retired, passed n very comrortable 
nifflit, and nvxt mornins by six was on deck, anxious to 
Hsoeriain tlie state of tGingii. We bad crosi^od the moutli 
of tJie Adriatic in the ni^jlit, ami were running ■ south- 
viudcrly coun«, a few miles only from the shore of Albania, 
at the foot of precipitous limestone mountaiDs, ap- 
parenUy from 4000 to 6000 feet high. At th« higher 
elvTations there were still patches of snow glistening in 




nin, and creatini:; riviiteU that triukUxl down Uic mountain, 
to loKo thiimfidviTs in ths sctt. 

The aim wuii chining brij^htly on tlie bald irregular 
precipitous nioiintjiiiis, bringing into clear relief tlii-ir pro- ' 

{'ections and reccscE. To the cyo thwc appi-sirwl naked, 
mton L'xaminutiflu with a gliiss it ljL-cum« evident lli:it 
thej- were covered with hruubwood, probably Uoncmary, 
Thyme, Lentioous, Juniper, and Myrtle, When tli« niotiii- 
tMM became Icxs pracipitous, the Mih, drpvcssion'!, i-uvines, 
were oorercd with puloticw of Cunilers, princtpully the Pinus 
Uatepensis ur Aleppo Pine, I waa subHi-queiitly inlbrmcd. 

Curiosity aa to our vrhtreaboute thus gratilicd, my cy«8 
tumM instinctively to my fellow piiswn^^fm, who, tike 
tnyaidr, had iibundoned their berth.i and were liianinij over 
tlie side of the vessel, loukina landwards, entranced by the 
beauty of the eccui'ry, by tbo <;lorious hnrmuni'.'S of the 
•on, the mounttiini>, and the Ay, Ul up by Kuulhi^rn xun- 
ahine. They vtcTo only seven, a Greek gontlemun on bis 
way to Athens, whone adiiiainlance I had miide at Hrindist, 
and an English ^ntleman snd family bound for Con- 
sUntinople, via Corfu, Athcnx, and Smyrna. 

My Greek friend hiul piiwed n dtiy with me at the com* 
oiodious Briiidi^i lintel. He was partner in a lar;;a 
London house, and spent nearly twenty yciirs tii tho 
Host without Tcvisitin}; Europe. He had not seen hii 
native country for a much lon^rer period, and was in a 
levcrisli stat« of pulriulic imptilience to revisit once more 
Athens, where he was born, and the haunts of his youth, 
H<! hud mitde a handmumc I'liittinc in the EdkI, be tiild me, 
and meant to buy huid. In invent capital, niid tu btdp to 
ro;^onerale tireece. hidi-ed, he was full ol day-Jreums lor 
the prosperity and glory of his beloved country. He had 
with him his "eon," n dear little lioy of live, whom he 
wi*hcd (o introduce to the land of his foreliithers. He had 
taken the child from lu< mnmuia'a lap, piomieins that h« 
and a trusty man-servant would do all reipiired. ThedutJei 
most au-laetously uudertaken by the father and his valet 
were mint fcrupuIouKly pi^rlurmed, but the f^hild was mure 
tlian a match for tlie two, and wms often the cause ot'adc>;'rea 
of perplexity and of betvildermeut, aniUGiii<r tu witue»s. 


Th« EtiKliah [rentlcman m-oh a gvcnl illustration of tliff 
ediiciilpi) i'tit;li^h putcrfaTijilins. He was a Uuiversity man, 
a •io(n\ diiRfical Mclioliir, an en-M.P., «i>d hwl travcllvd a 
ik-:il in Ilia yoiitli. Itciii^ ili'Mrotis Ut rIiow liiti family a 
little of tlie world, he lolii nic hu had xwt started nitli his 
wife, eon, daii^^hter, und nic-ce, an amjile supply of Murniya' 
attd intruiiiivtione to our Miuieters anil ConRuU, for a two 
inontlis' Kustvi'ii tiiur. We trnvi-Ued side bjr >idc uutil I 
h\\ Ccnstuntinbpli', and the i;om|ianioiuhi)) of this family 
proved meet ii^rrecahle, tuktti<; ;iwiiy all feolini; of lunolincu* 

Aa we pi'dgn-sscd the AlUnniim moiintninf) l>ecainc IcM 

fircoipit'itte, Hmidt plains iippe^roil noni' thoir base, id which 
urge Olive tree* were growini;, and their presence waa 
Boon followed by the a|'pearanc« of a villorie of towo— 
Buuntro. In all civilized p:irts of the world the hahili 
tion» of mun mukc Uioir nppciiranee itimnltaiHWusly wit 
the evidences nf fertility ; witli the appearaooe of land that 
will pn>duL-o what he lives upon, animul or veg^'tiible. llto 
civilization, however, of the«ie Albanian villa^^, tost in tlt< 
fi.lda of tliuir wild motinlaine, would nppoiir to be «l rathe 
a luw obli, if, ut least, ibo uipTuin of our sti.-snier is to " 
rt'lied on. In reply to a qnontion as to tlie people who lOJ 
hiibited them, he exuhiimed, " K una razza ni»li-d«ttu,^ 
adding that it would he an evil hour for ns were our v( 
wrecked on that coast [ Pi.-rl'a| s tho Albanian villagen 
WL-re belied, and were better than their reputation. 

When opposite Jlueiiitro on lurninij round, wo saw 
riMiif; out of the sea, t« the south-west, ii rocky barren 
inland about »ix milcii in etrcumferonoe, inhabiled by a few 
tiehermen only, the inhnd of Kano. It is litly mik-s from 
th« nearvst point of the Italian coast. Otraoto, and twelve 
from the iuland of Corfu. The latter also appeared on tho 
m>uth horizon, apparently u continuation of and a pro- 
jection from the Albanian mountain land. Our steanMir 
directed iUi course to the angle of junction, and wo soon 
discovered and entered a channel only two niilex wide, 
which si-panites tho northern extremity of Corfu from tlie 
Albanian voatrt. The channel vdou widens and forms 
lake-like expanse, exr|uisitely lovely, and ei};ht miles ii 
width, upjwsita the town of Corfu. Tlu£ lakc-liku ex|Kiu> 



eion of the channel between the islun<l And Uic mainland 
may \xs compiuvd to IJfty Loch Loinondu, HUTrouiitltH) by 
fifty Ili'ii Lomonda. Wc breakOtst^d aa comfortably as 
on the Soobih loch Bteamor, u-hilet passing rapidly avoi- 
tli« blue wnt«rs, Und-loukud and 9iirrouiid<.*d by bL-auUful 
mauntiiiny, iirrlviii!^ iiL ckvL'ii in lliu hiirbour of ('url'u. 

Corfu is a crescent -shaped isUiid, of limestone furmatioii, 
Utitudo A'J' ;iO', lyin;; all but north and south, mid Kt-piir.itod 
from th« miiiiiliind by a chunnol of variable width, two 
mileii at iUt northern outlet, twelve in the centre, six at 
the southern outlet. Ihe width of the island, whivh b 
mountainous, varies from tHciiLy milos in the north ta 
throe or four in the nouth. The town of Corfu is « iLimti^d 
on tlie euatern Nhare, at about iU centre, faoinj^ tlia 
All«niaa coast and niountnins. It is composed of tlie 
oitadul, tho town, and the suburbs. The citndcl ocxitipics 
the summit of a smull plain, about two hundred f<wt iibove 
the aea. It coinpriMUi the priiii-ipal fortilleations, including 
two owttov, tlie fortner Engliiili guverunr's paluce, and a 
wide wplanade, now a public g^anlen. The citadel over- 
looks the harbttur and the louro, the uarrow streetn of tho 
latter oceupyiiif; the >ilo|iing hill-sid«-K bctwoeu itand the sea. 

The town •>( Corfu is singularly ititercotinj; to the 
northern traveller, more so than any other town I saw in 
Orwce, not exoepting Athens. 'Hie pi«luri'S(pie, brinht- 
coloured Grecian and Albanian costuintw nre very numerous 
— ^ill but univertnl — meeting you at every turn; and every 
traosaotjon of life is iMrri(.-d on in the (ireek language. 
Tho names of the streets, the nuraea and the occupations 
of the chopkeepoi*s, the Uovcrnniont judicial, and trudinu 
anntiunucinenU and ■dvertiKemcnle are all ill Gr«ek. The 
veuni passed at school and college revert to the mind, with 
Thui;ydides and Sophocles, and all the memories of that 
vrry liard-working period of Ufe : I was enchanted, and 
rumbled ol>»ut hour aft^-r hour. 1 kept to my Greek friend 
and his lioy, ftilluwini» tliem to a very good hotel over- 
looking the esplanade and the citadel, where we were per- 
AwtJy Gomfortahte. I found hitn au agreeable com pan ioOf 
and we drove nbotit Ibu island together, he with a view to 
iiivttttiiient«, 1 intent vit tlie study of vcgcUilioii. 



Corfu, at the time I raw if, tlie cud of April, la oerbibll 
ouu of tlio lovelieit spots on the fucc of Itie eartli. Al 
cliori-i] out nt Hca, from sis to tiri'lve miles di!^tant from the 
mniiilaml, it hw ever Wforc it llic miiRniliocnt nin^u of 
limestone motiiitiiiiiK timt okirU the Alliaiiiun conct, W4)odvd 
to the eea at tlieir liaae, bold, naked, jagj^, preci]ntoits in 
their npper elevution. The UUnd is merely the summit of 
n Hubmarinv momit^nn rjn^v, ri8iii<; nnd fa)Iin<;, furrowed 
hy valleys, ruvine*, d(!pri'!K«i«»K, iiarrowiti)^ itiul widening, 

Ereseiitinfj everj- [..lenible ine()ualiiy of eurtiice from i' 
ighe^t poflk (190U I >ut) to the seft which EUiTounds it. 

Owiii); to the kn^ ocouputioit of tho loniiin idandi hy 
tti« ICnjilisli, and to Corfu huvini; boi^n tliu centra 
Oaverntnent, it baa been noliMied, oivilised, up to 
Btimdanl, liko Mntla. The iiiI1uod<^v of former duy« is stilt 
felt, nlthongh onr protitctomt« has oome to iin uiid. uud it 
has now lieeumc a pint of the kinf;dom of Greece. The 
pniicijial iiotvU ur« cUmi and coralortjible, the roada all 
over the islnud are as ^ooi as in Kutrland, and (;ood 
CDTTiagCfl with eivil drivers are to lie had without trouble. 
I ftilt it quite a luxury to drive nboiit on f^od r')ndii, in a 
oomfortable carriage, in the midnt of the familiar Mvditer> 
Miteao vefcetation, growing with exuberant fertility, inuined 
by the southeru bud, and t^nerullr in view of the blue aea 
wave* ; fur the nai in fvUloin lust 8i;;ht of fur long togvthcrj 
Owiri(; t» the tinmitvneiis of the IsIbikI. 

It ia only, however, in the numerous depressions, vail 
ravines that this exuberant fertility shows itself. 
bci|*bts and ok-vations aoceseible to northern winds 
the eontineiit are either niif.-<:d or clothed with I'ines, tJte 
Ikliiritimc and Alenpo Pin«-« prim-ijiully. 'I'hiti fact givea 
the key to the clinuite of (urtu. On the same line of 
latitiiik Ids') as the south of Itjdy, tlie eeiilrv uf Sardinia, 
Miijorcn, Valencia, itx vepclali'in is wjually Houtherit— 
equally or even more luxuriant — wherever there is prolectioQ 
from the ooiitinentul or north winds. Th<>»c winds lull 
npon Corfu owing to its being eight or ten ruileat out 
«va, thus distant from the protection which the Albuni: 
mounlains give to the regionv at their liaae. 

In all »uch sheltered regions I found (April liSth) in l1 

tbe r, 



irdens and elKcwhcre Ihc rugetaWcs, flowers, nn<l fruits 

rbiub appear at the etui of June in Knglaiid — Petu, BriMuI 

ios, Strnwlwrries, Uoaes of all sorts, in full flower, 

inluia, Bengal, Tea, hybi-iJ ; Dulpbiniiim, Collinoin, 

kntirriiinum, Canuition, Pink. The Acacln und Horu 

hestDiit treea were i(oint( ont of bloaw>m, a^ were all 

spring llon-cis. The Mulberry and dcM;iduoiis Odks were 

in full l«af. The AiluntuK |>landiilv<>, whivh is fxtiiiuiwijr 

grown, bad only jmt bo^uti to form its terminal branehea 

and Iciivefi. The Orange trees were iu blossom, and some 

hiwl Htill on tlicni lur^c, well-formed fruit. They w«ro 

healthy and birge, but only found in the duepent vallt!y!(, in 

the tnoet sheltered localities; I ^nw but few Lemon trees. 

0(M djiy I drove over to a v)llag<! called Bonitzu, scvca 

milea from Corfu, through a mot^t srailin;; and piuturcxtiuo 

oountry, through villu^ua full of ^aily-drecsed, apparently 

well-tO'do pcae:itit«. It was Sunday, and they were all in 

the Ktreete in thi-ir holiday costuniu — a very protty »ii;ht. 

Iu thcM aoiilhcm villages on f^tu days the people spend 

the day together out of doom, at the cntrunce of their 

houses, iu the miiiarci, in the streets, round the fountainii. 

The tjirU shyly assemble and herd in bevivs or Hocks, 

whilvt tliu yonnif men on their side do th« samv, botb 

eyeing eaeh other at a dixtiince. 

Uenitxa contaiutt, I was tolil, the largest Orange grova 
in tlttt ifbind. The villj^e and the Orange orchard, which 
latter only occupies n few acres, arc Mtuated in a smilin;* 
valley, sheltered on every side except on the soutli-cnsti i 
where it reaches the sea. Even here a thick Hi;ree» of' 
CyprOM treea bad becu planted, in ordor to fonn a protec- 
tion Hf^ttinst the BOiitb-east wind. Notwithstanding thu 
shelter they adorded, the Orange trees nearest to the sen 
not healthy, tnuny of their terminal brandies buinj; 
iflCM aixl dead. 

Thus the vi-^etation of Corfu indicatea a climate an 
n soil similar in tlieir main feiitureH 1<> that of the ooaat lina- 
I of the wcsteru Kiviera in its more sheltered retpons. But 
L thi» similarity only exists in thu protected depressions arul 
P vnlli-ys whvre there is clearly immunity from severe wint«e 
I ffosu, with int«iks« aut! continued summer hrBt> and 



~ Th; 



enough rain to seouro fertility. Th» u) in3icai«d by the*' 
gttat size and heaUliiness of the Olive and Oraii^ trees, 
and by the existence of some ffood>sizcd hcAllliy Lcmoa 
tree* in the opun iiir. Th" Imter, howovt-r, arc no few ia 
numbi-r, niid »a limited to t!idroii|rhly ■licltei-vd Incut itit-n, 
that it is evident tlie winter frost* are more severe generally 
than on the Itivicra beltvcon ^ ice and San Kemo, where, 
tm we have iiL<cti, tlioy are found in grove* or ordiard*, 
eoverins tl)e luwer sidea of the nii>untain« facjan the mu, 
iind lully exposed to eea south n-inde. Ou the othir hand, 
llie hijjlier regioiiK of Corfu, exposed to the eontinentul 
wliid^, are loa fur rrom the >ih(Uter of the Albanian nioun> 
tains to be ihoroitghly protected thereby, and ooDsequentl/ 
pro^ent the vegetation I'ound about iWO feet nhoye the 
HIM level oil the Genoese Kiviurn, nnmvJy, the Maritime 
tind Aleppo Pine, and tlie umia) Medilcrmneaii brushwood 
of lime rejjiuns, Rosemary, Thyme, Myrtle, Lealiwna, 
Cystus, Jiinijier, Olubuliiria, Euphorbia. 

C-rfu litivini; been «o long under the protectorate of the 
Kn^lioti, ilM eliiiiale, iind ^Epi-eiully it« winlvr elimate, has 
IjL-en the subject of much Mltidy. l>r. Scorwby JaclfKon, ifl 
his medical climatology, from an analysis of the various' 
anthorilies, pves 65° *» the annual mean tempcraturf, that 
of Meiitonc bcini' fid* 80', and the wint<.-r m«-an, Corfu, u 
5S', Mmt^me beinji; 41'°. TiieKC means, however, aw clciirly 
too hi|;h, bein;; founded on observations made in rooms and 
verandahs, itud show how little reliiince can be placed oa_ 
mere thcrmomctrioiil data, looecljr token, apart from tlu 
obserralion of nature. 

Snou' appears on the Albanian mountains opposite Corfirf 
by the end of November, and remains until tlie betfinitiiiff 
of May. Oeciwionidly the ^ummite of St, Salviidor, io 
C'orfu (11)00 feet), ave thinly covered n-ith Know for several 
days at a time. North eontinental winds comiof; from the 
onow'covered mountains of Albania in winter are dry and 
coll), whikt in eitrnmur thoy arc dry and tiot, the moiintaini 
beinfr then beitted, baked by the hud. Winds fixiin the 
south coming from the sea are nUviiyti moist; moist 
mild in winter, moist and but in summer. 

It it stated by Dr. Davy that the moTe frt-qocnt w 




At CVrrii in wint«r are those from the E., K.S.E., aii<l S.G., 
whilst the MimmiT winds are N., N.N.Ii., N,E.,and E.N.R 
This statvmvut rL'qtiirGD cxplaiiitttnii. In winter, the syste- 
mic winds uii the nortli nluin: of the ML-dilffriiiioiiii ure 
the north wiada. It is tliey ihat produce winWr; with 
south syU-mic wiDds blowint; day and ii<t;ht thoru would 
be no winter, not even in IJccemlier, Janniiry, and FVhniary. 
It' BCiuthwinda are observed t4>predoininuto at that e|t(K!h,auy> 
where o« tlie north shore of the Mediterranean , tlicre must 
le tome deception, some error of observation, and that vrror I 
disoovea-d at ^tonlone. The rva breexi! or »li^ht inonitoon 
produced diirin;; the day in brilliant sunny weather, by the 
ikoatin^ of the const line, is mistaken for a south wind. So 
it iniwt liavc bwn at Corfu. The air, ntratied by the 
heating of tlie lower rc^ionit of the limeitone inoiitituins 
that line the Albanian coa&t, rises into the upper atmospheric 
rei^ionK, mid the son air rushes in to Hll the pluce. Thi» 
tvind from thu xe.-i in often nothing rlKe hut a northerly 
U'iiid that luui gone out to sea ovi'rhciid, from th<i t(>p of 
tlie hi^h mouDtaina, and is then pulled buck, apparently as 
n soutli-ouet or sauth-we^t wind. 

The cxtrtcnve of northerly winds in summer is ca«ily 
explained. Cooler, hmivier nir from the iroiintai:u( of the 
continent, ruslieti into the Mediterranean busiii at the const 
line, and near it, to fill the vacutim csused by the heatin;; 
Mrejaction, and naxag into space of its atmwphcrc. Corfu 
lyinfc some mileii out at sea ix within the inllucnoe of both 
plienomena. It feela the sea breexn makinj^ for land iu 
winter as a local south wind, and it nlno Ms in summer 
the winds whieli havceomo from the summit of the north 
mountains aonie ten milen distant. 

Acoonling to Dr. Davy, the rainfall ii both more 
Abaiidaiit and more continuous at Corfu than on the 
western Riviera, » fact which is nt once explained by its 
insular position and by its diotunec from the coant. From 
■ table uonslmeted by Dr. Davy, on an average of three 
yeurs (|Hi3-!io), the nunihcr of rainy days in the year ore 
103; the averaj^ in eaeh month us follows: — January, 
Jl-tl; February, 11-3; Mnreli, 13; April,; May. 1 ; 
June, 6; July,8-3; AuguMl,U(J; September, ()-6; OoUtber, 



10'3; NovomW, 106; December, 13-St IoIbI, 103-a. 
the remarkable feature in thiii table is not the amount of 
rain at the autumiial and vernal c-^uinoice, btit it« pox- 
BJittcnce throughout the wintftr months, Di-ocmlicr, January, 
t^nd February. The explanation iippoara t<i nio, that Corfu, 
beinfT some miles out nt sea, is mure in the battle-fieUl of 
thu north and eoutb winds than the Uiviorn coiict line, and 
pn>bably thim thu Albanian cnnMt line. Very oHen in 
winter ut Mentone, a* I have elsewhere stated, uark donds 
lank up on the horizon about t«n miles Ironi land, and it 
rail):*, evidently in torrents, although «u at the foot of the 
moiiiitiiiiiK are in xun?^hin<;. The cau*c la a oiillii^ion between 
cold northerly wind* from the land mountains, and urnrin 
rmoiiit air out at sea. It has often oecurrcd to me that an 
'tflland t«u mile*; out nt hui on the Kiviera Goa*t would have 
many more rniny duyn in winter than we have, and CoHu 
appears to realize this fact. Although so near the norUi 
shore of thu MediterniDenn, the fact of it« bein^f out at 
■M no doubt modifies tho climate. When looking at tlie 
beautiful Allaniitn mountninu from Corfu, it struck 
in« that the n-al sheltered health climate would be on 
tinit cottet. On in'^uiry, I found Ih.-it I was right iu 
my tfunjecturw, and titnt Ornnge and liunion tree* grow 
much more luxiiriantlyat the loot af the Albanian mountain^^ 
Ihan in any of the Ionian isUnds, f^M 

What with the cold tnow winds frnm Iho Albanian 
mountains, with the moisture of the nouthern winds, and 
with IIk- frequent rainfall from collisions between the two, 
it HeetnM that Corfu, lovely us it is, is not n dcMrahU- winter 
residence for consumptive and bronuliiol invatida. Such, at 
least, seems to be the opinion of those who have atadied 
and described tho climate from actual eiperiencc. to tboM, 
however, who without being absotntcly ill, merely want to 
avoid the northern cold, and to find relaxation, in ya4>litirm>, 
ptjng, lishing, shooting, driving, riding, walkiui;, b.itfaing, 
glorious ecen«ry and in a mild climate, with Englivh 
comforts, a winter ut Corfu would no doubt lie very agrw- 
oble. To thu spring tourist, more espeeiully, Corfu and the 
Ionian islands opirn out a clorioua source of ([Wet enjoy- 
(Dent in April and May. Formerly it was very 

dilTieult t^ 



get to Corfu, utd th« traveller had to pnsa Bereral days and 
nj^kta at sea. Nnw a day'a eaay journey from Rome by 
rail, or two from Turin or Mibn, brin^ liim to Brindiai, 
•nd one <]tii«t night in a ^tad steamer completes tlie 
jourtit-y to Corfu. I shall beat convey my approciiitioii of 
tbe beauty of Corfu, by addinf^ ibnt it is ODC of llie few 
(pots on the McdiU-nvtitiim lo wbioh I should be f;lad to 
return any April and May, merely for the enjoyment of 
" physival oxi«tence." AtWr May tliv weather becontes 
too hot to be Bprcciible. >tor«ov«r, matariuus fevers appear, 
U in nil Uie islands of the Medttvrraneao. 


On the evening of tho SOth of April wc left Corfu for 
Athens by a email Greek steamer, which [>crtormH the voyage 
ooce ft wt^vk in forty-eight boiini, touehiii;; at several islands 
on th« way, I'axo, Ci'pludoniu, and Zantv, and nli^ilin(; 
nt Patrus and Corinth. Thiv is the only steamer thai takes 
tliifl route, establUhing a weekly comraunioation between 
iiie ifllnndii, and Icccpinf;: near the coast, and in partial 
ilii'lter all the way. It entails tmnsshipincnt at the iKthniOK 
of Coriiilb, and to avoid this all other steamers go round the 
Morea ur Peloiionnexus, to aceompU»ih which they have to 
jljiMi ont to sea. As in our eyes the traniehipnient was u 
^positive ndvantAge, for it ^^avc as seven mites of ffrrn firma 
"tntTclling, wc did not hexitatc to confide oureelves to the 
Greeks. On taking our place^i wo wcr« mtieli pleased to 
r«oeive a qnarto printed page of instructions in mudcrn 
'<Jr«elt, so very like the old that it was quite easy to make 
it out with a little assi&ljince fh)m local IVI('nd«. 

Ttie vvening was calm and beautiful, and we once more 
etnoyed gliding nnoolhly along under the Ice of the ftrand 
Albanian mountains, for steaming in the MciHieN 
nuioan in culm weather is altoi^cthcr et\joyab1e. Night 
gradually came on, the lights of itundry lighthouses 
a]>pcar<;(), and wc soon passed the most southeni point of 
Corfn, At ten wc reached Pflxo, an island almut fifteen 
milei distant, and hero we stopped to tuke in paseeugcrii 



nnrl to land cnrgo, wilh ^rcnt commotioiif Babel of tonfjne/ 
and apparmt coiif'iiNioit ; nil verj' pioLiii-CHmie and iiita-J 
rMlinij. Once more otl', we retired for the niRlit. 

Wv lind n stretch oY open twa of abont a hundred mile 
lo ToaUe Wfiirc mictiing thn chniinel that separates Ce»ha- 
lonia Trom Znnti;, the most trying |>nrt of the vovape. 'llut 
pnxsed.n kind ofinti'mnl sea is reached, shdtvrvd by these 
tn-o ixliiiiilii, by the Mun'ii and bv the maiulaiid. Dumig 
the niJ;h^ a stioii^ wind from tbo north-vrest rose, and we 

f;i)t a pood tuFsiiij;, but theGroeIc VMscl, althangh not voryi 
atso uiid not vary duan, proved a good sea hoat, and iv«[ 
rouehod the romparatively quiet water* of the em of >^Dt«| 
by tiaoa, th« folbiwing day, ntoppin]; an liour at Ccpbalonia^ 
and the same at Xnle. Thvoe Ktoppa^ea were welcome^ 
for, although in an all but land-lucked eea, there was a' 
dcut inort- motion than n-<M pU'iiimnt. Indued, vro luarnt 
aAerwardii at Athenn, that a perleet hurricane waa lilowiog 
0iit8i<le that Bame day, miicli lo the misery of the paa- 
eengei-s of a large Austrian Lloyd steamer that left at thai 
same time that we did. ' 

All this day wc were skirting the islands of Cephalonia 
and Ziintc, generally near onoumh to the land to be able to 
Bcrutinizo it with or witbmit a -^laM. Tliu geiieni] ftratum 
of the island* appeared everywhere the same, uali'areona 
roakB and mountainous elevations, apparently naked, but 
in reality covered with scanty brushwuod, with here and 
there patches of Conifers, or }^rc« of Olive trees, acoording 
to elevation, protection from the north, and nature of 
surface. At each inland at which wo slopped bouts camo 
out to tlie xtcamcr ivith basUelM of oranges and or tlower* : 
Aosc», Banksias, Teas, hybrid ; Carnationa, Stocks, Iris, 
Delphinium, bespeaking summer and fertility in hidden 
valleys, ruviiicn, nookti, corm-rs »hellercd from the wind; 
for nothing of the kind was to be seen from the sea, only 
the occasional patches of Conifers and Olive trees in ttia 
plains, with naked rocks and mountuins cverywhcTv. It 
nppriircd an it', wherever the north winds touch, they 
act ually peel the rocks of nil tree vegetation. Thcwi islands 
ap|H.'arcd to reproduce Corfu, but with l(«s fertility and 
more rocky burrcnuess. OpuutiaK aud Alocd were seen ueari 




every ritb^ or Iowa. AeeanVing to M. OrplinniJrs of 
Alliens, tlie Aloe vuljfare is found wild iu Griicoi;, and is 
tm-Dttbiifd tjy Diof^coriiU'si. 

Tliut cvoniii;; w<- liiiiili-il nt Pntnis, at the cntmnoc orthc 
(}u)rofLepanto,whi«h presents a background ofmagnifioent 
snow-covervd moanUins, nud rcmninod i\\QTe two hours, 
iDUv)) to our cntitriiction. It w » miscrubic little town of 
■mall houses ami shops alone the shore, and on each side 
of a lonj; street at ri^ht an^lee to the latter. Considering 
that Putrns i» the c«ntro of Uio lucnitivo " currant" trndo, 
I waa surprised to find no g^reat^r evidencew of prosperity. 
The Di;;ht was passed in sleep stesminj; quietly up th« 
OulforLejuinto, tranquil nx « river, although tho wtud wan 
bon-lin^ in the moiinlatns tbat skirt the giilt'. At i]iiy- 
liltht we arrived at the Isthmus of Corinth. Tlie (own of 
CorintJi is no\v merely rcproscnttd by n fi-w wrdclied 
hwww, but n-« wtre »huwn the site of the eeluliriiti-il city 
of Grecian history, lli-re the poasengcrH left tlie IVioiiilly 
ship and crossed the i^tlimu^ in less tliun an hour, seven 
miles. Thcr« is scarot^'ly iiny ri^t^, and n xhip oaniit could 
be easily mude, and I Hhoiitd say without ^real cipensc. 
The soil is schistic and covered with a brushwood of 
Lentiscufl, Junipor, ilwarf Ilex, Asphodel, and Ferula. The 
country was clearly in the possession of bri^nd^, for we 
had an escort of mounted soldiers before and behind the 
carriafTCB, and there were guardhouwe and picquets ut 
every mtic alou^; the rou*!, with afouts between. It 
^avc ut quite an elevated idea of our ovta importance, to 
be tliiu escorted and protected, and we appreciated the fact 
that wo really had arrived in the country so plea«nnt1y and 
amufingly duaeribed by M. About in his /tot de» Montagnet. 
The inthmus crossed, we erobArked on a smaller stefimer, 
and by midday, after ptissiRg Sulamis, arrived at the 

It It worthy of remark that during the last twenty-four 
faours of our vorage. a bitter c<>ld north-w€«t wind — a 
rei^ilar mistral a» we Khould call it on the Kivicni— had 
bern blowing, which obliged ua to use all our wraps. This 
cold wind revealed the weak point of tho climate of tliese 
islattds, and, ss I afterwards learnt of Athcnt and of Oreeoe 




generally : vist., cold winds from the nortbent totohs <1urinj 
the lint four iiiontli« dt' the year, tliut is, from Clitistmas t4 
May. At I'atnis ihcre were 6till Urge pntchvs of mov on 
•the mountiiinK imni<;iliati-ly hvliind lliu towns with n uorth- 
west ttii]ii.-ct, flj)])iirenUy at an elevation of about 4000 feet. 


The Pineus, where we lauded, the part of ancient and 
modem Athon«, in a «iro hartxtur, protected hy the inliind 
of Sitlnmin, the Morea, and by the configuration of the 
cfl^Rt. }^^ch ports attract mariners nnd commerce in all 
afifcs. Infitvud of tlti- great commcK'iol iind niivul emporium 
of former days, there is now merely a suhurb of small one 
and tno storied bouses: wine eho|w, murine storua, atMl 
1odgin};-hoii<v«. It is connected with Athens, five miles 
distant, by a ruilvray with a sinjjcle line. 

Athens, lat.3S*4S', was rorlyyearsagoamereTnrkish^built 
villaKe or small town, of lou,- one-storied hoHsca in narrow 
street*, the remains of which euit he still i'l-eti iicjir the 
rnilway »latit)n. In ISiii it wan prncbimt-d the capitnl of 
tlio modern kin|^om of Greece, and a new town has been 
built north of tlie old one, between it nnd the btise of the 
AcropoUa rocif, on which is situated the Parthenon. This 
new town may be compared to a small English or Freodt 
country town, n-iUi small two-etoricd modem houses a 
u high street in the centre, ascending a hill, at t 
Bommtt of which is a f;ood*«tzvd sciuare. The basement 
occupied by the king'K pnliiec, a factory-looking parall 
locraraio building surrouniied by gardens. Ou the sides of 
this square several streets abut, at tiie angles of which are 
tome good boux^s. Several of them are occupied by very 
comfortable hotels. In the side streets nf modern Atlteos 
there are some good buildings, amongst oUiers the Univer- 
sity and the Post OfHcc. On tho whole, there is an 
appearance of life and of niodcru provincial prosperity about 
Atliens, but httle or nothing to remind the traveller of 
the celebrated Greek city of former days, except the ruins. 
These ruins, situated ut the outskirts of the town, are not 
numerous. The Pjirthenon, or Temple of the \'irgiu God< 




I Minerra. the Erectheam, bnilt or the hard whit« marlde 
of PeutelicuB, the Propylau, tat on the AcropolU rock, 
the eit« of till.- oil) Cecropian fortress, which ovurlooks kikI 
OrowDH the city. They are proliably the most oliiwte ■■«] 
beautiful ruins extant, an<l wull wurthy ol » special visit 
all the TCuy to Athvim, There is also the templu of Thweus 
in wondi'rfutly good repair, ronei<li:nng thni it wiu Imilt 
470 ux. Thcro aru «till a fuiv grand ooliimns remaining 
of tho Tcmphi of Jupiter, the portico of Hadrinn, nnd 
but little else worth; of notice excci>t from unti<iiiariaii 

The plain in whicli Atlieiui in nituated i* nix miW wide, 
ftnd ia formed by two parallel mountain-ridges about iQlHl 
feet high, which descend east and west to the sea of 
SslamU. The towit lieit at thv foot of the Acropolis nxib, 
itxi'lf a dpiir at the l)aae of the eaMtvrn ridij;e. In the 
centre of the valley ia a grove or wood of Olive trees, with 
vine* planted between tiiem, irri^tcd by small strcamf. 
Small as are these Athenian titii.»me, they beu very cule- 
bnited numc«, for they are no other Ihun the IlisBii* on 
the east side of the (own, nnd the Cephtsus on the west. 
It WBB in the shade of these very olive groves that Pluto, 
Aristotle, Socnte*, and the other sagos ami uratnm of 
ancient Oreeoe walked and taught tlieir pupils; so it is 
very soered ground. The rest of the Attica plaiu, lieyond 
the olive erovcs, is ctdtiviited with grain of diHcronl- Uiiide, 
or left fiaUow. The soil •ecma very poor anil (xliiiiislcd 
from want of manure and proper treatment. 

After dcvoti.ig tlie first morning; to the world -renowned 
niina, I directed my i>ti'{i!i in tiiu alHernoon to tlii.- IJotanical 
Gurdea, in the pinin. Here I made the aL'<|iieintaucc of 
the director, M. Orphanidcs. Professor of Uottny in the 
university, one of thu moKt kiinied hotanistit in Europe, 
who kindly showed me liin eetablisliroeut. A part only is 
devotitl to botiinicnl piirpoRCB, nnd appears merely intended 
U> illuNtmte the nnturnl fumilies for the instruction of the 
IMBpilB of the university. The grcit^r part of the garden is 
a nuTMry for the propagation (it I'niit nnd other trees, such 
(M Mulberry trees, calculated, hy their disseminiition 
throughout the country, to favour its social and conimereiul 



lirocpcritv; llipy are sold at lO centime!* (a iiciiny) 
tj) ii)I m)i() apply, Tlu- (;urtlpQ was the scene of luxuriuii 
veg:otal toil, but then llio Hnil was |;ood nnd dmp, that of 
the centre of the pUin, there was plenty of wati;r, un<l 
liietly, and principally, it was surrnundetl by a wull iO (ett 
high to the niJi-th, 10 ft-et on the other (ridi*. The Orsn^ec 
and Ijcmoii trecA w«r« rxrarly atl plaiil«d ou the aonth huIq 
of the north wall, protected by which, they grevi aitd 
flniiri<ih('il, hut not hy miy m*an* as nt Corfu. There were 
Reifcn" iif trees niid of ever|;r«eii)i aUo, in many pUcvs, to 
break the wind. Tlie pyramidal Cypress ia much u»ed all 
over Sotithem Ftirope lor this pnr]ioee. The other plants 
priiicirntHy employed an Nctvetia were SchinuH Mnlli, Aleppo 
Piue, buotiymiis japonica, Carouha, Ilex, Ailnntnx glandu- 
Idb». Roci'S n-crc in full Honcr, Chromntclhi shining nbora 
all olherw ax a vHnib(T. Thin it dnM all over thv Sotith of 
Europe; in Alfteria I have Been one plant fdl a tree. Out 
nurserymen do not seem to know it as one of the most 
Inxuriatit Teu climbpr^, beatiii** wen the Gloirc dv Dijon. 
All the hybrid lUmiv weiv in full flower, ex also IX-lphinium, 
Poppv, Linum ndirutn, much ^(Tonrn in the South, Collinnia, 
Aquilqtioi Sweet Pea, I'ittosprjnim, quite a tree, OleandeTfj 
the same, not yet in flower, Campaniilu. 

Bchin>l the King's judacc there id a i^arden of many ncreaJ 
bI the o- re urn fere nee of whiob is a deep thicket of everjfreen 
trees, as a screen or protection, with the tlowers and 
Atinintite all ^^uned in the centre. The trees ami flowers 
went the aame as tnose in the fiot^inic Gardens. Jasmiitnm 
rerolatuni was in i;reat hixurianoc, forming ]nTffv busliea. 
Ftowcna in thif region KC«.*m to be treated like vej^tablcK in 
a good Scotch kileheu irarden in the bleak North, which 
is f^nerally siirroinided by a hi<;h wall. Oivrn such pro- 
tection, they tlirive everywhere in this liitilmie, and appear 
front fix to eight weeUti sooner than they would in our. 
own toulliem or midland counties. 

The roads about Athens ore planted with avenues 
Si-hinus Midii, I'opuhiii alba, Ailantus ^landulosa, Aoaoiflf! 
Ih-x, nnd Caroiiba. The latter does not si-cm to thrive ns a ' 
mild tree, as I found uWo thtj enseal Algicra, but tliefonnflr 
flourish and liceomu large trees in the driest and taott 



exposed eituKtioiiK. ThU rcinnrk appliei specially to the 
^Dpulu* nlliii and to the Ailantiis, which glury in the 
iliinate, with iu dry fiumm«r. The AiluntiM i* Lw^inningf, 
I was told, to 1)C uxlvnvivcly cultiviilwl t'ur its woud. 

The Orange trees were bewlthy, but rather email, when- 
ever seen, ana their hei};ht was etrictly limited hy that uf 
the prot«s:tin(; widl or tix-e bclt«. In IVoiil of the kiD^f's 
pnlno) they were luoetly plinted iu a deep depression or 

Sit, dearly to shelter them from the wind. Pmrev^nr 
iTpfaanides Ehowwl me in hiii privat« gardi-n u tiiost 
intiTcKtiii); collection of more than two hundred diirercnt 
i»necii»ofAuTaoti», all small, but well-^otvn, in full lift* and 
vigour. He told mc there wltc thrvc hundred re>xi^niscd 
ius in exiKteiiec T must add ihut I do not remember 
inguPalm; Aloes are commrjii. 

The above hotanii-al facte prove that Athens and its 
yioinity, althongh iiitiulcd nearly five degrees more to the 
South than tlie Western Kiviera, do not enjoy tlic wtme 
■mount of protection from north winda nnd am ooldi-r in 
winter, althoui^i the general character of the winter climate 
the earoo. That it ahoidd he so is <-A»ily linderstood on 
kins at the mup. Behind, direct north, AttJcu ik pro* 
teeted by Mount I'anies and Mount Cilhieron, and also by 
the niountitina of Koumelia ; hut to the north-eaet the 
SDOUntaiuoutt peninsula, formed by Alhunia, Koumelia, and 
[^e MoTM, is exposed to cold north-east wind* from tlia 
~ idt 8m, and to the wowt to cold north-west winda frora 
boAdriatJo. Moreover Athena ia situated at some dis- 
tant from the more immediately protecting mountains at 

TheM facta roco{;niKed and acknowled^, we finil in tho 
dimata of Attica all tlie climate charueteristics of the north 
•bora of tlie Mediterranean: cold north wiiidii, pollened 
however by the Black nnd .E^cnn seas, by the Adriatic and 
Ionian seas, a pur<^ blue fky and ardent aunshina in winter, 
and intense heal in summer. Such a climatii, althoii"h n 

C Wealthy and braeiii;; one, iMnnot bo reooamencted to 
invalids, and eapeeialty to ohtwt invnli<U, as a winter resi- 
dence. It eaniiut be eonsidered a fuvounible apeeiineii of 
the bracine, invigoraling chmates of the more shultL-i«d 
I : 


TO);ioDs of thf. Meditcnnneao, iiItlioa<>h p^rtiiininf; to Ibc 
sonio clusK. The prot«cti«n ftttm the north it in^uSicient, 

1 intcniK'it to ]i«ve visited the many scetie-H of iiiton^t in 
All tea wKhiii 4'iuy rwK'h of Atlicnii, but the ctioturhed Ktate 
of the ivxiritrjr prevented my to doing. The bn[;an<)s were 
considered to be dangerons, even within u mile or two of 
the town, nnd « Oovvrnment notice, which hno^r u|> in the 
hsll of Die Hotel, wbh not cnlculitted to tn^ipire confidetx^e. 
Herein it was stated that all straniiers wtuhing to vifiit the 
vicinity of Athens were beaffed to opply to the proper 
»nthoritie« for an c*cort, and on iin accuunt to venture 
alone. HaviiifC no ^teat conliden<rt! in the vidonr of tJio 
ewxirt. and not wishing to share the fate of our nnfur> 
tnniite countrymon murdered at Msrntkon, I prelerred 
stayin;; within the runeie of tmrctv. One mornin-^ thers 
was A great commotion at the kind's palace, and on 
intpiiring the m»tive thorenf wc were told that the king, 
qni-eh, iind children liutl "inm't imprudently," without 
siiying n word to iinyon*!, driven off alone to picnic in 
H'lmi^ xliady place in the vicinity, and that fearti were ent4>r- 
taiiieil ri'sipecting them 1 A company of mounted soldieni 
were sent oif in IrHntii: hnste niter them, and the king and 
hix family were brought back in safety and in triumph. 
Hod the l)ri([«ndB gni hold of them it would certainly have 
l>een a ^aod haul. Such a otatv of things, Itowcvor, is very 

My traTcllin!; friend, the Grcel; gentleman, who hn<l 
Dceoinpanied me from Rnndi^i, wan at the FNmo hotel, 
and I Kiw liim dally. But hr had iiwt all hix hiioyancr of 
s|)irita; day by day his countenance Wame more de< 

i)r(>ssed, and before we purlml he confided to me that hia 
ong-cherishcd plans and drcama had vanialied. He fouiHl 
hia beloved country too diti^organized for it to be puMibta 
fur him to return to it, and to malte the settlement Iw 
wished to make. What was the nw; of buying nail property, 
of invcfrliiig liard-uarnod gains in land, when it was 
dnngeronx even to viait one's estates, whi-n tbe entirg 
country was, as tl were, in Uio hands of the brit^iids. His 
father had been murdered wlwn he was a child, forty years 
ago, ill a boUMC wkivh ho showed me, inside the town, in 




the d«ad of the ni);ht. He did not wtsb to cxpoec hicnwlf 
nd hw family to the satne (ate ; forty yenrs had clupucd, 
and tht! brigand* vren Ktill thvro. 

I had repealled eoiivereutioiiti with other woll-inrormed 
Allicniiiii i^atloinen on the diuturbt-d political slnlc of ihrir 
«ouutrv, niid lb>:ir i-X[>binuliou of its citiuiM itppeured lu me 
reasonable and KsitMructury. 

The alh*d Uovi-rntiicnti, in founding the modern king* 
dom of Or(!i.-c«, mudo a most egntgions and talol inintalce. 
They gsk\t: to the Grauks a cotictiLiitioiiul moiiiircliy, with 
a Chamber elected by univenal sulfrage, the roembcra of 
which had no property qualitii^ttion, anil were piiid. Tliui 
to be a member ot Ihi' CiuimluT beunme a busiunii, a carucr, 
and the ambition of brielloM ymin^ iMrriMtere and of 
tgrtun<;lr>ri men ol* g^oui fsmily. 'I'hetc candidates for thu 
Chamber, having nolhin;; whitLever to do, could go into 
the provinoea and devote monthn to gaining the ^oodivill 
oi' till] eloolord. Ouee eleut«d, their priiiuipal object (v»a 
not ao mtich tiie good of tbeir country m to make a 
permanetlt pooition, a lmn)j> for themavlvox. Thenoe a 
L^neral acrumblc for places, a conKtant fartnation of eoalt- 
jtions to upaet thoM in office, and u chanjte of Ministry and 
' of all tlupcndunt^ every two or three month", or evtrn 
ofteuer. 'I'h^re wiu no remi^ly, my inforinanto told nie, 
but an alteration of the constitution » wliiub was ditBcult 
t« (oeure, for it would have to be effected by the vxiKtiug 
[Chamber ilxvlf. Tliat is, its memben would lmr« to m^^q 
their own death-worrnnis, untl hiiitory, ancient and reitent, 
telU UR that it u very hard to induce effete Parlinmeiita 
anil Cliambi-rs to diwulve or refurm tbcmB<;lv<«. 

A^aiu, instead of putting lis king, ut the head of u lur- 
boJcDt oommunily, on whivh «uch a dun>ceroua experiment 
■• oonatitutional monareliy with universal siitlnce was 
alxMil to be tried, a atern middle-aged cxperiettced man, 
two amiable but oolourlen youth* have been cliosun in sue* 
eeaiiion. The mudern Greeks rei{uire a kinj; stern enough 
to ahoot down the brit^nda like vermin, witli a drumhead 
oonrt martial, out amiable young men ho tlion>u:;b)y am- 
atitational a« to lenTC the country to take care of it«eif', and 
to accept a new Miuialry every aix or ten weuka. 



Daring; mj Ktny at Atlicnn Itivro wm a gmnd 
nl tli« nodern Cathedral, n very ImndAome wlifice, at 
till' king, tlic queen, and, I presume, most of th« di)ftiit«riea 
oF the State wen.* pr«ont. 1 wns pcifeetly iiduizmI und 
daxzled by the number uf jrenerul ofDceni, cofpneU, cuptnina 
and fidmii-als, and other dipnitariea, who were preeent i& 
goi-gecim iiTiit'orms. It ivally mij{lit hnvp been W<«t> 
minater Abl»-y or Notre ]>iim«. On linking a (•reck fttcnd 
where was tlie anny,! where was the tieet for all these 
hiitidreds of oflGcere of hi;;h rank, he confewed to me that 
they did not vxiot, but he atlded that thei* higti gT»d«* in 
the army and navy eoiiEitituted the only means oi' reward- 
ing men who had deserved well of their couotry in tha 
war of iiidcpciutcni.'e, nnd even in lnt«r ycum. 

Siiuh iH, apparently, the key to the preaent nikaetUed 
state of Gieeee, A coitstilutional mouarchy with advaiwed 
ri'publk-ai) insli tut lone, for which the country ia utteriy 
ncipn'purcil and unlit; nn amtablvand gentle, but wcalcand 
irresolute, king, who ha» not Klreufrlh enough of will or of 
chiiracl<>r to even endeavour to utera the torrent around 
him ; a host of civil, milititry, and pliici-meti, p«nr U 
Job, and Mi:ruml>Hn<> fur the Iitll« revenue i>f the country, 
all inti-'tit ufMiii getting into olliee themitelvee and keeping 
ollicrH out. The state of Greece will probably contintw as 
MnBi'ltlod IIS il. now i« until thiw system of eovernment is 
ohau^d, until theMe error* am rt-medied; but who is to 
ehnn>;e the entire political and social or^nization of the 
kingdom? In the mcjinwhili.- brigands oeeupy the cxmotfy 
up to the gat«s of the capital. Agriculture and commerce 
arc nccetisnrily at a standstill, and the most patriotic 
ciipitiili^tK avoid the country. 

I iiimK- oeveral pliniaant ac<juaintanues, and pimed tlio 
greater part of a week very iigreeiibly. There is a halo of 
antiquity about Athens which throws an iDdescribable 
inteivft over ttat all times. The Athenians pro)>erdrMi 
prirt.ty much like the inhitbitimlM of Wcftem Kumpe, but 
in the streets are onHtantly to be seen Greeks from th« 
islands or the mountains in their picturesque national a 
coatumew, familiar to ua from the piuturua and viijj 
of the war of indcpeiidenoe. 





On tlie 7th of August, 1872, I left, the Pirnnw on an 
Austrian Ll<>yil stVAinvr l\ir Curnfttmlinufilu, i>iJ Smyrna. 
Tbis iviitv rnnblcs llic Lravdlkr to i^t a glimpse ofaevcral 
of the niuMt iTU[iortant isLiutLs of the Grcciun Archipelago, 
as well XH of Asia Minor. Tli« viw«i;1h of llm Austrian lAoyil 
Been to be the ackn»wk'<l^.*<l utid acc-cplcxl iiieilia lA' com* 
miiDioatJou in the Kasti^ni Mt?diterrane:in. Thoy are g«ne- 
rally ffpoA, WL'II kejb^ and n-ell-oiH^^croJ boats. The nnrth- 
;wat wind which fia-J rvi^ncd ihiriiig our stay at Athcuit, 
tMnponii<; ugrvcjihiy th(! ardour of the sun'o ruys, had 
^bu ted, and weoncn more found oiiraalves j^lidiu;; pltra^.iiitly 
pver ftcalm pcu. Wc hud fmh^n'kvd lulc in thu uvoniii';, 
CDJuyed a good iii^ht'« ruat, und next morning found our- 
■elvos ill tlie oiidat of ttui islamU which form the Urecian 

The term Aruhtpclaf^o hds liuen more of^peuiully Erivon, 
irom liniu inim<-mi>riul, to the iiiliiotlri whluh utTiipy the 
eontfirn iieaiun of the Mediterrintian, iK'tween Houniclia in 
the north and Ciiudia in the south, butwi.'ou (iree<.'o in tho 
w>*t and Asia Minor in ihir I'lwl. In f<jrini!r day*, ux miw, 
they vem divided iuto two grouiid : tlie Cyaladeit auiir 
Europe, and the i>porade§ near Asia Minor. Tlie^c tshnds 
an! very iiumeroue ; eume uru of -^ud sixi-, but the •{real 
majority are Very small. The nmaUiT islandit are f{l^nerally 
mere rocks rUint; out of the ^ea, U|i|iareully harrttn, hut in 
reality covered with Med i terra u on n bnuih\vood. Some are 
of vuK-unii; <i[i;;iu, hut the gicaU-r immWr are cido irroux, 
and are oftvn oumixisud of a beautiful nhilo marhk-, v, for 
intitanoo, Paroa, whence tho Parian marble wan iiiid is 
ohtitined. The lar;;<.-r ishLtidtt. in whieh there is proU-clion 
from wind, are tolorably fertile. They are nearly all thinly 
inhabited, pnnci|ially by aailora aod lishermen, nwin^, no 
doubt, to their rocky diarauter and to the auiall uniotmt 
of eulliviiblc soil they vontnin in tbe valli^ya. They look 
H very pictureniiue from the Mtii, riKiug out of iu depth* as 
I huge rooks, or aa j-i^^ed irre^iihir mountainous isl.)iid«, 
I with bold coalite, doep inlets, and precipitous )>romuutoriuii. 




titc olevatioD var^-ing from 1000 or 1500 to £U00 feet or] 

Wlii'n I ranched tbo deck we wera nmninf* along the 
coast ol" Thiirroiii, which fully rcalixcd tlic sIjovc gviivntl 
(le§(.'ri])tion, for it seemed a roL'lcy, inounUiooiut iidMKi, 
iil)p«ri'nUy barren. We then parsed between Tberroia and 
Zlm, Koulh nf a thin) isliind wvU named Jurn, for il aonn, 
Juia-like, alwve the sn-a, and cuiiie to at midday in Um) 
harbour of Sym. Heiv we remained until vix e.u,, nvhichj 

ve iiG time to land and louk uboub us, a great exoit«iDeDtJ 

d joy to the lunowngcni. 

Syra i» a small inland, crcseent uliaped, ahout four milMl 
WJdfl and two in dofilh. It is a mei-e rock, some 600 feet 
high at the hi);lie»t point. The opening of the cresecnt 
is turned nortli-weHt, but it is Khi-ltcrcd in that dirtietion 
from win<i and wave by the islands of Tliennia, Zea, and 
Jiirn, pri-viuiisly pa'scd. It hns been eliosen as the c«nlrs 
of the Ktuini nnvi-^ttion of the EjiMtcm Medittfrrauean, and | 
a ^>od-»izi:d town hn« conKe<)uently (jruwn up. It iii at' 
Syrallint the different lines of bteament meet and exchange 
pas^cnf^rs lor Greets.', Turkey, Asia Minor, Palestine, 
Canditi, and other localitit^ in thin region. In this MnM 
Syra inuy he ooinpurt-d to St. Thonios in tlie West Indies. 

I ut once took a boat, and tindin); no bolaidcal com- 
panion amon^t . mv fcllow-tmvellen landed alone, and 
spent ttin day rumiiling on the hills «nd small vallcya 
round the town. These hills were very bare, the ipvund 
Vf;;ptation fvcn being scanty, t>ut in tJiu most Imttvu Hun- 
bunii >|itil.-' 1 I'dund gmwing freely a nmnll Silene, 1 helieve 
the Silene cretica, and its presence in such spots illustrates j 
and explains the fnitdom of its growth in the nioKt huii- 
burnt and arid gardens nt Mentone. lu that putt cf the 
Itivieru genernlly, the Silene is becoming one of the oom- 
moncut spring flowers, and is indeed escaping from thft 
gardens (o lite open country, wherv it will soon, no doubt, 
natur.dizct itself. With inc nt Menlone it covers tlw 
borders where sown, and resows itself spuntancously. The 
most prominent other Umvei-s were the varirgjted TiilslIe 
</f thv Mediterranean, a small Taraxueum, mid a Ccmvul- 
vulu«. There were very few trees to be seen, and those 



bnt exctarively in folJg of tlie hill-«ide, at a low «leration, 
where there wait shelter from the wind, and a little vrgo> 
tnblv soil. I ducovered a market mid fruit ganloii in otA 
of tliKiH! folds, about a mile east of the town, whicb I 
esnmined with gn-al intvnwt, illustrating as it did th« 
(lifliiriilt)' of enntcmlinK with north-oiist ur norlb<wciit 
wiiidx, even in latitude AT 18', in the middle of the Grecian 
Archi[>ebi;;o, under n burning; sun. Sj-ra is more than half 
a degree ftiriher touth than Atheim, and at tiiii* date (May S) 
the sun-heat was intense, although tlie air was cool and 
pleasant. The garxlen, which extended over nn area of 
about ei^ht aerea, occupied thv bottom of a wave or folil of 
ibe bill, near the sea, and was surrounded by a wall tea 
feet bigb. Moreover, on the Ride towards the wa, there 
wa» a row of Cyprew trw*, and lurtlier on a (|tiii(lrui>li- row 
of Cuntia», about tifteen feet hi)^h. Behind this i^lielter 
vc^felabtea were gfowin<f luxuriantly — Ariiehokcs, Melons, 
TomaUMF— the bitter frtwbly planted out apparently. Broad 
Deana and IViU were being (gathered. Thttre were aiaa Piff 
trees and Fonie);rn nates iti tlo\rer, and in the most eh>'ilered 
cornel' Oninf;e buslnjn, sonic eitfht or ten feet high, healthy, 
and hearing iMth ri|te fruit and flowers. 

I lind that where wind is feared, in Greece and in thft 
Grecian A rt^'hipelii^^o, two pbiiiH arc adopted to keepOronge 
trees low— as low as the walln that protect them : either 
tb«y arc planted very oloseiy toij^ether— so much so a« 
vvidonlly to impede liixurtnnt growth— or they are culti- 
vated as buHheit, with many stems intit<-iid of one. In 
Spnin ue bare seen tbut Ibiti latter plan in all but inva- 
riably followed — so that the Oran^ tree prem-ntii a 
difiifrent cbsnicter to tlutt under whieb it is obt-erved on 
the Genoese Riviera and in Southern Italy. Thero W«ro a 
lew of the usual early summer llowere dotted Itere and 
tbero— Bvngnl Rofet), Antirrliiniim", Delphiniums. Same 
Pear treui had fruit the sixit of a Filbert. 

In the town of Syra ilsdf ihore were some plants, trcex, 
and flouers !h the courtyards of the houses, wherever they 
were oompletoly Bcrei-ned from the wind, hcnltby, hut not 
larj;e — priibiibly from want of soil — Almond, Ailantus, 
Olive, \ inc, Pumegiauate, Acaeia, a Dnlc I'alin or two, k 


Virgi»iun Cn-cper, Cnnintionii, and Pvlarg^oiitnmB in pots; ' 
All over the south ol" Kiiropu I have fuuod a mieirraUfl, 
]>«lc'liiu-(t IMaiffo Ilium cultivated ia polx with arvskl cara 
sud ufTcc^liori a* 9<oiniilhiii» nirv uiiil prociuiis. Our gluriwu 
varielieM have not reached the ^outh as yet. 

The siuii^liinc and euinmer heat at Syra arc cvtdAntly 
jiowi-rfril <.'ii<>ugli to produce mny v«gi-tjil»tc furm licloiigititf 
to eubtru]>iciil rcgionti, but prulodioti from iiurthern winds 
is clearly neceesary, even in latitude 37' ih', many degrees 
couth of the GvnovsQ Riviera. 

Syra or Syma (^^m or Tiiipot) wus well known to tlie 
andc-ule, and is desenljed by Horner and oilier Greuk poetfl 
BK liuviii^ two towiiF, and as beint; rich in pastnrvif, wine, 
fruit, uiid oorn. Many vAhiNhli.r nVux of atiliciitily have 
been discovered in modern times. Its central poailiun and ita 
goixl [Hirt mi doubt made it an important place then as now. 

The [iioderii town erwps up the nde of the bill Trom thfi 
harhuur. The latter, sale and deep, contained many larg« 
feleumors, Freneli Jfessagerien, Atmtrian Lloyd, Turkish, 
^<iii<; to and froni iMaitieilles, Trieste, Athene, Smyrna, 
Coni-latitin'iplc, Cimdia, inid many ischooncni and small 
veMiiel.H, hiiUii with oTau^es, leuionit, wino, and oil, moored 
ck'-se in shore. The houses alon^ tbe port were priiici|)ally 
wino shops, eating hou«es, mnriuu stom, un<l taf&t, Cillea^J 
nitli a piclurwqutt population of eunburtit sailors si]<||^H 
blander^. Most of them were dressed in their national^™ 
ooftinme — short jackets and waistcoats, with a red mutli 
roinid the waiiit, ami breeches or trousers very full, and 
de«cendin(f below the knee, tlie leg being hnre, aud ihu feet 
enetist-d in sandals. On their heads they wear a rml otp, 
and the hair is allowed to grow lont; and made to tie 
on the biu-k ; tJiey wear inixutachJos, but no beard, Tht 
drees of the women ia less peculiar, contistin^ in a lonj 
jacket trimmed with braid or I'ur, pettiooate, ami a red car 
The men, bronzed by the Eucitern nun wherever the skin 
Was exposed — neck, fat^-, leg^^ — were mu»cular, hardy, and^ 
good-looking; wliiUit the women were decidedly hunu«(>tit% 
ncallint; to mind tlie old Grecian stutiiury type. This 
d(*crip<i"n applies to tliv inhubilants of all the istantj 
oompopin;; the Ar('hii>elago, 




I wnin!(Mx«l almut the port with groat intorcst, gating 
into tlie Jeep, tninttpurent blue watei-M, wliieh Beeoicii to 
support the keeU of the boats and vessols irithoiit clFort, 
an if they wtro Bwiniiiuttg in air InKU-nil of in water, 
watching the Iiuy loiuliiig ami uuloailiiii* of the mutols, 
BccorditiK to Eustern ways, in the midat of a Bulwl of 
Voicefi. I looked into tliu cales niiJ vtoriM, atid sUiod 
loiiginffly before the eooW ahop*, wliLfc Rjth was l>eiii'; frie>l, 
hesitation whether I xhould or not have a Syrote dinner 
of friitl fish, white hreai], nnd "rio tlu payti" with the 
Greek Mailon). Thi» at hi«t 1 did, imJ nnjovt^d the repast. 

By BIS all the puA^utirrera had returned on boiird, the 
anchor woa wei;;ho(l, and we n^in started on our pil- 
grima;^e. Within fifty yardj of us wiw a lanre Candia 
steamer, also on the eve of departLire, and an exchange of 
amicable ntlutations took place between tht' piimenuera of 
-the two shipK. I wiut told that it would leaeh Cuiidia the 
next morning, and much regretted 1 had not time to make 
B divcRiiuii in that direction. It wits provoking to he so 
near, merely Kepurated by a ni<;hl'e cruiKv, and yrt to have 
to pass on. Candia ia a ma^i^cent island, with motintains 
six or ecvcn thousand feet hif^h, in which n Cbiintinn 

iiO|>iiliition dclicd, until quite rttceiitly, all the power of the 
I'urke. Within the last few yeim, after a heroic rebellion 
Mid rwista nee, prolan;]^ with despuration and without nny 
aacistauce beyond what their Greek count r)' men of the 
uainland could give, they *u<!ciimbMl. ChriBtian Eumpe 
looked on with apathy — with apparent indiHerence — and 
WW the Chritftian C'nndiotcs sla>i;,'hlcred without lifting up 
htr hand to alay lim moKKacre and di'vastatiun ; and now 
they renlly are subdued and euiilaved by Ibe MusBultnaa. 
How ditTereot from the days of tlie CruBadcrs ! — -how luke* 
warm Christian Kumpc hiw Ixwontc ! 

The weather was xo beaulil'ul, the sea eo calm, that we 
oould surrender ouraelvea without resi-rvo to the enjoyment 
of the Mcone. Our duetinaiion wa« the I^ilund of Si-io, on 
tlie coast of Asia Minor, but a^l that evening we were atill 
in the /Egi-an Sea, among the Cyclades, skirling their pre- 
cipitixig shores, gazing on their rocky heights, drvamiiig of 
Ut« lovely Oroii]^, Lemon, Pomegninato and Olivi* groves 



concealed in their recesses. These scenes of fertility an 
beautv cxistwl, but hidden from our gaze, whivh oii\y 
reeted on wind txnd Hturm-lieuten shons, rocks, 

An nc turned tho northprn pronwntori' of Sym, wr« 
ill full view tho mouiiUiiiiuux iKlniidK of Andros, Tino, ar 
Myi.'oni, all oelebraled in former dMya for wine, fruit, oi 
and lovely vromcn. These islands run from norlb-wf»t 
Roiith-ea«t, arc long and narrow, procipttotis, barren, nud 
even forbidding mi ihi-ir n«rth-WMt eoasta, tulerably fertile 
on the north-cnst, and fairly peO|>le(l. Myconi, ihv must 
eouthern of tin; Ibrw-, to hIbo llio motrt rocky and banvn, 
wlionco in classii^ul tiiiie« the Mving, " a Myconian g««t." 
The inimliitiints ol Myconi were reported so poor that tliey 
were apt to apjicar in thu liglit of i>aru*ilcs, and lo cuuii 
to their friend or iititron'it table uninriled, 

"Wc wiTo passing between Tino and Myconi aa 
shadows uf evening were closing ov«r \k, and I do n 
reoolleet ever having witnessed n more lovi'ly M^ine. 
wrew Bt«amer, like a thing of life, wua ghding swiftly uvi 
tho blue waters of the Mediterranean, leaving n pbos- 
phoreaovnt furrow bohind it in the " bar viart less aea" 
(Homer). The sotting sun in the wi«t still illumined the 
hdrtson, costing streak)^ of rosy light on the waters, and 
buminbing tlic rocks and moiintiiins arouml us, endowing 
them with soulbern Iwuuty. 1 wiw vividly reminded of a 
nmihir evening spent at sea on the west euasl of 8ootlnnd, 
amongst the Wculern Isles, between OI«in iiiid Skye. The 
past and the prcM^-nt scene vtvrn all but etjiiallv lovely, 
and yet how <liH'erent the Ossiaiiie beauty of the given 
walena and h«wther-clad hills and mountains of tJie We«i 
Isles and tlie blue waten and Minbumt rocks of 
(irecinn Archipelugo! • 

ThfKic wvru ihu last of the Cyclades we »w. Bet 
tliem and ihe Sporattee on the eficisl of Asia Minor, there' 
is an opt-ii »e-A. 1 rumained »a deck until they were out of 
si^ht, and then retired with regret, rejieating the word*— 

" Mom, ala;", will not rpriore lis, 
Yendvr dim and distant isle." 



I had become enamoureJ with tlieir wild aanlHimt booty, 
Biiil ri'firotted I had not some weeka to devote to lliem. It 
would be a chnrminf; vxc-union in Rpriu^f and enrly summer, 
with a good xtL-um yuclit, and plviifont, int«)!t'cti>iil oom- 
ponioriB, to wBiider Trom one island to the other, neBliinjc in 
pretty coves and bnye like that of Syra, Dxplorin<; tli« 
fertile oruri|^G-ulnd vulleys and reeaeea, batbinf; in Die 

ElUiuid, traiinpnrent se», (isliin^, doting, and dn-ainiDi;. 
^^ ow seldom it a, however, in iifo tbut wo can indulg;e in 
^Vftjcb doy-dreHmal It ia nearly always tlic same; wc are 
f ohli^d inoxornbly to continue our pilgrimage. 
I Another peaceful nli^bt brought ua to the shonn of 

I another lovely IhUikI, ChioH, or Scio, as the Italians eitll it. 
^H ^V« were awakened by the enuineB stopping, and on 
^f MMching the deck Tound wc were opposite a good-xized 
town, that of ChioH, at the foot of a (gentle sIoptii!>: moun- 
tain, Pi.dina.iia by name, on the western coast of the island. 
Here we reuinincd lor two hours, tinloadiog and taking in 
cari;o and poseenf^ers. 

The ialaod of ChiiM is thirty miles long by ten wide, 
and liea due north and south. A liilge of mounUins 
apparently about IJOUO fcethiffh, mns from N.B. to S.W'., 

EAnd at iheir Um) aru lower hill* abutting on tbem. The 
Kspect therefore is S.K., the eame as that of Menlone, and I 
saw reproduced before tnc tho familiar A-atiircB of my winter 
aliodo on the (junoeem Kiviera. Culcarooua mountain!, 
atipurenlly while and niikcl in iheir upper two-thirde,, 
Bllhon|;h in reality MparNcly clothed with aromatic plants — 
ij<inl\iif.Mii, Tliymu, ItoKi^mary, Myrtle, Fennel — whilst the 
lower third and the more level firound near the Nh»rc in 
oooupied by forwU of Olito tree*, with, no doubt, grovee of 
Omngw and Ijcmon irera in th<- more Mhcllerod noolcti and 
folds. 'J'heir prcsenoe was rendered clear by tlie abundant 
supply of Onmt;cs and Li^mnns bmught by the native 
boatincn who aurronndiK) the steumer. Thoiie biiiitmen 
alao brought quantities of a substance itttctl in medieine 
from time immemorial, and, mixed with honey or sugar, 
08 a Mwcetmcat— the gum called Terebinthinua Chio. ll is 
tlie piudii<.-t of the Pistacia Terebintlius, and indiculea 
extreme summer heat and dryness. la the desert of 



iin» I 

Sahant it ia tho last plant to give in, acoording 
Trifitntm, sUindiug nn nmonnt of heat and dryness which 
no otlK^r trtw or Khnili cun bear. It grows freely on my 
rocks at Mentnne, produeini; iho same gam m that otFered 
to mc at CbioH. Eviik'iitly thorough Fhcllcr from the 
north prodiiCCN iit Chiim the name climate uonditionK ; 
and 1 Imve no doubt that a more minute eiarainalion 
would have shown ihnt th« veg»>tntion of this lovol^^ 
S'tuthern ivhmd, iinil thiit of tlie more shcItLTed r«gi<i^^| 
of the Genoese Riviera, are identical, notwilbstandin); tJ^^l 
diRcrcncc of IntitiiOti. The more complete protvcUon 
of the hitter inukeii up for the more soutliem l«litad« of 
the former. 

The Cydadcs all belong to the modem kinj^dotn of 
Orewe, whiUt the Spormio* arc utill under the dominion 
of the Turks, who have been their masters from the timt 
of Solyman the Great, who.took Chios in 156(1. It was loi 
an a]>pHnftt>:« of the Sultana mother, who iiacd to aciid oRtvoi 
yearly to lullect taxc«, iind the maHttc giim was much u:<ts] 
the ndies of the Scru^^lio for chewing. l*rot«ct«d hy tlie iu- 
fliicniv of eacccwive suHannH Chios became very praeperoas, 
rich, and populouN. In 18S2, however, the inhabitiints 
joined Greece and rose in insurrection. The Turks defutad 
them, again took po68e«>)>ion of iho island, hmnt tlto city of 
ChioK, muKsacrod thousiindit of the inhuhilantit, totally 
ruiuiu); the island. It im only now beginning to recovi^^J 
,from this cruel blow. ^^M 

My destination was Smyrna, which we reached that iuy^i 
but as Smyrna is on the mainland, on the south shore of 
the Mcilitorrancun, 1 nliidl U-avc what 1 have to say re- 
Bpeding it for the thin! section of this work. 1 will only 
add sow that n-c embarked at Smyrna a lew days lat«r, ua 
board a large Austrian Lloyd Mtoamer, on it« vny to Coo- 
atantiiiople from A)exandn» and Ueirout. 1 found on 
board this line steamer a most delightful state of thiugs, 
nearly liOii Mecca pilgrims 1 Fortunately, tlic weather 
was beautiful and the seit eulm, mi ihey did not come to 
grief; hiit had i^e enconntered a forly-ei;tht hours' Ktom, 
such aw 1 hnru known even in Rpring in the Mediterranean, 
with batclie* down, and wave* rolTiug over the veu^ 

TonKisn FtLORnia on boaed. 



ITBaltj- think UuDdreds must liave perisfied. Tliey ftlk'il the 
vessel, upper lUvk', nnci l<iwci- iltxks, like »hpcji in a pen on 
nurkut iayf; iinO pmoiitud m niuxL Miijiiilitr and iiitereatiug 
Ufwut. I vfaa aa hitsy as a bee nil tlio time I was ■>□ boara 
•tttdying, oWrvin>r> ■luilyxini;; it was RiigtIaJ, l>diniL»eiii!, 
Iipahnn, broiiglit homu. Every Ku^tern raue, everv npucies 
i>f Kaittern costume, every nffe, was r<?preeoDte(l. They had 
kll with them n »mall *iiiiittros< or car|)ct, on whitli -th«y 
lay, iiixt ill wliit'h t.lxiy r<j)leJ up tlicir oooUini; utennilsi, lor 
th^y )iad no oIIilt luj-guge, only the elotheaoii their backs. 
Amongst them were alxo nomv Rtis^inn pil<^ms returning 
from M pilgrima^ to JeniMiloni. All, both MugsuIriur, 
Turkit, und OhriNtian Kuseiaua, who escaped the dani^ra 
of their pil;^m«;>e, und rcitchcd home eaiicly, Tor the mat 
of their livi-!i would bo C(>nKid< Kuintly mta, nnil woidd 
be treiit«d witli g^reut reverence and raspect hy their 0'>untry- 
men. They n-iilly dexervc Komo such reward on this earth 
fur their cotiru^^e and MTlf'idjneEation, for tliey nin f^reitt 
rixka from jiestilence, from famiue, and from the dnngurs 
of the deep. I hcorxl from the captaio of an Alexau* 
dria boat on wUicli I wiis travelling Utely, tliut » short 
time beforo 120 pilgrims had been waahi-d olf the 
deck of nn AiiBtriiin fitc;tmcr and droivned, near Alexan- 
dria, "without ita hein^ any oiic'x tiiult," II giKid illiistrr* 
tion of llie duDKer of deck- loading- to all jiurtii-n. Thin I 
quite l>elieve, when I think of my own experience ; liud a 
lar(^ ware waahod our dvekn it must have carried hundreda 
overboard. We hud cei-tainly above 600 on the upper deck 

It was imposElblc not to watch witli intense delight tli9 
inner and outer life of thi« crowd of Orivnlala, maased 
together in BO small a compass. The ship gave no |)rori- 
aioDS, merely water, but thry uU had a little store in hanil, 
principnitj' rice, duteH, bi-ead and volToe. On every side the 
cooking was goiof; on with spirit- lamps, tJirce or four 
oombioing fortho purpose, and sittiiitr vTom-Ueged roun 
the ftre watching the preparation of their moilest repaat. 
1 could not help tliMikint; what tons and Ions of food 
would be re'piirud by l^OO Ent^lisliinf^n like myself 
eiiiiibi'ly siluuted. iVJl kiuda of odd scenes wore taking 


fiutx in a quiet impantble wny. One )iltle ]nci<lintt 
rouseil the npntliy itveit of our HaaUtn rolLiw^pniwugtrm. 
A niiddlc-ntceil <li)j;iiiik-il Turk bad bought in Ejfypt, u» u 
Elavp, R negro boy of fourteen, and for some oinU»ion or 
other I>ont him tinmereifiilt}-. A nailnr mw the elinntiu- 
tnent ^iven und told the AtintrUn captain. The latter at 
ODce went to the Turk and took the boy sway, myini; that 
he wnit free from the mnmt^nl hln foot hiicl touohml an 
Austrian »htp. At tlrel the I'urk oould not he made to 
undefBtand n-hiit had happened, it eeemcd so ftrnnKe to 
htm that he Khr^iild not ho able to do whut he ttki-d vtilli 
hia own property — a not un-Knelish eeiitiment. At laat 
hiR iofif wa§ made clear, nticn )ie hurst into n ocries of loud 
lanu'iitiilioiiit that were hciird all over the venKel, tore hia 
beard, bia liaii and bis clotliee, and in the Eastern way 
threw what ashes or dirt he could Bnd on his head. lie 
met with no «ympnt)iy or rommiMtmlioii from the Euro- 
peans. All ti>e sailors and passeng^m were positively 
aelight«d at what bad occurred ; and the poor Turk waa 
told to ceaa« hia outcry or to carry it on »of(o roce, or the 
eonwtjuenoea to himnclf might he muni unpliMsimt. So ha 
oollapaed, curled himself np, and remained for the rast of 
the journey a prey to grief— a niinod nuui> as he bad 
exclaimed many timeii. We landed ftome of our Eaatora 
paaaengerii at each of the iHlaiids and porta we pussed, at 
Myti-kne (Lesbos), Tencdi-x, Lemnoa. This was alwaya 
a niont intervrting cereuiony with the bare-lee^^d, tur- 
baned, fulUhrceched boatmen and the awkward Oriental 
prnwen !(('»>, but the grent^-r pari of them wcTxr destined for^ 
the MMiuland, for Turkey propiT, 

This latter part of our cruise wns as enjoyable aa tlie^ 
first The various islands we puKsed and stopjicd at were 
at lovely aa those deai:ribed, and presented the sumo cha- 
racteristics. As all the Sporadco, however, are under tbe 
domitiioii of tlie Turk, and ]»irlly itdiiihited by Tnrks, 
there wits the additional eliarm of Turkish Oriental ian, 
ooalunie and raanuers, about them nnd around us. Thus 
at SmyniH we took up the hiirem of a Turkish pii«ha and 
governor, and carried the ladies with us to a town on the 
Dardanellee. A tent wiis mndc on the deck, and they were \ 



then locAt'ed wilb their nttcnilnnts nn<I cliildrun. llie 
I)!!*:}!!! ap))C'iir4>i] occi)itii>i)iill)', wulkiiig about in a itliudliiiu' 
di^ili<rd manner un<l castinjf a muster's «,ve ovei Ins 
Wlon^inc^. We ^ot occasional (;timpsce of tliv latlii-c, bub 
recognised no frrcut bviiuty umun^itt tlium. 'They ull 
rwmnvd very dicerlul and hBp|>y, and inten&ely iiiteiesttd 
in what was i^iii|j; on around ilium, constnntly li>i>kiii§^ 
out slyly between th« folds of tli«ir tt-nt «t th« miVL-l 
aoono. 'I'he Htiropoim Indiett on bourd u[i])enr(-d to look 
npciii tlieui with great pity, I mnytAv even »itli supicniu 
contempt, Tb« landinf; of Ihcw Udi«s wm a ifrcnt bitsi- 
ncsM, un<l wM uccQinplidKid wilh ijixuit ceremony. Niimi;- 
roiiH boats came out; they wer« wrapgied up until thtty 
looked like bundles, or coiled np mattrebses, and wilh their 
Hlippere half olT they were aetiially " hundh'd*' ovi-rboard. 

Surrounded by all this^traugu Hie, inimer(i(.-<] in pratliea! 
Orientalism, Mecca pilgrims of twenty raees, tiarems, 
Tin-ks, Jews, Armenians, Xci^roee, soldiers in outlandish 
unirgriDs, civilians in <[Uoer cu^lumeiir, wo passed along tl>« 
ooutof l*roy, were tthown the oxuct Mite of the old city, 
and the previse point on the coast where the Scamander 
enters the sea. Thi^n we enter^ the far-famed Dardn- 
licllrx, eninswl (he Sea of Marmora and nncliorcd. at last, iu 
the (Joldeu Horn of Constantinople, May 10, Ibli, 


Constantinople is Hitnal<.>d at theicmlhernentTanfio of the 
Strait^ which separate Kuro|)e frou) Asia, and extend I'ruiii 
the Sw of Marmora lo tiie Bbck St-ft. The Stivits, about 
twenty mil<« lonj;, are of vntiable width, but i^noruUy about 
that of Uie Thumes at Greenwich, The old city is built 
on a narrow promontory which rises gradually toa hei^litof 
20(1 feet. Itssouthvrnslopcisinthe^eaof Mamiorji, undlho 
northern forms one side of the Uolden Horn, an inlet of the 
si-a which leads up to the niuuth of« little river, lliiee or four 
milcM diKliint — th« Sweet Waters, a pretty name. Here tiie 
Sultan how a sumcner pnliice, and n garden or shrubbery. 

On thuo{i|>oeiteBide<}f the(i<)lden H^ni inlet tlioHhorealvu 
rises hy a gentle elope bo an elevation of about 2i>u feet, and 




her^ mo^rn Con«taiilina|>1« has itprmd without lini 
The hi};be»t point is occupied by th« Pera or Eoio' 
(jiuirttfr, ix>mpo««d of one Innirrtrect al>out thirty f«ft witic, 
ami of maity KntnlW one* lojiiling iota it, mme fitteeii ftrot 
wido. Ttie houses are like tJioae of a >tnall Fr«n«h [>rovineial 
tonn. An extensire area, at least lialfa miW sqnan^, w)i«n 
I wit« tlivre (is;^) iviw one maw or chaTrml niitw, the traee 
of a great fire vrhicrh had occurred the previous year; only 
a ffw of tlie houses then destroyed hnd been rv)>nilt. TIm-M 
Mibtirbs are comicct<^ wilh the old Turkish towrn by the 
eelvbratiKl and piet(in'«<|iii; bHiI^^c uf hiiats, about twice oa 
long^ aa London Uridj^, On the other or Aeiatiu side 
tlte Strait*, ■ mile distant, Itrx the town of ScutAri, whti 
nlso nkceiHl* a hill rising gently from the water's edge. 

Constantinople us seen froni the water is certainly 
piettireKqiie as it is reputed to be; Dor wan tho cffifOt 
marrex) in my cyt-j», when I hindeil. The mriety of race, tlie 
qnainlne^ of cx)c>tiinKi<, the inleniiely Oriental character of 
the online MXMie, nnide more than amends for the smalioeas 
and uieanneos of the wooden liouees, and for the abaenoo of 
monttmonlal buildings such at are net witli in other 
Kurofienn eapitid*. 

On till! rery day of my arrival I took a caique, a 
narrotv li^bt boat or canoe, without rudder, point^-d nt boi 
oii'li', prL-iiHiit to ConKtiinliiioiile, and ivcnt up the (iotdei 
H..rn to " tlie Sweet Waters. For the first few milrt it 
is like Ihe Thames nt Wnppinp, both nhores being covered 
with tiridit-r and Khi)i-yiim>!, ironwoi'lcn and marine stores, 
l>nl BH we reee<!e from the town, and the inlet narro 
Ix'hvii'ii Iw'o low sloping grafS'COvered hills, tho landsea 
beoonies more rural. Tre<9> appear on the roiwl on each iiido^ 
and n hen we reach the Sultau'tt pulsee, about five miles 
ilisl»nt, the scene assumea the aspect of Itichmnnd or 
Hiiinplon Court— a narrow river iH-twecn low hillN, with 
trees dotted at the haM!, mid tbt^ juihuTe and pirdens in Ihe 
kadcHTound. It wok a huliduy, and undernentli those irt'cs 
^vero many festive yroups from tho city in evi-ry variety 
(iwtuini*. eon Hpicii oils among which were Turkish la^li 
wilh their little children, M-veral eunuchs, end ntffTO sei 
Is. Tho lower pait of the face was carefully oovei 



with a miwlin band, bo ns Mily toallow the eyes to 1)g seen ; 
aotwithstaodiDir this prucimtioii I thought I oiiur ovviu-ol 
prettv young pliyiM<ign»mtuM. 

The trees wntv, principally, Ailantus glandulnaa, CvUis 
occidentulis, Melia Axedarucli, Acacia in full Hower, Popiiliis 
alba, Aih, Piano, Kim, Robinia Paeud^Acacia, Arbittna, 
Uors« Chest^iut, goin^ out of Hower. The Sultan, like bis 
subjects, had oome to have a picnic dinner at his country 
house, BO 1 could not cxiimtnt; the garden. The trctM iind 
shrubs that Kiirixiiindrd it ap^H^rod the same as those outeide. 
I Kiiw the diiiuQr landed lixiin a gorgeotia caique, all (told 
and ornanwDt. Each dish, lar^ nnd round, wrapped in n 
velvet lug, wan ovrcmonioii«ly bikcn tiut of the boat and 
placed on the head of a atvarlliy Turkish attembint, ivlio 
IvrthwiUi marched off to the iwlaw with his burden, in 
truly Oriental style. 

I Mtbttcquvtitly went over the grouiidit of the Seraglio 
Palace in the old town (May tti), and there eaw all the treetj 
nientioaed llounshio^ and in perlVct health; also lari^ 
PUiie and Linden trees, Suinbnca, Laburnum, some Oiiks, 
both deciduous and evergreen, the former not rpiite in full 
loaf; Kuoiiyinus japonica, sim|>]e and variegated; Judas 
going out of tlower; small IVodaraK, Pinus ^ncii, largu 
Cupr«8BU8 Ijttinbertiaiia, Toumelbrtii, Alep^M I'ine. Tlie 
flow«rs were those usually seen in the South of Kurope in 
May— Antirrhinum, Delphinium, Stix-ks, Numopbitii insig- 
nis, Marigold, garden Uaisie*, Uniigal Itowcs, ])iutk>tiiis, 
CiiK'rariu, Verbena, Hollyhoclu (not in Uower), Ai|uilegiii. 

The Antitrbtnum grows wild in many lucnlitim iif the 
Medit<:rriinesan in two varieties, a light yellow aud n li;;ht 
mirplc. 1 found the ruins of Kphnux covered with thu 
latter, as also witJi a Ui^ Campanula, just like our gnnlen 
Canterbury Bull. This I have nut seen clwwhcre, but a 
travelling companion, juKt retunted from Syria and Paliis- 
tine, told me that he saw it also Rowing wild, although 
not Urge, in many parts of those ooutitrit^s. He likewise 
found, in the same luealities, grotvini; wild in grc:it abun- 
dance, tbe UuUyhock, generally dwariish in develupmuut, 
DO doubt owing to the seantmesa and dryness of the soil ; 
ill BOiMu very dry places he saw it in lull (lower when not 




more thnn sis inulies luj;h. 1 i>t)tiHot|iii'iitIj- «aw Ijnrlc«]int«' 
(rrowiiii; in grpiil lusnrinni-e aiiiJ aUiudntiee, wild, in< 
Hulgiiriu, l>ctw<-cii Vnrnn nnd the DaniilHr. 

Ttiii» it would seotn that many of atir cnromon pirden 
flowere have orij;inste<l around the Meditcrranmn, imd liniv, 
probably, bi-eii the $;iird'-ii tloivi.>rB of our horticiilturiil pn-- 
<iecrt*or» for tliouKiiml* of ytar*. Who can tell whether the 
Antiirlittium and Campanula 1 mv at K]>btf»iBi may nut ho 
the lineal descend a nia of ibose that K^uddened thu eyes of 
the P^plicsiant two llioiignnd ywim apfo? 

Aruuiit) llii: ba*c of Die prumonlory on which vlamU 
Stainbuul, or old Comlantinople, are atill extaut, in very 
toU*nib]e preservation, allhoii;;h in ruins in many plaeea, 
the widl* tlint formerly drt'emlrt) the city,iw nlno the towers 
tliat sireiitjihened them every tllly yards. TIk-m walk 
extend four miles, from the sea of Marmora to llie GoWen 
Horn, anil are triplu, with mnat«i, or diUihoe, Iwtweun wicli, 
Boin(> turned to lite soutli-ucst and protevtod from the north 
by the city, they constitute by far t)i« moat f>lK:1ti-rcd region 
of Constantinople or its vicinity. The ditches or moats jito 
now cultivated as kitchen gardens and ordmrds, whiUt the 
walls in ruins are elolhwl with phnitH and Ireen, iniwi) by 
thv wiuil iiml l<y the birds. I rode slowly ahng the uiilirc 
circuit, carefully examining the vof-etation. 

'Hie vegetubleA ^rown were Pfiia and DroiKl Ileaiis (ripo), 
Artichokoa, liirgc Tomatoes, small plants ; vi^jorous ^felons 
and 0(iur<l8, small plants. There were many P'g trees, 
Kvari-e or absent elsewhere ; lai^, ma^ificcnt Wulnut trees 
in great nnmbers, Uttle seen eWwhere; Mulberry tive» in 
great mimbem; Cherry trees, fruit not ripe, only bet;itining 
to colour; I'ears small; Klderberiy in flower, (juite trees, 
and nuuierous; Loqiiats, fruiting : Pome^rnniitc« in tlower, 
Almond, lai^ trcea; I'oaeh, Apricot, fruit large; Vin<w, 
flower buds jiwt appearing. The ruins themselves were 
covered in places with Ivy and Lentiacne, and with many 
or the trees above name*), self-si>wn, growing out of the 
erevioes. Here and there I saw the iloneysuokle and wild 
Ro«i_' in llowtT uninng the briishnood. There were no 
PnlmH, Opniitias, Aloes, Orange or Leuxin trM«, even in 
the must slielterud spot*, nor did 1 Rnd them anywhero u( 




or iiwir CoHAlantinople. Tiie only fruit eeon in tfie eliops 
were Oranj^js, Str^nborncs, and CliurrieN, the liill<rr not 
ripu. The Orati^t* witru very largo, lemon.8lia|it'd, from 
. iatU iinil Tyre, auil Jutii'. 

Tti« titrufl moat reinarUalU trees at and near Coiislanti- 
noplu ar« t!ie Pbtinus oriontiilK, tliu Culti)i ouui<l<:ntiiliii, 
«ni the Cuprt.'K9iu» pymmulalin. Thity all tlieru boconiu 
timber tKe», and atUiin ft size wliicti I have 8ei>ii equalled 
DOKhero else in the Meilitorrnriflau. The l*t:itic Iruti 
«()>«•; ill I ly arc pvoili;;ioiifi in sizi- and mo»t veucruUle in a^. 
Tlierc iM one in the yard of the Sorjglio, well knuwn to 
Uitaniats, which in iiiippu:>i^d to he abuvu two tlioiuvtid 
yeara old. Its oirciiml'eieiice ia eoormoiis, and in a lurjie 
c:)vity of iU trunk livt-d tor a century or ni»ru ihe untor 
jnriilor or jioliwiuiin of the Seraglio. It i.t, however, »lill a 
tine liandsoine healthy tree, covered »vith foliani'. Another 
1'Une tree, of nearly equal dimeiisiuns, at Biy ukdei'e, ou 
the Botphi^niK, wks nn old am] votioriitcil tree at the time 
of the Cni^iders, and is cillud the I'lunc of Uotlelroy do 
Suiiillon. The Celbi« oeeideiitalis is seen everywhere as ■ 
timber tree, as larj^re »!i or larger than -a hundroJ-ycai-old 
Oak. It u met with, eijually well (ii'velo|K-d, in Spain ; 
there arc some very lino trees on the puhlie sipiani at tira-we, 
near 'Su-xt. TIte pyramidal Cyprves uver>hudi>ivs ('on- 
stantinople, for it is pliiulud in the Turkirth cemeteries, 
which occupy a consiileraUe part oC the city, inside and 
out. These eemoterics are not endused hy walls, and art 
travcned by pth* and ro;i(U in every direction ; they are 
tne naort ul all on whoso track they lie. The Tinks «how 
their ri-fipcct for the dead by not lUsturbin;; them, other- 
widie they live with thorn fiimiliarly, attViicU-d, perhaps, in 
pirt by the nhadow uf the Cypn-KH lree«, wliieli attain uu 
altitude and a trunk development unknown elsewhere. 

At the summit of the bill, ou which standi the I'vra, or 
■Frank qii.irtcr, there is a garden of noinc three or funr ucrai 
in extent, rcuently niadu uni) planted, and intended aa a 
kind of V'aiixhall or T'^vuli cutiee and mii'^ic ifanleu. 1 
uiamined it oarofully, thinking; that it muut ilhi^lrute the 
ve^^'liititfn of the lieiiUty, iie the din-eloi* would he only 
likely lu jilont wliat tliey kutiw w<)u|d vugxcvd. 1 only 



found tlic )i1nnt« And flowen nsmed oborcj and nmoti!* them 
scnrcL-ly on« that would not grow in England. Tiiere is 
nutbing eouthem or Oneutal to hi observed. 

'r\m ruinurk applu-x to tlic ontiro vcf;«t«tion of Con- 
ataiitincijiL* and ul' its' viuinitv. Kvidently ttie vrin(«r9> uro | 
oold : the «)r must be, nnd is, so cooled by the |iroxiiniCy 
of tl]« cold Ulnck Se», and of tbe ice<l>ound countnes 
around it, tbut notliing iibeolutety southern caa thrive. 
At tbe Name time, nil pliiutx tbul van Ktaud moderate 
winter frost, and yet rejoice in intense dry heat in summer, 
live imd Hourisli. Constantinople ia in latitude IL" ; th« 
muutli* of the Danube nre in latitude 45°, a dilTcrence of 
four dcfrntOH, or i 10 miUat only, without inl«rvenin{f muun* 
tains. The Diiiiubc if frozen every winter to its aeu outlet, < 
for four months, from November to March, and froxvn to 
eui-h a ditplh that cart8 often crosf it wln-n: it ix two 
miles wide, a^ o[ipo«ite Ruvtchiik, in lutitudi! I-I" 30', merely 
15IJ milw from Contitinitinoplc. Tbft wonder is that 
tbe latter city in not colder, a fact ttiat can only be explained 
by tbe proximity of the sun-warmed Mediterranean, Thus, 
tlio nbftcnce of mountain protection from the north exirr- 
ciMH a very marked and most nnfavournble inlluenoo on tlte 
winter climate of Constiintiiiople. I 

Conslantino[>le is certainly a very fosctnal in;; place for 
tbe European traveller. The population ik •11'0,(I00, but of 
these about one-bidf arc ArmeninnK, Oreeks, and Jew». 
The I'urkish women alwayii nppeiir in the streets veiled, 
only showing their eyes, wbiUt ihe Christians leave their 
fucps uTifoverod, The Armenian women often dnws in 
On'entul futthion, and lieinj- Imjuently very f^ood-looking, i 
contribute to tbe accnc tbe element of Oriental feminine 
giaee. Tbe veiled TurktMh women soon cease to attract 
attention, for they are mere wnddlinji bundles of clothes, 
much to bo pitied ivhen really pretty, for all their good 
looks nrc entitvly lost on the public; on all hut their 
falbem and bunbande — n sad slute of things ! 

1 must, however, leave the description of Constant inople^i 
of its mosques and baxanrs, of its Dcrvisrs and cemeterica, 
ofitf! curious euKlomit and wnys, to others. In six days I 
raumged to kcc all that was mont interesting, by oonliding 



mj-aelf entire)}' to an experienceil dngutnan, by far ttio beat 
|pnain«n unkoowu localitjr when preaaed tor time. \iy 
bit udviot, when tliintj' or esiiaust«d bctweuti msiiU, I 
merely took n TurkUh cuprul of coffne, which cotiluiim 
about a tliinl of uti Kiit;lish t«iu;ui>, with >ii iiivarialily 
good mult. It is the Oriental mode of mcetin;; raii;;tie, 
thintt, and cxhnti^tiun, and is an iiifinilcly boltiT luiil »aii:t 
one than oiirx i>t' tiiltiiig wine, heur, ie-at, ie<;ii wutiir, ur 
Bolid food under aueh uiit:umiit«noi;M. Tlio dsiired restora- 
tive elTect is produced, and uo ill elfocU follow, uo iu- 
digiMtion, nu hiMrtburD. When we do take uoQVij in the 
daytime wc cWrly tnke tlireu timiM too mueh. 

Once at Constantinople, the nutiirul wuy home for ue 
western Europeans is by tlie Danube. 1 took this route 
myHulf, iind ehull m<tke a few reniurks on it, partly to giiidi^ 
Othvn, and partly becauM tliiK journey, whicU (wirid the 
traveller from Mut to west behind llie mountains that 
fhcltcr the nofth-east frliore of the Mediterranean, com- 
pkliw the study of that shore. 

The uinal ounrso luloplcd, iind the one I followed, U to 
tuke Ktvaaier from ConKtunlinoplu to Varna, the rjilivay 
from Varua to Ru.ili^hiik on the Danube, and then to 
embark on the river steamers for Pesth and Vienna. Wo 
started at four P.M. from the Golden Horn, and ailer 
Bltnnitng through the Straito, reacWl the Bhiclc Si^u. The 
Straits nf Constantinople, the Thraoian Doapliorus of former 
dayit, fonn the votnmunication between the Sea of Marmora 
uud the lllack Sea. They arc never more than a mile and 
a quarter wide, and are limited on both sidwi by K>-ntly rising, 
trer-ouvered hills, dotted with villager and with country 
villas, bvlont^n}; to the wealthy eUaves of Constantinople. 

Once in the Black Sea, we soon lost 8i);ht of land, and 
reached Varna the next morning at nine. We kuw the 
WitU-surronnded town iiituatcd on an eminence to our rii{lil, 
but did not vnttfr it. We were taken straifj;ht from tUu 
ship to the railway etntion, a few hundivd yard* from Uie 
eltore, started at ten in very iMmfurtalile carnugi^ii, and 
arrived at llustchuk at four, arier nassing tbruugti a level 
country but little inhabited or cultivated, priaeipally 'jrA%» 
land. Biutvhutt ii a hundred miles from the moutli uf thu 



Daiiul>e, anJ the point where the Danube steamers take u; 
and leave tbeir passengers. Derore lon^nr there will be 
miln-fly direct from Conntuntinopk 1o Riiet«huk, which wil 
anvir ihv Hliiok Svn vovage. Tlie line w already opou to 
Atlrianople (|1S74). 

The Unnuhe steamers are Urge commodious vessels, and 
ln.'iiif' fitted np with every wmvenienee and comrort, a 
jounicy by tlictn liooomeM a positive pleii«»re. I greatly 
i^DJoyed tbd oombination of comfort- and eaue with tliesetise 
of rapid motion, lliere were many olever, inlelk-ctiinl 
prnionf) on l)oard, ffcnllemen and Udie«, RoiimimB, (ier- 
inatis, Hii.-'i'iiinx, nnd nil Hp»kc tVnch iwrfix-tly, »t< it vtaa 
tiie jceneral inediiiin of eonvenation. We became very^ 
fncndly and eommunicAiive, sittiojir on the deck in ea 
chnirif, ■ippiii'* voffec three or four times a djiy, antl wal<;tH' 
iii^ the willow-clad hIioiv Hit-ting rapidly by. Various 
Bubjeotsof oonveraation, aocinl, othieul, literary, and politi- 
c*], w«re bfoached and discussed with a tire, an energy, an 
eloquence very f'oreijjn to our Northern ways. These al 
frttfit con versa tiiinis and wordy toiirnomfnt* (javc an addi- 
tionul charm to our progrew, and beguiled the timv ver;^^^ 
pieuKautly. ^ 

AVc should have appreciated still more the pleasurable 
features ol' our Uanubc voyn;^ liad it not been for the 
intoiii.0 htnt. On Muy the lyth wc lind fl4* Fah. all flay 
in the saloon caliin, und nil dci^k, under the awnin*;, we hud 
»U", and on the aisf 8S". The iitghts were co-d.nbout W, 
but we wcri! told I hat in a few weeks, by the middla of 
June, they would be iis hot as the day. Whilst I was 1l^_ 
C< 'list ant inopk* the thennfimeter wn« never more than ^(^^| 
in the day and 71)° at night. The greater heat of th^" 
I>antihe region, considerably to tite north ofCon-'tanlinopIc, 
at ihe same period of the year, was no douVt owing to iiii 
di»lanec from the rea. It w n well known I'liet in phynicul 
gei^^phy that all continental regions are warmer in 
vuminer and colder in winter, than tlie aea shore ; the sen 
watvr warms the atmosphere in winter, eools it in stnnmor. 
Thin intence heat Uxted all the way to I*e«th in Hungary, 
except duHn:; the few hnun that ire were iianKing lhixHi){b 
D niouiilatnoiM region, vailed " Tlie Gates of Iron." 



Wo were two niRtiU snJ three daya st«aminf« up tli€ 
Danube from Rustcliiik to Pe»Ui, Some of our purty \<tf 
the Kt^inmtr at Ba«ii(iii.>lt to take the rail for Pnilh, tlierebr^ 
B»viiiir twetity-l'our hour* river travutling at the cspetwo of 
twelve boui's on the railway — a lia<l lurgain ucconling to 
my view of thu ciwu. ])iirii)<r all this lon^ voyage wc were 
panting inoemautly — at the Iroii (latea excepted — through^ 
a low alluvial plain, with banks fi-um onn to 1hn.>u firet 
hii-h. linwi with Willuwn and PojiUnt, Pophtr* and Willun-a 
Ciniduolly the convietioD forcL's itself on the mind that^ 
there may be 800 epeciee of Salicinie, aa described by a 
recent author in n monograph on the Willow family I 
TUny are vortaiiily found every wht-rc, from Capo North to 
the " Waters of Babylon," wherever water cxi^la. 'I'hei-o 
were other trees iu the hackyround, Imt it was difficult, if 
not impuMiklc, lo recognise them, as the Kteamer poaved 
»iviftly by «t norno diiilancc from the shore ; they wero 
clearly all nortiiern types of vegi'tation. The eoutli waa 
hidden frum our view l>y the inounlaintt which friuge and 
protect the norlh-L-a«tcrn shore of the Mediterranean. We 
Were travelling due ciuit and west, on the mirth aide of 
thcHu mountuinn, which neret:n the ciutern Mediterraneaa 
and itii islands from noithcru blasts. 

The liret <lay our course was doe west, along the northern 
frontivr of Bulguna. On the Bouthern horizon we naw, nU 
day, ihe Balkan chain of mountains, running east and west, 
•nd covered with snow. At this time of the year, tho 
presence of snow on a mountain in Intittide ii" imptie* 

ktliiit it is at least OOOU fi-vt high. ThiM high chain it is 
that |ir<iTtvt< the ^'l^gean Sea and the Grecian Archipelago, 
The itiilkun uhnin ift continuous with other high muuntaiii« 
thut L'untiime the protection westwards; but the principal, 
most complete, and deepest protection to the north shoiv« 
of the Mediterranean is evidently that allorded l>y tho 
Alps of Tyrol and Switzerland, which form a tr^-mendouti 
hairier to tho north winds. Tiience it Ik that on the 
Oenoese Riviera we huvcOrnngu and Lemon groves, Palms 
and tropivul plants, and a cuniiilcle absence of Irost in 
eihelti^red places; whilst at Kust<>huk, in nearly I Im »amo 
latitude (io" dO*), tho Danube is frozen down to the sea 



for four montho every y«ar. No Lnown fact in pfayswal 
^eoieraphy could Wtlcr illiutrate ihe iuflueooe of protectioa 
se iV!;ar(l>' climate and vetfCtation. 

Tliii; journey in the Ka»lein Mfdilerranutin, nnd thtt 
retiini by the l>jiinil)i>, proved intoiiwly ititere«tiD|r 
to me, and eU-ared away much obscurity from my mental 
vUion reepectiujc the olimatu of these iv;;ions of tlit 
Mcdittmitican, which I hud not previously viiiitcd. I 
eonl'eiM to having; rxp£«t<.-d io tiud UvtiocHC Rivicniii all along 
the ooaet. I tliousbt, guided by clueetcul reminieccncv^ 
that ll)c Gi«cian islunds were covered with bowrn; of llotm 
nnd gruvcM of Oningi- Uw. I tUou>;bt Smyrun waa in a 
'Palm foretit surrounded «-ith on'linTiU of Lemon tret's, snd, 
that Conetantinople was in vegetation a truly soutlMrm cityj 
Instvnd of this, I found the Grecian contl all but devoid at 
siibtropivul vcgt-t^tion, the Urecinn iwlands mere sunlnirnt, 
wiud-scarred rockti, exwpt in ■hellrred folds or Dooka; 
Smyrna c">^^'>"? IIelii'lro)>i>s and Pclai'^Eiiums in puts, 
Ornnire ttcts only as buehee behind hijfb walIf^ with an 
addltioniil nliclter of trees, and Constantinopte with an all 
but iiorlliern rcgetntion, that of Mudrid with ita cold 
winter and hot sumtner. Yet by an nttentive wrutiny of 
'the map, these facts mi^ht have been feretold, for tliey rto 
in strict aceorduDce with ibe data given by pkyticat 







" Mj dream ia of an ialand-place 
Which distant seas keep lonelr. 
• • • • 

An islaud full of bills and dells 

All rumpled and uneven, 

With green recesses, suddeo swells, 

And odorous valleys driveD, 

So deep and straight that alwHys there 

The wmd is cradled to soft air." 

r/w Island.— "E. B. Bhowniso. 

Those who pasB the winter at Cannes, Nice, and Men- 
tone hiive, generally speaking, only the wide expanse of 
the Mediterranean betbre them. Occasionally, hotvever, 
when the sea is calm and the air is peculiarly clear, a bold 
motintiiin land, formed by a series of irregular peaks, is 
distinctly seen rising out of the sea, "on the far south- 
eastern horizon. 

I shall never forget the impression this sight first pro- 
duced on me. I had been some weeks at Mentone, and 
hail sat day after day for hours looking at the open sea, 
which I supposed to be a liquid desert for many bundrecl 
miles, us far as the sundy coast of Africo. One morning, 
rising a little after the glorious Mediterranean stin had 
emerged from the eastern ecu, I oi>ened the window and 



looked out. To my amimemenl I lelieli) licfora nc a 
lange of mountaiu euminiu, like the Alps aevn rroiD tlie 
plains of LomWrdy. It appcnrcd quit« a ^limpw of 
llniryUnd. A* tlic sun nioc higlicr nnti higher tliv dUUnt 
niountaiiiH l>eeanie itidictincl, and liiially vanislieil. Tliia 
wa? Corsica. Tl»e irregular peaks were Ihe summits of 
the Monte Cinto, the Munte Rolundo, anil the Montu 
d'Oro, inonnliiinM from wii I« nine tlioutuind fw;t liigh. I 
have often neaa tliem since, but aeldum with the Kiiue vivid . 

Tlie p<M-iod of the day when tho Corsiean notintaina 
are most fre^jnently und mo<t vividly neeu n jiwt before 
BiiiiriM?, the sun during moat of the Mtntcr risiin^ lust 
behind Uium; as it ascands in the heaveni, they npidly 

fade and diwippear. Somctimu», however, but rarely, 

-they remain apparent throughout th« day. Miisvm vf 
while cloiido anchored on the higher moniilain* are onen 
observed. TlMtt they niu rceltii'; on tlie CorHcan moun- 
tainais evident from their wmpKle immobihiy. Tlie dis- 
tanee from shore to i^hure bi-ing uliout nim-tv miUv, and ftt 
least one hundixtd and thirty t*j some of tlw iiighiT peaks — 
thutdf Moiitc d'Oro, (or instance— the first or lower two 

. i>r three ihoUNind feet of CorKiva omnot be seen at all, 
under anv ooiidiliuii of atmoophere, flwiog totliv sphericity 

, of the globft When thiui visible from Mcnlonc, the view 
of tluwv mountains becomes mtiuh more com)iIct«, much 
grander, if the higher levels are reached. From the top 
vf the Iteroeau tlie entire range of the Corsiii^iu highlands 

. is IMU. 




Tliesc oucnmnal g1iinp»u» t>S a rur-dutiint lurid impart to' 
Cunica u kind of myetcriuuD cliarin. We liiive our heJi» 
placed in view of thu i-aat winduwe, thitt vte mny nwHk<; hy, 
timi-'H in tliv morniH<*, muiI Loth luKurii>uyt)' enjoy tlio riiii;;. 
nirioeiit lities uf tbo riain^ sun rejected on cloud and uutcr, 
aud also etAii the liorixon for the "fair ifiluod." Wiica 
seen in the duy, all coinmunioute to oiiu Jtiiothttr tlw im- 
portant bvt ; tlie mure intcreetiiiK from it^ portviidini;, 
according to the local neather-wiMi, a brvak-tip in the 
weather — rain, or otorui^u eUitumunt whii^h ray uwu «x- 
ptriencc li-iidH nie U> duubt, Great dpurncsii of tJic atmo- 
■|)here means drynewi and northerly wiuda, which io wiiiler 
in this region imply tho pruhablo continiiunco of tinu 

I may Mifuly asttert that nearly the entire Kn^li^li j>opu. 
lation of M^ntono, nodur the influence of thi'sx fceliiiKii, 
ia unci) winter puwesw-'d with u ntronv dniru to vitiit 
CoreicH, Not only was this desire all but irreHiatiblu 
with mu, bat [ had other rcaiiona for wishing to explore its 
Bliom and mountain land, 

I bad become deeply impressed with the unhygienic, 
unhealthy state of the liir>;e Iomiis of tho south, mii-nuiiKil 
bealtJi-town!'. I had become evnviuevd that, owing to thv 
■twenoe of hygienic precantions, all the large eeutrea of 
population in tho soutJi of Kiiropo, pernicious to tho stron;; 
and sound who inhabit titcm, are totally unlit for tho 
dioejiKed, health -seeking community. Aa a nceiWMiry 
sc<|uenee, the only safe residences for auoh invalids iire 
snuill, viKtrM-ly-popnlalcd places, such as Hyi-res, Cannes, 
Mi^ntonc, San U^-mu, <>r the suburha of townn vuch as i'uu 
and Nioe, in which extra-urban villas have been built ex- 
pressly fur invalids^ These really lieullhy winter staliuna, 
however, lire not niimerou*, and I wim unxiouH to incrcasu 
their number, and believed that I miiihl find in Cvr«ica 
i^od winter rci^idences. I also hoped to dUcovur in its 
higliliinilH u cool mountain locality fit for a summer station, 
^H ft want much lelt by those who winter in the south, and do 
^H not wish to return to En;;liind in the summer. 
^H On iiKjiiirv OK to the means of reaching Corsica, I cmdd 
^Bgain but little information at Mealono, None of the ia- 



habitants Imd ever been llifin*, and tliey Mmnptl to 
upon it ns » very inaccei^ible place, in a state bonleriiiL^ 
on biirUirism. I therefore wrote to " the principal" book- 
seller at IJiistia, the chief toirn, for a Ria]> and u luc«l 
^nide, and lo Marseillea and Genoa for infotnuitioa about 
BteamcTV. In dtic course I received the infomiatjon applied 
for, and fifund, as iiiiiinl, that ovcry difticidty viiniiihed, 
1 uW met with two vciy anrreeoble travelling compimiottH, 
on Kngliiih elerf^ymsn ana his lady, with nhou) I left 
M<'ntoiie for OuKiu April the I'lth, ISfii, by the bcaiiliful 
Kiviera road. Two Kugliah kdie* subaetjucntly joined ua^J 
at Ajaccio. ^H 

Wc entered Genoa on a lovely Eummcr afternoon, and^ 
found the entire uopiiliition oiit-ol'>doora iii holiday o-xtnme. 
Genoa looked as nenutiful and intereeting ua it always doca 
in fine wcatlu-r. The nest morning 1 went to looV after 
Uic Hteamcr, which «tart« ^^'^|/ Baturday at 9 r.M. for 
Baatia, touching at Ijegliorn. To my diamny 1 found tliut 
H WUB my old friend, or enemy, the t'irgilio. I imngini'd 
it had, mnny yeani ago, been broken up, either by th« 
vrinds nn<l wavea, or by the Imnd of man. lliere was, 
however, no help for it, no other boat went to Coraioa, and 
to tlic Virgilio we hail to entruitl oiirM-lves. 

The weather was heautiiid, the aky clear, the sea calm, 
the Ijaronieter at »et fair, nud this time the old boat dowly 
but surely performed her allotted task. We steanun 
(]iiietly along the cuovt, silting on deek, and enjoying th« 
bcauiiru) Boenery until dark. Then we went down and 
elept until we reached Leghorn early the next morning, 
but eevi-ral hours later than we should have done by oiio 
of the ordinary Leiihorn steamers. AlW unlouding cat^ 
at Legliom, and taking in puoeungere and eoods, wu agni 
started nt nine, and arrived salely at ll«#tia at five in Uia 
afternoon, the u»ual pussage by a good steamer fron 
Leghorn being five or six hours. 

The engineer was u short, stout, good-hnmourod coun-' 
trj-man of oun, and an interesting at>ecimvn of the philo- 
eophical roving Englishman, lie was burn and bretl, he 
told me, at Liverpool, auil hud come to the Mcditeminctin 
some twelve yean previous; he luid served in every ]Mrt of 




that mn, and hsd never once been bntne. He hud married 
in Itiilian woman, w-lio lived wilh his children at Genoa. 
Hie pitjr ws« good, mid, an lie wan qiiiU^ (romfurtithle im<l 
hnppy, b« had no wiith whatever to return to Kngtand, 
The rirffilio was a ^od eea boat, and her «ni;ine« alM 
wore good, but b«tli were very old— he i)rc'i»umnl at leant 
thirty years. She was, he said, alow hut sure, and aafe i» 
N Btorin, »9, indeed, I hud found her many years ago. 

On a fine warm Biimmer'n day, such m we wero fortu- 
nate «notiKh to enjoy on the ISth of April, with an ull 
hut cnlm sea, the pas»njje from Ije^fhorn to Ilastta ia very 
enjuyable. Ah tlie vovkcI rpcedtw I'rom the m^nlmd, llic 
fine marble mixintainH nf Mnxiia Carrsro are th« [ir(.tnii- 
nent I'l-ature. Then as they become tndintinct, the iatand of 
Klba and the mountditis of Coretca come into view. Klba, 
frtim l)u? nea, npp«nT« merely n innM of rook* and mountAiiiM, 
with but little evidence of vegetation. Still it will ever be 
int<- res ting to thu traveller im the first [>ri80Q home of 
Uap'leon the Uicat. 

How ein^iUr his fat*. Bom and brought up in Condcn, 
be linally tcH it ut the a^ of twenty-three. With the 
exception of a few lioura pavih.-d at Ajaceio on his return 
from the eampaifrn of E^rypt ( 1 79'.*), he never naw C'ltMioa 
again antil, hurled from the hei|fht of human power, lie 
wax chiiincd to thia roclty i«l«t, within view of bM native 
land. Between these two e|iodia of bin life, events all bat 
any>»ralMud in ht«torv had taken place. He, tlie humble 
Ciii'iiuiui lUildier, had U'en a t^rL-at emperor, a kin:;- maker 
anil a kiiiu-desl rover, aiid bad wielded tJM lives of men as 
if ihey lind been mere Band on the aea-^hore, KlUi in the 
first land vividly reculls to mind the great Cornican 
hero. From that moment hiw memory wn* acureely ever 

Iibaent Irom my thoiiirhts. It pervades hia entire irntive 
coiinlry, and n indeKtriiirtihly mixed up with its past and 
present history. Indeed, it throws a kind of halo, if [ may 
use the term, over the entire island. 
Two other isUndtt are aUo iiinHcd, Capnija und .\toiite 
Cristo. They are both mei-e l>iirr«n m'.iuntuinonH nick», but 
healthy, and catiahle of bein^ rendered very fertile by human 
lubuur under the lifv-giviiiir sotilhera sun. Cupraja m ecle- 



Iratx'd in the piniit liiatory of Corsica from havirtpr been for 
vi'titiirk-M a tu-lJ ut' buitltt buttvecii Uiu Gviiouki; «itd ihe 

Monte Crifto, which Km i<^ven its nnme to Diimns' cell 
brntod nnv«l, \» a xinull, iininhubitvd ixlct, that aUr4ict 
attention name lew years ago througli the adveiitunM uiit! 
niihfortuncs of it« owner — ono of our countrymen. This 
tfentlemim ptirchneed th« vntire tsltind, »n>l xatlard upnn it 
in Uiv regiilnr Itobintioti Crusoe style, muDnreh of iill 
surveyed. He ^^radulllly brought a con§i(leratr1e area uud« 
cultivation, etarleil a uteainor of his own, and suecoedeil i^ 
esilablixhing a tloiirisUin^ littl« colony. MiHfortgne, bov 
ever, overtook him in the shape of tlio Italian revolation.-^ 
Some Oiiribuhlians, on their nny to Sicily, landed in the 
island, and {lilk^ed it. Our country inati'a nyuiputhiM were 
with the Uubo of 'i'uHcany, those of (he sis soldiers and of 
tliei Brrsicimt, their eommandoT, who formed the istunji 
gniird. were with the revohiljonaty Bide. TItvy qiiiirrellvd^ 
lie WMtt inxulted, and Wft the island, and the oumjiletc' niin 
of the oolony rapidly followed. Uedress was sought in tliOj 
Italian courts, but without KUecees. The Goveramoat 
fti«ed to reco^iiine the acta of tlie Uivleis (iuribuMiurm in 
this the early stat>e of their career, and the Elba inag^iBtrutcH, 
8idin(r with llm irergeiint and his men, Rm-d our unfortu- 
nate cDuntivman lor rebellion agaiimt the " Ofn^titutcd 
BU til unties. 

The Kn;;li*h Parliament wna called upon to take Ul^ 
part of the Kiiglisli proprietor, but, afU-r u long delint«, 
the minister refiutH] to intc^rfera between the juirlies. 
TliiiH <'nded an En[>lisli man's dream of « little tnonaruhy in 
t\n- Itidiaii MUX. We have all of ut>, in our voulbl'ul duyi 
Iflnt;ed tor the poeses^tun of jn^t such an inland as Mont 
Cristo. and cannot hnt feel doop commiseration fur th< 
miafurtiincs of one who had ihut: bravely n-alizcd the boy'l 
|Kint'It!ie. llut ia not the dowufHll of the little empir 
explained by the evident want of sympathy of the king 
Monte Cristo for the popular Italian cause? Ifso, he bn 
laUitn with ihe ]>olitical jMirty he e.'>p»ui'i-d, with hia friend' 
the Duke of Tuscany. It is a pottlicul, an hiAtoricnl full, 
and not a Hueiitl one. 




Ar Coratca is apjiroached iU JiSpioe ohanicter 1>eeoni«8 
evident ; it riti«« tVoin tlio aea as a chain of mountiniis 
extondiiif* from iiurlli U> Koiith. At tliu biuoment liule 
lismlotJ< are seen, Bve hundred »r a llioiitiaiid fuet aliovc the 
■eo-Ievel, clin|i;in^ to the nood -clothed mountain sideei. 
The town of Biictia is not di<cov«>rcd until wo arv but » 
few miln from the coiut ; it then appears iw a clu>t«r of 
white houses rising gently above the shore. 

We landed in a small and secure harbour, but so niir* 
rowed hy the jetty that in bod w-uather tlic untr^tnci! is 
very ditTicult. Some years ago the mail steamer was lost 
through ittrikiDS njtaiust tliis jettv in a stormy ni;;lit, and 
forty Houls perished, aUhoa;;h \vithin a lew led of the 
shore. As wc roxved '(uictly in, for our uti-amer wa* g^ing 
on to Porto l^orrcs in Sardinia anil hud sti>p|)ei) out- 
side, the precise spot where ibe vessel bad struck wits 
pointed out to uw. It wait all but within the little harbour 
and so near land that it was difficult to undenttund the 
catastrophe. With the calm, smooth sea we then had, the 
entire crew mip;ht have jumped ashore. 

Another and larger port is now being con.itnictod, to Ihe 
north-cnst, by means of litr;^- blocks of arlilieial stone. 
Thesi' hlo'.'kH are made on the spot, of Immense size, and 
of any requiri^ furni, and much facilitate the comttniction 
of piers and sea-walls. The new port of La Juliette, at 
Marseille*, has been made in this way. The onstructioD 
of this harbour will be a great advantage to Baittia, the 
smull port of which ia now inconveniently crowded with 

The channel bclweon Italy and Corsica is considered a 
smooth Bca, for Corsica act* ju u brwkwater lo the sDuth- 
west and north-west; but still there is occasionally a very 
heavy 0ca in it, as 1 )iad exjicricnccd to my sorroiv. This 
is more cspvcially the case when •uuth-west or north-easl 
winds reign. 

Many years ago, in 1839, when resident medical officer 
in till! I'aris hospitals, I had a friend, a youiiir Comican 
physician, M. I'iccioni, a clever, energetic man, whose pro. 
iexniuiial projects were even then considered very good. 
Our fiienusbip shared the fate of many eucb fgatbiul tics ; 



wc parted, ]ie for liU nntivo countnr, 1 for mine, and niero 
heard of each othvr iipiiii. Ai< fuun ns wc were conifort>' 
ably §eLtW in the Hotel de I'Kiirojw, an inn vi-ry eimilar 
to nhat we should find ill a email French contiii«tital town 
out oC the track of tourists, I inquired Icr the fneiid of 
former diiyH. To mv delight and surprise 1 found that ha 
was alive, a llouriBhin^, universally efteemed mnn, and 
Bcturdly tivin;; nt Bastia. I had also a letter of introduc- 
tiun to J>r. Manl'mdi, hviul Mir-^'on to the Ila«ti» ho^pitalj 
and th(- leading operating tturgeoii of the island. We were 
inoHt cordially welcoined, 1 aud iny coropunions, both by 
the old and now friend, and, thanks to them, ever after 
felt (juite at htime in the iitlnnd. Tliey tinii^rerred ua to 
other friends and relatives at each sucicuiive stage of our 
prii(>T««^, and as vte were everywhere received with great 
conliidily, wc pmnpered wherever our dU-ps were directed. 

W'l rctDninvil »cim<.> diiytt at Haatia, i-xplorin;^ the towa 
and itR neiglibourhood, awl then went to Sun Fioronzo, 
From thence we pursued our journey to C'alvi, to Ooi 
and linally to Ajiic-cio, whunce we eml>ur)ie<l for MiirwilL 
having pB«Jii-d ihroc week» very enjoyably in the inland. 
The w>-ftther wi» splendid from first to last, the mountains 
u ere ever pure in i>utlin<r and free from clouile, the sky was 
blue, the eun shone hri'^htly, no rain ftili, and the counUy 
wn)! in the glory of eurly auinmcr, of poelieal npring, 

1 ehuU uow endeavour to convey to my readers, as hriefl^ 
a» poi^siblo, the resiille of the experienev gainvd during Uita 
oscurMon, ax aW during two subsequent tours made in tlw 
inlunil in the spring of 1805 and in that of l86(!>. 

('i>i«ica is the third largOKt inland in the McKJiterranoan, 
j-Sicily and Sardinia lieing both of greater siie. It is 
'sittiuted between 41' and -WT of north latitude, and 
betivecn 0" and 7* of cast longitude. The diiitanev^ from 
the coast of Italy iw M miles, from that of France tlOj ita 
length in IIT) miles, its greatest breadth about M mllea. 
Corsica is a mere mass of alpine ridge« rising nut of theses 
like a veasel ; the mountains attaining the highest elevatioD 
in the eentr*-. 

Two mountain ranges form the isluud^ moDing 


tudinally tlirougfa it fVom nortlt to Bouth. Tho «ulftra 
range commiftiues nt Ciipo Corso, ■ iiiirrow lonptadinat 
tnoiintiin, some .^unii feet lii^h, and mare Itiuo 20 miles 
loii^, tlie base of wbich is bnthed by the sea both cnst mid 
west. This rang« is ocwondiiry, caleareotia, ond denwiida to 
the ecnith ut » modurnte eleviition. The aecond rauge is 
primitive, granitic ; it commences near the weat ooaet at 
Isolu Ko£sa, rises rapidW to a height of HOUO and 9000 Tect, 
nod rune through thu i»liind down to its Moutbern vxtremily, 
to wiUijn a short distaiioe of JloiiilUcio. 

The dilTerent geological nature of these two mountain 
ranf^es has, in the course of countlem ogM, modified tho 
cliorautur of tlic coHern und weKtvrn «horet>. 

Tlie eastern range, composed, aa stated, of secondary 
oalcanoiM rocks, is more easily dieint«>;ratod anil wnshcu 
ftwuy by tlie action of the dvmunlA Owing to lhi>i cniisd 
the rivers which descend from its sides, and from the cetitml 
regions of the ialatid, through clcl^s which these calcareous 
mountains present, have <li![)oiiitvd at their base nllnvi^il 
plains of consiilerablc extent. Through these rieh olluviul 
plains Hcvcrat Inrgt: titreiinis meander to rosolt the sea. 
This tlicy :icconii>ltith wilii difficulty, owing to the lowneaa 
of tho shore, and to the prevalence of the scirooco or Kouth- 
eaet wind, whioh constanlly throws up largo msaBea of Mild 
at tliuir inoullM. Hence the formation along the eoatern 
shore of large ealt-water ponds and marshes, into which 
aomc of the rivers empty themselves. 

Under thv tiuming glare of u Mediterranean sun Ihese 
terrestrial conditions^largo jiouds of brackish water, 
martbn, and rich alluvial plains, liable to periodical over- 
flow — embody all the elements calculated to produce 
muUrious fevers of the most deadly olinmdor, und hy such 

Ifevcm in this i*^on rendered all but uninhabitable for ioiir 
months, from June to October. 
Tho western, primary, granitic range of mountnins is iho, 
real backbone of the island. It must have been thrown up 
long before the wioonilary nutteni range, is very much 
higher, and is covered in some regions with eternal snow, 
Thiit range is jagged and irregular m iuoutline. It throws 

840 ooneioA. 

out bifth fjrimilie spiire towards the wegt^m *ea, wm 
extern) into tlic fun, uni) funn (le«p bays or gulfs, aa u us 
willi primary rtn-ks, 

Thoee spurs divitlo the western eide of tlie i»tftn<l into 
Hc<!]i, niiJc, picturi^squv valli-ys. At the bottom of eaoh 
valit^y riina a Imin-liiii^ utruam, wUidi CMrrirx to the nea the 
wattrrslied of the bi^h anotr^lo*! mountains, cttd fonnn an 
ulliivial plain, of ([rentor or less ext«iit,as it neara the e.>a»t. 

DUintogration, however, durio;; the (;oologicat period 
has been alow, owing to the frrauilio obaraotvr of t)i« 
mountains, and the rivers have earned less soil to the am 
tlinii thiiSL- of the eaitflrn or calcareous tide of the island. 
The ulliiviul plain* are, conitetiuontljr, all hut ronlJiied to 
tho mountain ralleja, and the sea is very deep near the 
shore. On this side of the island are all the natnral por(«, 
with lh« exception of that of Porto Veocbio on the rctitb- 
enst coant. Thus there are no ponds, the niarehea are 
small in extent, limited to the immediate vicinity of the 
outlet of tlie rivers, and intermittent and remittent fevers 
in comparison are by no means so common. 

The npun which limit the w«Ktorn valleys being verj 
rugged and of greut height, the peasants who inhabited 
them were all bm cut olf in former days from commtmica- 
tion uilh mankind, on every siile Imt that of the seu, A 
CottMt roiid which aKcetiilK and descends the granitic ridges, 
l)a« been recently completed from Bonifacio to j\juocio« 
Porto, Ciilvi, IhoU RoHNa, and Bustift. As there is also a 
giicd roa4l from Uastia to Bonifaeio on the eastcru ooa8t> 
Corsica is now completely encircled by a carriage rood 
connt^Iing every region of the coast. 

Hetweeii the eastern and the western rnngn of moun- 
tains there is a highland counlry, an otevated mediterranean 
area of mounlaim? and vallcj's, which forms about one-fifth 
of the entire HLipcrficies of the island. 

The botanical productions of Corsica aarimilate, as might 
be prettuuied, to those of the countries that surround it. 
The north, by il« vogclation, approximates to the Kiviera, 
the «wt to the Italian coast, the w«l to Provence and 
Sjxain, whilst the south, and I may amy the entire island, 
showa decided African affinities. Indeed, in a subsoqacnt 



urvey of Al^i'riii rikI Mount Wian, I was rather surprised 
to fiuid the v«g:cUtioii of the granitic itml Kuliixlio regions 
ofXiw AtlaH mountains alt but itluiiticail with the vegetution 
of tliMK Mme formxtions in Corsiua. 1 

In the plains on the coat^t, vemals aikI Indian corn are 
)*rown in coiisideiablo abuiit]an<v, aitil Mioc-vud adaiiraUy. 
Tli« Wullicrrv Irt-e, alw, it cuUi»'Hled in great ptrlVclion, 
and su- the diinalu i» «ui(ed Ijoth to its groutii and tu the 
rL-ai-iD:>of the b ilk worm, there is a grcuit i>|)<.'iiin|{ in this 
dirwlion for the Coreicans. On the lower crclaeoout 
bilk and valliiyti the Olive tree ahoiiuda and llourixluw. 
The Vine ia alito eiiltivated with great eucivM, mid admi< 
ralilo wine is m»de, of rather a fiilUbodiod chnrueter, 
etipiriatly oti Capo Corao aiid alwil Surtcue. Ilighor up, 
Uic <;1R-Htijut tree gromi to a inagnirii:eiit aize, and piodticvn 
fruit of the very beet (jiiality. Kntiro dietriutu, ei>|ii'i-i»lly 
on the eastern aide nC tli<? tiLaiid, arc oovcrn) with 9plL-iidiil 
('he*liiiit fon*ls. One of the eustem dintrictii, indei'd, 
having Uie litUo town of PiediMOcc for ita centre, is mIIcJ 
the Caslagniccia, or Chewtnut coantry. It haa ever bean 
IkmouB in history for the unconquerable intrepidity nnd 
love of freedom of its inhiibttimts. Throughout ovntunva 
of tyranny and oppromiou in Corsiea tliey were never 
entiiely ttubdtied, Ni>d thut nritieipally owing to their 
Clioliitit trees. Fornierlv. and even now, their main food 
is the ChuMtnut, with ntiFislun<.« from the oil of the Olivtf 
trees, the wine of Uie Viaiw, and the llcah aud milk of 
tlH-ir iche«p. 

The Chestnut tree wants no cultivation whatever, no 
watching. Like the Bre«)>fruit ti'eu of tho tropics, it 
producer fruit thtit only tetiuiri-a i^nlheiin^ when Hpe, und 
tn thia ciiniitte it never fails to produce a crop. Tims tho 
inhabitants of the Caotiigiiiet'ia could light all the year 
ronnd and yet live. They nii^ht bo hemmed in on all nide* 
in their moimtuin fastnesses, nil iugiesa might be »top|>ed 
for years, and yd they Sotiri^hcd. Ttie«o times havt* parsed 
away, and «inoe the end of the lust eAnltiry thvru haa t>«uii 
l>eace in Cornea ; still tho inhnhiUuta of the CiwI«k- 
ni<v;iii mtain thi-ir diwullory hahitti. They live, I am told, 
4U auhcr idleitees, (Jay at cardSf talk i>ulitt<s all day, 


snd work as little m Uicy can poesibljr help. Their 
nrtifici»l modern wants, even, an csunW tiiippliral l>jr llie 
lule of tlic KurpIiiE chestnut crop, now rendered easy by 
the increased fucilily of commnnication with iho CoiitiiHinC. 

The cultivation of tliv OHvv tree on n large imlc would 
oppcflt to engender the same apathy and disineli nation to 
work on the part of the peasantry. There is a region 
called the Hatagna, est«itding from San Fiorenxo to Calvi, 
compriiiinK smiling limetttonc hillii and lovely fertile 
vnllcye, which is a very cArden of Olive trees. It is 
renowned throughout the island for its richncM and for 
its luxuriant fertility. A IcMling proprietor inrunned me 
that th« peasantry, all proprietors, led the same "/ar 
iile«l«" life of easy enjoyment as their ooantrymvn in tlio 
Chestnut distrieta. The Olive tmi requires u Ultic more 
trouble, it is true, than tlie Chestnut ; it haa to be pruned 
and manured ovcrj* year or two, the fniit has to be crusliod, 
tind the oil »old. Still all thi», like the labour of the Irish 
eotticr on his potato-ground, tak<Hi but little time. Kvery 
year or two an abundant, easily-earned harvest of oil pays 
off debts and leaves a surplus to live on until the next W 
ready. AVhy should he work, sayR the peaiiaiit. whoa liia 
future 18 thus Mcure? People cannot live, however, upon 
oil alone. It roust be sold to maintain the grower, and 
owing to this rcnson, no dotibt, the Bulngnn huM from time 
immemoriul iK-t-n Mincjucred and held by those who were in 
iwsseasion of the adjawot coast. 

There is a good carriag* rond from Cnlvi to Code, whicb 
InWeK the traveller through purt of the fertile smiling 
Biilugna, and also, at a later stage of the journey, tbrougu 
interesting mountain scenery. A day diligvnco travda 
along this roiul every otlier day, and I have twice per- 
formi-d the journey, with even more pleasuio the second 
time than the lii-st. Sheltered l>y billy motintains from th« 
south-west soa winds, pruLeclvd from the north an<l eaat, 
the tIaU<{na appcnrvd to me truly the abode of penoq and of 
plenty, with it« Olivo and fruit trees, its Vioos and CereaU, 
«nd ito pros|>erous-louking villages, each with their <)iuiint 
Jittle eburcli. The summer beat must be intense, as ait 
evidence of which fact I measured an old Cacouba treo A 




little beyond Ponf« Veg;li» twenty-eight feet three indicK m 
eircumfctwncc, three feet from the proond * On this 
joamoy I for the first time met with villagee, all the 
oabiiiAor whioh had Hat roufit. Sudi a conatmctiaii implies 
iiiteneely warm summer iiighte, and an npproxitnatiun to 
the Eiist iind to the customs of il»f inhitlitunlit. 

Ahiive the range of the tJliestnut tree we meet with the 
Finu§ Muritimo, And ahovo that, alonj; with it in come 
rcgioDii, the Piniw Lurix or Larch. Tins tree 'i» a native 
of Corsica, and in no part of Europe doei« it gruw to (greater 
luxiirianoe and periection. In Mome of the priinitive loreste, 
noble tri'ce, more thita ISO feet in height, are found. 
Above the Pinw comes the Beech, then the JJJreli, and 
then the eternal snows. 

The)» details of physical ntructurc explain the history 
orwica. A« in most moiinliiin regions of a simiUr cha- 
tter, for niiml)erlesi( centuries, from days anterior to 
thoMt of the Romans, it« iiihubitaDtit were at war with 
their ueinhhours, all of whom in aucceMion tried to conquer 
them. Tlie shores and shore-toWDfl were auecrraively in 
the possession of the Greeks, tlie Romaim, the Samcuns, 
the Spaniards, the TuMcans, the Genoese, and linally, of 
the French. Itut the mountaineers were never contpiered. 
Altornatvly defeated or vicloriuuN, they ever niaiiituined 
their independenee. Conqueror*, ther drove the invadeiH 
from their native Boil. Conquered, they retreated to their 
mountain fastneeaw, to the primitive forceta which still 
cover a concidcmbls porliou of the iKl»n<l, to the neigh- 
bourhood of the eternal anow. I'liere, who durst follow 
them ? The attempt only brought destruction upon their 
purBucrg. Such was ever the history of this Hmall com- 
munity, then not ntimhering much ahove a huudred thou- 
sand souU i aa noble a race of fi-ee men as ever trod the 

llm history of Corsica w full of heroes, of heroic deedK, 
of romantic achievements. Rich succi'Snive century bore 
patriots over ready to «tcrifico iheir fortunM and their lives 
for their country, ua in the heroii! days of early Rome. Nor 
were the opportunities fur doing so wantinj^; no sooner 
wu* one enemy disced of tluu another appeari^l. Peace 




never Iflsted more timtt a r<^- }-c*n>, eoldotn u toD»; ai 
eadi succotisive generation KikI thus to renew the atrii&;gks1 
wWicU lm<] tested the coura^, tbe patriotism, and titej 
etitluruiiw or He preciireor. 

Js it surprising that tlie nnnifH of thefc Conticnn heroea 
sliould be boasekold words? tlint Qiudice della Itocca, 
Uinmpolo, Sampiero, pAolt, and many ottiere, should live 
in the nllectiona of the Corsiciins «ven nulo ihe prevent 
iluj ? Is it eiir]>rie>iiig that the Corsimii women should 
hnvo iml>i)<cd and shown, in times now ^oc by, the et«ra 
pa)ri<)ti.4in of I ho women of Sparla? or that tlicir "vo(*ro«," 
or cbaiils and national »ongti, should, op to thin diiy, )>reatlte 
a spirit of defianoe and a love of venfteance unknown to the 
inliiihitjuitii of more pvuceful r^ions ? 

A population which hiw for so many centuries — inJe 
nntil quite recently — lived in a «t«1e of constant warfar 
agnini<t forvji^n tyranny and oppression cannot uU at onoA* 
calm down to tlic socijd condition of countries that have 
tor wnturie* eeaacd to fight fur thi-ir existcnco. Tinw i« 
eiiplaint^d the exceptional social cundition that until very 
recently reigned in Corsica. 

The Ocnoc«c were, durin>> the Middle Ai^^ and nitt 
the Uitter part of the last century, tfa(> most persistent andj 
crnol per«eoutors of Corsica. They estublishcd tlicmsolveBl 
in Corsica towai'dn (he end of the tliirtevnth i-eiitiirv, and'' 
^m<hi;il[y piined possession of the coaKt towns auo of a 
con^ideiahlo portion of the island. War may be said never 
ti* liiiv*- ivjiiii-(l from tlmi time until the Cor^iainn imrrendeiwd 
thcmsi-lvcM lo France in June, 1 7(19, two months only bi^fore 
the birth of Napoleon Bonaparte. 

In 17'17 the Genocw, finding thcmsclvcn bard priwsed, 
applied lo France for Jimiiitanee. Cardinal I'leury gladly 
availed himnelf of the pretext to eslablish a footing in 
Corsica, and sent five regiments to their assistamv. Krom 
that time the Corsican* had aUo to )i(;hl a>[:iinst France. 
They defended iht^mselves Jesjierateiy for thirty years, bnt^ 
at last their crreat ^nei-al, Pdoli, was d«f(^l«d, and the) 
had to saccumb. 

The father of Napoleon I. was a prominent memt>er of 
the patriotic or auli-Freneh party, tie was private socro- 



itey to the i»Ietirnt*(l cliiof VtuAi at thft lime t!i« eapitiilation 
*iH» KigHoJ, ami Coffiica anoexeil to l-'faoce. A few inonUw 
later liis wife gave birllito tin* -jroal vvarrior itnd Klali-nmao 
who was to wield with fucli tiTritic t'lmrgy Ibe liesfiiues of 
th« Freiicli, whom hU oounlrymen tbeu looked upon m 
fvreitriiere and ooiiqiierors. 

The grval and patriotic Pnoli, who for a qiiarler of a 
oentiirjr liiii) govcrcMd the Contioana with the wisdom of n 
Solon aud tlie coura^ of nil E|iaininondas, ahamloitiil liil 
native ooantry when it beutme n mei% proviticc of tVance, 
and took refage in Ijondon. Tlierv hu livvd for thirty vears, 
ill llulborii, a ploriouH exile from Uis sex-^Tt island iiome, 
Wlicn I t^zed on the m»}tnil<c«i''' mountains, the hitautiful 
dear nkj- of Conica, and the ^loriouM iwiirc oea that sar- 
ronnda it, I often thought of 1hi« xud exile of former days. 
Mow iiis heart must have yenrued for his own nt)tiv« bind 
in the fog and [{loom of a London winli-r. He could have 
returned had he *ultmitt«d to the rule of France, hut thi» 
his patriotic soul would not t>toop to. lie preferred to 
livti li-n^rth of years an exile in a northern land, and there 
to die, away from the home of hi* falhera ! 

Paoli onee relurned, hut only for a lew years. When the 
French became republicans they were ashameil nt having 
extiiiguinhed Corsicnn freedom, piihliclyapologixi'd, recjlleu 
him in 1790, and placed him at the bead of his t^untrymei). 
The latter soon tired, however, of republican tyranny, 
uppeaUil to England, expelled the French, and positively 
annexed ('ontica to England (l7Vt). P^oli and his English 
Iriunds soon hecamc obnoxious in their turn. The Coiviciins 
rose af^inet them, retaminv to French al1i'<;ian(!e, am) the 
French dominion waa again definitely vatablixhed Ibrou^mut 
Corsica in 1 700. 

The (generation of Paoli has lonfT passed away. Mighty 
events — events thnt liiive «h,ik«-ii Kuropi? to it* very founda- 
linnr, and totally chan);ed the Ibrtuties and future ■l<«tiny 
of the mttion that annexed his native coiiotrr — have taken 
place. 'Jtiive ohancea may be traced in a grmt measure tothe 
genius and to the Cofsicnn tenauity of purpose of tlui son of 
one ofl'aoli's companions nifd friends. The Coraienn elui> 
raoter, liowever, rcntuins the tame. The love of freedom, 



ilic Rrm r^ftolve not to yielil to authority ai^amst the dicfai 
of ouii>«ii!ik!f, BtJil choriicUTiii' tlnreone of Ojmica. Cnr-^if 
mtilef within Uie Ui»t ft-w yi^ani linw reproduced the [teitriolaa 
telMenial of I'aoli. 

It K n qn«8tion whether the Coreioiw, with their indomi- 
table pride und individuality, would havu mbniiLlcd to 
completely to Kr.ince, had it not been for the niarveltnus 
rise or XapoieoD Bonapiirt«, their count nman. As 1 have 
stated, Napoleon wm bom a f(>w months only al^r the 
aDDexatiuii, und by the njcu of tweiity-iiine he waa general 
of th« flriDy of Italy, al thirty he was 6ret ooaeair and at 
tliirly-four omporor. The nntionul fueling ia etiU very 
strong with Um Comicans, and I have often heard it tmid, 
half seriotwiy, " It is Corsica in reality that baa annexed 
Prance, not fVanoe Corsica." Every man, woman, and 
oliild ill the inland is proud of the fint einjK.-ror, und ue- 
quuinted »vith every detail of his life. The advent of the 
lul« t-ii)p(<ror to the throne of France was hailed with 
K shout of ddlight and patriotic pride from one end of 
Coraieu to the other, and nowhere has his dynasty more 
devoted adhereuta. Vet to the traveller, the counti^ ia 
more Ilaltan than French. Kscept in the iar^e towns, 
Ituiiun, or an Itjilian dialect, is the principal Unj^uau^', and 
the feature* and muunera of the inhahilaiitd, like thv regS^J 
tstion, are abo decidedly Italian. ^| 

'file Corsicano compluin rather bitterly thai ihoy oro 
neglected by France and that the very great natural re- 
sources of the island are not developed as they mig-ht be. 
This reproach to nte apiKuirs scnrocly just. I'hv lirst 
Napoleon, it ia true, did but little for hia native country, a 
very tincular fact. As we h^ve seen, slthou|{h burn and 
brought up ill the island, which he constantly rvviHitotl 
during the first yeaw of hi* military career, he iieri-r eame 
to it again after his return from K)rypt. ferliaps he was 
eo totally atiBorbod by the Herculean duties that tillt-d 
hia career, as to have hut littie leisure to think of the 
ntatcrial welfare of hia native country. Perhaps he was 
disinclined to draw, in too marked a manner, the attention 
of 1 lie France' hegovenied tcrhis Comiean oritjin. On one 
.ocoaaiou a deerve was signed lot tome important public 



works at Ajacdo, but th^ were Dot carried oat. This h« 
only Icarot yean nricrwanltt. W'hmi »t St. Heluiiii, hu 
thoujriils, liowi>ver, revertvti coiittanlly to the mountain 
island Unit gave Kim biitli. Ho often spoke of it, unJ of 
ivlidt b« intended to luive accompliKliod far iu welfare 
and protperity h>d he remnincd iu power. 

Subsequent govemmwitB appear to have done for Corsieit 
what they have done for other dcpnrtnicnltt of France, 
perhaps «vgr more. The Krenoli centralized system of la<v, 
education, Jinil road-making, ha§ been generally intro- 
duced, and every facility ^ven to the inhnliitiiuttt to 
mentullv improve thamsolvM, and thereby u> lay down the 
foundation of pablio [WMpority. The ro-uls thut now con- 
nect thfi priDOipal oowt towns, and encircle the inland, arc 
excellent, as good as our high roade in Enffbnd, t-ven in 
the moMt wild and uninhabited rcftionn. Therw also is a 
very good road intencoling the island from Bastia to 
Ajaocio. It posses over the two moiintiiin chiiinx, and 
through Coric, the ancient patnotic oapitAl of Corsioo, 
Variogs forest rooda Iwvo been lately made, leading 
into the heart of the countrv, into the primeval Ibreits 
which occupy the high eentral regions. 

The great impediment to the niat«t-i>l progreu of Corsica, 
ui) to a very recent period, has no lioubt been the very 
abii'trmiil Hoeiul condition of the island. Sojieculiar and 
strange was thi* condition, xo fnrcign to all modern notions, 
that it may lie questioned whether the whole world could 
ofti-r a pnrnlhil. The rfn^eUa which characterizes it must 
Bap at the root of all public enterprise and proupcrity. 

The vendetta is a nyHtem of veDgeaiwe to the death 
which has existed for hundreds of yetire to Corst<», and 
which was, until recently, recognised and approved by 
nearly the entire community, including even the leal 
enlightened ministers of religion. Its origin is obscura, 
but may ho trace<l to the feuds and warfiirc lluit exi«tcd in 
the island, dividing the members of faniilic!! and of oom- 
niiinitics, ever arming one agaiiwt the other, to the weakiiCM 
of uiithority, and to the diflicnlty of obtaining ju«ttce. 

All Ornicans carried fireanns. If one man eonsidered 
.himself insulted by another in any way, however trivial 



the grounils, be shot him, l-'rom that moment thr fiimity 
of the miin Icilli-il wiis hotiiid in honour to miraiic ihc 
murderer, or in hin <lefatill, nome mLinber of bis family, 
an<l to r«tjiliat« blood tor blood. This ohligition Ao- 
BoendeO from ont' mcmlicr o[ the lamiljr to tinother, 
niitil it olUn i-nilvd in the nil but entire dcstruotion of 
both Eumilieit. Villager, entire OMnmuuitiee, would tiiko 
up the quarrel of their meinbcTS sgainst othvr villu^t*, 
other communities, and thus, in the abiionco of u iiuhlio 
foe, they mawacml each other. 

1 waa told by a very intelligent Roman ^tbolic prievt, 
curiS if a remote oonulry villaf^, that the greater [lart of 
three feudii orifrinatn) in jraloutiy. The general feeling 
was thnt any iiieiilt otfered to u woman ought to i>t 
vra»lied in the blood of the oflender, by her male rolativn, 
huHhaiid, father, brullier. TliU sentiment, he ttaid, was »o 
fitroii^ and general, that were the Utrs relaxed, there 
would be just at) many aRsnRaiiiations us in former timets 
■nd, i-on»c<(ueDtly, as many vtitlaws in the monntainii. 
Indeed, if there was no male relative to avenge them, 
Cursiean women often revengetl thenitu'lvee, 

TliiK Utter Biat«ment was fully home out by what 
heard at Corte durin*; one of my visits to Contca. In 
April, Jt>fl5, lher« were ihrev women in piison for killing 
their lovers. One, a finw youufi woman of nventy, of it 
){ood |)eajiunt family, shot h>>r lover dead in the market- 
place of Corle, leu diiyo h-Tore I arrivod. He bad de- 
wtCud hiT ufter promuiiig to marry her. positively re- 
fusing to ratity his en^gement. She wan in prison, but 
my informant, one of the K-ading inhahitanls of Corle, 
ftated tliiit her imprisonment waa a mere form, and that 
she would tw either uoquitted or condemned to prison fur u 
few wetks unly. The cntirt- community, him&elf indudwl, 
thought hiT a very noble girl, who hiMl served her hsae 
lover i)uitc right. I subsequently heart) that, as antici- 
pated, she had only been condemned to throe month*' 
confioement, as ^)lty of what we should call " juiitiKable 

'I'his girl, in Wndicitting her lionour, only followed the 
traditions of her country. Some yeara ago a young girt 

■ IIS. 

A, YOCERO. 849 

of Ota, whose rather poetical name was Fior di Spina, or 
HaffthoTD- flower, killed ber lover for the same cause- — hia 
refusal to marry her. One of her compagnons improvitied a 
" vocero " or oallad, which I give below, both as illas- 
tiatiDg the feelings of the Corsican women on such occa- 
sions, and as a good specimea of the langnage spoken to 
this day. It will be perceived that it ia thoroughly 
Italian. This vocero is published by M. Jean de la Bocca, 
in an interesting work entitled " La Corse et son Avenir." 


" Stamane, ia piazza d'Ota, 
Tbaann meseu la cooroiia 
Tissata in oro ed in argento, 
B«coDdu la to persouDO, 
Sapn sta colpu di pistola 
Cbe in Corsica riaoua. 

" Arrivata da n an baba, 
Bi veati da grand' ^neniera, 
Carca di ferru et di piombu, 
CoUa carcbera e ta tareetta, 
Ln stilettu e la pistolo, 
Diceudo : Oggi e a me sicretn. 

" Qaeat' avia an cnore d'un Uone, 
D'una tigra allatata. 
Ha BtesQ lu braccia colla pistola, 
Ed in capu la sbarata, 
Dicendo ; Aoinin iofidele. 
La t<i morte i preparata. 

" Deh I portatemi a Tallavo, 
Dots io i banditi pib fieri, 
Giocomo e Sunta Lucia, 
Queati cuori bravi e gnemeri, 
E con elli in compagiua, 
Ginro boBchi a sentieri." 


" This morning, in the place of Ota, 
the; placed on you the crown, 
woven in Rold and in silver, 
according to (worthy of) your pereon, 
afUr this piBtol-shot 
nhivb in Corsica reaoands. 



" ArnTi-ii nt Iw-r Fkth«r'a 
•li» ilroi»nl liLTwir Its a ffraat waiHoTt 
liiuiled willi iron and Imo, 
* iiti titu curkiiiehu-box tind th« ta»ctt«^ 
tlx- iityl(<t and tli^ putol. 
auytog : To-day it a my icavb 

" She lind the heui of a lion, 
of A tiat^oii ■nrkling. 
She oitciiJii! thi- nrm wHli tlwi piitol, 
And uii liin linkil (lisfhargud it, 
HiyiiiK : Soul nnlkitlifDt, 
your dcuth ia pnrpued. 

"Now! taVe m* to TftUnro, 
nben: are the baoditti the proud**^ 
Gia«6mo and Saute Lucin, 
tboM hrarta braro u>A warlike, 
■ntl with thdm in eoiDIHUiionship, 
1 will rova in the wouds and patha." 

AeeordiDff to « French prefect quoted ljy Oregiorovi! 
vboae Travels in Cornea I cnn recotnincii<) ns ■ motl 
laFHniitinK liook, -klflO oMasrinitiona occurred in Conks 
between the years IbSl nod 18S2, in a population of iwo 
hundred und Rlljr tJioutuind. In thu last two year* of 
this period tlie number was three hundred and nineteen. 
The peasant scarcely cultivated his field, for fear of 1>eing 
shot whilat at Uie plough, nud Im life wae often passed in 
tmrkiug or avoiding a foe. The women, bred up in a 
Mvage Mi»e of honour, urgvd their husbanOB and »on8 to 
tbate deeds of bloodlbiraiy revenge, fang wild mnge of 
triiiinph (rvcfn») over them if victorious, and equally wild 
son^ of lamenlntioD if they were killed. 

>Iany Comicans in those days apent year* of their lifv 
barricaded in tbt^ir hour's, which they durst not leave 
for feur of their puniuent. The xtory is told of one man 
who remained filleen years thus harricA>1<.'d in hi* dwellinjf 
without leaving it. One day he heard liiat bis antagonist 
was away, and venttirMl to go out and crom the road, 
only to (all dead on the other side, sliot through the hod; 
by an enemy who had waited Gfleen years for him 



Mywir made the ncqiuiintance nt Tsola Roma of a gentle- 
man, one of till! leading proprietnra of the island, who, a 
lung wliile ago, actually lived for two years barricaded la' 
the u|ii>er lint of a house tn Uiat town lu avoid lli« " Vfto* 
dettA." An iron door nn the staircase, through which he 
uoiild Hli<iot any one approaching, prot«ctcd and separated 
litm from liis relentless foot. 

How eould a country prosper untler Huoh drcumfttancm ? 
The l-Vench Government never would take the chivalrous 
view of the Confican vendetta, but dcchircd front the flrat 
thut a man ii!iot under the!<e circuinslanceH vras ^impl/ 
assasatnated. If cau;>ht, he was tried, and either executed 
or sent to the f^lle)'« fur Itfo. This unplcafanl mode of 
viewing the national point of honour in no way restrained 
the Coraicaa tnind. Tbej shot their enemies as bofore, 
and then retired to tlie mountains, vrherv they ouuM wt 
the law at ddiauce, becoming iianditti. At the commenoe' 
went of the present oentttry there were IUt>0 men in the 
mountains (^ ta m/riidiff/tf). The commandant of the gen* 
dtrnierie ut AJacoio told mc that in Ifihb Ihcn were ctiU 
throe hundred. 

Theee men were not brigands, such as we used to meet, 
and still moct> in Italy, in Calabria, and elsewhere. They 
were " honourable men," who liad vindicate<l their sense 
of honour, in accordance with the immemorial ciiiitom of 
their race, and with the approbation of the lar<;e majority 
of their c-ountrymen. Once in the mountains, uut of 
reach of the authorities, in the primitive forest^ of the 
Monte d'Oro, the Wonte Rotomio, tlte Monte itonoi§o, or 
thi; Monte Inohudine, they merely wishcHl to live. Thvy 
killed game, their friends and relations sent them supplies, 
the pcii«i)nt« and Khephcrds g«ve them food, am) hvlped 
thorn to avoid their enemies, the soldiers and the veil* 
darmes. Thus they led a kind of wild, Itobin Hood life/ 
seldom, if ever, altouking travetleni, or doing harm to those 
who tell them atone. 1 have been told thatatnivuUer, not 
an enemy, might have gone among most of them with his 
pock^^U full of gold without fear. They would only have 
politely taked him for a small pecuniary contribution, if 



tJiojr vfkntcd it. Some twr, however, vnte Ims konotinliU,*) 
]em eaeiljr MtisGed, even Id thotte days, aud could iii^t tiavv 
been thus trusted. 

It «M ill vain thnt the Prcitch Gorcmment kept » KgU 
mcnt or two of Mtldien in tJte islund, and « lurgv body of 
" moreoUe geodarmvi-it-," Hccustomed to the roouittaine, 
and tfl mountain wmfarv. 1'hi! vendetia w&s too dwply 
root«d in tlie minds of the Condcunii, Tha mountains 
were too inacoemible, iind the population too favonnUo 
to ihcfo "Itonourablc lMiiidil«,' for thvm to be exter- 
miiuit«d from the land. In tJte ywar 18.'>-t, tlMtrtCore, very 
extreme roeasurea were adopted ; measun's which Miem i 
very ftraiig« in our tim«w lui npplicd to a department] 
of Fninoc, to tJie birtbplnce <rf the late imjwml I'wnily. 

Two lawrs were parsed by the French ('hamh«m. Byl 
the one, tho entire populntion wiw disarmed, anil it wat r 
made penal to oarry firearmR, or arm* or any doscrtption, I 
for noy reason whatever, even including the piintujt of' 
game ; «o that for mam- years there was no ni^tiUr xporlint; 
IB Corsica, A landtti proprietor could not take oiiL a gtm 
and nhool n bird or n hare on bia own pro)>erty, without thti 
permission of the prefect. When this permixtion vrm luked, , 
nnd {^nt«d, it was ipven for oncv two, or more dayx, for a| 
special diBtrict, under the name of u haUKe, aaa polioe- 
ageots or gendarmes were rmiuired to be prment. All bheJ 
hi-fher and well-informed memlxTs of the community cliaer- 
fully ar(|uii-seiHl in the law, and auncndvrvd their pleasure 
for the flood of the community, This Uw wna partially 
repealed in IS09. 

By tha other taw, the foi dti reeel, or law of concealment, 
all persona harbouring or amistin^ outlaws berama liubla to 
impriaonment, Tliis Ian- ha* been stretched in practioc in 
& very singular and Draconian but very cfTectwil ivay. If 
a muu kills an enemy, and flies to the niountjiin, the uutho* 
rities instantly iwixa aod impriiton hia relatives, and keep 
them in jirinon until he be raught or have surrendered. A 
ver)' reinurkable application ol" it ooouned during my first 
visit at jVjaccio, A liandit who had killed twenty-scvea 
people in his life, principally gendarmes, and had been out 
m the mountains above thirty years, bad for some time 




been lost sight of, And was GUppoe»l to have gone to Sardinia. 
He bad rcwBtly ruuf^Jired, wid hud been seen in the vici- 
nity of SurU-ne, in th« ttouttiern part of tJie island. A« 
many as sixty of his relations and divvcudniiU wcro imtne- 
diutely wviuA and impriifonwl, uvi were <i«ly rt-leased when 
it bccaini! qtiiU) evident tiiat the old oH'eader bod attain 
withdrawn from the istaiid. 

Inhuman rr thi« «tc{i may Mitem, it hu been attended 
with the mcMtt beneilcial rcaultd. These men of broni^, 
who killed an enemy as they would a noxious inMcc-t, whom 
uo humun or divine fettling could rt-Jttrain from vhedding 
blood, are fund futben, itonii, and brotber:^^ They cannot 
bear to see their children, their fiithers and mother*, 
brothers nnd cisters, permanently in prison, on their account. 
They eitlier do not aa«a«iiiruito any longer, or thoy give 
themselves up to the authorities, and meet their punish- 
mcnt. There are now not more than two or tbri'e outlaws 
" i la montrifite." Were «uoh a law |>aased and riyidly 
carried out in Italy, the country would soon be etuarcd of 
tilt- bitnditti by which it in infiwted. 

The rigid application of the toi i/u recel cuta at the root 
of one of the chief causes that tended to keep up bauditism. 
So far from a ]>va«unt family being disgraced by one of 
their mernlwr^ being "out in the mountain," it wan, in 
some sense, an advanta^ to them. From that moment 
the family had allies who protected and assisted tliem in 
their feud* and c|narrela. nicy l'uriii»he<l provijfioiij', powder, 
information, and, on the other hand, Uiev received ui»i»- 
tanoo and protection from their bandit relative and his com- 
panions. The impritionmunt of biw relations deprived the 
bandit of the all but indispensable aiwitttaneu be wa* re- 
eviving, and transformed the members of his own family 
into very lukewarm Kympathixera, if not atwolutA aiita* 
gonitta, i 

A aingiilar feature in tlie history of thcM outlaws is their 
attachment to their native land. They could easily gi;l ta 
Sardinia, wliich is only se)mrated by a strait a lew milva 
ttcron:, or they could take refujite in Italy. Hut the love 
of their native country is too strong. Ihey prefer to lie 
out for years iu the forests and loouutainsj to be tracked 

A a 



-daily like wild lieasia, without hope of pnrcIoD orof ereDfod 
eanpi?, to lakinK rcfuce in another cunntry. 

A com mu ml lint, of " trcndiirmexic," whose a<^naint3nce 
I mudc nt Ajuceio in 18412 — n l>rav«, opcn-liciirtcd militarv 
man — had heen ten years in the island, and they hud hfea 
years of inc wm nt warfare Uj^inst the banditti. I heard 
many intcrcMtinf; dvtailit (Vom him of the inonntiiin warfare 
lie hnd iinceasioply wsc:cd — for audi it is. He hul n^ventl 
hundred tnen under nim — nil yoiiDFTi of great physical 
pyivor*, and inured to linrdMliipt: of evwry description. His 
nttiickfi were prineipully made tiy ni^hl tnarche* of twenty, 
thirty, or evun forty miles, which cnahled him to 8uq)ri>e 
liin wary enemy. 

] vxpresttiil my astnnislim«nt that he wu8 Ktill alive, 
that he bad not been n»siu«inated, Coraican fashion, after 
BO oden Icadini; Ins men in such desperate work — for ha 
Kiiid lie had M-nt sotuxii lo the C"lh'yiB and to Uie ifuiltotincj 
He iv])lied that the explanation was in the fact that he) 
had always treated the handitti as fair antagonists. He 
had wa^d honourable war a^in«t ihcm, and fmi^ht them 
ojvniy, a« lu" would have <i'ine a inilitnr}- enemy. HttJ 
bad i!Ur])ri]«ed (hem, and exterminated thero when he could,] 
hut never with the aaeistance of trcncrhery, which he de- 
spised and repudiated- So thoroughly convinr-rd, he nddedt<j 
were the luindit^i of hii honour, that were he Ibat eveningf 
to write and make an appointment with the moat' 
noturioiis of the few n-mnininu, they would not for ono 
inomcnl hcMtiitc to U-Jive their retreat, and to come and 
inei't him in Ajacoio ilaelf. 

Out- ineident of the a^lvcnturous life of the worthy eom- 
tuandant deserve* narration. He had heoii long pursuing 
n very dcKperate Imndit, who had killed scveml persoos, 
and had been in (he mntintain for many ycar», vhidin'^' 
all rcMttrch. At Ian) he heard that he wiw Kleepin^r every] 
nifrht in a cavern, filuated in a very wild and Bochidedl 
distiiet, high tip in the mountains. By a night mi>reh lioj 
tmrruunded the cavern with a hundred and filty men, and, i 
certain of the oiitlaw'M preMi-nee, summoned him to sur-^ 
rendt-r. Tan only reply was a couple of shot^, whieli 
killed oni! of hie men. He then determined to i<moke hitai 





cut, and eomin«nceiI pilinij a heap of bnifhwooi! licfoie 
the ciivcni; but befoie this coiilil li« hiilf iii;i'iim|>liihe<i, 
two more ol' his men liiv iIimJ on Ihi; i-rimnJjBhot tliroiifjii 
tho body by hi* iinliiponiMt, Anxioua not to Bacrilipu jiny 
mori; lim, the cooiinsndant deter mincil to frtarve out thu 
bandit, bi-int; aware tliM hi* Ktoctc at |iroviiiioD9 and n( 
wiitcr wan limited. He therefore drew round the cavern, 
whi<-h hull only on« iseae, a douhlo cordon of men in tb,; 
bruebtvood, and waited. 

For two dnyx anil two niehtH wilh this tiij;er>wiitcti con- 
tinued. On the third nisrlit, townrda tnorninir, h'in[ter 
and desperation {iroVAili^d, and the biiiuUt tn^uKt n Kiii|i|<-ii 
ruslt out of the cavfrn. Twenty ttunsi wer« tintanliy 
levelled »t bim and tir«d, and he full u«aJ ; but not before 
he had hiul tiro« to sinj'lo out and deal n death-eliot to 
one more of his cnomiw, Thu* the destruction of thin 
man cost four vabmble 4ives. This draoiatia inuidout 
occurred only a few years Bffo, 

It was euy to leo that the worthy oommandunt oritci'cd 
thoroughly into the viiirit of his arduous om-er; rmlued 
that he enjoyed it. His eyes ejuirklod whilst he told me of 
the Urns nigltt murcbc», of tht: umbuncftdcs, of the f urpiiseSj 
and of the mao(eu?ring, which fonn the main featuri^ of 
this moimtain warfare. No doubt the exeiti'inenl and tin- 
ocrtuinly of this kind of eitmpai)^niu(; has ■;rc;it cliarma 
for men fond of udveiiture. 

The ditlioulty of seizinj; an outlaw who isi Rn])|)i>rtc<1 by 
tint n-nrm sympathy of the entire population, and i* 
^Minted by tliem in every way, boa been well illustrated 
recently in Ireland. In a <]uict, civilised wuntry, where 
there are no primeval forests, no mountains covered tvitli 
eternal kuow, an elderly atwaMiu oludvd the put-suit of tiie 
entire jiolice force for two years, and at last died of discasu. 
Ki« whervjtbouls was constantly discovered, but owing to 
the cuiiuivanceand imisbiaoo of the peasantry he aa eon- 
stautty eluded his pursuers. 

Tlie uljori! faete appear to me snfBciently to account for 
tbe Welcward stat« of Cumtca us rt'<;iirds its miiterial de- 
velopment. It is the hUtuiy of the Ht{;hliinds of Scot- 
land 200 years ago— a people coiiMtaiitly fighting oithe? 



iiKaidst Btrangera or ainonj^t thcmselvw, and Wniin^ to 
look upon actual labour ok ilerd^ulnry. SucH ii social otate 
w all llio moro caMy aceouuted lor whi-ii Uit; miit^'riiil 
wiiiitit of life arc few, the |>o|Hil.ition sparse, the i-limat« 
mill), and tlie wil »o iiiituriilly fertile us to produce, nil but 
will)' tit trouble, the aotual neceeniries of lile. 

Al Inct, bowcTcr, the very vigorous m«isurea adopted 
by Guvoinmoiit ore ljrgiDnin<; to tell thorou<>hly on the 
social condition of the entire community, and Micurity 
reisn« where diOidence and alarm f"rmerly existed. There 
ciiii Ik- ro dnuUt, therefore, tluit the natural resoiirc^a of 
('omii-u will -Kfieedily bo developed. The fort-Htii of Corsica 
contain timltcr db valuable as that which if imported into 
KiiroiH' from countries thuii«nndB of mili-s awsy, its wines 
ate \ivi'i\, ftbniiddnt, and cheap ; itx niinrral woidth in »aid 
to he (treat — lead, copper, and iron being found, I wa« 
told, in abundiince, and vrith little labour. The inland ia 
now qnitc cniirdt'd and pt-nctrated by good oarriofjc rnnd«, 
and rcijuinr and fn-iiiicnt st«in 0<>mmunicJttion exists 
between itsi ]>tice!piil ports — ItaNtia, Calvi, Ajaccio, and 
the French and llnlinn inntnlnud. Capital and enter* 
prise are alone wunteil, and thuy are lurc to make tbeir 

WVre Corsica an English pomosioit, a dozen eompanie*'' 
would bo at work in a few month):, but commercial enter- 
prise is slower i» Kraiieo. The Fr«ueh «tilt lo<ik upon 
Cursii;!! us a semi-harbarotiB country; the officials who 
hold appointments there consider IhomselTes banivhiti), und < 
ever aspire after the liinv whi'n thuy an return to i''raiice, 
to Paris. Scarcely any travellerB, either Fren<ih or olhera, 
ever viHited the island, except on busintav, until my notice 
of it in the second edition of this work, in lSft2,drewntlen- 
tion to its ffceat natural bcautica. So rnucb was this the 
ea<4', ihiit the advent oi myself and companions was a matter 1 
of *un'riie and cnriosity. What ooold {Mssibly have 
led us there, was the ipiestion. Indeed, to explain my 
presi-nce, I was invested by the public witJi " a missioa 
to examine the climate and prodiKtions of Corsica." 

This isolation i*, however, eeasing, and 1 am fireatljr . 
(^ratified to think that I have been tlie means of sending] 



hundreds of my ctwintrvmen to thiB very beautiful ulAnil. 
In fact, in no pari of Europu cnn a few wuekii be spent 
tnoru pl(suuintly ia Kpi-in^ ur autumn l>y ibe htaltby tourist 
Uiun in Coreiot. In early autumn mnlariu ia Ftill too 
prevalent for pleasant and sure Iravoliin^; but by tbi< end 
of October it bucomuM quite aofc. It may, with tho 
grentenl ease, be visited on the way to Itnly, or on tho 
return from the nortb of lUiy. Tlicro is a i^tcjmvr every 
n'L-vk lietwceu Niue iind BjiKtiu, ermMn-; in twelve hours. 
Two or throe «t«nineni rim wockly butwwn B^tia and 
Lej^hoTii, in sixor ei;;ht hours, a short and g«n«!ru)ly a oalm 
passa^. A steamer runs weekly from MaiseilW, to c-iich 
of the lurger pirtt) — Bat>tiu, C;dvi, and Ajuucio, returning 
Corty-eight liour* ulUr arrival. 

The ntearoer, which leaves Nice every Wednesday evening 
for UaHtia, rctvimin); on the Saturday evoninf; ful)(iwiRp,i 
rvuderii lliu journey to Cur>ica a very eu«y onw to all wh^.^ 
wint«r on the Kiviera. To the Italian tourist who wiabeaj 
Xa deviate from the beaten route it offers an opportunity 
of soein;; the glorious scenery of Corsica without lost) of 

Every Wednesday afternoon a large and oommodious 
tti-umer for Tunis leaves Mar»ille«, rcaohint; Ajaccio io 
twenty huur«. From Ajuecio to Uastia there i» n <lili)^>nL-o 
daily, and a very i^iod road, which passes over tJio mouii' 
tain chains, and through most bcautiTul Alpine and forest 
scenery. At Bastia the steamer lor t^e^horu UiUes ihe tnivel- 
K-r on to Genoa. Another dili^nce aUo leaves Ajacoio every 
morning for llouif'ucio. Whrti the Sitnlinian railroad, now 
under L-onslruction, is completed, and th«rc is re^^ular sea oom- 
muiuL-ation betivcun Bonifavio and the Sunliniau coast, the 
tnivt'ller lor Rome and Naples may diminish the sea journey 
by moi-e than half, besides Mwing some of the ntoxl iMr^auliful, 
soenory in Europe. Cafrtiari, in the south of Sardinia, where^ 
the milroad terminates, is only a lev hours by sea from 
Civit* Veodiia, from Naples, and from Palermo, in Sicily. 

To some classes of invalids, also, Corsica oU'ers wiiilef j 
rcsoutocs unknown before the j>ubliciition of my Corsicun' 
resfiircliw!. 1 was the first to jioint out, in ItiOJ, that the 
ciceptioually sheltered liluation of Ajnccio, on tlie wvstera 



(>otist, ruiiilcra it a suitable residence for invalids rvqnirinj 
u moifller diii)at« tliaa tliat of the Geuov«e Riviera. 

jVjnocio (population H,OI)U] is unqueslion^tbly one of tlia 
tnoiil iitvfl)- "pot* in Europe. It i« one of the most emilin^ 
liitle Krciioli towus I have seen nnvwliero; not bL-inff 
i-iiinipeil iu by walla, it has spread itnelf out on the north* 
westsidi'ofa noble and picturesque bay, directed due south. 
At a diiiliince of about tnvnty milvs from tlio chorea of tliis 
bay w Renn a hemieirclc of the nuiji.'Ktic granite moantainjii 
from aix to nine tbouMiud fi'et high, Aiime of whici), as we 
have wen, are rapjjcd with snow even in summer. The bay 
itftelf i^ ai- blue and iis beautiful ss that of Naples, allbougb 
on a sniuller Nuule ; and the tuvrn in protvclcd from the north- 
wcBt by n spur desoemlinK to the sea from the tiriucipal ranee. 
The vegetation of Ajaccio aud the nei;;hbourhood indi- 
eal(«ncliniHtu at least as warm as that of CnnneK and Nice, 
perhnpbi I'VL-n a ahade warmer; Ibo Ulive, the <)raiiu;e, the 
piiekly Pear, thrive with great luxuriance, lu the principal 
Ktix-et there is a double row of goodVtzed Oranjie-tn-n 
iilunted out in the soil, the effect of which is charming. 
Tiiey wore hcultby and full of Hower on my firet visit at 
the laitcr end of April, ami embalmed the air. I fear, 
however, that they are in a lair way to be destroyed by an 
asphalt pavement, which has been foolishly plaeed over 
tlieir toobi, for they were not llouri»>liing when 1 la»t t>aw 
tliem. The Lemon tree growR «1ko, and be«ra fruit out oi 
<Un>r!i, but only, as at Nice, iu very sheltered and very 
pniteLteJ spots. It is evident that there are no prevailing 
winds, sudi us are felt on other pait« of tlio coast, for the 
truL-« on the xhonw of the buy, cast, wct>t, and north, and in 
the neigh bourhiiod of the town, grow perfectly atrtight. 
In other coast regions, at Isola Ro^, for iustAnce, the trees 
near the shore are turned north-eaet, indicating Uie pr^ 
valence of south- westerly winds. I have been told by 
nautical men tlial one ol the-features of the bay of Ajaooio 
iM the absence of the strong winds that reifin in the Mcdi* 
ti-rranean durin^j the winter, but the testimony of thosa 
who have spent the winter thi-re proves that violent and 
]uu(r coiitinned winds ol'teu blow from tlie soutli-weat^' 
especijiily iu March. 




There is at Ajacclo a daily land and Ben-brcu/*, wliioh 
appears wilh ibo rc^ulunty or the tides in tiii) Atlantic, 
and muvh iuviliUtvii tlic iiuvignti'jn i>( llie bay. All tlw 
couDtry boalttifulitccaSiaiitl ^iido las from the nci(;litiounii^ 
districU go out to sea at ni;;hL nith tlic ni(;hl bruiMic nliidi 
dcac4-iids fruai iHe mouutAiiu;, and txnac in in Uie morning 
with llko iM^a-bttMaie. 

Tlie princi|iul medical practitioner of Ajaccio, Dr. YorAiiil 
— a n cll-infonned old |>'^ntlcmun of scvrnty-five, now 
dead — and bin tun, who haw Huct-eodud ti> lii« iirsctice, 
assured roe tbal the climate was a boaltky one. Tb« only 
I'lndomic disease Itiey suHered from whs malarious fuvvr in 
thi! Ijitler piirt of tlio Nimmcr and I'tirly untuniD, and lliat 
not in a Mvvre form. lU att«ck» occurred priiiaipally 
when tlie wiod blew from Ui« mouth of two livers that 
empty tfacmsdves into the liay on its eustein ^liorc. Thvy 
told nie that acvero coUl urns unkitown in Ihc winter, and 
that the weatlier wan generally fine and »unny. Tlteii' 
Htnlcment was conlirmc^d by (Jeneral Sebaatiuni, brother of 
the inuKhul, onv of the few surviving companions of Na- 
noleou, and a Corvicau like him. The {^cncnd hud a rcai. 
denoe at AJaccio, and ha<I ajient the winter there for many 
ycunt. He slated that he had tried nearly every famed 
winter clitmiUi in £uropo, but had found none superior ti) 
that of Ajacoio, and luid conwiuenlly ailopted it at i 
winter residence. I found him fnll of life and vigwir, oot- 
wiUxtundint; his advanced a<re, and a very agreeable cnro- 
panion. tie showed me over a Inrf^ well laid-out KBrdi.*n, 
which dirnb* the hillKidu behind his residence, in the 
middle of the principal ttreet. The i^neral haa bad Uie 
good Munse to plaot it principally with the shrubs and 
plants of tlw country, which makts it exceedingly interr^t- 
ing. ^Vith tlie oarv given to them they aruall thriving 
luxuriunlly, and a atratigor in Utcreby enabled lo compare 
eultirut«d with wild oikturc. 

'i'hroufrli the kindness of my friend Dr. Piccioni 1 wm 
intruduoed to several familitw ut AjiUM»n, anil their warm 
und "ordial reception of me and of my coinpauionx, rendered 
itur stay there additionally agreeable. I found everyone 
aware of the mild character of the winter cliiuato of 




Corncn, and anxious that tt should become known td 

Tbvw U ttentitirul drive oii eadi side or the imy, cx< 
teudin^; for somo tnilo*, which iti being improvvd und ex- 
tended. Several Be|)arate villas have been built and 
furnifilR-d iihovv tJie coDimeDcemeDt of this roiid for th« 
iicctiininodiitiou of stmngers, T!ic»c villu« arc large, well 
distriliutetl, and coinfurtuble ; tliey are furnished aa well 
as tliey would be in Parifl or in Nice, and are ((uite adnptvd 
to tile n!c|Hirt'ment8 of a good-eixed fnmily. 'i'\w roDts ars 
■l-OiiO or 5000 friincw, 160/. or iOOi. for llio winter sesBon, 
according to the size. 'Hiere is one, a perfect little palaca, 
built by a lato " rooeiver-(^ncral" for his own use, which 
wuK lu k't when I wdh tliurv. 

With the exeeption of the recently erected viltaa 
striiiigi-re will fiDd as yet but little accommodntion iit the 
town. There arc several holds, neither vei'y elcan nor 
very good, but whore IravcUeni may manage to get on for 
a »liort time. Better liotfl*, however, arc promised, llie 
lIAtel de France is the pleuNuiteat, from its looking out on 
a line Btjuare, or place, near the sea. 

llvtwFeii my lin^t and hiFit vii^itti to Ajaccio, n period of' 
aix yeiiM, I luuiid that t-viileiit impiovemcnt hiid taken 
place in many iwpeets, and 1 do not question but that 
eventually the wunta and re<in> rente nts of northern in- 
valids wdl he Ko provided lor tm to render Ajaceio a safe 
and pluattant winter residence for Ihuae who require a 
nxtister atmosphere than that of the north shore ofth« 
M edi terra m-»n. All islands must be, and art!, miiixter than 

le miiiiiland, and Corvint in no exception to the rule, for 
_ eiy wind that hl'iw» comes over the aca. It in thU 
feature, however, mild moisture, that constitute* tlie pecu- 
luirily of the Corsicun climate, the peculiarity which renders 
it suitable to some forms of (Ui-uac. In Ajaceio, 1 believe, 
we find, to u oert^tin extent, the mildness and moisture of 
Al^ivr* without having to cron the aiittre width of thft 
Mediterranean to reach it. 

'Ilie year before the war. ISflS-B, there were a connidfr 
ahle number of Eii;^li»h and Uerm-ms at Ajan-io, and 
accounts I received were vviv variable, and dilRoull to 

il thft-H 



oiliate. It stiikM in«, liowuvvr, tlmt thera via the general 
fui'liiig of dissuturaclitfii M-ith the ac«oni modal ion and sui>- 
plies, whioti !g usual in a younf; colony, nnd whk'li tjmo 
will modify, as tlic rc-BOuri-M of th« place Bie iiH|>roved. 
It waH so lit Menlone during the early veare of luy loei- 
(li-nce there; complointa a1»ut food and accommo'diition 
wero loud and numerous. I nm aleo uf <>j>iiiion tli»t some 
of tliv diiMAtijtfied meinberH of tliu cominuiiily ought Dcver 
to have goae there at all. They went, on their own re- 
Bponeibility, to a mild, rather moist and reliixinf; dimate, 
when they slioold h.ivc gone to u mild, dry, hraclBg 
c'liiuute, Mioh an that uf the Kivieni or of the east coast of 
bpaiu. Several mcdioa] friends have passed Ute winter 
lio. One, a fcv winters at;o, was ijuite MitisHed, 
ikc in warm priu»c of thi; elimate. Another at 
first tltuugbt and stated (hat he had found tlio pciirl of 
pearls, the real KIdorado, hut lie lins »inoo then repudiated 
Lis prerionsly puhlishivl opinion*. Dr. I^vtra Suiita, one of 
tJie piivale pliv«icbna of thu lat« I'Vi-iK-li Jimperor, was Mtit 
to Ajatxioio January, 18(13, suhseqiiciitlytoth^ piiIiliriitioD 
of my work, to inv<-sti<^te Hciuutiliciilly iti« (-limiite, and 
hu written an account, I'oiinded on u four months' resi- 
dence, altogether favourable. 

Dr. Bierman, an intelligent German phyeiciun, now 
practiaing at San Kemo, who Imd settled at Ajiiwiu before 
the war, and who mini>ti!red »ever!il winteni to the health 
of his oouutrymeu, states that he whs (juite satisDod willi 
bin wintiir sxperiraoe, that Ihe dimato more than answered 
bia exjXiCtatKMia, and that h'u roiintn-nien did very well. 
Germans, a* • rule, are muchmoreeiixilyi'atiiilied u^ re^^iuds 
the comfofte and deicancies of life than the Knjrlitih. Thus, 
thi-y probably oontrivod to be eomfortablo and Hajipy, 
although the Knglish wliindiird of comfort, and the expen* 
diture it entaiU, hud iu>i W-u reached. When the new 
hotel now in contemplation has been erected, which I nm 
told will soon be the ca^e, »tid the expehM-a of liviiitr huvo 
increased in proportion tu the udvantngeti guiiKil, as they 
ulwaysdo, our coitntrymen will probably be more contented. 

The war between Francv and Qi-rmany arretted tli« 
advent of Gcrmau invalidit, who wero bofpnning to adopt 



Ajacc!o tu a winter TiKKlonc'e in vcarly increosiuf; num 
and tliey hiiv« not r«tiinn;(l, ImJcod tliB war proved ft 
q^rvnt chuck ti) tliv l>u(IUiii|r pmsperity of Ajaocio — a check, 
howtvcr, from whith it is rapidly recovering. Many im- 
pTavcmuiits have Wen made within tbe last two or ibree 
years. New hi]»M;ti havo been btiilt, good wat«r bas been 
liruii<;bt to ibe town, and a haudcioine boulevard has boon 
mudnilonff the sea shore. Several nicmbi:rB of the Hngliali 
cominitiiity hjive boiiglit Ijuid in the vii-ttiity of th« town, 
and, on the wbole, un era of ptogrt^ and proiipenty appear* 
to bnve commcnoed. 

In coneliuion, I would advise uo invalid who peruses 
these pages to fix hi* winU-r abode ut Ajaocio without 
placint; tlie above fiivt* before some truKtwurtby phyxieian. 
I would ai«o advise no one to winter there as yet until 
better hot«Is have been eMtiihlishcd, and better fare be 
uUninable, who in really very ill, who re<iuireB ^rcat 
comliirls and very dioice food, or who hoM never tmvullcd 
on thu Continent, and ia totally tinaeouetomed to conli- 
ncbUil habits and diet. Those who do go must etill look 
upon theiiuolvce at pioneers of pro);reB8, helping to open 
out and clear up a piirtijilly -known country for ttie Wnufit 
of those who follow as wtll a» for their own, j\JI siieU 
pioneers run a little ri^k, and in tbat voiy ri«k, gencmlly 
■peaking, lii:* the chief diiirm. 

At Ajuccio there i« a iiuctcue of very good society, both 
Corsican and Freneh. Tlieie are the pn^fet, the judges 
■»d magistrates, the officers of tbe t^arrison, the Icwlintf 
en;;iueiery, and the reitident native familicH. All appeared 
to be niort amicably and cordially di»ipot«d to strangers. 
To crown the whole, there is a very tolerable Italian opera 
company throughout the winter season, and the sulRrcrip- 
tlon for one of tJic best boxes, holding eix, i« only ahoub 
ten jioiind*. 

A great and mysterious charm about this litt 
southern town is its having been the birthplace of Napi 
Icon. It was here that he spent hia childhood and 
hiK cutIv youth, until, at the age of firt^en, he entcrei 
the Military School of itrieune. As I have Htati-d, h 
returned yearly to Ajaccio to pass the vacations in tlMJ 

napoleon's bIBTHPLACX AT AJACCIO. 863 

Ixivom of his ftimily, ntid wut muctl up with nil theif 
JeudH and Corsicati Ivelings unlil fairly launched ia hU 
grofit military career. Then Icieuie cneod lor tlii- great 
mail. III* mind wan ever full «>!' iiitibitiunK und ^ruiidimo 
plana, bin lime and thoughts «ver engroased liy lh«ir 
fulfilment. His quiet little native towo and his Coniean 
niilioiiiilily parsed into th« background, only t<> bo fully 
ri.'iii«nibfri-d when ehuincd to another island — the ocean 
roul; of St. Helena. Hi^ family followed his wonderful 
fortunes — liis brothers to l)ccoiti« kings, his eiifteiv to 
marry princes. 

Our lirst vieit the day after we arrived at Ajaccio was 
tothohou»e of the Napoleon family, in whii^h the hero 
wa^born. It is a good-sizt-d, comlnvtiiblc huiisi.% vitiiuled 
io the very cputre of the tuwn, lo»kiti^ out on a small 
court or gardeu, and so fturrutmded by taller houses that 
there is no view of the sea or mountains from the windowM. 
ItA siie aud position show whut we know to be the caae^ 
that Napoleon's {lureuis muni have- bclong<^ to one of 
the letitling families of Ajuceiu. The house has been 
renovated by the liite emperor, the old family furnituru 
has been aouuiht out and brouglit biiok, and everytl)in>^ has 
bv«n replnecd as much aa )!u»ible in the. same position 
ai> nhen ihc rooms were occupinil by the Bonapartes in 
former duyx. Tliiw evcrj' article of furniture and deeora- 
tion is a souvenir. Tho bed in which Nupoleon was bora 
in iwon in a room on the {p'ound<lluor, as also the room 
and bed he occupied durin^jf vacation vi^itti to Ins homo 
when grown up. Tbo house was shown to ok by an old 
femiilv servant of the liimiiy, who knvw and attended 
Madame Letitia, Napoleun'u motlivr, up to the time of her 

Tliere iaun old and rather handsome church, ealled tli« 
ratbedral, very near the fiimily niannton, which no doubt 
is exuetly in the same stale um when he was daily taken 
to il as a child by Jtlndame Lclitiii. 1 wim at Ajacciti on 
tlio 5th of May, the nnnivcnary of Napoleon's death, and 
attended a mass given to his memory, at whieli all tha 
Dotaliilitii-ii of the place were present. As I sut listening 
to the solemn tlniua of th« organ, I could not help luuoy* 



ing T mw tlie future emperor iw a child, knee1in<; at bis 
1110 til or'H j-iiii;, in tlic wry |iliicc wben; he, no doubt, hiul 
really knrlt hundn-iU of limes. All wait diitnged, ill 
were jrijiie ivho then lived, but the old uliurcb nmained *a 
in rorin«r days. 

Ajnlfio id full of llic memory of NapoleoD. Whilo 
eauntei'tn)> through it« quiet, sunny stroets, ivilli tb« beau- 
til'ii] luiy and mountains g«nen]ly in view, I cuuM not help 
tliiriking thul for ream his ate\n had trodden the tuiina 
gronud, ss a wild, impulsive child, nnd us a rMlleu, 
umbitioiis youth, The contemplntion of the (jrrand natural 
Leauties that surrounded him, and the constant hrooditi'; 
over the liiatory ond minfortuneH ef hi* native couiitrr, no 
doubt contributed to build up the nigged, indomitabUI 
chiiractirr that be afterwards showed. 

The lat« emperor, and wpecblty his cousin Loui* 1 
Napoleon, had titrong Conican aympathiea. The latter 
has an pfitste near Calvi, wfaieb he Iri^queutly viiiita for 
shouting. Under their nuepicee, the town of Ajaecio iai 
be^inniii)* to i>how titat it rvolly is the birthplace of the 
pn»e»t imperial dynasty. A very chaste and beautiful] 
marble ehapel has l>een built aa the maueoteum of several 
member; of the imperial family. A museum nnd picture 
gallery has idxe lici-n erected, and if ii (inc monumciilul, 
DuildiDg. In it I naw, ntrt-ftilly arrunir«d, a larj^ gallery of j 
painting>^ left to Ajaot-'io by Cardinal Ti'sch, which b:id lon^ [ 
been Mowed away in lumber rooms. Some Tew are good,J 
but the greater number are very veeond late. 

Tlie names of the utrcetd and aquaies are essentially] 
Kapulconic, being mostly derived from some member ofl 
the impet-ial fumily. In the murkct-ploce, behind a hand- [ 
eome stone fountain, iK nii allegorical alatue, said to be] 
meant for Napuk-on. One hide oftliifl market-ptnee, which 
looks on iho bay or gulf, is bounded by a solid granite 
quay, that vnsbl^ small vessels to moor clow to land. This 
market-plaee is flanked by tall, well-buiU bouses on one 
fide, and by the town-haU on the other — a very rroix-el^ 
able stniclure. On each bide is a double n>w of ba»d*j 
some plane tren. The view of the blue buy, with 
bemicirelv of grand mountains io the distanoe, '» 



dcBCribaMy beautiful from ttiU point. Thin inagTiifJcont 
bay » protected from all winds but the south-weet, and in 
itii wonti'm or uppvr rugion there w a molo or ji'Uy tvbioh 
fcivea the requisite pri>t«ction even a^ninut this wind. 
Mors impnrtnnt works are in vontcmpLtioD, and Ajacoio 
in t<) W ninile, «rc lon^, ono of ttii; rini.-iit niul muft, Mhvltcred 
ports in Ihe Mediterranean. A jetty in about to be thrown 
out from n rocky point projecting into the \>ny, that will 
protect th« anchorage, now exjKiiwd to a hciivy mwcII from 
the soiith-weet. 

In llie Grande Place, facint; the sea, has been placed a 
line equestrian statue of tliu tirtt Einpemr Napoleon, 8ur> 
rounded by those of the "four kiii|f»," his brolhera. Thu»o 
Ktutuve nere er«ct«(l by a national Eubecriplion, and were 
inuii^iirutL'd by Prince Nupuk'on a few day i after otic of my 
Tisits to Ajoooto (1SC5). 1 muob rej;rett«d not buing ublo 
to remain for the vcnrmony. 

Ajaeoio is the only town of Comica that appeared to me 
thoroughly elij^ble aa a wint«r reeiidcnec. Perha^w t init>ht 
Cx<!Cpt Buxtiu, but I do not think Uaetia is without objec- 
tions. The oliuut« u) «videnlly i-xovptionally warm, for 
the valleys of Capo Coreo in the immediate vicinity of the 
town contain Orun^' and L<-mon trees, the hill sides aru 
covered with lar^ Ulive trees, and Lycs) Imodium grows in 
all moist sitnutioos. But Vastia must be exposed, from ila 
Kitiiation, both to :touth-ca«t and north-enst winda. liven 
the 80uth*west wind blowa witlt great fury at timm during 
the winter, pnssinir over the mountain ridge that neparut^s 
JJuKtia from the tiulfof San Fiorenxo, I5(l» feet high, and 
falling OQ tli« eastern side with such rtolvnco a« to cut olT 
the beads or cereals, to carry off the roofa of houses, and to 
confine the inhabitants of the town to their hounw. Then 
tliere is a small, liddewi port, which is ao elom-<l in that thu 
water becomes nesrlv putrid, and no part of the town in its 
vicinity would be eh-'ible. 

There is, however, a row of new, liandwmc houiie* on 
the principal "Place," facing the eea, which would con- 
stitute a very eligible residituce if aooommodation in them 
could be obtained, which I doubt, aa they are all oouupiixl by 
tlu) Icadinjj Bustia families. The view of the aea from these 



hoiu(>9 18 very bcantiful, n-itli the throe mountain tsUndsi 
riqinija, VAUa, iiml Moiitw Cri»to rinitiij out of the wntcnj 
at n (liKtnnef . Othor hoimcn, however, are bdii? built in 
the ttauie Inoulit}-. There is a emnll Ijiit clesii ana tolerahly 
eomrortHble hot«l — tho Ildto-I <]u I'Riiropo — on tlic Onndo 
Place, which i* witlioiit (|iii-Rtion the best in ilustia. 

Bastia if the roost thriving;, populous, and oommeroial 
town in Coreicii. A conriOvinble amount of whippins yearly 
eutera and leaves ita port, and tliere ta more enterprise and 
activity slinirn by itfl inhabitants than bv those of any other 

fart of the island. Ilii" i* explained l>y it* proximity to 
ta)y, with which Corsica has always been intimately oon> 
nccti-d, and also by the fact that nastin is the port lor an 
^teiiMve ran^ of fertile country, and for the greater pait 
of the eoBtem division of the island. Ajaccio has scarcely 
any eommerco, and is only the natural oiitl<ri of one or two 
of tile valley* comiirised liettveen the sipiirs or western 
buttresses of the central <^ranite ran^. Ua«tia must, therc- 
Con, ever be the prinoipal commercial port of Corsie^, and 
Ajaccio, although the (^uvernmenl capital anil capable of 
being made a mofrniBocnt harbour, will always occupy, 
commercially, agecond-rate position. 

The drive along the road at the foot of the Capo Corso 
mountain, which cxtonda from Bastia nuite round the cape, 
is very lovely. On one side the blue Al>:dit«rrancan, on the 
otlwr the moaiitain, tlto genlle idopes of whicjt arv covered 
vrith Olive trees. Kvery few miles a ravine opens out, and 
in till- upper part of this ravine, luxuriantly forlilo, is alwara 
ten a villui^', enlivening the stdn of tlie mountain with ita 
lurch and its white houitea grouped in piclnresque diaord*T. 
ch of these villi^cs has its marina, or liltio port, on the 
shore. About sis milcii from Bastia, on this road, ia one of 
the mmt interesting linie»>tone stalai^ite caverns in exia- 
t«oc^— that of Brondo. It may \ms nicommcndcd to visitors 
M an agreeable exourvion. 

I'he mountain of Cane Corso and its ravines have a (^rcat 
local Trputation for tlR-ir vrinot. My friends at jSistia 
repviitedly excited my envy by the choioo KpeciTDcns of 
theav Hubnovvn wines that they ollercd me. Of !at« yearn 
but little has been toode, owing to the ravages of the 



oTdinm, whicli the Corsicana nrere Ion;; unable to conqner. 
But new Vtiiw) nrc now bcinjj extennivoly n!aiit«0 tvcry- 
wtierc thrriugli'iut Coreioa, t^i ivjilaoe tho»e (bat bare been 
destroyed by discnse, do that in n few years large qnantitlM 
of good wini! will be again Dtudu, botli in the Cape Corso 
region and in otbers. 

in the southern regions of Corsica th« oidium is still 
unlcnown, and perhapx the b««t wine of ConicA in Hill pro- 
duced there in considerable quantity, the Vin de 'I'allano. 
This winv is tnudc in the vicinity of Sartenet the best by 
M. Qiacomoni, nt St*. Ijueia di Tsllaiio, and ii« rvally 
BooJ. It rewmhli's a full-bodied Burs^Hndy, although it 
has a peculiar rich flavour of it>i own, has a (;rcat reputation 
in Conticn, and was much drunk by the fintt Napoleon and 
by hi^ family. 

On th« north-enstern extremity of Cope Corso a valley 
openn out, rather wider and more fi-rtilc than those pre- 
viously passed. Throuj^li this valley a road baa recently 
been carried over the mountains, at an elevation of itUDU feet, 
whioh, doKccndini^ on the wextern «idc of the Cape, fioon 
reachea the viliiige of I'ino, the native place of my friend 
M. Piceioni. Wc stiirt4-d from Bastia one forenoon, aud by 
dinnui'-ttme reaclx^d his unceslnl domain, an old tquarv 
fortilii-d castle. In this cattle hia progenitors have lived 
for ubove 100 y4!nrs. Tiie next day wnii devoted to wiinder- 
in[; about the ]iictiirii»|ue old villui^ perched a tlinusand 
feet above the sea, which lay smiling at our feet in one of 
its placid mooda, merely friiiKina; the rocks, the pi-c.-ipitous 
covv», inlet* and Ijays with a thin marj^in of while Uwm. 
Wherever we went 1 saw evidence of an enliK^hlened 
tmpiilw, jfivcn by n master mind — evidence that the 
enthuKiaftic and patriotic feelingH of my friend were n 
reality, that an olt-rrpeated iiuotation of his from 

" Ad ognt eaoTt bea nalo quanto la palria h (sra," 

was with him n true hi-artfelt Montimmt, Roads had been 
made, houwes er^-eied, the mountain side covered with new 
plantations; in n won), there was pro;;re«s on every side. 
One of the visit* I madic with my friend una ouc Uial 1 

868 ooBSiCA. 

eWI aM ou*ily for}^!. It wns to the Romfln Catholic prr 
who, Haiil M. Piccioni, tviw ii tnii; Chriittiuit, a gmtt frieoi 
and ally ol faia id alt good works, and in all att^mpt^ 
improve th« int«ll«ctuttl, tnorfti, and eociul eUitc of t 
eurrotinding villagen. 

We found tbe prieal a tall, int«IHt{«nt, frwh-lookino^ 
Rimtkmanly mnn of aboat forty, wJUi a kindt KOo<^'»Bturaa, 
Kimpti- cxprvMion of coiintoiiitnoc, Hv wuh in the gardvn 
of A little sipiare otoue houite that had been recently ercoted 
for him in u most picturesque sittiatioD. I never anw n tnon 
more pk-uM-d with a now residence. He allowed iih lii« 
vef^tiiltlcH and his tlow«rB, and all the eimple, naked rooms 
of his prcabytvry, which h« clearly thought* palace. We 
bad to Mit down oppooitc vooli window to admire the view, 
tkeefTecta ofrock, mountain, »ea,aud clouds, toall ofwhict 
he very particulurly drew our attention. Then wo were 
invit«d topartakv ofsomi- r<.'fn3>hmi;nt, uiidhad to drink wine 
hebadmadefronihisown vintage and to eat bread Riadefrom 
corn crown on tbe iDonntuin aide. Wo talked firstly abonti 
the soIiooIk, and tha sick poor, rCKpecting whom my friend 
inquired. By deffrcestlie conversation glided on to Seueoa't; 
Tower, which is |uet above the vilUge of I'ino, and from that 
into old claimoal timv«. I aoon fonnd th^t hv wii» ii Kound 
clii^aie, had read and re-read all tbe Latin poet« and hiicto- 
mns, and was indeed much more familiar with claesioal 
literature tbsn we wvrc!. He had been cduontcd in a i^emi- 
narv in the island, had never beea out »f it, and would 
probably live and die it poor rillaj^e prioHt, in an out-of-tb«- 
vmy Itainlet at the extri.-niity of Cape Conto, far from the 
world and its vanities. But be waa liappy, quite happy, he 
Mid, with his modcct dutiui, bi« library, bis old classical 
frienda, hb musinjia on human nature, the Kamu from agt 
to a^, and his little giurden and glebe. I was sorry to leave 
biinat last.* M. Pioeioni told me that there were very many 
such as he tbn>u|;hout tbe length and breadth of Corxiei 
ffood and Inic men, intellectual as well as pious, living 
thuit in the pTv«cnt and the piut, and humbly doing their 
duty. I myself have met othera in Corsica, iu very wut-of- 
tlic-u-ay places, of the same type, truly good men — men to 
be re^iNXitvd— for when (aithl'ul and true, do not such men 





Teallj' Bacriflco all curtlily niToctioM und ambitions to tlidr 
miniKlry ? 

Tlic solitnry tower to wliicli tradition Rives thu iinmo of 
Seneca's 'I'oH-er is tirnrly at llic Kiinimit of Hit' iiioitntnin 
kIkivo Pino. Tliix Roman |)hiloHi>]iliL'r, miliHcqnotitly tlie 
niii^U-r of the inlbmous Nero, wns exilei] to Corstcji by 
CtiiM^iiiB, «ih1 passed ci<>)it yenra in tho i«1iind. S«nccB, 
»ltlioii;;li a «1/>iu, did not War liU |iiinii>))m(.<i)t with TurtU 
tiid'>. H<! bua lell records of his §oj(Jiiru in Corsica in the 
Blia{)e oranuthem.ts !ij>-aitigt the " ivild uTid biirhnroiis Iiind" 
t<> wliiL-h )iii was cxik-d, nnd of fuwiitni; ifii|>(>hiriitioriH to hix 
imjiciial miiNtvr to rratorL' liim to fiivour. Hi< Mvmx to 
hiive had little power of appreeiating the siilen-lid soenery 
and the heantifiil climiite in which he pusped thoM.> yeani of 
exile. lliH thou)fht« were ever on ttx- lilitn<ii«hiiien(K of 
impi'riitl Home, to which he eventually returned, to )>ecome 
tho master of Nero. There the etoio hecanw a coitit 
favourite, and ainiii(H.-d n Inr^L- I'urtnnu in a few yL*nrs, 
Then he hiid not only to Hiinvndcr tiix ni'ivly-iifijiiirtrd 
riches, hat life, to his ti;,'er ptipil. Hu had lft.t<?r hiive 
reninini-d an exile even in the [on«ly Pino towur, in ahhorrul 

Thrre in nt BnRtio — an important fuct for trnvclletu— o 
thoi-uughly well-informed nnd esperienoed iiie<liuil priic- 
titiKiii'r, Vt. Minilmli, the 6ur<'eon of the civil hospital. 
H» in 11 RkilAd operator, nnd oeeiipie« a Ii-adiii;; povitiou its 
such in ('orsioa. The ull tnit iinil'onii ^nieuei'M Lhiit, iieeord- 
ing; to my Burgical iulurmuntd, uttendH siirfpiw) pnictieu nt 
BHKtiii und clxewhorc, tf|)cuk8 greatly for the ^enerul healthi* 
Dim of lh« climiit«, as well atf for their atiill. 

Dr. Munfredi was educated in Parif, and han now lH>en 
practising as an operatinjf eurf^o in Corsica lor mere 
Ihiiri thirty yeiirs. The ditfereiiee hel.ween snr^jery in PuriB 
and Mirirery in Conica wim, he told nie, pirfixitly niiirr.]- 
lous. Nearly all aur^ieul wounds heal iit onoe by lir»t 
intention, and pui-'ilent al>«>q>tiun is all bitt unknown. 
He luLi Imd many euxie* of iitlmtomy, nnd bus l>een bik'lv«s- 
ful in all. Indeed, ho said he hud mich nelianeu on our^ea) 
cases doin^ wull, that there vae no operation in ourgvr/ 
that hv )>iioiilil hueitale to attt-nipl. On heiiriog thin fctat<>* 

a 11 



ment, T ooncltitlctl tliat it ia nil but wortli while to j;o : 
Corsica eX|>reMly In be npcruU'd on, 

of <tirc nwd. 


Ai»iit thirty mike south or Hualia, in the miditt or the 
Caiitii;Ci>i('<:i<>> or Clicwtiiut country, in tlio centre ol'a hif{b> 
land r(>t>i«ii roriii(!<l l>j- Kpurx of tlio linicctmia chnin of 
mountniiis, is a niiiieral sjiriitt; called Orez/ii, the vratcrx of 
which nrn rvnowiied all over Europe. It is » etron^ 
chnlvbiMtv, loiidcil with cnrl>0Dic ncid. This sprin;; is of 
iiieslimahle riilue in a country like Corsic-jt, in whiclitbo 
principal <lisi>af<e the iiihabitaota have to contend willi is 
"niiilnviii fever," or inicimitt*nt fever, in its mor« npsra- 
vatcil funiiw. The ii]>riwy ib huLicd to the Viehy ('oinpitny, 
who have lecontly btiilt an hotel and a rejftiliir bulb eeta- 
bliichment. A lew hundred fbct above the principii! liprin^ 
in another, wliicU ooinbincK iron and ttulphur, iind ta VW 
vahmlile in chronic cutaneous dineaBeft. 

Dr. Mnnfrodi kindly took mc with him to visit thi 
sprinffs and this part of the inland, uttd our cM'ursioa 
provcfl most inl<r<'Ktinn. The villafie of Omxxa, or the 
grmtL-r part of it, t» Uil- liuctor'x natrimoniul ealate, and he 
posvessce there a manorial forlifiea house, which t inhabited 
during our slay, and which I examined with much int«r«st. 
Tlif outvr walls are uf great ihicknnw, wmpoMd of maMivfl 
HlurKH simjdy superposed, and th«y bear the trace of the 
strife of jiast days, bullet msrks and smoke. Purine the 
liundrols of yujir* that it ha« iMvn inhabited by the 
fttioi-stora of Dr. Manfrtfii, it liaa many times been attacked 
and besicirod. and repeated bnt v.iin atti?mpte have been 
nuidi- to licKlroy it by fira The villujre ii* filuiitcd iOUO feet 
ttlHive the sea, and .5110 above the mineral tipring. From 
the t«rraoe Iwlore Vi. Manfredi's bouse, I counted twenty 
vilU^s poruhfd on the summit of iw many hills, all in 
eituations «iipable of being defended, 

OrexKB is one of the regions that was never oonqucred 
by CorHiiVs foraign foes. Surrounded by mountains ia 
evL-ry direction, tlic sides of which arc covcn-d with roag- 
nifiovnt and very productive Cheatnut treen, it hu always 
mnint«tne<l » nuineroua warlike, patriotic, freedom -lovin}^, 
and very idle population, deli^jhtin); in the noblo art of 
war. lb is a part ul' the Terra del OumuDc uf the Conican 




hiHtflriane. It was bv ttie sons of this dintrict, principally-. 
Hint tltu lust liiittku) fur tVeedorn were fuitglit xgaiiitit tlie 
GrniiLW*, iimi latterly, a^^aiiiet their atlicf, the French. 

The priest, or cure, iim) llic mmyor of llic vill«}jc dined 
with Ufi. 1 wiM cliiirmod by their Kimitlo cordiul manner, 
nod HiirpriKi'd by iheir knoivledge of tne political hiclory 
of Eurctjie, and by tlio great intcrLift tliey took in every- 
thin(c Lhut wns English. Thi«, I iound from my host, wu 
cx]>Iaiiiv(l by tbu iiKiidi-nta that occuir^d at the olow of the 
lant wiitury. As I Imve already fitnted, during ttie last 
stmit^le of the Conicui'*, undtrr their glmioue cbic^l^ain 
Paoli, from 17M to 1706, tliey had the warm nytnpiitliy 
ind piirtial utistaiiGe uf Jin^laod. Hence, in thiit region, 
the last to euccumb to French rule, then considered a 
fareiifO tymnny, there xlill lingi^rw a (^teful remcmhranne 
of Kngbind, and of the Nupiiort she ^ve them in their 
extremily, althou<;h that support was Ecanty and in- 
effietent. Kni^bnd had then uwny focfl to contend with, 
and other dutieH ; ko tliut, althuuc;h the nation onthusias- 
tically ri-npondcd lu the call of the beroto Comicunp, but 
Httle active aid could bo j^ivcn. Several memborti of my 
lioct's family long remained in the Kiigli»b Eerviee, in the 
Cwreican Rnn^ra, after the annexation of their country to 
France had taken place. 

The mineral Rpriu'; iksuos in ^reat abundance from a 
oiroular well in the ix-ntm of an open building on a smalt 
mountain terrace, plunti-d with Itccm Ut a promenade. It 
smrklcM like champagne on reaching tlie sarlaoc, and is 
uieasant to the ttwto. A number of men and wonun were 
bottling it, and pueking the Iwttleti in cases for exportation 
to the Continent, where there in a large mIc. This chaly- 
beate, Ur. Manfredi told me, combined with thc^ pure 
moiinlain air, is a piTl'cct pnuacen for the aniemic eoridi- 
tion which necompani^!' and follow* neverw attJicks nl in- 
termitlenl fever. Tbu», m^id he, Frovidenue Iiiim pl.iecd 
the antidote near the disease. It is also most valuable in 
caf-es of chlorosis, or debility from whatever cnuse. 

Many of the upper claitMOi from RuHtiit and the north- 
east of Coroioa pass the hot summer months herxt; partly 
to tiike the waters of Oresza on health grounds, and pnrtly 


tft pocnpc tlio "Tcot fiOJit of the Bhore nsjiion. They le 
tUeni)telv«s, in a pnnii'.Jve fimhiuii, at the liomcK of tlie 
wciihl.ifr peosants in tlie mimerona mouiilnin villajr^s. At 
iiti vli'Viition oCiimO fti.-t ibu ni^lite ate Rliraye cool, and 
Ihf tiiij'*, iilllionijli wiirm, tiri; «iil t>i piw* fiU'a»nntljf iiniltr 
the rool nhadi! ot" Hip (^he^timt trei'.-i. T<> tln'St' pf our. 
conn trv men who \vi§h to 8pond the summer in Itnly, 
think tlio moiinUiu rvlri-nl orOrozxn mi^fhl oiriTT it vaIu> 
■Kk- ry«i)iit«ir, ulthoiigh I conitiilci- the ttnmraer h«ut vlill 
grwit for oonsiimpltve or detiilitatoil {Kttietite. 

In ihwe inuimtaiii vil)ti;;ve thi.*y noiilil find simple but 
eonifni Uil>lc iiL'i-ominixiiilion. 1 rnvM-lf viiii(<!<l m^vcrnl af 
the hiiiisifl wlierc " locl;;iiiitB" are let in tlie emnnx-r, 
niid» Eiirprieetl tv llnl how nuit :intl clean nnd comr' 
furtiibic llii-y wcro. Tin- monlhn of Mny luiil Jinii^ >iii)*l)t, 
ut U'luit, be profitably spent at tb« Onxxn ttprin^ii bjL 
those who wUti to combine mounlain sir with » course of 
nil uly Ill-ate wntt'n boforv ruturnin^ to tin- mirth. St.-veral 
ol' my frienilH »n<l pntieiito hiivc il»ne no, nnd havo been 
dc!i^lit4ril witl] llii-Ir "niotilh in tlin ni(>iintain!>," t'/itli (lie 
heatity of the siTnerv, witli the coidial siiiiplidly of tliQ 
mi<iiniuiiieere, and witb the rcsulu gl' the mineral (rater. 

Awaking early tliu morning nflor my arrival at DrJ 
Miinrredi')' hoKpiluMo mountain liome, and loukin^ oiitj ] 
Mawr a erowd ol* peasant men and tromen, dre»f«d in tUeif 
Sunday best, pi'iiimbnhil inj* l]w Ivrnw btinrath the m indow. 
On impiiriii); of a nieinbfi' of my lust's funiily the mi-aniiif* 
oftliu aBwmhliKv-, I wa« told that they were peaaanU who 
had heard of tlie doi-tor'!" iirrivu), anil were come t*> eonsultr J 
him t When he eame in for breakfast, I found that Im 
hud I^H-n hiisy from »ix o'clock ministering to their wuntv; 
" :i few words ol advice or eonwilatimi," he said, " vcm all 
th<'y n-qiiired. Although anxioiiH und deli^iititi'd to be of 
use, the extreme cnlidi-nce ol" lii^ lelliiw Limntrymei) wiie," 
hi- i-iiid, "a Had hardniiip. As enon »» hie arrival at Orezxa 
hivaniv knotrn, thry always llocki-d in from the sur- 
r<'Utidiii|; villa;;<-K in kucIi uiimheri' ok ponitivt-ly to bv»io^ 
tltv hotiBo, nnd Ui drive him btck to Itoftla in d«!t{inir.'"' 
'Xh« key, however, to this JViendly ]>crseculiun, was evi- 




d«Dt1j' the k'md tOiitanthropio opirit and tlie great locjj 
nptitation ol'Ur. Slunfrcdi. 

As we returned Immo wc wcw n^peatedly stopped by 
" |MtK-iits" wiiiliii'^ IW (H on the raadaide,«n«nellcd with 
ptirplu Cvelanit'ii and white AspliodtO. They h«d hfiii'd 
tliat the docUr lind Uwn seiit on his nny to Or<-Kvi:i, iiiid 
were waiting lii» rvtuni. One cum; I w«ll recoilmrt. A 
pour, tliiu, pule-fai'ei) young man was ailtint; on a vhair, 
at tho roadside, with several n^lativDs nrouiid him ; KifjiitS' 
wore inadv to lie to stop, and thv ca<c wiw fortliwilh JDVtnt- 
tigalcd. Th« patJRiit held up u> »iir nutinc a knue sutolleu 
to three or lour times its natural sise, and bc:iriii|> Ihi: 
evidence of woful duor^aniution in tlw joint. Dr. Aliin- 
fmli sliouk his hiMd, and said to him, " My poor IVivinl, 
all trviitinvnt would W iinuvitilin<;; Ut #nvc your liCe the 
limb must come otF. ('nme to my >ioi>|>iUil, and yoii fihall 
have a bed." Tlie poor lullim's uhitv lipti ifHivt-rcd, :iild 
he merely iioawvrcd, " I will wme." Wc tliuii uxcmdi'd 
our tight i-nrriji^c, and WFl him fillini; on htx chutr in 
iho road, and surrounded by hU &vm[Mtl)izi))t; nflalivea. 
I h<-iinl liititr that hu did untor the hoi>|>il»l, had hie h-jf 
amputuU'd, niid in now a hi-althy young man, althim^h n 
orippk'. Throuj^iout thin journey I fell thut my Irivtid'M 
poeilion and mission in remote Corsica wub a vt^ry <;lorioiiii 
one— ono that bore with it it« own reward, and mudir up fur 
many «^tJl•^ unxiutiiTK and hvartaeltiM that are insepiarablt) 
from our anluoti^ vart-er. 

We stopped to breakfaiit at a roadHidtt iun, where we 
w«r« very cordially rcwivvd, more as fnende tliati an p«y- 
iug gucdt*. HiTc wc had more pati«nt« to sue, Iwth birlore 
and after our retiust. Ah \tc wure fitting down, a thin,' 
wild-looking, darK-comptexioned man, of ubout thirty-live, 
came in, and was introduced to mo us a brother |>raoti- 
tioncr. I ulWwiirda learnt that hv whh a nifmber of mime 
Itidian medical ooUnse, and that he pracli^-d in the nei;rh> 
b(mriii[' vdlaji^. lli^ ooat waa old and tbreadbjri*, his 
nhirt had not been etian^^ fur many daVK, and his hands 
spoke not of daily abhitioun ; and yi-i Ibure wan nomeUtiriff 
in him that bcepoke a redued, cultivated, intcUecliinl 



Whilst Dr. Manfredi was aeeine his patienU, my now 
■equaiDtance itnd I mt down on a log on thi; rotulvide, and 
disuouned of many things. I fiiuni] hi* mrdicul ideas 
often wild and visionary in theory, l>ut practiciill^ be 
appeared to huve gaint^d considerablu expeneiico of dtM-aor. 
Tlion ho rvvcalwl hiniicflf to me att a piict, fnitili^rall^ 
fond or Cunic'ii, hi* native country, and Tull of ratriotio 
and poetio fancies about \i» mountains, its valloys, its 
climate, and the hi^jh land ere, his countrymen. Jlulf au 
hour piui»ed rapidly, and 1 mis sorry to take IcAVe of thd 
wild, poetio, Conicun villii^ doctor. 

1 have often thought of him eiuce, so full of mental. 
TciinL-m<;nt, of chifsical and poetical L'oiici.'iU>, uud y«t 
K|i(-iidiu^ hill duyn and nights for a bare miiintenanec \a 
miiiisti^riiig to the pour ignorant peawints around him. 
I have seen some charminir Uttle ptjems written by him, 
fall of et-ntitncnt and puthos. IVrhiips, bowcTer, he i« 
happier (urroundrd by Inv inaj«»tiv ««euery of his native 
country, u hii'h lie can eo well app^c^>ia<4^, and in pogseeeioo 
of the iilK-ction and cotiBdcnt-e ot hi» simple pal)cnl«, than 
many a jj^reat city duelur in other countneB. 

On our mule to and fr<ini Daetin, wi; paascd along th' 
salt-water pond of Itigiiglia, thmtigli one of the mosi 
malariouii region*. At Ihjlliniv, thu latter end of April 
there was uo malaria whatever. The countrj' was covema 
with i^raES and green eropF; it looked, indei^d, ao emiliitK 
and pretty, m> much like flat healthy meadow land in 
En^jland, that it waa really dilllouH to lelivve that this 
verv ri>gion conld bo one of the ptwtilontiiil »p»ts from 
whidi every one llii'K in iintiimn. .\ud yet aueh is th 
caif, even a [lasiin^ traveller might all but haw gnv 
that the country nas insalubrious, from the couplei 
absence of furms and vilhif^'Xv 

On the mountiiii »i«le, however, to the west, away fro; 
tJie vliure, were uunioroiia vilhiges, all at an eh-vati 
of one thoiitand or fiil«t.-n hundred fei-t abovi: t!ie sea- 
leveL Thev were thus invariably built, 1 waa told, 
R-cure the inhabitauU (tvm mnlnrta. The owners of tin 
alluvial shoie-plniua who retiide in them, descend in Un 
mornin^f to cultivate the soil, and then return at night. 






The principal a<;riciilt,iiral oporutions on the ciut«m 
coast, from It.istin to BoiiitiiDio, an carried (in by an umi* 
gnitiun wf Liicchese I'rom the Continent. They arrive io 
November, till the itoil during tho winLur month*, whvn 
mshiria is ilormunt, nnil rulurii t') thirtr own muuntiiin* in 
April. Tiwy TCiiuh tlittir nutive villay;ei with a i'ew pounds 
in their pocket, the reault of the winter's InUoiir, but iiUo 
olU'n with the seeds of fHUd di)«i.-aei'. The crops iirv r4>Ji{ii;(l 
in June, and thun tho maUrioux pluiiiti are deiic:rl«d, lult la 
nature, until tlie oolij weather of autumn hus rendered 
them suf'L-, or at least partly so. Tiic CorsiiMU siimmvr 
aun in to fntive, that whurrver water *t«^naUf, even when 
deep in theauit and not peroeptihle to the eye, it appeura 
to produce malaria. The cbap)^ from intense heat m tho 
day to dump coolness in the nigfhtin these (li« trie [« is t^tn* 
■taiitly aUendcd with the generation «f fever. 

More to the south ttiere are plains uueh as those of 
Aleria, a Konian colony and tuwn in Ibrmur days, witich 
are even mure deadly than Unit of Bi!;ii|:;liu. 

Allbou)i;li CurU: ia io the middle uf tho mountMin«, 
fifteen liiiiidred k-et aliove the level of the sea, und merely 
traverKcd by a hrawlm^ mounbun tornnl, 1 I'uund that 
in;iluria fever wan rife there. Dr. Teile''tilii, the h'-adin^ 
medical proutitioner at Curte, told nie lliitt he th(m);ht the 
fever wtis cuuelnotly developed at Corte and in Con>ie4 
^nernlly, in xummur and autumn, by a mere dull, i]nitft 
independently of any malariuu* inlhwuee. Bvery year hu 
was called to attend very nevere ctueu, l>niu}(bt <mi by 
«liilU Gsjiorieneed from merely sitting out iu the cventnjf 
under the shade of a ruiv of )>tan« tTUuo, in the centre of 
the town or elsewhere, awn;' iVoiii all water. 1 found the 
Hnmu opinion prevalent amont; the medical men both of 
Uastin and Ajaecio. 

The expL-ricnee of the Conican ni»dicul practitioners 
thus appeant to ecirroh'ifato tb<: viewn entertained by a much 
valued friend, the late Dr. Itobert Dundaa, und brou<{ lit before 
the proftiMtion in hie intvrestio;; work, entitled " SkeUlies 
of lirazil"(1852). Dr. Duudiu provot to deinonntrdlion, 
by numerous fuctA derived fi'oin his lengthened e!C|wrie»c« 
of intermittent fever in the Bi-aziU and in other tropical 

376 cossicA. 

cliinat(>3, that tbe purut nnd most n-Iio1c«oinc ecn-bKexa 
will ulU'ii give rise to sevure iiitrrmitU'nt fcwri^, wltcn I 
tlio>;u exposed tn it are dtbilitateil by lieal, by jutvioaa 
illtictf, vr liy liodily and meiitnl exIiniiHtioii, or are in ■ 
iiUit« of nciTiiirulioH I'ruui Ki-vi-rc exGi'ti'>n. At Biihia tki 
most mmriotu hotiHcii urn not tliuiic Unit ore cs]>Mtfd tO~ 
wiuils c(imiii|{ from the neiirhbouriitf; inar9li«», but *.hoM« 
tlint arothcbesteituutedaccurdiniito Knt^lish id^jiB, lltut«ra, 
(■^(p'mel, H'illiout proti.-cliiiti, to n pure, but iinii*t «<-ii-brL-ux«,. ' 
{^hill uould ))(> tliv vaufii of fuver uoconlitij; t''> tliU view. 

Anain, Dr. it«iinie, in an interesting work, t>ntiileii "'l'h« 
Briti>U Arms in K^iitli China and Jiipan," says "that 
^oldicrK raiding in tnnliirimi* locidit ii.-K and in low situs- 
lioii!>, fldcii did not appear to HiilR-r, but wbttn removed to 
tbo la-ifrhts, and freely exposed to the breeze, they were 
ntntek down with li-voro." Thi'sc nnd similxr caMs 
oc-i'iirrin^ npiin and iij^iin, lv«l Dr. Kcnnie U) oinL-lude 
that the low Mtualionn pruduccd a dfbililalini; (tlh^ct and A 
predi^poKitioH to fuver wliicih attacked the wt-ukened uifiii 
dit*ctly tliey were exposed to cnrrenls of air. Thus n-hat 
wonid hare boen found invi;^ratiD^ to ptreou" in hv.alth 
i'oidd not bu endured by ttieiie men owiii|; to Uieir ucakened 
'it«<o, from the intenKu heat of Miimuier. 

Most of the nialariotis rc}[iona in CoFHica arc on or 
near the sca-shoro, and as there is in eumnier a very 
du'iiled fM-brecu during the day, itH uliillin^ inlhioii 
niny bo au important cuiihc of fever ; the predi§poiin^ cMno' 
bein'^ previoui^ exposure to intense heat. 

The Comiisn mediud pnictitioiient, ulthou<;h thu* od- 
mittinpr thai a ehill will produce aguo in their eliiiuit«, 
apart from the inlluernoo of marsh air, give the Intler fall 
wei;;lit «6 a caiue of fever. It would be dillteult to do 
oth(-rivi»t in a ci'Unlry like Cortiica, for the fever ia the 
mo(<t severe and the most deadly where the marshes are the 
mont oxti-mive, as on tlie ca^^lern e^a^t ; whereas il alt bnt 
dtsiipiiears wherever lull and etiioient tlniinagc in carried 
ont. Several rvponi wmv {luintcd out lu me, hiic:1i as Saa 
FiorcHKO anil Calvi, formerly decimated by ferer, and now 
eomparalively healthy, through the drainage of ueighbuiir' 
ing marshes. 




In OUT conntri' a chill in Buinm«r doet not produce 
aiETue, but bruiiuliitis, pli-urisy, r lieu mat ism, or diarrlia'a, 
liiit. tlien tiic liiimuii (xuiiomy hnK not bvrn pn-viuiisly 
ex)»<ini;d to iiitvuMo tropical huat. Still, otir iniirNliy, uii- 
druiued districts, euch as tli«! feiia of Liuooliishiro, are 
mnlarious, lil>o the mnrelics of CokIcji, iniermittfut IV-vor 
appvttrin<; in iiittiiinu, Bp|iiii%titly without previoiu tropivul 
huitt or cxiHWurc t^ rcvo^isable dtillH. 

Corlo is historically uiterwtinj; lor, not Iwing exposed 
ti) uttiurU, lik« tlif Khorv towns in olduii time*, it bruiLme 
the putTiotic capilal of ('umiiiu; it iijipcaird to me, huw- 
ovcr, one of the least piftures(|ue towne tliat I saw. Tlia 
prinvipul si);hl is an old hi»itoncnl v&g%\« n-orth vivitiTi};, 
Oh uiic of my vlfiU to thix uiullo it wa* tcnutit^-d by 
ibur litindred Arab priaoriers, tJiWeii in war in Algeriii, 
by the tVench, sod tlicrein conliocil. It was ead to see 
tlii»c i-hildrvn of the d«M;it with ihfiv liuroc- black r\im 
and swarthy coniplvxionK, urapjiL'd u|j in their bournoiidi 
or mantles, walkinj; or Ijiiitf liatltssly about tliu uourt- 
yardo, drwiming no doiilit of liU'rty, of thv KiinUirnt tnud 
•4' ihuir futhi-n. Many wcro tvaiiiiii; over tho ]'anij>iirtii, 
looking st«adraHtly at the; distant mouiitaiiiB, proWbly in 
iina^iniition scidin^i; their faAtncBwe iu frL-cdom. Some 
fwlloH-fd our movenieiiis wistfully with the «y«, whcn'Vcr 
we went, no doubt envying our i><>wer of ifgnnn. U mude 
my heart acho t^ look at tbeni, and 1 waa ;,'lud to leave the 
cactJo. IViHiULTs in wild Ova Corsieu ei'L-nnud un ana> 
chniniiim, it «tid blot ><n the hnd. The pcnr Arjl» had to 
remain eooped up in thiH mounUtin vnittle one long dreiu-y 
your iniiii!, and (hen thvv were liberated, on the occasioD of 
thi! Krencli Km|>eror'e vn^it to Al;;criu. 

In tho nt'ii^bbourhood of Corl«, at Poitto Lccoia, are 
some u>|iper mines. The projirieloni told me t)>ut the 
mines wore getting into ;>ood workint; ordt-r, and wuuld 
certainly prove a vahinbKt Kp<:'<-nlat ion. ludi^'d, Comicii 
ollei'n a wide liuld near homo tu the spevulutivo; its mints, 
its marble quarries, its foreittB, and its vinevftrds are, no 
diiitbt, capnblv of bein^; worked with advantii^fe. 

Iwtla Itonita, or Ilu ituuKse, is a small modern town, 
founded by Paoli in the laltvr purl of last century, wilb a 



pocid port, null wwkly fixmm commnnicnlion wUli >far- 
seitles. Ttio couHt itm) noiiiitry are |iiolur«t>({ti«, but tlioru 
is no QccooirooilAtion for sininjrera, except the litllu inn.: 
Moi^fvor, the soiilh-wwiterly witKis must be trying, if wo^ 
inay ju<lgo by thv iiiclinrd tninlcK of the trtj(!ii on the shore. 
The I>ean8 and rye were rijie on tiio 25tli of April, nnd tlio 
planiM) were in lull leaf. There is on« himdsuiiie modem 
lioiue, likt* n qi>ii(Iruii(;ul»r cii*tlc of tlio olilmi time, btflonj^- 
in}" to M. PiiTioiii, the brother of my fiieod at liuHliii, 
from whom, too, 1 received ifreat att«ntion> 

Cttlvi is nn old Buit|>oi't, further bouth, for centurieti ooflO-1 
pied by th« {ienovM^ to whom it over remained faithful; 
ite motto, "SeD^per I'SdeliB," may be still seen on th« gwttf. 
It o(x'iipic» a hi);h promontory, which fomi> one Mtdei of 
very line and tciU-mbly vafv bay. The upper part of Unl 
town is a niius of niins, ami Iws been so ever since it ««•>' 
boinbiirdcd in llOi by Neleuti, who there )o»t an eye. It 
in quil« ein;;ulnr to walk ttirout^h the strMs among tha, 
fullinf^ walls of hoiiM-e, sotne merely shattered, nonie partlrt 
burnt, aa if by n bomUinlment of yent^trday only. Buloir' 
tliese sbell-and-cunhoii devualjited houses are lho«e OC«u< 
pied by th« modem town. 

Aerotw the iimull b;iy is a scfnieireiilar plain, a fevr miL 
only in depth, and bounded by u semicircle of ^lorio 
Bnow-caplH-d ^rsnit« mountains. The viciv Irom the ram-' 
parta of Cidvi is |>crffeLly mii^nifiottut>. Fr<im the aides of 
tfaeM mountaiiiM run vevitral lurrents or rivers, which have, 
us luual, converted the alluvial plain inlo a fever-bn-cdingi 
district; ticiieu the extreme niihrnlthinox of Calvi ia 
Uie past. The dmimijrc and eulliv;ili»n of aorne of tlicao 
iTtnishea have niiieh improved its sanitury c^mdition. Tho 
pluin is ix>vered with the ever*present maqiii*, Myrtle, 
Cystus, llenth, Arbutus, and LcntiseuM, and looks oa iun 
cent as p»«ibtv. 1\) render it ix-jdly **>, the torrents would 
have to bo vmbanke<l, and the itoil drained and vtdtivat 
Wlwrover (his i» done uiaUria all but dtsap)iettn>, even il 
Coniew. M. Piccioui, of leola Itosm, lius purchuMid a oon- 
liidi-nililc triiet of IhiH land, and in elrarini;, diiiinin^, una 
VollivatinK 'tiaB a h'lwiin tohia fellow-oiintrynii-iiiiK-'aU 
The huid thus brou^lil into cullivutioii is turuiii|j out in 




proiliictir?, nnd UiU phiUnthropic lesson will eventually 
prove 11 profititlilL* in vest men t. 

One of the objects oF my visit to CorsicA, as eleewlivro 
Btate<l, was to find ii perlectly v>iol summer station for thu 
Kii^HkIi c»nMiai]ilivc inviiliilii \vli» wisth to pnss the suintner 
aUriiiid. 1 t'outiil Htatioiis mich aa Urezui, aud the batlis of 
Gua(i;iio, near Aj^K'cio, wbicli would do very wul) fur 
healthy persons, unxious to tvciipf Irom the cxlremL' beat 
of soiilhiirn Kuropc during; the ttiiminer mouths. But 
these localities are not siiflieiently hi;*b and cool to Itc 
G^MSen as summer retre^its l>y invalids. The Ulti-r, ua 
proviotmly exphiined, otighl, if po^'iblu, to kwp in a dry, 
oool tempenittii-e, between OtJ" iin<l 70' Fah. The Corsicans 
do not leel the want of sueh a summer temperatorc, and 
liBve ooneequeiitly made no etibrt to find it. 

On cronsing tlie granite chain on the way from Corte to 
Ajaccio, we cime to a B))ot between Vivario and Bocognano, 
caliuA Foci, the moat elevated tliat is passed, wliieh woitlil 
no doubt do admirably for such n summer siinitjiriiiin. 
We won; ([iiite lour llmni'und feet high, ami hiiil K-lt the 
maritime Piiies anil the ('hestnuts far below ; the trees had 
become Kn^liub trees — lleceh. Birch, and Larch. The air 
was eool und pleasiint, the sky clear, thu mountains very 
beuutirul; but there wa* uuly a small, dirty, roadside inn. 
No dmibt the .\jaeeiana would shudder at the idea of 
Hpeiiiiiii^ their summer in such a lucidity, und vvt it i» 
a<lii>i[iibly oituiiteil fur n euol niuuiituin hoUil, or winiturium, 
suuh ail abound in SwiijurLind. 

Nulhiti); would be more enjoyable than to pMn two or three 
moiitiis in midsummer, in the pure mountinn atmuoiiheni 
of MUeh « Mfiot, in the very midst of the primeval fiire»t. 
The Lnrche* line ibv miv* of the all but perpeiidiinilnr 
muuDtiiins around, climbing in serried ranks towardx the 
sky, until they reach thu simw line. The Uuei^heu in tbe 
vulleya and ravines are growing; aa luxuriantly us in our 
own country, and form a ifloriuns shade from the still 
ardent sun, Tbe moss-i-over>.-»l ground is enamelled with 
wild lloweni, und tlie entire scene It eiiUvened by brawling 
torrents and streamlets of pure crystal water, dashing 
over tlie roctis in their impetuuua doscent to Lb« pbiuis. 



I have twiM crossed tliia ffloriotis mountAin jtx^, « 
voch lime tlie irrdtional impulse bsB Wt-ii ftrong upou im 
to lei th« C4iinae:c i>o on iiloiir, mwi to taku my ulianoe in 
Uh) wiMii «r thMH! &>n>iciin mountains. 

The inhabttaDta of the mora eouthem regions of con 
Dcnla) Eiiropo do not ecom to posMCXM, in Uie alifi;htei 
degree, th« rovin;;, advoiiliirouii spirit of our ooUDtf^mi-i). 
They do not iindeKtiind oar love fur the piel«««<(in', <iwr 
reMdiiiees to uiidor;^ niiy amount of priviitioii und luti^ne 
in tite eiidwivotir to find it. I well Krnemtier one of tlio 
most oceoraplUhed, cultivated, and retiuud Italian iiiilde- 
ifitH I have met with »yini; to mo "that he eould not 
onm]>r<!ht;nd Die Engtinh i^in^ up n mountain merely to 
eoroo down a^aiii. It Appeared to hiui all hut an act of 
iiiMitiity. IIo was resdy to undergo ar.y nmount of liitigue 
<ir exoJtion for n s*olojjie»l or botanical purpose, but as to 
^\liaualiiig liiniM'tf a» wc did, merely to look round hitd^H 
from tlin top of a mountain at naked roeks and uruH 
titoncfi, he 4!ould not do it, and did not utitlenttand ila 
betn;f done." 

llenov the higher cIomos in thcM oouutriet are rarely 
fonnd away from home, except iu vitica or m waU'rini; 
places, where they congre^t« fur a tangible pur}H»i', 
health and society. As a nc-ece^ary r««ult, in the wil>li.-«t, 
most rrtircd. and at tin: same lime the tnost beaiitiiol 
reirio'ts, there i^ otlen no kind of aeeommodation; for noDO 
hut pcaaanls or rovintf KnKlishmen visit ihcm. 

It in worlliy of remark that a love of, and an eiilhiuiaBtio 
ftp|)T«ciation of the pieturxsigiie in nature is a result < ~ 
ratication andof retinemcnt ; imiicht add, of modern refini 
mrnl. It ic very seldom met with in the nncdnented, who 
grnenilly >°eeni to live in the niidHl of the most beautiful 
scenery williuul it« making the least iniprasioa upon 
ihem ; tho>- ;;aze on it like sheep, stolidly. 1 have beei 
Htruck, uhd, in reading; poetti and writura even of the ): 
century, by the very ditlurvnt manner in which theysp[ 
to appreciate scenery as comiiarcd with the appreciationH of 
inoilrrn wnlcra. lu ihcir eyes a heather ooverud common 
iM wild, hhTfik, melanchuly ; a ja^f^d preoipitoua mouniaiu 
is sombre, detolale, thixuilouing. Now-a-daya th« i'-^ 



rnieed in the mind of nti iidmircr of nature 1>j Ute Bame 
wptif? wiiuld lie exactly the roveree. 

Tlie roftea j'oretfi^-rft, or fonwt rooiU, whiult have bft'n 
and aTi> being €0ii»tniclinl, in orjcr In n\wn oiit the 
liit)ii-rti^ iiinccesiiblt] prifneral forcat« in the liiK'ter moun- 
Uiu reifians, nii^ht be roudo tlie mcane of « rvty cnjoyat>1o 
t4>ur. A ligbt wirriap-, char-it-liAnv or wufji?>n, coiild be 
cl)iirt«re(l nt Un^tb, and eqiii)>|>cd willt su]i|>liea, an for a 
journey in South Airti;a, with hnmtitockH and other (ftpciy 
equiginiunU, Thii* umutd ihe wiM«rD««t iiii-jbt he cii- 
ooaiitorod, and what nilh local rcsouroeii, anil thv ukvIa- 
binM of the vilb};e cans or prie«t«, the Core i fan hi:;hlaii(ls 
could lie explored in every dirvvtion. Hiiil I lei^ui-c I 
would certainly carry out tbisi plan : tlic mitimta nhouM be 
April anil May. 

A lon<; way <lown, on th« woetcrn slope, we found A 
favourite hoL-wfuthcr n.-trc«t, ttucv^^tiano. It in n Ch«sl- 
nut coniitty village, like (>rfx/.a, and iuunn^illy a very hot 
place, i'nr wc were iialf ro^-ixted in April, during the time 
we remained f.r hreakrii^l. It is true the Cbtstuut trees 
were not yut in fidl hraf, ntu\ gave no sliade. 

'Hie baths of (ruaj^no, ahimt twenty mitist north-mrt of 
Ajnecio, are (jreatly renowned in Cursica. 'I'be wntera are 
sulphiirons, an<l ninch rn-i|iicnlcil in summer. It ie to 
(he fii"hi<iniibli* wi'rid uf Ajuidi what Oixixzii in tu tluit of 
Haitia. fltutgno it) prettily situated, alxiiit titttn* mites 
fmm Vioo, in a " fold ' of" the mountain, amijHt a forest of 
Cho«tniit tree*, and i* in tliu immediate vicinity of one 
of the largest and gran<li>nl of the primeval fore"!*! of 
Comics, tJtal of Aitoite. Evisa, about fifteen miles JMyoiid 
Vi<Hi, in (lie nfAreat [loint lijr the forest. 

At Vioo, the Win of onr parly were nio«t Iiojipitably 
received hy a Corsican gentleman and bin family. A pieiiiu 
excursion to the forest was proposed and accepted, and 
one of our vompanioni, a young Lidy from Yoiltehitv, 
aceiistotiieU to fuliow the hounJa and n jMirfix:! <^|iic<triuii, 
^>at1y 8urpri«>d tiic escort, compofwd of wime eeoro or 
two of ('or*ican gentlemen. MnunUiI on a xlpin^ mnuu- 
tain pony, dre«sed in a scarlet (iariltatdi and »ii impi^iviMd 
habit, t>b^ valiantly took tbe lead, and kept it tbruttgliuut 



n ri<lc of more tliait thirty mile*, there and bncV, over }iit 
and tlale, up and down precipitous roads fri^htrnl to looli 
nt. Our l)ruvo miil nmcli admirtNl yotiiig conn try wonuol 
rutiinied, I am liappy to say, in triumph, iiafe siiil tuxind. 
'n>is is more than can be snid of all her fbllowers, 
for eomo awkwnril tuniblve took jiIbog otnong Ihem; 
but, furtu»at«ly, tliey v,-«rc unattended with uii)' nerioua 

The road from Ajiioclo to Vioo ia |*r>ndly bcantirul. 
On K-iivin^ Ajuc-»i<i it ditnlia un tlK* fiili-x of oiio of tha 
lateral granite spui-s, to a hei<j:ht ol S20U feet, and llien 
dewends into a mo^t bvi-ly and pict<iri>g(|U(> valley, Lia> 
mono bv name. It is shut in bj' the hi^U for^t-covvrcd 
moHutaina to the east, by the blue sea to the west, and 
north and south hy the granite buttresses, one of which 
wc were then i-roiwiiiff. 'flu.' first i^limpic of this wide 
Mnihiie valley waa a revelation of tliu mdal condition of 
it« iiihuhitants, and of this part of the island in genenil. 
Before the rond ou which wl> were travelling; was made, 
those who dwelt in it ntui't have been tpiite shut out from 
the world, even from the little Corsican world. The trtf 
dilionit, cuatoina, and ideas of their anceBtors must havoj 
hcen transmitted from one generation to another, wit 
link- or no chnnp', and century- afler ecutiiry would thi 
piLH without modifyintf the national charsoleriatica. 

In one corner of this smilin;; valley, on a promontory that 
juta into tho sea from iU north-western extremity, tlwra 
in It little vilUfte called Car^se, which iitriin}i;ly illimtntt 
Hieee lacta. In the fourteenth century eevcral hundr 
Greeks, Hying from Turkish tj'ruiiny, weni allowed by^J 
the Conicana to land in this remote spot, and to found a) 
colony. Such as it was then, it is to Itiia day, a Greek! 
colony. The drsccndanta of the fimt settlera have retained 
their rcli(>rioii, tJieir lauguutre, ihi'ir drei>!i, their custome, 
without mixiutt with the sunounding population, It is 
villaic^ of Attica, loot in u corner of Corsica. 

At ttie mountain vill^o of Vieo, for it i« a mere village, 
aUhnti-;h dignified hy the name of town, wc were hoe* 
pitnbty received at a small and unpretending inn, Th« 
servant maid, who served us at supper, n pretty girl 



SBvcntoon, had tliorou^hljr Qrcnlan fuatures, and on my 
aHkiiiur lier whence ehe cuiai, slic anawereil Irom Curj^ese. 
On inquiriii); as to whctlier ehc meant to tnarrj' nt Vico, 
elio eni<i no, xhv muxt go hoint! for that. 

Tlur ri>u<l beyond F:>nu> )>aBBea through the wildest, mo«t 
mounliiinoiiB, and most iiiaocvMiblc part of the etilirtf 
ooBst, 'r\n' priinerid IdivsI here desceiidii ull hut Ut the 
Bco-hne on the weat, whilst il elimhs up the nii>uat«in 
peaks and biittrcMcs on the caxl, and conimunii'ati.-8 wilh 
ncnrly id) Uie grandest and most inaceMMible foreatu of 
tho ixinuii. in the nearest forest, that of Ailone, are in- 
numerable larches one hundred and twenty feet hiffh, 
with II diameter of nine I'eut at their banc. They )>ii«ti 
thuir vii^TOua roots in the crevieea of the hnrdcxt roctcii, 
on the most precipitous ret;ions of the mountain, and then 
rise etrait;l)t aa an arrow, pointintf to the elouds. The 
hardy pedestrian would tinil in thete f'orewt-uhid inotin- 
tains innucuerahle sites comhiniog " the wild and s-'ivage 
Wanty of Swiss scenery with the it>n1ation, the silence, of 
the primeval forcHta of America." (Matnnocplii.) 

On our excursion to Vico we bud an adventure, which 
may be worth rulatinc as an illustration of Comicsa 
trav<rl. .\t the stage which commences at the summit of 
the niountnin ascended on lettvin);^ Ajuccio, vrv took up, as 
driver, a wild, half-iotosicated young Cnrsican, whose looks 
none of na likvd. When on tli« box he found that he luid loxt 
his whip, butrvgardlessof thutvtty important fact, he ?larti-d 
in I'rand style. We were de^cendinr by a road several 
miUii in leniflh, from the summit to the base of tbe moun- 
tain. Gntiliiully the speed of the horees iDcreit«eil, but 
instead of restraining them he uryed thorn on by wild 
shouts and gesticulations, until the lieavy dilig«noe flew 
down the steep deocent. In vain we tried to make him 
moderate bis speed: both he and his horses seemed too 
excited to listen to reason, atid we continued to plunge 
madly downwards, turning shurp corners in stich a manner 
OS to threaten inxtant deitniulion. Wc saw that be could 
no longer stop tbe horses if he wished it, »o concluded to 
leave him alone, and to take our cliance. 

The bor^eit were three in number, driven abrosst ; the 



contri> one n powerfiil Hlnllion. A» we n<>nrci] tlio valley, 
mai)<li-tieil \>y tin- 9|iei<i and liy tlie m<» of lit* wilil «lrivcr, 
he &ud<lLMily jumped ou o»e of the horee* by his side, like a 
wolf 1^11 a licKT, {m\kx\i^\ hi« ttetl) uilo i-ucli Milu pf the back, 
nnd bil him M NBViigvly Unit th« lilond y|>iirt4!d on the roiul 
on both aidce, Thv pnor harai', tbtis attacked, ntircd iitid 
pluiif;<--(l, writhii)^ and haokin;;. The dilii^nce, .during 
the Mtmgylc, nan pwnyed in vvtiy direction, and finally 
bnckud to the >iUi>, ubt^ni there wm a precipitous di-»ix!iit. 
Wu should DO doubt linve been tliroivn down it had Dot 
the conductor, a bnivo old mnn, iniinujprd l« jump down, 
and with uur ai«tia1iinee to ^-t hfild i>f tho liurfwx' hewle. 
llie driver, having no whip, was «juit« jtowcrluM. The 
«idv hum* wera sn tcrriGcd to he near thoir eiivnge com- 
junioit tJntt wc had grwat dililcuHy in reaeking tlie viid of 
tlie stn^. 

On the return jotirney we found the wild driver vruitinff 
for iiii, but I hud heard in liie me-jnvliile, nt Vic<i and 
etscHbero, tliat ho wns a hrutui, drunken, j>ood-fi}r-iJuthin(; 
j-oulh, the t^-rror of the road, that he diiily tin|)i.'ntlcd 
the eafeiy of the diligence, L^it that he was known to be of 
po violent a character that no one duntt comptiiin ol hinij 
fur fear of the conKifiuenevs. I and my frivntU at onoe 
refused to let him Itei-p his Hcnt on the box, and insiitted 
ou thoprvvious driver tnkini; ug through to Ajnccio. With 
threat oifGciilty wc made him dixmount, and got to our 
journey 'fl end safely. 

On arrival 1 immediately lod<;ed a complaint a^inst 
thi» mun, and to make «ure, aUo tval it to heail-quMrters 
at Uastid. 1 mutt cuitfesH, hoivever, that 1 nnd nty friend* 
were not sorry we were leaving Ajaecio ihc next day, 
linviiig a vngtic idea, uilU Corsicnn vendetta Hlniin^ us m 
the faoo, lluit we had miule the place ruUier "loo hot" for 
UB. i must add, however, that this is the only instance in 
whteh I hiid reason to complain of the drivers diirini; my 
three viitiu to CorMtea. 1 bi-liere that it wii« i\i\\le an 
accidental circumstunce, for in every <ither in^tanoo I 
have fpimd them courteous, and although rutlier daring, 
prudent iind careful. 
a 9'be suuthcni teigions of Coruca, both on tlie west and 


eiist Kide of tlio contra! mountain ran<r«9i are mui;1i mom 
wi!il, more unuuttivuU-d, ami more sparsoly mlmliiti-J, tliitii 
the nortliem. On my third visit. 1q Cori^io*, in tb« Bprin^r 
of lt)(18, 1 (levoU-iI liie t;riiitLT part of the few weeks 1 hail 
to Bpsiru t*> II tour in these tbe southern rp>;ions, which I 
had not bdore visited, thus completing the survey of the 
Ulnnil. I tnivtllcd from Ajitcuio to Sartene, made an 
cxcunion into the iiiounlaina at S". Lucia di Tallano, siiil 
then pursued the joumey from Sartene In itoiiiruvio,Aiid I'rom 
tlu'tioc to Porttf Vecchio aiid to lljiHtiu hy the eiioteru toast. 

Kvery mile of the road from jVJ'**=^'<^ to Sartene ia 
beautiful in the ext^vme. Tlio Buniliteio dili-^ncc, lFtiviii<; 
AjiKX-io e^vly in tho muroin^, reiuiheit Surtiine t» tho 
eretiiDf^, where un inn is found ut wliieti tlie night may he 
passed witit tt>lerahle oomrort. 

Oranit« biittreGses continue to strike oat from the 
central chain to the vreKtvrn «ea, cnclo!(in<; lov«ly vidleyx; 
thiia the coadt roud is a ]ierpQtual ai^cent and dencent. 
AVIieii it has luhoiiously uaeendi-d one of these granite 
q>ur«, it immcdiati'ly diitiundN, a hmwhn;; alpine river is 
croMcd at the liutlum uf thi> valley, and then it a|j:aiH 
uoends the next buttret<3. The road has been made within 
tho last few yuara, at iinmeuee expense and troubti.-, by 
l)lii*ti»g and euttin^ a kind of »bcir or ti-rntue in tlie sido 
of tbe wouiitaiii, uKernately tbrouirh solid granite, cuui- 
pnct (^anitic sandrluiie, and loose (granitic gravel. 

Ouing to the avvnt depth tif the GuCtin<^ ibiw made on 
the inner or mountain tiide of the road, the uliaroeler of 
tbe root voffetation is very elearly revealed at every titvp, 
and Hi.'me instructive fai-la nro brought to liirht. 'ihuet tlie 
vtsnroiis growtii ol the ohruW on thv Hanks of mounLiins, 
baked by a suuthum sun during a loii|; vumnier, with little 
or no summer rain, is explained by the ien-;tb and stn^u^rth 
of their long fibrous root*. They descend right Ihrougti 
coiapDct gravel or mind, through crevioM and faults in the 
sandstone or j^ianite rouks, imperceptible to tbe eye, lo it 
depth of two, lour, six, or more Kt-t. In many instauoes 
they appear to pierce tbe very ruck ilwlf, and thus it is, no 
doubt, that they find tbe rouinture ueces&try to their 



liVe Bee Die mme fealnre in root derelnpmenlii in nnrl^ 
(tixtricts nt home, whtn recently opened out bv n miltvay 
euttinjr. Till' rod* of the common Hrak-- Kern, thr Ptrns 
tqiiilina, nnil of (he (Enrsr iiml llmthcr, (Wiviiil to u Kir-at 
(1<-|ith below the surfaee. ily ynrtlen in Surrey is of this 
ohurncU-r, im nricl saml, ami 1 Rnd few or no plsntii Rouriiih 
in it, unl4>M Ihoy hiiw hiii}> IthroiK or " tD]v" looti* («tich ii» 
I^schscholtzia), whieh ran go down all but any dejilh for 
irotetuiv una nourishment. The liesvy nutumnul and 
fpnti); I'liinii, pcni'tratini; divply into the iioil ami into th<> 
erovices and craekH of the ('omiiim rocks, provide inoiNtnre 
to plnnts eTcn during the protracted aroii<fhlp of tho 
sonthiM'n oiimmcr. Where no rain falU nt any tinvo of th« 
Tear, tm in somt* pari* of thr eoiiit of Pent, there IE suii) to 
lie no opontaneons vegetation whatever. The ul«oluta 
neiviiMity of heavy winter min«, even in a <lry climate »uch 
as Unit of the Homh of Kiii-opc, to cnnbli- crops to be raised 
and fniit trewi to prodnc* fniit, i* jlhistrated by delicjcnt 
hnrveslit after winter drought. If the winter r:iin" are 
miieh hi'low the averajje, the min does not prnrtriilo much 
bilow thy Knrfaoe, to that the rool» of the Olive and 
Orange trem, whivti dtwccnd rather deep, are not tnoist^ned. 
When this occtin) tho treea live, but do fruit crop is pi»- 
dnced the foUowin;; autumn. 

I fimml gTftit iinxioty exprcKted in Contea on this ocou 
sion about rain, the winter having been a very dry one. 
It was (jonernlly »lated that if the rain diil not coftic 
within n rortni;;ht, and ruin oannot lie depcndi-d upon at 
this Ma»ou of the year, the cro]>s wouhl he aerionslv oom- 
promtoed. Althongh one-eif^ith of tlie island u Ktill 
cijveTvd with primeval formt^, the qoeiiti'in is cvorywhere 
diiu-tiitHL*(l a* to whether the mountain sides in oecoHsihle 
plaees have not been too frwly olcarcd of their timber. 
I'he clwiranw of forest Und in France is (jt-iuTally acknow. 
leil{;i-d, by all cuntpetent anthorittos, to be the prineipal 
cnuMe of t)ie difns'ronu drought* in the southern provinces, 
as well as of the constant inundations of all the largo 
riT<-ni. The t'rench Government is therefore taking active 
Bivaiuree to have the mountaiii sidea replanted. At Ajaccio 


T Iieai^ tliat hundreds of saeka of the eeeda of tlic noble 
Corsican I'liuis Lanx an; aiinuully oKported to tlio Conti- 
nent for that purpiac. 

Ill April ill Ciimicji th* roadside in tlie valleys, especially 
iin<ler Chestnut trees, ns 1 have etated, ia euanicllcd with 
, the piirplu CydameD. It« lovely lloweiv are «<.-un in uh 
pgreat profiiaioii m» Dnieivs with us in the re^ioiia whei'e 
the Hoil ii consenial. On trying to aet up Home htill« 
with n [>OL-ket- knife, I found tlist they ux-re i^'ticmlly 
eo deeply emla-ddo<l na to be noiirly nnattiiintilile, a 
foot or Hiore deL-|>. Willi iia the Cyebmen is ii8ii;illy 
plaoted at the top of the pot, but this mode of uitltivahun 
IS evidently not neceasary, at Nature doc« not fvlluiv il. 
In the wild state the bulb '*» covered t>y Kum-eMive liiyera 
of dead Icavest, and thuH becomes deejily buried. I believe 
that planted in rich, litrbt Boil, a foot Irom the enrface, in 
our ijiird«n«, it wyiihi eveupc winter frxMt, prove hardy, and 
be u threat ornaniitnt in early summer. 

Thv next morning my future host, M. Giacomnni, Mayor 
of S". Liieia di Tulhno, with whom 1 had promi-^iKl Id 
spend a fe<v daya in his mountwn home, iirriveJ before 
1 viA< up. A'ter partakin}; of a capital hreakfaft, we 
atftrted in a kind of light spring cart, drawn by two wild 
( ifrElcitn ponic*. Tht^y rattled down the hill on which 
Sarten>> in placcl in line Ktyle, and we »oun rvuehed thu 
lower part of a valley, crossed the night before in thu dili- 
fcenoe^ we had to ascend this valley to r«acli our d<'8ttnu< 
tion. In the centre nf the valley wna a lovely little river, 
about flirty feet broad, and on ench side sinilin;; t^rnss 
meadows, and, oecasionally, cullivati^l lielibi, with Willows 
and other trw« on the marifin. It looked like ^ pretty 
bit of river KCrnery in England, and I could scarcely 
believe my eoin|ianion when he told in<> LlinL the <li«trict 
was so deadly in mininter, that no one could live or work 
tlii^re alW June on account of malaria, without risking 
Hfe. Some yean ago some Kreiteh ngrienltiirisle from 
the Cuntincnt aaw thia sindin;; vallev, and, uppreajtiiij; 
tlie depth and gnodneM of the »oil, ami its email jwcmiiary 
vbIucj bought an estate. Then, laughing nt the fe-in) uf 

c v2 



tlic Corsican peasantry, lliev Imill a liniiRc nnfl liotran ttllinj? 
uml |)]Hiitii>t; an iit the uorlh. 'nieynll jjot lever, iitiw ever, 
and th«y all ilit-d iti Icm tlmti Iwo years! 

Whi'ii no niuolicd an Huvution of 300 reel by the liaro* 
meter, M. (jiacunmni liirnini; round, hIiowpcI me a tnill- 
lioncc, and »iiii], " Now we are ont oT tlie malaria region, 
])Oi)|i)i> i-ari ami ila Uv« nil tlic your ii) tliat houne." 

lleretve huil nn<illii-r travt-1Un|r incident wurlh narrating 
as illustrative of the Cunicaii chanitter. Some 6ii:;lit altera- 
tion wsM nqiiired to the l)iirne¥!|, nml we Itotli ^t out. 
'I'liking uilvaiiUigic! nt' a iiioinoiit'^ liln-rty, thv poiiic-K Ixill^d, 
and were soon out of si^lit, Ivuvitiij; iia Mauding in the mad, 
much to the cha!>rin of my ho&t. There was notliintf for it 
but to walk on in tliv hliixinif fun, with tliC )>roKjii-et of 
havtiiif ta Hiiitih our jnuriR'y, xomo t«n niilen, on foot. We 
had Hot, howi-ver, ^one very fur when we met, coming 
towiirdi' Its. two CorwiMin -iK-phcrds, mounlcd on (.hnjiey 
littk- puiiii'K. My fiicnd, who did nut si-em to t-njoy the 
walk 091 miieh im 1 did, nuked lho>c men to lend u* tltvir 
HtecdH, which ttiey clievrlidly.did, no we mounted ttiumph- 
antly, whilst they trudged quietly by our side, tidUing in 

fiutois to M. Giac-omoni. Two <ir three mitrs lurtUrr on we 
lud the Kiiti^factton of Ki'eiti<f tlm mniii|re unit putii«i uD- 
tiiimiiifcil in the hniid^ of a peamiit. They had continued 
lit full gallop until tiiey reached ■ sleep acchvily. Then 
tht'V p^luvkeniil tliiir speed, and tlie pcnmtnl ein-int; thom 
witli'mi diiver, blop|>ed them, Un ^ttin<r olFour poniw I 
thunked the owners, and oirered one of them a ^ratnity. 
With ]i smiie he push<?d my hand iwide, saying, " No, eir ; 
a CorHteun doi-x not receive n graltiity for a «mall si-rvico 
rendered. If you were to olTer me fifty thousand fi-anes 
vou mJuht tempt me, but 1 do not want live; 1 hud riitlier 
have your thanks." To ciieli reuKuniu}; ihoie wim nothing 
to be answered. 

Orudnally the road became more moantainons, and (fae 
little river asanmed more and more the chanielcr of au 
nipine Iruut sirenm. Still cultivation and fertility followed 
our track. .\t ladt, afler a four huum' drive, we reui'lied 
our dcKtinatiou. I waf most cordially received hy three 
v«rj cliainjiot; ladies, the wile and daughtois of my host. 




Witl) them I rcmuined serenl days, (freatly etyoyiof; their 
genUe rvtlned oontpunionship, listeiuu;; to tlio nnnats of rhis 
mtio vitlj;fe loat in the moiintMinsor Ci>i>iat. To my young 
liidy friouds SiirU-tn; wiw ilic great town, where Uiey hiia 
heoii tci school, where Ihe shops were. None of the family 
had been out of ilie iaiand, ana llici Indii-s hnil not even bwn 
to Ajiiccio or Biiiitia; thoy were too fur oft'i Tliun the 
mayor imd I used to luljuurn to the villu>;e ami talk public 
iiiatt«ra with some of the wise men, with old wiirrion, 
pensiouera of the French urmy, (»)mc to end their dxys in 
Llmir native village, on the saiM piltanai allowed them. 
The Coi'HiennH are wry ]iartial to the army. Ic is snid that 
there are now more than a thousand CorHican oHlueri in 
iho French army, and tb« Unvn* and villiigcji of Oorsic-ii itre 
full of old M)Idicm come buck tu dit^ in tlicir native moun- 
tains. My visit wa< ijuile a pnbliu event. No Kn>;litthman, 
I wne told, had been at Tdliano for a hundred yrani — Hinoe 
4 the dnyauf Paoli, beforo tbi; French nnni-xatioii — so curiouM 
bnt fneriilly (jlancc!" followed rae evi-rywhore. 

At this lime ol the yeur S". Lucia di TaJluno wati » tittle 
earthly p.irudiAu. It is situutid at the liMd of a smiling 
viilky, UIDO fuel aljovc the Irvul ot th« «rB, in a re^^on 
wbirfc the uiiliitm, tin* Potaito (liHi-iise, the itilkworni ditioaw, 
eboU-iQ, and thu summur fuverK "f the lower regions, idl aru 
(■(pialiy unknown. It looka directly to the south towards 
the Kilt, which is conoealcd froni thu iiii>ht by m ouast rAnge 
of hi^d) mountain*, and ii> pndeeleil Irom the north by a 
scniicircle of muuntaiiin. Tbv Vimi, uerealx of all «ort«, 
Grasses, natural and artiliciul, and every kind of fiuit Irvu, 
ItonriKh in abundance in the riulisoil formed by t lie breaking 
np »f the grnnite rucks. Thu cxlrvme luxuriance of fruit 
1ree«, and ii(|ieoia)ly of Almond, i*eauh, and Apricot tneus 
on the Oenoetic Iliviem, proves to demonatralion tliaC clmlk 
and lime suit their constitution, inasmuch as that soil is a 
mere bn-ak-uj) of tim<«tono roekK: but their equal hixuriiince 
on tliis sod — a granilio mioaoeoua suhist. mixed with voife- 
tiible matter — iilso shows thiit they tind in it all the clc- 
I nienljt of nutrition, On «ach sidv of the valley, tm the 

I higher mouiitaiu sidi», the Ilex, or evergreen Oak, cliniliM 
I towards the sky iu serried ranks. This Irxto is one of the 



principal v%t;tttiil>Ie proJticU of llic iftlntid, and almiv coi 
stitiiUr miiiiy (ifUie ttmallrr foreeta. When growing in tli 
IvniT rr(;iiiii of viilli-ye, in deep soi), it nssiinii'S a liirg« six 
Hiid iiiiit mtich ol' tlic (lignifiod eliiLrtKiUT of our comma 
Oak, only llie f'uiiuge U monj jiombn; and dcii!*er. The 
wood is not much esteemed, iotlin({ enrly, so that it is 
principally iu4>d for miikiii;r vhaicoal. 

A gr«iit deal of tliv lund nrouiid iit (>lant«d with vinMfj 
and under the intcHigeut mana}{cmeut of M. Oiavomoniil 
the lar^»t propriclor i>f the district, these vinra ore made' 
to prodiiie iin exeelK-nt wint.- — Uic Vin de l^dUiiio. W-ry 
likeamiufurlifiud puvt, it improves yeur hy yi-ur hy keeping, 
and U'ith ii-^u bt'conti's a superior wiiie. At the outlet of 
this fiTlilu valley, cumprUt^d hi-twevii tivo eptirt of the 
mRiititaiii, there im a Utile port CiilK-d I'rupuino, fflteuoe it* 
products resich AJHeoio mid the mainland. 

Oh returniut; to Snrtene I took up my quirtere at tlia 
inn, hind a species of ^iif to Inke me tho next day to BonU 
fuei'i, lilty-six inile«, iind then iwl oLit to explore- tliv pla*:*! 
lliiit wtiK soon Hvciimplii'luHl. Sartentt in a iiniiill iiiUlit 
town like Carle, iit the ui-xt l>a»e of the southern ceoti 
mountains, and ia separated from the wenteru »c» by wiolbc 
ridffe. Id olden timt-s it n-ae K<-'t)ernlly in thi; hanils of the 
national pnrty. nnd is still inhabiU-d by some of the olde 
('onticuin lamiliei. Like C'ort«, it ia un unpreposseMii: 
pliiutf, a kind of overgrown villn;^, with some evidence < 
recent prosperity and pro(;rcs» in llie ahopo of new l;ili l)v< 
Bl^fHed French house*, very unsuitable for » hot xunitiier 
climate. The iV.,>neh do nut «eein to know lielter tluin tv. 
build lall Parisian six-storit-d houses, all nindoits, whervvi 
tbvy go. Thus I found at Algiers nnd at Omn aII Hit 
modern Iioum-m built in thin alylv. Such houitoi roust be 
»imply nnbi-arubU- in xiiUry weather. 

The ueulher «a« heavenly, the road cncliantinj;;, and til 
country one mas* ol tbn sprin;^ llowvro of saudi>toni- fitrmn- 
tions The road, a wry i;ood one, winds in and out, up hill 
nnd down dale, nl\Mi voinin); near the sea, then leceding 
from it, with rucks or billH intcrvenint;, with the i;rauit 
moiintaina to t)i« «itst. As wc approached the m>uther 
extremity of the tsLuid I waa mom and uioni struvk by Lb 



concUiaive eviilenoe on all sides of ;>laciul tut well im of mite* 
ccdviit vuluiDiu uutioii. The ^^nlic rucksi vteiu lorn, iwistud, 
unil bixiki'ii iiiUi every unm-nivable alia[i», but iirominL'iit 
abovi! all wvk ;;fiitiite bouMern of all biki^s, iinmunKC bloi-I<H 
as well as siiiaill ones, lyin^, in vvi-ry diivclioit, otiu on tlie 
other, in imlvxiiribiible coiifiiKimi. Kvuhiiitly tlicy liad been 
Jni]i|<ed by tfliiuietsal tlii«t)ieexlreinily ul' tlio };Teut(M)iitr;il 
gmnite chain ol'Comcn. At last th«r<; was iitftbiu>>; lull of 
tliv vmitriil laoutitAina but uofil'uNoi f^rouju uF ihvie boulders, 
some of wbiob agipeared tu have I'ueii purpoeoly Hroppud 
"by band" on otJK-ts bi^r in faize; likv a [uiviD{;-stoiiu 
griitly di'lwsiti'd on a table. 

^^'c stopped to rust at midday for a cou))l« of liotin ut a 
sliud OH lliL* tt>udi<idii wbtTO huruw arc kvpl fur lliedili^^viiiu. 
It u'ub in tlie very mitbit ul this boulder drill, aud a cjrff'nl 
CxiiDi illation of a considi-rablo ureu cviiviiiui.'d nut Unit :iU 
otbt-r physical fuut but glacial aotii>u eould ucQimiit lor what 
I savir. jio doubt, ill llio ^bciul jK-noJ, ^bciere vst^ndctl 
all down Corsica, aiid this would he Ihe ration wh«rc tbcy 
would i-nd aixl iotm a " morjiiiif." 

A liltJe bdlorfi ivovhin^ Itoiiiluciu tbe frraiiito roninitioti 
oeaces, and the roi'kn bm^uiuu turtiary, ci-etdoeoue. Bunirnoiv 
ia a rortiBed town ocoupyiut; a prutnoiitory, the sidv« of] 
wbiob towards the sua urv precipitous and stit^hlly I'xcu- 
vuted by the waves, so thai it all but ovvrlian}p> the St/uits 
at an elovatioa ol' one hundred aud tiHy I'eet. It is a mere 
lui't^ fortified villaj.^e, with uarrow ptiet-'ts, lar^^o btirruoUM, 
and II villanuuK iuii. 1 was vory ooidiiilly rt-coivi-d by )t. 
Munti:pu<fuiii), the iiuiyor, a weil-iulunn'^l i>by*iciuu, and 
by .M. PiruB, the jud^, frieuds of A1. l:^oul(l^i of Uastia. 
TliiTsu j>eiitlvniuD pbced themselves st my disjiosul, and 
took me tu a boat to see some splendid vavcrnN in tlie 
oulcan-ouw rocks, like cliurvhf«. Here tbe iloiiitaciuiia, 
during; the heat of summer, tiab, pteniu, and buthe, ullcO 
iiptrmling the fiiUrc day enjuvin^ the coolness and IreshneM 
ol ibcuc tiiarind nlrcut#. 1 hey iiUo look me to a pretty 
convent or heruiit^^e in the ruck« two miles I'rom the town, 
ubcre a Itcuedictine monk lives in a glorious solitude, the 
picturetquc h«auty of which I do not think lie fully appro- 
ciateH, from hia respoiuw to some ntnarksuf mineauoul th« 





naginificent view nntl tliu piotiirosque rocks whiclt eutront 
him. He, luaentin-;, (rsjiluincil that th«y M KticUered hi 
fptrden that be could frraw cabbn^eR all mmin«r. M. I^nw, 
my bmit, wbo bad roopnlly purchased a large extent of tlie 
" miMjiiin," tliroufih whidi we |tas«C() on our way to the 
bi-miiUi^i-, ivuM fill] of pliinu for ils rcdiinptioDi The great 
(liHii-iilty be said wa.^ tlii; labour question. 

i'bc Uonifacian^, however ])oar, have preeerved the habit 
of their anorHlora when th« town wiis a rnrtified city, oAeo 
hcvie^'d. Tb(^y live inKid«, keLi> donkey*, and ride ont in 
work in the oounlry, everv niornin(f. Thts destroys all 
ilil(!r<>>!t in tlicir labours, malcps them idle and ever ready to 
shirk work, to remiiiii in ttie tow^l t.luit tliey may driiik_ 
and tifMsip with their wives. The Isilter (imi l\u- fliiUlrvn/ 
on tliig ByBtcm, brin^ notbinff to tbe comraon fund, auiT 
acquire habit* of idleness difficult to vradicnte. 

1 was anxiouN to py Gnribuldi n visit nt Cnprem, 
tbe other side of the Struils, and my new allies pli 
Ibe government cutter nt my disposul for tbe oniiae. I7n« 
rortunately there wns a desn! calm, and after waiting 
twonty-l'our hours for wind, 1 wne rcbictuntly obliged to 
give up nil idea of tbe intended cxairaion, to take leiive of_ 
iny ho«pitnblo friend», and to embark in Ibe diliffenct' 
Uastia by the eastern ootist. This journey taken twentyi? 
four hours, n ni^bt and dtiy, but 1 divided it. I had an 
introdndiou to Dr. Tiiveru, the head physician to the 
penitentiary of Cnsniiiundu, a little more than half-way, 
who cave mc a bed and n IV:iternal reception, Bud I was 
thus ounhlcsl to iMi!H|ie tbe ni^lit travelling. 

Tbe road to ]la»tia from liouifucio is a «hora road that 
skirts the entire oustem owiat of Corsica, from south 
norlh, and seldom lows sii;ht of the sea. For the fir 
few miltf! out of Itoitifneio the ohalky ttoi\ eonlinnes, then 
ihe gi-uuite, sundHlone. and i;ravel mukc their uppniranMf^ 
nnil Mitb tliem the brusliwood, or maquis, C:«tua, Cvti»us, 
Lentifctia, Dwnrl' Ilex. I wns on the impriiil or top of 
tbtf dilij^-nee lor the vieiw, sittin^r iu>xt to the conductor, 
who bud n ^nn at his side. It wax, ho said, in order 
take a shot nt aiiv ([umo that mi|;hl chance to orosa It 
road. In winter he often bng);ed tuin«, birds, and soma 



Uncs wild lioar*. Two of the IaU«r aetiinlly croMwd tha 
rood, Iiut at tao great a diatanco to allow ol' his showitiff 
hifl ebill. On tin? rond from Snrtene to Itoniriicio, w« hild i 
timvellcd all day without inui-ttnt; a singlv cnrriugu or cart> 
and uot n doKi-n pedentrinnx. It wiut pretty inucli tha 
same on the eastero road. The oouotry was lovely, smiling 
with natiira's gifts, l>ut as to inhabitants, they were tew 
and far between. 

Purto Vecohio wna reached in a few hours. It is at the 
kottom of a Rne bay, and in olden, dasaicnl timoi*, wiis a 
seaport of some iinporlaiicu. Now it io a mcru villain, the 
oeiitre, howeviT, of an extensive didriet. On th« land 
side it is surnninded by roarsWti, which make it so un- 
hvulthy, that iti summer nearly all the inhabitants go up 
Ui tlie mountains. Thusc who remain to keep houi^', all 
but invariably get fever ; it i» the penalty llioy pay for 
takin<> care of the town. 

Siion ufVr leavin>; Porto Vocehio, we entered upon tlic 
fiTlili', prudtictive, oalcitreous pliiins which lie at tlie foot of 
the eaMtera oretocooiis niountainH. The vejiretation waa 
that of rich alluvial meadow-land in Kn:;Und, and it was ' 
diflieiilt to believe tluit we were passing throuj^h a distnet 
BO maUrioua, as to be all hut uniiiliabiliible during the 
sutntner montUs. llut the jutueity of villai^Mi and of ia- 
habited bouses alon;; ibe road wun very si^oiliealive, as was, I 
on iIk' oilier band, the presence of numerous villagtv OB 
thr Olive-eUd mountain to the west. 

I arrived ut the penitentiary of Casabianda lalo in tlie 
evenini;, and was not sorry to see the diligence move on, 
whilst I was to enjoy tlio hospitality and companionship of 
one whom I knew to be an intellectual Cor-'ioiin pbysidim. 
Dr. Tavera is one of those pioneers of nouial pr»i;iv-s9 and 
civilization of whose devot«d and enthusiaBtie Idv^uiv the 
worbl knows little. At the of the pniit^-nliary, in 
whieh are conliiKnl a thtitiMtnd eriminaU of the UKist daii'i 
l^riJuH t'lass, his diflii-utt but praisewurlhy taiik is to rcclaica 
tlieni, and to aocomplish Ibis arduous undert^kin-;, by 
comiuennif potilenee and disiiise, aixl by takiiii* tliexlinf^ 
out of fair nature run riot. I bad ii long oonverKition witli 
the doctor that night and the next day about his labours 


ati<l uWiit miilarui and Twer in Conia, and bia cx|»cric»c 
cuiiUrmod my |ir«vi()ii» uonvivUont. 

As I liiive «ln-aily nt^twl {\t»fpe 375), »u tbe authority of 
my rrioud Dr. Uoudas, aud otbers, it is an uiidcniiible 
fiict, thitt in vrnrm vlitniitcs inU-nnittint itnd TvinilU-iil 
feViTH niiiy occur wlivro tlu-re iirc iiv manili«!t, u a uwre 
result i>t' a chill in an «r|niii>aliou weakeiMd by inteon 
und protracted beat. It is pussiblb that sovh cbills may 
\k' lliv priucijial ur sole tmasQ of tJnee fuven, c«vn in low, 
du>n|>, rqiiilc'd iiinlnriouH rei^ioiiM. Such, itideuJ, ia tii« 
oiiilLioD ol II very i-uli^lilontKl l-'runvb aulbor, Dr. Annund, 
wlm WHS niuny jears with tlw Proncb army in AlE;vrui 
snd liHM wTitlvri a ind«t valiwblo work on th« cUuiiiu- und 
dtseuMS vl' tbAt (.-ouiitry, to wtiicb I nhall have ocvaaiou to 
rvfiT when draoribin); inv own Alffvriaa eX)>eni>iHHW. Tbi* 
oiiinion biu b«ea very ably §up))orted by Mr. Oldhain 
the Iiidiiin army in ii vrork |>ubli«b«l in lISTl, enr.itl 
'■ Wbiit in .Malaria ?" He prove*, moat convim-intfly,! 
thut in India, an we have neon to be the case iti tbe Br!t£il 
in Al;^riii, in Coraii-a, and eUewhere, walaiious levers 
bv ^eiii'iatid without tbe eultVrer beinjf exposed 10 mar 
n)iu«niula, by mere chill alter inlvntio hcut. 

Still the liict remains that lour-lyinji;, damp, ewampjr 
ro|pons in Iropica), aemi-trupicsl, aud even norlhem 
countriw, are »o decimates! by tbeaa fevers tluit the exist- 
rnce ot It nmbria |M>i«un bus been univcTHully admitted 
Ij the oiedioul profenaion. In tbe pmtent state ofttcienL-e, 
lbiT>,-rure, Iho safest plan ia to aciept both causes in Utl 
piudw-tioii of maUrioiis fevers, manh p(>iKoD, anil 
Jollowinfc intenw beat, louj; endured. 

In this, my Inst visit to Coraica, my attention 
mainly directt^l to tbi* <|uait)on of malaria and fc 
Having Ifi-en, I think I may «ay, a Itauling agODt 
upc>nitj|f out Ci)r>icr:i to tbe invalid uj>d tourist wori^ I ' 
it a duty lo clnr up Ibu (picntion as liir us was poseil: 
The mults at wbicb I have arrivitl may be embodied in i 
lew u'urdi. 

Wbercvi-r in C'uraien a river or torrent desnenda 
tlto uoontuin* i*r valltiyN, and emptieH itself into the 
tbere ia tnaUria, or iutcruiitteul fever, io suaimur an 




ftiitiimn, in the plains which it wuwrs. from the 9«i-lovcl 
to an allitiide V!M')ii);r Ik'lwi.'en SOU uiul .jOU Cect. Tliis I 
ascertained witli the barometer. On asci-niliiit* tliwo 
viillifjrs, whtn the barometer indicuteil iin cK'viitioii of Troiii 
SOlHo 500 foci, I w(w all but inviiHulily lojd, '-Now we 
are mfe ; ])eo{ili! cun live here all the yeur round." In Uio 
more malarious re^^ions of these pUins I Ritneratly found 
that we wvcK only ii few feet ulxivu the seii-luvcl, and that 
the euiintry wus iimirly lliit. In Al^erb thesume immunity 
does not appear to be iociired by euth an elevation. 
Indeed, in AI};oriu I found fever to cxift all but cverv- 
wliere during the hejitK of eumtner, which i> no doubt 
much more «'illry than that of Coniea. lu Coraici the 
fever seta in towards (he latter end of June, increusw in 
inteniEity until October, and disappears toward* the end 
of October, u» the days and ni<;ht« bi>erime colder. It is 
often very severe, and aH-tumes nccabionuliy the poniiciouK 
form. It complicates nearly all othei' discatics that occur 
whiUt il n-iyii*. On Iha easlern const, wiicrc, an we have 
seen, there ai« a i>erie« of m»nh<-M mid ponda through 
vrhich the rivers empty themselves into the sea, the nialuria 
fever is more severe and more fatal than elsewhere. 

Ttie few vilh-fco nnii inoUted hoiiseit in tbene malarious 
plaina are only inhabited durin;; the cunl months of tho 
year. By the be;-tnnin;{ or middle of July the harvest is 
over, and thitn the entire population aUmdon their homes 
and go to the mounUiius bi-liind, there to oeuiipy other 
habitations at an altitude of several thousand feet, during 
the hot months. WvlUto-do people leave at tlie be^innini; 
(if June, ti> ix'lurn at the end of October. Tho working 
olasa leave when the harvest i* over in July, and retura 
early to Outober to tilt the (ground. 

Malarious fevers exist not only in Corsica, but in 
Sardinia, in Sidly, and tn all the Mmliterraoean inland*, and 
on the mainland, under the same conditions, wherever u 
river mns into the sea. It would seem t hut the estrv^mu 
prevalenoti of intermittoot on thvMdliterranrnii shorei', at 
the outteU of rivem, in a tvmiwmtv elimate, i* in a [freat 
measure owiu^r to the sea hoing all but lideU-M. When 
storms come, the sand and shinjjle are thrown up in great 



masFes at tlie mouths of the Hvcn. Thera is m* tidal scon 
US in tlie Atlnnlic, so thai the waters ol' Ihe river are peut 
up, ihw batk, and givamp all the lowlands, ealtirntin^ tlicm 
with moint lire. Dead anil il wjiy in g vegetable nialU'r not 
kdn); imritii-d by tlie netioii of winter frosto, U in northern 
eoiiiitni-tn, the advent of the powerful summer eun produces 
that Ktnti; of Boil which gives nKC to a<;iiitih fevera. It 
requii'i-K 1U1 u-ar«h or pond to prodtiei; malaria; Home of tbe 
ifloet pestilential plains I saw — pUina where human l»einf{8 
cannot live in siinimer — were as healthy, as innooeut-hxik' 
iiiji ill April and Muy as the banks of the Trent or of ibe 
Thatneri. It really uppean <|uitti suflieient to produce 
a^uiKli fever in a tropical country that the land should 
have beun KiMiirateil with water, either from rain or over- 
flow, in winter, that then.' slioitid nut be a good fall for 
draina;;e, and that the July boat should be reached. The 
iintives of tlietie eoiintries kiiutv this, and act aecor<liii;i;ly ; 
tut Dorthorners do not, ar.d ai-o often diHicult to convince, 
to ibeir own destruction. They cannot believe that a 
smiling t^ornfu-ld by thi^ side <tl' a pure running atmam, 
euch an tbi-y have iislied in and balJied in day aHer day io 
tlu-ir youth, during millry August weather at home, can 
pon°ibly Iw tn these oounlriea pestilential— a jilaoe to fly 
from UK ftonn a* ^ring 'v> ovim-. Thoy luiigb at sueh re|>orts. 
They think tbe naliviw faint-bearled, lany cravens, and gu 
aUiut their work ai> at liouie, to sicken and die in ii year or 
two. I have already nKnlioneil one hislory of this kiiid^ 
but I hat of Ihv (JaMibianda penitentiary ia still mo 

(?uxab!anda i* an agriciiltnnd colony of convicts, founil 
by the Fi'eneh Uoverninent in ISGt, in order to diai» 
rpclaim some of the ponds and swamps of the 
coast. Unfortunately the Government gave the iirst 
pointmcnt of direi-tor t" a cK-ver <'nerg>;tic olTleer, liub ' 
noiliieniev, who knew nothing of Corsica or of il^ fv 
He tiiuiight »11 he heard nonsense ; that the fever was tl 
result of the men working in the heal of tbc day und being 
ludly fed. So be hud the convicts up before daylight, tii 
made tbcm work nt the drainage in ** Iho eool of tl 
morning." Then be had them home iti the beat of tl 



tlftf Tor diiiTivr nnil * aieita, and sent tliem ont to work 
again in the "cool of the evenin<;." The loc&l mtxlicjal 
men nnd the Coreiwini> itround him xtood nghaat at a plan 
80 coiitrury to all tlitir ex|)erience. For they wait until 
thv nun liiis dispersed early watery vapours, lUid ri^tiini 
home befora Bunwt. But lie wa» not to Ija persuaded, re* 
poi-trd the meiHcal men under bini fur "iusulwrdination," 
and had his own way. The rmuU may \k eneily fori'told. 
He loBt during two yi-am 65 per cent, of the umivii;!?, or 
8fl6 out of the 1000 eiwrh year. The Governmeitt was 
h»rr<ir-it truck, and Vlie colony would have bedn ubamloncd 
had not the Htublturn din-ctor, nif»t fortonatfly, liininelf 
died of the fever, A more rational man was tlii?n ap- 
pointed, who allowed the mediciit elatf free scope, and 
overythinjf was reversed. The men were nent ttf wovk ail 
lionr allcr Munriao, and brought home an hour before itutt- 
let. In the fluminer they weru ull transferred to the 
mountains, and various other preuiu lions werv taken, with 
Buob ifood results thut now the morUility, in the »me 
conditions and locality, ia only 34 )H-r cent., or Sh ]>ot 
lUOO. These details 1 had fiom Dr. Ta vera, the preteab | 
medical superintendent of the peiiitenti;:ry, to whose ener* 
gfticetfurU much of the improvement is due. Great works 
have been accomplished ; one or two Inrpj braekish jionds 
and swamp« have Ik-oo alrvjidy drained, nnd u vast amount 
of land reclnimed. 

It KreniH incredible thai such {>ervcr«e stuh born n ess on 
the piirt of ottieialn in authority should exist, and that 
masses of human bi-iugx should be shoiildei'ed into eternity 
throtijrh thejr blind opposition to prolnuiotial knowledge. 
Hut similar eircumstanceB are cmnstantly oicurring. ThtiSf 
at the tM>mmeoocment of the Crinieun war our troops wvn i 
located in auturon, by the ofHeer in entnmuiid, iit the side 
of a maUrious fresh-water lake, near Varnu, in direct 
opposition to the medical stiilT; imd noon itfU-r the e^iitip 
wiw ilrctmated by fever. In the year ISfill u rvfjimout 
was transtuiTod from the Care to Mauritius by ita oolonel, 
durint; a iHivrre epidemic ol lever itt the latter loeuhty, in 
direct uppoxition to the medical utatr, merely lor the men to 
■ickcn and die by the haadred. 



Th« practical deductions I drntr from these mearelie 
■ro, liifll liny part of CuiMi'a ik mTc lis a rcsitltrnei', cilhiT 
for invalids or touitKta, Iruin ili« en<l of October U^ the end 
of tlie Fcvond wi-ek in Mav i but I do nol advice either the 
one or tlm other to go to t'nrsiwi, or to rcmnin there during 
the vunimor monthn, uiiliits thc-y l«iive tliu iduiiiM niid tJia 
outlets of rivers, and settle on some mouDlnin heiuht. / 
the TDOiiDtaini: risR to ii height of nine thousand feet, the 
tm inuiiy ^l'>ri'>iiH re^jion* when.', throughoiit the linatu of 
eumm«r, a bracinir henltliy climate, and imiimiiity IVitm the 
intciisi-FiiiiimcrhcRt oflheMeditcrrnDeannouid hcsi-curvd; 
hilt ut pn-iient ihiii advicv cannot he foltowei), Itccstnw no 
iDoiintain accomroodatioD exUts. The estuhlishineui of. 
seme such cool monntain retreat for summer would be 
grt^il. boon to tli« i»habilnnt« of the Kivicm, a* well 
to Corsicaii viailora. I am cotivioced thnt the Hivier 
is no nu-m Miro as a residence for northerneis anerthesecondl 
nr ihini uceU in May than Cormcn. Althuu(;li tliiMV tn* 
no niiirshfi", every year Hierc are ciisM of fever ut ^lentoiitt 
amunf; the jiatitiits irlio ri-main s;^iiini<t my advice. 

A litrj-e portion of the surtiwe of Corsica — 1 may say all 
that is not a |>TiiDcva) forect or under cnltivation — is covered 
with what they call "maijniii." I do not like to n»v Uio 
word brushwood or scrub, for eueh are very common termsg 
to apply to Rroves of uiidi-rwood c«niposcd of Myrt)e_ 
Arl>iitii», Cistutt, roek-Kosci', and Medilerrunean IlnthJ 
anil yet of such is the inteiminnblo "moqii's" oouipoaod. ' 
Tli<se choice shrubs ate the weeds of Cvi-sicii, pTOwinc 
wherever naliiri; is left to Iiitm-K, wlierevt-r the Boil la, 
not Rovered with timber. Indeed tbey won afi^iii ttiro 
etdtivutcd lands intu brushwood if left uncultivated for 
few years. 

'ftic cxiKtcnce of thi« ma(|ua, or bnishwood, on all open- 
proun;!, roii»titwtes a feature in the social hbtoiy of^ 
CorMcu. It cnnlribiiti'd much to the neciirily of the out- 
laws or banditti. Urowini: geiiiTuUy from six to leu feet 
bi;>li, and wlieie the soil i» oood to lilteen or twenty, it 
oftiTH un all but impenetralile rofuge. On the other 
hand, its invofion of all nncnltivuted Koil in denac musaesi 
rcndcni it difltcult and exp^Dsive to redcijm bind, and tqj 




brinf^ it into oultivation, onot it has fullon into th« wild 


Unlil witliin the last few yeais all cattle, to whomsoever 
Wlon^ini^, bad a ri.;ht to pasture in tlic miiquin. The 
ri'^ult WUH the osist^'iiw of mvinfj flnuku of nhpep or ii*«it«, 
enlrxislod to shepherds or bi'lon^injr to tliem, tliat passed 
fiy)m one part of the country to tho other accoi-dini; to 
the itcason. Thcie flock* cnmniitted groat dcprediitionx, 
citp«ctall)r the f^uls, and renderi'd hiialiandry d:nicult and 
precarious in the distiicts which they vi«it«d. Gonts are 
M nimlili) Wid lisjhl fonU-d Ihut no ordinnry feiioe will 
ki-<!i> thent out of a field, nothing »hort of a teii-feet wnll ; 
eo I found them everywhere in very bod odour. It in in 
reality the condition of an nnsctUed country ; many part* 
of Spain are to thi« dny a desert from tlita t-anse. 

A law hu, how<tver, been passed, prohihitinf; what is 
callod the "libra pareoiir«," or free paKtiira^c. No cattle 
are ii'iw allowed la pasture in |:;miind±i that do nut Iwlonj; 
to their owner, or that are not let to bin) ; nor are they 
allowed to roam iinlcridvl. This nccfisftary law baa been 
of grant Kt'rvin« to ajrrienllure, but, lilo! all pr»:;rci«!, it has 
it« puinfiil side, for I was told by peasants that they t-oiild 
now t;et no meat. It i* like the enelmnrc of our commons. 
The jwawintry who did not own land bud llockie which 
they drove into tbe maqais, and on the product* of whieh 
tbey partly subsisted. Now.llioy are reduced in a gnat 
measure to tbe products of their own lalmnr. 

Eni^lnud itMlf was very muoh like Corvica iwn hundred 
yearn uiio, aocordin-j to contemporary writers ; it wim balf 
covered with moorM, fens, miirshea, nti<l forest. Sheep and 
goats were cotuidered miMiliic^vons animal* and much 
abused, Mid the poor helped litis with common rigblH. 8inco 
the ncceftiion of George II. four thousand Acts have been 
jwsed for the encloxurc of commnn*, and mowt of tho fena 
and mun^hi-s have h.-en drained. France is not:io advarKwd ; 
many of her di'iwrtnienls arc still covered with jknud* and 
miirnh-is, which render the nRighWitrin-^ mmnlrv bo uii- 
healthy tbut it it> dectmjt«d with roidariotiM fcvcrH, Thus 
in J/1 Brettte, a triangle situated lietweeM the Smuic, tbe 
Ain and the Rhone, full of ponds and manhui', the 



average dunlion nf lift; » only twenty-four ycart, ii 
parishes only «ight«eii, in^ilead of tinrtyllve, tlie f 
nvcrnge for France, TheBc ponds are pitrtly artiRciul, and 
were mcully crvnted in Ihc With and 17th century, lo [iro- 
pn^nte ftKti, fur which there wna a great demand, owing to 
the ti;4(}roiis obaervauoe of the faat days of the Itoman 
Churcii. Tho ponda lira drHinfd off uAer two yeant, tb« 
fish sold, anil the bottom cultivated with cerealn for two 
yenri^, whtn tliev are tiKain laid under wat«r and eloekctl 
witli fiiili. The French iiathoritir* ure doing their beet to 
do awuy witli these eeiitroK of mulariii, but meet with ^n-ix 
reBiBtiniv I'roin the proprietors and iuhabitants, who, an is 
to oOfU the cni^e, eiintr to the caiiRi^s <>f th«ir ill-Ui-ulth Biid 
premature death, Trom intereicled motivi-a. M 

The milk ol' the alieep, as well as that of the ([oats, ifl 
liirf^ly eonKiimed oe an article of diet, both in ihc ehnpm 
uf milk iind in lliitl ol' elieeiie. It iti, 1 Uiis told, n HioaH 
ininoiliuit rtwource, eMpemlly in the mouiitaiu dit>trietV| 
uud I roiiiiil it very pidatable and };ood. Would not our 
own IliKli'anders hnd in the milk of tlieir phcef) a vnliuible 
article of diet? It i^, and box li(«n, consumed from liin« 
immemorial all over Ania in muuntain dialriets, and (a, 
everywhere greatly eHteemcd. The larp; fluckM of NortU 
Britain wouUI oUcr a bonntirnl supply ol' this valiiablu 
BTtieli- of luoil, and the famines vbieh decimate the lliglufl 
lands mi)cht thus be rendered Ion HcriouH. It if> true thufc 
the number of lambii reared would Ite greatly dimini«li«lj 
and, eonm-qiK-ntly, rents would siiflerl J 

The Cor^icuim mix the milk with, chcfltniit- flour. Thn 
clic:^tntit« ar» dried in an oven when they fall, in thfl 
uuttmui, and when wanted ground into Bour. With thifl 
Hour cukes me made and biid on chestnut Ivavee, whn^il 
wheU baked, eonetittitc (heir piincipiil fund. To Mtraniteru 
tb>ae cakca tiialc aweet and iniiipid, but tbe uativcuarv vuryl 
fon<l of them. 1 

In the great primeval fore«ta arc to be found wild board 
and small game in abiindanoe. In the higher inounlaiuM 
tho native raee of wild sheep, ualled monllona, are mcfl 
with. Their presence in Hie mountains is a strong attraofl 
tion 10 eothu«iasti« aportatneu. Id the alluvial plains od 





th« eastern coast same abounds, and in the aiilitmii «nd 
winter alt kinds ut wut4)r-fowl are nii't with in prufuriiuu. 
In thv cully autumn HcaHOU, huwover, lht»e districte aie 
•o very uiiheallliy that the pursuit of the };«mc would 
probably be lollowcd by sevwre li:vi;r. Ounn-, lar'^t; anit, 
small, is more abundant in the southern aiid eaaterii paita ' 
of ('ursiva, because they are the wildest and most thinly 
inhabited. The long probibiliun of llivjirnix, and of legiti- 
mate Kport, hiw not U-ndnd tn incrcaw the ttuck of j^inaj 
in the neit^ibourliood of lite towns and in the more 
poimloue partd of the island, but rather the reverse. Not 
bein^ able to shoot g»me as hi-nsloforc*. the entire ngri- 
«oUura1 pupulution huve devut«d their eueri;ieti to tnipjiiug:, 
and, accordinjc to report, with &uc]i Buoceea as to have 
sensibly diminished its numbers. 

Such I found Conica. To ine on meb of my tlin'G 
visits it ban proved a most enjoyable and fiiscinatiiig 
country. Tho ton or twrlvv werks that I have tJins B|ienti 

veiling; in this lovely inland huve Iil-om amonc tlw 
'pleaaautent uf niy lii'e, and I trunt that the deac'ription 
given will lead many to visit its hospitable shores. 

What I have said will Mhflw there is in Conica much to 
stuily and intenst, as well as miieh to admire. It is new 
untroddi'n ground, a country in a slate of transition, emer^- 
iu); from the barbariitm of the Middle Ages in this the nine- 
teenth eentury, as the Hit^hlandHof Scotland did in tbcj 
eighluenth. The firm establishment of law and public 
security will surely rct^-uerak': the country here as elseivhcre. 
There arc not now three oullaun in the entire isbiud ; lit'u 
and property. ar« oe safe as in any dejiaitinent of Fmnce, or 
■ny county of England, and onee the fact is known capital 
will In'^in to flow into CoriMca, and will fertiliKv it us tbi 
Nile Jertilizee Esyp^- '^^^ climate is ({ood, the mil 
fertile, the natural resources gnmt; but, althuui*h situated 
Bt the very door of Europe, all ore still durotant for the want 
«f capita], 

The French Oovcrnmont has done a deal already for tbts 
island ; indeed, it bus cost Fraiiee several millions in publiu 
works since its 6rst oocnpation, a lumdred yearH o^o (JutMV^ 
1769). The mon«y, however, is well invested, and it is to 



"be hoped tbftt tho .lutlioritira «-itl not hesitate to oompF 
what hsR beoii C()itinK-iii.-r(l. Oiiw the ronde in course of 
TOnstmctinn and c«iiitew|4u1ed are finUhed, no doubt aitKiNt- 
Ctnco will b« given to the proprietors to bring Uil- vallvvN 
into cultivution by tlraitiii^, und to Kcoiirci a proper outlet 
fur ibe riven. To keeu tbe rivew oiioq mid to pri-Kcrve- 
tli« plains from inundation in beyond tne resource or knowJ~ 
K'd;^ of It peamiit propnetary. It iibould and must be dot 
by the (jovemment cn^ineem, as in tlm Koman uiu) Grr«iai 
Slates in tormi-r days. A channel for tbe river should ba 
formed and cafrieii into ik-ep water, nnd its eutiauee neen- 
f-iouiilly ilredifeil. Worlm of tbiti Icim! bavc bifn success I iilly 
curried out at the month of the rivirr Liamon«, near Ajiwcii 
with ({rcat benefit to the adjoiniii); coiinliy. 

M. 1« Conite do Grandchamps, iin eminent French enS 
{Hneor, lias entered at li'n);th into this (|Ui-iitihn, and into 
all others oon nee ((mI wilh t]i<3 matprinl prosperity of (.'onioa, 
ill a very valuable work, which I can cordially recommenct 
to IboBC who fvel interested in the *iibjcc1. His book tt 
entitled " Lu C»r«e ; ku coin nidation et son rule dwu 
Mediterrande. Seeonde Edition. 1869." 

Scveial of the most enlif;bti-ncd and encr^io Cornean^ 
proprietorK whom I met with told me that however anxious 
they mi^ht be to utilize the Qatiiral resources and rorlilily 
of their country, they could not do it for want of eapilul, 
for ibere wait none in the country. They had land, f^ooT" 
land, and plt^nly of it, but no moncj' ; so the laud reniatiK'4 
eovcn-d with nia<piis, and merely gave them a bare piiysiei' 
mjiinlenance. What was wanted was for eunUitcat 
capitalists to bring money into the island. 

I Mrtaiidy raw in tbe ncighboiirhnod of Boidia, p^rbaf 
the only town in Corsica where there is any capital, nuii 
vi-llous results from its employment. Land purchased 
Buv four or five pounds mi acre, cleared and pluiitcd, v 
f>aid to have b»!otiie worth five timtis the raoitey t>|>cnt < 
it, in tlic course of half a dozen year*. 

I would recommend all who feel diirpi>*ed to make a tour 
in Coi-sica to read carefully Oregorovius' " Wundcniigt 
in Coiviea, its Ilintory and it« Heroes." As I have stated. 

it is a most charm* Mok, cvcj> 

<TTy-at-home tra-j 



^llcrv. AnolUor ii*uriil work Tor intending tonrist*, w ft 
Utile book eothloil " Notes on tlie Island of Corwoi," l^-J 
Misa T. CanipMl, wliicb contoinit a tli-al «f useful infor- 
mation. MiKi Cumpbell hax been now a winter r^iilonl at 
AJMcio for many ycara, antl has dcvotvd nil lior tiino and 
all her energiee to furthering llic mlvunocm^nl of Ajneeio, 
and iU coloniuition by the British. I must also mentinn 
Mr. Tliomaa J-'oreater's " Rambles in the lelaniis of Corsioii 
und Sardinia," and Mr. KdHard Leir^s "Journal of •■ 
Lntiilscjpc l*»intcr in CowUMi." Both th*jie works are very 
int<-ri>»tiiig, and oi^ntain much raluable inlcrmation. The 
6nit edition of Mr. Foi-t«tpr'g book appciired in IS.iS; n 
accond edition has rincc been piibliMlii'd. Mr. Ij>-ui''k work 
vonUina iiumcrouii wood en|;raving>t of Coraioan soennry, 
whieh well sustain his reputation as an eminent artixt. 
Murray ha«, also, published one of biM valuable (iiiidt!^ »n 
Coraiua. For the tlays and hours of deiurturc of steanters 
" Bradahaw's Contineubi) Guide" for the month Hiould l>o 
cimfiiiltid, an they vary from year to yciir. Thiw prepared,, 
the traveller will be sure to train both pleiuture and inlomta- 
tion from so excursion in this most picturesque i!<land. 

Those who are afraid of the sea can both go und lutiira 
by Le;;lKirn and Dastia. O^raioa and Sardinia aet m a 
weateri) breakwater to the coast of Italy, so that the 
channel between the islands and Italy is a much calmer 
sea than tlie mgro open «|iaoe between Ajut-eio und .Mar- 
•villes. In the spring monthii of April, Muy, and Jtiiic, this 

rrt of the Mediterraneiin is ollen calm fur weeka lo^ether. 
should a(;»in iidvise no one to ([0 to Corsica in ettrly 
autumn, e» account of the malaria which still prevails in 
many ports of tb« coast that the traveller wouhl winh to 

A railroad from Bastia to Bonifado, ulonff the eastern 
coatt, liua long been diseiiNsed, nod will, it in xaid, Iw very 
Khortly constructed. Such a line would not l>e a very ex]>eii< 
sive one to make, as the country in Hat nearly all the way, a 
plain at the foot of the nuiuuliiina. When completed it 
will contribute proatly to the prosperity of the island, eon- 
iiectini; the north with the south. At present there it but 
itUc ipturcourse; most of my Hastia friends lud never 



been to Boni^ino/and tnew notliiDi: newonnllv of th« 
Kiiiincft of the t^oiithem part of the ialond. Mok>«vct, 
tlie Sli'iiiU of BoiiitUcio itrc not wi<lc, and the Sardiniui 
railwny n-ill hood Iw open fniin Porto Torre* to Cag^liarh 
Coreicn may hope to see northeni to<irUUi cliooiio thi* rout 
on Uivir way to tixe southern regions of the MeilitemineaE 

The best time, no doubt, to \mt Corsicu is in the spring, 
as I have done, aay from the 1st of April tu the l&tli oj' 
May. In my three visits, esteiitliii^ over nearly thrv*! 
monlliN, I never hml om^ *in(;!e bii<I diiy, not one dny of 
wind, eloud, or rain. Mr. Murray in hiw Guide »ay* lliat I 
am too enthiiMastic, and ^ve rather too fsvotn-able an 
Bueoimt of ConicA. I can only add that I have described 
it moHt triithfully an I found it in April and <-arly May. 
I mast, however, repeat, that I advise no real invalidj, 
wlioso life in nctnully at Ktako, to venture in either tliia i 
aiiv othf^r iictv eouiitry out oftbc btuitvii tmck, not 
iiilo ><tillii*rtaiiiliihire or the IlebriilcK, uulesMOii a visit 
a lot'ul iiia;;i)ute. 

It ib worthy of remark that all southeni localiliea an 
towns are more healthy, and conseqiionlly itufer to vi«it in 
•prinii than in antinnn. In "pring Vlicy have (jnno lbrou}H> 
the wiuti'r mina anil frrmLx, whidi have clfaiined and puri- 
fied them. Thus, Kome and Naples may be rixited niiieh 
more safely bv pkaeure tourist* in Febniari', March, and 
April, timn in Noveitibi-r, DeccmlHT, and Janiiarj\ Anotk 
important point is, that the sea is often calm at this time 
tho year in the north rej^one of the Meditcrranenn, attboufj 
notiii the south, qmI know toinycoft. lliOKonthof Kiirop 
also, is cverv>vliere much more beautiful in 6j>ring than 
autumn. In April and May, nil that has Wen writtirn _ 
tbu poets is inilfi-d rcalix"^ and found to be tlioron^hly trui 
Wc nuiy, Iht-n, nitbont reserve, surrender our mitiiU to tl 
enjoyment of Ibe poetic beauties of early sprinp, which 
can 80 scldoin do in our own northern and treiK-liorot 

t.[„\w f-u tApri,^ rfrq^\ \**Mm 1 






" Hbs loOk n ({BiHidkiit vt vukU muvoIm nunft 
(Titntiini antloagiaqm ralut matAr« retnataa) 
DtMptibsa foniDt •■ c;im ]>Totiiiti8 ulraqti* teUos 
DulbnTti v«nit nic'liii vi pnntiiH. H tindii 
Hntpttriiim Sicnln latiiimbiciilil; itrnuiaH et nrbea 
Littore dMuctna anguitu uiturlait uwtii. 
Dexlrutn Sajrtta Utiui,lwvuiu imi>lBoita Chiujbd» 
ObsitUU" Vmu. Jin. m. 

DKriiiTrtie— t'LiMAnt u momc ir tuit*tii»i— falbuii^- 
kehiiiia— CATtmA— xoljit miA— naiousi-^BB KSTcax. 

]s ttii! courev of tlic winter of 1862-63 tlie ilcsiiv to viitit 
Sicily UiaV piiMfv^ion of me. 1 liuil lji.i;n titUMidini^ nwme 
KuHsian Indies who bad pa«8i^ tliu jirtiviuiis wiuli-r at 
CaUiniii, iiitd nlso eomo of my countrymeii \x\\o li»d spont 
Kuuio in'jiilUit at Pidvrmu. All Vivre loud in (iniUc of ttiiri:t! 
oitiee, and insisted tbat tht! cliinatu of Sirily vrts tniicli 
Biipori»r la tbnt of the lliviera. Thus tbe uiK^utufuitublQ 
iilcii ueviirrt'd to mc that ulW all I might nul biiVL' iJih- 
covcred in .Mentoiie tbe btwt loculity iii which ti> »\n-w{ \\\e 
winter, so 1 dou-rmined \a pass a few weckx in Sicily at tbe 
I'luM! uf our t>(-iiHciti, and to jud^ for myself. 

Aa tl]« time for deiiarture ajiproscbinl I Lvgan to luok 
around for one or two cuiniiiinioim. Many volunlvem 
otferLiI, but oixj by one they all drtw bntlc, from eoniw taiitw 
or utbur, with tlic vxcc-ption ot eomt- oiitlintiiiiKliu yutiiif; 
ladies, whom 1 uoiild not ponatbly tuke, niitil iit lost I 
to Kturt alone, I cannot eay, however, ibut I was quito 
abandoned, for on Ibe iii<tiiiin>; of my dt'|airliir« for Gi-noi* 
a demr little ^irl of »ix, Llie diild uf itome valued friondH, 
camu to nie with a small l>undle. I had asked tier re|>eatedly 
to acootupnny uie-, but kIii; had always rvftiscd, snytn^ that 
slia oould not pueeibly leave bcr uiuiiuua. " Dviir Dr 



Bcniiet>" fhc bcgnn, " 1 mnnot licnr to lee yoii gi>in^ 
Sicily ull alone, witlt nu one In take care uf you, so I bava 
miKM up my mibd to leave mnmma, and to t^ wiUi you, 
linTC piickcd up my lliiii)^, nnd I Am quite ready." It 
t>ini>i)Iitr at how «iirly an age childrcu show the cbarao^ 
t«naiics that will stamp them throit;;hout lifi-. It is mnrr'^l- 
loUH, also, wlint power a tiny dnld ha« to pUniM aiid attAch 
ita i^cniorx, or tu rend them. 

Although I at lact departed alone, it was not witliot 
hnvio;; many friends to see ma off, and to wisli mo 
pro»i>i'r»>u« journuy. I am, indw-d, stru<'k I'vcvy yettt by lb* 
^lat coutraat lliat exidtd bvtwevii Hie arriral aud tba, 
. di>j>Hrture of the wiuter visitors. This is more l»lptM^inllJ 
tiw iiiuiii at the houKL' that 1 inhabit, whore tbt^rc aru iienrii 
a huiiilcei] rcinidi-iiti, iiiont of whom aiv invalids and tbei 
■ fTiunila settled down for the wiuter. When the "poor 
«xili-«" arrive all is new and striingu, and, •^■nvtally opeuk- 
in^, itii'iv ix no one its receive ihem hut one o\' the waiters. 
Iltit the ntiite of tiling iii very different ou deixarlure io 
sprinfi;, ader a six months' eojnum. The isotation liu^ceas 
for tfie houM liofi become full of friends, with whom it ia i 
kind of <,-on)>cicntious duty to km; the traveller off. The 
comi-n ftiieh a Hbakiiig of !iands, such a wavinj; of faaiij- 
kerohief's, as makes the departure a complete uvulion. Niw 
ie Ihis "well wishing" eunlititHl to friends iivw and old^ 
Thv host and hoiileM and dependents seem to eonsider it . 
duty to take n fiart in the eeivinony, and express their (^>ci 
wiiiheK with a eurdiulity uod familiarity strange tu our uoltl 
northern ways. . 

Six months' confinemcut wilhin the limits of even pio> 
tuniKpie AleiitAnc is an admir.ibic pre|uiriiti()n fur nuoh n 
journey a.-> the one I wiui undertaking. Starling on a 
liL-jutiful April morning— and April weather is always 
heautiful in this part of the world — onee the re;n^t of 
leaving friends has siibsiilod, an exhilarating s«nM of free- 
dom, of liberty, ii^teals over the mind. To the invalid who 
(lejiarts from his winter retrvat with reelored or improved 
heiilthj intense thankfulness it mingled with thi» leuling. 
\niity nlwiiyK llic air js wurm and h:ilmy, yet fre»h and 
pleaMiul, the sun ehioes brightly iu the olear blue »ky, and 



tb« vegetation ia that of July with u». \Vheo the Uiviera 
IOm) ia cbo6eD, as tlio carriage proKresBCe, tlio eyv glaucM, 
iuvoIuDtiirily from the wliJts ulouile <in tliti fur oir Itorixon, 
hao^iig on tlic mouiituinii of Cunii>;a a liuiidrttil mJlea atvay, 
to tlie spurkliii^ sea, to tlie now funiiliar I'anas of vege- 
tstion on the roadtiidv, and to tiio olive-covUfL'd inoutiUiiis 
whii^h ImvL-r hi'^li above the xliori.*. 

Tiie Riviera tuad wiatU iti aud out along the beach, at 
timet a>cauding many hundred feet, at timee descending 
to tho Mn-lerv). Ridges of rock, through wiiioh it piw«i»!, 
jut out into tho wavLii, IiUl' mountniti backboiiea .or Init- 
tresses, showing at -a glance tb« geulogioal etratificatioHg. 

I taolaini rocks, Bomv large Bome HmiUl, vims out bodily frotn 
the aeo, g«ncrully at the b»uii<lnry or etitntnce of pretty 
bays, sometimes m their L-entre. Wlioii the road ascends a 
hundred (vnt aljovt; tho ehor« level, tlie outline and §h;;[>o 
of tilt- (i^'libluK aud i>o«dcIi-r« at the bottom of the »vu, nuur 
tho b«ach, ore eeen with singular plainness. The eye, at 
that height, pierces the water arid sees the stoaes al the 
bottom of the sea, as in one of Cru«wick'a piutur«« of a 
trout or salmon ittfv«ni. Pielurei>i|ue grey villager and 

ttowUK are froqueotly passed, gener-illy cunsisting of one 
large narrow utrwl along the shore. They are composed 
of old, primitive, tall, qiiiiint-lo»l(ing Iiouxm, and llu-ir 

linhahiinuts Ibnu very artislie grouiis under the porches. 
A Houroc of surpris* to us meat-loving nurthcrnere U tho 
aliMiice of hutvhers' shopt), fur I only counted two be- 
tween Mentoiie and Genoa. Nothing is neeu cipo»e<l for 
Kuk- in the eatable line, hut bread, niaccaroiii, dried beans, 
chentDutH, wia« and oil, eviduntly the staple* of tliu 

Genoa, the Superb, is s«on many hours liel'ore it is 
reoolicd, featc'd, ampbitbeatre wise, at the base of a moun- 

[.tain in the oenlrcof itswideeea-likehay. A« the tniveller 
approaches, life become* mnro active, the villages and towns 
are mor« numerous, as arc the peoiilv who inhabit them. 
Great ships ar« bnitding on the beach, on the very road, as 
it were, and inspire the piu't^itig traveller will) wtindcr n» to 

■ bow they are to be got into the sia. t'umule figure'* 

Pibeaorae more and more numerous, looking very picturefi^ue 



from their 1ie»d dreN. Th« OenoeM women of the middl 
daM wcnr od their heada a thin goeeamer white or bl 
■carl*. It iit riist«n«d to the hair and oomb, aitd bungs 
graei-ruHy down on botb nides. Tbe women of the lower 
clues wear, in the same style, (raudy, many -coloured oottoo 
■C4iirE. Indood, the love of vivid c<.>louni KvnmM to increase 
IS we decvoiid Kouth. Rvd iu>stimis n prominent festare in 
the dreae of the women, and tbe large umbrellaa are f;vnB^ 
mlty of the eame viviti hue The otitsidea of the hoi 
alKO, arc ornamented with rrvecocs, which reproduce nil tli 
colours or the rainbow, iind ^ive great animation to tlio 
sc«D«. Vividness in colour probably - become*; an itctti: 
want to xoiith^-rncrs, acciietomei) Ut intcnuo light, to tli 
Itllare of a southern miii ; Qorthernem, acoustome< 
to sombre skies and (o eubdiied light, are satisfied with 
in"re niibtliicd colutire — to Rrccn, Rrey, and binclc. Soon 
wc reach the bti»y titiburW of a civut city, an<l in a few 
minutes more we are in the middle of one of the grcatnt 
commercial marls of the Meilitcininean. 

By far Has best way of rejcliin;; Palermo ii from Mar- 
seilKii by one ul' the Me>wii>^-rici> Mnrilimes Alexandria 
boat<i, wliiuh Unichen ul Palermo every turtni;;ht. From 
Genoa the route is by Naples, between which and Sicily 
theru it> freqaviit communication, so I was obli>;Ml to go b^ 
way of Nujilen. TluH, however, I di<l not re(;rel, for tt 
gave mc the opportunity of paying another visit to 
Pompeii, which in aluaya seen with renewed pIcMtire. 
Only one-third of Ibe town of former days lias bivn 
rcvcult-d, and as excavations are constantly goiiie on, 
every year there oi<; frwh nbjects of interest to bo sci-n. 
On tins occasion 1 waa xlKitvn a oiiignlar group of Kevtral 
li-;urcfi jtist discovered, a woman, a man, and a {r>H, in the 
wry act of llyinj; from the ebuwer of ashes, when the^^^J 
wrre overt^tken and Hinotben-d. The moulds were fotmd i|^H 
a« of complete pTcttrval ion, iind owing to tliiK eironra^^^ 
■tanco the curatois were ennbled to make a pluster cast, 
which vividly brings to mind the actual event. Every 
muni^uhir cinturlitm, I'very detail of nhapr, is distinctly 
bruiigbl out in thin vivid and ghantly irroiiji, n<iw pre- 
iiervvd in the Museum nt Pompeii. 1 also satv a recent! 



uncovered ■ul>t«rni»i)aii water dinnncl, Rome Tour fe«t wide, 
and two deep, in which a CDnsiderablo body ol' ouol peilutiiil 
wat«r i§ seen rtinnin); rapidly to the een. A few fi-et only 
&r the rout' hud been tiiken ulT, nnd I toukcd down witii iii- 
terciit oil this Htrvatn of |>iir<! water, oollcctinl t'runi the ad- 
joiniufT niouDtainy more than eiKliteeu ci-'iiturK's ajio, tor 
tlii; iii'c of the town, and which diiriiiij all tlint puriod baS j 
been runiiing iiii.iM-n, hidik'n in tltc bosom of the earth, ' 
buried with the city it waa intended to i(U|>|ily. 

Thi^n; is a etcam«r every other day IVom K»pki< to 
I^ilerma, aiid the iiea binii|; culm, and the buroniet«r all 
rij^ht, 1 went on boni'd, the ]r)th of April, at U p.m. I 
vrua the only Kn>;1iehman on det-k, so liaviu;; nothiug cIm 
to do I a»iu»ed myself by walehiti}; my oompatiion*. 

There were many Iliiliaim among the panMin^ieiv, and 
lanny partin)^ were takiiii; plauc. 1 wud iDt«reatt'd and 

E' M»od to wee how Mtroii>; the atfoctJon tio evidently wua 
tween tliose departiiiii; and thoiie left behind, and Itow 
utterly rv^rdleea all appeared to be of llie rules which 
restrain the public matiircstatioii of fi<t.-lin${ in Kn^luirl. 
Grawu-up people cried and kiMcd eael) other again and 
u^iiin, without the emAll»t elTort at ooiieenlment. 

One group more <s|>vciBlly ultraL-ti-d my attention; n 

f'oung Ne.ipulitan bride, with her husband ami yoiiiigvr 
irother, as 1 sfteruavdii learnt, were taking leave of the 
family ol the lormer, on their departure for Wlenno, whero 
the bridet^rooni resided. Thrre was a boat-load of the 
yonn^ lady'it family, father and mother, and three or four 
sisU'Df. biich «'L>bbm>; and cryiut; t never saw before. The 
poor mother and aistDHt v/vrti absolutdy cunvutiied Willi 
(•rief, and could acaroety artieulntti for their Ktbo. 1'liu 
vnpttiin was positively obliged to have them removed from 
the vi-Mul when we Htiittcd, for they could not bu per- 
suaded to leave, and even then they kqil wavini; their 
hantikerchiefa from the boat, and brvakinit; out into lK«h 
pnrAxysmt! of |^of as lon^ aa ire <x>uld sec them. Tho 
lather waaaa weak as the hfly membi-rv of hl« (iMnily, I 
fuund him, aecidentally, in tlie ntewurd's cabin, takinj; 
leave of his youu^jcr son, a Ui^ buy of fourteen, with boIm'i 
and team aud puHignute emhrucw. Ko utw on boftrdi 



flecmcd to think it at all atrati]^ ; on tbe contrnry, I 
on nil t»i<]t« kind Italinn €X]>r(^8>ions of xynipathy Ad 
interest, Tiie lirid« criud lu tianl n* the re^taltJie p«rLir_ 
but sbe soon wiped lier ey«e and smiled throiiRb bar t«ars 
when her roUtivee were out of si|;bt> seutntiig to find luniilta^ 
(wmpciimitioit in the loving looks mii kind vpeeoltM of «ii^| 
youu)( husband. So it i» in ranat departures, tboM wlu^^ 
are leffc behind ate the most to be pitica. The new eoeiice 
and iiitiiTiwtn thHt surround I'lioec wiio dupwt, tend, if not 
to con»olc tbem, at leael to draw Uioir thoag)its into other 
cbunnels. I 

Thv next tnoriiini; I wne up early, and on deck soon aO#r ' 
six. Our counie bad beon pni^peruuit, and I was iuforinrd 
bat wv diould be at our destination by ten. Already 
fthe mountains of Sicily wore fiiintly rieiblu nn Che horiuKi. 
The ntorainffwaa lovely, Uie uirpure and elear,aud scoroeJ/ 
. wave on tne sea, except those we made ourselvea, as m 

ndily pimued »iir way, dixpUcin^ the rhiiiint; bravii 
vatvre. Tlicre werv only eaitora uq deck, with ibe 

ftpeption of a I'at, burly, florid-faoed man in a dirty whi' 

~Ve«4, eittinv, with a look of Rroat compoeure and ml 
nttisfuvtioii, by tli<.- "iile »r tUe engiiivs. In his Iinmls wi 
Jiuir H loaf uf breW und a bu^ piece of meat, and with 

I'^laop-kDiro he kept cutting o If slice after slice, isvidcotl^ 
inch to bis own (;rulifie»tion. 1 at Oiiirc, by hiH a|>]>i-ar- 
moc and ncciipulion, recoijnteed a oouutrj'man, and IgHt do 
time in makiDi; his aciiiiaiiitance. 

I found him v»ry itlT-ihtc, and soon learnt his histo 

!>ike ray friend of the Vir^Uia, he was the en^iteer of the 

gtenmor, an<l also a fair specimen of the philosophical 

roving Kii<;liiihmitn. HIk idea of \>\» dLity to himself was 

l<to obtain iia good pay with as iimy a berth aa he enuld, und 
nn order to accompliab this he wds prepared to ^o to any 

tpart of the babitnbla globe. Indeed, there were luw regions 
of the world, be said, to which he h»d not been, and to 
wliicb ho was not (terfectly leady to go, if he found it to 
hie advantatro, A few months previous, on returning from 
China, be had been offered this vessel, and at the s.)mc time 
a new nii'atiier goin){ out to run on the Spiinioh uowt. 
The pay was tlie eanu in both cases, bat be prefixed 





41 !> 

tlio proecnt vessel, an old onv, bocanse old engioMj v\mm 
gvHii), work uasiljr, nnd give no troabU^, «rli«rvu new 
euipneii, fur lltu PiRit year or two, give a (freat deal oS 
trouble. If thty bad oHered bim mora yay bo ivoaUL 
biivi- liikeii the m'M- ebip ; but lii; nw too obi u hiind to 
bolhirr himself witb now engines wh«n he miibl get tba 
tianiD inoiioy for ntti>iiJiiig to old onre, tbnt would work of i 
tlR-inKdvcH wttbout any trouble. In uttvrint; thin Henti> 
mcui bo aliiit one eyit, and guve mo a kiiowiog wink, as if 
moiUllj' ap|riauding bis own jud^jnient. 

1 «x|ir(»Md approval of lits dM-isioii, and inqiiirt-d if lift 
Waa comforliible on boanl, and was i>ati»IJt'd wilb bi« aitua* 
tioB. " Pi-rfectl}'," be anmvered ; " ibe vtssel and engines 
werr i^ooil, ultbougb nothin<; to look at; and »ltbiiii<>ii 
b<! did not know Miueb of tlicir 'bngn,' be niaiiii^iil to 
make bis slokcrd (Italians) understand bim. Hut then," 
he addi'd, " 1 don'l lot tbe raptain intt^rfere witb roe, my 
on^ne-room, or my tn«n'. He tried it on at lirst, but 1 
Kooii allowed bint tliat it would not do. One of my men 
ivon luxy, na, on arriving at Naples, I mudo him puck tip 
hi^ tbingH, culled u boat, nhovird bim overboard, and tola 
him to come back at bis peril. 1 had to go ashore that 
raorning, and on my ntnrn to tbe vessel I luund that tba 
captain bud engiigcd another man lu stokvr. Tbi» 1 eould 
not stand, for 1 consider that the captain baa aotbin); what- 
ever to do with the cngino-room, where 1 am master, and I 
alwaya vngage my nien uiyxclf. So I ehovcd tbix man otT, 
like tbe other, and m eul myself to tbe owners of the shin to 
tell them what 1 had done. 1 found the eaptain at the omce, 
and he Hew into a towefiiig rage tvhvn he be^ril that I liiui 
tnnted bis mail out of tbe ohip. My rvply wao that I wan 
m.vlvr in the etigine-raom, aud meant tu rcntain so; that 
1 viati rvuponMbli- for tbe men's work, and that I was ooif 
aequently tbe proper one Lo vbooMt thent ; that I would 
liavo no interference, and that if tbe power lo choose and 
diiimiM> the stokers waa not left with me, 1 would not put 
my foot in tbo vckh-I again. Tbey rrctlvd mid fumed, but 
had to ;^ve way, for I was Herious, and meant what I said ; 
and ever sinoe I have been master, and tlie ouptoin iloec 
Hot try to int«rfere. You see, sir, 1 was right, oitd they 



all bnew it. I nm not ^ing to liare a set of lazv ItalUn 
loiite alxtul me ; thev must do tbeir work propcrljr, or go 
nbout thdr business. ' 

1 Ituve roproJiiood this Itttli: incident becauHo it illn*- 
tralcR, an <i"es tbe hinlury 'il' the engineer of the yiiyitio, 
mentioned in a former cliapter, Bome of th« vharacleristia 
featiirr* of tbo An^^lo-Suxon raco. Ftoid the peer to Uie 
peasaul we are ul) ulikc, all ready to go to any part of tbo 
liabitublo tf'*^^^ to Wtter our social pueition, ai^d wo all 
pliow iIk' minx tendency to prefer tin- ti>ii<{ibl*t» titv idcod. 
In oilier wordii, usa ra(^',(ve hIiow it Mn^uliir co in bi nation — 
a love for adventure and romanoe, and a keen opprcciutiou 
of iiiiiteniil udvanta^ wherever it ia to bti found. More- 
over, wbi-rever we un we mukc ournelvn* buppy and ara 
Contunlcd, eopported by au intense conviction of our 
aujMriority over all around us, and liy a pliiloeupbicol belief 
that it is our buundett duty to make ounelvee as comfort- 
able »s is possible under the circumstances in whicli wu are 

My new friend, Itaving completed bin brvakfimt, tmid 
must Ko and l^mk alW bin engines, and, desccuUtii',; tl 
enjfinp-i'ooni ladder, lell roe once more aloDP. Ity tb^ 
time my fellow |iitK»engera bad nearly all made tlia. 
appearance, and were ualkiiix up and dotvn the deck, uj 
twos and tbrera, etijoyin;; liio pK-u'^aiit fraiiranoe of tfa 
early morn at m-u. 1 wiu dctermiiiL'd to bring my M>lit«r} 
oondition to a close, so commenced loukin); around lor " a 
future acquaintance." 

Cbildren and du;^ are first-rata pbysiogtiomiNta. Ifie 
former instinctively, as it weiv, lind out who really like 
tbeni, and do not liexitute t4> make ibe Gn>l advauuw. A 
lu»t dog will sciiii tlie features of those wbo jiass biin in 
the strvet, and having doti'rmiued, in bis in.ier mind, that 
lie hiis found u benevoU-ntly iuclim-d hnmnn being, will 
jolluw him pertinacioocly to bin home— an iittciilion which 
1 have alnuyn considered to be a ^irv^nt cuiiipliment, if )Mtd 
to myself, \\ hen 1 am travelling alone 1 iniilate Loth 
the children and tbo dog«. 1 wuin the phyi-iognonties of 
my fellow travvlleiw, and when I buvo found oae that ii 



" symiffltlietic" I mako an ndviiDoe, which I T«ry scldooa 
find repi'llotl. 

On tlie voyage from Genoa to N«i)le8, I Ihus mnde a 
vvry n:;ret.'able HcqiiamUiice, timt of nil intcllvctuitl mid 
refined t^ntli'tnan, ii coffee plunter from Cvylon. Ilia his- 
tory c|uit<; corroltorates what I have said of the no-ahead 
ciMirgy of the Anglo-Saxon rac« when Kpcnlsini* of my two 
en};inecr friends. Whilat at Oxford, a relation lelt him 
KCvunil coffee pUtitationt in Ceylon. lie put aside hi« 
das§ice, Homer mid Honivi', and went olTto Ceylon to titk« 
poiccwion of till! newly a«|nirt.-d properly. Onctf tlicre lie 
threw all his energies into the fresh career, so little conso- 
nant (vilh former studies and occ'iipatioDs, and had, coniic- 
((ucotly, lieun vtrj ancoeMful. H» luid piiesed mnny yean* 
in hiN now home, and merely left six motith« prvvtuus, to 
speod a winter in Kn^land, on health Krounda. lo a few 
yearn more he cspucted to have aeipiirvd a sufficient fortune- 
to return for ^uod to Kugland, hut in the meanwhile CeyloaJ 
wan hiii home, his field of battle, and to Cevloii he wwj 
returning. Moirt Frenchmen would have sol^ the entalMj 
for whiit they would have fetotied, and would hiivt! ^me on 
with tbeir home career, in " L\i belle France" hut such la^ 
not the Anf;!i>-Siixon impnluc. 

We hvojiiiie (j^reiit frieniltt, and iMfHcd a few day* together 
very agreeably at Naples. 1 shall not easily forg^et the 
pleasure with which he luokM at a youni; oak in leaf afcj 
Capri. Ill- hiiil nut, ho raid, rtovn an oak leaf for manjn 
yciiTK, for the oaks had lust their foliagie when he reaclieU 
Kngland in the autumn. Ho loit it to me to decide whether 
he shimld accompany mc to Sicily, or (•o on to Itome. 
Having only ten days to spare, he coidd not do hotli, and 
I take ^rvat credit to myself lor havin)f pacriGced my own 
wislie* to wluil I eonxideml hiM advantjii^^, in advising him 
to prefer the "eternal city." Thus it waa that I wae 
" alone" on the voyage to Palermo. 

On thi* occaxion four Uermant, evidently travelling 
together, found favour in my eyes, and I at once broke 
the ice by a few trivial remurlcK on the weather, and on 
our favourable |iro(;ress. I found them very pluanBiitt 



■mi'able people, and we eoon became qnite friendly. Ofif" 
wiij! prufcHiar of history in a Gcrmnn iiiiivcrsity, nai\ a few 
worJx ibout the Grecian iintiqiutioH of Sicily, bImhiI tlm 
Flicenicians, the predeoessora oi' the Greeks, aiid their auu- 
ocmors the Romans, Siiraceos, nnd N'ormans, were to his 
ean* like tlic btiwt of n trum[)ct to a wiir-horsv, rcKieitij; nil 
hia histdrictit tiympatliica. ^Vaa he not going to 8ieity 
with two of hts fitment friends on purpose tn study them 
vary imt)i|uilics 1 The fourth wim n youn;; Orrmini llnron, 
very hi^li and mighty, with a Inr^ eariM't-bng tjoita 
covered with crowns aiid recoiiditc armorial bearinKE. His 
fathi-r tTiiH a ^reat ninu in Germany, tb« owix-r of a dnxen 
eetatee, with iunumerabb qu:irt«rings of nobility, nnd tin) 
son was treated with much respect by his companions, 
^e focial slatv of Sicily, nnd that of itc landed arititocracyj 
still rich and locjdiy pciwitrful, Imd im great .i i-barm fflfl 
him as had hialory and antiiuity for the learned professof| 
Companions and friends thus secured, fur tiie present 
kiL*l, I \\a9 able to f^vc my undivided attention to tb« 
island we were now fii»t uppri>uchi»g. 

At a difllancc Sicily appeared to rise From the sea as a 
oLain of low mauntains, extcndint; from wost to en«t, bvt 
on a nearer approach the mnunttiin chain gained in ap- 
parent ftevation, and a wide bay, that of Palermo, opened 
out aa we approat.'hed the Und from the norlh-ciiet. In th« 
boeliground of the luiy a mn^^ntlii'tut mountain nmpbi*' 
thciitn! rittcii maj<ittically. lliis urnpliithi^utre has a circuil 
of twenty-niue miles, and is limited by a bold range of linw- 
stone mountain" which encircle it ilown to the *<■», fonniu)! 
by their loat spurs or projections, Mount Pellegrino on 
west, and Mount Catalfuno on the cast ; they conslitut 
the arniN or limits of the Iiay itself. 

The lifHt mountain barrier that forms the amphitheatre 
is about thit-o thousand feel high, but »uec<i«ive rid;^_ 
rise aliove eueh other towards the south, until a height ' 
sis thousand feet is attained. It is to the fertile plain,* 
enciroled by this noble nmphithcAtre of mountain*, that 
has been given, from time immemorial, the name Df Comm 
i'vn, or the Golden Shell. The width of the bay its«irt 


41 S 

from Mount Pell^rino to Mouut Catairano, is eight mile* t 
followiiiK the coiinto ')f the Itny it if twelve milM. 

The town of Paiemw, lat, 5S' 6', populiitum 210,000, is 
i^ntiAttfcl on the shore ol' the bay, at the jtmction of tlie 
vrcatein third with the eastern two-thinls. It is built on 
each ndv of a lon^ unil fine titn^&t, the Via Toledo, which, 
beginning at the tnarin* or beach, ae(M>iids ^ntty inland 
towards the iDountuinN, so that the city r»rms n piiral- 
lclo!;ntin, and is Ions *^ nsirmw aa vontjiared wilJi its 
width. The port, whfch iiwd to be mnch larger and deeper 
ID rormi.>T days, rum; qnitv into the town. A" it is too 
shallow n'lvr lor lar;2;e voiml'Is, the latter anchor inside a 

o)« or jetty, bnilt ouUide the old port. 

The view of F^lenno as nre approached, on a clear, fresh 
minny spn'ng moniinj", was rwilly very beautiful. Th« 
grand range of mouiiLaiTia in the background, reaching the 
Ri-a on each side of the bay, an<l all but encircling the vast 
and fertile plain, Ihe lar^- white city, with its numeroos 
uithedrala and ehurohe*, shining in the southern unn, tb» 
wide tree-plantn) esplanade or marina, the deep liltu; water 
of the eca, all combine to creat« a scene of lovelinees and 
grandeur whieli remaina ever ulW engraved on the HH^mory, 

Nor was the favourable impression destroyed or weakeiiM 
on landing. The »hore, which is laid out as a promenade, 
and drive, and planted with fine trees, juKt coming into leaf ' 
n-hei) we arrived, is bordered bv handsome hoiiaea, among 
which is the fanie>| Trinaeria Hole), one of the beat iit- 
Ituly. Ragiit>a, the laniiloril, lived long, in early days, 
with Kiiglish noblemen, and knows the waniK and nNjuirr- 
ments of our eount'ymcn, which ho does his best to meet 
and Hupply. The rooms arc clean and well fiirnishvtl, and 
the front ones have a fine view of the sea and bay, the one 
drawback being that they look direct norlh. 

Once oomfortaldy installed, my fimt thought wb« for 
the state of the vegetation. The princijial motive of my 
vii^it to Sicily being to study the winter vUmatv as demon* 
Htriitcd by the vegetable world, I was anxious not to low, 
a day in commencing the survey, 1 therefore drove at 
once to the UotanicJil Uardeii. After examining it careiully 



I dovotci] ttie rMt of tli? dny, as also part of ncih dajr tbi 
I rpmaiiH'il, to the utmly of tli« njotconiloijicnl poeitJOD, 
of tl1<^ vi'gv'luMu productioiM of the plitii) that HtirruuDtU 

My intention hcinjr lo compare the vegetation of 
Rivivni with ttiat of Sicily nt tlit! wtne opocli of tho your, 
hnil curcrully snalyaed it at Mi-ntone anclalonE; the Kirie 
when 1 left the one and passed through the oUicr. on th^ 
Ilth of April. I had ulm travclk'd rapidly in order that 
only n few days mi^ht olapt^L- Ix-tween Ibodute of my dv- 
parliire and thiit of my arrival in Sicily, where I laD(l 
on the 17th. 

Tli« t{i^ol(^?i<^l ohnriioter of the soil is tlie flame, 
carenus in both regions. The great dilference ia that the 
Rivicrt is pn>tcelod from the north hy moimtains, ov 
whioh cnme dry, mid ivinda, and it open to the xoiithe 
Bnn, «iid to the south winds after they have cronsei] t!ti 
Mediterranean— whereas Palermo is exposed, without inji 
protection whatever, to the north, north-east, and nortb- 
weot winds, which must pan!* over the Modittrntncan to 
reach it, the aniphitheatre formed hy the barrier of tooan- 
taina openinic out towards the north. 

'Hie result of this inventipntion wiw the convic 
that th« mon- oouthi-nt latitude of Palermo, witlioa 
tnountain protection frr-m the north, gives to it as wann 
winter climate iiis the Kiviirra rnjoy« with protection froi 
the north, Imt not a wurnier one. The two regions 
to be singularly identical, consideiing the distance thai 
eepanilM thcin, an rvirnrdM the clmmctet of tJieit veg 
tion and its development, hut their olimata are 
dilferent in other rorpoet*. The situation of Palermo, mi 
the southern part of the Mcditerratiean and on the nortlbl 
shore of Sicily, gives it neecssarity a moist winter elimAtvl 
instead of a dry one like that of the Kiviera. 1 wdt du«| 
explain the data on which theae views are foundc 
FwoTino being one of tJie most renowned health dimi 
in tlte south of Europe every fcatiirt connected with it 
offera great int«rect. 

In the open plain south of the town, with a tborongliljr 
Borthem exposoro, but sheltered to a certain extent b/. 



the city itflclf, 1 found (April litli) the same everjfreen 
Ireo vpjfeliitiwn w in the more Bheitered regions of the 
Riviera — lari;e Lemon, Orange, and CnrouW tm-s, growinjf 
freely aud liixiiiianMy nn timhur ino*. ll was qu'iU: evi- 
dent Ihat in dcwa-ndini; south I hud veached a reiiion 
whcrtr lutitudo alone g^ve the immunity from frost tliiit 
on tlio Riviera is si-curcd meri'ly by siin expnuin'e and 
fxceptionjil filidtcr from the north, an immutiity necessary 
to the well-being of thise trees. Still, even here, tlie 
Lemon and Onin;^ groves wen at Mine disUnov l'ri>m tlie 
eeft, ond occupied the niur« nun-exposed and tilieltered point* 
of tliu plain at the foot of the moiintAins ; they were, more- 
orer, all btit invariably surronnded by high wallH. These 
walls were deElincd, rvidcnlly, not only t<i proU-cL lliu fruit 
ond trees from spcHiitiun, but also to shield tliem from the 
north or fca wind*. 

The deciduous trees were Ktill Iwhindhand, indeed 
Ecin-cvly an far advanoi'd a» I had letl tliein on the lUvicia 
BIX davM previous. The Hawthorn bad not liloimomed, and 
the Fitf, Mnlberry, and Plane trees were only jiisl l>c^in- 
ning to show tlieir Icuvec, Many dedduouH trues pccultar 
to ihe i^oulh were totally devoid of leaver, 

The itotanieal Garden is only a hundred yanU from the 
shore, on Ihc cast tiiile of the eity, and allhi>u;;li it has no 
other protevtion from tlie nortli and from the «ca brecxe, 
than tliat ufTorded by a (tve-fcet wall, the Mpriii^ Dower 
vegetation was in exactly the same slate of advmiCL-inent 
that I had left it in the moat ohelterod nooks of the 
Kiviera, ouvh as Monaco, Mentone, Sun Uemo, and Alaesio. 
At the same time these flowers were certainly ticitiicr 
more advanced nor more numcroti«. 

ThuN, I found in it, an alio in the fin« (garden of the 
Princess Butera, and in sereral otJicrs which 1 vi«it«d, the 
foUoninj; tlowcrs in full bloom: Salvia, Iris, Knse, Bengnl 
and IbnUaia, Wallflower, Anemone, Petunia, Verbena, 
Mignonette, Suoflower, Gladiolus, Spines, Navtiirtium, 
Poppy, Mariifold, Geranium, Candytnit, Hollyhock (thivc 
feet iiigh, but not in blossom). Stock, Carnation, Tuiip, 
Peony, Auricula, Cyclamen, KschschoUzia, Jiidae tit^-, 
CbestQut tree, KIdci tree, HatvtJiora (alwut to bloesoni), 

> K 



Alysttiini, »tim1)1)r Enphorbinn, Janmiiium revoliitum, 
Xetllw, anil iVsjdiodel. All tliwu flow«rti, diniliH, niid 
trcM I hnd left equally advxiioed atiJ floumliing nix days 
pnvioiisl}- on the Riviera. 

Pcacliut vtete ^vt a* large M iimnll wii1nnte,Sttswb«rTia 
were eert-e<l in iirufimon at «!vi-iy mxiil itt the hotel. 
Orsni^eB woiv niimprous aiid Grst-rati-, swcvt aiiil juicy. 
I miiy hvxc mrntiou that throughout Sicily it la 
cuslOTii to rnit Httnwberritiii ulong with *u<;nr nnJ thcjiiH 
of an oniii)E« or two. Tht> etrawbeiriea, wliut we whoal 
cn11 wild nr monntjiiti strnwberriea, oomo to table witlion 
tlii'ir HtidltH, art! I'rushod with whito poundod sugar, 
the juice of an oranaft" ia »|Ui.>fxoil ov<!r tlHin. The n 
is n moflt fi'iiifrant und a<nvejble compound, much sii|K!rior> 
in my opiiiJDn, to Btriiwl>ernra and cream. Indeed, 
think i) i* all hot worth while to maki.' h joiirn«y Co Siif\ 
ta be initialed into this oioilo of eatinj; utrawltcrriw. 

The flowers nbove nam«d are those that bloom in our 
climate between April und tlio early part of July. SnniL*, 
tho early Uinii", mifrh a* Anemone*, were ^int; off; otiien;, 
and princijiully our June tloiveni, were in foil ItiviiriAnc 
Tills advanced condition of spring nnd early summ-'r t\a<m 
Yceetation, and the rather late and retarded etAte of the 
doeiduoiiK tree vvgetution, inilicnte llic warm tlayu an 
rather oold nightd, withoutali^oUile froat, tbatohanict^rb 
in winter, the protected re^ons of the sonth of Eurof 
Tho sun is ardent, and warmo the Rurfaoc of the aoil, but 
ihe ni^htH are coo), not to «ay cold, and the snn-beat doea 
nut ]>enetrnte deep cnoug'h into the earth bo reueh the 
roots of the tree* until the apring be far advunciKl. 

The Botanical Garden iteell', at Palermo, altlioiigh in- 
teresting, was iu rather a neglected state, and showed the 
want of eneri^otic modern direction. Tho plaiit« were sttl) 
cbsnified according to the Linnnan system, aa at the be- 
f^inning of thiai century. All the trees, shruU, and pUutta 
in the ^ound n-ere unhtbelled, and [larl oidy of thon in 
fota were bo Imnonred, Many of the lahelit themtielvi'R 
wei« iilet^bk) from niHt and time. Indeed, tho garden struck 
mc as bring' in a fireat meatiiirp left to common {;ardunets, 
and wanting the direction of a icicntiGc modern botaiiiat. 



Oh iturveying nurowly the eliore and tlio eides of the 
mountains, 1 waa §truclc by th« ubwitcc of ttiu »unrr(-il, 
wator-vrorn ntvtncs which are Keen nt every mile alonji; tho 
KivivTS, or ulon^ the eidea mid uL the foot of tho Apen- 
ninea, aud wliioli are theevidoqce, io sConv^, nf Uie Cropicul 
niaa of these rc^^ons. M(>revv«r, the ftidcH uf llio weatLTti ' 
•UD-espOscd moiintuinii vreru eloUieil nitli verdure f/om 
^^tlieir bJiBe to tlieir eummit, more like th« basiiltic hilU of 
^■tiit? west coast of ScotL-md than llic sunburnt, nuked 
^Buoimit* of Iho Riviera DiouiitainM, the geological ioruia> 
^^Baon being in both enaes th« name, calcareous. 
^B To mjr now rather experienced eyo tho verdure of thv 
^fltionntttin sides, and the abiiciicc of wiiler-worn ravinv-K, 
indicate a moiitcr olinnitu than that of tho lliviera, and ' 
buti>lien rain falling oltener and leas abruptly. On iurjuirjr! 
from Dr. Moecuzza, a leading physician of Palermn, and »| 
very eolightenvd, experiuiiui-d man, and on uontulttni; 
Froressor Sutna's valiiiible work on the mete