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THE WIRE ROPE 



AND ITS APPLICATIONS 



/ / 



BY 



W. E. HIPKINS 

Manac;ing Director 

J. & K. Wright, LiMiTKh 

Universe Works 
B I k Nf I N G H A M 



1896 



Printed by 
D. F. Tatur h Co., Ltd., Birmingham 



rnvn^vA^ •« «^»?tv»««»«fc >K»»A-» 



^. 



^!^"".'\'' 



A . I ~. 






THENEWYOWX 

PUBLIC LI !?>;;.:•'' 






Illustrations. 



J 



Universe Works, Birmingham, in 1770 

IN 1896 



II 



II 



II 



II 



It 



»• 



II 



II 



Universe Works, Millwall, in 1896 

47 inch circumference Coir Cable, made by J. & E. Wright, for launching 
S.S. "Great Eastern** 

22 inch circumference Wire Rope, made by J. & E. Wright 
Wire Rope excavated from the ruins of Pompeii ... 

Cross Section and External Appearance of the First Atlantic Cable, 
invented and patented by J. & E. Wright 

** Universe" Cabieway, Unloading Station (Fig. i) 

I. -I Wrought Iron Trestle (Fig. 2) ... 

Tubular n n (Fig. 3) .. 

Rectangular Wood Trestle (Fig. 4) 
Round Fir Pole Trestle (Fig. 5) 
Side and Front Elevation of Wood Trestle (Fig. 6) 
Holding-down Pulleys (Fig. 7) ... 
Tilting Buckets or Skips (Fig. 8) 

II II (Fig. 9) 

•> M (Fig. 10) 

i< M (Fig. II) 

•• M (Fig. 12) 

" (Fig. 13) 
Automatic Grips (Fig. 14 and 15) 
Plain Saddle (Fig. 16) 
Permanent Clip (Fig. 17) 
Weight Tension Pulleys (Fig. 18) 
Screw ii II (Fig. 19) 

Brake Gear, &c., for Gravity Lines (Fig. 20) 
It II Detail (Fig. 21) 



II 



M 



II 



page 
I 

2 
2A 



7 
8 

10 





I4A 




I4B 




14c 




I4D 




I4E 




I4F 




I4G 




I4H 




I4H 




I4H 




141 




' 141 




141 




I4J 




14K 




14K 




i6a 




I 6a 




I 6b 




i6c 



'*" 






r«^ 



^ -■ 



x - 



■'■ • vy •- .' "» 



'■ , ••.•t 



'• * '.^ . 






, f 






'/. <- . 






'"' ' •"* '*■-/, <J. 



52A 



32B 



• . . « 






34 
34 
34 
35 
36 
37 



II 



II M 



PAGE 

Slow Speed Transmission, Self Delivering Drum (Fig. 44) ... ... ... 38A 

Grooved Driving Pulleys and Counter Pulleys (Fig. 45) 38B 

Counter Pulley on Tension Carriage (Fig. 46) ... ... 38c 

M II Tension Contrivance (Fig. 47) ... ... ... 380 

Endless Rope Haulage, Engine with heavy fly wheel and governors (Fig. 48) ... 42A 

I. .1 Engine with reversing gear (Fig. 49) ... ... ... 42A 

•• M Mining Trains, Tubs and Cars (Fig. 50) ... ... 42B 

•I 11 It M II (Fig. 5O ••• ••• 4^E 

n (Fig. 52) ... ... 42B 

•I Wood Roller with iron or steel spindle (Fig. 53) ... 44A 

It It with iron flange (Fig. 54) ... ... 44A 

Wrought Iron Roller with wood centre (Fig. 55) ... 44A 

Cast-Iron or Steel Roller (Fig. $6) ... ... ... 44A 

Narrow grooved supporting pulley (Fig. 57) ... ... 44A 

«* Endless Rope " or ** Main and Tail Rope " (Fig. 58) ... 44B 



tl 



*< 1 * 

II "' ■ "^" 



II II 



II 



II II 



II 11 



II II 



II It 



II II 



II 



Main and Tail Rope Haulage, Horizontal and Sheave (Fig. 59)... ... ... 46A 

Vertical End Sheave (Fig. 60) ... ... ... 46A 

'•Knock off" Hooks (Fig. 61) ... ... ... 48A 

Automatical n (Fig. 62) ... ... ... 48A 

Tail and Branch rope couplings (Fig. 63) ... 48A 

II •! Main and Tail rope supports (Fig. 64) ... ... 48B 

Incline Haulage, Arrangement of roads (Fig. 65) ... ... ... ... 48B 

II II Incline road (Fig. 66) . . ... ... ... ... 48B 

Conductors or Guide Rods Cold knotted rod ... ... .. ... 63 

Steel Cable Suspension Bridge at Trentham Park ... ... ... ... 67 

Solid Box Capples ... ... .. ... ... ... ... 75 

Reel for Hawsers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 79 

Winch h ... ... .. ... ... ... ... 79 

Patent Nippers for Hawsers ... ... ... ... ... 79 



Contents. 



PAGE 

1 KEFACB ... ... ... ... ... ••■ ••• ••• ••• J 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

First Biblical reference to rope — Coir Cable, 47 inches circumference, made by ^ & E. 

VVricht for launching the s.s. "Great Eastern*' ... ... ... ... 5 

Carving found in Assyria 3,000 years old shewing a rope and pulley block — Rope and 

pulley block were used by the Egyptians thousands of years ago — Wire beating 

practised by the Assyrians — Wire rope, 22 inches circumference made by 

J. & E. Wric.ht — Earliest recorded use of Wire Rope for engineering purposes — 

The Duke of Wellington's Rope Bridge in Spain ... ... ... ... 6 

Twisted Wire Rope in use eighteen centuries ago — Piece of Wire Rope excavated 

at Pompeii .. .. ... ... ... ... •.• 9 

First Atlantic Cable was invented and patented ly J. & E. W^right— Full particulars 

of construction, sire, weight, etc., of s.ime ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Various qualities of Steel W^ire are used for Wire Ropes ... ... ... ... il 

AERIAL CABLEWAYS. 

Aerial Wire Transportation efficient and economical— No difficulties which cannot be 
overcome — Now used by Railway Companies, Manufacturers, Ship Owners, Mine 
Owners, Builders, Ironmongers, etc. ... ... ... ... 13 

Aerial Cable ways are used for conveyance of passengers at Gibraltar, Hong Kong, and 

other places ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... 14 

The ** Universe" System. Endless rope run continuously — Rope varies in strength 

and is driven by a motor— Supports or standards ... ... ... ... 14 

Grooved carrying pulleys — Holding down pulleys — Tilting Buckets or Skips— Wright's 
Registered Automatic Grips— Saddles— Gravity Lines — Detaching the carriers 
from the rope — Weight carried ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Speed — Permanent clips— Can Ik* used for transmitting Power— Tension Pulley— Brake 16 

Driving from a motor— Angle stations ... ... ... ... ... ... 17 



PAGB 

Stationary or Double Cable System. Adapted for carrying passengers as well as 
goods — Consists of two parallel stationary cables — Speed — Size of cables — 
Stonework foundation at one end — Tension weight at the other end ... ... 21 

Carrying pulleys — Working tension on rope — Standards — Their distance apart — Worked 
by Gravity Line or motors — Wright's Registered Friciion Grippers— Adjustable 
lugs — This system independent of irregularities in surface of ground — Cirriages 
for passengers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 22 

Automatic Gripper for Traction Rope — Lug Catches for steep inclines ... ... 22B 

Speed — Cost of transport... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

Fixed Single Cable System. Specially suitable for Works, Mills, Warehouses, etc.— 

Single fixed carrying cable and endless traction rope — Turnouts ... ... 23 

WIRE ROPE DRIVING. 

Three conditions under which Wire Rope is the most effective and most economical 

method of transmitting power ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 

High Speed Transmission. Many difficulties in transmitting power overcome by 

rope driving only ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 25 

Particulars of a Wire Rope installation recently erected by J. & E. Wright, Ltd., 

Birmingham — The principles underlying the system ... ... ... 26 

Speed — Advantages of wire rope driving- Construction of the ropes — Diameter of drums 27 

Class of wire used — The wires subject to three tensions — Ratios between diameter of the 

ropes and that of the pulleys ... ... ... ... ... ... 28 

Table shewing Horse Power transmitted — Rule to ascertain this — Lower half of rope 

the leading or driving side ... ... ... ... ... ... 29 

Deflection — Minimum and maximum span — Carrying sheaves... ... ... ... 30 

Length of axle or shaft between bearings — Intermediate stations for long drives — Tension 
pulleys— Horizontal distance between drum centres should be taken — Wire rope 
not suitable for absolute vertical driving — Straight line int allation requires all 
pulleys to be same vertical plane ... ... ... ... ... ... 31 

Horizontal angle pulleys — Bevel wheeb — Driving Drum— The ropes — Broken wires ... 32 



PAGE 
Dressing — Galvanised rope not used for driving purposes— Care in uncoiling ropes ... ^j 

Splicing — Full instructions how to splice a wire rope ... ... ... .. 33 to 38 

Slow Speed Transmission. For very long transmissions, and when it is required to 

take off power at intermediate points the Endless Haulage is adopted ... 38 

Large rigid ropes used at slow speed under high tension — Self-delivering Drum — (irooved 
pulleys and counter -pulleys — Tension in slack side adjusted — Smjill sheaves for 
carrying rope — The sizes <»f pulleys required to suit various constructions of 
ropes — Small rollers to ensure true curve ... ... ... ... ... 39 

Rule lor calculating Horse Power transmitted by this system — Engines for driving ... 40 

UNDERGROUND HAULAGE. 

Advantages of wire rope for underground haulage ... ... ... ... ... 41 

(No. i). Endle.ss Rope Haula(;e. What the system signifies— Endless ro|x,' moving 

in one direction ... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... 41 

Variations in load counteracted by fly wheel and governors on engine — Rope worked both 
ways by engine with reversing gear— Speed of Rope — Self-delivering drum — 
Grooved and counter pulleys for necessary grip— Patent Clip Pulley — Tension 
arrangement — The syslem used on single or double tracks— Trams, tubs or cars 42 

Self-lubricating wheel — Attachment of trams to rope- Methods for working auxiliary 

roads — Driving Force Pump — Various kinds of rollers for supporting rope ... 43 



44 



Rollers recjuire attention or injure rope— *' Solid Oil" for rollers — Self-lubricating rollers 

Rope carried on the top of trams — Extension worked by motors — The great features 

of the Endless Rope system— Output readily increased ... ... ... 45 

(No. 2). Main and Tail Rope HAriAciE. Two separate ropes used ... ... 45 

The working cost higher under this system — Tubs are placed in a ** Set " or "Journey *' — 
Speed — It is an intermittent s)stem of delivery — The system suits where there 
are a number of side roads or workings — Two drums required ... ... 46 

The out-bye and in-bye trips — Rollers (or tail and main ropes — (luide rollers fixed to 
roof timbers — Mode of working the main and tail ropes— Branches from main 
line — Knock off hooks ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 47 



PAGE 

Couplings, etc. — Making the change in the ropes — Molincaiioa of the system in which 

an endless rope is reversed as required ... ... ... ... ... 48 

(No. 3). Incline Haulage. Incline in favour or against load — Brake for head gear — 

"Water Balance'* tank ... ... ... ... ... ... 48 

** Water Balance" hoist —Arrangement of roads— Passing place or loop ... ... 49 

** Bob-plane " arrangement — Modification of the balance-plane for a series of working 

roads — Fan brake or governor — Stresses on Incline Ropes ... ... ... 50 

ROPE. 

Construction of ropes (number of strands, wires, etc.) — Hemp cores- Wright's Internally 
Self-Oiling Ropes— Ratio of length of lay of wires and strands to diameter of 

vl« UUl •■• *•« ••• ••■ «•• ••• ••• •■■ >■• T m 

Lang lay principle —Seven stranded ropes — Life or duration of a rope ... ... 52 

Quality and temper of wire — Uniformity obtained by Tensile and Torsion tests ... 53 

Necessary information when ordering a rope — Dressing to prevent deterioration ... 54 

Re-capping ropes periodically — Rope not to be overworked ... ... .. ... 55 

Pulleys should be of large size — Ropes for long parallel barrels — Shaped wires to lock 

into each other not recommended ... ... ... ... ... ... 56 

Table of Inclines showing stress on ropes ... ... ... ... ... .» 57 

Shaped wire strands unsatisfactory — Uncoiling ropes— Storing of wire ropes — Changing 

rope from one drum to another — Carrying wheels should l)e in same vertical plane 58 

WIRE ROPES FOR CRANES. 

Wire Crane Ropes pive greater security than chains — (live ample warning if bee )niing 
weakened— Are lighter in weight, strength for strength than chains — ** Specially 
Flexible Compound" for cranes, derricks, capstans, etc. ... ... ... 59 

WIRE ROPES FOR LIFTS. 

More reliable lifting medium than chain ... ... ... ... ... ... 59 

Two to four ropes used — Avoid kinking rope — Make of ro,)e should be nicely adjusted 

to die of the wheels, etc. ... ... ... ., ... ... 60 



PAGE 



CONDUCTORS OR GUIDE RODS. 

Best Conductor is a suspended rod — Rigid Conductors to be avoided — Cold Drawn Steel 
Rods are the best — Rolled Rods liable to crack in use — Drawing a rod of itself 
a severe test of quality ... 

Number of rods in a conductor — Should be weighted in guide pits at bottom of shaft 
one ton to every 250 yards of conductor — Numl)er of guide rods for each cage — 
Sizes and weights of conductors ... 

STEEL CABLE SUSPENSION BRIDGE. 

Applicable for spanning Railway Lines, Roads, Rivers, Valleys, etc. — Light and elegant 
yet strong— Mode of construction ... 

Weight of load capable of bearing — Standard width of footway — length of bridge — 
Being light most suitable for Export 

TABLES. 



61 



62 



65 



66 



Table shewing Horse Power transmitted by wire ropes 

Table of Inclines showing the Stress on the rope ... 

Sizes and weight of Conductors 

Wright's Registered Breaking Strains of Mining Wire Ropes... 

Diameters and corresponding circumferences 

Size, Weights and Breaking Strains of Flat Ropes ... 

Working Loads of Winding Ropes 

Breaking Strains and Weights of Crane Ropes 

Imperial Standard Wire Gauge and equivalents of an inch ... 

Sizes, Weights, lengths and Breaking Strains of Iron Wire ... 

Galvanized Wire Strand ... 

Weights and Breaking Strains of Patent Galvanised Steel Wire Hawsers 

Lloyds' rccjuirements for Steel Wire Cables and Hawsers 

Tensile Breaking Strains and weights of chains 

Working loads of Copper Cords, Steel Wire Cord, Picture Cord, etc. 



29 

57 
62 

70 and 71 

72 

73 
73 
74 

n 

77 

77 
78 

79 
80 

81 



THE WIRE ROPE AND ITS 

APPLICATIONS. 



In publishing this treatise on the Wire Rope and its 
applications the writer has endeavoured by ^ivin^ ^^eneral 
explanations combined with a series of illustrations to make 
the subject of interest to the [general reader, and of practical 
utility to those requiring ropes for Transmission of l^)wer. 
Hoisting. Hauling, Tramways, Aerial Cableways, and I'nder- 
j^round Haula^^e, either by the " Kndless Rope" or the *' Main 
and Tail Rope " s\'stems. 



5 



Historical Sketch. 



JTFHE invention of Rope rendered possible the subjugation of the air for 
purposes of transport. Its history dates back for some thcjusands 
of years and is lost in the darkness of pre-historic times. 

The first direct reference to rope in the Bible occurs in the 

i6th chapter and 12th verse of the Book of Judges where we are 
informed that the fair Delilah bound Samson with ropes. But from 
the facility with which the latter broke his bonds it may be assumed 
they were not made upon the most approved modern principles. From 
such old-world ropes to those of recent manufacture there is a wide 
step. Powerful machinery has superseded the old hand spinning, and 
made it possible to produce ropes of enormous bulk and strength. 
The accompanying illustration is from a photograph of a piece of the 
Coir Cable manufactured by J. & E. Wright, and used in launching 
the Great Eastern Steamship. It was 47 inches in circumference, was 
composed of four strands, and contained no less than }J^o xariis ; it 

is one of the largest ropes ever produced. 

That the ancients, however, were well acquainted not onl\' with 
the manufacture of roj>es but with mechanical appliance^* b\' which 
their utility could be increased is illustrated by an interesting discovery 
made by the late Sir A. H. L.vv.aud during his excavations in 
Assyria. In what he distinguishes as the most ancient or north-west 



5 



i Palace at Nimroud he unearthed a slab on which was a bas-relief 

i ' 

'i representing the siege of a castle with a warrior in the act of cutting 

I a ro[)e to which was attached a bucket, and which ran through a i 

pulley-block thus enabling the besieged to draw water from an exmural 
well. This carving was executed about 3,000 years ago. 

The pulley-block and rope were also used by the Eg>'ptians ; 
a set ma\' be seen in the Leyden Museum having the sheave of 
firwood and the block of tamarisk wood, while the rofje is twisted 
from the fibres of the date tree. 

These ancient rojjcs were all made of vegetable fibres and although 

wirr beating was practised among the Assyrians there is no evidence 

to show that wire was appli(xl to rope making until more recent times. 

The accompainiiig is from a photograph of a piece of a wire rope 

measuring 22 inches in circumference made b\' J. & K. WklOHT for 

a foreign government. It contains y}^2 galvanised wires '144 of an 

inch diameter, and is composed of twelve strands laid spirally round a 

tarred hemp heart. The breaking strain of this rope was 911*73 Tons. 

The earliest recorded use of Wire Ropes for engineering purposes 

has reference to a suspension bridge erected at (iene\a in 1822.* 

The wires, however, were not twisted together to form the Rope but 

were laid together parallel and served or bound spirally with fine wire. 

* The following extract from Stanhoi*f/s ** Conversations with the DuKK OK 
WKi,i.iN<;roN " is worthy of note; it of course has reference to Hemp Ko|x»s : — 

'*The Duke believes that the Hrst invention of 8us)>ension bridges was by the 
'* engineers of hi.s army in Spain at Trajan's Bridge of Alcantara. Necessity was in this 
** case, as in many others, the |>arent of invention : for the arch of the bridge having 
*' been blown u|), and there l)cing no timlx^r in the neighbourhoo<l sufficient to repair 
**it, the engineers in this strait lK*tbought themselves of suspension ropes to be kept 
*' tight by a windlas.*. The a)){)jratus answered so well that it henceforth was alwajrs 
** carried alx>ut with the army for similar cases." 



Rope composed of twisted wires does not appear to have been 
used in latter times for commercial purposes until about 1832 to 1837, 
and was apparently first adopted in Germany, although an Hlnglishman 
claims to have made it in 1832. There is, however, some confusion 
as to dates and persons claiming the invention, which may be accounted 
for by the fact that the Twisted Wire Rope was actually made and 
in use eighteen centuries ago. 

As this fact is not generally known we wish to record that 
there exists to-day in the Musio Borbonico at Naples a piece of 
Wire Rope excavated from the buried city of Pompeii. 

The piece in question is 4^ metres long and has a circumference 
of about an inch. It is composed of three strands laid spirally together, 
each strand having fifteen wires also twisted together. The wires are 
of Bronze. 

Unfortunately no record was made of the exact position in 
Pompeii where the rope was unearthed so it is useless to speculate 
as to the probable purpose to which it was applied by the Romans, but 
after this discovery there is no reason to doubt that Wire Ropes ma\' 
have been in use before the Christian era, and further cxcaNations 
will probably bring to light more evidence on the subject. Perhaps 
Aerial Transportation was in vogue on the banks of father Tiber. 

We are indebted for the accompanying photograph of the 
Pompeiian rofje to the kind services of the Director of the Birmingham 
Art Galler>', Mr. Whitworth Wallis, who has devoted so much 
attention to everything appertaining to the buried city of Pompeii. 



iss 




i 



• ^ 



The 


manufacture of Wire 


Rope 


made 


rapid 


strides 


afte 


its 


commercial 


value" became generall) 


recf^nised, 


and 


n I8S7 


the 


first 1 


attempt to 


span the Atlantic ocean 


with 


a cable ^vas 


made. 


This 


and ' 



succeeding elTort.s, however, failed, and it was not imtil 1865-1866 that a 
cable was manufactured of sufficient strength, resistance, etc., to enable 
the great design to be successfully carried out. This cable was invented 
and patented by John .and l-jmix WRli;in'. The Directors of the 
Atlantic Telegraph Company having appointed Capt. DoutJL.AS GalTox, 
R.E., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., F.R.S. ; Wll.l.lAM F.mkhaikn, K.sq., C.E., F.R.S. : 
Chaklks VVhkatst(jnk, Ksq., F.R.S. ; William Thomson, Esq.. 
L.L.D., F.R.S., and Joski'H WiinwoRTiL Ksq., C.E.. F.R.S., to act as 
a Scientific Ciiiiimittec to arhisc them upon the cable to be used, 
these experts, after cxaniinatimi of all the S[jccimens submitted to 
Compan)', uiimihiioiiily ira>iiiiii,-n,/,->l -that John & EnwiN Wkiuht's 
Patent Compound Hemp and V\'irc Cable be adopted." 

The following brief description of this first Atlantic Cable 
ma>- be of interest :— 



CROSS SECTION AND EXTRHNAL APPEARANCE. 

CONDUC'IOK— Cop|ier strand, consisiing of seven wires (six laid lound one), 
and weighing 303 lbs. per nautical mile, enil)edded for solidity 
in Chattlr ton's Compound. Gauge of single wire '048. 
Gauge of strand '144. 



II 



INSULATION.— Gutta Percha, four layers of which were laid on alternately 

with four thin layers of Chaitkrton's Compound. The 
weight of the entire insulation 400 lbs. per nautical mile. 
Circumference of core i'392. 

EXTERNAL PROTEC ITON.— Ten solid wires of the gauge 095 of Galvanized 

Homogeneous Iron, each wire surrounded separately with five 
strands of Manila Yarn, saturated with a preservative compound, 
and the whole laid spirally round the core, which latter was 
padded with ordinary hemp, saturated with preservative mixture. 

WEIGHT IN AIR. — 35 cwt, 3 qrs. per nautical mile. 

WEKiHT IN WATER. — 14 cwt. per nautical mile, or equal to eleven times 

its weight in water per knot ; that is to say, it wouUl bear 
its own weight in eleven miles depth of water. 

BREAKING STRAIN.— 7 tons, 15 cwts. 

DEEPEST WATER ENCOUNTERED, 2,400 fathoms, or less than 2>4 nautical 

miles in depth. 

THE CONTRACT STRAIN was equal to eleven times its weight' per nautical 

mile in water. 

ONE KNOT, being in fathoms= 1,014 x 11 =ii|^Ji =4*64 times the strength 

requisite for the deepest water. 

LEN(;TH of CABLE SHIPPED, 2,300 nautical miles. 

Wire Ropes were originally made from Best \'orkshire. Charcoal 
or other iron wire, but since the introduction of Steel Wire the\' have 
been made almost exclusiveh^ of this material owini^ to its i/reater 
tensile strength. 

The qualities var}- considerabh' — from 40 to 45 tons per scjuare 
inch of sectional area for Homogeneous Steel ; from 60 to 95 tons 

for Patent Improved Crucible Steel and from 100 to 120 tons for 
Wright's Plough Steel. 



\ 



11 



12 



In the succeeding chapters the various applications and conditions 
under which the Wire Rope may be employed are treated separately 
and in broad detail, and the usual practice and general rules under 
which each system or application is worked are shortly explained. 
It has, however, been impossible for us to go into so much detail 
as we should prefer owing to the fact that almost every case in 
actual practice has particular conditions and circumstances which have 
to be worked out. In dealing with new proposals we always consider 
the peculiarities of each individual case, and when necessary make 
special designs and arrangements to meet any unusual requirements 
that may be entailed. 



•^SC^XXG/^ 



12 



Aerial Cableways. 

FOR THE READY TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS 

IN ALL SITUATIONS. 



] I [ H E proved efficiency and economy of Aerial Wire Rope Transportation 
in countries where the irregularity of the land renders surface haulage 

impracticable, are leading to its adoption in situations equally favourable 

to other systems as being lower in initial cost, maintenance, and working. 

There are practically no difficulties presented by natural formations which 

cannot be overcome by the Wire Rope ; roads, rivers, ravines are spanned, 

precipices climbed, and mountain tops connected without bridges, or 

embankments with comparatively little trouble and cost. Distant 

points are, so to speak, brought together and materials automatically 

deposited at the exact spots required. The capital outlay for erecting 

a Cableway is minimised by the fact that little land is needed and that 

the cost varies directly with the requirements. It must also be borne in 

mind that in the event of the line being no longer required it can be 

removed to other situations without difficult)', and, therefore, need not be 

regarded as dead outlay. Cableways will continue to work unobstructed 

by climatic conditions which bring surface haulage to a standstill. 

The practical value of the Cableway as a method of transportation 

is now recognised by Raikvay Companies as feeders to their main lines ; 

by Manufacturers who by this means convey their materials to different 

parts of their works ; by Ship Owners for loading and unloading their 



X 



>3 



cargoes ; by Mine Owners who thus carry their ore through the air ; by 
Builders who thereby convey their bricks and materials to the desired 
points ; by Iron Masters for the transjx)rtation of their raw and finished 
materials ; in fact there is hardly a trade or a works where a Cableway 
would not prove a convenience and an economy. Aerial Cableways 
are also used for the conveyance of passengers and of operatives to 
and from their work as may be seen at Gibraltar, Hong Kong, and 
other places. 

We propose, therefore, to give a brief description with illustrations 
of the leading systems of Aerial Wire Rope Transportation which we 
have endeavoured to make as free from technicalities as possible and yet 
sufficiently clear to enable our readers to grasp the principles involved 
with a probable view of applying them to their own requirements. 



THE "UNIVERSE" SYSTEM. 

This system consists of an endless rope which runs continuously 
between two points or stations which it is desired to connect for transport 
purposes; a general view is given at Fig. i. 

The rope varies in strength according to the length of the span 
and the individual weight of the loads it is required to transmit, and is 
driven by a motor situated at either of the extreme stations, or in the 
case of long lines, at the centre as will be described below. 

The rope is kept in position by supports or standards situated 
at distances of 70 to 120 feet apart and are preferably of iron, 



14 



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Side Elevation 



Front Elevation. 



This figure shows a strong form of wood trestle of the four post type 

suitabie for use In valleys, &c. 

Fig. 6. 



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see Figs. 2 and 3, but in situations where the carriage of iron supports 
would be considerable and wood is plentiful the latter may be used, 
see Figs. 4, 5 & 6. 

One or more deep grooved carrying pulleys are fixed to the feed 
and return side of each standard on which the rope travels : under some 
conditions holding-down pulleys are also used, thus enabling the rope to 
conform somewhat to a dip too wide to be spanned without supports, 
which latter are necessarily limited in height as in Fig. 7. 

The " Universe " system is worked with tilting buckets or skips 
Figs. 8 & 9, which are removable at the stations, and attached to the 
cable by Wright's Registered Automatic Grips as shown at Figs. 14 & 15, 
or by saddles merely resting upon the rope Fig. 16. The buckets may 
also be made detachable from their carriers so that they may be removed 
if desired at the loading terminal and led away on trolleys to the working 
points of the mine. With the plain saddle a steep gradient should not 
be attempted or the saddle may slip, but our Registered Automatic Grip 
can be used on any reasonable gradient and is consequently applicable 
to Gravity Lines. 

To the side of the grips or saddles are attached small grooved 
wheels which strike rails placed at the terminals in such a manner as to 
detach the carriers from the rope by their own momentum. At the same 
time the grips are automatically released. 

The buckets or skips are constructed to carr\' from 56 to about 
600 lbs. weight or more if necessary, and are of a form adapted to the 

material to be carried see Figs. 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, 13 ; in fact there is no 



15 



limit to the adaptability of these skips. The cable can be run at a 
speed of about four miles per hour, and the delivery made as frequently as 
may be required, carr>'ing from 25 tons to 350 tons per day. 

There is yet another form of attaching the skips to the cable 
suitable for steep gradients as i in 2)^, and where frequent delivery is 
not required. This is by means of permanent clips as shown in Fig. 17. 
These skips are of course not detachable at the terminals but are made 
to dump automatically from the bottom. Both the loading amd emptying 
operations are done while the skips are in motion as otherwise the whole 
system would be stopped ; it therefore follows that the speed of transit must be 
comparatively slow when permanent clips are used, about two miles per hour. 

An advantage of the " Universe " system is that in some gravity 
lines when loose skips are used it can be employed for Transmitting 
Power while doing its ordinary work, for instance driving Ore Crushers 
or other machines. 

A Tension Pulley round which the rope passes should be fixed 
at one of the terminals. This Pulley is sometimes operated by a screw 
which allows its position to be altered so as to obtain the necessary tension 
on the rope. Fig. 19, but it is preferably fixed to a movable carriage to which 
is attached a counter-weight as shown at Fig. 18, which renders the tension 
self-adjusting. The framework may be of wood or iron. In situations 
where the fall is in favour of the loaded skips and exceeds one-seventh of 
the horizontal span, this system can be worked by gravity, the full skips 
drawing up the empty ones. These lines are controlled by a suitable 
Brake attached to the terminal pulley as shown at Figs. 20 & 21. 



16 



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Where a line for different reasons cannot be worked by gravity a motor must 
be provided which operates the driving drum and may be either a steam, 
gas, oil, or compressed-air engine, or gins worked by horses, mules, or 
coolies according to the circumstances of the case, see Figs. 22 & 23. 
The rope may be driven from the motor by being coiled several times 
round an ordinary rope-drum or preferably by a grip pulley as illustrated 
at Fig. 24. 

To avoid obstacles it is frequently necessary to divert the direction 
of the line ; this is done by arranging angle stations with turnouts for 
the loads, which will be understood by consulting Fig. 25. 



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STATIONARY OR DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEM. 

Under conditions where the length of span, the weight of the 
individual load, the steepness of the gradient or the speed of transit is too 
great for the preceding system the Double-Cable system is recommended. 
The principle of this line adapts itself particularly to the carrying of 
passengers as well as goods owing to the greater steadiness and higher 
speed of the cars. 

It consists of two parallel stationary cables along which the 
carriages are drawn in opposite directions by a lighter and endless 
flexible traction-rope which ensures a regular return of the empty 
carriages, see Fig. 26. 

With this system the cars can be run up to a speed of fifteen 
miles per hour, it can be worked at almost any gradient and has been 

made to carry individual loads up to 20 cwts. 

The cable upon which the return or empty cars run is usually lighter 

than the other, and on a long line the cable carrying the loaded carriages 

may vary in diameter with the varying gradients and spans, being 

strongest at points subject to particularly heavy wear or stress, such as the 

head of a long or steep incline where it has to bear its own weight in 

addition to the working load, thus enabling econom\' to be studied at ever)- 

point. These cables are firmly imbedded in a stonework foundation at 

the one end, and at the other is attached a weight equal to one-sixth 

of the breaking strain of the cable, ensuring the required tension ; this 

arrangement prevents accidents from contraction under climatic changes. 



21 



lO 



The traction rope needs few carrying pulleys en route as it is 
supported by the cars themselves and maintained at a proper tension 
by passing round a pulley fixed to a movable carriage similar to that 
shown at Fig. i8. The working tension on this rope, which is made of 
best selected steel and of a special construction, should not exceed 
one-tenth of its breaking strain. 

The standards are, with very little variation, the same as in the 
" Universe *' system, see Fig. 27. They are distanced in accordance with 
the stress which the contour of the ground throws upon the cable, but 
should not exceed 200 feet except in special cases such as crossing gorges, 
etc., when as much as 1600 feet have been allowed. 

This system under some conditions can also be worked as a 

** gravity" line, or with motors as described at page 5. The carriages 
are attached to the traction-rope by Wright's Registered Friction Grippers 
Fig. 28, or on very steep grades over i in 3 by a series of adjustable 
lugs fastened upon the traction rope and which lock with a lug-catch 
shown at Fig. 29. 

The Stationary or Double-Cable system is partially independent 
of irregularities in the surface of the ground as will be understood on 
reference to Fig. 30, showing a ver>' varying profile which is not followed 
by the rope-line. 

The carriages are of divers construction to suit the kind of 
material to be carried, or for passengers, and are made to convey loads 
up to 20 cwt. A few designs are shown at Figs. 31, 32, 33, 34. 



22 



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DOUBLE CABLE SYSTEM 
Automatic Grippep for Traction Rope, Fig. 28. 
This arrangement consists of a spHt cone A wliicli works in a taper sleeve and 
is dra'vn together by the action of ihe screw in boss of lever B. Tliis lever 
is moved automatically at the terminals by the curved deflection bars C C 
which raise or lower it as required, thus releasing or gripping the Traction Rope, 





DOUBLE CABLE SYSTEM. 

Lug Catch for Steep Inclines, Rg. 29. 

The carrier is automatically disengaged at the Terminals by the Fingers A 

being lifted by means of lifting bars B Uius allowing the Rope to remove itself. 



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The speed at which the cars can be driven will of course vary 
with the difficulties of the route, but a higher speed can be attained than 
is possible on the "Universe" system, in some instances, as already stated 
fifteen miles per hour being run and as much as 2,000 tons of minerals 
carried per ten hours. 

It is not possible to give here the cost of transport by this system 
which necessarily varies in accordance with the capital outlay, class and 
quantity of materials to be carried and price of labour in the locality, 
but we will be glad to forward estimates on receipt of the particulars 
enumerated on perforated slip at page 8. 



FIXED SINGLE CABLE SYSTEM. 

This system is designed for very small requirements and is specially 
suitable for Works, Mills, Warehouses, etc., where material is required to 
be periodically delivered to certain points. 

The single carrying cable is a fixture and the traction rope endless. 
If it is desired to run cars in opposite directions simultaneously suitable 
turnouts are provided at fixed intervals which allow the cars to pass 
each other. 

Estimates for an installation by this system will be forwarded on 
receipt of full particulars and plan, or if in England, we shall be pleased 
to attend in order to get out the details and advise generally for a small 
fee which however will not be charged if the contract is placed with us. 



23 



Wire Rope Driving. 



rnHERE are three conditions under which the Wire Rope is the 
most effective and at the same time the most economical 
method of transmitting power. 

A. For driving in works and factories where exposure to 

weather is unavoidable, and when corners have to be 
turned and the horizontal plane varied, which may be 
accomplished with the same rope, thus avoiding spur 
wheels, band, and extra shafting. 

B. For long distance driving, up to several miles. 

C. For the sub-division to different consumers of the power 

generated for economical purposes at a central station. 
When it becomes generally recognised that enormous 
economies are effected by monodynamic production 
every industrial centre will devise some method of thus 
generating force, and it is only by means of the Wire 
Rope that its sub-division can be effected upon a 
commercial basis. 



HIGH SPEED TRANSMISSION. 

In many instances diflRculties present themselves in transmitting 
power which can be overcome by rope driving only ; some of these 
may be understood by reference to Fig. 35, which represents a 



25 



Wire Rope installation recently erected by us in a manufactory near 
Birmingham. From the main shaft in the engine house an endless 
Wire Rope Ai runs across the yard to a pulley B driving the line 
shaft in the Turning shop. On its way it is deflected 140 degrees 
by an angle sheave C fixed on the chimney stack, and is again diverted 
into a line parallel to its original direction by an angle sheave D at 
the corner of the Turning shop. From the pulley B, which has a 
double groove, a second endless Wire Rope A2 is run, making at 
K an angle of 135 degrees, in order to drive the shafting in the 
Polishing Mill by means of the pulley F. 

Another endless rope system G connects the main shaft in the 
engine house with the Fitting Shop along which a shaft J is driven 
for the heavy machines, the bevel wheels at H driving the shaft K 
for the lighter machines. 

The following are the principles underlying this system of 
Wire Rope transmission of power : — 

A. In executing mechanical work Power may be converted into 

Velocity and vice versA. 
/>. The work done in a given time equals the resistance 
overcome multiplied by the distance through which the 
resistance is overcome. For instance if a wire rope of 
one-half inch area travelling at a velocity of two feet 
per second overcome say a resistance of 4,ocxD pounds, 
the work done will be equal to 8,000 foot-pounds per 
second. By increasing the velocity the work done 



z 



26 



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ASTO>» LtNOX AND 



increases pro ratd^ the initial force remaining unaltered ; 

or the amount of work done may remain unaltered by 

decreasing the initial force in proportion as the velocity 

increases. So, if the wire rope be equal in its intensity 

of tension to 4,000 pounds, by doubling the velocity 

the same amount of work will be done by a i?ope of 

one-half its sectional area. 

It will now be understood that by running the rope at a speed 

of 80 feet per second, its sectional area could be reduced to 0125 

of an inch, equal to a tension of 100 pounds, while the same amount 

of work would be accomplished. 

One advantage of wire rope driving, then, is the facility with 
which power can be converted into velocity and reconverted into power 
at the required point with very little loss through friction. This 
cannot be said of transmission by shafting where the diminution of 
the initial power by friction, vibration, etc., is very great, it having 
been estimated, apart from the excessive cost and attention, that in 
a properly hung shaft one mile long half the initial power would be 
lost in the effort to move it. 
Construction. Ropes are of different constructions; the most suitable 

for driving purposes are made of six strands of seven wires each as 
they contain larger sized wires than the more flexible ropes, thus 
presenting a greater wearing surface. Below we give the diameters 
of the drums best adapted to this construction. Where it is not 
convcfnient to use such large drums, ropes of greater flexibility. 



27 



containing twelve or nineteen wires per strand, should be employed. 
Results will depend in no small degree upon the class of wire used 
in the manufacture of the rope. It should possess a high torsional 
efficiency to allow of its adapting itself to sudden curves, while its 
wear-resisting properties must not be sacrificed. Our great experience 
in this branch of engineering has enabled us to select a wire having 
these qualifications and known as WRIGHT'S " UNIVERSE '' brand. 
The wires composing the driving rope are subject to three tensions : — 

A. That due to the power transmitted + the friction and 

weight of rope, called the direct Tension. 

B. That due to bending over the pulleys, called the Bending 

Tension. 

C. The Centrifugal Tension. 

Now the sum of the intensity of these three tensions must not equal 
the limit of elasticity of the wires, and as the bending tension may 
be decreased in favour of the working tension it is important to fix a 
suitable ratio between the diameter of the rope and that of the pulley 
which will yield the greatest working tension without increasing the sag 
in the following side to the point at which it would cause slipping 
over the pulley, or overstraining the wires under bending tension. 
These ratios are for ropes of 

6 strands of 7 wires i" diameter : 150" 

6 „ 12 „ i" „ : 115" 

6 „ 19 » i" „ •• 90" 

as per the following table. 



28 



5 



Table showing the Horse Power transmitted by six stranded wire 
ropes of 7, 12 and 19 wires per strand, running at velocities of 20 
to 80 feet per second, with size of driving wheels. 





Minimum Diameter 












DlA.OK 


in inches of 
Driving Wheel for 




Velocity in 


FEET PER SKCOM). 




ROPE 


ROPES OF 

^'7 , <^/.2 ' ^/i9 












IN 
INCHES 

i 


20 ' 


30 


40 


50! 

^ER TRv^ 


60 


70 


80 












HORSK l-OV 


lNSMITTEI) 




^ 


1 

37 


4 


6 


8 


10 


1 

12 14 


16 


^^6 


47 ; 36 


6 

I 


9 


12 


'5 


18 21 


24 


H 


56 


43 


34 


' 9 


13 


17 


22 


26 


31 


35 


,"16 


66 


50 ! 39 


12 


18 


24 


30 


36 


42 


47 


^ 


75 


57 ' 45 


16 


23 


3' 


39 


47 


54 


62 


?.6 


84 : 65 56 

1 1 


: 20 

1 


29 


39 


49 


59 


69 


7« 


5^ 


94 


72 62 


24 


36 


48 


61 


73 


«5 


97 


"/I6 


103 


78 ■ 68 


29 


44 

t 


59 


73 


88 


'03 


117 


% 


1 

112 


86 79 


35 


■ 52 


70 


«7 


105 


122 


140 


% 


loi 90 


48 


7J 


95 


119 


142 


166 


190 


1 


115 lOI 

i 


' 62 


93 


124 


•55 

1 


186 


217 


248 

1 



Rule: H = D^ 31 V. 



H = Horse Power. 



D = Diameter of Rope. 

V = Velocity in feet per second. 
It is advisable to make the lower half of the rope the leading 
or driving side, as in work this half is at greater tension and will 
require less space for the sag, while the deflection in the following 
side will by this arrangement be utilised upon the pulleys. 



29 



This deflection is a very important point in rope driving as 
regulating the required tension and may be pre-determined by the 
following equation : — 

H = the deflection when at rest in feet 

S = the span between the centres of suspension in feet. 

H = 0000695 S*' 

It will be understood from above that in practice there is a 
minimum and a maximum span in wire rope driving. The minimum 
when the necessary deflection is too small to be regulated by splicing ; 
the maximum when it is so great as to allow the rope to come into 
contact with underlying objects. Although in the case of the former 
tension pulleys are adopted, it is found that wire rope driving is not 
satisfactory under a sixty foot span. 

When in work the tension on the lower or driving side of the 
rope causes it to rise, while the sag in the upper half correspondingly 
increases. It therefore follows that the limit of span is that which 
demands a deflection in the following side causing it, when in motion, 
to approach the leading half to within about twenty-four inches. 
This remark, of course, does not apply to instances where the drive 
runs from one elevated point to another, such as across a ravine, 
where the upper half of the rope may be made the driver. 

In ordinary long spans exceeding 400 feet the rope may be 
supported on carrying sheaves when necessary. The driving side 
requiring half the number of sheaves that may be found requisite 
for the following side. Fig. 36. For ^ inch diameter ropes and 



30 



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I. 

V 



♦ 'STOt le.NOX A\D " 



under, these sheaves should be as large for the driving side as the 
driving drum in order to minimise the bending stress ; for the following 
side they may be half the size. Fig. 37 gives one of these carrying 
sheaves supported on a wooden frame ; Fig. 38 shows the same on an 
iron frame. The length of the axle or shaft should not be less 
between the bearings than the radius of the sheave. 

In case of long drives under the High Speed Syst(!m, it is 
preferable to adopt intermediate stations equi-distant from one another, 
each in turn serving as the driver for another rope. A ready-spliced 
spare rope may then be kept on hand and applied as required to 
either span. Fig. 39 gives an intermediate station drum showing the 
double pulley arrangement for driving the next section. 

Where the driving and driven drums ar^ not on the same 
horizontal plane the tensions will be unequal, the greater tension 
falling upon the higher drum. This, however, need not be taken into 
account unless the angle of inclination is so great — over about forty 
degrees — as to interfere with the necessary deflections, in which case 
tension pulleys must be adopted. 

For purposes of calculation the horisontal distance between the 
drum centres should be taken. F'or absolutely vertical driving we do 
not recommend the wire rope. 

In a straight-line installation the greatest care must be taken 
to ensure all pulleys being in the same vertical plane, as also being 
turned exactly true and evenly balanced, and the shafts perfectly 
horizontal. If any of these conditions be ignored the rope will grind 



A 



3» 



8 

against the flanges and sway laterally or vertically with consequent 
damage to rope and bearings, see page 24. 

Where the drive is required to depart from the straight line, 
horizontal angle-pulleys with vertical guide sheaves Fig. 40 are some- 
times used. Bevel wheels are also frequently employed Fig. 41. 

Upon the driving drum, in wire rope transmission, depends to 
a great extent the efficiency and economy of the installation. Owing 
to the low value of the co-efficient of friction of iron on iron it has 
been found necessary to pad the pulley groove with a softer material 
which will also spare the rope. Wood and other materials have been 
used for this purpose but after numerous and protracted experiments 
with many differing substances, it was discovered that segments of 
leather driven edge-on into the groove an^ afterwards turned true, 
gave the most satisfactory results, lasting, when properly fitted, from 
two to three years. Fig. 42 shows a drum thus equipped. 

The Ropes. When ropes are previously spliced some difficulty may be 
experienced in getting them into position on the drums. The best 
method is to curve a piece of angle iron to about two-thirds the 
diameter of the drum ; one end is then clamped to the arm of the 
wheel, the other thrown over into the groove so as to serve as a 
leader to the rope. Fig. 43 shows the position of the rope on the 
angle iron curve, half a turn of the drum in the direction of the 
arrow will bring it into the pulley groove. 

Broken Wires. After a rope has been in use some length of time broken 
wires will probably appear at intervals. These must not be allowed 



32 



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to protrude as they tend to cut the other wires and cause an 
oscillation of the rope in passing over the pulleys. They should be 
broken off short with a pair of pliers by bending backwards and 
foru'ards; they should not be cut. 

5SSING. Ropes running in an exposed position should be periodically 

treated with WRIGHT'S Preservative Dressing, see page y6, 

TANizEi) Rope. Galvanized wire rope should on no account be used for 
driving purposes as the acids deteriorate the steel and render it more 
susceptible to corrosion when the coating is worn off. 

:oiLiNG. The greatest care should be exercised in uncoiling wire ropes 

to avoid kinking which is a serious damage that cannot be put 
right. If the rope is delivered by the maker on a reel the latter 
should be revolved on a spindle as the rope is paid off; if delivered in 
a coil it should be placed on a turntable or cart wheel to be paid off. 

icJNG. It is very difficult to make a good splice in a wire rope 

and requires a long experience. The method to be adopted differs 
materially from that employed in hemp rope splicing, hence very few 
riggers are able to splice wire rope. 

The length of the splice varies according to the diameter of 
the rope and the purpose for which it is to be used, but, generally 
speaking, long splices are to be preferred and may be, for driving 
purposes, from twenty to seventy-five feet in total length. 

We recommend the following : — 
Dia. in inches \i ^M ?8 J'i6 >^ ?i6 5^ '! i6 H Ji i \]i » '4 i:^8 1)2 
Splice in feet 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 50 50 50 60 60 60 



33 



lO 



Before attempting to splice a wire rope the following tools 
should be provided : — 
A Wooden Mallet. 



A Pair of 7 inch Cutting Pliers 




A Round Long- tapered Mandril 



A Flattened Steel Mandril 0: 




A Strong Pocket Knife. 

Having fixed upon the length of the proposed splice, say 
thirty-six feet, overlap the two ends of the rope to that extent, then 
open out the strands each way for half the distance, having previously 
bound the rope at these points with string to prevent further un- 
ravelling, and cut off each alternate strand to within eight inches ; also 
cut off the two exposed hemp cores leaving eight inches only, to 
serve as a hold for after manipulation, Fig. F. Then heave close up the 
two untwisted ends of rope and carefully interlock the opposing strands 
so that they pass each other in regular order. Now cut the string 
binding, unlay strand i and as this is being done lay strand A firmly 
into the open groove until within three feet of its end and cut oflT 
strand i leaving three feet projecting which must be temporarily 
secured with string. Then repeat the operation by unlaying strand 3 
and laying strand C into its groove, and follow with strand 5 — E, Fig. G. 



34 





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Now commence in the opposite direction by unlaying strand B 
and laying strand 2 in its place, follow with strands D — 4 and F — 6, 
stopping short and cutting off exactly as with the first half. The 
rojx: will now present this appearance, Fig. H. 

Then, commencing with the centre of the splice, take the 
projecting eight inch of core by the hand and pass the round mandril 
through the rojxi so that three strands lie each side, now work round 
with the lay of the rope taking out the core up to the joint ; next 
insert the flat mandril (nrr the base end of the strand to be inserted 
into the core space, and under two of the firm strands ; by now 
wi>rking the mandril round with the lay of the rope the loose end 
nf strand will he forced into the centre lately occupied by the hemp 
lore. Next repeat the operation with the other end of the same joint, 
working in the opposite direction, and so on with the other joints 
u!\til all the eiuls are laid in and the rope rounded up with the mallet. 

Care must he taken to whip the ends of each strand, preferably with 

^(Mul twine, for a distance t)f eight inches before forcing them into their places. 

With ropes on the lang principle it is desirable to whip these 

strand-ends for twelve inches, and to make the splice one third 

It)nger than those given in the table above. 



SLOW SPEED TRANSMISSION. 

For very long transmissions, or when it is required to take 
off power at intermediate points, the principles above explained cannot 
so advantageously be applied; those of the Endless Haulage, described 



^8 






NO 






N^OII' 





GROOVED DRIVING AND COUNTER PULLEYS. 
Fig. 46. 



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GROOVED DRIVING AND COUNTER PULLEYS. 
Fig. 46. 

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15 



in a subsequent chapter, are therefore adopted. A larger and con- 
sequently more rigid rope is run at a slow speed under a high tension, 
and is actuated by a self-delivering drum round which, in the absence 
of the necessary conditions of tension of the system above described, 
it is wrapped several times in order to obtain sufficient driving 
friction. Fig. 44 ; a similar drum may be situated at the receiving end 
of the drive when re- transmission is desired. For large power 
transmissions grooved pulleys and counter-pulleys are used for the 
purpose, the latter being set at an angle corresponding to the grooves 
in the former, which may be two or more according to the amount 
of rope friction required, Fig. 45. At Fig. 46 is shown the counter 
pulley fixed on a tension carriage which has the advantage of counter- 
acting the pressure on the crank shaft bearings. The necessary tension 
in the slack side may also be adjusted by one or other of the 
contrivances shown in Figs. 47, 18 and 19. 

The rope is carried upon small sheaves situated at from 80 to 
120 feet apart for straight drives, but for angles of deviation of 
appreciable acuteness the pulleys should not be less than fifty diameters 
of the rope of 42 wires, forty diameters of the rope of 72 wires or 
thirty diameters of the rope of 1 14 wires ; but a number of rollers 
of small diameter set at intervals insuring a true curve being described 
by the rope are preferable. 



A 



39 



i6 



Tlie horse power transmitted by this system may be calculated 
by the equation. 

H. P. = [ 4755 D^— -000006 (W + g, + g^) ] V. 
In which D = Diameter of rope in inches. 
V = Velocity in feet peV second. 
VV = Weight of rope, 
g = Weight of driving and driven pulleys and 

spindfcs. 
g^ = Weight of all intermediate pulleys and spindles. 
The engines for driving the rope on this system of transmission 
arc similar to those shown in the Endless Rope Haulage section 
Figs. 48 and 49. 



'^X^K^ 



40 



Underground Haulage. 



The advantages of wire rope for underground haulage are generally 
admitted, and at the present time it forms the most important means for 
the transportation of materials in all mining and similar undertakings. 

The other systems of haulage, such as Animal, Compressed-air, 
or Steam Power, have all been tried and found to have objections to 
their use ; while the improvements which have from time to time been 
made in wire rope haulage have enhanced the inherent advantages it 
possesses when compared with these other systems. 

Its high mechanical efficiency, safety, and immunity from the 

chances of break-downs, the facility with which it can be taken round 

curves, and the freedom from smoke or noxious gases attendant on its 

manipulation in the mine, are the chief characteristics which have led 

to its general adoption. 

There are two systems of Wire Rope Haulage applied underground 

which we will now describe. 



(D-ENDLESS ROPE HAULAGE. 

This system, as its name signifies, consists of an endless moving 
haulage rope, to which the trams, tubs or cars are attached either singly 
at intervals, or in "trains" of so many together. 

The rope is as a rule run continuously in one direction, and in order 
to counteract the effect of the considerable variations in load due to the 
trams being suddenly coupled or uncoupled to the rope, the engine driving 



41 



the rope is fitted with a heavy fly-wheel and sensitive governors which keep 
the speed uniform, see Fig. 48. 

Occasionally, however, when special cases demand it, the rope is 
worked both ways, receiving its motion from an engine fitted with reversing 
gear, Fig. 49. This latter arrangement is practically the same as that 
known as the ** Main and Tail Rope " system, and the journeys are worked 
in exactly the same manner, see page 45. 

The speed of the rope varies in different installations to suit the output, 
but it is usually from three to six miles per hour. It receives its motion 
from the engine either by a self-delivering drum, shewn in Fig. 44, or by 
grooved driving and counter-pulleys round which the rope passes to and fro 
several times to give the necessary grip, as shewn in Fig. 45, or by 
means of the patent Clip-pulley, Fig. 24. 

The tension arrangement, to take up and regulate the amount of 
slack in the rope, is usually placed at or near one end of the system, and is 
of similar construction to those shewn in Fig. 19, or Figs. 46 and 47. 

The endless system of haulage is in use on both single and double 
tracks, but in the case of the single track, arrangements have to be made to 
enable the trains of tubs travelling in different directions to pass. The 
double track system, although more costly in laying down, is undoubtedly 
the better and safer where a large output has to be dealt with, as the full 
trams travel in one direction and the empty ones in the other on their own 
roads. 

The mining trams, tubs, or cars are of various forms, and are made 
both of wood and iron, with either chilled cast iron or cast steel wheels. 




Fig, 48. 




^ 



: 



, I 



1 I 






' • ■ - t • 






A*TC^ 1 f s .- » ', 



1:-- 



* ' 



».«M 



THENEW YOKK 

PUBLIC LIBR ART 



A5TO«.LtNOX *nO 
T»LOtN >«ni;.vn*rio»«S. 



see Figs. 50, 51, 52. An excellent form of these is that known as the Self- 
lubricating wheel, which contains a recess cast in the boss in which the 
lubricant is placed, and when in good order will run for months without 
attention. 

The trams are attached to the rope at any point by chains wrapped 
round the rope or preferably by means of clips or tongs, of which there are 
a number of patterns, some of which are shewn in Figs. 50 and 51. 

The connection for working side roads can be made very readily 
either with the single or double track system ; it is, however, sometimes 
preferable to work the side or auxiliary roads by means of separate ropes, 
driven either by a separate motor — steam, compressed air, or electric — or it 
may be arranged so that the side ropes obtain their motion from the main 
rope which is taken round a pulley on whose shaft is fixed another 
pulley driving the auxiliary rope by means of a friction clutch. 

The endless system is frequently adapted in collieries for also 
driving the force-pumps fixed down the mine, by utilizing the rope which 
does the hauling, thereby abolishing the cumbersome and heavy "spear" 
or pump rods usually put in to convey the motive power from the surface 
to the pumps below. In this case a clip-pulley and clutch are attached 
to the pump shaft, by which a positive and even drive is secured ; or the 
pump may be driven from the terminal pulley shaft by a separate pulley 
and rope. 

The rope is usually supported, when not held up by the cars, 
by rollers fixed to the sleepers. There are several forms of these rollers 
which are made to suit different working conditions. The simplest kind 



4S 



is that shewn in Fig. 53 ; it is of wood with an iron or steel spindle, 
and is sometimes made with iron flanges at the ends, Fig. 54. Another 
form is shewn in Fig. 55, where the body is made of W.I. Tube with 
wood centre driven in to take the spindle. The best form, however, is 
illustrated at Fig. 56, which is made of cast iron or preferably of 
cast steel about 6 inches to 8 inches diameter. Where the rope is 
taken below the surface of the road or away from it altogether, as 
in coming to and from the engine-house, the rope may be carried on 
narrow-grooved supporting pulleys Fig. 57. 

In all these supporting pulleys and rollers, the adoption of cast 
steel has marked a great improvement, enabling them to be made 
lighter, consequently absorbing less power, while their increased strength 
and hardness render them much more durable than those of cast iron. 
Owing to the fact of their being separated and at intervals along the line, 
the track-rollers often receive very little attention and are allowed to run 
for long periods without lubrication, the result being that they soon 
wear themselves out, cause wear on the rope by their irregular running, and 
necessitate a much greater amount of power to be exerted at the engine to 
drive the rope than would be required if the rollers were in good condition. 

Much of this loss of power can be obviated by the use of a 
a lubricant known as " Solid Oil " applied through plunger lubricators. The 
rollers then only require a periodical examination, and run very steadily. 

Another preventative is the use of self-lubricating rollers which 
revolve upon the spindles, and are filled inside with oil either through 
a plug or by means of a hole in the spindle. 



44 



i 



• t 



■, VT 



V 









These will run for a long time without being looked after. 

An arrangement is sometimes adopted which obviates the use 
of carrying pulleys, in which the rope is carried on the top of the 
trams in a suitable grip, see Fig. 52. This arrangement, however, is 
only suitable for installations having few or slight curves. 

In cases where extensions become necessary, power is sometimes 
taken down to the end of the main haulage system by means of 
compressed-air or electricity, and an engine or motor is fixed in an 
overhead chamber and arranged to work the extension either on the 
"Endless Rope" system, or on the "Main and Tail Rope" system described 
later. An illustration of this arrangement is shewn in Fig. 58. 

The great features of the Endless Rope system are its slow 
continuous working, uniformity of power absorbed, and the regular feed 
and delivery of the full tubs " out-bye " and of the empties " in-bye," 
thus greatly facilitating the operations of distribution. 

The output can readily be increased either by putting the tubs 
at closer intervals along the rope at the same speed, or by keeping 
the tubs at the same distance apart and increasing the speed of the 
rope. In all cases it is advisable, in putting down power, to provide 
for extensions. The speed of the rope can thus be varied to correspond 
exactly with the output required. 



(2)-MAIN AND TAIL ROPE HAULAGE. 

This system of Haulage is second in importance to that previously 
described and is known as the " Main and Tail Rope " system. Two 




45 



separate ropes are used, the main rope for drawing the full load 
"out-bye" and the tail rope for drawing the empties " in-bye/* on the 
same line of rails. 

This system finds favour under certain conditions, but the working 
costs are higher. 

Instead of the tubs being placed at regular intervals apart, as in 
the endless rope system, they are placed in a " Set " or " Journey " of from 
25 to 100 tubs connected closely together and run in and out at speeds 
of from 12 to 20 or more miles per hour, a man riding with the "Journey" 
each way. In the event of a tub getting de-railed while running at full 
speed the damage done is often very considerable and great delays occur 
in clearing the road. It will be understood that this is an "intermittent" 
system of delivery, instead of "continuous" as in the case of the 
Endless Rope system. 

There being but one line of rails it follows that no empties 

can be taken in-bye until the full tubs have been delivered out-bye. 

This system is suited to mines where there are a number of side 

roads or workings, or where the gradients vary and the curves are 

frequent and of short radius. 

The Engine for driving is required of greater power in this 
system. Two drums are required which run loose upon the shaft and 
are put into gear alternately by means of clutches. 

When the "Journey" of full tubs is ready for the out-bye trip 
the main rope is connected and the tail rope is made fast to the 
last tub, the engine man throwing in the clutch of the main rope-drum 



46 



Fig. 69 
Tail Rope. Horizontal end Sheave. 




Fig. 60 
Tail Rope. Vertjcal end Slieave. 



46 A. 






^ • "^ . ■, :;i ISO 



• -«.»•- 



and allows the other drum to run freely on the shaft, applying the 
brake sufficiently to prevent the drum over-running the tail rope. For 
the in-bye trip the tail rope hauls the " Journey," the main rope being 
attached to the back car of the "Journey," the clutch of the tail 
rope-drum being put into gear and the main rope running loose. 

The tail rope is usually carried from the winding drum to the 
end of the line on guide pulleys fixed to the side of the road on 
uprights a few feet above the rail level Fig. 64. The main rope is 
supported at intervals upon rollers placed between the rails, similar to 
those shewn in Figs. 53, 54, 55, and 56. 

In cases where the gradients vary so as to form a "Concave" 
slope, guide rollers are fixed to the roof timbers to save the friction 
which would otherwise occur by reason of the rope rubbing against 
the roof At the in-bye end the tail rope passes round a sheave 
about four feet diameter fixed either horizontally in a pit underground, 
as shewn in Fig. 59, or vertically in timber framework as in Fig. 60. 
Sometimes two engines are used situated one at each end of the 
system, the main engine actuating the main rope, the other the tail 
or return rope. In either mode of working the tail rope may be 
smaller in diameter than the one used for hauling the loaded wagons. 

Branches from the main line are worked by separate ropes 
which take the place of part of the tail rope. They are connected 
and disconnected at the various points required, by means of suitable 
couplings. When the rope is under considerable tension " knock-off" 
hooks have to be used which are attached to the tubs as shewn in 



A 



47 



Fig. 6 1 and which can be made to wx*rk automatically as in Fig. 62. 
The form of couplings used for connecting the tail and branch ropes 
are shew-n in Fig. 65. There are x-arious \\-a\-s of making the change 
in the ropes: it can be effected either at the time the ''journey" reaches 
the junction of the main and branch lines, or preferably when the 
"journey" is being made up at the entrance to the mine or unloading 
station, as in this case the connection to the branch line is made when 
there is no stress on the rope, and no time is lost when the "journey" 
arrives at the branch. 

A modification of the main and tail rope system above described 
is sometimes adopted, in which an endless rope is used which is 
reversed in direction as required. 



INCLINE HAULAGE. 

There are frequently cases where material has to be taken up 

or down an inclined plane from one level to another, and the 

conditions under which such systems of haulage operate are quite 

different from either of the systems above described. In many workings 

the incline is against the load, in which cases power is required, in 

others the incline is in favour of the load thus making it self-acting as 

the loaded cars draw up the em[)ty ones. It is then necessar)' to fit the 

head gear with a break of more or less power according to the 

steei)ncss of the gradient, Fig. 21. There is another type of incline 

haulage which is used for passengers, known as the " water-balance ** 
system. In this type a single wire rope is attached to the cars and 



48 






«K, 






^^SDa 



NO 



passed round a sheave placed at the top of the incline and provided 
with a powerful brake. The bottom of the car is fitted with a tank 
which is filled with a suflRcient quantity of water at the top of the 
incline to outweigh the ascending car which has previously been 
automatically emptied of its water on reaching the bottom of the incline. 

A similar arrangement to this is used extensively in Ironworks 
for charging the ore, fuel, limestone, etc., into blast-furnaces, this is 
known as the "water-balance" hoist. There are usually in this system 
two cages running vertically iif guides with an arrangement to fill 
the lower part of each cage with water at the top of the hoist, and 
automatically discharge it at the tjottom. The cages are connected 
by means of a steel wire rope running over a pulley at the top. 

The most frequent application of incline haulage is in mines 
where the material has to be brought up the incline from the 
workings below and delivered into railway wagons or screens at the 
top, the empties being returned into the mine. 

The arrangement of roads is a point which is often overlooked. 
Where only moderate outputs are required it is frequently possible 
to work the cars in such a way that they always pass each other 
in the middle of the incline. Fig. 65. 

In these cases, instead of a double line being provided all the way, 
they are worked with a passing-place or loop in the middle, above 
which the track becomes three-railed the centre rail serving for both roads 
alike, and below which is only a single road with a pair of automatic 
points at the bottom end of the loop. This arrangement enables a great 



49 



lO 



saving to be made in maintenance and cost of permanent way. The 
other usual forms of incline roads are shewn in Fig. 66. 

Another arrangement of self-acting Incline, designated a "bob- 
plane," is used when small quantities of materials have to be conveyed 

down-hill. In this case a line is laid between and below the single 
main line, the full tub running down draws up a long shallow 

balance-car weighted sufficiently to draw up the empty tub. The wire 
n>jx} is taken round a sheave with brake which is placed vertically 

at the head of the incline. 

A modification of the balance plane is sometimes used where 
thor^* are a scries (^f working-roads or headings at different stages of the 
incline, in which case there is a kind of platform-car bearing fixed 
rails. This is fitted with a powerful brake worked by brakesman who 
stops the car e.x.ictly opposite the various "landing-stages" where the full 
mining tubs are waiting to be run on, whereupon the platform car is 
hauled up to the top of the incline when the tubs are run off, emptied, 
run back, taken clown again to their respective landing-stages. 

The balance in this case may be arranged differently from that 
mentioned above, and a separate line used for the balance car. 

In cases where the load is descending and the gradient is very 
steep, special precautions have to be taken in furnishing sufficient 
brake power to properly control the descent of the cars, and it may 
be necessary to have a fan-brake or governor, which is fitted above the 
head gear, absorbing considerable power when driven at a high speed. 

For Stresses on Incline Ropes see Table, page 57. 



50 



^^^ 



The Rope. 



Trt)OPES are made of four, five, six and seven strands, each strand 
consisting of five, seven, nine, twelve, fifteen, nineteen, twenty-four 
or thirty-seven wires, and for some purposes even more wires are used. 
Haulage ropes are made preferably of six strands containing 
seven wires each or forty-two wires in all. The strands are laid round 
a hemp main core which should be made of long fibre Russian hemp, 
or where grippers are used upon the rope, of Manila hemp which is 
a hard fibre and is slow to deteriorate. This hemp core should be 
previously treated with linseed oil to prevent wasting from internal 
friction of fibre on fibre, or preferably by our Self-lubricating 
Composition which also serves to oil the inside wires of the rope and 
keep them from corroding. These ropes are known as Wrights' 
Internally Self Oiling Ropes. The advantage of a forty-two wire rope 
for haulage is the greater wearing surface presented by individual 
wires, but where a rope above ^ inch diameter is required to bend to 
sharp angles or wind on a small drum, this advantage must be 
sacrificed in favour of greater flexibility by increasing the number of 
wires per strand. 

A point of the greatest importance in haulage ropes, and 
strangely neglected by manufacturers, is the ratio of the length 
of lay of wires and strands to the diameter of the drum on 
which the rope is expected to work. If our friends in ordering 



SI 



would invariably state the particulars of their plant and angles it 
would allow us to adapt a lay which a long recorded experience 
has enabled us to fix as giving the best results under similar 
conditions. 

In ropes of the usual construction the strands are laid up in 
the reverse direction to the lay of their wires. Thus a right-hand 
laid rope has the wires left-hand laid and conversely. But with ropes 
on the lang principle the wires and strands are both laid in the same 
direction ; the best results are obtained from these latter ropes where 
subjected to much surface friction as with haulage. 

Seven stranded ropes have the extra strand in the centre in 
place of the hemp core ; we do not recommend them except in 
special circumstances as this extra strand adds to the weight of the 
rope without increasing its ultimate strength. The life or duration of 
a rope depends primarily upon 

A, The quality and temper of the wire being suitable for the 

stress the rope has to bear, and the conditions under 
which it has to work. 

B, Its construction as regards number of wires, strands and 

class of core. 

C, The ratio of the lay of its wires to that of its strands 

and their proportion to the diameter of the drum or 
pulley over which it works. 

D, The nature of the dressing with which it is lubricated and 

the mode and frequency of its application. 



52 



E. The number and angle of* the turns it is required to make 
in working. 

With regard to the quality and temper of the wire, it is 

surprising so much vagueness should exist in the minds of those who 

are constantly using ropes as to the meaning of the terms " Patent," 

" Improved Patent," " Patent Crucible," or " Plough " steel wire. With 

the object of introducing a more exact and scientific denomination 

we have at great labour compiled and Registered a table showing the 

different tempers of wires comprised in the classes above referred to 

with the corresponding Breaking Strains of every size of rope from 
9^6 to 65^ inch circumference. This Registered Table will be found 

at page 70. 

A sine qud non for a good rope is not merely the suitableness 
of the quality and temper of the wire to the work and cbnditions 
to which it will be subjected, but the uniformity of such quklity and 
temper in every component wire. In order to obtain this essential 
uniformity we instituted a series of tests which we apply to both 

ing 
it up, and such coils as fall short of or exceed our standards are 
rejected. These tests consist of pulling the wire to destruction by a 
direct stress, called the Tensile Test ; bending at right angles a given 
number of times without showing signs of failure, called the Bending 
Test ; and the Torsion Test which means that the wire must stand a 
certain number of twists in a length of eight inches without cracking. 
AH tests are recorded in our Register for purposes of reference. 



uniformity we instituted a series of tests which we apply to bo 
the leading and following ends of every coil of wire before workii 

tf iir\ or»r1 cii/*V» r^rkilc a« "full ^hnirt nf or ^f/'/'**rf r»iir cfanrlirHc a 



53 



In ordering a rope, for nk-hatever purpose, we would impress 
upon users the importance of specifying in the fullest manner the 
particulars of the iJi*ork it is required to do, the method of its 
application, and the details as to size and speed of drum and 
pulle>^ : if for an incline, the gradient, the number of wagons and 
their gross and net weights should be added. With these particulars 
before us we can bring to bear a recorded experience of forty years 
and so ensure a satisfactory- construction, make and quality of rope 
to our clients. The furnishing of this information is all the more 
important to the user since it enables us to supply the most suitable, 
therefore, in the end, the most economical rope. 

It is a mistake to imagine, as is frequently done, that a rope 
of high quality wire must necessarily give better results than one of 
lower grade wire, that Plough will last longer than crucible steel. It will 
be understood from what w^ have stated above that the life of a 
rope depends upon its adaptability to a combination of conditions, 
and this can only be ensured by a long and intelligent experience 
in both the manufacture and application of ropes in all circumstances. 

We have been able in numerous instances to show those 
friends who placed themselves in our hands a considerable saving in 
their rope account 

Dressing. The great importance of using a lubricant perfectly free 

from mineral acids which corrode steel, and of a consistency 
permitting penetration to the inside wires while possessing sufficient 
substance to ensure adherence to the wearing surface, is constantly 



54 



5 



overlooked. Instances are not infrequent (and become public when 
resulting in loss of life) of ropes suddenly breaking while the visible 
wires show no signs of deterioration. Upon examination in such cases 
it is invariably found that the internal wires have perished by 
corrosion from one of four causes : either the lubricant has been too 
thick to penetrate between the external wires, or it was so thin that, 
after proper application, it ran off or was washed off by rain or 
drippings in the pit, or containing mineral acids, itself rusted the wire, 
or perhaps the right kind of dressing was too infrequently applied. It 
should be constantly borne in mind that the condition of the external wires 
is no indication of that of the internal ones ; the outside wires are 
subject to friction which in wearing them away keeps them free from 
rust even when insufficiently dressed. For this reason winding ropes 
should be re-capped at intervals not exceeding six months, which 
affords the opportunity of examining the inside wires and also 
changes the lifting point of the rope on the pit-head pulley. 

Lubricants should be applied with a stiff brush, or, where 
practicable, the rope should be allowed to run through a trough 
having brushes fixed on either side and filled with the dressing. 
This process should usually be repeated at least once a week. At 
page 76, will be found particulars of Wright's Preservative Dressing 
which is prepared as a result of many years experience and 
experiment. 

A rope should not be overworked. For vertical winding the 
gross load including the weight of the rope between the pit-head 



\ 



55 



pulley and the cage at the commencement of the lift should not, 
except in certain cases, exceed one-tenth of the Breaking Strain of 
the rope as given in our Registered Table at page 70. For incline 
working the actual stress on the rope varies according to the 
load and gradient. On the opposite page we give a table showing 
at a glance the stress in pounds per ton of 2240 lbs. on gradients 
of 2° 52' to 63° 27.' A rope suffers most from the effect on the 
wires of bending over pulleys of small diameters. In laying out 
a plant it is more economical in the long run to adopt large size 
pulleys in all instances. This will be more readily understood when 
it is remembered that as a wire is bent, its fibres on the side of 
the greater curvature are elongated while those on the reverse side 
are compressed ; so that deterioration commences from the first 
bend under strain, till at last the limit of the decreasing elasticity of 
the wire falls below the stress and the wire breaks. 

When ropes have to work on a long parallel barrel, such as 
a steam crab, the lay of the rope should be in the direction of the 
travel, i,e. if the travel is from left to right the rope should be 
right hand laid, and conversely. 

There is yet another class of rope we have not yet described 
made of shaped wires which in their external layer fit or lock 
into each other in such a way as to present the appearance of a 
solid bar. We sometimes supply these ropes for sinking, but do 
not recommend them for other purposes as the lubricant or dressing 
cannot penetrate between the locked wires of this external layer, so 



56 



Table of Inclines 




Showing the Stress on the Rope in lbs. for each ton of load, based upon 


an allowance of 25 lbs. per ton for rolling friction. 




RISE IN 100 FEET. 


ANGLE OF INCLINATION. 


STRESS ON 


ROPE IN LBS. 






FO:^ EACH 


TON OF LOAD. 


5 






2° 1:2' 




• • • • 


137 


10 . 










5° 43' - 












248 


15 . 










8° 32' ... 












357 


20 . 










11° 10' ... 












458 


25 . 










14° 03' ... 












568 


30 . 










16° 42' ... 












668 


35 . 










19° 18' ... 












765 


40 . 










21° 49' ••• 












857 


45 . 










24° 14' ... 












944 


50 . 










26° 34' ... 












1026 


55 . 










28° 49' ... 












1 104 


60 . 










30° 58' ... 












1 177 


65 . 










33° 02' ... 












1245 


70 . 










35° 00' ... 












1309 


75 . 










36° S3' ... 












1369 


80 . 










38° 40' ... 












1424 


85 . 




• 






40° 22' 












1475 


90 . 










42° 00' ... 












1523 


95 . 










43° 32' ... 












1567 


100 










. 45° 00' .. 












1609 


105 










. 46° 24' .. 












1647 


110 










■ 47° 44' .. 












1682 


115 










49° 00' .. 












1715 


120 










50° 12' .. 












1746 


125 










51° 21' .. 












1774 


130 










52° 26' .. 












1800 


135 










• 53° 29' .. 












1825 


140 










. 54° 28' .. 












1848 


145 










■ 55° 25' .. 












1869 


150 










. 56° 19' •• 












1889 


155 










• 57 1 1' .. 












1907 


160 










. 58^ 00' .. 












1924 


165 










• 58° 47' •• 












1940 


170 










. 59° 33' .. 












1955 


175 










. 60° 16' .. 












1970 


180 










. 60; 57' .. 












1983 


185 










. 61 37' .. 












J 995 


190 










. 62° IS' .. 












2007 


195 










. 62° 52' .. 












2018 


200 










. 63' 27' .. 












2028 

m order to gtre a 


In order Co aaccrtaii 


1 the requisite breakinsr strain of the nnw, muJ 


Itiply the total "stress' by 8 


de manpn for woar. A reference to our R^^tered Table of Breaking Strains will then indicate the 


size and quality 


r tha ftmetmrntf rope. The weight of the rope it«rff, proportionate to the lenirth of the plane (for which see table of I 


filglttSOfSlMl W 


Ira Rop 


fhAo 


uldbei 


■ddedu 


» die worlung load bcfoi 


ra mah 


iaitT 


OAIX Cik 


mSi^ 


B. 


1 



\ 



S7 



8 



that unseen internal corrosion is likely to result. Further, they are 
unsuitable for endless haulage as they cannot be spliced, and when 
used for winding they require constantly re-capping owing to the 
liability to unequal stretching in the different shaped layers. 

Similar objections apply to ropes having shaped wire strand 
cores which quickly break up under side bending. They are always 
lively ropes, and difficult and unsatisfactory to splice, as the strands 
not being round, make an uneven bed when tucked in to form a 
core. See " Splicing," page 33. 

Uncoiling. Wire Ropes should never be uncoiled from the inside 

or from a stationary position. The coil must be placed on a reel 
or turntable and paid off from the outside end. 

Storing of Wirr Ropks. Much damage is often done to Wire Ropes 

through being improperly stored. They should be kept upon planks 
at least six inches from the floor, covered with a tarpaulin sheet 
and periodically brushed over with Wright's Preservative Dressing. 

A rope should never be changed from a larger to a smaller 
drum ; no harm will result in changing it from a smaller to a 
larger one. 

When carrying wheels are necessary the greatest care should be 
taken to get them in the same vertical plane, otherwise the rope will 
ride against the flang. Care should also be taken that the rope 
dose not drag against any intervening substance. Neglect of these 
precautions will seriously injure the rope and thereby shorten its life. 



58 



WIRE ROPE FOR CRANES. 

The application of Steel Wire Rope for lifting purposes is 
extending and will continue to do so as its advantages become more 
generally known. After the many accidents which have occurred through 
the failure of chains used for lifting purposes, Crane-makers and users 
are now adopting the Wire Rope which gives greater security from 
breakdowns by reason of the fact that it is of the same strength from 
end to end and has the unique advantage of giving ample warning of 
its becoming weakened from lengthened use ; whereas iron chain, 
however excellent the material from which it is made, is proverbially 
dependent upon the strength of its weakest link, and this may have 
a hidden fault causing failure without the slightest warning on any 

sudden strain being applied. 

A further consideration, which is leading to its adoption in 
place of chain, especially in large cranes, is that strength for 
strength the wire rope is so much lighter than the latter allowing the 
the carrying sheaves also to be lightened and consequently there is 
a considerable reduction in freight, which in the larger cranes, derricks 
and sheer-legs, etc., is a heavy item. 

We make a " specially flexible compound steel wire rope " of 
a particular lay, and ductility of wire, rendering it particularly 
applicable to cranes, derricks, capstans, etc. 



WIRE ROPE FOR LIFTS. 

With the increased use of suspended lifts or " elevators " a 
more reliable lifting medium than chain was required, this was found 



\ 



59 



lO 



in the steel wire rope, and now there are thousands of lifts, Hydraulic, 
Electric, and Power, which employ wire ropes for lifting the cage. 

The usual practice is to have more than one rope, each capable 
of supporting the full load. In ordinary lifts two ropes are considered 

sufficient, but in the highest class of lifts as many as fowr ropes are 

provided. Great care should be exercised to avoid kinking, in putting 
on the ropes, as this damage can never be rectified and consequently 

shortens the life of a rope. In order to avoid kinking we supply our 

lift ropes on reels from which they can be paid off by passing a 

bar through the centre. 

The greatest care is necessary in the manufacture of lift ropes 

as the lay must be nicely adjusted to the diameter, position and 

number of the wheels used in the lifting mechanism and round which 

the rope has to travel. The steel wire has also to be carefully 

selected and tested before being employed in such responsible work. 
We have had a very long and varied experience in the use 

and manufacture of wire ropes for all purposes, and we are always 

pleased to inform our friends as to the strength and best description 

of rope to use for their particular necessities, and generally to advise 

them as to the best systems and most economical methods of 

working upon receiving full particulars of their requirements. 



eo 



Conductors or Guide 

Rods. 



Undoubtedly the best form of conductor is the suspended guide 
rod. Rigid conductors should always be avoided except where 
absolutely requisite as they never remain in a perfectly perpendicular 
position and frequently impede free winding. We now make our 
suspended conductors of Cold- Drawn Steel Rods twisted together, thus 
completely superseding the old charcoal iron rods which did not 
possess the necessary wearing qualities. 

These steel nxls are annealed in a special manner and cold- 
drawn to size after annealing. The advantage claimed for this is that 
the body of the rod remains ductile while the peripheral pores of the 
steel are closed and the surface slightly hardened and consequently 
rendered more durable under constant friction. 

We warn our friends against the rolled rods supplied b)- some 
makers, they are usually insufficiently and irregular!}' annealed, liable 
to crack in use, and quickly wear away. Though their inital cost is 
low, in the end they are very expensive. 

The drawing process to which we subject our rods is in itself 
a severe test demanding a perfectly regular grade steel and insuring 
a thorough and efficient annealing. 



6i 



These Cold-Drawn Steel conductors are made of seven or fifteen 
rods according to size and requirements. They should be fastened on 
the head-gear of the shaft and weighted in guide pits at the bottom, 

so as to allow a little elasticity and provide for expansion and 
contraction. A fair weight to attach is in the proportion of i ton 
for every 250 yards of conductor. 

The gross load and depth of shaft determine the size and 
number of guide rods for each cage, but where two cages are wound 
in one shaft two unconnected conductors should be suspended between 
them ; the space between the cages when passing may then be six 
inches only. 

The accompanying drawing is from a photograph of a piece of 
our Cold-Drawn Steel Rods half inch diameter which had been knotted 
cold thus proving its quality and general ductility. 

JVe guarantee all our Cold- Drawn Steel Rods to stand cold 
knotting in this way^ 

Sizes and Weights of Conductors. 

Circumference 2J 2* 2J 3 3^ 3J 3f 4 4^ 

^KlTer/T^^"^^ ^^^^ i ^^^"^^ ^^V 'ibare i^\ lifuU if bare 
Exact Diam. 716 796 '875 '954 1*034 1*114 i'i93 i'273 1*392 

^^fiSonf" } ^i ' '°^ "^ '3^ 'S5 18J "i »5lbs. 



I 



62 



Steel Cable Suspension 

Bridges. 



These Bridges have been designed for the use of Foot Passengers 
or Cattle and are apph'cable for spanning Railway Lines, Roads, 
Rivers, Valleys, etc. 

Their light and elegant appearance recommends them for Private 
Grounds and Public Paths, while their strength is greater in proportion 
to their weight than that of any other class of bridge, and their 
security under even hurricane pressure may be recognised from the 
fact that the superficial area exposed to side pressure is so small. 

The Bridge consists of two Galvanised Steel Cables stretched 
over Iron, Wooden or Masonry Pillars at the extremes of the span 

and securely anchored into the ground beyond. PVom these Cables 

V 
the footway is suspended by means of vertical iron rods. In the 

accompanying illustration it will be seen the whole stress falls upon 

the Steel Cables which arc constructed of selected wire careful 1\' tested 

before being used, and Galvani.sed in order to prevent deterioration 

from exposure to the weather. 



65 



\ 



These Bridges are capable of bearing a unifcl 
3CO lbs. per square foot of treadway or four times I 
llic j>ci»pie who could stand there at one time, arl 
e\oii to the minutest detail, upon modern engineerirl 

The standard width of the Footway is four fa 
for ordiiiiiry rKjuirements although we make them ud 
rininy [r.t fiKH. The length may vary from 50 
l»cr ten feet. 

The lightness of the Cable Bridge adapts it f<l 
pari (if the world. We Mipply full Instructions an 
erecting which can be done by unskilled labour. 



•^(^>(KGx= 



7. 



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John & Edwin Wright. Limited. 

UNIVERSE WORKS, BIRMINGHAM. 

Telesrams : JlfW^ Telephone : 

UNIVERSE, BIRMINQHAM." ^^^^^L^ No. 707. 

Established 1770. 



WRIGHT'S PATENT "UNIVERSE" PACKING 

No. P.g20. 2/6 PER LB. 

FOR WINDING AND HAULAGE ENGINES. 



TJFTER years of experimenting we have at last discovered a Packing which 
is superior to anything ever before produced. It is durable to an extent 
never experienced with any of the many kinds of Packing now in use and 
continues self-lubricant and pliable as long as it lasts. It is well known that 
India-rubber cores very soon perish through the action of heat and oil and 
thus expensive packing is sacrificed, constituting a continual loss. We have 
succeeded in making a core which has all the advantages of the India-rubber 
core and yet is practically indestructible so that the packing can be used for 
an unusually long period and yet all the time be frictionless, pliable, and 
highly lubricating. The core of this Patent " Universe " Packing is made of 
a material not hitherto used for this purpose and it has satisfactorily withstood 
severe and prolonged tests. We have specially constructed a compound machine 
for forming the periphery with a fibrous material of the best possible description, 
and the whole is dressed at different stages of its manufacture with an entirely 
new lubricant made to withstand heat and from which all acids have been 
carefully excluded. We may safely state that this Packing will last five or 
six times as long as the ordinary Packing with India-rubber core. 

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5 



Flat Ropes 

should be avoided, but the following table will be useful where such are 

already in use. 



IRON WIRE. 



Size. 



In. 

1^X72 

2 x^ 

2>^X>4 
2^XJ^ 
2^ X %6 

3 xH 

3>^ X "A6 

3^x^ 

4 x^ 
4J4^ X % 

5 XI 

sjix;^ 

5^ X '^6 

5^x1 

6 x;^ 



per 
Fathom 



lbs. 

8 

o'y4 

oH 
2% 
4 
6 

9 
2i>^ 

26 

29^ 

33>^ 
36 

39 
40 

42«^ 

46 

46 



Price 

per 

Cwt. 



STEEL WIRE. 



Size. 



Weight 

per 
F'athom 



In. 



i^x 



^H 



4 xH 



lbs. 



8 

2^4^H ' 12J4; 



2j^ X %6 i 14 

3 x^ I 16 
3Kx^ I 19 

3>^X"/i6 ' 21 >^ 



3KxK i 24>^ 



26 



Price 

per 

Cwt. 



HEMP. 



Size 
4 Strand. 



In. 

3 X 

4 X 

4J4^x 

5 X 

5>^x 

5^x 

6 X 

6>^x 

7 X 

8>^x2>4: 



Weight 

per 
Fathom 



'A 

H 

A 

A 

H 

A I 

A\ 



lbs. 

16 
20 

2I>^ 

23 

24>^ 

26 
28 
30 

33 

40 

45 



Price 

per 

Cwt. 



Breaking 
Strain. 



Tons. 

15 

I 

18 

20 

23 
27 
30 

35 
40 

44 

49 

55 
60 

65 
66 

70 

77 

77 



REMARKS. 

Working Loads. — For quick w inding, the load, including weight 
of rope between pulley and pit bottom when the cage is down, should 
be taken at about one-tenth of the breaking strain. 

Note. — The weights per fathom are given for Flat Wire Ropes, 
made with Hemp Cores in each Strand ; for Wire Cores add about 
one-ninth to the given weight 



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76 



IMPERIAL STANDARD WIRE QAUQE. 

TABLE OF Sizes. Weights, Lengths, and Breaking Strains of 

IRON WIRE 

haued by the IRON AND STEEL WIRE MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION. 



Siz* on 


DIAMETER. 


Sectional 


WEIGHT OF 




BREAKING 
STKAINS. 


Size on 


Wire 




Area 
in Square 






Length 
of cwt. 




Wire 
Gauge. 


Gauge. 


1 












Inch. 


Millimetres 


Inches. 


100 Yds. 


xMile. 




Annealed 


Bright 












lbs. 


lbs. 


yds. 


lbs. 


lbs. 




v„ 


•500 


127 


•^963 


1934 


3404 


58 


10470 


15700 


Vo 


Vo 


•464 


11-8 


1691 


166-5 


2930 


67 


9017 


13525 


7o 


Vo 


•432 


1 1 


1466 


144-4 


2541 


78 


7814 


II725 


Vo 


V. 


•400 


TO*2 


•1257 


1238 


2179 


91 


6702 


10052 


Vo 


Vo 


372 


9*4 


•1087 


1071 


1885 


"OS 


5796 


8694 


Vo 


'L 


•348 


8-8 


•0951 93*7 


1649 


120 


5072 


7608 


Vo 


7. 


•324 


8-2 


•0824 ' 81 -2 


1429 


138 


4397 


6595 


Vo 


I 


•300 


7-6 0707 


69-6 


1225 


161 


3770 


5655 


I 


2 


•276 


7 -0598 


58-9 


1037 


190 


3190 


4785 


2 


3 


•252 


6-4 


•0499 


49-1 


864 


22S 


s66o 


3990 


3 


4 


•232 


5*9 


•0423 


41-6 


732 


269 


2254 


3381 


4 


5 


'212 


5*4 


•0353 


34-8 


612 


322 


1883 


2824 


5 


6 


•192 : 4*9 


•0290 


285 


502 


393 


1544 


2316 


6 


7 


•176 


4-5 


•0243 


24 


422 


467 


1298 


1946 


7 


8 


160 


4-1 


•0201 


19-8 


348 


566 


1072 


1608 


8 


9 


•144 


37 


•0163 


16 


282 700 


869 


1303 


9 


lO 


•128 


3*3 0129 


127 


223 


882 


687 


1030 


10 


II 


•116 3 


•0106 


io*4 


183 


1077 


564 


845 


II 


13 


•104 


2-6 


•0085 


8-4 


148 


1333 


454 


680 


12 


«3 


092 


2*3 


•0066 


6-5 1 


114 


1723 


355 


532 


13 ' 


14 


•080 


2 


•CO5O 


5 


88 


2240 


268 


402 


14 


'5 


072 


1-8 


•0041 


4 


70 


2800 


218 


326 


15 


i6 


064 I -6 


•0032 


3'2 


56 


3500 


172 


257 


16 


n 


•056 1-4 0025 


2*4 


42 


4667 


i3» 


197 


17 


i8 


•048 1*2 ! 0018 


1-8 


32 


6222 


97 


M5 


18 


'9 


'040 I 


•0013 


1*2 


21 


9333 


67 


100 


19 


20 


•036 o*9 *ooio 


I 


18 


1 1200 


55 

1 


82 


20 i 

1 




Galvanized \ 


A/iRE St 


RAND. 


1 




THREE WIRES. 


SEVEN 

DIAMETER OF ! CAl 


WIRES. 

JGE OF YARDS IN 


1 




DIAMETER OF 


GAUGE OF YARDS IN 




No. 


STRAND. 


WIRE. A CWT. 


STRAND. 


\ 


VIRE. 


A CWT. 


No. 





A bare 


8^ G 210 


A full 


I 


I G 


170 


' 


1 


i full 


9^ » 240 


5 


I 


2 „ 


224 


., 1 


2 


1 J Dare 


10 „ 270 


} full 


1 


3 M 


260 


1' 2 


3 


II „ 300 


i 


3'i '♦ 


286 


3 


4 


1 1 bare n^ „ 360 


y bare i 


4^ M ' 326 


1 4 


5 


y\ full ; 12 ., 430 


A full ' I 


5 .» ; 430 


5 


6 


3 


13 M 530 


!: 1% . ' 


si .» 


510 


6 


7 


A bare 


14 „ 650 


Ts bare : 


t6J „ 


600 


7 


8 


SI 


147 .. 745 


A full 


1 


t7 ,. 


700 


8 


9 


fV bare 


IS »» 850 


ft 

3T 


1 


i7t ». 


790 


9 


10 


1 


16 „ 


1080 


i 


1 


iH „ 


lOIO 


1 10 [^ 



77 



< 
o 



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u 



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o 



till 

13 If: 

I s 3 



Mi 



2? 
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12 



CHAINS. 



SHORT LINK. 



Si/c. 



I nches. 



^% 



Wei-lu 

per 
P'iUhom. I 



lbs. 



:> i6 1 


-2//8 


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27 


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1 


36 


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43 


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t 


49 


1 


54 


I 

1 


62 


'■i6 


70 


138 




I 3 ,6 


84 


I ]'i 


93 


• rSe 


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119 


I f/i6 


128 



140 



Admiralty 
Strain. 



Toils. 



h 

2'.; 



3-5 



■/4 



4?^ 



5 - 'H 

9^8 



'» 1/ 

-I ^ 



20^i 
22.>^ 
24?i 
27 



FLAT— Three Link. 



Size of Link. 



Width and I 
Thickness of \ 
Chain. 



Weight 
per Fathom. 



I nchcs. 



V2 



Inches. 



lbs. 







16 



->8 



IT 



16 



Admiralty 
Strain. 



Tons. 



A%^^% 


32 


4 

1 


A)^ X I K 1 


36 


1 


4?ixi5'8 j 


48 


' 7}4 

1 


5 ? 16 X I '3.,6 ; 


64 


10 

1 


5>-^x2 ; 


77 


I2J^ 

i 



TENSILE BREAKING STRAINS. 



QUALITV- 



l^KST Best. — Proved to Admiralty Strain. 
Actual Breaking Strain 50% over. 



Extra. — Proved 10,/ above Admiralty. 
Actual Breaking Strain 115% over. 



DouRLE Extra.- 
Admiralty. 
200% over. 



•Proved to 1$/^ above 
Actual Breaking Strain 



80 






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EAtabllshed 1770. 



JOHN & EDWIN WRIGHT, Limited, 



Hegl8t«red Oj^cea : 

UNIVERSE WORKS, BIRMINGHAM. 




UNIVERSB WORKS, LONDON. 



WATERPROOF CANVAS AND TARPAULIN MANUFACTURERS. 




are Made from the BEST PURE ITALIAN FLAX specially woven and 
finished for the purpose. They have stood the test of many years' trial and 
been pronounced by some of the leading farmers as Unequalled in the Market. 









PRICE LIST 












LENGTH 




WIDTH 








VARDS. 




VAKDS- 


"UNIVERSE" QUALITY. 




HBMP CANTAS. 


6 





8 


£3 12 







£S 


8 





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11 





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13 


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prices a 


IVERED FREE 


TO THE NEAREST RAILWAY 


STATION, 
eessary Side Rop 




The abooe 


re for Sheets 


ROPfD ALL ROUND and the n 


M. ;/ 


required roped across 




r third seam price 




according to dimension* 




make 


of the Sheet 


and will be quoted 


on applicati 


5. 


and LINE. 




We al 


the necessary PULLEY BLOCKS, ROPE 


} of 




BEST MATERIALS to withstand Rain and Heat, 60/ 


p«rS«t. 





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87 



Telegrapbic Addfasa : 
•fNIVEKSE" BtRMrNGHAM." 
'■ROPEMAKERS. LONDUN." 



TELEPHONE NUMBER 



Established 1770. 



John & Edwin Wright, Limited, 



REGISTERED OFFICES' 

UNIVERSE WORKS. 
BIRMINGHAM. 




UNIVERSE WORKS, 
LONDON. 



ROPE, TWINE AND TARPAULIN MANUFACTURERS. 



WRIGHT'S SPECIAL FLEXIBLE RAILWAY WAGON COVERS. 



Wright's e©RL SaeKs 



TO HOLD TWO CWT. 


TO HOLD ONE 


CUT 


■ 


No. Each. 

P636 2rys6" 

Double Bollom. 


No. Each. 
P639 27" X 3f 
Single Boiiom. Ig 

peso =7- X 33-1 1 


M 




P640 2 7"'<56''l 


Dnnlilr Rnllnm. f ■ 




H 


SOLID HEMP 
Singlr Bottiim. ' 


F642n-'<33') 1 
SOLID HEMP ' ■ 


1 




P641 27X56"| 


Single Baltot.1. J ■ 




I 1 


SOLID HEMP [ 


P643 zfxii 




1 — J 


Double Bollom. j 


SOLID HEMP ■ 

Double Boll..™. 





TO HOLD ONE CWT. 
witli Rope Handles. 

P638 =7' ^33"! 



id 



TO HOLD ONE CWT. 
with Rope Handles. 

No. Each. 

P637 ^7" "33"! 

Singl. RMow. f 



P649 

SOLI 



' ^7"X33"1 
D HEMP ]■ 



P644 n"x33l 
SOLID HEMP y 
Single Boitom. J 



n 



BINQLE BOTTOM. 



tr WRITE FOR PRICES. 
LARGE ASSORTMENT READY TARRED KEPT IN STOCK. 



John & Edwin Wright, 

LIMITED, 

WIRE ROPE AND HEMP CORDAGE MANUFACTURERS, 
UNIVERSE WORKS, BIRMINGHAM. 

BiQdeF ToiiQe HH BindeF Toime 



BEFORE ordering your requirements for the present season, write us 
for Samples and Price of our PURE MANILA BINDER TWINE. 
A constantly increasing demand has compelled us to nearly double 
our capacity by erecting a New Mill of the most Modern Machinery, 
ensuring the greatest regularity and strength of Twine. 

Superior Pure Manila Binder Twine 

••UNIVERSE BRAND." No. P190. 

Average Length Average Breaking Strain Price per Gwt. 

600 feet per lb 110 lbs. 

CAKRIAOE PAID ON 3 CWT. LOTS TO AHY RAILWAY STATION IN ENGLAND. 



Special Quotations for 3 Ton Lots and Upwards. 

The "UNIVERSE" MANILA BINDER TWINE, unlcM otherwise 
ordered. Is made up into BalU 7 In. k 6 In. weighing about 4 lbs. each, 
and these into 40 lb. Bales tor convenience of transportation In the field. 

Our friends arc advised to place their Orders early, while the 
market is favourable, and to avoid disappointment in delivery during 
Harvest Time. 

Steel Wire Plough Ropes, Rick Sheets, Tarpaulins, &c. 



.^o 



^OWIN WRIGHT , 



Established 1770. 



T'eo 



Wrought=Iron Pulley Blocks 

LONDON PATTERN. 
THESE BLOCKS HAVE TURNED SHAFTS, BRIGHT PULLEYS, AND ARE BORED. 



SNATCH. 


I SHEAVE, 




Diameter L.fShif.ve ... 




I 


Int. 
i 










3« 


3.S 


Wciifhl... 





iV. SPARE l«OX SlIEAV 




TABLE SHOWING RELATIVE POWERS OF WROUGHT-IRON PULLEY BLOCKS. 



11i.->m.'lcr^r.S 
Widlh L>r Cm 



I i _i i j i_ '' J\ ."( I A ■ I ■1 4 A 3 ji 



T.' ».vrlnm tlu.' >i 



i.'ight :— Divide Ihc WB|:ht (o be liftrd b] ■ 



ROPES TO SUIT ABOVE BLOCKS KEPT IN STOCK. 



90 



23 



JOHN& EDWIN WRIGHT, Limited, 

UNIVERSE WORKS. 
MILLWALL, ^% GARRISON STREET, 

LONDON. /V\ BIRMINGHAM. 




TELEGRAMS : ^*^^^ 'i^^ TELEGRAMS : 



''ROPEMAKERS. LONDON/' roTiniionrn i-7-7A ** UNIVERSE, BIRMINGHAM." 

— T =«>.« torADLlSntD 1770. , ,^^ 

Telephone, No. 5246. Telephone, No. 707. 



Contractors to Her Majesty's and Foreign Governments. 
PATENTEES OF THE ATLANTIC CABLES. 

TMK BRITISH ATLAHTIO ISeS, 18«8. THK FRKNCH ATLANTIC 1809. TMK BRITItH INDIA ISeS. 
TNZ TOULON AND AUOIBIIt IBTO. TNB FALMOUTH, aiBRALTAR AND MALTA 1STO. THB BRAZILIAN 1B74. 

THB AUSTRALIAN AND NKW ZKALAND 1S74. Kto. , KTO. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

patent steel and iron wire ropes 

OF EVERY KNOWN CONSTRUCTION FOR PIT WINDING AND INCLINES. 
drawn from STEEL OF SPECIAL DUCTILITY. 

PULLEYS FOR ROUND AND FLAT WIRE ROPES AND PATENT SPRINGS FOR SAME. 

Steel Cables for Tramw^ays 

HADE OF THE '•UNIVERSE" BRAND OF STEEL WIRE DRAWN EXCLUSIVELY FOR US. 

CABLES FOR AERIAL TRAMWAYS. 

Wrighfs Special flexible Compound Wire Kopes for Cranes, Capstans, Sheers, &c., 

CABLES AND ROPES FOR SUSPENSION BRIDGES. 

COPPER ROPE. LIGHTNING CONDUCTORS. TOW LINES. TRAWLING ROPES. 

GALVANIZED FLEXIBLE STEEL WIRE HAWSERS. 

Copper and Iron Wire Sash Lines. Clock Lines Gilt and Silvered Picture Cords, etc. 
5HIP5 STANDING RIQQINQ. GALVANIZED SIGNAL STRAND. 

Wright's Compound Wire and Hemp Ropes, 
wrights preservative dressing for wire ropes in barrels and half barrels. special oil for pulleys. 

CYLINDERS, SHAFTING. Etc. 

CHAINS TO THE ADMIRALTY AND LLOYD'S TESTS. 

COIR HHMSERS. 

PATENT IMPROVED FLAT AND ROUND HEMP ROPES. MANILLA ROPES. ITALIAN HEMP ROPES. RUSSIAN HEMP ROPES. 
COnON ROPES. LINE CORDS. SASH CORDS. BLIND CORDS. PACKING STRING. 

TOW LINES. PATENT MACHINE MADE TWINES AND LAID CORDS. 

HEMP. FLAX, AND SPUN YARN. BINDER OR REAPER TWINE. 
ENQINI PACKING OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. COTTON WASTE. BRATTICE CLOTHS. 

Wrighfs Special flexible Railway Wagon Covers, and Tarpaulins for all purposes. 

BOAT COVERS, ETC. ENGINE AND RAILWAY LAMPS. FOG SIGNALS. 

STRING CANISTERS AND TIN BOXES OF EVERY CLASS. 



ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO BE ADDRESSED TO 

JOHN & EDWIN WRIGHT, Limited, universe works, BIRMINGHAM. 




CO 


£ E 


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III 




Index. 



Adjustable Lugs for Stationary or Double Cable System 

It It II II II II (Fig. 29) 

Advantages of Wire Rope Driving ... 
Advantages of Wire Rope for Underground Haulage ... 
Aerial Cableways 

Aerial Cableways, conveyance of passengers by 
Angle Iron Curve (Fig. 43) in Wire Rope Driving 
Angle Pulleys, Horizontal, in Wire Rope Driving 

M II II II II II CFig> 4^) 

Angle Station (Fig. 25) in " Uni/erse " Cableway 
Angle Station for Aerial Cableway ... 

Arrangement of Brake Gear for Gravity Lines in Aerial Cableway (Fig. 20) 
Arrangement of Roads in Incline Haulage 

ri M II II H (Fig. 65) 

Assyrian carving of rope and pulley block 
Assyrian wire beating 
Atlantic Cable, the first 

Attachment of Trams to rope in Underground Haulage 
Attention to Rollers in Endless Rope Haulage 

Automatic Gripper for Traction Rope (Fig. 28) in Double Cable System ... 
Automatic Grips, Wright's Registered 

fi II II II (Figs. 14 and 15) 

Automatical Hooks (Fig. 62) Main and Tail Haulage .. 
Auxiliary Roads, workings of Endless Rope I laulage . . 
Axle or Shaft, length between bearing.s in Wire Rope Driving ... 
Balance Plane, modification of, for series of working roads in Incline Haulage 
Barrels, ro])es for long parallel 
Bevel Wheels for Wire Rope Driving 

•I fi II 11 (l*Jg' 4^) 

Biblical first reference to rope 
Birmingham, Universe Works in 1770 
II II 11 in 1S96 

Birmingham, Wire Rope Installation at 
Bob Plane arrangement for Incline I laulage ... 
Box Capples, Solid 
Brake for Aerial Cableway 
Brake Gear for Gravity Lines (Fig. 20) •* Universe " Cableway 

II II M II (Detail Fig. 21) i- •, 

Brake for Head Gear in Incline I laulage 

Branch and Tail Rope Couplings (Fig. 63) Main and Tail Haulage 
Branches from Main Line in Main and Tail Haulage ... 
Breaking Strains of Mining Ropes ... 

Sizes and Weights of Flat Rojies ... 
and Weight of Crane Ropes 
Breaking Strain of Lengths, Weights and Sizes of Iron Wire ... 

II II Galvanized Steel Wire Hawsers ... 

Bridge, length of Cable Suspension ... 



II 



II 



II 



II 



PAGE 
22 
2211 

27 
41 
13 
14 
32 B 

32 
32A 

i8a 

i6it 

49 

48K 

6 

6 

10, II 

43 
44 

221t 

IS 

14 J 
4SA 

43 
31 
50 
56 
32 

32A 

5 
I 

'J 

26 
50 

75 
16 

i6it 

i6<' 

4S 

48A 

47 
70, 71 
7i 
74 
77 

78 
66 



PAGE 

Bridge width of footway n ... ... ... ... 66 

«i Steel Cable Suspension ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 65 

II II II M at Trentham Park ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Broken Wires ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 32 

Buckets, Tilting or Skips (Figs. 8 to 10) " Universe" Cableway ... ... ... 14H 

II M II (Figs. II to 13) •* •• ... ... ... ..• 14 " 

II II M description of n n ... ... ... ... 15 

Cable Steel Suspension Bridge ... ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Cable, size of, in Stationary or Double Cable System ... ... ... ... ... 21 

Cables, Steel Wire — Lloyd's requirements ... ... ... ... ... 79 

Cableways, Aerial ... ... ... ... ... ... 13 

Cableway "Universe" Unloading Station (Fig. i) ... ... ... ... 14A 

Calculating Horse Power for Slow Speed Transmission ... ... .. 40 

Capples, Solid Box ... . ... ... ... ... ... 75 

Care in uncoiling ropes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 33 

Carriage, Passenger Small (Fig. 33) Double Cable System ... ... ... ... 22E 

II II Large (Fig. 34) m .• m .. ... ... 22E 

Carrier for Coal, Ore, etc., (Fig. 31) n .1 n ... ... ... ... 22D 

II for Timber, Planks, etc., (Fig. 32) Double Cable System ... ... ... 22D 

Carriers, detaching from the rope ** Universe " Cableway ... ... ... 15 

Carrying rope by small sheaves in Slow Speed Transmission ... ... ... 39 

Carrying rope on top of trams in Endless Rope Haulage ... ... . ... 45 

Carrying Pulleys, Grooved for Aerial Cableways ... ... ... ... ... 15 

II II II for Stationary or Double Cable System ... ... ... 22 

Carrying Sheaves in Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... ... ... ... 30 

Carrying Sheaves in Wire Rope Driving (Fig. 36) for Wire Rope Driving ... ... 30A 

•1 II on iron frame (Fig. 38) m • n ... ... 30B 

II 1 on wooden frame (Fig. 38) n n m ... ... 30B 

Carrying wheels should be on same vertical plane ... ... ... ... 58 

Cars, Mining, Trams, Tubs, etc., (Figs. 50, 51 and 52) Endless Rope Haulage ... ... 42B 

Carving found in Assyria ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Cast-iron or steel roller (Fig. 56) Endless Rope Haulage ... ... ... ... 44A 

Catch, lug for steep incline (Fig. 29) Double Cable System ... ... ... ... 22B 

Chains, Breaking Strains and Weights of ... ... ... ... ... ... 80 

Chains for attaching trams to rope in Endless Haulage ... ... ... ... 43 

Change in the rope, making the, in Main and Tail Haulage ... ... ... 48 

Changing rope from one drum to another ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Circumferences and corresponding diameters ... ... ... ... ... ... 72 

Class of wire used for Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... ... ... 28 

Clip, permanent (Fig. 17) ** Universe" Cableway ... ... ... ... 14K 

Clip Pulley and Clutch for driving Force Pump in Endless Haulage ... ... 43 

Coal, carriers for (Fig. 31) Double Cable System ... ... ... ... 22D 

Coir Cable for launching s.s. " Great Ea.stern " ... ... ... ... ... 4, 5 

Cold Knotted Rod for Conductors or Guide Rods ... ... ... ... ... 63 

Compound Crane Ropes Specially Flexible ... ... ... ... ... ... 59 

Conditions for Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Conductors or Guide Rods ... ... .. ... ... ... 61 

II II II number of rods in... ... ... ... ... ... 62 

Cold Knotted Drawn Steel Rod ... ... ... ... 63 

Weighting of, in j>its ... ... ... ... ... 62 



II II II 

•1 II II 



L 



Conductors or Guide Rods, Sizes and Weights 

•I M M number for each cage 

Construction of rope, size of pulleys to suit ... 



If 



II 



II 



•I 11 for Wire Rope Driving ... 

Conveyance of passengers by Aerial Cable ways 
Cords, Copper, Working load of 

M Picture •• •• 

II Steel Wiie m m 

Core Ilcmp, for wire rope ... 

Cost of transport on Stationary or Double Cable System 
Cost of working Main and Tail Rope I laulage 

Counter Pulleys and Grooved Driving Pulleys (Fig. 45) Slow Speed Transmission 
Counter Pulleys on Tension Carriage (Fig. 46) Slow Speed Transmission 

M II and Grooved Pulleys for Slow Speed Transmission 

Couplings, Branch and Tail Rope (Fig. 63) Main and Tail Haulage 

II II Main and Tail Rope 

Clip% Permanent, on Aerial Cableways 
Clip Pulley, Patent, Endless Rope Haulage ... 

v^A aIJC IxCJpCo •>• ••• ••• •«• ••• •«• ••■ 

II M Wright's Breaking Strains, &c.... 
Curve, Angle Iron (Fig. 43) for Wire Rope Driving ... 

II •• II true, insured by small rollers 

Deflection in Wire Rope Driving ... 
Delivery, Intermittent delivery in Main and Tail System 
Delivering Drum, self (Fig. 44) Slow Speed Transmission 

II II for Slow Speed Transmission 

Detail of Brake Gear, etc., for Gravity Lines (Fig. 21) '• Universe" Cableway .. 
Detaching the carriers from the rope in Aerial Cableways 
Diameters ot Drums for Wire Rope Driving .., 
Diameters and corresponding circumferences ... 
Distance of Standards for Stationary or Double Cable System ... 
I>ouble Cable or Stationary System ... 

II 11 outline (Fig. 30) Double Qible System 

•• I. system— General View (Fig. 26) 

Double or Single Traction in Endless Rope Haulage in Underground Haulage 
Drawing a rod itself a test of quality 
Dressing to prevent deterioration in Wire Ropes 
Dressing of Wire Ropes ... 

Drives long, en intermediate stations for Wire Rope Driving 
Driving Drum in Wire Rope Driving 
Driving by Horse Power ** Universe " Cableway 

II M Steam Engine •• .• (Fig. 22) 

Driving Drum for Wire Rope Driving 

II Force Pump in Endless Rope Haulage 
Driving side is the lower half of rope (in Wire Rope Driving) 
Driving, Slow Speed Transmission, Engine for 
Drum Centres, horizontal distance between, in Wire Roj^e Driving 
Drum, Driving, in Wire Rope Driving 
Drum for Wire Rope Driving (Fig. 42) 



PAGE 
62 
62 

39 

51 

27 

14 
81 

81 

Si 

51 
23 
46 



il'ii 



38c 

39 
48.\ 

4SA 

16 

42 

59 

74 
32B 

39 
30 
46 
38A 

39 
i6c 

15 

27 

72 

22 

21 

22r 

20A 

42 

61 

54 

33. 54 

31 

32 
i6e 

i6i> 

32 

43 

29 
40 

31 
32 
3211 



Drums for Main and Tail Haulage ... 

Drum Self- Delivering (Fig. 44) Slow Speed Transmission 

II M for Slow Speed Transmission 

II If for Endless Rope Haulage 

Drums, diameters of for Wire Rope Driving ... 

II II for Main and Tail Haulage 

Duke of Wellington's Rope Bridge in Spain ... 
Duration or Life of a Rope 
Earliest record of Wire Rope 

Egyptian use of rope and pulley block 

Elevators, Wire Rope for ... 

End Sheave, Vertical (Fig. 60) Main and Tail Haulage 

Endless Rope Haulage for Underground Haulage 

M II II II ti great features of 

Endless Rope in Aerial Cableway ... 

« 

Endless Rope or Main and Tail Rope (Fig, 58) 

II II reversed as required 

Engine for Endless Rope Haulage (Fig. 48) .. 

II with reversing gear (Fig. 49) for Endless Rope Haulage 
Engines for driving Slow Speed Transmission 
Extensions worked by motors, Endless Rope Haulage 

II II II Arrangement for (Fig. 58) Endless Rope Haulage 

Fan Brake or Governor for Incline Haulage ... 
Features of Endless Rope System ... 
First Atlantic Cable 
First Biblical reference to rope 
Fixed Single Cable System for small requirements 
Flattened Steel Mandril for Splicing 
Flat Ropes, Breaking Strain of 
Footway in Suspension Bridge, width of 
Force Pump, Driving for Underground Haulage 

Foundation, stonework at one end for Stationary or Double Cable System 
Friction Gripper, Wright's Registered for Double Cable System 
Galvanized Ropes not used for driving purposes 
Galvanized Wire Strand ... 
Gauge, Imperial Standard Wire 
Gear Brake for Gravity Lines (Fig. 20) ** Universe '' Cableway... 

II II II II Detail of (Fig. 21) n 

Governor or Fan Brake for Incline Haulage ... 
Gravity Lines on Aerial Cableway ... 

•I •< Brake Gear (Fig. 20) ** Universe " Cableway ... 

M II Detail of Brake Gear (Fig. 21) •• 

M II for working Stationary or Double Cable System 

** Great Eastern," Coir Cable for ... 
Great Feature of Endless Rope System 
Grip, Automatic, Wright's Registered for ** Universe" Cableway 

•1 •• II -t (Figs. 14 and 15) m 

Grip Pulley (Fig.24) for ** Universe " Cableway 

Gripper, Automatic, for Traction Rope (Fig. 28) Double Cable System ... 
Gripper, Wright's Registered Traction h n n 







PAGE 




• • 


46 




• • 


38A 


• 


• • 


39 


• 


• • 


42 


• 


• • 


27 




.. 


46 




• • 


6 




• • 


52 


• 


• . 


6 


. 


■ • 


6 


• 


• • 


59 


• 


• ■ 


46A 


• 


• • 


41 


• 


• • 


45 


• 


* • 


14 


• 


• • 


44R 


• 


• • 


48 


■ 


• ■ • 


42A 


• 


• ■ • 


42A 


• 


« • 


40 


• 


• • 


45 


• 


• • I 


44B 


• 


* • 


50 




• • • 


45 


• 


• • 4 


10 


• 


• • « 


5 


• 


* • 


23 


• 


• • 1 


34 


■ 


• • « 


73 




• « ■ 


66 


• 


• • 4 


43 


• 


■ » « 


21 


• 


• • 


22 


• 


• « ■ 


33 




• • 1 


77 




• • 1 


77 




• • 4 


i6r 




• • 1 


I6c 




• • 


50 




• • * 


IS 




• • 


i6r 




■ • 


i6c 




• • 


22 




• • 


4 




• • 


45 




• • 


15 




• •< 


14 J 




• • 


18 




• a 1 


22R 


• 


• • 


22 



z 



PAGE 

Grooved Ginying Pulleys by Aerial Cableway ... ... ... ... 15 

Grooved Driving Pulley and Counter Pulley (Fig. 45) for Slow Speed Transmission ... 38B 

It II II II II II for Endless Rope Haulage ... ... 42 

Grooved Narrow Supporting Pulley (Fig. 57) i> •• n ... ... ... 44A 

II Pulleys and Counter Pulleys for Slow Speed Transmission ... ... ... 3Q 

Guide Pulleys in Main and Tail Haulage ... ... ... ... ... ... 47 

Guide Rods or Conductors ... ... ... ... ... ... 61 

•I II M Knotted Cold Drawn Steel Rod ... ... ... 63 

Guide Rollers fixed to roof timbers Main and Tail Haulage ... ... ... ... 47 

Guide Ropes with wrought iron trestle (Fig. 27) Double Cable System ... ... ... 22A 

Haulage, Endless Rope ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 41 

Haulage, Incline ... ... ... ... ... ... 48 

Haulage, Main and Tail Rope ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 45 

Haulage, Underground ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 41 

Hawsers, Breaking Strains and Weights of Galvanized Steel Wire ... .. ... 78 

Hawsers, Patent Nippers for ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 79 

Hawsers, Reel for ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 79 

Hawsers, Winch for ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 79 

Headgear, Brake for Incline Haulage ... ... ... ... ... 48 

Hemp Cores for Wire Ropes ... ... ... ... ... ... 51 

High Speed Transmission .. . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Historical sketch of Wire Rope ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Hobt, Water Balance, in Incline Haulage ... ... .. ... ... ... 49 

Holding down Pulleys (Fig. 7) ** Universe" Cableway ... ... 14G 

Holding down Pulleys for Aerial (Hableways . . ... ... ... ... .. 15 

Hooks, Automatical (Fig. 62) Main and Tail Haulage ... ... ... ... 48A 

Hooks, Knock off (Fig. 61) n n •• ... ... ... ... 48A 

Hooks, Knock off n •• n ... ... ... ... 47 

Horizontal End Sheave (Fig. 59) i« •• •! ... ... ... 46A 

Horizontal Angle Pulleys (Fig. 40) for Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... 32A 

Horizontal Angle Pulleys in Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... 32 

Horizontal distance between drum centres in Wire Rope Driving ... ... 31 

Horse Power driving ** Universe" Cableway (Fig. 23) ... ... ... ... i6k 

Horse Power transmitted by Wire Ropes (Table) ... ... ... 29 

II II II ti H II Slow Speed Transmission ... ... 40 

Imperial Standard Wire Gauge ... ... .. ... ... 77 

Incline Haulage ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 48 

Incline Haulage, arrangement of road ... ... ... ... ... ... 49 

Incline in &vour or against load ... .. ... ... ... ... 4S 

Incline Road (Fig. 66) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 48B 

Incline Ropes, stress on ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 50 

Inclines, Table of, shewing stress on ropes ... ... ... ... ... ... 57 

Information required when ordering ropes ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Installation at Birmingham, Wire Rope (Fig. 35) ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Intermediate points where power is taken in Slow Speed Transmission . . ... ... 38 

Intermediate stations for long drives in Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... ... 31 

Intermediate transmitting station (Fig. 39) .• n ... ... 30c 

Intermittent system of delivery in Main and Tail Rope Haulage ... ... ... 46 

Internally Self-oiling Ropes, Wrighl*s ... .. ... ... ... ^i 

Iron Corvey Angle (Fig. 43) in Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... ... ... 32B 



Iron Frame, carrying sheaveson (Fig. 38) in Wire Rope Driving 

Iron Wire, Breaking Strains, Lengths, Sizes and Weights 

Journey or set, in Main and Tail Rope Haulage 

Kinking rope, avoid 

Knock off Hooks (Fig. 61) Main and Tail Haulage .. 

Knock off Hooks m h h 

Knowle & Sons, Tottingham Mills, ** Universe" Cableway 

I^ng lay principle 

Large Passenger Carriage (Fig. 34) Double Cable System 

Large rigid rope for Slow Speed Transmission 

Lay of wires and strands in ratio to diameter of drum ... 

Length of lay of wires and strands in ratio of diameter of drum ... 

Length of axle or shaft between beatings in Wire Rope Driving 

Length of Steel Cable Suspension Bridge ... 

Lengths, sizes, weights and breaking strains of iron wire 

Life or duration of a rope ... 

Light and elegant Steel Cable Suspension Bridge 

Lifts, wire ropes for 

Line, Gravity for working Stationary or Double Cable System ... 

Lines, Gravity ** Universe " Cableway 

Lloyd's requirements for Cables, Hawsers, &c. 

Loads, working, of Winding Ropes . 

Long transmissions by Slow Speed Transmission 

Long Tapered Mandril for Splicing 

Loop for passing place in Incline Haulage... 

Lower half of rope is the leading or driving side 

Lloyd's requirements for Steel Wire Cables and Hawsers 

Lugs, adjustable for Stationary or Double Cable System 

Lug Catch for steep inclines (Fig. 29) Double Cable System 

Main and Tail Rope Haulage 

Main and Tail Rope or ** Endless Rope " System (Fig. 58) 

Main and Tail Rope Haulage 

Main and Tail Rope Rollers 

Main line branches in Main and Tail Haulage 

Mandril, Long Tapered for splicing. . . 

II Flattened Steel » 

Maximum and minimum span in Wire Rope Driving ... 
Method of Splicing 

Methods for working auxiliary roads in Underground Haulage .. 
Millwall, Universe Works in 1896 .. 

Mining Trams, Tubs, Cars (Figs. 50, 51 and 52) Endless Rope Haulage 
Mining Wire Ropes, breaking strains of 
Mode of construction of Steel Cable Suspension Bridge 
Mode of working the Main and Tail System 

Modification of the Balance Plane for a series of working roads in Incline 
Motor, driving for Aerial Cableway 
Motors, extensions worked by Fndless Rope Haulage .. 
Narrow grooved supporting pulley (Fig. 57) for Endless Rope Haulage ... 
Nippers, Patent for Hawsers 
Number of Guide Rods for each Cage 







PAGE 


• • • 


• • • 


30B 


• • • 


• • • 


77 


• • 


• • ■ 


46 


• • • 


• • • 


60 


• • 


• • • 


48A 


• ■ • 


• • • 


47 


• • 


• • • 


19 


• • • 


• • • 


52 


• • • 


• « • 


22 E 


• • • 


• « • 


39 


• • • 


• • • 


SI 


• ■ • 


• • • 


5« 


• • • 


• • ■ 


31 


• • 




66 


• • • 


• • 


77 


• ■ • 


• • • 


52 


• ■ 


• • • 


65 


• • • 


• • « 


59 


■ • 


• • • 


22 


• • • 


• « * 


15 


• • • 


• • • 


79 


• • • 


• ■ ■ 


73 


• • • 


• • • 


3« 


* • • 


• • a 


34 


• •• 


• • • 


49 


• • • 


■ • « 


29 


• * • 


• • • 


79 


• • • 


• • ■ 


22 


• • 


• • • 


22B 


« • « 


• • • 


45 


• • • 


• ■ • 


44B 


« ■ • 


* t 


45 


• • • 


• • • 


47 


« • • 


• • • 


47 


• ■ • 


• • • 


34 


■ • • 


• • • 


34 


• • • 


• • • 


3f> 


• • • 


• ■ ■ 


35 to 38 


• • • 


• • • 


43 


• • • 


• • • 


2A 


• • • 


• • • 


42K 


• • • 


• 1 


70. 71 


• • • 


• • * 


65 


• ■ • 


• • • 


47 


age 


• • • 


50 


• « 


• • • 


17 


• • • 


• • • 


45 


• • ■ 


• ■ • 


44A 


• • 


■ • • 


79 


«•• 


• •• 


62 



Number of Rods in a Conductor 

Number of Ropes for Lifts or Elevators 

Oil, Solid for Rollers for Endless Rope Haulage 

Ore, carrier for (Fig. 31) Double Cable System 

Outbye and inbye trips in Main and Tail Haulage 

Outline (Fig. 30) Double Cable System 

Output readily increased in Endless Haulage 

Passenger Carriage, large (Fig. 34) Double Cable System 

•• •! small (Fig. 33) «• •! •• 

Passengers by Stationary or Double Cable System 
Passenger Carriages on Stationary or Double Cable .System 
Passengers, conveyance of, by Aerial Cable ways 
Passing place, or loop, in Endless Rope Haulage 
Parallel Stationary Cables in Stationary or Double Cable System 
Patent Nippers for Hawsers 
Permanent Clips on Aerial Cableways 

•• If (Fig. 17) i> 

Picture Cord, working loads of 
Plain Saddle (Fig. 16) "Universe" Cableway 
Pliers for Splicing 

Pompeii, Wire Rope excavated at ... 
Principles of Wire Rope Driving System 
Pulley Grip (Fig. 24) " Universe " Cableway 
Pulley, Narrow grooved supporting (Fig. 57) Endless Rope Haulage 
Pulley, Patent Clip, Endless Rope Haulage 
Pulley, Tension, for Aerial Cableway 

Pulleys, Carrying for Stationary or Double Cable System ... ^ 
Pulleys, Counter on Tension Carriage (Fig. 46) Slow Speed Transmission 
Pulleys, grooved carrying for Aerial Cableways 
Pulleys, grooved and Counter Pulleys for Slow Speed Transmission 

II 11 •! II 11 for Endless Rope Haulage 

Pulleys, grooved and Driving and Counter Pulleys (Fig. 45) Slow Speed Transmission 
Pulley, Holding down (Fig. 7) "Universe" Cableway 
Pulleys, Holding down for Aerial Cableway n 
Pulleys, Horizontal Angle (Fig. 40) for Wire Hope Driving 
Pulleys, size of, for Slow Speed Transmission.. 
Pulleys should be of large size 

Pulleys, Screw Tension (Fig. 19) ** Universe " Cableway 
Pulleys, Tension, for Wire Rope Driving ... 
Pulleys, Weight Tension (Fig. 18) '* Universe" Cableway ... 
Pump, Driving Force, in Endless Rope Haulage 
Qualities of wire used for wire ropes 
Quality and temper of wire for ropes 

Ratio of length of lay of wires and strands to diameter of drum ... 
Ratio between diameter of pulleys and ropes in Wire Rope Driving 
Recapping to\^s periodically 

Rectangular wood trestle for *' Universe" Cablew.iy (Fig. 4) ... 
Reel for Hawsers 
Registered Automatic Grips (Wright's) ** Universe" Cableway ... 

II Friction Gripper m Stationary or Double Cable System 



PAGE 

62 
60 

44 

221) 

47 
22c 

45 

22B 
22R 
21 
22 

14 

43 
21 

79 

16 

14K 

81 

14K 

34 

8.9 
26 

18 

44A 

42 

16 
22 

38c 

'5 

39 

42 

38B 

14G 

15 
32A 

39 
56 
I 6a 

3' 
I 6a 

43 
II 

53 

51 
28 

55 
141) 

79 

15 
22 



•I 



II 



Registered Table of Breaking Strains of Wire Ropes (Wright's) 
Reversing Gear, engine with (Fig. 49) Endless Rope Haulage ... 

II M for Endless Rope Haulage ... 

Roads, arrangement of, in Incline Haulage (Fig. 65) ... 

M II description (Incline Haulage) 

Roads, Incline f Fig. 66) ... 
Rolled Guide Rods or Conductors liable to crack 
Rollers, cast-iron or steel (Fig. 56) Endless Rope Haulage 
for Tail and Main Ropes ... 
require attention ... 

Self-lubricating in Endless Rope Haulage 
II with iron flange (Fig. 54) n n 

II with iron or steel spindle (Fig. 53) n 
Roller, Wrought Iron, with wood centre (Fig. 55) Endless Rope Haulage 
Rope carried on top of trams in Endless Rope Haulage 
Rope, construction of (Strands, Wire, etc.) ... 
Rope not to be overworked 
Ixope, 1 ne ... ... ... ... 

Ropes, constructions of, for Wire Rope Diiving 

Ropes for long parallel barrels 

Round Fir Pole Trestle (Fig. 5) ** Universe " Cable way 

Rule for ascertaining Horse Power transmitted in Wire Rope Driving 

Rule for calculating Horse Power for Slow Speed Transmission 

Saddle, Plain (Fig. 16) ** Universe" Cableway 

Saddles for Aerial Cable way 

Screw Tension Pulley (Fig, 19) *• Universe** Cableway 

Security of wire ropes over chains, for Cranes, &c. 

Self- Delivering Drum (Fig. 44) for Slow Speed Transmission ... 

It 11 M for Slow Speed Transmission ... 

It M II for Underground Haulage 

Self Lubricating Wheel for Underground Haulage ... 
Self Lubricating Rollers n n 

Self Oiling Ropes, Wright's Internally 
Separate ropes used in Main and Tail Haulage 
Seven stranded wire ropes... 
Set or Journey on Main and Tail Haulage 
Shaft or Axle, length of, in Wire Rope Driving 
Shaped wire strands unsatisfactory ... 
Shaped wires not recommended 

Sheave and Horizontal (Fig. 59) in Main and Tail Haulage 
Sheave, Carrying (Fig. 36) for Wire Rope Driving 

«i M in Wire Rope Driving 

•' •• on iron frame (Fig. 38) in Wire Rope Driving 

It It on wooden frame (Fig. 37) n m •» ... 

Sheave, Vertical End (Fig. 60) Main and Tail Haulage 
Sheaves, small lor carrying rope, Slow Speed Transmission 
Side roads or workings in Endless Rope Haulage 
Side roads or workings in Main and Tail Haulage 
Single Fixed Cable System for smaller requirements ... 
Single or Double tracks in Endless Rope Haulage in Underground Haulage 



PAGE 

70, 71 
42A 

48B 

49 
48B 

61 

44A 

47 
44 

44 
44A 
44A 
44A 

45 
SI 
55 
51 
27» 32 
56 
14E 

29 

40 
14K 

15 

i6a 

59 

38A 

39 

42 

43 
44 
51 
45 
52 
46 

31 
58 
56 
46A 

30\ 

30 
30B 

30B 

46A 

39 
43 
46 

23 
42 



PAGE 

Size of Cables for Stationary or Double Cable System ... ... ... ... ... 21 

Sizes of Pulleys to suit construction of ropes ... ... ... ... 39 

Sizes, Weights and Breaking Strains of Flat Wire Mining Ropes ... ... 73 

Sizes, Weights and Breaking Strains of Wire Ropes ... ... ... ... 70, 71 

II II 11 II of Crane Ropes ... .. ... ... ... 74 

Sizes and Construction of Guide Rods or Conductors ... ... ... ... ... 62 

•I Galvanised Steel Wire Hawsers ... ... ... ... ... 78 

II iH^Jftl V « X« W ••• ■•« ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •■ «» MM 

Skips or Tilting Buckets ** Universe " Cableway ... ... ... ... ... 15 

II M M (Figs. 8 to 10) ** Universe" Cableway ... ... 14H 

II II M (Figs. II to 13) M .. ... ... ... 141 

Slow Speed Transmission ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3^ 

Slack Side, tension on Slow Speed Tension ... ... ... ... ... ... 39 

SiAall Passenger Carriage (Fig. 33) Double Cable System ... ... ... ... 22E 

Small Rollers to ensure true curve in Slow Speed Transmission ... ... 39 

Small Sheaves for carrying rope m h h ... ... ... 39 

Solid Box Capples ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 75 

Solid Oil, for Rollers in Endless Rope Haulage ... ... ... ... ... 44 

Span, maximum and minimum in Wire Rope Driving .. ... ... ... ... 30 

Specially Flexible Compound Crane Rope ... ... ... ... ... ... 59 

Speed for Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... ... ... 27 

M High Transmission on ... ... ... ... ... .., ... 25 

•I In Underground Haulage ... ... ... ... ... ... 42 

Speed on Aerial Cableway ... ... ... ... ... 16 

Speed on Main and Tail Haulage ... ... ... ... ... 46 

11 on Stationary or Double Cable System ... ... ... ... ... 21, 23 

Spindle, iron or steel with wood roller (Fig. 53) Endless Rope Haulage... ... ... 44A 

Splicing Pliers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 34 

•I Full instructions as to ... ... ... ... ... ... 33 to 38 

Standard Imperial Wire Gauge ... ... ... ... ... ... 77 

Standard width of footway on suspension bridge ... ... ... ... ... 66 

Standards for Stationary or Double Cable System ... ... ... ... 22 

Stations, intermediate, for long drives in Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... ... 31 

Stations, angle, for Aerial Cableway ... ... ... ... ... ... 17 

Stationary or Double Cable System ... ... ... ... ... ... 21 

II M .1 M General View (Fig. 26) ... ... ... ... 20A 

Steam Engine Driving "Universe" Cableway (Fig. 22) Unloading Station ... ... i6d 

Steep Inclines, Lug Catch for (Fig. 29) Double Cable System ... ... ... 22B 

Steel Cable Suspension Bridge ... ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Steel Cable Suspension Bridge at Trentham Park ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Steel roller or cast-iron (Fig. 56.) Endless Rope Haulage ... ... ... ... 44A 

Steel Wire Cables and Hawsers (Lloyd's requirements) ... ... ... 79 

Stonework foundation for end in Stationar}* or Double Cable System ... ... ... 21 

Storing of Wire Ropes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Straight line installation requires all pulleys to be the same vertical plane ... 31 

Strand, Galvanized Wire ... .. ... ... ... ... ... 77 

Stress on Incline Ropes— Table showing ... ... ... ... 57 

Supporting Pulley, narrow grooved (Fig. 57) Endless Rope Haulage .. ... ... 44A 

Supports Main and Tail Rope (Fig. 64) ... ... ... ... ... ... 48B 

Supports or Standards for Aerial Cablewa)^ ... ... ... ... ... 14 











PACE 


Suspension Bridge, Steel Cable 


■ • • 


• • • 


6s 


II 


II at Trentham Park 




• • • 


67 


Tables of Breaking Strains of Chains 




• • • 


80 


II 


II 11 Crane Ropes... 




• • • 


74 


II 


II II Flat Ropes ... 




• • • 


73 


II 


II II Iron Wire 




• • • 


77 


II 


Breaking Strains of Mining Ropes 




• • • 


... 70, 71 


II 


II II Patent Steel Wire Galvanized Hawsers... 


• • • 


78 


II 


Cables and Hawsers - Lloyd's requirements 


• • • 


• • • 


79 


II 


Conductors or Guide Rods, sizes and weights 


• • • 


• ■ • 


62 


It 


Crane Ropes, Breaking Strains, and weights 


• • • 


• • • 


74 


II 


Copper Cords, Steel Wire Cord, Picture Cord, working 


loads 


• • • 


81 


II 


Corresponding circumferences and diameters 


• • • 


• • • 


72 


II 


Flat Ropes, sizes, weights, breaking strains 


• ■ • 


• • « 


73 


II 


Galvanized Steel Wire Hawsers, breaking strains, weights. 


etc. 


• • ■ 


78 


ii 


II Wire Strand ... 


• • • 


■ « • 


n 


»i 


Gauge — Imperial Standard Wire ... 


• • ■ 


> • • 


77 


11 


Horse Power transmitted by Wire Rope ... 


« • • 


• • • 


29 


If 


Hawsers, Galvanized Steel Wire, breaking strains, etc. 


• • 


• • • 


78 


II 


II and Cables — Lloyd's requirements 


• • • 


• • • 


79 


II 


Inclines showing stress on rop^ ... 


• » • 


« • « 


57 


II 


Imperial Standard Wire Gauge ... 


■ • • 


• • • 


77 


II 


Iron Wire, sizes, weights, lengths and breaking strains 


• • • 


• • 


77 


•1 


Lloyd's requirements for Cables and Hawsers 


• ■ « 


• « • 


79 


II 


Loads (working) of Winding Ropes 


• • • 


• • • 


73 


M 


Mining Ropes — Breaking strains and weights 


• • • 


• ■ • 


... 70, 71 


II 


Picture Cords, working loads 


• • • 


• • 


81 


• 1 


Sizes and weights of Conductors of Guide Rods 


• ■ « 


• • • 


62 


M 


II M and Breaking strains of Iron Wire 




• • • 


77 


II 


Steel Wire Cord — working loads ... 


... 


• • « 


81 


II 


Strand, Galvanized Wire ... 




• • • 


77 


II 


Stress on ropes on inclines 


. . 


* • • 


57 


II 


Weights of Conductors ... 


... 


• • 


62 


II 


Weights of Chains 




• ■ • 


80 


M 


«• Crane Ropes ... 


• • • 


• • 


74 


II 


•1 Flat Ropes ... 


... 


• • • 


7Z 


II 


II Galvanized Steel Hawsers 


• • • 


• ■ • 


78 


II 


M Iron Wire 




• • • 


77 


II 


II Mining Ropes 


• • • 


» • • 


... 70, 71 


Table of "Wire Gauge — Imperial Standard ... 


• • • 


• • « 


77 


II 


Working load of Copper Cords ... 


■ • • 


• • • 


81 


II 


II . Picture Cord 


• • 


• • « 


81 


II 


II •• Steel Wire Cord 




■ • • 


81 


II 


•• M Mining Winding Ropes ... 






73 


Tail and Branch Rope Couplings (Fig. 63) Main and Tail Haulage 


• • • 


• • • 


48 A 


Tail and Main Rope Roller 




« • • 


47 


Tapered, 


Mandril long for splicing 


... 


■ ■ • 


34 


Temper 


and quality of wire 


• • ■ 


• • « 


53 


Tensile and Torsion tests of wire .. 


• • • 


• ■ • 


53 


Tensile breaking strains of Chains ... 


• • • 


«M 


80 



M 



tl 



PAGE 

Tension arrangement for Endless Rope Haulage in Underground Haulage ... 42 

Tension Carriage, Counter Pulley on (Fig. 46) Slow Speed Transmission... 38c 

Tension Contrivance, Slow Speed Transmission (Fig. 47) ... ... ... ... 38D 

Tension in slack side adjusted in Slow Speed Transmission ... ... ... ... 39 

Tensions of Wire in Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... ... ... 28 

Tension Pulley for Aerial Cableway ... ... ... ... ... ... 16 

II II (Weight) H (Fig. x8) for Aerial Cableway ... ... ... i6a 

•f II (Screw) II (Fig. 19) n m ... ... ... i6a 

II Pulleys for Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... ... ... 31 

Weight for Stationary or Double Cable System ... ... ... 21 

Working on rope in Aerial Cableway ... ... ... ... ... 22 

Tilting Buckets or Skips (Figs. 8, 9 and 10) Aerial Cableway ... ... ... ... 14H 

II If n (Figs. II, 12 and 13) Universe (Tableway ... .. ... 141 

l« M H M II ... ... ... 15 

Timber and planks carrier (Fig. 32) Double Cable System ... ... ... ... 22D 

Torsion and Tensile tests of wire ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Tottingham Mills, Universe Cableway ... ... ... ... 19 

Traction Rope, Automatic Gripper (Fig. 28) Double Cable System ... ... 22B 

Transmitting Station, intermediate (Fig. 39) for Wire Rope Driving ... ... ... 30c 

Trips, out-bye and in-bye in Main and Tail Haulage ... ... ... ... 47 

Transmitting Power by Aerial Cableway ... ... ... 16 

Transport, cost on Stationary or Double Cable System ... ... ... 23 

Trentham Park, Steel Wire Cable Suspension Bridge ... ... ... ... 67 

Trestle, Rectangular Wood (Fig. 4) Aerial Cableway ... ... ... ... ... 14D 

It Round Fir (Fig. 5) .- .. ... ... ... ... ... 14E 

Tubular (Fig. 3) 1. .. ... ... .. .. ... 14c 

Wood (Fig. 6) I. .. ... ... ... ... ... 14F 

Trestle, Wrought Iron (Fig. 2) m m ... ... ... ... 14B 

Tubs, Mining, Trams aud Cars (Figs. 50, 51, 52) Endless Rope Haulage ... ... 42B 

Tubular Iron Trestle (Fig. 3) for Aerial Cableway ... ... ... ... 14c 

Turnouts for Fixed Single Cable System ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

Twisted Wire Rope eighteen centuries ago ... 

Uncoiling ropes, care in ... ... ... ... ... ... ^^, 58 

Underground Haulage ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 41 

Uniformity obtained in wire by tensile and torsion tests ... ... ... ... 53 

" Universe ** system of Aerial Cableways ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Universe Works, Birmingham, in 1770 ... ... ... ... ... ... i 

n •• It 1896 ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

M II Millwall in 1896 ... ... ... ... ... ... 2A 

Unloading Station ** Universe" Cableway (Fig. i) ... ... ... ... ... 14A 

Variations in load in Endless Rope Haulage ... ... ... ... 42 

Various rollers for rope in n n ... ... ... ... ... 43 

Vertical Driving by wire rope not suitable ... ... ... ... ... ... 31 

Vertical End Sheave (Fig. 60) Main and Tail Haulage ... ... .. ... 46 A 

Water Balance in Incline Haulage... ... .. ... ... .. ... 48 

Water Balance Hoist for iron works, &c. .. ... ... ... ... ... 49 

Weight carried on Aerial Cableway ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

11 Steel Cable Suspension Bridge capable of ... ... ... ... ... 66 

Weight of Conductors or Guide Rods ... ... ... ... ... ... 62 

" v^iisiiiis ... «. .. ... ... ... ... ... 00 



II 



II 



M 

II 
It 
II 
II 



II 



II 



• I 



Weight of Crane Ropes ... 
II Flat Ropes 

M Galvanized Steel Wire Hawsers ... 

II Iron Wife 

Weight of Mining Ropei... 
Weight Tensile Pulley (Fig. i8) for Aerial Cableway 

II Tension for Stationary or Double Cable System 
Weighting of Conductors or Guide Rods 
Wheels, Bevel for Wire Rope Driving 

■I II (Fig. 4O " 

Wheels, Self Lubricating, for Endless Rope Haulage... 
Winch for Hawsers 
Winding Ropes — Working loads 
Wire Beating by Assyrians 
Wire Gauge — Imperial Standard 
Wire used for Wire Ropes 
Wire used for Wire Rope Driving ... 
Wire Rope for Lifts 
Wire Rope, 22 inch circumference ... 
for Cranes 
for Driving 
from Pompeii ... 

installation at Birmingham (Fig. 35) 
lor i^iiis ... ... .. ... «.• 

Wire Strand, Galvanized ... 

Wires, broken 

Wood Trestle for Aeriel Cableway (Fig. 6) ... 

Wooden Frame, carrying sheaves on (Fig. 37) for Wire Rope Driving 

Wood Roller with iron or steel spindle (Fig. 53) Endless Rope Haulage 

•I II with iron flange (Fig. 54) h h i 

Working auxiliary roads in Endless Rope Haulage ... 
Working loads of Copper Cords 

Picture Cords 
Steel Wire Cord... 
Mining Winding Ropes .. 
Working Tension Stationary or Double Cable System 
Worralls T. & M. (Salford) "Universe" Cableway ... 
Wright's Internally Self Oiling Ropes 
Registered Automatic Grips 

Breaking Strains of Wire Ropes 
Friction Grippers 
Universe Works, Birmingham, in 1770 
II II m 1896 

II Millwall, in 1896 

Patent Atlantic Cable, The first ... 
Coir Rope for launching s.s. "Great Eastern'' 
22 inch circumference Wire Rope ... 
Wrought Iron Roller with wood centre (Fig. 55) Endless Rope Haulage 
It M Trestle (Fig. 2) for Aerial Cableway .. 

It II It with Guy Ropes for Doable Cable S>'stem (Fig. 27) 



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70 



PAGE 
74 

73 

78 

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71 
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21 

62 

3* 
32A 

43 

79 

73 
6 

77 
II 

28 

59 

6, 7 

59 

25 

8, 9 
26A 

59 

77 

32 

14F 

30B 
44A 

44A 

43 
81 

81 

81 

73 
22 

20 

51 

15 

70, 71 

22 

I 

2 

2A 

10 

4 

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44A 

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22A